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Full text of "Texas State Plumbing Code"

INDUSTRIALIZED HOUSING AND BUILDINGS 

Administrative Rules of the Texas Department of Licensing and Regulation 
16 Texas Administrative Code, Chapter 70 

TABLE OF CONTENTS 

70.L Authority 1 

70.10. Definitions 1 

70.20. Registration of Manufacturers and Industrialized Builders 4 

70.2L Registration of Design Review Agencies and Third Party Inspection Agencies and Inspectors 5 

70.22. Criteria for Approval of Design Review Agencies 6 

70.23. Criteria for Approval of Third Party Inspection Agencies and Inspectors 7 

70.30. Exemptions 9 

70.40. Insurance/Bonding/Security Requirements 10 

70.50. Manufacturer's and Builder's Monthly Reports 10 

70.51. Third Party Inspection Reports 11 

70.60. Responsibilities of the Department-Plant Certification 11 

70.61. Responsibilities of the Department--ln-plant Inspection 13 

70.62. Responsibilities of the Local Building Official-Building Site Inspections 13 

70.63. Council's Responsibilities-Compliance Disputes 14 

70.64. Responsibilities of the Department-Proprietary Information Protected 14 

70.65. Responsibilities of the C ommission-Reciprocity 14 

70.70. Responsibilities of the Registrants-Manufacturer's Design Package 15 

70.71. Responsibilities of the Registrants-Manufacturer's Data Plate 21 

70.72. Responsibilities of the Registrants-Delivery to Other States 21 

70.73. Responsibilities of the Registrants-Building Site Inspections 22 

70.74. Responsibilities of the Registrants- A Iterations 23 

70.75. Responsibilities of the Registrants-Permit/Owner Information 28 

70.76. Responsibilities of the Registrants-Proprietary Information Protected 29 

70.77. Responsibilities of the Registrants-Decals and Insignia for New Construction 29 

70.78. Responsibilities of the Registrants-G eneral 30 

70.80. Commission Fees 30 

70.8L Late Renewal Fees 31 

70.90. Sanctions- Administrative Sanctions/Penalties 31 

70.92. Sanctions for Failure to C omply by Design Review Agencies, Third Party Inspection Agencies, and 

Third Party Inspectors 31 

70.100. Mandatory Building Codes 32 

70.101. Amendments to Mandatory Building Codes 33 

70.102. Use and Construction of Codes 50 

70.103. Alternate Materials and Methods 50 

70.120. Intent 51 



feels that a failure to comply has been shown, then the council will recommend that the executive director take 
appropriate action. Sanctions shall be administered pursuant to the provisions of Texas Occupations Code, § 1202.302. 

70.100. Mandatory Building C odes. (Amended effective December 6, 1994, WTexReg 9295; amended effective December 7,1996, 21 
TexReg 6620; amended effective February 8, 2000, 24 TexReg 7225; amended effective October 28, 2001,26 TexReg 8508; amended 
effective December 1, 2003, 28 TexReg 10458; amended effective July 1, 2008, 33 TexReg 5000) 

(a) Effective October 31, 2008 all industrialized housing and buildings, modules, and modular components, shall be 
constructed in accordance with the following codes as amended by §70.101: 

(1) National Fire Protection Association- -National Electrical Code, 2008 Edition; 

(2) the International Building Code, 2006 edition, including appendices C , F, and K, published by the 
International Code Council; 

(3) the International Fuel Gas Code, 2006 edition, published by the International Code Council; 

(4) the International Plumbing Code, 2006 edition, including appendices C, E, F, and G, published by the 
International Code Council; 

(5) the International Mechanical Code, 2006 edition, published by the International Code Council; and 

(6) the International Residential Code, 2006 edition, including appendix K, published by the International 
Code Council. 

(b) Other codes referenced in any of the mandatory building codes adopted in subsection (a) shall be considered 
part of the requirements of these codes to the prescribed extent of each such reference. 



(0 



The effective dates of adoption of past editions of the mandatory building codes are as follows: 



Code Name and Edition 


Effective Date of 
Adoption 


2003 Edition of the International Building Code 


July 1, 2004 


2003 Edition of the International Residential Building Code 


July 1, 2004 


2003 Edition of the International Plumbing Code 


July 1, 2004 


2003 Edition of the International Mechanical Code 


July 1, 2004 


2003 Edition of the International Fuel Gas Code 


July 1, 2004 


2003 Edition of the International Energy Conservation Code 


July 1, 2004 


2003 Edition of the International Existing Building Code 


July 1, 2004 


2002 Edition of the National Electrical Code 


July 1, 2004 


2000 Edition of the International Building Code 


2/20/2002 


2000 Edition of the International Residential Code with 2001 Supplement 


2/20/2002 


2000 Edition of the International Plumbing Code 


2/20/2002 


2000 Edition of the International Mechanical Code 


2/20/2002 


2000 Edition of the International Fuel Gas Code 


2/20/2002 


2000 Edition of the International Energy Conservation Code with 2001 Supplement 


2/20/2002 


1997 Edition of the Uniform Building Code 


2/8/2000 


1997 Edition of the Standard Building Code 


2/8/2000 


1997 Edition of the International Fuel Gas Code 


2/8/2000 


1997 Edition of the International Plumbing Code 


2/8/2000 


1998 Edition of the International Mechanical Code 


2/8/2000 


1998 Edition of the International One and Two Family Dwelling Code 


2/8/2000 


1998 Edition of the International Energy Conservation Code 


2/8/2000 


1999 Edition of the National Electrical Code 


2/8/2000 


1994 Edition of the Uniform Building Code 


12/7/1996 


1994 Edition of the Standard Building Code 


12/7/1996 


1996 Edition of the National Electrical Code 


12/7/1996 



Chapter 70, Industrialized Housing and Buildings Page 32-R 



July 1,2008 




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INTERNATIONAL 
CODE COUNCIL. 



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First Printing: January 2000 
Second Printing: January 2001 

Third Printing: January 2002 
Fourth Printing: September 2002 

Fifth Printing: August 2003 
Sixth Printing: November 2003 

Seventh Printing: July 2004 
Eighth Printing: January 2005 



ISBN # 1-892395-19-3 (soft-cover edition) 
ISBN # 1-892395-20-7 (loose-leaf edition) 



COPYRIGHT © 2000 
by 

INTERNATIONAL CODE COUNCIL, INC. 



ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. This 2000 International Plumbing Code is a copyrighted work owned by the International Code Coun- 
cil, Inc. Without advance written permission from the copyright owner, no part of this book may be reproduced, distributed, or 
transmitted in any form or by any means, including, without limitation, electronic, optical or mechanical means (by way of example, 
and not limitation, photocopying, or recording by or in an information storage retrieval system). For information on permission to 
copy material exceeding fair use, please contact: President, International Code Council, 5203 Leesburg Pike, Suite 600, Falls 
Church, Virginia, 22041-3401. (Phone 703-931-4533). 

Trademarks: "International Code Council, " the "International Code Council" logo and the "International Plumbing Code" are 
trademarks of the International Code Council, Inc. The "BOCA " logo is a trademark of Building Officials and Code Administra- 
tors International, Inc. The "ICBO " logo is a trademark of the International Conference of Building Officials. The "SBCCI" logo is 
a trademark of the Southern Building Code Congress International, Inc. 

Published in cooperation with: 

BUILDING OFFICIALS AND CODE ADMINISTRATORS INTERNATIONAL, INC. 

4051 West Flossmoor Road o Country Club Hills, Illinois 60478-5795 

(800)214-4321 o www.bocai.org 

INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE OF BUILDING OFFICIALS 

5360 Workman Mill Road oWhittier, California 90601-2298 

(800)284-4406 o www.icbo.org 

SOUTHERN BUILDING CODE CONGRESS INTERNATIONAL, INC. 

900 Montclair Road oBirmingham, Alabama 35213-1206 

(800)442-6337 o www.sbcci.org 

PRINTED IN THE U.S.A. 





PREFACE 

Introduction 

Internationally, code officials recognize the need for a modem, up-to-date plumbing code addressing the design and installation of 
plumbing systems through requirements emphasizing performance. The International Plumbing Code is designed to meet these 
needs through model code regulations that safeguard the public health and safety in all communities, large and small. 

This comprehensive plumbing code, which incorporates approved code changes from the last two code development cycles, es- 
tablishes minimum regulations for plumbing systems using prescriptive and performance-related provisions. It is founded on 
broad-based principles that make possible the use of new materials and new plumbing designs. Additionally, the International 
Plumbing Code is designed to be compatible with the BOCA National Codes published by Building Officials and Code Administra- 
tors International (BOCA), the Uniform Codes published by the International Conference of Building Officials (ICBO), the Stan- 
dard Codes published by the Southern Building Code Congress International (SBCCI), and, eventually, all the International Codes 
published by the International Code Council. 

The International Plumbing Code provides many benefits, among which is the model code development process that offers an 
international forum for plumbing professionals to discuss performance and prescriptive code requirements. This forum provides an 
excellent arena to debate proposed revisions. This model code also encourages international consistency in the application of provi- 
sions. 

Development 

The first draft of the International Plumbing Code was prepared in 1994 by a development committee appointed by and consisting 
of representatives of BOCA, ICBO; and SBCCI. The intent was to draft a comprehensive set of regulations for plumbing systems 
consistent with and inclusive of the scope and content of the existing model plumbing codes that incorporates the common plumbing 
code format established by the Council of American Building Officials. This format establishes the title, scope and sequence of the 
chapters and does not involve the order or content of the provisions within the chapter. 

Technical content of the latest plumbing codes promulgated by BOCA, ICBO and SBCCI was utilized as the basis for the devel- 
opment of this document. While there were a great many similarities among the three codes, careful consideration was given to iden- 
tified differences. The development committee followed certain principles as guidance in the resolution of technical differences. 
The principles were based on the intent to establish provisions consistent with the scope of a plumbing code that adequately protect 
public health, safety and welfare; provisions that do not unnecessarily increase construction costs; provisions that do not restrict the 
use of new materials, products or methods of construction; and provisions that do not give preferential treatment to particular types 
or classes of materials, products or methods of construction. 

Adoption 

The International Plumbing Code is available for adoption and use by jurisdictions internationally. Its use within a governmental ju- 
risdiction is intended to be accomplished through adoption by reference in accordance with proceedings establishing the jurisdic- 
tion's laws. At the time of adoption, jurisdictions should insert the appropriate information in provisions requiring specific local 
information, such as the name of the adopting jurisdiction. These locations are shown in bracketed words in small capital letters in 
the code and in the sample adoption! ordinance. The sample adoption ordinance on page v addresses several key elements of a code 
adoption ordinance, including the information required for insertion into the code text. 

Maintenance 

The International Plumbing Code is. kept up to date through the review of proposed changes submitted by code enforcement offi- 
cials, industry representatives, design professionals and other interested parties. Proposed changes are carefully considered through 
an open code development process in which all interested and affected parties may participate. 

For more information regarding the code development process, contact BOCA, 405 1 West Flossmoor Road, Country Club Hills, 
IlUnois 60478-5795; ICBO, 5360 Workman Mill Road, Whittier, California 90601-2298; or SBCCI, 900 Montclair Road, Birming- 
ham, Alabama 35213-1 206. 

While the development procedure of the International Plumbing Code assures the highest degree of care, BOCA, ICBO, SBCCI, 
their members and those participating in the development of this code do not accept any liability resulting from compliance or non- 
compliance with the provisions given herein, for any restrictions imposed on materials or processes, or for the completeness of the 
text. BOCA, ICBO and SBCCI do nOt have power or authority to police or enforce compliance with the contents of this code. Only 
the governmental body that enacts the code into law has such authority. 



2000 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



Solid vertical lines in the margins within the body of the code indicate a change from the requirements of the 1997 edition except 
where a change was minor. Deletion indicators ('=>) are provided in the margin where a paragraph or item listing has been deleted if 
the deletion resulted in a change of requirements. 




2000 DNTERNATDONAL PLUR/SBDI^G CODE® 



• 



SAMPLE ORDINANCE FOR ADOPTION OF THE 
INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE 

ORDINANCE NO.^ 



An ordinance of the rJURiSDiCTiONi adopting the 2000 edition of the International Plumbing Code, regulating and controlling the 
design, construction, quality of materials, erection, installation, alteration, repair, location, relocation, replacement, addition to, 
use or maintenance of plumbing systems in the rJURiSDiCTiONi : providing for the issuance of permits and collection of fees therefore 

when used with money; repealing Ordinance No. of the rJURiSDiCTiONi and all other ordinances and parts of the ordinances 

in conflict therewith. 

The fGOVERNiNG BODY! of the rjURiSDiCTiONi does ordain as follows: 

Section 1. That certain documents,; three (3) copies of which are on file in the office of the fJURiSDiCTiON'S keeper of records! and 
the fJURiSDiCTiONi . being marked and designated as International Plumbing Code, including Appendix Chapters (fill in the applica- 
ble Appendix Chapters. [See International Plumbing Code Section 101.2, 2000 edition]), as published by the International Code 
Council be and is hereby adopted as the code of the fJURiSDicriONi for regulating the design, construction, quality of materials, erec- 
tion, installation, alteration, repair, location, relocation, replacement, addition to, use or maintenance of plumbing systems in the 
fJURiSDiCTiONi and providing for the issuance of permits and collection of fees therefore; and each and all of the regulations, provi- 
sions, conditions and terms of such; International Plumbing Code, 2000 edition, published by the International Code Council on 
file in the office of the fJURiSDiCTiONi are hereby referred to, adopted and made a part hereof as if fully set out in this ordinance. 

Section 2. The following sections are hereby revised: 
Section 101.1. Insert: [name of jurisdiction] 
Section 106.6.2. Insert: [APPROPRiAtE schedule] 
Section 106.6.3. Insert: [percentages in two locations] 
Section 108.4. Insert: [offense, dollar amount, number of days] 
Section 108.5. Insert: [dollar amount in two locations] 
Section 305.6.1. Insert: [number of inches in two locations] 
Section 904.1. Insert: [number of inches] 

Section 3. That Ordinance No. of [jurisdiction] entitled (fill in here the complete title of the present plumbing ordinance or 

ordinances in effect at the present time so that they will be repealed by definite mention) and all other ordinances or parts of ordi- 
nances in conflict herewith are hereby repealed. 

Section 4. That if any section, subsection, sentence, clause or phrase of this ordinance is, for any reason, held to be unconstitu- 
tional, such decision shall not affect the validity of the remaining portions of this ordinance. The [governing bodyi hereby declares 
that it would have passed this ordinance, and each section, subsection, clause or phrase thereof, irrespective of the fact that any one 
or more sections, subsections, sentences, clauses and phrases be declared unconstitutional. 

Section 5. That the [jurisdictions keeper of records] is hereby ordered and directed to cause this ordinance to be published. (An 
additional provision may be required to direct the number of times the ordinance is to be published and to specify that it is to be in a 
newspaper in general circulation. Posting may also be required.) 

Section 6. That this ordinance and the rules, regulations, provisions, requirements, orders and matters established and adopted 
hereby shall take effect and be in full force and effect [time period] from and after the date of its final passage and adoption. 



2000 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 




2000 INTEBNATIIONAL PLUMBDNG CODE® 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 




CHAPTER 1 ADMINISTRATION 1 

Section 

101 General 1 

102 Applicability 1 

103 Department of Plumbing Inspection. 2 

104 Duties and Powers of the Code Official 2 

105 Approval 3 

106 Permits 3 

107 Inspections and Testing 5 

108 Violations 6 

109 Means of Appeal 7 

CHAPTER 2 DEFINITIONS 9 

Section 

201 General 9 

202 General Definitions 9 

CHAPTER 3 GENERAL REGULATIONS 17 

Section 

301 General 17 

302 Exclusion of Materials Detrimental 

to the Sewer System 17 

303 Materials 17 

304 Rodentproofing 17 

305 Protection of Pipes and Plumbing 

System Components 17 

306 Trenching, Excavation and Backfill 18 

307 Structural Safety 19 

308 Piping Support 19 

309 Floodproofing 20 

310 Washroom and Toilet Room Requirements 20 

311 Toilet Facilities for Workers 20 

312 Tests and Inspections 20 

313 Equipment Efficiencies 21 

314 Condensate Disposal 21 

CHAPTER 4 FIXTURES, FAUCETS AND FIXTURE 

FITTINGS. 23 

Section 

401 General 23 

402 Fixture Materials 23 

403 Minimum Plumbing Facilities. .23 

404 Accessible Plumbing Facilities 25 



405 Installation of Fixtures 25 

406 Automatic Clothes Washers 26 

407 Bathtubs 26 

408 Bidets 27 

409 Dishwashing Machines 27 

410 Drinking Fountains 27 

411 Emergency Showers and Eyewash Stations 27 

412 Floor Drains . 27 

413 Food Waste Grinder Units 27 

414 Garbage Can Washers 27 

415 Laundry Trays 28 

416 Lavatories 28 

417 Showers. 28 

418 Sinks. 29 

419 Urinals 29 

420 Water Closets 29 

421 Whirlpool Bathtubs 29 

422 Health Care Fixtures and Equipment 29 

423 Specialty Plumbing Fixtures 30 

424 Faucets and Other Fixture Fittings 30 

425 Flushing Devices for Water Closets and 

Urinals ! ... 3 1 

426 Manual Food and Beverage Dispensing 
Equipment 31 

CHAPTER 5 WATER HEATERS 33 

Section 

501 General 33 

502 Installation 33 

503 Connections 33 

504 Safety Devices 33 

505 Insulation 34 

CHAPTER 6 WATER SUPPLY AND 

DISTRIBUTION 35 

Section 

601 General 35 

602 Water Required 35 

603 Water Service 35 

604 Design of Building Water Distribution System . . 35 

605 Materials, Joints and Connections 37 

606 Installation of the Building Water 
Distribution System 41 



2000 BNTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



607 Hot Water Supply System 42 

608 Protection of Potable Water Supply 43 

609 Health Care Plumbing 48 

610 Disinfection of Potable Water System 48 

611 Drinking Water Treatment Units 48 

612 Solar Systems 48 

CHAPTER 7 SANITARY DRAINAGE .. .o o ....... 49 

Section 

701 General 49 

702 Materials 49 

703 Building Sewer 51 

704 Drainage Piping Installation 51 

705 Joints 51 

706 Connections between Drainage Piping and 
Fittings 54 

707 Prohibited Joints and Connections 54 

708 Cleanouts 54 

709 Fixture Units 55 

710 Drainage System Sizing 57 

711 Offsets in Drainage Piping in Buildings of Five 
Stories or More 57 

712 Sumps and Ejectors 58 

713 Health Care Plumbing 59 

714 Computerized Drainage Design 60 

715 Backwater Valves 61 

CHAPTER g INDIRECT/SPECIAL WASTE ....... 63 

Section 

801 General 63 

802 Indirect Wastes 63 

803 Special Wastes 63 

804 Materials, Joints and Connections 64 

CHAPTER 9 VENTS. 6S 

Section 

901 General 65 

902 Materials 65 

903 Vent Stacks and Stack Vents . 65 

904 Vent Terminals 65 

905 Vent Connections and Grades 66 

906 Fixture Vents 66 

907 Individual Vent 66 

908 Common Vent 66 

909 Wet Venting 67 

910 Waste Stack Vent 67 



91 1 Circuit Venting 67 

912 Combination Drain and Vent System 68 

913 Island Fixture Venting 68 

914 Relief Vents— Stacks of More than 

10 Branch Intervals 68 

915 Vents for Stack Offsets 69 

916 Vent Pipe Sizing 69 

917 Air Admittance Valves 69 

918 Engineered Vent Systems 72 

919 Computerized Vent Design 72 

CHAPTER 10 TRAPS, INTERCEPTORS AND 

SEPARATORS 73 

Section 

1001 General 73 

1002 Trap Requirements 73 

1003 Interceptors and Separators 73 

1004 Materials, Joints and Connections 75 

CHAPTER 11 STORM DRAINAGE .............. 77 

Section 

1101 General 77 

1102 Materials 77 

1103 Traps 78 

1 104 Conductors and Connections 78 

1105 Roof Drains 78 

1 106 Size of Conductors, Leaders and Storm Drains . . 78 

1107 Secondary (Emergency) Roof Drains 85 

1108 Combined Sanitary and Storm System 85 

1 109 Values for Continuous Flow 86 

1110 Controlled Flow Roof Drain Systems 86 

1111 Subsoil Drains 86 

1112 Building Subdrains 86 

1113 Sumps and Pumping Systems . 86 

CHAPTER 12 SPECIAL PIPING AND 

STORAGE SYSTEMS .87 

Section 

1201 General 87 

1202 Medical Gases 87 

1203 Oxygen Systems 87 

CHAPTER 13 REFERENCED STANDARDS ...... 89 



APPENDIX A PLUMBING PERMIT FEE 

SCHEDULE 97 

Permit Issuance 97 



• 



2000 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



Unit Fee Schedule 97 

Other Inspections and Fees 97 

APPENDIX B MATES OF RAINFALL FOR VARIOUS 

CITIES 99 

APPENDIX C GRAY WATER RECYCLING 

SYSTEMS. . ,,..,.. 101 

Section 

ClOl Gray Water Recycling Systems 101 

APPENDIX D DEGREE DAY AND DESIGN 

TEMPERATURES 103 

APPENDIX E SIZING OF WATER PIPING 

SYSTEM 109 

Section 

ElOl General 109 

E102 Information Required 109 

E103 Selection of Pipe Size 109 

APPENDIX F STRUCTURAL SAFETY 127 

Section 

FlOl Cutting, Notching and Boring in Wood 

Members 127 

APPENDIX G VACUUM DRAINAGE 



Section 

GlOl Vacuum Drainage System 129 

. . . . , 131 



2000 DNTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 




2000 INTERNATIO^SAL PLUMBING CODE® 



CHAPTER 1 

ADMINISTRATION 



I 



SECTION 101 
GENERAL 

101.1 Title. These regulations shall be known as the Interna- 
tional Plumbing Code of [NAME OF JURISDICTION] hereinafter 
referred to as "this code." 

101.2 Scope. The provisions of this code shall apply to the erec- 
tion, installation, alteration, repairs, relocation, replacement, ad- 
dition to, use or maintenance of plumbing systems within this 
jurisdiction. The installation of fuel gas distribution piping and 
equipment, fuel gas-fired water heaters, and water heater venting 
systems shall be regulated by the International Fuel Gas Code. 

Provisions in the appendices shall not apply unless specifi- 
cally adopted. 

Exception: Detached one- and two-family dwellings and 
multiple single-family dwellings (townhouses) not more 
than three stories high with separate means of egress and 
their accessory structures shall comply with the Interna- 
tional Residential Code. 

101.3 Intent. The purpose of this code is to provide minimum 
standards to safeguard life or limb, health, property and public 
welfare by regulating and controlling the design, construction, 
installation, quality of materials, location, operation, and main- 
tenance or use of plumbing equipment and systems. 

101.4 Severability. If any section, subsection, sentence, clause 
or phrase of this code is for any reason held to be unconstitu- 
tional, such decision shall not affect the validity of the remain- 
ing portions of this code. 

SECTION 102 
APPLICABILITY 

102.1 General. The provisions of this code shall apply to all 
matters affecting or relating to structures, as set forth in Section 
101 . Where, in any specific case, different sections of this code 
specify different materials, methods of construction or other re- 
quirements, the most restrictive shall govern. 

102.2 Existing installations. Plurnibing systems lawfully in 
existence at the time of the adoption of this code shall be per- 
mitted to have their use and maintenance continued if the use, 
maintenance or repair is in accordance with the original design 
and no hazard to life, health or property is created by such 
plumbing system. 

102.3 Maintenance. All plumbing systems, materials and ap- 
purtenances, both existing and new, and all parts thereof, shall 
be maintained in proper operating condition in accordance with 
the original design in a safe and sanitary condition. All devices 
or safeguards required by this code shall be maintained in com- 
phance with the code edition under which they were installed. 
The owner or the owner's designated agent shall be responsible 
for maintenance of plumbing systems. To determine compli- 
ance with this provision, the code official shall have the author- 
ity to require any plumbing system to be reinspected. 



102.4 Additions, alterations or repairs. Additions, alterations, 
renovations or repairs to any plumbing system shall conform to 
that required for a new plumbing system without requiring the 
existing plumbing system to comply with all the requirements of 
this code. Additions, alterations or repairs shall not cause an ex- 
isting system to become unsafe, insanitary or overloaded. 

Minor additions, alterations, renovations and repairs to ex- 
isting plumbing systems shall be permitted in the same manner 
and arrangement as in the existing system, provided that such 
repairs or replacement are not hazardous and are approved. 

102.5 Change in occupancy. It shall be unlawful to make any 
change in the occupancy of any structure that will subject the 
structure to any special provision of this code without approval 
of the code official. The code official shall certify that such 
structure meets the intent of the provisions of law governing 
building construction for the proposed new occupancy and that 
such change of occupancy does not result in any hazard to the 
public health, safety or welfare. 

102.6 Historic buildings. The provisions of this code relating 
to the construction, alteration, repair, enlargement, restoration, 
relocation or moving of buildings or structures shall not be 
mandatory for existing buildings or structures identified and 
classified by the state or local jurisdiction as historic buildings 
when such buildings or structures are judged by the code offi- 
cial to be safe and in the public interest of health, safety and 
welfare regarding any proposed construction, alteration, repair, 
enlargement, restoration, relocation or moving of buildings. 

102.7 Moved buildings. Except as determined by Section 
102.2, plumbing systems that are a part of buildings or struc- 
tures moved into or within the jurisdiction shall comply with 
the provisions of this code for new installations. 

102.8 Referenced codes and standards. The codes and stan- 
dards referenced in this code shall be those that are listed in 
Chapter 13 and considered part of the requirements of this code 
to the prescribed extent of each such reference. Where the re- 
quirements of referenced standards or manufacturer's installa- 
tion instructions do not conform to minimum provisions of this 
code, the provisions of this code shall apply. 

102.9 Requirements not covered by code. Any requirements 
necessary for the strength, stability or proper operation of an 
existing or proposed plumbing system, or for the public safety, 
health and general welfare, not specifically covered by this 
code shall be determined by the code official. 



SECTION 103 
DEPARTMENT OF PLUMBING INSPECTION 

103.1 General. The department of plumbing inspection is 
hereby created and the executive official in charge thereof shall 
be known as the code official. 



2000 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



■J03- 104.8 



ADMINISTRATION 



SECTION 103 

DEPARTMENT OF PLUMBING INSPECTION 

103.1 GeneraL The department of plumbing inspection is 
hereby created and the executive official in charge thereof shall 
be known as the code official. 

103.2 Appoimtmeet. The code official shall be appointed by 
the chief appointing authority of the jurisdiction, and the code 
official shall not be removed from office except for cause and 
after full opportunity to be heard on specific and relevant 
charges by and before the appointing authority. 

103.3 Deputies. In accordance with the prescribed procedures 
of this jurisdiction and with the concurrence of the appointing 
authority, the code official shall have the authority to appoint a 
deputy code official, other related technical officers, inspectors 
and other employees. 

103.4 Restriction of employees. An official or employee con- 
nected with the department of plumbing inspection, except one 
whose only connection is that of a member of the board of ap- 
peals established under the provisions of Section 109, shall not 
be engaged in or directly or indirectly connected with the fur- 
nishing of labor, materials or appliances for the construction, 
alteration or maintenance of a building, or the preparation of 
construction documents thereof, unless that person is the 
owner of the building; and such officer or employee shall not 
engage in any work that conflicts with official duties or with the 
interests of the department. 

103.5 Liability. The code official, officer or employee charged 
with the enforcement of this code, while acting for the jurisdic- 
tion, shall not thereby be rendered liable personally, and is 
hereby relieved from all personal liability for any damage ac- 
cruing to persons or property as a result of any act required or 
permitted in the discharge of official duties. 

Any suit instituted against any officer or employee because 
of an act performed by that officer or employee in the lawful 
discharge of duties and under the provisions of this code shall 
be defended by the legal representative of the jurisdiction until 
the final termination of the proceedings. The code official or 
any subordinate shall not be liable for costs in any action, suit or 
proceeding that is instituted in pursuance of the provisions of 
this code, and any officer of the department of plumbing in- 
spection, acting in good faith and without mahce, shall be free 
from liability for acts performed under any of its provisions or 
by reason of any act or omission in the performance of official 
duties in connection therewith. 



SECTION 104 
ES AND POWERS OF THE CODE OFFICIAL 

LI General. The code official shall enforce all of the provi- 
sions of this code and shall act on any question relative to the in- 
stallation, alteration, repair, maintenance or operation of all 
plumbing systems, devices and equipment except as otherwise 
specifically provided for by statutory requirements or as pro- 
vided for in Sections 104.2 through 104.8. 

104.2 Rele-making authority. The code official shall have au- 
thority as necessary in the interest of public health, safety and 
general welfare to adopt and promulgate rules and regulations 
to interpret and implement the provisions of this code to secure 



the intent thereof and to designate requirements applicable be- 
cause of local climatic or other conditions. Such rules shall not 
have the effect of waiving structural or fire performance re- 
quirements specifically provided for in this code, or of violating 
accepted engineering practice involving public safety. 

104.3 Applications and permits. The code official shall re- 
ceive applications and issue permits for the installation and 
alteration of plumbing, inspect the premises for which such 
permits have been issued, and enforce compliance with the pro- 
visions of this code. 

104.4 Inspections. The code official shall make all the required 
inspections, or shall accept reports of inspection by approved 
agencies or individuals. All reports of such inspections shall be 
in writing and be certified by a responsible officer of such ap- 
proved agency or by the responsible individual. The code offi- 
cial is authorized to engage such expert opinion as deemed 
necessary to report on unusual technical issues that arise, sub- 
ject to the approval of the appointing authority. 

104.5 Right of entry. Whenever it is necessary to make an in- 
spection to enforce the provisions of this code, or whenever the 
code official has reasonable cause to believe that there exists in 
any building or upon any premises any conditions or violations 
of this code that make the building or premises unsafe, insani- 
tary, dangerous or hazardous, the code official shall have the 
authority to enter the building or premises at all reasonable 
times to inspect or to perform the duties imposed upon the code 
official by this code, ff such building or premises is occupied, 
the code official shall present credentials to the occupant and 
request entry, ff such building or premises is unoccupied, the 
code official shall first make a reasonable effort to locate the 
owner or other person having charge or control of the building 
or premises and request entry, ff entry is refused, the code offi- 
cial shall have recourse to every remedy provided by law to se- 
cure entry. 

When the code official shall have first obtained a proper in- 
spection warrant or other remedy provided by law to secure en- 
try, no owner or occupant or person having charge, care or 
control of any building or premises shall fail or neglect, after 
proper request is made as herein provided, to promptly permit 
entry therein by the code official for the purpose of inspection 
and examination pursuant to this code. 

104.6 Ldentification. The code official shall carry proper iden- 
tification when inspecting structures or premises in the perfor- 
mance of duties under this code. 

104.7 Notices and orders. The code official shall issue all 
necessary notices or orders to ensure compliance with this 
code. 

104.8 Department records. The code official shall keep offi- 
cial records of applications received, permits and certificates 
issued, fees collected, reports of inspections, and notices and 
orders issued. Such records shall be retained in the official re- 
cords as long as the building or structure to which such records 
relate remains in existence unless otherwise provided for by 
other regulations. 



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105-106.3 



SECTION 105 
APPROVAL 

105.1 Modifications. Whenever there are practical difficulties 
involved in carrying out the provisions of this code, the code of- 
ficial shall have the authority to grant modifications for individ- 
ual cases, provided the code official shall first find that special 
individual reason makes the strict letter of this code impractical 
and the modification is in conformity with the intent and pur- 
pose of this code and that such modification does not lessen 
health, life and fire safety requirements. The details of action 
granting modifications shall be recorded and entered in the files 
of the plumbing inspection department. 

105.2 Alternative materials, methods and equipment. The 

provisions of this code are not intended to prevent the installa- 
tion of any material or to prohibit any method of construction 
not specifically prescribed by this code, provided that any such 
alternative has been approved. An alternative material or 
method of construction shall be approved where the code offi- 
cial finds that the proposed design is satisfactory and complies 
with the intent of the provisions of this code, and that the mate- 
rial, method or work offered is, for the purpose intended, at 
least the equivalent of that prescribed in this code in quality, 
strength, effectiveness, fire resistance, durability and safety. 

105.3 Required testing. Whenever there is insufficient evi- 
dence of compliance with the provisions of this code, or evi- 
dence that a material or method does not conform to the 
requirements of this code, or in order to substantiate claims for 
alternate materials or methods, the code official shall have the 
authority to require tests as evidence of compliance to be made 
at no expense to the jurisdiction. 

105.3.1 Test metliods. Test methods shall be as specified in 
this code or by other recognized test standards. In the ab- 
sence of recognized and accepted test methods, the code of- 
ficial shall approve the testing prbcedures. 

105.3.2 Testing agency. All tests shall be performed by an 
approved agency. 

105.3.3 T'est reports. Reports of tests shall be retained by 
the code official for the period required for retention of pub- 
lic records. 

105.4 Alternative engineered design. The design, documen- 
tation, inspection, testing and approval of an alternative engi- 
neered design plumbing system shall comply with Sections 
105.4.1 through 105.4.6. 

105.4.1 Design criteria. An alternative engineered design 
shall conform to the intent of the provisions of this code and 
shall provide an equivalent level of quality, strength, effec- 
tiveness, fire resistance, durability and safety. Material, 
equipment or components shall be designed and installed in 
accordance with the manufacturer's installation instruc- 
tions. 

105.4.2 Submittal. The registered design professional shall 
indicate on the permit application that the plumbing system 
is an alternative engineered design. The permit and perma- 
nent permit records shall indicate that an alternative engi- 
neered design was part of the approved installation. 

105.4.3 Technical data. The registered design professional 
shall submit sufficient technical data to substantiate the pro- 



posed alternative engineered design and to prove that the 
performance meets the intent of this code. 

105.4.4 Construction documents. The registered design 
professional shall submit to the code official two complete 
sets of signed and sealed construction documents for the al- 
ternative engineered design. The construction documents 
shall include floor plans and a riser diagram of the work. 
Where appropriate, the construction documents shall indi- 
cate the direction of flow, all pipe sizes, grade of horizontal 
piping, loading, and location of fixtures and appliances. 

105.4.5 Design approval. Where the code official deter- 
mines that the alternative engineered design conforms to the 
intent of this code, the plumbing system shall be approved. 
If the alternative engineered design is not approved, the 
code official shall notify the registered design professional 
in writing, stating the reasons thereof. 

105.4.6 Inspection and testing. The alternative engineered 
design shall be tested and inspected in accordance with the 
requirements of Sections 107 and 312. 

105.5 Material and equipment reuse. Materials, equipment 
and devices shall not be reused unless such elements have been 
reconditioned, tested, placed in good and proper working con- 
dition, and approved. 



SECTION 106 
PERMITS 

106.1 When required. Any owner, authorized agent or con- 
tractor who desires to construct, enlarge, alter, repair, move, de- 
molish or change the occupancy of a building or structure, or to 
erect, install, enlarge, alter, repair, remove, convert or replace 
any plumbing system, the installation of which is regulated by 
thi s code, or to cause any such work to be done, shall first make 
application to the code official and obtain the required permit 
for the work. 

106.2 Exempt work. The following work shall be exempt from 
the requirement for a permit: 

1 . The stopping of leaks in drains, water, soil, waste or vent 
pipe provided, however, that if any concealed trap, drain- 
pipe, water, soil, waste or vent pipe becomes defective 
and it becomes necessary to remove and replace the same 
with new material, such work shall be considered as new 
work and a permit shall be obtained and inspection made 
as provided in this code. 

2. The clearing of stoppages or the repairing of leaks in 
pipes, valves or fixtures, and the removal and reinstalla- 
tion of water closets, provided such repairs do not in- 
volve or require the replacement or rearrangement of 
valves, pipes or fixtures. 

Exemption from the permit requirements of this code shall 
not be deemed to grant authorization for any work to be done in 
violation of the provisions of this code or any other laws or or- 
dinances of this jurisdiction. 

106.3 Application for permit. Each application for a permit, 
with the required fee, shall be filed with the code oflicial on a 
foim furnished for that purpose and shall contain a general de- 
scription of the proposed work and its location. The application 



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106.3.1-106.6.2 



ADMINISTRATION 



shall be signed by the owner or an authorized agent. The permit 
application shall indicate the proposed occupancy of all parts 
of the building and of that portion of the site or lot, if any, not 
covered by the building or structure and shall contain such 
other information required by the code official. 

106.3.1 CoEstrection documents. Construction docu- 
ments, engineering calculations, diagrams and other such 
data shall be submitted in two or more sets with each appli- 
cation for a permit. The code official shall require construc- 
tion documents, computations and specifications to be 
prepared and designed by a registered design professional 
when required by state law. Construction documents shall 
be drawn to scale and shall be of sufficient clarity to indicate 
the location, nature and extent of the work proposed and 
show in detail that the work conforms to the provisions of 
this code. Construction documents for buildings more than 
two stories in height shall indicate where penetrations will 
be made for pipe, fittings and components and shall indicate 
the materials and methods for maintaining required struc- 
tural safety, fire-resistance rating and fireblocking. 

Exception; The code official shall have the authority to 
waive the submission of construction documents, calcu- 
lations or other data if the nature of the work applied for 
is such that reviewing of construction documents is not 
necessary to determine compliance with this code. 

106.4 By wlhom application is made. Application for a permit 
shall be made by the person or agent to install all or part of any 
plumbing system. The applicant shall meet all qualifications 
established by statute, or by rules promulgated by this code, or 
by ordinance, or by resolution. The full name and address of the 
applicant shall be stated in the application. 

106.5 Permit issuance. The application, construction docu- 
ments and other data filed by an applicant for permit shall be re- 
viewed by the code official. If the code official finds that the 
proposed work conforms to the requirements of this code and 
all laws and ordinances applicable thereto, and that the fees 
specified in Section 106.6 have been paid, a permit shall be is- 
sued to the applicant. 

106.5.1 Approved construction documents. When the 
code official issues the permit where construction docu- 
ments are required, the construction documents shall be en- 
dorsed in writing and stamped "APPROVED." Such 
approved construction documents shall not be changed, 
modified or altered without authorization from the code of- 
ficial. All work shall be done in accordance with the ap- 
proved construction documents. 

The code official shall have the authority to issue a permit 
for the construction of a part of a plumbing system before 
the entire construction documents for the whole system 
have been submitted or approved, provided adequate infor- 
mation and detailed statements have been filed complying 
with all pertinent requirements of this code. The holders of 
such permit shall proceed at their own risk without assur- 
ance that the permit for the entire plumbing system will be 
granted. 

106.5.2 Validity. The issuance of a permit or approval of 
construction documents shall not be construed to be a per- 
mit for, or an approval of, any violation of any of the provi- 



sions of this code or any other ordinance of the jurisdiction. 
No permit presuming to give authority to violate or cancel 
the provisions of this code shall be valid. 

The issuance of a permit based upon construction docu- 
ments and other data shall not prevent the code official from 
thereafter requiring the correction of errors in said construc- 
tion documents and other data or from preventing building 
operations being carried on thereunder when in violation of 
this code or of other ordinances of this jurisdiction. 

106.5.3 Expiration. Every permit issued by the code offi- 
cial under the provisions of this code shall expire by limita- 
tion and become null and void if the work authorized by 
such permit is not commenced within 180 days from the 
date of such permit, or if the work authorized by such permit 
is suspended or abandoned at any time after the work is com- 
menced for a period of 180 days. Before such work can be 
recommenced, a new permit shall be first obtained and the 
fee therefor shall be one-half the amount required for a new 
permit for such work, provided no changes have been made 
or will be made in the original construction documents for 
such work, and provided further that such suspension or 
abandonment has not exceeded 1 year. 

106.5.4 Extensions. Any permittee holding an unexpired 
permit shall have the right to apply for an extension of the 
time within which the permittee will commence work under 
that permit when work is unable to be commenced within 
the time required by this section for good and satisfactory 
reasons. The code official shall extend the time for action by 
the permittee for a period not exceeding 180 days if there is 
reasonable cause. No permit shall be extended more than 
once. The fee for an extension shall be one-half the amount 
required for a new permit for such work. 

106.5.5 Suspension or revocation of permit. The code of- 
ficial shall revoke a permit or approval issued under the pro- 
visions of this code in case of any false statement or 
misrepresentation of fact in the application or on the con- 
struction documents upon which the permit or approval was 
based. 

106.5.6 Retention of construction documents. One set of 

construction documents shall be retained by the code offi- 
cial until final approval of the work covered therein. One set 
of approved construction documents shall be returned to the 
applicant, and said set shall be kept on the site of the building 
or work at all times during which the work authorized 
thereby is in progress. 

106.6 Fees. A permit shall not be issued until the fees pre- 
scribed in Section 106.6.2 have been paid, and an amendment 
to a permit shall not be released until the additional fee, if any, 
due to an increase of the plumbing systems, has been paid. 

106.6.1 Work commencing before permit issuance. Any 

person who commences any work on a plumbing system be- 
fore obtaining the necessary permits shall be subject to 100 
percent of the usual permit fee in addition to the required 
permit fees. 

106.6.2 Fee schedule. The fees for all plumbing work shall 
be as indicated in the following schedule: 

[JURISDICTION TO INSERT APPROPRIATE SCHEDULE] 



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ADWilNISTRATION 



106.6.3-107.3.3 





106.6.3 Fee refunds. The code official shall authorize the 
refunding of fees as follows: 

1. The full amount of any fee paid hereunder that was er- 
roneously paid or collected. 

2. Not more than [specify PERCENTAGE] percent of the 
permit fee paid when no work has been done under a 
permit issued in accordance with this code. 

3. Not more than [Specify percentage] percent of the 
plan review fee paid when an application for a permit 
for which a plan review fee has been paid is with- 
drawn or canceled before any plan review effort has 
been expended. 

The code official shall not authorize the refunding of any fee 
paid except upon written application filed by the original 
permittee not later than 1 80 days after the date of fee payment. 

SECTION 107 
INSPECTIONS AND TESTING 

107.1 Required inspections and testing. The code official, 
upon notification from the permit holder or the permit holder's 
agent, shall make the following inspections and such other in- 
spections as necessary, and shall either release that portion of 
the construction or shall notify the permit holder or an agent of 
any violations that must be corrected. The holder of the permit 
shall be responsible for the scheduling of such inspections. 

1 . Underground inspection shall be made after trenches or 
ditches are excavated and bedded, piping installed, and 
before any backfill is put in pilace. 

2. Rough-in inspection shall be made after the roof, fram- 
ing, fireblocking, firestopping, draftstopping and brac- 
ing is in place and all sanitary, storm and water 
distribution piping is roughed-in, and prior to the instal- 
lation of wall or ceiling membranes. 

3. Final inspection shall be made after the building is com- 
plete, all plumbing fixtures are in place and properly con- 
nected, and the structure is ready for occupancy. 

1©7.1.1 Approved agencies. Test reports submitted to the 
code official for consideration shall be developed by ap- 
proved agencies that have satisfied the requirements as to 
qualifications and reliability. 

107.1.2 Evaluation and follow-up inspection services. 
Prior to the approval of a closed, prefabricated plumbing 
system and the issuance of a plumbing permit, the code offi- 
cial shall require the submittal of an evaluation report on 
each prefabricated plumbing system indicating the com- 
plete details of the plumbing system, including a description 
of the system and its components, the basis upon which the 
plumbing system is being evaluated, test results and similar 
information, and other data as necessary for the code official 
to determine conformance to this code. 

107.1.2.1 Evaluation service. The code official shall 
designate the evaluation service of an approved agency 
as the evaluation agency, and review such agency's eval- 
uation report for adequacy and conformance to this code. 

107.1.2.2 Follow-up inspection. Except where ready ac- 
cess is provided to all plumbing systems, service equip- 



ment and accessories for complete inspection at the site 
without disassembly or dismantling, the code official 
shall conduct the frequency of in-plant inspections 
necessary to ensure conformance to the approved evalua- 
tion report or shall designate an independent, approved 
inspection agency to conduct such inspections. The in- 
spection agency shall furnish the code official with the 
follow-up inspection manual and a report of inspections 
upon request, and the plumbing system shall have an 
identifying label permanently affixed to the system indi- 
cating that factory inspections have been performed. 

107.1.2.3 Test and inspection records. All required test 
and inspection records shall be available to the code offi- 
cial at all times during the fabrication of the plumbing 
system and the erection of the building, or such records 
as the code official designates shall be filed. 

107.2 Special inspections. Special inspections of alternative 
engineered design plumbing systems shall be conducted in ac- 
cordance with Sections 107.2.1 and 107.2.2. 

107.2.1 Periodic inspection. The registered design profes- 
sional or designated inspector shall periodically inspect and 
observe the alternative engineered design to determine that 
the installation is in accordance with the approved construc- 
tion documents. All discrepancies shall be brought to the 
immediate attention of the plumbing contractor for correc- 
tion. Records shall be kept of all inspections. 

107.2.2 Written report. The registered design professional 
shall submit a final report in writing to the code official upon 
completion of the installation, certifying that the alternative 
engineered design conforms to the approved construction 
documents. A notice of approval for the plumbing system 
shall not be issued until a written certification has been sub- 
mitted. 

107.3 Testing. Plumbing work and systems shall be tested as 
required in Section 312 and in accordance with Sections 
107.3.1 through 107.3.3. Tests shall be made by the permit 
holder and observed by the code official. 

107.3.1 New, altered, extended or repaired systems. New 

plumbing systems and parts of existing systems that have 
been altered, extended or repaired shall be tested as pre- 
scribed herein to disclose leaks and defects, except that test- 
ing is not required in the following cases: 

1 . In any case that does not include addition to, replace- 
ment, alteration or relocation of any water supply, 
drainage or vent piping. 

2. In any case where plumbing equipment is set up tem- 
porarily for exhibition purposes. 

107.3.2 Equipment, material and labor for tests. All 

equipment, material and labor required for testing a plumb- 
ing system or part thereof shall be furnished by the permit 
holder. 

107.3.3 Reinspection and testing. Where any work or in- 
stallation does not pass any initial test or inspection, the 
necessary corrections shall be made to comply with this 
code. The work or installation shall then be resubmitted to 
the code official for inspection and testing. 



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107.4-108.7.3 



ADMINISTRATION 



107.4 Coordination of inspections. Whenever, in the enforce- 
ment of this code or another code or ordinance, the responsibil- 
ity of more than one code official of the jurisdiction is involved, 
it shall be the duty of the code officials involved to coordinate 
their inspections and adrninistrative orders as fully as practical 
so that the owners and occupants of the structure shall not be 
subjected to visits by numerous inspectors or multiple or con- 
flicting orders. Whenever an inspector from any agency or de- 
partment observes an apparent or actual violation of some 
provision of some law, ordinance or code not within the inspec- 
tor's authority to enforce, the inspector shall report the findings 
to the code official having jurisdiction. 

107.5 Approval. After the prescribed tests and inspections in- 
dicate that the work complies in all respects with this code, a 
notice of approval shall be issued by the code official. 

107.6 Temporary connection. The code official shall have the 
authority to authorize the temporary connection of the building 
or system to the utility source for the purpose of testing plumb- 
ing systems or for use under a temporary certificate of occu- 
pancy. 



SECTION 108 
VIOLATIONS 

.1 Unlawful acts. It shall be unlawful for any person, firm 
or corporation to erect, construct, alter, repair, remove, demol- 
ish or utilize any plumbing system, or cause same to be done, in 
conflict with or in violation of any of the provisions of this 
code. 

108.2 Notice of violation. The code official shall serve a notice 
of violation or order to the person responsible for the erection, 
installation, alteration, extension, repair, removal or demoli- 
tion of plumbing work in violation of the provisions of this 
code, or in violation of a detail statement or the approved con- 
struction documents thereunder, or in violation of a permit or 
certificate issued under the provisions of this code. Such order 
shall direct the discontinuance of the illegal action or condition 
and the abatement of the violation. 

108.3 Prosecution of violation. If the notice of violation is not 
complied with promptly, the code official shall request the legal 
counsel of the jurisdiction to institute the appropriate proceed- 
ing at law or in equity to restrain, correct or abate such viola- 
tion, or to require the removal or termination of the unlawful 
occupancy of the structure in violation of the provisions of this 
code or of the order or direction made pursuant thereto. 

108.4 Violation penalties. Any person who shall violate a pro- 
vision of this code or shall fail to comply with any of the re- 
quirements thereof or who shall erect, install, alter or repair 
plumbing work in violation of the approved construction docu- 
ments or directive of the code official, or of a permit or certifi- 
cate issued under the provisions of this code, shall be guilty of a 
[SPECIFY OFFENSE], punishable by a fine of not more than 
[AMOUNT] dollars or by imprisonment not exceeding [number 
OF DAYS], or both such fine and imprisonment. Each day that a 
violation continues after due notice has been served shall be 
deemed a separate offense. 

108.5 Stop work orders. Upon notice from the code official, 
work on any plumbing system that is being done contrary to the 



provisions of this code or in a dangerous or unsafe manner shall 
immediately cease. Such notice shall be in writing and shall be 
given to the owner of the property, or to the owner's agent, or to 
the person doing the work. The notice shall state the conditions 
under which work is authorized to resume. Where an emer- 
gency exists, the code official shall not be required to give a 
written notice prior to stopping the work. Any person who shall 
continue any work in or about the structure after having been 
served with a stop work order, except such work as that person 
is directed to perform to remove a violation or unsafe condi- 
tion,shall be liable to a fine of not less than [AMOUNT] dollars or 
more than [AMOUNT] dollars. 

108.6 Abatement of violation. The imposition of the penalties 
herein prescribed shall not preclude the legal officer of the ju- 
risdiction from instituting appropriate action to prevent unlaw- 
ful construction or to restrain, correct or abate a violation, or to 
prevent illegal occupancy of a building, structure or premises, 
or to stop an illegal act, conduct, business or utilization of the 
plumbing on or about any premises. 

108.7 Unsafe plumbing. Any plumbing regulated by this code 
that is unsafe or that constitutes a fire or health hazard, insani- 
tary condition, or is otherwise dangerous to human life is 
hereby declared unsafe. Any use of plumbing regulated by this 
code constituting a hazard to safety, health or public welfare by 
reason of inadequate maintenance, dilapidation, obsolescence, 
fire hazard, disaster, damage or abandonment is hereby de- 
clared an unsafe use. Any such unsafe equipment is hereby de- 
clared to be a public nuisance and shall be abated by repair, 
rehabilitation, demolition or removal. 

108.7.1 Authority to condemn equipment. Whenever the 
code official determines that any plumbing, or portion 
thereof, regulated by this code has become hazardous to life, 
health or property or has become insanitary, the code official 
shall order in writing that such plumbing either be removed 
or restored to a safe or sanitary condition. A time limit for 
compliance with such order shall be specified in the written 
notice. No person shall use or maintain defective plumbing 
after receiving such notice. 

When such plumbing is to be disconnected, written notice 
as prescribed in Section 108.2 shall be given. In cases of im- 
mediate danger to life or property, such disconnection shall 
be made immediately without such notice. 

108.7.2 Authority to disconnect service utilities. The code 
official shall have the authority to authorize disconnection 
of utility service to the building, structure or system regu- 
lated by the technical codes in case of an emergency, where 
necessary, to eliminate an immediate danger to life or prop- 
erty. Where possible, the owner and occupant of the 
building, structure or service system shall be notified of the 
deci sion to disconnect utility service prior to taking such ac- 
tion. If not notified prior to disconnecting, the owner or oc- 
cupant of the building, structure or service systems shall be 
notified in writing, as soon as practical thereafter. 

108.7.3 Connection after order to disconnect. No person 
shall make connections from any energy, fuel, power supply 
or water distribution system or supply energy, fuel or water 
to any equipment regulated by this code that has been dis- 
connected or ordered to be disconnected by the code official 



2000 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



ADMINISTRATION 



109-109.7 




or the use of which has been ordered to be discontinued by 
the code official until the code official authorizes the 
reconnection and use of such equipment. 

When any plumbing is maintained in violation of this 
code, and in violation of any notice issued pursuant to the 
provisions of this section, the code official shall institute any 
appropriate action to prevent, restrain, correct or abate the 
violation. 



SECTION 109 
MEANS OF APPEAL 

109.1 Application for appeal. Any person shall have the right 
to appeal a decision of the code official to the board of appeals. 
An application for appeal shall be based on a claim that the true 
intent of this code or the rules legally adopted thereunder have 
been incorrectly interpreted, the priavisions of this code do not 
fully apply, or an equally good or better form of construction is 
proposed. The application shall be filed on a form obtained 
from the code official within 20 days after the notice was 
served. 

109.2 Membership of board. The board of appeals shall con- 
sist of five members appointed by the chief appointing author- 
ity as follows: one for 5 years, one for 4 years, one for 3 years, 
one for 2 years and one for 1 year. Thereafter, each new member 
shall serve for 5 years or until a successor has been appointed. 

109.2.1 Qualifications. The board of appeals shall consist 
of five individuals, one from each of the following profes- 
sions or disciplines: 

1 . Registered design professional who is a registered ar- 
chitect; or a builder or superintendent of building con- 
struction with at least 10 years' experience, 5 years of 
which shall have been in responsible charge of Pwork. 

2. Registered design professional with structural engi- 
neering or architectural experience. 

3. Registered design professional with mechanical and 
plumbing engineering experience; or a mechanical 
and plumbing contractor with at least 10 years' expe- 
rience, 5 years of which shall have been in responsible 
charge of work. 

4. Registered design professional with electrical engi- 
neering experience; or an electrical contractor with at 
least 10 years' experience, 5 years of which shall have 
been in responsible charge of work. 

5. Registered design professional with fire protection 
engineering experience; or a fire protection contractor 
with at least 10 years' experience, 5 years of which 
shall have been in responsible charge of work. 

109.2.2 Alternate members. The chief appointing author- 
ity shall appoint two alternate members who shall be called 
by the board chairman to hear appeals during the absence or 
disquaUfication of a member. Alternate members shall pos- 
sess the qualifications required for board membership, and 
shall be appointed for 5 years or until a successor has been 
appointed. 



109.2.4 Disqualification of member. A member shall not 
hear an appeal in which that member has any personal, pro- 
fessional or financial interest. 

109.2.5 Secretary. The chief administrative officer shall 
designate a qualified clerk to serve as secretary to the board. 
The secretary shall file a detailed record of all proceedings 
in the office of the chief administrative officer. 

109.2.6 Compensation of members. Compensation of 
members shall be determined by law. 

109.3 Notice of meeting. The board shall meet upon notice 
from the chairman, within 10 days of the filing of an appeal or 
at stated periodic meetings. 

109.4 Open hearing. All hearings before the board shall be 
open to the public. The appellant, the appellant's representa- 
tive, the code official and any person whose interests are af- 
fected shall be given an opportunity to be heard. 

109.4.1 Procedure. The board shall adopt and make avail- 
able to the public through the secretary procedures under 
which a hearing will be conducted. The procedures shall not 
require compliance with strict rules of evidence, but shall 
mandate that only relevant information be received. 

109.5 Postponed hearing. When five members are not present 
to hear an appeal, either the appellant or the appellant's repre- 
sentative shall have the right to request a postponement of the 
hearing. 

109.6 Board decision. The board shall modify or reverse the 
decision of the code official by a concurring vote of three mem- 
bers. 

109.6.1 Resolution. The decision of the board shall be by 
resolution. Certified copies shall be furnished to the appel- 
lant and to the code official. 

109.6.2 Administration. The code official shall take imme- 
diate action in accordance with the decision of the board. 

109.7 Court review. Any person, whether or not a previous 
party of the appeal, shall have the right to apply to the appropri- 
ate court for a writ of certiorari to correct errors of law. Applica- 
tion for review shall be made in the manner and time required 
by law following the filing of the decision in the office of the 
chief administrative officer. 



^.2,3 Chairman. The board shall annually select one of 
its members to serve as chairmain. 



2000 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 






2000 INTERNATIONAL PLUR/IBING CODE® 



CHAPTER 2 

DEFINITIONS 



SECTION 201 
GENERAL 

201.1 Scope. Unless otherwise expressly stated, the following 
words and terms shall, for the purposes of this code, have the 
meanings shown in this chapter. 

201.2 Interchangeability. Words stated in the present tense in- 
clude the future; words stated in the masculine gender include 
the feminine and neuter; the singular number includes the plu- 
ral and the plural the singular. 

201.3 Terms defined in other codes. Where terms are not de- 
fined in this code and are defined in the International Building 
Code, International Fire Code, ICC Electrical Code, Interna- 
tional Fuel Gas Code or the International Mechanical 
Code, such terms shall have the meanings ascribed to them as in 
those codes. 

201.4 Terms not defined. Where terms are not defined through 
the methods authorized by this section, such terms shall have 
ordinarily accepted meanings such as the context implies. 

SECTION 202 
GENERAL DEFINITIONS 

ACCEPTED ENGINEERING PRACTICE. That which 
conforms to accepted principles, tests or standards of nation- 
ally recognized technical or scientific authorities. 

ACCESS (TO). That which enables a fixture, appliance or 
equipment to be reached by ready access or by a means that first 
requires the removal or movement of a panel, door or similar 
obstruction (see "Ready access")- 

ACCESS COVER. A removable plate, usually secured by 
bolts or screws, to permit access to a pipe or pipe fitting for the 
purposes of inspection, repair or cleaning. 

ADAPTER FITTING. An approved connecting device that 
suitably and properly joins or adjusts pipes and fittings which 
do not otherwise fit together. 

AIR ADMITTANCE VALVE. One-way valve designed to al- 
low air to enter the plumbing drainage system when negative 
pressures develop in the piping system. The device shall close 
by gravity and seal the vent terminal at zero differential pres- 
sure (no flow conditions) and under positive internal pressures. 
The purpose of an air admittance valve is to provide a method 
of allowing air to enter the plumbing drainage system without 
the use of a vent extended to open air and to prevent sewer gases 
from escaping into a building. 

AIR BREAK (Drainage System). A piping arrangement in 
which a drain from a fixture, appliance or device discharges in- 
directly into another fixture, receptacle or interceptor at a point 
below the flood level rim. 

AIR GAP (Drainage System). The unobstructed vertical dis- 
tance through the free atmosphere I between the outlet of the 



waste pipe and the flood level rim of the receptacle into which 
the waste pipe is discharging. 

AIR GAP (Water Distribution System). The unobstructed 
vertical distance through the free atmosphere between the low- 
est opening from any pipe or faucet supplying water to a tank, 
plumbing fixture or other device and the flood level rim of the 
receptacle. 

ALTERNATIVE ENGINEERED DESIGN. A plumbing 
system that performs in accordance with the intent of Chapters 
3 through 12 and provides an equivalent level of performance 
for the protection of public health, safety and welfare. The sys- 
tem design is not specifically regulated by Chapters 3 through 
12. 

ANCHORS. See "Supports." 

ANTISIPHON. A term apphed to valves or mechanical de- 
vices that ehminate siphonage. 

APPROVED. Approved by the code official or other authority 
having jurisdiction. 

APPROVED AGENCY. An established and recognized 
agency approved by the code official and that is regularly en- 
gaged in conducting tests or furnishing inspection services. 

AREA DRAIN. A receptacle designed to collect surface or 
storm water from an open area. 

ASPIRATOR. A fitting or device supplied with water or other 
fluid under positive pressure that passes through an integral ori- 
fice or constriction, causing a vacuum. Aspirators are also re- 
ferred to as suction apparatus, and are similar in operation to an 
ejector. 

BACKFLOW 

Backpressure. Pressure created by any means in the water 
distribution system, which by being in excess of the pres- 
sure in the water supply mains causes a potential backflow 
condition. 

Backpressure, low head. A pressure less than or equal to 
4.33 psi (29.88 kPa) or the pressure exerted by a 10-foot 
(3048 mm) column of water. 

Backsiphonage. The backflow of potentially contaminated 
water into the potable water system as a result of the pres- 
sure in the potable water system falling below atmospheric 
pressure of the plumbing fixtures, pools, tanks or vats con- 
nected to the potable water distribution piping. 

Backwater valve. A device or valve installed in the building 
drain or sewer pipe where a sewer is subject to backflow, and 
which prevents drainage or waste from backing up into a 
low level or fixtures and causing a flooding condition. 

Drainage. A reversal of flow in the drainage system. 

Water supply system. The flow of water or other liquids, 
mixtures or substances into the distribution pipes of a pota- 



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202 



DEFINITIONS 



ble water supply from any source except the intended 
source. 

BACKFLOW CONNECTION. Any arrangement whereby 
backflow is possible. 

BACKFLOW PREVENTER. A device or means to prevent 
backflow. 

BALL COCK. A water supply valve, opened or closed by 
means of a float or similar device, utilized to supply water to a 
tank. An antisiphon ball cock contains an antisiphon device in 
the form of an approved air gap or vacuum breaker that is an in- 
tegral part of the ball cock unit and that is positioned on the dis- 
charge side of the water supply control valve. 

BASE FLOOD ELEVATION. A reference point, determined 
in accordance with the building code, based on the depth or 
peak elevation of flooding, including wave height, which has a 
1 percent (100-year flood) or greater chance of occurring in any 
given year. 

BATHROOM GROUP. A group of fixtures consisting of a 
water closet, lavatory, bathtub or shower, including or exclud- 
ing a bidet, an emergency floor drain, or both. Such fixtures are 
located together on the same floor level. 

BEDPAN STEAMER OR BOILER, A fixture utiUzed for 
scalding bedpans or urinals by direct application of steam or 
boiling water. 

BEDPAN WASHER AND STERILIZER, A fixture de- 
signed to wash bedpans and to flush the contents into the sani- 
tary drainage system. Included are fixtures of this type that 
provide for disinfecting utensils by scalding with steam or hot 
water. 

BEDPAN WASHER HOSE. A device suppHed with hot and 
cold water and located adjacent to a water closet or clinical sink 
to be utilized for cleansing bedpans. 

BRANCH, Any part of the piping system except a riser, main 
or stack. 

BRANCH INTERVAL, A distance along a soil or waste stack 
corresponding in general to a story height, but not less than 8 
feet (2438 mm), within which the horizontal branches from one 
floor or story of a structure are connected to the stack. 

BRANCH VENT. A vent connecting one or more individual 
vents with a vent stack or stack vent. 

BUILDING. Any structure occupied or intended for support- 
ing or sheltering any occupancy. 

BUILDING DRAIN, That part of the lowest piping of a drain- 
age system that receives the discharge from soil, waste and 
other drainage pipes inside and that extends 30 inches (762 
mm) beyond the walls of the building and conveys the drainage 
to the building sewer. 

Comlbined. A building drain that conveys both sewage and 
storm water or other drainage. 

Sanitary, A building drain that conveys sewage only. 

Storm, A building drain that conveys storm water or other 
drainage, but not sewage. 

BUILDING SEWER. That part of the drainage system that 
extends from the end of the building drain and conveys the dis- 



charge to a public sewer, private sewer, individual sewage 
disposal system or other point of disposal. 

Combined, A building sewer that conveys both sewage and 
storm water or other drainage. 

Sanitary. A building sewer that conveys sewage only. 

Storm. A building sewer that conveys storm water or other 
drainage, but not sewage. 

BUILDING SUBDRAIN. That portion of a drainage system 
that does not drain by gravity into the building sewer. 

