(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Children's Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Pennsylvania Fire Code"

PART XIV. UNIFORM CONSTRUCTION CODE 

Chap. 

401 . UNIFORM CONSTRUCTION CODE TRAINING AND CERTIFICATION OF CODE ADMINISTRATORS 

403. ADMINISTRATION 

405. ELEVATORS AND OTHER LIFTING DEVICES 

CHAPTER 403. ADMINISTRATION 

GENERALLY 

Sec. 

403.1. Scope. 

403.2. Other statutes or ordinances. 

403.3. Building code official delegation. 

STANDARDS 

403.21. Uniform Construction Code. 

403.22. Health care facilities. 

403.23. Child day care facilities. 

403.24. Historic buildings, structures and sites. 

403.25. Manufactured and industrialized housing. 

403.26. Swimming pools. 

403.27. Applicability and use of standards. 

403.28. Uncertified Buildings. 

PERMIT AND INSPECTION PROCESS FOR COMMERCIAL CONSTRUCTION 

403.41. Commercial construction. 

403.42. Permit requirements and exemptions. 
403.42a. Permit application. 

403.43. Grant, denial and effect of permits. 

403.44. Alternative construction materials and methods. 

403.45. Inspections. 

403.46. Certificate of occupancy. 

403.47. Public utility connections. 

403.48. Boilers. 

PERMIT AND INSPECTION PROCESS FOR RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS 

403.61. Residential buildings. 

403.62. Permit requirements and exemptions. 
403.62a. Permit application. 

403.63. Grant, denial and effect of permits. 

403.64. Inspections. 

403.65. Certificate of occupancy. 

403.66. Public utility connections. 

DEPARTMENT, MUNICIPAL AND THIRD-PARTY ENFORCEMENT FOR NONCOMPLIANCE 

403.81. Stop work order. 

403.82. Notice of violations. 

403.83. Order to show cause/order to vacate. 

403.84. Unsafe building, structure or equipment. 

403.85. Release, retention and sharing of commercial construction records. 

403.86. Right of entry to inspect. 

MUNICIPAL ELECTION 

403.101. Effective date. 

403.102. Municipalities electing to enforce the Uniform Construction Code. 

403.103. Municipalities electing not to enforce the Uniform Construction Code. 

403.104. Department review. 



BOARD OF APPEALS 

403.121. Board of appeals. 

403.122. Appeals, variances and extensions of time. 

DEPARTMENT ENFORCEMENT 

403.141 . Enforcement by the Department. 

403.142. Accessibility Advisory Board 

GENERALLY 
§403.1. Scope. 

(a) Application. 

(1) The Uniform Construction Code applies to the construction, alteration, repair, movement, equipment, 
removal, demolition, location, maintenance, occupancy or change of occupancy of every building or structure 
which occurs on or after April 9, 2004, and all existing structures that are not legally occupied. 

(2) The Department will promulgate regulations adopting the new triennial BOCA National Building Code, or 
its successor building code as the Uniform Construction Code by December 31 of the year of the issuance under 
section 304(a)(1) of the act (35 P.S. § 7210.304(a)(1)). New buildings or renovations to existing buildings for 
which a design or construction contract was executed before the effective date of the regulatory amendment 
adopting the latest triennial versions of the construction codes and standards shall comply with the codes and 
standards in effect at the time that the design or construction contract was executed. 

(b) Exclusions and exemptions. 

The Uniform Construction Code does not apply to: 

(1 ) New buildings or renovations to existing buildings for which an application for a permit was made to the 
Department or a municipality before April 9, 2004. 

(2) New buildings or renovations to existing buildings on which a contract for design or construction was 
signed before April 9, 2004. 

(3) The following structures if the structure has a building area less than 1000 square feet and is accessory 
to a detached one-family dwelling except as might be required by an ordinance adopted under section 503 of the 
act (35 P.S. §7210.503): 

(i) Carports. 

(ii) Detached private garages. 

(iii) Greenhouses. 

(iv) Sheds. 

(4) An agricultural building. 

(5) Manufactured or industrialized housing shipped from the factory under section 901 (a) of the act (35 P. S. 
§ 7210.901(a)) as provided in § 403.25 (relating to manufactured and industrialized housing). 

(6) Installation of tubing, piping, propane gas burning appliances, equipment or fixtures related to liquefied 
petroleum gas under the Propane and Liquefied Petroleum Gas Act (35 P. S. §§ 1329.1-1329.19). 

(7) Construction of individual sewage disposal systems under 25 Pa. Code Chapter 73 (relating to onlot 
sewage treatment facilities). 

(8) Alterations to residential buildings which do not make structural changes or changes to means of egress, 
except as required by ordinances in effect under sections 303(b)(1) or 503 of the act (35 P.S. §§ 7210.303(b)(1), 
7210.503). Under this subsection, a structural change does not include a minor framing change needed to replace 
existing windows or doors. 

(9) Repairs to residential buildings, except as required by ordinances in effect under sections 303(b)(1) and 
503 of the act. 

(10) Installation of aluminum or vinyl siding onto an existing residential or an existing commercial building, 
except as might be required by ordinances in effect under section 303(b)(1) (35 P. S. § § 7210.303(b)(1)) or section 
503 of the act. 

(11) A recreational cabin if all of the following are met: 

(i) The cabin is equipped with at least one smoke detector, one fire extinguisher and one carbon 

monoxide detector in both the kitchen and sleeping quarters. 

(ii) The owner of the cabin files one of the following with the municipality: 

(A) A Department form UCC-1 3 attesting to the fact that the cabin meets the definition of a 

"recreational cabin" in 401 .1 (relating to definitions). 



(B) A valid proof of insurance for tlie recreational cabin, written and issued by an insurer 
authorized to do business in this Commonwealth, stating that the structure meets the definition of 
a "recreational cabin." 

(c) Continuity of recreational cabin exclusion. 

(1) Upon the transfer of ownership of a recreational cabin subject to the recreational cabin exclusion, written 
notice of all of the following must be provided in the sales agreement and the deed: 

(i) The recreational cabin is exempt from the act. 

(ii) The recreational cabin may not be in conformance with the Uniform Construction Code. 

(iii) The recreational cabin is not subject to municipal regulation. 

(2) Failure to comply with the notice requirement under paragraph (1) renders the sale void at the 
purchaser's option. 

(d) Prior permits and construction. 

(1) A permit issued under construction regulations before April 9, 2004, remains valid and the construction of 
the building or structure may be completed in accordance with the approved permit. The permit is invalid unless 
the construction commenced within 2 years of permit issuance or a time period specified by municipal ordinance, 
whichever is less. The permit holder shall acquire a new permit under section 1 04(c) of the act (35 P. S. § 
7210.104(c)) if the permit was not actively prosecuted during this time period. 

(2) Construction may be completed without a permit under section 104(c)(2) of the act when construction of 
a building or structure commenced before April 9, 2004, and a permit was not required at that time. 

(3) The legal occupancy of a structure existing on April 9, 2004, may continue without change except where 
the Uniform Construction Code provides otherwise. 

(e) The Uniform Construction Code applies to the construction of a residential building or structure governed by a 
homeowner's or community association under section 1 04(d)(2)(ii) of the act. 

(f) The electrical provision, and lumber and wood provisions, not relating to pressure treatment, of the Uniform 
Construction Code do not apply to a dwelling unit or one-room school house utilized by a member or members of a 
recognized religious sect if a code administrator grants an exemption under section 901 (b) of the act (35 P. S. § 
7210.901(b)) as follows: 

(1) The permit applicant shall file an application with the code administrator stating the manner in which an 
electrical provision and the lumber and wood provision unrelated to pressure treatment of the Uniform 
Construction Code conflicts with the applicant's religious beliefs. The application must also contain an affidavit by 
the applicant stating: 

(i) The permit applicant is a member of a religious sect. 

(ii) The religious sect has established tenets or teachings which conflict with an electrical provision 

and lumber and wood provisions unrelated to pressure treatment of the Uniform Construction Code, 
(iii) The permit applicant adheres to the established tenets or teachings of the sect. 

(A) For a dwelling unit, the dwelling will be used solely as a residence for the permit applicant 
and the applicant's household. 

(B) For a one-room school house, the school house will be used solely by the members of the 
religious sect. 

(2) The code administrator shall grant the application for the exemption if made in accordance with 
paragraph (1). 

(3) If the permit applicant receives an exemption for building under section 901 (b) of the act and the applicant 
subsequently sells or leases the building, the applicant shall bring the building into compliance with the provision 
of the Uniform Construction Code from which it was exempted prior to the sale or lease of the building unless the 
prospective subsequent owner or lessee files an affidavit in compliance with paragraph (1). 

(g) Coal-fired boilers installed in residential buildings must be designed, constructed and tested in accordance with 
the requirements of Chapter 20, section M2001.1.1 of the "International Residential Code", except for the AS ME stamping 
requirement. 

§ 403.2. Other statutes or ordinances. 

(a) Under section 104(d)(1) of the act (35 P. S. § 7210.104(d)(1)), the provisions of the Uniform Construction Code 
listed in § 403.21 (relating to Uniform Construction Code) preempt and rescind construction standards provided by a 
statute, local ordinance or regulation. The rescission or preemption does not apply to ordinances in effect on July 1 , 1999, 
or reenactments of simultaneously repealed ordinances which were originally adopted before July 1 , 1999, which contain 
provisions which meet or exceed the Uniform Construction Code under section 303(b)(1) of the act (35 P. S. § 
7210.303(b)(1)). 



(b) Under section 303(a)(2) of the act, a municipal building code ordinance provision in effect in or adopted by a city 
of the first class on or before January 1 , 1998, shall remain in effect until December 31 , 2003. The provisions of the 
ordinance which do not comply with the Uniform Construction Code on December 31 , 2003, will be amended to provide 
for the minimum requirements of the Uniform Construction Code. 

§ 403.3. Building code official delegation. 

(a) The Department, a municipality or third-party agency shall employ or contract with a building code official to 
enforce the act. 

(b) A building code official may delegate his duties to a construction code official or current code administrator. 

STANDARDS 
§ 403.21. Uniform Construction Code. 

(a) The Department adopts and incorporates by reference the following codes as the Uniform Construction Code: 

(1 ) The provisions of Chapters 2-29 and 31-35 of the "International Building Code." 

(2) The "ICC Electrical Code." 

(3) The "International Mechanical Code." 

(4) The "International Fuel Gas Code." 

(5) The "International Plumbing Code." 

(i) Except that a municipality within a county of the second class may not administer and enforce the 

"International Plumbing Code" adopted under this chapter. 

(ii) A municipality within a county of the second class that has adopted a plumbing code and 
accompanying rules and regulations under the Local Health Administration Law (16 P.S. §§ 12001- 
12028), shall retain the authority to promulgate and enforce this plumbing code and to make any changes 
it deems necessary if the changes meet the Uniform Construction Code's minimum requirements. 

(6) The "International Residential Code." 

(i) The provisions of R313.1 .1 requiring interconnected smoke alarms do not apply to one-family and 

two-family dwellings undergoing alterations, repairs or additions. Noninterconnected battery operated 
smoke alarms shall be installed in these dwellings, 
(ii) The following specifications apply to residential stairway treads and risers. 

(A) The maximum riser height is 8 1/4 inches. There may be no more than a 3/8 inch 
variation in riser height within a flight of stairs. The riser height is to be measured vertically 
between leading edges of the adjacent treads. 

(B) The minimum tread depth is 9 inches measured from tread nosing to tread nosing. 

(C) The greatest tread depth within any flight of stairs may not exceed the smallest by more 
than 3/8 inch. 

(D) Treads may have a uniform projection of not more than 1 /4 inches when solid risers are used. 

(E) Stairways may not be less than 3 feet in clear width and clear headroom of 6 feet 8 
inches shall be maintained for the entire run of the stair. 

(F) Handrails may project from each side of a stairway a distance of 31/4 inches into the 
required width of the stair. 

(7) The "International Fire Code." Section 804.1 .1 of the International Fire Code (relating to natural cut trees) 
is not adopted under this chapter. A municipality that elects to adopt an ordinance for the administration and 
enforcement of the Uniform Construction Code may, by ordinance, restrict the placement of natural cut trees in an 
occupancy group. The ordinance restricting the placement of natural cut trees is not subject to section 503(b)-(k) 
of the act (35 P.S.§ 7210.503(b)-(k)) and § 403.102(i)-(k) (relating to municipalities electing to enforce the Uniform 
Construction Code). 

(8) The "International Energy Conservation Code." 

(9) The "International Existing Building Code." 

(10) The "International Wildland-Urban Interface Code." 

(1 1 ) Appendix E of the "International Building Code." 

(12) Appendix H of the "International Building Code." 

(13) Appendix G of the "International Residential Code." 

(b) The codes and standards adopted under subsection (a) are part of the Uniform Construction Code to the 
prescribed extent of each code or standard. The provisions of the Uniform Construction Code apply if there is a difference 
between the Uniform Construction Code and the codes or standards adopted in subsection (a). This chapter's 
administrative provisions govern under § 403.27(e) (relating to applicability and use of standards) if there is a conflict with 
the provisions of the codes relating to administration incorporated under subsection (a). 



(c) Appendices to a code or standard listed in subsection (a) are not adopted in tlie Uniform Construction Code 
except for til e provisions adopted in subsection (a)(9) and (12)-(14). 

(d) A permit applicant may utilize one of the following prescriptive methods to demonstrate compliance with the 
energy conservation requirements of the Uniform Construction Code. The standards are those listed for the climatic zone 
of this Commonwealth where the building or structure is located: 

(1) The prescriptive methods for detached residential buildings contained in the current version of the 
"International Energy Conservation Code" compliance guide containing State maps, prescriptive energy 
packages and related software published by the United States Department of Energy, Building Standards and 
Guidelines Program (REScheck )or "Pennsylvania's Alternative Residential Energy Provisions." 

(2) The prescriptive methods for all other buildings or structures contained in the current version of the 
"International Energy Conservation Code" compliance guide containing State maps, prescriptive packages and 
related software published by the United States Department of Energy, Building Standards and Guidelines 
Program (COMcheck^^). 

(e) Construction of individual sewage disposal systems is governed under 25 Pa. Code Chapter 73 (relating to onlot 
sewage treatment facilities). 

(f) The repair, alteration, change of occupancy, addition and relocation of existing buildings must comply with 
Chapter 34 of the "International Building Code" or with the "International Existing Building Code." 

§ 403.22. Health care facilities. 

(a) A health care facility shall comply with all of the following under sections 1 04(d)(3) and 1 05(d)(1 ) of the act (35 P. 
S. §§ 7210.104(d)(3) and 7210.105(d)(1)): 

(1) The Health Care Facilities Act. 

(2) Regulations of the Department of Health in 28 Pa. Code Part IV (relating to health facilities). 

(3) Building codes and regulations set forth in the applicable licensure laws and regulations under section 
105(d)oftheact(35P. S. § 7210.105(d)). 

(4) This chapter. 

(b) Chapter 405 (relating to elevators and other lifting devices) always applies to health care facilities. 

(c) In addition to the requirements of this chapter, a permit applicant for a health care facility shall obtain a license 
from the Department of Health under the Health Care Facilities Act and its regulations and comply with the Department of 
Health's license application procedures and its licensing regulations. 

(d) A permit applicant for construction or alteration of a health care facility shall do all of the following: 

(1) Submit construction or alteration plans to the Department of Health and obtain Department of Health 
approval before commencing construction or performing the alteration. 

(2) Obtain approval from the Department of Health before occupancy of a new health care facility under 28 
Pa. Code § 51 .5 (relating to building occupancy). 

(3) Obtain approval from the Department of Health before occupancy of an altered portion of an existing 
health care facility. 

(e) A Department of Health inspector may inspect a health care facility site before, during and after construction to 
monitor compliance with Department of Health's health facility regulations. 

(f) A building code official may not approve plans for a health care facility under this chapter unless the Department 
of Health has approved the plans. 

(g) A building code official may not issue a certificate of occupancy for the health care facility under this chapter 
unless the Department of Health approved occupancy under 28 Pa. Code § 51 .5. 

(h) This section applies to construction or alteration of all health care facilities that the Department or a building code 
official review and approve under this chapter. 

§ 403.23. Child day care facilities. 

(a) A dwelling unit where child day care services are provided for less than 24 hours for 4 to 1 2 children is an R-3 
occupancy if the dwelling unit is used primarily as a private residence and the provision of day care services is accessory 
to the principal use of the dwelling unit as a residence. 



(b) A day care facility tliat is an R-3 occupancy under subsection (a) wliicli provides day care services to 4-6 cliiidren 
sliall comply with all of the following: 

(1) Have a smoke detector on each floor and in the basement. The smoke detector may be powered by a 
nonreplacable, lithium battery listed by Underwriters Laboratories® that is warranted for 10 years and should 
sound an alarm when activated that is audible to persons in the unit's indoor child care space with all intervening 
doors closed. Where this type of detector is utilized, the unit owner of this detector shall keep the proof and date 
of purchase of the detector in the unit's fire drill logs. 

(2) Have a portable fire extinguisher rated for Class B Fires in the kitchen and other cooking areas. 

(3) Meet the exiting requirements for an R-3 occupancy and licensure under 55 Pa. Code Chapter 3290 
(relating to family child day care homes). 

(c) A day care facility that is an R-3 occupancy under subsection (a) which provides day care services to 7-1 2 
children shall comply with all of the following: 

(1) Have an interconnected smoke detector system. 

(2) Have a fire extinguisher rated for Class B fires in the kitchen and other cooking areas. 

(3) Meet the exiting requirements for an R-3 occupancy and licensure under 55 Pa. Code Chapter 3280 
(relating to group child day care homes). 

(d) All other child day care facilities shall be classified under Chapter 3 of the "International Building Code." The 
facilities shall meet all Uniform Construction Code standards for these occupancy classifications. 

§ 403.24. Historic buildings, structures and sites. 

A building code official may exclude an entire historic building or structure or part of the building or structure from 
compliance with the Uniform Construction Code if it meets all of the following conditions under section 902 of the act (35 
P. S.§ 7210.902): 

(1 ) The building or structure is an existing building or structure, or a new building or structure that is not 
intended for residential use on an historic site. 

(2) The building or structure is identified and classified by Federal or local government authority or the 
Historical and Museum Commission as an historic building or site. 

(3) A building code official judges the building or structure or parts of the building and structure as safe and 
the exclusion is in the interest of public health, safety or welfare. The building code official shall apply the Uniform 
Construction Code to parts of the building or structure where its exclusion is not within the interest of the public 
health, safety and welfare. A building code official may not waive the Uniform Construction Code's accessibility 
requirements under this section. 

§ 403.25. Manufactured and industrialized housing. 

(a) Manufactured housing is governed by the following under section 901(a) of the act (35 P. S. § 7210.901(a)): 

(1) Except as provided in paragraph (2), the Uniform Construction Code does not apply to new manufactured 
housing assembled by and shipped from the manufacturer and which bears a label which certifies that it conforms 
to Federal construction and safety standards adopted under the Housing and Community Development Act of 
1974 (42 U.S.C.A. §§ 5401-5426) and installation of new manufactured housing in conformity with the 
manufacturer's approved design applicable to the particular home. 

(2) Construction activities or processes including utility connections and grading not addressed by the 
manufacturer's approved design must comply with the Uniform Construction Code. 

(3) The Uniform Construction Code applies to the following: 

(i) Alteration or repair to the unit that does not fall within 24 CFR 3280. 1 -3280.904 (relating to 

manufactured home construction and safety standards) and the manufacturer's installation instructions 

after assembly and shipment by the manufacturer. 

(ii) Additions to the unit after delivery to the site. 

(iii) Construction, alteration, repair or change of occupancy if the manufactured housing is resold to a 

subsequent purchaser. 

(iv) Construction, alteration, repair or change of occupancy if the original purchaser relocates the 

manufactured housing. 

(b) Industrialized housing is governed by the following under section 901 (a) of the act: 

(1) Except as provided in subsection (b)(2), the Uniform Construction Code does not apply to industrialized 
housing assembled by and shipped from the manufacturer. 

(2) The Uniform Construction Code applies to all of the following: 
(i) Site preparation. 

(ii) Foundation construction, 

(iii) Utilities connection. 



(iv) Construction, alteration or repair to tlie industrialized housing unit after installation. 

(v) Construction, alteration, repair or occupancy if industrialized housing is resold to a subsequent purchaser. 

(vi) Construction, alteration, repair or occupancy if industrialized housing is relocated. 

(c) The Department of Community and Economic Development may enforce and take action under the Industrialized 
Housing Act (35 P. S. §§ 1651.1-1651.12) and the Manufactured Housing Construction and Safety Standards 
Authorization Act (35 P. S. §§ 1656.1-1656.9). 

§ 403.26. Swimming pools. 

(a) A swimming pool, hot tub and spa which is accessory to a one-or two-family dwelling shall comply with all of the following: 

(1) Chapter 41 of the "International Residential Code." 

(2) Appendix G of the "International Residential Code." 

(3) Section 2406.2, paragraph 9 of the International Building Code (glazing in walls and fences enclosing 
indoor and outdoor swimming pools, hot tubs and spas). 

(4) Section 3109.4 of the "International Building Code (residential swimming pool enclosures). 

(b) A swimming pool that is not accessory to a one-or two-family dwelling must comply with this chapter, the 
"American National Standards for Public Pools" issued by ANSI and APSP (ANSI/NSPI-1 2003) and the Public Bathing 
Law (35 P. S. §§ 672-680d). 

(c) A hot tub or spa that is not accessory to a one-or two-family dwelling must comply with this chapter and the 
"American National Standard for Public Spas" issued by ANSI and APSP (ANSI/NSPI-2 1 999). 

§ 403.27. Applicability and use of standards. 

(a) Portions of this chapter designate and incorporate portions of the following ICC 2006 copyrighted works: 

(1) The "International Building Code." 

(2) The "International Residential Code." 

(3) The "ICC Electrical Code." 

(4) The "International Plumbing Code." 

(5) The "International Mechanical Code." 

(b) The "International Residential Code" and the "International Existing Building Code" apply to the construction, 
alteration, movement, enlargement, replacement, repair, equipment, use and occupancy, location, removal and demolition 
of detached one-and two-family dwellings and multiple single-family dwellings no more than 3 stories in height with a 
separate means of egress and their accessory structures. 

(c) The ICC owns the copyrighted works in subsection (a). Reproduced with permission. All rights reserved. 

(d) If different sections of this chapter specify different materials, method of construction or other requirements, the 
most restrictive material, method of construction or other requirement shall govern. The specific requirement of this part 
applies if there is a conflict between a general requirement and a specific requirement. 

(e) This chapter governs if there is a conflict between this chapter and the provisions of the codes relating to 
administration incorporated under § 403.21(a) (relating to Uniform Construction Code). 

(f) A provision of the "International Mechanical Code" does not apply if the provision conflicts with the Boiler and 
Unfired Pressure Vessel Law (35 P. S. §§ 1331.1-1331.9). 

§403.28. Uncertified buildings. 

(a) Under section 902(b)(6) of the act (35 P.S. § 721 0.902(b)(6)), an uncertified building that was built before April 27, 
1927, is deemed to be legally occupied until the owner proposes to renovate, add an addition, alter or change the occupancy 
of the building. The renovation, addition, alteration or change in occupancy must comply with the Uniform Construction Code. 

(b) Under section 902(b) of the act (35 P.S. § 7210.902(b)), uncertified buildings within the Department's jurisdiction 
must meet the following requirements which do not apply to uncertified buildings under subsection (a): 

(1) Maximum story height, minimum allowable construction type based on floor area, vertical opening and 
shaft protection requirements, means of egress requirements pertaining to minimum number of exits, maximum 
travel distances to exits, means of egress illumination, minimum egress widths and heights for exit doors, exit 
stairs, exit ramps and exit corridors requirements under the "International Building Code". 



(2) Fire safety requirements in tlie "International Building Code" for fire alarms, fire extinguishers, heat and smoke 
detectors, automatic sprinkler systems and occupancy and incidental use separations. The following also applies: 
(i) If construction began on a building before May 19, 1984, the installation of automatic sprinkler 

systems is not required. 

(ii) If construction began on a building after May 19, 1984, automatic sprinklers are only required if the 

building is classified in use groups E (educational), H (high-hazard), I (institutional), or R-1 or R-2 (residential) 
or if the building has occupied floors more than 75 feet above lowest level of fire department access. Buildings 
in use groups R-1 and R-2 which do not have occupied floors more than 75 feet above lowest level of fire 
department access may, instead of installing automatic sprinkler systems, install hard-wired interconnected 
heat and smoke detectors in all rooms or spaces, whether they are occupied or unoccupied, 
(iii) If construction of a building began after May 18, 1984, automatic sprinkler installation shall be 
completed by December 22, 2010, or any certificate of occupancy issued shall be invalid. 
(3) Accessibility requirements are applicable as follows: 

(i) If construction of an uncertified building began before September 1 , 1965, accessibility 

requirements will not be imposed by the Department. 

(ii) If construction of a building began after August 31, 1965 and before February 18, 1989, and if the 

building is a State-owned building, a restaurant or a retail commercial establishment, the building must 
have at least one accessible main entrance, an accessible route from the accessible entrance to any 
public spaces on the same level as the accessible entrance and, if toilet rooms are provided, the building 
must have at least one toilet room for each sex or a unisex toilet room complying with the accessibility 
requirements of the "International Building Code." 

(iii) If construction of the building began after February 1 7, 1 989, all accessibility requirements of the 
"International Building Code" shall be met. 
(4) Structural requirements will not be imposed unless the Department determines that the building or a 
portion of the building has defects that are defined as dangerous in section 202 of the "International Existing 
Building Code." If the building is dangerous, the Department may impose only those requirements minimally 
necessary to remove danger to the building's occupants. 

(c) All of the following apply to uncertified buildings where the Department does not have jurisdiction and which are 
not governed under subsection (a): 

(1) A construction code official shall issue a certificate of occupancy to an uncertified building if it meets the 
requirements of the latest version of the "International Existing Building Code" or Chapter 34 of the "International 
Building Code." The construction code official shall utilize the code for the municipality which best applies, in the 
official's professional judgment. 

(2) A construction code official may deny the issuance of a certificate of occupancy if the official deems that a 
building is unsafe because of inadequate means of egress, inadequate lighting and ventilation, fire hazards or 
other dangers to human life or to public welfare. 

(3) A municipality governed under this subsection may utilize the standards of subsection (b) for the issuance 
of certificates of occupancy to uncertified buildings if the municipality adopts an ordinance. 

PERMIT AND INSPECTION PROCESS FOR COMMERCIAL CONSTRUCTION 

§ 403.41. Commercial construction. 

This section and §§ 403.42-403.48 apply to the Department and municipalities electing to enforce the Uniform 
Construction Code under § 403.102 (relating to municipalities electing to enforce the Uniform Construction Code). 

§ 403.42. Permit requirements and exemptions. 

(a) An owner or authorized agent who intends to construct, enlarge, alter, repair, move, demolish or change the 
occupancy of a commercial building, structure and facility or to erect, install, enlarge, alter, repair, remove, convert or 
replace any electrical, gas, mechanical, or plumbing system regulated by the Uniform Construction Code shall first apply 
to the building code official and obtain the required permit under § 403.42a (relating to permit application). 

(b) Emergency repairs or replacement of equipment may be made without first applying for a permit if a permit 
application is submitted to the building code official within 3 business days of the repair or replacement. 

(c) A permit is not required for the exceptions listed in § 403.1(b) (relating to scope) and the following construction as 
long as the work does not violate a law or ordinance: 

(1) Building construction for the following: 

(i) Fences that are not over 6 feet high, 

(ii) Oil derricks. 



A Member of the International Code Family^ 



NTERNATIONAL 



I 

Fire 
Code 




INTERNATIONAL 
CODE COUNCIL® 



2006 



2006 International Fire Code^ 



First Printing: January 2006 



ISBN-13: 978-1-58001-255-3 (soft) 

ISBN-10: 1-58001-255-8 (soft) 

ISBN-13: 978-1-58001-254-6 (loose-leaf) 

ISBN-10: 1-58001-254-X (loose-leaf) 

ISBN-13: 978-1-58001-304-8 (e-document) 

ISBN-10: 1-58001-304-X (e-document) 



COPYRIGHT © 2006 

by 

INTERNATIONAL CODE COUNCIL, INC. 



ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. This 2006 International Fire Code® is a copyrighted work owned by the International Code Council, 
Inc. Without advance written permission from the copyright owner, no part of this book may be reproduced, distributed, or transmit- 
ted in any form or by any means, including, without limitation, electronic, optical or mechanical means (by way of example and not 
limitation, photocopying, or recording by or in an information storage retrieval system). For information on permission to copy 
material exceeding fair use, please contact: Publications, 4051 West Flossmoor Road, Country Club Hills, IL 60478-5795. Phone 
1-888-ICC-SAFE (422-7233). 

Trademarks: "International Code Council," the "International Code Council" logo and the "International Fire Code" are trademarks 
of the International Code Council, Inc. 



1106P-13343 PRINTED IN THE U.S.A. 



PREFACE 



Introduction 

Internationally, code officials recognize the need for a modem, up-to-date fire code addressing conditions hazardous to life and 
property from fire, explosion, handling or use of hazardous materials and the use and occupancy of buildings and premises. The 
International Fire Code®, in this 2006 edition, is designed to meet these needs through model code regulations that safeguard the 
public health and safety in all communities, large and small. 

This comprehensive fire code establishes minimum regulations for fire prevention and fire protection systems using prescriptive 
and performance-related provisions. It is founded on broad-based principles that make possible the use of new materials and new 
system designs. This 2006 edition is fully compatible with all the International Codes® (I-Codes®) published by the International 
Code Council (ICC)®, including the International Building Code®, ICC Electrical Code®, International Energy Conservation 
Code®, International Existing Building Code®, International Fuel Gas Code®, International Mechanical Code®, ICC Performance 
Code®, International Plumbing Code®, International Private Sewage Disposal Code®, International Property Maintenance Code®, 
International Residential Code®, International Wildland-Urban Interface Code'^^ and International Zoning Code®. 

The International Fire Code provisions provide many benefits, among which is the model code development process that offers 
an international forum for fire safety professionals to discuss performance and prescriptive code requirements. This forum provides 
an excellent arena to debate proposed revisions. This model code also encourages international consistency in the application of 
provisions. 

Development 

The first edition of the International Fire Code (2000) was the culmination of an effort initiated in 1997 by a development commit- 
tee appointed by ICC and consisting of representatives of the three statutory members of the International Code Council: Building 
Officials and Code Administrators International, Inc. (BOCA), International Conference of Building Officials (ICBO) and South- 
em Building Code Congress Intemational (SBCCI). The intent was to draft a comprehensive set of fire safety regulations consistent 
with and inclusive of the scope of the existing model codes. Technical content of the latest model codes promulgated by BOCA, 
ICBO and SBCCI was utilized as the basis for the development, followed by public hearings in 1998 and 1999 to consider proposed 
changes. This 2006 edition presents the code as originally issued, with changes reflected in the 2003 edition and further changes 
approved through the ICC Code Development Process through 2005 . A new edition such as this is promulgated every three years. 

This code is founded on principles intended to establish provisions consistent with the scope of a fire code that adequately pro- 
tects public health, safety and welfare; provisions that do not unnecessarily increase construction costs; provisions that do not 
restrict the use of new materials, products or methods of constmction; and provisions that do not give preferential treatment to par- 
ticular types or classes of materials, products or methods of constmction. 

Adoption 

The International Fire Code is available for adoption and use by jurisdictions intemationally. Its use within a governmental jurisdic- 
tion is intended to be accomplished through adoption by reference in accordance with proceedings establishing the jurisdiction's 
laws. At the time of adoption, jurisdictions should insert the appropriate information in provisions requiring specific local informa- 
tion, such as the name of the adopting jurisdiction. These locations are shown in bracketed words in small capital letters in the code 
and in the sample ordinance. The sample adoption ordinance on page v addresses several key elements of a code adoption ordi- 
nance, including the information required for insertion into the code text. 

Maintenance 

The International Fire Code is kept up-to-date through the review of proposed changes submitted by code enforcing officials, 
industry representatives, design professionals and other interested parties. Proposed changes are carefully considered through an 
open code development process in which all interested and affected parties may participate. 

The contents of this work are subject to change both through the Code Development Cycles and the govemmental body that 
enacts the code into law. For more information regarding the code development process, contact the Code and Standard Develop- 
ment Department of the Intemational Code Council. 

While the development procedure of the International Fire Code assures the highest degree of care, ICC, its members and those 
participating in the development of this code do not accept any liability resulting from compliance or noncompliance with the provi- 
sions because ICC and its founding members do not have the power or authority to police or enforce compliance with the contents of 
this code. Only the govemmental body that enacts the code into law has such authority. 

2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® ill 



Letter Designations in Front of Section Numbers 

In each code development cycle, proposed changes to the code are considered at the Code Development Hearings by the ICC Fire 
Code Development Committee, whose action constitutes a recommendation to the voting membership for final action on the pro- 
posed change. Proposed changes to a code section that has a number beginning with a letter in brackets are considered by a different 
code development conunittee. For example, proposed changes to code sections that have [B] in front of them (e.g. [B] 607.2) are 
considered by the ICC Building Code Development Committee at the code development hearings. 

The content of sections in this code that begin with a letter designation are maintained by another code development committee in 
accordance with the following: 

[B] = International Building Code Development Committee; 

[EB] = International Existing Building Code Development Committee; 

[EG] = International Fuel Gas Code Development Committee; 

[M] = International Mechanical Code Development Committee; and 

[P] = International Plumbing Code Development Committee. 

l\/iarginal IVIarkings 

Solid vertical lines in the margins within the body of the code indicate a technical change from the requirements of the 2003 edition. 
Deletion indicators in the form of an arrow ( ^ ) are provided in the margin where an entire section, paragraph, exception or table 
has been deleted or an item in a list of items or a table has been deleted. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE'^ 



ORDINANCE 



The International Codes are designed and promulgated to be adopted by reference by ordinance. Jurisdictions wishing to adopt the 
2006 International Fire Code as an enforceable regulation governing regulating and governing the safeguarding of life and property 
from fire and explosion hazards arising from the storage, handling and use of hazardous substances, materials and devices, and from 
conditions hazardous to life or property in the occupancy of buildings and premises should ensure that certain factual information is 
included in the adopting ordinance at the time adoption is being considered by the appropriate governmental body. The following 
sample adoption ordinance addresses several key elements of a code adoption ordinance, including the information required for 
insertion into the code text. 

SAMPLE ORDINANCE FOR ADOPTION OF 
THE INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE 
ORDINANCE NO. 



An ordinance of the [JURISDICTION] adopting the 2006 edition of the International Fire Code, regulating and governing the safe- 
guarding of life and property from fire and explosion hazards arising from the storage, handling and use of hazardous substances, 
materials and devices, and from conditions hazardous to life or property in the occupancy of buildings and premises in the [JURIS- 
DICTION]; providing for the issuance of permits and collection of fees therefor; repealing Ordinance No. of the [JURISDIC- 
TION] and all other ordinances and parts of the ordinances in conflict therewith. 

The [GOVERNING BODY] of the [JURISDICTION] does ordain as follows: 

Section 1. That a certain document, three (3) copies of which are on file in the office of the [TITLE OF JURISDICTION'S KEEPER OF 
RECORDS] of [NAME OF JURISDICTION], being marked and designated as the International Fire Code, 2006 edition, including 
Appendix Chapters [FILL IN THE APPENDIX CHAPTERS BEING ADOPTED] (see International Fire Code Section 101.2.1, 2006 edi- 
tion), as published by the International Code Council, be and is hereby adopted as the Fire Code of the [JURISDICTION], in the State 
of [STATE NAME] regulating and governing the safeguarding of life and property from fire and explosion hazards arising from the 
storage, handling and use of hazardous substances, materials and devices, and from conditions hazardous to life or property in the 
occupancy of buildings and premises as herein provided; providing for the issuance of permits and collection of fees therefor; and 
each and all of the regulations, provisions, penalties, conditions and terms of said Fire Code on file in the office of the [JURISDIC- 
TION] are hereby referred to, adopted, and made a part hereof, as if fully set out in this ordinance, with the additions, insertions, dele- 
tions and changes, if any, prescribed in Section 2 of this ordinance. 

Section 2. That the following sections are hereby revised: 

Section 101.1 Insert: [NAME OF JURISDICTION] 

Section 109.3. Insert: [OFFENSE, DOLLAR AMOUNT, NUMBER OF DAYS] 

Section 111.4. Insert: [DOLLAR AMOUNT IN TWO LOCATIONS] 

Section 3. That the geographic limits referred to in certain sections of the 2006 International Fire Code are hereby established as 
follows: 

Section 3204.3.1.1 (geographic limits in which the storage of flammable cryogenic fluids in stationary containers is prohib- 
ited): [JURISDICTION TO SPECIFY] 

Section 3404.2.9.5.1 (geographic limits in which the storage of Class I and Class II liquids in above-ground tanks outside of 
buildings is prohibited): [JURISDICTION TO SPECIFY] 

Section 3406.2.4.4 (geographic limits in which the storage of Class I and Class II liquids in above-ground tanks is prohib- 
ited): [JURISDICTION TO SPECIFY] 

Section 3804.2 (geographic limits in which the storage of liquefied petroleum gas is restricted for the protection of heavily 
populated or congested areas): [JURISDICTION TO SPECIFY] 

Section 4. That Ordinance No. of [JURISDICTION] entitled [FILL IN HERE THE COMPLETE TITLE OF THE ORDINANCE OR 

ORDINANCES IN EFFECT AT THE PRESENT TIME SO THAT THEY WILL BE REPEALED BY SPECIFIC REFERENCE] and all Other ordi- 
nances or parts of ordinances in conflict herewith are hereby repealed. 

Section S.That if any section, subsection, sentence, clause or phrase of this ordinance is, for any reason, held to be unconstitutional, 
such decision shall not affect the validity of the remaining portions of this ordinance. The [GOVERNING BODY] hereby declares that it 

2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® v 



would have passed this ordinance, and each section, subsection, clause or phrase thereof, irrespective of the fact that any one or more 
sections, subsections, sentences, clauses and phrases be declared unconstitutional. 

Section 6. That nothing in this ordinance or in the Fire Code hereby adopted shall be construed to affect any suit or proceeding 
impending in any court, or any rights acquired, or liability incurred, or any cause or causes of action acquired or existing, under any 
act or ordinance hereby repealed as cited in Section 4 of this ordinance; nor shall any just or legal right or remedy of any character be 
lost, impaired or affected by this ordinance. 

Section 7. That the [JURISDICTION'S KEEPER OF RECORDS] is hereby ordered and directed to cause this ordinance to be pubhshed. 
(An additional provision may be required to direct the number of times the ordinance is to be published and to specify that it is to be 
in a newspaper in general circulation. Posting may also be required.) 

Section 8. That this ordinance and the rules, regulations, provisions, requirements, orders and matters established and adopted 
hereby shall take effect and be in full force and effect ]JME PERIOD] from and after the date of its final passage and adoption. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE'' 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



CHAPTER 1 ADMINISTRATION 1 

Section 

101 General 1 

102 Applicability 1 

103 Department of Fire Prevention 2 

104 General Authority and Responsibilities 2 

105 Permits 3 

106 Inspections 10 

107 Maintenance 10 

108 Board of Appeals 10 

109 Violations 11 

110 Unsafe Buildings 11 

111 Stop Work Order 11 

CHAPTER 2 DEFINITIONS 13 

Section 

201 General 13 

202 General Definitions 13 

CHAPTER 3 GENERAL PRECAUTIONS 

AGAINST FIRE 27 

Section 

301 General 27 

302 Definitions 27 

303 Asphalt Kettles 27 

304 Combustible Waste Material 27 

305 Ignition Sources 28 

306 Motion Picture Projection Rooms and Film .... 28 

307 Open Burning and Recreational Fires 28 

308 Open Flames 29 

309 Powered Industrial Trucks and Equipment 31 

310 Smoking 31 

311 Vacant Premises 31 

312 Vehicle Impact Protection 32 

313 Fueled Equipment 32 

314 Indoor Displays 33 

315 Miscellaneous Combustible Materials Storage . . 33 

CHAPTER 4 EMERGENCY PLANNING 

AND PREPAREDNESS 35 

Section 

401 General 35 

402 Definitions 35 

2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



403 Public Assemblages and Events 35 

404 Fire Safety and Evacuation Plans 35 

405 Emergency Evacuation Drills : ... 36 

406 Employee Training and Response Procedures ... 37 

407 Hazard Communication 37 

408 Use and Occupancy-related Requirements 38 

CHAPTER 5 FIRE SERVICE FEATURES 41 

Section 

501 General 41 

502 Definitions 41 

503 Fire Apparatus Access Roads 41 

504 Access to Building Openings and Roofs 42 

505 Premises Identification 42 

506 Key Boxes 42 

507 Hazards to Fire Fighters 43 

508 Fire Protection Water Supplies 43 

509 Fire Command Center 44 

510 Fire Department Access to Equipment 44 

CHAPTER 6 BUILDING SERVICES 

AND SYSTEMS 45 

Section 

601 General 45 

602 Definitions 45 

603 Fuel-fired Appliances 45 

604 Emergency and Standby Power Systems 47 

605 Electrical Equipment, Wiring and Hazards 49 

606 Mechanical Refrigeration 50 

607 Elevator Recall and Maintenance 52 

608 Stationary Storage Battery Systems 52 

609 Commercial Kitchen Hoods 54 

CHAPTER 7 FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED 

CONSTRUCTION 55 

Section 

701 General 55 

702 Definitions 55 

703 Fire-resistance-rated Construction 55 

704 Floor Openings and Shafts 55 

vii 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



CHAPTER 8 INTERIOR FINISH, DECORATIVE 
MATERIALS AND 
FURNISHINGS 57 

Section 

801 General 57 

802 Definitions 57 

803 Interior Wall and Ceiling Finish and 

Trim in Existing Buildings 57 

804 Interior Wall and Ceiling Trim in 

New and Existing Buildings 59 

805 Upholstered Furniture and Mattresses in 

New and Exisiting Buildings 59 

806 Decorative Vegetation in New and 

Existing Buildings 61 

807 Decorative Materials Other Than Decorative 

Vegetation in New and Existing Buildings ... 62 

808 Furnishings Other Than Upholstered 

Furniture and Mattresses or Decorative 
Materials in New and Existing Buildings .... 63 

CHAPTER 9 FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS .... 65 

Section 

901 General 65 

902 Definitions 66 

903 Automatic Sprinkler Systems 69 

904 Alternative Automatic Fire-extinguishing 

Systems 74 

905 Standpipe Systems 77 

906 Portable Fire Extinguishers 79 

907 Fire Alarm and Detection Systems 81 

908 Emergency Alarm Systems 90 

909 Smoke Control Systems 90 

910 Smoke and Heat Vents 96 

911 Explosion Control 98 

912 Fire Department Connections 99 

913 Fire Pumps 100 

914 Fire Protection Based on Special Detailed 

Requirements of Use and Occupancy 100 

CHAPTER 10 MEANS OF EGRESS 103 

Section 

1001 Administration 103 

1002 Definitions 103 

1003 General Means of Egress 104 

1004 Occupant Load 105 

1005 Egress Width 106 

1006 Means of Egress Illumination 107 

1007 Accessible Means of Egress 107 

viii 



1008 Doors, Gates and Turnstiles 109 

1009 Stairways 114 

1010 Ramps 117 

1011 Exit Signs 118 

1012 Handrails 118 

1013 Guards 119 

1014 Exit Access 120 

1015 Exit and Exit Access Doorways 122 

1016 Exit Access Travel Distance 123 

1017 Corridors 124 

1018 Exits 125 

1019 Number of Exits and Continuity 125 

1020 Vertical Exit Enclosures 126 

1021 Exit Passageways 127 

1022 Horizontal Exits 128 

1023 Exterior Exit Ramps and Stairways 129 

1024 Exit Discharge 129 

1025 Assembly 130 

1026 Emergency Escape and Rescue 135 

1027 Means of Egress for Existing Buildings 136 

1028 Maintenance of the Means of Egress 140 

CHAPTER 11 AVIATION FACILITIES 143 

Section 

1101 General 143 

1 102 Definitions 143 

1 103 General Precautions 143 

1 104 Aircraft Maintenance 143 

1 105 Portable Fire Extinguishers 144 

1 106 Aircraft Fueling 144 

1 107 Helistops and Heliports 149 

CHAPTER 12 DRY CLEANING 151 

Section 

1201 General 151 

1202 Definitions 151 

1203 Classifications 151 

1204 General Requirements 151 

1205 Operating Requirements 152 

1206 Spotting and Pretreating 152 

1207 Dry Cleaning Systems 153 

1208 Fire Protection 153 

2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



CHAPTER 13 COMBUSTIBLE DUST-PRODUCING 
OPERATIONS 155 

Section 

1301 General 155 

1302 Definitions 155 

1303 Precautions 155 

1304 Explosion Protection 155 

CHAPTER 14 FIRE SAFETY DURING 
CONSTRUCTION AND 
DEMOLITION 157 

Section 

1401 General 157 

1402 Definitions 157 

1403 Temporary Heating Equipment 157 

1404 Precautions Against Fire 157 

1405 Flammable and Combustible Liquids 157 

1406 Flammable Gases 158 

1407 Explosive Materials 158 

1408 Owner's Responsibility for Fire Protection .... 158 

1409 Fire Reporting .158 

1410 Access for Fire Fighting 158 

141 1 Means of Egress 158 

1412 Water Supply for Fire Protection 158 

1413 Standpipes 159 

1414 Automatic Sprinkler System 159 

1415 Portable Fire Extinguishers 159 

1416 Motorized Equipment 159 

1417 Safeguarding Roofing Operations 159 

CHAPTER 15 FLAMMABLE FINISHES 161 

Section 

1501 General 161 

1502 Definitions 161 

1503 Protection of Operations 162 

1504 Spray Finishing 163 

1505 Dipping Operations 167 

1506 Powder Coating 168 

1507 Electrostatic Apparatus 169 

1508 Organic Peroxides and Dual-component 

Coatings 169 

1509 Indoor Manufacturing of Reinforced Plastics . . 170 

1510 Floor Surfacing and Finishing Operations 170 



CHAPTER 16 FRUIT AND CROP RIPENING ... 173 

Section 

1601 General 173 

1602 Definitions 173 

1603 Ethylene Gas 173 

1604 Sources of Ignition 173 

1605 Combustible Waste 173 

1606 Ethylene Generators 173 

1607 Warning Signs 173 

CHAPTER 17 FUMIGATION AND THERMAL 

INSECTICIDAL FOGGING 175 

Section 

1701 General 175 

1702 Definitions 175 

1703 Fire Safety Requirements 175 

CHAPTER 18 SEMICONDUCTOR FABRICATION 

FACILITIES 177 

Section 

1801 General 177 

1802 Definitions 177 

1803 General Safety Provisions 177 

1804 Storage 181 

1805 Use and Handling 183 

CHAPTER 19 LUMBER YARDS AND 

WOODWORKING FACILITIES. . . 187 

Section 

1901 General 187 

1902 Definitions 187 

1903 General Requirements 187 

1904 Fire Protection 187 

1905 Plywood, Veneer and Composite Board 

Mills 188 

1906 Log Storage Areas 188 

1907 Storage of Wood Chips and Hogged Material 

Associated With Timber and Lumber 
Production Facilities 188 

1908 Storage and Processing of Wood Chips, Hogged 

Material, Fines, Compost and Raw Product 
Associated With Yard Waste and Recycling 
Facilities 188 

1909 Exterior Storage of Finished Lumber 

Products 189 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE*^ 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



CHAPTER 20 MANUFACTURE OF ORGANIC 

COATINGS 191 

Section 

2001 General 191 

2002 Definitions 191 

2003 General Precautions 191 

2004 Electrical Equipment and Protection 191 

2005 Process Structures 192 

2006 Process Mills and Kettles 192 

2007 Process Piping 192 

2008 Raw Materials in Process Areas 193 

2009 Raw Materials and Finished Products 193 

CHAPTER 21 INDUSTRIAL OVENS 195 

Section 

2101 General 195 

2102 Definitions 195 

2103 Location 195 

2104 Fuel Piping 195 

2105 Interlocks 195 

2106 Fire Protection 196 

2107 Operation and Maintenance 196 

CHAPTER 22 MOTOR FUEL-DISPENSING 
FACILITIES AND REPAIR 
GARAGES 197 

Section 

2201 General 197 

2202 Definitions 197 

2203 Location of Dispensing Devices 197 

2204 Dispensing Operations 198 

2205 Operational Requirements 199 

2206 Flammable and Combustible Liquid Motor 

Fuel-dispensing Facilities 199 

2207 Liquefied Petroleum Gas Motor 

Fuel-dispensing Facilities 203 

2208 Compressed Natural Gas Motor 

Fuel-dispensing Facilities 204 

2209 Hydrogen Motor Fuel-dispensing and 

Generation Facilities 206 

2210 Marine Motor Fuel-dispensing Facilities 209 

221 1 Repair Garages 211 

CHAPTER 23 HIGH-PILED COMBUSTIBLE 

STORAGE 215 

Section 

2301 General 215 



2302 Definitions 215 

2303 Commodity Classification 216 

2304 Designation of High-piled Storage Areas 218 

2305 Housekeeping and Maintenance 218 

2306 General Fire Protection and Life Safety 

Features 218 

2307 Solid-piled and Shelf Storage 222 

2308 Rack Storage 222 

2309 Automated Storage 222 

2310 Specialty Storage 223 

CHAPTER 24 TENTS, CANOPIES AND OTHER 

MEMBRANE STRUCTURES 225 

Section 

2401 General 225 

2402 Definitions 225 

2403 Temporary Tents, Canopies and Membrane 

Structures 225 

2404 Temporary and Permanent Tents, Canopies 

and Membrane Structures 227 

CHAPTER 25 TIRE REBUILDING AND 

TIRE STORAGE 231 

Section 

2501 General 231 

2502 Definitions 231 

2503 Tire Rebuilding 231 

2504 Precautions Against Fire 23 1 

2505 Outdoor Storage 231 

2506 Fire Department Access 232 

2507 Fencing 232 

2508 Fire Protection 232 

2509 Indoor Storage Arrangement 232 

CHAPTER 26 WELDING AND OTHER 

HOT WORK 233 

Section 

2601 General 233 

2602 Definitions 233 

2603 General Requirements 233 

2604 Fire Safety Requirements 234 

2605 Gas Welding and Cutting 235 

2606 Electric Arc Hot Work 235 

2607 Calcium Carbide Systems 235 

2608 Acetylene Generators 235 

2609 Piping Manifolds and Hose Systems for 

Fuel Gases and Oxygen 235 

2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



CHAPTER 27 HAZARDOUS MATERIALS- 
GENERAL PROVISIONS 237 

Section 

2701 General 237 

2702 Definitions 239 

2703 General Requirements 241 

2704 Storage 254 

2705 Use, Dispensing and Handling 258 

CHAPTER 28 AEROSOLS 263 

Section 

2801 General 263 

2802 Definitions 263 

2803 Classification of Aerosol Products 263 

2804 Inside Storage of Aerosol Products 263 

2805 Outside Storage 265 

2806 Retail Display 266 

2807 Manufacturing Facilities 267 

CHAPTER 29 COMBUSTIBLE FIBERS 269 

Section 

2901 General 269 

2902 Definitions 269 

2903 General Precautions 269 

2904 Loose Fiber Storage 269 

2905 Baled Storage 270 

CHAPTER 30 COMPRESSED GASES 271 

Section 

3001 General 271 

3002 Definitions 271 

3003 General Requirements 271 

3004 Storage of Compressed Gases 275 

3005 Use and Handling of Compressed Gases 275 

3006 Medical Gas Systems 275 

3007 Compressed Gases Not Otherwise Regulated . . 276 

CHAPTER 31 CORROSIVE MATERIALS 277 

Section 

3101 General 277 

3102 Definitions 277 

3103 General Requirements 277 

3104 Storage 277 

3105 Use 277 

2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



CHAPTER 32 CRYOGENIC FLUIDS 279 

Section 

3201 General 279 

3202 Definitions 279 

3203 General Requirements 279 

3204 Storage 281 

3205 Use and Handling 283 

CHAPTER 33 EXPLOSIVES AND 

FIREWORKS 285 

Section 

3301 General 285 

3302 Definitions 288 

3303 Record Keeping and Reporting 291 

3304 Explosive Materials Storage and Handling .... 291 

3305 Manufacture, Assembly and Testing of 

Explosives, Explosive Materials and 

Fireworks 298 

3306 Small Arms Ammunition 300 

3307 Blasting 302 

3308 Fireworks Display 303 

CHAPTER 34 FLAMMABLE AND 

COMBUSTIBLE LIQUIDS 305 

Section 

3401 General 305 

3402 Definitions 305 

3403 General Requirements 306 

3404 Storage 310 

3405 Dispensing, Use, Mixing and Handling 329 

3406 Special Operations 334 

CHAPTER 35 FLAMMABLE GASES 345 

Section 

3501 General 345 

3502 Definitions 345 

3503 General Requirements 345 

3504 Storage 346 

3505 Use 346 

CHAPTER 36 FLAMMABLE SOLIDS 347 

Section 

3601 General 347 

3602 Definitions 347 

3603 General Requirements 347 

3604 Storage 347 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



3605 Use 347 

3606 Magnesium 347 

CHAPTER 37 HIGHLY TOXIC AND TOXIC 

MATERIALS 351 

Section 

3701 General 351 

3702 Definitions 351 

3703 Highly Toxic and Toxic Solids and Liquids. . . . 352 

3704 Highly Toxic and Toxic Compressed Gases ... 353 

3705 Ozone Gas Generators 357 

CHAPTER 38 LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM 

GASES 359 

Section 

3801 General 359 

3802 Definitions 359 

3803 Installation of Equipment 359 

3804 Location of Containers 360 

3805 Prohibited Use of LP-gas 361 

3806 Dispensing and Overfilling 361 

3807 Safety Precautions and Devices 361 

3808 Fire Protection 361 

3809 Storage of Portable LP-gas Containers 

Awaiting Use or Resale 361 

3810 Containers Not in Service 363 

3811 Parking and Garaging 363 

CHAPTER 39 ORGANIC PEROXIDES 365 

Section 

3901 General 365 

3902 Definitions 365 

3903 General Requirements 365 

3904 Storage 365 

3905 Use 367 

CHAPTER 40 OXIDIZERS 369 

Section 

4001 General 369 

4002 Definitions 369 

4003 General Requirements 369 

4004 Storage 370 

4005 Use 371 



CHAPTER 41 PYROPHORIC MATERIALS 373 

Section 

4101 General 373 

4102 Definitions 373 

4103 General Requirements 373 

4104 Storage 373 

4105 Use 374 

4106 Silane Gas 374 

CHAPTER 42 PYROXYLIN (CELLULOSE 

NITRATE) PLASTICS 377 

4201 General 377 

4202 Definitions 377 

4203 General Requirements 377 

4204 Storage and Handling 377 

CHAPTER 43 UNSTABLE (REACTIVE) 

MATERIALS 379 

Section 

4301 General 379 

4302 Definitions 379 

4303 General Requirements 379 

4304 Storage 380 

4305 Use 380 

CHAPTER 44 WATER-REACTIVE SOLIDS AND 

LIQUIDS 381 

Section 

4401 General 381 

4402 Definitions 381 

4403 General Requirements 381 

4404 Storage 381 

4405 Use 382 

CHAPTER 45 REFERENCED STANDARDS 383 

APPENDIX A BOARD OF APPEALS 391 

Section 

AlOl General 391 

APPENDIX B FIRE-FLOW REQUIREMENTS 

FOR BUILDINGS 393 

Section 

BlOl General 393 

B102 Definitions 393 



XII 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE'^ 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



B103 Modifications 393 

B104 Fire-flow Calculation Area 393 

B105 Fire-flow Requirements for Buildings 393 

B106 Referenced Standards 393 

APPENDIX C FIRE HYDRANT LOCATIONS 

AND DISTRIBUTION 395 

Section 

ClOl General 395 

C102 Location 395 

C103 Number of Fire Hydrants 395 

C104 Consideration of Existing Fire Hydrants 395 

CI 05 Distribution of Fire Hydrants 395 

APPENDIX D FIRE APPARATUS ACCESS 

ROADS 397 

Section 

DlOl General 397 

D102 Required Access 397 

D103 Minimum Specifications 397 

D104 Commercial and Industrial Developments 398 

D105 Aerial Fire Apparatus Access Roads 398 

D106 Multiple-family Residential Developments .... 398 

D107 One- or Two-family Residential 

Developments 399 

APPENDIX E HAZARD CATEGORIES 401 

Section 

ElOl General 401 

E102 Hazard Categories 401 

E103 Evaluation of Hazards 404 

APPENDIX F HAZARD RANKING 407 

Section 

FlOl General 407 

F102 Referenced Standards 407 

APPENDIX G CRYOGENIC FLUIDS— WEIGHT 

AND VOLUME EQUIVALENTS. . . 409 

Section 

GlOl General 409 

INDEX 411 

2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® xili 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE'' 



CHAPTER 1 

ADMINISTRATION 



SECTION 101 
GENERAL 

101.1 Title. These regulations shall be known as the Fire Code 
of [NAME OF JURISDICTION], hereinafter referred to as "this 
code." 

101.2 Scope. This code establishes regulations affecting or 
relating to structures, processes, premises and safeguards 
regarding: 

1. The hazard of fire and explosion arising from the stor- 
age, handling or use of structures, materials or devices; 

2. Conditions hazardous to life, property or public welfare 
in the occupancy of structures or premises; 

3. Fire hazards in the structure or on the premises from 
occupancy or operation; 

4. Matters related to the construction, extension, repair, 
alteration or removal of fire suppression or alarm sys- 
tems. 

101.2.1 Appendices. Provisions in the appendices shall not 
apply unless specifically adopted. 

101.3 Intent. The purpose of this code is to establish the mini- 
mum requirements consistent with nationally recognized good 
practice for providing a reasonable level of life safety and prop- 
erty protection from the hazards of fire, explosion or dangerous 
conditions in new and existing buildings, structures and pre- 
mises and to provide safety to fire fighters and emergency 
responders during emergency operations. 

101.4 Severability. If a section, subsection, sentence, clause or 
phrase of this code is, for any reason, held to be unconstitu- 
tional, such decision shall not affect the validity of the remain- 
ing portions of this code. 

101.5 Validity. In the event any part or provision of this code is 
held to be illegal or void, this shall not have the effect of making 
void or illegal any of the other parts or provisions hereof, which 
are determined to be legal; and it shall be presumed that this 
code would have been adopted without such illegal or invalid 
parts or provisions. 



SECTION 102 
APPLICABILITY 

102.1 Construction and design provisions. The construction 
and design provisions of this code shall apply to: 

. 1. Structures, facilities and conditions arising after the 
adoption of this code. 

2. Existing structures, facilities and conditions not legally 
in existence at the time of adoption of this code. 

3. Existing structures, facilities and conditions when iden- 
tified in specific sections of this code. 



4. Existing structures, facilities and conditions which, in 
the opinion of the fire code official, constitute a distinct 
hazard to life or property. 

102.2 Administrative, operational and maintenance provi- 
sions. The administrative, operational and maintenance provi- 
sions of this code shall apply to: 

1 . Conditions and operations arising after the adoption of 
this code. 

2. Existing conditions and operations. 

102.3 Change of use or occupancy. No change shall be made 
in the use or occupancy of any structure that would place the 
structure in a different division of the same group or occupancy 
or in a different group of occupancies, unless such structure is 
made to comply with the requirements of this code and the 
International Building Code. Subject to the approval of the fire 
code official, the use or occupancy of an existing structure shall 
be allowed to be changed and the structure is allowed to be 
occupied for purposes in other groups without conforming to 
all the requirements of this code and the International Building 
Code for those groups, provided the new or proposed use is less 
hazardous, based on life and fire risk, than the existing use. 

102.4 Application of building code. The design and construc- 
tion of new structures shall comply with the International 
Building Code, and any alterations, additions, changes in use or 
changes in structures required by this code, which are within 
the scope of the International Building Code, shall be made in 
accordance therewith. 

102.5 Historic buildings. The provisions of this code relating 
to the construction, alteration, repair, enlargement, restoration, 
relocation or moving of buildings or structures shall not be 
mandatory for existing buildings or structures identified and 
classified by the state or local jurisdiction as historic buildings 
when such buildings or structures do not constitute a distinct 
hazard to life or property. Fire protection in designated historic 
buildings and structures shall be provided in accordance with 
an approved fire protection plan. 

102.6 Referenced codes and standards. The codes and stan- 
dards referenced in this code shall be those that are listed in 
Chapter 45 and such codes and standards shall be considered 
part of the requirements of this code to the prescribed extent of 
each such reference. Where differences occur between the pro- 
visions of this code and the referenced standards, the provi- 
sions of this code shall apply. 

102.7 Subjects not regulated by this code. Where no applica- 
ble standards or requirements are set forth in this code, or are 
contained within other laws, codes, regulations, ordinances or 
bylaws adopted by the jurisdiction, compliance with applicable 
standards of the National Fire Protection Association or other 
nationally recognized fire safety standards, as approved, shall 
be deemed as prima facie evidence of compliance with the 
intent of this code. Nothing herein shall derogate from the 
authority of the fire code official to determine compliance with 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE^^ 



ADMINISTRATION 



codes or standards for those activities or installations within the 
fire code official's jurisdiction or responsibility. 

102.8 Matters not provided for. Requirements that are essen- 
tial for the pubhc safety of an existing or proposed activity, 
building or structure, or for the safety of the occupants thereof, 
which are not specifically provided for by this code shall be 
determined by the fire code official. 

102.9 Conflicting provisions. Where there is a conflict 
between a general requirement and a specific requirement, the 
specific requirement shall be applicable. 



SECTION 103 
DEPARTMENT OF FIRE PREVENTION 

103.1 General. The department of fire prevention is estab- 
lished within the jurisdiction under the direction of the fire 
code official. The function of the department shall be the 
implementation, administration and enforcement of the provi- 
sions of this code. 

103.2 Appointment. The fire code official shall be appointed 
by the chief appointing authority of the jurisdiction; and the fire 
code official shall not be removed from office except for cause 
and after full opportunity to be heard on specific and relevant 
charges by and before the appointing authority. 

103.3 Deputies. In accordance with the prescribed procedures 
of this jurisdiction and with the concurrence of the appointing 
authority, the fire code official shall have the authority to 
appoint a deputy fire code official, other related technical offi- 
cers, inspectors and other employees. 

103.4 Liability. The fire code official, officer or employee 
charged with the enforcement of this code, while acting for the 
jurisdiction, shall not thereby be rendered liable personally, 
and is hereby relieved from all personal liability for any dam- 
age accruing to persons or property as a result of an act required 
or permitted in the discharge of official duties. 

103.4.1 Legal defense. Any suit instituted against any offi- 
cer or employee because of an act performed by that officer 
or employee in the lawful discharge of duties and under the 
provisions of this code shall be defended by the legal repre- 
sentative of the jurisdiction until the final termination of the 
proceedings. The fire code official or any subordinate shall 
not be liable for costs in an action, suit or proceeding that is 
instituted in pursuance of the provisions of this code; and 
any officer of the department of fire prevention, acting in 
good faith and without malice, shall be free from liability for 
acts performed under any of its provisions or by reason of 
any act or omission in the performance of official duties in 
connection therewith. 



SECTION 104 
GENERAL AUTHORITY AND RESPONSIBILITIES 

104.1 General. The fire code official is hereby authorized to 
enforce the provisions of this code and shall have the authority 
to render interpretations of this code, and to adopt policies, pro- 
cedures, rules and regulations in order to clarify the application 
of its provisions. Such interpretations, policies, procedures. 



rules and regulations shall be in compliance with the intent and 
purpose of this code and shall not have the effect of waiving ■ 
requirements specifically provided for in this code. 

104.2 Applications and permits. The fire code official is 
authorized to receive applications, review construction docu- 
ments and issue permits for construction regulated by this 
code, issue permits for operations regulated by this code, 
inspect the premises for which such permits have been issued 
and enforce compliance with the provisions of this code. 

104.3 Right of entry. Whenever it is necessary to make an 
inspection to enforce the provisions of this code, or whenever 
the fire code official has reasonable cause to believe that there 
exists in a building or upon any premises any conditions or vio- 
lations of this code which make the building or premises 
unsafe, dangerous or hazardous, the fire code official shall have 
the authority to enter the building or premises at all reasonable 
times to inspect or to perform the duties imposed upon the fire 
code official by this code. If such building or premises is occu- 
pied, the fire code official shall present credentials to the occu- 
pant and request entry. If such building or premises is 
unoccupied, the fire code official shall first make a reasonable 
effort to locate the owner or other person having charge or con- 
trol of the building or premises and request entry. If entry is 
refused, the fire code official has recourse to every remedy pro- 
vided by law to secure entry. 

104.3.1 Warrant. When the fire code official has first 
obtained a proper inspection warrant or other remedy pro- 
vided by law to secure entry, an owner or occupant or person 
having charge, care or control of the building or premises 
shall not fail or neglect, after proper request is made as 
herein provided, to permit entry therein by the fire code offi- 
cial for the purpose of inspection and examination pursuant 
to this code. 

104.4 Identification. The fire code official shall carry proper 
identification when inspecting structures or premises in the 
performance of duties under this code. 

104.5 Notices and orders. The fire code official is authorized 
to issue such notices or orders as are required to affect compli- 
ance with this code in accordance with Sections 109.1 and 
109.2. 

104.6 Official records. The fire code official shall keep official 
records as required by Sections 104.6.1 through 104.6.4. Such 
official records shall be retained for not less than five years or 
for as long as the structure or activity to which such records 
relate remains in existence, unless otherwise provided by other 
regulations. 

104.6.1 Approvals. A record of approvals shall be main- 
tained by the fire code official and shall be available for pub- 
lic inspection during business hours in accordance with 
applicable laws. 

104.6.2 Inspections. The fire code official shall keep a 
record of each inspection made, including notices and 
orders issued, showing the findings and disposition of each. 

104.6.3 Fire records. The fire department shall keep a 
record of fires occurring within its jurisdiction and of facts 
concerning the same, including statistics as to the extent of 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



ADMINISTRATION 



such fires and the damage caused thereby, together with 
other information as required by the fire code official. 

104.6.4 Administrative. Application for modification, 
alternative methods or materials and the final decision of the 
fire code official shall be in writing and shall be officially 
recorded in the permanent records of the fire code official. 

104.7 Approved materials and equipment. All materials, 
equipment and devices approved by the fire code official shall 
be constructed and installed in accordance with such approval. 

104.7.1 Material and equipment reuse. Materials, equip- 
ment and devices shall not be reused or reinstalled unless 
such elements have been reconditioned, tested and placed in 
good and proper working condition and approved. 

104.7.2 Technical assistance. To determine the acceptabil- 
ity of technologies, processes, products, facilities, materials 
and uses attending the design, operation or use of a building 
or premises subject to inspection by the fire code official, 
the fire code official is authorized to require the owner or 
agent to provide, without charge to the jurisdiction, a techni- 
cal opinion and report. The opinion and report shall be pre- 
pared by a qualified engineer, specialist, laboratory or fire 
safety specialty organization acceptable to the fire code offi- 
cial and shall analyze the fire safety properties of the design, 
operation or use of the building or premises and the facilities 
and appurtenances situated thereon, to recommend neces- 
sary changes. The fire code official is authorized to require 
design submittals to be prepared by, and bear the stamp of, a 
registered design professional. 

104.8 Modifications. Whenever there are practical difficulties 
involved in carrying out the provisions of this code, the fire 
code official shall have the authority to grant modifications for 
individual cases, provided the fire code official shall first find 
that special individual reason makes the strict letter of this code 
impractical and the modification is in compliance with the 
intent and purpose of this code and that such modification does 
not lessen health, life and fire safety requirements. The details 
of action granting modifications shall be recorded and entered 
in the files of the department of fire prevention. 

104.9 Alternative materials and methods. The provisions of 
this code are not intended to prevent the installation of any 
material or to prohibit any method of construction not specifi- 
cally prescribed by this code, provided that any such alternative 
has been approved. The fire code official is authorized to 
approve an alternative material or method of construction 
where the fire code official finds that the proposed design is sat- 
isfactory and complies with the intent of the provisions of this 
code, and that the material, method or work offered is, for the 
purpose intended, at least the equivalent of that prescribed in 
this code in quality, strength, effectiveness, fire resistance, 
durability and safety. 

104.10 Fire investigations. The fire code official, the fire 
department or other responsible authority shall have the 
authority to investigate the cause, origin and circumstances of 
any fire, explosion or other hazardous condition. Information 
that could be related to trade secrets or processes shall not be 
made part of the public record except as directed by a court of 
law. 



104.10.1 Assistance from other agencies. Police and other 
enforcement agencies shall have authority to render neces- 
sary assistance in the investigation of fires when requested 
to do so. 

104.11 Authority at fires and other emergencies. The fire 
chief or officer of the fire department in charge at the scene of a 
fire or other emergency involving the protection of life or prop- 
erty or any part thereof, shall have the authority to direct such 
operation as necessary to extinguish or control any fire, per- 
form any rescue operation, investigate the existence of sus- 
pected or reported fires, gas leaks or other hazardous 
conditions or situations, or take any other action necessary in 
the reasonable performance of duty. In the exercise of such 
power, the fire chief is authorized to prohibit any person, vehi- 
cle, vessel or thing from approaching the scene and is autho- 
rized to remove, or cause to be removed or kept away from the 
scene, any vehicle, vessel or thing which could impede or inter- 
fere with the operations of the fire department and, in the judg- 
ment of the fire chief, any person not actually and usefully 
employed in the extinguishing of such fire or in the preserva- 
tion of property in the vicinity thereof. 

104.11.1 Barricades. The fire chief or officer of the fire 
department in charge at the scene of an emergency is autho- 
rized to place ropes, guards, barricades or other obstructions 
across any street, alley, place or private property in the vicin- 
ity of such operation so as to prevent accidents or interfer- 
ence with the lawful efforts of the fire department to manage 
and control the situation and to handle fire apparatus. 

104.11.2 Obstructing operations. No person shall obstruct 
the operations of the fire department in connection with 
extinguishment or control of any fire, or actions relative to 
other emergencies, or disobey any lawful command of the 
fire chief or officer of the fire department in charge of the 
emergency, or any part thereof, or any lawful order of a 
police officer assisting the fire department. 

104.11.3 Systems and devices. No person shall render a 
system or device inoperative during an emergency unless by 
direction of the fire chief or fire department official in 
charge of the incident. 



SECTION 105 
PERMITS 

105.1 General. Permits shall be in accordance with Sections 
105.1.1 through 105.7.13. 

105.1.1 Permits required. Permits required by this code 
shall be obtained from the fire code official. Permit fees, if 
any, shall be paid prior to issuance of the permit. Issued per- 
mits shall be kept on the premises designated therein at all 
times and shall be readily available for inspection by the fire 
code official. 

105.1.2 Types of permits. There shall be two types of per- 
mits as follows: 

1 . Operational permit. An operational permit allows the 
applicant to conduct an operation or a business for 
which a permit is required by Section 105 .6 for either: 

1 . 1 . A prescribed period. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE^ 



ADMINISTRATION 



1.2. Until renewed or revoked. 

2. Construction permit. A construction permit allows 
the applicant to install or modify systems and equip- 
ment for which apermit is required by Section 105.7. 

105.1.3 Permits for the same location. When more than 
one permit is required for the same location, the fire code 
official is authorized to consolidate such permits into a sin- 
gle permit provided that each provision is listed in the per- 
mit. 

105.2 Application. Application for a permit required by this 
code shall be made to the fire code official in such form and 
detail as prescribed by the fire code official. Applications for 
permits shall be accompanied by such plans as prescribed by 
the fire code official. 

105.2.1 Refusal to issue permit. If the application for aper- 
mit describes a use that does not conform to the require- 
ments of this code and other pertinent laws and ordinances, 
the fire code official shall not issue a permit, but shall return 
the application to the applicant with the refusal to issue such 
permit. Such refusal shall, when requested, be in writing 
and shall contain the reasons for refusal. 

105.2.2 Inspection authorized. Before a new operational 
permit is approved, the fire code official is authorized to 
inspect the receptacles, vehicles, buildings, devices, pre- 
mises, storage spaces or areas to be used to determine com- 
pliance with this code or any operational constraints 
required. 

105.2.3 Time limitation of application. An application for 
a permit for any proposed work or operation shall be 
deemed to have been abandoned six months after the date of 
filing, unless such application has been diligently prose- 
cuted or a permit shall have been issued; except that the fire 
code official is authorized to grant one or more extensions of 
time for additional periods not exceeding 90 days each if 
there is reasonable cause. 

105.2.4 Action on application. The fire code official shall 
examine or cause to be examined applications for permits 
and amendments thereto within a reasonable time after fil- 
ing. If the application or the construction documents do not 
conform to the requirements of pertinent laws, the fire code 
official shall reject such application in writing, stating the 
reasons therefor. If the fire code official is satisfied that the 
proposed work or operation conforms to the requirements 
of this code and laws and ordinances applicable thereto, the 
fire code official shall issue a permit therefore as soon as 
practicable. 

105.3 Conditions of a permit. A permit shall constitute per- 
mission to maintain, store or handle materials; or to conduct 
processes which produce conditions hazardous to life or prop- 
erty; or to install equipment utilized in connection with such 
activities; or to install or modify any fire protection system or 
equipment or any other construction, equipment installation or 
modification in accordance with the provisions of this code 
where a permit is required by Section 1 05 .6 or 1 05 .7 . Such per- 
mission shall not be construed as authority to violate, cancel or 
set aside any of the provisions of this code or other applicable 
regulations or laws of the jurisdiction. 



105.3.1 Expiration. An operational permit shall remain in 
effect until reissued, renewed, or revoked or for such a 
period of time as specified in the permit. Construction per- 
mits shall automatically become invalid unless the work 
authorized by such permit is commenced within 180 days 
after its issuance, or if the work authorized by such permit is 
suspended or abandoned for a period of 180 days after the 
time the work is commenced. Before such work recom- 
mences, a new permit shall be first obtained and the fee to 
recommence work, if any, shall be one-half the amount 
required for a new permit for such work, provided no 
changes have been made or will be made in the original con- 
struction documents for such work, and provided further 
that such suspension or abandonment has not exceeded one 
year. Permits are not transferable and any change in occu- 
pancy, operation, tenancy or ownership shall require that a 
new permit be issued. 

105.3.2 Extensions. A permittee holding an unexpired per- 
mit shall have the right to apply for an extension of the time 
within which the permittee will commence work under that 
permit when work is unable to be commenced within the 
time required by this section for good and satisfactory rea- 
sons. The fire code official is authorized to grant, in writing, 
one or more extensions of the time period of a permit for 
periods of not more than 90 days each. Such extensions shall 
be requested by the permit holder in writing and justifiable 
cause demonstrated. 

105.3.3 Occupancy prohibited before approval. The 

building or structure shall not be occupied prior to the fire 
code official issuing a permit that indicates that applicable 
provisions of this code have been met. 

105.3.4 Conditional permits. Where permits are required 
and upon the request of a permit applicant, the fire code offi- 
cial is authorized to issue a conditional permit to occupy the 
premises or portion thereof before the entire work or opera- 
tions on the premises is completed, provided that such por- 
tion or portions will be occupied safely prior to full 
completion or installation of equipment and operations 
without endangering life or public welfare. The fire code 
official shall notify the permit applicant in writing of any 
limitations or restrictions necessary to keep the permit area 
safe. The holder of a conditional permit shall proceed only 
to the point for which approval has been given, at the permit 
holder's own risk and without assurance that approval for 
the occupancy or the utilization of the entire premises, 
equipment or operations will be granted. 

105.3.5 Posting the permit. Issued permits shall be kept on 
the premises designated therein at all times and shall be 
readily available for inspection by the fire code official. 

105.3.6 Compliance with code. The issuance or granting of 
a permit shall not be construed to be a permit for, or an 
approval of, any violation of any of the provisions of this 
code or of any other ordinance of the jurisdiction. Permits 
presuming to give authority to violate or cancel the provi- 
sions of this code or other ordinances of the jurisdiction 
shall not be valid. The issuance of a permit based on con- 
struction documents and other data shall not prevent the fire 
code official from requiring the correction of errors in the 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE'' 



ADMINISTRATION 



construction documents and other data. Any addition to or 
alteration of approved construction documents shall be 
approved in advance by the fire code official, as evidenced 
by the issuance of a new or amended permit. 

105.3.7 Information on the permit. The fire code official 
shall issue all permits required by this code on an approved 
form furnished for that purpose. The permit shall contain a 
general description of the operation or occupancy and its 
location and any other information required by the fire code 
official. Issued permits shall bear the signature of the fire 
code official or other approved legal authorization. 

105.4 Construction documents. Construction documents 
shall be in accordance with this section. 

105.4.1 Submittals. Construction documents shall be sub- 
mitted in one or more sets and in such form and detail as 
required by the fire code official. The construction docu- 
ments shall be prepared by a registered design professional 
where required by the statutes of the jurisdiction in which 
the project is to be constructed. 

105.4.2 Information on construction documents. Con- 
struction documents shall be drawn to scale upon suitable 
material. Electronic media documents are allowed to be 
submitted when approved by the fire code official. Con- 
struction documents shall be of sufficient clarity to indicate 
the location, nature and extent of the work proposed and 
show in detail that it will conform to the provisions of this 
code and relevant laws, ordinances, rules and regulations as 
determined by the fire code official. 

105.4.3 Applicant responsibility. It shall be the responsi- 
bility of the applicant to ensure that the construction docu- 
ments include all of the fire protection requirements and the 
shop drawings are complete and in compliance with the 
applicable codes and standards. 

105.4.4 Approved documents. Construction documents 
approved by the fire code official are approved with the 
intent that such construction documents comply in all 
respects with this code. Review and approval by the fire 
code official shall not relieve the applicant of the responsi- 
bility of compliance with this code. 

105.4.5 Corrected documents. Where field conditions 
necessitate any substantial change from the approved con- 
struction documents, the fire code official shall have the 
authority to require the corrected construction documents to 
be submitted for approval. 

105.4.6 Retention of construction documents. One set of 

construction documents shall be retained by the fire code 
official until final approval of the work covered therein. One 
set of approved construction documents shall be returned to 
the applicant, and said set shall be kept on the site of the 
building or work at all times during which the work autho- 
rized thereby is in progress. 

105.5 Revocation. The fire code official is authorized to 
revoke a permit issued under the provisions of this code when it 
is found by inspection or otherwise that there has been a false 
statement or misrepresentation as to the material facts in the 



application or construction documents on which the permit or 
approval was based including, but not limited to, any one of the 
following: 

1 . The permit is used for a location or establishment other 
than that for which it was issued. 

2. The permit is used for a condition or activity other than 
that listed in the permit. 

3. Conditions and limitations set forth in the permit have 
been violated. 

4. There have been any false statements or misrepresenta- 
tions as to the material fact in the application for permit 
or plans submitted or a condition of the permit. 

5. The permit is used by a different person or firm than the 
name for which it was issued. 

6. The permittee failed, refused or neglected to comply 
with orders or notices duly served in accordance with the 
provisions of this code within the time provided therein. 

7. The permit was issued in error or in violation of an ordi- 
nance, regulation or this code. 

105.6 Required operational permits. The fire code official is 
authorized to issue operational permits for the operations set 
forth in Sections 105.6.1 through 105.6.46. 

105.6.1 Aerosol products. An operational permit is 
required to manufacture, store or handle an aggregate quan- 
tity of Level 2 or Level 3 aerosol products in excess of 500 
pounds (227 kg) net weight. 

105.6.2 Amusement buildings. An operational permit is 
required to operate a special amusement building. 

105.6.3 Aviation facilities. An operational permit is 
required to use a Group H or Group S occupancy for aircraft 
servicing or repair and aircraft fuel- servicing vehicles. 
Additional permits required by other sections of this code 
include, but are not limited to, hot work, hazardous materi- 
als and flammable or combustible finishes. 

105.6.4 Carnivals and fairs. An operational permit is 
required to conduct a carnival or fair. 

105.6.5 Cellulose nitrate film. An operational permit is 
required to store, handle or use cellulose nitrate film in a 
Group A occupancy. 

105.6.6 Combustible dust-producing operations. An 

operational permit is required to operate a grain elevator, 
flour starch mill, feed mill, or a plant pulverizing aluminum, 
coal, cocoa, magnesium, spices or sugar, or other operations 
producing combustible dusts as defined in Chapter 2. 

105.6.7 Combustible fibers. An operational permit is 
required for the storage and handling of combustible fibers 
in quantities greater than 100 cubic feet (2.8 m^). 

Exception: A permit is not required for agricultural stor- 
age. 

105.6.8 Compressed gases. An operational permit is 
required for the storage, use or handling at normal tempera- 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE'^ 



ADMINISTRATION 



ture and pressure (NTP) of compressed gases in excess of 
the amounts listed in Table 105.6.8. 

Exception: Vehicles equipped for and using compressed 
gas as a fuel for propelling the vehicle. 

TABLE 105.6.8 
PERMIT AMOUNTS FOR COMPRESSED GASES 



TYPE OF GAS 


AMOUNT 
(cubic feet at NTP) 


Corrosive 


200 


Flammable (except cryogenic fluids 
and liquefied petroleum gases) 


200 


Highly toxic 


Any Amount 


Inert and simple asphyxiant 


6,000 


Oxidizing (including oxygen) 


504 


Pyrophoric 


Any Amount 


Toxic 


Any Amount 



For SI: 1 cubic foot = 0.02832 ml 

105.6.9 Covered mall buildings. An operational permit is 
required for: 

1 . The placement of retail fixtures and displays, conces- 
sion equipment, displays of highly combustible 
goods and similar items in the mall. 

2. The display of liquid- or gas-fired equipment in the 
mall. 

3 . The use of open-flame or flame-producing equipment 
in the mall. 

105.6.10 Cryogenic fluids. An operational permit is 
required to produce, store, transport on site, use, handle or 
dispense cryogenic fluids in excess of the amounts listed in 
Table 105.6.10. 

Exception: Permits are not required for vehicles 
equipped for and using cryogenic fluids as a fuel for pro- 
pelling the vehicle or for refrigerating the lading. 



TABLE 105.6.10 
PERMIT AMOUNTS FOR CRYOGENIC FLUIDS 



TYPE OF CRYOGENIC FLUID 


INSIDE BUILDING 
(gallons) 


OUTSIDE BUILDING 
(gallons) 


Flammable 


More than 1 


60 


Inert 


60 


500 


Oxidizing (includes 
oxygen) 


10 


50 


Physical or health hazard 
not indicated above 


Any Amount 


Any Amount 



For SI: 1 gallon = 3.785 L. 

105.6.11 Cutting and welding. An operational permit is 
required to conduct cutting or welding operations within the 
jurisdiction. 

105.6.12 Dry cleaning plants. An operational permit is 
required to engage in the business of dry cleaning or to 
change to a more hazardous cleaning solvent used in exist- 
ing dry cleaning equipment. 



105.6.13 Exhibits and trade shows. An operational permit 
is required to operate exhibits and trade shows. 

105.6.14 Explosives. An operational permit is required for 
the manufacture, storage, handling, sale or use of any quan- 
tity of explosives, explosive materials, fireworks or pyro- 
technic special effects within the scope of Chapter 33. 

Exception: Storage in Group R-3 occupancies of 
smokeless propellant, black powder and small arms 
primers for personal use, not for resale and in accordance 
with Section 3306. 

105.6.15 Fire hydrants and valves. An operational permit 
is required to use or operate fire hydrants or valves intended 
for fire suppression purposes which are installed on water 
systems and accessible to a fire apparatus access road that is 
open to or generally used by the public. 

Exception: A permit is not required for authorized 
employees of the water company that supplies the system 
or the fire department to use or operate fire hydrants or 
valves. 

105.6.16 Flammable and combustible liquids. An opera- 
tional permit is required: 

1. To use or operate a pipeline for the transportation 
within facilities of flammable or combustible liquids. 
This requirement shall not apply to the off-site trans- 
portation in pipelines regulated by the Department of 
Transportation (DOTn) nor does it apply to piping 
systems. 

2. To store, handle or use Class I liquids in excess of 5 
gallons (19 L) in a building or in excess of 10 gallons 
(37.9 L) outside of a building, except that a permit is 
not required for the following: 

2.1. The storage or use of Class I liquids in the fuel 
tank of a motor vehicle, aircraft, motorboat, 
mobile power plant or mobile heating plant, 
unless such storage, in the opinion of the code 
official, would cause an unsafe condition. 

2.2. The storage or use of paints, oils, varnishes or 
similar flammable mixtures when such liq- 
uids are stored for maintenance, painting or 
similar purposes for a period of not more than 
30 days. 

3 . To store, handle or use Class II or Class IIIA liquids in 
excess of 25 gallons (95 L) in a building or in excess 
of 60 gallons (227 L) outside a building, except for 
fuel oil used in connection with oil-burning equip- 
ment. 

4. To remove Class I or Class II liquids from an under- 
ground storage tank used for fueling motor vehicles 
by any means other than the approved, stationary 
on-site pumps normally used for dispensing pur- 
poses. 

5. To operate tank vehicles, equipment, tanks, plants, 
terminals, wells, fuel-dispensing stations, refineries, 
distilleries and similar facilities where flammable and 
combustible liquids are produced, processed, trans- 
ported, stored, dispensed or used. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE"^ 



ADMINISTRATION 



6. To place temporarily out of service (for more than 90 
days) an underground, protected above-ground or 
above-ground flammable or combustible liquid tank. 

7. To change the type of contents stored in a flammable 
or combustible liquid tank to a material which poses a 
greater hazard than that for which the tank was 
designed and constructed. 

8. To manufacture, process, blend or refine flammable 
or combustible liquids. 

9. To engage in the dispensing of liquid fuels into the 
fuel tanks of motor vehicles at commercial, indus- 
trial, governmental or manufacturing establish- 
ments. 

10. To utilize a site for the dispensing of liquid fuels 
from tank vehicles into the fuel tanks of motor vehi- 
cles at commercial, industrial, governmental or 
manufacturing establishments. 

105.6.17 Floor finishing. An operational permit is required 
for floor finishing or surfacing operations exceeding 350 
square feet (33 m^) using Class I or Class II liquids. 

105.6.18 Fruit and crop ripening. An operational permit is 
required to operate a fruit-, or crop-ripening facility or con- 
duct a fruit-ripening process using ethylene gas. 

105.6.19 Fumigation and thermal insecticidal fogging. 

An operational permit is required to operate a business of 
fumigation or thermal insecticidal fogging and to maintain a 
room, vault or chamber in which a toxic or flammable fumi- 
gant is used. 

105.6.20 Hazardous materials. An operational permit is 
required to store, transport on site, dispense, use or handle 
hazardous materials in excess of the amounts listed in Table 
105.6.20. 

105.6.21 HPM facilities. An operational permit is required 
to store, handle or use hazardous production materials. 

105.6.22 High-piled storage. An operational permit is 
required to use a building or portion thereof as a high-piled 
storage area exceeding 500 square feet (46 m^). 

105.6.23 Hot worli operations. An operational permit is 
required for hot work including, but not limited to: 

1. Public exhibitions and demonstrations where hot 
work is conducted. 

2. Use of portable hot work equipment inside a struc- 
ture. 

Exception: Work that is conducted under a con- 
struction permit. 

3. Fixed-site hot work equipment such as welding 
booths. 

4. Hot work conducted within a hazardous fire area. 

5. Application of roof coverings with the use of an 
open-flame device. 

6. When approved, the fire code official shall issue a 
permit to carry out a Hot Work Program. This pro- 
gram allows approved personnel to regulate their 



TABLE 105.6.20 


PERMIT AMOUNTS FOR HAZARDOUS MATERIALS 


TYPE OF MATERIAL 


AMOUNT 


Combustible liquids 


See Section 105.6.16 


Corrosive materials 




Gases 


See Section 105.6.8 


Liquids 


55 gallons 


Solids 


1000 pounds 


Explosive materials 


See Section 105.6.14 


Flammable materials 




Gases 


See Section 105.6.8 


Liquids 


See Section 105.6.16 


Solids 


100 pounds 


Highly toxic materials 




Gases 


See Section 105.6.8 


Liquids 


Any Amount 


Solids 


Any Amount 


Oxidizing materials 




Gases 


See Section 105.6.8 


Liquids 




Class 4 


Any Amount 


Class 3 


1 gallon'' 


Class 2 


10 gallons 


Class 1 


55 gallons 


Solids 




Class 4 


Any Amount 


Class 3 


10 pounds 


Class 2 


100 pounds 


Class 1 


500 pounds 


Organic peroxides 




Liquids 




Class I 


Any Amount 


Class II 


Any Amount 


Class III 


I gallon 


Class IV 


2 gallons 


Class V 


No Permit Required 


Solids 




Class I 


Any Amount 


Class II 


Any Amount 


Class m 


10 pounds 


Class IV 


20 pounds 


Class V 


No Permit Required 


Pyrophoric materials 




Gases 


Any Amount 


Liquids 


Any Amount 


Solids 


Any Amount 


Toxic materials 




Gases 


See Section 105.6.8 


Liquids 


10 gallons 


Solids 


100 pounds 


Unstable (reactive) materials 




Liquids 




Class 4 


Any Amount 


Class 3 


Any Amount 


Class 2 


5 gallons 


Class 1 


10 gallons 


Solids 




Class 4 


Any Amount 


Class 3 


Any Amount 


Class 2 


50 pounds 


Class 1 


100 pounds 


Water-reactive Materials 




Liquids 




Class 3 


Any Amount 


Class 2 


5 gallons 


Class 1 


55 gallons 


Solids 




Class 3 


Any Amount 


Class 2 


50 pounds 


Class 1 


500 pounds 



For SI: 1 gallon = 3.785 L, 1 pound = 0.454 kg. 

a. 20 gallons when Table 2703.1.1(1) Note k applies and hazard identification signs in 
accordance with Section 2703.5 are provided for quantities of 20 gallons or less. 

b. 200 pounds when Table 2703. 1.1(1) Note k applies and hazard identification signs in 
accordance with Section 2703.5 are provided for quantities of 200 pounds or less. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



ADMINISTRATION 



facility's hot work operations. The approved person- 
nel shall be trained in the fire safety aspects denoted in 
this chapter and shall be responsible for issuing per- 
mits requiring compliance with the requirements 
found in Chapter 26. These permits shall be issued 
only to their employees or hot work operations under 
their supervision. 

105.6.24 Industrial ovens. An operational permit is 
required for operation of industrial ovens regulated by 
Chapter 21. 

105.6.25 Lumber yards and woodworking plants. An 

operational permit is required for the storage or processing 
of lumber exceeding 100,000 board feet (8,333 ft^) (236 

105.6.26 Liquid- or gas-fueled vehicles or equipment in 
assembly buildings. An operational permit is required to 
display, operate or demonstrate liquid- or gas-fueled vehi- 
cles or equipment in assembly buildings. 

105.6.27 LP-gas. An operational permit is required for: 

1. Storage and use of LP-gas. 

Exception: A permit is not required for individual 
containers with a 500-gallon (1893 L) water 
capacity or less serving occupancies in Group R-3. 

2. Operation of cargo tankers that transport LP-gas. 

105.6.28 Magnesium. An operational permit is required to 
melt, cast, heat treat or grind more than 10 pounds (4.54 kg) 
of magnesium. 

105.6.29 Miscellaneous combustible storage. An opera- 
tional permit is required to store in any building or upon any 
premises in excess of 2,500 cubic feet (71 m^) gross volume 
of combustible empty packing cases, boxes, barrels or simi- 
lar containers, rubber tires, rubber, cork or similar combus- 
tible material. 

105.6.30 Open burning. An operational permit is required 
for the kindling or maintaining of an open fire or a fire on 
any public street, alley, road, or other public or private 
ground. Instructions and stipulations of the permit shall be 
adhered to. 

Exception: Recreational fires. 

105.6.31 Open flames and torches. An operational permit 
is required to remove paint with a torch; or to use a torch or 
open-flame device in a hazardous fire area. 

105.6.32 Open flames and candles. An operational permit 
is required to use open flames or candles in connection with 
assembly areas, dining areas of restaurants or drinking 
establishments. 

105.6.33 Organic coatings. An operational permit is 
required for any organic-coating manufacturing operation 
producing more than 1 gallon (4 L) of an organic coating in 
one day. 

105.6.34 Places of assembly. An operational permit is 
required to operate a place of assembly. 



105.6.35 Private fire hydrants. An operational permit is 
required for the removal from service, use or operation of 
private fire hydrants. 

Exception: A permit is not required for private industry 
with trained maintenance personnel, private fire brigade 
or fire departments to maintain, test and use private 
hydrants. 

105.6.36 Pyrotechnic special effects material. An opera- 
tional permit is required for use and handling of pyrotechnic 
special effects material. 

105.6.37 Pyroxylin plastics. An operational permit is 
required for storage or handling of more than 25 pounds (11 
kg) of cellulose nitrate (pyroxylin) plastics and for the 
assembly or manufacture of articles involving pyroxylin 
plastics. 

105.6.38 Refrigeration equipment. An operational permit 
is required to operate a mechanical refrigeration unit or sys- 
tem regulated by Chapter 6. 

105.6.39 Repair garages and motor fuel-dispensing 
facilities. An operational permit is required for operation of 
repair garages and automotive, marine and fleet motor 
fuel-dispensing facilities. 

105.6.40 Rooftop heliports. An operational permit is 
required for the operation of a rooftop heliport. 

105.6.41 Spraying or dipping. An operational permit is 
required to conduct a spraying or dipping operation utiliz- 
ing flammable or combustible liquids or the application of 
combustible powders regulated by Chapter 15. 

105.6.42 Storage of scrap tires and tire byproducts. An 

operational permit is required to establish, conduct or main- 
tain storage of scrap tires and tire byproducts that exceeds 
2,500 cubic feet (7 1 m^) of total volume of scrap tires and for 
indoor storage of tires and tire byproducts. 

105.6.43 Temporary membrane structures, tents and 
canopies. An operational permit is required to operate an 
air-supported temporary membrane structure or a tent hav- 
ing an area in excess of 200 square feet (19 m^), or a canopy 
in excess of 400 square feet (37 m^). 

Exceptions: 

1. Tents used exclusively for recreational camping 
purposes. 

2. Fabric canopies open on all sides which comply 
with all of the following: 

2.1. Individual canopies having a maximum 
size of 700 square feet (65 m^). 

2.2. The aggregate area of multiple canopies 
placed side by side without a fire break 
clearance of not less than 12 feet (3658 
mm) shall not exceed 700 square feet (65 
m^) total. 

2.3. A minimum clearance of 12 feet (3658 
mm) to structures and other tents shall be 
provided. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE'' 



ADMINISTRATION 



105.6.44 Tire-rebuilding plants. An operational permit is 
required for the operation and maintenance of a tire-rebuild- 
ing plant. 

105.6.45 Waste handling. An operational permit is 
required for the operation of wrecking yards, junk yards and 
waste material-handling facilities. 

105.6.46 Wood products. An operational permit is 
required to store chips, hogged material, lumber or plywood 
in excess of 200 cubic feet (6 m^). 

105.7 Required construction permits. The fire code official 
is authorized to issue construction permits for work as set forth 
in Sections 105.7.1 through 105.7.13. 

105.7.1 Automatic fire-extinguishing systems. A con- 
struction permit is required for installation of or modifica- 
tion to an automatic fire-extinguishing system. 
Maintenance performed in accordance with this code is not 
considered a modification and does not require a permit. 

105.7.2 Battery systems. A permit is required to install sta- 
tionary storage battery systems having a liquid capacity of 
more than 50 gallons (189 L). 

105.7.3 Compressed gases. When the compressed gases in 
use or storage exceed the amounts listed in Table 105.6.8, a 
construction permit is required to install, repair damage to, 
abandon, remove, place temporarily out of service, or close 
or substantially modify a compressed gas system. 

Exceptions: 

1. Routine maintenance. 

2. For emergency repair work performed on an emer- 
gency basis, application for permit shall be made 
within two working days of commencement of 
work. 

The permit applicant shall apply for approval to close 
storage, use or handling facilities at least 30 days prior to the 
termination of the storage, use or handling of compressed or 
liquefied gases. Such application shall include any change 
or alteration of the facility closure plan filed pursuant to 
Section 2701.6.3. The 30-day period is not applicable when 
approved based on special circumstances requiring such 
waiver. 

105.7.4 Fire alarm and detection systems and related 
equipment. A construction permit is required for installa- 
tion of or modification to fire alarm and detection systems 
and related equipment. Maintenance performed in accor- 
dance with this code is not considered a modification and 
does not require a permit. 

105.7.5 Fire pumps and related equipment. A construc- 
tion permit is required for installation of or modification to 
fire pumps and related fuel tanks, jockey pumps, control- 
lers, and generators. Maintenance performed in accordance 
with this code is not considered a modification and does not 
require a permit. 

105.7.6 Flammable and combustible liquids. A construc- 
tion permit is required: 

1 . To repair or modify a pipeline for the transportation 
of flammable or combustible liquids. 



2. To install, construct or alter tank vehicles, equipment, 
tanks, plants, terminals, wells, fuel-dispensing sta- 
tions, refineries, distilleries and similar facilities 
where flammable and combustible liquids are pro- 
duced, processed, transported, stored, dispensed or 
used. 

3. To install, alter, remove, abandon or otherwise dis- 
pose of a flammable or combustible liquid tank. 

105.7.7 Hazardous materials. A construction permit is 
required to install, repair damage to, abandon, remove, 
place temporarily out of service, or close or substantially 
modify a storage facility or other area regulated by Chapter 
27 when the hazardous materials in use or storage exceed 
the amounts listed in Table 105.6.20. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Routine maintenance. 

2. For emergency repair work performed on an emer- 
gency basis, application for permit shall be made 
within two working days of commencement of 
work. 

105.7.8 Industrial ovens. A construction permit is required 
for installation of industrial ovens covered by Chapter 21. 

Exceptions: 

1. Routine maintenance. 

2. For repair work performed on an emergency basis, 
application for permit shall be made within two 
working days of commencement of work. 

105.7.9 LP-gas. A construction permit is required for 
installation of or modification to an LP-gas system. 

105.7.10 Private fire hydrants. A construction permit is 
required for the installation or modification of private fire 
hydrants. 

105.7.11 Spraying or dipping. A construction permit is 
required to install or modify a spray room, dip tank or booth. 

105.7.12 Standpipe systems. A construction permit is 
required for the installation, modification, or removal from 
service of a standpipe system. Maintenance performed in 
accordance with this code is not considered a modification 
and does not require a permit. 

105.7.13 Temporary membrane structures, tents and 
canopies. A construction permit is required to erect an 
air-supported temporary membrane structure or a tent hav- 
ing an area in excess of 200 square feet (19 m^), or a canopy 
in excess of 400 square feet (37 m^). 

Exceptions: 

1. Tents used exclusively for recreational camping 
purposes. 

2. Funeral tents and curtains or extensions attached 
thereto, when used for funeral services. 

3. Fabric canopies and awnings open on all sides 
which comply with all of the following: 

3.1. Individual canopies shall have a maximum 
size of 700 square feet (65 m^). 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE"^ 



ADMINISTRATION 



3.2. The aggregate area of multiple canopies 
placed side by side without a fire break 
clearance of not less than 12 feet (3658 
mm) shall not exceed 700 square feet (65 
m2) total. 

3.3. A minimum clearance of 12 feet (3658 
mm) to structures and other tents shall be 
maintained. 



SECTION 106 
INSPECTIONS 

106.1 Inspection authority. The fire code official is autho- 
rized to enter and examine any building, structure, marine ves- 
sel, vehicle or premises in accordance with Section 104.3 for 
the purpose of enforcing this code. 

106.2 Inspections. The fire code official is authorized to con- 
duct such inspections as are deemed necessary to determine the 
extent of compliance with the provisions of this code and to 
approve reports of inspection by approved agencies or individ- 
uals. All reports of such inspections shall be prepared and sub- 
mitted in writing for review and approval. Inspection reports 
shall be certified by a responsible officer of such approved 
agency or by the responsible individual. The fire code official is 
authorized to engage such expert opinion as deemed necessary 
to report upon unusual, detailed or complex technical issues 
subject to the approval of the governing body. 

106.3 Concealed work. Whenever any installation subject to 
inspection prior to use is covered or concealed without having 
first been inspected, the fire code official shall have the author- 
ity to require that such work be exposed for inspection. 

106.4 Approvals. Approval as the result of an inspection shall 
not be construed to be an approval of a violation of the provi- 
sions of this code or of other ordinances of the jurisdiction. 
Inspections presuming to give authority to violate or cancel 
provisions of this code or of other ordinances of the jurisdiction 
shall not be valid. 



SECTION 107 
MAINTENANCE 

107.1 Maintenance of safeguards. Whenever or wherever 
any device, equipment, system, condition, arrangement, level 
of protection, or any other feature is required for compliance 
with the provisions of this code, or otherwise installed, such 
device, equipment, system, condition, arrangement, level of 
protection, or other feature shall thereafter be continuously 
maintained in accordance with this code and applicable refer- 
enced standards. 

107.2 Testing and operation. Equipment requiring periodic 
testing or operation to ensure maintenance shall be tested or 
operated as specified in this code. 

107.2.1 Test and inspection records. Required test and 
inspection records shall be available to the fire code official 
at all times or such records as the fire code official desig- 
nates shall be filed with the fire code official. 



107.2.2 Reinspection and testing. Where any work or 
installation does not pass an initial test or inspection, the 
necessary corrections shall be made so as to achieve compli- 
ance with this code. The work or installation shall then be 
resubmitted to the fire code official for inspection and test- 
ing. 

107.3 Supervision. Maintenance and testing shall be under the 
supervision of a responsible person who shall ensure that such 
maintenance and testing are conducted at specified intervals in 
accordance with this code. 

107.4 Rendering equipment inoperable. Portable or fixed 
fire-extinguishing systems or devices and fire-warning sys- 
tems shall not be rendered inoperative or inaccessible except as 
necessary during emergencies, maintenance, repairs, alter- 
ations, drills or prescribed testing. 

107.5 Owner/occupant responsibility. Correction and abate- 
ment of violations of this code shall be the responsibility of the 
owner. If an occupant creates, or allows to be created, hazard- 
ous conditions in violation of this code, the occupant shall be 
held responsible for the abatement of such hazardous condi- 
tions. 

107.6 Overcrowding. Overcrowding or admittance of any per- 
son beyond the approved capacity of a building or a portion 
thereof shall not be allowed. The fire code official, upon find- 
ing any overcrowding conditions or obstructions in aisles, pas- 
sageways or other means of egress, or upon finding any 
condition which constitutes a life safety hazard, shall be autho- 
rized to cause the event to be stopped until such condition or 
obstruction is corrected. 



SECTION 108 
BOARD OF APPEALS 

108.1 Board of appeals established. In order to hear and 
decide appeals of orders, decisions or determinations made by 
the fire code official relative to the application and interpreta- 
tion of this code, there shall be and is hereby created a board of 
appeals. The board of appeals shall be appointed by the govern- 
ing body and shall hold office at its pleasure. The fire code offi- 
cial shall be an ex officio member of said board but shall have 
no vote on any matter before the board. The board shall adopt 
rules of procedure for conducting its business, and shall render 
all decisions and findings in writing to the appellant with a 
duplicate copy to the fire code official. 

108.2 Limitations on authority. An application for appeal 
shall be based on a claim that the intent of this code or the rules 
legally adopted hereunder have been incorrectly interpreted, 
the provisions of this code do not fully apply, or an equivalent 
method of protection or safety is proposed. The board shall 
have no authority to waive requirements of this code. 

108.3 Qualifications. The board of appeals shall consist of 
members who are qualified by experience and training to pass 
on matters pertaining to hazards of fire, explosions, hazardous 
conditions or fire protection systems and are not employees of 
the jurisdiction. 



10 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE^ 



ADMINISTRATION 



SECTION 109 
VIOLATIONS 

109.1 Unlawful acts. It shall be unlawful for a person, firm or 
corporation to erect, construct, alter, repair, remove, demolish 
or utilize a building, occupancy, premises or system regulated 
by this code, or cause same to be done, in conflict with or in vio- 
lation of any of the provisions of this code. 

109.2 Notice of violation. When the fire code official finds a 
building, premises, vehicle, storage facility or outdoor area that 
is in violation of this code, the fire code official is authorized to 
prepare a written notice of violation describing the conditions 
deemed unsafe and, when compliance is not immediate, speci- 
fying a time for reinspection. 

109.2.1 Service. A notice of violation issued pursuant to 
this code shall be served upon the owner, operator, occu- 
pant, or other person responsible for the condition or viola- 
tion, either by personal service, mail, or by delivering the 
same to, and leaving it with, some person of responsibility 
upon the premises. For unattended or abandoned locations, 
a copy of such notice of violation shall be posted on the pre- 
mises in a conspicuous place at or near the entrance to such 
premises and the notice of violation shall be mailed by certi- 
fied mail with return receipt requested or a certificate of 
mailing, to the last known address of the owner, occupant or 
both. 

109.2.2 Compliance with orders and notices. A notice of 
violation issued or served as provided by this code shall be 
complied with by the owner, operator, occupant or other 
person responsible for the condition or violation to which 
the notice of violation pertains. 

109.2.3 Prosecution of violations. If the notice of violation 
is not complied with promptly, the fire code official is autho- 
rized to request the legal counsel of the jurisdiction to insti- 
tute the appropriate legal proceedings at law or in equity to 
restrain, correct or abate such violation or to require 
removal or termination of the unlawful occupancy of the 
structure in violation of the provisions of this code or of the 
order or direction made pursuant hereto. 

109.2.4 Unauthorized tampering. Signs, tags or seals 
posted or affixed by the fire code official shall not be muti- 
lated, destroyed or tampered with or removed without 
authorization from the fire code official. 

109.3 Violation penalties. Persons who shall violate a provi- 
sion of this code or shall fail to comply with any of the require- 
ments thereof or who shall erect, install, alter, repair or do work 
in violation of the approved construction documents or direc- 
tive of the fire code official, or of a permit or certificate used 
under provisions of this code, shall be guilty of a [SPECIFY 
OFFENSE], punishable by a fine of not more than [amount] dol- 
lars or by imprisonment not exceeding [number of DAYS], or 
both such fine and imprisonment. Each day that a violation 
continues after due notice has been served shall be deemed a 
separate offense. 

109.3.1 Abatement of violation. In addition to the imposi- 
tion of the penalties herein described, the fire code official is 
authorized to institute appropriate action to prevent unlaw- 
ful construction or to restrain, correct or abate a violation; or 



to prevent illegal occupancy of a structure or premises; or to 
stop an illegal act, conduct of business or occupancy of a 
structure on or about any premises. 



SECTION 110 
UNSAFE BUILDINGS 

110.1 General. If during the inspection of a premises, a build- 
ing or structure or any building system, in whole or in part, con- 
stitutes a clear and inimical threat to human life, safety or 
health, the fire code official shall issue such notice or orders to 
remove or remedy the conditions as shall be deemed necessary 
in accordance with this section and shall refer the building to 
the building department for any repairs, alterations, remodel- 
ing, removing or demolition required. 

110.1.1 Unsafe conditions. Structures or existing equip- 
ment that are or hereafter become unsafe or deficient 
because of inadequate means of egress or which constitute a 
fire hazard, or are otherwise dangerous to human life or the 
public welfare, or which involve illegal or improper occu- 
pancy or inadequate maintenance, shall be deemed an 
unsafe condition. A vacant structure which is not secured 
against unauthorized entry as required by Section 311 shall 
be deemed unsafe. 

110.1.2 Structural hazards. When an apparent structural 
hazard is caused by the faulty installation, operation or mal- 
function of any of the items or devices governed by this 
code, the fire code official shall immediately notify the 
building code official in accordance with Section 110.1. 

110.2 Evacuation. The fire code official or the fire department 
official in charge of an incident shall be authorized to order the 
immediate evacuation of any occupied building deemed unsafe 
when such building has hazardous conditions that present 
imminent danger to building occupants. Persons so notified 
shall immediately leave the structure or premises and shall not 
enter or re-enter until authorized to do so by the fire code offi- 
cial or the fire department official in charge of the incident. 

110.3 Summary abatement. Where conditions exist that are 
deemed hazardous to life and property, the fire code official or 
fire department official in charge of the incident is authorized 
to abate summarily such hazardous conditions that are in viola- 
tion of this code. 

110.4 Abatement. The owner, operator, or occupant of a build- 
ing or premises deemed unsafe by the fire code official shall 
abate or cause to be abated or corrected such unsafe conditions 
either by repair, rehabilitation, demolition or other approved 
corrective action. 



SECTION 111 
STOP WORK ORDER 

111.1 Order. Whenever the fire code official finds any work 
regulated by this code being performed in a manner contrary to 
the provisions of this code or in a dangerous or unsafe manner, 
the fire code official is authorized to issue a stop work order. 

111.2 Issuance. A stop work order shall be in writing and shall 
be given to the owner of the property, or to the owner's agent, or 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



11 



ADMINISTRATION 



to the person doing the work. Upon issuance of a stop work 
order, the cited work shall immediately cease. The stop work 
order shall state the reason for the order, and the conditions 
under which the cited work is authorized to resume. 

111.3 Emergencies. Where an emergency exists, the fire code 
official shall not be required to give a written notice prior to 
stopping the work. 

111.4 Failure to comply. Any person who shall continue any 
work after having been served with a stop work order, except 
such work as that person is directed to perform to remove a vio- 
lation or unsafe condition, shall be liable to a fine of not less 
than [AMOUNT] dollars or more than [AMOUNT] dollars. 



12 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE^ 



CHAPTER 2 

DEFINITIONS 



SECTION 201 
GENERAL 

201.1 Scope. Unless otherwise expressly stated, the following 
words and terms shall, for the purposes of this code, have the 
meanings shown in this chapter. 

201.2 Interchangeability. Words used in the present tense 
include the future; words stated in the masculine gender 
include the feminine and neuter; the singular number includes 
the plural and the plural, the singular. 

201.3 Terms defined in other codes. Where terms are not 
defined in this code and are defined in the International Build- 
ing Code, International Fuel Gas Code, International 
Mechanical Code or International Plumbing Code, such terms 
shall have the meanings ascribed to them as in those codes. 

201.4 Terms not defined. Where terms are not defined 
through the methods authorized by this section, such terms 
shall have ordinarily accepted meanings such as the context 
implies. Webster's Third New International Dictionary of the 
English Language, Unabridged, shall be considered as provid- 
ing ordinarily accepted meanings. 



SECTION 202 
GENERAL DEFINITIONS 

[B] ACCESSIBLE MEANS OF EGRESS. See Section 
1002.1. 

AEROSOL. See Section 2802.1. 

Level 1 aerosol products. See Section 2802.1. 

Level 2 aerosol products. See Section 2802.1. 

Level 3 aerosol products. See Section 2802.1. 

AEROSOL CONTAINER. See Section 2802.1. 

AEROSOL WAREHOUSE. See Section 2802.1. 

AGENT. A person who shall have charge, care or control of 
any structure as owner, or agent of the owner, or as executor, 
executrix, administrator, administratrix, trustee or guardian of 
the estate of the owner. Any such person representing the actual 
owner shall be bound to comply with the provisions of this 
code to the same extent as if that person was the owner. 

AIR-SUPPORTED STRUCTURE. See Section 2402.1. 

AIRCRAFT OPERATION AREA (AOA). See Section 
1102.1. 

AIRPORT. See Section 1102.1. 

AISLE. See Section 1002. 

[B] AISLE ACCESSWAY. See Section 1002.1. 

ALARM NOTIFICATION APPLIANCE. See Section 
902.1. 

ALARM SIGNAL. See Section 902.1. 



ALARM VERIFICATION FEATURE. See Section 902.1. 

ALCOHOL-BASED HAND RUB. See Section 3402.1. 

[EB] ALTERATION. Any construction or renovation to an 
existing structure other than a repair or addition. 

[B] ALTERNATING TREAD DEVICE. See Section 1002. 1 . 

AMMONIUM NITRATE. See Section 3302.1. 

ANNUNCIATOR. See Section 902.1. 

APPROVED. Acceptable to the fire code official. 

[B] AREA OF REFUGE. See Section 1002.1. 

ARRAY. See Section 2302.1. 

ARRAY, CLOSED. See Section 2302.1. 

AUDIBLE ALARM NOTIFICATION APPLIANCE. See 

Section 902.1. 

AUTOMATIC. See Section 902.1. 

AUTOMATIC FIRE-EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM. See 

Section 902.1. 

AUTOMATIC SPRINKLER SYSTEM. See Section 902.1. 

AUTOMOTIVE MOTOR FUEL-DISPENSING FACIL- 
ITY. See Section 2202.1. 

AVERAGE AMBIENT SOUND LEVEL. See Section 902. 1 . 

BARRICADE. See Section 3302.1. 

Artificial barricade. See Section 3302.1. 

Natural barricade. See Section 3302.1. 
BARRICADED. See Section 3302.1. 

BATTERY SYSTEM, STATIONARY LEAD ACID. See 

Section 602.1. 

BATTERY TYPES. See Section 602.1. 

Nickel cadmium (Ni-Cd) battery. See Section 602.1. 

Nonrecombmant battery. See Section 602.1. 

Recombinant battery. See Section 602.1. 

Stationary storage battery. See Section 602.1. 

Valve-regulated lead-acid battery. See Section 602.1. 

Vented (Flooded) lead-acid battery. See Section 602.1. 
BIN BOX. See Section 2302.1. 
BLAST AREA. See Section 3302.1. 
BLAST SITE. See Section 3302.1. 
BLASTER. See Section 3302.1. 
BLASTING AGENT. See Section 3302.1. 
[B] BLEACHERS. See Section 1002.1. 
BOILING POINT. See Section 2702.1. 
BONFIRE. See Section 302.1. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE^ 



13 



DEFINITIONS 



BRITISH THERMAL UNIT (BTU). The heat necessary to 
raise the temperature of 1 pound (0.454 kg) of water by 1°F 
(0.5565°C). 

BULK OXYGEN SYSTEM. See Section 4002.1. 

BULK PLANT OR TERMINAL. See Section 3402.1. 

BULK TRANSFER. See Section 3402.1. 

BULLET RESISTANT. See Section 3302.1. 

CANOPY. See Section 2402.1. 

CARBON DIOXIDE EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM. See 

Section 902.1. 

CARTON. A cardboard or fiberboard box enclosing a product. 

CEILING LIMIT. See Section 2702.1. 

[EB] CHANGE OF OCCUPANCY. A change in the purpose 
or level of activity within a building that involves a change in 
application of the requirements of this code. 

CHEMICAL. See Section 2702.1. 

CHEMICAL NAME. See Section 2702.1. 

CLEAN AGENT. See Section 902.1. 

CLOSED CONTAINER. See Section 2702.1. 

CLOSED SYSTEM. The use of a sohd or Hquid hazardous 
material involving a closed vessel or system that remains 
closed during normal operations where vapors emitted by the 
product are not liberated outside of the vessel or system and the 
product is not exposed to the atmosphere during normal opera- 
tions; and all uses of compressed gases. Examples of closed 
systems for solids and liquids include product conveyed 
through a piping system into a closed vessel, system or piece of 
equipment. 

COLD DECK. See Section 1902.1. 

COMBUSTIBLE DUST. See Section 1302.1. 

COMBUSTIBLE FIBERS. See Section 2902.1. 

COMBUSTIBLE LIQUID. See Section 3402.1. 

Class IL See Section 3402.1. 

Class IIIA. See Section 3402.1. 

Class IIIB. See Section 3402.1. 

[M] COMMERCIAL COOKING APPLIANCES. See Sec- 
tion 602.1. 

COMMODITY. See Section 2302.1. 

[B] COMMON PATH OF EGRESS TRAVEL. See Section 
1002.1. 

COMPRESSED GAS. See Section 3002.1. 

COMPRESSED GAS CONTAINER. See Section 3002.1. 

COMPRESSED GAS SYSTEM. See Section 3002.1. 

CONSTANTLY ATTENDED LOCATION. See Section 
902.1. 

CONSTRUCTION DOCUMENTS. The written, graphic 
and pictorial documents prepared or assembled for describing 
the design, location and physical characteristics of the ele- 
ments of the project necessary for obtaining a permit. 



CONTAINER. See Section 2702.1. 

CONTAINMENT SYSTEM. See Section 3702.1. 

CONTAINMENT VESSEL. See Section 3702.1. 

CONTINUOUS GAS DETECTION SYSTEM. See Section 
1802.1. 

CONTROL AREA. See Section 2702.1. 

[B] CORRIDOR. See Section 1002.1. 

COTTON. See Section 2902.1. 

Baled cotton. See Section 2902.1. 

Baled cotton, densely packed. See Section 2902. 1 . 

Seed cotton. See Section 2902.1. 

CORROSIVE. See Section 3102.1. 

CRYOGENIC CONTAINER. See Section 3202.1. 

