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Full text of "Washington Electrical Code"

WAC 296-46B 
Electrical Safety Standards, Administration, and Installation 

Printing 
December 2006 




D&fy&rtm&nt i>fi-A±>of ^nd incftjsti^i&s 




Electrical Internet Web-site Address: 



www.lni.wa.qov/tradeslicensinq/electrical 



F500-039-222 printEd 12-2006 



DEPARTMENT OF LABOR AND INDUSTRIES 

J udy Schurke, Acting Director 

SPECIALTY COMPLIANCE SERVICES 

Patrick Woods, Assistant Director 

ELECTRICAL PROGRAM 

Ron Fuller, Chief Electrical Inspector 

PO Box 44460 

Olympia, WA 98504-4460 

(360) 902-5249 FAX (360) 902-5595 

ELECTRICAL LICENSING AND CERTIFICATION 

PO Box 44460 

Olympia, WA 98504-4460 

(360) 902-5269 FAX (360) 902-5296 

ELECTRICAL PLAN REVIEW 

7273 Linderson WaySW 
Tumwater, WA 98501-4460 

PO Box 44460 

Olympia, WA 98504-4460 

(360) 902-5246 FAX (360) 902-5296 

www.Lni.wa.gov/TradesLicensing/Electrical 



REGION ONE 

BELLINGHAM, WA 98225-4647 (B HAM) 

1720 Ellis St, Suite 200 

(360) 647-7300 FAX (360) 647-7290 

24 Hr Inspection Line (360)647-7272 

MOUNT VERNON, WA 98273-5500 (MTVE) 

525 E College Way, Suite H 

(360) 416-3000 FAX (360) 416-3045 

24 Hr Inspection Line (360) 416-3005 

EVERETT, WA 98208-3727 (TB 26) 

729 100^^ ST SE 

(425) 290-1309 FAX (425) 290-1399 

24 Hr Inspection Line (425) 290-1310 

REGION TWO 

BELLEVUE,WA 98005-3037 (NB 75) 

616 120th Avenue NE, Suite C201 
(425) 990-1400 FAX (425) 990-1446 
24 Hr Inspection Line (425) 990-1430 

TUKWILA, WA 98168-1050 (TB 52) 

PO Box 69050 

12806 Gateway Drive 

(206) 835-1000 FAX (206) 835-1199 

24 Hr Inspection Line (206) 835-1198 



REGION THREE 

BREMERTON, WA 98837-1904 (WB 07) 

500 Pacific Avenue, Suite 400 
(360) 415-4000 FAX (360) 415-4048 
24 Hr Inspection Line (360)415-4039 

PORT ANGELES, WA 98362-4628 (PTAN) 

1605 E FrontSt, Suite C 

(360) 417-2700 FAX (360) 417-2733 

24 Hr Inspection Line (360) 417-2722 

TACOMA, WA 98402-4453 (WT21) 

950 Broadway, Suite 200 

(253) 596-3808 FAX (253) 596-3956 

24 Hr Inspection Line (253) 596-3822 



REGION FOUR 



REGION FIVE 



TUMWATER, WA(4814) 

PO 60x44814 

Olympia WA 98504-4814 

7273 Linderson Way SW MS 4814 

TumwaterWA 98501-5414 

(360) 902-6350 FAX (360) 902-6340 

(360) 902-5799 

24 Hr Inspection Line (360)902-5242 

ABERDEEN, WA 98520-0013 (WA42) 

415 W Wishkah, Suite IB 

(360) 533-8200 FAX (360) 533-8220 

24 Hr Inspection Line (360) 533-8229 

VANCOUVER, WA 98684-3508(514) 

312 SE Stonemill Dr, Suite 120 

(360) 896-2360 FAX (360) 896-2394 

24 Hr Inspection Line (360) 896-2350 

Electrical code questions 

8:00 AM to 9:00 AM ONLY (360) 896-2360 

LONGVIEW, WA 98632-4013(510) 

900 Ocean Beach Hwy 

(360) 575-6900 FAX (360) 575-6918 

24 Hr Inspection Line (360) 575-6923 

Electrical code questions 

8:00 AM to 9:00 AM ONLY (360) 575-6922 

WHITE 5ALM0N, WA 98672 (W55) 

107 WJewettBlvd 

(509) 493-5041 FAX (509) 493-5040 

Inspections only 

Office hour's 7:30 to 8:30 AM 



KENNEWICK, WA 99338 (KENN) 

4310 W 24th Avenue 
KennewickWA 99338-1992 
(509) 735-0100 FAX (509) 735-0120 
24 Hr Inspection Line (509) 735-0148 

EA5TWENATCHEE,WA 98802-5459 
(EWEN) 

519 G rant Rd 

(509) 886-6500 FAX (509) 886-6510 

24 Hr Inspection Line (509) 886-6520 

M05E5LAKE,WA 98837-2907 (MLAK) 

3001 W Broadway Ave 

(509) 764-6900 FAX (509) 764-6923 

24 Hr Inspection Line (509) 764-6966 

YAKIMA, WA 98902-3480 (YAKI) 

15 W Yakima Ave Suite 100 

(509) 454-3700 FAX (509) 454-3710 

24 Hr Inspection Line (509)454-3798 

REGION 5IX 

5P0KANE,WA 99201-2149 (5P0K) 

901 N Monroe Suite 100 

(509) 324-2640 FAX (509) 324-2655 

24 Hr Inspection Line (509) 324-2650 

COLVILLE,WA 99114-2416 (COLV) 

298 S Main Suite 203 

(509) 684-7417 FAX (509) 684-7416 

24 Hr Inspection Line (509)684-7417 

PULLMAN, WA 99163-2416 (PULL) 

PO Box 847 

1250 Bishop Blvd SE Suite G 

(509) 334-5296 or 1-800-509-0025 

FAX (509) 334-3417 

24 Hr Inspection Line (509) 334-4226 



Chapter 296-46B WAC 

Electrical safety standards, administration, and installation 

Last Update: 5/2006 

Table of Contents 

Chapter 296-46B WAC 1 

WAC 296-46B-010 General. Adopted standards 7 

WAC 296-46B-100 General definitions 7 

WAC 296-468-110 General - Requirements for electrical installations 11 

012 Mechanical execution of worl< 11 

016 Flasii protection 11 

022 Identification of disconnecting means 11 

030 Over 600 volts general 11 

WAC 296-46B-210 Wiring and protection -Branch circuits 12 

008B Other than dwelling units GFCI requirements 12 

Oil Branch circuits 12 

012 Arc-fault circuit-interrupter protection 12 

025 Common Area Branch Circuits 12 

051(B)(5) Receptacle outlet locations 12 

052(A)(2) Dwelling unit receptacle outlets 12 

052(C) Countertops 12 

WAC 296-46B -215 Wiring and protection — Feeders 13 

010 Feeders - ground fault protection testing 13 

WAC 296-46B-220 Wiring and protection — Branch circuit, feeder, and service 
calculations 13 

003 Branch circuit calculations 13 

WAC 296-46B-225 Wiring and protection — Outside branch circuits and feeders 13 

032 Location of outside feeder disconnecting means 13 

WAC 296-46B -230 Wiring and protection — Services 14 

001 General service requirements 14 

028 Service or other masts 14 

040 Service conductors - two-family and multiple-occupancy buildings 18 

042 Service conductor- size and rating 18 

043 Wiring methods for 600 volts, nominal or less 19 

062 Service equipment- general 19 

070 Service disconnecting means 19 

095 Ground-fault protection of equipment 19 

200 Wiring methods exceeding 600 volts 19 

WAC 296-46B-250 Wiring and protection - Grounding and bonding 20 

032 Two or more buildings or structures 20 

052 Grounding electrodes 20 

056 Resistance of Rod, Pipe, and Plate Electrodes 20 

090 Bonding 20 

184 Solidly grounded neutral systems over 1 kV 20 

Page 1 of 138 

WAC 296-46B-010 General. Adopted standards. 



WAC 296-46B -300 Wiring methods and materials — Wiring methods 21 

001 Wiring methods 21 

005 Underground installations 21 

Oil Support of raceways, cables, or boxes in suspended ceilings 22 

017 Conductors in raceway 23 

WAC 296-46B-314 Wiring methods and materials — Outlet, device, pull and junction 
boxes 23 

001 Boxes and fittings 23 

023(H) Flexible cord connection of pendant boxes 23 

WAC 296-46B -334 Wiring methods and materials — Nonmetallic-sheathed cable 23 

010 Nonmetallic-sheathed cable 23 

015 Exposed work 24 

WAC 296-468-358 Wiring methods and materials — Electrical metallic tubing 24 

012 Electrical metallic tubing 24 

WAC 296-46B -394 Wiring methods and materials — Concealed knob-and-tube wiring. 24 

001 Knob-and-tube wiring 24 

WAC 296-46B-410 Equipment for general use — Luminaires 25 

004 Luminaires 25 

018 Exposed luminaire (fixture) parts 25 

030 Flexible cord connection of electric discharge luminaires 25 

WAC 296-468-422 Equipment for general use— Appliances 25 

010 Water heater circuit 25 

WAC 296-46B-430 Motors, motor circuits, and controllers 25 

007 Marking on motors and multimotor equipment 25 

WAC 296-46B-450 Equipment for general use — Transformers and transformer vaults. 
26 

027 Flammable-liquid or oil-filled transformers installed outdoors 26 

WAC 296-46B-501 Special occupancies NEC Class llocations 28 

001 Sewage disposal systems 28 

WAC 296-46B -514 Special occupancies — Motor fuel dispensing facilities 29 

001 General 29 

Oil Emergency disconnecting means - dispensing and service stations 29 

WAC 296-46B-517 Special occupancies — Health care facilities 30 

001 Health care facilities 30 

WAC 296-46B-520 Special occupancies — Theaters, motion picture and television 
studios, performance areas and similar areas 30 

001 Concerts, motion picture productions, stage shows, and similarshows 30 

WAC 296-46B-550 Special occupancies — Mobile homes, manufactured homes and 
mobile home parks 31 

001 Mobile/manufactured homes - inspection 31 

032 Mobile/manufactured homes - service 31 

033 Mobile/manufactured homes - feeder 31 

WAC 296-46B-553 Special occupancies — Floating buildings 31 

004 Floating buildings and similar facilities - services and feeders 31 

007 Floating buildings and similar installations - wiring methods 31 

WAC 296-46B-555 Special occupancies -Marinas and boatyards 32 

Page 2 of 138 

WAC 296-46B-010 General. Adopted standards. 



WAC 296-46B-590 Special occupancies — Temporary installations 34 

001 Temporary installations 34 

004 Temporary installations - splices 34 

WAC 296-46B -600 Special equipment— Electric signs and outline lighting 34 

001 Electrical signs - general 34 

009 Awning electrical signs 34 

010 Portable or mobile outdoor electrical signs 34 

030 Neon tubing 34 

WAC 296-46B -680 Special equipment— Swimming pools, fountains and similar 
installations 34 

001 General 35 

040 Spas and hottubs 35 

WAC 296-468-700 Emergency systems 35 

001 Emergency systems - general 35 

009 Emergency systems - equipment identification 36 

027 Coordination 36 

WAC 296-46B-701 Legally required standby systems 36 

(018) Coordination 36 

WAC 296-46B-760 Fire alarm systems 36 

WAC 296-46B-800 Communications systems — Communications circuits 36 

001 Installation 36 

002 Definitions 37 

WAC 296-46B-900 Electrical work permits and fees. General 38 

Permit- responsibility for 38 

Permit- requirements for 39 

Permit- inspection and approval 40 

Permit- duration/refunds 40 

Permit- annual telecommunications 40 

Permit- annual electrical 40 

Provisional electrical work permit- use/duration/refunds 41 

Class B electrical work permit- use 41 

WAC 296-46B-901 General. Inspections, inspectors, city inspection, variance 43 

Inspection 43 

Inspection move on buildings and structures 44 

Classification or definition of occupancies 45 

Plan review for educational, institutional or health care facilities and other buildings 47 

Wiring methods for designated building occupancies 49 

Table 901-1 Health orPersonal Care Facilities 50 

Table 901-2 Educational and Institutional Facilities, Places of Assembly or Other Facilities 50 

Industrial control panel and industrial utilization equipment inspection 50 

Traffic management systems 53 

WAC 296-46B-905 Temporary fees - Inspection fees. Valid from J anuary 1, 2007 
through December 31, 2007 or until modifed in rule, whichever is first 55 

WAC 296-46B-906 Inspection fees 62 

WAC 296-46B-909 Electrical/telecommunications contractor's license, administrator 
certificate and examination, master electrician certificate and examination, electrician 
certificate and examination, temporary electrician permit, copy, and miscellaneous 
fees 69 

Page 3 of 138 

WAC 296-46B-010 General. Adopted standards. 



WAC 296-46B-910 Temporary Fees - Electrical/telecommunications contractor's 
license, administrator certificate and examination, master electrician certificate and 
examination, electrician certificate and examination, temporary electrician permit, 
copy, and miscellaneous fees. Effective J anuary 1, 2007. If the fee is reduced from the 
permanent fee in WAC 296-46B-911, the temporary fee is valid through the date 
indicated for the specific fee or until modified in rule, whichever is first 72 

WAC 296-46B-911 Electrical testing laboratory and engineer accreditation fees 75 

WAC 296-46B-915 Civil penalty schedule 76 

WAC 296-46B-920 Electrical/telecommunications license/certificate types and scope of 
work 79 

Table 920-1 Allowed Scope of Work Crossover 88 

WAC 296-46B-925 Electrical/telecommunications contractor's license. General 89 

Electrical/telecommunications contractor bond, cash or securities deposit 89 

Telecommunications contractor insurance 89 

Electrical/telecommunications contractor exemptions 90 

Exemptions electrical utility and electrical utility's contractor 91 

Exemptions electrical utility telecommunications transition equipment installations, maintenance and 

repair 91 

Exemptions independent electrical power production equipment exemption 92 

Exemptions telegraph and telephone utility and telegraph and telephone utility's contractor 93 

Exemptions manufacturers of electrical/telecommunications products 93 

Premanufactured electric power generation equipment assemblies and control gear 94 

WAC 296-46B-930 Assignment — Administrator or master electrician 94 

WAC 296-46B-935 Administrator certificate. General 95 

Qualifying for examination 95 

Original - administrator certificates 95 

Combination - specialty administrator certificate 95 

Renewal - administrator certificate 96 

Temporary specialty administrator certificate 96 

WAC 296-46B-940 Electrician/training/temporary certificate of competency or permit 
required 96 

Electrician - general 96 

Electrician - scope of work 97 

Electrician - certificate of competency required 97 

Exemptions - linemen 97 

Exemptions - plumbers 98 

Renewal - master electrician, journeyman, and specialty electrician certificates of competency 98 

Reciprocal agreements between Washington and other states 99 

Military/shipyard experience 99 

Experience in another country 99 

Training school credit 100 

Temporary electrician permit 100 

WAC 296-46B-945 Qualifying for master, journeyman, specialty electrician 
examinations 101 

Qualifying for master, journeyman, specialty electrician examinations 101 

Qualifying forthe journeyman/specialty electrician competency examination when work was 

performed in a state requiring electrician certification 102 

Qualifying forthe journeyman/specialty electrician competency examination when work was 

performed in a state that does not require electrician certification 102 

Qualifying for a specialty electrician certificate of competency or examination 103 

Page 4 of 138 

WAC 296-46B-010 General. Adopted standards. 



Table 945-1 Experience Hours 104 

Qualifying for a certificate of competency when the Washington electrical work experience is exempt 
from certification requirements in RCW 19.28.261 105 

WAC 296-46B-960 Administrator and electrician certificate of competency 
examinations. General 105 

Special accommodations for examination 106 

Failed examination appeal procedures 106 

Subjects included in administrator certificate, or master electrician, journeyman, or specialty 

electrician competency examinations 107 

Failing an administrator certificate exam or electrician certificate of competency examination 108 

Cheating on an examination 109 

WAC 296-46B-965 Training certificate required. General 109 

Original training certificates 109 

Renewal of training certificates 110 

Trainees seeking a journeyman electrician certificate - working with no supervision Ill 

Trainees seeking certain specialty electrician certificates - working with reduced or no supervision. 
Ill 

WAC 296-46B-970 Continuing education. General requirements - continuing education 
classes requirements for administrator, master electrician, and electrician renewal.. 112 

Supplementary written instruction material appropriate to the type and length of the class 116 

WAC 296-468-971 Training schools 119 

WAC 296-46B-975 Electrical audit. General 120 

Trainee hours 121 

Administrator/master electrician - status 121 

WAC 296-46B-980 Enforcement— Installations, licensing, and certification 
requirements 121 

WAC 296-468-985 Penalties for false statements or material misrepresentations 122 

WAC 296-46B-990 Failure to comply with the electrical contractor licensing, 
administrator certification, or electrician certification laws. General 122 

Confiscation - of an electrical contractor's license, administrator certificate, electrician certificate of 
competency, temporary electrician permit, ortraining certificate 124 

WAC 296-46B-995 Electrical board -Appeal rights and hearings. General 124 

Appeals 124 

Appearance and practice before board 126 

WAC 296-468-997 Engineer approval 126 

Accreditation general 127 

Suspension or revocation 127 

Business structure, practices, and personnel 128 

Recordkeeping and reporting general 129 

WAC 296-46B-998 Standards 129 

WAC 296-46B-999 Electrical testing laboratory requirements. General 130 

Accreditation general 130 

Suspension or revocation 131 

Business structure, practices, and personnel 131 

Recordkeeping and reporting general 133 

Recordkeeping and reporting certification 133 

Recordkeeping and reporting field evaluation 133 

Facilities and equipment 134 

Page 5 of 138 

WAC 296-46B-010 General. Adopted standards. 



standards 134 

Product certification 134 

Certification laboratory/manufacturer agreement 135 

Certification marl< 135 

Certification laboratory product assurance/follow up 136 

Field evaluation requirements 136 

Field evaluation mark 137 



Page 6 of 138 

WAG 296-46B-010 Gerieral. Adopted staridards. 



WAC 296-46B-010 General. Adopted standards. 

The 2005 edition of the National Electrical Code (NFPA 70-2005) including Annex A, B, and C; the 2003 
edition of standard for the Installation of Stationary Pumps for Fire Protection (NFPA 20 - 2003); the 2002 
edition of standard for Emergency and Standby Power Systems (NFPA 110 - 2002); Commercial Building 
Telecommunications Cabling Standard (ANSI/TIA/EIA 568-B.l-May 2001 including Annex 1 through 5); 
Commercial Building Standard forTelecommunications Pathway and Spaces (ANSI/TIA/EIA 569-A-7 
December 2001 including Annex 1 through 4); Commercial Building Grounding and Bonding 
Requirements forTelecommunications (ANSI/TIA/EIA 607 - A - 2002); Residential Telecommunications 
Cable Standard (ANSI/TIA/EIA 570-A-December 2001); American Railroad Engineering and Maintenance 
of Way Association - 2005 Communications and Signal Manual; and the National Electrical Safety Code 
(NESC C2-2002 excluding Appendixes A and B) are hereby adopted by reference as part of this chapter. 
Other codes, manuals, and reference works referred to in this chapter are available for inspection and 
review in the Olympia office of the electrical section of the department during business hours. 

The requirements of this chapter will be observed where there is any conflict between this chapter and 
the National Electrical Code (NFPA 70), Centrifugal Fire Pumps (NFPA 20), the Emergency and Standby 
Power Systems (NFPA 110), ANSI/TIA/EIA 568-B, ANSI/TIA/EIA 569-A, ANSI/TIA/EIA 607, ANSI/TIA/EIA 
570, ortheNESC C2-2002. 

The National Electrical Code will be followed where there is any conflict between standard for Installation 
of Stationary Pumps for Fire Protection (NFPA 20), standard for Emergency and Standby Power Systems 
(NFPA 110), ANSI/TIA/EIA 568-B, ANSI/TIA/EIA 569-A, ANSI/TIA/EIA 607, ANSI/TIA/EIA 570, or the 
NESC C2-2002 and the National Electrical Code (NFPA 70). 



WAC 296-46B-100 General definitions. 

(1) All definitions listed in the National Electrical Code and chapter 19.28 RCW are recognized in this 

chapter unless other specific definitions are given in this chapter. 

(2) "Accreditation" is a determination by the department that a laboratory meets the requirements of this 
chapter and is therefore authorized to evaluate electrical products that are for sale in the state of 
Washington. 

(3) "Administrative law judge" means an administrative law judge (ALJ ) appointed pursuant to chapter 
34.12 RCW and serving in board proceedings pursuant to chapter 19.28 RCW and this chapter. 

(4) "ANSI" means American National Standards Institute. Copies of ANSI standards are available from 
the National Conference of States on Building Codes and Standards, Inc. 

(5) "Appeal" is a request for review of a department action by the board as authorized by chapter 19.28 

RCW. 

(6) "Appellant" means any person, firm, partnership, corporation, or other entity that has filed an appeal or 

request for board review. 

(7) "Appliance" means household appliance. 

(8) "ASTM" means the American Society forTesting and Materials. Copies of ASTM documents are 

available from ASTM International. 

(9) "AWG" means American Wire Gauge. 

(10) "Basement" means that portion of a building that is partly or completely below grade plane. A 
basement shall be considered as a story above grade plane and not a basement where the finished 
surface of the floor above the basement is: 

(a) More that 1829 mm (six feet) above grade plane; 

(b) More than 1829 mm (six feet) above the finished ground level for more than 50% of the total 

building perimeter; or 

(c) More than 3658 mm (twelve feet) above the finished ground level at any point. 

Page 7 of 138 

WAC 296-46B-010 General. Adopted standards. 



Also see "mezzanine" and "story." 

(11) "Board" means the electrical board established and authorized under chapter 19.28 RCW. 

(12) "C hapter" means chapter 296-46B WAC unless expressly used for separate reference. 

(13) "Category list" is a list of nonspecific product types determined by the department. 

(14) A "certified electrical product" is an electrical product to which a laboratory, accredited by the state of 
Washington, has attached the laboratory's certification mark. 

(15) A "certification mark" is a specified laboratory label, symbol, or other identifying mark that indicates 
the manufacturer produced the product in compliance with appropriate standards or that the product 
has been tested for specific end uses. 

(16) "Certificate of competency" includes the certificates of competency for master journeyman 
electrician, master specialty electrician, journeyman, and specialty electrician. 

(17) A laboratory "certification program" is a specified set of testing, inspection, and quality assurance 
procedures, including appropriate implementing authority, regulating the evaluation of electrical 
products for certification marking by an electrical products certification laboratory. 

(18) A "complete application" includes the submission of all appropriate fees, documentation, and forms. 

(19) "Construction," for the purposes of chapter 19.28 RCW, means electrical construction. 

(20) "Coordination (selective)" as defined in NEC 100 shall be determined and documented by a 
professional engineer registered under chapter 18.43 RCW. 

(21) "Department" means the department of labor and industries of the state of Washington. 

(22) "Director" means the director of the department, or the director's designee. 

(23) "Electrical equipment" includes electrical conductors, conduit, raceway, apparatus, materials, 
components, and other electrical equipment not exempted by RCW 19.28.006(9). Any 
conduit/raceway of a type listed for electrical use is considered to be electrical equipment even if no 
wiring is installed in the conduit/raceway at the time of the conduit/raceway installation. 

(24) An "electrical products certification laboratory" is a laboratory or firm accredited by the state of 
Washington to perform certification of electrical products. 

(25) An "electrical products evaluation laboratory" is a laboratory or firm accredited by the state of 
Washington to perform on-site field evaluation of electrical products for safety. 

(26) "Exit, and unobstructed (as applied to NEC 110.26(C)(2)(a))" means an exit path that allows a worker 
to travel to the exit from any other area in the room containing the equipment described in NEC 
110.26(C)(2) without having to pass through that equipment's required working space. 

(27) "Field evaluated" means an electrical product to which a field evaluation mark is attached. Field 
evaluation must include job site inspection unless waived by the department, and may include 
component sampling and/or laboratory testing. 

(28) "Field evaluation mark" is a specified laboratory label, symbol, or other identifying mark indicating the 
manufacturer produced the product in essential compliance with appropriate standards or that the 
product has been evaluated for specific end uses. 

(29) A "field evaluation program" is a specified set of testing, inspection, and quality assurance 
procedures, including appropriate implementing authority regulating the testing and evaluation of 
electrical products for field evaluation marking. 

(30) The "filing" is the date the document is actually received in the office of the chief electrical inspector. 

(31) "Final judgment" means any money that is owed to the department under this chapter, including fees 
and penalties, or any money that is owed to the department as a result of an individual's or 
contractor's unsuccessful appeal of a citation. 

(32) "Fished wiring" is when cable or conduit is installed within the finished surfaces of an existing building 
or building structure (e.g., wall, floor or ceiling cavity). 

(33) "Household appliance" means utilization equipment installed in a dwelling unit that is built in 
standardized sizes or types and is installed or connected as a unit to perform one or more functions 
such as cooking and other equipment installed in a kitchen, clothes drying, clothes washing, portable 
room air conditioning units and portable heaters, etc. Fixed electric space-heating equipment 
covered in NEC 424 (furnaces, baseboard and wall heaters, electric heat cable, etc.) and fixed air- 
conditioning/heat pump equipment (NEC 440) are not household appliances. Household appliance 
does not mean any utilization equipment that: 

(a) Supplies electrical power, otherthan Class 2, to other utilization equipment; or 

(b) Receives electrical power, otherthan Class 2, through other utilization equipment. 

(34) H VAC /refrigeration specific definitions: 

Page 8 of 138 

WAC 296-46B-100 General definitions. 



(a) "HVAC/refrigeration" means heating, ventilation, air conditioning, and refrigeration. 

(b) "HVAC/refrigeration component" means electrical power and limited energy components 
within the "HVAC/refrigeration system," including, but not limited to: Pumps, compressors, 
motors, heating coils, controls, switches, thermostats, humidistats, low-voltage damper 
controls, outdoor sensing controls, outside air dampers, stand-alone duct smoke detectors, 
air monitoring devices, zone control valves and equipment for monitoring of 
HVAC/refrigeration control panels and low-voltage connections. This definition excludes 
equipment and components of non-"HVAC/refrigeration control systems." 

(c) "HVAC/refrigeration control panel" means an enclosed, manufactured assembly of electrical 

components designed specifically for the control of a HVAC/refrigeration system. Line 
voltage equipment that has low voltage, NEC Class 2 control or monitoring components 
incidental to the designed purpose of the equipment is not an HVAC/refrigeration control 
panel (e.g., combination starters). 

(d) "HVAC/refrigeration control system" means a network system regulating and/or monitoring a 

HVAC/refrigeration system. Equipment of a HVAC/refrigeration control system includes, but 
is not limited to: Control panels, data centers, relays, contactors, sensors, and cables related 
to the monitoring and control of a HVAC/refrigeration system(s). 

(e) "HVAC/refrigeration equipment" means the central unit primary to the function of the 

"HVAC/refrigeration system." HVAC/refrigeration includes, but is not limited to: Heat pumps, 
swamp coolers, furnaces, compressor packages, and boilers. 

(f) "HVAC/refrigeration system" means a system of HVAC/refrigeration: Wiring, equipment, and 

components integrated to generate, deliver, or control heated, cooled, filtered, refrigerated, or 
conditioned air. This definition excludes non-HVAC/refrigeration control systems (e.g., fire 
alarm systems, intercom systems, building energy management systems, and similar non- 
HVAC/refrigeration systems) (see Figure 920-1 and Figure 920-2). 

(35) "IBC" means the International Building Code. Copies of the IBC are available from the International 
Code Council. 

(36) An "individual" or "party" or "person" means an individual, firm, partnership, corporation, association, 
government subdivision or unit thereof, or other entity. 

(37) An "installation" includes the act of installing, connecting, repairing, modifying, or otherwise 
performing work on an electrical system, component, equipment, or wire except as exempted by 
WAC 296-46B-925. 

(38) An "identification plate" is a phenolic or metallic plate or other similar material engraved in block 
letters at least 1/4" (6 mm) high unless specifically required to be larger by this chapter, suitable for 
the environment and application. The letters and the background must be in contrasting colors. 
Screws, rivets, or methods specifically described in this chapter must be used to affix an identification 
plate to the equipment or enclosure. 

(39) "License" means a license required under chapter 19.28 RCW. 

(40) "Labeled" means an electrical product that bears a certification mark issued by a laboratory 
accredited by the state of Washington. 

(41) A "laboratory" may be either an electrical product(s) certification laboratory or an electrical product(s) 
evaluation laboratory. 

(42) A "laboratory operations control manual" is a document to establish laboratory operation procedures 
and may include a laboratory quality control manual. 

(43) "Like-in-kind" means having similar characteristics such as voltage requirement, current draw, circuit 
overcurrent and short circuit characteristics, and function within the system and being in the same 
location. Like-in-kind also includes any equipment component authorized by the manufacturer as a 
suitable component replacement part. 

(44) "Lineman" is a person employed by a serving electrical utility or employed by a licensed general 
electrical contractor who carries, on their person, evidence that they: 

(a) Have graduated from a department-approved lineman's apprenticeship course; or 

(b) Are currently registered in a department-approved lineman's apprenticeship course and are 

working under the direct one hundred percent supervision of a journeyman electrician or a 
graduate of a lineman's apprenticeship course approved by the department. The training 
received in the lineman's apprenticeship program must include training in applicable articles 
of the currently adopted National Electrical Code. 

Page 9 of 138 

WAC 296-46B-100 General definitions. 



(45) "Listed" means equipment has been listed and identified by a laboratory approved by the state of 
Washington for the appropriate equipment standard per this chapter. 

(46) "Low voltage" means: 

(a) NEC, Class 1 power limited circuits at 30 volts maximum. 

(b) NEC, Class 2 circuits powered by a Class 2 power supply as defined in NEC 725.41(A). 

(c) NEC, Class 3 circuits powered by a Class 3 powersupply as defined in NEC 725.41(A). 
(d) Circuits of telecommunications systems as defined in chapter 19.28 RCW. 

(47) "Mezzanine" is the intermediate level or levels between the floor and ceiling of any story with an 
aggregate floor area of not more than one-third of the area of the room or space in which the level or 
levels are located. Also see "basement" and "story." 

(48) "NEC" means National Electrical Code. Copies of the NEC are available from the National Fire 
Protection Association. 

(49) "NEMA" means National Electrical Manufacturer's Association. Copies of NEMA standards are 
available from the National Electrical Manufacturer's Association. 

(50) "NESC" means National Electrical Safety Code. Copies of the N ESC are available from the Institute 
of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc. 

(51) "NETA" means International Electrical Testing Association, Inc. Copies of the NETA standards and 
information are available from the International Electrical Testing Association, Inc. 

(52) "NFPA" means the National Fire Protection Association. Copies of NFPA documents are available 
from the National Fire Protection Association. 

(53) "NRTL" means Nationally Recognized Testing Laboratory accredited by the federal Occupational 
Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) after meeting the requirements of 29 CFR 1910.7. 

(54) "Pointof contact" for utility work, means the point at which a customer's electrical system connects to 
the serving utility system. 

(55) "P roceeding" means any matter regarding an appeal before the board including hearings before an 
administrative law judge. 

(56) "P ubiic area or square" is an area where the public has general, clear, and unrestricted access. 

(57) A "quality control manual" is a document to maintain the quality control of the laboratory's method of 
operation. It consists of specified procedures and information for each test method responding to the 
requirements of the product standard. Specific information must be provided for portions of individual 
test methods when needed to comply with the standard's criteria or otherwise support the laboratory's 
operation. 

(58) "RCW" means the Revised Code of Washington. Copies of electrical RCWs are available from the 
department and the office of the code reviser. 

(59) A "stand-alone amplified sound or public address system" is a system that has distinct wiring and 
equipment for audio signal generation, recording, processing, amplification, and reproduction. This 
definition does notapply to telecommunications installations. 

(60) "Service" or "served" means that as defined in RCW 34.05.010(19) when used in relation to 
department actions or proceedings. 

(61) "Story" is that portion of a building included between the upper surface of a floor and the upper 
surface of the floor or roof next above. Next above means vertically and not necessarily directly 
above. Also see "basement" and "mezzanine." 

(62) "Structure," for the purposes of this chapter and in addition to the definition in the NEC, means 
something constructed either in the field or factory that is used or intended for supporting or sheltering 
any use or occupancy as defined by the IBC. 

(63) A "telecommunications local service provider" is a regulated or unregulated (e.g., by the Federal 
Communications Commission orthe utilities and transportation commission as a telephone or 
telecommunications provider) firm providing telecommunications service ahead of the 
telecommunications network demarcation point to an end-user's facilities. 

(64) "TIA/EIA" means the Telecommunications Industries Association/Electronic Industries Association 
which publishes the TIA/EIA Telecommunications Building Wiring Standards. Standards and 
publications are adopted by TIA/EIA in accordance with the American National Standards Institute 
(ANSI) patent policy. 

(65) A "training school" is a public community or technical college or not-for-profit nationally accredited 
technical or trade school licensed by the work force training and education coordinating board under 
chapter 28C. 10 RCW. 

Page 10 of 138 

WAG 296-46B-100 General definitions. 



(66) "Underthe control of a utility" forthe purposes of RCW 19.28.091 and 19.28.101 is when electrical 
equipment is not owned by a utility and: 

(a) Is located in a vault, room, closet, or similar enclosure that is secured by a lock or seal so that 
access is restricted to the utility's personnel; or 

(b) The utility is obligated by contract to maintain the equipment and the contract provides that 

access to the equipment is restricted to the utility's personnel or other qualified personnel. 

(67) "UL" means Underwriters Laboratory. 

(68) "Utility" means an electrical utility. 

(69) "Utility system" means electrical equipment owned by or under the control of a serving utility that is 
used for the transmission or distribution of electricity from the source of supply to the point of contact. 

(70) "Utilization voltage" means the voltage level employed by the utility's customer for connection to 
lighting fixtures, motors, heaters, or other electrically operated equipment other than power 
transformers. 

(71) "Variance" is a modification of the electrical requirements as adopted in chapter 19.28 RCW or any 
other requirements of this chapter that may be approved by the chief electrical inspector if assured 
that equivalent objectives can be achieved by establishing and maintaining effective safety. 

(72) "WAC" means the Washington Administrative Code. Copies of this chapter of the WACs are 
available from the department and the office of the code reviser. 



WAC 296-46B-110 General - Requirements for electrical installations. 

012 Mechanical execution of work. 

(1) Unused openings. Unused openings in boxes, raceways, auxiliary gutters, cabinets, cutout boxes, 

meter socket enclosures, equipment cases, or housings shall be effectively closed to afford protection 
substantially equivalent to the wall of the equipment. Where metallic plugs or plates are used with 
nonmetallic enclosures, they shall be recessed at least 6 mm (1/4") from the outer surface of the 
enclosure. Unused openings do not include weep holes, unused mounting holes, or any other 
opening with less than .15 square inches of open area. 

016 Flash protection. 

(2) The flash protection marking required by NEC 110.16 must be an identification plate or label approved 

by the electrical inspector and may be installed either in the field or in the factory. The plate or label 
may be mounted using adhesive. 

022 Identification of disconnecting means. 

(3) Forthe purposes of legibly marking a disconnecting means, as required in NEC 110.22, an 

identification plate is required unless the disconnect is a circuit breaker/fused switch installed within a 
panelboard and the circuit breaker/fused switch is identified by a panelboard schedule. In other than 
dwelling units, the identification plate must include the identification designation of the circuit source 
panelboard that supplies the disconnect. 

(4) Where electrical equipment is installed to obtain a series combination rating, the identification as 

required by NEC 110.22, must be in the form of an identification plate that is substantially yellow in 
color. The words "CAUTION SERIES COMBINATION RATED SYSTEM" must be on the label in 
letters at least 13 mm (1/2") high. 

030 Over 600 volts general. 

(5) Each cable operating at over 600 volts and installed on customer-owned systems must be legibly 

marked in a permanent manner at each termination point and at each point the cable is accessible. 

Page 11 of 138 

WAC 296-46B-110 General - Requirements for electrical installations. 



The required marking must use piiase designation, operating voltage, and circuit number if 
applicable. 



WAC 296-46B-210 Wiring and protection -Branch circuits. 

0088 Other than dwelling units GFCI requirements. 

(1) GFCI requirements. All 125-volt, 15- and 20-ampere receptacles installed in wet locations must have 

C lass A ground-fault circuit interrupter protections for personnel. 

Oil Branch circuits. 

(2) Circuits must be taken to all unfinished spaces adaptable to future dwelling unit living areas that are 

not readily accessible to the service or branch circuit panelboard. The circuits must terminate in a 
suitable box(es). The box must contain an identification of the intended purpose of the circuit(s). The 
branch circuit panelboard must have adequate space and capacity for the intended load(s). 

012 Arc -fault circuit-interrupter protection. 

(3) Forthe purpose of NEC 210.12(B), Dwelling Unit Bedroom spaces that: 

(a) Are accessed only through the bedroom; 

(b) Are ancillary to the bedroom's function; and 

(c) Contain branch circuits that supply 125-volt, 15- and 20-ampere, outlets must be protected by 

an arc-faultcircuit interrupter listed to provide protection per NEC 210.12. 

Forthe purposes of this section, such spaces will include, but not be limited to, spaces such 
as closets and sitting areas, but will not include bathrooms. 

025 Common Area Branch Circuits 

(4) Forthe purposes of NEC 210.25, loads for septic or water well systems that are shared by no more 
than two dwelling units may be supplied from either of the two dwelling units if approved by the local 
building official and local health department. 

051(B)(5) Receptacle outlet locations. 

(5) Receptacle outlets installed in appliance garages may be counted as a required countertop outlet. 
052(A)(2) Dwelling unit receptacle outlets. 

(6) Forthe purpose of NEC 210.52(A)(2)(1), "similar openings" include the following configurations that 

are a permanent part of the dwelling configuration or finish: 

(a) Window seating; and 

(b) Bookcases or cabinets that extend from the floor to a level at least 1.7 meters (five (5) feet six 

(6) inches) above the floor. 
Any outlets eliminated by such window seating, bookcases, or cabinets must be installed elsewhere 
within the room. 

052(C) Countertops. 



Page 12 of 138 

WAC 296-46B-210 Wiring and protection -Branch circuits. 



(7) A receptacle(s) is not required to be installed in the area directly behind a sink or range as shown in 

NEC 210.52, Figure 210.52. Outlets must be installed within 24" on either side of a sink or range as 
shown in Figure 210.52. 

(8) If it is impracticable to install the outlet(s) required in NEC 21.52(C)(3), a receptacle is not required on 
any peninsular counter surface as required by NEC 210.52(C)(3) so long as the peninsular counter 
area extends no farther than 6' from the face of the adjoining countertop. Any outlet(s) eliminated 
using this subsection must be installed in the wall space at the point where the peninsula connects to 
the wall countertop in addition to the outlets required by NEC 210.52(C)(1). 



WAC 296-46B-215 Wiring and protection — Feeders. 

010 Feeders - ground fault protection testing. 

Equipment ground fault protection systems required by the NEC must be tested prior to being placed into 
service to verify proper installation and operation of the system as determined by the manufacturer's 
published instructions. This test or a subsequent test must include all system feeders. A firm having 
qualified personnel and proper equipment must perform the tests required. A copy of the manufacturer's 
performance testing instructions and a written performance acceptance test record signed by the person 
performing the test must be provided for the inspector's records at the time of inspection. The 
performance acceptance test record must include test details including, but not limited to, all trip settings 
and measurements taken during the test. 



WAC 296-46B-220 Wiring and protiection — Branch circuit feeder, and service 
calculations. 

003 Branch circuitcalculations. 

Occupancy lighting loads. In determining feeder and service entrance conductor sizes and equipment 
ratings, the currently adopted Washington state energy code unit lighting power allowance table and 
footnotes may be used in lieu of NEC 220.12. 



WAC 296-46B-225 Wiring and protection — Outside branch circuits and feeders. 

032 Location of outside feeder disconnecting means. 

The building disconnecting means required by NEC 225.32 must be provided to disconnect all 
ungrounded conductors that supply or pass through a building or structure per the requirements of NEC 
225.32 (except for Exceptions 1, 2, 3, or 4) in accordance with subsection (1) or (2) of this section. 

(1) Outside location: Except foran outdoor generator set described in a NEC 700, 701, or702 system, 
where the feeder disconnecting means is installed outside a building or structure, it must be on the 
building or structure or within sight and within fifteen feet of the building or structure supplied. The 
building disconnecting means may supply only one building/structure unless the secondary 

Page 13 of 138 

WAC 296-46B-215 Wiring and protection — Feeders. 



building(s)/structLire(s) has a separate building disconnecting means meeting the requirements of the 
NEC and this subsection. The disconnecting means must have an identification plate with at least 
one-half-inch high letters identifying: 

(a) The building/structure served; and 

(b) Its function as the building/structure main disconnect(s). 

(2) Inside location: The feeder disconnecting means may be installed anywhere inside a building or 
structure when there is a feeder disconnecting means, located elsewhere on the premises, with 
overcurrent protection sized for the feeder conductors. 



WAC 296-46B -230 Wiring and protection — Services. 



001 General service requirements. 

(1) The owner, the owner's agent, or the electrical contractor making the installation must consult the 

serving utility regarding the utility's service entrance requirements for equipment location and meter 
equipment requirements before installing the service and equipment. Provisions for a meter and 
related equipment, an attachment of a service drop, or an underground service lateral must be made 
at a location acceptable to the serving utility. The point of contact for a service drop must permit the 
clearances required by the NEC. 

(2) A firewall must have a minimum two-hour rating as defined by the local building official to be 

considered a building separation in accordance with Article 100 NEC. 

(3) The height of the center of the service meter must be as required by the serving utility. Secondary 

instrument transformer metering conductor(s) are not permitted in the service raceway. 

028 Service or other masts. 

(4) Conduit extended through the roof to provide means of attaching: 

(a) All overhead drops for service, feeder, or branch circuits exceeding #1 AWG aluminum or #3 

AWG copper must be rigid steel galvanized conduit no smaller than two inches. 

(b) All overhead drops for service, feeder or branch circuits not exceeding #1 AWG aluminum or 

#3 AWG copper must be rigid steel galvanized conduit no smaller than one and one-quarter 
inch. The installation must comply with drawings E-101 and/or E-102, or must provide 
equivalent strength by other approved means. Masts for altered or relocated installations will 
be permitted to comply with drawing E-103. 

(c) For the purposes of NEC 225.19 and NEC 230.24, a residential patio cover, that is not over 

one-story and not over 12 feet in height and is used only for recreation or outdoor living 
purposes and not as a carport, garage, storage room or habitable room as described in 
Appendix Chapter I in the IBC and Appendix Chapter H in the IRC, is not considered a roof. 
Overhead conductor spans must maintain a minimum 900 mm (36") clearance above these 
covers. 



Page 14 of 138 

WAC 296-46B-230 Wiring and protection - Services. 



Revised 2006 



Surface Mount Meter Base 



Weatherhead 
Service Bracl<et 
Flashing 



Recessed Meter Base 

Weatherhead 

Service Bracl<et 
Flashing 



Min. 2x6 Secured Solidly 

Between Rafters And Against 

Roof Sheathing. 2x4 Scab On 

Both Rafters, Solidly Againsi 

2x6. (See Isometric View) 

Min. V.e"U-B0lt5 

Min. 2x4 Backing 



Rigid Steel 
Conduit 



Structural 

Framing And 

Finish Materials 



Blocking 

Between 

MastAnd 

Building 

^ S urface 



Isometric View 




Min. 2x6 

Secured 

Between Rafters 

Or Studs With 

Hole Bored For A 




Rigid Steel 
Conduit 



Structural 
^ Framing And 
Finish Materials 



Mast Not Over 26" High - service Bracket 24" Or Less Above Roof Surface 



Service Mast Installation Details 



Drawing E-101 



Page 15 of 138 

WAC 296-46B-230 Wiring and protection — Services. 



Revised 2006 



Guying - Cable Type 



Guying - Stiff-Leg Type 



No. 6 Copperweld, 
Aircraft Cable 

Or Equal 




Weathe rhea d 



Collars, Chain-Link 

Fence Clamp Or 

Equal, Min. VBolt 



Weathe rhea d 



Service Drop 

Service Bracket 
Flashing (See 

Detail On E-101) 



Structural 

Framing And 

Finish Materials 



Min. 7.e"U-Bolt5 
Mln. 2x4 Backing 



Attachment 
(See Detail 1) 



^Blocking 
Between 

MastAnd 

Building 

Surface 



Rigid Steel 
Conduit 





Min. 7/ Rigid Steel 

Conduit Or Equal, Ends 

Flattened And Drilled 

Sharp, No-Radius 

Bend (See Detail 2) 



60° To 90 




Galvanized Thimble 
And Cable Clamp 

Flashing Or Mastic 




Structural Framing 
And Finish Materials 



Min. 7.e"U-Bolts 
Min. 2x4 Backing 



Rigid Steel 
Conduit 



Galvanized 

Bolt, Eye-Bolt 

Optional 

Detail 



Mast Over 26" High - service Bracket over 24" Above Roof Surface 



Service Mast Installation Details 



Drawing E-102 



Page 16 of 138 

WAC 296-46B-230 Wiring and protection — Services. 



Revised 2006 



No. 6 Copperweld, 

Aircraft Cable 

Or Equal 



Service Drop 




Heavy-Wall 
Electrical 
Channel 



Approved 
Galvanized 

Channel 
Straps-Not 

Bend-On 
Wire Type 



Mast Over 26" High 
Service Bracket Over 24" Above Roof Surface 



I Weatherhead 
Service Bracket 
Flashing 



Minimum Vxg" 

Galvanized 

Lag-Bolts 

Secured Into 

Solid Framing 

Members 



Heavy-Wall 
Electrical 
Channel 




Front View 



Service Drop 



18" Minimum 




Min. 2x6 

Secured 

Between 

Rafter Tails 

With Hole 

Bored For A 

TiqhtFit 

Rigid Steel 
Conduit 



Mast Not Over 26" High 
Service Bracket 24" Or Less Above Roof Surface 



Service Mast Installation Details (Per Note 6) 



Drawing E-103 



Page 17 of 138 

WAC 296-46B-230 Wiring and protection — Services. 



Notes to drawings E-101, E-102, and E-103 



(1) An approved roof flashing must be installed on each mast where it passes through a roof. 
Plastic, nonhardening mastic must be placed between lead-type flashings and the conduit. 
Neoprene type flashings will also be permitted to be used. 



(2) Masts must be braced, secured, and supported in such a manner that no pressure from the 
attached conductors will be exerted on a roof flashing, meter base, or other enclosures. 



ULLuv-ii^u v.vyiiuuv.Lv^i J will K>^ ^/v._iL^u vy I I u ivyv^i iiuj y, iii^l^i uuj^, vyi wlii^i ^ i iv. ivy j u i ._ j . 

(3) Utilization of couplings for a mast are permitted only below the point the mast is braced, 
secured, or supported. 



(4) Except as otherwise required by the serving utility, service mast support guys must be 
installed if the service drop attaches to the mast more than twenty-four inches above the roof 
line or if the service drop is greater than one hundred feet in length from the pole or support. 
Masts for support of other than service drops must comply with this requirement as well. 



(5) Intermediate support masts must be installed in an approved manner with methods identical 
or equal to those required for service masts. 



(6) For altered services, where it is impractical to install U bolt mast supports due to interior 
walls remaining closed, it will be permissible to use other alternate mast support methods such 
as heavy gauge, galvanized, electrical channel material that is secured to two or more wooden 
studs with five-sixteenths inch diameter or larger galvanized lag bolts. 



(7) Conductors must extend at least eighteen inches from all mastheads to permit connection to 
the connecting overhead wiring. 



040 Service conductors - two-family and multiple-occupancy buildings. 

(5) Two-family and multiple-occupancy buildings. A second or additional service drop or lateral to a 

building having more than one occupancy will be permitted to be installed at a location separate from 
other service drops or laterals to the building provided that all the following conditions are complied 
with: 

(a) Each service drop or lateral must be sized in accordance with the NEC for the calculated load 
to be served by the conductors; 

(b) Each service drop or lateral must terminate in listed metering/service equipment; 

(c) Each occupant must have access to the occupant's service disconnecting means; 

(d) No more than six service disconnects may be supplied from a single transformer; 

(e) All service drops or laterals supplying a building must originate at the same transformer or 

power supply; 

(f) A permanent identification plate must be placed at each service disconnect location that 

identifies all other service disconnect locations in or on the building, the area or units served 
by each, the total number of service disconnecting means on the building/structure and the 
area or units served. If a structure consists of multiple buildings (i.e., by virtue of fire 
separation), all service disconnects in or on the entire structure must be labeled to identify all 
service disconnects in or on the structure; and 

(g) A permanent identification plate must be placed at each feeder disconnecting means 

identifying the area or units served if the feeder disconnecting means is remote from the area 
or unit served. 

042 Service conductor - size and rating. 

(6) If the service conductors have a lesser ampacity than the overcurrent protection or the equipment 

rating that they terminate in or on, an identification plate showing the ampacity of the conductors must 
be installed on the service equipment. 



Page 18 of 138 

WAG 296-46B-230 Wiring and protection — Services. 



043 Wiring methods for 600 volts, nominal or less. 

(7) The installation of service conductors not exceeding 600 volts, nominal, within a building or structure 
is limited to the following methods: Galvanized or aluminum rigid metal conduit; galvanized 
intermediate metal conduit; wireways; busways; auxiliary gutters; rigid nonmetallic conduit; cablebus; 
or mineral-insulated, metal-sheathed cable (type Ml). 

(8) Electrical metallic tubing must not be installed as the wiring method for service entrance conductors 
inside a building. Existing electrical metallic tubing, installed prior to October 1984, which is properly 
grounded and used for service entrance conductors may be permitted to remain if the conduit is 
installed in a nonaccessible location and is the proper size for the installed conductors. 

(9) In addition to methods allowed in the NEC, the grounded service conductor is permitted to be 
identified with a yellow jacket or with one or more yellow stripes. 

062 Service equipment- general. 

(10) Service equipment, subpanels, and similar electrical equipment must be installed so that they are 
readily accessible and may not be installed in bathrooms, clothes closets, or shower rooms. All indoor 
service equipment and subpanel equipment must have adequate working space and be adequately 
illuminated. 

(11) Temporary construction service equipment may only be used for construction purposes and must be 
disconnected when the permanent service is connected unless the department grants an extension of 
time. 

070 Service disconnecting means. 

(12) The service disconnecting means must be installed at a readily accessible location in accordance 
with (a) or(b) of this subsection. 

(a) Outside location: Service disconnecting means will be permitted on the building or structure or within 
sight and within fifteen feet of the building or structure served. The building disconnecting means may 
supply only one building/structure. The service disconnecting means must have an identification plate 
with one-half-inch high letters identifying: 

(i) The building/structure served; and 

(ii) Its function as the building/structure main service disconnect(s). 
(b) Inside location: When the service disconnecting means is installed inside the building or 
structure, it must be located so that the service raceway extends no more than fifteen feet 
inside the building/structure. 

095 Ground-fault protection of equipment. 

(13) Equipment ground-fault protection systems required by the NEC must be tested prior to being placed 
into service to verify proper installation and operation of the system as determined by the 
manufacturer's published instructions. This test or a subsequent test must include all service voltage 
feeders. A firm having qualified personnel and proper equipment must perform the tests required. A 
copy of the manufacturer's performance testing instructions and a written performance acceptance 
test record signed by the person performing the test must be provided for the inspector's records at 
the time of inspection. The performance acceptance test record must include test details including, 
but not limited to, all trip settings and measurements taken during the test. 

200 Wiring methods exceeding 600 volts. 

(14) The installation of service conductors exceeding 600 volts, nominal, within a building or structure 
must be limited to the following methods: Galvanized rigid metal conduit, galvanized intermediate 
metal conduit, schedule 80 rigid nonmetallic conduit, metal-clad cable that is exposed for its entire 
length, cablebus, or busways. 

Page 19 of 138 

WAG 296-46B-230 Wiring and protection — Services. 



(15) In addition to metiiods allowed in the NEC, the grounded service conductor is permitted to be 
identified with a yellow jacket or with one or more yellow stripes. 



WAC 296-46B-250 Wiring and protection - Grounding and bonding. 

032 Two or more buildings or structures. 

(1) Effective August 1, 2003, an equipment grounding conductor must be installed with the circuit 

conductors between buildings and/or structures. A grounded conductor (i.e., neutral) is not permitted 
to be used in place of a separate equipment grounding conductor between buildings and/or 
structures. 

052 Grounding electrodes. 

(2) If a ground resistance test is not performed to ensure a resistance to ground of twenty-five ohms or 

less, two or more electrodes as specified in NEC 250.52 must be installed a minimum of six feet 
apart. However, a temporary construction service is not required to have more than one made 
electrode. 

(3) If a concrete encased electrode is installed, inspection may be accomplished by the following 

methods: 

(a) At the time of inspection of other work on the project, providing the concrete encased 

electrode is accessible for a visual inspection; 

(b) At the time of the service inspection providing the installer has provided a method so the 

inspector can verify the continuity of the electrode conductor along its entire length (e.g. 
attaching a length of copper wire to one end of the electrode that reaches the location of the 
grounding electrode conductor that will enable the inspector to measure the resistance with a 
standard resistance tester). The concrete encased electrode does not have to be accessible 
for a visual inspection; or 

(c) Other method when prior approval, on a jobsite basis, is given by the inspector. 

If a special inspection trip is required to inspect a grounding electrode conductor, a trip fee will be 
charged for that inspection in addition to the normal permit fee. 

056 Resistance of Rod, Pipe, and Plate Electrodes 

(4) For services only, when multiple buildings or structures are located adjacent, but structurally separate 
from each other, any installed rod, pipe, or plate electrodes used for those services must be installed 
so that each building's or structure's electrodes are not less than 1.8 m. (6 ft) apart from the adjacent 
building's or structure's electrodes. 

090 Bonding. 

(5) Metallic stubs or valves used in nonmetallic plumbing systems are not required to be bonded to the 
electrical system unless required by an electrical equipment manufacturer's instructions. 

(6) Hot and cold water plumbing lines are not required to be bonded together if, at the time of inspection, 
the inspector can determine the lines are mechanically and electrically joined by one or more metallic 
mixing valves. 

184 Solidly grounded neutral systems over 1 kV. 

(7) In addition to the requirements of NEC 250.184(A), the following applies for: 

(a) Existing installations. 

Page 20 of 138 

WAC 296-46B-250 Wiring and protection - Grounding and bonding. 



(i) The use of a concentric shield will be allowed for use as a neutral conductor for 
extension, replacement, or repair, if all of the following are complied with: 

(A) The existing system uses the concentric shield as a neutral conductor; 

(B) Each individual conductor contains a separate concentric shield sized to no 
less than thirty-three and one-half percent of the ampacity of the phase 
conductor for three-phase systems or one hundred percent of the ampacity 
of the phase conductor for single-phase systems; 

(C) The new or replacement cable's concentric shield is enclosed inside an outer 
insulating jacket; and 

(D) Existing cable (i.e., existing cable installed directly in the circuit between the 
work and the circuit's overcurrent device) successfully passes the following 
tests: 

• A cable maintenance high potential dielectric test. The test must be 

performed in accordance with the cable manufacturer's instruction or 
the 2001 NETA maintenance test specifications; and 

• A resistance test of the cable shield. Resistance must be based on the 

type, size, and length of the conductor used as the cable shield using 
the conductor properties described in NEC Table 8 Conductor 
Properties. 

• An electrical engineer must provide a specific certification to the 

electrical plan review supervisor in writing that the test results of the 
maintenance high potential dielectric test and the resistance test 
have been reviewed by the electrical engineer and that the cable 
shield is appropriate for the installation. The electrical engineer must 
stamp the certification document with the engineer's stamp and 
signature. The document may be in the form of a letter or electrical 
plans. 

• Testing results are valid for a period of seven years from the date of 

testing. Cable will not be required to be tested at a shorter interval, 
(ii) A concentric shield used as a neutral conductor in a multigrounded system fulfills the 
requirements of an equipment grounding conductor, 
(b) New installations. 

(i) New installations do not include extensions of existing circuits, 
(ii) The use of the concentric shield will not be allowed for use as a neutral conductor for 
new installations. A listed separate neutral conductor meeting the requirements of 
NEC 250.184(A) must be installed. 



WAC 296-46B -300 Wiring methods and materials — Wiring methods. 

GDI Wiring methods. 

(1) Cables and raceways fortelecommunications, power limited, NEC Class 2 and Class 3 conductors 

must be installed in compliance with Chapters NEC unless other methods are specifically allowed 
elsewhere in the NEC, chapter 19.28 RCW, orthis chapter. 

005 Underground installations. 

(2) Induction loops. See WAC 296-466-901(23) for induction detection loops that are made in a public 

roadway and regulated by a governmental agency. 

Other induction loops must comply with the following requirements: 

Page 21 of 138 

WAC 296-46B-300 Wiring methods and nnaterials — Wiring methods. 



(a) General: 

(i) A preformed direct burial induction loop is designed to be installed within the road 
surface base (e.g., concrete or asphalt) or below the road surface of a road with an 
unpaved surface (e.g., gravel or brick pavers); 

(ii) A saw-cut induction detection loop is designed to be installed into a groove saw-cut 
into an existing paved road surface (e.g., concrete or asphalt); 

(ill) The loop system includes the loop and the lead-in conductor; 

(iv) The loop system must be: 

(A) Tested to assure that at 500 volts DC, the resistance between the conductor 
and ground equals or exceeds 50 megohms; and 

(B) Without splice; or 

(C) If spliced, the splice must be soldered and appropriately insulated; 
(v) The lead-in conductor must comply with the following: 

(A) Must be stranded and have a lay (i.e., twist) of two turns per foot; and 

(B) If installed in an electrical raceway; 

• Are not required to be listed or suitable for wet locations; and 

• M ust have a burial cover of at least 6"; or 

(C) If direct buried; 

• M ust be listed for the use; and 

• M ust have a burial cover of at least 18". 

(b) Preformed direct burial induction detection loops must conform with the following: 

(i) The loop conductor must be rated for direct burial and be a minimum of No. 16 AWG; 
(ii) The loop design must not allow movement of the loop conductor within the outer 

jacket. The outer jacket containing the loop conductor is not required to be listed; 
(ill) The loop yoke casing (i.e., the location where the lead-in conductor is connected to 

the loop): 

(A) Includes any device used to house the "loop to lead-in splice" or to otherwise 
couple the loop with the lead-in electrical raceway; 

(B) Is not required to be listed; and 

(C) Must have a coupler that will create a waterproof bond with the electrical 
raceway, containing the lead-in conductor, or a direct buried lead-in 
conductor. 

(c) Saw-cut induction detection loops: 

(i) The loop conductor must be cross-linked polyethylene or EPR Type USE insulation 

and be a minimum of No. 18 AWG stranded; 
(ii) The saw-cut groove must not cut into rebar installed within the roadway. 

OllSupportof raceways, cables, or boxes in suspended ceilings. 

(3) NEC power limited. Class 2, and Class 3 cables must be secured in compliance with NEC 334.30 and 

must be secured to boxes in compliance with NEC 314.17. 

(4) Telecommunications cables must be secured in a manner that will not cause damage to the cables 

and at intervals not exceeding five feet. Cables are considered adequately supported when run 
through holes in building structural elements or other supporting elements. Telecommunications 
cables may be fished into inaccessible hollow spaces of finished buildings. Clamps or fittings are not 
required where telecommunications cables enter boxes. 

(5) Optical fiber cables must be secured in a manner that will not cause damage to the cables and at 

intervals not exceeding five feet. Cables are considered adequately supported when run through 
holes in building structural elements or other supporting elements. Optical fiber cables may be fished 
into inaccessible hollow spaces of finished buildings. Supports must allow a bending radius that will 
not cause damage to the cables. 

(6) Where not restricted by the building code official or Article 300 NEC, the wires required in NEC 

300.11(A) may support raceways, cables, or boxes under the following conditions: 

(a) Raceways and/or cables are not larger than three-quarter-inch trade size; 

(b) No more than two raceways or cables are supported by a support wire. The two-cable 

limitation does not apply to telecommunications cables. Class 2 cables, or Class 3 cables on 

Page 22 of 138 

WAG 296-46B-300 Wiring methods and materials — Wiring methods. 



support wires installed exclusively for such cables. The support wire must be adequate to 
carry the cable(s) weight and all attached cables must be secured with approved fittings; or 

(c) Raceways and cables are secured to the support wires by fittings designed and manufactured 
for the purpose. 

In addition to (a), (b), and (c) of this subsection, the following conditions must be complied with: 

(d) The support wires are minimum #12 AWG and are securely fastened to the structural ceiling 

and to the ceiling grid system; and 

(e) The raceways or cables serve equipment that is located within the ceiling cavity or is mounted 

on or supported by the ceiling grid system. Telecommunications cables, Class 2 cables, or 
Class 3 cables supported as required by this section, may pass through ceiling cavities 
without serving equipment mounted on or supported by the ceiling grid system. 

017 Conductors in raceway. 

(7) Cables will be permitted in all raceway systems if: 

(a) The cable is appropriate for the environment; and 

(b) The percentage fill does not exceed that allowed in NEC Chapter 9, Table 1. 



WAC 296-46B -314 Wiring methods and materials — Outlet, device, pull and junction 
boxes. 

001 Boxes and fittings. 

(1) Conduit bodies, junction, pull, and outlet boxes must be installed so thatthe wiring contained in them 

is accessible without removing any part of the building structure, including insulation material. 

023(H) Flexible cord connection of pendant boxes. 

(2) The flexible cord and cord connection must comply with NEC 314.23(H) and the following: 

(a) A suspended pendant box must not contain conduit "knockouts" and connection to a 

suspended box must utilize an integral threaded hub; 

(b) The maximum length of the cord for a suspended pendant drop from a permanently installed 
junction box to a suitable tension take-up device above the pendant box must not exceed six 
feet; 

(c) The flexible cord must be supported at each end with an approved cord grip or strain relief 

connector fitting/device that will eliminate all stress on the conductor connections; 

(d) The flexible cord must be a minimum #14 AWG copper; 

(e) The flexible cord ampacity must be determined using NEC Table 400.5(A) column A; and 

(f) The flexible cord must be hard or extra hard usage. 



WAC 296-46B-334 Wiring methods and maftieriais — Nonmetallic-sheafthed cable. 

010 Nonmetallic-sheathed cable. 

(1) The building classification, for subsections (2), (3), and (4) of this section, will be as determined by the 
building official. Forthe purposes of this section. Type III, IV and V may be as defined in the 
International Building Code adopted in the state of Washington. The installer must provide the 

Page 23 of 138 

WAC 296-46B-314 Wiring methods and nnaterials — Outlet device, pull and junction boxes. 



inspector documentation substantiating the type of building construction and finisii material rating(s) 
prior to any electrical inspection. 

(2) This section replaces NEC 334.10(2). In multifamily dwellings, Type NM, Type NMC, and Type NMS 

cable(s) may be used in structures of Types III, IV, and V construction except as prohibited in NEC 
334.12. 

(3) This section replaces NEC 334.10(3). In all other structures. Type NM, Type NMC, and Type NMS 

cable(s) may be used in structures of Types III, IV, and V construction except as prohibited in NEC 
334.12. All cable(s) must be concealed within walls, floors, or ceilings that provide a thermal barrier of 
material that has at least a 15-minute finish rating as identified in listings of fire-rated assemblies. 

(4) This section replaces NEC 334.10(4). Cable trays in structures of Types III, IV, and V construction, 

where the cable(s) is identified for the use, except as prohibited in NEC 334.12. 

015 Exposed work. 

(5) Where Type NMC cable is installed in shallow chases in plaster, masonry, concrete, adobe or similar 

material, the cable must be protected against nails or screws by: 

(a) A steel plate at least 1.59 mm (1/16 in.) thick and covered with plaster, adobe, or similar finish; 
or 
(b) Being recessed in a chase at least 6.985 cm (2 3/4 in.) deep, as measured from the finished surface, 
and covered with plaster, adobe, or similar finish. The cable(s) must be at least 6.35 mm (2 1/2 in.) from 
the finished surface. 



WAC 296-46B-358 Wiring methods and materials — Electrical metallic tubing. 

012 Electrical metallic tubing. 

In addition to complying with the provisions of Article 358 NEC, electrical metallic tubing may not be 
installed in direct contact with the earth or in concrete on or below grade. Also see NEC 300.6 for 
resistance to corrosion. 



WAC 296-46B-394 Wiring methods and maftierials — Concealed knob-and-tube wiring. 

001 Knob-and-tube wiring. 

Article 394 NEC does not prohibit the installation of loose or rolled thermal insulating material in spaces 
containing existing knob-and-tube wiring provided that all the following conditions are met: 

(1) The wiring must be surveyed by an appropriately licensed electrical contractor who must certify in 

writing to the department that the wiring is in good condition with no evidence of improper overcurrent 
protection, conductor insulation failure or deterioration, and with no improper connections or splices. 
The electrical inspector must inspect all repairs, alterations, or extensions to the electrical system. 

(2) The insulation must meet Class I specifications as identified in the Uniform Building Code, with a flame 

spread factor of twenty-five or less as tested using ASTM E84-81a. Foam insulation may not be used 
with knob-and-tube wiring. 

(3) All knob-and-tube circuits must have overcurrent protection in compliance with NEC Table 310.16, 60 

degree centigrade. Column C. Overcurrent protection must be either circuit breakers or Type S fuses. 



Page 24 of 138 

WAC 296-46B-358 Wiring methods and materials — Electrical metallic tubing. 



WAC 296-46B-410 Equipment for general use — Luminaires. 

004 Luminaires. 

(1) All luminaires within an enclosed shower area or within five feet of the waterline of a bathtub must be 

enclosed, unless specifically listed for such use; these luminaires, with exposed metal parts that are 
grounded, must be ground fault circuit interrupter protected. 

018 Exposed luminaire (fixture) parts. 

(2) Replacement luminaires that are directly wired or attached to boxes supplied by wiring methods that 
do not provide a ready means for grounding and that have exposed conductive parts will be permitted 
only where the luminaires are provided with ground-fault circuit-interrupter protection and marked "no 
equipment ground." 

030 Flexible cord connection of electric discharge luminaires. 

(3) A ground-type attachment plug cap and receptacle connection at the source junction box is not 

required when the flexible cord complies with NEC 410.30 and the following: 

(a) Connection to a source junction box must utilize an approved cable connector or clamp; 

(b) The maximum length of the cord for a suspended pendant drop from a permanently installed 
junction box to a suitable tension take-up device above the pendant luminaire must not 
exceed six feet; 

(c) The flexible cord must be supported at each end with an approved cord grip or strain relief 

connector fitting/device that will eliminate all stress on the conductor connections; 

(d) The flexible cord must be a minimum #14 AWG copper; 

(e) The flexible cord ampacity must be determined in NEC Table 400.5(A) column A; 

(f) The flexible cord must be hard or extra hard usage; and 

(g) A vertical flexible cord supplying electric discharge luminaires must be secured to the 

luminaire support as per NEC 334.30(A). 



WAC 296-46B-422 Equipment for general use— Appliances. 

010 Water heater circuit. 

Water heaters with a rated circuit load in excess of 3,500 watts at 208 or 240 volts must be provided with 
branch circuit conductors not smaller than #10 AWG copper or equal. vercurrent protection must comply 
with NEC 422.11(E). 



WAC 296-46B-430 Motors, motor circuits, and controllers. 

007 Marking on motors and multimotor equipment. 



Page 25 of 138 

WAC 296-46TBT-410 Equipment for general use — Luminaires. 



Except as required by the National Electrical Code, there is no requirement for motors to be identified for 
use or listed/field evaluated by a laboratory. All motors must be manufactured according to National 
Electrical Manufacturer's Association (NEMA) standards for motors except motors that: 

(1) Are a component part of equipment listed or field evaluated by a laboratory; or 

(2) Are a component part of industrial utilization equipment approved by the department per WAC 296- 
46B-901. 



WAC 296-46B-450 Equipment for general use — Transformers and transformer vaults. 

027 Flammable-liquid or oil-filled transformers installed outdoors. 

(1) Flammable-liquid or oil-filled transformers installed outdoors must meet the following requirements: 
(a) A transformer installed adjacent to a building/structure with any combustible surface may be 
located only in the shaded "Approved Transformer Area" shown in Figure 450-1; 



Page 26 of 138 

WAC 296-46B-450 Equipment for general use — Transformers and transfonner vaults. 





































y^ ^\ . Q 


7 












Combustible 
Building 
Surface 


ftT 


Approved 


, 8 ^ 


/ Transformer 
( Area 




ft. 








Figure 450-1 



(b) A transformer installed adjacent to a building/structure with no combustible surface(s) may be 
located only in the shaded "Approved Transformer Area" shown in Figure 450-2; 




Non- 
Combustible 
Building 
Surface 



m 



^ 



Approved 

Transformer 

Area 



Figure 450-2 



Page 27 ofl38 

WAC 296-46B-450 Equipment for general use — Transformers and transfonner vaults. 



(c) In an area in which a transformer is to be installed next to a noninhabited structure, the 
transformer may be no closer than two feet to the building/structure and must be outside a 
line extended vertically from the ends of the eaves orrooflines; 

(d) A building/structure may have no doors, windows, stairways, or other openings closer than 

eight feet to the transformer; 

(e) The finished grade at the location of the transformer must be such that any oil leaking from the 

transformer will flow away from the building/structure and will not pool; and 

(f) If transformers are installed in areas subject to traffic other than pedestrian traffic, they must be 

provided with adequate guarding. 
(2) Enclosures for total underground flammable-liquid or oil-filled transformers must not be located within 
eight feet of a doorway, operable window, stairways or fire escape. Adequate space must be 
maintained above the enclosure so that a boom may be used to lift the transformer from the 
enclosure. 



WAC 296-46B-501 Special occupancies NEC Class I locations. 

001 Sewage disposal systems. 

(1) Pumping chambers for sewage, effluent, or grinder pumps in on-site and septic tank effluent pump 

(S .T.E .P .) disposal systems will be considered unclassified when not more than five residential units 
are connected to the system, residential units are connected to a utility sewage system, or when 
nonresidential systems have residential loading characteristics and all of the following general 
installations requirements are complied with: 

(a) The pumping chamber must be adequately vented. Venting may be accomplished through 

the building or structure plumbing vents where the system venting has been approved by the 
local jurisdiction authority or by a direct two-inch minimum vent to the atmosphere; 

(b) Equipment that in normal operation may cause an arc or spark must not be installed in any 

pumping chamber; 

(c) Float switches installed in a pumping chamber must be hermetically sealed to prevent the 

entrance of gases or vapors; 

(d) J unction boxes, conduits and fittings installed in the septic atmosphere must be of a 

noncorrosive type, installed to prevent the entrance of gases or vapors; 

(e) Where a conduit system is installed between the pumping chamber and the control panel, 

motor disconnect, or power source, an approved sealing method must be installed to prevent 
the migration of gases or vapors from the pumping chamber, and must remain accessible; 
and 

(f) Wire splices in junction boxes installed in pumping chambers must be suitable for wet 

locations. 

(2) Residential wastewater loading characteristics in a nonresidential installation: 

(a) For systems that process less than three thousand five hundred gallons of wastewater per day 
may be certified by: 

(i) An on-site wastewater designer licensed under chapter 18.210 RC W; or 
(ii) A professional engineer, engaged in the business of on-site wastewater system 
design, licensed under chapter 18.43 RCW. 

(b) For systems that process three thousand five hundred gallons or more of wastewater per day 
may be certified by a professional engineer, engaged in the business of on-site wastewater 
system design, licensed under chapter 18.43 RCW. 

Written documentation must be signed and stamped by the designer or engineer and provided to 
the electrical inspector prior to inspection. 

(3) Any residential or nonresidential system that has building or structure floor drains being discharged 

into the system is classified as Class I Division 1. Drains from any commercially made tub, shower, 
basin, sink, or toilet are not considered floor drains. 

Page 28 of 138 

WAC 296-46B-501 Special occupancies NEC Class I locations. 



(4) Pumping chamber access covers can be covered by gravel, light aggregate, ornoncohesive 
granulated soil, and must be accessible for excavation. Access covers that are buried must have 
their exact location identified at the electrical panel or other prominent location by an identification 
plate. The authority having jurisdiction for performing electrical inspections must approve the 
identification plate location. 

(5) Indoor grinder pumps installed in chambers with less than fifty gallons capacity are not required to 
meet the requirements of this section, except for the venting requirements in subsection (l)(a) of this 
section. Indoor grinder pumps installed in chambers with less than fifty gallons capacity are not 
classified systems as described in Article 500 NEC. 

(6) Secondary treatment effluent pumping chambers such as sand filters are unclassified, and require no 
special wiring methods. 

(7) Inspection approval is required prior to covering or concealing any portion of the septic electrical 
system, including the pump. New septic and effluent tanks containing electrical wires and equipment 
must be inspected and approved prior to being loaded with sewage. 



WAC 296-46B -514 Special occupancies — Motor fuel dispensing facilities. 

001 General. 

(1) In addition to the scope included in NEC 514.1, Article 514 NEC must be complied with for all liquified 
flammable gas storage or transfer facilities. 

Oil Emergency disconnecting means - dispensing and service stations. 

(2) An emergency disconnecting means or operator must be provided to disconnect the pump or 

dispensing equipment serving gasoline, volatile flammable liquids, or liquefied flammable gases. The 
emergency disconnecting means or operator must disconnect all conductors of the circuit supplying 
all station dispensers and/or pumps (including the grounded conductor) simultaneously from the 
source(s) of supply. 

(3) For installations with only one dispensing device, the emergency disconnecting means/operator may 

be used to satisfy subsection (2) of this section. 

(4) For multicircuit installations, an electrically held normally open contactor operated by a push-button 

may serve as the disconnecting means to satisfy subsection (2) of this section. If a disconnecting 
pushbutton is used, the pushbutton may not function as the resetting mechanism for the electrically 
held contactor. The resetting means must be: 

(a) Located at least fifteen feetor out of sight from the disconnecting pushbutton; 

(b) Installed behind a cover or guard; and 

(c) Identified with an identification plate that is substantially black in color. 

(5) The disconnecting means satisfying subsection (2) of this section must be labeled with an 

identification plate, with letters at least one inch high, as the emergency disconnecting means. The 
disconnecting means or operator must be: 

(a) Substantially red in color; and 

(b) For attended facilities - must be readily accessible and must be located outdoors and within 

sight of the pump or dispensing equipment it controls; or 

(c) For unattended facilities - must be readily accessible and must be located within sight, but at 

least twenty feet from the pump or dispensing equipment it controls. 



Page 29 of 138 

WAC 296-46B-514 Special occupancies — Motor fuel dispensing facilities. 



WAC 296-46B-517 Special occupancies — Health care facilities. 

001 Health care facilities. 

In health care facilities, the following methods must be used to determine adequate capacity and ratings 
of equipment providing electrical power for the essential electrical systems defined in Article 517 NEC: 

(1) Systems in new facilities: 

(a) Emergency system: The emergency branch must consist of two branches known as: 

(i) Life safety system: The feeder conductors and equipment used to supply electrical 
power to the life safety branch must be determined by summation of the connected 
loads as determined by Article 220 NEC and may not be subjected to any reduction 
due to the diversity of the loads. Feeder and equipment will be subject to a one 
hundred twenty-five percent multiplier for continuous loads in accordance with Article 
220 NEC. 

(ii) Critical branch system: The feeder conductors and equipment must be calculated in 
accordance with Article 220 NEC, including a level of diversity as determined by such 
article. 

(b) Equipment branch: The feeder conductors and equipment used to supply electrical power to 
the equipment branch of the essential electrical system must be calculated in accordance 
with Article 220 NEC, including a level of diversity as determined by such article. 

(c) Generator sizing: The rating of the generator(s) supplying electrical power to the essential 

system of a health care facility mustmeet or exceed the summation of the loads determined 
in (a) and (b) of this subsection with no additional demand factors applied. Momentary X-ray 
loads maybe ignored if the generator is rated at least three hundred percent of the largest 
momentary X-ray load connected. 

(2) Existing essential systems in facilities to which additional load is to be added: 

(a) Existing loads: The existing loads of the separate branches of the essential electrical system 
may be determined by WAC 296-46B-901(15)(j). 

(b) Added loads: Added loads to the separate branches of the essential electrical system must be 

determined by subsection (1) of this section. 

(c) Generator sizing: The rating of the generator(s) supplying electrical power to the essential 

electrical system must meet or exceed the summation of the loads determined by (a) and (b) 
of this subsection with no additional demand factors applied. 



WAC 296-46B-520 Special occupancies — Theaters, motion picture and television 
studios, perfbmriance areas and similar areas. 

001 Concerts, motion picture productions, stage shows, and similar shows. 

(1) Service equipment, separately derived systems, feeders and circuits for concerts, motion picture 

productions, stage shows, and similar shows, must comply with the NEC and this chapter. 

(2) The ampacity of cords and cables must be determined from the appropriate Article 400 NEC cord and 
cable ampacity tables including all notes. 



Page 30 of 138 

WAC 296-46B-517 Special occupancies — Health care facilities. 



WAC 296-46B-550 Special occupancies — Mobile homes, manufactured homes and 
mobile home parks. 

001 Mobile/manufactured homes - inspection. 

(1) All alterations to the mobile/manufactured home electrical system must be permitted and inspected by 

the factory assembled structures section of the department. Electrical wiring in structures that are 
attached to the mobile/manufactured home and for which the source of power is from the 
mobile/manufactured home is inspected by the factory assembled structures section of the 
department. 

032 Mobile/manufactured homes - service. 

(2) If an electrical service is installed on the mobile/manufactured home: 

(a) It must be installed only by the manufacturer, at the manufacturing plant. The manufacturer 

must complete the service except for service connections, meter, and grounding electrode 
conductor; and 

(b) The owner or an electrical contractor must complete the service at the site. 

033 Mobile/manufactured homes - feeder. 

(3) When the mobile or manufactured home is supplied with power using a permanent wiring method, the 
equipment grounding conductor will be permitted to be bare. Bare conductors used underground must be 
copper. For the purposes of this section, portable cord is not considered a permanent wiring method. 



WAC 296-46B-553 Special occupancies — Floating buildings. 

004 Floating buildings and similar facilities - services and feeders. 

(1) Where electrical power is provided, floating buildings and similar facilities in addition to complying with 
the appropriate sections of Article 553 NEC must have a readily accessible service rated disconnect 
located on the shoreline within sight of the shoreline connection of the dock, wharf or similar structure 
to which the floating building or similar facility is moored. 

(2) Where shore power is provided, each floating building or similar facility must have a disconnecting 

means located within sight of each floating building or similar facility. The disconnecting means must 
be installed adjacent to but not in or on the floating building or similar facility. 

007 Floating buildings and similar installations - wiring methods. 

(3) Extra-hard usage portable power cables rated not less than 75°C, 600 volts, listed for wet locations 
and sunlight resistance and having an outer jacket rated for the environment may be used as a 
permanent wiring method when joining the structures indicated above and for any concealed or 
protected wiring on a sectionalized floating dock leading to a floating building or similar facility. The 
cable needs to be resistant only to environments it is normally exposed to on an ongoing basis. 

(4) Conductors operating in excess of 600 volts, nominal may not be installed on floating portions of a 
floating building or similar facility. 



Page 31 of 138 

WAC 296-46B-550 Special occupancies — Mobile homes, manufactured homes and mobile home parks. 



WAC 296-46B-555 Special occupancies -Marinas and boatyards. 

(1) Forthe purposes of NEC 555.1, the scope of work includes private, noncommercial docking facilities. 

(2) Forthe purposes of NEC 555.5, transformer terminations must be located a minimum of twelve inches 
above the deck of a dock (datum plane requirements do not apply for this section). 

(3) Forthe purposes of NEC 555.7, adjacent means within sight. 

(4) Forthe purposes of NEC 555.9, all electrical connections must be installed a minimum of twelve 

inches above the deck of a pier unless the connections are approved for wet locations (datum plane 
requirements do not apply for this section). 

(5) Forthe purposes of NEC 555.10, all enclosures must be corrosion resistant. All gasketed enclosures 

must be arranged with a weep hole to discharge condensation. 

(6) Forthe purposes of NEC 555.11, gasketed enclosures are only required for wet locations. 

(7) Forthe purposes of NEC 555.13, the following wiring methods are allowed: 

(a) All wiring installed in a damp or wet location must be suitable for wet locations. 

(b) Extra-hard usage portable power cables rated not less than 75 C, 600 volts, listed for wet 

locations and sunlight resistance and having an outer jacket rated forthe environment are 
permitted. Portable power cables are permitted as a permanent wiring method under or 
within docks and piers or where provided with physical protection. The requirements of NEC 
555.13 (B)(4)(b) do not apply. 

(c) Overhead wiring must be installed at the perimeter of areas where boats are moored, stored, 

moved, or serviced to avoid possible contact with masts and other parts of boats. 

(d) Forthe purposes of NEC 555.13 (B)(5), the wiring methods of Chapter 3 NEC will be 
permitted. 

(8) Forthe purposes of NEC 555.19, receptacles must be mounted not less than twelve inches above the 

deck surface of the pier or dock (datum plane requirements do not apply for this section). Shore 
power receptacles that provide shore power for boats must be rated not less than 20 amperes and 
must be single outlet type and must be of the locking and grounding type or pin and sleeve type. 

(9) Forthe purposes of NEC 555.21, electrical wiring and equipment located at or serving dispensing 
stations must comply with Article 514 NEC in addition to the requirements of this section. 

(a) Boundary classifications. 

(i) Class I, Division 1. The area under the dispensing unit is a Class I, Division 1 location. 
If a dock has one or more voids, pits, vaults, boxes, depressions, or similar spaces 
where flammable liquid or vapor can accumulate below the dock surface and within 
twenty feet horizontally of the dispensing unit, then the area below the top of the dock 
and within twenty feet horizontally of the dispensing unit is a Class I, Division 1 
location. See Figure 555-1. 

(ii) Class I, Division 2. The area eighteen inches above the water line and within twenty 
feet horizontally of the dispensing unit is a C lass I, Division 2 location. If a dock has 
one or more voids, pits, vaults, boxes, depressions, or similar spaces where 
flammable liquid or vapor can accumulate below the dock surface and within twenty 
feet horizontally of the dispensing unit, then the area to eighteen inches above the 
top and adjacent to the sides of the dock and within twenty feet horizontally of the 
dispensing unit is a Class I, Division 2 location. See Figure 555-2. 

(b) Portable power cable will be allowed as a permanent wiring method in Class I, Division 2 

locations when protected from physical damage. 

(10) Forthe purposes of NEC 555.23, the datum plane requirements do not apply. 



Page 32 of 138 

WAC 296-46B-555 Special occupancies -Marinas and boatyards. 



Dispenser 

Dock with 
Void or Pit 



Water Line 




Void/Pit 



Class 1, Division 1 



Class 1, Division 2 



Figure 555-1 



1 



T 



18" 



Dispenser 



Dock with no 
voids or pits 



Water Line 




Area below 
Dispenser 



Class 1, Division 1 



Class 1, Division 2 



Figure 555-2 



1 



T 



18" 



Page 33 of 138 

WAG 296-46B-555 Special occupancies -Marinas and boatyards. 



WAC 296-46B-590 Special occupancies — Temporary installations. 

001 Temporary installations. 

(1) For the purposes of this section, any circuit used for construction purposes is considered to be 
temporary. 

004 Temporary installations - splices. 

(2) A splice or junction box is required for all wiring splice or junction connections in a temporary 
installation. 



WAC 296-46B-600 Special equipment— Electric signs and outline lighting. 



GDI Electrical signs - general. 

(1) All electrical signs within the scope of UL Standard 48, the electrical sign standard, must be listed. All 

electrical signs outside the scope of UL Standard 48 will be inspected for compliance with the NEC. 

009 Awning electrical signs. 

(2) Luminaires in outdoor awnings must be suitable for wet locations and be connected by a wiring 

method suitable for wet locations. 

(3) Fluorescent luminaires must be located at least six inches from the awning fabric. Incandescent lamps 
or luminaires must be located at least eighteen inches from the awning fabric. A disconnecting means 
must be installed per Article 600 NEC. 

(4) Listed awning signs must be installed in compliance with the manufacturer's instructions and the NEC. 

010 Portable or mobile outdoor electrical signs. 

(5) A weatherproof receptacle outlet that is weatherproof with the supply cord connected must be installed 

within six feet of each electrical sign. 

(6) Extension cords are not permitted to supply portable outdoor signs. 

(7) All portable outdoor electrical signs must be listed or field evaluated by a laboratory accredited by the 

department. 

030 Neon tubing. 

(8) NEC 600, Part II, Field-Installed Skeleton Tubing, will apply to all neon tubing and neon circuit 
conductors. 



WAC 296-46B-680 Special equipment— Swimming pools, fountains and similar 
installations. 



Page 34 of 138 

WAC 296-46B-590 Special occupancies — Temporary installations. 



001 General. 

(1) Package spa or hot tubs. Electrical heating, pumping, filtering, and/or control equipment installed 
within five feet of a spa or hot tub must be listed or field evaluated as a package with the spa or hot 
tub. 

(2) A factory assembled skid pack of electrical heating, pumping, filtering, and/or control equipment (skid 

pack) must be installed more than five feet from a spa or hot tub and shall be listed as a package unit. 

(3) The maintenance disconnectand field installed, listed electrical equipment for a hottub, spa, orswim 

spa must be located at least five feet from the hottub, spa orswim spa. Field installed listed 
equipment must meet the following additional requirements: 

(a) The heater is listed as a "spa heater or swimming pool heater"; 

(b) The pump is listed as a "spa pump" or "swimming pool/spa pump" (the pump may be 

combined with a filter assembly); and 

(c) Other listed equipment such as panelboards, conduit, and wire are suitable for the 

environment and comply with the applicable codes. 

(4) Field installed, listed electrical equipment for a swimming pool must be located at least five feet from 
the swimming pool. Field installed listed equipment must meet the following additional requirements: 

(a) The heater must be listed as a "swimming pool heater or a spa heater"; 

(b) The pump must be listed as a "swimming pool pump" or "spa pump" or "swimming pool/spa 

pump"; and 

(c) Other equipment such as panelboards, conduit, and wire must be suitable for the environment 

and comply with the applicable codes. 

The five-foot separation may be reduced by the installation of a permanent barrier, such as a 
solid wall, fixed glass windows or doors, etc. The five-foot separation will be determined by 
the shortest path or route that a cord can travel from the spa, hottub, swim spa, or swimming 
pool to an object. 

(5) The field assembly or installation of "recognized components" will not be permitted. 

(6) Hydromassage bathtubs must be listed as a unit and bear a listing mark which reads "hydromassage 
bathtub." 

(7) Manufacturers' instructions must be followed as part of the listing requirements. 

(8) Electrical components which have failed and require replacement must be replaced with identical 

products unless the replacement part is no longer available; in which case, a like-in-kind product may 
be substituted provided the mechanical and grounding integrity of the equipment is maintained. 

(9) Cut-away-type display models may not be sold for other than display purposes and are not expected 
to bear a listing mark. 

040 Spas and hot tubs. 

(10) NEC 680.42(C) will apply for interior and exterior wiring to outdoor installations of spas and hot tubs. 



WAC 296-46B-700 Emergency systems. 



001 Emergency systems - general. 



(1) In all health or personal care facilities defined in this chapter, educational facilities, institutional 
facilities, hotels, motels, and places of assembly for one hundred or more persons, all exit and 
emergency lights must be installed in accordance with Article 700 NEC and located as required in 
standards adopted by the state building code council under chapter 19.27 RCW. 



Page 35 of 138 

WAC 296-46B-700Ennergency systems. 



009 Emergency systems - equipment identification. 

(2) All exit and emergency lights, whether or not required by the NEC, must be installed in accordance 

with Article 700 NEC. 

(3) All boxes and enclosures, for Article 700 NEC systems, largerthan six inches by six inches, including 

transfer switches, generators, and power panels for emergency systems and circuits must be 
permanently identified with an identification plate that is substantially orange in color. All other device 
and junction boxes for emergency systems and circuits must be substantially orange in color, both 
inside and outside. 

027 Coordination 

(4) The requirements for selective coordination described in NEC 700.27 are not required where the 

emergency system was installed prior to J une 1, 2006. For new emergency systems that are 
supplied from an existing emergency system installed prior to J une 1, 2006, the new portion of the 
emergency system must comply with NEC 700.27. The ground fault sensing function of overcurrent 
protective devices will only be required to selectively coordinate with the ground fault sensing 
functions of other overcurrent protective devices. 



WAC 296-46B-701 Legally required standby systems 
(018) Coordination 

The requirements for selective coordination described in NEC 701.18 are not required where the legally 
required standby system was installed prior to J une 1, 2006. For new legally required standby systems 
that are supplied from an existing legally required standby system installed prior to J une 1, 2006, the new 
portion of the legally required standby system must comply with NEC 701.18. The ground fault sensing 
function of overcurrent protective devices will only be required to selectively coordinate with the ground 
fault sensing functions of other overcurrent protective devices. 



WAC 296-46B-760 Fire alarm systems. 

Device and junction boxes for fire alarm systems other than the surface raceway type, must be 
substantially red in color, both inside and outside. Power-limited fire protective signaling circuit conductors 
must be durably and plainly marked in or on junction boxes or other enclosures to indicate that it is a 
power-limited fire protective signaling circuit. 



WAC 296-46B-800 Communications systems — Communications circuits. 

001 Installation. 

(1) All telecommunications installations on an end-user's property, beyond the end-user's 

telecommunications network demarcation point, made by a telecommunications service provider. 

Page 36 of 138 

WAC 296-46B-701 Legally required standby systenns 



both inside and outside of a building or structure, must conform to all licensing, certification, 
installation, permitting, and inspection requirements described in chapter 19.28 RCW and this 
chapter. 

(2) Telecommunications service providers including its subcontractors and agents must install and 

maintain points of demarcation in conformance with Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 47, 
Chapter 1, Part 68, Subpart B, Sec. 68.105 and may not place a point of demarcation further than 12 
inches within a end-user's occupied space. 

(3) The telecommunications service provider must identify the telecommunications network demarcation 

point(s) with an identification plate or label having: 

(a) The provider's name; 

(b) Customer/end user's name; and 

(c) If a CWSTP is used, the option type used. 

(4) The CFR prescribes that telecommunications service providers must choose eithera MPOE (Minimum 

Point of Entry) or CWSTP (Cable Wire Service Termination Policy) which regulates where 
demarcations are placed within a multi-tenant environment. 

(5) A Telecommunications service provider, including its subcontractors and agents provisioning service 

for a second provider who is not the end-user of the service, must place the point of demarcation no 
further than 12 inches from the nearest POP (Point of Presence), of the serving provider, to the 
eventual end-user. 

(6) Telecommunications service providers must designate each building that they provide services to with 

labeling at the terminating point(s) of their facilities indicating: 

(a) Whether the building is under a MPOE policy; or 

(b) Which option of a CWSTP is in effect. 

(7) The CWSTP options for demarcation placement are as follows: 

(a) All telecommunications service provider facilities will terminate at one location, mutually 

agreed upon by the provider and the building owner or designee, upon entry into the building, 
normally at the lowest common serving point. All demarcations will be placed no more than 
12 inches from this point. The building owner and/or tenants will provide, manage and 
maintain building wire and cable placed beyond this demarcation point location. 

(b) The telecommunications service provider's facilities will terminate at common locations, 

mutually agreed upon by the provider and the building owner or designee, throughout the 
building (terminal rooms, utility closets, etc.). The telecommunications service provider will 
provide, manage and maintain the building cable and registration jacks that denote the 
demarcation points. The demarcation points will be placed at these locations and will be 
accessible to end users at these locations. Option (ii) is not an option for single tenant 
buildings. 

(c) The telecommunications service provider will terminate facilities and place demarcations at 

locations, mutually agreed upon by the provider and the building owner or designee, within 
the individually occupied units, within 12 inches or a similarly reasonable distance of 
cable/wire entry. The provider will provide, manage and maintain the building cable, network 
terminating wire and registration jacks that denote the demarcation point. Option (ill) is not 
an option for single tenant buildings. 

(d) All telecommunications service provider facilities and demarcations will terminate atone 

location on the property, mutually agreed upon by the provider and the building owner or 
designee. The building owner and/or tenants will provide, manage and maintain building wire 
and cable placed beyond the demarcation point location. 

(8) The telecommunications installer must confer with the telecommunications provider when determining 
the point of demarcation. 

002 Definitions. 

(9) "CWSTP (Cable, Wire and Service Termination Policy)" is the policy of the Federal Communications 

Commission (FCC) and the Washington Utilities and Transportation Commission (WUTC) prescribed 
by tariff that governs negotiations between building owners and telecommunications service providers 
regarding the configuration of POP(s) and demarcation point(s) in multi-tenant buildings when a 
MPOE policy is not elected by the telecommunications service provider. 

Page 37 of 138 

WAG 296-46B-800 Communications systems — Communications circuits. 



(10) "MPOE (Minimum Point of Entry)" is a building wiring policy of the FCC and WUTC for multi tenant 
environment locations that can be elected by telecommunications service providers. It prescribes that 
the telecommunications service provider will provide a single POP for access to it's network and is 
located either at the closest practicable point to where a telecommunications service provider's 
facilities (fiber, coax, or copper) crosses a property line or at the closest practicable point to where the 
wiring enters a multiunit building or buildings. All demarcations provided for customers and end-users 
by the provider will be placed within 12 inches of that POP. 

(11) "POP (Point-of-Presence)", also called a "POT (Point-of-Termination)", is a designated point at or 
near a customer premise at which a telecommunications service provider's facilities for the provision 
of access service ends. This can be a fiber, coax, or copper connection point. Depending on the 
telecommunications service provider's CWSTP with the individual building owner demarcations may 
be established atthe POP or at other designated locations. When the customer of a 
telecommunications service provider is another carrier, the demarcation will be atthe closest POP to 
the end-user. A telecommunications service provider may have multiple POPs within a multiple 
tenant environment. 



WAC 296-46B-900 Electrical work permits and fees. General. 

(1) When an electrical work permit is required by chapter 19.28 RCW or this chapter, inspections may not 

be made, equipment must not be energized, or services connected unless: 

(a) A valid electrical work permit is completely and legibly filled out and readily available; 

(b) The classification or type of facility to be inspected and the exact scope and location of the 

electrical work to be performed are clearly shown on the electrical work permit; 

(c) The address where the inspection is to be made is clearly identifiable from the street, road or 

highway that serves the premises; and 

(d) Driving directions are provided for the inspectors' use. 

(2) An electrical work permit is valid for only one specific site address. 

(3) Except as provided in subsection (8) of this section, a valid electrical work permit must be posted on 
the job site at a readily accessible and conspicuous location prior to beginning electrical work and at 
all times until the electrical inspection process is completed. 

Permit- responsibility for. 

(4) Each person, firm, partnership, corporation, or other entity must furnish a valid electrical work permit 
for the installation, alteration, or other electrical work performed or to be performed by that entity. 
When the permitted work is performed solely or in part by another entity, the electrical work permit 
purchaser must request approval from the Chief Electrical Inspector to take responsibility for the work 
of the original installing entity. Each electrical work permit application must be signed by the electrical 
contractor's administrator (or designee) or the person, or authorized representative of the firm, 
partnership, corporation, or other entity that is performing the electrical installation or alteration. 
Permits purchased electronically do not require a handwritten signature. An entity designated to sign 
electrical permits must provide written authorization of the purchaser's designation when requested 
by the department. 

(5) Permits to be obtained by customers. Whenever a serving electrical utility performs work for a 

customer under one of the exemptions in WAC 296-46B-925 and the work is subject to inspection, 
the customer is responsible for obtaining all required permits. 

(6) Except for emergency repairs to existing electrical systems, electrical work permits must be obtained 

and posted atthe job site prior to beginning the installation or alteration. An electrical work permit for 
emergency repairs to existing electrical systems must be obtained and posted atthe job site no later 
than the next business day after the work is begun. 

Page 38 of 138 

WAC 296-46B-900 Electrical work permits and fees. General. 



(7) Fees must be paid in accordance witii tiie inspection fee sciiedule, WAC 296-46B-905. The amount of 
tiie fee due is calculated based on the fee effective at the date payment is made. If the project is 
required to have an electrical plan review, the plan review fees will be based on the fees effective at 
the date the plans are received by the department for review. 

Permit- requirements for. 

(8) As required by chapter 19.28 RCW or this chapter, an electrical work permit is required for the 

installation, alteration, or maintenance of all electrical systems or equipment except for: 

(a) Travel trailers; 

(b) Class A basic electrical work which includes: 

(i)The like-in-kind replacement of a: Contactor, relay, timer, starter, circuit board, or 
similar control component; household appliance; circuit breaker; fuse; residential 
luminaire; lamp; snap switch; dimmer; receptacle outlet; thermostat; heating element; 
luminaire ballast with an exact same ballast; component(s) of electric signs, outline 
lighting, skeleton neon tubing when replaced on-site by an appropriate electrical 
contractor and when the sign, outline lighting or skeleton neon tubing electrical 
system is not modified; ten horsepower or smaller motor; 
(ii) Induction detection loops described in WAC 296-466-300(2) and used to control gate 

access devices; 
(ill) Heat cable repair; and 

(iv) Embedding premanufactured heat mats in tile grout where the mat is listed by an 
approved testing laboratory and comes from the manufacturer with preconnected 
lead-in conductors. All listing marks and lead-in conductor labels must be left intact 
and visible for evaluation and inspection by the installing electrician and the electrical 
inspector. 
Unless specifically noted, the exemptions listed do not include: The replacement of an 
equipment unit, assembly, or enclosure that contains an exempted component or 
combination of components (e.g., an electrical furnace/heat pump, industrial milling machine, 
etc.) or any appliance/equipment described in this section for Class B permits. 

A provisional electrical work permit label may be posted in lieu of an electrical work permit. If 
a provisional electrical work permit label is used, an electrical work permit must be obtained 
within two working days after posting the provisional electrical work permit label. 

(9) An electrical work permit is required for all installations of telecommunications systems on the 

customer side of the network demarcation point for projects greater than ten telecommunications 
outlets. All backbone installations regardless of size and all telecommunications cable or equipment 
installations involving penetrations of fire barriers or passing through hazardous locations require 
permits and inspections. For the purposes of determining the inspection threshold for 
telecommunications projects greater than ten outlets, the following will apply: 

(a) An outlet is the combination of jacks and mounting hardware for those jacks, along with the 

associated cable and telecommunications closet terminations, that serve one workstation. In 
counting outlets to determine the inspection threshold, one outlet must not be associated with 
more than six standard four-pair cables or more than one twenty-five-pair cable. Therefore, 
installations of greater than sixty standard four-pair cables or ten standard twenty-five-pair 
cables require permits and inspections. (It is not the intent of the statute to allow large 
masses of cables to be run to workstations or spaces serving telecommunications equipment 
without inspection. P roper cable support and proper loading of building structural elements 
are safety concerns. When considering total associated cables, the telecommunications 
availability at one workstation may count as more than one outlet.) 

(b) The installation of greater than ten outlets and the associated cables along any horizontal 

pathway from a telecommunications closet to work areas during any continuous ninety-day 
period requires a permit and inspection. 

(c) All telecommunications installations within the residential dwelling units of single-family, 

duplex, and multifamily dwellings do not require permits or inspections. In residential 

Page 39 of 138 

WAC 296-46B-900 Electrical work permits and fees. General. 



multifamily dwellings, permits and inspections are required for all backbone installations, all 
fire barrier penetrations, and installations of greater than ten outlets in common areas. 

(d) No permits or inspections are required for installation or replacement of cord and plug 

connected telecommunications equipment or for patch cord and jumper cross-connected 
equipment. 

(e) Definitions of telecommunications technical terms will come from chapter 19.28 RCW, this 

chapter, TIA/EIA standards, and NEC. 

Permit- inspection and approval. 

(10) Requests for inspections. 

(a) Requests for inspections must be made no later than three business days after completion of 
the electrical/telecommunications installation or one business day after any part of the 
installation has been energized, whichever occurs first. 

(b) Requests for after hours or weekend inspections must be made by contacting the local 
electrical inspection supervisor at least three working days prior to the requested date of 
inspection. The portal-to-portal inspection fees required for after hours or weekend 
inspections are in addition to the cost of the original electrical work permit. 

(c) Emergency requests to inspect repairs necessary to preserve life and equipment safety may 

be requested at any time. 

(d) Inspections for annual electrical maintenance permits and annual telecommunications permits 
may be done on a regular schedule arranged by the permit holder with the department. 

(11) Final inspection approval will not be made until all inspection fees are paid in full. 

Permit- duration/refunds. 

(12) Electrical work permits will expire one year after the date of purchase unless electrical work is 
actively and consistently in progress and inspections requested. Refunds are not available for: 

(a) Expired electrical work permits; 

(b) Electrical work permits where the electrical installation has begun; or 

(c) Any electrical work permit where an electrical inspection or electrical inspection request has 

been made. 

Permit- annual telecommunications. 

(13) The chief electrical inspector can allow annual permits for the inspection of telecommunications 
installations to be purchased by a building owner or licensed electrical/telecommunications 
contractor. The owner's full-time telecommunications maintenance staff, or a licensed 
electrical/telecommunications contractor(s) can perform the work done under this annual permit. The 
permit holder is responsible for correcting all installation deficiencies. The permit holder must make 
available, to the electrical inspector, all records of all the telecommunications work performed and the 
valid electrical or telecommunications contractor's license numbers for all contractors working under 
the permit. 

Permit- annual electrical. 

(14) The chief electrical inspector can allow annual permits for the inspection of electrical installations to 
be purchased by a building owner or licensed electrical contractor. This type of permit is available for 
commercial/industrial locations employing a full-time electrical maintenance staff or having a yearly 
maintenance contract with a licensed electrical contractor. 

The permit holder is responsible for correcting all installation deficiencies. The permit holder must 
make available, to the electrical inspector, all records of all electrical work performed. 



Page 40 of 138 

WAC 296-46B-900 Electrical work permits and fees. General. 



This type of electrical permit may be used for retrofit, replacement, maintenance, repair, upgrade, and 
alterations to electrical systems at a single plant or building location. This type of permit does not 
include new or increased service or new square footage. 

Provisional electrical work permit- use/duration/refunds. 

(15) Only licensed electrical or telecommunications contractors can use provisional electrical work 
permits. 

(16) If a provisional electrical work permit label is used, the following requirements must be met: 

(a) Prior to beginning the work, the certified electrician or telecommunications worker performing 
the installation must affix the provisional electrical work permit label on the cover of the 
panelboard, overcurrent device, or telecommunications equipment supplying the circuit or 
equipment. 

(b) The job site portion of the label must include the following: 

(i) Date the work is begun; 

(ii) Contractor's name; 

(ill) Contractor's license number; and 

(iv) Short description of the work. 

(c) The contractor portion of the label must include the following: 
Date the work is begun; 
I Contractor's license number; 

(ill) J ob site address; 

(iv) Owner's name; and 

(v) S hort description of the work. 

(d) The label must be filled in using sunlight and weather resistant ink. 

(e) The contractor must return the contractor's portion of the label to the department of labor and 

industries, electrical section office having jurisdiction for the inspection, within two working 
days after the job site portion of the label is affixed. Either receipt by departmentof labor and 
industries or postmark to a valid department of labor and industries electrical address is 
acceptable for meeting this requirement. 

(f) The contractor must return the contractor's portion of the label to the Department of Labor & 

Industries, Chief Electrical Inspector, within five working days after destroying or voiding any 
label. 

(g) The contractor is responsible for safekeeping of all purchased labels. 

(17) Refunds are not available for provisional electrical work permit labels. 

(18) Provisional electrical work permit labels will be sold in blocks of twenty. 

(19) Any contractor purchasing a provisional electrical work permit label may be audited for compliance 
with the provisions for purchasing, inspection, reporting of installations, and any other requirement of 
usage. 

C lass B electrical work permit - use. 

(20) The electrical contractor must return the contractor's portion of the Class B label to the departmentof 
labor and industries, chief electrical inspector, within five working days after destroying or voiding any 
label. 

(21) The electrical contractor is responsible for safekeeping of all purchased Class B labels. 

(22) Only licensed electrical/telecommunication contractors can use the Class B basic electrical 
inspection random inspection process. Health care, large commercial, or industrial facilities using an 
employee who is a certified electrician(s) can use the Class B random electrical inspection process 
after permission from the chief electrical inspector. 

(23) If the Class B random electrical inspection process is used, the following requirements must be met: 

(a) The certified electrician/telecommunications worker performing the installation must affix a 

C lass B installation label on the cover of the panelboard or overcurrent device supplying 
power to the circuit or equipment prior to beginning the work. 

(b) The job site portion of the label must include the following: 

(i) Date of the work; 

Page 41 of 138 

WAG 296-46B-900 Electrical work permits and fees. General. 



(ii) Electrical/telecommunication contractor's name; 

(iii) Electrical/telecommunication contractor's license number; 

(iv) Installing electrician's certificate number, except for telecommunication work. For 

thermostat installations described in WAC 296-466-965(15), the installing trainee 

may enter their training certificate number; and 
(v) S hort description of the work. 

(c) The contractor portion of the label must include the following: 

(i) Date of the work; 

(ii) Electrical/telecommunication contractor's license number; 

(iii) Installing electrician's certificate number, except for telecommunication work; 

(iv)J ob site address; 

(v) Contact telephone number for the job site (to be used to arrange inspection); and 

(vi) Short description of the work. 

(d) The label must be filled in using sunlight and weather resistant ink. 

(e) The electrical/telecommunication contractor must return the contractor's portion of the label to 

the Department of Labor & Industries, Electrical Section, Chief Electrical Inspector, P.O. 
4460, Olympia, WA 98504-4460 within fifteen working days after the job site portion of the 
Class B installation label is affixed. 

(24) Class B basic installation labels will be sold in blocks. Installations where a Class B basic installation 
label is used will be inspected on a random basis as determined by the department. 

(a) If any such random inspection fails, a subsequent label in the block must be inspected. 

(b) If any such subsequent installation fails inspection, another label in the block must be 
inspected until a label is approved without a correction(s). 

(c) A fee is required for any inspection required when a correction(s) is issued as a result of the 

inspection of any Class B label or if an inspection is required because of (a) or (b) of this 
subsection. See WAC 296-46B-905(15) for fees. 

(25) Any electrical/telecommunication contractor or other entity using the Class B basic electrical 
inspection random inspection process may be audited for compliance with the provisions for 
purchasing, inspection, reporting of installations, and any other requirement of usage. 

(26) Class B basic electrical work means work other than Class A basic electrical work. See WAC 296- 
46B-900(8)forClass A definition. 

(a) Class B basic electrical work includes the following: 

(i) Extension of not more than one branch electrical circuit limited to one hundred twenty 
volts and twenty amps each where: 

(A) No cover inspection is necessary. For the purposes of this section, cover 
inspection does not include work covered by any surface that may be 
removed for inspection without damaging the surface; and 

(B) The extension does not supply more than two devices or outlets as defined 
by the NEC. A device allowed in an extended circuit includes: General use 
snap switches/receptacles, luminaires, thermostats, speakers, etc., but does 
not include wiring/cabling systems, isolating switches, magnetic contactors, 
motor controllers, etc. 

(ii) Like-in-kind replacement of: 

(A) A single luminaire not exceeding two hundred seventy-seven volts and twenty 
amps; or 

(B) A motor larger than ten horsepower; or 

(C)The internal wiring of a furnace, air conditioner, refrigeration unit or 
household appliance; or 

(D) An electric/gas/oil furnace not exceeding 240 volts and 100 amps when the 
furnace is connected to an existing branch circuit. For the purposes of this 
section, a boiler is not a furnace; or 

(E) An individually controlled electric room heater (e.g., baseboard, wall, fan 
forced air, etc.), air conditioning unit or refrigeration unit not exceeding 240 
volts, 30 minimum circuit amps when the unit is connected to an existing 
branch circuit; or 

Page 42 of 138 

WAC 296-46B-900 Electrical work permits and fees. General. 



(F) Circuit modification required to install not more than five residential load 
control devices in a residence where installed as part of an energy 
conservation program sponsored by an electrical utility and where the circuit 
does not exceed 240 volts and 30 amps, 
(ill) The following low voltage systems: 

(A) Repair and replacement of devices not exceeding one hundred volt-amperes 
in Class 2, Class 3, or power limited low voltage systems in one- and two- 
family dwellings; or 

(B) Repair and replacement of devices not exceeding one hundred volt-amperes 
in Class 2, Class 3, or power limited low voltage systems in other buildings, 
provided the equipment is not for fire alarm or nurse call systems and is not 
located in an area classified as hazardous by the NEC; or 

(C) The installation of Class 2 or 3 device(s) or wiring for thermostat, audio, 
security, burglar alarm, intercom, amplified sound, public address, or access 
control systems. This does not include fire alarm, nurse call, lighting control, 
industrial automation/control or energy management systems; or 

(D) Telecommunications cabling and equipment requiring inspection in RC W 
19.28.470; 

(iv) The replacementof not more than ten standard receptacles with GFCI receptacles; 
(v) The conversion of not more than ten snap switches to dimmers for the use of 

controlling a luminaire(s) conversion, 
(b) Class B basic electrical work does not include any work in: 

(i) Areas classified as Class (I), Class (II), Class (III), or Zone locations per NEC 500; or 

(ii) Areas regulated by NEC 517 or 680; or 

(ill) Any work where electrical plan review is required; or 

(iv) Fire alarm, nurse call, lighting control, industrial automation/control or energy 

management systems. 



WAC 296-46B-901 General. Inspections, inspectors, city inspection, variance. 

(1) Electrical inspectors will give information as to the interpretation or application of the standards in this 
chapter, but will not lay out work or act as consultants for contractors, owners, or users. 

(2) The department may enforce city electrical ordinances where those governmental agencies do not 

make electrical inspections under an established program. 

(3) A variance from the electrical installation requirements of chapter 19.28 RCW or this chapter may be 

granted by the department when it is assured that equivalent objectives can be achieved by 
establishing and maintaining effective safety. 

(a) Any electrical permit holder may request a variance. 

(b) The permit holder must make the request in writing, using a form provided by the department, 

to the chief electrical inspector. The request must include: 
(i) A description of the installation as installed or proposed; 
(ii) A detailed list of the applicable code violations; 
(ill) A detailed list of safety violations; 
(iv) A description of the proposal for meeting equivalent objectives for code and/or safety 

violations; and 
(v) Appropriate variance application fee as listed in WAC 296-46B-905. 

Inspection. 

(4) Electrical wiring or equipment subject to this chapter must be sufficiently accessible, at the time of 

inspection, to allow the inspector to visually inspect the installation to verify conformance with the 
NEC and any other electrical requirements of this chapter. 

(5) Cables or raceways, fished according to the NEC, do not require visual inspection. 

(6) All required equipment grounding conductors installed in concealed cable or flexible conduit systems 

must be completely installed and made up at the time of the rough-in cover inspection. 

Page 43 of 138 

WAC 296-46B-901 General. Inspections, inspectors, city inspection, variance. 



(7) The installation of all structural elements and mechanical systems (e.g., framing, plumbing, ducting, 

etc.) must be complete in the area(s) where electrical inspection is requested. Prior to completion of 
an exterior wall cover inspection, either: 

(a) The exterior shear panel/sheathing nail inspection must be completed by the building code 

inspector; or 

(b) All wiring and device boxes must be a minimum of 63 mm (2 1/2") from the exterior surface of 

the framing member; or 

(c) All wiring and device boxes must be protected by a steel plate a minimum of 1.6 mm (1/16") 

thick and of appropriate width and height installed to cover the area of the wiring or box. 

(8) In order to meet the minimum electrical safety standards for installations, all materials, devices, 
appliances, and equipment, not exempted in chapter 19.28 RC W, must conform to applicable 
standards recognized by the department, be listed, or field evaluated. Other than as allowed in WAC 
296-466-901(20), equipment must not be energized until such standards are met unless specific 
permission has been granted by the chief electrical inspector. 

(9) The department will recognize the state department of transportation as the inspection authority for 

telecommunications systems installation within the rights of way of state highways provided the 
department of transportation maintains and enforces an equal, higher or better standard of 
construction and of materials, devices, appliances and equipment than is required for 
telecommunications systems installations by chapter 19.28 RCW and this chapter. 

Inspection move on buildings and structures. 

(10) All buildings or structures relocated into or within the state: 

(a) Other than residential, wired inside the United States (U.S.) must be inspected to ensure 

compliance with current requirements of chapter 19.28 RCW and the rules developed by the 
department. 

(b) Wired outside the U.S. or Canada must be inspected to ensure compliance with all current 

requirements of chapter 19.28 RCW and the rules developed by the department. 

(11) Residential buildings or structures wired in the U.S., to NEC requirements, and moved into or within a 
county, city, or town must be inspected to ensure compliance with the NEC requirements in effect at 
the time and place the original wiring was made. The building or structure must be inspected to 
ensure compliance with all current requirements of chapter 19.28 RCW and the rules developed by 
the department if: 

(a) The original occupancy classification of the building or structure is changed as a result of the 

move; or 
(b)The building or structure has been substantially remodeled or rehabilitated as a result of the 

move. 

(12) Residential buildings or structures wired in Canada to Canadian Electrical Code (CEC) standards 
and moved into or within a county, city, or town, must be inspected to ensure compliance with the 
following minimum safety requirements: 

(a) Service, service grounding, and service bonding must comply with the current chapter 19.28 

RCW and rules adopted by the department. 

(b) Canadian Standards Association (CSA) listed Type NMD cable is allowed with the following 
qualifications: 

(i) CSA listed Type NMD cable, American Wire Gauge #10 and smaller installed after 
1964 utilizing an equipment grounding conductor smaller than the phase conductors, 
must be: 

(A) Replaced with a cable utilizing a full-size equipment grounding conductor; or 

(B) Protected by a ground fault circuit interrupter protection device, 
(ii) CSA listed Type NMD cable, #8 AWG and larger, must: 

(A) Utilize an equipment grounding conductor sized according to the 
requirements of the NEC in effect at the time of the installation; 

(B) Be protected by a ground faultcircuit interrupter protection device; or 

(C) Be replaced. 