BUILDING TRAP, A device, fitting or assembly of fittings in- 
stalled in the building drain to prevent circulation of air be- 
tween the drainage system of the building and the building 
sewer. 

CIRCUIT VENT. A vent that connects to a horizontal drain- 
age branch and vents two traps to a maximum of eight traps or 
trapped fixtures connected into a battery. 

CISTERN. A small covered tank for storing water for a home 
or farm. Generally, this tank stores rainwater to be utilized for 
purposes other than in the potable water supply, and such tank 
is placed underground in most cases. 

CLEANOUT, An access opening in the di"ainage system uti- 
lized for the removal of obstructions. Types of cleanouts in- 
clude a removable plug or cap, and a removable fixture or 
fixture trap. 

CODE, These regulations, subsequent amendments thereto, or 
any emergency rule or regulation that the administrative au- 
thority having jurisdiction has lawfully adopted. 

CODE OFFICIAL. The officer or other designated authority 
charged with the administration and enforcement of this code, 
or a duly authorized representative. 

COMBINATION FIXTURE, A fixture combining one sink 
and laundry tray or a two- or three-compartment sink or laun- 
dry tray in one unit. 

COMBINATION WASTE AND VENT SYSTEM, A spe- 
cially designed system of waste piping embodying the horizon- 
tal wet venting of one or more sinks or floor drains by means of 
a common waste and vent pipe adequately sized to provide free 
movement of air above the flow line of the drain. 

COMBINED BUILDING DRAIN. See "Building drain, 
combined." 

COMBINED BUILDING SEWER, See "Building sewer, 
combined." 

COMMON VENT, A vent connecting at the junction of two 
fixture drains or to a fixture branch and serving as a vent for 
both fixtures. 

CONCEALED FOULING SURFACE. Any surface of a 
plumbing fixture which is not readily visible and is not scoured 
or cleansed with each fixture operation. 

CONDUCTOR. A pipe inside the building that conveys storm 
water from the roof to a storm or combined building drain. 

CONSTRUCTION DOCUMENTS, All of the written, 
graphic and pictorial documents prepared or assembled for de- 
scribing the design, location and physical characteristics of the 
elements of the project necessary for obtaining a building per- 



10 



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OERNITBONS 



202 




mit. The construction drawings shall be drawn to an appropri- 
ate scale. 

CONTAMINATION. An impairment of the quality of the po- 
table water that creates an actual hazard to the public health 
through poisoning or through the spread of disease by sewage, 
industrial fluids or waste. 

CRITICAL LEVEL (C-L). An elevation (height) reference 
point that determines the minimum height at which a backflow 
preventer or vacuum breaker is installed above the flood level 
rim of the fixture or receptor served by the device. The critical 
level is the elevation level below which there is a potential for 
backflow to occur If the critical level marking is not indicated 
on the device, the bottom of the device shall constitute the criti- 
cal level. 

CROSS CONNECTION. Any physical connection or ar- 
rangement between two otherwise separate piping systems, 
one of which contains potable water and the other either water 
of unknown or questionable safety or steam, gas or chemical, 
whereby there exists the possibility for flow from one system to 
the other, with the direction of flow depending on the pressure 
differential between the two systems (see "Backflow"). 



A branch leading from a soil, waste or vent pipe; 
a building drain; or a building sewer; and terminating at a devel- 
oped length of 2 feet (610 mm) or more by means of a plug, cap 
or other closed fitting. 

DEPTH OF WATER SEAL. The: depth of water that would 
have to be removed from a full trap before air could pass 
through the trap. 

DEVELOPED LENGTH. The length of a pipeline measured 
along the centerline of the pipe and fittings. 

DISCHARGE PIPE. A pipe that conveys the discharges from 
plumbing fixtures or appliances. 



L Any pipe that carries wastewater or water-borne 
wastes in a building drainage system. 

DRAINAGE FITTINGS. Type of fitting or fittings utilized in 
the drainage system. Drainage fittings are similar to cast-iron 
fittings, except that instead of having a bell and spigot, drainage 
fittings are recessed and tapped to eliminate ridges on the inside 
of the installed pipe. 

DRAINAGE FIXTURE UNIT 

Drainage (dfe). A measure of the probable discharge into 
the drainage system by various types of plumbing fixtures. 
The drainage fixture-unit value for a particular fixture de- 
pends on its volume rate of drainage discharge, on the time 
duration of a single drainage operation and on the average 
time between successive operations. 



[. Piping within a public or private 
premise that conveys sewage, rainwater or other liquid wastes 
to a point of disposal. A drainage system does not include the 
mains of a public sewer system or a private or public sewage 
treatment or disposal plant. 

Bniilding gravity. A drainage system that drains by gravity 
into the building sewer. 

Sanitary. A drainage system that carries sewage and ex- 
cludes storm, surface and ground water. 



Storm. A drainage system that carries rainwater, surface 
water, condensate, cooling water or similar liquid wastes. 

EFFECTIVE OPENING. The minimum cross-sectional area 
at the point of water supply discharge, measured or expressed 
in terms of the diameter of a circle or, if the opening is not circu- 
lar, the diameter of a circle of equivalent cross-sectional area. 
For faucets and similar fittings, the effective opening shall be 
measured at the smallest orifice in the fitting body or in the sup- 
ply piping to the fitting. 

EMERGENCY FLOOR DRAIN. A floor drain that does not 
receive the discharge of any drain or indirect waste pipe, and 
that protects against damage from accidental spills, fixture 
overflows and leakage. 

ESSENTIALLY NONTOXIC TRANSFER FLUIDS. 

Fluids having a Gosselin rating of 1, including propylene gly- 
col; mineral oil; polydimethylsiloxane; hydrochlorofluoro- 
carbon, chlorofluorocarbon and hydrofluorocarbon 
refrigerants; and FDA-approved boiler water additives for 
steam boilers. 

ESSENTIALLY TOXIC TRANSFER FLUIDS. Soil, waste 
or gray water and fluids having a Gosselin rating of 2 or more 
including ethylene glycol, hydrocarbon oils, ammonia refrig- 
erants and hydrazine. 

EXISTING INSTALLATIONS. Any plumbing system regu- 
lated by this code that was legally installed prior to the effective 
date of this code, or for which a permit to install has been is- 
sued. 

FAUCET. A valve end of a water pipe through which water is 
drawn from or held within the pipe. 

FIXTURE. See "Plumbing fixture." 

FIXTURE BRANCH. A drain serving two or more fixtures 
that discharges to another drain or to a stack. 

FIXTURE DRAIN. The drain from the trap of a fixture to a 
junction with any other drain pipe. 

FIXTURE FITTING 

Supply fitting. A fitting that controls the volume and/or di- 
rectional flow of water and is either attached to or accessible 
from a fixture, or is used with an open or atmospheric dis- 
charge. 

Waste fitting. A combination of components that conveys 
the sanitary waste from the outlet of a fixture to the connec- 
tion to the sanitary drainage system. 

FIXTURE SUPPLY. The water supply pipe connecting a fix- 
ture to a branch water supply pipe or directly to a main water 
supply pipe. 

FLOOD LEVEL RIM. The edge of the receptacle from which 
water overflows. 

FLOOD ZONES 

Flood-liazard zone (A Zone). Areas that have been deter- 
mined to be prone to flooding but not subject to high- veloc- 
ity waters or wave action. 

High-tiazard zone (V Zone). Areas of tidal influence that 
have been determined to be subject to wave heights in ex- 



2000 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBrNG CODE® 



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202 



DEFINITIONS 



cess of 3 feet (914 mm) or subject to high- velocity wave 
run-up or wave-induced erosion. 

RESSUME. The pressure in the water supply pipe 
near the faucet or water outlet while the faucet or water outlet is 
wide open and flowing. 

FLUSH TANK. A tank designed with a ball cock and flush 
valve to flush the contents of the bowl or usable portion of the 
fixture. 

FLUSHOMETER TANK. A device integrated within an air 
accumulator vessel that is designed to discharge a predeter- 
mined quantity of water to fixtures for flushing purposes. 

FLUSHOMETER VALVE. A valve attached to a pressurized 
water supply pipe and so designed that when activated it opens 
the line for direct flow into the fixture at a rate and quantity to 
operate the fixture properly, and then gradually closes to reseal 
fixture traps and avoid water hammer. 

GREASE INTERCEPTOR. A passive interceptor having a 
rated flow exceeding 50 gpm (189 L/m) and that is located out- 
side the building. 

GREASE-LADEN WASTE. Effluent discharge that is pro- 
duced from food processing, food preparation or other sources 
where grease, fats and oils enter automatic dishwater prerinse 
stations, sinks or other appurtenances. 

GREASE TRAP, A passive interceptor having a rated flow of 
50 gpm (1 89 L/m) or less and that is located inside the building. 



while permitting normal sewage or wastes to discharge into the 
drainage system by gravity. 



LS. See "Supports." 

HORIZONTAL BRANCH DRAIN. A drainage branch pipe 
extending laterally from a soil or waste stack or building drain, 
with or without vertical sections or branches, that receives the 
discharge from two or more fixture drains or branches and con- 
ducts the discharge to the soil or waste stack or to the building 
drain. 

HORIZONTAL PIPE. Any pipe or fitting that makes an angle 
of less than 45 degrees (0.79 rad) with the horizontal. 

HOT WATER, Water at a temperature greater than or equal to 
110°F(43°C). 

JSE TRAP. See "Building trap." 

^ASTE PIPE. A waste pipe that does not con- 
nect directly with the drainage system, but that discharges into 
the drainage system through an air break or air gap into a trap, 
fixture, receptor or interceptor. 

INDIVIDUAL SEWAGE DISPOSAL SYSTEM, A system 
for disposal of domestic sewage by means of a septic tank,cess- 
pool or mechanical treatment, designed for utilization apart 
from a public sewer to serve a single establishment or building. 

INDIVIDUAL VENT. A pipe installed to vent a fixture trap 
and connects with the vent system above the fixture served or 
terminates in the open air. 

INDIVIDUAL WATER SUPPLY. A water supply that serves 
one or more families, and that is not an approved public water 
supply. 

INTERCEPTOR. A device designed and installed to separate 
and retain for removal, by automatic or manual means, delete- 
rious, hazardous or undesirable matter from normal wastes. 



Expansion. A loop, return bend or return offset that pro- 
vides for the expansion and contraction in a piping system 
and is utilized in tall buildings or where there is a rapid 
change of temperature, as in power plants, steam rooms and 
similar occupancies. 

Flexible. Any joint between two pipes that permits one pipe 
to be deflected or moved without movement or deflection of 
the other pipe. 

Mechanical. See "Mechanical joint." 

Slip. A type of joint made by means of a washer or a special 
type of packing compound in which one pipe is slipped into 
the end of an adjacent pipe. 

LEAD-FREE PIPE AND FITTINGS. Containing not more 
than 8.0-percent lead. 

LEAD-FREE SOLDER AND FLUX. Containing not more 
than 0.2-percent lead. 

LEADER. An exterior drainage pipe for conveying storm wa- 
ter from roof or gutter drains to an approved means of disposal . 

LOCAL VENT STACK. A vertical pipe to which connections 
are made from the fixture side of traps and through which vapor 
or foul air is removed from the fixture or device utilized on bed- 
pan washers. 

MACERATING TOILET SYSTEMS. An assembly consist- 
ing of a water closet and sump with a macerating pump that is 
designed to collect, grind and pump wastes from the water 
closet and up to two other fixtures connected to the sump. 

MAIN. The principal pipe artery to which branches are con- 
nected. 

MAIN VENT. The principal artery of the venting system, to 
which the vent branches may be connected. 

MANIFOLD. See "Plumbing appurtenance." 

MECHANICAL JOINT. A connection between pipes, fit- 
tings, or pipes and fittings that is not screwed, caulked, 
threaded, soldered, solvent cemented, brazed or welded. A 
joint in which compression is applied along the centerline of 
the pieces being joined. In some appHcations, the joint is part of 
a coupling, fitting or adapter. 

MEDICAL GAS SYSTEM. The complete system to convey 
medical gases for direct patient application from central supply 
systems (bulk tanks, manifolds and medical air compressors), 
with pressure and operating controls, alarm warning systems, I 
related components, and piping networks extending to station I 
outlet valves at patient use points. 

MEDICAL VACUUM SYSTEMS. A system consisting of 
central-vacuum-producing equipment with pressure and oper- 
ating controls, shutoff valves, alarm-warning systems, gauges 
and a network of piping extending to and terminating with suit- 
able station inlets at locations where patient suction may be re- 
quired. 

NONPOTABLE WATER. Water not safe for drinking, per- 
sonal or culinary utilization. 



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202 



[SANCE. Public nuisance as known in common law or in 
equity jurisprudence; whatever is dangerous to human life or 
detrimental to health; whatever structure or premises is not suf- 
ficiently ventilated, sewered, drained, cleaned or lighted, with 
respect to its intended occupancy; and whatever renders the air, 
or human food, drink or water supply unwholesome. 

OCCUPANCY. The purpose for which a building or portion 
thereof is utilized or occupied. 

OFFSET. A combination of approved bends that makes two 
changes in direction bringing one section of the pipe out of line 
but into a line parallel with the other section. 

OPEN AIR. Outside the structure. 

PLUMBING. The practice, materials and fixtures utilized in 
the installation, maintenance, extension and alteration of all 
piping, fixtures, plumbing appliances and plumbing appurte- 
nances, within or adjacent to any structure, in connection with 
sanitary drainage or storm drainage facilities; venting systems; 
and public or private water supply systems. 

Not included in this definition are installations of chilled wa- 
ter piping in connection with refrigeration, process and comfort 
cooling; hot water piping in connection with building heating; 
and piping for fire protection systems. 



IBING APPLIANCE. Any one of a special class of 
plumbing fixtures intended to perform a special function. In- 
cluded are fixtures having the operation or control dependent 
on one or more energized components, such as motors, con- 
trols, heating elements, or pressure- or temperature-sensing el- 
ements. 

Such fixtures are manually adjusted or controlled by the 
owner or operator, or are operated automatically through one or 
more of the following actions: a time cycle, a temperature 
range, a pressure range, a measured volume or weight. 

PLUMBING APPURTENANCE. A manufactured device, 
prefabricated assembly or an on-the-job assembly of compo- 
nent parts that is an adjunct to the basic piping system and 
plumbing fixtures. An appurtenance demands no additional 
water supply and does not add any discharge load to a fixture or 
to the drainage system. 

PLUMBING FIXTURE. A receptacle or device that is either 
permanently or temporarily connected to the water distribution 
system of the premises and demands a supply of water there- 
from; discharges wastewater, liquid-borne waste materials or 
sewage either directly or indirectly to the drainage system of 
the premises; or requires both a water supply connection and a 
discharge to the drainage system of the premises. 

PLUMBING SYSTEM. Includes the water supply and distri- 
bution pipes; plumbing fixtures and traps; water-treating or wa- 
ter-using equipment; soil, waste and vent pipes; and sanitary 
and storm sewers and building drains, in addition to their re- 
spective connections, devices and appurtenances within a 
structure or premises. 

POLLUTION. An impairment of the quality of the potable 
water to a degree that does not create a hazard to the public 
health but that does adversely and unreasonably affect the aes- 
thetic qualities of such potable water for domestic use. 



POTABLE WATER. Water free from impurities present in 
amounts sufficient to cause disease or harmful physiological 
effects and conforming to the bacteriological and chemical 
quality requirements of the Public Health Service Drinking 
Water Standards or the regulations of the public health author- 
ity having jurisdiction. 

PRIVATE. In the classification of plumbing fixtures, "private" 
applies to fixtures in residences and apartments, and to fixtures 
in nonpublic toilet rooms of hotels and motels and similar in- 
stallations in buildings where the plumbing fixtures are in- 
tended for utilization by a family or an individual. 

PUBLIC OR PUBLIC UTILIZATION. In the classification 
of plumbing fixtures, "public" applies to fixtures in general toi- 
let rooms of schools, gymnasiums, hotels, airports, bus and 
raikoad stations, public buildings, bars, public comfort sta- 
tions, office buildings, stadiums, stores, restaurants, and other 
installations where a number of fixtures are installed so that 
their utilization is similarly unrestricted. 

PUBLIC WATER MAIN. A water supply pipe for pubHc uti- 
lization controlled by public authority. 

QUICK-CLOSING VALVE. A valve or faucet that closes au- 
tomatically when released manually or that is controlled by a 
mechanical means for fast- action closing. 

READY ACCESS. That which enables a fixture, appliance or 
equipment to be directly reached without requiring the removal 
or movement of any panel, door or similar obstruction and 
without the use of a portable ladder, step stool or similar device. 

REDUCED PRESSURE PRINCIPLE BACKFLOW 
PREVENTER. A backflow prevention device consisting of 
two independently acting check valves, internally force-loaded 
to a normally closed position and separated by an intermediate 
chamber (or zone) in which there is an automatic relief means 
of venting to the atmosphere, internally loaded to a normally 
open position between two tightly closing shutoff valves and 
with a means for testing for tightness of the checks and opening 
of the relief means. 

REGISTERED DESIGN PROFESSIONAL. An individual 
who is registered or licensed to practice professional architec- 
ture or engineering as defined by the statutory requirements of 
the professional registration laws of the state or jurisdiction in 
which the project is to be constructed. 

RELIEF VALVE 

Pressure relief valve. A pressure-actuated valve held 
closed by a spring or other means and designed to relieve 
pressure automatically at the pressure at which such valve is 
set. 

Temperature and pressure relief (T&P) valve. A combi- 
nation relief valve designed to function as both a tempera- 
ture relief and a pressure relief valve. 

Temperature relief valve. A temperature-actuated valve 
designed to discharge automatically at the temperature at 
which such valve is set. 

RELIEF VENT. A vent whose primary function is to provide 
circulation of air between drainage and vent systems. 

RIM. An unobstructed open edge of a fixture. 



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202 



DEFINITIONS 



L See "Water pipe, riser." 

iRAIN. A drain installed to receive water collecting 
on the surface of a roof and to discharge such water into a leader 
or a conductor. 



N. Parts of the plumbing system that are installed 
prior to the installation of fixtures. This includes drainage, wa- 
ter supply, vent piping and the necessary fixture supports and 
any fixtures that are built into the structure. 

SELF=CLOSING FAUCET, A faucet containing a valve that 
automatically closes upon deactivation of the opening means. 



L See "Interceptor." 

Any liquid waste containing animal or vegetable 
matter in suspension or solution, including liquids containing 
chemicals in solution. 



kSo A device for lifting sewage by en- 
training the sewage in a high- velocity jet of steam, air or water. 



g sewer. See "Building sewer." 

lie seweFo A common sewer directly controlled by pub- 
lic authority. 

Saraltary sewer. A sewer that carries sewage and excludes 
storm, surface and ground water. 

Storm sewer. A sewer that conveys rainwater, surface wa- 
ter, condensate, cooling water or similar liquid wastes. 

SLOPE. The fall (pitch) of a line of pipe in reference to a hori- 
zontal plane. In drainage, the slope is expressed as the fall in 
units vertical per units horizontal (percent) for a length of pipe. 

SOIL PIPE. A pipe that conveys sewage containing fecal mat- 
ter to the building drain or building sewer. 

SPILLPROOF VACUUM BREAKER. An assembly con- 
sisting of one check valve force-loaded closed and an air-inlet 
vent valve force-loaded open to atmosphere, positioned down- 
stream of the check valve, and located between and including 
two tightly closing shutoff valves and a test cock. 

STACK. A general term for any vertical line of soil, waste, vent 
or inside conductor piping that extends through at least one 
story with or without offsets. 

STACK VENT. The extension of a soil or waste stack above 
the highest horizontal drain connected to the stack. 

STACK VENTING. A method of venting a fixture or fixtures 
through the soil or waste stack. 

S 



J. A boiling-type sterilizer is a fixture of a 
nonpressure type utilized for boihng instruments, utensils 
or other equipment for disinfection. These devices are por- 
table or are connected to the plumbing system. 

lestrumeint. A device for the sterilization of various instru- 
ments. 

Pressure (autoclave). A pressure vessel fixture designed to 
utilize steam under pressure for sterilizing. 

Pressure instrament washer sterilizer. A pressure instru- 
ment washer sterilizer is a pressure vessel fixture designed 



to both wash and steriUze instruments during the operating 
cycle of the fixture. 

Utensil. A device for the sterilization of utensils as utilized 
in health care services. 

Water. A water sterilizer is a device for sterilizing water and 
storing sterile water. 

STERILIZER VENT. A separate pipe or stack, indirectly 
connected to the building drainage system at the lower termi- 
nal, that receives the vapors from nonpressure sterilizers, or the 
exhaust vapors from pressure sterilizers, and conducts the va- 
pors directly to the open air. Also called vapor, steam, atmo- 
spheric or exhaust vent. 

STORM DRAIN. See "Drainage system, storm." 

STRUCTURE. That which is built or constructed or a portion 
thereof. 

SUBSOIL DRAIN, A drain that collects subsurface water or 
seepage water and conveys such water to a place of disposal. 

SUMP. A tank or pit that receives sewage or liquid waste, lo- 
cated below the normal grade of the gravity system and that 
must be emptied by mechanical means. 

SUMP PUMP. An automatic water pump powered by an elec- 
tric motor for the removal of drainage, except raw sewage, from 
a sump, pit or low point. 

SUMP VENT. A vent from pneumatic sewage ejectors, or sim- 
ilar equipment, that terminates separately to the open air. 

SUPPORTS, Devices for supporting and securing pipe, fix- 
tures and equipment. 

SWIMMING POOL. Any structure, basin, chamber or tank 
containing an artificial body of water for swimming, diving or 
recreational bathing having a depth of 2 feet (610 mm) or more 
at any point. 

TEMPERED WATER, Water having a temperature range be- 
tween 85°F (29°C) to 110°F (43°C). 

THIRD-PARTY CERTIFICATION AGENCY. An ap- 
proved agency operating a product or material certification sys- 
tem that incorporates initial product testing, assessment and 
surveillance of a manufacturer's quality control system. 

TfflRD-PARTY CERTIFIED. Certification obtained by the 
manufacturer indicating that the function and performance 
characteristics of a product or material have been determined 
by testing and ongoing surveillance by an approved third-party 
certification agency. Assertion of certification is in the form of 
identification in accordance with the requirements of the 
third-party certification agency. 

THIRD-PARTY TESTED. Procedure by which an approved 
testing laboratory provides documentation that a product, ma- 
terial or system conforms to specified requirements. 

TRAP, A fitting or device that provides a liquid seal to prevent 
the emission of sewer gases without materially afibcting the 
flow of sewage or wastewater through the trap. 

TRAP SEAL. The vertical distance between the weir and the 
top of the dip of the trap. 



14 



2000 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



DEFINITIONS 



202 



• 



UNSTABLE GROUND. Earth that does not provide a uni- 
form bearing for the barrel of the sewer pipe between the joints 
at the bottom of the pipe trench. 

VACUUM. Any pressure less than that exerted by the atmo- 
sphere. 

VACUUM BREAKER. A type of backflow preventer in- 
stalled on openings subject to normal atmospheric pressure that 
prevents backflow by admitting atmospheric pressure through 
ports to the discharge side of the device. 

VENT PIPE. See "Vent system." 

VENT STACK. A vertical vent pipe installed primarily for the 
purpose of providing circulation of air to and from any part of 
the drainage system. 

VENT SYSTEM. A pipe or pipes installed to provide a flow of 
air to or from a drainage system, or to provide a circulation of 
air within such system to protect trap seals from siphonage and 
backpressure. 

VERTICAL PIPE. Any pipe or fitting that makes an angle of 
45 degrees (0.79 rad) or more with the horizontal. 

WALL-HUNG WATER CLOSET. A wall-mounted water 
closet installed in such a way that the fixture does not touch the 
floor. 

WASTE. The discharge from any fixture, appliance, area or ap- 
purtenance that does not contain fecal matter. 

WASTE PIPE. A pipe that conveys only waste. 

WATER-HAMMER ARRESTOR. A device utilized to ab- 
sorb the pressure surge (water hammer) that occurs when water 
flow is suddenly stopped in a water supply system. 

WATER HEATER. Any heating appliance or equipment that 
heats potable water and supplies such water to the potable hot 
water distribution system. 

WATER MAIN. A water supply pipe or system of pipes, in- 
stalled and maintained by a city, township, county, public util- 
ity company or other public entity; on public property, in the 
street or in an approved dedicated easement of public or com- 
munity use. 

WATER OUTLET. A discharge opening through which water 
is supplied to a fixture, into the atmosphere (except into an open 
tank that is part of the water supply system), to a boiler or heat- 
ing system, or to any devices or equipment requiring water to 
operate but which are not part of the plumbing system. 

WATER PIPE 

Riser. A water supply pipe that extends one full story or 
more to convey water to branches or to a group of fixtures . 

Water distribution pipe. A pipe within the structure or on 
the premises that conveys water from the water service pipe, 
or from the meter when the meter is at the structure, to the 
points of utilization. 

Water service pipe. The pipe from the water main or other 
source of potable water supply, or from the meter when the 
meter is at the public right of way, to the water distribution 
system of the building served. 

WATER SUPPLY SYSTEM. The water service pipe, water 
distribution pipes, and the necessary connecting pipes, fittings, 



control valves and all appurtenances in or adjacent to the struc- 
ture or premises. 

WELL 

Bored. A well constructed by boring a hole in the ground 
with an auger and installing a casing. 

Drilled. A well constructed by making a hole in the ground 
with a drilling machine of any type and installing casing and 
screen. 

Driven. A well constructed by driving a pipe in the ground. 
The drive pipe is usually fitted with a well point and screen. 

Dug. A well constructed by excavating a large-diameter 
shaft and installing a casing. 

WHIRLPOOL BATHTUB. A plumbing appliance consist- 
ing of a bathtub fixture that is equipped and fitted with a circu- 
lating piping system designed to accept, circulate and 
discharge bathtub water upon each use. 

YOKE VENT. A pipe connecting upward from a soil or waste 
stack to a verit stack for the purpose of preventing pressure 
changes in the stacks. 



2000 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



15 




1 6 2000 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



CHAPTER 3 

GENERAL REGULATIONS 




SECTION 301 
GENERAL 

301.1 Scope. The provisions of this chapter shall govern the 
general regulations regarding the installation of plumbing not 
specific to other chapters. 

301.2 System installation. Plumbing shall be installed with 
due regard to preservation of the strength of structural members 
and prevention of darhage to walls and other surfaces through 
fixture usage. 

301.3 Connections to drainage system. All plumbing fix- 
tures, drains, appurtenances and appliances used to receive or 
discharge liquid wastes or sewage shall be directly connected to 
the drainage system of the building or premises, in accordance 
with the requirements of this code. This section shall not be 
construed to prevent the indirect waste systems required by 
Chapter 8. 

301.4 Connections to water supply. Every plumbing fixture, 
device or appliance requiring or using water for its proper oper- 
ation shall be directly or indirectly connected to the water sup- 
ply system in accordance with the provisions of this code. 

301.5 Pipe, tube and fitting sizes. Unless otherwise specified, 
the pipe, tube and fitting sizes specified in this code are ex- 
pressed in nominal or standard sizes as designated in the refer- 
enced material standards. 

301.6 Prohibited locations. Plumbing systems shall not be lo- 
cated in an elevator shaft or in an elevator equipment room. 

Exception: Floor drains, sumps and sump pumps shall be 
permitted at the base of the shaft provided they are indirectly 
connected to the plumbing system. 



SECTION 302 

EXCLUSION OF MATERIALS DETRIMENTAL 

TO THE SEWER SYSTEM 

302.1 Detrimental or dangerous materials. Ashes, cinders or 
rags; flammable, poisonous or explosive liquids or gases; oil, 
grease or any other insoluble material capable of obstructing, 
damaging or overloading the building drainage or sewer sys- 
tem, or capable of interfering with the normal operation of the 
sewage treatment processes, shall not be deposited, by any 
means, into such systems. 

302.2 Industrial wastes. Waste products from manufacturing 
or industrial operations shall not be introduced into the public 
sewer until it has been determined by the code official or other 
authority having jurisdiction that the introduction thereof will 
not damage the public sewer system or interfere with the func- 
tioning of the sewage treatment plant. 



SECTION 303 
MATERIALS 

303.1 Identification. Each length of pipe and each pipe fitting, 
trap, fixture, material and device utilized in a plumbing system 
shall bear the identification of the manufacturer. 

303.2 Installation of materials. AH materials used shall be in- 
stalled in strict accordance with the standards under which the ma- 
terials are accepted and approved. In the absence of such installation 
procedures, the manufacturer's installation instmctions shall be fol- 
lowed. Where the requirement of referenced standards or manufac- 
turer's installation instructions do not conform to minimum 
provisions of this code, the provisions of this code shall apply. 

303.3 Plastic pipe, fittings and components. All plastic pipe, 
fittings and components shall be third-party certified as con- 
forming to NSF 14. 

303.4 Third-party testing and certification. All plumbing 
products and materials shall comply with the referenced stan- 
dards, specifications and performance criteria of this code and 
shall be identified in accordance with Section 303.1. When re- 
quired by Table 303.4, plumbing products and materials shall 
either be tested by an approved third-party testing agency or 
certified by an approved third-party certification agency. 



SECTION 304 
RODENTPROOFING 

304.1 General. Plumbing systems shall be designed and in- 
stalled in accordance with Sections 304.2 through 304.4 to pre- 
vent rodents from entering structures. 

304.2 Strainer plates. All strainer plates on drain inlets shall 
be designed and installed so that all openings are not greater 
than 0.5 inch (12.7 mm) in least dimension. 

304.3 Meter boxes. Meter boxes shall be constructed in such a 
manner that rodents are prevented from entering a structure by 
way of the water service pipes connecting the meter box and the 
structure. 

304.4 Openings for pipes. In or on structures where openings 
have been made in walls, floors or ceilings for the passage of 
pipes, such openings shall be closed and protected by the in- 
stallation of approved metal collars that are securely fastened to 
the adjoining structure. 



SECTION 305 

PROTECTION OF PIPES AND 

PLUMBING SYSTEM COMPONENTS 

305.1 Corrosion. Pipes passing through concrete or cinder 
walls and floors or other corrosive material shall be protected 
agairist external corrosion by a protective sheathing or wrap- 
ping or other means that will withstand any reaction from the 



2000 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



17 



TABLE 303.4 - 306.2.2 



GENERAL REGULATIONS 



TABLE 303.4 
PRODUCTS AND MATERIALS REQUIRING THIRD-PARTY TESTING AND THIRD-PARTY CERTIFICATION 



PRODUCT OR MATERIAL 


THIRD-PARTY CERTIFIED 


THIRD-PARTY TESTED 


Potable water supply system components and potable 
water fixture fittings 


Required 


— 


Sanitary drainage and vent system components 


Plastic pipe, fittings and pipe-related components 


All others 


Waste fixture fittings 


Plastic pipe, fittings and pipe-related components 


All otiiers 


Storm drainage system components 


Plastic pipe, fittings and pipe-related components 


All others 


Plumbing fixtures 





Required 


Plumbing appliances 


Required 





Backflow prevention devices 


Required 





Water distribution system safety devices 


Required 




Special waste system components 





Required 


Subsoil drainage system components 


— 


Required 



lime and acid of concrete, cinder or other corrosive material. 
Sheathing or wrapping shall allow for expansion and contrac- 
tion of piping to prevent any rubbing action. Minimum wall 
thickness of material shall be 0.025 inch (0.64 mm). 

305.2 Breakage. Pipes passing through or under walls shall be 
protected from breakage. 

305.3 Stress and strain. Piping in a plumbing system shall be 
installed so as to prevent strains and stresses that exceed the 
structural strength of the pipe. Where necessary, provisions 
shall be made to protect piping from damage resulting from ex- 
pansion, contraction and structural settlement. 

305.4 Sleeves. Annular spaces between sleeves and pipes shall 
be filled or tightly caulked in an approved manner. Annular 
spaces between sleeves and pipes in fire-resistance-rated as- 
semblies shall be filled or tightly caulked in accordance with 
the International Building Code. 

305.5 Pipes through or eeder footings or foundation walls. 
Any pipe that passes under a footing or through a foundation 
wall shall be provided with a reheving arch, or a pipe sleeve 
pipe shall be built into the foundation wall. The sleeve shall be 
two pipe sizes greater than the pipe passing through the wall. 

305.6 Freezing. Water, soil and waste pipes shall not be in- 
stalled outside of a building, in attics or crawl spaces, con- 
cealed in outside walls, or in any other place subjected to 
freezing temperature unless adequate provision is made to pro- 
tect such pipes from freezing by insulation or heat or both. Ex- 
terior water supply system piping shall be installed not less 
than 6 inches (152 mm) below the frost Une and not less than 12 
inches (305 mm) below grade. 

305.6.1 Sewer depth. Building sewers that connect to pri- 
vate sewage disposal systems shall be a minimum of 
[NUMBER] inches (mm) below finished grade at the point of 
septic tank connection. Building sewers shall be a minimum 
of [NUMBER] inches (mm) below grade. 



305.7 Waterproofing of openings. Joints at the roof and 
around vent pipes, shall be made water tight by the use of lead, 
copper, galvanized steel, aluminum, plastic or other approved 
flashings or flashing material. Exterior wall openings shall be 
made water tight. 



305.8 Protection against physical damage. In concealed lo- 
cations where piping, other than cast-iron or galvanized steel, is 
installed through holes or notches in studs, joists, rafters or sim- 
ilar members less than 1.5 inches (38 mm) from the nearest 
edge of the member, the pipe shall be protected by shield plates. 
Protective shield plates shall be a minimum of 0.062-inch- thick 
(1 .6 mm) steel, shall cover the area of the pipe where the mem- 
ber is notched or bored, and shall extend a minimum of 2 inches 
(51 mm) above sole plates and below top plates. 

305.9 Protection of components of plumbing system. Com- 
ponents of a plumbing system installed along alleyways, drive- 
ways, parking garages or other locations exposed to damage 
shall be recessed into the wall or otherwise protected in an ap- 
proved manner. 



SECTION 306 
TRENCHING, EXCAVATION AND BACKFILL 

306.1 Support of piping. Buried piping shall be supported 
throughout its entire length. 

306.2 Trenching and bedding. Where trenches are excavated 
such that the bottom of the trench forms the bed for the pipe, 
solid and continuous load-bearing support shall be provided 
between joints. Bell holes, hub holes and coupling holes shall 
be provided at points where the pipe is joined. Such pipe shall 
not be supported on blocks to grade. In instances where the ma- 
terials manufacturer's installation instructions are more restric- 
tive than those prescribed by the code, the material shall be 
installed in accordance with the more restrictive requirement. 

306.2.1 Overexcavation. Where trenches are excavated be- 
low the installation level of the pipe such that the bottom of 
the trench does not forrn the bed for the pipe, the trench shall 
be backfilled to the installation level of the bottom of the 
pipe with sand or fine gravel placed in layers of 6 inches 
(152 mm) maximum depth and such backfill shall be com- 
pacted after each placement. 

306.2.2 Rock removal. Where rock is encountered in 
trenching, the rock shall be removed to a minimum of 3 
inches (76 mm) below the installation level of the bottom of 
the pipe, and the trench shall be backfilled to the installation 
level of the bottom of the pipe with sand tamped in place so 



18 



2000 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



GENERAL REGULATIONS 



306.2.3 - 308.6 




as to provide uniform load-beariitlg support for the pipe be- 
tween joints. The pipe, including the joints, shall not rest on 
rock at any point. 

306.23 Soft load-bearing materials. If soft materials of 
poor load-bearing quality are found at the bottom of the 
trench, stabilization shall be achibved by overexcavating a 
minimum of two pipe diameters and backfilling to the in- 
stallation level of the bottom of the pipe with fine gravel, 
crushed stone or a concrete founciation. The concrete foun- 
dation shall be bedded with sand tamped into place so as to 
provide uniform load-bearing support for the pipe between 
joints. 

306.3 Backfilling. Loose earth free from rocks, broken con- 
crete, frozen chunks and other rubble shall be placed in the 
trench in 6-inch (152 mm) layers and tamped in place until the 
crown of the pipe is covered by 12 inches (305 mm) of tamped 
earth. The backfill under and besiide the pipe shall be com- 
pacted for pipe support. Backfill shall be brought up evenly on 
both sides of the pipe so that the pipe remains aligned. In in- 
stances where the manufacturer's installation instructions for 
materials are more restrictive than those prescribed by the code, 
the material shall be installed in accordance with the more re- 
strictive requirement. 




.4 Ikiieeliing. Where pipe is tc^ be installed by tunneling, 
jacking or a combination of both, the pipe shall be protected 
from damage during installation and from subsequent uneven 
loading. Where earth tunnels are used, adequate supporting 
structures shall be provided to prevent future settling or caving. 



SECTION 307 
STRUCTURAL SAFETY 

307.1 General. In the process of installing or repairing any part 
of a plumbing and drainage installation, the finished floors, 
walls, ceilings, tile work or any other part of the building or pre- 
mises that must be changed or replaced shall be left in a safe 
structural condition in accordance with the requirements of the 
International Building Code. 

307.2 Cutting, notching or bored holes. A framing member 
shall not be cut, notched or bored in excess of limitations speci- 
fied in the International Building Code. 

307.3 Penetrations of floor/ceiliiig assemblies and fire- 
resistance-rated assemblies. Penetrations of floor/ceiling as- 
semblies and assemblies required to have a fire-resistance 
rating shall be protected in accordance with the International 
Building Code. 

307.4 Trench location. Trenches installed parallel to footings 
shall not extend below the 45-degrbe (0.79 rad) bearing plane 
of the footing or wall. 



SECTION 308 
PIPING SUPPORT 

308.1 General. All plumbing piping shall be supported in ac- 
cordance with this section. 

308.2 Piping seismic supports. Where earthquake loads are 
applicable in accordance with the building code, plumbing pip- 



ing supports shall be designed and installed for the seismic 
forces in accordance with the International Building Code. 

308.3 Materials. Hangers, anchors and supports shall support 
the piping and the contents of the piping. Hangers and strap- 
ping material shall be of approved material that will not pro- 
mote galvanic action. 

308.4' Structural attachment. Hangers and anchors shall be 
attached to the building construction in an approved manner. 

308.5 Interval of support. Pipe shall be supported in accor- 
dance with Table 308.5. 

Exception: The interval of support for piping systems de- 
signed to provide for expansion/contraction shall conform 
to the engineered design in accordance with Section 105.4. 

TABLE 308.5 
HANGER SPACING 



PIPING MATERIAL 


MAXIMUM 

HORIZONTAL 

SPACING 

(feet) 


MAXIMUM 

VERTICAL 

SPACING 

(feet) 


ABS pipe 


4 


lO'' 


Aluminum tubing 


10 


15 


Brass pipe 


10 


10 


Cast-iron pipe 


5" 


15 


Copper or copper-alloy pipe 


12 


10 


Copper or copper-alloy tubing, 
iV^-inch diameter and smaller 


6 


10 


Copper or copper-alloy tubing, 
1 V^-inch diameter and larger 


10 


10 


Cross-linked polyethylene (PEX) 
pipe 


2.67 
(32 inches) 


10"^ 


Cross-linked polyethylene/ 
aliiminum/cross-linked 
polyethylene (PEX-AL-PEX) 

pipe 


2^/3 
(32 inches) 


4 


CPVC pipe or tubing, 1 inch 
or smaller 


3 


lO^* 


CPVC pipe or tubing, 1 V4 inches 
or larger 


4 


lO^ 


Steel pipe 


12 


15 


Lead pipe 


Continuous 


4 


PB pipe or tubing 


2.67 
(32 inches) 


4 


Polyethylene/aluminum/ 

polyethylene (PE-AL-PE) pipe 


2.67 
(32 inches) 


4 


PVCpipe 


4 


10'' 


Stainless steel drainage systems 


10 


10" 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 

a. The maximum horizontal spacing of cast-iron pipe hangers shall be in- 
creased to 10 feet where 10-foot lengths of pipe are installed. 

b. Midstory guide for sizes 2 inches and smaller. 

1 
308.6 Sway bracing. Rigid support sway bracing shall be pro- 
vided at changes in direction greater than 45 degrees (0.79 rad) 
for pipe sizes 4 inches (102 mm) and larger. 



2000 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



19 



308.7-312.2 



GENERAL REGULATDONS 



308.7 Amcliorage. Anchorage shall be provided to restrain 
drainage piping from axial movement. 

308.7.1 Location. For pipe sizes greater than 4 inches (102 
mm), restraints shall be provided for drain pipes at all 
changes in direction and at all changes in diameter greater 
than two pipe sizes. Braces, blocks, rodding and other suit- 
able methods as specified by the coupling manufacturer 
shall be utilized. 

308.8 Expaesiom joint fittings. Expansion joint fittings shall 
be used only where necessary to provide for expansion and 
contraction of the pipes. Expansion joint fittings shall be of the 
typical material suitable for use with the type of piping in 
which such fittings are installed. 

308.9 Stacks. Bases of stacks shall be supported by concrete, 
brick laid in cement mortar or metal brackets attached to the 
building or by other approved methods. 

308.10 Parallel water distribution systems. Piping bundles 
for manifold systems shall be supported in accordance with Ta- 
ble 308.5. Support at changes in direction shall be in accor- 
dance with the manufacturer's installation instructions. Hot 
and cold water piping shall not be grouped in the same bundle. 



SECTION 309 
FLOODPROOFIiMG 

309.1 General. Plumbing systems and equipment in structures 
erected in areas prone to flooding shall be constructed in accor- 
dance with the requirements of this section and the Interna- 
tional Building Code. 

309.1.1 Base flood elevation. The base flood elevation shall 
be used to define areas prone to flooding and shall be estab- 
lished in accordance with the International Building Code. 

309.1.2 Flood-hazard zones. Areas which have been deter- 
mined to be prone to flooding shall be classified as either 
flood-hazard zones (A Zones) or high-hazard zones (V 
Zones) in accordance with the International Building Code. 

309.2 Flood hazard. The following systems and equipment lo- 
cated in a flood-hazard zone (A Zone) or a high-hazard zone (V 
Zone) shall be capable of resisting hydrostatic and hydrody- 
namic loads and stresses, including the effects of buoyancy, 
during the occurrence of flooding to the base flood elevation: 

1. All water service pipes. 

2. Pump seals in individual water supply systems where the 
pump is located below the base flood elevation. 

3. Covers on potable water wells shall be sealed, except 
where the top of the casing well or pipe sleeve is elevated 
to at least 1 foot (304.8 mm) above the base flood eleva- 
tion. 

4. All sanitary drainage piping. 

5. All storm drainage piping. 

6. Manhole covers shall be sealed, except where elevated to 
or above the base flood elevation. 

7. All other plumbing piping systems and equipment. 



SECTION 310 
WASHROOM AND TOILET ROOM REQUIREMENTS 

310.1 Light and ventilation. Washrooms and toilet rooms 
shall be illuminated and ventilated in accordance with tJie 
International Building Code and International Mechanical 
Code. 

310.2 Location of fixtures and piping. Piping, fixtures or 
equipment shall not be located in such a manner as to interfere 
with the normal operation of windows, doors or other means of 
egress openings. 

310.3 Interior finish. Interior finish surfaces of toilet rooms 
shall comply with the International Building Code. 

310.4 Water closet compartment. Each water closet utiUzed 
by the public or employees shall occupy a separate compart- 
ment with walls or partitions and a door enclosing the fixtures 
to ensure privacy. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Water closet compartments shall not be required in a 
single-occupant toilet room with a lockable door. 

2. Toilet rooms located in day care and child-care facili- 
ties and containing two or more water closets shall be 
permitted to have one water closet without an enclos- 
ing compartment. 



SECTION 311 
TOILET FACILITIES FOR WORKERS 

311.1 General. Toilet facilities shall be provided for construc- 
tion workers and such facilities shall be maintained in a sani- 
tary condition. Construction worker toilet facilities of the 
nonsewer type shall conform to ANSI Z4.3. 



SECTION 312 
TESTS AND INSPECTIONS 

312.1 Required tests. The permit holder shall make the appli- 
cable tests prescribed in Sections 312.2 through 312.9 to deter- 
mine compliance with the provisions of this code. The permit 
holder shall give reasonable advance notice to the code official 
when the plumbing work is ready for tests. The equipment, ma- 
terial, power and labor necessary for the inspection and test 
shall be furnished by the permit holder and the permit holder 
shall be responsible for determining that the work will with- 
stand the test pressure prescribed in the following tests. All 
plumbing system piping shall be tested with either water or air. 
After the plumbing fixtures have been set and their traps filled 
with water, the entire drainage system shall be submitted to fi- 
nal tests. The code official shall require the removal of any 
cleanouts if necessary to ascertain if the pressure has reached 
all parts of the system. 

312.2 Drainage and vent water test. A water test shall be ap- 
plied to the drainage system either in its entirety or in sections. 
If applied to the entire system, all openings in the piping shall 
be tightly closed, except the highest opening, and the system 
shall be filled with water to point of overflow. If the system is 
tested in sections, each opening shall be tightly plugged except 
the highest openings of the section under test, and each section 




20 



2000 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



GENERAL REGULATIONS 



312.3-314.2.2 




shall be filled with water, but no section shall be tested with less 
than a 10-foot (3048 mm) head of water. In testing successive 
sections, at least the upper 10 feet (3048 mm) of the next pre- 
ceding section shall be tested so that no joint or pipe in the 
building, except the uppermost 10 feet (3048 mm) of the sys- 
tem, shall have been submitted to a test of less than a 10-foot 
(3048 mm) head of water. The water shall be kept in the system, 
or in the portion under test, for at least 15 minutes before in- 
spection starts. The system shall then be tight at all points. 

3123 Drainage and vent air test. An air test shall be made by 
forcing air into the system until there is a uniform gauge pres- 
sure of 5 pounds per square inch (psi) (34.5 kPa) or sufficient to 
balance a 10-inch (254 nun) column lof mercury. This pressure 
shall be held for a test period of at least 15 minutes. Any adjust- 
ments to the test pressure required because of changes in ambi- 
ent temperature or the seating of gaskets shall be made prior to 
the beginning of the test period. 

312.4 Drainage and vent final test. The final test of the com- 
pleted drainage and vent system shall be visual and in sufficient 
detail to determine compliance with the provisions of this code 
except that the plumbing shall be subjected to a smoke test 
where necessary for cause. Where the smoke test is utilized, it 
shall be made by filling all traps with water and then introduc- 
ing into the entire system a pungent, thick smoke produced by 
one or more smoke machines. When the smoke appears at stack 
openings on the roof, the stack openings shall be closed and a 
pressure equivalent to a 1-inch water column (248.8 Pa) shall 
be maintained for 15 minutes before inspection starts. 

312.5 Water supply system test. Upon completion of a section 
of or the entire water supply system, the system, or portion 
completed, shall be tested and proved tight under a water pres- 
sure not less than the working pressure of the system; or, for 
piping systems other than plastic, by an air test of not less than 
50 psi (344 kPa). The water utilized for tests shall be obtained 
from a potable source of supply. The required tests shall be per- 
formed in accordance with this section and Section 107. 

312.6 Gravity sewer test. Gravity sewer tests shall consist of 
plugging the end of the building sewer at the point of connec- 
tion with the public sewer, filling the building sewer with water, 
testing with not less than a 10-foot (3048 mm) head of water 
and maintaining such pressure for 15 minutes. 

312.7 Forced sewer test. Forced sewer tests shall consist of 
plugging the end of the building sewer at the point of connec- 
tion with the pubUc sewer and applying a pressure of 5 psi (34.5 
kPa) greater than the pump rating, and maintaining such pres- 
sure for 15 minutes. 

312.8 Storm drainage system test. Storm drain systems 
within a building shall be tested by water or air in accordance 
with Section 312.2 or 312.3. 

312.9 Inspection and testing of backflow prevention assem- 
blies. Inspection and testing shall comply with Sections 
312.9.1 and 312.9.2. 

312.9.1 Inspections. Annual inspections shall be made of 
all backflow prevention assembHes and air gaps to deter- 
mine whether they are operable! 

312.9.2 Testing. Reduced pressure principle backflow 
preventer assemblies, double check-valve assemblies, dour 



ble-detector check-valve assemblies and pressure vacuum 
breaker assemblies shall be tested at the time of installation, 
immediately after repairs or relocation and at least annually. 
The testing procedure shall be performed in accordance 
with one of the following standards: 



ASSE 5010-1013-1, 
ASSE 5010-1015-1, 
ASSE 5010-1015-2 
ASSE 5010-1015-3, 
ASSE 5010-1015-4, 
ASSE 5010-1020-1, 
ASSE 5010-1047-1, 
ASSE 5010-1048-1, 
ASSE 5010-1048-2 
ASSE 5010-1048-3, 
ASSE 5010-1048-4, 
CAN/CSAB64.10 



Sections 1 and 2 
Sections 1 and 2 

Sections 1 and 2 
Sections 1 and 2 
Sections 1 and 2 
Sections 1, 2, 3 and 4 
Sections 1, 2, 3 and 4 

Sections 1, 2, 3 and 4 
Sections 1 , 2, 3 and 4 



SECTION 313 
EQUIPMENT EFFICIENCIES 

313.1 General. Equipment efficiencies shall be in accordance 
with the International Energy Conservation Code. 



SECTION 314 
CONDENSATE DISPOSAL 

314.1 Fuel-burning appliances. Liquid combustion by- 
products of condensing appliances shall be collected and dis- 
charged to an approved plumbing fixture or disposal area in 
accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions. 
Condensate piping shall be of approved corrosion-resistant 
material and shall not be smaller than the drain connection on 
the appliance. Such piping shall maintain a minimum horizon- 
tal slope in the direction of discharge of not less than one-eighth 
unit vertical in 12 units horizontal (1 -percent slope). 

314.2 Evaporators and cooling coils. Condensate drain sys- 
tems shall be provided for equipment and appliances contain- 
ing evaporators or cooling coils. Condensate drain systems 
shall be designed, constructed and installed in accordance with 
Sections 314.2.1 through 314.2.3. 

314.2.1 Condensate disposal. Condensate from all cooling 
coils and evaporators shall be conveyed fi-om the drain pan 
outlet to an approved place of disposal. Condensate shall not 
discharge into a street, alley or other areas so as to cause a 
nuisance. 

314.2.2 Drain pipe materials and sizes. Components of 
the condensate disposal system shall be cast iron, galva- 
nized steel, copper, polybutylene, polyethylene, ABS, 
CPVC, or PVC pipe or tubing. All components shall be se- 
lected for the pressure and temperature rating of the installa- 
tion. Condensate waste and drain line size shall not be less 
than ^/4-inch (19 mm) internal diameter and shall not de- 
crease in size from the drain pan connection to the place of 
condensate disposal. Where the drain pipes from more than 
one unit are manifolded together for condensate drainage, 
the pipe or tubing shall be sized in accordance with an ap- 



2000 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



21 



314.2.3-314.2.4 



GENERAL REGULATDONS 



proved method. All horizontal sections of drain piping shall 
be installed in uniform alignment at a uniform slope. 

314.23 Anixiliary ami secomdlary dram systems. In addi- 
tion to the requirements of Section 314.2.1, a secondary 
drain or auxiliary drain pan shall be required for each cool- 
ing or evaporator coil where damage to any building compo- 
nents will occur as a result of overflow from the equipment 
drain pan or stoppage in the condensate drain piping. One of 
the following methods shall be used: 

1. An auxiliary drain pan with a separate drain shall be 
provided under the coils on which condensation will 
occur. The auxiliary pan drain shall discharge to a 
conspicuous point of disposal to alert occupants in the 
event of a stoppage of the primary drain. The pan shall 
have a minimum depth of 1.5 inches (38 nmn), shall 
not be less than 3 inches (76 mm) larger than the unit 
or the coil dimensions in width and length and shall be 
constructed of corrosion-resistant material. Metallic 
pans shall have a minimum thickness of not less than 
0.0276-inch (0.7 mm) galvanized sheet metal. Non- 
metallic pans shall have a minimum thickness of not 
less than 0.0625 inch (1.6 mm). 

2. A separate overflow drain line shall be connected to 
the drain pan provided with the equipment. Such 
overflow drain shall discharge to a conspicuous point 
of disposal to alert occupants in the event of a stop- 
page of the primary drain. The overflow drain line 
shall connect to the drain pan at a higher level than the 
primary drain connection. 

3. An auxiliary drain pan without a separate drain line 
shall be provided under the coils on which condensate 
will occur. Such pan shall be equipped with a water 
level detection device that will shut off the equipment 
served prior to overflow of the pan. The auxiliary 
drain pan shall be constructed in accordance with 
Item 1 of this section. 




c=> 



L2A Traps. Condensate drains shall be trapped as re- 
quired by the equipment or appliance manufacturer. 



22 



2000 INTERNATDONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



CHAPTER 4 

FIXTURES, FAUCETS AND FIXTURE FITTINGS 




SECTION 401 
GENERAL 

L.l Scope. This chapter shall govern the materials, design 
and installation of plumbing fixtures, faucets and fixture fit- 
tings in accordance with the type of occupancy, and shall pro- 
vide for the minimum number of fixtures for various types of 
occupancies. 

401.2 Prohibited fixtures and connections. Water closets 
having a concealed trap seal or an unventilated space or having 
walls that are not thoroughly washed at each discharge in accor- 
dance with ASME Al 12. 19.2 shall be prohibited. Any water 
closet that permits siphonage of the contents of the bowl back 
into the tank shall be prohibited. Trough urinals shall be prohib- 
ited. 



1,3 Water conservation. The maximum water flow rates 
and flush volume for plumbing fixtures and fixture fittings shall 
comply with Section 604.4. 

SECTION 402 
FIXTURE MATERIALS 

402.1 Quality of fixtures. Plumbing fixtures shall be con- 
structed of approved materials, with smooth, impervious sur- 
faces, free from defects and concealed fouling surfaces, and 
shall conform to standards cited in this code. All porcelain 
enameled surfaces on plumbing fixtures shall be acid resistant. 



402.2 Materials for specialty fixtures. Materials for specialty 
fixtures not otherwise covered in this code shall be of stainless 
steel, soapstone, chemical stoneware or plastic, or shall be 
lined with lead, copper-base alloy, nickel-copper alloy, corro- 
sion-resistant steel or other material especially suited to the ap- 
plication for which the fixture is intended. 

402.3 Sheet copper. Sheet copper for general applications 
shall conform to ASTM B 152 and shall not weigh less thanl2 
ounces per square foot (3.7 kg/m^). 

402.4 Sheet lead. Sheet lead for pans shall not weigh less than 
4 pounds per square foot (19.5 kg/m^) coated with an asphalt 
paint or other approved coating. 



SECTION 403 
MINIMUM PLUMBING FACILITIES 

403.1 Minimum number of fixtures. Plumbing fixtures shall 
be provided for the type of occupancy and in the minimum 
number shown in Table 403. 1 . Types of occupancies not shown 
in Table 403. 1 shall be considered individually by the code offi- 
cial. The number of occupants shall be determined by the Inter- 
national Building Code. Occupancy classification shall be 
determined in accordance with the International Building 
Code. 



TABLE 403.1 

MINIMUM NUMBER OF PLUMBING FACILITIES^ 

(see Sections 403.2 and 403.3) 







WATER CLOSETS 
(Urinals, see 
Section 419.2) 


LAVATORIES 


BATHTUBS/ 
SHOWERS 


DRINKING 

FOUNTAINS 

(see Section 

410.1) 


OTHERS 


OCCUPANCY 


lUlale 


Female 


A 
S 
S 
E 
M 
B 
L 
Y 


Nightclubs 


1 per 40 


1 per 40 


1 per 75 





1 per 500 


1 service sink 


Restaurants 


1 per 75 


1 per 75 


1 per 200 





1 per 500 


1 service sink 


Theaters, halls, museums, etc. 


1 per 125 


1 per 65 


1 per 200 





1 per 500 


1 service sink 


Coliseums, arenas (less than 
3,000 seats) 


1 per 75 


1 per 40 


1 per 150 


— 


1 per 1,000 


1 service sink 


Coliseums, arenas (3,000 seats 
or greater) 


1 per 120 


1 per 60 


Male 
1 per 200 

Female 
1 per 150 


— 


1 per 1,000 


1 service sink 


Churches'' 


1 per 150 


1 per 75 


1 per 200 





1 per 1,000 


1 service sink 


Stadiums (less than 3,000 seats), 
pools, etc. 


1 per 100 


1 per 50 


1 per 150 


^ 


1 per 1,000 


1 service sink 


Stadiums (3,000 seats or greater) 


1 per 150 


1 per 75 


Male 
1 per 200 
Female 
1 per 150 


— 


1 per 1,000 


1 service sink 



(Continued) 



2000 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



23 



TABLE 403.1 



FIXTURES, FAUCETS AND FIXTURE FITTINGS 



TABLE 403.1— continued 

MINIMUM NUMBER OF PLUMBING FACILITIES^ 

(see Sections 403.2 and 403.3) 







WATER CLOSETS 
(Urinals, see 
Section 419.2) 


LAVATORIES 


BATHTUBS/ 
SHOWERS 


DRINKING 

FOUNTAINS 

(see Section 

410.1) 


OTHERS 


OCCUPANCY 


iVIale 


Female 


Business (see Sections 403.2, 
403.4 and 403.5) 


1 per 50 


1 per 80 


— 


1 per 100 


1 service sink 


Educational 


I per 50 


1 per 50 


— 


1 per 100 


1 service sink 


Factory and industrial 


1 per 100 


1 per 100 


(see Section 411) 


1 per 400 


1 service sink 


Passenger terminals and 
transportation facilities 


1 per 500 


1 per 750 


— 


1 per 1,000 


1 service sink 


I 

N 
S 
T 
I 
T 
U 
T 
I 


N 
A 
L 


Residential care 


1 per 10 


1 per 10 


Iper8 


1 per 100 


1 service sink 


Hospitals, ambulatory nursing 
home patients'^ 


I per room'' 


1 per room'' 


1 per 15 


1 per 100 


1 service sink per 
floor 


Day nurseries, sanitariums, 
nonambulatory nursing home 
patients, etc.'^ 


1 per 15 


1 per 15 


1 per 15« 


1 per 100 


1 service sink 


Employees, other than residential 
care'^ 


1 per 25 


1 per 35 


— 


1 per 100 


— 


Visitors, other than residential 
care 


1 per 75 


1 per 100 


— 


1 per 500 


— 


Prisons'^ 


1 per cell 


1 per cell 


1 per 15 


1 per 100 


1 service sink 


Asylums, reformatories, etc.c 


1 per 15 


1 per 15 


1 per 15 


1 per 100 


1 service sink 


Mercantile (see Sections 403.2, 
403.5 and 403.6) 


1 per 500 


1 per 750 


— 


1 per 1,000 


1 service sink 


R 
E 
S 
I 

D 
E 
N 
T 
I 

A 
L 


Hotels, motels 


1 per guestroom 


1 per 
guestroom 


1 per guestroom 


— 


1 service sink 


Lodges 


1 per 10 


1 per 10 


1 per 8 


1 per 100 


1 service sink 


Multiple family 


1 per dwelling unit 


1 per dwelling 
unit 


1 per dwelling unit 


— 


1 kitchen sink per 

dwelhng unit; 

1 automatic clothes 

washer connection 

per 20 dwelling units 


Dormitories 


1 per 10 


1 per 10 


IperS 


1 per 100 


1 service sink 


One- and two-family dwelhngs 


1 per dwelling unit 


1 per dwelling 
unit 


1 per dwelling unit 


— 


1 kitchen sink per 

dwelling unit; 
1 automatic clothes 
washer connection 

per dwelling unit^ 


Storage (see Sections 403.2 and 
403.4) 


1 per 100 


1 per 100 


(see Section 411) 


1 per 1,000 


1 service sink 



a. The fixtures shown are based on one fixture being the minimum required for the number of persons indicated or any fraction of the number of persons indicated. 
The number of occupants shall be determined by the International Building Code. 

b. Fixtures located in adjacent buildings under the ownership or control of the church shall be made available during periods the church is occupied. 

c. Toilet facilities for employees shall be separate from facilities for inmates or patients. 

d. A single-occupant toilet room with one water closet and one lavatory serving not more than two adjacent patient rooms shall be permitted where such room is 
provided with direct access from each patient room and with provisions for privacy. 

e. For day nurseries, a maximum of one bathtub shall be required. 

f For attached one- and two-family dwellings, one automatic clothes washer connection shall be required per 20 dwelling units. 



24 



2000 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



FIXTURES, FAUCETS AND FIXTURE FITTINGS 



403.1.1-405.3.1 




# 



403.1.1 Unisex toilet and bath fixtures. Fixtures located 
within unisex toilet and bathing rooms complying with Sec- 
tion 404 are permitted to be included in determining the 
minimum required number of fixtures for assembly and 
mercantile occupancies. 

403.2 Separate facilities. Where plumbing fixtures are re- 
quired, separate facilities shall be provided for each sex. 

Exceptions: 

II . Separate facilities shall not be required for private fa- 
cilities. 

2. Separate employee facilities shall not be required in 
occupancies in which 15 or less people are employed. 

3 . Separate facilities shall not be required in structures or 
tenant spaces with a total occupant load, including 

# both employees and customers, of 15 or less. 

403.3 Number of occupants of each sex. The required water 
closets, lavatories, and showers or bathtubs shall be distributed 
equally between the sexes based on the percentage of each sex 
anticipated in the occupant load. The occupant load shall be 
composed of 50 percent of each sex, unless statistical data ap- 
proved by the code official indicate a different distribution of 
the sexes. 

403.4 Location of employee toilet facilities in occupancies 
other than assembly or mercantile. Access to toilet facilities 
in occupancies other than mercantile and assembly occupan- 
cies shall be from within the employees' working area. Em- 

ployee facilities shall be either separate facilities or combined 

1 employee and public facilities. 

Exception: Facilities that are required for employees in 
storage structures or kiosks, and are located in adjacent 
structures under the same ownership, lease or control, shall 
be a maximum travel distance of 500 feet (152 m) from the 
ii^ employees' working area. 

403.4.1 Travel distance. The required toilet facilities in oc- 
cupancies other than assembly or mercantile shall be located 
not more than one story above or below the employee's 
working area and the path of travel to such facilities shall not 
exceed a distance of 500 feet (152 m). 

Exception: The location and maximum travel distances to 
required employee toilet faciUties in factory and industrial 
occupancies are permitted to exceed that required in Sec- 
tion 403.4.1, provided the location and maximum travel 
distance are approved by the code official. 

403.5 Location of employee toilet facilities in mercantile 
and assembly occupancies. Employees shall be provided with 
toilet facilities in building and tenant spaces utilized as restau- 
rants, nightclubs, places of public assembly and mercantile oc- 
cupancies. Employee facilities shall be either separate facilities 
or combined employee and public facilities. The required toilet 
facilities shall be located not more than one story above or be- 
low the employees' work area and the path of travel to such fa- 
cilities, in other than covered malls, shall not exceed a distance 



of 500 feet (152 m). The path of travel to required facilities in 
covered malls shall not exceed a distance of 300 feet (91 440 
mm). 

Exception: Employee toilet facilities shall not be required 
in tenant spaces where the travel distance from the main en- 
trance of the tenant space to a central toilet area does not ex- 
ceed 300 feet (91 440 mm) and such central toilet facilities 
are located not more than one story above or below the ten- 
ant space. 