CRYOGENIC FLUID. See Section 3202.1. 

CRYOGENIC VESSEL. See Section 3202.1. 

CYLINDER. See Section 2702.1. 

DAY BOX. See Section 2702.1. 

DECORATIVE MATERIALS. All materials applied over 
the building interior finish for decorative, acoustical or other 
effect (such as curtains, draperies, fabrics, streamers and sur- 
face coverings) and all other materials utilized for decorative 
effect (such as batting, cloth, cotton, hay, stalks, straw, vines, 
leaves, trees, moss and similar items), including foam plastics 
and materials containing foam plastics. Decorative materials 
do not include floor coverings, ordinary window shades, inte- 
rior finish and materials 0.025 inch (0.64 mm) or less in thick- 
ness applied directly to and adhering tightly to a substrate. 

DEFLAGRATION. See Section 2702.1. 

DELUGE SYSTEM. See Section 902.1. 

DESIGN PRESSURE. See Section 2702.1. 

DETACHED BUILDING. See Section 2702.1. 

DETEARING. See Section 1502.1. 

DETECTOR, HEAT. See Section 902.1. 

DETONATING CORD. See Section 3302.1. 

DETONATION. See Section 3302.1. 

DETONATOR. See Section 3302.1. 

DIP TANK. See Section 1502.1. 

DISCHARGE SITE. See Section 3302.1. 

DISPENSING. See Section 2702.1. 

DISPENSING DEVICE, OVERHEAD TYPE. See Section 
2202.1. 

DISPLAY SITE. See Section 3302.1. 

[B] DOOR, BALANCED. See Section 1002.1. 

DRAFT CURTAIN. See Section 2302.1. 

DRY-CHEMICAL EXTINGUISHING AGENT. See Sec- 
tion 902.1. 

DRY CLEANING. See Section 1202.1. 



14 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE'' 



DEFINITIONS 



DRY CLEANING PLANT. See Section 1202.1. 

DRY CLEANING ROOM. See Sectionl202.1. 

DRY CLEANING SYSTEM. See Section 1202.1. 

[B] DWELLING UNIT. A single unit providing complete, 
independent living facilities for one or more persons, including 
permanent provisions for living, sleeping, eating, cooking and 
sanitation. 

EARLY SUPPRESSION FAST-RESPONSE (ESFR) 
SPRINKLER. See Section 2302.1. 

[B] EGRESS COURT. See Section 1002.1. 

ELECTROSTATIC FLUIDIZED BED. See Section 1502. 1 . 

EMERGENCY ALARM SYSTEM. See Section 902.1. 

EMERGENCY CONTROL STATION. See Section 1 802. 1 . 

[B] EMERGENCY ESCAPE AND RESCUE OPENING. 

See Section 1002.1. 

EMERGENCY EVACUATION DRILL. See Section 402. 1 . 

EMERGENCY SHUTOFF VALVE. A valve designed to 
shut off the flow of gases or liquids. 

EMERGENCY SHUTOFF VALVE, AUTOMATIC. A 

fail-safe automatic-closing valve designed to shut off the flow 
of gases or liquids initiated by a control system that is activated 
by automatic means. 

EMERGENCY SHUTOFF VALVE, MANUAL. A manu- 
ally operated valve designed to shut off the flow of gases or liq- 
uids. 

EMERGENCY VOICE/ALARM COMMUNICATIONS. 

See Section 902.1. 

EXCESS FLOW CONTROL. See Section 2702.1. 

EXCESS FLOW VALVE. See Section 3702.1. 

EXHAUSTED ENCLOSURE. See Section 2702.1. 

EXISTING. Buildings, facihties or conditions which are 
already in existence, constructed or officially authorized prior 
to the adoption of this code. 

[B] EXIT. See Section 1002.1. 

[B] EXIT ACCESS. See Section 1002.1. 

[B] EXIT DISCHARGE. See Section 1002.1. 

[B] EXIT DISCHARGE, LEVEL OE See Section 1002.1. 

[B] EXIT ENCLOSURE. See Section 1002.1. 

[B] EXIT, HORIZONTAL. See Section 1002.1. 

[B] EXIT PASSAGEWAY. See Section 1002.1. 

EXPANDED PLASTIC. See Section 2302.1. 

EXPLOSION. See Section 2702.1. 

EXPLOSIVE. See Section 3302.1. 

High Explosive. See Section 3302.1. 

Low Explosive. See Section 3302.1. 

Mass-detonating Explosives. See Section 3302.1. 

UN/DOTn Class 1 Explosives. See Section 3302.1. 



Division 1.1. See Section 3302.1. 
Division 1.2. See Section 3302.1. 
Division 1.3. See Section 3302.1. 
Division 1.4. See Section 3302. 1 . 
Division 1.5. See Section 3302. 1 . 
Division 1.6. See Section 3302.1. 
EXPLOSIVE MATERIAL. See Section 3302.1. 

EXTRA-HIGH-RACK COMBUSTIBLE STORAGE. See 

Section 2302.1. 

FABRICATION AREA. See Section 1802.1. 

FACILITY. A building or use in a fixed location including 
exterior storage areas for flammable and combustible sub- 
stances and hazardous materials, piers, wharves, tank farms 
and similar uses. This term includes recreational vehicles, 
mobile home and manufactured housing parks, sales and stor- 
age lots. 

FAIL-SAFE. A design condition incorporating a feature for 
automatically counteracting the effect of an anticipated possi- 
ble source of failure; also, a design condition eliminating or 
mitigating a hazardous condition by compensating automati- 
cally for a failure or malfunction. 

FALLOUT AREA. See Section 3302.1. 

FALSE ALARM. The willful and knowing initiation or trans- 
mission of a signal, message or other notification of an event of 
fire when no such danger exists. 

FINES. See Section 1902.1. 

FIRE ALARM. The giving, signaling or transmission to any 
public fire station, or company or to any officer or employee 
thereof, whether by telephone, spoken word or otherwise, of 
information to the effect that there is a fire at or near the place 
indicated by the person giving, signaling, or transmitting such 
information. 

FIRE ALARM BOX, MANUAL. See Section 902.1. 

FIRE ALARM CONTROL UNIT. See Section 902.1. 

FIRE ALARM SIGNAL. See Section 902.1. 

FIRE ALARM SYSTEM. See Section 902.1. 

FIRE APPARATUS ACCESS ROAD. See Section 502.1. 

FIRE AREA. See Section 902.1. 

FIRE CHIEF. The chief officer of the fire department serving 
the jurisdiction, or a duly authorized representative. 

FIRE CODE OFFICIAL. The fire chief or other designated 
authority charged with the administration and enforcement of 
the code, or a duly authorized representative. 

FIRE COMMAND CENTER. See Section 502.1. 

FIRE DEPARTMENT MASTER KEY. See Section 502.1. 

FIRE DETECTOR, AUTOMATIC. See Section 902.1. 

[B] FIRE DOOR ASSEMBLY. Any combination of a fire 
door, frame, hardware, and other accessories that together pro- 
vide a specific degree of fire protection to the opening. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE^ 



15 



DEFINITIONS 



[B] FIRE EXIT HARDWARE. See Section 1002.1. 

FIRE LANE. See Section 502.1. 

[B] FIRE PARTITION. A vertical assembly of materials 
designed to restrict the spread of fire in which openings are pro- 
tected. 

FIRE POINT. See Section 3402. 1 . 

FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM. See Section 902.1. 

FIRE SAFETY FUNCTIONS. See Section 902.1. 

FIRE WATCH. A temporary measure intended to ensure con- 
tinuous and systematic surveillance of a building or portion 
thereof by one or more qualified individuals for the purposes of 
identifying and controlling fire hazards, detecting early signs 
of unwanted fire, raising an alarm of fire and notifying the fire 
department. 

FIREWORKS. See Section 3302.1. 

Fireworks, 1.4G. See Section 3302.1. 

Fireworks, 1.3G. See Section 3302.1. 
FIREWORKS DISPLAY. See Section 3302.1. 
FLAMMABLE CRYOGENIC FLUID. See Section 3202. 1 . 
FLAMMABLE FINISHES. See Section 1502.1. 
FLAMMABLE GAS. See Section 3502.1. 
FLAMMABLE LIQUEFIED GAS. See Section 3502.1. 
FLAMMABLE LIQUID. See Section 3402.1. 

Class lA. See Section 3402.1. 

Class IB. See Section 3402.1. 

Class IC. See Section 3402.1. 

FLAMMABLE MATERIAL. A material capable of being 
readily ignited from common sources of heat or at a tempera- 
ture of 600°F (316°C) or less. 

FLAMMABLE SOLID. See Section 3602.1. 

FLAMMABLE VAPOR AREA. See Section 1502.1. 

FLAMMABLE VAPORS OR FUMES. See Section 2702. 1 . 

FLASH POINT. See Section 3402.1. 

FLEET VEHICLE MOTOR FUEL-DISPENSING 
FACILITY. See Section 2202.1. 

[B] FLOOR AREA, GROSS. See Section 1002.1. 

[B] FLOOR AREA, NET. See Section 1002.1. 

FLUIDIZED BED. See Section 1502.1. 

FOAM-EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM. See Section 902.1. 

[B] FOLDING AND TELESCOPIC SEATING. See Sec- 
tion 1002.1. 

FUEL LIMIT SWITCH. See Section 3402.1. 

FUMIGANT. See Section 1702.1. 

FUMIGATION. See Section 1702.1. 

FURNACE CLASS A. See Section 2102.1. 

FURNACE CLASS B. See Section 2102.1. 



FURNACE CLASS C. See Section 2102.1. 

FURNACE CLASS D. See Section 2102.1. 

GAS CABINET. See Section 2702.1. 

GAS ROOM. See Section 2702.1. 

[B] GRANDSTAND. See Section 1002.1. 

[B] GUARD. See Section 1002.1. 

HALOGENATED EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM. See Sec- 
tion 902.1. 

HANDLING. See Section 2702.1. 

[B] HANDRAIL. See Section 1002.1. 

HAZARDOUS MATERIAL. See Section 2702.1. 

HAZARDOUS PRODUCTION MATERIAL (HPM). See 

Section 1802.1. 

HEALTH HAZARD. See Section 2702.1. 

HELIPORT. See Section 1102.1. 

HELISTOR See Section 1102.1. 

HI-BOY. See Section 302.1. 

HIGH-PILED COMBUSTIBLE STORAGE. See Section 
2302.1. 

HIGH-PILED STORAGE AREA. See Section 2302.1. 

HIGHLY TOXIC. See Section 3702.1. 

HIGHLY VOLATILE LIQUID. A liquefied compressed gas 
with a boiling point of less than 68°F (20°C). 

HIGHWAY. See Section 3302.1. 

HOGGED MATERIALS. See Section 1902.1. 

[M] HOOD. See Section 602.1. 

Type L See Section 602.1. 

HOT WORK. See Section 2602.1. 

HOT WORK AREA. See Section 2602.1. 

HOT WORK EQUIPMENT. See Section 2602.1. 

HOT WORK PERMITS. See Section 2602.1. 

HOT WORK PROGRAM. See Section 2602.1. 

HPM FLAMMABLE LIQUID. See Section 1802.1. 

HPM ROOM. See Section 1802.1. 

IMMEDIATELY DANGEROUS TO LIFE AND HEALTH 
(IDLH). See Section 2702.1. 

IMPAIRMENT COORDINATOR. See Section 902.1. 

INCOMPATIBLE MATERIALS. See Section 2702.1. 

INHABITED BUILDING. See Section 3302.1. 

INITLVTING DEVICE. See Section 902.1. 

IRRITANT. A chemical which is not corrosive, but which 
causes a reversible inflammatory effect on living tissue by 
chemical action at the site of contact. A chemical is a skin irri- 
tant if, when tested on the intact skin of albino rabbits by the 
methods of CPSC 16CFR Part 1500.41 for an exposure of four 
or more hours or by other appropriate techniques, it results in 



16 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE'' 



DEFINITIONS 



an empirical score of 5 or more. A chemical is classified as an 
eye irritant if so determined under the procedure listed in CPSC 
16CFR Part 1500.42 or other approved techniques. 

KEY BOX. See Section 502.1. 

LABELED. Equipment or material to which has been attached 
a label, symbol or other identifying mark of a nationally recog- 
nized testing laboratory, inspection agency or other organiza- 
tion concerned with product evaluation that maintains periodic 
inspection of production of labeled equipment or materials, 
and by whose labeling is indicated compliance with nationally 
recognized standards or tests to determine suitable usage in a 
specified manner. 

LIMITED SPRAYING SPACE. See Section 1502.1. 

LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS (LNG). See Section 2202.1. 

LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GAS (LP-gas). See Section 
3802.1. 

LIQUID. See Section 2702.1. 

LIQUID STORAGE ROOM. See Section 3402.1. 

I LIQUID STORAGE WAREHOUSE. See Section 3402.1. 

LISTED. Equipment or materials included on a list published 
by an approved testing laboratory, inspection agency or other 
organization concerned with current product evaluation that 
maintains periodic inspection of production of listed equip- 
ment or materials, and whose listing states that equipment or 
materials comply with approved nationally recognized stan- 
dards and have been tested or evaluated and found suitable for 
use in a specified manner. 

LONGITUDINAL FLUE SPACE. See Section 2302.1. 

LOW-PRESSURE TANK. See Section 3202.1. 

LOWER EXPLOSIVE LIMIT (LEL). See Section 2702.1. 

LOWER FLAMMABLE LIMIT (LFL). See Section 
2702.1. 

MAGAZINE. See Section 3302.1. 

Indoor. See Section 3302.1. 

lype 1. See Section 3302. 1 . 

Type 2. See Section 3302.1. 

Type 3. See Section 3302.1. 

Type 4. See Section 3302.1. 

Type 5. See Section 3302.1. 
MAGNESIUM. See Section 3602.1. 
MANUAL FIRE ALARM BOX. See Section 902.1. 
MANUAL STOCKING METHODS. See Section 2302.1. 

MARINE MOTOR FUEL-DISPENSING FACILITY. See 

Section 2202.1. 

MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET (MSDS). See Section 
2702.1. 

MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITY PER CON- 
TROL AREA. See Section 2702.1. 

[B] MEANS OF EGRESS. See Section 1002.1. 



MECHANICAL STOCKING METHODS. See Section 
2302.1. 

MEMBRANE STRUCTURE. See Section 2402.1. 

[B] MERCHANDISE PAD. See Section 1002. 

MOBILE FUELING. See Section 3402.1. 

MORTAR. See Section 3302.1. 

MULTIPLE-STATION ALARM DEVICE. See Section 
902.1. 

MULTIPLE-STATION SMOKE ALARM. See Section 
902.1. 

NESTING. See Section 3002.1. 

NET EXPLOSIVE WEIGHT (net weight). See Section 
3302.1. 

NORMAL TEMPERATURE AND PRESSURE (NTP). 

See Section 2702.1. 

[B] NOSING. See Section 1002.1. 

NUISANCE ALARM. See Section 902.1. 

OCCUPANCY CLASSIFICATION. For the purposes of this 
code, certain occupancies are defined as follows: 

[B] Assembly Group A. Assembly Group A occupancy 
includes, among others, the use of a building or structure, or 
a portion thereof, for the gathering together of persons for 
purposes such as civic, social or religious functions; recre- 
ation, food or drink consumption; or awaiting transporta- 
tion. 

Exceptions: 

1. A building used for assembly purposes with an 
occupant load of less than 50 persons shall be clas- 
sified as a Group B occupancy. 

2. A room or space used for assembly purposes with 
an occupant load of less than 50 persons and acces- 
sory to another occupancy shall be classified as a 
Group B occupancy or classified as part of that 
occupancy. 

3 . A room or space used for assembly purposes that is 
less than 750 square feet (70 m^) in area and is 
accessory to another occupancy shall be classified 
as a Group B occupancy or classified as part of that 
occupancy. 

Assembly occupancies shall include the following: 

A-1 Assembly uses, usually with fixed seating, intended 
for the production and viewing of performing arts or 
motion pictures including but not limited to: 

Motion picture theaters 

Symphony and concert halls 

Televison and radio studios admitting an audience 

Theaters 

A-2 Assembly uses intended for food and/or drink con- 
sumption including, but not limited to: 

Banquet halls 
Night clubs 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE'^ 



17 



DEFINITIONS 



Restaurants 
Taverns and bars 

A-3 Assembly uses intended for worship, recreation or 
amusement and other assembly uses not classified else- 
where in Group A, including, but not limited to: 

Amusement arcades 

Art galleries 

Bowhng alleys 

Community halls 

Courtrooms 

Dance halls (not including food or drink 

consumption) 

Exhibition halls 

Funeral parlors 

Gynmasiums (without spectator seating) 

Indoor swimming pools (without spectator seating) 

Indoor tennis courts (without spectator seating) 

Lecture halls 

Libraries 

Museums 

Places of religious worship 

Pool and billiard parlors 

Waiting areas in transportation terminals 

A-4 Assembly uses intended for viewing of indoor sport- 
ing events and activities with spectator seating including, 
but not limited to: 

Arenas 
Skating rinks 
Swimming pools 
Tennis courts 

A-5 Assembly uses intended for participation in or view- 
ing outdoor activities including, but not limited to: 

Amusement park structures 

Bleachers 

Grandstands 

Stadiums 

[B] Business Group B. Business Group B occupancy 
includes, among others, the use of a building or structure, or 
a portion thereof, for office, professional or service-type 
transactions, including storage of records and accounts. 
Business occupancies shall include, but not be limited to, 
the following: 

Airport traffic control towers 

Animal hospitals, kennels and pounds 

Banks 

Barber and beauty shops 

Car wash 

Civic administration 

Clinic — outpatient 

Dry cleaning and laundries; pick-up and delivery sta- 
tions and self-service 

Educational occupancies for students above the 12th 
grade 

Electronic data processing 

Laboratories; testing and research 

Motor vehicle showrooms 

Post offices 



Print shops 

Professional services (architects, attorneys, dentists, 

physicians, engineers, etc.) 
Radio and television stations 
Telephone exchanges 
Training and skill development not within a school or 

academic program 

[B] Educational Group E. Educational Group E occu- 
pancy includes, among others, the use of a building or struc- 
ture, or a portion thereof, by six or more persons at any one 
time for educational purposes through the 12th grade. Reli- 
gious educational rooms and religious auditoriums, which 
are accessory to places of religious worship in accordance 
with Section 508.3.1 of the International Building Code and 
have occupant loads of less than 100, shall be classified as 
Group A-3 occupancies. 

Day care. The use of a building or structure, or portion 
thereof, for educational, supervision or personal care 
services for more than five children older than 2V2 years 
of age shall be classified as an E occupancy. 

[B] Factory Industrial Group F. Factory Industrial Group 
F occupancy includes, among others, the use of a building or 
structure, or a portion thereof, for assembling, disassem- 
bling, fabricating, finishing, manufacturing, packaging, 
repair or processing operations that are not classified as a 
Group H high-hazard or Group S storage occupancy. 

Factory Industrial F-1 Moderate-hazard Occupancy. 

Factory Industrial uses which are not classified as Fac- 
tory Industrial Group F-2 shall be classified as F-1 Mod- 
erate Hazard and shall include, but not be limited to, the 
following: 

Aircraft 

Appliances 

Athletic equipment 

Automobiles and other motor vehicles 

Bakeries 

Beverages; over 12 percent in alcohol content 

Bicycles 

Boats 

Brooms or brushes 

Business machines 

Cameras and photo equipment 

Canvas and similar fabric 

Carpet and rugs (includes cleaning) 

Disinfectants 

Dry cleaning and dyeing 

Electric generation plants 

Electronics 

Engines (including rebuilding) 

Food processing 

Furniture 

Hemp products 

Jute products 

Laundries 

Leather products 

Machinery 

Metals 

Millwork (sash and doors) 



18 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE'' 



DEFINITIONS 



Motion picture and television filming (without 

spectators) 
Musical instruments 
Optical goods 
Paper mills or products 
Photographic film 
Plastic products 
Printing or publishing 
Recreational vehicles 
Refuse incineration 
Shoes 

Soaps and detergents 
Textiles 
Tobacco 
Trailers 
Upholstering 
Wood; distillation 
Woodworking (cabinet) 

[B] Factory Industrial F-2 Low-hazard Occu- 
pancy. Factory industrial uses involving the fabrica- 
tion or manufacturing of noncombustible materials 
which, during finishing, packaging or processing do 
not involve a significant fire hazard, shall be classified 
as Group F-2 occupancies and shall include, but not 
be limited to, the following: 

Beverages; up to and including 12 percent alcohol 

content 
Brick and masonry 
Ceramic products 
Foundries 
Glass products 
Gypsum 
Ice 
Metal products (fabrication and assembly) 

High-hazard Group H. High-hazard Group H occupancy 
includes, among others, the use of a building or structure, or 
a portion thereof, that involves the manufacturing, process- 
ing, generation or storage of materials that constitute a 
physical or health hazard in quantities in excess of quanti- 
ties allowed in control areas constructed and located as 
required in Section 2703.8.3. Hazardous uses are classified 
in Groups H-1, H-2, H-3, H-4 and H-5 and shall be in accor- 
dance with this code and the requirements of Section 415 of 
the International Building Code. 

Exceptions: The following shall not be classified in 
Group H, but shall be classified in the occupancy that 
they most nearly resemble: 

1. Buildings and structures that contain not more 
than the maximum allowable quantities per con- 
trol area of hazardous materials as shown in 
Tables 2703.1.1(1) and 2703.1.1(2), provided 
that such buildings are maintained in accordance 
with this code. 

2. Buildings utilizing control areas in accordance 
with Section 2703.8.3 that contain not more than 
the maximum allowable quantities per control 



area of hazardous materials as shown in Tables 
2703.1.1(1) and 2703.1.1(2). 

3. Buildings and structures occupied for the appli- 
cation of flanmiable finishes, provided that such 
buildings or areas conform to the requirements of 
Section 416 of the International Building Code 
and Chapter 15 of this code. 

4. Wholesale and retail sales and storage of flam- 
mable and combustible liquids in mercantile 
occupancies conforming to Chapter 34. 

5. Closed piping systems containing flammable or 
combustible liquids or gases utilized for the oper- 
ation of machinery or equipment. 

6. Cleaning establishments that utilize combustible 
liquid solvents having a flash point of 140°F 
(60°C) or higher in closed systems employing 
equipment listed by an approved testing agency, 
provided that this occupancy is separated from 
all other areas of the building by 1 -hour fire barri- 
ers constructed in accordance with Section 706 
of the International Building Code or 1 -hour hor- 
izontal assemblies constructed in accordance 
with Section 711 of the International Building 
Code, or both. 

7. Cleaning establishments that utilize a liquid sol- 
vent having a flash point at or above 200°F 
(93°C). 

8. Liquor stores and distributors without bulk stor- 
age. 

9. Refrigeration systems. 

1 0. The storage or utilization of materials for agricul- 
tural purposes on the premises. 

11. Stationary batteries utilized for facility emer- 
gency power, uninterrupted power supply or 
telecommunication facilities, provided that the 
batteries are provided with safety venting caps 
and ventilation is provided in accordance with 
the International Mechanical Code. 

12. Corrosives shall not include personal or house- 
hold products in their original packaging used in 
retail display or commonly used building materi- 
als. 

13. Buildings and structures occupied for aerosol 
storage shall be classified as Group S- 1 , provided 
that such buildings conform to the requirements 
of Chapter 28. 

14. Display and storage of nonflammable solid and 
nonflanraiable or noncombustible liquid hazard- 
ous materials in quantities not exceeding the 
maximum allowable quantity per control area in 
Group M or S occupancies complying with Sec- 
tion 2703.8.3.5. 

15. The storage of black powder, smokeless propel- 
lant and small arms primers in Groups M and R-3 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



19 



DERNITIONS 



and special industrial explosive devices in 
Groups B, F, M and S, provided such storage 
conforms to the quantity limits and requirements 
of this code. 

High-hazard Group H-1. Buildings and structures con- 
taining materials that pose a detonation hazard, shall be 
classified as Group H-1 . Such materials shall include, but 
not be limited to, the following: 

Explosives: 
Division 1.1 
Division 1.2 
Division 1.3 

Exception: Materials that are used and main- 
tained in a form where either confinement or 
configuration will not elevate the hazard from a 
mass fire to mass explosion hazard shall be 
allowed in Group H-2 occupancies. 

Division 1.4 

Exception: Articles, including articles pack- 
aged for shipment, that are not regulated as an 
explosive under Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco 
and Firearms regulations, or unpackaged arti- 
cles used in process operations that do not prop- 
agate a detonation or deflagration between 
articles shall be allowed in Group H-3 occupan- 
cies. 

Division 1.5 
Division 1.6 

Organic peroxides, unclassified detonable 

Oxidizers, Class 4 

Unstable (reactive) materials. Class 3 detonable, and 

Class 4 
Detonable pyrophoric materials 

High-hazard Group H-2. Buildings and structures con- 
taining materials that pose a deflagration hazard or a haz- 
ard from accelerated burning, shall be classified as 
Group H-2. Such materials shall include, but not be lim- 
ited to, the following: 

Class I, or II or IIIA flammable or combustible liq- 
uids which are used or stored in normally open con- 
tainers or systems, or in closed containers or 
systems pressurized at more than 15 pounds per 
square inch (103.4 kPa) gauge 

Combustible dusts 

Cryogenic fluids, flammable 

Flammable gases 

Organic peroxides. Class I 

Oxidizers, Class 3, that are used or stored in normally 
open containers or systems, or in closed containers 
or systems pressurized at more than 15 pounds per 
square inch (103.4 kPa) gauge 

Pyrophoric liquids, solids and gases, nondetonable 

Unstable (reactive) materials. Class 3, nondetonable 

Water-reactive materials. Class 3 

High-hazard Group H-3. Buildings and structures con- 
taining materials that readily support combustion or that 



pose a physical hazard shall be classified as Group H-3. 
Such materials shall include, but not be limited to, the 
following: 

Class I, II or IIIA flammable or combustible liquids 
that are used or stored in normally closed 
containers or systems pressurized at 15 pounds per 
square inch gauge (103.4 kPa) or less 

Combustible fibers, other than densely packed baled 
cotton 

Consumer fireworks, 1.4G (Class C, Common) 

Cryogenic fluids, oxidizing 

Flammable solids 

Organic peroxides. Class II and III 

Oxidizers, Class 2 

Oxidizers, Class 3, that are used or stored in normally 
closed containers or systems pressurized at 15 
pounds per square inch gauge (103 kPa) or less. 

Oxidizing gases 

Unstable (reactive) materials. Class 2 

Water-reactive materials. Class 2 

High-hazard Group H-4. Buildings and structures 
which contain materials that are health hazards shall be 
classified as Group H-4. Such materials shall include, but 
not be limited to, the following: 

Corrosives 

Highly toxic materials 

Toxic materials 

High-hazard Group H-5. Semiconductor fabrication 
facilities and comparable research and development 
areas in which hazardous production materials (HPM) 
are used and the aggregate quantity of materials is in 
excess of those listed in Tables 2703.1.1(1) and 
2703 . 1 . 1 (2) shall be classified as Group H-5 . Such facih- 
ties and areas shall be designed and constructed in accor- 
dance with Section 415.8 of the International Building 
Code. 

[B] Institutional Group I. Institutional Group I occupancy 
includes, among others, the use of a building or structure, or 
a portion thereof, in which people, cared for or living in a 
supervised environment and having physical limitations 
because of health or age, are harbored for medical treatment 
or other care or treatment, or in which people are detained 
for penal or correctional purposes or in which the liberty of 
the occupants is restricted. Institutional occupancies shall 
be classified as Group I-l, 1-2, 1-3 or 1-4. 

Group I-l. This occupancy shall include buildings, 
structures or parts thereof housing more than 16 persons, 
on a 24-hour basis, who because of age, mental disability 
or other reasons, live in a supervised residential environ- 
ment that provides personal care services. The occupants 
are capable of responding to an emergency situation 
without physical assistance from staff. This group shall 
include, but not be limited to, the following: 

Alcohol and drug centers 
Assisted living facilities 
Congregate care facilities 
Convalescent facilities 



20 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE'^ 



DEFINITIONS 



Group homes 

Half-way houses 

Residential board and care facilities 

Social rehabilitation facilities 

A facility such as the above with five or fewer persons 
shall be classified as Group R-3 or shall comply with the 
International Residential Code in accordance with Sec- 
tion 101 .2 of the International Building Code. A facility 
such as above, housing at least six and not more than 16 
persons, shall be classified as Group R-4. 

[B] Group 1-2. This occupancy shall include buildings 
and structures used for medical, surgical, psychiatric, 
nursing or custodial care on a 24-hour basis of more than 
five persons who are not capable of self-preservation. 
This group shall include, but not be limited to, the fol- 
lowing: 

Hospitals 

Nursing homes (both intermediate care facilities and 

skilled nursing facilities) 

Mental hospitals 

Detoxification facilities 

A facility such as the above with five or fewer persons 
shall be classified as Group R-3 or shall comply with the 
International Residential Code in accordance with Sec- 
tion 101.2 of the International Building Code. 

Group 1-3. This occupancy shall include buildings and 
structures which are inhabited by more than five persons 
who are under restraint or security. An 1-3 facility is occu- 
pied by persons who are generally incapable of self-pres- 
ervation due to security measures not under the occupants ' 
control. This group shall include, but not be limited to, the 
following: 

Correctional centers 

Detention centers 

Jails 

Prerelease centers 

Prisons 

Reformatories 

Buildings of Group 1-3 shall be classified as one of the 
occupancy conditions indicated below: 

Condition 1. This occupancy condition shall include 
buildings in which free movement is allowed from 
sleeping areas and other spaces where access or occu- 
pancy is permitted, to the exterior via means of egress 
without restraint. A Condition 1 facility is permitted 
to be constructed as Group R. 

Condition 2. This occupancy condition shall include 
buildings in which free movement is allowed from 
sleeping areas and any other occupied smoke com- 
partment to one or more other smoke compartments. 
Egress to the exterior is impeded by locked exits. 

Condition 3. This occupancy condition shall include 
buildings in which free movement is allowed within 
individual smoke compartments, such as within a 
residential unit comprised of individual sleeping units 
and group activity spaces, where egress is impeded by 



remote-controlled release of means of egress from 
such smoke compartment to another smoke compart- 
ment. 

Condition 4. This occupancy condition shall include 
buildings in which free movement is restricted from 
an occupied space. Remote-controlled release is 
provided to permit movement from sleeping units, 
activity spaces and other occupied areas within the 
smoke compartment to other smoke compartments. 

Condition 5. This occupancy condition shall include 
buildings in which free movement is restricted from 
an occupied space. Staff-controlled manual release is 
provided to permit movement from sleeping units, 
activity spaces and other occupied areas within the 
smoke compartment to other smoke compartments. 

Group 1-4, day care facilities. This group shall include 
buildings and structures occupied by persons of any age 
who receive custodial care for less than 24 hours by individ- 
uals other than parents or guardians, relatives by blood mar- 
riage, or adoption, and in a place other than the home of the 
person cared for. A faciUty such as the above with five or 
fewer persons shall be classified as Group R-3 or shall com- 
ply with the International Residential Code in accordance 
with Section 101.2 of the International Building Code. 
Places of worship during religious functions are not 
included. 

Adult care facility. A facility that provides accom- 
modations for less than 24 hours for more than five 
unrelated adults and provides supervision and per- 
sonal care services shall be classified as Group 1-4. 

Exception: Where the occupants are capable of 
responding to an emergency situation without 
physical assistance from the staff the facility shall 
be classified as Group A-3. 

Child care facility. A facility that provides supervi- 
sion and personal care on less than a 24-hour basis for 
more than five children 272 years of age or less shall 
be classified as Group 1-4. 

Exception: A child day care facility which pro- 
vides care for more than five but no more than 100 
children 2'/2 years or less of age, when the rooms 
where such children are cared for are located on 
the level of exit discharge and each of these child 
care rooms has an exit door directly to the exterior, 
shall be classified as Group E. 

[B] Mercantile Group M. Mercantile Group M occupancy 
includes, among others, buildings and structures or a por- 
tion thereof, for the display and sale of merchandise, and 
involves stocks of goods, wares or merchandise incidental 
to such purposes and accessible to the public. Mercantile 
occupancies shall include, but not be limited to, the follow- 
ing. 

Department stores 

Drug stores 

Markets 

Motor fuel-dispensing facihties 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE'' 



21 



DEFINITIONS 



Retail or wholesale stores 
Sales rooms 

[B] Residential Group R. Residential Group R includes, 
among others, the use of a building or structure, or a portion 
thereof, for sleeping purposes when not classified as an 
Institutional Group I or when not regulated by the Interna- 
tional Residential Code in accordance with SectionlOl.2 of 
the International Building Code. Residential occupancies 
shall include the following: 

R-1 Residential occupancies containing sleeping units 
where the occupants are primarily transient in nature, 
including: 

Boarding houses (transient) 
Hotels (transient) 
Motels (transient) 

R-2 Residential occupancies containing sleeping units or 
m ore than two dwelling units where the occupants are 
primarily permanent in nature, including: 

Apartment houses 

Boarding houses (not transient) 

Convents 

Dormitories 

Fraternities and sororities 

Hotels (nontransient) 

Monasteries 

Motels (nontransient) 

Vacation timeshare properties 

Congregate living facilities with 16 or fewer occupants 
are permitted to comply with the construction requirements 
for Group R-3. 

R-3 Residential occupancies where the occupants are 
primarily permanent in nature and not classified as R-1, 
R-2, R-4 or I, including: 

Buildings that do not contain more than two dwelling 

units 
Adult care facilities that provide accommodations for 

five or fewer persons of any age for less than 24 

hours 
Child care facilities that provide accommodations for 

five or fewer persons of any age for less than 24 

hours 
Congregate living facilities with 16 or fewer persons. 

Adult and child care facilities that are within a sin- 
gle-family home are permitted to comply with the Inter- 
national Residential Code. 

R-4 Residential occupancies shall include buildings 
arranged for occupancy as residential care/assisted liv- 
ing facilities including more than five but not more than 
16 occupants, excluding staff. 

Group R-4 occupancies shall meet the requirements 
for construction as defined in the International Building 
Code for Group R-3, except as otherwise provided for in 
that code, or shall comply with the International Resi- 
dential Code. 

[B] Storage Group S. Storage Group S occupancy 
includes, among others, the use of a building or structure, or 



a portion thereof, for storage that is not classified as a haz- 
ardous occupancy. 

Moderate-hazard storage, Group S-1. Buildings 
occupied for storage uses that are not classified as Group 
S-2, including, but not limited to, storage of the follow- 
ing: 

Aerosols, Levels 2 and 3 

Aircraft repair hangar 

Bags; cloth, burlap and paper 

Bamboos and rattan 

Baskets 

Belting; canvas and leather 

Books and paper in rolls or packs 

Boots and shoes 

Buttons, including cloth covered, pearl or bone 

Cardboard and cardboard boxes 

Clothing, woolen wearing apparel 

Cordage 

Dry boat storage (indoor) 

Furniture 

Furs 

Glues, mucilage, pastes and size 

Grains 

Horns and combs, other than celluloid 

Leather 

Linoleum 

Lumber 

Motor vehicle repair garages (complying with the 
International Building Code and containing less 
than the maximum allowable quantities of hazard- 
ous materials) 

Photo engravings 

Resilient flooring 

Silks 

Soaps 

Sugar 

Tires, bulk storage of 

Tobacco, cigars, cigarettes and snuff 

Upholstery and mattresses 

Wax candles 

Low-hazard storage, Group S-2. Includes, among oth- 
ers, buildings used for the storage of noncombustible 
materials such as products on wood pallets or in paper 
cartons with or without single thickness divisions; or in 
paper wrappings. Such products may have a negligible 
amount of plastic trim such as knobs, handles, or film 
wrapping. Storage uses shall include, but not be limited 
to, storage of the following: 

Aircraft hangar 

Asbestos 

Beverages up to and including 12-percent alcohol in 

metal, glass or ceramic containers 
Cement in bags 
Chalk and crayons 

Dairy products in nonwaxed coated paper containers 
Dry cell batteries 
Electrical coils 
Electrical motors 
Empty cans 



22 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE*' 



DEFINITIONS 



Food products 

Foods in noncombustible containers 

Fresh fruits and vegetables in nonplastic trays or 

containers 
Frozen foods 
Glass 
Glass bottles, empty or filled with noncombustible 

liquids 
Gypsum board 
Inert pigments 
Ivory 

Metal desks with plastic tops and trim 
Metal parts 
Metals 
Mirrors 

Oil-filled and other types of distribution transformers 
Parking garages (open or enclosed) 
Porcelain and pottery 
Stoves 

Talc and soapstones 
Washers and dryers 

[B] Miscellaneous Group U. Buildings and structures of an 
accessory character and miscellaneous structures not classi- 
fied in any specific occupancy shall be constructed, 
equipped and maintained to conform to the requirements of 
this code commensurate with the fire and life hazard inci- 
dental to their occupancy. Group U shall include, but not be 
limited to, the following: 

Agricultural buildings 

Aircraft hangar, accessory to a one- or two-family 

residence (see Section 412.3 of the International 

Building Code) 
Bams 
Carports 

Fences more than 6 feet (1829 mm) high 
Grain silos, accessory to a residential occupancy 
Greenhouses 
Livestock shelters 
Private garages 
Retaining walls 
Sheds 
Stables 
Tanks 
Towers 

[B] OCCUPANT LOAD. See Section 1002.1. 

OPEN BURNING. See Section 302.1. 

OPEN SYSTEM. The use of a solid or liquid hazardous mate- 
rial involving a vessel or system that is continuously open to the 
atmosphere during normal operations and where vapors are 
liberated, or the product is exposed to the atmosphere during 
normal operations. Examples of open systems for solids and 
liquids include dispensing from or into open beakers or con- 
tainers, dip tank and plating tank operations. 

OPERATING BUILDING. See Section 3302.1. 

I OPERATING LINE. See Section 3302.1. 

OPERATING PRESSURE. The pressure at which a system 
operates. 



ORGANIC COATING. See Section2002.1. 

ORGANIC PEROXIDE. See Section 3902.1. 

Class L See Section 3902.1. 

Class IL See Section 3902.1. 

Class m. See Section 3902.1. 

Class IV. See Section 3902.1. 

Class V. See Section 3902.1. 

Unclassified detonable. See Section 3902.1. 

OUTDOOR CONTROL AREA. See Section 2702.1. 

OVERCROWDING. A condition that exists when either 
there are more people in a building, structure or portion thereof 
than have been authorized or posted by the fire code official, or 
when the fire code official determines that a threat exists to the 
safety of the occupants due to persons sitting and/or standing in 
locations that may obstruct or impede the use of aisles, pas- 
sages, corridors, stairways, exits or other components of the 
means of egress. 

OWNER. A corporation, firm, partnership, association, orga- 
nization and any other group acting as a unit, or a person who 
has legal title to any structure or premises with or without 
accompanying actual possession thereof, and shall include the 
duly authorized agent or attorney, a purchaser, devisee, fidu- 
ciary and any person having a vested or contingent interest in 
the premises in question. 

OXIDIZER. See Section 4002.1. 

Class 4. See Section 4002.1. 
Class 3. See Section 4002.1. 
Class 2. See Section 4002.1. 
Class 1. See Section 4002.1. 

OXIDIZING GAS. See Section 4002.1. 

OZONE-GAS GENERATOR. See Section 3702.1. 

[B] PANIC HARDWARE. See Section 1002.1. 

PASS-THROUGH. See Section 1802.1. 

PERMISSIBLE EXPOSURE LIMIT (PEL). See Section 
2702.1. 

PESTICIDE. See Section 2702.1. 

PHYSICAL HAZARD. See Section 2702.1. 

PHYSIOLOGICAL WARNING THRESHOLD. See Sec- 
tion 3702.1. 

PLOSOPHORIC MATERIAL. See Section 3302.1. 

PLYWOOD and VENEER MILLS. See Section 1902.1. 

POWERED INDUSTRIAL TRUCK. See Section 302.1. 

PRESSURE VESSEL. See Section 2702. 1 . 

PRIMARY CONTAINMENT. The first level of contain- 
ment, consisting of the inside portion of that container which 
comes into immediate contact on its inner surface with the 
material being contained. 

PROCESS TRANSFER. See Section 3402.1. 

PROPELLANT. See Section 2802.1. 

PROXIMATE AUDIENCE. See Section 3302.1. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE*' 



23 



DEFINITIONS 



PUBLIC TRAFFIC ROUTE (PTR). See Section 3302.1. 
[B] PUBLIC WAY. See Section 1002.1. 
PYROPHORIC. See Section 4102.1. 
PYROTECHNIC COMPOSITION. See Section 3302.1. 
PYROTECHNIC SPECIAL EFFECT. See Section 3302.1. 

PYROTECHNIC SPECIAL-EFFECT MATERIAL. See 

Section 3302.1. 

QUANTITY-DISTANCE (Q-D). See Section 3302.1. 

Minimum Separation Distance (D^). See Section 3302. 1 . 
Intraline Distance (ILD) or Intraplant Distance (IPD). 

See Section 3302.1. 
Inhabited Building Distance (IBD). See Section 3302.1. 
I Intermagazine Distance (IMD). See Section 3302. 1 . 

RAILWAY. See Section 3302.1. 

[B] RAMP. See Section 1002.1. 

RAW PRODUCT. See Section 1902.1. 

READY BOX. See Section 3302.1. 

RECORD DRAWINGS. See Section 902.1. 

RECREATIONAL FIRE. See Section 302.1. 

REDUCED FLOW VALVE. See Section 3702.1. 

REFINERY. See Section 3402.1. 

REFRIGERANT. See Section 602.1. 

REFRIGERATION SYSTEM. See Section 602.1. 

[B] REGISTERED DESIGN PROFESSIONAL. An archi- 
tect or engineer, registered or licensed to practice professional 
architecture or engineering, as defined by the statutory require- 
ments of the professional registration laws of the state in which 
the project is to be constructed. 

I[B] RELIGIOUS WORSHIP, PLACE OE A building or 
portion thereof intended for the performance of religious ser- 
vices. 

REMOTE EMERGENCY SHUTOFF DEVICE. See Sec 

tion 3402.1. 

REMOTELY LOCATED, MANUALLY ACTIVATED 
SHUTDOWN CONTROL. A control system that is designed 
to initiate shutdown of the flow of gases or liquids that is manu- 
ally activated from a point located some distance from the 
delivery system. 

REMOTE SOLVENT RESERVOIR. See Section 3402.1. 

REPAIR GARAGE. See Section 2202.1. 

RESIN APPLICATION AREA. See Section 1502.1. 

RESPONSIBLE PERSON. See Section 2602.1. 

RETAIL DISPLAY AREA. See Section 2802.1. 

ROLL COATING. See Section 1502.1. 

RUBBISH (TRASH). Combustible and noncombustible 
waste materials, including residue from the burning of coal, 
wood, coke or other combustible material, paper, rags, cartons, 
tin cans, metals, mineral matter, glass crockery, dust and dis- 



carded refrigerators, and heating, cooking or incinerator-type 
appliances. 

SAFETY CAN. See Section 2702.1. 

[B] SCISSOR STAIR. See Section 1002.1. 

SECONDARY CONTAINMENT. See Section 2702.1. 

SEGREGATED. See Section 2702.1. 

SELF-SERVICE MOTOR FUEL-DISPENSING FACIL- 
ITY. See Section 2202. 1 . 

SEMICONDUCTOR FABRICATION FACILITY. See 

Section 1802.1. 

SERVICE CORRIDOR. See Section 1802.1. 
SHELF STORAGE. See Section 2302.1. 
SINGLE-STATION SMOKE ALARM. See Section 902.1. 
[B] SLEEPING UNIT. See Section 902.1. 
SMALL ARMS AMMUNITION. See Section 3302.1. 
SMALL ARMS PRIMERS. See Section 3302.1. 
SMOKE ALARM. See Section 902.1. 
SMOKE DETECTOR. See Section 902.1. 

[B] SMOKE-PROTECTED ASSEMBLY SEATING. See 

Section 1002.1. 

SMOKELESS PROPELLANTS. See Section 3302.1. 

SOLID. See Section 2702.1. 

SOLID SHELVING. See Section 2302.1. 

SOLVENT DISTILLATION UNIT. See Section 3402.1 

SOLVENT OR LIQUID CLASSIFICATIONS. See Section 
1202.1. 

Class I solvents. See Section 1202.1. 
Class II solvents. See Section 1202.1. 
Class IIIA solvents. See Section 1202.1. 
Class IIIB solvents. See Section 1202.1. 
Class IV solvents. See Section 1202.1. 

SPECIAL AMUSEMENT BUILDING. A building that is 
temporary, permanent or mobile that contains a device or sys- 
tem that conveys passengers or provides a walkway along, 
around or over a course in any direction as a form of amuse- 
ment arranged so that the egress path is not readily apparent 
due to visual or audio distractions or an intentionally con- 
founded egress path, or is not readily available because of the 
mode of conveyance through the building or structure. 

SPECIAL INDUSTRIAL EXPLOSIVE DEVICE. See Sec- 
tion 3302.1. 

SPRAY BOOTH. See Section 1502.1. 

SPRAY ROOM. See Section 1502.1. 

SPRAYING SPACE. See Section 1502.1. 

[B] STAIR. See Section 1002.1. 

[B] STAIRWAY. See Section 1002.1. 

[B] STAIRWAY, EXTERIOR. See Section 1002.1. 

[B] STAIRWAY, INTERIOR. See Section 1002.1. 



24 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



DEFINITIONS 



[B] STAIRWAY, SPIRAL. See Section 1002.1. 

STANDPIPE SYSTEM, CLASSES OF. See Section 902.1. 

Class I system. See Section 902.1. 
Class II system. See Section 902.1. 
Class III system. See Section 902.1. 

STANDPIPE, TYPES OF. See Section 902.1. 

Automatic dry. See Section 902.1. 
Automatic wet. See Section 902.1. 
Manual dry. See Section 902.1. 
Manual wet. See Section 902.1. 
Semiautomatic dry. See Section 902.1. 

STATIC PILES. See Sectionl902.1. 

STEEL. Hot- or cold-rolled as defined by the International 
Building Code. 

STORAGE, HAZARDOUS MATERIALS. See Section 
2702.1. 

SUPERVISING STATION. See Section 902.1. 

SUPERVISORY SERVICE. See Section 902.1. 

SUPERVISORY SIGNAL. See Section 902.1. 

SUPERVISORY SIGNAL-INITIATING DEVICE. See 

Section 902.1. 

SYSTEM. See Section 2702.1. 

TANK. A vessel containing more than 60 gallons (227 L). 

TANK, ATMOSPHERIC. See Section 2702.1. 

TANK, PORTABLE. See Section 2702.1. 

TANK, PRIMARY. See Section 3402.1. 

TANK, PROTECTED ABOVE GROUND. See Section 
3402.1. 

TANK, STATIONARY. See Section 2702.1. 

TANK VEHICLE. See Section 2702.1. 

TENT. See Section 2402.1. 

THEFT RESISTANT. See Section 3302.1. 

THERMAL INSECTICIDAL FOGGING. See Section 
1702.1. 

TIMBER and LUMBER PRODUCTION FACILITIES. 

See Section 1902.1. 

TIRES, BULK STORAGE OF. See Section 902.1. 

TOOL. See Section 1802.1. 

TORCH- APPLIED ROOF SYSTEM. See Section 2602.1. 

TOXIC. See Section 3702.1. 

TRANSVERSE FLUE SPACE. See Section 2302.1. 

TRASH. See "Rubbish." 

TROUBLE SIGNAL. See Section 902.1. 

UNAUTHORIZED DISCHARGE. See Section 2702.1. 

UNSTABLE (REACTIVE) MATERIAL. See Section 
4302.1. 



Class 4. See Section 4302.1. 
Class 3. See Section 4302.1. 
Class 2. See Section 4302.1. 
Class 1. See Section 4302.1. 

UNWANTED FIRE. A fire not used for cooking, heating or 
recreational purposes or one not incidental to the normal opera- 
tions of the property. 

USE (MATERIAL). See Section 2702.1. 

VAPOR PRESSURE. See Section 2702.1. 

VISIBLE ALARM NOTIFICATION APPLIANCE. See 

Section 902.1. 

WATER-REACTFVE MATERIAL. See Section 4402.1. 

Class 3. See Section 4402.1. 
Class 2. See Section 4402.1. 
Class 1. See Section 4402.1. 

WET-CHEMICAL EXTINGUISHING AGENT. See Sec 

tion 902.1. 

[B] WINDER. See Section 1002.1. 

WIRELESS PROTECTION SYSTEM. See Section 902.1. 

WORKSTATION. See Section 1802.1. 

ZONE. See Section 902.1. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



25 



26 2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE'' 



CHAPTER 3 

GENERAL PRECAUTIONS AGAINST FIRE 



SECTION 301 
GENERAL 

301.1 Scope. The provisions of this chapter shall govern the 
occupancy and maintenance of all structures and premises for 
precautions against fire and the spread of fire. 

301.2 Permits. Permits shall be required as set forth in Section 
105.6 for the activities or uses regulated by Sections 306, 307, 
308.3, 308.4, 308.5 and 315. 



SECTION 302 
DEFINITIONS 

302.1 Definitions. The following words and terms shall, for the 
purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this code, 
have the meanings shown herein. 

BONFIRE. An outdoor fire utilized for ceremonial purposes. 

HI-BOY. A cart used to transport hot roofing materials on a 
roof. 

OPEN BURNING. The burning of materials wherein prod- 
ucts of combustion are emitted directly into the ambient air 
without passing through a stack or chimney from an enclosed 
chamber. Open burning does not include road flares, 
smudgepots and similar devices associated with safety or occu- 
pational uses typically considered open flames or recreational 
fires. For the purpose of this definition, a chamber shall be 
regarded as enclosed when, during the time combustion occurs, 
only apertures, ducts, stacks, flues or chimneys necessary to 
provide combustion air and permit the escape of exhaust gas 
are open. 

POWERED INDUSTRIAL TRUCK. A forklift, tractor, 
platform lift truck or motorized hand truck powered by an elec- 
trical motor or internal combustion engine. Powered industrial 
trucks do not include farm vehicles or automotive vehicles for 
highway use. 

RECREATIONAL FIRE. An outdoor fire burning materials 
other than rubbish where the fuel being burned is not contained 
in an incinerator, outdoor fireplace, barbeque grill or barbeque 
pit and has a total fuel area of 3 feet (914 mm) or less in diame- 
ter and 2 feet (610 nmi) or less in height for pleasure, religious, 
ceremonial, cooking, warmth or similar purposes. 



SECTION 303 
ASPHALT KETTLES 

303.1 Transporting. Asphalt (tar) kettles shall not be trans- 
ported over any highway, road or street when the heat source 
for the kettle is operating. 

Exception: Asphalt (tar) kettles in the process of patching 
road surfaces. 



303.2 Location. Asphalt (tar) kettles shall not be located 
within 20 feet (6096 mm) of any combustible material, com- 
bustible building surface or any building opening and within a 
controlled area identified by the use of traffic cones, barriers or 
other approved means. Asphalt (tar) kettles and pots shall not 
be utilized inside or on the roof of a building or structure. Roof- 
ing kettles and operating asphalt (tar) kettles shall not block 
means of egress, gates, roadways or entrances. 

303.3 Location of fuel containers. Fuel containers shall be 
located at least 10 feet (3048 mm) from the burner. 

Exception: Containers properly insulated from heat or 
flame are allowed to be within 2 feet (610 mm) of the burner. 

303.4 Attendant. An operating kettle shall be attended by a 
minimum of one employee knowledgeable of the operations 
and hazards. The employee shall be within 1(X) feet (30 480 
nmi) of the kettle and have the kettle within sight. Ladders or 
similar obstacles shall not form a part of the route between the 
attendant and the kettle. 

303.5 Fire extinguishers. There shall be a portable fire extin- 
guisher complying with Section 906 and with a minimum 
40-B:C rating within 25 feet (7620 mm) of each asphalt (tar) 
kettle during the period such kettle is being utilized. 
Additionally, there shall be one portable fire extinguisher with 
a minimum 3-A:40-B:C rating on the roof being covered. 

303.6 Lids. Asphalt (tar) kettles shall be equipped with 
tight-fitting lids. 

303.7 Hi-boys. Hi-boys shall be constructed of 
noncombustible materials. Hi- boys shall be limited to a capac- 
ity of 55 gallons (208 L). Fuel sources or heating elements shall 
not be allowed as part of a hi-boy. 

303.8 Roofing kettles. Roofing kettles shall be constructed of 
noncombustible materials. 

303.9 Fuel containers under air pressure. Fuel containers 
that operate under air pressure shall not exceed 20 gallons (76 
L) in capacity and shall be approved. 



SECTION 304 
COMBUSTIBLE WASTE MATERIAL 

304.1 Waste accumulation prohibited. Combustible waste 
material creating a fire hazard shall not be allowed to accumu- 
late in buildings or structures or upon premises. 

304.1.1 Waste material. Accumulations of wastepaper, 
wood, hay, straw, weeds, litter or combustible or flanmiable 
waste or rubbish of any type shall not be permitted to remain 
on a roof or in any court, yard, vacant lot, alley, parking lot, 
open space, or beneath a grandstand, bleacher, pier, wharf, 
manufactured home, recreational vehicle or other similar 
structure. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



27 



GENERAL PRECAUTIONS AGAINST FIRE 



304.1.2 Vegetation. Weeds, grass, vines or other growth 
that is capable of being ignited and endangering property, 
shall be cut down and removed by the owner or occupant of 
the premises. Vegetation clearance requirements in 
urban- wildland interface areas shall be in accordance with 
the International Wildland- Urban Interface Code. 

304.1.3 Space underneath seats. Spaces underneath 
grandstand and bleacher seats shall be kept free from com- 
bustible and flammable materials. Except where enclosed in 
not less than 1-hour fire-resistance-rated construction in 
accordance with the International Building Code, spaces 
underneath grandstand and bleacher seats shall not be occu- 
pied or utilized for purposes other than means of egress. 

304.2 Storage. Storage of combustible rubbish shall not pro- 
duce conditions that will create a nuisance or a hazard to the 
public health, safety or welfare. 

304.3 Containers. Combustible rubbish, and waste material 
kept within a structure shall be stored in accordance with Sec- 
tions 304.3.1 through 304.3.3. 

304.3.1 Spontaneous ignition. Materials susceptible to 
spontaneous ignition, such as oily rags, shall be stored in a 
listed disposal container. Contents of such containers shall 
be removed and disposed of daily. 

304.3.2 Capacity exceeding 5.33 cubic feet. Containers 
with a capacity exceeding 5.33 cubic feet (40 gallons) (0.15 
m^) shall be provided with lids. Containers and lids shall be 
constructed of noncombustible materials or approved com- 
bustible materials. 

304.3.3 Capacity exceeding 1.5 cubic yards. Dumpsters 
and containers with an individual capacity of 1.5 cubic 
yards [40.5 cubic feet (1.15 m^)] or more shall not be stored 
in buildings or placed within 5 feet (1524 mm) of combusti- 
ble walls, openings or combustible roof eave lines. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Dumpsters or containers in areas protected by an 
approved automatic sprinkler system installed 
throughout in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1, 
903.3.1.2 or 903.3.1.3. 

2. Storage in a structure shall not be prohibited where 
the structure is of Type I or IIA construction, 
located not less than 10 feet (3048 mm) from other 
buildings and used exclusively for dumpster or 
container storage. 



SECTION 305 
IGNITION SOURCES 

305.1 Clearance from ignition sources. Clearance between 
I ignition sources, such as luminaires, heaters, flame-producing 

devices and combustible materials, shall be maintained in an 
approved manner. 

305.2 Hot aslies and spontaneous ignition sources. Hot 

ashes, cinders, smoldering coals or greasy or oily materials 
subject to spontaneous ignition shall not be deposited in a com- 
bustible receptacle, within 10 feet (3048 mm) of other combus- 



tible material including combustible walls and partitions or 
within 2 feet (610 mm) of openings to buildings. 

Exception: The minimum required separation distance to 
other combustible materials shall be 2 feet (610 mm) where 
the material is deposited in a covered, noncombustible 
receptacle placed on a noncombustible floor, ground sur- 
face or stand. 

305.3 Open-flame warning devices. Open-flame warning 
devices shall not be used along an excavation, road, or any 
place where the dislodgment of such device might permit the 
device to roll, fall or slide on to any area or land containing 
combustible material. 

305.4 Deliberate or negligent burning. It shall be unlawful to 
deliberately or through negligence set fire to or cause the burn- 
ing of combustible material in such a manner as to endanger the 
safety of persons or property. 



SECTION 306 

MOTION PICTURE PROJECTION ROOMS 

AND FILM 

306.1 Motion picture projection rooms. Electric arc, xenon 
or other light source projection equipment which develops haz- 
ardous gases, dust or radiation and the projection of rib- 
bon-type cellulose nitrate film, regardless of the light source 
used in projection, shall be operated within a motion picture 
projection room complying with Section 409 of the Interna- 
tional Building Code. 

306.2 Cellulose nitrate film storage. Storage of cellulose 
nitrate film shall be in accordance with NFPA 40. 



SECTION 307 
OPEN BURNING AND RECREATIONAL FIRES 

307.1 General. A person shall not kindle or maintain or autho- 
rize to be kindled or maintained any open burning unless con- 
ducted and approved in accordance with this section. 

307.1.1 Prohibited open burning. Open burning that is 
offensive or objectionable because of smoke or odor emis- 
sions or when atmospheric conditions or local circum- 
stances make such fires hazardous shall be prohibited. 

307.2 Permit required. A permit shall be obtained from the 
fire code official in accordance with Section 105.6 prior to 
kindling a fire for recognized silvicultural or range or wildlife 
management practices, prevention or control of disease or 
pests, or a bonfire. Application for such approval shall only be 
presented by and permits issued to the owner of the land upon 
which the fire is to be kindled. 

307.2.1 Authorization. Where required by state or local 
law or regulations, open burning shall only be permitted 
with prior approval from the state or local air and water 
quality management authority, provided that all conditions 
specified in the authorization are followed. 

307.3 Extinguishment authority. The fire code official is 
authorized to order the extinguishment by the permit holder, 
another person responsible or the fire department of open bum- 



r 



28 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE'^ 



GENERAL PRECAUTIONS AGAINST FIRE 



ing that creates or adds to a hazardous or objectionable situa- 
tion. 

307.4 Location. The location for open burning shall not be less 
than 50 feet (15 240 mm) from any structure, and provisions 
shall be made to prevent the fire from spreading to within 50 
feet (15 240 mm) of any structure. 

Exceptions: 

1. Fires in approved containers that are not less than 15 
feet (4572 mm) from a structure. 

2. The minimum required distance from a structure shall 
be 25 feet (7620 mm) where the pile size is 3 feet (914 
mm) or less in diameter and 2 feet (610 mm) or less in 
height. 

307.4.1 Bonfires. A bonfire shall not be conducted within 
50 feet (15 240 mm) of a structure or combustible material 
unless the fire is contained in a barbecue pit. Conditions 
which could cause a fire to spread within 50 feet (15 240 
mm) of a structure shall be eliminated prior to ignition. 

307.4.2 Recreational fires. Recreational fires shall not be 
conducted within 25 feet (7620 mm) of a structure or com- 
bustible material. Conditions which could cause a fire to 
spread within 25 feet (7620 mm) of a structure shall be elim- 
inated prior to ignition. 

307.5 Attendance. Open burning, bonfires or recreational fires 
shall be constantly attended until the fire is extinguished. A 
minimum of one portable fire extinguisher complying with 
Section 906 with a minimum 4-A rating or other approved 
on-site fire-extinguishing equipment, such as dirt, sand, water 
barrel, garden hose or water truck, shall be available for imme- 
diate utilization. 



SECTION 308 
OPEN FLAMES 

308.1 General. This section shall control open flames, fire and 
burning on all premises. 

308.2 Where prohibited. A person shall not take or utilize an 
open flame or light in a structure, vessel, boat or other place 
where highly flammable, combustible or explosive material is 
utilized or stored. Lighting appliances shall be well-secured in 
a glass globe and wire mesh cage or a similar approved device. 

308.2.1 Throwing or placing sources of ignition. No per- 
son shall throw or place, or cause to be thrown or placed, a 
lighted match, cigar, cigarette, matches, or other flaming or 
glowing substance or object on any surface or article where 
it can cause an unwanted fire. 

308.3 Open flame. A person shall not utilize or allow to be uti- 
lized, an open flame in connection with a public meeting or 
gathering for purposes of deliberation, worship, entertainment, 
amusement, instruction, education, recreation, awaiting trans- 
portation or similar purpose in Group A or E occupancies with- 
out first obtaining a permit in accordance with Section 105.6. 

308.3.1 Open-flame cooking devices. Charcoal burners 
and other open-flame cooking devices shall not be operated 



on combustible balconies or within 10 feet (3048 mm) of 
combustible construction. 

Exceptions: 

1. One- and two-family dwellings. 

2. Where buildings, balconies and decks are pro- 
tected by an automatic sprinkler system. 

308.3.1.1 Liquefied-petroleum-gas-fueled cooking 
devices. LP-gas burners having an LP-gas container with 
a water capacity greater than 2.5 pounds [nominal 1 
pound (0.454 kg) LP-gas capacity] shall not be located 
on combustible balconies or within 10 feet (3048 mm) of 
combustible construction. 

Exception: One- and two-family dwelhngs. 

308.3.2 Open-flame decorative devices. Open-flame dec- 
orative devices shall comply with all of the following 
restrictions: 

1 . Class I and Class II liquids and LP-gas shall not be 
used. 

2. Liquid- or solid-fueled lighting devices containing 
more than 8 ounces (237 ml) of fuel must self-extin- 
guish and not leak fuel at a rate of more than 0.25 
teaspoon per minute (1.26 ml per minute) if tipped 
over. 

3. The device or holder shall be constructed to prevent 
the spillage of liquid fuel or wax at the rate of more 
than 0.25 teaspoon per minute (1 .26 ml per minute) 
when the device or holder is not in an upright posi- 
tion. 

4. The device or holder shall be designed so that it will 
return to the upright position after being tilted to an 
angle of 45 degrees from vertical. 

Exception: Devices that self-extinguish if 
tipped over and do not spill fuel or wax at the 
rate of more than 0.25 teaspoon per minute 
(1.26 ml per minute) if tipped over. 

5. The flame shall be enclosed except where openings 
on the side are not more than 0.375 inch (9.5 mm) 
diameter or where openings are on the top and the 
distance to the top is such that a piece of tissue paper 
placed on the top will not ignite in 10 seconds. 

6. Chimneys shall be made of noncombustible materi- 
als and securely attached to the open-flame device. 

Exception: A chimney is not required to be 
attached to any open-flame device that will 
self-extinguish if the device is tipped over. 

7. Fuel canisters shall be safely sealed for storage. 

8 . Storage and handling of combustible liquids shall be 
in accordance with Chapter 34. 

9. Shades, where used, shall be made of 
noncombustible materials and securely attached to 
the open-flame device holder or chimney. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



29 



GENERAL PRECAUTIONS AGAINST FIRE 



10. Candelabras with flame-lighted candles shall be 
securely fastened in place to prevent overturning, 
and shall be located away from occupants using the 
area and away from possible contact with drapes, 
curtains or other combustibles. 

308.3.3 Location near combustibles. Open flames such as 
from candles, lanterns, kerosene heaters, and gas-fired heat- 
ers shall not be located on or near decorative material or 
similar combustible materials. 

308.3.4 Aisles and exits. Candles shall be prohibited in 
areas where occupants stand, or in an aisle or exit. 

308.3.5 Religious ceremonies. When, in the opinion of the 
fire code official, adequate safeguards have been taken, par- 
ticipants in religious ceremonies are allowed to carry 
hand-held candles. Hand-held candles shall not be passed 
from one person to another while lighted. 

308.3.6 Theatrical performances. Where approved, 
open-flame devices used in conjunction with theatrical per- 
formances are allowed to be used when adequate safety pre- 
cautions have been taken in accordance with NFPA 160. 

308.3.7 Group A occupancies. Open-flame devices shall 
not be used in a Group A occupancy. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Open-flame devices are allowed to be used in the 
following situations, provided approved precau- 
tions are taken to prevent ignition of a combustible 
material or injury to occupants: 

1.1. Where necessary for ceremonial or reli- 
gious purposes in accordance with Section 
308.3.5. 

1 .2. On stages and platforms as a necessary part 
of a performance in accordance with Sec- 
tion 308.3.6. 

1.3. Where candles on tables are securely sup- 
ported on substantial noncombustible 
bases and the candle flames are protected. 

2. Heat-producing equipment complying with Chap- 
ter 6 and the International Mechanical Code. 

3. Gas lights are allowed to be used provided ade- 
quate precautions satisfactory to the fire code offi- 
cial are taken to prevent ignition of combustible 
materials. 

308.3.8 Group R-2 dormitories. Candles, incense and 
similar open-flame-producing items shall not be allowed in 
sleeping units in Group R-2 dormitory occupancies. 

308.4 Torches for removing paint. Persons utilizing a torch or 
other flame-producing device for removing paint from a struc- 
ture shall provide a minimum of one portable fire extinguisher 
complying with Section 906 and with a minimum 4-A rating, 
two portable fire extinguishers, each with a minimum 2-A rat- 
ing, or a water hose connected to the water supply on the pre- 
mises where such burning is done. The person doing the 
burning shall remain on the premises 1 hour after the torch or 
flame-producing device is utilized. 



308.4.1 Permit. A permit in accordance with Section 105.6 
shall be secured from the fire code official prior to the utili- 
zation of a torch or flame-producing device to remove paint 
from a structure. 

308.5 Open-flame devices. Torches and other devices, 
machines or processes liable to start or cause fire shall not be 
operated or used in or upon hazardous fire areas, except by a 
permit in accordance with Section 105.6 secured from the fire 
code official. 

Exception: Use within inhabited premises or designated 
campsites which are a minimum of 30 feet (9 144 mm) from 
grass-, grain-, brush- or forest-covered areas. 

308.5.1 Signals and markers. Flame-employing devices, 
such as lanterns or kerosene road flares, shall not be oper- 
ated or used as a signal or marker in or upon hazardous fire 
areas. 

Exception: The proper use of fusees at the scenes of 
emergencies or as required by standard railroad operat- 
ing procedures. 

308.5.2 Portable fueled open-flame devices. Portable 
open-flame devices fueled by flammable or combustible 
gases or liquids shall be enclosed or installed in such a man- 
ner as to prevent the flame from contacting combustible 
material. 

Exceptions: 

1. LP-gas-fueled devices used for sweating pipe 
joints or removing paint in accordance with Chap- 
ter 38. 

2. Cutting and welding operations in accordance 
with Chapter 26. 

3 . Torches or flame-producing devices in accordance 
with Section 308.4. 

4. Candles and open-flame decorative devices in 
accordance with Section 308.3. 

308.6 Flaming food and beverage preparation. The prepara- 
tion of flaming foods or beverages in places of assembly and 
drinking or dining establishments shall be in accordance with 
Sections 308.6.1 through 308.6.5. 

308.6.1 Dispensing. Flammable or combustible liquids 
used in the preparation of flaming foods or beverages shall 
be dispensed from one of the following: 

1. A 1-ounce (29.6 ml) container; or 

2. A container not exceeding 1 -quart (946.5 ml) capac- 
ity with a controlled pouring device that will limit the 
flow to a 1-ounce (29.6 ml) serving. 

308.6.2 Containers not in use. Containers shall be secured 
to prevent spillage when not in use. 

308.6.3 Serving of flaming food. The serving of flaming 
foods or beverages shall be done in a safe manner and shall 
not create high flames. The pouring, ladling or spooning of 
liquids is restricted to a maximum height of 8 inches (203 
mm) above the receiving receptacle. 

308.6.4 Location. Flaming foods or beverages shall be pre- 
pared only in the immediate vicinity of the table being ser- 



30 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE"^ 



GENERAL PRECAUTIONS AGAINST FIRE 



viced. They shall not be transported or carried while 
burning. 

308.6.5 Fire protection. The person preparing the flaming 
foods or beverages shall have a wet cloth towel immediately 
available for use in smothering the flames in the event of an 
emergency. 



SECTION 309 
POWERED INDUSTRIAL TRUCKS AND EQUIPMENT 

309.1 General. Powered industrial trucks and similar equip- 
ment including, but not limited to, floor scrubbers and floor 
buffers, shall be operated and maintained in accordance with 
this section. 

309.2 Battery chargers. Battery chargers shall be of an 
approved type. Combustible storage shall be kept a minimum 
of 3 feet (915 mm) from battery chargers. Battery charging 
shall not be conducted in areas accessible to the public. 

309.3 Ventilation. Ventilation shall be provided in an approved 
manner in battery-charging areas to prevent a dangerous accu- 
mulation of flammable gases. 

309.4 Fire extinguishers. Battery-charging areas shall be pro- 
vided with a fire extinguisher complying with Section 906 hav- 
ing a minimum 4-A:20-B :C rating within 20 feet (6096 mm) of 
the battery charger. 

309.5 Refueling. Powered industrial trucks using liquid fuel, 
LP-gas or hydrogen shall be refueled outside of buildings or in 
areas specifically approved for that purpose. Fixed fuel-dis- 
pensing equipment and associated fueling operations shall be 
in accordance with Chapter 22. Other fuel-dispensing equip- 
ment and operations, including cylinder exchange for 
LP-gas-fueled vehicles, shall be in accordance with Chapter 34 
for flammable and combustible liquids or Chapter 38 for 
LP-gas. 

309.6 Repairs. Repairs to fuel systems, electrical systems and 
repairs utilizing open flame or welding shall be done in 
approved locations outside of buildings or in areas specifically 
approved for that purpose. 



SECTION 310 
SMOKING 

310.1 General. The smoking or carrying of a lighted pipe, 
cigar, cigarette or any other type of smoking paraphernalia or 
material is prohibited in the areas indicated in this section. 

310.2 Prohibited areas. Smoking shall be prohibited where 
conditions are such as to make smoking a hazard, and in spaces 
where flammable or combustible materials are stored or han- 
dled. 

310.3 "No Smoking" signs. The fire code official is authorized 
to order the posting of "No Smoking" signs in a conspicuous 
location in each structure or location in which smoking is pro- 
hibited. The content, lettering, size, color and location of 
required "No Smoking" signs shall be approved. 



310.4 Removal of signs prohibited. A posted "No Smoking" 
sign shall not be obscured, removed, defaced, mutilated or 
destroyed. 

310.5 Compliance with "No Smoking" signs. Smoking shall 
not be permitted nor shall a person smoke, throw or deposit any 
lighted or smoldering substance in any place where "No Smok- 
ing" signs are posted. 

310.6 Ash trays. Where smoking is permitted, suitable 
noncombustible ash trays or match receivers shall be provided 
on each table and at other appropriate locations. 

310.7 Burning objects. Lighted matches, cigarettes, cigars or 
other burning object shall not be discarded in such a manner 
that could cause ignition of other combustible material. 

310.8 Hazardous environmental conditions. When the fire 
code official determines that hazardous environmental condi- 
tions necessitate controlled use of smoking materials, the igni- 
tion or use of such materials in mountainous, brush-covered or 
forest-covered areas or other designated areas is prohibited 
except in approved designated smoking areas. 



SECTION 311 
VACANT PREMISES 

311.1 General. Temporarily unoccupied buildings, structures, 
premises or portions thereof, including tenant spaces, shall be 
safeguarded and maintained in accordance with this section. 

311.1.1 Abandoned premises. Buildings, structures and 
premises for which an owner cannot be identified or located 
by dispatch of a certificate of mailing to the last known or 
registered address, which persistently or repeatedly become 
unprotected or unsecured, which have been occupied by 
unauthorized persons or for illegal purposes, or which pres- 
ent a danger of structural collapse or fire spread to adjacent 
properties shall be considered abandoned, declared unsafe 
and abated by demolition or rehabilitation in accordance 
with the International Property Maintenance Code and the 
International Building Code. 

311.1.2 Tenant spaceSi Storage and lease plans required by 
this code shall be revised and updated to reflect temporary 
or partial vacancies. 

311.2 Safeguarding vacant premises. Temporarily unoccu- 
pied buildings, structures, premises or portions thereof shall be 
secured and protected in accordance with this section. 

311.2.1 Security. Exterior openings and interior openings 
accessible to other tenants or unauthorized persons shall be 
boarded, locked, blocked or otherwise protected to prevent 
entry by unauthorized individuals. 

311.2.2 Fire protection. Fire alarm, sprinkler and 
standpipe systems shall be maintained in an operable condi- 
tion at all times. 

Exceptions: 

1 . When the premises have been cleared of all com- 
bustible materials and debris and, in the opinion of 
the fire code official, the type of construction, fire 
separation distance and security of the premises do 
not create a fire hazard. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE'' 



31 



GENERAL PRECAUTIONS AGAINST FIRE 



2. Where buildings will not be heated and fire protec- 
tion systems will be exposed to freezing tempera- 
tures, fire alarm and sprinkler systems are 
permitted to be placed out of service and 
standpipes are permitted to be maintained as dry 
systems (without an automatic water supply) pro- 
vided the building has no contents or storage, and 
windows, doors and other openings are secured to 
prohibit entry by unauthorized persons. 

311.2.3 Fire separation. Fire-resistance-rated partitions, 
fire barriers, and fire walls separating vacant tenant spaces 
from the remainder of the building shall be maintained. 
Openings, joints, and penetrations in fire-resistance-rated 
assemblies shall be protected in accordance with Chapter 7. 

311.3 Removal of combustibles. Persons owning, or in charge 
or control of, a vacant building or portion thereof, shall remove 
therefrom all accumulations of combustible materials, flam- 
mable or combustible waste or rubbish and shall securely lock 
or otherwise secure doors, windows and other openings to pre- 
vent entry by unauthorized persons. The premises shall be 
maintained clear of waste or hazardous materials. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Buildings or portions of buildings undergoing addi- 
tions, alterations, repairs, or change of occupancy in 
accordance with the International Building Code, 
where waste is controlled and removed as required by 
Section 304. 

2. Seasonally occupied buildings. 

311.4 Removal of hazardous materials. Persons owning or 
having charge or control of a vacant building containing haz- 
ardous materials regulated by Chapter 27 shall comply with the 
facility closure requirements of Section 2701.6. 

311.5 Placards. Any building or structure determined to be 
unsafe pursuant to Section 1 10 of this code shall be marked as 
required by Sections 311.5.1 through 311.5.5. 

311.5.1 Placard location. Placards shall be applied on the 
front of the structure and be visible from the street. Addi- 
tional placards shall be applied to the side of each entrance 
to the structure and on penthouses. 

311.5.2 Placard size and color. Placards shall be 24 inches 
by 24 inches (610 mm by 610 mm) in size with a red back- 
ground, white reflective stripes and a white reflective bor- 
der. The stripes and border shall have a 2-inch (51 mm) 
stroke. 

311.5.3 Placard date. Placards shall bear the date of their 
application to the building and the date of the most recent 
inspection. 

311.5.4 Placard symbols. The design of the placards shall 
use the following symbols: 

1 . QThis symbol shall mean that the structure had nor- 
mal structural conditions at the time of marking. 

2. [\] This symbol shall mean that structural or interior 
hazards exist and interior fire-fighting or rescue oper- 
ations should be conducted with extreme caution. 



3. ^This symbol shall mean that structural or interior 
hazards exist to a degree that consideration should be 
given to limit fire fighting to exterior operations only, 
with entry only occurring for known life hazards. 

311.5.5 Informational use. The use of these symbols shall 
be informational only and shall not in any way limit the dis- 
cretion of the on-scene incident commander. 



SECTION 312 
VEHICLE IMPACT PROTECTION 

312.1 General. Vehicle impact protection required by this 
code shall be provided by posts that comply with Section 312.2 
or by other approved physical barriers that comply with Sec- 
tion 312.3. 

312.2 Posts. Guard posts shall comply with all of the following 
requirements: 

1. Constructed of steel not less than 4 inches (102 mm) in 
diameter and concrete filled. 

2. Spaced not more than 4 feet (1219 mm) between posts on 
center. 

3. Set not less than 3 feet (914 mm) deep in a concrete foot- 
ing of not less than a 15 -inch (381 mm) diameter. 

4. Set with the top of the posts not less than 3 feet (914 mm) 
above ground. 

5. Located not less than 3 feet (914 mm) from the protected 
object. 

312.3 Other barriers. Physical barriers shall be a minimum of 
36 inches (914 mm) in height and shall resist a force of 12,000 
pounds (53 375 N) applied 36 inches (914 mm) above the adja- 
cent ground surface. 



SECTION 313 
FUELED EQUIPMENT 

313.1 General. Fueled equipment, including but not limited to 
motorcycles, mopeds, lawn-care equipment and portable cook- 
ing equipment, shall not be stored, operated or repaired within 
a building. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Buildings or rooms constructed for such use in accor- 
dance with the International Building Code. 

2. Where allowed by Section 314. 

3. Storage of equipment utilized for maintenance pur- 
poses is allowed in approved locations when the 
aggregate fuel capacity of the stored equipment does 
not exceed 10 gallons (38 L) and the building is 
equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler sys- 
tem installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. 

313.1.1 Removal. The fire code official is authorized to 
require removal of fueled equipment from locations where 
the presence of such equipment is determined by the fire 
code official to be hazardous. 



32 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE*' 



GENERAL PRECAUTIONS AGAINST FIRE 



313.2 Group R occupancies. Vehicles powered by flammable 
liquids. Class II combustible liquids, or compressed flammable 
gases shall not be stored within the living space of Group R 
buildings. 



SECTION 314 
INDOOR DISPLAYS 

314.1 General. Indoor displays constructed within any occu- 
pancy shall comply with Sections 314.2 through 314.4. 

314.2 Fixtures and displays. Fixtures and displays of goods 
for sale to the public shall be arranged so as to maintain free, 
immediate and unobstructed access to exits as required by 
Chapter 10. 

314.3 Highly combustible goods. The display of highly com- 
bustible goods, including but not limited to fireworks, flamma- 
ble or combustible liquids, liquefied flammable gases, 
oxidizing materials, pyroxylin plastics and agricultural goods, 
in main exit access aisles, corridors, covered malls, or within 5 
feet (1524 mm) of entrances to exits and exterior exit doors is 
prohibited when a fire involving such goods would rapidly pre- 
vent or obstruct egress. 

314.4 Vehicles. Liquid- or gas-fueled vehicles, boats or other 
motorcraft shall not be located indoors except as follows: 

1. Batteries are disconnected. 

2. Fuel in fuel tanks does not exceed one-quarter tank or 5 
gallons (19 L) (whichever is least). 

3. Fuel tanks and fill openings are closed and sealed to pre- 
vent tampering. 

4. Vehicles, boats or other motorcraft equipment are not 
fueled or defueled within the building. 



bustible materials shall be protected on the storage side as 
required for 1-hour fire-resistance-rated construction. 
Openings shall be protected by assemblies that are self-clos- 
ing and are of noncombustible construction or solid wood 
core not less than 1.75 inches (44.5 mm) in thickness. Stor- 
age shall not be placed on exposed joists. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Areas protected by approved automatic sprinkler 
systems. 

2. Group R-3 and Group U occupancies. 

315.3 Outside storage. Outside storage of combustible mate- 
rials shall not be located within 1 feet (3048 mm) of a property 
hne. 

Exceptions: 

1. The separation distance is allowed to be reduced to 3 
feet (914 mm) for storage not exceeding 6 feet (1829 
mm) in height. 

2. The separation distance is allowed to be reduced 
when the fire code official determines that no hazard 
to the adjoining property exists. 

315.3.1 Storage beneath overhead projections from 
buildings. Combustible materials stored or displayed out- 
side of buildings that are protected by automatic sprinklers 
shall not be stored or displayed under nonsprinklered eaves, 
canopies or other projections or overhangs. 

315.3.2 Height. Storage in the open shall not exceed 20 feet 
(6096 mm) in height. 



SECTION 315 

MISCELLANEOUS COMBUSTIBLE 

MATERIALS STORAGE 

315.1 General. Storage, use and handling of miscellaneous 
combustible materials shall be in accordance with this section. 
A permit shall be obtained in accordance with Section 105.6. 

315.2 Storage in buildings. Storage of combustible materials 
in buildings shall be orderly. Storage shall be separated from 
heaters or heating devices by distance or shielding so that igni- 
tion cannot occur. 

315.2.1 Ceiling clearance. Storage shall be maintained 2 
feet (610 mm) or more below the ceiling in nonsprinklered 
areas of buildings or a minimum of 18 inches (457 mm) 
below sprinkler head deflectors in sprinklered areas of 
buildings. 

315.2.2 Means of egress. Combustible materials shall not 
be stored in exits or exit enclosures. 

315.2.3 Equipment rooms. Combustible material shall not 
be stored in boiler rooms, mechanical rooms or electrical 
equipment rooms. 

315.2.4 Attic, under-floor and concealed spaces. Attic, 
under-floor and concealed spaces used for storage of com- 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE*^ 



33 



34 2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE'' 



CHAPTER 4 

EMERGENCY PLANNING AND PREPAREDNESS 



SECTION 401 
GENERAL 

401.1 Scope. Reporting of emergencies, coordination with 
emergency response forces, emergency plans, and procedures 
for managing or responding to emergencies shall comply with 
the provisions of this section. 

Exception: Firms that have approved on-premises 
fire-fighting organizations and that are in compliance with 
approved procedures for fire reporting. 

401.2 Approval. Where required by this code, fire safety 
plans, emergency procedures, and employee training programs 
shall be approved by the fire code official. 

401.3 Emergency forces notification. In the event an 
unwanted fire occurs on a property, the owner or occupant shall 
immediately report such condition to the fire department. 
Building employees and tenants shall implement the appropri- 
ate emergency plans and procedures. No person shall, by ver- 
bal or written directive, require any delay in the reporting of a 
fire to the fire department. 

401.3.1 Making false report. It shall be unlawful for a per- 
son to give, signal, or transmit a false alarm. 

401.3.2 Alarm activations. Upon activation of a fire alarm 
signal, employees or staff shall immediately notify the fire 
department. 

401.3.3 Emergency evacuation drills. Nothing in this sec- 
tion shall prohibit the sounding of a fire alarm signal or the 
carrying out of an emergency evacuation drill in accordance 
with the provisions of Section 405. 

401.4 Interference with fire department operations. It shall 
be unlawful to interfere with, attempt to interfere with, con- 
spire to interfere with, obstruct or restrict the mobility of or 
block the path of travel of a fire department emergency vehicle 
in any way, or to interfere with, attempt to interfere with, con- 
spire to interfere with, obstruct or hamper any fire department 
operation. 

401.5 Security device. Any security device or system that 
emits any medium that could obscure a means of egress in any 
building, structure or premise shall be prohibited. 



SECTION 402 
DEFINITIONS 

402.1 Definition. The following word and term shall, for the 
purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this code, 
have the meaning shown herein. 

EMERGENCY EVACUATION DRILL. An exercise per- 
formed to train staff and occupants and to evaluate their effi- 
ciency and effectiveness in carrying out emergency evacuation 
procedures. 



SECTION 403 
PUBLIC ASSEMBLAGES AND EVENTS 

403.1 Fire watch personnel. When, in the opinion of the fire 
code official, it is essential for public safety in a place of assem- 
bly or any other place where people congregate, because of the 
number of persons, or the nature of the performance, exhibi- 
tion, display, contest or activity, the owner, agent or lessee shall 
provide one or more fire watch personnel, as required and 
approved, to remain on duty during the times such places are 
open to the public, or when such activity is being conducted. 

403.1.1 Duties. Fire watch personnel shall keep diligent 
watch for fires, obstructions to means of egress and other 
hazards during the time such place is open to the public or 
such activity is being conducted and take prompt measures 
for remediation of hazards, extinguishment of fires that 
occur and assist in the evacuation of the public from the 
structures. 

403.2 Public safety plan. In other than Group A or E occupan- 
cies, where the fire code official determines that an indoor or 
outdoor gathering of persons has an adverse impact on public 
safety through diminished access to buildings, structures, fire 
hydrants and fire apparatus access roads or where such gather- 
ings adversely affect public safety services of any kind, the fire 
code official shall have the authority to order the development 
of, or prescribe a plan for, the provision of an approved level of 
public safety. 

403.2.1 Contents. The public safety plan, where required 
by Section 403.2, shall address such items as emergency 
vehicle ingress and egress, fire protection, emergency medi- 
cal services, public assembly areas and the directing of both 
attendees and vehicles (including the parking of vehicles), 
vendor and food concession distribution, and the need for 
the presence of law enforcement, and fire and emergency 
medical services personnel at the event. 



SECTION 404 
FIRE SAFETY AND EVACUATION PLANS 

404.1 General. Fire safety and evacuation plans shall comply 
with the requirements of this section. 

404.2 Where required. An approved fire safety and evacua- 
tion plan shall be prepared and maintained for the following 
occupancies and buildings. 

1 . Group A, other than Group A occupancies used exclu- 
sively for purposes of religious worship that have an 
occupant load less than 2,000. 

2. Group B buildings having an occupant load of 500 or 
more persons or more than 100 persons above or below 
the lowest level of exit discharge. 

3. Group E. 

4. Group H. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE*^ 



35 



EMERGENCY PLANNING AND PREPAREDNESS 



5. Group I. 

6. Group R-1. 

I 7. Group R-2 college and university buildings. 

8. Group R-4. 

9. High-rise buildings. 

10. Group M buildings having an occupant load of 500 or 
more persons or more than 100 persons above or below 
the lowest level of exit discharge. 

1 1 . Covered malls exceeding 50,000 square feet (4645 m^) 
in aggregate floor area. 

12. Underground buildings. 

13. Buildings with an atrium and having an occupancy in 
Group A, E or M. 

404.3 Contents. Fire safety and evacuation plan contents shall 
be in accordance with Sections 404.3.1 and 404.3.2. 

404.3.1 Fire evacuation plans. Fire evacuation plans shall 
include the following: 

1 . Emergency egress or escape routes and whether evac- 
uation of the building is to be complete or, where 
approved, by selected floors or areas only. 

2. Procedures for employees who must remain to oper- 
ate critical equipment before evacuating. 

3. Procedures for accounting for employees and occu- 
pants after evacuation has been completed. 

4. Identification and assignment of personnel responsi- 
ble for rescue or emergency medical aid. 

5. The preferred and any alternative means of notifying 
occupants of a fire or emergency. 

6. The preferred and any alternative means of reporting 
fires and other emergencies to the fire department or 
designated emergency response organization. 

7. Identification and assignment of personnel who can 
be contacted for further information or explanation of 
duties under the plan. 

8. A description of the emergency voice/alarm commu- 
nication system alert tone and preprogranuned voice 
messages, where provided. 

404.3.2 Fire safety plans. Fire safety plans shall include the 
following: 

1. The procedure for reporting a fire or other emer- 
gency. 

2. The life safety strategy and procedures for notifying, 
relocating, or evacuating occupants. 

3. Site plans indicating the following: 

3.1. The occupancy assembly point. 

3.2. The locations of fire hydrants. 

3.3. The normal routes of fire department vehicle 
access. 

4. Floor plans identifying the locations of the following: 

4.1. Exits. 



4.2. Primary evacuation routes. 

4.3. Secondary evacuation routes. 

4.4. Accessible egress routes. 

4.5. Areas of refuge. 

4.6. Manual fire alarm boxes. 

4.7. Portable fire extinguishers. 

4.8. Occupant-use hose stations. 

4.9. Fire alarm annunciators and controls. 

5 . A list of maj or fire hazards associated with the normal 
use and occupancy of the premises, including mainte- 
nance and housekeeping procedures. 

6. Identification and assignment of personnel responsi- 
ble for maintenance of systems and equipment 
installed to prevent or control fires. 

7. Identification and assignment of personnel responsi- 
ble for maintenance, housekeeping and controlling 
fuel hazard sources. 

404.4 Maintenance. Fire safety and evacuation plans shall be 
reviewed or updated annually or as necessitated by changes in 
staff assignments, occupancy, or the physical arrangement of 
the building. 

404.5 Availability. Fire safety and evacuation plans shall be 
available in the workplace for reference and review by employ- 
ees, and copies shall be furnished to the fire code official for 
review upon request. 



SECTION 405 
EMERGENCY EVACUATION DRILLS 

405.1 General. Emergency evacuation drills complying with 
the provisions of this section shall be conducted at least annu- I 
ally in the occupancies listed in Section 404.2 or when required I 
by the fire code official. Drills shall be designed in cooperation 
with the local authorities. 

405.2 Frequency. Required emergency evacuation drills shall 
be held at the intervals specified in Table 405.2 or more fre- 
quently where necessary to familiarize all occupants with the 
drill procedure. 

405.3 Leadership. Responsibility for the planning and con- 
duct of drills shall be assigned to competent persons designated 
to exercise leadership. 

405.4 Time. Drills shall be held at unexpected times and under 
varying conditions to simulate the unusual conditions that 
occur in case of fire. 

405.5 Record keeping. Records shall be maintained of 
required emergency evacuation drills and include the following 
information: 

1. Identity of the person conducting the drill. 

2. Date and time of the drill. 

3. Notification method used. 

4. Staff members on duty and participating. 

5. Number of occupants evacuated. 



36 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



EMERGENCY PLANNING AND PREPAREDNESS 



6. Special conditions simulated. 

7. Problems encountered. 

8. Weather conditions when occupants were evacuated. 

9. Time required to accomplish complete evacuation. 



TABLE 405.2 

FIRE AND EVACUATION DRILL 

FREQUENCY AND PARTICIPATION 



GROUP OR 
OCCUPANCY 


FREQUENCY 


PARTICIPATION 


Group A 


Quarterly 


Employees 


Group B= 


Annually 


Employees 


Group E 


Monthly'^ 


All occupants 


Group I 


Quarterly on each shift 


Employees'' 


Group R-1 


Quarterly on each shift 


Employees 


Group R-2'' 


Four annually 


All occupants 


Group R-4 


Quarterly on each shift 


Employees"' 


High-rise buildings 


Annually 


Employees 



a. The frequency shall be allowed to be modified in accordance with Section 
408.3.2. 

b. Fire and evacuation drills in residential care assisted living facilities shall 
include complete evacuation of the premises in accordance with Section 
408.10.5. Where occupants receive habilitation or rehabilitation training, 
fire prevention and fire safety practices shall be included as part of the train- 
ing program. 

c. Group B buildings having an occupant load of 500 or more persons or more 
than 100 persons above or below the lowest level of exit discharge. 

d. Applicable to Group R-2 college and university buildings in accordance 
with Section 408.3. 

405.6 Notification. Where required by the fire code official, 
prior notification of emergency evacuation drills shall be given 
to the fire code official. 

405.7 Initiation. Where a fire alarm system is provided, emer- 
gency evacuation drills shall be initiated by activating the fire 
alarm system. 

405.8 Accountability. As building occupants arrive at the 
assembly point, efforts shall be made to determine if all occu- 
pants have been successfully evacuated or have been accounted 
for. 

405.9 Recall and reentry. An electrically or mechanically 
operated signal used to recall occupants after an evacuation 
shall be separate and distinct from the signal used to initiate the 
evacuation. The recall signal initiation means shall be manu- 
ally operated and under the control of the person in charge of 
the premises or the official in charge of the incident. No one 
shall reenter the premises until authorized to do so by the offi- 
cial in charge. 



SECTION 406 

EMPLOYEE TRAINING AND RESPONSE 

PROCEDURES 

406.1 General. Employees in the occupancies listed in Section 

404.2 shall be trained in the fire emergency procedures 



described in their fire evacuation and fire safety plans. Training 
shall be based on these plans and as described in Section 404.3. 

406.2 Frequency. Employees shall receive training in the con- 
tents of fire safety and evacuation plans and their duties as part 
of new employee orientation and at least annually thereafter. 
Records shall be kept and made available to the fire code offi- 
cial upon request. 

406.3 Employee training program. Employees shall be 
trained in fire prevention, evacuation and fire safety in accor- 
dance with Sections 406.3.1 through 406.3.3. 

406.3.1 Fire prevention training. Employees shall be 
apprised of the fire hazards of the materials and processes to 
which they are exposed. Each employee shall be instructed 
in the proper procedures for preventing fires in the conduct 
of their assigned duties. 

406.3.2 Evacuation training. Employees shall be familiar- 
ized with the fire alarm and evacuation signals, their 
assigned duties in the event of an alarm or emergency, evac- 
uation routes, areas of refuge, exterior assembly areas, and 
procedures for evacuation. 

406.3.3 Fire safety training. Employees assigned 
fire-fighting duties shall be trained to know the locations 
and proper use of portable fire extinguishers or other man- 
ual fire-fighting equipment and the protective clothing or 
equipment required for its safe and proper use. 



SECTION 407 
HAZARD COMMUNICATION 

407.1 General. The provisions of Sections 407.2 through 
407.7 shall be applicable where hazardous materials subject to 
permits under Section 2701.5 are located on the premises or 
where required by the fire code official. 

407.2 Material Safety Data Sheets. Material Safety Data 
Sheets (MSDS) for all hazardous materials shall be readily 
available on the premises. 

407.3 Identification. Individual containers of hazardous mate- 
rials, cartons or packages shall be marked or labeled in accor- 
dance with applicable federal regulations. Buildings, rooms 
and spaces containing hazardous materials shall be identified 
by hazard warning signs in accordance with Section 2703.5. 

407.4 Training. Persons responsible for the operation of areas 
in which hazardous materials are stored, dispensed, handled or 
used shall be familiar with the chemical nature of the materials 
and the appropriate mitigating actions necessary in the event of 
a fire, leak or spill. Responsible persons shall be designated and 
trained to be liaison personnel for the fire department. These 
persons shall aid the fire department in preplanning emergency 
responses and identification of the locations where hazardous 
materials are located, and shall have access to Material Safety 
Data Sheets and be knowledgeable in the site emergency 
response procedures. 

407.5 Hazardous Materials Inventory Statement. Where 
required by the fire code official, each application for a permit 
shall include a Hazardous Materials Inventory Statement 
(HMIS) in accordance with Section 2701.5.2. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



37 



EMERGENCY PLANNING AND PREPAREDNESS 



407.6 Hazardous Materials Management Plan. Where 
required by the fire code official, each apphcation for a permit 
shall include a Hazardous Materials Management Plan 
(HMMP) in accordance with Section 2701.5.1. The fire code 
official is authorized to accept a similar plan required by other 
regulations. 

407.7 Facility closure plans. The permit holder or applicant 
shall submit to the fire code official a facility closure plan in 
accordance with Section 2701.6.3 to terminate storage, dis- 
pensing, handling or use of hazardous materials. 



SECTION 408 
USE AND OCCUPANCY-RELATED REQUIREMENTS 

408.1 General. In addition to the other requirements of this 
chapter, the provisions of this section are applicable to specific 
occupancies listed herein. 

408.2 Group A occupancies. Group A occupancies shall com- 
ply with the requirements of Sections 408.2.1 and 408.2.2 and 
Sections 401 through 406. 

408.2.1 Seating plan. The fire safety and evacuation plans 
for assembly occupancies shall include the information 
required by Section 404.3 and a detailed seating plan, occu- 
pant load, and occupant load limit. Deviations from the 
approved plans shall be allowed provided the occupant load 
limit for the occupancy is not exceeded and the aisles and 
exit accessways remain unobstructed. 

408.2.2 Announcements. In theaters, motion picture the- 
aters, auditoriums and similar assembly occupancies in 
Group A used for noncontinuous programs, an audible 
announcement shall be made not more than 10 minutes prior 
to the start of each program to notify the occupants of the 
location of the exits to be used in the event of a fire or other 
emergency. 

Exception: In motion picture theaters, the announce- 
ment is allowed to be projected upon the screen in a man- 
ner approved by the fire code official. 

408.3 Group E occupancies and Group R-2 college and uni- 
versity buildings. Group E occupancies shall comply with the 
requirements of Sections 408 .3.1 through 408 .3 .4 and Sections 
401 through 406. Group R-2 college and university buildings 
shall comply with the requirements of Sections 408.3.1 and 
408.3.3 and Sections 401 through 406. 

408.3.1 First emergency evacuation drill. The first emer- 
gency evacuation drill of each school year shall be con- 
ducted within 10 days of the beginning of classes. 

408.3.2 Emergency evacuation drill deferral. In severe 
climates, the fire code official shall have the authority to 
modify the emergency evacuation drill frequency specified 
in Section 405.2. 

408.3.3 Time of day. Emergency evacuation drills shall be 
conducted at different hours of the day or evening, during 
the changing of classes, when the school is at assembly, dur- 
ing the recess or gymnastic periods, or during other times to 
avoid distinction between drills and actual fires. In Group 



R-2 college and university buildings, one required drill shall I 
be held during hours after sunset or before sunrise. I( 

408.3.4 Assembly points. Outdoor assembly areas shall be 
designated and shall be located a safe distance from the 
building being evacuated so as to avoid interference with 
fire department operations. The assembly areas shall be 
arranged to keep each class separate to provide accountabil- 
ity of all individuals. 

408.4 Group H-5 occupancies. Group H-5 occupancies shall 
comply with the requirements of Sections 408.4.1 through 

408.4.4 and Sections 401 through 407. 

408.4.1 Plans and diagrams. In addition to the require- 
ments of Section 404 and Section 407.6, plans and diagrams 
shall be maintained in approved locations indicating the 
approximate plan for each area, the amount and type of 
HPM stored, handled and used, locations of shutoff valves 
for HPM supply piping, emergency telephone locations and 
locations of exits. 

408.4.2 Plan updating. The plans and diagrams required by 
Section 408.4.1 shall be maintained up to date and the fire 
code official and fire department shall be informed of all 
major changes. 

408.4.3 Emergency response team. Responsible persons 
shall be designated the on-site emergency response team 
and trained to be liaison personnel for the fire department. 
These persons shall aid the fire department in preplanning 
emergency responses, identifying locations where HPM is 
stored, handled and used, and be familiar with the chemical 
nature of such material. An adequate number of personnel 
for each work shift shall be designated. 

408.4.4 Emergency drills. Emergency drills of the on-site 
emergency response team shall be conducted on a regular 
basis but not less than once every three months. Records of 
drills conducted shall be maintained. 

408.5 Group I-l occupancies. Group I-l occupancies shall 
comply with the requirements of Sections 408.5.1 through 

408.5.5 and Sections 401 through 406. 

408.5.1 Fire safety and evacuation plan. The fire safety 
and evacuation plan required by Section 404 shall include 
special staff actions including fire protection procedures 
necessary for residents and shall be amended or revised 
upon admission of any resident with unusual needs. 

408.5.2 Staff training. Employees shall be periodically 
instructed and kept informed of their duties and responsibil- 
ities under the plan. Such instruction shall be reviewed by 
the staff at least every two months. A copy of the plan shall 
be readily available at all times within the facility. 

408.5.3 Resident training. Residents capable of assisting 
in their own evacuation shall be trained in the proper actions 
to take in the event of a fire. The training shall include 
actions to take if the primary escape route is blocked. Where 
the resident is given rehabilitation or habilitation training, 
training in fire prevention and actions to take in the event of 
a fire shall be a part of the rehabilitation training program. 
Residents shall be trained to assist each other in case of fire 



38 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE^ 



EMERGENCY PLANNING AND PREPAREDNESS 



to the extent their physical and mental abilities permit them 
to do so without additional personal risk. 

408.5.4 Drill frequency. Emergency evacuation drills shall 
be conducted at least six times per year, two times per year 
on each shift. Twelve drills shall be conducted in the first 
year of operation. Drills are not required to comply with the 
time requirements of Section 405.4. 

408.5.5 Resident participation. Emergency evacuation 
drills shall involve the actual evacuation of residents to a 
selected assembly point. 

408.6 Group 1-2 occupancies. Group 1-2 occupancies shall 
comply with the requirements of Sections 408.6.1 and 408.6.2 
and Sections 401 through 406. Drills are not required to com- 
ply with the time requirements of Section 405.4. 

408.6.1 Evacuation not required. During emergency 
evacuation drills, the movement of patients to safe areas or 
to the exterior of the building is not required. 

408.6.2 Coded alarm signal. When emergency evacuation 
drills are conducted after visiting hours or when patients or 
residents are expected to be asleep, a coded announcement 
is allowed instead of audible alarms. 

408.7 Group 1-3 occupancies. Group 1-3 occupancies shall 
comply with the requirements of Sections 408.7.1 through 
408.7.4 and Sections 401 through 406. 

408.7.1 Employee training. Employees shall be instructed 
in the proper use of portable fire extinguishers and other 
manual fire suppression equipment. Training of new staff 
shall be provided promptly upon entrance on duty. 
Refresher training shall be provided at least annually. 

408.7.2 Staffing. Group 1-3 occupancies shall be provided 
with 24-hour staffing. Staff shall be within three floors or 
300 feet (91 440 mm) horizontal distance of the access door 
of each resident housing area. In Use Conditions 3, 4 and 5, 
as defined in Chapter 2, the arrangement shall be such that 
the staff involved can start release of locks necessary for 
emergency evacuation or rescue and initiate other necessary 
emergency actions within 2 minutes of an alarm. 

Exception: Staff shall not be required to be within three 
floors or 300 feet (9144 mm) in areas in which all locks 
are unlocked remotely and automatically in accordance 
with Section 408.4 of the International Building Code. 

408.7.3 Notification. Provisions shall be made for residents 
in Use Conditions 3, 4 and 5, as defined in Chapter 2, to 
readily notify staff of an emergency. 

408.7.4 Keys. Keys necessary for unlocking doors installed 
in a means of egress shall be individually identifiable by 
both touch and sight. 

408.8 Group R-1 occupancies. Group R-1 occupancies shall 
comply with the requirements of Sections 408.8.1 through 
408.8.3 and Sections 401 through 406. 

408.8.1 Evacuation diagrams. A diagram depicting two 
evacuation routes shall be posted on or immediately adja- 
cent to every required egress door from each hotel, motel or 
dormitory sleeping unit. 



408.8.2 Emergency duties. Upon discovery of a fire or sus- 
pected fire, hotel, motel and dormitory employees shall per- 
form the following duties: 

1 . Activate the fire alarm system, where provided. 

2. Notify the public fire department. 

3. Take other action as previously instructed. 

408.8.3 Fire safety and evacuation instructions. Informa- 
tion shall be provided in the fire safety and evacuation plan 
required by Section 404 to allow guests to decide whether to 
evacuate to the outside, evacuate to an area of refuge, remain 
in place, or any combination of the three. 

408.9 Group R-2 occupancies. Group R-2 occupancies shall 
comply with the requirements of Sections 408.9.1 through 
408.9.3 and Sections 401 through 406. 

408.9.1 Emergency guide. A fire emergency guide shall be 
provided which describes the location, function and use of 
fire protection equipment and appliances accessible to resi- 
dents, including fire alarm systems, smoke alarms, and por- 
table fire extinguishers. The guide shall also include an 
emergency evacuation plan for each dwelling unit. 

408.9.2 Maintenance. Emergency guides shall be reviewed 
and approved in accordance with Section 401.2. 

408.9.3 Distribution. A copy of the emergency guide shall 
be given to each tenant prior to initial occupancy. 

408.10 Group R-4 occupancies. Group R-4 occupancies shall 
comply with the requirements of Sections 408.10.1 through 
408.10.5 and Sections 401 through 406. 

408.10.1 Fire safety and evacuation plan. The fire safety 
and evacuation plan required by Section 404 shall include 
special staff actions, including fire protection procedures 
necessary for residents, and shall be amended or revised 
upon admission of a resident with unusual needs. 

408.10.2 Staff training. Employees shall be periodically 
instructed and kept informed of their duties and responsibil- 
ities under the plan. Such instruction shall be reviewed by 
the staff at least every two months. A copy of the plan shall 
be readily available at all times within the facility. 

408.10.3 Resident training. Residents capable of assisting 
in their own evacuation shall be trained in the proper actions 
to take in the event of a fire. The training shall include 
actions to take if the primary escape route is blocked. Where 
the resident is given rehabilitation or habilitation training, 
training in fire prevention and actions to take in the event of 
a fire shall be a part of the rehabilitation training program. 
Residents shall be trained to assist each other in case of fire 
to the extent their physical and mental abilities permit them 
to do so without additional personal risk. 

408.10.4 Drill frequency. Emergency evacuation drills 
shall be conducted at least six times per year, two times per 
year on each shift. Twelve drills shall be conducted in the 
first year of operation. Drills are not required to comply with 
the time requirements of Section 405.4. 

408.10.5 Resident participation. Emergency evacuation 
drills shall involve the actual evacuation of residents to a 
selected assembly point and shall provide residents with 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE"" 



39 



EMERGENCY PLANNING AND PREPAREDNESS 



experience in exiting through all required exits. All required 4. Kept free from combustible waste and be broom- 

exits shall be used during emergency evacuation drills. swept clean. 

Exception: Actual exiting from windows shall not be 
required. Opening the window and signaling for help 
shall be an acceptable alternative. 

408.11 Covered mall buildings. Covered mall buildings shall 
comply with the provisions of Sections 408.11.1 through 
408.11.3. 

408.11.1 Lease plan. A lease plan shall be prepared for 
each covered mall building. The plan shall include the fol- 
lowing information in addition to that required by Section 
404.3.2: 

1 . Each occupancy, including identification of tenant. 

2. Exits from each tenant space. 

3. Fire protection features, including the following: 

3.1. Fire department connections. 

3.2. Fire command center. 

3.3. Smoke management system controls. 

3.4. Elevators and elevator controls. 

3.5. Hose valves outlets. 

3.6. Sprinkler and standpipe control valves. 

3.7. Automatic fire-extinguishing system areas. 

3.8. Automatic fire detector zones. 

3.9. Fire barriers. 

408.11.1.1 Approval. The lease plan shall be submitted 
to the fire code official for approval, and shall be main- 
tained on site for immediate reference by responding fire 
service personnel. 

408.11.1.2 Revisions. The lease plans shall be revised 
annually or as often as necessary to keep them current. 
Modifications or changes in tenants or occupancies shall 
not be made without prior approval of the fire code offi- 
cial and building official. 

408.11.2 Tenant identification. Each occupied tenant 
space provided with a secondary exit to the exterior or exit 
corridor shall be provided with tenant identification by busi- 
ness name and/or address. Letters and numbers shall be 
posted on the corridor side of the door, be plainly legible and 
shall contrast with their background. 

Exception: Tenant identification is not required for 
anchor stores. 

408.11.3 Maintenance. Unoccupied tenant spaces shall be: 

1. Kept free from the storage of any materials. 

2. Separated from the remainder of the building by parti- 
tions of at least 0.5-inch-thick (12.7 mm) gypsum 
board or an approved equivalent to the underside of 
the ceiling of the adjoining tenant spaces. 

3. Without doors or other access openings other than 
one door that shall be kept key locked in the closed 
position except during that time when opened for 
inspection. 

40 2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



CHAPTER 5 

FIRE SERVICE FEATURES 



SECTION 501 
GENERAL 

501.1 Scope. Fire service features for buildings, structures and 
premises shall comply with this chapter. 

501.2 Permits. A permit shall be required as set forth in Sec- 
tions 105.6 and 105.7. 

501.3 Construction documents. Construction documents for 
proposed fire apparatus access, location of fire lanes and con- 
struction documents and hydraulic calculations for fire hydrant 
systems shall be submitted to the fire department for review 
and approval prior to construction. 

501.4 Timing of installation. When fire apparatus access 
roads or a water supply for fire protection is required to be 
installed, such protection shall be installed and made service- 
able prior to and during the time of construction except when 
approved alternative methods of protection are provided. Tem- 
porary street signs shall be installed at each street intersection 
when construction of new roadways allows passage by vehi- 
cles in accordance with Section 505.2. 



SECTION 502 
DEFINITIONS 

502.1 Definitions. The following words and terms shall, for the 
purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this code, 
have the meanings shown herein. 

FIRE APPARATUS ACCESS ROAD. A road that provides 
fire apparatus access from a fire station to a facility, building or 
portion thereof. This is a general term inclusive of all other 
terms such as fire lane, public street, private street, parking lot 
lane and access roadway. 

FIRE COMMAND CENTER. The principal attended or 
unattended location where the status of the detection, alarm 
communications and control systems is displayed, and from 
which the system(s) can be manually controlled. 

FIRE DEPARTMENT MASTER KEY. A limited issue key 
of special or controlled design to be carried by fire department 
officials in command which will open key boxes on specified 
properties. 

FIRE LANE. A road or other passageway developed to allow 
the passage of fire apparatus. A fire lane is not necessarily 
intended for vehicular traffic other than fire apparatus. 

KEY BOX. A secure device with a lock operable only by a fire 
department master key, and containing building entry keys and 
other keys that may be required for access in an emergency. 



SECTION 503 
FIRE APPARATUS ACCESS ROADS 

503.1 Where required. Fire apparatus access roads shall be 
provided and maintained in accordance with Sections 503.1.1 
through 503.1.3. 

503.1.1 Buildings and facilities. Approved fire apparatus 
access roads shall be provided for every facility, building or 
portion of a building hereafter constructed or moved into or 
within the jurisdiction. The fire apparatus access road shall 
comply with the requirements of this section and shall 
extend to within 150 feet (45 720 mm) of all portions of the 
facility and all portions of the exterior walls of the first story 
of the building as measured by an approved route around the 
exterior of the building or facility. 

Exception: The fire code official is authorized to 
increase the dimension of 150 feet (45 720 mm) where: 

1. The building is equipped throughout with an 
approved automatic sprinkler system installed in 
accordance with Section 903.3.1.1, 903.3.1.2 or 
903.3.1.3. 

2. Fire apparatus access roads cannot be installed 
because of location on property, topography, 
waterways, nonnegotiable grades or other similar 
conditions, and an approved alternative means of 
fire protection is provided. 

3. There are not more than two Group R-3 or Group 
U occupancies. 

503.1.2 Additional access. The fire code official is autho- 
rized to require more than one fire apparatus access road 
based on the potential for impairment of a single road by 
vehicle congestion, condition of terrain, climatic conditions 
or other factors that could limit access. 

503.1.3 High-piled storage. Fire department vehicle access 
to buildings used for high-piled combustible storage shall 
comply with the applicable provisions of Chapter 23. 

503.2 Specifications. Fire apparatus access roads shall be 
installed and arranged in accordance with Sections 503.2.1 
through 503.2.7. 

503.2.1 Dimensions. Fire apparatus access roads shall have 
an unobstructed width of not less than 20 feet (6096 mm), 
except for approved security gates in accordance with Sec- 
tion 503.6, and an unobstructed vertical clearance of not less 
than 13 feet 6 inches (4115 mm). 

503.2.2 Authority. The fire code official shall have the 
authority to require an increase in the minimum access 
widths where they are inadequate for fire or rescue opera- 
tions. 

503.2.3 Surface. Fire apparatus access roads shall be 
designed and maintained to support the imposed loads of 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE*^ 



41 



FIRE SERVICE FEATURES 



fire apparatus and shall be surfaced so as to provide all- 
weather driving capabilities. 

503.2.4 Tbrning radius. The required turning radius of a 
fire apparatus access road shall be determined by the fire 
code official. 

503.2.5 Dead ends. Dead-end fire apparatus access roads in 
excess of 150 feet (45 720 mm) in length shall be provided 
with an approved area for turning around fire apparatus. 

503.2.6 Bridges and elevated surfaces. Where a bridge or 
an elevated surface is part of a fire apparatus access road, the 
bridge shall be constructed and maintained in accordance 
with AASHTO HB-17. Bridges and elevated surfaces shall 
be designed for a live load sufficient to carry the imposed 
loads of fire apparatus. Vehicle load limits shall be posted at 
both entrances to bridges when required by the fire code 
official. Where elevated surfaces designed for emergency 
vehicle use are adjacent to surfaces which are not designed 
for such use, approved barriers, approved signs or both shall 
be installed and maintained when required by the fire code 
official. 

503.2.7 Grade. The grade of the fire apparatus access road 
shall be within the limits established by the fire code official 
based on the fire department's apparatus. 

503.3 Marking. Where required by the fire code official, 
approved signs or other approved notices shall be provided for 
fire apparatus access roads to identify such roads or prohibit the 
obstruction thereof. Signs or notices shall be maintained in a 
clean and legible condition at all times and be replaced or 
repaired when necessary to provide adequate visibility. 

503.4 Obstruction of fire apparatus access roads. Fire appa- 
ratus access roads shall not be obstructed in any manner, 
including the parking of vehicles. The minimum widths and 
clearances established in Section 503.2.1 shall be maintained 
at all times. 

503.5 Required gates or barricades. The fire code official is 
authorized to require the installation and maintenance of gates 
or other approved barricades across fire apparatus access 
roads, trails or other accessways, not including public streets, 
alleys or highways. 

503.5.1 Secured gates and barricades. When required, 
gates and barricades shall be secured in an approved man- 
ner. Roads, trails and other accessways that have been 
closed and obstructed in the manner prescribed by Section 
503.5 shall not be trespassed on or used unless authorized 
by the owner and the fire code official. 

Exception: The restriction on use shall not apply to pub- 
lic officers acting within the scope of duty. 

503.6 Security gates. The installation of security gates across a 
fire apparatus access road shall be approved by the fire chief. 
Where security gates are installed, they shall have an approved 
means of emergency operation. The security gates and the 
emergency operation shall be maintained operational at all 
times. 



SECTION 504 
ACCESS TO BUILDING OPENINGS AND ROOFS 

504.1 Required access. Exterior doors and openings required 
by this code or the International Building Code shall be main- 
tained readily accessible for emergency access by the fire 
department. An approved access walkway leading from fire 
apparatus access roads to exterior openings shall be provided 
when required by the fire code official. 

504.2 Maintenance of exterior doors and openings. Exterior 
doors and their function shall not be eliminated without prior 
approval. Exterior doors that have been rendered nonfunc- 
tional and that retain a functional door exterior appearance 
shall have a sign affixed to the exterior side of the door with the 
words THIS DOOR BLOCKED. The sign shall consist of let- 
ters having a principal stroke of not less than 0.75 inch (19.1 
mm) wide and at least 6 inches (152 mm) high on a contrasting 
background. Required fire department access doors shall not 
be obstructed or eliminated. Exit and exit access doors shall 
comply with Chapter 10. Access doors for high-piled combus- 
tible storage shall comply with Section 2306.6. 1 . 

504.3 Stairway access to roof. New buildings four or more 
stories in height, except those with a roof slope greater than 
four units vertical in 12 units horizontal (33.3 percent slope), 
shall be provided with a stairway to the roof Stairway access to 
the roof shall be in accordance with Section 1009.12. Such 
stairway shall be marked at street and floor levels with a sign 
indicating that the stairway continues to the roof. Where roofs 
are used for roof gardens or for other purposes, stairways shall 
be provided as required for such occupancy classification. 



SECTION 505 
PREMISES IDENTIFICATION 

505.1 Address numbers. New and existing buildings shall 
have approved address numbers, building numbers or 
approved building identification placed in a position that is 
plainly legible and visible from the street or road fronting the 
property. These numbers shall contrast with their background. 
Address numbers shall be Arabic numerals or alphabet letters. 
Numbers shall be a minimum of 4 inches (102 mm) high with a 
minimum stroke width of 0.5 inch (12.7 mm). 

505.2 Street or road signs. Streets and roads shall be identified 
with approved signs. Temporary signs shall be installed at each 
street intersection when construction of new roadways allows 
passage by vehicles. Signs shall be of an approved size, 
weather resistant and be maintained until replaced by perma- 
nent signs. 



SECTION 506 
KEY BOXES 

506.1 Where required. Where access to or within a structure 
or an area is restricted because of secured openings or where 
immediate access is necessary for life-saving or fire-fighting 
purposes, the fire code official is authorized to require a key 
box to be installed in an approved location. The key box shall 
be of an approved type and shall contain keys to gain necessary 
access as required by the fire code official. 



42 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE'' 



FIRE SERVICE FEATURES 



506.1.1 Locks. An approved lock shall be installed on gates 
or similar barriers when required by the fire code official. 

506.2 Key box maintenance. The operator of the building 
shall immediately notify the fire code official and provide the 
new key when a lock is changed or rekeyed. The key to such 
lock shall be secured in the key box. 



SECTION 507 
HAZARDS TO FIRE FIGHTERS 

507.1 Trapdoors to be closed. Trapdoors and scuttle covers, 
other than those that are within a dwelling unit or automatically 
operated, shall be kept closed at all times except when in use. 

507.2 Shaftway markings. Vertical shafts shall be identified 
as required by this section. 

507.2.1 Exterior access to shaftways. Outside openings 
accessible to the fire department and which open directly on 
a hoistway or shaftway communicating between two or 
more floors in a building shall be plainly marked with the 
word SHAFTWAY in red letters at least 6 inches (152 mm) 
high on a white background. Such warning signs shall be 
placed so as to be readily discernible from the outside of the 
building. 

507.2.2 Interior access to shaftways. Door or window 
openings to a hoistway or shaftway from the interior of the 
building shall be plainly marked with the word 
SHAFTWAY in red letters at least 6 inches (152 mm) high 
on a white background. Such warning signs shall be placed 
so as to be readily discernible. 