(c) Other types of wiring and cable must be: 

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WAC 296-46B-901 General. Inspections, inspectors, city inspection, variance. 



(i) Replaced with wiring listed or field evaluated in accordance with U.S. standards by a 

laboratory approved by the department; or 
(ii) Protected by a ground fault circuit interrupter protection device and arc fault circuit 

protection device. 

(d) Equipment, other than wiring or panelboards, manufactured and installed priorto 1997 must 

be listed and identified by laboratory labels approved by the department or CSA labels. 

(e) All panelboards must be listed and identified by testing laboratory labels approved by the 

department with the following qualifications: 

(i) CSA listed panelboards labeled "Suitable for Use as Service Equipment" will be 

considered to be approved as "Suitable for Use only as Service Equipment." 
(ii) CSA listed panelboards must be limited to a maximum of 42 circuits, 
(iii) CSA listed panelboards used as lighting and appliance panelboards as described in 
the NEC, must meet all current requirements of the NEC and this chapter. 

(f) Any wiring or panelboards replaced or changed as a result of the move must meet current 

requirements of chapter 19.28 RC W and this chapter. 

(g) The location, type, and ground fault circuit interrupter protection of receptacles and equipment 

in a bathroom, kitchen, basement, garage, or outdoor area must meet the Washington 

requirements in effect at the time the wiring was installed, 
(h) 4, 15-ampere, kitchen small appliance circuits will be accepted in lieu of 2, 20-ampere, kitchen 

small appliance circuits. Receptacles will not be required to be added on kitchen peninsular 

or island counters, 
(i) Spacing requirements for all other receptacles must meet the Washington requirements in 

effect at the time the wiring was installed, 
(j) Receptacles installed above baseboard or fixed wall space heaters must be removed and the 

outlet box covered with a blank cover. The receptacle is required to be relocated as closely 

as possible to the existing location, 
(k) Lighting outlet and switch locations must meet the Washington requirements in effect at the 

time the wiring was installed. 
(I) Dedicated 20-ampere small appliance circuits are not required in dining rooms, 
(m) Electric water heater branch circuits must be adequate for the load. 
(n)The location, type, and circuit protection of feeders must meet the Washington requirements 

in effect at the time the wiring was installed. 

Classification or definition of occupancies. 

(13) Occupancies are classified and defined as follows: 

(a) Educational facility refers to a building or portion of a building used primarily for educational 

purposes by six or more persons atone time for twelve hours per week or four hours in any 
one day. Educational occupancy includes: Schools (preschool through grade twelve), 
colleges, academies, universities, and trade schools. 

(b) Institutional facility refers to a building or portion of a building used primarily for detention and 

correctional occupancies where some degree of restraint or security is required for a time 
period of twenty-four or more hours. Such occupancies include, but are not restricted to: 
Penal institutions, reformatories, jails, detention centers, correctional centers, and residential- 
restrained care. 

(c) Health or personal care facility. Health or personal care facility refers to buildings or parts of 

buildings that contain, but are not limited to, facilities that are required to be licensed by the 
department of social and health services or the department of health (e.g., hospitals, nursing 
homes, private alcoholism hospitals, private psychiatric hospitals, boarding homes, 
alcoholism treatment facilities, maternity homes, birth centers or childbirth centers, residential 
treatment facilities for psychiatrically impaired children and youths, and renal hemodialysis 
clinics) and medical, dental or chiropractic offices or clinics, outpatient or ambulatory surgical 
clinics, and such other health care occupancies where patients who may be unable to provide 
for their own needs and safety without the assistance of another person are treated. 

(i) "Hospital" means any institution, place, building, or agency providing accommodations, 
facilities and services over a continuous period of twenty-four hours or more, for 

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WAG 296-46B-901 General. Inspections, inspectors, city inspection, variance. 



observation, diagnosis, or care of two or more individuals not related to the operator 
who are suffering from illness, injury, deformity, or abnormality, or from any other 
condition for which obstetrical, medical, or surgical services would be appropriate for 
care or diagnosis. 

(ii) "N ursing home," "nursing home unit" or "long-term care unit" means a group of beds 
for the accommodation of patients who, because of chronic illness or physical 
infirmities, require skilled nursing care and related medical services but are not 
acutely ill and not in need of the highly technical or specialized services ordinarily a 
part of hospital care. 

(ill) "Boarding home" means any home or other institution, however named, which is 
advertised, announced, or maintained forthe express or implied purpose of providing 
board and domiciliary care to seven or more aged persons not related by blood or 
marriage to the operator. It must not include any home, institution, or section thereof 
which is otherwise licensed and regulated under the provisions of state law providing 
specifically for the licensing and regulation of such home, institution, or section 
thereof. 

(iv) "Private alcoholism hospital" means an institution, facility, building, or equivalent 
designed, organized, maintained, and operated to provide diagnosis, treatment, and 
care of individuals demonstrating signs or symptoms of alcoholism, including the 
complications of associated substance use and other medical diseases that can be 
appropriately treated and cared for in the facility and providing accommodations, 
medical services, and other necessary services over a continuous period of twenty- 
four hours or more for two or more individuals unrelated to the operator, provided that 
this chapter will not apply to any facility, agency, or other entity which is owned and 
operated by a public or governmental body. 

(v) "Alcoholism treatment facility" means a private place or establishment, other than a 
licensed hospital, operated primarily forthe treatment of alcoholism. 

(vi) "Private psychiatric hospital" means a privately owned and operated establishment or 
institution which: Provides accommodations and services over a continuous period 
of twenty-four hours or more, and is expressly and exclusively for observing, 
diagnosing, or caring for two or more individuals with signs or symptoms of mental 
illness, who are not related to the licensee. 

(vii) "Maternity home" means any home, place, hospital, or institution in which facilities 
are maintained for the care of four or more women, not related by blood or marriage 
to the operator, during pregnancy or during or within ten days after delivery: 
Provided, however, that this definition will not apply to any hospital approved by the 
American College of Surgeons, American Osteopathic Association or its successor. 

(viii) "Birth center" or "childbirth center" means a type of maternity home which is a 
house, building, or equivalent organized to provide facilities and staff to support a 
birth service, provided that the birth service is limited to low-risk maternal clients 
during the intrapartum period. 

(ix) "Ambulatory surgical facility" means a facility, not a part of a hospital, providing 
surgical treatment to patients not requiring inpatient care in a hospital. This term 
does not include a facility in the offices of private physicians or dentists, whether for 
individual or group practice, if the privilege of using such facility is not extended to 
physicians or dentists outside the individual or group practice. (NEC; Ambulatory 
Health Care Center.) 

(x) "Hospice care center" means any building, facility, place, or equivalent, organized, 
maintained, and operated specifically to provide beds, accommodations, facilities, 
and services over a continuous period of twenty-four hours or more for palliative care 
of two or more individuals, not related to the operator, who are diagnosed as being in 
the latter stages of an advanced disease which is expected to lead to death. 

(xi) "Renal hemodialysis clinic" means a facility in a building or part of a building which is 
approved to furnish the full spectrum of diagnostic, therapeutic, and rehabilitative 
services required forthe care of renal dialysis patients (including inpatient dialysis 
furnished directly or under arrangement). (NEC; Ambulatory Health Care Center.) 

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WAG 296-46B-901 General. Inspections, inspectors, city inspection, variance. 



(xii) "Medical, dental, and chiropractic clinic" means any clinic or physicians' office where 
patients are not regularly kept as bed patients for twenty-four hours or more. 
Electrical plan review not required. 

(xiii) "Residential treatment facility for psychiatrically impaired children and youth" means 
a residence, place, or facility designed and organized to provide twenty-four-hour 
residential care and long-term individualized, active treatment for clients who have 
been diagnosed or evaluated as psychiatrically impaired. 

(xiv) "Adult residential rehabilitation center" means a residence, place, or facility designed 
and organized primarily to provide twenty-four-hour residential care, crisis and short- 
term care and/or long-term individualized active treatment and rehabilitation for 
clients diagnosed or evaluated as psychiatrically impaired or chronically mentally ill 
as defined herein or in chapter 71.24 RC W. 

(xv) "Group care facility" means a facility other than a foster-family home maintained and 
operated for the care of a group of children on a twenty-four-hour basis, 
(d) Licensed day care centers. 

(i) "Child day care center" means a facility providing regularly scheduled care for a group 
of children one month of age through twelve years of age for periods less than 
twenty-four hours; except, a program meeting the definition of a family child care 
home will not be licensed as a day care center without meeting the requirements of 
WAC 388-150-020(5). 

(ii) "School-age child care center" means a program operating in a facility other than a 
private residence accountable for school-age children when school is not in session. 
The facility must meet department of licensing requirements and provide adult 
supervised care and a variety of developmentally appropriate activities. 

(ill) "Family child day care home" means the same as "family child care home" and "a 
child day care facility" licensed by the state, located in the family abode of the person 
or persons under whose direct care and supervision the child is placed, for the care 
of twelve or fewer children, including children who reside at the home. Electrical plan 
review not required. 

Plan review for educational, institutional or health care facilities and otiier buildings. 

(14) Plan review is a part of the electrical inspection process; its primary purpose is to determine: 

(a) That service/feeder conductors are calculated and sized according to the proper NEC or WAC 

article or section; 

(b) The classification of hazardous locations; and 

(c) The proper design of emergency and standby systems. 

(15) Electrical plan review. 

(a) Electrical plan review is not required for: 

(i) Lighting specific projects that result in an electrical load reduction on each feeder 

involved in the project; 
(ii) Low voltage systems; 
(ill) Modifications to existing electrical installations where all of the following conditions 

are met: 

• Service or distribution equipment involved is rated not more than 400 amperes 

and does not exceed 250 volts; 

• Does not involve emergency systems other than listed unitequipment per NEC 

700.12(F); 

• Does not involve branch circuits or feeders of an essential electrical system as 

defined in NEC 517.2; and 

• Service and feeder load calculations are increased by 5% or less. 

(iv) Stand-alone utility fed services that do not exceed 250 volts, 400 amperes where the 
project's distribution system does not include: 

• Emergency systems other than listed unit equipment per NEC 700.12(F); 

• Critical branch circuits or feeders as defined in NEC 517.2; or 

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• A required fire pump system. 

(b) Electrical plan review is required for all other new or altered electrical projects in educational, 
institutional, or health care occupancies classified or defined in this chapter. 

(c) If a review is required, the electrical plan must be submitted for review and approval before the 

electrical work is begun. 

(d) Electrical plans. 

(i) The plan must be submitted for plan review prior to beginning any electrical inspection. 
If a plan is rejected during the plan review process, no electrical inspection(s) may 
proceed until the plan is resubmitted and a conditional acceptance is granted. 

(ii) The submitted plan will receive a preliminary review within seven business days after 
receipt by the department. 

(ill) If the submitted plan: 

• Is rejected at the preliminary review, no inspection(s) will be made on the 

project. 

• Receives conditional acceptance, the permit holder may request a preliminary 

inspection(s) in writing to the department. The request must note that the 
preliminary inspection(s) is conditional and subject to any alterations required 
from the final plan review process, 
(iv) Once the submitted plan has plan review approval, the approved plan must be 

available on the job site for use by the electrical inspector, 
(v) The approved plan must be available on the job site, for use by the electrical 

inspector, prior to the final electrical inspection, 
(vi) If the approved plan requires changes from the conditionally accepted plan, 
alterations to the project may be required to make the project comply with the 
approved plan. 

(e) All electrical plans for educational facilities, hospitals and nursing homes must be prepared by, 

or under the direction of, a consulting engineer registered under chapter 18.43 RCW, and 
chapters 246-320, 180-29, and 388-97 WAC and stamped with the engineer's mark and 
signature. 

(f) Refer plans for department review to the Electrical Section, Departmentof Labor and 

Industries, P.O. Box 44460, Olympia, Washington 98504-4460. 

(g) Plans for projects within cities that perform electrical inspections within their jurisdiction, and 
provide an electrical plan review program that equals or exceeds the department's program in 
plans examiner minimum qualifications per chapter 19.28 RCW, must be submitted to that 
city for review, unless the agency regulating the installation specifically requires review by the 
department. 

(h) Plans to be reviewed by the department must be legible, identify the name and classification 
of the facility, clearly indicate the scope and nature of the installation and the person or firm 
responsible for the electrical plans. The plans must clearly show the electrical installation or 
alteration in floor plan view, include switchboard and/or panelboard schedules and when a 
service or feeder is to be installed or altered, must include a riser diagram, load calculation, 
fault current calculation and interrupting rating of equipment. Where existing electrical 
systems are to supply additional loads, the plans must include documentation that proves 
adequate capacity and ratings. The plans must be submitted with a plan review submittal 
form available from the department. Plan review fees are not required to be paid until the 
review is completed. Plans will not be returned until all fees are paid. Fees will be calculated 
based on the date the plans are received by the department. 

(i) The department may perform the plan review for new or altered electrical installations of other 
types of construction when the owner or electrical contractor makes a voluntary request for 
review. 

(j) For existing structures where additions or alterations to feeders and services are proposed, 
Article 220.87(1) NEC may be used. If Article 220.87(1) NEC is used, the following is 
required: 

(i) The date of the measurements. 



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(ii) A statement attesting to the validity of the demand data, signed by a professional 
electrical engineer or the electrical administrator of the electrical contractor 
performing the work. 

(ill) A diagram of the electrical system identifying the point(s) of measurement. 

(iv) Building demand measured continuously on the highest-loaded phase of the feeder 
or service over a thirty-day period, with demand peak clearly identified. (Demand 
peak is defined as the maximum average demand over a fifteen-minute interval.) 

Wiring methods for designated building occupancies. 

(16) Wiring methods, equipment and devices for health or personal care, educational and institutional 
facilities as defined or classified in this chapter and for places of assembly for one hundred or more 
persons must comply with Tables 901-1 and 901-2 of this chapter and the notes thereto. The local 
building authority will determine the occupant load of places of assembly. 

(17) Listed tamper-resistant receptacles or listed tamper-resistant receptacle cover plates are required in 
all licensed day care centers, all licensed children group care facilities and psychiatric patient care 
facilities where accessible to children five years of age and under. Listed tamper-resistant 
receptacles are required in psychiatric patient care facilities where accessible to psychiatric patients 
over five years of age. 



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Notes to Tables 901-1 and 901-2. 



1. Wiring metliods in accordance witii tiie NEC unless otiierwise noted. 



2. ivietallic ornonmetallic raceways, M\, |V1C, orAC cable, except that in places of assembly 
located within educational or institutional facilities, wiring methods must conform to NEC 
518.4(A). Places of assembly located within educational or institutional facilities may not be 
wired according to NEC 518.4(B) or (C 



3. Limited energy system may use wiring methods in accordance with the NEC. 



Table 901-1 Health or Personal Care Facilities 




Health or Personal Care Facility Type *^' 


Plan Review Required 




Hospital 


Yes 


Nursing home unit or long-term care unit 


Yes 


Boarding home or assisted living facility 


Yes 


Private alcoholism hospital 


Yes 


Alcoholism treatment facility 


Yes 


Private psychiatric hospital 


Yes 


Maternity home 


Yes 


Birth center or childbirth center 


No 


Ambulatory surgery facility 


Yes 


Hospice care center 


No 


Renal hemodialysis clinic 


Yes 


Medical, dental, and chiropractic clinic 


No 


Residential treatment facility for psychiatrically impaired children and 
youth 


Yes 


Adult residential rehabilitation center 


Yes 


Group care facility 


No 



Table 901-2 Educational and Institutional Facilities, Places of Assembly or Other 
Facilities 




Educational, Institutional or Other Facility Types 


Plan Review Required 




Educational ''"" 


Yes 


Institutional '^^'^^ 


Yes 


Places of Assembly for 100 or more persons '^^ 


No 


Child daycare center '^^ 


No 


School-age child care center '^^ 


No 


Family child day care home, family child care home, or child day 
care facility '^^ 


No 



industrial control panel and industrial utilization equipment inspection. 

(18) Specific definitions for this section: 

(a) "Department evaluation" means a review in accordance with subsection (19)(c) of this section. 



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(b) "Engineering evaluation" means a review in accordance with subsection (19)(d) of tiiis 
section. 

(c) "Food processing plants" include buildings or facilities used in a manufacturing process, but 
do not include: 

M unicipal or other government facilities; 

I Educational facilities or portions thereof; 
(ill) Institutional facilities or portions thereof; 
(iv) Restaurants; 

(v) Farming, ranching, or dairy farming operations; 
(vi) Residential uses; or 
(vii) Other installations not used for direct manufacturing purposes. 

(d) In RC W 19.28.010, "industrial control panel" means a factory or user wired assembly of 
industrial control equipment such as motor controllers, switches, relays, power supplies, 
computers, cathode ray tubes, transducers, and auxiliary devices used in the manufacturing 
process to control industrial utilization equipment. The panel may include disconnecting 
means and motor branch circuit protective devices. Industrial control panels include only 
those used in a manufacturing process in a food processing or industrial plant. 

(e) "Industrial plants" include buildings or facilities used in a manufacturing process or a 
manufacturing training facility (e.g., educational shop area in an educational or institutional 
facility), but do not include: 

M unicipal or other government facilities; 

I Other educational facilities or portions thereof; 
(ill) Other institutional facilities or portions thereof; 
(iv) Restaurants; 

(v) Farming, ranching, or dairy farming operations; 
(vi) Residential uses; or 
(vii) Other installations not used for direct manufacturing purposes. 

(f) "Industrial utilization equipment" means equipment directly used in a manufacturing process in 

a food processing or industrial plant, in particular the processing, treatment, moving, or 
packaging of a material. Industrial utilization equipment does not include: Cold storage, 
warehousing, or similar storage equipment. 

(g) "Manufacturing process" means to make or process a raw material or part into a finished 
product for sale using industrial utilization equipment. A manufacturing process does not 
include the storage of a product for future distribution (e.g., cold storage, warehousing, and 
similar storage activity). 

(h) "Normal department inspection" is a part of the department electrical inspection process 
included with the general wiring inspection of a building, structure, or other electrical 
installation. Normal department inspection will only be made for equipment solely using listed 
or field evaluated components and wired to the requirements of the NEC. Fees for the 
normal department inspections required under this chapter are included in the electrical work 
permit fee calculated for the installation and are not a separate inspection fee. However, 
inspection time associated with such equipment is subject to the progress inspection rates in 
WAC 296-46B-905. 

(i) For the purposes of this section, "panel" means a single box or enclosure containing the 
components comprising an industrial control panel. A panel does not include any wiring 
methods connecting multiple panels or connecting a panel(s) and other electrical equipment. 

(19) Industrial control panels and industrial utilization equipment will be determined to meet the minimum 
electrical safety standards for installations by: 

(a) Listing, or field evaluation of the entire panel or equipment; 

(b) Normal department inspection for compliance with codes and rules adopted under this 
chapter; or 

(c) By engineer review (see section (d)) or Until December 31, 2006 through J une 30, 2007, by 

department evaluation showing compliance with appropriate standards. Appropriate 
standards are NEMA, ANSI, NFPA 79, UL 508A, International Electrotechnical Commission 
60204, or their equivalent. Industrial utilization equipment is required to conform to a 

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nationally or internationally recognized standard applicable for the particular industrial 
utilization equipment. Compliance must be shown as follows: 

(i) The equipment's manufacturer must document, by letter to the equipment owner, the 
equipment's conformity to an appropriate standard(s). The letter must state: 

(A) The equipment manufacturer's name; 

(B) The type of equipment; 

(C) The equipment model number; 

(D) The equipment serial number; 

(E) The equipment supply voltage, amperes, phasing; 

(F) The stanclard(s) used to manufacture the equipment. Except for the 

reference of construction requirements to ensure the product can be installed 
in accordance with the National Electrical Code, the National Electrical Code 
is not considered a standard for the purposes of this section; 

(G) Fault current interrupting rating of the equipment or the owner may provide 
documentation showing that the fault current available at the point where the 
building wiring connects to the equipment is less than 5,000 AlC ; and 

(H) The date the equipment was manufactured. Equipment that was 

manufactured prior to J anuary 1, 1985, is not required to meet(c)(i)(F) of this 
subsection, 
(ii) The equipment owner must document, by letter to the chief electrical inspector, the 
equipment's usage as industrial utilization equipment as described in this section and 
provide a copy of the equipment manufacturer's letter described in (c)(i) of this 
subsection. The owner's letter must be accompanied by the fee required in WAC 
296-46B-905(14). 

For the purposes of this section, the owner must be a food processing or industrial 
plant as described in this section, 
(ill) The chief electrical inspector will evaluate the equipment manufacturer's letter, 
equipment owner's letter, and the individual equipment. 

If the equipment is determined to have had electrical modifications since the date of 
manufacture, the chief electrical inspector will not approve equipment using this 
method, 
(iv) If required by the chief electrical inspector, the owner must provide the department 
with a copy, in English, of the standard(s) used and any documentation required by 
the chief electrical inspector to support the claims made in the equipment 
manufacturer's or owner's letter. At the request of the owner, the department will 
obtain a copy of any necessary standard to complete the review. If, per the owner's 
request, the department obtains the copy of the standard, the owner will be billed for 
all costs associated with obtaining the standard. 

If the industrial utilization equipment has been determined to be manufactured to a 
standard(s) appropriate for industrial utilization equipment as determined by the chief 
electrical inspector per RC W 19.28.901(1), the equipment will be marked with a 
department label. 

The department will charge a marking fee as required in WAC 296-468-905(14). 
Once marked by the department, the equipment is suitable for installation anywhere 
within the state without modification so long as the equipment is being used as 
industrial utilization equipment. If payment for marking is not received by the 
department within thirty days of marking the equipment, the department's mark(s) will 
be removed and the equipment ordered removed from service, 
(v) If the equipment usage is changed to other than industrial utilization equipment or 
electrical modifications are made to the equipment, the equipment must be 
successfully listed or field evaluated by a laboratory approved by the department. 



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(vi) The equipment must be permanently installed at the owner's facility and inspected 
perthe requirements of RCW 19.28.101. 
(d) An engineering evaluation review where an engineer, accredited by the department, shows 
the equipment to be in compliance with appropriate standards in section (c). See WAC 296- 
46B-997 for the requirements to become an accredited engineer. Appropriate standards are 
NEMA, ANSI, NFPA 79, UL 508A, International Electrotechnical Commission 60204, ortheir 
equivalent. Industrial utilization equipment is required to conform to a nationally or 
internationally recognized standard applicable for the particular industrial utilization 
equipment. At a minimum, compliance must be shown as followsThe engineer must: 

(i) The engineer must document, by letter to the chief electrical inspector, the equipment's 
conformity to an appropriate standard(s) and the fault current interrupting rating of the 
equipment. The National Electrical Code is not considered a standard for the 
purposes of this section, 
(ii) The engineer must affix a permanent label to the equipment showing: 

(A) Engineer's name; 

(B) Date of approval; 

(C) Equipment serial number; and 

(D) The following statement: "This equipment meets appropriate standards for 
industrial utilization equipment." 

(20) The department may authorize, on a case-by-case basis, use of the industrial control panel or 
equipment, for a period not to exceed six months or as approved by the chief electrical inspector after 
use is begun, before its final inspection, listing, or evaluation. 

Traffic management systems. 

(21) The department will perform the electrical inspection and acceptance of traffic management systems 
within its jurisdiction. A traffic management system includes: 

(a) Traffic illumination systems; 

(b) Traffic signal systems; 

(c) Traffic monitoring systems; 

(d) The electrical service cabinet and all related components and equipment installed on the load 

side of the service cabinet supplying electrical power to the traffic management system; and 

(e) Signalization system(s) necessary for the operation of a light rail system. 

A traffic management system can provide signalization for controlling vehicular traffic, 
pedestrian traffic, or rolling stock. 

(22) The department recognizes that traffic signal conductors, pole and bracket cables, signal displays, 
and traffic signal controllers/cabinets and associated components used in traffic management 
systems are acceptable for the purpose of meeting the requirements of chapter 19.28 RCW provided 
they conform with the following standards or are listed on the Washington state department of 
transportation (WSDOT) qualified products list. 

(a) WSDOT/APWA Standard Specifications and Plans; 

(b) WSDOT Design Manual; 

(c) International Municipal Signal Association (IMSA); 

(d) National Electrical Manufacturer's Association (NEMA); 

(e) Federal Standards 170/Controller Cabinets; 

(f) Manual for Uniform Road, Bridge, and Municipal Construction; 

(g) Institute of Transportation Engineers (ITE); or 

(h) Manual of Uniform Traffic Control Devices (MUTCD). 

(23) Associated induction detection loop or similar circuits will be accepted by the department without 
inspection. 

(24) For the licensing requirements of chapter 19.28 RCW, jurisdictions will be considered owners of 
traffic management systems when doing electrical work for other jurisdiction(s) under a valid interlocal 
agreement, as permitted by chapter 39.34 RCW. Interlocal agreements for traffic management 
systems must be filed with the department prior to work being performed for this provision to apply. 



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(25) J urisdictions, with an established electrical inspection authority, and WSDOT may perform electrical 
inspection on their rights of way for each other by interlocal agreement. They may not perform 
electrical inspection on other rights of way except as allowed in chapter 19.28 or 39.34 RCW. 

(26) Underground installations. 

(a) In other than open trenching, raceways will be considered "fished" according to the NEC and 

do not require visual inspection. 

(b) The department will conduct inspections in open trenching within its jurisdiction. The electrical 

work permit purchaser must coordinate the electrical inspection. A written request (e.g., 
letter, e-mail, fax, etc.) for inspection, made to the department office having the responsibility 
to perform the inspection, must be made a minimum of two working days prior to the day 
inspection is needed (e.g., two working days 10:00 a.m. Tuesday requestfora 10:00 a.m. 
Thursday inspection, excluding holidays and weekends). 

If, after proper written request, the department fails to make an electrical inspection at the 
time requested, underground conduit may be covered after inspection by the local 
government jurisdiction's project inspector/designee. Written documentation of a local 
government jurisdiction inspection must be provided to the department when requested. 
Written documentation will include: 

(i) Date and time of inspection; 

(ii) Location; 

(ill) Installing firm; 

(iv) Owner; 

(v) Type of conduit; 

(vi) Size of conduit; 

(vii) Depth of conduit; and 

(viii) Project inspector/designee name and contact information. 

(27) Identification of traffic management system components. Local government jurisdictions orWSDOT 
may act as the certifying authority for the safety evaluation of all components. 

(a) An electrical service cabinet must contain only listed components. The electrical service 

cabinet enclosure is not required to be listed but will conform to the standards in subsection 
(22) of this section. 

(b) The local government jurisdiction must identify, as acceptable, the controller cabinet or system 

component(s) with an identification plate. The identification plate must be located inside the 
cabinet and may be attached with adhesive. 

(28) Conductors of different circuits in same cable, enclosure, or raceway. All traffic management system 
circuits will be permitted to occupy the same cable, enclosure, or raceway without regard to voltage 
characteristics, provided all conductors are insulated for the maximum voltage of any conductor in the 
cable, enclosure, or raceway. 



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WAC 296-46B-905 Temporary fees - Inspection fees. Valid from J anuary 1, 2007 through 
December 31, 2007 or until modifed in rule, whichever is first. 

To calculate inspection fees, the amperage is based on the conductor ampacity or the overcurrent device 
rating. The total fee must not be less than the number of progress inspection (one-half hour) units times 
the progress inspection fee rate from subsection (8) of this section, PROGRESS INSPECTIONS. 

The amount of the fee due is calculated based on the fee effective at the date of a department assessed 
fee (e.g., plan review or fee due) or when the electrical permit is purchased. 



(1) Residential. 

(a) Single- and two-family residential (New Construction). 

Notes: 

(1) Square footage is the area included within the surrounding exterior walls of a 
building exclusive of any interior courts. (This includes any floor area in an 
attached garage, basement, or unfinished living space.) 

(2) "Inspected with the service" means that a separate service inspection fee is 
included on the same electrical work permit. 

(3) "Inspected at the same time" means all wiring is to be ready for inspection 
during the initial inspection trip. 

(4) An "outbuilding" is a structure that serves a direct accessory function to the 
residence, such as a pump house or storage building. Outbuilding does not 
include buildings used for commercial type occupancies or additional dwelling 
occupancies. 

(i) First 1300 sq.ft. $69.00 

Each additional 500 sq. ft. or portion of $22.00 

(ii) Each outbuilding or detached garage - inspected at the same time $29.00 

as a dwelling unit on the property 

(ill) Each outbuilding or detached garage - inspected separately $46.00 

(iv) Each swimming pool - inspected with the service $46.00 

(v) Each swimming pool - inspected separately $69.00 

(vi) Each hottub, spa, or sauna - inspected with the service $29.50 

(vii) Each hottub, spa, or sauna - inspected separately $46.00 

(viii) Each septic pumping system - inspected with the service $29.50 

(ix) Each septic pumping system - inspected separately $46.00 

(b) Multifamily residential and miscellaneous residential structures, services/feeders 
(New Construction). 

Each service/feeder 
Ampacity Service/Feeder Additional Feeder 

to 200 $75.00 $22.00 

201 to 400 $91.00 $46.00 

401 to 600 $128.00 $64.00 

Page 55 of 138 

WAC 296-46B-905 Temporary fees - Inspection fees. Valid from J anuary 1, 2007 through December 31, 
2007 or until modifed in rule, whichever is first. 



601 to 800 $164.00 $87.00 

801 and over $233.00 $175.00 

(c) Single or multifamily altered services/feeders including circuits. 

(i) Each altered service/altered feeder 

Ampacity Service/Feeder 

to 200 $64.00 

201 to 600 $91.00 

601 and over $140.00 

(ii) Maintenance or repair of a meter or mast (no alterations to $34.00 

the service or feeder) 

(d) Single or multifamily residential circuits only (no service inspection). 

Note: 

Altered or added circuit fees are calculated per panelboard. Total cost of the 
alterations in an individual panel should not exceed the cost of a complete 
altered service or feeder of the same rating, as shown in subsection (1) 
RESIDENTIAL (c) (table) of this section. 

(i) 1 to 4 circuits (see note above) $46.00 

(ii) Each additional circuit (see note above) $5.00 

(e) Mobile homes, modular homes, mobile home parks, and RV parks. 

(i) Mobile home or modular home service or feeder only $46.00 

(ii) Mobile home service and feeder $75.00 

(f) Mobile home park sites and RV park sites. 

Note: 

For master service installations, see subsection (2) 
COMMERCIAL/INDUSTRIAL of this section. 

(i) F irst site service or site feeder $46.00 

(ii) Each additional site service; or additional site feeder $29.00 

inspected at the same time as the first service or feeder 

(2) Commercial/industrial. 

(a) New service/feeder, and additional new feeders inspected at the same time 
(includes circuits). 

Note: 

For large COMMERCIAL/INDUSTRIAL projects that include multiple feeders, 
"inspected at the same time" can be interpreted to include additional inspection 
trips for a single project. The additional inspections must be for electrical work 
specified on the permit at the time of purchase. The permit fee for such projects 
must be calculated from (2)(a)(i)(table) of this section. However, the total fee 
must not be less than the number of progress inspection (one-half hour) units 
times the progress inspection fee rate from subsection (8) PROGRESS 
INSPECTIONS of this section. 

Page 56 of 138 

WAC 296-46B-905 Temporary fees - Inspection fees. Valid from J anuary 1, 2007 through December 31, 
2007 or until modifed in rule, whichever is first. 



Ampacity Service/Feeder Additional Feeder 


to 100 


$75.00 




$46.00 


101 to 200 


$91.00 




$58.00 


201 to 400 


$175.00 




$69.00 


401 to 600 


$204.00 




$82.00 


601 to 800 


$264.00 




$111.00 


801 to 1000 


$322.00 




$134.00 


1001 and over 


$351.00 




$187.00 


(b) Altered services/feeders (no circuits). 








(i) Service/Feeder 








Ampacity 


Service/Feeder 


to 200 




$75.00 




201 to 600 




$175.00 




601 to 1000 




$264.00 




1001 and over 




$239.00 





(ii) Maintenance or repair of a meter or mast (no alterations to 
tiie service or feeder) 

(c) Circuits only. 

Note: 



$64.00 



Altered/added circuit fees are calculated per panelboard. Total cost of the 
alterations in a panel (or panels) should not exceed the cost of a new feeder (or 
feeders) of the same rating, as shown in subsection (2) 
COMMERCIAL/INDUSTRIAL (2)(a)(i)(table) above. 



(i) First 5 circuits per branch circuit panel 

(ii) Each additional circuit per branch circuit panel 

(d) Over 600 volts surcharge per permit 
(3) Temporary service(s). 

Note: 



$58.00 

$5.00 

$58.00 



(1) See WAC 296-46B-527 for information about temporary installations. 

(2) Temporary stage or concert inspections requested outside of normal business hours 
will be subject to the portal-to-portal hourly fees in subsection (11) OTHER 
INSPECTIONS. The fee for such after hours inspections shall be the greater of the fee 
from this subsection or the portal-to-portal fee. 



Temporary services, temporary stage or concert productions. 



Ampacity Service/Feeder 

0to60 $40.00 

61 to 100 $46.00 



Additional Feeder 

$21.00 
$22.00 



Page 57 of 138 

WAC 296-46B-905 Temporary fees - Inspection fees. Valid from J anuary 1, 2007 through December 31, 
2007 or until modifed in rule, whichever is first. 



101 to 200 


$58.00 


$29.00 


201 to 400 


$69.00 


$35.00 


401 to 600 


$93.00 


$46.00 


601 and over 


$105.00 


$53.00 



(4) Irrigation machines, pumps, and equipment. 

Irrigation machines. 

(a) Each tower- when inspected at the same time as a service and $5.00 
feederfrom (2) COIV||V|ERCIAL/INDUSTRIAL 

(b) Towers - when not inspected at the same time as a service and $69.00 

feeders - 1 to 6 towers 

(c) Each additional tower $5.00 

(5) Miscellaneous - commercial/industrial and residential. 

(a) A Class 2 low-voltage thermostat and its associated cable controlling a single piece of 

utilization equipment or a single furnace and air conditioner combination. 

(i) First thermostat $35.00 

(ii) Each additional thermostat inspected at the same time as $11.00 

the first 

(b) Class 2 or 3 low-voltage systems and telecommunications systems. Includes all 
telecommunications installations, fire alarm, nurse call, energy management control 
systems, industrial and automation control systems, lighting control systems, and similar 
C lass 2 or 3 low-energy circuits and equipment not included in WAC 296-46B-110 for 
Class B work. 

(i) First 2500 sq.ft. or less $40.00 

(ii) Each additional 2500 sq. ft. or portion thereof $11.00 

(c) Signs and outline lighting. 

(i) First sign (no service included) $35.00 

(ii) Each additional sign inspected atthe same time on the $16.00 

same building or structure 

(d) Bertii at a marina or dock. 

Note: 

Five berths or more shall be permitted to have the inspection fees based on 
appropriate service and feeder fees from section (2) 
COMMERCIAL/INDUSTRIAL (a) (i) above. 

(i) Berth at a marina or dock $46.00 

(ii) Each additional bertii inspected attiie same time $29.00 

(e) Yard pole, pedestal, or otiier meter loops only. 

(i) Yard pole, pedestal, or other meter loops only $46.00 

(ii) Meters installed remote from the service equipment and $11.00 

inspected atthe same time as a service, temporary 
service or other installations 

(f) Emergency inspections requested outside of normal working hours. 

Regular fee plus surcharge of: $87.00 

(g) Generators. 

Note: 

Page 58 of 138 

WAC 296-46B-905 Temporary fees - Inspection fees. Valid from J anuary 1, 2007 through December 31, 
2007 or until modifed in rule, whichever is first. 



Inspections 


Fee 


12 


$1,677.00 


24 


$3,356.00 


36 


$5,034.00 


52 


$6,713.00 


52 


$8,392.00 



Permanently installed generators: Refer to the appropriate residential or 
commercial new/altered service or feeder section. 

Portable generators: Permanently installed transfer $64.00 

equipment for portable generators 

(h) Electrical - annual permit fee. 

Note: 

See WAC 296-466-900(14). 

For commercial/industrial location employing full-time electrical maintenance staff or having a yearly 
maintenance contract with a licensed electrical contractor. Note, all yearly maintenance contracts 
must detail the number of contractor electricians necessary to complete the work required under the 
contract. This number will be used as a basis for calculating the appropriate fee. Each inspection is 
based on a 2-hour maximum. 



1 to 3 plant electricians 

4 to 6 plant electricians 

7 to 12 plant electricians 

13 to 25 plant electricians 

More than 25 plant electricians 

(i) Telecommunications - annual permit fee. 
Notes: 

(1) See WAC 296-46B-900(13). 

(2) Annual inspection time required may be estimated by the purchaser at the 
rate for "OTHER INSPECTIONS" in this section, charged portal-to-portal per 
hour. 

For commercial/industrial location employing full-time telecommunications maintenance 
staff or having a yearly maintenance contract with a licensed 
electrical/telecommunications contractor. 

2-hour minimum $139.00 

Each additional hour, or portion thereof, of portal-to- $69.00 

portal inspection time 

(j) Permit requiring ditch cover inspection only. 

Each 1/2 hour, or portion thereof $35.00 

(k) Cover inspection for elevator/conveyance installation. This $58.00 

item is only available to a licensed/registered elevator 
contractor. 

(6) Carnival inspections. 

(a) First carnival field inspection each calendar year. 

(i) Each ride and generator truck $16.00 

(ii) Each remote distribution equipment, $5.00 

Page 59 of 138 

WAC 296-46B-905 Temporary fees - Inspection fees. Valid from J anuary 1, 2007 through December 31, 
2007 or until modifed in rule, whichever is first. 



concession, or gaming siiow 

(iii) If tiie calculated fee for first carnival field $87.00 

inspection above is less than $89.00, the minimum 
inspection fee shall be: 

(b) Subsequent camival inspections. 

(i) First ten rides, concessions, generators, remote $87.00 

distribution equipment, or gaming show 

(ii) Each additional ride, concession, generator, remote $5.00 

distribution equipment, or gaming show 

(c) Concession(s) or ride(s) not part of a carnival. 

(i) F irst field inspection each year of a single $69.00 

concession or ride, not part of a carnival 

(ii) S ubsequent inspection of a single concession or $46.00 

ride, not part of a carnival 

(7) Trip fees. 

(a) Requests by property owners to inspect existing $69.00 

installations. (This fee includes a maximum of one hour of 
inspection time. All inspection time exceeding one hour will 
be charged at the rate for progressive inspections.) 

(b) Submitter notifies the department that work is ready for $35.00 

inspection when it is not ready. 

(c) Additional inspection required because submitter has $35.00 

provided the wrong address or incomplete, improper or 
illegible directions for the site of the inspection. 

(d) More than one additional inspection required to inspect $35.00 
corrections; or for repeated neglect, carelessness, or 

improperly installed electrical work. 

(e) Each trip necessary to remove a noncompliance notice. $35.00 

(f) Corrections that have not been made in the prescribed time, $35.00 

unless an exception has been requested and granted. 

(g) Installations that are covered or concealed before $35.00 

inspection. 

(8) Progress inspections. 

Note: 

The fees calculated in subsections (1) through (6) of this section will apply to all 
electrical work. This section will be applied to a permit where the permit holder has 
requested additional inspections beyond the number supported by the permit fee 
calculated at the rate in subsections (1) through (6) of this section. 

Partial or progress inspections, each 1/2 hour. $35.00 

(9) Plan review. 

Fee is thirty-five percent of the electrical work permit fee as $58.00 

determined by WAC 296-46B-905, plus a plan review 
submission and shipping/handling fee of: 

(a) Supplemental submissions of plans per hour or fraction of $69.00 

an hour of review time. 

(b) Plan review shipping and handling fee. $16.00 

(10) Out-of-state inspections. 

Page 60 of 138 

WAC 296-46B-905 Temporary fees - Inspection fees. Valid from J anuary 1, 2007 through December 31, 
2007 or until modifed in rule, whichever is first. 



(a) Permit fees will be charged according to the fees listed in this section. 

(b) Travel expenses: 

All travel expenses and per diem for out-of-state inspections are billed following 
completion of each inspection(s). These expenses can include, butane not 
limited to: Inspector's travel time, travel cost and per diem at the state rate. 
Travel time is hourly based on the rate in subsection (11) of this section. 

(11) Other inspections. 

Inspections not covered by above inspection fees must be $69.00 

charged portal-to-portal per hour 

(12) Refund processing fee. 

All requests for permit fee refunds will be assessed a $11.00 

processing fee. (Refund processing fees will not be charged for 

electrical contractors, using the contractor deposit system, who 

request less than twenty-four refunds during a rolling calendar 

year.) 

(13) Variance request processing fee. 

Variance request processing fee. This fee is nonrefundable $69.00 

once the transaction has been validated. 

(14) l^larlcing of industrial utilization equipment. 

(a) Standard(s) letter review (per hour of review time). $69.00 

(b) Equipment marking - charged portal-to-portal per hour: $69.00 

(c) All travel expenses and per diem for in/out-of-state review and/or equipment marking are 

billed following completion of each inspection(s). These expenses can include, but are 
not limited to: Inspector's travel time, travel cost and per diem at the state rate. Travel 
time is hourly based on the rate in (b) of this subsection. 

(15) Class B basic electrical work labels. 

(a) Block of twenty Class B basic electrical work labels (not $200.00 

refundable). 

(b) Reinspection of Class B basic electrical work to assure that $36.40 

corrections have been made (per 1/2 hour timed from 
leaving the previous inspection until the reinspection is 
completed). See WAC 296-46B-110(8). 

(c) Reinspection of Class B basic electrical work because of a $36.40 

failed inspection of another Class B label (perl/2 hour 
from previous inspection until the reinspection is 
completed). See WAC 296-46B-110(8). 

(16) Provisional electrical work permit labels. 

Block of twenty provisional electrical work permit labels. $200.00 



Page 61 of 138 

WAC 296-46B-905 Temporary fees - Inspection fees. Valid from J anuary 1, 2007 through December 31, 
2007 or until modifed in rule, whichever is first. 



WAC 296-46B-906 Inspection fees. 

To calculate inspection fees, the amperage is based on the conductor ampacity or the overcurrent device 
rating. The total fee must not be less than the number of progress inspection (one-half hour) units times 
the progress inspection fee rate from subsection (8) of this section, PROGRESS INSPECTIONS. 

The amount of the fee due is calculated based on the fee effective at the date of a department assessed 
fee (e.g., plan review or fee due) or when the electrical permit is purchased. 



(1) Residential. 

(a) Single- and two-family residential (New Construction). 

Notes: 

(1) Square footage is the area included within the surrounding exterior walls of a 
building exclusive of any interior courts. (This includes any floor area in an 
attached garage, basement, or unfinished living space.) 

(2) "Inspected with the service" means that a separate service inspection fee is 
included on the same electrical work permit. 

(3) "Inspected at the same time" means all wiring is to be ready for inspection 
during the initial inspection trip. 

(4) An "outbuilding" is a structure that serves a direct accessory function to the 
residence, such as a pump house or storage building. Outbuilding does not 
include buildings used for commercial type occupancies or additional dwelling 
occupancies. 

(i)Firstl300 sq.ft. $73.00 

Each additional 500 sq. ft. or portion of $23.40 

(ii) Each outbuilding or detached garage - inspected atthe same time $30.50 

as a dwelling unit on the property 

(ill) Each outbuilding or detached garage - inspected separately $48.10 

(iv) Each swimming pool - inspected with the service $48.10 

(v) Each swimming pool - inspected separately $73.00 

(vi) Each hot tub, spa, or sauna - inspected with the service $30.50 

(vii) Each hottub, spa, or sauna - inspected separately $48.10 

(viii) Each septic pumping system - inspected with the service $30.50 

(ix) Each septic pumping system - inspected separately $48.10 

(b) Multifamily residential and miscellaneous residential structures, services and 
feeders (New Construction). 



Each service and/or feeder 
Ampacity Service/Feeder Additional Feeder 

to 200 $78.70 $23.40 

201 to 400 $97.80 $48.10 

401 to 600 $134.30 $66.90 

601 to 800 $172.30 $91.80 



Page 62 of 138 

WAC 296-46B-906 Inspection fees. 



801 and over $245.70 $184.30 

(c) Single or multifamily altered services or feeders including circuits. 

(i) Each altered service and/or altered feeder 

Ampacity Service/Feeder 

to 200 $66.90 

201 to 600 $97.80 

601 and over $147.40 

(ii) Maintenance orrepair of a meteror mast (no alterations to $36.30 

the service or feeder) 

(d) Single or multifamily residential circuits only (no service inspection). 

Note: 

Altered or added circuit fees are calculated per panelboard. Total cost of the 
alterations in an individual panel should not exceed the cost of a complete 
altered service or feeder of the same rating, as shown in subsection (1) 
RESIDENTIAL (c) (table) of this section. 

(i) 1 to 4 circuits (see note above) $48.10 

(ii) Each additional circuit (see note above) $5.30 

(e) Mobile homes, modular homes, mobile home parks, and RV parks. 

(i) Mobile home or modular home service or feeder only $48.10 

(ii) Mobile home service and feeder $78.70 

(f) Mobile home park sites and RV park sites. 

Note: 

For master service installations, see subsection (2) 
COMMERCIAL/INDUSTRIAL of this section. 

(i) First site service or site feeder $48.10 

(ii) Each additional site service; or additional site feeder $30.50 

inspected at the same time as the first service or feeder 

(2) Commercial/industrial. 

(a) New service/feeder, and additional new feeders inspected at the same time 
(includes circuits). 

Note: 

For large COMMERCIAL/INDUSTRIAL projects that include multiple feeders, 
"inspected at the same time" can be interpreted to include additional inspection 
trips for a single project. The additional inspections must be for electrical work 
specified on the permit at the time of purchase. The permit fee for such projects 
must be calculated from (2)(a)(i)(table) of this section. However, the total fee 
must not be less than the number of progress inspection (one-half hour) units 
times the progress inspection fee rate from subsection (8) PROGRESS 
INSPECTIONS of this section. 



Page 63 of 138 

WAC 296-46B-906 Inspection fees. 



Ampacity Service/Feeder Additional Feeder 


to 100 


$78.70 




$48.10 


101 to 200 


$95.80 




$61.30 


201 to 400 


$184.30 




$73.00 


401 to 600 


$214.80 




$85.80 


601 to 800 


$277.70 




$116.90 


801 to 1000 


$339.00 




$141.40 


1001 and over 


$369.80 




$197.30 


(b) Altered services/feeders (no circuits). 








(i) Service/Feeder 








Ampacity 


Service/Feeder 


to 200 




$78.70 




201 to 600 




$184.30 




601 to 1000 




$277.70 




1001 and over 




$308.40 





(ii) Maintenance or repair of a meter or mast (no alterations to 
the service or feeder) 

(c) Circuits only. 

Note: 



$66.90 



Altered/added circuit fees are calculated perpanelboard. Total cost of the 
alterations in a panel (or panels) should not exceed the cost of a new feeder (or 
feeders) of the same rating, as shown in subsection (2) 
COMMERCIAL/INDUSTRIAL (2)(a)(i)(table) above. 



(i) First 5 circuits per branch circuit panel 

(ii) Each additional circuit per branch circuit panel 

(d) Over 600 volts surcharge per permit. 
(3) Temporary service(s). 

Note: 



$61.30 

$5.30 

$61.30 



(1) See WAC 296-46B-527 for information about temporary installations. 

(2) Temporary stage or concert inspections requested outside of normal business hours 
will be subject to the portal-to-portal hourly fees in subsection (11) OTHER 
INSPECTIONS. The fee forsuch after hours inspections shall be the greater of the fee 
from this subsection or the portal-to-portal fee. 



Temporary services, temporary stage or concert productions. 



Ampacity Service/Feeder 

0to60 $42.20 

61 to 100 $48.10 

101 to 200 $61.30 

201 to 400 $73.00 



Page 64 of 138 

WAC 296-46B-906 Inspection fees. 



Additional Feeder 

$21.60 
$23.40 
$30.50 
$36.40 



401 to 600 $97.80 $48.10 

601 and over $110.90 $55.30 

(4) Irrigation machines, pumps, and equipment. 

Irrigation machines. 

(a) Each tower - when inspected atthe same time as a service and $5.30 
feederfrom (2) COIV||V|ERCIAL/INDUSTRIAL 

(b) Towers - when not inspected at the same time as a service and $73.00 

feeders - 1 to 6 towers 

(c) Each additional tower $5.30 

(5) Miscellaneous - commercial/industrial and residential. 

(a) A Class 2 low-voltage thermostat and its associated cable controlling a single piece of 

utilization equipment or a single furnace and air conditioner combination. 

(i) First thermostat $36.40 

(ii) Each additional thermostat inspected atthe same time as $11.40 

the first 

(b) Class 2 or 3 low-voltage systems and telecommunications systems. Includes all 
telecommunications installations, fire alarm, nurse call, energy management control 
systems, industrial and automation control systems, lighting control systems, and similar 
C lass 2 or 3 low-energy circuits and equipment not included in WAC 296-46B-110 for 
Class B work. 

(i)First2500 sq.ft. or less $42.20 

(ii) Each additional 2500 sq. ft. or portion thereof $11.40 

(c) Signs and outline lighting. 

(i) First sign (no service included) $36.40 

(ii) Each additional sign inspected atthe same time on the $17.30 

same building or structure 

(d) Berth at a marina or dock. 

Note: 

Five berths or more shall be permitted to have the inspection fees based on 
appropriate service and feeder fees from section (2) 
COMMERCIAL/INDUSTRIAL (a) (i) above. 

(i) Berth at a marina or dock $48.10 

(ii) Each additional bertii inspected attiie same time $30.50 

(e) Yard pole, pedestal, or other meter loops only. 

(i) Yard pole, pedestal, or other meter loops only $48.10 

(ii) Meters installed remote from the service equipment and $11.40 

inspected atthe same time as a service, temporary 
service or other installations 

(f) Emergency inspections requested outside of normal working hours. 

Regular fee plus surcharge of: $91.80 

(g) Generators. 

Note: 

Permanently installed generators: Refer to the appropriate residential or 
commercial new/altered service or feeder section. 

Page 65 of 138 

WAC 296-46B-906 Inspection fees. 



Inspections 


Fee 


12 


$1,765.50 


24 


$3,532.80 


36 


$5,298.90 


52 


$7,066.20 


52 


$8,833.50 



Portable generators: Permanently installed transfer $66.90 

equipment for portable generators 

(h) Electrical - annual permit fee. 

Note: 

See WAC 296-466-900 (14). 

For commercial/industrial location employing full-time electrical maintenance staff or having a yearly 
maintenance contract with a licensed electrical contractor. Note, all yearly maintenance contracts 
must detail the number of contractor electricians necessary to complete the work required under the 
contract. This number will be used as a basis for calculating the appropriate fee. Each inspection is 
based on a 2-hour maximum. 



1 to 3 plant electricians 

4 to 6 plant electricians 

7 to 12 plant electricians 

13 to 25 plant electricians 

More than 25 plant electricians 

(i) Telecommunications - annual permittee. 
Notes: 

(1) See WAC 296-466-900 (13). 

(2) Annual inspection time required may be estimated by the purchaser at the 
rate for "OTHER INSPECTIONS" in this section, charged portal-to-portal per 
hour. 

For commercial/industrial location employing full-time telecommunications maintenance 
staff or having a yearly maintenance contract with a licensed 
electrical/telecommunications contractor. 

2-hour minimum $146.10 

Each additional hour, or portion thereof, of portal-to- $73.00 

portal inspection time 

(j) Permit requiring ditch cover inspection only. 

Each 1/2 hour, or portion thereof $36.40 

(k) Cover inspection for elevator/conveyance installation. This $61.30 

item is only available to a licensed/registered elevator 
contractor. 

(6) Carnival inspections. 

(a) First carnival field inspection each calendar year. 

(i) Each ride and generator truck $17.30 

(ii) Each remote distribution equipment, $5.30 

concession, or gaming show 

(ill) If the calculated fee for first carnival field $91.80 

inspection above is less than $89.00, the minimum 

Page 66 of 138 

WAC 296-46B-906 Inspection fees. 



inspection fee siiall be: 

(b) Subsequent carnival inspections. 

(i) First ten rides, concessions, generators, remote $91.80 

distribution equipment, or gaming siiow 

(ii) Eacii additional ride, concession, generator, remote $5.30 

distribution equipment, or gaming show 

(c) Concession(s) orride(s) not part of a carnival. 

(i) Firstfield inspection each year of a single $73.00 

concession or ride, not part of a carnival 

(ii) Subsequent inspection of a single concession or $48.10 

ride, not part of a carnival 

(7) Trip fees. 

(a) Requests by property owners to inspect existing $73.00 

installations. (This fee includes a maximum of one hour of 
inspection time. All inspection time exceeding one hour will 
be charged at the rate for progressive inspections.) 

(b) S ubmitter notifies the department that work is ready for $36.40 

inspection when it is not ready. 

(c) Additional inspection required because submitter has $36.40 

provided the wrong address or incomplete, improper or 
illegible directions for the site of the inspection. 

(d) More than one additional inspection required to inspect $36.40 
corrections; or for repeated neglect, carelessness, or 

improperly installed electrical work. 

(e) Each trip necessary to remove a noncompliance notice. $36.40 

(f) Corrections that have not been made in the prescribed time, $36.40 

unless an exception has been requested and granted. 

(g) Installations that are covered or concealed before $36.40 

inspection. 

(8) Progress inspections. 

Note: 

The fees calculated in subsections (1) through (6) of this section will apply to all 
electrical work. This section will be applied to a permit where the permit holder has 
requested additional inspections beyond the number supported by the permit fee 
calculated at the rate in subsections (1) through (6) of this section. 

Partial or progress inspections, each 1/2 hour. $36.40 

(9) Plan review. 

Fee is thirty-five percent of the electrical work permit fee as $61.30 

determined by WAC 296-46B-905 , plus a plan review 
submission and shipping/handling fee of: 

(a) Supplemental submissions of plans per hour or fraction of $73.00 

an hour of review time. 

(b) Plan review shipping and handling fee. $17.30 

(10) Out-of-state inspections. 

(a) Permit fees will be charged according to the fees listed in this section. 

(b) Travel expenses: 

All travel expenses and per diem for out-of-state inspections are billed following 

Page 67 of 138 

WAC 296-46B-906 Inspection fees. 



completion of each inspection(s). These expenses can include, but are not 
limited to: Inspector's travel time, travel cost and per diem at the state rate. 
Travel time is hourly based on the rate in subsection (11) of this section. 

(11) Other inspections. 

Inspections not covered by above inspection fees must be $73.00 

charged portal-to-portal per hour: 

(12) Refund processing fee. 

All requests for permit fee refunds will be assessed a $11.40 

processing fee. (Refund processing fees will not be charged for 

electrical contractors, using the contractor deposit system, who 

request less than twenty-four refunds during a rolling calendar 

year.) 

(13) Variance request processing fee. 

Variance request processing fee. This fee is nonrefundable $73.00 

once the transaction has been validated. 

(14) iviarl<ing of industrial utilization equipment. 

(a) Standard(s) letter review (per hour of review time). $73.00 

(b) Equipment marking - charged portal-to-portal per hour: $73.00 

(c) All travel expenses and per diem for in/out-of-state review and/or equipment marking are 

billed following completion of each inspection(s). These expenses can include, but are 
not limited to: Inspector's travel time, travel cost and per diem at the state rate. Travel 
time is hourly based on the rate in (b) of this subsection. 

(15) Class B basic electrical work labels. 

(a) Block of twenty Class B basic electrical work labels (not $200.00 

refundable). 

(b) Reinspection of Class B basic electrical work to assure that $36.40 

corrections have been made (per 1/2 hour timed from 
leaving the previous inspection until the reinspection is 
completed). See WAC 296-46B-110 (8). 

(c) Reinspection of Class B basic electrical work because of a $36.40 

failed inspection of another Class B label (perl/2 hour 
from previous inspection until the reinspection is 
completed). See WAC 296-46B-110 (8). 

(16) Provisional electrical work permit labels. 

Block of twenty provisional electrical work permit labels. $200.00 



Page 68 of 138 

WAC 296-46B-906 Inspection fees. 



WAC 296-46B-909 Electrical/telecommunications contractor's license, administrator 
certificate and examination, master electrician certificate and examination, electrician 
certificate and examination, temporary electrician permit, copy, and miscellaneous fees. 

Notes: (1) The department will deny renewal of a license, certificate, or permit if an individual owes 

money as a result of an outstanding final judgment(s) to the department or is in revoked status. 
The department will deny application of a license, certificate, or permit if an individual is in 
suspended status. 

(2) Certificates may be prorated for shorter renewal periods in one-year increments. Each year 
or part of a year will be calculated to be one year. 

(3) The amount of the fee due is calculated based on the fee effective at the date payment is 
made. 

(1) General or specialty contractor's license. (Nonrefundable after license has been issued.) 

(a) Per twenty-four-month period $232.90 

(b) Reinstatement of a general or specialty contractor's license after a suspension $47.30 

(2) Master electrician/administrator/electrician/trainee certificate. 

(a) Examination application (nonrefundable) 

Administrator certificate examination application. (Required only for $29.30 

department administered examinations.) (Not required when testing with the 
department's contractor.) 

(b) Examination fees (nonrefundable) 

Note: Normal examination administration is performed by a state authorized contractor. The fees 
for such examinations are set by contract with the department. For written examinations 
administered by the department, use the following fee schedule. 

(i) Master electrician or administrator first-time examination fee (when $70.50 

administered by the department) 

(ii) Master electrician oradministratorretest examination fee (when $82.50 

administered by the department) 

(ill) J ourneyman or specialty electrician examination fee (first test or retest $53.00 

when administered by the department) 
(iv) Certification examination review fee $109.20 

(c) Original certificates (nonrefundable after certificate has been issued) 

(i) Electrical administrator original certificate (except 09 telecommunication) $105.40 

(ii) Telecommunications administrator original certificate (for 09 $70.20 

telecommunications) 

(ill) Master electrician exam application (includes original certificate and $134.70 

application processing fee) ($29.30 is nonrefundable after application is 
submitted) 

(iv) J ourneyman or specialty electrician application (includes original $75.60 

certificate and application processing fee) ($29.30 is nonrefundable after 
application is submitted) 

(v) Training certificate $37.10 

(A) 0% supervision modified training certificate. Includes trainee $67.40 
update of hours (i.e., submission of affidavit of experience) 

($44.90 is nonrefundable after application is submitted) 

(B) 75% supervision modified training certificate. $44.90 

Page 69 of 138 

WAC 296-46B-909 Electrical/telecommunications contractor's license, administrator certificate and 
examination, master electrician certificate and examination, electrician certificate and examination, 
temporary electrician permit, copy, and miscellaneous 



(C) Unsupervised training certificate as allowed by RCW 19.28.161 $22.40 

(4)(b). 

(vi) Temporary electrician permit (valid as allowed and described in WAC $23.40 

296-46B-940(27)) 

(d) Certificate renewal (nonrefundable) 

(i) Master electrician or administrator certificate renewal $133.20 

(ii) Telecommunications (09) administrator certificate renewal $88.80 

(ill) Late renewal of master electrician or administrator certificate $266.40 

(iv) Late renewal of telecommunications (09) administrator certificate $177.60 

(v) J ourneyman or specialty electrician certificate renewal $70.20 

(vi) Late renewal of journeyman or specialty electrician certificate $140.50 

(vii) Trainee certificate renewal or update of hours (i.e., submission of $44.90 

affidavit of experience) 

(e) Reciprocal certificate (nonrefundable) 

(i) Master electrician reciprocal certificate $132.20 

(ii) J ourneyman or specialty electrician reciprocal certificate $75.60 

(f) Certificate - reinstatement (nonrefundable) 

(i) Reinstatement of a suspended master electrician or administrator's $47.30 

certificate (in addition to normal renewal fee) 

(ii) Reinstatement of suspended journeyman, or specialty electrician $22.40 

certificate (in addition to normal renewal fee) 

(g) Assignment/unassignment of master electrician/administrator designation $35.00 

(nonrefundable) 

(3) Certificate/license. 

(a) Replacementfor lost or damaged certificate/license. (Nonrefundable.) $15.40 

(b) Optional display quality General Master Electrician certificate. $25.00 

(4) Continuing education courses or instructors. (Nonrefundable.) 

(a) If the course or instructor review is performed by the electrical board or the 
department 

The course or instructor review $45.00 

(b) If the course or instructor review is contracted out by the electrical board or 
the department 

(i) Continuing education course or instructor submittal and approval (per As set in 
course or instructor) contract 

(ii) Applicant's request for review, by the chief electrical inspector, of the $109.50 
contractor's denial 

(5) Copy fees. (Nonrefundable.) 

(a) Certified copy of each document (maximum charge per file): $49.80 

(i) First page: $22.40 

(ii) Each additional page: $2.00 

(b) Replacement RCW/WAC printed document: $5.00 

(6) Refund processing fee. (Nonrefundable.) $11.40 

(7) Training school program review fees. Initial training school program review fee. 

(Nonrefundable.) 

(a) Initial training school program review fee submitted for approval. Valid for three $516.00 

years or until significant changes in program content or course length are 

Page 70 of 138 

WAC 296-46B-909 Electrical/telecommunications contractor's license, administrator certificate and 
examination, master electrician certificate and examination, electrician certificate and examination, 
temporary electrician permit, copy, and miscellaneous 



implemented (see WAC 296-46B-971(4)). 

(b) Renewal of training school program review fee submitted for renewal. Valid for 3 $258.00 
years or until significant changes in program content or course length are 
implemented (see WAC 296-46B-971(4)). 



Page 71 of 138 



WAC 296-46B-910 Temporary Fees - Electrical/telecommunications contractor's license, 
administrator certificate and examination, master electrician certificate and examination, 
electrician certificate and examination, temporary electrician permit, copy, and 
miscellaneous fees. Effective J anuary 1, 2007. If the fee is reduced from the permanent 
fee in WAC 296-46B-911, the temporary fee is valid through the date indicated for the 
specific fee or until modified in rule, whichever is first. 

Notes: (1) The department will deny renewal of a license, certificate, or permit if an individual owes 

money as a result of an outstanding final judgment(s) to the department or is in revoked status. 
The department will deny application of a license, certificate, or permit if an individual is in 
suspended status. 

(2) Certificates may be prorated for shorter renewal periods in one-year increments. Each year or 
part of a year will be calculated to be one year. 

(3) The amount of the fee due is calculated based on the fee effective at the date payment is 
made. 

(1) General or specialty contractor's license. (Nonrefundable after license has been issued.) 

(a) Per twenty-four-month period. Valid through December 31, 2008. $221.00 

(b) Reinstatement of a general or specialty contractor's license after a suspension $47.30 

(2) Master electrician/administrator/electrician/trainee certificate. 

(a) Examination application (nonrefundable) 

Administrator certificate examination application. (Required only for $29.30 

department administered examinations.) (Not required when testing with the 
department's contractor.) 

(b) Examination fees (nonrefundable) 

Note: Normal examination administration is performed by a state authorized contractor. The fees 
for such examinations are set by contract with the department. For written examinations 
administered by the department, use the following fee schedule. 

(i) Master electrician or administrator first-time examination fee (when $70.50 

administered by the department) 

(ii) Master electrician oradministratorretest examination fee (when $82.50 

administered by the department) 

(ill) J ourneyman or specialty electrician examination fee (first test or retest $53.00 

when administered by the department) 

(iv) Certification examination review fee $109.20 

(c) Original certificates (nonrefundable after certificate has been issued) 

(i) Electrical administrator original certificate (except 09 telecommunication). $100.00 
Valid through December 31, 2009. 

(ii) Telecommunications administrator original certificate (for 09 $67.00 

telecommunications). Valid through December 31, 2008. 

(v) Master electrician exam application (includes original certificate and $128.00 

application processing fee) ($29.30 is nonrefundable after application is 
submitted). Valid through December 31, 2009. 

(vi) J ourneyman or specialty electrician application (includes original $72.00 

certificate and application processing fee) ($29.30 is nonrefundable after 
application is submitted). Valid through December 31, 2009. 

(vii) Training certificate. Valid through December 31, 2008. $35.00 

Page 72 of 138 

WAC 296-46B-910 Temporary Fees - Electrical/telecommunications contractor's license, administrator 
certificate and examination, master electrician certificate and examination, electrician certificate and 
examination, temporary electrician permit, copy, a 



(A) 0% supervision modified training certificate. Includes trainee $64.00 
update of hours (i.e., submission of affidavit of experience) 

($44.90 is nonrefundable after application is submitted) 

(B) 75% supervision modified training certificate. $43.00 

(C) Unsupervised training certificate as allowed by RCW 19.28.161 $21.00 
(4)(b). 

(viii) Temporary electrician permit (valid as allowed and described in WAC $23.40 

296-466-940(27)) 

(d) Certificate renewal (nonrefundable) 

(i) Master electrician or administrator certificate renewal. Valid through $127.00 

December 31, 2009. 

(ii) Telecommunications (09) administrator certificate renewal. Valid through $84.00 
December 31, 2008. 

(ill) Late renewal of master electrician or administrator certificate $266.40 

(iv) Late renewal of telecommunications (09) administrator certificate $177.60 

(v) J ourneyman or specialty electrician certificate renewal. Valid through $67.00 

December 31, 2009. 

(vi) Late renewal of journeyman or specialty electrician certificate $140.50 

(vii) Trainee certificate renewal or update of hours (i.e., submission of $43.00 

affidavit of experience). Valid through December 31, 2008. 

(viii) Late trainee certificate renewal $60.00 

(e) Reciprocal certificate (nonrefundable) 

(i) Master electrician reciprocal certificate. Valid through December 31, $126.00 

2009. 

(ii) J ourneyman or specialty electrician reciprocal certificate. Valid through $72.00 

December 31, 2009. 

(f) Certificate - reinstatement (nonrefundable) 

(i) Reinstatement of a suspended master electrician or administrator's $47.30 

certificate (in addition to normal renewal fee) 

(ii) Reinstatement of suspended journeyman, or specialty electrician $22.40 

certificate (in addition to normal renewal fee) 

(g) Assignment/unassignment of master electrician/administrator designation $35.00 

(nonrefundable) 

(3) Certificate/license. 

(a) Replacementfor lost or damaged certificate/license. (Nonrefundable.) $15.40 

(b) Optional display quality General Master Electrician certificate. $25.00 

(4) Continuing education courses or instructors. (Nonrefundable.) 

(a) If the course or instructor review is performed by the electrical board or the 
department 

The course or instructor review $45.00 

(b) If the course or instructor review is contracted out by the electrical board or 
the department 

(i) Continuing education course or instructor submittal and approval (per As set in 
course or instructor) contract 

(ii) Applicant's request for review, by the chief electrical inspector, of the $109.50 
contractor's denial 

(5) Copy fees. (Nonrefundable.) 

Page 73 of 138 

WAC 296-46B-910 Temporary Fees - Electrical/telecommunications contractor's license, administrator 
certificate and examination, master electrician certificate and examination, electrician certificate and 
examination, temporary electrician permit, copy, a 



(a) Certified copy of eacii document (maximum ciiarge per file): $49.80 

(i) First page: $22.40 

(ii) Each additional page: $2.00 

(b) Replacement RCW/WAC printed document: $5.00 

(6) Refund processing fee. (Nonrefundable.) $11.40 

(7) Training school program review fees. Initial training school program review fee. 

(Nonrefundable.) 

(a) Initial training school program review fee submitted for approval. Valid for three $516.00 
years or until significant changes in program content or course length are 

implemented (see WAC 296-46B-971(4)). 

(b) Renewal of training school program review fee submitted for renewal. Valid for 3 $258.00 
years or until significant changes in program content or course length are 

implemented (see WAC 296-46B-971(4)). 



Page 74 of 138 



WAC 296-46B-911 Electrical testing laboratory and engineer accreditation fees. 

The amount of the fee due is calculated based on the fee effective at the date payment is made. 

Electrical testing laboratoty 

Initial filing fee: (Nonrefundable) $516.00 

Initial accreditation fee: 

1 product category $258.00 

Each additional category for the next 19 categories $103.20 each 

Maximum for 20 categories or more $2,218.80 

Renewal fee: (Nonrefundable) 50% of initial filing fee 

Renewal of existing accreditations 

Each additional category for the next 19 categories $103.20 each 

Maximum for 20 categories or more $2,218.80 
Engineer for evaluating industrial utilization equipment 

Initial filing fee: (Nonrefundable) $516.00 

Renewal fee: (Nonrefundable) 50% of initial filing fee 



Page 75 of 138 

WAC 296-46B-911 Electrical testing laboratory and engineer accreditation fees. 



WAC 296-46B-915 Civil penalty schedule. 

• Each day that a violation occurs will be a separate offense. 

• Once a violation of chapter 19.28 RCW or chapter 296-46B WAC becomes a final judgment, 
any additional violation within three years becomes a "second" or "additional" offense subject 
to an increased penalty as set forth in the following tables. 

• In case of continued, repeated or gross violation of the provisions of chapter 19.28 RCW or 
this chapter, or if property damage or bodily injury occurs as a result of the failure of a 
person, firm, partnership, corporation, or other entity to comply with chapter 19.28 RCW or 
this chapter the department may double the penalty amounts shown in subsections (1) 
through (13) of this section. 

• Continued or repeated violation may occur if the person, firm, partnership, corporation or 
other entity who violates a provision of chapter 19.28 RCW, chapter 296-46B WAC has 
received one or more written warnings of a similar violation within a one-year period. 

• A person, firm, partnership, corporation or other entity who violates a provision of chapter 
19.28 RCW or chapter 296-46B WAC is liable for a civil penalty based upon the following 
schedule. 

(1) Offering to perform, submitting a bid for, advertising, installing or maintaining cables, conductors or 
equipment: 

(a) That convey or utilize electrical current without having a valid electrical contractor's license. 

(b) Used for information generation, processing, or transporting of signals optically or electronically in 
telecommunications systems without having a valid telecommunications contractor's license. 

First offense: $500 

Second offense: $1,500 

Third offense: $3,000 

Each offense thereafter: $6,000 

(2) Employing an individual for the purposes of chapter 19.28 RCW who does not possess a valid 
certificate of competency or training certificate to do electrical work. 

First offense: $250 

Each offense thereafter: $500 

(3) Performing electrical work without having a valid certificate of competency or electrical training 
certificate. 

First offense: $250 

Each offense thereafter: $500 

(4) Employing electricians and electrical trainees for the purposes of chapter 19.28 RCW in an improper 
ratio. Contractors found to have violated this section three times in a three-year period must be the 
subject of an electrical audit in accordance with WAC 296-46B-975. 

First offense: $250 

Each offense thereafter: $500 

(5) Failing to provide proper supervision to an electrical trainee as required by chapter 19.28 RCW. 
Contractors found to have violated this section three times in a three-year period must be the subject of 
an electrical audit in accordance with WAC 296-46B-975. 

First offense: $250 

Each offense thereafter: $500 

Page 76 of 138 

WAC 296-46B-915 Civil penalty schedule. 



(6) Working as an electrical trainee without proper supervision as required by chapter 19.28 RCW. 

First offense: $50 

Second offense: $250 

Each offense thereafter: $500 

(7) Offering, bidding, advertising, or performing electrical or telecommunications installations, alterations 
or maintenance outside the scope of the firm's specialty electrical or telecommunications contractors 
license. 

First offense: $500 

Second offense: $1,500 

Third offense: $3,000 

Each offense thereafter: $6,000 

(8) Selling or exchanging electrical equipment associated with spas, hot tubs, swimming pools or 
hydromassage bathtubs which are not listed by an approved laboratory. 

First offense: $500 

Second offense: $1,000 

Each offense thereafter: $2,000 

Definition: 

The sale or exchange of electrical equipment associated with hot tubs, spas, swimming pools or 
hydromassage bathtubs includes to: "Sell, offer for sale, advertise, display for sale, dispose of by way of 
gift, loan, rental, lease, premium, barter or exchange." 

(9) Covering or concealing installations prior to inspection. 

First offense: $250 

Second offense: $1,000 

Each offense thereafter: $2,000 

(10) Failing to make corrections within fifteen days of notification by the department. 
Exception: 

Where an extension has been requested and granted, this penalty applies to corrections not completed 
within the extended time period. 

First offense: $250 

Second offense: $1,000 

Each offense thereafter: $2,000 

(11) Failing to obtain or post an electrical/telecommunications work permit or provisional electrical work 
permit label prior to beginning the electrical/telecommunications installation or alteration. 

Exception: 

In cases of emergency repairs to existing electrical/telecommunications systems, this penalty will not be 
charged if the permit is obtained and posted no later than the business day following beginning work on 
the emergency repair. 

First offense: $250 

Second offense: $1,000 

Each offense thereafter: $2,000 

(12) Violating chapter 19.28 RCW duties of the electrical/telecommunications administrator or master 
electrician. 

(a) Failing to be a member of the firm or a supervisory employee and shall be available during working 
hours to carry out the duties of an administrator or master electrician. 

First offense: $1,000 

Page 77 of 138 

WAG 296-46B-915 Civil penalty schedule. 



Second offense: $1,500 

Each offense thereafter: $3,000 

(b) Failing to ensure that all electrical work complies with the electrical installation laws and rules of the 
state. 

First offense: $100 

Second offense: $250 

Third offense: $1,000 

Each offense thereafter: $3,000 

(c) Failing to ensure that the proper electrical safety procedures are used. 

First offense: $500 

Second offense: $1,500 

Each offense thereafter: $3,000 

(d) Failing to ensure that all electrical labels, permits, and certificates required to perform electrical work 
are used. 

First offense: $250 

Each offense thereafter: $500 

(e) Failing to ensure that all electrical licenses, required to perform electrical work are used (i.e., work 
performed must be in the allowed scope of work for the contractor). 

First offense: $500 

Second offense: $1,500 

Third offense: $3,000 

Each offense thereafter: $6,000 

(f) Failing to see that corrective notices issued by an inspecting authority are complied with within fifteen 
days. 

Exception: Where an extension has been requested and granted, this penalty applies to corrections not 
completed within the extended time period. 

First offense: $250 

Second offense: $1,000 

Each offense thereafter: $2,000 

(g) Failing to notify the department in writing within ten days if the master electrician or administrator 
terminates the relationship with the electrical contractor. 

First offense: $500 

Second offense: $1,000 

Each offense thereafter: $3,000 

(13) Violating any of the provisions of chapter 19.28 RCW or chapter 296-46B WAC which are not 
identified in subsections (1) through (12) of this section. 

RCW 19.28.161 through 19.28.271 and the rules developed pursuant to them. 

First offense: $250 

Each offense thereafter: $500 

All other chapter 19.28 RCW provisions and the rules developed pursuant to them. 

First offense: $250 

Second offense: $750 

Each offense thereafter: $2,000 



Page 78 of 138 

WAC 296-46B-915 Civil penalty schedule. 



WAC 296-46B-920 Electrical/telecommunications license/certificate types and scope of 
work. 

(1) General electrical (01): A general electrical license and/or certificate encompasses all phases and 

all types of electrical and telecommunications installations and minor plumbing under RCW 
18.106.150. For the purposes of RCW 18.106.150, the like-in-kind replacement includes the 
appliance or any component part of the appliance (e.g., such as, but not limited to, the thermostat in a 
water heater). 

(2) All specialties listed in this subsection may perform the electrical work described within their specific 

specialty as allowed by the occupancy and location described within the specialty's scope of work. 
Except for residential (02), the scope of work for these specialties does not include plumbing work 
regulated under chapter 18.106 RCW. See RCW 18.106.150 for plumbing exceptions for the 
residential (02) specialty. For the purposes of RCW 18.106.150, the like-in-kind replacement includes 
the appliance or any component part of the appliance (e.g., such as, but not limited to, the thermostat 
in a water heater). Specialty (limited) electrical licenses and/or certificates are as follows: 

(a) Residential (02): Limited to the telecommunications, low voltage, and line voltage wiring of 

one- and two-family dwellings, or multifamily dwellings not exceeding three stories above 
grade. All wiring is limited to nonmetallic sheathed cable, except for services and/or feeders, 
exposed installations where physical protection is required, and for wiring buried below 
grade. 

(i) This specialty also includes the wiring for ancillary structures such as, but not limited 
to: Appliances, equipment, swimming pools, septic pumping systems, domestic 
water systems, limited energy systems (e.g., doorbells, intercoms, fire alarm, burglar 
alarm, energy control, H VAC /refrigeration, etc.), multifamily complex offices/garages, 
site lighting when supplied from the residence or ancillary structure, and other 
structures directly associated with the functionality of the residential units, 
(ii) This specialty does not include wiring occupancies defined in WAC 296-466-901(13), 
or commercial occupancies such as: Motels, hotels, offices, assisted living facilities, 
or stores, 
(ill) See RCW 18.106.150 for plumbing exceptions for the residential (02) specialty. 

(b) Pump and irrigation (03): Limited to the electrical connection of circuits, feeders, controls, 

low voltage, related telecommunications, and services to supply: Domestic water systems 
and public water systems include but are not limited to pumps, pressurization, filtration, 
treatment, or other equipment and controls, and irrigation water pumps, circular irrigating 
system's pumps and pump houses. 

This specialty may also perform the work defined in (c) of this subsection. 

Also see RCW 18.106.010(10)(c). 

(c) Domestic pump (03A): Limited to the extension of a branch circuit, which is supplied and 

installed by others, to signaling circuits, motor control circuits, motor control devices, and 
pumps which do not exceed 7 1/2 horsepower at 250 volts AC single phase input power, 
regardless of motor controller output or motor voltage/phase, used in residential potable 
water or residential sewage disposal systems. Domestic water systems and public water 
systems include but are not limited to pumps, pressurization, filtration, treatment, or other 
equipment and controls. 

Also see RCW 18.106.010(10)(c). 

(d) Signs (04): Limited to placement and connection of signs and outline lighting, the electrical 

supply, related telecommunications, controls and associated circuit extensions thereto; and 
the installation of a maximum 60 ampere, 120/240 volt single phase service to supply power 
to a remote sign only. This specialty may service, maintain, or repair exterior luminaires that 
are mounted on a pole or other structure with like-in-kind components, 
(i) Electrical licensing/certification is not required to: 

(A) Clean the nonelectrical parts of an electric sign; 

Page 79 of 138 

WAC 296-46B-920 Electrical/telecommunications license/certificate types and scope of work. 



(B) To form or pour a concrete pole base used to support a sign; 

(C) To operate machinery used to assist an electrician in mounting an electric 
sign or sign supporting pole; or 

(D) To assemble the structural parts of a billboard. 

(ii) Electrical licensing/certification is required to: Install, modify, or maintain a sign, sign 
supporting pole, sign face, sign ballast, lamp socket, lamp holder, disconnect switch, 
or any other part of a listed electric sign. 

(e) Limited energy system (06): Limited to the installation of signaling and power limited circuits 

and related equipment. This specialty is restricted to low-voltage circuits. This specialty 
includes the installation of telecommunications, HVAC/refrigeration low-voltage wiring, fire 
protection signaling systems, intrusion alarms, energy management and control systems, 
industrial and automation control systems, lighting control systems, commercial and 
residential amplified sound, public address systems, and such similar low-energy circuits and 
equipment in all occupancies and locations. 

(i) For the purposes of this section, when a line voltage connection is removed and 
reconnected to a replacement component located inside the control cabinet, the 
replacement must be like-in-kind or replaced using the equipment manufacturer's 
authorized replacement component. The line voltage circuit is limited to 120 volts 20 
amps maximum and must have a means of disconnect, 
(ii) The limited energy systems (06) specialty may repair or replace line voltage 
connections terminated inside the cabinet to power supplies internal to the low 
voltage equipment provided there are no modifications to the characteristics of the 
branch circuit/feeder load being supplied by the circuit, 
(ill) The limited energy systems (06) specialty may not replace or modify the line voltage 
circuit or cabling or alter the means of connection of the line voltage circuit to the 
power supply or to the control cabinet. 

Limited energy electrical contractors may perform all telecommunications work under their 
specialty (06) electrical license and administrator's certificate. 

(f) HVAC/refrigeration systems: 

(i) See WAC 296-46B-100 for specific HVAC/refrigeration definitions. 

(ii) For the purposes of this section when a component is replaced, the replacement must 

be like-in-kind or made using the equipment manufacturer's authorized replacement 

component, 
(ill) The HVAC/refrigeration specialties described in (f)(v) and (vi) of this subsection may: 

(A) Install HVAC/refrigeration: Telecommunications, Class 2 low-voltage control 
circuit wiring/components in all residential occupancies; 

(B) Install, repair, replace, and maintain line voltage components within 
HVAC/refrigeration equipment. Such line voltage components include 
product illumination luminaires installed within and powered from the 
HVAC/refrigeration system (e.g., reach-in beverage coolers, frozen food 
cases, produce cases, etc.) and new or replaced factory authorized 
accessories such as internally mounted outlets; 

(C) Repair, replace, or maintain the internal components of the 
HVAC/refrigeration equipment disconnecting means or controller so long as 
the disconnecting means or controller is not located within a motor control 
center or panelboard (see Figure 920-1 and Figure 920-2); 

(D) Install, repair, replace, and maintain short sections of raceway to provide 
physical protection for low-voltage cables. For the purposes of this section a 
short section cannot mechanically interconnect two devices, junction boxes, 
or other equipment or components; and 

(E) Repair, replace, or maintain line voltage flexible supply whips not over six feet 
in length, provided there are no modifications to the characteristics of the 
branch circuit/feeder load being supplied by the whip. There is no limitation 
on the whip raceway method (e.g., metallic replaced by nonmetallic). 

Page 80 of 138 

WAC 296-46B-920 Electrical/teleconnmunications license/certificate types and scope of work. 



(iv) The H VAC /refrigeration specialties described in (f)(v) and (vi) of tiiis subsection may 
not: 

(A) Install line voltage controllers or disconnect switches external to 
H VAC /refrigeration equipment; 

(B) Install, repair, replace, or maintain: 

• Integrated building control systems, other than H VAC /refrigeration 

systems; 

• Single stand-alone line voltage equipment or components (e.g., heat 

cable, wall heaters, radiant panel heaters, baseboard heaters, 
contactors, motor starters, and similar equipment) unless the 
equipment or component: 

D Is exclusively controlled by the HVAC/refrigeration system and 
requires the additional external connection to a mechanical 
system(s) (e.g., connection to water piping, gas piping, 
refrigerant system, ducting for the HVAC/refrigeration 
system, gas fireplace flume, ventilating systems, etc. (i.e., as 
in the ducting connection to a bathroom fan)). The external 
connection of the equipment/component to the mechanical 
system must be required as an integral component allowing 
the operation of the HVAC/refrigeration system; or 
D Contains a HVAC/refrigeration mechanical system(s) (e.g., 
water piping, gas piping, refrigerant system, etc.) within the 
equipment (e.g., "through-the-wall" air conditioning units, 
self-contained refrigeration equipment, etc.); 

• Luminaires that serve as a building or structure lighting source, even if 

mechanically connected to a HVAC/refrigeration system (e.g., troffer 
luminaire used as a return air device, lighting within a walk-in 
cooler/freezer used for personnel illumination); 

• Raceway/conduit systems; 

• Line voltage: Service, feeder, or branch circuit conductors. However, if 

a structure's feeder/branch circuit supplies HVAC/refrigeration 
equipment containing a supplementary overcurrent protection 
device(s), this specialty may install the conductors from the 
supplementary overcurrent device(s) to the supplemental 
HVAC/refrigeration equipment if the supplementary overcurrent 
device and the HVAC/refrigeration equipment being supplied are 
located within sight of each other (see F igure 920-2); or 

• Panelboards, switchboards, or motor control centers external to 

HVAC/refrigeration system, 
(v) HVAC/refrigeration (06A): 

(A) This specialty is not limited by voltage, phase, or amperage. 

(B) No unsupervised electrical trainee can install, repair, replace, or maintain any 
part of a HVAC/refrigeration system that contains any circuit rated over 600 
volts whether the circuit is energized or deenergized. 

(C) This specialty may: 

• Install HVAC/refrigeration: Telecommunications, Class 2 low-voltage 

control circuit wiring/components in other than residential 

occupancies: 

n That have no more than three stories on/above grade; or 
D Regardless of the number of stories above grade if the 
installation: 

• Does not pass between stories; 

• Is made in a previously occupied and wired space; and 

• Is restricted to the HVAC/refrigeration system; 

Page 81 of 138 

WAG 296-46B-920 Electrical/telecommunications license/certificate types and scope of work. 



• Repair, replace, and maintain HVAC/refrigeration: 

Telecommunications, Class 2 low-voltage control circuit 
wiring/components in all occupancies regardless of the number of 
stories on/above grade. 

• Install a bonding conductor for metal gas piping to an existing 

accessible grounding electrode conductor or grounding electrode 
only when terminations can be made external to electrical 
panelboards, switchboards, or other distribution equipment. 
(D) This specialty may not install, repair, replace, or maintain: Any electrical 
wiring governed under article(s) 500, 501, 502, 503, 504, 505, 510, 511, 513, 
514, 515, or 516 NEC (i.e., classified locations) located outside the 
HVAC/refrigeration equipment, 
(vi) HVAC/refrigeration restricted (06B): 

(A) This specialty may not perform any electrical work where the primary 
electrical power connection to the HVAC/refrigeration system exceeds: 250 
volts, single phase, or 120 amps. 

(B) This specialty may install, repair, replace, or maintain HVAC/refrigeration: 
Telecommunications, Class 2 low-voltage control circuit wiring/components 
in other than residential occupancies that have no more than three stories 
on/above grade. 

(C) This specialty may not install, repair, replace, or maintain: 

• The allowed telecommunications/low-voltage HVAC/refrigeration wiring 

in a conduit/raceway system; or 

• Any electrical work governed under article(s) 500, 501, 502, 503, 504, 

505, 510, 511, 513, 514, 515, or 516 NEC (i.e., classified locations). 



Page 82 of 138 

WAG 296-46B-920 Electrical/teleconnnnunications license/certificate types and scope of work. 



^\. 



Panelboard 



Stand Alone 

Combination 

Starter 



Note: No conduit/raceway 
installation allowed. 



Figure 920-1 



Repair, replace and 
maintain stand-alone 
equipment allowed per 
WAC 296-46B- 
920(2)(f)(iii)(C) 



r 



I: Fan ■ 



HVAC/refrigeration 
System 



Note: No conduit/raceway 
installation allowed. 



L^ HVAC/refrigeration 
System 

Figure 920-2 



Repair, replace and 
maintain stand-alone 
equipment allowed per 
WAC 296-46B- 
920(2)(f)(iii)(C: 

Disconnect Switch 




Wiring allowed per 
WAC 296-46B- 
920(2)(f)(iv)(B) 



Page 83 of 138 

WAC 296-46B-920 Electrical/telecommunications license/certificate types and scope of work. 



(g) Nonresidential maintenance (07): Limited to maintenance, repair and replacement of lil<e- 
in-l<ind existing electrical equipment and conductors. This specialty does not include 
maintenance activities in residential dwellings defined in (a) of this subsection for the 
purposes of accumulating training experience toward qualification for the residential (02) 
specialty electrician examination. 

This specialty may perform the work defined in (h), (i), (j), (k), and (I) of this subsection. 

(h) Nonresidential lighting maintenance and lighting retrofit (07A): Limited to working within 
the housing of existing nonresidential luminaires for work related to repair, service, 
maintenance of luminaires and installation of energy efficiency lighting retrofit upgrades. This 
specialty includes replacement of lamps, ballasts, sockets and the installation of listed lighting 
retrofit reflectors and kits. All work is limited to the luminaire body, except remote located 
ballasts may be replaced or retrofitted with approved products. This specialty does not 
include installing new luminaires or branch circuits; moving or relocating existing luminaires; 
or altering existing branch circuits. 

(i) Residential maintenance (076): This specialty is limited to residential dwellings as defined in 
WAC 296-46B-920 (2)(a), multistory dwelling structures with no commercial facilities, and the 
interior of dwelling units in multistory structures with commercial facilities. This specialty may 
maintain, repair, or replace (like-in-kind) existing electrical utilization equipment, and all 
permit exempted work as defined in WAC 296-46B-900. 

This specialty is limited to equipment and circuits to a maximum of 250 volts, 60 amperes, 
and single phase maximum. 

This specialty may disconnect and reconnect low-voltage control and line voltage supply 
whips not over six feet in length provided there are no modifications to the characteristics of 
the branch circuit or whip. 

For the purpose of this specialty, "electrical equipment" does not include electrical 
conductors, raceway or conduit systems external to the equipment or whip. This specialty 
cannot perform any plumbing work regulated under chapter 18.106 RCW. 
(j) Restricted nonresidential maintenance {07C): This specialty may maintain, repair, or 

replace (like-in-kind) existing electrical utilization equipment, and all permit exempted work as 
defined in WAC 296-46B-900 except for the replacementor repair of circuit breakers. 

This specialty is limited to equipment and circuits to a maximum of 277 volts and 20 amperes 
for lighting branch circuits only and/or maximum 250 volts and 60 amperes for other circuits. 
The replacement of luminaires is limited to in-place replacement required by failure of the 
luminaire to operate. Luminaires installed in suspended lay-in tile ceilings may be relocated 
providing: The original field installed luminaire supply whip is not extended or relocated to a 
new supply point; or if a manufactured wiring assembly supplies luminaire power, a luminaire 
may be relocated no more than eight feet providing the manufactured wiring assembly 
circuiting is not changed. 

This specialty may disconnect and reconnect low-voltage control and line voltage supply 
whips not over six feet in length provided there are no modifications to the characteristics of 
the branch circuit. For the purpose of this specialty, "electrical equipment" does not include 
electrical conductors, raceway or conduit systems external to the equipment or whip. 

This specialty may perform the work defined in (h) and (i) of this subsection. 

This specialty cannot perform any work governed under Article(s) 500, 501, 502, 503, 504, 
505, 510, 511, 513, 514, 515, or 516 NEC (i.e., classified locations). This specialty cannot 
perform any plumbing work regulated under chapter 18.106 RCW. 
(k) Appliance repair (070): Servicing, maintaining, repairing, or replacing household appliances, 
small commercial/industrial appliances, and other small electrical utilization equipment. 

Page 84 of 138 

WAC 296-46B-920 Electrical/teleconnmunications license/certificate types and scope of work. 



(i) Forthe purposes of this subsection: 

(A) Tiie appliance or electrical utilization equipment must be self-contained and 
built to standardized sizes or types. The appliance/equipment must be 
connected as a single unit to a single source of electrical power limited to a 
maximum of 250 volts, 60 amperes, single phase. 

(B) Appliances and electrical utilization equipment include, but are not limited to: 
Ovens, office equipment, vehicle repair equipment, commercial kitchen 
equipment, self-contained hottubs and spas, grinders, and scales. 

(C) Appliances and utilization equipment do not include systems and equipment 
such as: Alarm/energy management/similar systems, luminaires, 
furnaces/heaters/air conditioners/heat pumps, sewage disposal equipment, 
door/gate/similar equipment, or individual components installed so as to 
create a system (e.g., pumps, switches, controllers, etc.). 

(ii) This specialty includes: 

(A) The in-place like-in-kind replacement of the appliance or equipment if the 
same unmodified electrical circuit is used to supply the equipment being 
replaced. This specialty also includes the like-in-kind replacement of 
electrical components within the appliance or equipment; 

(B) The disconnection and reconnection of low-voltage control and line voltage 
supply whips not over six feet in length provided there are no modifications to 
the characteristics of the branch circuit; and 

(C) The installation of an outlet box and outlet at an existing appliance or 
equipment location when converting the appliance from a permanent 
electrical connection to a plug and cord connection. Other than the 
installation of the outlet box and outlet, there can be no modification to the 
existing branch circuit supplying the appliance or equipment. 

(ill) This specialty does not include: 

(A) The installation, repair, or modification of branch circuits conductors, 
services, feeders, panelboards, disconnect switches, or raceway/conductor 
systems interconnecting multiple appliances, equipment, or other electrical 
components. 

(B) Any work governed under Article(s) 500, 501, 502, 503, 504, 505, 510, 511, 
513, 514, 515, or 516 NEC (i.e., classified locations). 

(C) Any plumbing work regulated under chapter 18.106 RCW. 

(I) Equipment repair (07E): Servicing, maintaining, repairing, or replacing utilization equipment. 

See RCW 19.28.095 forthe equipment repair scope of work and definitions. This specialty 
cannot perform any plumbing work regulated under chapter 18.106 RCW. 
(m) Telecommunications (09): Limited to the installation, maintenance, and testing of 

telecommunications systems, equipment, and associated hardware, pathway systems, and 
cable management systems, 
(i) This specialty includes: 

(A) Installation of open wiring systems of telecommunications cables. 

(B) Surface nonmetallic raceways designated and used exclusively for 
telecommunications. 

(C) Optical fiber innerduct raceway. 

(D) Underground raceways designated and used exclusively for 
telecommunications and installed for additions or extensions to existing 
telecommunications systems not to exceed fifty feet inside the building. 

(E) Incidental short sections of circular or surface metal raceway, not to exceed 
ten feet, for access or protection of telecommunications cabling and 
installation of cable trays and ladder racks in telecommunications service 
entrance rooms, spaces, or closets. 

(F) Audio or paging systems where the amplification is integrated into the 
telephone system equipment. 

Page 85 of 138 

WAG 296-46B-920 Electrical/telecommunications license/certificate types and scope of work. 



(G) Audio or paging systems where the amplification is provided by equipment 
listed as an accessory to the telephone system equipment and requires the 
telephone system for the audio or paging system to function. 
(H) Closed circuit video monitoring systems if there is no integration of line or 
low-voltage controls for cameras and equipment. Remote controlled 
cameras and equipment are considered (intrusion) security systems and 
must be installed by appropriately licensed electrical contractors and certified 
electricians, 
(i) Customer satellite and conventional antenna systems receiving a telecommunications 
service provider's signal. All receiving equipment is on the customer side of the 
telecommunications network demarcation point, 
(ii) This specialty does not include horizontal cabling used for fire protection signaling 
systems, intrusion alarms, access control systems, patient monitoring systems, 
energy management control systems, industrial and automation control systems, 
H VAC /refrigeration control systems, lighting control systems, and stand-alone 
amplified sound or public address systems. Telecommunications systems may 
interface with other building signal systems including security, alarms, and energy 
management at cross-connection junctions within telecommunications closets or at 
extended points of demarcation. Telecommunications systems do not include the 
installation or termination of premises line voltage service, feeder, or branch circuit 
conductors or equipment. Horizontal cabling for a telecommunications outlet, 
necessary to interface with any of these systems outside of a telecommunications 
closet, is the work of the telecommunications contractor, 
(n) Door, gate, and similar systems (10): This specialty may install, service, maintain, repair, or 
replace door/gate/similar systems electrical operator wiring and equipment. 

(i) For the purposes of this subsection, door/gate/similar systems electrical operator 
systems include electric gates, doors, windows, awnings, movable partitions, curtains 
and similar systems. These systems include, but are not limited to: Electric 
gate/door/similar systems operators, control push buttons, key switches, key pads, 
pull cords, air and electric treadle, air and electric sensing edges, coil cords, take-up 
reels, clocks, photo electric cells, loop detectors, motion detectors, remote radio and 
receivers, antenna, timers, lock-out switches, stand-alone release device with smoke 
detection, strobe light, annunciator, control panels, wiring and termination of 
conductors, 
(ii) This specialty includes: 

(A) Low-voltage, NEC Class 2, door/gate/similar systems electrical operator 
systems where the door/gate/similar systems electrical operator system is 
not connected to other systems. 

(B) Branch circuits originating in a listed door/gate/similar systems electric 
operator control panel that supplies only door/gate/similar systems system 
components providing: The branch circuit does not exceed 600 volts, 20 
amperes and the component is within sight of the listed door/gate/similar 
systems electric operator control panel. 

(C) Reconnection of line voltage power to a listed door/gate/similar systems 
electric operator control panel is permitted provided: 

• There are no modifications to the characteristics of the branch 

circuit/feeder; 

• The circuit/feeder does not exceed 600 volts, 20 amperes; and 

• The conductor or conduit extending from the branch circuit/feeder 

disconnecting means or junction box does not exceed six feet in 

length, 
(ill) This specialty does not include any work governed under Article(s) 500, 501, 502, 
503, 504, 505, 510, 511, 513, 514, 515, or 516 NEC (i.e., classified locations). This 
specialty may not install, repair, or replace branch circuit (line voltage) conductors, 
services, feeders, panelboards, or disconnect switches supplying the 
door/gate/similar systems electric operator control panel. 

Page 86 of 138 

WAG 296-46B-920 Electrical/teleconnnnunications license/certificate types and scope of work. 



(3) A specialty electrical contractor, other than the (06) limited energy specialty electrical contractor, may 
only perform telecommunications work within the equipment or occupancy limitations of their specialty 
electrical contractor's license. Any other telecommunications work requires a telecommunications 
contractor's license. 



Page 87 of 138 

WAC 296-46B-920 Electrical/telecommunications license/certificate types and scope of work. 



Table 920-1 Allowed Scope of Work C rossover 



All Specialties 



Residential (02) 



Pump and Irrigation (03) 



Signs (04) 



Limited Energy Systems (06) 



General Electrical (01) 



^ Domestic Pump (03A) 



> Telecommunication (09) < 



HVAC /refrigeration (06A) 



► HVAC/refrigeration-restricted (06B) 



Nonresidential Maintenance (07) 














Nonresidential Lighting Maintenance and 
Lighting Retrofit (07A) 


< — 
< — 












Residential Maintenance (07B) 












Restricted Nonresidential Maintenance 
(07C) 
















Appliance Repair (07D) 


< — 1 












EquipmentRepair (07E) 









Door, G ate, and Similar Systems (10) 



Page 88 of 138 

WAC 296-46B-920 Electrical/telecommunications license/certificate types and scope of work. 



WAC 296-46B-925 Electrical/telecommunications contractor's license. General. 

(1) The department will issue an electrical/telecommunications contractor's license that will expire twenty- 

four months following the date of issue to a person, firm, partnership, corporation or other entity that 
complies with requirements for such license in chapter 19.28 RCW. An electrical/telecommunications 
contractor's license will not be issued to or renewed for a person, firm, or partnership unless the 
Social Security number, date of birth, and legal address of the individual legal owner(s) are submitted 
with the application. The department may issue an electrical/telecommunications contractor's license 
for a period greater or less than twenty-four months for the purpose of equalizing the number of 
electrical contractor's licenses that expire each month. The department may prorate the 
electrical/telecommunications contractor's license fee according to the license period. 

(2) Combination specialty contractor's license. The department may issue a combination specialty 

contractor's license to a firm that qualifies for more than one specialty electrical contractor's license. 
The assigned administrator must be certified in all specialties applicable to the combination specialty 
contractor's license. The license will plainly indicate the specialty licenses' codes included in the 
combination license. An administrator assigned to a telecommunications contractor must be certified 
as a telecommunications administrator. A combination license will not be issued for 
telecommunications (09). 

(3) See RCW 19.28.041(7) for a contractor doing domestic pumping work as defined in RCW 

18.106.010(10)(c). 

(4) The department may deny renewal of an electrical/telecommunications contractor's license if a firm, 

an owner, partner, member, or corporate officer owes money as a result of an outstanding final 
judgment(s) to the department. 

Electrical/telecommunications contractor bond, cash or securities deposit. 

(5) Bond, cash or securities deposit. 

(a) The electrical/telecommunications contractor may furnish the department with a cash or 

security deposit to meet the bond requirements in lieu of posting a bond. A cash or security 
deposit assigned to the department for bond requirements will be held in place for one year 
after the contractor's license is expired, revoked, or the owner notifies the department in 
writing that the company is no longer doing business in the state of Washington as an 
electrical/telecommunications contractor. Upon written request, the cash or security deposit 
will then be released by the department providing there is no pending legal action against the 
contractor under chapter 19.28 RCW of which the department has been notified. 

(b) See RCW 19.28.041(7) for a contractor doing domestic pumping work as defined in RCW 

18.106.010(10)(c). 

Telecommunications contractor insurance. 

(6) To obtain a telecommunications contractor's license, the applicant must provide the department with 

an original certificate of insurance naming the department of labor and industries, electrical section as 
the certificate holder. Insurance coverage must be no less than twenty thousand dollars for injury or 
damages to property, fifty thousand dollars for injury or damage including death to any one person, 
and one hundred thousand dollars for injury or damage including death to more than one person. 
The insurance will be considered a continuing obligation unless canceled by the insurance company. 
The insurance company must notify the department in writing ten days prior to the effective date of 
said cancellation or failure to renew. 

(7) The telecommunications contractor may furnish the department with an assigned account to meet the 

insurance requirements in lieu of a certificate of insurance. An account assigned to the department 
for insurance requirements will be held in place for three years after the contractor's license is 
expired, revoked, or the owner notifies the department in writing that the company is no longer doing 
business in the state of Washington as a telecommunications contractor. Upon written request, the 

Page 89 of 138 

WAC 296-46B-925 Electrical/telecommuriicatioris contractor's licerise. Gerieral. 



account then will be released by the department providing there is no pending legal action against the 
contractor under chapter 19.28 RCW of which the department has been notified. 

Electrical/telecommunications contractor exemptions. 

(8) The following types of systems and circuits are considered exempt from the requirements for licensing 

and permitting described in chapter 19.28 RCW. The electrical failure of these systems does not 
inherently or functionally compromise safety to life or property. 

Low-voltage thermocouple derived circuits and low-voltage circuits for: 

(a) Built-in residential vacuum systems; 

(b) Underground landscape sprinkler systems; 

(c) Underground landscape lighting; and 

(d) Residential garage doors. 

For these types of systems and circuits to be considered exempt, the following conditions must be 
met: 

(e) The power supplying the installation must be derived from a listed Class 2 power supply; 

(f) The installation and termination of line voltage equipment and conductors supplying these 

systems is performed by appropriately licensed and certified electrical contractors and 
electricians; 

(g) The conductors of these systems do not pass through fire-rated walls, fire-rated ceilings or 

fire-rated floors in other than residential units; and 
(h) Conductors or luminaires are not installed in installations covered by the scope of Article 680 
NEC (swimming pools, fountains, and similar installations). 

(9) Firms who clean and/or replace lamps in luminaires are not included in the requirements for licensing 

in chapter 19.28 RCW. This exemption does not apply to electric signs as defined in the NEC. 

(10) Firms who install listed plug and cord connected utilization equipment are not included in the 
requirements for licensing in chapter 19.28 RCW. The plug and cord must be a single listed unit 
consisting of a molded plug and cord and not exceeding 250 volt 60 ampere single phase. The plug 
and cord can be field installed per the manufacturer's instructions and the product listing 
requirements. The utilization equipment must be a single manufactured unit that does not require any 
electrical field assembly except for the installation of the plug and cord. 

(11) Firms regulated by the Federal Communications Commission or the utilities and transportation 
commission, supplying telecommunications service to an end-user's property, are not required to be 
licensed as a telecommunications contractor under chapter 19.28 RCW for telecommunications 
installations made ahead of the telecommunications network demarcation point. 

(12) Unregulated firms, supplying telecommunications service to an end-user's property, are not required 
to be licensed as a telecommunications contractor under chapter 19.28 RCW for telecommunications 
installations made ahead of the telecommunications network demarcation point. 

(13) Leaseholders. For electrical installations, maintenance, or alterations to existing buildings only, any 
person, firm, partnership, corporation, or other entity holding a valid, signed lease from the property 
owner authorizing the leaseholder to perform electrical work, on the property the leaseholder 
occupies, will be allowed to purchase an electrical permit(s) and do electrical work on or within the 
property described in the lease. The lessee and/or his or her regularly employed employees must 
perform the electrical installation, maintenance and alteration. 

The lessee who performs the electrical maintenance or installation work must be the sole occupant of 
the property or space. Property owners or leaseholders cannot perform electrical work on new 
buildings for rent, sale, or lease, without the proper electrical licensing and certification. Refer to 
RCW 19.28.261 for exemptions from licensing and certification. 

(14) Assisting a householder. A friend, neighbor, relative, or other person (including a certified 
electrician) may assist a householder, at his/her residence in the performance of electrical work on 
the condition that the householder is present when the work is performed and the person assisting 
the householder does not accept money or other forms of compensation for the volunteer work. For 
the purposes of this subsection, a residence is a single-family residence. 

Page 90 of 138 

WAG 296-46B-925 Electrical/teleconnmunications contractor's license. General. 



(15) Volunteering to do electrical work. There are no exceptions from the electrical contractor's license or 
electrician certification requirements to allow persons to perform volunteer electrical work for anyone 
other than a householder or a nonprofit organization as allowed by RCW 19.28.091(7). For the 
purpose of this section, volunteer means that there is no remuneration or receiving of goods or 
services in return for electrical installations performed. 

(16) Farms or place of business. See RCW 19.28.261 for licensing/certification exemptions allowed for 
the owner(s) of a farm or other place of business and for the employees of the owner. 

Exemptions electrical utility and electrical utility's contractor. 

(17) Electrical utility system exemption. Neither a serving electrical utility nor a contractor employed by 
the serving electrical utility is required to have an electrical contractor's license for work on the "utility 
system" or on service connections or on meters and other apparatus or appliances used to measure 
the consumption of electricity. 

(a) Street lighting exemption. A serving electrical utility is not required to have an electrical 
contractor's license or electrical permit to work on electrical equipment used in the lighting of 
streets, alleys, ways, or public areas or squares. 

Utilities are allowed to install outside area lighting on privately owned property where the 
lighting fixture(s) is installed on a utility owned pole(s) used to support utility owned electric 
distribution wiring or equipment designed to supply electrical power to a customer's property. 

Utilities are allowed to install area lighting outside and not attached to a building or other 
customer owned structure when the areas are outside publicly owned buildings such as: 
P ubiicly owned/operated parking lots, parks, schools, play fields, beaches, and similar areas; 
or the areas are privately owned where the public has general, clear and unrestricted access 
such as: Church parking lots, and commercial property public parking areas and similar 
areas. 

Utilities are not allowed to install area lighting when the area is privately owned and the public 
does not have general, clear, and unrestricted access such as industrial property, residential 
property and controlled commercial property where the public's access is otherwise 
restricted. 

Utilities are not allowed to install area lighting where the lighting is supplied from a source of 
power derived from a customer owned electrical system. 

(b) Customer-owned equipment exemption. A serving electrical utility is not required to have an 

electrical contractor's license to work on electrical equipment owned by a commercial, 
industrial, or public institution customer if: 

(i) The utility has not solicited such work; and 

(ii) Such equipment: 

(A) Is located outside a building or structure; and 

(B) The work performed is on the primary side of the customer's transformer(s) 
which supplies power at the customer's utilization voltage. 

(c) Exempted equipment and installations. No person, firm, partnership, corporation, or other 

entity is required to have an electrical contractor's license for work on electrical equipment 
and installations thereof that are exempted by RCW 19.28.091. 

(d) Exemption from inspection. 

(i) The work of a serving electrical utility and its contractors on the utility system is not 
subject to inspection. The utility is responsible for inspection and approval for the 
installation. 

(ii) Work exempted by NEC 90.2 (B)(5), 1981 edition, is not subject to inspection. 

Exemptions electrical utility telecommunications transition equipment installations, maintenance 
and repair. 

Page 91 of 138 

WAG 296-46B-925 Electrical/telecommunications contractor's license. General. 



(18) No license, inspection or other permit will be required by the department of any electric utility or, of 
any person, firm, partnership or corporation or other entity employed or retained by an electric utility 
or its contractor, because of work in connection with the installation, maintenance, or repair of 
telecommunications transition equipment located ahead of the utility's telecommunications network 
demarcation point on the outside of a building or other structure when the work is performed by a 
qualified person consistent with the requirements of the National Electric Code (NEC) except as 
provided in (a) and (b) of this subsection: 

(a) The following exceptions to the NEC shall be permitted: 

(i) An additional service disconnect supplying power to the transition equipment can be 
connected on the supply side of the main service disconnect supplying general 
power to the building; 

(ii) Service entrance disconnects may be separated when clearly labeled; 

(ill) The service disconnect used for supplying power to the transition equipment must be 
connected to the grounding electrode system using: 

(A) #8 AWG copper or larger grounding electrode conductor if protected from 
physical damage; or 

(B) #6 AWG copper or larger grounding electrode conductor if not protected from 
physical damage; 

(iv) Use of equipment or materials that have been listed/field evaluated by a recognized 

independent testing laboratory or the department; 
(v) Low-voltage circuits do not require a separate disconnecting means and may be 

grounded to the transition equipment grounding system; 
(vi) Any other variance to the NEC must be approved by the department. 

(b) A variance recommended by a joint utility standards group composed of representatives of 

both public and private utilities or certified by a professional engineer will be approved by the 
department unless the recommendation is inconsistent with meeting equivalent objectives for 
public safety. 

(c) For the purposes of this section, a qualified worker is employed by a utility or its contractor 

and is familiar with the construction or operation of such lines and/or equipment that concerns 
his/her position and who is proficient with respect to the safety hazards connected therewith, 
or, one who has passed a journey status examination for the particular branch of the 
electrical trades with which he/she may be connected or is in a recognized training or 
apprenticeship course and is supervised by a journey level person. 

(d) Although the utility is responsible for inspection and approval of the installation, including the 

selection of material and equipment, the department reserves the right to audit worker 
qualifications and inspect such installations semiannually for conformance with the 
requirements of (a), (b) and (c) of this subsection but shall not collect a permit fee for such 
inspection or audit. 

(e) If a utility fails to meet the requirements of this section, the department may require the utility 
to develop and submit a remedial action plan and schedule to attain compliance with this 
section which may be enforced by the department. 

(f) This exemption shall be in addition to any other exemption provided in chapter 19.28 RC W, 

this chapter or other applicable law. 

Exemptions independent electrical power production equipment exemption. 

(19) An independent electrical power production entity is not required to have an electrical contractor's 
license to work on electrical equipment used to produce or transmit electrical power if: 

(a) The entity is: 

(i) The owner or operator of the generating facility is regulated by the Federal Energy 

Regulatory Commission (FERC); 
(ii) A municipal utility, or other form of governmental electric utility, or by an electrical 

cooperative or mutual corporation; or 
(ill) The owner or operator of the generating facility is an independent electrical power 

producer and the facility generates electrical power only for sale to one or more: 

Page 92 of 138 

WAG 296-46B-925 Electrical/teleconnmunications contractor's license. General. 



(A) Electrical utilities regulated by FERC, municipal utility, or other form of 
governmental utility, or to an electric cooperative or mutual corporation; and 

(B) The electrical power generated by the facility is not used for self-generation 
or any other on- or off-site function other than sale to one or more utilities 
regulated by FERC or by one or more state public utilities commissions, or to 
a PUD, municipal utility, or other form of governmental electric utility, or to an 
electric cooperative or mutual corporation. 

(b) The entity must supply the chief electrical inspector a valid master business license issued by 

the department of licensing, state of Washington so that the entity's status as a revenue 
generating business can be confirmed. 

(c) The entity has entered into an agreement to sell electricity to a utility or to a third party; and 

(d) The electrical equipment is used to transmit electricity from the terminals of an electrical 

generating unit located on premises to the point of interconnection with a utility system. 

(e) The electrical power production facility's generation capacity exceeds 115 KVA. 

(f) Notwithstanding that a generating facility may be granted an exemption pursuant to this 

section, the facility will be subject to all the requirements of chapter 19.28 RCW if the facility 
at any time in the future ceases to comply with the requirements for exemption. All site 
facilities not exclusively and directly required to generate and/or distribute the electrical power 
generated on the site are subject to all the licensing and inspection requirements of chapter 
19.28 RCW. All facility services, feeders, and circuits not exclusively and directly required to 
generate and/or distribute the electrical power (e.g., lights, outlets, etc.) must comply with all 
requirements of chapter 19.28 RCW for licensing and inspection. Facility circuits supplied to 
equipment required for the function of generation equipment (e.g., block heaters, power 
supplies, etc.) must comply with all requirements of chapter 19.28 RCW for licensing and 
inspection up to and including the equipment termination point. 

Exemptions telegraph and telephone utility and telegraph and telephone utility's contractor. 

(20) Telegraph and telephone utility exempted equipment and installations. No person, firm, partnership, 
corporation, or other entity is required to have an electrical contractor's license for work on electrical 
equipment and installations thereof that are exempted by RCW 19.28.151. For the purposes of this 
exemption, "building or buildings used exclusively for that purpose" may mean any separate building 
or space of a building where the space is separated from the remainder of the building by a two-hour 
fire wall. The telecommunications or telegraph equipment within such a space must supply telephone 
or telegraph service to other customer's buildings (i.e., telecommunications or telegraph equipment 
cannot solely supply the building containing the telephone/telegraph space). 

Exemptions manufacturers of electrical/telecommunications products. 

(21) Manufacturers of electrical/telecommunications systems products will be allowed to utilize a 
manufacturer's authorized factory-trained technician to perform initial calibration, testing, adjustment, 
modification incidental to the startup and checkout of the equipment, or replacement of components 
within the confines of the specific product, without permit or required licensing: 

(a) Provided the product: 

(i) Has not been previously energized; 

(ii) Has been recalled by the Consumer Product Safety Commission; 
(ill) Is within the manufacturer's written warranty period; or 
(iv) The manufacturer is working under the written request and supervision of an 
appropriately licensed electrical contractor. 

(b) Modifications to the equipment, as designated above, must not include any changes to the 
original intended configuration nor changes or contact with external or field-connected 
components or wiring. 

(c) The manufacturer will be responsible for obtaining any required reapproval/recertification from 

the original listing or field evaluation laboratory. 

(d) The manufacturer must notify the department if any modifications have been made or 

reapproval/recertification is required. 

Page 93 of 138 

WAG 296-46B-925 Electrical/telecommunications contractor's license. General. 



Premanufactured electric power generation equipment assemblies and control gear. 