403.6 Public facilities. Customers, patrons and visitors shall 
be provided with pubhc toilet facilities in structures and tenant 
spaces intended for public utilization. Public toilet facilities 
shall be located not more than one story above or below the 
space required to be provided with public toilet facilities and 
the path of travel to such facilities shall not exceed a distance of 
500 feet (152 m). 

403.6.1 Covered malls. In covered mall buildings, the path 
of travel to required toilet facilities shall not exceed a dis- 
tance of 300 feet (91 440 mm). The required facilities shall 
be based on total square footage, and facilities shall be in- 
stalled in each individual store or in a central toilet area lo- 
cated in accordance with this section. The maximum travel 
distance to the central toilet facilities in covered mall build- 
ings shall be measured from the main entrance of any store 
or tenant space. 

403.6.2 Pay facilities. Required facilities shall be free of 
charge and designated by legible signs for each sex. Where 
pay faciUties are installed, such facilities shall be in excess 
of the required minimum facilities. 



SECTION 404 
ACCESSIBLE PLUMBING FACILITIES 

404.1 Where required. Accessible plumbing facilities and fix- 
tures shall be provided in accordance with the International 
Building Code. 



SECTION 405 
INSTALLATION OF FIXTURES 

405.1 Water supply protection. The supply lines and fittings 
for every plumbing fixture shall be installed so as to prevent 
backflow. 

405.2 Access for cleaning. Plumbing fixtures shall be installed 
so as to afford easy access for cleaning both the fixture and the 
area around the fixture. 

405.3 Setting. Fixtures shall be set level and in proper align- 
ment with reference to adjacent walls. 

405.3.1 Water closets, lavatories and bidets. A water 
closet, lavatory or bidet shall not be set closer than 1 5 inches 
(381 mm) from its center to any side wall, partition, vanity 
or other obstruction, or closer than 30 inches (762 mm) cen- 



2000 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



25 



FBGURE 405.3.1 - 407.2 



FIXTURES, FAUCETS AND FIXTURE FITTINGS 



ter-to-center between water closets and adjacent fixtures. 
There shall be at least a 21-inch (533 mm) clearance in front 
of the water closet or bidet to any wall, fixture or door. Water 
closet compartments shall not be less than 30 inches (762 
mm) wide or 60 inches (1524 mm) deep. There shall be at 
least a 21-inch (533 mm) clearance in front of a lavatory to 
any wall, fixture or door (see Figure 405.3.1). 



15 IN. 



21-INCH -, 
CLEARANCE 



~1 



o„,K, ^^,.. 21 -IN. 

30 IN. 30JISL CLEARANCE 




15 INCH 



21-INCH 
CLEARANCE 



1 I 



30 IN. 30 IN. 



COMF^RTMENT 



15 IN. 



UR UR 



■ra — n^ 
W 


(tub 


wc wc 1 


21 INCH 




<^<^ 





For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

FIGURE 405.3.1 
FIXTURE CLEARANCES 

405.3.2 Urinals. A urinal shall not be set closer than 1 5 inches 
(381 mm) from the center of the urinal to any side wall, parti- 
tion, vanity or other obstruction, or closer than 30 inches (762 
mm) center-to-center between urinals (see Figure 405.3.1). 

405.3.3 Pebllc lavatories. In employee and public toilet 
rooms, the required lavatory shall be located in the same 
room as the required water closet. 

405.4 Floor and wall drainage connections. Connections be- 
tween the drain and floor outlet plumbing fixtures shall be 
made with a floor flange. The flange shall be attached to the 
drain and anchored to the structure. Connections between the 
drain and wall-hung water closets shall be made with an ap- 
proved extension nipple or horn adapter. The water closet shall 
be bolted to the hanger with corrosion-resistant bolts or screws. 
Joints shall be sealed with an approved elastomeric gasket or 
setting compound conforming to FS TT-P- 1536a. 

405.4.1 Floor flanges. Floor flanges for water closets or 
similar fixtures shall not be less than 0.125 inch (3.2 mm) 
thick for brass, 0.25 inch (6.4 mm) thick for plastic, and 0.25 
inch (6.4 mm) thick and not less than a 2-inch (51 mm) 
caulking depth for cast-iron or galvanized malleable iron. 

Floor flanges of hard lead shall weigh not less thanl 
pound, 9 ounces (0.7 kg) and shall be composed of lead al- 
loy with not less than 7.75-percent antimony by weight. 
Closet screws and bolts shall be of brass. Flanges shall be se- 
cured to the building structure with corrosion-resistant 
screws or bolts. 



405.4.2 Securing floor outlet fixtures. Floor outlet fixtures 
shall be secured to the floor or floor flanges by screws or 
bolts of corrosion-resistant material. 

405.4.3 Securing wall-hung water closet bowls. 
Wall-hung water closet bowls shall be supported by a con- 
cealed metal carrier that is attached to the building structural 
members so that strain is not transmitted to the closet con- 
nector or any other part of the plumbing system. The carrier 
shall conform to ASME Al 12.6.1. 

405.5 Water-tight joints. Joints formed where fixtures come 
in contact with walls or floors shall be sealed. 

405.6 Plumbing in mental health centers. In mental health 
centers, pipes or traps shall not be exposed, and fixtures shall be 
bolted through walls. 

405.7 Design of overflows. Where any fixture is provided with 
an overflow, the waste shall be designed and installed so that 
standing water in the fixture will not rise in the overflow when 
the stopper is closed, and no water will remain in the overflow 
when the fixture is empty. 

405.7.1 Connection of overflows. The overflow from any 
fixture shall discharge into the drainage system on the inlet 
or fixture side of the trap. 

Exception: The overflow from a flush tank serving a wa- 
ter closet or urinal shall discharge into the fixture served. 

405.8 Slip-joint connections. Slip joints shall be made with an 
approved elastomeric gasket and shall only be installed on the 
trap outlet, trap inlet and within the trap seal. Fixtures with con- 
cealed slip-joint connections shall be provided with an access 
panel or utility space at least 12 inches (305 mm) in its smallest 
dimension or other approved arrangement so as to provide ac- 
cess to the slip connections for inspection and repair. 



SECTION 406 
AUTOMATIC CLOTHES WASHERS 

406.1 Approval. Domestic automatic clothes washers shall 
confonn to ASSE 1007. 

406.2 Water connection. The water supply to an automatic 
clothes washer shall be protected against backflow by an air 
gap installed integrally within the machine conforming to 
ASSE 1007 or with the installation of a backflow preventer in 
accordance with Section 608. 

406.3 Waste connection. The waste from an automatic clothes 
washer shall discharge through an air break into a standpipe in 
accordance with Section 802.4 or into a laundry sink. 



SECTION 407 
BATHTUBS 

407.1 Approval. Bathtubs shall conform to ANSI Z124.1, 
ASME A112.19.1, ASME A112.19.4, ASME A112.19.9,CSA 
B45.2, CSA B45.3 or CSA B45.5. 

407.2 Bathtub waste outlets. Bathtubs shall have waste out- 
lets a minimum of 1.5 inches (38 nun) in diameter. The waste 
outlet shall be equipped with an approved stopper. 




26 



2000 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



FIXTURES, FAUCETS AND FIXTURE FITTINGS 



407.3-414.1 




407.3 Glazing. Windows and doors within a bathtub enclosure 
shall conform to the safety glazing requirements of the Interna- 
tional Building Code. 



SECTION 408 
BIDETS 

\A Approval. Bidets shall conform to ASME Al 12.19.2, 
ASME Al 12.19.9 or CSA B45.1. 



J.2 Water connection. The water supply to a bidet shall be 
protected against backflow by an air gap or backflow preventer 
in accordance with Section 608.13.1, 608.13.2, 608.13.3, 
608.13.5, 608.13.6 or 608.13.8. 



SECTION 409 
DISHWASHING MACHINES 

M Approval. Domestic dishwashing machines shall con- 
form to ASSE 1006. Commercial dishwashing machines shall 
conform to ASSE 1004 and NSF 3. 



J.2 Water connection. The water supply to a dishwashing 
machine shall be protected against backflow by an air gap or 
backflow preventer in accordance with Section 608. 



Waste connection. The waste connection of a 
dishwashing machine shall comply with Section 409.3.1 or 
409.3.2. 

409.3.1 Domestic dishwashing machines. Domestic 
dishwashing machines shall discharge indirectly through an 
air gap or air break into a standpipe or waste receptor in ac- 
cordance with Section 802.2, or discharge into a 
wye-branch fitting on the tailpiece of the kitchen sink or the 
dishwasher connection of a food waste grinder. The waste 
line of a domestic dishwashing machine discharging into a 
kitchen sink tailpiece or food waste grinder shall connect to 
a deck-mounted air gap or the waste line shall rise and be se- 
curely fastened to the underside of the sink rim or counter. 

409.3.2 Commercial dishwashing machines. The dis- 
charge from a commercial dishwashing machine shall be 
through an air gap or air break into a standpipe or waste re- 
ceptor in accordance with Section 802.2. 



SECTION 410 
DRINKING FOUNTAINS 

410.1 Approval. Drinking fountains shall conform to ASME 
A112.19.1, ASME A112.19.2 or ASME A112.19.9, and water 
coolers shall conform to ARI 1010. Where water is served in 
restaurants or where bottled water coolers are provided in other 
occupancies, drinking fountains shall not be required. 

410.2 Prohibited location. Drinking fountains shall not be in- 
stalled in public restrooms. 



SECTION 411 

EMERGENCY SHOWERS AND 

EYEWASH STATIONS 

411.1 Water connection. Emergency showers and eyewash 
stations shall be provided with a supply of cold water as re- 
quired by the manufacturer. 

411.2 Waste connection. Waste connections shall not be re- 
quired for emergency showers and eyewash stations. 

SECTION 412 
FLOOR DRAINS 

412.1 Approval. Floor drains shall conform to ASME 
A112.21.1, ASME A112.3.1 or CSA CAN-B79. | 

412.2 Floor drain trap and strainer. Floor drain traps shall 
have removable strainers. The strainer shall have a waterway 
area of not less than the area of the tailpiece. The floor drain 
shall be constructed so that the drain is capable of being 
cleaned. Access shall be provided to the drain inlet. 

412.3 Size of floor drains. Floor drains shall have a minimum 
2-inch-diameter (5 1 nun) drain outlet. 

412.4 Public laundries and central washing facilities. In | 

public coin-operated laundries and in the central washing facil- 
ities of multiple-family dwellings, the rooms containing auto- 
matic clothes washers shall be provided with floor drains 
located to readily drain the entire floor area. Such drains shall 
have a minimum outlet of not less than 3 inches (76 mm) in di- 
ameter. 



SECTION 413 
FOOD WASTE GRINDER UNITS 

413.1 Approval. Domestic food waste grinders shall conform 
to ASSE 1008. Conomercial food waste grinders shall conform 
to ASSE 1009. Food waste grinders shall not increase the 
drainage fixture unit load on the sanitary drainage system. 

413.2 Domestic food waste grinder waste outlets. Domestic 
food waste grinders shall be connected to a drain of not less 
than 1.5 inches (38 mm) in diameter. 

413.3 Commercial food waste grinder waste outlets. Com- 
mercial food waste grinders shall be connected to a drain a min- 
imum of 2 inches (5 1 mm) in diameter. Commercial food waste 
grinders shall be connected and trapped separately from any 
other fixtures or sink compartments. 

413.4 Water supply required. All food waste grinders shall be 
provided with a supply of cold water. 



SECTION 414 
GARBAGE CAN WASHERS 

414.1 Water connection. The water supply to a garbage can 
washer shall be protected against backflow by an air gap or a 
backflow preventer in accordance with Section 608.13.1, 
608.13.2, 608.13.3, 608.13.5, 608.13.6 or 608.13.8. 



2000 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



27 



414.2-417.5.2.3 



FIXTURES, FAUCETS AND F5XTURE FITTINGS 



L2 Waste connection. Garbage can washers shall be 
trapped separately. The receptacle receiving the waste from the 
washer shall have a removable basket or strainer to prevent the 
discharge of large particles into the drainage system. 



SECTION 415 
LAUNDRY TRAYS 

415ol Approval. Laundry trays shall conform to ANSI Z 124.6, 
ASME A112.19.1, ASME A112.19.3, ASME A112.19.9, 
CSAB45.2orCSAB45.4. 

415.2 Waste outlet. Each compartment of a laundry tray shall 
be provided with a waste outlet a minimum of 1.5 inches (38 
mm) in diameter and a strainer or crossbar to restrict the clear 
opening of the waste outlet. 



SECTION 416 

LAVATORIES 

5.1 Approval. Lavatories shall conform to ANSI Z124.3, 
ASME A112.19.1, ASME A112.19.2, ASME A112.19.3, 
ASME A112.19.4, ASME Al 12.19.9, CSA B45.1, CSA 
B45.2, CSA B45.3 or CSA B45.4. Group wash-up equipment 
shall conform to the requirements of Section 402. Every 20 
inches (508 mm) of rim space shall be considered as one lava- 
tory. 

416,2 Cultured marble lavatories. Cultured marble vanity 
tops with an integral lavatory shall conform to ANSI Z124.3 or 
CSA B45.5. 



J.3 Lavatory waste outlets. Lavatories shall have waste 
outlets not less than 1.25 inches (32 mm) in diameter. A 
strainer, pop-up stopper, crossbar or other device shall be pro- 
vided to restrict the clear opening of the waste outlet. 



SECTION 417 
SHOWERS 

417.1 Approval. Prefabricated showers and shower compart- 
ments shall conform to ANSI Z124.2, ASME Al 12.19.9 or 
CSA B45.5. Shower valves for individual showers shall con- 
form to the requirements of Section 424.4. 



riser. Every water supply riser from the 
shower valve to the shower head outlet, whether exposed or 
not, shall be attached to the structure in an approved manner. 

417.3 Shower waste outlet. Waste outlets serving showers 
shall be at least 2 inches (5 1 mm) in diameter and, for other than 
waste outlets in bathtubs, shall have removable strainers not 
less than 3 inches (76 mm) in diameter with strainer openings 
not less than .25 inch (6.4 mm) in minimum dimension. Where 
each shower space is not provided with an individual waste out- 
let, the waste outlet shall be located and the floor pitched so that 
waste from one shower does not flow over the floor area serv- 
ing another shower. Waste outlets shall be fastened to the waste 
pipe in an approved manner. 

417.4 Shower compartments. All shower compartments shall 
have a minimum of 900 square inches (0.58 m^) of interior 
cross-sectional area. Shower compartments shall not be less 



than 30 inches (762 mm) in minimum dimension measured 
from the finished interior dimension of the compaitment, ex- 
clusive of fixture valves, showerheads, soap dishes, and safety 
grab bcirs or rails. The 30-inch (762 mm) minimum dimension 
shall be measured as the side of a rectangle, altitude of a trian- 
gle or diameter of a circle. Except as required in Section 404, 
the minimum required area and dimension shall be measured 
from the finished interior dimension at a height equal to the top 
of the threshold and at a point tangent to its centerline. 

417.4.1 Wall area. The wall area above built-in tubs with in- 
stalled shower heads and in shower compartments shall be 
constructed of smooth, noncorrosive and nonabsorbent wa- 
terproof materials to a height not less than 6 feet (1829 nmi) 
above the room floor level, and not less than 70 inches (1778 
mm) where measured from the compaitment floor at the 
drain. Such walls shall form a water-tight joint with each 
other and with either the tub, receptor or shower floor. 

417.5 Shower floors or receptors. Floor surfaces shall be con- 
structed of impervious, noncorrosive, nonabsorbent and water- 
proof materials. 

417.5.1 Support. Floors or receptors under shower com- 
partments shall be laid on, and supported by, a smooth and 
structurally sound base. 

417.5.2 Shower lining. Floors under shower compartments, 
except where prefabricated receptors have been provided, 
shall be lined and made water tight utilizing material com- 
plying with Sections 417.5.2.1 through 417.5.2.4. Such hn- 
ers shall turn up on all sides at least 2 inches (5 1 mm) above 
the finished threshold level. Liners shall be recessed and fas- 
tened to an approved backing so as not to occupy the space 
required for wall covering, and shall not be nailed or perfo- 
rated at any point less than 1 inch (25.4 mm) above the fin- 
ished threshold. Liners shall be pitched one-fourth unit 
vertical in 12 units horizontal (2-percent slope) and shall be 
sloped towards the fixture drains and be securely fastened to 
the waste outlet at the seepage entrance, making a wa- 
ter-tight joint between the liner and the outlet. 

Exception: Floor surfaces under shower heads provided 
for rinsing laid directly on the ground are not required to 
comply with this section. 

417.5.2.1 PVC sheets. Plasticized polyvinyl chloride 
(PVC) sheets shall be a minimum of 0.040 inch (1.02 
mm) thick, and shall meet the requirements of ASTM D 
4551. Sheets shall be joined by solvent welding in accor- 
dance with the manufacturer's installation instructions. 

417.5.2.2 Chlorinated polyethylene (CPE) sheets. 
Nonplasticized chlorinated polyethylene sheet shall be a 
minimum 0.040 inch (1 .02 mm) thick, and shall meet the 
requirements of ASTM D 4068 . The liner shall be joined 
in accordance with the manufacturer's installation in- 
structions. 

417.5.2.3 Sheet lead. Sheet lead shall not weigh less than 
4 pounds per square foot (19.5 kg/m^) coated with an as- 
phalt paint or other approved coating. The lead sheet 
shall be insulated from conducting substances other than 
the connecting drain by 15-pound (6.80 kg) asphalt felt 
or its equivalent. Sheet lead shall be joined by burning. 



^K 



28 



2000 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



FDXTURES, FAUCETS AND FIXTURE FITTINGS 



417.5.2.4-422.4 



417.5.2.4 Sheet copper. Sheet copper shall conform to 
ASTM B 152 and shall not weigh less than 12 ounces per 
square foot (3.7 kg/m^). The copper sheet shall be insu- 
lated from conducting substances other than the connect- 
ing drain by 15 -pound (6.80 kg) asphalt felt or its 
equivalent. Sheet copper shall be joined by brazing or 
soldering. 

417.6 Glazing. Windows and doors within a shower enclosure 
shall conform to the safety glazing requirements of the Interna- 
tional Building Code. 



SECTION 418 
SINKS 

418.1 Approval. Sinks shall conform to ANSI Z124.6, ASME 
A112.19.1, ASME A112.19.2, ASME A112.19.3, ASME 
Al 12.19.4, ASME Al 12.19.9, CSA B45.1, CSA B45.2, CSA 
B45.3orCSAB45.4. 

418.2 Sink vi^aste outlets. Sinks shall be provided with waste 
outlets a minimum of 1.5 inches (38 mm) in diameter. A 
strainer or crossbar shall be provided to restrict the clear open- 
ing of the waste outlet. Sinks on which a food waste grinder is 
installed shall have a waste opening a minimum of 3.5 inches 
(89 mm) in diameter. 



SECTION 419 
URINALS 

419.1 Approval, Urinals shall conform to ASME A 112.19.2, 
CSA B45.1 or CSA B45.5. Urinals shall conform to the water 
consumption requirements of Section 604.4. Urinals shall con- 
form to the hydraulic performance requirements of ASME 
Al 12.19.6, CSA B45.1 or CSA B45.5. 

419.2 Substitution for water closets. In each bathroom or toi- 
let room, urinals shall not be substituted for more than 67 per- 
cent of the required water closets. 

419.3 Surrounding material. Wall and floor space to a point 2 
feet (610 mm) in front of a urinal lip and 4 feet (1219 mm) 
above the floor and at least 2 feet (610 mm) to each side of the 
urinal shall be waterproofed with a smooth, readily cleanable, 
nonabsorbent material. 



SECTION 420 
WATER CLOSETS 

420.1 Approval. Water closets shall conform to the water con- 
sumption requirements of Section 604.4 and shall conform to 
ANSI Z124.4, ASME A112.19.2, CSA B45.1, CSA B45.4 or 
CSA B45.5. Water closets shall conform to the hydraulic per- 
formance requirements of ASME Al 12.19.6. Water closet 
tanks shall conform to ANSI Z124.4, ASME A112.19.2, 
ASME Al 12.19.9, CSA B45.1, CSA B45.4 or CSA B45.5. 

420.2 Water closets for public or employee toilet facilities. 

Water closet bowls for public or employee toilet facilities shall 
be of the elongated type. 



420.3 Water closet seats. Water closets shall be equipped with 
seats of smooth, nonabsorbent material. All seats of water clos- 
ets provided for public or employee toilet facilities shall be of 
the hinged open-front type. Integral water closet seats shall be 
of the same material as the fixture. Water closet seats shall be 
sized for the water closet bowl type. 

420.4 Water closet connections. A 4-inch by 3 -inch (102 mm 
by 76 mm) closet bend shall be acceptable. Where a 3-inch (76 
mm) bend is utilized on water closets, a 4-inch by 3-inch (102 
mm by 76 mm) flange shall be installed to receive the fixture 
horn. 



SECTION 421 
WHIRLPOOL BATHTUBS 

421.1 Approval. Whirlpool bathtubs shall comply with ASME 
Al 12.19.7 or with CSA B45.5 and CSA CAN/CSA-B45 (Sup- 
plement 1). 

421.2 Installation. Whirlpool bathtubs shall be installed and 
tested in accordance with the manufacturer's installation in- 
structions. The pump shall be located above the weir of the fix- 
ture trap. Access shall be provided to the pump. 

421.3 Drain. The pump drain and circulation piping shall be 
sloped to drain the water in the volute and the circulation piping 
when the whirlpool bathtub is empty. 

421.4 Suction fittings. Suction fittings for whirlpool bathtubs 
shall comply with ASME A112.19.8. 



^ SECTION 422 

HEALTH CARE FIXTURES AND EQUIPMENT 

422.1 Scope. This section shall govern those aspects of health 
care plumbing systems that differ from plumbing systems in 
other structures. Health care plumbing systems shall conform to 
the requirements of this section in addition to the other require- 
ments of this code. The provisions of this section shall apply to 
the special devices and equipment installed and maintained in 
the following occupancies: nursing homes, homes for the aged, 
orphanages, infirmaries, first aid stations, psychiatric facilities, 
chnics, professional offices of dentists and doctors, mortuaries, 
educational facilities, surgery, dentistry, research and testing lab- 
oratories, estabhshments manufacturing pharmaceutical drugs 
and medicines, and other structures with similar apparatus and 
equipment classified as plumbing. 

422.2 Approval. All special plumbing fixtures, equipment, de- 
vices and apparatus shall be of an approved type. 

422.3 Protection. All devices, appurtenances, appliances and 
apparatus intended to serve some special function, such as ster- 
ihzation, distillation, processing, cooling, or storage of ice or 
foods, and that connect to either the water supply or drainage 
system, shall be provided with protection against backflow, 
flooding, fouling, contamination of the water supply system 
and stoppage of the drain. 

422.4 Materials. Fixtures designed for therapy, special cleans- 
ing or disposal of waste materials, combinations of such pur- 
poses, or any other special purpose, shall be of smooth. 



2000 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



29 



422.5 - 425.1 



FIXTURES, FAUCETS AND FIXTURE FITTINGS 



impervious, corrosion-resistant materials and, where subjected 
to temperatures in excess of 180°F (82°C), shall be capable of 
withstanding, without damage, higher temperatures. 

422.5 Access. Access shall be provided to concealed piping in 
connection with special fixtures where such piping contains 
steam traps, valves, relief valves, check valves, vacuum break- 
ers or other similar items that require periodic inspection, ser- 
vicing, maintenance or repair. Access shall be provided to 
concealed piping that requires periodic inspection, mainte- 
nance or repair. 

422.6 Clnnkal sink. A chnical sink shall have an integral trap 
in which the upper portion of a visible trap seal provides a water 
surface. The fixture shall be designed so as to permit complete 
removal of the contents by siphonic or blowout action and to re- 
seal the trap. A flushing rim shall provide water to cleanse the 
interior surface. The fixture shall have the flushing and cleans- 
ing characteristics of a water closet. 

422.7 Prohibited usage of clinical sinks and service sinks. A 
clinical sink serving a soiled utility room shall not be consid- 
ered as a substitute for, or be utilized as, a service sink. A ser- 
vice sink shall not be utilized for the disposal of urine, fecal 
matter or other human waste. 

422.8 Ice prohibited in soiled etility room. Machines for 
manufacturing ice, or any device for the handling or storage of 
ice, shall not be located in a soiled utility room. 

422.9 Sterilizer equipment requirements. The approval and 
installation of all sterilizers shall conform to the requirements 
of the International Mechanical Code. 

422.9.1 Sterilizer piping. Access for the purposes of in- 
spection and maintenance shall be provided to all sterilizer 
piping and devices necessary for the operation of sterilizers. 

422.9.2 Steam supply. Steam supplies to sterilizers, includ- 
ing those connected by pipes from overhead mains or 
branches, shall be drained to prevent any moisture from 
reaching the sterilizer. The condensate drainage from the 
steam supply shall be discharged by gravity. 

422.9.3 Steam condensate return. Steam condensate re- 
turns from sterilizers shall be a gravity return system. 

422.9.4 Condensers. Pressure sterilizers shall be equipped 
with a means of condensing and cooling the exhaust steam 
vapors. Nonpressure sterilizers shall be equipped with a de- 
vice that will automatically control the vapor, confining the 
vapors within the vessel. 

422.10 Special elevations. Control valves, vacuum outlets and 
devices protruding from a wall of an operating, emergency, re- 
covery, examining or delivery room, or in a corridor or other lo- 
cation where patients are transported on a wheeled stretcher, 
shall be located at an elevation that prevents bumping the pa- 
tient or stretcher against the device. 



SECTION 423 
SPECIALTY PLUMBING FIXTURES 

423.1 Water connections. Baptisteries, ornamental and lily 
pools, aquariums, ornamental fountain basins, swimming 



pools, and similar constructions, where provided with water 
supplies, shall be protected against backflow in accordance 
with Section 608. 

423.2 Approval. Specialties requiring water and waste con- 
nections shall be submitted for approval. 



SECTION 424 
FAUCETS AND OTHER FIXTURE FITTINGS 

424.1 Approval. Faucets and fixture fittings shall conform to 
ASME Al 12.18.1 or CSA B125. Faucets and fixture fittings 
that supply drinking water for human ingestion shall conform 
to the requirements of NSF 61, Section 9. 

424.1.1 Faucets and supply fittings. Faucets and supply 
fittings shall conform to the water consumption require- 
ments of Section 604.4. 

424.1.2 Waste iSttings. Waste fittings shall conform to one 
of the standards listed in Tables 702.1 and 702.4 for 
above-ground drainage and vent pipe and fittings, or the 
waste fittings shall be constructed of tubular stainless steel 
with a minimum wall thickness of 0.012 inch (0.30 nun), tu- 
bular copper alloy having a minimum wall thickness of 
0.027 inch (0.69 mm) or tubular plastic complying with 
ASTM F 409. 

424.2 Hose spray. Diverters for sink faucets with a secondary 
outlet consisting of a flexible hose and spray assembly shall 
conform to ASSE 1025 in addition to the requirements in Sec- 
tion 424.1. 

424.3 Hand showers. Hand-held showers shall conform to 
ASSE 1014 or CSA B 125. 

424.4 Shower valves. Shower and tub-shower combination 
valves shall be balanced pressure, thermostatic or combination 
balanced-pressure/thermostatic valves that conform to the re- 
quirements of ASSE 1016 or CSA B125. Multiple (gang) 
showers supplied with a single tempered water supply pipe 
shall have the water supply for such showers controlled by an 
approved master thermostatic mixing valve. Shower and 
tub-shower combination valves and master thermostatic mix- 
ing valves required by this section shall be equipped with a 
means to limit the maximum setting of the valve to 120°F 
(49°C), which shall be field adjusted in accordance with the 
manufacturer's instructions. 

424.5 Hose-connected outlets. Faucets and fixture fittings 
with hose-connected outlets shall conform to ASME 
A112.18.3. 



SECTION 425 

FLUSHING DEVICES FOR WATER 

CLOSETS AND URINALS 

425.1 Flushing devices required. Each water closet, urinal, 
clinical sink and any plumbing fixture that depends on trap 
siphonage to discharge the fixture contents to the drainage sys- 
tem shall be provided with a flushometer valve, flushometer 
tank or a flush tank designed and installed to supply water in 



30 



2000 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



FBXTURES, FAUCETS AND FIXTURE FITTINGS 425.1 .1 - 426.1 



quantity and rate of flow to flush the contents of the fixture, 
cleanse the fixture and refill the fixture trap. 

425.1.1 Separate for each fixture. A flushing device shall 
not serve more than one fixture. 

425.2 Flushometer valves and tanks. Flushometer valves and 
tanks shall comply with ASSE 1037. Vacuum breakers on 
flushometer valves shall conform to the performance require- 
ments of ASSE 1001 orCSACAN/CSA-B64.1.1. Access shall 
be provided to vacuum breakers. Flushometer valves shall be of 
the water-conservation type and shall not be utilized where the 
water pressure is lower than the minimum required for normal 
operation. When operated, the valve shall automatically com- 
plete the cycle of operation, opening fully and closing posi- 
tively under the water supply pressure. Each flushometer valve 
shall be provided with a means for regulating the flow through 
the valve. The trap seal to the fixture shall be automatically re- 
filled after each valve flushing cycle. 

425.3 Flush tanks. Flush tanks equipped for manual flushing 
shall be controlled by a device designed to refill the tank after 
each discharge and to shut off completely the water flow to the 
tank when the tank is filled to operational capacity. The trap 
seal to the fixture shall be automatically refilled after each 
flushing. The water supply to flush tanks equipped for auto- 
matic flushing shall be controlled with a timing device or sen- 
sor control devices. 

425.3.1 Ball cocks. All flush tanks shall be equipped with an 
antisiphon ball cock conforming to ASSE 1002 or CSA 
B125. The ball cock backflow preventer shall be located at 
least 1 inch (25 mm) above the full opening of the overflow 
pipe. 

425.3.2 Overflows in flush tanks. Flush tanks shall be pro- 
vided with overflows discharging to the water closet or uri- 
nal connected thereto and shall be sized to prevent flooding 
the tank at the maximum rate at which the tanks are supplied 
with water. The opening of the overflow pipe shall be lo- 
cated above the flood level rim df the water closet or urinal 
or above a secondary overflow in the flush tank. 

425.3.3 Sheet copper. Sheet copper utilized for flush tank 
linings shall conform to ASTM B 152 and shall not weigh 
less than 10 ounces per square foot (0.03 kg/m^). 

425.3.4 Access required. All parts in a flush tank shall be 
accessible for repair and replacement. 

425.4 Flush pipes and fittings. Flush pipes and fittings shall 
be of nonferrous material and shall conform to ASME 
Al 12.19.5 or CSA B125. 



SECTION 426 

MANUAL FOOD AND BEVERAGE 

DISPENSING EQUIPMENT 

426.1 Approval. Manual food and beverage dispensing equip- 
ment shall conform to the requirements of NSF 18. 



2000 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 31 




32 2000 IMTERNATDONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



CHAPTER 5 

WATER HEATERS 




SECTION 501 
GENERAL 

501.1 Scope. The provisions of this chapter shall govern the 
materials, design and installation ofi water heaters and the re- 
lated safety devices and appurtenances. 

501.2 Water heater as space heater. Where a combination po- 
table water heating and space heating system requires water for 
space heating at temperatures higher than 140°F (60°C), a tem- 
pering valve shall be provided to limit the water supplied to the 
potable hot water distribution system to a temperature of 140°F 
(60°C). The potability of the water shall be maintained 
throughout the system. 

501.3 Drain valves. Drain valves for emptying shall be in- 
stalled at the bottom of each tank-type water heater and hot wa- 
ter storage tank. Drain valves shall conform to ASSE 1005. 

501.4 Location. Water heaters and storage tanks shall be lo- 
cated and connected so as to provide access for observation, 
maintenance, servicing and replacement. 

501.5 Water heater labeling. All water heaters shall be 
third-party certified. 

501.6 Water temperature control in piping from tankless 

heaters. The temperature of water from tankless water heaters 
shall be a maximum of 140°F (60°C) when intended for domes- 
tic uses. This provision shall not supersede the requirement for 
protective shower valves in accordance with Section 424.4. 

501.7 Pressure marking of storage tanks. Storage tanks and 
water heaters installed for domestic hot water shall have the 
maximum allowable working pressure clearly and indelibly 
stamped in the metal or marked on a plate welded thereto or 
otherwise permanently attached. Such markings shall be in an 
accessible position outside of the tank so as to make inspection 
or reinspection readily possible. 

501.8 Temperature controls. All hot water supply systems 
shall be equipped with automatic temperature controls capable 
of adjustments from the lowest to the highest acceptable tem- 
perature settings for the intended temperature operating range. 



SECTION 502 
INSTALLATION 

502.1 General. Water heaters shall be installed in accordance 
with the manufacturer's installation instructions. Oil-fired wa- 
ter heaters shall conform to the requirements of this code and 
the International Mechanical Code. Electric water heaters 
shall conform to the requirements of this code and provisions of 
the ICC Electrical Code listed in Chapter 13. Gas-fired water 
heaters shall conform to the requirements of the International 
Fuel Gas Code. 

502.2 Water heaters installed in garages. Water heaters hav- 
ing an ignition source shall be elevated such that the source of 



ignition is not less than 18 inches (457 mm) above the garage 
floor. 

502.3 Rooms used as a plenum. Water heaters using sohd, liq- 
uid or gas fuel shall not be installed in a room containing 
air-handling machinery when such room is used as a plenum. 

502.4 Prohibited location. Gas-fired water heaters shall not be 
installed in a sleeping room, bathroom or a closet accessed 
through a sleeping room or bathroom. 

Exception: Direct vent water heater. 

502.5 Water heaters installed in attics. Attics containing a 
water heater shall be provided with an opening and unob- 
structed passageway large enough to allow removal of the wa- 
ter heater. The passageway shall not be less than 30 inches (762 
mm) high and 22 inches (559 nrni) wide and not more than 20 
feet (6096 mm) in length when measured along the centerline 
of the passageway from the opening to the water heater. The 
passageway shall have continuous solid flooring not less than 
24 inches (610 mm) wide. A level service space at least 30 
inches (762 mm) deep and 30 inches (762 mm) wide shall be 
present at the front or service side of the water heater. The clear 
access opening dimensions shall be a minimum of 20 inches by 
30 inches (508 mm by 762 mm) where such dimensions are 
large enough to allow removal of the water heater. 

502.6 Seismic supports. Where earthquake loads are applica- 
ble in accordance with the International Building Code, water 
heater supports shall be designed and installed for the seismic 
forces in accordance with the International Building Code. 



SECTION 503 
CONNECTIONS 

503.1 Cold water line valve. The cold water branch line from 
the main water supply line to each hot water storage tank or wa- 
ter heater shall be provided with a valve, located near the equip- 
ment and serving only the hot water storage tank or water 
heater. The valve shall not interfere or cause a disruption of the 
cold water supply to the remainder of the cold water system. 
The valve shall be provided with access on the same floor level 
as the water heater served. 

503.2 Water circulation. The method of connecting a circulat- 
ing water heater to the tank shall provide proper circulation of 
water through the water heater. The pipe or tubes required for 
the installation of appliances that will draw from the water 
heater or storage tank shall comply with the provisions of this 
code for material and installation. 



SECTION 504 
SAFETY DEVICES 

504.1 Antisiphon devices. An approved means, such as a cold I 
water "dip" tube with a hole at the top or a vacuum relief valve | 



2000 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



33 



504.2 - 505.1 



WATER HEATERS 



installed in the cold water supply line above the top of the 
heater or tank, shall be provided to prevent siphoning of any 
► storage water heater or tank. 

504.2 Vacraim relief valve. Bottom fed water heaters and bot- 
tom fed tanks connected to water heaters shall have a vacuum 
relief valve installed. The vacuum relief valve shall comply 
with ANSI Z21. 22. 



1. A means for disconnecting an electric hot 
water supply system from its energy supply shall be provided in 
accordance with the ICC Electrical Code. A separate valve 
shall be provided to shut off the energy fuel supply to all other 
types of hot water supply systems. 

504.4 Relief valve. All storage water heaters operating above 
atmospheric pressure shall be provided with an approved, 
self-closing (levered) pressure relief valve and temperature re- 
lief valve or combination thereof. The relief valve shall con- 
form to ANSI Z21.22. The relief valve shall not be used as a 
means of controlling thermal expansion. 

504.4.1 lestollaMoe. Such valves shall be installed in the 
shell of the water heater tank. Temperature relief valves 
shall be so located in the tank as to be actuated by the water 
in the top 6 inches (152 mm) of the tank served. For installa- 
tions with separate storage tanks, the valves shall be in- 
stalled on the tank and there shall not be any type of valve 
installed between the water heater and the storage tank. 
There shall not be a check valve or shutoff valve between a 
relief valve and the heater or tank served. 

504.5 Relief valve approval. Temperature and pressure relief 
valves, or combinations thereof, and energy cutoff devices 
shall bear the label of an approved agency and shall have a tem- 
perature setting of not more than 210°F (99°C) and a pressure 
setting not exceeding the tank or water heater manufacturer's 
rated working pressure or 150 psi (1035 kPa), whichever is 
less. The relieving capacity of each pressure relief valve and 
each temperature relief valve shall equal or exceed the heat in- 
put to the water heater or storage tank. 



outlet vyaste. The outlet of a pressure, tempera- 
ture or other relief valve shall not be directly connected to the 
drainage system. 

504.6.1 Discharge. The relief valve shall discharge full size 
to a safe place of disposal such as the floor, outside the build- 
ing, or an indirect waste receptor. The discharge pipe shall 
not have any trapped sections and shall have a visible air gap 
or air gap fitting located in the same room as the water 
heater. The discharge shall be installed in a manner that does 
not cause personal injury to occupants in the immediate area 
or structural damage to the building. 

504.6.2 Materials. Relief valve discharge piping shall be of 
those materials hsted in Section 605.5 or shall be tested, 
rated and approved for such use in accordance with ASME 
Al 12.4.1. Piping from safety pan drains shall be of those 
materials listed in Table 605.5. 

504.7 Required pan. Where water heaters or hot water storage 
tanks are installed in locations where leakage of the tanks or 
connections will cause damage, the tank or water heater shall 
be installed in a galvanized steel pan having a minimum thick- 
ness of 24 gage, or other pans approved for such use. 



504.7.1 Pan size and drain. The pan shall be not less than 
1.5 inches (38 mm) deep and shall be of sufficient size and 
shape to receive all dripping or condensate from the tank or 
water heater. The pan shall be drained by an indirect waste 
pipe having a minimum diameter of V4 inch (19 mm). 

504.7.2 Pan drain termination. The pan drain shall extend 
full-size and terminate over a suitably located indirect waste 
receptor or floor drain or extend to the exterior of the build- 
ing and terminate not less than 6 inches (152 mm) and not 
more than 24 inches (610 mm) above the adjacent ground 
surface. 



SECTION 505 
INSULATION 

505.1 Unfired vessel insulation. Unfired hot water storage 
tanks shall be insulated so that heat loss is hmited to a maxi- 
mum of 15 British thermal units per hour (Btu/h) per square 
foot (47 W/m^) of external tank surface area. For purposes of 
determining this heat loss, the design ambient temperature 
shall not be higher than 65°F (18°C). 




34 



2000 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



CHAPTERS 

WATER SUPPLY AND DISTRIBUTION 




SECTION 601 
GENERAL 

601.1 Scope. This chapter shall govern the materials, design 
and installation of water supply systems, both hot and cold, for 
utilization in connection with human occupancy and habitation 
and shall govern the installation of individual water supply sys- 
tems. 

601.2 Solar energy utilization. Solar energy systems used for 
heating potable water or using an independent medium for 
heating potable water shall comply with the applicable require- 
ments of this code. The use of solar energy shall not compro- 
mise the requirements for cross connection or protection of the 
potable water supply system required by this code. 

601.3 Existing piping used for grounding. Existing metallic 
water service piping used for electrical grounding shall not be 
replaced with nonmetallic pipe or tubing until other approved 
means of grounding are provided. 

601.4 Tests. The potable water distribution system shall be 
tested in accordance with Section 312.5. 



SECTION 602 
WATER REQUIRED 

602.1 General. Every structure equipped with plumbing fix- 
tures and utilized for human occupancy or habitation shall be 
provided with a potable supply of water in the amounts and at 
the pressures specified in this chapter. 

602.2 Potable water required. Only potable water shall be 
supplied to plumbing fixtures that provide water for drinking, 
bathing or cuhnary purposes, or for the processing of food, 
medical or pharmaceutical products. Unless otherwise pro- 
vided in this code, potable water shall be supplied to all plumb- 
ing fixtures. 

602.3 Individual water supply. Where a potable public water 
supply is not available, individual sources of potable water sup- 
ply shall be utilized. 

602.3.1 Sources. Dependent on geological and soil condi- 
tions and the amount of rainfall, individual water supplies 
are of the following types: drilled well, driven well, dug 
well, bored well, spring, stream or cistern. Surface bodies of 
water and land cisterns shall not be sources of individual wa- 
ter supply unless properly treated by approved means to pre- 
vent contamination. 

602.3.2 Minimum quantity. The combined capacity of the 
source and storage in an individual water supply system 
shall supply the fixtures with water at rates and pressures as 
required by this chapter. 

602.3.3 Water quality. Water from an individual water sup- 
ply shall be approved as potable by the authority having ju- 
risdiction prior to connection to the plumbing system. 



602.3.4 Disinfection of system. After construction or major 
repair, the individual water supply system shall be purged of 
deleterious matter and disinfected in accordance with Sec- 
tion 610. 

602.3.5 Pumps. Pumps shall be rated for the transport of po- 
table water. Pumps in an individual water supply system 
shall be constructed and installed so as to prevent contami- 
nation from entering a potable water supply through the 
pump units. Pumps shall be sealed to the well casing or cov- 
ered with a water-tight seal. Pumps shall be designed to 
maintain a prime and installed such that ready access is pro- 
vided to the pump parts of the entire assembly for repairs. 

602.3.5.1 Pump enclosure. The pump room or enclo- 
sure around a well pump shall be drained and protected 
from freezing by heating or other approved means. 
Where pumps are installed in basements, such pumps 
shall be mounted on a block or shelf not less than 18 
inches(457 mm) above the basement floor. Well pits shall 
be prohibited. 



SECTION 603 
WATER SERVICE 

603.1 Size of water service pipe. The water service pipe shall 
be sized to supply water to the structure in the quantities and at 
the pressures required in this code. The minimum diameter of 
water service pipe shall be V4 inch (19.1 mm). 

603.2 Separation of water service and building sewer. Water 
service pipe and the building sewer shall be separated by 5 feet 
(1524 mm) of undisturbed or compacted earth. 

Exception: The required separation distance shall not apply 
where the bottom of the water service pipe within 5 feet 
(1524 mm) of the sewer is a minimum of 12 inches (305 
mm) above the top of the highest point of the sewer and the 
pipe materials conform to Section 703.1. 

603.2.1 Water service near sources of pollution. Potable 
water service pipes shall not be located in, under or above 
cesspools, septic tanks, septic tank drainage fields or seep- 
age pits (see Section 605.2 for soil and groundwater condi- 
tions). 



SECTION 604 

DESIGN OF BUILDING WATER 

DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM 

604.1 General. The design of the water distribution system 
shall conform to accepted engineering practice. Methods uti- 
lized to determine pipe sizes shall be approved. 

604.2 System interconnection. At the points of interconnec- 
tion between the hot and cold water supply piping systems and 



2000 INTERNATrONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



35 



604.3 - 604.8.1 



WATER SUPPLY AND DISTRIBUTION 



the individual fixtures, appliances or devices, provisions shall 
be made to prevent flow between such piping systems. 



L3 Water distribution system design criteria. The water 
distribution system shall be designed, and pipe sizes shall be se- 
lected such that under conditions of peak demand, the capacities 
at the fixture supply pipe outlets shall not be less than shown in 
Table 604.3. The minimum flow rate and flow pressure provided 
to fixtures and appUances not Usted in Table 604.3 shall be in ac- 
cordance with manufacturer's installation instructions. 

TABLE 604.3 

WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM DESIGN CRITERIA REQUIRED 

CAPACITIES AT FIXTURE SUPPLY PIPE OUTLETS 





FIXTURE SUPPLY OUTLET SERVING 


FLOW RATE^ 
(gpm) 


FLOW 

PRESSURE 

(psi) 




Bathtub 


4 


8 




Bidet 


2 


4 




Combination fixture 


4 


8 




Dishwasher, residential 


2.75 


8 




Drinking fountain 


0.75 


8 




Laundry tray 


4 


8 




Lavatory 


2 


8 




Shower 


3 


8 




Shower, temperature controlled 


3 


20 




Sillcock, hose bibb 


5 


8 




Sink, residential 


2.5 


8 




Sink, service 


3 


8 




Urinal, valve 


15 


15 




Water closet, blow out, flushometer 
valve 


35 


25 


1 


Water closet, flushometer tank 


1.6 


15 




Water closet, siphonic, flushometer 
valve 


25 


15 




Water closet, tank, close coupled 


3 


8 




Water closet, tank, one piece 


6 


20 



For SI: 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa, 

1 gallon per minute (gpm) = 3.785 L/m. 
a. For additional requirements for flow rates and quantities, see Section 604.4. 



water consumptiono The maxi- 
mum water consumption flow rates and quantities for all 
plumbing fixtures and fixture fittings shall be in accordance 
with Table 604.4. 



1. Blowout design water closets [3.5 gallons (13 L) per 
flushing cycle]. 

2. Vegetable sprays. 

3 . Chnical sinks [4 . 5 gallons ( 1 7 L) per flushing cycle] . 



4. Service sinks. 

5. Emergency showers. 



TABLE 604.4 

MAXIMUM FLOW RATES AND CONSUMPTION 

FOR PLUMBING FIXTURES AND FIXTURE FITTINGS 



PLUMBING FIXTURE 
OR FIXTURE FITTING 


MAXIMUIW FLOW RATE 
OR quantity" 


Water closet 


1.6 gallons per flushing cycle 


Urinal 


1.0 gallon per flushing cycle 


Shower head" 


2.5 gpm at 80 psi 


Lavatory, private 


2.2 gpm at 60 psi 


Lavatory (other than metering), 
public 


0.5 gpm at 60 psi 


Lavatory, public (metering) 


0.25 gallon per metering cycle 


Sink faucet 


2.2 gpm at 60 psi 



For SI: 1 gallon = 3.785 L, 1 gallon per minute = 3.785 L/m, 
1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa. 

a. A hand-held shower spray is a shower head. 

b. Consumption tolerances shall be determined from referenced standards. 



604.5 Size of fixture supply. The minimum size of a fixture 
supply pipe shall be as shown in Table 604.5. The fixture sup- 
ply pipe shall not terminate more than 30 inches (762 mm) from 
the point of connection to the fixture. A reduced-size flexible 
connector installed between the supply pipe and the fixture 
shall be of an approved type. The supply pipe shall extend to the 
floor or wall adjacent to the fixture. The minimum size of indi- 
vidual distribution lines utilized in parallel water distribution 
systems shall be as shown in Table 604.5. 



•.6 Variable street pressures. Where street water main 
pressures fluctuate, the building water distribution system shall 
be designed for the minimum pressure available. 

604.7 Inadequate water pressure. Wherever water pressure 
from the street main or other source of supply is insufficient to 
provide flow pressures at fixture outlets as required under Sec- 
tion 604.3, a water pressure booster system conforming to Sec- 
tion 606.5 shall be installed on the building water supply 
system. 

604.8 Water-pressure reducing valve or regulator. Where 
water pressure within a building exceeds 80 psi (552 kPa) 
static, an approved water-pressure reducing valve conforming 
to ASSE 1003 with strainer shall be installed to reduce the pres- 
sure in the building water distribution piping to 80 psi (552 kPa) 
static or less. 

Exception: Service lines to sill cocks and outside hydrants, 
and main supply risers where pressure from the mains is re- 
duced to 80 psi (552 kPa) or less at individual fixtures. 

604.8.1 Valve design. The pressure-reducing valve shall be 
designed to remain open to permit uninterrupted water flow 
in case of valve failure. 




36 



2000 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



WATER SUPPLY AND DISTRIBUTION 



TABLE 604.5 - 605.4 



TABLE 604.5 
MINIMUM SIZES OF FIXTURE WATER SUPPLY PIPES 



FIXTURE 


MINIMUM PIPE SIZE 
(inch) 


Bathtubs (60" x 32" and smaller)^ 


'/2 


Bathtubs (larger than 60" x 32") 


% 


Bidet 


% 


Combination sink and tray 


\ 


Dishwasher, domestic^ 


'll 


Drinking fountain 


\ 


Hose bibbs 


\ 


Kitchen sink^ 


\ 


Laundry, 1, 2 or 3 compartments" 


\ 


Lavatory 


\ 


Shower, single head" 


% 


Sinks, flushing rim 


'U 


Sinks, service 


% 


Urinal, flush tank 


% 


Urinal, flush valve 


% 


Wall hydrant 


% 


Water closet, flush tank 


% 


Water closet, flush valve 


1 


Water closet, flushometer tank 


\ 


Water closet, one piece" 


% 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 
1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa. 

a. Where the developed length of the distribution line is 60 feet or less, and the 
available pressure at the meter is a minimum of 35 psi, the minimum size of 
an individual distribution line supplied from a manifold and installed as part 
of a parallel water distribution system shall be one nominal tube size smaller 
than the sizes indicated. 



604.8.2 Repair and removal. All water-pressure reducing 
valves, regulators and strainers shall be so constructed and 
installed as to permit repair or removal of parts without 
breaking a pipeline or removing the valve and strainer from 
the pipeline. 

604.9 Water hammer. The flow velocity of the water distribu- 
tion system shall be controlled to reduce the possibility of water 
hammer. A water-hammer arrestor shall be installed where 
quick-closing valves are utilized, unless otherwise approved. 
Water-hanmier arrestors shall be installed in accordance with 
the manufacturer's specifications. Water-hammer arrestors 
shall conform to ASSE 1010. 



} Parallel water distribution system manifolds. Hot 
water and cold water manifolds installed with parallel con- 
nected individual distribution lines to each fixture or fixture fit- 
ting shall be designed in accordance with Sections 604.10.1 
through 604.10.3. 



604.10.1 Manifold sizing. Hot water and cold water mani- 
folds shall be sized in accordance with Table 604.10.1. The 
total gallons per minute is the demand of all outlets sup- 
plied. 

TABLE 604.10.1 
MANIFOLD SIZING 



NOMINAL SIZE INTERNAL 
DIAMETER (inches) 


MAXIMUM DEMAND (gpm) 


Velocity at 4 feet 
per second 


Velocity at 8 feet 
per second 


% 


2 


5 


\ 


6 


11 


1 


10 


20 


IV. 


15 


31 


IV, 


22 


44 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 gallon per minute = 3.785 L/m, 
1 foot per second = 0.305 m/s. 



604.10.2 Valves. Individual fixture shutoff valves installed 
at the manifold shall be identified as to the fixture being sup- 
plied. 

604.10.3 Access. Access shall be provided to manifolds. 



SECTION 605 
MATERIALS, JOINTS AND CONNECTIONS 

605.1 Water compatibility. Water service pipe and water dis- 
tribution pipe shall be resistant to corrosive action and degrad- 
ing action from the potable water supplied by the water 
purveyor or individual water supply system. 

605.2 Soil and ground water. The installation of a water ser- 
vice pipe shall be prohibited in soil and ground water contami- 
nated with solvents, fuels, organic compounds or other 
detrimental materials causing permeation, corrosion, degrada- 
tion or structural failure of the piping material. Where detri- 
mental conditions are suspected, a chemical analysis of the soil 
and ground water conditions shall be required to ascertain the 
acceptability of the water service material for the specific in- 
stallation. Where detrimental conditions exist, approved alter- 
native materials or routing shall be required. 

605.3 Lead content of water supply pipe and fittings. Pipe 
and pipe fittings, including valves and faucets, utilized in the 
water supply system shall have a maximum of 8-percent lead 
content. 

605.4 Water service pipe. Water service pipe shall conform to 
NSF 6 1 and shall conform to one of the standards listed in Table 
605.4. All water service pipe or tubing, installed underground 
and outside of the structure, shall have a minimum working 
pressure rating of 160 psi (1 100 kPa) at 73.4°F (23°C). Where 
the water pressure exceeds 160 psi (1 100 kPa), piping material 
shall have a minimum rated working pressure equal to the high- 
est available pressure. Plastic water service piping shall termi- 
nate within 5 feet (1524 mm) inside the point of entry into a 
building. All ductile iron water pipe shall be cement mortar 
lined in accordance with AWWA CI 04. 



2000 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



37 



TABLE 605.4 -605.6.1.1 



WATER SUPPLY AND DISTRIBUTION 



TABLE 605.4 
WATER SERVICE PIPE 



MATERIAL 


STANDARD 


Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) plastic pipe 


ASTM D 1527; ASTM D 2282 


Asbestos-cement pipe 


ASTM C 296 


Brass pipe 


ASTM B 43 


Copper or copper-alloy pipe 


ASTM B 42; ASTM B 302 


Copper or copper-alloy tubing (Type K, WK, L, WL, M or WM) 


ASTM B 75; ASTM B 88; ASTM B 251; ASTM B 447 


Chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC) plastic pipe 


ASTM D 2846; ASTM F 441; ASTM F 442; CSA B137.6 


Ductile iron water pipe 


AWWA C151; AWWA C115 


Galvanized steel pipe 


ASTM A 53 


Polybutylene (PB) plastic pipe and tubing 


ASTM D 2662; ASTM D 2666; ASTM D 3309; CSA B 137.8 


Polyethylene (PE) plastic pipe 


ASTM D 2239; CSA CAN/CSA-B 137.1 


Polyethylene (PE) plastic tubing 


ASTM D 2737; CSA B137.1 


Cross-linked polyethylene (PEX) plastic tubing 


ASTM F 876; ASTM F 877; CSA CAN/CSA-B 137.5 


Cross-Unked polyethylene/aluminum/cross-linked polyethylene 
(PEX-AL-PEX) pipe 


ASTM F 1281; CSA CAN/CSA B 137.10 


Polyethylene/aluminum/polyethylene (PE-AL-PE) pipe 


ASTM F 1282; CSA CAN/CSA-B 137.9 


Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic pipe 


ASTM D 1785; ASTM D 2241; ASTM D 2672; CSA 
CAN/CSA-B 137.3 



TABLE 605.5 
WATER DISTRIBUTION PIPE 



MATERIAL 


STANDARD 


Brass pipe 


ASTM B 43 


Chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC) plastic pipe and tubing 


ASTM D 2846; ASTM F 441; ASTM F 442; CSA B 137.6 


Copper or copper-alloy pipe 


ASTM B 42; ASTM B 302 


Copper or copper-alloy tubing (Type K, WK, L, WL, M or WM) 


ASTM B 75; ASTM B 88; ASTM B 251; ASTM B 447 


Cross-linked polyethylene (PEX) plastic tubing 


ASTM F 877; CSA CAN/CSA-B 137.5 


Cross-hnked polyethylene/ 

aluminum/cross-linked polyethylene (PEX-AL-PEX) pipe 


ASTM F 1281; CSA CAN/CSA-B 137. 10 


Galvanized steel pipe 


ASTM A 53 


Polybutylene (PB) plastic pipe and tubing 


ASTM D 3309; CSA CAN3-B 137.8 



605.4.1 Dual check-valve-type backflow preventer. 
Where a dual check- valve-backflow preventer is installed on 
the water supply system, it shall comply with ASSE 1024. 

605.5 Water distribution pipe. Water distribution pipe shall 
conform to NSF 61 and shall conform to one of the standards 
listed in Table 605.5. All hot water distribution pipe and tubing 
shall have a minimum pressure rating of 100 psi (690 kPa) at 
180°F(82°C). 

605.6 Fittings. Pipe fittings shall be approved for installation 
with the piping material installed and shall conform to the re- 
spective pipe standards or one of the standards listed in Table 
605.6. All pipe fittings utilized in water supply systems shall 
also conform to NSF 61. The fittings shall not have ledges, 



shoulders or reductions capable of retarding or obstructing 
flow in the piping. Ductile and gray iron pipe fittings shall be 
cement mortar lined in accordance with AWWA CI 04. 

605.6.1 Mechanically formed tee fittings. Mechanically 
extracted outlets shall have a height not less than three times 
the thickness of the branch tube wall. 

605.6.1.1 Full flovi^ assurance. Branch tubes shall not 
restrict the flow in the run tube. A dimple/depth stop shall 
be formed in the branch tube to ensure that penetration 
into the collar is of the correct depth. For inspection pur- 
poses, a second dimple shall be placed 0.25 inch (6.4 
mm) above the first dimple. Dimples shall be aligned 
with the tube run. 



38 



2000 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



WATER SUPPLY AND DISTRIBUTION 



TABLE 605.6 -605.14.2 



TABLE 605.6 
PIPE FITTINGS 




MATERIAL 


STANDARD 


Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS)lplastic 


ASTM D 2468 


Cast iron ; 


ASME B16.4; ASME B16.12 


Chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVCJ plastic 


ASTM F 437; ASTM F 438; ASTM F 439 


Copper or copper alloy 


ASME B16.15; ASME B16.18; ASME B16.22; ASME BI6.23; 
ASME B 16.26; ASME B 16.29 


Gray iron and ductile iron 


AWWA CI 10; AWWA C153 


Malleable iron 


ASME B 16.3 


Metal insert fittings utilizing a copper crimp 
ring for SDR9 (PEX) tubing 


ASTM F 1807 


Polyethylene (PE) plastic 


ASTM D 2609 


Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic 


ASTM D 2464; ASTM D 2466; ASTM D 2467; 
CSACAN/CSA-B 137.2 


Steel 


ASME B16.9; ASME B16.il; ASME B16.28 



605.6.1.2 Brazed joints. Mechanically formed tee fit- 
tings shall be brazed in accordance with Section 
605.14.1. 

605.7 Valves. All valves shall be of the approved type and com- 
patible with the type of piping material installed in the system. 

605.8 Manufactured pipe nipples. Manufactured pipe nip- 
ples shall conform to one of the standards listed in Table 605 . 8 . 



TABLE 605.8 
MANUFACTURED PIF>E NIPPLES 



MATERIAL 


STANDARD 


Steel 


ASTM A 733 


Brass-, copper-, 
chromium-plated 


ASTM B 687 



605.9 Prohibited joints and connections. The following 
types of joints and connections shall be prohibited: 

1 . Cement or concrete joints. 

2. Joints made with fittings not approved for the specific in- 
stallation. 

3. Solvent-cement joints between different types of plastic 
pipe. 

4. Saddle-type fittings. 

605.10 ABS plastic. Joints between ABS plastic pipe or fit- 
tings shall comply with Sections 605.10.1 through 605.10.3. 

605.10.1 Mechanical joints. Mechanical joints on water 
pipes shall be made with an elastdmeric seal conforming to 
ASTM D 3139. Mechanical joints shall only be installed in 
underground systems, unless otherwise approved. Joints 
shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's in- 
structions. 

605.10.2 Solvent cementing. Joint surfaces shall be clean 
and free from moisture. Solveiit cement that conforms to 
ASTM D 2235 shall be apphed to all joint surfaces. The 
joint shall be made while the cement is wet. Joints shall be 



made in accordance with ASTM D 2235. Solvent-cement 
joints shall be permitted above or below ground. 

605.10.3 Threaded joints. Threads shall conform to 
ASME B 1.20.1. Schedule 80 or heavier pipe shall be per- 
mitted to be threaded with dies specifically designed for 
plastic pipe. Approved thread lubricant or tape shall be ap- 
phed on the male threads only. 

605.11 Asbestos-cement. Joints between asbestos-cement 
pipe or fittings shall be made with a sleeve coupling of the same 
composition as the pipe, sealed with an elastomeric ring con- 
forming to ASTM D 1869. 

605.12 Brass. Joints between brass pipe or fittings shall com- 
ply with Sections 605.12.1 through 605.12.4. 

6Q5.12.1 Brazed joints. All joint surfaces shall be cleaned. 
An approved flux shall be applied where required. The joint 
shall be brazed with a filler metal conforming to AWS A5 . 8 . 

605.12.2 Mechanical joints. Mechanical joints shall be in- 
stalled in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. 

605.12.3 Threaded joints. Threads shall conform to 
ASME Bi.20.1. Pipe-joint compound or tape shall be ap- 
plied on the male threads only. 

605.12.4 Welded joints. All joint surfaces shall be cleaned. 
The joint shall be welded with an approved filler metal. .■- 

605.13 Gray iron and ductile iron joints. Joints for gray and 
ductile iron pipe and fittings shall comply with AWWA CI 1 1 
and shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's in- 
stallation instructions. 

605.14 Copper pipe. Joints between copper or copper-alloy 
pipe or fittings shall comply with Sections 605.14.1 through 
605.14.5. 

605.14.1 Brazed joints. All joint surfaces shall be cleaned. 
All approved flux shall be applied where required. The joint 
shiall be brazed with a filler metal conforming to AWS A5 . 8 . 

605.14.2 Mechanical joints. Mechanical joints shall be in- 
stalled in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. 



2000 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



39 



605.14.3-605.20.3 



WATER SUPPLY AND DISTRIBUTION 



605.143 Soldered joints. Solder joints shall be made in ac- 
cordance with the methods of ASTM B 828. All cut tube 
ends shall be reamed to the full inside diameter of the tube 
end. All joint surfaces shall be cleaned. A flux conforming 
to ASTM B 813 shall be applied. The joint shall be soldered 
with a solder conforming to ASTM B 32. The joining of wa- 
ter supply piping shall be made with lead-free solder and 
fluxes. "Lead free" shall mean a chemical composition 
equal to or less than 0.2-percent lead. 



Threads shall conform to 
ASME B 1.20.1. Pipe-joint compound or tape shall be ap- 
plied on the male threads only. 

605ol4.5 Welded jointSo All joint surfaces shall be cleaned. 
The joint shall be welded with an approved filler metal. 

605.15 Copper tubing. Joints between copper or copper-alloy 
tubing or fittings shall comply with Sections 605.15.1 through 
605.15.4. 

605.15.1 Brazed joints. All joint surfaces shall be cleaned. 
An approved flux shall be applied where required. The joint 
shall be brazed with a filler metal conforming to AWS A5.8. 

605.15.2 Flared joints. Flared joints for water pipe shall be 
made by a tool designed for that operation. 

605.15.3 Mechanical joints. Mechanical joints shall be in- 
stalled in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. 

605.15.4 Soldered joints. Solder joints shall be made in ac- 
cordance with the methods of ASTM B 828. All cut tube 
ends shall be reamed to the full inside diameter of the tube 
end. All joint surfaces shall be cleaned. A flux conforming 
to ASTM B 813 shall be appHed. The joint shall be soldered 
with a solder conforming to ASTM B 32. The joining of wa- 
ter supply piping shall be made with lead-free solders and 
fluxes. "Lead free" shall mean a chemical composition 
equal to or less than 0.2-percent lead. 

605.16 CPVC plastic. Joints between CPVC plastic pipe or fit- 
tings shall comply with Sections 605.16.1 through 605.16.3. 

605.16.1 Mechanical joints. Mechanical joints shall be in- 
stalled in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. 