Exception: Marking shall not be required on shaftway 
openings which are readily discernible as openings onto 
a shaftway by the construction or arrangement. 

507.3 Pitfalls. The intentional design or alteration of buildings 
to disable, injure, maim or kill intruders is prohibited. No per- 
son shall install and use firearms, sharp or pointed objects, 
razor wire, explosives, flammable or combustible liquid con- 
tainers, or dispensers containing highly toxic, toxic, irritant or 
other hazardous materials in a manner which may passively or 
actively disable, injure, maim or kill a fire fighter who forcibly 
enters a building for the purpose of controlling or extinguishing 
a fire, rescuing trapped occupants or rendering other emer- 
gency assistance. 



SECTION 508 
FIRE PROTECTION WATER SUPPLIES 

508.1 Required water supply. An approved water supply 
capable of supplying the required fire flow for fire protection 
shall be provided to premises upon which facilities, buildings 
or portions of buildings are hereafter constructed or moved into 
or within the jurisdiction. 

508.2 Type of water supply. A water supply shall consist of 
reservoirs, pressure tanks, elevated tanks, water mains or other 
fixed systems capable of providing the required fire flow. 

508.2.1 Private fire service mains. Private fire service 
mains and appurtenances shall be installed in accordance 
with NFPA 24. 



508.2.2 Water tanks. Water tanks for private fire protection 
shall be installed in accordance with NFPA 22. 

508.3 Fire flow. Fire flow requirements for buildings or por- 
tions of buildings and facilities shall be determined by an 
approved method. 

508.4 Water supply test. The fire code official shall be noti- 
fied prior to the water supply test. Water supply tests shall be 
witnessed by the fire code official or approved documentation 
of the test shall be provided to the fire code official prior to final 
approval of the water supply system. 

508.5 Fire hydrant systems. Fire hydrant systems shall com- 
ply with Sections 508.5.1 through 508.5.6. 

508.5.1 Where required. Where a portion of the facility or 
building hereafter constructed or moved into or within the 
jurisdiction is more than 400 feet (122 m) from a hydrant on 
a fire apparatus access road, as measured by an approved 
route around the exterior of the facility or building, on-site 
fire hydrants and mains shall be provided where required by 
the fire code official. 

Exceptions: 

1. For Group R-3 and Group U occupancies, the dis- 
tance requirement shall be 600 feet (183 m). 

2. For buildings equipped throughout with an 
approved automatic sprinkler system installed in 
accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2, 
the distance requirement shall be 600 feet (183 m). 

508.5.2 Inspection, testing and maintenance. Fire 
hydrant systems shall be subject to periodic tests as required 
by the fire code official. Fire hydrant systems shall be main- 
tained in an operative condition at all times and shall be 
repaired where defective. Additions, repairs, alterations and 
servicing shall comply with approved standards. 

508.5.3 Private fire service mains and water tanks. Pri- 
vate fire service mains and water tanks shall be periodically 
inspected, tested and maintained in accordance with NFPA 
25 at the following intervals: 

1. Private fire hydrants (all types): Inspection annually 
and after each operation; flow test and maintenance 
annually. 

2. Fire service main piping: Inspection of exposed, 
annually; flow test every 5 years. 

3. Fire service main piping strainers: Inspection and 
maintenance after each use. 

508.5.4 Obstruction. Posts, fences, vehicles, growth, trash, 
storage and other materials or objects shall not be placed or 
kept near fire hydrants, fire department inlet connections or 
fire protection system control valves in a manner that would 
prevent such equipment or fire hydrants from being imme- 
diately discernible. The fire department shall not be deterred 
or hindered from gaining immediate access to fire protec- 
tion equipment or fire hydrants. 

508.5.5 Clear space around hydrants. A 3 -foot (914 mm) 
clear space shall be maintained around the circumference of 
fire hydrants except as otherwise required or approved. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE'' 



43 



FIRE SERVICE FEATURES 



508.5.6 Physical protection. Where fire hydrants are sub- 
ject to impact by a motor vehicle, guard posts or other 
approved means shall comply with Section 312. 



SECTION 509 
FIRE COMMAND CENTER 

509.1 Features. Where required by other sections of this code 
and in all buildings classified as high-rise buildings by the 
International Building Code, a fire command center for fire 
department operations shall be provided. The location and 
accessibility of the fire command center shall be approved by 
the fire department. The fire command center shall be sepa- 
rated from the remainder of the building by not less than a 1- 
hour fire barrier constructed in accordance with Section 706 of 
the International Building Code or horizontal assembly con- 
structed in accordance with Section 711 of the International 
Building Code, or both. The room shall be a minimum of 96 
square feet (9 m^) with a minimum dimension of 8 feet (2438 
mm). A layout of the fire command center and all features 
required by this section to be contained therein shall be submit- 
ted for approval prior to installation. The fire command center 
shall comply with NFPA 72 and shall contain the following fea- 
tures: 

1. The emergency voice/alarm communication system 
unit. 

2. The fire department communications system. 

3. Fire-detection and alarm system annunciator system. 

4. Annunciator visually indicating the location of the ele- 
vators and whether they are operational. 

5. Status indicators and controls for air-handling systems. 

6. The fire-fighter's control panel required by Section 
909. 1 6 for smoke control systems installed in the build- 
ing. 

7 . Controls for unlocking stairway doors simultaneously . 

8 . Sprinkler valve and water-flow detector display panels. 

9. Emergency and standby power status indicators. 

10. A telephone for fire department use with controlled 
access to the public telephone system. 

1 1 . Fire pump status indicators. 

12. Schematic building plans indicating the typical floor 
plan and detailing the building core, means of egress, 
fire protection systems, fire-fighting equipment and 
fire department access. 

13. Work table. 

14. Generator supervision devices, manual start and trans- 
fer features. 

15. Pubhc address system, where specifically required by 
other sections of this code. 



SECTION 510 
FIRE DEPARTMENT ACCESS TO EQUIPMENT 

510.1 Identification. Fire protection equipment shall be iden- 
tified in an approved manner. Rooms containing controls for 
air-conditioning systems, sprinkler risers and valves, or other 
fire detection, suppression or control elements shall be identi- 
fied for the use of the fire department. Approved signs required 
to identify fire protection equipment and equipment location, 
shall be constructed of durable materials, permanently 
installed and readily visible. 



44 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE'' 



• 



CHAPTER 6 

BUILDING SERVICES AND SYSTEMS 



SECTION 601 
GENERAL 

601.1 Scope. The provisions of this chapter shall apply to the 
installation, operation and maintenance of fuel-fired appli- 
ances and heating systems, emergency and standby power sys- 
tems, electrical systems and equipment, mechanical 
refrigeration systems, elevator recall, stationary storage battery 
systems and commercial kitchen hoods. 

601.2 Permits. Permits shall be obtained for refrigeration sys- 
tems and battery systems as set forth in Sections 105.6 and 
105.7. 



SECTION 602 
DEFINITIONS 

602.1 Definitions. The following words and terms shall, for the 
purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this code, 
have the meanings shown herein. 

BATTERY SYSTEM, STATIONARY LEAD ACID. A sys 

tem which consists of three interconnected subsystems: 

1 . A lead-acid battery. 

2. A battery charger. 

3. A collection of rectifiers, inverters, converters, and asso- 
ciated electrical equipment as required for a particular 
application. 

BATTERY TYPES 

Nickel cadmium (Ni-Cd) battery. An alkaline storage bat- 
tery in which the positive active material is nickel oxide, the 
negative contains cadmium and the electrolyte is potassium 
hydroxide. 

Nonrecombinant battery. A storage battery in which, 
under conditions of normal use, hydrogen and oxygen gas- 
ses created by electrolysis are vented into the air outside of 
the battery. 

Recombinant battery. A storage battery in which, under 
conditions of normal use, hydrogen and oxygen gases cre- 
ated by electrolysis are converted back into water inside the 
battery instead of venting into the air outside of the battery. 

Stationary storage battery. A group of electrochemical 
cells interconnected to supply a nominal voltage of DC 
power to a suitably connected electrical load, designed for 
service in a permanent location. The number of cells con- 
nected in a series determines the nominal voltage rating of 
the battery. The size of the cells determines the discharge 
capacity of the entire battery. After discharge, it may be 
restored to a fully charged condition by an electric current 
flowing in a direction opposite to the flow of current when 
the battery is discharged. 

Valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) battery. A lead-acid 
battery consisting of sealed cells furnished with a valve that 



opens to vent the battery whenever the internal pressure of 
the battery exceeds the ambient pressure by a set amount. In 
VRLA batteries, the liquid electrolyte in the cells is immo- 
bilized in an absorptive glass mat (AGM cells or batteries) 
or by the addition of a gelling agent (gel cells or gelled bat- 
teries). 

Vented (Flooded) lead-acid battery. A lead-acid battery 
consisting of cells that have electrodes immersed in liquid 
electrolyte. Flooded lead-acid batteries have a provision for 
the user to add water to the cell and are equipped with a 
flame-arresting vent which permits the escape of hydrogen 
and oxygen gas from the cell in a diffused manner such that 
a spark, or other ignition source, outside the cell will not 
ignite the gases inside the cell. 

[M] COMMERCIAL COOKING APPLIANCES. Appli- 
ances used in a commercial food service establishment for 
heating or cooking food and which produce grease vapors, 
steam, fumes, smoke or odors that are required to be removed 
through a local exhaust ventilation system. Such appliances 
include deep fat fryers; upright broilers; griddles; broilers; 
steam-jacketed kettles; hot-top ranges; under-fired broilers 
(charbroilers); ovens; barbecues; rotisseries; and similar appli- 
ances. For the purpose of this definition, a food service estab- 
lishment shall include any building or a portion thereof used for 
the preparation and serving of food. 

[M] HOOD. An air-intake device used to capture by entrap- 
ment, impingement, adhesion or similar means, grease and 
similar contaminants before they enter a duct system. 

Type I. A kitchen hood for collecting and removing grease 
vapors and smoke. 

REFRIGERANT. The fluid used for heat transfer in a refrig- 
erating system; the refrigerant absorbs heat and transfers it at a 
higher temperature and a higher pressure, usually with a 
change of state. 

REFRIGERATION SYSTEM. A combination of intercon- 
nected refrigerant-containing parts constituting one closed 
refrigerant circuit in which a refrigerant is circulated for the 
purpose of extracting heat. 



SECTION 603 
FUEL-FIRED APPLIANCES 

603.1 Installation. The installation of nonportable fuel gas 
appliances and systems shall comply the International Fuel 
Gas Code. The installation of all other fuel-fired appliances, 
other than internal combustion engines, oil lamps and portable 
devices such as blow torches, melting pots and weed burners, 
shall comply with this section and the International Mechani- 
cal Code. 

603.1.1 Manufacturer's instructions. The installation 
shall be made in accordance with the manufacturer's 
instructions and applicable federal, state, and local rules and 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE'' 



45 



BUILDING SERVICES AND SYSTEMS 



regulations. Where it becomes necessary to change, modify, 
or alter a manufacturer's instructions in any way, written 
approval shall first be obtained from the manufacturer. 

603.1.2 Approval. The design, construction and installa- 
tion of fuel-fired appliances shall be in accordance with the 
International Fuel Gas Code and the International 
Mechanical Code. 

603.1.3 Electrical wiring and equipment. Electrical wir- 
ing and equipment used in connection with oil-burning 
equipment shall be installed and maintained in accordance 
with Section 605 and the ICC Electrical Code. 

603.1.4 Fuel oil. The grade of fuel oil used in a burner shall 
be that for which the burner is approved and as stipulated by 
the burner manufacturer. Oil containing gasoline shall not 
be used. Waste crankcase oil shall be an acceptable fuel in 
Group F, M and S occupancies, when utilized in equipment 
listed for use with waste oil and when such equipment is 
installed in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions 
and the terms of its listing. 

603.1.5 Access. The installation shall be readily accessible 
for cleaning hot surfaces; removing burners; replacing 
motors, controls, air filters, chimney connectors, draft regu- 
lators, and other working parts; and for adjusting, cleaning 
and lubricating parts. 

603.1.6 Testing, diagrams and instructions. After instal- 
lation of the oil-burning equipment, operation and combus- 
tion performance tests shall be conducted to determine that 
the burner is in proper operating condition and that all 
accessory equipment, controls, and safety devices function 
properly. 

603.1.6.1 Diagrams. Contractors instalHng industrial 
oil-burning systems shall furnish not less than two copies 
of diagrams showing the main oil lines and controlling 
valves, one copy of which shall be posted at the oil-burn- 
ing equipment and another at an approved location that 
will be accessible in case of emergency. 

603.1.6.2 Instructions. After completing the installa- 
tion, the installer shall instruct the owner or operator in 
the proper operation of the equipment. The installer shall 
also furnish the owner or operator with the name and 
telephone number of persons to contact for technical 
information or assistance and routine or emergency ser- 
vices. 

603.1.7 Clearances. Working clearances between oil-fired 
appliances and electrical panelboards and equipment shall 
be in accordance with the ICC Electrical Code. Clearances 
between oil-fired equipment and oil supply tanks shall be in 
accordance with NFPA 3 1 . 

[B, M, FG] 603.2 Chimneys. Masonry chimneys shall be con- 
structed in accordance with the International Building Code. 
Factory-built chimneys shall be installed in accordance with 
the International Mechanical Code. Metal chimneys shall be 
constructed and installed in accordance with NFPA 211. 

603.3 Fuel oil storage systems. Fuel oil storage systems shall 
be installed in accordance with this code. Fuel oil piping sys- 



tems shall be installed in accordance with the International 
Mechanical Code. 

603.3.1 Maximum outside fuel oil storage above ground. 

Where connected to a fuel-oil piping system, the maximum 
amount of fuel oil storage allowed outside above ground 
without additional protection shall be 660 gallons (2498 L). 
The storage of fuel oil above ground in quantities exceeding 
660 gallons (2498 L) shall comply with NFPA 31. 

603.3.2 Maximum inside fuel oil storage. Where con- 
nected to a fuel-oil piping system, the maximum amount of 
fuel oil storage allowed inside any building shall be 660 gal- 
lons (2498 L). Where the amount of fuel oil stored inside a 
building exceeds 660 gallons (2498 L), the storage area 
shall be in compliance with the International Building 
Code. 

603.3.3 Underground storage of fuel oil. The storage of 
fuel oil in underground storage tanks shall comply with 
NFPA 31. 

603.4 Portable unvented heaters. Portable unvented 
fuel-fired heating equipment shall be prohibited in occupan- 
cies in Groups A, E, I, R-1, R-2, R-3 and R-4. 

Exception: Listed and approved unvented fuel-fired heaters 
in one- and two-family dwellings. 

603.4.1 Prohibited locations. Unvented fuel-fired heating 
equipment shall not be located in, or obtain combustion air 
from, any of the following rooms or spaces: sleeping rooms, 
bathrooms, toilet rooms or storage closets. 

603.5 Heating appliances. Heating appliances shall be listed 
and shall comply with this section. 

603.5.1 Guard against contact. The heating element or 
combustion chamber shall be permanently guarded so as to 
prevent accidental contact by persons or material. 

603.5.2 Heating appliance installation and maintenance. 

Heating appliances shall be installed and maintained in 
accordance with the manufacturer's instructions, the Inter- 
national Building Code, the International Mechanical 
Code, the International Fuel Gas Code and the ICC Electri- 
cal Code. 

603.6 Chimneys and appliances. Chimneys, incinerators, 
smokestacks or similar devices for conveying smoke or hot 
gases to the outer air and the stoves, furnaces, fireboxes or boil- 
ers to which such devices are connected, shall be maintained so 
as not to create a fire hazard. 

603.6.1 Masonry chimneys. Masonry chimneys that, upon 
inspection, are found to be without a flue liner and that have 
open mortar joints which will permit smoke or gases to bed 
as to be dangerous, shall be repaired or relined with a listed 
chimne discharged into the building, or which are crackey 
liner system installed in accordance with the manufacturer's 
installation instructions or a flue lining system installed in 
accordance with the requirements of the International 
Building Code and appropriate for the intended class of 
chimney service. 

603.6.2 Metal chimneys. Metal chimneys which are cor- 
roded or improperly supported shall be repaired or replaced. 



46 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE'' 



BUILDING SERVICES AND SYSTEMS 



603.6.3 Decorative shrouds. Decorative shrouds installed 
at the termination of factory-built chimneys shall be 
removed except where such shrouds are listed and labeled 
for use with the specific factory-built chimney system and 
are installed in accordance with the chimney manufacturer's 
installation instructions. 

603.6.4 Factory-built chimneys. Existing factory-built 
chimneys that are damaged, corroded or improperly sup- 
ported shall be repaired or replaced. 

603.6.5 Connectors. Existing chimney and vent connectors 
that are damaged, corroded or improperly supported shall 
be repaired or replaced. 

603.7 Discontinuing operation of unsafe heating appli- 
ances. The fire code official is authorized to order that mea- 
sures be taken to prevent the operation of any existing stove, 
oven, furnace, incinerator, boiler or any other heat-producing 
device or appliance found to be defective or in violation of code 
requirements for existing appliances after giving notice to this 
effect to any person, owner, firm or agent or operator in charge 
of the same. The fire code official is authorized to take mea- 
sures to prevent the operation of any device or appliance with- 
out notice when inspection shows the existence of an 
immediate fire hazard or when imperiling human life. The 
defective device shall remain withdrawn from service until all 
necessary repairs or alterations have been made. 

603.7.1 Unauthorized operation. It shall be a violation of 
this code for any person, user, firm or agent to continue the 
utilization of any device or appliance (the operation of 
which has been discontinued or ordered discontinued in 
accordance with Section 603.7), unless written authority to 
resume operation is given by the fire code official. Remov- 
ing or breaking the means by which operation of the device 
is prevented shall be a violation of this code. 

603.8 Incinerators. Commercial, industrial and residen- 
fial-type incinerators and chimneys shall be constructed in 
accordance with the International Building Code, the Interna- 
tional Fuel Gas Code and the International Mechanical Code. 

603.8.1 Residential incinerators. Residential incinerators 
shall be of an approved type. 

603.8.2 Spark arrestor. Incinerators shall be equipped with 
an effective means for arresting sparks. 

603.8.3 Restrictions. Where the fire code official deter- 
mines that burning in incinerators located within 500 feet 
(152 m) of mountainous, brush or grass-covered areas will 
create an undue fire hazard because of atmospheric condi- 
tions, such burning shall be prohibited. 

603.8.4 Time of burning. Burning shall take place only 
during approved hours. 

603.8.5 Discontinuance. The fire code official is autho- 
rized to require incinerator use to be discontinued immedi- 
ately if the fire code official determines that smoke 
emissions are offensive to occupants of surrounding prop- 
erty or if the use of incinerators is determined by the fire 
code official to constitute a hazardous condition. 

603.9 Gas meters. Above-ground gas meters, regulators and 
piping subject to damage shall be protected by a barrier com- 



plying with Section 312 or otherwise protected in an approved 
manner. 



SECTION 604 
EMERGENCY AND STANDBY POWER SYSTEMS 

604.1 Installation. Emergency and standby power systems 
required by this code or the International Building Code shall I 
be installed in accordance with this code, NFR\ 1 10 and NFR\ | 
111. Existing installations shall be maintained in accordance 
with the original approval. 

604.1.1 Stationary generators. Stationary emergency and 
standby power generators required by this code shall be 
listed in accordance with UL 2200. 

604.2 Where required. Emergency and standby power sys- 
tems shall be provided where required by Sections 604.2.1 
through 604.2.19.4. 

604.2.1 Group A occupancies. Emergency power shall be 
provided for emergency voice/alarm communication sys- 
tems in Group A occupancies in accordance with Section 
907.2.12.2. 

604.2.2 Smoke control systems. Standby power shall be 
provided for smoke control systems in accordance with Sec- 
tion 909.11. 

604.2.3 Exit signs. Emergency power shall be provided for 
exit signs in accordance with Section 1011.5.3 

604.2.4 Means of egress illumination. Emergency power 
shall be provided for means of egress illumination in accor- 
dance with Section 1006.3. 

604.2.5 Accessible means of egress elevators. Standby I 
power shall be provided for elevators that are part of an | 
accessible means of egress in accordance with Section 
1007.4. 

604.2.6 Accessible means of egress platform lifts. 

Standby power in accordance with this section or ASME 
A 18.1 shall be provided for platform lifts that are part of an 
accessible means of egress in accordance with Section 
1007.5. 

604.2.7 Horizontal sliding doors. Standby power shall be 
provided for horizontal sliding doors in accordance with 
Section 1008.1.3.3. 

604.2.8 Semiconductor fabrication facilities. Emergency 
power shall be provided for semiconductor fabrication 
facilities in accordance with Section 1803.15. 

604.2.9 Membrane structures. Emergency power shall be 
provided for exit signs in temporary tents and membrane 
structures in accordance with Section 2403.12.6.1. Standby 
power shall be provided for auxiliary inflation systems in 
permanent membrane structures in accordance with the 
International Building Code. 

604.2.10 Hazardous materials. Emergency or standby 
power shall be provided in occupancies with hazardous 
materials in accordance with Sections 2704.7 and 2705. 1 .5. 

604.2.11 Highly toxic and toxic materials. Emergency 
power shall be provided for occupancies with highly toxic 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE*" 



47 



BUILDING SERVICES AND SYSTEMS 



or toxic materials in accordance with Sections 3704.2.2.8 
and 3704.3.2.6. 

604.2.12 Organic peroxides. Standby power shall be pro- 
vided for occupancies with organic peroxides in accordance 
with Section 3904.1.11. 

604.2.13 Pyroplioric materials. Emergency power shall be 
provided for occupancies with silane gas in accordance with 
Sections 4106.2.3 and 4106.4.3. 

604.2.14 Covered mall buildings. Covered mall buildings 
exceeding 50,000 square feet (4645 m^) shall be provided 
with standby power systems which are capable of operating 
the emergency voice/alarm communication. 

604.2.15 High-rise buildings. Standby power, light and 
emergency systems in high-rise buildings shall comply with 
the requirements of Sections 604.2.15.1 through 
604.2.15.3. 

604.2.15.1 Standby power. A standby power system 
shall be provided. Where the standby system is a genera- 
tor set inside a building, the system shall be located in a 
separate room enclosed with 2-hour fire barriers or hori- 
zontal assemblies constructed in accordance with the 
International Building Code, or both. System supervi- 
sion with manual start and transfer features shall be pro- 
vided at the fire command center. 

604.2.15.1.1 Fuel supply. An on-premises fuel sup- 
ply, sufficient for not less than 2-hour full-demand 
operation of the system, shall be provided. 

Exception: When approved, the system shall be 
allowed to be supplied by natural gas pipelines. 

604.2.15.1.2 Capacity. The standby system shall 
have a capacity and rating that supplies all equipment 
required to be operational at the same time. The gen- 
erating capacity is not required to be sized to operate 
all of the connected electrical equipment simulta- 
neously. 

604.2.15.1.3 Connected facilities. Power and light- 
ing facilities for the fire command center and eleva- 
tors specified in Sections 403.8 and 403.9 of the 
International Building Code, as applicable, and elec- 
trically powered fire pumps required to maintain pres- 
sure, shall be transferable to the standby source. 
Standby power shall be provided for at least one ele- 
vator to serve all floors and be transferable to any ele- 
vator. 

604.2.15.2 Separate circuits and luminaires. Separate 
lighting circuits and luminaires shall be required to pro- 
vide sufficient light with an intensity of not less than 1 
foot-candle (11 lux) measured at floor level in all means 
of egress corridors, stairways, smokeproof enclosures, 
elevator cars and lobbies, and other areas that are clearly 
a part of the escape route. 

604.2.15.2.1 Other circuits. Circuits supplying 
lighting for the fire command center and mechanical 
equipment rooms shall be transferable to the standby 
source. 



604.2.15.3 Emergency systems. Exit signs, exit illumi- 
nation as required by Chapter 10, and elevator car light- 
ing are classified as emergency systems and shall operate 
within 10 seconds of failure of the normal power supply 
and shall be capable of being transferred to the standby 
source. 

Exception: Exit sign, exit and means of egress illumi- 
nation are permitted to be powered by a standby 
source in buildings of Group F and S occupancies. 

604.2.16 Underground buildings. Emergency and standby 
power systems in underground buildings covered in Chap- 
ter 4 of the International Building Code shall comply with 
Sections 604.2.16.1 and 604.2.16.2. 

604.2.16.1 Standby power. A standby power system 
complying with the ICC Electrical Code shall be pro- 
vided for standby power loads as specified in Section 
604.2.16.1.1. 

[B] 604.2.16.1.1 Standby power loads. The follow- 
ing loads are classified as standby power loads: 

1 . Smoke control system. 

2. Ventilation and automatic fire detection equip- 
ment for smokeproof enclosures. 

3. Fire pumps. 

4. Standby power shall be provided for elevators 
in accordance with Section 3003 of the Interna- 
tional Building Code. 

[B] 604.2.16.1.2 Pickup time. The standby power 
system shall pick up its connected loads within 60 
seconds of failure of the normal power supply. 

604.2.16.2 Emergency power. An emergency power 
system complying with the ICC Electrical Code shall be 
provided for emergency power loads as specified in Sec- 
tion 604.2.15.2.1. 

604.2.16.2.1 Emergency power loads. The follow- 
ing loads are classified as emergency power loads: 

1. Emergency voice/alarm communication sys- 
tems. 

2. Fire alarm systems. 

3. Automatic fire detection systems. 

4. Elevator car lighting. 

5 . Means of egress lighting and exit sign illumina- 
tion as required by Chapter 10. 

604.2.17 Group 1-3 occupancies. Power-operated sliding 
doors or power-operated locks for swinging doors in Group 
1-3 occupancies shall be operable by a manual release mech- 
anism at the door, and either emergency power or a remote 
mechanical operating release shall be provided. 

Exception: Emergency power is not required in facilities 
where provisions for remote locking and unlocking of 
occupied rooms in Occupancy Condition 4 are not 
required as set forth in the International Building Code. 

604.2.18 Airport traffic control towers. A standby power 
system shall be provided in airport traffic control towers 



48 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



BUILDING SERVICES AND SYSTEMS 



more than 65 feet (19 812 mm) in height. Power shall be 
provided to the following equipment: 

1 . Pressurization equipment, mechanical equipment and 
lighting. 

2. Elevator operating equipment. 

3. Fire alarm and smoke detection systems. 

604.2.19 Elevators. In buildings and structures where 
standby power is required or furnished to operate an eleva- 
tor, the operation shall be in accordance with Sections 
604.2.19.1 through 604.2.19.4. 

604.2.19.1 Manual transfer. Standby power shall be 
manually transferable to all elevators in each bank. 

604.2.19.2 One elevator. Where only one elevator is 
installed, the elevator shall automatically transfer to 
standby power within 60 seconds after failure of normal 
power. 

604.2.19.3 Two or more elevators. Where two or more 
elevators are controlled by a common operating system, 
all elevators shall automatically transfer to standby 
power within 60 seconds after failure of normal power 
where the standby power source is of sufficient capacity 
to operate all elevators at the same time. Where the 
standby power source is not of sufficient capacity to 
operate all elevators at the same time, all elevators shall 
transfer to standby power in sequence, return to the des- 
ignated landing and disconnect from the standby power 
source. After all elevators have been returned to the des- 
ignated level, at least one elevator shall remain operable 
from the standby power source. 

604.2.19.4 Venting. Where standby power is connected 
to elevators, the machine room ventilation or air condi- 
tioning shall be connected to the standby power source. 

604.3 Maintenance. Emergency and standby power systems 
shall be maintained in accordance with NFPA 110 and NFPA 
111 such that the system is capable of supplying service within 
the time specified for the type and duration required. 

604.3.1 Schedule. Inspection, testing and maintenance of 
emergency and standby power systems shall be in accor- 
dance with an approved schedule established upon comple- 
tion and approval of the system installation. 

604.3.2 Written record. Written records of the inspection, 
testing and maintenance of emergency and standby power 
systems shall include the date of service, name of the servic- 
ing technician, a summary of conditions noted and a 
detailed description of any conditions requiring correction 
and what corrective action was taken. Such records shall be 
kept on the premises served by the emergency or standby 
power system and be available for inspection by the fire 
code official. 

604.3.3 Switch maintenance. Emergency and standby 
power system transfer switches shall be included in the 
inspection, testing and maintenance schedule required by 
Section 604.3.1. Transfer switches shall be maintained free 
from accumulated dust and dirt. Inspection shall include 
examination of the transfer switch contacts for evidence of 



deterioration. When evidence of contact deterioration is 
detected, the contacts shall be replaced in accordance with 
the transfer switch manufacturer's instructions. 

604.4 Operational inspection and testing. Emergency power 
systems, including all appurtenant components shall be 
inspected and tested under load in accordance with NFPA 110 
and NFPA 111. 

Exception: Where the emergency power system is used for 
standby power or peak load shaving, such use shall be 
recorded and shall be allowed to be substituted for sched- 
uled testing of the generator set, provided that appropriate 
records are maintained. 

604.4.1 Transfer switch test. The test of the transfer switch 
shall consist of electrically operating the transfer switch 
from the normal position to the alternate position and then 
return to the normal position. 

604.5 Supervision of maintenance and testing. Routine 
maintenance, inspection and operational testing shall be over- 
seen by a properly instructed individual. 



SECTION 605 
ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT, WIRING AND HAZARDS 

605.1 Abatement of electrical hazards. Identified electrical 
hazards shall be abated. Identified hazardous electrical condi- 
tions in permanent wiring shall be brought to the attention of 
the code official responsible for enforcement of the ICC Elec- 
trical Code. Electrical wiring, devices, appliances and other 
equipment that is modified or damaged and constitutes an elec- 
trical shock or fire hazard shall not be used. 

605.2 Illumination. Illumination shall be provided for service 
equipment areas, motor control centers and electrical 
panelboards. 

605.3 Working space and clearance. A working space of not 
less than 30 inches (762 mm) in width, 36 inches (914 mm) in 
depth and 78 inches (1981 mm) in height shall be provided in 
front of electrical service equipment. Where the electrical ser- 
vice equipment is wider than 30 inches (762 nmn), the working 
space shall not be less than the width of the equipment. No stor- 
age of any materials shall be located within the designated 
working space. 

Exceptions: 

1. Where other dimensions are required or allowed by 
the ICC Electrical Code. 

2. Access openings into attics or under-floor areas 
which provide a minimum clear opening of 22 inches 
(559 mm) by 30 inches (762 mm). 

605.3.1 Labeling. Doors into electrical control panel rooms 
shall be marked with a plainly visible and legible sign stat- 
ing ELECTRICAL ROOM or similar approved wording. 
The disconnecting means for each service, feeder or branch 
circuit originating on a switchboard or panelboard shall be 
legibly and durably marked to indicate its purpose unless 
such purpose is clearly evident. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE<^ 



49 



BUILDING SERVICES AND SYSTEMS 



605.4 Multiplug adapters. Multiplug adapters, such as cube 
adapters, unfused plug strips or any other device not complying 
with the ICC Electrical Code shall be prohibited. 

605.4.1 Power tap design. Relocatable power taps shall be 
of the polarized or grounded type, equipped with 
overcurrent protection, and shall be listed in accordance 
with UL 1363. 

605.4.2 Power supply. Relocatable power taps shall be 
directly connected to a permanently installed receptacle. 

605.4.3 Installation. Relocatable power tap cords shall not 
extend through walls, ceilings, floors, under doors or floor 
coverings, or be subject to environmental or physical dam- 
age. 

605.5 Extension cords. Extension cords and flexible cords 
shall not be a substitute for permanent wiring. Extension cords 
and flexible cords shall not be affixed to structures, extended 
through walls, ceilings or floors, or under doors or floor cover- 
ings, nor shall such cords be subject to environmental damage 
or physical impact. Extension cords shall be used only with 
portable appliances. 

605.5.1 Power supply. Extension cords shall be plugged 
directly into an approved receptacle, power tap or multiplug 
adapter and, except for approved multiplug extension cords, 
shall serve only one portable appliance. 

605.5.2 Ampacity. The ampacity of the extension cords 
shall not be less than the rated capacity of the portable appli- 
ance supplied by the cord. 

605.5.3 Maintenance. Extension cords shall be maintained 
in good condition without splices, deterioration or damage. 

605.5.4 Grounding. Extension cords shall be grounded 
when serving grounded portable appliances. 

605.6 Unapproved conditions. Open junction boxes and 
open- wiring splices shall be prohibited. Approved covers shall 
be provided for all switch and electrical outlet boxes. 

605.7 Appliances. Electrical appliances and fixtures shall be 
tested and listed in published reports of inspected electrical 
equipment by an approved agency and installed and main- 
tained in accordance with all instructions included as part of 
such listing. 

605.8 Electrical motors. Electrical motors shall be maintained 
free from excessive accumulations of oil, dirt, waste and 
debris. 

605.9 Temporary wiring. Temporary wiring for electrical 
power and lighting installations is allowed for a period not to 
exceed 90 days. Temporary wiring methods shall meet the 
applicable provisions of the ICC Electrical Code. 

Exception: Temporary wiring for electrical power and 
lighting installations is allowed during periods of construc- 
tion, remodeling, repair or demolition of buildings, struc- 
tures, equipment or similar activities. 

605.9.1 Attachment to structures. Temporary wiring 
attached to a structure shall be attached in an approved man- 
ner. 



605.10 Portable, electric space heaters. Portable, electric 
space heaters shall comply with Sections 605.10.1 through 
605.10.4. 

605.10.1 Listed and labeled. Only listed and labeled porta- 
ble, electric space heaters shall be used. 

605.10.2 Power supply. Portable, electric space heaters 
shall be plugged directly into an approved receptacle. 

605.10.3 Extension cords. Portable, electric space heaters 
shall not be plugged into extension cords. 

605.10.4 Prohibited areas. Portable, electric space heaters 
shall not be operated within 3 feet (914 mm) of any combus- 
tible materials. Portable, electric space heaters shall be 
operated only in locations for which they are listed. 



SECTION 606 
MECHANICAL REFRIGERATION 

[M] 606.1 Scope. Refrigeration systems shall be installed in 
accordance with the International Mechanical Code. 

[M] 606.2 Refrigerants. The use and purity of new, recovered, 
and reclaimed refrigerants shall be in accordance with the 
International Mechanical Code. 

[M] 606.3 Refrigerant classification. Refrigerants shall be 
classified in accordance with the International Mechanical 
Code. 

[M] 606.4 Change in refrigerant type. A change in the type of 
refrigerant in a refrigeration system shall be in accordance with 
the International Mechanical Code. 

606.5 Access. Refrigeration systems having a refrigerant cir- 
cuit containing more than 220 pounds (100 kg) of Group Al or 
30 pounds (14 kg) of any other group refrigerant shall be acces- 
sible to the fire department at all times as required by the fire 
code official. 

606.6 Testing of equipment. Refrigeration equipment and 
systems having a refrigerant circuit containing more than 220 
pounds (100 kg) of Group A 1 or 30 pounds (14 kg) of any other 
group refrigerant shall be subject to periodic testing in accor- 
dance with Section 606.6.1. A written record of required test- 
ing shall be maintained on the premises. Tests of emergency 
devices or systems required by this chapter shall be conducted 
by persons trained and qualified in refrigeration systems. 

606.6.1 Periodic testing. The following emergency devices 
or systems shall be periodically tested in accordance with 
the manufacturer's instructions and as required by the fire 
code official. 

1. Treatment and flaring systems. 

2. Valves and appurtenances necessary to the operation 
of emergency refrigeration control boxes. 

3. Fans and associated equipment intended to operate 
emergency ventilation systems. 

4. Detection and alarm systems. 

606.7 Emergency signs. Refrigeration units or systems having 
a refrigerant circuit containing more than 220 pounds (100 kg) 
of Group Al or 30 pounds (14 kg) of any other group refriger- 



50 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE'' 



BUILDING SERVICES AND SYSTEMS 



%. 



i 



ant shall be provided with approved emergency signs, charts, 
and labels in accordance with NFPA 704. Hazard signs shall be 
in accordance with the International Mechanical Code for the 
classification of refrigerants listed therein. 

606.8 Refrigerant detector. Machinery rooms shall contain a 
refrigerant detector with an audible and visual alarm. The 
detector, or a sampling tube that draws air to the detector, shall 
be located in an area where refrigerant from a leak will concen- 
trate. The alarm shall be actuated at a value not greater than the 
corresponding TLV-TWA values shown in the International 
Mechanical Code for the refrigerant classification. Detectors 
and alarms shall be- placed in approved locations. 

606.9 Remote controls. Remote control of the mechanical 
equipment and appliances located in the machinery room shall 
be provided at an approved location immediately outside the 
machinery room and adjacent to its principal entrance. 

606.9.1 Refrigeration system. A clearly identified switch 
of the break-glass type shall provide off-only control of 
electrically energized equipment and appliances in the 
machinery room, other than refrigerant leak detectors and 
machinery room ventilation. 

Exception: In machinery rooms where only nonflam- 
mable refrigerants are used, electrical equipment and 
appliances, other than compressors, are not required to 
be provided with a cut-off switch. 

606.9.2 Ventilation system. A clearly identified switch of 
the break-glass type shall provide on-only control of the 
machinery room ventilation fans. 

606.10 Emergency pressure control system. Refrigeration 
systems containing more than 6.6 pounds (3 kg) of flammable, 
toxic or highly toxic refrigerant or ammonia shall be provided 
with an emergency pressure control system in accordance with 
Sections 606.10.1 and 606.10.2. 

606.10.1 Automatic crossover valves. Each high- and 
intermediate-pressure zone in a refrigeration system shall 
be provided with a single automatic valve providing a cross- 
over connection to a lower pressure zone. Automatic cross- 
over valves shall comply with Sections 606.10.1.1 through 
606.10.1.3. 

606.10.1.1 Overpressure limit setpoint. Automatic 
crossover valves shall be arranged to automatically 
relieve excess system pressure to a lower pressure zone if 
the pressure in a high- or intermediate-pressure zone 
rises to within 15 psi (108.4 kPa) of the set point for 
emergency pressure-relief devices. 

606.10.1.2 Manual operation. When required by the 
fire code official, automatic crossover valves shall be 
capable of manual operation. 

606.10.1.3 System design pressure. Refrigeration sys- 
tem zones that are connected to a higher pressure zone by 
an automatic crossover valve shall be designed to safely 
contain the maximum pressure that can be achieved by 
interconnection of the two zones. 

606.10.2 Automatic emergency stop. An automatic emer- 
gency stop feature shall be provided in accordance with 
Sections 606.10.2.1 and 606.10.2.2. 



606.10.2.1 Operation of an automatic crossover 
valve. Operation of an automatic crossover valve shall 
cause all compressors on the effected system to immedi- 
ately stop. Dedicated pressure-sensing devices located 
immediately adjacent to crossover valves shall be per- 
mitted as a means for determining operation of a valve. 
To ensure that the automatic crossover valve system pro- 
vides a redundant means of stopping compressors in an 
overpressure condition, high-pressure cutout sensors 
associated with compressors shall not be used as a basis 
for determining operation of a crossover valve. 

606.10.2.2 Overpressure in low-pressure zone. The 

lowest pressure zone in a refrigeration system shall be 
provided with a dedicated means of determining a rise in 
system pressure to within 15 psi (103.4 kPa) of the 
setpoint for emergency pressure-relief devices. Activa- 
tion of the overpressure sensing device shall cause all 
compressors on the effected system to immediately stop. 

606.11 Storage, use and handling. Flammable and combusti- 
ble materials shall not be stored in machinery rooms for refrig- 
eration systems having a refrigerant circuit containing more 
than 220 pounds (100 kg) of Group Al or 30 pounds (14 kg) of 
any other group refrigerant. Storage, use or handling of extra 
refrigerant or refrigerant oils shall be as required by Chapters 
27, 30, 32 and 34. 

Exception: This provision shall not apply to spare parts, 
tools, and incidental materials necessary for the safe and 
proper operation and maintenance of the system. 

606.12 Termination of relief devices. Pressure relief devices, 
fusible plugs and purge systems for refrigeration systems con- 
taining more than 6.6 pounds (3 kg) of flammable, toxic or 
highly toxic refrigerants shall be provided with an approved 
discharge system as required by Sections 606.12.1, 606.12.2 
and 606.12.3. Discharge piping and devices connected to the 
discharge side of a fusible plug or rupture member shall have 
provisions to prevent plugging the pipe in the event of the fus- 
ible plug or rupture member functions. 

606.12.1 Flammable refrigerants. Systems containing 
flammable refrigerants having a density equal to or greater 
than the density of air shall discharge vapor to the atmo- 
sphere only through an approved treatment system in accor- 
dance with Section 606.12.4 or a flaring system in 
accordance with Section 606.12.5. Systems containing 
flammable refrigerants having a density less than the den- 
sity of air shall be permitted to discharge vapor to the atmo- 
sphere provided that the point of discharge is located 
outside of the structure at not less than 15 feet (4572 mm) 
above the adjoining grade level and not less than 20 feet 
(6096 mm) from any window, ventilation opening or exit. 

606.12.2 Toxic and highly toxic refrigerants. Systems 
containing toxic or highly toxic refrigerants shall discharge 
vapor to the atmosphere only through an approved treat- 
ment system in accordance with Section 606.12.4 or a flar- 
ing system in accordance with Section 606.12.5. 

606.12.3 Ammonia refrigerant. Systems containing 
ammonia refrigerant shall discharge vapor to the atmo- 
sphere through an approved treatment system in accordance 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE'' 



51 



BUILDING SERVICES AND SYSTEMS 



with Section 606.12.4, a flaring system in accordance with 
Section 606.12.5, or through an approved ammonia diffu- 
sion system in accordance with Section 606.12.6, or by 
other approved means. 

Exceptions: 

1. Ammonia/water absorption systems containing 
less than 22 pounds (10 kg) of ammonia and for 
which the ammonia circuit is located entirely out- 
doors. 

2. When the fire code official determines, on review 
of an engineering analysis prepared in accordance 
with Section 104.7.2, that a fire, health or environ- 
mental hazard would not result from discharging 
ammonia directly to the atmosphere. 

606.12.4 Treatment systems. Treatment systems shall be 
designed to reduce the allowable discharge concentration of 
the refrigerant gas to not more than 50 percent of the IDLH 
at the point of exhaust. Treatment systems shall be in accor- 
dance with Chapter 37. 

606.12.5 Flaring systems. Flaring systems for incineration 
of flammable refrigerants shall be designed to incinerate the 
entire discharge. The products of refrigerant incineration 
shall not pose health or environmental hazards. Incineration 
shall be automatic upon initiation of discharge, shall be 
designed to prevent blowback, and shall not expose struc- 
tures or materials to threat of fire. Standby fuel, such as LP 
gas, and standby power shall have the capacity to operate for 
one and one-half the required time for complete incineration 
of refrigerant in the system. 

606.12.6 Ammonia diffusion systems. Annmonia diffu- 
sion systems shall include a tank containing 1 gallon of 
water for each pound of ammonia (4 L of water for each 1 kg 
of ammonia) that will be released in 1 hour from the largest 
relief device connected to the discharge pipe. The water 
shall be prevented from freezing. The discharge pipe from 
the pressure relief device shall distribute ammonia in the 
bottom of the tank, but no lower than 33 feet (10 058 mm) 
below the maximum liquid level. The tank shall contain the 
volume of water and ammonia without overflowing. 

606.13 Discharge location for refrigeration machinery 
room ventilation. Exhaust from mechanical ventilation sys- 
tems serving refrigeration machinery rooms capable of 
exceeding 25 percent of the LFL or 50 percent of the IDLH 
shall be equipped with approved treatment systems to reduce 
the discharge concentrations of flammable, toxic or highly 
toxic refrigerants to those values or lower. 

606.14 Notification of refrigerant discharges. The fire code 
official shall be notified immediately when a discharge 
becomes reportable under state, federal or local regulations in 
accordance with Section 2703.3. 1 . 

606.15 Records. A written record shall be kept of refrigerant 
quantities brought into and removed from the premises. Such 
records shall be available to the fire code official. 

606.16 Electrical equipment. Where refrigerants of Groups 
A2, A3, B2 and B3, as defined in the International Mechanical 
Code, are used, refrigeration machinery rooms shall conform 



to the Class I, Division 2 hazardous location classification 
requirements of the ICC Electrical Code. 

Exception: Ammonia machinery rooms that are provided 
with ventilation in accordance with Section 1106.3 of the 
International Mechanical Code. 



SECTION 607 
ELEVATOR RECALL AND MAINTENANCE 

607.1 Required. Existing elevators with a travel distance of 25 
feet (7620 mm) or more above or below the main floor or other 
level of a building and intended to serve the needs of emer- 
gency personnel for fire-fighting or rescue purposes shall be 
provided with emergency operation in accordance with ASME 
A 17. 3. New elevators shall be provided with Phase I emer- 
gency recall operation and Phase II emergency in-car operation 
in accordance with ASME A17.1. 

[B] 607.2 Emergency signs. An approved pictorial sign of a 
standardized design shall be posted adjacent to each elevator 
call station on all floors instructing occupants to use the exit 
stairways and not to use the elevators in case of fire. The sign 
shall read: IN FIRE EMERGENCY, DO NOT USE ELEVA- 
TOR. USE EXIT STAIRS. The emergency sign shall not be 
required for elevators that are part of an accessible means of 
egress complying with Section 1007.4. 

607.3 Elevator keys. Keys for the elevator car doors and 
fire-fighter service keys shall be kept in an approved location 
for immediate use by the fire department. 



SECTION 608 
STATIONARY STORAGE BATTERY SYSTEMS 

608.1 Scope. Stationary storage battery systems having an 
electrolyte capacity of more than 50 gallons ( 1 89 L) for flooded 
lead acid, nickel cadmium (Ni-Cd) and valve-regulated lead 
acid (VRLA), or 1,000 pounds (454 kg) for lithium-ion, used 
for facility standby power, emergency power or uninterrupted 
power supplies, shall comply with this section and Table 608. 1 . 

608.2 Safety caps. Safety caps for stationary storage battery 
systems shall comply with Sections 608.2.1 and 608.2.2. 

608.2.1 Nonrecombinant batteries. Vented lead acid, 
nickel-cadmium or other types of nonrecombinant batteries 
shall be provided with safety venting caps. 

608.2.2 Recombinant batteries. VRLA batteries shall be 
equipped with self-resealing flame-arresting safety vents. 

608.3 Thermal runaway. VRLA battery systems shall be pro- 
vided with a listed device or other approved method to pre- 
clude, detect and control thermal runaway. 

608.4 Room design and construction. Enclosure of station- 
ary battery systems shall comply with the International Build- 
ing Code. Battery systems shall be allowed to be in the same 
room with the equipment they support. 

608.4,1 Separate rooms. When stationary batteries are 
installed in a separate equipment room accessible only to 
authorized personnel, they shall be permitted to be installed 
on an open rack for ease of maintenance. 



• 



52 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE'' 



BUILDING SERVICES AND SYSTEMS 



TABLE 608.1 
BATTERY REQUIREMENTS 



REQUIREMENT 


NONRECOMBINANT BATTERIES 


RECOMBINANT BAT I bRIES 


Flooded Lead 
Acid Batteries 


Flooded Nickel-Cadmium 
(Ni-Cd) Batteries 


Valve Regulated Lead Acid 
(VRLA) Batteries 


Lithium-Ion Batteries 


Safety caps 


Venting caps 
(608.2.1) 


Venting caps 
(608.2.1) 


Self-resealing 

flame-arresting caps 

(608.2.2) 


No caps 


Thermal runaway 
management 


Not required 


Not required 


Required 
(608.3) 


Not required 


Spill control 


Required 
(608.5) 


Required 
(608.5) 


Not required 


Not required 


Neutralization 


Required 
(608.5.1) 


Required 
(608.5.1) 


Required 
(608.5.2) 


Not required 


Ventilation 


Required 
(608.6.1; 608.6.2) 


Required 
(608.6.1; 608.6.2) 


Required 
(608.6.1; 608.6.2) 


Not required 


Signage 


Required 
(608.7) 


Required 
(608.7) 


Required 
(608.7) 


Required (608.7) 


Seismic protection 


Required 
(608.8) 


Required 
(608.8) 


Required 
(608.8) 


Required (608.8) 


Smoke detection 


Required 
(608.9) 


Required 
(608.9) 


Required 
(608.9) 


Required (608.9) 



•I 



608.4.2 Occupied work centers. When a system of VRLA, 
lithium-ion, or other type of sealed, nonventing batteries is 
situated in an occupied work center, it shall be allowed to be 
housed in a noncombustible cabinet or other enclosure to 
prevent access by unauthorized personnel. 

608.4.3 Cabinets. When stationary batteries are contained 
in cabinets in occupied work centers, the cabinet enclosures 
shall be located within 10 feet (3048 mm) of the equipment 
that they support. 

608.5 Spill control and neutralization. An approved method 
and materials for the control and neutralization of a spill of 
electrolyte shall be provided in areas containing lead-acid, 
nickel-cadmium or other types of batteries with free-flowing 
liquid electrolyte. For purposes of this paragraph, a "spill" is 
defined as any unintentional release of electrolyte. 

Exception: VRLA, lithium-ion or other types of sealed bat- 
teries with immobilized electrolyte shall not require spill 
control. 

608.5.1 Nonrecombinant battery neutralization. For bat- 
tery systems containing lead-acid, nickel-cadmium or other 
types of batteries with free-flowing electrolyte, the method 
and materials shall be capable of neutralizing a spill from 
the largest lead-acid battery to a pH between 7.0 and 9.0. 

608.5.2 Recombinant battery neutralization. For VRLA 

or other types of sealed batteries with immobilized electro- 
lyte, the method and material shall be capable of neutraliz- 
ing a spill of 3 percent of the capacity of the largest VRLA 
cell or block in the room to a pH between 7.0 and 9.0. 

Exception: Lithium-ion batteries shall not require neu- 
tralization. 



608.6 Ventilation. Ventilation of stationary storage battery 
systems shall comply with Sections 608.6.1 and 608.6.2. 

608.6.1 Room ventilation. Ventilation shall be provided in 
accordance with the International Mechanical Code and the 
following: 

1 . For flooded lead acid, flooded nickel-cadmium, and 
VRLA batteries, the ventilation system shall be 
designed to limit the maximum concentration of 
hydrogen to 1 percent of the total volume of the room; 
or 

2. Continuous ventilation shall be provided at a rate of 
not less than 1 cubic foot per minute per square foot [ 1 
ftVmin/ft2 or 0.0051 mV(s • m^)] of floor area of the 
room. 

Exception: Lithium-ion batteries shall not require venti- 
lation. 

608.6.2 Cabinet ventilation. When VRLA batteries are 
installed inside a cabinet, the cabinet shall be approved for 
use in occupied spaces and shall be mechanically or natu- 
rally vented by one of the following methods: 

1. The cabinet ventilation shall limit the maximum con- 
centration of hydrogen to 1 percent of the total vol- 
ume of the cabinet during the worst-case event of 
simultaneous "boost" charging of all the batteries in 
the cabinet; or 

2. When calculations are not available to substantiate 
the ventilation rate, continuous ventilation shall be 
provided at a rate of not less than 1 cubic foot per min- 
ute per square foot [1 ft^/min/ft^ or 0.005 1 mV(s • m^)] 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



53 



BUILDING SERVICES AND SYSTEMS 



of floor area covered by the cabinet. The room in 
which the cabinet is installed shall also be ventilated 
as required in Section 608.6.1. 

608.7 Signage. Signs shall comply with Sections 608.7.1 and 
608.7.2. 

608.7.1 Equipment room and building signage. Doors 
into electrical equipment rooms or buildings containing sta- 
tionary battery systems shall be provided with approved 
signs. The signs shall state that: 

1. The room contains energized battery systems. 

2. The room contains energized electrical circuits. 

3. The battery electrolyte solutions, where present, are 
corrosive liquids. 

608.7.2 Cabinet signage. Cabinets shall have exterior 
labels that identify the manufacturer and model number of 
the system and electrical rating (voltage and current) of the 
contained battery system. There shall be signs within the 
cabinet that indicate the relevant electrical, chemical and 
fire hazards. 

608.8 Seismic protection. The battery systems shall be seismi- 
cally braced in accordance with the International Building 
Code. 

608.9 Smoke detection. An approved automatic smoke detec- 
tion system shall be installed in accordance with Section 907.2 
in rooms containing stationary battery systems. 



SECTION 609 
COMMERCIAL KITCHEN HOODS 

[M] 609.1 General. Commercial kitchen exhaust hoods shall 
comply with the requirements of the International Mechanical 
Code. 

[M] 609.2 Where required. A Type I hood shall be installed at 
or above all commercial cooking appliances and domestic 
cooking appliances used for commercial purposes that produce 
grease vapors. 



54 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE*" 



CHAPTER 7 

FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 



SECTION 701 
GENERAL 

701.1 Scope. The provisions of this chapter shall specify the 
requirements for and the maintenance of fire-resistance-rated 
construction and requirements for enclosing floor openings 
and shafts in existing buildings. New construction shall comply 
with the International Building Code. 



SECTION 702 
DEFINITIONS 

702.1 Terms defined in Chapter 2. Words and terms used in 
this chapter and defined in Chapter 2 shall have the meanings 
ascribed to them as defined therein. 



SECTION 703 
FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 

703.1 Maintenance. The required fire-resistance rating of 
fire-resistance-rated construction (including walls, firestops, 
shaft enclosures, partitions, smoke barriers, floors, fire-resis- 
tive coatings and sprayed fire-resistant materials applied to 
structural members and fire-resistant joint systems) shall be 
maintained. Such elements shall be properly repaired, restored 
or replaced when damaged, altered, breached or penetrated. 
Openings made therein for the passage of pipes, electrical con- 
duit, wires, ducts, air transfer openings and holes made for any 
reason shall be protected with approved methods capable of 
resisting the passage of smoke and fire. Openings through 
fire-resistance-rated assemblies shall be protected by self- or 
automatic-closing doors of approved construction meeting the 
fire protection requirements for the assembly. 

703.1.1 Fireblocking and draftstopping. Required 
fireblocking and draftstopping in combustible concealed 
spaces shall be maintained to provide continuity and integ- 
rity of the construction. 

703.1.2 Smoke barriers. Required smoke barriers shall be 
maintained to prevent the passage of smoke and all openings 
protected with approved smoke barrier doors or smoke 
dampers. 

703.2 Opening protectives. Opening protectives shall be 
maintained in an operative condition in accordance with NFPA 
80. Fire doors and smoke barrier doors shall not be blocked or 
obstructed or otherwise made inoperable. Fusible links shall be 
replaced promptly whenever fused or damaged. Fire door 
assemblies shall not be modified. 

703.2.1 Signs. Where required by the fire code official, a 
sign shall be permanently displayed on or near each fire 
door in letters not less than 1 inch (25 mm) high to read as 
follows: 

1. For doors designed to be kept normally open: FIRE 
DOOR— DO NOT BLOCK. 



2. For doors designed to be kept normally closed: FIRE 
DOOR— KEEP CLOSED. 

703.2.2 Hold-open devices and closers. Hold-open 
devices and automatic door closers, where provided, shall 
be maintained. During the period that such device is out of 
service for repairs, the door it operates shall remain in the 
closed position. 

703.2.3 Door operation. Swinging fire doors shall close 
from the full-open position and latch automatically. The 
door closer shall exert enough force to close and latch the 
door from any partially open position. 

703.3 Ceilings. The hanging and displaying of salable goods 
and other decorative materials from acoustical ceiling systems 
that are part of a fire-resistance-rated floor/ceiling or roof/ceil- 
ing assembly, shall be prohibited. 

703.4 Testing. Horizontal and vertical sliding and rolling fire 
doors shall be inspected and tested annually to confirm proper 
operation and full closure. A written record shall be maintained 
and be available to the fire code official. 



SECTION 704 
FLOOR OPENINGS AND SHAFTS 

704.1 Enclosure. Interior vertical shafts, including but not lim- 
ited to stairways, elevator hoistways, service and utility shafts, 
that connect two or more stories of a building shall be enclosed 
or protected as specified in Table 704. 1 . 

704.2 Opening protectives. When openings are required to be 
protected, opening protectives shall be maintained self-closing 
or automatic-closing by smoke detection. Existing fus- 
ible-link-type automatic door-closing devices are permitted if 
the fusible link rating does not exceed 135 °F (57 °C). 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE*^ 



55 



FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE 704.1 
VERTICAL OPENING PROTECTION REQUIRED 



OCCUPANCY CLASSIFICATION 


CONDITIONS 


PROTECTION REQUIRED 


Group I 


Vertical openings connecting two or more stories 


1 -hour protection 


All, other than Group I 


Vertical openings connecting two stories 


No protection required"'' 


All, other than Group I 


Vertical openings connecting three to five stories 


1-hour protection or automatic sprinklers 
throughout"'*' 


All, other than Group I 


Vertical openings connecting more than five stories 


1 -hour protection"-'' 


All 


Mezzanines open to the floor below 


No protection required"'' 


All, other than Group I 


Atriums and covered mall buildings 


1-hour protection or automatic sprinklers 
throughout 


All, other than Groups B and M 


Escalator openings connecting four or less stories in a 
sprinklered building. Openings must be protected by a draft 
curtain and closely spaced sprinklers in accordance with 
NFPA 13 


No protection required 


Group B and M 


Escalator openings in a sprinklered building protected by a 
draft curtain and closely spaced sprinklers in accordance with 
NFPA 13 


No protection required 



a. Vertical opening protection is not required for Group R-3 occupancies. 

b. Vertical opening protection is not required for open parking ^rages and ramps. 



56 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE"" 



CHAPTER 8 

INTERIOR FINISH, DECORATIVE MATERIALS AND FURNISHINGS 



SECTION 801 
GENERAL 

801.1 Scope. The provisions of this chapter shall govern inte- 
rior finish, interior trim, furniture, furnishings, decorative 
materials and decorative vegetation in buildings. Section 803 
shall be applicable to existing buildings. Sections 804 through 
808 shall be applicable to new and existing buildings. 



SECTION 802 
DEFINITIONS 

802.1 Terms defined in Chapter 2. Words and terms used in 
this chapter and defined in Chapter 2 shall have the meanings 
ascribed to them as defined therein. 



SECTION 803 

INTERIOR WALL AND CEILING FINISH AND TRIM 

IN EXISTING BUILDINGS 

803.1 GeneraL The provisions of this section shall limit the 
allowable flame spread and smoke development of interior 
wall and ceiling finishes and interior wall and ceiling trim in 
existing buildings based on location and occupancy classifica- 
tion. Interior wall and ceiling finishes shall be classified in 
accordance with Section 803 of the International Building 
Code. Such materials shall be grouped in accordance with 
ASTM E 84, as indicated in Section 803.1.1, or in accordance 
with NFPA 286, as indicated in Section 803.1.2. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Materials having a thickness less than 0.036 inch (0.9 
mm) applied directly to the surface of walls and ceil- 
ings. 

2. Exposed portions of structural members complying 
with the requirements of buildings of Type IV con- 
struction in accordance with the International Build- 
ing Code shall not be subject to interior finish 
requirements. 

803.1.1 Classification in accordance with ASTM E 84. 

Interior finish materials shall be grouped in the following 
classes in accordance with their flame spread and 
smoke-developed index when tested in accordance with 
ASTM E 84. 

Class A: flame spread index 0-25; smoke-developed 
index 0-450. 

Class B: flame spread index 26-75; smoke-developed 
index 0-450. 

Class C: flame spread index 76-200; smoke-developed 
index 0-450. 



803.1.2 Classification in accordance with NFPA 286. 

Interior wall or ceiling finishes, other than textiles, shall be 
allowed to be tested in accordance with NFPA 286. Finishes 
tested in accordance with NFPA 286 shall comply with Sec- 
tion 803.1.2.1. Interior wall and ceiling finish materials, 
other than textiles, tested in accordance with NFPA 286 and 
meeting the acceptance criteria of Section 803.1.2.1, shall 
be allowed to be used where a Class A classification in 
accordance with ASTM E 84 is required. 

803.1.2.1 Acceptance criteria for interior finish mate- 
rials tested to NFPA 286. During the 40 kW exposure, 
the interior finish shall comply with Item 1 . During the 
160 kW exposure, the interior finish shall comply with 
Item 2. During the entire test, the interior finish shall 
comply with Item 3. 

1. During the 40 kW exposure, flames shall not 
spread to the ceiUng. 

2. During the 160 kW exposure, the interior finish 
shall comply with the following: 

2. 1 . Flame shall not spread to the outer extrem- 
ity of the sample on any wall or ceiling. 

2.2. Flashover, as defined in NFPA 286, shall 
not occur. 

3. The total smoke released throughout the NFPA 
286 test shall not exceed 1,000 m^. 

803.2 Stability. Interior finish materials regulated by this chap- 
ter shall be applied or otherwise fastened in such a manner that 
such materials will not readily become detached where sub- 
jected to room temperatures of 200°F (93°C) for not less than 
30 minutes. 

803.3 Interior finish requirements based on occupancy. 

Interior wall and ceiling finish shall have a flame spread index 
not greater than that specified in Table 803.3 for the group and 
location designated. 

803.4 Fire-retardant coatings. The required flame spread or 
smoke-developed index of surfaces in existing buildings shall 
be allowed to be achieved by application of approved fire-retar- 
dant coatings, paints or solutions to surfaces having a flame 
spread index exceeding that allowed. Such applications shall 
comply with NFPA 703 and the required fire-retardant proper- 
ties shall be maintained or renewed in accordance with the 
manufacturer's instructions. 

803.5 Textiles. Where used as interior wall or ceihng finish 
materials, textiles, including materials having woven or 
nonwoven, napped, tufted, looped or similar surface, shall 
comply with the requirements of this section. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



57 



INTERIOR FINISH, DECORATIVE MATERIALS AND FURNISHINGS 



TABLE 803.3 
INTERIOR WALL AND CEILING FINISH REQUIREMENTS BY OCCUPANCY'' 



GROUP 


SPRINKLERED' 


NONSPRINKLERED 


Exit enclosures and 
exit passageways"' *' 


Corridors 


Rooms and 
enclosed spaces'^ 


Exit enclosures and 
exit passageways"' '' 


Corridors 


Rooms and 
enclosed spaces'^ 


A-1&A-2 


B 


B 


C 


A 


A" 


B^ 


A-3f- A-4, A-5 


B 


B 


C 


A 


A" 


C 


B,E,M,R-l,R-4 


B 


C 


c 


A 


B 


C 


F 


C 


C 


c 


B 


C 


C 


H 


B 


B 


eg 


A 


A 


B 


I-l 


B 


C 


c 


A 


B 


B 


1-2 


B 


B 


Bh,i 


A 


A 


B 


1-3 


A 


AJ 


C 


A 


A 


B 


1-4 


B 


B 


Bh,i 


A 


A 


B 


R-2 


C 


C 


C 


B 


B 


C 


R-3 


C 


C 


c 


C 


C 


C 


S 


C 


C 


C 


B 


B 


C 


U 


No Restrictions 


No Restrictions 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 square foot = 0.0929 ml 

a. Class C interior finish materials shall be allowed for wainscotting or paneling of not more than 1 ,000 square feet of applied surface area in the grade lobby where 
applied directly to a noncombustible base or over furring strips applied to a noncombustible base and fireblocked as required by Section 803 .4 of the International 
Building Code. 

b. In exit enclosures of buildings less than three stories in height of other than Group 1-3, Class B interior finish for nonsprinklered buildings and Class C for 
sprinklered buildings shall be permitted. 

c. Requirements for rooms and enclosed spaces shall be based upon spaces enclosed by partitions. Where a fire-resistance rating is required for structural elements, 
the enclosing partitions shall extend from the floor to the ceiling. Partitions that do not comply with this shall be considered as enclosing spaces and the rooms or 
spaces on both sides shall be considered as one. In determining the applicable requirements for rooms and enclosed spaces, the specific occupancy thereof shall be 
the governing factor regardless of the group classification of the building or structure. 

d. Lobby areas in Group A-1, A-2 and A-3 occupancies shall not be less than Class B materials. 

e. Class C interior finish materials shall be allowed in Group A occupancies with an occupant load of 300 persons or less. 

f. In places of religious worship, wood used for ornamental purposes, trusses, paneling or chancel furnishing shall be allowed. 

g. Class B material is required where the building exceeds two stories. 

h. Class C interior finish materials shall be allowed in administrative spaces. 

i. Class C interior finish materials shall be allowed in rooms with a capacity of four persons or less. 

j. Class B materials shall be allowed as wainscoting extending not more than 48 inches above the finished floor in corridors, 
k. Finish materials as provided for in other sections of this code. 

1. Applies when the vertical exits, exit passageways, corridors or rooms and spaces are protected by an approved automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance 
with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2. 



803.5.1 Textile wall coverings. Textile wall coverings shall 
comply with one of the following: 

1. The coverings shall have a Class A flame spread 
index in accordance with ASTM E 84 and be pro- 
tected by automatic sprinklers installed in accordance 
with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2, 

2. The covering shall meet the criteria of Section 
803.5.1.1 or 803.5.1.2 when tested in the manner 
intended for use in accordance with NFPA 265 using 
the product-mounting system, including adhesive, of 
actual use, or 

3. The covering shall meet the criteria of Section 
803.1.2.1 when tested in accordance with NFPA 286 
using the product-mounting system, including adhe- 
sive, of actual use. 



803.5.1.1 Method A test protocol. During the Method 
A protocol, flame shall not spread to the ceiling during 
the 40 kW exposure. During the 150 kW exposure, the 
textile wall covering shall comply with all of the follow- 
ing: 

1 . Rame shall not spread to the outer extremity of the 
sample on the 8-foot by 12-foot (203 nmi by 305 
mm) wall. 

2. The specimen shall not bum to the outer extremity 
of the 2-foot- wide (610 mm) samples mounted in 
the comer of the room. 

3. Buming droplets deemed capable of igniting tex- 
tile wall coverings or that bum for 30 seconds or 
more shall not form. 



58 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE'' 



INTERIOR FINISH, DECORATIVE MATERIALS AND FURNISHINGS 



«l 



•I 



4. Flashover, as defined in NFPA 265, shall not 
occur. 

5. The maximum net instantaneous peak heat release 
rate, determined by subtracting the burner output 
from the maximum heat release rate, does not 
exceed 300 kW. 

803.5.1.2 Method B test protocol. During the Method B 
protocol, flames shall not spread to the ceiling at any time 
during the 40 kW exposure. During the 150 kW expo- 
sure, the textile wall covering shall comply with the fol- 
lowing: 

1 . Flame shall not spread to the outer extremities of 
the samples on the 8-foot by 12-foot (203 mm by 
305 mm) walls. 

2. Flashover, as defined in NFPA 265, shall not 
occur. 

803.6 Expanded vinyl wall or ceiling coverings. Expanded 
vinyl wall or ceiling coverings shall comply with the require- 
ments of either Section 803.6.1 or 803.6.2. 

803.6.1 General. Expanded vinyl wall or ceiling coverings 
shall comply with the requirements of Section 803.1.2. 
Expanded vinyl wall or ceiling coverings complying with 
Section 803 .1.2 shall not be required to comply with Section 
803.1.1. 

803.6.2 Compliance alternative. Expanded vinyl wall or 
ceiUng coverings shall be allowed to comply with the 
requirements for textile wall or ceiling coverings in Section 
803.5. 

803.7 Foam plastic materials. Foam plastic materials shall 
not be used as interior wall and ceiling finish unless specifically 
allowed by Section 803.7.1 or 803.7.2. Foam plastic materials 
shall not be used as interior trim unless specifically allowed by 
Section 803.7.3. 

803.7.1 Combustibility characteristics. Foam plastic 
materials shall be allowed on the basis of fire tests that sub- 
stantiate their combustibility characteristics for the use 
intended under actual fire conditions, as indicated in Section 
2603.9 of the International Building Code. This section 
shall apply both to exposed foam plastics and to foam plas- 
tics used in conjunction with a textile or vinyl facing or 
cover. 

803.7.2 Thermal barrier. Foam plastic material shall be 
allowed if it is separated from the interior of the building by 
a thermal barrier in accordance with Section 2603.4 of the 
International Building Code. 

803.7.3 Trim. Foam plastic shall be allowed for trim not in 
excess of 10 percent of the wall or ceiling area, provided 
such trim is not less than 20 pounds per cubic foot (320 
kg/m^) in density; is limited to 0.5 inch (12.7 mm) in thick- 
ness and 8 inches (203 mm) in width, and exhibits a flame 
spread index not exceeding 75 when tested in accordance 
with ASTM E 84. The smoke-developed index shall not be 
limited. 



SECTION 804 

INTERIOR WALL AND CEILING TRIM 

IN NEW AND EXISTING BUILDINGS 

804.1 Interior trim. Material, other than foam plastic, used as 
interior trim shall have a minimum Class C flame spread and 
smoke-developed index, when tested in accordance with 
ASTM E 84, as described in Section 803.1.1. Combustible 
trim, excluding handrails and guardrails, shall not exceed 10 
percent of the aggregate wall or ceiling area in which it is 
located. 

804.2 Foam plastic. Foam plastic used as interior trim shall 
comply with Sections 804.2.1 through 804.2.4. 

804.2.1 Density. The minimum density of the interior trim 
shall be 20 pounds per cubic foot (320 kg/m^). 

804.2.2 Thickness. The maximum thickness of the interior 
trim shall be 0.5 inch (12.7 mm) and the maximum width 
shall be 8 inches (203 mm). 

804.2.3 Area limitation. The interior trim shall not consti- 
tute more than 10 percent of the aggregate wall and ceiling 
area of a room or space. 

804.2.4 Flame spread. The flame spread index shall not 
exceed 75 where tested in accordance with ASTM E 84. The 
smoke-developed index shall not be limited. 



SECTION 805 

UPHOLSTERED FURNITURE AND MATTRESSES 

IN NEW AND EXISTING BUILDINGS 

805.1 Group I-l, board and care facilities. The requirements 
in Sections 805.1.1 through 805.1.2 shall apply to board and 
care facilities classified in Group I-l. 

805.1.1 Upholstered furniture. Newly introduced uphol- 
stered furniture shall meet the requirements of Sections 
805.1.1.1 and 805.1.1.2. 

805.1.1.1 Ignition by cigarettes. Newly introduced 
upholstered furniture shall be shown to resist ignition by 
cigarettes as determined by tests conducted in accor- 
dance with NFPA 260 and shall meet the requirements of 
Class I. 

Exception: Upholstered furniture in rooms or spaces 
protected by an approved automatic sprinkler system 
installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. 

805.1.1.2 Heat release rate. Newly introduced uphol- 
stered furniture shall have limited rates of heat release 
when tested in accordance with ASTM E 1537 or Cali- 
fornia Technical Bulletin 133, as follows: 

1. The peak rate of heat release for the single uphol- 
stered furniture item shall not exceed 80 kW. 

Exception: Upholstered furniture in rooms or 
spaces protected by an approved automatic 
sprinkler system installed in accordance with 
Section 903.3.1.1. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



59 



INTERIOR FINISH, DECORATIVE MATERIALS AND FURNISHINGS 



2. The total energy released by the single upholstered 
furniture item during the first 5 minutes of the test 
shall not exceed 24 megajoules (MJ). 

Exception: Upholstered furniture in rooms or 
spaces protected by an approved automatic 
sprinkler system installed in accordance with 
Section 903.3.1.1. 

805.1.1.3 Identification. Upholstered furniture shall 
bear the label of an approved agency, confirming compli- 
ance with the requirements of Sections 805.1.1.1 and 
805.1.1.2. 

805.1.2 Mattresses. Newly introduced mattresses shall 
meet the requirements of Sections 805.1.2.1 through 
805.1.2.3. 

805.1.2.1 Ignition by cigarettes. Newly introduced 
mattresses shall be shown to resist ignition by cigarettes 
as determined by tests conducted in accordance with 
DOC 16 CFR Part 1632 and shall have a char length not 
exceeding 2 inches (51 mm). 

Exception: Mattresses in rooms or spaces protected 
by an approved automatic sprinkler system installed 
in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. 

805.1.2.2 Heat release rate. Newly introduced mat- 
tresses shall have limited rates of heat release when 
tested in accordance with ASTM E 1590 or California 
Technical Bulletin 129, as follows: 

1. The peak rate of heat release for the single uphol- 
stered furniture item shall not exceed 100 kW. 

Exception: Mattresses in rooms or spaces pro- 
tected by an approved automatic sprinkler sys- 
tem installed in accordance with Section 
903.3.1.1. 

2. The total energy released by the single upholstered 
furniture item during the first 1 minutes of the test 
shall not exceed 25 MJ. 

Exception: Mattresses in rooms or spaces pro- 
tected by an approved automatic sprinkler sys- 
tem installed in accordance with Section 
903.3.1.1. 

805.1.2.3 Identification. Mattresses shall bear the label 
of an approved agency, confirming compliance with the 
requirements of Sections 805.2.2.1 and 805.2.2.2. 

805.2 Group 1-2, nursing homes and hospitals. The require- 
ments in Sections 805.2.1 through 805.2.2 shall apply to nurs- 
ing homes and hospitals classified in Group 1-2. 

805.2.1 Upholstered furniture. Newly introduced uphol- 
stered furniture shall meet the requirements of Sections 
805.2.1.1 through 805.2.1.3. 

805.2.1.1 Ignition by cigarettes. Newly introduced 
upholstered furniture shall be shown to resist ignition by 
cigarettes as determined by tests conducted in accor- 
dance with one of the following: (a) mocked-up compos- 
ites of the upholstered furniture shall have a char length 



not exceeding 1.5 inches (38 mm) when tested in accor- 
dance with NFPA 261 or (b) the components of the 
upholstered furniture shall meet the requirements for 
Class I when tested in accordance with NFPA 260. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Upholstered furniture belonging to the patient 
in sleeping rooms of nursing homes (Group 
1-2), provided that a smoke detector is installed 
in such rooms. Battery-powered, single-station 
smoke alarms shall be allowed. 

2. Upholstered furniture in rooms or spaces pro- 
tected by an approved automatic sprinkler sys- 
tem installed in accordance with Section 
903.3.1.1. 

805.2.1.2 Heat release rate. Newly introduced uphol- 
stered furniture shall have limited rates of heat release 
when tested in accordance with ASTM E 1537 or Cali- 
fornia Technical Bulletin 133, as follows: 

1 . The peak rate of heat release for the single uphol- 
stered furniture item shall not exceed 80 kW. 

Exception: Upholstered furniture in rooms or 
spaces protected by an approved automatic 
sprinkler system installed in accordance with 
Section 903.3.1.1. 

2. The total energy released by the single upholstered 
furniture item during the first 10 minutes of the test 
shall not exceed 25 MJ. 

Exception: Upholstered furniture in rooms or 
spaces protected by an approved automatic 
sprinkler system installed in accordance with 
Section 903.3.1.1. 

805.2.1.3 Identification. Upholstered furniture shall 
bear the label of an approved agency, confirming compli- 
ance with the requirements of Sections 805.2.1.1 and 
805.2.1.2. 

805.2.2 Mattresses. Newly introduced mattresses shall 
meet the requirements of Sections 805.2.2.1 through 
805.2.2.3. 

805.2.2.1 Ignition by cigarettes. Newly introduced 
mattresses shall be shown to resist ignition by cigarettes 
as determined by tests conducted in accordance with 
DOC 16 CFR Part 1632 and shall have a char length not 
exceeding 2 inches (51 mm). 

805.2.2.2 Heat release rate. Newly introduced mat- 
tresses shall have limited rates of heat release when 
tested in accordance with ASTM E 1590 or California 
Technical Bulletin 129, as follows: 

1 . The peak rate of heat release for the single mattress 
shall not exceed 100 kW. 

Exception: Mattresses in rooms or spaces pro- 
tected by an approved automatic sprinkler sys- 
tem installed in accordance with Section 
903.3.1.1. 



to 



60 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



INTERIOR FINISH, DECORATIVE MATERIALS AND FURNISHINGS 



•I 



2. The total energy released by the single mattress 
during the first 10 minutes of the test shall not 
exceed 25 MJ. 

Exception: Mattresses in rooms or spaces pro- 
tected by an approved automatic sprinkler sys- 
tem installed in accordance with Section 
903.3.1.1. 

805.2.2.3 Identification. Mattresses shall bear the label 
of an approved agency, confirming compliance with the 
requirements of Sections 805.2.2.1 and 805.2.2.2. 

805.3 Group 1-3, detention and correction facilities. The 

requirements in Sections 805.3.1 through 805.3.2 shall apply 
to detention and correction facilities classified in Group 1-3. 

805.3.1 Upholstered furniture. Newly introduced uphol- 
stered furniture shall meet the requirements of Sections 
805.3.1.1 through 805.3.1.3 

805.3.1.1 Ignition by cigarettes. Newly introduced 
upholstered furniture shall be shown to resist ignition by 
cigarettes as determined by tests conducted in accor- 
dance with one of the following: 

1 . Mocked-up composites of the upholstered furni- 
ture shall have a char length not exceeding 1.5 
inches (38 mm) when tested in accordance with 
NFPA261,or 

2. The components of the upholstered furniture shall 
meet the requirements for Class I when tested in 
accordance with NFPA 260. 

Exception: Upholstered furniture in rooms or 
spaces protected by an approved automatic 
sprinkler system installed in accordance with 
Section 903.3.1.1. 

805.3.1.2 Heat release rate. Newly introduced uphol- 
stered furniture shall have limited rates of heat release 
when tested in accordance with ASTM E 1537, as fol- 
lows: 

1 . The peak rate of heat release for the single uphol- 
stered furniture item shall not exceed 80 kW. 

Exceptions: 

1. In Use Condition I, II and III occupan- 
cies, as defined in the International 
Building Code, upholstered furniture in 
rooms or spaces protected by approved 
smoke detectors that initiate, without 
delay, an alarm that is audible in that 
room or space. 

2. Upholstered furniture in rooms or spaces 
protected by an approved automatic 
sprinkler system installed in accordance 
with Section 903.3.1.1. 

2. The total energy released by the single upholstered 
furniture item during the first 10 minutes of the test 
shall not exceed 25 MJ. 

Exception: Upholstered furniture in rooms or 
spaces protected by an approved automatic 



sprinkler system installed in accordance with 
Section 903.3.1.1. 

805.3.1.3 Identification. Upholstered furniture shall 
bear the label of an approved agency, confirming compli- 
ance with the requirements of Sections 805.3.1.1 and 
805.3.1.2. 

805.3.2 Mattresses. Newly introduced mattresses shall 
meet the requirements of Sections 805.3.2.1 through 
805.3.2.3. 

805.3.2.1 Ignition by cigarettes. Newly introduced 
mattresses shall be shown to resist ignition by cigarettes 
as determined by tests conducted in accordance with 
DOC 16 CFR Part 1632 and shall have a char length not 
exceeding 2 inches (51 mm). 

Exception: Mattresses in rooms or spaces protected 
by an approved automatic sprinkler system installed 
in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. 

805.3.2.2 Heat release rate. Newly introduced 
mattresses shall have limited rates of heat release when 
tested in accordance with ASTM E 1590 or California 
Technical Bulletin 129, as follows: 

1 . The peak rate of heat release for the single mattress 
shall not exceed 100 kW. 

Exception: Mattresses in rooms or spaces pro- 
tected by an approved automatic sprinkler sys- 
tem installed in accordance with Section 
903.3.1.1. 

2. The total energy released by the single upholstered 
furniture item during the first 10 minutes of the test 
shall not exceed 25 MJ. 

Exception: Mattresses in rooms or spaces pro- 
tected by an approved automatic sprinkler sys- 
tem installed in accordance with Section 
903.3.1.1. 

805.3.2.3 Identification. Mattresses shall bear the label 
of an approved agency, confirming compliance with the 
requirements of Sections 805.3.2.1 and 805.3.2.2. 



SECTION 806 

DECORATIVE VEGETATION 

IN NEW AND EXISTING BUILDINGS 

806.1 Natural cut trees. Natural cut trees, where allowed by 
this section, shall have the trunk bottoms cut off at least 0.5 inch 
(12.7 mm) above the original cut and shall be placed in a sup- 
port device complying with Section 806.1.2. 

806.1.1 Restricted occupancies. Natural cut trees shall be 
prohibited in Group A, E, I-l, 1-2, 1-3, 1-4, M, R-1, R-2 and 
R-4 occupancies. 

Exceptions: 

1. Trees located in areas protected by an approved 
automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance 
with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2 shall not be 
prohibited in Groups A, E, M, R-1 and R-2. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE*' 



61 



INTERIOR FINISH, DECORATIVE MATERIALS AND FURNISHINGS 



2. Trees shall be allowed within dwelling units in 
Group R-2 occupancies. 

806.1.2 Support devices. The support device that holds the 
tree in an upright position shall be of a type that is stable and 
that meets all of the following criteria: 

1 . The device shall hold the tree securely and be of ade- 
quate size to avoid tipping over of the tree. 

2. The device shall be capable of containing a minimum 
two-day supply of water. 

3. The water level, when full, shall cover the tree stem at 
least 2 inches (5 1 mm). The water level shall be main- 
tained above the fresh cut and checked at least once 
daily. 

806.1.3 Dryness. The tree shall be removed from the build- 
ing whenever the needles or leaves fall off readily when a 
tree branch is shaken or if the needles are brittle and break 
when bent between the thumb and index finger. The tree 
shall be checked daily for dryness. 

806.2 Artificial vegetation. Artificial decorative vegetation 
shall meet the flame propagation performance criteria of NFPA 
701. Meeting the flame propagation performance criteria of 
NFPA 701 shall be documented and certified by the manufac- 
turer in an approved manner. 

806.3 Obstruction of means of egress. The required width of 
any portion of a means of egress shall not be obstructed by dec- 
orative vegetation. 

806.4 Open flame. Candles and open flames shall not be used 
on or near decorative vegetation. Natural cut trees shall be kept 
a distance from heat vents and any open flame or heat-produc- 
ing devices at least equal to the height of the tree. 

806.5 Electrical fixtures and wiring. The use of unHsted elec- 
trical wiring and lighting on natural cut trees and artificial dec- 
orative vegetation shall be prohibited. The use of electrical 
wiring and lighting on artificial trees constructed entirely of 
metal shall be prohibited. 



SECTION 807 

DECORATIVE MATERIALS OTHER THAN 

DECORATIVE VEGETATION 

IN NEW AND EXISTING BUILDINGS 

807.1 General requirements. In occupancies in Groups A, E, 
I and R-1 and dormitories in Group R-2, curtains, draperies, 
hangings and other decorative materials suspended from walls 
or ceilings shall meet the flame propagation performance crite- 
ria of NFPA 701 in accordance with Section 806.2 or be 
noncombustible. 

In Groups I- 1 and 1-2, combustible decorative materials shall 
meet the flame propagation criteria of NFPA 701 unless the 
decorative materials, including, but not limited to, photographs 
and paintings, are of such limited quantities that a hazard of fire 
development or spread is not present. In Group 1-3, combusti- 
ble decorative materials are prohibited. 

Fixed or movable walls and partitions, paneling, wall pads 
and crash pads, applied structurally or for decoration, acousti- 
cal correction, surface insulation or other purposes, shall be 



considered interior finish if they cover 10 percent or more of 
the wall or of the ceiling area, and shall not be considered deco- 
rative materials or furnishings. 

In Group B and M occupancies, fabric partitions suspended 
from the ceiling and not supported by the floor shall meet the 
flame propagation performance criteria in accordance with 
Section 807.2 and NFPA 701 or shall be noncombustible. 

807.1.1 Noncombustible materials. The permissible 
amount of noncombustible decorative material shall not be 
limited. 

807.1.2 Combustible decorative materials. The permissi- 
ble amount of decorative materials meeting the flame propa- 
gation performance criteria of NFPA 701 shall not exceed 
10 percent of the aggregate area of walls and ceilings. 

Exceptions: 

1. In auditoriums in Group A, the permissible 
amount of decorative material meeting the flame 
propagation performance criteria of NFPA 701 
shall not exceed 50 percent of the aggregate area of 
walls and ceiling where the building is equipped 
throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler 
system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1, and 
where the material is installed in accordance with 
Section 803.4 of the International Building Code. 

2. The amount of fabric partitions suspended from 
the ceiling and not supported by the floor in Group 
B and M occupancies shall not be limited. 

807.2 Acceptance criteria and reports. Where required to be 
flame resistant, decorative materials shall be tested by an 
approved agency and meet the flame propagation performance 
criteria of NFPA 701, or such materials shall be 
noncombustible. Reports of test results shall be prepared in 
accordance with NFPA 701 and furnished to the fire code offi- 
cial upon request. 

807.3 Pyroxylin plastic. Imitation leather or other material 
consisting of or coated with a pyroxylin or similarly hazardous 
base shall not be used in Group A occupancies. 

807.4 Occupancy-based requirements. In occupancies in 
Group A, E and 1-4 day care facilities, decorative materials 
other than decorative vegetation shall comply with Sections 
807.4.1 through 807.4.4.2. 

807.4.1 General. All of the following requirements shall 
apply to all Group A and E occupancies and Group 1-4 day 
care facilities regulated by Sections 807.4.2 through 
807.4.4: 

1 . Explosive or highly flammable materials. Furnishings or 
decorative materials of an explosive or highly flammable 
character shall not be used. 

2. Fire-retardant coatings. Fire-retardant coatings in exist- 
ing buildings shall be maintained so as to retain the effec- 
tiveness of the treatment under service conditions 
encountered in actual use. 

3. Obstructions. Furnishings or other objects shall not be 
placed to obstruct exits, access thereto, egress therefrom 
or visibility thereof. 



b 



62 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE'' 



INTERIOR FINISH, DECORATIVE MATERIALS AND FURNISHINGS 



807.4.2 Group A. The requirements in Sections 807.4.2.1 
through 807.4.2.3 shall apply to occupancies in Group A. 

807.4.2.1 Foam plastics. Exposed foam plastic materi- 
als and unprotected materials containing foam plastic 
used for decorative purposes, or stage scenery or exhibit 
booths shall have a maximum heat release rate of 100 kW 
when tested in accordance with UL 1975. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Individual foam plastic items or items contain- 
ing foam plastic where the foam plastic does 
not exceed 1 pound (0.45 kg) in weight. 

2. Cellular or foam plastic shall be allowed for 
trim not in excess of 10 percent of the wall or 
ceiling area, provided it is not less than 20 
pounds per cubic foot (320 kg/m^) in density; is 
limited to 0.5 inch (12.7 mm) in thickness and 8 
inches (204 mm) in width; and complies with 
the requirements for Class B interior wall and 
ceiling finish, except that the smoke-developed 
index shall not be limited. 

807.4.2.2 Motion picture screens. The screens upon 
which motion pictures are projected in new and existing 
buildings of Group A shall either meet the flame propa- 
gation performance criteria of NFPA 701 or shall comply 
with the requirements for a Class B interior finish in 
accordance with Section 803 of the International Build- 
ing Code. 

807.4.2.3 Wood use in Group A-3 places of religious 
worship. In places of religious worship, wood used for 
ornamental purposes, trusses, paneling or chancel fur- 
nishing shall be allowed. 

807.4.3 Group E. The requirements in Sections 807.4.3.1 
and 807.4.3.2 shall apply to occupancies in Group E. 

807.4.3.1 Storage in corridors and lobbies. Clothing 
and personal effects shall not be stored in corridors and 
lobbies. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Corridors protected by an approved automatic 
sprinkler system installed in accordance with 
Section 903.3.1.1. 

2. Corridors protected by an approved smoke 
detection system installed in accordance with 
Section 907. 

3. Storage in metal lockers, provided the mini- 
mum required egress width is maintained. 

807.4.3.2 Artwork. Artwork and teaching materials 
shall be limited on the walls of corridors to not more than 
20 percent of the wall area. 

807.4.4 Group 1-4, day care facilities. The requirements in 
Sections 807.4.4.1 and 807.4.4.2 shall apply to day care 
facilities classified in Group 1-4. 



807.4.4.1 Storage in corridors and lobbies. Clothing 
and personal effects shall not be stored in corridors and 
lobbies. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Corridors protected by an approved automatic 
sprinkler system installed in accordance with 
Section 903.3.1.1. 

2; Corridors protected by an approved smoke 
detection system installed in accordance with 
Section 907. 

3. Storage in metal lockers, provided the mini- 
mum required egress width is maintained. 

807.4.4.2 Artwork. Artwork and teaching materials 
shall be limited on walls of corridors to not more than 20 
percent of the wall area. 



SECTION 808 

FURNISHINGS OTHER THAN UPHOLSTERED 

FURNITURE AND MATTRESSES OR DECORATIVE 

MATERIALS IN NEW AND EXISTING BUILDINGS 

808.1 Wastebaskets in Group 1-3, detention and correction 
facilities. Wastebaskets and other waste containers, including 
their lids, located in Group 1-3 detention and correction facili- 
ties shall be constructed of noncombustible materials or of 
materials that meet a peak rate of heat release not exceeding 
300 kW/m2 when tested in accordance with ASTM E 1354 at 
an incident heat flux of 50 kW/m^ in the horizontal orientation. 
Metal wastebaskets and other metal waste containers with a 
capacity of 20 gallons (75.7 L) or more shall be fisted in accor- 
dance with UL 1315 and shall be provided with a 
noncombustible lid. 

808.2 Signs. Foam plastic signs that are not affixed to interior 
building surfaces shall have a maximum heat release rate of 
150 kW when tested in accordance with UL 1975. 

Exception: Where the aggregate area of foam plastic signs 
is less than 10 percent of the floor area or wall area of the 
room or space in which the signs are located, whichever is 
less, subject to the approval of the fire code official. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



63 



64 2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE*" 



CHAPTER 9 

FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



SECTION 901 
GENERAL 

901.1 Scope. The provisions of this chapter shall specify where 
fire protection systems are required and shall apply to the 
design, installation, inspection, operation, testing and mainte- 
nance of all fire protection systems. 

901.2 Construction documents. The fire code official shall 
have the authority to require construction documents and cal- 
culations for all fire protection systems and to require permits 
be issued for the installation, rehabilitation or modification of 
any fire protection system. Construction documents for fire 
protection systems shall be submitted for review and approval 
prior to system installation. 

901.2.1 Statement of compliance. Before requesting final 
approval of the installation, where required by the fire code 
official, the installing contractor shall furnish a written 
statement to the fire code official that the subject fire protec- 
tion system has been installed in accordance with approved 
plans and has been tested in accordance with the manufac- 
turer's specifications and the appropriate installation stan- 
dard. Any deviations from the design standards shall be 
noted and copies of the approvals for such deviations shall 
be attached to the written statement. 

901.3 Permits. Permits shall be required as set forth in Section 
105.6 and 105.7. 

901.4 Installation. Fire protection systems shall be maintained 
in accordance with the original installation standards for that 
system. Required systems shall be extended, altered, or aug- 
mented as necessary to maintain and continue protection 
whenever the building is altered, remodeled or added to. Alter- 
ations to fire protection systems shall be done in accordance 
with applicable standards. 

901.4.1 Required fire protection systems. Fire protection 
systems required by this code or the International Building 
Code shall be installed, repaired, operated, tested and main- 
tained in accordance with this code. 

901.4.2 Nonrequired fire protection systems. Any fire 
protection system or portion thereof not required by this 
code or the International Building Code shall be allowed to 
be furnished for partial or complete protection provided 
such installed system meets the requirements of this code 
and the International Building Code. 

901.4.3 Additional fire protection systems. In occupan- 
cies of a hazardous nature, where special hazards exist in 
addition to the normal hazards of the occupancy, or where 
the fire code official determines that access for fire appara- 
tus is unduly difficult, the fire code official shall have the 
authority to require additional safeguards. Such safeguards 
include, but shall not be limited to, the following: automatic 
fire detection systems, fire alarm systems, automatic 
fire-extinguishing systems, standpipe systems, or portable 
or fixed extinguishers. Fire protection equipment required 



under this section shall be installed in accordance with this 
code and the applicable referenced standards. 

901.4.4 Appearance of equipment. Any device that has the 
physical appearance of life safety or fire protection equip- 
ment but that does not perform that life safety or fire protec- 
tion function, shall be prohibited. 

901.5 Installation acceptance testing. Fire detection and 
alarm systems, fire-extinguishing systems, fire hydrant sys- 
tems, fire standpipe systems, fire pump systems, private fire 
service mains and all other fire protection systems and appurte- 
nances thereto shall be subject to acceptance tests as contained 
in the installation standards and as approved by the fire code 
official. The fire code official shall be notified before any 
required acceptance testing. 

901.5.1 Occupancy. It shall be unlawful to occupy any por- 
tion of a building or structure until the required fire detec- 
tion, alarm and suppression systems have been tested and 
approved. 

901.6 Inspection, testing and maintenance. Fire detection, 
alarm and extinguishing systems shall be maintained in an 
operative condition at all times, and shall be replaced or 
repaired where defective. Nonrequired fire protection systems 
and equipment shall be inspected, tested and maintained or 
removed. 

901.6.1 Standards. Fire protection systems shall be 
inspected, tested and maintained in accordance with the ref- 
erenced standards listed in Table 901.6.1. 



TABLE 901 .6.1 
FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM MAINTENANCE STANDARDS 



SYSTEM 


STANDARD 


Portable fire extinguishers 


NFPA 10 


Carbon dioxide fire-extinguishing system 


NFPA 12 


Halon 1301 fire-extinguishing systems 


NFPA 12A 


Dry-chemical extinguishing systems 


NFPA 17 


Wet-chemical extinguishing systems 


NFPA 17A 


Water-based fire protection systems 


NFPA 25 


Fire alarm systems 


NFPA 72 


Water-mist systems 


NFPA 750 


Clean-agent extinguishing systems 


NFPA 2001 



901.6.2 Records. Records of all system inspections, tests and 
maintenance required by the referenced standards shall be 
maintained on the premises for a minimum of three years and 
shall be copied to the fire code official upon request. 

901.6.2.1 Records information. Initial records shall 
include the name of the installation contractor, type of com- 
ponents installed, manufacturer of the components, location 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE*" 



65 



FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



and number of components installed per floor. Records shall 
also include the manufacturers' operation and maintenance 
instruction manuals. Such records shall be maintained on 
the premises. 

901.7 Systems out of service. Where a required fire protection 
system is out of service, the fire department and the fire code 
official shall be notified immediately and, where required by 
the fire code official, the building shall either be evacuated or 
an approved fire watch shall be provided for all occupants left 
unprotected by the shut down until the fire protection system 
has been returned to service. 

Where utilized, fire watches shall be provided with at least 
one approved means for notification of the fire department and 
their only duty shall be to perform constant patrols of the pro- 
tected premises and keep watch for fires. 

901.7.1 Impairment coordinator. The building owner 
shall assign an impairment coordinator to comply with the 
requirements of this section. In the absence of a specific 
designee, the owner shall be considered the impairment 
coordinator. 

901.7.2 Tag required. A tag shall be used to indicate that a 
system, or portion thereof, has been removed from service. 

901.7.3 Placement of tag. The tag shall be posted at each 
fire department connection, system control valve, fire alarm 
control unit, fire alarm annunciator and fire command cen- 
ter, indicating which system, or part thereof, has been 
removed from service. The fire code official shall specify 
where the tag is to be placed. 

901.7.4 Preplanned impairment programs. Preplanned 
impairments shall be authorized by the impairment coordi- 
nator. Before authorization is given, a designated individual 
shall be responsible for verifying that all of the following 
procedures have been implemented: 

1 . The extent and expected duration of the impairment 
have been determined. 

2. The areas or buildings involved have been inspected 
and the increased risks determined. 

3. Recommendations have been submitted to manage- 
ment or building owner/manager. 

4. The fire department has been notified. 

5. The insurance carrier, the alarm company, building 
owner/manager, and other authorities having juris- 
diction have been notified. 

6. The supervisors in the areas to be affected have been 
notified. 

7. A tag impairment system has been implemented. 

8. Necessary tools and materials have been assembled 
on the impairment site. 

901.7.5 Emergency impairments. When unplanned 
impairments occur, appropriate emergency action shall be 
taken to minimize potential injury and damage. The impair- 
ment coordinator shall implement the steps outlined in Sec- 
tion 901. 7.4. 



901.7.6 Restoring systems to service. When impaired 
equipment is restored to normal working order, the impair- 
ment coordinator shall verify that all of the following proce- 
dures have been implemented: 

1 . Necessary inspections and tests have been conducted 
to verify that affected systems are operational. 

2. Supervisors have been advised that protection is 
restored. 

3. The fire department has been advised that protection 
is restored. 

4. The building owner/manager, insurance carrier, 
alarm company and other involved parties have been 
advised that protection is restored. 

5. The impairment tag has been removed. 

901.8 Removal of or tampering with equipment. It shall be 
unlawful for any person to remove, tamper with or otherwise 
disturb any fire hydrant, fire detection and alarm system, fire 
suppression system, or other fire appliance required by this 
code except for the purpose of extinguishing fire, training pur- 
poses, recharging or making necessary repairs, or when 
approved by the fire code official. 

901.8.1 Removal of or tampering with appurtenances. 

Locks, gates, doors, barricades, chains, enclosures, signs, 
tags or seals which have been installed by or at the direction 
of the fire code official shall not be removed, unlocked, 
destroyed, tampered with or otherwise vandalized in any 
manner. 

901.9 Recall of fire protection components. Any fire protec- 
tion system component regulated by this code that is the subject 
of a voluntary or mandatory recall under federal law shall be 
replaced with approved, listed components in compliance with 
the referenced standards of this code. The fire code official 
shall be notified in writing by the building owner when the 
recalled component parts have been replaced. 



SECTION 902 
DEFINITIONS 

902.1 Definitions. The following words and terms shall, for the 
purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this code, 
have the meanings shown herein. 

ALARM NOTIFICATION APPLIANCE. A fire alarm sys 
tem component such as a bell, horn, speaker, light, or text dis- 
play that provides audible, tactile, or visible outputs, or any 
combination thereof. 

ALARM SIGNAL. A signal indicating an emergency requir- 
ing immediate action, such as a signal indicative of fire. 

ALARM VERIFICATION FEATURE. A feature of auto 
matic fire detection and alarm systems to reduce unwanted 
alarms wherein smoke detectors report alarm conditions for a 
minimum period of time, or confirm alarm conditions within a 
given time period, after being automatically reset, in order to be 
accepted as a valid alarm-initiation signal. 

ANNUNCIATOR. A unit containing one or more indicator 
lamps, alphanumeric displays, or other equivalent means in 



66 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE*" 



FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



which each indication provides status information about a cir- 
cuit, condition or location. 

AUDIBLE ALARM NOTIFICATION APPLIANCE. A 

notification appliance that alerts by the sense of hearing. 

AUTOMATIC. As applied to fire protection devices, is a 
device or system providing an emergency function without the 
necessity for human intervention and activated as a result of a 
predetermined temperature rise, rate of temperature rise, or 
combustion products. 

AUTOMATIC FIRE-EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM. An 

approved system of devices and equipment which automati- 
cally detects a fire and discharges an approved fire-extinguish- 
ing agent onto or in the area of a fire. 

AUTOMATIC SPRINKLER SYSTEM. A sprinkler system, 
for fire protection purposes, is an integrated system of under- 
ground and overhead piping designed in accordance with fire 
protection engineering standards. The system includes a suit- 
able water supply. The portion of the system above the ground 
is a network of specially sized or hydraulically designed piping 
installed in a structure or area, generally overhead, and to 
which automatic sprinklers are connected in a systematic pat- 
tern. The system is usually activated by heat from a fire and dis- 
charges water over the fire area. 

AVERAGE AMBIENT SOUND LEVEL. The root mean 
square, A-weighted sound pressure level measured over a 
24-hour period. 

CARBON DIOXIDE EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM. A sys 

tern supplying carbon dioxide (CO2) from a pressurized vessel 
through fixed pipes and nozzles. The system includes a man- 
ual- or automatic-actuating mechanism. 

CLEAN AGENT. Electrically nonconducting, volatile, or 
gaseous fire extinguishant that does not leave a residue upon 
evaporation. 

CONSTANTLY ATTENDED LOCATION. A designated 
location at a facility staffed by trained personnel on a continu- 
ous basis where alarm or supervisory signals are monitored and 
facilities are provided for notification of the fire department or 
other emergency services. 

DELUGE SYSTEM. A sprinkler system employing open 
sprinklers attached to a piping system connected to a water sup- 
ply through a valve that is opened by the operation of a detec- 
tion system installed in the same area as the sprinklers. When 
this valve opens, water flows into the piping system and dis- 
charges from all sprinklers attached thereto. 

DETECTOR, HEAT. A fire detector that senses heat pro- 
duced by burning substances. Heat is the energy produced by 
combustion that causes substances to rise in temperature. 

DRY-CHEMICAL EXTINGUISHING AGENT. A powder 
composed of small particles, usually of sodium bicarbonate, 
potassium bicarbonate, urea-potassium-based bicarbonate, 
potassium chloride or monoammonium phosphate, with added 
particulate material supplemented by special treatment to pro- 
vide resistance to packing, resistance to moisture absorption 
(caking) and the proper flow capabilities. 



EMERGENCY ALARM SYSTEM. A system to provide 
indication and warning of emergency situations involving haz- 
ardous materials. 

EMERGENCY VOICE/ALARM COMMUNICATIONS. 

Dedicated manual or automatic facilities for originating and 
distributing voice instructions, as well as alert and evacuation 
signals pertaining to a fire emergency, to the occupants of a 
building. 

FIRE ALARM BOX, MANUAL. See "Manual fire alarm 
box." 

FIRE ALARM CONTROL UNIT. A system component that 
receives inputs from automatic and manual fire alarm devices 
and is capable of supplying power to detection devices and 
transponder(s) of off-premises transmitter(s). The control unit 
is capable of providing a transfer of power to the notification 
appliances and transfer of condition to relays of devices. 

FIRE ALARM SIGNAL. A signal initiated by a fire 
alarm-initiating device such as a manual fire alarm box, auto- 
matic fire detector, water-flow switch, or other device whose 
activation is indicative of the presence of a fire or fire signature. 

FIRE ALARM SYSTEM. A system or portion of a combina- 
tion system consisting of components and circuits arranged to 
monitor and annunciate the status of fire alarm or supervisory 
signal-initiating devices and to initiate the appropriate 
response to those signals. 

[B] FIRE AREA. The aggregate floor area enclosed and 
bounded by fire walls, fire barriers, exterior walls, or fire-resis- 
tance-rated horizontal assemblies of a building. 

FIRE DETECTOR, AUTOMATIC. A device designed to 
detect the presence of a fire signature and to initiate action. 

FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM. Approved devices, equip- 
ment and systems or combinations of systems used to detect a 
fire, activate an alarm, extinguish or control a fire, control or 
manage smoke and products of a fire or any combination 
thereof. 

FIRE SAFETY FUNCTIONS. Building and fire control 
functions that are intended to increase the level of life safety for 
occupants or to control the spread of the harmful effects of fire. 

FOAM-EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM. A special system dis- 
charging a foam made from concentrates, either mechanically 
or chemically, over the area to be protected. 

HALOGENATED EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM. A 

fire-extinguishing system using one or more atoms of an ele- 
ment from the halogen chemical series: fluorine, chlorine, bro- 
mine and iodine. 

IMPAIRMENT COORDINATOR. The person responsible 
for the maintenance of a particular fire protection system. 

INITIATING DEVICE. A system component that originates 
transmission of a change-of-state condition, such as in a smoke 
detector, manual fire alarm box, or supervisory switch. 

MANUAL FIRE ALARM BOX. A manually operated device 
used to initiate an alarm signal. 

MULTIPLE-STATION ALARM DEVICE. Two or more 
single-station alarm devices that can be interconnected such 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE^ 



67 



FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



that actuation of one causes all integral or separate audible 
alarms to operate. It also can consist of one single-station alarm 
device having connections to other detectors or to a manual fire 
alarm box. 

MULTIPLE-STATION SMOKE ALARM. Two or more 
single-station alarm devices that are capable of interconnection 
such that actuation of one causes all integral or separate audible 
alarms to operate. 

NUISANCE ALARM. An alarm caused by mechanical fail- 
ure, malfunction, improper installation, or lack of proper main- 
tenance, or an alarm activated by a cause that cannot be 
determined. 

RECORD DRAWINGS. Drawings ("as builts") that docu- 
ment the location of all devices, appliances, wiring, sequences, 
wiring methods, and connections of the components of a fire 
alarm system as installed. 

SINGLE-STATION SMOKE ALARM. An assembly incor- 
porating the detector, the control equipment, and the 
alarm-sounding device in one unit, operated from a power sup- 
ply either in the unit or obtained at the point of installation. 

[B] SLEEPING UNIT. A room or space in which people 
sleep, which can also include permanent provisions for living, 
eating, and either sanitation or kitchen facilities but not both. 
Such rooms and spaces that are also part of a dwelling unit are 
not sleeping units. 

SMOKE ALARM. A single- or multiple-station alarm 
responsive to smoke and not connected to a system. 

SMOKE DETECTOR. A listed device that senses visible or 
invisible particles of combustion. 

STANDPIPE SYSTEM, CLASSES OF. Standpipe classes 
are as follows: 

Class I system. A system providing 2 '^-inch (64 mm) hose 
connections to supply water for use by fire departments and 
those trained in handling heavy fire streams. 

Class II system. A system providing IVj-inch (38 mm) 
hose stations to supply water for use primarily by the build- 
ing occupants or by the fire department during initial 
response. 

Class III system. A system providing lV2-inch (38 mm) 
hose stations to supply water for use by building occupants 
and 2V2-inch (64 mm) hose connections to supply a larger 
volume of water for use by fire departments and those 
trained in handling heavy fire streams. 

STANDPIPE, TYPES OF. Standpipe types are as follows: 

Automatic dry. A dry standpipe system, normally filled 
with pressurized air, that is arranged through the use of a 
device, such as a dry pipe valve, to admit water into the sys- 
tem piping automatically upon the opening of a hose valve. 
The water supply for an automatic dry standpipe system 
shall be capable of supplying the system demand. 

Automatic wet. A wet standpipe system that has a water 
supply that is capable of supplying the system demand auto- 
matically. 



Manual dry. A dry standpipe system that does not have a 
permanent water supply attached to the system. Manual dry 
standpipe systems require water from a fire department 
pumper to be pumped into the system through the fire 
department connection in order to supply the system 
demand. 

Manual wet. A wet standpipe system connected to a water 
supply for the purpose of maintaining water within the sys- 
tem but which does not have a water supply capable of deliv- 
ering the system demand attached to the system. Manual 
wet standpipe systems require water from a fire department 
pumper (or the like) to be pumped into the system in order to 
supply the system demand. 

Semiautomatic dry. A dry standpipe system that is 
arranged through the use of a device, such as a deluge valve, 
to admit water into the system piping upon activation of a 
remote control device located at a hose connection. A 
remote control activation device shall be provided at each 
hose connection. The water supply for a semiautomatic dry 
standpipe system shall be capable of supplying the system 
demand. 

SUPERVISING STATION. A facility that receives signals 
and at which personnel are in attendance at all times to respond 
to these signals. 

SUPERVISORY SERVICE. The service required to monitor 
performance of guard tours and the operative condition of fixed 
suppression systems or other systems for the protection of life 
and property. 

SUPERVISORY SIGNAL. A signal indicating the need of 
action in connection with the supervision of guard tours, the 
fire suppression systems or equipment, or the maintenance fea- 
tures of related systems. 

SUPERVISORY SIGNAL-INITIATING DEVICE. An ini 

tiating device such as a valve supervisory switch, water level 
indicator, or low-air pressure switch on a dry-pipe sprinkler 
system whose change of state signals an off-normal condition 
and its restoration to normal of a fire protection or life safety 
system; or a need for action in connection with guard tours, fire 
suppression systems or equipment, or maintenance features of 
related systems. 

TIRES, BULK STORAGE OF. Storage of tires where the 
area available for storage exceeds 20,000 cubic feet (566 m^). 

TROUBLE SIGNAL. A signal initiated by the fire alarm sys- 
tem or device indicative of a fault in a monitored circuit or com- 
ponent. 

VISIBLE ALARM NOTIFICATION APPLIANCE. A 

notification appliance that alerts by the sense of sight. 

WET-CHEMICAL EXTINGUISHING AGENT. A solu- 
tion of water and potassium-carbonate-based chemical, potas- 
sium-acetate-based chemical or a combination thereof, 
forming an extinguishing agent. 

WIRELESS PROTECTION SYSTEM. A system or a part 
of a system that can transmit and receive signals without the aid 
of wire. 



68 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE'' 



FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



ZONE. A defined area within the protected premises. A zone 
can define an area from which a signal can be received, an area 
to which a signal can be sent, or an area in which a form of con- 
trol can be executed. 

SECTION 903 
AUTOMATIC SPRINKLER SYSTEMS 

903.1 General. Automatic sprinkler systems shall comply 
with this section. 

903.1.1 Alternative protection. Alternative automatic 
fire-extinguishing systems complying with Section 904 
shall be permitted in lieu of automatic sprinkler protection 
where recognized by the applicable standard and approved 
by the fire code official. 

903.2 Where required. Approved automatic sprinkler sys- 
tems in new buildings and structures shall be provided in the 
locations described in this section. 

Exception: Spaces or areas in telecommunications build- 
ings used exclusively for telecommunications equipment, 
associated electrical power distribution equipment, batter- 
ies and standby engines, provided those spaces or areas are 
equipped throughout with an automatic fire alarm system 
and are separated from the remainder of the building by fire 
barriers consisting of not less than 1-hour fire-resis- 
tance-rated walls and 2-hour fire-resistance-rated 
floor/ceiling assemblies. 

903.2.1 Group A. An automatic sprinkler system shall be 
provided throughout buildings and portions thereof used as 
Group A occupancies as provided in this section. For Group 
A-1, A-2, A-3, and A-4 occupancies, the automatic sprin- 
kler system shall be provided throughout the floor area 
where the Group A-1, A-2, A-3 or A-4 occupancy is 
located, and in all floors between the Group A occupancy 
and the level of exit discharge. For Group A-5 occupancies, 
the automatic sprinkler system shall be provided in the 
spaces indicated in Section 903.2.1.5. 

903.2.1.1 Group A-1. An automatic sprinkler system 
shall be provided for Group A-1 occupancies where one 
of the following conditions exists: 

1. The fire area exceeds 12,000 square feet (1115 
m2); 

2. The fire area has an occupant load of 300 or more; 

3. The fire area is located on a floor other than the 
level of exit discharge; or 

4. The fire area contains a multitheater complex. 

903.2.1.2 Group A-2. An automatic sprinkler system 
shall be provided for Group A-2 occupancies where one 
of the following conditions exists: 

1. The fire area exceeds 5,000 square feet (465 m^); 

2. The fire area has an occupant load of 100 or more; 
or 

3. The fire area is located on a floor other than the 
level of exit discharge. 



903.2.1.3 Group A-3. An automatic sprinkler system 
shall be provided for Group A-3 occupancies where one 
of the following conditions exists: 

1. The fire area exceeds 12,000 square feet (1115 
m2); 

2. The fire area has an occupant load of 300 or more; 
or 

3. The fire area is located on a floor other than the 
level of exit discharge. 

Exception: Areas used exclusively as partici- 
pant sports areas where the main floor area is 
located at the same level as the level of exit dis- 
charge of the main entrance and exit. 

903.2.1.4 Group A-4. An automatic sprinkler system 
shall be provided for Group A-4 occupancies where one 
of the following conditions exists: 

1. The fire area exceeds 12,000 square feet (1115 
m2); 

2. The fire area has an occupant load of 300 or more; 
or 

3. The fire area is located on a floor other than the 
level of exit discharge. 

Exception: Areas used exclusively as partici- 
pant sports areas where the main floor area is 
located at the same level as the level of exit dis- 
charge of the main entrance and exit. 

903.2.1.5 Group A-5. An automatic sprinkler system 
shall be provided for Group A-5 occupancies in the fol- 
lowing areas: concession stands, retail areas, press 
boxes, and other accessory use areas in excess of 1,000 
square feet (93 m^). 

903.2.2 Group E. An automatic sprinkler system shall be 
provided for Group E occupancies as follows: 

1 . Throughout all Group E fire areas greater than 20,000 
square feet (1858 m^) in area. 

2. Throughout every portion of educational buildings 
below the level of exit discharge. 

Exception: An automatic sprinkler system is not 
required in any fire area or area below the level of 
exit discharge where every classroom throughout 
the building has at least one exterior exit door at 
ground level. 

903.2.3 Group F-1. An automatic sprinkler system shall be 
provided throughout all buildings containing a Group F-1 
occupancy where one of the following conditions exists: 

1. Where a Group F-1 fire area exceeds 12,000 square 
feet (1115 m2); 

2. Where a Group F- 1 fire area is located more than three 
stories above grade plane; or 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE" 



69 



FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



3. Where the combined area of all Group F-1 fire areas 
on all floors, including any mezzanines, exceeds 
24,000 square feet (2230 m^). 

903.2.3.1 Woodworking operations. An automatic 
sprinkler system shall be provided throughout all Group 
F-1 occupancy fire areas that contain woodworking 
operations in excess of 2,500 square feet in area (232 m^) 
which generate finely divided combustible waste or 
which use finely divided combustible materials. 

903.2.4 Group H. Automatic sprinkler systems shall be 
provided in high-hazard occupancies as required in Sec- 
tions 903.2.4.1 through 903.2.4.3. 

903.2.4.1 General. An automatic sprinkler system shall 
be installed in Group H occupancies. 

903.2.4.2 Group H-5 occupancies. An automatic sprin- 
kler system shall be installed throughout buildings con- 
taining Group H-5 occupancies. The design of the 
sprinkler system shall not be less than that required under 
the International Building Code for the occupancy haz- 
ard classifications in accordance with Table 903.2.4.2. 

Where the design area of the sprinkler system consists 
of a corridor protected by one row of sprinklers, the max- 
imum number of sprinklers required to be calculated is 
13. 

TABLE 903.2.4.2 
GROUP H-5 SPRINKLER DESIGN CRITERIA 



LOCATION 


OCCUPANCY HAZARD 
CLASSIFICATION 


Fabrication areas 


Ordinary Hazard Group 2 


Service corridors 


Ordinary Hazard Group 2 


Storage rooms without dispensing 


Ordinary Hazard Group 2 


Storage rooms with dispensing 


Extra Hazard Group 2 


Corridors 


Ordinary Hazard Group 2 



903.2.4.3 Pyroxylin plastics. An automatic sprinkler 
system shall be provided in buildings, or portions 
thereof, where cellulose nitrate film or pyroxylin plastics 
are manufactured, stored or handled in quantities 
exceeding 100 pounds (45 kg). 

903.2.5 Group I. An automatic sprinkler system shall be 
provided throughout buildings with a Group I fire area. 

Exception: An automatic sprinkler system installed in 
accordance with Section 903.3.1.2 or 903.3.1.3 shall be 
allowed in Group I-l facilities. 

903.2.6 Group M. An automatic sprinkler system shall be 
provided throughout buildings containing a Group M occu- 
pancy where one of the following conditions exists: 

1. Where a Group M fire area exceeds 12,000 square 
feet (1115 m2); 

2. Where a Group M fire area is located more than three 
stories above grade plane; or 

3 . Where the combined area of all Group M fire areas on 
all floors, including any mezzanines, exceeds 24,000 
square feet (2230 m^). 



903.2.6.1 High-piled storage. An automatic sprinkler 
system shall be provided as required in Chapter 23 in all 
buildings of Group M where storage of merchandise is in 
high-piled or rack storage arrays. 

903.2.7 Group R. An automatic sprinkler system installed 
in accordance with Section 903.3 shall be provided through- 
out all buildings with a Group R fire area. 

903.2.8 Group S-1. An automatic sprinkler system shall be 
provided throughout all buildings containing a Group S-1 
occupancy where one of the following conditions exists: 

1. A Group S-1 fire area exceeds 12,000 square feet 
(1115 m2); 

2. A Group S-1 fire area is located more than three sto- 
ries above grade plane; or 

3. The combined area of all Group S-1 fire areas on all 
floors, including any mezzanines, exceeds 24,000 
square feet (2230 m^). 

903.2.8.1 Repair garages. An automatic sprinkler sys- 
tem shall be provided throughout all buildings used as 
repair garages in accordance with the International 
Building Code, as follows: 

1 . Buildings two or more stories in height, including 
basements, with a fire area containing a repair 
garage exceeding 10,000 square feet (929 m^). 

2. One-story buildings with a fire area containing a 
repair garage exceeding 12,000 square feet (1115 
m2). 

3. Buildings with a repair garage servicing vehicles 
parked in the basement. 

903.2.8.2 Bulk storage of tires. Buildings and structures 
where the area for the storage of tires exceeds 20,000 
cubic feet (566 m^) shall be equipped throughout with an 
automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 
903.3.1.1. 

903.2.9 Group S-2. An automatic sprinkler system shall be 
provided throughout buildings classified as enclosed park- 
ing garages in accordance with Section 406.4 of the Interna- 
tional Building Code or where located beneath other 
groups. 

Exception: Enclosed, parking garages located beneath 
Group R-3 occupancies. 

903.2.9.1 Commercial parking garages. An automatic 
sprinkler system shall be provided throughout buildings 
used for storage of commercial trucks or buses where the 
fire area exceeds 5,000 square feet (464 m^). 

903.2.10 Windowless stories in all occupancies. An auto- 
matic sprinkler system shall be installed in the locations set 
forth in Sections 903.2.10.1 through 903.2.10.1.3. 

Exception: Group R-3 and Group U. 

903.2.10.1 Stories and basements without openings. 

An automatic sprinkler system shall be installed in every 
story or basement of all buildings where the floor area 
exceeds 1,500 square feet (139.4 m^) and where there is 



70 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE^ 



FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



not provided at least one of the following types of exte- 
rior wall openings: 

1. Openings below grade that lead directly to ground 
level by an exterior stairway complying with Sec- 
tion 1009 or an outside ramp complying with Sec- 
tion 1010. Openings shall be located in each 50 
linear feet (15 240 mm), or fraction thereof, of 
exterior wall in the story on at least one side. 

2. Openings entirely above the adjoining ground 
level totaling at least 20 square feet (1.86 m^) in 
each 50 linear feet (15 240 mm), or fraction 
thereof, of exterior wall in the story on at least one 
side. 

903.2.10.1.1 Opening dimensions and access. 

Openings shall have a minimum dimension of not less 
than 30 inches (762 mm). Such openings shall be 
accessible to the fire department from the exterior and 
shall not be obstructed in a manner that fire fighting or 
rescue cannot be accomplished from the exterior. 

903.2.10.1.2 Openings on one side only. Where 
openings in a story are provided on only one side and 
the opposite wall of such story is more than 75 feet (22 
860 mm) from such openings, the story shall be 
equipped throughout with an approved automatic 
sprinkler system or openings as specified above shall 
be provided on at least two sides of the story. 

903.2.10.1.3 Basements. Where any portion of a 
basement is located more than 75 feet (22 860 mm) 
from openings required by Section 903.2.10.1, the 
basement shall be equipped throughout with an 
approved automatic sprinkler system. 

903.2.10.2 Rubbish and linen chutes. An automatic 
sprinkler system shall be installed at the top of rubbish 
and linen chutes and in their terminal rooms. Chutes 
extending through three or more floors shall have addi- 
tional sprinkler heads installed within such chutes at 
alternate floors. Chute sprinklers shall be accessible for 
servicing. 

903.2.10.3 Buildings 55 feet or more in height. An 

automatic sprinkler system shall be installed throughout 
buildings with a floor level having an occupant load of 30 
or more that is located 55 feet (16 764 mm) or more 
above the lowest level of fire department vehicle access. 

Exceptions: 

1. Airport control towers. 

2. Open parking structures. 

3. Occupancies in Group F-2. 

903.2.11 During construction. Automatic sprinkler sys- 
tems required during construction, alteration and demoli- 
tion operations shall be provided in accordance with Section 
1413. 

903.2.12 Other hazards. Automatic sprinkler protection 
shall be provided for the hazards indicated in Sections 
903.2.12.1 and 903.2.12.2. 



TABLE 903.2.13 
ADDITIONAL REQUIRED FDRE-EXTINGUISHING SYSTEMS 



SECTION 


SUBJECT 


914.2.1 


Covered malls 


914.3.1 


High rise buildings 


914.4.1 


Atriums 


914.5.1 


Underground structures 


914.6.1 


Stages 


914.7.1 


Special amusement buildings 


914.8.2,914.8.5 


Aircraft hangars 


914.9 


Flammable finishes 


914.10 


Drying rooms 


1025.6.2.3 


Smoke-protected seating 


1208.2 


Dry cleaning plants 


1208.3 


Dry cleaning machines 


1504.2 


Spray finishing in Group A, E, I or R 


1504.4 


Spray booths and spray rooms 


1505.2 


Dip-tank rooms in Group A, I or R 


1505.4.1 


Dip tanks 


1505.9.4 


Hardening and tempering tanks 


1803.10 


HPM facilities 


1803.10.1.1 


HPM work station exhaust 


1803.10.2 


HPM gas cabinets and exhausted enclosures 


1803.10.3 


HPM exit access corridor 


1803.10.4 


HPM exhaust ducts 


1803.10.4.1 


HPM noncombustible ducts 


1803.10.4.2 


HPM combustible ducts 


1907.3 


Lumber production conveyor enclosures 


1908.7 


Recycling facility conveyor enclosures 


2106.1 


Class A and B ovens 


2106.2 


Class C and D ovens 


2209.3.2.6.2 


Hydrogen motor fuel-dispensing area canopies 


Table 2306.2 


Storage fire protection 


2306.4 


Storage 


2703.8.4.1 


Gas rooms 


2703.8.5.3 


Exhausted enclosures 


2704.5 


Indoor storage of hazardous materials 


2705.1.8 


Indoor dispensing of hazardous materials 


2804.4.1 


Aerosol warehouses 


2806.3.2 


Aerosol display and merchandising areas 


2904.5 


Storage of more than 1,000 cubic feet of loose 
combustible fibers 


3306.5.2.1 


Storage of smokeless propellant 


3306.5.2.3 


Storage of small arms primers 



(continued) 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE*" 



71 



FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



TABLE 903.2.13— continued 
ADDITIONAL REQUIRED FIRE-EXTINGUISHING SYSTEMS 



SECTION 


SUBJECT 


3404.3.7.5.1 


Flammable and combustible liquid storage 
rooms 


3404.3.8.4 


Flammable and combustible liquid storage 
warehouses 


3405.3.7.3 


Flammable and combustible liquid Group H-2 
or H-3 areas 


3704.1.2 


Gas cabinets for highly toxic and toxic gas 


3704.1.3 


Exhausted enclosures for highly toxic and toxic 
gas 


3704.2.2.6 


Gas rooms for highly toxic and toxic gas 


3704.3.3 


Outdoor storage for highly toxic and toxic gas 


4106.2.2 


Exhausted enclosures or gas cabinets for silane 
gas 


4204.1.1 


Pyroxylin plastic storage cabinets 


4204.1.3 


Pyroxylin plastic storage vaults 


4204.2 


Pyroxylin plastic storage and manufacturing 



903.2.12.1 Ducts conveying hazardous exhausts. 

Where required by the International Mechanical Code, 
automatic sprinklers shall be provided in ducts convey- 
ing hazardous exhaust, flammable or combustible mate- 
rials. 

Exception: Ducts where the largest cross-sectional 
diameter of the duct is less than 10 inches (254 mm). 

903.2.12.2 Commercial cooking operations. An auto- 
matic sprinkler system shall be installed in a commercial 
kitchen exhaust hood and duct system where an auto- 
matic sprinkler system is used to comply with Section 
904. 

903.2.13 Other required suppression systems. In addition 
to the requirements of Section 903.2, the provisions indi- 
cated in Table 903 .2.13 also require the installation of a sup- 
pression system for certain buildings and areas. 

903.3 Installation requirements. Automatic sprinkler sys- 
tems shall be designed and installed in accordance with Sec- 
tions 903.3.1 through 903.3.7. 

903.3.1 Standards. Sprinkler systems shall be designed 
and installed in accordance with Sections 903.3.1.1, 
903.3.1.2 or 903.3.1.3. 

903.3.1.1 NFPA 13 sprinkler systems. Where the pro- 
visions of this code require that a building or portion 
thereof be equipped throughout with an automatic sprin- 
kler system in accordance with this section, sprinklers 
shall be installed throughout in accordance with NFPA 
13 except as provided in Section 903.3.1.1.1. 

903.3.1.1.1 Exempt locations. Automatic sprinklers 
shall not be required in the following rooms or areas 
where such rooms or areas are protected with an 
approved automatic fire detection system in accor- 
dance with Section 907.2 that will respond to visible 
or invisible particles of combustion. Sprinklers shall 



not be omitted from any room merely because it is 
damp, of fire-resistance rated construction or contains 
electrical equipment. 

1 . Any room where the application of water, or 
flame and water, constitutes a serious life or fire 
hazard. 

2. Any room or space where sprinklers are consid- 
ered undesirable because of the nature of the 
contents, when approved by the fire code offi- 
cial. 

3. Generator and transformer rooms separated 
from the remainder of the building by walls and 
floor/ceiling or roof/ceiling assemblies having 
a fire-resistance rating of not less than 2 hours. 

4. In rooms or areas that are of noncombustible 
construction with wholly noncombustible con- 
tents. 

903.3.1.2 NFPA 13R sprinkler systems. Where 
allowed in buildings of Group R, up to and including four 
stories in height, automatic sprinkler systems shall be 
installed throughout in accordance with NFPA 13R. 

903.3.1.2.1 Balconies and decks. Sprinkler protec- 
tion shall be provided for exterior balconies, decks 
and ground floor patios of dwelling units where the 
building is of Type V construction. Sidewall sprin- 
klers that are used to protect such areas shall be per- 
mitted to be located such that their deflectors are 
within 1 inch (25 rmn) to 6 inches (152 mm) below the 
structural members and a maximum distance of 14 
inches (356 mm) below the deck of the exterior balco- 
nies and decks that are constructed of open wood joist 
construction. 

903.3.1.3 NFPA 13D sprinkler systems. Where 
allowed, automatic sprinkler systems installed in one- 
and two-family dwellings shall be installed throughout 
in accordance with NFPA 13D. 

903.3.2 Quick-response and residential sprinklers. 

Where automatic sprinkler systems are required by this 
code, quick-response or residential automatic sprinklers 
shall be installed in the following areas in accordance with 
Section 903.3.1 and their listings: 

1. Throughout all spaces within a smoke compartment 
containing patient sleeping units in Group 1-2 in 
accordance with the International Building Code. 

2. Dwelling units and sleeping units in Group R and I-l 
occupancies. 

3. Light-hazard occupancies as defined in NFPA 13. 

903.3.3 Obstructed locations. Automatic sprinklers shall 
be installed with due regard to obstructions that will delay 
activation or obstruct the water distribution pattern. Auto- 
matic sprinklers shall be installed in or under covered 
kiosks, displays, booths, concession stands, or equipment 
that exceeds 4 feet (1219 mm) in width. Not less than a 
3 -foot (914 mm) clearance shall be maintained between 
automatic sprinklers and the top of piles of combustible 
fibers. 



72 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE'' 



FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



Exception: Kitchen equipment under exhaust hoods 
protected with a fire-extinguishing system in accordance 
with Section 904. 

903.3.4 Actuation. Automatic sprinkler systems shall be 
automatically actuated unless specifically provided for in 
this code. 

903.3.5 Water supplies. Water supplies for automatic 
sprinkler systems shall comply with this section and the 
standards referenced in Section 903.3.1. The potable water 
supply shall be protected against backflow in accordance 
with the requirements of this section and the International 
Plumbing Code. 

903.3.5.1 Domestic services. Where the domestic ser- 
vice provides the water supply for the automatic sprin- 
kler system, the supply shall be in accordance with this 
section. 

903.3.5.1.1 Limited area sprinkler systems. Lim- 
ited area sprinkler systems serving fewer than 20 
sprinklers on any single connection are permitted to 
be connected to the domestic service where a wet 
automatic standpipe is not available. Limited area 
sprinkler systems connected to domestic water sup- 
plies shall comply with each of the following require- 
ments: 

1. Valves shall not be installed between the 
domestic water riser control valve and the 
sprinklers. 

Exception: An approved indicating control 
valve supervised in the open position in 
accordance with Section 903.4. 

2. The domestic service shall be capable of sup- 
plying the simultaneous domestic demand and 
the sprinkler demand required to be hydrauli- 
cally calculated by NFPA 13, NFPA 13R or 
NFPA 13D. 

903.3.5.1.2 Residential combination services. A 

single combination water supply shall be allowed pro- 
vided that the domestic demand is added to the sprin- 
kler demand as required by NFPA 13R. 

903.3.5.2 Secondary water supply. A secondary on-site 
water supply equal to the hydraulically calculated sprin- 
kler demand, including the hose stream requirement, 
shall be provided for high-rise buildings in Seismic 
Design Category C, D, E or F as determined by the Inter- 
national Building Code. The secondary water supply 
shall have a duration of not less than 30 minutes as deter- 
mined by the occupancy hazard classification in accor- 
dance with NFPA 13. 

Exception: Existing buildings. 

903.3.6 Hose threads. Fire hose threads and fittings used in 
connection with automatic sprinkler systems shall be as pre- 
scribed by the fire code official. 

903.3.7 Fire department connections. The location of fire 
department connections shall be approved by the fire code 
official. 



903.4 Sprinkler system monitoring and alarms. All valves 
controlling the water supply for automatic sprinkler systems, 
pumps, tanks, water levels and temperatures, critical air pres- 
sures, and water-flow switches on all sprinkler systems shall be 
electrically supervised. 

Exceptions: 

1. Automatic sprinkler systems protecting one- and 
two-family dwellings. 

2. Limited area systems serving fewer than 20 sprin- 
klers. 

3. Automatic sprinkler systems installed in accordance 
with NFPA 1 3R where a common supply main is used 
to supply both domestic water and the automatic 
sprinkler system, and a separate shutoff valve for the 
automatic sprinkler system is not provided. 

4. Jockey pump control valves that are sealed or locked 
in the open position. 

5. Control valves to commercial kitchen hoods, paint 
spray booths or dip tanks that are sealed or locked in 
the open position. 

6. Valves controlling the fuel supply to fire pump 
engines that are sealed or locked in the open position. 

7. Trim valves to pressure switches in dry, preaction and 
deluge sprinkler systems that are sealed or locked in 
the open position. 

903.4.1 Signals. Alarm, supervisory and trouble signals 
shall be distinctly different and shall be automatically trans- 
mitted to an approved central station, remote supervising 
station or proprietary supervising station as defined in 
NFPA 72 or, when approved by the fire code official, shall 
sound an audible signal at a constantly attended location. 

Exceptions: 

1. Underground key or hub valves in roadway boxes 
provided by the municipality or public utility are 
not required to be monitored. 

2. Backflow prevention device test valves located in 
limited area sprinkler system supply piping shall 
be locked in the open position. In occupancies 
required to be equipped with a fire alarm system, 
the backflow preventer valves shall be electrically 
supervised by a tamper switch installed in accor- 
dance with NFPA 72 and separately annunciated. 

903.4.2 Alarms. Approved audible devices shall be con- 
nected to every automatic sprinkler system. Such sprinkler 
water-flow alarm devices shall be activated by water flow 
equivalent to the flow of a single sprinkler of the smallest 
orifice size installed in the system. Alarm devices shall be 
provided on the exterior of the building in an approved loca- 
tion. Where a fire alarm system is installed, actuation of the 
automatic sprinkler system shall actuate the building fire 
alarm system. 

903.4.3 Floor control valves. Approved supervised indi- 
cating control valves shall be provided at the point of con- 
nection to the riser on each floor in high-rise buildings. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE'' 



73 



FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



903.5 Testing and maintenance. Sprinkler systems shall be 
tested and maintained in accordance with Section 901. 

903.6 Existing buildings. The provisions of this section are 
intended to provide a reasonable degree of safety in existing 
structures not complying with the minimum requirements of 
the International Building Code by requiring installation of an 
automatic fire-extinguishing system. 

903.6.1 Pyroxylin plastics. All structures occupied for the 
manufacture or storage of articles of cellulose nitrate 
(pyroxylin) plastic shall be equipped with an approved auto- 
matic fire-extinguishing system. Vaults located within 
buildings for the storage of raw pyroxylin shall be protected 
with an approved automatic sprinkler system capable of dis- 
charging 1.66 gallons per minute per square foot (68 
L/min/m^) over the area of the vault. 



SECTION 904 

ALTERNATIVE AUTOMATIC FIRE-EXTINGUISHING 

SYSTEMS 

904.1 General. Automatic fire-extinguishing systems, other 
than automatic sprinkler systems, shall be designed, installed, 
inspected, tested and maintained in accordance with the provi- 
sions of this section and the applicable referenced standards. 

904.2 Where required. Automatic fire-extinguishing systems 
installed as an alternative to the required automatic sprinkler 
systems of Section 903 shall be approved by the fire code offi- 
cial. Automatic fire-extinguishing systems shall not be consid- 
ered alternatives for the purposes of exceptions or reductions 
allowed by other requirements of this code. 

904.2.1 Commercial hood and duct systems. Each 
required commercial kitchen exhaust hood and duct system 
required by Section 610 to have a Type I hood shall be pro- 
tected with an approved automatic fire-extinguishing sys- 
tem installed in accordance with this code. 

904.3 Installation. Automatic fire-extinguishing systems shall 
be installed in accordance with this section. 

904.3.1 Electrical wiring. Electrical wiring shall be in 
accordance with the ICC Electrical Code. 

904.3.2 Actuation. Automatic fire-extinguishing systems 
shall be automatically actuated and provided with a manual 
means of actuation in accordance with Section 904.11.1. 

904.3.3 System interlocking. Automatic equipment inter- 
locks with fuel shutoffs, ventilation controls, door closers, 
window shutters, conveyor openings, smoke and heat vents, 
and other features necessary for proper operation of the 
fire-extinguishing system shall be provided as required by 
the design and installation standard utilized for the hazard. 

904.3.4 Alarms and warning signs. Where alarms are 
required to indicate the operation of automatic fire-extin- 
guishing systems, distinctive audible, visible alarms and 
warning signs shall be provided to warn of pending agent 
discharge. Where exposure to automatic-extinguishing 
agents poses a hazard to persons and a delay is required to 
ensure the evacuation of occupants before agent discharge, 
a separate warning signal shall be provided to alert occu- 



pants once agent discharge has begun. Audible signals shall 
be in accordance with Section 907.10.2. 

904.3.5 Monitoring. Where a building fire alarm system is 
installed, automatic fire-extinguishing systems shall be 
monitored by the building fire alarm system in accordance 
with NFPA 72. 

904.4 Inspection and testing. Automatic fire-extinguishing 
systems shall be inspected and tested in accordance with the 
provisions of this section prior to acceptance. 

904.4.1 Inspection. Prior to conducting final acceptance 
tests, the following items shall be inspected: 

1 . Hazard specification for consistency with design haz- 
ard. 

2. Type, location and spacing of automatic- and man- 
ual-initiating devices. 

3. Size, placement and position of nozzles or discharge 
orifices. 

4. Location and identification of audible and visible 
alarm devices. 

5. Identification of devices with proper designations. 

6. Operating instructions. 

904.4.2 Alarm testing. Notification appliances, connec- 
tions to fire alarm systems, and connections to approved 
supervising stations shall be tested in accordance with this 
section and Section 907 to verify proper operation. 

904.4.2.1 Audible and visible signals. The audibility 
and visibility of notification appliances signaling agent 
discharge or system operation, where required, shall be 
verified. 

904.4.3 Monitor testing. Connections to protected pre- 
mises and supervising station fire alarm systems shall be 
tested to verify proper identification and retransmission of 
alarms from automatic fire-extinguishing systems. 

904.5 Wet-chemical systems. Wet-chemical extinguishing 
systems shall be installed, maintained, periodically inspected 
and tested in accordance with NFPA 17A and their listing. 

904.5.1 System test. Systems shall be inspected and tested 
for proper operation at 6-month intervals. Tests shall 
include a check of the detection system, alarms and releas- 
ing devices, including manual stations and other associated 
equipment. Extinguishing system units shall be weighed 
and the required amount of agent verified. Stored pres- 
sure-type units shall be checked for the required pressure. 
The cartridge of cartridge-operated units shall be weighed 
and replaced at intervals indicated by the manufacturer. 

904.5.2 Fusible link maintenance. Fixed tempera- 
ture-sensing elements shall be maintained to ensure proper 
operation of the system. 

904.6 Dry-chemical systems. Dry-chemical extinguishing 
systems shall be installed, maintained, periodically inspected 
and tested in accordance with NFPA 17 and their listing. 

904.6.1 System test. Systems shall be inspected and tested 
for proper operation at 6-month intervals. Tests shall 
include a check of the detection system, alarms and releas- 



74 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



ing devices, including manual stations and other associated 
equipment. Extinguishing system units shall be weighed, 
and the required amount of agent verified. Stored pres- 
sure-type units shall be checked for the required pressure. 
The cartridge of cartridge-operated units shall be weighed 
and replaced at intervals indicated by the manufacturer. 

904.6.2 Fusible link maintenance. Fixed tempera- 
ture-sensing elements shall be maintained to ensure proper 
operation of the system. 

904.7 Foam systems. Foam-extinguishing systems shall be 
installed, maintained, periodically inspected and tested in 
accordance with NFPA 11, NFPA 11 A and NFPA 16 and their 
listing. 

904.7.1 System test. Foam-extinguishing systems shall be 
inspected and tested at intervals in accordance with NFPA 

25. 

904.8 Carbon dioxide systems. Carbon dioxide extinguishing 
systems shall be installed, maintained, periodically inspected 
and tested in accordance with NFPA 12 and their listing. 

904.8.1 System test. Systems shall be inspected and tested 
for proper operation at 12-month intervals. 

904.8.2 High-pressure cylinders. High-pressure cylinders 
shall be weighed and the date of the last hydrostatic test shall 
be verified at 6-month intervals. Where a container shows a 
loss in original content of more than 10 percent, the cylinder 
shall be refilled or replaced. 

904.8.3 Low-pressure containers. The liquid-level gauges 
of low-pressure containers shall be observed at one-week 
intervals. Where a container shows a content loss of more 
than 10 percent, the container shall be refilled to maintain 
the minimum gas requirements. 

904.8.4 System hoses. System hoses shall be examined at 
12-month intervals for damage. Damaged hoses shall be 
replaced or tested. At five-year intervals, all hoses shall be 
tested. 

904.8.4.1 Test procedure. Hoses shall be tested at not 
less than 2,500 pounds per square inch (psi) (17 238 kPa) 
for high-pressure systems and at not less than 900 psi 
(6206 kPa) for low-pressure systems. 

904.8.5 Auxiliary equipment. Auxiliary and supplemen- 
tary components, such as switches, door and window 
releases, interconnected valves, damper releases and sup- 
plementary alarms, shall be manually operated at 12-month 
intervals to ensure that such components are in proper oper- 
ating condition. 

904.9 Halon systems. Halogenated extinguishing systems 
shall be installed, maintained, periodically inspected and tested 
in accordance with NFPA 12A and their listing. 

904.9.1 System test. Systems shall be inspected and tested 
for proper operation at 12-month intervals. 

904.9.2 Containers. The extinguishing agent quantity and 
pressure of containers shall be checked at 6-month intervals. 
Where a container shows a loss in original weight of more 
than 5 percent or a loss in original pressure (adjusted for 
temperature) of more than 10 percent, the container shall be 



refilled or replaced. The weight and pressure of the con- 
tainer shall be recorded on a tag attached to the container. 

904.9.3 System hoses. System hoses shall be examined at 
12-month intervals for damage. Damaged hoses shall be 
replaced or tested. At 5-year intervals, all hoses shall be 
tested. 

904.9.3.1 Test procedure. For Halon 1301 systems, 
hoses shall be tested at not less than 1,500 psi (10 343 
kPa) for 600 psi (4137 kPa) charging pressure systems 
and not less than 900 psi (6206 kPa) for 360 psi (2482 
kPa) charging pressure systems. For Halon 1211 
hand-hose line systems, hoses shall be tested at 2,500 psi 
(17 238 kPa) for high-pressure systems and 900 psi 
(6206 kPa) for low-pressure systems. 

904.9.4 Auxiliary equipment. Auxiliary and supplemen- 
tary components, such as switches, door and window 
releases, interconnected valves, damper releases and sup- 
plementary alarms, shall be manually operated at 12-month 
intervals to ensure such components are in proper operating 
condition. 

904.10 Clean-agent systems. Clean-agent fire-extinguishing 
systems shall be installed, maintained, periodically inspected 
and tested in accordance with NFPA 2001 and their listing. 

904.10.1 System test. Systems shall be inspected and tested 
for proper operation at 12-month intervals. 

904.10.2 Containers. The extinguishing agent quantity and 
pressure of the containers shall be checked at 6-month inter- 
vals. Where a container shows a loss in original weight of 
more than 5 percent or a loss in original pressure, adjusted 
for temperature, of more than 10 percent, the container shall 
be refilled or replaced. The weight and pressure of the con- 
tainer shall be recorded on a tag attached to the container. 

904.10.3 System hoses. System hoses shall be examined at 
12-month intervals for damage. Damaged hoses shall be 
replaced or tested. All hoses shall be tested at 5-year inter- 
vals. 

904.11 Commercial cooking systems. The automatic 
fire-extinguishing system for commercial cooking systems 
shall be of a type recognized for protection of commercial 
cooking equipment and exhaust systems of the type and 
arrangement protected. Preengineered automatic dry- and 
wet-chemical extinguishing systems shall be tested in accor- 
dance with UL 300 and Usted and labeled for the intended 
application. Other types of automatic fire-extinguishing sys- 
tems shall be listed and labeled for specific use as protection for 
commercial cooking operations. The system shall be installed 
in accordance with this code, its listing and the manufacturer's 
installation instructions. Automatic fire-extinguishing systems 
of the following types shall be installed in accordance with the 
referenced standard indicated, as follows: 

1. Carbon dioxide extinguishing systems, NFPA 12. 

2. Automatic sprinkler systems, NFPA 13. 

3. Foam-water sprinkler system or foam- water spray sys- 
tems, NFPA 16. 

4. Dry-chemical extinguishing systems, NFPA 17. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE^ 



75 



FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



5. Wet-chemical extinguishing systems, NFPA 17 A. 

Exception: Factory-built commercial cooking recirculat- 
ing systems that are tested in accordance with UL 710B and 
listed, labeled and installed in accordance with Section 
304. 1 of the International Mechanical Code. 

904.11.1 Manual system operation. A manual actuation 
device shall be located at or near a means of egress from the 
cooking area a minimum of 10 feet (3048 mm) and a maxi- 
mum of 20 feet (6096 mm) from the kitchen exhaust system. 
The manual actuation device shall be installed not more than 
48 inches (1200 mm) nor less than 42 inches (1067 mm) 
above the floor and shall clearly identify the hazard pro- 
tected. The manual actuation shall require a maximum force 
of 40 pounds (178 N) and a maximum movement of 14 
inches (356 mm) to actuate the fire suppression system. 

Exception: Automatic sprinkler systems shall not be 
required to be equipped with manual actuation means. 

904.11.2 System interconnection. The actuation of the fire 
extinguishing system shall automatically shut down the fuel 
or electrical power supply to the cooking equipment. The 
fuel and electrical supply reset shall be manual. 

904.11.3 Carbon dioxide systems. When carbon dioxide 
systems are used, there shall be a nozzle at the top of the ven- 
tilating duct. Additional nozzles that are symmetrically 
arranged to give uniform distribution shall be installed 
within vertical ducts exceeding 20 feet (6096 mm) and hori- 
zontal ducts exceeding 50 feet (15 240 mm). Dampers shall 
be installed at either the top or the bottom of the duct and 
shall be arranged to operate automatically upon activation 
of the fire-extinguishing system. When the damper is 
installed at the top of the duct, the top nozzle shall be imme- 
diately below the damper. Automatic carbon dioxide 
fire-extinguishing systems shall be sufficiently sized to pro- 
tect all hazards venting through a common duct simulta- 
neously. 

904.11.3.1 Ventilation system. Commercial-type cook- 
ing equipment protected by an automatic carbon dioxide 
extinguishing system shall be arranged to shut off the 
ventilation system upon activation. 

904.11.4 Special provisions for automatic sprinkler sys- 
tems. Automatic sprinkler systems protecting commer- 
cial-type cooking equipment shall be supplied from a 
separate, readily accessible, indicating-type control valve 
that is identified. 

904.11.4.1 Listed sprinklers. Sprinklers used for the 
protection of fryers shall be tested in accordance with UL 
199E, listed for that application and installed in accor- 
dance with their listing. 

904.11.5 Portable fire extinguishers for commercial 
cooking equipment. Portable fire extinguishers shall be 
provided within a 30-foot (9144 mm) travel distance of 
commercial-type cooking equipment. Cooking equipment 
involving vegetable or animal oils and fats shall be protected 
by a Class K rated portable extinguisher. 

904.11.5.1 Portable fire extinguishers for solid fuel 
cooking appliances. All solid fuel cooking appliances, 



whether or not under a hood, with fireboxes 5 cubic feet 
(0.14 m^) or less in volume shall have a minimum 
2.5-gallon (9 L) or two 1.5-gallon (6 L) Class K 
wet-chemical portable fire extinguishers located in 
accordance with Section 904.11.5. 

904.11.5.2 Class K portable fire extinguishers for 
deep fat fryers. When hazard areas include deep fat fry- 
ers, listed Class K portable fire extinguishers shall be 
provided as follows: 

1 . For up to four fryers having a maximum cooking 
medium capacity of 80 pounds (36.3 kg) each: One 
Class K portable fire extinguisher of a minimum 
1.5 gallon ( 6 L) capacity. 

2. For every additional group of four fryers having a 
maximum cooking medium capacity of 80 pounds 
(36.3 kg) each: One additional Class K portable 
fire extinguisher of a minimum 1 .5 gallon (6 L) 
capacity shall be provided. 

3. For individual fryers exceeding 6 square feet (0.55 
m^) in surface area: Class K portable fire 
extinguishers shall be installed in accordance with 
the extinguisher manufacturer's recommenda- 
tions. 

904.11.6 Operations and maintenance. Commercial 
cooking systems shall be operated and maintained in accor- 
dance with this section. 

904.11.6.1 Ventilation system. The ventilation system 
in connection with hoods shall be operated at the 
required rate of air movement, and classified grease fil- 
ters shall be in place when equipment under a kitchen 
grease hood is used. 

904.11.6.2 Grease extractors. Where grease extractors 
are installed, they shall be operated when the commer- 
cial-type cooking equipment is used. 

904.11.6.3 Cleaning. Hoods, grease-removal devices, 
fans, ducts and other appurtenances shall be cleaned at 
intervals necessary to prevent the accumulation of 
grease. Cleanings shall be recorded, and records shall 
state the extent, time and date of cleaning. Such records 
shall be maintained on the premises. 

904.11.6.4 Extinguishing system service. Automatic 
fire-extinguishing systems shall be serviced at least 
every 6 months and after activation of the system. 
Inspection shall be by qualified individuals, and a certifi- 
cate of inspection shall be forwarded to the fire code offi- 
cial upon completion. 

904.11.6.5 Fusible link and sprinkler head replace- 
ment. Fusible links and automatic sprinkler heads shall 
be replaced at least annually, and other protection 
devices shall be serviced or replaced in accordance with 
the manufacturer's instructions. 

Exception: Frangible bulbs are not required to be 
replaced annually. 



!• 



76 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE'' 



FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



SECTION 905 
STANDPIPE SYSTEMS 

905.1 General. Standpipe systems shall be provided in new 
buildings and structures in accordance with this section. Fire 
hose threads used in connection with standpipe systems shall 
be approved and shall be compatible with fire department hose 
threads. The location of fire department hose connections shall 
be approved. In buildings used for high-piled combustible stor- 
age, fire protection shall be in accordance with Chapter 23. 

905.2 Installation standard. Standpipe systems shall be 
installed in accordance with this section and NFPA 14. 

905.3 Required installations. Standpipe systems shall be 
installed where required by Sections 905.3.1 through 905.3.7 
and in the locations indicated in Sections 905.4, 905.5 and 
905.6. Standpipe systems are allowed to be combined with 
automatic sprinkler systems. 

Exception: Standpipe systems are not required in Group 
R-3 occupancies. 

905.3.1 Building height. Class III standpipe systems shall 
be installed throughout buildings where the floor level of the 
highest story is located more than 30 feet (9144 mm) above 
the lowest level of the fire department vehicle access, or 
where the floor level of the lowest story is located more than 
30 feet (9144 mm) below the highest level of fire depart- 
ment vehicle access. 

Exceptions: 

1. Class I standpipes are allowed in buildings 
equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler 
system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 
903.3.1.2. 

2. Class I manual standpipes are allowed in open 
parking garages where the highest floor is located 
not more than 150 feet (45 720 mm) above the low- 
est level of fire department vehicle access. 

3. Class I manual dry standpipes are allowed in open 
parking garages that are subject to freezing tem- 
peratures, provided that the hose connections are 
located as required for Class II standpipes in accor- 
dance with Section 905.5. 

4. Class I standpipes are allowed in basements 
equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler 
system. 

5. In determining the lowest level of fire department 
vehicle access, it shall not be required to consider: 

5.1. Recessed loading docks for four vehicles 
or less, and 

5.2. Conditions where topography makes 
access from the fire department vehicle to 
the building impractical or impossible. 

905.3.2 Group A. Class I automatic wet standpipes shall be 
provided in nonsprinklered Group A buildings having an 
occupant load exceeding 1,000 persons. 



Exceptions: 

1. Open-air-seating spaces without enclosed spaces. 

2. Class I automatic dry and semiautomatic dry 
standpipes or manual wet standpipes are allowed 
in buildings where the highest floor surface used 
for human occupancy is 75 feet (22 860 mm) or 
less above the lowest level of fire department vehi- 
cle access. 

905.3.3 Covered mall buildings. A covered mall building 
shall be equipped throughout with a standpipe system 
where required by Section 905.3.1. Covered mall buildings 
not required to be equipped with a standpipe system by Sec- 
tion 905 .3.1 shall be equipped with Class I hose connections 
connected to a system sized to deliver water at 250 gallons 
per minute (946.4 L/min) at the most hydraulically remote 
outlet. Hose connections shall be provided at each of the fol- 
lowing locations: 

1. Within the mall at the entrance to each exit passage- 
way or corridor. 

2. At each floor-level landing within enclosed stairways 
opening directly on the mall. 

3. At exterior public entrances to the mall. 

905.3.4 Stages. Stages greater than 1,000 square feet (93 
m^) in area shall be equipped with a Class III wet standpipe 
system with IVj-inch and 2V2-inch (38 mm and 64 mm) 
hose connections on each side of the stage. 

Exception: Where the building or area is equipped 
throughout with an automatic sprinkler system, a IV2 
inch (38 mm) hose connection shall be installed in accor- 
dance with NFR\ 13 or in accordance with NFR\ 14 for 
Class II or III standpipes. 

905.3.4.1 Hose and cabinet. The 1 Vj-inch (38 mm) hose 
connections shall be equipped with sufficient lengths of 
1 V2-inch (38 mm) hose to provide fire protection for the 
stage area. Hose connections shall be equipped with an 
approved adjustable fog nozzle and be mounted in a cabi- 
net or on a rack. 

905.3.5 Underground buildings. Underground buildings 
shall be equipped throughout with a Class I automatic wet or 
manual wet standpipe system. 

905.3.6 Helistops and heliports. Buildings with a helistop 
or heliport that are equipped with a standpipe shall extend 
the standpipe to the roof level on which the helistop or heli- 
port is located in accordance with Section 1107.5. 

905.3.7 Marinas and boatyards. Marinas and boatyards 
shall be equipped throughout with standpipe systems in 
accordance with NFPA 303. 

905.4 Location of Class I standpipe hose connections. Class 
I standpipe hose connections shall be provided in all of the fol- 
lowing locations: 

1 . In every required stairway, a hose connection shall be 
provided for each floor level above or below grade. Hose 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE'' 



77 



FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



connections shall be located at an intermediate floor 
level landing between floors, unless otherwise approved 
by the fire code official. 

2. On each side of the wall adjacent to the exit opening of a 
horizontal exit. 

Exception: Where floor areas adjacent to a horizontal 
exit are reachable from exit stairway hose connec- 
tions by a 30-foot (9 144 mm) hose stream from a noz- 
zle attached to 100 feet (30480 mm) of hose, a hose 
connection shall not be required at the horizontal exit. 

3. In every exit passageway, at the entrance from the exit 
passageway to other areas of a building. 

4. In covered mall buildings, adjacent to each exterior pub- 
lic entrance to the mall and adjacent to each entrance 
from an exit passageway or exit corridor to the mall. 

5 . Where the roof has a slope less than four units vertical in 
12 units horizontal (33.3-percent slope), each standpipe 
shall be provided with a hose connection located either 
on the roof or at the highest landing of a stairway with 
stair access to the roof. An additional hose connection 
shall be provided at the top of the most hydraulically 
remote standpipe for testing purposes. 

6. Where the most remote portion of a nonsprinklered floor 
or story is more than 150 feet (45 720 mm) from a hose 
connection or the most remote portion of a sprinklered 
floor or story is more than 200 feet (60 960 mm) from a 
hose connection, the fire code official is authorized to 
require that additional hose connections be provided in 
approved locations. 

905.4.1 Protection. Risers and laterals of Class I standpipe 
systems not located within an enclosed stairway or pressur- 
ized enclosure shall be protected by a degree of fire resis- 
tance equal to that required for vertical enclosures in the 
building in which they are located. 

Exception: In buildings equipped throughout with an 
approved automatic sprinkler system, laterals that are not 
located within an enclosed stairway or pressurized 
enclosure are not required to be enclosed within 
fire-resistance-rated construction. 

905.4.2 Interconnection. In buildings where more than one 
standpipe is provided, the standpipes shall be intercon- 
nected in accordance with NFPA 14. 

905.5 Location of Class II standpipe hose connections. 

Class 11 standpipe hose connections shall be accessible and 
shall be located so that all portions of the building are within 30 
feet (9144 mm) of a nozzle attached to 100 feet (30 480 mm) of 
hose. 

905.5.1 Groups A-1 and A-2. In Group A-1 and A-2 occu- 
pancies with occupant loads of more than 1,000, hose con- 
nections shall be located on each side of any stage, on each 
side of the rear of the auditorium, on each side of the bal- 
cony, and on each tier of dressing rooms. 

905.5.2 Protection. Fire-resistance-rated protection of ris- 
ers and laterals of Class II standpipe systems is not required. 



905.5.3 Class II system 1-incli hose. A minimum 1-inch 
(25 mm) hose shall be allowed to be used for hose stations in 
light-hazard occupancies where investigated and listed for 
this service and where approved by the fire code official. 

905.6 Location of Class III standpipe hose connections. 

Class III standpipe systems shall have hose connections 
located as required for Class I standpipes in Section 905.4 and 
shall have Class II hose connections as required in Section 
905.5. 

905.6.1 Protection. Risers and laterals of Class HI 
standpipe systems shall be protected as required for Class I 
systems in accordance with Section 905.4.1. 

905.6.2 Interconnection. In buildings where more than one 
Class III standpipe is provided, the standpipes shall be inter- 
connected at the bottom. 

905.7 Cabinets. Cabinets containing fire-fighting equipment, 
such as standpipes, fire hose, fire extinguishers or fire depart- 
ment valves, shall not be blocked from use or obscured from 
view. 

905.7.1 Cabinet equipment identification. Cabinets shall 
be identified in an approved manner by a permanently 
attached sign with letters not less than 2 inches (51 mm) 
high in a color that contrasts with the background color, 
indicating the equipment contained therein. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Doors not large enough to accommodate a written 
sign shall be marked with a permanently attached 
pictogram of the equipment contained therein. 

2. Doors that have either an approved visual identifi- 
cation clear glass panel or a complete glass door 
panel are not required to be marked. 

905.7.2 Locking cabinet doors. Cabinets shall be 
unlocked. 

Exceptions: 

1. Visual identification panels of glass or other 
approved transparent frangible material that is eas- 
ily broken and allows access. 

2. Approved locking arrangements. 

3. Group 1-3 occupancies. 

905.8 Dry standpipes. Dry standpipes shall not be installed. 

Exception: Where subject to freezing and in accordance 
with NFPA 14. 

905.9 Valve supervision. Valves controlling water supplies 
shall be supervised in the open position so that a change in the 
normal position of the valve will generate a supervisory signal 
at the supervising station required by Section 903.4. Where a 
fire alarm system is provided, a signal shall also be transmitted 
to the control unit. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Valves to underground key or hub valves in roadway 
boxes provided by the municipality or public utility 
do not require supervision. 



78 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE'' 



FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



• 



1 



2. Valves locked in the normal position and inspected as 
provided in this code in buildings not equipped with a 
fire alarm system. . 

905.10 During construction. Standpipe systems required dur- 
ing construction and demolition operations shall be provided in 
accordance with Section 1413. 

905.11 Existing buildings. Existing structures with occupied 
floors located more than 50 feet (15 240 mm) above or below 
the lowest level of fire department access shall be equipped 
with standpipes installed in accordance with Section 905. The 
standpipes shall have 4n approved fire department connection 
with hose connections at each floor level above or below the 
lowest level of fire department access. The fire code official is 
authorized to approve the installation of manual standpipe sys- 
tems to achieve compliance with this section where the 
responding fire department is capable of providing the required 
hose flow at the highest standpipe outlet. 



SECTION 906 
PORTABLE FIRE EXTINGUISHERS 

906.1 Where required. Portable fire extinguishers shall be 
installed in the following locations. 

1. In new and existing Group A, B, E, F, H, I , M, R-1, R-2, 
R-4 and S occupancies. 

Exception: In new and existing Group A, B and E 
occupancies equipped throughout with quick- 
response sprinklers, portable fire extinguishers shall 
be required only in locations specified in Items 2 
through 6. 

2 . Within 30 feet (9 1 44 mm) of commercial cooking equip- 
ment. 

« 

/ 3. In areas where flammable or combustible liquids are 
\ stored, used or dispensed. 

*«4. On each floor of structures under construction, except 
' Group R-3 occupancies, in accordance with Section 
] 1415.1. 

^.5 . Where required by the sections indicated in Table 906. 1 . 

(p. Special-hazard areas, including but not limited to labora- 
i tories, computer rooms and generator rooms, where 
[ required by the fire code official. 

906,.2 General requirements. Portable fire extinguishers shall 
be s elected, installed and maintained in accordance with this 
sectjion and NFPA 10. 

Exceptions: 

1. The travel distance to reach an extinguisher shall not 
apply to the spectator seating portions of Group A-5 
i occupancies. 

' 2. Thirty-day inspections shall not be required and 
maintenance shall be allowed to be once every three 
years for dryTchemical or halogenated agent portable 
fire extinguishers that are supervised by a listed and 
approved electronic monitoring device, provided that 
all of the following conditions are met: 



2.1. Electronic monitoring shall confirm that 
extinguishers are properly positioned, prop- 
erly charged and unobstructed. 

2.2. Loss of power or circuit continuity to the elec- 
tronic monitoring device shall initiate a trou- 
ble signal. 

2.3. The extinguishers shall be installed inside of a 
building or cabinet in a noncorrosive environ- 
ment. 

2.4. Electronic monitoring devices and supervi- 
sory circuits shall be tested every three years 
when extinguisher maintenance is performed. 

2.5. A written log of required hydrostatic test dates 
for extinguishers shall be maintained by the 
owner to ensure that hydrostatic tests are con- 
ducted at the frequency required by NFPA 10. 

906.3 Size and distribution. For occupancies that involve pri- 
marily Class A fire hazards, the minimum sizes and distribu- 
tion shall comply with Table 906.3(1). Fire extinguishers for 
occupancies involving flammable or combustible liquids with 
depths of less than or equal to 0.25-inch (6.35 mm) shall be 
selected and placed in accordance with Table 906.3(2). Fire 
extinguishers for occupancies involving flammable or com- 
bustible liquids with a depth of greater than 0.25-inch (6.35 
nmi) or involving combustible metals shall be selected and 
placed in accordance with NFPA 10. Extinguishers for Class C 
fire hazards shall be selected and placed on the basis of the 
anticipated Class A or Class B hazard. 

906.4 Cooking grease fires. Fire extinguishers provided for 
the protection of cooking grease fires shall be of an approved 
type compatible with the automatic fire-extinguishing system 
agent and in accordance with Section 904.11.5. 

906.5 Conspicuous location. Portable fire extinguishers shall 
be located in conspicuous locations where they will be readily 
accessible and inmiediately available for use. These locations 
shall be along normal paths of travel, unless the fire code offi- 
cial determines that the hazard posed indicates the need for 
placement away from normal paths of travel. 

906.6 Unobstructed and unobscured. Portable fire 
extinguishers shall not be obstructed or obscured from view. In 
rooms or areas in which visual obstruction cannot be com- 
pletely avoided, means shall be provided to indicate the loca- 
tions of extinguishers. 

906.7 Hangers and brackets. Hand-held portable fire 
extinguishers, not housed in cabinets, shall be installed on the 
hangers or brackets supplied. Hangers or brackets shall be 
securely anchored to the mounting surface in accordance with 
the manufacturer's installation instructions. 

906.8 Cabinets. Cabinets used to house portable fire 
extinguishers shall not be locked. 

Exceptions: 

1. Where portable fire extinguishers subject to mali- 
cious use or damage are provided with a means of 
ready access. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



79 



FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



TABLE 906.1 
ADDITIONAL REQUIRED PORTABLE FIRE EXTINGUISHERS 



SECTION 


SUBJECT 


303.5 


Asphalt kettles 


307.5 


Open burning 


308.4 


Open flames-torches 


309.4 


Powered industrial trucks 


1105.2 


Aircraft towing vehicles 


1105.3 


Aircraft welding apparatus 


1105.4 


Aircraft fuel-servicing tank vehicles 


1105.5 


Aircraft hydrant fuel- servicing vehicles 


1105.6 


Aircraft fuel-dispensing stations 


1107.7 


Heliports and helistops 


1208.4 


Dry cleaning plants 


1415.1 


Buildings under construction or demolition 


1417.3 


Roofing operations 


1504.4.1 


Spray-finishing operations 


1505.4.2 


Dip-tank operations 


1506.4.2 


Powder-coating areas 


1904.2 


Lumberyards/woodworking facilities 


1908.8 


Recycling facilities 


1909.5 


Exterior lumber storage 


2003.5 


Organic-coating areas 


2106.3 


Industrial ovens 


2205.5 


Motor fuel-dispensing facilities 


2210.6.4 


Marine motor fuel-dispensing facilities 


2211.6 


Repair garages 


2306.10 


Rack storage 


2404.12 


Tents, canopies and membrane structures 


2508.2 


Tire rebuilding/storage 


2604.2.6 


Welding and other hot work 


2903.6 


Combustible fibers 


3308.11 


Fireworks 


3403.2.1 


Flammable and combustible liquids, general 


3404.3.3.1 


Indoor storage of flammable and combustible liquids 


3404.3.7.5.2 


Liquid storage rooms for flammable and combustible 
liquids 


3405.4.9 


Solvent distillation units 


3406.2.7 


Farms and construction sites — flammable and 
combustible liquids storage 


3406.4.10.1 


Bulk plants and terminals for flammable and 
combustible hquids 


3406.5.4.5 


Commercial, industrial, governmental or 
manufacturing establishments — fuel dispensing 


3406.6.4 


Tank vehicles for flammable and combustible liquids 


3606.5.7 


Flammable solids 


3808.2 


LP-gas 



2. In Group 1-3 occupancies and in mental health areas 
in Group 1-2 occupancies, access to portable fire 
extinguishers shall be permitted to be locked or to be 
located in staff locations provided the staff has keys. 

906.9 Height above floor. Portable fire extinguishers having a 
gross weight not exceeding 40 pounds (18 kg) shall be installed 
so that its top is not more than 5 feet ( 1 524 mm) above the floor. 
Hand-held portable fire extinguishers having a gross weight 
exceeding 40 pounds (18 kg) shall be installed so that its top is 
not more than 3.5 feet (1067 mm) above the floor. The clear- 
ance between the floor and the bottom of installed hand-held 
extinguishers shall not be less than 4 inches (102 mm). 

906.10 Wheeled units. Wheeled fire extinguishers shall be 
conspicuously located in a designated location. 



TABLE 906.3(1) 
FIRE EXTINGUISHERS FOR CLASS A FIRE HAZARDS 





LIGHT (Low) 

HAZARD 
OCCUPANCY 


ORDINARY 

(Moderate) 

HAZARD 

OCCUPANCY 


EXTRA (High) 

HAZARD 
OCCUPANCY 


Minimum 
Rated Single 
Extinguisher 


2-A'= 


2-A 


4-A^ 


Maximum 
Floor Area Per 
Unit of A 


3,000 , 
square feet 


1,500 
square feet 


1,000 
square feet 


Maximum 
Floor Area For 
Extinguisher'' 


11,250 
square feet 


11,250 
square feet 


11,250 
square feet 


Maximum 
Travel Distance 
to Extinguisher 


75 feet 


75 feet 


75 feet 



For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 square foot = 0.0929 m^, 1 gallon = 3.785 L. , 

a. Two 2.5-gallon water-type extinguishers shall be deemed the equivalent c-f 
one 4-A rated extinguisher. / 

b. Annex E.3.3 of NFPA 10 provides more details concerning application of t^^'ie 
maximum floor area criteria. • 

c. Two water-type extinguishers each with a 1-A rating shall be deemed tihe 
equivalent of one 2-A rated extinguisher for Light (Low) Hazard Occupan- 
cies. 



TABLE 906.3(2) 

FLAMMABLE OR COMBUSTIBLE LIQUIDS WITH DEPTHS OfF 

LESS THAN OR EQUAL TO 0.25-INCH 



TYPE OF HAZARD 


BASIC MINIMUM 

EXTINGUISHER 

RATING 


1 1 

MAXIMUM TRAVEL 

DISTANCE TO 

EXTINGUISHERS 

(feet) 


Light (Low) 


5-B 
10-B 


30 
50 • 


Ordinary (Moderate) 


10-B 
20-B 


30 
50 


Extra (High) 


40-B 
< 80-B 


30 
50 



t 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 

NOTE. For requirements on water-soluble flammable liquids and alternative 
sizing criteria, see Section 4.3 of NFPA 10. 



80 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE^ 



FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



SECTION 907 
FIRE ALARM AND DETECTION SYSTEMS 

907.1 General. This section covers the apphcation, installa- 
tion, performance and maintenance of fire alarm systems and 
their components in new and existing buildings and structures. 
The requirements of Section 907.2 are applicable to new build- 
ings and structures. The requirements of Section 907.3 are 
applicable to existing buildings and structures. 

907.1.1 Construction documents. Construction docu- 
ments for fire alarm systems shall be submitted for review 
and approval prior to system installation. Construction doc- 
uments shall include, but not be limited to, all of the follow- 
ing: 

1 . A floor plan which indicates the use of all rooms. 

2. Locations of alarm-initiating and notification appli- 
ances. 

3. Alarm control and trouble signaling equipment. 

4. Annunciation. 

5. Power connection. 

6. Battery calculations. 

7. Conductor type and sizes. 

8. Voltage drop calculations. 

9. Manufacturers, model numbers and listing informa- 
tion for equipment, devices and materials. 

10. Details of ceiling height and construction. 

1 1 . The interface of fire safety control functions. 

907.1.2 Equipment. Systems and their components shall be 
listed and approved for the purpose for which they are 
installed. 

907.2 Where required — new buildings and structures. An 

approved manual, automatic or manual and automatic fire 
alarm system installed in accordance with the provisions of this 
code and NFPA 72 shall be provided in new buildings and 
structures in accordance with Sections 907.2.1 through 
907.2.23 and provide occupant notification in accordance with 
Section 907.10, unless other requirements are provided by 
another section of this code. Where automatic sprinkler protec- 
tion installed in accordance with Section 903 .3 . 1 . 1 or 903 .3 . 1 .2 
is provided and connected to the building fire alarm system, 
automatic heat detection required by this section shall not be 
required. 

The automatic fire detectors shall be smoke detectors. 
Where ambient conditions prohibit installation of automatic 
smoke detection, other automatic fire detection shall be 
allowed. 

907.2.1 Group A. A manual fire alarm system shall be 
installed in Group A occupancies having an occupant load 
of 300 or more. Portions of Group E occupancies occupied 
for assembly purposes shall be provided with a fire alarm 
system as required for the Group E occupancy. 

Exception: Manual fire alarm boxes are not required 
where the building is equipped throughout with an auto- 
matic sprinkler system and the alarm notification appli- 
ances will activate upon sprinkler water flow. 



907.2.1.1 System initiation in Group A occupancies 
with an occupant load of 1,000 or more. Activation of 
the fire alarm in Group A occupancies with an occupant 
load of 1,000 or more shall initiate a signal using an 
emergency voice/alarm communications system in 
accordance with NFPA 72. 

Exception: Where approved, the prerecorded 
announcement is allowed to be manually deactivated 
for a period of time, not to exceed 3 minutes, for the 
sole purpose of allowing a live voice announcement 
from an approved, constantly attended location. 

907.2.1.2 Emergency power. Emergency voice/alarm 
communications systems shall be provided with an 
approved emergency power source. 

907.2.2 Group B. A manual fire alarm system shall be 
installed in Group B occupancies having an occupant load 
of 500 or more persons or more than 100 persons above or 
below the lowest level of exit discharge. 

Exception: Manual fire alarm boxes are not required 
where the building is equipped throughout with an auto- 
matic sprinkler system and the alarm notification appli- 
ances will activate upon sprinkler water flow. 

907.2.3 Group E. A manual fire alarm system shall be 
installed in Group E occupancies. When automatic sprin- 
kler systems or smoke detectors are installed, such systems 
or detectors shall be connected to the building fire alarm 
system. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Group E occupancies with an occupant load of less 
than 50. 

2. Manual fire alarm boxes are not required in Group 
E occupancies where all of the following apply: 

2.1. Interior corridors are protected by smoke 
detectors with alarm verification. 

2.2. Auditoriums, cafeterias, gymnasiums and 
the like are protected by heat detectors or 
other approved detection devices. 

2.3. Shops and laboratories involving dusts or 
vapors are protected by heat detectors or 
other approved detection devices. 

2.4. Off-premises monitoring is provided. 

2.5. The capability to activate the evacuation 
signal from a central point is provided. 

2.6. In buildings where normally occupied 
spaces are provided with a two-way com- 
munication system between such spaces 
and a constantly attended receiving station 
from where a general evacuation alarm can 
be sounded, except in locations specifi- 
cally designated by the fire code official. 

3. Manual fire alarm boxes shall not be required in 
Group E occupancies where the building is 
equipped throughout with an approved automatic 
sprinkler system, the notification appliances will 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE'' 



81 



FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



activate on sprinkler water flow and manual acti- 
vation is provided from a normally occupied loca- 
tion. 

907.2.4 Group F. A manual fire alarm system shall be 
installed in Group F occupancies that are two or more sto- 
ries in height and have an occupant load of 500 or more 
above or below the lowest level of exit discharge. 

Exception: Manual fire alarm boxes are not required 
where the building is equipped throughout with an auto- 
matic sprinkler system and the alarm notification appli- 
ances will activate upon sprinkler water flow. 

907.2.5 Group H. A manual fire alarm system shall be 
installed in Group H-5 occupancies and in occupancies used 
for the manufacture of organic coatings. An automatic 
smoke detection system shall be installed for highly toxic 
gases, organic peroxides and oxidizers in accordance with 
Chapters 37, 39 and 40, respectively. 

907.2.6 Group I. A manual fire alarm system shall be 
installed in Group I occupancies. An electrically super- 
vised, automatic smoke detection system shall be provided 
in accordance with Sections 907.2.6.1 and 907.2.6.2. 

Exception: Manual fire alarm boxes in resident or 
patient sleeping areas of Group I-l and 1-2 occupancies 
shall not be required at exits if located at all nurses' con- 
trol stations or other constantly attended staff locations, 
provided such stations are visible and continuously 
accessible and that travel distances required in Section 
907.4.1 are not exceeded. 

907.2.6.1 Group I-l. Corridors, habitable spaces other 
than sleeping units and kitchens, and waiting areas that 
are open to corridors shall be equipped with an automatic 
smoke detection system. 

Exceptions: 

1. Smoke detection in habitable spaces is not 
required where the facility is equipped through- 
out with an automatic sprinkler system. 

2. Smoke detection is not required for exterior 
balconies. 

907.2.6.2 Group 1-2. Corridors in nursing homes (both 
intermediate care and skilled nursing facilities), detoxifi- 
cation facilities and spaces permitted to be open to the 
corridors by Section 407.2 of the International Building 
Code shall be equipped with an automatic fire detection 
system. Hospitals shall be equipped with smoke detec- 
tion as required in Section 407.2 of the International 
Building Code. 

Exceptions: 

1. Corridor smoke detection is not required in 
smoke compartments that contain patient sleep- 
ing units where patient sleeping units are pro- 
vided with smoke detectors that comply with 
UL 268. Such detectors shall provide a visual 
display on the corridor side of each patient 
sleeping unit and shall provide an audible and 



visual alarm at the nursing station attending 
each unit. 

2. Corridor smoke detection is not required in 
smoke compartments that contain patient sleep- 
ing units where patient sleeping unit doors are 
equipped with automatic door-closing devices 
with integral smoke detectors on the unit sides 
installed in accordance with their listing, pro- 
vided that the integral detectors perform the 
required alerting function. 

907.2.6.3 Group 1-3 occupancies. Group 1-3 occupan- 
cies shall be equipped with a manual and automatic fire 
alarm system installed for alerting staff. 

907.2.6.3.1 System initiation. Actuation of an auto- 
matic fire-extinguishing system, a manual fire alarm 
box or a fire detector shall initiate an approved fire 
alarm signal which automatically notifies staff. 
Presignal systems shall not be used. 

907.2.6.3.2 Manual fire alarm boxes. Manual fire 
alarm boxes are not required to be located in accor- 
dance with Section 907.4 where the fire alarm boxes 
are provided at staff-attended locations having direct 
supervision over areas where manual fire alarm boxes 
have been omitted. 

Manual fire alarm boxes are allowed to be locked in 
areas occupied by detainees, provided that staff mem- 
bers are present within the subject area and have keys 
readily available to operate the manual fire alarm 
boxes. 

907.2.6.3.3 Smoke detectors. An approved auto- 
matic smoke detection system shall be installed 
throughout resident housing areas, including sleeping 
units and contiguous day rooms, group activity spaces 
and other common spaces normally accessible to resi- 
dents. 

Exceptions: 

1. Other approved smoke-detection arrange- 
ments providing equivalent protection, 
including, but not limited to, placing detec- 
tors in exhaust ducts from cells or behind 
protective guards listed for the purpose, are 
allowed when necessary to prevent damage 
or tampering. 

2. Sleeping units in Use Conditions 2 and 3. 

3. Smoke detectors are not required in sleeping 
units with four or fewer occupants in smoke 
compartments that are equipped throughout 
with an approved automatic sprinkler sys- 
tem. 

907.2.7 Group M. A manual fire alarm system shall be 
installed in Group M occupancies having an occupant load 
of 500 or more persons or more than 100 persons above or 
below the lowest level of exit discharge. The initiation of a 



82 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE*" 



FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



signal from a manual fire alarm box shall initiate alarm noti- 
fication appliances as required by Section 907.10. 

Exceptions: 

1 . A manual fire alarm system is required in covered 
mall buildings complying with Section 402 of the 
International Building Code. 

2 . Manual fire alarm boxes are not required where the 
building is equipped throughout with an automatic 
sprinkler system and the alarm notification appli- 
ances will automatically activate upon sprinkler 
water flow. 

907.2.7.1 Occupant notification. During times that the 
building is occupied, the initiation of a signal from a 
manual fire alarm box or from a water flow switch shall 
not be required to activate the alarm notification appli- 
ances when an alarm signal is activated at a constantly 
attended location from which evacuation instructions 
shall be initiated over an emergency voice/alarm com- 
munication system installed in accordance with Section 
907.2.12.2. ' 

The emergency voice/alarm communication system 
shall be allowed to be used for other announcements, 
provided the manual fire alarm use takes precedence 
over any other use. 

907.2.8 Group R-1. Fire alarm systems shall be installed in 
Group R-1 occupancies as required in Sections 907.2.8.1 
through 907.2.8.3. 

907.2.8.1 Manual fire alarm system. A manual fire 
alarm system shall be installed in Group R-1 occupan- 
cies. 

Exceptions: 

1. A manual fire alarm system is not required in 
buildings not more than two stories in height 
where all individual sleeping units and contigu- 
ous attic and crawl spaces are separated from 
each other and public or common areas by at 
least 1-hour fire partitions and each individual 
sleeping unit has an exit directly to a public 
way, exit court or yard. 

2. Manual fire alarm boxes are not required 
throughout the building when the following 
conditions are met: 

2.1. The building is equipped throughout 
with an automatic sprinkler system 
installed in accordance with Section 
903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2. 

2.2. The notification apphances will acti- 
vate upon sprinkler water flow; and 

2.3. At least one manual fire alarm box is 
installed at an approved location. 



907.2.8.2 Automatic fire alarm system. An automatic 
fire alarm system shall be installed throughout all interior 
corridors serving sleeping units. 

Exception: An automatic fire detection system is not 
required in buildings that do not have interior corri- 
dors serving sleeping units and where each sleeping 
unit has a means of egress door opening directly to an 
exterior exit access that leads directly to an exit. 

907.2.8.3 Smoke alarms. Smoke alarms shall be 
installed as required by Section 907.2.10. In buildings 
that are not equipped throughout with an automatic 
sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 
903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2, the smoke alarms in sleeping 
units shall be connected to an emergency electrical sys- 
tem and shall be annunciated by sleeping unit at a con- 
stantly attended location from which the fire alarm 
system is capable of being manually activated. 

907.2.9 Group R-2. A manual fire alarm system shall be 
installed in Group R-2 occupancies where: 

1 . Any dwelling unit or sleeping unit is located three or 
more stories above the lowest level of exit discharge; 

2. Any dwelling unit or sleeping unit is located more 
than one story below the highest level of exit dis- 
charge of exits serving the dwelling unit or sleeping 
unit; or 

3. The building contains more than 16 dwelling units or 
sleeping units. 

Exceptions: 

1 . A fire alarm system is not required in build- 
ings not more than two stories in height 
where all dwelling units or sleeping units 
and contiguous attic and crawl spaces are 
separated from each other and public or 
common areas by at least 1-hour fire parti- 
tions and each dwelling unit or sleeping unit 
has an exit directly to a public way, exit court 
or yard. 

2. Manual fire alarm boxes are not required 
throughout the building when the following 
conditions are met: 

2.1. The building is equipped throughout 
with an automatic sprinkler system 
in accordance with Section 
903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2; and 

2.2. The notification appliances will acti- 
vate upon sprinkler flow. 

3. A fire alarm system is not required in build- 
ings that do not have interior corridors serv- 
ing dwelling units and are protected by an 
approved automatic sprinkler system 
installed in accordance with Section 
903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2, provided that dwell- 
ing units either have a means of egress door 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE"" 



83 



FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



Opening directly to an exterior exit access 
that leads directly to the exits or are served 
by open-ended corridors designed in accor- 
dance with Section 1023.6, Exception 4. 

907.2.10 Single- and multiple-station smoke alarms. 

Listed single- and multiple-station smoke alarms comply- 
ing with UL 217 shall be installed in accordance with the 
provisions of this code and the household fire-waming 
equipment provisions of NFPA 72. 

907.2.10.1 Where required. Single- or multiple-station 
smoke alarms shall be installed in the locations described 
in Sections 907.2.10.1.1 through 907.2.10.1.3. 

907.2.10.1.1 Group R-1. Single- or multiple-station 
smoke alarms shall be installed in all of the following 
locations in Group R-1: 

1. In sleeping areas. 

2 . In every room in the path of the means of egress 
from the sleeping area to the door leading from 
the sleeping unit. 

3. In each story within the sleeping unit, including 
basements. For sleeping units with split levels 
and without an intervening door between the 
adjacent levels, a smoke alarm installed on the 
upper level shall suffice for the adjacent lower 
level provided that the lower level is less than 
one full story below the upper level. 

907.2.10.1.2 Groups R-2, R-3, R-4 and I-l. Single 
or multiple-station smoke alarms shall be installed 
and maintained in Groups R-2, R-3, R-4 and I-l 
regardless of occupant load at all of the following 
locations: 

1 . On the ceiling or wall outside of each separate 
sleeping area in the immediate vicinity of bed- 
rooms. 

2. In each room used for sleeping purposes. 

3. In each story within a dwelling unit, including 
basements but not including crawl spaces and 
uninhabitable attics. In dwellings or dwelling 
units with split levels and without an interven- 
ing door between the adjacent levels, a smoke 
alarm installed on the upper level shall suffice 
for the adjacent lower level provided that the 
lower level is less than one full story below the 
upper level. 

907.2.10.1.3 Group I-l. Single- or multiple-station 
smoke alarms shall be installed and maintained in 
sleeping areas in Group I-l occupancies. 

Exception: Single- or multiple- station smoke 
alarms shall not be required where the building is 
equipped throughout with an automatic fire detec- 
tion system in accordance with Section 907.2.6. 

907.2.10.2 Power source. In new construction, required 
smoke alarms shall receive their primary power from the 
building wiring where such wiring is served from a com- 
mercial source and shall be equipped with a battery 



backup. Smoke alarms shall emit a signal when the bat- 
teries are low. Wiring shall be permanent and without a 
disconnecting switch other than as required for 
overcurrent protection. 

Exception: Smoke alarms are not required to be 
equipped with battery backup in Group R-1 where 
they are connected to an emergency electrical system. 

907.2.10.3 Interconnection. Where more than one 
smoke alarm is required to be installed within an individ- 
ual dwelling unit or sleeping unit in Group R-2, R-3 or 
R-4, or within an individual sleeping unit in Group R-1, 
the smoke alarms shall be interconnected in such a man- 
ner that the activation of one alarm will activate all of the 
alarms in the individual unit. The alarm shall be clearly 
audible in all bedrooms over background noise levels 
with all intervening doors closed. 

907.2.10.4 Acceptance testing. When the installation of 
the alarm devices is complete, each detector and inter- 
connecting wiring for multiple-station alarm devices 
shall be tested in accordance with the household fire 
warning equipment provisions of NFPA 72. 

907.2.11 Special amusement buildings. An approved 
automatic smoke detection system shall be provided in spe- 
cial amusement buildings in accordance with this section. 

Exception: In areas where ambient conditions will cause 
a smoke detection system to alarm, an approved alterna- 
tive type of automatic detector shall be installed. 

907.2.11.1 Alarm. Activation of any single smoke 
detector, the automatic sprinkler system or any other 
automatic fire detection device shall immediately sound 
an alarm at the building at a constantly attended location 
from which emergency action can be initiated, including 
the capability of manual initiation of requirements in 
Section 907.2.11.2. 

907.2.11.2 System response. The activation of two or 
more smoke detectors, a single smoke detector with 
alarm verification, the automatic sprinkler system or 
other approved fire detection device shall automatically: 

1. Cause illumination of the means of egress with 
light of not less than 1 foot-candle (11 lux) at the 
walking surface level; 

2. Stop any conflicting or confusing sounds and 
visual distractions; and 

3. Activate an approved directional exit marking that 
will become apparent in an emergency. 

Such system response shall also include activation of a 
prerecorded message, clearly audible throughout the 
special amusement building, instructing patrons to pro- 
ceed to the nearest exit. Alarm signals used in conjunc- 
tion with the prerecorded message shall produce a sound 
which is distinctive from other sounds used during nor- 
mal operation. 

The wiring to the auxiliary devices and equipment 
used to accomplish the above fire safety functions shall 
be monitored for integrity in accordance with NFPA 72. 



84 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE*" 



FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



907.2.11.3 Emergency voice/alarm communication 
system. An emergency voice/alarm communication sys- 
tem, which is also allowed to serve as a public address 
system, shall be installed in accordance with NFPA 72 
and be audible throughout the entire special amusement 
building. 

907.2.12 High-rise buildings. Buildings with a floor used 
for human occupancy located more than 75 feet (22 860 
mm) above the lowest level of fire department vehicle 
access shall be provided with an automatic fire alarm system 
and an emergency voice/alarm communication system in 
accordance with Section 907.2.12.2. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Airport traffic control towers in accordance with 
Section 907.2.22 and Section 412 of the Interna- 
tional Building Code. 

2. Open parking garages in accordance with Section 
406.3 of the International Building Code. 

3. Buildings with an occupancy in Group A-5 in 
accordance with Section 303. 1 of the International 
Building Code. 

4. Low-hazard special occupancies in accordance 
with Section 503. 1 . 1 of the International Building 
Code. 

5 . Buildings with an occupancy in Group H- 1 , H-2 or 
H-3 in accordance with Section 415 of the Interna- 
tional Building Code. 

907.2.12.1 Automatic fire detection. Smoke detectors 
shall be provided in accordance with this section. Smoke 
detectors shall be connected to an automatic fire alarm 
system. The activation of any detector required by this 
section shall operate the emergency voice/alarm commu- 
nication system. Smoke detectors shall be located as fol- 
lows: 

1. In each mechanical equipment, electrical, trans- 
former, telephone equipment or similar room 
which is not provided with sprinkler protection, 
elevator machine rooms, and in elevator lobbies. 

2. In the main return air and exhaust air plenum of 
each air-conditioning system having a capacity 
greater than 2,000 cubic feet per minute (cfm) 
(0.94 mVs). Such detectors shall be located in a 
serviceable area downstream of the last duct inlet. 

3. At each connection to a vertical duct or riser serv- 
ing two or more stories from a return air duct or 
plenum of an air-conditioning system. In Group 
R-1 and R-2 occupancies, a listed smoke detector 
is allowed to be used in each return-air riser carry- 
ing not more than 5,000 cfm (2.4 mVs) and serving 
not more than 10 air-inlet openings. 

907.2.12.2 Emergency voice/alarm communication 
system. The operation of any automatic fire detector, 
sprinkler water-flow device or manual fire alarm box 
shall automatically sound an alert tone followed by voice 
instructions giving approved information and directions 



for a general or staged evacuation on a minimum of the 
alarming floor, the floor above and the floor below in 
accordance with the building's fire safety and evacuation 
plans required by Section 404. Speakers shall be pro- 
vided throughout the building by paging zones. As a 
minimum, paging zones shall be provided as follows: 

1. Elevator groups. 

2. Exit stairways. 

3. Each floor. 

4. Areas of refuge as defined in Section 1002.1. 

Exception: In Group I-l and 1-2 occupancies, the 
alarm shall sound in a constantly attended area and a 
general occupant notification shall be broadcast over 
the overhead page. 

907.2.12.2.1 Manual override. A manual override 
for emergency voice communication shall be pro- 
vided on a selective and all-call basis for all paging | 
zones. 

907.2.12.2.2 Live voice messages. The emergency 
voice/alarm communication system shall also have 
the capability to broadcast live voice messages 
through paging zones on a selective and all-call basis. | 

907.2.12.2.3 Standard. The emergency voice/alarm 
communication system shall be designed and 
installed in accordance with NFPA 72. 

907.2.12.3 Fire department communication system. 

An approved two-way, fire department communication 
system designed and installed in accordance with NFPA 
72 shall be provided for fire department use. It shall oper- 
ate between a fire command center complying with Sec- 
tion 509 and elevators, elevator lobbies, emergency and 
standby power rooms, fire pump rooms, areas of refuge 
and inside enclosed exit stairways. The fire department 
communication device shall be provided at each floor 
level within the enclosed exit stairway. 

Exception: Fire department radio systems where 
approved by the fire department. 

907.2.13 Atriums connecting more than two stories. A 

fire alarm system shall be installed in occupancies with an 
atrium that connects more than two stories. The system shall 
be activated in accordance with Section 907.7. Such occu- 
pancies in Group A, E or M shall be provided with an emer- 
gency voice/alarm communication system complying with 
the requirements of Section 907.2.12.2. 

907.2.14 High-piled combustible storage areas. An auto- 
matic fire detection system shall be installed throughout 
high-piled combustible storage areas where required by 
Section 2306.5. 

907.2.15 Delayed egress locks. Where delayed egress 
locks are installed on means of egress doors in accordance 
with Section 1008.1.8.6, an automatic smoke or heat detec- 
tion system shall be installed as required by that section. 

907.2.16 Aerosol storage uses. Aerosol storage rooms and 
general-purpose warehouses containing aerosols shall be 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE"" 



85 



FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



provided with an approved manual fire alarm system where 
required by this code. 

907.2.17 Lumber, wood structural panel and veneer 
mills. Lumber, wood structural panel and veneer mills shall 
be provided with a manual fire alarm system. 

907.2.18 Underground buildings with smoke exhaust 
systems. Where a smoke exhaust system is installed in an 
underground building in accordance with the International 
Building Code, automatic fire detectors shall be provided in 
accordance with this section. 

907.2.18.1 Smoke detectors. A minimum of one smoke 
detector listed for the intended purpose shall be installed 
in the following areas: 

1. Mechanical equipment, electrical, transformer, 
telephone equipment, elevator machine or similar 
rooms. 

2. Elevator lobbies. 

3. The main return and exhaust air plenum of each 
air-conditioning system serving more than one 
story and located in a serviceable area downstream 
of the last duct inlet. 

4. Each connection to a vertical duct or riser serving 
two or more floors from return air ducts or ple- 
nums of heating, ventilating and air-conditioning 
systems, except that in Group R occupancies, a 
listed smoke detector is allowed to be used in each 
return-air riser carrying not more than 5,000 cfm 
(2.4 mVs) and serving not more than 10 air inlet 
openings. 

907.2.18.2 Alarm required. Activation of the smoke 
exhaust system shall activate an audible alarm at a con- 
stantly attended location. 

907.2.19 Underground buildings. Where the lowest level 
of a structure is more than 60 feet (18 288 mm) below the 
lowest level of exit discharge, the structure shall be 
equipped throughout with a manual fire alarm system, 
including an emergency voice/alarm communication sys- 
tem installed in accordance with Section 907.2.12.2. 

907.2.19.1 Public address system. Where a fire alarm 
system is not required by Section 907.2, a public address 
system shall be provided which shall be capable of trans- 
mitting voice communications to the highest level of exit 
discharge serving the underground portions of the struc- 
ture and all levels below. 

907.2.20 Covered mall buildings. Covered mall buildings 
exceeding 50,000 square feet (4645 m^) in total floor area 
shall be provided with an emergency voice/alarm communi- 
cation system. An emergency voice/alarm communication 
system serving a mall, required or otherwise, shall be acces- 
sible to the fire department. The system shall be provided in 
accordance with Section 907.2.12.2. 

907.2.21 Residential aircraft hangars. A minimum of one 
listed smoke alarm shall be installed within a residential air- 
craft hangar as defined in the International Building Code 
and shall be interconnected into the residential smoke alarm 



or other sounding device to provide an alarm which will be 
audible in all sleeping areas of the dwelling. 

907.2.22 Airport traffic control towers. An automatic fire 
detection system shall be provided in airport traffic control 
towers. 

907.2.23 Battery rooms. An approved automatic smoke 
detection system shall be installed in areas containing sta- 
tionary storage battery systems having a liquid capacity of 
more than 50 gallons (189 L). The detection system shall be 
supervised by an approved central, proprietary, or remote 
station service or a local alarm which will sound an audible 
signal at a constantly attended location. 

907.3 Where required — retroactive in existing buildings 
and structures. An approved manual, automatic or manual 
and automatic fire alarm system shall be installed in existing 
buildings and structures in accordance with Sections 907.3.1 
through 907.3.1.8. Where automatic sprinkler protection is 
provided in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2 
and connected to the building fire alarm system, automatic heat 
detection required by this section shall not be required. 

An approved automatic fire detection system shall be 
installed in accordance with the provisions of this code and 
NFPA 72. Devices, combinations of devices, appliances and 
equipment shall be approved. The automatic fire detectors shall 
be smoke detectors, except an approved alternative type of 
detector shall be installed in spaces such as boiler rooms where, 
during normal operation, products of combustion are present in 
sufficient quantity to actuate a smoke detector. 

907.3.1 Occupancy requirements. A fire alarm system 
shall be installed in accordance with Sections 907.3.1.1 
through 907.3.1.8. 

Exception: Occupancies with an existing, previously 
approved fire alarm system. 

907.3.1.1 Group E. A fire alarm system shall be 
installed in existing Group E occupancies in accordance 
with Section 907.2.3. 

Exceptions: 

1. A building with a maximum area of 1,000 
square feet (93 m^) that contains a single class- 
room and is located no closer than 50 feet (15 
240 mm) from another building. 

2. Group E with an occupant load less than 50. 

907.3.1.2 Group I-l. A fire alarm system shall be 
installed in existing Group LI residential care/assisted 
living facilities. 

Exception: Where each sleeping room has a means of 
egress door opening directly to an exterior egress bal- 
cony that leads directly to the exits in accordance with 
Section 1014.5, and the building is not more than 
three stories in height. 

907.3.1.3 Group 1-2. A fire alarm system shall be 
installed in existing Group L2 occupancies in accor- 
dance with Section 907.2.6.2. 



86 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE*" 



FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



907.3.1.4 Group 1-3. A fire alarm system shall be 
installed in existing Group 1-3 occupancies in accor- 
dance with Section 907.2.6.3. 

907.3.1.5 Group R-1 hotels and motels. A fire alarm 
system shall be installed in existing Group R- 1 hotels and 
motels more than three stories or with more than 20 
sleeping units. 

Exception: Buildings less than two stories in height 
where all sleeping units, attics and crawl spaces are 
separated by 1-hour fire-resistance-rated construc- 
tion and each sleeping unit has direct access to a pub- 
lic way, exit court or yard. 

907.3.1.6 Group R-1 boarding and rooming houses. A 

fire alarm system shall be installed in existing Group R- 1 
boarding and rooming houses. 

Exception: Buildings that have single-station smoke 
alarms meeting or exceeding the requirements of Sec- 
tion 907.2.10.1 and where the fire alarm system 
includes at least one manual fire alarm box per floor 
arranged to initiate the alarm. 

907.3.1.7 Group R-2. A fire alarm system shall be 
installed in existing Group R-2 occupancies more than 
three stories in height or with more than 16 dwelling 
units or sleeping units. 

Exceptions: 

1. Where each living unit is separated from other 
contiguous living units by fire barriers having a 
fire-resistance rating of not less than 0.75 hour, 
and where each living unit has either its own 
independent exit or its own independent stair- 
way or ramp discharging at grade. 

2. A separate fire alarm system is not required in 
buildings that are equipped throughout with an 
approved supervised automatic sprinkler sys- 
tem installed in accordance with Section 
903 .3. 1 . 1 or 903.3 . 1 .2 and having a local alarm 
to notify all occupants. 

3. A fire alarm system is not required in buildings 
that do not have interior corridors serving dwell- 
ing units and are protected by an approved auto- 
matic sprinkler system installed in accordance 
with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2, provided 
that dwelling units either have a means of egress 
door opening directly to an exterior exit access 
that leads directiy to the exits or are served by 
open-ended corridors designed in accordance 
with Section 1023.6, Exception 4. 

907.3.1.8 Group R-4. A fire alarm system shall be 
installed in existing Group R-4 residential care/assisted 
living facilities. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Where there are interconnected smoke alarms 
meeting the requirements of Section 907.2.10 
and there is at least one manual fire alarm box 



per floor arranged to sound continuously the 
smoke alarms. 

2. Other manually activated, continuously sound- 
ing alarms approved by the fire code official. 

907.3.2 Single- and multiple-station smoke alarms. Sin- 
gle- and multiple-station smoke alarms shall be installed in 
existing Group R occupancies in accordance with Sections 
907.3.2.1 through 907.3.2.3. 

907.3.2.1 General. Existing Group R occupancies not 
already provided with single-station smoke alarms shall 
be provided with approved single-station smoke alarms. 
Installation shall be in accordance with Section 
907.2.10, except as provided in Sections 907.3.2.2 and 
907.3.2.3. 

907.3.2.2 Interconnection. Where more than one 
smoke alarm is required to be installed within an individ- 
ual dwelling unit in Group R-2, R-3 or R-4, or within an 
individual sleeping unit in Group R-1, the smoke alarms 
shall be interconnected in such a manner that the activa- 
tion of one alarm will activate all of the alarms in the indi- 
vidual unit. The alarm shall be clearly audible in all 
bedrooms over background noise levels with all inter- 
vening doors closed. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Interconnection is not required in buildings that 
are not undergoing alterations, repairs or con- 
struction of any kind. 

2. Smoke alarms in existing areas are not required 
to be interconnected where alterations or 
repairs do not result in the removal of interior 
wall or ceiling finishes exposing the structure, 
unless there is an attic, crawl space or basement 
available which could provide access for inter- 
connection without the removal of interior fin- 
ishes. 

907.3.2.3 Power source. In Group R occupancies, sin- 
gle-station smoke alarms shall receive their primary 
power from the building wiring provided that such wir- 
ing is served from a commercial source and shall be 
equipped with a battery backup. Smoke alarms shall emit 
a signal when the batteries are low. Wiring shall be per- 
manent and without a disconnecting switch other than as 
required for overcurrent protection. 

Exception: Smoke alarms are permitted to be solely 
battery operated: in existing buildings where no con- 
struction is taking place; in buildings that are not 
served from a commercial power source; and in exist- 
ing areas of buildings undergoing alterations or 
repairs that do not result in the removal of interior 
walls or ceiling finishes exposing the structure, unless 
there is an attic, crawl space or basement available 
which could provide access for building wiring with- 
out the removal of interior finishes. 

907.4 Manual fire alarm boxes. Manual fire alarm boxes shall 
be installed in accordance with Sections 907.4.1 through 
907.4.5. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE*" 



87 



FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



907.4.1 Location. Manual fire alarm boxes shall be located 
not more than 5 feet (1524 mm) from the entrance to each 
exit. Additional manual fire alarm boxes shall be located so 
that travel distance to the nearest box does not exceed 200 
feet (60 960 mm). 

907.4.2 Height. The height of the manual fire alarm boxes 
shall be a minimum of 42 inches (1067 mm) and a maxi- 
mum of 48 inches (1372 mm) measured vertically, from the 
floor level to the activating handle or lever of the box. 

907.4.3 Color. Manual fire alarm boxes shall be red in color. 

907.4.4 Signs. Where fire alarm systems are not monitored 
by a supervising station, an approved permanent sign shall 
be installed adjacent to each manual fire alarm box that 
reads: WHEN ALARM SOUNDS— CALL FIRE 
DEPARTMENT. 

Exception: Where the manufacturer has permanently 
provided this information on the manual fire alarm box. 

907.4.5 Protective covers. The fire code official is autho- 
rized to require the installation of listed manual fire alarm 
box protective covers to prevent malicious false alarms or to 
provide the manual fire alarm box with protection from 
physical damage. The protective cover shall be transparent 
or red in color with a transparent face to permit visibility of 
the manual fire alarm box. Each cover shall include proper 
operating instructions. A protective cover that emits a local 
alarm signal shall not be installed unless approved. 

907.5 Power supply. The primary and secondary power supply 
for the fire alarm system shall be provided in accordance with 
NFPA 72. 

907.6 Wiring. Wiring shall comply with the requirements of 
the ICC Electrical Code and NFPA 72. Wireless protection 
systems utilizing radio-frequency transmitting devices shall 
comply with the special requirements for supervision of 
low-power wireless systems in NFPA 72. 

907.7 Activation. Where an alarm notification system is 
required by another section of this code, it shall be activated by: 

1 . Required automatic fire alarm system. 

2. Sprinkler water-flow devices. 

3. Required manual fire alarm boxes. 

907.8 Presignal system. Presignal systems shall not be 
installed unless approved by the fire code official and the fire 
department. Where a presignal system is installed, 24-hour 
personnel supervision shall be provided at a location approved 
by the fire department, in order that the alarm signal can be 
actuated in the event of fire or other emergency. 

907.9 Zones. Each floor shall be zoned separately and a zone 
shall not exceed 22,500 square feet (2090 m^). The length of 
any zone shall not exceed 300 feet (91 440 mm) in any direc- 
tion. 

Exception: Automatic sprinkler system zones shall not 
exceed the area permitted by NFPA 13. 

907.9.1 Zoning indicator panel. A zoning indicator panel 
and the associated controls shall be provided in an approved 
location. The visual zone indication shall lock in until the 



system is reset and shall not be canceled by the operation of 
an audible-alarm silencing switch. 

907.9.2 High-rise buildings. In buildings with a floor used 
for human occupancy that is located more than 75 feet (22 
860 mm) above the lowest level of fire department vehicle 
access, a separate zone by floor shall be provided for all of 
the following types of alarm-initiating devices where pro- 
vided: 

1. Smoke detectors. 

2. Sprinkler water-flow devices. 

3. Manual fire alarm boxes. 

4. Other approved types of automatic fire detection 
devices or suppression systems. 

907.10 Alarm notification appliances. Alarm notification 
appliances shall be provided and shall be listed for their pur- 
pose. 

907.10.1 Visible alarms. Visible alarm notification appli- 
ances shall be provided in accordance with Sections 
907.10.1.1 through 907.10.1.4. 

Exceptions: 

1. Visible alarm notification appliances are not 
required in alterations, except where an existing 
fire alarm system is upgraded or replaced, or a new 
fire alarm system is installed. 

2. Visible alarm notification appliances shall not be 
required in exits as defined in Section 1002.1. 

907.10.1.1 Public and common areas. Visible alarm 
notification appliances shall be provided in public areas 
and common areas. 

907.10.1.2 Employee work areas. Where employee 
work areas have audible alarm coverage, the notification 
appliance circuits serving the employee work areas shall 
be initially designed with a minimum of 20 percent spare 
capacity to account for the potential of adding visible 
notification appliances in the future to accommodate 
hearing impaired employ ee(s). 

TABLE 907.10.1.3 
VISIBLE AND AUDIBLE ALARMS 



NUMBER OF SLEEPING 
UNITS 


SLEEPING ACCOMMODATIONS WITH 
VISIBLE AND AUDIBLE ALARMS 


6 to 25 


2 


26 to 50 


4 


51 to 75 


7 


76 to 100 


9 


101 to 150 


12 


151 to 200 


14 


201 to 300 


17 


301 to 400 


20 


401 to 500 


22 


501 to 1,000 


5% of total 


1,001 and over 


50 plus 3 for each 100 over 1,000 



88 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE^ 



FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



r> 



907.10.1.3 Groups I-l and R-1. Group I-l and R-1 
sleeping units in accordance with Table 907.10.1.3 shall 
be provided with a visible alarm notification appliance, 
activated by both the in-room smoke alarm and the build- 
ing fire alarm system. 

907.10.1.4 Group R-2. In Group R-2 occupancies 
required by Section 907 to have a fire alarm system, all 
dwelling units and sleeping units shall be provided with 
the capability to support visible alarm notification appli- 
ances in accordance with ICC A117.1. 

907.10.2 Audible alarms. Audible alarm notification appli- 
ances shall be provided and sound a distinctive sound that is 
not to be used for any purpose other than that of a fire alarm. 
The audible alarm notification appliances shall provide a 
sound pressure level of 15 decibels (dBA) above the average 
ambient sound level or 5 dBA above the maximum sound 
level having a duration of at least 60 seconds, whichever is 
greater, in every occupied space within the building. The 
minimum sound pressure levels shall be: 70 dBA in occu- 
pancies in Groups R and I-l ; 90 dBA in mechanical equip- 
ment rooms; and 60 dBA in other occupancies. The 
maximum sound pressure level for audible alarm notifica- 
tion appliances shall be 120 dBA at the minimum hearing 
distance from the audible appliance. Where the average 
ambient noise is greater than 105 dBA, visible alarm notifi- 
cation appliances shall be provided in accordance with 
NFPA 72 and audible alarm notification appliances shall not 
be required. 

Exception: Visible alarm notification appliances shall 
be allowed in lieu of audible alarm notification appli- 
ances in critical care areas of Group 1-2 occupancies. 

907.11 Fire safety functions. Automatic fire detectors utilized 
for the purpose of performing fire safety functions shall be con- 
nected to the building's fire alarm control panel where a fire 
alarm system is required by Section 907.2. Detectors shall, 
upon actuation, perform the intended function and activate the 
alarm notification appliances or activate a visible and audible 
supervisory signal at a constantly attended location. In build- 
ings not required to be equipped with a fire alarm system, the 
automatic fire detector shall be powered by normal electrical 
service and, upon actuation, perform the intended function. 
The detectors shall be located in accordance with NFPA 72. 

907.12 Duct smoke detectors. Duct smoke detectors shall be 
connected to the building's fire alarm control panel when a fire 
alarm system is provided. Activation of a duct smoke detector 
shall initiate a visible and audible supervisory signal at a con- 
stantly attended location. Duct smoke detectors shall not be 
used as a substitute for required open area detection. 

Exceptions: 

1. The supervisory signal at a constantly attended 
location is not required where duct smoke detec- 
tors activate the building's alarm notification 
appliances. 

2. In occupancies not required to be equipped with a 
fire alarm system, actuation of a smoke detector 
shall activate a visible and an audible signal in an 



approved location. Smoke detector trouble condi- 
tions shall activate a visible or audible signal in an 
approved location and shall be identified as air 
duct detector trouble. 

907.13 Access. Access shall be provided to each detector for 
periodic inspection, maintenance and testing. 

907.14 Fire-extinguishing systems. Automatic fire-extin- 
guishing systems shall be connected to the building fire alarm 
system where a fire alarm system is required by another section 
of this code or is otherwise installed. 

907.15 Monitoring. Fire alarm systems required by this chap- I 
ter or by the International Building Code shall be monitored by | 
an approved supervising station in accordance with NFPA 72. 

Exception: Supervisory service is not required for: 

1. Single- and multiple-station smoke alarms required 
by Section 907.2.10. 

2. Smoke detectors in Group 1-3 occupancies. 

3. Automatic sprinkler systems in one- and two-family 
dwellings. 

907.16 Automatic telephone-dialing devices. Automaric 
telephone-dialing devices used to transmit an emergency alarm 
shall not be connected to any fire department telephone number 
unless approved by the fire chief. 

907.17 Acceptance tests. Upon completion of the installation 
of the fire alarm system, alarm notification appliances and cir- 
cuits, alarm-initiating devices and circuits, supervisory-signal 
initiating devices and circuits, signaling line circuits, and pri- 
mary and secondary power supplies shall be tested in accor- 
dance with NFPA 72. 

907.18 Record of completion. A record of completion in 
accordance with NFPA 72 verifying that the system has been 
installed in accordance with the approved plans and specifica- 
tions shall be provided. 

907.19 Instructions. Operating, testing and maintenance 
instructions and record drawings ("as builts") and equipment 
specifications shall be provided at an approved location. 

907.20 Inspection, testing and maintenance. The mainte- 
nance and testing schedules and procedures for fire alarm and 
fire detection systems shall be in accordance with this section 
and Chapter 10 of NFPA 72. 

907.20.1 Maintenance required. Whenever or wherever 
any device, equipment, system, condition, arrangement, 
level of protection or any other feature is required for com- 
pliance with the provisions of this code, such device, equip- 
ment, system, condition, arrangement, level of protection or 
other feature shall thereafter be continuously maintained in 
accordance with applicable NFPA requirements or as 
directed by the fire code official. 

907.20.2 Testing. Testing shall be performed in accordance 
with the schedules in Chapter 10 of NFPA 72 or more fre- 
quently where required by the fire code official. Where 
automatic testing is performed at least weekly by a remotely 
monitored fire alarm control unit specifically listed for the 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE'' 



89 



FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



application, the manual testing frequency shall be permitted 
to be extended to annual. 

Exception: evices or equipment that are inaccessible for 
safety considerations shall be tested during scheduled 
shutdowns where approved by the fire code official, but 
not less than every 18 months. 

907.20.3 Detector sensitivity. Detector sensitivity shall be 
checked within one year after installation and every alter- 
nate year thereafter. After the second calibration test, where 
sensitivity tests indicate that the detector has remained 
within its listed and marked sensitivity range (or 4-percent 
obscuration light grey smoke, if not marked), the length of 
time between calibration tests shall be permitted to be 
extended to a maximum of five years. Where the frequency 
is extended, records of detector-caused nuisance alarms and 
subsequent trends of these alarms shall be maintained. In 
zones or areas where nuisance alarms show any increase 
over the previous year, calibration tests shall be performed. 

907.20.4 Method. To ensure that each smoke detector is 
within its listed and marked sensitivity range, it shall be 
tested using either a calibrated test method, the manufac- 
turer's calibrated sensitivity test instrument, listed control 
equipment arranged for the purpose, a smoke detector/con- 
trol unit arrangement whereby the detector causes a signal at 
the control unit where its sensitivity is outside its acceptable 
sensitivity range or other calibrated sensitivity test method 
acceptable to the fire code official. Detectors found to have a 
sensitivity outside the listed and marked sensitivity range 
shall be cleaned and recalibrated or replaced. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Detectors listed as field adjustable shall be permit- 
ted to be either adjusted within the listed and 
marked sensitivity range and cleaned and 
recalibrated or they shall be replaced. 

2. This requirement shall not apply to single-station 
smoke alarms. 

907.20.4.1 Testing device. Detector sensitivity shall not 
be tested or measured using a device that administers an 
unmeasured concentration of smoke or other aerosol into 
the detector. 

907.20.5 Maintenance, inspection and testing. The build- 
ing owner shall be responsible for ensuring that the fire and 
life safety systems are maintained in an operable condition 
at all times. Service personnel shall meet the qualification 
requirements of NFPA 72 for maintaining, inspecting and 
testing such systems. A written record shall be maintained 
and shall be made available to the fire code official. 



SECTION 908 
EMERGENCY ALARM SYSTEMS 

908.1 Group H occupancies. Emergency alarms for the detec- 
tion and notification of an emergency condition in Group H 
occupancies shall be provided as required in Chapter 27. 

908.2 Group H-5 occupancy. Emergency alarms for notifica- 
tion of an emergency condition in an HPM facility shall be pro- 



vided as required in Section 1803.12. A continuous gas detec- 
tion system shall be provided for HPM gases in accordance 
with Section 1803.13. 

908.3 Highly toxic and toxic materials. Where required by 
Section 3704.2.2.10, a gas detection system shall be provided 
for indoor storage and use of highly toxic and toxic compressed 
gases. 

908.4 Ozone gas-generator rooms. A gas detection system 
shall be provided in ozone gas-generator rooms in accordance 
with Section 3705.3.2. 

908.5 Repair garages. A flammable-gas detection system 
shall be provided in repair garages for vehicles fueled by 
nonodorized gases in accordance with Section 2211.7.2. 

908.6 Refrigeration systems. Refrigeration system machin- 
ery rooms shall be provided with a refrigerant detector in 
accordance with Section 606.8. 



SECTION 909 
SMOKE CONTROL SYSTEMS 

909.1 Scope and purpose. This section applies to mechanical 
or passive smoke control systems when they are required for 
new buildings or portions thereof by provisions of the Interna- 
tional Building Code or this code. The purpose of this section is 
to establish minimum requirements for the design, installation 
and acceptance testing of smoke control systems that are 
intended to provide a tenable environment for the evacuation or 
relocation of occupants. These provisions are not intended for 
the preservation of contents, the timely restoration of opera- 
tions, or for assistance in fire suppression or overhaul activities. 
Smoke control systems regulated by this section serve a differ- 
ent purpose than the smoke- and heat- venting provisions found 
in Section 910. Mechanical smoke control systems shall not be 
considered exhaust systems under Chapter 5 of the Interna- 
tional Mechanical Code. 

909.2 General design requirements. Buildings, structures, or 
parts thereof required by the International Building Code or 
this code to have a smoke control system or systems shall have 
such systems designed in accordance with the applicable 
requirements of Section 909 and the generally accepted and 
well-established principles of engineering relevant to the 
design. The construction documents shall include sufficient 
information and detail to describe adequately the elements of 
the design necessary for the proper implementation of the 
smoke control systems. These documents shall be accompa- 
nied with sufficient information and analysis to demonstrate 
compliance with these provisions. 

909.3 Special inspection and test requirements. In addition 
to the ordinary inspection and test requirements to which build- 
ings, structures and parts thereof are required to undergo, 
smoke control systems subject to the provisions of Section 909 
shall undergo special inspections and tests sufficient to verify 
the proper commissioning of the smoke control design in its 
final installed condition. The design submission accompany- 
ing the construction documents shall clearly detail procedures 
and methods to be used and the items subject to such inspec- 
tions and tests. Such commissioning shall be in accordance 
with generally accepted engineering practice and, where possi- 



90 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE"" 



FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



ble, based on published standards for the particular testing 
involved. The special inspections and tests required by this sec- 
tion shall be conducted under the same terms as in Section 1704 
of the International Building Code. 

909.4 Analysis. A rational analysis supporting the types of 
smoke control systems to be employed, the methods of their 
operations, the systems supporting them, and the methods of 
construction to be utilized shall accompany the construction 
documents submission and include, but not be limited to, the 
items indicated in Sections 909.4.1 through 909.4.6. 

909.4.1 Stack effect. The system shall be designed such 
that the maximum probable normal or reverse stack effect 
will not adversely interfere with the system's capabilities. In 
determining the maximum probable stack effect, altitude, 
elevation, weather history and interior temperatures shall be 
used. 

909.4.2 Temperature effect of fire. Buoyancy and expan- 
sion caused by the design fire in accordance with Section 
909.9 shall be analyzed. The system shall be designed such 
that these effects do not adversely interfere with the sys- 
tem's capabilities. 

909.4.3 Wind effect. The design shall consider the adverse 
effects of wind. Such consideration shall be consistent with 
the wind-loading provisions of the International Building 
Code. 

909.4.4 Systems. The design shall consider the effects of 
the heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) sys- 
tems on both smoke and fire transport. The analysis shall 
include all permutations of systems status. The design shall 
consider the effects of the fire on the heating, ventilating and 
air-conditioning systems. 

909.4.5 Climate. The design shall consider the effects of 
low temperatures on systems, property and occupants. Air 
inlets and exhausts shall be located so as to prevent snow or 
ice blockage. 

909.4.6 Duration of operation. All portions of active or 
passive smoke control systems shall be capable of continued 
operation after detection of the fire event for a period of not 
less than either 20 minutes or 1 .5 times the calculated egress 
time, whichever is less. 

909.5 Smoke barrier construction. Smoke barriers shall 
comply with the International Building Code. Smoke barriers 
shall be constructed and sealed to limit leakage areas exclusive 
of protected openings. The maximum allowable leakage area 
shall be the aggregate area calculated using the following leak- 
age area ratios: 

1. Walls: AIA = 0.00100 

2. Exit enclosures: A/A^ = 0.00035 

3. All other shafts: A/A^ = 0.00150 

4. Floors and roofs: A/A^ = 0.00050 
where: 

A = Total leakage area, square feet (m^). 

Ap = Unit floor or roof area of barrier, square feet (m^). 

A^ = Unit wall area of barrier, square feet (m^). 



The leakage area ratios shown do not include openings due 
to doors, operable windows or similar gaps. These shall be 
included in calculating the total leakage area. 

909.5.1 Leakage area. Total leakage area of the barrier is 
the product of the smoke barrier gross area multiplied by the 
allowable leakage area ratio, plus the area of other openings 
such as gaps and operable windows. Compliance shall be 
determined by achieving the minimum air pressure differ- 
ence across the barrier with the system in the smoke control 
mode for mechanical smoke control systems. Passive 
smoke control systems tested using other approved means, 
such as door fan testing, shall be as approved by the fire code 
official. 

909.5.2 Opening protection. Openings in smoke barriers 
shall be protected by automatic-closing devices actuated by 
the required controls for the mechanical smoke control sys- 
tem. Door openings shall be protected by fire door assem- 
bhes complying with Section 715.4.3 of the International 
Building Code. 

Exceptions: 

1. Passive smoke control systems with auto- 
matic-closing devices actuated by spot-type 
smoke detectors listed for releasing service I 
installed in accordance with Section 907.10. I 

2. Fixed openings between smoke zones that are pro- 
tected utilizing the airflow method. 

3 . In Group 1-2, where such doors are installed across 
corridors, a pair of opposite-swinging doors with- 
out a center mulhon shall be installed having 
vision panels with fire protection-rated glazing I 
materials in fire protection-rated frames, the area I 
of which shall not exceed that tested. The doors I 
shall be close-fitting within operational tolerances 
and shall not have undercuts, louvers or grilles. 
The doors shall have head and jamb stops, astra- 
gals or rabbets at meeting edges and shall be auto- 
matic-closing by smoke detection in accordance 
with Section 715.4.7.3 of the International Build- 
ing Code. Positive-latching devices are not 
required. 

4. Group 1-3. 

5. Openings between smoke zones with clear ceiling 
heights of 14 feet (4267 mm) or greater and 
bank-down capacity of greater than 20 minutes as 
determined by the design fire size. 

909.5,2.1 Ducts and air transfer openings. Ducts and 
air transfer openings are required to be protected with a 
minimum Class II, 250°F (121°C) smoke damper com- 
plying with Section 716 of the International Building 
Code. 

909.6 Pressurization method. The primary mechanical 
means of controlling smoke shall be by pressure differences 
across smoke barriers. Maintenance of a tenable environment 
is not required in the smoke-control zone of fire origin. 

909.6.1 Minimum pressure difference. The minimum 
pressure difference across a smoke barrier shall be 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE'' 



91 



FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



0.05-inch water gage (0.0124 kPa) in fully sprinklered 
buildings. 

In buildings allowed to be other than fully sprinklered, 
the smoke control system shall be designed to achieve pres- 
sure differences at least two times the maximum calculated 
pressure difference produced by the design fire. 

909.6.2 Maximum pressure difference. The maximum air 
pressure difference across a smoke barrier shall be deter- 
mined by required door-opening or closing forces. The 
actual force required to open exit doors when the system is 
in the smoke control mode shall be in accordance with Sec- 
tion 1008.1.2. Opening and closing forces for other doors 
shall be determined by standard engineering methods for 
the resolution of forces and reactions. The calculated force 
to set a side-hinged, swinging door in motion shall be deter- 
mined by: 

F=Fa, + K{WAM')l2{W-d) (Equation 9-1) 

where: 

A = Door area, square feet (m^). 

d = Distance from door handle to latch edge of door, feet 
(m). 

F = Total door opening force, pounds (N). 

F^^ = Force required to overcome closing device, pounds 

(N). 

K = Coefficient 5.2 (1.0). 
W = Door width, feet (m). 
AP= Design pressure difference, inches of water (Pa). 

909.7 Airflow design method. When approved by the fire 
code official, smoke migration through openings fixed in a per- 
manently open position, which are located between 
smoke-control zones by the use of the airflow method, shall be 
permitted. The design airflow shall be in accordance with this 
section. Airflow shall be directed to limit smoke migration 
from the fire zone. The geometry of openings shall be consid- 
ered to prevent flow reversal from turbulent effects. 

909.7.1 Velocity. The minimum average velocity through a 
fixed opening shall not be less than: 



v = 2ll.2[h(Tf-T,)/(Tf+460)V'^ 
For SI: v= 119.9 [h {Tf- T,)IT^"^ 
where: 



(Equation 9-2) 



h = Height of opening, feet (m). 

7} = Temperature of smoke, °F (K). 

Tg = Temperature of ambient air, °F (K). 

V = Air velocity, feet per minute (m/minute). 

909.7.2 Prohibited conditions. This method shall not be 
employed where either the quantity of air or the velocity of 
the airflow will adversely affect other portions of the smoke 
control system, unduly intensify the fire, disrupt plume 
dynamics or interfere with exiting. In no case shall airflow 
toward the fire exceed 200 feet per minute (1.02 m/s). 



R=[Q/(Unq")V 



Where the formula in Section 909.7.1 requires airflows to 
exceed this limit, the airflow method shall not be used. 

909.8 Exhaust method. When approved by the fire code offi- 
cial, mechanical smoke control for large enclosed volumes, 
such as in atriums or malls, shall be permitted to utilize the 
exhaust method. Smoke control systems using the exhaust 
method shall be designed in accordance with NFPA 92B. 

909.8.1 Smoke layer. The height of the lowest horizontal 
surface of the accumulating smoke layer shall be main- 
tained at least 6 feet (1829 mm) above any walking surface 
that forms a portion of a required egress system within the 
smoke zone. 

909.9 Design fire. The design fire shall be based on a rational I 
analysis performed by the registered design professional and 
approved by the fire code official. The design fire shall be 
based on the analysis in accordance with Section 909.4 and this 
section. 

909.9.1 Factors considered. The engineering analysis shall 
include the characteristics of the fuel, fuel load, effects 
included by the fire, and whether the fire is likely to be 
steady or unsteady. 

909.9.2 Separation distance. Determination of the design I 
fire shall include consideration of the type of fuel, fuel spac- I 
ing and configuration. I 



(Equation 9-8) 



where: 

q" = Incident radiant heat flux required for nonpiloted 
ignition, Btu/ft^ • s (W/m^). 

Q = Heat release from fire, Btu/s (kW). 

R = Separation distance from target to center of fuel pack- 
age, feet (m). 

909.9.3 Heat-release assumptions. The analysis shall 
make use of best available data from approved sources and 
shall not be based on excessively stringent limitations of 
combustible material. 

909.9.4 Sprinkler effectiveness assumptions. A docu- 
mented engineering analysis shall be provided for condi- 
tions that assume fire growth is halted at the time of 
sprinkler activation. 

909.10 Equipment. Equipment including, but not limited to, 
fans, ducts, automatic dampers and balance dampers shall be 
suitable for their intended use, suitable for the probable expo- 
sure temperatures that the rational analysis indicates, and as 
approved by the fire code official. 

909.10.1 Exhaust fans. Components of exhaust fans shall 
be rated and certified by the manufacturer for the probable 
temperature rise to which the components will be exposed. 
This temperature rise shall be computed by: 



T, = (QJmc) + m 



(Equation 9-9) 



where: 



Specific heat of smoke at smokelayer temperature, 
Btu/lb°F • (kJ/kg • K). 



92 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE^ 



FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



m = Exhaust rate, pounds per second (kg/s). 

Q^ = Convective heat output of fire, Btu/s (kW). 

T^ = Ambient temperature, °F (K). 

T^ = Smoke temperature, °F (K). 

Exception; Reduced T^ as calculated based on the assur- 
ance of adequate dilution air. 

909.10.2 Ducts. Duct materials and joints shall be capable 
of withstanding the probable temperatures and pressures to 
which they are exposed as determined in accordance with 
Section 909. 10. 1 . Ducts shall be constructed and supported 
in accordance with the International Mechanical Code. 
Ducts shall be leak tested to 1 .5 times the maximum design 
pressure in accordance with nationally accepted practices. 
Measured leakage shall not exceed 5 percent of design flow. 
Results of such testing shall be a part of the documentation 
procedure. Ducts shall be supported directly from fire-resis- 
tance-rated structural elements of the building by substan- 
tial, noncombustible supports. 

Exception: Flexible connections (for the purpose of 
vibration isolation) complying with the International 
Mechanical Code and which are constructed of approved 
fire-resistance-rated materials. 

909.10.3 Equipment, inlets and outlets. Equipment shall 
be located so as to not expose uninvolved portions of the 
building to an additional fire hazard. Outside air inlets shall 
be located so as to minimize the potential for introducing 
smoke or flame into the building. Exhaust outlets shall be so 
located as to minimize reintroduction of smoke into the 
building and to limit exposure of the building or adjacent 
buildings to an additional fire hazard. 

909.10.4 Automatic dampers. Automatic dampers, 
regardless of the purpose for which they are installed within 
the smoke control system, shall be listed and conform to the 
requirements of approved recognized standards. 

909.10.5 Fans. In addition to other requirements, 
belt-driven fans shall have 1 .5 times the number of belts 
required for the design duty with the minimum number of 
belts being two. Fans shall be selected for stable perfor- 
mance based on normal temperature and, where applicable, 
elevated temperature. Calculations and manufacturer's fan 
curves shall be part of the documentation procedures. Fans 
shall be supported and restrained by noncombustible 
devices in accordance with the structural design require- 
ments of Chapter 16 of the International Building Code. 
Motors driving fans shall not be operated beyond their 
nameplate horsepower (kilowatts) as determined from mea- 
surement of actual current draw and shall have a minimum 
service factor of 1.15. 

909.11 Power systems. The smoke control system shall be 
supplied with two sources of power. Primary power shall be 
from the normal building power system. Secondary power 
shall be from an approved standby source complying with the 
ICC Electrical Code. The standby power source and its transfer 
switches shall be in a separate room from the normal power 
transformers and switch gear and shall be enclosed in a room 
constructed of not less than 1-hour fire barriers ventilated 



directly to and from the exterior. Power distribution from the 
two sources shall be by independent routes. Transfer to full 
standby power shall be automatic and within 60 seconds of fail- 
ure of the primary power. The systems shall comply with this 
code or the ICC Electrical Code. 

909.11.1 Power sources and power surges. Elements of 
the smoke management system relying on volatile memo- 
ries or the like shall be supplied with uninterruptable power 
sources of sufficient duration to span 15-minute primary 
power interruption. Elements of the smoke management 
system susceptible to power surges shall be suitably pro- 
tected by conditioners, suppressors or other approved 
means. 

909.12 Detection and control systems. Fire detection systems 
providing control input or output signals to mechanical smoke 
control systems or elements thereof shall comply with the 
requirements of Section 907. Such systems shall be equipped 
with a control unit complying with UL 864 and listed as smoke 
control equipment. 

Control systems for mechanical smoke control systems shall 
include provisions for verification. Verification shall include 
positive confirmation of actuation, testing, manual override, 
the presence of power downstream of all disconnects and, 
through a preprogrammed weekly test sequence, report abnor- 
mal conditions audibly, visually and by printed report. 

909.12.1 Wiring. In addition to meeting requirements of 
the ICC Electrical Code, all wiring, regardless of voltage, 
shall be fully enclosed within continuous raceways. 

909.12.2 Activation. Smoke control systems shall be acti- 
vated in accordance with this section. 

909.12.2.1 Pressurization, airflow or exhaust method. 

Mechanical smoke control systems using the pressuriza- 
tion, airflow or exhaust method shall have completely 
automatic control. 

909.12.2.2 Passive method. Passive smoke control sys- 
tems actuated by approved spot-type detectors listed for 
releasing service shall be permitted. 

909.12.3 Automatic control. Where completely automatic 
control is required or used, the automatic-control sequences 
shall be initiated from an appropriately zoned automatic 
sprinkler system complying with Section 903.3 . 1.1, manual 
controls that are readily accessible to the fire department, 
and any smoke detectors required by the engineering analy- 
sis. 

909.13 Control air tubing. Control air tubing shall be of suffi- 
cient size to meet the required response times. Tubing shall be 
flushed clean and dry prior to final connections and shall be 
adequately supported and protected from damage. Tubing 
passing through concrete or masonry shall be sleeved and pro- 
tected from abrasion and electrolytic action. 

909.13.1 Materials. Control air tubing shall be hard drawn 
copper, Type L, ACR in accordance with ASTM B 42, 
ASTM B 43, ASTM B 68, ASTM B 88, ASTM B 251 and 
ASTM B 280. Fittings shall be wrought copper or brass, sol- 
der type, in accordance with ASME B 16.18 or ASME B 
16.22. Changes in direction shall be made with appropriate 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE'^ 



93 



FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



tool bends. Brass compression-type fittings shall be used at 
final connection to devices; other joints shall be brazed 
using a BCuP5 brazing alloy with solidus above 1,100°F 
(593°C) and liquidus below 1,500°F (816°C). Brazing flux 
shall be used on copper-to-brass joints only. 

Exception: Nonmetallic tubing used within control pan- 
els and at the final connection to devices, provided all of 
the following conditions are met: 

1 . Tubing shall be listed by an approved agency for 
flame and smoke characteristics. 

2. Tubing and the connected device shall be com- 
pletely enclosed within a galvanized or 
paint-grade steel enclosure of not less than 0.030 
inch (0.76 mm) (No. 22 galvanized sheet gage) 
thickness. Entry to the enclosure shall be by cop- 
per tubing with a protective grommet of neoprene 
or teflon or by suitable brass compression to 
male-barbed adapter. 

3. Tubing shall be identified by appropriately docu- 
mented coding. 

4. Tubing shall be neatly tied and supported within 
enclosure. Tubing bridging cabinet and door or 
moveable device shall be of sufficient length to 
avoid tension and excessive stress. Tubing shall be 
protected against abrasion. Tubing serving 
devices on doors shall be fastened along hinges. 

909.13.2 Isolation from other functions. Control tubing 
serving other than smoke control functions shall be isolated 
by automatic isolation valves or shall be an independent sys- 
tem. 

909.13.3 Testing. Control air tubing shall be tested at three 
times the operating pressure for not less than 30 minutes 
without any noticeable loss in gauge pressure prior to final 
connection to devices. 

909.14 Marking and identification. The detection and con- 
trol systems shall be clearly marked at all junctions, accesses 
and terminations. 

909.15 Control diagrams. Identical control diagrams show- 
ing all devices in the system and identifying their location and 
function shall be maintained current and kept on file with the 
fire code official, the fire department and in the fire command 
center in a format and manner approved by the fire chief 

909.16 Fire-fighter's smoke control panel. A fire-fighter's 
smoke control panel for fire department emergency response 
purposes only shall be provided and shall include manual con- 
trol or override of automatic control for mechanical smoke 
control systems. The panel shall be located in a fire command 
center complying with Section 509 in high-rise buildings or 
buildings with smoke-protected assembly seating. In all other 
buildings, the fire-fighter's smoke control panel shall be 
installed in an approved location adjacent to the fire alarm con- 
trol panel. The fire-fighter's smoke control panel shall comply 
with Sections 909.16.1 through 909.16.3. 

909.16.1 Smoke control systems. Fans within the building 
shall be shown on the fire-fighter's control panel. A clear 
indication of the direction of airflow and the relationship of 



components shall be displayed. Status indicators shall be 
provided for all smoke control equipment, annunciated by 
fan and zone and by pilot-lamp-type indicators as follows: 

1 . Fans, dampers and other operating equipment in their 
normal status — ^WHITE. 

2. Fans, dampers and other operating equipment in their 
off or closed status — RED. 

3. Fans, dampers and other operating equipment in their 
on or open status — GREEN. 

4. Fans, dampers and other operating equipment in a 
fault status— YELLOW/AMBER. 

909.16.2 Smoke control panel. The fire-fighter's control 
panel shall provide control capability over the complete 
smoke-control system equipment within the building as fol- 
lows: 

1 . ON-AUTO-OFF control over each individual piece 
of operating smoke control equipment that can also be 
controlled from other sources within the building. 
This includes stairway pressurization fans; smoke 
exhaust fans; supply, return and exhaust fans; eleva- 
tor shaft fans; and other operating equipment used or 
intended for smoke control purposes. 

2. OPEN-AUTO-CLOSE control over individual 
dampers relating to smoke control and that are also 
controlled from other sources within the building. 

3. ON-OFF or OPEN-CLOSE control over smoke con- 
trol and other critical equipment associated with a fire 
or smoke emergency and that can only be controlled 
from the fire-fighter's control panel. 

Exceptions: 

1. Complex systems, where approved, where 
the controls and indicators are combined to 
control and indicate all elements of a single 
smoke zone as a unit. 

2. Complex systems, where approved, where 
the control is accomplished by computer 
interface using approved, plain English 
commands. 

909.16.3 Control action and priorities. The fire-fighter's 
control panel actions shall be as follows: 

1. ON-OFF and OPEN-CLOSE control actions shall 
have the highest priority of any control point within 
the building. Once issued from the fire-fighter's con- 
trol panel, no automatic or manual control from any 
other control point within the building shall contra- 
dict the control action. Where automatic means are 
provided to interrupt normal, nonemergency equip- 
ment operation or produce a specific result to safe- 
guard the building or equipment (i.e., duct freezestats, 
duct smoke detectors, high-temperature cutouts, tem- 
perature-actuated linkage and similar devices), such 
means shall be capable of being overridden by the 
fire-fighter's control panel. The last control action as 
indicated by each fire-fighter's control panel switch 
position shall prevail. In no case shall control actions 



94 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE*' 



FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



require the smoke control system to assume more 
than one configuration at any one time. 

Exception: Power disconnects required by the 
ICC Electrical Code. 

2. Only the AUTO position of each three-position 
fire-fighter's control panel switch shall allow auto- 
matic or manual control action from other control 
points within the building. The AUTO position shall 
be the NORMAL, nonemergency, building control 
position. Where a fire-fighter's control panel is in the 
AUTO position, the actual status of the device (on, 
off, open, closed) shall continue to be indicated by the 
status indicator described above. When directed by an 
automatic signal to assume an emergency condition, 
the NORMAL position shall become the emergency 
condition for that device or group of devices within 
the zone. In no case shall control actions require the 
smoke control system to assume more than one con- 
figuration at any one time. 

909.17 System response time. Smoke-control system activa- 
tion shall be initiated immediately after receipt of an appropri- 
ate automatic or manual activation command. Smoke control 
systems shall activate individual components (such as dampers 
and fans) in the sequence necessary to prevent physical damage 
to the fans, dampers, ducts and other equipment. For purposes 
of smoke control, the fire-fighter's control panel response time 
shall be the same for automatic or manual smoke control action 
initiated from any other building control point. The total 
response time, including that necessary for detection, shut- 
down of operating equipment and smoke control system 
startup, shall allow for full operational mode to be achieved 
before the conditions in the space exceed the design smoke 
condition. The system response time for each component and 
their sequential relationships shall be detailed in the required 
rational analysis and verification of their installed condition 
reported in the required final report. 

909.18 Acceptance testing. Devices, equipment, components 
and sequences shall be individually tested. These tests, in addi- 
tion to those required by other provisions of this code, shall 
consist of determination of function, sequence and, where 
applicable, capacity of their installed condition. 

909.18.1 Detection devices. Smoke or fire detectors that are 
a part of a smoke control system shall be tested in accor- 
dance with Chapter 9 in their installed condition. When 
applicable, this testing shall include verification of airflow 
in both minimum and maximum conditions. 

909.18.2 Ducts. Ducts that are part of a smoke control sys- 
tem shall be traversed using generally accepted practices to 
determine actual air quantities. 

909.18.3 Dampers. Dampers shall be tested for function in 
their installed condition. 

909.18.4 Inlets and outlets. Inlets and outlets shall be read 
using generally accepted practices to determine air quanti- 
ties. 

909.18.5 Fans. Fans shall be examined for correct rotation. 
Measurements of voltage, amperage, revolutions per min- 
ute and belt tension shall be made. 



909.18.6 Smoke barriers. Measurements using inclined 
manometers or other approved calibrated measuring 
devices shall be made of the pressure differences across 
smoke barriers. Such measurements shall be conducted for 
each possible smoke control condition. 

909.18.7 Controls. Each smoke zone, equipped with an 
automatic-initiation device, shall be put into operation by 
the actuation of one such device. Each additional device 
within the zone shall be verified to cause the same sequence 
without requiring the operation of fan motors in order to 
prevent damage. Control sequences shall be verified 
throughout the system, including verification of override 
from the fire-fighter's control panel and simulation of 
standby power conditions. 

909.18.8 Special inspections for smoke control. Smoke 
control systems shall be tested by a special inspector. 

909.18.8.1 Scope of testing. Special inspections shall be 
conducted in accordance with the following: 

1 . During erection of ductwork and prior to conceal- 
ment for the purposes of leakage testing and 
recording of device location. 

2. Prior to occupancy and after sufficient completion 
for the purposes of pressure-difference testing, 
flow measurements, and detection and control ver- 
ification. 

909.18.8.2 Qualifications. Special inspection agencies 
for smoke control shall have expertise in fire protection 
engineering, mechanical engineering and certification as 
air balancers. 

909.18.8.3 Reports. A complete report of testing shall 
be prepared by the special inspector or special inspection 
agency. The report shall include identification of all 
devices by manufacturer, nameplate data, design values, 
measured values and identification tag or mark. The 
report shall be reviewed by the responsible registered 
design professional and, when satisfied that the design 
intent has been achieved, the responsible registered 
design professional shall seal, sign and date the report. 

909.18.8.3.1 Report filing. A copy of the final report 
shall be filed with the fire code official and an identi- 
cal copy shall be maintained in an approved location 
at the building. 

909.18.9 Identification and documentation. Charts, 
drawings and other documents identifying and locating 
each component of the smoke control system, and describ- 
ing their proper function and maintenance requirements, 
shall be maintained on file at the building as an attachment 
to the report required by Section 909.18.8.3. Devices shall 
have an approved identifying tag or mark on them consistent 
with the other required documentation and shall be dated 
indicating the last time they were successfully tested and by 
whom. 

909.19 System acceptance. Buildings, or portions thereof, 
required by this code to comply with this section shall not be 
issued a certificate of occupancy until such time that the fire 
code official determines that the provisions of this section have 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE'' 



95 



FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



been fully complied with and that the fire department has 
received satisfactory instruction on the operation, both auto- 
matic and manual, of the system. 

Exception: In buildings of phased construction, a tempo- 
rary certificate of occupancy, as approved by the fire code 
official, shall be allowed, provided that those portions of the 
building to be occupied meet the requirements of this sec- 
tion and that the remainder does not pose a significant haz- 
ard to the safety of the proposed occupants or adjacent 
buildings. 

909.20 Maintenance. Smoke control systems shall be main- 
tained to ensure to a reasonable degree that the system is capa- 
ble of controlling smoke for the duration required. The system 
shall be maintained in accordance with the manufacturer's 
instructions and Sections 909.20.1 through 909.20.5. 

909.20.1 Schedule. A routine maintenance and operational 
testing program shall be initiated immediately after the 
smoke control system has passed the acceptance tests. A 
written schedule for routine maintenance and operational 
testing shall be established. 

909.20.2 Written record. A. written record of smoke con- 
trol system testing and maintenance shall be maintained on 
the premises. The written record shall include the date of the 
maintenance, identification of the servicing personnel and 
notification of any unsatisfactory condition and the correc- 
tive action taken, including parts replaced. 

909.20.3 Testing. Operational testing of the smoke control 
system shall include all equipment such as initiating 
devices, fans, dampers, controls, doors and windows. 

909.20.4 Dedicated smoke control systems. Dedicated 
smoke control systems shall be operated for each control 
sequence semiannually. The system shall also be tested 
under standby power conditions. 

909.20.5 Nondedicated smoke control systems. 

Nondedicated smoke control systems shall be operated for 
each control sequence annually. The system shall also be 
tested under standby power conditions. 



SECTION 910 
SMOKE AND HEAT VENTS 

910.1 General. Where required by this code or otherwise 
installed, smoke and heat vents or mechanical smoke exhaust 
systems and draft curtains shall conform to the requirements of 
this section. 

Exceptions: 

1. Frozen food warehouses used solely for storage of 
Class I and II commodities where protected by an 
approved automatic sprinkler system. 

2. Where areas of buildings are equipped with early sup- 
pression fast-response (ESFR) sprinklers, automatic 
smoke and heat vents shall not be required within 
these areas. 

I 910.2 Where required. Smoke and heat vents shall be 
installed in the roofs of one-story buildings or portions thereof 



occupied for the uses set forth in Sections 910.2.1 through 
910.2.3. 

910.2.1 Group F-1 or S-1. Buildings and portions thereof 
used as a Group F-1 or S-1 occupancy having more than 
50,000 square feet (4645 m^) of undivided area. 

Exception: Group S-1 aircraft repair hangars. 

910.2.2 High-piled combustible storage. Buildings and 
portions thereof containing high-piled combustible stock or 
rack storage in any occupancy group when required by Sec- 
tion 2306.7. 

910.2.3 Exit access travel distance increase. Buildings 
and portions thereof used as a Group F-1 or S-1 occupancy 
where the maximum exit access travel distance is increased 
in accordance with Section 1016.2. 

910.3 Design and installation. The design and installation of 
smoke and heat vents and draft curtains shall be as specified in 
Sections 910.3.1 through 910.3.5.2 and Table 910.3. 

910.3.1 Design. Smoke and heat vents shall be listed and I 
labeled to indicate compliance with UL 793. I 

910.3.2 Vent operation. Smoke and heat vents shall be 
capable of being operated by approved automatic and man- 
ual means. Automatic operation of smoke and heat vents 
shall conform to the provisions of Sections 910.3.2.1 I 
through 910.3.2.3. | 

910.3.2.1 Gravity-operated drop out vents. Automatic 
smoke and heat vents containing heat- sensitive glazing 
designed to shrink and drop out of the vent opening when 
exposed to fire shall fully open within 5 minutes after the 
vent cavity is exposed to a simulated fire represented by a 
time-temperature gradient that reaches an air tempera- 
ture of 500°F (260°C) within 5 minutes. 

910.3.2.2 Sprinklered buildings. Where installed in 
buildings equipped with an approved automatic sprin- 
kler system, smoke and heat vents shall be designed to 
operate automatically. 

910.3.2.3 Nonsprinklered buildings. Where installed 
in buildings not equipped with an approved automatic 
sprinkler system, smoke and heat vents shall operate 
automatically by actuation of a heat-responsive device 
rated at between 100°F (56°C) and 220°F (122°C) above 
ambient. 

Exception: Gravity-operated drop out vents comply- 
ing with Section 910.3.2.1. 

910.3.3 Vent dimensions. The effective venting area shall 
not be less than 16 square feet (1.5 m^) with no dimension 
less than 4 feet (1219 mm), excluding ribs or gutters having 
a total width not exceeding 6 inches (152 mm). 

910.3.4 Vent locations. Smoke and heat vents shall be 
located 20 feet (6096 mm) or more from adjacent lot lines 
and fire walls and 10 feet (3048 mm) or more from fire bar- 
rier walls. Vents shall be uniformly located within the roof 
area above high-piled storage areas, with consideration 
given to roof pitch, draft curtain location, sprinkler location 
and structural members. 



96 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE'' 



FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



TABLE 910.3 
REQUIREMENTS FOR DRAFT CURTAINS AND SMOKE AND HEAT VENTS^ 



OCCUPANCY GROUP 
AND COMMODITY 
CLASSIFICATION 


DESIGNATED 

STORAGE HEIGHT 

(feet) 


MINIMUM DRAFT 

CURTAIN DEPTH 

(feet) 


MAXIMUM AREA 

FORMED BY DRAFT 

CURTAINS 

(square feet) 


VENT-AREA-TO 

FLOOR-AREA 

RATIO'' 


MAXIMUM SPACING 

OF VENT CENTERS 

(feet) 


maximum distance 

to vents from 

wall or draft 

curtain" 

(feet) 


Group F-1 and S-1 


— 


0.2 X H'' 
but>4 


50,000 


1:100 


120 


60 


High-piled storage 

(see Section 910.2.3) 

I-IV 

(Option 1) 


<20 


6 


10,000 


1:100 


100 


60 


> 20 < 40 


6 


8,000 


1:75 


100 


55 


High-piled storage 

(see Section 910.2.3) 

I-IV 

(Option 2) 


<20 


4 


3,000 


1:75 


100 


55 


> 20 < 40 


4 


3,000 


1:50 


100 


50 


High-piled storage 

(see Section 910.2.3) 

High hazard 

(Option 1) 


<20 


6 


6,000 


1:50 


100 


50 


> 20 < 30 


6 


6,000 


1:40 


90 


45 


High-piled storage 

(see Section 910.2.3) 

High hazard 

(Option 2) 


<20 


4 


4,000 


1:50 


100 


50 


>20<30 


4 


2,000 


1:30 


75 


40 



For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 square foot = 0.0929 m^. 

a. Requirements for rack storage heights in excess of those indicated shall be in accordance with Chapter 23. For solid-piled storage heights in excess of those indi- 
cated, an approved engineered design shall be used. 

b. The distance specified is the maximum distance from any vent in a particular draft curtained area to walls or draft curtains which form the perimeter of the draft cur- 
tained area. 

c. Where draft curtains are not required, the vent area to floor area ratio shall be calculated based on a minimum draft curtain depth of 6 feet (Option 1). 

d. "H" is the height of the vent, in feet, above the floor. 



910.3.5 Draft curtains. Where required, draft curtains shall 
be provided in accordance with this section. 

Exception: Where areas of buildings are equipped with 
ESFR sprinklers, draft curtains shall not be provided 
within these areas. Draft curtains shall only be provided 
at the separation between the ESFR sprinklers and the 
conventional sprinklers. 

910.3.5.1 Construction. Draft curtains shall be con- 
structed of sheet metal, lath and plaster, gypsum board or 
other approved materials that provide equivalent perfor- 
mance to resist the passage of smoke. Joints and connec- 
tions shall be smoke tight. 

910.3.5.2 Location and depth. The location and mini- 
mum depth of draft curtains shall be in accordance with 
Table 910.3. 

910.4 Mechanical smoke exhaust. Where approved by the 
fire code official, engineered mechanical smoke exhaust shall 
be an acceptable alternative to smoke and heat vents. 

910.4.1 Location. Exhaust fans shall be uniformly spaced 
within each draft-curtained area and the maximum distance 
between fans shall not be greater than 1 00 feet (30 480 mm). 

910.4.2 Size. Fans shall have a maximum individual capac- 
ity of 30,000 cfm (14.2 mVs). The aggregate capacity of 
smoke exhaust fans shall be determined by the equation: 



C=Ax 300 



(Equation 9-10) 



where: 

C = Capacity of mechanical ventilation required, in cubic 
feet per minute (mVs). 

A = Area of roof vents provided in square feet (m^) in 
accordance with Table 910.3. 

910.4.3 Operation. Mechanical smoke exhaust fans shall 
be automatically activated by the automatic sprinkler sys- 
tem or by heat detectors having operating characteristics 
equivalent to those described in Section 910.3.2. Individual 
manual controls for each fan unit shall also be provided. 

910.4.4 Wiring and control. Wiring for operation and con- 
trol of smoke exhaust fans shall be connected ahead of the 
main disconnect and protected against exposure to tempera- 
tures in excess of 1,000°F (538°C) for a period of not less 
than 15 minutes. Controls shall be located so as to be imme- 
diately accessible to the fire service from the exterior of the 
building and protected against interior fire exposure by fire 
barriers having a fire-resistance rating not less than 1 hour. 

910.4.5 Supply air. Supply air for exhaust fans shall be pro- 
vided at or near the floor level and shall be sized to provide a 
minimum of 50 percent of required exhaust. Openings for 
supply air shall be uniformly distributed around the periph- 
ery of the area served. 

910.4.6 Interlocks. On combination comfort air-han- 
dling/smoke removal systems or independent comfort 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE^ 



97 



FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



air-handling systems, fans shall be controlled to shut down 
in accordance with the approved smoke control sequence. 



SECTION 911 
EXPLOSION CONTROL 

911.1 General. Explosion control shall be provided in the fol- 
lowing locations: 

1 . Where a structure, room or space is occupied for pur- 
poses involving explosion hazards as identified in Table 
911.1. 



2. Where quantities of hazardous materials specified in 
Table 911.1 exceed the maximum allowable quantities 
in Table 2703.1.1(1). 

Such areas shall be provided with explosion (deflagration) 
venting, explosion (deflagration) prevention systems, or barri- 
cades in accordance with this section and NFPA 69, or NFPA 
495 as applicable. Deflagration venting shall not be utilized as 
a means to protect buildings from detonation hazards. 

911.2 Required deflagration venting. Areas that are required 
to be provided with deflagration venting shall comply with the 
following: 

1. Walls, ceilings and roofs exposing surrounding areas 
shall be designed to resist a minimum internal pressure 



TABLE 911.1 
EXPLOSION CONTROL REQUIREMENTS 



MATERIAL 


CLASS 


EXPLOSION CONTROL METHODS 


Barricade 
construction 


Explosion (deflagration) venting 

or explosion (deflagration) 

prevention systems 


Hazard Category 


Combustible dusts^ 


— 


Not required 


Required 


Cryogenic fluids 


Flammable 


Not required 


Required 


Explosives 


Division 1.1 
Division 1.2 
Division 1.3 
Division 1.4 
Division 1.5 
Division 1.6 


Required 
Required 
Not required 
Not required 
Required 
Required 


Not required 
Not required 
Required 
Required 
Not required 
Not required 


Flammable gas 


Gaseous 
Liquefied 


Not required 
Not required 


Required 
Required 


Flammable liquids 


lA'' 


Not required 
Not required 


Required 
Required 


Organic peroxides 


Unclassified detonable 

I 


Required 
Required 


Not permitted 
Not permitted 


Oxidizer liquids and solids 


4 


Required 


Not permitted 


Pyrophoric 


Gases 


Not required 


Required 


Unstable (reactive) 


4 

3 detonable 

3 nondetonable 


Required 

Required 

Not required 


Not permitted 

Not permitted 

Required 


Water-reactive liquids and solids 


3 

2<= 


Not required 
Not required 


Required 
Required 


Special Uses 


Acetylene generator rooms 


— 


Not required 


Required 


Grain processing 


— 


Not required 


Required 


Liquefied petroleum gas distribution facilities 


— 


Not required 


Required 


Where explosion hazards exist'' 


Detonation 
Deflagration 


Required 
Not required 


Not permitted 
Required 



a. Combustible dusts that are generated during manufacturing or processing. See definition of Combustible Dust in Chapter 2. 

b. Storage or use. 

c. In open use or dispensing. 

d. Rooms containing dispensing and use of hazardous materials when an explosive environment can occur because of the characteristics or nature of the hazardous 
materials or as a result of the dispensing or use process. 

e. A method of explosion control shall be provided when Class 2 water-reactive materials can form potentially explosive mixtures. 



98 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE^ 



FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



of 100 pounds per square foot (psf) (4788 Pa). The mini- 
mum internal design pressure shall not be less than five 
times the maximum internal relief pressure specified in 
Section 91 1.2, Items. 

2. Deflagration venting shall be provided only in exterior 
walls and roofs. 

Exception: Where sufficient exterior wall and roof 
venting cannot be provided because of inadequate 
exterior wall or roof area, deflagration venting shall 
be allowed by specially designed shafts vented to the 
exterior of the building. 

3. Deflagration venting shall be designed to prevent unac- 
ceptable structural damage. Where relieving a deflagra- 
tion, vent closures shall not produce projectiles of 
sufficient velocity and mass to cause life threatening 
injuries to the occupants or other persons on the property 
or adjacent public ways. 

4. The aggregate clear area of vents and venting devices 
shall be governed by the pressure resistance of the con- 
struction assemblies specified in Item 1 of this section 
and the maximum internal pressure allowed by Item 5 of 
this section. 

5. Vents shall be designed to withstand loads in accordance 
with the International Building Code. Vents shall consist 
of any one or any combination of the following to relieve 
at a maximum internal pressure of 20 pounds per square 
foot (958 Pa), but not less than the loads required by the 
International Building Code: 

5.1. Exterior walls designed to release outward. 

5.2. Hatch covers. 

5.3. Outward swinging doors. 

5.4. Roofs designed to uplift. 

5.5. Venting devices listed for the purpose. 

6. Vents designed to release from the exterior walls or roofs 
of the building when venting a deflagration shall dis- 
charge directly to the exterior of the building where an 
unoccupied space not less than 50 feet (15 240 mm) in 
width is provided between the exterior walls of the build- 
ing and the property line. 

Exception: Vents complying with Item 7 of this sec- 
tion. 

7. Vents designed to remain attached to the building when 
venting a deflagration shall be so located that the dis- 
charge opening shall not be less than 10 feet (3048 mm) 
vertically from window openings and exits in the build- 
ing and 20 feet (6096 mm) horizontally from exits in the 
building, from window openings and exits in adjacent 
buildings on the same property, and from the property 
line. 

8. Discharge from vents shall not be into the interior of the 
building. 

911.3 Explosion prevention systems. Explosion prevention 
systems shall be of an approved type and installed in accor- 
dance with the provisions of this code and NFPA 69. 



911.4 Barricades. Barricades shall be designed and installed 
in accordance with NFPA 495. 



SECTION 912 
FIRE DEPARTMENT CONNECTIONS 

912.1 Installation. Fire department connections shall be 
installed in accordance with the NFPA standard applicable to 
the system design and shall comply with Sections 912.2 
through 912.6. 

912.2 Location. With respect to hydrants, driveways, build- 
ings and landscaping, fire department connections shall be so 
located that fire apparatus and hose connected to supply the 
system will not obstruct access to the buildings for other fire 
apparatus. The location of fire department connections shall be 
approved. 

912.2.1 Visible location. Fire department connections shall 
be located on the street side of buildings, fully visible and 
recognizable from the street or nearest point of fire depart- 
ment vehicle access or as otherwise approved by the fire 
code official. 

912.2.2 Existing buildings. On existing buildings, wher- 
ever the fire department connection is not visible to 
approaching fire apparatus, the fire department connection 
shall be indicated by an approved sign mounted on the street 
front or on the side of the building. Such sign shall have the 
letters "FDC" at least 6 inches (152 mm) high and words in 
letters at least 2 inches (51 mm) high or an arrow to indicate 
the location. All such signs shall be subject to the approval 
of the fire code official. 

912.3 Access. Immediate access to fire department connec- 
tions shall be maintained at all times and without obstruction 
by fences, bushes, trees, walls or any other object for a mini- 
mum of 3 feet (914 mm). 

912.3.1 Locking fire department connection caps. The 

fire code official is authorized to require locking caps on fire 
department connections for water-based fire protection sys- 
tems where the responding fire department carries appropri- 
ate key wrenches for removal. 

912.4 Signs. A metal sign with raised letters at least 1 inch (25 
mm) in size shall be mounted on all fire department connec- 
tions serving automatic sprinklers, standpipes or fire pump 
connections. Such signs shall read: AUTOMATIC SPRIN- 
KLERS or STANDPIPES or TEST CONNECTION or a com- 
bination thereof as applicable. 

912.5 Backflow protection. The potable water supply to auto- 
matic sprinkler and standpipe systems shall be protected 
against backflow as required by the International Plumbing 
Code. 

912.6 Inspection, testing and maintenance. All fire depart- 
ment connections shall be periodically inspected, tested and 
maintained in accordance with NFPA 25. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



99 



FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



SECTION 913 
FIRE PUMPS 

913.1 General. Where provided, fire pumps shall be installed 
in accordance with this section and NFPA 20. 

913.2 Protection against interruption of service. The fire 
pump, driver, and controller shall be protected in accordance 
with NFPA 20 against possible interruption of service through 
damage caused by explosion, fire, flood, earthquake, rodents, 
insects, windstorm, freezing, vandalism and other adverse con- 
ditions. 

913.3 Temperature of pump room. Suitable means shall be 
provided for maintaining the temperature of a pump room or 
pump house, where required, above 40°F (5°C). 

913.3.1 Engine manufacturer's recommendation. Tem- 
perature of the pump room, pump house or area where 
engines are installed shall never be less than the minimum 
recommended by the engine manufacturer. The engine 
manufacturer's recommendations for oil heaters shall be 
followed. 

913.4 Valve supervision. Where provided, the fire pump suc- 
tion, discharge and bypass valves, and the isolation valves on 
the backflow prevention device or assembly shall be super- 
vised open by one of the following methods. 

1 . Central-station, proprietary or remote-station signaling 
service. 

2. Local signaling service that will cause the sounding of an 
audible signal at a constantly attended location. 

3. Locking valves open. 

4. Sealing of valves and approved weekly recorded inspec- 
tion where valves are located within fenced enclosures 
under the control of the owner. 

913.4.1 Test outlet valve supervision. Fire pump test outlet 
valves shall be supervised in the closed position. 

913.5 Testing and maintenance. Fire pumps shall be 
inspected, tested and maintained in accordance with the 
requirements of this section and NFPA 25. 

913.5.1 Acceptance test. Acceptance testing shall be done 
in accordance with the requirements of NFPA 20. 

913.5.2 Generator sets. Engine generator sets supplying 
emergency or standby power to fire pump assemblies shall 
be periodically tested in accordance with NFPA 110. 

913.5.3 Transfer switches. Automatic transfer switches 
shall be periodically tested in accordance with NFPA 1 10. 

913.5.4 Pump room environmental conditions. Tests of 
pump room environmental conditions, including heating, 
ventilation and illumination shall be made to ensure proper 
manual or automatic operation of the associated equipment. 



SECTION 914 

FIRE PROTECTION BASED ON SPECIAL DETAILED 

REQUIREMENTS OF USE AND OCCUPANCY 

914.1 General. This section shall specify where fire protection 
systems are required based on the detailed requirements of use 
and occupancy of the International Building Code. 

914.2 Covered mall buildings. Covered mall buildings shall 
comply with Sections 914.2.1 through 914.2.4. 

914.2.1 Automatic sprinkler system. The covered mall 
building and buildings connected shall be equipped 
throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accor- 
dance with Section 903.1.1, which shall comply with the 
following: 

1 . The automatic sprinkler system shall be complete and 
operative throughout occupied space in the covered 
mall building prior to occupancy of any of the tenant 
spaces. Unoccupied tenant spaces shall be similarly 
protected unless provided with approved alternate 
protection. 

2. Sprinkler protection for the mall shall be independent 
from that provided for tenant spaces or anchors. 
Where tenant spaces are supplied by the same system, 
they shall be independently controlled. 

Exception: An automatic sprinkler system shall 
not be required in spaces or areas of open parking 
garages constructed in accordance with Section 

406.2 of the International Building Code. 

914.2.2 Standpipe system. The covered mall building shall 
be equipped throughout with a standpipe system in accor- 
dance with Section 905. 

914.2.3 Emergency voice/alarm communication system. 

Covered mall buildings exceeding 50,000 square feet (4645 
m^) in total floor area shall be provided with an emergency 
voice/alarm communication system. Emergency 
voice/alarm communication systems serving a mall, 
required or otherwise, shall be accessible to the fire depart- 
ment. The system shall be provided in accordance with Sec- 
tion 907.2.12.2. 

914.2.4 Fire department access to equipment. Rooms or 
areas containing controls for air-conditioning systems, 
automatic fire-extinguishing systems or other detection, 
suppression or control elements shall be identified for use 
by the fire department. 

914.3 High-rise buildings. High-rise buildings shall comply 
with Sections 914.3.1 through 914.3.5. 

914.3.1 Automatic sprinkler system. Buildings and struc- 
tures shall be equipped throughout with an automatic sprin- 
kler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 and a 
secondary water supply where required by Section 
903.3.5.2. 

Exception: An automatic sprinkler system shall not be 
required in spaces or areas of: 

1 . Open parking garages in accordance with Section 

406.3 of the International Building Code. 



100 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE'' 



FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



2. Telecommunication equipment buildings used 
exclusively for telecommunications equipment, 
associated electrical power distribution equip- 
ment, batteries and standby engines, provided that 
those spaces or areas are equipped throughout with 
an automatic fire detection system in accordance 
with Section 907.2 and are separated from the 
remainder of the building with fire barriers con- 
sisting of not less than 1-hour fire-resistance-rated 
walls and 2-hour fire-resistance-rated floor/ceiling 
assemblies. 

914.3.2 Automatic fire detection. Smoke detection shall 
be provided in accordance with Section 907.2.12.1. 

914.3.3 Emergency voice/alarm communication system. 

An emergency voice/alarm communication system shall be 
provided in accordance with Section 907.2.12.2. 

914.3.4 Fire department communication system. A 

two-way fire department communication system shall be 
provided for fire department use in accordance with Section 
907.2.12.3. 

914.3.5 Fire command. A fire command center complying 
with Section 509 shall be provided in a location approved by 
the fire department. 

914.4 Atriums. Atriums shall comply with Sections 914.4.1 
and 914.4.2. 

914.4.1 Automatic sprinWer system. An approved auto- 
matic sprinkler system shall be installed throughout the 
entire building. 

Exceptions: 

1. That area of a building adjacent to or above the 
atrium need not be sprinklered, provided that por- 
tion of the building is separated from the atrium 
portion by not less than a 2-hour fire barrier. 

2. Where the ceilings of the atrium are more than 55 
feet (16 764 mm) above the floor, sprinkler protec- 
tion at the ceiling of the atrium is not required. 

914.4.2 Fire alarm system. A fire alarm system shall be 
provided where required by Section 907.2.13. 

914.5 Underground buildings. Underground buildings shall 
comply with Sections 914.5.1 through 914.5.6. 

914.5.1 Automatic sprinkler system. The highest level of 
exit discharge serving the underground portions of the 
building and all levels below shall be equipped with an auto- 
matic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 
903.3.1.1. Water-flow switches and control valves shall be 
supervised in accordance with Section 903.4. 

914.5.2 Smoke control system. A smoke control system is 
required to control the migration of products of combustion 
in accordance with Section 909 and provisions of this sec- 
tion. Smoke control shall restrict movement of smoke to the 
general area of fire origin and maintain means of egress in a 
usable condition. 

914.5.3 Compartment smoke control system. Where 
compartmentation is required by Section 405.4 of the Inter- 
national Building Code, each compartment shall have an 



independent smoke-control system. The system shall be 
automatically activated and capable of manual operation in 
accordance with Section 907.2.18. 

914.5.4 Fire alarm system. A fire alarm system shall be 
provided where required by Section 907.2.19. 

914.5.5 Public address. A pubhc address system shall be 
provided where required by Section 907.2.19.1. 

914.5.6 Standpipe system. The underground building shall 
be provided throughout with a standpipe system in accor- 
dance with Section 905. 

914.6 Stages. Stages shall comply with Sections 914.6.1 and 
914.6.2. 

914.6.1 Automatic sprinkler system. Stages shall be 
equipped with an automatic fire-extinguishing system in 
accordance with Chapter 9. Sprinklers shall be installed 
under the roof and gridiron and under all catwalks and gal- 
leries over the stage. Sprinklers shall be installed in dressing 
rooms, performer lounges, shops and storerooms accessory 
to such stages. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Sprinklers are not required under stage areas less 
than 4 feet (1219 mm) in clear height utilized 
exclusively for storage of tables and chairs, pro- 
vided the concealed space is separated from the 
adjacent spaces by not less than Vg-inch (15.9 mm) 
Type X gypsum board. 

2. Sprinklers are not required for stages 1 ,000 square 
feet (93 m^) or less in area and 50 feet (15 240 mm) 
or less in height where curtains, scenery or other 
combustible hangings are not retiractable verti- 
cally. Combustible hangings shall be limited to a 
single main curtain, borders, legs and a single 
backdrop. 

3 . Sprinklers are not required within portable orches- 
tra enclosures on stages. 

914.6.2 Standpipe system. Standpipe systems shall be pro- 
vided in accordance with Section 905. 

914.7 Special amusement buildings. Special amusement 
buildings shall comply with Sections 914.7.1 and 914.7.2. 

914.7.1 Automatic sprinkler system. Special amusement 
buildings shall be equipped throughout with an automatic 
sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. 
Where the special amusement building is temporary, the 
sprinkler water supply shall be of an approved temporary 
means. 

Exception: Automatic sprinklers are not required where 
the total floor area of a temporary special amusement 
building is less than 1,000 square feet (93 m^) and the 
travel distance from any point to an exit is less than 50 
feet (15 240 mm). 

914.7.2 Automatic fire detection. Special amusement 
buildings shall be equipped with an automatic fire detection 
system in accordance with Section 907.2.11. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE^ 



101 



FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



914.8 Aircraft-related occupancies. Aircraft-related occu- 
pancies shall comply with Sections 914.8.1 through 914.8.5. 

914.8.1 Automatic fire detection systems. Airport traffic 
control towers shall be provided with an automatic fire 
detection system installed in accordance with Section 
907.2. 

914.8.2 Fire suppression. Aircraft hangars shall be pro- 
vided with fire suppression as required by NFPA 409. 

Exception: Group II hangars, as defined in NFPA 409, 
storing private aircraft without major maintenance or 
overhaul are exempt from foam suppression require- 
ments. 

914.8.3 Finisliing. The process of "doping," involving the 
use of a volatile flammable solvent, or of painting shall be 
carried on in a separate detached building equipped with 
automatic fire-extinguishing equipment in accordance with 
Section 903. 

914.8.4 Residential aircraft hangar smoke alarms. 

Smoke alarms shall be provided within residential aircraft 
hangars in accordance with Section 907.2.21. 

914.8.5 Aircraft paint hangar fire suppression. Aircraft 
paint hangars shall be provided with fire suppression as 
required by NFPA 409. 

914.9 Application of flammable finishes. An automatic 
fire-extinguishing system shall be provided in all spray, dip and 
immersing spaces and storage rooms, and shall be installed in 
accordance with Chapter 9. 

914.10 Drying rooms. Drying rooms designed for high-haz- 
ard materials and processes, including special occupancies as 
provided for in Chapter 4 of the International Building Code, 
shall be protected by an approved automatic fire-extinguishing 
system complying with the provisions of Chapter 9. 



102 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE'' 



CHAPTER 10 

MEANS OF EGRESS 



SECTION 1001 
ADMINISTRATION 

1001.1 General. Buildings or portions thereof shall be pro- 
vided with a means of egress system as required by this chapter. 
The provisions of this chapter shall control the design, con- 
struction and arrangement of means of egress components 
required to provide an approved means of egress from struc- 
tures and portions thereof. Sections 1003 through 1026 shall 
apply to new construction. Sections 1027 and 1028 shall apply 
to existing buildings. 

Exception: Detached one- and two-family dwellings and 
multiple single-family dwellings (townhouses) not more 
than three stories above grade plane in height with a separate 
means of egress and their accessory structures shall comply 
with the International Residential Code. 

1001.2 Minimum requirements. It shall be unlawful to alter a 
building or structure in a manner that will reduce the number of 
exits or the capacity of the means of egress to less than required 
by this code.. 



[BISECTION 1002 
DEFINITIONS 

1002.1 Definitions. The following words and terms shall, for 
the purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this code, 
have the meanings shown herein. 

ACCESSIBLE MEANS OF EGRESS. A continuous and 
unobstructed way of egress travel from any accessible point in 
a building or facility to a public way. 

AISLE. An exit access component that defines and provides a 
path of egress travel. 

AISLE ACCESSWAY. That portion of an exit access that 
leads to an aisle. 

ALTERNATING TREAD DEVICE. A device that has a 
series of steps between 50 and 70 degrees (0.87 and 1.22 rad) 
from horizontal, usually attached to a center support rail in an 
alternating manner so that the user does not have both feet on 
the same level at the same time. 

AREA OF REFUGE. An area where persons unable to use 
stairways can remain temporarily to await instructions or assis- 
tance during emergency evacuation. 

BLEACHERS. Tiered seating facilities. 

COMMON PATH OF EGRESS TRAVEL. That portion of 
exit access which the occupants are required to traverse before 
two separate and distinct paths of egress travel to two exits are 
available. Paths that merge are common paths of travel. Com- 
mon paths of egress travel shall be included within the permit- 
ted travel distance. 

CORRIDOR. An enclosed exit access component that defines 
and provides a path of egress travel to an exit. 



DOOR, BALANCED. A door equipped with double-pivoted 
hardware so designed as to cause a semicounterbalanced swing 
action when opening. 

EGRESS COURT. A court or yard which provides access to a 
public way for one or more exits. 

EMERGENCY ESCAPE AND RESCUE OPENING. An 

operable window, door or other similar device that provides for 
a means of escape and access for rescue in the event of an emer- 
gency. 

EXIT. That portion of a means of egress system which is sepa- 
rated from other interior spaces of a building or structure by 
fire-resistance-rated construction and opening protectives as 
required to provide a protected path of egress travel between 
the exit access and the exit discharge. Exits include exterior exit 
doors at ground level, exit enclosures, exit passageways, exte- 
rior exit stairs, exterior exit ramps and horizontal exits. 

EXIT, HORIZONTAL. A path of egress travel from one 
building to an area in another building on approximately the 
same level, or a path of egress travel through or around a wall or 
partition to an area on approximately the same level in the same 
building, which affords safety from fire and smoke from the 
area of incidence and areas communicating therewith. 

EXIT ACCESS. That portion of a means of egress system that 
leads from any occupied portion of a building or structure to an 
exit. 

EXIT DISCHARGE. That portion of a means of egress sys- 
tem between the termination of an exit and a public way. 

EXIT DISCHARGE, LEVEL OR The horizontal plane 
located at the point at which an exit terminates and an exit dis- 
charge begins. 

EXIT ENCLOSURE. An exit component that is separated 
from other interior spaces of a building or structure by 
fire-resistance-rated construction and opening protectives, and 
provides for a protected path of egress travel in a vertical or hor- 
izontal direction to the exit discharge or the public way. 

EXIT PASSAGEWAY. An exit component that is separated 
from all other interior spaces of a building or structure by 
fire-resistance-rated construction and opening protectives, and 
provides for a protected path of egress travel in a horizontal 
direction to the exit discharge or the public way. 

FIRE EXIT HARDWARE. Panic hardware that is listed for 
use on fire door assemblies. 

FLOOR AREA, GROSS. The floor area within the inside per- 
imeter of the exterior walls of the building under consideration, 
exclusive of vent shafts and courts, without deduction for corri- 
dors, stairways, closets, the thickness of interior walls, col- 
umns or other features. The floor area of a building, or portion 
thereof, not provided with surrounding exterior walls shall be 
the usable area under the horizontal projection of the roof or 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE^ 



103 



MEANS OF EGRESS 



floor above. The gross floor area shall not include shafts with 
no openings or interior courts. 

FLOOR AREA, NET. The actual occupied area not including 
unoccupied accessory areas such as corridors, stairways, toilet 
rooms, mechanical rooms and closets. 

FOLDING AND TELESCOPIC SEATING. Tiered seating 
facilities having an overall shape and size that are capable of 
being reduced for purposes of moving or storing. 

GRANDSTAND. Tiered seating facilities. 

GUARD. A building component or a system of building com- 
ponents located at or near the open sides of elevated walking 
surfaces that minimizes the possibility of a fall from the walk- 
ing surface to a lower level. 

HANDRAIL. A horizontal or sloping rail intended for grasp- 
ing by the hand for guidance or support. 

MEANS OF EGRESS. A continuous and unobstructed path 
of vertical and horizontal egress travel from any occupied por- 
tion of a building or structure to a public way. A means of 
egress consists of three separate and distinct parts: the exit 
access, the exit and the exit discharge. 

MERCHANDISE PAD. A merchandise pad is an area for dis- 
play of merchandise surrounded by aisles, permanent fixtures 
or walls. Merchandise pads contain elements such as nonfixed 
and moveable fixtures, cases, racks, counters and partitions as 
indicated in Section 105.2 of the International Building Code 
from which customers browse or shop. 

NOSING. The leading edge of treads of stairs and of landings 
at the top of stairway flights. 

OCCUPANT LOAD. The number of persons for which the 
means of egress of a building or portion thereof is designed. 

PANIC HARDWARE. A door-latching assembly incorporat- 
ing a device that releases the latch upon the application of a 
force in the direction of egress travel. 

PUBLIC WAY. A street, alley or other parcel of land open to 
the outside air leading to a street, that has been deeded, dedi- 
cated or otherwise permanently appropriated to the public for 
public use and which has a clear width and height of not less 
than 10 feet (3048 mm). 

RAMP. A walking surface that has a running slope steeper than 
one unit vertical in 20 units horizontal (5 -percent slope). 

SCISSOR STAIR. Two interlocking stairways providing two 
separate paths of egress located within one stairwell enclosure. 

SMOKE-PROTECTED ASSEMBLY SEATING. Seating 
served by means of egress that is not subject to smoke accumu- 
lation within or under a structure. 

STAIR. A change in elevation, consisting of one or more ris- 
ers. 

STAIRWAY. One or more flights of stairs, either exterior or 
interior, with the necessary landings and platforms connecting 
them, to form a continuous and uninterrupted passage from one 
level to another. 

STAIRWAY, EXTERIOR. A stairway that is open on at least 
one side, except for required structural columns, beams, hand- 



rails and guards. The adjoining open areas shall be either yards, 
courts or public ways. The other sides of the exterior stairway 
need not be open. 

STAIRWAY, INTERIOR. A stairway not meeting the defini- 
tion of an exterior stairway. 

STAIRWAY, SPIRAL. A stairway having a closed circular 
form in its plan view with uniform section-shaped treads 
attached to and radiating from a minimum-diameter supporting 
column. 

WINDER. A tread with nonparallel edges. 



[BISECTION 1003 
GENERAL MEANS OF EGRESS 

1003.1 Applicability. The general requirements specified in 
Sections 1003 through 1013 shall apply to all three elements of 
the means of egress system, in addition to those specific 
requirements for the exit access, the exit and the exit discharge 
detailed elsewhere in this chapter. 

1003.2 Ceiling height. The means of egress shall have a ceiling 
height of not less than 7 feet 6 inches (2286 mm). | 

Exceptions: 

1. Sloped ceilings in accordance with Section 1208.2 of 
the International Building Code. 

2. Ceilings of dwelling units and sleeping units within 
residential occupancies in accordance with Section 
1208.2 of the International Building Code. 

3. Allowable projections in accordance with Section 
1003.3. 

4. Stair headroom in accordance with Section 1009.2. 

5. Door height in accordance with Section 1008.1.1. 

1003.3 Protruding objects. Protruding objects shall comply 
with the requirements of Sections 1003.3.1 through 1003.3.4. 

1003.3.1 Headroom. Protruding objects are permitted to 
extend below the minimum ceiling height required by Sec- 
tion 1003.2 provided a minimum headroom of 80 inches 
(2032 mm) shall be provided for any walking surface, 
including walks, corridors, aisles and passageways. Not 
more than 50 percent of the ceiling area of a means of egress 
shall be reduced in height by protruding objects. 

Exception: Door closers and stops shall not reduce 
headroom to less than 78 inches (1981 mm). 

A barrier shall be provided where the vertical clearance is 
less than 80 inches (2032 mm) high. The leading edge of 
such a barrier shall be located 27 inches (686 mm) maxi- 
mum above the floor. 

1003.3.2 Free-standing objects. A free-standing object 
mounted on a post or pylon shall not overhang that post or 
pylon more than 4 inches (102 mm) where the lowest point 
of the leading edge is more than 27 inches (686 mm) and 
less than 80 inches (2032 mm) above the walking surface. 
Where a sign or other obstruction is mounted between posts 
or pylons and the clear distance between the posts or pylons 



104 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE'' 



MEANS OF EGRESS 



is greater than 12 inches (305 mm), the lowest edge of such 
sign or obstruction shall be 27 inches (685 mm) maximum 
or 80 inches (2030 mm) minimum above the finished floor 
or ground. 

Exception: This requirement shall not apply to sloping 
portions of handrails serving stairs and ramps. 

1003.3.3 Horizontal projections. Structural elements, fix- 
tures or furnishings shall not project horizontally from 
either side more than 4 inches (102 mm) over any walking 
surface between the heights of 27 inches (686 mm) and 80 
inches (2032 mm) above the walking surface. 

Exception: Handrails serving stairs and ramps are per- 
mitted to protrude 4.5 inches (114 mm) from the wall. 

1003.3.4 Clear width. Protruding objects shall not reduce 
the minimum clear width of accessible routes as required in 
Section 1 104 of the International Building Code. 

1003.4 Floor surface. Walking surfaces of the means of egress 
shall have a slip-resistant surface and be securely attached. 

1003.5 Elevation change. Where changes in elevation of less 
than 12 inches (305 mm) exist in the means of egress, sloped 
surfaces shall be used. Where the slope is greater than one unit 
vertical in 20 units horizontal (5-percent slope), ramps comply- 
ing with Section 1010 shall be used. Where the difference in 
elevation is 6 inches (152 mm) or less, the ramp shall be 
equipped with either handrails or floor finish materials that 
contrast with adjacent floor finish materials. 

Exceptions: 

1 . A single step with a maximum riser height of 7 inches 
(178 nam) is permitted for buildings with occupancies 
in Groups F, H, R-2 and R-3 and Groups S and U at 
exterior doors not required to be accessible by Chap- 
ter 1 1 of the International Building Code. 

2. A stair with a single riser or with two risers and a tread 
is permitted at locations not required to be accessible 
by Chapter 1 1 of the International Building Code, 
provided that the risers and treads comply with Sec- 
tion 1009.3, the minimum depth of the tread is 13 
inches (330 mm) and at least one handrail complying 
with Section 1012 is provided within 30 inches (762 
mm) of the centerline of the normal path of egress 
travel on the stair. 

3. A step is permitted in aisles serving seating that has a 
difference in elevation less than 12 inches (305 mm) 
at locations not required to be accessible by Chapter 
1 1 of the International Building Code, provided that 
the risers and treads comply with Section 1025. 1 1 and 
the aisle is provided with a handrail complying with 
Section 1025.13. 

Any change in elevation in a corridor serving 
nonambulatory persons in a Group 1-2 occupancy shall be by 
means of a ramp or sloped walkway. 

1003.6 Means of egress continuity. The path of egress travel 
along a means of egress shall not be interrupted by any building 
element other than a means of egress component as specified in 
this chapter. Obstructions shall not be placed in the required 



width of a means of egress except projections permitted by this 
chapter. The required capacity of a means of egress system 
shall not be diminished along the path of egress travel. 

1003.7 Elevators, escalators and moving walks. Elevators, 
escalators and moving walks shall not be used as a component of 
a required means of egress from any other part of the building. 

Exception: Elevators used as an accessible means of egress 
in accordance with Section 1007.4. 



[BISECTION 1004 
OCCUPANT LOAD 

1004.1 Design occupant load. In determining means of egress 
requirements, the number of occupants for whom means of 
egress facilities shall be provided shall be determined in accor- 
dance with this section. Where occupants from accessory areas 
egress through a primary space, the calculated occupant load 
for the primary space shall include the total occupant load of 
the primary space plus the number of occupants egressing 
through it from the accessory area. 

1004.1.1 Areas without fixed seating. The number of 
occupants shall be computed at the rate of one occupant per 
unit of area as prescribed in Table 1004. 1.1. For areas with- 
out fixed seating, the occupant load shall not be less than 
that number determined by dividing the floor area under 
consideration by the occupant per unit of area factor 
assigned to the occupancy as set forth in Table 1004.1.1. 
Where an intended use is not hsted in Table 1004.1.1, the 
building official shall establish a use based on a listed use 
that most nearly resembles the intended use. 

Exception: Where approved by the building official, the 
actual number of occupants for whom each occupied 
space, floor or building is designed, although less than 
those determined by calculation, shall be permitted to be 
used in the determination of the design occupant load. 

1004.2 Increased occupant load. The occupant load permitted in 
any building, or portion thereof, is permitted to be increased from 
that number established for the occupancies in Table 1004.1.1, 
provided that all other requirements of the code are also met 
based on such modified number and the occupant load does not 
exceed one occupant per 7 square feet (0.65 m^) of occupiable 
floor space. Where required by the fire code official, an approved 
aisle, seating or fixed equipment diagram substantiating any 
increase in occupant load shall be submitted. Where required by 
the fire code official, such diagram shall be posted. 

1004.3 Posting of occupant load. Every room or space that is 
an assembly occupancy shall have the occupant load of the 
room or space posted in a conspicuous place, near the main exit 
or exit access doorway from the room or space. Posted signs 
shall be of an approved legible permanent design and shall be 
maintained by the owner or authorized agent. 

1004.4 Exiting from multiple levels. Where exits serve more 
than one floor, only the occupant load of each floor considered 
individually shall be used in computing the required capacity 
of the exits at that floor, provided that the exit capacity shall not 
decrease in the direction of egress travel. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE'' 



105 



MEANS OF EGRESS 



TABLE 1004.1.1 
MAXIMUM FLOOR AREA ALLOWANCES PER OCCUPANT 


FUNCTION OF SPACE 


FLOOR AREA IN SO. 
FT. PER OCCUPANT 


Agricultural building 


300 gross 


Aircraft hangars 


500 gross 


Airport terminal 
Baggage claim 
Baggage handling 
Concourse 
Waiting areas 


20 gross 
300 gross 
100 gross 

15 gross 


Assembly 

Gaming floors (keno, slots, etc.) 


1 1 gross 


Assembly with fixed seats 


See Section 1004.7 


Assembly without fixed seats 

Concentrated (chairs only — not fixed) 

Standing space 

Unconcentrated (tables and chairs) 


7 net 
5 net 
15 net 


Bowling centers, allow 5 persons for each 
lane including 15 feet of runway, and for 
additional areas 


7 net 


Business areas 


100 gross 


Courtrooms — other than fixed seating areas 


40 net 


Day care 


35 net 


Dormitories 


50 gross 


Educational 
Classroom area 
Shops and other vocational room areas 


20 net 
50 net 


Exercise rooms 


50 gross 


H-5 Fabrication and manufacturing areas 


200 gross 


Industrial areas 


100 gross 


Institutional areas 

Inpatient treatment areas 
Outpatient areas 
Sleeping areas 


240 gross 
100 gross 
120 gross 


Kitchens, commercial 


200 gross 


Library 

Reading rooms 
Stack area 


50 net 
100 gross 


Locker rooms 


50 gross 


Mercantile 

Areas on other floors 
Basement and grade floor areas 
Storage, stock, shipping areas 


60 gross 
30 gross 
300 gross 


Parking garages 


200 gross 


Residential 


200 gross 


Skating rinks, swimming pools 
Rink and pool 
Decks 


50 gross 
15 gross 


Stages and platforms 


15 net 


Accessory storage areas, mechanical 
equipment room 


300 gross 


Warehouses 


500 gross 



1004.5 Egress convergence. Where means of egress from 
floors above and below converge at an intermediate level, the 
capacity of the means of egress from the point of convergence 
shall not be less than the sum of the two floors. 

1004.6 Mezzanine levels. The occupant load of a mezzanine 
level with egress onto a room or area below shall be added to 
that room or area's occupant load, and the capacity of the exits 
shall be designed for the total occupant load thus established. 

1004.7 Fixed seating. For areas having fixed seats and aisles, 
the occupant load shall be determined by the number of fixed 
seats installed therein. The occupant load for areas in which 
fixed seating is not installed, such as waiting spaces and wheel- 
chair spaces, shall be determined in accordance with Section 
1004.1.1 and added to the number of fixed seats. 

For areas having fixed seating without dividing arms, the 
occupant load shall not be less than the number of seats based 
on one person for each 1 8 inches (457 mm) of seating length. 

The occupant load of seating booths shall be based on one 
person for each 24 inches (610 mm) of booth seat length mea- 
sured at the backrest of the seating booth. 

1004.8 Outdoor areas. Yards, patios, courts and similar out- 
door areas accessible to and usable by the building occupants 
shall be provided with means of egress as required by this chap- 
ter. The occupant load of such outdoor areas shall be assigned 
by the fire code official in accordance with the anticipated use. 
Where outdoor areas are to be used by persons in addition to the 
occupants of the building, and the path of egress travel from the 
outdoor areas passes through the building, means of egress 
requirements for the building shall be based on the sum of the 
occupant loads of the building plus the outdoor areas. 

Exceptions: 

1. Outdoor areas used exclusively for service of the 
building need only have one means of egress. 

2. Both outdoor areas associated with Group R-3 and 
individual dwelling units of Group R-2. 

1004.9 Multiple occupancies. Where a building contains two 
or more occupancies, the means of egress requirements shall 
apply to each portion of the building based on the occupancy of 
that space. Where two or more occupancies utilize portions of 
the same means of egress system, those egress components 
shall meet the more stringent requirements of all occupancies 
that are served. 



[BISECTION 1005 
EGRESS WIDTH 

1005.1 Minimum required egress width. The means of 
egress width shall not be less than required by this section. The 
total width of means of egress in inches (rmn) shall not be less 
than the total occupant load served by the means of egress mul- 
tiplied by the factors in Table 1 005 . 1 and not less than specified 
elsewhere in this code. Multiple means of egress shall be sized 
such that the loss of any one means of egress shall not reduce 
the available capacity to less than 50 percent of the required 
capacity. The maximum capacity required from any story of a 



For SI: 1 square foot = 0.0929 m^ 



106 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE'' 



MEANS OF EGRESS 



building shall be maintained to the termination of the means of 

egress. 

Exception: Means of egress complying with Section 1025. 



TABLE 1005.1 
EGRESS WIDTH PER OCCUPANT SERVED 



OCCUPANCY 


WITHOUT 
SPRINKLER SYSTEM 


WITH 
SPRINKLER SYSTEM' 


Stairways 
(inches per 
occupant) 


Other egress 

components 

(inches per 

occupant) 


Stairways 
(inches per 
occupant) 


Other egress 

components 

(inches per 

occupant) 


Occupancies 
other than those 
Usted below 


0.3 


0.2 


0.2 


0.15 


Hazardous: H-1, 
H-2, H-3 and H-4 


0.7 


0.4 


0.3 


0.2 


Institutional: 1-2 


NA 


NA 


0.3 


0.2 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. NA = Not applicable. 

a. Buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accor- 
dance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2. 

1005.2 Door encroachment. Doors opening into the path of 
egress travel shall not reduce the required width to less than 
one-half during the course of the swing. When fully open, the 
door shall not project more than 7 inches (178 mm) into the 
required width. 

Exception: The restrictions on a door swing shall not apply 
to doors within individual dwelling units and sleeping units 
of Group R-2 and dwelling units of Group R-3. 



In the event of power supply failure, an emergency electrical 
system shall automatically illuminate the following areas: 

1. Aisles and unenclosed egress stairways in rooms and 
spaces that require two or more means of egress. 

2. Corridors, exit enclosures and exit passageways in build- 
ings required to have two or more exits. 

3 . Exterior egress components at other than the level of exit 
discharge until exit discharge is accomplished for build- 
ings required to have two or more exits. 

4. Interior exit discharge elements, as permitted in Section 
1024. 1 , in buildings required to have two or more exits. 

5. Exterior landings, as required by Section 1008.1.5, for 
exit discharge doorways in buildings required to have 
two or more exits. 

The emergency power system shall provide power for a 
duration of not less than 90 minutes and shall consist of storage 
batteries, unit equipment or an on-site generator. The installa- 
tion of the emergency power system shall be in accordance 
with Section 2702 of the International Building Code. 

1006.4 Performance of system. Emergency lighting facilities 
shall be arranged to provide initial illumination that is at least 
an average of 1 foot-candle (11 lux) and a minimum at any 
point of 0.1 foot-candle (1 lux) measured along the path of 
egress at floor level. Illumination levels shall be permitted to 
decline to 0.6 foot-candle (6 lux) average and a minimum at 
any point of 0.06 foot-candle (0.6 lux) at the end of the emer- 
gency lighting time duration. A maximum- to-minimum illu- 
mination uniformity ratio of 40 to 1 shall not be exceeded. 



[BISECTION 1006 
MEANS OF EGRESS ILLUMINATION 

1006.1 Illumination required. The means of egress, including 
the exit discharge, shall be illuminated at all times the building 
space served by the means of egress is occupied. 

Exceptions: 

1. Occupancies in Group U. 

2. Aisle accessways in Group A. 

3. Dwelling units and sleeping units in Groups R-1, R-2 
and R-3. 

4. Sleeping units of Group I occupancies. 

1006.2 Illumination level. The means of egress illumination 
level shall not be less than 1 foot-candle (11 lux) at the walking 
surface level. 

Exception: For auditoriums, theaters, concert or opera halls 
and similar assembly occupancies, the illumination at the 
walking surface level is permitted to be reduced during per- 
formances to not less than 0,2 foot-candle (2.15 lux), pro- 
vided that the required illumination is automatically 
restored upon activation of a premises' fire alarm system 
where such system is provided. 

1006.3 Illumination emergency power. The power supply for 
means of egress illumination shall normally be provided by the 
premises' electrical supply. 



[BISECTION 1007 
ACCESSIBLE MEANS OF EGRESS 

1007.1 Accessible means of egress required. Accessible 
means of egress shall comply with this section. Accessible 
spaces shall be provided with not less than one accessible 
means of egress. Where more than one means of egress is 
required by Section 1015.1 or 1019.1 from any accessible 
space, each accessible portion of the space shall be served by 
not less than two accessible means of egress. 

Exceptions: 

1. Accessible means of egress are not required in alter- 
ations to existing buildings. 

2. One accessible means of egress is required from an 
accessible mezzanine level in accordance with Sec- 
tion 1007.3, 1007.4 or 1007.5. 

3. In assembly spaces with sloped floors, one accessible 
means of egress is required from a space where the 
common path of travel of the accessible route for 
access to the wheelchair spaces meets the require- 
ments in Section 1025.8. 

1007.2 Continuity and components. Each required accessi- 
ble means of egress shall be continuous to a public way and 
shall consist of one or more of the following components: 

1. Accessible routes complying with Section 1104 of the 
International Building Code. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE"^ 



107 



MEANS OF EGRESS 



2. Stairways within vertical exit enclosures complying with 
Sections 1007.3 and 1020. 

3. Exterior exit stairways complying with Sections 1007.3 
and 1023. 

4. Elevators complying with Section 1007.4. 

5. Platform lifts complying with Section 1007.5. 

6. Horizontal exits complying with Section 1021. 

7. Ramps complying with Section 1010. 

8. Areas of refuge complying with Section 1007.6. 
Exceptions: 

1 . Where the exit discharge is not accessible, an exterior 
area for assisted rescue must be provided in accor- 
dance with Section 1007.8. 

2. Where the exit stairway is open to the exterior, the 
accessible means of egress shall include either an area 
of refuge in accordance with Section 1007.6 or an 
exterior area for assisted rescue in accordance with 
Section 1007.8. 

1007.2.1 Elevators required. In buildings where a required 
accessible floor is four or more stories above or below a 
level of exit discharge, at least one required accessible 
means of egress shall be an elevator complying with Section 
1007.4. 

Exceptions: 

1. In buildings equipped throughout with an auto- 
matic sprinkler system installed in accordance 
with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2, the elevator 
shall not be required on floors provided with a hor- 
izontal exit and located at or above the level of exit 
discharge. 

2. In buildings equipped throughout with an auto- 
matic sprinkler system installed in accordance 
with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2, the elevator 
shall not be required on floors provided with a 
ramp conforming to the provisions of Section 
1010. 

11007.3 Exit stairways. In order to be considered part of an 
accessible means of egress, an exit stairway shall have a clear 
width of 48 inches (1219 mm) minimum between handrails 
and shall either incorporate an area of refuge within an 
enlarged floor-level landing or shall be accessed from either an 
area of refuge complying with Section 1007.6 or a horizontal 
exit. 

Exceptions: 

1. Unenclosed exit stairways as permitted by Section 
1020.1 are permitted to be considered part of an 
accessible means of egress. 

12. The area of refuge is not required at unenclosed exit 
stairways as permitted by Section 1020. 1 in buildings 
or facilities that are equipped throughout with an 



automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance I 
with Section 903.3.1.1. H 

3. The clear width of 48 inches (1219 mm) between 
handrails is not required at exit stairways in buildings | 
or facilities equipped throughout with an automatic 
sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 
903.3.1.1 or 903.3. 1.2. 

4. The clear width of 48 inches (1219 mm) between 
handrails is not required for exit stairways accessed I 
from a horizontal exit. 

5 . Areas of refuge are not required at exit stairways serv- 
ing open parking garages. 

1007.4 Elevators. In order to be considered part of an accessi- 
ble means of egress, an elevator shall comply with the emer- 
gency operation and signaling device requirements of Section 
2.27 of ASME A17.1. Standby power shall be provided in 
accordance with Section 604.2.5 of this code and Section 3003 
of the International Building Code. The elevator shall be 
accessed from either an area of refuge complying with Section 
1007.6 or a horizontal exit. 

Exception: Elevators are not required to be accessed from 
an area of refuge or horizontal exit in open parking garages. 

1007.5 Platform lifts. Platform (wheelchair) lifts shall not *" 
serve as part of an accessible means of egress, except where 
allowed as part of a required accessible route in Section 1 109.7, 
Items 1 through 9 of the International Building Code. Standby 
power shall be provided in accordance with Section 604.2.6 
for platform lifts permitted to serve as part of a means of egress. 

1007.5.1 Openness. Platform lifts on an accessible means 
of egress shall not be installed in a fully enclosed or fire- 
rated shaft. 

1007.6 Areas of refuge. Every required area of refuge shall be 
accessible from the space it serves by an accessible means of 
egress. The maximum travel distance from any accessible 
space to an area of refuge shall not exceed the travel distance 
permitted for the occupancy in accordance with Section 
1016.1. Every required area of refuge shall have direct access 
to an enclosed stairway complying with Sections 1007.3 and 
1020.1 or an elevator complying with Section 1007.4. Where 
an elevator lobby is used as an area of refuge, the shaft and 
lobby shall comply with Section 1020.1.7 for smokeproof 
enclosures except where the elevators are in an area of refuge 
formed by a horizontal exit or smoke barrier. 

1007.6.1 Size. Each area of refuge shall be sized to accom- 
modate one wheelchair space of 30 inches by 48 inches (762 
mm by 1 2 1 9 mm) for each 200 occupants or portion thereof, 
based on the occupant load of the area of refuge and areas 
served by the area of refuge. Such wheelchair spaces shall 
not reduce the required means of egress width. Access to 
any of the required wheelchair spaces in an area of refuge 
shall not be obstructed by more than one adjoining wheel- 
chair space. 

1007.6.2 Separation. Each area of refuge shall be separated 
from the remainder of the story by a smoke barrier comply- 



108 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE*^ 



MEANS OF EGRESS 




ing with Section 709 of the International Building Code or a 
horizontal exit complying with Section 1021. Each area of 
refuge shall be designed to minimize the intrusion of smoke. 

Exception: Areas of refuge located within a vertical 
exit enclosure. 

1007.6.3 Two-way communication. Areas of refuge shall 
be provided with a two-way communication system 
between the area of refuge and a central control point. If the 
central control point is not constantly attended, the area of 
refuge shall also have controlled access to a public tele- 
phone system. Location of the central control point shall be 
approved by the fire department. The two-way communica- 
tion system shall include both audible and visible signals. 

1007.6.4 Instructions. In areas of refuge that have a 
two-way emergency communications system, instructions 
on the use of the area under emergency conditions shall be 
posted adjoining the communications system. The instruc- 
tions shall include all of the following: 

1. Directions to find other means of egress. 

2. Persons able to use the exit stairway do so as soon as 
possible, unless they are assisting others. 

3. Information on planned availability of assistance in 
the use of stairs or supervised operation of elevators 
and how to summon such assistance. 

4. Directions for use of the emergency communications 
system. 

1007.6.5 Identification. Each door providing access to an 
area of refuge from an adjacent floor area shall be identified 
by a sign complying with ICC A117.1, stating: AREA OF 
REFUGE, and including the International Symbol of 
Accessibility. Where exit sign illumination is required by 
Section 101 1.2, the area of refuge sign shall be illuminated. 
Additionally, tactile signage complying with ICC A 11 7.1 
shall be located at each door to an area of refuge. 

1007.7 Signage. At exits and elevators serving a required 
accessible space but not providing an approved accessible 
means of egress, signage shall be installed indicating the loca- 
tion of accessible means of egress. 

1007.8 Exterior area for assisted rescue. The exterior area for 
assisted rescue must be open to the outside air and meet the 
requirements of Section 1007.6.1. Separation walls shall com- 
ply with the requirements of Section 704 of the International 
Building Code for exterior walls. Where walls or openings are 
between the area for assisted rescue and the interior of the 
building, the building exterior walls within 10 feet (3048 mm) 
horizontally of a nonrated wall or unprotected opening shall 
have a fire-resistance rating of not less than 1 hour. Openings 
within such exterior walls shall be protected by opening 
protectives having a fire protection rating of not less than ^/^ 
hour. This construction shall extend vertically from the ground 
to a point 10 feet (3048 mm) above the floor level of the area for 
assisted rescue or to the roof line, whichever is lower. 

1007.8.1 Openness. The exterior area for assisted rescue 
shall be at least 50 percent open, and the open area above the 
guards shall be so distributed as to minimize the accumula- 
tion of smoke or toxic gases. 



1007.8.2 Exterior exit stairway. Exterior exit stairways 
that are part of the means of egress for the exterior area for 
assisted rescue shall provide a clear width of 48 inches 
(1219 mm) between handrails. 

1007.8.3 Identification. Exterior areas for assisted rescue 
shall have identification as required for area of refuge that 
complies with Section 1007.6.5. 



[BISECTION 1008 
DOORS, GATES AND TURNSTILES 

1008.1 Doors. Means of egress doors shall meet the require- 
ments of this section. Doors serving a means of egress system 
shall meet the requirements of this section and Section 1017.2. 
Doors provided for egress purposes in numbers greater than 
required by this code shall meet the requirements of this sec- 
tion. 

Means of egress doors shall be readily distinguishable from 
the adjacent construction and finishes such that the doors are 
easily recognizable as doors. Mirrors or similar reflecting 
materials shall not be used on means of egress doors. Means of 
egress doors shall not be concealed by curtains, drapes, decora- 
tions or similar materials. 

1008.1.1 Size of doors. The minimum width of each door 
opening shall be sufficient for the occupant load thereof and 
shall provide a clear width of not less than 32 inches (813 
mm). Clear openings of doorways with swinging doors 
shall be measured between the face of the door and the stop, 
with the door open 90 degrees (1 .57 rad). Where this section 
requires a minimum clear width of 32 inches (813 mm) and 
a door opening includes two door leaves without a mullion, 
one leaf shall provide a clear opening width of 32 inches 
(813 mm). The maximum width of a swinging door leaf 
shall be 48 inches (1219 mm) nominal. Means of egress 
doors in a Group 1-2 occupancy used for the movement of 
beds shall provide a clear width not less than 41.5 inches 
(1054 mm). The height of doors shall not be less than 80 
inches (2032 mm). 

Exceptions: 

1 . The minimum and maximum width shall not apply 
to door openings that are not part of the required 
means of egress in Group R-2 and R-3 occupan- 
cies. 

2. Door openings to resident sleeping units in Group 
1-3 occupancies shall have a clear width of not less 
than 28 inches (711 mm). 

3. Door openings to storage closets less than 10 
square feet (0.93 m^) in area shall not be limited by 
the minimum width. 

4. Width of door leafs in revolving doors that comply 
with Section 1008.1.3.1 shall not be hmited. 

5. Door openings within a dwelling unit or sleeping 
unit shall not be less than 78 inches (1981 mm) in 
height. 

6. Exterior door openings in dwelling units and 
sleeping units, other than the required exit door. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE'' 



109 



MEANS OF EGRESS 



shall not be less than 76 inches (1930 mm) in 
height. 

7. In other than Group R-1 occupancies, the mini- 
mum widths shall not apply to interior egress doors 
within a dwelling unit or sleeping unit that is not 
required to be an Accessible unit, Type A unit or 
Type B unit. 

8. Door openings required to be accessible within 
Type B units shall have a minimum clear width of 
31.75 inches (806 mm). 

1008.1.1.1 Projections into clear width. There shall not 
be projections into the required clear width lower than 34 
inches (864 mm) above the floor or ground. Projections 
into the clear opening width between 34 inches (864 
mm) and 80 inches (2032 mm) above the floor or ground 
shall not exceed 4 inches (102 mm). 

1008.1.2 Door swing. Egress doors shall be side-hinged 
swinging. 

Exceptions: 

1. Private garages, office areas, factory and storage 
areas with an occupant load of 10 or less. 

2. Group 1-3 occupancies used as a place of deten- 
tion. 

3. Critical or intensive care patient rooms within 
suites of health care facilities. 

4. Doors within or serving a single dwelling unit in 
Groups R-2 and R-3. 

5. In other than Group H occupancies, revolving 
doors complying with Section 1008.1.3.1. 

6. In other than Group H occupancies, horizontal 
sliding doors complying with Section 1008.1.3.3 
are permitted in a means of egress. 

7. Power-operated doors in accordance with Section 
1008.1.3.2. 

8. Doors serving a bathroom within an individual 
sleeping unit in Group R-1. 

Doors shall swing in the direction of egress travel where 
serving an occupant load of 50 or more persons or a Group 
H occupancy. 

The opening force for interior side-swinging doors with- 
out closers shall not exceed a 5-pound (22 N) force. For 
other side-swinging, sliding and folding doors, the door 
latch shall release when subjected to a 15-pound (67 N) 
force. The door shall be set in motion when subjected to a 
30-pound (133 N) force. The door shall swing to a full-open 
position when subjected to a 15-pound (67 N) force. Forces 
shall be applied to the latch side. 

1008.1.3 Special doors. Special doors and security grilles 
shall comply with the requirements of Sections 1008.1.3.1 
through 1008.1.3.5. 



1008.1.3.1 Revolving doors. Revolving doors shall 
comply with the following: 

1 . Each revolving door shall be capable of collapsing 
into a bookfold position with parallel egress paths 
providing an aggregate width of 36 inches (914 
mm). 

2. A revolving door shall not be located within 10 
feet (3048 mm) of the foot of or top of stairs or 
escalators. A dispersal area shall be provided 
between the stairs or escalators and the revolving 
doors. 

3. The revolutions per minute (rpm) for a revolving 
door shall not exceed those shown in Table 
1008.1.3.1. 

4. Each revolving door shall have a side-hinged 
swinging door which complies with Section 
1008.1 in the same wall and within 10 feet (3048 
mm) of the revolving door. 

TABLE 1008.1.3.1 
REVOLVING DOOR SPEEDS 



INSIDE DIAMETER 
(feet-inches) 


POWER-DRIVEN-TYPE 

SPEED CONTROL 

(rpm) 


MANUAL-TYPE 

SPEED CONTROL 

(rpm) 


6-6 


11 


12 


7-0 


10 


11 


7-6 


9 


11 


8-0 


9 


10 


8-6 


8 


9 


9-0 


8 


9 


9-6 


7 


8 


10-0 


7 


8 



For Sr. 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 

1008.1.3.1.1 Egress component. A revolving door 
used as a component of a means of egress shall com- 
ply with Section 1008.1.3.1 and the following three 
conditions: 

1. Revolving doors shall not be given credit for 
more than 50 percent of the required egress 
capacity. 

2. Each revolving door shall be credited with no 
more than a 50-person capacity. 

3. Each revolving door shall be capable of being 
collapsed when a force of not more than 130 
pounds (572) is applied within 3 inches (76 
mm) of the outer edge of a wing. 

1008.1.3.1.2 Other than egress component. A 

revolving door used as other than a component of a 
means of egress shall comply with Section 
1008.1.3.1. The collapsing force of a revolving door 



110 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE"" 



MEANS OF EGRESS 



not used as a component of a means of egress shall not 
be more than 180 pounds (801 N). 

Exception: A collapsing force in excess of 180 
pounds (801 N) is permitted if the collapsing force 
is reduced to not more than 130 pounds (572) 
when at least one of the following conditions is sat- 
isfied: 

1 . There is a power failure or power is removed 
to the device holding the door wings in posi- 
tion. 

2. There is an actuation of the automatic sprin- 
kler system where such system is provided. 

3. There is an actuation of a smoke detection 
system which is installed in accordance with 
Section 907 to provide coverage in areas 
within the building which are within 75 feet 
(22 860 mm) of the revolving doors. 

4. There is an actuation of a manual control 
switch, in an approved location and clearly 
defined, which reduces the holding force to 
below the 130-pound (572) force level. 

1008.1.3.2 Power-operated doors. Where means of 
egress doors are operated by power, such as doors with a 
photoelectric-actuated mechanism to open the door upon 
the approach of a person, or doors with power-assisted 
manual operation, the design shall be such that in the 
event of power failure, the door is capable of being 
opened manually to permit means of egress travel or 
closed where necessary to safeguard means of egress. 
The forces required to open these doors manually shall 
not exceed those specified in Section 1008.1.2, except 
that the force to set the door in motion shall not exceed 50 
pounds (220 N). The door shall be capable of swinging 
from any position to the full width of the opening in 
which such door is installed when a force is applied to the 
door on the side from which egress is made. 
Full-power-operated doors shall comply with BHMA 
A156.10. Power-assisted and low-energy doors shall 
comply with BHMA A156.19. 

Exceptions: 

1. Occupancies in Group 1-3. 

2. Horizontal sliding doors complying with Sec- 
tion 1008.1.3.3. 

3. For a biparting door in the emergency breakout 
mode, a door leaf located within a multiple-leaf 
opening shall be exempt from the minimum 
32-inch (813 mm) single-leaf requirement of 
Section 1008. 1 .1, provided a minimum 32-inch 
(813 mm) clear opening is provided when the 
two biparting leaves meeting in the center are 
broken out. 

1008.1.3.3 Horizontal sliding doors. In other than 
Group H occupancies, horizontal sliding doors permitted 
to be a component of a means of egress in accordance 



with Exception 5 to Section 1008.1.2 shall comply with 
all of the following criteria: 

1. The doors shall be power operated and shall be 
capable of being operated manually in the event of 
power failure. 

2. The doors shall be openable by a simple method 
from both sides without special knowledge or 
effort. 

3. The force required to operate the door shall not 
exceed 30 pounds (133 N) to set the door in motion 
and 15 pounds (67 N) to close the door or open it to 
the minimum required width. 

4. The door shall be openable with a force not to 
exceed 15 pounds (67 N) when a force of 250 
pounds (1100 N) is applied perpendicular to the 
door adjacent to the operating device. 

5. The door assembly shall comply with the applica- 
ble fire protection rating and, where rated, shall be 
self-closing or automatic closing by smoke detec- 
tion in accordance with Section 715.4.7.3 of the 
International Building Code, shall be installed in 
accordance with NFPA 80 and shall comply with 
Section 715. 

6. The door assembly shall have an integrated 
standby power supply. 

7. The door assembly power supply shall be electri- 
cally supervised. 

8. The door shall open to the minimum required 
width within 10 seconds after activation of the 
operating device. 

1008.1.3.4 Access-controlled egress doors. The 

entrance doors in a means of egress in buildings with an 
occupancy in Group A, B, E, M, R-1 or R-2 and entrance 
doors to tenant spaces in occupancies in Groups A, B, E, 
M, R-1 and R-2 are permitted to be equipped with an 
approved entrance and egress access control system 
which shall be installed in accordance with all of the fol- 
lowing criteria: 

1. A sensor shall be provided on the egress side 
arranged to detect an occupant approaching the 
doors. The doors shall be arranged to unlock by a 
signal from or loss of power to the sensor. 

2. Loss of power to that part of the access control sys- 
tem which locks the doors shall automatically 
unlock the doors. 

3. The doors shall be arranged to unlock from a man- 
ual unlocking device located 40 inches to 48 
inches (1016 mm to 1 2 1 9 mm) vertically above the 
floor and within 5 feet (1524 mm) of the secured 
doors. Ready access shall be provided to the man- 
ual unlocking device and the device shall be 
clearly identified by a sign that reads "PUSH TO 
EXIT." When operated, the manual unlocking 
device shall result in direct interruption of power 
to the lock — independent of the access control sys- 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE^ 



111 



MEANS OF EGRESS 



tern electronics — and the doors shall remain 
unlocked for a minimum of 30 seconds. 

4. Activation of the building fire alarm system, if 
provided, shall automatically unlock the doors, 
and the doors shall remain unlocked until the fire 
alarm system has been reset. 

5. Activation of the building automatic sprinkler or 
fire detection system, if provided, shall automati- 
cally unlock the doors. The doors shall remain 
unlocked until the fire alarm system has been reset. 

6. Entrance doors in buildings with an occupancy in 
Group A, B, E or M shall not be secured from the 
egress side during periods that the building is open 
to the general public. 

1008.1.3.5 Security grilles. In Groups B, F, M and S, 
horizontal sliding or vertical security grilles are permit- 
ted at the main exit and shall be openable from the inside 
without the use of a key or special knowledge or effort 
during periods that the space is occupied. The grilles 
shall remain secured in the full-open position during the 
period of occupancy by the general public. Where two or 
more means of egress are required, not more than 
one-half of the exits or exit access doorways shall be 
equipped with horizontal sliding or vertical security 
grilles. 

1008.1.4 Floor elevation. There shall be a floor or landing 
on each side of a door. Such floor or landing shall be at the 
same elevation on each side of the door. Landings shall be 
level except for exterior landings, which are permitted to 
have a slope not to exceed 0.25 unit vertical in 12 units hori- 
zontal (2-percent slope). 

Exceptions: 

1 . Doors serving individual dwelling units in Groups 
R-2 and R-3 where the following apply: 

1 .1 . A door is permitted to open at the top step 
of an interior flight of stairs, provided the 
door does not swing over the top step. 

1.2. Screen doors and storm doors are permit- 
ted to swing over stairs or landings. 

2. Exterior doors as provided for in Section 1003.5, 
Exception 1, and Section 1018.2, which are not on 
an accessible route. 

3. In Group R-3 occupancies not required to be 
Accessible units. Type A units or Type B units, the 
landing at an exterior doorway shall not be more 
than 7.75 inches (197 mm) below the top of the 
threshold, provided the door, other than an exterior 
storm or screen door, does not swing over the land- 
ing. 

4. Variations in elevation due to differences in finish 
materials, but not more than 0.5 inch (12.7 mm). 

5. Exterior decks, patios or balconies that are part of 
Type B dwelling units, have impervious surfaces 
and that are not more than 4 inches (102 mm) 



below the finished floor level of the adjacent inte- 
rior space of the dwelling unit. 

1008.1.5 Landings at doors. Landings shall have a width 
not less than the width of the stairway or the door, whichever 
is greater. Doors in the fully open position shall not reduce a 
required dimension by more than 7 inches (178 mm). When 
a landing serves an occupant load of 50 or more, doors in 
any position shall not reduce the landing to less than 
one-half its required width. Landings shall have a length 
measured in the direction of travel of not less than 44 inches 
(1118 mm). 

Exception: Landing length in the direction of travel in 
Groups R-3 and U and within individual units of Group 
R-2 need not exceed 36 inches (914 mm). 

1008.1.6 Thresholds. Thresholds at doorways shall not 
exceed 0.75 inch (19. 1 mm) in height for sliding doors serv- 
ing dwelling units or 0.5 inch (12.7 mm) for other doors. 
Raised thresholds and floor level changes greater than 0.25 
inch (6.4 mm) at doorways shall be beveled with a slope not 
greater than one unit vertical in two units horizontal 
(50-percent slope). 

Exception: The threshold height shall be limited to 7.75 
inches (197 mm) where the occupancy is Group R-2 or 
R-3; the door is an exterior door that is not a component 
of the required means of egress; the door, other than an 
exterior storm or screen door does not swing over the 
landing or step; and the doorway is not on an accessible 
route as required by Chapter 11 of the International 
Building Code and is not part of an Accessible unit. Type 
A unit or Type B unit. 

1008.1.7 Door arrangement. Space between two doors in a 
series shall be 48 inches (1219 mm) minimum plus the 
width of a door swinging into the space. Doors in a series 
shall swing either in the same direction or away from the 
space between the doors. 

Exceptions: 

1 . The minimum distance between horizontal sliding 
power-operated doors in a series shall be 48 inches 
(1219 mm). 

2. Storm and screen doors serving individual dwell- 
ing units in Groups R-2 and R-3 need not be spaced 
48 inches (1219 mm) from the other door. 

3. Doors within individual dwelling units in Groups 
R-2 and R-3 other than within Type A dwelling 
units. 

1008.1.8 Door operations. Except as specifically permitted 
by this section egress doors shall be readily openable from 
the egress side without the use of a key or special knowledge 
or effort. 

1008.1.8.1 Hardware. Door handles, pulls, latches, 
locks and other operating devices on doors required to be 
accessible by Chapter 1 1 of the International Building 
Code shall not require tight grasping, tight pinching or 
twisting of the wrist to operate. 



112 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE*" 



MEANS OF EGRESS 



1008.1.8.2 Hardware height. Door handles, pulls, 
latches, locks and other operating devices shall be 
installed 34 inches (864 mm) minimum and 48 inches 
(1219 mm) maximum above the finished floor. Locks 
used only for security purposes and not used for normal 
operation are permitted at any height. 

Exception: Access doors or gates in barrier walls and 
fences protecting pools, spas and hot tubs shall be per- 
mitted to have operable parts of the release of latch on 
self-latching devices at 54 inches (1370 mm) maxi- 
mum above the finished floor or ground, provided the 
self-latching devices are not also self-locking devices 
operated by means of a key, electronic opener or inte- 
gral combination lock. 

1008.1.8.3 Locks and latches. Locks and latches shall 
be permitted to prevent operation of doors where any of 
the following exists: 

1 . Places of detention or restraint. 

2. In buildings in occupancy Group A having an 
occupant load of 300 or less. Groups B, F, M and S, 
and in places of religious worship, the main exte- 
rior door or doors are permitted to be equipped 
with key-operated locking devices from the egress 
side provided: 

2.1. The locking device is readily distinguish- 
able as locked, 

2.2. A readily visible durable sign is posted on 
the egress side on or adjacent to the door 
stating: THIS DOOR TO REMAIN 
UNLOCKED WHEN BUILDING IS 
OCCUPIED. The sign shall be in letters 1 
inch (25 mm) high on a contrasting back- 
ground, 

2.3. The use of the key-operated locking device 
is revokable by the fire code official for 
due cause. 

3. Where egress doors are used in pairs, approved 
automatic flush bolts shall be permitted to be used, 
provided that the door leaf having the automatic 
flush bolts has no doorknob or surface-mounted 
hardware. 

4. Doors from individual dwelling or sleeping units 
of Group R occupancies having an occupant load 
of 10 or less are permitted to be equipped with a 
night latch, dead bolt or security chain, provided 
such devices are openable from the inside without 
the use of a key or tool. 

1008.1.8.4 Bolt locks. Manually operated flush bolts or 
surface bolts are not permitted. 

Exceptions: 

1 . On doors not required for egress in individual 
dwelling units or sleeping units. 



2. Where a pair of doors serves a storage or equip- 
ment room, manually operated edge- or sur- 
face-mounted bolts are permitted on the 
inactive leaf. 

1008.1.8.5 Unlatching. The unlatching of any door or I 
leaf shall not require more than one operation. I 

Exceptions: 

1 . Places of detention or restraint. 

2. Where manually operated bolt locks are permit- 
ted by Section 1008.1.8.4. 

3. Doors with automatic flush bolts as permitted 
by Section 1008.1.8.3, Exception 3. 

4. Doors from individual dwelling units and 
sleeping units of Group R occupancies as per- 
mitted by Section 1008.1.8.3, Exception 4. 

1008.1.8.6 Delayed egress locks. Approved, listed, 
delayed egress locks shall be permitted to be installed on 
doors serving any occupancy except Group A, E and H 
occupancies in buildings that are equipped throughout 
with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with 
Section 903.3.1.1 or an approved automatic smoke or 
heat detection system installed in accordance with Sec- 
tion 907, provided that the doors unlock in accordance 
with Items 1 through 6 below. A building occupant shall 
not be required to pass through more than one door 
equipped with a delayed egress lock before entering an 
exit. 

1. The doors unlock upon actuation of the automatic 
sprinkler system or automatic fire detection sys- 
tem. 

2. The doors unlock upon loss of power controlling 
the lock or lock mechanism. 

3. The door locks shall have the capability of being 
unlocked by a signal from the fire command cen- 
ter. 

4. The initiation of an irreversible process which will 
release the latch in not more than 15 seconds when 
a force of not more than 15 pounds (67 N) is 
applied for 1 second to the release device. Initia- 
tion of the irreversible process shall activate an 
audible signal in the vicinity of the door. Once the 
door lock has been released by the application of 
force to the releasing device, relocking shall be by 
manual means only. 

Exception: Where approved, a delay of not 
more than 30 seconds is permitted. 

5. A sign shall be provided on the door located above 
and within 12 inches (305 mm) of the release 
device reading: PUSH UNTIL ALARM 
SOUNDS. DOOR CAN BE OPENED IN 15 [30] 
SECONDS. 

6. Emergency lighting shall be provided at the door. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE*^ 



113 



MEANS OF EGRESS 



1008.1.8.7 Stairway doors. Interior stairway means of 
egress doors shall be openable from both sides without 
the use of a key or special knowledge or effort. 

Exceptions: 

1. Stairway discharge doors shall be openable 
from the egress side and shall only be locked 
from the opposite side. 

2. This section shall not apply to doors arranged in 
accordance with Section 403. 12 of the Interna- 
tional Building Code. 

3. In stairways serving not more than four stories, 
doors are permitted to be locked from the side 
opposite the egress side, provided they are 
openable from the egress side and capable of 
being unlocked simultaneously without 
unlatching upon a signal from the fire com- 
mand center, if present, or a signal by emer- 
gency personnel from a single location inside 
the main entrance to the building. 

1008.1.9 Panic and fire exit hardware. Where panic and 
fire exit hardware is installed, it shall comply with the fol- 
lowing: 

1. The actuating portion of the releasing device shall 
extend at least one-half of the door leaf width. 

2. The maximum unlatching force shall not exceed 15 
pounds (67 N). 

Each door in a means of egress from a Group A or E occu- 
pancy having an occupant load of 50 or more and any Group 
H occupancy shall not be provided with a latch or lock 
unless it is panic hardware or fire exit hardware. 

Exception: A main exit of a Group A occupancy in com- 
phance with Section 1008.1.8.3, Item 2. 

Electrical rooms with equipment rated 1,200 amperes or 
more and over 6 feet (1829 mm) wide that contain 
overcurrent devices, switching devices or control devices 
with exit access doors must be equipped with panic hard- 
ware and doors must swing in the direction of egress. 

If balanced doors are used and panic hardware is 
required, the panic hardware shall be the push-pad type and 
the pad shall not extend more then one-half the width of the 
door measured from the latch side. 

1008.2 Gates. Gates serving the means of egress system shall 
comply with the requirements of this section. Gates used as a 
component in a means of egress shall conform to the applicable 
requirements for doors. 

Exception: Horizontal sliding or swinging gates exceeding 
the 4-foot (1219 mm) maximum leaf width limitation are 
permitted in fences and walls surrounding a stadium. 

1008.2.1 Stadiums. Panic hardware is not required on gates 
surrounding stadiums where such gates are under constant 
immediate supervision while the public is present, and 
where safe dispersal areas based on 3 square feet (0.28 m^) 
per occupant are located between the fence and enclosed 
space. Such required safe dispersal areas shall not be 
located less than 50 feet (15 240 mm) from the enclosed 



space. See Section 1024.6 for means of egress from safe dis- 
persal areas. 

1008.3 l\irnstiles. Turnstiles or similar devices that restrict 
travel to one direction shall not be placed so as to obstruct any 
required means of egress. 

Exception: Each turnstile or similar device shall be credited 
with no more than a 50-person capacity where all of the fol- 
lowing provisions are met: 

1. Each device shall turn free in the direction of egress 
travel when primary power is lost, and upon the man- 
ual release by an employee in the area. 

2. Such devices are not given credit for more than 50 
percent of the required egress capacity. 

3. Each device is not more than 39 inches (991 mm) 
high. 

4. Each device has at least 16.5 inches (419 mm) clear 
width at and below a height of 39 inches (991 mm) 
and at least 22 inches (559 mm) clear width at heights 
above 39 inches (991 mm). 

Where located as part of an accessible route, turnstiles shall 
have at least 36 inches (914 mm) clear at and below a height of 
34 inches (864 mm), at least 32 inches (813 mm) clear width 
between 34 inches (864 mm) and 80 inches (2032 mm) and 
shall consist of a mechanism other than a revolving device. 

1008.3.1 High turnstile. Turnstiles more than 39 inches 
(991 mm) high shall meet the requirements for revolving 
doors. 

1008.3.2 Additional door. Where serving an occupant load 
greater than 300, each turnstile that is not portable shall have 
a side-hinged swinging door which conforms to Section 
1008.1 within 50 feet (15 240 mm). 



[BISECTION 1009 
STAIRWAYS 

1009.1 Stairway width. The width of stairways shall be deter- 
mined as specified in Section 1005.1, but such width shall not 
be less than 44 inches (1118 mm). See Section 1007.3 for 
accessible means of egress stairways. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Stairways serving an occupant load of less than 50 
shall have a width of not less than 36 inches (914 
ram). 

2. Spiral stairways as provided for in Section 1009.8. 

3. Aisle stairs complying with Section 1025. 

4. Where an incline platform lift or stairway chairlift is 
installed on stairways serving occupancies in Group 
R-3, or within dwelling units in occupancies in Group 
R-2, a clear passage width not less than 20 inches (508 
mm) shall be provided. If the seat and platform can be 
folded when not in use, the distance shall be measured 
from the folded position. 

1009.2 Headroom. Stairways shall have a minimum head- 
room clearance of 80 inches (2032 mm) measured vertically 



114 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE^ 



MEANS OF EGRESS 



1 



from a line connecting the edge of the nosings. Such headroom 
shall be continuous above the stairway to the point where the 
line intersects the landing below, one tread depth beyond the 
bottom riser. The minimum clearance shall be maintained the 
full width of the stairway and landing. 

Exception: Spiral stairways complying with Section 
1009.8 are permitted a 78-inch (1981 mm) headroom clear- 
ance. 

1009.3 Stair treads and risers. Stair riser heights shall be 7 
inches (178 mm) maximum and 4 inches (102 mm) minimum. 
Stair tread depths shall be 1 1 inches (279 mm) minimum. The 
riser height shall be measured vertically between the leading 
edges of adjacent treads. The tread depth shall be measured 
horizontally between the vertical planes of the foremost projec- 
tion of adjacent treads and at a right angle to the tread's leading 
edge. Winder treads shall have a minimum tread depth of 1 1 
inches (279 nun) measured at a right angle to the tread's lead- 
ing edge at a point 12 inches (305 mm) from the side where the 
treads are narrower and a minimum tread depth of 10 inches 
(254 mm). 

Exceptions: 

1 . Alternating tread devices in accordance with Section 
1009.9. 

2. Spiral stairways in accordance with Section 1009.8. 

3. Aisle stairs in assembly seating areas where the stair 
pitch or slope is set, for sightline reasons, by the slope 
of the adjacent seating area in accordance with Sec- 
tion 1025.11.2. 

4. In Group R-3 occupancies; within dwelling units in 
Group R-2 occupancies; and in Group U occupancies 
that are accessory to a Group R-3 occupancy or acces- 
sory to individual dwelling units in Group R-2 occu- 
pancies; the maximum riser height shall be 7.75 
inches (197 mm); the minimum tread depth shall be 
10 inches (254 mm); the minimum winder tread depth 
at the walk line shall be 10 inches (254 mm); and the 
minimum winder tread depth shall be 6 inches (152 
mm). A nosing not less than 0.75 inch (19.1 mm) but 
not more than 1 .25 inches (32 mm) shall be provided 
on stairways with solid risers where the tread depth is 
less than 11 inches (279 mm). 

5. See Section 1027.10 for the replacement of existing 
stairways. 

1009.3.1 Winder treads. Winder treads are not permitted in 
means of egress stairways except within a dwelling unit. 

Exceptions: 

1. Curved stairways in accordance with Section 
1009.7. 

2. Spiral stairways in accordance with Section 
1009.8. 

1009.3.2 Dimensional uniformity. Stair treads and risers 
shall be of uniform size and shape. The tolerance between 
the largest and smallest riser height or between the largest 
and smallest tread depth shall not exceed 0.375 inch (9.5 
mm) in any flight of stairs. The greatest winder tread depth 



at the 12-inch (305 mm) walk line within any flight of stairs 
shall not exceed the smallest by more than 0.375 inch (9.5 
mm) measured at a right angle to the tread's leading edge. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Nonuniform riser dimensions of aisle stairs com- 
plying with Section 1025.11.2. 

2. Consistently shaped winders, complying with 
Section 1009.3, differing from rectangular treads 
in the same stairway flight. 

Where the bottom or top riser adjoins a sloping public 
way, walkway or driveway having an established grade and 
serving as a landing, the bottom or top riser is permitted to 
be reduced along the slope to less than 4 inches (102 mm) in 
height, with the variation in height of the bottom or top riser 
not to exceed one unit vertical in 12 units horizontal 
(8-percent slope) of stairway width. The nosings or leading 
edges of treads at such nonuniform height risers shall have a 
distinctive marking stripe, different from any other nosing 
marking provided on the stair flight. The distinctive mark- 
ing stripe shall be visible in descent of the stair and shall 
have a slip-resistant surface. Marking stripes shall have a 
width of at least 1 inch (25 mm) but not more than 2 inches 
(51 mm). 

1009.3.3 Profile. The radius of curvature at the leading edge 
of the tread shall be not greater than 0.5 inch (12.7 mm). 
Beveling of nosings shall not exceed 0.5 inch (12.7 mm). 
Risers shall be solid and vertical or sloped from the under- 
side of the leading edge of the tread above at an angle not 
more than 30 degrees (0.52 rad) from the vertical. The lead- 
ing edge (nosings) of treads shall project not more than 1 .25 
inches (32 mm) beyond the tread below and all projections 
of the leading edges shall be of uniform size, including the 
leading edge of the floor at the top of a flight. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Solid risers are not required for stairways that are 
not required to comply with Section 1007.3, pro- 
vided that the opening between treads does not 
permit the passage of a sphere with a diameter of 4 
inches (102 mm). 

2. Solid risers are not required for occupancies in 
Group 1-3. 

1009.4 Stairway landings. There shall be a floor or landing at 
the top and bottom of each stairway. The width of landings 
shall not be less than the width of stairways they serve. Every 
landing shall have a minimum dimension measured in the 
direction of travel equal to the width of the stairway. Such 
dimension need not exceed 48 inches (1219 mm) where the 
stairway has a straight run. 

Exceptions: 

1. Aisle stairs complying with Section 1025. 

2. Doors opening onto a landing shall not reduce the 
landing to less than one-half the required width. 
When fully open, the door shall not project more than 
7 inches (178 mm) into a landing. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE<^ 



115 



MEANS OF EGRESS 



1009.5 Stairway construction. All stairways shall be built of 
materials consistent with the types permitted for the type of 
construction of the building, except that wood handrails shall 
be permitted for all types of construction. 

1009.5.1 Stairway walking surface. The walking surface 
of treads and landings of a stairway shall not be sloped 
steeper than one unit vertical in 48 units horizontal (2-per- 
cent slope) in any direction. Stairway treads and landings 
shall have a solid surface. Finish floor surfaces shall be 
securely attached. 

Exception: In Group F, H and S occupancies, other than 
areas of parking structures accessible to the public, open- 
ings in treads and landings shall not be prohibited pro- 
vided a sphere with a diameter of 1.125 inches (29 mm) 
cannot pass through the opening. 

1009.5.2 Outdoor conditions. Outdoor stairways and out- 
door approaches to stairways shall be designed so that water 
will not accumulate on walking surfaces. 

1009.5.3 Enclosures under stairways. The walls and soffits 
within enclosed usable spaces under enclosed and unen- 
closed stairways shall be protected by 1-hour fire-resis- 
tance-rated construction or the fire-resistance rating of the 
stairway enclosure, whichever is greater. Access to the 
enclosed space shall not be directly from within the stair 
enclosure. 

Exception: Spaces under stairways serving and con- 
tained within a single residential dwelling unit in Group 
R-2 or R-3 shall be permitted to be protected on the 
enclosed side with 0.5-inch (12.7 mm) gypsum board. 

There shall be no enclosed usable space under exterior 
exit stairways unless the space is completely enclosed in 
1-hour fire-resistance-rated construction. The open space 
under exterior stairways shall not be used for any purpose. 

1009.6 Vertical rise. A flight of stairs shall not have a vertical 
rise greater than 12 feet (3658 mm) between floor levels or 
landings. 

Exception: Aisle stairs complying with Section 1025. 

1009.7 Curved stairways. Curved stairways with winder 
treads shall have treads and risers in accordance with Section 
1009.3 and the smallest radius shall not be less than twice the 
required width of the stairway. 

Exception: The radius restriction shall not apply to curved 
stairways for occupancies in Group R-3 and within individ- 
ual dwelling units in occupancies in Group R-2. 

1009.8 Spiral stairways. Spiral stairways are permitted to be 
used as a component in the means of egress only within dwell- 
ing units or from a space not more than 250 square feet (23 m^) 
in area and serving not more than five occupants, or from gal- 
leries, catwalks and gridirons in accordance with Section 
1015.6. 

A spiral stairway shall have a 7.5 inch (191 mm) minimum 
clear tread depth at a point 12 inches (305 mm) from the narrow 
edge. The risers shall be sufficient to provide a headroom of 78 
inches (1981 mm) minimum, but riser height shall not be more 



than 9.5 inches (241 mm). The minimum stairway width shall 
be 26 inches (660 mm). 

1009.9 Alternating tread devices. Alternating tread devices 
are limited to an element of a means of egress in buildings of 
Groups F, H and S from a mezzanine not more than 250 square 
feet (23 m^) in area and which serves not more than five occu- 
pants; in buildings of Group 1-3 from a guard tower, observa- 
tion station or control room not more than 250 square feet (23 
m^) in area and for access to unoccupied roofs. 

1009.9.1 Handrails of alternating tread devices. Hand- 
rails shall be provided on both sides of alternating tread 
devices and shall comply with Section 1012. 

1009.9.2 Treads of alternating tread devices. Alternating 
tread devices shall have a minimum projected tread of 5 
inches (127 mm), a minimum tread depth of 8.5 inches (216 
mm), a minimum tread width of 7 inches (178 mm) and a 
maximum riser height of 9.5 inches (241 mm). The initial 
tread of the device shall begin at the same elevation as the 
platform, landing or floor surface. 

Exception: Alternating tread devices used as an element 
of a means of egress in buildings from a mezzanine area 
not more than 250 square feet (23 m^) in area which 
serves not more than five occupants shall have a mini- 
mum projected tread of 8.5 inches (216 mm) with a mini- 
mum tread depth of 10.5 inches (267 mm). The rise to the 
next alternating tread surface should not be more than 8 
inches (203 mm). 

1009.10 Handrails. Stairways shall have handrails on each 
side and shall comply with Section 1012. Where glass is used 
to provide the handrail, the handrail shall also comply with 
Section 2407 of the International Building Code. 

Exceptions: 

1. Aisle stairs complying with Section 1025 provided 
with a center handrail need not have additional hand- 
rails. 

2. Stairways within dwelling units, spiral stairways and 
aisle stairs serving seating only on one side are per- 
mitted to have a handrail on one side only. 

3 . Decks, patios and walkways that have a single change 
in elevation where the landing depth on each side of 
the change of elevation is greater than what is 
required for a landing do not require handrails. 

4. In Group R-3 occupancies, a change in elevation con- 
sisting of a single riser at an entrance or egress door 
does not require handrails. 

5. Changes in room elevations of only one riser within 
dwelling units and sleeping units in Group R-2 and 
R-3 occupancies do not require handrails. 

1009.11 Stairway to roof. In buildings located four or more 
stories in height above grade plane, one stairway shall extend to I 
the roof surface, unless the roof has a slope steeper than four 
units vertical in 12 units horizontal (3 3 -percent slope). In 
buildings without an occupied roof, access to the roof from the 
top story shall be permitted to be by an alternating tread device. 



116 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE*" 



MEANS OF EGRESS 



1009.11.1 Roof access. Where a stairway is provided to a 
roof, access to the roof shall be provided through a pent- 
house complying with Section 1509.2 of the International 
Building Code. 

Exception: In buildings without an occupied roof, 
access to the roof shall be permitted to be a roof hatch or 
trap door not less than 16 square feet (1 .5 m^) in area and 
having a minimum dimension of 2 feet (610 mm). 

1009.11.2 Protection at roof hatch openings. Where the 
roof hatch opening providing the required access is located 
within 10 feet (3049 mm) of the roof edge, such roof access 
or roof edge shall be protected by guards installed in accor- 
dance with the provisions of Section 1013. 



[BISECTION 1010 
RAMPS 

1010.1 Scope. The provisions of this section shall apply to 
ramps used as a component of a means of egress. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Other than ramps that are part of the accessible routes 
providing access in accordance with Sections 1 108.2 
through 1108.2.3 and 1108.2.5 of the International 
Building Code, ramped aisles within assembly rooms 
or spaces shall conform with the provisions in Section 
1025.11. 

2. Curb ramps shall comply with ICC Al 17.1. 

3. Vehicle ramps in parking garages for pedestrian exit 
access shall not be required to comply with Sections 
1010.3 through 1010.9 when they are not an accessi- 
ble route serving accessible parking spaces, other 
required accessible elements or part of an accessible 
means of egress. 

1010.2 Slope. Ramps used as part of a means of egress shall 
have a running slope not steeper than one unit vertical in 12 
units horizontal (8-percent slope). The slope of other pedes- 
trian ramps shall not be steeper than one unit vertical in eight 
units horizontal (12.5-percent slope). 

Exception: An aisle ramp slope in occupancies of Group A 
shall comply with Section 1025.11. 

1010.3 Cross slope. The slope measured perpendicular to the 
direction of travel of a ramp shall not be steeper than one unit 
vertical in 48 units horizontal (2-percent slope). 

1010.4 Vertical rise. The rise for any ramp run shall be 30 
inches (762 mm) maximum. 

1010.5 Minimum dimensions. The minimum dimensions of 
means of egress ramps shall comply with Sections 1010.5.1 
through 1010.5.3. 

1010.5.1 Width. The minimum width of a means of egress 
ramp shall not be less than that required for corridors by 
Section 1017.2. The clear width of a ramp and the clear 
width between handrails, if provided, shall be 36 inches 
(914 mm) minimum. 



1010.5.2 Headroom. The minimum headroom in all parts 
of the means of egress ramp shall not be less than 80 inches 
(2032 mm). 

1010.5.3 Restrictions. Means of egress ramps shall not 
reduce in width in the direction of egress travel. Projections 
into the required ramp and landing width are prohibited. 
Doors opening onto a landing shall not reduce the clear 
width to less than 42 inches (1067 mm). 

1010.6 Landings. Ramps shall have landings at the bottom and 
top of each ramp, points of turning, entrance, exits and at doors. 
Landings shall comply with Sections 1010.6.1 through 
1010.6.5. 

1010.6.1 Slope. Landings shall have a slope not steeper than 
one unit vertical in 48 units horizontal (2-percent slope) in 
any direction. Changes in level are not permitted. 

1010.6.2 Width. The landing shall be at least as wide as the 
widest ramp run adjoining the landing. 

1010.6.3 Length. The landing length shall be 60 inches 
(1525 mm) minimum. 

Exceptions: 

1. Landings in nonaccessible Group R-2 and R-3 
individual dwelling units are permitted to be 36 
inches (914 mm) minimum. 

2. Where the ramp is not a part of an accessible route, 
the length of the landing shall not be required to be 
more than 48 inches (1220 mm) in the direction of 
travel. 

1010.6.4 Change in direction. Where changes in direction 
of travel occur at landings provided between ramp runs, the 
landing shall be 60 inches by 60 inches (1524 mm by 1524 
mm) minimum. 

Exception: Landings in nonaccessible Group R-2 and 
R-3 individual dwelling units are permitted to be 36 
inches by 36 inches (914 mm by 914 mm) minimum. 

1010.6.5 Doorways. Where doorways are located adjacent 
to a ramp landing, maneuvering clearances required by ICC 
Al 17.1 are permitted to overlap the required landing area. 

1010.7 Ramp construction. All ramps shall be built of materi- 
als consistent with the types permitted for the type of construc- 
tion of the building, except that wood handrails shall be 
permitted for all types of construction. Ramps used as an exit 
shall conform to the applicable requirements of Sections 
1020.1 through 1020.1.3 for exit enclosures. 

1010.7.1 Ramp surface. The surface of ramps shall be of 
slip-resistant materials that are securely attached. 

1010.7.2 Outdoor conditions. Outdoor ramps and outdoor 
approaches to ramps shall be designed so that water will not 
accumulate on walking surfaces. 

1010.8 Handrails. Ramps with a rise greater than 6 inches 
(152 mm) shall have handrails on both sides. Handrails shall 
comply with Section 1012. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE^ 



117 



MEANS OF EGRESS 



1010.9 Edge protection. Edge protection complying with Sec- 
tions 1010.9.1 or 1010.9.2 shall be provided on each side of 
ramp runs and at each side of ramp landings. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Edge protection is not required on ramps that are not 
required to have handrails, provided they have flared 
sides that comply with the ICC A117.1 curb ramp 
provisions. 

2. Edge protection is not required on the sides of ramp 
landings serving an adjoining ramp run or stairway. 

3. Edge protection is not required on the sides of ramp 
landings having a vertical dropoff of not more than 
0.5 inch (12.7 mm) within 10 inches (254 mm) hori- 
zontally of the required landing area. 

1010.9.1 Curb, rail, wall or barrier. A curb, rail, wall or 
barrier shall be provided that prevents the passage of a 
4-inch-diameter (102 mm) sphere, where any portion of the 
sphere is within 4 inches (102 mm) of the floor or ground 
surface. 

1010.9.2 Extended floor or ground surface. The floor or 
ground surface of the ramp run or landing shall extend 12 
inches (305 mm) minimum beyond the inside face of a 
handrail complying with Section 1012. 

1010.10 Guards. Guards shall be provided where required by 
Section 1013 and shall be constructed in accordance with Sec- 
tion 1013. 



[BISECTION 1011 
EXIT SIGNS 

1011.1 Where required. Exits and exit access doors shall be 
marked by an approved exit sign readily visible from any direc- 
tion of egress travel. Access to exits shall be marked by readily 
visible exit signs in cases where the exit or the path of egress 
travel is not immediately visible to the occupants. Exit sign 
placement shall be such that no point in a corridor is more than 
100 feet (30 480 mm) or the listed viewing distance for the sign, 
whichever is less, from the nearest visible exit sign. 

Exceptions: 

1. Exit signs are not required in rooms or areas that 
require only one exit or exit access. 

2. Main exterior exit doors or gates that are obviously 
and clearly identifiable as exits need not have exit 
signs where approved by the fire code official. 

3. Exit signs are not required in occupancies in Group U 
and individual sleeping units or dwelling units in 
Group R-l,R-2 or R-3. 

4. Exit signs are not required in sleeping areas in occu- 
pancies in Group 1-3. 

5. In occupancies in Groups A-4 and A-5, exit signs are 
not required on the seating side of vomitories or open- 
ings into seating areas where exit signs are provided 
in the concourse that are readily apparent from the 
vomitories. Egress lighting is provided to identify 



each vomitory or opening within the seating area in an 
emergency. 

1011.2 Illumination. Exit signs shall be internally or exter- 
nally illuminated. 

Exception: Tactile signs required by Section 1011.3 need 
not be provided with illumination. 

1011.3 Tactile exit signs. A tactile sign stating EXIT and com- 
plying with ICC A117.1 shall be provided adjacent to each 
door to an egress stairway, an exit passageway and the exit dis- 
charge. 

1011.4 Internally illuminated exit signs. Internally illumi- 
nated exit signs shall be listed and labeled and shall be installed 
in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions and Section 
2702 of the International Building Code. Exit signs shall be 
illuminated at all times. 

1011.5 Externally illuminated exit signs. Externally illumi- 
nated exit signs shall comply with Sections 1011.5.1 through 
1011.5.3. 

1011.5.1 Graphics. Every exit sign and directional exit sign 
shall have plainly legible letters not less than 6 inches (152 
mm) high with the principal strokes of the letters not less 
than 0.75 inch (19.1 mm) wide. The word "EXIT" shall 
have letters having a width not less than 2 inches (5 1 mm) 
wide, except the letter "I," and the minimum spacing 
between letters shall not be less than 0.375 inch (9.5 mm). 
Signs larger than the minimum established in this section 
shall have letter widths, strokes and spacing in proportion to 
their height. 

The word "EXIT" shall be in high contrast with the back- 
ground and shall be clearly discernible when the means of 
exit sign illumination is or is not energized. If a chevron 
directional indicator is provided as part of the exit sign, the 
construction shall be such that the direction of the chevron 
directional indicator cannot be readily changed. 

1011.5.2 Exit sign illumination. The face of an exit sign 
illuminated from an external source shall have an intensity 
of not less than 5 foot-candles (54 lux). 

1011.5.3 Power source. Exit signs shall be illuminated at 
all times. To ensure continued illumination for a duration of 
not less than 90 minutes in case of primary power loss, the 
sign illumination means shall be connected to an emergency 
power system provided from storage batteries, unit equip- 
ment or an on-site generator. The installation of the emer- 
gency power system shall be in accordance with Section 
2702 of the International Building Code. 

Exception: Approved exit sign illumination means that 
provide continuous illumination independent of external 
power sources for a duration of not less than 90 minutes, 
in case of primary power loss, are not required to be con- 
nected to an emergency electrical system. 



[BISECTION 1012 
HANDRAILS 

1012.1 Where required. Handrails for stairways and ramps 
shall be adequate in strength and attachment in accordance 



r 



118 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE** 



MEANS OF EGRESS 



with Section 1607.7 of the International Building Code. Hand- 
rails required for stairways by Section 1009.10 shall comply 
with Sections 1012.2 through 1012.8. Handrails required for 
ramps by Section 1010.8 shall comply with Sections 1012.2 
through 1012.7. 

1012.2 Height. Handrail height, measured above stair tread 
nosings, or finish surface of ramp slope shall be uniform, not 
less than 34 inches (864 mm) and not more than 38 inches (965 
mm). 

I 1012.3 Handrail graspability. Handrails with a circular 
cross-section shall have an outside diameter of at least 1 .25 
inches (32 mm) and not greater than 2 inches (51 mm) or shall 
provide equivalent graspability. If the handrail is not circular, it 
shall have a perimeter dimension of at least 4 inches (102 mm) 
and not greater than 6.25 inches (160 mm) with a maximum 
cross-section dimension of 2.25 inches (57 mm). Edges shall 
have a minimum radius of 0.01 inch (0.25 mm). 

I 1012.4 Continuity. Handrail-gripping surfaces shall be con- 
tinuous, without interruption by newel posts or other obstruc- 
tions. 

Exceptions: 

1. Handrails within dwelling units are permitted to be 
interrupted by a newel post at a stair landing. 

2. Within a dwelling unit, the use of a volute, turnout or 
starting easing is allowed on the lowest tread. 

3. Handrail brackets or balusters attached to the bottom 
surface of the handrail that do not project horizontally 
beyond the sides of the handrail within 1.5 inches (38 
mm) of the bottom of the handrail shall not be consid- 
ered obstructions. For each 0.5 inch (12.7 mm) of 
additional handrail perimeter dimension above 4 
inches (102 mm), the vertical clearance dimension of 
1.5 inches (38 mm) shall be permitted to be reduced 
by 0.125 inch (3 mm). 

1012.5 Handrail extensions. Handrails shall return to a wall, 
guard or the walking surface or shall be continuous to the hand- 
rail of an adjacent stair flight or ramp run. At stairways where 
handrails are not continuous between flights, the handrails 
shall extend horizontally at least 12 inches (305 mm) beyond 
the top riser and continue to slope for the depth of one tread 
beyond the bottom riser. At ramps where handrails are not con- 
tinuous between runs, the handrail shall extend horizontally 
above the landing 12 inches (305 mm) minimum beyond the 
top and bottom ramps. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Handrails within a dwelling unit that is not required to 
be accessible need extend only from the top riser to 
the bottom riser. 

2. Aisle handrails in Group A occupancies in accor- 
dance with Section 1025.13. 

1012.6 Clearance. Clear space between a handrail and a wall 
or other surface shall be a minimum of 1.5 inches (38 mm). A 
handrail and a wall or other surface adjacent to the handrail 
shall be free of any sharp or abrasive elements. 



1012.7 Projections. On ramps, the clear width between hand- 
rails shall be 36 inches (914 mm) minimum. Projections into 
the required width of stairways and ramps at each handrail shall 
not exceed 4.5 inches (114 mm) at or below the handrail height. 
Projections into the required width shall not be limited above 
the minimum headroom height required in Section 1009.2. 

1012.8 Intermediate handrails. Stairways shall have 
intermediate handrails located in such a manner so that all por- 
tions of the stairway width required for egress capacity are 
within 30 inches (762 mm) of a handrail. On monumental 
stairs, handrails shall be located along the most direct path of 
egress travel. 



[BISECTION 1013 
GUARDS 

1013.1 Where required. Guards shall be located along 
open-sided walking surfaces, mezzanines, industrial equip- 
ment platforms, stairways, ramps and landings that are located 
more than 30 inches (762 mm) above the floor or grade below. 
Guards shall be adequate in strength and attachment in accor- 
dance with Section 1607.7 of the International Building Code. I 
Where glass is used to provide a guard or as a portion of the I 
guard system, the guard shall also comply with Section 2407 of I 
the International Building Code. Guards shall also be located 
along glazed sides of stairways, ramps and landings that are 
located more than 30 inches (762 mm) above the floor or grade 
below where the glazing provided does not meet the strength 
and attachment requirements in Section 1607.7 of the Interna- 
tional Building Code. 

Exception: Guards are not required for the following loca- 
tions: 

1. On the loading side of loading docks or piers. 

2. On the audience side of stages and raised platforms, 
including steps leading up to the stage and raised plat- 
forms. 

3. On raised stage and platform floor areas, such as run- 
ways, ramps and side stages used for entertainment or 
presentations. 

4. At vertical openings in the performance area of stages 
and platforms. 

5. At elevated walking surfaces appurtenant to stages 
and platforms for access to and utilization of special 
lighting or equipment. 

6. Along vehicle service pits not accessible to the public. 

7. In assembly seating where guards in accordance with 
Section 1025.14 are permitted and provided. 

1013.2 Height. Guards shall form a protective barrier not less 
than 42 inches (1067 mm) high, measured vertically above the 
leading edge of the tread, adjacent walking surface or adjacent 
seatboard. 

Exceptions: 

1. For occupancies in Group R-3, and within individual I 
dwelling units in occupancies in Group R-2, guards I 
whose top rail also serves as a handrail shall have a 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE'' 



119 



MEANS OF EGRESS 



height not less than 34 inches (864 mm) and not more 
than 38 inches (965 mm) measured vertically from 
the leading edge of the stair tread nosing. 

2. The height in assembly seating areas shall be in accor- 
dance with Section 1025.14. 

1013.3 Opening limitations. Open guards shall have balusters 
or ornamental patterns such that a 4-inch-diameter (102 mm) 
sphere cannot pass through any opening up to a height of 34 
inches (864 mm). From a height of 34 inches (864 mm) to 42 
inches (1067 mm) above the adjacent walking surfaces, a 
sphere 8 inches (203 mm) in diameter shall not pass. 

Exceptions: 

1 . The triangular openings formed by the riser, tread and 
bottom rail at the open side of a stairway shall be of a 
maximum size such that a sphere of 6 inches (152 
mm) in diameter cannot pass through the opening. 

2. At elevated walking surfaces for access to and use of 
electrical, mechanical or plumbing systems or equip- 
ment, guards shall have balusters or be of solid mate- 
rials such that a sphere with a diameter of 21 inches 
(533 mm) cannot pass through any opening. 

3. In areas that are not open to the public within occu- 
pancies in Group 1-3, F, H or S, balusters, horizontal 
intermediate rails or other construction shall not per- 
mit a sphere with a diameter of 21 inches (533 mm) to 
pass through any opening. 

4. In assembly seating areas, guards at the end of aisles 
where they terminate at a fascia of boxes, balconies 
and galleries shall have balusters or ornamental pat- 
terns such that a 4-inch-diameter (102 mm) sphere 
cannot pass through any opening up to a height of 26 
inches (660 mm). From a height of 26 inches (660 
mm) to 42 inches (1067 mm) above the adjacent 
walking surfaces, a sphere 8 inches (203 mm) in 
diameter shall not pass. 



5. Within individual dwelling units and sleeping units in 
Group R-2 and R-3 occupancies, openings for 
required guards on the sides of stair treads shall not 
allow a sphere of 4.375 inches (111 mm) to pass 
through. 

1013.4 Screen porches. Porches and decks which are enclosed 
with insect screening shall be provided with guards where the 
walking surface is located more than 30 inches (762 mm) above 
the floor or grade below. 

1013.5 Mechanical equipment. Guards shall be provided where 
appUances, equipment, fans, roof hatch openings or other compo- 
nents that require service are located within 10 feet (3048 mm) of 
a roof edge or open side of a walking surface and such edge or 
open side is located more than 30 inches (762 mm) above the 
floor, roof or grade below. The guard shall be constructed so as to 
prevent the passage of a 21-inch-diam.eter (533 mm) sphere. The 
guard shall extend not less than 30 inches (762 mm) beyond each 
end of such appUance, equipment, fan or component. 

1013.6 Roof access. Guards shall be provided where the roof 
hatch opening is located within 10 feet (3048 mm) of a roof 
edge or open side of a walking surface and such edge or open 



side is located more than 30 inches (762 mm) above the floor, 
roof or grade below. The guard shall be constructed so as to pre- 
vent the passage of a 21 -inch-diameter (533 mm) sphere. 



[BISECTION 1014 
EXIT ACCESS 

1014.1 General. The exit access arrangement shall comply 
with Sections 1014 through 1017 and the applicable provisions 
of Sections 1003 through 1013. 

1014.2 Egress through intervening spaces. Egress through 
intervening spaces shall comply with this section. 

1. Egress from a room or space shall not pass through 
adjoining or intervening rooms or areas, except where 
such adjoining rooms or areas are accessory to the area 
served, are not a high-hazard occupancy and provide a 
discernible path of egress travel to an exit. 

Exception: Means of egress are not prohibited 
through adjoining or intervening rooms or spaces in a 
Group H, S or F occupancy when the adjoining or 
intervening rooms or spaces are the same or a lesser 
hazard occupancy group. 

2. Egress shall not pass through kitchens, storage rooms, 
closets or spaces used for similar purposes. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Means of egress are not prohibited through a 
kitchen area serving adjoining rooms constitut- 
ing part of the same dwelling unit or sleeping 
unit. 

2. Means of egress are not prohibited through 
stockrooms in Group M occupancies when all 
of the following are met: 

2.1. The stock is of the same hazard classifi- 
cation as that found in the main retail 
area; 

2.2. Not more than 50 percent of the exit 
access is through the stockroom; 

2.3. The stockroom is not subject to locking 
from the egress side; and 

2.4. There is a demarcated, minimum 
44-inch- wide (1118 mm) aisle defined 
by full or partial height fixed walls or 
similar construction that will maintain 
the required width and lead directly 
from the retail area to the exit without 
obstructions. 

3. An exit access shall not pass through a room 
that can be locked to prevent egress. 

4. Means of egress from dwelling units or sleep- 
ing areas shall not lead through other sleeping 
areas, toilet rooms or bathrooms. 

1014.2.1 Multiple tenants. Where more than one tenant 
occupies any one floor of a building or structure, each tenant 
space, dwelling unit and sleeping unit shall be provided with 



120 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE*' 



MEANS OF EGRESS 



access to the required exits without passing through adja- 
cent tenant spaces, dwelling units and sleeping units. 

Exception: Means of egress shall not be prohibited 
through adjoining tenant space where such rooms or 
spaces occupy less than 10 percent of the area of the ten- 
ant space through which they pass; are the same or simi- 
lar occupancy group; a discemable path of egress travel 
to an exit is provided; and the means of egress into the 
adjoining space is not subject to locking from the egress 
side. A required means of egress serving the larger tenant 
space shall not pass through the smaller tenant space or 
spaces. 

1014.2.2 Group 1-2. Habitable rooms or suites in Group 1-2 
occupancies shall have an exit access door leading directly 
to a corridor. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Rooms with exit doors opening directly to the out- 
side at ground level. 

2. Patient sleeping rooms are permitted to have one 
intervening room if the intervening room is not 
used as an exit access for more than eight patient 
beds. 

3. Special nursing suites are permitted to have one 
intervening room where the arrangement allows 
for direct and constant visual supervision by nurs- 
ing personnel. 

4. For rooms other than patient sleeping rooms located 
within a suite, exit access travel from within the 
suite shall be permitted through one intervening 
room where the travel distance to the exit access 
door is not greater than 100 feet (30 480 mm). 

5. For rooms other than patient sleeping rooms 
located within a suite, exit access travel from 
within the suite shall be permitted through two 
intervening rooms where the travel distance to the 
exit access door is not greater than 50 feet (15 240 
mm). 

Suites of sleeping rooms shall not exceed 5,000 square 
feet (465 m^). Suites of rooms other than patient sleeping 
rooms shall not exceed 10,000 square feet (929 m^). Any 
patient sleeping room, or any suite that includes patient 
sleeping rooms, of more than 1,000 square feet (93 m^) shall 
have at least two exit access doors remotely located from 
each other. Any room or suite of rooms other than patient 
sleeping rooms of more than 2,500 square feet (232 m^) 
shall have at least two access doors remotely located from 
each other. The travel distance between any point in a Group 
1-2 occupancy and an exit access door in the room shall not 
exceed 50 feet (15 240 mm). The travel distance between 
any point in a suite of sleeping rooms and an exit access door 
of that suite shall not exceed 100 feet (30 480 mm). 

1014.3 Common path of egress travel. In occupancies other 
than Groups H-1, H-2 and H-3, the common path of egress 
travel shall not exceed 75 feet (22 860 mm). In Group H-1, H-2 
and H-3 occupancies, the common path of egress travel shall 



not exceed 25 feet (7620 mm). For common path of egress 
travel in Group A occupancies having fixed seating, see Sec- 
tion 1025.8. 

Exceptions: 

1. The length of a common path of egress travel in 
Group B, F and S occupancies shall not be more than 
100 feet (30 480 mm), provided that the building is 
equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler sys- 
tem installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. 

2. Where a tenant space in Group B, S and U occupan- 
cies has an occupant load of not more than 30, the 
length of a common path of egress travel shall not be 
more than 100 feet (30 480 mm). 

3. The length of a common path of egress travel in a 
Group 1-3 occupancy shall not be more than 100 feet 
(30 480 mm). 

4. The length of a common path of egress travel in a 
Group R-2 occupancy shall not be more than 125 feet 
(38 100 mm), provided that the building is protected 
throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler sys- 
tem in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. 

1014.4 Aisles. Aisles serving as a portion of the exit access in 
the means of egress system shall comply with the requirements 
of this section. Aisles shall be provided from all occupied por- 
tions of the exit access which contain seats, tables, furnishings, 
displays and similar fixtures or equipment. Aisles serving 
assembly areas, other than seating at tables, shall comply with 
Section 1025. Aisles serving reviewing stands, grandstands 
and bleachers shall also comply with Section 1025. 

The required width of aisles shall be unobstructed. 

Exception: Doors, when fully opened, and handrails shall 
not reduce the required width by more than 7 inches (178 
mm). Doors in any position shall not reduce the required 
width by more than one-half. Other nonstructural projec- 
tions such as trim and similar decorative features are permit- 
ted to project into the required width 1.5 inches (38 mm) 
from each side. 

1014.4.1 Aisles in Groups B and M. In Group B and M 
occupancies, the minimum clear aisle width shall be deter- 
mined by Section 1005.1 for the occupant load served, but 
shall not be less than 36 inches (914 mm). 

Exception: Nonpublic aisles serving less than 50 people 
and not required to be accessible by Chapter 1 1 of the 
International Building Code need not exceed 28 inches 
(711 mm) in width. 

1014.4.2 Aisle accessways in Group M. An aisle 
accessway shall be provided on at least one side of each ele- 
ment within the merchandise pad. The minimum clear 
width for an aisle accessway not required to be accessible 
shall be 30 inches (762 mm). The required clear width of the 
aisle accessway shall be measured perpendicular to the ele- 
ments and merchandise within the merchandise pad. The 
30-inch (762 mm) minimum clear width shall be maintained 
to provide a path to an adjacent aisle or aisle accessway. The 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE'' 



121 



MEANS OF EGRESS 



common path of travel shall not exceed 30 feet (9144 mm) 
from any point in the merchandise pad. 

Exception: For areas serving not more than 50 occu- 
pants, the common path of travel shall not exceed 75 feet 
(22 880 mm). 

1014.4.3 Seating at tables. Where seating is located at a 
table or counter and is adjacent to an aisle or aisle 
accessway, the measurement of required clear width of the 
aisle or aisle accessway shall be made to a line 19 inches 
(483 mm) away from and parallel to the edge of the table or 
counter. The 19-inch (483 mm) distance shall be measured 
perpendicular to the side of the table or counter. In the case 
of other side boundaries for aisle or aisle accessways, the 
clear width shall be measured to walls, edges of seating and 
tread edges, except that handrail projections are permitted. 

Exception: Where tables or counters are served by fixed 
seats, the width of the aisle accessway shall be measured 
from the back of the seat. 

1014.4.3.1 Aisle accessway for tables and seating. 

Aisle accessways serving arrangements of seating at 
tables or counters shall have sufficient clear width to con- 
form to the capacity requirements of Section 1005.1 but 
shall not have less than the appropriate minimum clear 
width specified in Section 1014.4.3.2. 

1014.4.3.2 Table and seating accessway width. Aisle 
accessways shall provide a minimum of 12 inches (305 
mm) of width plus 0.5 inch (12.7 mm) of width for each 
additional 1 foot (305 mm), or fraction thereof, beyond 
12 feet (3658 mm) of aisle accessway length measured 
from the center of the seat farthest from an aisle. 

Exception: Portions of an aisle accessway having a 
length not exceeding 6 feet (1829 mm) and used by a 
total of not more than four persons. 

1014.4.3.3 Table and seating aisle accessway length. 

The length of travel along the aisle accessway shall not 
exceed 30 feet (9144 mm) from any seat to the point 
where a person has a choice of two or more paths of 
egress travel to separate exits. 

1014.5 Egress balconies. Balconies used for egress purposes 
shall conform to the same requirements as corridors for width, 
headroom, dead ends and projections. 

1014.5.1 Wall separation. Exterior egress balconies shall 
be separated from the interior of the building by walls and 
opening protectives as required for corridors. 

Exception: Separation is not required where the exterior 
egress balcony is served by at least two stairs and a 
dead-end travel condition does not require travel past an 
unprotected opening to reach a stair. 

1014.5.2 Openness. The long side of an egress balcony 
shall be at least 50 percent open, and the open area above the 
guards shall be so distributed as to minimize the accumula- 
tion of smoke or toxic gases. 



[BISECTION 1015 
EXIT AND EXIT ACCESS DOORWAYS 

1015.1 Exit or exit access doorways required. Two exits or 
exit access doorways from any space shall be provided where 
one of the following conditions exists: 

1. The occupant load of the space exceeds the values in 
Table 1015.1. 

2. The common path of egress travel exceeds the limita- 
tions of Section 1014.3. 

3. Where required by Sections 1015.3, 1015.4 and 1015.5. 

Exception: Group 1-2 occupancies shall comply with Sec- 
tion 1014.2.2. 

TABLE 1015.1 
SPACES WITH ONE MEANS OF EGRESS 



OCCUPANCY 


MAXIMUM OCCUPANT LOAD 


A, B, E\ F, M, U 


49 


H-1, H-2, H-3 


3 


H-4,H-5, 1-1,1-3, 1-4, R 


10 


S 


29 



a. Day care maximum occupant load is 10. 

1015.1.1 Three or more exits. Access to three or more exits 
shall be provided from a floor area where required by Sec- 
tion 1019.1. 

1015.2 Exit or exit access doorway arrangement. Required 
exits shall be located in a manner that makes their availability 
obvious. Exits shall be unobstructed at all times. Exit and exit 
access doorways shall be arranged in accordance with Sections 
1015.2.1 and 1015.2.2. 

1015.2.1 Two exits or exit access doorways. Where two 
exits or exit access doorways are required from any portion 
of the exit access, the exit doors or exit access doorways 
shall be placed a distance apart equal to not less than 
one-half of the length of the maximum overall diagonal 
dimension of the building or area to be served measured in a 
straight line between exit doors or exit access doorways. 
Interlocking or scissor stairs shall be counted as one exit 
stairway. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Where exit enclosures are provided as a portion 
of the required exit and are interconnected by a 
1-hour fire-resistance-rated corridor conform- 
ing to the requirements of Section 1017, the 
required exit separation shall be measured along 
the shortest direct line of travel within the corri- 
dor. 

2. Where a building is equipped throughout with an 
automatic sprinkler system in accordance with 
Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2, the separation dis- 
tance of the exit doors or exit access doorways 
shall not be less than one-third of the length of the 
maximum overall diagonal dimension of the area 
served. 



122 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE'' 



MEANS OF EGRESS 



•I 



1015.2.2 Three or more exits or exit access doorways. 

Where access to three or more exits is required, at least two 
exit doors or exit access doorways shall be arranged in 
accordance with the provisions of Section 1015.2.1. 

1015.3 Boiler, incinerator and furnace rooms. Two exit 
access doorways are required in boiler, incinerator and furnace 
rooms where the area is over 500 square feet (46 m^) and any 
fuel-fired equipment exceeds 400,000 British thermal units 
(Btu) (422 000 KJ) input capacity. Where two exit access door- 
ways are required, one is permitted to be a fixed ladder or an 
alternating tread device. Exit access doorways shall be sepa- 
rated by a horizontal distance equal to one-half the length of the 
maximum overall diagonal dimension of the room. 

1015.4 Refrigeration machinery rooms. Machinery rooms 
larger than 1,000 square feet (93 m^) shall have not less than 
two exits or exit access doors. Where two exit access doorways 
are required, one such doorway is permitted to be served by a 
fixed ladder or an alternating tread device. Exit access door- 
ways shall be separated by a horizontal distance equal to 
one-half the maximum horizontal dimension of room. 

All portions of machinery rooms shall be within 150 feet (45 
720 mm) of an exit or exit access doorway. An increase in travel 
distance is permitted in accordance with Section 1016.1. 

Doors shall swing in the direction of egress travel, regardless 
of the occupant load served. Doors shall be tight fitting and 
self-closing. 

1015.5 Refrigerated rooms or spaces. Rooms or spaces hav- 
ing a floor area of 1 ,000 square feet (93 m^) or more, containing 
a refrigerant evaporator and maintained at a temperature below 
68°F (20°C), shall have access to not less than two exits or exit 
access doors. 

Travel distance shall be determined as specified in Section 
1016.1, but all portions of a refrigerated room or space shall be 
within 150 feet (45 720 mm) of an exit or exit access door 
where such rooms are not protected by an approved automatic 
sprinkler system. Egress is allowed through adjoining refriger- 
ated rooms or spaces. 

Exception: Where using refrigerants in quantities limited 
to the amounts based on the volume set forth in the Interna- 
tional Mechanical Code. 

1015.6 Stage means of egress. Where two means of egress are 
required, based on the stage size or occupant load, one means 
of egress shall be provided on each side of the stage. 

1015.6.1 Gallery, gridiron and catwalk means of egress. 

The means of egress from lighting and access catwalks, gal- 
leries and gridirons shall meet the requirements for occu- 
pancies in Group F-2. 

Exceptions: 

1. A minimum width of 22 inches (559 mm) is per- 
mitted for lighting and access catwalks. 

2. Spiral stairs are permitted in the means of egress. 



3. Stairways required by this subsection need not be 
enclosed. 

4. Stairways with a minimum width of 22 inches (559 
mm), ladders, or spiral stairs are permitted in the 
means of egress. 

5 . A second means of egress is not required from these 
areas where a means of escape to a floor or to a roof 
is provided. Ladders, alternating tread devices or 
spiral stairs are permitted in the means of escape. 

6. Ladders are permitted in the means of egress. 



[BISECTION 1016 
EXIT ACCESS TRAVEL DISTANCE 

1016.1 Travel distance limitations. Exits shall be so located 
on each story such that the maximum length of exit access 
travel, measured from the most remote point within a story to 
the entrance to an exit along the natural and unobstructed path 
of egress travel, shall not exceed the distances given in Table 
1016.1. 

Where the path of exit access includes unenclosed stairways 
or ramps within the exit access or includes unenclosed exit 
ramps or stairways as permitted in Section 1020. 1 , the distance 
of travel on such means of egress components shall also be 
included in the travel distance measurement. The measurement 
along stairways shall be made on a plane parallel and tangent to 
the stair tread nosings in the center of the stairway. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Travel distance in open parking garages is permitted 
to be measured to the closest riser of open stairs. 

2. In outdoor facihties with open exit access compo- 
nents and open exterior stairs or ramps, travel dis- 
tance is permitted to be measured to the closest riser 
of a stair or the closest slope of the ramp. 

3. Where an exit stair is permitted to be unenclosed in 
accordance with Exception 8 or 9 of Section 1020.1, 
the travel distance shall be measured from the most 
remote point within a building to an exit discharge. 

1016.2 Roof vent increase. In buildings that are one story in 
height, equipped with automatic heat and smoke roof vents 
complying with Section 910 and equipped throughout with an 
automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 
903 .3 . 1.1, the maximum exit access travel distance shall be 400 
feet (122 m) for occupancies in Group F-1 or S-1. 

1016.3 Exterior egress balcony increase. Travel distances 
specified in Section 1016. 1 shall be increased up to an additional 
100 feet (30 480 mm) provided the last portion of the exit access 
leading to the exit occurs on an exterior egress balcony con- 
structed in accordance with Section 1014.5. The length of such 
balcony shall not be less than the amount of the increase taken. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE'' 



123 



MEANS OF EGRESS 



TABLE 1016.1 
EXIT ACCESS TRAVEL DISTANCE^ 



OCCUPANCY 


WITHOUT SPRINKLER 

SYSTEM 

(feet) 


WITH SPRINKLER 

SYSTEM" 

(feet) 


A,E,F-1,I-1,M, 
R,S-1 


200 


250 


B 


200 


300 


F-2, S-2, U 


300 


400 


H-1 


Not Permitted 


75 


H-2 


Not Permitted 


100 


H-3 


Not Permitted 


150 


H-4 


Not Permitted 


175 


H-5 


Not Permitted 


200 


1-2, 1-3, 1-4 


150 


200 



For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 

a. See the following sections for modifications to exit access travel distance 
requirements: 

Section 402 of the International Building Code: For the distance limitation 
in malls. 

Section 404 of the International Building Code: For the distance limitation 
through an atrium space. 

Section 1016.2 For increased limitations in Groups F-1 and S-1. 
Section 1025.7: For increased limitation in assembly seating. 
Section 1025.7: For increased limitation for assembly open-air seating. 
Section 1019.2: For buildings with one exit. 

Chapter 3 1 of the International Building Code: For the limitation in tempo- 
rary structures. 

b. Buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accor- 
dance with Section 903 .3 . 1 . 1 or 903 .3 . 1.2. See Section 903 for occupancies 
where automatic sprinkler systems in accordance with Section 903 .3 . 1 .2 are 
permitted. 



[BISECTION 1017 
CORRIDORS 

1017.1 Construction. Corridors shall be fire-resistance rated 
in accordance with Table 1017.1. The corridor walls required 
to be fire-resistance rated shall comply with Section 708 of the 
International Building Code for fire partitions. 



Exceptions: 



1. 



A fire-resistance rating is not required for corridors in 
an occupancy in Group E where each room that is used 
for instruction has at least one door directly to the exte- 
rior and rooms for assembly purposes have at least 



one-half of the required means of egress doors opening 
directly to the exterior. Exterior doors specified in this 
exception are required to be at ground level. 

2. A fire-resistance rating is not required for corridors 
contained within a dwelling or sleeping unit in an 
occupancy in Group R. 

3. A fire-resistance rating is not required for corridors in 
open parking garages. 

4. A fire-resistance rating is not required for corridors in 
an occupancy in Group B which is a space requiring 
only a single means of egress complying with Section 
1015.1. 

1017.2 Corridor width. The minimum corridor width shall be 
as determined in Section 1005.1, but not less than 44 inches 
(1118 mm). 

Exceptions: 

1 . Twenty-four inches (610 mm) — For access to and uti- 
lization of electrical, mechanical or plumbing sys- 
tems or equipment. 

2. Thirty-six inches (914 nmi) — With a required occu- 
pant capacity of less than 50. 

3. Thirty-six inches (914 mm) — Within a dwelling unit. 

4. Seventy-two inches (1829 mm) — In Group E with a 
corridor having a required capacity of 100 or more. 

5. Seventy-two inches (1829 mm) — In corridors serv- 
ing surgical Group I, health care centers for ambula- 
tory patients receiving outpatient medical care, which 
causes the patient to be not capable of self-preserva- 
tion. 

6. Ninety-six inches (2438 mm) — In Group 1-2 in areas 
where required for bed movement. 

1017.3 Dead ends. Where more than one exit or exit access 
doorway is required, the exit access shall be arranged such that 
there are no dead ends in corridors more than 20 feet (6096 
mm) in length. 

Exceptions: 

1 . In occupancies in Group 1-3 of Occupancy Condition 
2, 3 or 4 (see Section 202), the dead end in a corridor 
shall not exceed 50 feet (15 240 mm). 



TABLE 1017.1 
CORRIDOR FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING 



OCCUPANCY 


OCCUPANT LOAD SERVED BY CORRIDOR 


REQUIRED FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING (hours) 


Without sprinkler system 


With sprinkler system"^ 


H-1, H-2, H-3 


All 


Not Permitted 


1 


H-4, H-5 


Greater than 30 


Not Permitted 


1 


A, B, E, F, M, S, U 


Greater than 30 


1 





R 


Greater than 10 


Not Permitted 


0.5 


I-2^ 1-4 


All 


Not Permitted 





I-l, 1-3 


All 


Not Permitted 


I'' 



a. For requirements for occupancies in Group 1-2, see Section 407.3 of the International Building Code. 

b. For a reduction in the fire-resistance rating for occupancies in Group 1-3, see Section 408.7 of the International Building Code. 

c. Buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2 where allowed. 



124 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE'' 



MEANS OF EGRESS 



2. In occupancies in Groups B and F where the building 
is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler 
system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1, the 
length of dead-end corridors shall not exceed 50 feet 
(15 240 mm). 

3. A dead-end corridor shall not be limited in length 
where the length of the dead-end corridor is less than 
2.5 times the least width of the dead-end corridor. 

1017.4 Air movement in corridors. Corridors shall not serve 
as supply, return, exhaust, relief or ventilation air ducts. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Use of a corridor as a source of makeup air for exhaust 
systems in rooms that open directly onto such corri- 
dors, including toilet rooms, bathrooms, dressing 
rooms, smoking lounges and janitor closets, shall be 
permitted, provided that each such corridor is directly 
supplied with outdoor air at a rate greater than the rate 
of makeup air taken from the corridor. 

2. Where located within a dwelling unit, the use of corri- 
dors for conveying return air shall not be prohibited. 

3. Where located within tenant spaces of 1,000 square 
feet (93 m^) or less in area, utilization of corridors for 
conveying return air is permitted. 

1017.4.1 Corridor ceiling. Use of the space between the 
corridor ceiling and the floor or roof structure above as a 
return air plenum is permitted for one or more of the follow- 
ing conditions: 

1. The corridor is not required to be of fire-resis- 
tance-rated construction; 

2. The corridor is separated from the plenum by 
fire-resistance-rated construction; 

3. The air-handling system serving the corridor is shut 
down upon activation of the air-handling unit smoke 
detectors required by the International Mechanical 
Code. 

4. The air-handling system serving the corridor is shut 
down upon detection of sprinkler waterflow where 
the building is equipped throughout with an auto- 
matic sprinkler system; or 

5. The space between the corridor ceiling and the floor or 
roof structure above the corridor is used as a compo- 
nent of an approved engineered smoke control system. 

1017.5 Corridor continuity. Fire-resistance-rated corridors 
shall be continuous from the point of entry to an exit, and shall 
not be interrupted by intervening rooms. 

Exception: Foyers, lobbies or reception rooms constructed 
as required for corridors shall not be construed as interven- 
ing rooms. 



[BISECTION 1018 
EXITS 

1018.1 General. Exits shall comply with Sections 101 8 
through 1023 and the applicable requirements of Section 1003 
through 1013. An exit shall not be used for any purpose that 



interferes with its function as a means of egress. Once a given 
level of exit protection is achieved, such level of protection 
shall not be reduced until arrival at the exit discharge. 

1018.2 Exterior exit doors. Buildings or structures used for 
human occupancy shall have at least one exterior door that 
meets the requirements of Section 1008.1.1. 

1018.2.1 Detailed requirements. Exterior exit doors shall 
comply with the applicable requirements of Section 1 008 . 1 . 

1018.2.2 Arrangement. Exterior exit doors shall lead 
directly to the exit discharge or the public way. 



[BISECTION 1019 
NUMBER OF EXITS AND CONTINUITY 

1019.1 Minimum number of exits. All rooms and spaces 
within each story shall be provided with and have access to the 
minimum number of approved independent exits required by 
Table 1019.1 based on the occupant load of the story, except as 
modified in Section 1015.1 or 1019.2. For the purposes of this 
chapter, occupied roofs shall be provided with exits as required 
for stories. The required number of exits from any story, base- 
ment or individual space shall be maintained until arrival at 
grade or the public way. 

TABLE 1019.1 
MINIMUM NUMBER OF EXITS FOR OCCUPANT LOAD 



OCCUPANT LOAD 
(persons per story) 


MINIMUM NUMBER OF EXITS 
(per story) 


1-500 


2 


501-1,000 


3 


More than 1,000 


4 



1019.1.1 Parking structures. Parking structures shall not 
have less than two exits from each parking tier, except that 
only one exit is required where vehicles are mechanically 
parked. Vehicle ramps shall not be considered as required 
exits unless pedestrian facilities are provided. 

1019.1.2 Helistops. The means of egress from helistops 
shall comply with the provisions of this chapter, provided 
that landing areas located on buildings or structures shall 
have two or more exits. For landing platforms or roof areas 
less than 60 feet (18 288 mm) long, or less than 2,000 square 
feet (186 m^) in area, the second means of egress is permit- 
ted to be a fire escape or ladder leading to the floor below. 

1019.2 Buildings with one exit. Only one exit shall be 
required in buildings as described below: 

1. Buildings described in Table 1019.2, provided that the 
building has not more than one level below the first story 
above grade plane. 

2. Buildings of Group R-3 occupancy. 

3. Single-level buildings with the occupied space at the 
level of exit discharge provided that the story or space 
complies with Section 1015.1 as a space with one means 
of egress. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE"" 



125 



MEANS OF EGRESS 



TABLE 1019.2 
BUILDINGS WITH ONE EXIT 



OCCUPANCY 


MAXIMUM HEIGHT OF 

BUILDING ABOVE 

GRADE PLANE 


MAXIMUM OCCUPANTS 

(OR DWELLING UNITS) PER 

FLOOR AND 

TRAVEL DISTANCE 


A, B'', E^ F, M, U 


1 Story 


49 occupants and 75 feet 
travel distance 


H-2, H-3 


1 Story 


3 occupants and 25 feet 
travel distance 


H-4, H-5, 1, R 


1 Story 


10 occupants and 75 feet 
travel distance 


S^ 


1 Story 


29 occupants and 100 
feet travel distance 


B^ F, M, S^ 


2 Stories 


30 occupants and 75 feet 
travel distance 


R-2 


2 Stories'^ 


4 dwelling units and 50 
feet travel distance 



For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 

a. For the required number of exits for open parking structures, see Section 
1019.1.1. 

b. For the required number of exits for air traffic control towers, see Section 412.1 
of the International Building Code. 

c. Buildings classified as Group R-2 equipped throughout with an automatic 
sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2 and pro- 
vided with emergency escape and rescue openings in accordance with Sec- 
tion 1026 shall have a maximum height of three stories above grade plane. 

d. Buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accor- 
dance with Section 903.3.1.1 with an occupancy in Group B shall have a 
maximum travel distance of 100 feet. 

e. Day care maximum occupant load is 10. 



1019.3 Exit continuity. Exits shall be continuous from the 
point of entry into the exit to the exit discharge. 

1019.4 Exit door arrangement. Exit door arrangement shall 
meet the requirements of Sections 1015.2 through 1015.2.2. 



[BISECTION 1020 
VERTICAL EXIT ENCLOSURES 

1020.1 Enclosures required. Interior exit stairways and inte- 
rior exit ramps shall be enclosed with fire barriers constructed 
in accordance with Section 706 of the International Building 
Code or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with 
Section 7 11 of the International Building Code, or both. Exit 
enclosures shall have a fire-resistance rating of not less than 2 
hours where connecting four stories or more and not less than 1 
hour where connecting less than four stories. The number of 
stories connected by the exit enclosure shall include any base- 
ments but not any mezzanines. An exit enclosure shall not be 
used for any purpose other than means of egress. 

Exceptions: 

1 . In all occupancies, other than Group H and I occupan- 
cies, a stairway is not required to be enclosed when 
the stairway serves an occupant load of less than 10 
and the stairway complies with either Item 1 . 1 or 1 .2. 
In all cases, the maximum number of connecting open 
stories shall not exceed two. 



1.1. The stairway is open to not more than one 
story above the story at the level of exit dis- 
charge, or 

1.2. The stairway is open to not more than one 
story below the story at the level of exit dis- 
charge. 

2. Exits in buildings of Group A-5 where all portions of 
the means of egress are essentially open to the outside 
need not be enclosed. 

3. Stairways serving and contained within a single resi- 
dential dwelling unit or sleeping unit in Group R-1, 
R-2 or R-3 occupancies are not required to be 
enclosed. 

4. Stairways that are not a required means of egress ele- 
ment are not required to be enclosed where such stair- 
ways comply with Section 707.2 of the International 
Building Code. 

5. Stairways in open parking structures that serve only 
the parking structure are not required to be enclosed. 

6. Stairways in Group 1-3 occupancies, as provided for 
in Section 408.3.6 of the International Building Code, 
are not required to be enclosed. 

7. Means of egress stairways as required by Section 
410.5.3 of the International Building Code are not 
required to be enclosed. 

8. In other than Group H and I occupancies, a maximum 
of 50 percent of egress stairways serving one adjacent 
floor are not required to be enclosed, provided at least 
two means of egress are provided from both floors 
served by the unenclosed stairways. Any two such 
interconnected floors shall not be open to other floors. 
Unenclosed exit stairways shall be remotely located 
as required in Section 1015.2. 

9. In other than Group H and I occupancies, interior 
egress stairways serving only the first and second sto- 
ries of a building equipped throughout with an auto- 
matic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 
903.3. 1 . 1 are not required to be enclosed, provided at 
least two means of egress are provided from both 
floors served by the unenclosed stairways. Such inter- 
connected stories shall not be open to other stories. 
Unenclosed exit stairways shall be remotely located 
as required in Section 1015.2. 

1020.1.1 Openings and penetrations. Exit enclosure 
opening protectives shall be in accordance with the require- 
ments of Section 715 of the International Building Code. 

Except as permitted in Section 402.4.6 of the Interna- 
tional Building Code, openings in exit enclosures other than 
unprotected exterior openings shall be limited to those nec- 
essary for exit access to the enclosure from normally occu- 
pied spaces and for egress from the enclosure. 

Where interior exit enclosures are extended to the exte- 
rior of a building by an exit passageway, the door assembly 
from the exit enclosure to the exit passageway shall be pro- 
tected by a fire door assembly conforming to the require- 
ments in Section 715.4 of the International Building Code. 



126 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE^ 



MEANS OF EGRESS 



Fire door assemblies in exit enclosures shall comply with 
Section 715.4.4 of the International Building Code. 

Elevators shall not open into an exit enclosure. 

1020.1.2 Penetrations. Penetrations into and openings 
through an exit enclosure are prohibited except for required 
exit doors, equipment and ductwork necessary for inde- 
pendent pressurization, sprinkler piping, standpipes, elec- 
trical raceway for fire department communication systems 
and electrical raceway serving the exit enclosure and termi- 
nating at a steel box not exceeding 16 square inches (0.010 
m^). Such penetrations shall be protected in accordance with 
Section 712 of the International Building Code. There shall 
be no penetrations or communication openings, whether 
protected or not, between adjacent exit enclosures. 

1020.1.3 Ventilation. Equipment and ductwork for exit 
enclosure ventilation as permitted by Section 1020. 1 .2 shall 
comply with one of the following items: 

1. Such equipment and ductwork shall be located exte- 
rior to the building and shall be directly connected to 
the exit enclosure by ductwork enclosed in construc- 
tion as required for shafts. 

2. Where such equipment and ductwork is located 
within the exit enclosure, the intake air shall be taken 
directly from the outdoors and the exhaust air shall be 
discharged directly to the outdoors, or such air shall 
be conveyed through ducts enclosed in construction 
as required for shafts. 

3. Where located within the building, such equipment 
and ductwork shall be separated from the remainder 
of the building, including other mechanical equip- 
ment, with construction as required for shafts. 

In each case, openings into the fire-resistance-rated con- 
struction shall be limited to those needed for maintenance 
and operation and shall be protected by opening protectives 
in accordance with Section 715 of the International Build- 
ing Code for shaft enclosures. 

Exit enclosure ventilation systems shall be independent 
of other building ventilation systems. 

1020.1.4 Exit enclosure exterior walls. Exterior walls of an 
exit enclosure shall comply with the requirements of Section 
704 of the International Building Code for exterior walls. 
Where nonrated walls or unprotected openings enclose the 
exterior of the stairway and the walls or openings are exposed 
by other parts of the building at an angle of less than 180 
degrees (3.14 rad), the building exterior walls within 10 feet 
(3048 mm) horizontally of a nonrated wall or unprotected 
opening shall have a fire-resistance rating of not less than 1 
hour. Openings within such exterior walls shall be protected 
by opening protectives having a fire protection rating of not 
less than ^/^ hour. This construction shall extend vertically 
from the ground to a point 10 feet (3048 mm) above the top- 
most landing of the stairway or to the roof hne, whichever is 
lower. 

1020.1.5 Discharge identification barrier. A stairway in 
an exit enclosure shall not continue below the level of exit 
discharge unless an approved barrier is provided at the level 
of exit discharge to prevent persons from unintentionally 



continuing into levels below. Directional exit signs shall be 
provided as specified in Section 1011. 

1020.1.6 Stairway floor number signs. A sign shall be 
provided at each floor landing in interior exit enclosures 
connecting more than three stories designating the floor 
level, the terminus of the top and bottom of the stair enclo- 
sure and the identification of the stair. The signage shall also 
state the story of, and the direction to the exit discharge and 
the availability of roof access from the stairway for the fire 
department. The sign shall be located 5 feet (1524 mm) 
above the floor landing in a position that is readily visible 
when the doors are in the open and closed positions. 

1020.1.7 Smokeproof enclosures. In buildings required to 
comply with Section 403 or 405 of thQ International Building 
Code, each of the exits of a building that serves stories where 
the floor surface is located more than 75 feet (22 860 mm) 
above the lowest level of fire department vehicle access or 
more than 30 feet (9144 mm) below the level of exit dis- 
charge serving such floor levels shall be a smokeproof 
enclosure or pressurized stairway in accordance with Sec- 
tion 909.20. 

1020.1.7.1 Enclosure exit. A smokeproof enclosure or 
pressurized stairway shall exit into a public way or into 
an exit passageway, yard or open space having direct 
access to a public way. The exit passageway shall be 
without other openings and shall be separated from the 
remainder of the building by 2-hour fire-resistance-rated 
construction. 

Exceptions: 

1. Openings in the exit passageway serving a 
smokeproof enclosure are permitted where the 
exit passageway is protected and pressurized in 
the same manner as the smokeproof enclosure, 
and openings are protected as required for 
access from other floors. 

2. Openings in the exit passageway serving a pres- 
surized stairway are permitted where the exit 
passageway is protected and pressurized in the 
same manner as the pressurized stairway. 

3. A smokeproof enclosure or pressurized stair- 
way shall be permitted to egress through areas 
on the level of discharge or vestibules as per- 
mitted by Section 1024. 

1020.1.7.2 Enclosure access. Access to the stairway 
within a smokeproof enclosure shall be by way of a vesti- 
bule or an open exterior balcony. 

Exception: Access is not required by way of a vesti- 
bule or exterior balcony for stairways using the pres- 
surization alternative complying with Section 
909.20.5. 



[BISECTION 1021 
EXIT PASSAGEWAYS 

1021.1 Exit passageway. Exit passageways serving as an exit 
component in a means of egress system shall comply with the 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE^ 



127 



MEANS OF EGRESS 



requirements of this section. An exit passageway shall not be 
used for any purpose other than as a means of egress. 

1021.2 Width. The width of exit passageways shall be deter- 
mined as specified in Section 1005.1 but such width shall not 
be less than 44 inches (1118 mm), except that exit passageways 
serving an occupant load of less than 50 shall not be less than 
36 inches (914 mm) in width. 

The required width of exit passageways shall be unob- 
structed. 

Exception: Doors, when fully opened, and handrails, shall 
not reduce the required width by more than 7 inches (178 
mm). Doors in any position shall not reduce the required 
width by more than one-half. Other nonstructural projec- 
tions such as trim and similar decorative features are permit- 
ted to project into the required width 1 .5 inches (38 mm) on 
each side. 

1021.3 Construction. Exit passageway enclosures shall have 
walls, floors and ceilings of not less than 1-hour fire-resistance 
rating, and not less than that required for any connecting exit 
enclosure. Exit passageways shall be constructed as fire barri- 
ers in accordance with Section 706 of the International Building 
Code. 

1021.4 Openings and penetrations. Exit passageway opening 
protectives shall be in accordance with the requirements of 
Section 715 of the International Building Code. 

Except as permitted in Section 402.4.6 of the International 
Building Code, openings in exit passageways other than unex- 
posed exterior openings shall be limited to those necessary for 
exit access to the exit passageway from normally occupied 
spaces and for egress from the exit passageway. 

Where interior exit enclosures are extended to the exterior of a 
building by an exit passageway, the door assembly from the exit 
enclosure to the exit passageway shall be protected by a fire door 
conforming to the requirements in Section 715.4 of the Interna- 
tional Building Code. Fire door assemblies in exit passageways 
shall comply with Section 715.4.4 of the International Building 
Code. 

Elevators shall not open into an exit passageway. 

1021.5 Penetrations. Penetrations into and openings through 
an exit passageway are prohibited except for required exit 
doors, equipment and ductwork necessary for independent 
pressurization, sprinkler piping, standpipes, electrical raceway 
for fire department communication and electrical raceway 
serving the exit passageway and terminating at a steel box not 
exceeding 16 square inches (0.010 m^). Such penetrations shall 
be protected in accordance with Section 712 of the Interna- 
tional Building Code. There shall be no penetrations or commu- 
nicating openings, whether protected or not, between adjacent 
exit passageways. 



[BISECTION 1022 
HORIZONTAL EXITS 

1022.1 Horizontal exits. Horizontal exits serving as an exit in 
a means of egress system shall comply with the requirements of 
this section. A horizontal exit shall not serve as the only exit 
from a portion of a building, and where two or more exits are 



required, not more than one-half of the total number of exits or 
total exit width shall be horizontal exits. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Horizontal exits are permitted to comprise two-thirds 
of the required exits from any building or floor area 
for occupancies in Group 1-2. 

2. Horizontal exits are permitted to comprise 100 per- 
cent of the exits required for occupancies in Group 
1-3. At least 6 square feet (0.6 m^) of accessible space 
per occupant shall be provided on each side of the hor- 
izontal exit for the total number of people in adjoining 
compartments. 

Every fire compartment for which credit is allowed in con- 
nection with a horizontal exit shall not be required to have a 
stairway or door leading directly outside, provided the adjoin- 
ing fire compartments have stairways or doors leading directly 
outside and are so arranged that egress shall not require the 
occupants to return through the compartment from which 
egress originates. 

The area into which a horizontal exit leads shall be provided 
with exits adequate to meet the occupant requirements of this 
chapter, but not including the added occupant capacity 
imposed by persons entering it through horizontal exits from 
another area. At least one of its exits shall lead directly to the 
exterior or to an exit enclosure. 

1022.2 Separation. The separation between buildings or ref- 
uge areas connected by a horizontal exit shall be provided by a 
fire wall complying with Section 705 of the International Build- 
ing Code or a fire barrier complying with Section 706 of the 
International Building Code and having a fire-resistance rating 
of not less than 2 hours. Opening protectives in horizontal exit 
walls shall also comply with Section 715 of the International 
Building Code. The horizontal exit separation shall extend ver- 
tically through all levels of the building unless floor assemblies I 
have a fire-resistance rating of not less than 2 hours with no I 
unprotected openings. 

Exception: A fire-resistance rating is not required at hori- 
zontal exits between a building area and an above-grade 
pedestrian walkway constructed in accordance with Section 
3104 of the International Building Code, provided that the 
distance between connected buildings is more than 20 feet 
(6096 mm). 

Horizontal exit walls constructed as fire barriers shall be 
continuous from exterior wall to exterior wall so as to divide 
completely the floor served by the horizontal exit. 

1022.3 Opening protectives. Fire doors in horizontal exits 
shall be self-closing or automatic-closing when activated by a 
smoke detector in accordance with Section 715.4.7.3 of the I 
International Building Code. Doors, where located in a 
cross-corridor condition, shall be automatic-closing by activa- 
tion of a smoke detector installed in accordance with Section 
715.4.7.3 of the International Building Code. 

1022.4 Capacity of refuge area. The refuge area of a horizon- |( 
tal exit shall be a space occupied by the same tenant or a public I 
area and each such refuge area shall be adequate to accommo- 
date the original occupant load of the refuge area plus the occu- 



128 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE'' 



MEANS OF EGRESS 




pant load anticipated from the adjoining compartment. The 
anticipated occupant load from the adjoining compartment 
shall be based on the capacity of the horizontal exit doors enter- 
ing the refuge area. The capacity of the refuge area shall be 
computed based on a net floor area allowance of 3 square feet 
(0.2787 m^) for each occupant to be accommodated therein. 

Exception: The net floor area allowable per occupant shall 
be as follows for the indicated occupancies: 

1 . Six square feet (0.6 m^) per occupant for occupancies 
in Group 1-3. 

2. Fifteen square feet (1 .4 m^) per occupant for ambula- 
tory occupancies in Group 1-2. 

3. Thirty square feet (2.8 m^) per occupant for 
nonambulatory occupancies in Group 1-2. 



[BISECTION 1023 
EXTERIOR EXIT RAMPS AND STAIRWAYS 

1023.1 Exterior exit ramps and stairways. Exterior exit 
ramps and stairways serving as an element of a required means 
of egress shall comply with this section. 

Exception: Exterior exit ramps and stairways for outdoor 
stadiums complying with Section 1019.1, Exception 2. 

1023.2 Use in a means of egress. Exterior exit ramps and stair- 
ways shall not be used as an element of a required means of 
egress for Group 1-2 occupancies. For occupancies in other 
than Group 1-2, exterior exit ramps and stairways shall be per- 
mitted as an element of a required means of egress for buildings 
not exceeding six stories above grade plane or having occupied 
floors more than 75 feet (22 860 mm) above the lowest level of 
fire department vehicle access. 

1023.3 Open side. Exterior exit ramps and stairways serving as 
an element of a required means of egress shall be open on at 
least one side. An open side shall have a minimum of 35 square 
feet (3.3 m^) of aggregate open area adjacent to each floor level 
and the level of each intermediate landing. The required open 
area shall be located not less than 42 inches (1067 mm) above 
the adjacent floor or landing level. 

1023.4 Side yards. The open areas adjoining exterior exit 
ramps or stairways shall be either yards, courts or public ways; 
the remaining sides are permitted to be enclosed by the exterior 
walls of the building. 

1023.5 Location. Exterior exit ramps and stairways shall be 
located in accordance with Section 1023.3. 

1023.6 Exterior ramps and stairway protection. Exterior 
exit ramps and stairways shall be separated from the interior of 
the building as required in Section 1020.1. Openings shall be 
limited to those necessary for egress from normally occupied 
spaces. 

Exceptions: 

1. Separation from the interior of the building is not 
required for occupancies, other than those in Group 
R- 1 or R-2, in buildings that are no more than two sto- 
ries above grade plane where the level of exit dis- 
charge is the first story above grade plane. 



2. Separation from the interior of the building is not 
required where the exterior ramp or stairway is served 
by an exterior ramp and/or balcony that connects two 
remote exterior stairways or other approved exits 
with a perimeter that is not less than 50 percent open. 
To be considered open, the opening shall be a mini- 
mum of 50 percent of the height of the enclosing wall, 
with the top of the openings no less than 7 feet (2134 
mm) above the top of the balcony. 

3. Separation from the interior of the building is not 
required for an exterior ramp or stairway located in a 
building or structure that is permitted to have unen- 
closed interior stairways in accordance with Section 
1020.1. 

4. Separation from the interior of the building is not 
required for exterior ramps or stairways connected to 
open-ended corridors, provided that Items 4.1 
through 4.4 are met: 

4.1. The building, including corridors and ramps 
and/or stairs, shall be equipped throughout 
with an automatic sprinkler system in accor- 
dance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2. 

4.2. The open-ended corridors comply with Sec- 
tion 1017. 

4.3. The open-ended corridors are connected on 
each end to an exterior exit ramp or stairway 
complying with Section 1023. 

4.4. At any location in an open-ended corridor 
where a change of direction exceeding 45 de- 
grees (0.79 rad) occurs, a clear opening of not 
less than 35 square feet (3.3 m^) or an exterior 
ramp or stairway shall be provided. Where 
clear openings are provided, they shall be lo- 
cated so as to minimize the accumulation of 
smoke or toxic gases. 



[BISECTION 1024 
EXIT DISCHARGE 

1024.1 General. Exits shall discharge directly to the exterior of 
the building. The exit discharge shall be at grade or shall pro- 
vide direct access to grade. The exit discharge shall not reenter 
a building. 

Exceptions: 

1 . A maximum of 50 percent of the number and capacity 
of the exit enclosures is permitted to egress through 
areas on the level of discharge provided all of the fol- 
lowing are met: 

1.1. Such exit enclosures egress to a free and un- 
obstructed way to the exterior of the building, 
which way is readily visible and identifiable 
from the point of termination of the exit enclo- 
sure. 

1 .2. The entire area of the level of discharge is sep- 
arated from areas below by construction con- 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE'' 



129 



MEANS OF EGRESS 



forming to the fire-resistance rating for the 
exit enclosure. 

1.3. The egress path from the exit enclosure on the 
level of discharge is protected throughout by 
an approved automatic sprinkler system. All 
portions of the level of discharge with access 
to the egress path shall either be protected 
throughout with an automatic sprinkler sys- 
tem installed in accordance with Section 
903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2, or separated from the 
egress path in accordance with the require- 
ments for the enclosure of exits. 

2. A maximum of 50 percent of the number and capacity 
of the exit enclosures is permitted to egress through a 
vestibule provided all of the following are met: 

2.1. The entire area of the vestibule is separated 
from areas below by construction conforming 
to the fire-resistance rating for the exit enclo- 
sure. 

2.2. The depth from the exterior of the building is 
not greater than 10 feet (3048 mm) and the 
length is not greater than 30 feet (9144 mm). 

2.3. The area is separated from the remainder of 
the level of exit discharge by construction 
providing protection at least the equivalent of 
approved wired glass in steel frames. 

2.4. The area is used only for means of egress and 
exits directly to the outside. 

3. Stairways in open parking garages complying with 
Section 1020.1, Exception 5, are permitted to egress 
through the open parking garage at the level of exit 
discharge. 

1024.2 Exit discharge capacity. The capacity of the exit dis- 
charge shall be not less than the required discharge capacity of 
the exits being served. 

1024.3 Exit discharge location. Exterior balconies, stairways 
and ramps shall be located at least 10 feet (3048 mm) from 
adjacent lot lines and from other buildings on the same lot 
unless the adjacent building exterior walls and openings are 
protected in accordance with Section 704 of the International 
Building Code based on fire separation distance. 

1024.4 Exit discharge components. Exit discharge compo- 
nents shall be sufficiently open to the exterior so as to minimize 
the accumulation of smoke and toxic gases. 

1024.5 Egress courts. Egress courts serving as a portion of the 
exit discharge in the means of egress system shall comply with 
the requirements of Section 1024. 

1024.5.1 Width. The width of egress courts shall be deter- 
mined as specified in Section 1005.1, but such width shall 
not be less than 44 inches (1118 mm), except as specified 
herein. Egress courts serving Group R-3 and U occupancies 
shall not be less than 36 inches (914 mm) in width. 



The required width of egress courts shall be unobstructed 
to a height of 7 feet (2134 mm). 

Exception: Doors, when fully opened, and handrails 
shall not reduce the required width by more than 7 inches 
(178 mm). Doors in any position shall not reduce the 
required width by more than one-half. Other 
nonstructural projections such as trim and similar deco- 
rative features are permitted to project into the required 
width 1.5 inches (38 mm) from each side. 

Where an egress court exceeds the minimum required 
width and the width of such egress court is then reduced 
along the path of exit travel, the reduction in width shall be 
gradual. The transition in width shall be affected by a guard 
not less than 36 inches (914 mm) in height and shall not cre- 
ate an angle of more than 30 degrees (0.52 rad) with respect 
to the axis of the egress court along the path of egress travel. 
In no case shall the width of the egress court be less than the 
required minimum. 

1024.5.2 Construction and openings. Where an egress 
court serving a building or portion thereof is less than 10 
feet (3048 mm) in width, the egress court walls shall have 
not less than 1-hour fire-resistance-rated construction for a 
distance of 10 feet (3048 mm) above the floor of the court. 
Openings within such walls shall be protected by opening 
protectives having a fire protection rating of not less than V4 
hour. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Egress courts serving an occupant load of less than 
10. 

2. Egress courts serving Group R-3 . | 

1024.6 Access to a public way. The exit discharge shall pro- 
vide a direct and unobstructed access to a public way. 

Exception: Where access to a pubhc way cannot be pro- 
vided, a safe dispersal area shall be provided where all of the 
following are met: 

1 . The area shall be of a size to accommodate at least 
5 square feet (0.28 m^) for each person. 

2. The area shall be located on the same lot at least 50 I 
feet (15 240 mm) away from the building requiring I 

egress. ' 

3. The area shall be permanently maintained and 
identified as a safe dispersal area. 

4. The area shall be provided with a safe and unob- 
structed path of travel from the building. 



[BISECTION 1025 
ASSEMBLY 

1025.1 General. Occupancies in Group A which contain seats, 
tables, displays, equipment or other material shall comply with 
this section. 

1025.1.1 Bleachers. Bleachers, grandstands, and folding 
and telescopic seating shall comply with ICC 300. 



130 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE*' 



MEANS OF EGRESS 



1025.2 Assembly main exit. Group A occupancies that have 
an occupant load of greater than 300 shall be provided with a 
main exit. The main exit shall be of sufficient width to accom- 
modate not less than one-half of the occupant load, but such 
width shall not be less than the total required width of all means 
of egress leading to the exit. Where the building is classified as 
a Group A occupancy, the main exit shall front on at least one 
street or an unoccupied space of not less than 10 feet (3048 
mm) in width that adjoins a street or public way. 

Exception: In assembly occupancies where there is no 
well-defined main exit or where multiple main exits are pro- 
vided, exits shall be permitted to be distributed around the 
perimeter of the building provided that the total width of 
egress is not less than 100 percent of the required width. 

1025.3 Assembly other exits. In addition to having access to a 
main exit, each level in a Group A occupancy having an occu- 
pant load greater than 300 shall be provided with additional 
means of egress that shall provide an egress capacity for at least 
one-half of the total occupant load served by that level and 
comply with Section 1015.2. 

Exception: In assembly occupancies where there is no 
well-defined main exit or where multiple main exits are pro- 
vided, exits shall be permitted to be distributed around the 
perimeter of the building, provided that the total width of 
egress is not less than 100 percent of the required width. 

1025.4 Foyers and lobbies. In Group A-1 occupancies, where 
persons are admitted to the building at times when seats are not 
available and are allowed to wait in a lobby or similar space, 
such use of lobby or similar space shall not encroach upon the 
required clear width of the means of egress. Such waiting areas 
shall be separated from the required means of egress by sub- 
stantial permanent partitions or by fixed rigid railings not less 
than 42 inches (1067 mm) high. Such foyer, if not directly con- 
nected to a public street by all the main entrances or exits, shall 
have a straight and unobstructed corridor or path of travel to 
every such main entrance or exit. 

1025.5 Interior balcony and gallery means of egress. For 

balconies or galleries having a seating capacity of 50 or more 
located in Group A occupancies, at least two means of egress 
shall be provided, with one from each side of every balcony or 
gallery and at least one leading directly to an exit. 

1025.5.1 Enclosure of balcony openings. Interior stairways 
and other vertical openings shall be enclosed in an exit 



enclosure as provided in Section 1020.1, except that stair- 
ways are permitted to be open between the balcony and the 
main assembly floor in occupancies such as theaters, places 
of religious worship and auditoriums. At least one accessi- 
ble means of egress is required from a balcony or gallery 
level containing accessible seating locations in accordance 
with Section 1007.3 or 1007.4. 

1025.6 Width of means of egress for assembly. The clear width 
of aisles and other means of egress shall comply with Section 
1025.6. 1 where smoke-protected seating is not provided and with 
Section 1025.6.2 or 1025.6.3 where smoke-protected seating is 
provided. The clear width shall be measured to walls, edges of 
seating and tread edges except for permitted projections. 

1025.6.1 Without smoke protection. The clear width of 
the means of egress shall provide sufficient capacity in 
accordance with all of the following, as applicable: 

1 . At least 0.3 inch (7.6 mm) of width for each occupant 
served shall be provided on stairs having riser heights 
7 inches (178 mm) or less and tread depths 1 1 inches 
(279 mm) or greater, measured horizontally between 
tread nosings. 

2. At least 0.005 inch (0.127 mm) of additional stair 
width for each occupant shall be provided for each 0. 10 
inch (2.5 mm) of riser height above 7 inches (178 mm). 

3. Where egress requires stair descent, at least 0.075 
inch (1.9 mm) of additional width for each occupant 
shall be provided on those portions of stair width hav- 
ing no handrail within a horizontal distance of 30 
inches (762 mm). 

4. Ramped means of egress, where slopes are steeper 
than one unit vertical in 12 units horizontal (8-percent 
slope), shall have at least 0.22 inch (5.6 mm) of clear 
width for each occupant served. Level or ramped 
means of egress, where slopes are not steeper than one 
unit vertical in 12 units horizontal (8-percent slope), 
shall have at least 0.20 inch (5.1 mm) of clear width 
for each occupant served. 

1025.6.2 Smoke-protected seating. The clear width of the 
means of egress for smoke-protected assembly seating shall 
not be less than the occupant load served by the egress ele- 
ment multiphed by the appropriate factor in Table 1025.6.2. 
The total number of seats specified shall be those within the 
space exposed to the same smoke-protected environment. 



TABLE 1025.6.2 
WIDTH OF AISLES FOR SMOKE-PROTECTED ASSEMBLY 



TOTAL NUMBER OF 
SEATS IN THE SMOKE- 
PROTECTED ASSEMBLY 
OCCUPANCY 


INCHES OF CLEAR WIDTH PER SEAT SERVED 


Stairs and aisle steps with 
handrails within 30 inches 


Stairs and aisle steps 
without handrails 
within 30 inches 


Passageways, doorways 

and ramps not steeper 

than 1 in 10 in slope 


Ramps steeper 
than 1 in 10 in slope 


Equal to or less than 5,000 


0.200 


0.250 


0.150 


0.165 


10,000 


0.130 


0.163 


0.100 


0.110 


15,000 


0.096 


0.120 


0.070 


0.077 


20,000 


0.076 


0.095 


0.056 


0.062 


Equal to or greater than 25,000 


0.060 


0.075 


0.044 


0.048 



For SI: 1 inch - 25.4 mm. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE*^ 



131 



MEANS OF EGRESS 



Interpolation is permitted between the specific values 
shown. A life safety evaluation, complying with NFPA 101, 
shall be done for a facility utilizing the reduced width 
requirements of Table 1025.6.2 for smoke-protected assem- 
bly seating. 

Exception: For an outdoor smoke-protected assembly 
with an occupant load not greater than 18,000, the clear 
width shall be determined using the factors in Section 
1025.6.3. 

1025.6.2.1 Smoke control. Means of egress serving a 
smoke-protected assembly seating area shall be provided 
with a smoke control system complying with Section 
909 or natural ventilation designed to maintain the 
smoke level at least 6 feet (1829 mm) above the floor of 
the means of egress. 

1025.6.2.2 Roof height. A smoke-protected assembly 
seating area with a roof shall have the lowest portion of 
the roof deck not less than 15 feet (4572 mm) above the 
highest aisle or aisle accessway. 

Exception: A roof canopy in an outdoor stadium 
shall be permitted to be less than 15 feet (4572 mm) 
above the highest aisle or aisle accessway provided 
that there are no objects less than 80 inches (2032 
mm) above the highest aisle or aisle accessway. 

1025.6.2.3 Automatic sprinklers. Enclosed areas with 
walls and ceilings in buildings or structures containing 
smoke-protected assembly seating shall be protected 
with an approved automatic sprinkler system in accor- 
dance with Section 903.3.1.1. 

Exceptions: 

1 . The floor area used for contests, performances 
or entertainment provided the roof construction 
is more than 50 feet (15 240 mm) above the 
floor level and the use is restricted to low fire 
hazard uses. 

2. Press boxes and storage facilities less than 
1,000 square feet (93 m^) in area. 

3 . Outdoor seating facilities where seating and the 
means of egress in the seating area are essen- 
tially open to the outside. 

1025.6.3 Width of means of egress for outdoor 
smoke-protected assembly. The clear width in inches 
(mm) of aisles and other means of egress shall be not less 
than the total occupant load served by the egress element 
multiphed by 0.08 (2.0 mm) where egress is by aisles and 
stairs and multiplied by 0.06 (1.52 mm) where egress is by 
ramps, corridors, tunnels or vomitories. 

Exception: The clear width in inches (mm) of aisles and 
other means of egress shall be permitted to comply with 
Section 1025.6.2 for the number of seats in the outdoor 
smoke-protected assembly where Section 1025.6.2 per- 
mits less width. 

1025.7 Travel distance. Exits and aisles shall be so located that 
the travel distance to an exit door shall not be greater than 200 
feet (60 960 mm) measured along the line of travel in 



nonsprinklered buildings. Travel distance shall not be more 
than 250 feet (76 200 nun) in sprinklered buildings. Where 
aisles are provided for seating, the distance shall be measured 
along the aisles and aisle accessway without travel over or on 
the seats. 

Exceptions: 

1. Smoke-protected assembly seating: The travel dis- 
tance from each seat to the nearest entrance to a 
vomitory or concourse shall not exceed 200 feet (60 
960 mm). The travel distance from the entrance to the 
vomitory or concourse to a stair, ramp or walk on the 
exterior of the building shall not exceed 200 feet (60 
960 mm). 

2. Open-air seating: The travel distance from each seat 
to the building exterior shall not exceed 400 feet (122 
m). The travel distance shall not be limited in facilities 
of Type I or II construction. 

1025.8 Common path of travel. The common path of egress 
travel shall not exceed 30 feet (9144 mm) from any seat to a 
point where an occupant has a choice of two paths of egress 
travel to two exits. 

Exceptions: 

1 . For areas serving less than 50 occupants, the common 
path of egress travel shall not exceed 75 feet (22 860 
mm). 

2. For smoke-protected assembly seating, the common 
path of egress travel shall not exceed 50 feet (15 240 
mm). 

1025.8.1 Path through adjacent row. Where one of the 
two paths of travel is across the aisle through a row of seats 
to another aisle, there shall be not more than 24 seats 
between the two aisles, and the minimum clear width 
between rows for the row between the two aisles shall be 12 
inches (305 mm) plus 0.6 inch (15.2 mm) for each addi- 
tional seat above seven in the row between aisles. 

Exception: For smoke-protected assembly seating there 
shall not be more than 40 seats between the two aisles 
and the minimum clear width shall be 12 inches (305 
mm) plus 0.3 inch (7.6 mm) for each additional seat. 

1025.9 Assembly aisles are required. Every occupied portion 
of any occupancy in Group A that contains seats, tables, dis- 
plays, similar fixtures or equipment shall be provided with 
aisles leading to exits or exit access doorways in accordance 
with this section. Aisle accessways for tables and seating shall 
comply with Section 1014.4.3. 

1025.9.1 Minimum aisle width. The minimum clear width 
for aisles shall be as shown: 

1. Forty-eight inches (1219 mm) for aisle stairs having 
seating on each side. 

Exception: Thirty-six inches (914 mm) where the 
aisle serves less than 50 seats. 

2. Thirty-six inches (914 mm) for aisle stairs having 
seating on only one side. 



132 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE'' 



MEANS OF EGRESS 



3. Twenty-three inches (584 nun) between an aisle stair 
handrail or guard and seating where the aisle is subdi- 
vided by a handrail. 

4. Forty-two inches (1067 mm) for level or ramped 
aisles having seating on both sides. 

Exceptions: 

1. Thirty-six inches (914 mm) where the aisle 
serves less than 50 seats. 

2. Thirty inches (762 mm) where the aisle does 
not serve more than 14 seats. 

5. Thirty-six inches (914 mm) for level or ramped aisles 
having seating on only one side. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Thirty inches (762 mm) where the aisle does 
not serve more than 14 seats. 

2. Twenty-three inches (584 mm) between an 
aisle stair handrail and seating where an aisle 
does not serve more than five rows on one 
side. 

1025.9.2 Aisle width. The aisle width shall provide suffi- 
cient egress capacity for the number of persons accommo- 
dated by the catchment area served by the aisle. The 
catchment area served by an aisle is that portion of the total 
space that is served by that section of the aisle. In establish- 
ing catchment areas, the assumption shall be made that there 
is a balanced use of all means of egress, with the number of 
persons in proportion to egress capacity. 

1025.9.3 Converging aisles. Where aisles converge to form 
a single path of egress travel, the required egress capacity of 
that path shall not be less than the combined required capac- 
ity of the converging aisles. 

1025.9.4 Uniform width. Those portions of aisles, where 
egress is possible in either of two directions, shall be uni- 
form in required width. 

1025.9.5 Assembly aisle termination. Each end of an aisle 
shall terminate at cross aisle, foyer, doorway, vomitory or 
concourse having access to an exit. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Dead-end aisles shall not be greater than 20 feet 
(6096 mm) in length. 

2. Dead-end aisles longer than 20 feet (6096 mm) are 
permitted where seats beyond the 20-foot (6096 
mm) dead-end aisle are no more than 24 seats from 
another aisle, measured along a row of seats hav- 
ing a minimum clear width of 12 inches (305 mm) 
plus 0.6 inch (15.2 mm) for each additional seat 
above seven in the row. 

3. For smoke-protected assembly seating, the 
dead-end aisle length of vertical aisles shall not 
exceed a distance of 21 rows. 

4. For smoke-protected assembly seating, a longer 
dead-end aisle is permitted where seats beyond the 
21 -row dead-end aisle are not more than 40 seats 
from another aisle, measured along a row of seats 



having an aisle accessway with a minimum clear 
width of 12 inches (305 mm) plus 0.3 inch (7.6 
mm) for each additional seat above seven in the 
row. 

1025.9.6 Assembly aisle obstructions. There shall be no 
obstructions in the required width of aisles except for hand- 
rails as provided in Section 1025.13. 

1025.10 Clear width of aisle accessways serving seating. 

Where seating rows have 14 or fewer seats, the minimum clear 
aisle accessway width shall not be less than 12 inches (305 
mm) measured as the clear horizontal distance from the back of 
the row ahead and the nearest projection of the row behind. 
Where chairs have automatic or self-rising seats, the measure- 
ment shall be made with seats in the raised position. Where any 
chair in the row does not have an automatic or self-rising seat, 
the measurements shall be made with the seat in the down posi- 
tion. For seats with folding tablet arms, row spacing shall be 
determined with the tablet arm down. 

1025.10.1 Dual access. For rows of seating served by aisles 
or doorways at both ends, there shall not be more than 100 
seats per row. The minimum clear width of 12 inches (305 
mm) between rows shall be increased by 0.3 inch (7.6 mm) 
for every additional seat beyond 14 seats, but the minimum 
clear width is not required to exceed 22 inches (559 mm). 

Exception: For smoke-protected assembly seating, the 
row length limits for a 12-inch- wide (305 mm) aisle 
accessway, beyond which the aisle accessway minimum 
clear width shall be increased, are in Table 1025.10.1. 

TABLE 1025.10.1 

SMOKE-PROTECTED 

ASSEMBLY AISLE ACCESSWAYS 



TOTAL NUMBER OF 
SEATS IN THE SMOKE- 
PROTECTED ASSEMBLY 
OCCUPANCY 


MAXIMUM NUMBER OF SEATS PER ROW 

PERMITTED TO HAVE A MINIMUM 12-INCH 

CLEAR WIDTH AISLE ACCESSWAY 


Aisle or doorway at 
both ends of row 


Aisle or doorway at 
one end of row only 


Less than 4,000 


14 


7 


4,000 


15 


7 


7,000 


16 


8 


10,000 


17 


8 


13,000 


18 


9 


16,000 


19 


9 


19,000 


20 


10 


22,000 and greater 


21 


11 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

1025.10.2 Single access. For rows of seating served by an 
aisle or doorway at only one end of the row, the minimum 
clear width of 12 inches (305 mm) between rows shall be 
increased by 0.6 inch (15.2 mm) for every additional seat 
beyond seven seats, but the minimum clear width is not 
required to exceed 22 inches (559 mm). 

Exception: For smoke-protected assembly seating, the 
row length limits for a 12-inch- wide (305 mm) aisle 
accessway, beyond which the aisle accessway minimum 
clear width shall be increased, are in Table 1025.10.1. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE*" 



133 



MEANS OF EGRESS 



1025.11 Assembly aisle walking surfaces. Aisles with a slope 
not exceeding one unit vertical in eight units horizontal 
(12.5-percent slope) shall consist of a ramp having a slip-resis- 
tant walking surface. Aisles with a slope exceeding one unit 
vertical in eight units horizontal (12.5-percent slope) shall con- 
sist of a series of risers and treads that extends across the full 
width of aisles and complies with Sections 1025.11.1 through 
1025.11.3. 

1025.11.1 Treads. Tread depths shall be a minimum of 11 
inches (279 mm) and shall have dimensional uniformity. 

Exception: The tolerance between adjacent treads shall 
not exceed 0.188 inch (4.8 mm). 

1025.11.2 Risers. Where the gradient of aisle stairs is to be 
the same as the gradient of adjoining seating areas, the riser 
height shall not be less than 4 inches (102 mm) nor more 
than 8 inches (203 mm) and shall be uniform within each 
flight. 

Exceptions: 

1. Riser height nonuniformity shall be limited to the 
extent necessitated by changes in the gradient of 
the adjoining seating area to maintain adequate 
sightlines. Where nonuniformities exceed 0.188 
inch (4.8 mm) between adjacent risers, the exact 
location of such nonuniformities shall be indicated 
with a distinctive marking stripe on each tread at 
the nosing or leading edge adjacent to the nonuni- 
form risers. Such stripe shall be a minimum of 1 
inch (25 mm), and a maximum of 2 inches (51 
mm), wide. The edge marking stripe shall be dis- 
tinctively different from the contrasting marking 
stripe. 

2. Riser heights not exceeding 9 inches (229 mm) 
shall be permitted where they are necessitated by 
the slope of the adjacent seating areas to maintain 
sightlines. 

1025.11.3 Tread contrasting marking stripe. A contrast- 
ing marking stripe shall be provided on each tread at the nos- 
ing or leading edge such that the location of each tread is 
readily apparent when viewed in descent. Such stripe shall 
be a minimum of 1 inch (25 mm), and a maximum of 2 
inches (5 1 mm), wide. 

Exception: The contrasting marking stripe is permitted 
to be omitted where tread surfaces are such that the loca- 
tion of each tread is readily apparent when viewed in 
descent. 

1025.12 Seat stability. In places of assembly, the seats shall be 
securely fastened to the floor. 

Exceptions: 

1. In places of assembly or portions thereof without 
ramped or tiered floors for seating and with 200 or 
fewer seats, the seats shall not be required to be fas- 
tened to the floor. 

2. In places of assembly or portions thereof with seating 
at tables and without ramped or tiered floors for seat- 



ing, the seats shall not be required to be fastened to the 
floor. 

3. In places of assembly or portions thereof without 
ramped or tiered floors for seating and with greater 
than 200 seats, the seats shall be fastened together in 
groups of not less than three or the seats shall be 
securely fastened to the floor. 

4. In places of assembly where flexibility of the seating 
arrangement is an integral part of the design and func- 
tion of the space and seating is on tiered levels, a max- 
imum of 200 seats shall not be required to be fastened 
to the floor. Plans showing seating, tiers and aisles 
shall be submitted for approval. 

5. Groups of seats within a place of assembly separated 
from other seating by railings, guards, partial height 
walls or similar barriers with level floors and having 
no more than 14 seats per group shall not be required 
to be fastened to the floor. 

6. Seats intended for musicians or other performers and 
separated by railings, guards, partial height walls or 
similar barriers shall not be required to be fastened to 
the floor. 

1025.13 Handrails. Ramped aisles having a slope exceeding 
one unit vertical in 15 units horizontal (6.7-percent slope) and 
aisle stairs shall be provided with handrails located either at the 
side or within the aisle width. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Handrails are not required for ramped aisles having a 
gradient no greater than one unit vertical in eight units 
horizontal (12.5-percent slope) and seating on both 
sides. 

2. Handrails are not required if, at the side of the aisle, 
there is a guard that complies with the graspability 
requirements of handrails. 

1025.13.1 Discontinuous handrails. Where there is seat- 
ing on both sides of the aisle, the handrails shall be discon- 
tinuous with gaps or breaks at intervals not exceeding five 
rows to facilitate access to seating and to permit crossing 
from one side of the aisle to the other. These gaps or breaks 
shall have a clear width of at least 22 inches (559 mm) and 
not greater than 36 inches (914 mm), measured horizon- 
tally, and the handrail shall have rounded terminations or 
bends. 

1025.13.2 Intermediate handrails. Where handrails are 
provided in the middle of aisle stairs, there shall be an addi- 
tional intermediate handrail located approximately 12 inches 
(305 mm) below the main handrail. 

1025.14 Assembly guards. Assembly guards shall comply 
with Sections 1025.14.1 through 1025.14.3. 

1025.14.1 Cross aisles. Cross aisles located more than 30 
inches (762 mm) above the floor or grade below shall have 
guards in accordance with Section 1013. 

Where an elevation change of 30 inches (762 nmi) or less 
occurs between a cross aisle and the adjacent floor or grade 



134 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE*" 



MEANS OF EGRESS 



below, guards not less than 26 inches (660 mm) above the 
aisle floor shall be provided. 

Exception: Where the backs of seats on the front of the 
cross aisle project 24 inches (610 mm) or more above the 
adjacent floor of the aisle, a guard need not be provided. 

1025.14.2 Sightline-constrained guard heights. Unless 
subject to the requirements of Section 1025.14.3, a fascia or 
railing system in accordance with the guard requirements of 
Section 1013 and having a minimum height of 26 inches 
(660 mm) shall be provided where the floor or footboard 
elevation is more than 30 inches (762 mm) above the floor or 
grade below and the fascia or railing would otherwise inter- 
fere with the sightlines of immediately adjacent seating. At 
bleachers, a guard must be provided where the floor or foot- 
board elevation is more than 24 inches (610 mm) above the 
floor or grade below and the fascia or railing would other- 
wise interfere with the sightlines of the immediately adja- 
cent seating. 

1025.14.3 Guards at the end of aisles. A fascia or railing 
system complying with the guard requirements of Section 
1013 shall be provided for the full width of the aisle where 
the foot of the aisle is more than 30 inches (762 mm) above 
the floor or grade below. The fascia or railing shall be a min- 
imum of 36 inches (914 mm) high and shall provide a mini- 
mum 42 inches (1067 mm) measured diagonally between 
the top of the rail and the nosing of the nearest tread. 

1025.15 Bench seating. Where bench seating is used, the num- 
ber of persons shall be based on one person for each 18 inches 
(457 mm) of length of the bench. 



[BISECTION 1026 
EMERGENCY ESCAPE AND RESCUE 

1026.1 General. In addition to the means of egress required by 
this chapter, provisions shall be made for emergency escape 
and rescue in Group R and I-l occupancies. Basements and 
sleeping rooms below the fourth story above grade plane shall 
have at least one exterior emergency escape and rescue opening 
in accordance with this section. Where basements contain one 
or more sleeping rooms, emergency egress and rescue open- 
ings shall be required in each sleeping room, but shall not be 
required in adjoining areas of the basement. Such openings 
shall open directly into a public way or to a yard or court that 
opens to a public way. 

Exceptions: 

1. In other than Group R-3 occupancies, buildings 
equipped throughout with an approved automatic 
sprinkler system in accordance with Section 
903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2. 

2. In other than Group R-3 occupancies, sleeping rooms 
provided with a door to a fire-resistance-rated corri- 
dor having access to two remote exits in opposite 
directions. 

3. The emergency escape and rescue opening is permit- 
ted to open onto a balcony within an atrium in accor- 
dance with the requirements of Section 404 of the 
International Building Code, provided the balcony 



provides access to an exit and the dwelling unit or 
sleeping unit has a means of egress that is not open to 
the atrium. 

4. Basements with a ceiling height of less than 80 inches 
(2032 mm) shall not be required to have emergency 
escape and rescue windows. 

5 . High-rise buildings in accordance with Section 403 of 
the International Building Code. 

6. Emergency escape and rescue openings are not 
required from basements or sleeping rooms that have 
an exit door or exit access door that opens directly into 
a public way or to a yard, court or exterior exit bal- 
cony that opens to a public way. 

7. Basements without habitable spaces and having no 
more than 200 square feet (1 8.6 m^) in floor area shall 
not be required to have emergency escape windows. 

1026.2 Minimum size. Emergency escape and rescue open- 
ings shall have a minimum net clear opening of 5.7 square feet 
(0.53 m2). 

Exception: The minimum net clear opening for emergency 
escape and rescue grade-floor openings shall be 5 square 
feet (0.46 m^). 

1026.2.1 Minimum dimensions. The minimum net clear 
opening height dimension shall be 24 inches (610 mm). The 
minimum net clear opening width dimension shall be 20 
inches (508 mm). The net clear opening dimensions shall be 
the result of normal operation of the opening. 

1026.3 Maximum height from floor. Emergency escape and 
rescue openings shall have the bottom of the clear opening not 
greater than 44 inches (1118 mm) measured from the floor. 

1026.4 Operational constraints. Emergency escape and res- 
cue openings shall be operational from the inside of the room 
without the use of keys or tools. Bars, grilles, grates or similar 
devices are permitted to be placed over emergency escape and 
rescue openings provided the minimum net clear opening size 
complies with Section 1026.2 and such devices shall be 
releasable or removable from the inside without the use of a 
key, tool or force greater than that which is required for normal 
operation of the escape and rescue opening. Where such bars, 
grilles, grates or similar devices are installed in existing build- 
ings, smoke alarms shall be installed in accordance with Sec- 
tions 907.2.10 regardless of the valuation of the alteration. 

1026.5 Window wells. An emergency escape and rescue open- 
ing with a finished sill height below the adjacent ground level 
shall be provided with a window well in accordance with Sec- 
tions 1026.5.1 and 1026.5.2. 

1026.5.1 Minimum size. The minimum horizontal area of 
the window well shall be 9 square feet (0.84 m^), with a min- 
imum dimension of 36 inches (914 mm). The area of the 
window well shall allow the emergency escape and rescue 
opening to be fully opened. 

1026.5.2 Ladders or steps. Window wells with a vertical 
depth of more than 44 inches (1118 mm) shall be equipped 
with an approved permanently affixed ladder or steps. Lad- 
ders or rungs shall have an inside width of at least 12 inches 
(305 mm), shall project at least 3 inches (76 mm) from the 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE*" 



135 



MEANS OF EGRESS 



wall and shall be spaced not more than 18 inches (457 mm) 
on center (o.c.) vertically for the full height of the window 
well. The ladder or steps shall not encroach into the required 
dimensions of the window well by more than 6 inches (152 
mm). The ladder or steps shall not be obstructed by the 
emergency escape and rescue opening. Ladders or steps 
required by this section are exempt from the stairway 
requirements of Section 1009. 



SECTION 1027 
MEANS OF EGRESS FOR EXISTING BUILDINGS 

1027.1 General. Means of egress in existing buildings shall 
comply with Sections 1003 through 1026, except as amended 
in Section 1027. 

Exception: Mean of egress conforming to the requirements 
of the building code under which they were constructed 
shall be considered as complying means of egress if, in the 
opinion of the fire code official, they do not constitute a dis- 
tinct hazard to life. 

1027.2 Elevators, escalators and moving walks. Elevators, 
escalators and moving walks shall not be used as a component 
of a required means of egress. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Elevators used as an accessible means of egress where 
allowed by Section 1007.4. 

2. Previously approved escalators and moving walks in 
existing buildings. 

1027.3 Exit sign illumination. Exit signs shall be internally or 
externally illuminated. The face of an exit sign illuminated 
from an external source, shall have an intensity of not less than 
5 foot-candles (54 lux). Internally illuminated signs shall pro- 
vide equivalent luminance and be listed for the purpose. 

Exception: Approved self-luminous signs that provide 
evenly illuminated letters shall have a minimum luminance 
of 0.06 foot-lamberts (0.21 cd/m^). 

1027.4 Power source. Where emergency illumination is 
required in Section 1027.5, exit signs shall be visible under 
emergency illumination conditions. 

Exception: Approved signs that provide continuous illumi- 
nation independent of external power sources are not 
required to be connected to an emergency electrical system. 

1027.5 Illumination emergency power. The power supply for 
means of egress illumination shall normally be provided by the 
premises' electrical supply. In the event of power supply fail- 
ure, illumination shall be automatically provided from an 
emergency system for the following occupancies where such 
occupancies require two or more means of egress: 

I 1. Group A having 50 or more occupants. 

Exception: Assembly occupancies used exclusively 
as a place of worship and having an occupant load of 
less than 300. 

2. Group B buildings three or more stories in height, build- 
ings with 100 or more occupants above or below the 



level of exit discharge, or buildings with 1,000 or more 
total occupants. 

3. Group E in interior stairs, corridors, windowless areas 
with student occupancy, shops and laboratories. 

4. Group F having more than 100 occupants. 

Exception: Buildings used only during daylight 
hours which are provided with windows for natural 
light in accordance with the International Building 
Code. 

5. Group I. 

6. Group M. 

Exception: Buildings less than 3,000 square feet 
(279 m^) in gross sales area on one story only, exclud- 
ing mezzanines. 

7. Group R-1. 

Exception: Where each sleeping unit has direct 
access to the outside of the building at grade. 

8. Group R-2. 

Exception: Where each dwelling unit or sleeping unit 
has direct access to the outside of the building at 
grade. 

9. Group R-4. 

Exception: Where each sleeping unit has direct 
access to the outside of the building at ground level. 

The emergency power system shall provide power for not 
less than 60 minutes and consist of storage batteries, unit 
equipment or an on-site generator. The installation of the emer- 
gency power system shall be in accordance with Section 604. 

1027.6 Guards. Guards complying with this section shall be 
provided at the open sides of means of egress that are more than 
30 inches (762 mm) above the floor or grade below. 

1027.6.1 Height of guards. Guards shall form a protective 
barrier not less than 42 inches (1067 mm) high. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Existing guards on the open side of stairs shall be 
not less than 30 inches (760 mm) high. 

2. Existing guards within dwelling units shall be not 
less than 36 inches (910 mm) high. 

3. Existing guards in assembly seating areas. 

1027.6.2 Opening limitations. Open guards shall have bal- 
usters or ornamental patterns such that a 6-inch diameter 
(152 mm) sphere cannot pass through any opening up to a 
height of 34 inches (864 mm). 

Exceptions: 

1 . At elevated walking surfaces for access to, and use 
of electrical, mechanical or plumbing systems or 
equipment, guards shall have balusters or be of 
solid materials such that a sphere with a diameter 
of 21 inches (533 mm) cannot pass through any 
opening. 



136 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE'' 



MEANS OF EGRESS 



2. In occupancies in Group 1-3, F, H or S, the clear 
distance between intermediate rails measured at 
right angles to the rails shall not exceed 21 inches 
(533 mm). 

3. Approved existing open guards. 

1027.7 Size of doors. The minimum width of each door open- 
ing shall be sufficient for the occupant load thereof and shall 
provide a clear width of not less than 28 inches (711 mm). 
Where this section requires a minimum clear width of 28 
inches (711 mm) and a door opening includes two door leaves 
without a mullion, one leaf shall provide a clear opening width 
of 28 inches (711 mm). The maximum width of a swinging 
door leaf shall be 48 inches (1219 mm) nominal. Means of 
egress doors in an occupancy in Group 1-2 used for the move- 
ment of beds shall provide a clear width not less than 41.5 
inches (1054 mm). The height of doors shall not be less than 80 
inches (2032 mm). 

Exceptions: 

1 . The minimum and maximum width shall not apply to 
door openings that are not part of the required means 
of egress in occupancies in Groups R-2 and R-3. 

2. Door openings to storage closets less than 10 square 
feet (0.93 m^) in area shall not be limited by the mini- 
mum width. 

3. Width of door leafs in revolving doors that comply 
with Section 1008.1.3.1 shall not be limited. 

4. Door openings within a dwelling unit shall not be less 
than 78 inches (1981 mm) in height. 

5. Exterior door openings in dwelling units, other than 
the required exit door, shall not be less than 76 inches 
(1930 mm) in height. 

6. Exit access doors serving a room not larger than 70 
square feet (6.5 m^) shall be not less than 24 inches 
(610 mm) in door width. 

1027.8 Opening force for doors. The opening force for inte- 
rior side-swinging doors without closers shall not exceed a 
5-pound (22 N) force. For other side-swinging, sliding and 
folding doors, the door latch shall release when subjected to a 
force of not more than 15 pounds (66 N). The door shall be set 
in motion when subjected to a force not exceeding a 30-pound 
(133 N) force. The door shall swing to a full-open position 
when subjected to a force of not more than 50 pounds (222 N). 
Forces shall be applied to the latch side. 

1027.9 Revolving doors. Revolving doors shall comply with 
the following: 

1. A revolving door shall not be located within 10 feet 
(3048 mm) of the foot or top of stairs or escalators. A dis- 
persal area shall be provided between the stairs or escala- 
tors and the revolving doors. 

2. The revolutions per minute for a revolving door shall not 
exceed those shown in Table 1027.9. 



3. Each revolving door shall have a conforming 
side-hinged swinging door in the same wall as the 
revolving door and within 10 feet (3048 mm). 

Exceptions: 

1 . A revolving door is permitted to be used without an 
adjacent swinging door for street floor elevator lob- 
bies provided a stairway, escalator or door from other 
parts of the building does not discharge through the 
lobby and the lobby does not have any occupancy or 
use other than as a means of travel between elevators 
and a street. 

2. Existing revolving doors where the number of revolv- 
ing doors does not exceed the number of swinging 
doors within 20 feet (6096 mm). 

TABLE 1027.9 
REVOLVING DOOR SPEEDS 



INSIDE DIAMETER 


POWER-DRIVEN-TYPE 
SPEED CONTROL (RPM) 


MANUAL-TYPE 
SPEED CONTROL (RPM) 


6'6" 


11 


12 


TO" 


10 


11 


7'6" 


9 


11 


8'0" 


9 


10 


8'6" 


8 


9 


9'0" 


8 


9 


9'6" 


7 


8 


lO'O" 


7 


8 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 

1027.9.1 Egress component. A revolving door used as a 
component of a means of egress shall comply with Section 
1027.9 and all of the following conditions: 

1. Revolving doors shall not be given credit for more 
than 50 percent of the required egress capacity. 

2. Each revolving door shall be credited with not more 
than a 50-person capacity. 

3. Revolving doors shall be capable of being collapsed 
when a force of not more than 130 pounds (578 N) is 
applied within 3 inches (76 mm) of the outer edge of a 
wing. 

1027.10 Stair dimensions for existing stairs. Existing stairs 
in buildings shall be permitted to remain if the rise does not 
exceed 8.25 inches (210 mm) and the run is not less than 9 
inches (229 mm). Existing stairs can be rebuilt. 

Exception: Other stairs approved by the fire code official. 

1027.10.1 Stair dimensions for replacement stairs. The 

replacement of an existing stairway in a structure shall not 
be required to comply with the new stairway requirements 
of Section 1009 where the existing space and construction 
will not allow a reduction in pitch or slope. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



137 



MEANS OF EGRESS 



1027.11 Winders. Existing winders shall be allowed to remain 
in use if they have a minimum tread depth of 6 inches (152 mm) 
and a minimum tread depth of 9 inches (229 mm) at a point 12 
inches (305 mm) from the narrowest edge. 

1027.12 Circular stairways. Existing circular stairs shall be 
allowed to continue in use provided the minimum depth of 
tread is 10 inches (254 mm) and the smallest radius shall not be 
less than twice the width of the stairway. 

1027.13 Stairway handrails. Stairways shall have handrails 
on at least one side. Handrails shall be located so that all por- 
tions of the stairway width required for egress capacity are 
within 44 inches (1118 mm) of a handrail. 

Exception: Aisle stairs provided with a center handrail are 
not required to have additional handrails. 

1027.13.1 Height. Handrail height, measured above stair 
tread nosings, shall be uniform, not less than 30 inches (762 
mm) and not more than 42 inches (1067 mm). 

1027.14 Slope of ramps. Ramp runs utilized as part of a means 
of egress shall have a running slope not steeper than one unit 
vertical in ten units horizontal (10-percent slope). The slope of 
other ramps shall not be steeper than one unit vertical in eight 
units horizontal (12.5-percent slope). 

1027.15 Width of ramps. Existing ramps are permitted to 
have a minimum width of 30 inches (762 mm) but not less than 
the width required for the number of occupants served as deter- 
mined by Section 1005.1. 

1027.16 Fire escape stairs. Fire escape stairs shall comply 
with Sections 1027.16.1 through 1027.16.7. 

1027.16.1 Existing means of egress. Fire escape stairs 
shall be permitted in existing buildings but shall not consti- 
tute more than 50 percent of the required exit capacity. 

1027.16.2 Protection of openings. Openings within 10 feet 
(3048 mm) of fire escape stairs shall be protected by fire 
door assemblies having a minimum V4-hour fire-resistance 
rating. 

Exception: In buildings equipped throughout with an 
approved automatic sprinkler system, opening protec- 
tion is not required. 

1027.16.3 Dimensions. Fire escape stairs shall meet the 
minimum width, capacity, riser height and tread depth as 
specified in Section 1027.10. 

1027.16.4 Access. Access to a fire escape from a corridor 
shall not be through an intervening room. Access to a fire 
escape stair shall be from a door or window meeting the cri- 
teria of Table 1005.1. Access to a fire escape stair shall be 
directly to a balcony, landing or platform. These shall be no 
higher than the floor or window sill level and no lower than 8 
inches (203 mm) below the floor level or 18 inches (457 
mm) below the window sill. 

1027.16.5 Materials and strength. Components of fire 
escape stairs shall be constructed of noncombustible materi- 
als. 



Fire escape stairs and balconies shall support the dead 
load plus a live load of not less than 100 pounds per square 
foot (4.78 kN/m^). Fire escape stairs and balconies shall be 
provided with a top and intermediate handrail on each side. 

The fire code official is authorized to require testing or 
other satisfactory evidence that an existing fire escape stair 
meets the requirements of this section. 

1027.16.6 Termination. The lowest balcony shall not be 
more than 18 feet (5486 mm) from the ground. Fire escape 
stairs shall extend to the ground or be provided with coun- 
terbalanced stairs reaching the ground. 

Exception: For fire escape stairs serving 10 or fewer 
occupants, an approved fire escape ladder is allowed to 
serve as the termination for a fire escape stairs. 

1027.16.7 Maintenance. Fire escapes shall be kept clear 
and unobstructed at all times and shall be maintained in 
good working order. 

1027.17 Corridors. Corridors serving an occupant load 
greater than 30 and the openings therein shall provide an effec- 
tive barrier to resist the movement of smoke. Transoms, lou- 
vers, doors and other openings shall be closed or be 
self-closing. 

Exceptions: 

1. Corridors in occupancies other than in Group H, 
which are equipped throughout with an approved 
automatic sprinkler system. 

2. Patient room doors in corridors in occupancies in 
Group 1-2 where smoke barriers are provided in 
accordance with the International Building Code. 

3. Corridors in occupancies in Group E where each 
room utilized for instruction or assembly has at least 
one-half of the required means of egress doors open- 
ing directly to the exterior of the building at ground 
level. 

4. Corridors that are in accordance with the Interna- 
tional Building Code. 

1027.17.1 Corridor openings. Openings in corridor walls 
shall comply with the requirements of the International 
Building Code. 

Exceptions: 

1. Where 20-minute fire door assemblies are 
required, solid wood doors at least 1.75 inches (44 
mm) thick or insulated steel doors are allowed. 

2. Openings protected with fixed wire glass set in 
steel frames. 

3. Openings covered with 0.5-inch (12.7 mm) gyp- 
sum wallboard or 0.75-inch (19.1 mm) plywood 
on the room side. 

4. Opening protection is not required when the build- 
ing is equipped throughout with an approved auto- 
matic sprinkler system. 



138 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE'' 



MEANS OF EGRESS 



1027.17.2 Dead ends. Where more than one exit or exit 
access doorway is required, the exit access shall be arranged 
such that dead ends do not exceed the limits specified in 
Table 1027.17.2. 

Exception: A dead-end passageway or corridor shall not 
be limited in length where the length of the dead-end pas- 
sageway or corridor is less than 2.5 times the least width 
of the dead-end passageway or corridor. 

1027.17.3 Exit access travel distance. Exits shall be 
located so that the maximum length of exit access travel, 
measured from the most remote point to an approved exit 
along the natural and unobstructed path of egress travel, 
does not exceed the distances given in Table 1027.17.2. 



1027.17.4 Common path of egress travel. The common 
path of egress travel shall not exceed the distances given 
Table 1027.17.2. 

1027.18 Stairway discharge identification. A stairway in an 
exit enclosure which continues below the level of exit dis- 
charge shall be arranged and marked to make the direction of 
egress to a public way readily identifiable. 

Exception: Stairs that continue one-half story beyond the 
level of exit discharge need not be provided with barriers 
where the exit discharge is obvious. 

1027.19 Exterior stairway protection. Exterior exit stairs 
shall be separated from the interior of the building as required 



TABLE 1027.17.2 
COMMON PATH, DEAD-END AND TRAVEL DISTANCE LIMITS (by occupancy) 



OCCUPANCY 


COMMON PATH LIMIT 


DEAD-END LIMIT 


TRAVEL DISTANCE LIMIT 


Unsprinklered 
(feet) 


Sprinklered 
(feet) 


Unsprinklered 
(feet) 


Sprinklered 
(feet) 


Unsprinklered 
(feet) 


Sprinklered 
(feet) 


Group A 


20/75'' 


20/75^ 


20'' 


20'' 


200 


250 


Group B 


75 


100 


50 


50 


200 


250 


Group E 


75 


75 


20 


20 


200 


250 


Groups F- 1,8-1'' 


75 


100 


50 


50 


200 


250 


Groups F-2, S-2'' 


75 


100 


50 


50 


300 


400 


Group H-1 


25 


25 








75 


75 


Group H-2 


50 


100 








75 


100 


Group H-3 


50 


100 


20 


20 


100 


150 


Group H-4 


75 


75 


20 


20 


150 


175 


Group H-5 


75 


75 


20 


50 


150 


200 


Group I- 1 


75 


75 


20 


20 


200 


250 


Group 1-2 (Health Care) 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


150 


200^^ 


Group 1-3 (Detention and 
Correctional — Use Conditions II, 
III, IV, V 


100 


100 


NR 


NR 


150^ 


200= 


Group 1-4 (Day Care Centers) 


NR 


NR 


20 


20 


200 


250 


Group M (Covered Mall) 


75 


100 


50 


50 


200 


400 


Group M (Mercantile) 


75 


100 


50 


50 


200 


250 


Group R-1 (Hotels) 


75 


75 


50 


50 


200 


250 


Group R-2 (Apartments) 


75 


75 


50 


50 


200 


250 


Group R-3 (One- and 
Two-Family); Group R-4 
(Residential Care/Assisted Living) 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


Group U 


75 


75 


20 


20 


200 


250 



For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 

a. 20 feet for common path serving 50 or more persons; 75 feet for common path serving less than 50 persons. 

b. See Section 1025.9.5 for dead-end aisles in Group A occupancies. 

c. This dimension is for the total travel distance, assuming incremental portions have fully utihzed their allowable maximums. For travel distance within the room, 
and from the room exit access door to the exit, see the appropriate occupancy chapter. 

d. See the International Building Code for special requirements on spacing of doors in aircraft hangars. 
NR = No requirements. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE*" 



139 



MEANS OF EGRESS 



in Section 1023.6. Openings shall be limited to those necessary 
for egress from normally occupied spaces. 

Exceptions: 

1. Separation from the interior of the building is not 
required for buildings that are two stories or less 
above grade where the level of exit discharge is the 
first story above grade. 

2. Separation from the interior of the building is not 
required where the exterior stairway is served by an 
exterior balcony that connects two remote exterior 
stairways or other approved exits, with a perimeter 
that is not less than 50 percent open. To be considered 
open, the opening shall be a minimum of 50 percent of 
the height of the enclosing wall, with the top of the 
opening not less than 7 feet (2134 mm) above the top 
of the balcony. 

3. Separation from the interior of the building is not 
required for an exterior stairway located in a building 
or structure that is permitted to have unenclosed inte- 
rior stairways in accordance with Section 1020.1. 

4. Separation from the interior of the building is not 
required for exterior stairways connected to 
open-ended corridors, provided that: 

4.1. The building, including corridors and stairs, is 
equipped throughout with an automatic sprin- 
kler system in accordance with Section 
903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2. 

4.2. The open-ended corridors comply with Sec- 
tion 1017. 

4.3. The open-ended corridors are connected on 
each end to an exterior exit stairway comply- 
ing with Section 1023.1. 

4.4. At any location in an open-ended corridor 
where a change of direction exceeding 45 de- 
grees occurs, a clear opening of not less than 
35 square feet (3 m^) or an exterior stairway 
shall be provided. Where clear openings are 
provided, they shall be located so as to mini- 
mize the accumulation of smoke or toxic 
gases. 

1027.20 Minimum aisles width. The minimum clear width of 
aisles shall be: 

1. Forty-two inches (1067 mm) for aisle stairs having seat- 
ing on each side. 

Exception: Thirty-six inches (914 mm) where the 
aisle serves less than 50 seats. 

2. Thirty-six inches (914 mm) for stepped aisles having 
seating on only one side. 

Exception: Thirty inches (760 mm) for catchment 
areas serving not more than 60 seats. 

3. Twenty inches (508 mm) between a stepped aisle hand- 
rail or guard and seating when the aisle is subdivided by 
the handrail. 



4. Forty-two inches (1067 mm) for level or ramped aisles 
having seating on both sides. 

Exception: Thirty-six inches (914 mm) where the 
aisle serves less than 50 seats. 

5. Thirty-six inches (914 mm) for level or ramped aisles 
having seating on only one side. 

Exception: Thirty inches (760 mm) for catchment 
areas serving not more than 60 seats. 

6. Twenty-three inches (584 mm) between a stepped stair 
handrail and seating where an aisle does not serve more 
than five rows on one side. 

1027.21 Stairway floor number signs. Existing stairs shall be 
marked in accordance with Section 1020.1.6. 



SECTION 1028 
MAINTENANCE OF THE MEANS OF EGRESS 

1028.1 General. The means of egress for buildings or portions 
thereof shall be maintained in accordance with this section. 

1028.2 Reliability. Required exit accesses, exits or exit dis- 
charges shall be continuously maintained free from obstruc- 
tions or impediments to full instant use in the case of fire or 
other emergency when the areas served by such exits are occu- 
pied. Security devices affecting means of egress shall be sub- 
ject to approval of the fire code official. 

1028.3 Obstructions. A means of egress shall be free from 
obstructions that would prevent its use, including the accumu- 
lation of snow and ice. 

1028.4 Exit signs. Exit signs shall be installed and maintained 
in accordance with Section 1011. Decorations, furnishings, 
equipment or adjacent signage that impairs the visibility of exit 
signs, creates confusion or prevents identification of the exit 
shall not be allowed. 

1028.5 Furnishings and decorations. Furnishings, decora- 
tions or other objects shall not be placed so as to obstruct exits, 
access thereto, egress therefrom, or visibility thereof. Hang- 
ings and draperies shall not be placed over exit doors or other- 
wise be located to conceal or obstruct an exit. Mirrors shall not 
be placed on exit doors. Mirrors shall not be placed in or adja- 
cent to any exit in such a manner as to confuse the direction of 
exit. 

1028.6 Emergency escape openings. Required emergency 
escape openings shall be maintained in accordance with the 
code in effect at the time of construction, and the following: 
Required emergency escape and rescue openings shall be oper- 
ational from the inside of the room without the use of keys or 
tools. Bars, grilles, grates or similar devices are allowed to be 
placed over emergency escape and rescue openings provided 
the minimum net clear opening size complies with the code that 
was in effect at the time of construction and such devices shall 
be releasable or removable from the inside without the use of a 
key, tool or force greater than that which is required for normal 
operation of the escape and rescue opening. 



140 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE^ 



MEANS OF EGRESS 



1 



1028.7 Testing and maintenance. All two-way communica- 
tion systems for areas of refuge shall be inspected and tested on 
a yearly basis to verify that all components are operational. 
When required, the tests shall be conducted in the presence of 
the fire code official. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 141 



142 2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE'^ 



CHAPTER 11 

AVIATION FACILITIES 



SECTION 1101 
GENERAL 

1101.1 Scope. Airports, heliports, helistops and aircraft han- 
gars shall be in accordance with this chapter. 

1101.2 Regulations not covered. Regulations not specifically 
contained herein pertaining to airports, aircraft maintenance, 
aircraft hangars and appurtenant operations shall be in accor- 
dance with nationally recognized standards. 

1101.3 Permits. For permits to operate aircraft-refueling vehi- 
cles, application of flammable or combustible finishes, and hot 
work, see Section 105.6. 



SECTION 1102 
DEFINITIONS 

1102.1 Definitions. The following words and terms shall, for 
the purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this code, 
have the meanings shown herein. 

AIRCRAFT OPERATION AREA (AOA). Any area used or 
intended for use for the parking, taxiing, takeoff, landing or 
other ground-based aircraft activity. 

AIRPORT. An area of land or structural surface that is used, or 
intended for use, for the landing and taking off of aircraft with 
an overall length greater than 39 feet (1 1 887 mm) and an over- 
all exterior fuselage width greater than 6.6 feet (2012 mm), and 
any appurtenant areas that are used or intended for use for air- 
port buildings and other airport facilities. 

HELIPORT. An area of land or water or a structural surface 
that is used, or intended for use, for the landing and taking off 
of helicopters, and any appurtenant areas which are used, or 
intended for use, for heliport buildings and other heliport facili- 
ties. 

HELISTOP. The same as "Heliport," except that no fueling, 
defueling, maintenance, repairs or storage of helicopters is per- 
mitted. 



SECTION 1103 
GENERAL PRECAUTIONS 

1103.1 Sources of ignition. Open flames, flame-producing 
devices and other sources of ignition shall not be permitted in a 
hangar, except in approved locations or in any location within 
50 feet (15 240 mm) of an aircraft-fueling operation. 

1103.2 Smoking. Smoking shall be prohibited in aircraft-refu- 
eling vehicles, aircraft hangars and aircraft operation areas 
used for cleaning, paint removal, painting operations or fuel- 
ing. "No Smoking" signs shall be provided in accordance with 
Section 310. 

Exception: Designated and approved smoking areas. 



1103.3 Housekeeping. The aircraft operation area (AOA) and 
related areas shall be kept free from combustible debris at all 
times. 

1103.4 Fire department access. Fire apparatus access roads 
shall be provided and maintained in accordance with Chapter 
5. Fire apparatus access roads and aircraft parking positions 
shall be designed in a manner so as to preclude the possibility 
of fire vehicles traveling under any portion of a parked aircraft. 

1103.5 Dispensing of flammable and combustible liquids. 

The dispensing, transferring and storage of flammable and 
combustible liquids shall be in accordance with this chapter 
and Chapter 34. Aircraft motor vehicle fuel-dispensing stations 
shall be in accordance with Chapter 22. 

1103.6 Combustible storage. Combustible materials stored in 
aircraft hangars shall be stored in approved locations and con- 
tainers. 

1103.7 Hazardous material storage. Hazardous materials 
shall be stored in accordance with Chapter 27. 



SECTION 1104 
AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE 

1104.1 Transferring flammable and combustible liquids. 

Flammable and combustible liquids shall not be dispensed into 
or removed from a container, tank, vehicle or aircraft except in 
approved locations. 

1104.2 Application of flammable and combustible liquid 
flnishes. The application of flammable or Class II combustible 
liquid finishes is prohibited unless both of the following condi- 
tions are met: 

1 . The application of the liquid finish is accomplished in an 
approved location. 

2. The application methods and procedures are in accor- 
dance with Chapter 15. 

1104.3 Cleaning parts. Class I A flammable liquids shall not 
be used to clean aircraft, aircraft parts or aircraft engines. 
Cleaning with other flammable and combustible liquids shall 
be in accordance with Section 3405.3.6. 

1104.4 Spills. This section shall apply to spills of flammable 
and combustible liquids and other hazardous materials. Fuel 
spill control shall also comply with Section 1106.11. 

1104.4.1 Cessation of work. Activities in the affected area 
not related to the mitigation of the spill shall cease until the 
spilled material has been removed or the hazard has been 
mitigated. 

1104.4.2 Vehicle movement. Aircraft or other vehicles 
shall not be moved through the spill area until the spilled 
material has been removed or the hazard has been mitigated. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE*" 



143 



AVIATION FACILITIES 



1104.4.3 Mitigation. Spills shall be reported, documented 
and mitigated in accordance with the provisions of this 
chapter and Section 2703.3. 

1104.5 Running engines. Aircraft engines shall not be run in 
aircraft hangars except in approved engine test areas. 

1104.6 Open flame. Repairing of aircraft requiring the use of 
open flames, spark-producing devices or the heating of parts 
above 500°F (260°C) shall only be done outdoors or in an area 
complying with the provisions of the International Building 
Code for a Group F-1 occupancy. 



SECTION 1105 
PORTABLE FIRE EXTINGUISHERS 

1105.1 General. Portable fire extinguishers suitable for flam- 
mable or combustible liquid and electrical-type fires shall be 
provided as specified in Sections 1105.2 through 1105.6 and 
Section 906. Extinguishers required by this section shall be 
inspected and maintained in accordance with Section 906. 

1105.2 On towing vehicles. Vehicles used for towing aircraft 
shall be equipped with a minimum of one listed portable fire 
extinguisher complying with Section 906 and having a mini- 
mum rating of 20-B:C. 

1105.3 On welding apparatus. Welding apparatus shall be 
equipped with a minimum of one listed portable fire extin- 
guisher complying with Section 906 and having a minimum 
rating of 2-A:20-B:C. 

1105.4 On aircraft fuel-servicing tank vehicles. Aircraft 
fuel-servicing tank vehicles shall be equipped with a minimum 
of two listed portable fire extinguishers complying with Sec- 
tion 906, each having a minimum rating of 20-B:C. A portable 
fire extinguisher shall be readily accessible from either side of 
the vehicle. 

1105.5 On hydrant fuel-servicing vehicles. Hydrant fuel-ser- 
vicing vehicles shall be equipped with a minimum of one listed 
portable fire extinguisher complying with Section 906, and 
having a minimum rating of 20-B:C. 

1105.6 At fuel-dispensing stations. Portable fire 
extinguishers at fuel-dispensing stations shall be located such 
that pumps or dispensers are not more than 75 feet (22 860 mm) 
from one such extinguisher. Fire extinguishers shall be pro- 
vided as follows: 

1 . Where the open-hose discharge capacity of the fueling 
system is not more than 200 gallons per minute (13 L/s), 
a minimum of two listed portable fire extinguishers com- 
plying with Section 906 and having a minimum rating of 
20-B:C shall be provided. 

2. Where the open-hose discharge capacity of the fueling 
system is more than 200 gallons per minute (13 L/s) but 
not more than 350 gallons per minute (22 L/s), a mini- 
mum of one listed wheeled extinguisher complying with 
Section 906 and having a minimum extinguishing rating 
of 80-B:C, and a minimum agent capacity of 125 pounds 
(57 kg), shall be provided. 

3. Where the open-hose discharge capacity of the fueling 
system is more than 350 gallons per minute (22 L/s), a 



minimum of two listed wheeled extinguishers comply- 
ing with Section 906 and having a minimum rating of 
80-B:C each, and a minimum capacity agent of 125 
pounds (57 kg) of each, shall be provided. 

1105.7 Fire extinguisher access. Portable fire extinguishers 
required by this chapter shall be accessible at all times. Where 
necessary, provisions shall be made to clear accumulations of 
snow, ice and other forms of weather-induced obstructions. 

1105.7.1 Cabinets. Cabinets and enclosed compartments 
used to house portable fire extinguishers shall be clearly 
marked with the words FIRE EXTINGUISHER in letters at 
least 2 inches (5 1 mm) high. Cabinets and compartments 
shall be readily accessible at all times. 

1105.8 Reporting use. Use of a fire extinguisher under any cir- 
cumstances shall be reported to the manager of the airport and 
the fire code official immediately after use. 



SECTION 1106 
AIRCRAFT FUELING 

1106.1 Aircraft motor vehicle fuel-dispensing stations. Air- 
craft motor vehicle fuel-dispensing stations shall be in accor- 
dance with Chapter 22. 

1106.2 Airport fuel systems. Airport fuel systems shall be 
designed and constructed in accordance with NFPA 407. 

1106.3 Construction of aircraft-fueling vehicles and acces- 
sories. Aircraft-fueling vehicles shall comply with this section 
and shall be designed and constructed in accordance with 
NFPA 407. 

1106.3.1 Transfer apparatus. Aircraft-fueling vehicles 
shall be equipped and maintained with an approved transfer 
apparatus. 

1106.3.1.1 Internal combustion type. Where such 
transfer apparatus is operated by an individual unit of the 
intemal-combustion-motor type, such power unit shall 
be located as remotely as practicable from pumps, pip- 
ing, meters, air eliminators, water separators, hose reels, 
and similar equipment, and shall be housed in a separate 
compartment from any of the aforementioned items. The 
fuel tank in connection therewith shall be suitably 
designed and installed, and the maximum fuel capacity 
shall not exceed 5 gallons (19 L) where the tank is 
installed on the engine. The exhaust pipe, muffler and tail 
pipe shall be shielded. 

1106.3.1.2 Gear operated. Where operated by gears or 
chains, the gears, chains, shafts, bearings, housing and 
all parts thereof shall be of an approved design and shall 
be installed and maintained in an approved manner. 

1106.3.1.3 Vibration isolation. Flexible connections 
for the purpose of eliminating vibration are allowed if the 
material used therein is designed, installed and main- 
tained in an approved manner, provided such connec- 
tions do not exceed 24 inches (610 mm) in length. 

1106.3.2 Pumps. Pumps of a positive-displacement type 
shall be provided with a bypass relief valve set at a pressure 
of not more than 35 percent in excess of the normal working 



144 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE*' 



AVIATION FACILITIES 



pressure of such unit. Such units shall be equipped and 
maintained with a pressure gauge on the discharge side of 
the pump. 

1106.3.3 Dispensing hoses and nozzles. Hoses shall be 
designed for the transferring of hydrocarbon liquids and 
shall not be any longer than necessary to provide efficient 
fuel transfer operations. Hoses shall be equipped with an 
approved shutoff nozzle. Fuel-transfer nozzles shall be 
self-closing and designed to be actuated by hand pressure 
only. Notches and other devices shall not be used for hold- 
ing a nozzle valve handle in the open position. Nozzles shall 
be equipped with a bonding cable complete with proper 
attachment for aircraft to be serviced. 

1106.3.4 Protection of electrical equipment. Electric wir- 
ing, switches, lights and other sources of ignition, when 
located in a compartment housing piping, pumps, air 
eliminators, water separators, hose reels or similar equip- 
ment, shall be enclosed in a vapor-tight housing. Electrical 
motors located in such a compartment shall be of a type 
approved for use as specified in ICC Electrical Code. 

1106.3.5 Venting of equipment compartments. Compart- 
ments housing piping, pumps, air eliminators, water separa- 
tors, hose reels and similar equipment shall be adequately 
ventilated at floor level or within the floor itself. 

1106.3.6 Accessory equipment. Ladders, hose reels and 
similar accessory equipment shall be of an approved type 
and constructed substantially as follows: 

1 . Ladders constructed of noncombustible material are 
allowed to be used with or attached to aircraft-fueling 
vehicles, provided the manner of attachment or use of 
such ladders is approved and does not constitute an 
additional fire or accident hazard in the operation of 
such fueling vehicles. 

2. Hose reels used in connection with fueling vehicles 
shall be constructed of noncombustible materials and 
shall be provided with a packing gland or other device 
which will preclude fuel leakage between reels and 
fuel manifolds. 

1106.3.7 Electrical bonding provisions. Transfer appara- 
tus shall be metallically interconnected with tanks, chassis, 
axles and springs of aircraft-fueling vehicles. 

1106.3.7.1 Bonding cables. Aircraft-fueling vehicles 
shall be provided and maintained with a substantial 
heavy-duty electrical cable of sufficient length to be 
bonded to the aircraft to be serviced. Such cable shall be 
metallically connected to the transfer apparatus or chas- 
sis of the aircraft-fueling vehicle on one end and shall be 
provided with a suitable metal clamp on the other end, to 
be fixed to the aircraft. 

1106.3.7.2 Bonding cable protection. The bonding 
cable shall be bare or have a transparent protective sleeve 
and be stored on a reel or in a compartment provided for 
no other purpose. It shall be carried in such a manner that 
it will not be subjected to sharp kinks or accidental break- 
age under conditions of general use. 



1106.3.8 Smoking. Smoking in aircraft-fueling vehicles is 
prohibited. Signs to this effect shall be conspicuously 
posted in the driver's compartment of all fueling vehicles. 

1106.3.9 Smoking equipment. Smoking equipment such 
as cigarette lighters and ash trays shall not be provided in 
aircraft-fueling vehicles. 

1106.4 Operation, maintenance and use of aircraft-fueling 
vehicles. The operation, maintenance and use of aircraft-fuel- 
ing vehicles shall be in accordance with Sections 1106.4.1 
through 1 106.4.4 and other applicable provisions of this chap- 
ter. 

1106.4.1 Proper maintenance. Aircraft-fueling vehicles 
and all related equipment shall be properly maintained and 
kept in good repair. Accumulations of oil, grease, fuel and 
other flammable or combustible materials is prohibited. 
Maintenance and servicing of such equipment shall be 
accomplished in approved areas. 

1106.4.2 Vehicle integrity. Tanks, pipes, hoses, valves and 
other fuel delivery equipment shall be maintained leak free 
at all times. 

1106.4.3 Removal from service. Aircraft-fueling vehicles 
and related equipment which are in violation of Section 
1106.4.1 or 1106.4.2 shall be immediately defueled and 
removed from service and shall not be returned to service 
until proper repairs have been made. 

1106.4.4 Operators. Aircraft-fueling vehicles that are 
operated by a person, firm or corporation other than the 
permittee or the permittee's authorized employee shall be 
provided with a legible sign visible from outside the vehicle 
showing the name of the person, firm or corporation operat- 
ing such unit. 

1106.5 Fueling and defueling. Aircraft-fueling and defueling 
operations shall be in accordance with Sections 1106.5.1 
through 1106.5.5. 

1106.5.1 Positioning of aircraft fuel-servicing vehicles. 

Aircraft-fueling vehicles shall not be located, parked or per- 
mitted to stand in a position where such unit would obstruct 
egress from an aircraft should a fire occur during fuel-trans- 
fer operations. Tank vehicles shall not be located, parked or 
permitted to stand under any portion of an aircraft. 

1106.5.1.1 Fueling vehicle egress. A clear path shall be 
maintained for aircraft-fueling vehicles to provide for 
prompt and timely egress from the fueling area. 

1106.5.1.2 Aircraft vent openings. A clear space of at 
least 10 feet (3048 mm) shall be maintained between air- 
craft fuel-system vent openings and any part or portion 
of an aircraft- fueling vehicle. 

1106.5.1.3 Parking. Prior to leaving the cab, the air- 
craft-fueling vehicle operator shall ensure that the park- 
ing brake has been set. At least two chock blocks not less 
than 5 inches by 5 inches by 12 inches (127 mm by 127 
mm by 305 mm) in size and dished to fit the contour of 
the tires shall be utilized and positioned in such a manner 
as to preclude movement of the vehicle in any direction. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE^ 



145 



AVIATION FACILITIES 



1106.5.2 Electrical bonding. Aircraft-fueling vehicles 
shall be electrically bonded to the aircraft being fueled or 
defueled. Bonding connections shall be made prior to mak- 
ing fueling connections and shall not be disconnected until 
the fuel-transfer operations are completed and the fuehng 
connections have been removed. 

Where a hydrant service vehicle or cart is used for fuel- 
ing, the hydrant coupler shall be connected to the hydrant 
system prior to bonding the fueling equipment to the air- 
craft. 

1106.5.2.1 Conductive hose. In addition to the bonding 
cable required by Section 1106.5.2, conductive hose 
shall be used for all fueling operations. 

1106.5.2.2 Bonding conductors on transfer nozzles. 

Transfer nozzles shall be equipped with approved bond- 
ing conductors which shall be clipped or otherwise posi- 
tively engaged with the bonding attachment provided on 
the aircraft adjacent to the fuel tank cap prior to removal 
of the cap. 

Exception: In the case of overwing fueling where no 
appropriate bonding attachment adjacent to the fuel 
fill port has been provided on the aircraft, the fueling 
operator shall touch the fuel tank cap with the nozzle 
spout prior to removal of the cap. The nozzle shall be 
kept in contact with the fill port until fueling is com- 
pleted. 

1106.5.2.3 Funnels. Where required, metal funnels are 
allowed to be used during fueling operations. Direct con- 
tact between the fueling receptacle, the funnel and the 
fueling nozzle shall be maintained during the fueling 
operation. 

1106.5.3 Training. Aircraft-fueling vehicles shall be 
attended and operated only by persons instructed in meth- 
ods of proper use and operation and who are qualified to use 
such fueling vehicles in accordance with minimum safety 
requirements. 

1106.5.3.1 Fueling hazards. Fuel-servicing personnel 
shall know and understand the hazards associated with 
each type of fuel dispensed by the airport fueling-system 
operator. 

1106.5.3.2 Fire safety training. Employees of fuel 
agents who fuel aircraft, accept fuel shipments or other- 
wise handle fuel shall receive approved fire safety train- 
ing. 

1106.5.3.2.1 Fire extinguisher training. Fuel-ser- 
vicing personnel shall receive approved training in 
the operation of fire-extinguishing equipment. 

1106.5.3.2.2 Documentation. The airport fuel- 
ing-system operator shall maintain records of all 
training administered to its employees. These records 
shall be made available to the fire code official on 
request. 

1106.5.4 Transfer personnel. During fuel-transfer opera- 
tions, a qualified person shall be in control of each transfer 
nozzle and another qualified person shall be in immediate 



control of the fuel-pumping equipment to shut off or 
otherwise control the flow of fuel from the time fueling 
operations are begun until they are completed. 

Exceptions: 

1 . For underwing refueling, the person stationed at 
the point of fuel intake is not required. 

2. For overwing refueling, the person stationed at the 
fuel pumping equipment shall not be required 
where the person at the fuel dispensing device is 
within 75 feet (22 800 mm) of the emergency shut- 
off device, is not on the wing of the aircraft and has 
a clear and unencumbered path to the fuel pumping 
equipment; and, the fuel dispensing line does not 
exceed 50 feet (15 240 mm) in length. 

The fueling operator shall monitor the panel of the fuel- 
ing equipment and the aircraft control panel during pressure 
fueling or shall monitor the fill port during overwing fuel- 
ing. 

1106.5.5 Fuel flow control. Fuel flow-control valves shall 
be operable only by the direct hand pressure of the operator. 
Removal of the operator's hand pressure shall cause an 
immediate cessation of the flow of fuel. 

1106.6 Emergency fuel shutoff. Emergency fuel shutoff con- 
trols and procedures shall comply with Sections 1106.6.1 
through 1106.6.4. 

1106.6.1 Accessibility. Emergency fuel shutoff controls 
shall be readily accessible at all times when the fueling sys- 
tem is being operated. 

1106.6.2 Notification of the fire department. The fuel- 
ing-system operator shall establish a procedure by which 
the fire department will be notified in the event of an activa- 
tion of an emergency fuel shutoff control. 

1106.6.3 Determining cause. Prior to reestablishment of 
normal fuel flow, the cause of fuel shutoff conditions shall 
be determined and corrected. 

1106.6.4 Testing. Emergency fuel shutoff devices shall be 
operationally tested at intervals not exceeding three months. 
The fueling-system operator shall maintain suitable records 
of these tests. 

1106.7 Protection of hoses. Before an aircraft-fueling vehicle 
is moved, fuel transfer hoses shall be properly placed on the 
approved reel or in the compartment provided, or stored on the 
top decking of the fueling vehicle if proper height rail is pro- 
vided for security and protection of such equipment. 
Fuel-transfer hose shall not be looped or draped over any part 
of the fueling vehicle, except as herein provided. Fuel-transfer 
hose shall not be dragged when such fueling vehicle is moved 
from one fueling position to another. 

1106.8 Loading and unloading. Aircraft-fueling vehicles 
shall be loaded only at an approved loading rack. Such loading 
racks shall be in accordance with Section 3406.5.1.12. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Aircraft-refueling units may be loaded from the fuel 
tanks of an aircraft during defueling operations. 



146 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE'^ 



AVIATION FACILITIES 



2. Fuel transfer between tank vehicles is allowed to be 
performed in accordance with Section 3406.6 when 
the operation is at least 200 feet (60 960 mm) from an 
aircraft. 

The fuel cargo of such units shall be unloaded only by 
approved transfer apparatus into the fuel tanks of aircraft, 
underground storage tanks or approved gravity storage tanks. 

1106.9 Passengers. Passenger traffic is allowed during the 
time fuel transfer operations are in progress, provided the fol- 
lowing provisions are strictly enforced by the owner of the air- 
craft or the owner's authorized employee: 

1 . Smoking and producing an open flame in the cabin of the 
aircraft or the outside thereof within 50 feet (15 240 mm) 
of such aircraft shall be prohibited. 

A qualified employee of the aircraft owner shall be 
responsible for seeing that the passengers are not 
allowed to smoke when remaining aboard the aircraft or 
while going across the ramp from the gate to such air- 
craft, or vice versa. 

2. Passengers shall not be permitted to linger about the 
plane, but shall proceed directly between the loading 
gate and the aircraft. 

3. Passenger loading stands or walkways shall be left in 
loading position until all fuel transfer operations are 
completed. 

4. Fuel transfer operations shall not be performed on the 
main exit side of any aircraft containing passengers 
except when the owner of such aircraft or a capable and 
qualified employee of such owner remains inside the air- 
craft to direct and assist the escape of such passengers 
through regular and emergency exits in the event fire 
should occur during fuel transfer operations. 

1106.10 Sources of ignition. Smoking and producing open 
flames within 50 feet (15 240 mm) of a point where fuel is 
being transferred shall be prohibited. Electrical and 
motor-driven devices shall not be connected to or disconnected 
from an aircraft at any time fueling operations are in progress 
on such aircraft. 

1106.11 Fuel spill prevention and procedures. Fuel spill pre- 
vention and the procedures for handling spills shall comply 
with Sections 1106.11.1 through 1106.11.7. 