(22) Premanufactured electric power generation equipment assemblies and control gear. 

(a) Manufacturers of premanufactured electric power generation equipment assemblies 
and control gear will be allowed to utilize a manufacturer's authorized factory-trained 
technician to perform initial calibration, testing, adjustment, modification incidental to 
the startup and checkout of the equipment, or replacement of components within the 
confines of the specific product, without permit or required licensing, provided: 

(i) For transfer equipment, the product has not been previously energized oris within the 
manufacturer's written warranty period; 

(ii) Modifications to the equipment, as designated above, must not include any changes 
to the original intended configuration nor changes or contact with external or field- 
connected components or wiring; 

(ill) The manufacturer will be responsible for obtaining any required 

reapproval/recertification from the original listing or field evaluation laboratory; or 

(iv) The manufacturer must notify the department if any modifications have been made or 
reapproval/recertification is required. 

(b) Premanufactured electric power generation equipment assemblies are made up of 
reciprocating internal combustion engines and the associated control gear equipment. 
Control gear equipment includes control logic, metering, and annunciation for the operation 
and the quality of power being generated by the reciprocating internal combustion engine and 
does not have the function of distribution of power. 

(c) Modifications of a transfer switch must not include changes to the original intended 

configuration or changes or contact with externally field-connected components. 

(d) For the purposes of this subsection, the following work on premanufactured electric power 
generation equipment assemblies is not exempt from the requirements of chapter 19.28 
RCW: 

(i) Installation or connection of conduit or wiring between the power generation unit, 

transfer switch, control gear; 
(ii) Installation of the transfer switch; 
(ill) Connections between the power generation unit, transfer switch, control gear, and 

utility's transmission or distribution systems; 
(iv) Connections between the power generation unit, transfer switch, control gear, and 

any building or structure; or 
(v) Test connections with any part of: 

(A) The utility's transmission or distribution system; or 

(B) The building or structure. 

(23) The installation, maintenance, or repair of a medical device deemed in compliance with chapter 
19.28 RCW is exempt from licensing requirements under RCW 19.28.091, certification requirements 
under RCW 19.28.161, and inspection and permitting requirements under RCW 19.28.101. This 
exemption does not include work providing electrical feeds into the power distribution unit or 
installation of conduits and raceways. This exemption covers only those factory engineers or third- 
party service companies with equivalent training who are qualified to perform such service. 

(24) Coincidental electrical/plumbing work. See RCW 19.28.091(8) for the plumber exemption. 

(25) Nothing in this section will alter or amend any other exemptions from or requirement for licensure or 
inspection, chapter 19.28 RCW or this chapter. 



WAC 296-46B -930 Assignment— Administrator ormaster electrician. 

An administrator or master electrician designated on the electrical/telecommunications contractor's 
license must be a member of the firm who fulfills the duties of an assigned master 

Page 94 of 138 

WAC 296-46B-930 Assignment — Administrator or master electrician. 



electrician/administrator as required in RCW 19.28.061(5), or be a full-time supervisory employee. In 
determining whether the individual is a member of the firm, the department will require that the individual 
is named on the electrical contractor application or at subsequent renewal and: 

(1) Partners must be on file with the department of licensing; or 

(2) Corporate officers or members of an LLC must be on file with the secretary of state. 

In determining whether an individual is a full-time supervisory employee, the department will consider 
whether the individual is on the electrical/telecommunications contractor's full-time payroll; receives a 
regular salary or wage similar to other employees; has supervisory responsibility for work performed by 
the electrical/telecommunications contractor, and carries out the duties shown in chapter 19.28 RCW. 



WAC 296-46B-935 Administrator certificate. General. 

(1) The department will deny renewal of a certificate if an individual owes money as a result of an 

outstanding final judgment(s) to the department. 

(2) For special accommodation see WAC 296-46B-960. 

(3) An applicant will not be issued a specialty administrator certificate that is a subspecialty of a certificate 

the applicant currently holds (i.e., the applicant is not eligible to take the domestic well administrator 
examination if the applicant currently possesses a pump and irrigation administrator certificate). 

Qualifying for examination. 

(4) There are no qualification requirements for taking an administrator certificate examination. Applicants 

should contact the testing agency directly. 

Original - administrator certificates. 

(5) The scope of work for electrical administrators is described in WAC 296-46B-920. The department will 

issue an original administrator certificate to a general administrator, or specialty administrator who: 

(a) Successfully completes the appropriate administrator examination; and 

(b) Submits the appropriate examination passing report from the testing agency with the 

applicant's: Date of birth, mailing address, and Social Security number; and 

(c) Pays all appropriate fees as listed in WAC 296-46B-910. 

For an examination report to be considered, all the above must be submitted within ninety 
days after the completion of the examination. After ninety days, the applicant will be required 
to successfully retake the complete examination. An individual's original administrator 
certificate will expire on their birth date at least one year, and not more than three years, from 
the date of original issue. 

Combination - specialty administrator certificate. 

(6) The department may issue a combination specialty administrator certificate to an individual who 

qualifies for more than one specialty administrators' certificate. The combination specialty 
administrators' certificate will plainly indicate the specialty administrator's certificate(s) the holder has 
qualified for. Telecommunications cannot be issued a combination because the renewal requirements 
are different from those required for electrical administrators. Temporary administrator certificates will 
not be issued as a part of a combination certificate. 

Page 95 of 138 

WAC 296-46B-935 Administrator certificate. General. 



Renewal - administrator certificate. 

(7) An individual must apply for renewal of their administrator certificate on or before the expiration date of 

the certificate. The individual may not apply for renewal more than ninety days prior to the expiration 
date. Renewed certificates are valid for three years, with the exception of telecommunications 
administrators, who will be renewed for two years. 

(8) An individual may renew their administrator certificate within ninety days after the expiration date 

without reexamination if the individual pays the late renewal fee listed in WAC 296-46B-910. 

(9) All renewals received more than ninety days after the expiration date of the certificate will be denied. 
The administrator will be required to pass the appropriate administrator examination before being 
recertified. 

(10) All applicants for certificate renewal must: 

(a) Submit a complete renewal application; 

(b) Pay all appropriate fees as listed in WAC 296-46B-910; and 

(c) Provide accurate evidence on the renewal form that the individual has completed the 

continuing education requirements described in WAC 296-46B-970. If an individual files 
inaccurate or false evidence of continuing education information when renewing a certificate, 
the individual's certificate may be suspended or revoked. 

Telecommunications administrators are not required to provide continuing education 
information. 

Continuing education for Pump & Irrigation (03) and Domestic Pump (03A) administrators 
may be comprised of 50% electrical and 50% plumbing instruction. 

(11) An individual who has not completed the required hours of continuing education can renew an 
administrator's certificate if the individual applies for renewal on or before the certificate expires and 
pays the appropriate renewal fee. However, the certificate will be placed in an inactive status. 

When the certificate is placed in inactive status, an assigned administrator will be automatically 
unassigned from the electrical contractor. The electrical contractor will be notified of the 
unassignment and has ninety days to replace the administrator. An assignment fee will then be 
required per WAC 296-46B-910. 

The inactive certificate will be returned to current status upon validation, by the department, of the 
required continuing education requirements. If the certificate renewal date occurs during the inactive 
period, the certificate must be renewed on or before the renewal date to allow the return to current 
status. 

(12) An individual may renew a suspended administrator's certificate by submitting a complete renewal 
application including obtaining and submitting the continuing education required for renewal. 
However, the certificate will remain in a suspended status forthe duration of the suspension period. 

(13) An individual may not renew a revoked or temporary administrator's certificate. 

Temporary specialty administrator certificate. 

(14) See WAC 296-46B-930 for additional information. 



WAC 296-46B-940 Electrician/training/temporary certificate of competency or permit 
required. 

Electrician - general. 

Page 96 of 138 

WAC 296-46B-940 Electrician/training/temporary certificate of competency or permit required. 



(1) The department will deny renewal of a certificate or permit if an individual owes money as a result of 

an outstanding final judgment(s) to the department. 

Electrician - scope of worlc. 

(2) The scope of work for electricians and trainees is described in WAC 296-46B-920. 
Electrician - certificate of competency required. 

(3) To work in the electrical construction trade, an individual must possess a current valid: 

(a) Master journeyman electrician certificate of competency issued by the department; 

(b) J ourneyman electrician certificate of competency issued by the department; 

(c) Master specialty electrician certificate of competency issued by the department; 

(d) Specialty electrician certificate of competency issued by the department; 

(e) Temporary electrician permit. Unless continually supervised by an appropriately certified 

electrician, no temporary electrician can install, repair, replace, or maintain any electrical 
wiring or equipment where the system voltage is more than 600 volts, whether the system is 
energized ordeenergized; or 

(f) Electrical training certificate, learning the trade in the proper ratio, per RCW 19.28.161, under 

the supervision of a certified master journeyman electrician, journeyman electrician, master 
specialty electrician working in their specialty, or specialty electrician working in their 
specialty. 

(4) The department issues master electrician and electrician certificates of competency in the following 

areas of electrical work: 

(a) General journeyman (01); 

(b) Specialties: 
Residential (02); 

I Pump and irrigation (03); 
ill) Domestic pump (03A); 
iv) Signs (04); 

(v) Limited energy system (06); 
(vi) HVAC/refrigeration (06A); 
(vii) HVAC/refrigeration - restricted (06B); 
(viii) Nonresidential maintenance (07); 

(ix) Nonresidential lighting maintenance and lighting retrofit (OTA); 
(x) Residential maintenance (07B); 
(xi) Restricted nonresidential maintenance (07C); 
(xii) Appliance repair (07D); 
(xiii) Equipment repair (07E); and 
(xiv) Door, gate, and similar systems (10). 

Exemptions - linemen. 

(5) Definition: See general definitions WAC 296-46B-100 for the definition of a lineman. 

(6) Electrical linemen employed by a: 

(a) Serving electrical utility or the serving utility's contractor, or a subcontractor to their 

subcontractor, while performing work described in WAC 296-46B-925 do not need certificates 
of competency. 

(b) Licensed general electrical contractors do not need certificates of competency if the electrical 
equipment: 

(i) Is on commercial or industrial property; 
(ii) Is located outside a building or structure; and 

(ill) The work performed is on the primary side of the customer's transformer(s) supplying 
power at the customer's building or structure utilization voltage. 



Page 97 of 138 

WAC 296-46B-940 Electrician/training/temporary certificate of competency or pernnit required. 



Exemptions - plumbers. 

(7) Coincidental electrical/plumbing worl<. See RCW 19.28.091(8) fortiie plumber exemption. 

Original - master electrician, journeyman, and specialty electrician certificates of competency. 

(8) The department will issue an original certificate of competency to master, journeyman, or specialty 

electricians who meet the eligibility requirements listed in: 

(a) RCW 19.28.191 (l)(a) or(b); and 

(i) Submit an application for an original master electrician certificate including: Date of 

birth, mailing address and Social Security number; and 
(ii) Pay all appropriate fees, as listed in WAC 296-46B-910; 

(b) RCW 19.28.191 (l)(d) through (e); 

(i) Submit an original master electrician certification examination application including: 

Date of birth, mailing address and Social Security number; and 
(ii) Pay all appropriate fees, as listed in WAC 296-46B-910; or 

(c) RCW 19.28.191 (l)(f) through (g); 

(i) Submit an original electrician certification examination application including: Date of 

birth, mailing address and Social Security number; and 
(ii) Pay all appropriate fees, as listed in WAC 296-46B-910. 

(9) An individual's original electrician certificate of competency will expire on their birth date at least two 

years, and not more than three years, from the date of original issue. 

Renewal - master electrician, journeyman, and specialty electrician certificates of competency. 

(10) An individual must apply for renewal of their electrician certificate of competency on or before the 
expiration date of the certificate. The individual may not apply for renewal more than ninety days prior 
to the expiration date. Renewed certificates are valid for three years. 

(11) An individual may renew their certificate of competency within ninety days after the expiration date 
without reexamination if the individual pays the late renewal fee listed in WAC 296-46B-910. 

(12) All applications for renewal received more than ninety days after the expiration date of the certificate 
of competency require that the electrician pass the appropriate competency examination before being 
recertified. 

(13) All applicants for certificate of competency renewal must: 

(a) Submit a complete renewal application; 

(b) Pay all appropriate fees; and 

(c) Provide accurate evidence on the renewal form that the individual has completed the 

continuing education requirements described in WAC 296-46B-970. Continuing education 
classes are only valid when all the requirements of WAC 296-46B-970 are completed. If an 
individual files inaccurate or false evidence of continuing education information when 
renewing a certificate of competency, the individual's certificate of competency may be 
suspended or revoked. 

Continuing education for Pump & Irrigation (03) and Domestic Pump (03A) electricians may be comprised 
of 50% electrical and 50% plumbing instruction. 

(14) An individual who has not completed the required hours of continuing education can renew a 
certificate of competency if the individual applies for renewal before the certificate of competency 
expires and pays the appropriate renewal fee. However, the certificate of competency will be placed 
in an inactive status. The inactive certificate of competency will be returned to current status upon 
validation, by the department, of the required continuing education. If the certificate renewal date 
occurs during the inactive period, the certificate must be renewed on or before the renewal date to 
allow the return to current status. 

(15) An individual may renew a suspended certificate of competency by submitting a complete renewal 
application including obtaining and submitting the continuing education required for renewal. 
However, the certificate will remain in a suspended status for the duration of the suspension period. 

(16) An individual may not renew a revoked or temporary certificate of competency. 

Page 98 of 138 

WAC 296-46B-940 Electrician/training/temporary certificate of competency or permit required. 



Reciprocal agreements between Washington and other states. 

(17) The department negotiates reciprocal agreements witii states tiiat iiave equivalent requirements for 
certification of master electricians, journeymen, or specialty electricians. These agreements allow 
electricians from those reciprocal states to become certified in the state of Washington without 
examination and allow Washington certified electricians to become certified in the other states without 
taking competency examinations. 

(18) An individual coming into the state of Washington from a reciprocal state will be issued a reciprocal 
electrician certificate of competency if all the following conditions are met: 

(a) The department has a valid reciprocal agreement with the other state in the master electrician 

category requested, journeyman, or specialty category requested; 

(b) The individual makes a complete application for the reciprocity certificate on the form provided 

by the department. A complete application includes: 
(i) Application for reciprocal certificate of competency; 
(ii) Evidence that the individual meets the eligibility requirements listed in RCW 

19.28.191, by presenting a valid journeyman or specialty electrician certificate or 

certified letter from the issuing state; and 
(ill) All appropriate fees as listed in WAC 296-46B-910. 

(c) The individual obtained the reciprocal state's certificate of competency as a master electrician, 

journeyman, or specialty electrician by examination and the individual held the reciprocal 
state's certificate for a period of at least one year, 

(19) An individual is not eligible for a reciprocal electrician certificate of competency if the individual: 

(a) Has failed to renew a similar Washington master electrician or electrician certificate of 
competency as required in RCW 19.28.211; 

(b) Has a similar Washington master electrician or electrician certificate of competency in 
suspended, revoked, or inactive status under this chapter; or 

(c) Was a resident of the state of Washington at the time the examination was taken in the other 

state. 

iviilitary/shipyard experience. 

(20) An individual who has worked in the electrical construction trade performing work described in WAC 
296-46B-920 while serving in the armed forces of the United States may be eligible to take the 
examination for the certificate of competency as a journeyman or specialty electrician. Credit may be 
allowed for hours worked ortraining received. 

If an individual has military experience in a specialized electrical field (e.g., rating) that is similar to a 
specialty electrician category listed in WAC 296-46B-920, credit may be allowed toward the 
appropriate specialty certificate. Nuclear, marine, shipyard, shipboard, radar, weapons, aeronautical 
experience, or similar experience may be acceptable for no more than 50% of the minimum required 
work experience for qualifying for electrician examination. 

The department will evaluate and determine whether the submitted experience is related specifically 
to the electrical construction/maintenance trade regulated by chapter 19. 28. RCW. 

Experience in another country. 

(21) If an individual has a journeyman electrician certificate from a country outside the United States that 
requires that at least four years of electrical construction training and certification is obtained by 
examination, the individual may be eligible for four thousand hours of the specialty credit allowed 
towards the qualification to take the Washington journeyman electrician examination. 

No more than two years of the required training to become a Washington journeyman electrician may 
be for work described for specialty electricians or technicians in WAC 296-46B-920. In addition to the 
maximum of four thousand hours credit that may be allowed by this subsection, an additional four 

Page 99 of 138 

WAC 296-46B-940 Electrician/training/temporary certificate of competency or pernnit required. 



thousand hours of new commercial/industrial experience must be obtained using a training certificate 
in the state while under the supervision of a master journeyman electrician or journeyman electrician. 

Documentation substantiating the individual's out-of-country experience must be submitted in English. 

(22) Out-of-country experience credit is not allowed toward a specialty electrician certificate. 

Training school credit. 

(23) No more than fifty percent of the minimum work experience needed to qualify for specialty electrician 
certification is allowed for any training school program (e.g., a specialty requiring two thousand hours 
of minimum required work experience may receive no more than one thousand hours credit from an 
electrical construction training program). 

(24) See RCW 19.28.191 (l)(h) for training school credit allowed for journeyman applicants. 

(25) See WAC 296-46B-971 for additional information on training schools. 

Temporary electrician permit. 

(26) Temporary permits are not allowed for master electricians. 

(27) Temporary electrician permit when coming from out-of-state. An individual coming from out-of-state 
must either obtain a reciprocal electrician certificate, valid training certificate, or make application and 
receive approval for a temporary electrician permit to perform electrical work in the state, or otherwise 
obtain an electrician certificate of competency. 

(a) Initial temporary electrician permit when coming from out-of-state. 

(i) If an individual can show evidence of work experience in another state similar to RCW 
19.28.191, the department may issue the individual one initial temporary journeyman 
or specialty electrician permit. The individual must present appropriate evidence at 
the time of application showing work experience equivalent to that required by RCW 
19.28.191. 

The initial temporary electrician permit allows the individual to work as an electrician between 
the date of filing a completed application for the certification examination and the notification 
of the results of the examination. This initial permit will be issued for one thirty-day period and 
will become invalid on the expiration date listed on the temporary electrician permit or the 
date the individual is notified they have failed the examination, whichever is earlier, 
(ii) To qualify for an initial temporary electrician permit, an individual must: 

(A) Meet the eligibility requirements of RCW 19.28.191; and 

(B) Submit a complete application for an initial temporary electrician permitand 
original certification including: 

•Date of birth, mailing address. Social Security number; and 
•All appropriate fees as listed in WAC 296-46B-910. 
(ill) The individual must not have ever possessed a Washington master electrician, 
journeyman electrician, specialty electrician, or temporary electrician certificate of 
competency in the specialty requested, 
(iv) If the initial temporary electrician permit becomes invalid, it will not be extended or 
renewed. To continue to work in the electrical trade, the individual must apply for and 
receive a: 

(A) Second temporary electrician permit; or 

(B) Training certificate and work in the proper ratio, per RCW 19.28.161, under 
the direct supervision of either a certified master journeyman electrician, 
journeyman electrician, master specialty electrician working in the 
appropriate specialty, or a specialty electrician working in the appropriate 
specialty. 

(b) Second temporary electrician permit. 

(i) If the individual fails the certification examination during the initial temporary electrician 
period and provides verification of enrollment in an approved journeyman refresher 
course or approved appropriate specialty electrician refresher course, as prescribed 

Page 100 of 138 

WAC 296-46B-940 Electrician/training/temporary certificate of competency or permit required. 



in RC W 19.28.231, application may be made for a second temporary electrician 
permit. 

A complete second application must include proof of enrollment in the refresher 
course and all appropriate fees as listed in WAC 296-46B-910. 

(ii) The second temporary electrician permit will be issued for one ninety-day period and 
will become invalid: Upon withdrawal from the electrician refresher course, on the 
expiration date listed on the temporary electrician permit, or the date the individual is 
notified they have failed the examination, whichever is earlier; 

(ill) After successfully completing the electrician refresher course, the individual must 
provide appropriate course completion documentation to the department and will be 
eligible to retake the appropriate competency exam. 

(iv) If the second temporary electrician permit becomes invalid, it will not be extended or 
renewed. To continue to work in the electrical trade, the individual must apply for and 
receive a training certificate and work in the proper ratio, per RCW 19.28.161, under 
the direct supervision of either a certified master journeyman electrician, journeyman 
electrician, master specialty electrician working in the appropriate specialty, or a 
specialty electrician working in the appropriate specialty. 



WAC 296-46B-945 Qualifying for master, journeyman, specialty electrician examinations. 

Qualifying for master, journeyman, specialty electrician examinations. 

(1) All applicants must be at least sixteen years of age. 
Qualifying for the master electrician examination. 

(2) An individual may take the master electrician's certificate of competency examination if the individual 
meets the requirements described in RCW 19.28.191 (l)(d) or(e). 

Qualifying for the master electrician examination from out-of-state. 

(3) No credit may be applied from out-of-state toward qualifying for a master electrician certificate of 
competency examination. 

Qualifying forthe journeyman electrician competency examination. 

(4) An individual may take the journeyman electrician's certificate of competency examination if the 

individual held a current electrical training certificate and has worked for an employer who employs at 
least one certified master electrician, journeyman, or specialty electrician on staff and the individual: 
(a) Has been employed, in the electrical construction trade, under the direct supervision of a 
master electrician, journeyman electrician or specialty electrician working in the appropriate 
specialty in the proper ratio, per RCW 19.28.161, forfour years (eight thousand hours). Of 
the eight thousand hours: 

(i) At least two years (four thousand hours) must be in new industrial and/or new 
commercial electrical installation (excluding all work described for specialty 
electricians or technicians) under the direct supervision of a master journeyman 
electrician or journeyman electrician while working for a general electrical contractor; 
and 
(ii) Not more than a total of two years (four thousand hours) may be for work described as 
an electrical specialty in WAC 296-46B-920(2). 

Page 101 of 138 

WAC 296-46B-945 Qualifying for master, journeynnan, specialty electrician examinations. 



(b) Has completed a four-year apprenticeship program in the electrical construction trade that is 

registered with the state apprenticeship council while working under the direct supervision of 
a master journeyman or journeyman electrician in the proper ratio, per RCW 19.28.161; or 

(c) Has completed a two-year electrical construction training program as described in RCW 

19.28.191 for journeyman electricians, and two years (four thousand hours) of work 
experience in new industrial and/or new commercial electrical installations (excluding work 
described for specialty electricians or electrical technicians) under the direct supervision of a 
journeyman electrician while working for a general electrical contractor in the proper ratio, per 
RCW 19.28.161. See WAC 296-46B-971 for additional training school information. 

Electrical construction training hours gained in specialties requiring less than two years (i.e., 
four thousand hours) will not be credited towards qualification for journeyman electrician. 

The trainee and their employer and/or apprenticeship training director must attest to the 
accuracy of all information contained on affidavits of experience used to verify eligibility for 
the examination. 

Qualifying for the journeyman/specialty electrician competency examination when work was 
performed in a state requiring electrician certification. 

(5) An individual may take the journeyman/specialty electrician's competency examination when the 

appropriate state having authority certifies to the department that: 

(a) The work was legally performed under the other state's licensing and certification 

requirements; 
(i) For journeyman applicants who meet the minimum hour requirements described in WAC 296- 

46B-945(4). 
(ii) For specialty applicants who meet the minimum hour requirements described in WAC 296- 

46B-945(9). 

(b) The other state's certificate of competency was obtained by examination. 

Electrical construction training hours gained in specialties requiring less than two years (i.e., 
four thousand hours) may not be credited towards qualification for journeyman electrician. 

Qualifying for the journeyman/specialty electrician competency examination when work was 
performed in a state that does not require electrician certification. 

(6) If the other state requires electrical contractor licensing: 

(a) An individual may take the journeyman/specialty electrician's competency examination when 

an appropriately licensed electrical contractor(s), registered apprenticeship training director, 
or nationally recognized contractor or labor organization files a notarized letter of experience 
with the department accompanied by payroll documentation which certifies and shows that: 
(i) For journeyman applicants: The individual meets the minimum hour requirements 

described in WAC 296-468-945(4). 
(ii) For specialty applicants: The individual meets the minimum hour requirements 
described in WAC 296-46B-945(9). 

(b) An individual may take the journeyman/specialty electrician's competency examination when 

an employer(s), acting under a property owner exemption, files a notarized letter of 
experience from the property owner with the department accompanied by payroll 
documentation which certifies and shows that: 

(i) For journeyman applicants: The individual meets the minimum hour requirements 

described in WAC 296-46B-945(4). 
(ii) For specialty applicants: The individual meets the minimum hour requirements 
described in WAC 296-468-945(9). 

(7) If the other state does not require electrical contractor licensing or registration: An individual may take 
the journeyman/specialty electrician's competency examination when the individual's employer(s); 
registered apprenticeship training director, nationally recognized electrical contractor or labor 

Page 102 of 138 

WAC 296-46B-945 Qualifying for nnaster, journeynnan, specialty electrician exanni nations. 



organization, where tiie worl< is of a type regulated by ciiapter 19.28 RC W, files a notarized letter(s) 
of experience with the department accompanied by payroll documentation which certifies and shows 
that: 

(a) For journeyman applicants: The individual meets the minimum work requirements described 

in WAC 296-46B-945(4). 

(b) For specialty applicants: The individual meets the minimum work requirements described in 
WAC 296-46B-945(9). 

(8) The letter of experience described in subsections (6) and (7) of this section should include a complete 

list of the individual's usual duties with percentages attributed to each. 

Qualifying for a specialty electrician certificateof competency or examination. 

(9) An individual may qualify for a specialty electrician's examination and certificate of competency if the 

individual held a current electrical training certificate, and has worked for an employer who employs at 
least one certified master journeyman electrician, journeyman electrician, appropriate master 
specialty electrician, or appropriate specialty electrician on staff and the individual: 

(a) Has been employed, in the electrical construction trade, under the direct supervision of an 
appropriate electrician in the appropriate specialty as follows: 



Page 103 of 138 

WAC 296-46B-945 Qualifying for master, journeynnan, specialty electrician examinations. 



Table 945-1 Experience Hours 


Specialty 


Minimum Hours 

of Work 

Experience 

Required to be 

Eligible for 
Examination '*^'^^ 


Minimum 

Hours of V\tork 

Experience 

Required for 

Certification 


Residential certificate (02) 


4,000''' 


4,000 


Pump and irrigation certificate (03) 


4,000 ''^'"^ 


4,000 *"' 


Domestic well certificate (03A) 


"720 t^Jt^Jt"J 


2,000''^'"^ 


Signs certificate (04) 


4,000*"' 


4,000 


Limited energy system certificate (06) 


4,000 *"' 


4,000 


H VAC /refrigeration system certificate (06A) 


4,000*"' 


4,000 *" 


H VAC /refrigeration restricted (06B) 


1,000 ''^''^ 


2,000 *"' 


Nonresidential maintenance certificate (07) 


4,000*"' 


4,000 


Nonresidential lighting maintenance and lighting retrofit 
certificate (OTA) 


720 ''^*'^ 


2,000*"' 


Residential maintenance certificate (07B) 


720 ''^*'^ 


2,000 *" 


Restricted nonresidential maintenance certificate (07C) 


1,000 ''^''^ 


2,000 *" 


Appliance repair certificate (07D) 


-I2q(^)W 


2,000 *" 


Equipment repair certificate (07E) 


1,000''^''^ 


2,000*" 


Door, gate, and similar systems certificate (10) 


-I2q(^)W 


2,000 *" 



Notes: 



(l)Until the examination is successfully completed, the trainee must work under one hundred 
percent supervision. Once the appropriate examination is successfully completed, the modified 
supervision trainee may work under zero percent supervision. 

(2)The trainee may have only one zero percent supervision certificate in a specialty (valid for no 
more than two years). If the trainee has not gained the required work experience by the time the 
zero percent supervision certificate has expired, the trainee must get a seventy-five percent 
supervision certificate and work under supervision until all required work experience hours are 
gained and credited towards the minimum work experience requirement. 

(3)This specialty is not eligible for modified trainee status as allowed in chapter 19.28 RCW. 

(4)The trainee and their employer and/or apprenticeship training director must attest to the 
accuracy of all information contained on affidavits of experience used to verify eligibility for the 
examination. 

(5)Neither previous work experience credit nor training school credit is allowed as a substitute for 
the initial hours of minimum work experience required to be eligible for examination unless the 
trainee's work experience hours under direct supervision are provided as required in RCW 
19.28.191 (l)(g)(ii). 

(6)Electrical construction training hours gained in specialties requiring less than two years for 
certification may not be credited towards qualification for journeyman electrician. 

(7)The 2,000 minimum hours of work experience required for certification as a 
H VAC /refrigeration-restricted (06B) specialty electrician may be credited as 2,000 hours towards 
the 4,000 minimum hours of work experience required for certification as a H VAC /refrigeration 
(06A) specialty electrician. Hours of work experience credited from the HVAC/refrigeration- 
restricted (06B) specialty cannot be credited towards qualification for taking the general 
electrician (01) examination or minimum work experience requirements. 

Page 104 of 138 

WAG 296-46B-945 Qualifying for nnaster, journeynnan, specialty electrician exanni nations. 



(b) Or has completed an appropriate two-year apprenticeship program in the electrical 

construction trade that is registered with the state apprenticeship council while working under 
the direct supervision of an electrician in the appropriate specialty in the proper ratio, per 
RCW 19.28.161. 

Qualifying for a certificate of competency when the Washington electrical work experience is 
exempt from certification requirements in RCW 19.28.261. 

(10) To receive credit for electrical work experience that is exempted in RCW 19.28.261, an individual 
must provide the department with verification from the employer or owner according to WAC 296- 
46B-965 (i.e., affidavit(s) of experience). For the purposes of this section, exempt work does not 
include work performed on property owned by the individual seeking credit. 

(11) All exempt individuals learning the electrical trade must obtain an electrical training certificate from 
the department and renew it biannually in order to receive credit for hours worked in the trade 
according to WAC 296-46B-965. 

(12) The department may require verification of supervision in the proper ratio from the certified 
supervising electrician(s). 

(13) Telecommunications work experience: 

(a) Credit may be verified only by employers exempted by RCW 19.28.261, general 
electrical (01) contractors, and limited energy system (06) electrical contractors for 
limited energy experience for telecommunications work done: 

(i) Under the supervision of a certified journeyman or limited energy electrician; and 

(ii) In compliance with RCW 19.28.191. 

(b) Individuals who want to obtain credit for hours of experience toward electrician certification for 
work experience doing telecommunications installations must: 

(i) Obtain an electrical training certificate; 

(ii) Renew the training certificate biannually in order to receive credit for hours worked in 
the trade according to WAC 296-46B-965. 

(c) Telecommunications contractors may not verify telecommunications work experience toward 

electrician certification. 



WAC 296-46B-960 Administrator and electrician certificate of competency examinations. 
General. 

(1) The minimum passing score on any examination or examination section is seventy percent. If 

examination is requested to be administered by the department, an application is required and the 
examination must be successfully completed within one year of application or the individual must 
submit a new application for exam including all appropriate fees. 

(2) All examinations are open book. 

(a) Candidates may use: 

(i) Any original copyrighted material; 

(ii) A silent, nonprinting, nonprogrammable calculator that is not designed for 

preprogrammed electrical calculations; 
(ill) Copies of chapter 19.28 RCW and this chapter; or 
(iv) A foreign language dictionary that does not contain definitions. 

(b) Candidates may not use: 

(i) Copies of copyrighted material; 

(ii) Copies of internet publications, except for RCWs orWACs; 
(ill) Personal notes; or 

(iv) A personal computing device of any type other than the calculator in (a)(ii) of this 
subsection. 

Page 105 of 138 

WAC 296-46B-960 Administrator and electrician certificate of connpetency examinations. General. 



(3) Administrator, master electrician, and electrician examinations may consist of multiple sections. All 

sections must be successfully completed within a one-year examination period after beginning the 
examination. Within the one-year examination period, the candidate does not have to retake any 
sections successfully completed within the examination period. If all sections are not successfully 
completed within the one-year period, the candidate must begin a new examination period and retake 
all sections. 

Special accommodations for examination. 

(4) An applicant for an examination who, due to a specific physical, mental, or sensory impairment, 

requires special accommodation in examination procedures, may submit a written request to the chief 
electrical inspector for the specific accommodation needed. 

(a) The applicant must also submit to the department a signed and notarized release, authorizing 

the specifically identified physician or other specialist to discuss the matter with the 
department representative. The applicant must also submit an individualized written opinion 
from a physician or other appropriate specialist: 

(i) Verifying the existence of a specific physical, mental, or sensory impairment; 

(ii) Stating whether special accommodation is needed for a specific examination; 

(ill) Stating what special accommodation is necessary; and 

(iv) Stating if extra time for an examination is necessary and if so, how much time is 
required. The maximum allowance for extra time is double the normal time allowed. 

(b) The written request for special accommodation and individualized written opinion must be 

submitted to the department at least six weeks in advance of the examination date and must 
be accompanied by a completed application and fees as described in WAC 296-46B-910. 

(c) Only readers and interpreters provided from the administrative office of the courts and/or 

approved by the department may be used for reading or interpreting the examination. The 
applicant will be required to bear all costs associated with providing any reading or 
interpretive services used for an examination. 

(d) Applicants who pass the examination with the assistance of a reader or interpreter will be 

issued a certificate with the following printed restriction: "Requires reading supervision for 
product usage." A competent reader or interpreter must be present on any job site where a 
person with this restriction is performing electrical work as described in chapter 19.28 RCW. 

Applicants who pass the examination with the assistance of a mechanical device (e.g., 
magnifier, etc.) will be issued a certificate with the following printed restriction: "Requires 
mechanical reading assistance for product usage." Appropriate mechanical reading 
assistance must be present on any job site where a person with this restriction is performing 
electrical work as described in chapter 19.28 RCW. 

If a candidate successfully retakes the examination without the assistance of a reader or 
translator, a new certificate will be issued without the restriction. 

(5) Applicants who wish to use a foreign language dictionary during an examination must obtain approval 

at the examination site prior to the examination. Only dictionaries without definitions will be approved 
for use. 

Failed examination appeal procedures. 

(6) Any candidate who takes an examination and does not pass the examination may request a review of 

the examination. 

(a) The department will not modify examination results unless the candidate presents clear and 

convincing evidence of error in the grading of the examination. 

(b) The department will not consider any challenge to examination grading unless the total of the 

potentially revised score would result in a passing score. 

(7) The procedure for requesting an informal review of examination results is as follows: 

(a) The request must be made in writing to the chief electrical inspector and must be received 
within twenty days of the date of the examination and must request a rescore of the 

Page 106 of 138 

WAC 296-46B-960 Administrator and electrician certificate of connpetency examinations. General. 



examination. The written request must include the appropriate fees for examination review 
described in WAC 296-46B-910. 
(b) The following procedures apply to a review of the results of the examination: 
(i) The candidate will be allowed one hour to review their examination, 
(ii) The candidate must identify the challenged questions of the examination and must 
state the specific reason(s) why the results should be modified with multiple 
published reference material supporting the candidate's position, 
(ill) Within fifteen days of the candidate's review, the department will review the 
examination and candidate's justification and notify the candidate in writing of the 
department's decision. 

Subjects included in administrator certificate, or master electrician, journeyman, or specialty 
electrician competency examinations. 

(8) The following subjects are among those that may be included in the examination for an administrator 
certificate or electrician certificate of competency. The list is not exclusive. The examination may also 
contain subjects not on the list. 

(a) For general administrators, master journeyman, and journeyman electricians: 

AC Generator; 3-phase; meters; characteristics of; power in AC circuits (power factor); 

mathematics of AC circuits. 

Administration Chapter 19.28 RCW and this chapter. 

Air conditioning Basic. 

Blueprints Surveys and plot plans; floor plans; service and feeders; electrical symbols; 

elevation views; plan views. 

Building wire. 

Cable trays. 

Calculations. 

Capacitive reactance. 

Capacitor Types; in series and parallel. 

Circuits Series; parallel; combination; basic; branch; outside branch circuits; calculations. 

Conductor Voltage drop (line loss); grounded. 

Conduit Wiring methods. 

DC Generator; motors; construction of motors; meters. 

Definitions Electrical. 

Electrical units. 

Electron theory. 

Fastening devices. 

Fire alarms Introduction to; initiating circuits. 

Fuses. 

Generation Electrical principles of. 

Grounding. 

Incandescent lights. 

Inductance Introduction to; reactance. 

Insulation Of wire. 

Mathematics Square root; vectors; figuring percentages. 

Motors/controls Motors vs. generators/CEMF; single phase; capacitor; repulsion; shaded 

pole; basic principles of AC motors. 

Ohm's Law. 

Power. 

Power factor AC circuits; correction of; problems. 

Rectifiers. 

Resistance Of wire. 

Rigging. 

Safety Electrical shock. 

Services. 

Page 107 of 138 

WAC 296-46B-960 Administrator and electrician certificate of connpetency examinations. General. 



3-wire system. 

Tools. 

Transformers Principles of; types; single-phase; 3-phase connections. 

Voltage polarity across a load. 

Wiring methods Conduit; general. 

Wiring systems Less than 600 volts; 480/277 volts; single-and 3-phase delta or wye; 

distribution systems over 600 volts. 

Note: The general administrator, master journeyman, and journeyman electrician 
examinations may also include the subjects listed below for specialty electrician 
examinations, 
(b) For specialty administrators, master specialty and specialty electricians, the following subjects 
are among those that may be included in the examination. Examination subjects are 
restricted to those subjects related to the scope of work of the specialty described in WAC 
296-46B-920. The list is not exclusive. The examination may also contain subjects not on the 
list. 

AC Meters. 

Administration Chapter 19.28 RCW and this chapter. 

Appliance circuits or controls. 

Blueprints Floor plans; service and feeders. 

Cables Wiring methods. 

Calculations. 

Circuits Series; parallel; combination; basic; outside branch. 

Conductor Voltage drop (line loss); grounded; aluminum or copper. 

Conduit Wiring methods. 

Electrical signs, circuits, controls, or services. 

Electrical units. 

First aid. 

Fuses. 

General lighting. 

Grounding of conductors. 

Insulation of wire. 

Limited energy circuits or systems. 

Maintenance of electrical systems. 

Mathematics Figuring percentage. 

Motor circuits, controls, feeders, or services. 

Ohm's Law. 

Overcurrent protection. 

Resistance of wire. 

Safety Electrical shock. 

Services. 

Sizes of building wire. 

3-wire system. 

Tools. 

Transformer Ratios; single-phase/3-phase connections. 

Failing an administrator certificate exam or electrician certificate of competency examination. 

(9) Anyone failing an administrator or electrician competency examination may retake the examination by 

making arrangements with the testing agency and paying the retesting fee. 

(10) If the individual makes a score of less than sixty percent, the individual must wait two weeks before 
being eligible to retest. 

(11) If the individual makes a score of sixty to sixty-nine percent, the individual must wait one day before 
being eligible to retest. 

Page 108 of 138 

WAC 296-46B-960 Administrator and electrician certificate of connpetency examinations. General. 



(12) If the individual fails an electrician examination or a part of an administrator or master electrician 
examination three times within a one-year period, the individual must wait three months to retake the 
failed portion of the examination. 

(13) Anyone failing an electrician competency examination may continue to work in the electrical trade if 
they have a valid electrical training certificate and work under the direct supervision of a certified 
journeyman or specialty electrician in the proper ratio, per RCW 19.28.161. 

Cheating on an examination. 

(14) Anyone found cheating on an examination or using inappropriate materials/equipment during an 
examination will be required to wait at least eleven months before being allowed to reexamine. All 
such reexaminations will be administered by the department in Tumwater, Washington and the 
candidate will be required to apply and schedule for the examination with the chief electrical 
inspector. 



WAC 296-46B-965 Training certificate required. General. 

(1) A training certificate is required to work in the electrical construction trade if an individual does not: 

(a) Possess a current journeyman certificate of competency issued by the department; 

(b) Possess a current specialty electrician certificate of competency issued by the department 
while working in that specialty's scope of work; 

(c) Possess a valid temporary electrician permit; 

(d) Possess a valid temporary specialty electrician permit while working in that specialty's scope 
of work; or 

(e) Is not working in exempt status as allowed by chapter 19.28 RCW. 

(2) Trainees who have had their training certificates revoked or suspended (during the duration of the 

revocation or suspension) will not be issued a training certificate. 

Original training certificates. 

(3) The department will issue an original training certificate when the trainee applicant submits a complete 

training certificate application including: 

(a) Date of birth, mailing address. Social Security number; and 

(b) All appropriate fees as listed in WAC 296-46B-910. 

All applicants for an electrical training certificate must be at least sixteen years of age. The 
original training certificate will be valid for two years. 

Specialty specific - zero percent and seventy-five percent supervision modified training 
certificates, 
(c) If an individual has previously held an electrical training certificate, then that individual is not eligible 
for a subsequent original training certificate. (4) For specialties as allowed in Table 945-1 (i.e., 
specialties with seven hundred twenty minimum hours of work experience required to be eligible for 
examination): 

(a) The department will approve the trainee to take the appropriate specialty competency 

examination necessary to qualify for a zero percent supervision modified training certificate. 
To qualify, the trainee applicant must submit a complete zero percent supervision modified 
training certificate application including: 

(i) Date of birth, mailing address. Social Security number; 

(ii) Affidavit of experience fulfilling the minimum work experience hours required to qualify 

for the specialty examination described in Table 945-1; and 
(iii) All appropriate fees as listed in WAC 296-46B-910. 

Page 109 of 138 

WAC 296-46B-965 Training certificate required. General. 



Upon successful completion of the appropriate examination, the trainee will be issued 
a nonrenewable zero percent supervision modified training certificate for the 
appropriate specialty. The zero percent supervision modified training certificate will 
be restricted in duration to the time allowed in Table 945-1, note 2. 

(b) Prior to the expiration of the zero percent supervision modified training certificate or temporary 
specialty electrician permit obtained as described in WAC 296-466-940(28), the individual 
must submit a complete application for a seventy-five percent supervision modified training 
certificate for the appropriate specialty including: 

(i) Seventy-five percent supervision training certificate application including: Date of birth, 

mailing address. Social Security number; and 
(ii) All appropriate fees as listed in WAC 296-46B-910. 

(c) A trainee may possess multiple (i.e., in different specialties) modified supervision training 

certificates for specialties where reduced supervision is allowed in Table 945-1. Combination 
training certificates will not be issued. 

Renewal of training certificates. 

(5) An individual mustapply for renewal of their training certificate on or before the expiration date of the 

certificate. The individual may not apply for renewal more than ninety days prior to the expiration 
date. Renewed certificates are valid for two years. 

(6) An individual may renew their training certificate after the expiration date if the individual pays the late 

renewal fee listed in WAC 296-46B-910. 

(7) All applicants for training certificate renewal must: 

(a) Submit a complete renewal application; 

(b) Pay all appropriate fees; and 

(c) Provide accurate evidence on the renewal form that the individual has completed the 

continuing education requirements described in WAC 296-46B-970. Continuing education 
classes are only valid when all the requirements of WAC 296-46B-970 are completed. If an 
individual files inaccurate or false evidence of continuing education information when 
renewing a training certificate, the individual's training certificate may be suspended. 

Continuing education fortrainees seeking Pump & Irrigation (03) and Domestic Pump (03A) 
experience credit may be comprised of 50% electrical and 50% plumbing instruction. 

(d) Within thirty days after renewing an electrical training certificate, the individual, if not enrolled 
in a department approved apprenticeship program, must submit a completed, signed, and 
notarized affidavit(s) of experience for all hours of experience gained since the individual's 
last training certificate was effective. 

Employers are required to provide the necessary documentation and signed affidavit of 
experience to the trainee within twenty days after the trainee requests the affidavit. See WAC 
296-46B-965(ll). See WAC 296-46B-985(4) forthe penalty for providing a false or 
inaccurate affidavit of experience. If the individual is enrolled in a department approved 
apprenticeship program, the program may submit the required affidavit(s) of experience upon 
the individual's completion of the required experience hours without cost to the individual. The 
affidavit of experience must accurately attest to: 

(i) The electrical installation work performed for each employer the individual worked for 

in the electrical trade during the previous period; 
(ii) The correct electrical category the individual worked in; and 
(ill) The actual number of hours worked in each category worked under the proper 
supervision of a Washington certified, master journeyman electrician, journeyman 
electrician or appropriate master specialty electrician or specialty electrician under 
that specific training certificate. If a trainee possesses multiple training certificates, an 
affidavit must be submitted for each training certificate for the hours worked under 
that specific training certificate. 



Page 110 of 138 

WAC 296-46B-965 Training certificate required. General. 



If the individual is enrolled in a department approved apprenticeship program, the 
program may submit the required affidavit(s) of experience upon the individual's 
completion of the required experience hours without cost to the individual. 

(8) An individual who has not completed the required hours of continuing education can renew a training 

certificate if the individual applies for renewal before the training certificate expires and pays the 
appropriate renewal fee. However, the training certificate will be placed in an inactive status. The 
inactive training certificate will be returned to current status upon validation, by the department, of the 
required continuing education. 

(9) An individual may renew a suspended training certificate by submitting a complete renewal application 

including obtaining and submitting the continuing education required for renewal. However, the 
certificate will remain in a suspended status for the duration of the suspension period. 

(10) An individual will not be issued a renewed or reinstated training certificate if the individual owes the 
department money as a result of an outstanding final judgment. 

(11) The individual should ask each employer and/or apprenticeship training director for an accurately 
completed, signed, and notarized affidavitof experience for the previous certification period. The 
employer(s) or apprenticeship training director(s) must provide the previous period's affidavit of 
experience to the individual within twenty days of the request. If an individual is enrolled in an 
approved apprenticeship program under chapter 49.04 RC W when the individual renews an electrical 
training certificate, the individual and their apprenticeship training director and/or each employer must 
give the department an accurately completed, signed, and notarized affidavitof experience accurately 
attesting to: 

(a) The electrical installation work the individual performed in the electrical trade during the 

previous certification period; 

(b) The correct electrical category the individual worked in; and 

(c) The actual number of hours worked in each category under the proper supervision of a 

Washington certified master journeyman electrician, journeyman electrician or appropriate 
master specialty or specialty electrician for each employer. For apprentices enrolled in a 
registered apprenticeship program, the applicant and the training director are the only 
authorized signatures the department will accept on affidavits of experience. 

(12) The individual and their employer(s) and/or apprenticeship training director(s) must sign and have 
notarized the affidavit of experience attesting to the accuracy of all information contained in the 
affidavit. 

Trainees seeking a journeyman electrician certificate - worlcing with no supervision. 

(13) Trainee seeking a general (01) journeyman electrician certificate of competency. After review by the 
department, a trainee may be issued a six-month, nonrenewable unsupervised electrical training 
certificate that will allow the individual to work without supervision if the trainee: 

(a) Has submitted a complete application for an unsupervised electrical training certificate; 

(b) Has worked over seven thousand hours properly supervised not to include more than four 
thousand of specialty experience; 

(c) Has successfully completed or is currently enrolled in an approved apprenticeship program or 

an electrical construction trade program in a school approved by the board of community and 
technical colleges; 

(d) Has paid all appropriate training certificate fees listed in WAC 296-46B-910; and 

(e) Is currently working for and continues to work for a licensed electrical contractor that employs 
at least one certified journeyman or specialty electrician in the appropriate specialty. 

Trainees seelcing certain specialty electrician certificates - working with reduced or no 
supervision. 

(14) After review by the department, a trainee may be issued a nonrenewable zero percent supervision 
training certificate that will allow the individual to work without supervision if the trainee meets the 
requirements in subsection (4) of this section. 



Page 111 of 138 

WAC 296-46B-965 Training certificate required. General. 



(15) Electrical trainees may work unsupen/ised when installing HVAC/R thennostat cable when the 
HVAC/R system consists of a single thermostat in one- and two-family dwelling units where line 
voltage power has not been connected to the dwelling's electrical system. 



WAC 296-46B-970 Continuing education. General requirements - continuing education 
classes requirements for administrator, master electrician, and electrician renewal. 

(1) DEFINITIONS - for purposes of this section. 

(a) "Applicant" means the entity submitting an application for review. 

(b) "Application" means a submittal made by an applicant seeking instructor or class approval. 

(c) "Calendar day" means each day of the week, including weekends and holidays. 

(d) "Class" means continuing education class or course. 

(e) "Contractor" means the entity who has contracted with the depari:mentto review and 
approve/deny continuing education classes and instructors. 

(f) "Date of notification" means the date of a request for additional information from the contractor 

or the approval/denial letter sent to the applicant by the contractor. 

(g) "Individual" means an administrator or electrician seeking credit for continuing education, 
(h) "Instructor" means an individual who is authorized to instruct an approved continuing 

education class. 

(i) "Working day" means Monday through Friday, excluding state of Washington holidays. 

(2) GENERAL. 

(a) The department and the electrical board have the right to monitor all approved classes without 

notice and at no charge. 

If the depari:ment or electrical board determines that the class or instructor does not meet or 
exceed the minimum requirements for approval or course length or instructor qualifications, 
the depari:ment may revoke the class or instructor approval and reduce the number of 
credited hours for the class. 

(b) Depari:ment-offered classes and the instructors used for those classes are automatically 
approved and do not need to be sent to the contractor for review. 

(c) Instructors who meet the minimum requirements using subsection (5)(b)(i)(D) of this section 

may only instruct classes sponsored by the manufacturer(s) who verified the instructors' 
qualifications under subsection (5)(b)(i)(D) of this section. 

(d) An individual will not be given credit for the same approved continuing education class taken 

more than once. No credit will be granted for any class not approved per this section. 

(e) Telecommunications administrators do not require continuing educations. 

(f) Other administrators, master electricians, and electricians: 

(i) To be eligible for renewal of an administrator ceri:ificate, master electrician or 
electrician ceri:ificate of competency, the individual must have completed at least 
eight hours of approved continuing education for each year of the prior certification 
period. The individual is not required to take the classes in separate years. At least 
eight hours of the total required continuing education must be on the currently 
adopted National Electrical Code changes. Beginning J anuary 1, 2005, four hours of 
the required continuing education must be on the currently adopted chapter 19.28 
RCW and its related WAC (s). 

(ii) An individual changing an electrical administrator and an electrician ceri:ificate of 
competency into a master electrician's ceri:ificate of competency as allowed in RCW 
19.28.191 (l)(a) or (b) must have completed at least eight hours of approved 
continuing education for each year of the prior electrician certificate period. The 
individual is not required to take the classes in separate years. E ight hours of the 
required continuing education must be on the currently adopted National Electrical 

Page 112 of 138 

WAC 296-46B-970 Continuing education. General requirements - continuing education classes 
requirements for administrator, master electrician, and electrician renewal. 



Code changes. Beginning J anuary 1, 2005, four inours of the required continuing 

education must be on tine cun'entiy adopted cinapter 19.28 RCW and its related 

WAC(s). 
(iii) Any portion of a year of a prior administrator or electrician certificate period is equal to 

one year for the purposes of the required continuing educations, 
(iv) An individual who has both an electrician certificate and an administrator certification 

may use the same class to fulfill the requirements for continuing education, 
(g) Training certificates: 

(i) Effective] uly 1, 2007, to be eligible for renewal of a training certificate, the individual 

must have completed: 

(A) At least sixteen hours of approved basic classroom electrical training classes; 
or 

(B) Equivalent electrical training courses taken as a part of an approved: 

• Apprenticeship program under chapter 49.04 RCW; or 

• Electrical training program under RCW 19.28. 191(l)(h). 

Note that trainees seeking experience credit in the Pump & Irrigation (03) or 
Domestic Pumping (03A) specialties must take pumping industry basic classroom 
training classes; 

In addition, for trainees working in the Pump & Irrigation (03) or Domestic Pump 
(03A) specialties may be credited for courses approved as a part of the requirements 
for plumber trainees required in RCW 18.106.070(5). 
(h) A continuing education class attended or completed by an individual before the class's 

effective date cannot be used to meet the certificate renewal requirements, 
(i) If neither the electrical board nor the department has a contract in effect as described in this 
section, the department may, at its option, elect to act as the contractor. If a contractor is not 
in place and the department elects not to act as the contractor, the electrical board will act as 
the contractor. If either the electrical board or the department acts as the contractor, the 
following will apply: 

(i) The fee for class or instructor submittal is as set in WAC 296-466-910(4). 
(ii) The electrical board or the department will: 

(A) Review the application for completeness within fifteen working days after 
receipt. 

(B) If the application is incomplete, notify the applicant within seven working days 
of the status of the review and what additional information is required. 

(C) Complete the review and approval/denial process within fifteen working days 
upon receipt of a complete application or additional requested information. 

(iii) An appeal of a denial by the department will be heard by the full electrical board in 
accordance with WAC 296-46B-995. 
(3) CLASS AND INSTRUCTOR - GENERAL APPROVAL PROCESS. 

(a) The contractor will review submitted class and instructor applications to determine whether the 

application meets the minimum requirements for approval. 

(b) The contractor will deny approval of applications that do not meet the minimum requirements. 

(c) All applications will be considered to be new applications (i.e., Classes and instructors may 

not be renewed. All applications must include all information necessary to show conformance 
with the minimum requirements). 

(d) Minimum requirements: 

(i) Application review fees: 

(A) The contractor may charge a fee for review of an application. Such fees, paid 
by the applicant, are nonrefundable. 

(B) The fee will be as set by contractor between the department and the 
contractor. 

(C) The fee will be set for a minimum of one year. 

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(D) Upon mutual agreement between the department and the contractor, the fee 
may be raised or lowered, 
(ii) Application: 

(A) The applicant must submit a complete application to the contractor at least 
thirty calendar days prior to offering or instructing a class. 

(B) The contractor will only consider material included with the application when 
reviewing an application. 

(C) All applications will consist of: 

•One copy of all material; 

•Applicant's name, address, contact name, and telephone number; 

•All required fees; 

•Any other information the applicant wants to consider during the review; 

and 
•Class applications will include: 

D Sponsor's name, address, contact name, and telephone 

number; 
D Class title; 

n Number of continuing education hours requested for the class; 
D Category of class for which approval is sought (i.e. code 

update, RCW/WAC update, industry related, basic classroom 
electrical training , pumping industry, or pumping industry 
basic classroom training); 
n Any required examinations; 
D Statement of whether the class is open to the public; 
D Class syllabus (e.g., general description of the training, specific 
NEC articles referenced, time allowed for various subject 
matter, etc.). Note that for all pumping industry classes, 
curriculum must include 50% electrical and 50% plumbing 
instruction; 
D List of resources (e.g., texts, references, etc.); 
D Copies of all visual aids; 
D Sample of the completion certificate. 
• Instructor applications will include: 

D Instructor's name, address, telephone number; 
D Copies of credentials or other information showing 

conformance with the instructor minimum qualifications, 
(e) Contractor's review process: 

(i) When the application is received, the contractor must: 

(A) Date stamp the application; 

(B) Review the application for completeness within seven working days after 
receipt. 

(ii) If the application is incomplete, the contractor must within two working days notify the 
applicant of the status of the review and what additional information is required. 
(A) The applicant must provide any additional information requested by the 

contractor within five working days after the date of notification. 
(B)The contractor will deny the application if the additional required information 
is not received within the five working days after the date of notification, 
(ill) When the contractor has received a complete application, the contractor must review 
and evaluate the application for compliance with the minimum requirements. 

The contractor must complete the review and approval/denial process within seven 
working days upon receipt of a complete application or additional requested 
information and within two working days notify: 
•The applicant in writing; and 

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•The chief electrical inspector in writing and electronically. The contractor's 
electronic notification to the chief electrical inspector must be made in a 
fonriat approved by tine chief electrical inspector, 
(iv) A notification of denial must include: 

(A) Applicant's name and telephone number; 

(B) Date of denial; 

(C) Sponsor's name and class title if applicable; 

(D) Instructor's name if applicable; and 

(E) The reason for denial, 
(v) A notification of approval: 

(A) For classes must include: 

•Applicant's name and telephone number; 

•Sponsor's name and telephone number; 

•Class title; 

•Class number; 

•Number of hours approved for the class. Note that the contractor may 
reduce the hours requested in the application if the review shows 
that the requested number of hours is excessive; 

•Effective date for this class; 

• Expiration date of class; 

•Category for which the class is approved (i.e., code update, RCW/WAC 
update, industry related, basic classroom electrical training, pumping 
industry, or pumping industry basic classroom training); 

•Sample of written class roster and attendance sheet; 

•Type of class (i.e., classroom, correspondence, internet); and 

•Whether the class is open to the public. 

(B) For instructors must include: 

•Applicant's name and telephone number; 

• Instructor's name and telephone number; 
•Effective date for the approval; and 
•Expiration date of the approval. 

(vi) Applicant's request for review of the contractor's decision: 

The applicant's may request a review of the contractor's decision to deny or modify 
an application: 

•All requests for review must be: 

•Made in writing; 

•Received by the chief electrical inspector within twenty calendar days of the 

contractor's denial; and 
•Accompanied by a review fee of $109.50. The review fee is nonrefundable. 
(4)CLASS APPROVAL PROCESS. 

(a) Class approval will be valid for three years except: 

(i) If the class is "code update" and a new NEC is adopted by the depari:ment within the 
class approval period, the class approval will be considered automatically revoked; or 

(ii) If the class is modified after the application is approved, the class approval will be 
considered automatically revoked (i.e., change in syllabus, hours, examination, etc.). 

(b) Minimum requirements: 

(i) Class content: 

(A) Industry-related classes must be based on: 

•Codes or rules included in the NEC chapters 19.28 RCW or296-46B 

WAC; 
•Electrical theory based on currently published documents that are 
readily available for retail purchase; and/or 



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• Materials and methods that pertain to electrical construction, building 

management systems, electrical maintenance, orwor1<place healtin 
and safety. 

(B) Code update classes must be based on the latest adopted version of the 
NEC and must specify the NEC articles to be addressed in the class 
presentation. 

(C) RCW/WAC update classes must be based on the latest adopted versions of 
chapter 19.28 RCW and/or chapter 296-46B WAC. 

(D) All basic classroom electrical training classes and pumping industry basic 
classroom training classes must be classroom instruction only. 
Correspondence and internet classes are not allowed. All basic classroom 
electrical training classesmust include an appropriate written examination to 
ensure the participant understands the basic concepts of the class. To 
successfully complete the class, the participant must score at least 70% on 
the examination. 

(E) In addition, for pumping industry classes, curriculum must include 50% 
electrical and 50% plumbing instruction. 

(ii) Class length: 

(A) The minimum allowed length of a class is two hours, however, the minimum 
length for a basic classroom electrical training or pumping industry basic 
classroom training class is eight hours. 

(B) The maximum allowed credit for a class is twenty-four hours. 

(C) Class length must based on two-hour increments (e.g., 2, 4, 6, 8, etc.). 

(D) Class length must be based on the following: 

• C lassroom instruction will be based on the total hours the individual is 

in the classroom. A class may be divided into multiple sections so 
long as each section is not less than 2 hours in length and all 
sections are taken within a one month period. 
•Correspondence instruction will be based on: 

n A written examination (i.e., twenty-five questions will equal 
one hour of classroom instruction). Individuals must be 
responsible to determine the correct answer without the 
assistance of the sponsor. 

• Internet instruction will be based on: 

n A written examination (i.e., twenty-five questions will equal 
one hour of classroom instruction). 
•Examinations must not direct or point the individual to a correct answer 
or reference. Individuals must be responsible to determine the 
correct answer without the assistance of the sponsor. 

• To successfully complete a correspondence or internet class, a 

participant must score at least 70% on the examination required for 
the class, 
(ill) Class material must include: 

Supplementary written instruction material appropriate to the type and length of the class. 

(iv) Class material may include: 

•Supplementary internet material- 
's upplementary texts; 
• Other material as appropriate. 

(v) Certificates of completion: 

(A) The sponsor must award a completion certificate to each individual 
successfully completing the approved class. To successfully complete a 

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correspondence or internet class, a participant must score at least 70% on 
the examination required for tine class. 
(B) The completion certificate must include the: 
•Name of participant; 

•Participant's Washington certificate number; 
•Name of sponsor; 
•Name of class; 
•Date of class; 
•Name of instructor; 
•Location of the class: 

D If a classroom-type class, the city and state in which the class 

was given; 
n If a correspondence class, state the class is a correspondence 

class; 
n If an internet class, state the class is an internet class; 
•Class approval number; 
•Number of continuing units; and 
•Type of continuing education units, 
(vi) Instructors: 

(A) For classroom instruction, all instructors must be approved per this section; 
and 

(B) For correspondence and internet instruction, the applicant must show that the 
sponsor regularly employs at least one staff member who meets the 
requirements for instructors in this section. 

(5) INSTRUCTOR APPROVAL PROCESS: 

(a) Instructor approval will be valid for three years except: 

(i) If the instructor's credentials are invalidated (e.g., suspension or revocation by the 
issuing entity) for any reason, approval will be automatically revoked. 

(ii) When the instructor approval expires or is revoked, a new application must be 
submitted to regain approved instructor status. 

(b) Minimum requirements: 

(i) The application must show that the instructor meets one of the following: 

(A) Has a valid Washington administrator, master electrician, or electrician's 
certificate and has appropriate knowledge of and experience working as an 
electrical/electronic trainer; or 

(B) Is an instructor in a two-year program in the electrical construction trade 
licensed by the Washington work force training and education coordinating 
board. The instructor's normal duties must include providing 
electrical/electronic education; or(C) Is a high school vocational teacher, 
community college, college, qualified instructor with a state of Washington 
approved electrical apprenticeship program, or university instructor. The 
instructor's normal duties must include providing electrical/electronic 
education; or 

(D) Works for and is approved by a manufacturer of electrical products to teach 
electrical continuing education, 
(ii) Any other information the applicant wants to be considered during the review. 

(6) FORMS: 

(a) The contractor will: 

Develop an appropriate form(s) for the applicant's use when submitting for instructor or class 
approval; 

(b) Applicants must use the contractor's form when submitting an application for review. 

(7) PUBLICATIONS: The contractor will provide the department with appropriate material for use by the 

department on the electrical program website and may post the application process, review, and 
approval requirements on the contractor's website. 

(8) CLASS ATTENDANCE: 

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(a) The contractor is not responsible for monitoring any individual's attendance or class 

completion. 

(b) The department is not responsible for providing verification of an individual's continuing 

education history with the class sponsor; 

(c) Electrical approved classes offered in Washington: 

(i) The sponsor must provide the depari:ment with an accurate and typed course 
attendance/completion roster for each class given. Class attendance will only be 
verified based on the attendance/completion roster provided by the sponsor. 
Completion ceri:ificates are not an acceptable method of verifying attendance at a 
class approved in Washington under this chapter. 

(A) The typed attendance/completion roster must be provided within thiri:y days of 
class completion. 

(B) In addition, within seven days, the course sponsor must provide the 
attendance/completion roster in an internet format provided by the 
depari:ment. 

(C) The attendance/completion roster must show each individual's name, 
Washington certificate number, class number, location of class, date of 
completion, and instructor's name. The typed roster must contain the 
signature of the class sponsor's authorized representative. 

(ii) The sponsor must provide the individual a ceri:ificate of completion within fifteen days 
after successful class completion. See subsection (4) of this section. 

(ill) Individuals will not be granted credit for continuing education classes unless the 
sponsor's attendance/completion roster shows the individual successfully completed 
the class. 

(iv) The depari:ment will keep submitted class rosters on file for four years. 

(d) Classes approved under chapter 18.106 RCW for the pumping industry will be verified through 
the normal roster repori:ing method for those classes. 

(e) Classes offered in other states: 

(i) For individuals to apply continuing education units earned from out-of-state classes, 
one of the following conditions must be met: 

(A) The individual must request that the class sponsor submit a complete 
continuing education class application and gain approval for the class as 
described in this section for classes and instructors. Application for class or 
instructor approval will not be considered more than three years after the 
date the class was offered; or 

(B) The depari:ment must have entered into a reciprocal agreement with the state 
providing class approval. 

(ii) The individual must provide a copy of an accurate and completed award or certificate 
from the class sponsor identifying the class location, date of completion, individual's 
names, and Washington ceri:ificate number. The depari:mentwill only accept a copy 
of the sponsor's ceri:ificate or form as evidence that the individual attended and 
completed the class. The department must verify all out of state sponsor's 
certificates or forms with the issuing state prior to accepting them as evidence of 
class completion. 
(9) Contractor requirements: 

(a) The contractor cannot be a sponsor or instructor. 

(b) The contractor cannot be an employee of the depari:ment. 

(c) The contractor must: 

(i) Bean independent entity with no organizational, managerial, financial, design, or 
promotional affiliation with any sponsor or instructor covered under the contractor's 
review and approval/denial process; 
(ii) Employ at least one staff member having a valid 01-General Administrator or 01- 
General Master Electrician Ceri:ificate. This staff member: 

(A) Is responsible for reviewing and determining an application's approval or 
denial; and 

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(B) Must sign the written notification provided to applicants for all approvals and 
denials: 
(ill) Receive, review, and process all applications as required in this section; 
(iv) Allow the department access to the contractor's facilities during normal working hours 

to audit the contractor's ability to conform to the contract requirements; 
(v) Treat all applications as proprietary information; 
(vi) Respond to and attempt to resolve complaints contesting the review or 

approval/denial process performed by the applicant; 
(vii) Notify the department within ten working days of any change in business status or 

ability to conform to this section; 
(viii) Maintain one copy, original or electronic, of all applications and associated materials 

for a period of three years from the date of receipt. 



WAC 296-46B-971 Training schools. 

(1) The department must evaluate and approve training school programs in the electrical trade as 

regulated by chapter 19.28 RC W for equivalency to hours of supervised work experience. Approved 
training programs must be from a Washington state public community or technical college, or a not- 
for-profit nationally accredited technical or trade school licensed by the work force training and 
education coordinating board under chapter 28C. 10 RCW. 

(2) The minimum total hours for an electrical technical training program must be determined per RCW 

19.28.191. 

(3) Training school programs must be approved before their graduates may request credit for equivalent 

work experience hours toward journeyman or specialty electrician certification. Until December 31, 
2003, existing electrical training programs, in effect afterj anuary 1, 2000, may apply for retroactive 
approval of their program to determine the number of hours that will be credited for the program 
graduates. After December 31, 2003, all training programs must be approved by the department prior 
to beginning instruction. 

(4) Training schools must submit the curriculum of each journeyman or specific specialty electrical training 

program to the department for approval. The curriculum must include a detailed description of each 
course that is included in the total training hours required by RCW 19.28.191. The curriculum must be 
reviewed by the department whenever significant changes in program content or course length are 
implemented or at an interval not to exceed three years. After department review, the program may 
be renewed. In evaluating the relevance of the curriculum, the department will consider the following 
criteria: 

(a) Scope of work for the appropriate electrician certification. 

(b) Understanding whole systems related to and integrated with electrical equipment installation, 
maintenance, troubleshooting, and appliance repair (e.g., refrigeration, pumps, hydraulics, 
thermodynamics, compressed air, and similar systems). 

(c) Courses not directly related to electrical technical instruction or specific scope of work, but 

required to complete the specific training program (i.e., mathematics, technical writing, 
business, safety, first aid, ergonomics, etc.), must not exceed ten percent of the total 
student/instructor contact time of the program. 

(5) Within thirty days after beginning a program, the program sponsor must supply the department with a 

roster of individuals enrolled in the program. Within thirty days after each graduation cycle, approved 
training school programs must provide the department with a roster of individuals that have 
successfully completed the program. The roster must show each student's name, date of completion, 
Washington training or electrician certificate number or student identification number, and the training 
program title. An individual must provide a copy of the certificate of completion or proof of graduation 
from the electrical training program when making application to the department for an electrician 
examination. 

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WAC 296-46B-971 Training schools. 



(6) All school training activities involving electrical work or appliance repair done outside of in-school lab 

facilities must be done under a valid Washington electrical contractor's license. All students 
performing such work must have a valid training certificate and work under a supervising journeyman 
or specialty electrician in a ratio, per RC W 19.28.161, in compliance with RC W 19.28.161. 

(7) Individuals in a two-year electrical construction trade training program for journeyman electrician must 
obtain the additional two years of work experience required in new industrial or commercial 
installation prior to the beginning, or after the completion, of the technical school program. 

All student electrical training hours obtained when working for contractors or other employers in intern 
programs arranged by the school must be evaluated as part of the training program hours. Additional 
work experience credit gained in an intern program is not allowed. 

This does not prohibit trainees in a training program for specialty electricians from having concurrent 
employment and obtaining additional specialty work experience while attending school. All such 
concurrent work must be documented in an affidavit of experience per WAC 296-46B-965 (5), (6), (7), 
and (8). 

The following supervision requirements must be met when working as an intern or student: 

(a) Intern when working for contractors or other employers as a: 

(i) General electrician, there must be not more than one noncertified individual for every 
certified master journeyman electrician or journeyman electrician. 

(ii) Specialty electrician, there must be not more than two noncertified individuals for 
every certified master specialty electrician working in that electrician's specialty, 
specialty electrician working in that electrician's specialty, master journeyman 
electrician, or journeyman electrician. 

(b) Student when working for a public community or technical college, or not-for-profit nationally 

accredited trade or technical school licensed by the work force training and education 
coordinating board under chapter 28C. 10 RCW as a journeyman or specialty electrician in 
the training program, the ratio requirements are one certified master specialty electrician 
working in that electrician's specialty, specialty electrician working in that electrician's 
specialty, master journeyman electrician, or journeyman electrician working as a specialty 
electrician to no more than four students enrolled in and working as part of an electrical 
construction program. All such work will be considered to be an integral part of the training 
program and work experience credit will not be allowed except as a part of the program. 

When the ratio of certified electricians to noncertified individuals on a job site is one certified 
electrician to three or four noncertified individuals, the certified electrician must: 

(i) Directly supervise and instruct the noncertified individuals and the certified electrician 

may not directly make or engage in an electrical installation; and 
(ii) Be on the same job site as the noncertified individual for a minimum of one hundred 
percent of each working day. 

The public community or technical colleges, or not-for-profit nationally accredited 
trade or technical schools must be an appropriately licensed electrical contractor 
when performing work outside the classroom. 

(8) The department will use the criteria in this section to evaluate the hours of credit that may be allowed 
for United States armed forces experience and training in the electrical construction, electrical 
maintenance, and appliance repair trades. See WAC 296-468-940(20). 



WAC 296-46B-975 Electrical audit. General. 



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WAC 296-46B-975 Electrical audit General. 



(1) The department may audit the employment records of the electrical contractor or employer to verify 

the employment status of trainees, assigned administrators, or assigned master electricians. 

(2) Every employer or contractor must keep a record of trainee, assigned administrator/master electrician 

employment so the department may obtain the information it needs to verify electrical trainee, 
assigned administrator, or assigned master electrician status and trainee work experience. Upon the 
request of the department's auditors or agents, these records must be made available to the 
department for inspection within seven business days. 

(3) Any information obtained from the contractor or employer during the audit is confidential and is not 

open to public inspection under chapter 42.17 RCW. 

Trainee hours. 

(4) The time period covered by a trainee audit will not exceed five years prior to the period included in the 

last affidavit verifying trainee hours is submitted. 

(5) An employer or contractor must maintain payroll records, time cards, or similar records to verify: 

(a) The number of hours the trainee worked as a supervised trainee; 

(b) The type of electrical work the trainee performed; and 

(c) Who provided the trainee's supervision. 

(6) The department's audit may include, but will not be limited to, the following: 

(a) An audit to determine whether the trainee was employed by the contractor or employer during 

the period for which the hours were submitted, the actual number of hours the trainee 
worked, the category of electrical work performed, and who provided the trainee's 
supervision; and 

(b) An audit covering a specific time period and examining a contractor's or employer's books and 

records which may include their reporting of the trainee's payroll hours required for industrial 
insurance, employment security or prevailing wage purposes. 

Administrator/master electrician - status. 

(7) The time period covered by an administrator/master electrician audit will not exceed five years prior to 

the beginning of the audit. 

(8) Every employer or contractor must maintain pay records, time cards, or similar records to verify the 
work relationship and status of the assigned administrator or master electrician so the department 
may obtain the information it needs to verify the contractor-administrator/master electrician 
relationship. Upon the request of the department's auditors or agents, these records must be made 
available to the department for inspection within seven business days. 

(9) The department's audit may include, but will not be limited to, the following: 

(a) An audit to determine whether the assigned administrator or assigned master electrician was 

employed by the contractor or employer during the period assigned which may include their 
reporting of the assigned administrator's/master electrician's payroll hours required for 
employment security, prevailing wage, worker's compensation, etc.; and 

(b) An audit to determine the full-time supervisory status of the assigned administrator/master 

electrician. 



WAC 296-46B-980 Enforcement— Installations, licensing, and certification 
requirements. 

(1) The department inspects the electrical worksites of individuals, employers, and employees with 
respect to the methods and installation requirements of chapter 19.28 RCW and this chapter. The 
department's electrical inspectors and electrical auditors make electrical work inspections. The 
department's electrical inspectors, electrical auditors, and compliance officers make electrical 
licensing/certification inspections. 

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WAC 296-46B-980 Enforcement— Installations, licensing, and certification requirements. 



(2) The department ensures that individuals, employers, and employees comply with the electrical 
licensing and certification requirements of chapter 19.28 RC W and this chapter. To do this, 
inspections are made by the department's electrical inspectors/auditors and compliance officers. 

Compliance officers or electrical inspectors/auditors determine whether: 

(a) Each person or entity advertising to do electrical work or doing electrical work on an electrical 
worksite has a proper license, certificate, or temporary electrician permit; 

(b) The ratio, per RC W 19.28.161, of certified journeyman/specialty electricians to the certified 

trainees on the job site is correct; and 

(c) Each certified trainee is directly supervised by an individual who possesses an appropriate 

certificate of competency or temporary electrician permit for the type of electrical work being 
performed. 



WAC 296-46B-985 Penalties for false statements or material misrepresentations. 

(1) A person who knowingly makes a false statement or material misrepresentation on an application, 

statement of hours, or signed statement to the department may be referred to the county prosecutor 
for criminal prosecution under RCW 9A.72.020, 9A.72.030, and 9A.72.040. The department may also 
file a civil action under RCW 19.28.131 or 19.28.271 and may revoke or suspend a certificate under 
RCW 19.28.241 or 19.28.341. 

(2) The department may file a civil action under RCW 19.28.131 or 19.28.271 and may revoke or suspend 

a certificate of competency under RCW 19.28.341 or 19.28.241 for inaccurate or false reporting of 
continuing education units on the administrator, master electrician, electrician, or training certificate 
renewal form. 

(3) If the department determines that a course sponsor has issued an inaccurate or incomplete course 
application or attendance/completion roster, the department may suspend or revoke the course 
approval and deny future approval of a continuing education course(s) by the course sponsor. 

(4) The department may file a civil action under RCW 19.28.271 against both the trainee and the 

contractor, apprentice training director, or other entity verifying the training hours and may subtract up 
to two thousand hours of employment from a trainee's total hours if the department determines a false 
statement or material misrepresentation has been made in an affidavit of experience. 



WAC 296-46B-990 Failure to comply with the electrical contractor licensing, 
administrator certification, or electrician certification laws. General. 

(1) If the compliance officer or electrical inspector/auditor determines that an individual, employer, or 
employee has violated chapter 19.28 RCW or this chapter, the department will issue a citation that 
describes the violation. 

Suspension or revocation - of an electrical contractor's license, administrator's certificate, master 
electrician's certificate of competency, electrician's certificate of competency, temporary electrician's 
permit, or training certificate. 

(2) The department may revoke or suspend, for such time as it determines appropriate, an electrical 

contractor's license, administrator's certificate, master electrician's certificate of competency, 
electrician's certificate of competency, temporary electrician's permit, temporary specialty electrician's 
permit, or training certificate if: 

(a) The license, certificate, or permit was obtained through error or fraud; 

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WAC 296-46B-985 Penalties for false statements or material misrepresentations. 



(b) The license, certificate, or permit Jnolder is judged to be incompetent to work in the electrical 

construction trade as a master electrician, journeyman electrician, specialty electrician, 
electrical technician, temporary electrician, temporary specialty electrician, or electrical 
trainee; 

(c) For serious noncompliance as described below. See RCW 19.28.241 and 19.28.341 for other 

grounds and procedures. 

(d) A temporary electrician permit or temporary specialty electrician permit holder has violated 

any of the provisions of chapter 19.28 RCW or any rule adopted under chapter 19.28 RCW; 

(e) The license or ceri:ificate holder incompletely or inaccurately repori:ed continuing education 

units on an application for renewal; or 
(f)The ceri:ificate holder falsely, incompletely, or inaccurately repori:ed previous work experience. 

The depari:mentwill deny an application for any license/certificate during the period of 
revocation or suspension of the same or another license/ceri:ificate under chapter 19.28 
RCW. 

(3) Forthe purposes of this section, serious noncompliance includes, but is not limited to, any of the 
following: 

(a) Failure to correct a serious violation. A serious violation is a violation of chapter 19.28 RCW or 
chapter 296-46B WAC that creates a hazard of fire or a danger to life safety. A serious 
violation is also a violation that presents imminent danger to the public. Imminent dangerto 
the public is present when installations of wire and equipment that convey or utilize electric 
current have been installed in such a condition that a fire-hazard or a life-safety hazard is 
present. Imminent danger to the public is also present when unqualified, unceri:ified, or 
fraudulently ceri:ified electricians or administrators; or unlicensed or fraudulently licensed 
contractors are continuously or repeatedly peri'orming or supervising the performance of 
electrical work covered under chapter 19.28 RCW. Forthe purposes of this section, a 
ceri:ified electrician is considered qualified, provided the electrician is working within his or her 
ceri:ification; 

(b) The license or ceri:ificate was obtained through error or fraud; 

(c) Submitting a fraudulent document to the depari:ment; 

(d) Continuous noncompliance with the provisions of chapter 19.28 RCW or this chapter. Forthe 

purposes of this section, continuous noncompliance will be defined as three or more citations 
demonstrating a disregard of the electrical law, rules, or regulations within a period of three 
years, or where it can be otherwise demonstrated that the contractor, master electrician, 
electrician, or administrator has continuously failed to comply with the applicable electrical 
standards; 

(e) Failure to make any books or records, or ceri:ified copies thereof, available to the depari:ment 
for an audit to verify the hours of experience submitted by an electrical trainee; 

(f) Making a false statement or material misrepresentation on an application, statement of hours, 

or signed statement required by the depari:ment; 

(g) The ceri:ificate holder falsely or inaccurately repori:ed continuing education units on an 

application for renewal; 
(h) Installing a shori:ened rod/pipe grounding electrode, improper splicing of conductors in 
conduits/raceways or concealed within walls, or installing a fake equipment grounding 
conductor. 

For any act of serious noncompliance, the person, firm, pari:nership, corporation, or other 
entity may be referred to the county prosecutor for criminal prosecution under chapter 9A.72 
RCW. The depari:ment may also file a civil action under chapter 19.28 RCW. 

(4) Before a license, ceri:ificate, or temporary electrician permit is revoked or suspended, the ceri:ificate 

holder will be given written notice of the depari:ment's intention to suspend or revoke. Notification will 
be sent by registered mail to the ceri:ificate holder's last known address. The notification will list the 
allegations against the ceri:ificate holder, and provide the ceri:ificate holder with the procedures 
necessary to request a hearing before the electrical board as described in WAC 296-46B-995. 

Page 123 of 138 

WAC 296-46B-990 Failure to comply with the electrical contractor licensing, administrator ceri:ification, or 
electrician ceri:ification laws. General. 



Confiscation - of an electrical contractor's license, administrator certificate, electrician certificate 
of competency, temporary electrician permit, or training certificate. 

(5) The department may confiscate a license, certificate, or temporary electrician permit that is counterfeit, 
revoked, expired, suspended, or altered. The individual may be referred to the county prosecutor for 
criminal prosecution under chapter 9A.72 RCW. The department may also file a civil action under chapter 
19.28 RCW. 



WAC 296-46B-995 Electrical board -Appeal rights and hearings. General. 

(1) Chapter 19.28 RCW provides the authority for the duties and responsibilities of the electrical board. 

Except as provided in chapter 19.28 RCW and this chapter, all proceedings will be conducted 
according to chapter 34.05 RCW the Administrative Procedure Act and chapter 10-08 WAC, Model 
rules of procedure. See chapter 34.05 RCW the Administrative Procedure Act for specific definitions 
not described in this chapter. 

(2) See RCW 19.28.311 for the composition of the electrical board. 

(3) The board adopts the current edition of the "Roberts' Rules of Order, Newly Revised." 

(4) The board will hold regular meetings on the lastThursday of J anuary, April, J uly, and October of each 

year per RCW 19.28.311. 

(5) The director or the chairperson of the board may call a special meeting at any time. 

(6) Each board member must be notified in writing of the agenda, date, time, and place of each regular 
and special meeting. "Writing" includes by electronic mail, also known as "e-mail," if the member has 
provided an e-mail address for such notice. 

(7) The board or department may elect to have an appeal heard by the office of administrative hearings 

either tape recorded or transcribed by a court reporter; and the board may so elect regarding 
hearings or board reviews heard by the board as a whole. 

(8) A majority of the board constitutes a quorum for purposes of rendering any decision. 

(a) If a majority does not attend a hearing or board review on an appeal, the board may either 
continue the hearing or board review to a date certain or may hear the testimony and 
arguments. 

(b) If the board hears the testimony and arguments, the members of the board who are absent 
may make their decisions after hearing the tape recording or reading the transcript, of the 
hearing or board review. 

(c) If the board selects the method in subsection (8)(b) of this section, at the time of the hearing, 
the board shall seta date certain for the absent members to complete review of the record 
and for the board as a whole to vote on the decision. The vote in subsection (8)(b) and (c) of 
this section may occur by U.S. mail, facsimile or by electronic mail and shall be determined 
by the board at the hearing; the members' votes shall be public record. 

(9) All filings and documents for any matter before the board must be submitted to the chief electrical 

inspector, as secretary to the board, 7273 Linderson Way, P.O. Box 44460, Olympia, WA 98504- 
4460. The filings may be submitted by ordinary mail, certified or registered mail, or by personal 
delivery. 

(10) All hearings before the board as a whole shall be held on regularly scheduled meeting dates, as 
listed in subsection (4) of this section, unless the board determines that an alternate date is 
necessary. All notices of appeal, with a certified check payable to the department in the sum of two 
hundred dollars if required, must be received in the office of the chief electrical inspector, as secretary 
to the board, at least thirty days before the regularly scheduled board meeting at which the hearing 
would occur. The appellant must submit any written argument, briefs testimony or documents for the 
board's consideration at least twenty days prior to the scheduled hearing. 

Appeals 

Page 124 of 138 

WAC 296-46B-995 Electrical board -Appeal rights and hearings. General. 



(11) Appeals of penalties issued by the department. 

(a) A party may appeal a penalty issued by the department, pursuant to chapter 19.28 RCW and 

this chapter, to the board. The appeal shall be assigned to the office of administrative 
hearings. 

(b) The appeal must be filed within twenty days after the notice of the decision or penalty is given 

to the assessed party either by personal service or by certified mail, return receipt requested, 
sent to the last known address of the assessed party and shall be made by filing a written 
notice of appeal with the chief electrical inspector, as secretary to the board. The request for 
an appeal must be accompanied with a certified check payable to the department in the sum 
of two hundred dollars. 

(12) Appeals of proposed decisions issued by the office of administrative hearings. 

(a) A party may appeal a proposed decision issued by the office of administrative hearings 

pursuant to chapter 19.28 RCW to the board. The appeal must be filed within twenty days 
after service of the decision and must be made by filing a written notice of appeal with the 
chief electrical inspector, as secretary to the board. 

(b) The notice of appeal of a proposed decision must be received in the office of the chief 

electrical inspector, as secretary to the board, at least thirty days before a regularly 
scheduled board meeting. All parties must submit any written argument, briefs testimony or 
documents for the board's consideration at least twenty days prior to the scheduled hearing. 

(13) Appeals of suspension, revocation, or nonrenewal. 

(a) An appeal of the suspension or revocation of a license or certificate of competency under 

RCW 19.28.241 and 19.28.341 or of nonrenewal of a license or certificate of competency 
under this chapter will be heard by the board in accordance with chapter 34.05 RCW and not 
assigned to the office of administrative hearings. The board will conduct the hearing and may 
elect to have the assistance of an administrative law judge in the proceeding. 

(b) The notice of appeal, with the certified check payable to the department in the sum of two 

hundred dollars for appeals of a revocation or suspension of a contractor's or administrator's 
license, must be filed within twenty days after the notice of suspension or revocation is 
served on the subject of said action, either by personal service or by certified mail, return 
receipt requested, sent to the last known address of the subject and shall be filed by written 
notice of appeal with the chief electrical inspector, as secretary to the board. 

(14) Appeals of decisions on installation. 

(a) A party may seek board review for disputes relating to the interpretation and application of 

electrical/telecommunications installation or maintenance standards under RCW 19.28.111, 
19.28.480, and 19.28.531. The board will conduct the hearing and may elect to have the 
assistance of an administrative law judge in the proceeding. 

(b) The notice of appeal, with the certified check payable to the department in the sum of two 

hundred dollars, must be received in the office of the chief electrical inspector, as secretary to 
the board, at least thirty days before a regularly scheduled board meeting. All parties must 
submit any written argument, briefs testimony or documents for the board's consideration at 
least twenty days prior to the scheduled hearing. 

(15) Appeals of a continuing education class or instructor for denials or revocations. 

A party may appeal a decision issued by the department, pursuant to WAC 296-46B-970 (3)(e)(vi), if 
the department acts as the contractor pursuant to WAC 296-46B-970 (2)(i) to the superior court per 
RCW 34.05.542(3). 

(16) Appeals pertaining to engineer approval or electrical testing laboratory recognition and accreditation. 

(a) A party may appeal a decision issued by the department pursuant to WAC 296-46B-997 or 

WAC 296-46B-999. The appeal will be heard by the board in accordance with Chapter 34.05 
RCW and not assigned to the office of administrative hearings. The board will conduct the 
hearing and may elect to have the assistance of an administrative law judge in the 
proceeding. 

(b) The notice of appeal, with the certified check payable to the department in the sum of two 

hundred dollars for appeals pertaining to engineer approval or recognition and accreditation 
of an electrical testing laboratory, must be filed within twenty days after the notice of the 
department's decision is served on the subject of said action, either by personal service or by 

Page 125 of 138 

WAC 296-46B-995 Electrical board -Appeal rights and hearings. General. 



certified mail, return receipt requested, sent the lastl<nown address of the subject and shall 
be filed by written notice of appeal with the chief electrical inspector, as secretary to the 
board. 

(17) J udicial review of final decisions of the board. 

A party may seek judicial review of a final order of the board within thirty days after service of the 
decision. Appeals of final decisions and orders must be done in accordance with chapter 34.05 
RCW. 

(18) If appeal(s) according to subsections (11), (12), (13), and (15) of this section are not filed or the 
appeal is not filed timely, the proposed decision or action becomes final with no further action on the 
part of the department or the board. 

(19) Appeals general requirements. 

(a) Appeals according to subsections (11), (12), or (15) of this section must specify the 

contentions of the appellant, and must for subsection (12) of this section specify to which 
conclusions of law and findings of fact the party takes exception. The appeal will be based 
on the record of the hearing. The board shall not grant a hearing de novo. 

(b) In appeals under subsections (12), (13), (14), and (15) of this section, the issues to be 
adjudicated must be made as precise as possible, in order that the board may proceed 
promptly to conduct the hearing on relevant and material matter only. 

(c) In all appeals of chapter 19.28 RCW and this chapter, the appellant has the burden of proof by 

a preponderance of the evidence. 

Appearance and practice before board. 

(20) No party may appear as a representative in proceedings other than the following: 

(a) Attorneys at law qualified to practice before the supreme court of the state of Washington; 

(b) Attorneys at law qualified to practice before the highest court of record of another state, if the 

attorneys at law of the state of Washington are permitted to appear as representatives before 
administrative agencies of the other state, and if not otherwise prohibited by Washington law; 
or 

(c) An owner, officer, partner, or full-time employee of a firm, association, organization, 

partnership, corporation, orother entity who appears for the firm, association, organization, 
partnership, corporation or other entity. 

(21) All persons appearing in proceedings as a representative must conform to the standards of ethical 
conduct required of attorneys before the courts of Washington. If a person does not conform to these 
standards, the board may decline to permit the person to appear as a representative in any 
proceeding before the board. 



WAC 296-46B-997 Engineer approval. 

(1) This section describes the methods required to obtain recognition and accreditation of professional 

engineers registered under chapter 18.43 RCW to approve industrial utilization equipment. This 
section provides assurance to the general consuming public that electrical products have been tested 
for safety and identified for their intended use. 

(2) Industrial utilization equipment is considered to be safe when it is certified by an engineer accredited 
by the department. 

(a) The department may declare industrial utilization equipment unsafe if: 

(i) The equipment is not being manufactured or produced in accordance with all 
standards of design and construction and all terms and conditions set out in the 
certification report for the equipment referred to in this chapter; 
(ii) The equipment has been shown by field experience to be unduly hazardous to 
persons or property; 

Page 126 of 138 

WAC 296-46B-997 Engineer approval. 



(iii) An examination of tiie equipment or of the certification report for the equipment shows 

that the equipment does not comply with all applicable standards; or 
(iv) An examination of the certification report or the equipment shows that the equipment 
cannot be installed in accordance with this chapter, 
(b) When the department declares industrial utilization equipment unsafe, the department will 
notify the product owner and the certifying engineer in writing. 

Accreditation general. 

(3) The department's chief electrical inspector's office reviews requests for accreditation. Applicants must 

submit supporting data to document and verify the requirements of this section have been met. 

(4) The accreditation of an engineer will be valid for the period of three years. 

(5) On-site inspection of an engineer's facilities. 

(a) On-site inspection of the facility(ies) may be required during the initial application process or 
the renewal process. Representative(s) of the department will evaluate for compliance with 
accreditation criteria. 

(b) The applicant must pay all costs associated with the on-site inspection. 

(6) For purposes of chapter 19.28 RC W, all engineers who certify industrial utilization equipment offered 
for sale in the state of Washington must be accredited by the department. 

(7) Fees are payable as required in WAC 296-46B-911. 

(8) The engineer must apply for renewal of accreditation at least thirty days prior to the accreditation 

expiration date. The department will renew accreditation for the period of three years or notify the 
renewing engineer of the department's reason(s) of refusal following receipt of the completed form 
and renewal fee. 

(9) The department accepts or denies engineer accreditation for engineers seeking to evaluate industrial 

utilization equipment within the state. Accreditation is determined when an engineer provides 
evidence to the department that all the requirements of this chapter are met. Accreditation is 
determined by the department and prior to making a determination, the department may require 
information and documentation to be provided by the engineer. 

(a) Accreditation is subject to review when deemed necessary by the department. The engineer 

must pay all costs associated with on-site review. 

(b) Every accredited engineer must continue to satisfy all the conditions specified in this chapter 
during the period of the accreditation. An engineer mustfurnish the departmentan annual 
report detailing the extent of its activities for the year. The report must include, but not be 
limited to: 

(i) The number of industrial utilization equipment items approved; 
(ii) Organizational structure of the engineer's company; 
(iii) Statement of ownership of the engineer's company; and 
(iv) Reports of litigation, which in any way were the result of or may affect any 
accreditation or testing of products covered by this chapter. 

(c) The department will notify the applicant of the accreditation results. A letter of accreditation 

from the department is proof of the accreditation of the engineer. 

(10) The engineer will be approved to certify industrial utilization equipment. 

Suspension or revocation. 

(11) The department may suspend, revoke, or refuse to renew the department's accreditation of any 
engineer found to be in noncompliance with requirements of this chapter, the laws of the state of 
Washington, or submitting false information. 

(12) The department will serve written notice of intent prior to suspension, revocation, or refusal to renew 
the accreditation of an engineer. 

(13) An engineer, whose accreditation has been suspended, may not reapply for accreditation during the 
period of such suspension. An engineer, whose accreditation has been revoked, may reapply for 
accreditation no sooner than two years after the date of revocation of accreditation. 



Page 127 of 138 

WAC 296-46B-997 Engineer approval. 



Business structure, practices, and personnel. 

(14) The engineer must be an independent, tiiird-party organization witii no organizational, managerial, 
financial, design, or promotional affiliation with owners, manufacturers, suppliers, installers, or 
vendors of products covered under the engineer's certification or evaluation programs. 

The engineer must have an adequate diversity of clients or activity so that the loss or award of a 
specific contract regarding certification or evaluation would not be a deciding factor in the financial 
well-being of the engineer. 

(15) The engineer must adequately meet the following business practices: 

(a) Perform the examinations, tests, evaluations, and inspections required under the certifications 

programs in accordance with the designated standards and procedures; 

(b) Assure that reported values accurately reflect measured and observed data; 

(c) Limit work to that for which competence and capacity is available; 

(d) Treat test data, records, and reports as proprietary information; 

(e) Respond to and attempt to resolve complaints contesting certifications and evaluation results; 

(f) Maintain an independent relationship between its clients, affiliates, and other organizations so 

the laboratory's engineer's capacity to give certifications and evaluations objectively and 
without bias is not adversely affected; and 

(g) Notify the department within thirty calendar days should it become unable to conform to any of 
the requirements of this chapter. 

(16) Engineers accredited under this chapter must notify the department within thirty calendar days of any 
of the following: 

(a) Change in company name and/or address; 

(b) Changes in major test equipment which affect the ability to perform work for which accredited; 

or 

(c) Change in independent status. 

(17) The engineer must develop and maintain a certification or evaluation program plan that includes, but 
is not limited to: 

(a) The procedures and authority to ensure the product complies with the standard(s) established 

by the program; 

(b) A quality control system; 

(c) Verification and maintenance of facilities and/or equipment; or 

(d) Sample selection as applicable for product certifications, and for component testing as 

necessary for evaluations. 

The plan must demonstrate thatthe engineer has adequate facilities, and equipment to 
perform all certifications and testing for which it is accredited by the state of Washington. 
These elements must be contained in the engineer's operations control manual. 

(18) The engineer must develop and maintain a quality control system adequate to assure the accuracy 
and technical integrity of its work as follows: 

(a) The engineer's quality control system must include a quality control or engineer's operations 

control manual; 

(b) The quality control or engineer's operations control manual must be adequate to guide a 

testing technician or inspector in conducting the inspection, evaluation, and/or test in 
accordance with the test methods and procedures required for the engineer's certification 
and/or evaluation program(s); and 

(c) The engineer must have a current copy of the quality control or laboratory engineer operations 

control manual available for the engineer's use. 

(19) The engineer must have training, technical knowledge, and experience adequate to perform the 
tests, examinations, and evaluations for the certification and/or evaluation activities for which 
recognition is sought. 

(20) The engineer must: 

(a) Provide adequate safeguards protecting the engineer's status from the influence or control of 
manufacturers, vendors, owners, or installers of electrical products certified or tested by the 
engineer; and 

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WAG 296-46B-997 Engineer approval. 



(b) Develop and maintain an adequate training program assuring tiiattiie engineer will be able to 
perform tasks properly and uniformly. 

Recordkeeping and reporting general. 

(21) The engineer must develop and maintain records and reports of those testing, inspection, 
certification, and evaluation activities associated with each piece of industrial utilization equipment. 
The engineer must retain these records for a minimum of three years. 

(22) The engineer must make available to the department, upon request, all records required by the 
department to verify compliance with this chapter. 

(23) The engineer's evaluation report must include: 

(a) Name and address of the engineer; 

(b) Name of client; 

(c) Address where the evaluated product is or will be installed; 

(d) Designation of standards used to certify or test the product including edition and latest revision 

(e.g., UL 508, 16th Edition, Feb. 1993, Revision Oct. 9, 1997); 

(e) Description of the overall product evaluated to include full nameplate data and equipment 
type; 

(f) A statement as to whether or not the results comply with the requirements of the standard; 

(g) Pertinent test evaluation data and identification of tests or inspections including anomalies; 
(h) The engineer's stamp; and 

(i) Any condition of acceptability or restrictions on use/relocation. 

(24) Within thirty calendar days after affixing the evaluation mark, the engineer must submit a copy of the 
evaluation report to: 

(a) The department's chief electrical inspector submitted electronically in a format approved by 

the department; 

(b) Local electrical inspection office submitted electronically in a format approved by the 
department; and 

(c) Client submitted in any format acceptable to the client and testing engineer. 



WAC 296-46B-998 Standards. 

(1) The standard(s) used, as the basis of electrical product certification, field evaluation, or department 

approval must be determined by the department to provide an adequate level of safety or define an 
adequate level of safety performance. Except for the reference of construction requirements to 
ensure the product can be installed in accordance with the National Electrical Code, field evaluations, 
by an approved laboratory, shall not use the National Electrical Code as standard for product 
evaluation. 

(2) Generally, standards will be: 

(a) Developed by a standards developing organization under a method providing for input and 
consideration of views of industry groups, experts, users, consumers, and governmental 
authorities, and others having broad experience in the electrical products safety field. A 
standard is used to control the quality and safety of a product; 

(b) Compatible with and be maintained current with periodic revisions of applicable national codes 
and installation standards; and 

(c) Approved by the department. The department will evaluate the proposed standard to 

determine that it provides an adequate level of safety. 

(3) All ANSI safety designated electrical product standards may be deemed acceptable for their intended 

use without further qualification. 

(4) If the product safety standard is not AN SI, the standard must be reviewed and approved by the 
department as an appropriate electrical product safety standard as a part of the field evaluation or 
department inspection process. 

Page 129 of 138 

WAC 296-46B-998 Standards. 



WAC 296-46B-999 Electrical testing laboratory requirements. General. 

(1) This section describes the methods required to obtain recognition and accreditation of electrical 

product(s) certification and/or field evaluation laboratories by the state of Washington. This section 
provides assurance to the general consuming public that electrical products have been tested for 
safety and identified for their intended use. 

(2) An electrical product is considered to be safe when it is either certified by a laboratory accredited by 

the department or labeled with a field evaluation mark by a laboratory accredited by the department. 

(a) The department may declare electrical equipment unsafe if: 

(i) The equipment is not being manufactured or produced in accordance with all 
standards of design and construction and all terms and conditions set out in the 
certification report for the equipment referred to in this chapter; 

(ii) The equipment has been shown by field experience to be unduly hazardous to 
persons or property; 

(ill) An examination of the equipment or of the certification report for the equipment shows 
that the equipment does not comply with all applicable standards; or 

(iv) An examination of the certification report or the equipment shows that the equipment 
cannot be installed in accordance with this chapter. 

(b) When the department declares an electrical product unsafe, the department will: 

(i) Notify the product manufacturer and the appropriate testing laboratory in writing; 
(ii) Notify the general public by: 

(A) Report to the Consumer Product Safety Commission; 

(B) A published article in the Electrical Currents; 

(C) Internet web site posting; and/or 

(D) News release. 

Accreditation general. 

(3) The department's chief electrical inspector's office reviews requests for accreditation or evaluation. 
Applicants must submit supporting data to document and verify the requirements of this section have 
been met. 

(4) The accreditation of a NRTL will be valid for the period of the laboratory's current OS HA NRTL 

accreditation. The accreditation of a non-NRTL will be valid for the period of five years from the date 
of the department's accreditation. 

(5) On-site inspection of a laboratory. 

(a) On-site inspection of the laboratory may be required during the initial application process or 
the renewal process. Technically qualified representative(s) of the department will evaluate 
for compliance with accreditation criteria. 

(b) On-site inspection is not required for NRTL-recognized laboratories requesting approval as 
certification laboratories using standards for which NRTL recognition has been approved. 

(c) The department may waive on-site inspection for: 

(i) Laboratories recognized or accredited by another state determined to provide an 

accreditation program acceptable to the department; or 
(ii) NRTL-recognized laboratories requesting approval as certification laboratories for 

using other standards for which NRTL recognition has not been approved. 

(d) The applicant must pay all costs associated with the on-site inspection. 

(6) For purposes of chapter 19.28 RCW, all laboratories which certify and/or field evaluate electrical 
products offered for sale in the state of Washington must be accredited by the department. A NRTL 
requesting approval as a certification laboratory will be approved for accreditation by the department 
upon completion of the application process. 

(7) Fees are payable as required in WAC 296-46B-911. 

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WAC 296-46B-999 Electrical testing laboratory requirements. General. 



(8) The laboratory mustapply for renewal of accreditation at least thirty days prior to the accreditation 

expiration date. The department will renew accreditation for the period specified in subsection (4) of 
this section or notify the renewing laboratory of the department's reason(s) of refusal following receipt 
of the completed form and renewal fee. Accreditation may be renewed or refused for one or more 
electrical product category(ies). 

(9) The department accepts or denies laboratory accreditation for all laboratories within the state. 

Accreditation is determined when a laboratory provides evidence to the department that all the 
requirements of this chapter are met. Accreditation is determined by the department and prior to 
making a determination, the department may require information and documentation to be provided 
by the laboratory. 

(a) Accreditation is subject to review when deemed necessary by the department. The laboratory 

must pay all costs associated with on-site review. 

(b) Every accredited laboratory must continue to satisfy all the conditions specified in this chapter 

during the period of the accreditation. A non-NRTL accredited laboratory must furnish the 
department an annual report detailing the extent of its activities for the year. The report must 
include, but not be limited to: 

The number of factory inspections; 
) Organizational structure of the laboratory; 
(ill) Statement of ownership of the laboratory; 
(iv) Laboratory equipment verification; 
(v) Client accreditation programs; 
(vi) Reports of litigation, which in any way were the result of or may affect any 

accreditation or testing of products covered by this chapter; or 
(vii) Assessment of recordkeeping (i.e., certification/evaluation plans, 
certification/evaluation reports). 

(c) The department will notify the applicant of the accreditation results. A letter of accreditation 

from the department is proof of the accreditation of a laboratory. 

(10) The laboratory will be approved to certify only those categories identified and authorized by the 
department. The department will approve and list electrical product category(ies) the laboratory is 
qualified to certify or evaluate. The accreditation letter will indicate the electrical product category(ies) 
for which accreditation is issued. 

(11) The department may exclude specific electrical products from acceptance. When required, the 
laboratory must provide evidence, acceptable to the department, that the laboratory is qualified to 
certify or field evaluate the specific electrical product. Laboratory recognition as an NRTL for the 
standard(s) used to certify or field evaluate an electrical product will be acceptable evidence. The 
standards used for certification or field evaluation must be determined by the department to be 
acceptable and applicable to the electrical product being certified or field evaluated. 

Suspension or revocation. 

(12) Any laboratory failing to comply with the requirements of this chapter or submitting false information 
may have accreditation revoked or suspended for one or more electrical product category(ies). 

(13) The department may suspend, revoke, or refuse to renew the accreditation of any laboratory found to 
be in noncompliance with this chapter or the laws of the state of Washington. 

(14) The department will serve written notice of intent prior to suspension, revocation, or refusal to renew 
the accreditation of a laboratory. 

(15) The laboratory must immediately notify all manufacturers whose products are covered by the 
accreditation that such products manufactured subsequent to the departmental revocation and 
offered for sale in the state of Washington can no longer bear the laboratory's label that identified it as 
a certified product in the state of Washington. A laboratory, whose accreditation has been 
suspended, may not reapply for accreditation during the period of such suspension. A laboratory, 
whose accreditation has been revoked, may reapply for accreditation no sooner than one year after 
the date of revocation of accreditation. 

Business structure, practices, and personnel. 

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WAC 296-46B-999 Electrical testing laboratory requirements. General. 



(16) The laboratory must be an independent, third-party organization with no organizational, managerial, 
financial, design, or promotional affiliation with manufacturers, suppliers, installers, or vendors of 
products covered under its certification or evaluation programs. 

The laboratory must have an adequate diversity of clients or activity so that the loss or award of a 
specific contract regarding certification or evaluation would not be a deciding factor in the financial 
well-being of the laboratory. 

(17) The laboratory must adequately meet the following business practices: 

(a) Perform the examinations, tests, evaluations, and inspections required under the certifications 

programs in accordance with the designated standards and procedures; 

(b) Assure that reported values accurately reflect measured and observed data; 

(c) Limit work to that for which competence and capacity is available; 

(d) Treat test data, records, and reports as proprietary information; 

(e) Respond and attempt to resolve complaints contesting certifications and evaluation results; 

(f) Maintain an independent relationship between its clients, affiliates, and other organizations so 

the laboratory's capacity to give certifications and evaluations objectively and without bias is 
not adversely affected; and 

(g) Notify the department within thirty calendar days should it become unable to conform to any of 
the requirements of this chapter. 

(18) Laboratories accredited under this chapter must notify the department within thirty calendar days of 
any of the following: 

(a) Change in company name and/or address; 

(b) Changes in major test equipment which affect the ability to perform work for which accredited; 

(c) Changes in principal officers, key supervisory and responsible personnel in the company 

including the director of testing and engineering services, director of follow-up services, and 
the laboratory supervisor; or 

(d) Change in independent status. 

(19) The laboratory must develop and maintain a certification or evaluation program plan that includes, 
but is not limited to: 

(a) The procedures and authority to ensure the product complies with the standard(s) established 

by the program; 

(b) A quality control system; 

(c) Adequate personnel to perform the certification or evaluation; 

(d) Verification and maintenance of facilities and/or equipment; or 

(e) Sample selection as applicable for product certifications, and for component testing as 

necessary for field evaluations. 

The plan must demonstrate that the laboratory has adequate personnel, facilities, and equipment to 
perform all certifications and testing for which it is accredited by the state of Washington. These 
elements must be contained in the laboratory operations control manual. 

(20) The laboratory must develop and maintain a quality control system adequate to assure the accuracy 
and technical integrity of its work as follows: 

(a) The laboratory's quality control system must include a quality control or laboratory operations 

control manual; 

(b) The quality control or laboratory operations control manual must be adequate to guide a 

testing technician or inspector in conducting the inspection, evaluation, and/or test in 
accordance with the test methods and procedures required for the laboratory's certification 
and/or evaluation program(s); and 

(c) The laboratory must have a current copy of its quality control or laboratory operations control 

manual available in the laboratory for use by laboratory personnel. 

(21) Competent personnel who must have training, technical knowledge, and experience adequate to 
perform the tests, examinations, and evaluations for the certification and/or evaluation activities for 
which recognition is sought must staff the laboratory. 

(22) The laboratory must: 



Page 132 of 138 

WAG 296-46B-999 Electrical testing laboratory requirements. General. 



(a) Provide adequate safeguards protecting the employment status of personnel from the 

influence or control of manufacturers, vendors, or installers of electrical products certified or 
tested by the laboratory; 

(b) Develop and maintain a job description for each technical position category; 

(c) Ensure the competency of its staff to perform assigned tasks through individual yearly 

observation and/or examination by a person(s) qualified by the person who has technical 
responsibility for the laboratory; 

(d) Develop and maintain records of the results and dates of the observation or examination of 

personnel performance; 

(e) Maintain information on the training, technical knowledge, and experience of personnel; and 

(f) Develop and maintain an adequate training program assuring that new or untrained personnel 

will be able to perform assigned tasks properly and uniformly. 

Recordkeeping and reporting general. 

(23) The laboratory must develop and maintain records and reports of those testing, inspection, 
certification, and evaluation activities associated with each program for which accreditation is sought. 
The laboratory must retain these records for a minimum of three years. 

(24) The laboratory must make available to the department, upon request, all records required by the 
department to verify compliance with this chapter. 

Recordlceeping and reporting certification. 

(25) Certification reports must contain, as applicable: 

(a) Name and address of the laboratory; 

(b) Pertinent data and identification of tests or inspections; 

(c) Name of client; 

(d) Appropriate product title; 

(e) Designation of standards used to certify or test the product including edition and latest revision 

(e.g., UL 508, 16th Edition, Feb. 1993, Revision Oct. 9, 1997); 

(f) Description and identification of the sample including, as necessary, where and how the 

sample was selected; 

(g) Identification of the test, inspection, or procedure as specified for certification or evaluation by 
the standard; 

(h) Known deviations, additions to, or exclusions from evaluation and certification activities in 

order to be appropriate for new or innovative products not contemplated by the standard; 
(i) Measurements, examinations, derived results, and identification of test anomalies; 
(j) A statement as to whether or not the results comply with the requirements of the standard; 
(k) Name, contact information, and signature of person(s) having responsibility for the report; 
(I) Raw data, calculations, tables, graphs, sketches, and/or photographs generated during 

certification or evaluation must be maintained if not included in the report; 
(m) Control forms documenting the receipt, handling, storage, shipping, and testing of samples; 
(n) Laboratory records of its quality control checks and audits for monitoring its test work 

associated with its certification programs, including: 

(i) Records of products assurance (follow-up) test results; and 
(ii) Records of detected errors and discrepancies and actions taken subsequent to such 
detection, 
(o) Record of written complaints and disposition thereof; and 
(p) A statement that records required by these criteria will be maintained for a minimum of three 

years after cessation of the certification or evaluation. 

Recordlceeping and reporting field evaluation. 

(26) The evaluation report must include: 

(a) Name and address of the laboratory; 

(b) Name of client; 

Page 133 of 138 

WAG 296-46B-999 Electrical testing laboratory requirements. General. 



(c) Address where the evaluated product is or will be installed; 

(d) Designation of standards used to certify or test the product including edition and latest revision 

(e.g., UL 508, 16th Edition, Feb. 1993, Revision Oct. 9, 1997); 

(e) Description and identification of the nonlisted and nonlabeled component(s) requiring 
evaluation by applicable standard(s); 

(f) Description of the overall product evaluated to include full nameplate data and equipment type; 

(g) A statement as to whether or not the results comply with the requirements of the standard; 
(h) Pertinent test evaluation data and identification of tests or inspections including anomalies; 
(i) Signature of person(s) having responsibility for the report; 

(j) Any condition of acceptability or restrictions on use/relocation; 

(k) Serial number(s) of the field evaluation label(s) applied must be included with the equipment 

identification; and 
(I) The labor and industries department file identification number; 

(27) Within thirty calendar days after affixing the evaluation mark, the laboratory must submit a copy of 
the evaluation report to: 

(a) The department's chief electrical inspector submitted electronically in a format approved by 

the department; 

(b) Local electrical inspection office submitted electronically in a format approved by the 
department; and 

(c) Client submitted in any format acceptable to the client and testing laboratory. 

Facilities and equipment. 

(28) The laboratory must provide adequate evidence of the calibration, verification, and maintenance of 
the facilities and equipment specified for each certification or evaluation. 

(29) Verification and maintenance of facilities and equipment must include as applicable, but not be 
limited to: 

(a) Equipment description; 

(b) Name of manufacturer; 

(c) Model, style, serial number, or other identification; 

(d) Equipment variables subject to calibration and verification; 

(e) Statement of the equipment's allowable error and tolerances of readings; 

(f) Calibration or verification procedure and schedule; 

(g) Dates and results of last calibrations or verifications; 
(h) Specified maintenance practices; 

(i) Calibration and/or verification of equipment used; 

(j) Name and contact information of personnel or outside contractor providing the calibration or 

verification service; and 
(k) Traceability to National Institute of Standards and Technology or other equivalent standard 

reference authority. 

Standards. 

(30) The laboratory must have copies available, for laboratory personnel use, of applicable standards and 
other documents referred to or used in performing each certification or test for which approval is 
sought. 

(31) If a laboratory desires to use a standard otherthan an ANSI standard, the department will evaluate 
the proposed standard to determine that it provides an adequate level of safety. The National 
Electrical Code, NFPA 70, will not be allowed to be the primary standard used to evaluate a product. 

Product certification. 

(32) The electrical product certification program must contain test procedure(s), standard(s) used, 
certification agreement(s), method(s) of identification of products, follow-up inspection, and other 
laboratory procedures and authority necessary to ensure that the product complies with the standards 
(requirements) established by the program. 

Page 134 of 138 

WAG 296-46B-999 Electrical testing laboratory requirements. General. 



(33) All components of certified or tested products must be labeled or evaluated for compliance with all 
standards and conditions of use applicable to such components. 

(34) The laboratory must publish an Annual Product Directory identifying products that are authorized to 
bear the laboratory's certification mark. The products directory must briefly describe the program, the 
products covered, the name of the manufacturer or vendor of the certified products, and the 
identification of the published standards or the compiled requirements on which the program is based. 
The product directory must be available to the public. Supplemental up-to-date information must be 
available to the public at the office of the laboratory during normal business hours. 

Certification laboratory/manufacturer agreement. 

(35) Measures to provide for manufacturer compliance with the provisions of the product standard and 
laboratory control of the use of the certification mark must be embodied in an agreement between the 
manufacturer and the certification laboratory. The certification agreement must: 

(a) Require the manufacturer to provide information and assistance as needed by the laboratory 
to conduct the necessary product conformity and production assurance evaluation; 

(b) Allow the laboratory's representative(s) access to the manufacturer's facilities during working 

hours for inspection and may allow audit activities without prior notice; 

(c) Restrict the manufacturer's application of certification marks to products that comply with 

requirements of the product standard; 

(d) Secure the manufacturer's agreement to the publication of notice by the certification 

laboratory for any product already available in the marketplace that does not meet the safety 
standard; 

(e) Require reevaluation of products whenever the standard covering the product is revised; 

(f) Require the laboratory to notify the manufacturer's personnel responsible for and authorized to 

institute product recall in the case of a hazard; 

(g) Provide for control of certification marks by the laboratory; 

(h) Require that the laboratory provide the manufacturer with a report of original product 

evaluation. The report must document conformity with applicable product standards by test 
results and other data; and 

(i) Require the identification of the manufacturer(s) of the product and the location(s) where the 
product is produced. 

Certification marlc. 

(36) The laboratory owns the certification mark. 

(37) The certification mark must be registered as a certification mark with the United States Patent and 
Trademark Office. 