605.16.2 Solvent cementing. Joint surfaces shall be clean 
and free from moisture, and an approved primer shall be ap- 
plied. Solvent cement, orange in color and conforming to 
ASTM F 493, shall be applied to all joint surfaces. The joint 
shall be made while the cement is wet, and in accordance with 
ASTM D 2846 or ASTM F 493. Solvent-cement joints shall 
be permitted above or below ground. 

Exception: A primer is not required where all of the fol- 
lowing conditions apply: 

1 . The solvent cement used is third-party certified as 
conforming to ASTM F493 . 

2. The solvent cement used is yellow in color. 

3 . The solvent cement is used only for joining Vj inch 
(12.7 mm) through 2 inch (51 mm) diameter 
CPVC pipe and fittings. 

4. The CPVC pipe and fittings are manufactured in 
accordance with ASTM D2846. 



605.16.3 Threaded joints. Threads shall conform to ASME 
B 1 .20. 1 . Schedule 80 or heavier pipe shall be permitted to be 
threaded with dies specifically designed for plastic pipe, but 
the pressure rating of the pipe shall be reduced by 50 percent. 
Thread by socket molded fittings shall be permitted. Ap- 
proved thread lubricant or tape shall be applied on the male 
threads only. 

605.17 Cross-linked polyethylene plastic. Joints between 
cross- linked polyethylene plastic tubing or fittings shall comply 
with Sections 605.17.1 and 605.17.2. 

605.17.1 Flared joints. Flared pipe ends shall be made by a 
tool designed for that operation. 

605.17.2 Mechanical joints. Mechanical joints shall be in- 
stalled in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. 
Metallic lock rings and insert fittings as described in ASTM 
F 1807 shall be installed in accordance with the manufac- 
turer's instructions. 

605.18 Steel. Joints between galvanized steel pipe or fittings 
shall comply with Sections 605.18.1 and 605.18.2. 

605.18.1 Threaded joints. Threads shall conform to ASME 
B 1.20. 1. Pipe-joint compound or tape shall be applied on 
the male threads only. 

605.18.2 Mechanical joints. Joints shall be made with an 
approved elastomeric seal. Mechanical joints shall be in- 
stalled in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. 

605.19 Polybutylene plastic. Joints between polybutylene 
plastic pipe and tubing or fittings shall comply witli iSections 
605.19.1 through 605.19.3. 

605.19.1 Flared joints. Flared pipe ends shall be made by a 
tool designed for that operation. 

605.19.2 Heat-fusion joints. Joints shall be of the socket-fu- 
sion or butt-fusion type. Joint surfaces shall be clean and free 
from moisture. All joint surfaces shall be heated to melt tem- 
perature and joined. The joint shall be undisturbed until cool. 
Joints shall be made in accordance witii ASTM D 2657, 
ASTM D 3309 or CSA CAN3-B 137.8. 

605.19.3 Mechanical joints. Mechanical joints shall be in- 
stalled in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. 
Metallic lock rings employed with insert fittings as de- 
scribed in ASTM D 3309 or CSA CAN3-B 137.8 shall be in- 
stalled in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. 

605.20 Polyethylene plastic. Joints between polyethylene plas- 
tic pipe and tubing or fittings shall comply with Sections 
605.20.1 through 605.20.4. 

605.20.1 Flared joints. Flared joints shall be permitted 
where so indicated by the pipe manufacturer. Flared joints 
shall be made by a tool designed for that operation. 

605.20.2 Heat-fusion joints. Joint surfaces shall be clean 
and free from moisture. All joint surfaces shall be heated to 
melt temperature and joined. The joint shall be undisturbed 
until cool. Joints shall be made in accordance with ASTM D 

2657. 

605.20.3 Mechanical joints. Mechanical joints shall be in- 
stalled in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. 



• 



40 



2000 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



WATER SUPPLY AND DISTRIBUTION 



605.20.4 - 606.5.3 



• 



605.20.4 Installation. Polyethylene pipe shall be cut 
square, with a cutter designed for plastic pipe. Except where 
joined by heat fusion, pipe ends shall be chamfered to re- 
move sharp edges. Kinked pipe shall not be installed. The 
minimum pipe bending radius shall not be less than 30 pipe 
diameters, or the minimum coil radius, whichever is greater. 
Piping shall not be bent beyond straightening of the curva- 
ture of the coil. Bends shall not be permitted within 10 pipe 
diameters of any fitting or valve. Stiffener inserts installed 
with compression-type couplings and fittings shall not ex- 
tend beyond the clamp or nut of the coupling or fitting. 

605.21 PVC plastic. Joints between PVC plastic pipe or fit- 
tings shall comply with Sections 605.21.1 through 605.21.3. 

605.21.1 Mechanical joints. Mechanical joints on water 
pipe shall be made with an elastomeric seal conforming to 
ASTM D 3139. Mechanical joints shall not be installed in 
above-ground systems unless otherwise approved. Joints 
shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's in- 
structions. 

605.21.2 Solvent cementing. Joint surfaces shall be clean 
and free from moisture. A purplb primer that conforms to 
ASTM F 656 shall be applied. Solvent cement not purple in 
color and conforming to ASTM D 2564 or CSA 
CAN/CSA-B 137.3 shall be applied to all joint surfaces. The 
joint shall be made while the cement is wet and shall be in 
accordance with ASTM D 2855. Solvent-cement joints 
shall be permitted above or below ground. 

605.21.3 Threaded joints. Threads shall conform to ASME 
B 1.20.1. Schedule 80 or heavier pipe shall be permitted to 
be threaded with dies specifically designed for plastic pipe, 
but the pressure rating of the pipe shall be reduced by 50 per- 
cent. Thread by socket molded fittings shall be permitted. 
Approved thread lubricant or tape shall be applied on the 
male threads only. 

605.22 Joints between different materials. Joints between 
different piping materials shall be made with a mechanical joint 
of the compression or mechanical-sealing type, or as permitted 
in Sections 605.22.1 and 605.22.2. Connectors or adapters 
shall have an elastomeric seal conforming to ASTM D 1869 or 
ASTM F 477. Joints shall be installed in accordance with the 
manufacturer's instructions. 

605.22.1 Copper or copper-alloy tubing to galvanized 
steel pipe. Joints between copper or copper-alloy tubing and 
galvanized steel pipe shall be made with a brass converter 
fitting or dielectric fitting. The copper tubing shall be sol- 
dered to the fitting in an approved manner, and the fitting 
shall be screwed to the threaded pipe. 

605.22.2 Plastic pipe or tubing to other piping material. 

Joints between different grades of plastic pipe or between 
plastic pipe and other piping material shall be made with an 
approved adapter fitting. 



SECTION 606 

INSTALLATION OF THE BUILDING WATER 

DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM 

606.1 Location of full-open valves. Full-open valves shall be 
installed in the following locations: 

1 . On the building water service pipe from the public water 
supply near the curb. 

2. On the water distribution supply pipe at the entrance into 
the structure. 

3. On the discharge side of every water meter. 

4. On the base of every water riser pipe in occupancies other 
than multiple-family residential occupancies that are two 
stories or less in height and in one- and two-family resi- 
dential occupancies. 

5 . On the top of every water down-feed pipe in occupancies 
other than one- and two-family residential occupancies. 

6. On the entrance to every water supply pipe to a dwelling 
unit, except where supplying a single fixture equipped 
with individual stops. 

7 . On the water supply pipe to a gravity or pressurized water 
tank. 

8. On the water supply pipe to every water heater. 

606.2 Location of shutoff valves. Shutoff valves shall be in- 
stalled in the following locations: 

1 . On the fixture supply to each plumbing fixture in other 
than one- and two-family and multiple-family residential 
occupancies, and other than in individual guestrooms 
that are provided with unit shutoff valves in hotels, mo- 
tels, boarding houses and similar occupancies. 

2. On the water supply pipe to each sillcock. 

3. On the water supply pipe to each appliance or mechani- 
cal equipment. 

606.3 Access to valves. Access shall be provided to all required 
full-open valves and shutoff valves. 

606.4 Valve identification. Service and hose bibb valves shall 
be identified. All other valves installed in locations that are not 
adjacent to the fixture or appliance shall be identified, indicat- 
ing the fixture or appliance served. 

606.5 Water pressure booster systems. Water pressure 
booster systems shall be provided as required by Sections 
606.5.1 through 606.5.10. 

606.5.1 Water pressure booster systems required. Where 
the water pressure in the pubUc water main or individual wa- 
ter supply system is insufficient to supply the minimum 
pressures and quantities specified in this code, the supply 
shall be supplemented by an elevated water tank, a 
hydropneumatic pressure booster system or a water pres- 
sure booster pump installed in accordance with Section 
606.5.5. 

606.5.2 Support. All water supply tanks shall be supported 
in accordance with the International Building Code. 

606.5.3 Covers. All water supply tanks shall be covered to 
keep out unauthorized persons, dirt and vermin. The covers 



2000 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



41 



606.5.4 - 607.2 



WATER SUPPLY AND DISTRBBUTION 



of gravity tanks shall be vented with a return bend vent pipe 
with an area not less than the area of the down-feed riser 
pipe, and the vent shall be screened with a corrosion-resis- 
tant screen of not less than 16 by 20 mesh per inch (630 by 
787 mesh per m). 



TABLE 606.5.7 
SIZE OF DRAIN PIPES FOR WATER TANKS 



Po5.4 Overflows for water supply tanks. Each gravity or 
suction water supply tank shall be provided with an over- 
flow with a diameter not less than that shown in Table 
606.5.4. The overflow outlet shall discharge above and 
within not less than 6 inches (152 mm) of a roof or roof 
drain, floor or floor drain, or over an open water-supplied 
fixture. The overflow outlet shall be covered with a corro- 
sion-resistant screen of not less than 16 by 20 mesh per inch 
(630 by 787 mesh per m) and by 0.25-inch (6.4 mm) hard- 
ware cloth or shall terminate in a horizontal angle seat check 
valve. Drainage from overflow pipes shall be directed so as 
not to freeze on roof walks. 

TABLE 606.5.4 
SIZES FOR OVERFLOW PIPES FOR WATER SUPPLY TANKS 



MAXIMUiW CAPACITY OF WATER 

SUPPLY LINE TO TANK 

(gpm) 


DIAMETER OF OVERFLOW PIPE 
(Inches) 


0-50 


2 


51-150 


2% 


151-200 


3 


201 - 400 


4 


401 - 700 


5 


701 - 1,000 


6 


Over 1,000 


8 



For SL 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 gallon per minute = 3.785 L/m. 



oS.5 Low-pressure cutoff required oo booster pumps. 
A low-pressure cutoff shall be installed on all booster 
pumps in a water pressure booster system to prevent cre- 
ation of a vacuum or negative pressure on the suction side of 
the pump when a positive pressure of 10 psi (68.94 kPa) or 
less occurs on the suction side of the pump. 

606.5.6 Potable water iinlet control and location. Potable 
water inlets to gravity tanks shall be controlled by a ball 
cock or other automatic supply valve installed so as to pre- 
vent the tank from overflowing. The inlet shall be termi- 
nated so as to provide an air gap not less than 4 inches (102 
mm) above the overflow. 



.5,7 Tank drain pipes. A valved pipe shall be provided 
at the lowest point of each tank to permit emptying of the 
tank. The tank drain pipe shall discharge as required for 
overflow pipes and shall not be smaller in size than specified 
in Table 606.5.7. 



TANK CAPACITY (gallons) 


DRAIN PIPE (inches) 


Up to 750 


1 


751 to 1,500 


IV, 


1,501 to 3,000 


2 


3,001 to 5,000 


2V, ■ 


5,001 to 7,500 


3 


Over 7,500 


4 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 gallon = 3.785 L. 

606.5.8 Prohibited location of potable supply tanks. 
Potable water gravity tanks or manholes of potable water 
pressure tanks shall not be located directly under any soil or 
waste piping or any source of contamination. 

606.5.9 Pressure tanks, vacuum relief. All water pressure 
tanks shall be provided with a vacuum relief valve at the top 
of the tank that will operate up to a maximum water pressure 
of 200 psi (1380 kPa) and up to a maximum temperature of 
200°F (93 °C). The minimum size of such vacuum relief 
valve shall be 0.50 inch (12.7 mm). 

Exception: This section shall not apply to pressurized 
captive air diaphragm/bladder tanks. 

606.5.10 Pressure relief for tanks. Everj' pressure tank in a 
hydropneumatic pressure booster system shall be protected 
with a pressure relief valve. The pressure relief valve shall 
be set at a maximum pressure equal to the rating of the tank:. 
The relief valve shall be installed on the supply pipe to the 
tank or on the tank. The relief valve shall discharge by grav- 
ity to a safe place of disposal. 

606.6 Water supply system test. Upon completion of a section 
of or the entire water supply system, the system, or portion 
completed, shall be tested in accordance with Section 312. 



SECTION 607 
HOT WATER SUPPLY SYSTEIVi 

607.1 Where required. In occupied structures, hot water shall 
be suppUed to all plumbing fixtures and equipment utilized for 
bathing, washing, culinary purposes, cleansing, laundry or 
building maintenance. Tempered water shall be delivered from I 
accessible hand-washing facilities. I 

Exception: In nonresidential occupancies, hot water or 
tempered water shall be supplied for bathing and washing 
purposes. This shall not apply to accessible hand- washing I 
facilities. | 

607.2 Hot water supply temperature maintenance. Where 
the developed length of hot water piping from the source of hot 
water supply to the farthest fixture exceeds 100 feet (30 480 
mm), the hot water supply system shall be provided with a 



42 



2000 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



WATER SUPPLY AND DISTRIBUTION 



607.2.1 - 608.8.3 




method of maintaining the temperature of hot water to within 
100 feet (30 480 mm) of the fixtures. The methods of maintain- 
ing energy efficiency shall be in accordance with the Interna- 
tional Energy Conservation Code. 

607.2.1 Piping insulation. Piping in required return circu- 
lation systems shall be insulated to provide a thermal re- 
sistance, R, excluding film resistances, of 

t -t . _ _ 

(Equation 6-1) 



R= 



25 



(hr.)(ft.')°F 



/Btu 



For SI: R = [r, - 1, (0.0304)K • m^JAV 



where: 



tj - 1„ = The design temperature differential between the 
water in the pipe and the surrounding air in degrees 
Fahrenheit. 

Exception: Pipe insulation is not required where f, - 1„ is 
25°F(14°C)orless. 

607.2.2 Pump operation. Where a circulating pump is in- 
stalled on a return circulation hot water system, the pump 
shall be arranged to shut off automatically or to allow man- 
ual shutoff when the hot water system is not in operation. 

607.3 Thermal expansion control. A means of controlling in- 
creased pressure caused by thermal expansion shall be pro- 
vided where required in accordance with Sections 607.3.1 and 
607.3.2. 

607.3.1 Pressure-reducing valve. For water service system 
sizes up to and including 2 inches (5 1 mm), a device for con- 
troUing pressure shall be installed where, because of ther- 
mal expansion, the pressure on the downstream side of a 
pressure-reducing valve exceeds the main supply pressure. 
A pressure-reducing valve with an integral bypass check 
valve or other device shall be installed to satisfy this require- 
ment. 

607.3.2 Backflow prevention device or check valve. 

Where a backflow prevention device, check valve or other 
device is installed on a water supply system utilizing storage 
water heating equipment such that thermal expansion 
causes an increase in pressure, a device for controlling pres- 
sure shall be installed. 

607.4 Hot water supply to fixtures. The hot water supply to 
any fixture shall be installed on the left side of the fixture. 

SECTION 608 
PROTECTION OF POTABLE WATER SUPPLY 

608.1 General. A potable water supply system shall be de- 
signed, installed and maintained in such a manner so as to pre- 
vent contamination from nonpotable liquids, solids or gases 
being introduced into the potable water supply through 
cross-connections or any other piping connections to the sys- 
tem. Backflow preventer applications shall conform to Table 
608.1, except as specifically stated in Sections 608.2 through 
608.16.9. 



608.2 Plumbing fixtures. The supply lines or fittings for every 
plumbing fixture shall be installed so as to prevent backflow. 

608.3 Devices, appurtenances, appliances and apparatus. 

All devices, appurtenances, appliances and apparatus intended 
to serve some special function, such as sterilization, distilla- 
tion, processing, cooling, or storage of ice or foods, and that 
connect to the water supply system, shall be provided with pro- 
tection against backflow and contamination of the water supply 
system. Water pumps, filters, softeners, tanks and all other ap- 
pliances and devices that handle or treat potable water shall be 
protected against contamination. 

608.3.1 Special equipment, water supply protection. The 

water supply for hospital fixtures shall be protected against 
backflow with a reduced pressure principle backflow 
preventer, an atmospheric or spill-proof vacuum breaker, or 
an air gap. Vacuum breakers for bedpan washer hoses shall 
not be located less than 5 feet (1524 mm) above the floor. 
Vacuum breakers for hose connections in health care or lab- 
oratory areas shall not be less than 6 feet (1829 mm) above 
the floor. 

608.4 Water service piping. Water service piping shall be pro- 
tected in accordance with Sections 603.2 and 603.2.1. 

608.5 Chemicals and other substances. Chemicals and other 
substances that produce either toxic conditions, taste, odor or 
discoloration in a potable water system shall not be introduced 
into, or utilized in, such systems. 

608.6 Cross-connection control. Cross connections shall be 
prohibited, except where approved protective devices are in- 
stalled. 

608.6.1 Private water supplies. Cross connections be- 
tween a private water supply and a potable public supply 
shall be prohibited. 

608.7 Stop-and-waste valves prohibited. Combination 
stop-and-waste valves or cocks shall not be installed under- 
ground. 

608.8 Identification of potable and nonpotable water. In 

buildings where two or more water distribution systems, one 
potable water and the other nonpotable water, are installed, 
each system shall be identified either by color marking or metal 
tags in accordance with Sections 608.8.1 through 608.8.3, un- 
less otherwise approved by the code official. 

608.8.1 Information. Pipe identification shall include the 
contents of the piping system and an arrow indicating the di- 
rection of flow. Hazardous piping systems shall also contain 
information addressing the nature of the hazard. Pipe identi- 
fication shall be repeated at maximum intervals of 25 feet 
(7620 mm) and at each point where the piping passes 
through a wall, floor or roof. Lettering shall be readily ob- 
servable within the room or space the piping is located. 

608.8.2 Color. The color of the pipe identification shall be 
discemable and consistent throughout the building. 

608.8.3 Size. The size of the background color field and let- 
tering shall comply with Table 608.8.3. 



2000 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



43 



TABLE 608.1 



WATER SUPPLY AND DISTRIBUTION 



TABLE 608.1 
APPLICATION FOR BACKFLOW PREVENTERS 



DEVICE 


DEGREE OF HAZARD^ 


application" 


APPLICABLE STANDARDS 


Air gap 


High or low hazard 


Backsiphonage or backpressure 


ASMEAl 12.1.2 


Antisiphon-type water closet flush tank 
ball cock 


Low hazard 


Backsiphonage only 


ASSE 1002 
CSACAN/B125 


Barometric loop 


High or low hazard 


Backsiphonage only 


(See Section 608.13.4) 


Reduced pressure principle backflow preventer 


High or low hazard 


Backpressure or backsiphonage 
Sizes ^/g"-16" 


ASSE 1013 

AWWAC511 

CSA CAN/CSA-B64.4 


Reduced pressure detector assembly backflow 
preventer 


High or low hazard 


Backsiphonage or backpressure 
(Fire sprinkler systems) 


ASSE 1047 


Double check backflow prevention assembly 


Low hazard 


Backpressure or backsiphonage 
Sizes %"-16" 


ASSE 1015 
AWWAC510 


Double check detector assembly backflow 
preventer 


Low hazard 


Backpressure or backsiphonage 
(Fire sprinkler systems) 
Sizes 1V2"-16" 


ASSE 1048 


Dual-check- valve-type backflow preventer 


Low hazard 


Backpressure or backsiphonage 
Sizes V/'-l" 


ASSE 1024 


Backflow preventer with intermediate 
atmospheric vents 


Low hazard 


Backpressure or backsiphonage 
Sizes V4"-3/4" 


ASSE 1012 

CSA CAN/CSA-B64.3 


Dual-check- valve-type backflow preventer for 
carbonated beverage dispensers/post mix type 


Low hazard 


Backpressure or backsiphonage 
Sizes V/'-Vg" 


ASSE 1032 


Pipe-applied atmospheric-type vacuum breaker 


High or low hazard 


Backsiphonage only 
Sizes 'U"-A" 


ASSE 1001 
CSACAN/CSA-B64.1.1 


Pressure vacuum breaker assembly 


High or low hazard 


Backsiphonage only 
Sizes Vj"-!" 


ASSE 1020 


Hose-connection vacuum breaker 


High or low hazard 


Low head backpressure or 

backsiphonage 

Sizes V2", %", 1" 


ASSE 1011 

CSA CAN/CSA-B64.2 


Vacuum breaker wall hydrants, frost-resistant, 
automatic draining type 


High or low hazard 


Low head backpressure or 

backsiphonage 

Sizes V4", 1" 


ASSE 1019 

CSA CAN/CSA-B64.2.2 


Laboratory faucet backflow preventer 


High or low hazard 


Low head backpressure and 
backsiphonage 


ASSE 1035 
CSA B64.7 


Hose connection backflow preventer 


High or low hazard 


Low head backpressure, rated 
working pressure backpressure or 
backsiphonage 
Sizes V2"-l" 


ASSE 1052 


Spillproof vacuum breaker 


High or low hazard 


Backsiphonage only 
Sizes V4"-2" 


ASSE 1056 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

a. Low hazard — See Pollution (Section 202). 
High hazard — See Contamination (Section 202). 

b. See Backpressure (Section 202). 

See Backpressure, low head (Section 202). 
See Backsiphonage (Section 202). 



2000 SNTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



WATER SUPPLY AND DISTRIBUTION 



TABLE 608.8.3 - 608.15.4 




TABLE 608.8.3 
SIZE OF PIPE IDENTIFICATION 




PIPE DIAMETER 
(inches) 


LENGTH OF 

BACKGROUND COLOR FIELD 

(inches) 


SIZE OF 
LETTERS 
(inches) 


V4tOlV4 


8 


0.5 


IV, to 2 


8 


0.75 


2V, to 6 


12 


1.25 


8 to 10 


24 


2.5 


over 10 


32 


3.5 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

608.9 Reutilization prohibited. Water utilized for the cooling 
of equipment or other processes shall not be returned to the po- 
table water system. Such water shall be discharged into a drain- 
age system through an air gap or shall be utilized for 
nonpotable purposes. 

608.10 Reuse of piping. Piping that has been utilized for any 
purpose other than conveying potable water shall not be uti- 
hzed for conveying potable water. 

608.11 Painting of water tanks. The interior surface of a pota- 
ble water tank shall not be lined, painted or repaired with any 
material that changes the taste, odor, color or potabiUty of the 
water supply when the tank is placed in, or returned to, service. 

608.12 Pumps and other appliances. Water pumps, filters, 
softeners, tanks and all other devices that handle or treat pota- 
ble water shall be protected against contamination. 

608.13 Backflow protection. Means of protection against 
backflow shall be provided in accordance with Sections 
608.13.1 through 608.13.9. 

608.13.1 Air gap. The minimum required air gap shall be 
measured vertically from the lowest end of a potable water 
outlet to the flood level rim of the fixture or receptacle into 
which such potable water outlet discharges. 

608.13.2 Reduced pressure principle backflow 
preventers. Reduced pressure principle backflow 
preventers shall conform to ASSE 1013, AWWA C511 or 
CSA CAN/CSA-B64.4. Reduced pressure detector assem- 
bly backflow preventers shall conform to ASSE 1047. 
These devices shall be permitted to be installed where sub- 
ject to continuous pressure conditions. The relief opening 
shall discharge by air gap and shall be prevented from being 
submerged. 

608.13.3 Backflow preventer with intermediate atmo- 
spheric vent. Backflow preventers with intermediate atmo- 
spheric vents shall conform to ASSE 1012 or CSA 
CAN/CS A-B64.4. These devices shall be permitted to be in- 
stalled where subject to continuous pressure conditions. The 
relief opening shall discharge by air gap and shall be pre- 
vented from being submerged. 

608.13.4 Barometric loop. Barometric loops shall precede 
the point of connection and shall extend vertically to a 
height of 35 feet (10 668 mm). A barometric loop shall only 
be utilized as an atmospheric-type or pressure-type vacuum 
breaker. 



608.13.5 Pressure-type vacuum breakers. Pressure-type 
vacuum breakers shall conform to ASSE 1020 and 
spillproof vacuum breakers shall comply with ASSE 1056. 
These devices are designed for installation under continu- 
ous pressure conditions when the critical level is installed at 
the required height. Pressure-type vacuum breakers shall 
not be installed in locations where spillage could cause 
damage to the structure. 

608.13.6 Atmospheric-type vacuum breakers. Pipe-ap- 
pUed atmospheric-type vacuum breakers shall conform to 
ASSE 1001 or CSA CAN/CS A-B64. 1.1. Hose-connection 
vacuum breakers shall conform to ASSE 1011, ASSE 1019, 
ASSE 1035, ASSE 1052, CSA CAN/CSA-B64.2, CSA 
CAN/CSA-B64.2.2 or CSA B64.7. These devices shall op- 
erate under normal atmospheric pressure when the critical 
level is installed at the required height. 

608.13.7 Double check-valve assemblies. Double 
check- valve assemblies shall conform to ASSE 1015 or 
AWWA C510. Double-detector check- valve assemblies 
shall conform to ASSE 1 048. These devices shall be capable 
of operating under continuous pressure conditions. 

608.13.8 Spillproof vacuum breakers. Spillproof vacuum 
breakers (SVB) shall conform to ASSE 1056. These devices 
are designed for installation under continuous-pressure 
conditions when the critical level is installed at the required 
height. 

608.13.9 Chemical dispenser backflow devices. 

Backflow devices for chemical dispensers shall comply 
with ASSE 1055. 

608.14 Location of backflow preventers. Access shall be pro- 
vided to backflow preventers as specified by the installation in- 
structions of the approved manufacturer. 

608.14.1 Outdoor enclosures for backflow prevention 
devices. Outdoor enclosures for backflow prevention de- 
vices shall comply with ASSE 1060. 

608.15 Protection of potable water outlets. All potable water 
openings and outlets shall be protected against backflow in ac- 
cordance with Section 608.15.1, 608.15.2, 608.15.3, 608.15.4, 
608.15.4.1, 608.15.4.2 or 608.15.4.3. 

608.15.1 Protection by air gap. Openings and outlets shall 
be protected by an air gap between the opening and the fix- 
ture flood level rim as specified in Table 608. 1 5.1. Openings 
and outlets equipped for hose connection shall be protected 
by means other than an air gap. 

608.15.2 Protection by a reduced pressure principle 
backflow preventer. Openings and outlets shall be pro- 
tected by a reduced pressure principle backflow preventer. 

608.15.3 Protection by a backflow preventer with inter- 
mediate atmospheric vent. Openings and outlets shall be 
protected by a backflow preventer with an intermediate at- 
mospheric vent. 

608.15.4 Protection by a vacuum breaker. Openings and 
outlets shall be protected by atmospheric-type or pres- 
sure-type vacuum breakers. The critical level of the vacuum 
breaker shall be set a minimum of 6 inches (152 mm) above 
the flood level rim of the fixture or device. Ball cocks shall 



2000 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



45 



TABLE 608.15.1 -608.16.4.1 



WATER SUPPLY AND DISTRIBUTION 



TABLE 608.15.1 
MINIMUM REQUIRED AIR GAPS 



FIXTURE 


MINIMUM AIR GAP 


Away from a wall^ (inches) 


Close to a wall (inches) 


Lavatories and other fixtures with effective opening not greater than 0.5 inch in diameter 


1 


1.5 


Sink, laundry trays, gooseneck back faucets and other fixtures with effective openings 
not greater than 0.75 inch in diameter 


1.5 


2.5 


Over-rim bath fillers and odier fixtures with effective openings not greater than 1 inch in 
diameter 


2 


3 


Drinking water fountains, single orifice not greater than Vjg inch in diameter or 
multiple orifices with a total area of 0. 150 square inch (area of circle ^/, 5 inch in 
diameter) 


1 


1.5 


Effective openings greater than 1 inch 


Two times the diameter 
of the effective opening 


Three times the diameter 
of the effective opening 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

a. Applicable where walls or obstructions are spaced from the nearest inside edge of the spout opening a distance greater than three times the diameter of the effec- 
tive opening for a single wall, or a distance greater than four times the diameter of the effective opening for two intersecting walls. 



be set in accordance with Section 425 .4.1. Vacuum breakers 
shall not be installed under exhaust hoods or similar loca- 
tions that will contain toxic fumes or vapors. Pipe-applied 
vacuum breakers shall be installed not less than 6 inches 
(152 mm) above the flood level rim of the fixture, receptor 
or device served. 



S.4.1 Deck-moented and Integral vacuum 
breakers. Approved deck-mounted or equip- 
ment-mounted vacuum breakers and faucets with inte- 
gral atmospheric or spillproof vacuum breakers shall be 
installed in accordance with the manufacturer's instruc- 
tions and the requirements for labeling with the critical 
level not less than 1 inch (25 mm) above the flood level 
rim. 



LIS.4.2 Hose coimections. Sillcocks, hose bibbs, 
wall hydrants and other openings with a hose connection 
shall be protected by an atmospheric-type or pres- 
sure-type vacuum breaker or a permanently attached 
hose coimection vacuum breaker. 

Exceptions: 

1. This section shall not apply to water heater and 
boiler drain valves that are provided with hose 
connection threads and that are intended only 
for tank or vessel draining. 

2. This section shall not apply to water supply 
valves intended for connection of clothes wash- 
ing machines where backflow prevention is 
otherwise provided or is integral with the ma- 
chine. 

608.15.4.3 Fittings with hose-conmected outlets. 
Plumbing fixture fittings with hose-connected outlets 
shall have backflow protection in compliance with 
ASMEA112.18.3. 

608.16 Connections to the potahSe water system. Coimec- 
tions to the potable water system shall conform to Sections 
608.16.1 through 608.16.9. 



5.1 Beverage dispensers. The water supply connec- 
tion to carbonated beverage dispensers shall be protected 



against backflow by a double check valve with an intermedi- 
ate atmospheric vent conforming to ASSE 1012 or ASSE 
1022. The double check valve with an intermediate atmo- 
spheric vent device and the piping downstream therefrom 
shall not be affected by carbon dioxide gas. Secondary pro- 
tection in the form of a dual check valve conforming to 
ASSE 1032 shall be installed on the beverage-dispensing 
equipment. 

608.16.2 Connections to boilers. The potable supply to the 
boiler shall be equipped with a backflow preventer with an 
intennediate atmospheric vent complying with ASSE 1012 
or CSA CAN/CSA B64.3. Where conditioning chemicals 
are introduced into the system, the potable water connection 
shall be protected by an air gap or a reduced pressure princi- 
ple backflow preventer, complying with ASSE 1013, CSA 
CAN/CSA B64.4 or AWWA C5 1 1 . 

608.16.3 Heat exchangers. Heat exchangers utilizing an 
essentially toxic transfer fluid shall be separated from the 
potable water by double- wall construction. An air gap open 
to the atmosphere shall be provided between the two walls. 
Heat exchangers utilizing an essentially nontoxic transfer 
fluid shall be permitted to be of single-wall construction. 

608.16.4 Connections to automatic fire sprinkler sys- 
tems and standpipe systems. The potable water supply to 
automatic fire sprinkler and standpipe systems shall be pro- 
tected against backflow by a double check- valve assembly 
or a reduced pressure principle backflow preventer. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Where systems are installed as a portion of the wa- 
ter distribution system in accordance with the re- 
quirements of this code and are not provided with a 
fire department connection, isolation of the water 
supply system shall not be required. 

2. Isolation of the water distribution system is not re- 
quired for deluge, preaction or dry pipe systems. 

608.16.4.1 Additives or nonpotabie source. Where sys- 
tems contain chemical additives or antifreeze, or where 
systems are connected to a nonpotabie secondary water 



46 



2000 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



WATER SUPPLY AND DISTRIBUTION 



608.16.5-608.17.7 



• 





supply, the potable water supply shall be protected 
against backflow by a reduced pressure principle 
backflow preventer. Where chemical additives or anti- 
freeze are added to only a portion of an automatic fire 
sprinkler or standpipe system, the reduced pressure prin- 
ciple backflow preventer shall be permitted to be located 
so as to isolate that portion of the system. 



5.16.5 Connections to lawn irrigation systems. The 

potable water supply to lawn irrigation systems shall be 
protected against backflow by an atmospheric-type vac- 
uum breaker, a pressure-type vacuum breaker or a reduced 
pressure principle backflow preventer. A valve shall not be 
installed downstream from an atmospheric vacuum 
breaker. Where chemicals are introduced into the system, 
the potable water supply shall be protected against 
backflow by a reduced pressure principle backflow 
preventer. 

608.16.6 Connections subject to backpressure. Where a 
potable water connection is made to a nonpotable line, fix- 
ture, tank, vat, pump or other equipment subject to back- 
pressure, the potable water connection shall be protected by 
a reduced pressure principle backflow preventer. 



.16.7 Chemical dispensers. Where chemical dispens- 
ers connect to the potable water distribution system, the wa- 
ter supply system shall be protected against backflow in 
accordance with Section 608.13.1, 608.13.2, 608.13.3, 
608.13.5, 608.13.6, 608.13.8 or 608.13.9. 

608.16.8 Portable cleaning equipment. Where the porta- 
ble cleaning equipment connects to the water distribution 
system, the water supply system shall be protected against 
backflow in accordance with Section 608.13.1, 608.13.2, 
608.13.3, 608.13.7 or 608.13.8. 

608.16.9 Dental pump equipment. Where dental pumping 
equipment connects to the water distribution system, the 
water supply system shall be protected against backflow in 
accordance with Section 608.13.1, 608.13.5, 608.13.6 or 
608.13.8. 



• 



$.17 Protection of individual water supplies. An individ- 
ual water supply shall be located and constructed so as to be 
safeguarded against contamination in accordance with Sec- 
tions 608.17.1 through 608.17.8. 

608.17.1 Well locations. A potable ground water source or 
pump suction Une shall not be located closer to potential 
sources of contamination than the distances shown in Table 
608. 17. 1 . In the event the underlying rock structure is hme- 
stone or fragmented shale, the local or state health depart- 
ment shall be consulted on well site location. The distances 
in Table 608.17.1 constitute minimum separation and shall 
be increased in areas of creviced rock or limestone, or where 
the direction of movement of the ground water is from 
sources of contamination toward the well. 

608.17.2 Elevation. Well sites shall be positively drained 
and shall be at higher elevations than potential sources of 
contamination. 



TABLE 608.17.1 

DISTANCE FROM SOURCES OF CONTAMINATION TO 

PRIVATE WATER SUPPLIES AND PUMP SUCTION LINES 



SOURCE OF CONTAMINATION 


DISTANCE (feet) 


Bamyard 


100 


Farm silo 


25 


Pasture 


100 


Pumphouse floor drain of cast iron 
draining to ground surface 


2 


Seepage pits 


50 


Septic tank 


25 


Sewer 


10 


Subsurface disposal fields 


50 


Subsurface pits 


50 



For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 

608.17.3 Depth. Private potable well supplies shall not be 
developed from a water table less than 10 feet (3048 mm) 
below the ground surface. 

608.17.4 Water-tight casings. Each well shall be provided 
with a water-tight casing to a minimum distance of 10 feet 
(3048 mm) below the ground surface. All casings shall ex- 
tend at least 6 inches (152 mm) above the well platform. The 
casing shall be large enough to permit installation of a sepa- 
rate drop pipe. Casings shall be sealed at the bottom in an 
impermeable stratum or extend several feet into the wa- 
ter-bearing stratum. 

608.17.5 Drilled or driven well casings. Drilled or driven 
well casings shall be of steel or other approved material. 
Where drilled wells extend into a rock formation, the well 
casing shall extend to and set firmly in the formation. The 
annular space between the earth and the outside of the cas- 
ing shall be filled with cement grout to a minimum distance 
of 10 feet (3048 mm) below the ground surface. In an in- 
stance of casing to rock installation, the grout shall extend to 
the rock surface. 

608.17.6 Dug or bored well casings. Dug or bored well 
casings shall be of water-tight concrete, tile, or galvanized 
or corrugated metal pipe to a minimum distance of 10 feet 
(3048 mm) below the ground surface. Where the water table 
is more than 10 feet (3048 mm) below the ground surface, 
the water-tight casing shall extend below the table surface. 
Well casings for dug wells or bored wells constructed with 
sections of concrete, tile, or galvanized or corrugated metal 
pipe shall be surrounded by 6 inches (152 mm) of grout 
poured into the hole between the outside of the casing and 
the ground to a minimum depth of 10 feet (3048 mm). 

608.17.7 Cover. Every potable water well shall be equipped 
with an overlapping water-tight cover at the top of the casing 
well or pipe sleeve such that contaminated water or other 
substances are prevented from entering the well through the 



2000 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



47 



608.17.8-612.1 



WATER SUPPLY AND DISTRIBUTION 



annular opening at the top of the well casing, wall or pipe 
sleeve. Covers shall extend downward at least 2 inches (51 
mm) over the outside of the well casing or wall. A dug well 
cover shall be provided with a pipe sleeve permitting the 
withdrawal of the pump suction pipe, cyhnder or jet body 
without disturbing the cover. Where pump sections or dis- 
charge pipes enter or leave a well through the side of the cas- 
ing, the circle of contact shall be water tight. 



J,17.8 Drainage. All potable water wells and springs 
shall be constructed such that surface drainage will be di- 
verted away from the well or spring. 



HEALTH CARE PLUMBING 

.1 Scope, This section shall govern those aspects of health 
care plumbing systems that differ from plumbing systems in 
other structures. Health care plumbing systems shall conform 
to the requirements of this section in addition to the other re- 
quirements of this code. The provisions of this section shall ap- 
ply to the special devices and equipment installed and 
maintained in the following occupancies: nursing homes, 
homes for the aged, orphanages, infirmaries, first aid stations, 
psychiatric facilities, clinics, professional offices of dentists 
and doctors, mortuaries, educational facilities, surgery, den- 
tistry, research and testing laboratories, establishments manu- 
facturing pharmaceutical drugs and medicines, and other 
structures with similar apparatus and equipment classified as 
plumbing. 



.2 Water service. All hospitals shall have two water service 
pipes installed in such a manner so as to minimize the potential 
for an interruption of the supply of water in the event of a water 
main or water service pipe failure. 



water. Hot water shall be provided to supply all of 
the hospital fixture, kitchen and laundry requirements. Special 
fixtures and equipment shall have hot water supplied at a tem- 
perature specified by the manufacturer. The hot water system 
shall be installed in accordance with Section 607. 



T>A Vacuum breaker installation. Vacuum breakers shall 
be installed a minimum of 6 inches (152 mm) above the flood 
level rim of the fixture or device in accordance with Section 
608. The flood level rim of hose connections shall be the maxi- 
mum height at which any hose is utilized. 

609.5 Prohibited water closet and clinical sink supply, Jet- 
or water-supphed orifices, except those supplied by the flush 
connections, shall not be located in or connected with a water 
closet bowl or clinical sink. This section shall not prohibit an 
approved bidet installation. 

609.6 Clinical, Iiydrotherapeetic and radiological equip- 
ment. All clinical, hydrotherapeutic, radiological or any equip- 
ment that is supplied with water or that discharges to the waste 
system shall conform to the requirements of this section and 
Section 608. 



J>.7 Condensate drain trap seal. A water supply shall be 
provided for cleaning, flushing and resealing the condensate 
trap, and the trap shall discharge through an air gap in accor- 
dance with Section 608. 



609.8 Valve leakage diverter. Each water sterilizer filled with 
water through directly connected piping shall be equipped with 
an approved leakage diverter or bleed line on the water supply 
control valve to indicate and conduct any leakage of unsterile 
water away from the sterile zone. 



SECTION 610 
DISINFECTION OF POTABLE WATER SYSTEM 

610.1 General. New or repaired potable water systems shall be 
purged of deleterious matter and disinfected prior to utilization. 
The method to be followed shall be that prescribed by the 
health authority or water purveyor having jurisdiction or, in the 
absence of a prescribed method, the procedure described in ei- 
ther AWWA C65 1 or AWWA C652, or as described in this sec- 
tion. This requirement shall apply to "on-site" or "in-plant" 
fabrication of a system or to a modular portion of a system. 

1 . The pipe system shall be flushed with clean, potable wa- 
ter until dirty water does not appear at the points of outlet. 

2. The system or part thereof shall be filled with a wa- 
ter/chlorine solution containing at least 50 parts per mil- 
lion (50 mg/L) of chlorine, and the system or part thereof 
shall be valved off and allowed to stand for 24 hours; or 
the system or part thereof shall be filled with a wa- 
ter/chlorine solution containing at least 200 parts per mil- 
lion (200 mg/L) of chlorine and allowed to stand for 3 
hours. 

3 . Following the required standing time, the system shall be 
flushed with clean potable water until the chlorine is 
purged from the system. 

4. The procedure shall be repeated where shown by a bacte- 
riological examination that contamination remains pres- 
ent in the system. 



SECTION 611 
DRINKING WATER TREATMENT UNITS 

611.1 Design. Drinking water treatment units shall meet the re- 
quirements of NSF 42, NSF 44, NSF 53 or NSF 62. 

611.2 Reverse osmosis systems. The discharge from a reverse 
osmosis drinking water treatment unit shall enter the drainage 
system through an air gap or an air gap device that meets the 
requirements of NSF 58. 

611.3 Connection tubing. The tubing to and from drinking 
water treatment units shall be of a size and material as recom- 
mended by the manufacturer. The tubing shall comply with 

NSF 14, NSF 42, NSF 44, NSF 53, NSF 58 or NSF 61. 



SECTION 612 
SOLAR SYSTEMS 

612.1 Solar systems. The construction, installation, alterations 
and repair of systems, equipment and appliances intended to 
utilize solar energy for space heating or cooling, domestic hot 
water heating, swimming pool heating or process heating shall 
be in accordance with the International Mechanical Code. 



48 



2000 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



CHAPTER 7 

SANITARY DRAINAGE 



SECTION 701 
GENERAL 

701.1 Scope. The provisions of this chapter shall govern the 
materials, design, construction and installation of sanitary 
drainage systems. 

701.2 Sewer required. Every building in which plumbing fix- 
tures are installed and all premises having drainage piping shall 
be connected to a public sewer, where available, or an approved 
private sewage disposal system in accordance with the Interna- 
tional Private Sewage Disposal Code. 

701.3 Separate sewer connection. Every building having 
plumbing fixtures installed and intended for human habitation, 
occupancy or use on premises abutting on a street, alley or ease- 
ment in which there is a pubhc sewer shall have a separate con- 
nection with the sewer. Where located on the same lot, multiple 
buildings shall not be prohibited from connecting to a common 
building sewer that connects to the public sewer. 

701.4 Sewage treatment. Sewage or other waste from a 
plumbing system that is deleterious to surface or subsurface 
waters shall not be discharged into the ground or into any wa- 
terway unless it has first been rendered innocuous through sub- 
jection to an approved form of treatment. 

701.5 Damage to drainage system or public sewer. Wastes 
detrimental to the public sewer system or to the functioning of 
the sewage-treatment plant shall be treated and disposed of in 
accordance with Section 1003 as directed by the code official. 

701.6 Tests. The sanitary drainage system shall be tested in ac- 
cordance with Section 312. 

701.7 Connections. Direct connection of a steam exhaust, 
blowoff or drip pipe shall not be made with the building drain- 
age system. Wastewater when discharged into the building 
drainage system shall be at a temperature not higher than 140°F 
(60°C). When higher temperatures exist, approved cooling 
methods shall be provided. 

701.8 Engineered systems. Engineered sanitary drainage sys- 
tems shall conform to the provisions of Sections 105.4 and 714. 



SECTION 702 
MATERIALS 

702.1 Above-ground sanitary drainage and vent pipe. 

Above-ground soil, waste and vent pipe shall conform to one of 
the standards listed in Table 702. 1 . 

702.2 Underground building sanitary drainage and vent 
pipe. Underground building sanitary drainage and vent pipe 
shall conform to one of the standards listed in Table 702.2. 

702.3 Building sewer pipe. Building sewer pipe shall conform 
to one of the standards listed in Table 702.3. 



702.4 Fittings. Pipe fittings shall be approved for installation 
with the piping material installed and shall conform to the re- 
spective pipe standards or one of the standards listed in Table 
702.4. 

702.5 Chemical waste system. A chemical waste system shall 
be completely separated from the sanitary drainage system. 
The chemical waste shall be treated in accordance with Section 
803.2 before discharging to the sanitary drainage system. Sepa- 
rate drainage systems for chemical wastes and vent pipes shall 
be of an approved material that is resistant to corrosion and 
degradation for the concentrations of chemicals involved. 

TABLE 702.1 
ABOVE-GROUND DRAINAGE AND VENT PIPE 



MATERIAL 


STANDARD 


Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene 
(ABS) plastic pipe 


ASTM D 2661; 
ASTM F 628; 
CSAB181.1 


Brass pipe 


ASTM B 43 


Cast-iron pipe 


ASTM A 74; 
CISPI301; 
ASTM A 888 


Coextruded composite ABS DWV 
Schedule 40 IPS pipe (solid) 


ASTM F 1488 


Coextruded composite ABS DWV 
Schedule 40 IPS pipe (cellular core) 


ASTM F 1488 


Coextruded composite PVC DWV 
Schedule 40 IPS pipe (soUd) 


ASTM F 1488 


Coextruded composite PVC DWV 
Schedule 40 IPS pipe (cellular core) 


ASTM F 1488, ASTM F 
891 


Coextruded composite PVC IPS-DR, 
PS140,PS200DWV 


ASTM F 1488 


Copper or copper-alloy pipe 


ASTM B 42; 
ASTM B 302 


Copper or copper-alloy tubing 
(Type K, L, M or DWV) 


ASTM B 75; 
ASTM B 88; 
ASTM B 251; 
ASTM B 306 


Galvanized steel pipe 


ASTM A 53 


Glass pipe 


ASTM C 1053 


Polyolefin pipe 


CSACAN/CSA-B181.3 


Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic pipe 
(Type DWV) 


ASTM D 2665; 
ASTM D 2949; 
CSA CAN/CSA- 
B181.2; ASTM F 1488 


Stainless steel drainage systems, 
Types 304 and 3 16L 


ASMEA112.3.1 



2000 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



49 



TABLE 702.2 - TABLE 702.3 



SANITARY DRAINAGE 



TABLE 702.2 
UNDERGROUND BUILDING DRAINAGE AND VENT PIPE 



TABLE 702.3 
BUILDING SEWER PIPE 



MATERIAL 


STANDARD 


Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene 
(ABS) plastic pipe 


ASTMD2661; 
ASTM F 628; 
CSAB181.1 


Asbestos-cement pipe 


ASTM C 428 


Cast-iron pipe 


ASTMA74;CISPI301; 
ASTM A 888 


Coextruded composite ABS DWV 
Schedule 40 IPS pipe (solid) 


ASTM F 1488 


Coextruded composite ABS DWV 
Schedule 40 IPS pipe (cellular core) 


ASTM F 1488 


Coextruded composite PVC DWV 
Schedule 40 IPS pipe (solid) 


ASTM F 1488 


Coextruded composite PVC DWV 
Schedule 40 IPS pipe (cellular core) 


ASTM F 1488 


Coextruded composite PVC IPS-DR, 
PS140,PS200DWV 


ASTM F 1488 


Copper or copper alloy tubing 
(TypeK,L,MorDWV) 


ASTM B 75; ASTM B 88; 
ASTM B 251; 
ASTM B 306 


Polyolefm pipe 


CSACAN/CSA-B181.3 


Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic pipe 
(Type DWV) 


ASTM D 2665; 
ASTM D 2949; 
CSACAN/CSA-B181.2 


Stainless steel drainage systems, 
Type316L 


ASME/ANSIA112.3.1 



MATERIAL 


STANDARD 


Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene 
(ABS) plastic pipe 


ASTM D 2661 ; ASTM D 275 1 ; 
ASTM F 628 


Asbestos-cement pipe 


ASTM C 428 


Cast-iron pipe 


ASTM A 74; ASTM A 888; 
CISPI 301 


Coextruded composite ABS 
DWV Schedule 40 IPS pipe 
(solid) 


ASTM F 1488 


Coextruded composite ABS 
DWV Schedule 40 IPS pipe 
(cellular core) 


ASTM F 1488 


Coextruded composite PVC 
DWV Schedule 40 IPS pipe 
(solid) 


ASTM F 1488 


Coextruded composite PVC 
DWV Schedule 40 IPS pipe 
(cellular core) 


ASTM F 1488, ASTM F 891 


Coextruded composite PVC IPS 
DR-PS DWV, PS 140, PS200 


ASTM F 1488 


Coextruded composite ABS 
sewer and drain DR-PS in 
PS35,PS50,PS100,PS140, 
PS200 


ASTM F 1488 


Coextruded composite PVC 
sewer and drain DR-PS in 
PS35,PS50,PS100,PS140, 
PS200 


ASTM F 1488 


Coextruded PVC sewer and 
drain -PS25,PS50, PS 100 
(cellular core) 


ASTM F 891 


Concrete pipe 


ASTM C 14; ASTM C 76; 

CSAA257.1M; 

CSA CAN/CSA A257.2M 


Copper or copper-alloy tubing 
(Type K or L) 


ASTM B 75; ASTM B 88; 
ASTM B 251 


Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) 
plastic pipe (Type DWV, 
SDR26, SDR35, SDR41, 
PSSOorPSlOO) 


ASTM D 2665; ASTM D 2949; 
ASTM D 3034; CSA B182.2; 
CSA CAN/CSA-B 182.4 


Stainless steel drainage systems, 
Type316L 


ASMEA112.3.1 


Vitrified clay pipe 


ASTM C 4; ASTM C 700 




50 



2000 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



SANITARY DRAINAGE 



TABLE 702.4 - 705.2.1 



TABLE 702.4 
PIPE FITTINGS 




MATERIAL 


STANDARD 


Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene 
(ABS) plastic pipe 


ASTMD3311;CSAB181.1; 
ASTM D 2661 


Cast iron 


ASME B 16.4; ASME B 16.12; 
ASTM A 74; ASTM A 888; 
CISPI 301 


Coextruded composite ABS 
DWV Schedule 40 IPS pipe 
(solid or cellular core) 


ASTM D 2661; ASTM D 331 1; 
ASTM F 628 


Coextruded composite PVC 
DWV Schedule 40 IPS-DR, 
PS 140, PS 200 
(solid or cellular core) 


ASTM D 2665; ASTM D 3311; 
ASTM F 891 


Coextruded composite ABS 
sewer and drain DR-PS in 
PS 35, PS 50, PS 100, PS 140, 
PS 200 


ASTM D 2751 


Coextruded composite PVC 
sewer and drain DR-PS 
in PS 35, PS 50, PS 100, 
PS 140, PS 200 


ASTM D 3034 


Copper or copper alloy 


ASMEB 16.15; ASME B 
16.18; ASME B 16.22; 
ASME B 16.23; 
ASMEB 16.26; 
ASME B 16.29 


Glass 


ASTM C 1053 


Gray iron and ductile iron 


AWWACllO 


Malleable iron 


ASME B 16.3 


Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) 
plastic 


ASTM D 33 1 1 ; ASTM D 2665 


Stainless steel drainage systems, 
Types 304 and 3 16L 


ASME A 112.3.1 


Steel 


ASME B 16.9; ASME B 16.1 1; 
ASMEB 16.28 



SECTION 703 
BUILDING SEWER 

703.1 Building sewer pipe near the water service. Where the 
building sewer is installed within 5 feet (1524 mm) of the water 
service, as provided for in Section 603.2, the building sewer 
pipe shall conform to one of the standards for ABS plastic pipe, 
cast-iron pipe, copper or copper-alloy tubing, or PVC plastic 
pipe listed in Table 702.3. 

703.2 Drainage pipe in filled ground. Where a building sewer 
or building drain is installed on filled or unstable ground, the 
drainage pipe shall conform to one of the standards for ABS 
plastic pipe, cast-iron pipe, copper or copper-alloy tubing, or 
PVC plastic pipe listed in Table 702.3. 

703.3 Sanitary and storm sewers. Where separate systems of 
sanitary drainage and storm drainage are installed in the same 
property, the sanitary and storm building sewers or drains shall 
be permitted to be laid side by side in one trench. 



703.4 Existing building sewers and drains. Existing building 
sewers and drains shall connect with new building sewer and 
drainage systems only where found by examination and test to 
conform to the new system in quality of material. The code offi- 
cial shall notify the owner to make the changes necessary to 
conform to this code. 

703.5 Cleanouts on building sewers. Cleanouts on building 
sewers shall be located as set forth in Section 708. 



SECTION 704 
DRAINAGE PIPING INSTALLATION 

704.1 Slope of horizontal drainage piping. Horizontal drain- 
age piping shall be installed in uniform alignment at uniform 
slopes. The minimum slope of a horizontal drainage pipe shall 
be in accordance with Table 704.1 . 

TABLE 704.1 
SLOPE OF HORIZONTAL DRAINAGE PIPE 



SIZE (inches) 


MINIMUM SLOPE (Inch per foot) 


2V2 or less 


X 


3 to 6 


\ 


8 or larger 


v„ 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, I inch per foot = 83.3 mm/m. 

704.2 Change in size. The size of the drainage piping shall not 
be reduced in size in the direction of the flow. A 4-inch by 
3 -inch (102 mm by 76 mm) water closet coimection shall not be 
considered as a reduction in size. 

704.3 Connections to offsets and bases of stacks. Horizontal 
branches shall connect to the bases of stacks at a point located 
not less than 10 times the diameter of the drainage stack down- 
stream from the stack. Except as prohibited by Section 71 1.2, 
horizontal branches shall connect to horizontal stack offsets at 
a point located not less than 10 times the diameter of the drain- 
age stack downstream from the upper stack. 

704.4 Future fixtures. Drainage piping for future fixtures shall 
terminate with an approved cap or plug. 

704.5 Dead ends. In the installation or removal of any part of a 
drainage system, dead ends shall be prohibited. Cleanout ex- 
tensions and approved future fixture drainage piping shall not 
be considered as dead ends. 



SECTION 705 
JOINTS 

705.1 General. This section contains provisions applicable to 
joints specific to sanitary drainage piping. 

705.2 ABS plastic. Joints between ABS plastic pipe or fittings 
shall comply with Sections 705.2.1 through 705.2.3. 

705.2.1 Mechanical joints. Mechanical joints on drainage 
pipes shall be made with an elastomeric seal conforming to 
ASTM C 1 173, ASTM D 3212 or CSA CAN/CSA-B602. 
Mechanical joints shall only be installed in underground 
systems unless otherwise approved. Joints shall be installed 
in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. 



2000 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



51 



705.2.2 - 705.9.5 



SANITARY DRA!NAGI= 



705,2o2 Solvemt cementing. Joint surfaces shall be clean 
and free from moisture. Solvent cement that conforms to 
ASTM D 2235 or CSA B181.1 shall be appUed to all joint 
surfaces. The joint shall be made while the cement is wet. 
Joints shall be made in accordance with ASTM D 2235, 
ASTM D 2661, ASTM F 628 or CSA B181.1. Solvent-ce- 
ment joints shall be permitted above or below ground. 

705o2.3 Threaded joints. Threads shall conform to ASME 
B 1.20.1. Schedule 80 or heavier pipe shall be permitted to 
be threaded with dies specifically designed for plastic pipe. 
Approved thread lubricant or tape shall be applied on the 
male threads only. 

705.3 Asbestos-cement. Joints between asbestos-cement pipe 
or fittings shall be made with a sleeve coupling of the same 
composition as the pipe, sealed with an elastomeric ring con- 
forming to ASTM D 1869. 

705.4 Brass. Joints between brass pipe or fittings shall comply 
with Sections 705.4.1 through 705.4.4. 

705.4.1 Brazed joints. All joint surfaces shall be cleaned. 
An approved flux shall be applied where required. The joint 
shall be brazed with a filler metal conforming to AWS A5. 8. 

705.4.2 Mechanical joints. Mechanical joints shall be in- 
stalled in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. 

705.4.3 Threaded joints. Threads shall conform to ASME 
B 1.20.1. Pipe-joint compound or tape shall be applied on 
the male threads only. 

705.4.4 Welded joints. All joint surfaces shall be cleaned. 
The joint shall be welded with an approved filler metal. 

705.5 Cast Iron. Joints between cast-iron pipe or fittings shall 
comply with Sections 705.5.1 through 705.5.3. 

705.5.1 Caulked joints. Joints for hub and spigot pipe shall 
be firmly packed with oakum or hemp. Molten lead shall be 
poured in one operation to a depth of not less than 1 inch (25 
mm). The lead shall not recede more than 0.125 inch (3.2 
mm) below the rim of the hub and shall be caulked tight. 
Paint, varnish or other coatings shall not be permitted on the 
jointing material until after the joint has been tested and ap- 
proved. Lead shall be run in one pouring and shall be 
caulked tight. Acid-resistant rope and acidproof cement 
shall be permitted. 

705.5.2 Compression gasket joints. Compression gaskets 
for hub and spigot pipe and fittings shall conform to ASTM 
C 564. Gaskets shall be compressed when the pipe is fully 
inserted. 

705.5.3 Mechanical joint coupling. Mechanical joint cou- 
plings for hubless pipe and fittings shall comply with CISPI 
310 or ASTM C 1277. The elastomeric sealing sleeve shall 
conform to ASTM C 564 or CSA CAN/CSA B602 and shall 
be provided with a center stop. Mechanical joint couplings 
shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's in- 
stallation instructions. 

705.6 Concrete joints. Joints between concrete pipe and fit- 
tings shall be made with an elastomeric seal conforming to 

ASTM C 443, ASTM C 1173, CSA-A257.3M or CSA 
CAN/CSA-B602. 



705.7 Coextruded composite ABS pipe, joints. Joints be- 
tween coextruded composite pipe with an ABS outer layer or 
ABS fittings shall comply with Sections 705.7.1 and 705.7.2. 

705.7.1 Mechanical joints. Mechanical joints on drainage 
pipe shall be made with an elastomeric seal conforming to 
ASTM D 3212. Mechanical joints shall not be installed in 
above-ground systems, unless otherwise approved. Joints 
shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's in- 
structions. 

705.7.2 Solvent cementing. Joint surfaces shall be clean 
and free from moisture. Solvent cement that conforms to 
ASTM D 2235 or CSA CAN/CSA-B181.1 shall be applied 
to all joint surfaces. The joint shall be made while the ce- 
ment is wet. Joints shall be made in accordance with ASTM 
D 2235, ASTM D 2661, ASTM F 628 or CSA B 18 1.1. Sol- 
vent-cement joints shall be permitted above or below 
ground. 

705.8 Coextruded composite PVC pipe. Joints between 
coextruded composite pipe with a PVC outer layer or PVC fit- 
tings shall comply with Sections 705.8.1 and 705.8.2. 

705.8.1 Mechanical joints. Mechanical joints on drainage 
pipe shall be made with an elastomeric seal conforming to 
ASTM D 3212. Mechanical joints shall not be installed in 
above-ground systems, unless otherwise approved. Joints 
shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's in- 
structions. 

705.8.2 Solvent cementing. Joint surfaces shall be clean 
and free from moisture. A purple primer that conforms to 
ASTM F 656 shall be applied. Solvent cement not purple in 
color and conforming to ASTM D 2564, CSA B 137.3, CSA 
B 1 8 1 .2 or CSA B 1 82. 1 shall be applied to all joint surfaces. 
The joint shall be made while the cement is wet and shall be 
in accordance with ASTMD 2855. Solvent-cement joints 
shall be permitted above or below ground. 

705.9 Copper pipe. Joints between copper or copper-alloy 
pipe or fittings shall comply with Sections 705.9.1 through 
705.9.5. 

705.9.1 Brazed joints. All joint surfaces shall be cleaned. 
An approved flux shall be applied where required. The joint 
shall be brazed with a filler metal conforming to AWS A5.8. 

705.9.2 Mechanical joints. Mechanical joints shall be in- 
stalled in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. 

705.9.3 Soldered joints. Solder joints shall be made in ac- 
cordance with the methods of ASTM B 828. All cut tube 
ends shall be reamed to the full inside diameter of the tube 
end. All joint surfaces shall be cleaned. A flux conforming 
to ASTM B 813 shall be applied. The joint shall be soldered 
with a solder conforming to ASTM B 32. 

705.9.4 Threaded joints. Threads shall conform to ASME 
B 1.20.1. Pipe-joint compound or tape shall be applied on 
the male threads only. 

705.9.5 Welded joints. All joint surfaces shall be cleaned. 
The joint shall be welded with an approved filler metal. 



52 



2000 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



SANITARY DRAINAGE 



705.10-705.16.6 



• 



705.10 Copper tubing. Joints between copper or copper-alloy 
tubing or fittings shall comply with Sections 705.10.1 through 
705.10.3. 

705.10.1 Brazed joints. All joint surfaces shall be cleaned. 
An approved flux shall be applied where required. The joint 
shall be brazed with a filler metal conforming to AWS A5.8. 

705.10.2 Mechanical joints. Mechanical joints shall be in- 
stalled in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. 

705.10.3 Soldered Joints. Solder joints shall be made in ac- 
cordance with the methods of ASTM B 828. All cut tube 
ends shall be reamed to the full inside diameter of the tube 
end. All joint surfaces shall be cleaned. A flux conforming 
to ASTM B 813 shall be applied. The joint shall be soldered 
with a solder conforming to ASTM B 32. 

705.11 Borosilicate glass joints. Glass-to-glass connections 
shall be made with a bolted compression-type stainless steel 
(300 series) coupling with contoured acid-resistant elastomeric 
compression ring and a fluorocarbon polymer inner seal ring; 
or with caulked joints in accordance with Section 705.11.1. 

705.11.1 Caulked joints. Every lead-caulked joint for hub 
and spigot soil pipe shall be firmly packed with oakum or 
hemp and filled with molten lead not less than 1 inch (25 
mm) deep and not to extend more than 0. 1 25 inch (3.2 mm) 
below the rim of the hub. Paint, varnish or other coatings 
shall not be permitted on the jointing material until after the 
joint has been tested and approved. Lead shall be run in one 
pouring and shall be caulked tight. Acid-resistant rope and 
acidproof cement shall be permitted. 

705.12 Steel. Joints between galvanized steel pipe or fittings 
shall comply with Sections 705.12.1 and 705.12.2. 

705.12.1 Threaded joints. Threads shall conform to ASME 
B 1.20.1. Pipe-joint compound or tape shall be applied on 
the male threads only. 

705.12.2 Mechanical joints. Joints shall be made with an 
approved elastomeric seal. Mechanical joints shall be in- 
stalled in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. 

705.13 Lead. Joints between lead pipe or fittings shall comply 
with Sections 705.13.1 and 705.13.2. 

705.13.1 Burned. Burned joints shall be uniformly fused 
together into one continuous piece. The thickness of the 
joint shall be at least as thick as the lead being joined. The 
filler metal shall be of the same material as the pipe. 