1106.11.1 Fuel-service equipment maintenance. Aircraft 
fuel-servicing equipment shall be maintained and kept free 
from leaks. Fuel- servicing equipment that malfunctions or 
leaks shall not be continued in service. 

1106.11.2 Transporting fuel nozzles. Fuel nozzles shall be 
carried utilizing appropriate handles. Dragging fuel nozzles 
along the ground shall be prohibited. 

1106.11.3 Drum fueling. Fueling from drums or other con- 
tainers having a capacity greater than 5 gallons (19 L) shall 
be accomplished with the use of an approved pump. 

1106.11.4 Fuel spill procedures. The fueling-system oper- 
ator shall establish procedures to follow in the event of a fuel 



spill. These procedures shall be comprehensive and shall 
provide for at least all of the following: 

1 . Upon observation of a fuel spill, the aircraft-fueling 
operator shall immediately stop the delivery of fuel 
by releasing hand pressure from the fuel flow-control 
valve. 

2. Failure of the fuel control valve to stop the continued 
spillage of fuel shall be cause for the activation of the 
appropriate emergency fuel shutoff device. 

3. A supervisor for the fueling-system operator shall 
respond to the fuel spill area immediately. 

1106.11.5 Notification of the fire department. The fire 
department shall be notified of any fuel spill which is con- 
sidered a hazard to people or property or which meets one or 
more of the following criteria: 

1. Any dimension of the spill is greater than 10 feet 
(3048 mm). 

2. The spill area is greater than 50 square feet (4.65 m^). 

3. The fuel flow is continuous in nature. 

1106.11.6 Investigation required. An investigation shall 
be conducted by the fueling-system operator of all spills 
requiring notification of the fire department. The investiga- 
tion shall provide conclusive proof of the cause and verifica- 
tion of the appropriate use of emergency procedures. Where 
it is determined that corrective measures are necessary to 
prevent future incidents of the same nature, they shall be 
implemented immediately. 

1106.11.7 Multiple fuel delivery vehicles. Simultaneous 
delivery of fuel from more than one aircraft-fueling vehicle 
to a single aircraft-fueling manifold is prohibited unless 
proper backflow prevention devices are installed to prevent 
fuel flow into the tank vehicles. 

1106.12 Aircraft engines and heaters. Operation of aircraft 
onboard engines and combustion heaters shall be terminated 
prior to commencing fuel service operations and shall remain 
off until the fuel-servicing operation is completed. 

Exception: In an emergency, a single jet engine is allowed 
to be operated during fuel servicing where all of the follow- 
ing conditions are met: 

1 . The emergency shall have resulted from an onboard 
failure of the aircraft's auxiliary power unit. 

2. Restoration of auxiliary power to the aircraft by 
ground support services is not available. 

3. The engine to be operated is either at the rear of the 
aircraft or on the opposite side of the aircraft from the 
fuel seiTice operation. 

4. The emergency operation is in accordance with a 
written procedure approved by the fire code official. 

1106.13 Vehicle and equipment restrictions. During aircraft- 
fueling operations, only the equipment actively involved in the 
fueling operation is allowed within 50 feet (15 240 mm) of the 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE*" 



147 



AVIATION FACILITIES 



aircraft being fueled. Other equipment shall be prohibited in 
this area until the fueling operation is complete. 

Exception: Aircraft-fueling operations utilizing sin- 
gle-point refueling with a sealed, mechanically locked fuel 
line connection and the fuel is not a Class I flammable liq- 
uid. 

A clear space of at least 10 feet (3048 mm) shall be main- 
tained between aircraft fuel-system vent openings and any part 
or portion of aircraft- servicing vehicles or equipment. 

1106.13.1 Overwing fueling. Vehicles or equipment shall 
not be allowed beneath the trailing edge of the wing when 
aircraft fueling takes place over the wing and the aircraft 
fuel-system vents are located on the upper surface of the 
wing. 

1106.14 Electrical equipment. Electrical equipment, includ- 
ing but not limited to, battery chargers, ground or auxiliary 
power units, fans, compressors or tools, shall not be operated, 
nor shall they be connected or disconnected from their power 
source, during fuel service operations. 

1106.14.1 Other equipment. Electrical or other spark-pro- 
ducing equipment shall not be used within 10 feet (3048 
mm) of fueling equipment, aircraft fill or vent points , or spill 
areas unless that equipment is intrinsically safe and 
approved for use in an explosive atmosphere. 

1106.15 Open flames. Open flames and open-flame devices 
are prohibited within 50 feet (15 240 mm) of any aircraft 
fuel-servicing operation or fueling equipment. 

1106.15.1 Other areas. The fire code official is authorized 
to establish other locations where open flames and 
open-flame devices are prohibited. 

1106.15.2 Matches and lighters. Personnel assigned to 
and engaged in fuel-servicing operations shall not carry 
matches or lighters on or about their person. Matches or 
lighters shall be prohibited in, on or about aircraft-fueling 
equipment. 

1106.16 Lightning procedures. The fire code official is autho- 
rized to require the airport authority and the fueling-system 
operator to establish written procedures to follow when light- 
ning flashes are detected on or near the airport. These proce- 
dures shall establish criteria for the suspension and resumption 
of aircraft-fueling operations. 

1106.17 Fuel-transfer locations. Aircraft fuel-transfer opera- 
tions shall be prohibited indoors. 

Exception: In aircraft hangars built in accordance with the 
provisions of the International Building Code for Group 
F-1 occupancies, aircraft fuel-transfer operations are 
allowed where: 

1 . Necessary to accomplish aircraft fuel-system mainte- 
nance operations. Such operations shall be performed 
in accordance with nationally recognized standards; 
or 

2. The fuel being used has a flash point greater than 
100°F (37.8°C). 



1106.17.1 Position of aircraft. Aircraft being fueled shall 
be positioned such that any fuel system vents and other fuel 
tank openings are a minimum of: 

1 . Twenty-five feet (7620 mm) from buildings or struc- 
tures other than jet bridges; and 

2. Fifty feet (15 240 mm) from air intake vents for 
boiler, heater or incinerator rooms. 

1106.17.2 Fire equipment access. Access for fire service 
equipment to aircraft shall be maintained during fuel-ser- 
vicing operations. 

1106.18 Defueling operations. The requirements for fueling 
operations contained in this section shall also apply to aircraft 
defueling operations. Additional procedures shall be estab- 
lished by the fueling-system operator to prevent overfilling of 
the tank vehicle used in the defueling operation. 

1106.19 Maintenance of aircraft-fueling hose. Aircraft-fuel- 
ing hoses shall be maintained in accordance with Sections 
1106.19.1 through 1106.19.4. 

1106.19.1 Inspections. Hoses used to fuel or defuel aircraft 
shall be inspected periodically to ensure their serviceability 
and suitability for continued service. The fuel-service oper- 
ator shall maintain records of all tests and inspections per- 
formed on fueling hoses. Hoses found to be defective or 
otherwise damaged shall be immediately removed from ser- 
vice. 

1106.19.1.1 Daily inspection. Each hose shall be 
inspected daily. This inspection shall include a complete 
visual scan of the exterior for evidence of damage, blis- 
tering or leakage. Each coupling shall be inspected for 
evidence of leaks, slippage or misalignment. 

1106.19.1.2 Monthly inspection. A more thorough 
inspection, including pressure testing, shall be accom- 
plished for each hose on a monthly basis. This inspection 
shall include examination of the fuel delivery inlet screen 
for rubber particles, which indicates problems with the 
hose lining. 

1106.19.2 Damaged hose. Hose that has been subjected to 
severe abuse shall be immediately removed from service. 
Such hoses shall be hydrostatically tested prior to being 
returned to service. 

1106.19.3 Repairing hose. Hoses are allowed to be 
repaired by removing the damaged portion and recoupling 
the undamaged end. When recoupling hoses, only cou- 
plings designed and approved for the size and type of hose in 
question shall be used. Hoses repaired in this manner shall 
be visually inspected and hydrostatically tested prior to 
being placed back in service. 

1106.19.4 New hose. New hose shall be visually inspected 
prior to being placed into service. 

1106.20 Aircraft fuel-servicing vehicles parking. Unat- 
tended aircraft fuel-servicing vehicles shall be parked in areas 
that provide for both the unencumbered dispersal of vehicles in 
the event of an emergency and the control of leakage such that 
adjacent buildings and storm drains are not contaminated by 
leaking fuel. 



148 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE'' 



AVIATION FACILITIES 



1106.20.1 Parking area design. Parking areas for tank 
vehicles shall be designed and utilized such that a clearance 
of 10 feet (3048 mm) is maintained between each parked 
vehicle for fire department access. In addition, a minimum 
clearance of 50 feet (15 240 mm) shall be maintained 
between tank vehicles and parked aircraft and structures 
other than those used for the maintenance and/or garaging 
of aircraft fuel-servicing vehicles. 

1106.21 Radar equipment. Aircraft fuel-servicing operations 
shall be prohibited while the weather-mapping radar of that air- 
craft is operating. 

Aircraft fuel-servicing or other operations in which flamma- 
ble liquids, vapors or mists may be present shall not be con- 
ducted within 300 feet (91 440 mm) of an operating aircraft 
surveillance radar. 

Aircraft fuel-servicing operations shall not be conducted 
within 300 feet (91 440 mm) of airport flight traffic surveil- 
lance radar equipment. 

Aircraft fuel-servicing or other operations in which flamma- 
ble liquids, vapors or mists may be present shall not be con- 
ducted within 100 feet (30 480 mm) of airport ground traffic 
surveillance radar equipment. 

1106.21.1 Direction of radar beams. The beam from 
ground radar equipment shall not be directed toward fuel 
storage or loading racks. 

Exceptions: 

1. Fuel storage and loading racks in excess of 300 
feet (9 1 440 mm) from airport flight traffic surveil- 
lance equipment. 

2. Fuel storage and loading racks in excess of 100 
feet (30 480 mm) from airport ground traffic sur- 
veillance equipment. 



or heliport is located. All portions of the helistop and heliport 
area shall be within 150 feet (45 720 mm) of a 2.5-inch (63.5 
mm) outlet on a Class I or III standpipe. 

1107.6 Foam protection. Foam fire-protection capabilities 
shall be provided for rooftop heliports. Such systems shall be 
designed, installed and maintained in accordance with the 
applicable provisions of Sections 903, 904 and 905. 

1107.7 Fire extinguishers. A minimum of one portable fire 
extinguisher having a minimum 80-B:C rating shall be pro- 
vided for each permanent takeoff and landing area and for the 
aircraft parking areas. Installation, inspection and maintenance 
of these extinguishers shall be in accordance with Section 906. 

1107.8 Federal approval. Before operating helicopters from 
helistops and heliports, approval shall be obtained from the 
Federal Aviation Administration. 



SECTION 1107 
HELISTOPS AND HELIPORTS 

1107.1 General. Helistops and heliports shall be maintained in 
accordance with Sections 1107. 2 through 1107.8. Helistops 
and heliports on buildings shall be constructed in accordance 
with the International Building Code. 

1107.2 Clearances. The touchdown area shall be surrounded 
on all sides by a clear area having minimum average width at 
roof level of 15 feet (4572 mm) but no width less than 5 feet 
(1524 mm). The clear area shall be maintained. 

1107.3 Flammable and Class II combustible liquid spillage. 

Landing areas on structures shall be maintained so as to confine 
flammable or Class II combustible liquid spillage to the land- 
ing area itself, and provisions shall be made to drain such spill- 
age away from exits or stairways serving the helicopter landing 
area or from a structure housing such exit or stairway. 

1107.4 Exits. Exits and stairways shall be maintained in accor- 
dance with Section 412.5 of the International Building Code. 

1107.5 Standpipe systems. Where a building with a rooftop 
helistop or heliport is equipped with a standpipe system, the 
system shall be extended to the roof level on which the helistop 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE*" 



149 



150 2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE'' 



CHAPTER 12 

DRY CLEANING 



SECTION 1201 
GENERAL 

1201.1 Scope. Dry cleaning plants and their operations shall 
comply with the requirements of this chapter. 

1201.2 Permit required. Permits shall be required as set forth 
in Section 105.6. 



SECTION 1202 
DEFINITIONS 

1202.1 Definitions. The following words and terms shall, for 
the purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this code, 
have the meanings shown herein. 

DRY CLEANING. The process of removing dirt, grease, 
paints and other stains from such items as wearing apparel, tex- 
tiles, fabrics and rugs by use of nonaqueous liquids (solvents). 

DRY CLEANING PLANT. A facility in which dry cleaning 
and associated operations are conducted, including the office, 
receiving area and storage rooms. 

DRY CLEANING ROOM. An occupiable space within a 
building used for performing dry cleaning operations, the 
installation of solvent-handling equipment or the storage of dry 
cleaning solvents. 

DRY CLEANING SYSTEM. Machinery or equipment in 
which textiles are immersed or agitated in solvent or in which 
dry cleaning solvent is extracted from textiles. 

SOLVENT OR LIQUID CLASSIFICATIONS. A method 
for classifying solvents or liquids according to the following 
classes: 

Class I solvents. Liquids having a flash point below 100°F 
(38°C). 

Class II solvents. Liquids having a flash point at or above 
100°F (38°C) and below 140°F (60°C). 

Class IIIA solvents. Liquids having a flash point at or 
above 140°F (60°C) and below 200°F (93°C). 

Class IIIB solvents. Liquids having a flash point at or above 
200°F (93°C). 

Class IV solvents. Liquids classified as nonflammable. 



SECTION 1203 
CLASSIFICATIONS 

1203.1 Solvent classification. Dry cleaning solvents shall be 
classified according to their flash points as follows: 

1 . Class I solvents are liquids having a flash point below 
100°F (38°C). 

2. Class II solvents are liquids having a flash point at or 
above 100°F (38°C) and below 140°F (60°C). 



3. Class IIIA solvents are liquids having a flash point at or 
above 140°F (60°C) and below 200°F (93°C). 

4. Class IIIB solvents are liquids having a flash point at or 
above 200°F (93°C). 

5 . Class IV solvents are liquids classified as nonflammable. 

1203.2 Classification of dry cleaning plants and systems. 

Dry cleaning plants and systems shall be classified based on the 
solvents used as follows: 

1 . Type I — systems using Class I solvents. 

2. Type II — systems using Class II solvents. 

3. Type III- A — systems using Class IIIA solvents. 

4. Type III-B — systems using Class IIIB solvents. 

5. Type IV — systems using Class IV solvents in which dry 
cleaning is not conducted by the public. 

6. Type V — systems using Class IV solvents in which dry 
cleaning is conducted by the public. 

Spotting and pretreating operations conducted in accor- 
dance with Section 1206 shall not change the type of the dry 
cleaning plant. 

1203.2.1 Multiple solvents. Dry cleaning plants using 
more than one class of solvent for dry cleaning shall be clas- 
sified based on the numerically lowest solvent class. 

1203.3 Design. The occupancy classification, design and con- 
struction of dry cleaning plants shall comply with the applica- 
ble requirements of the International Building Code. 



SECTION 1204 
GENERAL REQUIREMENTS 

1204.1 Prohibited use. Type I dry cleaning plants shall be pro- 
hibited. Limited quantities of Class I solvents stored and used 
in accordance with this section shall not be prohibited in dry 
cleaning plants. 

1204.2 Building services. Building services and systems shall 
be designed, installed and maintained in accordance with this 
section and Chapter 6. 

1204.2.1 Ventilation. Ventilation shall be provided in 
accordance with Section 502 of the International Mechani- 
cal Code and DDL 29 CFR Part 1910. 1000, where applica- 
ble. 

1204.2.2 Heating. In Type II dry cleaning plants, heating 
shall be by indirect means using steam, hot water or hot oil 
only. 

1204.2.3 Electrical wiring and equipment. Electrical wir- 
ing and equipment in dry cleaning rooms or other locations 
subject to flammable vapors shall be installed in accordance 
with the ICC Electrical Code. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE*' 



151 



DRY CLEANING 



1204.2.4 Bonding and grounding. Storage tanks, treat- 
ment tanks, filters, pumps, piping, ducts, dry cleaning units, 
stills, tumblers, drying cabinets and other such equipment, 
where not inherently electrically conductive, shall be 
bonded together and grounded. Isolated equipment shall be 
grounded. 



SECTION 1205 
OPERATING REQUIREMENTS 

1205.1 General. The operation of dry cleaning systems shall 
comply with the requirements of Sections 1205.1.1 through 
1205.3. 

1205.1.1 Written instructions. Written instructions cover- 
ing the proper installation and safe operation and use of 
equipment and solvent shall be given to the buyer. 

1205.1.1.1 Type II, III-A, III-B and IV systems. In 

Type II, III-A, III-B and IV dry cleaning systems, 
machines shall be operated in accordance with the oper- 
ating instructions furnished by the machinery manufac- 
turer. Employees shall be instructed as to the hazards 
involved in their departments and in the work they per- 
form. 

1205.1.1.2 Type V systems. Operating instructions for 
customer use of Type V dry cleaning systems shall be 
conspicuously posted in a location near the dry cleaning 
unit. A telephone number shall be provided for emer- 
gency assistance. 

1205.1.2 Equipment identification. The manufacturer 
shall provide nameplates on dry cleaning machines indicat- 
ing the class of solvent for which each machine is designed. 

1205.1.3 Open systems prohibited. Dry cleaning by 
immersion and agitation in open vessels shall be prohibited. 

1205.1.4 Prohibited use of solvent. The use of solvents 
with a flash point below that for which a machine is 
designed or listed shall be prohibited. 

1205.1.5 Equipment maintenance and housekeeping. 

Proper maintenance and operating practices shall be 
observed in order to prevent the leakage of solvent or the 
accumulation of lint. The handling of waste material gener- 
ated by dry cleaning operations and the maintenance of 
facilities shall comply with the provisions of this section. 

1205.1.5.1 Floors. Class I and II liquids shall not be used 
for cleaning floors. 

1205.1.5.2 Filters. Filter residue and other residues con- 
taining solvent shall be handled and disposed of in cov- 
ered metal containers. 

1205.1.5.3 Lint. Lint and refuse shall be removed from 
traps daily, deposited in approved waste cans, removed 
from the premises, and disposed of safely. At all other 
times, traps shall be held securely in place. 

1205.1.5.4 Customer areas. In Type V dry cleaning sys- 
tems, customer areas shall be kept clean. 



1205.2 Type II systems. Special operating requirements for 
Type II dry cleaning systems shall comply with the provisions 
of Sections 1205.2.1 through 1205.2.3. 

1205.2.1 Inspection of materials. Materials to be dry 
cleaned shall be searched thoroughly and foreign materials, 
including matches and metallic substances, shall be 
removed. 

1205.2.2 Material transfer. In removing materials from the 
washer, provisions shall be made for minimizing the drip- 
ping of solvent on the floor. Where materials are transferred 
from a washer to a drain tub, a nonferrous metal drip apron 
shall be placed so that the apron rests on the drain tub and the 
cylinder of the washer. 

1205.2.3 Ventilation. A mechanical ventilation system 
which is designed to exhaust 1 cubic foot of air per minute 
for each square foot of floor area [0.0058 mV(s • m^)] shall 
be installed in dry cleaning rooms and in drying rooms. The 
ventilation system shall operate automatically when the dry 
cleaning equipment is in operation and shall have manual 
controls at an approved location. 

1205.3 Type IV and V systems. Type IV and V dry cleaning 
systems shall be provided with an automatically activated 
exhaust ventilation system to maintain a minimum of 100 feet 
per minute (0.51 m/s) air velocity through the loading door 
when the door is opened. Such systems for dry cleaning equip- 
ment shall comply with the International Mechanical Code. 

Exception: Dry cleaning units are not required to be pro- 
vided with exhaust ventilation where an exhaust hood is 
installed immediately outside of and above the loading door 
which operates at an airflow rate as follows: 



where: 



(Equation 12-1) 



Q = flow rate exhausted through the hood, cubic feet per 
minute (m^/s). 

A^o= area of the loading door, square feet (m^). 



SECTION 1206 
SPOTTING AND PRETREATING 

1206.1 General. Spotting and pretreating operations and 
equipment shall comply with the provisions of Sections 1206.2 
through 1206.5. 

1206.2 Type I solvents. The maximum quantity of Type I sol- 
vents permitted at any work station shall be 1 gallon (4 L). 
Class I solvents shall be stored in approved safety cans or in 
sealed DOTn-approved metal shipping containers of not more 
than 1 -gallon (4 L) capacity. Dispensing shall be from 
approved safety cans. 

1206.3 Type II and III solvents. Scouring, brushing, and spot- 
ting and pretreating shall be conducted with Class II or III sol- 
vents. The maximum quantity of Type II or III solvents 
permitted at any work station shall be 1 gallon (4 L). In other 
than a Group H-2 occupancy, the aggregate quantities of sol- 
vents shall not exceed the maximum allowable quantity per 
control area for use-open system. 



152 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE'' 



DRY CLEANING 



1206.3.1 Spotting tables. Scouring, brushing or spotting 
tables on which articles are soaked in solvent shall have a 
liquid-tight top with a curb on all sides not less than 1 inch 
(25 mm) high. The top of the table shall be pitched to ensure 
thorough draining to a 1.5-inch (38 mm) drain connected to 
an approved container. 

1206.3.2 Special handling. When approved, articles that 
cannot be washed in the usual washing machines are 
allowed to be cleaned in scrubbing tubs. Scrubbing tubs 
shall comply with the following: 

1 . Only Class II or III liquids shall be used. 

2. The total amount of solvent used in such open con- 
tainers shall not exceed 3 gallons (11 L). 

3. Scrubbing tubs shall be secured to the floor. 

4. Scrubbing tubs shall be provided with permanent 1 .5- 
inch (38 mm) drains. Such drain shall be provided 
with a trap and shall be connected to an approved con- 
tainer. 

1206.3.3 Ventilation. Scrubbing tubs, scouring, brushing 
or spotting operations shall be located such that solvent 
vapors are captured and exhausted by the ventilating sys- 
tem. 

1206.3.4 Bonding and grounding. Metal scouring, brush- 
ing and spotting tables and scrubbing tubs shall be perma- 
nently and effectively bonded and grounded. 

1206.4 Type IV systems. Flammable and combustible liquids 
used for spotting operations shall be stored in approved safety 
cans or in sealed DOTn-approved metal shipping containers of 
not more than 1 gallon (4 L) in capacity. Dispensing shall be 
from approved safety cans. Aggregate amounts shall not 
exceed 10 gallons (38 L). 

1206.5 Type V systems. Spotting operations using flammable 
or combustible liquids are prohibited in Type V dry cleaning 
systems. 



SECTION 1207 
DRY CLEANING SYSTEMS 

1207.1 General equipment requirements. Dry cleaning sys- 
tems, including dry cleaning units, washing machines, stills, 
drying cabinets, tumblers, and their appurtenances, including 
pumps, piping, valves, filters and solvent coolers, shall be 
installed and maintained in accordance with NFPA 32. The 
construction of buildings in which such systems are located 
shall comply with the requirements of this section and the 
International Building Code. B:C portable fire extinguishers 
shall be provided near the doors inside dry cleaning rooms con- 
taining Type II, Type III-A and Type III-B dry cleaning sys- 
tems. 

1207.2 Type II systems. Type II dry cleaning and solvent tank 
storage rooms shall not be located below grade or above the 
lowest floor level of the building and shall comply with Sec- 
tions 1207.2.1 through 1207.2.3. 

Exception: Solvent storage tanks installed underground, in 
vaults or in special enclosures in accordance with Chapter 
34. 



1207.2.1 Fire-fighting access. Type II dry cleaning plants 
shall be located so that access is provided and maintained 
from one side for fire-fighting and fire control purposes in 
accordance with Section 503. 

1207.2.2 Number of means of egress. Type II dry cleaning 
rooms shall have not less than two means of egress doors 
located at opposite ends of the room, at least one of which 
shall lead directly to the outside. 

1207.2.3 Spill control and secondary containment. 

Curbs, drains, or other provisions for spill control and sec- 
ondary containment shall be provided in accordance with 
Section 2704.2 to collect solvent leakage and fire protection 
water and direct it to a safe location. 

1207.3 Solvent storage tanks. Solvent storage tanks for Class 
II, IIIA and IIIB liquids shall conform to the requirements of 
Chapter 34 and be located underground or outside, above 
ground. 

Exception: As provided in NFPA 32 for inside storage or 
treatment tanks. 



SECTION 1208 
FIRE PROTECTION 

1208.1 General. Where required by this section, fire protec- 
tion systems, devices and equipment shall be installed, 
inspected, tested and maintained in accordance with Chapter 9. 

1208.2 Automatic sprinkler system. An automatic sprinkler 
system shall be installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 
throughout dry cleaning plants containing Type II, Type III-A 
or Type III-B dry cleaning systems. 

1208.3 Automatic fire-extinguishing systems. Type II dry 
cleaning units, washer-extractors, and drying tumblers in Type 
II dry cleaning plants shall be provided with an approved auto- 
matic fire-extinguishing system installed and maintained in 
accordance with Chapter 9. 

Exception: Where approved, a manual steam jet not less 
than 0.75 inch (19 mm) with a continuously available steam 
supply at a pressure not less than 15 pounds per square inch 
gauge (psig) (103 kPa) is allowed to be substituted for the 
automatic fire-extinguishing system. 

1208.4 Portable fire extinguishers. Portable fire 
extinguishers shall be selected, installed and maintained in 
accordance with this section and Section 906. A minimum of 
two 2-A:10-B:C portable fire extinguishers shall be provided 
near the doors inside dry cleaning rooms containing Type II, 
Type III-A and Type III-B dry cleaning systems. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE'' 



153 



154 2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE^ 



CHAPTER 13 

COMBUSTIBLE DUST-PRODUCING OPERATIONS 



SECTION 1301 
GENERAL 

1301.1 Scope. The equipment, processes and operations 
involving dust explosion hazards shall comply with the provi- 
sions of this chapter. 

1301.2 Permits. Permits shall be required for combustible 
dust-producing operations as set forth in Section 105.6. 



SECTION 1302 
DEFINITIONS 

1302.1 Definition. The following word and term shall, for the 
purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this code, 
have the meaning shown herein. 

COMBUSTIBLE DUST. Finely divided solid material which 
is 420 microns or less in diameter and which, when dispersed in 
air in the proper proportions, could be ignited by a flame, spark 
or other source of ignition. Combustible dust will pass through 
a U.S. No. 40 standard sieve. 



TABLE 1304.1 
EXPLOSION PROTECTION STANDARDS 



STANDARD 


SUBJECT 


NFPA61 


Agricultural and Food Products 


NFPA69 


Explosion Prevention 


NFPA85 


Boiler and Combustion System Hazards 


NFPA 120 


Coal Preparation Plants 


NFPA484 


Combustible Metals, Metal Powders and • 
Metal Dusts 


NFPA 654 


Manufacturing, Processing and Handling of 
Combustible Particulate Solids 


NFPA 655 


Prevention of Sulfur Fires and Explosions 


NFPA 664 


Prevention of Fires and Explosions in Wood 
Processing and Woodworking Facilities 


ICC Electrical Code 


Electrical Installations 



SECTION 1303 
PRECAUTIONS 

1303.1 Sources of ignition. Smoking or the use of heating or 
other devices employing an open flame, or the use of spark- 
producing equipment is prohibited in areas where combustible 
dust is generated, stored, manufactured, processed or handled. 

1303.2 Housekeeping. Accumulation of combustible dust 
shall be kept to a minimum in the interior of buildings. Accu- 
mulated combustible dust shall be collected by vacuum clean- 
ing or other means that will not place combustible dust into 
suspension in air. Forced air or similar methods shall not be 
used to remove dust from surfaces. 



SECTION 1304 
EXPLOSION PROTECTION 

1304.1 Standards. The fire code official is authorized to 
enforce applicable provisions of the codes and standards listed 
in Table 1304.1 to prevent and control dust explosions. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE*' 



155 



1 56 2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE"" 



CHAPTER 14 

FIRE SAFETY DURING CONSTRUCTION AND DEMOLITION 



SECTION 1401 
GENERAL 

1401.1 Scope. This chapter shall apply to structures in the 
course of construction, alteration, or demolition, including 
those in underground locations. Compliance with NFPA 241 is 
required for items not specifically addressed herein. 

1401.2 Purpose. This chapter prescribes minimum safeguards 
for construction, alteration, and demolition operations to pro- 
vide reasonable safety to life and property from fire during 
such operations. 



SECTION 1402 
DEFINITIONS 

1402.1 Terms defined in Chapter 2. Words and terms used in 
this chapter and defined in Chapter 2 shall have the meanings 
ascribed to them as defined therein. 



SECTION 1403 
TEMPORARY HEATING EQUIPMENT 

1403.1 Listed. Temporary heating devices shall be listed and 
labeled in accordance with the International Mechanical Code 
or the International Fuel Gas Code. Installation, maintenance 
and use of temporary heating devices shall be in accordance 
with the terms of the listing. 

1403.2 Oil-fired heaters. Oil-fired heaters shall comply with 
Section 603. 

1403.3 LP-gas heaters. Fuel supplies for liquefied-petroleum 
gas-fired heaters shall comply with Chapter 38 and the Interna- 
tional Fuel Gas Code. 

1403.4 Refueling. Refueling operations for liquid-fueled 
equipment or appliances shall be conducted in accordance with 
Section 3405. The equipment or appliance shall be allowed to 
cool prior to refueling. 

1403.5 Installation. Clearance to combustibles from tempo- 
rary heating devices shall be maintained in accordance with the 
labeled equipment. When in operation, temporary heating 
devices shall be fixed in place and protected from damage, 
dislodgement or overturning in accordance with the manufac- 
turer's instructions. 

1403.6 Supervision. The use of temporary heating devices 
shall be supervised and maintained only by competent person- 
nel. 



SECTION 1404 
PRECAUTIONS AGAINST FIRE 

1404.1 Smoking. Smoking shall be prohibited except in 
approved areas. Signs shall be posted in accordance with Sec- 
tion 310. In approved areas where smoking is permitted, 



approved ashtrays shall be provided in accordance with Sec- 
tion 310. 

1404.2 Waste disposal. Combustible debris shall not be accu- 
mulated within buildings. Combustible debris, rubbish and 
waste material shall be removed from buildings at the end of 
each shift of work. Combustible debris, rubbish and waste 
material shall not be disposed of by burning on the site unless 
approved. 

1404.3 Open burning. Open burning shall comply with Sec- 
tion 307. 

1404.4 Spontaneous ignition. Materials susceptible to spon- 
taneous ignition, such as oily rags, shall be stored in a listed dis- 
posal container. 

1404.5 Fire watch. When required by the fire code official for 
building demolition that is hazardous in nature, qualified per- 
sonnel shall be provided to serve as an on-site fire watch. Fire 
watch personnel shall be provided with at least one approved 
means for notification of the fire department and their sole duty 
shall be to perform constant patrols and watch for the occur- 
rence of fire. 

1404.6 Cutting and welding. Operations involving the use of 
cutting and welding shall be done in accordance with Chapter 
26. 

1404.7 Electrical. Temporary wiring for electrical power and 
lighting installations used in connection with the construction, 
alteration or demolition of buildings, structures, equipment or 
similar activities shall comply with the ICC Electrical Code. 



SECTION 1405 
FLAMMABLE AND COMBUSTIBLE LIQUIDS 

1405.1 Storage of flammable and combustible liquids. Stor- 
age of flammable and combustible liquids shall be in accor- 
dance with Section 3404. 

1405.2 Class I and Class II liquids. The storage, use and han- 
dling of flammable and combustible liquids at construction 
sites shall be in accordance with Section 3406.2. Ventilation 
shall be provided for operations involving the application of 
materials containing flammable solvents. 

1405.3 Housekeeping. Flammable and combustible liquid 
storage areas shall be maintained clear of combustible vegeta- 
tion and waste materials. Such storage areas shall not be used 
for the storage of combustible materials. 

1405.4 Precautions against fire. Sources of ignition and 
smoking shall be prohibited in flammable and combustible liq- 
uid storage areas. Signs shall be posted in accordance with Sec- 
tion 310. 

1405.5 Handling at point of final use. Class I and II liquids 
shall be kept in approved safety containers. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE'' 



157 



FIRE SAFETY DURING CONSTRUCTION AND DEMOLITION 



1405,6 Leakage and spills. Leaking vessels shall be immedi- 
ately repaired or taken out of service and spills shall be cleaned 
up and disposed of properly. 



SECTION 1406 
FLAMMABLE GASES 

1406.1 Storage and handling. The storage, use and handling 
of flammable gases shall comply with Chapter 35. 



SECTION 1407 
EXPLOSIVE MATERIALS 

1407.1 Storage and handling. Explosive materials shall be 
stored, used and handled in accordance with Chapter 33. 

1407.2 Supervision. Blasting operations shall be conducted in 
accordance with Chapter 33. 

1407.3 Demolition using explosives. Approved fire hoses for 
use by demolition personnel shall be maintained at the demoli- 
tion site whenever explosives are used for demolition. Such fire 
hoses shall be connected to an approved water supply and shall 
be capable of being brought to bear on post-detonation fires 
anywhere on the site of the demolition operation. 



SECTION 1408 

OWNER'S RESPONSIBILITY FOR FIRE 

PROTECTION 

1408.1 Program superintendent. The owner shall designate a 
person to be the Fire Prevention Program Superintendent who 
shall be responsible for the fire prevention program and ensure 
that it is carried out through completion of the project. The fire 
prevention program superintendent shall have the authority to 
enforce the provisions of this chapter and other provisions as 
necessary to secure the intent of this chapter. Where guard ser- 
vice is provided, the superintendent shall be responsible for the 
guard service. 

1408.2 Prefire plans. The fire prevention program superinten- 
dent shall develop and maintain an approved prefire plan in 
cooperation with the fire chief. The fire chief and the fire code 
official shall be notified of changes affecting the utilization of 
information contained in such prefire plans. 

1408.3 Training. Training of responsible personnel in the use 
of fire protection equipment shall be the responsibility of the 
fire prevention program superintendent. 

1408.4 Fire protection devices. The fire prevention program 
superintendent shall determine that all fire protection equip- 
ment is maintained and serviced in accordance with this code. 
The quantity and type of fire protection equipment shall be 
approved. 

1408.5 Hot work operations. The fire prevention program 
superintendent shall be responsible for supervising the permit 
system for hot work operations in accordance with Chapter 26. 

1408.6 Impairment of fire protection systems. Impairments 
to any fire protection system shall be in accordance with Sec- 
tion 901. 



1408.7 Temporary covering of fire protection devices. Cov- 
erings placed on or over fire protection devices to protect them 
from damage during construction processes shall be immedi- 
ately removed upon the completion of the construction pro- 
cesses in the room or area in which the devices are installed. 



SECTION 1409 
FIRE REPORTING 

1409.1 Emergency telephone. Readily accessible emergency 
telephone facilities shall be provided in an approved location at 
the construction site. The street address of the construction site 
and the emergency telephone number of the fire department 
shall be posted adjacent to the telephone. 



SECTION 1410 
ACCESS FOR FIRE FIGHTING 

1410.1 Required access. Approved vehicle access for fire 
fighting shall be provided to all construction or demolition 
sites. Vehicle access shall be provided to within 100 feet (30 
480 mm) of temporary or permanent fire department connec- 
tions. Vehicle access shall be provided by either temporary or 
permanent roads, capable of supporting vehicle loading under 
all weather conditions. Vehicle access shall be maintained until 
permanent fire apparatus access roads are available. 

1410.2 Key boxes. Key boxes shall be provided as required by 
Chapters. 



SECTION 1411 
MEANS OF EGRESS 

[B] 1411.1 Stairways required. Where a building has been 
constructed to a height greater than 50 feet (15 240 mm) or four 
stories, or where an existing building exceeding 50 feet (15 240 
mm) in height is altered, at least one temporary lighted stairway 
shall be provided unless one or more of the permanent stair- 
ways are erected as the construction progresses. 

1411.2 Maintenance. Required means of egress shall be 
maintained during construction and demolition, remodeling or 
alterations and additions to any building. 

Exception: Approved temporary means of egress systems 
and facilities. 

[B] 1411.3 Stairway floor number signs.Temporary stairway 
floor number signs shall be provided in accordance with the 
requirements of Section 1012.1.7. 



SECTION 1412 
WATER SUPPLY FOR FIRE PROTECTION 

1412.1 When required. An approved water supply for fire 
protection, either temporary or permanent, shall be made avail- 
able as soon as combustible material arrives on the site. 



158 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE*" 



FIRE SAFETY DURING CONSTRUCTION AND DEMOLITION 



SECTION 1413 
STANDPIPES 

1413.1 Where required. Buildings four or more stories in 
height shall be provided with not less than one standpipe for 
use during construction. Such standpipes shall be installed 
when the progress of construction is not more than 40 feet (12 
192 mm) in height above the lowest level of fire department 
access. Such standpipe shall be provided with fire department 
hose connections at accessible locations adjacent to usable 
stairs. Such standpipes shall be extended as construction pro- 
gresses to within one floor of the highest point of construction 
having secured decking or flooring. 

1413.2 Buildings being demolished. Where a building is 
being demolished and a standpipe is existing within such a 
building, such standpipe shall be maintained in an operable 
condition so as to be available for use by the fire department. 
Such standpipe shall be demolished with the building but shall 
not be demolished more than one floor below the floor being 
demohshed. 

1413.3 Detailed requirements. Standpipes shall be installed 
in accordance with the provisions of Section 905. 

Exception: Standpipes shall be either temporary or perma- 
nent in nature, and with or without a water supply, provided 
that such standpipes comply with the requirements of Sec- 
tion 905 as to capacity, outlets and materials. 



SECTION 1414 
AUTOMATIC SPRINKLER SYSTEM 

1414.1 Completion before occupancy. In buildings where an 
automatic sprinkler system is required by this code or the Inter- 
national Building Code, it shall be unlawful to occupy any por- 
tion of a building or structure until the automatic sprinkler 
system installation has been tested and approved, except as 
provided in Section 105.3.3. 

1414.2 Operation of valves. Operation of sprinkler control 
valves shall be allowed only by properly authorized personnel 
and shall be accompanied by notification of duly designated 
parties. When the sprinkler protection is being regularly turned 
off and on to facilitate connection of newly completed seg- 
ments, the sprinkler control valves shall be checked at the end 
of each work period to ascertain that protection is in service. 



SECTION 1416 
MOTORIZED EQUIPMENT 

1416.1 Conditions of use. Intemal-combustion-powered con- 
struction equipment shall be used in accordance with all of the 
following conditions: 

1 . Equipment shall be located so that exhausts do not dis- 
charge against combustible material. 

2. Exhausts shall be piped to the outside of the building. 

3. Equipment shall not be refueled while in operation. 

4. Fuel for equipment shall be stored in an approved area 
outside of the building. 



SECTION 1417 
SAFEGUARDING ROOFING OPERATIONS 

1417.1 General. Roofing operations utilizing heat-producing 
systems or other ignition sources shall be performed by a con- 
tractor licensed and bonded for the type of roofing process to be 
performed. 

1417.2 Asphalt and tar kettles. Asphalt and tar kettles shall be 
operated in accordance with Section 303. 

1417.3 Fire extinguishers for roofing operations. Fire 
extinguishers shall comply with Section 906. There shall be not 
less than one multipurpose portable fire extinguisher with a 
minimum 3- A 40-B:C rating on the roof being covered or 
repaired. 



SECTION 1415 
PORTABLE FIRE EXTINGUISHERS 

1415.1 Where required. Structures under construction, alter- 
ation or demolition shall be provided with not less than one 
approved portable fire extinguisher in accordance with Section 
906 and sized for not less than ordinary hazard as follows: 

1 . At each stairway on all floor levels where combustible 
materials have accumulated. 

2. In every storage and construction shed. 

3. Additional portable fire extinguishers shall be provided 
where special hazards exist including, but not limited to, 
the storage and use of flammable and combustible liq- 
uids. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE'' 



159 



160 2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE'' 



CHAPTER 15 

FLAMMABLE FINISHES 



SECTION 1501 
GENERAL 

1501.1 Scope. This chapter shall apply to locations or areas 
where any of the following activities are conducted: 

1 . The application of flammable or combustible paint, var- 
nish, lacquer, stain, fiberglass resins or other flammable 
or combustible liquid applied by means of spray appara- 
tus in continuous or intermittent processes. 

2. Dip-tank operations in which articles or materials are 
passed through contents of tanks, vats or containers of 
flammable or combustible liquids, including coating, 
finishing, treatment and similar processes. 

3. The application of combustible powders when applied 
by powder spray guns, electrostatic powder spray guns, 
fluidized beds or electrostatic fluidized beds. 

4. Floor surfacing or finishing operations in areas exceed- 
ing 350 square feet (32.5 m^). 

5 . The apphcation of dual-component coatings or Class I or 
II liquids when applied by brush or roller in quantities 
exceeding 1 gallon (4 L). 

6. Spraying and dipping operations. 

1501.2 Permits. Permits shall be required as set forth in Sec- 
tions 105.6 and 105.7. 



SECTION 1502 
DEFINITIONS 

1502.1 Definitions. The following words and terms shall, for 
the purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this code, 
have the meanings shown herein. 

DETEARING. A process for rapidly removing excess wet 
coating material from a dipped or coated object or material by 
passing it through an electrostatic field. 

DIP TANK. A tank, vat or container of flammable or combus- 
tible liquid in which articles or materials are immersed for the 
purpose of coating, finishing, treating and similar processes. 

ELECTROSTATIC FLUIDIZED BED. A container holding 
powder coating material that is aerated from below so as to 
form an air-supported expanded cloud of such material that is 
electrically charged with a charge opposite to that of the object 
to be coated. Such object is transported through the container 
immediately above the charged and aerated materials in order 
to be coated. 

FLAMMABLE FINISHES. Material coatings in which the 
material being applied is a flammable liquid, combustible liq- 
uid, combustible powder or flammable or combustible gel 
coating. 

FLAMMABLE VAPOR AREA. An area in which the con- 
centration of flammable constituents (vapor, gas, fume, mist or 



dust) in air exceeds 25 percent of their lower flanMnable limit 
(LFL) because of the flammable finish processes operation. It 
shall include: 

1 . The interior of spray booths. 

2. The interior of ducts exhausting from spraying pro- 
cesses. 

3. Any area in the direct path of spray or any area contain- 
ing dangerous quantities of air-suspended powder, com- 
bustible residue, dust, deposits, vapor or mists as a result 
of spraying operations. 

4. The area in the vicinity of dip tanks, drain boards or asso- 
ciated drying, conveying or other equipment during 
operation or shutdown periods. 

The fire code official is authorized to determine the extent of 
the flammable vapor area, taking into consideration the mate- 
rial characteristics of the flammable materials, the degree of 
sustained ventilation and the nature of the operations. 

FLUIDIZED BED. A container holding powder coating 
material that is aerated from below so as to form an air-sup- 
ported expanded cloud of such material through which the pre- 
heated object to be coated is immersed and transported. 

LIMITED SPRAYING SPACE. An area in which operations 
for touch-up or spot painting of a surface area of 9 square feet 
(0.84 m^) or less are conducted. 

RESIN APPLICATION AREA. An area where reinforced 
plastics are used to manufacture products by hand lay-up or 
spray-fabrication methods. 

ROLL COATING. The process of coating, spreading and 
impregnating fabrics, paper or other materials as they are 
passed directly through a tank or trough containing flammable 
or combustible liquids, or over the surface of a roller revolving 
partially submerged in a flammable or combustible liquid. 

SPRAY BOOTH. A mechanically ventilated appliance of 
varying dimensions and construction provided to enclose or 
accommodate a spraying operation and to confine and limit the 
escape of spray vapor and residue and to exhaust it safely. 

SPRAY ROOM. A room designed to accommodate spraying 
operations constructed in accordance with the International 
Building Code and separated from the remainder of the build- 
ing by a minimum 1-hour fire barrier. 

SPRAYING SPACE. An area in which dangerous quantities 
of flammable vapors or combustible residues, dusts or deposits 
are present due to the operation of spraying processes. The fire 
code official is authorized to define the limits of the spraying 
space in any specific case. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE'' 



161 



FLAMMABLE FINISHES 



SECTION 1503 
PROTECTION OF OPERATIONS 

1503.1 General. Operations covered by this chapter shall be 
protected as required by Sections 1503.2 through 1503.4.4. 

1503.2 Sources of ignition. Protection against sources of igni- 
tion shall be provided in accordance with Sections 1503.2.1 
through 1503.2.8. 

1503.2.1 Electrical wiring and equipment. Electrical wir- 
ing and equipment shall comply with this chapter and the 
ICC Electrical Code. 

1503.2.1.1 Flammable vapor areas. Electrical wiring 
and equipment in flammable vapor areas shall be of an 
explosionproof type approved for use in such hazardous 
locations. Such areas shall be considered to be Class I, 
Division 1 or Class H, Division 1 hazardous locations in 
accordance with the ICC Electrical Code. 

1503.2.1.2 Areas subject to deposits of residues. Elec- 
trical equipment, flanomable vapor areas or drying oper- 
ations that are subject to splashing or dripping of liquids 
shall be specifically approved for locations containing 
deposits of readily ignitable residue and explosive 
vapors. 

Exceptions: 

1 . This provision shall not apply to wiring in rigid 
conduit, threaded boxes or fittings not contain- 
ing taps, splices or terminal connections. 

2. This provision shall not apply to electrostatic 
equipment allowed by Section 1507. 

In resin application areas, electrical wiring and equip- 
ment that is subject to deposits of combustible residues 
shall be listed for such exposure and shall be installed as 
required for hazardous (classified) locations. Electrical 
wiring and equipment not subject to deposits of combus- 
tible residues shall be installed as required for ordinary 
hazard locations. 

1503.2.1.3 Areas adjacent to spray booths. Electrical 
wiring and equipment located outside of, but within 5 
feet (1524 mm) horizontally and 3 feet (914 mm) verti- 
cally of openings in a spray booth or a spray room, shall 
be approved for Class I, Division 2 or Class II, Division 2 
hazardous locations, whichever is applicable. 

1503.2.1.4 Areas subject to overspray deposits. Elec- 
trical equipment in flanmiable vapor areas located such 
that deposits of combustible residues could readily accu- 
mulate thereon shall be specifically approved for loca- 
tions containing deposits of readily ignitable residue and 
explosive vapors in accordance with the ICC Electrical 
Code. 

Exceptions: 

1. Wiring in rigid conduit. 

2. Boxes or fittings not containing taps, splices or 
terminal connections. 

3. Equipment allowed by Sections 1504 and 1507 
and Chapter 21. 



1503.2.2 Open flames and sparks. Open flames and 
spark-producing devices shall not be located in flammable 
vapor areas and shall not be located within 20 feet (6096 
mm) of such areas unless separated by a permanent parti- 
tion. 

Exception: Drying and baking apparatus complying 
with Section 1504.6.1.2. 

1503.2.3 Hot surfaces. Heated surfaces having a tempera- 
ture sufficient to ignite vapors shall not be located in flam- 
mable vapor areas. Space-heating appliances, steam pipes 
or hot surfaces in a flammable vapor area shall be located 
such that they are not subject to accumulation of deposits of 
combustible residues. 

Exception: Drying apparatus complying with Section 
1504.6.1.2. 

1503.2.4 Equipment enclosures. Equipment or apparatus 
that is capable of producing sparks or particles of hot metal 
that would fall into a flammable vapor area shall be totally 
enclosed. 

1503.2.5 Grounding. Metal parts of spray booths, exhaust 
ducts and piping systems conveying Class I or II liquids 
shall be electrically grounded in accordance with the ICC 
Electrical Code. Metallic parts located in resin application 
areas, including but not limited to exhaust ducts, ventilation 
fans, spray application equipment, workpieces and piping, 
shall be electrically grounded. 

1503.2.6 Smoking prohibited. Smoking shall be prohib- 
ited in flammable vapor areas and hazardous materials stor- 
age rooms associated with flammable finish processes. "No 
Smoking" signs complying with Section 310 shall be con- 
spicuously posted in such areas. 

1503.2.7 Welding warning signs. Welding, cutting and 
similar spark-producing operations shall not be conducted 
in or adjacent to flammable vapor areas or dipping or coat- 
ing operations unless precautions have been taken to pro- 
vide safety. Conspicuous signs with the following warning 
shall be posted in the vicinity of flammable vapor areas, dip- 
ping operations and paint storage rooms: 

NO WELDING 

THE USE OF WELDING OR CUTTING 

EQUIPMENT IN OR NEAR THIS AREA 

IS DANGEROUS BECAUSE OF FIRE 

AND EXPLOSION HAZARDS. WELDING 

AND CUTTING SHALL BE DONE ONLY 

UNDER THE SUPERVISION OF THE 

PERSON IN CHARGE. 

1503.2.8 Powered industrial trucks. Powered industrial 
trucks used in electrically classified areas shall be listed for 
such use. 

1503.3 Storage, use and handling of flammable and com- 
bustible liquids. The storage, use and handling of flanmiable 
and combustible liquids shall be in accordance with this section 
and Chapter 34. 

1503.3.1 Use. Containers supplying spray nozzles shall be 
of a closed type or provided with metal covers, which are 
kept closed. Containers not resting on floors shall be on 



!• 



162 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE^ 



FLAMMABLE FINISHES 



1 



noncombustible supports or suspended by wire cables. Con- 
tainers supplying spray nozzles by gravity flow shall not 
exceed 10 gallons (37.9 L) in capacity. 

1503.3.2 Valves. Containers and piping to which a hose or 
flexible connection is attached shall be provided with a 
shutoff valve at the connection. Such valves shall be kept 
shut when hoses are not in use. 

1503.3.3 Pumped liquid supplies. Where flammable or 
combustible liquids are supplied to spray nozzles by posi- 
tive displacement pumps, pump discharge lines shall be 
provided with an approved relief valve discharging to pump 
suction or a safe detached location. 

1503.3.4 Liquid transfer. Where a flammable mixture is 
transferred from one portable container to another, a bond 
shall be provided between the two containers. At least one 
container shall be grounded. Piping systems for Class I and 
II liquids shall be permanently grounded. 

1503.3.5 Class I liquids as solvents. Class I Hquids used as 
solvents shall be used in spray gun and equipment cleaning 
machines that have been listed and approved for such pur- 
pose or shall be used in spray booths or spray rooms in 
accordance with Sections 1503.3.5.1 and 1503.3.5.2. 

1503.3.5.1 Listed devices. Cleaning machines for spray 
guns and equipment shall not be located in areas open to 
the public and shall be separated from ignition sources in 
accordance with their listings or by a distance of 3 feet 
(914 mm), whichever is greater. The quantity of solvent 
used in a machine shall not exceed the design capacity of 
the machine. 

1503.3.5.2 Within spray booths and spray rooms. 

When solvents are used for cleaning spray nozzles and 
auxiliary equipment within spray booths and spray 
rooms, the ventilating equipment shall be operated dur- 
ing cleaning. 

1503.3.6 Class II and III liquids. Solvents used outside of 
spray booths, spray rooms or listed and approved spray gun 
and equipment cleaning machines shall be restricted to 
Class II and III liquids. 

1503.4 Operations and maintenance. Flammable vapor 
areas, exhaust fan blades and exhaust ducts shall be kept free 
from the accumulation of deposits of combustible residues. 
Where excessive residue accumulates in such areas, spraying 
operations shall be discontinued until conditions are corrected. 

1503.4.1 Tools. Scrapers, spuds and other tools used for 
cleaning purposes shall be constructed of nonsparking 
materials. 

1503.4.2 Residue. Residues removed during cleaning and 
debris contaminated with residue shall be immediately 
removed from the premises and properly disposed. 

1503.4.3 Waste cans. Approved metal waste cans equipped 
with self-closing lids shall be provided wherever rags or 
waste are impregnated with finishing material. Such rags 
and waste shall be deposited therein immediately after 
being utilized. The contents of waste cans shall be properly 
disposed of at least once daily and at the end of each shift. 



1503.4.4 Solvent recycling. Solvent distillation equipment 
used to recycle and clean dirty solvents shall comply with 
Section 3405.4. 



SECTION 1504 
SPRAY FINISHING 

1504.1 General. The application of flammable or combustible 
liquids by means of spray apparatus in continuous or intermit- 
tent processes shall be in accordance with the requirements of 
Sections 1503 and 1504. 

1504.2 Location of spray-finishing operations. Spray finish- 
ing operations conducted in buildings used for Group A, E, I or 
R occupancies shall be located in a spray room protected with 
an approved automatic sprinkler system installed in accor- 
dance with Section 903.3 . 1 . 1 and separated vertically and hori- 
zontally from other areas in accordance with the International 
Building Code. In other occupancies, spray-finishing opera- 
tions shall be conducted in a spray room, spray booth or spray- 
ing space approved for such use. 

Exceptions: 

1. Automobile undercoating spray operations and 
spray-on automotive lining operations conducted in 
areas with approved natural or mechanical ventilation 
shall be exempt from the provisions of Section 1504 
when approved and where utilizing Class IIIA or IIIB 
combustible liquids. 

2. In buildings other than Group A, E, I or R occupan- 
cies, approved limited spraying space in accordance 
with Section 1504.9. 

3. Resin application areas used for manufacturing of 
reinforced plastics complying with Section 1509 shall 
not be required to be located in a spray room, spray 
booth or spraying space. 

1504.3 Design and construction. Design and construction of 
spray rooms, spray booths and spray spaces shall be in accor- 
dance with Sections 1504.3 through 1504.3.3.1. 

1504.3.1 Spray rooms. Spray rooms shall be constructed 
and designed in accordance with this section and the Inter- 
national Building Code, and shall comply with Sections 
1504.4 through 1504.8. 

1504.3.1.1 Floor. Combustible floor construction in 
spray rooms shall be covered by approved, 
noncombustible, nonsparking material, except where 
combustible coverings, including but not limited to thin 
paper or plastic and strippable coatings, are utilized over 
noncombustible materials to facilitate cleaning opera- 
tions in spray rooms. 

1504.3.2 Spray booths. The design and construction of 
spray booths shall be in accordance with Sections 
1504.3.2.1 through 1504.3.2.6, Sections 1504.4 through 
1504.8 and NFPA 33. 

1504.3.2.1 Construction. Spray booths shall be con- 
structed of approved noncombustible materials. Alumi- 
num shall not be used. Where walls or ceiling assemblies 
are constructed of sheet metal, single-skin assemblies 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE'' 



163 



FLAMMABLE FINISHES 



shall be no thinner than 0.0478 inch (18 gage) (1.2 mm) 
and each sheet of double-skin assemblies shall be no 
thinner than 0.0359 inch (20 gage) (0.9 mm). Structural 
sections of spray booths are allowed to be sealed with 
latex-based or similar caulks and sealants. 

1504.3.2.2 Surfaces. The interior surfaces of spray 
booths shall be smooth; shall be constructed so as to per- 
mit the free passage of exhaust air from all parts of the 
interior, and to facilitate washing and cleaning; and shall 
be designed to confine residues within the booth. Alumi- 
num shall not be used. 

1504.3.2.3 Floor. Combustible floor construction in 
spray booths shall be covered by approved, 
noncombustible, nonsparking material, except where 
combustible coverings, including but not limited to thin 
paper or plastic and strippable coatings, are utilized over 
noncombustible materials to facilitate cleaning opera- 
tions in spray booths. 

1504.3.2.4 Means of egress. Means of egress shall be 
provided in accordance with Chapter 10. 

Exception: Means of egress doors from 
premanufactured spray booths shall not be less than 
30 inches (762 nmi) in width by 80 inches (2032 mm) 
in height. 

1504.3.2.5 Clear space. Spray booths shall be installed 
so that all parts of the booth are readily accessible for 
cleaning. A clear space of not less than 3 feet (914 mm) 
shall be maintained on all sides of the spray booth. This 
clear space shall be kept free of any storage or combusti- 
ble construction. 

Exceptions: 

1. This requirement shall not prohibit locating a 
spray booth closer than 3 feet (914 mm) to or 
directly against an interior partition, wall or 
floor/ceiling assembly that has a fire-resistance 
rating of not less than 1 hour, provided the spray 
booth can be adequately maintained and 
cleaned. 

2. This requirement shall not prohibit locating a 
spray booth closer than 3 feet (914 mm) to an 
exterior wall or a roof assembly, provided the 
wall or roof is constructed of noncombustible 
material and the spray booth can be adequately 
maintained and cleaned. 

1504.3.2.6 Size. The aggregate area of spray booths in a 
building shall not exceed the lesser of 10 percent of the 
area of any floor of a building or the basic area allowed 
for a Group H-2 occupancy without area increases, as set 
forth in the International Building Code. The area of an 
individual spray booth in a building shall not exceed the 
lesser of the aggregate size limit or 1,500 square feet 
(139 m2). 

Exception: One individual booth not exceeding 500 
square feet (46 m^). 

1504.3.3 Spraying spaces. Spraying spaces shall be 
designed and constructed in accordance with the Interna- 



tional Building Code and Sections 1504.3.3.1 and 1504.4 
and through 1504.8 of this code. 

1504.3.3.1 Floor. Combustible floor construction in 
spraying spaces shall be covered by approved, noncom- 
bustible nonsparking material, except where combusti- 
ble coverings, such as thin paper or plastic and strippable 
coatings, are utilized over noncombustible materials to 
facilitate cleaning operations in spraying spaces. 

1504.4 Fire protection. Spray booths and spray rooms shall be 
protected by an approved automatic fire-extinguishing system 
complying with Chapter 9. Protection shall also extend to 
exhaust plenums, exhaust ducts and both sides of dry filters 
when such filters are used. 

1504.4.1 Fire extinguishers. Portable fire extinguishers 
complying with Section 906 shall be provided for spraying 
areas in accordance with the requirements for an extra 
(high) hazard occupancy. 

1504.5 Housekeeping, maintenance and storage of hazard- 
ous materials. Housekeeping, maintenance, storage and use of 
hazardous materials shall be in accordance with Sections 
1503.3, 1503.4, 1504.5.1 and 1504.5.2. 

1504.5.1 Different coatings. Spray booths, spray rooms 
and spraying spaces shall not be alternately utilized for dif- 
ferent types of coating materials where the combination of 
materials is conducive to spontaneous ignition, unless all 
deposits of one material are removed from the booth, room 
or space and exhaust ducts prior to spraying with a different 
material. 

1504.5.2 Protection of sprinklers. Automatic sprinklers 
installed in flammable vapor areas shall be protected from 
the accumulation of residue from spraying operations in an 
approved manner. Bags used as a protective covering shall 
be 0.003-inch-thick (0.076 mm) polyethylene or cellophane 
or shall be thin paper. Automatic sprinklers contaminated 
by overspray particles shall be replaced with new automatic 
sprinklers. 

1504.6 Sources of ignition. Control of sources of ignition shall 
be in accordance with Sections 1503.2 and 1504.6.1 through 
1504.6.2.4. 

1504.6.1 Drying operations. Spray booths and spray 
rooms shall not be alternately used for the purpose of drying 
by arrangements or methods that could cause an increase in 
the surface temperature of the spray booth or spray room 
except in accordance with Sections 1504.6.1.1 and 
1504.6.1.2. Except as specifically provided in this section, 
drying or baking units utilizing a heating system having 
open flames or that are capable of producing sparks shall not 
be installed in a flammable vapor areas. 

1504.6.1.1 Spraying procedure. The spraying proce- 
dure shall use low- volume spray application. 

1504.6.1.2 Drying apparatus. Fixed drying apparatus 
shall comply with this chapter and the applicable provi- 
sions of Chapter 21. When recirculation ventilation is 
provided in accordance with Section 1504.7.2, the heat- 
ing system shall not be within the recirculation air path. 



164 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE'' 



FLAMMABLE FINISHES 



• 



1504.6.1.2.1 Interlocks. The spraying apparatus, 
drying apparatus and ventilating system for the spray 
booth or spray room shall be equipped with interlocks 
arranged to: 

1. Prevent operation of the spraying apparatus 
while drying operations are in progress. 

2. Purge spray vapors from the spray booth or 
spray room for a period of not less than 3 min- 
utes before the drying apparatus is rendered 
operable. 

3. Have the ventilating system maintain a safe 
atmosphere within the spray booth or spray 
room during the drying process and automati- 
cally shut off drying apparatus in the event of a 
failure of the ventilating system. 

4. Shut off the drying apparatus automatically if 
the air temperature within the booth exceeds 
200°F (93°C). 

1504.6.1.2.2 Portable infrared apparatus. When a 
portable infrared drying apparatus is used, electrical 
wiring and portable infrared drying equipment shall 
comply with the ICC Electrical Code. Electrical 
equipment located within 1 8 inches (457 mm) of floor 
level shall be approved for Class I, Division 2 hazard- 
ous locations. Metallic parts of drying apparatus shall 
be electrically bonded and grounded. During spray- 
ing operations, portable drying apparatus and electri- 
cal connections and wiring thereto shall not be located 
within spray booths, spray rooms or other areas where 
spray residue would be deposited thereon. 

1504.6.2 Illumination. Where spraying spaces, spray 
rooms or spray booths are illuminated through glass panels 
or other transparent materials, only fixed luminaires shall be 
utilized as a source of illumination. 

1504.6.2.1 Glass panels. Panels for luminaires or for 
observation shall be of heat-treated glass, wired glass or 
hammered wire glass and shall be sealed to confine 
vapors, mists, residues, dusts and deposits to the flamma- 
ble vapor area. Panels for luminaires shall be separated 
from the luminaire to prevent the surface temperature of 
the panel from exceeding 200°F (93°C). 

1504.6.2.2 Exterior luminaires. Luminaires attached to 
the walls or ceilings of a flammable vapor area, but out- 
side of any classified area and separated from the flam- 
mable vapor areas by vapor-tight glass panels, shall be 
suitable for use in ordinary hazard locations. Such 
luminaires shall be serviced from outside the flammable 
vapor areas. 

1504.6.2.3 Integral luminaires. Luminaires that are an 
integral part of the walls or ceiling of a flancimable vapor 
area are allowed to be separated from the flammable 
vapor area by glass panels that are an integral part of the 
luminaire. Such luminaires shall be listed for use in Class 
I, Division 2 or Class II, Division 2 locations, whichever 
is applicable, and also shall be suitable for accumulations 
of deposits of combustible residues. Such luminaires are 



allowed to be serviced from inside the flammable vapor 
area. 

1504.6.2.4 Portable electric lamps. Portable electric 
lamps shall not be used in flammable vapor areas during 
spraying operations. Portable electric lamps used during 
cleaning or repairing operations shall be of a type 
approved for hazardous locations. 

1504.7 Ventilation. Mechanical ventilation of flammable 
vapor areas shall be provided in accordance with Section 510 
of the International Mechanical Code. 

1504.7.1 Operation. Mechanical ventilation shall be kept 
in operation at all times while spraying operations are being 
conducted and for a sufficient time thereafter to allow 
vapors from drying coated articles and finishing material 
residue to be exhausted. Spraying equipment shall be inter- 
locked with the ventilation of the flammable vapor areas 
such that spraying operations cannot be conducted unless 
the ventilation system is in operation. 

1504.7.2 Recirculation. Air exhausted from spraying oper- 
ations shall not be recirculated. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Air exhausted from spraying operations is allowed 
to be recirculated as makeup air for unmanned 
spray operations, provided that: 

1.1. The solid particulate has been removed. 

1.2. The vapor concentration is less than 25 
percent of the LFL. 

1.3. Approved equipment is used to monitor 
the vapor concentration. 

1.4. When the vapor concentration exceeds 25 
percent of the LFL, the following shall 
occur: 

a. An alarm shall sound; and 

b. Spray operations shall automatically 
shut down. 

1.5. In the event of shutdown of the vapor con- 
centration monitor, 100 percent of the air 
volume specified in Section 510 of the 
International Mechanical Code is auto- 
matically exhausted. 

2. Air exhausted from spraying operations is allowed 
to be recirculated as makeup air to manned spray- 
ing operations where all of the conditions provided 
in Exception 1 are included in the installation and 
documents have been prepared to show that the 
installation does not pose a life safety hazard to 
personnel inside the spray booth, spraying space or 
spray room. 

1504.7.3 Air velocity. Ventilation systems shall be 
designed, installed and maintained such that the average air 
velocity over the open face of the booth, or booth cross sec- 
tion in the direction of airflow during spraying operations, 
shall not be less than 100 feet per minute (0.51 m/s). 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE^ 



165 



FLAMMABLE FINISHES 



1504.7.4 Ventilation obstruction. Articles being sprayed 
shall be positioned in a manner that does not obstruct collec- 
tion of overspray. 

1504.7.5 Independent ducts. Each spray booth and spray 
room shall have an independent exhaust duct system dis- 
charging to the outside. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Multiple spray booths having a combined frontal 
area of 1 8 square feet (1 .67 m^) or less are allowed 
to have a coimnon exhaust when identical spray 
finishing material is used in each booth. If more 
than one fan serves one booth, fans shall be inter- 
connected such that all fans will operate simulta- 
neously. 

2. Where treatment of exhaust is necessary for air 
pollution control or for energy conservation, ducts 
shall be allowed to be manifolded if all of the fol- 
lowing conditions are met: 

2. 1 . The sprayed materials used are compatible 
and will not react or cause ignition of the 
residue in the ducts. 

2.2. Nitrocellulose-based finishing material 
shall not be used. 

2.3. A filtering system shall be provided to 
reduce the amount of overspray carried 
into the duct manifold. 

2.4. Automatic sprinkler protection shall be 
provided at the junction of each booth 
exhaust with the manifold, in addition to 
the protection required by this chapter. 

1504.7.6 Termination point. The termination point for 
exhaust ducts discharging to the atmosphere shall not be 
less than the following distances: 

1. Ducts conveying explosive or flammable vapors, 
fumes or dusts: 30 feet (9144 nran) from the property 
line; 10 feet (3048 mm) from openings into the build- 
ing; 6 feet (1829 mm) from exterior walls and roofs; 
30 feet (9144 mm) from combustible walls or open- 
ings into the building that are in the direction of the 
exhaust discharge; 10 feet (3048 nun) above adjoin- 
ing grade. 

2. Other product-conveying outlets: 10 feet (3048 mm) 
from the property line; 3 feet (914 mm) from exterior 
walls and roofs; 10 feet (3048 mm) from openings 
into the building; 10 feet (3048 mm) above adjoining 
grade. 

1504.7.7 Fan motors and belts. Electric motors driving 
exhaust fans shall not be placed inside booths or ducts. Fan 
rotating elements shall be nonferrous or nonsparking or the 
casing shall consist of, or be lined with, such material. Belts 
shall not enter the duct or booth unless the belt and pulley 
within the duct are tightly enclosed. 

1504.7.8 Filters. Air intake filters that are part of a wall or 
ceiling assembly shall be listed as Class I or II in accordance 
with UL 900. Exhaust filters shall be required. 



1504.7.8.1 Supports. Supports and holders for filters 
shall be constructed of noncombustible materials. 

1504.7.8.2 Attachment. Overspray collection filters 
shall be readily removable and accessible for cleaning or 
replacement. 

1504.7.8.3 Maintaining air velocity. Visible gauges, 
audible alarms or pressure-activated devices shall be 
installed to indicate or ensure that the required air veloc- 
ity is maintained. 

1504.7.8.4 Filter rolls. Spray booths equipped with a fil- 
ter roll that is automatically advanced when the air veloc- 
ity is reduced to less than 100 feet per minute (0.51 m/s) 
shall be arranged to shut down the spraying operation if 
the filter roll fails to advance automatically. 

1504.7.8.5 Filter disposal. Discarded filter pads shall be 
immediately removed to a safe, detached location or 
placed in a noncombustible container with a tight-fitting 
lid and disposed of properly. 

1504.7.8.6 Spontaneous ignition. Spray booths using 
dry filters shall not be used for spraying materials that are 
highly susceptible to spontaneous heating and ignition. 
Filters shall be changed prior to spraying materials that 
could react with other materials previously collected. An 
example of a potentially reactive combination includes 
lacquer when combined with varnishes, stains or prim- 
ers. 

1504.7.8.7 Waterwash spray booths. Waterwash spray 
booths shall be of an approved design so as to prevent 
excessive accumulation of deposits in ducts and residue 
at duct outlets. Such booths shall be arranged so that air 
and overspray are drawn through a continuously flowing 
water curtain before entering an exhaust duct to the 
building exterior. 

1504.8 Interlocks. Interlocks for spray application finishes 
shall be in accordance with Sections 1504.8 through 1504.8.2. 

1504.8.1 Automated spray application operations. 

Where protecting automated spray application operations, 
automatic fire-extinguishing systems shall be equipped 
with an approved interlock feature that will, upon discharge 
of the system, automatically stop the spraying operations 
and workpiece conveyors into and out of the flammable 
vapor areas. Where the building is equipped with a fire 
alarm system, discharge of the automatic fire-extinguishing 
system shall also activate the building alarm notification 
appliances. 

1504.8.1.1 Alarm station. A manual fire alarm and 
emergency system shutdown station shall be installed to 
serve each flammable vapor area. When activated, the 
station shall accomplish the functions indicated in Sec- 
tion 1504.8.1. 

1504.8.1.2 Alarm station location. At least one manual 
fire alarm and emergency system shutdown station shall 
be readily accessible to operating personnel. Where 
access to this station is likely to involve exposure to dan- 
ger, an additional station shall be located adjacent to an 
exit from the area. 



I» 



166 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE*' 



FLAMMABLE FINISHES 



1504.8.2 Ventilation interlock prohibited. Air makeup 
and flammable vapor area exhaust systems shall not be 
interlocked with the fire alarm system and shall remain in 
operation during a fire alarm condition. 

Exception: Where the type of fire-extinguishing system 
used requires such ventilation to be discontinued, air 
makeup and exhaust systems shall shut down and damp- 
ers shall close. 

1504.9 Limited spraying spaces. Limited spraying spaces 
shall comply with Sections 1504.9.1 through 1504.9.4. 

1504.9.1 Job size. The aggregate surface area to be sprayed 
shall not exceed 9 square feet (0.84 m^). 

1504.9.2 Frequency. Spraying operations shall not be of a 
continuous nature. 

1504.9.3 Ventilation. Positive mechanical ventilation pro- 
viding a minimum of six complete air changes per hour shall 
be installed. Such system shall meet the requirements of this 
code for handling flammable vapor areas. Explosion vent- 
ing is not required. 

1504.9.4 Electrical wiring. Electrical wiring within 10 feet 
(3048 mm) of the floor and 20 feet (6096 mm) horizontally 
of the limited spraying space shall be designed for Class I, 
Division 2 locations in accordance with the ICC Electrical 
Code. 



SECTION 1505 
DIPPING OPERATIONS 

1505.1 General. Dip-tank operations shall comply with the 
requirements of Section 1503 and this section. 

1505.2 Location of dip-tank operations. Dip-tank operations 
conducted in buildings used for Group A, I or R occupancies 
shall be located in a room designed for that purpose, equipped 
with an approved automatic sprinkler system and separated 
vertically and horizontally from other areas in accordance with 
the International Building Code. 

1505.3 Construction of dip tanks. Dip tanks shall be con- 
structed in accordance with Sections 1505.3.1 through 
1505.3.4.3 and NFPA 34. Dip tanks, including drain boards, 
shall be constructed of noncombustible material and their sup- 
ports shall be of heavy metal, reinforced concrete or masonry. 

1505.3.1 Overflow. Dip tanks greater than 150 gallons (568 
L) in capacity or 10 square feet (0.93 m^) in liquid surface 
area shall be equipped with a trapped overflow pipe leading 
to an approved location outside the building. The bottom of 
the overflow connection shall not be less than 6 inches (152 
mm) below the top of the tank. 

1505.3.2 Bottom drains. Dip tanks greater than 500 gallons 
(1893 L) in hquid capacity shall be equipped with bottom 
drains that are arranged to automatically and manually drain 
the tank quickly in the event of a fire unless the viscosity of 
the liquid at normal atmospheric temperature makes this 
impractical. Manual operation shall be from a safe, accessi- 
ble location. Where gravity flow is not practicable, auto- 
matic pumps shall be provided. Such drains shall be trapped 



and discharged to a closed, vented salvage tank or to an 
approved outside location. 

Exception: Dip tanks containing Class IIIB combustible 
liquids where the liquids are not heated above room tem- 
perature and the process area is protected by automatic 
sprinklers. 

1505.3.3 Dipping liquid temperature control. Protection 
against the accumulation of vapors, self-ignition and exces- 
sively high temperatures shall be provided for dipping liq- 
uids that are heated directly or heated by the surfaces of the 
object being dipped. 

1505.3.4 Dip-tank covers. Dip-tank covers allowed by 
Section 1505.4.1 shall be capable of manual operation and 
shall be automatic closing by approved automatic-closing 
devices designed to operate in the event of a fire. 

1505.3.4.1 Construction. Covers shall be constructed of 
noncombustible material or be of a tin-clad type with 
enclosing metal applied with locked joints. 

1505.3.4.2 Supports. Chain or wire rope shall be uti- 
lized for cover supports or operating mechanisms. 

1505.3.4.3 Closed covers. Covers shall be kept closed 
when tanks are not in use. 

1505.4 Fire protection. Dip-tank operations shall be protected 
in accordance with Sections 1505.4.1 through 1504.4.2. 

1505.4.1 Fixed fire-extinguishing equipment. An 

approved automatic fire-extinguishing system or dip-tank 
cover in accordance with Section 1505.7 shall be provided 
for the following dip tanks: 

1. Dip tanks less than 150 gallons (568 L) in capacity or 
10 square feet (0.93 m^) in liquid surface area. 

2. Dip tanks containing a liquid with a flash point below 
1 10°F (43 °C) used in such manner that the liquid tem- 
perature could equal or be greater than its flash point 
from artificial or natural causes, and having both a 
capacity of more than 10 gallons (37.9 L) and a liquid 
surface area of more than 4 square feet (0.37 m^). 

1505.4.1.1 Fire-extinguishing system. An approved 
automatic fire-extinguishing system shall be provided 
for dip tanks with a 150-gallon (568 L) or more capacity 
or 10 square feet (0.93 m^) or larger in a liquid surface 
area. Fire-extinguishing system design shall be in accor- 
dance with NFPA 34. 

1505.4.2 Portable fire extinguishers. Areas in the vicinity 
of dip tanks shall be provided with portable fire 
extinguishers complying with Section 906 and suitable for 
flammable and combustible liquid fires as specified for 
extra (high) hazard occupancies. 

1505.5 Housekeeping, maintenance and storage of hazard- 
ous materials. Housekeeping, maintenance, storage and use of 
hazardous materials shall be in accordance with Sections 
1503.3 and 1503.4. 

1505.6 Sources of ignition. Control of sources of ignition shall 
be in accordance with Section 1503.2. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE^ 



167 



FLAMMABLE FINISHES 



1505.7 Ventilation of flammable vapor areas. Flammable 
vapor areas shall be provided with mechanical ventilation ade- 
quate to prevent the dangerous accumulation of vapors. 
Required ventilation systems shall be arranged such that the 
failure of any ventilating fan shall automatically stop the dip- 
ping conveyor system. 

1505.8 Conveyor interlock. Dip tanks utilizing a conveyor 
system shall be arranged such that in the event of a fire, the con- 
veyor system shall automatically cease motion and the required 
tank bottom drains shall open. 

1505.9 Hardening and tempering tanks. Hardening and tem- 
pering tanks shall comply with Sections 1505.3 through 
1505.3.3, 1505.4.2 and 1505.8 but shall be exempt from other 
provisions of Section 1505. 

1505.9.1 Location. Tanks shall be located as far as practical 
from furnaces and shall not be located on or near combusti- 
ble floors. 

1505.9.2 Hoods. Tanks shall be provided with a 
noncombustible hood and vent or other approved venting 
means, terminating outside of the structure to serve as a vent 
in case of a fire. Such vent ducts shall be treated as flues and 
proper clearances shall be maintained from combustible 
materials. 

1505.9.3 Alarms. Tanks shall be equipped with a high-tem- 
perature limit switch arranged to sound an alarm when the 
temperature of the quenching medium reaches 50°F (10°C) 
below the flash point. 

1505.9.4 Fire protection. Hardening and tempering tanks 
greater than 500 gallons (1893 L) in capacity or 25 square 
feet (2.3 m^) in liquid surface area shall be protected by an 
approved automatic fire-extinguishing system complying 
with Chapter 9. 

1505.9.5 Use of air pressure. Air under pressure shall not 
be used to fill or agitate oil in tanks. 

1505.10 Flow-coating operations. Flow-coating operations 
shall comply with the requirements for dip tanks. The area of 
the sump and any areas on which paint flows shall be consid- 
ered to be the area of a dip tank. 

1505.10.1 Paint supply. Paint shall be supplied by a gravity 
tank not exceeding 10 gallons (38 L) in capacity or by direct 
low-pressure pumps arranged to shut down automatically in 
case of a fire by means of approved heat-actuated devices. 

1505.11 Roll-coating operations. Roll-coating operations 
shall comply with Section 1505.10. In roll-coating operations 
utilizing flammable or combustible liquids, sparks from static 
electricity shall be prevented by electrically bonding and 
grounding all metallic rotating and other parts of machinery 
and equipment and by the installation of static collectors, or by 
maintaining a conductive atmosphere such as a high relative 
humidity. 



SECTION 1506 
POWDER COATING 

1506.1 General. Operations using finely ground particles of 
protective finishing material applied in dry powder form by a 



fluidized bed, an electrostatic fluidized bed, powder spray guns 
or electrostatic powder spray guns shall comply with this 
section. In addition to Section 1506, Section 1507 shall apply 
to fixed electrostatic equipment used in powder coating opera- 
tions. 

1506.2 Location. Powder coating operations shall be con- 
ducted in enclosed rooms constructed and protected in accor- 
dance with Section 1506. 

1506.3 Construction of powder coating rooms and booths. 

Powder coating rooms and booths shall be constructed of 
noncombustible materials, enclosed powder coating facilities 
that are ventilated or ventilated spray booths complying with 
Section 1504.3.2. 

Exception: Listed spray-booth assemblies that are con- 
structed of other materials shall be allowed. 

1506.4 Fire protection. Areas used for powder coating shall 
be protected by an approved automatic fire-extinguishing sys- 
tem complying with Chapter 9. 

1506.4.1 Additional protection for fixed systems. Auto- 
mated powder application equipment shall be protected by 
the installation of an approved, supervised flame detection 
apparatus that shall react to the presence of flame within 0.5 
second and shall accomplish all of the following: 

1. Shutting down of energy supplies (electrical and 
compressed air) to conveyor, ventilation, application, 
transfer and powder collection equipment. 

2. Closing of segregation dampers in associated 
ductwork to interrupt airflow from application equip- 
ment to powder collectors. 

3. Activation of an alarm that is audible throughout the 
powder coating room or booth. 

1506.4.2 Fire extinguishers. Portable fire extinguishers 
complying with Section 906 shall be provided for areas used 
for powder coating in accordance with the requirements for 
an extra hazard occupancy. 

1506.5 Operation and maintenance. Powder coating areas 
shall be kept free from the accumulation of powder coating 
dusts, including horizontal surfaces such as ledges, beams, 
pipes, hoods, booths and floors. 

1506.5.1 Cleaning. Surfaces shall be cleaned in such a man- 
ner so as to avoid scattering dusts to other places or creating 
dust clouds. Vacuum sweeping equipment shall be of a type 
approved for use in hazardous locations. 

1506.6 Sources of ignition. Control of sources of ignition shall 
be in accordance with Sections 1503.2 and 1506.6.1 through 
1506.6.4. 

1506.6.1 Drying, curing and fusion equipment. Drying, 
curing and fusion equipment shall comply with Chapter 2 1 . 

1506.6.2 Spark-producing metals. Iron or spark-produc- 
ing metals shall be prevented from being introduced into the 
powders being applied by magnetic separators, filter- type 
separators or by other approved means. 



168 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE'' 



FLAMMABLE FINISHES 



1506.6.3 Preheated parts. When parts are heated prior to 
coating, the temperature of the parts shall not exceed the 
ignition temperature of the powder to be used. 

1506.6.4 Grounding and bonding. Precautions shall be 
taken to minimize the possibility of ignition by static electri- 
cal sparks through static bonding and grounding, where 
possible, of powder transport, application and recovery 
equipment. 

1506.7 Ventilation. Exhaust ventilation shall be sufficient to 
maintain the atmosphere below one-half the minimum explo- 
sive concentration for the material being applied. Nondepos- 
ited, air-suspended powders shall be removed through exhaust 
ducts to the powder recovery system. 



SECTION 1507 
ELECTROSTATIC APPARATUS 

1507.1 General. Electrostatic apparatus and devices used in 
connection with paint- spraying and paint-detearing operations 
shall be of an approved type. 

1507.2 Location and clear space. A space of at least twice the 
sparking distance shall be maintained between goods being 
painted or deteared and electrodes, electrostatic atomizing 
heads or conductors. A sign stating the sparking distance shall 
be conspicuously posted near the assembly. 

1507.3 Construction of equipment. Electrodes and elec- 
trostatic atomizing heads shall be of approved construction, 
rigidly supported in permanent locations and effectively insu- 
lated from ground. Insulators shall be nonporous and noncom- 
bustible. 

1507.3.1 Barriers. Booths, fencing, railings or guards shall 
be placed about the equipment such that either by their loca- 
tion or character, or both, isolation of the process is main- 
tained from plant storage and personnel. Railings, fencing 
and guards shall be of conductive material, adequately 
grounded and shall be at least 5 feet (1524 mm) from pro- 
cessing equipment. 

1507.4 Fire protection. Areas used for electrostatic spray fin- 
ishing with fixed equipment shall be protected with an 
approved automatic fire-extinguishing system complying with 
Chapter 9 and Section 1507.4.1. 

1507.4.1 Protection for automated liquid electrostatic 
spray application equipment. Automated liquid electro- 
static spray application equipment shall be protected by the 
installation of an approved, supervised flame detection 
apparatus that shall, in the event of ignition, react to the 
presence of flame within 0.5 second and shall accomplish 
all of the following: 

1 . Activation of a local alarm in the vicinity of the spray- 
ing operation and activation of the building alarm sys- 
tem, if such a system is provided. 

2. Shutting down of the coating material delivery sys- 
tem. 

3. Termination of all spray application operations. 

4. Stopping of conveyors into and out of the flammable 
vapor areas. 



5. Disconnection of power to the high- voltage elements 
in the tlanunable vapor areas and disconnection of 
power to the system. 

1507.5 Housekeeping, maintenance and storage of hazard- 
ous materials. Housekeeping, maintenance, storage and use of 
hazardous materials shall be in accordance with Sections 
1503.3, 1503.4 and Sections 1507.5.1 and 507.5.2. 

1507.5.1 Maintenance. Insulators shall be kept clean and 
dry. Drip plates and screens subject to paint deposits shall be 
removable and taken to a safe place for cleaning. 

1507.5.2 Signs. Signs shall be posted to provide the follow- 
ing information: 

1 . Designate the process zone as dangerous with respect 
to fire and accident. 

2. Identify the grounding requirements for all electri- 
cally conductive objects in the flammable vapor area, 
including persons. 

3. Restrict access to qualified personnel only. 

1507.6 Sources of ignition. Transformers, power packs, con- 
trol apparatus and all other electrical portions of the equipment, 
except high-voltage grids and electrostatic atomizing heads 
and connections, shall be located outside of the flammable 
vapor areas or shall comply with Section 1503.2. 

1507.7 Ventilation. The flammable vapor area shall be venti- 
lated in accordance with Section 1504.7. 

1507.8 Emergency shutdown. Electrostatic apparatus shall be 
equipped with automatic controls operating without time delay 
to disconnect the power supply to the high- voltage transformer 
and signal the operator under any of the following conditions: 

1 . Stoppage of ventilating fans or failure of ventilating 
equipment from any cause. 

2. Stoppage of the conveyor carrying articles past the 
high- voltage grid. 

3 . Occurrence of a ground or an imminent ground at any 
point of the high- voltage system. 

4. Reduction of clearance below that required in Section 
1507.2. 

1507.9 Ventilation interlock. Hand electrostatic equipment 
shall be interlocked with the ventilation system for the spraying 
area so that the equipment cannot be operated unless the venti- 
lating system is in operation. 



SECTION 1508 

ORGANIC PEROXIDES AND 

DUAL-COMPONENT COATINGS 

1508.1 General. Spraying operations involving the use of 
organic peroxides and other dual-component coatings shall be 
in accordance with the requirements of Section 1503 and this 
section. 

1508.2 Use of organic peroxide coatings. Spraying opera- 
tions involving the use of organic peroxides and other 
dual-component coatings shall be conducted in approved 
sprinklered spray booths complying with Section 1504.3.2. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE'' 



169 



FLAMMABLE FINISHES 



1508.3 Equipment. Spray guns and related handling equip- 
ment used with organic peroxides shall be of a type manufac- 
tured for such use. 

1508.3.1 Pressure tanks. Separate pressure vessels and 
inserts specifically for the application shall be used for the 
resin and for the organic peroxide, and shall not be inter- 
changed. Organic peroxide pressure tank inserts shall be 
constructed of stainless steel or polyethylene. 

1508.4 Housekeeping, maintenance, storage and use of haz- 
ardous materials. Housekeeping, maintenance, storage and 
use of hazardous materials shall be in accordance with Sections 
1503.3 and 1503.4 and Sections 1508.4.1 through 1508.4.7. 

1508.4.1 Contamination prevention. Organic peroxide 
initiators shall not be contaminated with foreign substances. 

1508.4.2 Spilled material. Spilled organic peroxides shall 
be promptly removed so there are no residues. Spilled mate- 
rial absorbed by using a noncombustible absorbent shall be 
promptly disposed of in accordance with the manufacturer's 
recommendation. 

1508.4.3 Residue control. Materials shall not be contami- 
nated by dusts and overspray residues resulting from the 
sanding or spraying of finishing materials containing 
organic peroxides. 

1508.4.4 Handling. Handling of organic peroxides shall be 
conducted in a manner that avoids shock and friction that 
produces decomposition and violent reaction hazards. 

1508.4.5 Mixing. Organic peroxides shall not be mixed 
directly with accelerators or promoters. 

1508.4.6 Personnel qualifications. Personnel working 
with organic peroxides and dual-component coatings shall 
be specifically trained to work with these materials. 

1508.4.7 Storage. The storage of organic peroxides shall 
comply with Chapter 39. 

1508.5 Sources of ignition. Only nonsparking tools shall be 
used in areas where organic peroxides are stored, mixed or 
applied. 



SECTION 1509 

INDOOR MANUFACTURING OF 

REINFORCED PLASTICS 

1509.1 General. Indoor manufacturing processes involving 
spray or hand application of reinforced plastics and using more 
than 5 gallons (19 L) of resin in a 24-hour period shall be in 
accordance with this section. 

1509.2 Resin application equipment. Equipment used for 
spray application of resin shall be installed and used in accor- 
dance with Sections 1508 and 1509. 

1509.3 Fire protection. Resin application areas shall be pro- 
tected by an automatic sprinkler system. The sprinkler system 
design shall not be less than that required for Ordinary Hazard, 
Group 2, with a minimum design area of 3,000 square feet (279 
m^). Where the materials or storage arrangements are required 
by other regulations to be provided with a higher level of sprin- 



kler system protection, the higher level of sprinkler system 
protection shall be provided. 

1509.4 Housekeeping, maintenance, storage and use of haz- 
ardous materials. Housekeeping, maintenance, storage and 
use of hazardous materials shall be in accordance with Sections 
1503.3 and 1503.4 and Sections 1509.4.1 through 1509.4.3. 

1509.4.1 Handling of excess catalyzed resin. A 

noncombustible, open-top container shall be provided for 
disposal of excess catalyzed resin. Excess catalyzed resin 
shall be drained into the container while still in the liquid 
state. Enough water shall be provided in the container to 
maintain a minimum 2-inch (5 1 mm) water layer over the 
contained resin. 

1509.4.2 Control of overchop. In areas where chopper 
guns are used, exposed wall and floor surfaces shall be cov- 
ered with paper, polyethylene film or other approved mate- 
rial to allow for removal of overchop. Overchop shall be 
allowed to cure for not less than 4 hours prior to removal. 

1509.4.2.1 Disposal. Following removal, used wall and 
floor covering materials required by Section 1509.4.2 
shall be placed in a noncombustible container and 
removed from the facility. 

1509.4.3 Storage and use of hazardous materials. Stor- 
age and use of organic peroxides shall be in accordance with 
Section 1508 and Chapter 39. Storage and use of flammable 
and combustible liquids shall be in accordance with Chapter 
34. Storage and use of unstable (reactive) materials shall be 
in accordance with Chapter 43. 

1509.5 Sources of ignition in resin application areas. 

Sources of ignition in resin application areas shall comply with 
Section 1503.2. 

1509.6 Ventilation. Mechanical ventilation shall be provided 
throughout resin application areas in accordance with Section 
1504.7. The ventilation rate shall be adequate to maintain the 
concentration of flammable vapors in the resin application area 
at or below 25 percent of the LFL. 

Exception: Mechanical ventilation is not required for 
buildings that have 75 percent of the perimeter unenclosed. 

1509.6.1 Local ventilation. Local ventilation shall be pro- 
vided inside of workpieces where personnel will be under or 
inside of the workpiece. 



SECTION 1510 
FLOOR SURFACING AND FINISHING OPERATIONS 

1510.1 Scope. Floor surfacing and finishing operations 
exceeding 350 square feet (33 m^) and using Class I or II liquids 
shall comply with Sections 1510.2 through 1510.5. 

1510.2 Mechanical system operation. Heating, ventilation 
and air-conditioning systems shall not be operated during 
resurfacing or refinishing operations or within 4 hours of the 
application of flammable or combustible liquids. 

1510.3 Business operation. Floor surfacing and finishing 
operations shall not be conducted while an establishment is 
open to the public. 



170 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE^ 



FLAMMABLE FINISHES 



1510.4 Ignition sources. The power shall be shut down to all 
electrical sources of ignition within the flammable vapor area, 
unless those devices are classified for use in Class I, Division 1 
hazardous locations. 

1510.5 Ventilation. To prevent the accumulation of flammable 
vapors, mechanical ventilation at a minimum rate of 1 cubic 
foot per minute per square foot [0.00508 m^ /(s • m^)] of area 
being finished shall be provided. Such exhaust shall be by 
approved temporary or portable means. Vapors shall be 
exhausted to the exterior of the building. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 171 



172 2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE^ 



CHAPTER 16 

FRUIT AND CROP RIPENING 



SECTION 1601 
GENERAL 

1601.1 Scope. Ripening processes where ethylene gas is intro- 
duced into a room to promote the ripening of fruits, vegetables 
and other crops shall comply with this chapter. 

Exception: Mixtures of ethylene and one or more inert 
gases in concentrations which prevent the gas from reaching 
greater than 25 percent of the lower explosive limit (LEL) 
when released to the atmosphere. 

1601.2 Permits. Permits shall be required as set forth in Sec- 
tion 105.6. 

1601.3 Ethylene generators. Approved ethylene generators 
shall be operated and maintained in accordance with Section 
1606. 



1604.5 Heating. Heating shall be by indirect means utilizing 
low-pressure steam, hot water, or warm air. 

Exception: Electric or fuel-fired heaters approved for use in 
hazardous (classified) locations which are installed and 
operated in accordance with the applicable provisions of the 
ICC Electrical Code, the International Mechanical Code or 
the International Fuel Gas Code. 



SECTION 1605 
COMBUSTIBLE WASTE 

1605.1 Housekeeping. Empty boxes, cartons, pallets and other 
combustible waste shall be removed from ripening rooms or 
enclosures and disposed of at regular intervals in accordance 
with Chapter 3. 



SECTION 1602 
DEFINITIONS 

1602.1 Terms defined in Chapter 2. Words and terms used in 
this chapter and defined in Chapter 2 shall have the meanings 
ascribed to them as defined therein. 



SECTION 1603 
ETHYLENE GAS 

1603.1 Location. Ethylene gas shall be discharged only into 
approved rooms or enclosures designed and constructed for 
this purpose. 

1603.2 Dispensing. Valves controlling discharge of ethylene 
shall provide positive and fail-closed control of flow and shall 
be set to limit the concentration of gas in air below 1,000 parts 
per million (ppm). 



SECTION 1604 
SOURCES OF IGNITION 

1604.1 Ignition prevention. Sources of ignition shall be con- 
trolled or protected in accordance with this section and Chapter 
3. 

1604.2 Electrical wiring and equipment. Electrical wiring 
I and equipment, including luminaires, shall be approved for use 

in Class I, Division 2, Group C hazardous (classified) loca- 
tions. 

1604.3 Static electricity. Containers, piping and equipment 
used to dispense ethylene shall be bonded and grounded to pre- 
vent the discharge of static sparks or arcs. 

1604.4 Lighting. Lighting shall be by approved electric lamps 
or luminaires only. 



SECTION 1606 
ETHYLENE GENERATORS 

1606.1 Ethylene generators. Ethylene generators shall be 
listed and labeled by an approved testing laboratory, approved 
by the fire code official and used only in approved rooms in 
accordance with the ethylene generator manufacturer's 
instructions. The listing evaluation shall include documenta- 
tion that the concentration of ethylene gas does not exceed 25 
percent of the lower explosive limit (LEL). 

1606.2 Ethylene generator rooms. Ethylene generators shall 
be used in rooms having a volume of not less than 1,000 cubic 
feet (28 m^). Rooms shall have air circulation to ensure even 
distribution of ethylene gas and shall be free from sparks, open 
flames or other ignition sources. 



SECTION 1607 
WARNING SIGNS 

1607.1 When required. Approved warning signs indicating 
the danger involved and necessary precautions shall be posted 
on all doors and entrances to the premises. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE^ 



173 



174 2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE*" 



• 



CHAPTER 17 

FUMIGATION AND THERMAL INSECTICIDAL FOGGING 



SECTION 1701 
GENERAL 

1701.1 Scope. Fumigation and thennal insecticidal fogging 
operations within structures shall comply with this chapter. 

1701.2 Permits. Permits shall be required as set forth in Sec- 
tion 105.6. 



SECTION 1702 
DEFINITIONS 

1702.1 Definitions. The following words and terms shall, for 
the purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this code, 
have the meanings shown herein. 

FUMIGANT. A substance which by itself or in combination 
with any other substance emits or liberates a gas, fume or vapor 
utilized for the destruction or control of insects, fungi, vermin, 
germs, rats or other pests, and shall be distinguished from 
insecticides and disinfectants which are essentially effective in 
the solid or liquid phases. Examples are methyl bromide, ethyl- 
ene dibromide, hydrogen cyanide, carbon disulfide and 
sulfuryl fluoride. 

FUMIGATION. The utilization within an enclosed space of a 
fumigant in concentrations that are hazardous or acutely toxic 
to humans. 

THERMAL INSECTICIDAL FOGGING. The utilization 
of insecticidal liquids passed through thermal fog-generating 
units where, by means of heat, pressure and turbulence, such 
liquids are transformed and discharged in the form of fog or 
mist blown into an area to be treated. 



SECTION 1703 
FIRE SAFETY REQUIREMENTS 

1703.1 General. Structures in which fumigation and thermal 
insecticidal fogging operations are conducted shall comply 
with the fire protection and safety requirements of Sections 

1703.2 through 1703.7. 

1703.2 Sources of ignition. Fires, open flames and similar 
sources of ignition shall be eliminated from the space under 
fumigation or thermal insecticidal fogging. Heating, where 
needed, shall be of an approved type. 

1703.2.1 Electricity. Electricity shall be shut off. 

Exception: Circulating fans that have been specifically 
designed for utilization in hazardous atmospheres and 
installed in accordance with the ICC Electrical Code. 

1703.3 Notification. The fire code official and fire chief shall 
be notified in writing at least 24 hours before the structure is to 
be closed in connection with the utilization of any toxic or 
flammable fumigant. Notification shall give the location of the 
enclosed space to be fumigated or fogged, the occupancy, the 
fumigants or insecticides to be utilized, the person or persons 



responsible for the operation, and the date and time at which 
the operation will begin. Notice of any fumigation or thermal 
insecticidal fogging shall be served with sufficient advance 
notice to the occupants of the enclosed space involved to enable 
the occupants to evacuate the premises. 

1703.3.1 Warning signs. Approved warning signs indicat- 
ing the danger, type of chemical involved and necessary pre- 
cautions shall be posted on all doors and entrances to the 
premises and upon all gangplanks and ladders from the 
deck, pier or land to the ship. Such notices shall be printed in 
red ink on a white background. Letters in the headlines shall 
be at least 2 inches (5 1 mm) in height and shall state the date 
and time of the operation, the name and address of the per- 
son, the name of the operator in charge, and a warning stat- 
ing that the occupied premises shall be vacated at least 1 
hour before the operation begins and shall not be reentered 
until the danger signs have been removed by the proper 
authorities. 

1703.3.2 Breathing apparatus. Persons engaged in the 
business of fumigation or thermal insecticidal fogging shall 
maintain and have available approved protective breathing 
apparatus. 

1703.3.3 Watch personnel. During the period fumigation 
is in progress, except when fumigation is conducted in a 
gas-tight vault or tank, a capable, alert watcher shall remain 
on duty at the entrance or entrances to the enclosed fumi- 
gated space until after the fumigation is completed and the 
premises properly ventilated and safe for occupancy. Suffi- 
cient watchers shall be provided to prevent persons from 
entering the enclosed space under fumigation without being 
observed. 

1703.4 Thermal insecticidal fogging liquids. Thermal insec- 
ticidal fogging liquids with a flash point below 100°F (38°C) 
shall not be utilized. 

1703.5 Sealing of buildings. Paper and other similar materials 
that do not meet the flame propagation performance criteria of 
NFPA 701 shall not be used to wrap or cover a building in 
excess of that required for the sealing of cracks, casements and 
similar openings. 

1703.6 Venting and cleanup. At the end of the exposure 
period, fumigators shall safely and properly ventilate the pre- 
mises and contents; properly dispose of fumigant containers, 
residues, debris and other materials used for such fumigation; 
and clear obstructions from gas-fired appliance vents. 

1703.7 Flammable fumigants restricted. The use of carbon 
disulfide and hydrogen cyanide shall be restricted to agricul- 
tural fumigation. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE'' 



175 



1 76 2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



• 



CHAPTER 18 

SEMICONDUCTOR FABRICATION FACILITIES 



SECTION 1801 
GENERAL 

1801.1 Scope. Semiconductor fabrication facilities and com- 
parable research and development areas classified as Group 
H-5 shall comply with this chapter and the International Build- 
ing Code. The use, storage and handling of hazardous materials 
in Group H-5 shall comply with this chapter, other applicable 
provisions of this code and the International Building Code. 

1801.2 Application. The requirements set forth in this chapter 
are requirements specific only to Group H-5 and shall be 
applied as exceptions or additions to applicable requirements 
set forth elsewhere in this code. 

1801.3 Multiple hazards. Where a material poses multiple 
hazards, all hazards shall be addressed in accordance with Sec- 
tion 2701.1. 

1801.4 Existing buildings and existing fabrication areas. 

Existing buildings and existing fabrication areas shall comply 
with this chapter, except that transportation and handling of 
HPM in exit access corridors and exit enclosures shall be 
allowed when in compliance with Section 1805.3.2 and the 
International Building Code. 

1801.5 Permits. Permits shall be required as set forth in Sec- 
tion 105.6. 



SECTION 1802 
DEFINITIONS 

1802.1 Definitions. The following words and terms shall, for 
the purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this code, 
have the meanings shown herein. 

CONTINUOUS GAS DETECTION SYSTEM. A gas 

detection system where the analytical instrument is maintained 
in continuous operation and sampling is performed without 
interruption. Analysis is allowed to be performed on a cyclical 
basis at intervals not to exceed 30 minutes. 

EMERGENCY CONTROL STATION. An approved loca 
tion on the premises where signals from emergency equipment 
are received and which is staffed by trained personnel. 

FABRICATION AREA. An area within a semiconductor fab- 
rication facility and related research and development areas in 
which there are processes using hazardous production materi- 
als. Such areas are allowed to include ancillary rooms or areas 
such as dressing rooms and offices that are directly related to 
the fabrication area processes. 

HAZARDOUS PRODUCTION MATERIAL (HPM). A 

solid, Hquid or gas associated with semiconductor manufactur- 
ing that has a degree-of-hazard rating in health, flammability or 
reactivity of Class 3 or 4 as ranked by NFFA 704 and which is 
used directly in research, laboratory or production processes 
which have as their end product materials that are not hazardous. 



HPM FLAMMABLE LIQUID. An HPM liquid that is 
defined as either a Class I flammable liquid or a Class II or 
Class IIIA combustible liquid. 

HPM ROOM. A room used in conjunction with or serving a 
Group H-5 occupancy, where HPM is stored or used and which 
is classified as a Group H-2, H-3 or H-4 occupancy. 

PASS-THROUGH. An enclosure installed in a wall with a 
door on each side that allows chemicals, HPM, equipment, and 
parts to be transferred from one side of the wall to the other. 

SEMICONDUCTOR FABRICATION FACILITY. A 

building or a portion of a building in which electrical circuits or 
devices are created on solid crystalline substances having elec- 
trical conductivity greater than insulators but less than conduc- 
tors. These circuits or devices are commonly known as 
semiconductors. 

SERVICE CORRIDOR. A fully enclosed passage used for 
transporting HPM and purposes other than required means of 
egress. 

TOOL. A device, storage container, workstation, or process 
machine used in a fabrication area. 

WORKSTATION. A defined space or an independent princi- 
pal piece of equipment using HPM within a fabrication area 
where a specific function, laboratory procedure or research 
activity occurs. Approved or listed hazardous materials storage 
cabinets, flammable liquid storage cabinets or gas cabinets 
serving a workstation are included as part of the workstation. A 
workstation is allowed to contain ventilation equipment, fire 
protection devices, detection devices, electrical devices and 
other processing and scientific equipment. 



SECTION 1803 
GENERAL SAFETY PROVISIONS 

1803.1 Emergency control station. An emergency control 
station shall be provided in accordance with Sections 1803.1.1 
through 1803.1.3. 

1803.1.1 Location. The emergency control station shall be 
located on the premises at an approved location outside the 
fabrication area. 

1803.1.2 Staffing. Trained personnel shall continuously 
staff the emergency control station. 

1803.1.3 Signals. The emergency control station shall receive 
signals from emergency equipment and alarm and detection 
systems. Such emergency equipment and alarm and detection 
systems shall include, but not be limited to, the following 
where such equipment or systems are required to be provided 
either in this chapter or elsewhere in this code: 

1. Automatic sprinkler system alarm and monitoring 
systems. 

2. Manual fire alarm systems. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



177 



SEMICONDUCTOR FABRICATION FACILITIES 



3. Emergency alarm systems. 

4. Continuous gas detection systems. 

5. Smoke detection systems. 

6. Emergency power system. 

7. Automatic detection and alarm systems for 
pyrophoric liquids and Class 3 water-reactive liquids 
required by Section 1805.2.3.5. 

8. Exhaust ventilation flow alarm devices for 
pyrophoric liquids and Class 3 water-reactive liquids 
cabinet exhaust ventilation systems required by Sec- 
tion 1805.2.3.5. 

1803.2 Systems, equipment and processes. Systems, equip- 
ment and processes shall be in accordance with Sections 
1803.2.1 through 1803.2.3.2. 

1803.2.1 Application. Systems, equipment and processes 
shall include, but not be limited to, containers, cylinders, 
tanks, piping, tubing, valves and fittings. 

1803.2.2 General requirements. In addition to the require- 
ments in Section 1803.2, systems, equipment and processes 
shall also comply with Section 2703.2, other applicable pro- 
visions of this code, the International Building Code and the 
International Mechanical Code. 

1803.2.3 Additional requirements for HPM supply pip- 
ing. In addition to the requirements in Section 1803.2, HPM 
supply piping and tubing for HPM gases and liquids shall 
comply with this section. 

1803.2.3.1 General requirements. The requirements 
set forth in Section 2703.2.2.2 shall apply to supply pip- 
ing and tubing for HPM gases and liquids. 

1803.2.3.2 Health-hazard ranking 3 or 4 HPM. Sup- 
ply piping and tubing for HPM gases and liquids having a 
health-hazard ranking of 3 or 4 shall be welded through, 
except for connections located within a ventilation 
enclosure if the material is a gas, or an approved method 
of drainage or containment provided for connections if 
the material is a liquid. 

1803.3 Construction requirements. Construction of semi- 
conductor fabrication facilities shall be in accordance with 
Sections 1803.3.1 through 1803.3.9. 

1803.3.1 Fabrication areas. Construction and location of 
fabrication areas shall comply with the International Build- 
ing Code. 

1803.3.2 Pass-throughs in exit access corridors. 

Pass-throughs in exit access corridors shall be constructed 
in accordance with the International Building Code. 

1803.3.3 Liquid storage rooms. Liquid storage rooms shall 
comply with Chapter 34 and the International Building Code. 

1803.3.4 HPM rooms. HPM rooms shall comply with the 
International Building Code. 

1803.3.5 Gas cabinets. Gas cabinets shall comply with 
Section 2703.8.6. 

1803.3.6 Exhausted enclosures. Exhausted enclosures 
shall comply with Section 2703.8.5. 



1803.3.7 Gas rooms. Gas rooms shall comply with Section 
2703.8.4. 

1803.3.8 Service corridors. Service corridors shall comply 
with Section 1805.3 and the International Building Code. 

1803.3.9 Cabinets containing pyrophoric liquids or 
water-reactive Class 3 liquids. Cabinets in fabrication 
areas containing pyrophoric liquids or Class 3 water-reac- 
tive liquids in containers or in amounts greater than 0.5 gal- 
lon (2 L) shall comply with Section 1805.2.3.5. 

1803.4 Emergency plan. An emergency plan shall be estab- 
lished as set forth in Section 408.4. 

1803.5 Maintenance of equipment, machinery and pro- 
cesses. Maintenance of equipment, machinery and processes 
shall comply with Section 2703.2.6. 

1803.6 Security of areas. Areas shall be secured in accordance 
with Section 2703.9.2. 

1803.7 Electrical wiring and equipment. Electrical wiring 
and equipment in HPM facilities shall comply with Sections 
1803.7.1 through 1803.7.3. 

1803.7.1 Fabrication areas. Electrical wiring and equip- 
ment in fabrication areas shall comply with the ICC Electri- 
cal Code. 

1803.7.2 Workstations. Electrical equipment and devices 
within 5 feet (1524 mm) of workstations in which flamma- 
ble or pyrophoric gases or flammable liquids are used shall 
comply with the ICC Electrical Code for Class I, Division 2 
hazardous locations. Workstations shall not be energized 
without adequate exhaust ventilation in accordance with 
Section 1803.14. 

Exception: Class I, Division 2 hazardous electrical 
equipment is not required when the air removal from the 
workstation or dilution will prevent the accumulation of 
flammable vapors and fumes on a continuous basis. 

1803.7.3 Hazardous production material (HPM) rooms, 
gas rooms and liquid storage rooms. Electrical wiring and 
equipment in HPM rooms, gas rooms and liquid storage 
rooms shall comply with the ICC Electrical Code. 

1803.8 Exit access corridors and exit enclosures. Hazardous 
materials shall not be used or stored in exit access corridors or 
exit access enclosures. 

1803.9 Service corridors. Hazardous materials shall not be 
used in an open-system use condition in service corridors. 

1803.10 Automatic sprinkler system. An approved automatic 
sprinkler system shall be provided in accordance with Sections 
1803.10.1 through 1803.10.5 and Chapter 9. 

1803.10.1 Workstations and tools. The design of the sprin- 
kler system in the area shall take into consideration the spray 
pattern and the effect on the equipment. 

1803.10.1.1 Combustible workstations. A sprinkler 
head shall be installed within each branch exhaust con- 
nection or individual plenums of workstations of com- 
bustible construction. The sprinkler head in the exhaust 
connection or plenum shall be located not more than 2 
feet (610 mm) from the point of the duct connection or 



178 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE*" 



SEMICONDUCTOR FABRICATION FACILITIES 



the connection to the plenum. When necessary to prevent 
corrosion, the sprinkler head and connecting piping in 
the duct shall be coated with approved or listed corro- 
sion-resistant materials. The sprinkler head shall be 
accessible for periodic inspection. 

Exceptions: 

1. Approved alternative automatic fire-extin- 
guishing systems are allowed. Activation of 
such systems shall deactivate the related pro- 
cessing equipment. 

2. Process equipment which operates at tempera- 
tures exceeding 932°F (500°C) and is provided 
with automatic shutdown capabilities for haz- 
ardous materials. 

3. Exhaust ducts 10 inches (254 mm) or less in 
diameter from flammable gas storage cabinets 
that are part of a workstation. 

4. Ducts listed or approved for use without inter- 
nal automatic sprinkler protection. 

1803.10.1.2 Combustible tools. Where the horizontal 
surface of a combustible tool is obstructed from ceiling 
sprinkler discharge, automatic sprinkler protection that 
covers the horizontal surface of the tool shall be provided. 

Exceptions: 

1. An automatic gaseous fire-extinguishing local 
surface apphcation system shall be allowed as an 
alternative to sprinklers. Gaseous-extinguishing 
systems shall be actuated by infrared (IR) or 
ultraviolet/infrared (UVIR) optical detectors. 

2. Tools constructed of materials that are listed or 
approved for use without internal fire extin- 
guishing system protection. 

1803.10.2 Gas cabinets and exhausted enclosures. An 

approved automatic sprinkler system shall be provided in 
gas cabinets and exhausted enclosures containing HPM 
compressed gases. 

Exception: Gas cabinets located in an HPM room other 
than those cabinets containing pyrophoric gases. 

1803.10.3 Pass-throughs in existing exit access corri- 
dors. Pass-throughs in existing exit access corridors shall be 
protected by an approved automatic sprinkler system. 

1803.10.4 Exhaust ducts for HPM. An approved auto- 
matic sprinkler system shall be provided in exhaust ducts 
conveying gases, vapors, fumes, mists or dusts generated 
from HPM in accordance with this section and the Interna- 
tional Mechanical Code. 

1803.10.4.1 Metallic and noncombustible nonmetal- 
lic exhaust ducts. An approved automatic sprinkler sys- 
tem shall be provided in metallic and noncombustible 
nonmetallic exhaust ducts when all of the following con- 
ditions apply: 

1 . When the largest cross-sectional diameter is equal 
to or greater than 10 inches (254 mm). 

2. The ducts are within the building. 



3. The ducts are conveying flammable gases, vapors | 
or fumes. 

1803.10.4.2 Combustible nonmetallic exhaust ducts. 

An approved automatic sprinkler system shall be pro- 
vided in combustible nonmetallic exhaust ducts when 
the largest cross-sectional diameter of the duct is equal to 
or greater than 10 inches (254 mm). 

Exceptions: 

1 . Ducts listed or approved for applications with- 
out automatic sprinkler system protection. 

2. Ducts not more than 12 feet (3658 mm) in 
length installed below ceiling level. 

1803.10.4.3 Exhaust connections and plenums of 
combustible workstations. Automatic fire-extinguish- 
ing system protection for exhaust connections and ple- 
nums of combustible workstations shall comply with 
Section 1803.14.1. 

1803.10.4.4 Exhaust duct sprinkler system require- 
ments. Automatic sprinklers installed in exhaust duct 
systems shall be hydraulically designed to provide 0.5 
gallons per minute (gpm) (1.9 L/min) over an area 
derived by multiplying the distance between the sprin- 
klers in a horizontal duct by the width of the duct. Mini- 
mum discharge shall be 20 gpm (76 L/min) per sprinkler 
from the five hydraulically most remote sprinklers. 

1803.10.4.4.1 Sprinkler head locations. Automatic 
sprinklers shall be installed at 12-foot (3658 mm) 
intervals in horizontal ducts and at changes in direc- 
tion. In vertical runs, automatic sprinklers shall be 
installed at the top and at alternate floor levels. 

1803.10.4.4.2 Control valve. A separate indicating 
control valve shall be provided for sprinklers installed 
in exhaust ducts. 

1803.10.4.4.3 Drainage. Drainage shall be provided 
to remove sprinkler water discharged in exhaust ducts. 

1803.10.4.4.4 Corrosive atmospheres. Where cor- 
rosive atmospheres exist, exhaust duct sprinklers and 
pipe fittings shall be manufactured of corrosion- 
resistant materials or coated with approved materials. 

1803.10.4.4.5 Maintenance and inspection. Sprin- 
klers in exhaust ducts shall be accessible for periodic 
inspection and maintenance. 

1803.10.5 Sprinkler alarms and supervision. Automatic 
sprinkler systems shall be electrically supervised and pro- 
vided with alarms in accordance with Chapter 9. Automatic 
sprinkler system alarm and supervisory signals shall be 
transmitted to the emergency control station. 

1803.11 Manual fire alarm system. A manual fire alarm sys- 
tem shall be installed throughout buildings containing a Group 
H-5 occupancy. Activation of the alarm system shall initiate a 
local alarm and transmit a signal to the emergency control sta- 
tion. Manual fire alarm systems shall be designed and installed 
in accordance with Section 907. 

1803.12 Emergency alarm system. Emergency alarm sys- 
tems shall be provided in accordance with Sections 1803.12.1 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE^ 



179 



SEMICONDUCTOR FABRICATION FACILITIES 



through 1803.12.3, Section 2704.9 and Section 2705.4.4. The 
maximum allowable quantity per control area provisions of 
Section 2704.1 shall not apply to emergency alarm systems 
required for HPM. 

1803.12.1 Where required. Emergency alarm systems 
shall be provided in the areas indicated in Sections 
1803.12.1.1 through 1803.12.1.3. 

1803.12.1.1 Service corridors. An approved emergency 
alarm system shall be provided in service corridors, with 
at least one alarm device in the service corridor. 

1803.12.1.2 Exit access corridors and exit enclosures. 

Emergency alarms for exit access corridors and exit 
enclosures shall comply with Section 2705.4.4. 

1803.12.1.3 Liquid storage rooms, HPM rooms and 
gas rooms. Emergency alarms for liquid storage rooms, 
HPM rooms and gas rooms shall comply with Section 
2704.9. 

1803.12.2 Alarm-initiating devices. An approved emer- 
gency telephone system, local alarm manual pull stations, or 
other approved alarm-initiating devices are allowed to be 
used as emergency alarm-initiating devices. 

1803.12.3 Alarm signals. Activation of the emergency 
alarm system shall sound a local alarm and transmit a signal 
to the emergency control station. 

1803.13 Continuous gas detection systems. A continuous gas 
detection system shall be provided for HPM gases when the 
physiological warning threshold level of the gas is at a higher 
level than the accepted permissible exposure limit (PEL) for 
the gas and for flammable gases in accordance with Sections 
1803.13.1 through 1803.13.2.2. 

1803.13.1 Where required. A continuous gas detection 
system shall be provided in the areas identified in Sections 
1803.13.1.1 through 1803.13.1.4. 

1803.13.1.1 Fabrication areas. A continuous gas detec- 
tion system shall be provided in fabrication areas when 
gas is used in the fabrication area. 

1803.13.1.2 HPM rooms. A continuous gas detection 
system shall be provided in HPM rooms when gas is used 
in the room. 

1803.13.1.3 Gas cabinets, exhausted enclosures and 
gas rooms. A continuous gas detection system shall be 
provided in gas cabinets and exhausted enclosures. A 
continuous gas detection system shall be provided in gas 
rooms when gases are not located in gas cabinets or 
exhausted enclosures. 

1803.13.1.4 Exit access corridors. When gases are 
transported in piping placed within the space defined by 
the walls of an exit access corridor and the floor or roof 
above the exit access corridor, a continuous gas detection 
system shall be provided where piping is located and in 
the exit access corridor. 

Exception: A continuous gas detection system is not 
required for occasional transverse crossings of the 
corridors by supply piping which is enclosed in a fer- 
rous pipe or tube for the width of the corridor. 



1803.13.2 Gas detection system operation. The continu- 
ous gas detection system shall be capable of monitoring the 
room, area or equipment in which the gas is located at or 
below the permissible exposure limit (PEL) or ceiling limit 
of the gas for which detection is provided. For flammable 
gases, the monitoring detection threshold level shall be 
vapor concentrations in excess of 20 percent of the lower 
flammable limit (LFL). Monitoring for highly toxic and 
toxic gases shall also comply with Chapter 37. 

1803.13.2.1 Alarms. The gas detection system shall ini- 
tiate a local alarm and transmit a signal to the emergency 
control station when a short-term hazard condition is 
detected. The alarm shall be both visible and audible and 
shall provide warning both inside and outside the area 
where the gas is detected. The audible alarm shall be dis- 
tinct from all other alarms. 

1803.13.2.2 Shut off of gas supply. The gas detection 
system shall automatically close the shutoff valve at the 
source on gas supply piping and tubing related to the sys- 
tem being monitored for which gas is detected when a 
short-term hazard condition is detected. Automatic clo- 
sure of shutoff valves shall comply with the following: 

1. Where the gas-detection sampling point initiating 
the gas detection system alarm is within a gas cabi- 
net or exhausted enclosure, the shutoff valve in the 
gas cabinet or exhausted enclosure for the specific 
gas detected shall automatically close. 

2. Where the gas-detection sampling point initiating 
the gas detection system alarm is within a room 
and compressed gas containers are not in gas cabi- 
nets or exhausted enclosure, the shutoff valves on 
all gas lines for the specific gas detected shall auto- 
matically close. 

3. Where the gas-detection sampling point initiating 
the gas detection system alarm is within a piping 
distribution manifold enclosure, the shutoff valve 
supplying the manifold for the compressed gas 
container of the specific gas detected shall auto- 
matically close. 

Exception: Where the gas-detection sampling point 
initiating the gas detection system alarm is at the use 
location or within a gas valve enclosure of a branch line 
downstream of a piping distribution manifold, the shut- 
off valve for the branch line located in the piping distri- 
bution manifold enclosure shall automatically close. 

1803.14 Exhaust ventilation systems for HPM. Exhaust venti- 
lation systems and materials for exhaust ducts utihzed for the 
exhaust of HPM shall comply with Sections 1803.14.1 through 
1 803. 14.3, other applicable provisions of this code, the Interna- 
tional Building Code and the International Mechanical Code. 

1803.14.1 Where required. Exhaust ventilation systems 
shall be provided in the following locations in accordance 
with the requirements of this section and the International 
Building Code: 

1. Fabrication areas: Exhaust ventilation for fabrication 
areas shall comply with the International Building 



180 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE'' 



SEMICONDUCTOR FABRICATION FACILITIES 



Code. The fire code official is authorized to require 
additional manual control switches. 

2. Workstations: A ventilation system shall be provided 
to capture and exhaust gases, fumes and vapors at 
workstations. 

3. Liquid storage rooms: Exhaust ventilation for liquid 
storage rooms shall comply with Section 2704.3.1 
and the International Building Code. 

4. HPM rooms: Exhaust ventilation for HPM rooms 
shall comply with Section 2704.3.1 and the Interna- 
tional Building Code. 

5. Gas cabinets: Exhaust ventilation for gas cabinets 
shall comply with Section 2703.8.6.2. The gas cabi- 
net ventilation system is allowed to connect to a work- 
station ventilation system. Exhaust ventilation for gas 
cabinets containing highly toxic or toxic gases shall 
also comply with Chapter 37. 

6. Exhausted enclosures: Exhaust ventilation for 
exhausted enclosures shall comply with Section 
2703.8.5.2. Exhaust ventilation for exhausted enclo- 
sures containing highly toxic or toxic gases shall also 
comply with Chapter 37. 

7. Gas rooms: Exhaust ventilation for gas rooms shall 
comply with Section 2703.8.4.2. Exhaust ventilation 
for gas cabinets containing highly toxic or toxic gases 
shall also comply with Chapter 37. 

8. Cabinets containing pyrophoric liquids or Class 3 
water-reactive liquids: Exhaust ventilation for cabi- 
nets in fabrication areas containing pyrophoric liq- 
uids or Class 3 water-reactive liquids shall be as 
required in Section 1805.2.3.5. 

1803.14.2 Penetrations. Exhaust ducts penetrating fire barrier 
assembhes shall be contained in a shaft of equivalent fire-resis- 
tance-rated construction. Exhaust ducts shall not penetrate fire 
walls. Fire dampers shall not be installed in exhaust ducts. 

1803.14.3 Treatment systems. Treatment systems for 
highly toxic and toxic gases shall comply with Chapter 37. 

1803.15 Emergency power system. An emergency power 
system shall be provided in Group H-5 occupancies where 
required by Section 604. The emergency power system shall be 
designed to supply power automatically to required electrical 
systems when the normal supply system is interrupted. 

1803.15.1 Required electrical systems. Emergency power 
shall be provided for electrically operated equipment and 
connected control circuits for the following systems: 

1. HPM exhaust ventilation systems. 

2. HPM gas cabinet ventilation systems. 

3. HPM exhausted enclosure ventilation systems. 

4. HPM gas room ventilation systems. 

5. HPM gas detection systems. 

6. Emergency alarm systems. 

7. Manual fire alarm systems. 



8. Automatic sprinkler system monitoring and alarm 
systems. 

9. Automatic alarm and detection systems for 
pyrophoric liquids and Class 3 water-reactive liq- 
uids required in Section 1805.2.3.5. 

10. Flow alarm switches for pyrophoric liquids and 
Class 3 water-reactive liquids cabinet exhaust venti- 
lation systems required in Section 1805.2.3.5. 

1 1 . Electrically operated systems required elsewhere in 
this code or in the International Building Code 
applicable to the use, storage or handling of HPM. 

1803.15.2 Exhaust ventilation systems. Exhaust ventila- 
tion systems are allowed to be designed to operate at not less 
than one-half the normal fan speed on the emergency power 
system when it is demonstrated that the level of exhaust will 
maintain a safe atmosphere. 



SECTIOIM1804 
STORAGE 

1804.1 General. Storage of hazardous materials shall comply 
with Section 1803 and this section and other applicable provi- 
sions of this code. 

1804.2 Fabrication areas. Hazardous materials storage and 
the maximum quantities of hazardous materials in use and stor- 
age allowed in fabrication areas shall be in accordance with 
Sections 1804.2.1 through 1804.2.2.1. 

1804.2.1 Location of HPM storage in fabrication areas. 

Storage of HPM in fabrication areas shall be within 
approved or listed storage cabinets, gas cabinets, exhausted 
enclosures or within a workstation as follows. 

1. Flammable and combustible liquid storage cabinets 
shall comply with Section 3404.3.2. 

2. Hazardous materials storage cabinets shall comply 
with Section 2703.8.7. 

3. Gas cabinets shall comply with Section 2703.8.6. Gas 
cabinets for highly toxic or toxic gases shall also com- 
ply with Section 3704.1.2. 

4. Exhausted enclosures shall comply with Section 
2703.8.5. Exhausted enclosures for highly toxic or 
toxic gases shall also comply with Section 3704. 1.3. 

5. Workstations shall comply with Section 1805.2.2. 

1804.2.2 Maximum aggregate quantities in fabrication 
areas. The aggregate quantities of hazardous materials 
stored or used in a single fabrication area shall be limited as 
specified in this section. 

Exception: Fabrication areas containing quantities of 
hazardous materials not exceeding the maximum allow- 
able quantities per control area established by Sections 
2703.1.1, 3404.3.4 and 3404.3.5. 

1804.2.2.1 Storage and use in fabrication areas. The 

maximum quantities of hazardous materials stored or 
used in a single fabrication area shall not exceed the 
quantities set forth in Table 1804.2.2.1. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE"" 



181 



SEMICONDUCTOR FABRICATION FACILITIES 



TABLE 1804.2.2.1 
QUANTITY LIMITS FOR HAZARDOUS MATERIALS IN A SINGLE FABRICATION AREA IN GROUP H-5' 


HAZARD CATEGORY 


SOLIDS 
(pounds/square foot) 


LIQUIDS 
(gallons/square foot) 


GAS 
(cubic feet@NTP/square foot) 


PHYSICAL-HAZARD MATERIALS 


Combustible dust 


Noteb 


Not Applicable 


Not Applicable 


Combustible fiber 
Loose 
Baled 


Noteb 
Notes b, c 


Not Applicable 


Not Applicable 


Combustible liquid 
Class II 
Class IIIA 
Class IIIB 
Combination Class I, II and IIIA 


Not Applicable 


0.01 

0.02 

Not Limited 

0.04 


Not Applicable 


Cryogenic gas 
Flammable 
Oxidizing 


Not Applicable 


Not Applicable 


Noted 
1.25 


Explosives 


Noteb 


Noteb 


Noteb 


Flammable gas 
Gaseous 
Liquefied 


Not Applicable 


Not Applicable 


Noted 
Noted 


Flammable liquid 
Class lA 
Class IB 
Class IC 

Combination Class lA, IB and IC 
Combination Class I, II and IIIA 


Not 
Applicable 


0.0025 
0.025 
0.025 
0.025 
0.04 


Not Applicable 


Flammable solid 


0.001 


Not Applicable 


Not Applicable 


Organic peroxide 

Unclassified detonable 

Class I 

Class II 

Class III 

Class IV 

Class V 


Noteb 

Noteb 

0.025 

0.1 

Not Limited 

Not Limited 


Not Applicable 


Not Applicable 


Oxidizing gas 
Gaseous 
Liquefied 
Combination of Gaseous and Liquefied 


Not Applicable 


Not Applicable 


1.25 
1.25 
1.25 


Oxidizer 
Class 4 
Class 3 
Class 2 
Class 1 
Combination oxidizer Class 1, 2, 3 


Noteb 
0.003 
0.003 
0.003 
0.003 


Noteb 
0.03 
0.03 
0.03 
0.03 


Not 
Applicable 


Pyrophoric 


Noteb 


0.00125 


Notes d and e 


Unstable reactive 
Class 4 
Class 3 
Class 2 
Class 1 


Noteb 

0.025 

0.1 

Not Limited 


Noteb 

0.0025 

0.01 

Not Limited 


Noteb 

Noteb 

Noteb 

Not Limited 


Water reactive 
Class 3 
Class 2 
Class 1 


Noteb 

0.25 

Not Limited 


0.00125 

0.025 

Not Limited 


Not 
Applicable 



(continued) 



182 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE*" 



SEMICONDUCTOR FABRICATION FACILITIES 



TABLE 1804.2.2.1— continued 
QUANTITY LIMITS FOR HAZARDOUS MATERIALS IN A SINGLE FABRICATION AREA IN GROUP H-5' 



SOLIDS 
HAZARD CATEGORY (pounds/square foot) 


LIQUIDS GAS 
(gallons/square foot) (cubic feet@NTP/square foot) 


HEALTH-HAZARD MATERIALS 


Corrosives 


Not Limited 


Not Limited 


Not Limited 


Highly toxics 


Not Limited 


Not Limited 


Noted 


Toxics 


Not Limited 


Not Limited 


Noted 



For SI: 1 pound per square foot = 4.882 kg/m^, 1 gallon per square foot = 40.7 L/m^, 1 cubic foot @ NTP/square foot = 0.305 m^ @NTP/m^, 
1 cubic foot = 0.02832 m^. 

a. Hazardous materials within piping shall not be included in the calculated quantities. 

b. Quantity of hazardous materials in a single fabrication shall not exceed the maximum allowable quantities per control area in Tables 2703. 1 .1(1) and 2703 . 1 . 1 (2). 

c. Densely packed baled cotton that complies with the packing requirements of ISO 8115 shall not be included in this material class. 

d. The aggregate quantity of flammable, pyrophoric, toxic and highly toxic ^ses shall not exceed 9,000 cubic feet at NTP. 

e. The aggregate quantity of pyrophoric gases in the building shall not exceed the amounts set forth in Table 2703.8.2. 



•I 



1804.3 Indoor storage outside of fabrication areas. The 

indoor storage of hazardous materials outside of fabrication 
areas shall be in accordance with Sections 1804.3.1 through 
1804.3.3. 

1804.3.1 HPM storage. The indoor storage of HPM in 
quantities greater than those listed in Section 2703.1.1 and 
3404.3.4 shall be in a room complying with the require- 
ments of the International Building Code and this code for a 
liquid storage room, HPM room or gas room as appropriate 
for the materials stored. 

1804.3.2 Other hazardous materials storage. The indoor 
storage of other hazardous materials shall comply with Sec- 
tions 2701, 2703 and 2704 and other applicable provisions 
of this code. 

1804.3.3 Separation of incompatible hazardous materi- 
als. Incompatible hazardous materials in storage shall be 
separated from each other in accordance with Section 
2703.9.8. 



SECTION 1805 
USE AND HANDLING 

1805.1 General. The use and handling of hazardous materials 
shall comply with this section, Section 1803 and other applica- 
ble provisions of this code. 

1805.2 Fabrication areas. The use of hazardous materials in 
fabrication areas shall be in accordance with Sections 1805.2.1 
through 1805.2.3.5. 

1805.2.1 Location of HPM in use in fabrication areas. 

Hazardous production materials in use in fabrication areas 
shall be within approved or listed gas cabinets, exhausted 
enclosures or a workstation. 

1805.2.2 Maximum aggregate quantities in fabrication 
areas. The aggregate quantities of hazardous materials in a 
single fabrication area shall comply with Section 1804.2.2, 
and Table 1 804.2.2. 1 . The quantity of HPM in use at a work- 
station shall not exceed the quantities listed in Table 
1805.2.2. 



1805.2.2.1 Protection of vessels. Vessels containing 
HPM located in or connected to a workstation shall be 
protected from physical damage and shall not project 
from the workstation. Hazardous gas and liquid vessels 
located within a workstation shall be protected from 
seismic forces in an approved manner in accordance 
with the International Building Code. Protection for 
HPM compressed gases shall also comply with Chapter 
30. 

1805.2.2.2 Drainage and containment for HPM liq- 
uids. Each workstation utilizing HPM liquids shall have 
all of the following: 

1 . Drainage piping systems connected to a compati- 
ble system for disposition of such liquids. 

2. The work surface provided with a slope or other 
means for directing spilled materials to the con- 
tainment or drainage system. 

3. An approved means of containing or directing 
spilled or leaked liquids to the drainage system. 

1805.2.2.3 Clearances. Workstations where HPM is 
used shall be provided with horizontal servicing clear- 
ances of not less than 3 feet (914 mm) for electrical 
equipment, gas cylinder connections and similar hazard- 
ous conditions. These clearances shall apply only to nor- 
mal operational procedures and not to repair or 
maintenance-related work. 

1805.2.3 Workstations. Workstations in fabrication areas 
shall be in accordance with Sections 1805.2.3.1 through 
1805.2.3.5. 

1805.2.3.1 Construction. Workstations in fabrication 
areas shall be constructed of materials compatible with 
the materials used and stored at the workstation. The por- 
tion of the workstation that serves as a cabinet for HPM 
gases and HPM flammable liquids shall be 
noncombustible and, if of metal, shall be not less than 
0.0478-inch (18 gage) (1.2 mm) steel. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE'' 



183 



SEMICONDUCTOR FABRICATION FACILITIES 



TABLE 1805.2.2 
MAXIMUM QUANTITIES OF HPM AT A WORKSTATION^ 



HPM CLASSIFICATION 


STATE 


MAXIMUM QUANTITY 


Flammable, highly toxic, 
pyrophoric and toxic combined 


Gas 


3 cylinders 


Flammable 


Liquid 
Solid 


15 gallons^' ''• = 
5 pounds''' '^ 


Corrosive 


Gas 
Liquid 

Solid 


3 cylinders 

Use-open system 

25gallons''''' 

Use-closed system: 

150gallons^'^'f 

20 pounds''' = 


Highly toxic 


Liquid 
Solid 


15 gallons"''' 
5 pounds'" 


Oxidizer 


Gas 
Liquid 

Solid 


3 cylinders 
Use-open system 

12 gallons'' 

Use-closed system 

60 gallons '''^ 

20 pounds''''' 


Pyrophoric 


Liquid 
Solid 


0.5 gallon''' g 
See Table 1804.2.2.1 


Toxic 


Liquid 
Solid 


Use-open system 
15 gallons" 

Use-closed system 
60 gallons "'" 
5 pounds'''" 


Unstable reactive Class 3 


Liquid 
Solid 


0.5 gallon'''" 
5 pounds''' " 


Water-reactive Class 3 


Liquid 
Solid 


0,5 gallon''' g 
See Table 1804.2.2.1 



For SL 1 pound = 0.454 kg, 1 gallon = 3.785 L. 

a. DOT shipping containers with capacities of greater than 5.3 gallons shall not 
be located within a workstation. 

b. Maximum allowable quantities shall be increased 100 percent for closed 
system operations. When Note c also applies, the increase for both notes 
shall be allowed. 

c. Quantities shall be allowed to be increased 100 percent when workstations 
are internally protected with an approved automatic frre-extinguishing or 
suppression system complying with Chapter 9. When Note b also applies, 
the increase for both notes shall be allowed. When Note f also applies, the 
maximum increase allowed for both Notes c and f shall not exceed 100 per- 
cent. 

d. Allowed only in workstations that are internally protected with an approved 
automatic fire-extinguishing or fire protection system complying with 
Chapter 9 and compatible with the reactivity of materials in use at the work- 
station. 

e. The quantity limits apply only to materials classified as HPM. 

f . Quantities shall be allowed to be increased 1 00 percent for nonflammable, 
noncombustible corrosive liquids when the materials of construction for 
workstations are listed or approved for use without internal fire-extin- 
guishing or suppression system protection. When Note c also applies, the 
maximum increase allowed for both Notes c and f shall not exceed 1 00 per- 
cent. 

g. A maximum quantity of 5.3 gallons shall be allowed at a workstation when 
conditions are in accordance with Section 1805.2.3.5. 

1805.2.3.2 Protection of vessels. Vessels containing 
hazardous materials located in or connected to a work- 
station shall be protected as follows: 

1 . HPM: Vessels containing HPM shall be protected 
from physical damage and shall not project from 
the workstation. 

2. Hazardous cryogenic fluids, gases and liquids: 
Hazardous cryogenic fluid, gas and liquid vessels 



located within a workstation shall be protected 
from seismic forces in an approved manner in 
accordance with the International Building Code. 

3. Compressed gases: Protection for compressed gas 
vessels shall also comply with Section 3003.5. 

4. Cryogenic fluids: Protection for cryogenic fluid 
vessels shall also comply with Section 3203.3. 

1805.2.3.3 Drainage and containment for HPM liq- 
uids. Each workstation utilizing HPM liquids shall have 
all of the following: 

1 . Drainage piping systems connected to a compati- 
ble system for disposition of such liquids; 

2. The work surface provided with a slope or other 
means for directing spilled materials to the con- 
tainment or drainage system; and 

3. An approved means of containing or directing 
spilled or leaked liquids to the drainage system. 

1805.2.3.4 Clearances. Workstations where HPM is 
used shall be provided with horizontal servicing clear- 
ances of not less than 3 feet (914 mm) for electrical 
equipment, gas-cylinder connections and similar hazard- 
ous conditions. These clearances shall apply only to nor- 
mal operational procedures and not to repair- or 
maintenance-related work. 

1805.2.3.5 Pyrophoric liquids and Class 3 water-reac- 
tive liquids. Pyrophoric liquids and Class 3 water-reac- 
tive liquids in containers greater than 0.5-gallon (2 L) but 
not exceeding 5.3-gallon (20 L) capacity shall be 
allowed at workstations when located inside cabinets 
and the following conditions are met: 

1. Maximum amount per cabinet: The maximum 
amount per cabinet shall be limited to 5.3 gallons 
(20 L). 

2. Cabinet construction: Cabinets shall be con- 
structed in accordance with the following: 

2.1. Cabinets shall be constructed of not less 
than 0.097-inch (2.5 mm) (12 gauge) steel. 

2.2. Cabinets shall be permitted to have 
self-closing limited access ports or 
noncombustible windows that provide 
access to equipment controls. 

2.3. Cabinets shall be provided with self- or 
manual-closing doors. Manual-closing 
doors shall be equipped with a door switch 
that will initiate local audible and visual 
alarms when the door is in the open posi- 
tion. 

3. Cabinet exhaust ventilation system: An exhaust 
ventilation system shall be provided for cabinets 
and shall comply with the following: 

3.1. The system shall be designed to operate at 
a negative pressure in relation to the sur- 
rounding area. 



• 



184 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE^ 



SEMICONDUCTOR FABRICATION FACILITIES 



•I 



3.2. The system shall be equipped with a pres- 
sure monitor and a flow switch alarm mon- 
itored at the on-site emergency control 
station. 

4. Cabinet spill containment: Spill containment shall 
be provided in each cabinet, with the spill contain- 
ment capable of holding the contents of the aggre- 
gate amount of liquids in containers in each 
cabinet. 

5 . Valves : Valves in supply piping between the prod- 
uct containers in the cabinet and the workstation 
served by the containers shall fail in the closed 
position upon power failure, loss of exhaust venti- 
lation and upon actuation of the fire control sys- 
tem. 

6. Fire detection system: Each cabinet shall be 
equipped with an automatic fire detection system 
complying with the following conditions: 

6. 1 . Automatic detection system: UV/IR, high- 
sensitivity smoke detection (HSSD) or 
other approved detection systems shall be 
provided inside each cabinet. 

6.2. Automatic shutoff: Activation of the 
detection system shall automatically close 
the shutoff valves at the source on the liq- 
uid supply. 

6.3. Alarms and signals: Activation of the 
detection system shall initiate a local alarm 
within the fabrication area and transmit a 
signal to the emergency control station. 
The alarms and signals shall be both visual 
and audible. 

1805.3 Transportation and handling. The transportation and 
handling of hazardous materials shall comply with Sections 
1805.3.1 through 1805.3.4.1 and other applicable provisions of 
this code. 

1805.3.1 Exit corridors access and exit enclosures. Exit 
access corridors and exit enclosures in new buildings or 
serving new fabrication areas shall not contain HPM except 
as permitted for exit access corridors by Section 415.8.6.3 
of the International Building Code. 

1805.3.2 Transport in existing exit access corridors. 

When existing fabrication areas are altered or modified in 
existing buildings, HPM is allowed to be transported in 
existing exit access corridors when such exit access corri- 
dors comply with the International Building Code. Trans- 
portation in exit access corridors shall comply with Section 
2703.10. 

1805.3.3 Service corridors. When a new fabrication area is 
constructed, a service corridor shall be provided where it is 
necessary to transport HPM from a liquid storage room, 
HPM room, gas room or from the outside of a building to the 
perimeter wall of a fabrication area. Service corridors shall 
be designed and constructed in accordance with the Interna- 
tional Building Code. 



1805.3.4 Carts and trucks. Carts and trucks used to trans- 
port HPM in exit acess corridors and exit enclosures in 
existing buildings shall comply with Section 2703.10.3. 

1805.3.4.1 Identification. Carts and trucks shall be 
marked to indicate the contents. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE'' 



185 



186 2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE'' 



CHAPTER 19 

LUMBER YARDS AND WOODWORKING FACILITIES 



SECTION 1901 
GENERAL 

1901.1 Scope. The storage, manufacturing and processing of 
timber, lumber, plywood, veneers and byproducts shall be in 
accordance with this chapter. 

1901.2 Permit. Permits shall be required as set forth in Section 
105.6. 



SECTION 1902 
DEFINITIONS 

1902.1 Definitions. The following words and terms shall, for 
the purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this code, 
have the meanings shown herein. 

COLD DECK. A pile of unfinished cut logs. 

FINES. Small pieces or splinters of wood byproducts that will 
pass through a 0.25-inch (6.4 mm) screen. 

HOGGED MATERIALS. Wood waste materials produced 
from the lumber production process. 

PLYWOOD and VENEER MILLS. Facilities where raw 
wood products are processed into finished wood products, 
including waferboard, oriented strandboard, fiberboard, com- 
posite wood panels and plywood. 

RAW PRODUCT. A mixture of natural materials such as tree, 
brush trimmings, or waste logs and stumps. 

STATIC PILES. Piles in which processed wood product is 
mounded and is not being turned or moved. 

TIMBER and LUMBER PRODUCTION FACILITIES. 

Facilities where raw wood products are processed into finished 
wood products. 



SECTION 1903 
GENERAL REQUIREMENTS 

1903.1 Open yards. Open yards required by the International 
Building Code shall be maintained around structures. 

1903.2 Dust control. Equipment or machinery located inside 
buildings which generates or emits combustible dust shall be 
provided with an approved dust collection and exhaust system 
installed in accordance with Chapter 13 and the International 
Mechanical Code. Equipment or systems that are used to col- 
lect, process or convey combustible dusts shall be provided 
with an approved explosion control system. 

1903.2.1 Explosion venting. Where a dust explosion haz- 
ard exists in equipment rooms, buildings or other enclo- 
sures, such areas shall be provided with explosion 



(deflagration) venting or an approved explosion suppres- 
sion system complying with Section 911. 

1903.3 Waste removal. Sawmills, planning mills and other 
woodworking plants shall be equipped with a waste removal 
system that will collect and remove sawdust and shavings. 
Such systems shall be installed in accordance with Chapter 13 
and the International Mechanical Code. 

Exception: Manual waste removal when approved. 

1903.3.1 Housekeeping. Provisions shall be made for a 
systematic and thorough cleaning of the entire plant at suffi- 
cient intervals to prevent the accumulations of combustible 
dust and spilled combustible or flammable liquids. 

1903.3.2 Metal scrap. Provision shall be made for sepa- 
rately collecting and disposing of any metal scrap so that 
such scrap will not enter the wood handling or processing 
equipment. 

1903.4 Electrical equipment. Electrical wiring and equip- 
ment shall comply with the ICC Electrical Code. 

1903.5 Control of ignition sources. Protection from ignition 
sources shall be provided in accordance with Sections 1903.5. 1 
through 1903.5.3. 

1903.5.1 Cutting and welding. Cutting and welding shall 
comply with Chapter 26. 

1903.5.2 Static electricity. Static electricity shall be pre- 
vented from accumulating on machines and equipment sub- 
ject to static electricity buildup by permanent grounding and 
bonding wires or other approved means. 

1903.5.3 Smoking. Where smoking constitutes a fire haz- 
ard, the fire code official is authorized to order the owner or 
occupant to post approved "No Smoking" signs complying 
with Section 3 10. The fire code official is authorized to des- 
ignate specific locations where smoking is allowed. 

1903.6 Fire apparatus access roads. Fire apparatus access 
roads shall be provided for buildings and facilities in accor- 
dance with Section 503. 

1903.7 Access plan. Where storage pile configurations could 
change because of changes in product operations and process- 
ing, the access plan shall be submitted for approval when 
required by the fire code official. 



SECTION 1904 
FIRE PROTECTION 

1904.1 Fire alarms. An approved means for transmitting 
alarms to the fire department shall be provided in timber and 
lumber production mills and plywood and veneer mills. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE'' 



187 



LUMBER YARDS AND WOODWORKING FACILITIES 



1904.1.1 Manual fire alarms. A manual fire alarm system 
complying with Section 907.2 shall be installed in areas of 
timber and lumber production mills and for plywood and 
veneer mills that contain product dryers. 

Exception: Where dryers or other sources of ignition are 
protected by a supervised automatic sprinkler system 
complying with Section 903. 

1904.2 Portable fire extinguishers and hose. Portable fire 
extinguishers or standpipes and hose supplied from an 
approved water system shall be provided within 50 feet (15 240 
mm) of travel distance to any machine producing shavings or 
sawdust. Extinguishers shall be provided in accordance with 
Section 906 for extra-high hazards. 

1904.3 Automatic sprinkler systems. Automatic sprinkler 
systems shall be installed in accordance with Section 
903.3.1.1. 



SECTION 1905 

PLYWOOD, VENEER AND COMPOSITE 

BOARD MILLS 

1905.1 General. Plant operations of plywood, veneer and 
composite board mills shall comply with this section. 

1905.2 Dryer protection. Dryers shall be protected through- 
out by an approved, automatic deluge water-spray suppression 
system complying with Chapter 9. Deluge heads shall be 
inspected quarterly for pitch buildup. Deluge heads shall be 
flushed during regular maintenance for functional operation. 
Manual activation valves shall be located within 75 feet (22 860 
mm) of the drying equipment. 

1905.3 Thermal oil-heating systems. Facilities that use heat 
transfer fluids to provide process equipment heat through 
piped, indirect heating systems shall comply with this code and 
NFPA 664. 



SECTION 1906 
LOG STORAGE AREAS 

1906.1 General. Log storage areas shall comply with this sec- 
tion. 

1906.2 Cold decks. Cold decks shall not exceed 500 feet 
(152.4 m) in length, 300 feet (91 440 mm) in width and 20 feet 
(6096 mm) in height. Cold decks shall be separated from adja- 
cent cold decks or other exposures by a minimum of 100 feet 
(30 480 mm). 

Exception: The size of cold decks shall be determined by 
the fire code official where the decks are protected by spe- 
cial fire protection including, but not limited to, additional 
fire flow, portable turrets and deluge sets, and hydrant hose 
houses equipped with approved fire-fighting equipment 
capable of reaching the entire storage area in accordance 
with Chapter 9. 

1906.3 End stops. Log and pole piles shall be stabilized by 
approved means. 



SECTION 1907 

STORAGE OF WOOD CHIPS AND HOGGED 

MATERIAL ASSOCIATED WITH TIMBER AND 

LUMBER PRODUCTION FACILITIES 

1907.1 General. The storage of wood chips and hogged mate- 
rials associated with timber and lumber production facilities 
shall comply with this section. 

1907.2 Size of piles. Piles shall not exceed 60 feet (1 8 288 mm) 
in height, 300 feet (91 440 mm) in width and 500 feet (152 m) 
in length. Piles shall be separated from adjacent piles or other 
exposures by approved fire apparatus access roads. 

Exception: The fire code official is authorized to allow the 
pile size to be increased when additional fire protection is 
provided in accordance with Chapter 9. The increase shall 
be based on the capabilities of the system installed. 

1907.3 Pile fire protection. Automatic sprinkler protection 
shall be provided in conveyor tunnels and combustible enclo- 
sures that pass under a pile. Combustible or enclosed conveyor 
systems shall be equipped with an approved automatic sprin- 
kler system. 

1907.4 Material-handling equipment. Approved mate- 
rial-handling equipment shall be readily available for moving 
wood chips and hogged material. 

1907.5 Emergency plan. The owner or operator shall develop 
a plan for monitoring, controlling and extinguishing spot fires. 
The plan shall be submitted to the fire code official for review 
and approval. 



SECTION 1908 

STORAGE AND PROCESSING OF WOOD CHIPS, 

HOGGED MATERIAL, FINES, COMPOST AND RAW 

PRODUCT ASSOCIATED WITH YARD WASTE AND 

RECYCLING FACILITIES 

1908.1 General. The storage and processing of wood chips, 
hogged materials, fines, compost and raw product produced 
from yard waste, debris and recycling facilities shall comply 
with this section. 

1908.2 Storage site. Storage sites shall be level and on solid 
ground or other all-weather surface. Sites shall be thoroughly 
cleaned before transferring wood products to the site. 

1908.3 Size of piles. Piles shall not exceed 25 feet (7620 mm) 
in height, 150 feet (45 720 mm) in width and 250 feet (76 200 
mm) in length. 

Exception: The fire code official is authorized to allow the 
pile size to be increased when additional fire protection is 
provided in accordance with Chapter 9. The increase shall 
be based upon the capabilities of the system installed. 

1908.4 Pile separation. Piles shall be separated from adjacent 
piles by approved fire apparatus access roads. 

1908.5 Combustible waste. The storage, accumulation and 
handling of combustible materials and control of vegetation 
shall comply with Chapter 3. 

1908.6 Static pile protection. Static piles shall be monitored 
by an approved means to measure temperatures within the 



188 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



LUMBER YARDS AND WOODWORKING FACILITIES 



Static piles. Internal pile temperatures shall be monitored and 
recorded weekly. Records shall be kept on file at the facility and 
made available for inspection. An operational plan indicating 
procedures and schedules for the inspection, monitoring and 
restricting of excessive internal temperatures in static piles 
shall be submitted to the fire code official for review and 
approval. 

1908.7 Pile fire protection. Automatic sprinkler protection 
shall be provided in conveyor tunnels and combustible enclo- 
sures that pass under a pile. Combustible conveyor systems and 
enclosed conveyor systems shall be equipped with an approved 
automatic sprinkler system. 

1908.8 Fire extinguishers. Portable fire extinguishers com- 
plying with Section 906 and with a minimum rating of 
4-A:60-B:C shall be provided on all vehicles and equipment 
operating on piles and at all processing equipment. 

1908.9 Material-handling equipment. Approved mate- 
rial-handling equipment shall be available for moving wood 
chips, hogged material, wood fines and raw product during 
fire-fighting operations. 

1908.10 Emergency plan. The owner or operator shall 
develop a plan for monitoring, controlling and extinguishing 
spot fires and submit the plan to the fire code official for review 
and approval. 



SECTION 1909 

EXTERIOR STORAGE OF FINISHED 

LUMBER PRODUCTS 

1909.1 General. Exterior storage of finished lumber products 
shall comply with this section. 

1909.2 Size of piles. Exterior lumber storage shall be arranged 
to form stable piles with a maximum height of 20 feet (6096 
mm). Piles shall not exceed 150,000 cubic feet (4248 m^) in 
volume. 

1909.3 Fire apparatus access roads. Fire apparatus access 
roads in accordance with Section 503 shall be located so that a 
maximum grid system unit of 50 feet by 150 feet (15 240 mm 
by 45 720 mm) is established. 

1909.4 Security. Permanent lumber storage areas shall be sur- 
rounded with an approved fence. Fences shall be a minimum of 
6 feet (1829 mm) in height. 

Exception: Lumber piles inside of buildings and produc- 
tion mills for lumber, plywood and veneer. 

1909.5 Fire protection. An approved hydrant and hose system 
or portable fire-extinguishing equipment suitable for the fire 
hazard involved shall be provided for open storage yards. 
Hydrant and hose systems shall be installed in accordance with 
NFPA 24. Portable fire extinguishers complying with Section 
906 shall be located so that the travel distance to the nearest unit 
does not exceed 75 feet (22 860 mm). 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE*" 



189 



190 2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE'' 



CHAPTER 20 

MANUFACTURE OF ORGANIC COATINGS 



SECTION 2001 
GENERAL 

2001.1 Scope. Organic coating manufacturing processes shall 
comply with this chapter except that this chapter shall not apply 
to processes manufacturing nonflammable or water-thinned 
coatings or to operations applying coating materials. 

2001.2 Permits. Permits shall be required as set forth in Sec- 
tion 105.6. 

2001.3 Maintenance. Structures and their service equipment 
shall be maintained in accordance with this code and NFPA 35 . 



SECTION 2002 
DEFINITIONS 

2002.1 Definition. The following word and term shall, for the 
purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this code, 
have the meaning shown herein. 

ORGANIC COATING. A hquid mixture of binders such as 
alkyd, nitrocellulose, acrylic or oil, and flammable and com- 
bustible solvents such as hydrocarbon, ester, ketone or alcohol, 
which, when spread in a thin film, convert to a durable protec- 
tive and decorative finish. 



SECTION 2003 
GENERAL PRECAUTIONS 

2003.1 Building features. Manufacturing of organic coatings 
shall be done only in buildings that do not have pits or base- 
ments. 

2003.2 Location. Organic coating manufacturing operations 
and operations incidental to or connected with organic coating 
manufacturing shall not be located in buildings having other 
occupancies. 

2003.3 Fire-fighting access. Organic coating manufacturing 
operations shall be accessible from at least one side for the pur- 
pose of fire control. Approved aisles shall be maintained for the 
unobstructed movement of personnel and fire suppression 
equipment. 

2003.4 Fire protection systems. Fire protection systems shall 
be installed, maintained, periodically inspected and tested in 
accordance with Chapter 9. 

2003.5 Portable fire extinguishers. A minimum of one porta- 
ble fire extinguisher complying with Section 906 for extra haz- 
ard shall be provided in organic coating areas. 

2003.6 Open flames. Open flames and direct-fired heating 
devices shall be prohibited in areas where flammable vapor-air 
mixtures exist. 

2003.7 Smoking. Smoking shall be prohibited in accordance 
with Section 310. 



2003.8 Power equipment. Power-operated equipment and 
industrial trucks shall be of a type approved for the location. 

2003.9 Tank maintenance. The cleaning of tanks and vessels 
that have contained flammable or combustible liquids shall be 
performed under the supervision of persons knowledgeable of 
the fire and explosion potential. 

2003.9.1 Repairs. Where necessary to make repairs involv- 
ing "hot work," the work shall be authorized by the respon- 
sible individual before the work begins. 

2003.9.2 Empty containers. Empty flammable or combus- 
tible liquid containers shall be removed to a detached, out- 
side location and, if not cleaned on the premises, the empty 
containers shall be removed from the plant as soon as practi- 
cal. 

2003.10 Drainage. Drainage facilities shall be provided to 
direct flammable and combustible liquid leakage and fire pro- 
tection water to an approved location away from the building, 
any other structure, storage area or adjoining premises. 

2003.11 Alarm system. An approved fire alarm system shall 
be provided in accordance with Section 907. 



SECTION 2004 
ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT AND PROTECTION 

2004.1 Wiring and equipment. Electrical wiring and equip- 
ment shall comply with this chapter and shall be installed in 
accordance with the ICC Electrical Code. 

2004.2 Hazardous locations. Where Class I liquids are 
exposed to the air, the design of equipment and ventilation of 
structures shall be such as to limit the Class I, Division 1, loca- 
tions to the following: 

1. Piping trenches. 

2. The interior of equipment. 

3. The immediate vicinity of pumps or equipment loca- 
tions, such as dispensing stations, open centrifuges, plate 
and frame filters, opened vacuum filters, change cans 
and the surfaces of open equipment. The immediate 
vicinity shall include a zone extending from the vapor 
liberation point 5 feet (1524 mm) horizontally in all 
directions and vertically from the floor to a level 3 feet 
(914 mm) above the highest point of vapor liberation. 

2004.2.1 Other locations. Locations within the confines of 
the manufacturing room where Class I liquids are handled 
shall be Class I, Division 2 except locations indicated in 
Section 2004.2. 

2004.2.2 Ordinary equipment. Ordinary electrical equip- 
ment, including switchgear, shall be prohibited except 
where installed in a room maintained under positive pres- 
sure with respect to the hazardous area. The air or other 
media utilized for pressurization shall be obtained from a 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE'' 



191 



MANUFACTURE OF ORGANIC COATINGS 



source that will not cause any amount or type of flammable 
vapor to be introduced into the room. 

2004.3 Bonding. Equipment including, but not limited to, 
tanks, machinery and piping, shall be bonded and connected to 
a ground where an ignitable mixture is capable of being pres- 
ent. 

2004.3.1 Piping. Electrically isolated sections of metallic 
piping or equipment shall be grounded or bonded to the 
other grounded portions of the system. 

2004.3.2 Vehicles. Tank vehicles loaded or unloaded 
through open connections shall be grounded and bonded to 
the receiving system. 

2004.3.3 Containers. Where a flammable mixture is trans- 
ferred from one portable container to another, a bond shall 
be provided between the two containers, and one shall be 
grounded. 

2004.4 Ground. Metal framing of buildings shall be grounded 
with resistance of not more than 5 ohms. 



SECTION 2005 
PROCESS STRUCTURES 

2005.1 Design. Process structures shall be designed and con- 
structed in accordance with the International Building Code. 

2005.2 Fire apparatus access. Fire apparatus access comply- 
ing with Section 503 shall be provided for the purpose of fire 
control to at least one side of organic coating manufacturing 
operations. 

2005.3 Drainage. Drainage facilities shall be provided in 
accordance with Section 2003.10 where topographical condi- 
tions are such that flammable and combustible liquids are capa- 
ble of flowing from the organic coating manufacturing 
operation so as to constitute a fire hazard to other premises. 

2005.4 Explosion control. Explosion control shall be pro- 
vided in areas subject to potential deflagration hazards as indi- 
cated in NFPA 35. Explosion control shall be provided in 
accordance with Section 911. 

2005.5 Ventilation. Enclosed structures in which Class I liq- 
uids are processed or handled shall be ventilated at a rate of not 
less than 1 cubic foot per minute per square foot (0.00508 mV s 
• m^) of solid floor area. Ventilation shall be accomplished by 
exhaust fans that take suction at floor levels and discharge to a 
safe location outside the structure. Noncontaminated intake air 
shall be introduced in such a manner that all portions of solid 
floor areas are provided with continuous uniformly distributed 
air movement. 

2005.6 Heating. Heating provided in hazardous areas shall be 
by indirect means. Ignition sources such as open flames or 
electrical heating elements, except as provided for in Section 
2004, shall not be permitted within the structure. 



SECTION 2006 
PROCESS MILLS AND KETTLES 

2006.1 Mills. Mills, operating with close clearances, which 
process flammable and heat-sensitive materials, such as 



nitrocellulose, shall be located in a detached building or in a 
noncombustible structure without other occupancies. The 
amount of nitrocellulose or other flammable material brought 
into the area shall not be more than the amount required for a 
batch. 

2006.2 Mixers. Mixers shall be of the enclosed type or, where 
of the open type, shall be provided with properly fitted covers. 
Where flow is by gravity, a shutoff valve shall be installed as 
close as practical to the mixer, and a control valve shall be pro- 
vided near the end of the fill pipe. 

2006.3 Open kettles. Open kettles shall be located in an out- 
side area provided with a protective roof; in a separate structure 
of noncombustible construction; or separated from other areas 
by a noncombustible wall having a fire -resistance rating of at 
least 2 hours. 

2006.4 Closed kettles. Contact-heated kettles containing sol- 
vents shall be equipped with safety devices that, in case of a 
fire, will turn off the process heat, turn on the cooling medium 
and inject inert gas into the kettle. 

2006.4.1 Vaporizer location. The vaporizer section of 
heat-transfer systems that heat closed kettles containing sol- 
vents shall be remotely located. 

2006.5 Kettle controls. The kettle and thin-down tank shall be 
instrumented, controlled and interlocked so that any failure of 
the controls will result in a safe condition. The kettle shall be 
provided with a pressure-rupture disc in addition to the primary 
vent. The vent piping from the rupture disc shall be of mini- 
mum length and shall discharge to an approved location. The 
thin-down tank shall be adequately vented. Thinning opera- 
tions shall be provided with an adequate vapor removal system. 



SECTION 2007 
PROCESS PIPING 

2007.1 Design. All piping, valves and fittings shall be designed 
for the working pressures and structural stresses to which the 
piping, valves and fittings will be subjected, and shall be of 
steel or other material approved for the service intended. 

2007.2 Valves. Valves shall be of an indicating type. Terminal 
valves on remote pumping systems shall be of the dead-man 
type, shutting off both the pump and the flow of solvent. 

2007.3 Support. Piping systems shall be supported adequately 
and protected against physical damage. Piping shall be pitched 
to avoid unintentional trapping of liquids, or approved drains 
shall be provided. 

2007.4 Connectors. Approved flexible connectors shall be 
installed where vibration exists or frequent movement is neces- 
sary. Hose at dispensing stations shall be of an approved type. 

2007.5 Tests. Before being placed in service, all piping shall be 
free of leaks when tested for a minimum of 30 minutes at not 
less than 1.5 times the working pressure or a minimum of 5 
pounds per square inch gauge (psig) (35 kPa) at the highest 
point in the system. 



192 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE'' 



SECTION 2008 
RAW MATERIALS IN PROCESS AREAS 

2008.1 Nitrocellulose quantity. The amount of nitrocellulose 
brought into the operating area shall not exceed the amount 
required for a work shift. Nitrocellulose spillage shall be 
promptly swept up and disposed of properly. 

2008.2 Organic peroxides quantity. Organic peroxides 
brought into the operating area shall be in the original shipping 
container. When in the operating area, the organic peroxide 
shall not be placed in locations exposed to ignition sources, 
heat or mechanical shocks. 



SECTION 2009 
RAW MATERIALS AND FINISHED PRODUCTS 

2009.1 General. The storage, handling and use of flammable 
and combustible liquids in process areas shall be in accordance 
with Chapter 34. 

2009.2 Tank storage. Tank storage for flammable and com- 
bustible liquids located inside of structures shall be limited to 
storage areas at or above grade which are separated from the 
processing area in accordance with the International Building 
Code. Processing equipment containing flammable and com- 
bustible liquids and storage in quantities essential to the conti- 
nuity of the operations shall not be prohibited in the processing 
area. 

2009.3 Tank vehicle. Tank car and tank vehicle loading and 
unloading stations for Class I liquids shall be separated from 
the processing area, other plant structures, nearest lot line of 
property that can be built upon or pubhc thoroughfare by a min- 
imum clear distance of 25 feet (7620 mm). 

2009.3.1 Loading. Loading and unloading structures and 
platforms for flammable and combustible liquids shall be 
designed and installed in accordance with Chapter 34. 

2009.3.2 Safety. Tank cars for flammable liquids shall be 
unloaded such that the safety to persons and property is 
ensured. Tank vehicles for flammable and combustible liq- 
uids shall be loaded and unloaded in accordance with Chap- 
ter 34. 

2009.4 Nitrocellulose storage. Nitrocellulose storage shall be 
located on a detached pad or in a separate structure or a room 
enclosed in accordance with the International Building Code. 
The nitrocellulose storage area shall not be utilized for any 
other purpose. Electrical wiring and equipment installed in 
storage areas adjacent to process areas shall comply with Sec- 
tion 2004.2. 

2009.4.1 Containers. Nitrocellulose shall be stored in 
closed containers. Barrels shall be stored on end and not 
more than two tiers high. Barrels or other containers of 
nitrocellulose shall not be opened in the main storage struc- 
ture but at the point of use or other location intended for that 
purpose. 

2009.4.2 Spills. Spilled nitrocellulose shall be promptly 
wetted with water and disposed of by use or burning in the 
open at an approved detached location. 



MANUFACTURE OF ORGANIC COATINGS 



2009.5 Organic peroxide storage. The storage of organic per- 
oxides shall be in accordance with Chapter 39. 

2009.5.1 Size. The size of the package containing organic 
peroxide shall be selected so that, as nearly as practical, full 
packages are utilized at one time. Spilled peroxide shall be 
promptly cleaned up and disposed of as specified by the 
supplier. 

2009.6 Finished products. Finished products that are flamma- 
ble or combustible liquids shall be stored outside of structures, 
in a separate structure, or in a room separated from the process- 
ing area in accordance with the International Building Code. 
The storage of finished products shall be in tanks or closed con- 
tainers in accordance with Chapter 34. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE'' 



193 



194 2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



CHAPTER 21 

INDUSTRIAL OVENS 



SECTION 2101 
GENERAL 

2101.1 Scope. This chapter shall apply to the installation and 
operation of industrial ovens and furnaces. Industrial ovens 
and furnaces shall comply with the applicable provisions of 
NFPA 86, the International Fuel Gas Code, International 
Mechanical Code and this chapter. The terms "ovens" and "fur- 
naces" are used interchangeably in this chapter. 

2101.2 Permits. Permits shall be required as set forth in Sec- 
tions 105.6 and 105.7. 



SECTION 2102 
DEFINITIONS 

2102.1 Definitions. The following words and terms shall, for 
the purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this code, 
have the meanings shown herein. 

FURNACE CLASS A. An oven or furnace that has heat utili- 
zation equipment operating at approximately atmospheric 
pressure wherein there is a potential explosion or fire hazard 
that could be occasioned by the presence of flammable 
volatiles or combustible materials processed or heated in the 
furnace. 

Note: Such flammable volatiles or combustible materials 
can, for instance, originate from the following: 

1. Paints, powders, inks, and adhesives from finishing 
processes, such as dipped, coated, sprayed and 
impregnated materials. 

2. The substrate material. 

3. Wood, paper and plastic pallets, spacers or packaging 
materials. 

4. Polymerization or other molecular rearrangements. 

Potentially flammable materials, such as quench oil, 
water-borne finishes, cooling oil or cooking oils, that pres- 
ent a hazard are ventilated according to Class A standards. 

FURNACE CLASS B. An oven or furnace that has heat utili- 
zation equipment operating at approximately atmospheric 
pressure wherein there are no flammable volatiles or combusti- 
ble materials being heated. 

FURNACE CLASS C. An oven or furnace that has a potential 
hazard due to a flammable or other special atmosphere being 
used for treatment of material in process. This type of furnace 
can use any type of heating system and includes a special atmo- 
sphere supply system. Also included in the Class C classifica- 
tion are integral quench furnaces and molten salt bath furnaces. 

FURNACE CLASS D. An oven or furnace that operates at 
temperatures from above ambient to over 5,000°F (2760°C) 
and at pressures normally below atmospheric using any type of 
heating system. These furnaces can include the use of special 
processing atmospheres. 



SECTION 2103 
LOCATION 

2103.1 Ventilation. Enclosed rooms or basements containing 
industrial ovens or furnaces shall be provided with combustion 
air in accordance with the International Mechanical Code and 
the International Fuel Gas Code, and with ventilation air in 
accordance with the International Mechanical Code. 

2103.2 Exposure. When locating ovens, oven heaters and 
related equipment, the possibility of fire resulting from over- 
heating or from the escape of fuel gas or fuel oil and the possi- 
bility of damage to the building and injury to persons resulting 
from explosion shall be considered. 

2103.3 Ignition source. Industrial ovens and furnaces shall be 
located so as not to pose an ignition hazard to flammable 
vapors or mists or combustible dusts. 

2103.4 Temperatures. Roofs and floors of ovens shall be insu- 
lated and ventilated to prevent temperatures at combustible 
ceilings and floors from exceeding 160°F (71°C). 



SECTION 2104 
FUEL PIPING 

2104.1 Fuel-gas piping. Fuel-gas piping serving industrial 
ovens shall comply with the International Fuel Gas Code. Pip- 
ing for other fuel sources shall comply with this section. 

2104.2 Shutoff valves. Each industrial oven or furnace shall be 
provided with an approved manual fuel shutoff valve in accor- 
dance with the International Mechanical Code or the Interna- 
tional Fuel Gas Code. 

2104.2.1 Fuel supply lines. Valves for fuel supply fines 
shall be located within 6 feet (1829 mm) of the appliance 
served. 

Exception: When approved and the valve is located in 
the same general area as the appliance served. 

2104.3 Valve position. The design of manual fuel shutoff 
valves shall incorporate a permanent feature which visually 
indicates the open or closed position of the valve. Manual fuel 
shutoff valves shall not be equipped with removable handles or 
wrenches unless the handle or wrench can only be installed par- 
allel with the fuel line when the valve is in the open position. 



SECTION 2105 
INTERLOCKS 

2105.1 Shut down. Interlocks shall be provided for Class A 
ovens so that conveyors or sources of flammable or combusti- 
ble materials shall shut down if either the exhaust or 
recirculation air supply fails. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



195 



INDUSTRIAL OVENS 



SECTION 2106 
FIRE PROTECTION 

2106.1 Required protection. Class A and B ovens which con- 
tain, or are utilized for the processing of, combustible materials 
shall be protected by an approved automatic fire-extinguishing 
system complying with Chapter 9. 

2106.2 Fixed fire-extinguishing systems. Fixed fire-extin- 
guishing systems shall be provided for Class C or D ovens to 
protect against such hazards as overheating, spillage of molten 
salts or metals, quench tanks, ignition of hydraulic oil and 
escape of fuel. It shall be the user's responsibihty to consult 
with the fire code official concerning the necessary require- 
ments for such protection. 

2106.3 Fire extinguishers. Portable fire extinguishers com- 
plying with Section 906 shall be provided not closer than 15 
feet (4572 mm) or a maximum of 50 feet (15 240 mm) or in 
accordance with NFPA 10. This shall apply to the oven and 
related equipment. 



SECTION 2107 
OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE 

2107.1 Furnace system information. An approved, clearly 
worded, and prominently displayed safety design data form or 
manufacturer's nameplate shall be provided stating the safe 
operating condition for which the furnace system was 
designed, built, altered or extended. 

2107.2 Oven nameplate. Safety data for Class A solvent atmo- 
sphere ovens shall be furnished on the manufacturer's name- 
plate. The nameplate shall provide the following design data: 

1 . The solvent used. 

2. The number of gallons (liters) used per batch or per hour 
of solvent entering the oven. 

3. The required purge time. 

4. The oven operating temperature. 

5. The exhaust blower rating for the number of gallons 
(liters) of solvent per hour or batch at the maximum oper- 
ating temperature. 

Exception: For low-oxygen ovens, the maximum 
allowable oxygen concentration shall be included in 
place of the exhaust blower ratings. 

2107.3 Training. Operating, maintenance and supervisory 
personnel shall be thoroughly instructed and trained in the 
operation of ovens or furnaces. 

2107.4 Equipment maintenance. Equipment shall be main- 
tained in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. 



196 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE"^ 



CHAPTER 22 

MOTOR FUEL-DISPENSING FACILITIES AND REPAIR GARAGES 



SECTION 2201 
GENERAL 

2201.1 Scope. Automotive motor fuel-dispensing facilities, 
marine motor fuel-dispensing facilities, fleet vehicle motor 
fuel-dispensing facilities and repair garages shall be in accor- 
dance with this chapter and the International Building Code, 
International Fuel Gas Code and the International Mechanical 
Code. Such operations shall include both operations that are 
accessible to the public and private operations. 

2201.2 Permits. Permits shall be required as set forth in Sec- 
tion 105.6. 

2201.3 Construction documents. Construction documents 
shall be submitted for review and approval prior to the installa- 
tion or construction of automotive, marine or fleet vehicle 
motor fuel-dispensing facilities and repair garages in accor- 
dance with Section 105.4. 

2201.4 Indoor motor fuel-dispensing facilities. Motor 
fuel-dispensing facilities located inside buildings shall comply 
with the International Building Code and NFPA 30A. 

2201.4.1 Protection of floor openings in indoor motor 
fuel-dispensing facilities. Where motor fuel-dispensing 
facilities are located inside buildings and the dispensers are 
located above spaces within the building, openings beneath 
dispensers shall be sealed to prevent the flow of leaked fuel 
to lower building spaces. 

2201.5 Electrical. Electrical wiring and equipment shall be 
suitable for the locations in which they are installed and shall 
comply with Section 605, NFPA 30A and the ICC Electrical 
Code. 

2201.6 Heat-producing appliances. Heat-producing appli- 
ances shall be suitable for the locations in which they are 
installed and shall comply with NFPA 30A and the Interna- 
tional Fuel Gas Code or the International Mechanical Code. 



SECTION 2202 
DEFINITIONS 

2202.1 Definitions. The following words and terms shall, for 
the purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this code, 
have the meanings shown herein. 

AUTOMOTIVE MOTOR FUEL-DISPENSING FACIL- 
ITY. That portion of property where flammable or combustible 
liquids or gases used as motor fuels are stored and dispensed 
from fixed equipment into the fuel tanks of motor vehicles. 

DISPENSING DEVICE, OVERHEAD TYPE. A dispens- 
ing device that consists of one or more individual units 
intended for installation in conjunction with each other, 
mounted above a dispensing area typically within the motor 
fuel-dispensing facility canopy structure, and characterized by 
the use of an overhead hose reel. 



FLEET VEHICLE MOTOR FUEL-DISPENSING 
FACILITY. That portion of a commercial, industrial, govern- 
mental or manufacturing property where liquids used as fuels 
are stored and dispensed into the fuel tanks of motor vehicles 
that are used in connection with such businesses, by persons 
within the employ of such businesses. 

LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS (LNG). A fluid in the liquid 
state composed predominantly of methane and which may con- 
tain minor quantities of ethane, propane, nitrogen or other 
components normally found in natural gas. 

MARINE MOTOR FUEL-DISPENSING FACILITY. That 
portion of property where flammable or combustible liquids or 
gases used as fuel for watercraft are stored and dispensed from 
fixed equipment on shore, piers, wharves, floats or barges into 
the fuel tanks of watercraft and shall include all other facilities 
used in connection therewith. 

REPAIR GARAGE. A building, structure or portion thereof 
used for servicing or repairing motor vehicles. 

SELF-SERVICE MOTOR FUEL-DISPENSING FACIL- 
ITY. That portion of motor fuel-dispensing facility where liq- 
uid motor fuels are dispensed from fixed approved dispensing 
equipment into the fuel tanks of motor vehicles by persons 
other than a motor fuel-dispensing facility attendant. 



SECTION 2203 
LOCATION OF DISPENSING DEVICES 

2203.1 Location of dispensing dsevices. Dispensing devices 
shall be located as follows: 

1. Ten feet (3048 mm) or more from lot lines. 

2. Ten feet (3048 mm) or more from buildings having com- 
bustible exterior wall surfaces or buildings having 
noncombustible exterior wall surfaces that are not part of 
a 1-hour fire-resistance-rated assembly or buildings hav- 
ing combustible overhangs. 

Exception: Canopies constructed in accordance with 
the International Building Code providing weather 
protection for the fuel islands. 

3. Such that all portions of the vehicle being fueled will be 
on the premises of the motor fuel-dispensing facility. 

4. Such that the nozzle, when the hose is fully extended, 
will not reach within 5 feet (1524 mm) of building open- 
ings. 

5. Twenty feet (6096 mm) or more from fixed sources of 
ignition. 

2203.2 Emergency disconnect switches. An approved, 
clearly identified and readily accessible emergency disconnect 
switch shall be provided at an approved location, to stop the 
transfer of fuel to the fuel dispensers in the event of a fuel spill 
or other emergency. An emergency disconnect switch for exte- 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE^ 



197 



MOTOR FUEL-DISPENSING FACILITIES AND REPAIR GARAGES 



rior fuel dispensers shall be located within 100 feet (30 480 
mm) of, but not less than 20 feet (6096 mm) from, the fuel dis- 
pensers. For interior fuel-dispensing operations, the emer- 
gency disconnect switch shall be installed at an approved 
location. Such devices shall be distinctly labeled as: EMER- 
GENCY FUEL SHUTOFF. Signs shall be provided in 
approved locations. 



SECTION 2204 
DISPENSING OPERATIONS 

2204.1 Supervision of dispensing. The dispensing of fuel at 
motor fuel-dispensing facilities shall be conducted by a quali- 
fied attendant or shall be under the supervision of a qualified 
attendant at all times or shall be in accordance with Section 
2204.3. 

2204.2 Attended self-service motor fuel-dispensing facili- 
ties. Attended self-service motor fuel -dispensing facilities 
shall comply with Sections 2204.2.1 through 2204.2.5. 
Attended self-service motor fuel-dispensing facilities shall 
have at least one qualified attendant on duty while the facility is 
open for business. The attendant's primary function shall be to 
supervise, observe and control the dispensing of fuel. The 
attendant shall prevent the dispensing of fuel into containers 
that do not comply with Section 2204.4.1, control sources of 
ignition, give immediate attention to accidental spills or 
releases, and be prepared to use fire extinguishers. 

2204.2.1 Special-type dispensers. Approved special-dis- 
pensing devices and systems such as, but not limited to, 
card- or coin-operated and remote-preset types, are allowed 
at motor fuel-dispensing facilities provided there is at least 
one qualified attendant on duty while the facility is open to 
the public. Remote preset-type devices shall be set in the 
"off' position while not in use so that the dispenser cannot 
be activated without the knowledge of the attendant. 

2204.2.2 Emergency controls. Approved emergency con- 
trols shall be provided in accordance with Section 2203.2. 

2204.2.3 Operating instructions. Dispenser operating 
instructions shall be conspicuously posted in approved loca- 
tions on every dispenser. 

2204.2.4 Obstructions to view. Dispensing devices shall 
be in clear view of the attendant at all times. Obstructions 
shall not be placed between the dispensing area and the 
attendant. 

2204.2.5 Communications. The attendant shall be able to 
communicate with persons in the dispensing area at all 
times. An approved method of communicating with the fire 
department shall be provided for the attendant. 

2204.3 Unattended self-service motor fuel-dispensing facil- 
ities. Unattended self-service motor fuel -dispensing facilities 
shall comply with Sections 2204.3.1 through 2204.3.7. 

2204.3.1 General. Where approved, unattended self-ser- 
vice motor fuel-dispensing facilities are allowed. As a con- 
dition of approval, the owner or operator shall provide, and 
be accountable for, daily site visits, regular equipment 
inspection and maintenance. 



2204.3.2 Dispensers. Dispensing devices shall comply 
with Section 2206.7. Dispensing devices operated by the 
insertion of coins or currency shall not be used unless 
approved. 

2204.3.3 Emergency controls. Approved emergency con- 
trols shall be provided in accordance with Section 2203.2. 
Emergency controls shall be of a type which is only manu- 
ally resettable. 

2204.3.4 Operating instructions. Dispenser operating 
instructions shall be conspicuously posted in approved loca- 
tions on every dispenser and shall indicate the location of 
the emergency controls required by Section 2204.3.3. 

2204.3.5 Emergency procedures. An approved emergency 
procedures sign, in addition to the signs required by Section 
2205.6, shall be posted in a conspicuous location and shall 
read: 

IN CASE OF FIRE, SPILL OR RELEASE 

1. USE EMERGENCY PUMP SHUTOFF 

2. REPORT THE ACCIDENT! 

FIRE DEPARTMENT TELEPHONE NO. 



FACILITY ADDRESS 



2204.3.6 Communications. A telephone not requiring a 
coin to operate or other approved, clearly identified means 
to notify the fire department shall be provided on the site in a 
location approved by the fire code official. 

2204.3.7 Quantity limits. Dispensing equipment used at 
unsupervised locations shall comply with one of the follow- 
ing: 

1. Dispensing devices shall be programmed or set to 
limit uninterrupted fuel delivery to 25 gallons (95 L) 
and require a manual action to resume delivery. 

2. The amount of fuel being dispensed shall be limited in 
quantity by a preprogrammed card as approved. 

2204.4 Dispensing into portable containers. The dispensing 
of flammable or combustible liquids into portable approved 
containers shall comply with Sections 2204.4.1 through 
2204.4.3. 

2204.4.1 Approved containers required. Class I, II and 
IIIA liquids shall not be dispensed into a portable container 
unless such container is of approved material and construc- 
tion, and has a tight closure with screwed or spring-loaded 
cover so designed that the contents can be dispensed with- 
out spilling. Liquids shall not be dispensed into portable 
tanks or cargo tanks. 

2204.4.2 Nozzle operation. A hose nozzle valve used for 
dispensing Class I liquids into a portable container shall be 
in compliance with Section 2206.7.6 and be manually held 
open during the dispensing operation. 

2204.4.3 Location of containers being filled. Portable 
containers shall not be filled while located inside the trunk, 
passenger compartment or truck bed of a vehicle. 



198 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE^ 



MOTOR FUEL-DISPENSING FACILITIES AND REPAIR GARAGES 



SECTION 2205 
OPERATIONAL REQUIREMENTS 

2205.1 Tank filling operations for Class I, II or IIIA liquids. 

Delivery operations to tanks for Class I, II or IIIA liquids shall 
comply with Sections 2205. 1 . 1 through 2205. 1 .3 and the appH- 
cable requirements of Chapter 34. 

2205.1.1 Delivery vehicle location. Where liquid delivery 
to above-ground storage tanks is accomplished by posi- 
tive-pressure operation, tank vehicles shall be positioned a 
minimum of 25 feet (7620 mm) from tanks receiving Class I 
liquids and 15 feet (4572 mm) from tanks receiving Class II 
and IIIA liquids. 

2205.1.2 Tank capacity calculation. The driver, operator 
or attendant of a tank vehicle shall, before making delivery 
to a tank, determine the unfilled, available capacity of such 
tank by an approved gauging device. 

2205.1.3 Tank fill connections. Delivery of flammable hq- 
uids to tanks more than 1,000 gallons (3785 L) in capacity 
shall be made by means of approved liquid- and vapor-tight 
connections between the delivery hose and tank fill pipe. 
Where tanks are equipped with any type of vapor recovery 
system, all connections required to be made for the safe and 
proper functioning of the particular vapor recovery process 
shall be made. Such connections shall be made liquid and 
vapor tight and remain connected throughout the unloading 
process. Vapors shall not be discharged at grade level during 
delivery. 

2205.2 Equipment maintenance and inspection. Motor 
fuel-dispensing facility equipment shall be maintained in 
proper working order at all times in accordance with Sections 
2205.2.1 through 2205.2.3. 

2205.2.1 Dispensing devices. Where maintenance to Class 
I liquid dispensing devices becomes necessary and such 
maintenance could allow the accidental release or ignition 
of liquid, the following precautions shall be taken before 
such maintenance is begun: 

1. Only persons knowledgeable in performing the 
required maintenance shall perform the work. 

2. Electrical power to the dispensing device and pump 
serving the dispenser shall be shut off at the main 
electrical disconnect panel. 

3. The emergency shutoff valve at the dispenser, where 
installed, shall be closed. 

4. Vehicle traffic and unauthorized persons shall be pre- 
vented from coming within 12 feet (3658 mm) of the 
dispensing device. 

2205.2.2 Emergency shutoff valves. Automatic emer- 
gency shutoff valves required by Section 2206.7.4 shall be 
checked not less than once per year by manually tripping the 
hold-open linkage. 

2205.2.3 Leak detectors. Leak detection devices required 
by Section 2206.7.7.1 shall be checked and tested at least 
annually in accordance with the manufacturer's specifica- 
tions to ensure proper installation and operation. 



2205.3 Spill control. Provisions shall be made to prevent liq- 
uids spilled during dispensing operations from flowing into 
buildings. Acceptable methods include, but shall not be limited 
to, grading driveways, raising doorsills, or other approved 
means. 

2205.4 Sources of ignition. Smoking and open flames shall be 
prohibited in areas where fuel is dispensed. The engines of 
vehicles being fueled shall be shut off during fueling. Electrical 
equipment shall be in accordance with the ICC Electrical 
Code. 

2205.5 Fire extinguishers. Approved portable fire 
extinguishers complying with Section 906 with a minimum 
rating of 2-A:20-B:C shall be provided and located such that an 
extinguisher is not more than 75 feet (22 860 mm) from pumps, 
dispensers or storage tank fill-pipe openings. 

2205.6 Warning signs. Warning signs shall be conspicuously 
posted within sight of each dispenser in the fuel-dispensing 
area and shall state the following: 

1. No smoking. 

2. Shut off motor. 

3 . Discharge your static electricity before fueling by touch- 
ing a metal surface away from the nozzle. 

4. To prevent static charge, do not reenter your vehicle 
while gasoline is pumping. 

5. If a fire starts, do not remove nozzle — back away imme- 
diately. 

6. It is unlawful and dangerous to dispense gasoline into 
unapproved containers. 

7. No filling of portable containers in or on a motor vehicle. 
Place container on ground before filling. 

2205.7 Control of brush and debris. Fenced and diked areas 
surrounding above-ground tanks shall be kept free from vege- 
tation, debris and other material that is not necessary to the 
proper operation of the tank and piping system. 

Weeds, grass, brush, trash and other combustible materials 
shall be kept not less than 10 feet (3048 mm) from fuel-han- 
dling equipment. 



SECTION 2206 

FLAMMABLE AND COMBUSTIBLE LIQUID MOTOR 

FUEL-DISPENSING FACILITIES 

2206.1 General. Storage of flammable and combustible liq- 
uids shall be in accordance with Chapter 34 and this section. 

2206.2 Method of storage. Approved methods of storage for 
Class I, II and IIIA liquid fuels at motor fuel-dispensing facili- 
ties shall be in accordance with Sections 2206.2.1 through 
2206.2.5. 

2206.2.1 Underground tanks. Underground tanks for the 
storage of Class I, II and IIIA liquid fuels shall comply with 
Chapter 34. 

2206.2.1.1 Inventory control for underground tanks. 

Accurate daily inventory records shall be maintained and 
reconciled on underground fuel storage tanks for indica- 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE*^ 



199 



MOTOR FUEL-DISPENSING FACILITIES AND REPAIR GARAGES 



tion of possible leakage from tanks and piping. The 
records shall be kept at the premises or made available 
for inspection by the fire code official within 24 hours of 
a written or verbal request and shall include records for 
each product showing daily reconciliation between 
sales, use, receipts and inventory on hand. Where there is 
more than one system consisting of tanks serving sepa- 
rate pumps or dispensers for a product, the reconciliation 
shall be ascertained separately for each tank system. A 
consistent or accidental loss of product shall be immedi- 
ately reported to the fire code official. 

2206.2.2 Above-ground tanks located inside buildings. 

Above-ground tanks for the storage of Class I, II and IIIA 
liquid fuels are allowed to be located in buildings. Such 
tanks shall be located in special enclosures complying with 
Section 2206.2.6, in a liquid storage room or a liquid storage 
warehouse complying with Chapter 34, or shall be listed 
and labeled as protected above-ground tanks. 

2206.2.3 Above-ground tanks located outside, above 
grade. Above-ground tanks shall not be used for the storage 
of Class I, II or IIIA liquid motor fuels except as provided by 
this section. 

1. Above-ground tanks used for outside, above-grade 
storage of Class I liquids shall be listed and labeled as 
protected above-ground tanks and be in accordance 
with Chapter 34. Such tanks shall be located in accor- 
dance with Table 2206.2.3. 

2. Above-ground tanks used for above-grade storage of 
Class II or IIIA liquids are allowed to be protected 
above-ground tanks or, when approved by the fire 



code official, other above-ground tanks that comply 
with Chapter 34. Tank locations shall be in accor- 
dance with Table 2206.2.3. 

3. Tanks containing fuels shall not exceed 12,000 gal- 
lons (45 420 L) in individual capacity or 48,000 gal- 
lons (181 680 L) in aggregate capacity. Installations 
with the maximum allowable aggregate capacity shall 
be separated from other such installations by not less 
than 100 feet (30 480 mm). 

4. Tanks located at farms, construction projects, or rural 
areas shall comply with Section 3406.2. 

2206.2.4 Above-ground tanks located in above-grade 
vaults or below-grade vaults. Above-ground tanks used 
for storage of Class I, II or IIIA liquid motor fuels are 
allowed to be installed in vaults located above grade or 
below grade in accordance with Section 3404.2.8 and shall 
comply with Sections 2206.2.4.1 and 2206.2.4.2. Tanks in 
above-grade vaults shall also comply with Table 2206.2.3. 

2206.2.4.1 Tank capacity limits. Tanks storing Class I 
and Class II liquids at an individual site shall be lim- 
ited to a maximum individual capacity of 15,000 gal- 
lons (56 775 L) and an aggregate capacity of 48,000 
gallons (181 680 L). 

2206.2.4.2 Fleet vehicle motor fuel-dispensing facili- 
ties. Tanks storing Class II and Class IIIA liquids at a 
fleet vehicle motor fuel-dispensing facility shall be lim- 
ited to a maximum individual capacity of 20,000 gallons 
(75 700 L) and an aggregate capacity of 80,000 gallons 
(302 BOOL). 



TABLE 2206.2.3 
MINIMUM SEPARATION REQUIREMENTS FOR ABOVE-GROUND TANKS 



CLASS OF LIQUID 
AND TANK TYPE 


INDIVIDUAL TANK 
CAPACITY 
(gallons) 


MINIMUM DISTANCE 

FROM NEAREST 

IMPORTANT 

BUILDING ON SAME 

PROPERTY 

(feet) 


MINIMUM DISTANCE 

FROM NEAREST 

FUEL DISPENSER 

(feet) 


MINIMUM DISTANCE 
FROM LOT LINE 

THAT IS OR CAN BE 

BUILT UPON, 

INCLUDING THE 

OPPOSITE SIDE OF 

A PUBLIC WAY (feet) 


MINIMUM DISTANCE 

FROM NEAREST 

SIDE OF ANY 

PUBLIC WAY 

(feet) 


MINIMUM DISTANCE 

BETWEEN TANKS 

(feet) 


Class I protected 

above-ground 

tanks 


Less than or equal 
to 6,000 


5 


25^ 


15 


5 


3 


Greater than 6,000 


15 


25'' 


25 . 


15 


3 


Class II and III 
protected 
above-ground 
tanks 


Same as Class I 


Same as Class I 


Same as Class I 


Same as Class I 


Same as Class I 


Same as Class I 


Tanks in vaults 


0-20,000 


O'' 





O'' 





Separate 

compartment 

required for each 

tank 


Other tanks 


AH 


50 


50 


100 


50 


3 



For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 gallon = 3.785 L. 

a. At fleet vehicle motor fuel-dispensing facilities, no minimum separation distance is required. 

b. Underground vaults shall be located such that they will not be subject to loading from nearby structures, or they shall be designed to accommodate applied loads 
from existing or future structures that can be built nearby. 



200 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE'' 



MOTOR FUEL-DISPENSING FACILITIES AND REPAIR GARAGES 



2206.2.5 Portable tanks. Where approved by the fire code 
official, portable tanks are allowed to be temporarily used in 
conjunction with the dispensing of Class I, II or IIIA liquids 
into the fuel tanks of motor vehicles or motorized equip- 
ment on premises not normally accessible to the public. The 
approval shall include a definite time limit. 

2206.2.6 Special enclosures. Where installation of tanks in 
accordance with Section 3404.2.11 is impractical, or 
because of property or building limitations, tanks for liquid 
motor fuels are allowed to be installed in buildings in special 
enclosures in accordance with all of the following: 

1 . The special enclosure shall be liquid tight and vapor 
tight. 

2. The special enclosure shall not contain backfill. 

3 . Sides, top and bottom of the special enclosure shall be 
of reinforced concrete at least 6 inches (152 mm) 
thick, with openings for inspection through the top 
only. 

4. Tank connections shall be piped or closed such that 
neither vapors nor liquid can escape into the enclosed 
space between the special enclosure and any tanks 
inside the special enclosure. 

5 . Means shall be provided whereby portable equipment 
can be employed to discharge to the outside any 
vapors which might accumulate inside the special 
enclosure should leakage occur. 

6. Tanks containing Class I, II or IIIA liquids inside a 
special enclosure shall not exceed 6,000 gallons 
(22 7 1 L) in individual capacity or 1 8,000 gallons 
(68 130 L) in aggregate capacity. 

7. Each tank within special enclosures shall be sur- 
rounded by a clear space of not less than 3 feet (910 
mm) to allow for maintenance and inspection. 

2206.3 Security. Above-ground tanks for the storage of liquid 
motor fuels shall be safeguarded from public access or unau- 
thorized entry in an approved manner. 

2206.4 Physical protection. Guard posts complying with Sec- 
tion 312 or other approved means shall be provided to protect 
above-ground tanks against impact by a motor vehicle unless 
the tank is listed as a protected above-ground tank with vehicle 
impact protection. 

2206.5 Secondary containment. Above-ground tanks shall be 
provided with drainage control or diking in accordance with 
Chapter 34. Drainage control and diking is not required for 
listed secondary containment tanks. Secondary containment 
systems shall be monitored either visually or automatically. 
Enclosed secondary containment systems shall be provided 
with emergency venting in accordance with Section 
2206.6.2.5. 

2206.6 Piping, valves, fittings and ancillary equipment for 
use with flammable or combustible liquids. The design, fab- 
rication, assembly, testing and inspection of piping, valves, fit- 
tings and ancillary equipment for use with flammable or 
combustible liquids shall be in accordance with Chapter 34 and 
Sections 2206.6. 1 through 2206.6.3. 



2206.6.1 Protection from damage. Piping shall be located 
such that it is protected from physical damage. 

2206.6.2 Piping, valves, fittings and ancillary equipment 
for above-ground tanks for Class I, II and IIIA liquids. 

Piping, valves, fittings and ancillary equipment for 
above-ground tanks shall comply with Sections 2206.6.2.1 
through 2206.6.2.6. 

2206.6.2.1 Tank openings. Tank openings for 
above-ground tanks shall be through the top only. 

2206.6.2.2 Fill-pipe connections. The fill pipe for 
above-ground tanks shall be provided with a means for 
making a direct connection to the tank vehicle's 
fuel-delivery hose so that the delivery of fuel is not 
exposed to the open air during the filling operation. 
Where any portion of the fill pipe exterior to the tank 
extends below the level of the top of the tank, a check 
valve shall be installed in the fill pipe not more than 12 
inches (305 mm) from the fill-hose connection. 

2206.6.2.3 Overfill protection. Overfill protection shall 
be provided for above-ground flammable and combusti- 
ble liquid storage tanks in accordance with Sections 
3404.2.7.5.8 and 3404.2.9.6.6. 

2206.6.2.4 Siphon prevention. An approved antisiphon 
method shall be provided in the piping system to prevent 
flow of liquid by siphon action. 

2206.6.2.5 Emergency relief venting. Above-ground 
storage tanks, tank compartments and enclosed second- 
ary containment spaces shall be provided with emer- 
gency relief venting in accordance with Chapter 34. 

2206.6.2.6 Spill containers. A spill container having a 
capacity of not less than 5 gallons (19 L) shall be pro- 
vided for each fill connection. For tanks with a top fill 
connection, spill containers shall be noncombustible and 
shall be fixed to the tank and equipped with a manual 
drain valve that drains into the primary tank. For tanks 
with a remote fill connection, a portable spill container is 
allowed. 

2206.6.3 Piping, valves, fittings and ancillary equipment 
for underground tanks. Piping, valves, fittings and ancil- 
lary equipment for underground tanks shall comply with 
Chapter 34 and NFPA 30A. 

2206.7 Fuel-dispensing systems for flammable or combus- 
tible liquids. The design, fabrication and installation of 
fuel-dispensing systems for flammable or combustible liquid 
fuels shall be in accordance with Sections 2206.7.1 through 
2206.7.9.2.4. 

2206.7.1 Listed equipment. Electrical equipment, dispens- 
ers, hose, nozzles and submersible or subsurface pumps 
used in fuel-dispensing systems shall be listed. 

2206.7.2 Fixed pumps required. Class I and II liquids shall 
be transferred from tanks by means of fixed pumps designed 
and equipped to allow control of the flow and prevent leak- 
age or accidental discharge. 

2206.7.3 Mounting of dispensers. Dispensing devices 
except those installed on top of a protected above-ground 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE^ 



201 



MOTOR FUEL-DISPENSING FACILITIES AND REPAIR GARAGES 



tank that qualifies as vehicle-impact resistant, shall be pro- 
tected against physical damage by mounting on a concrete 
island 6 inches (152 mm) or more in height, or shall be pro- 
tected in accordance with Section 312. Dispensing devices 
shall be installed and securely fastened to their mounting 
surface in accordance with the dispenser manufacturer's 
instructions. Dispensing devices installed indoors shall be 
located in an approved position where they cannot be struck 
by an out-of-control vehicle descending a ramp or other 
slope. 

2206.7.4 Dispenser emergency valve. An approved auto- 
matic emergency shutoff valve designed to close in the 
event of a fire or impact shall be properly installed in the liq- 
uid supply line at the base of each dispenser supplied by a 
remote pump. The valve shall be installed so that the shear 
groove is flush with or within '/2 inch (12.7 mm) of the top of 
the concrete dispenser island and there is clearance pro- 
vided for maintenance purposes around the valve body and 
operating parts. The valve shall be installed at the liquid sup- 
ply line inlet of each overhead-type dispenser. Where 
installed, a vapor return line located inside the dispenser 
housing shall have a shear section or approved flexible con- 
nector for the liquid supply line emergency shutoff valve to 
function. Emergency shutoff valves shall be installed and 
maintained in accordance with the manufacturer's instruc- 
tions, tested at the time of initial installation and at least 
yearly thereafter in accordance with Section 2205.2.2. 

2206.7.5 Dispenser hose. Dispenser hoses shall be a maxi- 
mum of 18 feet (5486 mm) in length unless otherwise 
approved. Dispenser hoses shall be listed and approved. 
When not in use, hoses shall be reeled, racked or otherwise 
protected from damage. 

2206.7.5.1 Breakaway devices. Dispenser hoses for 
Class I and II liquids shall be equipped with a listed 
emergency breakaway device designed to retain liquid 
on both sides of a breakaway point. Such devices shall be 
installed and maintained in accordance with the manu- 
facturer's instructions. Where hoses are attached to 
hose-retrieving mechanisms, the emergency breakaway 
device shall be located between the hose nozzle and the 
point of attachment of the hose-retrieval mechanism to 
the hose. 

2206.7.6 Fuel delivery nozzles. A listed automatic-clos- 
ing-type hose nozzle valve with or without a latch-open 
device shall be provided on island-type dispensers used for 
dispensing Class I, II or IIIA liquids. 

Overhead-type dispensing units shall be provided with a 
listed automatic-closing-type hose nozzle valve without a 
latch-open device. 

Exception: A listed automatic-closing-type hose nozzle 
valve with latch-open device is allowed to be used on 
overhead-type dispensing units where the design of the 
system is such that the hose nozzle valve will close auto- 
matically in the event the valve is released from a fill 
opening or upon impact with a driveway. 

2206.7.6.1 Special requirements for nozzles. Where 
dispensing of Class I, II or IIIA liquids is performed, a 



listed automatic-closing-type hose nozzle valve shall be 
used incorporating all of the following features: 

1 . The hose nozzle valve shall be equipped with an 
integral latch-open device. 

2. When the flow of product is normally controlled 
by devices or equipment other than the hose nozzle 
valve, the hose nozzle valve shall not be capable of 
being opened unless the delivery hose is pressur- 
ized. If pressure to the hose is lost, the nozzle shall 
close automatically. 

Exception: Vapor recovery nozzles incorporat- 
ing insertion interlock devices designed to 
achieve shutoff on disconnect from the vehicle 
fill pipe. 

3. The hose nozzle shall be designed such that the 
nozzle is retained in the fill pipe during the filling 
operation. 

4. The system shall include listed equipment with a 
feature that causes or requires the closing of the 
hose nozzle valve before the product flow can be 
resumed or before the hose nozzle valve can be 
replaced in its normal position in the dispenser. 

2206.7.7 Remote pumping systems. Remote pumping sys- 
tems for liquid fuels shall comply with Sections 2206.7.7.1 
and 2206.7.7.2. 

2206.7.7.1 Leak detection. Where remote pumps are 
used to supply fuel dispensers, each pump shall have 
installed on the discharge side a listed leak detection 
device that will detect a leak in the piping and dispensers 
and provide an indication. A leak detection device is not 
required if the piping from the pump discharge to under 
the dispenser is above ground and visible. 

2206.7.7.2 Location. Remote pumps installed above 
grade, outside of buildings, shall be located not less than 
10 feet (3048 mm) from lines of adjoining property that 
can be built upon and not less than 5 feet ( 1 524 mm) from 
any building opening. Where an outside pump location is 
impractical, pumps are permitted to be installed inside 
buildings as provided for dispensers in Section 2201.4 
and Chapter 34. Pumps shall be substantially anchored 
and protected against physical damage. 

2206.7.8 Gravity and pressure dispensing. Flammable 
liquids shall not be dispensed by gravity from tanks, drums, 
barrels or similar containers. Flammable or combustible liq- 
uids shall not be dispensed by a device operating through 
pressure within a storage tank, drum or container. 

2206.7.9 Vapor-recovery and vapor-processing systems. 

Vapor-recovery and vapor-processing systems shall be in 
accordance with Sections 2206.7.9. 1 through 2206.7.9.2.4. 

2206.7.9.1 Vapor-balance systems. Vapor-balance sys- 
tems shall comply with Sections 2206.7.9.1.1 through 
2206.7.9.1.5. 

2206.7.9.1.1 Dispensing devices. Dispensing 
devices incorporating provisions for vapor recovery 
shall be listed and labeled. When existing listed or 



202 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE^ 



MOTOR FUEL-DISPENSING FACILITIES AND REPAIR GARAGES 



labeled dispensing devices are modified for vapor 
recovery, such modifications shall be listed by report 
by a nationally recognized testing laboratory. The list- 
ing by report shall contain a description of the compo- 
nent parts used in the modification and recommended 
method of installation on specific dispensers. Such 
report shall be made available on request of the fire 
code official. 

Means shall be provided to shut down fuel dispens- 
ing in the event the vapor return line becomes 
blocked. 

2206.7.9.1.2 Vapor-return line closeoff. An accept- 
able method shall be provided to close off the vapor 
return line from dispensers when the product is not 
being dispensed. 

2206.7.9.1.3 Piping. Piping in vapor-balance systems 
shall be in accordance with Sections 3403.6, 3404.2.9 
and 3404.2.1 1. Nonmetallic piping shall be installed 
in accordance with the manufacturer's installation 
instructions. 

Existing and new vent piping shall be in accor- 
dance with Sections 3403.6 and 3404.2. Vapor return 
piping shall be installed in a manner that drains back 
to the tank, without sags or traps in which liquid can 
become trapped. If necessary, because of grade, con- 
densate tanks are allowed in vapor return piping. Con- 
densate tanks shall be designed and installed so that 
they can be drained without opening. 

2206.7.9.1.4 Flexible joints and shear joints. Flexi- 
ble joints shall be installed in accordance with Section 
3403.6.9. 

An approved shear joint shall be rigidly mounted 
and connected by a union in the vapor return piping at 
the base of each dispensing device. The shear joint 
shall be mounted flush with the top of the surface on 
which the dispenser is mounted. 

2206.7.9.1.5 Testing. Vapor return lines and vent pip- 
ing shall be tested in accordance with Section 
3403.6.3. 

2206.7.9.2 Vapor-processing systems. Vapor-process- 
ing systems shall comply with Sections 2206.7.9.2.1 
through 2206.7.9.2.4. 

2206.7.9.2.1 Equipment. Equipment in vapor-pro- 
cessing systems, including hose nozzle valves, vapor 
pumps, flame arresters, fire checks or systems for pre- 
vention of flame propagation, controls and vapor-pro- 
cessing equipment, shall be individually listed for the 
intended use in a specified manner. 

Vapor-processing systems that introduce air into 
the underground piping or storage tanks shall be pro- 
vided with equipment for prevention of flame propa- 
gation that has been tested and listed as suitable for 
the intended use. 

2206.7.9.2.2 Location. Vapor-processing equipment 
shall be located at or above grade. Sources of ignition 
shall be located not less than 50 feet (15 240 mm) 



from fuel-transfer areas and not less than 18 inches 
(457 mm) above tank fill openings and tops of dis- 
penser islands. Vapor-processing units shall be 
located not less than 10 feet (3048 mm) from the near- 
est building or lot line of a property which can be built 
upon. 

Exception: Where the required distances to build- 
ings, lot lines or fuel-transfer areas cannot be 
obtained, means shall be provided to protect 
equipment against fire exposure. Acceptable 
means shall include but not be limited to: 

1. Approved protective enclosures, which 
extend at least 1 8 inches (457 mm) above the 
equipment, constructed of fire-resistant or 
noncombustible materials; or 

2. Fire protection using an approved water- 
spray system. 

Vapor-processing equipment shall be located a 
minimum of 20 feet (6096 mm) from dispensing 
devices. Processing equipment shall be protected 
against physical damage by guardrails, curbs, protec- 
tive enclosures or fencing. Where approved protec- 
tive enclosures are used, approved means shall be 
provided to ventilate the volume within the enclosure 
to prevent pocketing of flammable vapors. 

Where a downslope exists toward the location of 
the vapor-processing unit from a fuel-transfer area, 
the fire code official is authorized to require addi- 
tional separation by distance and height. 

2206.7.9.2.3 Installation. Vapor-processing units 
shall be securely mounted on concrete, masonry or 
structural steel supports on concrete or other 
noncombustible foundations. Vapor-recovery and 
vapor-processing equipment is allowed to be installed 
on roofs when approved. 

2206.7.9.2.4 Piping. Piping in a mechanical-assist 
system shall be in accordance with Sections 3403.6. 



SECTION 2207 

LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GAS MOTOR 

FUEL-DISPENSING FACILITIES 

2207.1 General. Motor fuel-dispensing facilities for liquefied 
petroleum gas (LP-gas) fuel shall be in accordance with this 
section and Chapter 38. 

2207.2 Approvals. Storage vessels and equipment used for the 
storage or dispensing of LP-gas shall be approved or listed in 
accordance with Sections 2207.2.1 and 2207.2.2. 

2207.2.1 Approved equipment. Containers, pressure relief 
devices (including pressure relief valves), pressure regula- 
tors and piping for LP-gas shall be approved. 

2207.2.2 Listed equipment. Hoses, hose connections, 
vehicle fuel connections, dispensers, LP-gas pumps and 
electrical equipment used for LP-gas shall be listed. 

2207.3 Attendants. Motor fuel-dispensing operations for 
LP-gas shall be conducted by qualified attendants or in accor- 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE'' 



203 



MOTOR FUEL-DISPENSING FACILITIES AND REPAIR GARAGES 



dance with Section 2207.6 by persons trained in the proper 
handling of LP-gas. 

2207.4 Location of dispensing operations and equipment. 

In addition to the requirements of Section 2206.7, the point of 
transfer for LP-gas dispensing operations shall be 25 feet (7620 
mm) or more from buildings having combustible exterior wall 
surfaces, buildings having noncombustible exterior wall sur- 
faces that are not part of a 1-hour fire-resistance-rated assem- 
bly, or buildings having combustible overhangs, lot lines of 
property which could be built on, public streets, or sidewalks 
and railroads; and at least 10 feet (3048 mm) from driveways 
and buildings having noncombustible exterior wall surfaces 
that are part of a fire-resistance-rated assembly having a rating 
of 1 hour or more. 

Exception: The point of transfer for LP-gas dispensing 
operations need not be separated from canopies that are con- 
structed in accordance with the International Building Code 
and which provide weather protection for the dispensing 
equipment. 

LP-gas containers shall be located in accordance with Chap- 
ter 38. LP-gas storage and dispensing equipment shall be 
located outdoors and in accordance with Section 2206.7. 

2207.5 Installation of LP-gas dispensing devices and equip- 
ment. The installation and operation of LP-gas dispensing sys- 
tems shall be in accordance with Sections 2207.5.1 through 
2207.5.3 and Chapter 38. LP-gas dispensers and dispensing 
stations shall be installed in accordance with the manufac- 
turer's specifications and their listing. 

2207.5.1 Valves. A manual shutoff valve and an excess 
flow-control check valve shall be located in the liquid line 
between the pump and the dispenser inlet where the dis- 
pensing device is installed at a remote location and is not 
part of a complete storage and dispensing unit mounted on a 
common base. 

An excess flow-control check valve or an emergency 
shutoff valve shall be installed in or on the dispenser at the 
point at which the dispenser hose is connected to the liquid 
piping. A differential backpressure valve shall be consid- 
ered equivalent protection. 

A listed shutoff valve shall be located at the discharge end 
of the transfer hose. 

2207.5.2 Hoses. Hoses and piping for the dispensing of 
LP-gas shall be provided with hydrostatic relief valves. The 
hose length shall not exceed 18 feet (5486 mm). An 
approved method shall be provided to protect the hose 
against mechanical damage. 

2207.5.3 Vehicle impact protection. Vehicle impact pro- 
tection for LP-gas storage containers, pumps and dispensers 
shall be provided in accordance with Section 2206.4. 

2207.6 Private fueling of motor vehicles. Self-service LP-gas 
dispensing systems, including key, code and card lock dispens- 
ing systems, shall not be open to the public and shall be limited 
to the filling of permanently mounted fuel containers on 
LP-gas powered vehicles. 



In addition to the requirements of Sections 2205 and 2206.7, 
self-service LP-gas dispensing systems shall be in accordance 
with the following: 

1 . The system shall be provided with an emergency shutoff 
switch located within 100 feet (30 480 mm) of, but not 
less than 20 feet (6096 mm) from, dispensers. 

2. The owner of the LP-gas motor fuel-dispensing facility 
shall provide for the safe operation of the system and the 
training of users. 

2207.7 Overfilling. LP-gas containers shall not be filled in 
excess of the fixed outage installed by the manufacturer or the 
weight stamped on the tank. 



SECTION 2208 

COMPRESSED NATURAL GAS MOTOR 

FUEL-DISPENSING FACILITIES 

2208.1 General. Motor fuel-dispensing facilities for com- 
pressed natural gas (CNG) fuel shall be in accordance with this 
sectionand Chapter 30. 

2208.2 Approvals. Storage vessels and equipment used for the 
storage, compression or dispensing of CNG shall be approved 
or fisted in accordance with Sections 2208.2.1 and 2208.2.2. 

2208.2.1 Approved equipment. Containers, compressors, 
pressure relief devices (including pressure relief valves), 
and pressure regulators and piping used for CNG shall be 
approved. 

2208.2.2 Listed equipment. Hoses, hose connections, dis- 
pensers, gas detection systems and electrical equipment 
used for CNG shall be listed. Vehicle-fueling connections 
shall be listed and labeled. 

2208.3 Location of dispensing operations and equipment. 

Compression, storage and dispensing equipment shall be 
located above ground, outside. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Compression, storage or dispensing equipment shall 
be allowed in buildings of noncombustible construc- 
tion, as set forth in the International Building Code, 
which are unenclosed for three quarters or more of the 
perimeter. 

2. Compression, storage and dispensing equipment 
shall be allowed indoors or in vaults in accordance 
with Chapter 30. 



I 



2208.3.1 Location on property. In addition to the require- 
ments of Section 2203. 1 , compression, storage and dispens- 
ing equipment not located in vaults complying with Chapter I 
30 shall be installed as follows: | 

1. Not beneath power lines. 

2. Ten feet (3048 mm) or more from the nearest building 
or lot line that could be built on, public street, side- 
walk or source of ignition. 

Exception: Dispensing equipment need not be 
separated from canopies that are constructed in 



204 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE'' 



MOTOR FUEL-DISPENSING FACILITIES AND REPAIR GARAGES 



accordance with the International Building Code 
and that provide weather protection for the dis- 
pensing equipment. 

3. Twenty-five feet (7620 mm) or more from the nearest 
rail of any railroad track and 50 feet (15 240 mm) or 
more from the nearest rail of any railroad main track 
or any railroad or transit line where power for train 
propulsion is provided by an outside electrical source, 
such as third rail or overhead catenary. 

4. Fifty feet (15 240 mm) or more from the vertical plane 
below the nearest overhead wire of a trolley bus line. 

2208.4 Private fueling of motor vehicles. Self-service 
CNG-dispensing systems, including key, code and card lock 
dispensing systems, shall be limited to the filling of perma- 
nently mounted fuel containers on CNG-powered vehicles. 

In addition to the requirements in Section 2205, the owner of 
a self-service CNG motor fuel-dispensing facility shall ensure 
the safe operation of the system and the training of users. 

2208.5 Pressure regulators. Pressure regulators shall be 
designed and installed or protected so that their operation will 
not be affected by the elements (freezing rain, sleet, snow or 
ice), mud or debris. The protection is allowed to be an integral 
part of the regulator. 

2208.6 Valves. Gas piping to equipment shall be provided with 
a remote, readily accessible manual shutoff valve. 

2208.7 Emergency shutdown control. An emergency shut- 
down control shall be located within 75 feet (22 860 mm) of, 
but not less than 25 feet (7620 mm) from, dispensers and shall 
also be provided in the compressor area. Upon activation, the 
emergency shutdown system shall automatically shut off the 
power supply to the compressor and close valves between the 
main gas supply and the compressor and between the storage 
containers and dispensers. 

2208.8 Discharge of CNG from motor vehicle fuel storage 
containers. The discharge of CNG from motor vehicle fuel 
cylinders for the purposes of maintenance, cylinder certifica- 
tion, calibration of dispensers or other activities shall be in 
accordance with Sections 2208.8.1 through 2208.8.1.2.6. 

2208.8.1 Methods of discharge. The discharge of CNG 
from motor vehicle fuel cylinders shall be accomplished 
through a closed transfer system in accordance with Section 
2208.8.1.1 or an approved method of atmospheric venting 
in accordance with Section 2208.8.1.2. 

2208.8.1.1 Closed transfer system. A documented pro- 
cedure that explains the logical sequence for discharging 
the cylinder shall be provided to the fire code official for 
review and approval. The procedure shall include what 
actions the operator will take in the event of a low-pres- 
sure or high-pressure natural gas release during the dis- 
charging activity. A drawing illustrating the arrangement 
of piping, regulators and equipment settings shall be pro- 
vided to the fire code official for review and approval. 
The drawing shall illustrate the piping and regulator 
arrangement and shall be shown in spatial relation to the 
location of the compressor, storage vessels and emer- 
gency shutdown devices. 



2208.8.1.2 Atmospheric venting. Atmospheric venting 
of CNG shall comply with Sections 2208.8.1.2.1 
through 2208.8.1.2.6. 

2208.8.1.2.1 Plans and specifications. A drawing 
illustrating the location of the vessel support, piping, 
the method of grounding and bonding, and other 
requirements specified herein shall be provided to the 
fire code official for review and approval. 

2208.8.1.2.2 Cylinder stability. A method of rigidly 
supporting the vessel during the venting of CNG shall 
be provided. The selected method shall provide not 
less than two points of support and shall prevent the 
horizontal and lateral movement of the vessel. The 
system shall be designed to prevent the movement of 
the vessel based on the highest gas-release velocity 
through valve orifices at the vessel's rated pressure 
and volume. The structure or appurtenance shall be 
constructed of noncombustible materials. 

2208.8.1.2.3 Separation. The structure or appurte- 
nance used for stabilizing the cylinder shall be sepa- 
rated from the site equipment, features and exposures 
and shall be located in accordance with Table 
2208.8.1.2.3. 

TABLE 2208.8.1 .2.3 
SEPARATION DISTANCE FOR ATMOSPHERIC VENTING OF CNG 



EQUIPMENT OR FEATURE 


MINIMUM SEPARATION 
(feet) 


Buildings 


25 


Building openings 


25 


Lot lines 


15 


Public ways _j 


15 


Vehicles 


25 


CNG compressor and storage vessel* 


25 


CNG dispensers 


25 



For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 



2208.8.1.2.4 Grounding and bonding. The structure 
or appurtenance used for supporting the cylinder shall 
be grounded in accordance with the ICC Electrical 
Code. The cylinder valve shall be bonded prior to the 
commencement of venting operations. 

2208.8.1.2.5 Vent tube. A vent tube that will divert 
the gas flow to atmosphere shall be installed on the 
cylinder prior to commencement of the venting and 
purging operation. The vent tube shall be constructed 
of pipe or tubing materials approved for use with 
CNG in accordance with Chapter 30. 

The vent tube shall be capable of dispersing the gas 
a minimum of 10 feet (3048 mm) above grade level. 
The vent tube shall not be provided with a rain cap or 
other feature which would limit or obstruct the gas 
flow. 

At the connection fitting of the vent tube and the 
CNG cylinder, a listed bidirectional detonation flame 
arrester shall be provided. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE^ 



205 



MOTOR FUEL-DISPENSING FACILITIES AND REPAIR GARAGES 



2208.8.1.2.6 Signage. Approved "No Smoking" 
signs complying with Section 310 shall be posted 
within 10 feet (3048 mm) of the cylinder support 
structure or appurtenance. Approved CYLINDER 
SHALL BE BONDED signs shall be posted on the 
cylinder support structure or appurtenance. 



SECTION 2209 

HYDROGEN MOTOR FUEL-DISPENSING 

AND GENERATION FACILITIES 

2209.1 General. Hydrogen motor fuel-dispensing and genera- 
tion facilities shall be in accordance with this section and Chap- 

I ter 35. Where a fuel-dispensing facility also includes a repair 
garage, the repair operation shall comply with Section 221 1. 

2209.2 Equipment. Equipment used for the generation, com- 
pression, storage or dispensing of hydrogen shall be designed 
for the specific application in accordance with Sections 
2209.2.1 through 2209.2.3. 

12209.2.1 Approved equipment. Cyhnders, containers and 
tanks; pressure relief devices, including pressure valves; 
hydrogen vaporizers; pressure regulators; and piping used 
for gaseous hydrogen systems shall be designed and con- 

Istructed in accordance with Section 3003, 3203 or NFPA 
55. 

2209.2.2 Listed equipment. Hoses, hose connections, 
compressors, hydrogen generators, dispensers, detection 
systems and electrical equipment used for hydrogen shall be 
listed for use with hydrogen. Hydrogen motor fueling con- 
nections shall be listed and labeled for use with hydrogen. 

2209.2.3 Electrical equipment. Electrical installations 
shall be in accordance with the ICC Electrical Code. 

2209.3 Location on property. In addition to the requirements 
of Section 2203.1, generation, compression, storage and dis- 
pensing equipment shall be located in accordance with Sec- 
tions 2209.3.1 through Section 2209.3.3. 

12209.3.1 Separation from outdoor exposure hazards. 
Generation, compression and dispensing equipment shall 
be separated from other fuels or equivalent risks to life, 
safety and buildings or public areas in accordance with 
Table 2209.3.1. 

Exception: Closed systems with a hydrogen capacity of 
3,000 cubic feet (85 m^) or less at NTP. 

2209.3.1.1 Barrier wall construction-gaseous hydro- 
gen. The outdoor separation shall be allowed to be 
reduced to 5 feet (1524 mm) where a 2-hour fire barrier 
interrupts the line of sight between equipment, other than 
dispensers, and the exposure within the radial distance as 
indicated by the tabular value. The height of the barrier 
shall be a minimum of 6 feet ( 1 829 nmi), but not less than 
1.5 times the height of the equipment, measured verti- 
cally. The length of the wall shall be not less than 1.5 
times the maximum diameter or length of the tank. 

2209.3.1.2 Location of equipment. Equipment shall be 
located from the enclosing walls at a distance not less 
than one tank diameter. When horizontal tanks are used, 



the distance from any one enclosing wall shall be not less 
than one-half the length of the tank or a minimum of 5 
feet (1524 mm). 

2209.3.2 Location of dispensing operations and equip- 
ment. Generation, compression, storage and dispensing 
equipment shall be located in accordance with Sections I 
2209.3.2.1 through 2209.3.2.6.3. I 



TABLE 2209.3.1 

MINIMUM SEPARATION FOR GASEOUS 

HYDROGEN DISPENSERS, COMPRESSORS, 

GENERATORS AND STORAGE VESSELS 



OUTDOOR EQUIPMENT OR FEATURE 


DISTANCE^ 
(feet) 


Building — Noncombustible walls 


10b,c 


Building — Combustible walls 


25b, c 


Public sidewalks and parked vehicles 


15b, c 


Lot line 


10" 


Air intake openings 


25'' 


Wall openings located less than 25 feet above grade 


20'* 


Wall openings located 25 feet or more above grade 


25'' 


Outdoor public assembly 


25" 


Ignition source^ 


10 


Above-ground flammable or combustible liquid 
storage — diked in accordance with Section 
3404.2.9.6, distance to dike wall 


20 


Above-ground flammable or combustible liquid 
storage — not diked in accordance with Section 
3404.2.9.6, distance to tank 


50 


Underground flammable or combustible liquid 
storage — distance to vent or fill opening 


20 


Flammable gas storage (other than hydrogen) — 
with emergency shutoff interconnected with the 
hydrogen system 


25 


Above-ground flammable gas storage (other than 
hydrogen) — without emergency shutoff 
interconnected with the hydrogen system 


50 


Combustible waste material (see Section 304.1.1) 


50" 


Vertical plane of the nearest overhead electric wire 
of an electric trolley, train or bus line 


50 


Vertical plane of the nearest wire of overhead 
electrical power distribution lines 


5 



For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 1 cubic foot = 0.02832 m^. 

a. The applicability of tabular distance is in terms of a radius that defines a 
hemisphere from the source when not interrupted by an intervening fire bar- 
rier without through penetrations. 

b. See Section 2209.3.1.1. 

c. The dispenser and point of transfer for dispensing need not be separated 
from canopies constructed in accordance with Section 406.5 of the Interna- 
tional Building Code and constructed in a manner that prevents the accumu- 
lation of hydrogen gas. 

d. Measured along the natural and unobstructed line of travel (e.g., around pro- 
tective walls, around comers of buildings). 

e. Ignition sources include appliance burner igniters, hot work and hot surfaces 
capable of igniting flammable vapors. 



206 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE*" 



MOTOR FUEL-DISPENSING FACILITIES AND REPAIR GARAGES 



•I 



2209.3.2.1 Outdoors. Generation, compression, storage 
or dispensing equipment shall be allowed outdoors in 
accordance with Section 2209.3.1. 

2209.3.2.2 Weather protection. Generation, compres- 
sion, storage or dispensing equipment shall be allowed 
under weather protection in accordance with the require- 
ments of Section 2704.13 and constructed in a manner 
that prevents the accumulation of hydrogen gas. 

2209.3.2.3 Indoors. Generation, compression, storage 
and dispensing equipment shall be located in indoor 
rooms or areas constructed in accordance with the 
requirements of the International Building Code, the 
International Fuel Gas Code and the International 
Mechanical Code and one of the following: 

1. Inside a building in a hydrogen cutoff room 
designed and constructed in accordance with Sec- 
tion 420 of the International Building Code. 

2. Inside a building not in a hydrogen cutoff room 
where the gaseous hydrogen system is listed and 
labeled for indoor installation and installed in 
accordance with the manufacturer's installation 
instructions. 

3. Inside a building in a dedicated hydrogen fuel dis- 
pensing area having an aggregate hydrogen deliv- 
ery capacity no greater than 12 standard cubic feet 
per minute (SCFM) and designed and constructed 
in accordance with Section 703.1 of the Interna- 
tional Fuel Gas Code. 

2209.3.2.3.1 Maintenance. Gaseous hydrogen sys- 
tems and detection devices shall be maintained in 
accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. 

2209.3.2.3.2 Smoking. Smoking shall be prohibited 
in hydrogen cutoff rooms. "No Smoking" signs shall 
be provided at all entrances to hydrogen cutoff rooms. 

2209.3.2.3.3 Ignition source control. Open flames, 
flame-producing devices and other sources of igni- 
tion shall be controlled in accordance with Chapter 

35. 

2209.3.2.3.4 Housekeeping. Hydrogen cutoff rooms 
shall be kept free from combustible debris and stor- 
age. 

2209.3.2.4 Gaseous hydrogen storage. Storage of gas- 
eous hydrogen shall be in accordance with Chapters 30 
and 35. 

2209.3.2.5 Liquefied hydrogen storage. Storage of liq- 
uefied hydrogen shall be in accordance with Chapter 32. 

2209.3.2.5.1 Location on property. In addition to the 
requirements of Section 2203.1, above-ground lique- 
fied hydrogen storage containers, compression and 
vaporization equipment serving motor fuel-dispens- 
ing operations shall be located 25 feet (7620 mm) 
from buildings having combustible exterior wall sur- 
faces; buildings having noncombustible exterior wall 
surfaces that are not part of a 1-hour fire-resis- 
tance-rated assembly; wall openings; lot lines of 



property that could be built on; public streets and 
parked vehicles. 

2209.3.2.5.1.1 Barrier wall construction-lique- 
fied hydrogen. The outdoor separation distance 
shall be permitted to be reduced to 5 feet (1524 
mm) where a 2-hour fire barrier interrupts the line 
of sight between equipment, other than dispensers, 
and the exposure within the radial distance as indi- 
cated by the tabular value. The height of the barrier 
shall be a minimum of 6 feet (1829 mm) but no less 
than 1 .5 times the height of equipment, other than 
the cryogenic storage vessel, measured vertically. 
The length of the wall shall be no less than 1.5 
times the maximum diameter or length of the tank. 
The 2-hour fire banier shall not have more than 
two sides at approximately 90-degree (1.57 rad) 
directions, or three sides with connecting angles of 
approximately 135 degrees (2.36 rad). When fire 
barrier walls on three sides are used, piping and 
control systems serving stationary tanks shall be 
located at the open side of the enclosure created by 
the barrier walls. 

2209.3.2.5.1.2 Location of equipment. Equip- 
ment shall be located from the enclosing walls at a 
distance not less than one tank diameter. When 
horizontal tanks are used the distance from any one 
enclosing wall shall be not less than one-half the 
length of the tank or a minimum of 5 feet (1524 
mm). 

2209.3.2.6 Canopy tops. Gaseous hydrogen compres- 
sion and storage equipment located on top of motor 
fuel-dispensing facility canopies shall be in accordance 
with Sections 2209.3.2.6.1 through 2209.3.2.6.3, Chap- 
ters 30 and 35 and the International Fuel Gas Code. 

2209.3.2.6.1 Construction. Canopies shall be con- 
structed in accordance with the motor fuel-dispensing 
facility canopy requirements of Section 406 of the 
International Building Code. 

2209.3.2.6.2 Fire-extinguishing systems. Fuel-dis- 
pensing areas under canopies shall be equipped 
throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler sys- 
tem in accordance with Section 903 .3 . 1.1. The design 
of the sprinkler system shall not be less than that 
required for Extra Hazard Group 2 occupancies. 
Operation of the sprinkler system shall activate the 
emergency functions of Sections 2209.3.2.6.2.1 and 
2209.3.2.6.2.2. 

2209.3.2.6.2.1 Emergency discharge. Operation 
of the automatic sprinkler system shall activate an 
automatic emergency discharge system, which 
will discharge the hydrogen gas from the equip- 
ment on the canopy top through the vent pipe sys- 
tem. 

2209.3.2.6.2.2 Emergency shutdown control. 

Operation of the automatic sprinkler system shall 
activate the emergency shutdown control required 
by Section 2209.5.3. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE'' 



207 



MOTOR FUEL-DISPENSING FACILITIES AND REPAIR GARAGES 



2209.3.2.6.3 Signage. Approved signage having 
2-inch (51 mm) block letters shall be affixed at 
approved locations on the exterior of the canopy 
structure stating: CANOPY TOP HYDROGEN 
STORAGE. 

2209.3.3 Canopies. Dispensing equipment need not be sep- 
I arated from canopies of Type I or II construction that are 

constructed in a manner that prevents the accumulation of 
I hydrogen gas and in accordance with Section 406.5 of the 

International Building Code. 

2209.4 Dispensing into motor vehicles at self-service hydro- 
gen motor fuel-dispensing facilities. Self-service hydrogen 
motor fuel-dispensing systems, including key, code and card 
lock dispensing systems, shall be limited to the filling of per- 
manently mounted fuel containers on hydrogen-powered vehi- 
cles. 

In addition to the requirements in Section 2211, the owner of 
a self-service hydrogen motor fuel-dispensing facihty shall 
provide for the safe operation of the system through the institu- 
tion of a fire safety plan submitted in accordance with Section 
404, the training of employees and operators who use and 
maintain the system in accordance with Section 406, and provi- 
sions for hazard communication in accordance with Section 
407. 

2209.5 Safety precautions. Safety precautions at hydrogen 
motor fuel-dispensing and generation facilities shall be in 
accordance with Sections 2209.5.1 through 2209.5.4.3.6. 

2209.5.1 Protection from vehicles. Guard posts or other 
approved means shall be provided to protect hydrogen stor- 
age systems and use areas subject to vehicular damage in 
accordance with Section 312. 

12209.5.2 Emergency shutoff valves. A manual emergency 
shutoff valve shall be provided to shut down the flow of gas 
from the hydrogen supply to the piping system. 



2209.5.2.1 Identification. Manual emergency shutoff 
valves shall be identified and the location shall be clearly 
visible, accessible and indicated by means of a sign. 

2209.5.3 Emergency shutdown controls. In addition to the 
manual emergency shutoff valve required by Section 
2209.5.2, a remotely located, manually activated emer- 
gency shutdown control shall be provided. An emergency 
shutdown control shall be located within 75 feet (22 860 
mm) of, but not less than 25 feet (7620 mm) from, dispens- 
ers and hydrogen generators. 

2209.5.3.1 System requirements. Activation of the 
emergency shutdown control shall automatically shut off 
the power supply to all hydrogen storage, compression 
and dispensing equipment; shut off natural gas or other 
fuel supply to the hydrogen generator; and close valves 
between the main supply and the compressor and 
between the storage containers and dispensing equip- 
ment. 

2209.5.4 Venting of hydrogen systems. Hydrogen systems 
shall be equipped with pressure relief devices that will | 
relieve excessive internal pressure in accordance with Sec- 
tions 2209.5.4.1 through 2209.5.4.3.6. | 

2209.5.4.1 Location of discharge. Hydrogen vented 
from vent pipe systems serving pressure relief devices or 
purging systems shall not be discharged inside buildings 
or under canopies used for weather protection. 

2209.5.4.2 Pressure relief devices. Portions of the sys- 
tem subject to overpressure shall be protected by pres- 
sure relief devices designed and installed in accordance 
with the requirements of CGA S-1.1, S-1.2, S-1.3 or the 
ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, as applicable. 
Containers used for the storage of liquefied hydrogen 
shall be provided with pressure relief devices in accor- 
dance with Section 3203.2. 



Vent 
Pipe 



t 

H 



Vent 
Pipe 



i 



1.25D 



ground 



Lot 
Line 



Structure 

or 
Equipment 



t 

H 

i 



Structure 

or 
Equipment 



D 



ground 



H = Minimum height in feet of vent pipe above the ground or above any structure or equipment within distance (D) where personnel might be present. 
D = Distance in feet to adjacent structure or equipment where personnel might be present. 

FIGURE 2209.5.4.3.4 
HYDROGEN VENT PIPE HEIGHT (H) VERSUS DISTANCE (D) REQUIREMENTS 



208 



2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE'' 



MOTOR FUEL-DISPENSING FACILITIES AND REPAIR GARAGES 



•I 



2209.5.4.2.1 Minimum rate of discharge. The mini- 
mum flow capacity of pressure relief devices on 
hydrogen storage containers shall be at least the 
capacity required by Section 2209.5.4.2 or the capac- 
ity required to accommodate a hydrogen compressor 
that fails to shut down or unload, whichever is greater. 

2209.5.4.3 Vent pipe. Stationary containers and tanks 
shall be provided with a vent pipe system that will divert 
gas discharged from pressure relief devices to the atmo- 
sphere. Vent pipe systems serving pressure relief devices 
and purging systems used for operational control shall be 
designed and constructed in accordance with Sections 
2209.5.4.3.1 through 2209.5.4.3.6. 

2209.5.4.3.1 Materials of construction. The vent 
pipe system shall be constructed of materials 
approved for hydrogen service in accordance with 
ASME B3 1 .3 for the rated pressure, volume and tem- 
perature of gas to be transported. The vent piping 
shall be designed for the maximum backpressure 
within the pipe, but not less than 335 pounds per 
square inch gauge (psig) (2310 kPa). 

2209.5.4.3.2 Structural support. The vent pipe sys- 
tem shall be supported to prevent structural collapse 
and shall be provided with a rain cap or other feature 
that would not limit or obstruct the gas flow from 
venting vertically upward. 

2209.5.4.3.3 Obstructions. A means shall be provided 
to prevent water, ice and other debris from accumulating 
inside the vent pipe or obstructing the vent pipe. 

2209.5.4.3.4 Height of vent and separation. The 

height (//) and separation distance (D) of the vent pipe 
shall meet the criteria set forth in Table 2209.5.4.3.4 
for the combinations of maximum hydrogen flow 
rates and vent stack opening diameters listed. Alter- 



native venting systems shall be allowed when in 
accordance with Section 2209.5.4.3.6. 

2209.5.4.3.5 Maximum flow rate. The vent pipe sys- 
tem shall be sized based on the maximum flow rate for 
the system served and be specified on the construction 
documents. The maximum flow rate shall be deter- 
mined in accordance with the requirements of CGA 
S-1.3 using the aggregate gas flow rate from all con- 
nected vent, purge and relief devices that operate simul- 
taneously during a venting operation, purging operation 
or emergency relief event. 

2209.5.4.3.6 Alternative venting systems. Where 
alternative venting systems are used in lieu of the 
requirements of Section 2209.5.4.3.5, an analysis of 
radiant heat exposures and hydrogen concentrations 
shall be provided. The analysis of exposure to radiant 
heat shall assume a wind speed of 30 feet/second 
(9.14 m/sec) and provide a design that limits radiant 
heat exposure to the maximum values shown in Table 
2209.5.4.3.6(1). The analysis of exposure to hydro- 
gen concentration shall provide a design that limits 
the maximum hydrogen concentration to the values 
shown in Table 2209.5.4.3.6(2). 



SECTION 2210 
MARINE MOTOR FUEL-DISPENSING FACILITIES 

2210.1 General. The construction of marine motor fuel-dis- 
pensing facilities shall be in accordance with the International 
Building Code andNFPA 30A. The storage of Class I, II or fllA 
liquids at marine motor fuel-dispensing facilities shall be in 
accordance with this chapter and Chapter 34. 

2210.2 Storage and handling. The storage and handling of 
Class I, II or IIIA hquids at marine motor fuel-dispensing facil- 
ities shall be in accordance with Sections 2210.2.1 through 
2210.2.3. 



TABLE 2209.5.4.3.4 

VENT PIPE HEIGHT AND SEPARATION DISTANCE 

VERSUS HYDROGEN FLOW RATE AND VENT PIPE DIAMETER ^'"='''«' 



HYDROGEN 
FLOW RATE 


< 500 CFM 
at NTP9 


> 500 to < 1,000 CFM 
at NTP9 


> 1,000 to < 2,000 
CFM at NTP9 


> 2,000 to < 5,000 
CFM at NTP'' 


> 5,000 to < 10,000 
CFM at NTP" 


> 10,000 to < 20,000 
CFM at NTP" 


Height (ft) 


8 


8 


12 


17 


25 


36 


Distance (ft) 


13 


17 


26 


40 


53 


81 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 Btu/ft^ = 3.153W/m2, 1 foot/second = 304.8 mm/sec. 

a. Minimum distance to property line is 1.25D. 

b. Designs seeking to achieve greater heights with commensurate reductions in separation distances shall be designed in accordance with accepted engineering prac- 
tice. 

c. With this table personnel on the ground or on the building and/or equipment are exposed to a maximum of 1 ,500 Btu/hr. ft'^jand are assumed to be provided with a 
means to escape to a shielded area within 3 minutes, including the case of a 30 ft./sec. wind. 

d. Designs seeking to achieve greater radiant exposures to noncombustible equipment shall be designed in accordance with accepted engineering practice. 

e. The analysis reflected in this table does not permit hydrogen air mixtures that would exceed one-half of the lower flammable limit (LFL) for hydrogen (2 percent by 
volume) at the building or equipment, including the case of a 30 ft./sec. wind. 

f.