(38) The certification mark must: 

(a) Not be readily transferable from one product to another; 

(b) Be directly applied to each unit of production in the form of labels or markings suitable for the 

environment and use of the product. When the physical size of the unit does not permit 
individual marking, markings may be attached to the smallest package in which the unit is 
marketed; 

(c) Include the name or other appropriate identification of the certification laboratory; 

(d) Include the product category; and 

(e) The laboratory must have a system of controls and records for all marks. The records must 

include marks removed or otherwise voided. See WAC 296-466-999(25). 

(39) The certification mark may be applied to the product prior to authorizing the use of a certification 
mark on a product. The laboratory must: 

(a) Determine by examination and/or tests that representative samples of the product comply with 
the requirements (standards). Components of certified products must comply with the 
applicable safety requirements (standards) or be listed. Evaluation of the product design 
must be made on representative production samples or on prototype product samples with 
subsequent verification that factory productions are the same as the prototype; 

Page 135 of 138 

WAC 296-46B-999 Electrical testing laboratory requirements. General. 



(b) Determine that the manufacturer has the necessary facilities, test equipment, and control 

procedures to ensure that continuing production of the product complies with the 
requirements; and 

(c) If the certification mark is not applied at the manufacturing facility, the laboratory must provide 

prior notification to the department of its intent to affix the certification mark in the field. 

Certification laboratory product assurance/follow up. 

(40) To verify continued product acceptability, the laboratory must develop and maintain a factory follow- 
up inspection program and manual to determine continued compliance of certified products with the 
applicable standard. 

(41) The follow-up inspection file must include the: 

(a) Conditions governing the use of the certification mark on products; 

(b) Identification of the products authorized for certification; 

(c) Identification of manufacturer and plant location at which manufacture and certification are 

authorized; 

(d) Description, specifications, and requirements applicable to the product; 

(e) Description of processes needed for control purposes; 

(f) Description of the manufacturer's quality assurance program when used as part of the follow- 

up program; 

(g) Description of inspections and tests to be conducted by the manufacturer and the laboratory; 
and 

(h) Description of follow-up tests to be conducted in the laboratory. 

(42) Follow-up procedures and activities must include: 

(a) Periodic inspections at the factory with testing at the factory or certification laboratory of 

representative samples selected from production and, if appropriate, from the market; 

(b) Periodic auditing or surveillance of the manufacturer's quality assurance program through the 
witnessing of manufacturer's tests, review of the manufacturer's records, and verification of 
the manufacturer's produced data; 

(c) Investigation of alleged field failures upon department request; and 

(d) Procedures for control of the use of the certification mark by: 

(i) Keeping records of the release and use of certification marks; 

(ii) Removal of marks from noncomplying products; 

(ill) Return or destruction of unused marks when the authority to use the marks is 

terminated; and 
(iv) Legal action. 

(43) The frequency of laboratory follow-up inspections must not be less than four times per year during 
production, unless adequate data is provided to the department to justify less frequent inspections. If 
there is no production during the year, at least one follow-up inspection is to be completed. The 
frequency of follow-up inspections must be sufficient to provide a reasonable check on the method(s) 
the manufacturer exercises to assure that the product bearing the certification mark complies with the 
applicable standards. 

Field evaluation requirements. 

(44) The field evaluation laboratory may perform evaluations on any products or product categories 
previously approved by the department. NRTL recognition may be accepted by the department as a 
basis for approval to perform field evaluations. Since OS HA does not review or recognize 
laboratories for field evaluation purposes, laboratories seeking accreditation from the department for 
field evaluation may be required to provide additional justification of capability such as, but not limited 
to: Recordkeeping, employee standards and proficiency, equipment requirements, and other 
requirements described in this chapter. 

(45) The laboratory must request permission from the department in writing two working days prior to 
conducting any field evaluation of an electrical product to be installed in any jurisdiction in the state. 
Requests must be made using a department-supplied form. 

Page 136 of 138 

WAC 296-46B-999 Electrical testing laboratory requirements. General. 



(46) The field evaluation process must be completed within six months following department approval. If 
the field evaluation is not completed within six months following department approval, the laboratory 
must request permission from the department in writing to continue the evaluation process. If this 
secondary permission is granted to the laboratory, the department may require the equipment to be 
placed out-of-service except as necessary to complete the field evaluation process. 

(47) The scope of a field evaluation will depend on the status of the item to be evaluated as follows: 

(a) A new piece of equipment must have a complete evaluation of all components and the 

assembly as provided by the manufacturer. For example: An industrial machine with a 
control panel, remote motors, sensors, controls, and other utilization equipment; and 

(b) A product that has been modified internally or by an addition need have only those portions 

evaluated that were affected by the modification. For example: A switchboard with multiple 
sections that has a section added would only need the new section, the one section 
immediately adjacent, and any control modifications evaluated. 

(48) Each unit that receives a field evaluation mark applied by the field evaluation laboratory must have 
sufficient inspections and/or testing completed to ensure it is in essential conformance with the 
applicable product standard(s). 

(49) The laboratory may perform the preliminary evaluation in the manufacturer's facility. Final evaluation 
and acceptance of the product must be made on-site at the location of final installation, unless waived 
by the department. 

Field evaluation mark. 

(50) Only laboratory personnel may apply the field evaluation mark after final acceptance of the product. 
The field evaluation label must be applied on-site at the location of the final installation, unless waived by 
the department. 

(51) The field evaluation laboratory must have a system of controls and records for all field evaluation 
marks it applies. The records must include labels removed or otherwise voided. 

(52) A field evaluated product may be relocated or fed from a different power source if not prohibited by 
the field evaluation mark or the field evaluation report. 

(53) The field evaluation mark must: 

(a) Not be readily transferable from one product to another; 

(b) Be directly applied by the laboratory personnel to each unit of production in the form of labels 
or markings suitable for the environment and use of the product; 

(c) Include the name or other appropriate identification of the certification laboratory; and 

(d) Include a unique evaluation laboratory reference number. 

(54) The field evaluation laboratory must have a system of controls and records for all field evaluation 
marks it applies. The records must include labels removed or otherwise voided. See subsection (26) 
of this section. 



Page 137 of 138 

WAC 296-46B-999 Electrical testing laboratory requirements. General. 



Page 138 of 138 

WAC 296-46B-999 Electrical testing laboratory requirements. General. 



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Copyright © 2004 

National Fire Protection Association, Inc. 

One Battery march Park 

Quincy, Massachusetts 02169-7471 



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Notice and Disclaimer of Liability Concerning the Use of NFPA Documents 

NFPA codes, standards, recommended practices, and guides, of which the document contained herein is one, are de- 
veloped through a consensus standards development process approved by the American National Standards Institute. 
This process brings together volunteers representing varied viewpoints and interests to achieve consensus on fire and 
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ment of consensus, it does not independently test, evaluate, or verify the accuracy of any information or the soundness 
of any judgments contained in its codes and standards. 

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Important Notices and Disclaimers continue on inside back cover. 



09 08 07 06 05 04 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 



• 



Copyright © 2004, National Fire Protection Association, All Rights Reserved 

NFPA 70 
National Electrical Code® 

2005 Edition 

This edition of NFPA 70, National Electrical Code, was prepared by the National Electrical Code 
Committee and acted on by NFPA at its May Association Technical Meeting held May 23-26, 
2004, in Salt Lake City, UT. It was issued by the Standards Council on July 16, 2004, with an 
effective date of August 5, 2004, and supersedes all previous editions. 

A tentative interim amendment (TIA) to Section 604.6(A)(1) was issued on July 15, 2004. 
For further information on tentative interim amendments see Section 5 of the NFPA Regulations 
Governing Committee Projects available at: 

http://www.nfpa.org/Codes/NFPADirectory.asp#Regs&Procedures 

This edition of NFPA 70 was approved as an American National Standard on August 5, 2004. 

History and Development of the National Electrical Code® 

The National Fire Protection Association has acted as sponsor of the National Electrical 
Code since 1911. The original Code document was developed in 1897 as a result of the united 
efforts of various insurance, electrical, architectural, and allied interests. 

In accordance with the provisions of the NFPA Regulations Governing Committee Projects, 
a National Electrical Code Committee Report on Proposals containing proposed amendments to 
the 2002 National Electrical Code was pubUshed by NFPA in July 2003. This report recorded the 
actions of the various Code-Making Panels and the Correlating Committee of the National 
Electrical Code Committee on each proposal that had been made to revise the 2002 Code. The 
report was circulated to all members of the National Electrical Code Committee and was made 
available to other interested NFPA members and to the public for review and comment. Follow- 
ing the close of the public comment period, the Code-Making Panels met, acted on each com- 
ment, and reported their action to the Correlating Committee. NFPA published the National 
Electrical Code Committee Report on Comments in April 2004, which recorded the actions of the 
Code-Making Panels and the Correlating Committee on each public comment to the National 
Electrical Code Committee Report on Proposals. The National Electrical Code Committee Report 
on Proposals and the National Electrical Code Committee Report on Comments were presented 
to the 2004 May Association Technical Meeting for adoption. 

NFPA has an Electrical Section that provides particular opportunity for NFPA members 
interested in electrical safety to become better informed and to contribute to the development of 
the National Electrical Code and other NFPA electrical standards. Each of the Code-Making 
Panels and the Chairman of the Correlating Committee reported their recommendations to meet- 
ings of the Electrical Section at the 2004 NFPA World Safety Conference and Exposition. The 
Electrical Section thus had opportunity to discuss and review the report of the National Electrical 
Code Committee prior to the adoption of this edition of the Code by the Association at its 2004 
May Technical Session. 

This 2005 edition supersedes all other previous editions, supplements, and printings dated 
1897, 1899, 1901, 1903, 1904, 1905, 1907, 1909, 1911, 1913, 1915, 1918, 1920, 1923, 1925, 
1926, 1928, 1930, 1931, 1933, 1935, 1937, 1940, 1942, 1943, 1947, 1949, 1951, 1953, 1954, 1955, 1956, 
1957, 1958, 1959, 1962, 1965, 1968, 1971, 1975, 1978, 1981, 1984, 1987, 1990, 1993, 1996, 1999, and 
2002. The 2005 edition marks the 50th edition of the National Electrical Code. 

Changes other than editorial are indicated by a vertical rule beside the paragraph, table, or 
figure in which the change occurred. These rules are included as an aid to the user in identifying 
changes from the previous edition. Where one or more complete paragraphs have been deleted, 
the deletion is indicated by a bullet (•) between the paragraphs that remain. 

This Code is purely advisory as far as NFPA is concerned. It is made available for a wide 
variety of both public and private uses in the interest of life and property protection. These 
include both use in law and for regulatory purposes, and use in private self-regulation and 
standardization activities as insurance underwriting, building and facilities construction and man- 
agement, and product testing and certification. 



2005 Edition NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE 70- 



CONTENTS 



Contents 



ARTICLE 

90 Introduction 70- 23 

Chapter 1 General 

100 Definitions 70- 26 

I. General 70- 26 

II. Over 600 Volts, Nominal 70- 32 

110 Requirements for Electrical Installations 70- 33 

I. General 70- 33 

II. 600 Volts, Nominal, or Less 70- 36 

III. Over 600 Volts, Nominal 70- 38 

IV. Tunnel Installations over 600 Volts, 

Nominal 70- 40 

V. Manholes and Other Electric 
Enclosures Intended for Personnel 
Entry, All Voltages 70- 41 

Chapter 2 Wiring and Protection 

200 Use and Identification of Grounded 

Conductors 70- 43 

210 Branch Circuits 70-45 

I. General Provisions 70- 45 

II. Branch-Circuit Ratings 70-49 

III. Required Outlets 70- 51 

215 Feeders 70- 55 

220 Branch-Circuit, Feeder, and Service 

Calculations 70- 56 

I. General 70- 56 

II. Branch Circuit Load Calculations 70- 57 

III. Feeder and Service Load Calculations 70- 59 

IV. Optional Feeder and Service Load 

Calculations 70- 61 

V. Farm Load Calculation 70- 65 

225 Outside Branch Circuits and Feeders 70- 66 

L General 70- 66 

II. More Than One Building or Other 

Structure 70- 69 

III. Over 600 Volts 70- 71 

230 Services 70- 72 

L General 70- 72 

II. Overhead Service-Drop Conductors 70- 73 

III. Underground Service-Lateral 

Conductors 70- 74 

IV. Service-Entrance Conductors 70- 74 

V. Service Equipment — General 70- 77 

VI. Service Equipment — Disconnecting 

Means 70- 77 

VII. Service Equipment — Overcurrent 

Protection 70- 79 

Vm. Services Exceeding 600 Volts, Nominal ... 70- 80 



ARTICLE 

240 Overcurrent Protection 70- 81 

L General 70- 81 

II. Location 70- 84 

III. Enclosures 70- 87 

IV. Disconnecting and Guarding 70- 88 

V. Plug Fuses, Fuseholders, and Adapters .... 70- 88 

VI. Cartridge Fuses and Fuseholders 70- 89 

VIL Circuit Breakers 70- 89 

VIII. Supervised Industrial Installations 70- 90 

IX. Overcurrent Protection Over 600 Volts, 

Nominal 70- 91 

250 Grounding and Bonding 70-92 

I. General 70- 92 

II. System Grounding 70- 95 

III. Grounding Electrode System and 

Grounding Electrode Conductor 70-101 

IV. Enclosure, Raceway, and Service Cable 
Grounding 70-105 

V. Bonding 70-105 

VI. Equipment Grounding and Equipment 

Grounding Conductors 70-108 

VII. Methods of Equipment Grounding 70-113 

VIII. Direct-Current Systems 70-115 

IX. Instruments, Meters, and Relays 70-116 

X. Grounding of Systems and Circuits of 

1 kV and Over (High Voltage) 70-117 

280 Surge Arresters 70-119 

I. General 70-119 

II. Installation 70-119 

III. Connecting Surge Arresters 70-1 19 

285 Transient Voltage Surge Suppressors: 

TVSSs 70-120 

I. General 70-120 

II. Installation 70-120 

III. Connecting Transient Voltage Surge 

Suppressors 70-1 2 1 

Chapter 3 Wiring Methods and Materials 

300 Wiring Methods 70-122 

I. General Requirements 70-122 

II. Requirements for Over 600 Volts, 

Nominal 70-131 

3 10 Conductors for General Wiring 70-133 

312 Cabinets, Cutout Boxes, and Meter Socket 

Enclosures 70-158 

L Installation 70-158 

II. Construction Specifications 70-160 

314 Outlet, Device, Pull, and Junction Boxes; 
Conduit Bodies; Fittings; and Handhole 
Enclosures 70-161 

I. Scope and General 70-161 

II. Installation 70-162 



• 



70-2 



NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE 2005 Edition 



CONTENTS 






ARTICLE 

III. Construction Specifications 70-167 

IV. Pull and Junction Boxes for Use on 

Systems Over 600 Volts, Nominal 70-168 

320 Armored Cable: Type AC 70-169 

I. General 70-169 

II. Installation 70-169 

III. Construction Specifications 70-170 

322 Flat Cable Assemblies: Type FC 70-170 

I. General 70-170 

II. Installation 70-170 

III. Construction 70-171 

324 Flat Conductor Cable: Type FCC 70-171 

I. General 70-171 

II. Installation 70-172 

III. Construction 70-173 

326 Integrated Gas Spacer Cable: Type IGS 70-174 

I. General 70-174 

II. Installation 70-174 

III. Construction Specifications 70-174 

328 Medium Voltage Cable: Type MV 70-175 

I. General 70-175 

II. Installation 70-175 

III. Construction Specifications 70-175 

330 Metal-Clad Cable: Type MC 70-175 

I. General 70-175 

II. Installation 70-175 

III. Construction Specifications 70-177 

332 Mineral-Insulated, Metal-Sheathed Cable: 

Type MI 70-177 

I. General 70-177 

11. Installation 70-177 

III. Construction Specifications 70-178 

334 Nonmetallic-Sheathed Cable: Types NM, 

NMC, andNMS 70-178 

I. General 70-178 

II. Installation 70-179 

III. Construction Specifications 70—180 

336 Power and Control Tray Cable: Type TC ....70-181 

I. General 70-181 

II. Installation 70-181 

III. Construction Specifications 70-182 

338 Service-Entrance Cable: Types SE and 

USE 70-182 

I. General 70-182 

II. Installation 70-182 

III. Construction 70-183 

340 Underground Feeder and Branch-Circuit 

Cable: Type UF 70-183 

I. General 70-183 

II. Installation 70-183 



ARTICLE 

III. Construction Specifications 70-184 

342 Intermediate Metal Conduit: Type IMC 70-184 

I. General 70-184 

II. Installation 70-184 

III. Construction Specifications 70-185 

344 Rigid Metal Conduit: Type RMC 70-185 

I. General 70-185 

II. Installation 70-185 

III. Construction Specifications 70-187 

348 Flexible Metal Conduit: Type FMC 70-1 87 

I. General 70-187 

II. Installation 70-187 

350 Liquidtight Flexible Metal Conduit: Type 

LFMC 70-189 

I. General 70-189 

II. Installation 70-189 

III. Construction Specifications 70-190 

352 Rigid Nonmetallic Conduit: Type RNC 70-190 

I. General 70-190 

II. Installation 70-190 

III. Construction Specifications 70-193 

353 High Density Polyethylene Conduit: Type 

HDPE Conduit 70-193 

I. General 70-193 

II. Installation 70-193 

III. Construction Specifications 70-194 

354 Nonmetallic Underground Conduit with 
Conductors: Type NUCC 70-194 

I. General 70-194 

11. Installation 70-194 

III. Construction Specifications 70-195 

356 Liquidtight Flexible Nonmetallic Conduit: 

TypeLFNC 70-195 

I. General 70-195 

II. Installation 70-196 

III. Construction Specifications 70-197 

358 Electrical Metallic Tubing: Type EMT 70-197 

I. General 70-197 

II. Installation 70-197 

III. Construction Specifications 70-198 

360 Flexible Metallic Tubing: Type FMT 70-198 

I. General 70-198 

II. Installation 70-199 

III. Construction Specifications 70-199 

362 Electrical Nonmetallic Tubing: Type ENT ...70-200 

I. General 70-200 

II. Installation 70-200 

III. Construction Specifications 70-201 



2005 Edition 



NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE 



70-3 



CONTENTS 



ARTICLE 

366 Auxiliary Gutters 70-202 

I. General 70-202 

II. Installation 70-202 

III. Construction Specifications 70-203 

368 Busways 70-204 

I. General Requirements 70-204 

II. Installation 70-204 

III. Construction 70-205 

IV. Requirements for Over 600 Volts, 

Nominal 70-205 

370 Cablebus 70-206 

372 Cellular Concrete Floor Raceways 70-207 

374 Cellular Metal Floor Raceways 70-208 

I. Installation 70-209 

II. Construction Specifications 70-209 

376 Metal Wireways 70-209 

I. General 70-209 

II. Installation 70-209 

III. Construction Specifications 70-210 

378 Nonmetallic Wireways 70-210 

I. General 70-210 

II. Installation 70-211 

III. Construction Specifications 70-212 

380 Multioutlet Assembly 70-212 

382 Nonmetallic Extensions 70-212 

I. General 70-212 

II. Installation 70-212 

384 Strut-Type Channel Raceway 70-2 1 3 

I. Genera] 70-213 

n. Installation 70-213 

III. Construction Specifications 70-214 

386 Surface Metal Raceways 70-214 

I. General 70-214 

II. Installation 70-214 

III. Construction Specifications 70-215 

388 Surface Nonmetallic Raceways 70-215 

I. General 70-215 

II. Installation 70-215 

III. Construction Specifications 70-216 

390 Underfloor Raceways 70-2 16 

392 Cable Trays 70-217 

394 Concealed Knob-and-Tube Wiring 70-224 

I. General 70-224 

II. Installation 70-224 

III. Construction Specifications 70-225 

396 Messenger Supported Wiring 70-225 

I. General 70-225 

II. Installation 70-225 



ARTICLE 

398 Open Wiring on Insulators 70-226 

I. General 70-226 

II. Installation 70-226 

III. Construction Specifications 70-227 

Chapter 4 Equipment for General Use 

400 Flexible Cords and Cables 70-228 

I. General 70-228 

II. Construction Specifications 70-238 

III. Portable Cables Over 600 Volts, 

Nominal 70-238 

402 Fixture Wires 70-239 

404 Switches 70-242 

I. Installation 70-242 

II. Construction Specifications 70-245 

406 Receptacles, Cord Connectors, and 

Attachment Plugs (Caps) 70-245 

408 Switchboards and Panelboards 70-248 

I. General 70-248 

II. Switchboards 70-249 

III. Panelboards 70-250 

IV. Construction Specifications 70-251 

409 Industrial Control Panels 70-252 

I. General 70-252 

II. Installation 70-252 

III. Construction Specifications 70-253 

410 Luminaires (Lighting Fixtures), 

Lampholders, and Lamps 70-254 

I. General 70-254 

II. Luminaire (Fixture) Locations 70—254 

III. Provisions at Luminaire (Fixture) 

Outlet Boxes, Canopies, and Pans 70-255 

IV. Luminaire (Fixture) Supports 70-256 

V. Grounding 70-257 

VI. Wiring of Luminaires (Fixtures) 70-257 

VII. Construction of Luminaires (Fixtures) 70-259 

VIII. Installation of Lampholders 70-260 

IX. Construction of Lampholders 70-260 

X. Lamps and Auxiliary Equipment 70—260 

XI. Special Provisions for Flush and 

Recessed Luminaires (Fixtures) 70-260 

XII. Construction of Flush and Recessed 

Luminaires (Fixtures) 70-261 

XIII. Special Provisions for 
Electric-Discharge Lighting Systems of 

1000 Volts or Less 70-261 

XIV. Special Provisions for 
Electric-Discharge Lighting Systems of 

More Than 1000 Volts 70-263 

XV. Lighting Track 70-263 

XVI. Decorative Lighting and Similar 

Accessories 70-264 

411 Lighting Systems Operating at 30 Volts or 

Less 70-264 






• 



70^ 



NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE 2005 Edition 



CONTENTS 



• 



• 



ARTICLE 

422 Appliances 70-265 

I. General 70-265 

II. Installation 70-265 

III. Disconnecting Means 70-267 

IV. Construction 70-268 

V. Marking 70-269 

424 Fixed Electric Space-Heating Equipment 70-270 

I. General 70-270 

II. Installation 70-270 

III. Control and Protection of Fixed 

Electric Space-Heating Equipment 70-270 

IV. Marking of Heating Equipment 70-272 

V. Electric Space-Heating Cables 70-272 

VI. Duct Heaters 70-274 

VII. Resistance-Type Boilers 70-274 

VIII. Electrode-Type Boilers 70-275 

IX. Electric Radiant Heating Panels and 

Heating Panel Sets 70-276 

426 Fixed Outdoor Electric Deicing and 
Snow-Melting Equipment 70-278 

I. General 70-278 

II. Installation 70-279 

III. Resistance Heating Elements 70-279 

IV. Impedance Heating 70-280 

V. Skin-Effect Heating 70-280 

VI. Control and Protection 70-280 

427 Fixed Electric Heating Equipment for 

Pipelines and Vessels 70-28 1 

I. General 70-281 

II. Installation 70-282 

III. Resistance Heating Elements 70-282 

IV. Impedance Heating 70-283 

V. Induction Heating 70-283 

VI. Skin-Effect Heating 70-283 

VII. Control and Protection 70-283 

430 Motors, Motor Circuits, and Controllers 70-284 

I. General 70-284 

II. Motor Circuit Conductors 70-290 

III. Motor and Branch-Circuit Overload 

Protection 70-292 

IV. Motor Branch-Circuit Short-Circuit and ' 
Ground-Fault Protection 70-295 

V. Motor Feeder Short-Circuit and 

Ground-Fault Protection 70-298 

VI. Motor Control Circuits 70-299 

VII. Motor Controllers 70-300 

VIII. Motor Control Centers 70-302 

IX. Disconnecting Means 70-304 

X. Adjustable-Speed Drive Systems 70-307 

XI. Over 600 Volts, Nominal 70-308 

XII. Protection of Live Parts — All 

Voltages 70-308 

XIII. Grounding — All Voltages 70-309 

XIV. Tables 70-310 

440 Air-Conditioning and Refrigerating 

Equipment 70-313 

I. General 70-313 



ARTICLE 

II. Disconnecting Means 70-3 1 5 

III. Branch-Circuit Short-Circuit and 

Ground-Fault Protection 70-3 16 

IV. Branch-Circuit Conductors 70-3 17 

V. Controllers for Motor-Compressors 70-3 1 7 

VI. Motor-Compressor and Branch-Circuit 

Overload Protection 70-318 

VII. Provisions for Room Air Conditioners 70-319 

445 Generators 70-319 

450 Transformers and Transformer Vaults 

(Including Secondary Ties) 70-321 

I. General Provisions 70-321 

II. Specific Provisions Applicable to 

Different Types of Transformers 70-325 

III. Transformer Vaults 70-327 

455 Phase Converters 70-328 

I. General 70-328 

II. Specific Provisions Apphcable to 

Different Types of Phase Converters 70-329 

460 Capacitors 70-329 

I. 600 Volts, Nominal, and Under 70-330 

II. Over 600 Volts, Nominal 70-330 

470 Resistors and Reactors 70-33 1 

I. 600 Volts, Nominal, and Under 70-33 1 

II. Over 600 Volts, Nominal 70-332 

480 Storage Batteries 70-332 

490 Equipment, Over 600 Volts, Nominal 70-333 

I. General 70-333 

II. Equipment — Specific Provisions 70-333 

III. Equipment — Metal-Enclosed Power 
Switchgear and Industrial Control 

Assemblies 70-336 

IV. Mobile and Portable Equipment 70-338 

V. Electrode-Type Boilers 70-338 

Chapter 5 Special Occupancies 

500 Hazardous (Classified) Locations, Classes 

L II, and III, Divisions 1 and 2 70-340 

501 Class I Locations 70-348 

L General 70-348 

IL Wiring 70-348 

m. Equipment 70-354 

502 Class II Locations 70-358 

L Genera] 70-358 

II. Wiring 70-358 

III. Equipment 70-360 

503 Class in Locations 70-364 

I. General 70-364 

II. Wiring 70-364 

III. Equipment 70-365 

504 Intrinsically Safe Systems 70-367 



2005 Edition NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE 



70-5 



CONTENTS 



ARTICLE 

505 Class I, Zone 0, 1 , and 2 Locations 70-369 

506 Zone 20, 21, and 22 Locations for 

Combustible Dusts, Fibers, and Flyings 70-383 

510 Hazardous (Classified) Locations — 

Specific 70-388 

511 Commercial Garages, Repair and Storage .... 70-388 

513 Aircraft Hangars 70-391 

514 Motor Fuel Dispensing Facilities 70-393 

515 Bulk Storage Plants 70-397 

516 Spray Application, Dipping, and Coating 

Processes 70-402 

517 Health Care Facilities 70-408 

L General 70^08 

II. Wiring and Protection 70-410 

III. Essential Electrical System 70-413 

IV. Inhalation Anesthetizing Locations 70^20 

V. X-Ray Installations 70-422 

VI. Communications, Signaling Systems, 
Data Systems, Fire Alarm Systems, and 

Systems Less Than 120 Volts, Nominal .... 70-424 

VII. Isolated Power Systems 70-424 

518 Assembly Occupancies 70-425 

520 Theaters, Audience Areas of Motion 
Picture and Television Studios, 

Performance Areas, and Similar Locations . . . 70^27 

I. General 70-427 

II. Fixed Stage Switchboards 7Q-428 

III. Fixed Stage Equipment Other Than 
Switchboards 70-429 

IV. Portable Switchboards on Stage 70-430 

V. Portable Stage Equipment Other Than 

Switchboards 70-433 

VI. Dressing Rooms 70^34 

VIL Grounding 70-435 

525 Carnivals, Circuses, Fairs, and Similar 

Events 70-435 

I. General Requirements 70—435 

II. Power Sources 70^35 

m. Wiring Methods 70-435 

IV Grounding and Bonding 70^36 

530 Motion Picture and Television Studios 

and Similar Locations 70^37 

L General 70-437 

IL Stage or Set 70-437 

IIL Dressing Rooms 70^40 

IV. Viewing, Cutting, and Patching Tables .... 70-440 

V. Cellulose Nitrate Film Storage Vaults 70-440 

VI. Substations 70-440 

540 Motion Picture Projection Rooms 70-440 

L General 70-440 

II. Equipment and Projectors of the 

Professional Type 70^41 



ARTICLE 

III. Nonprofessional Projectors 10-^42 

IV. Audio Signal Processing, Amplification, 

and Reproduction Equipment 10—442 

545 Manufactured Buildings 70-442 

547 Agricultural Buildings 70-443 

550 Mobile Homes, Manufactured Homes, and 

Mobile Home Parks 70^46 

I. General 70^46 

II. Mobile and Manufactured Homes 70^47 

III. Services and Feeders 70-454 

551 Recreational Vehicles and Recreational 

Vehicle Parks 70-455 

L General 70^55 

II. Combination Electrical Systems 70-456 

m. Other Power Sources 70-457 

IV. Nominal 120- Volt or 120/240- Volt 

Systems 70^58 

V. Factory Tests 70^64 

VI. Recreational Vehicle Parks 70-465 

552 Park Trailers 70-467 

L General 70-467 

II. Low-Voltage Systems 70^67 

III. Combination Electrical Systems 70^69 

IV. Nominal 120- Volt or 120/240- Volt 

Systems 70^69 

V. Factory Tests 10-416 

553 Floating Buildings 70^76 

L General 70^76 

II. Services and Feeders 70-476 

III. Grounding 70-477 

555 Marinas and Boatyards 70^77 

590 Temporary Installations 70^80 

Chapter 6 Special Equipment 

600 Electric Signs and Outline Lighting 70-483 

L General 70-483 

II. Field-Installed Skeleton Tubing 70-486 

604 Manufactured Wiring Systems 70-487 

605 Office Furnishings (Consisting of Lighting 
Accessories and Wired Partitions) 70-488 

610 Cranes and Hoists 70-489 

L General 70^89 

n. Wiring 70^89 

m. Contact Conductors 70^92 

IV. Disconnecting Means 10—492 

V. Overcurrent Protection 70^93 

VL Control 70^94 

VII. Grounding 70-494 



• 



70-6 



NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE 2005 Edition 



CONTENTS 



• 



• 



• 



ARTICLE 

620 Elevators, Dumbwaiters, Escalators, 
Moving Walks, Wheelchair Lifts, and 

Stairway Chair Lifts 70-494 

I. General 70-494 

n. Conductors 70-496 

m. Wiring 70^97 

IV. Installation of Conductors 70-500 

V. Traveling Cables 70-500 

VI. Disconnecting Means and Control 70-501 

VII. Overcurrent Protection 70-502 

VIII. Machine Rooms, Control Rooms, 

Machinery Spaces, and Control Spaces .... 70-503 

IX. Grounding 70-503 

X. Emergency and Standby Power 

Systems 70-503 

625 Electric Vehicle Charging System 70-504 

I. General 70-504 

II. Wiring Methods 70-504 

III. Equipment Construction 70-505 

IV. Control and Protection 70-505 

V. Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment 

Locations 70-506 

630 Electric Welders 70-507 

L General 70-507 

n. Arc Welders 70-508 

IIL Resistance Welders 70-509 

IV. Welding Cable 70-509 

640 Audio Signal Processing, Amplification, 

and Reproduction Equipment 70-5 10 

L General 70-510 

II. Permanent Audio System Installations 70-513 

III. Portable and Temporary Audio System 

Installations 70-514 

645 Information Technology Equipment 70-5 1 5 

647 Sensitive Electronic Equipment 70-5 1 6 

650 Pipe Organs 70-518 

660 X-Ray Equipment 70-518 

I. General 70-518 

IL Control 70-519 

III. Transformers and Capacitors 70-520 

IV. Guarding and Grounding 70-520 

665 Induction and Dielectric Heating 

Equipment 70-520 

L General 70-520 

II. Guarding, Grounding, and Labeling 70-521 

668 Electrolytic Cells 70-522 

669 Electroplating 70-524 

670 Industrial Machinery 70-525 

675 Electrically Driven or Controlled 

Irrigation Machines 70-526 

I. General 70-526 

II. Center Pivot Irrigation Machines 70-528 



ARTICLE 

680 Swimming Pools, Fountains, and Similar 

Installations 70-528 

L General 70-528 

II. Permanently Installed Pools 70-531 

in. Storable Pools 70-538 

IV Spas and Hot Tubs 70-538 

V. Fountains 70-540 

VI. Pools and Tubs for Therapeutic Use 70-542 

VII. Hydromassage Bathtubs 70-542 

682 Natural and Artificially Made Bodies of 

Water 70-543 

I. General 70-543 

n. Installation 70-543 

in. Grounding and Bonding 70-544 

685 Integrated Electrical Systems 70-544 

I. General 70-544 

II. Orderly Shutdown 70-545 

690 Solar Photovoltaic Systems 70-545 

I. Genera] 70-545 

II. Circuit Requirements 70-547 

III. Disconnecting Means 70-549 

IV Wiring Methods 70-551 

V. Grounding 70-552 

VL Marking 70-553 

VII. Connection to Other Sources 70-554 

Vm. Storage Batteries 70-554 

IX. Systems Over 600 Volts 70-556 

692 Fuel Cell Systems 70-556 

L General 70-556 

II. Circuit Requirements 70-556 

III. Disconnecting Means 70-557 

IV. Wiring Methods 70-557 

V. Grounding 70-557 

VI. Marking 70-558 

VII. Connection to Other Circuits 70-558 

VIII. Outputs Over 600 Volts 70-559 

695 Fire Pumps 70-559 

Chapter 7 Special Conditions 

700 Emergency Systems 70-563 

I. General 70-563 

II. Circuit Wiring 70-564 

III. Sources of Power 70-565 

IV. Emergency System Circuits for 

Lighting and Power 70-566 

V. Control — Emergency Lighting 

Circuits 70-567 

VI. Overcurrent Protection 70-567 

701 Legally Required Standby Systems 70-567 

I. General 70-567 

II. Circuit Wiring 70-568 

m. Sources of Power 70-569 

IV. Overcurrent Protection 70-570 



2005 Edition 



NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE 



70-7 



CONTENTS 



ARTICLE 

702 Optional Standby Systems 70-570 

I. General 70-570 

II. Circuit Wiring 70-571 

III. Grounding 70-571 

IV. Sources of Power 70-571 

705 Interconnected Electric Power Production 

Sources 70-57 1 

720 Circuits and Equipment Operating at Less 

Than 50 Volts 70-573 

725 Class 1, Class 2, and Class 3 

Remote-Control, Signaling, and 

Power-Limited Circuits 70-573 

L General 70-573 

IL Class 1 Circuits 70-575 

III. Class 2 and Class 3 Circuits 70-577 

IV. Listing Requirements 70-581 

727 Instrumentation Tray Cable: Type ITC 70-583 

760 Fire Alarm Systems 70-584 

L General 70-584 

II. Non-Power-Limited Fire Alarm 

(NPLFA) Circuits 70-585 

III. Power-Limited Fire Alarm (PLFA) 

Circuits 70-587 

IV. Listing Requirements 70-590 

770 Optical Fiber Cables and Raceways 70-592 

L General 70-592 

II. Protection 70-593 

III. Cables Within Buildings 70-593 

IV. Listing Requirements 70-595 

780 Closed-Loop and Programmed Power 

Distribution 70-596 

Chapter 8 Communications Systems 

800 Communications Circuits 70-597 

I. General 70-597 

II. Wires and Cables Outside and Entering 

Buildings 70-598 

m. Protection 70-599 

IV. Grounding Methods 70-600 

V. Communications Wires and Cables 

Within Buildings 70-601 

VI. Listing Requirements 70-603 

810 Radio, and Television Equipment 70-606 

I. General 70-606 

II. Receiving Equipment — Antenna 

Systems 70-606 

III. Amateur Transmitting and Receiving 

Stations — Antenna Systems 70-608 

IV. Interior Installation — Transmitting 

Stations 70-609 

820 Community Antenna Television and Radio 

Distribution Systems 70-609 

I. General 70-609 



ARTICLE 

II. Cables Outside and Entering Buildings .... 70-610 

III. Protection 70-611 

IV. Grounding Methods 70-611 

V. Cables Within Buildings 70-612 

VI. Listing Requirements 70-614 

830 Network-Powered Broadband 

Communications Systems 70-615 

I. General 70-615 

II. Cables Outside and Entering Buildings .... 70-617 

III. Protection 70-619 

IV. Grounding Methods 70-620 

V. Wiring Methods Within Buildings 70-621 

VI. Listing Requirements 70-623 

TABLES 

Chapter 9 Tables 

1 Percent of Cross Section of Conduit and 

Tubing for Conductors 70-625 

2 Radius of Conduit and Tubing Bends 70-625 

4 Dimensions and Percent Area of Conduit 
and Tubing (Areas of Conduit or Tubing 
for the Combinations of Wires Permitted 

in Table 1, Chapter 9) 70-626 

5 Dimensions of Insulated Conductors and 

Fixture Wires 70-630 

5A Compact Aluminum Building Wire 

Nominal Dimensions and Areas 70-634 

8 Conductor Properties 70-634 

9 Alternating-Current Resistance and 
Reactance for 600- Volt Cables, 3-Phase, 
60 Hz, 75°C (167°F) — Three Single 

Conductors in Conduit 70—636 

11(A) Class 2 and Class 3 Alternating-Current 

Power Source Limitations 70-638 

11(B) Class 2 and Class 3 Direct-Current Power 

Source Limitations 70-638 

12(A) PLFA Alternating-Current Power Source 

Limitations 70-639 

12(B) PLFA Direct-Current Power Source 

Limitations 70-639 

AnnexA 70-640 

Annex B 70-643 

Annexe 70-657 

AnnexD 70-717 

Annex E 70-726 

AnnexF 70-728 

Annex G 70-731 

Index 70-738 



• 



70-8 



NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE 2005 Edition 



NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE COMMITTEE 



NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE COMMITTEE 

These lists represent the membership at the time the Committee was balloted on the final text of this edition. Since 
that time, changes in the membership may have occurred. A key to classifications is found at the back of this 
document. 



Technical Correlating Committee 

James W. Carpenter, Chair 

International Association of Electrical Inspectors, TX [E] 

Rep. International Association of Electrical Inspectors 



• 



Mark W. Earley, Secretary 
NFPA, MA 
(nonvoting) 

Jean A. O'Connor, Recording Secretary 
NFPA, MA 
(nonvoting) 



James E. Brunssen, Telcordia, NJ [UT] 

Rep. Alliance for Telecommunications Industry Solutions 
Michael L Callanan, National Joint Apprentice & Training 
Committee, MD [L] 

Rep. International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers 
William R. Drake, Marinco, CA [M] 
John R. Kovacik, Underwriters Laboratories Incorporated, 
IL [RT] 
James T. Pauley, Square D Company, KY [M] 

Rep. National Electrical Manufacturers Association 
Michael D. Toman, MEGA Power Electrical Services, 
Incorporated, MD [IM] 

Rep. National Electrical Contractors Association 
John W. Troglia, Edison Electric Institute, WI [UT] 

Rep. Electric Light & Power Group/EEI 
Craig M. Wellman, DuPont Engineering, DE [U] 

Rep. American Chemistry Council 

Alternates 
Jeffrey Boksiner, Telcordia Technologies, Incorporated, 
NJ [UT] 

Rep. Alliance for Telecommunications Industry Solutions 

(Alt. to J. E. Brunssen) 
Philip H. Cox, Bigelow, AR [E] 

Rep. International Association of Electrical Inspectors 

(Alt. to J. W. Carpenter) 



James M. Daly, General Cable, NJ [M] 

Rep. National Electrical Manufacturers Association 

(Alt. to J. T. Pauley) 
Stanley J. Folz, Folz Electric, Incorporated, IL [IM] 

Rep. National Electrical Contractors Association 

(Alt. to M. D. Toman) 
Palmer L. Hickman, National Joint Apprentice & Training 
Committee, MD [L] 

Rep. International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers 

(Alt. to M. I. Callanan) 
Neil F. LaBrake, Jr., Niagara Mohawk, a National Grid 
Company, NY [UT] 

Rep. Electric Light & Power Group/EEI 

(Alt. to J. W. Troglia) 
William M. Lewis, Eli Lilly & Company, IN [U] 

Rep. American Chemistry Council 

(Alt. to C. M. Wellman) 
Mark C. Ode, Underwriters Laboratories Incorporated, 
NC [RT] 

(Alt. to J. R. Kovacik) 

Nonvoting 

Richard G. Biermann, Biermann Electric Company, 

Incorporated, lA [IM] 

D. Harold Ware, Libra Electric Company, OK [IM] 



CODE-MAKING PANEL NO. 1 
Articles 90, 100, 110, Annex A, Annex G 



John D. Minick, Chair 

National Electrical Manufacturers Association, TX [M] 

Rep. National Electrical Manufacturers Association 



Michael A. Anthony, University of Michigan, MI [U] 
Rep. The Association of Higher Education Facilities 
Officers 

Louis A. Barrios, Jr., Shell Global Solutions, TX [U] 
Rep. American Chemistry Council 

David A. Dini, Underwriters Laboratories Incorporated, 

IL [RT] 

William T. Fiske, Intertek Testing Services NA, 

Incorporated, NY [RT] 



H. Landis Floyd H, The DuPont Company, DE [U] 

Rep. Institute of Electrical & Electronics Engineers, 

Incorporated 
Palmer L. Hickman, National Joint Apprentice & Training 
Committee, MD [L] 

Rep. International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers 
David L. Hittinger, lEC of Greater Cincinnati, OH [IM] 

Rep. Independent Electrical Contractors, Incorporated 



2005 Edition 



NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE 



70-9 



NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE COMMITTEE 



Randall R. McCarver, Telcordia Technologies, Incorporated, 
NJ [U] 

Rep. Alliance for Telecommunications Industry Solutions 
Lanny G. McMahill, City of Phoenix, AZ [E] 

Rep. International Association of Electrical Inspectors 
H. Brooke Stauffer, National Electrical Contractors 
Association, MD [IM] 

Rep. National Electrical Contractors Association 
John W. Troglia, Edison Electric Institute, WI [UT] 

Rep. Electric Light & Power Group/EEI 

Alternates 

Lawrence S. Ayer, Biz Com Electric, Incorporated, OH [IM] 

Rep. Independent Electrical Contractors, Incorporated 

(Alt. to D. L. Hittinger) 
Kenneth P. Boyce, Underwriters Laboratories Incorporated, 
IL [RT] 

(Ah. to D. A. Dini) 
Ernest J. Gallo, Telcordia Technologies, Incorporated, NJ [U] 

Rep. Alliance for Telecommunications Industry Solutions 

(Alt. to R. R. McCarver) 
Russell J. Helmick, Jr., City of Irvine, CA [E] 

Rep. International Association of Electrical Inspectors 

(Ah. to L. G. McMahill) 



Neil F. LaBrake, Jr., Niagara Mohawk, a National Grid 
Company, NY [UT] 

Rep. Electric Light & Power Group/EEI 

(Alt. to J. W. Troglia) 
Donald H. McCullough, II, Westinghouse Savannah River 
Company, SC [U] 

Rep. Institute of Electrical & Electronics Engineers, 

Incorporated 

(Alt. to H. L. Floyd II) 
Gil Moniz, National Electrical Manufacturers Association, 
MA[M] 

Rep. National Electrical Manufacturers 

Association 

(Alt. to J. D. Minick) 
Rick Munch, Frischhertz Electric Company, LA [L] 

Rep. International Brotherhood of Electrical 

Workers 

(Alt. to P. L. Hickman) 

Nonvoting 

Ark Tsisserev, City of Vancouver, BC, Canada 

Rep. Canadian Standards Association International 



CODE-MAKING PANEL NO. 2 
Articles 210, 215, 220, Annex D, Examples 1 through 6 



Raymond W. Weber, Chair 

State of Wisconsin, WI [E] 

Rep. International Association of Electrical Inspectors 



Richard W. Becker, Engineered Electrical Systems, 
Incorporated, WA [U] 

Rep. Institute of Electrical & Electronics Engineers, 

Incorporated 
Frank Coluccio, New York City Department of Buildings, 
NY[E] 

Matthew D. Dobson, National Association of Home 
Builders, DC [U] 

Rep. National Association of Home Builders 
Thomas L. Harman, University of Houston/Clear Lake, TX 
[SE] 
Donald M. King, IBEW Local Union 313, DE [L] 

Rep. International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers 
Christopher P. O'Neil, National Grid USA Service 
Company, MA 

Rep. Electric Light & Power Group/EEI, MA 
James T. Pauley, Square D Company, KY [M] 

Rep. National Electrical Manufacturers Association 
Susan W. Porter, Underwriters Laboratories Incorporated, 
NY [RT] 
Joseph Patterson Roche, Celanese Acetate, SC [U] 

Rep. American Chemistry Council 
Albert F. Sidhom, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, CA [U] 
Michael D. Toman, MEGA Power Electrical Services, 
Incorporated, MD [IM] 

Rep. National Electrical Contractors Association 
Robert G. Wilkinson, Independent Electrical Contractors of 
Texas Gulf Coast, TX [IM] 

Rep. Independent Electrical Contractors, Incorporated 

Alternates 
Kevin J. Brooks, IBEW Local Union 16, IN [L] 

Rep. International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers 
(Alt. to D. M King) 



Ernest S. Broome, City of Knoxville, TN [E] 

Rep. International Association of Electrical Inspectors 

(Alt. to R. W. Weber) 
James R. Jones, University of Alabama at Birmingham, AL 
[U] 

Rep. Institute of Electrical & Electronics Engineers, 

Incorporated 

(Alt. to R. W. Becker) 
Daniel J. Kissane, Pass & Seymour/Legrand, NY [M] 

Rep. National Electrical Manufacturers Association 

(Alt. to J. T. Pauley) 
Brian J. Nenninger, The Dow Chemical Company, TX [U] 

Rep. American Chemistry Council 

(Alt. to J. P Roche) 
Clifford L. Rediger, Independent Electrical Contractors 
Training Fund, CO [IM] 

Rep. Independent Electrical Contractors, Incorporated 

(Alt. to R. G. Wilkinson) 
Richard V. Wagner, Underwriters Laboratories Incorporated, 
NY [RT] 

(Alt. to S. W. Porter) 
Joseph E. Wiehagen, National Association of Home 
Builders, MD [U] 

Rep. National Association of Home Builders 

(Alt. to M. D. Dobson) 

Nonvoting 

Douglas A. Lee, U.S. Consumer Product Safety 
Commission, MD [C] 

Andrew M. Trotta, U.S. Consumer Product Safety 
Commission, MD [C] 
(Alt. to D. A. Lee) 



70-10 



NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE 2005 Edition 



NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE COMMITTEE 



CODE-MAKING PANEL NO. 3 
Articles 300, 590, 720, 725, 727, 760, Chapter 9, Tables 11(a) and (b), and Tables 12(a) and (b) 



Richard P. Owen, Chair 

City of St. Paul, MN [E] 

Rep. International Association of Electrical Inspectors 



Lawrence S. Ayer, Biz Com Electric, Incorporated, OH [IM] 

Rep. Independent Electrical Contractors, Incorporated 
Paul J, Casparro, Scranton Electricians lATC, PA [L] 

Rep. International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers 
Les Easter, Allied Tube and Conduit, IL [M] 

Rep. National Electrical Manufacturers Association 
Sanford E. Egesdal, Egesdal Associates PLC, MN [M] 

Rep. Automatic Fire Alarm Association, Incorporated 
Thomas J, Guida, Underwriters Laboratories, Inc., NY [RT] 
Dennis B. Horman, PacifiCorp, UT [UT] 

Rep. Electric Light & Power Group/EEI 
Ray R, Keden, ERICO, Incorporated, CA [M] 

Rep. Building Industry Consulting Services International 
Ronald E. Maassen, Lemberg Electric Company, 
Incorporated, WI [IM] 

Rep. National Electrical Contractors Association 
Steven J. Owen, Steven J. Owen, Incorporated, AL [IM] 

Rep. Associated Builders and Contractors, Incorporated 
David A. Pace, Olin Corporation, AL [U] 

Rep. American Chemistry Council 
Melvin K. Sanders, Things Electrical Company, 
Incorporated (TECo., Incorporated), lA [U] 

Rep. Institute of Electrical & Electronics Engineers, 

Incorporated 
John E. Sleights, Travelers Insurance, CT [I] 

Alternates 

Mark E Christian, Chattanooga Electrical JATC, TN [L] 

Rep. International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers 

(Alt. to P I. Casparro) 
Dr. Shane M. Clary, Bay Alarm Company, Incorporated, 
CA[M] 

Rep. Automatic Fire Alarm Association, Incorporated 

(Alt. to S. E. Egesdal) 



Adam D. Corbin, Corbin Electrical Services, Incorporated, 
NJ [IM] 

Rep. Independent Electrical Contractors, Inc. 

(Alt. to L. S. Ayer) 
John C. Hudak, Old Forge, PA [E] 

Rep. International Association of Electrical Inspectors 

(Alt. to R. P Owen) 
Danny Liggett, DuPont Engineering, DE [U] 

Rep. American Chemistry Council 

(Alt. to D. A. Pace) 
Juan C. Menendez, Southern California Edison Company, 
CA [UT] 

Rep. Electric Light & Power Group/EEI 

(Alt. to D. B. Horman) 
T. David Mills, Bechtel Savannah River, Incorporated, 
SC [U] 

Rep. Institute of Electrical & Electronics Engineers, 

Incorporated 

(Alt. to M. K. Sanders) 
Mark C. Ode, Underwriters Laboratories Incorporated, 
NC [RT] 

(Alt. to T. J. Guida) 
Lorena Orbanic, Carlon, Lamson & Sessions, OH [M] 

Rep. Building Industry Consulting Services International 

(Alt. to R. R. Keden) 
Roger S. Passmore, Davis Electrical Constructors, 
Incorporated, SC [IM] 

Rep. Associated Builders and Contractors, Incorporated 

(Alt. to S. J. Owen) 
George A. Straniero, AFC Cable Systems, Incorporated, 
NJ [M] 

Rep. National Electrical Manufacturers Association 

(Alt. to L. Easter) 



CODE-MAKING PANEL NO. 4 
Articles 225, 230 



James M. Naughton, Chair 

IBEW Local Union 103, MA [L] 

Rep. International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers 



Malcolm Allison, Ferraz Shawmut, MA [M] 

C. John Beck, Pacific Gas and Electric Company, 

CA [UT] 

Rep. Electric Light & Power Group/EEI 
Robert J. Deaton, The Dow Chemical Company, TX [U] 

Rep. Institute of Electrical & Electronics Engineers, 

Incorporated 
Howard D. Hughes, Hughes Electric Company 
Incorporated, AR [IM] 

Rep. National Electrical Contractors Association 
William M. Lewis, Eli Lilly & Company, IN [U] 

Rep. American Chemistry Council 
Mark C. Ode, Underwriters Laboratories Incorporated, 
NC [RT] 

James J. Rogers, Towns of Oak Bluffs, Tisbury, West 
Tisbury, MA [E] 

Rep. International Association of Electrical Inspectors 



John W. Young, Siemens Energy & Automation, 
Incorporated, GA [M] 

Rep. National Electrical Manufacturers Association 
Vincent Zinnante, Advantage Electric, Incorporated, 
TX [IM] 

Rep. Independent Electrical Contractors, Incorporated 

Alternates 
Thomas L. Adams, Exelon Corporation, IL [UT] 

Rep. Electric Light & Power Group/EEI 

(Alt. to C. J. Beck) 
Ronald Breschini, Underwriters Laboratories Incorporated, 
CA [RT] 

(Alt. to M. C. Ode) 
Terry D. Cole, Hamer Electric, WA [IM] 

Rep. Independent Electrical Contractors, Incorporated 

(Alt. to V. Zinnante) 



2005 Edition NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE 



70-11 



NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE COMMITTEE 



Mark R. Hilbert, State of New Hampshire, NH [E] 

Rep. International Association of Electrical Inspectors 

(Alt. to J. J. Rogers) 
Philip M. Piqueira, General Electric Company, CT [M] 

Rep. National Electrical Manufacturers Association 

(Alt. to J. W. Young) 
Francis E. Rose, Jr., W. S. Nelson and Company, 
Incorporated, LA [U] 

Rep. Institute of Electrical & Electronics Engineers, 

Incorporated 

(Alt. to R. J. Deaton) 



John Sigmund, PPG Industries, Incorporated, 
LA[U] 

Rep. American Chemistry Council 

(Alt. to W. M. Lewis) 
Mark H. Sumrall, IBEW Local Union 527, TX [L] 

Rep. International Brotherhood of Electrical 

Workers 

(Alt. to J. M. Naughton) 
Kent Walker, Ferraz Shawmut, MA [M] 

.(Alt. to M. Allison) 



CODE-MAKING PANEL NO. 5 
Articles 200, 250, 280, 285 



Ronald J. Toomer, Chair 

Toomer Electrical Company Incorporated, LA [IM] 

Rep. National Electrical Contractors Association 



Jeffrey Boksiner, Telcordia Technologies, Incorporated, 
NJ [UT] 

Rep. AUiance for Telecommunications Industry 

Solutions 
David T. Brender, Copper Development Association, 
Incorporated, NY [M] 

Rep. Copper Development Association, Incorporated 
Martin J. Brett, Jr., Wheatland Tube Company, 
NJ [M] 

Rep. American Iron and Steel Institute 
Elio L. Checca, U.S. Department of Labor, VA [E] 
Paul Dobrowsky, Eastman Kodak Company, NY [U] 

Rep. American Chemistry Council 
Gerald L. Hadeen, Tehachapi, CA [M] 

Rep. The Aluminum Association 
Dan Hammel, IBEW Local Union 704, lA [L] 

Rep. International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers 
Michael J. Johnston, International Association of Electrical 
Inspectors, TX [E] 

Rep. International Association of Electrical Inspectors 
Charles Mello, Electro-Test, Incorporated, OR [IM] 

Rep. InterNational Electrical Testing Association 

Incorporated 
Elliot Rappaport, Electro Technology Consultants, 
Incorporated, PL [U] 

Rep. Institute of Electrical & Electronics Engineers, 

Incorporated 
Ted G. Robertson, Robertson Electric, Incorporated, 
TX [IM] 

Rep. Independent Electrical Contractors, Incorporated 
Walter Skuggevig, Underwriters Laboratories Incorporated, 
NY [RT] 

Gregory J. Steinman, Thomas & Betts Corporation, 
TN [M] 

Rep. National Electrical Manufacturers Association 
Robert G. Stoll, Thomas Associates, Incorporated, 
OH [M] 

Rep. Power Tool Institute, Incorporated 
C. Douglas White, CenterPoint Energy, Incorporated, 
TX [UT] 

Rep. Electric Light & Power Group/EEI 



Alternates 
Martin D. Adams, Adams Electric, Incorporated, CO [IM] 

Rep. National Electrical Contractors Association 

(Alt. to R. J. Toomer) 
David A. Dini, Underwriters Laboratories Incorporated, IL 
[RT] 

(Alt. to W. Skuggevig) 
Timothy Edwards, Alcan Cable Company, GA [M] 

Rep. The Aluminum Association 

(Alt. to G. L. Hadeen) 
Robert Figlia, New York Board of Fire Underwriters, NY 
[E] 

Rep. International Association of Electrical Inspectors 

(Alt. to M. J. Johnston) 
G. Scott Harding, F. B. Harding, Incorporated, MD [IM] 

Rep. Independent Electrical Contractors, Incorporated 

(Alt. to T. G. Robertson) 
William J. Helfrich, U.S. Department of Labor, PA [E] 

(Alt. to E. L. Checca) 
Ronald Lai, FCI Electrical, NH [M] 

Rep. National Electrical Manufacturers Association 

(Alt. to G. J. Steinman) 
Paul J. LeVasseur, Bay City JEATC, MI [L] 

Rep. International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers 

(Alt. to D. Hammel) 
Richard E. Loyd, R & N Associates, AZ [M] 

Rep. American Iron and Steel Institute 

(Alt. to M. J. Brett, Jr.) 
Daleep C. Mohia, DCM Electrical Consulting Services, 
Incorporated, TX [U] 

Rep. Institute of Electrical & Electronics Engineers, 

Incorporated 

(Alt. to E. Rappaport) 
David Peot, Ryobi, SC [M] 

Rep. Power Tool Institute, Incorporated 

(Alt. to R. G. Stoll) 
J. PhiUp Simmons, Simmons Electrical Services, WA [M] 

Rep. Copper Development Association, Incorporated 

(Alt. to D. T. Brender) 
James S. Simpson, Southern Company Services, AL [UT] 

Rep. Electric Light & Power Group/EEI 

(Alt. to C. D.White) 



70-12 



NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE 2005 Edition 



NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE COMMITTEE 



CODE-MAKING PANEL NO. 6 
Articles 310, 400, 402, Chapter 9 Tables 5 through 9, Annex B 



Stephen J. Thorwegen, Jr., Chair 

Fisk Electric Company, TX [IM] 

Rep. National Electrical Contractors Association 



Robert Edwards, Alcan Aluminum Corporation, ON, 
Canada [M] 

Rep. The Aluminum Association 
Samuel B. Friedman, BICC General Cable Corporation, 
RI [M] 

Rep. National Electrical Manufacturers Association 
G. W. "Jerry" Kent, Kent Electric & Plumbing Systems, 
TX [IM] 

Rep. Independent Electrical Contractors, Incorporated 
David G. Komassa, WE Energies, WI [UT] 

Rep. Electric Light & Power Group/EEI 
William F. Laidler, South Shore VoTech/IBEW 223, MA [L] 

Rep. International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers 
Danny P. Liggett, DuPont Engineering, TX [U] 

Rep. American Chemistry Council 
L. Bruce McClung, Electrical Safety Consulting Services, 
Incorporated, WV [U] 

Rep. Institute of Electrical & Electronics Engineers, 

Incorporated 
Gran P. Post, City of Cuyahoga Falls, OH [E] 

Rep. International Association of Electrical Inspectors 
Austin D. Wetherell, Underwriters Laboratories 
Incorporated, NY [RT] 
Joseph S. Zimnoch, The Okonite Company, NJ [M] 

Rep. Copper Development Association, Incorporated 

Alternates 
Peter E. Bowers, SateUite Electric Company, Incorporated, 
MD [IM] 

Rep. Independent Electrical Contractors, Incorporated 

(Alt. to G. W. Kent) 



James M. Daly, General Cable, NJ [M] 

Rep. Copper Development Association, Incorporated 

(Alt. to J. S. Zimnoch) 
Robert L. Huddleston, Jr., Eastman Chemical Company, 
TN [U] 

Rep. American Chemistry Council 

(Alt. to D. P. Liggett) 
Philip T. Laudicini, Underwriters Laboratories Incorporated, 
NY [RT] 

(Alt. to A. D. Wetherell) 
Lowell S. Lisker, American Insulated Wire Corporation, 
RI [M] 

Rep. National Electrical Manufacturers Association 

(Alt. to S. B. Friedman) 
Paul R. Picard, AFC Cable Systems, Incorporated, MA [M] 

Rep. The Aluminum Association 

(Alt. to R. Edwards) 
Harry J. Sassaman, Forest Electric Corporation, NJ [IM] 

Rep. National Electrical Contractors Association 

(Alt. to S. J. Thorwegen, Jr.) 
John Stacey, City of St. Louis, MO [E] 

Rep. International Association of Electrical Inspectors 

(Alt. to O. R Post) 
Donald A. Voltz, Mustang Engineering, Incorporated, 
TX[U] 

Rep. Institute of Electrical & Electronics Engineers, 

Incorporated 

(Alt. to L. B. McClung) 
David R. Wellington, Toledo Electrical JATC, OH [L] 

Rep. International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers 

(Alt. to W. F. Laidler) 



CODE-MAKING PANEL NO. 7 
Articles 320, 322, 324, 326, 328, 330, 332, 334, 336, 338, 340, 382, 394, 396, 398 



Gaylen D. Rogers, Chair 

State of Utah, UT [E] 

Rep. International Association of Electrical Inspectors 



# 



James J. Anastasi, Intertek/ETL Semko, NY [RT] 
Harry C. Brown, IBEW Local Union 606, FL [L] 

Rep. International Brotherhood of Electrical 

Workers 
John J. Cangemi, Underwriters Laboratories Incorporated, 
NY [RT] 
James M. Daly, General Cable, NJ [M] 

Rep. National Electrical Manufacturers Association 
Chris J. Fahrenthold, Encompass Electrical Technologies, 
TX [IM] 

Rep. Independent Electrical Contractors, Incorporated 
Robert L, Gotham, Rose City Electric Company, 
Incorporated, OR [IM] 

Rep. National Electrical Contractors Association 
Herman J. Hall, Austin, TX [M] 

Rep. Society of the Plastics Industry Incorporated 
Ronald G. Nickson, National Multi Housing Council, 
DC [U] 

Rep. National Multi Housing Council 
Bruce W. Nutt, Oncor, TX [UT] 

Rep. Electric Light & Power Group/EEI 



Gregory L. Runyon, Eli Lilly and Company, IN [U] 

Rep. American Chemistry Council 
David E. Schumacher, All County Electric Company, 
IA[IM] 

Rep. Associated Builders and Contractors, Incorporated 
H. R. Stewart, HRS Consulting, TX [U] 

Rep. Institute of Electrical & Electronics Engineers, 

Incorporated 
George A. Straniero, AFC Cable Systems, Incorporated, 
NJ [M] 

Rep. Copper Development Association, Incorporated 
Richard Temblador, Alflex Corporation, CA [M] 

Rep. The Aluminum Association 

Alternates 
William B. Crist, Houston Stafford Electric Company, 
TX [IM] 

Rep. Independent Electrical Contractors, Incorporated 

(Alt. to C. J. Fahrenthold) 
James D. Erwin, Celanese, Limited, TX [U] 

Rep. American Chemistry Council 

(Alt. to G. L. Runyon) 



2005 Edition 



NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE 



70-13 



NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE COMMITTEE 



James K. Hinrichs, State of Washington, WA [E] 

Rep. International Association of Electrical Inspectors 

(Alt. to G. D. Rogers) 
Samuel R. LaDart, City of Memphis, TN [L] 

Rep. International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers 

(Alt. to H. C. Brown) 
C. David Mercier, Southwire Company, GA [M] 

Rep. National Electrical Manufacturers Association 

(Alt. to J. M. Daly) 
Dennis A. Nielsen, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 
CA [U] 

Rep. Institute of Electrical & Electronics Engineers, 

Incorporated 

(Alt. to H. R. Stewart) 
Paul A. Orr, Underwriters Laboratories Incorporated, 
NY [RT] 

(Alt. to J. J. Cangemi) 



John W. "Wes" Ray, Duke Energy Corporation, NC [UT] 

Rep. Electric Light & Power Group/EEI 

(Alt. to B. W. Nutt) 
David K. Smith, Encore Wire Limited, TX [M] 

Rep. Copper Development Association, Incorporated 

(Alt. to G. A. Straniero) 
John Thomas Thompson, ABC Marathon Electrical 
Company, Incorporated, AL [IM] 

Rep. Associated Builders and Contractors, Incorporated 

(Alt. to D. E. Schumacher) 
Larry G. Watkins, Alcan Aluminum Corporation, GA [M] 

Rep. The Aluminum Association 

(Alt. to R. Temblador) 
Thomas H. Wood, Cecil B. Wood Incorporated, IL [IM] 

Rep. National Electrical Contractors Association 

(Alt. to R. L. Gotham) 



CODE-MAKING PANEL NO. 8 

Articles 342, 344, 348, 350, 352, 353, 354, 356, 358, 360, 362, 366, 368, 370, 372, 374, 376, 378, 380, 384, 
386, 388, 390, 392, Chapter 9 Tables 1 through 4, Annex C 



Julian R. Burns, Chair 

Burns Electrical/Quality Power Solutions, Incorporated, NC [IM] 

Rep. Independent Electrical Contractors, Incorporated 



John S. Corry, Corry Electric Incorporated, CA [IM] 

Rep. Associated Builders and Contractors, Incorporated 
Joseph G. Dabe, City of St. Paul, MN [L] 

Rep. International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers 
George R. Dauberger, Thomas & Betts Corporation, TN [M] 

Rep. National Electrical Manufacturers Association 
James C. Dollins, AFC Cable Systems, MA [M] 

Rep. The Aluminum Association 
Ronald E. Duren, PacifiCorp, WA [UT] 

Rep. Electric Light & Power Group/EEI 
M. Shan Griffith, Kelloff, Brown & Root, Incorporated, 
TX [U] 

Rep. Institute of Electrical & Electronics Engineers, 

Incorporated 
David H. Kendall, Carlon, Lamson & Sessions, OH [M] 

Rep. Society of the Plastics Industry Incorporated 
Wayne A. Lilly, City of Harrisonburg, VA [E] 

Rep. International Association of Electrical Inspectors 
Richard E. Loyd, R & N Associates, AZ [M] 

Rep. American Iron and Steel Institute 
Stephen P. Poholski, Newkirk Electric Associates, 
Incorporated, MI [IM] 

Rep. National Electrical Contractors Association 
Dennis L. Rowe, New York Board of Fire Underwriters, 
NY [E] 

Rep. New York Board of Fire Underwriters 
George F. Walbrecht, Underwriters Laboratories 
Incorporated, IL [RT] 

Alternates 

Richard Herman, Underwriters Laboratories Incorporated, 
IL [RT] 

(Alt. to G. E Walbrecht) 
Duane A. Carlson, PRS Consulting Engineers, WA [U] 

Rep. Institute of Electrical & Electronics Engineers, 

Incorporated 

(Alt. to M. S. Griffith) 



Charles W. Forsberg, Shaker Heights, OH [M] 

Rep. Society of the Plastics Industry Incorporated 

(Alt. to D. H. Kendall) 
Dr. Jack A. Gruber, Wheatland Tube Company, PA [M] 

Rep. American Iron and Steel Institute 

(Alt. to R. E. Loyd) 
James M. Imlah, City of Hillsboro, OR [E] 

Rep. International Association of Electrical Inspectors 

(Alt. to W. A. Lilly) 
Alan Manche, Schneider Electric/Square D Company, 
KY[M] 

Rep. National Electrical Manufacturers Association 

(Alt. to G. R. Dauberger) 
Jamie McNamara, City of St. Paul, MN [L] 

Rep. International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers 

(Alt. to J. G. Dabe) 
C. Ernest Reynolds, Hatfield-Reynolds Electric Company, 
AZ [IM] 

Rep. Independent Electrical Contractors, Incorporated 

(Alt. to J. R. Burns) 
Richard Temblador, Alfiex Corporation, CA [M] 

Rep. The Aluminum Association 

(Alt. to J. C. DoUins) 
Ronald J. Toomer, Toomer Electrical Company 
Incorporated, LA [IM] 

Rep. National Electrical Contractors Association 

(Alt. to S. R Poholski) 
James Van Den Heuvel, West Electric Incorporated, 
WI [IM] 

Rep. Associated Builders and Contractors, Incorporated 

(Alt. to J. S. Corry) 
Leslie R. Zielke, South Carolina Electric & Gas Company, 
SC [UT] 

Rep. Electric Light & Power Group/EEI 

(Alt. to R. E. Duren) 



m 



70-14 



NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE 2005 Edition 



NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE COMMITTEE 



CODE-MAKING PANEL NO. 9 
Articles 312, 314, 404, 408, 450, 490 



Timothy M. Croushore, Chair 

Allegheny Power, PA [UT] 

Rep. Electric Light & Power Group/EEI 



Jeflfery Bernson, IBEW Local Union 701, IL [L] 

Rep. International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers 
Hector R. de Vega, Fluor Daniel, TX [U] 

Rep. Associated Builders and Contractors, Incorporated 
Frederic P. Hartwell, Hartwell Electrical Services, MA [SE] 
Robert J. Kaemmerlen, Kaemmerlen Electric Company, 
MO [IM] 

Rep. National Electrical Contractors Association 
Jacob Killinger, Underwriters Laboratories Incorporated, 
IL[RT] 
Thomas J. LeMay, LeMay Electric, Incorporated, GA [IM] 

Rep. Independent Electrical Contractors, Incorporated 
Donald R. Olferdahl, North Dakota State Electrical Board, 
ND [E] 

Rep. International Association of Electrical Inspectors 
Bradford D. Rupp, Allied Moulded Products, Incorporated, 
OH [M] 

Rep. National Electrical Manufacturers Association 
Sukanta Sengupta, EMC Corporation, NJ [U] 

Rep. Institute of Electrical & Electronics Engineers, 

Incorporated 
Ralph H. Young, Eastman Chemical Company, TN [U] 

Rep. American Chemistry Council 

Alternates 

Rodney D. Belisle, NECA-IBEW Training Center, WA [L] 
Rep. International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers 
(Alt. to L. Bernson) 



Joseph M. Bolesina, Pinellas County Building Inspections, 
FL[E] 

Rep. International Association of Electrical Inspectors 

(Alt. to D. R. Offerdahl) 
Julian R. Burns, Burns Electrical/Quahty Power Solutions, 
Incorporated, NC [LM] 

Rep. Independent Electrical Contractors, Incorporated 

(Alt. to T J. LeMay) 
James C. Carroll, Square D Company, TN [M] 

Rep. National Electrical Manufacturers Association 

(Alt. to B. D. Rupp) 
Richard P. Fogarty, Consolidated Edison Company of NY, 
Incorporated, NY [UT] 

Rep. Electric Light & Power Group/EEI 

(Alt. to T. M. Croushore) 
Robert D. Osborne, Underwriters Laboratories Incorporated, 
NC [RT] 

(Alt. to J. Killinger) 
Jerome W. Seigel, West Hartford, CT [U] 

Rep. Institute of Electrical & Electronics Engineers, 

Incorporated 

(Alt. to S. Sengupta) 
Monte Szendre, Wilson Construction Company, OR [IM] 

Rep. National Electrical Contractors Association 

(Alt. to R. J. Kaemmerlen) 



CODE-MAKING PANEL NO. 10 
Articles 240, 780 



James T. Dollard, Jr., Chair 

IBEW Local Union 98, PA [L] 

Rep. International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers 



Charles K. Blizard, American Electrical Testing Company, 
Incorporated, MA [IM] 

Rep. InterNational Electrical Testing Association 

Incorporated 
Madeline Borthick, lEC of Houston, Incorporated, TX [IM] 

Rep. Independent Electrical Contractors, Incorporated 
Scott Cline, McMurtrey Electric, Incorporated, CA [IM] 

Rep. National Electrical Contractors Association 
Dennis M. Darling, Ayres, Lewis, Norris & May, 
Incorporated, MI [U] 

Rep. Institute of Electrical & Electronics Engineers, 

Incorporated 
Charles K. Eldridge, Indianapolis Power & Light Company, 
IN [UT] 

Rep. Electric Light & Power Group/EEI 
Carl J. Fredericks, The Dow Chemical Company, TX [U] 

Rep. American Chemistry Council 
C. W. Kimblin, Cutler-Hammer, Incorporated, PA [M] 

Rep. National Electrical Manufacturers Association 
Arden L. Munson, Hussmann Corporation, MO [M] 

Rep. Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Institute 
George J. Ockuly, Chesterfield, MO [M] 
Gerald W. Williams, County of Ventura, California, CA [E] 

Rep. International Association of Electrical Inspectors 



John A. Zaplatosch, Underwriters Laboratories 
Incorporated, IL [RT] 

Alternates 

Robert R. Gage, Niagara Mohawk, A National Grid 
Company, NY [UT] 

Rep. Electric Light & Power Group/EEI 

(Alt. to C. K. Eldridge) 
George D. Gregory, Square D Company, lA [M] 

Rep. National Electrical Manufacturers Association 

(Alt. to C. W. Kimblin) 
Roderic L. Hageman, PRIT Service, Incorporated, IL [IM] 

Rep. InterNational Electrical Testing Association 

Incorporated 

(Alt. to C. K. Blizard) 
Charles D. Hughes, Westinghouse Savannah River 
Company, SC [U] 

Rep. Institute of Electrical & Electronics Engineers, 

Incorporated 

(Alt. to D. M. Darling) 
Robert J. Kauer, Middle Department Inspection Agency, 
Incorporated, PA [E] 

Rep. International Association of Electrical Inspectors 

(Alt. to G. W. Williams) 



2005 Edition NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE 



70-15 



NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE COMMITTEE 



Richard E. Lofton, II, IBEW Local Union 280, OR [L] 

Rep. International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers 

(Alt. to J. T. DoUard, Jr.) 
Robert W. Mount, Jr., Hussmann Corporation, MO [M] 

Rep. Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Institute 

(Alt. to A. L. Munson) 
Paul J. Notarian, Underwriters Laboratories Incorporated, 
NY [RT] 

(Alt. to J. A. Zaplatosch) 
Vincent J. Saporita, Cooper Bussmann, MO [M] 

(Alt. to G. J. Ockuly) 



James R. Sicard, Shell Oil Company, TX [U] 

Rep. American Chemistry Council 

(Alt. to C. J. Fredericks) 
Steve A. Struble, Freeman's Electric Service, Incorporated, 
SD [IM] 

Rep. Independent Electrical Contractors, Incorporated 

(Alt. to M. Borthick) 

Nonvoting 

Ricli C. Gilmour, Canadian Standards Association (CSA), 
ON, Canada 



CODE-MAKING PANEL NO. 11 
Articles 409, 430, 440, 460, 470, Annex D, Example D8 



Wayne Brinkmeyer, Chair 

Biddle Electric Corporation, TX [IM] 

Rep. National Electrical Contractors Association 



Frederick Bried, Spring, TX [U] 

Rep. American Petroleum Institute 
Rick L. Bunch, Tecumseh Products Company, MI [M] 

Rep. Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Institute 
Joe David Cox, Eastman Chemical Company, TN [U] 

Rep. American Chemistry Council 
Michael A. D'Amico, IBEW Local Union 488, CT [L] 

Rep. International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers 
Thomas J. Garvey, State of Wisconsin, WI [E] 

Rep. International Association of Electrical Inspectors 
Charles A. Goetz, Underwriters Laboratories Incorporated, 
IL [RT] 

Rep. Associated Builders and Contractors, Incorporated 
Paul E. Guidry, Fluor Enterprises, Incorporated, TX [U] 

Rep. Associated Builders & Contractors, Incorporated 
Leo H. Haas, Jr., CenterPoint Energy, Incorporated, 
TX, [UT] 

Rep. Electric Light & Power Group/EEI 
Vincent J. Saporita, Cooper Bussmann, MO [M] 
Lynn F. Saunders, General Motors WFG-Utilities Services, 
MI [U] 

Rep. Institute of Electrical & Electronics Engineers, 

Incorporated 
Lawrence E. Todd, Intertek Testing Services NA, 
Incorporated, OR [RT] 
Ron Widup, Shermco Industries, Incorporated, TX [IM] 

Rep. InterNational Electrical Testing Association 

Incorporated 
James R. Wright, Siemens Energy & Automation, 
Incorporated, IL [M] 

Rep. National Electrical Manufacturers Association 

Alternates 
Elwood J. Dodge, Addison Products Company, FL [M] 
Rep. Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Institute 
(Alt. to R. L. Bunch) 



Ralph M. Esemplare, Consolidated Edison Company of 
New York, NY [UT] 

Rep. Electric Light & Power Group/EEI 

(Alt. to L. H. Haas, Jr.) 
James M. Fahey, IBEW Local Union 103, MA [L] 

Rep. International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers 

(Alt. to M. A. D'Amico) 
Stanley J. Folz, Folz Electric, Incorporated, IL [IM] 

Rep. National Electrical Contractors Association 

(Alt. to W. Brinkmeyer) 
William D. Glover, PPG Industries, Incorporated, WV [U] 

Rep. American Chemistry Council 

(Alt. to J. D. Cox) 
Paul S. Hamer, ChevronTexaco Corporation, CA [U] 

Rep. American Petroleum Institute 

(Alt. to R Bried) 
Robert J. Keough, Emerson Motor Company, MO [M] 

Rep. National Electrical Manufacturers Association 

(Alt. to J. R. Wright) 
Thomas E. Moore, Stark County Building Department, 
OH [E] 

Rep. International Association of Electrical Inspectors 

(Alt. to T J. Garvey) 
George J. Ockuly, Chesterfield, MO [M] 

(Alt. to V. J. Saporita) 
Frederic A. Salzman, Underwriters Laboratories 
Incorporated, IL [RT] 

(Alt. to C. A. Goetz) 
Arthur J. Smith, III, Waldemar S. Nelson & Company, 
Incorporated, LA [U] 

Rep. Institute of Electrical & Electronics Engineers, 

Incorporated 

(Alt. to L. F. Saunders) 

Nonvoting 

Nino Mancini, CSA International, ON, Canada 



70-16 



NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE 2005 Edition 



NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE COMMITTEE 



CODE-MAKING PANEL NO. 12 

Articles 610, 620, 625, 630, 640, 645, 647, 650, 660, 665, 668, 669, 670, 685, 
Annex D, Examples D9 and DIO 



Charles M. Trout, Chair 

Maron Electric Company, PL [IM] 

Rep. National Electrical Contractors Association 



Thomas M. Burke, Underwriters Laboratories Incorporated, 

CA [RT] 

Kent B. Givens, Aluminum Company of America, TX [M] 

Rep. The Aluminum Association 

(VL to 610, 625, 630, 645, 660, 665, 668, 669, 685) 
Ron L. Janikowski, City of Wausau, Wisconsin, WI [E] 

Rep. International Association of Electrical Inspectors 
Robert E. Johnson, ITE Safety, MA [U] 

Rep. Information Technology Industry Council 

(VL to 640, 645, 647, 685) 
Robert A. Jones, Independent Electrical Contractors, 
Incorporated, TX [IM] 

Rep. Independent Electrical Contractors, Incorporated 
Andy Juhasz, Kone Incorporated, IL [M] 

Rep. National Elevator Industry Incorporated 

(VLto610, 620, 630) 
Sam Marcovici, New York City Department of Buildings, 
NY[E] 
John H. Mortimer, Inductotherm Corporation, NJ [M] 

(VL to 665) 
Ralph C. Prichard, Hercules Incorporated, DE [U] 

Rep. Institute of Electrical & Electronics Engineers, 

Incorporated 
Ronald L. Purvis, Georgia Power Company, GA [UT] 

Rep. Electric Light & Power Group/EEI 
David R. Quave, IBEW Local Union 903, MS [L] 

Rep. International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers 
Robert H. Reuss, Morris Material Handling, LLC, WI [M] 

Rep. Crane Manufacturers Association of America 

Incorporated 

(VL to 610) 
Arthur E. Schlueter, Jr., A. E. Schlueter Pipe Organ 
Company, GA [M] 

Rep. American Institute of Organ Builders 

(VL to 640, 650) 
Kenneth P. White, Olin Corporation, TN [U] 

Rep. American Chemistry Council 



James E. Winfrey, Square D Company, NC [M] 
Rep. National Electrical Manufacturers Association 

Alternates 
William E. Anderson, The Procter & Gamble Company, OH 
[U] 

Rep. Institute of Electrical & Electronics Engineers, 

Incorporated 

(Alt. to R. C. Prichard) 
Jeffrey W. Blain, Schindler Elevator Corporation, NJ [M] 

Rep. National Elevator Industry Incorporated 

(Alt. to A. Juhasz ) 

(VL to 610, 620, 630) 
William A. Brunner, IBEW Local Union 714, ND [L] 

Rep. International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers 

(Alt. to D. R. Quave) 
Scott Cline, McMurtrey Electric, Incorporated, CA [IM] 

Rep. National Electrical Contractors Association 

(Alt. to C. M. Trout) 
Robert Michael Forister, City of Sheridan, Wyoming, 
WY[E] 

Rep. International Association of Electrical Inspectors 

(Alt. to R. L. Janikowski) 
Barry G. Karnes, Underwriters Laboratories Incorporated, 
CA [RT] 

(Alt. to T. M. Burke) 
Todd F. Lottmann, Cooper Bussmann, MO [M] 

Rep. National Electrical Manufacturers Association 

(Alt. to J. E. Winfrey) 
Roger D. McDaniel, Georgia Power Company, GA [UT] 

Rep. Electric Light & Power Group/EEI 

(Alt. to R. L. Purvis) 
George S. Tidden, George's Electrical Service Incorporated, 
TX [IM] 

Rep. Independent Electrical Contractors, Incorporated 

(Alt. to R. A. Jones) 
Robert C. Turner, Inductotherm Corporation, NJ [M] 

(Alt. to J. H. Mortimer) 

(VL to 665) 



CODE-IVIAKING PANEL NO. 13 
Articles 445, 455, 480, 690, 692, 695, 700, 701, 702, 705 



Thomas H. Wood, Chair 

Cecil B. Wood Incorporated, IL [IM] 

Rep. National Electrical Contractors Association 



Tarry L. Baker, Broward County Board of Rules & 
Appeals, FL [E] 

Rep. International Association of Electrical Inspectors 
Ward L Bower, Sandia National Laboratories, NM [U] 

Rep. Solar Energy Industries Association 

(VL to 690, 692, 705) 
Douglas L. Elkins, ExxonMobil Chemical Company, 
TX [U] 

Rep. American Chemistry Council 
George W. Flach, George W. Flach Consultant, 
Incorporated, LA [SE] 



Ernest J. Gallo, Telcordia Technologies, Incorporated, 
NJ [U] 

Rep. Alliance for Telecommunications Industry Solutions 

(VL to 445, 480, 690, 692) 
Michael V. Glenn, Longview Fibre Company, WA [U] 

Rep. Institute of Electrical & Electronics Engineers, 

Incorporated 
Banks Hattaway, Hattaway Brothers, Incorporated, AL [IM] 

Rep. Associated Builders and Contractors, Incorporated 
Timothy D. Holleman, AC Corporation, NC [IM] 

Rep. Independent Electrical Contractors, Incorporated 



2005 Edition 



NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE 



70-17 



NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE COMMITTEE 



Barry N. Hornberger, PECO Energy Company, PA [UT] 

Rep. Electric Light & Power Group/EEI 
John R. Kovacik, Underwriters Laboratories Incorporated, 
IL [RT] 
Kenneth Krastins, Plug Power, Incorporated, NY [M] 

Rep. U.S. Fuel Cell Council 

(VL to 690, 692, 705) 
James S. Nasby, Master Control Systems, Inc., IL [M] 

Rep. National Electrical Manufacturers Association 
Steven H. Pasternack, Intertek Testing Services NA, 
Incorporated, NY [RT] 

Todd W. Stafford, National Joint Apprentice & Training 
Committee, IBEW-NJATC, TN [L] 

Rep. International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers 
La Verne E. Stetson, Lincoln, NE [U] 

Rep. American Society of Agricultural Engineers 
Herbert V. Whittall, Electrical Generating Systems 
Association, FL [M] 

Rep. Electrical Generating Systems Association 

Alternates 

Daniel Batta, Jr., Constellation Generation Group, LLC, 
MD [UT] 

Rep. Electric Light & Power Group/EEI 

(Alt. to B. N. Hornberger) 
Sonya M. Bird, Underwriters Laboratories Incorporated, 
NC [RT] 

(Alt. to J. R. Kovacik) 



Ron B. Chilton, North Carolina Department of Insurance, 
NC [E] 

Rep. International Association of Electrical Inspectors 

(Alt. to T. L. Baker) 
Brian L. Crise, NIETC, OR [L] 

Rep. International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers 

(Alt. to T. W. Stafford) 
Steven J. Fredette, UTC Cells, LLC, CT [M] 

Rep. U.S. Fuel Cell Council 

(Alt. to K. Krastins) 

(VL to 690, 692, 705) 
Ronald H. Minter, Thomas & Betts, TN [M] 

Rep. National Electrical Manufacturers Association 

(Alt. to J. S. Nasby) 
Duke W, Schamel, Copperhead Electric Inc, CA [IM] 

Rep. Independent Electrical Contractors, Incorporated 

(Alt. to T. D. Holleman) 
Robert L. Simpson, Simpson Electrical Engineering 
Company, GA [U] 

Rep. Institute of Electrical & Electronics Engineers, 

Incorporated 

(Alt. to M. V. Glenn) 
Richard Sobel, Quantum Electric Corporation, NY [IM] 

Rep. National Electrical Contractors Association 

(Alt. to T. H. Wood) 
Dale A. Triffo, Shell Oil Products US, TX [U] 

Rep. American Chemistry Council 

(Alt. to D. L. Elkins) 



CODE-MAKING PANEL NO. 14 
Articles 500, 501, 502, 503, 504, 505, 506, 510, 511, 513, 514, 515, 516 



Donald R. Cook, Chair 

Shelby County Building Inspections, AL [E] 

Rep. International Association of Electrical Inspectors 



Troy Beall, B & D Electric Company, Incorporated, NM [IM] 

Rep. National Electrical Contractors Association 
Edward M. Briesch, Underwriters Laboratories 
Incorporated, IL [RT] 
A! Engler, EGS Electrical Group, IL [M] 

Rep. International Society for Measurement and Control 
Mark Goodman, Jacobs Engineering Group, CA [U] 

Rep. American Petroleum Institute 
Gregory D. Hall, Better- Way Electric, Incorporated, CO [IM] 

Rep. Independent Electrical Contractors, Incorporated 
John Katunar, HI, GE Global Asset Protection Services, 
MO [I] 

Rep. GE Global Asset Protection Services 
Joseph H. Kuczka, Killark Electric Manufacturing 
Company, MO [M] 

Rep. National Electrical Manufacturers Association 
William G. Lawrence, Jr., FM Global, MA [I] 

Rep. FM Global/FM Research 
Jeremy Neagle, Intertek Testing Services NA, Incorporated, 
NY [RT] 
Mike O'Meara, Arizona Public Service Company, AZ [UT] 

Rep. Electric Light & Power Group/EEI 
David B. Wechsler, The Dow Chemical Company, TX [U] 

Rep. American Chemistry Council 
James A. Weldon, IBEW Local Union 728, FL [L] 

Rep. International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers 
Mark C. Wirfs, R & W Engineering Incorporated, OR [U] 

Rep. Grain Elevator and Processing Society 
Donald W. Zipse, Zipse Electrical Engineering Incorporated, 
PA [U] 

Rep. Institute of Electrical & Electronics Engineers, 

Incorporated 



Alternates 



A. W. Ballard, Grouse-Hinds, NY [M] 

Rep. National Electrical Manufacturers Association 

(Alt. to J. H. Kuczka) 
Marc J. Bernsen, Southwestern Idaho Electrical JATC, 
ID[L] 

Rep. International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers 

(Alt. to J. A. Weldon) 
Mark W. Bonk, Cargill Incorporated, MN [U] 

Rep. Grain Elevator and Processing Society 

(Alt. to M. C. Wirfs) 
Giovanni Hummel Borges, Underwriters Laboratories 
Incorporated, Brasil [RT] 

(Alt. to E. M. Briesch) 
James D. Cospolich, Waldemar S. Nelson & Company 
Incorporated, LA [U] 

Rep. Institute of Electrical & Electronics Engineers, 

Incorporated 

(Alt. to D. W. Zipse) 
Larry E. Fuhrman, City of Titusville, FL [E] 

Rep. International Association of Electrical Inspectors 

(Alt. to D. R. Cook) 
Nicholas P. Ludlam, FM Global, MA [I] 

Rep. FM Global/FM Research 

(Alt. to W. G. Lawrence, Jr.) 
Michael E. McNeil, FMC Corporation/Bio Polymer, ME [U] 

Rep. American Chemistry Council 

(Ah. to D. B. Wechsler) 
Ted H. Schnaare, Rosemount Incorporated, MN [M] 

Rep. International Society for Measurement and Control 

(Alt. to A. Engler) 



70-18 



NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE 2005 Edition 



NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE COMMITTEE 



Francis M. Stone, Jr., Shell Exploration and Production 
Company, TX [U] 

Rep. American Petroleum Institute 

(Alt. to M. Goodman) 



Nonvoting 

Eduardo N. Solano, Estudio Ingeniero Solano S.A., 
Argentina [SE] 

Fred K, Walker, U.S. Air Force, PL [U] 
Rep. TC on Airport Facilities 



CODE-MAKING PANEL NO. 15 
Articles 517, 518, 520, 525, 530, 540 



Donald J. Talka, Chair 
Underwriters Laboratories Incorporated, NY [RT] 



• 



James R. Duncan, Sparling Electrical Engineering, WA [U] 

Rep. Institute of Electrical & Electronics Engineers, 

Incorporated 
Tom Dunn, Butler Amusements, CA [U] 

Rep. Outdoor Amusement Business Association, 

Incorporated 

(VL to 525) 
Douglas S. Erickson, American Society for Healthcare 
Engineering, Virgin Islands [U] 

Rep. American Society for Healthcare Engineering 
Michael B. Klein, Metropolitan Engineering, Incorporated, 
DC [IM] 

Rep. Illuminating Engineering Society of North America 

(VL to 518, 520, 525, 530, 540) 
Edwin S. Kramer, Radio City Music Hall, NY [L] 

Rep. International Alliance of Theatrical Stage Employees 

(VL to 518, 520, 525, 530, 540) 
Larry Lau, U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs, DC [U] 

(VLto517, 518) 
Dennis W. Marshall, TAG Electric Companies, TX [IM] 

Rep. Independent Electrical Contractors, Incorporated 
Eugene E. Morgan, County of Clackamas, Oregon, OR [E] 

Rep. International Association of Electrical Inspectors 
Hugh O. Nash, Jr., Nash Lipsey Burch, LLC, TN [SE] 

Rep. TC on Electrical Systems 
Bruce D. Shelly, Shelly Electric Company, Inc., PA [IM] 

Rep. National Electrical Contractors Association 
Donald J. Sherratt, Intertek Testing Services NA, 
Incorporated, MA [RT] 
Michael D. Skinner, CBS Studio Center, CA [U] 

Rep. Alliance of Motion Picture and Television Producers 

(VL to 518, 520, 525, 530, 540) 
Richard H. Smith, OG&E Electric Services, OK [UT] 

Rep. Electric Light & Power Group/EEI 
Kenneth E. Vannice, Leviton Manufacturing Company 
Incorporated, OR [M] 

Rep. U.S. Institute for Theatre Technology 

(VL to 518, 520, 525, 530, 540) 
Michael Velvikis, High Voltage Maintenance Corporation, 
WI [IM] 

Rep. InterNational Electrical Testing Association 

Incorporated 



Andrew White, IBEW Local Union 3, NY [L] 

Rep. International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers 

James L, Wiseman, Square D Company, TN [M] 
Rep. National Electrical Manufacturers Association 

Alternates 
James R. Cook, IBEW Local Union 364, IL [L] 

Rep. International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers 

(Alt. to A. White) 
Matthew B. Dozier, IDesign Services, TN [U] 

Rep. Institute of Electrical & Electronics Engineers, 

Incorporated 

(Alt. to J. R. Duncan) 
Samuel B. Friedman, BICC General Cable Corporation, 
RI [M] 

Rep. National Electrical Manufacturers Association 

(Alt. to J. L. Wiseman) 
Dale A. Hallerberg, Underwriters Laboratories Incorporated, 
IL[RT] 

(Alt. to D. J. Talka) 
Mitchell K. Hefter, Entertainment Technology, TX [IM] 

Rep. Illuminating Engineering Society of North America 

(Alt. to M. B. Klein) 

(VL to 518, 520, 525, 530, 540)) 
Stanley D. Kahn, Tri-City Electric Company, Incorporated, 
CA[IM] 

Rep. National Electrical Contractors Association 

(Alt. to B. D. Shelly) 
Malinda Joyce Sampson, Minnesota Electricity Board, 
MN [E] 

Rep. International Association of Electrical Inspectors 

(Alt. to E. E. Morgan) 
James C. Seabury, III, Enterprise Electric, LLC, TN [IM] 

Rep. Independent Electrical Contractors, Incorporated 

(Alt. to D. W. Marshall) 
Steven R. Terry, Electronic Theatre Controls Incorporated, 
NY[M] 

Rep. U.S. Institute for Theatre Technology 

(Alt. to K. E. Vannice) 

(VL to 518, 520, 525, 530, 540) 
Rodney M. Young, Detroit Edison Company, MI [UT] 

Rep. Electric Light & Power Group/EEI 

(Alt. to R. H. Smith) 



2005 Edition 



NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE 



70-19 



NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE COMMITTEE 



CODE-MAKING PANEL NO. 16 
Articles 770, 800, 810, 820, 830 



Stanley D. Kahn, Chair 

Tri-City Electric Company, Incorporated, CA [IM] 

Rep. National Electrical Contractors Association 



J. Robert Boyer, Edwards Systems Technology, 
Incorporated, NJ [M] 

Rep. National Electrical Manufacturers Association 
James E. Brunssen, Telcordia, NJ [U] 

Rep. Alliance for Telecommunications Industry Solutions 
Larry Chan, City of New Orleans, LA [E] 

Rep. International Association of Electrical Inspectors 
Gerald Lee Dorna, Belden Wire & Cable, IN [M] 

Rep. Insulated Cable Engineers Association Incorporated 
Roland W. Gubisch, Intertek Testing Services NA, 
Incorporated, MA [RT] 
Robert L. Hughes, The DuPont Company, TN [U] 

Rep. American Chemistry Council 
Robert W. Jensen, dbi-Telecommunication Infrastructure 
Design, TX [M] 

Rep. Building Industry Consulting Services International 
Steven C. Johnson, Time Warner Cable, NC [UT] 

Rep. National Cable & Telecommunications Association 
Ronald G. Jones, Ronald G. Jones, RE., TX [U] 

Rep. Institute of Electrical & Electronics Engineers, 

Incorporated 
Barrett (Barry) Kalian, Underwriters Laboratories of 
Canada, ON, Canada [RT] 
Harold C. Ohde, IBEW/NECA Technical Institute, IL [L] 

Rep. International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers 
Joseph W. Rao, R.A.O. Electric Company, FL [IM] 

Rep. Independent Electrical Contractors, Incorporated 
James W. Romlein, MV Labs LLC, WI [M] 

Rep. Telecommunications Industry Association 
Kyle E. Todd, Entergy Corporation, TX [UT] 

Rep. Electric Light & Power Group/EEI 

Alternates 

Alan Amato, Times Fiber Communications, Incorporated, 
CT [UT] 

Rep. National Cable & Telecommunications Association 

(Alt. to S. C. Johnson) 
Donna Ballast, University of Texas at Austin, TX [M] 

Rep. Building Industry Consulting Services International 

(Alt. to R. W. Jensen) 



Chrysanthos Chrysanthou, Telcordia Technologies/SAIC, 
NJ [U] 

Rep. Alliance for Telecommunications Industry Solutions 

(Alt. to J. E. Brunssen) 
Terry C. Coleman, National Joint Apprentice & Training 
Committee, TN [L] 

Rep. International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers 

(Alt. to H. C. Ohde) 
William K. Hopple, Tyco/SimplexGrinnell, CA [M] 

Rep. National Electrical Manufacturers Association 

(Alt. to J. R. Boyer) 
Dr. Stanley Kaufman, CableSafe/OFS, GA [M] 

Rep. Insulated Cable Engineers Association Incorporated 

(Alt. to G. L. Dorna) 
Robert W. McCourt, Public Service Electric and Gas 
Company, NJ [UT] 

Rep. Electric Light & Power Group/EEI 

(Alt. to K. E. Todd) 
William J. McCoy, Verizon Wireless, TX [U] 

Rep. Institute of Electrical & Electronics Engineers, 

Incorporated 

(Alt. to R. G. Jones) 
Robert P. McGann, City of Cambridge, MA [E] 

Rep. International Association of Electrical Inspectors 

(Alt. to L. Chan) 
W. Douglas Pirkle, Pirkle Electric Company, Incorporated, 
GA [IM] 

Rep. National Electrical Contractors Association 

(Alt. to S. D. Kahn) 
Luigi G. Prezioso, M. C. Dean, Incorporated, VA [IM] 

Rep. Independent Electrical Contractors, Incorporated 

(Alt. to J. W. Rao) 
Bradley C. Rowe, Underwriters Laboratories Incorporated, 
IL[RT] 

(Alt. to B. Kalian) 

Nonvoting 
Irving Mande, Westport, CT [M] 



• 



CODE-IVIAKING PANEL NO. 17 
Articles 422, 424, 426, 427, 680, 682 



Don W. Jhonson, Chair 

Interior Electric, Incorporated, FL [IM] 

Rep. National Electrical Contractors Association 



Richard J. Cripps, Association of Home Appliance 
Manufacturers, DC [M] 

Rep. Association of Home Appliance Manufacturers 

(VL to 422, 424) 
Bill Hanthorn, Tyco Thermal Controls, ON, Canada [M] 

Rep. Copper Development Association, Incorporated 
Bruce R. Hirsch, Baltimore Gas & Electric Company, MD 
[UT] 

Rep. Electric Light & Power Group/EEI 
Christopher T. Hutchings, Underwriters Laboratories 
Incorporated, CA [RT] 



Walter Koessel, Intertek Testing Services NA, Incorporated, 
MO [RT] 

Robert M. Milatovich, Clark County Building Department, 
NV [E] 

Rep. International Association of Electrical Inspectors 
Marcos Ramirez, Hatfield-Reynolds Electric Company, AZ 
[IM] 

Rep. Independent Electrical Contractors, Incorporated 
Brian E. Rock, Hubbell Incorporated, CT [M] 

Rep. National Electrical Manufacturers Association 



70-20 



NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE 2005 Edition 



NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE COMMITTEE 



• 



Anthony P. Sardina, UTC Carrier Corporation, NY [M] 

Rep. Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Institute 

(VL to 422, 424) 
Lee L. West, Balboa Instruments, Incorporated, CA [M] 

Rep. National Spa and Pool Institute 

(VL to 680) 
Randy J. Yasenchak, IBEW Local Union 607, PA [L] 

Rep. International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers 
Robert M. Yurkanin, Electran Process International 
Incorporated, NJ [U] 

Rep. Institute of Electrical & Electronics Engineers, 

Incorporated 

Alternates 

Dennis L. Baker, Springs & Sons Electrical Contractors 
Incorporated, AZ [IM] 

Rep. Independent Electrical Contractors, Incorporated 

(Alt. to M. Ramirez) 
Mark R. Berner, PPL Electric Utilities Corporation, 
PA [UT] 

Rep. Electric Light & Power Group/EEI 

(Alt. to B. R. Hirsch) 
J. Ron Caccamese, Nathan Electric Company, LTD., TX [L] 

Rep. International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers 

(Alt. to R. J. Yasenchak) 
Aaron B. Chase, Leviton Manufacturing Company, 
Incorporated, NY [M] 

Rep. National Electrical Manufacturers Association 

(Alt. to B. E. Rock) 



Paul Crivell, Kennedy Jenks Consultants, WA [U] 

Rep. Institute of Electrical & Electronics Engineers, 

Incorporated 

(Alt. to R. M. Yurkanin) 
James E. Maldonado, City of Tempe, AZ [E] 

Rep. International Association of Electrical Inspectors 

(Alt. to R. M. Milatovich) 
Cannon Sun, Underwriters Laboratories Incorporated, 
Taiwan [RT] 

(Alt. to C. T. Hatchings) 
D. Harold Ware, Libra Electric Company, OK [IM] 

Rep. National Electrical Contractors Association 

(Alt. to D. W. Jhonson) 
Robert E. Wisenburg, Coates Heater Company, 
Incorporated, WA [M] 

Rep. National Spa and Pool Institute 

(Alt. to L. L. West) 

(VL to 680) 

Nonvoting 

William H. King, Jr., U.S. Consumer Product Safety 
Commission, MD [C] 

(Alt. to A. M. Trotta) 
Andrew M. Trotta, U.S. Consumer Product Safety 
Commission, MD [C] 



CODE-MAKING PANEL NO. 18 
Articles 406, 410, 411, 600, 605 



Michael N. Ber, Chair 

lEC, Houston, TX [IM] 

Rep. Independent Electrical Contractors, Incorporated 



Paul Costello, NECA and IBEW Local 90 JATC, CT [L] 

Rep. International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers 
Kenneth A. Fetzer, Underwriters Laboratories Incorporated, 
NC [RT] 

Stephen G. Kiefifer, Kiefifer & Company, Incorporated, 
WI [M] 

Rep. International Sign Association 

(VL to 600) 
Steven A. Larson, BWXT Y-12, LLC, TN [U] 

Rep. Institute of Electrical & Electronics Engineers, 

Incorporated 
Michael S. O'Boyle, Genlyte Thomas Group, MA [M] 

Rep. American Lighting Association 

(VL to 410, 411) 
Timothy S. Owens, City of San Diego, CA [E] 

Rep. International Association of Electrical Inspectors 
Jim F. Pierce, Intertek Testing Services NA, Incorporated, 
OR [RT] 

Saul Rosenbaum, Leviton Manufacturing Company 
Incorporated, NY [M] 

Rep. National Electrical Manufacturers Association 
Michael W. Smith, Guarantee Electrical Company, 
MO [IM] 

Rep. National Electrical Contractors Association 
Carl Tim Wall, Alabama Power Company, AL [UT] 

Rep. Electric Light & Power Group/EEI 
Jack Wells, Pass & Seymour/Legrand, NY [M] 



Alternates 

Robert T. Carlock, R. T Carlock Company, TN [IM] 

Rep. Independent Electrical Contractors, Incorporated 

(Alt. to M. N. Ber) 
Frederick L. Carpenter, Lithonia Lighting, GA [M] 

Rep. National Electrical Manufacturers Association 

(Alt. to S. Rosenbaum) 
Amos D. Lowrance, Jr., City of Chattanooga, Tennessee, 
TN [E] 

Rep. International Association of Electrical Inspectors 

(Alt. to T. S. Owens) 
Ronald Michaelis, South Bend Vicinity Electrical JATC, 
IN[L] 

Rep. International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers 

(Alt. to R Costello) 
Christopher P. O'Neil, National Grid USA Service 
Company, MA [UT] 

Rep. Electric Light & Power Group/EEI 

(Alt. to C. T Wall) 
Alan M. Smith, France/Scott Fetzer Company, TN [M] 

Rep. International Sign Association 

(Alt. to S. G. Kieffer) 

(VL to 600) 
Rachna Stegall, Underwriters Laboratories Incorporated, 
IL[RT] 

(Alt. to K. A. Fetzer) 
Charles M. Trout, Maron Electric Company, FL [IM] 

Rep. National Electrical Contractors Association 

(Alt. to M. W. Smith) 



2005 Edition NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE 



70-21 



NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE COMMITTEE 



CODE-MAKING PANEL NO. 19 
Articles 545, 547, 550, 551, 552, 553, 555, 604, 675, Annex D, Examples Dll and D12 



Robert A. McCullough, Chair 

Ocean County Construction Inspection Department, NJ [E] 

Rep. International Association of Electrical Inspectors 



Barry Bauman, Alliant Energy, WI [U] 

Rep. American Society of Agricultural Engineers 
James W. Finch, Kampgrounds of America, Incorporated, 
MT[U1 

(VLto550, 551, 552, 555) 
Bruce A. Hopkins, Recreation Vehicle Industry Association, 
VA[M] 

Rep. Recreation Vehicle Industry Association 

(VLto550, 551,552) 
Robert L. La Rocca, Underwriters Laboratories 
Incorporated, NY [RT] 
Timothy P. McNeive, Thomas & Betts Corporation, TN [M] 

Rep. National Electrical Manufacturers Association 
John Mikel, Skyline Corporation, IN [M] 

Rep. Manufactured Housing Institute 

(VLto550, 551, 552) 
T\ig L, Miller, National Association of RV Parks & 
Campgrounds, CA [U] 

Rep. National Association of RV Parks & Campgrounds 

(VLto550, 551, 552) 
Leslie Sabin-Mercado, San Diego Gas & Electric Company, 
CA [UT] 

Rep. Electric Light & Power Group/EEI 
William J. Tipton, IBEW Local Union 575, OH [L] 

Rep. International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers 
Kenneth Weakley, Mountain Electric, Incorporated, 
CA [IM] 

Rep. National Electrical Contractors Association 
William A. Zanicchi, AAA Certified Electric Incorporated, 
PL [IM] 

Rep. Independent Electrical Contractors, Incorporated 
Michael L. Zieman, RADCO, CA [RT] 

(VLto545, 550, 551,552) 

Alternates 

Glenn H. Ankenbrand, Conectiv Power, MD [UT] 
Rep. Electric Light & Power Group/EEI 
(Alt. to L. Sabin-Mercado) 



Steven J, Blais, EGS Electrical Group, IL [M] 

Rep. National Electrical Manufacturers Association 

(Alt. to T. R McNeive) 
Monte R. Ewing, Wisconsin Department of Commerce, 
WI [E] 

Rep. International Association of Electrical Inspectors 

(Alt. to R. A. McCullough) 
Thomas R. Lichtenstein, Underwriters Laboratories 
Incorporated, IL [RT] 

(Ah. to R. L. La Rocca) 
Linda J. Little, IBEW Local Union 1, MO [L] 

Rep. International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers 

(Alt. to W. J. Tipton) 
Suzanne Mark, National Association of RV Parks & 
Campgrounds, VA [U] 

Rep. National Association of RV Parks & Campgrounds 

(Alt. to T L. Miller) 

(VLto550, 551, 552) 
N. Kent Morgan, AC Corporation, NC [IM] 

Rep. Independent Electrical Contractors, Incorporated 

(Alt. to W. A. Zanicchi) 
Kent Perkins, Recreation Vehicle Industry Association, 
VA[M] 

Rep. Recreation Vehicle Industry Association 

(Alt. to B. A. Hopkins) 

(VLto550, 551, 552) 
John G. Sims, NTA Incorporated, IN [M] 

Rep. Manufactured Housing Institute 

(Alt. to J. Mikel) 

(VL to 550, 551, 552) 
Keith G. Tinsey, Michigan State University, MI [U] 

Rep. American Society of Agricultural Engineers 

(AU. to B. Bauman) 
Raymond F. l\icker. Consulting Professional Engineer, 
CA [RT] 

(Alt. to M. L. Zieman) 

(VLto 545, 550, 551, 552) 



NFPA Electrical Engineering Division Technical Staff 



Mark W. Earley, Assistant Vice President/Chief Electrical 

Engineer 

Kenneth G. Mastrullo, Senior Electrical Speciahst 

Jean A. O'Connor, Electrical Project Speciahst/Support 

Supervisor 



Lee F. Richardson, Senior Electrical Engineer 
Richard J. Roux, Senior Electrical Specialist 
Jeffrey S. Sargent, Senior Electrical Specialist 
Joseph V. Sheehan, Principal Electrical Engineer 
Donald W. Shields, Senior Electrical Specialist 



NFPA Staff Editor 
Joyce G. Grandy, Senior Project Editor 

Note: IVIembership on a committee shall not in and of itself constitute an endorsement of the Association 
or any document developed by the Committee on which the member serves. 

Committee Scope: This Committee shall have primary responsibility for documents on minimizing 
the risk of electricity as a source of electric shock and as a potential ignition source of fires and 
explosions. It shall also be responsible for text to minimize the propagation of fire and explosions due 
to electrical installations. 



• 



70-22 



NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE 2005 Edition 



ARTICLE 90 — INTRODUCTION 



90.2 



NFPA 70 
National Electrical Code® 

2005 Edition 

IMPORTANT NOTE: This NFPA document is made 
available for use subject to important notices and legal dis- 
claimers. These notices and disclaimers appear in all publi- 
cations containing this document and may be found under 
the heading "Important Notices and Disclaimers Concern- 
ing NFPA Documents." They can also be obtained on re- 
quest from NFPA or viewed at www.njpa.org/disclaimers. 



ARTICLE90 
Introduetion 



90.1 Purpose. 

(A) Practical Safeguarding. The purpose of this Code is 
the practical safeguarding of persons and property from 
hazards arising from the use of electricity. 

(B) Adequacy. This Code contains provisions that are con- 
sidered necessary for safety. Compliance therewith and 
proper maintenance results in an installation that is essen- 
tially free from hazard but not necessarily efficient, conve- 
nient, or adequate for good service or future expansion of 
electrical use. 

FPN: Hazards often occur because of overloading of wiring 
systems by methods or usage not in conformity with this 
Code. This occurs because initial wiring did not provide for 
increases in the use of electricity. An initial adequate installa- 
tion and reasonable provisions for system changes provide for 
future increases in the use of electricity. 

(C) Intention. This Code is not intended as a design speci- 
fication or an instruction manual for untrained persons. 

(D) Relation to Other International Standards. The re- 
quirements in this Code address the fundamental principles 
of protection for safety contained in Section 131 of Inter- 
national Electrotechnical Commission Standard 60364-1, 
Electrical Installations of Buildings. 

FPN: lEC 60364-1, Section 131, contains fundamental 
principles of protection for safety that encompass protec- 
tion against electric shock, protection against thermal ef- 
fects, protection against overcurrent, . protection against 
fault currents, and protection against overvoltage. All of 
these potential hazards are addressed by the requirements in 
this Code. 



90.2 Scope. 

(A) Covered. This Code covers the installation of electri- 
cal conductors, equipment, and raceways; signaling and 
communications conductors, equipment, and raceways; and 
optical fiber cables and raceways for the following: 

(1) Public and private premises, including buildings, struc- 
tures, mobile homes, recreational vehicles, and floating 
buildings 

(2) Yards, lots, parking lots, carnivals, and industrial sub- 
stations 

FPN to (2): For additional information concerning such instal- 
lations in an industrial or multibuilding complex, see ANSI 
C2-2002, National Electrical Safety Code. 

(3) Installations of conductors and equipment that connect 
to the supply of electricity 

(4) Installations used by the electric utility, such as office 
buildings, warehouses, garages, machine shops, and 
recreational buildings, that are not an integral part of a 
generating plant, substation, or control center. 

(B) Not Covered. This Code does not cover the following: 

(1) Installations in ships, watercraft other than floating build- 
ings, railway roUing stock, aircraft, or automotive vehicles 
other than mobile homes and recreational vehicles 

FPN: Although the scope of this Code indicates that the 
Code does not cover installations in ships, portions of this 
Code are incorporated by reference into Title 46, Code of 
Federal Regulations, Parts 110-113. 

(2) Installations underground in mines and self-propelled 
mobile surface mining machinery and its attendant 
electrical trailing cable 

(3) Installations of railways for generation, transformation, 
transmission, or distribution of power used exclusively 
for operation of rolling stock or installations used ex- 
clusively for signaling and communications purposes 

(4) Installations of communications equipment under the 
exclusive control of communications utilities located 
outdoors or in building spaces used exclusively for 
such installations 

(5) Installations under the exclusive control of an electric 
utility where such installations 

a. Consist of service drops or service laterals, and as- 
sociated metering, or 

b. Are located in legally established easements, rights- 
of-way, or by other agreements either designated by 
or recognized by public service commissions, utility 
commissions, or other regulatory agencies having 
jurisdiction for such installations, or 

c. Are on property owned or leased by the electric 
utility for the purpose of communications, metering, 
generation, control, transformation, transmission, or 
distribution of electric energy. 



2005 Edition NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE 



70-23 



90.3 



ARTICLE 90 — INTRODUCTION 



FPN to (4) and (5): Examples of utilities may include those 
entities that are typically designated or recognized by govern- 
mental law or regulation by public service/utility commissions 
and that install, operate, and maintain electric supply (such as 
generation, transmission, or distribution systems) or communica- 
tion systems (such as telephone, CATV, Internet, satellite, or data 
services). Utilities may be subject to compHance with codes and 
standards covering their regulated activities as adopted under gov- 
ernmental law or regulation. Additional information can be found 
through consultation with the appropriate governmental bodies, 
such as state regulatory commissions. Federal Energy Regulatory 
Commission, and Federal Communications Commission. 

(C) Special Permission. The authority having jurisdiction 
for enforcing this Code may grant exception for the instal- 
lation of conductors and equipment that are not under the 
exclusive control of the electric utilities and are used to 
connect the electric utility supply system to the service- 
entrance conductors of the premises served, provided such 
installations are outside a building or terminate immedi- 
ately inside a building wall. 

90.3 Code Arrangement. This Code is divided into the in- 
troduction and nine chapters, as shown in Figure 90.3. Chap- 
ters 1, 2, 3, and 4 apply generally; Chapters 5, 6, and 7 apply 
to special occupancies, special equipment, or other special 
conditions. These latter chapters supplement or modify the 
general rules. Chapters 1 through 4 apply except as amended 
by Chapters 5, 6, and 7 for the particular conditions. 

Chapter 8 covers communications systems and is not sub- 
ject to the requirements of Chapters 1 through 7 except where 
the requirements are specifically referenced in Chapter 8. 

Chapter 9 consists of tables. 

Annexes are not part of the requirements of this Code 
but are included for informational purposes only. 

90.4 Enforcement. This Code is intended to be suitable 
for mandatory application by governmental bodies that ex- 
ercise legal jurisdiction over electrical installations, includ- 
ing signaling and communications systems, and for use by 
insurance inspectors. The authority having jurisdiction for 
enforcement of the Code has the responsibility for making 
interpretations of the rules, for deciding on the approval of 
equipment and materials, and for granting the special per- 
mission contemplated in a number of the rules. 

By special permission, the authority having jurisdiction 
may waive specific requirements in this Code or permit 
alternative methods where it is assured that equivalent ob- 
jectives can be achieved by establishing and maintaining 
effective safety. 

This Code may require new products, constructions, or 
materials that may not yet be available at the time the Code 
is adopted. In such event, the authority having jurisdiction 
may permit the use of the products, constructions, or mate- 
rials that comply with the most recent previous edition of 
this Code adopted by the jurisdiction. 



Chapter 1 — General 



Chapter 2 — Wiring and Protection 



Chapter 3 — Wiring IVIethods and IVIaterials 



Chapter 4 — Equipment for General Use 



Applies generally 
y to all electrical 
installations 



Supplements or modifies ^ 
Chapters 1 through 4 



Chapter 5 — Special Occupancies 



Chapter 6 — Special Equipment 



Chapter 7 — Special Conditions 



Chapter 8 — Communications Systems 



Chapter 9 — Tables 



Chapter 8 is not subject 

to the requirements of 
"\ Chapters 1 through 7 except 
J where the requirements are 

specifically referenced in 

Chapter 8. 