705.13.2 Wiped. Joints shall be fully wiped, with an ex- 
posed surface on each side of the joint not less than 0.75 inch 
(19.1 mm). The joint shall be at least 0.325 inch (9.5 mm) 
thick at the thickest point. 

705.14 PVC plastic. Joints between PVC plastic pipe or fit- 
tings shall comply with Sections 705.14.1 through 705.14.3. 

705.14.1 Mechanical joints. Mechanical joints on drainage 
pipe shall be made with an elastomeric seal conforming to 
ASTM C 1173, ASTM D 3212 or CSA CAN/CSA-B602. 
Mechanical joints shall not be installed in above-ground 
systems, unless otherwise approved. Joints shall be installed 
in accordance with the manufactiirer's instructions. 



705.14.2 Solvent cementing. Joint surfaces shall be clean 
and free from moisture. A purple primer that conforms to 
ASTM F 656 shall be applied. Solvent cement not purple in 
color and conforming to ASTM D 2564, CSA B 137.3, CSA 
B 1 8 1 .2 or CSA B 1 82. 1 shall be appUed to all joint surfaces. 
The joint shall be made while the cement is wet and shall be 
in accordance with ASTM D 2855. Solvent-cement joints 
shall be permitted above or below ground. 

705.14.3 Threaded joints. Threads shall conform to 
ASME B 1.20.1. Schedule 80 or heavier pipe shall be per- 
mitted to be threaded with dies specifically designed for 
plastic pipe. Approved thread lubricant or tape shall be ap- 
plied on the male threads only. 

705.15 Vitrified clay. Joints between vitrified clay pipe or fit- 
tings shall be made with an elastomeric seal conforming to 
ASTM C 425, ASTM C 1 173 or CSA CAN/CSA-B602. 

705.16 Joints between different materials. Joints between 
different piping materials shall be made with a mechanical 
joint of the compression or mechanical-sealing type. Connec- ^ 
tors and adapters shall be approved for the application and such I 
joints shall have an elastomeric seal conforming to ASTM C I 
425, ASTM C 443, ASTM C 564, ASTM C 1173, ASTM D 
1869, ASTM F 477, CAN/CSA A257.3M or CSA CAN/CSA 
B602, or as required in Sections 705.16.1 through 705.16.5. 
Joints between glass pipe and other types of materials shall be 
made with adapters having a TFE seal. Joints shall be installed 
in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. 

705.16.1 Copper or copper-alloy tubing to cast-iron hub 
pipe. Joints between copper or copper-alloy tubing and 
cast-iron hub pipe shall be made with a brass ferrule or com- 
pression joint. The copper or copper-alloy tubing shall be 
soldered to the ferrule in an approved manner, and the fer- 
rule shall be joined to the cast-iron hub by a caulked joint or 
a mechanical compression joint. 

705.16.2 Copper or copper-alloy tubing to galvanized 
steel pipe. Joints between copper or copper-alloy tubing 
and galvanized steel pipe shall be made with a brass con- 
verter fitting or dielectric fitting. The copper tubing shall be 
soldered to the fitting in an approved manner, and the fitting 
shall be screwed to the threaded pipe. 

705.16.3 Cast-iron pipe to galvanized steel or brass pipe. 

Joints between cast-iron and galvanized steel or brass pipe 
shall be made by either caulked or threaded joints or with an 
approved adapter fitting. 

705.16.4 Plastic pipe or tubing to other piping material. 

Joints between different grades of plastic pipe or between 
plastic pipe and other piping material shall be made with an 
approved adapter fitting. Joints between plastic pipe and 
cast-iron hub pipe shall be made by a caulked joint or a me- 
chanical compression joint. 

705.16.5 Lead pipe to other piping material. Joints be- 
tween lead pipe and other piping material shall be made by a 
wiped joint to a caulking ferrule, soldering nipple, or bush- 
ing or shall be made with an approved adapter fitting. 

705.16.6 Borosilicate glass to other materials. Joints be- 
tween glass pipe and other types of materials shall be made 



2000 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



53 



705.16.7-708.2 



SANITARY DRAINAGE 



with adapters having a TFE seal and shall be installed in ac- 
cordance with the manufacturer's instructions. 

705.16.7 Staieless steel drainage systems to other mate- 
rials. Joints between stainless steel drainage systems and 
other piping materials shall be made with approved me- 
chanical couplings. 

705.17 Draieage slip joiots. Slip joints shall comply with Sec- 
tion 405.8. 

705.18 Caulking ferrules. Ferrules shall be of red brass and 
shall be in accordance with Table 705.18. 

TABLE 705.18 
CAULKDNG FERRULE SPECIFICATBONS 



PIPE SIZES 
(Inches) 


INSIDE DIAMETER 
(inches) 


LENGTH 
(inches) 


MINIMUM WEIGHT 

EACH 


2 


2V4 


4V, 


1 pound 


3 


3V, 


4V, 


1 pound 12 ounces 


4 


4V, 


4'/, 


2 pounds 8 ounces 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 ounce = 28.35 g, 1 pound = 0.454 kg. 

705.19 Soldering bushings. Soldering bushings shall be of red 
brass and shall be in accordance with Table 705.19. 

TABLE 705.19 
SOLDERBNG BUSHING SPECIFICATIONS 



PIPE SIZES (inches) 


MINIMUM WEIGHT EACH 


IV4 


6 ounces 


iv. 


8 ounces 


2 


14 ounces 


2V, 


1 pound 6 ounces 


3 


2 pounds 


4 


3 pounds 8 ounces 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 ounce = 28.35 g, 1 pound = 0.454 leg. 

705.20 Stainless steel drainage systems. 0-ring joints for 
stainless steel drainage systems shall be made with an ap- 
proved elastomeric seal. 



SECTIOMl 706 

CONNECTIONS BETWEEN DRAINAGE 

PIPING AND FITTINGS 

706.1 Comnections and changes in direction. All connections 
and changes in direction of the sanitary drainage system shall 
be made with approved drainage fittings. Connections between 
drainage piping and fixtures shall conform to Section 405. 



i.2 Obstrections. The fittings shall not have ledges, shoul- 
ders OT reductions capable of retarding or obstructing flow in 
the piping. Threaded drainage pipe fittings shall be of the re- 
cessed drainage type. 

706.3 Installation of fittings. Fittings shall be installed to 
guide sewage and waste in the direction of flow. Change in di- 
rection shall be made by fittings installed in accordance with 
Table 706.3. Change in direction by combination fittings, side 
inlets or increasers shall be installed in accordance with Table 



706.3 based on the pattern of flow created by the fitting. Double 
sanitary tee patterns shall not receive the discharge of 
back-to-back water closets and fixtures or appliances with 
pumping action discharge. 



SECTION 707 
PROHIBITED JOINTS AND CONNECTIONS 

707.1 Prohibited joints. The following types of joints and con- 
nections shall be prohibited: 

1. Cement or concrete joints. 

2. Mastic or hot-pour bituminous joints. 

3. Joints made with fittings not approved for the specific in- 
stallation. 

4. Joints between different diameter pipes made with 
elastomeric rolling 0-rings. 

5. Solvent-cement joints between different types of plastic 
pipe. 

6. Saddle-type fittings. 

TABLE 706.3 
FITTINGS FOR CHANGE IN DIRECTION 



TYPE OF FITTING 
PATTERN 


CHANGE IN DIRECTION 


Horizontal to 
vertical 


Vertical to 
horizontal 


Horizontal to 
horizontal 


Sixteenth bend 


X 


X 


X 


Eighth bend 


X 


X 


X 


Sixth bend 


X 


X 


X 


Quarter bend 


X 


x^ 


X^ 


Short sweep 


X 


Xa,b 


X^ 


Long sweep 


X 


X 


X 


Sanitary tee 


X'^ 






Wye 


X 


X 


X 


Combination wye and 
eighth bend 


X 


X 


X 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

a. The fittings shall only be permitted for a 2-inch or smaller fixture drain. 

b. Three inches and larger. 

c. For a limitation on double sanitary tees, see Section 706.3. 



SECTION 708 
CLEANOUTS 

708.1 Scope. This section shall govern the size, location, instal- 
lation and maintenance of drainage pipe cleanouts. 

708.2 Cleanout plugs. Cleanout plugs shall be brass or plastic, 
or other approved materials. Brass cleanout plugs shall be uti- 
lized with metallic drain, waste and vent piping only, and shall 
conform to ASTM A 74, ASME Al 12.3.1 or ASME 
Al 12.36.2. Cleanouts with plate-style access covers shall be 
fitted with corrosion-resisting fasteners. Plastic cleanout plugs 
shall conform to the requirements of Section 702.4. Plugs shall 
have raised square or countersunk square heads. Countersunk 
heads shall be installed where raised heads are a trip hazard. 



• 



54 



2000 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



SANITARY DRAINAGE 



708.3 - 709.4 




Cleanout plugs with borosilicate glass systems shall be of boro- 
silicate glass. 

708.3 Where required. Cleanouts shall be located in accor- 
dance with Sections 708.3.1 through 708.3.5. 

708.3.1 Horizontal drains within buildings. All horizon- 
tal drains shall be provided with cleanouts located not more 
than 100 feet (30 480 mm) apart. 

708.3.2 Building sewers. Building sewers shall be provided 
with cleanouts located not more than 100 feet (30 480 mm) 
apart measured from the upstream entrance of the cleanout. 
For building sewers 8 inches (203 mm) and larger, manholes 
shall be provided and located at each change in direction and 
at intervals of not more than 400 feet ( 1 22 m). Manholes and 
manhole covers shall be of an approved type. 

708.3.3 Changes of direction. Cleanouts shall be installed 
at each change of direction of the building drain or horizon- 
tal waste or soil lines greater than 45 degrees (0.79 rad). 
Where more than one change of direction occurs in a run of 
piping, only one cleanout shall be required for each 40 feet 
(12 192 mm) of developed length of the drainage piping. 

708.3.4 Base of stack. A cleanout shall be provided at the 
base of each waste or soil stack. 

708.3.5 Building drain and building sewer junction. 

There shall be a cleanout near the junction of the building 
drain and the building sewer. The cleanout shall be either in- 
side or outside the building wall and shall be brought up to 
the finished ground level or to the basement floor level. An 
approved two-way cleanout is allowed to be used at this lo- 
cation to serve as a required cleanout for both the building 
drain and building sewer. The cleanout at the junction of the 
building drain and building sewer shall not be required if the 
cleanout on a 3 -inch (76 mm) or larger diameter soil stack is 
located within a developed length of 10 feet (3048 mm) of 
the building drain and building sewer connection. 

708.3.6 Manholes. Manholes serving a building drain shall 
have secured gas-tight covers and shall be located in accor- 
dance with Section 708.3.2. 

708.4 Concealed piping. Cleanouts on concealed piping or pip- 
ing under a floor slab or in a crawl space of less than 24 inches 
(610 mm) in height or a plenum shdl be extended through and 
terminate flush with the finished wall, floor or ground surface or 
shall be extended to the outside of the building. Cleanout plugs 
shall not be covered with cement, plaster or any other permanent 
finish material. Where it is necessary to conceal a cleanout or to 
terminate a cleanout in an area subject to vehicular traffic, the 
covering plate, access door or cleanout shall be of an approved 
type designed and installed for this purpose. 



708.5 Opening direction. Every cleanout shall be installed to 
open to allow cleaning in the direction of the flow of the drain- 
age pipe or at right angles thereto. 

708.6 Prohibited installation. Cleanout openings shall not be 
utiUzed for the installation of new fixtures or floor drains, ex- 
cept where approved and where another cleanout of equal ac- 
cess and capacity is provided. 

708.7 Minimum size. Cleanouts shall be the same nominal 
size as the pipe they serve up to 4 inches (102 mm). For pipes 
larger than 4 inches (102 mm) nominal size, the minimum size 
of the cleanout shall be 4 inches (102 mm). 

Exception: "P" trap connections with slip joints or ground 
joint connections, or stack cleanouts that are not more than 
one pipe diameter smaller than the drain served, shall be 
permitted. 

708.8 Clearances. Cleanouts on 6-inch (153 mm) and smaller 
pipes shall be provided with a clearance of not less than 18 
inches (457 nmi) for rodding. Cleanouts on 8-inch (203 mm) 
and larger pipes shall be provided with a clearance of not less 
than 36 inches (914 mm) for rodding. 

708.9 Access. Access shall be provided to all cleanouts. 



SECTION 709 
FIXTURE UNITS 

709.1 Values for fixtures. Drainage fixture unit values as given 
in Table 709.1 designate the relative load weight of different 
kinds of fixtures that shall be employed in estimating the total 
load carried by a soil or waste pipe, and shall be used in connec- 
tion with Tables 710.1(1) and 710.1(2) of sizes for soil, waste 
and vent pipes for which the permissible load is given in terms 
of fixture units. 

709.2 Fixtures not listed in Table 709.1. Fixtures not listed in 
Table 709. 1 shall have a drainage fixture unit load based on the 
outlet size of the fixture in accordance with Table 709.2. The 
minimum trap size for unlisted fixtures shall be the size of the 
drainage outlet but not less than 1.25 inches (32 mm). 

709.3 Values for continuous and semicontinuous flow. 

Drainage fixture unit values for continuous and semicontinu- 
ous flow into a drainage system shall be computed on the basis 
that 1 gpm (0.06 L/s) of flow is equivalent to two fixture units. 

709.4 Values for indirect waste receptor. The drainage fix- 
ture unit load of an indirect waste receptor receiving the dis- 
charge of indirectly connected fixtures shall be the sum of the 
drainage fixture unit values of the fixtures that discharge to the 
receptor, but not less than the drainage fixture unit value given 
for the indirect waste receptor in Table 709.1 or 709.2. 



2000 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



55 



TABLE 709.1 



SANITARY DRAINAGE 



TABLE 709.1 
DRAINAGE FIXTURE UNITS FOR FIXTURES AND GROUPS 



FIXTURE TYPE 


DRAINAGE FIXTURE UNIT 
VALUE AS LOAD FACTORS 


MINIMUM SIZE OF TRAP 
(inches) 


Automatic clothes washers, commerciaP 


3 


2 


Automatic clothes washers, residential 


2 


2 


Bathroom group as defined in Section 202 (1.6 gpf water closet)^ 


5 


— 


Bathroom group as defined in Section 202 (water closet flushing greater than 1.6 gpff 


6 


— 


Bathtub'' (with or without overhead shower or whirlpool attachments) 


2 


1% 


Bidet 


1 


IV4 


Combination sink and tray 


2 


IV,. 


Dental lavatory 


1 


IV4 


Dental unit or cuspidor 


1 


l'/4 


Dishwashing machine,'^ domestic 


2 


IV, 


Drinking fountain 


% 


l'/4 


Emergency floor drain 





2 


Floor drains 


2 


2 


Kitchen sink, domestic 


2 


IV, 


Kitchen sink, domestic with food waste grinder and/or dishwasher 


2 


IV2 


Laundry tray (1 or 2 compartments) 


2 


iv. 


Lavatory 


1 


IV4 


Shower 


2 


IV, 


Sink 


2 


IV2 


Urinal 


4 


Footnote d 


Urinal, 1 gallon per flush or less 


2^ 


Footnote d 


Wash sink (circular or multiple) each set of faucets 


2 


IV, 


Water closet, flushometer tank, public or private 


4e 


Footnote d 


Water closet, private (1.6 gpf) 


3= 


Footnote d 


Water closet, private (flushing greater than 1.6 gpf) 


4e 


Footnote d 


Water closet, public (1.6 gpf) 


4e 


Footnote d 


Water closet, public (flushing greater than 1.6 gpf) 


6« 


Footnote d 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 gallon = 3.785 L. 

a. For traps larger than 3 inches, use Table 709.2. 

b. A showerhead over a bathtub or whirlpool bathtub attachment does not increase the drainage fixture unit value. 

c. See Sections 709.2 through 709.4 for methods of computing unit value of fixtures not listed in this table or for rating of devices with intermittent flows. 

d. Trap size shall be consistent with the fixture outlet size. 

e. For the purpose of computing loads on building drains and sewers, water closets or urinals shall not be rated at a lower drainage fixture unit unless the lower values 
are confirmed by testing. 

f. For fixtures added to a dwelling unit bathroom group, add the DFU value of those additional fixtures to the bathroom group fixture count. 



56 



2000 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



SANITARY DRAINAGE 



TABLE 709.2 -711.3 



TABLE 709.2 
DRAINAGE FIXTURE UNITS FOR FIXTURE DRAINS OR TRAPS 




FIXTURE DRAIN OR TRAP SIZE 
(inches) 


DRAINAGE FIXTURE UNIT VALUE 


IV4 


1 


IV, 


2 


2 


3 


2V, 


4 


3 


5 


4 


6 



For SL' 1 inch = 25.4 nun. 



SECTION 7;10 
DRAINAGE SYSTEM SIZING 

kl Maximum fixture unit load. The maximum number of 
drainage fixture units connected to a given size of building 
sewer, building drain or horizontal branch of the building drain 
shall be determined using Table 710.1(1). The maximum num- 
ber of drainage fixture units connected to a given size of hori- 
zontal branch or vertical soil or waste stack shall be determined 
using Table 710.1(2). 

710.1.1 Horizontal stack offsets. Horizontal stack offsets 
shall be sized as required for building drains in accordance 
with Table 710.1(1), except as required by Section 71 1.4. 

710.1.2 Vertical stack offsets. Vertical stack offsets shall be 
sized as required for straight stabks in accordance with Ta- 
ble 710. 1(2), except where requii^ed to be sized as a building 
drain in accordance with Section 711.1.1. 

710.2 Future fixtures. Where provision is made for the future 
installation of fixtures, those provided for shall be considered 



in determining the required sizes of drain pipes. Construction 
to provide for such future installation shall be terminated with 
an approved cap or plug. 



SECTION 711 

OFFSETS IN DRAINAGE PIPING IN BUILDINGS 

OF FIVE STORIES OR MORE 

711.1 Horizontal branch connections above or below verti- 
cal stack offsets. If a horizontal branch connects to the stack 
within 2 feet (610 mm) above or below a vertical stack offset, 
and the offset is located more than four branch intervals below 
the top of the stack, the offset shall be vented in accordance 
with Section 915. 

711.1.1 Omission of vents for vertical stack offsets. Vents 
for vertical offsets required by Section 711.1 shall not be re- 
quired where the stack and its offset are sized as a building 
drain [see Table 710.1(1), Column 5]. 

711.2 Horizontal branch connections to horizontal stack 

offsets. Where a horizontal stack offset is located more than 
four branch intervals below the top of the stack, a horizontal 
branch shall not connect within the horizontal stack offset or 
within 2 feet (610 mm) above or below such offset. 

711.3 Horizontal stack offsets. A stack with a horizontal off- 
set located more than four branch intervals below the top of the 
stack shall be vented in accordance with Section 915 and sized 
as follows: 

1 . The portion of the stack above the offset shall be sized as 
for a vertical stack based on the total number of drainage 
fixture units above the offset. 

2. The offset shall be sized in accordance with Section 
710.1.1. 



TABLE 710.1(1) 
BUILDING DRAINS AND SEWERS 



DIAMETER OF PIPE 
(inches) 


MAXIMUM NUMBER OF DRAINAGE FIXTURE UNITS CONNECTED TO ANY PORTION OF THE BUILDING DRAIN OR THE 
BUILDING SEWER, INCLUDING BRANCHES OF THE BUILDING DRAIN^ 


Slope per foot 


:V,«mch 


Va inch 


V4 inch 


Vainch 


IV, 







1 


1 


1% 








3 


3 


2 








21 


26 


2V, 








24 


31 


3 





36 


42 


50 


4 





180 


216 


250 


5 , 





390 


480 


575 


6 


' ' - 


700 


840 


1,000 


8 


: 1,400 


1,600 


1,920 


2,300 


10 


; 2,500 


2,900 


3,500 


4,200 


12 


3,900 


4,600 


5,600 


6,700 


15 


i 7,000 


8,300 


10,000 


12,000 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 inch per foot = 83.3 mm/m. 

a. The minimum size of any building drain serving a water closet shall be 3 inches. 



2000 DNTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



57 



TABLE 710.1(2) -712.3.3 



SANITARY DRAINAGE 



TABLE 710.1(2) 
HORIZONTAL FIXTURE BRANCHES AND STACKS^ 



DIAMETER OF PIPE 
(inches) 


MAXIMUM NUMBER OF DRAINAGE FIXTURE UNITS (dfu) 


Total for a horizontal branch 


Stacks" 


Total discharge into one 
branch interval 


Total for stack of three branch 
intervals or less 


Total for stack greater than 
three branch intervals 


IV, 


3 


2 


4 


8 


2 


6 


6 


10 


24 


27, 


12 


9 


20 


42 


3 


20 


20 


48 


72 


4 


160 


90 


240 


500 


5 


360 


200 


540 


1,100 


6 


620 


350 


960 


1,900 


8 


1,400 


600 


2,200 


3,600 


10 


2,500 


1,000 


3,800 


5,600 


12 


2,900 


1,500 


6,000 


8,400 


15 


7,000 


Footnote c 


Footnote c 


Footnote c 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 

a. Does not include branches of the building drain. Refer to Table 710. 1 (1). 

b. Stacks shall be sized based on the total accumulated connected load at each story or branch interval. As the total accumulated connected load decreases, stacks are 
permitted to be reduced in size. Stack diameters shall not be reduced to less than one-half of the diameter of the largest stack size required. 

c. Sizing load based on design criteria. 



3. The portion of the stack below the offset shall be sized as 
for the offset or based on the total number of drainage fix- 
ture units on the entire stack, whichever is larger [see Ta- 
ble 710.1(2), Column 4]. 

711.3.1 Omission of vents for horizontal stack offsets. 
Vents for horizontal stack offsets required by Section 71 1.3 
shall not be required where the stack and its offset are one 
pipe size larger than required for a building drain [see Table 
710.1(1), Column 5] and the entire stack and offset are not 
less in cross-sectional area than that required for a straight 
stack plus the area of an offset vent as provided for in Sec- 
tion 915. Omission of offset vents in accordance with this 
section shall not constitute approval of horizontal branch 
connections within the offset or within 2 feet (610 mm) 
above or below the offset. 

711.4 Offsets below lowest branch. Where a vertical offset 
occurs in a soil or waste stack below the lowest horizontal 
branch, change in diameter of the stack because of the offset 
shall not be required. If a horizontal offset occurs in a soil or 
waste stack below the lowest horizontal branch, the required 
diameter of the offset and the stack below it shall be determined 
as for a building drain in accordance with Table 710.1(1). 



SECTION 712 
SUMPS AND EJECTORS 

712,1 Building subdrains. Building subdrains that cannot be 
discharged to the sewer by gravity flow shall be discharged into 
a tightly covered and vented sump from which the liquid shall 
be lifted and discharged into the building gravity drainage sys- 
tem by automatic pumping equipment or other approved 
method. In other than existing structures, the sump shall not re- 



ceive drainage from any piping within the building capable of 
being discharged by gravity to the building sewer. 

712.2 Full open valve required. A full open valve located on 
the discharge side of the check valve shall be installed in the 
pump or ejector discharge piping between the pump or ejector 
and the gravity drainage system. Access shall be provided to 
such valves. Such valves shall be located above the sump cover 
required by Section 7 12. 1 or, where the discharge pipe from the 
ejector is below grade, the valves shall be accessibly located 
outside the sump below grade in an access pit with a removable 
access cover. 

Exception: In one- and two-family dwellings, only a check | 
valve shall be required, located on the discharge piping from 
the sewage pump or ejector. 

712.3 Sump design. The sump pump, pit and discharge piping shaU 
conform to the requirements of Sections 712.3.1 through 712.3.5. 

712.3.1 Sump pump. The sump pump capacity and head 
shall be appropriate to anticipated use requirements. 

712.3.2 Sump pit. The sump pit shall be not less than 18 
inches (457 mm) in diameter and 24 inches (610 mm) deep, 
unless otherwise approved. The pit shall be accessible and 
located such that all drainage flows into the pit by gravity. 
The sump pit shall be constructed of tile, concrete, steel, 
plastic or other approved materials. The pit bottom shall be 
solid and provide permanent support for the pump. The 
sump pit shall be fitted with a gas-tight removable cover ad- 
equate to support anticipated loads in the area of use. The 
sump pit shall be vented in accordance with Chapter 9. 

712.3.3 Discharge piping. Discharge piping shall meet the 
requirements of Section 712.2. 



• 



58 



2000 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



SANITARY DRAINAGE 



712.3.4-713.7.2 





1113 A Maximum effluent level. The effluent level control 
shall be adjusted and maintainedj to at all times prevent the 
effluent in the sump from rising to within 2 inches (5 1 mm) 
of the invert of the gravity drain: inlet into the sump. 

712.3.5 Ejector connection to the drainage system. 

Pumps connected to the drainage system shall connect to the 
building sewer or shall connect to a wye fitting in the build- 
ing drain a minimum of 10 feet (3048 mm) from the base of 
any soil stack, waste stack or fixture drain. Where the dis- 
charge line connects into horizontal drainage piping, the 
connector shall be made through a wye fitting into the top of 
the drainage piping. 

712.4 Sewage pumps and sewage ejectors. A sewage pump or 
sewage ejector shall automatically discharge the contents of the 
sump to the building drainage system. 

712.4.1 Macerating toilet systems. Macerating toilet sys- 
tems shall be installed in accordance with the manufac- 
turer's installation instructions. 

712.4.2 Capacity. A sewage pump or sewage ejector shall 
have the capacity and head for the application requirements. 
Pumps or ejectors that receive the discharge of water closets 
shall be capable of handUng spherical solids with a diameter 
of up to and including 2 inches (5 i mm). Other pumps or ejec- 
tors shall be capable of handling spherical soUds with a diam- 
eter of up to and including 1 inch (25.4 mm). The minimum 
capacity of a pump or ejector based on the diameter of the dis- 
charge pipe shall be in accordance with Table 712.4.2. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Grinder pumps or grinder ejectors that receive the 
discharge of water closets shall have a minimum 
discharge opening of 1:25 inches (32 mm). 

2. Macerating toilet assemblies that serve single wa- 
ter closets shall have a minimum discharge open- 
ing of 0.75 inch (19 mm). 

TABLE 712.4.2 

MINIMUM CAPACITY OF SEWAGE PUMP 

OR SEWAGE EJECTOR 



DIAMETER OF THE 
DISCHARGE PIPE (Inches) 


CAPACITY OF PUMP OR EJECTOR 
(gpm) 


2 


21 


2V, 


' 30 


3 


46 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 gallon per mihute = 3.785 L/m. 



SECTION 713 
HEALTH CARE PLUMBING 

713.1 Scope. This section shall govern those aspects of health 
care plumbing systems that differ from plumbing systems in 
other structures. Health care plumbing systems shall conform 
to this section in addition to the other requirements of this code. 



The provisions of this section shall apply to the special devices 
and equipment installed and maintained in the following occu- 
pancies: nursing homes, homes for the aged, orphanages, infir- 
maries, first aid stations, psychiatric facilities, clinics, 
professionaloffices of dentists and doctors, mortuaries, educa- 
tional facilities, surgery, dentistry, research and testing labora- 
tories, establishments manufacturing pharmaceutical drugs 
and medicines, and other structures with similar apparatus and 
equipment classified as plumbing. 

713.2 Bedpan washers and clinical sinks. Bedpan washers 
and cHnical sinks shall connect to the drainage and vent system 
in accordance with the requirements for a water closet. Bedpan 
washers shall also connect to a local vent. 

713.3 Indirect waste. All sterilizers, steamers and condensers 
shall discharge to the drainage through an indirect waste pipe by 
means of an air gap. Where a battery of not more than three ster- 
ilizers discharges to an individual receptor, the distance between 
the receptor and a sterilizer shall not exceed 8 feet (2438 mm). 
The indirect waste pipe on a bedpan steamer shall be trapped. 

713.4 Vacuum system station* Ready access shall be provided 
to vacuum system station receptacles. Such receptacles shall be 
built into cabinets or recesses and shall be visible. 

713.5 Bottle system. Vacuum (fluid suction) systems intended 
for collecting, removing and disposing of blood, pus or other 
fluids by the bottle system shall be provided with receptacles 
equipped with an overflow prevention device at each vacuum 
outlet station. 

713.6 Central disposal system equipment. All central vac- 
uum (fluid suction) systems shall provide continuous service. 
Systems equipped with collecting or control tanks shall pro- 
vide for draining and cleaning of the tanks while the system is 
in operation. In hospitals, the system shall be connected to the 
emergency power system. The exhausts from a vacuum pump 
serving a vacuum (fluid suction) system shall discharge sepa- 
rately to open air above the roof. 

713.7 Central vacuum or disposal systems. Where the waste 
from a central vacuum (fluid suction) system of the baromet- 
ric-lag, collection-tank or bottle-disposal type is connected to 
the drainage system, the waste shall be directly connected to 
the sanitary drainage system through a trapped waste. 

713.7.1 Piping. The piping of a central vacuum (fluid suc- 
tion) system shall be of corrosion-resistant material with a 
smooth interior surface. A branch shall not be less than 
0.5-inch (12.7 mm) nominal pipe size for one outlet and shall 
be sized in accordance with the number of vacuum outlets. A 
main shall not be less than 1-inch (25 mm) nominal pipe size. 
The pipe sizing shall be increased in accordance with the 
manufacturer's instructions as stations are increased. 

713.7.2 Velocity. The velocity of airflow in a central vac- 
uum (fluid suction) system shall be less than 5,000 feet per 
minute (25 m/s). 



2000 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



59 



713.8 -TABLE 713.11.3 



SANITARY DRAINAGE 



713.8 Vent coeeections proMblted. Connections between local 
vents serving bedpan washers or sterilizer vents serving steriliz- 
ing apparatus and normal sanitary plumbing systems are prohib- 
ited. Only one type of apparatus shall be served by a local vent. 

713.9 Local vemts and stacks for bedpan washers. Bedpan 
washers shall be vented to open air above the roof by means of 
one or more local vents. The local vent for a bedpan washer 
shall not be less than a 2-inch-diameter (5 1 mm) pipe. A local 
vent serving a single bedpan washer is permitted to drain to the 
fixture served. 

713.9.1 Multiple lestallations. Where bedpan washers are lo- 
cated above each other on more than one floor, a local vent 
stack is permitted to be installed to receive the local vent on the 
various floors. Not more than three bedpan washers shall be 
connected to a 2-inch (51 mm) local vent stack, not more than 
six to a 3-inch (76 mm) local vent stack and not more than 12 to 
a 4-inch (102 mm) local vent stack. In multiple installations, 
the connections between a bedpan washer local vent and a lo- 
cal vent stack shall be made with tee or tee- wye sanitary pattern 
drainage fittings installed in an upright position. 

•713.9.2 Trap required. The bottom of the local vent stack, 
except where serving only one bedpan washer, shall be 
drained by means of a trapped and vented waste connection 
to the sanitary drainage system. The trap and waste shall be 
the same size as the local vent stack. 

713.9.3 Trap seal maintenance. A water supply pipe not 
less than V4 inch (6.4 mm) in diameter shall be taken from 
the flush supply of each bedpan washer on the discharge or 
fixture side of the vacuum breaker, shall be trapped to form 
not less than a 3-inch (76 mm) water seal, and shall be con- 
nected to the local vent stack on each floor. The water supply 
shall be installed so as to provide a supply of water to the lo- 
cal vent stack for cleansing and drain trap seal maintenance 
each time a bedpan washer is flushed. 

713.10 Sterilizer vents and stacks. Multiple installations of 
pressure and nonpressure sterilizers shall have the vent connec- 
tions to the steriUzer vent stack made by means of inverted wye 
fittings. Access shall be provided to vent connections for the 
purpose of inspection and maintenance. 



D.l Drainage. The connection between sterilizer vent 
or exhaust openings and the sterilizer vent stack shall be de- 
signed and installed to drain to the funnel or basket-type 
waste fitting. In multiple installations, the sterilizer vent 
stack shall be drained separately to the lowest sterilizer fun- 
nel or basket-type waste fitting or receptor. 

713.11 Sterilizer vent stack sizes. Sterilizer vent stack sizes 
shall comply with Sections 713.11.1 through 713.11.4. 

713.11.1 Bedpan steamers. The minimum size of a steril- 
izer vent serving a bedpan steamer shall be 1.50 inches (38 
mm) in diameter. Multiple installations shall be sized in ac- 
cordance with Table 713.11.1. 



TABLE 713.11.1 
STACK SIZES FOR BEDPAN STEAMERS 

AND BOILING-TYPE STERILIZERS 

(Number of Connections of Various Sizes 

Permitted to Various-sized Sterilizer Vent Stacks) 



STACK SIZE 
(inches) 


CONNECTION SIZE 


IV," 




2" 


\'(-l 


1 


or 





2^ 


2 


or 


1 


2f 


1 


and 


1 


li" 


4 


or 


2 


3" 


2 


and 


2 


4a 


8 


or 


4 


4b 


4 


and 


4 




For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

a. Total of each size. 

b. Combination of sizes. 



713.11.2 Boiling-type sterilizers. The minimum size of a 
sterilizer vent stack shall be 2 inches (5 1 mm) in diameter 
where serving a utensil sterilizer and 1 .50 inches (38 mm) in 
diameter where serving an instrument sterilizer. Combina- 
tions of boiling-type sterilizer vent connections shall be 
sized in accordance with Table 713.11.1. 

713.11.3 Pressure sterilizers. Pressure sterilizer vent 
stacks shall be 2.50 inches (64 mm) minimum. Those serv- 
ing combinations of pressure sterilizer exhaust connections 
shall be sized in accordance with Table 7 13. 11. 3. 

713.11.4 Pressure instrument washer sterilizer sizes. The 
minimum diameter of a sterilizer vent stack serving an instru- 
ment washer steriUzer shall be 2 inches (5 1 nmi). Not more than 
two sterilizers shall be installed on a 2-inch (5 1 mm) stack, and 
not more than four sterilizers shall be installed on a 3-inch (76 
mm) stack. 

TABLE 713.11.3 

STACK SIZES FOR PRESSURE STERILIZERS 

(Number of Connections of Various Sizes Permitted 

to Various-sized Vent Stacks) 



STACK SIZE 
(inches) 


CONNECTION SIZE 


V 


1" 


1V/ 


1V/ 


IV/ 


3 or 


2 or 


1 




IV," 


2 and 


1 








T 


6 or 


3 or 


2 or 


1 


2" 


Sand 


2 








2" 


2 and 


1 and 


1 





2" 


1 and 


1 and 





1 


3^ 


15 or 


7 or 


5 or 


3 


3" 


1 and 


1 and 
5 and 


2 and 


2 
1 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

a. Total of each size. 

b. Combination of sizes. 



60 



2000 INTERNATIONAL PLUIVIBING CODE® 





SANITARY DRAINAGE 714 - 715.5 



SECTION 714 
COMPUTERIZED DRAINAGE DESIGN 

714.1 Design of drainage system. The sizing requirements for 
plumbing drainage systems shall be determined by approved 
computer program design methods. 

714.2 Load on drainage system. The load shall be computed 
from the simultaneous or sequential discharge conditions from 
fixtures, appurtenances and appliances or the peak usage de- 
sign condition. 

714.2.1 Fixture discharge profiles. The discharge profiles 
for flow rates versus time from fixtures and appliances shall 
be in accordance with the manufacturer's specifications. 

714.3 Selections of drainage pipe sizes. Pipe shall be sized to 
prevent full-bore flow. 

714.3.1 Selecting pipe wall roughness. Pipe size calcula- 
tions shall be conducted with the pipe wall roughness factor 
(ks), in accordance with the manufacturer's specifications 
and as modified for aging roughness factors with deposits 
and corrosion. 

714.3.2 Slope of horizontal drainage piping. Horizontal 
drainage piping shall be designed and installed at slopes in 
accordance with Table 704. 1 . 



SECTION 715 
BACKWATER VALVES 

715.1 Sewage backflow. Where the flood level rims of plumb- 
ing fixtures are below the elevation of the manhole cover of the 
next upstream manhole in the public sewer, such fixtures shall 
be protected by a backwater valve installed in the building 
drain, branch of the building drain or horizontal branch serving 
such fixtures. Plumbing fixtures having flood level rims above 
the elevation of the manhole cover of the next upstream man- 
hole in the public sewer shall not discharge through a back- 
water valve. 

715.2 Material. All bearing parts of backwater valves shall be 
of corrosion-resistant material. Backwater valves shall comply 
with ASME A112.14.1, CSA B181.1 or CSA B181.2. 

715.3 Seal. Backwater valves shall be so constructed as to pro- 
vide a mechanical seal against backflow. 

715.4 Diameter. Backwater valves, when fully opened, shall 
have a capacity not less than that of the pipes in which they are 
installed. 

715.5 Location. Backwater valves shall be installed so that ac- 
cess is provided to the working parts for service and repair. 



2000 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 61 





62 2000 JNTERNATDONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



CHAPTER 8 

INDIRECT/SPECIAL WASTE 




SECTION 801 
GENERAL 

801.1 Scope. This chapter shall govern matters concerning in- 
direct waste piping and special wastes. This chapter shall fur- 
ther control matters concerning food-handling establishments, 
sterilizers, clear-water wastes, swimming pools, methods of 
providing air breaks or air gaps, and neutralizing devices for 
corrosive wastes. 

801.2 Protection. All devices, appurtenances, appliances and 
apparatus intended to serve some special function, such as ster- 
ilization, distillation, processing, cooling, or storage of ice or 
foods, and that discharge to the drainage system, shall be pro- 
vided with protection against backflow, flooding, fouling, con- 
tamination and stoppage of the drain. 



SECTION 802 
INDIRECT WASTES 

802.1 Where required. Food-handling equipment and 
clear-water waste shall discharge through an indirect waste 
pipe as specified in Sections 802.1.1 through 802.1.5. All 
health-care related fixtures, devices and equipment shall dis- 
charge to the drainage system through an indirect waste pipe by 
means of an air gap in accordance with this chapter and Section 
713.3. Fixtures not required by this section to be indirectly con- 
nected shall be directly connected to the plumbing system in 
accordance with Chapter 7. 

802.1.1 Food handling. Equipment and fixtures utilized for 
the storage, preparation and handling of food shall dis- 
charge through an indirect waste pipe by means of an air 
gap. 

Exception: This requirement shall not apply to 
dishwashing machines and dishwashing sinks. 

802.1.2 Floor drains in food storage areas. Floor drains 
located within waUc-in refrigerators or freezers in food ser- 
vice and food establishments shall be indirectly connected 
to the sanitary drainage system by means of an air gap. 
Where a floor drain is located within an area subject to 
freezing, the waste line serving the floor drain shall not be 
trapped and shall indirectly discharge into a waste receptor 
located outside of the area subject to freezing. 

Exception: Where protected against backflow by a 
backwater valve, such floor drains shall be indirectly 
connected to the sanitary drainage system by means of an 
air break or an air gap. 

802.1.3 Potable clear-water waste. Where devices and 
equipment, such as sterilizers and relief valves, discharge 
potable water to the building drainage system, the discharge 
shall be through an indirect waste pipe by means of an air 

gap. 



802.1.4 Swimming pools. Where wastewater from swim- 
ming pools, backwash from filters and water from pool deck 
drains discharge to the building drainage system, the dis- 
charge shall be through an indirect waste pipe by means of 
an air gap. 

802.1.5 Nonpotable clear-water waste. Where devices 
and equipment, such as process tanks, filters, drips and boil- 
ers, discharge nonpotable water to the building drainage 
system, the discharge shall be through an indirect waste pipe 
by means of an air break or an air gap. 

802.2 Installation. All indirect waste piping shall discharge 
through an air gap or air break into a waste receptor or 
standpipe. Waste receptors and standpipes shall be trapped and 
vented and shall connect to the building drainage system. All 
indirect waste piping that exceeds 2 feet (610 mm) in devel- 
oped length measured horizontally, or 4 feet (1219 mm) in total 
developed length, shall be trapped. 

802.2.1 Air gap. The air gap between the indirect waste 
pipe and the flood level rim of the waste receptor shall be a 
minimum of twice the effective opening of the indirect 
waste pipe. 

802.2.2 Air break. An air break shall be provided between 
the indirect waste pipe and the trap seal of the waste receptor 
or standpipe. 

802.3 Waste receptors. Every waste receptor shall be of an ap- 
proved type. A removable strainer or basket shall cover the 
waste outlet of waste receptors. Waste receptors shall be in- 
stalled in ventilated spaces. Waste receptors shall not be in- 
stalled in bathrooms or toilet rooms or in any inaccessible or 
unventilated space such as a closet or storeroom. Ready access 
shall be provided to waste receptors. 

802.3.1 Size of receptors. A waste receptor shall be sized 
for the maximum discharge of all indirect waste pipes 
served by the receptor. Receptors shall be installed to pre- 
vent splashing or flooding. 

802.3.2 Open hub waste receptors. Waste receptors shall 
be permitted in the form of a hub or pipe extending not less 
than 1 inch (25.4 mm) above a water- impervious floor and 
are not required to have a strainer. 

802.4 Standpipes. Standpipes shall be individually trapped. 
Standpipes shall extend a minimum of 18 inches (457 mm) and 
a maximum of 42 inches (1066 mm) above the trap. Access 
shall be provided to all standpipe traps and drains for rodding. 



SECTION 803 
SPECIAL WASTES 

803.1 Wastewater temperature. Steam pipes shall not con- 
nect to any part of a drainage or plumbing system and water 
above 140°F (60°C) shall not be discharged into any part of a 



2000 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



63 



803.2 - 804.1 INDIRECT/SPECIAL WASTE 



drainage system. Such pipes shall discharge into an indirect 
waste receptor connected to the drainage system. 

803.2 NeMtralizneg device reqmred for corrosive wastes. 
Corrosive liquids, spent acids or other harmful chemicals that 
destroy or injure a drain, sewer, soil or waste pipe, or create 
noxious or toxic fumes or interfere with sewage treatment pro- 
cesses shall not be discharged into the plumbing system with- 
out being thoroughly diluted, neutralized or treated by passing 
through an approved dilution or neutralizing device. Such de- 
vices shall be automatically provided with a sufficient supply 
of diluting water or neutralizing medium so as to make the con- 
tents noninjurious before discharge into the drainage system. 
The nature of the corrosive or harmful waste and the method of 
its treatment or dilution shall be approved prior to installation. 

M33 System desigm, A chemical drainage and vent system 
shall be designed and installed in accordance with this code. 
Chemical drainage and vent systems shall be completely sepa- 
rated from the sanitary systems. Chemical waste shall not dis- 
charge to a sanitary drainage system until such waste has been 
treated in accordance with Section 803.2. 



SECTION 804 
BViATE^IALS, JOINTS AND CONNECTIONS 

.1 Geeeral. The materials and methods utilized for the con- 
struction and installation of indirect waste pipes and systems 
shall comply with the applicable provisions of Chapter 7. 




2000 liMTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



CHAPTER 9 

VENTS 



SECTION 901 
GENERAL 

901.1 Scope. The provisions of this chapter shall govern the 
materials, design, construction and installation of vent systems. 

901.2 Trap seal protection. The plumbing system shall be pro- 
vided with a system of vent piping that will permit the admis- 
sion or emission of air so that the seal of any fixture trap shall 
not be subjected to a pneumatic pressure differential of more 
than 1 inch of water column (249 Pa). 

901.2.1 Venting required. Every trap and trapped fixture 
shall be vented in accordance with one of the venting meth- 
ods specified in this chapter. 

901.3 Chemical waste vent system. The vent system for a 
chemical waste system shall be independent of the sanitary 
vent system and shall terminate separately through the roof to 
the open air. 

901.4 Use limitations. The plumbing vent system shall not be 
utihzed for purposes other than the venting of the plumbing 
system. 

901.5 Tests. The vent system shall be tested in accordance with 
Section 312. 

901.6 Engineered systems. Engineered venting systems shall 
conform to the provisions of Section 918. 



SECTION 902 
MATERIALS 

902.1 Vents. The materials and methods utilized for the con- 
struction and installation of venting systems shall comply with 
the applicable provisions of Section 702. 

902.2 Sheet copper. Sheet copper for vent pipe flashings shall 
conform to ASTM B 1 52 and shall weigh not less than 8 ounces 
per square foot (2.5 kg/m^). 

902.3 Sheet lead. Sheet lead for vent pipe flashings shall weigh 
not less than 3 pounds per square foot (15 kg/m^) for field-con- 
structed flashings and not less than 2.5 pounds per square foot 
(12 kg/m^) for prefabricated flashings. 



SECTION 903 
VENT STACKS AND STACK VENTS 

903.1 Stack required. Every building in which plumbing is in- 
stalled shall have at least one stack the size of which is not less 
than one-half of the required size of the building drain. Such 
stack shall run undiminished in size and as directly as possible 
from the building drain through to the open air or to a vent 
header that extends to the open air. 

903.1.1 Connection to drainage system. A vent stack shall 
connect to the building drain or to the base of a drainage 



stack in accordance with Section 903.4. A stack vent shall 
be an extension of the drainage stack. 

903.2 Vent stack required. A vent stack shall be required for 
every drainage stack that is five branch intervals or more. 

903.3 Vent termination. Every vent stack or stack vent shall 
extend outdoors and terminate to the open air. 

903.4 Vent connection at base. Every vent stack shall connect 
to the base of the drainage stack. The vent stack shall connect at 
or below the lowest horizontal branch. Where the vent stack 
connects to the building drain, the connection shall be located 
downstream of the drainage stack and within a distance of 10 
times the diameter of the drainage stack. 

903.5 Vent headers. Stack vents and vent stacks connected 
into a common vent header at the top of the stacks and extend- 
ing to the open air at one point shall be sized in accordance with 
the requirements of Section 916.1. The number of fixture units 
shall be the sum of all fixture units on all stacks connected 
thereto, and the developed length shall be the longest vent 
length from the intersection at the base of the most distant stack 
to the vent terminal in the open air, as a direct extension of one 
stack. 



SECTION 904 
VENT TERMINALS 

904.1 Roof extension. All open vent pipes that extend through 
a roof shall be terminated at least [NUMBER] inches (mm) above 
the roof, except that where a roof is to be used for any purpose 
other than weather protection, the vent extensions shall be run 
at least 7 feet (2134 mm) above the roof. 

904.2 Frost closure. Where the 97.5-percent value for outside 
design temperature is 0°F (-18°C) or less, every vent extension 
through a roof or wall shall be a minimum of 3 inches (76 mm) 
in diameter. Any increase in the size of the vent shall be made 
inside the structure a minimum of 1 foot (305 mm) below the 
roof or inside the wall. 

904.3 Flashings. The juncture of each vent pipe with the roof 
line shall be made water tight by an approved flashing. 

904.4 Prohibited use. Vent terminals shall not be used as a flag 
pole or to support flag poles, television aerials or similar items, 
except when the piping has been anchored in an approved man- 
ner. 

904.5 Location of vent terminal. An open vent terminal from 
a drainage system shall not be located directly beneath any 
door, openable window, or other air intake opening of the build- 
ing or of an adjacent building, and any such vent terminal shall 
not be within 10 feet (3048 mm) horizontally of such an open- 
ing unless it is at least 2 feet (610 mm) above the top of such 
opening. 



r 



2000 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



65 



904.6 - TABLE 908.3 



VENTS 



1. Vent terminals extending 
through the wall shall terminate a minimum of 10 feet (3048 
mm) from the lot line and 10 feet (3048 mm) above average 
ground level. Vent terminals shall not terminate under the over- 
hang of a structure with soffit vents. Side wall vent terminals 
shall be protected to prevent birds or rodents from entering or 
blocking the vent opening. 

9ID4.7 ExteMsioe outside a strecture. In climates where the 
97.5-percent value for outside design temperature is less than 
0°F (- 1 8°C), vent pipes installed on the exterior of the structure 
shall be protected against freezing by insulation, heat or both. 



SB 
¥EiNT CONNECTIONS AND GRADES 

9®5.1 Connectioe. All individual, branch and circuit vents 
shall connect to a vent stack, stack vent, air admittance valve or 
extend to the open air. 

905o2 Grade. All vent and branch vent pipes shall be so graded 
and connected as to drain back to the drainage pipe by gravity. 

9®S.3 Vemt coenedtion to drainage system. Every dry vent 
connecting to a horizontal drain shall connect above the center- 
line of the horizontal drain pipe. 

905.4 Vertical rise off vent. Every dry vent shall rise vertically 
to a minimum of 6 inches (152 mm) above the flood level rim of 
the highest trap or trapped fixture being vented. 

905.5 Height above fixteres, A connection between a vent 
pipe and a vent stack or stack vent shall be made at least 6 
inches (152 mm) above the flood level rim of the highest fixture 
served by the vent. Horizontal vent pipes forming branch vents, 
relief vents or loop vents shall be at least 6 inches (152 mm) 
above the flood level rim of the highest fixture served. 

905.6 Vemt for future fixtures. Where the drainage piping has 
been roughed-in for future fixtures, a rough-in connection for a 
vent shall be installed. The vent size shall be not less than 
one-half the diameter of the rough-in drain to be served. The 
vent rough-in shall connect to the vent system, or shall be 
vented by other means as provided for in this chapter. The con- 
nection shall be identified to indicate that it is a vent. 



TABLE 906.1 
MAXIMUM DISTANCE OF FIXTURE TRAP FROM VENT 


SIZE OF TRAP 
(incties) 


SIZE OF 

FIXTURE DRAIN 

(Inches) 


SLOPE 
(Inch per foot) 


DISTANCE 

FROM TRAP 

(feet) 


IV. 


IV, 


'4 


3V, 


iv. 


IV, 


U 


5 


IV, 


IV, 


u 


5 


1% 


2 


u 


6 


2 


2 


u 


6 


3 


3 


/r 


10 


4 


4 


k 


12 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 
1 inch per foot = 83.3 mm/m. 



SECTION 907 
INDIVIDUAL VENT 

907,1 Individual vent permitted. Each trap and trapped fix- 
ture is permitted to be provided with an individual vent. The in- 
dividual vent shall connect to the fixture drain of the trap or 
trapped fixture being vented. 



SECTION 908 
COMMON VENT 

908.1 Individual vent as common vent. An individual vent is 
permitted to vent two traps or trapped fixtures as a common 
vent. The traps or trapped fixtures being common vented shall 
be located on the same floor level. 

908.2 Connection at the same level. Where the fixture drains 
being common vented connect at the same level, the vent con- 
nection shall be at the interconnection of the fixture drains or 
downstream of the interconnection. 



SECTION 906 
FIXTURE VENTS 

906.1 Distance of trap from vent. Each fixture trap shall have 
a protecting vent located so that the slope and the developed 
length in the fixture drain from the trap weir to the vent fitting 
are within the requirements set forth in Table 906.1. 



.2 Ventimg of fixture drains. The vent for a fixture drain, 
except where serving a fixture with integral traps, such as water 
closets, shall connect above the weir of the fixture trap being 
vented. 



5.3 Crown vent. A vent shall not be installed within two pipe 
diameters of the trap weir. 



908.3 Connection at different levels. Where the fixture drains 
connect at different levels, the vent shall connect as a vertical 
extension of the vertical drain. The vertical drain pipe connect- 
ing the two fixture drains shall be considered the vent for the 
lower fixture drain, and shall be sized in accordance with Table 
908.3. The upper fixture shall not be a water closet. 

TABLE 908.3 
COMMON VENT SIZES 



PIPE SIZE 
(inches) 


MAXIMUM DISCHARGE FROM UPPER 
FIXTURE DRAIN (dfu) 


IV, 


1 


2 


4 


2V2 to 3 


6 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



66 



2000 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



VENTS 



909-911.4.1 



• 



SECTION 909 
WET VENTING 

909.1 Wet vent permitted. Any combination of fixtures within 
two bathroom groups located on the same floor level are per- 
mitted to be vented by a wet vent. The wet vent shall be consid- 
ered the vent for the fixtures and shall extend from the 
connection of the dry vent along the direction of the flow in the 
drain pipe to the most downstream fixture drain connection to 
the horizontal branch drain. Only the fixtures within the bath- 
room groups shall connect to the wet- vented horizontal branch 
drain. Any additional fixtures shall discharge downstream of 
the wet vent. 

909.2 Vent connection. The dry vent connection to the wet 
vent shall be an individual vent or common vent to the lavatory, 
bidet, shower or bathtub. The dry vent shall be sized based on 
the largest required diameter of pipe within the wet vent system 
served by the dry vent. 

909.3 Size. The wet vent shall be of a minimum size as speci- 
fied in Table 909.3, based on the fixture unit discharge to the 
wet vent. 



TABLE 909.3 
WET VENT SIZE 



TABLE 910.4 
WASTE STACK VENT SIZE 



WET VENT PIPE SIZE 
(inches) 


DRAINAGE FIXTURE UNIT LOAD 
(dfu) 


IV, 


1 


2 


4 


2V, 


6 


3 


12 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



SECTION 910 
WASTE STACK VENT 

910.1 Waste stack vent permitted. A waste stack shall be con- 
sidered a vent for all of the fixtures discharging to the stack 
where installed in accordance with the requirements of this sec- 
tion. 

910.2 Stack installation. The waste stack shall be vertical, and 
both horizontal and vertical offsets shall be prohibited. Every 
fixture drain shall connect separately to the waste stack. The 
stack shall not receive the discharge of water closets or urinals. 

910.3 Stack vent. A stack vent shall be provided for the waste 
stack. The size of the stack vent shall be equal to the size of the 
waste stack. Offsets shall be permitted in the stack vent and 
shall be located at least 6 inches (152 mm) above the flood level 
of the highest fixture, and shall be in accordance with Section 
905.2. 

910.4 Waste stack size. The waste stack shall be sized based on 
the total discharge to the stack and the discharge within a 
branch interval in accordance with Table 910.4. The waste 
stack shall be the same size throughput its length. 



STACK SIZE 
(inches) 


MAXIMUM NUMBER OF DRAINAGE 
FIXTURE UNITS (dfu) 


Total discharge into 
one branch Interval 


Total discharge 
for stack 


1% 


1 


2 


2 


2 


4 


2% 


No limit 


8 


3 


No limit 


24 


4 


No limit 


50 


5 


No limit 


75 


6 


No limit 


100 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



SECTION 911 
CIRCUIT VENTING 

911.1 Circuit vent permitted. A maximum of eight fixtures 
connected to a horizontal branch drain shall be permitted to be 
circuit vented. Each fixture drain shall connect horizontally to 
the horizontal branch being circuit vented. The horizontal 
branch drain shall be classified as a vent from the most down- 
stream fixture drain connection to the most upstream fixture 
drain connection to the horizontal branch. 

911.1.1 Multiple circuit-vented branches. Circuit-vented 
horizontal branch drains are permitted to be connected to- 
gether. Each group of a maximum of eight fixtures shall be 
considered a separate circuit vent and shall conform to the 
requirements of this section. 

911.2 Vent connection. The circuit vent connection shall be lo- 
cated between the two most upstream fixture drains. The vent 
shall connect to the horizontal branch and shall be installed in 
accordance with Section 905. The circuit vent pipe shall not re- 
ceive the discharge of any soil or waste. 

911.3 Slope and size of horizontal branch. The maximum 
slope of the vent section of the horizontal branch drain shall be 
one unit vertical in 12 units horizontal (8-percent slope). The 
entire length of the vent section of the horizontal branch drain 
shall be sized for the total drainage discharge to the branch. 

911.3.1 Size of multiple circuit vent. Each separate cir- 
cuit-vented horizontal branch that is interconnected shall be 
sized independently in accordance with Section 91 1.3. The 
downstream circuit- vented horizontal branch shall be sized 
for the total discharge into the branch, including the up- 
stream branches and the fixtures within the branch. 

911.4 Relief vent. A relief vent shall be provided for cir- 
cuit-vented horizontal branches receiving the discharge of four 
or more water closets and connecting to a drainage stack that 
receives the discharge of soil or waste from upper horizontal 
branches. 

911.4.1 Connection and installation. The relief vent shall 
connect to the horizontal branch drain between the stack and 
the most downstream fixture drain of the circuit vent. The 
relief vent shall be installed in accordance with Section 905. 



2000 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



67 



911.4.2-914.2 



VENTS 



.4.2 Fixture draim or branch. The relief vent is permit- 
ted to be a fixture drain or fixture branch for fixtures located 
within the same branch interval as the circuit- vented hori- 
zontal branch. The maximum discharge to a relief vent shall 
be four fixture units. 



TABLE 912.3 
SIZE OF COMBINATION DRAIN AND VENT PIPE 



fixtures. Fixtures, other than the cir- 
cuit-vented fixtures, are permitted to discharge to the horizontal 
branch drain. Such fixtures shall be located on the same floor as 
the circuit-vented fixtures and shall be either individually or 
common vented. 



SECTION 912 

COMBINATION DRAIN AND VENT SYSTEM 

912.1 IVpe off fixtures, A combination drain and vent system 
shall not serve fixtures other than floor drains, standpipes, sinks 
and lavatories. Combination drain and vent systems shall not re- 
ceive the discharge of a food waste grinder. 

912.2 Installatioe. The only vertical pipe of a combination 
drain and vent system shall be the connection between the fixture 
drain of a sink, lavatory or standpipe, and the horizontal combi- 
nation drain and vent pipe. The maximum vertical distance shall 
be 8 feet (2438 mm). 

912.2.1 Slope. The horizontal combination drain and vent 
pipe shall have a maximum slope of one-half unit vertical in 
12 units horizontal (4-percent slope). The minimum slope 
shall be in accordance with Table 704.1. 

912.2.2 Connection. The combination drain and vent sys- 
tem shall be provided with a dry vent connected at any point 
within the system or the system shall connect to a horizontal 
drain that is vented in accordance with one of the venting 
methods specified in this chapter. Combination drain and 
vent systems connecting to building drains receiving only 
the discharge from a stack or stacks shall be provided with a 
dry vent. The vent connection to the combination drain and 
vent pipe shall extend vertically a minimum of 6 inches (152 
mm) above the flood level rim of the highest fixture being 
vented before offsetting horizontally. 



E.2.3 Vent size. The vent shall be sized for the total drain- 
age fixture unit load in accordance with Section 916.2. 

912.2.4 Fixture liranch or drain. The fixture branch or fix- 
ture drain shall connect to the combination drain and vent 
within a distance specified in Table 906. 1 . The combination 
drain and vent pipe shall be considered the vent for the fix- 
ture. 

912.3 Size. The minimum size of a combination drain and vent 
pipe shall be in accordance with Table 912.3. 



DIAMETER PIPE 
(inches) 


MAXIMUM NUMBER OF DRAINAGE 
FIXTURE UNITS (dfu) 


Connecting to a 

horizontal branch or 

stack 


Connecting to a 
building drain or 
building subdrain 


2 


3 


4 


2V, 


6 


26 


3 


12 


31 


4 


20 


50 


5 


160 


2.50 


6 


360 


575 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



SECTION 913 
ISLAND FIXTURE VENTDNG 

913.1 Limitation. Island fixture venting shall not be permitted 
for fixtures other than sinks and lavatories. Residential kitchen 
sinks with a dishwasher waste connection, a food waste grinder, 
or both, in combination with the kitchen sink waste, shall be per- 
mitted to be vented in accordance with this section. 

913.2 Vent connection. The island fixture vent shall connect to 
the fixture drain as required for an individual or common vent. 
The vent shall rise vertically to above the drainage outlet of the 
fixture being vented before offsetting horizontally or vertically 
downward. The vent or branch vent for multiple island fixture 
vents shall extend to a minimum of 6 inches (152 mm) above 
the highest island fixture being vented before connecting to the 
outside vent terminal. 

913.3 Vent installation below the fixture flood level rim. The 
vent located below the flood level rim of the fixture being 
vented shall be installed as required for drainage piping in ac- 
cordance with Chapter 7, except for sizing. The vent shall be 
sized in accordance with Section 916.2. The lowest point of the 
island fixture vent shall connect full size to the drainage sys- 
tem. The connection shall be to a vertical drain pipe or to the top 
half of a horizontal drain pipe. Cleanouts shall be provided in 
the island fixture vent to permit rodding of all vent piping lo- 
cated below the flood level rim of the fixtures. Rodding in both 
directions shall be permitted through a cleanout. 



SECTION 914 

RELIEF VENTS— STACKS OF MORE THAN 

10 BRANCH INTERVALS 

914.1 Where required. Soil and waste stacks in buildings hav- 
ing more than 10 branch intervals shall be provided with a relief 
vent at each tenth interval installed, beginning with the top 
floor. 

914.2 Size and connection. The size of the relief vent shall be 
equal to the size of the vent stack to which it connects. The 
lower end of each relief vent shall connect to the soil or waste 
stack through a wye below the horizontal branch serving the 



68 



2000 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



VENTS 



915-917.6 




I floor, and the upper end shall connect to the vent stack through 
a wye not less than 3 feet (914 mm) above the floor. 



SECTION 915 
VENTS FOR STACK OFFSETS 

915.1 Vent for horizontal offset of drainage stack. Horizon- 
tal offsets of drainage stacks shall be vented where five or more 
branch intervals are located above the offset. The offset shall be 
vented by venting the upper section of the drainage stack and 
the lower section of the drainage stack. 

915.2 Upper section. The upper section of the drainage stack 
shall be vented as a separate stack with a vent stack connection 
installed in accordance with Section 903.4. The offset shall be 
considered the base of the stack. 

915.3 Lower section. The lower section of the drainage stack 
shall be vented by a yoke vent connecting between the offset 
and the next lower horizontal branch. The yoke vent connection 
shall be permitted to be a vertical extension of the drainage 
stack. The size of the yoke vent and connection shall be a mini- 
mum of the size required for the vent stack of the drainage 
stack. 



SECTION 916 
VENT PIPE SIZING 

916.1 Size of stack vents and vent stacks. The minimum re- 
quired diameter of stack vents and vent stacks shall be deter- 
mined from the developed length and the total of drainage 
fixture units connected thereto in accordance with Table 916. 1 , 
but in no case shall the diameter be less than one-half the diam- 
eter of the drain served or less than 1 V4 inches (32 mm). 

916.2 Vents other than stack vents or vent stacks. The diam- 
eter of individual vents, branch vents, circuit vents and relief 
vents shall be at least one-half the required diameter of the 
drain served. The required size of the drain shall be determined 
in accordance with Table 710.1(2). Vent pipes shall not be less 
than 1 V4 inches (32 nun) in diameter. Vents exceeding 40 feet 
(12 192 mm) in developed length shall be increased by one 
nominal pipe size for the entire developed length of the vent 
pipe. Relief vents for soil and waste stacks in buildings having 
more than 10 branch intervals shall be sized in accordance with 
Section 914.2. 

916.3 Developed length. The developed length of individual, 
branch, circuit and relief vents shall be measured from the far- 
thest point of vent connection to the drainage system to the 
point of connection to the vent stack, stack vent or termination 
outside of the building. 

916.4 Multiple branch vents. Where multiple branch vents 
are connected to a common branch vent, the common branch 
vent shall be sized in accordance with this section based on the 
size of the common horizontal drainage branch that is or would 
be required to serve the total drainage fixture unit (dfu) load be- 
ing vented. 

916.4.1 Multiple branch vents exceeding 40 feet in devel- 
oped length. Multiple branch vents exceeding 40 feet (12 
1 92 mm) in developed length shall be increased by one nom- 
inal size for the entire developed length of the vent pipe. 



916.5 Sump vents. Sump vent sizes shall be determined in ac- 
cordance with Sections 916.5.1 and 916.5.2. 

916.5.1 Sewage pumps and sewage ejectors other than 
pneumatic. Drainage piping below sewer level shall be 
vented in a similar manner to that of a gravity system. Build- 
ing sump vent sizes for sumps with sewage pumps or sew- 
age ejectors, other than pneumatic, shall be determined in 
accordance with Table 916.5.1. 

916.5.2 Pneumatic sewage ejectors. The air pressure relief 
pipe from a pneumatic sewage ejector shall be connected to 
an independent vent stack terminating as required for vent 
extensions through the roof. The relief pipe shall be sized to 
relieve air pressure inside the ejector to atmospheric pres- 
sure, but shall not be less than 1 V4 inches (32 mm) in size. 



SECTION 917 
AIR ADMITTANCE VALVES 

917.1 General. Vent systems utilizing air admittance valves 
shall comply with this section. Individual- and branch-type air 
admittance valves shall conform to ASSE 1051. 

917.2 Installation. The valves shall be installed in accordance 
with the requirements of this section and the manufacturer's in- 
stallation instructions. Air admittance valves shall be installed 
after the DWV testing required by Section 312.2 or 312.3 has 
been performed. 

917.3 Where permitted. Individual, branch and circuit vents 
shall be permitted to terminate with a connection to an air ad- 
mittance valve. The air admittance valve shall only vent fix- 
tures that are on the same floor level and connect to a horizontal 
branch drain. The horizontal branch drain shall conform to 
Section 917.3.1 or Section 917.3.2. 

917.3.1 Location of branch. The horizontal branch drain 
shall connect to the drainage stack or building drain a maxi- 
mum of four branch intervals from the top of the stack. 

917.3.2 Relief vent. The horizontal branch shall be pro- 
vided with a relief vent that shall connect to a vent stack, or 
stack vent, or extend outdoors to the open air. The relief vent 
shall connect to the horizontal branch drain between the 
stack or building drain and the most downstream fixture 
drain connected to the horizontal branch drain. The relief 
vent shall be sized in accordance with Section 916.2 and in- 
stalled in accordance with Section 905. The relief vent shall 
be permitted to serve as the vent for other fixtures. 

917.4 Location. The air admittance valve shall be located a 
minimum of 4 inches (102 mm) above the horizontal branch 
drain or fixture drain being vented. The air admittance valve 
shall be located within the maximum developed length permit- 
ted for the vent. The air admittance valve shall be installed a 
minimum of 6 inches (152 mm) above insulation materials. 

917.5 Access and ventilation. Access shall be provided to all 
air admittance valves. The valve shall be located within a venti- 
lated space that allows air to enter the valve. 

917.6 Size. The air admittance valve shall be rated in accor- 
dance with the standard for the size of the vent to which the 
valve is connected. 



2000 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



69 



TABLE 91 6 J 



VENTS 



SIZE 



TABLE 916.1 
AND DEVELOPED LENGTH OF STACK VENTS AND VENT STACKS 



DIAMt r bR OF 


TOTAL FIXTURE 








MAXIMUM DEVELOPED LENGTH OF VENT (feet)^ 








SOIL OR WASTE 
STACK 


UNITS BEING 
VENTED 








DIAMETER OF VENT (inches) 






























(inches) 


(dfu) 


1V4 


1\ 


2 


2\ 


3 


4 


5 


6 


8 


10 


12 


IV4 


2 


30 
































IV2 


8 


50 


150 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


IV, 


10 


30 


100 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2 


12 


30 


75 


200 


























2 


20 


26 


50 


150 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2V, 


42 


— 


30 


100 


300 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


3 


10 





42 


150 


360 


1,040 




















3 


21 


— 


32 


110 


270 


810 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


3 


53 


— 


27 


94 


230 


680 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


3 


102 





25 


86 


210 


620 




















4 


43 


— 


— 


35 


85 


250 


980 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


4 


140 


— 


— 


27 


65 


200 


750 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


4 


320 





— 


23 


55 


170 


640 

















4 


540 


— 


— 


21 


50 


150 


580 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


5 


190 


— 


— 


— 


28 


82 


320 


990 


— 


— 


— 


— 


5 


490 











21 


63 


250 


760 














5 


940 


— 


— 


— 


18 


53 


210 


670 


— 


— 


— 


— 


5 


1,400 


— 


— 


— 


16 


49 


190 


590 


— 


— 


— 


— 


6 


500 














33 


130 


400 


1,000 











6 


1,100 


— 


— 


— 


— 


26 


100 


310 


780 


— 


— 


— 


6 


2,000 


— 


— 


— 


— 


22 


84 


260 


660 


— 


— 


— 


6 


2,900 














20 


77 


240 


600 











8 


1,800 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


31 


95 


240 


940 


— 


— 


8 


3,400 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


24 


73 


190 


720 


— 


— 


8 


5,600 

















20 


62 


160 


610 








8 


7,600 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


18 


56 


140 


560 


— 


— 


10 


4,000 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


31 


78 


310 


960 


— 


10 


7,200 




















24 


60 


240 


740 





10 


11,000 


— 


— 




— 


— 


— 


20 


51 


200 


630 


— 


10 


15,000 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


18 


46 


180 


570 


— 


12 


7,300 























31 


120 


380 


940 


12 


13,000 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


24 


94 


300 


720 


12 


20,000 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


20 


79 


250 


610 


12 


26,000 





— 








■ 








18 


72 


230 


500 


15 


15,000 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


40 


130 


310 


15 


25,000 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


31 


96 


240 


15 
15 


38,000 
50,000 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


26 

24 


81 

74 


200 
180 




For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 

a. The developed length shall be measured from the vent connection to the open air. 



70 



2000 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



VEMTS 



TABLE 916.5.1 - TABLE 918.2 



TABLE 916.5.1 
SIZE AND LENGTH OF SUMP VENTS 




DISCHARGE 
CAPACITY OF PUMP 

(gpm) 


MAXIMUM DEVELOPED LENGTH OF VENT (feel)^ 


Diameter of vent (inches) 


1^ 


1V, 


2 


2% 


3 


4 


10 


No limit'' 


No limit 


No limit 


No limit 


No limit 


No limit 


20 


270 


No limit 


No limit 


No limit 


No limit 


No limit 


40 


72 i 


160 


No limit 


No limit 


No limit 


No limit 


60 


31 


75 


270 


No limit 


No limit 


No limit 


80 


16 i 


41 


150 


' 380 


No limit 


No limit 


100 


10^ 


25 


97 


250 


No limit 


No limit 


150 


Not permitted 


10^ 


44 


110 


370 


No limit 


200 


Not permitted 


Not permitted 


20 


60 


210 


No limit 


250 


Not permitted 


Not permitted 


10 


36 


132 


No limit 


300 


Not permitted 


Not permitted 


10'= 


22 


88 


380 


400 


Not permitted 


Not permitted 


Not permitted 


10^ 


44 


210 


500 


Not permitted ' 


Not permitted 


Not permitted 


Not permitted 


24 


130 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 gallon per minute = 3.785 L/m. 

a. Developed length plus an appropriate allowance for entrance losses and friction due to fittings, changes in direction and diameter. Suggested allowances shall be 
obtained from NBS Monograph 3 1 or other approved sources. An allowance of 50 percent of the developed length shall be assumed if a more precise value is not 
available. 

b. Actual values greater than 500 feet. 

c. Less than 10 feet. 



TABLE 918.2 

MINIMUM DIAMEljEFt AND MAXIMUM LENGTH OF INDIVIDUAL BRANCH FIXTURE VENTS AND 

INDIVIDUAL FIXTURE HEADER VENTS FOR SMOOTH PIPES 



DIAMETER 
OF VENT 

PIPE 
(inches) 


INDIVIDUAL VENT AIRFLOW RATE (cubic feet per minute) 


Maximum developed length of vent (feet) 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


11 


12 


13 


14 


15 


16 


17 


18 


19 


20 


% 


95 


25 


13 


8 


5 


4 


3 


2 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


% 


100 


88 


47 


30 


20 


15 


10 


9 


7 


6 


5 


4 


3 


3 


3 


2 


2 


2 


2 


1 


1 


— 


— 


100 


94 


,65 


48 


37 


29 


24 


20 


17 


14 


12 


11 


9 


8 


7 


7 


6 


6 


IV, 














- 








100 


87 


73 


■62 


53 


46 


40 


36 


32 


29 


26 


23 


21 


IV. 


— 
































100: 


96 


84 


75 


67 


60 


54 


49 


45 


2 


— 


— 


— 


— 


^ 


— - 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


100 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 cubic foot per minute = 0.47 19 L/s. 



2000 DNTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



71 



917.7-919.2 



VENTS 



917.7 Vent reqenredo Within each plumbing system, a mini- 
mum of one stack vent or vent stack shall extend outdoors to the 
open air. 

917M Proliibited nmsteMatioims, Air admittance valves shall 
not be installed in nonneutralized special waste systems as de- 
scribed in Chapter 8. Valves shall not be located in spaces uti- 
lized as supply or return air plenums. 



SECTi©N918 
ENGDGSIEERED VEMT SYSTEMS 

918.1 Gemeral. Engineered vent systems shall comply with 
this section and the design, submittal, approval, inspection and 
testing requirements of Section 105.4. 

918.2 Imdnvndeal Ibraimch ISxtere amd imdividnial Hxtare 
header veimtts. The maximum developed length of individual 
fixture vents to vent branches and vent headers shall be deter- 
mined in accordance with Table 918.2 for the minimum pipe 
diameters at the indicated vent airflow rates. 

The individual vent airflow rate shall be determined in ac- 
cordance with the following: 



Individual vent developed length shall be increased by 20 
percent of the distance from the vent stack to the fixture vent 
connection on the vent branch or header. 



SECTION 919 
RDZED VENT DESDGN 

919.1 Design of vent system. The sizing, design and layout of 
the vent system shall be permitted to be determined by ap- 
proved computer program design methods. 

919.2 System capacity. The vent system shall be based on tlie 
air capacity requirements of the drainage system under a peak 
load condition. 




Qh.b = K.b Qv 



(Equatioe 9-1) 



For SI: 0,,, = 7V„,, a (0.4719 L/s) 
where: 



Kb 



Number of fixtures per header (or vent 
branch), total number of fixtures 
connected to vent stack. 



Qh.b 


Vent branch or vent header airflow rate 




(cfm). 


a 


Total vent stack airflow rate (cfm). 


e, (gpm) = 


27.8 r, 2« (1 - rO D^'^ 


a(cfm) = 


0.134 a (gpm) 


where: 




D 


Drainage stack diameter (inches). 


fiw 


Design discharge load (gpm). 


rs 


Wastewater flow area to total area. 




Qw 



27. SD^'^ 

Individual vent airflow rates are obtained by equally distrib- 
uting Qf,i, into one-half the total number of fixtures on the 
branch or header for more than two fixtures; for an odd number 
of total fixtures, decrease by one; for one fixture, apply the full 
value of <2;,,fo. 



72 



2000 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



CHAPTER 10 

TRAPS, INTERCEPTORS AND SEPARATORS 





SECTION 1001 
GENERAL 

1001.1 Scope. This chapter shall govern the material and in- 
stallation of traps, interceptors and separators. 



SECTION 1002 
TRAP REQUIREMENTS 

1002.1 Fixture traps. Each plumbing fixture shall be sepa- 
rately trapped by a water-seal trap, except as otherwise permit- 
ted by this code. The trap shall be placed as close as possible to 
the fixture outlet. The vertical distance from the fixture outlet to 
the trap weir shall not exceed 24 inches (610 mm). The distance 
of a clothes washer standpipe above a trap shall conform to Sec- 
tion 802.4. A fixture shall not be double trapped. 

Exceptions: 

1 . This section shall not apply to fixtures with integral 
traps. 

2. A combination plumbing fixture is permitted to be in- 
stalled on one trap provided that one compartment is 
not more than 6 inches (152 mm) deeper than the other 
compartment and the waste outlets are not more than 
30 inches (762 mm) apart. 

3. A grease trap intended to serve as a fixture trap in ac- 
cordance with the manufacturer's installation instruc- 
tions shall be permitted to serve as the trap for a single 
fixture or a combination sink of not more than three 
compartments where the vertical distance from the 
fixture outlet to the inlet of the interceptor does not ex- 
ceed 30 inches (762 mm), and the developed length of 
the waste pipe from the most upstream fixture outlet 
to the inlet of the interceptor does not exceed 60 
inches (1524 mm). 

1002.2 Design of traps. Fixture traps shall be self-scouring. 
Fixture traps shall not have interior partitions, except where 
such traps are integral with the fixture or where such traps are 
constructed of an approved material that is resistant to corro- 
sion and degradation. Slip joints shall be made with an ap- 
proved elastomeric gasket and shall only be installed on the trap 
inlet, trap outlet and within the trap seal. 

1002.3 Prohibited traps. The following types of traps are pro- 
hibited: 

1 . Traps that depend on moving parts to maintain the seal. 

2. Bell traps. 

3. Crown- vented traps. 

4. Traps not integral with a fixture and that depend on inte- 
rior partitions for the seal, except those traps constructed 
of an approved material that is resistant to corrosion 
anddegradation. 

5. "S" traps. 



6. Drum traps. 

Exception: Drum traps used as solids interceptors I 
and drum traps serving chemical waste systems shall I 
not be prohibited. 

1002.4 Trap seals. Each fixture trap shall have a hquid seal of 
not less than 2 inches (5 1 mm) and not more than 4 inches (102 
mm), or deeper for special designs relating to accessible fix- 
tures. Where a trap seal is subject to loss by evaporation, a 
deep-seal trap consisting of a 4-inch (102 mm) seal or a trap 
seal primer valve shall be installed. A trap seal primer valve 
shall conform to ASSE 1018 or ASSE 1044. 

1002.5 Size of fixture traps. Fixture trap size shall be suffi- 
cient to drain the fixture rapidly and not less than the size indi- 
cated in Table 709. 1 . A trap shall not be larger than the drainage 
pipe into which the trap discharges. 

1002.6 Building traps. Building (house) traps shall be prohib- I 
ited, except where local conditions necessitate such traps. I 
Building traps shall be provided with a cleanout and a relief 
vent or fresh air intake on the inlet side of the trap. The size of 
the relief vent or fresh air intake shall not be less than one-half 
the diameter of the drain to which the relief vent or air intake 
connects. Such relief vent or fresh air intake shall be carried 
above grade and shall be terminated in a screened outlet located 
outside the building. 

1002.7 Trap setting and protection. Traps shall be set level 
with respect to the trap seal and, where necessary, shall be pro- 
tected from freezing. 

1002.8 Recess for trap connection. A recess provided for con- 
nection of the underground trap, such as one serving a bathtub 
in slab-type construction, shall have sides and a bottom of cor- 
rosion-resistant, insect- and verminproof construction. 

1002.9 Acid-resisting traps. Where a vitrified clay or other 
brittleware, acid-resisting trap is installed underground, such 
trap shall be embedded in concrete extending 6 inches (152 
mm) beyond the bottom and sides of the trap. 

1002.10 Plumbing in mental health centers. In mental health 
centers, pipes and traps shall not be exposed. 



SECTION 1003 
INTERCEPTORS AND SEPARATORS 

1003.1 Where required. Interceptors and separators shall be 
provided to prevent the discharge of oil, grease, sand and other 
substances harmful or hazardous to the building drainage sys- 
tem, the public sewer, or sewage treatment plant or processes. 

1003.2 Approval. The size, type and location of each intercep- 
tor and of each separator shall be designed and installed in ac- 
cordance with the manufacturer's instructions and the 
requirements of this section based on the anticipated condi- 
tions of use. Wastes that do not require treatment or separation 
shall not be discharged into any interceptor or separator. 



2000 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



73 



1003.3-1003.10 



TRAPS, INTERCEPTORS AND SEPARATORS 



L3 Grease traps and grease interceptors. Grease traps 
and grease interceptors shall comply with the requirements of 
Sections 1003.3.1 through 1003.3.4.2. 



L3.1 Grease traps and grease interceptors required. 
A grease trap or grease interceptor shall be required to re- 
ceive the drainage from fixtures and equipment with 
grease-laden waste located in food preparation areas, such 
as in restaurants, hotel kitchens, hospitals, school kitchens, 
bars, factory cafeterias, or restaurants and clubs. 



5.3.2 Food waste grinders. Where food waste grinders 
connect to grease traps or grease interceptors, the grease in- 
terceptor shall be sized and rated for the discharge of the 
food waste grinder. 



.3.3 Grease trap and grease interceptor not re- 
quired. A grease trap or a grease interceptor shall not be re- 
quired for individual dwelling units or any private living 
quarters. 

1®03,3.4! Grease traps. Grease traps shall conform to PDI 
GlOl. 



.3.4.1 Grease trap capacity. Grease traps shall 
have the grease retention capacity indicated in Table 
1003.3.4.1 for the flow-through rates indicated. 



TABLE 1003.3.4.1 
CAPACITY OF GREASE TRAPS 



TOTAL FLOW-THROUGH RATING 
(gpm) 


GREASE RETENTION CAPACITY 
(pounds) 


4 


8 


6 


12 


7 


14 


9 


18 


10 


20 


12 


24 


14 


28 


15 


30 


18 


36 


20 


40 


25 


50 


35 


70 


50 


100 



For SI: 1 gallon per minute = 3.785 L/m, 1 pound = 0.454 kg. 



.3.4,2 Rate of flow controls. Grease traps shall be 
equipped with devices to control the rate of water flow so 
that the water flow does not exceed the rated flow. The 
flow-control device shall be vented and terminate not 
less than 6 inches (152 mm) above the flood rim level or 
be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's in- 
structions. 

,4 Oil separators required. At repair garages; gasoline 
stations with grease racks, grease pits or work racks; 
carwashing facilities with engine or undercarriage cleaning ca- 
pability; and at factories where oily and flanunable liquid 



wastes are produced, separators shall be installed into which all I 
oil-bearing, grease-bearing or flammable wastes shall be dis- 
charged before emptying in the building drainage system or 
other point of disposal. 

1003.4.1 Separation of liquids. A mixture of treated or un- 
treated light and heavy liquids with various specific gravi- 
ties shall be separated in an approved receptacle. 4m^ 

1003.4.2 Oi! separator design. Oil separators shall be de- I 
signed in accordance with Sections 1003.4.2.1 and 
1003.4.2.2. I 



5.4.2.1 General design requirements. Oil separa- 
tors shall have a depth of not less than 2 feet (610 mm) be- 
low the invert of the discharge drain. The outlet opening 
of the separator shall have not less than an 18-inch (457 
mm) water seal. 

1003.4.2.2 Garages and service stations. Where auto- 
mobiles are serviced, greased, repaired, washed or where 
gasoline is dispensed, oil separators shall have a mini- 
mum capacity of 6 cubic feet (0. 168 m^) for the first 100 
square feet (9.3 m^) of area to be drained, plus 1 cubic 
foot(0.28 m^) for each additional 100 square feet (9.3 m^) 
of area to be drained into the separator. Parking garages 
in which servicing, repairing or washing is not con- 
ducted, and in which gasoline is not dispensed, shall not 
require a separator. Areas of commercial garages utilized 
only for storage of automobiles are not required to be 
drained through a separator. 

1003.5 Sand interceptors in commercial establishments. 
Sand and similar interceptors for heavy solids shall be designed 
and located so as to be provided with ready access for cleaning, 
and shall have a water seal of not less than 6 inches (152 mm) . 

1003.6 Laundries. Commercial laundries shall be equipped 
with an interceptor with a wire basket or similar device, remov- 
able for cleaning, that prevents passage into the drainage sys- 
tem of solids 0.5 inch (12.7 mm) or larger in size, string, rags, 
buttons or other materials detrimental to the pubhc sewage sys- 
tem. 

1003.7 Bottling establishments. BottHng plants shall dis- 
charge process wastes into an interceptor that will provide for 
the separation of broken glass or other sohds before discharg- 
ing waste into the drainage system. 

1003.8 Slaughterhouses. Slaughtering room and dressing 
room drains shall be equipped with approved sepaiators. The 
separator shall prevent the discharge into the drainage system 
of feathers, entrails and other materials that cause clogging. 

1003.9 Venting of interceptors and separators. Interceptors 
and separators shall be designed so as not to become air bound 
where tight covers are utiUzed. Each interceptor or separator 
shall be vented where subject to a loss of trap seal. 

1003.10 Access and maintenance of interceptors and sepa- 
rators. Access shall be provided to each interceptor and sepa- 
rator for service and maintenance. Interceptors and separators 
shall be maintained by periodic removal of accumulated 
grease, scum, oil, or other floating substances and solids depos- 
ited in the interceptor or separator. 



• 



74 



2000 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 




TRAPS, INTERCEPTORS AND SEPARATORS 1 004 - 1 004.1 



SECTION 1004 

1ATER8ALS, JOINTS AND CONNECTIONS 

LI General. The materials and methods utihzed for the 
construction and installation of traps, interceptors and separa- 
tors shall comply with this chapter and the applicable provi- 
sions of Chapters 4 and 7. The fittings shall not have ledges, 
shoulders or reductions capable of retarding or obstructing 
flow of the piping. 




2000 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING COBE® 75 




76 2000 INTERMATIONAL PLUWiBING CODE® 



CHAPTER 11 

STORM DRAINAGE 



SECTION 1101 
GENERAL 

1101.1 Scope. The provisions of this chapter shall govern the 
materials, design, construction and installation of storm drain- 
age. 

1101.2 Where required. All roofs, paved areas, yards, courts 
and courtyards shall drain into a separate storm sewer system, 
or a combined sewer system, or to an approved place of dis- 
posal. For one- and two-family dwellings, and where approved, 
storm water is permitted to discharge onto flat areas, such as 
streets or lawns, provided that the storm water flows away from 
the building. 

1101.3 Prohibited drainage. Storm water shall not be drained 
into sewers intended for sewage only. 

1101.4 Tests. The conductors and the building storm drain 
shall be tested in accordance with Section 312. 

1101.5 Continuous flow. The size of a drainage pipe shall not 
be reduced in the direction of flow. 

1101.6 Fittings and connections. All connections and 
changes in direction of the storm drainage system shall be made 
with approved drainage-type fittings in accordance with Table 
706.3. The fittings shall not obstruct or retard flow in the sys- 
tem. 

1101.7 Roof design. Roofs shall be designed for the maximum 
possible depth of water that will pond thereon as determined by 
the relative levels of roof deck and overflow weirs, scuppers, 
edges or serviceable drains in combination with the deflected 
structural elements. In determining the maximum possible 
depth of water, all primary roof drainage means shall be as- 
sumed to be blocked. 

1101.8 Cleanouts required. Cleanouts shall be installed in the 
storm drainage system and shall comply with the provisions of 
this code for sanitary drainage pipe cleanouts. 

1101.9 Backwater valves. Backwater valves installed in a 
storm drainage system shall conform to Section 715. 



SECTION 1102 
MATERIALS 

1102.1 General. The materials and methods utilized for the 
constmction and installation of storm drainage systems shall 
comply with this section and the applicable provisions of Chap- 
ter 7. 

1102.2 Inside storm drainage conductors. Inside storm 
drainage conductors installed above ground shall conform to 
one of the standards listed in Table 702.1. 

1102.3 Underground building storm drain pipe. Under- 
ground building storm drain pipe shall conform to one of the 
standards listed in Table 702.2. 



1102.4 Building storm sewer pipe. Building storm sewer pipe 
shall conform to one of the standards listed in Table 1 102.4. 

TABLE 1102.4 
BUILDING STORM SEWER PIPE 



MATERIAL 


STANDARD 


Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene 
(ABS) plastic pipe 


ASTM D 2661; ASTM D 2751; 
ASTM F 628 


Asbestos-cement pipe 


ASTM C 428 


Cast-iron pipe 


ASTM A 74; ASTM A 888; 
CISPI 301 


Concrete pipe 


ASTM C 14; ASTM C 76; 

CSAA257.1M;CSA 
CAN/CSA A257.2M 


Copper or copper-alloy tubing 
(Type K, L, M or DWV) 


ASTM B 75; ASTM B 88; 
ASTM B 251; ASTM B 306 


Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) 
plastic pipe (Type DWV, 
SDR26, SDR35, SDR41, 
PSSOorPSlOO) 


ASTM D 2665; ASTM D 3034; 
ASTM F 891; CSA-B 182.2; 
CSACAN/CSA-B182.4 


Vitrified clay pipe 


ASTM C 4; ASTM C 700 


Stainless steel drainage 
systems, Type 31 6L 


ASMEAl 12.3.1 



1102.5 Subsoil drain pipe. Subsoil drains shall be 
open-jointed, horizontally split or perforated pipe conforming 
to one of the standards listed in Table 1102.5. 

TABLE 1102.5 
SUBSOIL DRAIN PIPE 



MATERIAL 


STANDARD 


Asbestos-cement pipe 


ASTM C 508 


Cast-iron pipe 


ASTM A 74; ASTM A 888; 
CISPI 301 


Polyethylene (PE) plas\tic pipe 


ASTM F 405 


Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) 
plastic pipe (type sewer pipe, 
PS25,PS50orPS100) 


ASTM D 2729; ASTM F 891; 
CSA-B182.2;CSA 

CAN/CSA-B 182.4 


Vitrified clay pipe 


ASTM C 4; ASTM C 700 


Stainless steel drainage systems. 
Type 316L 


ASMEAl 12.3.1 



1102.6 Roof drains. Roof drains shall conform to ASME 

A112.21.2orASMEA112.3.1. I 

1102.7 Fittings. Pipe fittings shall be approved for installation 
with the piping material installed, and shall conform to the re- 
spective pipe standards or one of the standards listed in Table 
1 102.7. The fittings shall not have ledges, shoulders or reduc- 
tions capable of retarding or obstructing flow in the piping. 
Threaded drainage pipe fittings shall be of the recessed drain- 
age type. 



2000 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



77 



TABLE 1102.7-1106.6 



STORM DRAINAGE 



TABLE 1102.7 
PIPE FITTINGS 



MATERIAL 


STANDARD 


Acrylonitrile butadiene 
styrene (ABS) plastic 


ASTM D 2468; ASTM D 2661 


Cast iron 


ASME B16.4; ASME B16.12; 
ASTMA888;CISPI301; 
ASTM A 74 


Chlorinated polyvinyl 
chloride (CPVC) plastic 


ASTM F 437; ASTM F 438; 
ASTM F 439 


Copper or copper alloy 


ASME B16.15; ASME B16.18; 
ASME B 16.22; ASME B 16.23; 
ASME B 16.26; ASME B 16.29 


Gray iron and ductile iron 


AWWACllO 


Malleable iron 


ASME B 16.3 


Plastic, general 


ASTM F 409 


Polyethylene (PE) plastic 


ASTM D 2609 


Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) 
plastic 


ASTM D 2464; ASTM D 2466; 
ASTM D 2467; 
CSACAN/CSA-B 137.2; 
ASTM D 2665 


Steel 


ASME B16.9; ASME B16.il; 
ASME B 16.28 


Stainless steel drainage 
systems, Type 316L 


ASMEA112.3.1 



SECTION 1103 
TRAPS 

.1 Main trap. Leaders and storm drains connected to a 
combined sewer shall be trapped. Individual storm water traps 
shall be installed on the storm water drain branch serving each 
conductor, or a single trap shall be installed in the main storm 
drain just before its connection with the combined building 
sewer or the public sewer. 

11®3.2 Material. Storm water traps shall be of the same mate- 
rial as the piping system to which they are attached. 

11®3.3 Size. Traps for individual conductors shall be the same 
size as the horizontal drain to which they are connected. 

1103.4 Cleanout. An accessible cleanout shall be installed on 
the building side of the trap. 



SECTION 1104 
CONDUCTORS AND CONNECTIONS 

1104,1 Prohibited use. Conductor pipes shall not be used as 
soil, waste or vent pipes, and soil, waste or vent pipes shall not 
be used as conductors. 



.2 Combining storm with sanitary drainage. The sani- 
tary and storm drainage systems of a structure shall be entirely 
separate except where combined sewer systems are utilized. 
Where a combined sewer is utilized, the building storm drain 
shall be connected in the same horizontal plane through a sin- 
gle-wye fitting to the combined sewer at least 10 feet(3048 
mm) downstream from any soil stack. 



1104.3 Floor drains. Floor drains shall not be connected to a 
storm drain. 



SECTION 1105 
ROOF DRAINS 

1105.1 Strainers. Roof drains shall have strainers extending 
not less than 4 inches (102 mm) above the surface of the roof 
immediately adjacent to the roof drain. Strainers shall have an 
available inlet area, above roof level, of not less than one and 
one-half times the area of the conductor or leader to which the 
drain is connected. 

1105.2 Flat decks. Roof drain strainers for use on sun decks, 
parking decks and similar areas that are normally serviced and 
maintained shall comply with Section 1 105.1 or shall be of the 
flat-surface type, installed level with the deck, with an available 
inlet aiea not less than two times the area of the conductor or 
leader to which the drain is connected. 

1105.3 Roof drain flashings. The connection between roofs 
and roof drains which pass through the roof and into the interior 
of the building shall be made water tight by the use of approved 
flashing material. 



SECTION 1106 

SIZE OF CONDUCTORS, LEADERS 

AND STORM DRAINS 

1106.1 General. The size of the vertical conductors and lead- 
ers, building storm drains, building storm sewers, and any hori- 
zontal branches of such drains or sewers shall be based on the 
100-year hourly rainfall rate indicated in Figure 1106.1 or on 
other rainfall rates determined from approved local weather 
data. 

1106.2 Vertical conductors and leaders. Vertical conductors 
and leaders shall be sized for the maximum projected roof area, 
in accordance with Table 1 106.2. 

1106.3 Building storm drains and sewers. The size of the 
building storm drain, building storm sewer and their horizontal 
branches having a slope of one-half unit or less vertical in 12 
units horizontal (4-percent slope) shall be based on the maxi- 
mum projected roof area in accordance with Table 1 106.3. The 
minimum slope of horizontal branches shall be one-eighth unit 
vertical in 12 units horizontal (1 -percent slope) unless other- 
wise approved. 

1106.4 Vertical walls. In sizing roof drains and storm drainage 
piping, one-half of the area of any vertical wall that diverts rain- 
water to the roof shall be added to the projected roof area for in- 
clusion in calculating the required size of vertical conductors, 
leaders and horizontal storm drainage piping. 

1106.5 Parapet wall scupper location. Parapet wall roof 
drainage scupper and overflow scupper location shall comply 
with the requirements of the International Building Code. 

1106.6 Size of roof gutters. The size of semicircular gutters 
shall be based on the maximum projected roof area in accor- 
dance with Table 1 106.6. 



• 



78 



2000 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



STORM DRAINAGE 



FIGURE 1106.1 





4.28 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

Source: National Weather Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Washington, D.C. 



FIGURE 1106.1 

100-YEAR, 1-HOUR RAINFALL (INCHES) 

EASTERN UNITED STATES 



(continued) 



2000 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



79 



FIGURE 1106.1 



STORBfl DRAINAGE 




2.75 






For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

Source: National Weather Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Washington, D.C. 



FIGURE 1106.1— continued 

100-YEAR, 1-HOUR RAINFALL (INCHES) 

CENTRAL UNITED STATES 



(continued) 



2000 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



STORM DRAINAGE 



FIGURE 1106.1 



• 




For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

Source: National Weather Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Washington, D.C. 



FIGURE 1106.1— continued 

100-YEAR, 1-HOUR RAINFALL (INCHES) 

WESTERN UNITED STATES 



(continued) 



2000 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



81 



FIGURE 1106.1 



STORM DRAINAGE 




i«o ^/^o'> 1350 



BARTER 



100 



.84 

a 

ATTU 




S-IER/TVAAFB 



.9 

ADAt^ 
AI}flCHITKA 



•"ATKA 



170° 175° 



180° 



175° 170° 165° 180° 



110° 135° 130 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 nun. 

Source: National Weather Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Washington, D.C. 



FJGURE 1106.1— continued 

100-YEAR, 1-HOUR RAINFALL (INCHES) 

ALASKA 



(continued) 



82 



2000 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



STORM DRAINAGE 



FIGURE 1106.1 











fji 


S 


^v^ 


7/ 


^ 


:^^ 


r < 


f* 


V^ 


/ 2 



'1 


1 


" J 


0| 


^ V 


3 

o 

_l 

o 



■^1 





-r^^ 




^ 


"X 


''*s<-;r» 


/i 


/ 





For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

Source: National Weather Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Washington, D.C. 



FIGURE 1106.1— continued 

100-YEAR, 1-HOUR RAINFALL (INCHES) 

HAWAII 



2000 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



83 



TABLE 1 1 06.2 - TABLE 1 1 06.3 



STORM DRAINAGE 



TABLE 1106.2 
SJZE OF VERTICAL CONDUCTORS AND LEADERS 



DIAMETER OF 

LEADER 
(Inches)^ 


HORIZONTALLY PROJECTED ROOF AREA (square feet) 


Rainfall rate (inches per hour) 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


11 


13 


2 


2,880 


1,440 


960 


720 


575 


480 


410 


360 


320 


290 


260 


240 


3 


8,800 


4,400 


2,930 


2,200 


1,760 


1,470 


1,260 


1,100 


980 


880 


800 


730 


4 


18,400 


9,200 


6,130 


4,600 


3,680 


3,070 


2,630 


2,300 


2,045 


1,840 


1,675 


1,530 


5 


34,600 


17,300 


11,530 


8,650 


6,920 


5,765 


4,945 


4,325 


3,845 


3,460 


3,145 


2,880 


6 


54,000 


27,000 


17,995 


13,500 


10,800 


9,000 


7,715 


6,750 


6,000 


5,400 


4,910 


4,500 


8 


116,000 


58,000 


38,660 


29,000 


23,200 


19,315 


16,570 


14,500 


12,890 


11,600 


10,545 


9,660 




For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 square foot = 0.0929 ml 

A. Sizes indicated are the diameter of circular piping. This table is applicable to piping of other shapes provided the cross-sectional shape fully encloses a circle of the 
diameter indicated in this table. 



TABLE 1106.3 
SIZE OF HORIZONTAL STORM DRAINAGE PIPING 



SIZE OF 

HORIZONTAL 

PIPING 

(inches) 


HORIZONTALLY PROJECTED ROOF AREA (square feet) 


Rainfall rate (inches per hour) 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


Vg unit vertical in 12 units horizontal (1 -percent slope) 


3 


3,288 


1,644 


1,096 


822 


657 


548 


4 


7,520 


3,760 


2,506 


1,880 


1,504 


1,253 


5 


13,360 


6,680 


4,453 


3,340 


2,672 


2,227 


6 


21,400 


10,700 


7,133 


5,350 


4,280 


3,566 


8 


46,000 


23,000 


15,330 


11,500 


9,200 


7,600 


10 


82,800 


41,400 


27,600 


20,700 


16,580 


13,800 


12 


133,200 


66,600 


44,400 


33,300 


26,650 


22,200 


15 


218,000 


109,000 


72,800 


59,500 


47,600 


39,650 


V4 unit vertical in 12 units horizontal (2-percent slope) 


3 


4,640 


2,320 


1,546 


1,160 


928 


773 


4 


10,600 


5,300 


3,533 


2,650 


2,120 


1,766 


5 


18,880 


9,440 


6,293 


4,720 


3,776 


3,146 


6 


30,200 


15,100 


10,066 


7,550 


6,040 


5,033 


8 


65,200 


32,600 


21,733 


16,300 


13,040 


10,866 


10 


116,800 


58,400 


38,950 


29,200 


23,350 


19,450 


12 


188,000 


94,000 


62,600 


47,000 


37,600 


31,350 


15 


336,000 


168,000 


112,000 


84,000 


67,250 


56,000 


V2unit vertical in 12 units horizontal (4-percent slope) 


3 


6,576 


3,288 


2,295 


1,644 


1,310 


1,096 


4 


15,040 


7,520 


5,010 


3,760 


3,010 


2,500 


5 


26,720 


13,360 


8,900 


6,680 


5,320 


4,450 


6 


42,800 


21,400 


13,700 


10,700 


8,580 


7,140 


8 


92,000 


46,000 


30,650 


23,000 


18,400 


15,320 


10 


171,600 


85,800 


55,200 


41,400 


33,150 


27,600 


12 


266,400 


133,200 


88,800 


66,600 


53,200 


44,400 


15 


476,000 


238,000 


158,800 


119,000 


95,300 


79,250 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 square foot = 0.0929 m^ 



2000 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



STORM DRAINAGE 



TABLE 1106.6 -1108.1 



TABLE 1106.6 
SIZE OF SEMICIRCULAR ROOF GUTTERS 





DIAMETER 

OF GUTTERS 

(inches) 


HORIZONTALLY PROJECTED ROOF AREA (square feet) 


RAINFALL RATE (Inches per hour) 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


Vjg unit vertical in 12 units horizontal (0.5-percent slope) 


3 


680 


340 


226 


170 


136 


113 


4 


1,440 


720 


480 


360 


288 


240 


5 


2,500 


1,250 


834 


625 


500 


416 


6 


3,840 


1,920 


1,280 


960 


768 


640 


7 


5,520 


2,760 


1,840 


1,380 


1,100 


918 


8 


7,960 


3,980 


2,655 


1,990 


1,590 


1,325 


10 


14,400 


7,200 


4,800 


3,600 


2,880 


2,400 


Vg unit vertical in 12 units horizontal (1 -percent slope) 


3 


960 


480 


320 


240 


192 


160 


4 


2,040 


1,020 


681 


510 


408 


340 


5 


3,520 


1,760 


1,172 


880 


704 


587 


6 


5,440 


2,720 


1,815 


1,360 


1,085 


905 


7 


7,800 


3,900 


2,600 


1,950 


1,560 


1,300 


8 


11,200 


5,600 


3,740 


2,800 


2,240 


1,870 


10 


20,400 


10,200 


6,800 


5,100 


4,080 


3,400 


V4 unit vertical in 12 units horizontal (2-percent slope) 


3 


1,360 


680 


454 


340 


272 


226 


4 


2,880 


1,440 


960 


720 


576 


480 


5 


5,000 


2,500 


1,668 


1,250 


1,000 


834 


6 


7,680 


3,840 


2,560 


1,920 


1,536 


1,280 


7 


11,040 


5,520 


3,860 


2,760 


2,205 


1,840 


8 


15,920 


7,960 


5,310 


3,980 


3,180 


2,655 


10 


28,800 


14,400 


9,600 


7,200 


5,750 


4,800 


V2 unit vertical in 12 units horizontal (4-percent slope) 


3 


1,920 


960 


640 


480 


384 


320 


4 


4,080 


2,040 


1,360 


1,020 


816 


680 


5 


7,080 


3,540 


2,360 


1,770 


1,415 


1,180 


6 


11,080 


5,540 


3,695 


2,770 


2,220 


1,850 


7 


15,600 


7,800 


5,200 


3,900 


3,120 


2,600 


8 


22,400 


11,200 


7,460 


5,600 


4,480 


3,730 


10 


40,000 


20,000 


13,330 


10,000 


8,000 


6,660 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 square foot = 0.0929 m^. 

SECTION 1107 
SECONDARY (EMERGENCY) ROOF DRAINS 

1107.1 Secondary drainage required. Secondary (emer- 
gency) roof drains or scuppers shall be provided where the roof 
perimeter construction extends above the roof in such a manner 
that water will be entrapped if the primary drains allow buildup 
for any reason. 

1107.2 Separate systems required. Secondary roof drain sys- 
tems shall have piping and point of discharge separate from the 
primary system. Discharge shall be above grade in a location 
which would normally be observed !by the building occupants 
or maintenance personnel. 

1107.3 Sizing of secondary drains. Secondary (emergency) 
>roof drain systems shall be sized in accordance with Section 

1 106 based on the rainfall rate for which the primary system is 



sized in Tables 1106.2, 1106.3 and 1106.6. Scuppers shall be 
sized to prevent the depth of ponding water from exceeding that 
for which the roof was designed as determined by Section 
1 101.7. Scuppers shall not have an opening dimension of less 
than 4 inches (102 mm). The flow through the primary system 
shall not be considered when sizing the secondary roof drain 
system. 



SECTION 1108 
COMBINED SANITARY AND STORM SYSTEM 

1108.1 Size of combined drains and sewers. The size of a 
combination sanitary and storm drain or sewer shall be com- 
puted in accordance with the method in Section 1106.3. The 
fixture units shall be converted into an equivalent projected 



2000 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



85 



1109-1113.1.4 



STORM DRAINAGE 



roof or paved area. Where the total fixture load on the com- 
bined drain is less than or equal to 256 fixture units, the equiva- 
lent drainage area in horizontal projection shall be taken as 
4,000 square feet (372 m^). Where the total fixture load exceeds 
256 fixture units, each additional fixture unit shall be consid- 
ered the equivalent of 15.6 square feet (1.5 m^) of drainage 
area. These values are based on a rainfall rate of 1 inch (25 mm) 
per hour. 



SECTION 1112 
BUILDING SUBORAINS 

1112.1 Building subdrains. Building subdrains located below 
the public sewer level shall discharge into a sump or receiving 
tank, the contents of which shall be automatically lifted and 
discharged into the drainage system as required for building 
sumps. The sump and pumping equipment shall comply with 
Section 1113.1. 




SECTION 1109 

VALUES FOR CONTINUOUS FLOW 

Equivalent roof area. Where there is a continuous or 
semicontinuous discharge into the building storm drain or 
building storm sewer, such as from a pump, ejector, air condi- 
tioning plant or similar device, each gallon per minute (L/m) of 
such discharge shall be computed as being equivalent to 96 
square feet (9 m-) of roof area, based on a rainfall rate of 1 inch 
(25.4 nmn) per hour. 



SECTION 1110 
CONTROLLED FLOW ROOF DRAIN SYSTEMS 



.1 GeeeraL The roof of a structure shall be designed for 
the storage of water where the storm drainage system is 
engineered for controlled flow. The controlled flow roof drain 
system shall be an engineered system in accordance with this 
section and the design, submittal, approval, inspection and test- 
ing requirements of Section 105.4. The controlled flow system 
shall be designed based on the required rainfall rate in accor- 
dance with Section 1106.1. 

1110.2 Control devices. The control devices shall be installed 
so that the rate of discharge of water per minute shall not exceed 
the values for continuous flow as indicated in Section 1 109. 1 . 



h3 Installation. Runoff control shall be by control de- 
vices. Control devices shall be protected by strainers. 



K4 Minimum number of roof drains. Not less than two 
roof drains shall be installed in roof areas 10,000 square feet 
(930 m^) or less and not less than four roof drains shall be in- 
stalled in roofs over 10,000 square feet (930 m^) in area. 



SECTION 1113 
SUMPS AND PUMPING SYSTEMS 

1113.1 Pumping system. The sump pump, pit and discharge 
piping shall conform to Sections 1113.1.1 through 1113.1.4. 

1113.1.1 Pump capacity and head. The sump pump shall 
be of a capacity and head appropriate to anticipated use re- 
quirements. 

1113.1.2 Construction. The sump pit shall not be less than 
18 inches (457 nmi) in diameter and shall be constructed of 
tile, steel, plastic, cast iron, concrete or other approved ma- 
terial, with a removable cover adequate to support antici- 
pated loads in area of use. The pit floor shall provide 
permanent support for the pump. 

1113.1.3 Electrical. Electrical service outlets, when re- 
quired, shall meet the requirements of the ICC Electrical 
Code. 

1113.1.4 Piping. Discharge piping shall meet the require- 
ments of Section 1 102.2, 1 102.3 or 1 102.4 and shall include 
a gate valve and a full flow check valve. Pipe and fittings 
shall be the same size as, or larger than, pump discharge tap- 
ping. 

Exception: In one- and two-family dwellings, only a 
check valve shall be required, located on the discharge 
piping from the pump or ejector. 



SECTION 1111 
SUBSOIL DRAINS 

1111.1 Subsoil drains. Subsoil drains shall be open-jointed, 
horizontally split or perforated pipe conforming to one of the 
standards listed in Table 1102.5. Such drains shall not be less 
than 4 inches (102 mm) in diameter. Where the building is sub- 
ject to backwater, the subsoil drain shall be protected by an ac- 
cessibly located backwater valve. Subsoil drains shall 
discharge to a trapped area drain, sump, dry well or approved 
location above ground. The subsoil sump shall not be required 
to have either a gas-tight cover or a vent. The sump and pump- 
ing system shall comply with Section 1113.1. 



86 



2000 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 




CHAPTER 12 

SPECIAL PIPING AND STORAGE SYSTEMS 



SECTION 1201 
GENERAL 



1201.1 Scope. The provisions of this chapter shall govern the 
design and installation of piping and storage systems for non- 
flammable medical gas systems and nonmedical oxygen sys- 
tems. All maintenance and operations of such systems shall be 
in accordance with the International Fire Code. 



SECTION 1202 
MEDICAL GASES 

1202.1 Nonflammable medical gases. Nonflammable medi- 
cal gas systems, inhalation anesthetic systems and vacuum pip- 
ing systems shall be designed and installed in accordance with 
NFPA 99C. 

Exceptions: 

1 . This section shall not apply to portable systems or cyl- 
inder storage. 

2. Vacuum system exhaust shall comply with the Inter- 
national Mechanical Code. 



SECTION 1203 
OXYGEN SYSTEMS 

1203.1 Design and installation. Nonmedical oxygen systems 
shall be designed and installed in accordance with NFPA 50 
and NFPA 51. 



2000 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 87 




88 2000 DNTERNATDONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



CHAPTER 13 

REFERENCED STANDARDS 



This chapter Hsts the standards that are referenced in various sections of this document. The standards are listed herein by the 
promulgating agency of the standard, the standard identification, the effective date and title, and the section or sections of this 
document that reference the standard. The application of the referenced standards shall be as specified in Section 102.8. 



ANSI 



Standard 




Referenced 


Reference 




in code 


Number 


Title 


section number 



Z4.3— 95 
Z2 1.22— 86 
Z124.1— 95 
Z 124.2— 95 
Z 124.3— 95 
Z 124.4— 96 
Zl 24.6— 97 



American National Standards Institute 
25 West 43rd Street, Fourth Floor 
New York. NY 10036 

Title 

Minimum Requirements for Nonsewered Waste-Disposal Systems 311.1 

Relief Valves and Automatic Gas Shutoff Devices for Hot Water Supply Systems — with 1990 Addendum 504.2, 504.5 

Plastic Bathtub Units 407.1 

Plastic Shower Receptors and Shower Stalls 417.1 

Plastic Lavatories 416.1, 416.2 

Plastic Water Closet Bowls and Tanks 420.1 

Plastic Sinks 415.1, 418.1 



ARI 



Air-Conditioning & Refrigeration Institute 
4301 North Fairfax Drive, Suite 425 
Arlington, VA 22203 



Standard 
reference 
number 



Tide 



Referenced 

in code 

section number 



1010—94 



Self-Contained, Mechanically-Refrigerated Drinking-Water Coolers 410.1 



ASME 



American Society of Mechanical Engineers 

Three Park Avenue 

New York, NY 10016-5990 



Standard 




Referenced 


Reference 




in code 


Number 


Title 


section number 



Al 12.1.2—98 
Al 12.3.1— 93 

Al 12.6.1— 88 
Al 12.14.1— 98 
A112.I8.1M— 96 
Al 12.18.3— 96 
A112.19.1M— 94 
A112.19.2M— 98 
A112.19.3M— (R1996) 
A112.19.4M— 94 
Al 12.19.5— 98 
Al 12.19.6— 95 
A112.19.7M— 95 
Al 12.19.8— 96 
Al 12.19.9— 91 
Al 12.21. IM— 98 
A112.21.2M— 91 
(Note: All 2.26. 1—84 has 
Al 12.4.1—93 



Air Gaps in Plumbing Systems Table 608. 1 

Performance Standard and Installation Procedures for Stainless Steel Drainage Systems for Sanitary, Storm and 

Chemical Applications, Above and Below Ground 412.1, Table 702.1, Table 702.2, Table 702.3, 

Table 702.4, 708.2, Table 1102.4, Table 1102.5, 1102.6, Table 1102.7 

Supports for Off-the-Floor Plumbing Fixtures for Public Use 405.4.3 

Backwater Valves 715.2 

Plumbing Fixture Fittings — with 1995 Errata 424.1 

Performance Requirements for Backflow Protection Devices and Systems in Plumbing Fixture Fittings .... 424.5, 608.15.4.3 

Enameled Cast Iron Plumbing Fixtures 407.1,410.1,415.1,416.1,418.1 

Vitreous China Plumbing Fixtures— with 1996 Errata 401.2, 408.1, 410.1, 416.1, 418.1, 419.1, 420.1 

Stainless Steel Plumbing Fixtures (Designed for Residential Use) 415.1, 416.1, 418.1 

Porcelain Enameled Formed Steel Plumbing Fixtures 407.1, 416.1, 418.1 

Trim for Water-Closet Bowls, Tanks, and Urinals 425.4 

Hydraulic Performance Requirements for Water Closets and Urinals 419.1, 420.1 

Whirlpool Bathtub Appliances 42 1 . 1 

Suction Fittings for Use in Swimming Pools, Wading Pools, Spas, Hot Tubs, and Whirlpool Bathmb Appliances 421.4 

Non-Vitreous Ceramic Plumbing Fixtures 407.1, 408.1, 410.1, 415.1, 416.1, 417.1, 418.1, 420.1 

Floor Drains 412.1 

Roof Drains 1 102.6 

been discontinued and has not been replaced by ASME.) 

Water Heater Relief Valve Drain Tubes 504.6.2 



2000 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



89 



REFERENCED STANDARDS 



Al 12.36.2—91 (R1998) 
B 1.20. 1—83 

B 16.3— 92 
B 16.4—92 
B 16.9—93 
B16.il— 97 
B 16. 12— 91 
B16.15— (R1994) 
B16.18— R94 
B 16.22— 95 
B16.23— 92 
B 16.26—88 
B 16.28— 94 
B 16.29— 94 
B 16.32—92 



ASME — continued 

Cleanouts 708.2 

Pipe Threads, General Purpose (inch) . . . . ; 605.10.3, 605.12.3, 605.14.4, 605.16.3, 605.18.1, 

705, 705.2.3, 705.4.3 

Malleable Iron Threaded Fittings Table 605.6, Table 702.4, Table 1 102.7 

Cast Iron Threaded Fittings Table 605.6, Table 702.4, Table 1102.7 

Factory-Made Wrought Steel Buttwelding Fittings Table 605.6, Table 702.4, Table 1 102.7 

Forged Steel Fittings, Socket- Welding and Threaded Table 605.6, Table 702.4, Table 1 102.7 

Cast-iron Threaded Drainage Fittings Table 605.6, Table 702.4, Table 1 102.7 

Cast Bronze Threaded Fittings Table 605.6, Table 702.4, Table 1102.7 

Cast Copper Alloy Solder Joint Pressure Fittings Table 605.6, Table 702.4, Table 1 102.7 

Wrought Copper and Copper Alloy Solder Joint Pressure Fittings Table 605.6, Table 702.4, Table 1 102.7 

Cast Copper Alloy Solder Joint Drainage Fittings (DWV)— with 1994 Errata Table 605.6, Table 702.4, Table 1102.7 

Cast Copper Alloy Fittings for Flared Copper Tubes Table 605.6, Table 702.4, Table 1 102.7 

Wrought Steel Buttwelding Short Radius Elbows and Returns Table 605.6, Table 702.4, Table 1 102.7 

Wrought Copper and Wrought Copper Alloy Solder Joint Drainage Fittings— DWV . . Table 605.6, Table 702.4, Table 1 102.7 

Cast Copper Alloys Solder Joint Fittings for Solvent Drain Systems Table 605.6, Table 702.4, Table 1 102.7 



ASSE 



American Society of Sanitary Engineering 
28901 Clemens Road 
Westlake, OH 44145 



Standard 




Referenced 


Reference 




in code 


Number 


Title 


section number 



1001—90 
1002—99 
1003—95 
1004—90 
1005—86 
1006—89 
1007—92 
c-> 1008—89 
1009—90 
1010—98 
101 1—95 
1012—95 

1013—93 
1014—90 
1015—93 
1016—96 

1018—86 
1019—97 

1020—97 
1022—98 
1024—98 

1025—78 

1032—80 

1035—95 
1037—90 
1044—86 



Performance Requirements for Pipe Applied Atmospheric Type Vacuum Breakers 425.3, Table 608.1, 608.13.6 

Performance Requirements for Water Closet Flush Tank Ball Cocks 425.4.1, Table 608.1 

Performance Requirements for Water Pressure Reducing Valves for Domestic Water Supply Systems 604.8 

Performance Requirements for Commercial Dishwashing Machines 409. 1 

Performance Requirements for Water Heater Drain Valves — with 1986 Revision 501 .3 

Performance Requirements for Residential Use (Household) Dishwashers 409.1 

Performance Requirements for Home Laundry Equipment 406.1, 406.2 

Performance Requirements for Household Food Waste Disposer Units 413.1 

Performance Requirements for Commercial Food Waste Grinder Units 413.1 

Performance Requirements for Water Hammer Arresters 604.9 

Performance Requirements for Hose Connection Vacuum Breakers Table 608.1, 608.13.6 

Performance Requirements for Backflow Preventers with 
Intermediate Atmospheric Vent Table 608.1, 608.13.3, 608.16.1, 608.16.2 

Performance Requirements for Reduced Pressure Principle Backflow Preventers Table 608.1, 608.13.2, 608.16.2 

Performance Requirements for Handheld Showers 424.3 

Performance Requirements for Double Check Backflow Prevention Assembly — with 1993 Revision . . . Table 608.1, 608.13.7 

Performance Requirements for Individual Thermostatic, Pressure Balancing and 
Combination Control Valves for Bathing Facilities 424.4 

Performance Requirements for Trap Seal Primer Valves; Water Supply Fed — with 1986 Revision 1002.4 

Performance Requirements for Wall Hydrants, Freezeless, Automatic Draining, 
Anti-Backflow Types Table 608.1, 608.13.6 

Performance Requirements for Pressure Vacuum Breaker Assembly Table 608.1, 608.13.5 

Performance Requirements for Backflow Preventer for Carbonated Beverage Machines 608.16.1 

Performance Requirements for Dual Check Valve Type Backflow Preventers 

(for Residential Supply Service or Individual Outlets) 605.4.1, Table 608.1 

Performance Requirements for Diverters for Plumbing Faucets with 
Hose Spray, Anti-Siphon Type, Residential Applications 424.2 

Performance Requirements for Dual Check Valve Type Backflow Preventers; 

for Carbonated Beverage Dispensers — Post Mix-Types Table 608.1, 608.16.1 

Performance Requirements for Laboratory Faucet Backflow Preventers Table 608.1, 608.13.6 

Performance Requirements for Pressurized Flushing Devices for Plumbing Fixtures 425.3 

Performance Requirements for Trap Seal Primer Valves; Drainage Type 1002.4 



90 



2000 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



REFERENCED STANDARDS 




1047—95 
1048—95 
1051—98 

1052—94 
1055—97 
1056—95 
1060—96 

5010-1013-1—91 

5010-1015-1—91 
5010-1015-2—91 

5010-1015-3—91 

5010-1015-4—91 
5010-1020-1—91 
5010-1047-1—91 

5010-1048-1—91 
5010-1048-2—91 

5010-1048-3—91 

5010-1048-4—91 



ASSE — continued 

Performance Requirements for Reduced Pressure Detector Assembly Backflow Preventers Table 608.1, 608.13.2 

Performance Requirements for Double Check Detector Assembly Backflow Preventer Table 608.1, 608.13.7 

Performance Requirements for Air Admittance Valves for Plumbing Drainage Systems, Fixture and 

Branch Devices 917.1 

Performance Requirements for Hose Connection Backflow Preventers Table 608.1, 608.13.6 

Performance Requirements for Chemical Dispensing Systems 608.13.9 

Back Siphonage Vacuum Breaker Table 608.1, 608.13.5, 608.13.8 

Performance Requirements for Outdoor Enclosures ibr 

Backflow Prevention Assemblies 608.14.1 

Field Test Procedure for a Reduced Pressure Principle Assembly 

Using a Differential Pressure Gauge — with August 1992 Revisions 312.9.2 

Field Test Procedure for a Double Check Valve Assembly Using a Duplex Gauge— with August 1992 Revisions 312.9.2 

Field Test Procedure for a Double Check Valve Assembly Using a Differential 

Pressure Gauge — High-and Low-Pressure Hose Method — with August 1992 Revisions 312.9.2 

Field Test Procedure for a Double Check Valve Assembly Using a Differential 

Pressure Gauge — High Pressure Hose Method — with August 1992 Revisions 312.9.2 

Field Test Procedure for a Double Check Valve Assembly Using a Sight Tube — with August 1992 Revisions 312.9.2 

Field Test Procedure for a Pressure Vacuum Breaker Assembly 312.9.2 

Field Test Procedure for a Reduced Pressure Detector Assembly Using a Differential 

Pressure Gauge — with August 1992 Revisions 312.9.2 

Field Test Procedure for a Double Check Detector Assembly Using a Duplex Gauge — with August 1992 Revisions . . 312.9.2 
Field Test Procedure for a Double Check Detector Assembly Using a Differential 

Pressure Gauge — High-and Low-Pressure Hose Method — with August 1992 Revisions 312.9.2 

Field Test Procedure for a Double Check Detector Assembly Using a Differential 

Pressure Gauge — High-Pressure Hose Method — with August 1992 Revisions 312.9.2 

Field Test Procedure for a Double Check Detector Assembly Using a Sight Tube — with August 1992 Revisions 312.9.2 



ASTM 



A 53—98 

A 74— 98 

A 733—93 
A 888— 98el 

B 32—96 
B 42—96 
B 43—98 
B 75—97 

B 88—96 



B 152- 
B251- 



-97A 
-97 



B 302—98 
B 306—96 
B 447—97 
B 687—96 
B 813—93 

B 828— 92-EOl 

C4— 98 
C14— 95 



ASTM International 

100 Barr Harbor Drive 

West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959 



Standard 




Referenced 


Reference 




in code 


Number 


Title 


section number 



Specification for Pipe, Steel, Black and Hot-Dipped, Zinc-Coated Welded and Seamless Table 605.4, 

Table 605.5, Table 702.1 

Specification for Cast Iron Soil Pipe and Fittings Table 702.1, Table 702.2, Table 702.3, 

Table 702.4, 708.2, Table 1 102.4, Table 1 102.5, Table 1 102.7 

Specification for Welded and Seamless Carbon Steel and Austenitic Stainless Steel Pipe Nipples Table 605.8 

Specification for Hubless Cast Iron Soil Pipe and Fittings for Sanitary and Storm Drain, Waste, and 

Vent Piping Application Table 702.1, Table 702.2, Table 702.3, 

Table 702.4, Table 1 102.4, Table 1 102.5, Table 1 102.7 

Specification for Solder Metal 605.14.3, 605.15.4, 705.9.3, 705.10.3 

Specification for Seamless Copper Pipe, Standard Sizes Table 605.4, Table 605.5, Table 702.1 

Specification for Seamless Red Brass Pipe, Standard Sizes Table 605.4, Table 605.5, Table 702.1 

Specification for Seamless Copper Tube Table 605.4, Table 605.5, Table 702.1, Table 702.2, 

Table 702.3, Table 1102.4 

Specification for Seamless Copper Water Tube Table 605.4, Table 605.5, Table 702.1, 

Table 702.2, Table 702.3, Table 1 102.4 

Specification for Copper Sheet, Strip Plate and Rolled Bar 402.3, 425.4.3, 417.5.2.4, 902.2 

Specification for General Requirements for Wrought Seamless Copper and Copper- Alloy Tube Table 605.4,Table 605.5, 

Table 702.1, Table 702.2, Table 702.3, Table 1102.4 

Specification for Threadless Copper Pipe Table 605.4, Table 605.5, Table 702.1 

Specification for Copper Drainage Tube (DWV) Table 702.1, Table 702.2, Table 1 102.4 

Specification for Welded Copper Tube , Table 605.4, Table 605.5 

Specification for Brass, Copper, and Chromium-Plated Pipe Nipples Table 605.8 

Standard Specification for Liquid and Paste Fluxes for Soldering Applications of Copper and 

Copper Alloy Tube 605.14.3, 605.15.4, 705.9.3, 705.10.3 

Practice for Making Capillary Joints by Soldering of Copper and Copper Alloy Tube and Fittings 605. 14.3, 

605.15.4,705.9.3,705.10.3 

Specification for Clay Drain Tile Table 702.3, Table 1102.4, Table 1102.5 

Specification for Concrete Sewer, Storm Drain, and Culvert Pipe Table 702.3, Table 1 102.4 



2000 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



91 



REFERENCED STANDARDS 



C76— 98 
C 296—93 
C 425—98 
C 428—97 
C 443—98 
C 508—97 
C 564— 97 
C 700—97 

C 1053—90(1995) 

C 1173—97 

C 1277—97 

D 1527— 96a 

D 1785— 96b 

(Note: ASTMD 1861- 

(Note: ASTM D 1862- 

D 1869—95 

D 2235— 96a 

D 2239— 96a 

D 2241— 96b 

D 2282— 96a 

(Note: ASTMD 2311- 

D 2464— 96A 

D 2466—97 

D 2467— 96A 

D 2468— 96a 

D 2564— 96a 

D 2609—97 

D 2657—97 

D 2661— 97A 

D 2662— 96a 
D 2665—98 

D 2666— 96a 
D 2672— 96a 
D 2729— 96a 
D 2737— 96a 
D 2751— 96a 

D 2846/D 2846M— 97 

D 2855—96 

D 2949—98 

D 3034—98 

D 3139—98 
D 3212— 96a 

D 3309— 97a 

D 3311—94 
D 4068—96 

D 4551—96 

F 405—97 



ASTWi — continued 

Specification for Reinforced Concrete Culvert, Storm Drain, and Sewer Pipe Table 702.3, Table 1 102.4 

Specification for Asbestos-Cement Pressure Pipe Table 605.4 

Specification for Compression Joints for Vitrified Clay Pipe and Fittings 705.15, 705.16 

Specification for Asbestos-Cement Nonpressure Sewer Pipe Table 702.2, Table 702.3, Table 1 102.4 

Specification for Joints for Circular Concrete Sewer and Culvert Pipe, Using Rubber Gaskets 705.6, 705.16 

Specification for Asbestos-Cement Underdrain Pipe Table 1 102.5 

Specification for Rubber Gaskets for Cast Iron Soil Pipe and Fittings 705.5.2, 705.5.3, 705.16 

Specificadon for Vitrified Clay Pipe, Extra Strength, Standard Strength, and Perforated Table 702.3, Table 1 102.4, 

Table 1102.5 
Specification for Borosilicate Glass Pipe and Fittings for Drain, Waste, and 

Vent (DWV) Applications Table 702.1, Table 702.4 

Specification for Flexible Transition Couplings for Underground Piping System 705.2.1, 705.6, 705.14.1, 705.15, 705.16 

Specification for Shielded Coupling Joining Hubless Cast Iron Soil Pipe and Fittings 705.5.3 

Specification for Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene (ABS) Plastic Pipe, Schedules 40 and 80 Table 605.4 

Specification for Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Plastic Pipe, Schedules 40, 80 and 120 Table 605.4 

1 has been discontinued and not replaced by ASTM.) 

1 has been discontinued and not replaced by ASTM.) 