Annex A through Annex G 



Applicable as referenced 

Informational only; 
not mandatory 



Figure 90.3 Code Arrangement. 



90.5 Mandatory Rules, Permissive Rules, and 
Explanatory Material. 

(A) Mandatory Rules. Mandatory rules of this Code are 
those that identify actions that are specifically required or 
prohibited and are characterized by the use of the terms 
shall or shall not. 

(B) Permissive Rules. Permissive rules of this Code are 
those that identify actions that are allowed but not required, 
are normally used to describe options or alternative meth- 
ods, and are characterized by the use of the terms shall be 
permitted or shall not be required. 

(C) Explanatory Material. Explanatory material, such as 
references to other standards, references to related sections 
of this Code, or information related to a Code rule, is in- 
cluded in this Code in the form of fine print notes (FPNs). 
Fine print notes are informational only and are not enforce- 
able as requirements of this Code. 

Brackets containing section references to another NFPA 
document are for informational purposes only and are pro- 
vided as a guide to indicate the source of the extracted text. 
These bracketed references immediately follow the extracted 
text. 

FPN: The format and language used in this Code follows 
guidelines established by NFPA and published in the NEC 
Style Manual. Copies of this manual can be obtained from 
NFPA. 



70-24 



NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE 2005 Edition 



ARTICLE 90 — INTRODUCTION 



90.9 



• 



90.6 Formal Interpretations. To promote uniformity of 
interpretation and application of the provisions of this 
Code, formal interpretation procedures have been estab- 
lished and are found in the NFPA Regulations Governing 
Committee Projects. 

90.7 Examination of Equipment for Safety. For specific 
items of equipment and materials referred to in this Code, 
examinations for safety made under standard conditions 
provide a basis for approval where the record is made gen- 
erally available through promulgation by organizations 
properly equipped and qualified for experimental testing, 
inspections of the run of goods at factories, and service- 
value determination through field inspections. This avoids 
the necessity for repetition of examinations by different 
examiners, frequently with inadequate facilities for such 
work, and the confusion that would result from conflicting 
reports on the suitability of devices and materials examined 
for a given purpose. 

It is the intent of this Code that factory-installed inter- 
nal wiring or the construction of equipment need not be 
inspected at the time of installation of the equipment, ex- 
cept to detect alterations or damage, if the equipment has 
been listed by a qualified electrical testing laboratory that is 
recognized as having the facilities described in the preced- 
ing paragraph and that requires suitability for installation in 
accordance with this Code. 

FPN No. 1: See requirements in 110.3. 

FPN No. 2: Listed is defined in Article 100. 

FPN No. 3: Annex A contains an informative list of prod- 
uct safety standards for electrical equipment. 

90.8 Wiring Planning. 

(A) Future Expansion and Convenience. Plans and 
specifications that provide ample space in raceways, spare 
raceways, and additional spaces allow for future increases 
in electric power and communication circuits. Distribution 
centers located in readily accessible locations provide con- 
venience and safety of operation. 

(B) Number of Circuits in Enclosures. It is elsewhere pro- 
vided in this Code that the number of wires and circuits con- 
fined in a single enclosure be varyingly restricted. Limiting the 
number of circuits in a single enclosure minimizes the effects 
from a short circuit or ground fault in one circuit. 



90.9 Units of Measurement. 

(A) Measurement System of Preference. For the purpose 
of this Code, metric units of measurement are in accor- 
dance with the modernized metric system known as the 
International System of Units (SI). 

(B) Dual System of Units. SI units shall appear first, and 
inch-pound units shall immediately follow in parentheses. 
Conversion from inch-pound units to SI units shall be 
based on hard conversion except as provided in 90.9(C). 

(C) Permitted Uses of Soft Conversion. The cases given 
in 90.9(C)(1) through (C)(4) shall not be required to use hard 
conversion and shall be permitted to use soft conversion. 

(1) Trade Sizes. Where the actual measured size of a prod- 
uct is not the same as the nominal size, trade size designa- 
tors shall be used rather than dimensions. Trade practices 
shall be followed in all cases. 

(2) Extracted Material. Where material is extracted from 
another standard, the context of the original material shall 
not be compromised or violated. Any editing of the ex- 
tracted text shall be confined to making the style consistent 
with that of the NEC. 

(3) Industry Practice. Where industry practice is to ex- 
press units in inch-pound units, the inclusion of SI units 
shall not be required. 

(4) Safety. Where a negative impact on safety would re- 
sult, soft conversion shall be used. 

(D) Compliance. Conversion from inch-pound units to SI 
units shall be permitted to be an approximate conversion. 
Compliance with the numbers shown in either the SI sys- 
tem or the inch-pound system shall constitute compliance 
with this Code. 

FPN No. 1: Hard conversion is considered a change in 
dimensions or properties of an item into new sizes that 
might or might not be interchangeable with the sizes used 
in the original measurement. Soft conversion is considered 
a direct mathematical conversion and involves a change in 
the description of an existing measurement but not in the 
actual dimension. 

FPN No. 2: SI conversions are based on lEEE/ASTM SI 
10-1997, Standard for the Use of the International System 
of Units (SI): The Modern Metric System. 



2005 Edition 



NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE 



70-25 



100 



ARTICLE 100 — DEFINITIONS 



Chapter 1 General 



Scope. This article contains only those definitions essential 
to the proper apphcation of this Code. It is not intended to 
include commonly defined general terms or commonly de- 
fined technical terms from related codes and standards. In 
general, only those terms that are used in two or more 
articles are defined in Article 100. Other definitions are 
included in the article in which they are used but may be 
referenced in Article 100. 

Part I of this article contains definitions intended to 
apply wherever the terms are used throughout this Code. 
Part II contains definitions applicable only to the parts of 
articles specifically covering installations and equipment 
operating at over 600 volts, nominal. 

I. General 

Accessible (as applied to equipment). Admitting close 
approach; not guarded by locked doors, elevation, or other 
effective means. 

Accessible (as applied to wiring methods). Capable of 
being removed or exposed without damaging the building 
structure or finish or not permanently closed in by the struc- 
ture or finish of the building. 

Accessible, Readily (Readily Accessible). Capable of be- 
ing reached quickly for operation, renewal, or inspections 
without requiring those to whom ready access is requisite 
to climb over or remove obstacles or to resort to portable 
ladders, and so forth. 

Ampacity. The current, in amperes, that a conductor can 
carry continuously under the conditions of use without ex- 
ceeding its temperature rating. 

Appliance. Utilization equipment, generally other than in- 
dustrial, that is normally built in standardized sizes or types 
and is installed or connected as a unit to perform one or 
more functions such as clothes washing, air conditioning, 
food mixing, deep frying, and so forth. 

Approved. Acceptable to the authority having jurisdiction. 

Askarel. A generic term for a group of nonflammable syn- 
thetic chlorinated hydrocarbons used as electrical insulating 
media. Askarels of various compositional types are used. 
Under arcing conditions, the gases produced, while consist- 
ing predominantly of noncombustible hydrogen chloride, 



can include varying amounts of combustible gases, depend- 
ing on the askarel type. 

Attachment Plug (Plug Cap) (Plug). A device that, by 
insertion in a receptacle, establishes a connection between 
the conductors of the attached flexible cord and the conduc- 
tors connected permanently to the receptacle. 

Authority Having Jurisdiction (AHJ). The organization, 
office, or individual responsible for approving equipment, 
materials, an installation, or a procedure. 

FPN: The phrase "authority having jurisdiction" is used in 
NFPA documents in a broad manner, since jurisdictions and 
approval agencies vary, as do their responsibilities. Where 
public safety is primary, the AHJ may be a federal, state, 
local, or other regional department or individual such as a 
fire chief; fire marshal; chief of a fire prevention bureau, 
labor department, or health department; building official; 
electrical inspector; or others having statutory authority. 
For insurance purposes, an insurance inspection depart- 
ment, rating bureau, or other insurance company represen- 
tative may be the AHJ. In many circumstances, the property 
owner or his or her designated agent assumes the role of the 
AHJ; at government installations, the commanding officer 
or departmental official may be the AHJ. 

Automatic. Self-acting, operating by its own mechanism 
when actuated by some impersonal influence, as, for ex- 
ample, a change in current, pressure, temperature, or me- 
chanical configuration. 

Bathroom. An area including a basin with one or more of 
the following: a toilet, a tub, or a shower. 

Bonding (Bonded). The permanent joining of metaUic parts 
to form an electricaUy conductive path that ensures electrical 
continuity and the capacity to conduct safely any current likely 
to be imposed. 

Bonding Jumper. A reUable conductor to ensure the required 
electrical conductivity between metal parts required to be elec- 
trically connected. 

Bonding Jumper, Equipment. The connection between two 
or more portions of the equipment grounding conductor. 

Bonding Jumper, Main. The connection between the 
grounded circuit conductor and the equipment grounding 
conductor at the service. 

Bonding Jumper, System. The connection between the 
grounded circuit conductor and the equipment grounding 
conductor at a separately derived system. 

Branch Circuit. The circuit conductors between the final 
overcurrent device protecting the circuit and the outlet(s). 



70-26 



NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE 2005 Edition 



ARTICLE 100 — DEFINITIONS 



100 



Branch Circuit, Appliance. A branch circuit that supplies 
energy to one or more outlets to which appliances are to be 
connected and that has no permanently connected lumi- 
naires (lighting fixtures) that are not a part of an appHance. 

Branch Circuit, General-Purpose. A branch circuit that 
supplies two or more receptacles or outlets for lighting and 
appliances. 

Branch Circuit, Individual. A branch circuit that supplies 
only one utilization equipment. 

Branch Circuit, Multiwire. A branch circuit that consists 
of two or more ungrounded conductors that have a voltage 
between them, and a grounded conductor that has equal 
voltage between it and each ungrounded conductor of the 
circuit and that is connected to the neutral or grounded 
conductor of the system. 

Building. A structure that stands alone or that is cut off 
from adjoining structures by fire walls with all openings 
therein protected by approved fire doors. 

Cabinet. An enclosure that is designed for either surface 
mounting or flush mounting and is provided with a frame, 
mat, or trim in which a swinging door or doors are or can 
be hung. 

Circuit Breaker. A device designed to open and close a 
circuit by nonautomatic means and to open the circuit au- 
tomatically on a predetermined overcurrent without damage 
to itself when properly applied within its rating. 

FPN: The automatic opening means can be integral, direct 
acting with the circuit breaker, or remote from the circuit 
breaker. 

Adjustable (as applied to circuit breakers). A qualifying 
term indicating that the circuit breaker can be set to trip at 
various values of current, time, or both, within a predeter- 
mined range. 

Instantaneous Trip (as applied to circuit breakers). A quali- 
fying term indicating that no delay is purposely introduced 
in the tripping action of the circuit breaker. 

Inverse Time (as applied to circuit breakers). A qualifying 
term indicating that there is purposely introduced a delay in 
the tripping action of the circuit breaker, which delay de- 
creases as the magnitude of the current increases. 

Nonadjustable (as applied to circuit breakers). A quali- 
fying term indicating that the circuit breaker does not have 
any adjustment to alter the value of current at which it will 
trip or the time required for its operation. 

Setting (of circuit breakers). The value of current, time, or 
both, at which an adjustable circuit breaker is set to trip. 

Concealed. Rendered inaccessible by the structure or 
finish of the building. Wires in concealed raceways are 



considered concealed, even though they may become ac- 
cessible by withdrawing them. 

Conductor, Bare. A conductor having no covering or elec- 
trical insulation whatsoever. 

Conductor, Covered. A conductor encased within material 
of composition or thickness that is not recognized by this 
Code as electrical insulation. 

Conductor, Insulated. A conductor encased within mate- 
rial of composition and thickness that is recognized by this 
Code as electrical insulation. 

Conduit Body. A separate portion of a conduit or tubing 
system that provides access through a removable cover(s) 
to the interior of the system at a junction of two or more 
sections of the system or at a terminal point of the system. 
Boxes such as FS and FD or larger cast or sheet metal 
boxes are not classified as conduit bodies. 

Connector, Pressure (Solderless). A device that estabUshes 
a connection between two or more conductors or between one 
or more conductors and a terminal by means of mechanical 
pressure and without the use of solder. 

Continuous Load. A load where the maximum current is 
expected to continue for 3 hours or more. 

Controller. A device or group of devices that serves to 
govern, in some predetermined manner, the electric power 
delivered to the apparatus to which it is connected. 

Cooking Unit, Counter-Mounted. A cooking appliance 
designed for mounting in or on a counter and consisting of 
one or more heating elements, internal wiring, and built-in 
or mountable controls. 

Coordination (Selective). Localization of an overcurrent 
condition to restrict outages to the circuit or equipment 
affected, accompUshed by the choice of overcurrent protec- 
tive devices and their ratings or settings. 

Copper-Clad Aluminum Conductors. Conductors drawn 
from a copper-clad aluminum rod with the copper metallur- 
gically bonded to an aluminum core. The copper forms a 
minimum of 10 percent of the cross-sectional area of a 
solid conductor or each strand of a stranded conductor. 

Cutout Box. An enclosure designed for surface mounting 
that has swinging doors or covers secured directly to and 
telescoping with the walls of the box proper. 

Dead Front. Without live parts exposed to a person on the 
operating side of the equipment. 

Demand Factor. The ratio of the maximum demand of a 
system, or part of a system, to the total connected load of a 
system or the part of the system under consideration. 



2005 Edition NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE 



70-27 



100 



ARTICLE 100 — DEFINITIONS 



Device. A unit of an electrical system that is intended to 
carry or control but not utilize electric energy. 

Disconnecting Means. A device, or group of devices, or 
other means by which the conductors of a circuit can be 
disconnected from their source of supply. 

Dusttight. Constructed so that dust will not enter the en- 
closing case under specified test conditions. 

Duty, Continuous. Operation at a substantially constant 
load for an indefinitely long time. 

Duty, Intermittent. Operation for alternate intervals of 
(1) load and no load; or (2) load and rest; or (3) load, no 
load, and rest. 

Duty, Periodic. Intermittent operation in which the load 
conditions are regularly recurrent. 

Duty, Short-Time. Operation at a substantially constant 
load for a short and definite, specified time. 

Duty, Varying. Operation at loads, and for intervals of 
time, both of which may be subject to wide variation. 

Dwelling Unit. A single unit, providing complete and in- 
dependent living facilities for one or more persons, includ- 
ing permanent provisions for living, sleeping, cooking, and 
sanitation. 

Dwelling, One-Family. A building that consists solely of 
one dwelling unit. 

Dwelling, Two-Family. A building that consists solely of 
two dwelling units. 

Dwelling, Multifamily. A building that contains three or 
more dwelling units. 

Electric Sign. A fixed, stationary, or portable self-contained, 
electrically illuminated utilization equipment with words or 
symbols designed to convey information or attract attention. 

Enclosed. Surrounded by a case, housing, fence, or wall(s) 
that prevents persons from accidentally contacting ener- 
gized parts. 

Enclosure. The case or housing of apparatus, or the fence 
or walls surrounding an installation to prevent personnel 
from accidentally contacting energized parts or to protect 
the equipment from physical damage. 

FPN: See Table 430.91 for examples of enclosure types. 

Energized. Electrically connected to, or is, a source of 
voltage. 

Equipment. A general term including material, fittings, de- 
vices, appliances, luminaires (fixtures), apparatus, and the 
like used as a part of, or in connection with, an electrical 
installation. 



Explosionproof Apparatus. Apparatus enclosed in a case 
that is capable of withstanding an explosion of a specified 
gas or vapor that may occur within it and of preventing the 
ignition of a specified gas or vapor surrounding the enclo- 
sure by sparks, flashes, or explosion of the gas or vapor 
within, and that operates at such an external temperature 
that a surrounding flammable atmosphere will not be ig- 
nited thereby. 

FPN: For further information, see ANSI/UL 1203-1999, 
Explosion-Proof and Dust-Ignition-Proof Electrical Equip- 
ment for Use in Hazardous (Classified) Locations. 

Exposed (as applied to live parts). Capable of being in- 
advertently touched or approached nearer than a safe dis- 
tance by a person. It is applied to parts that are not suitably 
guarded, isolated, or insulated. 

Exposed (as applied to wiring methods). On or attached 
to the surface or behind panels designed to allow access. 

Externally Operable. Capable of being operated without 
exposing the operator to contact with live parts. 

Feeder. All circuit conductors between the service equip- 
ment, the source of a separately derived system, or other 
power supply source and the final branch-circuit overcur- 
rent device. 

Festoon Lighting. A string of outdoor lights that is sus- 
pended between two points. 

Fitting. An accessory such as a locknut, bushing, or other 
part of a wiring system that is intended primarily to per- 
form a mechanical rather than an electrical function. 

Garage. A building or portion of a building in which one or 
more self-propelled vehicles can be kept for use, sale, stor- 
age, rental, repair, exhibition, or demonstration purposes. 

FPN: For commercial garages, repair and storage, see Ar- 
ticle 511. 

Ground. A conducting connection, whether intentional or 
accidental, between an electrical circuit or equipment and 
the earth or to some conducting body that serves in place of 
the earth. 

Grounded. Connected to earth or to some conducting body 
that serves in place of the earth. 

Grounded, Effectively. Intentionally connected to earth 
through a ground connection or connections of sufiBciently 
low impedance and having suflBcient current-carrying ca- 
pacity to prevent the buildup of voltages that may result in 
undue hazards to connected equipment or to persons. 

Grounded, Solidly. Connected to ground without inserting 
any resistor or impedance device. 

Grounded Conductor. A system or circuit conductor that 
is intentionally grounded. 



70-28 



NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE 2005 Edition 



ARTICLE 100 — DEFINITIONS 



100 



• 



Ground-Fault Circuit Interrupter (GFCI). A device in- 
tended for the protection of personnel that functions to de- 
energize a circuit or portion thereof within an estabhshed 
period of time when a current to ground exceeds the values 
established for a Class A device. 

FPN: Class A ground-fault circuit interrupters trip when the 
current to ground has a value in the range of 4 mA to 6 mA. 
For further information, see UL 943, Standard for Ground- 
Fault Circuit Interrupters. 

Ground-Fault Protection of Equipment. A system in- 
tended to provide protection of equipment from damaging 
line-to-ground fault currents by operating to cause a discon- 
necting means to open all ungrounded conductors of the 
faulted circuit. This protection is provided at current levels less 
than those required to protect conductors from damage 
through the operation of a supply circuit overcurrent device. 

Grounding Conductor. A conductor used to connect 
equipment or the grounded ckcuit of a wiring system to a 
grounding electrode or electrodes. 

Grounding Conductor, Equipment. The conductor used 
to connect the non-current-carrying metal parts of equip- 
ment, raceways, and other enclosures to the system 
grounded conductor, the grounding electrode conductor, or 
both, at the service equipment or at the source of a sepa- 
rately derived system. 

Grounding Electrode. A device that establishes an electri- 
cal connection to the earth. 

Grounding Electrode Conductor. The conductor used to 
connect the grounding electrode(s) to the equipment 
grounding conductor, to the grounded conductor, or to both, 
at the service, at each building or structure where supplied 
by a feeder(s) or branch circuit(s), or at the source of a 
separately derived system. 

Guarded. Covered, shielded, fenced, enclosed, or otherwise 
protected by means of suitable covers, casings, barriers, rails, 
screens, mats, or platforms to remove the likelihood of ap- 
proach or contact by persons or objects to a point of danger. 

Guest Room. An accommodation combining living, sleep- 
ing, sanitary, and storage facilities within a compartment. 

Guest Suite. An accommodation with two or more con- 
tiguous rooms comprising a compartment, with or without 
doors between such rooms, that provides living, sleeping, 
sanitary, and storage faciUties. 

Handhole Enclosure. An enclosure identified for use in 
underground systems, provided with an open or closed bot- 
tom, and sized to allow personnel to reach into, but not 
enter, for the purpose of installing, operating, or maintain- 
ing equipment or wiring or both. 

Hoistway. Any shaftway, hatchway, well hole, or other ver- 
tical opening or space in which an elevator or dumbwaiter 
is designed to operate. 



Identified (as applied to equipment). Recognizable as 
suitable for the specific purpose, function, use, environ- 
ment, application, and so forth, where described in a par- 
ticular Code requirement. 

FPN: Some examples of ways to determine suitability of 
equipment for a specific purpose, environment, or applica- 
tion include investigations by a qualified testing laboratory 
(lisdng and labeling), an inspecfion agency, or other orga- 
nizations concerned with product evaluation. 

In Sight From (Within Sight From, Within Sight). Where 
this Code specifies that one equipment shall be "in sight 
from," "within sight from," or "within sight," and so forth, 
of another equipment, the specified equipment is to be vis- 
ible and not more than 15 m (50 ft) distant from the other. 

Interrupting Rating. The highest current at rated voltage 
that a device is intended to interrupt under standard test 
conditions. 

FPN: Equipment intended to interrupt current at other than 
fault levels may have its interrupting rating implied in other 
ratings, such as horsepower or locked rotor current. 

Isolated (as applied to location). Not readily accessible 
to persons unless special means for access are used. 

Labeled. Equipment or materials to which has been attached 
a label, symbol, or other identifying mark of an organization 
that is acceptable to the authority having jurisdiction and con- 
cerned with product evaluation, that maintains periodic in- 
spection of production of labeled equipment or materials, and 
by whose labeling the manufacturer indicates compUance with 
appropriate standards or performance in a specified manner. 

Lighting Outlet. An outlet intended for the direct connec- 
tion of a lampholder, a luminaire (lighting fixture), or a 
pendant cord terminating in a lampholder. 

Listed. Equipment, materials, or services included in a list 
published by an organization that is acceptable to the au- 
thority having jurisdiction and concerned with evaluation 
of products or services, that maintains periodic inspection 
of production of listed equipment or materials or periodic 
evaluation of services, and whose fisting states that the 
equipment, material, or services either meets appropriate 
designated standards or has been tested and found suitable 
for a specified purpose. 

FPN: The means for identifying listed equipment may 
vary for each organization concerned with product evalua- 
tion, some of which do not recognize equipment as listed 
unless it is also labeled. Use of the system employed by the 
listing organization allows the authority having jurisdiction 
to identify a listed product. 

Live Parts. Energized conductive components. 



2005 Edition NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE 



70-29 



100 



ARTICLE 100 — DEFINITIONS 



Location, Damp. Locations protected from weather and 
not subject to saturation with water or other liquids but 
subject to moderate degrees of moisture. Examples of such 
locations include partially protected locations under cano- 
pies, marquees, roofed open porches, and like locations, 
and interior locations subject to moderate degrees of mois- 
ture, such as some basements, some barns, and some cold- 
storage warehouses. 

Location, Dry. A location not normally subject to damp- 
ness or wetness. A location classified as dry may be tem- 
porarily subject to dampness or wetness, as in the case of a 
building under construction. 

Location, Wet. Installations under ground or in concrete 
slabs or masonry in direct contact with the earth; in loca- 
tions subject to saturation with water or other liquids, such 
as vehicle washing areas; and in unprotected locations ex- 
posed to weather. 

Luminaire. A complete lighting unit consisting of a lamp 
or lamps together with the parts designed to distribute the 
light, to position and protect the lamps and ballast (where 
applicable), and to connect the lamps to the power supply. 

Metal-Enclosed Power Switchgear. A switchgear assem- 
bly completely enclosed on all sides and top with sheet 
metal (except for ventilating openings and inspection win- 
dows) containing primary power circuit switching, inter- 
rupting devices, or both, with buses and connections. The 
assembly may include control and auxiliary devices. Access 
to the interior of the enclosure is provided by doors, remov- 
able covers, or both. 

Motor Control Center. An assembly of one or more en- 
closed sections having a common power bus and princi- 
pally containing motor control units. 

Multioutlet Assembly. A type of surface, flush, or free- 
standing raceway designed to hold conductors and recep- 
tacles, assembled in the field or at the factory. 

Nonautomatic. Action requiring personal intervention for 
its control. As applied to an electric controller, nonauto- 
matic control does not necessarily imply a manual control- 
ler, but only that personal intervention is necessary. 

Nonlinear Load. A load where the wave shape of the 
steady-state current does not follow the wave shape of the 
applied voltage. 

FPN: Electronic equipment, electronic/electric-discharge 
lighting, adjustable-speed drive systems, and similar equip- 
ment may be nonlinear loads. 

Outlet. A point on the wiring system at which current is 
taken to supply utilization equipment. 

Outline Lighting. An arrangement of incandescent lamps, 
electric discharge lighting, or other electrically powered light 



sources to outline or call attention to certain features such as 
the shape of a building or the decoration of a window. 

Overcurrent. Any current in excess of the rated current of 
equipment or the ampacity of a conductor. It may result 
from overload, short circuit, or ground fault. 

FPN: A current in excess of rating may be accommodated 
by certain equipment and conductors for a given set of 
conditions. Therefore, the rules for overcurrent protection 
are specific for particular situations. 

Overload. Operation of equipment in excess of normal, 
full-load rating, or of a conductor in excess of rated ampac- 
ity that, when it persists for a sufficient length of time, 
would cause damage or dangerous overheating. A fault, 
such as a short circuit or ground fault, is not an overload. 

Panelboard. A single panel or group of panel units de- 
signed for assembly in the form of a single panel, including 
buses and automatic overcurrent devices, and equipped 
with or without switches for the control of light, heat, or 
power circuits; designed to be placed in a cabinet or cutout 
box placed in or against a wall, partition, or other support; 
and accessible only from the front. 

Plenum. A compartment or chamber to which one or more 
air ducts are connected and that forms part of the air distri- 
bution system. 

Power Outlet. An enclosed assembly that may include re- 
ceptacles, circuit breakers, fuseholders, fused switches, 
buses, and watt-hour meter mounting means; intended to 
supply and control power to mobile homes, recreational 
vehicles, park trailers, or boats or to serve as a means for 
distributing power required to operate mobile or tempo- 
rarily installed equipment. 

Premises Wiring (System). That interior and exterior wir- 
ing, including power, lighting, control, and signal circuit 
wiring together with all their associated hardware, fittings, 
and wiring devices, both permanently and temporarily in- 
stalled, that extends from the service point or source of 
power, such as a battery, a solar photovoltaic system, or a 
generator, transformer, or converter windings, to the out- 
let(s). Such wiring does not include wiring internal to ap- 
phances, luminaires (fixtures), motors, controllers, motor 
control centers, and similar equipment. 

Qualified Person. One who has skills and knowledge re- 
lated to the construction and operation of the electrical 
equipment and installations and has received safety training 
on the hazards involved. 

FPN: Refer to NFPA 70E-2004, Standard for Electrical 
Safety in the Workplace, for electrical safety training 
requirements. 

Raceway. An enclosed channel of metal or nonmetallic 
materials designed expressly for holding wires, cables, or 



# 



70-30 



NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE 2005 Edition 



ARTICLE 100 — DEFINITIONS 



100 



• 



busbars, with additional functions as permitted in this Code. 
Raceways include, but are not limited to, rigid metal conduit, 
rigid nonmetaUic conduit, intermediate metal conduit, liq- 
uidtight flexible conduit, flexible metallic tubing, flexible 
metal conduit, electrical normietalhc tubing, electrical metallic 
tubing, underfloor raceways, cellular concrete floor raceways, 
cellular metal floor raceways, surface raceways, wireways, 
and busways. 

Rainproof. Constructed, protected, or treated so as to pre- 
vent rain from interfering with the successful operation of 
the apparatus under specified test conditions. 

Raintight. Constructed or protected so that exposure to a 
beating rain will not result in the entrance of water under 
specified test conditions. 

Receptacle. A receptacle is a contact device installed at the 
outlet for the connection of an attachment plug. A single 
receptacle is a single contact device with no other contact 
device on the same yoke. A multiple receptacle is two or 
more contact devices on the same yoke. 

Receptacle Outlet. An outlet where one or more recep- 
tacles are installed. 

Remote-Control Circuit. Any electric circuit that controls 
any other circuit through a relay or an equivalent device. 

Scalable Equipment. Equipment enclosed in a case or 
cabinet that is provided with a means of seahng or locking 
so that live parts cannot be made accessible without open- 
ing the enclosure. The equipment may or may not be oper- 
able without opening the enclosure. 

Separately Derived System. A premises wiring system 
whose power is derived from a source of electric energy or 
equipment other than a service. Such systems have no di- 
rect electrical connection, including a solidly connected 
grounded circuit conductor, to supply conductors originat- 
ing in another system. 

Service. The conductors and equipment for delivering elec- 
tric energy from the serving utility to the wiring system of 
the premises served. 

Service Cable. Service conductors made up in the form of 
a cable. 

Service Conductors. The conductors from the service point 
to the service disconnecting means. 

Service Drop. The overhead service conductors from the 
last pole or other aerial support to and including the splices, 
if any, connecting to the service-entrance conductors at the 
building or other structure. 

Service-Entrance Conductors, Overhead System. The ser- 
vice conductors between the terminals of the service equip- 



ment and a point usually outside the building, clear of building 
walls, where joined by tap or splice to the service drop. 

Service-Entrance Conductors, Underground System. The 

service conductors between the terminals of the service 
equipment and the point of connection to the service lateral. 

FPN: Where service equipment is located outside the 
building walls, there may be no service-entrance conduc- 
tors or they may be entirely outside the building. 

Service Equipment. The necessary equipment, usually con- 
sisting of a circuit breaker(s) or switch(es) and fuse(s) and 
their accessories, connected to the load end of service conduc- 
tors to a building or other structure, or an otherwise designated 
area, and intended to constitute the main control and cutoff of 
the supply. 

Service Lateral. The underground service conductors be- 
tween the street main, including any risers at a pole or other 
structure or from transformers, and the first point of con- 
nection to the service-entrance conductors in a terminal box 
or meter or other enclosure, inside or outside the building 
wall. Where there is no terminal box, meter, or other enclo- 
sure, the point of connection is considered to be the point of 
entrance of the service conductors into the building. 

Service Point. The point of connection between the facili- 
ties of the serving utihty and the premises wiring. 

Show Window. Any window used or designed to be used 
for the display of goods or advertising material, whether it 
is fully or partly enclosed or entirely open at the rear and 
whether or not it has a platform raised higher than the street 
floor level. 

Signaling Circuit. Any electric circuit that energizes sig- 
naling equipment. 

Solar Photovoltaic System. The total components and sub- 
systems that, in combination, convert solar energy into elec- 
trical energy suitable for connection to a utilization load. 

Special Permission. The written consent of the authority 
having jurisdiction. 

Structure. That which is built or constructed. 

Supplementary Overcurrent Protective Device. A device 
intended to provide limited overcurrent protection for specific 
applications and utiUzation equipment such as luminaires 
(Ughting fixtures) and appliances. This limited protection is in 
addition to the protection provided in the required branch cir- 
cuit by the branch circuit overcurrent protective device. 

Switch, Bypass Isolation. A manually operated device 
used in conjunction with a transfer switch to provide a 
means of directly connecting load conductors to a power 
source and of disconnecting the transfer switch. 



2005 Edition NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE 



70-31 



100 



ARTICLE 100 — DEFINITIONS 



Switch, General-Use. A switch intended for use in general 
distribution and branch circuits. It is rated in amperes, and it is 
capable of interrupting its rated current at its rated voltage. 

Switch, General-Use Snap. A form of general-use switch 
constructed so that it can be installed in device boxes or on 
box covers, or otherwise used in conjunction with wiring 
systems recognized by this Code. 

Switch, Isolating. A switch intended for isolating an elec- 
tric circuit from the source of power. It has no interrupting 
rating, and it is intended to be operated only after the circuit 
has been opened by some other means. 

Switch, Motor-Circuit. A switch rated in horsepower that 
is capable of interrupting the maximum operating overload 
current of a motor of the same horsepower rating as the 
switch at the rated voltage. 

Switch, Transfer. An automatic or nonautomatic device for 
transferring one or more load conductor connections from 
one power source to another. 

Switchboard. A large single panel, frame, or assembly of 
panels on which are mounted on the face, back, or both, 
switches, overcurrent and other protective devices, buses, 
and usually instruments. Switchboards are generally acces- 
sible from the rear as well as from the front and are not 
intended to be installed in cabinets. 

Thermally Protected (as applied to motors). The words 
Thermally Protected appearing on the nameplate of a motor 
or motor-compressor indicate that the motor is provided 
with a thermal protector. 

Thermal Protector (as applied to motors). A protective 
device for assembly as an integral part of a motor or motor- 
compressor that, when properly applied, protects the motor 
against dangerous overheating due to overload and failure 
to start. 

FPN: The thermal protector may consist of one or more 
sensing elements integral with the motor or motor-compressor 
and an external control device. 

Utilization Equipment. Equipment that utilizes electric 
energy for electronic, electromechanical, chemical, heating, 
lighting, or similar purposes. 

Ventilated. Provided with a means to permit circulation of 
air sufficient to remove an excess of heat, fumes, or vapors. 

Volatile Flammable Liquid. A flammable liquid having a 
flash point below 38°C (100°F), or a flammable liquid 
whose temperature is above its flash point, or a Class II 
combustible liquid that has a vapor pressure not exceeding 
276 kPa (40 psia) at 38°C (100°F) and whose temperature 
is above its flash point. 



Voltage (of a circuit). The greatest root-mean- square (rms) 
(effective) difference of potential between any two conduc- 
tors of the circuit concerned. 

FPN: Some systems, such as 3-phase 4-wire, single-phase 
3-wire, and 3-wire direct current, may have various circuits 
of various voltages. 

Voltage, Nominal. A nominal value assigned to a circuit or 
system for the purpose of conveniently designating its volt- 
age class (e.g., 120/240 volts, 480Y/277 volts, 600 volts). 
The actual voltage at which a circuit operates can vary from 
the nominal within a range that permits satisfactory opera- 
tion of equipment. 

FPN: See ANSI C84. 1-1995, Voltage Ratings for Electric 
Power Systems and Equipment (60 Hz). 

Voltage to Ground. For grounded circuits, the voltage be- 
tween the given conductor and that point or conductor of 
the circuit that is grounded; for ungrounded circuits, the 
greatest voltage between the given conductor and any other 
conductor of the circuit. 

Watertight. Constructed so that moisture will not enter the 
enclosure under specified test conditions. 

Weatherproof. Constructed or protected so that exposure 
to the weather will not interfere with successful operation. 

FPN: Rainproof, raintight, or watertight equipment can 
fulfill the requirements for weatherproof where varying 
weather conditions other than wetness, such as snow, ice, 
dust, or temperature extremes, are not a factor. 



II. Over 600 Volts, Nominal 

Whereas the preceding definitions are intended to apply 
wherever the terms are used throughout this Code, the fol- 
lowing definitions are applicable only to parts of the article 
specifically covering installations and equipment operating 
at over 600 volts, nominal. 

Electronically Actuated Fuse. An overcurrent protective 
device that generally consists of a control module that pro- 
vides current sensing, electronically derived time-current 
characteristics, energy to initiate tripping, and an interrupt- 
ing module that interrupts current when an overcurrent oc- 
curs. Electronically actuated fuses may or may not operate 
in a current-limiting fashion, depending on the type of con- 
trol selected. 

Fuse. An overcurrent protective device with a circuit- 
opening fusible part that is heated and severed by the pas- 
sage of overcurrent through it. 

FPN: A fuse comprises all the parts that form a unit ca- 
pable of performing the prescribed functions. It may or may 
not be the complete device necessary to connect it into an 
electrical circuit. 



• 



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NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE 2005 Edition 



ARTICLE 110 — REQUIREMENTS FOR ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS 



110.3 



• 



# 



Controlled Vented Power Fuse. A fuse with provision for 
controlling discharge circuit interruption such that no soUd 
material may be exhausted into the surrounding atmosphere. 

FPN: The fuse is designed so that discharged gases will not 
ignite or damage insulation in the path of the discharge or 
propagate a flashover to or between grounded members or 
conduction members in the path of the discharge where the 
distance between the vent and such insulation or conduction 
members conforms to manufacturer's recommendations. 

Expulsion Fuse Unit (Expulsion Fuse). A vented fuse unit 
in which the expulsion effect of gases produced by the arc 
and lining of the fuseholder, either alone or aided by a 
spring, extinguishes the arc. 

Nonvented Power Fuse. A fuse without intentional provi- 
sion for the escape of arc gases, liquids, or solid particles to 
the atmosphere during circuit interruption. 

Power Fuse Unit. A vented, nonvented, or controlled vented 
fuse unit in which the arc is extinguished by being drawn 
through solid material, granular material, or liquid, either 
alone or aided by a spring. 

Vented Power Fuse. A fuse with provision for the escape 
of arc gases, liquids, or solid particles to the surrounding 
atmosphere during circuit interruption. 

Multiple Fuse. An assembly of two or more single-pole 
fuses. 

Switching Device. A device designed to close, open, or 
both, one or more electric circuits. 

Circuit Breaker A switching device capable of making, car- 
rying, and interrupting currents under normal circuit condi- 
tions, and also of making, carrying for a specified time, and 
interrupting currents under specified abnormal circuit condi- 
tions, such as those of short circuit. 

Cutout. An assembly of a fuse support with either a fuse- 
holder, fuse carrier, or disconnecting blade. The fuseholder 
or fuse carrier may include a conducting element (fuse link) 
or may act as the disconnecting blade by the inclusion of a 
nonfusible member. 

Disconnecting (or Isolating) Switch (Disconnector, Isolator). 
A mechanical switching device used for isolating a circuit 
or equipment from a source of power. 

Disconnecting Means. A device, group of devices, or other 
means whereby the conductors of a circuit can be discon- 
nected from their source of supply. 

Interrupter Switch. A switch capable of making, carrying, 
and interrupting specified currents. 

Oil Cutout (Oil-Filled Cutout). A cutout in which all or 
part of the fuse support and its fuse link or disconnecting 
blade is mounted in oil with complete immersion of the 
contacts and the fusible portion of the conducting element 



(fuse link) so that arc interruption by severing of the fuse 
link or by opening of the contacts will occur under oil. 

Oil Switch. A switch having contacts that operate under oil 
(or askarel or other suitable liquid). 

Regulator Bypass Switch. A specific device or combina- 
tion of devices designed to bypass a regulator. 



ARTICLE 110 
Requirements for Electrical Installations 

I. General 

110.1 Scope. This article covers general requirements for the 
examination and approval, installation and use, access to and 
spaces about electrical conductors and equipment; enclosures 
intended for personnel entry; and tunnel instaDations. 

110.2 Approval. The conductors and equipment required or 
permitted by this Code shall be acceptable only if approved. 

FPN: See 90.7, Examination of Equipment for Safety, and 
110.3, Examinadon, Identificadon, Installadon, and Use of 
Equipment. See definitions of Approved, Identified, La- 
beled, and Listed. 

110.3 Examination, Identification, Installation, and Use 
of Equipment. 

(A) Examination. In judging equipment, considerations 
such as the following shall be evaluated: 

(1) Suitability for installation and use in conformity with 
the provisions of this Code 

FPN: Suitability of equipment use may be identified by a 
descripUon marked on or provided with a product to iden- 
dfy the suitability of the product for a specific purpose, 
environment, or application. Suitability of equipment may 
be evidenced by listing or labeling. 

(2) Mechanical strength and durability, including, for parts 
designed to enclose and protect other equipment, the 
adequacy of the protection thus provided 

(3) Wire-bending and connection space 

(4) Electrical insulation 

(5) Heating effects under normal conditions of use and also 
under abnormal conditions likely to arise in service 

(6) Arcing effects 

(7) Classification by type, size, voltage, current capacity, 
and specific use 

(8) Other factors that contribute to the practical safeguard- 
ing of persons using or likely to come in contact with 
the equipment 



2005 Edition 



NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE 



70-33 



110.4 



ARTICLE 110 — REQUIREMENTS FOR ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS 



(B) Installation and Use. Listed or labeled equipment 
shall be installed and used in accordance with any instruc- 
tions included in the listing or labeling. 

110.4 Voltages. Throughout this Code, the voltage consid- 
ered shall be that at which the circuit operates. The voltage 
rating of electrical equipment shall not be less than the 
noriiinal voltage of a circuit to which it is connected. 

110.5 Conductors. Conductors normally used to carry cur- 
rent shall be of copper unless otherwise provided in this 
Code. Where the conductor material is not specified, the 
material and the sizes given in this Code shall apply to 
copper conductors. Where other materials are used, the size 
shall be changed accordingly. 

FPN: For aluminum and copper-clad aluminum conduc- 
tors, see 310.15. 

110.6 Conductor Sizes. Conductor sizes are expressed in 
American Wire Gage (AWG) or in circular mils. 

110.7 Insulation Integrity. Completed wiring installations 
shall be free from short circuits and from grounds other 
than as required or permitted in Article 250. 

110.8 Wiring Methods. Only wiring methods recognized 
as suitable are included in this Code. The recognized meth- 
ods of wiring shall be permitted to be installed in any type 
of building or occupancy, except as otherwise provided in 
this Code. 

110.9 Interrupting Rating. Equipment intended to inter- 
rupt current at fault levels shall have an interrupting rating 
sufficient for the nominal circuit voltage and the current 
that is available at the line terminals of the equipment. 

Equipment intended to interrupt current at other than fault 
levels shall have an interrupting rating at nominal circuit volt- 
age sufficient for the current that must be interrupted. 

110.10 Circuit Impedance and Other Characteristics. 

The overcurrent protective devices, the total impedance, the 
component short-circuit current ratings, and other charac- 
teristics of the circuit to be protected shall be selected and 
coordinated to permit the circuit-protective devices used to 
clear a fault to do so without extensive damage to the elec- 
trical components of the circuit. This fault shall be assumed 
to be either between two or more of the circuit conductors 
or between any circuit conductor and the grounding con- 
ductor or enclosing metal raceway. Listed products applied 
in accordance with their listing shall be considered to meet 
the requirements of this section. 

110.11 Deteriorating Agents. Unless identified for use in 
the operating environment, no conductors or equipment 



shall be located in damp or wet locations; where exposed to 
gases, fumes, vapors, hquids, or other agents that have a 
deteriorating effect on the conductors or equipment; or 
where exposed to excessive temperatures. 

FPN No. I : See 300.6 for protection against corrosion. 

FPN No. 2: Some cleaning and lubricating compounds 
can cause severe deterioration of many plastic rnaterials 
used for insulating and structural applications in equipment. 

Equipment identified only as "dry locations," "Type 1 ," 
or "indoor use only" shall be protected against permanent 
damage from the weather during building construction. 

110.12 Mechanical Execution of Work. Electrical equip- 
ment shall be installed in a neat and workmanlike manner. 

FPN: Accepted industry practices are described in 
ANSI/NEC A 1-2000, Standard Practices for Good 
Workmanship in Electrical Contracting, and other ANSI- 
approved installation standards. 

(A) Unused Openings. Unused cable or raceway openings 
in boxes, raceways, auxiUary gutters, cabinets, cutout boxes, 
meter socket enclosures, equipment cases, or housings shall be 
effectively closed to afford protection substantially equivalent 
to the wall of the equipment. Where metallic plugs or plates 
are used with nonmetalUc enclosures, they shall be recessed at 
least 6 mm {Va in.) from the outer surface of the enclosure. 

(B) Subsurface Enclosures. Conductors shall be racked to 
provide ready and safe access in underground and subsur- 
face enclosures into which persons enter for installation and 
maintenance. 

(C) Integrity of Electrical Equipment and Connections. 

Internal parts of electrical equipment, including busbars, 
wiring terminals, insulators, and other surfaces, shall not be 
damaged or contaminated by foreign materials such as 
paint, plaster, cleaners, abrasives, or corrosive residues. 
There shall be no damaged parts that may adversely affect 
safe operation or mechanical strength of the equipment 
such as parts that are broken; bent; cut; or deteriorated by 
corrosion, chemical action, or overheating. 

110.13 Mounting and Cooling of Equipment. 

(A) Mounting. Electrical equipment shall be firmly se- 
cured to the surface on which it is mounted. Wooden plugs 
driven into holes in masonry, concrete, plaster, or similar 
materials shall not be used. 

(B) Cooling. Electrical equipment that depends on the 
natural circulation of air and convection principles for cool- 
ing of exposed surfaces shall be installed so that room 
airflow over such surfaces is not prevented by walls or by 
adjacent installed equipment. For equipment designed for 



• 



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70-34 



NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE 2005 Edition 



ARTICLE 110 — REQUIREMENTS FOR ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS 



110.16 



• 



• 



• 



floor mounting, clearance between top surfaces and adja- 
cent surfaces shall be provided to dissipate rising warm air. 
Electrical equipment provided with ventilating openings 
shall be installed so that walls or other obstructions do not 
prevent the free circulation of air through the equipment. 

110.14 Electrical Connections. Because of different char- 
acteristics of dissimilar metals, devices such as pressure 
terminal or pressure splicing connectors and soldering lugs 
shall be identified for the material of the conductor and 
shall be properly installed and used. Conductors of dissimi- 
lar metals shall not be intermixed in a terminal or splicing 
connector where physical contact occurs between dissimilar 
conductors (such as copper and aluminum, copper and 
copper-clad aluminum, or aluminum and copper-clad alu- 
minum), unless the device is identified for the purpose and 
conditions of use. Materials such as solder, fluxes, inhibi- 
tors, and compounds, where employed, shall be suitable for 
the use and shall be of a type that will not adversely affect 
the conductors, installation, or equipment. 

FPN: Many terminations and equipment are marked with 
a tightening torque. 

(A) Terminals. Connection of conductors to terminal parts 
shall ensure a thoroughly good connection without damaging 
the conductors and shall be made by means of pressure con- 
nectors (including set-screw type), solder lugs, or splices to 
flexible leads. Connection by means of wire-binding screws or 
studs and nuts that have upturned lugs or the equivalent shall 
be permitted for 10 AWG or smaller conductors. 

Terminals for more than one conductor and terminals 
used to connect aluminum shall be so identified. 

(B) Splices. Conductors shall be spliced or joined with splic- 
ing devices identified for the use or by brazing, welding, or 
soldering with a fusible metal or alloy. Soldered splices shall 
first be spliced or joined so as to be mechanically and electri- 
caUy secure without solder and then be soldered. All splices 
and joints and the free ends of conductors shall be covered 
with an insulation equivalent to that of the conductors or with 
an insulating device identified for the purpose. 

Wire connectors or splicing means installed on conduc- 
tors for direct burial shall be listed for such use. 

(C) Temperature Limitations. The temperature rating as- 
sociated with the ampacity of a conductor shall be selected 
and coordinated so as not to exceed the lowest temperature 
rating of any connected termination, conductor, or device. 
Conductors with temperature ratings higher than specified 
for terminations shall be permitted to be used for ampacity 
adjustment, correction, or both. 

(1) Equipment Provisions. The determination of termination 
provisions of equipment shall be based on 110.14(C)(1)(a) 
or (C)(1)(b). Unless the equipment is listed and marked 



otherwise, conductor ampacities used in determining 
equipment termination provisions shall be based on 
Table 310.16 as appropriately modified by 310.15(B)(6). 

(a) Termination provisions of equipment for circuits 
rated 100 amperes or less, or marked for 14 AWG through 
1 AWG conductors, shaU be used only for one of the fol- 
lowing: 

(1) Conductors rated 60°C (140°F). 

(2) Conductors with higher temperature ratings, provided the 
ampacity of such conductors is determined based on the 
60°C (140°F) ampacity of the conductor size used. 

(3) Conductors with higher temperature ratings if the equip- 
ment is Usted and identified for use with such conductors. 

(4) For motors marked with design letters B, C, or D, con- 
ductors having an insulation rating of 75°C (167°F) or 
higher shall be permitted to be used, provided the am- 
pacity of such conductors does not exceed the 75°C 
(167°F) ampacity. 

(b) Termination provisions of equipment for circuits 
rated over 100 amperes, or marked for conductors larger 
than 1 AWG, shall be used only for one of the following: 

(1) Conductors rated 75°C (167°F) 

(2) Conductors with higher temperature ratings, provided 
the ampacity of such conductors does not exceed the 
75°C (167°F) ampacity of the conductor size used, or 
up to their ampacity if the equipment is listed and iden- 
tified for use with such conductors 

(2) Separate Connector Provisions. Separately installed 
pressure connectors shall be used with conductors at the 
ampacities not exceeding the ampacity at the listed and 
identified temperature rating of the connector. 

FPN: With respect to 110.14(C)(1) and (C)(2), equipment 
markings or listing information may additionally restrict 
the sizing and temperature ratings of connected conductors. 

110.15 High-Leg Marliing. On a 4-wire, delta-connected 
system where the midpoint of one phase winding is 
grounded, only the conductor or busbar having the higher 
phase voltage to ground shall be durably and permanently 
marked by an outer finish that is orange in color or by other 
effective means. Such identification shall be placed at each 
point on the system where a connection is made if the 
grounded conductor is also present. 

110.16 Flash Protection. Switchboards, panelboards, in- 
dustrial control panels, meter socket enclosures, and motor 
control centers that are in other than dwelling occupancies 
and are likely to require examination, adjustment, servic- 
ing, or maintenance while energized shall be field marked 
to warn qualified persons of potential electric arc flash haz- 
ards. The marking shall be located so as to be clearly vis- 
ible to qualified persons before examination, adjustment, 
servicing, or maintenance of the equipment. 



2005 Edition NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE 



70-35 



110.18 



ARTICLE 110 — REQUIREMENTS FOR ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS 



FPN No. 1: NFPA 70E-2004, Standard for Electrical 
Safety in the Workplace, provides assistance in determining 
severity of potential exposure, planning safe work prac- 
tices, and selecting personal protective equipment. 

FPN No. 2: ANSI Z535.4-1998, Product Safety Signs and 
Labels, provides guidelines for the design of safety signs 
and labels for application to products. 

110.18 Arcing Parts. Parts of electric equipment that in or- 
dinary operation produce arcs, sparks, fiames, or molten metal 
shall be enclosed or separated and isolated from aU combus- 
tible material. 

FPN: For hazardous (classified) locations, see Articles 500 
through 517. For motors, see 430.14. 

110.19 Light and Power from Railway Conductors. Cir- 
cuits for lighting and power shall not be connected to any 
system that contains trolley wires with a ground return. 

Exception: Such circuit connections shall be permitted in 
car houses, power houses, or passenger and freight stations 
operated in connection with electric railways. 

110.21 Marking. The manufacturer's name, trademark, or 
other descriptive marking by which the organization re- 
sponsible for the product can be identified shall be placed 
on all electric equipment. Other markings that indicate volt- 
age, current, wattage, or other ratings shall be provided as 
specified elsewhere in this Code. The marking shall be of 
sufficient durability to withstand the environment involved. 

110.22 Identification of Disconnecting Means. Each dis- 
connecting means shall be legibly marked to indicate its 
purpose unless located and arranged so the purpose is evi- 
dent. The marking shall be of sufficient durability to with- 
stand the environment involved. 

Where circuit breakers or fuses are applied in compliance 
with the series combination ratings marked on the equipment 
by the manufacturer, the equipment enclosure(s) shall be leg- 
ibly marked in the field to indicate the equipment has been 
appUed with a series combination rating. The marking shall be 
readily visible and state the following: 

CAUTION — SERIES COMBINATION SYSTEM 

RATED AMPERES. IDENTIFIED 

REPLACEMENT COMPONENTS REQUIRED. 

FPN: See 240.86(B) for interrupting rating marking for 
end-use equipment. 

110.23 Current Transformers. Unused current transform- 
ers associated with potentially energized circuits shall be 
short-circuited. 



IL 600 Volts, Nominal, or Less 

110.26 Spaces About Electrical Equipment. Sufficient 
access and working space shall be provided and maintained 
about all electric equipment to permit ready and safe opera- 
tion and maintenance of such equipment. Enclosures hous- 
ing electrical apparatus that are controlled by a lock(s) shall 
be considered accessible to qualified persons. 

(A) Working Space. Working space for equipment operat- 
ing at 600 volts, nominal, or less to ground and likely to 
require examination, adjustment, servicing, or maintenance 
while energized shall comply with the dimensions of 
110.26(A)(1), (A)(2), and (A)(3) or as required or permitted 
elsewhere in this Code. 

(1) Depth of Working Space. The depth of the working 
space in the direction of live parts shall not be less than that 
specified in Table 110.26(A)(1)(1) unless the requirements 
of 110.26(A)(1)(a), (A)(1)(b), or (A)(1)(c) are met. Dis- 
tances shall be measured from the exposed live parts or 
from the enclosure or opening if the live parts are enclosed. 

Table 110.26(A)(1) Working Spaces 



• 



Nominal 

Voltage to 

Ground 


Minimum Clear Distance 


Condition 1 Condition 2 Condition 3 


0-150 
151-600 


900 mm (3 ft) 900 mm (3 ft) 900 mm (3 ft) 
900 mm (3 ft) 1.1m (3 '/a ft) 1.2 m (4 ft) 



Note: Where the conditions are as follows: 

Condition 1 — Exposed live parts on one side of the working space 

and no Uve or grounded parts on the other side of the working space, 

or exposed live parts on both sides of the working space that are 

effectively guarded by insulating materials. 

Condition 2 — Exposed live parts on one side of the working space 

and grounded parts on the other side of the working space. Concrete, 

brick, or tile walls shall be considered as grounded. 

Condition 3 — Exposed live parts on both sides of the working 

space. 



(a) Dead-Front Assemblies. Working space shall not 
be required in the back or sides of assemblies, such as 
dead-front switchboards or motor control centers, where all 
connections and all renewable or adjustable parts, such as 
fuses or switches, are accessible from locations other than 
the back or sides. Where rear access is required to work on 
nonelectrical parts on the back of enclosed equipment, a 
minimum horizontal working space of 762 mm (30 in.) 
shall be provided. 

(b) Low Voltage. By special permission, smaller working 
spaces shall be permitted where all exposed live parts operate 
at not greater than 30 volts rms, 42 volts peak, or 60 volts dc. 

(c) Existing Buildings. In existing buildings where 
electrical equipment is being replaced. Condition 2 working 
clearance shall be permitted between dead-front switch- 



• 



70-36 



NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE 2005 Edition 



ARTICLE 110 — REQUIREMENTS FOR ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS 



110.26 



• 



• 



boards, panelboards, or motor control centers located 
across the aisle from each other where conditions of main- 
tenance and supervision ensure that written procedures 
have been adopted to prohibit equipment on both sides of 
the aisle from being open at the same time and quaUfied 
persons who are authorized will service the installation. 

(2) Width of Working Space. The width of the working 
space in front of the electric equipment shall be the width 
of the equipment or 750 mm (30 in.), whichever is greater. 
In all cases, the work space shall permit at least a 90 degree 
opening of equipment doors or hinged panels. 

(3) Height of Working Space. The work space shall be 
clear and extend from the grade, floor, or platform to the 
height required by 110.26(E). Within the height require- 
ments of this section, other equipment that is associated 
with the electrical installation and is located above or be- 
low the electrical equipment shall be permitted to extend 
not more than 150 mm (6 in.) beyond the front of the 
electrical equipment. 

(B) Clear Spaces. Working space required by this section 
shall not be used for storage. When normally enclosed live 
parts are exposed for inspection or servicing, the working 
space, if in a passageway or general open space, shall be 
suitably guarded. 

(C) Entrance to Working Space. 

(1) Minimum Required. At least one entrance of suffi- 
cient area shall be provided to give access to working space 
about electrical equipment. 

(2) Large Equipment. For equipment rated 1200 amperes 
or more that contains overcurrent devices, switching de- 
vices, or control devices, there shall be one entrance to the 
required working space not less than 610 mm (24 in.) wide 
and 2.0 m (6^/2 ft) high at each end of the working space. 
Where the entrance has a personnel door(s), the door(s) 
shall open in the direction of egress and be equipped with 
panic bars, pressure plates, or other devices that are nor- 
mally latched but open under simple pressure. 

A single entrance to the required working space shall be 
permitted where either of the conditions in 110.26(C)(2)(a) 
or (C)(2)(b) is met. 

(a) Unobstructed Exit. Where the location permits a 
continuous and unobstructed way of exit travel, a single 
entrance to the working space shall be permitted. 

(b) Extra Working Space. Where the depth of the 
working space is twice that required by 110.26(A)(1), a 
single entrance shall be permitted. It shall be located so that 
the distance from the equipment to the nearest edge of the 
entrance is not less than the minimum clear distance speci- 
fied in Table 110.26(A)(1) for equipment operating at that 
voltage and in that condition. 



(D) Illumination. Illumination shall be provided for all 
working spaces about service equipment, switchboards, 
panelboards, or motor control centers installed indoors. Ad- 
ditional lighting outlets shall not be required where the 
work space is illuminated by an adjacent light source or as 
permitted by 210.70(A)(1), Exception No. 1, for switched 
receptacles. In electrical equipment rooms, the illumination 
shall not be controlled by automatic means only. 

(E) Headroom. The minimum headroom of working 
spaces about service equipment, switchboards, panelboards, 
or motor control centers shall be 2.0 m (6"/2 ft). Where the 
electrical equipment exceeds 2.0 m (6 '/a ft) in height, the 
minimum headroom shall not be less than the height of the 
equipment. 

Exception: In existing dwelling units, service equipment 
or panelboards that do not exceed 200 amperes shall be 
permitted in spaces where the headroom is less than 2.0 m 
(6V2ft). 

(F) Dedicated Equipment Space. All switchboards, panel- 
boards, distribution boards, and motor control centers shall be 
located in dedicated spaces and protected from damage. 

Exception: Control equipment that by its very nature or 
because of other rules of the Code must be adjacent to or 
within sight of its operating machinery shall be permitted 
in those locations. 

(1) Indoor. Indoor installations shall comply with 
110.26(F)(1)(a) through (F)(1)(d). 

(a) Dedicated Electrical Space. The space equal to the 
width and depth of the equipment and extending from the 
floor to a height of 1.8 m (6 ft) above the equipment or to 
the structural ceiling, whichever is lower, shall be dedicated 
to the electrical installation. No piping, ducts, leak protec- 
tion apparatus, or other equipment foreign to the electrical 
installation shall be located in this zone. 

Exception: Suspended ceilings with removable panels shall 
be permitted within the 1.8-m (6-ft) zone. 

(b) Foreign Systems. The area above the dedicated 
space required by 110.26(F)(1)(a) shall be permitted to con- 
tain foreign systems, provided protection is installed to 
avoid damage to the electrical equipment from condensa- 
tion, leaks, or breaks in such foreign systems. 

(c) Sprinkler Protection. Sprinkler protection shall be 
permitted for the dedicated space where the piping com- 
plies with this section. 

(d) Suspended Ceilings. A dropped, suspended, or simi- 
lar ceiling that does not add strength to the building structure 
shall not be considered a structural ceihng. 



2005 Edition 



NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE 



70-37 



110.27 



ARTICLE 110 — REQUIREMENTS FOR ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS 



(2) Outdoor. Outdoor electrical equipment shall be in- 
stalled in suitable enclosures and shall be protected from 
accidental contact by unauthorized personnel, or by vehicu- 
lar traffic, or by accidental spillage or leakage from piping 
systems. The working clearance space shall include the 
zone described in 110.26(A). No architectural appurtenance 
or other equipment shall be located in this zone. 

110.27 Guarding of Live Parts. 

(A) Live Parts Guarded Against Accidental Contact. 

Except as elsewhere required or permitted by this Code, 
live parts of electrical equipment operating at 50 volts or 
more shall be guarded against accidental contact by ap- 
proved enclosures or by any of the following means: 

(1) By location in a room, vault, or similar enclosure that is 
accessible only to qualified persons. 

(2) By suitable permanent, substantial partitions or screens 
arranged so that only qualified persons have access to 
the space within reach of the live parts. Any openings 
in such partitions or screens shall be sized and located 
so that persons are not likely to come into accidental 
contact with the live parts or to bring conducting ob- 
jects into contact with them. 

(3) By location on a suitable balcony, gallery, or platform 
elevated and arranged so as to exclude unqualified per- 
sons. 

(4) By elevation of 2.5 m (8 ft) or more above the floor or 
other working surface. 

(B) Prevent Physical Damage. In locations where electric 
equipment is likely to be exposed to physical damage, en- 
closures or guards shall be so arranged and of such strength 
as to prevent such damage. 

(C) Warning Signs. Entrances to rooms and other guarded 
locations that contain exposed live parts shall be marked 
with conspicuous warning signs forbidding unqualified per- 
sons to enter. 

FPN: For motors, see 430.232 and 430.233. For over 
600 volts, see 110.34. 

III. Over 600 Volts, Nominal 

110.30 General. Conductors and equipment used on cir- 
cuits over 600 volts, nominal, shall comply with Part I of 
this article and with the following sections, which supple- 
ment or modify Part I. In no case shall the provisions of 
this part apply to equipment on the supply side of the ser- 
vice point. 

110.31 Enclosure for Electrical Installations. Electrical in- 
stallations in a vault, room, or closet or in an area surrounded 
by a wall, screen, or fence, access to which is controlled by a 



lock(s) or other approved means, shall be considered to be 
accessible to quahfied persons only. The type of enclosure 
used in a given case shall be designed and constructed accord- 
ing to the nature and degree of the hazard(s) associated with 
the installation. 

For installations other than equipment as described in 
110.31(D), a wall, screen, or fence shall be used to enclose 
an outdoor electrical installation to deter access by persons 
who are not qualified. A fence shall not be less than 2.1 m 
(7 ft) in height or a combination of 1.8 m (6 ft) or more of 
fence fabric and a 300-mm (1-ft) or more extension utiliz- 
ing three or more strands of barbed wire or equivalent. The 
distance from the fence to live parts shall be not less than 
given in Table 110.31. 

Table 110.31 Minimum Distance from Fence to Live Parts 



Minimum Distance to Live Parts 


Nominal Voltage 


m ft 


601 - 13,799 
13,800 - 230,000 
Over 230,000 


3.05 10 
4.57 15 
5.49 18 



Note: For clearances of conductors for specific system voltages and typi- 
cal BIL ratings, see ANSI C2-2002, National Electrical Safety Code. 



FPN: See Article 450 for construction requirements for 
transformer vaults. 

(A) Fire Resistivity of Electrical Vaults. The walls, roof, 
floors, and doorways of vaults containing conductors and 
equipment over 600 volts, nominal, shall be constructed of 
materials that have adequate structural strength for the con- 
ditions, with a minimum fire rating of 3 hours. The floors of 
vaults in contact with the earth shall be of concrete that is 
not less than 4 in. (102 mm) thick, but where the vault is 
constructed with a vacant space or other stories below it, 
the floor shall have adequate structural strength for the load 
imposed on it and a minimum fire resistance of 3 hours. For 
the purpose of this section, studs and wallboards shall not 
be considered acceptable. 

(6) Indoor Installations. 

(1) In Places Accessible to Unqualified Persons. Indoor 
electrical installations that are accessible to unqualified per- 
sons shall be made with metal-enclosed equipment. Metal- 
enclosed switchgear, unit substations, transformers, pull 
boxes, connection boxes, and other similar associated 
equipment shall be marked with appropriate caution signs. 
Openings in ventilated dry-type transformers or similar 
openings in other equipment shall be designed so that for- 
eign objects inserted through these openings are deflected 
from energized parts. 



• 



• 



70-38 



NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE 2005 Edition 



ARTICLE 110 — REQUIREMENTS FOR ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS 



110.34 



(2) In Places Accessible to Qualified Persons Only. In- 
door electrical installations considered accessible only to 
qualified persons in accordance with this section shall com- 
ply with 110.34, 110.36, and 490.24. 

(C) Outdoor Installations. 

(1) In Places Accessible to Unqualified Persons. Outdoor 
electrical installations that are open to unqualified persons 
shall comply with Parts I, II, and III of Article 225. 

FPN: For clearances of conductors for system voltages 
over 600 volts, nominal, see ANSI C2-2002, National Elec- 
trical Safety Code. 

(2) In Places Accessible to Qualified Persons Only. Out- 
door electrical installations that have exposed live parts 
shall be accessible to qualified persons only in accordance 
with the first paragraph of this section and shall comply 
with 110.34, 110.36, and 490.24. 

(D) Enclosed Equipment Accessible to Unqualified Per- 
sons. Ventilating or similar openings in equipment shall be 
designed such that foreign objects inserted through these 
openings are deflected from energized parts. Where exposed 
to physical damage from vehicular traffic, suitable guards shall 
be provided. Nonmetallic or metal-enclosed equipment lo- 
cated outdoors and accessible to the general public shall be 
designed such that exposed nuts or bolts cannot be readily 
removed, permitting access to live parts. Where nonmetalhc or 
metal-enclosed equipment is accessible to the general public 
and the bottom of the enclosure is less than 2.5 m (8 ft) above 
the floor or grade level, the enclosure door or hinged cover 
shall be kept locked. Doors and covers of enclosures used 
solely as pull boxes, splice boxes, or junction boxes shall be 
locked, bolted, or screwed on. Underground box covers that 
weigh over 45.4 kg (100 lb) shall be considered as meeting 
this requirement. 

110.32 Work Space About Equipment. Sufficient space 
shall be provided and maintained about electric equipment 
to permit ready and safe operation and maintenance of such 
equipment. Where energized parts are exposed, the mini- 
mum clear work space shall not be less than 2.0 m (6V2 ft) 
high (measured vertically from the floor or platform) or less 
than 900 mm (3 ft) wide (measured parallel to the equip- 
ment). The depth shall be as required in 110.34(A). In all 
cases, the work space shall permit at least a 90 degree 
opening of doors or hinged panels. 

110.33 Entrance and Access to Work Space. 

(A) Entrance. At least one entrance not less than 610 mm 
(24 in.) wide and 2.0 m (6!/2 ft) high shall be provided to 
give access to the working space about electric equipment. 
Where the entrance has a personnel door(s), the door(s) 
shall open in the direction of egress and be equipped with 



panic bars, pressure plates, or other devices that are nor- 
mally latched but open under simple pressure. 

(1) Large Equipment. On switchboard and control panels 
exceeding 1.8 m (6 ft) in width, there shall be one entrance 
at each end of the equipment. A single entrance to the 
required working space shall be permitted where either of 
the conditions in 110.33(A)(1)(a) or (A)(1)(b) is met. 

(a) Unobstructed Exit. Where the location permits a 
continuous and unobstructed way of exit travel, a single 
entrance to the working space shall be permitted. 

(b) Extra Working Space. Where the depth of the 
working space is twice that required by 110.34(A), a single 
entrance shall be permitted. It shall be located so that the 
distance from the equipment to the nearest edge of the 
entrance is not less than the minimum clear distance speci- 
fied in Table 110.34(A) for equipment operating at that 
voltage and in that condition. 

(2) Guarding. Where bare energized parts at any voltage 
or insulated energized parts above 600 volts, nominal, to 
ground are located adjacent to such entrance, they shall be 
suitably guarded. 

(B) Access. Permanent ladders or stairways shall be provided 
to give safe access to the working space around electric equip- 
ment installed on platforms, balconies, or mezzanine floors or 
in attic or roof rooms or spaces. 

110.34 Work Space and Guarding. 

(A) Working Space. Except as elsewhere required or per- 
mitted in this Code, the minimum clear working space in 
the direction of access to live parts of electrical equipment 
shall not be less than specified in Table 110.34(A). Dis- 
tances shall be measured from the live parts, if such are 
exposed, or from the enclosure front or opening if such are 
enclosed. 

Exception: Working space shall not be required in back of 
equipment such as dead-front switchboards or control as- 
semblies where there are no renewable or adjustable parts 
(such as fuses or switches) on the back and where all con- 
nections are accessible from locations other than the back. 
Where rear access is required to work on de-energized 
parts on the back of enclosed equipment, a minimum work- 
ing space of 750 mm (30 in.) horizontally shall be provided. 

(B) Separation from Low-Voltage Equipment. Where 
switches, cutouts, or otiier equipment operating at 600 volts, 
nominal, or less are installed in a vault, room, or enclosure 
where there are exposed Live parts or exposed wiring operating 
at over 600 volts, nominal, the high-voltage equipment shall 
be effectively separated from the space occupied by the low- 
voltage equipment by a suitable partition, fence, or screen. 



2005 Edition 



NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE 



70-39 



110.36 



ARTICLE 110 — REQUIREMENTS FOR ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS 



Table 110.34(A) Minimum Depth of Clear Working Space at 
Electrical Equipment 



Table 110.34(E) Elevation of Unguarded Live Parts Above 
Working Space 



Nominal 


Minimum Clear Distance 


Nominal Voltage 
Between Phases 


Elevation 


Voltage to 
Ground 


Condition 1 


Condition 2 


Condition 3 


m ft 


601-2500 V 

2501-9000 V 

9001-25,000 V 

25,00 lV-75 kV 


900 mm (3 ft) 
1.2 m (4 ft) 
1.5 m (5 ft) 
1.8 m(6ft) 
2.5 m (8 ft) 


1.2 m (4 ft) 
1.5 m (5 ft) 
1.8 m (6 ft) 
2.5 m (8 ft) 
3.0 m (10 ft) 


1.5 m (5 ft) 
1.8 m (6 ft) 
2.8 m (9 ft) 
3.0 m (10 ft) 
3.7 m (12 ft) 


601-7500 V 

7501-35,000 V 

Over 35 kV 


2.8 9 

2.9 9'/2 

2.9 m + 9.5 mm/kV Wi ft + 0.37 in./kV 
above 35 above 35 


Above 75 kV 







Note: Where the conditions are as follows: 

Condition 1 — Exposed live parts on one side of the working space 

and no hve or grounded parts on the other side of the working space, 

or exposed live parts on both sides of the working space that are 

effectively guarded by insulating materials. 

Condition 2 — Exposed live parts on one side of the working space 

and grounded parts on the other side of the working space. Concrete, 

brick, or tile walls shall be considered as grounded. 

Condition 3 — Exposed live parts on both sides of the working space. 



Exception: Switches or other equipment operating at 
600 volts, nominal, or less and serving only equipment 
within the high-voltage vault, room, or enclosure shall 
be permitted to be installed in the high-voltage vault, 
room or enclosure without a partition, fence, or screen if 
accessible to qualified persons only. 

(C) Locked Rooms or Enclosures. The entrance to all build- 
ings, vaults, rooms, or enclosures containing exposed live 
parts or exposed conductors operating at over 600 volts, nomi- 
nal, shall be kept locked unless such entrances are under the 
observation of a qualified person at all times. 

Where the voltage exceeds 600 volts, nominal, perma- 
nent and conspicuous warning signs shall be provided, 
reading as follows: 

DANGER — HIGH VOLTAGE — KEEP OUT 

(D) Illumination. Illumination shall be provided for all 
working spaces about electrical equipment. The lighting 
outlets shall be arranged so that persons changing lamps or 
making repairs on the lighting system are not endangered 
by hve parts or other equipment. 

The points of control shall be located so that persons 
are not likely to come in contact with any hve part or 
moving part of the equipment while turning on the lights. 

(E) Elevation of Unguarded Live Parts. Unguarded live 
parts above working space shall be maintained at elevations 
not less than required by Table 110.34(E). 

(F) Protection of Service Equipment, Metal-Enclosed 
Power Switchgear, and Industrial Control Assemblies. 

Pipes or ducts foreign to the electrical installation and 
requiring periodic maintenance or whose malfunction 
would endanger the operation of the electrical system 



shall not be located in the vicinity of the service equip- 
ment, metal-enclosed power switchgear, or industrial control 
assemblies. Protection shall be provided where necessary to 
avoid damage from condensation leaks and breaks in such 
foreign systems. Piping and other facihties shall not be con- 
sidered foreign if provided for fire protection of the electrical 
installation. 

110.36 Circuit Conductors. Circuit conductors shall be 
permitted to be installed in raceways; in cable trays; as 
metal-clad cable, as bare wire, cable, and busbars; or as 
Type MV cables or conductors as provided in 300.37, 
300.39, 300.40, and 300.50. Bare live conductors shall con- 
form with 490.24. 

Insulators, together with their mounting and conductor at- 
tachments, where used as supports for wires, single-conductor 
cables, or busbars, shall be capable of safely withstanding the 
maximum magnetic forces that would prevail when two or 
more conductors of a circuit were subjected to short-circuit 
current. 

Exposed runs of insulated wires and cables that have a 
bare lead sheath or a braided outer covering shall be sup- 
ported in a manner designed to prevent physical damage to 
the braid or sheath. Supports for lead-covered cables shall 
be designed to prevent electrolysis of the sheath. 

110.40 Temperature Limitations at Terminations. Con- 
ductors shall be permitted to be terminated based on the 
90°C (194°F) temperature rating and ampacity as given 
in Table 310.67 through Table 310.86, unless otherwise 
identified. 

IV. T\innel Installations over 600 Volts, Nominal 

110.51 General. 

(A) Covered. The provisions of this part shall apply to the 
installation and use of high-voltage power distribution and 
utilization equipment that is portable, mobile, or both, such 
as substations, trailers, cars, mobile shovels, draglines, 
hoists, drills, dredges, compressors, pumps, conveyors, un- 
derground excavators, and the like. 



70^0 



NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE 2005 Edition 



ARTICLE 110 — REQUIREMENTS FOR ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS 



110.72 



(B) Other Articles. The requirements of this part shall be 
additional to, or amendatory of, those prescribed in Articles 
100 through 490 of this Code. Special attention shall be 
paid to Article 250. 

(C) Protection Against Physical Damage. Conductors and 
cables in tunnels shall be located above the tunnel floor and so 
placed or guarded to protect them from physical damage. 

110.52 Overcurrent Protection. Motor-operated equip- 
ment shall be protected from overcurrent in accordance 
with Parts III, IV, and V of Article 430. Transformers shall 
be protected from overcurrent in accordance with 450.3. 

110.53 Conductors. High-voltage conductors in tunnels 
shall be installed in metal conduit or other metal raceway. 
Type MC cable, or other approved multiconductor cable. 
Multiconductor portable cable shall be permitted to supply 
mobile equipment. 

110.54 Bonding and Equipment Grounding Conductors. 

(A) Grounded and Bonded. All non-current-carrying 
metal parts of electric equipment and all metal raceways 
and cable sheaths shall be effectively grounded and bonded 
to all metal pipes and rails at the portal and at intervals not 
exceeding 300 m (1000 ft) throughout the tunnel. 

(B) Equipment Grounding Conductors. An equipment 
grounding conductor shall be run with circuit conductors 
inside the metal raceway or inside the multiconductor cable 
jacket. The equipment grounding conductor shall be per- 
mitted to be insulated or bare. 

110.55 Transformers, Switches, and Electrical Equip- 
ment. All transformers, switches, motor controllers, motors, 
rectifiers, and other equipment installed below ground shall be 
protected from physical damage by location or guarding. 

110.56 Energized Parts. Bare terminals of transformers, 
switches, motor controllers, and other equipment shall be 
enclosed to prevent accidental contact with energized parts. 

110.57 Ventilation System Controls. Electrical controls 
for the ventilation system shall be arranged so that the 
airflow can be reversed. 

110.58 Disconnecting Means. A switch or circuit breaker 
that simultaneously opens all ungrounded conductors of the 
circuit shall be installed within sight of each transformer or 
motor location for disconnecting the transformer or motor. 
The switch or circuit breaker for a transformer shall have an 
ampere rating not less than the ampacity of the transformer 
supply conductors. The switch or circuit breaker for a motor 
shall comply with the appUcable requirements of Article 430. 



110.59 Enclosures. Enclosures for use in tunnels shall be 
dripproof, weatherproof, or submersible as required by the 
environmental conditions. Switch or contactor enclosures 
shall not be used as junction boxes or as raceways for 
conductors feeding through or tapping off to other switches, 
unless the enclosures comply with 312.8. 

V. Manholes and Other Electric Enclosures Intended 
for Personnel Entry, All Voltages 

110.70 General. Electric enclosures intended for personnel 
entry and specifically fabricated for this purpose shall be of 
sufficient size to provide safe work space about electric 
equipment with live parts that is likely to require examina- 
tion, adjustment, servicing, or maintenance while ener- 
gized. Such enclosures shall have sufficient size to permit 
ready installation or withdrawal of the conductors em- 
ployed without damage to the conductors or to their insu- 
lation. They shall comply with the provisions of this part. 

Exception: Where electric enclosures covered by Part V of 
this article are part of an industrial wiring system operat- 
ing under conditions of maintenance and supervision that 
ensure that only qualified persons monitor and supervise 
the system, they shall be permitted to be designed and in- 
stalled in accordance with appropriate engineering prac- 
tice. If required by the authority having jurisdiction, design 
documentation shall be provided. 

110.71 Strength. Manholes, vaults, and their means of ac- 
cess shall be designed under qualified engineering supervi- 
sion and shall withstand all loads likely to be imposed on 
the structures. 

FPN: See ANSI C2-2002, National Electrical Safety 
Code, for additional information on the loading that can be 
expected to bear on underground enclosures. 

110.72 Cabling Work Space. A clear work space not less 
than 900 mm (3 ft) wide shall be provided where cables are 
located on both sides, and not less than 750 mm (ZVi ft) 
where cables are only on one side. The vertical headroom 
shall not be less than 1.8 m (6 ft) unless the opening is 
within 300 nmi (1 ft), measured horizontally, of the adja- 
cent interior side wall of the enclosure. 

Exception: A manhole containing only one or more of the 
following shall be permitted to have one of the horizontal 
work space dimensions reduced to 600 mm (2 ft) where the 
other horizontal clear work space is increased so the sum 
of the two dimensions is not less than 1.8 m (6 ft): 

(1) Optical fiber cables as covered in Article 770 

(2) Power-limited fire alarm circuits supplied in accor- 
dance with 760.41(A) 

(3) Class 2 or Class 3 remote-control and signaling cir- 
cuits, or both, supplied in accordance with 725.41 



2005 Edition NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE 



70-41 



110.73 



ARTICLE 110 — REQUIREMENTS FOR ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS 



110.73 Equipment Work Space. Where electric equipment 
with live parts that is likely to require examination, adjust- 
ment, servicing, or maintenance while energized is installed in 
a manhole, vault, or other enclosure designed for personnel 
access, the work space and associated requirements in 110.26 
shall be met for installations operating at 600 volts or less. 
Where the installation is over 600 volts, the work space and 
associated requirements in 110.34 shall be met. A manhole 
access cover that weighs over 45 kg (100 lb) shall be consid- 
ered as meeting the requirements of 110.34(C). 

110.74 Bending Space for Conductors. Bending space for 
conductors operating at 600 volts or below shall be provided 
in accordance with the requirements of 314.28. Conductors 
operating over 600 volts shall be provided with bending space 
in accordance with 314.71(A) and 314.71(B), as applicable. 
All conductors shall be cabled, racked up, or arranged in an 
approved manner that provides ready and safe access for per- 
sons to enter for installation and maintenance. 

Exception: Where 314.71(B) applies, each row or column 
of ducts on one wall of the enclosure shall be calculated 
individually, and the single row or column that provides the 
maximum distance shall be used. 

110.75 Access to Manholes. 

(A) Dimensions. Rectangular access openings shall not be 
less than 650 mm x 550 mm (26 in. x 22 in.). Round access 
openings in a manhole shall not be less than 650 mm 
(26 in.) in diameter. 

Exception: A manhole that has a fixed ladder that does not 
obstruct the opening or that contains only one or more of 
the following shall be permitted to reduce the minimum 
cover diameter to 600 mm (2 ft): 

(1) Optical fiber cables as covered in Article 770 

(2) Power-limited fire alarm circuits supplied in accor- 
dance with 760.41 

(3) Class 2 or Class 3 remote-control and signaling cir- 
cuits, or both, supplied in accordance with 725.41 

(B) Obstructions. Manhole openings shall be free of pro- 
trusions that could injure personnel or prevent ready egress. 



(C) Location. Manhole openings for personnel shall be lo- 
cated where they are not directly above electric equipment or 
conductors in the enclosure. Where this is not practicable, 
either a protective barrier or a fixed ladder shall be provided. 

(D) Covers. Covers shall be over 45 kg (100 lb) or other- 
wise designed to require the use of tools to open. They shall 
be designed or restrained so they cannot fall into the man- 
hole or protrude sufficiently to contact electrical conductors 
or equipment within the manhole. 

(E) Marking. Manhole covers shall have an identifying 
mark or logo that prominently indicates their function, such 
as "electric." 

110.76 Access to Vaults and Tunnels. 

(A) Location. Access openings for personnel shall be lo- 
cated where they are not directly above electric equipment 
or conductors in the enclosure. Other openings shall be 
permitted over equipment to facilitate installation, mainte- 
nance, or replacement of equipment. 

(B) Locks. In addition to compliance with the requirements 
of 110.34, if applicable, access openings for personnel shall 
be arranged such that a person on the inside can exit when 
the access door is locked from the outside, or in the case of 
normally locking by padlock, the locking arrangement shall 
be such that the padlock can be closed on the locking sys- 
tem to prevent locking from the outside. 

110.77 Ventilation. Where manholes, tunnels, and vaults 
have communicating openings into enclosed areas used by 
the public, ventilation to open air shall be provided wher- 
ever practicable. 

110.78 Guarding. Where conductors or equipment, or both, 
could be contacted by objects falling or being pushed through 
a ventilating grating, both conductors and live paits shall be 
protected in accordance with the requirements of 110.27(A)(2) 
or 110.31(B)(1), depending on the voltage. 

110.79 Fixed Ladders. Fixed ladders shall be corrosion 
resistant. 



70^2 



NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE 2005 Edition 



ARTICLE 200 — USE AND IDENTIFICATION OF GROUNDED CONDUCTORS 



200.6 



Chapter 2 Wiring and Protection 



ARTICLE 200 

Use and Identification br Grounded 

Conductors 



• 



# 



200.1 Scope. This article provides requirements for the 
following: 

(1) Identification of terminals 

(2) Grounded conductors in premises wiring systems 

(3) Identification of grounded conductors 

FPN: See Article 100 for definitions of Grounded Conduc- 
tor and Grounding Conductor. 

200.2 General. All premises wiring systems, other than 
circuits and systems exempted or prohibited by 210.10, 
215.7, 250.21, 250.22, 250.162, 503.155, 517.63, 668.11, 
668.21, and 690.41 Exception, shall have a grounded con- 
ductor that is identified in accordance with 200.6. 

The grounded conductor, where insulated, shall have 
insulation that is (1) suitable, other than color, for any un- 
grounded conductor of the same circuit on circuits of less 
than 1000 volts or impedance grounded neutral systems of 
1 kV and over, or (2) rated not less than 600 volts for 
solidly grounded neutral systems of 1 kV and over as de- 
scribed in 250.184(A). 

200.3 Connection to Grounded System. Premises wiring 
shall not be electrically connected to a supply system unless 
the latter contains, for any grounded conductor of the interior 
system, a corresponding conductor that is grounded. For the 
purpose of this section, electrically connected shall mean con- 
nected so as to be capable of carrying current, as distinguished 
from connection through electromagnetic induction. 

200.6 Means of Identifying Grounded Conductors. 

(A) Sizes 6 AWG or Smaller. An insulated grounded con- 
ductor of 6 AWG or smaller shall be identified by a con- 
tinuous white or gray outer finish or by three continuous 
white stripes on other than green insulation along its entire 
length. Wires that have their outer covering finished to 
show a white or gray color but have colored tracer threads 
in the braid identifying the source of manufacture shall be 
considered as meeting the provisions of this section. Insu- 
lated grounded conductors shall also be permitted to be 
identified as follows: 

(1) The grounded conductor of a mineral-insulated, metal- 
sheathed cable shall be identified at the time of instal- 
lation by distinctive marking at its terminations. 



(2) A single-conductor, sunlight-resistant, outdoor-rated 
cable used as a grounded conductor in photovoltaic 
power systems as permitted by 690.31 shall be identi- 
fied at the time of installation by distinctive white 
marking at all terminations. 

(3) Fixture wire shall comply with the requirements for 
grounded conductor identification as specified in 402.8. 

(4) For aerial cable, the identification shall be as above, or 
by means of a ridge located on the exterior of the cable 
so as to identify it. 

(B) Sizes Larger Than 6 AWG. An insulated grounded 
conductor larger than 6 AWG shall be identified by one of 
the following means: 

(1) By a continuous white or gray outer finish. 

(2) By three continuous white stripes along its entire length 
on other than green insulation. 

(3) At the time of installation, by a distinctive white or 
gray marking at its terminations. This marking shall 
encircle the conductor or insulation. 

(C) Flexible Cords. An insulated conductor that is in- 
tended for use as a grounded conductor, where contained 
within a flexible cord, shall be identified by a white or gray 
outer finish or by methods permitted by 400.22. 

(D) Grounded Conductors of Different Systems. Where 
grounded conductors of different systems are installed in 
the same raceway, cable, box, auxiliary gutter, or other type 
of enclosure, each grounded conductor shall be identified 
by system. Identification that distinguishes each system 
grounded conductor shall be permitted by one of the fol- 
lowing means: 

(1) One system grounded conductor shall have an outer 
covering conforming to 200.6(A) or 200.6(B). 

(2) The grounded conductor(s) of other systems shall have 
a different outer covering conforming to 200.6(A) or 
200.6(B) or by an outer covering of white or gray with 
a readily distinguishable colored stripe other than green 
running along the insulation. 

(3) Other and different means of identification as allowed 
by 200.6(A) or 200.6(B) that will distinguish each sys- 
tem grounded conductor. 

This means of identification shall be permanently posted at 
each branch-circuit panelboard. 

(E) Grounded Conductors of Multiconductor Cables. 

The insulated grounded conductors in a multiconductor 
cable shall be identified by a continuous white or gray outer 
finish or by three continuous white stripes on other than 



2005 Edition NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE 



70-43 



200.7 



ARTICLE 200 — USE AND IDENTIFICATION OF GROUNDED CONDUCTORS 



green insulation along its entire length. Multiconductor flat 
cable 4 AWG or larger shall be permitted to employ an 
external ridge on the grounded conductor. 

Exception No. J: Where the conditions of maintenance 
and supervision ensure that only qualified persons service 
the installation, grounded conductors in multiconductor 
cables shall be permitted to be permanently identified at 
their terminations at the time of installation by a distinctive 
white marking or other equally effective means. 

Exception No. 2: The grounded conductor of a multiconduc- 
tor vamished-cloth-insulated cable shall be permitted to be 
identified at its terminations at the time of installation by a 
distinctive white marking or other equally effective means. 

FPN: The color gray may have been used in the past as an 
ungrounded conductor. Care should be taken when working 
on existing systems. 

200.7 Use of Insulation of a White or Gray Color or 
with Three Continuous White Stripes. 

(A) General. The following shall be used only for the 
grounded circuit conductor, unless otherwise permitted in 
200.7(B) and 200.7(C): 

(1) A conductor with continuous white or gray covering 

(2) A conductor with three continuous white stripes on 
other than green insulation 

(3) A marking of white or gray color at the termination 

(B) Circuits of Less Than 50 Volts. A conductor with 
white or gray color insulation or three continuous white 
stripes or having a marking of white or gray at the termi- 
nation for circuits of less than 50 volts shall be required to 
be grounded only as required by 250.20(A). 

(C) Circuits of 50 Volts or More. The use of insulation that 
is white or gray or that has three continuous white stripes for 
other than a grounded conductor for circuits of 50 volts or 
more shall be permitted only as in (1) through (3). 

(1) If part of a cable assembly and where the insulation is 
permanently reidentified to indicate its use as an un- 
grounded conductor, by painting or other effective 
means at its termination, and at each location where the 
conductor is visible and accessible. Identification shall 
encircle the insulation and shall be a color other than 
white, gray, or green. 

(2) Where a cable assembly contains an insulated conduc- 
tor for single-pole, 3-way or 4-way switch loops and 
the conductor with white or gray insulation or a mark- 
ing of three continuous white stripes is used for the 
supply to the switch but not as a return conductor from 
the switch to the switched outlet. In these applications, 
the conductor with white or gray insulation or with 
three continuous white stripes shall be permanently re- 
identified to indicate its use by painting or other effec- 



tive means at its terminations and at each location 
where the conductor is visible and accessible. 
(3) Where a flexible cord, having one conductor identified 
by a white or gray outer finish or three continuous 
white stripes or by any other means permitted by 
400.22, is used for connecting an appliance or equip- 
ment permitted by 400.7. This shall apply to flexible 
cords connected to outlets whether or not the outlet is 
supplied by a circuit that has a grounded conductor. 

FPN: The color gray may have been used in the past as an 
ungrounded conductor Care should be taken when working 
on existing systems. 

200.9 Means of Identification of Terminals. The identifi- 
cation of terminals to which a grounded conductor is to be 
connected shall be substantially white in color. The identi- 
fication of other terminals shall be of a readily distinguish- 
able different color. 

Exception: Where the conditions of maintenance and super- 
vision ensure that only qualified persons service the installa- 
tions, terminals for grounded conductors shall be permitted to 
be permanently identified at the time of installation by a dis- 
tinctive white marking or other equally effective means. 

200.10 Identification of Terminals. 

(A) Device Terminals. All devices, excluding panelboards, 
provided with terminals for the attachment of conductors and 
intended for connection to more than one side of the circuit 
shall have terminals properly marked for identification, unless 
the electrical connection of the terminal intended to be con- 
nected to the grounded conductor is clearly evident. 

Exception: Terminal identification shall not be required for 
devices that have a normal current rating of over 30 amperes, 
other than polarized attachment plugs and polarized recep- 
tacles for attachment plugs as required in 200.10(B). 

(B) Receptacles, Plugs, and Connectors. Receptacles, 
polarized attachment plugs, and cord connectors for plugs 
and polarized plugs shall have the terminal intended for 
connection to the grounded conductor identified as follows: 

(1) Identification shall be by a metal or metal coating that 
is substantially white in color or by the word white or 
the letter W located adjacent to the identified terminal. 

(2) If the terminal is not visible, the conductor entrance 
hole for the connection shall be colored white or 
marked with the word white or the letter W. 

FPN: See 250.126 for identification of wiring device 
equipment grounding conductor terminals. 

(C) Screw Shells. For devices with screw shells, the ter- 
minal for the grounded conductor shall be the one con- 
nected to the screw shell. 



• 



70^4 



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ARTICLE 210 — BRANCH CIRCUITS 



210.3 



# 



• 



• 



(D) Screw Shell Devices with Leads. For screw shell de- 
vices with attached leads, the conductor attached to the 
screw shell shall have a white or gray finish. The outer 
finish of the other conductor shall be of a solid color that 
will not be confused with the white or gray finish used to 
identify the grounded conductor. 

FPN: The color gray may have been used in the past as an 
ungrounded conductor. Care should be taken when working 
on existing systems. 

(E) Appliances. Appliances that have a single-pole 
switch or a single-pole overcurrent device in the line or 
any line-connected screw shell lampholders, and that are 
to be connected by (1) a permanent wiring method or (2) 
field-installed attachment plugs and cords with three or 
more wires (including the equipment grounding conduc- 
tor), shall have means to identify the terminal for the 
grounded circuit conductor (if any). 

200.11 Polarity of Connections. No grounded conductor 
shall be attached to any terminal or lead so as to reverse the 
designated polarity. 



ARTICLE t210 
Eranch Circuits 



I. General Provisions 

210.1 Scope. This article covers branch circuits except for 
branch circuits that supply only motor loads, which are 
covered in Article 430. Provisions of this article and Article 
430 apply to branch circuits with combination loads. 

210.2 Other Articles for Specific-Purpose Branch Cir- 
cuits. Branch circuits shall comply with this article and also 
with the appHcable provisions of other articles of this Code. 
The provisions for branch circuits supplying equipment listed 
in Table 210.2 amend or supplement the provisions in this 
article and shall apply to branch circuits referred to therein. 

210.3 Rating. Branch circuits recognized by this article shall 
be rated in accordance with the maximum permitted ampere 
rating or setting of the overcurrent device. The rating for other 
than individual branch circuits shall be 15, 20, 30, 40, and 50 
amperes. Where conductors of higher ampacity are used for 
any reason, the ampere rating or setting of the specified over- 
current device shall determine the circuit rating. 

Exception: Multioutlet branch circuits greater than 50 
amperes shall be permitted to supply nonlighting outlet 
loads on industrial premises where conditions of mainte- 
nance and supervision ensure that only qualified persons 
service the equipment. 



Table 210.2 Specific-Purpose Branch Circuits 



Equipment 



Article 



Section 



Air-conditioning and 

refrigerating equipment 
Audio signal processing, 

amplification, and 

reproduction equipment 
Busways 
Circuits and equipment 720 

operating at less than 50 

volts 
Central heating equipment 

other than fixed electric 

space-heating equipment 
Class 1, Class 2, and Class 3 725 

remote-control, signaling, 

and power-limited circuits 
Closed-loop and programmed 780 

power distribution 
Cranes and hoists 
Electric signs and outline 

lighting 
Electric welders 630 

Elevators, dumbwaiters, 

escalators, moving walks, 

wheelchair lifts, and 

stairway chair lifts 
Fire alarm systems 760 

Fixed electric heating 

equipment for pipelines 

and vessels 
Fixed electric space-heating 

equipment 
Fixed outdoor electric 

deicing and snow-melting 

equipment 
Information technology 

equipment 
Infrared lamp industrial 

heating equipment 
Induction and dielectric 665 

heating equipment 
Marinas and boatyards 
Mobile homes, manufactured 550 

homes, and mobile home 

parks 
Motion picture and television 530 

studios and similar 

locations 
Motors, motor circuits, and 430 

controllers 
Pipe organs 
Recreational vehicles and 551 

recreational vehicle parks 
Switchboards and 

panelboards 
Theaters, audience areas of 

motion picture and 

television studios, and 

similar locations 
X-ray equipment 



440.6, 440.31, 
440.32 
640.8 



368.17 



422.12 



610.42 
600.6 



620.61 

427.4 

424.3 
426.4 

645.5 
422.48, 424.3 

555.19 



650.7 



408.52 

520.41, 
520.52, 520.62 



660.2, 517.73 



2005 Edition NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE 



70^5 



210.4 



ARTICLE 210 — BRANCH CIRCUITS 



210.4 Multiwire Branch Circuits. 

(A) General. Branch circuits recognized by this article 
shall be permitted as multiwire circuits. A multiwire circuit 
shall be permitted to be considered as multiple circuits. All 
conductors shall originate from the same panelboard or 
similar distribution equipment. 

FPN: A 3-phase, 4-wire, wye-connected power system 
used to supply power to nonlinear loads may necessitate 
that the power system design allow for the possibility of 
high harmonic neutral currents. 

(B) Devices or Equipment. Where a multiwire branch ck- 
cuit supphes more than one device or equipment on the same 
yoke, a means shall be provided to disconnect simultaneously 
all ungrounded conductors supplying those devices or equip- 
ment at the point where the branch circuit originates. 

(C) Line-to-Neutral Loads. Multiwire branch circuits 
shall supply only line-to-neutral loads. 

Exception No. 1: A multiwire branch circuit that supplies 
only one utilization equipment. 

Exception No. 2: Where all ungrounded conductors of the 
multiwire branch circuit are opened simultaneously by the 
branch-circuit overcurrent device. 

FPN: See 300.13(B) for continuity of grounded conductor 
on multiwire circuits. 

210.5 Identification for Branch Circuits. 

(A) Grounded Conductor. The grounded conductor of a 
branch circuit shall be identified in accordance with 200.6. 

(B) Equipment Grounding Conductor. The equipment 
grounding conductor shall be identified in accordance with 
250.119. 

(C) Ungrounded Conductors. Where the premises wiring 
system has branch circuits supphed from more than one nomi- 
nal voltage system, each ungrounded conductor of a branch 
circuit, where accessible, shall be identified by system. The 
means of identification shall be permitted to be by separate 
color coding, marking tape, tagging, or other approved means 
and shall be permanently posted at each branch-circuit panel- 
board or similar branch-circuit distribution equipment. 

210.6 Branch-Circuit Voltage Limitations. The nominal 
voltage of branch circuits shall not exceed the values per- 
mitted by 210.6(A) through 210.6(E). 

(A) Occupancy Limitation. In dwelling units and guest 
rooms or guest suites of hotels, motels, and similar occupan- 
cies, the voltage shall not exceed 120 volts, nominal, between 
conductors that supply the terminals of the following: 
(1) Luminaires (lighting fixtures) 



(2) Cord-and-plug-connected loads 1440 volt-amperes, 
nominal, or less or less than Va hp 

(B) 120 Volts Between Conductors. Circuits not exceed- 
ing 120 volts, nominal, between conductors shall be permit- 
ted to supply the following: 

(1) The terminals of lampholders applied within their volt- 
age ratings 

(2) Auxiliary equipment of electric-discharge lamps 

(3) Cord-and-plug-connected or permanently connected 
utilization equipment 

(C) 277 Volts to Ground. Circuits exceeding 120 volts, 
nominal, between conductors and not exceeding 277 volts, 
nominal, to ground shall be permitted to supply the following: 

(1) Listed electric-discharge luminaires (lighting fixtures) 

(2) Listed incandescent luminaires (lighting fixtures), where 
suppUed at 120 volts or less from the output of a step- 
down autotransformer that is an integral component of 
the luminaire (fixture) and the outer shell terminal is 
electrically connected to a grounded conductor of the 
branch circuit 

(3) Luminaires (lighting fixtures) equipped with mogul- 
base screw shell lampholders 

(4) Lampholders, other than the screw shell type, applied 
within their voltage ratings 

(5) Auxiliary equipment of electric-discharge lamps 

(6) Cord-and-plug-connected or permanently connected 
utilization equipment 

(D) 600 Volts Between Conductors. Circuits exceeding 
277 volts, nominal, to ground and not exceeding 600 volts, 
nominal, between conductors shall be permitted to supply 
the following: 

(1) The auxiliary equipment of electric-discharge lamps 
mounted in permanently installed luminaires (fixtures) 
where the luminaires (fixtures) are mounted in accor- 
dance with one of the following: 

a. Not less than a height of 6.7 m (22 ft) on poles or 
similar structures for the illumination of outdoor ar- 
eas such as highways, roads, bridges, athletic fields, 
or parking lots 

b. Not less than a height of 5.5 m (18 ft) on other 
structures such as tunnels 

(2) Cord-and-plug-connected or permanently connected 
utilization equipment other than luminaires (fixtures) 

FPN: See 410.78 for auxiliary equipment limitations. 

Exception No. 1 to (B), (C), and (D): For lampholders of 
infrared industrial heating appliances as provided in 422. 14. 

Exception No. 2 to (B), (C), and (D): For railway proper- 
ties as described in 110.19. 



• 



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NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE 2005 Edition 



ARTICLE 210 — BRANCH CIRCUITS 



210.9 



• 



(E) Over 600 Volts Between Conductors. Circuits ex- 
ceeding 600 volts, nominal, between conductors shall be 
permitted to supply utilization equipment in installations 
where conditions of maintenance and supervision ensure 
that only qualified persons service the installation. 

210.7 Branch Circuit Receptacle Requirements. 

(A) Receptacle Outlet Location. Receptacle outlets shall 
be located in branch circuits in accordance with Part III of 
Article 210. 

(B) Multiple Branch Circuits. Where two or more branch 
circuits supply devices or equipment on the same yoke, a 
means to simultaneously disconnect the ungrounded con- 
ductors supplying those devices shall be provided at the 
point at which the branch circuits originate. 

210.8 Ground-Fault Circuit-Interrupter Protection for 
Personnel. 

FPN: See 215.9 for ground-fault circuit-interrupter protec- 
tion for personnel on feeders. 

(A) Dwelling Units. All 125- volt, single-phase, 15- and 
20-ampere receptacles installed in the locations specified in 
(1) through (8) shall have ground-fault circuit-interrupter 
protection for personnel. 

(1) Bathrooms 

(2) Garages, and also accessory buildings that have a floor 
located at or below grade level not intended as habit- 
able rooms and limited to storage areas, work areas, 
and areas of similar use 



Exception No. 
accessible. 



1 to (2): Receptacles that are not readily 



Exception No. 2 to (2): A single receptacle or a duplex re- 
ceptacle for two appliances located within dedicated space for 
each appliance that, in normal use, is not easily moved from 
one place to another and that is cord-and-plug connected in 
accordance with 400.7(A)(6), (A)(7), or (A)(8). 

Receptacles installed under the exceptions to 210.8(A)(2) 
shall not be considered as meeting the requirements of 
210.52(G) 

(3) Outdoors 

Exception to (3): Receptacles that are not readily acces- 
sible and are supplied by a dedicated branch circuit for 
electric snow-melting or deicing equipment shall be permit- 
ted to be installed in accordance with 426.28. 

Receptacles installed under the exceptions to 210.8(A)(5) 
shall not be considered as meeting the requirements of 
210.52(G). 



(4) Crawl spaces — at or below grade level 

(5) Unfinished basements — for purposes of this section, 
unfinished basements are defined as portions or areas of 
the basement not intended as habitable rooms and lim- 
ited to storage areas, work areas, and the like 

Exception No. 1 to (5): Receptacles that are not readily 
accessible. 

Exception No. 2 to (5): A single receptacle or a duplex re- 
ceptacle for two appliances located within dedicated space for 
each appliance that, in normal use, is not easily moved from 
one place to another and that is cord-and-plug connected in 
accordance with 400.7(A)(6), (A)(7), or (A)(8). 

Exception No. 3 to (5): A receptacle supplying only a perma- 
nently installed fire alarm or burglar alarm system shall not 
be required to have ground-fault circuit-interrupter protection. 

(6) Kitchens — where the receptacles are installed to serve 
the countertop surfaces 

(7) Laundry, utility, and wet bar sinks — where the recep- 
tacles are installed within 1.8 m (6 ft) of the outside 
edge of the sink 

(8) Boathouses 

(B) Other Than Dwelling Units. All 125-volt, single- 
phase, 15- and 20-ampere receptacles installed in the loca- 
tions specified in (1) through (5) shall have ground-fault 
circuit-interrupter protection for personnel: 

(1) Bathrooms 

(2) Commercial and institutional kitchens — for the purposes 
of this section, a kitchen is an area with a sink and per- 
manent faciUties for food preparation and cooking 

(3) Rooftops 

(4) Outdoors in public spaces — for the purpose of this sec- 
tion a public space is defined as any space that is for 
use by, or is accessible to, the public 

Exception to (3) and (4): Receptacles that are not readily 
accessible and are supplied from a dedicated branch circuit 
for electric snow-melting or deicing equipment shall be 
permitted to be installed in accordance with the applicable 
provisions of Article 426. 

(5) Outdoors, where installed to comply with 210.63 

(C) Boat Hoists. Ground-fault circuit-interrupter protec- 
tion for personnel shall be provided for oudets that supply 
boat hoists installed in dwelling unit locations and supplied 
by 125-volt, 15- and 20-ampere branch circuits. 

210.9 Circuits Derived from Autotransformers. Branch 
circuits shall not be derived from autotransformers unless 
the circuit supplied has a grounded conductor that is elec- 
trically connected to a grounded conductor of the system 
supplying the autotransformer. 



2005 Edition NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE 



70-47 



210.10 



ARTICLE 210 — BRANCH CIRCUITS 



Exception No. 1: An autotransformer shall be permitted 
without the connection to a grounded conductor where 
transforming from a nominal 208 volts to a nominal 
240-volt supply or similarly from 240 volts to 208 volts. 

Exception No. 2: In industrial occupancies, where condi- 
tions of maintenance and supervision ensure that only quali- 
fied persons service the installation, autotransformers shall be 
permitted to supply nominal 600-volt loads from nominal 480- 
volt systems, and 480-volt loads from nominal 600-volt sys- 
tems, without the connection to a similar grounded conductor. 

210.10 Ungrounded Conductors Tapped from Grounded 
Systems. Two-wire dc circuits and ac circuits of two or more 
ungrounded conductors shall be permitted to be tapped from 
the ungrounded conductors of circuits that have a grounded 
neutral conductor. Switching devices in each tapped circuit 
shall have a pole in each ungrounded conductor. All poles of 
multipole switching devices shall manually switch together 
where such switching devices also serve as a disconnecting 
means as required by the following: 

(1) 410.48 for double-pole switched lampholders 

(2) 410.54(B) for electric-discharge lamp auxiliary equip- 
ment switching devices 

(3) 422.31(B) for an appHance 

(4) 424.20 for a fixed electric space-heating unit 

(5) 426.51 for electric deicing and snow-melting equipment 

(6) 430.85 for a motor controller 

(7) 430.103 for a motor 

210.11 Branch Circuits Required. Branch circuits for 
lighting and for appliances, including motor- operated appU- 
ances, shall be provided to supply the loads calculated in 
accordance with 220.10. In addition, branch circuits shall 
be provided for specific loads not covered by 220.10 where 
required elsewhere in this Code and for dwelling unit loads 
as specified in 210.11(C). 

(A) Number of Branch Circuits. The minimum number 
of branch circuits shall be determined from the total calcu- 
lated load and the size or rating of the circuits used. In all 
installations, the number of circuits shall be sufficient to 
supply the load served. In no case shall the load on any 
circuit exceed the maximum specified by 220.18. 

(B) Load Evenly Proportioned Among Branch Circuits. 

Where the load is calculated on the basis of volt-amperes 
per square meter or per square foot, the wiring system up to 
and including the branch-circuit panelboard(s) shall be pro- 
vided to serve not less than the calculated load. This load 
shall be evenly proportioned among multioutlet branch cir- 
cuits within the panelboard(s). Branch-circuit overcurrent 
devices and circuits shall only be required to be installed to 
serve the connected load. 



(C) Dwelling Units. 

(1) Small-Appliance Branch Circuits. In addition to the 
number of branch circuits required by other parts of this 
section, two or more 20-ampere small-appliance branch cir- 
cuits shall be provided for all receptacle outlets specified by 
210.52(B). 

(2) Laundry Branch Circuits. In addition to the number 
of branch circuits required by other parts of this section, at 
least one additional 20-ampere branch circuit shall be pro- 
vided to supply the laundry receptacle outlet(s) required by 
210.52(F). This circuit shall have no other outlets. 

(3) Bathroom Branch Circuits. In addition to the number 
of branch circuits required by other parts of this section, at 
least one 20-ampere branch circuit shall be provided to 
supply bathroom receptacle outlet(s). Such circuits shall 
have no other outlets. 

Exception: Where the 20-ampere circuit supplies a single 
bathroom, outlets for other equipment within the same 
bathroom shall be permitted to be supplied in accordance 
with 210.23(A)(1) and (A)(2). 

FPN: See Examples D1(A), D1(B), D2(B), and D4(A) in 
Annex D. 

210.12 Arc-Fault Circuit-Interrupter Protection. 

(A) Definition: Arc-Fault Circuit Interrupter. An arc-fault 
circuit interrupter is a device intended to provide protection 
from the effects of arc faults by recognizing characteristics 
unique to arcing and by functioning to de-energize the circuit 
when an arc fault is detected. 

(B) Dwelling Unit Bedrooms. All 120-volt, single phase, 
15- and 20-ampere branch circuits supplying outlets in- 
stalled in dwelling unit bedrooms shall be protected by a 
listed arc-fault circuit interrupter, combination type in- 
stalled to provide protection of the branch circuit. 

Branch/feeder AFCIs shall be permitted to be used to 
meet the requirements of 210.12(B) until January 1, 2008. 

FPN: For information on types of arc-fault circuit inter- 
rupters, see UL 1699-1999, Standard for Arc-Fault Circuit 
Interrupters. 

Exception: The location of the arc-fault circuit interrupter 
shall be permitted to be at other than the origination of the 
branch circuit in compliance with (a) and (b): 

(a) The arc-fault circuit interrupter installed within 
1.8 m (6 ft) of the branch circuit overcurrent device as 
measured along the branch circuit conductors. 

(b) The circuit conductors between the branch circuit 
overcurrent device and the arc-fault circuit interrupter 
shall be installed in a metal raceway or a cable with a 
metallic sheath. 



70^8 



NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE 2005 Edition 



ARTICLE 210 — BRANCH CIRCUITS 



210.19 



• 



210.18 Guest Rooms and Guest Suites. Guest rooms and 
guest suites that are provided with permanent provisions for 
cooking shall have branch circuits and outlets installed to 
meet the rules for dwelling units. 

II. Branch-Circuit Ratings 

210.19 Conductors — Minimum Ampacity and Size. 
(A) Branch Circuits Not More Than 600 Volts. 

(1) General. Branch-circuit conductors shall have an am- 
pacity not less than the maximum load to be served. Where 
a branch circuit supplies continuous loads or any combina- 
tion of continuous and noncontinuous loads, the minimum 
branch-circuit conductor size, before the application of any 
adjustment or correction factors, shall have an allowable 
ampacity not less than the noncontinuous load plus 
125 percent of the continuous load. 

Exception: Where the assembly, including the overcurrent 
devices protecting the branch circuit(s), is listed for opera- 
tion at 100 percent of its rating, the allowable ampacity of 
the branch circuit conductors shall be permitted to be not 
less than the sum of the continuous load plus the noncon- 
tinuous load. 

FPN No. 1: See 310.15 for ampacity ratings of 
conductors. 

FPN No. 2: See Part II of Article 430 for minimum rating 
of motor branch-circuit conductors. 

FPN No. 3: See 310.10 for temperature limitation of 
conductors. 

FPN No. 4: Conductors for brancli circuits as defined in 
Article 100, sized to prevent a voltage drop exceeding 
3 percent at the feuthest outlet of power] heating, and light- 
ing loads, or combinations of such loads, and where the 
maximum total voltage drop on both feeders and branch 
circuits to the farthest outlet does not exceed 5 percent, 
provide reasonable efficiency of operation. See FPN No. 2 
of 215.2(A)(3) for voltage drop on feeder conductors. 

(2) Multioutlet Branch Circuits. Conductors of branch 
circuits supplying more than one receptacle for cord-and- 
plug-connected portable loads shall have an ampacity of 
not less than the rating of the branch circuit. 

(3) Household Ranges and Cooking Appliances. Branch- 
circuit conductors supplying household ranges, wall-mounted 
ovens, counter-mounted cooking units, and other household 
cooking appliances shall have an ampacity not less than the 
rating of the branch circuit and not less than the maximum 
load to be served. For ranges of 82/4 kW or more rating, the 
minimum branch-circuit rating shall be 40 amperes. 

Exception No. 1: Tap conductors supplying electric 
ranges, wall-mounted electric ovens, and counter-mounted 
electric cooking units from a 50-ampere branch circuit 
shall have an ampacity of not less than 20 and shall be 



sufficient for the load to be served. These tap conductors 
include any conductors that are a part of the leads supplied 
with the appliance that are smaller than the branch circuit 
conductors. The taps shall not be longer than necessary for 
sei-vicing the appliance. 

Exception No. 2: The neutral conductor of a 3-wire 
branch circuit supplying a household electric range, a 
wall-mounted oven, or a counter-mounted cooking unit 
shall be permitted to be smaller than the ungrounded con- 
ductors where the maximum demand of a range of 8V4 kW 
or more rating has been calculated according to Column C 
of Table 220.55, but such conductor shall have an ampacity 
of not less than 70 percent of the branch-circuit rating and 
shall not be smaller than 10 AWG. 

(4) Other Loads. Branch-circuit conductors that supply 
loads other than those specified in 210.2 and other than 
cooking appliances as covered in 210.19(A)(3) shall have 
an ampacity sufficient for the loads served and shall not be 
smaller than 14 AWG. 

Exception No. 1: Tap conductors shall have an ampacity 
sufficient for the load served. In addition, they shall have an 
ampacity of not less than 15 for circuits rated less than 
40 amperes and not less than 20 for circuits rated at 40 or 
50 amperes and only where these tap conductors supply 
any of the following loads: 

(a) Individual lampholders or luminaires (fixtures) 
with taps extending not longer than 450 mm (18 in.) beyond 
any portion of the lampholder or luminaire (fixture). 

(b) A fixture having tap conductors as provided in 
410.67. 

(c) Individual outlets, other than receptacle outlets, 
with taps not over 450 mm (18 in.) long., 

(d) Infrared lamp industrial heating appliances. 

(e) Nonheating leads of deicing and snow-melting 
cables and mats. 

Exception No. 2: Fixture wires and flexible cords shall be 
permitted to be smaller than 14 AWG as permitted by 240.5. 

(B) Branch Circuits Over 600 Volts. The ampacity of 
conductors shall be in accordance with 310.15 and 310.60, 
as applicable. Branch-circuit conductors over 600 volts 
shall be sized in accordance with 210.19(B)(1) or (B)(2). 

(1) General. The ampacity of branch-circuit conductors shall 
not be less than 125 percent of the designed potential load of 
utilization equipment that will be operated simultaneously. 

(2) Supervised Installations. For supervised installations, 
branch-circuit conductor sizing shall be permitted to be de- 
termined by qualified persons under engineering supervi- 
sion. Supervised installations are defined as those portions 
of a facility where both of the following conditions are met: 
(1) Conditions of design and installation are provided un- 
der engineering supervision. 



2005 Edition 



NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE 



70-49 



210.20 



ARTICLE 210 — BRANCH CIRCUITS 



(2) Qualified persons with documented training and expe- 
rience in over 600-volt systems provide maintenance, 
monitoring, and servicing of the system. 

210.20 Overcurrent Protection. Branch-circuit conduc- 
tors and equipment shall be protected by overcurrent pro- 
tective devices that have a rating or setting that complies 
with 210.20(A) through (D). 

(A) Continuous and Noncontinuous Loads. Where a 
branch circuit supplies continuous loads or any combina- 
tion of continuous and noncontinuous loads, the rating of 
the overcurrent device shall not be less than the noncon- 
tinuous load plus 125 percent of the continuous load. 

Exception: Where the assembly, including the overcurrent 
devices protecting the branch circuit(s), is listed for opera- 
tion at 100 percent of its rating, the ampere rating of the 
overcurrent device shall be permitted to be not less than the 
sum of the continuous load plus the noncontinuous load. 

(B) Conductor Protection. Conductors shall be protected 
in accordance with 240.4. Flexible cords and fixture wires 
shall be protected in accordance with 240.5. 

(C) Equipment. The rating or setting of the overcurrent 
protective device shall not exceed that specified in the ap- 
plicable articles referenced in Table 240.3 for equipment. 

(D) Outlet Devices. The rating or setting shall not exceed 
that specified in 210.21 for outlet devices. 

210.21 Outlet Devices. Outlet devices shall have an am- 
pere rating that is not less than the load to be served and 
shall comply with 210.21(A) and (B). 

(A) Lampholders. Where connected to a branch circuit 
having a rating in excess of 20 amperes, lampholders shall 
be of the heavy-duty type. A heavy-duty lampholder shall 
have a rating of not less than 660 watts if of the admedium 
type, or not less than 750 watts if of any other type. 

(B) Receptacles. 

(1) Single Receptacle on an Individual Branch Circuit. 

A single receptacle installed on an individual branch circuit 
shall have an ampere rating not less than that of the branch 
circuit. 

Exception No. 1: A receptacle installed in accordance 
with 430.81(B). 

Exception No. 2: A receptacle installed exclusively for 
the use of a cord-and-plug-connected arc welder shall be 
permitted to have an ampere rating not less than the 
minimum branch-circuit conductor ampacity determined 
by 630.11(A) for arc welders. 

FPN: See the definition of receptacle in Article 100. 



(2) Total Cord-and-Plug-Connected Load. Where con- 
nected to a branch circuit supplying two or more recep- 
tacles or outlets, a receptacle shall not supply a total 
cord-and-plug-connected load in excess of the maximum 
specified in Table 210.21(B)(2). 



Table 210.21(B)(2) Maximum Cord-and-Plug-Connected 
Load to Receptacle 



Circuit Rating 
(Amperes) 



Receptacle Rating 
(Amperes) 



Maximum Load 
(Amperes) 



15 or 20 
20 
30 



15 
20 
30 



12 
16 

24 



(3) Receptacle Ratings. Where connected to a branch cir- 
cuit supplying two or more receptacles or outlets, recep- 
tacle ratings shall conform to the values listed in Table 
210.21(B)(3), or where larger than 50 amperes, the recep- 
tacle rating shall not be less than the branch-circuit rating. 

Exception No. 1: Receptacles for one or more cord-and- 
plug-connected arc welders shall be permitted to have am- 
pere ratings not less than the minimum branch- circuit con- 
ductor ampacity permitted by 630.11(A) or (B) as 
applicable for arc welders. 

Exception No. 2: The ampere rating of a receptacle in- 
stalled for electric discharge lighting shall be permitted to 
be based on 410.30(C). 



Table 210.21(B)(3) Receptacle Ratings for Various 
Size Circuits 



Circuit Rating 


Receptacle Rating 


(Amperes) 


(Amperes) 


15 


Not over 15 


20 


15 or 20 


30 


30 


40 


40 or 50 


50 


50 



(4) Range Receptacle Rating. The ampere rating of a 
range receptacle shall be permitted to be based on a single 
range demand load as specified in Table 220.55. 

210.23 Permissible Loads. In no case shall the load ex- 
ceed the branch-circuit ampere rating. An individual branch 
circuit shall be permitted to supply any load for which it is 
rated. A branch circuit supplying two or more outlets or 
receptacles shall supply only the loads specified according 
to its size as specified in 210.23(A) through (D) and as 
summarized in 210.24 and Table 210.24. 



# 



70-50 



NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE 2005 Edition 



ARTICLE 210 — BRANCH CIRCUITS 



210.50 



(A) 15- and 20-Ampere Branch Circuits. A 15- or 20- 

ampere branch circuit shall be permitted to supply lighting 
units or other utilization equipment, or a combination of 
both, and shall comply with 210.23(A)(1) and (A)(2). 

Exception: The small appliance branch circuits, laundry 
branch circuits, and bathroom branch circuits required in a 
dwelling unit(s) by 210.11(C)(1), (C)(2), and (C)(3) shall 
supply only the receptacle outlets specified in that section. 

(1) Cord-and-Plug-Connected Equipment Not Fastened 
in Place. The rating of any one cord-and-plug-connected 
utilization equipment not fastened in place shall not exceed 
80 percent of the branch-circuit ampere rating. 

(2) Utilization Equipment Fastened in Place. The total 
rating of utilization equipment fastened in place, other than 
luminaires (lighting fixtures), shall not exceed 50 percent of 
the branch-circuit ampere rating where fighting units, cord- 
and-plug-connected utilization equipment not fastened in 
place, or both, are also supplied. 

(B) 30-Ampere Branch Circuits. A 30-ampere branch cir- 
cuit shall be permitted to supply fixed lighting units with 
heavy-duty lampholders in other than a dwelling unit(s) or 
utilization equipment in any occupancy. A rating of any one 
cord-and-plug-connected utilization equipment shall not 
exceed 80 percent of the branch-circuit ampere rating. 

(C) 40- and 50-Ampere Branch Circuits. A 40- or 50- 

ampere branch circuit shall be permitted to supply cooking 
appliances that are fastened in place in any occupancy. In 
other than dwelling units, such circuits shall be permitted to 
supply fixed lighting units with heavy-duty lampholders, 
infrared heating units, or other utilization equipment. 



(D) Branch Circuits Larger Than 50 Amperes. Branch 
circuits larger than 50 amperes shall supply only nonlight- 
ing outlet loads. 

210.24 Branch-Circuit Requirements — Summary. The 

requirements for circuits that have two or more outlets or 
receptacles, other than the receptacle circuits of 210.11(C)(1) 
and (C)(2), are summarized in Table 210.24. This table pro- 
vides only a summary of minimum requirements. See 210.19, 
210.20, and 210.21 for the specific requirements applying to 
branch circuits. 

210.25 Common Area Branch Circuits. Branch circuits 
in dweUing units shall supply only loads within that dwell- 
ing unit or loads associated only with that dwelling unit. 
Branch circuits required for the purpose of lighting, central 
alarm, signal, communications, or other needs for public or 
common areas of a two-family or multifamily dwelling 
shall not be supplied from equipment that supplies an indi- 
vidual dwelling unit. 

III. Required Outlets 

210.50 General. Receptacle outlets shall be installed as 
specified in 210.52 through 210.63. 

(A) Cord Pendants. A cord connector that is supplied by a 
permanently connected cord pendant shall be considered a 
receptacle outlet. 

(B) Cord Connections. A receptacle outlet shall be in- 
stalled wherever flexible cords with attachment plugs are 
used. Where flexible cords are permitted to be permanently 
connected, receptacles shall be permitted to be omitted for 
such cords. 



Table 210.24 Summary of Branch-Circuit Requirements 



Circuit Rating 


15 A 


20 A 


30 A 


40 A 


50 A 


Conductors (min. size): 
Circuit wires' 
Taps 
Fixture wires and cords - 


14 
14 
— see 240.5 


12 
14 


10 

14 


8 
12 


6 

12 


Overcurrent 
Protection 


15 A 


20 A 


30 A 


40 A 


50 A 


Outlet devices: 
Lampiiolders 
permitted 
Receptacle rating^ 


Any type 
15 max. A 


Any type 
15 or 20 A 


Heavy duty 
30 A 


Heavy duty 
40 or 50 A 


Heavy duty 
50 A 


Maximum Load 


15 A 


20 A 


30 A 


40 A 


50 A 


Permissible load 


See 210.23(A) 


See 210.23(A) 


See 210.23(B) 


See 210.23(C) 


See 210.23(C) 



'These gauges are for copper conductors. 

^For receptacle rating of cord-connected electric-discharge luminaires (lighting fixtures), see 410.30(C). 



2005 Edition NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE 



70-51 



210.52 



ARTICLE 210 — BRANCH CIRCUITS 



(C) Appliance Outlets. Appliance receptacle outlets in- 
stalled in a dwelling unit for specific appliances, such as 
laundry equipment, shall be installed within 1.8 m (6 ft) of 
the intended location of the appliance. 

210.52 Dwelling Unit Receptacle Outlets. This section 
provides requirements for 125- volt, 15- and 20-ampere recep- 
tacle outlets. Receptacle outlets required by this section shall 
be in addition to any receptacle that is part of a luminaire 
(lighting fixture) or appliance, located within cabinets or cup- 
boards, or located more than 1.7 m (SVi ft) above the floor. 

Permanently installed electric baseboard heaters equipped 
with factory-installed receptacle oudets or outlets provided as 
a separate assembly by the manufacturer shall be permitted as 
the required outlet or outiets for the wall space utilized by 
such permanendy installed heaters. Such receptacle outlets 
shall not be connected to the heater circuits. 

FPN: Listed baseboard heaters include instructions that 
may not permit their installation below receptacle outlets. 

(A) General Provisions. In every kitchen, family room, 
dining room, living room, parlor, library, den, sunroom, 
bedroom, recreation room, or similar room or area of 
dwelling units, receptacle outlets shaU be installed in accor- 
dance with the general provisions specified in 210.52(A)(1) 
through (A)(3). 

(1) Spacing. Receptacles shall be installed so that no point 
measured horizontally along the floor line in any wall space 
is more than 1.8 m (6 ft) from a receptacle outlet. 

(2) Wall Space. As used in this section, a wall space shall 
include the following: 

(1) Any space 600 mm (2 ft) or more in width (including 
space measured around comers) and unbroken along the 
floor line by doorways, fireplaces, and similar openings 

(2) The space occupied by fixed panels in exterior walls, 
excluding sliding panels 

(3) The space afforded by fixed room dividers such as free- 
standing bar-type counters or railings 

(3) Floor Receptacles. Receptacle outlets in floors shall 
not be counted as part of the required number of receptacle 
outlets unless located within 450 mm (18 in.) of the wall. 

(B) Small Appliances. 

(1) Receptacle Outlets Served. In the kitchen, pantry, 
breakfast room, dining room, or similar area of a dwelling 
unit, the two or more 20-ampere smafl-appliance branch 
circuits required by 210.11(C)(1) shall serve all wall and 
floor receptacle outlets covered by 210.52(A), all counter- 
top outlets covered by 210.52(C), and receptacle outlets for 
refrigeration equipment. 



Exception No. 1: In addition to the required receptacles 
specified by 210.52, switched receptacles supplied from a 
general-purpose branch circuit as defined in 210.70(A)(1), 
Exception No. 1, shall be permitted. 

Exception No. 2: The receptacle outlet for refrigeration 
equipment shall be permitted to be supplied from an indi- 
vidual branch circuit rated 15 amperes or greater 

(2) No Other Outlets. The two or more small-appliance 
branch circuits specified in 210.52(B)(1) shall have no 
other outlets. 

Exception No. 1: A receptacle installed solely for the elec- 
trical supply to and support of an electric clock in any of 
the rooms specified in 210.52(B)(1). 

Exception No. 2: Receptacles installed to provide power 
for supplemental equipment and lighting on gas-fired 
ranges, ovens, or counter-mounted cooking units. 

(3) Kitchen Receptacle Requirements. Receptacles in- 
stalled in a kitchen to serve countertop surfaces shall be 
supplied by not fewer than two small-appliance branch cir- 
cuits, either or both of which shall also be permitted to supply 
receptacle outlets in the same kitchen and in other rooms 
specified in 210.52(B)(1). Additional small-appliance branch 
circuits shall be permitted to supply receptacle outlets in the 
kitchen and other rooms specified in 210.52(B)(1). No smaU- 
appliance branch circuit shall serve more than one kitchen. 

(C) Countertops. In kitchens and dining rooms of dwell- 
ing units, receptacle outlets for counter spaces shall be in- 
stalled in accordance with 210.52(C)(1) through (C)(5). 

(1) Wall Counter Spaces. A receptacle outlet shall be in- 
stalled at each wall counter space that is 300 mm (12 in.) or 
wider. Receptacle outlets shall be installed so that no point 
along the wall line is more than 600 mm (24 in.) measured 
horizontally from a receptacle outlet in that space. 

Exception: Receptacle outlets shall not be required on a 
wall directly behind a range or sink in the installation de- 
scribed in Figure 210.52. 

(2) Island Counter Spaces. At least one receptacle shall 
be installed at each island counter space with a long dimen- 
sion of 600 mm (24 in.) or greater and a short dimension of 
300 ntmi (12 in.) or greater. Where a rangetop or sink is 
installed in an island counter and the width of the counter 
behind the rangetop or sink is less than 300 mm (12 in.), 
the rangetop or sink is considered to divide the island into 
two separate countertop spaces as defined in 210.52(C)(4). 

(3) Peninsular Counter Spaces. At least one receptacle 
outlet shall be installed at each peninsular counter space 
with a long dimension of 600 mm (24 in.) or greater and a 
short dimension of 300 mm (12 in.) or greater. A peninsular 
countertop is measured from the connecting edge. 



70-52 



NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE 2005 Edition 



ARTICLE 210 — BRANCH CIRCUITS 



210.52 



Outlet within 
600 mm (24 in.) 


Outlet not required 
ifX<300mm(12in.) 


<- 


Outlet within 
600 mm (24 in.) 




h 
X 

1 ' 




V J 





















Sink or range extending from face of counter 



Outlets not required 
ifX<450mm(18in.) 


- 


Outlet within 600 mm (24 in.) — ► 




\ 

X 


\ 


> 


within 

mm 

n.) 




/ 


Outlet 
600 
(24 

> 


/ 


\ 



Sink or range mounted in corner 
Figure 210.52 Determination of Area Behind Sinlc or Range. 

(4) Separate Spaces. Countertop spaces separated by 
rangetops, refrigerators, or sinks shall be considered as 
separate countertop spaces in applying the requirements of 
210.52(C)(1), (C)(2), and (C)(3). 

(5) Receptacle Outlet Location. Receptacle outlets shall 
be located above, but not more than 500 mm (20 in.) above, 
the countertop. Receptacle outlets rendered not readily ac- 
cessible by appliances fastened in place, appliance garages, 
sinks, or rangetops as covered in 210.52(C)(1), Exception, 
or appliances occupying dedicated space shall not be con- 
sidered as these required outlets. 

Exception to (5): To comply with the conditions specified in 
(1) or (2), receptacle outlets shall be permitted to be 
mounted not more than 300 mm (12 in.) below the counter- 
top. Receptacles mounted below a countertop in accor- 
dance with this exception shall not be located where the 
countertop extends more than 150 mm (6 in.) beyond its 
support base. 



(1) Construction for the physically impaired 

(2) On island and peninsular countertops where the coun- 
tertop is flat across its entire surface (no backsplashes, 
dividers, etc.) and there are no means to mount a re- 
ceptacle within 500 mm (20 in.) above the countertop, 
such as an overhead cabinet 

(D) Bathrooms. In dwelling units, at least one receptacle 
outlet shall be installed in bathrooms within 900 mm (3 ft) 
of the outside edge of each basin. The receptacle outlet 
shall be located on a wall or partition that is adjacent to the 
basin or basin countertop. 

Exception: The receptacle shall not be required to be 
mounted in the wall or partition where it is installed on the 
side or face of the basin cabinet not more than 300 mm 
(12 in.) below the countertop. 

(E) Outdoor Outlets. For a one-family dweUing and each 
unit of a two-family dwelling that is at grade level, at least 
one receptacle outlet accessible at grade level and not more 
than 2.0 m (6^2 ft) above grade shall be installed at the 
front and back of the dwelling. 

For each dwelhng unit of a multifamily dwelling where 
the dwelling unit is located at grade level and provided with 
individual exterior entrance/egress, at least one receptacle 
outlet accessible from grade level and not more than 2.0 m 
(6^2 ft) above grade shall be installed. See 210.8(A)(3). 

(F) Laundry Areas. In dwelhng units, at least one recep- 
tacle outlet shall be installed for the laundry. 

Exception No. 1: In a dwelling unit that is an apartment 
or living area in a multifamily building where laundry fa- 
cilities are provided on the premises and are available to 
all building occupants, a laundry receptacle shall not be 
required. 

Exception No. 2: In other than one-family dwellings where 
laundry facilities are not to be installed or permitted, a 
laundry receptacle shall not be required. 

(G) Basements and Garages. For a one-family dwelling, 
at least one receptacle outlet, in addition to any provided 
for laundry equipment, shall be installed in each basement 
and in each attached garage, and in each detached garage 
with electric power. See 210.8(A)(2) and (A)(5). Where a 
portion of the basement is finished into one or more habit- 
able rooms, eacji separate unfinished portion shall have a 
receptacle outlet installed in accordance with this section. 

(H) Hallways. In dwelhng units, hallways of 3.0 m (10 ft) 
or more in length shall have at least one receptacle outlet. 
As used in this subsection, the hall length shall be con- 
sidered the length along the centerline of the hall without 
passing through a doorway. 



2005 Edition NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE 



70-53 



210.60 



ARTICLE 210 — BRANCH CIRCUITS 



210.60 Guest Rooms or Guest Suites. 

(A) General. Guest rooms or guest suites in hotels, motels, 
and similar occupancies shall have receptacle outlets in- 
stalled in accordance with 210.52(A) and 210.52(D). Guest 
rooms or guest suites provided with permanent provisions 
for cooking shall have receptacle outlets installed in accor- 
dance with all of the applicable rules in 210.52. 

(B) Receptacle Placement. In applying the provisions of 
210.52(A), the total number of receptacle outlets shall not 
be less than the minimum number that would comply with 
the provisions of that section. These receptacle outlets shall 
be permitted to be located conveniently for permanent fur- 
niture layout. At least two receptacle outlets shall be readily 
accessible. Where receptacles are installed behind the bed, 
the receptacle shall be located to prevent the bed from 
contacting any attachment plug that may be installed or the 
receptacle shall be provided with a suitable guard. 

210.62 Show Windows. At least one receptacle outlet 
shall be installed directly above a show window for each 
3.7 linear m (12 linear ft) or major fraction thereof of show 
window area measured horizontally at its maximum width. 

210.63 Heating, Air-Conditioning, and Refrigeration 
Equipment Outlet. A 125-volt, single-phase, 15- or 20- 
ampere-rated receptacle outlet shall be installed at an ac- 
cessible location for the servicing of heating, air- 
conditioning, and refrigeration equipment. The receptacle 
shall be located on the same level and within 7.5 m (25 ft) 
of the heating, air-conditioning, and refrigeration equip- 
ment. The receptacle outlet shall not be connected to the 
load side of the equipment disconnecting means. 

Exception: A receptacle outlet shall not be required at 
one- and two-family dwellings for the service of evapora- 
tive coolers. 

FPN: See 210.8 for ground-fault circuit-interrupter 
requirements. 

210.70 Lighting Outlets Required. Lighting outlets shall 
be installed where specified in 210.70(A), (B), and (C). 

(A) Dwelling Units. In dwelling units, lighting outlets 
shall be installed in accordance with 210.70(A)(1), (A)(2), 
and (A)(3). 

(1) Habitable Rooms. At least one wall switch-controlled 
lighting outlet shall be installed in every habitable room 
and bathroom. 

Exception No. 1: In other than kitchens and bathrooms, 
one or more receptacles controlled by a wall switch shall 
be permitted in lieu of lighting outlets. 

Exception No. 2: Lighting outlets shall be permitted to be 
controlled by occupancy sensors that are (1) in addition to 



wall switches or (2) located at a customary wall switch 
location and equipped with a manual override that will 
allow the sensor to function as a wall switch. 

(2) Additional Locations. Additional lighting outlets shall 
be installed in accordance with (A)(2)(a), (A)(2)(b), and 
(A)(2)(c). 

(a) At least one wall switch-controlled lighting outlet 
shall be installed in hallways, stairways, attached garages, 
and detached garages with electric power. 

(b) For dwelling units, attached garages, and detached 
garages with electric power, at least one wall switch- 
controlled lighting outlet shall be installed to provide illu- 
mination on the exterior side of outdoor entrances or exits 
with grade level access. A vehicle door in a garage shall not 
be considered as an outdoor entrance or exit. 

(c) Where one or more lighting outlet(s) are installed 
for interior stairways, there shall be a wall switch at each 
floor level, and landing level that includes an entryway, to 
control the hghting outlet(s) where the stairway between 
floor levels has six risers or more. 

Exception to (A)(2)(a), (A)(2)(b), and (A)(2)(c): In hall- 
ways, stairways, and at outdoor entrances, remote, central, 
or automatic control of lighting shall be permitted. 

(3) Storage or Equipment Spaces. For attics, underfloor 
spaces, utility rooms, and basements, at least one lighting 
outlet containing a switch or controlled by a wall switch 
shall be. installed where these spaces are used for storage or 
contain equipment requiring servicing. At least one point of 
control shall be at the usual point of entry to these spaces. 
The lighting outlet shall be provided at or near the equip- 
ment requiring servicing. 

(B) Guest Rooms or Guest Suites. In hotels, motels, or 
similar occupancies, guest rooms or guest suites shall have 
at least one w^ll switch-controlled lighting outlet installed 
in every habitable room and bathroom. 

Exception No. 1: In other than bathrooms and kitchens 
where provided, one or more receptacles controlled by a 
wall switch shall be permitted in lieu of lighting outlets. 

Exception No. 2: Lighting outlets shall be permitted to be 
controlled by occupancy sensors that are (1) in addition to 
wall switches or (2) located at a customary wall switch 
location and equipped with a manual override that will 
allow the sensor to function as a wall switch. 

(C) Other Than Dwelling Units. For attics and underfloor 
spaces containing equipment requiring servicing, such as 
heating, air-conditioning, and refrigeration equipment, at 
least one lighting outlet containing a switch or controlled 
by a wall switch shall be installed in such spaces. At least 
one point of control shall be at the usual point of entry to 
these spaces. The lighting outlet shall be provided at or 
near the equipment requiring servicing. 



• 



70-54 



NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE 2005 Edition 



ARTICLE 215 — FEEDERS 



215.4 



• 



ARTICLE 215 
Feeders 

215.1 Scope. This article covers the installation require- 
ments, overcurrent protection requirements, minimum size, 
and ampacity of conductors for feeders supplying branch- 
circuit loads. 

Exception: Feeders for electrolytic cells as covered in 
668.3(C)(1) and (C)(4). 

215.2 Minimum Rating and Size. 

(A) Feeders Not More Than 600 Volts. 

(1) General. Feeder conductors shall have an ampacity not 
less than required to supply the load as calculated in Parts 
III, IV, and V of Article 220. The minimum feeder-circuit 
conductor size, before the application of any adjustment or 
correction factors, shall have an allowable ampacity not 
less than the noncontinuous load plus 125 percent of the 
continuous load. 

Exception: Where the assembly, including the overcurrent 
devices protecting the feeder(s), is listed for operation at 
100 percent of its rating, the allowable ampacity of the 
feeder conductors shall be permitted to be not less than the 
sum of the continuous load plus the noncontinuous load. 

The size of the feeder circuit grounded conductor shall not 
be smaller than that required by 250.122, except that 
250.122(F) shaU not apply where grounded conductors are run 
in parallel. 

Additional minimum sizes shall be as specified in 
215.2(A)(2) and (A)(3) under the conditions stipulated. 

(2) Ampacity Relative to Service Conductors. The 

feeder conductor ampacity shall not be less than that of the 
service conductors where the feeder conductors carry the 
total load supplied by service conductors with an ampacity 
of 55 amperes or less. 

(3) Individual Dwelling Unit or Mobile Home Conduc- 
tors. Feeder conductors for individual dwelling units or 
mobile homes need not be larger than service conductors. 
Paragraph 310.15(B)(6) shall be permitted to be used for 
conductor size. 

FPN No. 1: See Examples Dl through Dll in Annex D. 

FPN No. 2: Conductors for feeders as defined in Article 
100, sized to prevent a voltage drop exceeding 3 percent at 
the farthest oudet of power, heating, and lighting loads, or 
combinations of such loads, and where the maximurn total 
voltage drop on both feeders and branch circuits to the 
farthest outlet does not exceed 5 percent, will provide rea- 
sonable efiSciency of operation. 

FPN No. 3: See 210.19(A), FPN No. 4, for voltage drop 
for branch circuits. 



(B) Feeders Over 600 Volts. The ampacity of conductors 
shaU be in accordance with 310.15 and 310.60 as applicable. 
Where installed, the size of the feeder circuit grounded con- 
ductor shall not be smaller than that required by 250.122, 
except diat 250.122(F) shall not apply where grounded con- 
ductors are run in parallel. Feeder conductors over 600 volts 
shall be sized in accordance with 215.2(B)(1), (B)(2), or 
(B)(3). 

(1) Feeders Supplying Transformers. The ampacity of 
feeder conductors shall not be less than the sum of the 
nameplate ratings of the transformers supplied when only 
transformers are supplied. 

(2) Feeders Supplying Transformers and Utilization 
Fquipment. The ampacity of feeders supplying a combina- 
tion of transformers and utilization equipment shall not be 
less than the sum of the nameplate ratings of the transform- 
ers and 125 percent of the designed potential load of the 
utilization equipment that will be operated simultaneously. 

(3) Supervised Installations. For supervised installations, 
feeder conductor sizing shall be permitted to be determined 
by qualified persons under engineering supervision. Super- 
vised installations are defined as those portions of a facility 
where all of the following conditions are met: 

(1) Conditions of design and installation are provided un- 
der engineering supervision. 

(2) Qualified persons with documented training and expe- 
rience in over 600-volt systems provide maintenance, 
monitoring, and servicing of the system. 

215.3 Overcurrent Protection. Feeders shall be protected 
against overcurrent in accordance with the provisions of 
Part I of Article 240. Where a feeder supplies continuous 
loads or any combination of continuous and noncontinuous 
loads, the rating of the overcurrent device shall not be less 
than the noncontinuous load plus 125 percent of the con- 
tinuous load. 

Exception No. 1: Where the assembly, including the over- 
current devices protecting the feeder(s), is listed for opera- 
tion at 100 percent of its rating, the ampere rating of the 
overcurrent device shall be permitted to be not less than the 
sum of the continuous load plus the noncontinuous load. 

Exception No. 2: Overcurrent protection for feeders 
over 600 volts, nominal, shall comply with Part XI of 
Article 240. 

215.4 Feeders with Common Neutral. 

(A) Feeders with Common Neutral. Two or three sets of 
3-wire feeders or two sets of 4-wire or 5-wire feeders shall 
be permitted to utilize a common neutral. 



2005 Edition NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE 



70-55 



215.5 



ARTICLE 220 — BRANCH-CIRCUIT, FEEDER, AND SERVICE CALCULATIONS 



(B) In Metal Raceway or Enclosure. Where installed in a 
metal raceway or other metal enclosure, all conductors of 
all feeders using a common neutral shall be enclosed within 
the same raceway or other enclosure as required in 300.20. 

215.5 Diagrams of Feeders. If required by the authority 
having jurisdiction, a diagram showing feeder details shall 
be provided prior to the installation of the feeders. Such a 
diagram shall show the area in square feet of the building 
or other structure supplied by each feeder, the total calcu- 
lated load before applying demand factors, the demand fac- 
tors used, the calculated load after applying demand fac- 
tors, and the size and type of conductors to be used. 

215.6 Feeder Conductor Grounding Means. Where a 
feeder supplies branch circuits in which equipment ground- 
ing conductors are required, the feeder shall include or pro- 
vide a grounding means, in accordance with the provisions 
of 250.134, to which the equipment grounding conductors 
of the branch circuits shall be connected. 

215.7 Ungrounded Conductors Tapped from Grounded 
Systems. Two-wire dc circuits and ac circuits of two or more 
ungrounded conductors shall be permitted to be tapped from 
the ungrounded conductors of circuits having a grounded neu- 
tral conductor. Switching devices in each tapped circuit shall 
have a pole in each ungrounded conductor. 

215.9 Ground-Fault Circuit-Interrupter Protection for 
Personnel. Feeders supplying 15- and 20-ampere recep- 
tacle branch circuits shall be permitted to be protected by a 
ground-fault circuit interrupter in lieu of the provisions for 
such interrupters as specified in 210.8 and 590.6(A). 

215.10 Ground-Fault Protection of Equipment. Each 
feeder disconnect rated 1000 amperes or more and installed 
on solidly grounded wye electrical systems of more than 
150 volts to ground, but not exceeding 600 volts phase-to- 
phase, shall be provided with ground-fault protection of 
equipment in accordance with the provisions of 230.95. 

FPN: For buildings that contain healthcare occupancies, 
see the requirements of 517.17. 

Exception No. 1: The provisions of this section shall not 
apply to a disconnecting means for a continuous industrial 
process where a nonorderly shutdown will introduce addi- 
tional or increased hazards. 

Exception No. 2: The provisions of this section shall not 
apply to fire pumps. 

Exception No. 3: The provisions of this section shall not 
apply if ground-fault protection of equipment is provided on 
the supply side of the feeder 

215.11 Circuits Derived from Autotransformers. Feed- 
ers shall not be derived from autotransformers unless the 



system supplied has a grounded conductor that is electri- 
cally connected to a grounded conductor of the system sup- 
plying the autotransformer. 

Exception No. 1: An autotransformer shall he permitted 
without the connection to a grounded conductor where 
transforming from a nominal 208 volts to a nominal 240- 
volt supply or similarly from 240 volts to 208 volts. 

Exception No. 2: In industrial occupancies, where condi- 
tions of maintenance and supervision ensure that only quali- 
fied persons service the installation, autotransformers shall be 
permitted to supply nominal 600- volt loads from nominal 480- 
volt systems, and 480-volt loads from nominal 600-volt sys- 
tems, without the connection to a similar grounded conductor. 

215.12 Identification for Feeders. 

(A) Grounded Conductor. The grounded conductor of a 
feeder shall be identified in accordance with 200.6. 

(B) Equipment Grounding Conductor. The equipment 
grounding conductor shall be identified in accordance with 
250.119. 

(C) Ungrounded Conductors. Where the premises wiring 
system has feeders supplied from more than one nominal 
voltage system, each ungrounded conductor of a feeder, 
where accessible, shall be identified by system. The means 
of identification shall be permitted to be by separate color 
coding, marking tape, tagging, or other approved means 
and shall be permanently posted at each feeder panelboard 
or similar feeder distribution equipment. 



ARTICLE 220 

Branch-Circuit, Feeder, and Service 

Calculations 

I. General 

220.1 Scope. This article provides requirements for calculat- 
ing branch-circuit, feeder, and service loads. Part I provides 
for general requirements for calculation methods. Part 11 pro- 
vides calculation methods for branch circuit loads. Parts HI 
and rv provide calculation methods for feeders and services. 
Part V provides calculation methods for farms. 

FPN: See Figure 220. 1 for information on the organization 
of Article 220. 

220.3 Application of Other Articles. In other articles ap- 
plying to the calculation of loads in specialized applications, 
there are requirements provided in Table 220.3 that are in 
addition to, or modifications of, those within this article. 



• 



70-56 



NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE 2005 Edition 



ARTICLE 220 — BRANCH-CIRCUIT, FEEDER, AND SERVICE CALCULATIONS 



220.12 



Part 1 General 






Part II Branch circuit load calculations 






















Part III 
Feeder and 
service load 
calculations 








Part IV 

Optional 

feeder and 

service load 

calculations 








220.61 
Neutral 
Loads 




























1 




1 








Farm dwellings 
only 




Farm dwellings 
only 












1 
1 
1 




Part V Farm load calculations 



Figure 220.1 Branch-Circuit, Feeder, and Service Calculation 
Methods. 



220.5 Calculations. 

(A) Voltages. Unless other voltages are specified, for pur- 
poses of calculating branch-circuit and feeder loads, nomi- 
nal system voltages of 120, 120/240, 208Y/120, 240, 347, 
480Y/277, 480, 600Y/347, and 600 volts shall be used. 

(B) Fractions of an Ampere. Where calculations result in 
a fraction of an ampere that is less than 0.5, such fractions 
shall be permitted to be dropped. 

11. Branch Circuit Load Calculations 

220.10 General. Branch-circuit loads shall be calculated 
as shown in 220.12, 220.14, and 220.16. 

220.12 Lighting Load for Specified Occupancies. A unit 
load of not less than that specified in Table 220.12 for 
occupancies specified therein shall constitute the minimum 



Table 220.3 Additional Load Calculation References 



Calculation 



Article 



Section (or Part) 



Air-Conditioning and Refrigerating Equipment, Branch-Circuit 

Conductor Sizing 
Cranes and Hoists, Rating and Size of Conductors 
Electric Welders, ampacity calculations 
Electrically Driven or Controlled Irrigation Machines 

Electrolytic Cell Lines 

Electroplating, Branch-Circuit Conductor Sizing 

Elevator Feeder Demand Factors 

Fire Pumps, Voltage Drop (mandatory calculation) 

Fixed Electric Heating Equipment for Pipelines and Vessels, 

Branch-Circuit Sizing 
Fixed Electric Space Heating Equipment, Branch-Circuit Sizing 
Fixed Outdoor Electric Deicing and Snow-Melting Equipment, 

Branch-Circuit Sizing 

Industrial Machinery, Supply Conductor Sizing 
Marinas and Boatyards, Feeder and Service Load Calculations 
Mobile Homes, Manufactured Homes, and Mobile Home Parks, 
Total Load for Determining Power Supply 

Mobile Homes, Manufactured Homes, and Mobile Home Parks, 
Allowable Demand Factors for Park Electrical Wiring Systems 

Motion Picture and Television Studios and Similar Locations - 
Sizing of Feeder Conductors for Television Studio Sets 

Motors, Feeder Demand Factor 

Motors, Multimotor and Combination-Load Equipment 

Motors, Several Motors or a Motor(s) and Other Load(s) 

Over 600 Volt Branch Circuit Calculations 

Over 600 Volt Feeder Calculations 

Phase Converters, Conductors 

Recreational Vehicle Parks, Basis of Calculations 

Sensitive Electrical Equipment, Voltage Drop (mandatory calculation) 

Solar Photovoltaic Systems, Circuit Sizing and Current 

Storage-Type Water Heaters 

Theaters, Stage Switchboard Feeders 



440 

610 
630 

675 



660 
620 
695 

427 

424 
426 



670 

555 
550 



550 
530 



430 
430 
430 
210 
215 

455 
551 
647 
690 
422 
520 



Part IV 

610.14 

630.11, 630.31 

675.7(A), 675.22(A) 

668.3(C) 

669.5 
620.14 
695.7 

427.4 

424.3 
426.4 



670.4(A) 

555.12 

550.18(B) 

550.31 
530.19 



430.26 

430.25 

430.24 

210.19(B) 

215.2(B) 

455.6 
551.73(A) 
647.4(D) 

690.8 
422.11(E) 

520.27 



2005 Edition 



NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE 



70-57 



220.14 



ARTICLE 220 — BRANCH-CIRCUIT, FEEDER, AND SERVICE CALCULATIONS 



lighting load. The floor area for each floor shall be calcu- 
lated from the outside dimensions of the building, dwelling 
unit, or other area involved. For dwelling units, the calcu- 
lated floor area shall not include open porches, garages, or 
unused or unfinished spaces not adaptable for future use. 

FPN: The unit values herein are based on minimum load 
conditions and 100 percent power factor and may not pro- 
vide sufficient capacity for the installation contemplated. 

Table 220.12 General Lighting Loads by Occupancy 



Unit Load 




Volt- Amperes 


Volt-Amperes 




per Square 


per Square 


Type of Occupancy 


Meter 


Foot 


Armories and auditoriums 


11 


1 


Banks 


39" 


31/2" 


Barber shops and beauty 


33 


3 


parlors 






Churches 


11 


1 


Clubs 


22 


2 


Court rooms 


22 


2 


Dwelling umts'' 


33 


3 


Garages — commercial 


6 


1/2 


(storage) 






Hospitals 


22 


2 


Hotels and motels, including 


22 


2 


apartment houses without 






provision for cooking by 






tenants" 






Industrial commercial (loft) 


22 


2 


buildings 






Lodge rooms 


17 


11/2 


Office buildings 


39^^ 


31/2" 


Restaurants 


22 


2 


Schools 


33 


3 


Stores 


33 


3 


Warehouses (storage) 


3 


'/4 


In any of the preceding 






occupancies except 






one-family dwellings and 






individual dwelling units of 






two-family and multifamily 






dwellings: 






Assembly halls and 


11 


1 


auditoriums 






Halls, corridors, closets, 


6 


1/2 


stairways 






Storage spaces 


3 


1/4 



"See 220.14(J). 
''See 220.14(K). 

220.14 Other Loads — All Occupancies. In all occupan- 
cies, the minimum load for each outlet for general-use re- 
ceptacles and outlets not used for general illumination shall 
not be less than that calculated in 220.14(A) through (L), 
the loads shown being based on nominal branch-circuit 
voltages. 



Exception: The loads of outlets serving switchboards and 
switching frames in telephone exchanges shall be waived 
from the calculations. 

(A) Specific Appliances or Loads. An outlet for a specific 
appliance or other load not covered in 220.14(B) through 
(L) shall be calculated based on the ampere rating of the 
appliance or load served. 

(B) Electric Dryers and Household Electric Cooking 
Appliances. Load calculations shall be permitted as speci- 
fied in 220.54 for electric dryers and in 220.55 for electric 
ranges and other cooking apphances. 

(C) Motor Loads. Outlets for motor loads shaU be calcu- 
lated in accordance with the requirements in 430.22, 
430.24, and 440.6. 

(D) Luminaires (Lighting Fixtures). An outlet supplying 
luminaire(s) [lighting fixture(s)] shall be calculated based 
on the maximum volt-ampere rating of the equipment and 
lamps for which the luminaire(s) [fixture(s)] is rated. 

(E) Heavy-Duty Lampholders. Outlets for heavy-duty 
lampholders shall be calculated at a minimum of 600 volt- 
amperes. 

(F) Sign and Outline Lighting. Sign and outline lighting 
outlets shall be calculated at a minimum of 1200 volt- 
amperes for each required branch circuit specified in 
600.5(A). 

(G) Show Windows. Show windows shall be calculated in 
accordance with either of the following; 

(1) The unit load per outlet as required in other provisions 
of this section 

(2) At 200 volt-amperes per 300 mm (1 ft) of show 
window 

(H) Fixed Multioutlet Assemblies. Fixed multioutlet as- 
semblies used in other than dwelling units or the guest 
rooms or guest suites of hotels or motels shall be calculated 
in accordance with (H)(1) or (H)(2). For the purposes of 
this section, the calculation shall be permitted to be based 
on the portion that contains receptacle outlets. 

(1) Where apphances are unlikely to be used simulta- 
neously, each 1.5 m (5 ft) or fraction thereof of each 
separate and continuous length shall be considered as 
one outlet of not less than 180 volt-amperes. 

(2) Where appliances are likely to be used simultaneously, 
each 300 mm (1 ft) or fraction thereof shall be consid- 
ered as an outlet of not less than 180 volt-amperes. 

(I) Receptacle Outlets. Except as covered in 220.14(J) 
and (K), receptacle outlets shall be calculated at not less 
than 180 volt-amperes for each single or for each multiple 



• 



70-58 



NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE 2005 Edition 



ARTICLE 220 — BRANCH-CIRCUIT, FEEDER, AND SERVICE CALCULATIONS 



220.50 



receptacle on one yoke. A single piece of equipment consist- 
ing of a multiple receptacle comprised of four or more recep- 
tacles shall be calculated at not less than 90 volt-amperes per 
receptacle. This provision shall not be applicable to the recep- 
tacle outlets specified in 210.11(C)(1) and (C)(2). 

(J) Dwelling Occupancies. In one-family, two-family, and 
multifamily dwellings and in guest rooms or guest suites of 
hotels and motels, the outlets specified in (J)(l), (J)(2), and 
(J)(3) are included in the general lighting load calculations 
of 220.12. No additional load calculations shall be required 
for such outlets. 

(1) All general-use receptacle outlets of 20-ampere rating 
or less, including receptacles connected to the circuits 
in 210.11(C)(3) 

(2) The receptacle outlets specified in 210.52(E) and (G) 

(3) The fighting outlets specified in 210.70(A) and (B) 

(K) Banks and Office Buildings. In banks or office build- 
ings, the receptacle loads shall be calculated to be the larger 
of (1) or (2): 

(1) The computed load from 220.14 

(2) 11 volt-amperes/m^ or 1 volt-ampere/ft^ 

(L) Other Outlets. Other outlets not covered in 220.14(A) 
through (K) shall be calculated based on 180 volt-amperes 
per outlet. 

220.16 Loads for Additions to Existing Installations. 

(A) Dwelling Units. Loads added to an existing dweUing 
unit(s) shall comply with the following as applicable: 

(1) Loads for structural additions to an existing dwelling unit 
or for a previously unwired portion of an existing dwell- 
ing unit, either of which exceeds 46.5 m^ (500 ft^), shall 
be calculated in accordance with 220.12 and 220.14. 

(2) Loads for new circuits or extended circuits in previ- 
ously wired dwelling units shall be calculated in accor- 
dance with either 220.12 or 220.14, as applicable. 

(B) Other Than Dwelling Units. Loads for new circuits 
or extended circuits in other than dwelling units shall be 
calculated in accordance with either 220.12 or 220.14, as 
applicable. 

220.18 Maximum Loads. The total load shall not exceed 
the rating of the branch circuit, and it shall not exceed the 
maximum loads specified in 220.18(A) through (C) under 
the conditions specified therein. 

(A) Motor-Operated and Combination Loads. Where a 
circuit supplies only motor-operated loads, Article 430 shall 
apply. Where a circuit supplies only air-conditioning equip- 
ment, refrigerating equipment, or both. Article 440 shall apply. 
For circuits supplying loads consisting of motor-operated uti- 



lization equipment that is fastened in place and has a motor 
larger than Vs hp in combination with other loads, the total 
calculated load shall be based on 125 percent of the largest 
motor load plus the sum of the other loads. 

(B) Inductive Lighting Loads. For circuits supplying 
lighting units that have ballasts, transformers, or autotrans- 
formers, the calculated load shall be based on the total 
ampere ratings of such units and not on the total watts of 
the lamps. 

(C) Range Loads. It shall be permissible to apply demand 
factors for range loads in accordance with Table 220.55, 
including Note 4. 

III. Feeder and Service Load Calculations 

220.40 General. The calculated load of a feeder or service 
shall not be less than the sum of the loads on the branch 
circuits supplied, as determined by Part II of this article, 
after any applicable demand factors permitted by Parts III 
or IV or required by Part V have been applied. 

FPN: See Examples D1(A) through DIO in Annex D. See 
220.18(B) for the maximum load in amperes permitted for 
lighting units operating at less than 100 percent power factor. 

220.42 General Lighting. The demand factors specified in 
Table 220.42 shall apply to that portion of the total branch- 
circuit load calculated for general illumination. They shall 
not be applied in determining the number of branch circuits 
for general illumination. 

220.43 Show- Window and Track Lighting. 

(A) Show Windows. For show-window lighting, a load of 
not less than 660 volt-amperes/linear meter or 200 volt- 
amperes/linear foot shall be included for a show window, 
measured horizontally along its base. 

FPN: See 220.14(G) for branch circuits supplying show 
windows. 

(B) Track Lighting. For track lighting in other than dwell- 
ing units or guest rooms or guest suites of hotels or motels, 
an additional load of 150 volt-amperes shall be included for 
every 600 mm (2 ft) of lighting track or fraction thereof. 
Where multicircuit track is installed, the load shall be con- 
sidered to be divided equally between the track circuits. 

220.44 Receptacle Loads — Other Than Dwelling 
Units. Receptacle loads calculated in accordance with 
220.14(H) and (I) shall be permitted to be made subject to 
the demand factors given in Table 220.42 or Table 220.44. 

220.50 Motors. Motor loads shall be calculated in accor- 
dance with 430.24, 430.25, and 430.26 and with 440.6 for 
hermetic refrigerant motor compressors. 



2005 Edition 



NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE 



70-59 



220.51 



ARTICLE 220 — BRANCH-CIRCUIT, FEEDER, AND SERVICE CALCULATIONS 



Table 220.42 Lighting Load Demand Factors 





Portion of Lighting 






Load to Which 






Demand Factor 




Type of 


Applies 


Demand Factor 


Occupancy 


(Volt-Amperes) 


(Percent) 


Dwelling units 


First 3000 or less at 
From 3001 to 


100 




120,000 at 


35 




Remainder over 






120,000 at 


25 


Hospitals* 


First 50,000 or less at 
Remainder over 


40 




50,000 at 


20 


Hotels and motels, 


First 20,000 or less at 


50 


including 
apartment houses 
without provision 
for cooking by 
tenants* 


From 20,001 to 
100,000 at 

Remainder over 
100,000 at 


40 
30 


Warehouses 


First 12,500 or less at 


100 


(storage) 


Remainder over 






12,500 at 


50 


All others 


Total volt-amperes 


100 



*The demand factors of this table shall not apply to the calculated load 
of feeders or services supplying areas in hospitals, hotels, and motels 
where the entire lighting is likely to be used at one time, as in oper- 
ating rooms, ballrooms, or dining rooms. 



Table 220.44 Demand Factors for Non-dwelling Receptacle 
Loads 

Portion of Receptacle Load to Which 

Demand Factor AppHes Demand Factor 

(Volt-Amperes) (Percent) 



First 10 kVA or less at 
Remainder over 10 kVA at 



100 
50 



220.51 Fixed Electric Space Heating. Fixed electric 
space heating loads shall be calculated at 100 percent of the 
total connected load. However, in no case shall a feeder or 
service load current rating be less than the rating of the 
largest branch circuit supplied. 

Exception: Where reduced loading of the conductors re- 
sults from units operating on duty-cycle, intermittently, or 
from all units not operating at the same time, the authority 
having jurisdiction may grant permission for feeder and 
service conductors to have an ampacity less than 100 per- 
cent, provided the conductors have an ampacity for the 
load so determined. 



220.52 Small Appliance and Laundry Loads — Dwell- 
ing Unit. 

(A) Small Appliance Circuit Load. In each dwelling 
unit, the load shall be calculated at 1500 volt-amperes 
for each 2-wire small-appliance branch circuit required 
by 210.11(C)(1). Where the load is subdivided through 
two or more feeders, the calculated load for each shall 
include not less than 1500 volt-amperes for each 2-wire 
small-appliance branch circuit. These loads shall be per- 
mitted to be included with the general lighting load and 
subjected to the demand factors provided in Table 220.42. 

Exception: The individual branch circuit permitted by 
210.52(B)(1), Exception No. 2, shall be permitted to be 
excluded from the calculation required by 220.52. 

(B) Laundry Circuit Load. A load of not less than 1500 
volt-amperes shall be included for each 2-wire laundry branch 
circuit installed as required by 210.11(C)(2). This load shall be 
permitted to be included with the general lighting load and 
subjected to the demand factors provided in Table 220.42. 

220.53 Appliance Load — Dwelling Unit(s). It shall be 
permissible to apply a demand factor of 75 percent to the 
nameplate rating load of four or more appliances fastened 
in place, other than electric ranges, clothes dryers, space- 
heating equipment, or air-conditioning equipment, that are 
served by the same feeder or service in a one-family, two- 
family, or multifamily dwelling. 

220.54 Electric Clothes Dryers — Dwelling Unit(s). The 

load for household electric clothes dryers in a dwelling 
unit(s) shall be either 5000 watts (volt-amperes) or the 
nameplate rating, whichever is larger, for each dryer 
served. The use of the demand factors in Table 220.54 shall 
be permitted. Where two or more single-phase dryers are 
supphed by a 3-phase, 4-wire feeder or service, the total 
load shall be calculated on the basis of twice the maximum 
number connected between any two phases. , 

220.55 Electric Ranges and Other Cooking Appliances 
— Dwelling Unit(s). The load for household electric 
ranges, wall-mounted ovens, counter-mounted cooking 
units, and other household cooking appliances individually 
rated in excess of VA kW shall be permitted to be calcu- 
lated in accordance with Table 220.55. Kilovolt-amperes 
(kVA) shall be considered equivalent to kilowatts (kW) for 
loads calculated under this section. 

Where two or more single-phase ranges are supplied by 
a 3-phase, 4-wire feeder or service, the total load shall be 
calculated on the basis of twice the maximum number con- 
nected between any two phases. 



70-60 



NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE 2005 Edition 



ARTICLE 220 — BRANCH-CIRCUIT, FEEDER, AND SERVICE CALCULATIONS 



220.80 



Table 220.54 Demand Factors for Household Electric 
Clothes Dryers 



• 



Number of 




Demand Factor 


Dryers 




(Percent) 


1^ 




100% 


5 




85% 


6 




75% 


1 




65% 


8 




60% 


9 




55% 


10 




50% 


11 




47% 


12-22 


% = 


47 - (number of dryers - 11) 


23 




35% 


24^2 


% = 35 


- [0.5 X (number of dryers - 23)] 


43 and over 




25% 



FPN No. 1: See Example D5(A) in Annex D. 

FPN No. 2: See Table 220.56 for commercial cooking 
equipment. 

FPN No. 3: See the examples in Annex D. 



220.56 Kitchen Equipment — Other Than Dwelling 
Unit(s). It shall be permissible to calculate the load for 
commercial electric cooking equipment, dishwasher 
booster heaters, water heaters, and other kitchen equipment 
in accordance with Table 220.56. These demand factors 
shall be applied to all equipment that has either thermo- 
static control or intermittent use as kitchen equipment. 
These demand factors shall not apply to space-heating, ven- 
tilating, or air-conditioning equipment. 

However, in no case shall the feeder or service calcu- 
lated load be less than the sum of the largest two kitchen 
equipment loads. 



Table 220.56 Demand Factors for KJtchen Equipment 
Other Than Dwelling Unit(s) 



• 



Number of Units of 


Demand Factor 


Equipment 


(Percent) 


1 


100 


2 


100 


3 


90 


4 


80 


5 


70 


6 and over 


65 



220.60 Noncoincident Loads. Where it is unlikely that 
two or more noncoincident loads will be in use simulta- 
neously, it shall be permissible to use only the largest 
load(s) that will be used at one time for calculating the total 
load of a feeder or service. 

220.61 Feeder or Service Neutral Load. 

(A) Basic Calculation. The feeder or service neutral load 
shall be the maximum unbalance of the load determined by 
this article. The maximum unbalanced load shall be the 
maximum net calculated load between the neutral and any 
one ungrounded conductor. 

Exception: For 3-wire, 2-phase or 5-wire, 2-phase sys- 
tems, the maximum unbalanced load shall be the maximum 
net calculated load between the neutral and any one un- 
grounded conductor multiplied by 140 percent. 

(B) Permitted Reductions. A service or feeder supplying 
the following loads shall be permitted to have an additional 
demand factor of 70 percent applied to the amount in 
220.61(B)(1) or portion of the amount in 220.61(B)(2) de- 
termined by the basic calculation: 

(1) A feeder or service supplying household electric 
ranges, wall-mounted ovens, counter-mounted cooking 
units, and electric dryers, where the maximum unbal- 
anced load has been determined in accordance with 
Table 220.55 for ranges and Table 220.54 for dryers 

(2) That portion of the unbalanced load in excess of 200 am- 
peres where the feeder or service is supplied from a 
3-wire dc or single-phase ac system, or a 4-wire, 3-phase; 
3-wire, 2-phase system, or a 5-wire, 2-phase system 

(C) Prohibited Reductions. There shall be no reduction of 
the neutral or grounded conductor capacity applied to the 
amount in 220.61(C)(1), or portion of the amount in (C)(2), 
from that determined by the basic calculation: 

(1) Any portion of a 3-wire circuit consisting of 2-phase 
wires and the neutral of a 4-wire, 3-phase, wye- 
connected system 

(2) That portion consisting of nonlinear loads supplied 
from a 4-wire, wye-connected, 3-phase system 

FPN No. 1: See Examples D1(A), D1(B), D2(B), D4(A), 
and D5(A) in Annex D. 

FPN No. 2: A 3-phase, 4-wire, wye-connected power sys- 
tem used to supply power to nonlinear loads may necessi- 
tate that the power system design allow for the possibility 
of high harmonic neutral currents. 

IV. Optional Feeder and Service Load Calculations 

220.80 General. Optional feeder and service load calcula- 
tions shall be permitted in accordance with Part IV. 



2005 Edition NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE 



70-61 



220.80 



ARTICLE 220 — BRANCH-CIRCUIT, FEEDER, AND SERVICE CALCULATIONS 



Table 220.55 Demand Factors and Loads for Household Electric Ranges, Wall-Mounted Ovens, Counter-Mounted Cooking 
Units, and Other Household Cooking Appliances over 1% kW Rating (Column C to be used in all cases except as otherwise 
permitted in Note 3.) 



Demand Factor (Percent) (See Notes) 



Number of Appliances 



Column A 
(Less than SVa kW Rating) 



Column B 
(31/2 kW to 8% kW Rating) 



Column C 

Maximum Demand (kW) (See 

Notes) (Not over 12 kW Rating) 



80 
75 
70 
66 
62 



80 
65 

55 
50 
45 



11 

14 
17 
20 



10 



59 
56 

53 
51 
49 



43 
40 
36 
35 
34 



21 

22 
23 
24 
25 



11 
12 
13 
14 
15 



47 
45 
43 
41 
40 



32 
32 
32 
32 
32 



26 
27 
28 
29 
30 



16 
17 
18 
19 
20 



21 

22 
23 
24 
25 



39 

38 
37 
36 
35 



34 
33 
32 
31 
30 



28 
28 
28 
28 
28 



26 
26 
26 
26 
26 



31 

32 
33 
34 
35 



36 
37 
38 
39 
40 



• 



26-30 
31-40 



30 
30 



24 
22 



15 kW + 1 kW for each range 



41-50 

51-60 

61 and over 



30 
30 
30 



20 
18 
16 



25 kW + % kW for each range 



1. Over 12 kW through 27 kW ranges all of same rating. For ranges individually rated more than 12 kW but not more than 27 kW, the maximum 
demand in Column C shall be increased 5 percent for each additional kilowatt of rating or major fraction thereof by which the rating of individual 
ranges exceeds 12 kW. 

2. Over SYa kW through 27 kW ranges of unequal ratings. For ranges individually rated more than ^¥4 kW and of different ratings, but none 
exceeding 27 kW, an average value of rating shall be calculated by adding together the ratings of all ranges to obtain the total connected load (using 
12 kW for any range rated less than 12 kW) and dividing by the total number of ranges. Then the maximum demand in Column C shall be increased 
5 percent for each kilowatt or major fraction thereof by which this average value exceeds 12 kW. 

3. Over PA kW through 8^4 kW. In lieu of the method provided in Column C, it shall be permissible to add the nameplate ratings of all household 
cooking appliances rated more than PA kW but not more than 8V4 kW and multiply the sum by the demand factors specified in Column A or B for 
the given number of appHances. Where the rating of cooking appUances falls under both Column A and Column B, the demand factors for each 
column shall be applied to the appliances for that column, and the results added together. 

4. Branch-Circuit Load. It shall be permissible to calculate the branch-circuit load for one range in accordance with Table 220.55. The branch- 
circuit load for one wall-mounted oven or one counter-mounted cooking unit shall be the nameplate rating of the appliance. The branch-circuit load 
for a counter-mounted cooking unit and not more than two wall-mounted ovens, all supplied from a single branch circuit and located in the same 
room, shall be calculated by adding the nameplate rating of the individual appliances and treating this total as equivalent to one range. 

5. This table also applies to household cooking appliances rated over PA kW and used in instructional programs. 



70-62 



NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE 2005 Edition 



ARTICLE 220 — BRANCH-CIRCUIT, FEEDER, AND SERVICE CALCULATIONS 



220.83 



220.82 Dwelling Unit. 

(A) Feeder and Service Load. This section applies to a 
dwelling unit having the total connected load served by a 
single 120/240- volt or 208 Y/1 20- volt set of 3- wire service 
or feeder conductors with an ampacity of 100 or greater. It 
shall be permissible to calculate the feeder and service 
loads in accordance with this section instead of the method 
specified in Part III of this article. The calculated load shall 
be the result of adding the loads from 220.82(B) and (C). 
Feeder and service-entrance conductors whose calculated 
load is determined by this optional calculation shall be per- 
mitted to have the neutral load determined by 220.61. 

(B) General Loads. The general calculated load shall be 
not less than 100 percent of the first 10 kVA plus 40 percent 
of the remainder of the following loads: 

(1) 33 volt-amperes/m^ or 3 volt-amperes/ft^ for general 
lighting and general-use receptacles. The floor area for 
each floor shall be calculated from the outside dimen- 
sions of the dwelling unit. The calculated floor area 
shall not include open porches, garages, or unused or 
unfinished spaces not adaptable for future use. 

(2) 1500 volt-amperes for each 2- wire, 20-ampere small- 
appliance branch circuit and each laundry branch cir- 
cuit specified in 220.52. 

(3) The nameplate rating of all appliances that are fastened in 
place, permanently connected, or located to be on a spe- 
cific circuit, ranges, wall-mounted ovens, counter- 
mounted cooking units, clothes dryers, and water heaters. 

(4) The nameplate ampere or kVA rating of all motors and 
of all low-power-factor loads. 

(C) Heating and Air-Conditioning Load. The largest of 
the following six selections (load in kVA) shall be included: 

(1) 100 percent of the nameplate rating(s) of the air condi- 
tioning and cooling. 

(2) iOO percent of the nameplate rating(s) of the heating 
when a heat pump is used without any supplemental 
electric heating. 

(3) 100 percent of the nameplate ratings of electric thermal 
storage and other heating systems where the usual load 
is expected to be continuous at the full nameplate 
value. Systems qualifying under this selection shall not 
be. calculated under any other selection in 220.82(C). 

(4) 100 percent of the nameplate rating(s) of the heat pump 
compressor and 65 percent of the supplemental electric 
heating for central electric space heating systems. If the 
heat pump compressor is prevented from operating at 
the same time as the supplementary heat, it does not 
need to be added to the supplementary heat for the total 
central space heating load. 

(5) 65 percent of the nameplate rating(s) of electric space 
heating if less than four separately controlled units. 



(6) 40 percent df the nameplate rating(s) of electric space 
heating if four or more separately controlled units. 

220.83 Existing Dwelling Unit. This section shall be per- 
mitted to be used to determine if the existing service or feeder 
is of sufficient capacity to serve additional loads. Where the 
dweUing unit is served by a 120/240-volt or 208Y/ 120- volt, 
3-wire service, it shall be permissible to calculate the total load 
in accordance with 220.83(A) or (B). 

(A) Where Additional Air-Conditioning Equipment or 
Electric Space-Heating Equipment Is Not to Be In- 
stalled. The following formula shall be used for existing 
and additional new loads. 



Load (kVA) 



Percent of Load 



First 8 kVA of load at 
Remainder of load at 



100 
40 



Load calculations shall include the foUowing: 

(1) General lighting and general-use receptacles at 33 volt- 
amperes/m^ or 3 volt-amperes/ft^ as determined by 220.12 

(2) 1500 volt-amperes for each 2-wire, 20-ampere small- 
appliance branch circuit and each laundry branch cir- 
cuit specified in 220.52 

(3) Household range(s), wall-mounted oven(s), and counter- 
mounted cooking unit(s) 

(4) All other appliances that are permanently connected, 
fastened in place, or connected to a dedicated circuit, at 
nameplate rating 

(B) Where Additional Air-Conditioning Equipment or 
Electric Space-Heating Equipment Is to Be Installed. 

The following formula shall be used for existing and addi- 
tional new loads. The larger connected load of air- 
conditioning or space-heating, but not both, shall be used. 



Load 


Percent of Load 


Air-conditioning equipment 


loo 


Central electric space heating 


100 


Less than four separately 


100 


controlled space-heating units 




First 8 kVA of all other loads 


100 


Remainder of all other loads 


40 



Other loads shall include the following: 

(1) General lighting and general-use receptacles at 33 volt- 
amperes/m^ or 3 volt-amperes/ft^ as determined by 220.12 

(2) 1500 volt-amperes for each 2-wire, 20-ampere small- 
appliance branch circuit and each laundry branch cir- 
cuit specified in 220.52 



2005 Edition NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE 



70-63 



220.84 



ARTICLE 220 — BRANCH-CIRCUIT, FEEDER, AND SERVICE CALCULATIONS 



(3) Household range(s), wall-mounted oven(s), and 
counter-mounted cooking unit(s) 

(4) All other appliances that are permanently connected, 
fastened in place, or connected to a dedicated circuit, 
including four or more separately controlled space- 
heating units, at nameplate rating 

220.84 Multifamily Dwelling. 

(A) Feeder or Service Load. It shall be permissible to 
calculate the load of a feeder or service that supplies three 
or more dwelling units of a multifamily dwelling in accor- 
dance with Table 220.84 instead of Part III of this article if 
all the following conditions are met: 

(1) No dwelling unit is supplied by more than one feeder. 

(2) Each dwelling unit is equipped with electric cooking 
equipment. 

Exception: When the calculated load for multifamily dwell- 
ings without electric cooking in Part III of this article ex- 
ceeds that calculated under Part IV for the identical load 
plus electric cooking (based on 8 kW per unit), the lesser of 
the two loads shall be permitted to be used. 

(3) Each dwelling unit is equipped with either electric 
space heating or air conditioning, or both. Feeders and 
service conductors whose calculated load is determined 
by this optional calculation shall be permitted to have 
the neutral load determined by 220.61. 

(B) House Loads. House loads shall be calculated in ac- 
cordance with Part III of this article and shall be in addition 
to the dwelling unit loads calculated in accordance with 
Table 220.84. 

(C) Connected Loads. The calculated load to which the 
demand factors of Table 220.84 apply shall include the 
following: 

(1) 33 volt-amperes/m^ or 3 volt-amperes/ft^ for general 
lighting and general-use receptacles. 

(2) 1500 volt-amperes for each 2-wire, 20-ampere small- 
appliance branch circuit and each laundry branch cir- 
cuit specified in 220.52. 

(3) The nameplate rating of all appliances that are fastened 
in place, permanently connected or located to be on a 
specific circuit, ranges, wall-mounted ovens, counter- 
mounted cooking units, clothes dryers, water heaters, 
and space heaters. If water heater elements are inter- 
locked so that all elements cannot be used at the same 
time, the maximum possible load shall be considered 
the nameplate load. 

(4) The nameplate ampere or kilovolt-ampere rating of all 
motors and of all low-power-factor loads. 

(5) The larger of the air-conditioning load or the space- 
heating load. 



Table 220.84 Optional Calculations — Demand Factors for 
Three or More Multifamily Dwelling Units 



Number of 


Demand Factor 


Dwelling Units 


(Percent) 


3-5 


45 


6-7 


44 


8-10 


43 


11 


42 


12-13 


41 


14-i5 


40 


16-17 


39 


18-20 


38 


21 


37 


22-23 


36 


24-25 


35 


26-27 


34 


28-30 


33 


31 , 


32 


32-33 


31 


34-36 


30 


37-38 


29 


39^2 


28 


43^5 


27 


46-50 


26 


51-55 


25 


56-61 


24 


62 and over 


23 



220.85 Two Dwelling Units. Where two dwelling units 
are supplied by a single feeder and the calculated load 
under Part III of this article exceeds that for three identical 
units calculated under 220.84, the lesser of the two loads 
shall be permitted to be used. 

220.86 Schools. The calculation of a feeder or service 
load for schools shall be permitted in accordance with 
Table 220.86 in lieu of Part III of this article where 
equipped with electric space heating, air conditioning, or 
both. The connected load to which the demand factors of 
Table 220.86 apply shall include all of the interior and 
exterior lighting, power, water heating, cooking, other 
loads, and the larger of the air-conditioning load or space- 
heating load within the building or structure. 

Feeders and service-entrance conductors whose calculated 
load is determined by this optional calculation shall be permit- 
ted to have the neutral load determined by 220.61. Where the 
building or structure load is calculated by this optional 
method, feeders within the building or structure shall have 
ampacity as permitted in Part HI of this article; however, the 
ampacity of an individual feeder shall not be required to be 
larger than the ampacity for the entire building. 

This section shall not apply to portable classroom 
buildings. 



70-64 



NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE 2005 Edition 



ARTICLE 220 — BRANCH-CIRCUIT, FEEDER, AND SERVICE CALCULATIONS 



220.103 



Table 220.86 Optional Method — Demand Factors for 
Feeders and Service-Entrance Conductors for Schools 



• 







Demand 






Factor 


Connected Load 


(Percent) 


First 33 VA/m^ 


(3 VA/ft^) at 


100 


Plus, 






Over 33 to 220 VA/m^ 


(3 to 20 VA/ft^) at 


75 


Plus, 






Remainder over 220 


(20 VA/ft^) at 


25 


VA/m^ 







220.87 Determining Existing Loads. The calculation of a 
feeder or service load for existing installations shall be 
permitted to use actual maximum demand to determine the 
existing load under all of the following conditions: 

(1) The maximum demand data is available for a 1-year 
period. 

Exception: If the maximum demand data for a 1 -year pe- 
riod is not available, the calculated load shall be permitted 
to be based on the maximum demand (measure of average 
power demand over a 15 -minute period) continuously re- 
corded over a minimum 30-day period using a recording 
ammeter or power meter connected to the highest loaded 
phase of the feeder or service, based on the initial loading 
at the start of the recording. The recording shall reflect the 
maximum demand of the feeder or service by being taken 
when the building or space is occupied and shall include by 
measurement or calculation the larger of the heating or 
cooling equipment load, and other loads that may be peri- 
odic in nature due to seasonal or similar conditions. 

(2) The maximum demand at 125 percent plus the new 
load does not exceed the ampacity of the feeder or 
rating of the service. 

(3) The feeder has overcurrent protection in accordance 
with 240.4, and the service has overload protection in 
accordance with 230.90. 

220.88 New Restaurants. Calculation of a service or 
feeder load, where the feeder serves the total load, for a 



new restaurant shall be permitted in accordance with Table 
220.88 in heu of Part III of this article. 

The overload protection of the service conductors shall 
be in accordance with 230.90 and 240.4. 

Feeder conductors shall not be required to be of greater 
ampacity than the service conductors. 

Service or feeder conductors whose calculated load is 
determined by this optional calculation shall be permitted 
to have the neutral load determined by 220.61. 

V. Farm Load Calculation 

220.100 General. Farm loads shall be calculated in accor- 
dance with Part V. 

220.102 Farm Loads — Buildings and Other Loads. 

(A) Dwelling Unit. The feeder or service load of a farm 
dwelhng unit shall be calculated in accordance with the 
provisions for dwellings in Part III or IV of this article. 
Where the dwelling has electric heat and the farm has elec- 
tric grain-drying systems. Part IV of this article shall not be 
used to calculate the dwelling load where the dwelling and 
farm load are supplied by a common service. 

(B) Other Than Dwelling Unit. Where a feeder or service 
supplies a farm building or other load having two or more 
separate branch circuits, the load for feeders, service con- 
ductors, and service equipment shall be calculated in accor- 
dance with demand factors not less than indicated in Table 
220.102. 

220.103 Farm Loads — Total. Where supplied by a com- 
mon service, the total load of the farm for service conduc- 
tors and service equipment shall be calculated in accor- 
dance with the farm dwelling unit load and demand factors 
specified in Table 220.103. Where there is equipment in 
two or more farm equipment buildings or for loads having 
the same function, such loads shall be calculated in accor- 
dance with Table 220.102 and shall be permitted to be 
combined as a single load in Table 220.103 for calculating 
the total load. 



• 



Table 220.88 Optional Method — Permitted Load Calculations for Service and Feeder Conductors for New Restaurants 



Not All Electric Restaurant 
Calculated Loads (kVA) 



Total Connected 


All Electric Restaurant 


Load (kVA) 


Calculated Loads (kVA) 


0-200 


80% 


201-325 


10% (amount over 200) + 160.0 


326-800 


50% (amount over 325) + 172.5 


Over 800 


50% (amount over 800) + 410.0 



100% 
50% (amount over 200) + 200.0 
45% (amount over 325) + 262.5 
20% (amount over 800) + 476.3 



Note: Add all electrical loads, including both heating and cooling loads, to calculate the total connected load. Select 
the one demand factor that applies from the table, then multiply the total connected load by this single demand factor. 



2005 Edition NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE 



70-65 



225.1 



ARTICLE 225 — OUTSIDE BRANCH CIRCUITS AND FEEDERS 



Table 220.102 Method for Calculating Farm Loads for 
Other Than Dwelling Unit 



Table 225.2 Other Articles 



Ampere Load at 240 Volts 
Maximum 



Demand Factor 
(Percent) 



Loads expected to operate 
simultaneously, but not less than 
125 percent full-load current of the 
largest motor and not less than the 
first 60 amperes of load 

Next 60 amperes of all other loads 

Remainder of other load 



100 



50 

25 



Table 220.103 Method for Calculating Total Farm Load 



Individual Loads Calculated in 
Accordance with Table 220.102 



Demand Factor 
(Percent) 



Largest load 
Second largest load 
Third largest load 
Remaining loads 



100 
75 
65 
50 



Note: To this total load, add the load of the farm dwelling unit calcu- 
lated in accordance with Part III or IV of this article. Where the 
dwelling has electric heat and the farm has electric grain-drying sys- 
tems. Part IV of this article shall not be used to calculate the dwelling 
load. 



ARTICLE 225 
Outside Branch Circuits and Feeders 



225.1 Scope. This article covers requirements for outside 
branch circuits and feeders run on or between buildings, 
structures, or poles on the premises; and electric equipment 
and wiring for the supply of utilization equipment that is 
located on or attached to the outside of buildings, struc- 
tures, or poles. 

FPN: For additional information on wiring over 600 volts, 
see ANSI C2-2002, National Electrical Safety Code. 

225.2 Other Articles. Application of other articles, includ- 
ing additional requirements to specific cases of equipment 
and conductors, is shown in Table 225.2. 



I. General 

225.3 Calculation of Loads 600 Volts, Nominal, or Less. 

(A) Branch Circuits. The load on outdoor branch circuits 
shall be as determined by 220.10. 

(B) Feeders. The load on outdoor feeders shall be as de- 
termined by Part III of Article 220. 



Equipment/Conductors 



Branch circuits 

Class 1, Class 2, and Class 3 

remote-control, signahng, and 

power-limited circuits 
Communications circuits 
Community antenna television and radio 

distribution systems 
Conductors for general wiring 
Electrically driven or controlled 

irrigation machines 
Electric signs and outline lighting 
Feeders 

Fire alarm systems 
Fixed outdoor electric deicing and 

snow-melting equipment 
Floating buildings 
Grounding 

Hazardous (classified) locations 
Hazardous (classified) locations — 

specific 
Marinas and boatyards 
Messenger supported wiring 
Mobile homes, manufactured homes, 

and mobile home parks 
Open wiring on insulators 
Over 600 volts, general 
Overcurrent protection 
Radio and television equipment 
Services 

Solar photovoltaic systems 
Swimming pools, fountains, and similar 

installations 
Use and identification of grounded 

conductors 



Article 



210 

725 



800 
820 

310 
675 

600 

215 
760 
426 

553 
250 
500 
510 

555 
396 
550 

398 
490 
240 
810 
230 
690 
680 

200 



225.4 Conductor Covering. Where within 3.0 m (10 ft) of 
any building or structure other than supporting poles or 
towers, open individual (aerial) overhead conductors shall 
be insulated or covered. Conductors in cables or raceways, 
except Type MI cable, shall be of the rubber-covered type 
or thermoplastic type and, in wet locations, shall comply 
with 310.8. Conductors for festoon lighting shall be of the 
rubber-covered or thermoplastic type. 

Exception: Equipment grounding conductors and grounded 
circuit conductors shall be permitted to be bare or covered as 
specifically permitted elsewhere in this Code. 

225.5 Size of Conductors 600 Volts, Nominal, or Less. 

The ampacity of outdoor branch-circuit and feeder conduc- 
tors shall be in accordance with 310.15 based on loads as 
determined under 220.10 and Part III of Article 220. 

225.6 Conductor Size and Support. 

(A) Overhead Spans. Open individual conductors shall 
not be smaller than the following: 



• 



70-66 



NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE 2005 Edition 



ARTICLE 225 — OUTSIDE BRANCH CIRCUITS AND FEEDERS 



225.17 



(1) For 600 volts, nominal, or less, 10 AWG copper or 8 
AWG aluminum for spans up to 15 m (50 ft) in length, 
and 8 AWG copper or 6 AWG aluminum for a longer 
span unless supported by a messenger wire 

(2) For over 600 volts, nominal, 6 AWG copper or 4 AWG 
aluminum where open individual conductors, and 
8 AWG copper or 6 AWG aluminum where in cable 

(B) Festoon Lighting. Overhead conductors for festoon 
lighting shall not be smaller than 12 AWG unless the con- 
ductors are supported by messenger wires. In all spahs ex- 
ceeding 12 m (40 ft), the conductors shall be supported by 
messenger wire. The messenger wire shall be supported by 
strain insulators. Conductors or messenger wires shall not 
be attached to any fire escape, downspout, or plumbing 
equipment. 

225.7 Lighting Equipment Installed Outdoors. 

(A) General. For the supply of lighting equipment in- 
stalled outdoors, the branch circuits shall comply with 
Article 210 and 225.7(B) through (D). 

(B) Common Neutral. The ampacity of the neutral con- 
ductor shall not be less than the maximum net computed 
load current between the neutral and all ungrounded con- 
ductors connected to any one phase of the circuit. 

(C) 277 Volts to Ground. Circuits exceeding 120 volts, 
nominal, between conductors and not exceeding 277 volts, 
nominal, to ground shall be permitted to supply luminaires 
(lighting fixtures) for illumination of outdoor areas of in- 
dustrial establishments, office buildings, schools, stores, 
and other commercial or public buildings where the lumi- 
naires (fixtures) are not less than 900 mm (3 ft) from win- 
dows, platforms, fire escapes, and the like. 

(D) 600 Volts Between Conductors. Circuits exceeding 
277 volts, nominal, to ground and not exceeding 600 volts, 
nominal, between conductors shall be permitted to supply 
the auxiliary equipment of electric-discharge lamps in ac- 
cordance with 210.6(D)(1). 

225.10 Wiring on Buildings. The installation of outside 
wiring on surfaces of buildings shall be permitted for cir- 
cuits of not over 600 volts, nominal, as open wiring on 
insulators, as multiconductor cable, as Type MC cable, as 
Type MI cable, as messenger supported wiring, in rigid 
metal conduit, in intermediate metal conduit, in rigid non- 
metallic conduit, in cable trays, as cablebus, in wireways, 
in auxiliary gutters, in electrical metallic tubing, in flexible 
metal conduit, in liquidtight flexible metal conduit, in liq- 
uidtight flexible nonmetallic conduit, and in busways. Cir- 
cuits of over 600 volts, nominal, shall be installed as pro- 
vided in 300.37. 



225.11 Circuit Exits and Entrances. Where outside 
branch and feeder circuits leave or enter a building, the 
requirements of 230.52 and 230.54 shall apply. 

225.12 Open-Conductor Supports. Open conductors 
shall be supported on glass or porcelain knobs, racks, 
brackets, or strain insulators. 

225.14 Open-Conductor Spacings. 

(A) 600 Volts, Nominal, or Less. Conductors of 600 volts, 
nominal, or less, shall comply with the spacings provided 
in Table 230.51(C). 

(B) Over 600 Volts, Nominal. Conductors of over 600 volts, 
nominal, shall comply with the spacings provided in 110.36 
and 490.24. 

(C) Separation from Other Circuits. Open conductors 
shall be separated from open conductors of other circuits or 
systems by not less than 100 nmn (4 in.). 

(D) Conductors on Poles. Conductors on poles shall have a 
separation of not less than 300 mm (1 ft) where not placed on 
racks or brackets. Conductors supported on poles shall provide 
a horizontal climbing space not less than the following: 

(1) Power conductors below communications conductors 

— 750 mm (30 in.) 

(2) Power conductors alone or above communications 
conductors: 

a. 300 volts or less — 600 mm (24 in.) 

b. Over 300 volts — 750 mm (30 in.) 

(3) Communications conductors below power conductors 

— same as power conductors 

(4) Communications conductors alone — no requirement 

225.15 Supports over Buildings. Supports over a building 
shall be in accordance with 230.29. 

225.16 Attachment to Buildings. 

(A) Point of Attachment. The point of attachment to a 
building shall be in accordance with 230.26. 

(B) Means of Attachment. The means of attachment to a 
building shall be in accordance with 230.27. 

225.17 Masts as Supports. Where a mast is used for the 
support of final spans of feeders or branch circuits, it shall 
be of adequate strength or be supported by braces or guys 
to withstand safely the strain imposed by the overhead 
drop. Where raceway-type masts are used, all raceway fit- 
tings shall be identified for use with masts. Only the feeder 
or branch circuit conductors specified within this section 
shall be permitted to be attached to the feeder and/or branch 
circuit mast. 



2005 Edition 



NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE 



70-67 



225.18 



ARTICLE 225 — OUTSIDE BRANCH CIRCUITS AND FEEDERS 



225.18 Clearance from Ground. Overhead spans of open 
conductors and open multiconductor cables of not over 600 
volts, nominal, shall have a clearance of not less than the 
following: 

(1) 3.0 m (10 ft) — above finished grade, sidewalks, or 
from any platform or projection from which they might 
be reached where the voltage does not exceed 150 volts 
to ground and accessible to pedestrians only 

(2) 3.7 m (12 ft) — over residential property and drive- 
ways, and those commercial areas not subject to truck 
traffic where the voltage does not exceed 300 volts to 
ground 

(3) 4.5 m (15 ft) — for those areas listed in the 3.7-m 
(12-ft) classification where the voltage exceeds 300 
volts to ground 

(4) 5.5 m (18 ft) — over public streets, alleys, roads, park- 
ing areas subject to truck traffic, driveways on other 
than residential property, and other land traversed by 
vehicles, such as cultivated, grazing, forest, and 
orchard 

225.19 Clearances from Buildings for Conductors of 
Not Over 600 Volts, Nominal. 

(A) Above Roofs. Overhead spans of open conductors and 
open multiconductor cables shall have a vertical clearance 
of not less than 2.5 m (8 ft) above the roof surface. The 
vertical clearance above the roof level shall be maintained 
for a distance not less than 900 mm (3 ft) in all directions 
from the edge of the roof. 

Exception No. 1: The area above a roof surface subject to 
pedestrian or vehicular traffic shall have a vertical clear- 
ance from the roof surface in accordance with the clear- 
ance requirements of 225.18. 

Exception No. 2: Where the voltage between conductors 
does not exceed 300, and the roof has a slope of 100 mm in 
300 mm (4 in. in 12 in.) or greater, a reduction in clearance 
to 900 mm (3 ft) shall be permitted. 

Exception No. 3: Where the voltage between conductors 
does not exceed 300, a reduction in clearance above only 
the overhanging portion of the roof to not less than 450 mm 
(18 in.) shall be permitted if (1) not more than 1.8 m (6 ft) 
of the conductors, 1.2 m (4 ft) horizontally, pass above the 
roof overhang and (2) they are terminated at a through-the- 
roof raceway or approved support. 

Exception No. 4: The requirement for maintaining the ver- 
tical clearance 900 mm (3 ft) from the edge of the roof shall 
not apply to the final conductor span where the conductors 
are attached to the side of a building. 

(B) From Nonbuilding or Nonbridge Structures. From 
signs, chimneys, radio and television antennas, tanks, and 
other nonbuilding or nonbridge structures, clearances — 



vertical, diagonal, and horizontal — shall not be less than 
900 mm (3 ft). 

(C) Horizontal Clearances. Clearances shall not be less 
than 900 mm (3 ft). 

(D) Final Spans. Final spans of feeders or branch circuits 
shall comply with 225.19(D)(1), (D)(2), and (D)(3). 

(1) Clearance from Windows. Final spans to the building 
they supply, or from which they are fed, shall be permitted 
to be attached to the building, but they shall be kept not less 
than 900 mm (3 ft) from windows that are designed to be 
opened, and from doors, porches, balconies, ladders, stairs, 
fire escapes, or similar locations. 

Exception: Conductors run above the top level of a win- 
dow shall be permitted to be less than the 900-mm (3-ft) 
requirement. 

(2) Vertical Clearance. The vertical clearance of final 
spans above, or within 900 mm (3 ft) measured horizontally 
of, platforms, projections, or surfaces from which they 
might be reached shall be maintained in accordance with 

225.18. 

(3) Building Openings. The overhead branch-circuit and 
feeder conductors shall not be installed beneath openings 
through which materials may be moved, such as openings 
in farm and commercial buildings, and shall not be installed 
where they obstruct entrance to these buildings' openings. 

(E) Zone for Fire Ladders. Where buildings exceed three 
stories or 15 m (50 ft) in height, overhead lines shall be ar- 
ranged, where practicable, so that a clear space (or zone) at 
least 1.8 m (6 ft) wide will be left either adjacent to the build- 
ings or beginning not over 2.5 m (8 ft) from them to faciUtate 
the raising of ladders when necessary for fire fighting. 

225.20 Mechanical Protection of Conductors. Mechani- 
cal protection of conductors on buildings, structures, or 
poles shall be as provided for services in 230.50. 

225.21 Multiconductor Cables on Exterior Surfaces of 
Buildings. Supports for multiconductor cables on exterior 
surfaces of buildings shall be as provided in 230.51. 

225.22 Raceways on Exterior Surfaces of Buildings or 
Other Structures. Raceways on exteriors of buildings or 
other structures shall be arranged to drain and shall be 
raintight in wet locations. 

Exception: Flexible metal conduit, where permitted in 
348.12(1), shall not be required to be raintight. 

IIS.I'X Outdoor Lampholders. Where outdoor lamphold- 
ers are attached as pendants, the connections to the circuit 
wires shall be staggered. Where such lampholders have 



70-68 



NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE 2005 Edition 



ARTICLE 225 — OUTSIDE BRANCH CIRCUITS AND FEEDERS 



225.33 



• 



• 



terminals of a type that puncture the insulation and make 
contact with the conductors, they shall be attached only to 
conductors of the stranded type. 

225.25 Location of Outdoor Lamps. Locations of lamps 
for outdoor lighting shall be below all energized conduc- 
tors, transformers, or other electric utilization equipment, 
unless either of the following apply: 

(1) Clearances or other safeguards are provided for relamping 
operations. 

(2) Equipment is controlled by a disconnecting means that 
can be locked in the open position. 

225.26 Vegetation as Support. Vegetation such as trees 
shall not be used for support of overhead conductor spans. 

IL More Than One Building or Other Structure 

225.30 Number of Supplies. Where more than one build- 
ing or other structure is on the same property and under 
single management, each additional building or other struc- 
ture that is served by a branch circuit or feeder on the load 
side of the service disconnecting means shall be supplied 
by only one feeder or branch circuit unless permitted in 
225.30(A) through (E). For the purpose of this section, a 
multiwire branch circuit shall be considered a single circuit. 

(A) Special Conditions. Additional feeders or branch cir- 
cuits shall be permitted to supply the following: 

(1) Fire pumps 

(2) Emergency systems 

(3) Legally required standby systems 

(4) Optional standby systems 

(5) Parallel power production systems 

(6) Systems designed for connection to multiple sources of 
supply for the purpose of enhanced reliability 

(B) Special Occupancies. By special permission, addi- 
tional feeders or branch circuits shall be permitted for ei- 
ther of the following: 

(1) Multiple-occupancy buildings where there is no space 
available for supply equipment accessible to all occupants 

(2) A single building or other structure sufficiently large to 
make two or more supplies necessary 

(C) Capacity Requirements. Additional feeders or 
branch circuits shall be permitted where the capacity 
requirements are in excess of 2000 amperes at a supply 
voltage of 600 volts or less. 

(D) Different Characteristics. Additional feeders or branch 
circuits shall be permitted for different voltages, frequencies, 
or phases or for different uses, such as control of outside light- 
ing from multiple locations. 



(E) Documented Switching Procedures. Additional feed- 
ers or branch circuits shall be permitted to supply installa- 
tions under single management where documented safe 
switching procedures are established and maintained for 
disconnection. 

225.31 Disconnecting Means. Means shall be provided 
for disconnecting all ungrounded conductors that supply or 
pass through the building or structure. 

225.32 Location. The disconnecting means shall be in- 
stalled either inside or outside of the building or structure 
served or where the conductors pass through the building or 
structure. The disconnecting means shall be at a readily 
accessible location nearest the point of entrance of the con- 
ductors. For the purposes of this section, the requirements 
in 230.6 shall be utilized. 

Exception No. 1: For installations under single manage- 
ment, where documented safe switching procedures are es- 
tablished and maintained for disconnection, and where the 
installation is monitored by qualified individuals, the dis- 
connecting means shall be permitted to be located else- 
where on the premises. 

Exception No. 2: For buildings or other structures quali- 
fying under the provisions of Article 685, the disconnecting 
means shall be permitted to be located elsewhere on the 
premises. 

Exception No. 3: For towers or poles used as lighting 
standards, the disconnecting means shall be permitted to be 
located elsewhere on the premises. 

Exception No. 4: For poles or similar structures used only 
for support of signs installed in accordance with Article 
600, the disconnecting means shall be permitted to be lo- 
cated elsewhere on the premises. 

225.33 Maximum Number of Disconnects. 

(A) General. The disconnecting means for each supply 
permitted by 225.30 shall consist of not more than six 
switches or six circuit breakers mounted in a single enclo- 
sure, in a group of separate enclosures, or in or on a switch- 
board. There shall be no more than six disconnects per 
supply grouped in any one location. 

Exception: For the purposes of this section, disconnecting 
means used solely for the control circuit of the ground-fault 
protection system, or the control circuit of the power- 
operated supply disconnecting means, installed as part of 
the listed equipment, shall not be considered a supply dis- 
connecting means. 

(B) Single-Pole Units. Two or three single-pole switches 
or breakers capable of individual operation shall be permit- 
ted on multiwire circuits, one pole for each ungrounded 
conductor, as one multipole disconnect, provided they are 



2005 Edition NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE 



70-69 



225.34 



ARTICLE 225 — OUTSIDE BRANCH CIRCUITS AND FEEDERS 



equipped with handle ties or a master handle to disconnect 
all ungrounded conductors with no more than six opera- 
tions of the hand. 

225.34 Grouping of Disconnects. 

(A) General. The two to six disconnects as permitted in 
225.33 shall be grouped. Each disconnect shall be marked 
to indicate the load served. 

Exception: One of the two to six disconnecting means 
permitted in 225.33, where used only for a water pump also 
intended to provide fire protection, shall be permitted to be 
located remote from the other disconnecting means. 

(B) Additional Disconnecting Means. The one or more 
additional disconnecting means for fire pumps or for emer- 
gency, legally required standby or optional standby system 
permitted by 225.30 shall be installed sufficiently remote from 
the one to six disconnecting means for normal supply to mini- 
mize the possibility of simultaneous interruption of supply. 

225.35 Access to Occupants. In a multiple-occupancy 
building, each occupant shall have access to the occupant's 
supply disconnecting means. 

Exception: In a multiple-occupancy building where elec- 
tric supply and electrical maintenance are provided by the 
building management and where these are under continu- 
ous building management supervision, the supply discon- 
necting means supplying more than one occupancy shall be 
permitted to be accessible to authorized management per- 
sonnel only. 

225.36 Suitable for Service Equipment. The disconnect- 
ing means specified in 225.31 shall be suitable for use as 
service equipment. 

Exception: For garages and outbuildings on residential 
property, a snap switch or a set of 3-way or 4-way snap 
switches shall be permitted as the disconnecting means. 

225.37 Identification. Where a building or structure has any 
combination of feeders, branch circuits, or services passing 
through it or supplying it, a permanent plaque or directory 
shall be installed at each feeder and branch-circuit disconnect 
location denoting all other services, feeders, or branch circuits 
supplying that building or structure or passing through that 
building or structure and the area served by each. 

Exception No. 1: A plaque or directory shall not be re- 
quired for large-capacity multibuilding industrial installa- 
tions under single management, where it is ensured that 
disconnection can be accomplished by establishing and 
maintaining safe switching procedures. 

Exception No. 2: This identification shall not be required 
for branch circuits installed from a dwelling unit to a sec- 
ond building or structure. 



225.38 Disconnect Construction. Disconnecting means 
shall meet the requirements of 225.38(A) through (D). 

Exception: For garages and outbuildings on residential 
property, snap switches or sets of 3-way or 4-way snap 
switches shall be permitted as the disconnecting means. 

(A) Manually or Power Operable. The disconnecting 
means shall consist of either (1) a manually operable switch 
or a circuit breaker equipped with a handle or other suitable 
operating means or (2) a power-operable switch or circuit 
breaker, provided the switch or circuit breaker can be 
opened by hand in the event of a powfer failure. 

(B) Simultaneous Opening of Poles. Each building or 
structure disconnecting means shall simultaneously discon- 
nect all ungrounded supply conductors that it controls from 
the building or structure wiring system. 

(C) Disconnection of Grounded Conductor. Where the 
building or structure disconnecting means does not discon- 
nect the grounded conductor from the grounded conductors 
in the building or structure wiring, other means shall be 
provided for this purpose at the location of disconnecting 
means. A terminal or bus to which all grounded conductors 
can be attached by means of pressure connectors shall be 
permitted for this purpose. 

In a multisection switchboard, disconnects" for the 
grounded conductor shall be permitted to be in any of the 
switchboard, provided any such switchboard is marked. 

(D) Indicating. The building or structure disconnecting 
means shall plainly indicate whether it is in the open or 
closed position. 

225.39 Rating of Disconnect. The feeder or branch-circuit 
disconnecting means shall have a rating of not less than the 
load to be suppHed, determined in accordance with Parts I 
and II of Article 220 for branch circuits. Parts III or IV of 
Article 220 for feeders, or Part V of Article 220 for farm 
loads. In no case shall the rating be lower than specified in 
225.39(A), (B), (C), or (D). 

(A) One-Circuit Installation. For installations to supply 
only limited loads of a single branch circuit, the branch 
circuit disconnecting means shall have a rating of not less 
than 15 amperes. 

(B) Two-Circuit Installations. For installations consisting 
of not more than two 2-wire branch circuits, the feeder or 
branch-circuit disconnecting means shall have a rating of 
not less than 30 amperes. 

(C) One-Family Dwelling. For a one-family dwelling, the 
feeder disconnecting means shall have a rating of not less 
than 100 amperes, 3-wire. 

(D) All Others. For all other installations, the feeder or 
branch-circuit disconnecting means shall have a rating of 
not less than 60 amperes. 



• 



• 



• 



70-70 



NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE 2005 Edition 



ARTICLE 225 — OUTSIDE BRANCH CIRCUITS AND FEEDERS 



225.61 



225.40 Access to Overcurrent Protective Devices. Where 
a feeder overcurrent device is not readily accessible, branch- 
circuit overcurrent devices shall be installed on the load side, 
shall be mounted in a readily accessible location, and shall be 
of a lower ampere rating than the feeder overcurrent device. 



be engineered considering the special circumstances and 
shall be approved by the authority having jurisdiction. 

FPN: For additional information, see ANSI C2-2002, Na- 
tional Electrical Safety Code. 



• 






III. Over 600 Volts 

225.50 Sizing of Conductors. The sizing of conductors 
over 600 volts shall be in accordance with 210.19(B) for 
branch circuits and 215.2(B) for feeders. 

225.51 Isolating Switches. Where oil switches or air, oil, 
vacuum, or sulfur hexafluoride circuit breakers constitute a 
building disconnecting means, an isolating switch with visible 
break contacts and meeting the requirements of 230.204(B), 
(C), and (D) shall be installed on the supply side of the dis- 
connecting means and all associated equipment. 

Exception: The isolating switch shall not be required where 
the disconnecting means is mounted on removable truck pan- 
els or metal-enclosed switchgear units that cannot be opened 
unless the circuit is disconnected and that, when removed from 
the normal operating position, automatically disconnect the 
circuit breaker or switch from all energized parts. 

225.52 Location. A building or structure disconnecting 
means shall be located in accordance with 225.32, or it 
shall be electrically operated by a similarly located remote- 
control device. 

225.53 Type. Each building or structure disconnect shall 
simultaneously disconnect all ungrounded supply conduc- 
tors it controls and shall have a fault-closing rating not less 
than the maximum available short-circuit current available 
at its supply terminals. 

Where fused switches or separately mounted fuses are in- 
stalled, the fuse characteristics shall be permitted to contribute 
to the fault closing rating of the disconnecting means. 

225.60 Clearances over Roadways, Walkways, Rail, 
Water, and Open Land. 

(A) 22 kV Nominal to Ground or Less. The clearances 
over roadways, walkways, rail, water, and open land for 
conductors and live parts up to 22 kV nominal to ground or 
less shall be not less than the values shown in Table 225.60. 

(B) Over 22 kV Nominal to Ground. Clearances for the 
categories shown in Table 225.60 shall be increased by 
10 mm (0.4 in.) per kV above 22,000 volts. 

(C) Special Cases. For special cases, such as where cross- 
ings will be made over lakes, rivers, or areas using large 
vehicles such as mining operations, specific designs shall 



Table 225.60 Clearances over Roadways, Walkways, Rail, 
Water, and Open Land 



Clearance 


Location 


m 


ft 


Open land subject to vehicles, 


5.6 


18.5 


cultivation, or grazing 






Roadways, driveways, parking lots, 


5.6 


18.5 


and alleys 






Walkways 


4.1 


13.5 


Rails 


8.1 


26.5 


Spaces and ways for pedestrians 


4.4 


14.5 


and restricted traffic 






Water areas not suitable for boating 


5.2 


17 



225.61 Clearances over Buildings and Other Structures. 

(A) 22 kV Nominal to Ground or Less. The clearances 
over buildings and other structures for conductors and live 
parts up to 22 kV, nominal, to ground or less shall be not 
less than the values shown in Table 225.61. 

(B) Over 22 kV Nominal to Ground. Clearances for the 
categories shown in Table 225.61 shall be increased by 
10 mm (0.4 in.) per kV above 22,000 volts. 

FPN: For additional information, see ANSI C2-2002, Na- 
tional Electrical Safety Code. 



Table 225.61 Clearances over Buildings and Other 
Structures 



Clearance from 

Conductors or Live 

Parts from: 



Horizontal 



m ft 



Vertical 



m ft 



Building walls, 

projections, and 

windows 
Balconies, catwalks, and 

similar areas accessible 

to people 
Over or under roofs or 

projections not readily 

accessible to people 
Over roofs accessible to 

vehicles but not trucks 
Over roofs accessible to 

trucks 
Other structures 



2.3 7.5 



2.3 7.5 



4.1 

3.8 

4.1 
5.6 



13.5 

12.5 

13.5 
18.5 



2.3 7.5 



2005 Edition 



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70-71 



230.1 



ARTICLE 230 — SERVICES 



■^: Services \ ;- 



230.1 Scope. This article covers service conductors and 
equipment for control and protection of services and their 
installation requirements. 

FPN: See Figure 230.1. 



General 

Overhead Service-Drop Con 
Underground Service-Latera 
Service-Entrance Conductors 
Service Equipment — Genera 
Service Equipment — Disconr 
Service Equipment — Overcu 
Services Exceeding 600 Volt 

Sou 

t 
Overhead 
Last pole 


ductors 
Condu 

5 

ecting 
■rent Pr 
3, Nomi 

rce 


Parti 
Part II 
ctors Part III 
Part IV 
PartV 
VIeans Part VI 
Dtection Part VII 
nal Part VIII 

Underground 
Street main 

Service lateral 

Depth of burial 
and protection 

Terminal box, 
meter, or other 
enclosure 




Part II Service drop 
230.24 Clearances 

Service head 






Part III 
230.49 


























Service-entrance 
conductors 


Part IV 


Service equipment — general 
Grounding 

Disconnecting means 


\ 








Art 


PartV 
icIe 250 

Part VI 


Overcurrent protection 






Part VII 












Branch circuits 
Feeders 


Articles 210, 225 
Articles 215, 225 



Figure 230.1 Services. 

I. General 

230.2 Number of Services. A building or other structure 
served shall be supplied by only one service unless permitted 
in 230.2(A) through (D). For the purpose of 230.40, Exception 
No. 2 only, underground sets of conductors, 1/0 AWG and 
larger, running to the same location and connected together at 
their supply end but not connected together at their load end 
shall be considered to be supplying one service. 



(A) Special Conditions. Additional services shall be per- 
mitted to supply the following: 

(1) Fire pumps 

(2) Emergency systems 

(3) Legally required standby systems 

(4) Optional standby systems 

(5) Parallel power production systems 

(6) Systems designed for connection to multiple sources of 
supply for the purpose of enhanced reliability 

(B) Special Occupancies. By special permission, additional 
services shall be permitted for either of the following: 

(1) Multiple-occupancy buildings where there is no available 
space for service equipment accessible to all occupants 

(2) A single building or other structure sufficiently large to 
make two or more services necessary 

(C) Capacity Requirements. Additional services shall be 
permitted under any of the following: 

(1) Where the capacity requirements are in excess of 
2000 amperes at a supply voltage of 600 volts or less 

(2) Where the load requirements of a single-phase installa- 
tion are greater than the serving agency normally sup- 
plies through one service 

(3) By special permission 

(D) Different Characteristics. Additional services shall 
be permitted for diflferent voltages, frequencies, or phases, 
or for different uses, such as for different rate schedules. 

(E) Identification. Where a building or structure is supphed 
by more than one service, or any combination of branch cir- 
cuits, feeders, and services, a permanent plaque or directory 
shall be installed at each service disconnect location denoting 
all other services, feeders, and branch circuits supplying that 
building or structure and the area served by each. See 225.37. 

230.3 One Building or Other Structure Not to Be Sup- 
plied Through Another. Service conductors supplying a 
building or other structure shall not pass through the inte- 
rior of another building or other structure. 

230.6 Conductors Considered Outside the Building. 

Conductors shall be considered outside of a building or 
other structure under any of the following conditions: 

(1) Where installed under not less than 50 mm (2 in.) of 
concrete beneath a building or other structure 

(2) Where installed within a building or other structure in a 
raceway that is encased in concrete or brick not less 
than 50 mm (2 in.) thick 

(3) Where installed in any vault that meets the construction 
requirements of Article 450, Part III 



• 



• 






70-72 



NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE 2005 Edition 



ARTICLE 230 — SERVICES 



230.24 



• 



• 



(4) Where installed in conduit and under not less than 
450 mm (18 in.) of earth beneath a building or other 
structure 

230.7 Other Conductors in Raceway or Cable. Conduc- 
tors other than service conductors shall not be installed in 
the same service raceway or service cable. 

Exception No. 1: Grounding conductors and bonding jumpers. 

Exception No. 2: Load management control conductors 
having overcurrent protection. 

230.8 Raceway Seal. Where a service raceway enters a 
building or structure from an underground distribution sys- 
tem, it shall be sealed in accordance with 300.5(G). Spare 
or unused raceways shall also be sealed. Sealants shall be 
identified for use with the cable insulation, shield, or other 
components. 

230.9 Clearances on Buildings. Service conductors and 
final spans shall comply with 230.9(A), (B), and (C). 

(A) Clearances. Service conductors installed as open con- 
ductors or multiconductor cable without an overall outer 
jacket shall have a clearance of not less than 900 mm (3 ft) 
from windows that are designed to be opened, doors, porches, 
balconies, ladders, stairs, fire escapes, or similar locations. 

Exception: Conductors run above the top level of a win- 
dow shall be permitted to be less than the 900-mm (3-ft) 
requirement. 

(B) Vertical Clearance. The vertical clearance of final 
spans above, or within 900 mm (3 ft) measured horizontally 
of, platforms, projections, or surfaces from which they might 
be reached shall be maintained in accordance with 230.24(B). 

(C) Building Openings. Overhead service conductors 
shall not be installed beneath openings through which ma- 
terials may be moved, such as openings in farm and com- 
mercial buildings, and shall not be installed where they 
obstruct entrance to these building openings. 

230.10 Vegetation as Support. Vegetation such as trees 
shall not be used for support of overhead service conductors. 

II. Overhead Service-Drop Conductors 

230.22 Insulation or Covering. Individual conductors 
shall be insulated or covered. 

Exception: The grounded conductor of a multiconductor 
cable shall be permitted to be bare. 

230.23 Size and Rating. 

(A) General. Conductors shall have suflBcient ampacity to 
carry the current for the load as calculated in accordance with 
Article 220 and shall have adequate mechanical strength. 



(B) Minimum Size. The conductors shall not be smaller 
than 8 AWG copper or 6 AWG aluminum or copper-clad 
aluminum. 

Exception: Conductors supplying only limited loads of a 
single branch circuit — such as small polyphase power, 
controlled water heaters, and similar loads — shall not be 
smaller than 12 AWG hard-drawn copper or equivalent. 

(C) Grounded Conductors. The grounded conductor shall 
not be less than the minimum size as required by 250.24(C). 

230.24 Clearances. Service-drop conductors shall not be 
readily accessible and shall comply with 230.24(A) through 

(D) for services not over 600 volts, nominal. 

(A) Above Roofs. Conductors shall have a vertical clear- 
ance of not less than 2.5 m (8 ft) above the roof surface. 
The vertical clearance above the roof level shall be main- 
tained for a distance of not less than 900 mm (3 ft) in all 
directions from the edge of the roof. 

Exception No. 1: The area above a roof surface subject to 
pedestrian or vehicular traffic shall have a vertical clear- 
ance from the roof surface in accordance with the clear- 
ance requirements of 230.24(B). 

Exception No. 2: Where the voltage between conductors 
does not exceed 300 and the roof has a slope of 100 mm in 
300 mm (4 in. in 12 in.) or greater, a reduction in clearance 
to 900 mm (3 ft) shall be permitted. 

Exception No. 3: Where the voltage between conductors 
does not exceed 300, a reduction in clearance above only 
the overhanging portion of the roof to not less than 450 mm 
(18 in.) shall be permitted if (1) not more than 1.8 m (6 ft) 
of service-drop conductors, 1.2 m (4 ft) horizontally, pass 
above the roof overhang, and (2) they are terminated at a 
through-the-roof raceway or approved support. 

FPN: See 230.28 for mast supports. 

Exception: The requirement for maintaining the vertical 
clearance 900 mm (3 ft) from the edge of the roof shall not 
apply to the final conductor span where the service drop is 
attached to the side of a building. 

(B) Vertical Clearance from Ground. Service-drop con- 
ductors, where not in excess of 600 volts, nominal, shall 
have the following minimum clearance from final grade: 
(1) 3.0 m (10 ft) — at the electric service entrance to 

buildings, also at the lowest point of the drip loop of 
the building electric entrance, and above areas or side- 
walks accessible only to pedestrians, measured from 
final grade or other accessible surface only for service- 
drop cables supported on and cabled together with a 
grounded bare messenger where the voltage does not 
exceed 150 volts to ground 



2005 Edition 



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70-73 



230.26 



ARTICLE 230 — SERVICES 



(2) 3.7 m (12 ft) — over residential property and driveways, 
and those commercial areas not subject to truck traflBc 
where the voltage does not exceed 300 volts to ground 

(3) 4.5 m (15 ft) — for those areas listed in the 3.7-m (12-ft) 
classification where the voltage exceeds 300 volts to 
ground 

(4) 5.5 m (18 ft) — over public streets, alleys, roads, park- 
ing areas subject to truck traffic, driveways on other 
than residential property, and other land such as culti- 
vated, grazing, forest, and orchard 

(C) Clearance from Building Openings. See 230.9. 

(D) Clearance from Swimming Pools. See 680.8. 

230.26 Point of Attachment. The point of attachment of 
the service-drop conductors to a building or other structure 
shall provide the minimum clearances as specified in 230.9 
and 230.24. In no case shall this point of attachment be less 
than 3.0 m (10 ft) above finished grade. 

230.27 Means of Attachment. Multiconductor cables used 
for service drops shall be attached to buildings or other 
structures by fittings identified for use with service conduc- 
tors. Open conductors shall be attached to fittings identified 
for use with service conductors or to noncombustible, non- 
absorbent insulators securely attached to the building or 
other structure. 

230.28 Service Masts as Supports. Where a service mast 
is used for the support of service-drop conductors, it shall 
be of adequate strength or be supported by braces or guys 
to withstand safely the strain imposed by the service drop. 
Where raceway-type service masts are used, all raceway 
fittings shall be identified for use with service masts. Only 
power service-drop conductors shall be permitted to be at- 
tached to a service mast. 

230.29 Supports over Buildings. Service-drop conductors 
passing over a roof shall be securely supported by substan- 
tial structures. Where practicable, such supports shall be 
independent of the building. 

III. Underground Service-Lateral Conductors 

230.30 Insulation. Service-lateral conductors shall be in- 
sulated for the applied voltage. 

Exception: A grounded conductor shall be permitted to be 
uninsulated as follows: 

(1) Bare copper used in a raceway. 

(2) Bare copper for direct burial where bare copper is 
judged to be suitable for the soil conditions. 



(3) Bare copper for direct burial without regard to soil 
conditions where part of a cable assembly identified for 
underground use. 

(4) Aluminum or copper-clad aluminum without individual 
insulation or covering where part of a cable assembly 
identified for underground use in a raceway or for direct 
burial. 

230.31 Size and Rating. 

(A) General. Service-lateral conductors shall have suffi- 
cient ampacity to carry the current for the load as calculated 
in accordance with Article 220 and shall have adequate 
mechanical strength. 

(B) Minimum Size. The conductors shall not be smaller 
than 8 AWG copper or 6 AWG aluminum or copper-clad 
aluminum. 

Exception: Conductors supplying only limited loads of a 
single branch circuit — such as small polyphase power, 
controlled water heaters, and similar loads — shall not be 
smaller than 12 AWG copper or 10 AWG aluminum or 
copper-clad aluminum. 

(C) Grounded Conductors. The grounded conductor shall 
not be less than the minimum size required by 250.24(C). 

230.32 Protection Against Damage. Underground service- 
lateral conductors shall be protected against damage in ac- 
cordance with 300.5. Service-lateral conductors entering a 
building shall be installed in accordance with 230.6 or pro- 
tected by a raceway wiring method identified in 230.43. 

230.33 Spliced Conductors. Service-lateral conductors 
shall be permitted to be spliced or tapped in accordance 
with 110.14, 300.5(E), 300.13, and 300.15. 

IV. Service-Entrance Conductors 

230.40 Number of Service-Entrance Conductor Sets. 

Each service drop or lateral shall supply only one set of 
service-entrance conductors. 

Exception No. 1 : A building shall be permitted to have one 
set of service-entrance conductors for each service, as defined 
in 230.2, run to each occupancy or group of occupancies. 

Exception No. 2: Where two to six service disconnecting 
means in separate enclosures are grouped at one location 
and supply separate loads from one service drop or lateral, 
one set of service-entrance conductors shall be permitted to 
supply each or several such service equipment enclosures. 

Exception No. 3: A single-family dwelling unit and a sepa- 
rate structure shall be permitted to have one set of service - 
entrance conductors run to each from a single service drop 
or lateral. 



• 



• 



70-74 



NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE 2005 Edition 



ARTICLE 230 — SERVICES 



230.50 



• 



Exception No. 4: A two-family dwelling or a multifamily 
dwelling shall be permitted to have one set of service- 
entrance conductors installed to supply the circuits covered 
in 210.25. 

Exception No. 5: One set of service-entrance conductors 
connected to the supply side of the normal service discon- 
necting means shall be permitted to supply each or several 
systems covered by 230.82(4) or 230.82(5). 

230.41 Insulation of Service-Entrance Conductors. 

Service-entrance conductors entering or on the exterior of 
buildings or other structures shall be insulated. 

Exception: A grounded conductor shall be permitted to be 
uninsulated as follows: 

(1) Bare copper used in a raceway or part of a service 
cable assembly. 

(2) Bare copper for direct burial where bare copper is 
judged to be suitable for the soil conditions. 

(3) Bare copper for direct burial without regard to soil 
conditions where part of a cable assembly identified for 
underground use. 

(4) Aluminum or copper-clad aluminum without individual 
insulation or covering where part of a cable assembly 
or identified for underground use in a raceway, or for 
direct burial. 

(5) Bare conductors used in an auxiliary gutter 

230.42 Minimum Size and Rating. 

(A) General. The ampacity of the service-entrance con- 
ductors before the application of any adjustment or correc- 
tion factors shall not be less than either (A)(1) or (A)(2). 
Loads shall be determined in accordance with Article 220. 
Ampacity shall be determined from 310.15. The maximum 
allowable current of busways shall be that value for which 
the busway has been listed or labeled. 

(1) The sum of the noncontinuous loads plus 125 percent 
of continuous loads 

(2) The sum of the noncontinuous load plus the continuous 
load if the service-entrance conductors terminate in an 
overcurrent device where both the overcurrent device 
and its assembly are listed for operation at 100 percent 
of their rating 

(B) Specific Installations. In addition to the requirements 
of 230.42(A), the minimum ampacity for ungrounded con- 
ductors for specific installations shall not be less than the 
rating of the service disconnecting means specified in 
230.79(A) through (D). 

(C) Grounded Conductors. The grounded conductor shall 
not be less than the minimum size as required by 250.24(C). 



230.43 Wiring Methods for 600 Volts, Nominal, or Less. 

Service-entrance conductors shall be installed in accor- 
dance with the applicable requirements of this Code cover- 
ing the type of wiring method used and shall be limited to 
the following methods: 

(1) Open wiring on insulators 

(2) Type IGS cable 

(3) Rigid metal conduit 

(4) Intermediate metal conduit 

(5) Electrical metallic tubing 

(6) Electrical nonmetallic tubing (ENT) 

(7) Service-entrance cables 

(8) Wireways 

(9) Busways 

(10) Auxiliary gutters 

(11) Rigid nonmetallic conduit 

(12) Cablebus 

(13) Type MC cable 

(14) Mineral-insulated, metal-sheathed cable 

(15) Flexible metal conduit not over 1.8 m (6 ft) long or 
liquidtight flexible metal conduit not over 1.8 m (6 ft) 
long between raceways, or between raceway and ser- 
vice equipment, with equipment bonding jumper 
routed with the flexible metal conduit or the liq- 
uidtight flexible metal conduit according to the provi- 
sions of 250.102(A), (B), (C), and (E) 

(16) Liquidtight flexible nonmetallic conduit 

230.44 Cable Trays. Cable tray systems shall be permitted 
to support service-entrance conductors. Cable trays used to 
support service-entrance conductors shall contain only 
service-entrance conductors. 

Exception: Conductors other than service-entrance con- 
ductors shall be permitted to be installed in a cable tray 
with service-entrance conductors, provided a solid fixed 
barrier of a material compatible with the cable tray is 
installed to separate the service-entrance conductors from 
other conductors installed in the cable tray. 

230.46 Spliced Conductors. Service-entrance conductors 
shall be permitted to be spliced or tapped in accordance 
with 110.14, 300.5(E), 300.13, and 300.15. 

230.49 Protection Against Physical Damage — Under- 
ground. Underground service-entrance conductors shall be 
protected against physical damage in accordance with 300.5. 

230.50 Protection of Open Conductors and Cables 
Against Damage — Above Ground. Service-entrance 
conductors installed above ground shall be protected 
against physical damage as specified in 230.50(A) or (B). 



2005 Edition 



NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE 



70-75 



230.51 



ARTICLE 230 — SERVICES 



(A) Service Cables. Service cables, where subject to physi- 
cal damage, shall be protected by any of the following: 

(1) Rigid metal conduit 

(2) Intermediate metal conduit 

(3) Schedule 80 rigid nonmetallic conduit 

(4) Electrical metallic tubing 

(5) Other approved means 

(B) Other Than Service Cable. Individual open conduc- 
tors and cables other than service cables shall not be in- 
stalled within 3.0 m (10 ft) of grade level or where exposed 
to physical damage. 

Exception: Type MI and Type MC cable shall be permitted 
within 3.0 m (10 ft) of grade level where not exposed to physi- 
cal damage or where protected in accordance with 300.5(D). 

230.51 Mounting Supports. Cables or individual open ser- 
vice conductors shall be supported as specified in 230.51(A), 
(B), or (C). 

(A) Service Cables. Service cables shall be supported by 
straps or other approved means within 300 mm (12 in.) of 
every service head, gooseneck, or connection to a raceway or 
enclosure and at intervals not exceeding 750 mm (30 in.). 

(B) Other Cables. Cables that are not approved for mount- 
ing in contact with a building or other structure shall be 
mounted on insulating supports installed at intervals not ex- 
ceeding 4.5 m (15 ft) and in a manner that maintains a clear- 
ance of not less than 50 mm (2 in.) from the surface over 
which they pass. 

(C) Individual Open Conductors. Individual open con- 
ductors shall be installed in accordance with Table 230.51(C). 
Where exposed to the weather, the conductors shall be 
mounted on insulators or on insulating supports attached to 
racks, brackets, or other approved means. Where not exposed 
to the weather, the conductors shall be mounted on glass or 
porcelain knobs. 



230.52 Individual Conductors Entering Buildings or 
Other Structures. Where individual open conductors enter a 
building or other structure, they shall enter through roof bush- 
ings or through the wall in an upward slant through individual, 
noncombustible, nonabsorbent insulating tubes. Drip loops 
shall be formed on the conductors before they enter the tubes. 

230.53 Raceways to Drain. Where exposed to the weather, 
raceways enclosing service-entrance conductors shall be rain- 
tight and arranged to drain. Where embedded in masonry, 
raceways shall be arranged to drain. 

Exception: As permitted in 348.12(1). 

230.54 Overhead Service Locations. 

(A) Raintight Service Head. Service raceways shall be 
equipped with a raintight service head at the point of con- 
nection to service-drop conductors. 

(B) Service Cable Equipped with Raintight Service 
Head or Gooseneck. Service cables shall be equipped with 
a raintight service head. 

Exception: Type SE cable shall be permitted to be formed 
in a gooseneck and taped with a self-sealing weather- 
resistant thermoplastic. 

(C) Service Heads and Goosenecks Above Service-Drop 
Attachment. Service heads and goosenecks in service- 
entrance cables shall be located above the point of attach- 
ment of the service-drop conductors to the building or other 
structure. 

Exception: Where it is impracticable to locate the service 
head or gooseneck above the point of attachment, the ser- 
vice head or gooseneck location shall be permitted not 
farther than 600 mm (24 in.) from the point of attachment. 

(D) Secured. Service cables shall be held securely in place. 

(E) Separately Bushed Openings. Service heads shall 
have conductors of different potential brought out through 
separately bushed openings. 



Table 230,51(C) Supports 





Maximum Distance Between 




Minimum Clearance 












Maximum 


Supports 


Between Conductors 


From Surface 










Volts 


m ft 


mm 


m. 


mm m. 


600 


2.7 9 


150 


6 


50 2 


600 


4.5 15 


300 


12 


50 2 


300 


1.4 41/2 


75 


3 


50 2 


600* 


1.4='= 41/2* 


65* 


21/2* 


25* 1* 



*Where not exposed to weather. 



70-76 



NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE 2005 Edition 



ARTICLE 230 — SERVICES 



230.72 



Exception: For jacketed multiconductor service cable 
without splice. 

(F) Drip Loops. Drip loops shall be formed on individual 
conductors. To prevent the entrance of moisture, service- 
entrance conductors shall be connected to the service-drop 
conductors either (1) below the level of the service head or 
(2) below the level of the termination of the service- 
entrance cable sheath. 

(G) Arranged That Water Will Not Enter Service Race- 
way or Equipment. Service-drop conductors and service- 
entrance conductors shall be arranged so that water will not 
enter service raceway or equipment. 

230.56 Service Conductor with the Higher Voltage to 
Groiind. On a 4-wire, delta-connected service where the 
midpoint of one phase winding is grounded, the service 
conductor having the higher phase voltage to ground shall 
be durably and permanently marked by an outer finish that 
is orange in color, or by other effective means, at each 
termination or junction point. 

V. Service Equipment — General 

230.62 Service Equipment — Enclosed or Guarded. Ener- 
gized parts of service equipment shall be enclosed as specified 
in 230.62(A) or guarded as specified in 230.62(B). 

(A) Endosed. Energized parts shall be enclosed so that 
they will not be exposed to accidental contact or shall be 
guarded as in 230.62(B). 

(B) Guarded. Energized parts that are not enclosed shall 
be installed on a switchboard, panelboard, or control board 
and guarded in accordance with 110.18 and 110.27. Where 
energized parts are guarded as provided in 110.27(A)(1) 
and (A)(2), a means for locking or sealing doors providing 
access to energized parts shall be provided. 

230.66 Marking. Service equipment rated at 600 volts or 
less shall be marked to identify it as being suitable for use 
as service equipment. Individual meter socket enclosures 
shall not be considered service equipment. 

VI. Service Equipment — Disconnecting Means 

230.70 General. Means shall be provided to disconnect all 
conductors in a building or other structure from the service- 
entrance conductors. 

(A) Location. The service disconnecting means shall be in- 
staUed in accordance with 230.70(A)(1), (A)(2), and (A)(3). 



(1) Readily Accessible Location. The service disconnect- 
ing means shall be installed at a readily accessible location 
either outside of a building or structure or inside nearest the 
point of entrance of the service conductors. 

(2) Bathrooms. Service disconnecting means shall not be 
installed in bathrooms. 

(3) Remote Control. Where a remote control device(s) is 
used to actuate the service disconnecting means, the service 
disconnecting means shall be located in accordance with 
230.70(A)(1). 

(B) Marking. Each service disconnect shall be perma- 
nently marked to identify it as a service disconnect. 

(C) Suitable for Use. Each service disconnecting means 
shall be suitable for the prevailing conditions. Service 
equipment installed in hazardous (classified) locations shall 
comply with the requirements of Articles 500 through 517. 

230.71 Maximum Number of Disconnects. 

(A) General. The service disconnecting means for each 
service permitted by 230.2, or for each set of service- 
entrance conductors permitted by 230.40, Exception Nos. 
1, 3, 4, or 5, shall consist of not more than six switches or 
sets of circuit breakers, or a combination of not more than 
six switches and sets of circuit breakers, mounted in a 
single enclosure, in a group of separate enclosures, or in or 
on a switchboard. There shall be not more than six sets of 
disconnects per service grouped in any one location. For 
the purpose of this section, disconnecting means used 
solely for power monitoring equipment, transient voltage 
surge suppressors, or the control circuit of the ground-fault 
protection system or power-operable service disconnecting 
means, installed as part of the listed equipment, shall not be 
considered a service disconnecting means. 

(B) Single-Pole Units. Two or three single-pole switches 
or breakers, capable of individual operation, shall be per- 
mitted on multiwire circuits, one pole for each ungrounded 
conductor, as one multipole disconnect, provided they are 
equipped with handle ties or a master handle to disconnect 
all conductors of the service with no more than six opera- 
tions of the hand. 

FPN: See 408.36(A) for service equipment in panelboards, 
and see 430.95 for service equipment in motor control centers. 

230.72 Grouping of Disconnects. 

(A) General. The two to six disconnects as permitted in 
230.71 shall be grouped. Each disconnect shall be marked 
to indicate the load served. 

Exception: One of the two to six service disconnecting 
means permitted in 230.71, where used only for a water pump 
also intended to provide fire protection, shall be permitted to 
be located remote from the other disconnecting means. 



2005 Edition NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE 



70-77 



230.74 



ARTICLE 230 — SERVICES 



(B) Additional Service Disconnecting Means. The one or 

ore additional service disconnecting means for fire 
pumps, emergency systems, legally required standby, or 
optional standby services permitted by 230.2 shall be 
installed remote from the one to six service disconnect- 
ing means for normal service to minimize the possibility 
of simultaneous interruption of supply. 

(C) Access to Occupants. In a multiple-occupancy build- 
ing, each occupant shall have access to the occupant's ser- 
vice disconnecting means. 

Exception: In a multiple -occupancy building where electric 
service and electrical maintenance are provided by the build- 
ing management and where these are under continuous build- 
ing management supervision, the service disconnecting means 
supplying more than one occupancy shall be permitted to be 
accessible to authorized management personnel only. 

230.74 Simultaneous Opening of Poles. Each service 
disconnect shall simultaneously disconnect all ungrounded 
service conductors that it controls from the premises wiring 
system. 

230.75 Disconnection of Grounded Conductor. Where 
the service disconnecting means does not disconnect the 
grounded conductor from the premises wiring, other means 
shall be provided for this purpose in the service equipment. 
A terminal or bus to which all grounded conductors can be 
attached by means of pressure connectors shall be permit- 
ted for this purpose. In a multisection switchboard, discon- 
nects for the grounded conductor shall be permitted to be in 
any section of the switchboard, provided any such switch- 
board section is marked. 

230.76 Manually or Power Operable. The service dis- 
connecting means for ungrounded service conductors shall 
consist of one of the following: 

(1) A manually operable switch or circuit breaker equipped 
with a handle or other suitable operating means 

(2) A power-operated switch or circuit breaker, provided 
the switch or circuit breaker can be opened by hand in 
the event of a power supply failure 

230.77 Indicating. The service disconnecting means shall 
plainly indicate whether it is in the open or closed position. 

230.79 Rating of Service Disconnecting Means. The ser- 
vice disconnecting means shall have a rating not less than 
the load to be carried, determined in accordance with Ar- 
ticle 220. In no case shall the rating be lower than specified 
in 230.79(A), (B), (C), or (D). 



(A) One-Circuit Installation. For installations to supply 
only limited loads of a single branch circuit, the service 
disconnecting means shall have a rating of not less than 15 
amperes. 

(B) Two-Circuit Installations. For installations consisting of 
not more than two 2-wire branch circuits, the service discon- 
necting means shall have a rating of not less than 30 amperes. 

(C) One-Family Dwelling. For a one-family dwelling, the 
service disconnecting means shall have a rating of not less 
than 100 amperes, 3-wire. 

(D) All Others. For all other installations, the service discon- 
necting means shall have a rating of not less than 60 amperes. 

230.80 Combined Rating of Disconnects. Where the ser- 
vice disconnecting means consists of more than one switch 
or circuit breaker, as permitted by 230.71, the combined 
ratings of all the switches or circuit breakers used shall not 
be less than the rating required by 230.79. 

230.81 Connection to Terminals. The service conductors 
shall be connected to the service disconnecting means by 
pressure connectors, clamps, or other approved means. 
Connections that depend on solder shall not be used. 

230.82 Equipment Connected to the Supply Side of Ser- 
vice Disconnect. Only the following equipment shall be 
permitted to be connected to the supply side of the service 
disconnecting means: 

(1) Cable limiters or other current-limiting devices 

(2) Meters and meter sockets nominally rated not in excess 
of 600 volts, provided all metal housings and service 
enclosures are grounded 

(3) Meter disconnect switches nominally rated not in ex- 
cess of 600 volts that have a short-circuit current rating 
equal to or greater than the available short circuit cur- 
rent, provided all metal housings and service enclo- 
sures are grounded 

(4) Instrument transformers (current and voltage), imped- 
ance shunts, load management devices, and arresters 

(5) Taps used only to supply load management devices, 
circuits for standby power systems, fire pump equip- 
ment, and fire and sprinkler alarms, if provided with 
service equipment and installed in accordance with re- 
quirements for service-entrance conductors 

(6) Solar photovoltaic systems, fuel cell systems, or inter- 
connected electric power production sources 

(7) Control circuits for power-operable service disconnect- 
ing means, if suitable overcurrent protection and dis- 
connecting means are provided 

(8) Ground-fault protection systems or transient voltage 
surge suppressors, where installed as part of listed 
equipment, if suitable overcurrent protection and dis- 
connecting means are provided 



70-78 



NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE 2005 Edition 



ARTICLE 230 — SERVICES 



230.95 



VII. Service Equipment — Overcurrent Protection 

230.90 Where Required. Each ungrounded service conduc- 
tor shall have overload protection. 

(A) Ungrounded Conductor. Such protection shall be pro- 
vided by an overcurrent device in series with each ungrounded 
service conductor that has a rating or setting not higher than 
the allowable ampacity of the condiictor. A set of fuses shall 
be considered aU the fuses required to protect all the un- 
grounded conductors of a circuit. Single-pole circuit breakers, 
grouped in accordance with 230.71(B), shall be considered as 
one protective device. 

Exception No. 1: For motor-starting currents, ratings that 
conform with 430.52, 430.62, and 430.63 shall be permitted. 

Exception No. 2: Fuses and circuit breakers with a rating 
or setting that conforms with 240.4(B) or (C) and 240.6 
shall be permitted. 

Exception No. 3: Two to six circuit breakers or sets of fuses 
shall be permitted as the overcurrent device to provide the 
overload protection. The sum of the ratings of the circuit 
breakers or fuses shall be permitted to exceed the ampacity of 
the service conductors, provided the calculated load does not 
exceed the ampacity of the service conductors. 

Exception No. 4: Overload protection for fire pump supply 
conductors shall conform with 695.4(B)(1). 

Exception No. 5: Overload protection for 120/240-volt, 
3-wire, single-phase dwelling services shall be permitted in 
accordance with the requirements of 310.15(B)(6). 

(B) Not in Grounded Conductoi*. No overcurrent device 
shall be inserted in a grounded service conductor except a 
circuit breaker that simultaneously opens all conductors of 
the circuit. 

230.91 Location. The service overcurrent device shall be 
an integral part of the service disconnecting means or shall 
be located immediately adjacent thereto. 

230.92 Locked Service Overcurrent Devices. Where the 
service overcurrent devices are locked or sealed or are not 
readily accessible to the occupant, branch-circuit overcur- 
rent devices shall be installed on the load side, shall be 
mounted in a readily accessible location, and shall be of 
lower ampere rating than the service overcurrent device. 

230.93 Protection of Specific Circuits. Where necessary 
to prevent tampering, an automatic overcurrent device that 
protects service conductors supplying only a specific load, 
such as a water heater, shall be permitted to be locked or 
sealed where located so as to be accessible. 

230.94 Relative Location of Overcurrent Device and 
Other Service Equipment. The overcurrent device shall 
protect all circuits and devices. 



Exception No. 1: The service switch shall be permitted on 
the supply side. 

Exception No. 2: High-impedance shunt circuits, surge 
arresters, surge-protective capacitors, and instrument 
transformers (current and voltage) shall be permitted to be 
connected and installed on the supply side of the service 
disconnecting means as permitted in 230.82. 

Exception No. 3: Circuits for load management devices 
shall be permitted to be connected on the supply side of the 
service overcurrent device where separately provided with 
overcurrent protection. 

Exception No. 4: Circuits used only for the operation of 
fire alarm, other protective signaling systems, or the supply 
to fire pump equipment shall be permitted to be connected 
on the supply side of the service overcurrent device where 
separately provided with overcurrent protection. 

Exception No. 5: Meters nominally rated not in excess of 
600 volts shall be permitted, provided all metal housings 
and service enclosures are grounded. 

Exception No. 6: Where service equipment is power oper- 
able, the control circuit shall be permitted to be connected 
ahead of the service equipment if suitable overcurrent pro- 
tection and disconnecting means are provided. 

230.95 Ground-Fault Protection of Equipment. Ground- 
fault protection of equipment shall be provided for soUdly 
grounded wye electrical services of more than 150 volts to 
ground but not exceeding 600 volts phase-to-phase for each 
service disconnect rated 1000 amperes or more. The grounded 
conductor for the sohdly grounded wye system shall be con- 
nected directly to ground without inserting any resistor or im- 
pedance device. 

The rating of the service disconnect shall be considered 
to be the rating of the largest fuse that can be installed or 
the highest continuous current trip setting for which the 
actual overcurrent device installed in a circuit breaker is 
rated or can be adjusted. 

Exception No. 1: The ground-fault protection provisions of 
this section shall not apply to a service disconnect for a 
continuous industrial process where a nonorderly shutdown 
will introduce additional or increased hazards. 

Exception No. 2: The ground-fault protection provisions of 
this section shall not apply to fire pumps. 

(A) Setting. The ground-fault protection system shall operate 
to cause the service disconnect to open all ungrounded con- 
ductors of the faulted circuit. The maximum setting of the 
ground-fault protection shall be 1200 amperes, and the maxi- 
mum time delay shall be one second for ground-fault currents 
equal to or greater than 3000 amperes. 



2005 Edition 



NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE 



70-79 



230.200 



ARTICLE 230 — SERVICES 



(B) Fuses. If a switch and fuse combination is used, the 
fuses employed shall be capable of interrupting any current 
higher than the interrupting capacity of the switch during a 
time that the ground-fault protective system will not cause 
the switch to open. 

(C) Performance Testing. The ground-fault protection 
system shall be performance tested when first installed on 
site. The test shall be conducted in accordance with instruc- 
tions that shall be provided with the equipment. A written 
record of this test shall be made and shall be available to 
the authority having jurisdiction. 

FPN No. 1 : Ground-fault protection that functions to open 
the service disconnect affords no protection from faults on 
the line side of the protective element. It serves only to 
limit damage to conductors and equipment on the load side 
in the event of an arcing ground fault on the load side of the 
protective element. 

FPN No. 2: This added protective equipment at the service 
equipment may make it necessary to review the overall wiring 
system for proper selective overcurrent protection coordina- 
tion. Additional installations of ground-fault protective equip- 
ment may be needed on feeders and branch circuits where 
maximum continuity of electrical service is necessary. 

FPN No. 3: Where ground-fault protection is provided for 
the service disconnect and interconnection is made with an- 
other supply system by a transfer device, means or devices 
may be needed to ensure proper ground-fault sensing by the 
ground-fault protection equipment. 

FPN No. 4: See 517.17(A) for information on where an 
additional step of ground fault protection is required for 
hospitals and other buildings with critical areas or life sup- 
port equipment. 



VIII. Services Exceeding 600 Volts, Nominal 

230.200 General. Service conductors and equipment used 
on circuits exceeding 600 volts, nominal, shall comply with 
all the applicable provisions of the preceding sections of 
this article and with the following sections that supplement 
or modify the preceding sections. In no case shall the pro- 
visions of Part VIII apply to equipment on the supply side 
of the service point. 

FPN: For clearances of conductors of over 600 volts, nomi- 
nal, see ANSI C2-2002, National Electrical Safety Code. 

230.202 Service-Entrance Conductors. Service-entrance 
conductors to buildings or enclosures shall be installed to 
conform to 230.202(A) and (B). 

(A) Conductor Size. Service-entrance conductors shall not 
be smaller than 6 AWG unless in multiconductor cable. 
Multiconductor cable shall not be smaller than 8 AWG. 

(B) Wiring Methods. Service-entrance conductors shall be 
installed by one of the wiring methods covered in 300.37 and 
300.50. 



230.204 Isolating Switches. 

(A) Where Required. Where oil switches or air, oil, 
vacuum, or sulfur hexafluoride circuit breakers constitute 
the service disconnecting means, an isolating switch with 
visible break contacts shall be installed on the supply side 
of the disconnecting means and all associated service 
equipment. 

Exception: An isolating switch shall not be required where 
the circuit breaker or switch is mounted on removable truck 
panels or metal-enclosed switchgear units where both of 
the following conditions apply: 

(1) Cannot be opened unless the circuit is disconnected. 

(2) Where all energized parts are automatically discon- 
nected when the circuit breaker or switch is removed 
from the normal operating position. 

(B) Fuses as Isolating Switch. Where fuses are of the type 
that can be operated as a disconnecting switch, a set of such 
fuses shall be permitted as the isolating switch. 

(C) Accessible to Qualified Persons Only. The isolating 
switch shall be accessible to qualified persons only. 

(D) Grounding Connection. Isolating switches shall be 
provided with a means for readily connecting the load side 
conductors to ground when disconnected from the source of 
supply. 

A means for grounding the load side conductors shall 
not be required for any duplicate isolating switch installed 
and maintained by the electric supply company. 

230.205 Disconnecting Means. 

(A) Location. The service disconnecting means shall be 
located in accordance with 230.70. 

(B) Type. Each service disconnect shall simultaneously 
disconnect all ungrounded service conductors that it con- 
trols and shall have a fault-closing rating that is not less 
than the maximum short-circuit current available at its sup- 
ply terminals. 

Where fused switches or separately mounted fuses 
are installed, the fuse characteristics shall be permitted 
to contribute to the fault-closing rating of the discon- 
necting means. 

(C) Remote Control. For multibuilding, industrial instal- 
lations under single management, the service disconnecting 
means shall be permitted to be located at a separate build- 
ing or structure. In such cases, the service disconnecting 
means shall be permitted to be electrically operated by a 
readily accessible, remote-control device. 



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ARTICLE 240 — OVERCURRENT PROTECTION 



240.3 



• 



230.206 Overcurrent Devices as Disconnecting Means. 

Where the circuit breaker or alternative for it, as specified 
in 230.208 for service overcurrent devices, meets the re- 
quirements specified in 230.205, they shall constitute the 
service disconnecting means. 

230.208 Protection Requirements. A short-circuit protec- 
tive device shall be provided on the load side of, or as an 
integral part of, the service disconnect, and shall protect all 
ungrounded conductors that it supplies. The protective 
device shall be capable of detecting and interrupting all 
values of current, in excess of its trip setting or melting 
point, that can occur at its location. A fuse rated in con- 
tinuous amperes not to exceed three times the ampacity 
of the conductor, or a circuit breaker with a trip setting 
of not more than six times the ampacity of the conduc- 
tors, shall be considered as providing the required short- 
circuit protection. 

FPN: See Table 310.67 through Table 310.86 for ampaci- 
ties of conductors rated 2001 volts and above. 

Overcurrent devices shall conform to 230.208(A) and (B). 

(A) Equipment Type. Equipment used to protect service- 
entrance conductors shall meet the requirements of Ar- 
ticle 490, Part IL 

(B) Enclosed Overcurrent Devices. The restriction to 
80 percent of the rating for an enclosed overcurrent device 
for continuous loads shall not apply to overcurrent devices 
installed in systems operating at over 600 volts. 

230.209 Surge Arresters (Lightning Arresters). Surge 
arresters installed in accordance with the requirements of 
Article 280 shall be permitted on each ungrounded over- 
head service conductor. 

230.210 Service Equipment — General Provisions. Ser- 
vice equipment, including instrument transformers, shall 
conform to Article 490, Part I. 

230.211 Metal-Enclosed Switchgear. Metal-enclosed 
switchgear shall consist of a substantial metal structure and 
a sheet metal enclosure. Where installed over a combustible 
floor, suitable protection thereto shall be provided. 

230.212 Over 35,000 Volts. Where the voltage exceeds 
35,000 volts between conductors that enter a building, they 
shall terminate in a metal-enclosed switchgear compart- 
ment or a vault conforming to the requirements of 450.41 
through 450.48. 



ARTICLE 240 
Overcurrent Protection 



I. General 

240.1 Scope. Parts I through VII of this article provide the 
general requirements for overcurrent protection and over- 
cun-ent protective devices not more than 600 volts, nominal. 
Part Vin covers overcurrent protection for those portions of 
supervised industrial installations operating at voltages of not 
more than 600 volts, nominal. Part EX covers overcurrent pro- 
tection over 600 volts, nominal. 

FPN: Overcurrent protection for conductors and equip- 
ment is provided to open the circuit if the current reaches a 
value that will cause an excessive or dangerous temperature 
in conductors or conductor insulation. See also 110.9 for 
requirements for interrupting ratings and 110.10 for re- 
quirements for protection against fault currents. 

240.2 Definitions. 

Current-Limiting Overcurrent Protective Device. A de- 
vice that, when interrupting currents in its current-limiting 
range, reduces the current flowing in the faulted circuit to a 
magnitude substantially less than that obtainable in the 
same circuit if the device were replaced with a solid con- 
ductor having comparable impedance. 

Supervised Industrial Installation. For the purposes of 
Part VIII, the industrial portions of a facility where all of 
the following conditions are met: 

(1) Conditions of maintenance and engineering supervision 
ensure that only qualified persons monitor and service 
the system. 

(2) The premises wiring system has 2500 kVA or greater of 
load used in industrial process(es), manufacturing activi- 
ties, or both, as calculated in accordance with Article 220. 

(3) The premises has at least one service or feeder that is 
more than 150 volts to ground and more than 300 volts 
phase-to-phase. 

This definition excludes installations in buildings used by 
the industrial facility for offices, warehouses, garages, ma- 
chine shops, and recreational facilities that are not an integral 
part of the industrial plant, substation, or control center. 

Tap Conductors. As used in this article, a tap conductor is 
defined as a conductor, other than a service conductor, that 
has overcurrent protection ahead of its point of supply that 
exceeds the value permitted for similar conductors that are 
protected as described elsewhere in 240.4. 

240.3 Other Articles. Equipment shall be protected against 
overcurrent in accordance with the article in this Code that 
covers the type of equipment specified in Table 240.3. 



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240.4 



ARTICLE 240 — OVERCURRENT PROTECTION 



Table 240.3 Other Articles 



Equipment 


Article 


Air-conditioning and refrigerating 


440 


equipment 




Appliances 


422 


Assembly occupancies 


518 


Audio signal processing, 


640 


amplification, and reproduction 




equipment 




BrancH circuits 


210 


Busways 


368 


Capacitors 


460 


Class 1, Class 2, and (Zlass 3 


725 


remote-control, signaling, and 




power-limited circuits 




Closedrloop and programmed power 


780 


distribution 




Cranes and hoists 


610 


Electric signs and outline lighting 


600 


Electric welders 


630 


Electrolytic cells 


668 


Elevators, dumbwaiters, escalators. 


620 


moving walks, wheelchair lifts, and 




stairway chair lifts 




Emergency systems 


700 


Fire alarm systems 


760 


Fire purrips 


695 


Fixed electric heating equipment for 


427 


pipelines and vessels 




Fixed electric space-heating 


424 


equipment 




Fixed outdoor electric deicing and 


426 


snow-melting equipment 




Generators 


445 


Health care facilities 


517 


Induction and dielectric heating 


665 


equipment 




Industrial machinery 


670 


Luminaires (lighting fixtures). 


410 


lampholders, and lamps 




Motion picture and television studios 


530 


and similar locations 




Motors, motor circuits, and 


430 


controllers 




Phase converters 


455 


Pipe organs 


650 


Receptacles 


406 


Services 


230 


Solar photovoltaic systems 


690 


Switchboards and panelboards 


408 


Theaters, audience areas of motion 


520 


picture and television studios, and 




similar locations 




Transformers and transformer vaults 


450 


X-ray equipment 


660 



240.4 Protection of Conductors. Conductors, other than 
flexible cords, flexible cables, and fixture wires, shall be 
protected against overcurrent in accordance with their am- 
pacities specified in 310.15, unless otherwise permitted or 
required in 240.4(A) through (G). 



(A) Power Loss Hazard. Conductor overload protection 
shall not be required where the interruption of the circuit 
would create a hazard, such as in a material-handhng mag- 
net circuit or fire pump circuit. Short-circuit protection 
shall be provided. 

FPN: See NFPA 20-2003, Standard for the Installation of 
Stationary Pumps for Fire Protection. 

(B) Devices Rated 800 Amperes or Less. The next higher 
standard overcurrent device rating (above the ampacity of 
the conductors being protected) shall be permitted to be 
used, provided all of the following conditions are met: 

(1) The conductors being protected are not part of a mul- 
tioutlet branch circuit supplying receptacles for cord- 
and-plug-connected portable loads. 

(2) The ampacity of the conductors does not correspond 
with the standard ampere rating of a fuse or a circuit 
breaker without overload trip adjustments above its rat- 
ing (but that shall be permitted to have other trip or 
rating adjustments). 

(3) The next higher standard rating selected does not ex- 
ceed 800 amperes. 

(C) Devices Rated Over 800 Amperes. Where the over- 
current device is rated over 800 amperes, the ampacity of 
the conductors it protects shall be equal to or greater than 
the rating of the overcurrent device defined in 240.6. 

(D) Small Conductors. Unless specifically permitted in 
240.4(E) or 240.4(G), the overcurrent protection shall not 
exceed 15 amperes for 14 AWG, 20 amperes for 12 AWG, 
and 30 amperes for 10 AWG copper; or 15 amperes for 
12 AWG and 25 amperes for 10 AWG aluminum and 
copper-clad aluminum after any correction factors for 
ambient temperature and number of conductors have 
been applied. 

(E) Tap Conductors. Tap conductors shall be permitted to 
be protected against overcurrent in accordance with the fol- 
lowing: 

(1) 210.19(A)(3) and (A)(4) Household Ranges and Cook- 
ing Appliances and Other Loads 

(2) 240.5(B)(2) Fixture Wire 

(3) 240.21 Location in Circuit 

(4) 368.17(B) Reduction in Ampacity Size of Busway 

(5) 368.17(C) Feeder or Branch Circuits (busway taps) 

(6) 430.53(D) Single Motor Taps 

(F) IVansformer Secondary Conductors. Single-phase 
(other than 2-wire) and multiphase (other than delta-delta, 
3-wire) transformer secondary conductors shall not be consid- 
ered to be protected by the primary overcurrent protective 
device. Conductors supplied by the secondary side of a single- 
phase transformer having a 2-wire (single-voltage) secondary, 



• 



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ARTICLE 240 — OVERCURRENT PROTECTION 



240.6 



• 



or a three-phase, delta-delta connected transformer having a 
3-wire (single-voltage) secondary, shall be permitted to be 
protected by overcurrent protection provided on the primary 
(supply) side of the transformer, provided this protection is in 
accordance with 450.3 and does not exceed the value deter- 
mined by multiplying the secondary conductor ampacity by 
the secondary to primary transformer voltage ratio. 

(G) Overcurrent Protection for Specific Conductor 
Applications. Overcurrent protection for the specific con- 
ductors shall be permitted to be provided as referenced in 
Table 240.4(G). 

Table 240.4(G) Specific Conductor Applications 



Conductor 


Article 


Section 


Air-conditioning and 


440, Parts III, 




refrigeration 


VI 




equipment circuit 






conductors 






Capacitor circuit 


460 


460.8(B) and 


conductors 




460.25(A)-(D) 


Control and 


727 


727.9 


instrumentation 






circuit conductors 






(Type ITC) 






Electric welder 


630 


630.12 and 630.32 


circuit conductors 






Fire alarm system 


760 


760.23, 760.24, 


circuit conductors 




760.41, and Chapter 9, 

Tables 12(A) and 

12(B) 


Motor-operated 


422, Part H 




appliance circuit 






conductors 






Motor and 


430, Parts III, 




motor-control 


IV, V, VI, VII 




circuit conductors 






Phase converter 


455 


455.7 


supply conductors 






Remote-control, 


725 


725.23, 725.24, 


signaling, and 




725.41, and Chapter 9, 


power- limited 




Tables 11(A) and 


circuit conductors 




11(B) 


Secondary tie 


450 


450.6 


conductors 







240.5 Protection of Flexible Cords, Flexible Cables, and 
Fixture Wires. Flexible cord and flexible cable, including 
tinsel cord and extension cords, and fixture wires shall be 
protected against overcurrent by either 240.5(A) or (B). 

(A) Ampacities. Flexible cord and flexible cable shall be 
protected by an overcurrent device in accordance with their 
ampacity as specified in Table 400.5(A) and Table 400.5(B). 
Fixture wire shall be protected against overcurrent in 
accordance with its ampacity as specified in Table 402.5. 



Supplementary overcurrent protection, as in 240.10, shall 
be permitted to be an acceptable means for providing this 
protection. 

(B) Branch Circuit Overcurrent Device. Flexible cord 
shall be protected where supplied by a branch circuit in 
accordance with one of the methods described in 
240.5(B)(1), (B)(2), (B)(3), or (B)(4). 

(1) Supply Cord of Listed Appliance or Portable 
Lamps. Where flexible cord or tinsel cord is approved for 
and used with a specific listed apphance or portable lamp, it 
shall be considered to be protected when applied within the 
apphance or portable lamp listing requirements. 

(2) Fixture Wire. Fixture wire shall be permitted to be 
tapped to the branch circuit conductor of a branch circuit in 
accordance with the following: 

(1) 20-ampere circuits — 18 AWG, up to 15 m (50 ft) of 
run length 

(2) 20-ampere circuits — 16 AWG, up to 30 m (100 ft) of 
run length 

(3) 20-ampere circuits — 14 AWG and larger 

(4) 30-ampere circuits — 14 AWG and larger 

(5) 40-ampere circuits — 12 AWG and larger 

(6) 50-ampere circuits — 12 AWG and larger 

(3) Extension Cord Sets. Flexible cord used in listed ex- 
tension cord sets shall be considered to be protected when 
applied within the extension cord listing requirements. 

(4) Field Assembled Extension Cord Sets. Flexible cord 
used in extension cords made with separately listed and 
installed components shall be permitted to be supplied by a 
branch circuit in accordance with the following: 

20-ampere circuits — 16 AWG and larger 

240.6 Standard Ampere Ratings. 

(A) Fuses and Fixed-Trip Circuit Breakers. The stan- 
dard ampere ratings for fuses and inverse time circuit 
breakers shall be considered 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 
60, 70, 80, 90, 100, 110, 125, 150, 175, 200, 225, 250, 300, 
350, 400, 450, 500, 600, 700, 800, 1000, 1200, 1600, 2000, 
2500, 3000, 4000, 5000, and 6000 amperes. Additional 
standard ampere ratings for fuses shall be 1, 3, 6, 10, and 
601. The use of fuses and inverse time circuit breakers with 
nonstandard ampere ratings shall be permitted. 

(B) Adjustable-Trip Circuit Breakers. The rating of 
adjustable-trip circuit breakers having external means for 
adjusting the current setting (long-time pickup setting), not 
meeting the requirements of 240.6(C), shall be the maxi- 
mum setting possible. 



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240.8 



ARTICLE 240 — OVERCURRENT PROTECTION 



(C) Restricted Access Adjustable-TVip Circuit Breakers. 

A circuit breaker(s) that has restricted access to the adjusting 
means shall be permitted to have an ampere rating(s) that is 
equal to the adjusted current setting (long-time pickup setting). 
Restricted access shall be defined as located behind one of the 
following: 

(1) Removable and scalable covers over the adjusting means 

(2) Bolted equipment enclosure doors 

(3) Locked doors accessible only to qualified personnel 

240.8 Fuses or Circuit Breakers in Parallel. Fuses and 
circuit breakers shall be permitted to be connected in par- 
allel where they are factory assembled in parallel and listed 
as a unit. Individual fuses, circuit breakers, or combinations 
thereof shall not otherwise be connected in parallel. 

240.9 Thermal Devices. Thermal relays and other devices 
not designed to open short circuits or ground faults shall not 
be used for the protection of conductors against overcurrent 
due to short circuits or ground faults, but the use of such 
devices shall be permitted to protect motor branch-circuit con- 
ductors from overload if protected in accordance with 430.40. 

240.10 Supplementary Overcurrent Protection. Where 
supplementary overcurrent protection is used for luminaires 
(Ughting fixtures), apphances, and other equipment or for in- 
ternal circuits and components of equipment, it shall not be 
used as a substitute for required branch-circuit overcurrent 
devices or in place of the required branch-circuit protection. 
Supplementary overcurrent devices shall not be required to be 
readily accessible. 

240.12 Electrical System Coordination. Where an orderly 
shutdown is required to minimize the hazard(s) to personnel 
and equipment, a system of coordination based on the follow- 
ing two conditions shall be permitted: 

(1) Coordinated short-circuit protection 

(2) Overload indication based on monitoring systems or 
devices 

FPN: The monitoring system may cause the condition to go 
to alarm, allowing corrective action or an orderly shutdown, 
thereby minimizing personnel hazard and equipment damage. 

240.13 Ground-Fault Protection of Equipment. Ground- 
fault protection of equipment shall be provided in accor- 
dance with the provisions of 230.95 for solidly grounded 
wye electrical systems of more than 150 volts to ground but 
not exceeding 600 volts phase-to-phase for each individual 
device used as a building or structure main disconnecting 
means rated 1000 amperes or more. 

The provisions of this section shall not apply to the 

disconnecting means for the following: 

(1) Continuous industrial processes where a nonorderly shut- 
down will introduce additional or increased hazards 



(2) Installations where ground-fault protection is provided 
by other requirements for services or feeders 

(3) Fire pumps 

II. Location 

240.20 Ungrounded Conductors. 

(A) Overcurrent Device Required. A fuse or an overcur- 
rent trip unit of a circuit breaker shall be connected in 
series with each ungrounded conductor. A combination of a 
current transformer and overcurrent relay shall be consid- 
ered equivalent to an overcurrent trip unit. 

FPN: For motor circuits, see Parts III, IV, V, and XI of 
Article 430. 

(B) Circuit Breaker as Overcurrent Device. Circuit 
breakers shall open all ungrounded conductors of the circuit 
both manually and automatically unless otherwise permit- 
ted in 240.20(B)(1), (B)(2), and (B)(3). 

(1) Multiwire Branch Circuit. Except where limited by 
210.4(B), individual single-pole circuit breakers, with or 
without identified handle ties, shall be permitted as the pro- 
tection for each ungrounded conductor of multiwire branch 
circuits that serve only single-phase line-to-neutral loads. 

(2) Grounded Single-Phase and 3-Wire dc Circuits. In 

grounded systems, individual single-pole circuit breakers with 
identified handle ties shall be permitted as the protection for 
each ungrounded conductor for line-to-line connected loads 
for single-phase circuits or 3-wire, direct-current circuits. 

(3) 3-Phase and 2-Phase Systems. For Hne-to-hne loads 
in 4-wire, 3-phase systems or 5-wire, 2-phase systems hav- 
ing a grounded neutral and no conductor operating at a 
voltage greater than permitted iii 210.6, individual single- 
pole circuit breakers with identified handle ties shall be 
permitted as the protection for each ungrounded conductor. 

(C) Closed-Loop Po>yer Distribution Systems. Listed de- 
vices that provide equivalent overcurrent protection in 
closed-loop power distribution systems shall be permitted 
as a substitute for fuses or circuit breakers. 

240.21 Location in Circuit. Overcurrent protection shall 
be provided in each ungrounded circuit conductor and shall 
be located at the point where the conductors receive their 
supply except as specified in 240.21(A) through (G). No 
conductor supplied under the provisions of 240.21(A) 
through (G) shall supply another conductor under those 
provisions, except through an overcurrent protective device 
meeting the requirements of 240.4. 



• 



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ARTICLE 240 — OVERCURRENT PROTECTION 



240.21 



• 



(A) Branch-Circuit Conductors. Branch-circuit tap con- 
ductors meeting the requirements specified in 210.19 shall 
be permitted to have overcurrent protection located as 
specified in that section. 

(B) Feeder Taps. Conductors shall be permitted to be 
tapped, without overcurrent protection at the tap, to a feeder as 
specified in 240.21(B)(1) through (B)(5). The provisions of 
240.4(B) shall not be permitted for tap conductors. 

(1) Taps Not Over 3 m (10 ft) Long. Where the length of 
the tap conductors does not exceed 3 m (10 ft) and the tap 
conductors comply with all of the following: 

(1) The ampacity of the tap conductors is 

a. Not less than the combined calculated loads on the 
circuits supplied by the tap conductors, and 

b. Not less than the rating of the device supplied by 
the tap conductors or not less than the rating of the 
overcurrent-protective device at the termination of 
the tap conductors. 

(2) The tap conductors do not extend beyond the switch- 
board, panelboard, disconnecting means, or control de- 
vices they supply. 

(3) Except at the point of connection to the feeder, the tap 
conductors are enclosed in a raceway, which shall ex- 
tend from the tap to the enclosure of an enclosed 
switchboard, panelboard, or control devices, or to the 
back of an open switchboard. 

(4) For field installations where the tap conductors leave 
the enclosure or vault in which the tap is made, the 
rating of the overcurrent device on the line side of the 
tap conductors shall not exceed 10 times the ampacity 
of the tap conductor. 

FPN: For overcurrent protection requirements for lighting 
and appliance branch-circuit panelboards and certain power 
panelboards, see 408.36(A), (B), and (E). 

(2) Taps Not Over 7.5 m (25 ft) Long. Where the length 
of the tap conductors does not exceed 7.5 m (25 ft) and the 
tap conductors comply with all the following: 

(1) The ampacity of the tap conductors is not less than 
one-third of the rating of the overcurrent device pro- 
tecting the feeder conductors. 

(2) The tap conductors terminate in a single circuit breaker 
or a single set of fuses that will limit the load to the 
ampacity of the tap conductors. This device shall be 
permitted to supply any number of additional overcur- 
rent devices on its load side. 

(3) The tap conductors are protected from physical damage 
by being enclosed in an approved raceway or by other 
approved means. 



(3) Taps Supplying a Transformer [Primary Plus Sec- 
ondary Not Over 7.5 m (25 ft) Long]. Where the tap 
conductors supply a transformer and comply with all the 
following conditions: 

(1) The conductors supplying the primary of a transformer 
have an ampacity at least one-third the rating of the 
overcurrent device protecting the feeder conductors. 

(2) The conductors supplied by the secondary of the trans- 
former shall have an ampacity that is not less than the 
value of the primary-to-secondary voltage ratio multi- 
plied by one-third of the rating of the overcurrent de- 
vice protecting the feeder conductors. 

(3) The total length of one primary plus one secondary con- 
ductor, excluding any portion of the primary conductor 
that is protected at its ampacity, is not over 7.5 m (25 ft). 

(4) The primary and secondary conductors are protected 
from physical damage by being enclosed in an ap- 
proved raceway or by other approved means. 

(5) The secondary conductors terminate in a single circuit 
breaker or set of fuses that limit the load current to not 
more than the conductor ampacity that is permitted by 
310.15. 

(4) Taps Over 7.5 m (25 ft) Long. Where the feeder is in 
a high bay manufacturing building over 11 m (35 ft) high at 
walls and the installation complies with all the following 
conditions: 

(1) Conditions of maintenance and supervision ensure that 
only qualified persons service the systems. 

(2) The tap conductors are not over 7.5 m (25 ft) long 
horizontally and not over 30 m (100 ft) total length. 

(3) The ampacity of the tap conductors is not less than 
one-third the rating of the overcurrent device protecting 
the feeder conductors. 

(4) The tap conductors terminate at a single circuit breaker 
or a single set of fuses that limit the load to the ampac- 
ity of the tap conductors. This single overcurrent de- 
vice shall be permitted to supply any number of addi- 
tional overcurrent devices on its load side. 

(5) The tap conductors are protected from physical damage 
by being enclosed in an approved raceway or by other 
approved means. 

(6) The tap conductors are continuous from end-to-end and 
contain no splices. 

(7) The tap conductors are sized 6 AWG copper or 4 AWG 
aluminum or larger. 

(8) The tap conductors do not penetrate walls, floors, or 
ceihngs. 

(9) The tap is made no less than 9 m (30 ft) from the floor. 

(5) Outside Taps of Unlimited Length. Where the con- 
ductors are located outdoors of a building or structure, ex- 
cept at the point of load termination, and comply with all of 
the following conditions: 



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240.21 



ARTICLE 240 — OVERCURRENT PROTECTION 



(1) The conductors are protected from physical damage in 
an approved manner. 

(2) The conductors terminate at a single circuit breaker or 
a single set of fuses that limit the load to the ampacity 
of the conductors. This single overcurrent device shall 
be permitted to supply any number of additional over- 
current devices on its load side. 

(3) The overcurrent device for the conductors is an integral 
part of a disconnecting means or shall be located im- 
mediately adjacent thereto. 

(4) The disconnecting means for the conductors is installed 
at a readily accessible location complying with one of 
the following: 

a. Outside of a building or structure 

b. Inside, nearest the point of entrance of the conductors 

c. Where installed in accordance with 230.6, nearest 
the point of entrance of the conductors 

(C) Transformer Secondary Conductors. Each set of 
conductors feeding separate loads shall be permitted to be 
connected to a transformer secondary, without overcurrent 
protection at the secondary, as specified in 240.21(C)(1) 
through (C)(6). The provisions of 240.4(B) shall not be 
permitted for transformer secondary conductors. 

FPN: For overcurrent protection requirements for trans- 
formers, see 450.3. 

(1) Protection by Primary Overcurrent Device. Conduc- 
tors supplied by the secondary side of a single-phase trans- 
former having a 2-wire (single-voltage) secondary, or a 
three-phase, delta-delta connected transformer having a 
3-wire (single-voltage) secondary, shall be permitted to be 
protected by overcurrent protection provided on the pri- 
mary (supply) side of the transformer, provided this protec- 
tion is in accordance with 450.3 and does not exceed the value 
determined by multiplying the secondary conductor ampacity 
by the secondary to primary transformer voltage ratio. 

Single -phase (other than 2-wire) and multiphase (other 
than delta-delta, 3-wire) transformer secondary conductors 
are not considered to be protected by the primary overcur- 
rent protective device. 

(2) Transformer Secondary Conductors Not Over 3 m 
(10 ft) Long. Where the length of secondary conductor does 
not exceed 3 m (10 ft) and comphes with all of the following: 
(1) The ampacity of the secondary conductors is 

a. Not less than the combined calculated loads on the 
circuits supplied by the secondary conductors, and 

b. Not less than the rating of the device supplied by 
the secondary conductors or not less than the rating 
of the overcurrent-protective device at the termina- 
tion of the secondary conductors, and 



c. Not less than one-tenth of the rating of the overcurrent 
device protecting the primary of the transformer, mul- 
tiplied by the primary to secondary transformer volt- 
age ratio 

(2) The secondary conductors do not extend beyond the 
switchboard, panelboard, disconnecting means, or con- 
trol devices they supply. 

(3) The secondary conductors are enclosed in a raceway, 
which shall extend from the transformer to the enclo- 
sure of an enclosed switchboard, panelboard, or control 
devices or to the back of an open switchboard. 

FPN: For overcurrent protection requirements for lighting 
and appliance branch-circuit panelboards and certain power 
panelboards, see 408.36(A), (B), and (E). 

(3) Industrial Installation Secondary Conductors Not 

Over 7.5 m (25 ft) Long. For industrial installations only, 
where the length of the secondary conductors does not ex- 
ceed 7.5 m (25 ft) and complies with all of the following: 

(1) The ampacity of the secondary conductors is not less than 
the secondary current rating of the transformer, and the 
sum of the ratings of the overcurrent devices does not 
exceed the ampacity of the secondary conductors. 

(2) All overcurrent devices are grouped. 

(3) The secondary conductors are protected from physical 
damage by being enclosed in an approved raceway or 
by other approved means. 

(4) Outside Secondary Conductors. Where the conduc- 
tors are located outdoors of a building or structure, except 
at the point of load termination, and comply with all of the 
following conditions: 

(1) The conductors are protected from physical damage in 
an approved manner. 

(2) The conductors terminate at a single circuit breaker or 
a single set of fuses that limit the load to the ampacity 
of the conductors. This single overcurrent device shall 
be permitted to supply any number of additional over- 
current devices on its load side. 

(3) The overcurrent device for the conductors is an integral 
part of a disconnecting means or shall be located im- 
mediately adjacent thereto. 

(4) The disconnecting means for the conductors is installed 
at a readily accessible location complying with one of 
the following: 

a. Outside of a building or structure 

b. Inside, nearest the point of entrance of the conductors 

c. Where installed in accordance with 230.6, nearest 
the point of entrance of the conductors 

(5) Secondary Conductors from a Feeder Tapped 
Transformer. Transformer secondary conductors installed 
in accordance with 240.21(B)(3) shall be permitted to have 
overcurrent protection as specified in that section. 



• 



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NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE 2005 Edition 



ARTICLE 240 — OVERCURRENT PROTECTION 



240.30 



(6) Secondary Conductors Not Over 7.5 m (25 ft) Long. 

Where the length of secondary conductor does not exceed 
7.5 m (25 ft) and complies with all of the following: 

(1) The secondary conductors shall have an ampacity that is 
not less than the value of the primary-to-secondary volt- 
age ratio multiplied by one-third of the rating of the over- 
current device protecting the primary of the transformer. 

(2) The secondary conductors terminate in a single circuit 
breaker or set of fuses that limit the load current to not 
more than the conductor ampacity that is permitted by 
310.15. 

(3) The secondary conductors are protected from physical 
damage by being enclosed in an approved raceway or 
by other approved means. 

(D) Service Conductors. Service-entrance conductors shall 
be permitted to be protected by overcurrent devices in accor- 
dance with 230.91. 

(E) Busway Taps. Busways and busway taps shall be per- 
mitted to be protected against overcurrent in accordance 
with 368.17. 

(F) Motor Circuit Taps. Motor-feeder and branch-circuit 
conductors shall be permitted to be protected against over- 
current in accordance with 430.28 and 430.53, respectively. 

(G) Conductors from Generator Terminals. Conductors 
from generator terminals that meet the size requirement in 
445.13 shall be permitted to be protected against overload 
by the generator overload protective device(s) required by 
445.12. 

240.22 Grounded Conductor. No overcurrent device shall 
be connected in series with any conductor that is intentionally 
grounded, unless one of the following two conditions is met: 

(1) The overcurrent device opens all conductors of the cir- 
cuit, including the grounded conductor, and is designed 
so that no pole can operate independently. 

(2) Where required by 430.36 or 430.37 for motor over- 
load protection. 

240.23 Change in Size of Grounded Conductor. Where a 
change occurs in the size of the ungrounded conductor, a 
similar change shall be permitted to be made in the size of 
the grounded conductor. 

240.24 Location in or on Premises. 

(A) Accessibility. Overcurrent devices shall be readily ac- 
cessible and shall be installed so that the center of the grip 
of the operating handle of the switch or circuit breaker, 
when in its highest position, is not more than 2.0 m (6 ft 
7 in.) above the floor or working platform unless one of the 
following applies: 



(1) For busways, as provided in 368.12. 

(2) For supplementary overcurrent protection, as described 
in 240.10. 

(3) For overcurrent devices, as described in 225.40 and 
230.92. 

(4) For overcurrent devices adjacent to utilization equip- 
ment that they supply, access shall be permitted to be 
by portable means. 

(B) Occupancy. Each occupant shall have ready access to 
all overcurrent devices protecting the conductors supplying 
that occupancy. 

Exception No. 1: Where electric service and electrical 
maintenance are provided by the building management and 
where these are under continuous building management 
supervision, the service overcurrent devices and feeder 
overcurrent devices supplying more than one occupancy 
shall be permitted to be accessible to only authorized man- 
agement personnel in the following: 

(1) Multiple-occupancy buildings 

(2) Guest rooms or guest suites of hotels and motels that 
are intended for transient occupancy 

Exception No. 2: Where electric service and electrical main- 
tenance are provided by the building management and where 
these are under continuous building management supervision, 
the branch circuit overcurrent devices supplying any guest 
rooms or guest suites shall be permitted to be accessible to 
only authorized management personnel for guest rooms of 
hotels and motels that are intended for transient occupancy. 

(C) Not Exposed to Physical Damage. Overcurrent de- 
vices shall be located where they will not be exposed to 
physical damage. 

FPN: See 110.11, Deteriorating Agents. 

(D) Not in Vicinity of Easily Ignitible Material. Overcur- 
rent devices shall not be located in the vicinity of easily 
ignitible material, such as in clothes closets. 

(E) Not Located in Bathrooms. In dwelling units and 
guest rooms or guest suites of hotels and motels, overcur- 
rent devices, other than supplementary overcurrent protec- 
tion, shall not be located in bathrooms. 

IIL Enclosures 

240.30 General. 

(A) Protection from Physical Damage. Overcurrent de- 
vices shall be protected from physical damage by one of the 
following: 

(1) Installation in enclosures, cabinets, cutout boxes, or 
equipment assemblies 



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240.32 



ARTICLE 240 — OVERCURRENT PROTECTION 



(2) Mounting on open-type switchboards, panelboards, or 
control boards that are in rooms or enclosures free from 
dampness and easily ignitible material and are acces- 
sible only to qualified personnel 

(B) Operating Handle. The operating handle of a circuit 
breaker shall be permitted to be accessible without opening 
a door or cover. 

240.32 Damp or Wet Locations. Enclosures for overcur- 
rent devices in damp or wet locations shall comply with 

312.2(A). 

240.33 Vertical Position. Enclosures for overcurrent de- 
vices shall be mounted in a vertical position unless that is 
shown to be impracticable. Circuit breaker enclosures shall be 
permitted to be installed horizontally where the circuit breaker 
is installed in accordance with 240.81. Listed busway plug-in 
units shall be permitted to be mounted in orientations corre- 
sponding to the busway mounting position. 

IV. Disconnecting and Guarding 

240.40 Disconnecting Means for Fuses. A disconnecting 
means shall be provided on the supply side of all fuses in 
circuits over 150 volts to ground and cartridge fuses in 
circuits of any voltage where accessible to other than quali- 
fied persons, so that each circuit containing fuses can be 
independently disconnected from the source of power. A 
current-limiting device without a disconnecting means shall 
be permitted on the supply side of the service disconnecting 
means as permitted by 230.82. A single disconnecting 
means shall be permitted on the supply side of more than 
one set of fuses as permitted by 430.112, Exception, for 
group operation of motors and 424.22(C) for fixed electric 
space-heating equipment. 

240.41 Arcing or Suddenly Moving Parts. Arcing or sud- 
denly moving parts shall comply with 240.41(A) and (B). 

(A) Location. Fuses and circuit breakers shall be located 
or shielded so that persons will not be burned or otherwise 
injured by their operation. 

(B) Suddenly Moving Parts. Handles or levers of circuit 
breakers, and similar parts that may move suddenly in such 
a way that persons in the vicinity are likely to be injured by 
being struck by them, shall be guarded or isolated. 

V. Plug Fuses, Fuseholders, and Adapters 

240.50 General. 

(A) Maximum Voltage. Plug fuses shall be permitted to 

be used in the following circuits: 

(1) Circuits not exceeding 125 volts between conductors 



(2) Circuits supplied by a system having a grounded neu- 
tral where the line-to-neutral voltage does not exceed 
150 volts 

(B) Marking. Each fuse, fuseholder, and adapter shall be 
marked with its ampere rating. 

(C) Hexagonal Configuration. Plug fuses of 15-ampere 
and lower rating shall be identified by a hexagonal configu- 
ration of the window, cap, or other prominent part to dis- 
tinguish them from fuses of higher ampere ratings. 

(D) No Energized Parts. Plug fuses, fuseholders, and adapt- 
ers shall have no exposed energized parts after fuses or fuses 
and adapters have been installed. 

(E) Screw Shell. The screw shell of a plug-type fuseholder 
shall be connected to the load side of the circuit. 

240.51 Edison-Base Fuses. 

(A) Classification. Plug fuses of the Edison-base type shall 
be classified at not over 125 volts and 30 amperes and below. 

(B) Replacement Only. Plug fuses of the Edison-base type 
shall be used only for replacements in existing installations 
where there is no evidence of overfusing or tampering. 

240.52 Edison-Base Fuseholders. Fuseholders of the 
Edison-base type shall be installed only where they are 
made to accept Type S fuses by the use of adapters. 

240.53 Type S Fuses. Type S fuses shall be of the plug 
type and shall comply with 240.53(A) and (B). 

(A) Classification. Type S fuses shall be classified at not 
over 125 volts and to 15 amperes, 16 to 20 amperes, and 
21 to 30 amperes. 

(B) Noninterchangeable. Type S fuses of an ampere clas- 
sification as specified in 240.53(A) shall not be inter- 
changeable with a lower ampere classification. They shall 
be designed so that they cannot be used in any fuseholder 
other than a Type S fuseholder or a fuseholder with a Type S 
adapter inserted. 

240.54 Type S Fuses, Adapters, and Fuseholders. 

(A) To Fit Edison-Base Fuseholders. Type S adapters 
shall fit Edison-base fuseholders. 

(B) To Fit Type S Fuses Only. Type S fuseholders and 
adapters shall be designed so that either the fuseholder it- 
self or the fuseholder with a Type S adapter inserted cannot 
be used for any fuse other than a Type S fuse. 

(C) Nonremovable. Type S adapters shall be designed so 
that once inserted in a fuseholder, they cannot be removed. 



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ARTICLE 240 — OVERCURRENT PROTECTION 



240.85 



• 



(D) Nontamperable. Type S fuses, fuseholders, and adapt- 
ers shall be designed so that tampering or shunting (bridg- 
ing) would be difficult. 

(E) Interchangeability. Dimensions of Type S fuses, fuse- 
holders, and adapters shall be standardized to permit inter- 
changeability regardless of the manufacturer. 

VI. Cartridge Fuses and Fuseholders 

240.60 General. 

(A) Maximum Voltage — 300- Volt Type. Cartridge fuses 
and fuseholders of the 300-volt type shall be permitted to 
be used in the following circuits: 

(1) Circuits not exceeding 300 volts between conductors 

(2) Single-phase line-to-neutral circuits supplied from a 
3-phase, 4-wire, solidly grounded neutral source where 
the line-to-neutral voltage does not exceed 300 volts 

(B) Noninterchangeable — 0-6000-Ampere Cartridge 
Fuseholders. Fuseholders shall be designed so that it will 
be difficult to put a fuse of any given class into a fuseholder 
that is designed for a current lower, or voltage higher, than 
that of the class to which the fuse belongs. Fuseholders for 
current-limiting fuses shall not permit insertion of fuses 
that are not current- limiting. 

(C) Marking. Fuses shall be plainly marked, either by 
printing on the fuse barrel or by a label attached to the 
barrel showing the following: 

(1) Ampere rating 

(2) Voltage rating 

(3) Interrupting rating where other than 10,000 amperes 

(4) Current limiting where applicable 

(5) The name or trademark of the manufacturer 

The interrupting rating shall not be required to be 
marked on fuses used for supplementary protection. 

(D) Renewable Fuses. Class H cartridge fuses of the re- 
newable type shall only be permitted to be used for replace- 
ment in existing installations where there is no evidence of 
overfusing or tampering. 

240.61 Classification. Cartridge fuses and ftaseholders shall 
be classified according to voltage and amperage ranges. Fuses 
rated 600 volts, nominal, or less shall be permitted to be used 
for voltages at or below their ratings. 

VII. Circuit Breakers 

240.80 Method of Operation. Circuit breakers shall be 
trip free and capable of being closed and opened by manual 
operation. Their normal method of operation by other than 



manual means, such as electrical or pneumatic, shall be 
permitted if means for manual operation are also provided. 

240.81 Indicating. Circuit breakers shall clearly indicate 
whether they are in the open "off' or closed "on" position. 

Where circuit breaker handles are operated vertically 
rather than rotationally or horizontally, the "up" position of 
the handle shall be the "on" position. 

240.82 Nontamperable. A circuit breaker shall be of such 
design that any alteration of its trip point (calibration) or 
the time required for its operation requires dismantling of 
the device or breaking of a seal for other than intended 
adjustments. 

240.83 Marking. 

(A) Durable and Visible. Circuit breakers shall be marked 
with their ampere rating in a manner that will be durable 
and visible after installation. Such marking shall be permit- 
ted to be made visible by removal of a trim or cover. 

(B) Location. Circuit breakers rated at 100 amperes or less 
and 600 volts or less shall have the ampere rating molded, 
stamped, etched, or similarly marked into their handles or 
escutcheon areas. 

(C) Interrupting Rating. Every circuit breaker having an 
interrupting rating other than 5000 amperes shall have its 
interrupting rating shown on the circuit breaker. The inter- 
rupting rating shall not be required to be marked on circuit 
breakers used for supplementary protection. 

(D) Used as Switches. Circuit breakers used as switches in 
120- volt and 277- volt fluorescent lighting circuits shall be 
listed and shall be marked SWD or HID. Circuit breakers 
used as switches in high-intensity discharge lighting cir- 
cuits shall be listed and shall be marked as HID. 

(E) Voltage Marking. Circuit breakers shall be marked 
with a voltage rating not less than the nominal system volt- 
age that is indicative of their capability to interrupt fault 
cun'ents between phases or phase to ground. 

240.85 Applications. A circuit breaker with a straight volt- 
age rating, such as 240V or 480V, shall be permitted to be 
applied in a circuit in which the nominal voltage between 
any two conductors does not exceed the circuit breaker's 
voltage rating. A two-pole circuit breaker shall not be used 
for protecting a 3-phase, comer-grounded delta circuit un- 
less the circuit breaker is marked l(t)-3(t) to indicate such 
suitability. 

A circuit breaker with a slash rating, such as 1 20/240 V 
or 480Y/277V, shall be permitted to be applied in a solidly 
grounded circuit where the nominal voltage of any conduc- 
tor to ground does not exceed the lower of the two values 



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70-89 



240.86 



ARTICLE 240 — OVERCURRENT PROTECTION 



of the circuit breaker's voltage rating and the nominal volt- 
age between any two conductors does not exceed the higher 
value of the circuit breaker's voltage rating. 

FPN: Proper application of molded case circuit breakers 
on 3-phase systems, other than solidly grounded wye, par- 
ticularly on corner grounded delta systems, considers the 
circuit breakers' individual pole-interrupting capability. 

240.86 Series Ratings. Where a circuit breaker is used on 
a circuit having an available fault current higher than the 
marked interrupting rating by being connected on the load 
side of an acceptable overcurrent protective device having a 
higher rating, the circuit breaker shall meet the require- 
ments specified in (A) or (B), and (C). 

(A) Selected Under Engineering Supervision in Existing 
Installations. The series rated combination devices shall be 
selected by a licensed professional engineer engaged pri- 
marily in the design or maintenance of electrical installa- 
tions. The selection shall be documented and stamped by 
the professional engineer. This documentation shall be 
available to those authorized to design, install, inspect, 
maintain, and operate the system. This series combination 
rating, including identification of the upstream device, shall 
be field marked on the end use equipment. 

(B) Tested Combinations. The combination of fine-side 
overcurrent device and load-side circuit breaker(s) is tested 
and marked on the end use equipment, such as switch- 
boards and panelboards. 

(C) Motor Contribution. Series ratings shall not be used 
where 

(1) Motors are connected on the load side of the higher- 
rated overcurrent device and on the line side of the 
lower-rated overcurrent device, and 

(2) The sum of the motor full-load currents exceeds 1 per- 
cent of the interrupting rating of the lower-rated circuit 
breaker. 



VIII. Supervised Industrial Installations 

240.90 General. Overcurrent protection in areas of super- 
vised industrial installations shaU comply with all of the 
other applicable provisions of this article, except as pro- 
vided in Part VIII. The provisions of Part VIII shall be 
permitted only to apply to those portions of the electrical 
system in the supervised industrial installation used exclu- 
sively for manufacturing or process control activities. 

240.92 Location in Circuit. An overcurrent device shall 
be connected in each ungrounded circuit conductor as re- 
quired in 240.92(A) through (D). 



(A) Feeder and Branch-Circuit Conductors. Feeder and 
branch-circuit conductors shall be protected at the point the 
conductors receive their supply as permitted in 240.21 or as 
otherwise permitted in 240.92(B), (C), or (D). 

(B) Transformer Secondary Conductors of Separately 
Derived Systems. Conductors shall be permitted to be con- 
nected to a transformer secondary of a separately derived sys- 
tem, without overcurrent protection at the connection, where 
the conditions of 240.92(B)(1), (B)(2), and (B)(3) are met. 

(1) Short-Circuit and Ground-Fault Protection. The con- 
ductors shall be protected from short-circuit and ground-fault 
conditions by complying with one of the following conditions: 

(1) The length of the secondary conductors does not ex- 
ceed 30 m (100 ft) and the transformer primary over- 
current device has a rating or setting that does not 
exceed 150 percent of the value determined by mul- 
tiplying the secondary conductor ampacity by the 
secondary-to-primary transformer voltage ratio. 

(2) The conductors are protected by a differential relay 
with a trip setting equal to or less than the conductor 
ampacity. 

FPN: A difiFerential relay is connected to be sensitive only 
to short-circuit or fault currents within the protected zone 
and is normally set much lower than the conductor ampac- 
ity. The differential relay is connected to trip protective 
devices that will de-energize the protected conductors if a 
short-circuit condition occurs. 

(3) The conductors shall be considered to be protected if 
calculations, made under engineering supervision, de- 
termine that the system overcurrent devices will protect 
the conductors within recognized time vs. current limits 
for all short-circuit and ground-fault conditions. 

(2) Overload Protection. The conductors shall be pro- 
tected against overload conditions by complying with one 
of the following: 

(1) The conductors terminate in a single overcurrent device 
that will limit the load to the conductor ampacity. 

(2) The sum of the overcurrent devices at the conductor 
termination fimits the load to the conductor ampacity. 
The overcurrent devices shall consist of not more than 
six circuit breakers or sets of fuses, mounted in a single 
enclosure, in a group of separate enclosures, or in or on 
a switchboard. There shall be no more than six over- 
current devices grouped in any one location. 

(3) Overcurrent relaying is connected [with a current trans- 
former(s), if needed] to sense all of the secondary con- 
ductor current and limit the load to the conductor am- 
pacity by opening upstream or downstream devices. 

(4) Conductors shall be considered to be protected if cal- 
culations, made under engineering supervision, deter- 
mine that the system overcurrent devices will protect 
the conductors from overload conditions. 



70-90 



NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE 2005 Edition 



ARTICLE 240 — OVERCURRENT PROTECTION 



240.100 



(3) Physical Protection. The secondary conductors are 
protected from physical damage by being enclosed in an 
approved raceway or by other approved means. 

(C) Outside Feeder Taps. Outside conductors shall be per- 
mitted to be tapped to a feeder or to be connected at a trans- 
former secondary, without overcurrent protection at the tap or 
connection, where all the following conditions are met: 

(1) The conductors are protected from physical damage in 
an approved manner. 

(2) The sum of the overcurrent devices at the conductor 
termination limits the load to the conductor ampacity. 
The overcurrent devices shall consist of not more than 
six circuit breakers or sets of fuses mounted in a single 
enclosure, in a group of separate enclosures, or in or on 
a switchboard. There shall be no more than six over- 
current devices grouped in any one location. 

(3) The tap conductors are installed outdoors of a building 
or structure except at the point of load termination. 

(4) The overcurrent device for the conductors is an integral 
part of a disconnecting means or shall be located im- 
mediately adjacent thereto. 

(5) The disconnecting means for the conductors are in- 
stalled at a readily accessible location complying with 
one of the following: 

a. Outside of a building or structure 

b. Inside, nearest the point of entrance of the conductors 

c. Where installed in accordance with 230.6, nearest 
the point of entrance of the conductors 

(D) Protection by Primary Overcurrent Device. Con- 
ductors supplied by the secondary side of a transformer 
shall be permitted to be protected by overcurrent protection 
provided on the primary (supply) side of the transformer, 
provided the primary device time-current protection char- 
acteristic, multipHed by the maximum effective primary-to- 
secondary transformer voltage ratio, effectively protects the 
secondary conductors. 

240.93 Series Ratings. Where a circuit breaker is used on 
a circuit having an available fault current higher than its 
marked interrupting rating by being connected on the load 
side of an acceptable overcurrent protective device having 
the higher rating, the circuit breaker shall meet the require- 
ments specified in 240.93(A) or (B) and (C). 

(A) Tested Combinations. The combination of line-side 
overcurrent device and load-side circuit breaker(s) is tested 
and marked on the end use equipment, such as switch- 
boards and panelboards. 

(B) Selected Under Engineering Supervision. The line- 
side device is selected under engineering supervision. This 
series combination rating, including identification of the up- 
stream device, shall be field marked on the end use equipment. 



(C) Motor Contribution. Series ratings shall not be used 
where 

(1) Motors are connected on the load side of the higher-rated 
overcurrent device and on the line side of the lower-rated 
overcurrent device, and 

(2) The sum of the motor full-load currents exceeds J percent 
of the interrupting rating of the lower-rated circuit breaker. 

IX. Overcurrent Protection Over 600 Volts, Nominal 
240.100 Feeders and Branch Circuits. 

(A) Location and Type of Protection. Feeder and branch- 
circuit conductors shall have overcurrent protection in each 
ungrounded conductor located at the point where the con- 
ductor receives its supply or at an alternative location in the 
circuit when designed under engineering supervision that 
includes but is not limited to considering the appropriate 
fault studies and time-current coordination analysis of the 
protective devices and the conductor damage curves. The 
overcurrent protection shall be permitted to be provided by 
either 240.100(A)(1) or (A)(2). 

(1) Overcurrent Relays and Current Transformers. 

Circuit breakers used for overcurrent protection of 3-phase 
circuits shall have a minimum of three overcurrent relay 
elements operated from three current transformers. The 
separate overcurrent relay elements (or protective func- 
tions) shall be permitted to be part of a single electronic 
protective relay unit. 

On 3-phase, 3-wire circuits, an overcurrent relay ele- 
ment in the residual circuit of the current transformers shall 
be permitted to replace one of the phase relay elements. 

An overcurrent relay element, operated from a current 
transformer that links all phases of a 3-phase, 3-wire circuit, 
shall be permitted to replace the residual relay element and 
one of the phase-conductor current transformers. Where the 
neutral is not regrounded on the load side of the circuit as 
permitted in 250.184(B), the current transformer shall be per- 
mitted to link all 3-phase conductors and the grounded circuit 
conductor (neutral). 

(2) Fuses. A fuse shall be connected in series with each 
ungrounded conductor. 

(B) Protective Devices. The protective device(s) shall be 
capable of detecting and interrupting all values of current 
that can occur at their location in excess of their trip-setting 
or melting point. 

(C) Conductor Protection. The operating time of the pro- 
tective device, the available short-circuit current, and the 
conductor used shall be coordinated to prevent damaging or 
dangerous temperatures in conductors or conductor insula- 
tion under short-circuit conditions. 



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70-91 



240,101 



ARTICLE 250 — GROUNDING AND BONDING 



240.101 Additional Requirements for Feeders. 

(A) Rating or Setting of Overcurrent Protective De- 
vices. The continuous ampere rating of a fuse shall not 
exceed three times the ampacity of the conductors. The 
long-time trip element setting of a breaker or the minimum 
trip setting of an electronically actuated fuse shall not ex- 
ceed six times the ampacity of the conductor. For fire 
pumps, conductors shall be permitted to be protected for 
overcurrent in accordance with 695.4(B). 

(B) Feeder Taps. Conductors tapped to a feeder shall be 
permitted to be protected by the feeder overcurrent device 
where that overcurrent device also protects the tap conductor. 



(>rouii4ing and Bpiidiftg 

I. General 

250.1 Scope. This article covers general requirements for 
grounding and bonding of electrical installations, and spe- 
cific requirements in (1) through (6). 

(1) Systems, circuits, and equipment required, permitted, 
or not permitted to be grounded 

(2) Circuit conductor to be grounded on grounded systems 

(3) Location of grounding connections 

(4) Types and sizes of grounding and bonding conductors 
and electrodes 

(5) Methods of grounding and bonding 

(6) Conditions under which guards, isolation, or insulation 
may be substituted for grounding 

250.2 Definitions. 

Effective Ground-Fault Current Path. An intentionally 
constructed, permanent, low-impedance electrically conduc- 
tive path designed and intended to carry current under ground- 
fault conditions from the point of a ground fault on a wiring 
system to the electrical supply source and that faciUtates the 
operation of the overcurrent protective device or ground fault 
detectors on high-impedance grounded systems. 

Ground Fault. An unintentional, electrically conducting 
connection between an ungrounded conductor of an electrical 
circuit and the normally noh-current-carrying conductors, me- 
tallic enclosures, metalhc raceways, metallic equipment, or 
earth. 

Ground-Fault Current Path. An electrically conductive 
path from the point of a ground fault on a wiring system 
through normally non-current-carrying conductors, equip- 
ment, or the earth to the electrical supply source. 



FPN: Examples of ground-fault current paths could con- 
sist of any combination of equipment grounding conduc- 
tors, metallic raceways, metallic cable sheaths, electrical 
equipment, and any other electrically conductive material 
such as metal water and gas piping, steel framing members, 
stucco mesh, metal ducting, reinforcing steel, shields of 
communications cables, and the earth itself 

250.3 Application of Other Articles. In other articles ap- 
plying to particular cases of installation of conductors and 
equipment, requirements are identified in Table 250.3 that 
are in addition to, or modifications of, those of this article. 

250.4 General Requirements for Grounding and Bonding. 

The following general requirements identify what grounding 
and bonding of electrical systems are required to accomplish. 
The prescriptive methods contained in Article 250 shall be 
followed to comply with the performance requirements of this 
section. 

(A) Grounded Systems. 

(1) Electrical System Grounding. Electrical systems that 
are grounded shall be connected to earth in a manner that 
will limit the voltage imposed by lightning, line surges, or 
unintentional contact with higher-voltage lines and that will 
stabilize the voltage to earth during normal operation. 

(2) Grounding of Electrical Equipment. Non-current- 
carrying conductive materials enclosing electrical conduc- 
tors or equipment, or forming part of such equipment, shall 
be connected to earth so as to limit the voltage to ground on 
these materials. 

(3) Bonding of Electrical Equipment. Non-current-carrying 
conductive materials enclosing electrical conductors or equip- 
ment, or forming part of such equipment, shall be connected 
together and to the electrical supply source in a manner that 
estabhshes an effective ground-fault current path. 

(4) Bonding of Electrically Conductive Materials and 
Other Equipment. Electrically conductive materials that 
are likely to become energized shall be connected together 
and to the electrical supply source in a manner that estab- 
lishes an effective ground-fault current path. 

(5) Effective Ground-Fault Current Path. Electrical 
equipment and wiring and other electrically conductive ma- 
terial likely to become energized shall be installed in a 
manner that creates a permanent, low-impedance circuit 
facilitating the operation of the overcurrent device or 
ground detector for high-impedance grounded systems. It 
shall be capable of safely carrying the maximum ground- 
fault current likely to be imposed on it from any point on 
the wiring system where a ground fault may occur to the 
electrical supply source. The earth shall not be considered 
as an effective ground-fault current path. 



70-92 



NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE 2005 Edition 



ARTICLE 250 — GROUNDING AND BONDING 



250.4 



Table 250.3 Additional Grounding Requirements 



Conductor/Equipment 



Article 



Section 



Agricultural buildings 

Audio signal processing, amplification, and reproduction 

equipment 
Branch circuits 
Cablebus 
Cable trays 

Capacitors 

Circuits and equipment operating at less than 50 volts 

Closed-loop and programmed power distribution 

Communications circuits 

Community antenna television and radio distribution systems 

Conductors for general wiring 

Cranes and hoists 

Electrically driven or controlled irrigation machines 

Electric signs and outline lighting 

Electrolytic cells 

Elevators, dumbwaiters, escalators, moving walks, wheelchair 

lifts, and stairway chair lifts 
Fire alarm systems 

Fixed electric heating equipment for pipelines and vessels 
Fixed outdoor electric deicing and snow-melting equipment 
Flexible cords and cables 

Floating buildings 

Grounding-type receptacles, adapters, cord connectors, and 

attachment plugs 
Hazardous (classified) locations 
Health care facilities 
Induction and dielectric heating equipment 

Industrial machinery 

Information technology equipment 

Intrinsically safe systems 

Luminaires (lighting fixtures) and lighting equipment 

Luminaires (fixtures), lampholders, and lamps 

Marinas and boatyards 
Mobile homes and mobile home park 
Motion picture and television studios and similar locations 
Motors, motor circuits, and controllers 
Outlet, device, pull, and junction boxes; conduit bodies; and 
fittings 

Over 600 volts, nominal, underground wiring methods 

Panelboards 

Pipe organs 

Radio and television equipment 

Receptacles and cord connectors 

Recreational vehicles and recreational vehicle parks 

Services 

Solar photovoltaic systems 

Swimming pools, fountains, and similar installations 

Switchboards and panelboards 

Switches 

Theaters, audience areas of motion picture and television 

studios, and similar locations 
Transformers and transformer vaults 
Use and identification of grounded conductors 
X-ray equipment 



392 

720 
800 

310 
610 

600 
668 

620 



500-517 
517 
665 

670 



410 

550 
430 



650 
810 

551 
230 

680 



547.9 and 547.10 
640.7 

210.5, 210.6, 406.3 

370.9 

392.3(C), 392.7 

460.10, 460.27 

780.3 
820.93, 820.100, 820.103 

675.11(C), 675.12, 675.13, 675.14, 675.15 



760.9 

427.29, 427.48 

426.27 
400.22, 400.23 

553.8, 553.10, 553.11 
406.9 



200 
660 



645.15 

504.50 

410.17, 410.18, 410.20, 410.21, 410.105(B) 

555.15 

530.20, 530.64(B) 

314.4, 314.25 

300.50(B) 
408.40 

406.3 



690.41, 690.42, 690.43, 690.45, 690.47 

408.3(D) 

404.12 
520.81 



450.10 
517.78 



2005 Edition NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE 



70-93 



250.6 



ARTICLE 250 — GROUNDING AND BONDING 



(B) Ungrounded Systems. 

(1) Grounding Electrical Equipment. Non-current- 
carrying conductive materials enclosing electrical conduc- 
tors or equipment, or forming part of such equipment, shall 
be connected to earth in a manner that will limit the voltage 
imposed by lightning or unintentional contact with higher- 
voltage lines and limit the voltage to ground on these ma- 
terials. 

(2) Bonding of Electrical Equipment. Non-current- 
carrying conductive materials enclosing electrical conductors 
or equipment, or forming part of such equipment, shall be 
connected together and to the supply system grounded equip- 
ment in a manner that creates a permanent, low-impedance 
path for ground-fault current that is capable of carrying the 
maximum fault current likely to be imposed on it. 

(3) Bonding of Electrically Conductive Materials and 
Other Equipment. Electrically conductive materials that 
are likely to become energized shall be connected together 
and to the supply system grounded equipment in a manner 
that creates a permanent, low-impedance path for ground- 
fault current that is capable of carrying the maximum fault 
current likely to be imposed on it. 



(4) Path for Fault Current. Electrical equipment, wiring, 
and other electrically conductive material likely to become 
energized shall be installed in a manner that creates a per- 
manent, low-impedance circuit from any point on the wir- 
ing system to the electrical supply source to facilitate the 
operation of overcurrent devices should a second fault oc- 
cur on the wiring system. The earth shall not be considered 
as an effective fault-current path. 

FPN No. 1: A second fault that occurs through the equip- 
ment enclosures and bonding is considered a ground fault. 

FPN No. 2: See Figure 250.4 for information on the orga- 
nization of Article 250. 

250.6 Objectionable Current over Grounding 
Conductors. 

(A) Arrangement to Prevent Objectionable Current. 

The grounding of electrical systems, circuit conductors, 
surge arresters, and conductive non-current-carrying mate- 
rials and equipment shall be installed and arranged in a 
manner that will prevent objectionable current over the 
grounding conductors or grounding paths. 



Part I General 



Part II System 
grounding 



Part VIM Direct-current 
systems 



Part X Grounding of 

systems and circuits of 

1 kV and over (high voltage) 



Part III Grounding electrode 

system and grounding 

electrode conductor 



Part IV Enclosure, 

raceway, and service 

cable grounding 



Part VI Equiprnent 

grounding and equipment 

grounding conductors 




Part VII Methods of 
equipment grounding 



Part V Bonding 



Part IX Instruments, 
meters, and relays 



Figure 250.4 Grounding. 



(B) Alterations to Stop Objectionable Current. If the 

use of multiple grounding connections results in objection- 
able current, one or more of the following alterations shall 
be permitted to be made, provided that the requirements of 
250.4(A)(5) or (B)(4) are met: 

(1) Discontinue one or more but not all of such grounding 
connections. 

(2) Change the locations of the grounding connections. 

(3) Interrupt the continuity of the conductor or conductive 
path interconnecting the grounding connections. 

(4) Take other suitable remedial and approved action. 

(C) Temporary Currents Not Classified as Objection- 
able Currents. Temporary currents resulting from acciden- 
tal conditions, such as ground-fault currents, that occur 
only while the grounding conductors are performing their 
intended protective functions shall not be classified as ob- 
jectionable current for the purposes specified in 250.6(A) 
and (B). 

(D) Limitations to Permissible Alterations. The provi- 
sions of this section shall not be considered as permitting 
electronic equipment from being operated on ac systems or 
branch circuits that are not grounded as required by this 
article. Currents that introduce noise or data errors in elec- 
tronic equipment shall not be considered the objectionable 
currents addressed in this section. 



70-94 



NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE 2005 Edition 



ARTICLE 250 — GROUNDING AND BONDING 



250.21 



• 



• 



(E) Isolation of Objectionable Direct-Current Ground 
Currents. Where isolation of objectionable dc ground cur- 
rents from cathodic protection systems is required, a listed 
ac coupling/dc isolating device shall be permitted in the 
equipment grounding path to provide an effective return 
path for ac ground-fault current while blocking dc current. 

250.8 Connection of Grounding and Bonding Equipment. 

Grounding conductors and bonding jumpers shall be con- 
nected by exothermic welding, listed pressure connectors, 
listed clamps, or other listed means. Connection devices or 
fittings that depend solely on solder shall not be used. Sheet 
metal screws shall not be used to connect grounding con- 
ductors or connection devices to enclosures. 

250.10 Protection of Ground Clamps and Fittings. 

Ground clamps or other fittings shall be approved for gen- 
eral use without protection or shall be protected from 
physical damage as indicated in (1) or (2) as follows: 

(1) In installations where they are not likely to be damaged 

(2) Where enclosed in metal, wood, or equivalent protec- 
tive covering 

250.12 Clean Surfaces. Nonconductive coafings (such as 
paint, lacquer, and enamel) on equipment to be grounded shall 
be removed from threads and other contact surfaces to ensure 
good electrical continuity or be connected by means of fittings 
designed so as to make such removal unnecessary. 

11. System Grounding 

250.20 Alternating-Current Systems to Be Grounded. 

Alternating-current systems shall be grounded as provided for 
in 250.20(A), (B), (C), or (D). Other systems shall be permit- 
ted to be grounded. If such systems are grounded, they shall 
comply with the applicable provisions of this article. 

FPN: An example of a system permitted to be grounded is a 
comer-grounded delta transformer connection. See 250.26(4) 
for conductor to be grounded. 

(A) Alternating-Current Systems of Less Than 50 Volts. 

Alternating-current systems of less than 50 volts shall be 
grounded under any of the following conditions: 

(1) Where supplied by transformers, if the transformer sup- 
ply system exceeds 150 volts to ground 

(2) Where supplied by transformers, if the transformer sup- 
ply system is ungrounded 

(3) Where installed as overhead conductors outside of 
buildings 

(B) Alternating-Current Systems of 50 Volts to 1000 
Volts. Alternating-current systems of 50 volts to 1000 volts 
that supply premises wiring and premises wiring systems 
shall be grounded under any of the following conditions: 



(1) Where the system can be grounded so that the maxi- 
mum voltage to ground on the ungrounded conductors 
does not exceed 150 volts 

(2) Where the system is 3-phase, 4-wire, wye connected in 
which the neutral is used as a circuit conductor 

(3) Where the system is 3-phase, 4-wire, delta connected in 
which the midpoint of one phase winding is used as a 
circuit conductor 

(C) Alternating-Current Systems of 1 kV and Over. 

Alternating-current systems supplying mobile or portable 
equipment shall be grounded as specified in 250.188. 
Where supplying other than mobile or portable equipment, 
such systems shall be permitted to be grounded. 

(D) Separately Derived Systems. Separately derived sys- 
tems, as covered in 250.20(A) or (B), shall be grounded as 
specified in 250.30. 

FPN No. 1: An alternate ac power source such as an on-site 
generator is not a separately derived system if the neutral is 
solidly interconnected to a service-supplied system neutral. 

FPN No. 2: For systems that are not separately derived 
and are not required to be grounded as specified in 250.30, 
see 445.13 for minimum size of conductors that must carry 
fault current. 

(E) Impedance Grounded Neutral Systems. Impedance 
grounded neutral systems shall be grounded in accordance 
with 250.36 or 250.186. 

250.21 Alternating-Current Systems of 50 Volts to 
1000 Volts Not Required to Be Grounded. The follow- 
ing ac systems of 50 volts to 1000 volts shall be permitted 
to be grounded but shall not be required to be grounded: 

(1) Electric systems used exclusively to supply industrial 
electric furnaces for melting, refining, tempering, and 
the like 

(2) Separately derived systems used exclusively for recti- 
fiers that supply only adjustable- speed industrial drives 

(3) Separately derived systems supplied by transformers 
that have a primary voltage rating less than 1000 volts, 
provided that all the following conditions are met: 

a. The system is used exclusively for control circuits. 

b. The conditions of maintenance and supervision ensure 
that only qualified persons service the installation. 

c. Continuity of control power is required. 

d. Ground detectors are installed on the control 
system. 

(4) Other systems that are not required to be grounded in 
accordance with the requirements of 250.20(B). 

Where an alternating-current system is not grounded as per- 
mitted in 250.21(1) through (4), ground detectors shall be 
installed on the system. 



2005 Edition NATIONAL liLEC TRICAL CODE 



70-95 



250.22 



ARTICLE 250 — GROUNDING AND BONDING 



Exception: Systems of less than 120 volts to ground as 
permitted by this Code shall not be required to have ground 
detectors. 

250.22 Circuits Not to Be Grounded. The following cir- 
cuits shall not be grounded: 

(1) Circuits for electric cranes operating over combustible 
fibers in Class III locations, as provided in 503.155 

(2) Circuits in health care facilities as provided in 517.61 
and 517.160 

(3) Circuits for equipment within electrolytic cell working 
zone as provided in Article 668 

(4) Secondary circuits of lighting systems as provided in 
411.5(A) 

250.24 Grounding Service-Supplied Alternating-Current 
Systems. 

(A) System Grounding Connections. A premises wiring 
system supplied by a grounded ac service shall have a 
grounding electrode conductor connected to the grounded 
service conductor, at each service, in accordance with 
250.24(A)(1) through (A)(5). 

(1) General. The connection shall be made at any acces- 
sible point from the load end of the service drop or service 
lateral to and including the terminal or bus to which the 
grounded service conductor is connected at the service dis- 
connecting means. 

FPN: See definitions of Service Drop and Service Lateral 
in Article 100. 

(2) Outdoor Transformer. Where the transformer supply- 
ing the service is located outside the building, at least one 
additional grounding connection shall be made from the 
grounded service conductor to a grounding electrode, either 
at the transformer or elsewhere outside the building. 

Exception: The additional grounding connection shall not 
be made on high-impedance grounded neutral systems. The 
system shall meet the requirements of 250.36. 

(3) Dual Fed Services. For services that are dual fed (double 
ended) in a common enclosure or grouped together in separate 
enclosures and employing a secondary tie, a single grounding 
electrode connection to the tie point of the grounded conduc- 
tor(s) from each power source shall be permitted. 

(4) Main Bonding Jumper as Wire or Busbar. Where the 
main bonding jumper specified in 250.28 is a wire or bus- 
bar and is installed from the grounded conductor terminal 
bar or bus to the equipment grounding terminal bar or bus 
in the service equipment, the grounding electrode conduc- 
tor shall be permitted to be connected to the equipment 
grounding terminal, bar, or bus to which the main bonding 
jumper is connected. 



(5) Load-Side Grounding Connections. A grounding 
connection shall not be made to any grounded conductor on 
the load side of the service disconnecting means except as 
otherwise permitted in this article. 

FPN: See 250.30(A) for separately derived systems, 
250.32 for connections at separate buildings or structures, 
and 250.142 for use of the grounded circuit conductor for 
grounding equipment. 

(B) Main Bonding Jumper. For a grounded system, an un- 
spliced main bonding jumper shall be used to connect the 
equipment grounding conductor(s) and the service-disconnect 
enclosure to the grounded conductor within the enclosure for 
each service disconnect in accordance with 250.28. 

Exception No. 1: Where more than one service disconnect- 
ing means is located in an assembly listed for use as ser- 
vice equipment, an unspliced main bonding jumper shall 
bond the grounded conductor(s) to the assembly enclosure. 

Exception No. 2: Impedance grounded neutral systems shall 
be permitted to be connected as provided in 250.36 and 
250.186. 

(C) Grounded Conductor Brought to Service Equipment. 

Where an ac system operating at less than 1000 volts is 
grounded at any point, the grounded conductor(s) shall be run 
to each service disconnecting means and shall be bonded to 
each disconnecting means enclosure. The grounded conduc- 
tor(s) shall be installed in accordance with 250.24(C)(1) 
through (C)(3). 

Exception: Where more than one service disconnecting 
means are located in an assembly listed for use as service 
equipment, it shall be permitted to run the grounded con- 
ductor(s) to the assembly, and the conductor(s) shall be 
bonded to the assembly enclosure. 

(1) Routing and Sizing. This conductor shall be routed with 
the phase conductors and shall not be smaller than the required 
grounding electrode conductor specified in Table 250.66 but 
shall not be required to be larger than the largest ungrounded 
service-entrance phase conductor. In addition, for service- 
entrance phase conductors larger than 1100 kcmil copper or 
1750 kcmil aluminum, the grounded conductor shall not be 
smaller than 12'/2 percent of the area of the largest service- 
entrance phase conductor. The grounded conductor of a 
3-phase, 3-wire delta service shall have an ampacity not less 
than that of the ungrounded conductors. 

(2) Parallel Conductors. Where the service-entrance 
phase conductors are installed in parallel, the size of the 
grounded conductor shall be based on the total circular mil 
area of the parallel conductors as indicated in this section. 
Where installed in two or more raceways, the size of the 
grounded conductor in each raceway shall be based on the 



• 



70-96 



NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE 2005 Edition 



ARTICLE 250 — GROUNDING AND BONDING 



250.30 



• 



• 



size of the ungrounded service-entrance conductor in the 
raceway but not smaller than 1/0 AWG. 

FPN: See 310.4 for grounded conductors connected in parallel. 

(3) High Impedance. The grounded conductor on a high- 
impedance grounded neutral system shall be grounded in 
accordance with 250.36. 

(D) Grounding Electrode Conductor. A grounding elec- 
trode conductor shall be used to connect the equipment 
grounding conductors, the service-equipment enclosures, 
and, where the system is grounded, the grounded service 
conductor to the grounding electrode(s) required by Part III 
of this article. 

High-impedance grounded neutral system connections 
shall be made as covered in 250.36. 

FPN: See 250.24(A) for ac system grounding connections. 

(E) Ungrounded System Grounding Connections. A pre- 
mises wiring system that is supplied by an ac service that is 
ungrounded shall have, at each service, a grounding elec- 
trode conductor connected to the grounding electrode(s) 
required by Part III of this article. The grounding electrode 
conductor shall be connected to a metal enclosure of the 
service conductors at any accessible point from the load 
end of the service drop or service lateral to the service 
disconnecting means. 

250.26 Conductor to Be Grounded — Alternating- 
Current Systems. For ac premises wiring systems, the con- 
ductor to be grounded shall be as specified in the following: 

(1) Single-phase, 2- wire — one conductor 

(2) Single-phase, 3-wire — the neutral conductor 

(3) Multiphase systems having one wire common to all 
phases — the common conductor 

(4) Multiphase systems where one phase is grounded — 
one phase conductor 

(5) Multiphase systems in which one phase is used as in 
(2) — the neutral conductor 

250.28 Main Bonding Jumper and System Bonding 
Jumper. For a grounded system, main bonding jumpers 
and system bonding jumpers shall be installed as follows: 

(A) Material. Main bonding jumpers and system bonding 
jumpers shall be of copper or odier corrosion-resistant mate- 
rial. A main bonding jumper and a system bonding jumper 
shall be a wire, bus, screw, or similar suitable conductor. 

(B) Construction. Where a main bonding jumper or a sys- 
tem bonding jumper is a screw only, the screw shall be 
identified with a green finish that shall be visible with the 
screw installed. 

(C) Attachment. Main bonding jumpers and system bond- 
ing jumpers shall be attached in the manner specified by the 
applicable provisions of 250.8. 



(D) Size. Main bonding jumpers and system bonding jump- 
ers shall not be smaller than the sizes shown in Table 250.66. 
Where the supply conductors are larger than 1100 kcmil cop- 
per or 1750 kcmil aluminum, the bonding jumper shall have 
an area that is not less than 12'/2 percent of the area of the 
largest phase conductor except that, where the phase conduc- 
tors and the bonding jumper are of different materials (copper 
or aluminum), the minimum size of the bonding jumper shall 
be based on the assumed use of phase conductors of the same 
material as the bonding jumper and with an ampacity equiva- 
lent to that of the installed phase conductors. 

250.30 Grounding Separately Derived Alternating- 
Current Systems. 

(A) Grounded Systems. A separately derived ac system 
that is grounded shall comply with 250.30(A)(1) through 
(A)(8). A grounding connection shall not be made to any 
grounded circuit conductor on the load side of the point of 
grounding of the separately derived system except as oth- 
erwise permitted in this article. 

FPN: See 250.32 for connections at separate buildings or 
structures, and 250.142 for use of the grounded circuit con- 
ductor for grounding equipment. 

Exception: Impedance grounded neutral system grounding 
connections shall be made as specified in 250.36 or 250.186. 

(1) System Bonding Jumper. An unspliced system bond- 
ing jumper in compliance with 250.28(A) through (D) that 
is sized based on the derived phase conductors shall be 
used to connect the equipment grounding conductors of the 
separately derived system to the grounded conductor. This 
connection shall be made at any single point on the sepa- 
rately derived system from the source to the first system 
disconnecting means or overcurrent device, or it shall be 
made at the source of a separately derived system that has 
no disconnecting means or overcurrent devices. 

Exception No. 1: For separately derived systems that are 
dual fed {double ended) in a common enclosure or grouped 
together in separate enclosures and employing a secondary 
tie, a single system bonding jumper connection to the tie 
point of the grounded circuit conductors from each power 
source shall be permitted. 

Exception No. 2: A system bonding jumper at both the 
source and the first disconnecting means shall be permitted 
where doing so does not establish a parallel path for the 
grounded conductor Where a grounded conductor is used 
in this manner, it shall not be smaller than the size specified 
for the system bonding jumper but shall not be required to 
be larger than the ungrounded conductor(s). For the pur- 
poses of this exception, connection through the earth shall 
not be considered as providing a parallel path. 



2005 Edition NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE 



70-97 



250.30 



ARTICLE 250 — GROUNDING AND BONDING 



Exception No. 3: The size of the system bonding jumper 
for a system that supplies a Class 1, Class 2, or Class 3 
circuit, and is derived from a transformer rated not more 
than 1000 volt-amperes, shall not be smaller than the derived 
phase conductors and shall not be smaller than 14 AWG cop- 
per or 12 AWG aluminum. 

(2) Equipment Bonding Jumper Size. Where a bonding 
jumper of the wire type is run with the derived phase con- 
ductors from the source of a separately derived system to 
the first disconnecting means, it shall be sized in accor- 
dance with 250.102(C), based on the size of the derived 
phase conductors. 

(3) Grounding Electrode Conductor, Single Separately 
Derived System. A grounding electrode conductor for a 
single separately derived system shall be sized in accor- 
dance with 250.66 for the derived phase conductors and 
shall be used to connect the grounded conductor of the 
derived system to the grounding electrode as specified in 
250.30(A)(7). This connection shall be made at the same 
point on the separately derived system where the system 
bonding jumper is installed. 

Exception No. 1: Where the system bonding jumper speci- 
fied in 250.30(A)(1) is a wire or busbar, it shall be permit- 
ted to connect the grounding electrode conductor to the 
equipment grounding terminal, bar, or bus, provided the 
equipment grounding terminal, bar, or bus is of sufficient 
size for the separately derived system. 

Exception No. 2: Where a separately derived system origi- 
nates in listed equipment suitable as service equipment, the 
grounding electrode conductor from the service or feeder 
equipment to the grounding electrode shall be permitted as 
the grounding electrode conductor for the separately de- 
rived system, provided the grounding electrode conductor is 
of sufficient size for the separately derived system. Where 
the equipment ground bus internal to the equipment is not 
smaller than the required grounding electrode conductor 
for the separately derived system, the grounding electrode 
connection for the separately derived system shall be per- 
mitted to be made to the bus. 

Exception No. 3: A grounding electrode conductor shall 
not be required for a system that supplies a Class 1, Class 
2, or Class 3 circuit and is derived from a transformer 
rated not more than 1000 volt-amperes, provided the 
grounded conductor is bonded to the transformer frame or 
enclosure by a jumper sized in accordance with 250.30(A)(1), 
Exception No. 3, and the transformer frame or enclosure is 
grounded by one of the means specified in 250.134. 

(4) Grounding Electrode Conductor, Multiple Sepa- 
rately Derived Systems. Where more than one separately 
derived system is installed, it shall be permissible to con- 
nect a tap from each separately derived system to a com- 
mon grounding electrode conductor. Each tap conductor 



shall connect the grounded conductor of the separately de- 
rived system to the common grounding electrode conduc- 
tor. The grounding electrode conductors and taps shall 
comply with 250.30(A)(4)(a) through (A)(4)(c). 

Exception No. 1: Where the system bonding jumper speci- 
fied in 250.30(A)(1) is a wire or busbar, it shall be permit- 
ted to connect the grounding electrode conductor to the 
equipment grounding terminal, bar, or bus, provided the 
equipment grounding terminal, bar, or bus is of sufficient 
size for the separately derived system. 

Exception No. 2: A grounding electrode conductor shall 
not be required for a system that supplies a Class 1, Class 2, 
or Class 3 circuit and is derived from a transformer rated not 
more than 1000 volt-amperes, provided the system grounded 
conductor is bonded to the transformer frame or enclosure by 
a jumper sized in accordance with 250.30(A)(1), Excep- 
tion No. 3 and the transformer frame or enclosure is grounded 
by one of the means specified in 250.134. 

(a) Common Grounding Electrode Conductor Size. 
The common grounding electrode conductor shall not be 
smaller than 3/0 AWG copper or 250 kcmil aluminum. 

(b) Tap Conductor Size. Each tap conductor shall be 
sized in accordance with 250.66 based on the derived phase 
conductors of the separately derived system it serves. 

Exception: Where a separately derived system originates 
in listed equipment suitable as service equipment, the 
grounding electrode conductor from the service or feeder 
equipment to the grounding electrode shall be permitted as 
the grounding electrode conductor for the separately de- 
rived system, provided the grounding electrode conductor is 
of sufficient size for the separately derived system. Where 
the equipment ground bus internal to the equipment is not 
smaller than the required grounding electrode conductor 
for the separately derived system, the grounding electrode 
connection for the separately derived system shall be per- 
mitted to be made to the bus. 

(c) Connections. All tap connections to the common 
grounding electrode conductor shall be made at an acces- 
sible location by one of the following methods: 

(1) A listed connector. 

(2) Listed connections to aluminum or copper busbars not 
less than 6 mm x 50 mm (Vi in. x 2 in.). Where alu- 
minum busbars are used, the installation shall comply 
with 250.64(A). 

(3) By the exothermic welding process. 

Tap conductors shall be connected to the common 
grounding electrode conductor in such a manner that the 
common grounding electrode conductor remains without a 
splice or joint. 

(5) Installation. The installation of all grounding electrode 
conductors shall comply with 250.64(A), (B), (C), and (E). 



• 



70-98 



NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE 2005 Edition 



ARTICLE 250 — GROUNDING AND BONDING 



250.32 



(6) Bonding. Structural steel and metal piping shall be 
bonded in accordance with 250.104(D). 

(7) Grounding Electrode. The grounding electrode shall be 
as near as practicable to and preferably in the same area as the 
grounding electrode conductor connection to the system. The 
grounding electrode shall be the nearest one of the following: 

(1) Metal water pipe grounding electrode as specified in 
250.52(A)(1) 

(2) Structural metal grounding electrode as specified in 
250.52(A)(2) 

Exception No. 1: Any of the other electrodes identified in 
250.52(A) shall be used where the electrodes specified by 
250.30(A)(7) are not available. 

Exception No. 2 to (1) and (2): Where a separately derived 
system originates in listed equipment suitable for use as 
service equipment, the grounding electrode used for the 
service or feeder equipment shall be permitted as the 
grounding electrode for the separately derived system. 

FPN: See 250. 104(D) for bonding requirements of interior 
metal water piping in the area served by separately derived 
systems. 

(8) Grounded Conductor. Where a grounded conductor is 
installed and the system bonding jumper is not located at the 
source of the separately derived system, 250.30(A)(8)(a), 
(A)(8)(b), and (A)(8)(c) shaU apply. 

(a) Routing and Sizing. This conductor shall be routed 
with the derived phase conductors and shall not be smaller 
than the required grounding electrode conductor specified 
in Table 250.66 but shall not be required to be larger than 
the largest ungrounded derived phase conductor. In addi- 
tion, for phase conductors larger than 1100 kcmil copper or 
1750 kcmil aluminum, the grounded conductor shall not be 
smaller than 12!/2 percent of the area of the largest derived 
phase conductor. The grounded conductor of a 3 -phase, 
3-wire delta system shall have an ampacity not less than 
that of the ungrounded conductors. 

(b) Parallel Conductors. Where the derived phase con- 
ductors are installed in parallel, the size of the grounded 
conductor shall be based on the total circular mil area of the 
parallel conductors, as indicated in this section. Where in- 
stalled in two or more raceways, the size of the grounded 
conductor in each raceway shall be based on the size of the 
ungrounded conductors in the raceway but not smaller than 
1/0 AWG. 

FPN: See 310.4 for grounded conductors connected in 
parallel. 

(c) Impedance Grounded System. The grounded con- 
ductor of an impedance grounded neutral system shall be 
installed in accordance with 250.36 or 250.186. 



(B) Ungrounded Systems. The equipment of an ungrounded 
separately derived system shall be grounded as specified in 
250.30(B)(1) and (B)(2). 

(1) Grounding Electrode Conductor. A grounding elec- 
trode conductor, sized in accordance with 250.66 for the 
derived phase conductors, shall be used to connect the 
metal enclosures of the derived system to the grounding 
electrode as specified in 250.30(B)(2). This connection 
shall be made at any point on the separately derived system 
from the source to the first system disconnecting means. 

(2) Grounding Electrode. Except as permitted by 250.34 
for portable and vehicle-mounted generators, the grounding 
electrode shall comply with 250.30(A)(7). 

250.32 Buildings or Structures Supplied by Feeder(s) or 
Branch Circuit(s). 

(A) Grounding Electrode. Building(s) or structure(s) sup- 
plied by feeder(s) or branch circuit(s) shall have a ground- 
ing electrode or grounding electrode system installed in 
accordance with 250.50. The grounding electrode conduc- 
tor(s) shall be connected in accordance with 250.32(B) or 
(C). Where there is no existing grounding electrode, the 
grounding electrode(s) required in 250.50 shall be installed. 

Exception: A grounding electrode shall not be required 
where only a single branch circuit supplies the building or 
structure and the branch circuit includes an equipment 
grounding conductor for grounding the conductive non- 
current-carrying parts of equipment. For the purpose of 
this section, a multiwire branch circuit shall be considered 
as a single branch circuit. 

(B) Grounded Systems. For a grounded system at the 
separate building or structure, the connection to the ground- 
ing electrode and grounding or bonding of equipment, 
structures, or frames required to be grounded or bonded 
shall comply with either 250.32(B)(1) or (B)(2). 

(1) Equipment Grounding Conductor. An equipment 
grounding conductor as described in 250.118 shall be run with 
the supply conductors and connected to die building or struc- 
ture disconnecting means and to the grounding electrode(s). 
The equipment grounding conductor shall be used for ground- 
ing or bonding of equipment, structures, or frames required to 
be grounded or bonded. The equipment grounding conductor 
shall be sized in accordance wi± 250.122. Any installed 
grounded conductor shall not be connected to die equipment 
grounding conductor or to die grounding electrode(s). 

(2) Grounded Conductor. Where (1) an equipment 
grounding conductor is not run with the supply to the build- 
ing or structure, (2) there are no continuous metallic paths 
bonded to the grounding system in each building or struc- 
ture involved, and (3) ground-fault protection of equipment 



2005 Edition NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE 



70-99 



250.34 



ARTICLE 250 — GROUNDING AND BONDING 



has not been installed on the supply side of the feeder(s), 
the grounded conductor run with the supply to the building 
or structure shall be connected to the building or structure 
disconnecting means and to the grounding electrode(s) and 
shall be used for grounding or bonding of equipment, struc- 
tures, or frames required to be grounded or bonded. The 
size of the grounded conductor shall not be smaller than the 
larger of either of the following: 

(1) That required by 220.61 

(2) That required by 250.122 

(C) Ungrounded Systems. The grounding electrode(s) 
shall be connected to the building or structure disconnect- 
ing means. 

(D) Disconnecting Means Located in Separate Building 
or Structure on the Same Premises. Where one or more 
disconnecting means supply one or more additional build- 
ings or structures under single management, and where 
these disconnecting means are located remote from those 
buildings or structures in accordance with the provisions of 
225.32, Exception Nos. 1 and 2, all of the following con- 
ditions shall be met: 

(1) The connection of the grounded conductor to the ground- 
ing electrode at a separate building or strucmre shall not 
be made. 

(2) An equipment grounding conductor for grounding any 
non-current-carrying equipment, interior metal piping 
systems, and building or structural metal frames is run 
with the circuit conductors to a separate building or 
structure and bonded to existing grounding electrode(s) 
required in Part III of this article, or, where there are no 
existing electrodes, the grounding electrode(s) required 
in Part III of this article shall be installed where a 
separate building or structure is supplied by more than 
one branch circuit. 

(3) Bonding the equipment grounding conductor to the 
grounding electrode at a separate building or structure 
shall be made in a junction box, panelboard, or similar 
enclosure located immediately inside or outside the 
separate building or structure. 

(E) Grounding Electrode Conductor. The size of the 
grounding electrode conductor to the grounding elec- 
trode(s) shall not be smaller than given in 250.66, based on 
the largest ungrounded supply conductor. The installation 
shall comply with Part III of this article. 

250.34 Portable and Vehicle-Mounted Generators. 

(A) Portable Generators. The frame of a portable genera- 
tor shall not be required to be connected to a grounding 
electrode as defined in 250.52 for a system supplied by the 
generator under the following conditions: 



(1) The generator supplies only equipment mounted on the 
generator, cord-and-plug-connected equipment through 
receptacles mounted on the generator, or both, and 

(2) The non-current-carrying metal parts of equipment and 
the equipment grounding conductor terminals of the 
receptacles are bonded to the generator frame. 

(B) Vehicle-Mounted Generators. The frame of a vehicle 
shall not be required to be connected to a grounding electrode 
as defined in 250.52 for a system supplied by a generator 
located on this vehicle under the following conditions: 

(1) The frame of the generator is bonded to the vehicle 
frame, and 

(2) The generator supplies only equipment located on the 
vehicle or cord-and-plug-connected equipment through 
receptacles mounted on the vehicle, or both equipment 
located on the vehicle and cord-and-plug-connected 
equipment through receptacles mounted on the vehicle 
or on the generator, and 

(3) The non-current-carrying metal parts of equipment and 
the equipment grounding conductor terminals of the 
receptacles are bonded to the generator frame. 

(C) Grounded Conductor Bonding. A system conductor 
that is required to be grounded by 250.26 shall be bonded 
to the generator frame where the generator is a component 
of a separately derived system. 

FPN: For grounding portable generators supplying fixed 
wiring systems, see 250.20(D). 

250.36 High-Impedance Grounded Neutral Systems. 

High-impedance grounded neutral systems in which a 
grounding impedance, usually a resistor, limits the ground- 
fault current to a low value shall be permitted for 3 -phase 
ac systems of 480 volts to 1000 volts where all the follow- 
ing conditions are met: 

(1) The conditions of maintenance and supervision ensure 
that only qualified persons service the installation. 

(2) Continuity of power is required. 

(3) Ground detectors are installed on the system. 

(4) Line-to-neutral loads are not served. 

High-impedance grounded neutral systems shall com- 
ply with the provisions of 250.36(A) through (G). 

(A) Grounding Impedance Location. The grounding im- 
pedance shall be installed between the grounding electrode 
conductor and the system neutral. Where a neutral is not 
available, the grounding impedance shall be installed be- 
tween the grounding electrode conductor and the neutral 
derived from a grounding transformer. 

(B) Neutral Conductor. The neutral conductor from the 
neutral point of the transformer or generator to its connection 
point to the grounding impedance shall be fully insulated. 



• 



70-100 



NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE 2005 Edition 



ARTICLE 250 — GROUNDING AND BONDING 



250.52 



« 



The neutral conductor shall have an ampacity of not 
less than the maximum current rating of the grounding im- 
pedance. In no case shall the neutral conductor be smaller 
than 8 AWG copper or 6 AWG aluminum or copper-clad 
aluminum. 

(C) System Neutral Connection. The system neutral con- 
ductor shall not be connected to ground except through the 
grounding impedance. 

FPN: The impedance is normally selected to limit the 
ground-fault current to a value slightly greater than or equal to 
the capacitive charging current of the system. This value of 
impedance will also limit transient overvoltages to safe values. 
For guidance, refer to criteria for limiting transient overvolt- 
ages in ANSI/IEEE 142-1991, Recommended Practice for 
Grounding of Industrial and Commercial Power Systems. 

(D) Neutral Conductor Routing. The conductor connect- 
ing the neutral point of the transformer or generator to the 
grounding impedance shall be permitted to be installed in a 
separate raceway. It shall not be required to run this con- 
ductor with the phase conductors to the first system discon- 
necting means or overcurrent device. 

(E) Equipment Bonding Jumper. The equipment bond- 
ing jumper (the connection between the equipment ground- 
ing conductors and the grounding impedance) shall be an 
unspliced conductor run from the first system disconnecting 
means or overcurrent device to the grounded side of the 
grounding impedance. 

(F) Grounding Electrode Conductor Location. The 

grounding electrode conductor shall be attached at any 
point from the grounded side of the grounding impedance 
to the equipment grounding connection at the service 
equipment or first system disconnecting means. 

(G) Equipment Bonding Jumper Size. The equipment 
bonding jumper shall be sized in accordance with (1) or (2) 
as follows: 

(1) Where the grounding electrode conductor connection is 
made at the grounding impedance, the equipment bond- 
ing jumper shall be sized in accordance with 250.66, 
based on the size of the service entrance conductors for 
a service or the derived phase conductors for a sepa- 
rately derived system. 

(2) Where the grounding electrode conductor is connected 
at the first system disconnecting means or overcurrent 
device, the equipment bonding jumper shall be sized 
the same as the neutral conductor in 250.36(B). 

III. Grounding Electrode System and Grounding 
Electrode Conductor 

250.50 Grounding Electrode System. All grounding elec- 
trodes as described in 250.52(A)(1) through' (A)(6) that are 
present at each building or structure served shall be bonded 



together to form the grounding electrode system. Where 
none of these grounding electrodes exist, one or more of 
the grounding electrodes specified in 250.52(A)(4) through 
(A)(7) shall be installed and used. 

Exception: Concrete-encased electrodes of existing build- 
ings or structures shall not be required to be part of the 
grounding electrode system where the steel reinforcing bars 
or rods are not accessible for use without disturbing the 
concrete. 

250.52 Grounding Electrodes. 

(A) Electrodes Permitted for Grounding. 

(1) Metal Underground Water Pipe. A metal under- 
ground water pipe in direct contact with the earth for 3.0 m 
(10 ft) or more (including any metal well casing effectively 
bonded to the pipe) and electrically continuous (or made 
electrically continuous by bonding around insulating joints 
or insulating pipe) to the points of connection of the 
grounding electrode conductor and the bonding conductors. 
Interior metal water piping located more than 1.52 m (5 ft) 
from the point of entrance to the building shall not be used 
as a part of the grounding electrode system or as a conduc- 
tor to interconnect electrodes that are part of the grounding 
electrode system. 

Exception: In industrial and commercial buildings or 
structures where conditions of maintenance and supervi- 
sion ensure that only qualified persons service the installa- 
tion, interior metal water piping located more than 1.52 m 
(5 ft) from the point of entrance to the building shall be 
permitted as a part of the grounding electrode system or as 
a conductor to interconnect electrodes that are part of the 
grounding electrode system, provided that the entire length, 
other than short sections passing perpendicular through 
walls, floors, or ceilings, of the interior metal water pipe 
that is being used for the conductor is exposed. 

(2) Metal Frame of the Building or Structure. The metal 
frame of the building or structure, where any of the follow- 
ing methods are used to make an earth connection: 

(1) 3.0 m (10 ft) or more of a single structural metal mem- 
ber in direct contact with the earth or encased in con- 
crete that is in direct contact with the earth 

(2) The structural metal frame is bonded to one or more of 
the grounding electrodes as defined in 250.52(A)(1), 
(A)(3), or (A)(4) 

(3) The structural metal frame is bonded to one or more of 
the grounding electrodes as defined in 250.52(A)(5) or 
(A)(6) that comply with 250.56, or 

(4) Other approved means of establishing a connection to 
earth. 



2005 Edition 



NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE 



70-101 



250.53 



ARTICLE 250 — GROUNDING AND BONDING 



(3) Concrete-Encased Electrode. An electrode encased 
by at least 50 mm (2 in.) of concrete, located within and 
near the bottom of a concrete foundation or footing that is 
in direct contact with the earth, consisting of at least 6.0 m 
(20 ft) of one or more bare or zinc galvanized or other 
electrically conductive coated steel reinforcing bars or rods 
of not less than 13 mm (Vi in.) in diameter, or consisting of 
at least 6.0 m (20 ft) of bare copper conductor not smaller 
than 4 AWG. Reinforcing bars shall be permitted to be 
bonded together by the usual steel tie wires or other effec- 
tive means. 

(4) Ground Ring. A ground ring encircling the building or 
structure, in direct contact with the earth, consisting of at 
least 6.0 m (20 ft) of bare copper conductor not smaller 
than 2 AWG. 

(5) Rod and Pipe Electrodes. Rod and pipe electrodes 
shall not be less than 2.5 m (8 ft) in length and shall consist 
of the following materials. 

(a) Electrodes of pipe or conduit shall not be smaller 
than metric designator 21 (trade size Va) and, where of iron 
or steel, shall have the outer surface galvanized or other- 
wise metal-coated for corrosion protection. 

(b) Electrodes of rods of iron or steel shall be at least 
15.87 mm (Vs in.) in diameter. Stainless steel rods less than 
16 mm (Vs in.) in diameter, nonferrous rods, or their equiva- 
lent shall be Usted and shall not be less than 13 mm {V2 in.) in 
diameter. 

(6) Plate Electrodes. Each plate electrode shall expose not 
less than 0.186 m^ (2 ft^) of surface to exterior soil. Elec- 
trodes of iron or steel plates shall be at least 6.4 mm ('^ in.) 
in thickness. Electrodes of nonferrous metal shall be at least 
1.5 mm (0.06 in.) in thickness. 

(7) Other Local Metal Underground Systems or Struc- 
tures. Other local metal underground systems or structures 
such as piping systems, underground tanks, and under- 
ground metal well casings that are not effectively bonded to 
a metal water pipe. 

(B) Electrodes Not Permitted for Grounding. The fol- 
lowing shall not be used as grounding electrodes: 

(1) Metal underground gas piping system 

(2) Aluminum electrodes 

FPN: See 250.104(B) for bonding requirements of gas 
piping. 

250.53 Grounding Electrode System Installation. 

FPN: See 547.9 and 547.10 for special grounding and 
bonding requirements for agricultural buildings. 



(A) Rod, Pipe, and Plate Electrodes. Where practicable, 
rod, pipe, and plate electrodes shall be embedded below per- 
manent moisture level. Rod, pipe, and plate electrodes shall be 
free from nonconductive coatings such as paint or enamel. 

(B) Electrode Spacing. Where more than one of the elec- 
trodes of the type specified in 250.52(A)(5) or (A)(6) are 
used, each electrode of one grounding system (including 
that used for air terminals) shall not be less than 1.83 m 
(6 ft) from any other electrode of another grounding sys- 
tem. Two or more grounding electrodes that are effectively 
bonded together shall be considered a single grounding 
electrode system. 

(C) Bonding Jumper. The bonding jumper(s) used to con- 
nect the grounding electrodes together to form the ground- 
ing electrode system shall be installed in accordance with 
250.64(A), (B), and (E), shall be sized in accordance with 
250.66, and shall be connected in the manner specified in 
250.70. 

(D) Metal Underground Water Pipe. Where used as a 
grounding electrode, metal underground water pipe shall 
meet the requirements of 250.53(D)(1) and (D)(2). 

(1) Continuity. Continuity of the grounding path or the 
bonding connection to interior piping shall not rely on wa- 
ter meters or filtering devices and similar equipment. 

(2) Supplemental Electrode Required. A metal under- 
ground water pipe shall be supplemented by an additional 
electrode of a type specified in 250.52(A)(2) through 
(A)(7). Where the supplemental electrode is a rod, pipe, or 
plate type, it shall comply with 250.56. The supplemental 
electrode shall be permitted to be bonded to the grounding 
electrode conductor, the grounded service-entrance conductor, 
the nonflexible grounded service raceway, or any grounded 
service enclosure. 

Exception: The supplemental electrode shall be permitted 
to be bonded to the interior metal water piping at any 
convenient point as covered in 250.52(A)(1), Exception. 

(E) Supplemental Electrode Bonding Connection Size. 

Where the supplemental electrode is a rod, pipe, or plate elec- 
trode, that portion of the bonding jumper that is the sole con- 
nection to the supplemental grounding electrode shall not be 
required to be larger than 6 AWG copper wire or 4 AWG 
aluminum wire. 

(F) Ground Ring. The ground ring shall be buried at a 
depth below the earth's surface of not less than 750 mm 
(30 in.). 

(G) Rod and Pipe Electrodes. The electrode shall be in- 
stalled such that at least 2.44 m (8 ft) of length is in contact 
with the soil. It shall be driven to a depth of not less than 



* 



70-102 



NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE 2005 Edition 



ARTICLE 250 — GROUNDING AND BONDING 



250.64 



2.44 m (8 ft) except that, where rock bottom is encountered, 
the electrode shall be driven at an oblique angle not to exceed 
45 degrees from the vertical or, where rock bottom is encoun- 
tered at an angle up to 45 degrees, the electrode shall be 
permitted to be buried in a trench that is at least 750 mm 
(30 in.) deep. The upper end of the electrode shall be flush 
with or below ground level unless the aboveground end and 
the grounding electrode conductor attachment are protected 
against physical damage as specified in 250.10. 

(H) Plate Electrode. Plate electrodes shall be installed not 
less than 750 mm (30 in.) below the surface of the earth. 

250.54 Supplementary Grounding Electrodes. Supple- 
mentary grounding electrodes shall be permitted to be con- 
nected to the equipment grounding conductors specified in 
250.118 and shall not be required to comply with the elec- 
trode bonding requirements of 250.50 or 250.53(C) or the 
resistance requirements of 250.56, but the earth shall not be 
used as an effective ground-fault current path as specified 
in 250.4(A)(5) and 250.4(B)(4). 

250.56 Resistance of Rod, Pipe, and Plate Electrodes. A 

single electrode consisting of a rod, pipe, or plate that does 
not have a resistance to ground of 25 ohms or less shall be 
augmented by one additional electrode of any of the types 
specified by 250.52(A)(2) through (A)(7). Where multiple 
rod, pipe, or plate electrodes are installed to meet the re- 
quirements of this section, they shall not be less than 1.8 m 
(6 ft) apart. 

FPN: The paralleling efficiency of rods longer than 2.5 m 
(8 ft) is improved by spacing greater than 1.8 m (6 ft). 

250.58 Common Grounding Electrode. Where an ac sys- 
tem is connected to a grounding electrode in or at a build- 
ing or structure, the same electrode shall be used to ground 
conductor enclosures and equipment in or on that building 
or structure. Where separate services, feeders, or branch 
circuits supply a building and are required to be connected 
to a grounding electrode(s), the same grounding elec- 
trode(s) shall be used. 

Two or more grounding electrodes that are effectively 
bonded together shall be considered as a single grounding 
electrode system in this sense. 

250.60 Use of Air Terminals. Air terminal conductors and 
driven pipes, rods, or plate electrodes used for grounding air 
terminals shall not be used in lieu of the grounding electrodes 
required by 250.50 for grounding wiring systems and equip- 
ment. This provision shall not prohibit the required bonding 
together of grounding electrodes of different systems. 

FPN No. 1: See 250.106 for spacing from air terminals. 
See 800.100(D), 8 10.21 (J), and 820.100(D) for bonding of 
electrodes. 



FPN No. 2: Bonding together of all separate grounding 
electrodes will limit potential differences between them and 
between their associated wiring systems. 

250.62 Grounding Electrode Conductor Material. The 

grounding electrode conductor shall be of copper, aluminum, 
or copper-clad aluminum. The material selected shall be resis- 
tant to any corrosive condition existing at the installation or 
shall be suitably protected against corrosion. The conductor 
shall be solid or stranded, insulated, covered, or bare. 

250.64 Grounding Electrode Conductor Installation. 

Grounding electrode conductors shall be installed as speci- 
fied in 250.64(A) through (F). 

(A) Aluminum or Copper-Clad Aluminum Conductors. 

Bare aluminum or copper-clad aluminum grounding con- 
ductors shall not be used where in direct contact with ma- 
sonry or the earth or where subject to corrosive conditions. 
Where used outside, aluminum or copper-clad aluminum 
grounding conductors shall not be terminated within 450 mm 
(18 in.) of the earth. 

(B) Securing and Protection Against Physical Damage. 

Where exposed, a grounding electrode conductor or its enclo- 
sure shall be securely fastened to the surface on which it is 
carried. A 4 AWG or larger copper or aluminum grounding 
electrode conductor shall be protected where exposed to 
physical damage. A 6 AWG grounding electrode conductor 
that is free from exposure to physical damage shall be permit- 
ted to be run along the surface of the building construction 
without metal covering or protection where it is securely fas- 
tened to the construction; otherwise, it shall be in rigid metal 
conduit, intermediate metal conduit, rigid nonmetalhc conduit, 
electrical metallic tubing, or cable armor. Grounding electrode 
conductors smaller than 6 AWG shall be in rigid metal con- 
duit, intermediate metal conduit, rigid nonmetalhc conduit, 
electrical metaUic tubing, or cable armor. 

(C) Continuous. Grounding electrode conductor(s) shall be 
installed in one continuous length without a sphce or joint 
except as permitted in (1) through (4): 

(1) Splicing shall be permitted only by irreversible 
compression-type connectors listed as grounding and 
bonding equipment or by the exothermic welding 
process. 

(2) Sections of busbars shall be permitted to be connected 
together to form a grounding electrode conductor. 

(3) Bonding jumper(s) from grounding electrode(s) and 
grounding electrode conductor(s) shall be permitted to 
be connected to an aluminum or copper busbar not less 
than 6 mm x 50 mm QA in. x 2 in.). The busbar shall be 
securely fastened and shall be installed in an accessible 
location. Connections shall be made by a listed connec- 
tor or by the exothermic welding process. 

(4) Where aluminum busbars are used, the installation 
shall comply with 250.64(A). 



2005 Edition NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE 



70-103 



250.66 



ARTICLE 250 — GROUNDING AND BONDING 



(D) Grounding Electrode Conductor Taps. Where a ser- 
vice consists of more than a single enclosure as permitted in 
230.71(A), it shall be permitted to connect taps to the common 
grounding electrode conductor. Each such tap conductor shall 
extend to the inside of each such enclosure. The common 
grounding electrode conductor shall be sized in accordance 
with 250.66, based on the sum of the circular mil area of the 
largest ungrounded service entrance conductors. Where more 
than one set of service entrance conductors as permitted by 
230.40, Exception No. 2 connect directly to a service drop or 
lateral, the common grounding electrode conductor shall be 
sized in accordance with Table 250.66 Note 1. The tap con- 
ductors shall be permitted to be sized in accordance with the 
grounding electrode conductors specified in 250.66 for the 
largest conductor serving the respective enclosures. The tap 
conductors shall be connected to the common grounding elec- 
trode conductor in such a manner that the common grounding 
electrode conductor remains without a splice or joint. 

(E) Enclosures for Grounding Electrode Conductors. 

Ferrous metal enclosures for grounding electrode conductors 
shall be electrically continuous from the point of attachment to 
cabinets or equipment to the grounding electrode and shall be 
securely fastened to the ground clamp or fitting. Nonferrous 
metal enclosures shall not be required to be electrically con- 
tinuous. Ferrous metal enclosures that are not physically con- 
tinuous from cabinets or equipment to the grounding electrode 
shall be made electrically continuous by bonding each end of 
the raceway or enclosure to the grounding electrode conduc- 
tor. Bonding shall apply at each end and to all intervening 
ferrous raceways, boxes, and enclosures between the service 
equipment and the grounding electrode. The bonding jumper 
for a grounding electrode conductor raceway or cable armor 
shall be the same size as, or larger than, the required enclosed 
grounding electrode conductor. Where a raceway is used as 
protection for a grounding electrode conductor, the installation 
shall comply with the requirements of the appropriate raceway 
article. 

(F) To Electrode(s). A grounding electrode conductor 
shall be permitted to be run to any convenient grounding 
electrode available in the grounding electrode system, or to 
one or more grounding electrode(s) individually, or to the 
aluminum or copper busbar as permitted in 250.64(C). The 
grounding electrode conductor shall be sized for the largest 
grounding electrode conductor required among all the elec- 
trodes connected to it. 

250.66 Size of Alternating-Current Grounding Elec- 
trode Conductor. The size of the grounding electrode con- 
ductor of a grounded or ungrounded ac system shall not be 
less than given in Table 250.66, except as permitted in 
250.66(A) through (C). 

FPN: See 250.24(C) for size of ac system conductor brought 
to service equipment. 



Table 250.66 Grounding Electrode Conductor for 
Alternating-Current Systems 



Size of Largest Ungrounded 

Service-Entrance Conductor or 

Equivalent Area for Parallel 

Conductors^ (AWG/kcmil) 



Copper 



Aluminum or 

Copper-Clad 

Aluminum 



Size of Grounding 

Electrode Conductor 

(AWG/kcmil) 

Aluminum 
or 
Copper-Clad 
Copper Aluminum"* 



2 or smaller 


1/0 or smaller 


8 


6 


1 or 1/0 


2/0 or 3/0 


6 


4 


2/0 or 3/0 


4/0 or 250 


4 


2 


Over 3/0 
through 350 


Over 250 
through 500 


2 


1/0 


Over 350 
through 600 


Over 500 
through 900 


1/0 


3/0 


Over 600 
through 1100 


Over 900 
through 1750 


2/0 


4/0 


Over 1100 


Over 1750 


3/0 


250 



Notes: 

1. Where multiple sets of service-entrance conductors are used as 
permitted in 230.40, Exception No. 2, the equivalent size of the larg- 
est service-entrance conductor shall be determined by the largest sum 
of the areas of the corresponding conductors of each set. 

2. Where diere are no service-entrance conductors, the grounding elec- 
trode conductor size shall be determined by the equivalent size of the 
largest service-entrance conductor required for the load to be served. 
"^This table also applies to the derived conductors of separately de- 
rived ac systems. 

''See installation restrictions in 250.64(A). 



(A) Connections to Rod, Pipe, or Plate Electrodes. Where 
the grounding electrode conductor is connected to rod, pipe, or 
plate electrodes as permitted in 250.52(A)(5) or (A)(6), that 
portion of the conductor that is the sole connection to the 
grounding electrode shall not be required to be larger than 6 
AWG copper wire or 4 AWG aluminum wire. 

(B) Connections to Concrete-Encased Electrodes. 

Where the grounding electrode conductor is connected to a 
concrete-encased electrode as permitted in 250.52(A)(3), 
that portion of the conductor that is the sole connection to 
the grounding electrode shall not be required to be larger 
than 4 AWG copper wire. 

(C) Connections to Ground Rings. Where the grounding 
electrode conductor is connected to a ground ring as permitted 
in 250.52(A)(4), that portion of the conductor that is the sole 
connection to the grounding electrode shall not be required to 
be larger than the conductor used for the ground ring. 



70-104 



NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE 2005 Edition 



ARTICLE 250 — GROUNDING AND BONDING 



250.90 



• 



250.68 Grounding Electrode Conductor and Bonding 
Jumper Connection to Grounding Electrodes. 

(A) Accessibility. The connection of a grounding electrode 
conductor or bonding jumper to a grounding electrode shall 
be accessible. 

Exception No. 1: An encased or buried connection to a 
concrete-encased, driven, or buried grounding electrode 
shall not be required to be accessible. 

Exception No. 2: An exothermic or irreversible compres- 
sion connection to fire-proofed structural metal shall not be 
required to be accessible. 

(B) Effective Grounding Path. The connection of a 
grounding electrode conductor or bonding jumper to a ground- 
ing electrode shall be made in a manner that will ensure a 
permanent and effective grounding path. Where necessary to 
ensure the grounding path for a metal piping system used as a 
grounding electrode, effective bonding shall be provided 
around insulated joints and around any equipment likely to be 
disconnected for repairs or replacement. Bonding conductors 
shall be of suflBcient length to permit removal of such equip- 
ment while retaining the integrity of the bond. 

250.70 Methods of Grounding and Bonding Conductor 
Connection to Electrodes. The grounding or bonding con- 
ductor shall be connected to the grounding electrode by 
exothermic welding, listed lugs, listed pressure connectors, 
listed clamps, or other listed means. Connections depend- 
ing on solder shall not be used. Ground clamps shall be 
listed for the materials of the grounding electrode and the 
grounding electrode conductor and, where used on pipe, 
rod, or other buried electrodes, shall also be listed for direct 
soil burial or concrete encasement. Not more than one con- 
ductor shall be connected to the grounding electrode by a 
single clamp or fitting unless the clamp or fitting is listed 
for multiple conductors. One of the following methods 
shall be used: 

(1) A pipe fitting, pipe plug, or other approved device 
screwed into a pipe or pipe fitting 

(2) A listed bolted clamp of cast bronze or brass, or plain 
or malleable iron 

(3) For indoor telecommunications purposes only, a listed 
sheet metal strap-type ground clamp having a rigid 
metal base that seats on the electrode and having a 
strap of such material and dimensions that it is not 
likely to stretch during or after installation 

(4) An equally substantial approved means 



Exception: A metal elbow that is installed in an under- 
ground installation of rigid nonmetallic conduit and is iso- 
lated from possible contact by a minimum cover of 450 mm 
(18 in.) to any part of the elbow shall not be required to be 
grounded. 

250.84 Underground Service Cable or Raceway. 

(A) Underground Service Cable. The sheath or armor of 
a continuous underground metal- sheathed or armored ser- 
vice cable system that is bonded to the grounded under- 
ground system shall not be required to be grounded at the 
building or structure. The sheath or armor shall be permit- 
ted to be insulated from the interior metal raceway conduit 
or piping. 

(B) Underground Service Raceway Containing Cable. 

An underground metal service raceway that contains a metal- 
sheathed or armored cable bonded to the grounded under- 
ground system shall not be required to be grounded at the 
building or structure. The sheath or armor shall be permitted to 
be insulated from the interior metal raceway or piping. 

250.86 Other Conductor Enclosures and Raceways. Ex- 
cept as permitted by 250.112(1), metal enclosures and race- 
ways for other than service conductors shall be grounded. 

Exception No. 1: Metal enclosures and raceways for con- 
ductors added to existing installations of open wire, knob 
and tube wiring, and nonmetallic-sheathed cable shall not 
be required to be grounded where these enclosures or wir- 
ing methods comply with (1) through (4) as follows : 

(1) Do not provide an equipment ground 

(2) Are in runs of less than 7.5 m (25 ft) 

(3) Are free from probable contact with ground, grounded 
metal, metal lath, or other conductive material 

(4) Are guarded against contact by persons 

Exception No. 2: Short sections of metal enclosures or 
raceways used to provide support or protection of cable 
assemblies from physical damage shall not be required to 
be grounded. 

Exception No. 3: A metal elbow shall not be required to be 
grounded where it is installed in a nonmetallic raceway 
and is isolated from possible contact by a minimum cover 
of 450 mm (18 in.) to any part of the elbow or is encased in 
not less than 50 mm (2 in.) of concrete. 



IV. Enclosure, Raceway, and Service Cable Grounding '• Bonding 



250.80 Service Raceways and Enclosures. Metal enclo- 
sures and raceways for service conductors and equipment 
shall be grounded. 



250.90 General. Bonding shall be provided where neces- 
sary to ensure electrical continuity and the capacity to con- 
duct safely any fault current likely to be imposed. 



2005 Edition NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE 



70-105 



250.92 



ARTICLE 250 — GROUNDING AND BONDING 



250.92 Services. 

(A) Bonding of Services. The non-current-carrying metal 
parts of equipment indicated in 250.92(A)(1), (A)(2), and 
(A)(3) shall be effectively bonded together. 

(1) The service raceways, cable trays, cablebus framework, 
auxiliary gutters, or service cable armor or sheath ex- 
cept as permitted in 250.84. 

(2) All service enclosures containing service conductors, 
including meter fittings, boxes, or the like, interposed 
in the service raceway or armor. 

(3) Any metallic raceway or armor enclosing a grounding 
electrode conductor as specified in 250.64(B). Bonding 
shall apply at each end and to all intervening raceways, 
boxes, and enclosures between the service equipment 
and the grounding electrode. 

(B) Method of Bonding at the Service. Electrical conti- 
nuity at service equipment, service raceways, and service 
conductor enclosures shall be ensured by one of the follow- 
ing methods: 

(1) Bonding equipment to the grounded service conductor 
in a manner provided in 250.8 

(2) Connections utilizing threaded couplings or threaded 
bosses on enclosures where made up wrenchtight 

(3) Threadless couplings and connectors where made up 
tight for metal raceways and metal-clad cables 

(4) Other listed devices, such as bonding-type lockouts, 
bushings, or bushings with bonding jumpers 

Bonding jumpers meeting the other requirements of this 
article shall be used around concentric or eccentric knock- 
outs that are punched or otherwise formed so as to impair 
the electrical connection to ground. Standard locknuts or 
bushings shall not be the sole means for the bonding re- 
quired by this section. 

250.94 Bonding for Other Systems. An accessible means 
external to enclosures for connecting intersystem bonding 
and grounding electrode conductors shall be provided at the 
service equipment and at the disconnecting means for any 
additional buildings or structures by at least one of the 
following means: 

(1) Exposed nonflexible metallic raceways 

(2) Exposed grounding electrode conductor 

(3) Approved means for the external connection of a cop- 
per or other corrosion-resistant bonding or grounding 
conductor to the grounded raceway or equipment 

FPN No. 1: A 6 AWG copper conductor with one end 
bonded to the grounded nonflexible metallic raceway or 
equipment and with 150 mm (6 in.) or more of the other 
end made accessible on the outside wall is an example of 
the approved means covered in 250.94(3). 



FPN No. 2: See 800.100, 810.21, and 820.100 for bonding 
and grounding requirements for communications circuits, 
radio and television equipment, and CATV circuits. 

250.96 Bonding Other Enclosures. 

(A) General. Metal raceways, cable trays, cable armor, cable 
sheath, enclosures, frames, fittings, and other metal non- 
current-carrying parts that are to serve as grounding conduc- 
tors, with or without the use of supplementary equipment 
grounding conductors, shall be effectively bonded where nec- 
essary to ensure electrical continuity and the capacity to con- 
duct safely any fault current likely to be imposed on them. 
Any nonconductive paint, enamel, or similar coating shall be 
removed at threads, contact points, and contact surfaces or be 
connected by means of fittings designed so as to make such 
removal unnecessary. 

(B) Isolated Grounding Circuits. Where required for the 
reduction of electrical noise (electromagnetic interference) on 
the grounding circuit, an equipment enclosure suppUed by a 
branch circuit shall be permitted to be isolated from a raceway 
containing circuits supplying only that equipment by one or 
more listed nonmetallic raceway fittings located at the point of 
attachment of the raceway to the equipment enclosure. The 
metal raceway shall comply with provisions of this article and 
shall be supplemented by an internal insulated equipment 
grounding conductor installed in accordance with 250.146(D) 
to ground the equipment enclosure. 



FPN: Use of an isolated equipment grounding conductor 
does not relieve the requirement for grounding the raceway 
system. 



250.97 Bonding for Over 250 Volts. For circuits of over 
250 volts to ground, the electrical continuity of metal race- 
ways and cables with metal sheaths that contain any con- 
ductor other than service conductors shall be ensured by 
one or more of the methods specified for services in 
250.92(B), except for (B)(1). 

Exception: Where oversized, concentric, or eccentric 
knockouts are not encountered, or where a box or enclosure 
with concentric or eccentric knockouts listed to provide a 
permanent, reliable electrical bond, the following methods 
shall be permitted: 

(1) Threadless couplings and connectors for cables with 
metal sheaths 

(2) Two locknuts, on rigid metal conduit or intermediate 
metal conduit, one inside and one outside of boxes and 
cabinets 

(3) Fittings with shoulders that seat firmly against the box or 
cabinet, such as electrical metallic tubing connectors, 
flexible metal conduit connectors, and cable connectors, 
with one locknut on the inside of boxes and cabinets 

(4) Listed fittings 



70-106 



NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE 2005 Edition 



ARTICLE 250 — GROUNDING AND BONDING 



250.104 



• 



250.98 Bonding Loosely Jointed Metal Raceways. Ex- 
pansion fittings and telescoping sections of metal raceways 
shall be made electrically continuous by equipment bond- 
ing jumpers or other means. 

250.100 Bonding in Hazardous (Classified) Locations. 

Regardless of the voltage of the electrical system, the elec- 
trical continuity of non-current-carrying metal parts of 
equipment, raceways, and other enclosures in any hazardous 
(classified) location as defined in Article 500 shall be ensured 
by any of the methods specified in 250.92(B)(2) through 
(B)(4) that are approved for the wiring method used. One or 
more of these bonding methods shall be used whether or not 
supplementary equipment grounding conductors are installed. 

250.102 Equipment Bonding Jumpers. 

(A) Material. Equipment bonding jumpers shall be of cop- 
per or other corrosion-resistant material. A bonding jumper 
shall be a wire, bus, screw, or similar suitable conductor. 

(B) Attachment. Equipment bonding jumpers shall be at- 
tached in the manner specified by the applicable provisions 
of 250.8 for circuits and equipment and by 250.70 for 
grounding electrodes. 

(C) Size — Equipment Bonding Jumper on Supply Side 
of Service. The bonding jumper shall not be smaller than the 
sizes shown in Table 250.66 for grounding electrode conduc- 
tors. Where the service-entrance phase conductors are larger 
than 1100 kcmil copper or 1750 kcmil aluminum, the bonding 
jumper shall have an area not less than 12V2 percent of the 
area of the largest phase conductor except that, where the 
phase conductors and the bonding jumper are of different ma- 
terials (copper or aluminum), the minimum size of the bond- 
ing jumper shall be based on the assumed use of phase con- 
ductors of the same material as the bonding jumper and with 
an ampacity equivalent to that of the installed phase conduc- 
tors. Where the service-entrance conductors are paralleled in 
two or more raceways or cables, the equipment bonding 
jumper, where routed with the raceways or cables, shall be run 
in parallel. The size of the bonding jumper for each raceway 
or cable shall be based on the size of the service-entrance 
conductors in each raceway or cable. 

(D) Size — Equipment Bonding Jumper on Load Side 
of Service. The equipment bonding jumper on the load side 
of the service overcurrent devices shall be sized, as a mini- 
mum, in accordance with the sizes listed in Table 250.122, 
but shall not be required to be larger than the largest un- 
grounded circuit conductors supplying the equipment and 
shall not be smaller than 14 AWG. 

A single common continuous equipment bonding 
jumper shall be permitted to bond two or more raceways or 
cables where the bonding jumper is sized in accordance 



with Table 250.122 for the largest overcurrent device sup- 
plying circuits therein. 

(E) Installation. The equipment bonding jumper shall be 
permitted to be installed inside or outside of a raceway or 
enclosure. Where installed on the outside, the length of the 
equipment bonding jumper shall not exceed 1.8 m (6 ft) and 
shall be routed with the raceway or enclosure. Where installed 
inside of a raceway, the equipment bonding jumper shall com- 
ply with the requirements of 250.119 and 250.148. 

Exception: An equipment bonding jumper longer than 1.8 m 
(6 ft) shall be permitted at outside pole locations for the pur- 
pose of bonding or grounding isolated sections of metal race- 
ways or elbows installed in exposed risers of metal conduit or 
other metal raceway. 

250.104 Bonding of Piping Systems and Exposed 
Structural Steel. 

(A) Metal Water Piping. The metal water piping system 
shall be bonded as required in (A)(1), (A)(2), or (A)(3) of 
this section. The bonding jumper(s) shall be installed in 
accordance with 250.64(A), (B), and (E). The points of 
attachment of the bonding jumper(s) shall be accessible. 

(1) General. Metal water piping system(s) installed in or at- 
tached to a building or structure shall be bonded to the service 
equipment enclosure, the grounded conductor at the service, 
the grounding electrode conductor where of sufficient size, or 
to the one or more grounding electrodes used. The bonding 
jumper(s) shall be sized in accordance with Table 250.66 ex- 
cept as permitted in 250.104(A)(2) and (A)(3). 

(2) Buildings of Multiple Occupancy. In buildings of 
multiple occupancy where the metal water piping system(s) 
installed in or attached to a building or structure for the 
individual occupancies is metallically isolated from all 
other occupancies by use of nonmetallic water piping, the 
metal water piping system(s) for each occupancy shall be 
permitted to be bonded to the equipment grounding termi- 
nal of the panelboard or switchboard enclosure (other than 
service equipment) supplying that occupancy. The bonding 
jumper shall be sized in accordance with Table 250.122. 

(3) Multiple Buildings or Structures Supplied by a 
Feeder(s) or Branch Circuit(s). The metal water piping 
system(s) installed in or attached to a building or structure 
shall be bonded to the building or structure disconnecting 
means enclosure where located at the building or structure, to 
the equipment grounding conductor run with the supply con- 
ductors, or to the one or more grounding electrodes used. The 
bonding jumper(s) shall be sized in accordance with 250.66, 
based on the size of the feeder or branch circuit conductors 
that supply the building. The bonding jumper shall not be 
required to be larger than the largest ungrounded feeder or 
branch circuit conductor supplying the building. 



2005 Edition NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE 



70-107 



250.106 



ARTICLE 250 — GROUNDING AND BONDING 



(B) Other Metal Piping. Where installed in or attached to a 
building or structure, metal piping system(s), including gas 
piping, that is likely to become energized shall be bonded to 
the service equipment enclosure, the grounded conductor at 
the service, the grounding electrode conductor where of suffi- 
cient size, or to the one or more grounding electrodes used. 
The bonding jumper(s) shall be sized in accordance with 
250.122, using the rating of the circuit that is likely to energize 
the piping system(s). The equipment grounding conductor for 
the circuit that is likely to energize the piping shall be permit- 
ted to serve as the bonding means. The points of attachment of 
the bonding jumper(s) shall be accessible. 

FPN: Bonding all piping and metal air ducts within the 
premises will provide additional safety. 

(C) Structural Metal. Exposed structural metal that is in- 
terconnected to form a metal building frame and is not 
intentionally grounded and is hkely to become energized 
shall be bonded to the service equipment enclosure, the 
grounded conductor at the service, the grounding electrode 
conductor where of sufficient size, or the one or more 
grounding electrodes used. The bonding jumper(s) shall be 
sized in accordance with Table 250.66 and installed in ac- 
cordance with 250.64(A), (B), and (E). The points of at- 
tachment of the bonding jumper(s) shall be accessible. 

(D) Separately Derived Systems. Metal water piping sys- 
tems and structural metal that is interconnected to form a 
building frame shall be bonded to separately derived sys- 
tems in accordance with (D)(1) through (D)(3). 

(1) Metal Water Piping System(s). The grounded conduc- 
tor of each separately derived system shall be bonded to the 
nearest available point of the metal water piping system(s) 
in the area served by each separately derived system. This 
connection shall be made at the same point on the sepa- 
rately derived system where the grounding electrode con- 
ductor is connected. Each bonding jumper shall be sized in 
accordance with Table 250.66 based on the largest un- 
grounded conductor of the separately derived system. 

Exception No. 1: A separate bonding jumper to the metal 
water piping system shall not be required where the metal 
water piping system is used as the grounding electrode for 
the separately derived system. 

Exception No. 2: A separate water piping bonding jumper 
shall not be required where the metal frame of a building or 
structure is used as the grounding electrode for a sepa- 
rately derived system and is bonded to the metal water 
piping in the area served by the separately derived system. 

(2) Structural Metal. Where exposed structural metal that 
is interconnected to form the building frame exists in the area 
served by the separately derived system, it shall be bonded to 
the grounded conductor of each separately derived system. 



This connection shall be made at the same point on the sepa- 
rately derived system where the grounding electrode conduc- 
tor is connected. Each bonding jumper shall be sized in accor- 
dance with Table 250.66 based on the largest ungrounded 
conductor of the separately derived system. 

Exception No. 1: A separate bonding jumper to the build- 
ing structural metal shall not be required where the metal 
frame of a building or structure is used as the grounding 
electrode for the separately derived system. 
Exception No. 2: A separate bonding jumper to the building 
structural metal shall not be required where the water piping 
of a building or structure is used as the grounding electrode 
for a separately derived system and is bonded to the building 
structural metal in the area served by the separately derived 
system. 

(3) Common Grounding Electrode Conductor. Where a 
common grounding electrode conductor is installed for mul- 
tiple separately derived systems as permitted by 250.30(A)(4), 
and exposed structural metal that is interconnected to form the 
building frame or interior metal piping exists in the area 
served by the separately derived system, the metal piping and 
the structural metal member shall be bonded to the common 
grounding electrode conductor. 

Exception: A separate bonding jumper from each derived 
system to metal water piping and to structural metal mem- 
bers shall not be required where the metal water piping and 
the structural metal members in the area served by the 
separately derived system are bonded to the common 
grounding electrode conductor. 

250.106 Lightning Protection Systems. The lightning 
protection system ground terminals shall be bonded to the 
building or structure grounding electrode system. 

FPN No. 1 : See 250.60 for use of air terminals. For further 
information, see NFPA 780-2004, Standard for the Instal- 
lation of Lightning Protection Systems, which contains de- 
tailed information on grounding, bonding, and spacing from 
lightning protection systems. 

FPN No. 2: Metal raceways, enclosures, frames, and other 
non-current-carrying metal parts of electric equipment in- 
stalled on a building equipped with a lightning protection 
system may require bonding or spacing from the lightning 
protection conductors in accordance with NFPA 780-2004, 
Standard for the Installation of Lightning Protection Sys- 
tems. Separation from lightning protection conductors is 
typically 1.8 m (6 ft) through air or 900 mm (3 ft) through 
dense materials such as concrete, brick, or wood. 

VI. Equipment Grounding and Equipment 
Grounding Conductors 

250.110 Equipment Fastened in Place or Connected by 
Permanent Wiring Methods (Fixed). Exposed non- 
current-carrying metal parts of fixed equipment likely to 
become energized shall be grounded under any of the fol- 
lowing conditions: 



• 



70-108 



NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE 2005 Edition 



ARTICLE 250 — GROUNDING AND BONDING 



250.114 



• 



• 



(1) Where within 2.5 m (8 ft) vertically or 1.5 m (5 ft) 
horizontally of ground or grounded metal objects and 
subject to contact by persons 

(2) Where located in a wet or damp location and not isolated 

(3) Where in electrical contact with metal 

(4) Where in a hazardous (classified) location as covered 
by Articles 500 through 517 

(5) Where supphed by a metal-clad, metal-sheathed, metal- 
raceway, or other wiring method that provides an equip- 
ment ground, except as permitted by 250.86, Exception 
No. 2, for short sections of metal enclosures 

(6) Where equipment operates with any terminal at over 
150 volts to ground 

Exception No. 1: Metal frames of electrically heated ap- 
pliances, exempted by special permission, in which case the 
frames shall be permanently and effectively insulated from 
ground. 

Exception No. 2: Distribution apparatus, such as trans- 
former and capacitor cases, mounted on wooden poles, at a 
height exceeding 2.5 m (8 ft) above ground or grade level. 

Exception No. 3: Listed equipment protected by a system 
of double insulation, or its equivalent, shall not be required 
to be grounded. Where such a system is employed, the 
equipment shall be distinctively marked. 

250.112 Fastened in Place or Connected by Permanent 
Wiring Methods (Fixed) — Specific. Exposed, non-current- 
carrying metal parts of the kinds of equipment described in 
250.112(A) through (K), and non-current-carrying metal parts 
of equipment and enclosures described in 250.112(L) and (M), 
shall be grounded regardless of voltage. 

(A) Switchboard Frames and Structures. Switchboard 
frames and structures supporting switching equipment, ex- 
cept frames of 2-wire dc switchboards where effectively 
insulated from ground. 

(B) Pipe Organs. Generator and motor frames in an elec- 
trically operated pipe organ, unless effectively insulated 
from ground and the motor driving it. 

(C) Motor Frames. Motor frames, as provided by 430.242. 

(D) Enclosures for Motor Controllers. Enclosures for 
motor controllers unless attached to ungrounded portable 
equipment. 

(E) Elevators and Cranes. Electric equipment for eleva- 
tors and cranes. 

(F) Garages, Theaters, and Motion Picture Studios. 

Electric equipment in commercial garages, theaters, and 
motion picture studios, except pendant lampholders sup- 
plied by circuits not over 150 volts to ground. 



(G) Electric Signs. Electric signs, outline lighting, and as- 
sociated equipment as provided in Article 600. 

(H) Motion Picture Projection Equipment. Motion pic- 
ture projection equipment. 

(I) Power-Limited Remote-Control, Signaling, and Fire 
Alarm Circuits. Equipment supplied by Class 1 power- 
limited circuits and Class 1, Class 2, and Class 3 remote- 
control and signaling circuits, and by fire alarm circuits, 
shall be grounded where system grounding is required by 
Part II or Part VIII of this article. 

(J) Luminaires (Lighting Fixtures). Luminaires (lighting 
fixtures) as provided in Part V of Article 410. 

(K) Skid Mounted Equipment. Permanently mounted 
electrical equipment and skids shall be grounded with an 
equipment bonding jumper sized as required by 250.122. 

(L) Motor-Operated Water Pumps. Motor-operated wa- 
ter pumps, including the submersible type. 

(M) Metal Well Casings. Where a submersible pump is 
used in a metal well casing, the well casing shall be bonded 
to the pump circuit equipment grounding conductor. 

250.114 Equipment Connected by Cord and Plug. Un- 
der any of the conditions described in 250.114(1) through 
(4), exposed non-current-carrying metal parts of cord-and- 
plug-connected equipment likely to become energized shall 
be grounded. 

Exception: Listed tools, listed appliances, and listed equip- 
ment covered in 250.114(2) through (4) shall not be required 
to be grounded where protected by a system of double insula- 
tion or its equivalent. Double insulated equipment shall be 
distinctively marked. 

(1) In hazardous (classified) locations (see Articles 500 
through 517) 

(2) Where operated at over 150 volts to ground 

Exception No. 1: Motors, where guarded, shall not be 
required to be grounded. 

Exception No. 2: Metal frames of electrically heated ap- 
pliances, exempted by special permission, shall not be re- 
quired to be grounded, in which case the frames shall be 
permanently and effectively insulated from ground. 

(3) In residential occupancies: 

a. Refrigerators, freezers, and air conditioners 

b. Clothes-washing, clothes-drying, dish-washing ma- 
chines; kitchen waste disposers; information tech- 
nology equipment; sump pumps and electrical 
aquarium equipment 



2005 Edition 



NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE 



70-109 



250.116 



ARTICLE 250 — GROUNDING AND BONDING 



c. Hand-held motor-operated tools, stationary and fixed 
motor-operated tools, light industrial motor-operated 
tools 

d. Motor-operated appliances of the following types: 
hedge clippers, lawn mowers, snow blowers, and 
wet scrubbers 

e. Portable handlamps 

(4) In other than residential occupancies: 

a. Refrigerators, freezers, and air conditioners 

b. Clothes-washing, clothes-drying, dish-washing ma- 
chines; information technology equipment; sump 
pumps and electrical aquarium equipment 

c. Hand-held motor-operated tools, stationary and fixed 
motor-operated tools, Ught industrial motor-operated 
tools 

d. Motor-operated appliances of the following types: 
hedge chppers, lawn mowers, snow blowers, and 
wet scrubbers 

e. Portable handlamps 

f. Cord-and-plug-connected appliances used in damp 
or wet locations or by persons standing on the 
ground or on metal floors or working inside of metal 
tanks or boilers 

g. Tools likely to be used in wet or conductive locations 

Exception: Tools and portable handlamps likely to be used 
in wet or conductive locations shall not be required to be 
grounded where supplied through an isolating transformer 
with an ungrounded secondary of not over 50 volts. 

250.116 Nonelectric Equipment. The metal parts of 
nonelectric equipment described in this section shall be 
grounded. 

(1) Frames and tracks of electrically operated cranes and 
hoists 

(2) Frames of nonelectrically driven elevator cars to which 
electric conductors are attached 

(3) Hand-operated metal shifting ropes or cables of electric 
elevators 

FPN: Where extensive metal in or on buildings may be- 
come energized and is subject to personal contact, adequate 
bonding and grounding will provide additional safety. 

250.118 Types of Equipment Grounding Conductors. 

The equipment grounding conductor run with or enclosing 
the circuit conductors shall be one or more or a combina- 
tion of the following: 

(1) A copper, aluminum, or copper-clad aluminum con- 
ductor. This conductor shall be solid or stranded; in- 
sulated, covered, or bare; and in the form of a wire or 
a busbar of any shape. 

(2) Rigid metal conduit. 



(3) Intermediate metal conduit. 

(4) Electrical metallic tubing. 

(5) Listed flexible metal conduit meeting all the following 
conditions: 

a. The conduit is terminated in fittings listed for 
grounding. 

b. The circuit conductors contained in the conduit are 
protected by overcurrent devices rated at 20 am- 
peres or less. 

c. The combined length of flexible metal conduit and 
flexible metallic tubing and liquidtight flexible 
metal conduit in the same ground return path does 
not exceed 1.8 m (6 ft). 

d. Where used to connect equipment where flexibility 
is necessary after installation, an equipment 
grounding conductor shall be installed. 

(6) Listed liquidtight flexible metal conduit meeting all 
the following conditions: 

a. The conduit is terminated in fittings listed for 
grounding. 

b. For metric designators 12 through 16 (trade sizes 
Vs through Vi), the circuit conductors contained in 
the conduit are protected by overcurrent devices 
rated at 20 amperes or less. 

c. For metric designators 21 through 35 (trade sizes 
3/4 through 1 V4), the circuit conductors contained in 
the conduit are protected by overcurrent devices 
rated not more than 60 amperes and there is no 
flexible metal conduit, flexible metallic tubing, or 
liquidtight flexible metal conduit in trade sizes 
metric designators 12 through 16 (trade sizes Vs 
through V2) in the grounding path. 

d. The combined length of flexible metal conduit and 
flexible metallic tubing and liquidtight flexible 
metal conduit in the same ground return path does 
not exceed 1.8 m (6 ft). 

e. Where used to connect equipment where flexibility is 
necessary after installation, an equipment grounding 
conductor shall be installed. 

(7) Flexible metallic tubing where the tubing is termi- 
nated in fittings listed for grounding and meeting the 
following conditions: 

a. The circuit conductors contained in the tubing are 
protected by overcurrent devices rated at 20 am- 
peres or less. 

b. The combined length of flexible metal conduit and 
flexible metallic tubing and liquidtight flexible 
metal conduit in the same ground return path does 
not exceed 1.8 m (6 ft). 

(8) Armor of Type AC cable as provided in 320.108. 

(9) The copper sheath of mineral-insulated, metal-sheathed 
cable. 



• 



70-110 



NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE 2005 Edition 



ARTICLE 250 — GROUNDING AND BONDING 



250.122 



• 



(10) Type MC cable where listed and identified for ground- 
ing in accordance with the following: 

a. The combined metallic sheath and grounding con- 
ductor of interlocked metal tape-type MC cable 

b. The metallic sheath or the combined metallic 
sheath and grounding conductors of the smooth or 
corrugated tube type MC cable 

(11) Cable trays as permitted in 392.3(C) and 392.7. 

(12) Cablebus framework as permitted in 370.3. 

(13) Other fisted electrically continuous metal raceways 
and fisted auxiliary gutters. 

(14) Surface metal raceways listed for grounding. 

250.119 Identification of Equipment Grounding Con- 
ductors. Unless required elsewhere in this Code, equip- 
ment grounding conductors shall be permitted to be bare, 
covered, or insulated. Individually covered or insulated 
equipment grounding conductors shall have a continuous 
outer finish that is either green or green with one or more 
yellow stripes except as permitted in this section. Conduc- 
tors with insulation or individual covering that is green, 
green with one or more yellow stripes, or otherwise identi- 
fied as permitted by this section shall not be used for un- 
grounded or grounded circuit conductors. 

(A) Conductors Larger Than 6 AWG. Equipment ground- 
ing conductors larger than 6 AWG shall comply with 
250.119(A)(1) and (A)(2). 

(1) An insulated or covered conductor larger than 6 AWG 
shall be permitted, at the time of installation, to be 
permanently identified as an equipment grounding con- 
ductor at each end and at every point where the con- 
ductor is accessible. 

Exception: Conductors larger than 6 AWG shall not be 
required to be marked in conduit bodies that contain no 
splices or unused hubs. 

(2) Identification shall encircle the conductor and shall be 
accomplished by one of the following: 

a. Stripping the insulation or covering from the entire 
exposed length 

b. Coloring the exposed insulation or covering green 

c. Marking the exposed insulation or covering with 
green tape or green- adhesive labels 

(B) Multiconductor Cable. Where the conditions of main- 
tenance and supervision ensure that only quafified persons ser- 
vice the installation, one or more insulated conductors in a 
multiconductor cable, at the time of installation, shall be per- 
mitted to be permanentiy identified as equipment grounding 
conductors at each end and at every point where the conduc- 
tors are accessible by one of the following means: 

(1) Stripping the insulation from the entire exposed length 

(2) Coloring the exposed insulation green 



(3) Marking the exposed insulation with green tape or 
green adhesive labels 

(C) Flexible Cord. An uninsulated equipment grounding 
conductor shall be permitted, but, if individually covered, 
the covering shall have a continuous outer finish that is 
either green or green with one or more yellow stripes. 

250.120 Equipment Grounding Conductor Installation. 

An equipment grounding conductor shall be installed in 
accordance with 250.120(A), (B), and (C). 

(A) Raceway, Cable Trays, Cable Armor, Cablebus, or 
Cable Sheaths. Where it consists of a raceway, cable tray, 
cable armor, cablebus framework, or cable sheath or where 
it is a wire within a raceway or cable, it shall be instaUed in 
accordance with the applicable provisions in this Code us- 
ing fittings for joints and terminations approved for use 
with the type raceway or cable used. All connections, 
joints, and fittings shah be made tight using suitable tools. 

(B) Aluminum and Copper-Clad Aluminum Conductors. 

Equipment grounding conductors of bare or insulated alu- 
minum or copper-clad aluminum shall be permitted. Bare 
conductors shall not come in direct contact with masonry or 
the earth or where subject to corrosive conditions. Alumi- 
num or copper-clad aluminum conductors shall not be ter- 
minated within 450 mm (18 in.) of the earth. 

(C) Equipment Grounding Conductors Smaller Than 

6 AWG. Equipment grounding conductors smaller than 
6 AWG shall be protected from physical damage by a 
raceway or cable armor except where run in hollow 
spaces of walls or partitions, where not subject to physi- 
cal damage, or where protected from physical damage. 

250.122 Size of Equipment Grounding Conductors. 

(A) General. Copper, aluminum, or copper-clad aluminum 
equipment grounding conductors of the wire type shall not be 
smaller than shown in Table 250.122 but shall not be required 
to be larger than the circuit conductors supplying the equip- 
ment. Where a raceway or a cable armor or sheath is used as 
the equipment grounding conductor, as provided in 250.118 
and 250.134(A), it shall comply with 250.4(A)(5) or (B)(4). 

(B) Increased in Size. Where ungrounded conductors are 
increased in size, equipment grounding conductors, where 
installed, shall be increased in size proportionately accord- 
ing to circular mil area of the ungrounded conductors. 

(C) Multiple Circuits. Where a single equipment ground- 
ing conductor is run with multiple circuits in the same 
raceway or cable, it shall be sized for the largest overcur- 
rent device protecting conductors in the raceway or cable. 



2005 Edition 



NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE 



70-11] 



250.124 



ARTICLE 250 — GROUNDING AND BONDING 



(D) Motor Circuits. Where the overcurrent device consists 
of an instantaneous trip circuit breaker or a motor short-circuit 
protector, as allowed in 430.52, the equipment grounding con- 
ductor size shall be permitted to be based on the rating of the 
motor overload protective device but shall not be less than the 
size shown in Table 250.122. 

(E) Flexible Cord and Fixture Wire. The equipment 
grounding conductor in a flexible cord with the largest cir- 
cuit conductor 10 AWG or smaller, and the equipment 
grounding conductor used with fixture wires of any size in 
accordance with 240.5, shall not be smaller than 18 AWG 
copper and shall not be smaller than the circuit conductors. 
The equipment grounding conductor in a flexible cord with 
a circuit conductor larger than 10 AWG shall be sized in 
accordance with Table 250.122. 

(F) Conductors in Parallel. Where conductors are run in 
parallel in multiple raceways or cables as permitted in 
310.4, the equipment grounding conductors, where used, 
shall be run in parallel in each raceway or cable. One of the 
methods in 250.122(F)(1) or (F)(2) shall be used to ensure 
the equipment grounding conductors are protected. 

(1) Based on Rating of Overcurrent Protective Device. 

Each parallel equipment grounding conductor shall be sized 
on the basis of the ampere rating of the overcurrent device 
protecting the circuit conductors in the raceway or cable in 
accordance with Table 250.122. 

(2) Ground-Fault Protection of Equipment Installed. 

Where ground-fault protection of equipment is installed, 
each parallel equipment grounding conductor in a multi- 
conductor cable shall be permitted to be sized in accor- 
dance with Table 250.122 on the basis of the trip rating of 
the ground-fault protection where the following conditions 
are met: 

(1) Conditions of maintenance and supervision ensure that 
only qualified persons will service the installation. 

(2) The ground-fault protection equipment is set to trip at 
not more than the ampacity of a single ungrounded 
conductor of one of the cables in parallel. 

(3) The ground-fault protection is listed for the purpose of 
protecting the equipment grounding conductor. 

(G) Feeder Taps. Equipment grounding conductors run with 
feeder taps shall not be smaller than shown in Table 250.122 
based on the rating of the overcurrent device ahead of 
the feeder but shall not be required to be larger than the 
tap conductors. 

250.124 Equipment Grounding Conductor Continuity. 

(A) Separable Connections. Separable connections such 
as those provided in drawout equipment or attachment 
plugs and mating connectors and receptacles shall provide 



Table 250.122 Minimum Size Equipment Grounding 
Conductors for Grounding Raceway and Equipment 



Rating or Setting of 
Automatic Overcurrent 
Device in Circuit Ahead 
of Equipment, Conduit, 

etc., Not Exceeding 
(Amperes) 



Size (AWG or Ikcmil) 



Copper 



Aluminum or 
Copper-Clad 
Aluminum''' 



15 


14 


12 


20 


12 


10 


30 


10 


8 


40 


10 


8 


60 


10 


8 


100 


8 


6 


200 


6 


4 


300 


4 


2 


400 


3 


1 


500 


2 


1/0 


600 


1 


2/0 


800 


1/0 


3/0 


1000 


2/0 


4/0 


1200 


3/0 


250 


1600 


4/0 


350 


2000 


250 


400 


2500 


350 


600 


3000 


400 


600 


4000 


500 


800 


5000 


700 


1200 


6000 


800 


1200 



Note: Where necessary to comply with 250.4(A)(5) oi' (B)(4), the 

equipment grounding conductor shall be sized larger than given in this 

table. 

*See installation restrictions in 250.120. 



for first-make, last-break of the equipment grounding con- 
ductor. First-make, last-break shall not be required where 
interlocked equipment, plugs, receptacles, and connectors 
preclude energization without grounding continuity. 

(B) Switches. No automatic cutout or switch shall be 
placed in the equipment grounding conductor of a premises 
wiring system unless the opening of the cutout or switch 
disconnects all sources of energy. 

250.126 Identification of Wiring Device Terminals. 

The terminal for the connection of the equipment ground- 
ing conductor shall be identified by one of the following: 

(1) A green, not readily removable terminal screw with a 
hexagonal head. 

(2) A green, hexagonal, not readily removable teiininal nut. 



• 



70-112 



NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE 2005 Edition 



ARTICLE 250 — GROUNDING AND BONDING 



250.138 



# 



(3) A green pressure wire connector. If the terminal for the 
grounding conductor is not visible, the conductor entrance 
hole shall be marked with the word green or ground, the 
letters G or GR, a grounding symbol, or otherwise identi- 
fied by a distinctive green color. If the terminal for the 
equipment grounding conductor is readily removable, the 
area adjacent to the terminal shall be similarly marked. 

FPN: See FPN Figure 250.126. 



FPN Figure 250.126 One Example of a Symbol Used to Iden- 
tify the Grounding Termination Point for an Equipment 
Grounding Conductor. 

VII. Methods of Equipment Grounding 

250.130 Equipment Grounding Conductor Connections. 

Equipment grounding conductor connections at the source of 
separately derived systems shall be made in accordance with 
250.30(A)(1). Equipment grounding conductor connections at 
service equipment shall be made as indicated in 250.130(A) or 
(B). For replacement of non-grounding-type receptacles with 
grounding-type receptacles and for branch-circuit extensions 
only in existing installations that do not have an equipment 
grounding conductor in the branch circuit, connections shall 
be permitted as indicated in 250.130(C). 

(A) For Grounded Systems. The connection shall be 
made by bonding the equipment grounding conductor to the 
grounded service conductor and the grounding electrode 
conductor. 

(B) For Ungrounded Systems. The connection shall be 
made by bonding the equipment grounding conductor to the 
grounding electrode conductor. 

(C) Nongrounding Receptacle Replacement or Branch 
Circuit Extensions. The equipment grounding conductor 
of a grounding-type receptacle or a branch-circuit extension 
shall be permitted to be connected to any of the following: 

(1) Any accessible point on the grounding electrode sys- 
tem as described in 250.50 

(2) Any accessible point on the grounding electrode con- 
ductor 

(3) The equipment grounding terminal bar within the en- 
closure where the branch circuit for the receptacle or 
branch circuit originates 

(4) For grounded systems, the grounded service conductor 
within the service equipment enclosure 

(5) For ungrounded systems, the grounding terminal bar 
within the service equipment enclosure 

FPN: See 406.3(D) for the use of a ground-fault circuit- 
interrupting type of receptacle. 



250.132 Short Sections of Raceway. Isolated sections of 
metal raceway or cable armor, where required to be grounded, 
shall be grounded in accordance with 250.134. 

250.134 Equipment Fastened in Place or Connected by 
Permanent Wiring Methods (Fixed) — Grounding. Unless 
grounded by connection to the grounded circuit conductor 
as permitted by 250.32, 250.140, and 250.142, non- 
current-carrying metal parts of equipment, raceways, and 
other enclosures, if grounded, shall be grounded by one of 
the following methods. 

(A) Equipment Grounding Conductor Types. By any of 

the equipment grounding conductors permitted by 250.118. 

(B) With Circuit Conductors. By an equipment ground- 
ing conductor contained within the same raceway, cable, or 
otherwise run with the circuit conductors. 

Exception No. 1: As provided in 250.130(C), the equipment 
grounding conductor shall be permitted to be run separately 
from the circuit conductors. 

Exception No. 2: For dc circuits, the equipment grounding 
conductor shall be permitted to be run separately from the 
circuit conductors. 

FPN No. 1 : See 250. 1 02 and 250. 1 68 for equipment bond- 
ing jumper requirements. 

FPN No. 2: See 400.7 for use of cords for fixed equipment. 

250.136 Equipment Considered Effectively Grounded. 

Under the conditions specified in 250.136(A) and (B), the 
non-current-carrying metal parts of the equipment shall be 
considered effectively grounded. 

(A) Equipment Secured to Grounded Metal Supports. 

Electrical equipment secured to and in electrical contact 
with a metal rack or structure provided for its support and 
grounded by one of the means indicated in 250.134. The 
structural metal frame of a building shall not be used as the 
required equipment grounding conductor for ac equipment. 

(B) Metal Car Frames. Metal car frames supported by 
metal hoisting cables attached to or running over metal 
sheaves or drums of elevator machines that are grounded 
by one of the methods indicated in 250.134. 

250.138 Cord-and-Plug-Connected Equipment. Non- 
current-carrying metal parts of cord-and-plug-connected 
equipment, if grounded, shall be grounded by one of the 
methods in 250.138(A) or (B). 

(A) By Means of an Equipment Grounding Conductor. 

By means of an equipment grounding conductor run with 
the power supply conductors in a cable assembly or flexible 
cord properly terminated in a grounding-type attachment 
plug with one fixed grounding contact. 



2005 Edition NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE 



70-113 



250.140 



ARTICLE 250 — GROUNDING AND BONDING 



Exception: The grounding contacting pole of grounding - 
type plug-in ground-fault circuit interrupters shall be 
permitted to be of the movable, self-restoring type on 
circuits operating at not over 150 volts between any two 
conductors or over 150 volts between any conductor and 
ground. 

(B) By Means of a Separate Flexible Wire or Strap. By 

means of a separate flexible wire or strap, insulated or bare, 
protected as well as practicable against physical damage, 
where part of equipment. 

250.140 Frames of Ranges and Clothes Dryers. Frames 
of electric ranges, wall-mounted ovens, counter-mounted 
cooking units, clothes dryers, and outlet or junction 
boxes that are part of the circuit for these appliances 
shall be grounded in the manner specified by 250.134 or 
250.138. 

Exception: For existing branch circuit installations only 
where an equipment grounding conductor is not present in 
the outlet or junction box, the frames of electric ranges, 
wall-mounted ovens, counter-mounted cooking units, clothes 
dryers, and outlet or junction boxes that are part of the 
circuit for these appliances shall be permitted to be 
grounded to the grounded circuit conductor if all the 
following conditions are met. 

(1) The supply circuit is 120/240-volt, single-phase, 3-wire; 
or 208Y/120-volt derived from a 3-phase, 4-wire, wye- 
connected system. 

(2) The grounded conductor is not smaller than 10 AWG 
copper or 8 AWG aluminum. 

(3) The grounded conductor is insulated, or the grounded 
conductor is uninsulated and part of a Type SE service- 
entrance cable and the branch circuit originates at the 
service equipment. 

(4) Grounding contacts of receptacles furnished as part of 
the equipment are bonded to the equipment. 

250.142 Use of Grounded Circuit Conductor for 
Grounding Equipment. 

(A) Supply-Side Equipment. A grounded circuit conduc- 
tor shall be permitted to ground non-current-carrying metal 
parts of equipment, raceways, and other enclosures at any 
of the following locations: 

(1) On the supply side or within the enclosure of the ac 
service-disconnecting means 

(2) On the supply side or within the enclosure of the main 
disconnecting means for separate buildings as provided 
in 250.32(B) 



(3) On the supply side or within the enclosure of the 
main disconnecting means or overcurrent devices of 
a separately derived system where permitted by 
250.30(A)(1) 

(B) Load-Side Equipment. Except as permitted in 
250.30(A)(1) and 250.32(B), a grounded circuit conductor 
shall not be used for grounding non-current-carrying metal 
parts of equipment on the load side of the service discon- 
necting means or on the load side of a separately derived 
system disconnecting means or the overcurrent devices for 
a separately derived system not having a main disconnect- 
ing means. 

Exception No. 1: The frames of ranges, wall-mounted 
ovens, counter-mounted cooking units, and clothes dry- 
ers under the conditions permitted for existing installa- 
tions by 250.140 shall be permitted to be grounded by a 
grounded circuit conductor 

Exception No. 2: It shall be permissible to ground meter 
enclosures by connection to the grounded circuit conductor 
on the load side of the service disconnect where all of the 
following conditions apply: 

(1) No service ground-fault protection is installed. 

(2) All meter socket enclosures are located immediately 
adjacent to the service disconnecting means. 

(3) The size of the grounded circuit conductor is not smaller 
than the size specified in Table 250.122 for equipment 
grounding conductors. 

Exception No. 3: Direct-current systems shall be permitted 
to be grounded on the load side of the disconnecting means 
or overcurrent device in accordance with 250.164. 

Exception No. 4: Electrode-type boilers operating at over 
600 volts shall be grounded as required in 490.72(E)(1) and 
490.74. 



250.144 Multiple Circuit Connections. Where (equipment 
is required to be grounded and is supplied by separate con- 
nection to more than one circuit or grounded premises wir- 
ing system, a means for grounding shall be provided for 
each such connection as specified in 250.134 and 250.138. 

250.146 Connecting Receptacle Grounding Terminal to 
Box. An equipment bonding jumper shall be used to con- 
nect the grounding terminal of a grounding-type receptacle 
to a grounded box unless grounded as in 250.146(A) 
through (D). 



• 



70-114 



NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE 2005 Edition 



ARTICLE 250 — GROUNDING AND BONDING 



250.162 



• 



(A) Surface Mounted Box. Where the box is mounted on 
the surface, direct metal-to-metal contact between the de- 
vice yoke and the box or a contact yoke or device that 
complies with 250.146(B) shall be permitted to ground the 
receptacle to the box. At least one of the insulating washers 
shall be removed from receptacles that do not have a con- 
tact yoke or device that complies with 250.146(B) to ensure 
direct metal-to-metal contact. This provision shall not apply 
to cover-mounted receptacles unless the box and cover 
combination are listed as providing satisfactory ground 
continuity between the box and the receptacle. 

(B) Contact Devices or Yokes. Contact devices or yokes 
designed and listed as self-grounding shall be permitted 
in conjunction with the supporting screws to establish 
the grounding circuit between the device yoke and flush- 
type boxes. 

(C) Floor Boxes. Floor boxes designed for and listed as 
providing satisfactory ground continuity between the box 
and the device shall be permitted. 

(D) Isolated Receptacles. Where required for the reduc- 
tion of electrical noise (electromagnetic interference) on the 
grounding circuit, a receptacle in which the grounding ter- 
minal is purposely insulated from the receptacle mounting 
means shall be permitted. The receptacle grounding termi- 
nal shall be grounded by an insulated equipment grounding 
conductor run with the circuit conductors. This grounding 
conductor shall be permitted to pass through one or more 
panelboards without connection to the panelboard ground- 
ing terminal as permitted in 408.40, Exception, so as to 
terminate within the same building or structure directly at 
an equipment grounding conductor terminal of the appli- 
cable derived system or service. 

FPN: Use of an isolated equipment grounding conductor 
does not relieve the requirement for grounding the raceway 
system and outlet box. 

250.148 Continuity and Attachment of Equipment 
Grounding Conductors to Boxes. Where circuit conduc- 
tors are spliced within a box, or terminated on equipment 
within or supported by a box, any equipment grounding 
conductor(s) associated with those circuit conductors 
shall be spliced or joined within the box or to the box 
with devices suitable for the use in accordance with 
250.148(A) through (E). 

Exception: The equipment grounding conductor permit- 
ted in 250.146(D) shall not be required to be connected 
to the other equipment grounding conductors or to the 
box. 



(A) Connections. Connections and splices shall be made 
in accordance with 110.14(B) except that insulation shall 
not be required. 

(B) Grounding Continuity. The arrangement of ground- 
ing connections shall be such that the disconnection or the 
removal of a receptacle, luminaire (fixture), or other device 
fed from the box does not interfere with or interrupt the 
grounding continuity. 

(C) Metal Boxes. A connection shall be made between the 
one or more equipment grounding conductors and a metal 
box by means of a grounding screw that shall be used for 
no other purpose or a listed grounding device. 

(D) Nonmetallic Boxes. One or more equipment ground- 
ing conductors brought into a nonmetallic outlet box shall 
be arranged such that a connection can be made to any 
fitting or device in that box requiring grounding. 

(E) Solder. Connections depending solely on solder shall 
not be used. 



VIII. Direct-Current Systems 

250.160 General. Direct-current systems shall comply 
with Part VIII and other sections of Article 250 not specifi- 
cally intended for ac systems. 

250.162 Direct-Current Circuits and Systems to Be 
Grounded. Direct-current circuits and systems shall be 
grounded as provided for in 250.162(A) and (B). 

(A) Two-Wire, Direct-Current Systems. A 2-wire, dc sys- 
tem supplying premises wiring and operating at greater than 
50 volts but not greater than 300 volts shall be grounded. 

Exception No. 1: A system equipped with a ground detec- 
tor and supplying only industrial equipment in limited ar- 
eas shall not be required to be grounded. 

Exception No. 2: A rectifier-derived dc system supplied 
from an ac system complying with 250.20 shall not be re- 
quired to be grounded. 

Exception No. 3: Direct-current fire alarm circuits having 
a maximum current of 0.030 amperes as specified in Article 
760, Part III, shall not be required to be grounded. 

(B) Three-Wire, Direct-Current Systems. The neutral 
conductor of all 3-wire, dc systems supplying premises wir- 
ing shall be grounded. 



2005 Edition NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE 



70-115 



250.164 



ARTICLE 250 — GROUNDING AND BONDING 



250.164 Point of Connection for Direct-Current Systems. 

(A) Off-Premises Source. Direct-current systems to be 
grounded and supplied from an off-premises source shall 
have the grounding connection made at one or more supply 
stations. A grounding connection shall not be made at indi- 
vidual services or at any point on the premises wiring. 

(B) On-Premises Source. Where the dc system source is 
located on the premises, a grounding connection shall be 
made at one of the following: 

(1) The source 

(2) The first system disconnection means or overcurrent 
device 

(3) By other means that accomplish equivalent system pro- 
tection and that utilize equipment listed and identified 
for the use 

250.166 Size of Direct-Current Grounding Electrode 
Conductor. The size of the grounding electrode conductor for 
a dc system shall be as specified in 250.166(A) through (E). 

(A) Not Smaller Than the Neutral Conductor. Where 
the dc system consists of a 3-wire balancer set or a balancer 
winding with overcurrent protection as provided in 445.12(D), 
the grounding electrode conductor shall not be smaller than 
the neutral conductor and not smaller than 8 AWG copper or 
6 AWG aluminum. 

(B) Not Smaller Than the Largest Conductor. Where the 
dc system is other than as in 250.166(A), the grounding 
electrode conductor shall not be smaller than the largest 
conductor supplied by the system, and not smaller than 
8 AWG copper or 6 AWG aluminum. 

(C) Connected to Rod, Pipe, or Plate Electrodes. Where 
connected to rod, pipe, or plate electrodes as in 250.52(A)(5) 
or 250.52(A)(6), that portion of the grounding electrode con- 
ductor that is the sole connection to the grounding electrode 
shall not be required to be larger than 6 AWG copper wire or 
4 AWG aluminum wire. 

(D) Connected to a Concrete-Encased Electrode. Where 
connected to a concrete-encased electrode as in 250.52(A)(3), 
that portion of the grounding electrode conductor that is the 
sole connection to the grounding electrode shall not be re- 
quired to be larger than 4 AWG copper wire. 

(E) Connected to a Ground Ring. Where connected to a 
ground ring as in 250.52(A)(4), that portion of the ground- 
ing electrode conductor that is the sole connection to the 
grounding electrode shall not be required to be larger than 
the conductor used for the ground ring. 



250.168 Direct-Current Bonding Jumper. For dc sys- 
tems, the size of the bonding jumper shall not be smaller 
than the system grounding electrode conductor specified in 
250.166. 

250.169 Ungrounded Direct-Current Separately Derived 
Systems. Except as otherwise permitted in 250.34 for 
portable and vehicle-mounted generators, an ungrounded 
dc separately derived system supplied from a stand-alone 
power source (such as an engine-generator set) shall 
have a grounding electrode conductor connected to an 
electrode that complies with Part III to provide for 
grounding of metal enclosures, raceways, cables, and ex- 
posed non-current-carrying metal parts of equipment. 
The grounding electrode conductor connection shall be 
to the metal enclosure at any point on the separately 
derived system from the source to the first system dis- 
connecting means or overcurrent device, or it shall be 
made at the source of a separately derived system that 
has no disconnecting means or overcurrent devices. 

The size of the grounding electrode conductor shall be 
in accordance with 250.166. 

IX. Instruments, Meters, and Relays 

250.170 Instrument Transformer Circuits. Secondary 
circuits of current and potential instrument transformers shall 
be grounded where the primary windings are connected to 
circuits of 300 volts or more to ground and, where on switch- 
boards, shall be grounded irrespective of voltage. 

Exception: Circuits where the primary windings are con- 
nected to circuits of less than 1000 volts with no live parts or 
wiring exposed or accessible to other than qualified persons. 

250.172 Instrument Transformer Cases. Cases or frames 
of instrument transformers shall be grounded where acces- 
sible to other than qualified persons. 

Exception: Cases or frames of current transformers, the 
primaries of which are not over 150 volts to ground and 
that are used exclusively to supply current to meters. 

250.174 Cases of Instruments, Meters, and Relays Op- 
erating at Less Than 1000 Volts. Instruments, meters, and 
relays operating with windings or working parts at less than 
1000 volts shall be grounded as specified in 250.174(A), 
(B), or (C). 

(A) Not on Switchboards. Instruments, meters, and re- 
lays not located on switchboards, operating with wind- 
ings or working parts at 300 volts or more to ground, and 
accessible to other than qualified persons, shall have the 
cases and other exposed metal parts grounded. 



70-116 



NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE 2005 Edition 



ARTICLE 250 — GROUNDING AND BONDING 



250.184 



(B) On Dead-Front Switchboards. Instruments, meters, 
and relays (whether operated from current and potential 
transformers or connected directly in the circuit) on switch- 
boards having no live parts on the front of the panels shall 
have the cases grounded. 

(C) On Live-Front Switchboards. Instruments, meters, 
and relays (whether operated from current and potential 
transformers or connected directly in the circuit) on 
switchboards having exposed live parts on the front of 
panels shall not have their cases grounded. Mats of in- 
sulating rubber or other suitable floor insulation shall be 
provided for the operator where the voltage to ground 
exceeds 150. 

250.176 Cases of Instruments, Meters, and Relays — 
Operating Voltage 1 kV and Over. Where instruments, 
meters, and relays have current-carrying parts of 1 kV and 
over to ground, they shall be isolated by elevation or pro- 
tected by suitable barriers, grounded metal, or insulating 
covers or guards. Their cases shall not be grounded. 

Exception: Cases of electrostatic ground detectors where 
the internal ground segments of the instrument are con- 
nected to the instrument case and grounded and the ground 
detector is isolated by elevation. 

250.178 Instrument Grounding Conductor. The ground- 
ing conductor for secondary circuits of instrument trans- 
formers and for instrument cases shall not be smaller than 
12 AWG copper or 10 AWG aluminum. Cases of instru- 
ment transformers, instruments, meters, and relays that are 
mounted directly on grounded metal surfaces of enclosures 
or grounded metal switchboard panels shall be considered 
to be grounded, and no additional grounding conductor 
shall be required. 

X. Grounding of Systems and Circuits of 1 kV and 
Over (High Voltage) 

250.180 General. Where high-voltage systems are 
grounded, they shall comply with all applicable provi- 
sions of the preceding sections of this article and with 
250.182 through 250.190, which supplement and modify 
the preceding sections. 

250.182 Derived Neutral Systems. A system neutral de- 
rived from a grounding transformer shall be permitted to be 
used for grounding high-voltage systems. 

250.184 Solidly Grounded Neutral Systems. Solidly 
grounded neutral systems shall be permitted to be either 
single point grounded or multigrounded neutral. 



(A) Neutral Conductor. 

(1) Insulation Level. The minimum insulation level for 
neutral conductors of solidly grounded systems shall be 
600 volts. 

Exception No. 1: Bare copper conductors shall be permit- 
ted to be used for the neutral of service entrances and the 
neutral of direct-buried portions of feeders. 

Exception No. 2: Bare conductors shall be permitted for 
the neutral of overhead portions installed outdoors. 

Exception No. 3: The neutral grounded conductor shall be 
permitted to be a bare conductor if isolated from phase 
conductors and protected from physical damage. 

FPN: See 225.4 for conductor covering where within 3.0 m 
(10 ft) of any building or other structure. 

(2) Ampacity. The neutral conductor shall be of suffi- 
cient ampacity for the load imposed on the conductor but 
not less than 33 Vs percent of the ampacity of the phase 
conductors. 

Exception: In industrial and commercial premises under 
engineering supervision, it shall be permissible to size the 
ampacity of the neutral conductor to not less than 20 per- 
cent of the ampacity of the phase conductor 

(B) Single Point Grounded System. Where a single point 
grounded neutral system is used, the following shall apply: 

(1) A single point grounded system shall be permitted to be 
supplied from (a) or (b): 

a. A separately derived system 

b. A multigrounded neutral system with an equipment 
grounding conductor connected to the multigrounded 
neutral at the source of the single point grounded 
system 

(2) A grounding electrode shall be provided for the system. 

(3) A grounding electrode conductor shall connect the 
grounding electrode to the system neutral. 

(4) A bonding jumper shall connect the equipment ground- 
ing conductor to the grounding electrode conductor. 

(5) An equipment bonding conductor shall be provided to 
each building, structure, and equipment enclosure. 

(6) A neutral shall only be required where phase to neutral 
loads are supplied. 

(7) The neutral, where provided, shall be insulated and iso- 
lated from earth except at one location. 

(8) An equipment grounding conductor shall be run with the 
phase conductors and shaU comply with (a), (b), and (c): 

a. Shall not carry continuous load 
• b. May be bare or insulated 

c. Shall have sufficient ampacity for fault current duty 



2005 Edition 



NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE 



70-117 



250.186 



ARTICLE 250 — GROUNDING AND BONDING 



(C) Multigrounded Neutral Systems. Where a multi- 
grounded neutral system is used, the following shall apply: 

(1) The neutral of a solidly grounded neutral system shall 
be permitted to be grounded at more than one point. 
Grounding shall be permitted at one or more of the fol- 
lowing locations: 

a. Transformers supplying conductors to a building or 
other structure 

b. Underground circuits where the neutral is exposed 

c. Overhead circuits installed outdoors 

(2) The multigrounded neutral conductor shall be grounded 
at each transformer and at other additional locations by 
connection to a made or existing electrode. 

(3) At least one grounding electrode shall be installed and 
connected to the multigrounded neutral circuit conduc- 
tor every 400 m (1300 ft). 

(4) The maximum distance between any two adjacent elec- 
trodes shall not be more than 400 m (1300 ft). 

(5) In a multigrounded shielded cable system, the shielding 
shall be grounded at each cable joint that is exposed to 
personnel contact. 

250.186 Impedance Grounded Neutral Systems. Imped- 
ance grounded neutral systems in which a grounding imped- 
ance, usually a resistor, limits the ground-fault current, shall be 
permitted where all of the following conditions are met: 

(1) The conditions of maintenance and supervision ensure 
that only qualified persons will service the installation. 

(2) Ground detectors are installed on the system. 

(3) Line-to-neutral loads are not served. 

Impedance grounded neutral systems shall comply with 
the provisions of 250.186(A) through (D). 

(A) Location. The grounding impedance shall be inserted 
in the grounding conductor between the grounding elec- 
trode of the supply system and the neutral point of the 
supply transformer or generator. 

(B) Identified and Insulated. The neutral conductor of an 
impedance grounded neutral system shall be identified, as 
well as fully insulated with the same insulation as the phase 
conductors. 

(C) System Neutral Connection. The system neutral 
shall not be connected to ground, except through the 
neutral grounding impedance. 

(D) Equipment Grounding Conductors. Equipment 
grounding conductors shall be permitted to be bare and 
shall be electrically connected to the ground bus and 
grounding electrode conductor. 

250.188 Grounding of Systems Supplying Portable or 
Mobile Equipment. Systems supplying portable or mobile 
high-voltage equipment, other than substations installed on a 
temporary basis, shall comply with 250.188(A) through (F). 



(A) Portable or Mobile Equipment. Portable or mobile 
high-voltage equipment shall be supplied from a system 
having its neutral grounded through an impedance. Where 
a delta-connected high-voltage system is used to supply 
portable or mobile equipment, a system neutral shall be 
derived. 

(B) Exposed Non-Current-Carrying Metal Parts. Ex- 
posed non-current-carrying metal parts of portable or mo- 
bile equipment shall be connected by an equipment ground- 
ing conductor to the point at which the system neutral 
impedance is grounded. 

(C) Ground-Fault Current. The voltage developed be- 
tween the portable or mobile equipment frame and ground 
by the flow of maximum ground-fault current shall not 
exceed 100 volts. 

(D) Ground-Fault Detection and Relaying. Ground-fault 
detection and relaying shall be provided to automatically 
de-energize any high-voltage system component that has 
developed a ground fault. The continuity of the equipment 
grounding conductor shall be continuously monitored so as 
to de-energize automatically the high-voltage circuit to the 
portable or mobile equipment upon loss of continuity of the 
equipment grounding conductor. 

(E) Isolation. The grounding electrode to which the por- 
table or mobile equipment system neutral impedance is 
connected shall be isolated from and separated in the 
ground by at least 6.0 m (20 ft) from any other system or 
equipment grounding electrode, and there shall be no direct 
connection between the grounding electrodes, such as bur- 
ied pipe and fence, and so forth. 

(F) Trailing Cable and Couplers. High-voltage trailing 
cable and couplers for interconnection of portable or mo- 
bile equipment shall meet the requirements of Part III of 
Article 400 for cables and 490.55 for couplers. 

250.190 Grounding of Equipment. All non-current- 
carrying metal parts of fixed, portable, and mobile equip- 
ment and associated fences, housings, enclosures, and sup- 
porting structures shall be grounded. 

Exception: Where isolated from ground and located so as to 
prevent any person who can make contact with ground from 
contacting such metal parts when the equipment is energized. 

Grounding conductors not an integral part of a cable 
assembly shall not be smaller than 6 AWG copper or 4 
AWG aluminum. 

FPN: See 250.110, Exception No. 2, for pole-mounted 
distribution apparatus. 



70-118 



NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE 2005 Edition 



ARTICLE 280 — SURGE ARRESTERS 



280.24 



'■-. n : y ■:.,:> ^^Sftrgc AiTesters ;. ;..,\ 

I. General 

280.1 Scope. This article covers general requirements, in- 
stallation requirements, and connection requirements for 
surge arresters installed on premises wiring systems. 

280.2 Definition. 

Surge Arrester. A protective device for limiting surge volt- 
ages by discharging or bypassing surge current, and it also 
prevents continued flow of foUow current while remaining 
capable of repeating these functions. 

280.3 Number Required. Where used at a point on a cir- 
cuit, a surge arrester shall be connected to each ungrounded 
conductor. A single installation of such surge arresters shall 
be permitted to protect a number of interconnected circuits, 
provided that no circuit is exposed to surges while discon- 
nected from the surge arresters. 

280.4 Surge Arrester Selection. 

(A) Circuits of Less Than 1000 Volts. Surge arresters in- 
stalled on a circuit of less than 1000 volts shall comply 
with all of the following: 

(1) The rating of the surge arrester shall be equal to or greater 
than the maximum continuous phase-to-ground power 
frequency voltage available at the point of application. 

(2) Surge arresters installed on circuits of less than 1000 volts 
shall be listed. 

(3) Surge arresters shall be marked with a short circuit 
current rating and shall not be installed at a point on the 
system where the available fault current is in excess of 
that rating. 

(4) Surge arresters shall not be installed on ungrounded 
systems, impedance grounded systems, or corner 
grounded delta systems unless listed specifically for 
use on these systems. 

(B) Circuits of 1 kV and Over — Silicon Carbide Types. 

The rating of a silicon carbide-type surge arrester shall be not 
less than 125 percent of the maximum continuous phase- to- 
ground voltage available at the point of application. 

FPN No. 1: For further information on surge arresters, see 
ANSI/IEEE C62. 1-1989, Standard for Gapped Silicon- 
Carbide Surge Arresters for AC Power Circuits; 
ANSI/IEEE C62.2-1987, Guide for the Application of 
Gapped Silicon-Carbide Surge Arresters for Alternating- 
Current Systems; ANSI/IEEE C62.11-1993, Standard for 
Metal-Oxide Surge Arresters for Alternating-Current Power 
Circuits; and ANSI/ffiEE C62.22-1991, Guide for the Appli- 
cation of Metal-Oxide Surge Arresters for Alternating-Current 
Systems. 



FPN No. 2: The selection of a properly rated metal oxide 
arrester is based on considerations of maximum continuous 
operating voltage and the magnitude and duration of over- 
voltages at the arrester location as affected by phase-to- 
ground faults, system grounding techniques, switching 
surges, and other causes. See the manufacturer's applica- 
tion rules for selection of the specific arrester to be used at 
a particular locadon. 



II. Installation 

280.11 Location. Surge arresters shall be permitted to be 
located indoors or outdoors. Surge arresters shall be made 
inaccessible to unqualified persons, unless listed for instal- 
lation in accessible locations. 

280.12 Routing of Surge Arrester Connections. The con- 
ductor used to connect the surge arrester to fine or bus and 
to ground shall not be any longer than necessary and shall 
avoid unnecessary bends. 

III. Connecting Surge Arresters 

280.21 Installed at Services of Less Than 1000 Volts. 

Line and ground connecting conductors shall not be smaller 
than 14 AWG copper or 12 AWG aluminum. The arrester 
grounding conductor shall be connected to one of the fol- 
lowing: 

(1) Grounded service conductor 

(2) Grounding electrode conductor 

(3) Grounding electrode for the service 

(4) Equipment grounding terminal in the service equipment 

280.22 Installed on the Load Side Services of Less 
Than 1000 Volts. Line and ground connecting conductors 
shall not be smaller than 14 AWG copper or 12 AWG alu- 
minum. A surge arrester shall be permitted to be connected 
between any two conductors — ungrounded conductor(s), 
grounded conductor, grounding conductor. The grounded 
conductor and the grounding conductor shall be intercon- 
nected only by the normal operation of the surge arrester 
during a surge. 

280.23 Circuits of 1 kV and Over — Surge-Arrester 
Conductors. The conductor between the surge arrester 
and the line and the surge arrester and the grounding 
connection shall not be smaller than 6 AWG copper or 
aluminum. 

280.24 Circuits of 1 kV and Over — Interconnections. 

The grounding conductor of a surge arrester protecting a trans- 
former that supphes a secondary distribution system shall be 
interconnected as specified in 280.24(A), (B), or (C). 



2005 Edition 



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70-119 



280.25 



ARTICLE 285 — TRANSIENT VOLTAGE SURGE SUPPRESSORS: TVSSs 



(A) Metallic Interconnections. A metallic interconnection 
shall be made to the secondary grounded circuit conductor 
or the secondary circuit grounding conductor provided that, 
in addition to the direct grounding connection at the surge 
arrester, the following occurs: 

(1) The grounded conductor of the secondary has else- 
where a grounding connection to a continuous metal 
underground water piping system. However, in urban 
water-pipe areas where there are at least four water- 
pipe connections on the neutral and not fewer than four 
such connections in each mile of neutral, the metaUic 
interconnection shall be permitted to be made to the 
secondary neutral with omission of the direct ground- 
ing connection at the surge arrester. 

(2) The grounded conductor of the secondary system is a 
part of a multiground neutral system or static wire of 
which the primary neutral or static wire has at least 
four ground connections in each mile of line in addition 
to a ground at each service. 

(B) Through Spark Gap or Device. Where the surge 
arrester grounding conductor is not connected as in 
280.24(A) or where the secondary is not grounded as in 
280.24(A) but is otherwise grounded as in 250.52, an 
interconnection shall be made through a spark gap or 
listed device as follows: 

(1) For ungrounded or unigrounded primary systems, the 
spark gap or listed device shall have a 60-Hz break- 
down voltage of at least twice the primary circuit 
voltage but not necessarily more than 10 kV, and 
there shall be at least one other ground on the 
grounded conductor of the secondary that is not less 
than 6.0 m (20 ft) distant from the surge arrester 
grounding electrode. 

(2) For multigrounded neutral primary systems, the spark 
gap or listed device shall have a 60-Hz breakdown of 
not more than 3 kV, and there shall be at least one other 
ground on the grounded conductor of the secondary 
that is not less than 6.0 m (20 ft) distant from the surge 
arrester grounding electrode. 

(C) By Special Permission. An interconnection of the 
surge arrester ground and the secondary neutral, other than 
as provided in 280.24(A) or (B), shall be permitted to be 
made only by special permission. 

280.25 Grounding. Except as indicated in this article, 
surge arrester grounding connections shall be made as 
specified in Article 250. Grounding conductors shall not be 
run in metal enclosures unless bonded to both ends of such 
enclosure. 



ARTICLE 285 
Transient Voltage Surge Suppressors: 

■i^:-:^--:- -■- ■'■ TVSSs- ■^^■'■■-' ^;.--V-^^ ^ 



I. General 

285.1 Scope. This article covers general requirements, in- 
stallation requirements, and connection requirements for 
transient voltage surge suppressors (TVSSs) permanently 
installed on premises wiring systems. 

285.2 Definition. 

Transient Voltage Surge Suppressor (TVSS). A protec- 
tive device for limiting transient voltages by diverting or 
limiting surge current; it also prevents continued flow of 
follow current while remaining capable of repeating these 
functions. 

285.3 Uses Not Permitted. A TVSS device shall not be 
installed in the following: 

(1) Circuits exceeding 600 volts 

(2) On ungrounded systems, impedance grounded systems, 
or comer grounded delta systems unless listed specifi- 
cally for use on these systems. 

(3) Where the rating of the TVSS is less than the maxi- 
mum continuous phase-to-ground power frequency 
voltage available at the point of application 

FPN: For further information on TVSSs, see NEMA LS 
1-1992, Standard for Low Voltage Surge Suppression De- 
vices. The selection of a properly rated TVSS is based on 
criteria such as maximum continuous operating voltage, the 
magnitude and duration of overvoltages at the suppressor 
location as affected by phase-to-ground faults, system 
grounding techniques, and switching surges. 

285.4 Number Required. Where used at a point on a 
circuit, the TVSS shall be connected to each ungrounded 
conductor. 

285.5 Listing. A TVSS shall be a listed device. 

285.6 Short Circuit Current Rating. The TVSS shall be 
marked with a short circuit current rating and shall not be 
installed at a point on the system where the available fault 
current is in excess of that rating. This marking requirement 
shall not apply to receptacles. 

II. Installation 

285.11 Location. TVSSs shall be permitted to be located 
indoors or outdoors and shall be made inaccessible to un- 
qualified persons, unless listed for installation in accessible 
locations. 



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NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE 2005 Edition 



ARTICLE 285 — TRANSIENT VOLTAGE SURGE SUPPRESSORS: TVSSs 



285.25 



285.12 Routing of Connections. The conductors used to 
connect the TVSS to the line or bus and to ground shall not be 
any longer than necessary and shall avoid unnecessary bends. 

III. Connecting Transient Voltage Surge Suppressors 

285.21 Connection. Where a TVSS is installed, it shall 
comply with 285.21(A) through (C). 

(A) Location. 

(1) Service Supplied Building or Structure. The transient 
voltage surge suppressor shall be connected on the load 
side of a service disconnect overcurrent device required in 
230.91, unless installed in accordance with 230.82(8). 

(2) Feeder Supplied Building or Structure. The tran- 
sient voltage surge suppressor shall be connected on the 
load side of the first overcurrent device at the building or 
structure. 



Exception to (1) and (2): Where the TVSS is also listed as a 
surge arrester, the connection shall be as permitted by Ar- 
ticle 280. 

(3) Separately Derived System. The TVSS shall be con- 
nected on the load side of the first overcurrent device in a 
separately derived system. 

(B) Conductor Size. Line and ground connecting conduc- 
tors shall not be smaller than 14 AWG copper or 12 AWG 
aluminum. 

(C) Connection Between Conductors. A TVSS shall be 
permitted to be connected between any two conductors — 
ungrounded conductor(s), grounded conductor, grounding 
conductor. The grounded conductor and the grounding con- 
ductor shall be interconnected only by the normal operation 
of the TVSS during a surge. 

285.25 Grounding. Grounding conductors shall not be run 
in metal enclosures unless bonded to both ends of such 
enclosure. 



2005 Edition 



NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE 



70-121 



300.1 



ARTICLE 300 — WIRING METHODS 



Chapter 3 Wiring Methods and Materials 



./ARTICLE 300; . 
Wiring Methods - 

I. General Requirements 
300.1 Scope. 

(A) All Wiring Installations. This article covers wiring 
methods for all wiring installations unless modified by 
other articles. 

(B) Integral Parts of Equipment. The provisions of this 
article are not intended to apply' to the conductors that form 
an integral part of equipment, such as motors, controllers, 
motor control centers, or factory assembled control equip- 
ment or listed utilization equipment. 

(C) Metric Designators and Trade Sizes. Metric designa- 
tors and trade sizes for conduit, tubing, and associated fittings 
and accessories shall be as designated in Table 300.1(C). 

Table 300.1(C) Metric Designator and Trade Sizes 



Metric 


Trade 




Designator 


Size 




12 


3/8 




16 


Vl 




21 


3/4 




27 


1 




35 


l'/4 




41 


l'/2 




53 


2 




63 


21/2 




78 


3 




91 


31/2 




103 


4 




129 


5 




155 


6 





Note: The metric designators and trade sizes are for identification 
purposes only and are not actual dimensions. 



300.2 Limitations. 

(A) Voltage. Wiring methods specified in Chapter 3 shall 
be used for 600 volts, nominal, or less where not specifi- 
cally limited in some section of Chapter 3. They shall be 
permitted for over 600 volts, nominal, where specifically 
permitted elsewhere in this Code. 

(B) Temperature. Temperature limitation of conductors 
shall be in accordance with 310.10. 



300.3 Conductors. 

(A) Single Conductors. Single conductors specified in 
Table 310.13 shall only be installed where part of a recog- 
nized wiring method of Chapter 3. 

Exception: Individual conductors shall be permitted 
where installed as separate overhead conductors in accor- 
dance with 225.6. 

(B) Conductors of the Same Circuit. All conductors of 
the same circuit and, where used, the grounded conductor 
and all equipment grounding conductors and bonding con- 
ductors shall be contained within the same raceway, auxil- 
iary gutter, cable tray, cablebus assembly, trench, cable, or 
cord, unless otherwise permitted in accordance with 
300.3(B)(1) through (B)(4). 

(1) Paralleled Installations. Conductors shall be permit- 
ted to be run in parallel in accordance with the provisions 
of 310.4. The requirement to run all circuit conductors 
within the same raceway, auxiliary gutter, cable tray, 
trench, cable, or cord shall apply separately to each portion 
of the paralleled installation, and the equipment grounding 
conductors shall comply with the provisions of 250.122. 
Parallel runs in cable tray shall comply with the provisions 
of 392.8(D). 

Exception: Conductors installed in nonmetallic raceways 
run underground shall be permitted to be arranged as iso- 
lated phase installations. The raceways shall be installed in 
close proximity, and the conductors shall comply with the 
provisions of 300.20(B). 

(2) Grounding and Bonding Conductors. Equipment 
grounding conductors shall be permitted to be installed out- 
side a raceway or cable assembly where in accordance with 
the provisions of 250.130(C) for certain existing installa- 
tions or in accordance with 250.134(B), Exception No. 2, 
for dc circuits. Equipment bonding conductors shall be per- 
mitted to be installed on the outside of raceways in accor- 
dance with 250.102(E). 

(3) Nonferrous Wiring Methods. Conductors in wiring 
methods with a nonmetallic or other nonmagnetic sheath, 
where run in different raceways, auxiliary gutters, cable 
trays, trenches, cables, or cords, shall comply with the pro- 
visions of 300.20(B). Conductors in single-conductor Type 
MI cable with a nonmagnetic sheath shall comply with the 
provisions of 332.31. Conductors of single-conductor Type 
MC cable with a nonmagnetic sheath shall comply with the 
provisions of 330.31, 330.116, and 300.20(B). 



• 



70-122 



NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE 2005 Edition 



ARTICLE 300 — WIRING METHODS 



300.4 



• 



• 



(4) Enclosures. Where an auxiliary gutter runs between a 
column-width panelboard and a pull box, and the pull box 
includes neutral terminations, the neutral conductors of cir- 
cuits supplied from the panelboard shall be permitted to 
originate in the pull box. 

(C) Conductors of Different Systems. 

(1) 600 Volts, Nominal, or Less. Conductors of circuits rated 
600 volts, nominal, or less, ac circuits, and dc circuits shall be 
permitted to occupy the same equipment wiring enclosure, 
cable, or raceway. All conductors shall have an insulation rat- 
ing equal to at least the maximum circuit voltage applied to 
any conductor within the enclosure, cable, or raceway. 

Exception: For solar photovoltaic systems in accordance 
with 690.4(B). 

FPN: See 725.55(A) for Class 2 and Class 3 circuit 
conductors. 

(2) Over 600 Volts, Nominal. Conductors of circuits rated 
over 600 volts, nominal, shall not occupy the same equip- 
ment wiring enclosure, cable, or raceway with conductors 
of circuits rated 600 volts, nominal, or less unless otherwise 
permitted in (C)(2)(a) through (C)(2)(e). 

(a) Secondary wiring to electric-discharge lamps of 
1000 volts or less, if insulated for the secondary voltage 
involved, shall be permitted to occupy the same luminaire 
(fixture), sign, or outline lighting enclosure as the branch- 
circuit conductors. 

(b) Primary leads of electric-discharge lamp ballasts 
insulated for the primary voltage of the ballast, where con- 
tained within the individual wiring enclosure, shall be per- 
mitted to occupy the same luminaire (fixture), sign, or out- 
line lighting enclosure as the branch-circuit conductors. 

(c) Excitation, control, relay, and ammeter conductors 
used in connection with any individual motor or starter 
shall be permitted to occupy the same enclosure as the 
motor-circuit conductors. 

(d) In motors, switchgear and control assemblies, and 
similar equipment, conductors of different voltage ratings 
shall be permitted. 

(e) In manholes, if the conductors of each system are 
permanently and effectively separated from the conductors 
of the other systems and securely fastened to racks, insula- 
tors, or other approved supports, conductors of different 
voltage ratings shall be permitted. 

Conductors having nonshielded insulation and operat- 
ing at different voltage levels shall not occupy the same 
enclosure, cable, or raceway. 

300.4 Protection Against Physical Damage. Where sub- 
ject to physical damage, conductors shall be protected. 



(A) Cables and Raceways Through Wood Members. 

(1) Bored Holes. In both exposed and concealed locations, 
where a cable- or raceway-type wiring method is installed 
through bored holes in joists, rafters, or wood members, 
holes shall be bored so that the edge of the hole is not less 
than 32 mm (l'/4 in.) from the nearest edge of the wood 
member. Where this distance cannot be maintained, the 
cable or raceway shall be protected from penetration by 
screws or nails by a steel plate or bushing, at least 1.6 mm 
(Vi6 in.) thick, and of appropriate length and width installed 
to cover the area of the wiring. 

Exception No. 1: Steel plates shall not be required to 
protect rigid metal conduit, intermediate metal conduit, 
rigid nonmetallic conduit, or electrical metallic tubing. 

Exception No. 2: A listed and marked steel plate less than 
1.6 mm (Vj6 in.) thick that provides equal or better protec- 
tion against nail or screw penetration shall be permitted. 

(2) Notches in Wood. Where there is no objection because 
of weakening the building structure, in both exposed and 
concealed locations, cables or raceways shall be permitted 
to be laid in notches in wood studs, joists, rafters, or other 
wood members where the cable or raceway at those points 
is protected against nails or screws by a steel plate at least 
1.6 mm (V\6 in.) thick, and of appropriate length and width, 
installed to cover the area of the wiring. The steel plate 
shall be installed before the building finish is applied. 

Exception No. 1: Steel plates shall not be required to 
protect rigid metal conduit, intermediate metal conduit, 
rigid nonmetallic conduit, or electrical metallic tubing. 

Exception No. 2: A listed and marked steel plate less than 
1.6 mm {'/i6 in.) thick that provides equal or better protec- 
tion against nail or screw penetration shall be permitted. 

(B) Nonmetallic-Sheathed Cables and Electrical Non- 
metallic Tubing Through Metal Framing Members. 

(1) Nonmetallic-Sheathed Cable. In both exposed and 
concealed locations where nonmetallic-sheathed cables 
pass through either factory or field punched, cut, or 
drilled slots or holes in metal members, the cable shall 
be protected by listed bushings or listed grommets cov- 
ering all metal edges that are securely fastened in the 
opening prior to installation of the cable. 

(2) Nonmetallic-Sheathed Cable and Electrical Nonme- 
tallic 1\ibing. Where nails or screws are likely to pen- 
etrate nonmetallic-sheathed cable or electrical nonmetal- 
lic tubing, a steel sleeve, steel plate, or steel clip not less 
than 1.6 mm (Vie in.) in thickness shall be used to pro- 
tect the cable or tubing. 

Exception: A listed and marked steel plate less than 
1.6 mm (Vj6 in.) thick that provides equal or better protec- 
tion against nail or screw penetration shall be permitted. 



2005 Edition NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE 



70-123 



300.5 



ARTICLE 300 — WIRING METHODS 



(C) Cables Through Spaces Behind Panels Designed to 
Allow Access. Cables or raceway-type wiring methods, in- 
stalled behind panels designed to allow access, shall be 
supported according to their applicable articles. 

(D) Cables and Raceways Parallel to Framing Mem- 
bers and Furring Strips. In both exposed and concealed 
locations, where a cable- or raceway-type wiring method is 
installed parallel to framing members, such as joists, 
rafters, or studs, or is installed parallel to furring strips, the 
cable or raceway shall be installed and supported so that the 
nearest outside surface of the cable or raceway is not less 
than 32 mm (VA in.) from the nearest edge of the framing 
member or furring strips where nails or screws are likely to 
penetrate. Where this distance cannot be maintained, the 
cable or raceway shall be protected from penetration by 
nails or screws by a steel plate, sleeve, or equivalent at least 
1.6 mm (Vie in.) thick. 

Exception No. 1: Steel plates, sleeves, or the equivalent 
shall not be required to protect rigid metal conduit, inter- 
mediate metal conduit, rigid nonmetallic conduit, or elec- 
trical metallic tubing. 

Exception No. 2: For concealed work in finished build- 
ings, or finished panels for prefabricated buildings where 
such supporting is impracticable, it shall be permissible to 
fish the cables between access points. 

Exception No. 3: A listed and marked steel plate less than 
1.6 mm (Vj6 in.) thick that provides equal or better protec- 
tion against nail or screw penetration shall be permitted. 

(E) Cables and Raceways Installed in Shallow Grooves. 

Cable- or raceway-type wiring methods installed in a groove, 
to be covered by wallboard, siding, paneling, carpeting, or 
similar finish, shall be protected by 1.6 mm {Vie in.) thick steel 
plate, sleeve, or equivalent or by not less than 32-mm (1 Vi-in.) 
free space for the full length of the groove in which the cable 
or raceway is installed. 

Exception No. 1: Steel plates, sleeves, or the equivalent 
shall not be required to protect rigid metal conduit, inter- 
mediate metal conduit, rigid nonmetallic conduit, or elec- 
trical metallic tubing. 

Exception No. 2: A listed and marked steel plate less than 
1.6 mm (Vi6 in.) thick that provides equal or better protec- 
tion against nail or screw penetration shall be permitted. 

(F) Insulated Fittings. Where raceways containing un- 
grounded conductors 4 AWG or larger enter a cabinet, box 
enclosure, or raceway, the conductors shall be protected by 
a substantial fitting providing a smoothly rounded insulat- 
ing surface, unless the conductors are separated from the 
fitting or raceway by substantial insulating material that is 
securely fastened in place. 



Exception: Where threaded hubs or bosses that are an 
integral part of a cabinet, box enclosure, or raceway pro- 
vide a smoothly rounded or fiared entry for conductors. 

Conduit bushings constructed wholly of insulating ma- 
terial shall not be used to secure a fitting or raceway. The 
insulating fitting or insulating material shall have a tem- 
perature rating not less than the insulation temperature rat- 
ing of the installed conductors. 

300.5 Underground Installations. 

(A) Minimum Cover Requirements. Direct-buried cable 
or conduit or other raceways shall be installed to meet the 
minimum cover requirements of Table 300.5. 

(B) Listing. Cables and insulated conductors installed in 
enclosures or raceways in underground installations shall 
be listed for use in wet locations. 

(C) Underground Cables Under Buildings. Underground 
cable installed under a building shall be in a raceway that is 
extended beyond the outside walls of the building. 

(D) Protection from Damage. Direct-buried conductors 
and cables shall be protected from damage in accordance 
with 300.5(D)(1) through (D)(4). 

(1) Emerging from Grade. Direct-buried conductors and 
enclosures emerging from grade shall be protected by en- 
closures or raceways extending from the minimum cover 
distance below grade required by 300.5(A) to a point at 
least 2.5 m (8 ft) above finished grade. In no case shall the 
protection be required to exceed 450 mm (18 in.) below 
finished grade. 

(2) Conductors Entering Buildings. Conductors entering 
a building shall be protected to the point of entrance. 

(3) Service Conductors. Underground service conductors 
that are not encased in concrete and that are buried 450 mm 
(18 in.) or more below grade shall have their location iden- 
tified by a warning ribbon that is placed in the trench at 
least 300 mm (12 in.) above the underground installation. 

(4) Enclosure or Raceway Damage. Where the enclosure 
or raceway is subject to physical damage, the conductors shall 
be installed in rigid metal conduit, intermediate metal conduit, 
Schedule 80 rigid nonmetallic conduit, or equivalent. 

(E) Splices and Taps. Direct-buried conductors or cables 
shall be permitted to be spliced or tapped without the use of 
sphce boxes. The splices or taps shall be made in accor- 
dance with 110.14(B). 

(F) Backfill. Backfill that contains large rocks, paving ma- 
terials, cinders, large or sharply angular substances, or cor- 
rosive material shall not be placed in an excavation where 
materials may damage raceways, cables, or other substruc- 
tures or prevent adequate compaction of fill or contribute to 
corrosion of raceways, cables, or other substructures. 



• 



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ARTICLE 300 — WIRING METHODS 



300.5 



Table 300.5 Minimum Cover Requirements, to 600 Volts, Nominal, Burial in Millimeters (Inches) 

Type of Wiring Method or Circuit 



• 













Column 5 












Circuits for 












Control of 










Column 4 


Irrigation and 










Residential 


Landscape 








Column 3 


Branch Circuits 


Lighting Limited 








Nonmetallic 


Rated 120 Volts 


to Not More 








Raceways Listed 


or Less with 


Than 30 Volts 






Column 2 


for Direct Burial 


GFCI Protection 


and Installed 




Column 1 


Rigid Metal 


Without Concrete 


and Maximum 


with Type UF or 




Direct Burial 


Conduit or 


Encasement or 


Overcurrent 


in Other 




Cables or 


Intermediate 


Other Approved 


Protection of 20 


Identified Cable 




Conductors 


Metal Conduit 


Raceways 


Amperes 


or Raceway 


Location of Wiring Method or 






















Circuit 


mm m. 


mm m. 


mm m. 


mm in. 


mm m. 


All locations not specified 


600 24 


150 6 


450 18 


300 12 


150 6 


below 












In trench below 50-mm (2-in.) 


450 18 


150 6 


300 12 


150 6 


150 6 


thick concrete or equivalent 












Under a building 



















(in raceway only) 






(in raceway only) 


(in raceway only) 


Under minimum of 102-mm 


450 18 


100 4 


100 4 


150 6 


150 6 


(4-in.) thick concrete exterior 












slab with no vehicular traffic 








(direct burial) 




and the slab extending not 








100 4 




less than 152 mm (6 in.) 










beyond the underground 








(in raceway) 




installation 












Under streets, highways, roads. 


600 24 


600 24 


600 24 


600 24 


600 24 


alleys, driveways, and parking 












lots 












One- and two-family dwelling 


450 18 


450 18 


450 18 


300 12 


450 18 


driveways and outdoor 












parking areas, and used only 












for dwelling-related purposes 












In or under airport runways. 


450 18 


450 18 


450 18 


450 18 


450 18 


including adjacent areas 












where trespassing prohibited 













Notes: 

1. Cover is defined as the shortest distance in millimeters (inches) measured between a point on the top surface of any direct-buried conductor, 
cable, conduit, or other raceway and the top surface of finished grade, concrete, or similar cover. 

2. Raceways approved for burial only where concrete encased shall require concrete envelope not less than 50 mm (2 in.) thick. 

3. Lesser depths shall be permitted where cables and conductors rise for terminations or splices or where access is otherwise required. 

4. Where one of the wiring method types listed in Columns 1-3 is used for one of the circuit types in Columns 4 and 5, the shallowest depth of 
burial shall be permitted. 

5. Where solid rock prevents compliance with the cover depths specified in this table, the wiring shall be installed in metal or nonmetallic raceway 
permitted for direct burial. The raceways shall be covered by a minimum of 50 mm (2 in.) of concrete extending down to rock. 



2005 Edition NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE 



70-125 



300.6 



ARTICLE 300 — WIRING METHODS 



Where necessary to prevent physical damage to the race- 
way or cable, protection shall be provided in the form of 
granular or selected material, suitable running boards, suit- 
able sleeves, or other approved means. 

(G) Raceway Seals. Conduits or raceways through which 
moisture may contact live parts shall be sealed or plugged 
at either or both ends. 

FPN: Presence of hazardous gases or vapors may also 
necessitate sealing of underground conduits or raceways 
entering buildings. 

(H) Bushing. A bushing, or terminal fitting, with an integral 
bushed opening shall be used at the end of a conduit or other 
raceway that terminates underground where the conductors or 
cables emerge as a direct burial wiring method. A seal incor- 
porating the physical protection characteristics of a bushing 
shall be permitted to be used in lieu of a bushing. 

(I) Conductors of the Same Circuit. All conductors of 
the same circuit and, where used, the grounded conductor 
and all equipment grounding conductors shall be installed 
in the same raceway or cable or shall be installed in close 
proximity in the same trench. 

Exception No. 1: Conductors in parallel in raceways or 
cables shall be permitted, but each raceway or cable shall 
contain all conductors of the same circuit including 
grounding conductors. 

Exception No. 2: Isolated phase, polarity, grounded conduc- 
tor, and equipment grounding and bonding conductor instal- 
lations shall be permitted in nonmetallic raceways or cables 
with a nonmetallic covering or nonmagnetic sheath in close 
proximity where conductors are paralleled as permitted in 
310.4, and where the conditions of 300.20(B) are met. 

(J) Ground Movement. Where direct-buried conductors, 
raceways, or cables are subject to movement by settlement 
or frost, direct-buried conductors, raceways, or cables shall 
be arranged so as to prevent damage to the enclosed con- 
ductors or to equipment connected to the raceways. 

FPN: This section recognizes "S" loops in underground 
direct burial to raceway transitions, expansion fittings in 
raceway risers to fixed equipment, and, generally, the pro- 
vision of flexible connections to equipment subject to 
settlement or frost heaves. 

(K) Directional Boring. Cables or raceways installed us- 
ing directional boring equipment shall be approved for the 
purpose. 

300.6 Protection Against Corrosion and Deterioration. 

Raceways, cable trays, cablebus, auxiliary gutters, cable ar- 
mor, boxes, cable sheathing, cabinets, elbows, couplings, fit- 
tings, supports, and support hardware shall be of materials 
suitable for the environment in which they are to be installed. 



(A) Ferrous Metal Equipment. Ferrous metal raceways, 
cable trays, cablebus, auxiliary gutters, cable armor, boxes, 
cable sheathing, cabinets, metal elbows, couplings, nipples, 
fittings, supports, and support hardware shall be suitably pro- 
tected against corrosion inside and outside (except threads at 
joints) by a coating of hsted corrosion-resistant material. 
Where corrosion protection is necessary and the conduit is 
threaded in the field, the threads shall be coated with an ap- 
proved electrically conductive, corrosion-resistant compound. 

Exception: Stainless steel shall not be required to have 
protective coatings. 

(1) Protected from Corrosion Solely by Enamel. Where 
protected from corrosion solely by enamel, ferrous metal 
raceways, cable trays, cablebus, auxiliary gutters, cable ar- 
mor, boxes, cable sheathing, cabinets, metal elbows, cou- 
plings, nipples, fittings, supports, and support hardware 
shall not be used outdoors or in wet locations as described 
in 300.6(D). 

(2) Organic Coatings on Boxes or Cabinets. Where 
boxes or cabinets have an approved system of organic coat- 
ings and are marked "Raintight," "Rainproof," or "Outdoor 
Type," they shall be permitted outdoors. 

(3) In Concrete or in Direct Contact with the Earth. 

Ferrous metal raceways, cable armor, boxes, cable sheath- 
ing, cabinets, elbows, couplings, nipples, fittings, supports, 
and support hardware shall be permitted to be installed in 
concrete or in direct contact with the earth, or in areas 
subject to severe corrosive influences where made of mate- 
rial approved for the condition, or where provided with 
corrosion protection approved for the condition. 

(B) Non-Ferrous Metal Equipment. Non-ferrous race- 
ways, cable trays, cablebus, auxiliary gutters, cable armor, 
boxes, cable sheathing, cabinets, elbows, couplings, 
nipples, fittings, supports, and support hardware embedded 
or encased in concrete or in direct contact with the earth 
shall be provided with supplementary corrosion protection. 

(C) Nonmetallic Equipment. Nonmetallic raceways, cable 
trays, cablebus, auxiliary gutters, boxes, cables with a nonme- 
tallic outer jacket and internal metal armor or jacket, cable 
sheathing, cabinets, elbows, coupHngs, nipples, fittings, sup- 
ports, and support hardware shall be made of material ap- 
proved for the condition and shall comply with (C)(1) and 
(C)(2) as applicable to the specific installation. 

(1) Exposed to Sunlight. Where exposed to sunlight, the 
materials shall be listed as sunlight resistant or shall be 
identified as sunlight resistant. 

(2) Chemical Exposure. Where subject to exposure to 
chemical solvents, vapors, splashing, or immersion, mate- 
rials or coatings shall either be inherently resistant to 



• 



70-126 



NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE 2005 Edition 



ARTICLE 300 — WIRING METHODS 



300.11 



chemicals based on its listing or be identified for the spe- 
cific chemical reagent. 

(D) Indoor Wet Locations. In portions of dairy processing 
facilities, laundries, canneries, and other indoor wet loca- 
tions, and in locations where walls are frequendy washed or 
where there are surfaces of absorbent materials, such as 
damp paper or wood, the entire wiring system, where in- 
stalled exposed, including all boxes, fittings, raceways, and 
cable used therewith, shall be mounted so that there is at 
least a 6-mm ('/4-in.) airspace between it and the wall or 
supporting surface. 

Exception: Nonmetallic raceways, boxes, and fittings shall 
be permitted to be installed without the airspace on a con- 
crete, masonry, tile, or similar surface. 

FPN: In general, areas where acids and alkali chemicals 
are handled and stored may present such corrosive condi- 
tions, particularly when wet or damp. Severe corrosive con- 
ditions may also be present in portions of meatpacking 
plants, tanneries, glue houses, and some stables; in instal- 
lations immediately adjacent to a seashore and swimming 
pool areas; in areas where chemical deicers are used; and in 
storage cellars or rooms for hides, casings, fertilizer, salt, 
and bulk chemicals. 

300.7 Raceways Exposed to Different Temperatures. 

(A) Sealing. Where portions of a cable raceway or sleeve 
are known to be subjected to different temperatures and 
where condensation is known to be a problem, as in cold 
storage areas of buildings or where passing from the inte- 
rior to the exterior of a building, the raceway or sleeve shall 
be filled with an approved material to prevent the circula- 
tion of warm air to a colder section of the raceway or 
sleeve. An explosionproof seal shall not be required for this 
purpose. 

(B) Expansion Fittings. Raceways shall be provided with 
expansion fittings where necessary to compensate for ther- 
mal expansion and contraction. 

FPN: Table 352.44(A) provides the expansion information 
for polyvinyl chloride (PVC). A nominal number for steel 
conduit can be determined by multiplying the expansion 
length in this table by 0.20. The coefficient of expansion for 
steel electrical metallic tubing, intermediate metal conduit, 
and rigid conduit is 11.70 x 10"^ (0.0000117 mm per mm 
of conduit for each °C in temperature change) [6.50 x 10"^ 
(0.0000065 in. per inch of conduit for each °F in tempera- 
ture change)]. 

300.8 Installation of Conductors with Other Systems. 

Raceways or cable trays containing electric conductors 
shall not contain any pipe, tube, or equal for steam, water, 
air, gas, drainage, or any service other than electrical. 

300.10 Electrical Continuity of Metal Raceways and 
Enclosures. Metal raceways, cable armor, and other metal 



enclosures for conductors shall be metallically joined together 
into a continuous electric conductor and shall be connected to 
all boxes, fittings, and cabinets so as to provide effective elec- 
trical continuity. Unless specifically permitted elsewhere in 
this Code, raceways and cable assembUes shall be mechani- 
cally secured to boxes, fittings, cabinets, and other enclosures. 

Exception No. 1: Short sections of raceways used to pro- 
vide support or protection of cable assemblies from physi- 
cal damage shall not be required to be made electrically 
continuous. 

Exception No. 2: Equipment enclosures to be isolated, as 
permitted by 250.96(B), shall not be required to be metal- 
lically joined to the metal raceway. 

300.11 Securing and Supporting. 

(A) Secured in Place. Raceways, cable assemblies, boxes, 
cabinets, and fittings shall be securely fastened in place. 
Support wires that do not provide secure support shall not 
be permitted as the sole support. Support wires and associ- 
ated fittings that provide secure support and that are in- 
stalled in addition to the ceiling grid support wires shall be 
permitted as the sole support. Where independent support 
wires are used, they shall be secured at both ends. Cables 
and raceways shall not be supported by ceiling grids. 

(1) Fire-Rated Assemblies. Wiring located within the cav- 
ity of a fire-rated floor-ceiling or roof-ceiling assembly 
shall not be secured to, or supported by, the ceiling assem- 
bly, including the ceiling support wires. An independent 
means of secure support shall be provided and shall be 
permitted to be attached to the assembly. Where indepen- 
dent support wires are used, they shall be distinguishable 
by color, tagging, or other effective means from those that 
are part of the fire-rated design. 

Exception: The ceiling support system shall be permitted 
to support wiring and equipment that have been tested as 
part of the fire-rated assembly. 

FPN: One method of determining fire rating is testing in 
accordance with NFPA 251-1999, Standard Methods of 
Tests of Fire Endurance of Building Construction and 
Materials. 

(2) Non-Fire-Rated Assemblies. Wiring located within 
the cavity of a non-fire-rated floor-ceiling or roof-ceihng 
assembly shall not be secured to, or supported by, the ceil- 
ing assembly, including the ceiling support wires. An inde- 
pendent means of secure support shall be provided. 

Exception: The ceiling support system shall be permitted 
to support branch- circuit wiring and associated equipment 
where installed in accordance with the ceiling system 
manufacturer 's instructions. 



2005 Edition NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE 



70-127 



300.12 



ARTICLE 300 — WIRING METHODS 



(B) Raceways Used as Means of Support. Raceways 
shall be used only as a means of support for other race- 
ways, cables, or nonelectric equipment under any of the 
following conditions: 

(1) Where the raceway or means of support is identified for 
the purpose 

(2) Where the raceway contains power supply conductors 
for electrically controlled equipment and is used to sup- 
port Class 2 circuit conductors or cables that are solely 
for the purpose of connection to the equipment control 
circuits 

(3) Where the raceway is used to support boxes or conduit 
bodies in accordance with 314.23 or to support lumi- 
naires (fixtures) in accordance with 410.16(F) 

(C) Cables Not Used as Means of Support. Cable wiring 
methods shall not be used as a means of support for other 
cables, raceways, or nonelectrical equipment. 

300.12 Mechanical Continuity — Raceways and Cables. 

Metal or nonmetallic raceways, cable armors, and cable 
sheaths shall be continuous between cabinets, boxes, fit- 
tings, or other enclosures or outlets. 

Exception: Short sections of raceways used to provide sup- 
port or protection of cable assemblies from physical damage 
shall not be required to be mechanically continuous. 

300.13 Mechanical and Electrical Continuity — 
Conductors. 

(A) General. Conductors in raceways shall be continuous 
between outlets, boxes, devices, and so forth. There shall be 
no splice or tap within a raceway unless permitted by 300.15; 
368.56(A); 376.56; 378.56; 384.56; 386.56; 388.56; or 390.6. 

(B) Device Removal. In multiwire branch circuits, the 
continuity of a grounded conductor shall not depend on 
device connections such as lampholders, receptacles, and 
so forth, where the removal of such devices would interrupt 
the continuity. 

300.14 Length of Free Conductors at Outlets, Junc- 
tions, and Switch Points. At least 150 mm (6 in.) of free 
conductor, measured from the point in the box where it 
emerges from its raceway or cable sheath, shall be left at each 
outlet, junction, and switch point for sphces or the connection 
of luminaires (fixtures) or devices. Where the opening to an 
outlet, junction, or switch point is less than 200 mm (8 in.) in 
any dimension, each conductor shall be long enough to extend 
at least 75 mm (3 in.) outside the opening. 

Exception: Conductors that are not spliced or terminated 
at the outlet, junction, or switch point shall not be required 
to comply with 300.14. 



300.15 Boxes, Conduit Bodies, or Fittings — Where Re- 
quired. A box shall be installed at each outlet and switch 
point for concealed knob-and-tube wiring. 

Fittings and connectors shall be used only with the spe- 
cific wiring methods for which they are designed and listed. 

Where the wiring method is conduit, tubing. Type AC 
cable. Type MC cable. Type MI cable, nonmetallic-sheathed 
cable, or other cables, a box or conduit body shall be installed 
at each conductor splice point, oudet point, switch point, junc- 
tion point, termination point, or pull point, unless otherwise 
permitted in 300.15(A) through (M). 

(A) Wiring Methods with Interior Access. A box or con- 
duit body shall not be required for each splice, junction, 
switch, pull, termination, or outlet points in wiring methods 
with removable covers, such as wireways, multioutlet as- 
semblies, auxiliary gutters, and surface raceways. The cov- 
ers shall be accessible after installation. 

(B) Equipment. An integral junction box or wiring com- 
partment as part of approved equipment shall be permitted 
in lieu of a box. 

(C) Protection. A box or conduit body shall not be re- 
quired where cables enter or exit from conduit or tubing 
that is used to provide cable support or protection against 
physical damage. A fitting