Specification for Rubber Rings for Asbestos-Cement Pipe 605.1 1, 605.22, 705.3, 705.16 

Specification for Solvent Cement for Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene (ABS) Plastic Pipe and 
Fittings 605.10.2, 705.2.2, 705.7.2 

Specification for Polyethylene (PE) Plastic Pipe (SIDR-PR) Based on Controlled Inside Diameter Table 605.4 

Specification for Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Pressure-Rated Pipe (SDR-Series) Table 605.4 

Specification for Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene (ABS) Plastic Pipe (SDR-PR) Table 605.4 

I has been discontinued and not replaced by ASTM.) 

Specification for Threaded Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Plastic Pipe Fittings, Schedule 80 Table 605.6, Table 1 102.7 

Specification for Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Plastic Pipe Fittings, Schedule 40 Table 605.6, Table 1 102.7 

Specification for Socket-Type Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Plastic Pipe Fittings, Schedule 80 Table 605.6, Table 1 102.7 

Specification for Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene (ABS) Plastic Pipe Fittings, Schedule 40 Table 605.6, Table 1 102.7 

Specification for Solvent Cements for Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Plastic Pipe and Fittings 605.21.2, 705.8.2, 705.14.2 

Specification for Plastic Insert Fittings for Polyethylene (PE) Plastic Pipe Table 605.6, Table 1 102.7 

Standard Practice for Heat- Joining Polyolefin Pipe and Fittings 605.19.2, 605.20.2 

Specification for Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene (ABS) Schedule 

40 Plastic Drain, Waste, and Vent Pipe and Fittings Table 702.1, Table 702.2, Table 702.3, Table 702.4, 

705.2.2, 705.7.2, Table 1102.4, Table 1102.7 
Specification for Polybutylene (PB) Plastic Pipe (SDR-PR) Table 605.4 

Specification for Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Plastic Drain, Waste, and Vent Pipe and Fittings Table 702.1, 

Table 702.2, Table 702.3, Table 702.4, Table 1102.4, Table 1102.7 

Specification for Polybutylene (PB) Plastic Tubing Table 605.4 

Specification for Joints for IPS PVC Pipe Using Solvent Cement Table 605.4 

Specification for Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Sewer Pipe and Fittings Table 1 102.5 

Specification for Polyethylene (PE) Plastic Tubing Table 605.4 

Specification for Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene (ABS) Sewer Pipe and Fittings Table 702.3, 

Table 702.4, Table 1102.4 

Specification for Chlorinated Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (CPVC) Plastic Hot and Cold Water 
Distribution Systems Table 605.4, Table 605.5, 605.16.2 

Standard Practice for Making Solvent-Cemented Joints with Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Pipe and 
Fittings 605.21.2, 705.8.2, 705.14.2 

Specification for 3.25-In Outside Diameter Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) 

Plastic Drain, Waste, and Vent Pipe and Fittings Table 702.1, Table 702.2, Table 702.3 

Specification for Type PSM Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Sewer Pipe and Fittings Table 702.3, 

Table 702.4, Table 1102.4 

Specification for Joints for Plastic Pressure Pipes Using Flexible Elastomeric Seals 605.10.1, 605.21.1 

Specification for Joints for Drain and Sewer Plastic Pipes Using Flexible Elastomeric Seals 705.2.1, 

705.7.1, 705.8.1, 705.12.1, 705.14.1 

Specification for Polybutylene (PB) Plastic Hot Water Distribution Systems Table 605.4, Table 605.5, 

605.19.2,605.19.3 

Specification for Drain, Waste and Vent (DWV) Plastic Fittings Patterns Table 702.4 

Standard Specification for Chlorinated Polyethlene (CPE) Sheeting for Concealed Water- 
Containment Membrane 417.5.2.2 

Specification for Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Plastic Flexible Concealed Water- 
Containment Membrane 417.5.2.1 

Specification for Corrugated Polyethylene (PE) Tubing and Fittings Table 1 102.5 




92 



2000 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



REFERENCED STANDARDS 



ASTM — conti nued 

F 409 — 98 Specification for Thermoplastic Accessible and Replaceable Plastic Tube and 

Tubular Fittings 424.1.2, Table 1 102.7 

F 437— 96a Specification for Threaded Chlorinated Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (CPVC) Plastic Pipe Fittings, 

Schedule 80 Table 605.6, Table 1 102.7 

F 438—97 Specification for Socket-Type Chlorinated Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (CPVC) Plastic Pipe Fittings, 

Schedule 40 Table 605.6, Table 1 102.7 

F 439—97 Specification for Socket-Type Chlorinated Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (CPVC) Plastic Pipe Fittings, 

Schedule 80 Table 605.6, Table 1102.7 

F 441—97 Specification for Chlorinated Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (CPVC) Plastic Pipe, Schedules 40 and 80 Table 605.4, Table 605.5 

F 442—97 Specification for Chlorinated Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (CPVC) Plastic Pipe (SDR-PR) Table 605.4, Table 605.5 

F 477 — 96a Specification for Elastomeric Seals (Gaskets) for Joining Plastic Pipe 605.22, 705.16 

F 493—97 Specification for Solvent Cements for Chlorinated Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (CPVC) Plastic Pipe and Fittings 605.16.2 

F 628 — 97 Specification for Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene (ABS) Schedule 40 Plastic Drain, Waste, and Vent Pipe 

with a Cellular Core Table 702.1, Table 702.2, Table 702.3, Table 702.4, 

705.2.2, 705.7.2, Table 1102.4 
F 656 — 96a Specification for Primers for Use in Solvent Cement Joints of Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Plastic Pipe and 

Fittings 605.21.2, 705.8.2, 705.14.2 

F 876—97 Specification for CrossUnked Polyethylene (PEX) Tubing Table 605.4 

F 877—99 Specification for CrossUnked Polyethylene (PEX) Plastic Hot and Cold Water 

Distribution Systems Table 605.4, Table 605.5 

F 891—98 Specification for Coextiuded Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Plastic Pipe with a Cellular Core Table 702.1, 

Table 702.2, Table 702.3, Table 702.4, Table 1 102.4, Table 1 102.5 
F 1281 — 98 Specification for Cross-Linked Polyethylene/Aluminum/Cross-Linked Polyethylene (PEX-AL-PEX) 

Pressure Pipe Table 605.4, Table 605.5 

F 1282 — 98 Specification for Polyethylene/Aluminum/Polyethylene (PE-AL-PE) Composite Pressure Pipe Table 605.4 

F 1488—98 Standard Specification for Coextruded Composite Pipe Table 702.1, Table 702.2, Table 702.3 

F 1 807 — 98 Standard Specifications for Metal Insert Fittings Utilizing a Copper Crimp Ring SDR9 Cross-linked 

Polyethylene (PEX) Tubing Table 605.6, 605.17.2 



AWS 



American Welding Society 
550 N.W. LeJeune Road 
Miami, FL 33126 



Standard 

Reference 

Number 



Title 



Referenced 

in code 

section number 



A5.8— 92 



Specifications for Filler Metals for Brazing 605.12.1, 605.14.1, 605.15.1, 705.4.1, 705.9.1, 705.10.1 



AWWA 



Standard 




Referenced 


Reference 




in code 


Number 


Title 


section number 



CI 04— 90 

Clio— 98 

cm— 90 

CI 15— 88 
C151— 96 
CI 53— 88 
C510— 92 
C511— 92 
C651— 92 
C652— 92 



American Water Works Association 
6666 West Quincy Avenue 
Denver, CO 80235 

Title 

Standard for Cement-Mortar Lining for Ductile-Iron 

Pipe and Fittings for Water 605.4, 605.6 

Standard for Ductile-Iron and Gray-Iron Fittings, 3 Inch through 48 Inches, for Water and 

Other Liquids Table 605.6, Table 702.4, Table 1 102.7 

Standard for Rubber-Gasket Joints for Ductile-Iron 

Pressure Pipe and Fittings 605. 13 

Standard for Flanged Ductile-Iron Pipe with Threaded Ranges Table 605.4 

Standard for Ductile-Iron Pipe, Centrifugally Cast for Water or Other Liquids Table 605.4 

Ductile-Iron Compact Fittings Table 605.6 

Double Check Valve Backflow-Prevention Assembly Table 608.1, 608.13.7 

Reduced-Pressure Principle Backflow-Prevention Assembly Table 608.1, 608.13.2, 608.16.2 

Standard for Disinfecting Water Mains 610.1 

Standard for Disinfection of Water-Storage Facilities 610.1 



2000 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



93 



REFEREMCED STANDARDS 



a 



SPI 



Cast Iron Soil Pipe Institute 
Suite 419 

5959 Shallowford Road 
Chattanooga, TN 37421 



Standard 




Referenced 


Reference 




in code 


Number 


Tide 


section number 



301 — 97 Specification for Hubless Cast Iron Soil Pipe and Fittings for Sanitary and Storm Drain, Waste and 

Vent Piping Applications. . . . Table 702.1, Table 702.2, Table 702.3, Table 702.4, Table 1 102.4, Table 1 102.5, Table 1 102.7 

3 10 — 97 Specification for Coupling for Use in Connection with Cast-Iron Soil Pipe and Fittings for Sanitary and 

Storm Drain Waste and Vent Piping Applications 705.5.3 




CSA 



Canadian Standards Association 

178 Rexdale Blvd. 

Rexdale (Toronto), Ontario, Canada M9W 1R3 



Standard 




Referenced 


Reference 




in code 


Number 


Title 


section number 



B45.1— 94 
B45.2— 94 
B45.3— 94 
B45.4— 94 
B45.5— 94 
B64.3— 94 
B64.4— 94 
B64.7— 94 
B79— 94 
B 125— 94 
B 137. 1—95 
B 137.2— 93 
B 137.3— 93 
B 137.5— 97 

B 137.6— 96 

B181.1— 96 

BIS 1.2— 96 

BIS 1.3— 96 
B1S2.1— 96 
B1S2.2— 95 
CAN3-B137.8M— 92 

CAN/CSA- 
A257.1M— 92 

CAN/CSA- 

A257.2M— 92 
CAN/CSA- 

A257.3M— 92 

CAN/CSA-B64.1.1— 94 
CAN/CSA-B64.2— 94 
CAN/CSA-B64.2.2— 94 
CAN/CSA-B64.3— 94 
CAN/CSA-B64.4— 94 
CAN/CSA-B64. 10—94 
CAN/CSA-B137.9M— 98 
CAN/CSA-B 1 37. 1 OM— 98 
CAN/CSA- 
B181.3— 96(R92) 
CAN/CSA-B 182.4—97 



Ceramic Plumbing Fixtures 408.1, 416.1, 418.1, 419.1, 420.1 

Enameled Cast-Iron Plumbing Fixtures 407.1, 415.1, 416.1, 418.1 

Porcelain Enameled Steel Plumbing Fixtures 407.1, 416.1, 418.1 

Stainless-Steel Plumbing Fixtures 415.1, 416.1, 418.1, 420.1 

Plastic Plumbing Fixtures 407.1, 416.2, 417.1, 419.1, 420.1, 421.1 

Backflow Preventers, Dual Check Valve Type with Atmospheric Port for Carbonators 608.16.2 

Backflow Preventers, Reduced Pressure Principle Assembly for Fire Protection Systems 608.16.2 

Vacuum Breakers, Laboratory Faucet Type (LFVB) Table 608.1, 608.13.6 

Floor, Area and Shower Drains, and Cleanouts for Residential Construction 412.1 

Plumbing Fittings 424.1, 424.3, 424.4, 425.3.1, 425.4, Table 608.1 

Polyethylene Pipe, Tubing and Fittings for Cold Water Pressure Services Table 605.4 

PVC Injection-Moulded Gasketed Fittings for Pressure Applications Table 605.6, Table 1102.7 

Rigid Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Pipe for Pressure Applications Table 605.4, 605.21.2, 705.8.2, 705.14.2 

Cross-Linked Polyethylene (PEX) Tubing Systems for Pressure Applications — with Revisions through 

September 1992 Table 605.4, Table 605.5 

CPVC Pipe, Tubing and Fittings for Hot and Cold Water Distribution Systems — with Revisions through 

May 1986 Table 605.4, Table 605.5 

ABS Drain, Waste, and Vent Pipe and Pipe Fittings Table 702.1, Table 702.2, 

Table 702.4, 705.2.2, 705.7.2, 715.2 

PVC Drain, Waste, and Vent Pipe and Pipe Fittings — with Revisions through 

December 1993 Table 702.1, Table 702.2, 705.8.2, 705.14.2, 715.2 

Polyolefm Laboratory Drainage System Table 702.1 

Plastic Drain and Sewer Pipe and Pipe Fittings 705.8.2, 705.14.2 

PVC Sewer Pipe and Fittings (PSM Type) Table 702.3, Table 1102.4, Table 1102.5 

Polybutylene (PB) Piping for Pressure Applications — with Revisions through 

July 1992 Table 605.4, Table 605.5, 605.19.2, 605.19.3 

Circular Concrete Culvert, Storm Drain, Sewer Pipe and Fittings Table 702.3, Table 1102.4 

Reinforced L Circular Concrete Culvert, Storm Drain, Sewer Pipe and Fittings Table 702.3, Table 1 102.4 

Joints for Circular Concrete Sewer and Culvert Pipe, Manhole Sections, and Fittings Using 

Rubber Gaskets 705.6, 705.16 

Vacuum Breakers, Atmospheric Type (AVB) 425.3, Table 608.1, 608.13.6 

Vacuum Breakers, Hose Connection Type (HCVB) Table 608.1, 608.13.6 

Vacuum Breakers, Hose Connection Type (HCVB) with Automatic Draining Feature Table 608. 1, 608.13.6 

Backflow Preventers, Dual Check Valve Type with Atmospheric Port (DCAP) Table 608.1, 608.13.3, 608.16.2 

Backflow Preventers, Reduced Pressure Principle Type (RP) Table 608.1, 608.13.2, 608.16.2 

Manual for the Selection, Installation, Maintenance and Field Testing of Backflow Prevention Devices 312.9.2 

Polyethylene/Aluminum/Polyethylene Composite Pressure Pipe Systems Table 605.4 

Crosslinked Polyethylene/Aluminum/Polyethylene Composite Pressure Pipe Systems Table 605.4, Table 605.5 

Polyolefm Laboratory Drainage Systems — with Revisions through October 1990 Table 702.1, Table 702.2 

Profile PVC Sewer Pipe and Fittings Table 702.3, Table 1102.4, Table 1102.5 



2000 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBDNG CODE® 



REFERENCED STANDARDS 



CAN/CSA-B602M— 90 
CSA-B45 

(Supplement 1)— 88 



CSA — continued 

Mechanical Couplings for Drain, Waste, and Vent Pipe and Sewer Pipe 705.2.1, 705.5.3, 705.6, 705.14.1, 705.15, 705.16 

Hydromassage Bathtubs 421.1 




FS 



General Service^ Administration 
7th & D Streets : 

407 E. Lenfant Plaza, SW, Suite 8100 
Washington, DC 20024-2124 



Standard 

Reference 

Number 



Title 



Referenced 

in code 

section number 



TT-P- 1536a— 75 



Federal Specification for Plumbing Fixture Setting Compound 405.4 



* Standards are available from the Supt. of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC 20402-9325. 



ICC 



International Code Council 

5203 Leesburg Pike, Suite 600 

Falls Church, VA 22041 

Referenced 
in code 

Title section number 

Accessible and Usable Buildings and Facilities 202, 404.1, 404.2.1, 404.2.6 

ICC Electrical Code™ . 201.3, 502.1, 504.3, 1 113.1.3 

International Building Code® 201.3, 305.4, 307.1, 307.2, 307.3, 308.2, 309.1, 309.1.1, 309.1.2, 310.1, 

310.3, 403.1, Table 403.1, 404.1, 407.3, 417.6, 502.6, 606.5.2, 1106.5, 1201.1 

ICC Electrical Code— Administrative Provisions™ ; 201.3, 502.1, 504.3, 1113.1.3 

International Energy Conservation Code® 313.1, 607.2 

International Fire Code® '. 1201.1 

Intemafional Fuel Gas Code® 101.2, 201.3, 502.1 

International Mechanical Code® 201.3, 310.1, 422.9, 502.1, 612.1, 1202.1 

Intematiorial Private Sewage Disposal Code® 701.2 



Standard 

Reference 

Number 



Al 17.1—98 
EC— 2000 
IBC— 2000 

ICC EC— 2000 
lECC— 2000 
IFC— 2000 
IFGC— 2000 
IMC— 2000 
IPSDC— 2000 



NFPA 



National Fire Protection Association 
Battery m^ch Park 
Quincy, UA 02269 

Referenced 
in code 

Title section number 

Bulk Oxygen Systems at Consumer Sites 1203.1 

Oxygen-Fuel Gas Systems for Welding, Cutting, and Allied Processes 1203.1 

Gas and Vacuum Systems 1202.1 



Standard 

Reference 

Number 



50—96 
51—97 
99C— 99 



NSF 



Standard 




Referenced 


Reference 




in code 


Number 


Title 


section number 



3—96 

18—96 

14—98 

42—98 

44—98 

53—98 

58—97 

61—99 

62—97 



National Sanitation Foundation 

3475 PlyniGuth Road 

R O. Box 130140 

Ann Arbor, MI 48113-0140 

Title \ 

Commercial Spray-Type Dishwashing Machines 409. 1 

Manual Food and Beverage Dispensing Equipment 426.1 

Plasfic Piping Components and Related Materials 303.3, 61 1 .3 

Drinking Water Treatment Units — Aesthetic Effects 611.1, 611.3 

Cation Exchange Water Softeners 61 1.1, 61 1.3 

Drinking Water Treatment Units^Health Effects 61 1.1, 61 1.3 

Reverse Osmosis Drinking Water Treatment Systems 61 1.2 

Drinking XVater System Components— Health Effects 424.1, 605.4, 605.5, 605.6, 611.3 

Drinking Water Distillation Systems 611.1 



2000 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



95 



REFERENCED STANDARDS 



Plumbing and Drainage Institute 
TP'TrftTT ^ ^^ ^^^* ^^* ^*^^^^' ^°"*^ ^"'^^ 



Indianapolis, IN 46260-3318 



Standard Referenced 

Reference in code 

Number Title section number 

GlOl — 96 Testing and Rating Procedure for Grease Interceptors with Appendix of Sizing and Installation Data 1003.3.4 





96 2000 INTERNATIONAL PLUWiBING CODE® 



APPENDIX A 

PLUMBING PERMIT FEE SCHEDULE 



Permit Issuance 

1. For issuing each permit 

2. For issuing each supplemental permit 



Unit Fee Schedule (in addition to Item 1 or 2 above) 

1 . For each plumbing fixture or trap or set of fixtures on one trap 
(includingwater,drainage piping and backflow protection thereof) 

2. For each building sewer and each trailer park sewer 

3. Rainwater systems — per drain (inside building) 

4. For each cesspool (where permitted) 

5. For each private sewage disposal system 

6. For each water heater and/or vent 

7. For each industrial waste pretreatment interceptor including its trap and vent, 
excepting kitchen-type grease interceptors functioning as fixture traps 

8. For installation, alteration or repair of water-piping and/or water-treating 
equipment,each 

9. Forrepair or alteration ofdrainage or vent piping, each fixture 

10. For each lawn sprinkler system on any one meter including backflow 

protection devices therefor 

11. For atmospheric-type vacuum breakers not included in Item 2: 

lto5 

over 5, each 

12. For each backflow protective device other than atmospheric-type vacuum breakers: 

2 inches (5 1 mm) and smaller 

Over 2 inches (5 1 mm) 



Other Inspections and Fees 

1. Inspections outside of normal business hours perhour 

(minimum charge two hours) 

2. Reinspection fee assessed under provisions of Section 107.3.3 each 

3. Inspections for which no fee is specifically indicated perhour 

(minimum charge — one-half hour) 

4. Additional plan review required by changes, additions or revisions to 

approved plans (minimum charge — one-half hour) perhour 

2000 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 97 




• 



98 2000 INTER^3AT10NAL PLUWiBJNG CODE® 



APPENDIX B 

RATES OF RAINFALL FOR VARIOUS CITIES 



Rainfall rates, in inches per hour, are based on a storm of 1 -hour duration and a 100-year return period. The rainfall rates shown in the 
appendix are derived from Figure 1 106.1. 



Alabama: 

Birmingham 3.8 

Huntsville 3.6 

Mobile 4.6 

Montgomery 4.2 

Alaska: 

Fairbanks 1.0 

Juneau 0.6 

Arizona: 

Flagstaff 2.4 

Nogales 3.1 

Phoenix 2.5 

Yuma 1.6 

Arkansas: 

FortSmith 3.6 

Little Rock 3.7 

Texarkana 3.8 

California: 

Barstow 1.4 

Crescent City 1.5 

Fresno 1.1 

Los Angeles 2.1 

Needles 1.6 

Placerville 1.5 

San Fernando 2.3 

SanFrancisco 1.5 

Yreka 1.4 

Colorado: 

Craig .1.5 

Denver 2.4 

Durango 1.8 

Grand Junction 1.7 

Lamar 3.0 

Pueblo 2.5 

Connecticut: 

Hartford 2.7 

New Haven 2.8 

Putnam 2.6 

Delaware: 

Georgetown 3.0 

Wilmington 3.1 



District of Columbia: 

Washington 3.2 

Florida: 

Jacksonville 4.3 

Key West 4.3 

Miami 4.7 

Pensacola 4.6 

Tampa. 4.5 

Georgia: 

Atlanta 3.7 

Dalton 3.4 

Macon 3.9 

Savannah 4.3 

Thomasville 4.3 

Hawaii: 

Hilo 6.2 

Honolulu 3.0 

Wailuku 3.0 

Idaho: 

Boise 0.9 

Lewiston 1.1 

Pocatello 1.2 

niinois: 

Cairo 3.3 

Chicago 3.0 

Peoria 3.3 

Rockford 3.2 

Springfield 3.3 

Indiana: 

Evansville 3.2 

Fort Wayne 2.9 

Indianapolis 3.1 

Iowa: 

Davenport 3.3 

Des Moines 3.4 

Dubuque 3.3 

Sioux City 3.6 

Kansas: 

Atwood 3.3 

Dodge City 3.3 

Topeka 3.7 

Wichita 3.7 



Kentucky: 

Ashland 3.0 

Lexington 3.1 

Louisville 3.2 

Middlesboro 3.2 

Paducah 3.3 

Louisiana: 

Alexandria 4.2 

Lake Providence 4.0 

New Orleans 4.8 

Shreveport 3.9 

Maine: 

Bangor 2.2 

Houlton . 2.1 

Portland 2.4 

Maryland: 

Baltimore 3.2 

Hagerstown 2.8 

Oakland 2.7 

Salisbury 3.1 

Massachusetts: 

Boston 2.5 

Pittsfield 2.8 

Worcester 2.7 

Michigan: 

Alpena 2.5 

Detroit 2.7 

Grand Rapids 2.6 

Lansing 2.8 

Marquette 2.4 

SaultSte. Marie 2.2 

Minnesota: 

Duluth 2.8 

Grand Marais 2.3 

Minneapolis 3.1 

Moorhead 3.2 

Worthington 3.5 

Mississippi: 

Biloxi 4.7 

Columbus 3.9 

Corinth 3.6 

Natchez . 4.4 

Vicksburs 4.1 



Missouri: 

Columbia 3.2 

Kansas City 3.6 

Springfield 3.4 

St. Louis ". . .3.2 

Montana: 

Ekalaka 2.5 

Havre .1.6 

Helena 1.5 

Kalispell 1.2 

Missoula 1.3 

Nebraska: 

NorthPlatte 3.3 

Omaha 3.8 

Scottsbluff 3.1 

Valentine 3.2 

Nevada: 

Elko 1.0 

Ely 1.1 

Las Vegas 1 .4 

Reno 1.1 

New Hampshire: 

Berhn 2.5 

Concord 2.5 

Keene 2.4 

New Jersey: 

AtlandcCity 2.9 

Newark 3.1 

Trenton 3.1 

New Mexico: 

Albuquerque 2.0 

Hobbs 3.0 

Raton 2.5 

Roswell 2.6 

SilverCity 1.9 

New York: 

Albany 2.5 

Binghamton 2.3 

Buffalo 2.3 

Kingston 2.7 

New York 3.0 

Rochester 2.2 



2000 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



99 



APPENDIX B 



North Carolina: 

Asheville 4. 1 

Charlotte 3.7 

Greensboro 3.4 

Wilmington 4.2 

jrtlh Dakota: 

Bismarck 2.8 

Devils Lake 2.9 

Fargo 3.1 

Williston 2.6 

kioi 

Cincinnati 2.9 

Cleveland 2.6 

Columbus 2.8 

Toledo 2.8 

Oklahoma: 

Altus 3.7 

Boise City 3.3 

Durant 3.8 

Oklahoma City 3.8 

Oregon: 

Baker 0.9 

Coos Bay 1.5 

Eugene 1.3 

Portland 1.2 

Erie 2.6 

Harrisburg 2.8 

Philadelphia 3.1 

Pittsburgh 2.6 

Scranton 2.7 

lode Island: 

Block Island 2.75 

Providence 2.6 



South Carolma: 

Charleston 4.3 

Columbia 4.0 

Greenville 4.1 

South Dakota: 

Buffalo 2.8 

Huron 3.3 

Pierre 3.1 

RapidCity 2.9 

Yankton 3.6 

Tennessee: 

Chattanooga 3.5 

Knoxville 3.2 

Memphis 3.7 

Nashville 3.3 

Texas: 

Abilene 3.6 

Amarillo 3.5 

Brownsville 4.5 

Dallas 4.0 

DelRio 4.0 

ElPaso 2.3 

Houston 4.6 

Lubbock 3.3 

Odessa 3.2 

Pecos 3.0 

San Antonio 4.2 

Utah: 

BrighamCity 1.2 

Roosevelt 1.3 

SaltLakeCity 1.3 

St. George 1.7 

Vermont: 

Barre 2.3 

Bratteboro 2.7 

Burlington 2.1 

Rutland 2.5 



Virginia: 

Bristol 2.7 

Charlottesville 2.8 

Lynchburg 3.2 

Norfolk 3.4 

Richmond 3.3 

Washington: 

Omak 1.1 

Port Angeles 1.1 

Seattle 1.4 

Spokane 1 .0 

Yakima 1.1 

West Virginia: 

Charleston 2.8 

Morgantown 2.7 

Wisconsin: 

Ashland 2.5 

Eau Claire 2.9 

Green Bay 2.6 

La Crosse 3.1 

Madison 3.0 

Milwaukee 3.0 

Wyoming: 

Cheyenne 2.2 

FortBridger 1.3 

Lander 1.5 

Newcastle 2.5 

Sheridan 1 .7 

Yellowstone Park 1.4 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

Source: National Weather Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Washington, D.C. 



100 



2000 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



APPENDIX C 

GRAY WATER RECYCLING SYSTEMS 




Note: Section 301.3 of this code requires all plumbing fixtures that receive water or waste to discharge to the sanitary drainage sys- 
tem of the structure. In order to allo^forthe utilization of a gray water recycling system. Section 301.3 should be revised to read as 
follows: 

301.3 Connections to drainage system. All plumbing fixtures, drains, appurtenances and appliances used to receive or discharge 
liquid wastes or sewage shall be directly connected to the drainage system of the building or premises, in accordance with the re- 
quirements of this code. This section shall not be construed to prevent the indirect waste systems required by Chapter 8. 

Exception: Bathtubs, showers, lavatories, clothes washers and laundry sinks shall not be required to discharge to the sanitary 
drainage system where such fixtures discharge to an approved gray water recycling system. 



SECTION CI 01 
GRAY WATER RECYCLING SYSTEMS 

ClOl.l General. Gray water recycling systems shall only re- 
ceive the waste discharge of bathtubs, showers, lavatories, 
clothes washers and laundry sinks. Recycled gray water shall 
only be utilized for flushing water closets and urinals that are lo- 
cated in the same building as the gray water recycling system. 
Such systems shall comply with Sections C101.2 through 
C101.12. 

Exception: Gray water systems shall be permitted to be used 
for irrigation when specific approval is given by the authority 
having jurisdiction. Such systems shall be designed as re- 
quired by Section 105. 

C101.2 Definition. The following term shall have the meaning 
shown herein. 

GRAY WATER. Wastewater discharged from lavatories, bath- 
tubs, showers, clothes washers and laundry sinks. 

C101.3 Installation. All drain, waste and vent piping associated 
with gray water recycling systems shall be installed in full com- 
pliance with this code. 

C101.4 Reservoir. Gray water shallbe collected in an approved 
reservoir constructed of durable, nonabsorbent and corrosion-re- 
sistant materials. The reservoir shall be a closed and gas-tight 
vessel. Access openings shall be provided to allow inspection 
and cleaning of the reservoir interior. The holding capacity of the 
reservoir shall be a minimum of twice the volume of water re- 
quired to meet the daily flushing requirements of the fixtures 
supplied with gray water, but not less than 50 gallons (189 L). 
The reservoir shall be sized to limit the retention time of gray wa- 
ter to 72 hours maximum. 

C101.5 Filtration. Gray water entering the reservoir shall pass 
through an approved filter such as a media, sand or diatomaceous 
earth filter. 

C101.6 Disinfection. Gray water shall be disinfected by an ap- 
proved method that employs one or more disinfectants such as 
chlorine, iodine or ozone. 



C101.7 Makeup water. Potable water shall be supplied as a 
source of makeup water for the gray water system. The pota- 
ble water supply shall be protected against backflow in accor- 
dance with Section 608. There shall be a full-open valve on 
the makeup water supply line to the reservoir. 

C101.8 Overflow. The collection reservoir shall be equipped 
with an overflow pipe of the same diameter as the influent 
pipe for the gray water. The overflow shall be directly con- 
nected to the sanitary drainage system. 

C101.9 Drain. A drain shall be located at the lowest point of 
the collection reservoir and shall be directly connected to the 
sanitary drainage system. The drain shall be the same diame- 
ter as the overflow pipe required by Section ClOl .8 and shall 
be provided with a full-open valve. 

C 101. 10 Vent required. The reservoir shall be provided with 
a vent sized in accordance with Chapter 9 based on the size of 
the reservoir influent pipe. 

ClOl.ll Coloring. The gray water shall be dyed blue or 
green with a food grade vegetable dye before such Water is 
supplied to the fixtures. 

C101.12 Identification. All gray water distribution piping 
and reservoirs shall be identified as containing nonpotable 
water. Piping identification shall be in accordance with Sec- 
tion 608.8. 



2000 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



101 




102 2000 DMTERNATDONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



APPENDIX D 

DEGREE DAY AND DESIGN TEMPERATURES 

TABLE D1 01 
DEGREE DAY AND DESIGN TEMPERATURES^ FOR CITIES IN THE UNITED STATES 



STATE 


STATION" 


HEATING 

DEGREE DAYS 

(yearly total) 


DESIGN TEMPERATURES 


DEGREES NORTH 
LATITUDE^ 


Winter 


Summer 


97V2% 


Dry bulb 2^2% 


Wet bulb 2V2% 


AL 


Birmingham 


2,551 


21 


94 


77 


33°3' 




Huntsville 


3,070 


16 


93 


77 


34°4' 




Mobile 


1,560 


29 


93 


79 


30°4' 




Montgomery 


2,291 


25 


95 


79 


32°2' 


AK 


Anchorage 


10,864 


-18 


68 


59 


6ri' 




Fairbanks 


14,279 


-47 


78 


62 


64°5' 




Juneau 


9,075 


1 


70 


59 


58°2' 




Nome 


14,171 


-27 


62 


56 


64°3' 


AZ 


Flagstaff 


7,152 


4 


82 


60 


35°1' 




Phoenix 


1,765 


34 


107 


75 


33°3' 




Tuscon 


1,800 


32 


102 


71 


33°1' 




Yuma 


974 


39 


109 


78 


32°4' 


AR 


Fort Smith 


3,292 


17 


98 


79 


35°2' 




Little Rock 


3,219 


20 


96 


79 


34°4' 




Texarkana 


2,533 


23 


96 


79 


33°3' 


CA 


Fresno 


2,611 


30 


100 


71 


36°5' 




Long Beach 


1,803 


43 


80 


69 


33°5' 




Los Angeles 


2,061 


43 


80 


69 


34°0' 




Los Angeles'* 


1,349 


40 


89 


71 


34°0' 




Oakland 


2,870 


36 


80 


64 


37°4' 




Sacramento 


2,502 


32 


98 


71 


38°3' 




San Diego 


1,458 


44 


80 


70 


32°4' 




San Francisco 


3,015 


38 


77 


64 


37°4' 




San Francisco** 


3,001 


40 


71 


62 


37°5' 


CO 


Alamosa 


8,529 


-16 


82 


61 


37°3' 




Colorado Springs 


6,423 


2 


88 


62 


38°5' 




Denver 


6,283 


1 


91 


63 


39°5' 




Grand Junction 


5,641 


7 


94 


63 


39°1' 




Pueblo 


5,462 





95 


66 


38°2' 


CT 


Bridgeport 


5,617 


9 


84 


74 


41°1' 




Hartford 


6,235 


7 


88 


75 


4r5' 




New Haven 


5,897 


7 


84 


75 


4r2' 


DE 


Wilmington 


4,930 


14 


89 


76 


39°4' 


DC 


Washington 


4,224 


17 


91 


77 


38°5' 


FL 


Daytona 


879 


35 


90 


79 


29° r 




Fort Myers 


442 


44 


92 


79 


26°4' 




Jacksonville 


1,239 


32 


94 


79 


30°3' 




Key West 


108 


57 


90 


79 


24°3' 




Miami 


214 


47 


90 


79 


25°5' 




Orlando 


766 


38 


93 


78 • 


28°3' 




Pensacola 


1,463 


29 


93 


79 


30°3' 




Tallahassee 


1,485 


30 


92 


78 


30°2' 




Tampa 


683 


40 


91 


79 


28°0' 




West Palm Beach 


253 


45 


91 


79 


26°4' 



(continued) 



2000 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



103 



APPENDIX D 



TABLE Dl 01— continued 
DEGREE DAY AND DESIGN TEMPERATURES^ FOR CITIES BN THE UNITED STATES 



STATE 


STATION" 


HEATING 

DEGREE DAYS 

(yearly total) 


DESIGN TEMPERATURES 


DEGREES NORTH 
LATITUDE" 


Winter 


Summer 


97V2% 


Dry bulb 2^2% 


Wet bulb 2V2% 


GA 


Athens 


2,929 


22 


92 


77 


34°0' 




Atlanta 


2,961 


22 


92 


76 


33°4' 




Augusta 


2,397 


23 


95 


79 


33°2' 




Columbus 


2,383 


24 


93 


78 


32°3' 




Macon 


2,136 


25 


93 


78 


32°4' 




Rome 


3,326 


22 


93 


78 


34°2' 




Savannah 


1,819 


27 


93 


79 


32° 1' 


HI 


Hilo 





62 


83 


. 74 


19°4' 




Honolulu 





63 


86 


75 


2r2' 


ID 


Boise 


5,809 


10 


94 


66 


43°3' 




Lewiston 


5,542 


6 


93 


66 


46°2' 




Pocatello 


7,033 


-1 


91 


63 


43°0' 


IL 


Chicago (Midway) 


6,155 





91 


75 


41°5' 




Chicago (O'Hare) 


6,639 


-4 


89 


76 


42°0' 




Chicago'' 


5,882 


2 


91 


77 


41°5' 




Moline 


6,408 


-4 


91 


77 


4r3' 




Peoria 


6,025 


-4 


89 


76 


40°4' 




Rockford 


6,830 


-4 


89 


76 


42° r 




Springfield 


5,429 


2 


92 


77 


39°5' 


IN 


Evans ville 


4,435 


9 


93 


78 


38°0' 




Fort Wayne 


6,205 


1 


89 


75 


4ro' 




Indianapolis 
South Bend 


5,699 

6,439 


2 
1 


90 
89 


76 
75 


39°4' 

41°4' 


lA 


Burlington 


6,114 


-3 


91 


77 


40°5' 




Des Moines 


6,588 


-5 


91 


77 


4r3' 




Dubuque 


7,376 


-7 


88 


75 


42°2' 




Sioux City 


6,951 


-7 


92 


77 


42°2' 




Waterloo 


7,320 


-10 


89 


77 


42°3' 


KS 


Dodge City 


4,986 


5 


97 


73 


37°5' 




Goodland 


6,141 





96 


70 


39°2' 




Topeka 


5,182 


4 


96 


78 


39°0' 




Wichita 


4,620 


7 


98 


76 


37°4' 


KY 


Covington 


5,265 


6 


90 


75 


39°0' 




Lexington 


4,683 


8 


91 


76 


38°0' 




Louisville 


4,660 


10 


93 


77 


38°1' 


LA 


Alexandria 


1,921 


27 


94 


79 


3r2' 




Baton Rouge 


1,560 


29 


93 


80 


30°3' 




Lake Charles 


1,459 


31 


93 


79 


30°1' 




New Orieans 


1,385 


33 


92 


80 


30°0' 




Shreveport 


2,184 


25 


96 


79 


32°3' 


ME 


Caribou 


9,767 


-13 


81 


69 


46°5' 




Portland 


7,511 


-1 


84 


72 


43°4' 


MD 


Baltimore 


4,654 


13 


91 


77 


39°1' 




Baltimore'' 


4,111 


17 


89 


78 


39°2' 




Frederick 


5,087 


12 


91 


77 


39°2' 



(continued) 



104 



2000 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



APPENDIX D 



TABLE D101 — continued 
DEGREE DAY AND DESIGN TEMPERATURES^ FOR CITIES IN THE UNITED STATES 



• 



STATE 


STATION" 


HEATING 

DEGREE DAYS 

(yearly total) 


DESIGN TEMPERATURES 


DEGREES NORTH 
LATITUDE^ 


Winter 


Summer 


97V2% 


Dry bulb l^l^k 


Wet bulb 2V2% 


MA 


Boston 


5,634 


9 


88 


74 


42°2' 




Pittsfield 


7,578 


-3 


84 


72 


42°3' 




Worcester 


6,969 


4 


84 


72 


42°2' 


MI 


Alpena 
Detroit (City) 
Escanaba'* 


8,506 

6,232 
8,481 


-6 
6 

-7 


85 
88 
83 


72 
74 
71 


45°0' 
42°2' 
45°4' 




Flint 


7,377 


1 


87 


74 


43°0' 




Grand Rapids 


6,894 


5 


88 


74 


42°5' 




Lansing 


6,909 


1 


87 


74 


42°5' 




Marquette'' 
Muskegon 


8,393 
6,696 


-8 
6 


81 
84 


70 
73 


46''3' 
43°1' 




Sault Ste. Marie 


9,048 


-8 


81 


70 


46°3' 


MN 


Duluth 


10,000 


-16 


82 


70 


46°5' 




Minneapolis 
Rochester 


8,382 
8,295 


-12 
-12 


89 

87 


5 
75 


44°5' 
44°0' 


MS 


Jackson 


2,239 


25 


95 


78 


32°2' 




Meridian 


2,289 


23 


95 


79 


32°2' 




Vicksburg'' 


2,041 


26 


95 


80 


32°2' 


MO 


Columbia 


5,046 


4 


94 


77 


39°0' 




Kansas City 


4,711 


6 


96 


77 


39°1' 




St. Joseph 


5,484 


2 


93 


79 


39°5' 




St. Louis 


4,900 


6 


94 


77 


38°5' 




St. Louis'* 


4,484 


8 


94 


77 


38°4' 




Springfield 


4,900 


9 


93 


77 


37°1' 


MT 


Billings 


7,049 


-10 


91 


66 


45°5' 




Great Falls 


7,750 


-15 


88 


62 


47°3' 




Helena 


8,129 


-16 


88 


62 


46°4' 




Missoula 


8,125 


-6 


88 


63 


46°5' 


NE 


Grand Island 


6,530 


-3 


94 


74 


41°0' 




Lincoln'' 


5,864 


-2 


95 


77 


40°5' 




Norfolk 


6,979 


-4 


93 


77 


42°0' 




North Platte 


6,684 


-4 


94 


72 


41°!' 




Omaha 


6,612 


-3 


91 


77 


41°2' 




Scottsbluff 


6,673 


-3 


92 


68 


4r5' 


NV 


Elko 


7,433 


-2 


92 


62 


40°5' 




Ely 


7,733 


-4 


87 


59 


39°1' 




Las Vegas 


2,709 


28 


106 


70 


36°1' 




Reno 


6,332 


10 


92 


62 


39°3' 




Winnemucca 


6,761 


3 


94 


62 


40°5' 


NH 


Concord 


7,383 


-3 


87 


73 


43°1' 


NJ 


Atlantic City 


4,812 


13 


89 


77 


39°3' 




Newark 


4,589 


14 


91 


76 


40°4' 




Trenton'' 


4,980 


14 


88 


76 


40° 1' 


NM 


Albuquerque 
Raton 


4,348 
6,228 


16 
1 


94 
89 


65 
64 


35°0' 
36°5' 




Roswell 


3,793 


18 


98 


70 


33°2' 




Silver City 


3,705 


10 


94 


64 


32°4' 



{continued) 



2000 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



105 



APPENDIX D 



TABLE DIOI— conlinueca 
DEGREE DAY AND DESIGN TEMPERATURES^ FOR CITIES IN THE UNITED STATES 



STATE 


STATION" 


HEATING 

DEGREE DAYS 

(yearly total) 


DESIGN TEMPERATURES 


DEGREES NORTH 
LATITUDE^ 


Winter 


Summer 


97V2% 


Dry bulb 2V2% 


Wet bulb 2V2% 


NY 


Albany 


6,875 


-1 


88 


74 


42°5' 




Albany'' 
Binghamton 


6,201 
7,286 


1 
1 


88 
83 


74 
72 


42°5' 
42° 1' 




Buffalo 


7,062 


6 


85 


73 


43°0' 




NY (Central Park)'' 
NY (Kennedy) 
NY(LaGuardia) 
Rochester 


4,871 
5,219 
4,811 
6,748 


15 
15 
15 
5 


89 
87 
89 
88 


75 
75 
75 
73 


40°5' 
40°4' 
40°5' 
43°1' 




Schenectady'' 
Syracuse 


6,650 
6,756 


1 

2 


87 
87 


74 
73 


42°5' 
43°1' 


NC 


Charlotte 


3,181 


22 


93 


76 


35°1' 




Greensboro 


3,805 


18 


91 


76 


36°1' 




Raleigh 


3,393 


20 


92 


77 


35°5' 




Winston- Salem 


3,595 


20 


91 


75 


36°1' 


ND 


Bismarck 


8,851 


-19 


91 


71 


46°5' 




Devils Lake'' 


9,901 


-21 


88 


71 


48°1' 




Fargo 


9,226 


-18 


89 


74 


46°5' 




Williston 


9,243 


-21 


88 


70 


48°1' 


OH 


Akron-Canton 


6,037 


6 


86 


73 


4ro' 




Cincinnati'' 


4,410 


6 


90 


75 


39°1' 




Cleveland 


6,351 


5 


88 


74 


41°2' 




Columbus 


5,660 


5 


90 


75 


40°0' 




Dayton 


5,622 


4 


89 


75 


39°5' 




Mansfield 


6,403 


5 


87 


74 


40°5' 




Sandusky'' 
Toledo 


5,796 
6,494 


6 
1 


91 

88 


74 
75 


41°3' 
41°4' 




Youngstown 


6,417 


4 


86 


73 


41 °2' 


OK 


Oklahoma City 
Tulsa 


3,725 
3,860 


13 
13 


97 
98 


77 
78 


35°20' 
36°10' 


OR 


Eugene 


4,726 


22 


89 


67 


44° 10' 




Medford 


5,008 


23 


94 


68 


42°20' 




Portland 


4,635 


23 


85 


67 


45°40' 




Portland'' 


4,109 


24 


86 


67 


45°30' 




Salem 


4,754 


23 


88 


68 


45°00' 


PA 


AUentown 


5,810 


9 


88 


75 


40°40' 




Erie 


6,451 


9 


85 


74 


42° 10' 




Harrisburg 

Philadelphia 

Pittsburgh 

Pittsburgh'' 

Reading'' 

Scranton 


5,251 
5,144 
5,987 
5,053 
4,945 
6,254 


11 
14 
5 
7 
13 
5 


91 
90 
86 
88 
89 
87 


76 
76 

73 
73 
75 
73 


40° 10' 
39°50' 
40°30' 
40°30' 
40°20' 
41°20' 




Williamsport 


5,934 


7 


89 


74 


41°10' 


RI 


Providence 


5,954 


9 


86 


74 


41°40' 


SC 


Charleston 


2,033 


27 


91 


80 


32°50' 




Charleston'' 


1,794 


28 


92 


80 


32°50' 




Columbia 


2,484 


24 


95 


78 


34°00' 



(continued) 



106 



2000 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBDNG CODE® 



APPENDIX D 



TABLE D1 01— continued 
DEGREE DAY AND DESIGN TEMPERATURES^ FOR CITIES IN THE UNITED STATES 



• 



STATE 


STATION" 


HEATING 

DEGREE DAYS 

(yearly total) 


DESIGN TEMPERATURES 


DEGREES NORTH 
LATITUDE^ 


Winter 


Summer 


97V2% 


Dry bulb 2V2% 


Wet bulb 2V2% 


SD 


Huron 


8,223 


-14 


93 


75 


44°30' 




Rapid City 


7,345 


-7 


92 


69 


44°00' 




Sioux Falls 


7,839 


-11 


91 


75 


43°40' 


TN 


Bristol 


4,143 


14 


89 


75 


36°30' 




Chattanooga 


3,254 


18 


93 


77 


35°00' 




Knoxville 


3,494 


19 


92 


76 


35°50' 




Memphis 


3,232 


18 


95 


79 


35°00' 




Nashville 


3,578 


14 


94 


77 


36° 10' 


TX 


Abilene 


2,624 


20 


99 


74 


32°30' 




Austin 


1,711 


28 


98 


77 


30°20' 




Dallas 


2,363 


22 


100 


78 


32°50' 




El Paso 


2,700 


24 


98 


68 


3r50' 




Houston 


1,396 


32 


94 


79 


29°40' 




Midland 


2,591 


21 


98 


72 


32°00' 




San Angelo 


2,255 


22 


99 


74 


31°20' 




San Antonio 


1,546 


30 


97 


76 


29°30' 




Waco 


2,030 


26 


99 


78 


3r40' 




Wichita Falls 


2,832 


18 


101 


76 


34°00' 


UT 


Salt Lake City 


6,052 


8 


95 


65 


40°50' 


VT 


BurUngton 


8,269 


-7 


85 


72 


44°30' 


VA 


Lynchburg 


4,166 


16 


90 


76 


37°20' 




Norfolk 


3,421 


22 


91 


78 


36°50' 




Richmond 


3,865 


17 


92 


78 


37°30' 




Roanoke 


4,150 


16 


91 


74 


37°20' 


WA 


Olympia 


5,236 


22 


83 


66 


47°00' 




Seattle-Tacoma 


5,145 


26 


80 


64 


47°30' 




Seattle'' 


4,424 


27 


82 


67 


47°40' 




Spokane 


6,655 


2 


90 


64 


47°40' 


WV 


Charleston 


4,476 


11 


90 


75 


38°20' 




Elkins 


5,675 


6 


84 


72 


38°50' 




Huntington 


4,446 


10 


91 


77 


38°20' 




Parkersburg^ 


4,754 


11 


90 


76 


39°20' 


WI 


Green Bay 


8,029 


-9 


85 


74 


44°30' 




La Crosse 


7,589 


-9 


88 


75 


43°50' 




Madison 


7,863 


-7 


•8S 


75 


43° 10' 




Milwaukee 


7,635 


-4 


87 


74 


43°00' 


WY 


Casper 


7,410 


-5 


90 


61 


42°50' 




Cheyenne 


7,381 


-1 


86 


62 


41°10' 




Lander 


7,870 


-11 


88 


63 


42°50' 




Sheridan 


7,680 


-8 


91 


65 


44°50' 



a. All data was extracted from the 1985 ASHRAE Handbook, Fundamentals Volume. 

b. Design data developed from airport temperature observations unless noted. 

c. Latitude is given to the nearest 10 minutes. For example, the latitude for Miami, Florida, is given as 25°50', or 25 degrees 50 minutes. 

d. Design data developed from office locations within an urban area, not from airport temperature observations. 



2000 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



107 





108 2000 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



APPENDIX E 

SIZING OF WATER PIPING SYSTEM 



• 



SECTION E101 
GENERAL 

ElOl.l Scope. 

ElOl.l.l This appendix outlines a procedure for sizing a wa- 
ter piping system. This design procedure is based on the mini- 
mum static pressure available from the supply source, the 
head charges in the system caused by friction and elevation, 
and the rates of flow necessary for operation of various fix- 
tures. 

ElOl.1.2 Because of the variable conditions encountered in 
hydraulic design, it is impractical to specify definite and de- 
tailed rules for sizing of the water piping system. Accord- 
ingly, other sizing or design methods conforming to good 
engineering practice standards are acceptable alternatives to 
that presented herein. 



SECTION El 02 
INFORMATION REQUIRED 

E102.1 Preliminary. Obtain the necessary information regard- 
ing the minimum daily static service pressure in the area where 
the building is to be located. If the building supply is to be me- 
tered, obtain information regarding friction loss relative to the 
rate of flow for meters in the range of sizes likely to be used. Fric- 
tion loss data can be obtained from most manufacturers of water 
meters. 

E102.2 Demand load. 

E102.2.1 Estimate the supply demand of the building main 
and the principal branches and risers of the system by totaling 
the corresponding demand from the applicable part of Table 
E102. 

E102.2.2 Estimate continuous supply demands in gallons per 
minute (L/m) for lawn sprinklers, air conditioners, etc., and 
add the sum to the total demand for fixtures. The result is the 
estimated supply demand for the building supply. 



SECTION El 03 
SELECTION OF PIPE SIZE 

E103.1 General. Decide from Table 604.3 what is the desirable 
minimum residual pressure that should be maintained at the 
highest fixture in the supply system. If the highest group of fix- 
tures contains flush valves, the pressure for the group should not 
be less than 15 pounds per square inch ( psi) (103.4 kPa) flowing. 
For flush tank supplies, the available pressure should not be less 
than 8 psi (55.2 kPa) flowing, except blowout action fixtures 
must not be less than 25 psi (172.4 kPa) flowing. 

E103.2 Pipe sizing. 

E103.2.1 Pipe sizes can be selected according to the following 
procedure or by other design methods conforming to accept- 
able engineering practice and approved by the administrative 



authority. The sizes selected must not be less than the mini- 
mum required by this code. 

E 103.2.2 Water pipe sizing procedures are based on a 
system of pressure requirements and losses, the sum of 
which must not exceed the minimum pressure available 
at the supply source. These pressures are as follows: 

1 . Pressure required at fixture to produce required 
flow. See Secfion 604.3 and Section 604.5. 

2. Static pressure loss or gain (due to head) is com- 
puted at 0.433 psi per foot (9.8 kPa/m) of eleva- 
tion change. 

Example: Assume that the highest fixture 
supply outlet is 20 feet (6096 mm) above or 
below the supply source. This produces a 
static pressure differential of 20 feet by 0.433 
psi/foot (2096 mm by 9.8 kPa/m) and an 8.66 
psi (59.8 kPa) loss. 

3. Loss through water meter. The friction or pres- 
sure loss can be obtained from meter manufactur- 
ers. 

4. Loss through taps in water main. 

5. Losses through special devices such as filters, 
softeners, backflow prevention devices and pres- 
sure regulators. These values must be obtained 
from the manufacturers. 

6. Loss through valves and fittings. Losses for these 
items are calculated by converting to equivalent 
length of piping and adding to the total pipe 
length. 

7. Loss due to pipe friction can be calculated when 
the pipe size, the pipe length and the flow through 
the pipe are known. With these three items, the 
friction loss can be determined. For piping flow 
charts not included, use manufacturers' tables 
and velocity recommendations. 

Note: For the purposes of all examples, the following 
metric conversions are applicable: 

lcfm = 0.4719 L/s 

1 square foot = 0.0929 m^ 

1 degree = 0.0175 rad 

1 psi = 6.895 kPa 

1 inch = 25.4 mm 

1 foot = 304.8 mm 

1 gpm = 3.785 L/m 

E103.3 Segmented loss method. The size of water service 
mains, branch mains and risers must be determined according 
to water supply demand [gpm (L/m)], available water pres- 
sure [psi (kPa)] and friction loss caused by the water meter 



2000 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



109 



APPENDIX E 



and developed length of pipe [feet (m)], including equivalent 
length of fittings. This design procedure is based on the follow- 
ing parameters: 

° Calculates the friction loss through each length of the 
pipe. 

° Based on a system of pressure losses, the sum of which 
must not exceed the minimum pressure available at the 
street main or other source of supply. 

° Pipe sizing based on estimated peak demand, total pres- 
sure losses caused by to difference in elevation, equip- 
ment, developed length and pressure required at most 
remote fixture, loss through taps in water main, losses 
through fittings, filters, backflow prevention devices, 
valves, and pipe friction. 

Because of the variable conditions encountered in hydraulic 
design, it is impractical to specify definite and detailed rules for 
sizing of the water piping system. Current sizing methods do 
not address the differences in the probability of use and flow 
characteristics of fixtures between types of occupancies. Cre- 
ating an exact model of predicting the demand for a building is 
impossible and final studies assessing the impact of water con- 
servation on demand are not yet complete. 

1. Prelimiiiary. Obtain the necessary information regarding the 
minimum daily static service pressure in the area where the 
building is to be located. If the building supply is to be metered, 
obtain information regarding friction loss relative to the rate of 
flow for meters in the range of sizes to be used. Friction loss 
data can be obtained from manufacturers of water meters. It is 
essential that enough pressure be available to overcome all sys- 
tem losses caused by friction and elevation so that plumbing 
fixtures operate properly. Section 604.6 requires the water dis- 
tribution system to be designed for the minimum pressure avail- 
able taking into consideration pressure fluctuations. The lowest 
pressure must be selected to guarantee a continuous, adequate 
supply of water. The lowest pressure in the public main usually 
occurs in the summer because of lawn sprinkling and supplying 
water for air-conditioning cooUng towers. Future demands 
placed on the public main as a result of large growth or expan- 
sion should also be considered. The available pressure will de- 
crease as additional loads are placed on the public system. 

2. Demamdl load. Estimate the supply demand of the building 
main and the principal branches and risers of the system by to- 
taling the corresponding demand from the applicable part of Ta- 
ble El 02. When estimating peak demand sizing methods 
typically use water supply fixture units (w.s.f.u.). This numeri- 
cal factor measures the load-producing effect of a single plumb- 
ing fixture of a given kind. The use of such fixture units can be 
applied to a single basic probability curve (or table), found in 
the various sizing methods (Table E102). The fixture units are 
then converted into gallons per minute (L/m) flow rate for esti- 
mating demand. 

2.1) Estimate continuous supply demand in gallons per min- 
ute (L/m) for lawn sprinklers, air conditioners, etc., and add 
the sum to the total demand for fixtures. The result is the esti- 
mated supply demand for the building supply. Fixture units 
cannot be applied to constant use fixtures such as hose bibbs, 
lawn sprinklers and air conditioners. These types of fixtures 
must be assigned the gallon per minute (L/m) value. 



3. Selection of pipe size. This water pipe sizing procedure is 
based on a system of pressure requirements and losses, the sum 
of which must not exceed the minimum pressure available at 
the supply source. These pressures are as follows: 

3.L Pressure required at the fixture to produce required 
flow. See Section 604.3 and Section 604.5. 

3.2. Static pressure loss or gain (because of head) is com- 
puted at 0.433 psi per foot (9.8 kPa/m) of elevation 
change. 

3.3. Loss through a water meter. The friction or pressure 
loss can be obtained from the manufacturer. 

3.4. Loss through taps in water main (see Table E103A). 

3.5. Losses through special devices such as filters, soften- 
ers, backflow prevention devices and pressure regula- 
tors. These values must be obtained from the 
manufacturers. 

3.6. Loss through valves and fittings (see Tables E103B and 
E103C). Losses for these items are calculated by con- 
verting to equivalent length of piping and adding to the 
total pipe length. 

3.7. Loss caused by pipe friction can be calculated when the 
pipe size, the pipe length and the flow through the pipe 
are known. With these three items, the friction loss can 
be determined using Figures E103A. 1 through E103D. 
When using charts, use pipe inside diameters. For pip- 
ing flow charts not included, use manufacturers' tables 
and velocity recommendations. 

Before attempting to size any water supply system, it 
is necessary to gather preliminary information which 
includes available pressure, piping material, select de- 
sign velocity, elevation differences and developed 
length to most remote fixture. The water supply system 
is divided into sections at major changes in elevation or 
where branches lead to fixture groups. The peak de- 
mand must be determined in each part of the hot and 
cold water supply system which includes the corre- 
sponding water supply fixture unit and conversion to 
gallons per minute (L/m) flow rate to be expected 
through each section. 

Sizing methods require the determination of the 
"most hydraulically remote" fixture to compute the 
pressure loss caused by pipe and fittings. The hydrauli- 
cally remote fixture represents the most downstream 
fixture along the circuit of piping requiring the most 
available pressure to operate properly. Consideration 
must be given to all pressure demands and losses, such 
as friction caused by pipe, fittings and equipment, ele- 
vation and the residual pressure required by Table 
604.3. The two most common and frequent complaints 
about the water supply system operation are lack of ad- 
equate pressure and noise. 

Problem: What size Type L copper water pipe, service and dis- 
tribution will be required to serve a two-story factory building 
having on each floor, back-to-back, two toilet rooms each 
equipped with hot and cold water? The highest fixture is 21 feet 
(6401 mm) above the street main, which is tapped with a 2-inch 
(51 nam) corporation cock at which point the minimum pres- 
sure is 55 psi (379.2 kPa). In the building basement, a 2-inch 



110 



2000 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



APPENDIX E 




(51 mm) meter with a maximum pressure drop of 11 psi (75.8 
kPa) and 3-inch (76 mm) reduced pressure principle backflow 
preventer with a maximum pressure drop of 9 psi (621 kPa) are to 
be installed. The system is shown by Figure E 103. To be deter- 
mined are the pipe sizes for the service main and the cold and hot 
water distribution pipes. 

Solution: A tabular arrangement such as shown in Table EIOIA 
should first be constructed. The steps to be followed are indi- 
cated by the Tabular Arrangement itself as they are in sequence, 
columns' 1 through 10 and lines a through 1. 



Columns 1 and 2: Divide the system into sections breaking at 
major changes in elevation or where branches lead to fixture 
groups. After point B (see Figure E103), separate consider- 
ation will be given to the hot and cold water piping. Enter the 
sections to be considered in the service and cold water piping 
in Column 1 of the Tabular Arrangement. Column 1 of Table 
ElOlA provides a line-by-line recommended tabular ar- 
rangement for use in solving pipe sizing. The objective in de- 
signing the water supply system is to ensure an adequate 
water supply and pressure to all fixtures and equipment. Col- 
umn 2 provides the pounds per square inch (psi) to be consid- 
ered separately from the minimum pressure available at the 
main. Such losses to take into consideration are the following: 
the differences in elevations between the water supply source 
and the highest water supply outlet, nleter pressure losses, the 
tap in main loss, special fixture devices such as water soften- 
ers and prevention devices and the pressure required at the 
most remote fixture outlet. The difference in elevation can re- 
sult in an increase or decrease in available pressure at the 
main. Where the water supply outlet is located above the 
source, this results in a loss in the available pressure and is 
subtracted from the pressure at the water source. Where the 
highest water supply outlet is located below the water supply 
source, there will be an increase in pressure that is added to 
the available pressure of the water source. 

Column 3: According to Table El 02, determine the gpm 
(L/m) of flow to be expected in each section of the system. 
These flows range from 28.6 to 108 gpm. Load values for fix- 
tures must be determined as water supply fixture units and 
then converted to a gallon-per-minute (gpm) rating to deter- 
mine peak demand. When calculating peak demands the wa- 
ter supply fixture units are added together and then converted 
to the gallon-per-minute rating. For continuous flow fixtures 
such as hose bibbs and lawn sprinkler systems, add the gal- 
lon-per-minute demand to the intermittent demand of fix- 
tures. For example, a total of 1 20 water supply fixture units is 
converted to a demand of 48 gallons per minute. Two hose 
bibbs X 5 gpm demand =10 gpm. Total gpm rating = 48.0 gpm 
+ 10 gpm = 58.0 gpm demand. 



Line a: Enter the minimum pressure available at the main 
source of supply in Column 2. This is 55 psi (379.2 kPa). The 
local water authorities generally keep records of pressures at 
different times of day and year. The available pressure can 
also be checked from nearby buildings or from fire depart- 
ment hydrant checks. 



Line b: Determine from Section 604.3 the highest pres- 
sure required for the fixtures on the system, which is 1 5 psi 
(103.4 kPa), to operate a flushometer valve. The most re- 
mote fixture outlet is necessary to compute the pressure 
loss caused by pipe and fittings, and represents the most 
downstream fixture along the circuit of piping requiring 
the available pressure to operate properly as indicated by 
Table 604.3. 

Line c: Determine the pressure loss for the meter size 
given or assumed. The total water flow from the main 
through the service as determined in Step 1 will serve to 
aid in the meter selected. There are three common types of 
water meters; the pressure losses are determined by the 
American Water Works Association Standards for dis- 
placement type, compound type and turbine type. The 
maximum pressure loss of such devices takes into consid- 
eration the meter size, safe operating capacity (gpm) and 
maximum rates for continuous operations (gpm). 
Typically, equipment imparts greater pressure losses than 
piping. 

Line d: Select from Table El 03 A and enter the pressure 
loss for the tap size given or assumed. The loss of pressure 
through taps and tees in pounds per square inch (psi) are 
based on the total gallon-per-minute flow rate and size of 
the tap. 

Line e: Determine the difference in elevation between the 
main and source of supply and the highest fixture on the 
system. Multiply this figure, expressed in feet, by 0.43 psi 
(2.9 kPa). Enter the resulting psi loss Line e. The differ- 
ence in elevation between the water supply source and the 
highest water supply outlet has a significant impact on the 
sizing of the water supply system. The difference in eleva- 
tion usually results in a loss in the available pressure be- 
cause the water supply outlet is generally located above the 
water supply source. The loss is caused by the pressure re- 
quired to lift the water to the outlet. The pressure loss is 
subtracted from the pressure at the water source. Where 
the highest water supply outlet is located below the water 
source, there will be an increase in pressure which is added 
to the available pressure of the water source. 

Lines f, g and h: The pressure losses through filters, 
backflow prevention devices or other special fixtures must 
be obtained from the manufacturer or estimated and en- 
tered on these lines. Equipment such as backflow preven- 
tion devices, check valves, water softeners, instantaneous 
or tankless water heaters, filters and strainers can impart a 
much greater pressure loss than the piping. The pressure 
losses can range from 8 psi. to 30 psi. 

Step 3 

Line I: The sum of the pressure requirements and losses 
that alfect the overall system (Lines b through h) is entered 
on this Une. Summarizing the steps, all of the system losses 
are subtracted from the minimum water pressure. The re- 
mainder is the pressure available for friction, defined as 
the energy available to push the water through the pipes to 
each fixture. This force can be used as an average pressure 
loss, as long as the pressure available for friction is not ex- 
ceeded. It is recommended that a certain amount be saved 



2000 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



111 



APPENDIX E 



for available water supply pressures as an area incurs growth, 
or because of aging of the pipe or equipment added to the sys- 
tem. 



Step 4 



Line j: Subtract Line i from Line a. This gives the pressure 
that remains available from overcoming friction losses in the 
system. This figure is a guide to the pipe size that is chosen for 
each section, as the total friction losses to the most remote 
outlet (measured length is called developed length). 

Exception: When the main is above the highest fixture, 
the resulting psi must be considered a pressure gain (static 
head gain) and omitted from the sums of Lines b through h 
and added to Line j. 

The maximum friction head loss that can be tolerated in 
the system during peak demand is the difference between 
the static pressure at the highest and most remote outlet at 
no-flow conditions and the minimum flow pressure re- 
quired at that outlet, ff the losses are within the required 
limits, then every run of will is also within the required 
friction head loss. Static pressure loss is the most remote 
outlet in feet x .433= loss in psi caused by elevation differ- 
ences. 



Column 4t Enter the length of each section from the main to 
the most remote outlet (at Point E). Divide the water supply 
system into sections breaking at major changes in elevation or 
where branches lead to fixture groups. 



amn Si When selecting a trial pipe size, the length be- 
tween the water service or meter to the most remote fixture 
outlet must be measured to determine the developed length. 
However, in systems having a flush valve or temperature con- 
trolled shower at the top most floors, the developed length 
would be from the water meter to the most remote flush valve 
on the system. A rule of thumb is that size will become pro- 
gressively smaller as the system extends farther from the main 
source of supply. Trial pipe size may be arrived at by the fol- 
lowing formula: 

Line J (Pressure available to overcome pipe friction) x 
100/Equivalent length of run total developed length to most 



remote fixture x percentage factor of 1.5 (note: a 
percentage factor is used only as an estimate for friction 
losses imposed for fittings for initial trial pipe size) = psi 
(Average pressure drops per 100 feet of pipe). 

For trial pipe size see Figure E 103A.2 (Type L copper) 
based on 2.77 psi and a 108 gpm= 2 Vz inches. To deter- 
mine the equivalent length of run to the most remote outlet, 
the developed length is determined and added to the fric- 
tion losses for fittings and valves. The developed lengths 
of the designated pipe sections are as follows: 

A - B 54' 

B-C 8' 

C-D 13' 

D - E 150' 

Total developed length = 225' 

The equivalent length the friction loss in fittings and valves 
must be added to the developed length (most remote out- 
let). Where the size of fittings and valves are not known 
then the added friction loss should be approximated. A 
general rule that has been used is to add 50 percent of the 
developed length to allow for fittings and valves. For ex- 
ample, the equivalent length of run equals the developed 
length of run (225' x 1.5 = 338'). The total equivalent 
length of run for determining a trial pipe size is 3 3 8 feet. 

Example: 9.36 (pressure available to overcome pipe fric- 
tion) X 100/ 338 (Equivalent length of run=225 x 1.5)= 
2.77 psi (average pressure drop per 100 feet of pipe). 



Step? 



Column 6: Select from Table E103C the equivalent 
lengths for the trial pipe size of fittings and valves on each 
pipe section. Enter the sum for each section in Column 6. 
(The number of fittings to be used in this example must be 
an estimate.) The equivalent length of piping is the devel- 
oped length plus the equivalent lengths of pipe corre- 
sponding to friction head losses for fittings and valves. 
Where the size of fittings and valves are not known, then 
the added friction head losses must be approximated. A es- 
timate for this example is as follows: 



PRESSURE LOSS EXPRESSED AS EQUIVALENT LENGTH OF TUBE (FEET) 



COLD WATER 
PIPE SECTION 


FITTINGS/VALVES 


PRESSURE LOSS 

EXPRESSED AS 

EQUIVALENT LENGTH OF 

TUBE (FEET) 


HOT WATER 
PIPE SECTION 


FITTINGS/VALVES 


PRESSURE LOSS 

EXPRESSED AS 

EQUIVALENT LENGTH OF 

TUBE (FEET) 


A-B 


3-2V2" Gate valves 


3 


A-B 


3-2 V2" Gate valves 


3 


I-2V2" Side branch tee 


12 




I-2V2" Side branch tee 


12 


B-C 


l-2V2"Straightruntee 


.5 


B-C 


1-2" Straight run tee 


7 










1-2" 90-degree ell 


.5 


C-F 


I-2V2" Side branch tee 


12 


C-F 


1-1 V2" Side branch tee 


7 


CD 


1-2 V2" 90-degree ell 


7 


C-D 


I-IV2" 90-degree ell 


4 


D-E 


I-2V2" Side branch tee 


12 


D-E 


1-1 V2" Side branch tee 


7 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



112 



2000 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



APPENDIX E 



Steps 

Column 7: Add the figures from Column 4 and Column 6, 
and enter in Column 7. Express the sum in hundreds of feet. 

Step 9 

Column 8: Select from figure E103A.2 the friction loss per 
100 feet (30 480 mm) of pipe for the gallon-per-minute flow 
in a section (Column 3) and trial pipe size (Column 5). Maxi- 
mum friction head loss per 100 feet is determined on the basis 
of total pressure available for friction head loss and the lon- 
gest equivalent length of run. The selection is based on the 
gallon-per-minute demand, the uniform friction head loss, 
and the maximum design velocity. Where the size indicated 
by hydraulic table indicates a velocity in excess of the se- 
lected velocity, then a size must be selected which produces 
the required velocity. 

Step 10 

Column 9: Multiply the figures in Columns 7 and 8 for each 
section and enter in Column 9. 

Total friction loss is determined by multiplying the friction 
loss per 100 feet (30 480 mm) for each pipe section in the total 
developed length by the pressure loss in fittings expressed as 
equivalent length in feet. Note: Section C-F should not be 
considered in the total pipe fiiction losses only if greater loss 
occurs than in pipe section D-E. Section C-F is not consid- 
ered in the total developed length. Total friction loss in equiv- 
alent length is determined as follows: 



PIPE SECTIONS 


COLD WATER 


HOT WATER 


A-B 


2.21 


2.21 


B-C 


.26 


.22 


C-D 


.38 


.54 


D-E 


3.08 


5.02 


Total pipe friction losses 
(Line k) 


5.93 


7.99 



Step 11 

Line k: Enter the sum of the values in Column 9. The value 
is the total friction loss in equivalent length for each desig- 
nated pipe section. 

Step 12 

Linel: Subtract Linej from Line k and enter in Column 10. 

The result should always be a positive or plus figure. If it is 
not, it is necessary to repeat the operation using Columns 
5, 6, 8 and 9 until a balance or near balance is obtained. If 
the difference between Lines j and k is a high positive 
number, it is an indication that the pipe sizes are too large 
and should be reduced, thus saving materials. In such a 
case, the operations using Columns 5, 6, 8 and 9 should 
again be repeated. 

The total friction losses are determined and subtracted 
from the pressure available to overcome pipe friction for 
trial pipe size. This number is critical as it provides a guide 
whether or not the pipe size selected is too large and the 
process should be repeated to obtain an economically de- 
signed system. 

Answer: The final figures entered in Column 5 become 
the design pipe size for the respective sections. Repeating 
this operation a second time using the same sketch but con- 
sidering the demand for hot water, it is possible to size the 
hot water distribution piping. This has been worked up as a 
part of the overall problem in the Tabular Arrangement 
used for sizing the service and water distribution piping. It 
should be noted that consideration must be given the pres- 
sure losses from the street main to the water heater (Sec- 
tion AB) in determining the hot water pipe sizes. 



2000 rNTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



113 




A 

O — 
MAIN 



HOTVWTER 

COLD\/\ATER 

M = METER 

BFP= BACKFLOWPREVENTER 

J^ = 90 DEGREE ELBOW 
P =T' 
M = VALVE 



FLOOR 2 




288fu, 108 gpm 



:i 



I 



132fu, 
77 gpm 



FLOOR 1 



264fu, — 
104.5 gpm 



MO — [XKXxl — h 
M BFP 



54 FT. 



150 FT 



^— I- 



.ZIL 



132fu, 77 gpm 



D' 



<I 



-12fu, 28.6 gpm 



132fu, 77 gpm 



C 



4^ 



- B' 



V 



12fu, 28.6 gpm 
24fu, 38 gpm 



V\ATER HEATER 



^^ 



E' 




^ 
■^ 



FIGURE El 04 
EXAMPLE— SIZING 



2000 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



APPENDIX E 



TABLE E101A 
RECOMMENDED TABULAR ARRANGEMENT FOR USE IN SOLVING PIPE SIZING PROBLEMS 



COLUMN 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


Line 


Description 


Lbs. 
per 
square 
inch 
(psi) 


Gai. per 

min. 
tlirougti 
section 


Length 

of 

section 

(feet) 


Trial 

pipe 

size 

(inches) 


Equivalent 

length of 

fittings 

and valves 

(feet) 


Total 
equivalent 

length 
Col. 4 and 

Col. 6 
(100 feet) 


Friction 

loss per 

100 feet 

of trial 

size 

pipe 

(psi) 


Friction 

loss In 

equivalent 

length 

Col. 8 X 

Col. 7 

(psi) 


Excess 
pressure 

over 
friction 
losses 

(psi) 


a 


Service 


Minimum pressure available at 






















and cold 


main 55.00 


















b 


water 
distribution 


Highest pressure required at a fixture 
(Section 6043).. 15.00 






' 












c 


piping" 


Meter loss 2" meter 1 1.00 


















d 




Tap in main loss 2" tap 

(Table E103A) 


1.61 


















e 




Static head loss 21' 0.43 psi 


9.03 


















f 




Special fixture loss backflow 
preventer 


9.00 


















g 




Special fixture loss — Filter .... 


0.00 


















h 




Special fixture loss — Other. . . . 


0.00 


















i 




Total overall losses and requirements 
(sum of Lines b through h). . 45.64 


















J 




Pressure available to overcome pipe 






















friction 
























(Line a minus Lines b to h) . . 


9.36 






















FU 




















Designation A-B 


288 


108.0 


54 


2% 


15.00 


.69 


3.2 


2.21 


— 




Pipe section (from diagram) B-C 


264 


104.5 


8 


1% 


.5 


.085 


3.1 


0.26 


— 




Cold water distribution q.d 


132 


77.0 


13 


1\ 


7.00 


.20 


1.9 


0.38 


— 




piping c_pb 


132 


77.0 


150 


1\ 


12.00 


1.62 


1.9 


3.08 


— 




D-E'' 


132 


77.0 


150 


2% 


12.00 


1.62 


1.9 


3.08 


— 


k 


Total pipe friction losses (cold) 




— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1 


Difference (Line j minus Line k) 




— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


3.43 




Pipe section (from diagram) A'- B' 


288 


108.0 


54 


2\ 


12.00 


.69 


3.3 


2.21 


— 




Hot water distribution B'- C 


24 


38.0 


8 


2 


7.5 


.16 


1.4 


0.22 


— 




piping C'-D' 


12 


28.6 


13 


IV, 


4.0 


.17 


3.2 


0.54 


— 




C- F'^ .... 


12 


28.6 


150 


\\ 


7.00 


1.57 


3.2 


5.02 


— 




D'- E'b . . . . 


12 


28.6 


150 


\\ 


7.00 


1.57 


3.2 


5.02 


— 


k 


Total pipe friction losses (hot) 




— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


7.99 


— 


1 


Difference (Line j minus Line k) 




— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1.37 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa, 1 gallon per minute = 3.785 L/m. 

a. To be considered as pressure gain for fixtures below main (to consider separately, omit from "i" and add to "j")- 

b. To consider separately, in k use C-F only if greater loss than above. 



2000 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



115 



APPENDIX E 



TABLE E1 01 B 
LOAD VALUES ASSIGNED TO FIXTURES^ 



FIXTURE 


OCCUPANCY 


TYPE OF SUPPLY 
CONTROL 


LOAD VALUES, IN WATER SUPPLY FIXTURE UNITS (wsfu) 


Cold 


Hot 


Total 


Bathroom group 


Private 


Flush tank 


2.7 


1.5 


3.6 


Bathroom group 


Private 


Flush valve 


6.0 


3.0 


8.0 


Bathtub 


Private 


Faucet 


1.0 


1.0 


1.4 


Bathtub 


Public 


Faucet 


3.0 


3.0 


4.0 


Bidet 


Private 


Faucet 


1.5 


1.5 


2.0 


Combination fixture 


Private 


Faucet 


2.25 


2.25 


3.0 


Dishwashing machine 


Private 


Automatic 


— 


1.4 


1.4 


Drinking fountain 


Offices, etc. 


Vg" valve 


0.25 


— 


0.25 


Kitchen sink 


Private 


Faucet 


1.0 


1.0 


1.4 


Kitchen sink 


Hotel, restaurant 


Faucet 


3.0 


3.0 


4.0 


Laundry trays (1 to 3) 


Private 


Faucet 


1.0 


1.0 


1.4 


Lavatory 


Private 


Faucet 


0.5 


0.5 


0.7 


Lavatory 


Public 


Faucet 


1.5 


1.5 


2.0 


Service sink 


Offices, etc. 


Faucet 


2.25 


2.25 


3.0 


Shower head 


Pubhc 


Mixing valve 


3.0 


3.0 


4.0 


Shower head 


Private 


Mixing valve 


1.0 


1.0 


1.4 


Urinal 


Pubhc 


1" flush valve 


10.0 


— 


10.0 


Urinal 


PubUc 


^Z/' flush valve 


5.0 


— 


5.0 


Urinal 


Pubhc 


Flush tank 


3.0 


— 


3.0 


Washing machine (8 lbs.) 


Private 


Automatic 


1.0 


1.0 


1.4 


Washing machine (8 lbs.) 


Public 


Automatic 


2.25 


2.25 


3.0 


Washing machine (15 lbs.) 


Public 


Automatic 


3.0 


3.0 


4.0 


Water closet 


Private 


Flush valve 


6.0 


— ■ 


6.0 


Water closet 


Private 


Flush tank 


2.2 


— 


2.2 


Water closet 


Public 


Flush valve 


10.0 


— 


10.0 


Water closet 


Public 


Flush tank 


5.0 


— 


5.0 


Water closet 


Public or private 


Flushometer tank 


2.0 


— 


2.0 




For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound = 0.454 kg. 

a. For fixtures not listed, loads should be assumed by comparing the fixture to one listed using water in similar quantities and at similar rates. The assigned loads for 

fixtures with both hot and cold water supplies are given for separate hot and cold water loads and for total load, the separate hot and cold water loads being 

three-fourths of the total load for the fixture in each case. 



116 



2000 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



APPENDIX E 



TABLE E102 
TABLE FOR ESTIMATING DEMAND 



SUPPLY SYSTEMS PREDOMINANTLY FOR FLUSH TANKS 


SUPPLY SYSTEMS PREDOMINANTLY FOR FLUSH VALVES 


Load 


Demand 


Load 


Demand 


(Water supply fixture units) 


(Gallons per minute) 


(Cubic feet per minute) 


(Water supply fixture units) 


(Gallons per minute) 


(Cubic feet per minute) 


1 


3.0 


0.04104 


— 


— 


— 


2 


5.0 


0.0684 


— 


— 


— 


3 


6.5 


0.86892 


— 


— 


— 


4 


8.0 


1.06944 


— 


— 


— 


5 


9.4 


1.256592 


5 


15.0 


2.0052 


6 


10.7 


1.430376 


6 


17.4 


2.326032 


7 


11.8 


1.577424 


7 


19.8 


2.646364 


8 


12.8 


1.711104 


8 


22.2 


2.967696 


9 


13.7 


1.831416 


9 


24.6 


3.288528 


10 


14.6 


1.951728 


10 


27.0 


3.60936 


11 


15.4 


2.058672 


11 


27.8 


3.716304 


12 


16.0 


2.13888 


12 


28.6 


3.823248 


13 


16.5 


2.20572 


13 


29.4 


3.930192 


14 


17.0 


2.27256 


14 


30.2 ■. 


4.037136 


15 


17.5 


2.3394 


15 


31.0 


4.14408 


16 


18.0 


2.90624 


16 


31.8 


4.241024 


17 


18.4 


2.459712 


17 


32.6 


4.357968 


18 


18.8 


2.513184 


18 


33.4 


4.464912 


19 


19.2 


2.566656 


19 


34.2 


4.571856 


20 


19.6 


2.620128 


20 


35.0 


4.6788 


25 


21.5 


2.87412 


25 


38.0 


5.07984 


30 


23.3 


3.114744 


30 


42.0 


5.61356 


35 


24.9 


3.328632 


35 


44.0 


5.88192 


40 


26.3 


3.515784 


40 


46.0 


6.14928 


45 


27.7 


3.702936 


45 


48.0 


6.41664 


50 


29.1 


3.890088 


50 


50.0 


6.684 


60 


32.0 


4.27776 


60 


54.0 


7.21872 


70 


35.0 


4.6788 


70 


58.0 


7.75344 


80 


38.0 


5.07984 


80 


61.2 


8.181216 


90 


41.0 


5.48088 


90 


64.3 


8.595624 


100 


43.5 


5.81508 


100 


67.5 


9.0234 


120 


48.0 


6.41664 


120 


73.0 


9.75864 


140 


52.5 


7.0182 


140 


77.0 


10.29336 


160 


57.0 


7.61976 


160 


81.0 


10.82808 


180 


61.0 


8.15448 


180 


85.5 


11.42964 


200 


65.0 


8.6892 


200 


90.0 


12.0312 


225 


70.0 


9.3576 


225 


95.5 


12.76644 


250 


75.0 


10.0260 


250 


101.0 


13.50168 



(continued) 



2000 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



117 



APPENDIX E 



TABLE El 02— continued 
TABLE FOR ESTIMATING DEMAND 



SUPPLY SYSTEMS PREDOMINANTLY FOR FLUSH TANKS 


SUPPLY SYSTEMS PREDOMINANTLY FOR FLUSH VALVES 


Load 


Demand 


Load 


Demand 


(Water supply fixture units) 


(Gallons per minute) 


(Cubic feet per minute) 


(Water supply fixture units) 


(Gallons per minute) 


(Cubic feet per minute) 


275 


80.0 


10.6944 


275 


104.5 


13.96956 


300 


85.0 


11.3628 


300 


108.0 


14.43744 


400 


105.0 


14.0364 


400 


127.0 


16.97736 


500 


124.0 


16.57632 


500 


143.0 


19.11624 


750 


170.0 


22.7256 


750 


177.0 


23.66136 


1,000 


208.0 


27.80544 


1,000 


208.0 


27.80544 


1,250 


239.0 


31.94952 


1,250 


239.0 


31.94952 


1,500 


269.0 


35.95992 


1,500 


269.0 


35.95992 


1,750 


297.0 


39.70296 


1,750 


297.0 


39.70296 


2,000 


325.0 


43.446 


2,000 


325.0 


43.446 


2,500 


380.0 


50.7984 


2,500 


380.0 


50.7984 


3,000 


433.0 


57.88344 


3,000 


433.0 


57.88344 


4,000 


535.0 


70.182 


4,000 


525.0 


70.182 


5,000 


593.0 


79.27224 


5,000 


593.0 


79.27224 



For SI: 1 gallon per minute = 3.785 L/m, 1 cubic foot per minute = 0.4719 L/s. 



TABLE E103A 
LOSS OF PRESSURE THROUGH TAPS AND TEES IN POUNDS PER SQUARE INCH (psi) 



GALLONS PER MINUTE 


SIZE OF TAP OR TEE (inches) 


% 


% 


1 


1V4 


1V. 


2 


3 


10 


1.35 


0.64 


0.18 


0.08 


— 


— 


— 


20 


5.38 


2.54 


0.77 


0.31 


0.14 


— 


— 


30 


12.1 


5.72 


1.62 


0.69 


0.33 


0.10 


— 


40 


— 


10.2 


3.07 


1.23 


0.58 


0.18 


— 


50 


— 


15.9 


4.49 


1.92 


0.91 


0.28 


— 


60 


— 


— 


6.46 


2.76 


1.31 


0.40 


— 


70 


— 


— 


8.79 


3.76 


1.78 


0.55 


0.10 


80 


— 


— 


11.5 


4.90 


2.32 


0.72 


0.13 


90 


— 


— 


14.5 


6.21 


2.94 


0.91 


0.16 


100 


— 


— 


17.94 


7.67 


3.63 


1.12 


0.21 


120 


— 


— 


25.8 


11.0 


5.23 


1.61 


0.30 


140 


— 


— 


35.2 


15.0 


7.12 


2.20 


0.41 


150 


— 


— 


— 


17.2 


8.16 


2.52 


0.47 


160 


— 


— 


— 


19.6 


9.30 


2.92 


0.54 


180 


— 


— 


— 


24.8 


11.8 


3.62 


0.68 


200 


— 


— 


— 


30.7 


14.5 


4.48 


0.84 


225 


— 


— 


— 


38.8 


18.4 


5.6 


1.06 


250 


— 


— 


— 


47.9 


22.7 


7.00 


1.31 


275 


— 


— 


— 


— 


27.4 


7.70 


1.59 


300 


— 


— 


— 


— 


32.6 


10.1 


1.88 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound per square inch - 6.895 kPa, 1 gallon per minute = 3.785 L/m. 



118 



2000 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



APPENDIX E 



TABLE E103B 
ALLOWANCE IN EQUIVALENT LENGTH OF PIPE FOR FRICTION LOSS IN VALVES AND THREADED FITTINGS (feet) 



FITTING OR VALVE 


PIPE SIZES (inches) 


\ 


% 


1 


1V4 


1V, 


2 


2\ 


3 


45-degree elbow 


1.2 


1.5 


1.8 


2.4 


3.0 


4.0 


5.0 


6.0 


90-degree elbow 


2.0 


2.5 


3.0 


4.0 


5.0 


7.0 


8.0 


lO.O 


Tee, run 


0.6 


0.8 


0.9 


1.2 


1.5 


2.0 


2.5 


3.0 


Tee, branch 


3.0 


4.0 


5.0 


6.0 


7.0 


10.0 


12.0 


15.0 


Gate valve 


0.4 


0.5 


0.6 


0.8 


1.0 


1.3 


1.6 


2.0 


Balancing valve 


0.8 


1.1 


1.5 


1.9 


2.2 


3.0 


3.7 


4.5 


Plug-type cock 


0.8 


I.l 


1.5 


1.9 


2.2 


3.0 


3.7 


4.5 


Check valve, swing 


5.6 


8.4 


11.2 


14.0 


16.8 


22.4 


28.0 


33.6 


Globe valve 


15.0 


20.0 


25.0 


35.0 


45.0 


55.0 


65.0 


80.0 


Angle valve 


8.0 


12.0 


15.0 


18.0 


22.0 


28.0 


34.0 


40.0 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 degree = 0.01745 rad. 



TABLE E103C 
PRESSURE LOSS IN FITTINGS AND VALVES EXPRESSED AS EQUIVALENT LENGTH OF TUBE^ (feet) 



NOMINAL OR 

STANDARD 

SIZE (Inches) 


FITTINGS 


VALVES 


Standard Ell 


90-Degree Tee 


Coupling 


Ball 


Gate 


Butterfly 


Check 


90 Degree 


45 Degree 


Side branch 


Straight run 


% 


0.5 


— 


1.5 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1.5 


V2 


1 


0.5 


2 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2 


% 


1.5 


0.5 


2 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2.5 


\ 


2 


0.5 


3 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


3 


1 


2.5 


1 


4.5 


— 


— 


0.5 


— 


— 


4.5 


IV4 


3 


1 


5.5 


0.5 


0.5 


0.5 


— 


— 


5.5 


\% 


4 


1.5 


7 


• 0.5 


0.5 


0.5 


— 


— 


6.5 


2 


5.5 


2 


9 


0.5 


0.5 


0.5 


0.5 


7.5 


9 


2\ 


7 


2.5 


12 


0.5 


0.5 


— 


1 


10 


11.5 


3 


9 


3.5 ' 


15 


1 


I 


— 


1.5 


15.5 


14.5 


3V2 


9 


3.5 


14 


1 


1 


— 


2 


— . 


12.5 


4 


12.5 


5 


21 


1 


1 


— 


2 


16 


18.5 


5 


16 


6 


27 


1.5 


1.5 


— 


3 


11.5 


23.5 


6 


19 


7 


34 


2 


2 


— 


3.5 


13.5 


26.5 


8 


29 


11 


50 


3 


3 


— 


5 


12.5 


39 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 degree = 0.01745 rad. 

a. Allowances are for streamlined soldered fittings and recessed threaded fittings. For threaded fittings, double the allowances shown in the table. The equivalent 
lengths presented above are based on a C factor of 150 in the Hazen-Williams friction loss formula. The lengths shown are rounded to the nearest half-foot. 



2000 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



119 



APPENDIX E 



9000 r- — 



4-4-4-4-M4-! 

T~rTTnTi 
T~rTTnTi 



^ 9000 

i 

-\ 5000 

H 4000 

-\ 3000 

I 

-| 2000 

I 
1000 





PRESSURE DROP PER 100 FEET OF TUBE, POUNDS PER SQUARE INCH 
Note: Fluid velocities in excess of 5 to 8 feet/second are not usually recommended. 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 gallon per minute = 3.785 L/m, 
1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa, 1 foot per second - 0.305 m/s. 

a. This chart applies to smooth new copper tubing with recessed (streamlined) soldered joints and to the actual sizes of types indicated on the diagram. 

FIGURE E103A.1 

FRICTION LOSS IN SWiOOTH PIPE^ 

(TYPE K, ASTWJ B 88 COPPER TUBING) 



120 



2000 DNTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



APPENDIX E 



• 




PRESSURE DROP PER 100 FEET OF TUBE, POUNDS PER SQUARE INCH 
Note: Fluid velocities in excess of 5 to 8 feet/second are not usually recommended. 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 gallon per minute - 3.785 L/m, 
1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa, 1 foot per second = 0.305 m/s. 

a. This chart applies to smooth new copper tubing with recessed (streamlined) soldered joints and to the actual sizes of types indicated on the diagram. 

FIGURE E103A.2 

FRICTION LOSS IN SMOOTH PIPE^ 

(TYPE L, ASTM B 88 COPPER TUBING) 



2000 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



121 



APPENDIX E 



9000 [^ 

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5000 '— 
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PRESSURE DROP PER 100 FEET OF TUBE, POUNDS PER SQUARE INCH 
Mote: Fluid velocities in excess of 5 to 8 feet/second are not usually recommended. 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 gallon per minute = 3.785 L/m, 
1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa, 1 foot per second = 0.305 m/s. 

a. This chart applies to smooth new copper tubing with recessed (streamlined) soldered joints and to the actual sizes of types indicated on the diagram. 

FIGURE E-g03A.3 

FRICTION LOSS IN SMOOTH P«PE^ 

(TYPE m, ASTM B 88 COPPER TUBDiSSG) 



122 



2000 INTERNATIONAL PLUiVlBING CODE® 



APPENDIX E 



FRICTION LOSS POUNDS PER SQUARE INCH HEAD PER 100 FEET LENGTH 



0000 



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FRICTION LOSS POUNDS PER SQUARE INCH HEAD PER 100-FOOT LENGTH 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 gallon per minute = 3.785 L/m, 

1 pound per square inch head per 100-foot length = 2.26 kPa head per 10 m length, 1 foot per second = 0.305 m/s. 

a. This chart applies to smooth new steel (fairly smooth) pipe and to actual diameters of standard-weight pipe. 

FIGURE E103B 
FRICTION LOSS IN FAIRLY SMOOTH PIPE^ 



2000 BNTERNATBONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



123 



APPENDIX E 



FRICTION LOSS POUNDS PER SQUARE INCH HEAD PER 100 FEET LENGTH 



O 



10000 
9000 
8000 
7000 
6000 

5000 

4000 

3000 

2000 





1000 




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800 




700 




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FRICTION LOSS POUNDS PER SQUARE INCH HEAD PER 100-FOOT LENGTH 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 gallon per minute = 3.785 L/m, 

1 pound per square inch head per 100-foot length = 2.26 kPa head per 10 m length, 1 foot per second = 0.305 m/s. 

a. This chart applies to fairly rough pipe and to actual diameters which in general will be less than the actual diameters of the new pipe of the same kind. 

FIGURE E103C 
FRICTION LOSS IN FAIRLY ROUGH PIPE^ 



124 



2000 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



APPENDIX E 



FRICTION LOSS POUNDS PER SQUARE INCH HEAD PER 100 FEET LENGTH 




10000 

9000 

8000 

7000 

6000 

5000 
4000 
3000 

2000 



1000 




900 




800 




700 




600 




500 




400 


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FRICTION LOSS POUNDS PER SQUARE INCH HEAD PER 100-FOOT LENGTH 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 gallon per minute = 3.785 L/m, 

1 pound per square inch head per 100-foot length = 2.26 kPa head per 10 m length, 1 foot per second = 0.305 m/s. 
a. This chart applies to very rough pipe and existing pipe and to their actual diameters. 

FIGURE E103D 
FRICTION LOSS IN ROUGH PIPE^ 



2000 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



125 





• 



126 2000 DNTER^3ATI0NAL PLUMBING CODE® 




APPENDIX F 

STRUCTURAL SAFETY 



SECTION F101 

CUTTING, NOTCHING AND 

BORING IN WOOD MEMBERS 

FlOl.l Joist notching. Notches on the ends of joists shall not ex- 
ceed one-fourth the joist depth. Holes bored in joists shall not be 
within 2 inches (5 1 mm) of the top or bottom of the joist, and the 
diameter of any such hole shall not exceed one-third the depth of 
the joist. Notches in the top or bottom of joists shall not exceed 
one- sixth the depth and shall not be located in the middle third of 
the span. 



1.2 Stud cutting and notching. In exterior walls and bear- 
ing partitions, any wood stud is perrriitted to be cut or notched to 
a depth not exceeding 25 percent of its width. Cutting or notch- 
ing of studs to a depth not greater than 40 percent of the width of 
the stud is permitted in nonbearing partitions supporting no loads 
other than the weight of the partition. 

F101.3 Bored holes. A hole not greater in diameter than 40 per- 
cent of the stud width is permitted to be bored in any wood stud. 
Bored holes not greater than 60 percent of the width of the stud is 
permitted in nonbearing partitions or in any wall where each 
bored stud is doubled, provided not more than two such succes- 
sive doubled studs are so bored. In no case shall the edge of the 
bored hole be nearer than 0.625 inch (15.9 mm) to the edge of the 
stud. Bored holes shall not be located at the same section of stud 
as a cut or notch. 



L.4 Cutting, notching and boring holes in structural steel 

framing. The cutting, notching and boring of holes in structural 
steel framing members shall be as prescribed by the registered 
design professional. 

F101.5 Cutting, notching and boring holes in cold-formed 
steel framing. Flanges and lips of load-bearing cold-formed 
steel framing members shall not be cut or notched. Holes in webs 
of load-bearing cold-formed steel framing members shall be per- 
mitted along the centerhne of the web of the framing member 
and shall not exceed the dimensional limitations, penetration 
spacing or minimum hole edge distance as prescribed by the reg- 
istered design professional. Cutting, notching and boring holes 
of steel floor/roof decking shall be as prescribed by the registered 
design professional. 

F101.6 Cutting, notching and boring holes in nonstructural 

cold-formed steel wall framing. Flanges and lips of 
nonstructural cold-formed steel wall studs shall not be cut or 
notched. Holes in webs of nonstructural cold-formed steel wall 
studs shall be permitted along the centerhne of the web of the 
framing member, shall not exceed 1 .5 inches (38 mm) in width or 
4 inches (102 mm) in length, and the holes shall not be spaced 
less than 24 inches (610 mm) center to center from another hole 
or less than 10 inches (254 mm) from the bearing end. 

2000 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 127 




128 2000 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



APPENDIX G 

VACUUM DRAINAGE SYSTEM 



SECTION G101 

DRAINAdE SYSTEM 



GlOl.l Scope. This appendix provides general guidelines for 
the requirements for vacuum drainage systems. 

G101.2 Gemeral requiremeets. 

GlOl.2.1 System design. Vacuum drainage systems shall be 
designed in accordance with manufacturer's reconmienda- 
tions. The system layout, including piping layout, tank 
assemblies, vacuum pump assembly and other compo- 
nents/designs necessary for proper function of the system 
shall be per manufacturer's recommendations. Plans, specifi- 
cations and other data for such systems shall be submitted to 
the local administrative authority for review and approval 
prior to installation. 



.2.2 Fixtures. Gravity-type fixtures used in vacuum 
drainage systems shall comply with Chapter 4 of this code. 

GlOl.2.3 Drainage fixture units. Fixture units for gravity 
drainage systems which discharge into or receive discharge 
from vacuum drainage systems shall be based on values in 
Chapter 7 of this code. 



L.2.4 Water supply fixture units. Water supply fixture 
units shall be based on values in Chapter 6 of this code with 
the addition that the fixture unit of a vacuum-type water closet 
shall be "1." 



1,2,5 Traps and cleanouts. Gravity-type fixtures shall 
be provided with traps and cleanouts in accordance with 
Chapter 10 of this code. 

G101,2.6 Materials. Vacuum drainage pipe, fitting and valve 
materials shall be as recommended by the vacuum drainage 
system manufacturer and as permitted by this code. 

G101.3 Testing and demonstrations. After completion of the 
entire system installation, the system shall be subjected to a vac- 
uum test of 19 inches (483 mm) of mercury and shall be operated 
to function as required by the administrative authority and the 
manufacturer. Recorded proof of all tests shall be submitted to 
the administrative authority. 

Gl€)l,4 Written instructions. Written instructions for the oper- 
ations, maintenance, safety and emergency procedures shall be 
provided by the building owner as verified by the administrative 
authority. 

2000 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 1 29 




130 2000 INTERNATIONAL PLURflBING CODE® 



INDEX 



ABS PIPE 

Where permitted 702.1 

ACCESS TO 

Cleanouts 708 

Fixtures 402 

Interceptors and separators 1003 

ACCESSIBLE PLUMBING FACILITIES 404 

ADMINISTRATION 

Applicability 102 

Approval 105, 107.6 

Fees 106.6 

Inspections 107 

Intent 101.3 

Maintenance 102.3 

Means of appeal 109 

Scope 101.2 

Validity 106.5.2 

Violations 108 

AIR ADMITTANCE VALVES 

Definition 202 

Where permitted 917 

AIR BREAK 

Definition 202 

Method of providing 802.2 

Required 802.2.2 

AIR GAP 

Definition 202 

Method of providing 608.15.1 

Required 608.15.1 

AIR TEST 312.3 

ALTERATIONS AND REPAIRS 102.4 

ALTERNATIVE MATERIALS AND EQUIPMENT. 105.2 

APPROVED 

Definition 202 

ASBESTOS-CEMENT PIPE 

Where permitted Table 702.2 

ATMOSPHERIC VACUUM BREAKER 608.13.6, 

608.15.4,608.15.4.1 

AUTOMATIC CLOTHES WASHER 406 

o 

BACKFILLING 306.3 

BACKFLOW PREVENTER 

Definition 202 

Double check valves 608.13.7 

Required 608.1 



Standards Table 608.1 

BACKFLOW PROTECTION 608.1 

BACKWATER VALVES 

Where required 71 5 

BALL COCK 425.4.1 

BAROMETRIC LOOP 608.13.4 

BATHTUBS 407 

BEDPAN STEAMERS 202 

BEDPAN WASHERS 202 

BIDETS 408 

BOOSTER SYSTEM 606.5.5 

BOTTLING ESTABLISHMENT 1003.7 

BRASS PIPE 

Where permitted 702.1 

BUILDING DRAIN 

Definition 202 

MaterialTable 702.1 , Table 702.2 

Sizing, sanitary Table 709.1 

BUILDING DRAINAGE SYSTEMS 

Below sewer level 712.1 

BUILDING SEWER 

Definition 202 

MaterialTable 702.3 

Sizing, sanitary Table 710.1(1) 

BUILDING SYSTEMS 

Connection to public water and sewer 701 .2 

BUILDING TRAPS 1002.6 

C 
CAST-IRON PIPE 

Where permitted Table 702.1 , Table 702.2, 

Table 702.3, Table 702.4 

CAULKING FERRULES 705.18 

CHANGE IN DIRECTION OF DRAINAGE 
PIPING 706.1 

CHEMICAL WASTE 

Exclusion from the sewer 803.3 

Material Table 702.4 

Neutralizing 803.2 

CLAY PIPE Table 702.3 

CLEANOUTS 

Base of stack 708.3.4 

Building drain 708.3.5 

Change of direction 708.3.3 

Definition 202 

Direction of flow 708.5 

Location of 708.3 



2000 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



131 



INDEX 



Manholes 708.3.6 

Plugs, materials for 708.2 

Prohibited installation of 708.6 

Size 708.7, 708.8 

CODE OFFICIAL 

Application for permit 106.3 

Appointment 103.2 

Definition 202 

Department records 1 04.8 

Duties and powers 104 

General 104.1 

Identification 104.6 

Inspections 107 

COMBIMEO DRAIN 202 

COIWlDiON ¥ENTS 202 

CONCRETE PIPE 

Where permitted Table 702.3 

CONDOCTOR 202 

CONNECTION TO PLUiyiBING SYSTEM 
REQUIRED 701 .2 

CONNECTIONS TO SUMPS AND EJECTORS 

Below sewer level 712.1 

CONSERVATION 

Fixtures 604.4 

Flow rates Table 604.3 

Insulation 505 

CONSTRUCTION DOCUMENTS 106.3.1 

CONTROLLED FLOW STORM DRAINAGE ... 1 101 .7 
Chlorinated polyvinyl pipe or tubing where 

permitted Table 605.4, 

Table 605.5, Table 606.6 

COPPER OR COPPER-ALLOY PIPE OR TUBING 

Where permitted Table 605.4, 

Table 605.5, Table 606.6 

CROSS CONNECTIONS 608 

CUTTING OR NOTCHING, STRUCTURAL 
MEMBERS Appendix F 

D 

DEAD ENDS IN DRAINAGE SYSTEM 704.5 

DESIGN PROFESSIONAL 109.2 

DETRIMENTAL WASTES 302 

DDSHWASHDNG MACIHIDNE 409 

DUSONFECTION of potable water system . 610 

DISTANCE OF TRAP FROM VENT 906.1 

DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM (See WATER) 
DRAIN 

Roof 1105 

Storm 1106 

DRAINAGE FIXTURE UNITS 

Definition, fixture unit 202 

Valves for continuous flow 709.3 



Valves for fixtures Table 709.1 

IMAGE SYSTEM 

Connection to sewer or private disposal 

system 701 .2 

Dead ends 704.5 

Determining load and size 710.1 

Fixture units Table 709.1 

Horizontal drains 708.3.1 

Indirect waste 802 

Joints 705 

Material detrimental to 302 

Offset sizing 71 1 

Provisions for future fixtures 710.2 

Sizing Table 710.1(1) 

Slope of piping Table 710.1(1) 

Sumps and ejectors 712 

Testing 312 

JTADNS .....410 

EJECTORS 712 

EMPLOYEE FACILITIES 403.4 

EXISTING BUILDING PLUMBING SYSTEMS . . 102.2 

F 

FACILITIES 403 

FAUCETS 424 

FEES 106 

FERRULES 705.18 

FITTINGS 

Drainage system 706 

Material standards 702.4 

SE FITTINGS 424 

TRAPS 1002 

Acid-resisting 1002.9 

Building 1002.6 

Design of 1002.2 

For each fixture 1002.1 

Prohibited 1002.3 

Seals 1002.4 

Setting and protection 1002.7 

Size 1002.5 

ORE UNDTS 

Definition 202 

Valves for continuous flow 709.3 

Valves for fixtures. 709.1 , Table 709.1 

JES (See PLUMBING FIXTURES) 

FLOOD LEVEL RIM 202 

FLOOR DRAINS 412, Table 709.1 

5S, EMERGENCY 202 






• 



132 



2000 ONTERNATIONAL PLUEyiBING CODE® 



INDEX 



FLOOR FLANGES 405.4.1, 405.4.2 

FLOW RATES 604.3, Table 604.3 

Table 604.4, 604.10 
FLUSHING DEVICES 

Flush tanks 425.4, 604.3, 604.5 

Flushometer tanks 425.3, 604.3, 604.5 

Flushometer valves 425.3, 604.3 

Required 425 

FOOD HANDLING DRAINAGE 802.1.1 

FOOD WASTE GRINDER 413 

FREEZING, PROTECTION OF PIPES 305.6 

FROST CLOSURE 904.2 

FUEL-GAS PIPING Appendix G 

FUTURE FIXTURES 704.4 



GALVANIZED STEEL PIPE 605.5, 

Table 605.5, 605.18 

GARBAGE CAN WASHERS 414 

GARBAGE DISPOSALS 413 

GENERAL REGULATIONS 301 

Connection to plumbing system 413 

Connection to public water and 
sewer 301 .3, 301 .4 

Elevator machinery rooms 301 .6 

Health and safety 108.7, 108.7.1, 

108.7.2, 108.7.3 

Materials detrimental 302, 302.1 , 302.2 

Piping measurements 301 .5 

Protection of pipes 305 

Rodentproofing 304, 304.1 , 

304.2, 304.3, 304.4 

Sleeves 305.4 

Strains and stresses in pipe 308 

Toilet facilities for workers 31 1 

Trenching, excavation and backfill 306 

Washroom requirements 310 

GREASE INTERCEPTORS 202, 1003 

Approval 1003.2 

Capacity 1003.4.2.1, 1003.4.2.2 

In commercial buildings 1003.5 

Not required 1003.3.3 

Required 1003.1 

GUTTERS 1106.6, Table 1106.6 

H 

HANGERS AND SUPPORTS 

Attachment to buildings 308.4 

Base of stacks 308.9 

Definitions 202 

Material 308.3 

2000 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



Seismic 308.2 

Spacing Table 308.5 

HEALTH AND SAFETY 101.3 

HEALTH CARE PLUMBING 422, 609, 713 

HEAT EXCHANGER PROTECTION 608 16.3 

HORIZONTAL 

Slope for drainage pipe 704.1 

HOSPITAL PLUMBING FIXTURES 422 

Clinical sinks 422.6 

Height of special controls 422.10 

Sterilizer equipment 422.9 

HOT WATER 

Heaters and tanks Chapter 5 

Supply system 604 

HOUSE TRAP 1002.6 

I 

INDIRECT WASTE 802 

Air gap or break 802.2.1 , 802.2.2 

Food handling establishment 802.1.1 

Receptors 802.3 

Special wastes 803 

Wastewater temperature 803.1 

INDIVIDUAL VENT 907 

INSPECTION 107.1 

Final 107.6 

Reinspection 107.3.3 

Required 107.3 

Rough-in 107.1 

Scheduling of 107.1 

INSPECTOR (See CODE OFFICIAL) 

INSULATION 505 

INTERCEPTORS AND SEPARATORS 1003 

Access to 1003.10 

Approval of 1003.2, 1003.3 

Bottling establishments 1003.7 

Capacity of grease 

interceptors Table 1003.3.4.1 

Definition 202 

Laundries 1003.6 

Not required 1003.3.3 

Oil and flammable liquids separators 1003.4 

Rate of flow control for grease 

interceptors 1003.3.4.2 

Required 1003.5, 1003.6 

Slaughterhouses 1003.8 

Venting 1 003.9 

IRRIGATION, LAWN 608.16.5 

J 

JOINTS AND CONNECTIONS 605, 705 

133 



INDEX 



LEAI 
LEAi 



ABS plastic pipe 705.2 

Asbestos cement pipe 605.1 1 , 705.3 

Between different materials 605.22, 705.16 

Brass pipe 605.12 

Brazed joints 605, 705 

Cast-iron pipe 705.5 

Caulked joint 605, 705 

Concrete pipe 705.7 

Copper or copper-alloy pipe 605, 705 

Copper or copper-alloy tubing 705.2, 

705.16.1,705.16.2 

CPVC plastic pipe 605.16 

Expansion joints 308.8 

Galvanized steel pipe 605.18 

Mechanical joints 605, 705 

Polybutylene plastic pipe or tubing 605.19 

Polyethylene plastic pipe or tubing 605.20 

Prohibited 605.9, 707 

PVC plastic pipe 705.14 

Slip joints 705.17, 1002.2 

Soldered joints 705.10.3 

Solvent cementing 605, 705 

Threaded 605.10.3 

Vitrified clay pipe 705.15 

Welded .605.12.4 

K 
HEN 418 

L 

1003.6 

415 

DRIES 416 

3|PE 202 

■RS 1106 

AND VENTILATION REQUIREMENT . . . 310.1 
MG, FIXTURE UNIT VALVE 709 

M 

3LES 708.3.6 

IFOLDS 604.10 

ERIAL 

Above-ground drainage and 

vent pipe Table 702.1 

Alternative 105.2 

Approval 107.6 

Building sewer pipe 702.3 

Building storm sewer pipe 1 102.4 

Chemical waste pipe 702.5 

Fittings Table 605.6, 702.4 



Identification 303.1 

Joints 605, 705 

Roof drains 1 1 05 

Sewer pipe 702.3 

Standards Chapter 13 

Storm drainage pipe Table 1 102.4 

Subsoil drain pipe 1 102.5 

Underground building drainage and vent 

pipe 702.2 

Vent pipe 702.2, 702.3 

Water distribution pipe Table 605.5 

Water service pipe Table 605.4 

MATERIAL, FIXTURES 

Quality 402.1 

Special use 402.2 

MATERIAL, SPECIAL 

Caulking ferrules 705.18 

Cleanout plugs 708.2 

Sheet copper 402.3 

Sheet head 402.4 

Soldering bushings 705.19 

MECHANICAL JOINTS 605, 705 

N 
NONPOTABLE WATER 608.1 , 608.8 

OFFSETS 

Definitions 202 

Drainage 71 1 

Venting 915.1 

OPENINGS 

Through walls or roofs 305.5 

P 

PERMIT 

Application for 106.3 

Conditions of 106.5 

F-ees 106.6 

Suspension of 106.5.5 

PIPING 

Construction documents 105.4.4 

Drainage, horizontal slope Table 704.1 

Drainage piping installation 704 

Drainage piping offset, size 71 1 

Joints 605, 705 

PIPING PROTECTION 

Backfilling 306.3 

Breakage 305.2 

Corrosion 305.1 



134 



2000 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



INDEX 




Footings 305.5 

Freezing 305.6 

Penetration 305.5 

Tunneling 306.4 

miHG FACILITIES 403 

iBING FSXTURES 

Accessible 403 

Automatic clothes washers 406 

Bidet 408 

Clearances 405.3 

Definition 202 

Dishwashing machine 409 

Drainage fixture unit values Table 709.1 

Drinking fountain 410 

Emergency showers 41 1 

Eyewash stations 41 1 

Floor drains 412 

Food waste grinders 413 

Future fixtures 704.4 

Garbage can washer 414 

Garbage disposal 413 

Hospital 422 

Installation 405 

Joints at wall or floor 405.5 

Kitchen sink 418 

Laundry tray 415 

Lavatories 416 

Minimum facilities Table 403.1 

Ornamental pools 423.1 

Quality 402.1 

Separate facilities 403.1 

Settings 405.3 

Showers 417 

Sinks 418 

Slop sinks 418 

Toilets 420 

Urinals 419 

Water closets 420 

Water coolers 410 

Water supply protection 608 

MSPECTOR (See CODE OFFICIAL) 
EJECTORS 712 

POLYBUTYLEME PIPE OR TUBING 

Where permitted Table 605.4 

POLYETHYLESSSE PBPE OR TUBING 

Cross-linked Table 605.4, Table 605.5 

PE-AL-PE Table 605.4, Table 605.5 

PEX-AL-PEX Table 605.4, Table 605.5 

POTABLE WATER, PROTECTION OF 608 

PRESSURE OF WATER DISTRIBUTION 604.6 



PROHIBITED 

Joints and connection 707 

Traps 1002.3 

PROTECTION OF POTABLE WATER 608 

PUMPING EQUIPMENT 712 

PVC PIPE Table 605.4, Table 605.5, 

Table 702.1, Table 702.2 



Q 



QUALITY OF WATER 
General 



608. 



RAINWATER DRAINAGE Chapter 1 1 

REDUCED PRESSURE PRINCIPLE' 
BACKFLOW PREVENTER 

Definition 202 

Periodic inspections 312.9 

Standard Table 608.1 , 608.13.2, 608.16.2 

Where required 608.15.2, 608.16.2, 

608.16.4, 608.16.5, 608.16.6 

RELIEF VALVES 504.4, 504.5, 504.6, 504.7.1 

Definition 202 

RELIEF VENT 91 1 .4, 914, 916.2 

Definition 202 

DRAINS 1102.6,1105 

Definition 202 

■IN INSPECTION 107.1 



SANITARY SEWER (See BUILDING SEWER) 

SANITARY TEES 706.3 

SCREWED JOINTS (See JOINTS AND 
CONNECTIONS) 

SEPARATE FACILITIES 403.2 

SERVICE SINKS. Table 403.1, 418 

SEWER (See BUILDING SEWER) 

SHEET COPPER 402.3 

SHEET LEAD 402.4 

SHOWERS Table 403.1, 417 

SILL COCK 424 

SINKS 418 

SIZING 

Drainage system 71 

Fixture drain 709 

Fixture water supply 604.5 

Vent system 916 

Water distribution system 604 

Water service 603.1 

SLAUGHTERHOUSES 1003.8 



2000 INTERiSIATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



135 



INDEX 



SLEEVES 305.4 

^LiP JOINTS (See JOINTS AND CONNECTOONS) 

SOLDERING BUSHINGS 705.19 

^T CEMENTING (See JOINTS AND 
lECTDONS) 

IING FIXTURES 423 

•S 803 

Material Chapter 13 

ITANDPIPE DRAIN 802.4 

ITEEL PIPE (See also MATERIAL) 

Where permitted 605, 702, 1 102 

STERILIZER PIPE 422.9 

ilQRM DRAINS 

Building size 1 106.1 

Building subdrains 1 1 12.1 

Building subsoil drains 1111.1 

Conductors and connections 1104 

Definition 202 

General 1101 

Prohibited drainage 1 1 01 .3 

Roof drains 1102.6, 1105 

Secondary roof drains 1 107 

Sizing of conductors, leaders and 

storm drains 1 1 06 

Sizing of roof gutters 11 06.6 

Sizing of vertical conductors and 

leaders 1106.2 

Traps 1103 

Valves for continuous flow 1 1 09 

Where required 1 101 .2 

STRAPS (See HANGERS AND SUPPORTS) 

STRUCTURAL SAFETY 307, Appendix F 

1112.1 

1111.1 

SUMP ¥ENT 916.5 

SUMPS 1111 

SUPPORTS (See also PiPSNG PROTECTION) ... 308 
SWIMMING POOL 

Definition 202 

SWIMMING POOL DRA8NAGE 802.1.2 

T 

TEMPERATURE AND PRESSURE 
RELIEF VALVE 504 

TEMPERATURE OF WASTEWATER 803.1 

TEST 

Drainage and vent air test 312.3 

Drainage and vent final test 312.4 

Drainage and vent water test 312.2 

Forced sewer test 312.7 



Gravity sewer test 312.6 

Required tests 312.1 

Test of backflow prevention devices 312.9 

Test of conductors 312.8 

THERMAL EXPANSION CONTROL 607.3 

THREADED JOINTS (See JOINTS AND 
CONNECTIONS) 

TOILET FACILITIES FOR WORKERS 311 

TOILETS (See WATER CLOSETS) 

TRAPS 

Acid-resisting 1002.9 

Building 1002.6 

Design 1002.2 

Prohibited types 1002.2 

Seal 1002.4 

Separate for each fixture 1002.1 

Size 709 

TRENCHING, EXCAVATION AND BACKFILL .... 306 

TUNNELING 306,4 



UNDERGROUND DRAINAGE AND 

VENT PIPE 702.2 

419 



VACUUM BREAKERS 608.1, 608.13.5, 608.13.6 

VACUUM DRAINAGE SYSTEM Appendix G 

VALVES 

Air admittance 917 

Backwater 715 

Definition 202 

Pressure reducing 604.8 

Relief 504.4 

Safety 504.4 

VENT 

Individual 907 

Main 903.1 

Multiple branch 91 1 .3.1 

Sizing Table 908.3, 

Table 909.3, Table 910.4 

VENT RELIEF SIZE 914 

VENT STACK 

Definition 202 

VENTS AND VENTING 

Circuit or loop 91 1 

Combination drain 912 

Common 908 

Definition 202 

Distance from trap Table 906.1 

Engineered systems .918 



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136 



2000 BNTERNATBONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



INDEX 




• 



Size and length Table 916.1 

Stack vents 903 

Vent terminal 904 

Wet vent 909 

W 

HUNG WATER CLOSETS 420 

ASHING MACHINES 406 

WASTE 

Indirect 802 

Special 803 

^STEWATER TEMPERATURE 803.1 

■ER 

Booster 604.7 

Cross connection 608.6 

Distribution piping material Table 605.5 

Excessive pressure 604.8 

Hammer 604.9 

WATER CLOSETS 420 

WATER CONSERVATION 

Fixtures 604.4 

Flow rates Table 604.4 

WATER HEATERS Chapter 5 

WIPED JOINTS 705 

WORKERS' TOiLET FACILITIES 311 



2000 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 1 37 




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138 2000 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



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EDITORIAL CHANGES - SECOND PRINTING 

Page v: In Section 2 Delete the last line in the listing in its entirety. 

101.2: In the second line, delete "alternation" and replace with "alteration". 

101.2: Add exception to read: Exception: Detached one- and two-family dwellings and multiple single-family dwellings (town- 
houses) not more than three stories high with separate means of egress and their accessory structures shall comply with the Interna- 
tional Residential Code. 

102.3: Revise the sixth line to read: ....maintained in compliance with the code edition under which they were installed. 

106.5.2: Revise fourth line to read:, of this code or any other ordinance of the jurisdiction. No permit... 

108.7.2 : Revise sixth line to read: Where possible, the owner and occupant of the building.... 

202: Revise definitions as follows: 

FAUCET. A valve end of a water pipe through which water is drawn from or held within the pipe. 

TYPE A DWELLING UNIT. Revise third line to read: ...provisions of ICC A117.1. 

TYPE B DWELLING UNIT. Revise third line to read: ..provisions of ICC A117.1. 

307.3: Revise the title and first line to read: 307.3 Penetrations of floor/ceiling assemblies and fire-resistance-rated assemblies. 
Penetrations of floor/ceiling assemblies... 

312.8: Revise last hne to read: with Sections 312.3 or 312.3. 

314.2.3: Item 1 revise the ninth line to read ...constructed of corrosion-resistant material. Metallic... 

314.2.3: Item 1 revise the twelfth hne to read:... metallic pans shall have a minimum thickness of not less... 

403.5 : Revise the fifth line to read: ...occupancies. Employee facilities shall be either separate... 

404: Delete text of Section 404 and replace with the following: 

404. 1 Where required. Accessible plumbing facilities and fixtures shall be provided in accordance with the International Building 
Code. 

422.9: Revise the third line to read:... of the International Mechanical Code. 

424.4: Revise to read as follows: 

424.4 Shower valves. Shower and tub-shower combination valves shall be balanced pressure, 

thermostatic or combination balanced-pressure/thermostatic valves that conform to the 

requirements of ASSE 1016 or CSA B125. Multiple (gang) showers supplied with a single tempered 

water supply pipe shall have the water supply for such showers controlled by an approved master 

thermostatic mixing valve. Shower and tub-shower combination valves and master thermostatic 

mixing valves required by this section shall be equipped with a means to hmit the maximum setting 

of the valve to 120°F (49°C), which shall be field adjusted in accordance with the manufacturer's 

instructions. 

425.2: Revise the title to read: 425.2 Access to concealed connections. 

425.4.1:Revise fourth hne to read: ..least 1 inch (25 mm) above the full opening of the overflow pipe. 

603.2 :Revise to read as follows: 

603.2 Separation of water service and building sewer. Water service pipe and the building sewer shall be separated by 5 feet ( 1 524 
mm) of undisturbed or compacted earth. 

Exception: The required separation distance shall not apply where the bottom of the water service 

pipe within 5 feet (1524 nrni) of the sewer is a minimum of 12 inches (305 mm) above the top of the 

highest point of the sewer and the pipe materials conform to Section 703. 1 . 

Table 604.4:Revise the third row of the table under the column, Maximum Flow Rate or Quantity to read as follows: 2.5 gpm at 80 
psi 

Table 605 . 1 3 : Delete Table 605 . 1 3 in its entirety. 

Table 606.5.4: Change the numbers in column 1 to read as follows: 

0-50 

51 - 150 

2000 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 139 



151-200 

201 - 400 

401 - 700 

701 - 1,000 

over 1,000 

608.13.2: Change B64.3 to B 64.4 

705.7.1: Revise the second line to read: ..pipe shall be made with an elastomeiic seal conforming to... 

1002.3: Revise Item 6 to read: 6. Drum traps. 

1 107.3: In the fourth line delete the words "by two". 

1111.1: Revise the eighth line to read: ..location above ground. The subsoil sump shall not be required to.. 

Chapter 13: Revise standards as follows: 

ANSI: Delete ICC/ANSI Al 17.1— 98 in its entirety 

ASME: 

Add Al 12.4. 1-93 Water Heater Relief Valve Drain Tubes 504.6.2 

Add B 16.32-92 Cast Copper Alloys Solder Joint Fittings for Sovent Drain Systems Table 605.6, 

Table 702.4, Table 1102.7 

ASSE: 

1002.79-99 - Delete the ".79"; also delete 425.3.1 and add 425.4.1 

1007.73-92 - Delete the ".73" 

Add 1022-98 Perfonnance Requirements for Backflow Preventer for Carbonated Beverage 

Machines 608.16.1 

1037 - Add the edition year "-90", delete 425.2 and add 425.3 

Delete 1050-98 in its entirety 

Add 1060-96 Performance Requirements for Outdoor Enclosures for Backflow Prevention 

Assemblies 608.14.1 

ASTM: 

AWS: 

Delete P.O Box address and change zip code to 33126, 

AWWA: 

Add C 104-90 Standard for Cement-Mortar Lining for Ductile-Iron Pipe and Fittings for Water 605.4, 

605.6 

Add CI 15-88 Standard for Hanged Ductile-fron Pipe with Threaded Flanges Table 605.4 

Add CI 11-90 Standard for Rubber-Gasket Joints for Ductile-Iron Pressure Pipe and Fittings 605.13 

CSA: 

Add B181.6-96 Polyolefm Laboratory Drainage Systems .... Table 702.1 

CISPI: 

Replace 301-99 with 301-97. Also add Table 1102.7 

ICC: 

In the address, change the Suite to 600 

Delete /ANSI from ICC/ANSI Al 17.1-98, also delete 401.1 

Add ICCEC-2000 ICC Electrical Code™ Administrative Provisions 201 .3, 502. 1, 504.3, 1 1 13. 1 .3 

Add IECC-2000 International Energy Conservation Code™ 313.1, 607.2 

Add IFC-2000 International Fire Code® 201 .3 

Add IPSDC-2000 International Private Sewage Disposal Code ®....701.2 

140 2000 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



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NFPA: 

Delete 70-93 in its entirety 

EDITORIAL CHANGES - THIRD PRINTING 

Page 1,101.2: New exception now reads . . . Exception: Detached one- and two-family dwellings and multiple single-family dwell- 
ings (townhouses) not more than three stories high with separate means of egress and their accessory structures shall comply with 
the International Residential Code. 

Page 15, 202: TYPE A DWELLING UNIT and TYPE B DWELLING UNIT deleted 

Page 23, 403.4.1: Line 4 now reads . . . employee's regular working area and the path of travel to such 

Page 24, Table 403.1: OCCUPANCY column, row 12 now reads . . . Mercantile (see Sections 403.2, 403.5 and 403.6) 

Page 25, 403.4. 1 : Line 4 now reads . . . employee's regular working area and the path of travel to such 

Page 25, 403.5: Line 6 now reads ... or combined employee and public facilities. The required toilet facilities shall be located not 
more than one story above or below the employees' work area and the path of travel to such 

Page 31, 425.2: Now reads . . . Access to concealed connections. Slip joints shall be made with an approved elastomeric gasket and 
shall only be installed on the trap outlet, trap inlet, and within the trap seal. Fixtures with concealed slip-joint connections shall be 
provided with an access panel or utility space at least 1 2 inches (305 mm) in its smallest dimension or other approved arrangement so 
as to provide access to the slip connections for inspection and repair. 

Page 39, Table 605.6: ASME B 16.32 deleted from Copper or copper alloy Standard 

Page 49, Table 702.4: ASME B 16.32 deleted from Copper or copper alloy Standard 

Page 54, 705.17: Line 2 now reads . . . Section 424.2. 

Page 65 , 903 . 1 . 1 : now reads ... A vent stack shall connect to the building drain or to the base of a drainage stack in accordance with 
Section 903.4. A stack vent shall be an extension of the drainage stack. 

Page 78, Table 1 102.7: ASME B 16.32 deleted from Copper or copper alloy Standard 

Page 84, Table 1106.3: Column 4-inch rainfall, row 2 now reads . . . 1,880 

Page 87, 1201.1: Last line now reads ... in accordance with the International Fire Code. 
Page 94, ICC: Reference standard added . . . IPC— 2000 International Fire Code® 1201.1 
Page 109, E103.1: Line 1 now reads . . . Decide from Table 604.3 what is the desirable 

Page 109, E103.2. 1 : Now reads . . . Pipe sizes can be selected according to the following procedure or by other design methods con- 
forming to acceptable engineering practice, approved by the administrative authority, and that the sizes selected shall not be less 
than the minimum required by this code. 

Page 109, E103.2.2: Entire section replaced. 

Page 131: Index item added . . . VACUUM DRAINAGE SYSTEM...Appendix G 

EDITORIAL CHANGES - FOURTH PRINTING 

Page 26, 405.8: now reads . . . Slip-joint connections. Slip joints shall be made with an approved elastomeric gasket and shall only 
be installed on the trap outlet, trap inlet and within the trap seal. Fixtures with concealed slip-joint connections shall be provided 
with an access panel or utility space at least 12 inches (305 mm) in its smallest dimension or other approved arrangement so as to 
provide access to the slip connections for inspection and repair. 

Pages 30-31, Sections 424-425: Section numbers have been changed. 

EDITORIAL CHANGES - FIFTH PRINTING 

Page 1,101.2 Exception: Now reads . . . Exceptions: 1 . Detached one- and two-family dwellings and multiple single-family dwell- 
ings (townhouses) not more than three stories high with separate means of egress and their accessory structures shall comply with 
the International Residential Code. 2. Provisions in the appendices shall not apply unless specifically adopted. 

Page 49, Table 702.1: Standard coliimn, row 7 now reads . . . ASTM F 1488, ASTM F 891. 

2000 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 141 



Page 50, Table 702.3: Standard column row 7 now reads . . . ASTM F 1488, ASTM F 891 
Page 70, Table 916.1: Fifth column heading should read ... 2 



EDITORIAL CHANGES - SIXTH PRINTING 

Page 50, Table 702.2: Row 7, column 2 now reads . . . ASTM F 891; ASTM F 1488 

EDITORIAL CHANGES - SEVENTH PRINTING 

Page 91, Referenced Standards: ASSE 1055—98 now reads . . . 1055—97 







142 



2000 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE®