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Full text of "West Virginia Building Code"

87CSR4 



1 TITLE 87 

LEGISLATIVE RULE 

STATE FIRE COMMISSION 

SERIES 4 
STATE BUILDING CODE 



§87-4-1. General. 

1.1. Scope. ~ This rule establishes the 
standards considered necessary by the State Fire 
Commission for the safeguarding of life and 
property and to ensure compliance with the 
minimum standards of safe construction of all 
structures erected or renovated throughout this 
state. 

1.2. Authority. -- W. Va. Code §29-3-5b. 

1.3. Filing Date. -- March 23, 2007. 

1.4. Effective Date. -- April 1,2007. 

1.5. Incorporation of other Documents: This 
rule does not include a reprinting of all the 
requirements imposed by statute or by the 
incorporation of various nationally recognized 
standards and codes cited in Subsection 4.1 of 
this rule. For ascertaining these additional 
standards and requirements, it is necessary to 
make reference to the other documents. 

§87-4-2. Definitions. 

2.1. "ANSI" means "American National 
Standards Institute, 25 West 43^^^ St., Fourth 
Floor, New York, NY 10036. 

2.2. "ASTM" means American Society of 
Testing and Materials. 

2.3. "Fire Commission" means the thirteen 
(13) appointed members of the West Virginia 
State Fire Commission. 

2.4. "Fire marshal" means the West Virginia 
State Fire Marshal and/or his or her designated 
representatives. 

2.5. "Local jurisdiction" means municipal 
or county level government. 



2.6. "ICC" or "International" means 
"International Code Council", 5203 Leesburg 
Pike, Suite 600, Falls Church, Virginia 22041- 
3401. 

2.7. "NFPA" means "National Fire 
Protection Association", 1 Batterymarch Park, 

P O. Box 9101, Quincy, MA 02269-9101. 

2.8. "State Building Code" means the entire 
contents of this rule and the referenced national 
standards and codes. 

2.9. "State Fire Code" means the entire 
contents of State Fire Commission, State Fire 
Code, 87CSR1, and the referenced standards and 
codes. 

§87-4-3. Conflicts. 

3.1. Whenever there is a conflict between 
the State Fire Code and the State Building Code, 
the State Fire Code takes precedence. 

3.2. Whenever there is a conflict between 
the International Plumbing Code requirements 
of the State Building Code and the rules of the 
West Virginia State Department of Health and 
Human Resources, the rules of the Department 
of Health and Human Resources take 
precedence. 

3.3. Whenever there is a conflict between 
the State Building Code and statutory laws of 
the State of West Virginia, the laws of the State 
of West Virginia take precedence. 

§87-4-4. National Standards and Codes. 

4.1. The standards and requirements as set 
out and as published by the International Code 
Council, and American National Standards 
Institute, and the National Fire Protection 



87CSR4 



Association as listed in this subsection, have the 
same force and effect as if set out verbatim in 
this rule. 

4.1.1. The 2003 edition, International 
Building Code, Sixth Printing, with the 
following exceptions: 

4. 1.1. A. Provided; that the section 
entitled "Fire Prevention" and identified as 
Section 101.4.6 is deleted and not considered to 
be apart of this rule. 

4.I.I.B. Further provided that the 
entire section entitled "Board of Appeals" and 
identified as Section 112 is deleted and replaced 
with the following: 

Section 112 Board of Appeals 

112.3 Qualifications. The board of 
appeals shall consist of five members, with up to 
three alternates, who are qualified by experience 
and training to pass on matters pertaining to 
building construction and are not employees of 
the jurisdiction. They may include, but are not 
limited to, a WV Registered Professional 
Architect or Engineer, or a WV Licensed 
General Building, Residential, Electrical, Piping, 
Plumbing, Mechanical or Fire Protection 
Contractor, with at least 10 years experience, 
five of which shall be in responsible charge of 
work. 

4.1.2. The 2003 edition of the 
International Plumbing Code, Fifth Printing. 

4.1.3. The 2003 edition of the 
International Mechanical Code, Fourth Printing. 

4.1.4. The 2003 edition of the 
International Fuel Gas Code, Fifth Printing, with 
the following substitution: 

Section 404.9 Underground piping 
systems shall be installed a minimum depth of 
12 inches (305 mm) below grade. If the 
minimum depth cannot be maintained, the 
piping system shall be installed in conduit or 
shielded in an approved manner. 



4.1.5. The 2003 edition of the 
International Property Maintenance Code, 
Second Printing. This Code may be rejected at 
the option of the local jurisdiction. 

4. 1.5. A. This code may be adopted 
by the local jurisdiction without requiring 
adoption of the other national codes and 
standards listed in this section. 

4.1.6. The 2003 edition of the 
International Energy Conservation Code, Fifth 
Printing. 

4.1.7. The 2003 edition of the 
International Residential Code for One and Two 
Family Dwellings, Seventh Printing, with the 
following substitutions: 

Section G2415.9 (404.9) Minimum 
Burial Depth. Underground piping systems shall 
be installed a minimum depth of 12 inches (305 
mm) below grade. If the minimum depth cannot 
be maintained, the piping system shall be 
installed in conduit or shielded in an approved 
manner. 

Section R303.6. 4.1 Light Activation - 
The control for activation of the required interior 
stairway lighting shall be accessible at the top 
and bottom of each stairway without traversing 
any steps. The illumination of exterior stairways 
shall be controlled from inside the dwelling unit. 
Exceptions: 1. Lights that are continuously 
illuminated or automatically controlled. 2. 
Interior stairways consisting of less than three 
steps. 

Section R 311.4.3 Landings at doors - 
Where a stairway of two or fewer risers is 
located on the exterior side of a door, other than 
the required exit door, a landing is not required 
for the exterior side of the door. 



Section R311.5.3 Stair Treads and 



Risers 



311.5.3.1 Riser Heights - The maximum 
riser height shall be eight and one-quarter (8 % ) 
inches. 



87CSR4 



311.5.3.2 Tread Depth - The minimum 
tread depth shall be nine (9) inches. 

Section R403. 1.7.1: Building 

Clearances From Ascending Scopes is not 
applicable to this rule. 



Section R403. 1.7.1: 
From Descending Slope 
applicable to this rule. 



Footings Setbacks 
Surfaces is not 



4.1. 7.A Chapter 11 of the 2003 
edition of the International Residential Code for 
One and Two Family Dwellings, Seventh 
Printing, entitled "Energy Efficiency", is deleted 
and not considered to be a part of this rule. In 
lieu thereof, the following standards are adopted 
and made a part of this rule: 



Chapter 11 
Energy Efficiency 



Section Nil 01 



Nl 101.1 Performance Objective 

To provide cost-effective, energy-related requirements for design and construction of the building thermal 

envelope and heating- ventilating-air conditioning (HVAC) systems for one- and two-family dwellings. 

N1101.2 Building Thermal Envelope 

The minimum required installed R-value or maximum required U-value for all elements in the building 
thermal envelope (fenestration, roof/ceiling, opaque wall, floor, slab edge, crawl space wall, and basement 
wall) shall be determined by Table Nil 01, based on the building type and the climate zone where the 
building is located. Alternative compliance based on heat loss/gain calculations or systems analysis shall 
comply with Section Nil 01. 



TABLE Nl lOlPRESCRIPTIVE BUILDING ENVELOPE REQUIREMENTS 



BUILDING 
LOCATION 


MAXIMUM 
U-VALUE 




MINIMUM INSULATION 


ZONE 


HDD 


FENESTRATION 


ROOF/ 
CEILING 


FRAME 
WALL S3 


MASS 
WALLS 


FLOOR OVER 
OUTDOOR AIR OR 

UNCONDITIONED 
SPACE 


SLAB 

EDGE 

WIDTH/ 

DEPTH 


CRAWL 
SPACE 
WALL 


BASE MENT 
WALL 


I 


0-1,499 


ANY 


R-I9 


R-II 


R-4 


R-II 


R-0 


R-0 


R-0 


2 


1,500 
-2,999 


0.90 


R-22 


R-I3 


R-5 


R-I3 


R-0 


R-4 


R-0 


3 


3,000- 
3,999 


0.75 


R-26 


R-I3 


R-6 


R-I3 


R-4, 
2 FT 


R-5 


R-0 


4 


4,000- 
4,999 


0.65 


R-26 


R-I3 


R-7 


R-I3 


R-4 

2 FT 


R-8 


R-4 


5 


5,000- 
6,999 


0.55 


R-30 


R-I3 


R-8 


R-I9 


R-4, 
2 FT 


R-8 


R-4 


6 


7,000- 
8,999 


0.45 


R-30 


R-I3 


R-8 


R-I9 


R-5, 
2 FT. 


R-8 


R-8 


7 


9,000- 
12,999 


0.40 


R-38 


R-I9 


R-I4 


R-I9 


R-8, 
4 FT. 


R-IO 


R-8 



87CSR4 



NOTES: 

1 . Building envelopes must also meet the air infiltration requirements of Section Nl 1 1 . 

2. Insulation materials shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturers instructions. 

3. The sum of the R- values of cavity insulation and sheathing shall be used to determine the installed R- 
value. 

4. For slabs that incorporate heating ducts or pipes in climates above 1,000 HDD, add R-2 to the table 
values. 

5. The required R- value shall extend down to design frost depth in Zones 4 and 5, and down to the 
basement floor in zones 6 and 7. 

NllOl. 3 Floors 

Nl 101 .3. 1 Floors Over Outdoor Air or Unconditioned Areas - Floors over outdoor air or unconditioned 
areas shall meet the minimum R- value for Floor Over Outdoor Air or Unconditioned Space in Table 
Nil 01, based on the climate zone where the building is located. 

NllOl.3.2 Slabs-on-Ground - Slabs- on- ground, or slabs 12 inches or less below finished grade, shall 
meet the minimum R- value and depth/width dimension for Slab Edge in Table Nil 01, based on the 
climate zone where the building is located. The required R- value shall be applied to the exterior or 
interior of the foundation wall. Exterior insulation shall extend downward from the top of the slab and/or 
horizontally outward until the distance indicated in Table NllOl is reached. Interior insulation shall 
extend from the top of the slab downward and/or horizontally inward until the distance indicated in Table 
NllOl is reached. All horizontal insulation extending outward from the slab shall be covered by at least 
10 inches of soil. The top edge of insulation installed between the exterior wall and the interior slab shall 
be permitted to be cut at a 45° angle to allow the concrete surface to extend to the wall. Slab edge 
insulation shall not be required in areas of "very heavy" termite infestation probability, in accordance with 
the Termite infestation Probability Map in Figure R-301.2 (6). 

N1101.4 WALLS 

Nl 101 .4. 1 Wall Insulation - Opaque walls and band joists exposed to outside air or to unconditioned 
space shall meet the minimum R- value for Frame Wall or Mass Wall in Table NllOl, based on the wall 
type and the climate zone where the building is located. For Frame walls, the sum of the R- values of 
cavity insulation and insulated sheathing shall be used to determine the installed R- value. Walls exposed 
to unconditioned space shall have an R- value of R-13 when the minimum required R- value for the wall 
type in Table NllOl exceeds R-13. 

NllOl. 4. 2 Wood Frame Walls - Where insulated sheathing is used on wood frame walls in areas not 
otherwise required to have structural sheathing, the entire opaque wall shall be considered to be covered 
with the insulated sheathing for purposes of determining compliance with the minimum R-value for 
Frame Wall in Table NllOl. 

NllOl. 4. 3 Steel Frame Walls - When steel framing is used, insulated sheathing with an R-value not less 
than R-2. 5 in Zones 3 and 4 (3,000 - 4,999 HDD), R-5 in Zone 5 (5,000 - 6,999 HDD) and R-10 in 
Zones 6 and 7 (7,000 - 12,999 HDD) shall be installed in addition to the minimum required R-value for 
Frame Wall in Table NllOl. 



87CSR4 



NllOl.4.4 Mass Walls - Masonry or concrete walls having a mass greater than or equal to 30 pounds per 
cubic foot (pcf), solid wall walls having a mass greater than or equal to 20 pcf, and any other walls having 
a heat capacity greater than or equal to 6 Btu/ftY 2° shall be considered mass walls. Mass walls with 
exterior insulation or mass walls with integral insulation (insulation and mass mixed, such as log walls) 
shall be permitted to meet the Mass Wall criteria in Table NllOl based on the building type and the 
climate zone where the building is located. The R- value of mass walls with integral insulation shall be 
based on consideration of all elements of the wall assembly. Other mass walls shall meet the frame wall 
criteria for the building type and the climate zone where the building is located, based on the sum of the 
R- values of interior and exterior insulation. 

NllOl.4.5 Crawl Space Walls - All walls enclosing crawl spaces where the floor above the crawl space 
is not insulated in accordance with Table NllOl shall meet the minimum R- value for Crawl Space Wall in 
Table NllOl, based on the climate zone where the building is located. The required R- value shall be 
applied to the inside or outside of the crawl space wall. The insulation shall extend downward from the 
sill plate to the level of the inside ground surface. 

NllOl. 4. 6 Basement Walls - All basement walls enclosing conditioned space shall meet the minimum R- 
value for Basement Wall in Table NllOl, based on the climate zone where the building is located. The 
required R- value shall be applied on the inside or outside of the basement wall from the sill plate down to 
the design frost depth in Climate Zones 4 and 5, and to the basement floor in Zones 6 and 7. Buildings 
having basement walls with a maximum average exposure not greater than 12 inches above the adjacent 
grade, and having high efficiency equipment meeting the requirements specified in Table Nil 01. 4. 6 
based on the climate zone where the building is located, are not required to meet the minimum R- value 
for Basement Wall in Table NllOl.TABLE NllOl.4.6 

EQUIPMENT TRADE-OFF FOR BASEMENT WALL INSULATION 



BUILDING 
LOCATION 


GAS FURNACE WITH CENTRAL AIR 
CONDITIONING 


AIR SOURCE HEAT PUMP 


Zone 


HDD 


Minimum AFUE 


Minimum HSPF 


1-3 


0-3,999 


— 


— 


4-5 


4,000 - 
6,999 


88 


7.8 


6-7 


7,000- 
12,999 


90 


8.0 



NllOl. 4. 5 Masonry Veneer - When insulation is placed on the exterior of a slab edge, crawl space wall, 
or basement wall supporting masonry veneer, the horizontal surface supporting the veneer shall not be 
required to be insulated. 

NllOl. 4. 6 Protection of Foundation Insulation - Exposed insulating materials applied to the exterior of 
foundation walls shall be protected to prevent degradation of thermal performance. The protection shall 
extend at least 6 inches below finished grade. Plastic foam insulation used below grade shall comply with 
ASTM C578. 

NllOl. 5 FENESTRATION 



Nil 01. 5. 1 Labeling - The U- value of fenestration products (windows and glazed doors) shall be 
indicated on a label affixed to these products by the manufacturer or, where such values are not indicated, 
the U- value shall be determined in accordance with Table Nl 101.5.1. 



87CSR4 



TABLENllOl.5.1 

ASSUMED U- VALUE FOR WINDOWS AND GLAZED DOORS 



FRAME MATERIAL AND PRODUCT TYPE 


SINGLE GLAZED 


DOUBLE GLAZED 


Metal Without Thermal Break 


1.13 


0.70 


Metal with Thermal Break 


1.07 


0.63 


Reinforced Vinyl/Metal- Clad Wood/ 
Wood/Vinyl Fiberglass 


0.90 


0.55 



NllOl.5.2 Windows - For elements within the building thermal envelope, up to 6 square feet of glazed 
areas is exempt from the maximum required U- value in Table Nl 101.5. 1 

Nl 101 .5.3 Skylights - Minimum skylight requirements will be as follows: 

Zone 1 (0-1, 499 HDD): Any skylight is permitted. 

Zones 2, 3 (1,500 - 3,999 HDD): Any double glazed skyhght is permitted; and 

Zones 4 and above (4,000 HDD and above): Any double glazed skylight with a wood, vinyl or fiberglass 
frame. Metal clad frames will be permitted. 

NllOl.5.4 Opaque Doors - Opaque doors shall have a maximum U- value of 0.39 or minimum R- value 
of 2.5. When the U- value of the door is not provided by the manufacturer, it shall be determined in 
accordance with Table Nil 01. 5.1. One opaque door per dwelhng unit shall be permitted to be exempt 
from this U- value requirement. 

TABLENllOl.5.4 

ASSUMED R- VALUE FOR NON-GLAZED DOORS 



DOOR CONSTRUCTION 


WITH FOAM CORE 


WITHOUT FOAM CORE 


Steel Doors (1 % inches thick) 


0.35 


0.60 


Wood Doors (1 % inches thick) 


Without Storm Door 


With Storm Door 


Panel 

Hollow core flush 

Solid core flush 


0.54 
0.46 
0.40 


0.36 
0.32 
0.26 



N1101.6 ROOFS AND CEILINGS 

Roof/ceiling assemblies, including ceilings below unconditioned attics and cathedral ceilings, shall meet 
the minimum R- value for Roof/Ceiling in Table NllOl, based on the climate zone where the building is 
located. Insulation can be compressed or reduced at eaves to accommodate roof framing or ventilation. 

Exception: R-30 shall be required for cathedral ceilings whenever the required R-value for Roof/Ceiling 
in Table NllOl exceeds R-30. 

Nil 02 MOISTURE CONTROL 

In all framed walls, floors and roof/ceilings comprising elements of the building thermal envelope, an 
approved vapor retarder having a maximum rating of 1.0 perm shall be installed on the warm-in- winter 
side of the insulation. 



87CSR4 

Exception: 

1 . Where the insulated cavity of space is ventilated to allow moisture to escape. 

2. In hot and humid climate areas. 

Nil 03 AIR INFILTRATION 

The building envelope shall be designed and constructed to limit air infiltration to the conditioned area of 
the dwelling. All elements comprising the building thermal envelope, including all exterior joints, seams, 
or penetrations, shall be caulked, gasketed, taped or covered with moisture vapor permeable sheathing 
paper or house wrap on the exterior. All windows and doors installed in the building thermal envelope 
shall be weatherstripped, gasketed, or caulked. 

Nil 04 HVAC SYSTEMS 

Nl 1 04- 1 HVAC AND WATER HEATING APPLIANCES 

HVAC and service water heating appliances shall be labeled as complying with minimum efficiency 
requirements specified by the National Appliance Energy Conservation Act of 1987 and regulations 
adopted thereunder by the U. S. Department of Energy. 

Nil 04-2 CONTROLS 

Each heating, cooling, or combination heating and cooling system shall be provided with at least one 
adjustable thermostat for the regulation of temperature. 

Nil 04-3 AIR HANDLING DUCT SYSTEM 

Nl 104-3. 1 DUCT SEALING - All supply and return ducts located outside the building thermal envelope 
shall have joints sealed with gaskets, mastics, tapes installed in accordance with the manufacturers 
instructions, or by other approved methods. 

Nl 104-3.2 DUCT INSULATION - Minimum required duct insulation for all supply and return ducts 
located in unconditioned space shall be R-5 in all climatic zones. 

Nil 04-4 HEATING AND COOLING PIPING INSULATION 

All HVAC system piping carrying fluids with a temperature less than 55°F or greater than 120°F shall 

have minimum insulation thickness of V2 inch. 

Nil 05 ALTERNATIVE COMPLIANCE 

N1105-1 HEAT GAIN/HEAT LOSS CALCULATIONS 

Alternative compliance with the requirements of Table NllOl shall be permitted to be determined 
through a heat gain or heat loss calculation as follows: the required R- value or U- value of an element in 
the building thermal envelope in Table NllOl may be increased or decreased, provided the total heat gain 
or loss for the entire building does not exceed the total resulting from conformance to the values specified 
in Table NllOl. 

N1105-2 SYSTEMS ANALYSIS 

Alternative compliance with the requirements of this chapter shall be permitted to be determined through 

the use of a systems analysis using a standard design in accordancewith Table NllOl, and Section Nil 04. 



87CSR4 



A proposed design complies with this chapter if it has a projected annual energy use for heating, cooling 
and service water heating not greater than the energy use of the standard design, calculated in accordance 
with accepted engineering practices. Energy use for both homes shall be calculated based on the same 
assumptions and building location. The standard design shall have the same floor area, envelope 
component areas, building orientation, glazing orientation, door areas, and building geometry as the 
proposed design. 



4.1.8. The 2003 ICC/ANSI A117.1 
American National Standards for Accessibility 
& Usable Buildings & Facilities, First Printing. 

4.1.9. The 2003 International Existing 
Building Code, Third Printing, with the 
following exception: 

4. 1.9. A. Omit reference to 

International Fire Code and substitute NFPA 
Life Safety Code 2003 Edition. 

4. 1. 10. The 2005 edition of the National 
Electric Code, NFPA 70. 

§87-4-5. Exceptions. 

The following structures are not subject to 
inspection by local jurisdictions: 

Group U utility structures and storage sheds 
comprising an area not more than 150 sq. ft. 
which have no plumbing or electrical 
connections and are used only for residential 
storage purposes. (Examples include sheds that 
are for the residential storage of lawnmowers, 
tools, bicycles or furniture.) Not included are 
those utility structures and storage sheds which 
have plumbing or electrical connections are a 
non-residential use or for the storage of 
explosives or other hazardous or explosive 
materials. 

§87-4-6. Availability of Code Books. 

A copy of the codes listed in Subsection 4. 1 of 
this rule have been filed with the Secretary of 
State. These code books, collectively or 
separately, may be obtained by contacting the 
International Code Council, 4051 West 
Flossmoor Road, Country Club Hills, Illinois 
60478-5795, 1-888-422-7233, or the ICC Store, 
1-800-786-4452. 

§87-4-7. Adoption by Local Jurisdiction. 



7.1. Each local jurisdiction adopting the 
State Building Code shall notify the State Fire 
Commission in writing. The local jurisdiction 
shall send a copy of the ordinance or order to the 
State Fire Marshal, West Virginia State Fire 
Commission, 1207 Quarrier Street, 2nd floor, 
Charleston, West Virginia 25301, within thirty 
(30) days of adoption. 

7.2. Each local jurisdiction which adopts 
the State Building Code is responsible for the 
enforcement of the building code as provided in 
West Virginia Code 7-l-3n and 8-12-13. 

7.3. Throughout the national codes, adopted 
in subsection 4.1 of this rule, there are 
discretionary provisions or amendments which 
require further action by the adopting local 
jurisdiction in order to adapt these codes to 
various local conditions. The appendices are not 
a part of the code and must also be adopted by 
the local jurisdiction to be enforceable. It is 
therefore the intent of this rule to further 
authorize each local jurisdiction to further 
complete, by order or ordinance, those 
respective areas which are indicated to be 
completed by the adopting "jurisdiction" and 
any of the appendices the local jurisdiction 
wishes to adopt. 

7.4. Within the penalty sections of each of 
the national codes, adopted in Section 4.1 of this 
rule, there is a penalty for imprisonment. The 
provision of imprisonment for any violation of 
this rule is optional with each adopting local 
jurisdiction. 

7.5. Each of the national codes adopted in 
subsection 4.1 of this rule provides for a 
separate appeals board. However, the intent and 
requirements for an appeal board may be met 
with the creation by the local jurisdiction of a 
single appeals board for the entire "State 
Building Code." 



87CSR4 



§87-4-8. Existing Building Codes. 

8.1. All building codes which have been 
adopted by local jurisdictions prior to the 
passage of W. Va. Code §29-3-5b, in 1988, are 
null and void. 



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2003 International Building Code^ 



First Printing: December 2002 
Second Printing: June 2003 

Third Printing: November 2003 
Fourth Printing: March 2004 



ISBN # 1-892395-56-8 (soft) 

ISBN # 1-892395-55-X (loose-leaf) 

ISBN # 1-892395-79-7 (e-document) 



COPYRIGHT © 2002 

by 

INTERNATIONAL CODE COUNCIL, INC. 



ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. This 2003 International Building Code® is a copyrighted work owned by the International Code Coun- 
cil, Inc. Without advance written permission from the copyright owner, no part of this book may be reproduced, distributed, or trans- 
mitted in any form or by any means, including, without limitation, electronic, optical or mechanical means (by way of example and 
not limitation, photocopying, or recording by or in an information storage retrieval system). For information on permission to copy 
material exceeding fair use, please contact: Publications, 4051 West Flossmoor Road, Country Club Hills, IL 60478-5795 (Phone 
800-214-4321). 

Trademarks: "International Code Council," the "International Code Council" logo and the "International Building Code" are trade- 
marks of the International Code Council, Inc. 



PRINTED IN THE U.S.A. 



ra 



Internationally, code officials recognize the need for a modem, up-to-date building code addressing the design and installation of 
building systems through requirements emphasizing performance. The International Building Code®, in this 2003 edition, is de- 
signed to meet these needs through model code regulations that safeguard the public health and safety in all conmiunities, large and 
small. 

This comprehensive building code establishes minimum regulations for building systems using prescriptive and perfor- 
mance-related provisions. It is founded on broad-based principles that make possible the use of new materials and new building de- 
signs. This 2003 edition is fully compatible with all the International Codes ("I-Codes") published by the International Code 
Council (ICC), including the ICC Electrical Code, International Energy Conservation Code, International Existing Building Code, 
International Eire Code, International Fuel Gas Code, International Mechanical Code, ICC Performance Code, International 
Plumbing Code, International Private Sewage Disposal Code, International Property Maintenance Code, International Residen- 
tial Code, International Urban-Wildland Interface Code Sind International Zoning Code. 

The International Building Code provisions provide many benefits, among which is the model code development process that of- 
fers an international forum for building professionals to discuss performance and prescriptive code requirements. This forum pro- 
vides an excellent arena to debate proposed revisions. This model code also encourages international consistency in the application 
of provisions. 

De¥©[]@p[nni©[niti 

The first edition of the International Building Code (2000) was the culmination of an effort initiated in 1997 by the ICC. This in- 
cluded five drafting subcommittees appointed by ICC and consisting of representatives of the three statutory members of the Inter- 
national Code Council: Building Officials and Code Administrators International, Inc. (BOCA), International Conference of 
Building Officials (ICBO) and Southern Building Code Congress International (SBCCI). The intent was to draft a comprehensive 
set of regulations for building systems consistent with and inclusive of the scope of the exisdng model codes. Technical content of 
the latest model codes promulgated by BOCA, ICBO and SBCCI was utilized as the basis for the development, followed by public 
hearings in 1997, 1998 and 1999 to consider proposed changes. This 2003 edition presents the code as originally issued, with 
changes approved through the ICC Code Development Process through 2002. A new edition such as this is promulgated every three 
years. 

With the development and publication of the family of International Codes in 2000, the continued development and maintenance 
of the model codes individually promulgated by BOCA ("BOCA National Codes"), ICBO ("Uniform Codes") and SBCCI ("Stan- 
dard Codes") was discontinued. This 2003 International Building Code, as well as its predecessor — the 2000 edition, is intended to 
be the successor building code to those codes previously developed by BOCA, ICBO and SBCCI. 

The development of a single set of comprehensive and coordinated family of International Codes was a significant milestone in 
the development of regulations for the built environment. The timing of this pubhcation mirrors a milestone in the change in struc- 
ture of the model codes, namely, the pending Consolidation of BOCA, ICBO and SBCCI into the ICC. The activities and services 
previously provided by the individual model code organizations will be the responsibility of the Consolidated ICC. 

This code is founded on principles intended to establish provisions consistent with the scope of a building code that adequately 
protects public health, safety and welfare; provisions that do not unnecessarily increase construction costs; provisions that do not re- 
strict the use of new materials, products or methods of construction; and provisions that do not give preferential treatment to particu- 
lar types or classes of materials, products or methods of construction. 

AdoptiooT] 

The International Building Code is available for adoption and use by jurisdictions internationally. Its use within a governmental 
jurisdiction is intended to be accomplished through adoption by reference in accordance with proceedings establishing the jurisdic- 
tion's laws. At the time of adoption, jurisdictions should insert the appropriate information in provisions requiring specific local in- 
formation, such as the name of the adopting jurisdiction. These locations are shown in bracketed words in small capital letters in the 
code and in the sample ordinance. The sample adoption ordinance on page v addresses several key elements of a code adoption ordi- 
nance, including the information required for insertion into the code text. 



The International Building Code is kept up to date through the review of proposed changes submitted by code enforcing officials, 
industry representatives, design professionals and other interested parties. Proposed changes are carefully considered through an 
open code development process in which all interested and affected parties may participate. 

2003 INTERMATDOMAL BUDLDDiMG CODE® odd 



PREFACE 



The contents of this work are subject to change both through the Code Development Cycles and the governmental body that en- 
acts the code into law. For more information regarding the code development process, contact the Code and Standard Development 
Department of the International Code Council. 

While the development procedure of the International Building Code assures the highest degree of care, ICC and the founding 
members of ICC — BOCA, ICBO, SBCCI — their members and those participating in the development of this code do not accept any 
hability resulting from compliance or noncompliance with the provisions because ICC and its founding members do not have the 
power or authority to police or enforce compliance with the contents of this code. Only the governmental body that enacts the code 
into law has such authority. 

Letter Designations in Front of Section Numbers 

In each code development cycle, proposed changes to this code are considered at the Code Development Hearing by the Interna- 
tional Building Code Development Committee, whose action constitutes a recommendation to the voting membership for final ac- 
tion on the proposed change. Proposed changes to a code section whose number begins with a letter in brackets are considered by a 
different code development committee. For instance, proposed changes to code sections which have the letter [F] in front (e.g., [F] 
1001 .3), are considered by the International Fire Code Development Committee at the Code Development Hearing. Where this des- 
ignation is applicable to the entire content of a main section of the code, the designation appears at the main section number and title 
and is not repeated at every subsection in that section. 

The content of sections in this code which begin with a letter designation is maintained by another code development committee 
in accordance with the following: [E] = International Energy Conservation Code Development Committee; [EB] = International Ex- 
isting Building Code Development Committee; [EL] = ICC Electrical Code Development Committee; [F] = International Fire Code 
Development Committee; [M] = International Mechanical Code Development Committee; [P] = International Plumbing Code De- 
velopment Committee; [PC] = ICC Performance Code Development Committee; [PM] = International Property Maintenance Code 
Development Committee; [RBE] = International Residential Code Building and Energy Development Committee; [RMP] = Inter- 
national Residential Code Mechanical/Plumbing Development Committee; [UW] = International Urban- Wildland Interface Code 
Development Committee; and [Z] = International Zoning Code Development Committee. 

yarginai IVlarkings 

Solid vertical lines in the margins within the body of the code indicate a technical change from the requirements of the 2000 edi- 
tion. Deletion indicators ( ^ ) are provided in the margin where a paragraph or item has been deleted. 

Chapter 10 user note: Chapter 10 of the code has been reorganized from the 2000 edition as a result of an approved code change 
proposal. This resulted in a renumbering of the chapter from nine sections to 25. The presentation of text predominantly follows that 
of the 2000 edition; however, the section numbers have been revised. Marginal markings are included at each section number but 
have not been included to reflect the subsection renumbering. A comprehensive 2000/2003 Chapter 10 section number cross index 
is posted on the ICC website at www.intlcode.org. 



2003 SNTERNATtONAL BUILDING CODE® 



The International Codes are designed and promulgated to be adopted by reference by ordinance. Jurisdictions wishing to adopt the 
2003 International Building Code as an enforceable regulation governing structures and premises should ensure that certain fac- 
tual information is included in the adopting ordinance at the time adoption is being considered by the appropriate governmental 
body. The following sample adoption ordinance addresses several key elements of a code adoption ordinance, including the infor- 
mation required for insertion into the code text. 



THE iNTERI^ATI 



An ordinance of the [JURISDICTIION] adopting the 2003 edition of the International Building Code, regulating and governing the 
conditions and maintenance of all property, buildings and structures; by providing the standards for supplied utilities and facilities 
and other physical things and conditions essential to ensure that structures are safe, sanitary and fit for occupation and use; and the 
condemnation of buildings and structures unfit for human occupancy and use and the demohtion of such structures in the 

ICTBON]; providing for the issuance of permits and collection of fees therefor; repealing Ordinance No. of the 

and all other ordinances and parts of the ordinances in conflict therewith. 



The [GOVERMSMG BODY] of the [JURISDICTION] does ordain as follows: 

SectloE loThat a certain document, three (3) copies of which are on file in the office of the [TITLE ©F JURISDICTION'S KEEPER OF 
RECORDS] of [NAME OF JURISDICTION], being marked and designated as the International Building Code, 2003 edition, includ- 
ing Appendix Chapters [FILL IN THE APPENDIX CHAPTERS BEING ADOPTED] (see International Building Code Section 101.2.1, 
2003 edition), as published by the International Code Council, be and is hereby adopted as the Building Code of the 
[JURISDICTION], in the State of [STATE NAME] for regulating and governing the conditions and maintenance of all property, build- 
ings and structures; by providing the standards for supplied utihties and faciUties and other physical things and conditions essential 
to ensure that structures are safe, sanitary and fit for occupation and use; and the condemnation of buildings and structures unfit for 
human occupancy and use and the demolition of such structures as herein provided; providing for the issuance of permits and col- 
lection of fees therefor; and each and all of the regulations, provisions, penalties, conditions and terms of said Building Code on 
file in the office of the [JURISDICTION] are hereby referred to, adopted, and made a part hereof, as if fully set out in this ordinance, 
with the additions, insertions, deletions and changes, if any, prescribed in Section 2 of this ordinance. 

SecMom 2. The following sections are hereby revised: 

Section 101.1. Insert: [NAME OF JURISDICTION] 

Section 1612.3. Insert: [NAME OF JURISDICTION] 

Section 1612.3. Insert: [DATE OF ISSUANCE] 

Section 3410.2. Insert: [DATE IN ONE LOCATION] 

SectioE 3. That Ordinance No. of [JURISDICTION] entitled [FILL IN HERE THE COMPLETE TITLE OF THE ORDINANCE OR 

ORDINANCES IN EFFECT AT THE PRESENT TIME SO THAT THEY WILL BE REPEALED BY DEFINITE MENT50IS31 and all other ordi- 
nances or parts of ordinances in conflict herewith are hereby repealed. 

Sectlom 4o That if any section, subsection, sentence, clause or phrase of this ordinance is, for any reason, held to be unconstitu- 
tional, such decision shall not affect the validity of the remaining portions of this ordinance. The [GOVERNING BODY] hereby de- 
clares that it would have passed this ordinance, and each section, subsection, clause or phrase thereof, irrespective of the fact that 
any one or more sections, subsections, sentences, clauses and phrases be declared unconstitutional. 

Sectlom 5. That nothing in this ordinance or in the Building Code hereby adopted shall be construed to affect any suit or proceeding 
impending in any court, or any rights acquired, or liability incurred, or any cause or causes of action acquired or existing, under any 
act or ordinance hereby repealed as cited in Section 2 of this ordinance; nor shall any just or legal right or remedy of any character 
be lost, impaired or affected by this ordinance. 

Sectlom 6o That the [JURISDICTION'S KEEPER OF RECORDS] is hereby ordered and directed to cause this ordinance to be pub- 
lished. (An additional provision may be required to direct the number of times the ordinance is to be pubhshed and to specify that it 
is to be in a newspaper in general circulation. Posting may also be required.) 



7o That this ordinance and the rules, regulations, provisions, requirements, orders and matters established and adopted 
hereby shall take effect and be in full force and effect [TIME PERIOD] from and after the date of its final passage and adoption. 

2003 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® v 



vi 2003 INTERNATSONAL BUILDING CODE® 



• 



meu 



CHAPTER 1 ADMINISTRATION. » » . . , . , . . o » « . . . 1 
Section 

101 General 1 

102 Applicability 1 

103 Department of Building Safety 2 

104 Duties and Powers of Building Official 2 

105 Permits 3 

106 Construction Documents 5 

107 Temporary Structures and Uses 6 

108 Fees 6 

109 Inspections 7 

1 10 Certificate of Occupancy 7 

1 1 1 Service Utilities 8 

1 12 Board of Appeals 8 

113 Violations 8 

1 14 Stop Work Order 8 

115 Unsafe Structures and Equipment 9 

CHAPTER 2 DEFINITIONS . o,.o .... o, ...... o. 11 

Section 

201 General 11 

202 Definitions 11 

CHAPTER 3 USE AND OCCUPANCY 

CLASSIFICATION ............... 23 

Section 

301 General 23 

302 Classification 23 

303 Assembly Group A 24 

304 Business Group B 26 

305 Educational Group E 26 

306 Factory Group F 26 

307 High-Hazard Group H 27 

308 Institutional Group I 34 

309 Mercantile Group M 36 

310 Residential Group R 36 

311 Storage Group S 36 

312 Utility and Miscellaneous Group U 37 

CHAPTER 4 SPECIAL DETAILED 

REQUIREMENTS BASED ON 

USE AND OCCUPANCY .......... 39 

Section 

401 Scope 39 

402 Covered Mall Buildings 39 

403 High-Rise Buildings 41 



404 Atriums 43 

405 Underground Buildings 43 

406 Motor- Vehicle-Related Occupancies 44 

407 Group 1-2 48 

408 Group 1-3 49 

409 Motion Picture Projection Rooms 50 

410 Stages and Platforms 51 

411 Special Amusement Buildings 53 

412 Aircraft- Related Occupancies 54 

413 Combustible Storage 55 

414 Hazardous Materials 56 

415 Groups H-1, H-2, H-3, H-4 and H-5 59 

416 Application of Flammable Finishes 71 

417 Drying Rooms 72 

418 Organic Coatings 72 

CHAPTER 5 GENERAL BUILDING 

HEIGHTS AND AREAS ........... 73 

Section 

501 General 73 

502 Definitions 73 

503 General Height and Area Limitations 73 

504 Height Modifications 75 

505 Mezzanines 75 

506 Area Modifications 76 

507 Unlimited Area Buildings , 76 

508 Special Provisions 77 

CHAPTER <S TYPES OF CONSTRUCTION ...... 81 

Section 

601 General 81 

602 Construction Classification 81 

603 Combustible Material in Types I and II 

Construction 82 

CHAPTER 7 FIRE=RESISTANCE=EATED 

CONSTRUCTION ........,,....,, §S 

Section 

701 General 85 

702 Definitions 85 

703 Fire-Resistance Ratings and Fire Tests 86 

704 Exterior Walls 87 

705 Fire Walls 90 

706 Fire Barriers 92 

707 Shaft Enclosures 93 

708 Fire Partitions 95 



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709 Smoke Barriers 96 

710 Smoke Partitions 96 

711 Horizontal Assemblies 96 

712 Penetrations 97 

713 Fire-resistant Joint Systems 99 

714 Fire-resistance Rating of Structural Members ... 99 

715 Opening Protectives 100 

716 Ducts and Air Transfer Openings 103 

717 Concealed Spaces 107 

718 Fire-resistance Requirements for Plaster 108 

719 Thermal- and Sound-Insulating Materials 109 

720 Prescriptive Fire Resistance 109 

721 Calculated Fire Resistance 110 

CHAPTER 8 INTERIOR FINISHES o ..... o. o o . 157 
Section 

801 General 157 

802 Definitions 157 

803 Wall and Ceiling Finishes 157 

804 Interior Floor Finish 160 

805 Decorations and Trim 160 

CHAPTER 9 FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS ... 163 
Section 

901 General 163 

902 Definitions 163 

903 Automatic Sprinkler Systems 166 

904 Alternative Automatic 

Fire-Extinguishing Systems 170 

905 Standpipe Systems 171 

906 Portable Fire Extinguishers 173 

907 Fire Alarm and Detection Systems 173 

908 Emergency Alarm Systems 180 

909 Smoke Control Systems 181 

910 Smoke and Heat Vents 189 

911 Fire Command Center 191 

CHAPTER 10 MEANS OF EGRESS. ............ 193 

Section 

1001 Administration 193 

1002 Definitions 193 

1003 General Means of Egress 194 

1004 Occupant Load 195 

1005 Egress Width 196 

1006 Means of Egress Illumination 197 

1007 Accessible Means of Egress 197 

1008 Doors, Gates and Turnstiles 199 

1009 Stairways and Handrails 204 



1010 Ramps 206 

1011 Exit Signs 207 

1012 Guards 208 

1013 Exit Access 209 

1014 Exit and Exit Access Doorways 210 

1015 Exit Access Travel Distance 211 

1016 Corridors 212 

1017 Exits 213 

1018 Number of Exits and Continuity 213 

1019 Vertical Exit Enclosures 214 

1020 Exit Passageways 216 

1021 Horizontal Exits 216 

1022 Exterior Exit Ramps and Stairways 217 

1023 Exit Discharge 217 

1024 Assembly 219 

1025 Emergency Escape and Rescue 223 

CHAPTER 11 ACCESSIBILITY 225 

Section 

1 101 General 225 

1 102 Definitions 225 

1 103 Scoping Requirements 225 

1 104 Accessible Route 226 

1 105 Accessible Entrances 227 

1 106 Parking and Passenger Loading Facilities 228 

1107 Dwelling Units and Sleeping Units 228 

1 108 Special Occupancies 231 

1 109 Other Features and Facilities 233 

1 1 10 Signage 236 

CHAPTER 12 INTERIOR ENVIRONMENT ..... 239 
Section 

1201 General 239 

1202 Definitions 239 

1203 Ventilafion 239 

1204 Temperature Control 240 

1205 Lighfing 240 

1206 Yards or Courts 241 

1207 Sound Transmission 241 

1208 Interior Space Dimensions 241 

1209 Access to Unoccupied Spaces 242 

1210 Surrounding Materials 242 

CHAPTER 13 ENERGY EFFICIENCY .......... 243 

Section 

1301 General 243 



VSII 



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CHAPTER 14 EXTEMOM WALLS «. .......... o 245 

Section 

1401 General 245 

1402 Definitions 245 

1403 Performance Requirements 245 

1404 Materials 246 

1405 Installation of Wall Coverings 246 

1406 Combustible Materials on the 

Exterior Side of Exterior Walls 250 

1407 Metal Composite Materials (MCM) 251 

CHAPTER 15 ROOF ASSEMBLIES AND 

ROOFTOP STRUCTURES. ....... 253 

Section 

1501 General 253 

1502 Definitions 253 

1503 Weather Protection 253 

1504 Performance Requirements 254 

1505 Fire Classification 254 

1506 Materials 255 

1507 Requirements for Roof Coverings 255 

1508 Roof Insulafion 264 

1509 Rooftop Structures 264 

1510 Reroofing 265 

CHAPTER 16 STRUCTURAL DESIGN ......... 267 

Section 

1601 General 267 

1602 Definitions 267 

1603 Construction Documents 269 

1604 General Design Requirements 270 

1605 Load Combinations 273 

1606 Dead Loads 274 

1607 Live Loads 274 

1608 Snow Loads 279 

1609 Wind Loads 283 

1610 Soil Lateral Load 298 

1611 Rain Loads 298 

1612 Flood Loads 299 

1613 Earthquake Loads Definitions 301 

1614 Earthquake Loads — General 302 

1615 Earthquake Loads — Site Ground Motion 303 

1616 Earthquake Loads — Criteria Selection 325 

1617 Earthquake Loads — Minimum Design 

Lateral Force and Related Effects 329 

1618 Dynamic Analysis Procedure for the 

Seismic Design of Buildings 338 

1619 Earthquake Loads Soil-Structure 

Interaction Effects 338 



1620 Earthquake Loads — Design, Detailing 

Requirements and Structural Component 

Load Effects 338 

1621 Architectural, Mechanical and Electrical 

Component Seismic Design Requirements . . 342 

1622 Nonbuilding Structures Seismic Design 

Requirements 342 

1623 Seismically Isolated Structures 343 

CHAPTER 17 STRUCTURAL TESTS AND 

SPECIAL INSPECTIONS. ........ 345 

Section 

1701 General 345 

1702 Definitions 345 

1703 Approvals 345 

1704 Special Inspections 346 

1705 Quality Assurance for Seismic Resistance 353 

1706 Quality Assurance for Wind Requirements .... 354 

1707 Special Inspections for Seismic Resistance .... 355 

1708 Structural Testing for Seismic Resistance 356 

1709 Structural Observations 357 

1710 Design Strengths of Materials 357 

1711 Alternative Test Procedure 357 

1712 Test Safe Load 357 

1713 In-Situ Load Tests 358 

1714 Preconstruction Load Tests 358 

1715 Material and Test Standards 359 

CHAPTER 18 SOILS AND FOUNDATIONS ..... 361 
Section 

1801 General 361 

1802 Foundation and Soils Investigations 361 

1803 ExcavaUon, Grading and Fill 362 

1804 Allowable Load-Bearing Values of Soils 363 

1805 Footings and Foundations 364 

1806 Retaining Walls 372 

1807 Dampproofing and Waterproofing 372 

1808 Pier and Pile Foundations 373 

1809 Driven Pile Foundations 378 

1810 Cast-in-Place Concrete Pile Foundafions 381 

1811 Composite Piles 384 

1812 Pier Foundations385 

CHAPTER 19 CONCRETE .................... 387 

Section 

1901 General 387 

1902 Definitions 387 

1903 Specifications for Tests and Materials 388 

1904 Durability Requirements 389 



2003 DNTERIMMDONAL BUILDING CODE® 



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1905 Concrete Quality, Mixing and Placing 392 

1906 Formwork, Embedded Pipes and 

Construction Joints 394 

1907 Details of Reinforcement 395 

1908 Modifications to ACI 318 397 

1909 Structural Plain Concrete 398 

1910 Seismic Design Provisions 399 

1911 Minimum Slab Provisions 400 

1912 Anchorage to Concrete — Allowable 

Stress Design 400 

1913 Anchorage to Concrete — Strength Design 401 

1914 Shotcrete 401 

1915 Reinforced Gypsum Concrete 402 

1916 Concrete-Filled Pipe Columns 403 

CHAPTER 20 ALUMINUM 405 

Section 

2001 General 405 

2002 Materials 405 

CHAPTER 21 MASONRY . ........ .^ ....... .o, 407 

Section 

2101 General 407 

2102 Definitions and Notations 407 

2103 Masonry Construction Materials 410 

2104 Construction 414 

2105 Quality Assurance 416 

2106 Seismic Design 417 

2107 Working Stress Design 418 

2108 Strength Design of Masonry 419 

2109 Empirical Design of Masonry 419 

2110 Glass Unit Masonry 425 

2111 Masonry Fireplaces 427 

2112 Masonry Heaters 431 

2113 Masonry Chimneys 431 

CHAPTER 22 STEEL 437 

Section 

2201 General 437 

2202 Definitions and Nomenclature 437 

2203 Identification and Protection of Steel 

for Structural Purposes 437 

2204 Connections 437 

2205 Structural Steel 439 

2206 Steel Joists 439 

2207 Steel Cable Structures 439 

2208 Steel Storage Racks 439 

2209 Cold-Formed Steel 439 

2210 Cold-Formed Steel Light Framed Construction. 440 



221 1 Cold-Formed Steel Light-Framed Shear Walls . 440 

CHAPTER 23 WOOD 445 

Section 

2301 General 445 

2302 Definitions 445 

2303 Minimum Standards and Quality 446 

2304 General Construction Requirements 449 

2305 General Design Requirements for 

Lateral-Force-Resisting Systems 457 

2306 Allowable Stress Design 463 

2307 Load and Resistance Factor Design 470 

2308 Conventional Light-Frame Construction 472 

CHAPTER 24 GLASS AND GLAZING 515 

Section 

2401 General 515 

2402 Definitions 515 

2403 General Requirements for Glass 515 

2404 Wind, Snow, Seismic and Dead Loads on Glass .515 

2405 Sloped Glazing and Skylights 523 

2406 Safety Glazing 524 

2407 Glass in Handrails and Guards 526 

2408 Glazing in Athletic Facilides 526 

2409 Glass in Floors and Sidewalks 526 

CHAPTER 25 GYPSUM BOARD 

AND PLASTER. 529 

Section 

2501 General 529 

2502 Definifions 529 

2503 Inspection 529 

2504 Vertical and Horizontal Assemblies 529 

2505 Shear Wall Construction 529 

2506 Gypsum Board Materials 530 

2507 Lathing and Plastering 530 

2508 Gypsum Construction 530 

2509 Gypsum Board in Showers and 

Water Closets 531 

2510 Lathing and Furring for Cement 

Plaster (Stucco) 532 

25 1 1 Interior Plaster 532 

2512 Exterior Plaster 533 

2513 Exposed Aggregate Plaster 533 

CHAPTER 26 PLASTIC , 535 

Section 

2601 General 535 

2602 Definitions 535 



2003 iNTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



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2603 Foam Plastic Insulation 535 

2604 Interior Finish and Trim 538 

2605 Plastic Veneer 538 

2606 Light-Transmitting Plastics 538 

2607 Light-Transmitting Plastic Wall Panels 539 

2608 Light-Transmitting Plastic Glazing 540 

2609 Light-Transmitting Plastic Roof Panels 540 

2610 Light-Transmitting Plastic Skylight Glazing ... 541 

261 1 Light-Transmitting Plastic Interior Signs 542 

CHAPTER 27 ELECTRICAL o « . . = . » . . o , . , o » « . , 543 
Section 

2701 General 543 

2702 Emergency and Standby Power Systems 543 

CHAPTER 28 MECHANICAL SYSTEMS . . . o , , . 545 

Section 

2801 General 545 

CHAPTER 29 PLUMBING SYSTEMS. . . . . . . , , o . 547 

Section 

2901 General 547 

2902 Minimum Plumbing Facilities 547 

CHAPTER 3® ELEVATORS AND 

CONVEYING SYSTEMS . o ....... 551 

Section 

3001 General 551 

3002 Hoistway Enclosures 551 

3003 Emergency Operations 551 

3004 Hoistway Venting 552 

3005 Conveying Systems 552 

3006 Machine Rooms 553 

CHAPTER 31 SPECIAL CONSTRUCTION ...... 555 

Section 

3101 General 555 

3102 Membrane Structures 555 

3103 Temporary Structures 556 

3104 Pedestrian Walkways and Tunnels 556 

3105 Awnings and Canopies 557 

3106 Marquees 558 

3107 Signs 558 

3108 Radio and Television Towers 558 

3109 Swimming Pool Enclosures and Safety Devices 558 



CHAPTER 32 ENCROACHMENTS INTO THE 



Section 

3201 General 561 

3202 Encroachments 561 

CHAPTER 33 SAFEGUARDS DURING 

CONSTRUCTION ............... 563 

Section 

3301 General 563 

3302 Construction Safeguards 563 

3303 Demolition 563 

3304 Site Work 563 

3305 Sanitary 563 

3306 Protection of Pedestrians 563 

3307 Protection of Adjoining Property 565 

3308 Temporary Use of Streets, Alleys and 

Public Property 565 

3309 Fire Extinguishers 565 

3310 Exits 565 

3311 Standpipes 565 

3312 Automatic Sprinkler System 566 

CHAPTER 34 EXISTING STRUCTURES. ... .... 567 

Section 

3401 General 567 

3402 Definitions 567 

3403 Additions, Alterations or Repairs 567 

3404 Fire Escapes 567 

3405 Glass Replacement 568 

3406 Change of Occupancy 568 

3407 Historic Buildings 568 

3408 Moved Structures 568 

3409 Accessibility for Existing Buildings 568 

3410 Compliance Alternatives 570 



APPENDIX A EMPLOYEE QUALIFICATIONS . . 597 
Section 

AlOl Building Official Qualifications 597 

A102 Referenced Standards 597 

APPENDIX I 

Section 

BlOl General 599 



2003 INTERMMDONAL BUILDIMG CODE® 



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APPENDIX C GROUP U— AGRICULTURAL 

BUILDINGS ....... o o ...... o .. . 

Section 

ClOl General 601 

C102 Allowable Height and Area 601 

C103 Mixed Occupancies 601 

C104 Exits 601 

APPENDIX D FIRE DISTRICTS ............... 603 

Section 

DlOl General 603 

D102 Building Restrictions 603 

D103 Changes to Buildings 604 

D104 Buildings Located Partially in the 

Fire District 604 

D105 Exceptions to Restrictions in Fire District 604 

D106 Referenced Standards 605 

APPENDIX E SUPPLEMENTARY ACCESSIBILITY 
REQUIREMENTS ............... 607 

Section 

ElOl General 607 

E102 Definitions 607 

E103 Accessible Route 607 

E104 Special Occupancies 607 

El 05 Other Features and Facilities 608 

E106 Telephones 608 

E107 Signage 609 

E108 Bus Stops 610 

El 09 Transportation Facilities and Stations 610 

El 10 Airports 611 

El 1 1 Qualified Historic Buildings and Facilities .... 611 

El 12 Referenced Standards 612 

APPENDIX F RODENT PROOFING. 613 

Section 

FlOl General 613 

APPENDIX G FLOOD-RESISTANT 

CONSTRUCTION ............... 615 ' 

Section 

GlOl Administration 615 

G102 Applicability 615 

G103 Powers and Duties 615 

G104 Permits 616 

G105 Variances 616 

G201 Definitions 617 

G301 Subdivisions 618 

G401 Site Improvement 618 



G501 Manufactured Homes 618 

G601 Recreational Vehicles 618 

G701 Tanks 618 

G702 Referenced Standards 619 

APPEN 
Section 

HlOl General 621 

H102 Definitions 621 

H103 Location 621 

H104 Identification 621 

H105 Design and Construction 621 

H106 Electrical 622 

H107 Combustible Materials 622 

H108 Animated Devices 622 

H109 Ground Signs 622 

HI 10 Roof Signs 623 

Hill Wall Signs 623 

HI 12 Projecting Signs 623 

HI 13 Marquee Signs 624 

HI 14 Portable Signs 624 

HI 15 Referenced Standards 624 

APPENDIX I PATIO COVERS 625 

Section 

1101 General 625 

1102 Definitions 625 

1103 Exterior Openings 625 

1104 Structural Provisions 625 

APPENDIX J GRADING 627 

JlOl General 627 

J102 Definitions 627 

J 103 Permits Required 627 

J104 Permit Application and Submittals 627 

J105 Inspections 628 

J106 Excavations 628 

J107 Fills 628 

J108 Setbacks 629 

J109 Drainage and Terracing 629 

Jl 10 Erosion Control 630 

Jill Referenced Standards 630 



2003 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



CHAPTER 1 

ADiiir<ltSTOATE 



lOlol Title. These regulations shall be known as the Building 
Code of [NAME OF JURISDICTION], hereinafter referred to as 
"this code." 

lOlol Scope. The provisions of this code shall apply to the con- 
struction, alteration, movement, enlargement, replacement, re- 
pair, equipment, use and occupancy, location, maintenance, 
removal and demolition of every building or structure or any 
appurtenances connected or attached to such buildings or struc- 
tures. 

Exceptnomsi 

1 . Detached one- and two-family dwellings and multiple 
single-family dwellings (town houses) not more than 
three stories above grade plane in height with a sepa- 
rate means of egress and their accessory structures 
shall comply with the International Residential Code. 

2. Existing buildings undergoing repair, alterations or 
additions and change of occupancy shall be permitted 
to comply with the International Existing Building 
Code. 

101.2.1 Appemdices. Provisions in the appendices shall not 
apply unless specifically adopted. 



nances, including ventilating, heating, cooling, air-condi- 
tioning and refrigeration systems, incinerators and other en- 
ergy-related systems. 



, The purpose of this code is to establish the mini- 
mum requirements to safeguard the public health, safety and 
general welfare through structural strength, means of egress fa- 
cilities, stability, sanitation, adequate light and ventilation, en- 
ergy conservation, and safety to life and property from fire and 
other hazards attributed to the built environment and to provide 
□ safety to fire fighters and emergency responders during emer- 
gency operations. 

101,4 MelFereinicedl codes. The other codes listed in Sections 
101.4.1 through 101.4.7 and referenced elsewhere in this code 
shall be considered part of the requirements of this code to the 
prescribed extent of each such reference. 

101.4.1 ElectricaD. The provisions of the ICC Electrical 
Code shall apply to the installation of electrical systems, in- 
cluding alterations, repairs, replacement, equipment, appli- 
ances, fixtures, fittings and appurtenances thereto. 

101.4.2 Gas. The provisions of the International Fuel Gas 
Code shall apply to the installation of gas piping from the 
point of dehvery, gas appliances and related accessories as 
covered in this code. These requirements apply to gas piping 
systems extending from the point of delivery to the inlet 
connections of appliances and the installation and operation 
of residential and commercial gas appHances and related ac- 
cessories. 



The provisions of the International 
Mechanical Code shall apply to the installation, alterations, 
repairs and replacement of mechanical systems, including 
equipment, appliances, fixtures, fittings and/or appurte- 



ng. The provisions of the International 
Plumbing Code shall apply to the installation, alteration, re- 
pair and replacement of plumbing systems, including equip- 
ment, appHances, fixtures, fittings and appurtenances, and 
where connected to a water or sewage system and all aspects 
of a medical gas system. The provisions of the International 
Private Sewage Disposal Code shall apply to private sewage 
disposal systems. 

101.4.5 Property maintemamce. The provisions of the In- 
ternational Property Maintenance Code shall apply to ex- 
isting structures and premises; equipment and facilities; 
light, ventilation, space heating, sanitation, life and fire 
safety hazards; responsibilities of owners, operators and oc- 
cupants; and occupancy of existing premises and structures. 



B. The provisions of the Interna- 
tional Fire Code shall apply to matters affecting or relating 
to structures, processes and premises from the hazard of fire 
and explosion arising from the storage, handling or use of 
structures, materials or devices; from conditions hazardous 
to life, property or public welfare in the occupancy of struc- 
tures or premises; and from the construction, extension, re- 
pair, alteration or removal of fire suppression and alarm 
systems or fire hazards in the structure or on the premises 
from occupancy or operation. 

101.4.7 Emergy. The provisions of the International Energy 
Conservation Code shall apply to all matters governing the 
design and construction of buildings for energy efficiency. 



102.1 GemeraB. Where, in any specific case, different sections 
of this code specify different materials, methods of construc- 
tion or other requirements, the most restrictive shall govern. 
Where there is a conflict between a general requirement and a 
specific requirement, the specific requirement shall be applica- 
ble. 



/§. The provisions of this code shall not be 
deemed to nulhfy any provisions of local, state or federal law. 

102.3 Applkatloii off referemces. References to chapter or sec- 
tion numbers, or to provisions not specifically identified by 
number, shall be construed to refer to such chapter, section or 
provision of this code. 



5. The codes and stan- 
dards referenced in this code shall be considered part of the re- 
quirements of this code to the prescribed extent of each such 
reference. Where differences occur between provisions of this 
code and referenced codes and standards, the provisions of this 
code shall apply. 



2003 DNTERNATIIONAL BUIILDBMG CODE® 



ADMINISTRATION 



102.5 Partial invalidity. In the event that any part or provision 
of this code is held to be illegal or void, this shall not have the 
effect of making void or illegal any of the other parts or provi- 
sions. 

102.6 Existing structures. The legal occupancy of any struc- 
ture existing on the date of adoption of this code shall be per- 
mitted to continue without change, except as is specifically 
covered in this code, the International Property Maintenance 
Code or the International Fire Code, or as is deemed necessary 
by the building official for the general safety and welfare of the 
occupants and the public. 



SECTION 103 
DEPARTMENT OF BUILDING SAFETY 

103.1 Creation of enforcement agency. The Department of 
Building Safety is hereby created and the official in charge 
thereof shall be known as the building official. 

103.2 Appointment. The building official shall be appointed 
by the chief appointing authority of the jurisdiction. 

103.3 Deputies. In accordance with the prescribed procedures 
of this jurisdiction and with the concurrence of the appointing 
authority, the building official shall have the authority to ap- 
point a deputy building official, the related technical officers, 
inspectors, plan examiners and other employees. Such employ- 
ees shall have powers as delegated by the building official. For 
the maintenance of existing properties, see the International 
Property Maintenance Code. 



SECTION 104 
DUTIES AND POWERS OF BUILDING OFFICIAL 

104.1 General. The building official is hereby authorized and 
directed to enforce the provisions of this code. The building of- 
ficial shall have the authority to render interpretations of this 
code and to adopt policies and procedures in order to clarify the 
appUcation of its provisions. Such interpretations, policies and 
procedures shall be in compliance with the intent and purpose 
of this code. Such policies and procedures shall not have the ef- 
fect of waiving requirements specifically provided for in this 
code. 

104.2 Applications and permits. The building official shall 
receive applications, review construction documents and issue 
permits for the erection, and alteration, demolition and moving 
of buildings and structures, inspect the premises for which such 
permits have been issued and enforce compliance with the pro- 
visions of this code. 

104.3 Notices and orders. The building official shall issue all 
necessary notices or orders to ensure compliance with this 
code. 

104.4 Inspections. The building official shall make all of the 
required inspections, or the building official shall have the au- 
thority to accept reports of inspection by approved agencies or 
individuals. Reports of such inspections shall be in writing and 
be certified by a responsible officer of such approved agency or 
by the responsible individual. The building official is autho- 
rized to engage such expert opinion as deemed necessary to re- 



port upon unusual technical issues that arise, subject to the ap- 
proval of the appointing authority. 

104.5 Identification. The building official shall carry proper 
identification when inspecting structures or premises in the 
performance of duties under this code. 

104.6 Right off entry. Where it is necessary to make an inspec- 
tion to enforce the provisions of this code, or where the building 
official has reasonable cause to believe that there exists in a 
structure or upon a premises a condition which is contrary to or 
in violation of this code which makes the structure or premises 
unsafe, dangerous or hazardous, the building official is autho- 
rized to enter the structure or premises at reasonable times to in- 
spect or to perform the duties imposed by this code, provided 
that if such structure or premises be occupied that credentials 
be presented to the occupant and entry requested. If such struc- 
ture or premises is unoccupied, the building official shall first 
make a reasonable effort to locate the owner or other person 
having charge or control of the structure or premises and re- 
quest entry. If entry is refused, the building official shall have 
recourse to the remedies provided by law to secure entry. 



L7 Department records. The building official shall keep 
official records of applications received, permits and certifi- 
cates issued, fees collected, reports of inspections, and notices 
and orders issued. Such records shall be retained in the official 
records for the period required for retention of public records. 

104.8 LlablMty. The building official, member of the board of 
appeals or employee charged with the enforcement of this code, 
while acting for the jurisdiction in good faith and without mal- 
ice in the discharge of the duties required by this code or other 
pertinent law or ordinance, shall not thereby be rendered liable 
personally and is hereby relieved from personal liability for any 
damage accruing to persons or property as a result of any act or 
by reason of an act or omission in the discharge of official du- 
ties. Any suit instituted against an officer or employee because 
of an act performed by that officer or employee in the lawful 
discharge of duties and under the provisions of this code shall 
be defended by legal representative of the jurisdiction until the 
final termination of the proceedings. The building official or 
any subordinate shall not be liable for cost in any action, suit or 
proceeding that is instituted in pursuance of the provisions of 
this code. 

104.9 Approved materials and equipment. Materials, equip- 
ment and devices approved by the building official shall be con- 
structed and installed in accordance with such approval. 

104.9.1 Used materials and equipment. The use of used 
materials which meet the requirements of this code for new 
materials is permitted. Used equipment and devices shall 
not be reused unless approved by the building official. 

104.10 Modifications. Wherever there are practical difficulties 
involved in carrying out the provisions of this code, the build- 
ing official shall have the authority to grant modifications for 
individual cases, upon application of the owner or owner's rep- 
resentative, provided the building official shall first find that 
special individual reason makes the strict letter of this code im- 
practical and the modification is in compliance with the intent 
and purpose of this code and that such modification does not 
lessen health, accessibility, life and fire safety, or structural re- 
quirements. The details of action granting modifications shall 



2003 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



• 



be recorded and entered in the files of the department of build- 
ing safety. 

1(0)4.11 Alteraative maternals, desSgmi amdl meltlhods off com- 
stmnctnoini audi eqeipMemL The provisions of this code are not 
intended to prevent the installation of any material or to pro- 
hibit any design or method of construction not specifically pre- 
scribed by this code, provided that any such alternative has 
been approved. An alternative material, design or method of 
construction shall be approved where the building official finds 
that the proposed design is satisfactory and comphes with the 
intent of the provisions of this code, and that the material, 
method or work offered is, for the purpose intended, at least the 
equivalent of that prescribed in this code in quality, strength, ef- 
fectiveness, fire resistance, durability and safety. 

IM.11.1 Eesearclh reports. Supporting data, where neces- 
sary to assist in the approval of materials or assemblies not 
specifically provided for in this code, shall consist of valid 
research reports from approved sources. 

1(0)4.11,2 Tests. Whenever there is insufficient evidence of 
compliance with the provisions of this code, or evidence that 
a material or method does not conform to the requirements 
of this code, or in order to substantiate claims for alternative 
materials or methods, the building official shall have the au- 
thority to require tests as evidence of compliance to be made 
at no expense to the jurisdiction. Test methods shall be as 
specified in this code or by other recognized test standards. 
In the absence of recognized and accepted test methods, the 
building official shall approve the testing procedures. Tests 
shall be performed by an approved agency. Reports of such 
tests shall be retained by the building official for the period 
required for retention of public records. 



SECTBOM 105 
PERiiDTS 

KDS.l MeqinSredl, Any owner or authorized agent who intends 
to construct, enlarge, alter, repair, move, demoUsh, or change 
the occupancy of a building or structure, or to erect, install, en- 
large, alter, repair, remove, convert or replace any electrical, 
gas, mechanical or plumbing system, the installation of which 
is regulated by this code, or to cause any such work to be done, 
shall first make application to the building official and obtain 
the required permit. 

1(0)5.1,1 AmEinal permit. In lieu of an individual permit for 
each alteration to an already approved electrical, gas, me- 
chanical or plumbing installation, the building official is au- 
thorized to issue an annual permit upon application therefor 
to any person, firm or corporation regularly employing one 
or more qualified tradepersons in the building, structure or 
on the premises owned or operated by the applicant for the 
permit. 

1(155.1.2 Ammaial permit records. The person to whom an 
annual permit is issued shall keep a detailed record of alter- 
ations made under such annual permit. The building official 
shall have access to such records at all times or such records 
shall be filed with the building official as designated. 



zation for any work to be done in any manner in violation of the 
provisions of this code or any other laws or ordinances of this 
jurisdiction. Permits shall not be required for the following: 



1. One-story detached accessory structures used as 
tool and storage sheds, playhouses and similar uses, 
provided the floor area does not exceed 120 square 
feet (11.15 m2). 

2. Fences not over 6 feet (1829 mm) high. 

3. Oil derricks. 

4. Retaining walls which are not over 4 feet (1219 mm) 
in height measured from the bottom of the footing to 
the top of the wall, unless supporting a surcharge or 
impounding Class I, II or III-A liquids. 

5 . Water tanks supported directly on grade if the capac- 
ity does not exceed 5,000 gallons (18 925 L) and the 
ratio of height to diameter or width does not exceed 
2tol. 

6. Sidewalks and driveways not more than 30 inches 
(762 mm) above grade and not over any basement or 
story below and which are not part of an accessible 
route. 

7. Painting, papering, tihng, carpeting, cabinets, coun- 
ter tops and similar finish work. 

8. Temporary motion picture, television and theater 
stage sets and scenery. 

9. Prefabricated swimming pools accessory to a Group 
R-3 occupancy, as apphcable in Section 101.2, 
which are less than 24 inches (610 mm) deep, do not 
exceed 5,000 gallons (18 925 L) and are installed en- 
tirely above ground. 

10. Shade cloth structures constructed for nursery or ag- 
ricultural purposes and not including service sys- 
tems. 

1 1 . Swings and other playground equipment accessory 
to detached one- and two-family dwellings. 

12. Window awnings supported by an exterior wall 
which do not project more than 54 inches (1372 
mm) from the exterior wall and do not require addi- 
tional support of Group R-3, as applicable in Section 
101.2, and Group U occupancies. 

13. Movable cases, counters and partitions not over 5 
feet 9 inches (1753 mm) in height. 

Electrical I 



maimtemainice; Minor repair work, includ- 
ing the replacement of lamps or the connection of ap- 
proved portable electrical equipment to approved 
permanently installed receptacles. 



ant. Exemptions from permit 
requirements of this code shall not be deemed to grant authori- 



is; The provi- 
sions of this code shall not apply to electrical equipment 
used for radio and television transmissions, but do apply 
to equipment and wiring for power supply, the installa- 
tions of towers and antennas. 

Temporary testing systems: A permit shall not be re- 
quired for the installation of any temporary system re- 



2003 DNTERMATIONAL BUJLDJMG CODE® 



ADIWINISTRATION 



quired for the testing or servicing of electrical equipment 
or apparatus. 

Gasi 

1. Portable heating appliance. 

2. Replacement of any minor part that does not alter ap- 
proval of equipment or make such equipment unsafe. 

Mechanical: 

1 . Portable heating appliance. 

2. Portable ventilation equipment. 

3. Portable cooling unit. 

4. Steam, hot or chilled water piping within any heating 
or coohng equipment regulated by this code. 

5. Replacement of any part which does not alter its ap- 
proval or make it unsafe. 

6. Portable evaporative cooler. 

7. Self-contained refrigeration system containing 10 
pounds (4.54 kg) or less of refrigerant and actuated by 
motors of 1 horsepower (746 W) or less. 

Plumbing: 

1 . The stopping of leaks in drains, water, soil, waste or 
vent pipe provided, however, that if any concealed 
trap, drain pipe, water, soil, waste or vent pipe be- 
comes defective and it becomes necessary to remove 
and replace the same with new material, such work 
shall be considered as new work and a permit shall be 
obtained and inspection made as provided in this 
code. 

2. The clearing of stoppages or the repairing of leaks in 
pipes, valves or fixtures, and the removal and reinstal- 
lation of water closets, provided such repairs do not 
involve or require the replacement or rearrangement 
of valves, pipes or fixtures. 

105.2.1 Emergency repairs. Where equipment replace- 
ments and repairs must be performed in an emergency situa- 
tion, the permit application shall be submitted within the 
next working business day to the building official. 

105.2.2 Repairs. Application or notice to the building offi- 
cial is not-.required for ordinary repairs to structures, re- 
placement of lamps or the connection of approved portable 
electrical equipment to approved permanently installed re- 
ceptacles. Such repairs shall not include the cutting away of 
any wall, partition or portion thereof, the removal or cutting 
of any structural beam or load-bearing support, or the re- 
moval or change of any required means of egress, or rear- 
rangement of parts of a structure affecting the egress 
requirements; nor shall ordinary repairs include addition to, 
alteration of, replacement or relocation of any standpipe, 
water supply, sewer, drainage, drain leader, gas, soil, waste, 
vent or similar piping, electric wiring or mechanical or other 
work affecting public health or general safety. 

105.2.3 Public service agencies. A permit shall not be re- 
quired for the installation, alteration or repair of generation, 
transmission, distribution or metering or other related 
equipment that is under the ownership and control of pubhc 
service agencies by established right. 



105.3 Application for permit. To obtain a permit, the appli- 
cant shall first file an apphcation therefor in writing on a form 
furnished by the department of building safety for that purpose. 
Such application shall: 

1 . Identify and describe the work to be covered by the per- 
mit for which application is made. 

2. Describe the land on which the proposed work is to be 
done by legal description, street address or similar de- 
scription that will readily identify and definitely locate 
the proposed building or work. 

3. Indicate the use and occupancy for which the proposed 
work is intended. 

4. Be accompanied by construction documents and other 
information as required in Section 106.3. 

5. State the valuation of the proposed work. 

6. Be signed by the applicant, or the apphcant's authorized 
agent. 

7. Give such other data and information as required by the 
building official. 

105.3.1 Action on application. The building official shall 
examine or cause to be examined applications for permits 
and amendments thereto within a reasonable time after fil- 
ing. If the application or the construction documents do not 
conform to the requirements of pertinent laws, the building 
official shall reject such apphcation in wrifing, stating the 
reasons therefor. If the building official is satisfied that the 
proposed work conforms to the requirements of this code 
and laws and ordinances applicable thereto, the building of- 
ficial shall issue a permit therefor as soon as practicable. 

105.3.2 Time limitation of application. An application for 
a permit for any proposed work shall be deemed to have 
been abandoned 1 80 days after the date of filing, unless such 
application has been pursued in good faith or a permit has 
been issued; except that the building official is authorized to 
grant one or more extensions of time for additional periods 
not exceeding 90 days each. The extension shall be re- 
quested in writing and justifiable cause demonstrated. 

105.4 Validity of permit. The issuance or granting of a permit 
shall not be construed to be a permit for, or an approval of, any 
violation of any of the provisions of this code or of any other or- 
dinance of the jurisdiction. Permits presuming to give authority 
to violate or cancel the provisions of this code or other ordi- 
nances of the jurisdiction shall not be valid. The issuance of a 
permit based on construction documents and other data shall 
not prevent the building official from requiring the correction 
of errors in the construction documents and other data. The 
building official is also authorized to prevent occupancy or use 
of a structure where in violation of this code or of any other or- 
dinances of this jurisdiction. 

105.5 Expiration. Every permit issued shall become invalid 
unless the work on the site authorized by such permit is com- 
menced within 1 80 days after its issuance, or if the work autho- 
rized on the site by such permit is suspended or abandoned for a 
period of 1 80 days after the time the work is commenced. The 
building official is authorized to grant, in writing, one or more 
extensions of time, for periods not more than 180 days each. 



2003 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



The extension shall be requested in writing and justifiable 
cause demonstrated. 

1(D)5<,6 SaispeiiisnoEii or revocattloinio The building official is au- 
thorized to suspend or revoke a permit issued under the provi- 
sions of this code wherever the permit is issued in error or on 
the basis of incorrect, inaccurate or incomplete information, or 
in violation of any ordinance or regulation or any of the provi- 
sions of this code. 

10So7 Placemeeit of permit. The building permit or copy shall 
be kept on the site of the work until the completion of the 
project. 



SECTflON 106 
COMSTRUCTION DOCUiiEWTS 

IO60I Setommittal docmmeets. Construction documents, special 
inspection and structural observation programs, and other data 
shall be submitted in one or more sets with each application for 
a permit. The construction documents shall be prepared by a 
registered design professional where required by the statutes of 
the jurisdiction in which the project is to be constructed. Where 
special conditions exist, the building official is authorized to re- 
quire additional construction documents to be prepared by a 
registered design professional. 

ExceptDomj The building official is authorized to waive the 
submission of construction documents and other data not re- 
quired to be prepared by a registered design professional if it 
is found that the nature of the work applied for is such that 
review of construction documents is not necessary to obtain 
compliance with this code. 

106.1.1 Imformatnoim om comslractiom docemeets. Con- 
struction documents shall be dimensioned and drawn upon 
suitable material. Electronic media documents are permit- 
ted to be submitted when approved by the building official. 
Construction documents shall be of sufficient clarity to indi- 
cate the location, nature and extent of the work proposed and 
show in detail that it will conform to the provisions of this 
code and relevant laws, ordinances, rules and regulations, as 
determined by the building official. 

1(16. lo 1.1 Fire protectiomi system stoop drawings. Shop 
drawings for the fire protection system(s) shall be sub- 
mitted to indicate conformance with this code and the 
construction documents and shall be approved prior to 
the start of system installation. Shop drawings shall con- 
tain all informafion as required by the referenced instal- 
lation standards in Chapter 9. 

106.1.2 Meaims off egress. The construcfion documents shall 
show in sufficient detail the location, construcfion, size and 
character of all portions of the means of egress in compli- 
ance with the provisions of this code. In other than occupan- 
cies in Groups R-2, R-3, as applicable in Section 101.2, and 
I-l, the construction documents shall designate the number 
of occupants to be accommodated on every floor, and in all 
rooms and spaces. 

106.1.3 Exterior wall emvelope. Construction documents 
for all buildings shall describe the exterior wall envelope in 
sufficient detail to determine compliance with this code. 
The construction documents shall provide details of the ex- 



terior wall envelope as required, including flashing, inter- 
sections with dissimilar materials, comers, end details, con- 
trol joints, intersections at roof, eaves or parapets, means of 
drainage, water-resistive membrane and details around 
openings. 

The construction documents shall include manufac- 
turer's installation instructions that provide supporting doc- 
umentation that the proposed penetration and opening 
details described in the construction documents maintain 
the weather resistance of the exterior wall envelope. The 
supporting documentation shall fully describe the exterior 
wall system which was tested, where apphcable, as well as 
the test procedure used. 

1(D)6.2 Site plam. The construction documents submitted with 
the application for permit shall be accompanied by a site plan 
showing to scale the size and location of new construction and 
existing structures on the site, distances from lot lines, the es- 
tablished street grades and the proposed finished grades and, as 
applicable, flood hazard areas, floodways, and design flood el- 
evations; and it shall be drawn in accordance with an accurate 
boundary line survey. In the case of demolition, the site plan 
shall show construction to be demolished and the location and 
size of existing structures and construction that are to remain 
on the site or plot. The building official is authorized to waive 
or modify the requirement for a site plan when the application 
for permit is for alteration or repair or when otherwise war- 
ranted. 

106.3 Examiniatnoini off docememts. The building official shall 
examine or cause to be examined the accompanying construc- 
tion documents and shall ascertain by such examinations 
whether the construction indicated and described is in accor- 
dance with the requirements of this code and other pertinent 
laws or ordinances. 

106.3.1 Approval off construrtlon docMmemts. When the 
building official issues a permit, the construction docu- 
ments shall be approved, in writing or by stamp, as "Re- 
viewed for Code Comphance." One set of construction 
documents so reviewed shall be retained by the building of- 
ficial. The other set shall be returned to the applicant, shall 
be kept at the site of work and shall be open to inspection by 
the building official or a duly authorized representative. 



Is. This code shall not require 
changes in the construction documents, construction or des- 
ignated occupancy of a structure for which a lawful permit 
has been heretofore issued or otherwise lawfully autho- 
rized, and the construction of which has been pursued in 
good faith within 180 days after the effective date of this 
code and has not been abandoned. 



The building official is autho- 
rized to issue a permit for the construction of foundations or 
any other part of a building or structure before the construc- 
tion documents for the whole building or structure have 
been submitted, provided that adequate information and de- 
tailed statements have been filed complying with pertinent 
requirements of this code. The holder of such permit for the 
foundation or other parts of a building or structure shall pro- 
ceed at the holder's own risk with the building operation and 



2003 INTERNATIONAL BUBLDING CODE® 



ADMINISTRATION 



without assurance that a permit for the entire structure will 
be granted. 

106.3.4 Design professional in responsible charge. 

106.3.4.1 General, When it is required that documents 
be prepared by a registered design professional, the 
building official shall be authorized to require the owner 
to engage and designate on the building permit applica- 
tion a registered design professional who shall act as the 
registered design professional in responsible charge. If 
the circumstances require, the owner shall designate a 
substitute registered design professional in responsible 
charge who shall perform the duties required of the origi- 
nal registered design professional in responsible charge. 
The building official shall be notified in writing by the 
owner if the registered design professional in responsible 
charge is changed or is unable to continue to perform the 
duties. 

The registered design professional in responsible 
charge shall be responsible for reviewing and coordinat- 
ing submittal documents prepared by others, including 
phased and deferred submittal items, for compatibility 
with the design of the building. 

Where structural observation is required by Section 
1709, the inspection program shall name the individual 
or firms who are to perform structural observation and 
describe the stages of construction at which structural 
observation is to occur (see also duties specified in Sec- 
tion 1704). 

106.3.4.2 Deferred submittals. For the purposes of this 
section, deferred submittals are defined as those portions 
of the design that are not submitted at the time of the ap- 
plication and that are to be submitted to the building offi- 
cial within a specified period. 

Deferral of any submittal items shall have the prior ap- 
proval of the building official. The registered design pro- 
fessional in responsible charge shall list the deferred 
submittals on the construction documents for review by 
the building official. 

Documents for deferred submittal items shall be sub- 
mitted to the registered design professional in responsi- 
ble charge who shall review them and forward them to 
the building official with a notation indicating that the 
deferred submittal documents have been reviewed and 
been found to be in general conformance to the design of 
the building. The deferred submittal items shall not be in- 
stalled until the design and submittal documents have 
been approved by the building official. 

106.4 Amended construction documents. Work shall be in- 
stalled in accordance with the approved construction docu- 
ments, and any changes made during construction that are not 
in compliance with the approved construction documents shall 
be resubmitted for approval as an amended set of construction 
documents. 

106.5 Retention of construction documents. One set of ap- 
proved construction documents shall be retained by the build- 
ing official for a period of not less than 180 days from date of 



completion of the permitted work, or as required by state or lo- 
cal laws. 



SECTION 107 
TEMPQHkm STRUCTURES AND USES 

107.1 General. The building official is authorized to issue a 
permit for temporary structures and temporary uses. Such per- 
mits shall be limited as to time of service, but shall not be per- 
mitted for more than 180 days. The building official is 
authorized to grant extensions for demonstrated cause. 

107.2 Conformance. Temporary structures and uses shall con- 
form to the structural strength, fire safety, means of egress, ac- 
cessibility, light, ventilation and sanitary requirements of this 
code as necessary to ensure the public health, safety and gen- 
eral welfare. 

1073 Temporary power. The building official is authorized to 
give permission to temporarily supply and use power in part of 
an electric installation before such installation has been fully 
completed and the final certificate of completion has been is- 
sued. The part covered by the temporary certificate shall com- 
ply with the requirements specified for temporary lighting, heat 
or power in the ICC Electrical Code. 

107,4 Termination of approval. The building official is autho- 
rized to terminate such permit for a temporary structure or use 
and to order the temporary structure or use to be discontinued. 



108.1 Payment of fees, A permit shall not be valid until the fees 
prescribed by law have been paid, nor shall an amendment to a 
permit be released until the additional fee, if any, has been paid. 

108.2 Schedule of permit fees. On buildings, structures, elec- 
trical, gas, mechanical, and plumbing systems or alterations re- 
quiring a permit, a fee for each permit shall be paid as required, 
in accordance with the schedule as established by the applica- 
ble governing authority. 

108.3 BuaMIng permit valuations. The appUcant for a permit 
shall provide an estimated permit value at time of application. 
Permit valuations shall include total value of work, including 
materials and labor, for which the permit is being issued, such 
as electrical, gas, mechanical, plumbing equipment and perma- 
nent systems. If, in the opinion of the building official, the valu- 
ation is underestimated on the application, the permit shall be 
denied, unless the applicant can show detailed estimates to 
meet the approval of the building official. Final building permit 
valuation shall be set by the building official. 



jmmencing before permit issuance. Any person 
who commences any work on a building, structure, electrical, 
gas, mechanical or plumbing system before obtaining the neces- 
sary permits shall be subject to a fee established by the building 
official that shall be in addition to the required permit fees. 

108.5 Related fees. The payment of the fee for the construc- 
tion, alteration, removal or demolition for work done in 
connection to or concurrently with the work authorized by a 
building permit shall not relieve the apphcant or holder of the 



2003 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



permit from the payment of other fees that are prescribed by 
law. 



any plastering is applied or gypsum board joints and fasten- 
ers are taped and finished. 



Is. The building official is authorized to establish 
a refund policy. 



SECTIQW 109 
DMSPECTIONS 

W9A GemeraL Construction or work for which a permit is re- 
quired shall be subject to inspection by the building official and 
such construction or work shall remain accessible and exposed 
for inspection purposes until approved. Approval as a result of 
an inspection shall not be construed to be an approval of a viola- 
tion of the provisions of this code or of other ordinances of the 
jurisdiction. Inspections presuming to give authority to violate 
or cancel the provisions of this code or of other ordinances of 
the jurisdiction shall not be vaUd. It shall be the duty of the per- 
mit applicant to cause the work to remain accessible and ex- 
posed for inspection purposes. Neither the building official nor 
the jurisdiction shall be liable for expense entailed in the re- 
moval or replacement of any material required to allow inspec- 
tion. 



}o2 PreDnmlmary mspectioEo Before issuing a permit, the 
building official is authorized to examine or cause to be exam- 
ined buildings, structures and sites for which an application has 
been filed. 



nespectiomSo The building official, upon noti- 
fication, shall make the inspections set forth in Sections 
109.3.1 through 109.3.10. 

l(D9.3ol Footnmg amd fforaidaltnom m§pectioini« Footing and 
foundation inspections shall be made after excavations for 
footings are complete and any required reinforcing steel is 
in place. For concrete foundations, any required forms shall 
be in place prior to inspection. Materials for the foundation 
shall be on the job, except where concrete is ready mixed in 
accordance with ASTM C 94, the concrete need not be on 
the job. 

109.3.2 Comcrefte slab amd unmder-floor nmspecltioini. Con- 
crete slab and under-floor inspections shall be made after 
in-slab or under-floor reinforcing steel and building service 
equipment, conduit, piping accessories and other ancillary 
equipment items are in place, but before any concrete is 
placed or floor sheathing installed, including the subfloor 



n= In flood hazard areas, upon 
placement of the lowest floor, including the basement, and 
prior to further vertical construction, the elevation certifica- 
tion required in Section 1612.5 shall be submitted to the 
building official. 



e DEspectioinio Framing inspections shall be 
made after the roof deck or sheathing, all framing, 
fireblocking and bracing are in place and pipes, chimneys 
and vents to be concealed are complete and the rough elec- 
trical, plumbing, heating wires, pipes and ducts are ap- 
proved. 



Lath and 

gypsum board inspections shall be made after lathing and 
gypsum board, interior and exterior, is in place, but before 



US Gypsum board that is not part of a fire-resis- 
tance-rated assembly or a shear assembly. 

W93M Fnre=re§nstanilt pemetratioims. Protection of joints 
and penetrations in fire-resistance-rated assemblies shall 
not be concealed from view until inspected and approved. 



h3J Energy efidemcy inspectioniSo Inspections shall 
be made to determine compHance with Chapter 13 and shall 
include, but not be hmited to, inspections for: envelope in- 
sulation R and U values, fenestration U value, duct system R 
value, and HVAC and water-heating equipment efficiency. 

1(093.8 Other mspectioms. In addition to the inspections 
specified above, the building official is authorized to make 
or require other inspections of any construction work to as- 
certain compliance with the provisions of this code and 
other laws that are enforced by the department of building 
safety. 

o For special inspections, see 



Section 1704. 



The final inspection shall be 
made after all work required by the building permit is com- 
pleted. 

1®9.4 Imspectnomi agemcieSo The building official is authorized 
to accept reports of approved inspection agencies, provided 
such agencies satisfy the requirements as to qualifications and 
reliability. 

109.5 Imspectnom reqmieslts. It shall be the duty of the holder of 
the building permit or their duly authorized agent to notify the 
building official when work is ready for inspection. It shall be 
the duty of the permit holder to provide access to and means for 
inspections of such work that are required by this code. 



Work shall not be done beyond the 
point indicated in each successive inspection without first ob- 
taining the approval of the building official. The building offi- 
cial, upon notification, shall make the requested inspections 
and shall either indicate the portion of the construction that is 
satisfactory as completed, or notify the permit holder or his or 
her agent wherein the same fails to comply with this code. Any 
portions that do not comply shall be corrected and such portion 
shall not be covered or concealed until authorized by the build- 
ing official. 



r 



llOol Use and occiupaiicy. No building or structure shall be 
used or occupied, and no change in the existing occupancy 
classification of a building or structure or portion thereof shall 
be made until the building official has issued a certificate of oc- 
cupancy therefor as provided herein. Issuance of a certificate of 
occupancy shall not be construed as an approval of a violation 
of the provisions of this code or of other ordinances of the 
jurisdiction. 

110.2 Certificate Issined, After the building official inspects 
the building or structure and finds no violations of the provi- 



<:^ 



2003 IWTERIMATJONAL BUILDING CODE® 



ADMINISTRATION 



sions of this code or other laws that are enforced by the depart- 
ment of building safety, the building official shall issue a 
certificate of occupancy that contains the following: 

1 . The building permit number. 

2. The address of the structure. 

3. The name and address of the owner. 

4. A description of that portion of the structure for which 
the certificate is issued. 

5. A statement that the described portion of the structure 
has been inspected for compliance with the require- 
ments of this code for the occupancy and division of oc- 
cupancy and the use for which the proposed occupancy 
is classified. 

6. The name of the building official. 

7. The edition of the code under which the permit was is- 
sued. 

8. The use and occupancy, in accordance with the provi- 
sions of Chapter 3. 

9. The type of construction as defined in Chapter 6. 

10. The design occupant load. 

11. If an automatic sprinkler system is provided, whether 
the sprinkler system is required. 

12. Any special stipulations and conditions of the building 
permit. 

110.3 Temporary occupancy. The building official is autho- 
rized to issue a temporary certificate of occupancy before the 
completion of the entire work covered by the permit, provided 
that such portion or portions shall be occupied safely. The 
building official shall set a time period during which the tempo- 
rary certificate of occupancy is valid. 

110.4 Revocation. The building official is authorized to, in 
writing, suspend or revoke a certificate of occupancy or com- 
pletion issued under the provisions of this code wherever the 
certificate is issued in error, or on the basis of incorrect infor- 
mation supplied, or where it is determined that the building or 
structure or portion thereof is in violation of any ordinance or 
regulation or any of the provisions of this code. 



SECTION 111! 
SERVICE UTILITIES 

111.1 Connection of service utilities. No person shall make 
connections from a utility, source of energy, fuel or power to 
any building or system that is regulated by this code for which a 
permit is required, until released by the building official. 

111.2 Temporary connection. The building official shall have 
the authority to authorize the temporary connection of the 
building or system to the utility source of energy, fuel or power. 

111.3 Authority to disconnect service utilities. The building 
official shall have the authority to authorize disconnection of 
utility service to the building, structure or system regulated by 
this code and the codes referenced in case of emergency where 
necessary to eliminate an immediate hazard to life or property. 
The building official shall notify the serving ufility, and wher- 
ever possible the owner and occupant of the building, structure 



or service system of the decision to disconnect prior to taking 
such action. If not notified prior to disconnecting, the owner or 
occupant of the building, structure or service system shall be 
notified in writing, as soon as practical thereafter. 



SECTION 112 



D OF APPEALS 

112.1 GemeraL In order to hear and decide appeals of orders, 
decisions or determinations made by the building official rela- 
tive to the application and interpretation of this code, there shall 
be and is hereby created a board of appeals. The board of ap- 
peals shall be appointed by the governing body and shall hold 
offic-e at its pleasure. The board shall adopt rules of procedure 
for conducting its business. 

112.2 Limitations on authority. An application for appeal 
shall be based on a claim that the true intent of this code or the 
rules legally adopted thereunder have been incorrectly inter- 
preted, the provisions of this code do not fully apply or an 
equally good or better form of construction is proposed. The 
board shall have no authority to waive requirements of this 
code. 

112.3 Qualifications. The board of appeals shall consist of 
members who are qualified by experience and training to pass 
on matters pertaining to building construction and are not em- 
ployees of the jurisdiction. 



SECTION 113 
VIOLATIONS 

113.1 Unlawful acts. It shall be unlawful for any person, firm 
or corporation to erect, construct, alter, extend, repair, move, 
remove, demolish or occupy any building, structure or equip- 
ment regulated by this code, or cause same to be done, in con- 
flict with or in violation of any of the provisions of this code. 

113.2 Notice of violation. The building official is authorized to 
serve a notice of violation or order on the person responsible for 
the erection, construcdon, alteration, extension, repair, mov- 
ing, removal, demolition or occupancy of a building or struc- 
ture in violation of the provisions of this code, or in violation of 
a permit or certificate issued under the provisions of this code. 
Such order shall direct the discontinuance of the illegal action 
or condition and the abatement of the violation. 

113.3 Prosecution of violation. If the notice of violadon is not 
compUed with promptly, the building official is authorized to 
request the legal counsel of the jurisdiction to institute the ap- 
propriate proceeding at law or in equity to restrain, correct or 
abate such violation, or to require the removal or termination of 
the unlawful occupancy of the building or structure in violation 
of the provisions of this code or of the order or direction made 
pursuant thereto. 

113.4 Violation penalties. Any person who violates a provi- 
sion of this code or fails to comply with any of the requirements 
thereof or who erects, constructs, alters or repairs a building or 
structure in violation of the approved construction documents 
or directive of the building official, or of a permit or certificate 
issued under the provisions of this code, shall be subject to pen- 
alties as prescribed by law. 



2003 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



1M 
STOP WORGC ORDER 

114ol AimltlhiorSltyo Whenever the building official finds any 
work regulated by this code being performed in a manner either 
contrary to the provisions of this code or dangerous or unsafe, 
the building official is authorized to issue a stop work order. 

114<,2 Isseamiceo The stop work order shall be in writing and 
shall be given to the owner of the property involved, or to the 
owner's agent, or to the person doing the work. Upon issuance 
of a stop work order, the cited work shall immediately cease. 
The stop work order shall state the reason for the order, and the 
conditions under which the cited work will be permitted to re- 
sume. 



114.3 Uelawfel comiltimiiuiamiceo Any person who shall continue 
any work after having been served with a stop work order, ex- 
cept such work as that person is directed to perform to remove a 
violation or unsafe condition, shall be subject to penalties as 
prescribed by law. 



safe condition. To the extent that repairs, alterations or 
additions are made or a change of occupancy occurs during the 
restoration of the structure, such repairs, alterations, additions 
or change of occupancy shall comply with the requirements of 
Section 105.2.2 and Chapter 34. 



• 



SECTDOMtIS 
UWSAFE STRUCTURES AMD EQUPMEWT 



llS.l ComdnltioES. Structures or existing equipment that are or 
hereafter become unsafe, insanitary or deficient because of in- 
adequate means of egress facilities, inadequate light and venti- 
lation, or which constitute a fire hazard, or are otherwise 
dangerous to human life or the public welfare, or that involve il- 
legal or improper occupancy or inadequate maintenance, shall 
be deemed an unsafe condition. Unsafe structures shall be 
taken down and removed or made safe, as the building official 
deems necessary and as provided for in this section. A vacant 
structure that is not secured against entry shall be deemed un- 
safe. 



11502 Mecord. The building official shall cause a report to be 
filed on an unsafe condition. The report shall state the occu- 
pancy of the structure and the nature of the unsafe condition. 

11503 Noticeo If an unsafe condition is found, the building offi- 
cial shall serve on the owner, agent or person in control of the 
structure, a written notice that describes the condition deemed 
unsafe and specifies the required repairs or improvements to be 
made to abate the unsafe condition, or that requires the unsafe 
structure to be demolished within a stipulated time. Such notice 
shall require the person thus notified to declare immediately to 
the building official acceptance or rejection of the terms of the 
order. 



IF service. Such notice shall be deemed prop- 
erly served if a copy thereof is (a) delivered to the owner per- 
sonally; (b) sent by certified or registered mail addressed to the 
owner at the last known address with the^retum receipt re- 
quested; or (c) delivered in any other manner as prescribed by 
local law. If the certified or registered letter is returned showing 
that the letter was not delivered, a copy thereof shall be posted 
in a conspicuous place in or about the structure affected by such 
notice. Service of such notice in the foregoing manner upon the 
owner's agent or upon the person responsible for the structure 
shall constitute service of notice upon the owner. 



11S,S Mestorattnom. The structure or equipment determined to 
be unsafe by the building official is permitted to be restored to a 



2003 DMTERNATDONAL BUILDING CODE® 



10 2003 INTERNATSONAL BUILDING CODE® 



OmAPTE^ 



2(M.l Scope. Unless otherwise expressly stated, the following 
words and terms shall, for the purposes of this code, have the 
meanings shown in this chapter. 



Words used in the present tense in- 
clude the future; words stated in the masculine gender include 
the feminine and neuter; the singular number includes the plu- 
ral and the plural, the singular. 

2®lo3 Terms deljied im otlier codes. Where terms are not de- 
fined in this code and are defined in the International Fuel Gas 
Code, International Fire Code, International Mechanical Code 
or International Plumbing Code, such terms shall have the 
meanings ascribed to them as in those codes. 

2®lo4 Terms mot deimed. Where terms are not defined through 
the methods authorized by this section, such terms shall have 
ordinarily accepted meanings such as the context implies. 



SECTIOM 202 
DEFIMmONS 

See Section 1102.1. 

ACCESSIBLE MEANS OF EGMESS. See Section 1002.1. 

ACCESSIBLE ROUTE. See Section 1102.1. 

Q ACCESSIBLE UNIT, See Section 1102. 

ACCREDITATION BODY. See Section 2302.1. 

ACTIVE FAULT/ACTIVE FAULT TRACE, See Section 
1613.1. 



J, An extension or increase in floor area or height of 
a building or structure. 

ADHERED MASONRY VENEER. See Section 1402.1. 

ADJUSTED SHEAR RESISTANCE. (Steel Construction). 
See Section 2202.1. 

ADJUSTED SHEAR RESISTANCE, (Wood Construction). 
See Section 2302.1. 



See Section 1902.1. 

ADOBE CONSTRUCTION. See Section 2102.1. 

Stabilized adotoe. See Section 2102.1. 

UmstaMlked adobe. See Section 2102.1. 
[F] AEROSOL, See Section 307.2. 

Level 1 aerosol prodmcts. See Section 307.2. 
is. See Section 307.2. 
See Section 307.2. 
[F] AEROSOL CONTAINER, See Section 307.2. 
AGGREGATE, See Section 1902.1. 
AGGREGATE, LIGHTWEIGHT, See Section 1902.1. 



AGRICULTURAL, BUILDING. A structure designed and 
constructed to house farm implements, hay, grain, poultry, live- 
stock or other horticultural products. This structure shall not be 
a place of human habitation or a place of employment where 
agricultural products are processed, treated or packaged, nor 
shall it be a place used by the public. 

AIR-INFLATED STRUCTURE, See Section 3102.2. 

AIR-SUPPORTED STRUCTURE, See Section 3102.2. 

Double skin. See Section 3102.2. 

SImgle sMe, See Section 3102.2. 

AISLE ACCESS WAY. See Section 1002.1. 

[F] ALARM NOTIFICATION APPLIANCE. See Section 
902.1. 

[F] ALARM SIGNAL. See Section 902.1. 

[F] ALARM VERIFICATION FEATURE. See Section 
902.1. 

ALLEY. See "PubHc way." 

ALLOWABLE STRESS DESIGN, See Section 1602.1. 

ALTERATION, Any construction or renovation to an existing 
structure other than repair or addition. 

ALTERNATING TREAD DEVICE, See Section 1002.1. 



<3 



See Section 2102.1. 

See Section 402.2. 

ENEER, See Section 1402.1. 
ANNULAR SPACE, See Section 702.1. 
[F] ANNUNCIATOR, See Section 902.1. 

Acceptable to the building official, 
f. See Section 1702.1. 
ffOR, See Section 1702.1. 



An independent person, firm or cor- 
poration, approved by the building official, who is competent 
and experienced in the application of engineering principles to 
materials, methods or systems analyses. 

ARCHITECTURAL TERRA COTTA. See Section 2 102. 1 . 
See Section 2102.1. 
See Section 2102.1. 
'SS cross=secilnoiial. See Section 2102.1. 
See Section 2102.1. 
.See Section 502.1. 
REFUGE. See Section 1002.1. 



L A subsurface space adjacent to a building open at 
the top or protected at the top by a grating or guard. 

See Section 404.1.1. 



2003 



11 



DEFINITIONS 



ATTACHMENTS, SEISMIC. See Section 1613.1. 

ATTIC. The space between the ceihng beams of the top story 
and the roof rafters. 

[F] AUDIBLE ALARM NOTIFICATION APPLL\NCE. 
See Section 902.1. 

[F] AUTOMATIC. See Section 902. 1 . 

[F] AUTOMATIC FIRE-EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM. 
See Section 902.1. 

[F] AUTOMATIC SPRINKLER SYSTEM. See Section 
902.1. 

[F] AVERAGE AMBIENT SOUND LEVEL, See Section 
902.1 

AWNING. An architectural projection that provides weather 
protection, identity or decoration and is wholly supported by 
the building to which it is attached. An awning is comprised of 
a lightweight, rigid skeleton structure over which a covering is 
attached. 

BACKING. See Section 1402.1. 

BALCONY, EXTERIOR. See Section 1602.1. 

[F] BARRICADE. See Section 307.2. 

Artiflcial barricade. See Section 307.2. 

Natural barricade. See Section 307.2. 
BASE. See Section 1613.1. 
BASE FLOOD. See Section 1612.2. 
BASE FLOOD ELEVATION. See Section 1612.2. 
BASE SHEAR. See Section 1602.1. 

BASIC SEISMIC-FORCE-RESISTING SYSTEMS. See 

Section 1602.1. 

Bearing wall system. See Section 1602.1. 
Building frame system. See Section 1602.1. 
Dual system. See Section 1602.1. 
Inverted pendulum system. See Section 1602.1. 
Moment-resisting frame system. See Section 1602.1. 
i Shear wall-frame interactive system. See Section 1 602 . 1 . 

BASEMENT. That portion of a building that is partly or com- 
pletely below grade (see "Story above grade plane" and Sec- 
tions 502.1 and 1612.2). 

BED JOINT. See Section 2102.1. 

BLEACHERS. See Section 1002.1. 

BOARDING HOUSE, See Section 310.2. 

[F] BOILING POINT. See Section 307.2. 

BOND BEAM. See Section 2102.1. 

BOND REINFORCING. See Section 2102.1. 
I BOUNDARY ELEMENT. See Sections 1602.1 and 1613.1. 
I BOUNDARY MEMBERS. See Section 1602.1. 

BRACED WALL LINE. See Section 2302.1. 

BRACED WALL PANEL. See Section 2302.1. 

BRICK. See Section 2102.1. 

Calcium silicate (sand lime brick). See Section 2102.1. 



J. See Section 2102.1. 
Concrete, See Section 2102.1. 
BRITTLE. See Section 1613.1. 

BUILDING. Any structure used or intended for supporting or 
sheltering any use or occupancy. 

BUILDING, ENCLOSED, See Section 1609.2. 

BUILDING LINE. The line established by law, beyond which 
a building shall not extend, except as specifically provided by 
law. 

BUILDING, LOW-RISE. See Section 1609.2. 

BUILDING OFFICIAL, The officer or other designated au- 
thority charged with the administration and enforcement of this 
code, or a duly authorized representative. 

BUILDING, OPEN, See Section 1609.2. 

BUILDING, PARTIALLY ENCLOSED. See Section 
1609.2. 

BUILDING, SIMPLE DIAPHRAGM. See Section 1609.2. 

BUILT-UP ROOF COVERING, See Section 1502.1. 

BUTTRESS, See Section 2102.1. 

CABLE-RESTRAINED, AIM-SUPPORTED STRUC- 
TURE, See Section 3102.2. 

CANOPY, An architectural projection that provides weather 
protection, identity or decoration and is supported by the build- 
ing to which it is attached and at the outer end by not less than 
one stanchion. A canopy is comprised of a rigid structure over 
which a covering is attached. 

CANTILEVERED COLUMN SYSTEM. See Section 
1602.1. 

[F] CARBON DIOXIDE EXTINGUISHING SYSTEMS. 
See Section 902.1. 

CAST STONE. See Section 2102.1. 
[F] CEILING LIMIT. See Section 902.1. 
CEILING RADIATION DAMPER. See Section 702.1. 
CELL, See Section 2102.1. 
CEMENT PLASTER. See Section 2502.1. 
CEMENTITIOUS MATERIALS. See Section 1902.1. 
CERAMIC FIBER BLANKET, See Section 721.1.1. 
CERTIFICATE OF COMPLIANCE. See Section 1702.1. 
See Section 2102.1. 

CS. See Section 2102.1. 
Mance type. See Section 2102.1. 
appliance type. See Section 2102.1. 
type. See Section 2102.1. 
Medlem-Iheat appliance type. See Section 2102.1. 
CIRCULATION PATH. See Section 1 102.1. 
CLADDING, See "Components and cladding." 
[F] CLEAN AGENT, See Section 902.1. 
CLEANOUT. See Section 2102.1. 
[F] CLOSED SYSTEM, See Section 307.2. 



12 



2003 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



DEFIMITDOM? 



• 



JTo See Section 2102.1. 

COLLECTOR. See Sections 1613.1 and 2302.1. 

COLLECTOR ELEMENTS. See Section 1602.1. 

COLUMN. See Section 1902.1. 

COLUMN, MASONRY. See Section 2102.1. 

COMBINATION FIRE/SMOSffi DAMPER. See Section 
702.1. 

[F] COMBUSTIBLE DUST. See Section 307.2. 

[F] COMBUSTIBLE FIBERS. See Section 307.2. 

[F] COMBUSTIBLE LIQUID. See Section 307.2. 

Class II. See Section 307.2. 

Class IIIA. See Section 307.2. 
. Class IIIB. See Section 307.2. 

COMMON PATH OF EGRESS TRAVEL. See Section 
1002.1. 

See Section 1613.1. 
eqmpmmeinit. See Section 1613.1. 
fflexnMe. See Section 1613.1. 
rIgM. See Section 1613.1. 

COMPONENTS AND CLADDING. See Section 1609.2. 

COMPOSITE MASONRY, See Section 2102.1. 

[F] COMPRESSED GAS. See Section 307.2. 

COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF MASONRY. See Sec- 
tion 2102.1. 

CTE, See Section 1902.1. 



CONCRETE CARBONATE AGGREGATE, See Section 
721.1.1. 

CONCRETE, CELLULAR, See Section 721.1.1. 

CONCRETE, LIGHTWEIGHT AGGREGATE. See Sec- 
tion 721.1.1. 

CONCRETE, PERLITE. See Section 721.1.1. 

CONCRETE, SAND-LIGHTWEIGHT. See Section 
721.1.1. 

CONCRETE, SILICEOUS AGGREGATE. See Section 
721.1.1. 

CONCRETE (F'J, SPECIFIED COMPRESSIVE 
STRENGTH OF, See Section 1902.1. 

CONCRETE, VERMICULITE. See Section 721.1.1. 

:GI0N. See Section 1602.1. 

See Section 2102.1. 



[F] CONSTANTLY ATTENDED LOCATION. See Section 
902.1. 

CONSTRUCTION DOCUMENTS. Written, graphic and 
pictorial documents prepared or assembled for describing the 
design, location and physical characteristics of the elements of 
a project necessary for obtaining a building permit. 

CONSTRUCTION TYPES, See Section 602. 
Type L See Section 602.2. 
lype II. See Section 602.2. 



Type III. See Section 602.3. 
IVpe IV. See Section 602.4. 
Type V. See Section 602.5. 

[F] CONTINUOUS GAS=DETECTION SYSTEM. See 
Section 415.2. 

CONTRACTION JOINT. See Section 1902.1. 

[F] CONTROL AREA. See Section 307.2. 

CONTROLLED LOW-STRENGTH MATERIAL, A 
self-compacted, cementitious material used primarily as a 
backfill in place of compacted fill. 

CONVENTIONAL LIGHT-FRAME WOOD CON- 
STRUCTION. See Section 2302.1. 

CORRIDOR. See Section 1002.1. 

CORROSION RESISTANCE. The ability of a material to 
withstand deterioration of its surface or its properties when ex- 
posed to its environment. 

[F] CORROSIVE, See Section 307.2. ^ 

COURT, An open, uncovered space, unobstructed to the sky, 
bounded on three or more sides by exterior building walls or 
other enclosing devices. 

COVER. See Section 2102.1. 
COVERED MALL BUILDING, See Section 402.2. 
CRIPPLE WALL, See Section 2302.1. 
CRYOGENIC FLUID, See Section 307.2. 
DALLE GLASS, See Section 2402.1. 
DAMPER, See Section 702.1. 
DEAD LOADS, See Section 1602.1. 
DECK, See Section 1602.1. 
DECORATIVE GLASS. See Section 2402.1. 
[F] DEFLAGRATION. See Section 307.2. 
ITY, See Section 1602.1. 

See Section 1602.1. 
See Section 1602.1. 
I. See Section 1602.1. 
See Section 1602.1. 

Limnted deformatnom. See Section 1602.1. 

UIMmate deformatnoini. See Section 1602.1. 
DEFORMED REINFORCEMENT. See Section 1902.1. 
[F] DELUGE SYSTEM. See Section 902.1. 
DESIGN EARTHQUAKE. See Section 1613.1. 
DESIGN FLOOD. See Section 1612.2. 
DESIGN FLOOD ELEVATION. See Section 1612.2. 
DESIGN STRENGTH, See Section 1602.1. 
DESIGNATED SEISMIC SYSTEM, See Section 1613.1. 
[F] DETACHED STORAGE BUILDING, See Section 307.2. 
DETECTABLE WARNING, See Section 1 102.1. 
[F] DETECTOR, HEAT, See Section 902.1. 
[F] DETONATION, See Section 307.2. 



2003 BfVlTEeNATDONAL BUDLDOWG CODE® 



13 



DEFINITIONS 



m^ 



Diaphragm 
Diaphragm 
Diaphragm 



DIAPHRAGM. See Sections 1602.1 and 2102.1. 

Diaphragm, blocked. See Sections 1602.1 and 2102.1. 

Diaphragm, boundary. See Section 1602.1. 

Diaphragm, chord. See Section 1602.1. 
flexible. See Section 1602.1. 
rigid. See Section 1602.1. 
unblocked. See Section 2302.1. 
DIMENSIONS. See Section 2102.1. 

Actual. See Section 2102.1. 

Nominal. See Section 2102.1. 

Specified. See Section 2102.1. 
DISPENSING. See Section 307.2. 
DISPLACEMENT. See Section 1613.1. 

Design displacement. See Section 1613.1. 

Total design displacement. See Section 1613.1. 

Total maximum displacement. See Section 1613.1. 

DISPLACEMENT RESTRAINT SYSTEM. See Section 
1613.1 

DOOR, BALANCED. See Section 1002.1. 

DORMITORY. See Section 310.2. 

DRAFTSTOP. See Section 702.1. 

DRAG STRUT. See Section 2302.1. 

[F] DRY-CHEMICAL EXTINGUISHING AGENT. See 
Section 902.1. 

DRY FLOODPROOFING. See Section 1612.2. 

DURATION OF LOAD. See Section 1602.1. 

DWELLING. A building that contains one or two dwelling 
units used, intended or designed to be used, rented, leased, let 
or hired out to be occupied for living purposes. 

DWELLING UNIT. See Section 310.2. 

(DWELLING UNIT OR SLEEPING UNIT, MULTI- 
STORY. See Section 1102. 

(DWELLING UNIT OR SLEEPING UNIT, TYPE A. See 
Section 1102. 

(DWELLING UNIT OR SLEEPING UNIT, TYPE B. See 
Section 1 102. 

EFFECTIVE DAMPING. See Section 1613.1. 

EFFECTIVE EMBEDMENT DEPTH. See Section 
1913.2.2. 

EFFECTIVE HEIGHT. See Section 2102.1. 

EFFECTIVE STIFFNESS. See Section 1613.1. 

EFFECTIVE WIND AREA. See Section 1609.2. 

EGRESS COURT. See Section 1002.1. 

ELEMENT. See Section 1602.1. 

Ductile element. See Section 1602.1. 

Limited ductile element. See Section 1602.1. 

Nonductile element. See Section 1602.1. 
[F] EMERGENCY ALARM SYSTEM. See Section 902.1. 



n^ 



[F] EMERGENCY CONTROL STATION. See Section 
415.2. 

EMERGENCY ESCAPE AND RESCUE OPENING. See 
Section 1002.1. 

[F] EMERGENCY VOICE/ALARM COMMUNICA= 
JS, See Section 902.1. 



EMPLOYEE WORK AREA. See Section 1102.1. 

EQUIPMENT SUPPORT. See Section 1602.1. 

ESSENTIAL FACILITIES. See Section 1602.1. 

[F] EXHAUSTED ENCLOSURE. See Section 415.2. 

EXISTING CONSTRUCTION. See Section 1612.2. 

EXISTING STRUCTURE. A structure erected prior to the 
date of adoption of the appropriate code, or one for which a le- 
gal building permit has been issued. 

EXIT. See Section 1002.1. 

EXIT ACCESS. See Section 1002.1. 

EXIT DISCHARGE, See Section 1002.1. 

EXIT DISCHARGE, LEVEL OF. See Section 1002.1. 

EXIT ENCLOSURE. See Section 1002.1. 

EXIT PASSAGEWAY. See Section 1002.1. 

EXPANDED VINYL WALL COVERING. See Section 
802.1. 

[F] EXPLOSION. See Section 902.1. 
[F] EXPLOSIVE. See Section 307.2. 
High explosive. See Section 307.2. 
Low explosive. See Section 307.2. 
Mass detonating explosives. See Section 307.2. 
UN/DOTn Class 1 Explosives. See Section 307.2. 

Division 1.1. See Section 307.2. 

Divisiom 1.2. See Section 307.2. 

Division 1.3. See Section 307.2. 

Division 1.4. See Section 307.2. 

Division 1.5. See Section 307.2. 

Division 1.6. See Section 307.2. 
EXTERIOR SURFACES. See Section 2502.1. 
EXTERIOR WALL. See Section 1402.1. 
EXTERIOR WALL COVERING. See Section 1402.1. 
EXTERIOR WALL ENVELOPE. See Section 1402.1. 
F RATING. See Section 702.1. 
FABRICATED ITEM. See Section 1702.1. 
[F] FABRICATION AREA. See Section 415.2. 
FACILITY. See Section 1102.1. 
FACTORED LOAD. See Section 1602.1. 
FIBERBOARD. See Section 2302.1. 
[F] FIRE ALARM CONTROL UNIT. See Section 902.1. 
[F] FIRE ALARM SIGNAL. See Section 902.1. 
[F] FIRE ALARM SYSTEM. See Section 902.1. 



14 



2003 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



DEFINITSONJ 



V 



See Section 702.1. 
:ER. See Section 702.1. 

[F] FIRE COMMAND CENTER. See Section 902.1. 
FIRE DAMPER. See Section 702.1. 
[F] FIRE DETECTOR, AUTOMATIC. See Section 902.1. 
See Section 702.1. 
ASSEMBLY. See Section 702.1. 
FIRE EXIT HARDWARE. See Section 1002.1. 
FIRE PARTITION. See Section 702.1. 
FIRE PROTECTION RATING, See Section 702.1. 
[F] FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM. See Section 902.1. 
FIRE RESISTANCE. See Section 702.1. 
FIRE=RESISTANCE RATING. See Section 702.1. 
FIME=MESISTANT JOINT SYSTEM, See Section 702.1. 
[F] FIRE SAFETY FUNCTIONS, See Section 902.1. 
FIRE SEPARATION DISTANCE. See Section 702.1. 
XL, See Section 702.1. 

SSEMBLY, See Section 702.1.. 
See Section 702.1. 
1, See Section 2102.1. 
FIREPLACE THROAT, See Section 2102.1. 
[S, See Section 307.2. 
[S, 1,3G, See Section 307.2. 
FIREWORKS, 1.4G. See Section 307.2. 

iSISTANCE. See Section 802.1. 
READ. See Section 802.1. 
READ INDEX, See Section 802.1. 
[F] FLAMMABLE GAS. See Section 307.2. 
[F] FLAMMABLE LIQUEFIED GAS, See Section 307.2. 
[F] FLAMMABLE LIQUID. See Section 307.2. 
Class lA, See Section 307.2. 
Class IB. See Section 307.2. 
Class IC. See Section 307.2. 
[F] FLAMMABLE MATERIAL, See Section 307.2. 
[F] FLAMMABLE SOLID, See Section 307.2. 

[F] FLAMMABLE VAPORS OR FUMES. See Section 
415.2. 

[F] FLASH POINT. See Section 307.2. 

FLEXIBLE BUILDINGS AND OTHER STRUCTURES. 
See Section 1609.2. 

FLEXIBLE EQUIPMENT CONNECTIONS, See Section 
1602.1. 

FLEXURAL LENGTH. See Section 1808.1. 

See Section 1612.2. 



. See Section 1612.2. 

FLOOD HAZARD AREA SUBJECT TO HIGH VELOC- 
ITY WAVE ACTION, See Section 1612.2. 

FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP (FIRM), See Section 
1612.2. 



See Section 1612.2. 
See Section 1612.2. 

PSS, See Section 1002.1. 

FLOOR AREA, NET, See Section 1002.1. 

FLOOR FIRE DOOR ASSEMBLY, See Section 702.1. 

FLY GALLERY. See Section 410.2. 

[F] FOAM=EXTINGUISHING SYSTEMS, See Section 
902.1. 

FOAM PLASTIC INSULATION, See Section 2602.1. 

FOLDING AND TELESCOPIC SEATING, See Section 
1002.1. 

IT See Section 402.2. 
See Section 1602.1. 
frame. See Section 1602.1. 

1 frame (CBF). See Section 1602. 1 . 
Eccemlrically braced frame (EBF). See Section 1602.1. 
Ordimary comcemtrkally braced frame (OCBF). See Sec- 
tion 1602.1. 

Special coEcemtrkally braced frame (SCBF). See Section 
1602.1. 

Momemt frame. See Section 1602.1. 
[F] GAS CABINET, See Section 415.2. 
[F] GAS ROOM. See Section 415.2. 
GLASS FIBERBOARD, See Section 721.1.1. 
GLUED BUILT-UP MEMBER, See Section 2302.1. 

GRADE FLOOR OPENING, A window or other opening lo- 
cated such that the sill height of the opening is not more than 44 
inches (1118 mm) above or below the finished ground level ad- 
jacent to the opening. 

GRADE (LUMBER). See Section 2302.1. 
See Section 502.1. 
D, See Section 1002.1. 
GRAVITY LOAD, See Section 1613.1. 
GRIDIRON, See Section 410.2. 
GROSS LEASABLE AREA. See Section 402.2. 
GROUTED MASONRY, See Section 2102.1. 

=onit masonry. See Section 2102.1. 
Be masonry. See Section 2102.1. 
K See Section 1002.1. 

BOARD, See Section 2502.1. 
PLASTER. See Section 2502.1. 
GYPSUM VENEER PLASTER. See Section 2502.1. 



<^ 



<JE] 



FLOOD DAMAGE-RESISTANT MATERIALS, See Sec- 
tion 1612.2. 



1, A space in a building for living, sleep- 
ing, eating or cooking. Bathrooms, toilet rooms, closets, halls. 



2003 IMTERMATIOMAL BUSLDING CODE® 



15 



DEFINITIONS 



Storage or utility spaces and similar areas are not considered 
habitable spaces. 

[F] HALOGENATED EXTINGUISHING SYSTEMS. See 
Section 902.1. 

[F] HANDLING. See Section 307.2. 

HANDRAIL. See Section 1002.1. 

HARDBOARD. See Section 2302.1. 

HAZARDOUS CONTENTS. See Section 1613.1. 

[F] HAZARDOUS MATERIALS. See Section 307.2. 

[F] HAZARDOUS PRODUCTION MATERIAL (HPM). 
See Section 415.2. 

HEAD JOINT. See Section 2102.1. 

HEADER (Bonder). See Section 2102.1. 

[F] HEALTH HAZARD. See Section 307.2. 

HEIGHT, BUILDING. See Section 502.1. 

HEIGHT, STORY. See Section 502.1. 

HEIGHT, WALLS. See Section 2102.1. 

HELIPORT. See Section 412.5.2. 

HELISTOP. See Section 412.5.2. 

[F] HIGHLY TOXIC. See Section 307.2. 

HISTORIC BUILDINGS. Buildings that are listed in or eligi- 
ble for listing in the National Register of Historic Places, or 
designated as historic under an appropriate state or local law 
(see Section 3406). 

HORIZONTAL EXIT. See Section 1002.1. 

[F] HPM FLAMMABLE LIQUID. See Section 415.2. 

[F] HPM ROOM. See Section 415.2. 

HURRICANE-PRONE REGIONS. See Section 1609.2. 

IMMEDIATELY DANGEROUS TO LIFE AND HEALTH 
(IDLH). See Section 415.2. 

IMPACT LOAD. See Section 1602.1. 

IMPORTANCE FACTOR, /. See Section 1609.2. 

INCOMPATIBLE MATERIALS. See Section 307.2. 

INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT PLATFORM. See Section 
502.1. 

[F] INITIATING DEVICE. See Section 902.1. 

INSPECTION CERTIFICATE. See Section 1702.1. 

INTENDED TO BE OCCUPIED AS A RESIDENCE. See 
Section 1102. 

INTERIOR FINISH. See Section 802.1. 

INTERIOR FLOOR FINISH. See Section 802.1. 

INTERIOR SURFACES. See Section 2502.1. 

INTERIOR WALL AND CEILING FINISH. See Section 
802.1. 

INTERLAYMENT. See Section 1502.1. 

INVERTED PENDULUM-TYPE STRUCTURES. See 
Section 1613.1. 



i. See Section 1613.1. 

ISOLATION JOINT. See Section 1902.1. 

ISOLATION SYSTEM. See Section 1613.1. 

ISOLATOR UNIT. See Section 1613.1. 

JOINT. See Sections 702.1 and 1602.1. 

JURISDICTION, The governmental unit that has adopted this 
code under due legislative authority. 

LABEL. See Section 1702.1. 

LIGHT=DIFFUSING SYSTEM. See Section 2602.1. 

LIGHT-FRAME CONSTRUCTION. A type of construction 
whose vertical and horizontal structural elements are primarily 
formed by a system of repetitive wood or light gage steel fram- 
ing members. 

LIGHT-TRANSMITTING PLASTIC ROOF PANELS. 
See Section 2602.1. 

LIGHT-TRANSMITTING PLASTIC WALL PANELS. 
See Section 2602.1. 



IT STATE. See Section 1602.1. 

[F] LIQUID. See Section 415.2. 

[F] LIQUID STORAGE ROOM. See Section 415.2. 

[F] LIQUID USE, DISPENSING AND MIXING ROOMS. 
See Section 415.2. 

LISTED. See Section 902.1. 

LIVE LOADS. See Section 1602.1. 

LIVE LOADS (ROOF). See Section 1602.1. 

I>. See Section 1613.1. 

). See Section 1613.1. 



LOAD AND RESISTANCE FACTOR DESIGN (LRFD). 
See Section 1602.1. 

LOAD FACTOR. See Section 1602.1. 

LOADS. See Section 1602.1. 

LOADS EFFECTS. See Section 1602.1. 

LOT. A portion or parcel of land considered as a unit. 

LOT LINE. A line dividing one lot from another, or from a 
street or any public place. 

[F] LOWER FLAMMABLE LIMIT (LFL). See Section 
415.2. 

LOWEST FLOOR. See Section 1612.2. 

MAIN WINDFORCE-RESISTING SYSTEM. See Section 
1609.2. 

MALL. See Section 402.2. 

[F] MANUAL FIRE ALARM BOX. See Section 902.1. 

MANUFACTURER'S DESIGNATION. See Section 
1702.1. 

MARK. See Section 1702.1. 



L A permanent roofed structure attached to and 
supported by the building and that projects into the public right- 
of-way. 



16 



2003 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



DEFBNmOSSSS 



SONEYo See Section 2102.1. 
AsMar masoeryo See Section 2102.1. 
Coursed asMar, See Section 2102.1. 
Glass eimnt masomryo See Section 2102.1. 
See Section 2102.1. 
ashlar. See Section 2102.1. 

somry. See Section 2102.1. 
somry. See Section 2102.1. 
To See Section 2102.1. 
See Section 2102.1. 

» See Section 2102.1. 
'o See Section 2102.1. 
Solid. See Section 2102.1. 

MAXIMUM CONSIDEEED EARTHQUAKE. See Section 
1613.1. 



NATURALLY DURABLE WOOD. See Section 2302.1. 
Decay resistamt. See Section 2302.1. 



See Section 2102.1. 

MEAN ROOF HEIGHT. See Section 1609.2. 

MEANS OF EGRESS. See Section 1002.1. 

MECHANICAL-ACCESS OPEN PARKING GARAGES. 
See Section 406.3.2. 

MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT SCREEN. See Section 
1502.1. 

MEMBRANE=COVERED CABLE STRUCTURE. See 
Section 3102.2. 

MEMBMANE=COVEMED FRAME STRUCTURE. See 
Section 3102.2. 

MEMBRANE PENETRATION. See Section 702.1. 

MEMBRANE-PENETRATION FIRESTOP. See Section 
702.1. 

METAL COMPOSITE MATERIAL (MCM). See Section 
1402. 

METAL COMPOSITE MATERIAL SYSTEM. See Sec- 
tion 1402. 

METAL ROOF PANEL. See Section 1502.1. 

CTAL ROOF SHINGLE. See Section 1502.1. 

iZZANINE. See Section 502.1. 

lL BOARD. See Section 721.1.1. 

MODIFIED BITUMEN ROOF COVERING. See Section 
1502.1. 

MORTAR. See Section 2102.1. 

MORTAR, SURFACE-BONDING. See Section 2102.1. 

MULTILEVEL ASSEMBLY SEATING. See Section 
1102.1. 

[F] MULTIPLE-STATION ALARM DEVICE. See Section 
902.1. 

[F] MULTIPLE-STATION SMOKE ALARM. See Section 
902.1. 

NAILING, BOUNDARY. See Section 2302.1. 

NAILING, EDGE. See Section 2302.1. 

NAILING, FIELD. See Section 2302.1. 



L See Section 2302.1. 

^L LOADS. See Section 1602.1. 

NOMINAL SIZE (LUMBER). See Section 2302.1. 

NONBUILDING STRUCTURE. See Section 1613.1. 

NONCOMBUSTIBLE MEMBRANE STRUCTURE. See 
Section 3102.2. 

[F] NORMAL TEMPERATURE AND PRESSURE (NTP). 
See Section 415.2. 



See Section 1002.1. 

[F] NUISANCE ALARM, See Section 902.1. 

OCCUPANCY IMPORTANCE FACTOR. See Section 
1613.1. 

See Section 1002.1. 



A room or enclosed space designed 
for human occupancy in which individuals congregate for 
amusement, educational or similar purposes or in which occu- 
pants are engaged at labor, and which is equipped with means 
of egress and light and ventilation facilities meeting the re- 
quirements of this code. 

OPEN PARKING GARAGE. See Section 406.3.2. 
[F] OPEN SYSTEM. See Section 307.2. 
OPERATING BUILDING. See Section 307.2. 
[F] ORGANIC PEROXIDE. See Section 307.2. 
Class L See Section 307.2. 
See Section 307.2. 
:. See Section 307.2. 
iss IV. See Section 307.2. 
ss V. See Section 307.2. 

, See Section 307.2. 
OTHER STRUCTURES. See Section 1602.1. 

OWNER. Any person, agent, firm or corporation having a le- 
gal or equitable interest in the property. 

[F] OXIDIZER. See Section 307.2. 
4. See Section 307.2. 
ass 3. See Section 307.2. 
ass 2. See Section 307.2. 
ass 1. See Section 307.2. 
[F] OXIDIZING GAS. See Section 307.2. 
P-DELTA EFFECT. See Section 1602.1. 
PANEL (PART OF A STRUCTURE). See Section 1602.1. 
L See Section 1002.1. 
See Section 2302.1. 
^STAL. See Section 1902.1. 
PENETRATION FIRESTOP. See Section 702.1. 
JSE. See Section 1502.1. 



C^ 



o 



2003 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



17 



DEFINITIONS 






PERMIT. An official document or certificate issued by the au- 
thority having jurisdiction which authorizes performance of a 
specified acfivity. 

PERSON. An individual, heirs, executors, administrators or 
assigns, and also includes a firm, partnership or corporation, its 
or their successors or assigns, or the agent of any of the afore- 
said. 

PERSONAL CARE SERVICE. See Secdon 310.2. 

[F] PHYSICAL HAZARD. See Section 307.2. 

PIER FOUNDATIONS. See Section 1808.1. 

Belled piers. See Section 1808.1. 
PILE FOUNDATIONS. See Section 1808.1. 

Auger uncased piles. See Section 1808.1. 

Caisson piles. See Section 1808.1. 

Concrete-filled steel pipe and tube piles. See Section 

1808.1. 

Driven uncased piles. See Section 1808.1. 

Enlarged base piles. See Section 1808.1. 

Piles. See Section 1808.1. 

Steel-cased piles. See Section 1808.1. 
PINRAIL. See Section 410.2. 
PLAIN CONCRETE. See Secrion 1 902. 1 . 
PLAIN REINFORCEMENT. See Section 1902.1. 
PLASTIC, APPROVED. See Section 2602.1. 
PLASTIC GLAZING. See Section 2602.1. 
PLASTIC HINGE. See Section 2102.1. 
PLATFORM. See Section 410.2. 
POSITIVE ROOF DRAINAGE. See Section 1502.1. 
PRECAST CONCRETE. See Section 1902.1. 
PRESERVATIVE-TREATED WOOD. See Section 2302.1. 
PRESTRESSED CONCRETE. See Section 1902.1. 
PRESTRESSED MASONRY. See Section 2102.1. 

Prestressed masonry shear wall. See Section 2102.1. 

Ordinary plain prestressed masonry shear wall. See Sec- 
tion 2102.1. 

Special prestressed masonry shear wall. See Section 

2102.1. 

Special reinforced masonry shear wall. See Section 

2102.1. 

PRISM. See Section 2102.1. 

PROJECTED AREA. See Section 1913.2.2. 

PROSCENIUM WALL. See Section 410.2. 

PUBLIC ENTRANCE. See Section 1102.1. 

PUBLIC-USE AREAS. See Section 1102.1. 

PUBLIC WAY. See Section 1002.1. 

[F] PYROPHORIC. See Section 307.2. 

[F] PYROTECHNIC COMPOSITION. See Section 307.2. 

QUALITY ASSURANCE PLAN. A written procedure com- 
plying with the requirements of Section 1705. 



RAMP. See Section 1002.1. 

RAMP-ACCESS OPEN PARKING GARAGES. See Sec- 
tion 406.3.2. 

[F] RECORD DRAWINGS. See Section 902.1. 

REFERENCE RESISTANCE (D). See Section 2302.1. 

REGISTERED DESIGN PROFESSIONAL. An individual 
who is registered or hcensed to practice their respective design 
profession as defined by the statutory requirements of the pro- 
fessional registration laws of the state or jurisdiction in which 
the project is to be constructed. 

REINFORCED CONCRETE. See Section 1902.1. 

REINFORCED PLASTIC, GLASS FIBER. See Section 
2602.1. 

REINFORCEMENT. See Section 1902.1. 

REPAIR. The reconstruction or renewal of any part of an exist- 
ing building for the purpose of its maintenance. 

REQUIRED STRENGTH. See Sections 1602.1 and2102.1. 

REROOFING. See Section 1502.1. 

RESHORES. See Section 1902.1. 

RESIDENTIAL AIRCRAFT HANGAR. See Section 
412.3.1. 

RESIDENTIAL CARE/ASSISTED LIVING FACIL- 
ITIES. See Section 310.2. 

RESISTANCE FACTOR. See Section 1602.1. 

RESTRICTED ENTRANCE. See Section 1 102.1. 

RETRACTABLE AWNING. See Section 3105.2. 

ROOF ASSEMBLY. See Section 1502.1. 

ROOF COVERING. See Section 1502.1. 

ROOF COVERING SYSTEM. See Section 1502.1. 

ROOF DECK. See Section 1502.1. 

ROOF RECOVER. See Section 1502.1. 

ROOF REPAIR. See Section 1 502. 1 . 

ROOF REPLACEMENT. See Section 1502.1. 

ROOF VENTILATION. See Section 1502.1. 

ROOFTOP STRUCTURE. See Section 1502.1. 

RUBBLE MASONRY. See Section 2102.1. 

Coursed rubble. See Section 2102.1. 

Random rubble. See Section 2102.1. 

Rough or ordinary rubble. See Section 2102.1. 

RUNNING BOND. See Section 2102.1. 

SCISSOR STAIR See Section 1002.1. 

SCUPPER. See Section 1502.1. 

SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORY. See Section 1613.1. 

SEISMIC-FORCE-RESISTING SYSTEM. See Section 
1613.1. 

SEISMIC FORCES. See Section 1613.1. 

SEISMIC RESPONSE COEFFICIENT. See Section 
1613.1. 



18 



2003 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



DEFDNSTIONJ 



SEISMIC USE GROUE See Section 1613.1. 

SELF-CLOSING. See Section 702.1. 

SELF-SERVICE STORAGE FACILITY. See Section 
1102.1. 

[F] SERVICE CORRIDOR. See Section 415.2. 
SERVICE ENTRANCE. See Section 1102.1. 
SHAFT. See Section 702.1. 
SHAFT ENCLOSURE. See Section 702.1. 
SHALLOW ANCHORS. See Section 1602.1. 
..See Section 1602.1. 
See Sections 1602.1, 1613.1 and 2102.1. 
See Section 2102.1. 
lear wall. See Section 
2102.1. 

Ordimary plain masomry shear wall. See Section 2102. 1 . 
Ordinary reinforced masonry stiear wall. See Section 
2102.1. 

I See Section 2302.1. 
segment. See Section 2302.1. 
lasonry shear wall. See Section 
2102.1. 

Type I shear wall. See Section 2202.1. 
Type II shear wall. See Section 2202.1. 
Type II shear wall segment. See Section 2202.1. 

SHEAR WALL=FMAME INTERACTIVE SYSTEM, See 
Section 1613.1. 

SHELL. See Section 2102.1. 

SHORES. See Section 1902.1. 

SHOTCRETE. See Section 1914.1. 

SINGLE=PLY MEMBRANE. See Section 1502.1. 

[F] SINGLE-STATION SMOKE ALARM. See Section 
902.1. 

SITE. See Section 1102.1. 

SITE CLASS. See Section 1613.1. 

SITE COEFFICIENTS. See Section 1613.1. 

SKYLIGHT, UNIT. A factory-assembled, glazed fenestration 
unit, containing one panel of glazing material that allows for 
natural lighting through an opening in the roof assembly while 
1 preserving the weather-resistant barrier of the roof. 

SKYLIGHTS AND SLOPED GLAZING. Glass or other 
transparent or translucent glazing material installed at a 
slope of 15 degrees (0.26 rad) or more from vertical. Glazing 
material in skylights, including unit skylights, solariums, 
sunrooms, roofs and sloped walls, are included in this defini- 
tion. 



O 



m 



A room or space in which people sleep, 
which can also include permanent provisions for living, eating, 
and either sanitation or kitchen facilities but not both. Such 
rooms and spaces that are also part of a dwelling unit are not 
sleeping units. 

See Section 902.1. 



See Section 702.1. 

SMOKE COMPARTMENT, See Section 702.1. 

SMOKE DAMPER. See Section 702.1. 

[F] SMOKE DETECTOR. See Section 902.1. 

SMOKE-DEVELOPED INDEX. See Section 802.1. 

SMOKE-PROTECTED ASSEMBLY SEATING. See Sec- 
tion 1002.1. 

SMOKEFROOF ENCLOSURE. See Section 902.1. 
[F] SOLID. See Section 415.2. 
SPACE FRAME. See Section 1602.1. 
SPECIAL AMUSEMENT BUILDING, See Section 411.2. 

See Section 1702.1. 

H, See Section 1702.1. 
Special periodic Inspection. See Section 1702.1. 
SPECIAL FLOOD HAZARD AREA. See Section 1612.2. 

SPECIAL TRANSVERSE REINFORCEMENT. See Sec- 
tion 1602.1. 



D, See Section 2102.1. 

SPECIFIED COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF MA- 
SONRY (/"'J. See Section 2102.1. 

SPIRAL REINFORCEMENT. See Section 1902.1. 

SPLICE, See Section 702.1. 

SPRAYED FIRE-RESISTANT MATERIALS, See Section 
1702.1. 

STACK BOND, See Section 2102.1. 

STAGE, See Section 410.2. 

STAIR, See Section 1002.1. 

STAIRWAY, See Section 1002.1. 

STAIRWAY, EXTERIOR, See Section 1002.1. 

STAIRWAY, INTERIOR, See Section 1002.1. 

STAIRWAY, SPIRAL, See Section 1002.1. 

[F] STANDPIPE SYSTEM, CLASSES OF, See Section 
902.1. 



iss I system. See Section 902. 1 . 
Class H system. See Section 902.1. 
Class III system. See Section 902.1. 
[F] STANDPIPE, TYPES OF. See Section 902.1. 
See Section 902.1. 
wet. See Section 902.1. 
See Section 902.1. 
See Section 902.1. 

ry. See Section 902. 1 . 
START OF CONSTRUCTION, See Section 1612.2. 

STEEL CONSTRUCTION, COLD-FORMED. See Section 
2202.1. 

STEEL JOIST. See Section 2202.1. 

STEEL MEMBER, STRUCTURAL. See Section 2202.1. 



2003 DNTERNATBOiMAL BUILDIMG CODE® 



DEFINITIONS 



STEEP SLOPE. A roof slope greater than two units vertical in 
12 units horizontal (17-percent slope). 

STONE MASONRY. See Section 2102.1. 
Ashlar stone masonry. See Section 2102.1. 
Rubble stone masonry. See Section 2102.1. 

[F] STORAGE, HAZARDOUS MATERIALS. See Section 
415.2. 

STORY. That portion of a building included between the upper 
surface of a floor and the upper surface of the floor or roof next 
above (also see "Basement," "Mezzanine" and Section 502.1). 
It is measured as the vertical distance from top to top of two 
successive tiers of beams or finished floor surfaces and, for the 
topmost story, from the top of the floor finish to the top of the 
ceiling joists or, where there is not a ceiling, to the top of the 
roof rafters. 

STORY ABOVE GRADE PLANE. Any story having its fin- 
ished floor surface entirely above grade plane, except that a 
basement shall be considered as a story above grade plane 
where the finished surface of the floor above the basement is: 

1. More than 6 feet (1829 mm) above grade plane; 

2. More than 6 feet (1829 mm) above the finished ground 
level for more than 50 percent of the total building perim- 
eter; or 

3. More than 12 feet (3658 mm) above the finished ground 
level at any point. 

STORY DRIFT RATIO. See Section 1613.1. 

STRENGTH. See Section 2102.1. 

Design strength. See Section 2102.1. 

Nominal strength. See Sections 1602.1 and 2102.1. 

STRENGTH DESIGN. See Section 1602.1. 

STRUCTURAL CONCRETE. See Section 1902.1. 

STRUCTURAL GLUED-LAMINATED TIMBER. See 
Section 2302.1. 

STRUCTURAL OBSERVATION. See Section 1702.1. 

STRUCTURE. That which is built or constructed. 

SUBDIAPHRAGM. See Section 2302.1. 

SUBSTANTIAL DAMAGE. See Section 1612.2. 

SUBSTANTIAL IMPROVEMENT. See Section 1612.2. 

[F] SUPERVISING STATION. See Section 902.1. 

[F] SUPERVISORY SERVICE. See Section 902.1. 

[F] SUPERVISORY SIGNAL. See Section 902.1. 

[F] SUPERVISORY SIGNAL-INITIATING DEVICE. See 
Section 902.1. 

SWIMMING POOLS. See Section 3109.2. 

T RATING. See Section 702.1. 

TECHNICALLY INFEASIBLE. See Section 3402. 

TENDON. See Section 1902.1. 

TENT. Any structure, enclosure or shelter which is con- 
structed of canvas or pliable material supported in any manner 
except by air or the contents it protects. 



THERMOPLASTIC MATERIAL. See Section 2602.1. 

THERMOSETTING MATERIAL. See Section 2602.1. 

THROUGH PENETRATION. See Section 702.1. 

THROUGH=PENETRATION FIRESTOP SYSTEM. See 
Section 702.1. 

TIE-DOWN (HOLD-DOWN). See Section 2302.1. 

TIE, LATERAL. See Section 2102.1. 

TIE, WALL. See Section 2102.1. 

TILE. See Section 2102.1. 

TILE, STRUCTURAL CLAY. See Section 2102.1. 

[F] TIRES, BULK STORAGE OE See Section 902.1. 

TORSIONAL FORCE DISTRIBUTION. See Section 
1613.1. 

TOUGHNESS. See Section 1613.1. 

[F] TOXIC. See Section 307.2. 

TREATED WOOD. See Section 2302.1. 

TRIM. See Section 802.1. 

[F] TROUBLE SIGNAL. See Section 902.1. 

UNADJUSTED SHEAR RESISTANCE. See Section I 
2202.1. 

UNDERLAYMENT. See Section 1502.1. 

[F] UNSTABLE (REACTIVE) MATERIAL. See Section 
307.2. 

Class 4. See Section 307.2. 
Class 3. See Section 307.2. 
Class 2. See Section 307.2. 
Class 1. See Section 307.2. 
[F] USE (MATERIAL). See Section 415.2. 

VAPOR-PERMEABLE MEMBRANE. A material or cover- 
ing having a permeance rating of 5 perms (52.9 xlO"'° kg/Pa • s • m^) 
or greater, when tested in accordance with the dessicant method us- 
ing Procedure A of ASTM E 96. A vapor-permeable material per- 
mits the passage of moisture vapor. 

VAPOR RETARDER. A vapor-resistant material, membrane 
or covering such as foil, plastic sheeting or insulation facing 
having a permeance rating of 1 perm (5.7 x 10" kg/Pa • s • m^) 
or less, when tested in accordance with the dessicant method 
using Procedure A of ASTM E 96. Vapor retarders limit the 
amount of moisture vapor that passes through a material or wall 
assembly. 

VENEER. See Section 1402.1. 

VENTILATION. The natural or mechanical process of sup- 
plying conditioned or unconditioned air to, or removing such 
air from, any space. 

[F] VISIBLE ALARM NOTIFICATION APPLIANCE. 
See Section 902.1. 

WALKWAY, PEDESTRIAN. A walkway used exclusively as 
a pedestrian trafficway. 

WALL. See Section 2102.1. 

Cavity wall. See Section 2102.1. 



20 



2003 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



DEFBNmONS 



• 



jmposlte wall. See Section 2102.1. 

;acked, SMrface-bonded wall. See Section 2102.1. 
Masomry-toonded Ihollow wall. See Section 2102.1. 
Parapet wall. See Section 2102.1. 

.OA»=BEAMINGo See Section 1602.1. 
WALL, NONLOAD=BEARING. See Section 1602.1. 
[F] WATEM=REACTIVE MATEMAL. See Section 307.2. 
Class 3. See Section 307.2. 
Class 2. See Section 307.2. 
Class 1. See Section 307.2. 
WEATHER=EXPOSED SURFACES. See Section 2502.1. 
L See Section 2102.1. 



[F] WET-CHEMICAL EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM. See 
Section 902.1. 



See Section 1102.1. 

WHEELCHAIR SPACE CLUSTER. See Section 1102.1. 

See Section 1609.2. 



WIND=RESTRAINT SEISMIC SYSTEM. See Section 
1613. 

WIRE BACKING. See Section 2502.1. 

[F] WIRELESS PROTECTION SYSTEM. See Section 
902.1. 

WOOD SHEAR PANEL. See Section 2302.1. 

WOOD STRUCTURAL PANEL. See Section 2302.1. 

Composite panels. See Section 2302. 1 . 

Oriemted strand board (OSB), See Section 2302. 1 . 

Plywood, See Section 2302.1. 

[F] WORKSTATION. See Section 415.2. 

WYTHE. See Section 2102.1. 

YARD. An open space, other than a court, unobstructed from 
the ground to the sky, except where specifically provided by 
this code, on the lot on which a building is situated. 

[F] ZONE. See Section 902.1. 



2003 BNTERMATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



22 2003 1^STERNAT10NAL BUILDING CODE® 



CHAPTER 



)Y GLM 



SECTION 301 

301ol Scope. The provisions of this chapter shall control the 
classification of all buildings and structures as to use and occu- 
pancy. 



• 



CLASSIFSCMIOM 

302,1 GemeraL Structures or portions of structures shall be 
classified with respect to occupancy in one or more of the 
groups listed below. Structures with multiple uses shall be clas- 
sified according to Section 302.3. Where a structure is pro- 
posed for a purpose which is not specifically provided for in 
this code, such structure shall be classified in the group which 
the occupancy most nearly resembles, according to the fire 
safety and relative hazard involved. 

1. Assembly (see Section 303): Groups A-1, A-2, A-3, 
A-4 and A-5 

Business (see Section 304): Group B 

Educational (see Section 305): Group E 

Factory and Industrial (see Section 306): Groups F-1 
and F-2 

High Hazard (see Section 307): Groups H-1, H-2, H-3, 
H-4 and H-5 

Institutional (see Secdon 308): Groups I-l, 1-2, 1-3 and 
1-4 

Mercantile (see Section 309): Group M 

Residential (see Section 310): Groups R-1, R-2, R-3 as 
apphcable in Secfion 101.2, and R-4 

Storage (see Section 311): Groups S-1 and S-2 

Utility and Miscellaneous (see Section 312): Group U 

3®2.1.1 ImcMemtel ese areas. Spaces which are incidental 
to the main occupancy shall be separated or protected, or 
both, in accordance with Table 302. 1 . 1 or the building shall 
be classified as a mixed occupancy and comply with Section 
302.3. Areas that are incidental to the main occupancy shall 
be classified in accordance with the main occupancy of the 
portion of the building in which the incidental use area is lo- 
cated. 



9 
10 



in; Incidental use areas within and serving a 
dwelling unit are not required to comply with this sec- 
tion. 

302.1.1J Separation. Where Table 302.1.1 requires a 
fire-resistance-rated separation, the incidental use area 
shall be separated from the remainder of the building 
with a fire barrier. Where Table 302. 1 . 1 permits an auto- 
matic fire-extinguishing system without a fire barrier, the 
incidental use area shall be separated by construction ca- 
pable of resisfing the passage of smoke. The partitions 



shall extend from the floor to the underside of the 
fire-resistance-rated floor/ceiling assembly or fire-resis- 
tance-rated roof/ceiling assembly or to the underside of 
the floor or roof deck above. Doors shall be self-closing 
or automatic-closing upon detection of smoke. Doors 
shall not have air transfer openings and shall not be un- 
dercut in excess of the clearance permitted in accordance 
with NFPA 80. 

TABLE 302.1.1 
ENTAL USE AREAS 



BOOM OR AREA 


SEPARATION^ 


Furnace room where any piece of 
equipment is over 400,000 Btu per 
hour input 


1 hour or provide automatic 
fire-extinguishing system 


Rooms with any boiler over 15 psi 
and 10 horsepower 


1 hour or provide automatic 
fire-extinguishing system 


Refrigerant machinery rooms 


1 hour or provide automatic 
sprinkler system 


Parking garage (Section 406.2) 


2 hours; or 1 hour and provide 
automatic fire-extinguishing system 


Hydrogen cut-off rooms 


1-hour fire barriers and floor/ceiling 
assemblies in Group B, F, H, M, S 
and U occupancies. 2-hour fire 
barriers and floor/ceiling assemblies 
in Group A, E, I and R occupancies. 


Incinerator rooms 


2 hours and automatic sprinkler 
system 


Paint shops, not classified as Group 
H, located in occupancies other than 
Group F 


2 hours; or 1 hour and provide 
automatic fire-extinguishing system 


Laboratories and vocational shops, 
not classified as Group H, located in 
Group E or 1-2 occupancies 


1 hour or provide automatic 
fire-extinguishing system 


Laundry rooms over 100 square feet 


1 hour or provide automatic 
fire-exdnguishing system 


Storage rooms over 100 square feet 


1 hour or provide automatic 
fire-extinguishing system 


Group 1-3 cells equipped with padded 
surfaces 


1 hour 


Group 1-2 waste and hnen collection 
rooms 


1 hour 


Waste and linen collection rooms 
over 100 square feet 


1 hour or provide automatic 
fire-extinguishing system 


Stationary lead-acid battery systems 
having a liquid capacity of more than 
100 gallons used for facility standby 
power, emergency power or 
uninterrupted power supplies 


1-hour fire barriers and floor/ceiling 
assemblies in Group B, F, H, M, S 
and U occupancies. 2-hour fire 
barriers and floor/ceiling assemblies 
in Group A, E, I and R occupancies 



For SI: I square foot = 0.0929 m^, I pound per square inch = 6.9 kPa, 
1 British thermal unit = 0.293 watts, 1 horsepower = 746 watts, 
1 gallon = 3.785 L. 

a. Where an automatic fire-extinguishing system is provided, it need only be 
provided in the incidental use room or area. 



2003 INTERMATIIONAL BUBLDBNG CODE® 



23 



USE AND OCCUPANCY CLASSIFICATION 



302.2 Accessory ose areas. A fire barrier shall be required to 
separate accessory use areas classified as Group H in accor- 
dance with Section 302.3.2, and incidental use areas in accor- 
dance with Section 302. 1.1. Any other accessory use area shall 
not be required to be separated by a fire barrier provided the ac- 
cessory use area occupies an area not more than 10 percent of 
the area of the story in which it is located and does not exceed 
the tabular values in Table 503 for the allowable height or area 
for such use. 

302.2.1 Assembly areas. Accessory assembly areas are not 
considered separate occupancies if the floor area is equal to 
or less than 750 square feet (69.7 m^). Assembly areas that 
are accessory to Group E are not considered separate occu- 
pancies. Accessory religious educational rooms and reli- 
gious auditoriums with occupant loads of less than 100 are 
not considered separate occupancies. 

302.3 Mixed occupancies. Where a building is occupied by 
two or more uses not included in the same occupancy classifi- 
cation, the building or portion thereof shall comply with Sec- 
tion 302.3.1 or 302.3.2 or a combination of these sections. 

Exceptions: 

1. Occupancies separated in accordance with Section 
508. 

2. Areas of Group H-2, H-3, H-4 or H-5 occupancies 
shall be separated from any other occupancy in accor- 
dance with Section 302.3.2. 

3. Where required by Table 415.3.2, areas of Group H-1 , 
H-2 or H-3 occupancy shall be located in a separate 
and detached building or structure. 

4. Accessory use areas in accordance with Section 
302.2. 

5. Incidental use areas in accordance with Section 
302.1.1. 

302.3.1 Nonseparated uses. Each portion of the building 
shall be individually classified as to use. The required type 
of construction for the building shall be determined by ap- 
plying the height and area hmitations for each of the appli- 
cable occupancies to the entire building. The most 
restrictive type of construction, so determined, shall apply 
to the entire building. All other code requirements shall ap- 
ply to each portion of the building based on the use of that 
space except that the most restrictive apphcable provisions 
of Secdon 403 and Chapter 9 shall apply to these 
nonseparated uses. Fire separations are not required be- 
tween uses, except as required by other provisions. 

302.3.2 Separated uses. Each portion of the building shall 
be individually classified as to use and shall be completely 
separated from adjacent areas by fire barrier walls or hori- 
zontal assemblies or both having a fire-resistance rating de- 
termined in accordance with Table 302.3.2 for uses being 
separated. Each fire area shall comply with this code based 
on the use of that space. Each fire area shall comply with the 
height limitafions based on the use of that space and the type 
of construction classification. In each story, the building 
area shall be such that the sum of the ratios of the floor area 
of each use divided by the allowable area for each use shall 
not exceed one. 



Exception: Except for Group H and 1-2 areas, where the 
building is equipped throughout with an automatic sprin- 
kler system, installed in accordance with Section 
903.3.1.1, the fire-resistance ratings in Table 302.3.2 
shall be reduced by 1 hour but to not less than 1 hour and 
to not less than that required for floor construction ac- 
cording to the type of construction. 

302.4 Spaces used for different purposes. A room or space 
that is intended to be occupied at different times for different 
purposes shall comply with all the requirements that are appli- 
cable to each of the purposes for which the room or space will 
be occupied. 



SECTION 303 
ASSEMBLY GROUP A 

303.1 Assemtoly Group A. Assembly Group A occupancy in- 
cludes, among others, the use of a building or structure, or a 
portion thereof, for the gathering together of persons for pur- 
poses such as civic, social or religious functions, recreation, 
food or drink consumption or awaiting transportation. A room 
or space used for assembly purposes by less than 50 persons 
and accessory to another occupancy shall be included as a part 
of that occupancy. Assembly areas with less than 750 square 
feet (69.7 m^) and which are accessory to another occupancy 
according to Section 302.2.1 are not assembly occupancies. 
Assembly occupancies which are accessory to Group E in ac- 
cordance with Section 302.2 are not considered assembly occu- 
pancies. Religious educational rooms and religious 
auditoriums which are accessory to churches in accordance 
with Section 302.2 and which have occupant loads of less than 
100 shall be classified as A-3. 

Assembly occupancies shall include the following: 

A-1 Assembly uses, usually with fixed seating, intended for 
the production and viewing of the performing arts or 
motion pictures including, but not limited to: 

Motion picture theaters 

Symphony and concert halls 

Television and radio studios admitting an audience 

Theaters 

A-2 Assembly uses intended for food and/or drink con- 
sumption including, but not limited to: 
Banquet halls 
Night clubs 
Restaurants 
Taverns and bars 

A-3 Assembly uses intended for worship, recreation or 
amusement and other assembly uses not classified else- 
where in Group A including, but not limited to: 

Amusement arcades 

Art galleries 

Bowling alleys 

Churches 

Community halls 

Courtrooms 

Dance halls (not including food or drink consump- 
tion) 

Exhibition halls 



!• 



24 



2003 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING COOEQ 



H 



TABLE 302.3.2 
REQUIRED SEPARATION OF OCCUPANCIIES (HOURS)^ 



m 



USE 


A-1 


A-2 


A-3 


A-4 


A-5 


B'' 


E 


■ F-1 


F-2 


H-1 


H-2 


H-3 


H-4 


H-5 


1-1 


0-2 


1-3 


1-4 


m" 


R-1 


R-2 


R-3, R-4 


S-1 


S-2'= 


U 


A-1 





2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


3 


2 


NP 


4 


3 


2 


4 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


3 


2 


1 


A-2^ 


_ 


_ 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


3 


2 


NP 


4 


3 


2 


4 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


3 


2 


1 


A-3 











2 


2 


2 


2 


3 


2 


NP 


4 


3 


2 


4 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


3 


2 


1 


A-4 


_ 











2 


2 


2 


3 


2 


NP 


4 


3 


2 


4 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


3 


2 


1 


A-5 














— 


2 


2 


3 


2 


NP 


4 


3 


2 


4 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


3 


2 


1 


b" 

















— 


2 


3 


2 


NP 


2 


1 


1 


1 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


3 


2 


1 


E 























3 


2 


NP 


4 


3 


2 


3 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


3 


2 


1 


F-1 

















— 








3 


NP 


2 


1 


1 


1 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


F-2 

















— 











NP 


2 


1 


1 


1 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


3 


2 


1 


H-1 





. 


























NP 


NP 


NP 


NP 


NP 


NP 


NP 


NP 


NP 


NP 


NP 


NP 


NP 


NP 


NP 


H-2 



































1 


2 


2 


4 


4 


4 


4 


2 


4 


4 


4 


2 


2 


1 


H-3 






































1 


1 


4 


3 


3 


3 


1 


3 


3 


3 


1 


1 


1 


H-4 









































1 


4 


4 


4 


4 


1 


4 


4 


4 


1 


1 


1 


H-5 























— 





— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


4 


4 


4 


3 


1 


4 


4 


4 


1 


1 


3 


I-l 






































— 





— 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


4 


3 


2 


1-2 

















































2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


3 


2 


1 


1-3 

















— 














— 





— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


3 


2 


1 


1-4 





















































— 


2 


2 


2 


2 


3 


2 


1 


m" 











— 










— 








— 


— 


— 





— 





— 


— 


— 


2 


2 


2 


3 


2 


1 


R-1 














. 









































— 


— 


2 


2 


3 


2 


1 


R-2 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 





— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2 


3 


2 


1 


R-3, R-4 





— 


— 


— 





— 





— 








— 


— 


— 





— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


3 


2d 


l" 


S-1 






































— 




















— 





— 





3 


3 


S-2^ 


— 


— 


— 


— 





— 





— 





— 


— 





— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1 


U 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 




— 


— 


— 


— 



For SI: 1 square foot = 0.0929 m^. 
NP = Not permitted. 

a. See exception to Section 302.3.2 for reductions permitted. 

b. Occupancy separation need not be provided for storage areas within Groups B and M if the: 

1. Area is less than 10 percent of the floor area; 

2. Area is provided with an automatic fire-extinguishing system and is less than 3,000 square feet; or 

3. Area is less than 1,000 square feet. 

c. Areas used only for private or pleasure vehicles shall be allowed to reduce separation by 1 hour. 

d. See Section 406.1.4. 

e. Commercial kitchens need not be separated from the restaurant seating areas that they serve. 



m 

m 



a 



a 
< 

o 

> 

m 
m 

o 
> 



USE AND OCCUPANCY CLASSIFICATION 



i^ 



Funeral parlors 

Gymnasiums (without spectator seating) 

Indoor swimming pools (without spectator seating) 

Indoor tennis courts (without spectator seating) 

Lecture halls 

Libraries 

Museums 

Waiting areas in transportation terminals 

Pool and billiard parlors 

A-4 Assembly uses intended for viewing of indoor sporting 
events and activities with spectator seating including, 
but not limited to: 

Arenas 

Skating rinks 

Swimming pools 

Tennis courts 

A-5 Assembly uses intended for participation in or viewing 
outdoor activities including, but not limited to: 
Amusement park structures 
Bleachers 
Grandstands 
Stadiums 

303.1.1 Nonaccessory assembly use. A building or tenant 
space used for assembly purposes by less than 50 persons 
shall be considered a Group B occupancy. 



SECTION 304 
BUSINESS GROUP B 

304.1 Business Group B. Business Group B occupancy in- 
cludes, among others, the use of a building or structure, or a 
portion thereof, for office, professional or service-type transac- 
tions, including storage of records and accounts. Business oc- 
cupancies shall include, but not be limited to, the following: 

Airport traffic control towers 
Animal hospitals, kennels and pounds 
Banks 

Barber and beauty shops 
Car wash 

Civic administration 
Clinic — outpatient 

Dry cleaning and laundries; pick-up and delivery stations 
and self-service 

Educational occupancies above the 12th grade 
Electronic data processing 
Laboratories; testing and research 
Motor vehicle showrooms 
Post offices 
Print shops 

Professional services (architects, attorneys, dentists, physi- 
cians, engineers, etc.) 
Radio and television stations 
Telephone exchanges 



SECTION 305 
EDUCATIONAL GROUP E 

305,1 Educational Group E. Educational Group E occupancy 
includes, among others, the use of a building or structure, or a 



portion thereof, by six or more persons at any one time for 
educational purposes through the 12th grade. Religious educa- 
tional rooms and religious auditoriums, which are accessory to 
churches in accordance with Section 302.2 and have occupant 
loads of less than 100, shall be classified as A-3 occupancies. 

305.2 Day care. The use of a building or structure, or portion 
thereof, for educational, supervision or personal care services 
for more than five children older than 2'/2 years of age, shall be 
classified as a Group E occupancy. 



SECTION 306 
FACTORY GROUP F 

306.1 Factory Industrial Group E Factory Industrial Group F 
occupancy includes, among others, the use of a building or 
structure, or a portion thereof, for assembling, disassembling, 
fabricating, finishing, manufacturing, packaging, repair or pro- 
cessing operations that are not classified as a Group H hazard- 
ous or Group S storage occupancy. 



r 



Factory Industrial F-1 Moderate-Hazard Occu= 

paecy. Factory industrial uses which are not classified as Fac- 
tory Industrial F-2 Low Hazard shall be classified as F-1 
Moderate Hazard and shall include, but not be limited to, the 
following: 

Aircraft 

Appliances 

Athletic equipment 

Automobiles and other motor vehicles 

Bakeries 

Beverages; over 12-percent alcohol content 

Bicycles 

Boats 

Brooms or brushes 

Business machines 

Cameras and photo equipment 

Canvas or similar fabric 

Carpets and rugs (includes cleaning) 

Clothing 

Construction and agricultural machinery 

Disinfectants 

Dry cleaning and dyeing 

Electric generation plants 

Electronics 

Engines (including rebuilding) 

Food processing 

Furniture 

Hemp products 

Jute products 

Laundries 

Leather products 

Machinery 

Metals 

Millwork (sash & door) 

Motion pictures and television filming (without spectators) 

Musical instruments 

Optical goods 

Paper mills or products 

Photographic film 

Plastic products 



26 



2003 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



JSE kUD OCCUPAMCY CLASS!FICAT!OM 



• 



Printing or publishing 

Recreational vehicles 

Refuse incineration 

Shoes 

Soaps and detergents 

Textiles 

Tobacco 

Trailers 

Upholstering 

Wood; distillation 

Woodworking (cabinet) 

306.3 Factory Indestrnal F=2 Low-Hazard Occupamcyo Fac- 
tory industrial uses that involve the fabrication or manufactur- 
ing of noncombustible materials which during finishing, 
packing or processing do not involve a significant fire hazard 
shall be classified as F-2 occupancies and shall include, but not 
be hmited to, the following: 

Beverages; up to and including 12-percent alcohol content 

Brick and masonry 

Ceramic products 

Foundries 

Glass products 

Gypsum 

Ice 

Metal products (fabrication and assembly) 



or plastic bottles shall be limited to a maximum size of 4 fluid 
ounces (118 ml). 



I [F] 307.1 Hlgli-Hazairdl Group H. High-Hazard Group H oc- 
cupancy includes, among others, the use of a building or struc- 
ture, or a portion thereof, that involves the manufacturing, 
processing, generation or storage of materials that constitute a 
physical or health hazard in quantities in excess of those found 
in Tables 307.7(1) and 307.7(2) (see also definition of "Control 
area"). 



[F] 3©7o2 DeffieitnoES. The following words and terms shall, for 
the purposes of this section and as used elsewhere in this code, 
have the meanings shown herein. 

AEROSOL. A product that is dispensed from an aerosol con- 
tainer by a propellant. 

Aerosol products shall be classified by means of the calcula- 
tion of their chemical heats of combustion and shall be desig- 
nated Level 1, 2 or 3. 

Level 1 aerosol products. Those with a total chemical heat 
of combustion that is less than or equal to 8,600 British ther- 
mal units per pound (Btu/lb) (20 kJ/g). 

Level 2 aerosol products. Those with a total chemical heat 
of combustion that is greater than 8,600 Btu/lb (20 kJ/g), but 
less than or equal to 13,000 Btu/lb (30 kJ/g). 

Level 3 aerosol products. Those with a total chemical heat 
combusdon that is greater than 13,000 Btu/lb (30 kJ/g). 

AEROSOL CONTAINER. A metal can or a glass or plasfic 
bottle designed to dispense an aerosol. Metal cans shall be lim- 
ited to a maximum size of 33.8 fluid ounces (1,000 ml). Glass 



A structure that consists of a combination of 
walls, floor and roof, which is designed to withstand the rapid 
release of energy in an explosion and which is fully confined, 
partially vented or fully vented; or other effective method of 
shielding from explosive materials by a natural or artificial bar- 
rier. 



An artificial mound or revetment a 
minimum thickness of 3 feet (914 mm). 

Natural barricade. Natural features of the ground, such as 
hills, or timber of sufficient density that the surrounding ex- 
posures that require protection cannot be seen from the 
magazine or building containing explosives when the trees 
are bare of leaves. 



The temperature at which the vapor pres- 
sure of a liquid equals the atmospheric pressure of 14.7 pounds 
per square inch (psi) (101 kPa) gage or 760 mm of mercury. 
Where an accurate boiling point is unavailable for the material 
in question, or for mixtures which do not have a constant boil- 
ing point, for the purposes of this classification, the 20-percent 
evaporated point of a distillation performed in accordance with 
ASTM D 86 shall be used as the boiling point of the liquid. 

CLOSED SYSTEM. The use of a solid or Uquid hazardous 
material involving a closed vessel or system that remains 
closed during normal operations where vapors emitted by the 
product are not liberated outside of the vessel or system and the 
product is not exposed to the atmosphere during normal opera- 
tions; and all uses of compressed gases. Examples of closed 
systems for solids and liquids include product conveyed 
through a piping system into a closed vessel, system or piece of 
equipment. 



BUSTIBLE DUST. Finely divided solid material that is 
420 microns or less in diameter and which, when dispersed in 
air in the proper proportions, could be ignited by a flame, spark 
or other source of ignition. Combustible dust will pass through 
a U.S. No. 40 standard sieve. 

COMBUSTIBLE FIBERS. Readily ignitable and free-burn- 
ing fibers, such as cocoa fiber, cloth, cotton, excelsior, hay, 
hemp, henequen, istle, jute, kapok, oakum, rags, sisal, Spanish 
moss, straw, tow, wastepaper, certain synthetic fibers or other 
like materials. 

COMBUSTIBLE LIQUID. A liquid having a closed cup 
flash point at or above 100°F (38°C). Combustible liquids shall 
be subdivided as follows: 



II. Liquids having a closed cup flash point at or above 
100°F (38°C) and below MOT (60°C). 



L. Liquids having a closed cup flash point at or 
above UO°F (60°C) and below 200°F (93°C). 



L Liquids having a closed cup flash point at or 
above 200°F (93°C). 

The category of combustible liquids does not include com- 
pressed gases or cryogenic fluids. 



2003 JNTERNATDONAL BUILDIMG CODE® 



27 



[Fl TABLE 307.7(1) 

MAXISViUiVa ALLOWABLE QUANTITY PER CONTROL AREA OF HAZARDOUS R/IATERIALS POSING A PHYSICAL HAZARD^'''*"'" 



MATERIAL 


CLASS 


GROUP WHEN 

THE MAXIMUM 

ALLOWABLE 

QUANTITY IS 

EXCEEDED 


storage" 


USE-CLOSED systems'* 


USE-OPEN systems" 


Solid pounds 
(cubic feet) 


Liquid gallons 
(pounds) 


Gas 

(cubic feet 

at NTP) 


Solid pounds 
(cubic feet) 


Liquid gallons 
(pounds) 


Gas 

(cubic feet 

at NTP) 


Solid pounds 
(cubic feet) 


Liquid gallons 
(pounds) 


Combustible liquid'^- ' 


II 
IIIA 
IIIB 


H-2 or H-3 
H-2 or H-3 

N/A 


N/A 


no''-^ 

330'''^ 
13,200^' f 


N/A 


N/A 


120" 

330" 

13,200^ 


N/A 


N/A 


30" 

80" 

3,300f 


Combustible fiber 


Loose 
Baled 


H-3 


(100) 
(1,000) 


N/A 


N/A 


(100) 
(1,000) 


N/A 


N/A 


(20) 
(200) 


N/A 


Consumer fireworks (Class 
C, Common) 


1.4G 


H-3 


125d,e,l 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


Cryogenics flammable 


N/A 


H-2 


N/A 


45" 


N/A 


N/A 


45" 


N/A 


N/A 


10" 


Cryogenics, oxidizing 


N/A 


H-3 


N/A 


45" 


N/A 


N/A 


45" 


N/A 


N/A 


10" 


Explosives 


Division 1.1 
Division 1.2 
Division 1.3 
Division 1.4 
Division 1.4G 
Division 1.5 
Division 1.6 


H-1 
H-1 
H-1 or 2 
H-3 
H-3 
H-1 
H-1 


le,g 
le,g 

5e,g 

50^-8 

125d.e,! 
ie,g 
Id.e.g 


(l)e,g 
(l)e,g 

(50)^-8 
N/A 

(l)e,g 

N/A 


N/A 
N/A 
N/A 
N/A 
N/A 
N/A 
N/A 


0.258 
0.258 

18 

508 

N/A 
0.258 

N/A 


(0.25)8 
(0.25)8 

(1)8 

(50)8 

N/A 

(0.25)8 

N/A 


N/A 
N/A 
N/A 
N/A 
N/A 
N/A 
N/A 


0.258 
0.258 

18 

N/A 
N/A 
0.258 
N/A 


(0.25)8 
(0.25)8 

(1)8 

N/A 

N/A 

(0.25)8 

N/A 


Flammable gas 


Gaseous 
liquefied 


H-2 


N/A 


N/A 
30"-^ 


1,000"-^ 

N/A 


N/A 


N/A 
.30"-^ 


1,000"'^ 

N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


Flammable liquid'^ 


lA 
IB and IC 


H-2 
or H-3 


N/A 


30"-^ 
120"'^ 


N/A 


N/A 


30" 
120" 


N/A 


N/A 


10" 
30" 


Combination flammable 
liquid (lA, IB, IC) 


N/A 


H-2 
or H-3 


N/A 


120"- e.h 


N/A 


N/A 


120"'*^ 


N/A 


N/A 


30"'^ 


Flammable solid 


N/A 


H-3 


125''-« 


N/A 


N/A 


125" 


N/A 


N/A 


25" 


N/A 


Organic peroxide 


UD 
I 

II 
III 

IV 
V 


H-1 
H-2 
H-3 
H-3 

N/A 
N/A 


le,g 
5d,e 

50'i-^ 
125'i-^ 

NL 
NL 


(l)e,g 

(5)"-« 
(50)"-^ 
(125)"-^ 

NL 
NL 


N/A 
N/A 
N/A 
N/A 
N/A 
N/A 


0.258 
1" 
50" 
125" 
N/L 
N/L 


(0.25)8 

(1) 

(50)" 

(125)" 

N/L 

N/L 


N/A 
N/A 
N/A 
N/A 
N/A 
N/A 


0.258 
1" 
10" 

25" 

NL 
NL 


(0.25)8 
(1)" 
(10)" 
(25)" 
NL 
NL 


Oxidizer 


4 

2 

1 


H-1 
H-2 
H-3 
H-3 


le,g 
10d,e 

250<^'^ 

4,000^'f 


(l)e,g 

(10)"' « 
(250)"'^ 
(4,000)^'f 


N/A 
N/A 
N/A 
N/A 


0.258 
2" 
, 250" 
4,000f 


(0.25)8 

(2)" 
(250)" 
(4,000)f 


N/A 
N/A 
N/A 
N/A 


0.258 
2" 
50" 

i,ooof 


(0.25)8 
(2)" 
(50)" 

(l,000)f 


Oxidizing gas 


Gaseous 
liquefied 


H-3 


N/A 
N/A 


N/A 
15"'^ 


1,500"- « 

N/A 


N/A 
N/A 


N/A 
15"'^ 


1,500"''= 

N/A 


N/A 
N/A 


N/A 
N/A 



(continued) 



H 



m 





[F] TABLE 307.7(1)— cooiinoed 
WiAXBMUWJ ALLOWABLE QUANTITY PER CONTROL AREA OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS POSBNG A PHYSICAL HAZARD^' 


j, m, n 




MATERIAL 


CLASS 


GROUP WHEN 

THE MAXIMUM 

ALLOWABLE 

QUANTITY IS 

EXCEEDED 


storage" 


USE-CLOSED systems" 


use-open systems" 


Solid pounds 
(cubic feet) 


Liquid gallons 
(pounds) 


Gas 
(cubic feet 

at NTP) 


Solid pounds 
(cubic feet) 


Liquid gallons 
(pounds) 


Gas 
(cubic feet 

at NTP) 


Solid pounds 
(cubic feet) 


Liquid gallons 
(pounds) 


Pyrophoric material 


N/A 


H-2 


4e,g 


•(4)e.g 


50^- g 


18 


(1)^ 


10e.g 








Unstable (reactive) 


4 
3 
2 
1 


H-1 

H-lorH-2 

H-3 

N/A 


p.g 

5d,e 

50"'^ 

NL 


(l)e,g 

(50)"-^ 

NL 


10d.g 

250"' = 
N/L 


0.258 

1" 

50'' 

NL 


(0.25)8 

(1) 
(50)'' 
N/L 


2e,g 
10d,e 

250'''^ 

NL 


0.258 
1" 
10" 

NL 


(0.25)8 
(1)" 
(10)" 

NL 


Water reactive 


3 
2 
1 


H-2 

H-3 

N/A 


5d,e 

50^- = 

NL 


(SO)'"'^ 

NL 


N/A 
N/A 
N/A 


5'^ 
SO'' 

NL 


(50)" 
NL 


N/A 
N/A 
N/A 


1" 
10" 

NL 


(1)" 
(10)" 

NL 



For SI: I cubic foot = 0.023 m^ 1 pound = 0.454 kg, 1 gallon = 3.785 L. 
NL = Not Limited; N/A = Not Applicable; UD = Unclassified Detonable 

a. For use of control areas, see Section 414.2. 

b. The aggregate quantity in use and storage shall not exceed the quantity listed for storage. 

c. The quantities of alcoholic beverages in retail and wholesale sales occupancies shall not be limited providing the liquids are packaged in individual containers not exceeding 1 .3 gallons. In retail and wholesale 
sales occupancies, the quantities of medicines, foodstuffs, consumer or industrial products, and cosmetics containing not more than 50 percent by volume of water-mi scible liquids with the remainder of the solu- 
tions not being flammable, shall not be limited, provided that such materials are packaged in individual containers not exceeding 1.3 gallons. 

d. Maximum allowable quantities shall be increased 100 percent in buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. Where Note e also applies, the increase 
for both notes shall be applied accumulatively. 

e. Maximum allowable quantities shall be increased 100 percent when stored in approved storage cabinets, gas cabinets, exhausted enclosures or safety cans as specified in the International Fire Code. Where Note d 
also applies, the increase for both notes shall be applied accumulatively. 

f. The permitted quantities shall not be limited in a building equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. 

g. Permitted only in buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. 
h. Containing not more than the maximum allowable quantity per control area of Class lA, IB or IC flammable liquids. 

i. Inside a building, the maximum capacity of a combustible liquid storage system that is connected to a fuel-oil piping system shall be 660 gallons provided such system conforms to the International Fire Code. 

j. Quantities in parenthesis indicate quantity units in parenthesis at the head of each column. 

k. A maximum quantity of 200 pounds of solid or 20 gallons of liquid Class 3 oxidizers is allowed when such materials are necessary for maintenance purposes, operation or sanitation of equipment. Storage contain- 
ers and the manner of storage shall be approved. 

1. Net weight of the pyrotechnic composition of the fireworks. Where the net weight of the pyrotechnic composition of the fireworks is not known, 25 percent of the gross weight of the fireworks, including packag- 
ing, shall be used. 

m. For gallons of liquids, divide the amount in pounds by 10 in accordance with Section 2703.1.2 of the International Fire Code. 

n. For storage and display quantifies in Group M and storage quantifies in Group S occupancies complying with Section 414.2.4, see Table 414.2.4. 



m 



o 



o 

> 
d 

o 



USE AND OCCUPANCY CLASSIFICATION 



[F] TABLE 307.7(2) 
MAXIWIUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITY PER CONTROL AREA OF HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POSING A HEALTH HAZARD^'"''' 



MATERIAL 


STORAGE^ 


USE-CLOSED SYSTEiWS'' 


USE-OPEN SYSTEMS'' 


Solid pounds®' ^ 


Liquid gallons 
(pounds)®'' 


Gas (cubic feet 
at NIP)® 


Solid pounds® 


Liquid gallons 
(pounds)® 


Gas (cubic feet 
at NTP)® 


Solid pounds® 


Liquid gallons 
(pounds)® 


Corrosive 


5,000 


500 


810^'S 


5,000 


500 


siof-g 


1,000 


100 


Highly toxic 


10 


(10)' 


20" 


10 


(loy 


20^^ 


3 


(3)' 


Toxic 


500 


(500)' 


810^ 


500 


(500)' 


810^ 


125 


(125)' 



For SI: 1 cubic foot = 0.028 m^ 1 pound = 0.454 kg, 1 gallon = 3.785 L. 

a. For use of control areas, see Section 414.2. 

b. In retail and wholesale sales occupancies, the quantities of medicines, foodstuffs, consumer or industrial products, and cosmetics, containing not more than 50 
percent by volume of water-miscible liquids and with the remainder of the solutions not being flammable, shall not be limited, provided that such materials are 
packaged in individual containers not exceeding 1 .3 gallons. 

c. For storage and display quantities in Group M and storage quantities in Group S occupancies complying with Section 414.2.4, see Table 414.2.4. 

d. The aggregate quantity in use and storage shall not exceed the quantity listed for storage. 

e. Quantities shall be increased 100 percent in buildings equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. 
Where Note f also applies, the increase for both notes shall be applied accumulatively. 

f. Quantities shall be increased 100 percent when stored in approved storage cabinets, gas cabinets or exhausted enclosures as specified in the International Fire 
Code. Where Note e also applies, the increase for both notes shall be applied accumulatively. 

g. A single cylinder containing 150 pounds or less of anhydrous ammonia in a single control area in a nonsprinklered building shall be considered a maximum allow- 
able quantity. Two cyhnders, each containing 1 50 pounds or less in a single control area, shall be considered a maximum allowable quantity provided the building 
is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. 

h. Allowed only when stored in approved exhausted gas cabinets or exhausted enclosures as specified in the International Fire Code. 

i. Quantities in parenthesis indicate quantity units in parenthesis at the head of each column. 

j. For gallons of liquids, divide the amount in pounds by 10 in accordance with Section 2703.1.2 of the International Fire Code. 



COMPRESSED GAS. 
which: 

1. 



A material, or mixture of materials 



Is a gas at 68°F (20°C) or less at 14.7 pounds per square 
inch atmosphere (psia) (101 kPa) of pressure; and 

2. Has a boiling point of 68°F (20°C) or less at 14.7 psia 
(101 kPa) which is either liquefied, nonliquefied or in so- 
lution, except those gases which have no other health- or 
physical-hazard properties are not considered to be com- 
pressed until the pressure in the packaging exceeds 41 
psia (282 kPa) at 68°F (20°C). 

The states of a compressed gas are categorized as follows: 

1. Nonliquefied compressed gases are gases, other than 
those in solution, which are in a packaging under the 
charged pressure and are entirely gaseous at a tempera- 
ture of 68°F (20°C). 

2. Liquefied compressed gases are gases that, in a packag- 
ing under the charged pressure, are partially liquid at a 
temperature of 68°F (20°C). 

3 . Compressed gases in solution are nonliquefied gases that 
are dissolved in a solvent. 

4. Compressed gas mixtures consist of a mixture of two or 
more compressed gases contained in a packaging, the 
hazard properties of which are represented by the proper- 
ties of the mixture as a whole. 

CONTROL AREA. Spaces within a building that are en- 
closed and bounded by exterior walls, fire walls, fire barriers 
and roofs, or a combination thereof, where quantities of haz- 
ardous materials not exceeding the maximum allowable quan- 
tities per control area are stored, dispensed, used or handled. 

CORROSIVE. A chemical that causes visible destruction of, 
or irreversible alterations in, living tissue by chemical action at 
the point of contact. A chemical shall be considered corrosive 



if, when tested on the intact skin of albino rabbits by the method 
described in DOTn 49 CFR, Part 173.137, such a chemical de- 
stroys or changes irreversibly the structure of the tissue at the 
point of contact following an exposure period of 4 hours. This 
term does not refer to acfion on inanimate surfaces. 

CRYOGENIC FLUID. A liquid having a boiling point lower 
than -150°F (-101°C) at 14.7 pounds per square inch atmo- 
sphere (psia) (an absolute pressure of 101 kPa). 

DEFLAGRATION. An exothermic reacdon, such as the ex- 
tremely rapid oxidation of a flammable dust or vapor in air, in 
which the reaction progresses through the unbumed material at 
a rate less than the velocity of sound. A deflagration can have an 
explosive effect. 

DETACHED BUILDING. A separate single-story building, 
without a basement or crawl space, used for the storage or use 
of hazardous materials and located an approved distance from 
all structures. 

DETONATION. An exothermic reacfion characterized by the 
presence of a shock wave in the material which establishes and 
maintains the reaction. The reaction zone progresses through 
the material at a rate greater than the velocity of sound. The 
principal heating mechanism is one of shock compression. Det- 
onations have an explosive effect. 

DISPENSING. The pouring or transferring of any material 
from a container, tank or similar vessel, whereby vapors, dusts, 
fumes, mists or gases are liberated to the atmosphere. 

EXPLOSIVE. Any chemical compound, mixture or device, 
the primary or common purpose of which is to function by ex- 
plosion. The term includes, but is not limited to, dynamite, 
black powder, pellet powder, initiating explosives, detonators, 
safety fuses, squibs, detonating cord, igniter cord, igniters and 
display fireworks, 1.3G (Class B, Special). 



30 



2003 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



USE AND OCCUPAiSSCY CLASSDF8CATI0N 



The term "explosive" includes any material determined to be 
within the scope of USC Title 18: Chapter 40 and also includes 
any material classified as an explosive other than consumer 
fireworks, 1 .4G (Class C, Common) by the hazardous materials 
regulations of DOTn 49 CFR. 

Higli explosive. Explosive material, such as dynamite, 
which can be caused to detonate by means of a No. 8 test 
blasting cap when unconfined. 



ity of initiation or of transition from burning to detona- 
tion under normal conditions of transport. 



spBosive, Explosive material that will bum or defla- 
grate when ignited. It is characterized by a rate of reaction 
that is less than the speed of sound. Examples of low explo- 
sives include, but are not limited to, black powder; safety 
fuse; igniters; igniter cord; fuse lighters; fireworks, 1.3G 
(Class B, Special) and propellants, 1.3C. 



explosives. Division 1.1, 1.2 and 1.5 ex- 
plosives alone or in combination, or loaded into various 
types of ammunition or containers, most of which can be ex- 
pected to explode virtually instantaneously when a small 
portion is subjected to fire, severe concussion, impact, the 
impulse of an initiating agent or the effect of a considerable 
discharge of energy from without. Materials that react in this 
manner represent a mass explosion hazard. Such an explo- 
sive will normally cause severe structural damage to adja- 
cent objects. Explosive propagation could occur 
immediately to other items of ammunition and explosives 
stored sufficiently close to and not adequately protected 
from the initially exploding pile with a time interval short 
enough so that two or more quantities must be considered as 
one for quantity-distance purposes. 

UN/DOTm Class 1 explosives. The former classification 
system used by DOTn included the terms "high" and "low" 
explosives as defined herein. The following terms further 
define explosives under the current system applied by DOTn 
for all explosive materials defined as hazard Class 1 materi- 
als. Compatibility group letters are used in concert with the 
division to specify further limitations on each division noted 
(i.e., the letter G identifies the material as a pyrotechnic sub- 
stance or article containing a pyrotechnic substance and 
similar materials). 



dsiom lol. Explosives that have a mass explosion haz- 
ard. A mass explosion is one which affects almost the en- 
tire load instantaneously. 



M 1.2. Explosives that have a projection hazard 
but not a mass explosion hazard. 



isiom 1.3. Explosives that have a fire hazard and ei- 
ther a minor blast hazard or a minor projection hazard or 
both, but not a mass explosion hazard. 

Division 1.4. Explosives that pose a minor explosion 
hazard. The explosive effects are largely confined to the 
package and no projection of fragments of appreciable 
size or range is to be expected. An external fire must not 
cause virtually instantaneous explosion of almost the en- 
tire contents of the package. 



1.6. Extremely insensitive articles which do not 
have a mass explosion hazard. This division is comprised 
of articles that contain only extremely insensitive deto- 
nating substances and which demonstrate a negligible 
probability of accidental initiation or propagation. 

[S. Any composition or device for the purpose of 
producing a visible or audible effect for entertainment pur- 
poses by combustion, deflagration or detonation that meets the 
definition of 1.4G fireworks or 1.3G fireworks as set forth 
herein. 



[S, 1,3(G. (Formerly Class B, Special Fireworks.) 
Large fireworks devices, which are explosive materials, in- 
tended for use in fireworks displays and designed to produce 
audible or visible effects by combustion, deflagration or deto- 
nation. Such 1 .3G fireworks include, but are not limited to, fire- 
crackers containing more than 130 milligrams (2 grains) of 
explosive composition, aerial shells containing more than 40 
grams of pyrotechnic composition, and other display pieces 
which exceed the limits for classification as 1.4G fireworks. 
Such 1.3G fireworks are also described as fireworks, 49 CFR 
(172) by the DOTn. 



1.5. Very insensitive explosives. This division is 
comprised of substances that have a mass explosion haz- 
ard, but that are so insensitive there is very little probabil- 



[S, 1.4G. (Formerly Class C, Common Fire- 
works.) Small fireworks devices containing restricted amounts 
of pyrotechnic composition designed primarily to produce vis- 
ible or audible effects by combustion. Such 1.4G fireworks 
which comply with the construction, chemical composition 
and labeling regulations of the DOTn for fireworks, 49 CFR 
(172), and the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission 
(CPSC) as set forth in CPSC 16 CFR: Parts 1500 and 1507, are 
not explosive materials for the purpose of this code. 

FLAMMABLE GAS. A material that is a gas at 68°F (20°C) 
or less at 14.7 pounds per square inch atmosphere (psia) (101 
kPa) of pressure [a material that has a boiling point of 68°F 
(20°C) or less at 14.7 psia (101 kPa)] which: 

1 . Is ignitable at 14.7 psia (101 kPa) when in a mixture of 1 3 
percent or less by volume with air; or 

2. Has a flammable range at 14.7 psia (101 kPa) with air of 
at least 1 2 percent, regardless of the lower limit. 

The limits specified shall be determined at 14.7 psi ( 101 kPa) of 
pressure and a temperature of 68°F (20°C) in accordance with 

ASTME681. 

FLAMMABLE LIQUEFIED GAS. A liquefied compressed 
gas which, under a charged pressure, is partially liquid at a tem- 
perature of 68°F (20°C) and which is flammable. 

FLAMMABLE LIQUID. A liquid having a closed cup flash 
point below 100°F (38°C). Flammable liquids are further cate- 
gorized into a group known as Class I liquids. The Class I cate- 
gory is subdivided as follows: 

Class lA. Liquids having a flash point below 73 °F (23 °C) 
and a boiling point below 100°F (38°C). 

Class IB. Liquids having a flash point below 73 °F (23 °C) 
and a boihng point at or above 100°F (38°C). 

Class IC, Liquids having a flash point at or above 73°F 
(23°C) and below 100°F (38°C). 



2003 8MTERNAT10NAL BUBLDDMG CODE® 



31 



USE AND OCCUPANCY CLASSIFICATION 



The category of flammable liquids does not include com- 
pressed gases or cryogenic fluids. 

FLAMMABLE MATERIAL. A material capable of being 
readily ignited from common sources of heat or at a temperature 
of600°F(316°C)orless. 

FLAMMABLE SOLID. A solid, other than a blasting agent or 
explosive, that is capable of causing fire through friction, absorp- 
tion or moisture, spontaneous chemical change, or retained heat 
from manufacturing or processing, or which has an ignition tem- 
perature below 212°F (100°C) or which bums so vigorously and 
persistentiy when ignited as to create a serious hazard. A chemi- 
cal shall be considered a flammable solid as determined in accor- 
dance with the test method of CPSC 16 CFR; Part 1500.44, if it 
ignites and bums with a self-sustained flame at a rate greater than 
0.1 inch (2.5 mm) per second along its major axis. 

FLASH POINT. The minimum temperature in degrees Fahren- 
heit at which a Uquid will give off sufficient vapors to form an ig- 
nitable mixture with air near the surface or in the container, but 
will not sustain combustion. The flash point of a liquid shall be 
determined by appropriate test procedure and apparatus as spec- 
ified in ASTM D 56, ASTM D 93 or ASTM D 3278. 

HANDLING. The deliberate transport by any means to a point 
of storage or use. 

HAZARDOUS MATERIALS. Those chemicals or substances 
that are physical hazards or health hazards as defined and classi- 
fied in this section and the International Fire Code, whether the 
materials are in usable or waste condition. 

HEALTH HAZARD. A classificafion of a chemical for which 
there is statistically significant evidence that acute or chronic 
health effects are capable of occurring in exposed persons. The 
term "health hazard" includes chemicals that are toxic or highly 
toxic, and corrosive. 

HIGHLY TOXIC. A material which produces a lethal dose or 
lethal concentration that falls within any of the following catego- 
ries: 

1 . A chemical that has a median lethal dose (LD50) of 50 
milligrams or less per kilogram of body weight when ad- 
ministered orally to albino rats weighing between 200 and 
300 grams each. 

2. A chemical that has a median lethal dose (LD50) of 200 
milhgrams or less per kilogram of body weight when ad- 
ministered by continuous contact for 24 hours (or less if 
death occurs within 24 hours) with the bare skin of albino 
rabbits weighing between 2 and 3 kilograms each. 

3. A chemical that has a median lethal concentration (LC50) 
in air of 200 parts per million by volume or less of gas or 
vapor, or 2 milligrams per liter or less of mist, fume or 
dust, when administered by continuous inhalation for 1 
hour (or less if death occurs within 1 hour) to albino rats 
weighing between 200 and 300 grams each. 

Mixtures of these materials with ordinary materials, such as 
water, might not warrant classification as highly toxic. While 
this system is basically simple in application, any hazard evalua- 
tion that is required for the precise categorization of this type of 
material shall be performed by experienced, technically compe- 
tent persons. 



INCOMPATIBLE MATERIALS. Materials that, when 
mixed, have the potential to react in a manner that generates 
heat, fumes, gases or byproducts which are hazardous to life or 
property. 

OPEN SYSTEM. The use of a solid or liquid hazardous mate- 
rial involving a vessel or system that is continuously open to the 
atmosphere during normal operations and where vapors are lib- 
erated, or the product is exposed to the atmosphere during nor- 
mal operations. Examples of open systems for sohds and 
liquids include dispensing from or into open beakers or con- 
tainers, dip tank and plating tank operations. 

OPERATING BUILDING. A building occupied in conjunc- 
tion with the manufacture, transportation or use of explosive 
materials. Operating buildings are separated from one another 
with the use of intraplant or intraline distances. 

ORGANIC PEROXIDE. An organic compound that contains 
the bivalent -0-0- stmcture and which may be considered to be 
a structural derivative of hydrogen peroxide where one or both 
of the hydrogen atoms have been replaced by an organic radi- 
cal. Organic peroxides can pose an explosion hazard (detona- 
tion or deflagration) or they can be shock sensitive. They can 
also decompose into various unstable compounds over an ex- 
tended period of time. 

Class I. Those formulations that are capable of deflagration 
but not detonation. 

Class II. Those formulations that bum very rapidly and that 
pose a moderate reactivity hazard. 

Class III. Those formulations that bum rapidly and that 
pose a moderate reactivity hazard. 

Class IV. Those formulations that bum in the same manner 
as ordinary combustibles and that pose a minimal reactivity 
hazard. 

Class V. Those formulations that bum with less intensity 
than ordinary combustibles or do not sustain combustion 
and that pose no reactivity hazard. 

Unclassified detonable. Organic peroxides that are capable 
of detonation. These peroxides pose an extremely high ex- 
plosion hazard through rapid explosive decomposition. 

OXIDIZER. A material that readily yields oxygen or other ox- 
idizing gas, or that readily reacts to promote or initiate combus- 
tion of combustible materials. Examples of other oxidizing 
gases include bromine, chlorine and fluorine. 

Class 4. An oxidizer that can undergo an explosive reaction 
due to contamination or exposure to thermal or physical 
shock. Additionally, the oxidizer will enhance the buming 
rate and can cause spontaneous ignition of combustibles. 

Class 3. An oxidizer that will cause a severe increase in the 
burning rate of combustible materials with which it comes 
in contact or that will undergo vigorous self-sustained de- 
composition due to contamination or exposure to heat. 

Class 2. An oxidizer that will cause a moderate increase in 
the buming rate or that causes spontaneous ignition of com- 
bustible materials with which it comes in contact. 

Class 1. An oxidizer whose primary hazard is that it slightly 
increases the burning rate but which does not cause sponta- 



32 



2003 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



ISE AMD OCCUPANCY CLASS8FBCAT10N 



neous ignition when it comes in contact with combustible 
materials. 



GASo A gas that can support and accelerate com- 
bustion of other materials. 

PHYSICAL HAZAEDo A chemical for which there is evi- 
dence that it is a combustible hquid, compressed gas, cryo- 
genic, explosive, flammable gas, flammable liquid, flammable 
solid, organic peroxide, oxidizer, pyrophoric or unstable (reac- 
tive) or water-reactive material. 



IC. A chemical with an autoignition temperature 
in air, at or below a temperature of 130°F (54.4°C). 

PYROTECHNIC COMPOSITION. A chemical mixture 
that produces visible light displays or sounds through a 
self-propagating, heat-releasing chemical reaction which is 
initiated by ignition. 

TOXICo A chemical falling within any of the following catego- 
ries: 

1 . A chemical that has a median lethal dose (LD50) of more 
than 50 milligrams per kilogram, but not more than 500 
milligrams per kilogram of body weight when adminis- 
tered orally to albino rats weighing between 200 and 300 
grams each. 

2. A chemical that has a median lethal dose (LD50) of more 
than 200 milligrams per kilogram but not more than 
1 ,000 milligrams per kilogram of body weight when ad- 
ministered by continuous contact for 24 hours (or less if 
death occurs within 24 hours) with the bare skin of albino 
rabbits weighing between 2 and 3 kilograms each. 

3. A chemical that has a median lethal concentration 
(LC50) in air of more than 200 parts per million but not 
more than 2,000 parts per million by volume of gas or va- 
por, or more than 2 milligrams per liter but not more than 
20 milligrams per liter of mist, fume or dust, when ad- 
ministered by continuous inhalation for 1 hour (or less if 
death occurs within 1 hour) to albino rats weighing be- 
tween 200 and 300 grams each. 

UNSTABLE (REACTIVE) MATERIAL, A material, other 
than an explosive, which in the pure state or as commercially 
produced, will vigorously polymerize, decompose, condense 
or become self-reactive and undergo other violent chemical 
changes, including explosion, when exposed to heat, friction or 
shock, or in the absence of an inhibitor, or in the presence of 
contaminants, or in contact with incompatible materials. Un- 
stable (reactive) materials are subdivided as follows: 

Class 4. Materials that in themselves are readily capable of 
detonation or explosive decomposition or explosive reac- 
tion at normal temperatures and pressures. This class in- 
cludes materials that are sensitive to mechanical or localized 
thermal shock at normal temperatures and pressures. 

Class 3o Materials that in themselves are capable of detona- 
tion or of explosive decomposition or explosive reaction but 
which require a strong initiating source or which must be 
heated under confinement before initiation. This class in- 
cludes materials that are sensitive to thermal or mechanical 
shock at elevated temperatures and pressures. 



ass 2, Materials that in themselves are normally unstable 
and readily undergo violent chemical change but do not det- 
onate. This class includes materials that can undergo chemi- 
cal change with rapid release of energy at normal 
temperatures and pressures, and that can undergo violent 
chemical change at elevated temperatures and pressures. 

Class lo Materials that in themselves are normally stable but 
which can become unstable at elevated temperatures and 
pressure. 

WATER=MEACTIVE MATERIAL. A material that ex- 
plodes; violently reacts; produces flammable, toxic or other 
hazardous gases; or evolves enough heat to cause self-ignition 
or ignition of nearby combustibles upon exposure to water or 
moisture. Water-reactive materials are subdivided as follows: 

Class 3o Materials that react explosively with water without 
requiring heat or confinement. 

Class 2. Materials that may form potentially explosive mix- 
tures with water. 

Class lo Materials that may react with water with some re- 
lease of energy, but not violently. 

[F] 3073 HIgh=Hasard Group H=l, Buildings and structures 
containing materials that pose a detonation hazard shall be 
classified as Group H-1. Such materials shall include, but not 
be limited to, the following: 

Explosives: 

Division 1.1 
Division 1.2 
Division 1.3 

Exception: Materials that are used and maintained in 
a form where either confinement or configuration will 
not elevate the hazard from a mass fire to mass explo- 
sion hazard shall be allowed in H-2 occupancies. 

Division 1.4 

ExceptSom: Articles, including articles packaged for 
shipment, that are not regulated as an explosive under 
Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms regula- 
tions, or unpackaged articles used in process opera- 
tions that do not propagate a detonation or 
deflagration between articles shall be allowed in H-3 
occupancies. 

Division 1.5 
Division 1.6 

Organic peroxides, unclassified detonable 

Oxidizers, Class 4 

Unstable (reactive) materials. Class 3 detonable and Class 4 

Detonable pyrophoric materials 

[F] 307.4 H!gli=Hazard Group H=2. Buildings and structures | 
containing materials that pose a deflagration hazard or a hazard 
from accelerated burning shall be classified as Group H-2. 
Such materials shall include, but not be limited to, the follow- | 
ing: 

Class I, II or IIIA flammable or combustible liquids which 
are used or stored in normally open containers or systems, or 



2003 INTERNATIIONAL BUlLDliMG CODE® 



33 



USE AND OCCUPANCY CLASSIFBCATION 



in closed containers or systems pressurized at more than 15 
psi (103.4 kPa) gage. 

Combustible dusts 

Cryogenic fluids, flammable 

Flammable gases 

Organic peroxides, Class I 

Oxidizers, Class 3, that are used or stored in normally open 
containers or systems, or in closed containers or systems 
pressurized at more than 15 psi (103 kPa) gage 

Pyrophoric hquids, solids and gases, nondetonable 

Unstable (reactive) materials, Class 3, nondetonable 

Water-reactive materials, Class 3 

[F] 307.5 High-Hazard Group H-3. Buildings and structures 
containing materials that readily support combustion or that 
pose a physical hazard shall be classified as Group H-3. Such 
materials shall include, but not be limited to, the following: 

Class I, II or IIIA flammable or combustible hquids which 
are used or stored in normally closed containers or systems 
pressurized at less than 15 psi (103.4 kPa) gage. 

Combustible fibers 

Consumer fireworks, 1 .4G (Class C Common) 
i Cryogenic fluids, oxidizing 

Flammable solids 

Organic peroxides, Classes II and III 

Oxidizers, Class 2 

Oxidizers, Class 3, that are used or stored in normally closed 
containers or systems pressurized at less than 15 pounds 
per square inch (103 kPa) gauge 

Oxidizing gases 

Unstable (reactive) materials. Class 2 

Water-reactive materials. Class 2 

I [F] 307,6 High-Hazard Group H-4. Buildings and structures 
which contain materials that are health hazards shall be classi- 

Ified as Group H-4. Such materials shall include, but not be lim- 
ited to, the following: 

Corrosives 

Highly toxic materials 

Toxic materials 

[F] 307,7 Group H-5 structures. Semiconductor fabrication 
facilities and comparable research and development areas in 
which hazardous production materials (HPM) are used and the 
aggregate quantity of materials is in excess of those listed in Ta- 
bles 307.7(1) and 307.7(2). Such facihties and areas shall be 
designed and constructed in accordance with Section 415.9. 

[F] 307.8 Multiple hazards. Buildings and structures containing 
a material or materials representing hazards that are classified in 
one or more of Groups H-1 , H-2, H-3 and H-4 shall conform to the 
code requirements for each of the occupancies so classified. 

[F] 307.9 Exceptions: The following shall not be classified in 
Group H, but shall be classified in the occupancy that they most 
nearly resemble. Hazardous materials in any quandty shall 
conform to the requirements of this code, including Section 
414, and the International Fire Code. 

1 . Buildings and structures that contain not more than the 
maximum allowable quanfifies per control area of haz- 
ardous materials as shown in Tables 307.7(1) and 



307.7(2) provided that such buildings are maintained in 
accordance with the International Fire Code. 

2. Buildings utilizing control areas in accordance with 
Section 414.2 that contain not more than the maximum 
allowable quantities per control area of hazardous ma- 
terials as shown in Tables 307.7(1) and 307.7(2). 

3. Buildings and structures occupied for the application of 
flammable finishes, provided that such buildings or ar- 
eas conform to the requirements of Section 416 and the 
International Fire Code. 

4. Wholesale and retail sales and storage of flammable 
and combustible liquids in mercantile occupancies con- 
forming to the International Fire Code. 

5. Closed systems housing flammable or combusdble hq- 
uids or gases utilized for the operation of machinery or 
equipment. 

6. Cleaning establishments that utilize combustible liquid 
solvents having a flash point of 140°F (60°C) or higher 
in closed systems employing equipment listed by an ap- 
proved testing agency, provided that this occupancy is 
separated from all other areas of the building by 1-hour 
fire-resistance-rated fire barrier walls or horizontal as- 
sembhes or both. 

7. Cleaning establishments which utilize a liquid solvent 
having a flash point at or above 200°F (93°C). 

8. Liquor stores and distributors without buUc storage. 

9. Refrigeration systems. 

10. The storage or utilization of materials for agricultural 
purposes on the premises. 

11. Stationary batteries utilized for facility emergency 
power, uninterrupted power supply or telecommunica- 
tion facilities provided that the batteries are provided 
with safety venting caps and ventilation is provided in 
accordance with the International Mechanical Code. 

12. Corrosives shall not include personal or household 
products in their original packaging used in retail dis- 
play or commonly used building materials. 

1 3 . Buildings and structures occupied for aerosol storage shall 
be classified as Group S-1, provided that such buildings 
conform to the requirements of the International Fire Code. 

14. Display and storage of nonflammable solid and non- 
flammable or noncombustible liquid hazardous materi- 
als in quantities not exceeding the maximum allowable 
quantity per control area in Group M or S occupancies 
complying with Section 414.2.4. 

1 5 . The storage of black powder, smokeless propellant and 
small arms primers in Groups M and R-3 and special in- 
dustrial explosive devices in Groups B, F, M and S, pro- 
vided such storage conforms to the quantity limits and 
requirements prescribed in the International Fire Code. 

SECTION 308 

INSTITUTIOiSIAL GROUP I 

308.1 Institutional Group I. Institutional Group I occupancy 
includes, among others, the use of a building or structure, or a 
portion thereof, in which people are cared for or live in a super- 



34 



2003 INTERNATSONAL BUILDING CODE® 



JISE AND OCCUPANCY CLASSIFBCATSON 



vised environment, having physical limitations because of 
health or age are harbored for medical treatment or other care or 
treatment, or in which people are detained for penal or correc- 
tional purposes or in which the liberty of the occupants is re- 
stricted. Institutional occupancies shall be classified as Group 
1-1,1-2, 1-3 or 1-4. 

308.2 Grcmip 1=1. This occupancy shall include buildings, 
structures or parts thereof housing more than 16 persons, on a 
24-hour basis, who because of age, mental disability or other 
reasons, live in a supervised residential environment that pro- 
vides personal care services. The occupants are capable of re- 
sponding to an emergency situation without physical assistance 
from staff. This group shall include, but not be limited to, the 
following: 

Residential board and care facilities 
Assisted living facilities 
Halfway houses 
Group homes 
Congregate care facilities 
Social rehabilitation facihties 
Alcohol and drug centers 
Convalescent facilities 

A facility such as the above with five or fewer persons shall 
be classified as a Group R-3 or shall comply with the Interna- 
tional Residential Code in accordance with Section 101.2. A 
facility such as above, housing at least six and not more than 16 
persons, shall be classified as Group R-4. 

308.3 Gronip 1=2. This occupancy shall include buildings and 
structures used for medical, surgical, psychiatric, nursing or 
custodial care on a 24-hour basis of more than five persons who 
are not capable of self-preservation. This group shall include, 
but not be limited to, the following: 

Hospitals 

Nursing homes (both intermediate-care facilities and skilled 

nursing facilities) 

Mental hospitals 

Detoxification facilities 

A facility such as the above with five or fewer persons shall 
be classified as Group R-3 or shall comply with the Interna- 
tional Residential Code in accordance with Section 101.2. 



Buildings of Group 1-3 shall be classified as one of the occu- 
pancy conditions indicated in Sections 308.4. 1 through 308.4.5 
(see Section 408.1). 



308.3.1 CttiiM care JTacnlflty. A child care facility that pro- 
vides care on a 24-hour basis to more than five children 2V2 
years of age or less shall be classified as Group 1-2. 

308.4 Group 1=3. This occupancy shall include buildings and 
structures that are inhabited by more than five persons who are 
under restraint or security. An 1-3 facility is occupied by per- 
sons who are generally incapable of self-preservation due to se- 
curity measures not under the occupants' control. This group 
shall include, but not be hmited to, the following: 

Prisons 
Jails 

Reformatories 
Detention centers 
Correctional centers 
Prerelease centers 



1. This occupancy condition shall in- 
clude buildings in which free movement is allowed from 
sleeping areas, and other spaces where access or occupancy 
is permitted, to the exterior via means of egress without re- 
straint. A Condition 1 facility is permitted to be constructed 
as Group R. 



2. This occupancy condition shall in- 
clude buildings in which free movement is allowed from 
sleeping areas and any other occupied smoke compartment 
to one or more other smoke compartments. Egress to the ex- 
terior is impeded by locked exits. 



3. This occupancy condition shall in- 
clude buildings in which free movement is allowed within 
individual smoke compartments, such as within a residen- 
tial unit comprised of individual sleeping units and group 
activity spaces, where egress is impeded by remote-con- 
trolled release of means of egress from such a smoke com- 
partment to another smoke compartment. 



5. This occupancy condition shall in- 
clude buildings in which free movement is restricted from 
an occupied space. Staff-controlled manual release is pro- 
vided to permit movement from sleeping units, activity 
spaces and other occupied areas within the smoke compart- 
ment to other smoke compartments. 

308.5 Group 1=4, day care faclMlles. This group shall include 
buildings and structures occupied by persons of any age who 
receive custodial care for less than 24 hours by individuals 
other than parents or guardians, relatives by blood, marriage or 
adoption, and in a place other than the home of the person cared 
for. A facility such as the above with five or fewer persons shall 
be classified as a Group R-3 or shall comply with the Interna- 
tional Residential Code in accordance with Section 101.2. 
Places of worship during religious functions are not included. 

308.5.1 Adult care facility. A facility that provides accom- 
modations for less than 24 hours for more than five unre- 
lated adults and provides supervision and personal care 
services shall be classified as Group 1-4. 



m A facility where occupants are capable of re- 
sponding to an emergency situation without physical as- 
sistance from the staff shall be classified as Group A-3. 

308.5,2 Child care facility, A facility that provides supervi- 
sion and personal care on less than a 24-hour basis for more 
than five children 2V2 years of age or less shall be classified 
as Group 1-4. 



liom: A child day care facility that provides care 
for more than five but no more than 100 children 272 
years or less of age, when the rooms where such children 
are cared for are located on the level of exit discharge and 



4, This occupancy condition shall in- 
clude buildings in which free movement is restricted from 
an occupied space. Remote-controlled release is provided to 
permit movement from sleeping units, activity spaces and [] 
other occupied areas within the smoke compartment to 
other smoke compartments. 



2003 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



35 



USE AND OCCUPANCY CLASSIFICATION 



each of these child care rooms has an exit door directly to 
the exterior, shall be classified as Group E. 



SECTION 309 
MERCANTILE GROUP iV! 

309.1 Mercantile Group M. Mercantile Group M occupancy 
includes, among others, buildings and structures or a portion 
thereof, for the display and sale of merchandise, and involves 
stocks of goods, wares or merchandise incidental to such pur- 
poses and accessible to the public. Mercantile occupancies 
shall include, but not be limited to, the following: 

Department stores 

Drug stores 

Markets 

Motor fuel-dispensing facilities 

Retail or wholesale stores 

Sales rooms 

309.2 Quantity of hazardous materials. The aggregate quan- 
tity of nonflammable solid and nonflammable or 
noncombustible liquid hazardous materials stored or displayed 
in a single control area of a Group M occupancy shall not ex- 
ceed the quantities in Table 414.2.4. 



SECTION 310 
RESIDENTIAL GROUP R 

310.1 Residential Group R. Residential Group R. includes, 
among others, the use of a building or structure, or a portion 
thereof, for sleeping purposes when not classified as an Institu- 
tional Group I. Residential occupancies shall include the fol- 
lowing: 

R-1 Residential occupancies where the occupants are pri- 
marily transient in nature, including: 

Boarding houses (transient) 
Hotels (transient) 
Motels (transient) 

R-2 Residential occupancies containing sleeping units or 
more than two dwelling units where the occupants are 
primarily permanent in nature, including: 

Apartment houses 

Boarding houses (not transient) 

Convents 

Dormitories 

Fraternities and sororities 

Monasteries 

Vacation timeshare properties 

Hotels (nontransient) 

Motels (nontransient) 

R-3 Residential occupancies where the occupants are pri- 
marily permanent in nature and not classified as R-1, 
R-2, R-4 or I and where buildings do not contain more 
than two dwelling units as applicable in Section 101.2, 
or adult and child care facilities that provide accommo- 
dations for five or fewer persons of any age for less than 
24 hours. Adult and child care facilities that are within a 
single-family home are permitted to comply with the 



International Residential Code in accordance with Sec- 
tion 101.2. 

R-4 Residential occupancies shall include buildings ar- 
ranged for occupancy as residential care/assisted living 
facilities including more than five but not more than 16 
occupants, excluding staff. 

Group R-4 occupancies shall meet the requirements 
for construction as defined for Group R-3 except as oth- 
erwise provided for in this code or shall comply with 
the International Residential Code in accordance with 
Section 101.2. 

310.2 Definitions. The following words and terms shall, for the 
purposes of this section and as used elsewhere in this code, have 
the meanings shown herein. 

BOARDING HOUSE. A building arranged or used for lodg- 
ing for compensation, with or without meals, and not occupied 
as a single-family unit. 

DORMITORY. A space in a building where group sleeping 
accommodations are provided in one room, or in a series of 
closely associated rooms, for persons not members of the same 
family group, under joint occupancy and single management, 
as in college dormitories or fraternity houses. 

DWELLING UNIT. A single unit providing complete, inde- 
pendent living facilities for one or more persons, including per- 
manent provisions for living, sleeping, eating, cooking and 
sanitation. 

PERSONAL CARE SERVICE. The care of residents who do 
not require chronic or convalescent medical or nursing care. 
Personal care involves responsibility for the safety of the resi- 
dent while inside the building. 

RESIDENTIAL CARE/ASSISTED LIVING FACIL- 
ITIES. A building or part thereof housing persons, on a 
24-hour basis, who because of age, mental disability or other 
reasons, live in a supervised residential environment which 
provides personal care services. The occupants are capable of 
responding to an emergency situation without physical assis- 
tance from staff. This classification shall include, but not be 
limited to, the following: residential board and care facilities, 
assisted living facilities, halfway houses, group homes, congre- 
gate care facilities, social rehabilitation facilities, alcohol and 
drug abuse centers and convalescent facilities. 



SECTION 311 
STORAGE GROUP S 

311.1 Storage Group S. Storage Group S occupancy includes, 
among others, the use of a building or structure, or a portion 
thereof, for storage that is not classified as a hazardous occu- 
pancy. 

311.2 Moderate-hazard storage, Group S-1. Buildings occu- 
pied for storage uses which are not classified as Group S-2 in- 
cluding, but not hmited to, storage of the following: 

Aerosols, Levels 2 and 3 
Aircraft repair hangar 
Bags; cloth, burlap and paper 
Bamboos and rattan 
Baskets 



36 



2003 tNTERNATSONAL BUILDING CODE® 



USE AWD OCCUPAMCY CLASSIIFBCATDON 



w 



Belting; canvas and leather 

Books and paper in rolls or packs 

Boots and shoes 

Buttons, including cloth covered, pearl or bone 

Cardboard and cardboard boxes 

Clothing, woolen wearing apparel 

Cordage 

Furniture 

Furs 

Glues, mucilage, pastes and size 

Grains 

Horns and combs, other than celluloid 

Leather 

Linoleum 

Lumber 

Motor vehicle repair garages complying with the maximum 

allowable quantities of hazardous materials listed in 

Table 307.7(1) (see Section 406.6) 
Photo engravings 
Resihent flooring 
Silks 
Soaps 
Sugar 

Tires, bulk storage of 
Tobacco, cigars, cigarettes and snuff 
Upholstery and mattresses 
Wax candles 

311.3 Low-hazard storage, Groiup §=2o Includes, among oth- 
ers, buildings used for the storage of noncombustible materials 
such as products on wood pallets or in paper cartons with or 
without single thickness divisions; or in paper wrappings. Such 
products are permitted to have a negligible amount of plastic 
trim, such as knobs, handles or film wrapping. Storage uses 
shall include, but not be limited to, storage of the following: 

Aircraft hangar 

Asbestos 

Beverages up to and including 12-percent alcohol in metal, 

glass or ceramic containers 
Cement in bags 
Chalk and crayons 

Dairy products in nonwaxed coated paper containers 
Dry cell batteries 
Electrical coils 
Electrical motors 
Empty cans 
Food products 

Foods in noncombustible containers 
Fresh fruits and vegetables in nonplastic trays or containers 
Frozen foods 
Glass 

Glass bottles, empty or filled with noncombustible liquids 
Gypsum board 
Inert pigments 
Ivory 
Meats 

Metal cabinets 

Metal desks with plastic tops and trim 
Metal parts 
Metals 
Mirrors 



Oil-filled and other types of distribution transformers 

Parking garages, open or enclosed 

Porcelain and pottery 

Stoves 

Talc and soapstones 

Washers and dryers 



=CTI0M31: 



312ol GeiraeraL Buildings and structures of an accessory char- 
acter and miscellaneous structures not classified in any specific 
occupancy shall be constructed, equipped and maintained to 
conform to the requirements of this code commensurate with 
the fire and life hazard incidental to their occupancy. Group U 
shall include, but not be limited to, the following: 

Agricultural buildings 

Aircraft hangars, accessory to a one- or two-family 

residence (see Section 412.3) 

Bams 

Carports 

Fences more than 6 feet (1829 mm) high 

Grain silos, accessory to a residential occupancy 

Greenhouses 

Livestock shelters 

Private garages 

Retaining walls 

Sheds 

Stables 

Tanks 

Towers 



2003 INTERNATDONAL BUILDING CODE® 



37 



38 2003 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



CHAPTiR 4, 



Wt 



401.1 Detailed use amd occupancy reqiilremenHts. In addition 
to the occupancy and construction requirements in this code, 
the provisions of this chapter apply to the special uses and oc- 
cupancies described herein. 



402<,1 Scope. The provisions of this section shall apply to build- 
ings or structures defined herein as covered mall buildings not 
exceeding three floor levels at any point nor more than three 
stories above grade. Except as specifically required by this sec- 
tion, covered mall buildings shall meet applicable provisions of 
this code. 

Excepftioms: 

1. Foyers and lobbies of Groups B, R-1 and R-2 are not 
required to comply with this section. 

2. Buildings need not comply with the provisions of this 
section where they totally comply with other applica- 
ble provisions of this code. 

4®2.2 Deffimnlnoinis. The following words and terms shall, for the 
purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this code, 
have the meanings shown herein. 



ILDING. An exterior perimeter building of a 
group other than H having direct access to a covered mall build- 
ing but having required means of egress independent of the 
mall. 



ED MALL BUILDING. A single building enclosing 
a number of tenants and occupants such as retail stores, drink- 
ing and dining establishments, entertainment and amusement 
facilities, passenger transportation terminals, offices, and other 
similar uses wherein two or more tenants have a main entrance 
into one or more malls. For the purpose of this chapter, anchor 
buildings shall not be considered as a part of the covered mall 
building. 

FOOD COUET. A public seating area located in the mall that 
serves adjacent food preparation tenant spaces. 

GROSS LEASABLE AEEA. The total floor area designed 
for tenant occupancy and exclusive use. The area of tenant oc- 
cupancy is measured from the centerlines of joint partitions to 
the outside of the tenant walls. All tenant areas, including areas 
used for storage, shall be included in calculating gross leasable 
area. 

MALL. A roofed or covered common pedestrian area within a 
covered mall building that serves as access for two or more ten- 
ants and not to exceed three levels that are open to each other. 



4®2.3 Lease plam. Each covered mall building owner shall pro- 
vide both the building and fire departments with a lease plan 
showing the location of each occupancy and its exits after the 
certificate of occupancy has been issued. No modificafions or 
changes in occupancy or use shall be made from that shown on 
the lease plan without prior approval of the building official. 



ns off egress. Each tenant space and the covered mall 
building shall be provided with means of egress as required by 
this section and this code. Where there is a conflict between the 
requirements of this code and the requirements of this section, 
the requirements of this section shall apply. 



402.4.1 DetermniniaMom off occupamiit load. The occupant 
load permitted in any individual tenant space in a covered 
mall building shall be determined as required by this code. 
Means of egress requirements for individual tenant spaces 
shall be based on the occupant load thus determined. 

402.4.1,1 Occrapamt fformmnlla. In determining required 
means of egress of the mall, the number of occupants for 
whom means of egress are to be provided shall be based 
on gross leasable area of the covered mall building (ex- 
cluding anchor buildings) and the occupant load factor as 
determined by the following equation. 



OLF= (0.00007) (GLA) + 25 
where: 



(Eqinatioiii 4=1) 



OLF= The occupant load factor (square feet per per- 
son). 

GLA= The gross leasable area (square feet). 

402.4.1.2 OLE range. The occupant load factor {OLF) is 
not required to be less than 30 and shall not exceed 50. 

402.4.1.3 Amclhior beSMnegs. The occupant load of an- 
chor buildings opening into the mall shall not be included 
in computing the total number of occupants for the mall. 



402.4,1.4 Food courts. The occupant load of a food 
court shall be determined in accordance with Section 
1004. For the purposes of determining the means of 
egress requirements for the mall, the food court occupant 
load shall be added to the occupant load of the covered 
mall building as calculated above. 



ff egress. Wherever the dis- 
tance of travel to the mall from any location within a tenant 
space used by persons other than employees exceeds 75 feet 
(22 860 mm) or the tenant space exceeds an occupant load of 
50, not less than two means of egress shall be provided. 



Its off meams off egress. Assembly oc- 
cupancies with an occupant load of 500 or more shall be so 
located in the covered mall building that their entrance will 
be immediately adjacent to a principal entrance to the mall 
and shall have not less than one-half of their required means 



2003 IM1TERMAT105V3AL BUDLDING CODE® 



SPECIAL DETAILED REQUIREMENTS BASED ON USE AND OCCUPANCY 



of egress opening directly to the exterior of the covered mall 
building. 

402.4.3.1 Anchor building means of egress. Required 
means of egress for anchor buildings shall be provided 
independently from the mall means of egress system. 
The occupant load of anchor buildings opening into the 
mall shall not be included in determining means of egress 
requirements for the mall. The path of egress travel of 
malls shall not exit through anchor buildings. Malls ter- 
minating at an anchor building where no other means of 
egress has been provided shall be considered as a 
dead-end mall. 

402.4.4 Distance to exits. Within each individual tenant 
space in a covered mall building, the maximum distance of 
travel from any point to an exit or entrance to the mall shall 
not exceed 200 feet (60 960 mm). 

The maximum distance of travel from any point within a 
mall to an exit shall not exceed 200 feet (60 960 mm). 

402.4.5 Access to exits. Where more than one exit is re- 
quired, they shall be so arranged that it is possible to travel in 
either direction from any point in a mall to separate exits. 
The minimum width of an exit passageway or corridor from 
a mall shall be 66 inches (1676 mm). 

Exception: Dead ends not exceeding a length equal to 
twice the width of the mall measured at the narrowest lo- 
cation within the dead-end portion of the mall. 

402.4.5.1 Exit passageway eecloseres. Where exit pas- 
sageway enclosures provide a secondary means of egress 
from a tenant space, doors to the exit passageway enclo- 
sures shall be 1-hour fire doors. Such doors shall be 
self-closing and be so maintained or shall be auto- 
matic-closing by smoke detection. 

402.4.6 Service areas fronting on exit passageways. Me- 
chanical rooms, electrical rooms, building service areas and 
service elevators are permitted to open directly into exit pas- 
sageways provided that the exit passageway is separated 
from such rooms with 1 -hour fire-resistance-rated walls and 
1-hour opening protectives. 

402.5 Mall width. For the purpose of providing required egress, 
malls are permitted to be considered as corridors but need not 
comply with the requirements of Section 1005.1 of this code 
where the width of the mall is as specified in this section. 

402.5.1 Minimum width. The minimum width of the mall 
shall be 20 feet (6096 mm). The mall width shall be suffi- 
cient to accommodate the occupant load served. There shall 
be a minimum of 10 feet (3048 mm) clear exit width to a 
height of 8 feet (2438 mm) between any projection of a ten- 
ant space bordering the mall and the nearest kiosk, vending 
machine, bench, display opening, food court or other ob- 
struction to means of egress travel. 

402.6 Types of construction. The area of any covered mall 
building, including anchor buildings, of Type I, II, III and IV 
construction, shall not be limited provided the covered mall 
building and attached anchor buildings and parking garages are 
surrounded on all sides by a permanent open space of not less 
than 60 feet (18 288 mm) and the anchor buildings do not ex- 
ceed three stories in height. The allowable height and area of 



anchor buildings greater than three stores in height shall com- 
ply with Section 503, as modified by Sections 504 and 506. The 
construcdon type of open parking garages and enclosed park- 
ing garages shall comply with Sections 406.3 and 406.4, re- 
spectively. 

402.7 Fire-resistance-rated separation. Fire-resistance-rated 
separation is not required between tenant spaces and the mall. 
Fire-resistance-rated separation is not required between a food 
court and adjacent tenant spaces or the mall. 

402.7.1 Attached garage. An attached garage for the stor- 
age of passenger vehicles having a capacity of not more than 
nine persons and open parking garages shall be considered 
as a separate building where it is separated from the covered 
mall building by a fire barrier having a fire-resistance rating 
of at least 2 hours. 

Exception: Where an open parking garage or enclosed 
parking garage is separated from the covered mall build- 
ing or anchor building a distance greater than 10 feet 
(3048 mm), the provisions of Table 602 shall apply. Pe- 
destrian walkways and tunnels which attach the open 
parking garage or enclosed parking garage to the covered 
mall building or anchor building shall be constructed in 
accordance with Section 3104. 

402.7.2 Tenant separations. Each tenant space shall be 
separated from other tenant spaces by a fire partition com- 
plying with Secdon 708. A tenant separation wall is not re- 
quired between any tenant space and the mall. 

402.7.3 Anchor building separation. An anchor building 
shall be separated from the covered mall building by fire 
walls complying with Section 705. 

Exception: Anchor buildings of not more than three sto- 
ries above grade which have an occupancy classification 
of the same uses permitted as tenants of the covered mall 
building shall be separated by 2-hour fire-barriers com- 
plying with Section 706. 

402.7.3.1 Openings between anchor building and 
mall. Except for the separation between Group R-1 
sleeping units and the mall, openings between anchor 
buildings of Type I A, IB, II A and IIB construction and 
the mall need not be protected. 

[F] 402.8 Automatic sprinkler system. The covered mall 
building and buildings connected shall be equipped throughout 
with an automadc sprinkler system in accordance with Secdon 
903.3.1.1, which shall comply with the following: 

1. The automadc sprinkler system shall be complete and 
operative throughout occupied space in the covered mall 
building prior to occupancy of any of the tenant spaces. 
Unoccupied tenant spaces shall be similarly protected 
unless provided with approved alternate protecdon. 

2. Sprinkler protection for the mall shall be independent 
from that provided for tenant spaces or anchors. Where 
tenant spaces are supphed by the same system, they shall 
be independently controlled. 

Exception: An automadc sprinkler system shall not be re- 
quired in spaces or areas of open parking garages con- 
structed in accordance with Section 406.2. 



!• 



40 



2003 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



SPECIIAL DETAILED REQUDREMEiMTS BASED OlM USE AND OCCUPANCY 




4Q2J8.1 Standpipe system. The covered mall building shall 
be equipped throughout with a standpipe system as required 
by Section 905.3.3. 



A smoke control system shall be pro- 
vided where required for atriums in Section 404. 



Inosks. Kiosks and similar structures (temporary or 
permanent) shall meet the following requirements: 

1 . Combustible kiosks or other structures shall not be lo- 
cated within the mall unless constructed of any of the fol- 
lowing materials: 

1.1. Fire-retardant-treated wood complying with Sec- 
tion 2303.2. 

1.2. Foam plastics having a maximum heat release 
rate not greater than lOOkW (105 Btu/h) when 
tested in accordance with the exhibit booth proto- 
col in UL 1975. 

1.3. Aluminum composite material (ACM) having a 
flame spread index of not more than 25 and a 
smoke-developed index of not more than 450 
when tested as an assembly in the maximum 
thickness intended for use in accordance with 
ASTM E 84. 

2. Kiosks or similar structures located within the mall shall 
be provided with approved fire suppression and detection 
devices. 

3. The minimum horizontal separation between kiosks or 
groupings thereof and other structures within the mall 
shall be 20 feet (6096 mm). 

4. Each kiosk or similar structure or groupings thereof shall 
have a maximum area of 300 square feet (28 m^). 

402.11 Security grilles amd doors. Horizontal sliding or verti- 
cal security grilles or doors that are a part of a required means of 
egress shall conform to the following: 

1 . They shall remain in the full open position during the pe- 
riod of occupancy by the general public. 

2. Doors or grilles shall not be brought to the closed posi- 
tion when there are more than 10 persons occupying 
spaces served by a single exit or 50 persons occupying 
spaces served by more than one exit. 

3. The doors or grilles shall be openable from within with- 
out the use of any special knowledge or effort where the 
space is occupied. 

4. Where two or more exits are required, not more than 
one-half of the exits shall be permitted to include either a 
horizontal sliding or vertical rolling grille or doors. 



r. Covered mall buildings exceeding 
50,000 square feet (4645 m^) shall be provided with standby 
power systems that are capable of operating the emergency 
voice/alarm communication system. 



[F] 402.1 

Covered mall buildings exceeding 50,000 square feet (4645 
m^) in total floor area shall be provided with an emergency 
voice/alarm communication system. Emergency voice/alarm 
communication systems serving a mall, required or otherwise, 



shall be accessible to the fire department. The system shall be 
provided in accordance with Section 907.2.12.2. 

402.14 Plastic siges. Within every store or level and from 
sidewall to sidewall of each tenant space facing the mall, plastic 
signs shall be limited as specified in Sections 402. 14. 1 through 
402.14.5. 

402.14.1 Area. Plastic signs shall not exceed 20 percent of 
the wall area facing the mall. 



B. Plastic signs shall not exceed a 
height of 36 inches (914 mm), except if the sign is vertical, 
the height shall not exceed 96 inches (2438 mm) and the 
width shall not exceed 36 inches (914 mm). 

402.14.3 Locatnom, Plastic signs shall be located a mini- 
mum distance of 1 8 inches (457 mm) from adjacent tenants. 

402.14.4 Plastics otSier tliam foam plastics. Plastics other 
than foam plastics used in signs shall be light-transmitting □ 
plastics complying with Section 2606.4 or shall have a 
self-ignition temperature of 650°F (343°C) or greater when 
tested in accordance with ASTM D 1929, and a flame 
spread index not greater than 75 and smoke-developed in- 
dex not greater than 450 when tested in the manner intended 
for use in accordance with ASTM E 84 or meet the accep- F] 
tance criteria of Section 803.2. 1 when tested in accordance tl 
with NFPA 286. 

402.14,4,1 Emcasemeiiit. Edges and backs of plastic 
signs in the mall shall be fully encased in metal. 



i. Foam plastics used in signs shall 
have flame-retardant characteristics such that the sign has a 
maximum heat-release rate of 150 kilowatts when tested in 
accordance with UL 1975 and the foam plastics shall have 
the physical characteristics specified in this section. Foam 
plastics used in signs installed in accordance with Section 
402. 14 shall not be required to comply with the flame spread 
and smoke-developed indexes specified in Section 2603.3. 

402.14,5,1 Deesity. The minimum density of foam plas- 
tics used in signs shall not be less than 20 pounds per cu- 
bic foot (pcf) (320 kg/M3). 



iss. The thickness of foam plastic 
signs shall not be greater than 72-inch (12.7 mm). 

402.15 Fire department access to equipment. Rooms or ar- 
eas containing controls for air-conditioning systems, automatic 
fire-extinguishing systems or other detection, suppression or 
control elements shall be identified for use by the fire depart- 
ment. 



IINGS 

The provisions of this section shall apply 
to buildings having occupied floors located more than 75 feet 
(22 860 mm) above the lowest level of fire department vehicle 
access. 

Exception: The provisions of this section shall not apply to 
the following buildings and structures: 

I . Airport traffic control towers in accordance with Sec- 
tion 412. 



2003 BNTERNATIOiMAL BUIILDIMG CODE® 



SPECIAL DETAILED REQUIREMENTS BASED OM USE AND OCCUPANCY 



2. Open parking garages in accordance with Section 
406.3. 

3. Buildings with an occupancy in Group A-5 in accor- 
dance with Section 303.1. 

4. Low-hazard special industrial occupancies in accor- 
dance with Section 503.1.2. 

5. Buildings with an occupancy in Group H-1, H-2 or 
H-3 in accordance with Section 415. 

[F] 403.2 Automatic sprinkler system. Buildings and struc- 
tures shall be equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler 
system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 and a secondary 
water supply where required by Section 903.3.5.2. 

Exception: An automatic sprinkler system shall not be re- 
quired in spaces or areas of: 

1 . Open parking garages in accordance with Section 406. 3 . 

2. Telecommunications equipment buildings used ex- 
clusively for teleconmiunications equipment, associ- 
ated electrical power distribution equipment, 
batteries and standby engines, provided that those 
spaces or areas are equipped throughout with an auto- 
matic fire detection system in accordance with Sec- 
tion 907.2 and are separated from the remainder of the 
building with fire barriers consisting of 1-hour fire-re- 
sistance-rated walls and 2-hour fire-resistance-rated 
floor/ceiling assemblies. 

403.3 Reduction in fire-resistance rating. The fire-resis- 
tance-rating reductions listed in Sections 403.3.1 and 403.3.2 
shall be allowed in buildings that have sprinkler control valves 
equipped with supervisory initiating devices and water-flow 
initiating devices for each floor. 

403.3.1 Type of construction. The following reductions in 
the minimum construction type allowed in Table 601 shall 
be allowed as provided in Section 403.3: 

1 . Type I A construction shall be allowed to be reduced to 
Type IB. 

2. In other than Groups F-1, M and S-1, Type IB con- 
struction shall be allowed to be reduced to Type IIA. 

3. The height and area limitations of the reduced con- 
struction type shall be allowed to be the same as for 
the original construction type. 

403.3.2 Sliaft enclosures. The required fire-resistance rat- 
ing of the fire barrier walls enclosing vertical shafts, other 
than exit enclosures and elevator hoistway enclosures, shall 
be reduced to 1 hour where automatic sprinklers are in- 
stalled within the shafts at the top and at alternate floor lev- 
els. 

403.4 Emergency escape and rescue. Emergency escape and 
rescue openings required by Section 1025 are not required. 

[F] 403.5 Automatic fire detection. Smoke detection shall be 
provided in accordance with Section 907.2.12.1. 

[F] 403.6 Emergency voice/alarm communication systems. 
An emergency voice/alarm communication system shall be 
provided in accordance with Section 907.2.12.2. 

[F] 403.7 Fire department communications system. A 
two-way fire department communications system shall be pro- 



vided for fire department use in accordance with Section 
907.2.12.3. 

[F] 403.8 Fire command. A fire command center complying 
with Section 911 shall be provided in a location approved by 
the fire department. 

403.9 Elevators. Elevator operation and installation shall be in 
accordance with Chapter 30. 

403.10 Standby power. A standby power system complying 
with Section 2702 shall be provided for standby power loads 
specified in Section 403.10.2. 

403.10.1 Special requirements for standby power sys- 
tems. If the standby system is a generator set inside a build- 
ing, the system shall be located in a separate room enclosed 
with 2-hour fire-resistance-rated fire barrier assemblies. 
System supervision with manual start and transfer features 
shall be provided at the fire command center. 

403.10.2 Standby power loads. The following are classi- 
fied as standby power loads: 

1 . Power and lighting for the fire command center re- 
quired by Secrion 403.8; 

2. Electrically powered fire pumps; 

3. Ventilation and automatic fire detection equipment 
for smokeproof enclosures. 

Standby power shall be provided for elevators in accor- 
dance with Section 3003. 



1.11 Emergency power systems. An emergency power sys- 
tem complying with Section 2702 shall be provided for emer- 
gency power loads specified in Section 403.1 1.1. 

403.11.1 Emergency power loads. The following are clas- 
sified as emergency power loads: 

1 . Exit signs and means of egress illumination required 
by Chapter 10; 

2. Elevator car lighting; 

3. Emergency voice/alarm communications systems; 

4. Automatic fire detection systems; and 

5. Fire alarm systems. 

403.12 Stairway door operation. Stairway doors other than 
the exit discharge doors shall be permitted to be locked from 
stairway side. Stairway doors that are locked from the stairway 
side shall be capable of being unlocked simultaneously without 
unlatching upon a signal from the fire command center. 

403,12.1 Stairway communications system. A telephone 
or other two-way communications system connected to an 
approved constantly attended station shall be provided at 
not less than every fifth floor in each required stairway 
where the doors to the stairway are locked. 

403.13 Smokeproof exit enclosures. Every required stairway 
serving floors more than 75 feet (22 860 mm) above the lowest 
level of fire department vehicle access shall comply with Sec- 
tions 909.20 and 1019.1.8. 

403.14 Seismic considerations. For seismic considerations, 
see Chapter 16. 



42 



2003 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



SPECflAL DETAILED REQUIIREMENTS BASED ON USE AND OCCUPANCY 



• 



ol Gemeralo Vertical openings meeting the requirements of 
this section are not required to be enclosed in other than Group 
H occupancies. 

404.1.1 Definltnomi. The following word and term shall, for 
the purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this 
code, have the meaning shown herein. 



L An opening connecting two or more stories 
other than enclosed stairways, elevators, hoistways, es- 
calators, plumbing, electrical, air-conditioning or other 
equipment, which is closed at the top and not defined as a 
mall. Stories, as used in this definition, do not include 
balconies within assembly groups or mezzanines that 
comply with Section 505. 

.2 Use. The floor of the atrium shall not be used for other 
than low fire hazard uses and only approved materials and dec- 
orations in accordance with the International Fire Code shall 
be used in the atrium space. 



• 



m The atrium floor area is permitted to be used for 
any approved use where the individual space is provided 
with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Sec- 
tion 903.3.1.1. 

[F] 404.3 Aiiltomatk sprmkler protectlom. An approved auto- 
matic sprinkler system shall be installed throughout the entire 
building. 



1 . That area of a building adjacent to or above the atrium 
need not be sprinklered provided that portion of the 
building is separated from the atrium portion by a 
2-hour fire-resistance-rated fire barrier wall or hori- 
zontal assembly or both. 

2. Where the ceiling of the atrium is more than 55 feet 
(16 764 mm) above the floor, sprinkler protection at 
the ceiling of the atrium is not required. 

Smoke coetroL A smoke control system shall be in- 
stalled in accordance with Section 909. 



1. Smoke control is not required for floor openings 
meeting the requirements of Section 707.2, Exception 
2,7, 8 or 9. 

2. Smoke control is not required for floor openings 
meeting the requirements of Section 1019.1, Excep- 
tion 8 or 9. 



IS. Atrium spaces shall be separated 
from adjacent spaces by a 1-hour fire barrier wall. 



A glass wall forming a smoke partition where auto- 
mafic sprinklers are spaced 6 feet (1829 mm) or less 
along both sides of the separation wall, or on the room 
side only if there is not a walkway on the atrium side, 
and between 4 inches and 12 inches (102 mm and 305 
mm) away from the glass and so designed that the en- 
tire surface of the glass is wet upon activation of the 
sprinkler system. The glass shall be installed in a 



gasketed frame so that the framing system deflects 
without breaking (loading) the glass before the sprin- 
kler system operates. 

2. A glass-block wall assembly in accordance with Sec- 
tion 2110 and having a V4-hour fire protection rating. 

3. The adjacent spaces of any three floors of the atrium 
shall not be required to be separated from the atrium 
where such spaces are included in compufing the 
atrium volume for the design of the smoke control 
system. 

404.6 Standby power. Equipment required to provide smoke 
control shall be connected to a standby power system in accor- 
dance with Section 909.1 1. 



.7 Imterior ffielslhi. The interior finish of walls and ceilings 
of the atrium shall not be less than Class B with no reduction in 
class for sprinkler protection. 

404.8 Travel distance. In other than the lowest level of the 
atrium, where the required means of egress is through the 
atrium space, the portion of exit access travel distance within 
the atrium space shall not exceed 200 feet (60 960 mm). 



405.1 General. The provisions of this section apply to building 
spaces having a floor level used for human occupancy more 
than 30 feet (9144 mm) below the lowest level of exit dis- 
charge. 



1 . One- and two-family dwellings, sprinklered in accor- 
dance with Section 903.3.1.3. 

2. Parking garages with automatic fire suppression sys- 
tems in comphance with Section 405.3. 

3. Fixed guideway transit systems. 

4. Grandstands, bleachers, stadiums, arenas and similar 
facilities. 

5. Where the lowest story is the only story that would 
qualify the building as an underground building and 
has an area not exceeding 1,500 square feet (139 m^) 
and has an occupant load less than 10. 

40S.2 Construction requirements. The underground portion 
of the building shall be of Type I construction. 



O 



[F] 40S.3 Automatic sprinkler system. The highest level of 
exit discharge serving the underground portions of the building 
and all levels below shall be equipped with an automatic sprin- 
kler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. 
Water-flow switches and control valves shall be supervised in 
accordance with Section 903.4. 

405.4 Compartmentation, Compartmentation shall be in ac- 
cordance with Sections 405.4.1 through 405.4.3. 

405.4.1 Number off compartments. A building having a 
floor level more than 60 feet (18 288 mm) below the lowest 
level of exit discharge shall be divided into a minimum of 
two compartments of approximately equal size. Such 
compartmentation shall extend through the highest level of 



2003 INTERNATIONAL BOILDSNG CODE® 



SPECIAL DETAILED REQUIREMENTS BASED ON USE AND OCCUPANCY 



a^ 



exit discharge serving the underground portions of the 
building and all levels below. 

Exception: The lowest story need not be compartmented 
where the area does not exceed 1,500 square feet (139 
m^) and has an occupant load of less than 10. 

405.4.2 Smoke barrier penetration. The separation be- 
tween the two compartments shall be of minimum 1-hour 
fire barrier wall construction that shall extend from floor 
slab to floor deck above. Openings between the two com- 
partments shall be limited to plumbing and electrical piping 
and conduit penetrations firestopped in accordance with 
Section 712. Doorways shall be protected by fire door as- 
semblies that are automatic-closing by smoke detection in 
accordance with Section 715.3 and shall be provided with 
gasketing and a drop sill to minimize smoke leakage. Where 
provided, each compartment shall have an air supply and an 
exhaust system independent of the other compartments. 

405.4.3 Elevators, Where elevators are provided, each 
compartment shall have direct access to an elevator. Where 
an elevator serves more than one compartment, an elevator 
lobby shall be provided and shall be separated from each 
compartment by a 1-hour fire barrier wall. Doors shall be 
gasketed, have a drop sill, and be automatic-closing by 
smoke detection installed in accordance with Section 
907.10. 

405.5 Smoke control system. A smoke control system shall be 
provided in accordance with Sections 405.5.1 and 405.5.2. 

405.5.1 Control system. A smoke control system is re- 
quired to control the migration of products of combustion in 
accordance with Section 909 and the provisions of this sec- 
tion. Smoke control shall restrict movement of smoke to the 
general area of fire origin and maintain means of egress in a 
usable condition. 

405.5.2 Smoke exhaust system. Where compartmentation 
is required, each compartment shall have an independent 
smoke control system. The system shall be automatically 
activated and capable of manual operation in accordance 
with Section 907.2.18. 

[F] 405.6 Fire alarm systems. A fire alarm system shall be 
provided where required by Section 907.2.19. 

[F] 405.7 Public address. A public address system shall be 
provided where required by Section 907.2.19.1. 

405.8 Means of egress. Means of egress shall be in accordance 
with Sections 405.8.1 and 405.8.2. 

405.8.1 Number of exits. Each floor level shall be provided 
with a minimum of two exits. Where compartmentation is 
required by Section 405.4, each compartment shall have a 
minimum of one exit and shall also have an exit access door- 
way into the adjoining compartment. 

405.8.2 Smokeproof enclosure. Every required stairway 
serving floor levels more than 30 feet (9144 mm) below its 
level of exit discharge shall comply with the requirements 
for a smokeproof enclosure as provided in Section 1019.1.8. 

[F] 405.9 Standby power. A standby power system complying 
with Section 2702 shall be provided standby power loads spec- 
ified in Section 405.9.1. 



405.9.1 Standby power loads. The following loads are 
classified as standby power loads. 

1 . Smoke control system. 

2. Ventilation and automatic fire detection equipment 
for smokeproof enclosures. 

3. Fire pumps. 

Standby power shall be provided for elevators in accor- 
dance with Section 3003. 

405.9.2 Pick-up time. The standby power system shall pick 
up its connected loads within 60 seconds of failure of the 
normal power supply. 

[F] 405,10 Emergency power. An emergency power system 
complying with Section 2702 shall be provided for emergency 
power loads specified in Section 405.10.1. 

405,10.1 Emergency power loads. The following loads are 
classified as emergency power loads: 

1. Emergency voice/alarm communications systems. 

2. Fire alarm systems. 

3. Automatic fire detection systems. 

4. Elevator car Hghting. 

5. Means of egress and exit sign illumination as required 
by Chapter 10. 

40S.11 Standpipe system. The underground building shall be 
equipped throughout with a standpipe system in accordance 
with Section 905. 



SECTION 406 
iViOTOR-VEHSCLE-RELATED OCCUPANCIES 

,1 Private garages and carports. 

406.1.1 Classification. Buildings or parts of buildings clas- 
sified as Group U occupancies because of the use or charac- 
ter of the occupancy shall not exceed 1,000 square feet (93 
m^) in area or one story in height except as provided in Sec- 
tion 406.1.2. Any building or portion thereof that exceeds 
the limitations specified in this section shall be classified in 
the occupancy group other than Group U that it most nearly 
resembles. 

406.1.2 Area increase. Group U occupancies used for the 
storage of private or pleasure-type motor vehicles where no 
repair work is done or fuel dispensed are permitted to be 
3,000 square feet (279 m^), when the following provisions 
are met: 

1 . For a mixed occupancy building, the exterior wall and 
opening protection for the Group U portion of the 
building shall be as required for the major occupancy 
of the building. For such mixed occupancy building, 
the allowable floor area of the building shall be as per- 
mitted for the major occupancy contained therein. 

2. For a building containing only a Group U occupancy, 
the exterior wall and opening protection shall be as re- 
quired for a Group R-1 or R-2 occupancy. 

More than one 3,000-square-foot (279 m^) Group U occu- 
pancy shall be permitted to be in the same building, provided 



2003 DNTERNATtONAL BUILDING CODE® 



SPECIAL DETAILED eEQyjREMENTS BASED OW USE AMD OCCUPAWCY 



• 



each 3,000-square-foot (279 m^) area is separated by fire 
walls complying with Section 705. 

406.13 Garages amd carports. Carports shall be open on at 
least two sides. Carport floor surfaces shall be of approved 
noncombustible material. Carports not open on at least two 
sides shall be considered a garage and shall comply with the 
provisions of this section for garages. 



m; Asphalt surfaces shall be permitted at 
ground level in carports. 

The area of floor used for parking of automobiles or other 
vehicles shall be sloped to facilitate the movement of liquids 
to a drain or toward the main vehicle entry doorway. 

406olo4 SeparatioEo Separations shall comply with the fol- 
lowing: 

1 . The private garage shall be separated from the dwell- 
ing unit and its attic area by means of a minimum 
V2-inch (12.7 nmi) gypsum board applied to the ga- 
rage side. Garages beneath habitable rooms shall be 
separated from all habitable rooms above by not less 
than Vg-inch Type X gypsum board or equivalent. 
Door openings between a private garage and the 
dwelhng unit shall be equipped with either solid wood 
doors, or solid or honeycomb core steel doors not less 
than 1 Vg inches (34.9 mm) thick, or doors in compli- 
ance with Section 715.3.3. Openings from a private 
garage directly into a room used for sleeping purposes 
shall not be permitted. 

2. Ducts in a private garage and ducts penetrating the 
walls or ceilings separating the dwelhng unit from the 
garage shall be constructed of a minimum 0.019-inch 
(0.48 mm) sheet steel and shall have no openings into 
the garage. 

3 . A separation is not required between a Group R-3 and 
U carport provided the carport is entirely open on two 
or more sides and there are not enclosed areas above. 



Parking garages shall be classified 
as either open, as defined in Section 406.3, or enclosed and 
shall meet the appropriate criteria in Section 406.4. Also see 
Section 508 for special provisions for parking garages. 



englhto The clear height of each floor level in 
vehicle and pedestrian traffic areas shall not be less than 7 
feet (2134 mm). Vehicle and pedestrian areas accommodat- 
ing van-accessible parking required by Section 1 106.5 shall 
conform to ICC A 117.1. 



ISo Guards shall be provided in accordance 
with Section 1012 at exterior and interior vertical openings 
on floor and roof areas where vehicles are parked or moved 
and where the vertical distance to the ground or surface di- 
rectiy below exceeds 30 inches (762 mm). 



o2o4 Vehicle toarrners« Parking areas shall be provided 
with exterior or interior walls or vehicle barriers, except at 
pedestrian or vehicular accesses, designed in accordance 
with Section 1607.7. Vehicle barriers not less than 2 feet 
(607 mm) high shall be placed at the ends of drive lanes, and 



at the end of parking spaces where the difference in adjacent 
floor elevation is greater than 1 foot (305 mm). 

jSo Vehicle ramps shall not serve as an exit ele- 1 



ment. 



.2o6 Floor serface. Parking surfaces shall be of concrete 
or similar noncombustible and nonabsorbent materials. 



.2o7 Mixed separatloe. Parking garages shall be sepa- 
rated from other occupancies in accordance with Section 
302.3. 



o2o8 Special hazards. Connection of a parking garage 
with any room in which there is a fuel-fired apphance shall 
be by means of a vestibule providing a two-doorway separa- 
tion. 

Exceptioms A single door shall be allowed provided the 
sources of ignition in the appliance are at least 18 inches 
(457 mm) above the floor. 



Openings from a parking ga- 
rage directly into a room used for sleeping purposes shall 
not be permitted. 

,3 Open parkninig garages. 



,1 Scope. Except where specific provisions are made 
in the following subsecfions, other requirements of this code 
shall apply. 



n§. The following words and terms shall, 
for the purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this 
code, have the meanings shown herein. 

MECHANICAL=ACCESS OPEN PARKING GA= 
MAGES, Open parking garages employing parking ma- 
chines, lifts, elevators or other mechanical devices for 
vehicles moving from and to street level and in which 
public occupancy is prohibited above the street level. 



A structure or portion of 
a structure with the openings as described in Section 
406.3.3.1 on two or more sides that is used for the park- 
ing or storage of private motor vehicles as described in 
Secdon 406.3.4. 

RAMP-ACCESS OPEN PARKING GARAGES, 
Open parking garages employing a series of continu- 
ously rising floors or a series of interconnecting ramps 
between floors permitting the movement of vehicles un- 
der their own power from and to the street level. 



L3.3 Comstractiom, Open parking garages shall be of 
Type I, II or IV construction. Open parking garages shall 
meet the design requirements of Chapter 16. For vehicle 
barriers, see Section 406.2.4. 



.3,1 Opemimgs, For natural ventilation purposes, 
the exterior side of the structure shall have uniformly dis- 
tributed openings on two or more sides. The area of such 
openings in exterior walls on a tier must be at least 20 



tmni Asphalt parking surfaces are permitted at 
ground level. 

The area of floor used for parking of automobiles or other 
vehicles shall be sloped to facilitate the movement of liquids 
to a drain or toward the main vehicle entry doorway. 



2003 INTERINlATlOiSaAL BUILDING CODE® 



45 



SPECIAL DETAILED REQUIREMENTS BASED ON USE AND OCCUPANCY 



o^ 



percent of the total perimeter wall area of each tier. The 
aggregate length of the openings considered to be pro- 
viding natural ventilation shall constitute a minimum of 
40 percent of the perimeter of the tier. Interior walls shall 
be at least 20 percent open with uniformly distributed 
openings. 

Exception: Openings are not required to be distrib- 
uted over 40 percent of the building perimeter where 
the required openings are uniformly distributed over 
two opposing sides of the building. 

406.3.4 Uses. Mixed uses shall be allowed in the same 
building as an open parking garage subject to the provisions 
of Sections 302.3, 402.7.1, 406.3.13, 508.3, 508.4 and 
508.7. 

406.3.5 Area and height. Area and height of open parking 
garages shall be limited as set forth in Chapter 5 for Group 
S-2 occupancies and as further provided for in Section 
302.3. 

406.3.5,1 Single use. When the open parking garage is 
used exclusively for the parking or storage of private mo- 
tor vehicles, with no other uses in the building, the area 
and height shall be permitted to comply with Table 
406.3.5, along with increases allowed by Section 
406.3.6. 

Exception: The grade-level tier is permitted to con- 
tain an office, waiting and toilet rooms having a total 
combined area of not more than 1,000 square feet (93 
m^). Such area need not be separated from the open 
parking garage. 

In open parking garages having a spiral or sloping 
floor, the horizontal projection of the structure at any 
cross section shall not exceed the allowable area per 
parking tier. In the case of an open parking garage having 
a continuous spiral floor, each 9 feet 6 inches (2896 mm) 
of height, or portion thereof, shall be considered a tier. 

The clear height of a parking tier shall not be less than 
7 feet (2134 mm), except that a lower clear height is per- 
mitted in mechanical-access open parking garages where 
approved by the building official. 

406.3.6 Area and height increases. The allowable area and 
height of open parking garages shall be increased in accor- 



dance with the provisions of this section. Garages with sides 
open on three-fourths of the building perimeter are permit- 
ted to be increased by 25 percent in area and one tier in 
height. Garages with sides open around the entire building 
perimeter are permitted to be increased 50 percent in area 
and one tier in height. For a side to be considered open under 
the above provisions, the total area of openings along the 
side shall not be less than 50 percent of the interior area of 
the side at each tier, and such openings shall be equally dis- 
tributed along the length of the tier. 

Allowable tier areas in Table 406.3.5 shall be increased 
for open parking garages constructed to heights less than the 
table maximum. The gross tier area of the garage shall not 
exceed that permitted for the higher structure. At least three 
sides of each such larger tier shall have continuous horizon- 
tal openings not less than 30 inches (762 mm) in clear height 
extending for at least 80 percent of the length of the sides, 
and no part of such larger tier shall be more than 200 feet (60 
960 mm) horizontally from such an opening. In addition, 
each such opening shall face a street or yard accessible to a 
street with a width of at least 30 feet (9 144 mm) for the full 
length of the opening, and standpipes shall be provided in 
each such tier. 

Open parking garages of Type IB and II construction, 
with all sides open, shall be unlimited in allowable area 
where the height does not exceed 75 feet (22 860 mm). For a 
side to be considered open, the total area of openings along 
the side shall not be less than 50 percent of the interior area 
of the side at each tier, and such openings shall be equally 
distributed along the length of the tier. All portions of tiers 
shall be within 200 feet (60 960 mm) horizontally from such 
openings. 

406.3.7 Location on property. Exterior walls and openings 
in exterior walls shall comply with Tables 601 and 602. The 
distance from an adjacent lot line shall be determined in ac- 
cordance with Table 602 and Section 704. 

406.3.8 Means of egress. Where persons other than parking 
attendants are permitted, open parking garages shall meet 
the means of egress requirements of Chapter 10. Where no 
persons other than parking attendants are permitted, there 
shall not be less than two 36-inch-wide (914 mm) exit stair- 
ways. Lifts shall be permitted to be installed for use of em- 



TABLE 406.3.5 
OPEN PARKING GARAGES AREA AND HEIGHT 



TYPE OF CONSTRUCTION 


AREA PER TIER 
(square feet) 


HEIGHT (in tiers) 


Ramp access 


Mechanical access 


Automatic sprinkler system 


No 


Yes 


lA 


Unlimited 


Unlimited 


Unlimited 


Unlimited 


IB 


Unlimited 


12 tiers 


12 tiers 


18 tiers 


IIA 


50,000 


10 tiers 


10 tiers 


15 tiers 


JIB 


50,000 


8 tiers 


8 tiers 


12 tiers 


IV 


50,000 


4 tiers 


4 tiers 


4 tiers 



For SI: 1 square foot = 0.0929 m^. 



46 



2003 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODEC 



SPECIAL DETABLED REQUIREMENTS BASED ON USE AND OCCUPANCY 



ployees only, provided they are completely enclosed by 
noncombustible materials. 



• 



s. Standpipes shall be installed where re- 
quired by the provisions of Chapter 9. 

4063.1© Sprinkler systems. Where required by other pro- 
visions or this code, automatic sprinkler systems and 
standpipes shall be installed in accordance with the provi- 
sions of Chapter 9. 

406.3011 Emclosere of vertical opeoiragSo Enclosure shall 
not be required for vertical openings except as specified in 
Section 406.3.8. 

406.3012 Venttlatnofflio Ventilation, other than the percentage 
of openings specified in Section 406.3.3.1, shall not be re- 
quired. 

406.3013 ProMbntnoDiSo The following uses and alterations 
are not permitted: 

1 . Vehicle repair work. 

2. Parking of buses, trucks and similar vehicles. 

3 . Partial or complete closing of required openings in ex- 
terior walls by tarpaulins or any other means. 

4. Dispensing of fuel. 

ime garageSo 



406.4.1 Heights amd areas. Enclosed vehicle parking ga- 
rages and portions thereof that do not meet the definition of 
open parking garages shall be limited to the allowable 
heights and areas specified in Table 503. Roof parking is 
permitted. 

406.4.2 VentllatioE, A mechanical ventilation system shall 
be provided in accordance with the International Mechani- 
cal Code. 

Motor ffmel-dispensimg ffadlitles, 

406,5,1 Coiistrinctioe. Motor fuel-dispensing facilities 
shall be constructed in accordance with the International 
Fire Code and this section. 



js. Canopies under which fuels are dis- 
pensed shall have a clear, unobstructed height of not less 
than 1 3 feet 6 inches (4115 mm) to the lowest projecting ele- 
ment in the vehicle drive-through area. Canopies and their 
supports over pumps shall be of noncombustible materials, 
fire-retardant-treated wood complying with Chapter 23, 
wood of Type IV sizes or of construction providing 1-hour 
fire resistance. Combustible materials used in or on a can- 
opy shall comply with one of the following: 

1. Shielded from the pumps by a noncombustible ele- 
ment of the canopy, or wood of Type IV sizes; 

2. Plastics covered by aluminum facing having a mini- 
mum thickness of 0.010 inch (0.30 mm) or corro- 
sion-resistant steel having a minimum base metal 
thickness of 0.016 inch (0.41 mm). The plastic shall 
have a flame spread index of 25 or less and a 
smoke-developed index of 450 or less when tested in 
the form intended for use in accordance with ASTM E 
84 and a self-ignition temperature of 650°F (343°C) 
or greater when tested in accordance with ASTM D 
1929; or 



3. Panels constructed of light-transmitting plastic mate- 
rials shall be permitted to be installed in canopies 
erected over motor vehicle fuel-dispensing station 
fuel dispensers, provided the panels are located at 
least 10 feet (3048 mm) from any building on the 
same property and face yards or streets not less than 
40 feet (12 192 mm) in width on the other sides. The 
aggregate areas of plastics shall not exceed 1,000 
square feet (93 m^). The maximum area of any indi- 
vidual panel shall not exceed 100 square feet (9.3 m^). 

» Repair garages, 

j,6.1 Gemeral, Repair garages shall be constructed in ac- 
cordance with the International Fire Code and this section. 
This occupancy shall not include motor fuel-dispensing fa- 
cihties, as regulated in Section 406.5. 



ises. Mixed uses shall be allowed in the 
same building as a repair garage subject to the provisions of 
Section 302.3. 



B, Repair garages shall be mechanically W 
ventilated in accordance with the International Mechanical 
Code. The ventilation system shall be controlled at the en- 
trance to the garage. 



p,6o4 Floor surface. Repair garage floors shall be of con- [] 
Crete or similar noncombustible and nonabsorbent materi- 
als. 



tiomi: Slip-resistant, nonabsorbent, interior floor 
finishes having a critical radiant flux not more than 0.45 
W/cm2, as determined by NFPA 253, shall be permitted. {_ 



L Heafing equipment shall be 
installed in accordance with the International Mechanical 
Code. 

[F] 406,6.6 Gas ietectiom system. Repair garages used for 
repair of vehicles fueled by nonodorized gases, such as hy- 
drogen and nonodorized LNG, shall be provided with an ap- 
proved flammable gas-detection system. 

[F] 406.6.6.1 System desigmi. The flammable gas-detec- 
tion system shall be calibrated to the types of fuels or 
gases used by vehicles to be repaired. The gas detection 
system shall be designed to activate when the level of 
flammable gas exceeds 25 percent of the lower explosive 
limit. Gas detection shall also be provided in lubrication 
or chassis repair pits of garages used for repairing 
nonodorized LNG-fueled vehicles. 

[F] 406,6,6,2 Operatioini, Activation of the gas detection 
system shall result in all of the following: 

1 . Initiation of distinct audible and visual alarm sig- 
nals in the repair garage. 

2. Deacfivation of all heating systems located in the 
repair garage. 

3. Activation of the mechanical ventilation system, 
where the system is interlocked with gas detection. 

[F] 406.6.6.3 Failure off the gas detectiosi system. Fail- 
ure of the gas detection system shall result in the deacti- 
vation of the heating system, activation of the 
mechanical ventilation system when the system is inter- 



C^ 



2003 INTERMATBOMAL BUBLDIING CODE® 



47 



SPECSAL DETAILED REQUIREMENTS BASED ON USE AND OCCUPANCY 



locked with the gas detection system and cause a trouble 
signal to sound in an approved location. 



SECTION 407 
GROUP 1-2 

407.1 General. Occupancies in Group 1-2 shall comply with 
the provisions of this section and other applicable provisions of 
this code. 

407.2 Corridors. Corridors in occupancies in Group 1-2 shall 
be continuous to the exits and separated from other areas in ac- 
cordance with Section 407.3 except spaces conforming to Sec- 
tions 407.2.1 through 407.2.4. 

407.2.1 Spaces of unlimited area. Waiting areas and simi- 
lar spaces constructed as required for corridors shall be per- 
mitted to be open to a corridor, only where all of the 
following criteria are met: 

1 . The spaces are not occupied for patient sleeping units, 
treatment rooms, hazardous or incidental use areas as 
defined in Section 302.1.1. 

2. The open space is protected by an automatic fire de- 
tection system installed in accordance with Section 
907. 

3. The corridors onto which the spaces open, in the same 
smoke compartment, are protected by an automatic 
fire detection system installed in accordance with 
Section 907, or the smoke compartment in which the 
spaces are located is equipped throughout with 
quick-response sprinklers in accordance with Section 
903.3.2. 

4. The space is arranged so as not to obstruct access to 
the required exits. 

407.2.2 Nurses' stations. Spaces for doctors' and nurses' 
charting, communications and related clerical areas shall be 
permitted to be open to the corridor, when such spaces are 
constructed as required for corridors. 

407.2.3 Mental health treatment areas. Areas wherein 
mental health patients who are not capable of self-preserva- 
tion are housed, or group meeting or multipurpose therapeu- 
tic spaces other than incidental use areas as defined in 
Section 302.1.1, under confinuous supervision by facility 
staff, shall be permitted to be open to the corridor, where the 
following criteria are met: 

1. Each area does not exceed 1,500 square feet (140 m^). 

2. The area is located to permit supervision by the facil- 
ity staff. 

3. The area is arranged so as not to obstruct any access to 
the required exits. 

4. The area is equipped with an automadc fire detection 
system installed in accordance with Section 907.2. 

5. Not more than one such space is permitted in any one 
smoke compartment. 

6. The walls and ceilings of the space are constructed as 
required for corridors. 



407.2.4 Gift shops. Gift shops less than 500 square feet 
(46.5 m^) in area shall be permitted to be open to the corridor 
provided the gift shop and storage areas are fully sprinklered 
and storage areas are protected in accordance with Section 
302.1.1. 

407.3 Corridor walls. Corridor walls shall be constructed as 
smoke partitions. 

407.3.1 Corridor doors. Corridor doors, other than those in 
a wall required to be rated by Section 302. 1 . 1 or for the en- 
closure of a vertical opening or an exit, shall not have a re- 
quired fire protection rating and shall not be required to be 
equipped with self-closing or automatic-closing devices, 
but shall provide an effective barrier to limit the transfer of 
smoke and shall be equipped with positive latching. Roller 
latches are not permitted. Other doors shall conform to Sec- 
tion 715.3. 




.3.2 Locking devices. Locking devices that restrict ac- 
cess to the patient room from the corridor, and that are oper- 
able only by staff from the corridor side, shall not restrict the 
means of egress from the patient room except for patient 
rooms in mental health facilities. 

407.4 Smoke barriers. Smoke barriers shall be provided to 
subdivide every story used by patients for sleeping or treatment 
and to divide other stories with an occupant load of 50 or more 
persons, into at least two smoke compartments. Such stories 
shall be divided into smoke compartments with an area of not 
more than 22,500 square feet (2092 m^) and the travel distance 
from any point in a smoke compartment to a smoke barrier door 
shall not exceed 200 feet (60 960 mm). The smoke barrier shall 
be in accordance with Section 709. 

407.4.1 Refuge area. At least 30 net square feet (2.8 m^) per 
patient shall be provided within the aggregate area of corri- 
dors, patient rooms, treatment rooms, lounge or dining areas 
and other low -hazard areas on each side of each smoke bar- 
rier. On floors not housing patients confined to a bed or lit- 
ter, at least 6 net square feet (0.56 m^) per occupant shall be 
provided on each side of each smoke barrier for the total 
number of occupants in adjoining smoke compartments. 

407.4.2 Independent egress, A means of egress shall be 
provided from each smoke compartment created by smoke 
barriers without having to return through the smoke com- 
partment from which means of egress originated. 

[F] 407.5 Automatic sprinkler system. Smoke compartments 
containing patient sleeping units shall be equipped throughout 
with an automatic fire sprinkler system in accordance with Sec- 
tion 903.3.1.1. The smoke compartments shall be equipped 
with approved quick-response or residential sprinklers in ac- 
cordance with Section 903.3.2. 

[F] 407.6 Automatic fire detection. Corridors in nursing 
homes (both intermediate-care and skilled nursing facilities), 
detoxification facihties and spaces permitted to be open to cor- 
ridors by Section 407.2 shall be protected by an automatic fire 
detection system installed in accordance with Section 907. 

Exceptions: 

1. Corridor smoke detection is not required where pa- 
tient sleeping units are provided with smoke detectors 
that comply with UL 268. Such detectors shall pro- 



48 



2003 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



SPECIAL DETAILED REQUIREMENTS BASED ON USE AND OCCUPANCY 



vide a visual display on the corridor side of each pa- 
tient sleeping unit and an audible and visual alarm at 
the nursing station attending each unit. 

2. Corridor smoke detection is not required where pa- 
tient sleeping unit doors are equipped with automatic 
door-closing devices with integral smoke detectors on 
the unit sides installed in accordance with their listing, 
provided that the integral detectors perform the re- 
quired alerting function. 

' Secured yardSo Grounds are permitted to be fenced and 
gates therein are permitted to be equipped with locks, provided 
that safe dispersal areas having 30 net square feet (2.8 m^) for 
bed and litter patients and 6 net square feet (0.56 m^) for ambu- 
latory patients and other occupants are located between the 
building and the fence. Such provided safe dispersal areas shall 
not be located less than 50 feet (15 240 mm) from the building 
they serve. 



and unobstructed passage through the sallyport during an 
emergency egress condition. 



4WA GemeraL Occupancies in Group 1-3 shall comply with 
the provisions of this section and other apphcable provisions of 
this code (see Section 308.4). 

4®8,2 Mixed occepamcieSo Portions of buildings with an occu- 
pancy in Group 1-3 that are classified as a different occupancy 
shall meet the applicable requirements of this code for such oc- 
cupancies. Where security operations necessitate the locking 
of required means of egress, provisions shall be made for the re- 
lease of occupants at all times. 

Means of egress from detention and correctional occupancies 
that traverse other use areas shall, as a minimum, conform to re- 
quirements for detention and correctional occupancies. 



mi It is permissible to exit through a horizontal exit 
into other contiguous occupancies that do not conform to de- 
tention and correctional occupancy egress provisions but that 
do comply with requirements set forth in the appropriate oc- 
cupancy, as long as the occupancy is not a high-hazard use. 

4®83 Means of egresso Except as modified or as provided for 
in this section, the provisions of Chapter 10 shall apply. 

408.3ol Door wMtlhio Doors to resident sleeping units shall 
have a clear width of not less than 28 inches (711 mm). 



r§. Where doors in a means of egress are 
of the horizontal-sliding type, the force to slide the door to its 
fully open position shall not exceed 50 pounds (220 N) with a 
perpendicular force against the door of 50 pounds (220 N). 



stairSo Spiral stairs that conform to the re- 
quirements of Section 1009.9 are permitted for access to and 
between staff locations. 



|eo Exits are permitted to discharge 
into a fenced or walled courtyard. Enclosed yards or courts 
shall be of a size to accommodate all occupants, a minimum 
of 50 feet (15 240 mm) from the building with a net area of 
15 square feet (1.4 m^) per person. 



jsores. One of the required verti- 
cal exit enclosures in each building shall be permitted to 
have glazing installed in doors and interior walls at each 
landing level providing access to the enclosure, provided 
that the following conditions are met: 

1. The vertical exit enclosure shall not serve more than 
four floor levels. 

2. Vertical exit enclosure doors shall not be less than 
V4-hour fire doors complying with Section 715.3. 

3. The total area of glazing at each floor level shall not 
exceed 5,000 square inches (3.23 m^) and individual 
panels of glazing shall not exceed 1 ,296 square inches 
(0.84 m2). 

4. The glazing shall be protected on both sides by an au- 
tomatic fire sprinkler system. The sprinkler system 
shall be designed to wet completely the entire surface 
of any glazing affected by fire when actuated. 

5. The glazing shall be in a gasketed frame and installed 
in such a manner that the framing system will deflect 
without breaking (loading) the glass before the sprin- 
kler system operates. 

6. Obstructions, such as curtain rods, drapery traverse 
rods, curtains, drapes or similar materials shall not be 
installed between the automatic sprinklers and the 
glazing. 



s§. Egress doors are permitted to be locked in accor- 
dance with the applicable use condition. Doors from an area of 
refuge to the exterior are permitted to be locked with a key in 
lieu of locking methods described in Secdon 408.4.1. The keys 
to unlock the exterior doors shall be available at all times and 
the locks shall be operable from both sides of the door. 

408.4ol Remote release. Remote release of locks on doors 
in a means of egress shall be provided with reliable means of 
operation, remote from the resident living areas, to release 
locks on all required doors. In Occupancy Conditions 3 or 4, 
the arrangement, accessibility and security of the release 
mechanism(s) required for egress shall be such that with the 
minimum available staff at any time, the lock mechanisms 
are capable of being released within 2 minutes. 

Exceptlomi Provisions for remote locking and unlocking 
of occupied rooms in Occupancy Condition 4 are not re- 
quired provided that not more than 10 locks are neces- 
sary to be unlocked in order to move occupants from one 
smoke compartment to a refuge area within 3 minutes. 
The opening of necessary locks shall be accomplished 
with not more than two separate keys. 



A sallyport shall be permitted in a 
means of egress where there are provisions for continuous 



[F] 408o4o2 Power=operaled doors and locks. Power-oper- 
ated sliding doors or power-operated locks for swinging 
doors shall be operable by a manual release mechanism at 
the door, and either emergency power or a remote mechani- 
cal operating release shall be provided. 

Exception: Emergency power is not required in facilities 
with 10 locks or less complying with the exception to 
Section 408.4.1. 



2003 INTERNATBONAL BODLDBNG CODE® 



SPECIAL DETAILED REQUIREMENTS BASED 0^S USE AMD OCCUPANCY 



408.4.3 Redundant operation. Remote release, mechani- 
cally operated sliding doors or remote release, mechanically 
operated locks shall be provided with a mechanically oper- 
ated release mechanism at each door, or shall be provided 
with a redundant remote release control. 

408.4.4 Relock capability. Doors remotely unlocked under 
emergency conditions shall not automatically relock when 
closed unless specific action is taken at the remote location 
to enable doors to relock. 

408.5 Vertical openings. Vertical openings shall be enclosed 
in accordance with Section 707. 

Exception: A floor opening between floor levels of residen- 
tial housing areas is permitted without enclosure protection 
between the levels, provided that both of the following con- 
ditions are met: 

1. The entire normally occupied areas so interconnected 
are open and unobstructed so as to enable observation 
of the areas by supervisory personnel. 

2. Means of egress capacity is sufficient to provide si- 
multaneous egress for all occupants from all intercon- 
nected levels and areas. 

The height difference between the highest and lowest fin- 
ished floor levels shall not exceed 23 feet (7010 mm). Each 
story, considered separately, has at least one-half of its individ- 
ual required means of egress capacity provided by exits leading 
directly out of that story without traversing another story 
within the interconnected area. 

408.6 Smoke barrier. Occupancies in Group 1-3 shall have 
smoke barriers complying with Section 709 to divide every 
story occupied by residents for sleeping, or any other story hav- 
ing an occupant load of 50 or more persons, into at least two 
smoke compartments. 

Exception; Spaces having direct exit to one of the follow- 
ing, provided that the locking arrangement of the doors in- 
volved complies with the requirements for doors at the 
compartment barrier for the use condition involved: 

1 . A public way. 

2. A building separated from the resident housing area 
by a 2-hour fire-resistance-rated assembly or 50 feet 
(15 240 mm) of open space. 

3 . A secured yard or court having a holding space 50 feet 
(15 240 mm) from the housing area that provides 6 
square feet (0.56 m^) or more of refuge area per occu- 
pant, including residents, staff and visitors. 

408.6.1 Smoke compartments. The maximum number of 
residents in any smoke compartment shall be 200. The travel 
distance to a door in a smoke barrier from any room door re- 
quired as exit access shall not exceed 150 feet (45 720 mm). 
The travel distance to a door in a smoke barrier from any 
point in a room shall not exceed 200 feet (60 960 mm). 

408.6.2 Refuge area. At least 6 net square feet (0.56 m^) per 
occupant shall be provided on each side of each smoke bar- 
rier for the total number of occupants in adjoining smoke 
compartments. This space shall be readily available wher- 
ever the occupants are moved across the smoke barrier in a 
fire emergency. 



408.6.3 Independent egress. A means of egress shall be 
provided from each smoke compartment created by smoke 
barriers without having to return through the smoke com- 
partment from which means of egress originates. 

408.7 Subdivision of resident housing areas. Sleeping areas 
and any contiguous day room, group activity space or other 
common spaces where residents are housed shall be separated 
from other spaces in accordance with Sections 408.7. 1 through 
408.7.4. 

408.7.1 Occupancy Conditions 3 and 4. Each sleeping 
area in Occupancy Conditions 3 and 4 shall be separated 
from the adjacent common spaces by a smoke-tight partition 
where the travel distance from the sleeping area through the 
common space to the exit access corridor exceeds 50 feet 
(15 240 mm). 

408.7.2 Occupancy Condition 5. Each sleeping area in Oc- 
cupancy Condition 5 shall be separated from adjacent sleep- 
ing areas, corridors and common spaces by a smoke-tight 
partition. Additionally, common spaces shall be separated 
from the exit access corridor by a smoke-tight partition. 



igs in room face. The aggregate area of 
openings in a sohd sleeping room face in Occupancy Condi- 
tions 2,3,4 and 5 shall not exceed 1 20 square inches (77 419 
mm^). The aggregate area shall include all openings includ- 
ing door undercuts, food passes and grilles. Openings shall 
be not more than 36 inches (914 mm) above the floor. In Oc- 
cupancy Condition 5, the openings shall be closeable from 
the room side. 

408.7.4 Smoke-tight doors. Doors in openings in partitions 
required to be smoke tight by Section 408.7 shall be substan- 
tial doors, of construction that will resist the passage of 
smoke. Latches and door closures are not required on cell 
doors. 

408.8 Windowless beiEdings. For the purposes of this section, 
a windowless building or portion of a building is one with 
nonopenable windows, windows not readily breakable or with- 
out windows. Windowless buildings shall be provided with an 
engineered smoke control system to provide ventilation (me- 
chanical or natural) in accordance with Section 909 for each 
windowless smoke compartment. 



IViOTiON PICTURE PROJECTION ROOMS 

.1 General. The provisions of this section shall apply to 
rooms in which ribbon-type cellulose acetate or other safety 
film is utilized in conjunction with electric arc, xenon or other 
light-source projection equipment that develops hazardous 
gases, dust or radiation. Where cellulose nitrate film is utilized 
or stored, such rooms shall comply with NFPA 40. 



hlA Projection room required. Every motion picture 
machine projecting film as mentioned within the scope of 
this secfion shall be enclosed in a projecfion room. Appurte- 
nant electrical equipment, such as rheostats, transformers 
and generators, shall be within the projection room or in an 
adjacent room of equivalent construction. 



50 



2003 SNTERNATIOMAL BUtLDING CODE® 



SPECDAL DETAILED REQUIREMENTS BASED ON USE AND OCCUPANCY 



nSo Every projection 
room shall be of permanent construction consistent with the 
construction requirements for the type of building in which the 
projection room is located. Openings are not required to be pro- 
tected. 

The room shall have a floor area of not less than 80 square 
feet (7.44 m^) for a single machine and at least 40 square feet 
(3.7 m^) for each additional machine. Each motion picture pro- 
jector, floodlight, spotUght or similar piece of equipment shall 
have a clear working space of not less than 30 inches by 30 
inches (762 mm by 762 mm) on each side and at the rear 
thereof, but only one such space shall be required between two 
adjacent projectors. The projection room and the rooms appur- 
tenant thereto shall have a ceiling height of not less than 7 feet 6 
inches (2286 mm). The aggregate of openings for projection 
equipment shall not exceed 25 percent of the area of the wall 
between the projection room and the auditorium. Openings 
shall be provided with glass or other approved material, so as to 
close completely the opening. 

405*3 Projecttioe room and eqMipmemt veHitllMlom,, Ventila- 
tion shall be provided in accordance with the International Me- 
chanical Code. 

4([])9<,3,1 FrojecHnomi roonnio 



o3olol Sepply air. Each projection room shall be pro- 
vided with adequate air supply inlets so arranged as to 
provide well-distributed air throughout the room. Air in- 
let ducts shall provide an amount of air equivalent to the 
amount of air being exhausted by projection equipment. 
Air is permitted to be taken from the outside; from adja- 
cent spaces within the building, provided the volume and 
infiltration rate is sufficient; or from the building air-con- 
ditioning system, provided it is so arranged as to provide 
sufficient air when other systems are not in operation. 



o3olo2 Exhamisll ain Projection rooms are permitted to 
be exhausted through the lamp exhaust system. The lamp 
exhaust system shall be positively interconnected with 
the lamp so that the lamp will not operate unless there is 
the required airflow. Exhaust air ducts shall terminate at 
the exterior of the building in such a location that the ex- 
haust air cannot be readily recirculated into any air sup- 
ply system. The projection room ventilation system is 
permitted to also serve appurtenant rooms, such as the 
generator and rewind rooms. 

Each projection machine shall be provided with an ex- 
haust duct that will draw air from each lamp and exhaust 
it directly to the outside of the building. The lamp exhaust 
is permitted to serve to exhaust air from the projection 
room to provide room air circulation. Such ducts shall be 
of rigid materials, except for a flexible connector ap- 
proved for the purpose. The projection lamp or projec- 
tion room exhaust system, or both, is permitted to be 
combined but shall not be interconnected with any other 
exhaust or return system, or both, within the building. 

A Ogtollmg comHroL Provisions shall be made for control of 
the auditorium lighting and the means of egress lighting sys- 
tems of theaters from inside the projection room and from at 
least one other convenient point in the building. 



Misceiainieoiuis equuBprnemt Each projection room shall 
be provided with rewind and film storage facilities. 



SECTION 410 
STAGES kWQ PLATFORilS 

The provisions of this section shall apply 
to all parts of buildings and structures that contain stages or 
platforms and similar appurtenances as herein defined. 

410.2 PelSimlftloinis. The following words and terms shall, for the 
purposes of this section and as used elsewhere in this code, 
have the meanings shown herein. 

FLY GALLERY. A raised floor area above a stage from 
which the movement of scenery and operation of other stage 
effects are controlled. 



The structural framing over a stage support- 
ing equipment for hanging or flying scenery and other stage 
effects. 

PINMAIL. A rail on or above a stage through which belay- 
ing pins are inserted and to which lines are fastened. 

PLATFORM. A raised area within a building used for wor- 
ship, the presentation of music, plays or other entertain- 
ment; the head table for special guests; the raised area for 
lecturers and speakers; boxing and wrestUng rings; the- 
ater-in-the-round stages; and similar purposes wherein 
there are no overhead hanging curtains, drops, scenery or 
stage effects other than Hghting and sound. A temporary 
platform is one installed for not more than 30 days. 

PROSCENIUM WALL. The wall that separates the stage 
from the auditorium or assembly seating area. 

STAGE. A space within a building utihzed for entertain- 
ment or presentations, which includes overhead hanging 
curtains, drops, scenery or stage effects other than lighting 
and sound. Stage area shall be measured to include the entire 
performance area and adjacent backstage and support areas 
not separated from the performance area by fire-resis- 
tance-rated construction. Stage height shall be measured 
from the lowest point on the stage floor to the highest point 
of the roof or floor deck above the stage. 



^e§. Stage construction shall comply with Sections 
410.3.1 through 410.3.7. 

410.3,1 Stage comstroctiom. Stages shall be constructed of 
materials as required for floors for the type of construction 
of the building in which such stages are located. 

ioms; 

1 . Stages of Type IIB or IV construction with a nomi- 
nal 2-inch (5 1 mm) wood deck, provided that the 
stage is separated from other areas in accordance 
with Section 410.3.4. 

2. In buildings of Type IIA, IIIA and VA construc- 
tion, a fire-resistance-rated floor is not required, 
provided the space below the stage is equipped 
with an automatic fire-extinguishing system in ac- 
cordance with Section 903 or 904. 

3 . In all types of construction, the finished floor shall be 
constructed of wood or approved noncombustible 



2003 DNTERNATSONAL BUILDING CODE® 



SPECIAL DETAILED REQUIREMENTS BASED ON USE AND OCCUPANCY 



materials. Openings through stage floors shall be 
equipped with tight-fitting, solid wood trap doors 
with approved safety locks. 

410.3.1.1 Stage height and area. Stage areas shall be 
measured to include the entire performance area and ad- 
jacent backstage and support areas not separated from 
the performance area by fire-resistance-rated construc- 
tion. Stage height shall be measured from the lowest 
point on the stage floor to the highest point of the roof or 
floor deck above the stage. 

410.3.2 GaHerles, gridirons, catwalks and pinralls. 
Beams designed only for the attachment of portable or fixed 
theater equipment, gridirons, galleries and catwalks shall be 
constructed of approved materials consistent with the re- 
quirements for the type of construction of the building; and a 
fire-resistance rating shall not be required. These areas shall 
not be considered to be floors, stories, mezzanines or levels 
in applying this code. 

Exception: Floors of fly galleries and catwalks shall be 
constructed of any approved material. 

410.3.3 Exterior stage doors. Where protection of open- 
ings is required, exterior exit doors shall be protected with 
fire doors that comply with Section 715. Exterior openings 
that are located on the stage for means of egress or loading 
and unloading purposes, and that are likely to be open dur- 
ing occupancy of the theater, shall be constructed with vesti- 
bules to prevent air drafts into the auditorium. 

410.3.4 Prosceniom wall. Where the stage height is greater 
than 50 feet (15 240 mm), all portions of the stage shall be 
completely separated from the seating area by a proscenium 
wall with not less than a 2-hour fire-resistance rating ex- 
tending continuously from the foundation to the roof. 

410.3.5 Proscenium curtain. The proscenium opening of 
every stage with a height greater than 50 feet (15 240 mm) 
shall be provided with a curtain of approved material or an 
approved water curtain complying with Section 903.3.1.1. 
The curtain shall be designed and installed to intercept hot 
gases, flames and smoke, and to prevent a glow from a se- 
vere fire on the stage from showing on the auditorium side 
for a period of 20 minutes. The closing of the curtain from 
the full open position shall be effected in less than 30 sec- 
onds, but the last 8 feet (2438 mm) of travel shall require not 
less than 5 seconds. 

410.3.5.1 Activation. The curtain shall be activated by 
rate-of-rise heat detection installed in accordance with 
Section 907.10 operating at a rate of temperature rise of 
15 to 20°F per minute (8 to I TC per minute), and by an 
auxiliary manual control. 

410.3.5.2 Fire test. A sample curtain with a minimum of 
two vertical seams shall be subjected to the standard fire 
test specified in ASTM E 1 19 for a period of 30 minutes. 
The curtain shall overlap the furnace edges by an amount 
that is appropriate to seal the top and sides. The curtain 
shall have a bottom pocket containing a minimum of 4 
pounds per linear foot (58 N/m) of batten. The exposed 
surface of the curtain shall not glow, and flame or smoke 
shall not penetrate the curtain during the test period. Un- 



exposed surface temperature and hose stream test re- 
quirements are not applicable to the proscenium fire 
safety curtain test. 

410.3.5.3 Smoke test. Curtain fabrics shall have a 
smoke-developed rating of 25 or less when tested in ac- 
cordance with ASTM E 84. 

410.3.5.4 Tests. The completed proscenium curtain shall 
be subjected to operating tests prior to the issuance of a 
certificate of occupancy. 

410.3.6 Scenery. Combustible materials used in sets and 
scenery shall be rendered flame resistant in accordance with 
Section 805 and the International Fire Code. Foam plastics 
and materials containing foam plastics shall comply with 
Section 2603 and the International Fire Code. 

410.3.7 Stage ventilation. Emergency ventilation shall be 
provided for stages larger than 1,000 square feet (93 m^) in 
floor area, or with a stage height greater than 50 feet (15 240 
mm). Such ventilation shall comply with Section 410.3.7.1 
or 410.3.7.2. 



).3.7.1 Roof vents. Two or more vents constructed to 
open automatically by approved heat-activated devices 
and with an aggregate clear opening area of not less than 
5 percent of the area of the stage shall be located near the 
center and above the highest part of the stage area. Sup- 
plemental means shall be provided for manual operation 
of the ventilator. Curbs shall be provided as required for 
skyUghts in Section 2610.2. Vents shall be labeled. 

410.3.7,2 Smoke control. Smoke control in accordance 
with Section 909 shall be provided to maintain the smoke 
layer interface not less than 6 feet (1829 mm) above the 
highest level of the assembly seating or above the top of 
the proscenium opening where a proscenium wall is pro- 
vided in compliance with Section 410.3.4. 

410.4 Platform construction. Permanent platforms shall be 
constructed of materials as required for the type of construction 
of the building in which the permanent platform is located. Per- 
manent platforms are permitted to be constructed of fire-retar- 
dant-treated wood for Type 1, 11, and IV construction where the 
platforms are not more than 30 inches (762 mm) above the main 
floor, and not more than one-third of the room floor area and not 
more than 3,000 square feet (279 m^) in area. Where the space 
beneath the permanent platform is used for storage or any other 
purpose other than equipment, wiring or plumbing, the floor 
construction shall not be less than I -hour fire-resistance-rated 
construction. Where the space beneath the permanent platform 
is used only for equipment, wiring or plumbing, the underside 
of the permanent platform need not be protected. 

410.4.1 Temporary platforms. Platforms installed for a pe- 
riod of not more than 30 days are permitted to be constructed 
of any materials permitted by the code. The space between 
the floor and the platform above shall only be used for 
plumbing and electrical wiring to platform equipment. 

410.5 Dressing and appurtenant rooms. Dressing and appur- 
tenant rooms shall comply with Sections 410.5.1 through 
410.5.4. 

410.5.1 Separation from stage. Where the stage height is 
greater than 50 feet (15 240 mm), the stage shall be sepa- 



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SPECDAL DETAILED REQUSRESVIEOTS BASED OH USE AND OCCUPAMCY 



rated from dressing rooms, scene docks, property rooms, 
workshops, storerooms and compartments appurtenant to 
the stage and other parts of the building by a fire barrier wall 
and horizontal assemblies, or both, with not less than a 
2-hour fire-resistance rating with approved opening 
protectives. For stage heights of 50 feet (15 240 mm) or less, 
the required stage separation shall be a fire barrier wall and 
horizontal assemblies, or both, with not less a 1 -hour fire-re- 
sistance rating with approved opening protectives. 



©tliero Dressing rooms, 
scene docks, property rooms, workshops, storerooms and 
compartments appurtenant to the stage shall be separated 
from each other by fire barrier wall and horizontal assem- 
blies, or both, with not less than a 1-hour fire-resistance rat- 
ing with approved opening protectives. 

410,5<,3 Opening protecltlves. Openings other than to trunk 
rooms and the necessary doorways at stage level shall not 
connect such rooms with the stage, and such openings shall 
be protected with fire door assemblies that comply with Sec- 
tion 715. 



dtSo At least one approved means of egress 
shall be provided from each side of the stage; and from each 
side of the space under the stage. At least one means of es- 
cape shall be provided from each fly gallery and from the 
gridiron. A steel ladder, alternating tread stairway or spiral 
stairway is permitted to be provided from the gridiron to a 
scuttle in the stage roof. 

[F] 41O06 Automaltk spdnlkkr systemo Stages shall be 
equipped with an automatic fire-extinguishing system in accor- 
dance with Chapter 9. The system shall be installed under the 
roof and gridiron, in the tie and fly galleries, in places behind 
the proscenium wall of the stage, and in dressing rooms, 
lounges, workshops and storerooms accessory to such stages. 



1 . Sprinklers are not required under stage areas less than 
4 feet (1219 mm) in clear height utiUzed exclusively 
for storage of tables and chairs, provided the con- 
cealed space is separated from the adjacent spaces by 
not less than Vg-inch (15.9 mm) Type X gypsum 
board. 

2. Sprinklers are not required for stages 1,000 square 
feet (93 m^) or less in area and 50 feet (15 240 mm) or 
less in height where curtains, scenery or other com- 
bustible hangings are not retractable vertically. Com- 
bustible hangings shall be limited to a single main 
curtain, borders, legs and a single backdrop. 

.7 StomdpipeSo Standpipe systems shall be provided in 
accordance with Section 905. 



SPECIAL AMySEiiENT BUILDIMGS 

.1 General. Special amusement buildings having an occu- 
pant load of 50 or more shall comply with the requirements for 
the appropriate Group A occupancy and this section. Amuse- 
ment buildings having an occupant load of less than 50 shall 



comply with the requirements for a Group B occupancy and 
this section. 

Exceptnom: Amusement buildings or portions thereof that 
are without walls or a roof and constructed to prevent the ac- 
cumulation of smoke. 

For flammable decorative materials, see the International 
Fire Code. 



ig. A special amusement 
building is any temporary or permanent building or portion 
thereof that is occupied for amusement, entertainment or edu- 
cational purposes and that contains a device or system that con- 
veys passengers or provides a walkway along, around or over a 
course in any direction so arranged that the means of egress 
path is not readily apparent due to visual or audio distractions 
or is intentionally confounded or is not readily available be- 
cause of the nature of the attraction or mode of conveyance 
through the building or structure. 

[F] 4113 Aetomatic ffire detectiono Special amusement build- 
ings shall be equipped with an automatic fire detection system 
in accordance with Section 907. 

[F] 411,4 Automatic sprinkler systemio Special amusement 
buildings shall be equipped throughout with an automatic 
sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. Where 
the special amusement building is temporary, the sprinkler wa- 
ter supply shall be of an approved temporary means. 



m Automatic fire sprinklers are not required 
where the total floor area of a temporary special amusement 
building is less than 1,000 square feet (93 m^) and the travel 
distance from any point to an exit is less than 50 feet (15 240 
mm). 

[F] 411o5 Alarm. Actuation of a single smoke detector, the au- 
tomatic sprinkler system or other automatic fire detection de- 
vice shall immediately sound an alarm at the building at a 
constantly attended location from which emergency action can 
be initiated including the capability of manual initiation of re- 
quirements in Section 907.2.11.2. 

[F] 411.6 Emergency voice/alarm communications system. 
An emergency voice/alarm communications system shall be 
provided in accordance with Sections 907.2. 11 and 907.2.12.2, 
which is also permitted to serve as a public address system and 
shall be audible throughout the entire special amusement build- 
ing. 



.7 Exit marking. Exit signs shall be installed at the re- 
quired exit or exit access doorways of amusement buildings. 
Approved directional exit markings shall also be provided. 
Where mirrors, mazes or other designs are utihzed that dis- 
guise the path of egress travel such that they are not apparent, 
approved low-level exit signs and directional path markings 
shall be provided and located not more than 8 inches (203 mm) 
above the walking surface and on or near the path of egress 
travel. Such markings shall become visible in an emergency. 
The directional exit marking shall be activated by the automatic 
fire detection system and the automatic sprinkler system in ac- 
cordance with Section 907.2.11.2. 



L.8 Interior finish. The interior finish shall be Class A in ac- 
cordance with Section 803.1. 



SPECIAL DETAILED REQUIREMENTS BASED ON USE AND OCCUPANCY 



SECTION 412 
AIRCRAFT-RELATED OCCUPANCIES 

412.1 Airport traffic control towers. 

412.1.1 General. The provisions of this section shall apply 
to airport traffic control towers not exceeding 1,500 square 
feet (140 m^) per floor occupied only for the following uses: 

1 . Airport traffic control cab. 

2. Electrical and mechanical equipment rooms. 

3. Airport terminal radar and electronics rooms. 

4. Office spaces incidental to the tower operation. 

5. Lounges for employees, including sanitary facilities. 

412.1.2 Type of construction. Airport traffic control tow- 
ers shall be constructed to conform to the height and area 
limitations of Table 412.1.2. 

TABLE 41 2.1 .2 

HEIGHT AND AREA LIMITATIONS FOR AIRPORT 

TRAFFIC CONTROL TOWERS 



TYPE OF 
CONSTRUCTION 


HEIGHr 
(feet) 


MAXIMUM AREA 
(square feet) 


lA 


Unlimited 


1,500 


IB 


240 


1,500 


IIA 


100 


1,500 


IIB 


85 


1,500 


IIIA 


65 


1,500 



For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 square foot = 0.093 ml 
a. Height to be measured from grade to cab floor. 

412.1.3 Egress. A minimum of one exit stairway shall be 
permitted for airport traffic control towers of any height pro- 
vided that the occupant load per floor does not exceed 15. 
The stairway shall conform to the requirements of Section 
1009. The stairway shall be separated from elevators by a 
minimum distance of one-half of the diagonal of the area 
served measured in a straight line. The exit stairway and ele- 
vator hoistway are permitted to be located in the same shaft 
enclosure, provided they are separated from each other by a 
4-hour separation having no openings. Such stairway shall 
be pressurized to a minimum of 0.15 inch of water column 
(43 Pa) and a maximum of 0.35 inch of water column (101 
Pa) in the shaft relative to the building with stairway doors 
closed. Stairways need not extend to the roof as specified in 
Section 1009.12. The provisions of Section 403 do not ap- 
ply. 

Exception: Smokeproof enclosures as set forth in Sec- 
tion 1019.1.8 are not required where required stairways 
are pressurized. 

[F] 412.1.4 Automatic fire detection systems. Airport traf- 
fic control towers shall be provided with an automatic fire 
detection system installed in accordance with Section 
907.2. 

[F] 412.1.5 Standby power. A standby power system that 
conforms to Section 2702 shall be provided in airport traffic 
control towers more than 65 feet (19 812 mm) in height. 
Power shall be provided to the following equipment: 



1 . Pressurization equipment, mechanical equipment and 
lighting. 

2. Elevator operating equipment. 

3. Fire alarm and smoke detection systems. 

412.1.6 Accessibility. Airport traffic control towers need 
not be accessible as specified in the provisions of Chapter 
11. 

412.2 Aircraft hangar. 

412.2.1 Exterior walls. Exterior walls located less than 30 
feet (9 144 mm) from property lines, lot lines or a public way 
shall have a fire-resistance rating not less than 2 hours. 

412.2.2 Basements. Where hangars have basements, the 
floor over the basement shall be of Type I A construction and 
shall be made tight against seepage of water, oil or vapors. 
There shall be no opening or communicadon between the 
basement and the hangar. Access to the basement shall be 
from outside only. 

412.2.3 Floor surface. Floors shall be graded and drained to 
prevent water or fuel from remaining on the floor. Floor 
drains shall discharge through an oil separator to the sewer 
or to an outside vented sump. 

412.2.4 Heating equipment. Heating equipment shall be 
placed in another room separated by 2-hour fire-resis- 
tance-rated construction. Entrance shall be from the outside 
or by means of a vestibule providing a two-doorway separa- 
tion. 

Exceptions: 

1. Unit heaters suspended at least 10 feet (3048 mm) 
above the upper surface of wings or engine enclo- 
sures of the highest aircraft that are permitted to be 
housed in the hangar and at least 8 feet (2438 mm) 
above the floor in shops, offices and other sections 
of the hangar communicating with storage or ser- 
vice areas. 

2. A single interior door shall be allowed, provided 
the sources of ignition in the apphances are at least 
18 inches (457 mm) above the floor. 

412.2.5 Finishing. The process of "doping," involving use 
of a volatile flammable solvent, or of painting, shall be car- 
ried on in a separate detached building equipped with auto- 
matic fire-extinguishing equipment in accordance with 
Section 903. 

[F] 412.2.6 Fire suppression. Aircraft hangars shall be pro- 
vided with fire suppression as required in NFPA 409. 

Exception: Group II hangars as defined in NFPA 409 
storing private aircraft without major maintenance or 
overhaul are exempt from foam suppression require- 
ments. 

412.3 Residential aircraft hangars. Residential aircraft han- 
gars as defined in Section 412.3.1 shall comply with Sections 
412.3.2 through 412.3.6. 



.1 Definition. The following word and term shall, for 
the purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this 
code, have the meaning shown herein. 



54 



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RESIDENTIAL AIECRAFT HANGAR, An acces- 
sory building less than 2,000 square feet (186 m^) and 20 
feet (6096 mm) in height, constructed on a one- or 
two-family residential property where aircraft are stored. 
Such use will be considered as a residential accessory use 
incidental to the dwelhng. 

412.3.2 Fire sepairalloira. A hangar shall not be attached to a 
dwelling unless separated by walls having a fire-resistance 
rating of not less than 1 hour. Such separation shall be con- 
tinuous from the foundation to the underside of the roof and 
unpierced except for doors leading to the dwelling unit. 
Doors into the dwelling unit must be equipped with 
self-closing devices and conform to the requirements of 
Section 715 with at least a 4-inch ( 1 02 mm) noncombustible 
raised sill. Openings from a hanger directly into a room used 
for sleeping purposes shall not be permitted. 

412.3.3 Egress. A hangar shall provide two means of egress. 
One of the doors into the dwelling shall be considered as 
meeting only one of the two means of egress. 



B, Smoke alarms shall be pro- 
vided within the hangar in accordance with Section 
907.2.21. 

412.3.5 iBidepemdemt systems. Mechanical and plumbing 
drain, waste and vent (DWV) systems installed within the 
hangar shall be independent of the systems installed within 
the dwelling. Building sewer lines may connect outside the 
structures. 



ni.° Smoke detector wiring and feed for electri- 
cal subpanels in the hangar. 

412.3.6 Height amd area limits. Residential aircraft han- 
gars shall not exceed 2,000 square feet (186 m^) in area and 
20 feet (6096 mm) in height. 



sgars. Aircraft painting operations 
where flammable liquids are used in excess of the maximum al- 
lowable quantities per control area listed in Table 307.7( 1 ) shall 
be conducted in an aircraft paint hangar that complies with the 
provisions of Section 412.4. 

412.4.1 Occepamcy group. Aircraft paint hangars shall be 
classified as Group H-2. Aircraft paint hangars shall comply 
with the applicable requirements of this code and the Inter- 
national Fire Code for such occupancy. 

412.4.2 CoEstrMcttom. The aircraft paint hangar shall be of 
Type I or II construction. 

412.4.3 OperatioES. Only those flammable liquids neces- 
sary for painting operations shall be permitted in quantities 
less than the maximum allowable quantities per control area 
in Table 307.7(1). Spray equipment cleaning operations 
shall be conducted in a liquid use, dispensing and mixing 
room. 

412.4.4 Storage. Storage of flammable liquids shall be in a 
liquid storage room. 

412.4.5 Fire seppresslom. Aircraft paint hangars shall be 
provided with fire suppression as required in NFPA 409. 

412.4.6 Vemtilatioii, Aircraft paint hangars shall be pro- 
vided with ventilation as required in the International Me- 
chanical Code. 



412.5.1 Gemerafl. Heliports and helistops may be erected on 
buildings or other locations where they are constructed in 
accordance with this section. 



IS. The following words and terms shall, 
for the purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this 
code, have the meanings shown herein. 

HELIPORT. An area of land or water or a structural surface 
that is used, or intended for use, for the landing and taking 
off of helicopters, and any appurtenant areas that are used, 
or intended for use, for heliport buildings and other heliport 
facilities. 

HELISTOP, The same as a "Heliport," except that no fuel- 
ing, defueling, maintenance, repairs or storage of helicop- 
ters is permitted. 

412.5.3 Size. The touchdown or landing area for heUcopters 
of less than 3,500 pounds (1588 kg) shall be a minimum of 
20 feet (6096 mm) in length and width. The touchdown area 
shall be surrounded on all sides by a clear area having a min- 
imum average width at roof level of 15 feet (4572 mm) but 
with no width less than 5 feet (1524 mm). 

412.5.4 Design. Hehcopter landing areas and the supports 
thereof on the roof of a building shall be noncombustible 
construction. Landing areas shall be designed to confine any 
flammable liquid spillage to the landing area itself and pro- 
visions shall be made to drain such spillage away from any 
exit or stairway serving the helicopter landing area or from a 
structure housing such exit or stairway. For structural design 
requirements, see Section 1605.5. 



as of egress. The means of egress from heli- 
ports and helistops shall comply with the provisions of 
Chapter 10. Landing areas located on buildings or structures 
shall have two or more means of egress. For landing plat- 
forms or roof areas less than 60 feet (18 288 mm) in length, 
or less than 2,000 square feet (187 m^) in area, the second 
means of egress may be a fire escape or ladder leading to the 
floor below. 



5S, Rooftop heli- 
ports and hehstops shall comply with NFPA 418. 



COiVilBUSTIBLE STORAGE 

LI Gemeral. High-piled stock or rack storage in any occu- 
pancy group shall comply with the International Fire Code. 



spaces. Attic, un- 
der-floor and concealed spaces used for storage of combustible 
materials shall be protected on the storage side as required for 
1-hour fire-resistance-rated construction. Openings shall be 
protected by assemblies that are self-closing and are of 
noncombustible construction or solid wood core not less than 
IV4 inch (45 mm) in thickness. 



1 . Areas protected by approved automatic sprinkler sys- 
tems. 

2. Group R-3 and U occupancies. 



<=] 



2003 8NTERNAT80NAL BU1LD5NG CODE® 



55 



SPECBAL DETAILED REQUSREMENTS BASED ON USE ASMD OCCUPANCY 



SECTION 414 
HAZARDOUS iVIATE 

[F] 414.1 General. The provisions of this section shall apply to 
buildings and structures occupied for the manufacturing, pro- 
cessing, dispensing, use or storage of hazardous materials. 

[F] 414.1,1 Other provisions. Buildings and structures 
with an occupancy in Group H shall also comply with the 
applicable provisions of Section 415 and the International 
Fire Code. 

[F] 414.1.2 Materials. The safe design of hazardous mate- 
rial occupancies is material dependent. Individual material 
requirements are also found in Sections 307 and 415, and in 
the International Mechanical Code and the International 
Fire Code. 

[F] 414.1.2.1 Aerosols. Level 2 and 3 aerosol products 
shall be stored and displayed in accordance with the In- 
ternational Fire Code. See Section 311.2 and the Inter- 
national Fire Code for occupancy group requirements. 

[F] 414.1.3 leformation required. Separate floor plans 
shall be submitted for buildings and structures with an occu- 
pancy in Group H, identifying the locations of anticipated 
contents and processes so as to reflect the nature of each oc- 
cupied portion of every building and structure. A report 
identifying hazardous materials including, but not limited 
to, materials representing hazards that are classified in 
Group H to be stored or used, shall be submitted and the 
methods of protection from such hazards shall be indicated 
on the construction documents. The opinion and report shall 
be prepared by a qualified person, firm or corporation ap- 
proved by the building official and shall be provided without 
charge to the enforcing agency. 

[F] 414.2 Control areas. Control areas shall be those spaces 
within a building where quantities of hazardous materials not 
exceeding the maximum quantities allowed by this code are 
stored, dispensed, used or handled. 

414,2.1 Construction requirements. Control areas shall 
be separated from each other by not less than a 1-hour fire 
barrier constructed in accordance with Chapter 7. 

[F] 414.2.2 Number. The maximum number of control ar- 
eas within a building shall be in accordance with Table 
414.2.2. 

414.2.3 Separation. The required fire-resistance rating for 
fire barrier assemblies shall be in accordance with Table 
414.2.2. The floor construcfion of the control area, and the 
construction supporting the floor of the control area, shall 
have a minimum 2-hour fire-resistance rating. 



[F] 414.2.4 Hazardous material in Group I 
storage areas and in Group S storage areas. The aggre- 
gate quantity of nonflammable solid and nonflammable or 
noncombustible liquid hazardous materials permitted 
within a single control area of a Group M or S occupancy or 
an outdoor control area is permitted to exceed the maximum 
allowable quantities per control area specified in Tables 
307.7(1) and 307.7(2) without classifying the building or 
use as a Group H occupancy, provided that the materials are 
displayed and stored in accordance with the International 



Fire Code and quantities do not exceed the maximum allow- 
able specified in Table 414.2.4. 

[F] 414.3 Ventilation. Rooms, areas or spaces of Group H in 
which explosive, corrosive, combustible, flammable or 
highly toxic dusts, mists, fumes, vapors or gases are or may be 
emitted due to the processing, use, handling or storage of ma- 
terials shall be mechanically ventilated as required by the In- 
ternational Fire Code and the International Mechanical 
Code. 

Ducts conveying explosives or flammable vapors, fumes or 
dusts shall extend directly to the exterior of the building with- 
out entering other spaces. Exhaust ducts shall not extend into or 
through ducts and plenums. 

Exception: Ducts conveying vapor or fumes having flam- 
mable constituents less than 25 percent of their lower 
flammable limit (LFL) are permitted to pass through other 
spaces. 

Emissions generated at workstations shall be confined to the 
area in which they are generated as specified in the Interna- 
tional Fire Code and the International Mechanical Code. 

The location of supply and exhaust openings shall be in ac- 
cordance with the International Mechanical Code. Exhaust air 
contaminated by highly toxic material shall be treated in accor- 
dance with the International Fire Code. 

A manual shutoff control for ventilation equipment required 
by this section shall be provided outside the room adjacent to 
the principal access door to the room. The switch shall be of the 
break-glass type and shall be labeled: VENTILATION SYS- 
TEM EMERGENCY SHUTOFF. 

[F] 414,4 Hazardous material systems. Systems involving 
hazardous materials shall be suitable for the intended applica- 
fion. Controls shall be designed to prevent materials from en- 
tering or leaving process or reaction systems at other than the 
intended time, rate or path. Automatic controls, where pro- 
vided, shall be designed to be fail safe. 

[F] 414.5 Inside storage, dispensing and use. The inside stor- 
age, dispensing and use of hazardous materials in excess of the 
maximum allowable quantities per control area of Tables 
307.7(1) and 307.7(2) shall be in accordance with Sections 
414.5.1 through 414.5.5 of this code and the International Fire 
Code. 

[F] 414,5.1 Explosion control. Explosion control shall be 
provided in accordance with the International Fire Code as 
required by Table 414.5.1 where quanfities of hazardous 
materials specified in that table exceed the maximum allow- 
able quantities in Table 307.7(1) or where a structure, room 
or space is occupied for purposes involving explosion haz- 
ards as required by Section 415 or the International Fire 
Code. 

[F] 414,5.2 Monitor control equipment. Monitor control 
equipment shall be provided where required by the Interna- 
tional Fire Code. 

[F] 414,5,3 Automatic fire detection systems. Group H oc- 
cupancies shall be provided with an automatic fire detection 
system in accordance with Section 907.2. 



56 



2003 SNTERNAT80NAL BUILDING CODE® 



SPECIAL DETAILED REQUDREMEBMITS BASED ON USE AND OCCUPANCY 



.2.2 



DESDGW AND NUMBER OF CONTROL AREAS 



FLOOR LEVEL 


PERCENTAGE OF THE MAXllVJUlVi ALLOWABLE 
QUANTJTY PER CONTROL AREA^ 


MUIWBEB OF CONTROL 
AREAS PER FLOOR" 


FlRE-RESlSTANCE RATING 
FOR nRE BARRIERS IN HOURS'^ 


Above grade 


Higher than 9 

7-9 

6 

5 
4 
3 
2 
1 


5 

5 
12.5 
12.5 
12.5 
50 
75 
100 


1 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
3 
4 


2 
2 
2 
2 
2 


Below grade 


1 

2 

Lower than 2 


75 

50 

Not Allowed 


3 

2 

Not Allowed 


Not Allowed 



a. Percentages shall be of the maximum allowable quantity per control area shown in Tables 307.7(1 ) and 307.7(2), with all increases allowed in the notes to those ta- 
bles. 

b. There shall be a maximum of two control areas per floor in Group M occupancies and in buildings or portions of buildings having Group S occupancies with stor- 
age conditions and quantities in accordance with Section 414.2.4. 

c. Fire barriers shall include walls and floors as necessary to provide separation from other portions of the building. 



ERW 
SOLDDS 



[F| TABLE 414.2.4 

OR CONTROL AREA 1 
ABLE AND NONCOMBUSTIBLE LDOOroS 



d,e,f 



ES 



CONDITION 


MAXIMUM! ALLOWABLE QUANTITY PER CONTROL AREA 


Material^ 


Class 


Solids 
pounds 


Liquids 
gallons 


A. Health-hazard materials — nonflammable and noncomlbustlljle soMds and liquids 


1 . Corrosives''' ^ 


Not Applicable 


9,750 


975 


2. Highly toxics 


Not Applicable 


20"- = 


Ob, c 


3. Toxics''''^ 


Not Applicable 


1,000 


100 


B. Physical-hazard materials — nonflammable and noncombmstflble solids and liqnids 


1. Oxidizers'''^ 


4 


Not Allowed 


Not Allowed 


3 


1,1506 


115 


2 


2,250*^ 


225 


1 


1 8,000'' J 


1,800'' J 


2. Unstable (reactives)"- '^ 


4 


Not Allowed 


Not Allowed 


3 


550 


55 


2 


1,150 


115 


1 


Not Limited 


Not Limited 


3. Water (reactives) 


ob, c 


550 


55 


2b, c 


1,150 


115 


1 


Not Limited 


Not Limited 



For SI: 1 pound = 0.454 kg, 1 gallon = 3.785 L. 

a. Hazard categories are as specified in the International Fire Code. 

b. Maximum allowable quantities shall be increased 100 percent in buildings that are sprinklered in accordance with Section 903.3. 1 . 1 . When Note c also applies, the 
increase for both notes shall be applied accumulatively. 

c. Maximum allowable quantities shall be increased 100 percent when stored in approved storage cabinets, in accordance with the International Fire Code. When 
Note b also applies, the increase for both notes shall be applied accumulatively. 

d. See Table 414.2.2 for design and number of control areas. 

e. Allowable quantities for other hazardous material categories shall be in accordance with Section 307. 

f. Maximum quantities shall be increased 100 percent in outdoor control areas. 

g. Maximum amounts are permitted to be increased to 2,250 pounds when individual packages are in the original sealed containers from the manufacturer or pack- 
ager and do not exceed 10 pounds each. 

h. Maximum amounts are permitted to be increased to 4,500 pounds when individual packages are in the original sealed containers from the manufacturer or pack- 
ager and do not exceed 10 pounds each, 
i. The permitted quantities shall not be limited in a building equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. 
j. Quantities are unlimited in an outdoor control area. 



2003 JNTERMATIONAL BUBLDIMG CODE® 



57 



SPECIAL DETAILED REQUIREMENTS BASED ON USE AND OCCUPANCY 



[F] TABLE 414.5.1 
EXPLOSION CONTROL REQUIREMENTS' 



MATERIAL 


CLASS 


EXPLOSION CONTROL METHODS 


Barricade construction 


Explosion (deflagration) venting 

or explosion (deflagration) 

prevention systems'' 


HAZARD CATEGORY 


Combustible dusts'^ 





Not Required 


Required 


Cryogenic flammables 


— 


Not Required 


Required 


Explosives 


Division 1.1 
Division 1.2 
Division 1.3 
Division 1.4 
Division 1.5 
Division 1.6 


Required 
Required 
Not Required 
Not Required 
Required 
Required 


Not Required 
Not Required 
Required 
Required 
Not Required 
Not Required 


Flammable gas 


Gaseous 
Liquefied 


Not Required 
Not Required 


Required 
Required 


Flammable liquid 


lA'' 


Not Required 
Not Required 


Required 
Required 


Organic peroxides 


U 
I 


Required 
Required 


Not Permitted 
Not Permitted 


Oxidizer liquids and solids 


4 


Required 


Not Permitted 


Pyrophoric gas 





Not Required 


Required 


Unstable (reactive) 


4 

3 Detonable 

3 Nondetonable 


Required 

Required 

Not Required 


Not Permitted 

Not Permitted 

Required 


Water-reactive liquids and solids 


3 

22 


Not Required 
Not Required 


Required 
Required 


SPECIAL USES 


Acetylene generator rooms 


— 


Not Required 


Required 


Grain processing 





Not Required 


Required 


Liquefied petroleum gas- 
distribution facilities 


— 


Not Required 


Required 


Where explosion hazards exist*" 


Detonation 
Deflagration 


Required 
Not Required 


Not Permitted 
Required 



a. See Section 414.1.3. 

b. See the International Fire Code. 

c. As generated during manufacturing or processing. See definition of "Combustible dust" in Chapter 3. 

d. Storage or use. 

e. In open use or dispensing. 

f . Rooms containing dispensing and use of hazardous materials when an 
materials or as a result of the dispensing or use process. 

g. A method of explosion control shall be provided when Class 2 water- 



explosive environment can occur because of the characteristics or nature of the hazardous 
reactive materials can form potentially explosive mixtures. 



58 



2003 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODEC 



SPECDAL DETABLED REQUIREMENTS BASED ON USE AMD OCCUPANCY 



»4 Stomdlby or emergemcy powero Where mechan- 
ical ventilation, treatment systems, temperature control, 
alarm, detection or other electrically operated systems are 
required, such systems shall be provided with an emergency 
or standby power system in accordance with the ICC Elec- 
trical Code. 



1. Storage areas for Class I and II oxidizers. 

2. Storage areas for Class III, IV and V organic per- 
oxides. 

3. Storage, use and handling areas for highly toxic or 
toxic materials as provided for in the International 
Fire Code. 

4. Standby power for mechanical ventilation, treat- 
ment systems and temperature control systems 
shall not be required where an approved fail-safe 
engineered system is installed. 

[F] 414.5.5 Spill control, draimage amd comtanmmeinit. 
Rooms, buildings or areas occupied for the storage of solid 
and liquid hazardous materials shall be provided with a 
means to control spillage and to contain or drain off spillage 
and fire protection water discharged in the storage area 
where required in the International Fire Code. The methods 
of spill control shall be in accordance with the International 
Fire Code. 




use. The outdoor 
storage, dispensing and use of hazardous materials shall be in 
accordance with the International Fire Code. 

[F] 414.6.1 Weatlher proteclnom. Where weather protection 
is provided for sheltering outdoor hazardous material stor- 
age or use areas, such storage or use shall be considered out- 
door storage or use, provided that all of the following 
conditions are met: 

1 . Structure supports and walls shall not obstruct more 
than one side nor more than 25 percent of the perime- 
ter of the storage or use area. 

2. The distance from the structure and the structure sup- 
ports to buildings, lot hues, pubhc ways or means of 
egress to a public way shall not be less than the dis- 
tance required for an outside hazardous material stor- 
age or use area without weather protection. 

3. The overhead structure shall be of approved 
noncombustible construction with a maximum area of 
1,500 square feet (140 m^). 

; The increases permitted by Section 506 apply. 



[F] 414.7 Emergemcy aJarms. Emergency alarms for the de- 
tection and notification of an emergency condition in Group H 
occupancies shall be provided as set forth herein. 

[F] 414.7.1 Storage. An approved manual emergency alarm 
system shall be provided in buildings, rooms or areas used 
for storage of hazardous materials. Emergency alarm-initi- 
ating devices shall be installed outside of each interior exit 
or exit access door of storage buildings, rooms or areas. Ac- 
tivation of an emergency alarm-initiating device shall sound 
a local alarm to alert occupants of an emergency situation in- 
volving hazardous materials. 



[F] 414.7.2 Dispemslmg, use amd Ihandlimg, Where hazard- 
ous materials having a hazard ranking of 3 or 4 in accor- 
dance with NFPA 704 are transported through corridors or 
exit enclosures, there shall be an emergency telephone sys- 
tem, a local manual alarm station or an approved alarm-ini- 
tiating device at not more than 150-foot (45 720 mm) 
intervals and at each exit and exit access doorway through- 
out the transport route. The signal shall be relayed to an ap- 
proved central, proprietary or remote station service or 
constantly attended on-site location and shall also initiate a 
local audible alarm. 

[F] 414.7,3 Sepervlsioii. Emergency alarm systems shall 
be supervised by an approved central, proprietary or remote 
station service or shall initiate an audible and visual signal at 
a constantly attended on-site location. 



[F3SECTiOM415 
GROUPS H=1, H=2, H=3, H=4 AMD H=5 

415.1 Scope. The provisions of this section shall apply to the 
storage and use of hazardous materials in excess of the maxi- 
mum allowable quantities per control area listed in Section 
307.9. Buildings and structures with an occupancy in Group H 
shall also comply with the applicable provisions of Section 414 
and the International Fire Code. 



5. The following words and terms shall, for the 
purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in the code, have 
the meanings shown herein. 

CONTINUOUS GAS-DETECTION SYSTEM. A gas de- 
tection system where the analytical instrument is maintained in 
continuous operation and sampling is performed without inter- 
ruption. Analysis is allowed to be performed on a cyclical basis 
at intervals not to exceed 30 minutes. 

EMERGENCY CONTROL STATION. An approved loca- 
tion on the premises where signals from emergency equipment 
are received and which is staffed by trained personnel. 

EXHAUSTED ENCLOSURE. An apphance or piece of 
equipment that consists of a top, a back and two sides providing 
a means of local exhaust for capturing gases, fumes, vapors and 
mists. Such enclosures include laboratory hoods, exhaust fume 
hoods and similar appHances and equipment used to locally re- 
tain and exhaust the gases, fumes, vapors and mists that could 
be released. Rooms or areas provided with general ventilation, 
in themselves, are not exhausted enclosures. 

FABRICATION AREA. An area within a semiconductor fab- 
rication facility and related research and development areas in 
which there are processes using hazardous production materi- 
als. Such areas are allowed to include ancillary rooms or areas 
such as dressing rooms and offices that are directly related to 
the fabrication area processes. 

FLAMMABLE VAPORS OR FUMES. The concentration of 
flammable constituents in air that exceed 10 percent of their 
lower flammable limit (LFL). 

GAS CABINET. A fully enclosed, noncombustible enclosure 
used to provide an isolated environment for compressed gas 
cylinders in storage or use. Doors and access ports for exchang- 



2003 BNTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



59 



SPECIAL DETAILED REQUIREMENTS BASED ON USE AND OCCUPANCY 



ing cylinders and accessing pressure-regulating controls are al- 
lowed to be included. 

GAS ROOM. A separately ventilated, fully enclosed room in 
which only compressed gases and associated equipment and 
supplies are stored or used. 

HAZARDOUS PRODUCTION MATERIAL (HPM). A 
solid, liquid or gas associated with semiconductor manufactur- 
ing that has a degree-of-hazard rating in health, flammability or 
reactivity of Class 3 or 4 as ranked by NFPA 704 and which is 
used directly in research, laboratory or production processes 
that have as their end product materials that are not hazardous. 

HPM FLAMMABLE LIQUID. An HPM liquid that is de- 
fined as either a Class I flammable liquid or a Class II or Class 
IIIA combustible liquid. 

HPM ROOM. A room used in conjunction with or serving a 
Group H-5 occupancy, where HPM is stored or used and which 
is classified as a Group H-2, H-3 or H-4 occupancy. 

IMMEDIATELY DANGEROUS TO LIFE AND HEALTH 
(IDLH). The concentration of air-borne contaminants which 
poses a threat of death, immediate or delayed permanent ad- 
verse health effects, or effects that could prevent escape from 
such an environment. This contaminant concentration level is 
established by the National Institute of Occupational Safety 
and Health (NIOSH) based on both toxicity and flammability. 
It generally is expressed in parts per miUion by volume (ppm 
v/v) or milligrams per cubic meter (mg/m^). If adequate data do 
not exist for precise establishment of IDLH concentrations, an 
independent certified industrial hygienist, industrial toxicolo- 
gist, appropriate regulatory agency or other source approved by 
the code official shall make such determination. 

LIQUID. A material that has a melting point that is equal to or 
less than 68°F (20°C) and a boiling point that is greater than 
68°F (20°C) at 14.7 pounds per square inch absolute (psia) 
(101 kPa). When not otherwise identified, the term "liquid" in- 
cludes both flammable and combustible liquids. 

LIQUID STORAGE ROOM, A room classified as a Group 
H-3 occupancy used for the storage of flammable or combusti- 
ble liquids in a closed condition. 

LIQUID USE, DISPENSING AND MIXING ROOMS. 
Rooms in which Class 1, 11 and IIIA flammable or combustible 
liquids are used, dispensed or mixed in open containers. 

LOWER FLAMMABLE LIMIT (LFL). The minimum con- 
centration of vapor in air at which propagation of flame will oc- 
cur in the presence of an ignifion source. The LFL is sometimes 
referred to as "LEL" or "lower explosive limit." 

NORMAL TEMPERATURE AND PRESSURE (NTP). A 
temperature of 70°F (21 °C) and a pressure of 1 atmosphere 
[14.7 psia (101 kPa)]. 

SERVICE CORRIDOR. A fully enclosed passage used for 
transporting HPM and purposes other than required means of 

egress. 

SOLID. A material that has a melting point, decomposes or 
subhmes at a temperature greater than 68°F (20°C). 



STORAGE, HAZARDOUS MATERIALS. 

1 . The keeping, retention or leaving of hazardous materials 
in closed containers, tanks, cylinders or similar vessels, 
or 

2. Vessels supplying operations through closed connec- 
tions to the vessel. 

USE (MATERIAL). Placing a material into action, including 
solids, liquids and gases. 

WORKSTATION. A defined space or an independent principal 
piece of equipment using HPM within a fabrication area where a 
specific function, laboratory procedure or research activity oc- 
curs. Approved or listed hazardous materials storage cabinets, 
flammable liquid storage cabinets or gas cabinets serving a 
workstation are included as part of the workstation. A worksta- 
tion is allowed to contain ventilation equipment, fire protection 
devices, detection devices, electrical devices and other process- 
ing and scientific equipment. 

415.3 Location on property. Group H shall be located on 
property in accordance with the other provisions of this chap- 
ter. In Group H-2 or H-3, not less than 25 percent of the perime- 
ter wall of the occupancy shall be an exterior wall. 

Exceptions: 

1. Liquid use, dispensing and mixing rooms having a 
floor area of not more than 500 square feet (46.5 m2) 
need not be located on the outer perimeter of the 
building where they are in accordance with the Inter- 
national Fire Code and NFPA 30. 

2. Liquid storage rooms having a floor area of not more 
than 1,000 square feet (93 m2) need not be located on 
the outer perimeter where they are in accordance with 
the International Fire Code and NFPA 30. 

3. Spray paint booths that comply with the International 
Fire Code need not be located on the outer perimeter. 

415.3.1 Group H minimum distance to lot lines. Regard- 
less of any other provisions, buildings containing Group H 
occupancies shall be set back a minimum distance from lot 
fines as set forth in Items 1 through 4 below. Distances shall 
be measured from the walls enclosing the occupancy to lot 
lines, including those on a public way. Distances to assumed 
property lines drawn for the purposes of determination of 
exterior wall and opening protection are not to be used to es- 
tablish the minimum distance for separation of buildings on 
sites where explosives are manufactured or used when sepa- 
ration is provided in accordance with the quantity distance 
tables specified for explosive materials in the International 
Fire Code. 

1 . Group H-1 . Not less than 75 feet (22 860 mm) and not 
less than required by the International Fire Code. 

Exceptions: 

1. Fireworks manufacturing buildings sepa- 
rated in accordance with NFPA 1 124. 



60 



2003 INTER^SATI0^9AL BUELDING CODE® 



EMTS BASED ON USE AMD OCCUPANCY 



2. Buildings containing the following materi- 
als when separated in accordance with Table 
415.3.1: 

2.1. Organic peroxides, unclassified de- 
tonable. 

2.2. Unstable reactive materials Class 4. 

2.3. Unstable reactive materials, Class 3 
detonable. 

2.4. Detonable pyrophoric materials. 

2. Group H-2. Not less than 30 feet (9 144 mm) where the 
area of the occupancy exceeds 1,000 square feet (93 
m^) and it is not required to be located in a detached 
building. 

3. Groups H-2 and H-3. Not less than 50 feet (15 240 
mm) where a detached building is required (see Table 
415.3.2). 

4. Groups H-2 and H-3. Occupancies containing materi- 
als with explosive characteristics shall be separated as 
required by the International Fire Code. Where sepa- 
rations are not specified, the distances required shall 
not be less than the distances required by Table 
415.3.1. 



415,5ol Floors m storage rooms. Floors in storage areas for 
organic peroxides, oxidizers, pyrophoric materials, unsta- 
ble (reactive) materials and water-reactive solids and liquids 
shall be of liquid-tight, noncombustible construction. 



4153,2 Group H=l amd EI=2 or H= 
Where a detached building is required by Table 415.3.2, 
there are no requirements for wall and opening protection 
based on location on property. 

415.4 Special provisDoms for Group H=l occupaecies. Group 
H-1 occupancies shall be in buildings used for no other pur- 
pose, shall not exceed one story in height and be without base- 
ment, crawl spaces or other under-floor spaces. Roofs shall be 
of lightweight construction with suitable thermal insulation to 
prevent sensitive material from reaching its decomposition 
temperature. 

Group H-1 occupancies containing materials which are in 
themselves both physical and health hazards in quantities ex- 
ceeding the maximum allowable quantities per control area in 
Table 307.7.(2) shall comply with requirements for both Group 
H-1 and H-4 occupancies. 

415.4,1 Floors in storage rooms. Floors in storage areas for 
organic peroxides, pyrophoric materials and unstable (reac- 
tive) materials shall be of liquid-tight, noncombustible con- 
struction. 



cles. Group H-2 and H-3 occupancies containing quantities of 
hazardous materials in excess of those set forth in Table 415.3.2 
shall be in buildings used for no other purpose, shall not exceed 
one story in height and shall be without basements, crawl 
spaces or other under-floor spaces. 

Group H-2 and H-3 occupancies containing water-reactive 
materials shall be resistant to water penetration. Piping for con- 
veying liquids shall not be over or through areas containing wa- 
ter reactives, unless isolated by approved liquid-tight 
construction. 

Exceptnom: Fire protection piping. 



room. Rooms or areas used for the 
storage of water-reactive solids and liquids shall be con- 
structed in a manner that resists the penetration of water 
through the use of waterproof materials. Piping carrying 
water for other than approved automatic fire sprinkler sys- 
tems shall not be within such rooms or areas. 



ig. Smoke and heat vents com- 
plying with Section 910 shall be installed in the following loca- 
tions: 

1. In occupancies classified as Group H-2 or H-3, any of 
which are over 15,000 square feet (1394 m^) in single 
floor area. 



tmni Buildings of noncombustible construc- 
tion containing only noncombustible materials. 

2. In areas of buildings in Group H used for storing Class 2, 
3 and 4 Uquid and solid oxidizers. Class 1 and unclassi- 
fied detonable organic peroxides, Class 3 and 4 unstable 
(reactive) materials, or Class 2 or 3 water-reactive mate- 
rials as required for a Class V hazard classification. 

Exception; Buildings of noncombustible construc- 
tion containing only noncombustible materials. 

415.7 Group H=2o Occupancies in Group H-2 shall be con- 
structed in accordance with Sections 415.7.1 through 415.7.4 
and the International Fire Code. 

415,7.1 CombestlMe dusts, gram processing and stor= 
age. The provisions of Sections 415.7. 1.1 through 415. 7. 1.5 
shall apply to buildings in which materials that produce 
combustible dusts are stored or handled. Buildings that store 
or handle combustible dusts shall comply with the applica- 
ble provisions of NFFA 61, NFPA 120, NFFA 651, NFPA 
654, NFPA 655, NFPA 664 and NFPA 85, and the Interna- 
tional Fire Code. 

415,7.1,1 Type off constructiom and Iheiglit exceptions. 
Buildings shall be constructed in compliance with the 
height and area limitations of Table 503 for Group H-2; 
except that where erected of Type I or II construction, the 
heights and areas of grain elevators and similar structures 
shall be unlimited, and where of Type IV construction, 
the maximum height shall be 65 feet (19 812 nmi) and 
except further that, in isolated areas, the maximum 
height of Type IV structures shall be increased to 85 feet 
(25 908 mm). 



415.7.1.2 Grimdieg rooms. Every room or space occu- 
pied for grinding or other operations that produce com- 
bustible dusts shall be enclosed with fire barriers and 
horizontal assemblies or both that have not less than a 
2-hour fire-resistance rating where the area is not more 
than 3,000 square feet (279 m^), and not less than a 
4-hour fire-resistance rating where the area is greater 
than 3,000 square feet (279 m^). 



2003 IMTERi^ATlOMAL BUIILDDIMG CODE® 



61 



SPECIAL DETAILED REQUIREMENTS BASED ON USE AND OCCUPANCY 



TABLE 415.3.1 
MINIMUM SEPARATION DISTANCES FOR BUILDINGS CONTAINING EXPLOSIVE MATERIALS 


QUANTITY OF EXPLOSIVE MATERIAL' 


MINIMUM DISTANCE (feet) 


Lot lines'' and inhabited buildings'^ 


Separation of magazines'*'®'' 


Pounds over 


Pounds not over 


Barricaded'' 


Unbarricaded 


2 


5 


70 


140 


12 


5 


10 


90 


180 


16 


10 


20 


110 


220 


20 


20 


30 


125 


250 


22 


30 


40 


140 


280 


24 


40 


50 


150 


300 


28 


50 


75 


170 


340 


30 


75 


100 


190 


380 


32 


100 


125 


200 


400 


36 


125 


150 


215 


430 


38 


150 


200 


235 


470 


42 


200 


250 


255 


510 


46 


250 


300 


270 


540 


48 


300 


400 


295 


590 


54 


400 


500 


320 


640 


58 


500 


600 


340 


680 


62 


600 


700 


355 


710 


64 


700 


800 


375 


750 


66 


800 


900 


390 


780 


70 


900 


1,000 


400 


800 


72 


1,000 


1,200 


425 


850 


78 


1,200 


1,400 


450 


900 


82 


1,400 


1,600 


470 


940 


86 


1,600 


1,800 


490 


980 


88 


1,800 


2,000 


505 


1,010 


90 


2,000 


2,500 


545 


1,090 


98 


2,500 


3,000 


580 


1,160 


104 


3,000 


4,000 


635 


1,270 


116 


4,000 


5,000 


685 


1,370 


122 


5,000 


6,000 


730 


1,460 


130 


6,000 


7,000 


770 


1,540 


136 


7,000 


8,000 


800 


1,600 


144 


8,000 


9,000 


835 


1,670 


150 


9,000 


10,000 


865 


1,730 


156 


10,000 


12,000 


875 


1,750 


164 


12,000 


14,000 


885 


1,770 


174 


14,000 


16,000 


900 


1,800 


180 


16,000 


18,000 


940 


1,880 


188 


18,000 


20,000 


975 


1,950 


196 



(continued) 



62 



2003 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



SPECIAL DETAILED REQUIREMENTS BASED OIM USE AiMD OCCUPAIMCY 



• 



TABLE 415.3.1— contioued 
MlNIMUiyS SEPARATBON DBSTANCES FOR BUBLDBNGS COBSSTABNIiMG EXPLOSBVE MATERIALS 


QUANTITY OF EXPLOSIVE MATERIAL^ 


iUigNDMOM DISTANCE (feet) 


Lot lines'' and inhabited buildings'^ 


Separation oi magazines"'®'' 


Pounds over 


Pounds not over 


Barricaded'' 


Onbarricaded 


20,000 


25,000 


1,055 


2,000 


210 


25,000 


30,000 


1,130 


2,000 


224 


30,000 


35,000 


1,205 


2,000 


238 


35,000 


40,000 


1,275 


2,000 


248 


40,000 


45,000 


1,340 


2,000 


258 


45,000 


50,000 


1,400 


2,000 


270 


50,000 


55,000 


1,460 


2,000 


280 


55,000 


60,000 


1,515 


2,000 


290 


60,000 


65,000 


1,565 


2,000 


300 


65,000 


70,000 


1,610 


2,000 


310 


70,000 


75,000 


1,655 


2,000 


320 


75,000 


80,000 


1,695 


2,000 


330 


80,000 


85,000 


1,730 


2,000 


340 


85,000 


90,000 


1,760 


2,000 


350 


90,000 


95,000 


1,790 


2,000 


360 


95,000 


100,000 


1,815 


2,000 


370 


100,000 


110,000 


1,835 


2,000 


390 


110,000 


120,000 


1,855 


2,000 


410 


120,000 


130,000 


1,875 


2,000 


430 


130,000 


140,000 


1,890 


2,000 


450 


140,000 


150,000 


1,900 


2,000 


470 


150,000 


160,000 


1,935 


2,000 


490 


160,000 


170,000 


1,965 


2,000 


510 


170,000 


180,000 


1,990 


2,000 


530 


180,000 


190,000 


2,010 


2,010 


550 


190,000 


200,000 


2,030 


2,030 


570 


200,000 


210,000 


2,055 


2,055 


590 


210,000 


230,000 


2,100 


2,100 


630 


230,000 


250,000 


2,155 


2,155 


670 


250,000 


275,000 


2,215 


2,215 


720 


275,000 


300,000 


2,275 


2,275 


770 



For SI: 1 pound = 0.454 kg, 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 

a. The number of pounds of explosives listed is the number of pounds of trinitrotoluene (TNT) or the equivalent pounds of other explosive. 

b. The distance listed is the distance to lot line, including lot lines at public ways. 

c. For the purpose of this table, an inhabited building is any building on the same property that is regularly occupied by people. Where two or more buildings contain 
ing explosives or magazines are located on the same property, each building or magazine shall comply with the minimum distances specified from inhabited build- | 
ings and, in addition, they shall be separated from each other by not less than the distance shown for "Separation of magazines," except that the quantity of 
explosive materials contained in detonator buildings or magazines shall govern in regard to the spacing of said buildings or magazines from buildings or maga- 
zines, as a group, shall be considered as one building or magazine, and the total quantity of explosive materials stored in such group shall be treated as if the explo- 
sive were in a single building or magazine located on the site of any building or magazine of the group, and shall comply with the minimum distance specified from 
other magazines or inhabited buildings. 

d. Barricades shall effectively screen the building containing explosives from other buildings, public ways or magazines. Where mounds or revetted walls of earth 
are used for barricades, they shall not be less than 3 feet in thickness. A straight line from the top of any side wall of the building containing explosive materials to 
the eave line of any other building, magazine or a point 12 feet above the centerline of a public way shall pass through the barricades. 

e. Magazine is a building or structure, other than an operating building, approved for storage of explosive materials. Portable or mobile magazines not exceeding 1 20 
square feet (1 1 m^) in area need not comply with the requirements of this code, however, all magazines shall comply with the International Fire Code. 

f . The distance listed is permitted be reduced by 50 percent where approved natural or artificial barriers are provided in accordance with the requirements in Note d. 



2003 BMTERWATIONAL BUILDBMG CODE® 



SPECIAL DETAILED REQUIREMENTS BASED 



TABLE 415.3.2 
REQUIRED DETACHED STORAGE 



DETACHED STORAGE IS REQUIRED WHEN THE QUANTITY OF MATERIAL EXCEEDS THAT LISTED HEREIN 


Material 


Class 


Solids and Liquids (tons)^" 


Gases (cubic feet)^" 


Explosives 


Division 1.1 
Division 1.2 
Division 1.3 
Division 1.4 
Division 1.4'^ 
Division 1.5 
Division 1.6 


Maximum Allowable Quantity 
Maximum Allowable Quantity 
Maximum Allowable Quantity 
Maximum Allowable Quantity 

1 
Maximum Allowable Quantity 
Maximum Allowable Quantity 


Not Applicable 


Oxidizers 


Class 4 


Maximum Allowable Quantity 


Maximum Allowable Quantity 


Unstable (reactives) detonable 


Class 3 or 4 


Maximum Allowable Quantity 


Maximum Allowable Quantity 


Oxidizer, liquids and solids 


Class 3 
Class 2 


1,200 
2,000 


Not Applicable 
Not Applicable 


Organic peroxides 


Detonable 
Class I 
Class II 

Class ni 


Maximum Allowable Quantity 
Maximum Allowable Quantity 

25 
50 


Not Applicable 
Not Applicable 
Not Applicable 
Not Applicable 


Unstable (reactives) nondetonable 


Class 3 
Class 2 


1 

25 


2,000 
10,000 


Water reactives 


Class 3 
Class 2 


1 

25 


Not Applicable 
Not Applicable 


Pyrphoric gases 


Not Applicable 


Not Applicable 


2,000 



For SI: 1 ton = 906 kg, 1 cubic foot = 0.02832 M^ 

a. For materials that are detonable, the distance to other buildings or lot Hnes shall be as specified in Table 415.3. 1 based on trinitrotoluene (TNT) equivalence of the 
material. For materials classified as explosives, see Chapter 33 the International Fire Code. For all other materials, the distance shall be as indicated in Section 
415.3.1. 

b. "Maximum Allowable Quantity" means the maximum allowable quantity per control area set forth in Table 307.7(1). 

c. Limited to Division 1 .4 materials and articles, including articles packaged for shipment, that are not regulated as an explosive under Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco 
and Firearms (BATF) regulations or unpackaged articles used in process operations that do not propagate a detonation or deflagration between articles, providing 
the net explosive weight of individual articles does not exceed 1 pound. 



415.7.1.3 Conveyors. Conveyors, chutes, piping and 
similar equipment passing through the enclosures of 
rooms or spaces shall be constructed dirt tight and vapor 
tight, and be of approved noncombustible materials com- 
plying with Chapter 30. 

415.7.1.4 Explosion control. Explosion control shall be 
provided as specified in the International Fire Code, or 
spaces shall be equipped with the equivalent mechanical 
ventilation complying with the International Mechani- 
cal Code. 

415.7.1.5 Grain elevators. Grain elevators, malt houses 
and buildings for similar occupancies shall not be located 
within 30 feet (9144 mm) of interior lot lines or struc- 
tures on the same lot, except where erected along a rail- 
road right-of-way. 

415.7.1.6 Coal pockets. Coal pockets located less than 
30 feet (9144 mm) from interior lot lines or from struc- 
tures on the same lot shall be constructed of not less than 
Type IB construction. Where more than 30 feet (9144 
mm) from interior lot lines, or where erected along a rail- 
road right-of-way, the minimum type of construction of 
such structures not more than 65 feet (19 812 mm) in 
height shall be Type IV. 



415.7.2 Flammable and combostible liquids. The storage, 
handling, processing and transporting of flammable and 
combustible liquids shall be in accordance with the Interna- 
tional Mechanical Code and the International Fire Code. 

415.7.2.1 Mixed occupancies. Where the storage tank 
area is located in a building of two or more occupancies, 
and the quantity of hquid exceeds the maximum allow- 
able quantity for one control area, the use shall be com- 
pletely separated from adjacent fire areas in accordance 
with the requirements of Section 302.3.2. 

415.7.2.1.1 Height exception. Where storage tanks 
are located within only a single-story building, the 
height limitation of Section 503 shall not apply for 
Group H. 

415.7.2.2 Tank protection. Storage tanks shall be 
noncombustible and protected from physical damage. A 
fire barrier wall or horizontal assemblies or both around 
the storage tank(s) shall be permitted as the method of 
protection from physical damage. 

415.7.2.3 Tanks, Storage tanks shall be approved tanks 
conforming to the requirements of the International Fire 
Code. 



64 



2003 DNTERNATSOMAL BUSLDIMG CODE® 



sPECBAL DETAILED REQUDREWJENTS BASED ON USE AND OCCUPANCY 



• 



d 



41S.7<,2.4 Smppiressioiiio Group H shall be equipped 
throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler sys- 
tem, installed in accordance with Section 903. 



415.7.2J Leakage cointalmiinnieiiiL A liquid-tight contain- 
ment area compatible with the stored liquid shall be pro- 
vided. The method of spill control, drainage control and 
secondary containment shall be in accordance with the 
International Fire Code. 



m Rooms where only double-wall storage 
tanks conforming to Section 415.7.2.3 are used to 
store Class I, II and IIIA flammable and combustible 
liquids shall not be required to have a leakage contain- 
ment area. 

415o7.2o6 Leakage alarm. An approved automatic alarm 
shall be provided to indicate a leak in a storage tank and 
room. The alarm shall sound an audible signal, 15 dBa 
above the ambient sound level, at every point of entry 
into the room in which the leaking storage tank is located. 
An approved sign shall be posted on every entry door to 
the tank storage room indicating the potential hazard of 
the interior room environment, or the sign shall state: 
WARNING, WHEN ALARM SOUNDS, THE ENVI- 
RONMENT WITHIN THE ROOM MAY BE HAZ- 
ARDOUS. The leakage alarm shall also be supervised in 
accordance with Chapter 9 to transmit a trouble signal. 



41So7,2o7 Tamk vemt Storage tank vents for Class I, II or 
IIIA liquids shall terminate to the outdoor air in accor- 
dance with the International Fire Code. 



41So7o2.§ Room vemtllatloni. Storage tank areas storing 
Class I, II or IIIA liquids shall be provided with mechani- 
cal ventilation. The mechanical ventilation system shall 
be in accordance with the International Mechanical 
Code and the International Fire Code. 

415o7.23 Explosion vemttnEgo Where Class I liquids are 
being stored, explosion venting shall be provided in ac- 
cordance with the International Fire Code. 

415.7o2ol(Q) Tamk opemmgs oitSier thsiu veelSo Tank open- 
ings other than vents from tanks inside buildings shall be 
designed to ensure that Hquids or vapor concentrations 
are not released inside the building. 



41S.7o3 Liqeefedl peHroknam gas- 
The design and construction of propane, butane, propylene, 
butylene and other liquefied petroleum gas-distribution fa- 
cilities shall conform to the applicable provisions of Sec- 
tions 415.7.3.1 through 415.7.3.5.2. The storage and 
handling of liquefied petroleum gas systems shall conform 
to the International Fire Code. The design and installation 
of piping, equipment and systems that utihze liquefied pe- 
troleum gas shall be in accordance with the International 
Fuel Gas Code. Liquefied petroleum gas-distribution facili- 
ties shall be ventilated in accordance with the International 
Mechanical Code and Section 415.7.3.1. 

415.7o3J Air movemeeto Liquefied petroleum gas- 
distribution facilities shall be provided with air inlets and 
outlets arranged so that air movement across the floor of 
the facility will be uniform. The total area of both inlet 
and outlet openings shall be at least 1 square inch (645 



mm^) for each 1 square foot (0.093 m^) of floor area. The 
bottom of such openings shall not be more than 6 inches 
(152 mm) above the floor. 

415.7.3o2 Coestractloini. Liquefied petroleum gas-dis- 
tribution facilities shall be constructed in accordance 
with Section 415.7.3.3 for separate buildings, Section 
415.7.3.4 for attached buildings or Section 415.7.3.5 for 
rooms within buildings. 



415o73.3 Separate toeildlmigs. Where located in sepa- 
rate buildings, liquefied petroleum gas-distribution facil- 
ities shall be occupied exclusively for that purpose or for 
other purposes having similar hazards. Such buildings 
shall be limited to one story in height and shall conform 
to Sections 415.7.3.3.1 through 415.7.3.3.3. 

415.70303.1 Floors. The floor shall not be located be- 
low ground level and any spaces beneath the floor 
shall be solidly filled or shall be unenclosed. 

415.7.3.3.2 Materials. Walls, floors, ceilings, 
columns and roofs shall be constructed of 
noncombustible materials. 



415,7.3.3.3 Explosiom vemtimg. Explosion venting 
shall be provided in accordance with the International 
Fire Code. 

415.7.3.4 Attached beildimgs. Where liquefied petro- 
leum gas-distribution faciUties are located in an attached 
structure, the attached perimeter shall not exceed 50 per- 
cent of the perimeter of the space enclosed and the facil- 
ity shall comply with Sections 415. 7. 3. 3 and 415.7. 3.4.1. 
Where the attached perimeter exceeds 50 percent, such 
facilities shall comply with Section 415.7.3.5. 

415.7.3.4.1 Fire separatioe assemlbMes. Separation 
of the attached structures shall be provided by fire bar- 
rier walls and horizontal assembhes, or both, having a 
fire-resistance rating of not less than 1 hour and shall 
not have openings. Fire barrier walls and horizontal 
assemblies, or both, between attached structures oc- 
cupied only for the storage of LP-gas are permitted to 
have fire doors that comply with Section 715. Such 
fire barrier walls and horizontal assemblies, or both, 
shall be designed to withstand a static pressure of at 
least 100 pounds per square foot (psf) (4788 Pa), ex- 
cept where the building to which the structure is at- 
tached is occupied by operations or processes having 
a similar hazard. 



415.7.3.5 Rooms wittiim bulMniiigs. Where liquefied pe- 
troleum gas-distribution facilities are located in rooms 
within buildings, such rooms shall be located in the first 
story above grade plane and shall have at least one exte- □ 
rior wall with sufficient exposed area to provide explo- 
sion venting as required in the International Fire Code. 
The building in which the room is located shall not have a 
basement or unventilated crawl space and the room shall 
comply with Sections 415.7.3.5.1 and 415.7.3.5.2. 



415.7,3.5.1 Materials. Walls, floors, ceihngs and 
roofs of such rooms shall be constructed of approved 
noncombustible materials. 



65 



SPECIAL DETAILED REQUIREMENTS BASED ON USE AND OCCUPANCY 



415.7.3.5.2 Common construction. Walls and 
floor/ceiling assemblies common to the room and to 
the building within which the room is located shall 
have a fire barrier wall and horizontal assembly or 
both of not less than a 1-hour fire-resistance rating 
and without openings. Common walls for rooms oc- 
cupied only for storage of LP-gas are permitted to 
have opening protectives complying with Section 
715. Such walls and ceihng shall be designed to with- 
stand a static pressure of at least 100 psf (4788 Pa). 

Exception: Where the building, within which the 
room is located, is occupied by operations or pro- 
cesses having a similar hazard. 

415.7.4 Dry cleaning plants. The construction and installa- 
tion of dry cleaning plants shall be in accordance with the re- 
quirements of this code, the International Mechanical 
Code, the International Plumbing Code and NFPA 32. Dry 
cleaning solvents and systems shall be classified in accor- 
dance with the International Fire Code. 

415.8 Groups H-3 and H-4. Groups H-3 and H-4 shall be con- 
structed in accordance with the applicable provisions of this 
code and the International Fire Code. 

415.8.1 Gas rooms. When gas rooms are provided, such 
rooms shall be separated from other areas by not less than a 
1-hour fire barrier. 

415.8.2 Floors in storage rooms. Floors in storage areas for 
corrosive liquids and highly toxic or toxic materials shall be 
of liquid-tight, noncombustible construction. 

415.8.3 Separation — highly toxic solids and liquids. 

Highly toxic solids and liquids not stored in approved haz- 
ardous materials storage cabinets shall be isolated from 
other hazardous materials storage by construction having a 
1-hour fire-resistance rating. 

415.9 Group H-5. 

415.9.1 General. In addition to the requirements set forth 
elsewhere in this code. Group H-5 shall comply with the 
provisions of Section 415.9 and the International Fire Code. 

415.9.2 Fabrication areas. 

415.9.2.1 Hazardous materials in fabrication areas. 

415.9.2.1.1 Aggregate quantities. The aggregate 
quantities of hazardous materials stored and used in a 
single fabrication area shall not exceed the quantities 
set forth in Table 415.9.2.1.1. 

Exception: The quantity limitations for any haz- 
ard category in Table 415.9.2.1.1 shall not apply 
where the fabrication area contains quantities of 
hazardous materials not exceeding the maximum 
allowable quantities per control area established 
by Tables 307.7(1) and 307.7(2). 

415.9.2.1.2 Hazardous production materials. The 

maximum quantities of hazardous production materi- 
als stored in a single fabrication area shall not exceed 
the maximum allowable quantities per control area 
established by Tables 307.7(1) and 307.7(2). 



415.9.2.2 Separation. Fabrication areas, whose sizes are 
limited by the quantity of hazardous materials allowed 
by Table 415.9.2.1.1, shall be separated from each other, 
from exit access corridors, and from other parts of the 
building by not less than 1-hour fire barriers. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Doors within such fire barrier walls, including 
doors to corridors, shall be only self-closing fire 
assemblies having a fire-protection rating of not 
less than V4 hour. 

2. Windows between fabrication areas and exit ac- 
cess corridors are permitted to be fixed glazing 
listed and labeled for a fire protection rating of 
at least V4 hour in accordance with Section 715. 

415.9.2.3 Location of occupied levels. Occupied levels 
of fabrication areas shall be located at or above the first 
story above grade plane. 

415.9.2.4 Floors. Except for surfacing, floors within fab- 
rication areas shall be of noncombustible construction. 

Openings through floors of fabrication areas are per- 
mitted to be unprotected where the interconnected levels 
are used solely for mechanical equipment directly related 
to such fabrication areas (see also Section 415.9.2.5). 

Floors forming a part of an occupancy separation shall 
be liquid tight. 

415.9.2.5 Shafts and openings through floors. Elevator 
shafts, vent shafts and other openings through floors 
shall be enclosed when required by Section 707. Me- 
chanical, duct and piping penetrations within a fabrica- 
tion area shall not extend through more than two floors. 
The annular space around penetrations for cables, cable 
trays, tubing, piping, conduit or ducts shall be sealed at 
the floor level to restrict the movement of air. The fabri- 
cation area, including the areas through which the 
ductwork and piping extend, shall be considered a single 
conditioned environment. 

415.9.2.6 Ventilation. Mechanical exhaust ventilation 
shall be provided throughout the fabrication area at the 
rate of not less than 1 cubic foot per minute per square 
foot (0.044 L/S/m^) of floor area. The exhaust air duct 
system of one fabrication area shall not connect to an- 
other duct system outside that fabrication area within the 
building. 

A ventilation system shall be provided to capture and 
exhaust fumes and vapors at workstations. 

Two or more operations at a workstation shall not be 
connected to the same exhaust system where either one 
or the combination of the substances removed could con- 
stitute a fire, explosion or hazardous chemical reaction 
within the exhaust duct system. 

Exhaust ducts penetrating occupancy separations 
shall be contained in a shaft of equivalent fire-resistance 
construction. Exhaust ducts shall not penetrate fire walls. 

Fire dampers shall not be installed in exhaust ducts. 



66 



2003 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



SPECli^L DETAILED REQUBREMEMTS BASED OM USE AiMD OCCUPANCY 



TABLE 415.9.2.1.1 
QUANTITY LDMBTS FOR HAZARDOUS SViATERSALS M A SINGLE FABRICATDON AREA BN GROUP H-5^ 


HAZARD CATEGORY 


SOLIDS 
(pounds per square feet) 


UQUIDS 
(gallons per square feet) 


GAS 
(feet^ @ NTP/square feet) 


PHYSICAL-HAZARD MATERIALS 


Combustible dust 


Noteb 


Not Applicable 


Not Applicable 


Combustible fiber Loose 

Baled 


Noteb 
Noteb 


Not Applicable 


Not Applicable 


Combustible liquid II 

IIIA 
IIIB 

Combination Class I, II and IIIA 


Not Applicable 


0.01 

0.02 

Not Limited 

0.04 


Not Applicable 


Cryogenic gas Flammable 

Oxidizing 


Not Applicable 


Not Applicable 


Notec 
1.25 


Explosives 


Noteb 


Noteb 


Noteb 


Flammable gas Gaseous 

Liquefied 


Not Applicable 


Not Applicable 


Noteb 
Notec 


Flammable liquid lA 

IB 
IC 
Combination Class lA, IB and IC 
Combination Class I, II and IIIA 


Not Applicable 


0.0025 
0.025 
0.025 
0.025 
0.04 


Not Applicable 


Flammable solid 


0.001 


Not Applicable 


Not Applicable 


Organic peroxide 

Unclassified detonable 

Class I 

Class II 

Class III 

Class IV 

Class V 


Noteb 

Noteb 

0.025 

0.1 

Not Limited 

Not limited 


Not Applicable 


Not Applicable 


Oxidizing gas Gaseous 

Liquefied 
Combination of gaseous 
and liquefied 


Not Applicable 


Not Applicable 


1.25 
1.25 

1.25 


Oxidizer Class 4 

Class 3 
Class 2 
Class 1 

Combination Class 1,2,3 


Noteb 
0.003 
0.003 
0.003 
0.003 


Noteb 
0.003 
0.003 
0.003 
0.003 


Not Applicable 


Pyrophoric material 


Noteb 


0.00125 


Notes c and d 


Unstable reactive Class 4 

Class 3 
Class 2 
Class 1 


Noteb 

0.025 

0.1 

Not Limited 


Noteb 

0.0025 

0.01 

Not Limited 


Noteb 

Noteb 

Noteb 

Not Limited 


Water reactive Class 3 

Class 2 
Class 1 


Noteb 

0.25 

Not Limited 


0.00125 

0.025 

Not Limited 


Not Applicable 


HEALTH-HAZARD MATERIALS 


Corrosives 


Not Limited 


Not Limited 


Not Limited 


Highly toxic 


Not Limited 


Not Limited 


Notec 


Toxics 


Not Limited 


Not Limited 


Notec 



For SI: 1 pound per square foot = 4.882 kg/w?, 1 gallon per square foot = 0.025 L/m^, 1 cubic foot @ NTP/square foot = 0.305 M^ @ NTP/m^, 
1 cubic foot = 0.02832 Ml 

a. Hazardous materials within piping shall not be included in the calculated quantities. 

b. Quantity of hazardous materials in a single fabrication shall not exceed the maximum allowable quantities per control area in Tables 307.7(1) and 307.7(2). 

c. The aggregate quantity of flammable, pyrophoric, toxic and highly toxic gases shall not exceed 9,000 cubic feet at NTP. 

d. The aggregate quantity of pyrophoric gases in the building shall not exceed the amounts set forth in Table 415.3.2. 



67 



SPECIAL DETAILED REQUIREMENTS BASED ON USE AND OCCUPANCY 



415.9.2.7 Transporting hazardous production mate- 
rials to fabrication areas. Hazardous production mate- 
rials shall be transported to fabrication areas through 
enclosed piping or tubing systems that comply with Sec- 
tion 415.9.6.1, through service corridors complying with 
Section 415.9.4, or in exit access corridors as permitted 
in the exception to Section 415.9.3. The handling or 
transporting of hazardous production materials within 
service corridors shall comply with the International 
Fire Code. 

415.9.2.8 Electrical. 

415.9.2.8.1 General. Electrical equipment and de- 
vices within the fabrication area shall comply with the 
ICC Electrical Code. The requirements for hazardous 
locations need not be applied where the average air 
change is at least four times that set forth in Section 
415.9.2.6 and where the number of air changes at any 
location is not less than three times that required by 
Section 415.9.2.6. The use of recirculated air shall be 
permitted. 

415.9.2.8.2 Workstations. Workstations shall not be 
energized without adequate exhaust ventilation. See 
Section 415.9.2.6 for workstation exhaust ventilation 
requirements. 

415.9.3 Exit access corridors. Exit access corridors shall 
comply with Chapter 10 and shall be separated from fabri- 
cation areas as specified in Section 415.9.2.2. Exit access 
corridors shall not contain HPM and shall not be used for 
transporting such materials, except through closed piping 
systems as provided in Section 415.9.6.3. 

Exception: Where existing fabrication areas are altered 
or modified, HPM is allowed to be transported in existing 
exit access corridors, subject to the following conditions: 

1. Corridors. Exit access corridors adjacent to the 
fabrication area where the alteration work is to be 
done shall comply with Section 1016 for a length 
determined as follows: 

1.1. The length of the common wall of the cor- 
ridor and the fabrication area; and 

1 .2. For the distance along the exit access corri- 
dor to the point of entry of HPM into the 
exit access corridor serving that fabrication 
area. 

2. Emergency alarm system. There shall be an emer- 
gency telephone system, a local manual alarm sta- 
tion or other approved alarm-initiating device 
within exit access corridors at not more than 
150-foot (45 720 mm) intervals and at each exit 
and exit access doorway. The signal shall be re- 
layed to an approved central, proprietary or remote 
station service or the emergency control station 
and shall also initiate a local audible alarm. 

3. Pass-throughs. Self-closing doors having a 
fire-protection rating of not less than 1 hour shall 
separate pass-throughs from existing exit access 
corridors. Pass-throughs shall be constructed as re- 
quired for the exit access corridors, and protected 



by an approved automatic fire-extinguishing sys- 
tem. 

415.9.4 Service corridors. 

415.9.4.1 Occupancy. Service corridors shall be classi- 
fied as Group H-5. 

415.9.4.2 Use conditions. Service corridors shall be sep- 
arated from exit access corridors as required by Section 
415.9.2.2. Service corridors shall not be used as a re- 
quired exit access corridor. 

415.9.4.3 Mechanical ventilation. Service corridors 
shall be mechanically ventilated as required by Section 
415.9.2.6 or at not less than six air changes per hour, 
whichever is greater. 

415.9.4.4 Means of egress. The maximum distance of 
travel from any point in a service corridor to an exit, exit I 
access corridor or door into a fabrication area shall not i 
exceed 75 feet (22 860 mm). Dead ends shall not exceed 

4 feet (1219 mm) in length. There shall be not less than 
two exits, and not more than one-half of the required I 
means of egress shall require travel into a fabrication I 
area. Doors from service corridors shall swing in the di- 
rection of egress travel and shall be self-closing. i 

415.9.4.5 Minimum vyidth. The minimum clear width 
of a service corridor shall be 5 feet (1524 mm), or 33 
inches (838 mm) wider than the widest cart or truck used 
in the corridor, whichever is greater. 

415.9.4.6 Emergency alarm system. Emergency alarm 
systems shall be provided in accordance with this section 
and Sections 414.7.1 and 414.7.2. The maximum allow- 
able quantity per control area provisions shall not apply 
to emergency alarm systems required for HPM. 

415.9.4.6.1 Service corridors. An emergency alarm 
system shall be provided in service corridors, with at 
least one alarm device in each service corridor. 

415.9.4.6.2 Exit access corridors and exit enclo- 
sures. Emergency alarms for exit access corridors and 
exit enclosures shall comply with Section 414.7.2. 

415.9.4.6.3 Liquid storage rooms, HPM rooms and 
gas rooms. Emergency alarms for liquid storage 
rooms, HPM rooms and gas rooms shall comply with 
Section 414.7.1. 

415.9.4.6.4 Alarm-initiating devices. An approved 
emergency telephone system, local alarm manual pull 
stations, or other approved alarm-initiating devices 
are allowed to be used as emergency alarm-initiating 
devices. 

415.9.4.6.5 Alarm signals. Activation of the emer- 
gency alarm system shall sound a local alarm and 
transmit a signal to the emergency control station. 

415.9.5 Storage of hazardous production materials. 

415.9.5,1 General. Storage of HPM in fabrication areas 
shall be within approved or listed storage cabinets or gas 
cabinets, or within a workstation. The storage of hazard- 
ous production materials in quantities greater than those 
hsted in Tables 307.7(1) or 307.7(2) shall be in liquid 



68 



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SPECIAL DETAILED REQUIREIMEMTS BASED OM USE AMD OCCUPANCY 



Storage rooms, HPM rooms or gas rooms as appropriate 
for the materials stored. The storage of other hazardous 
materials shall be in accordance with other applicable 
provisions of this code and th& International Fire Code. 



rooms and gas rooms. HPM 
rooms and gas rooms shall be separated from other ar- 
eas by not less than a 2-hour fire barrier where the area 
is 300 square feet (27.9 m^) or more and not less than a 
1-hour fire barrier where the area is less than 300 
square feet (27.9 m^). 

415o9.5<,2=2 Liqfiiid storage rooms. Liquid storage 
rooms shall be constructed in accordance with the fol- 
lowing requirements: 

1. Rooms in excess of 500 square feet (46.5 m^) 
shall have at least one exterior door approved 
for fire department access. 

2. Rooms shall be separated from other areas by 
fire barriers having a fire-resistance rating of 
not less than 1-hour for rooms up to 150 square 
feet (13.9 m^) in area and not less than 2 hours 
where the room is more than 150 square feet 
(13.9 m^) in area. 

3. Shelving, racks and wainscoting in such areas 
shall be of noncombustible construction or 
wood of not less than linch (25 mm) nominal 
thickness. 

4. Rooms used for the storage of Class I flamma- 
ble liquids shall not be located in a basement. 

4153So23 Floors. Except for surfacing, floors of 
HPM rooms and liquid storage rooms shall be of 
noncombustible liquid-tight construction. Raised 
grating over floors shall be of noncombustible materi- 
als. 

415.9.5.3 Locatiom. Where HPM rooms, liquid storage 
rooms and gas rooms are provided, they shall have at 
least one exterior wall and such wall shall be not less than 
30 feet (9144 mm) from property lines, including prop- 
erty lines adjacent to public ways. 



1, Explosion control shall be 
provided where required by Section 414.5.1. 



3. Where two exits are required from HPM 
rooms, liquid storage rooms and gas rooms, one shall be 
directly to the outside of the building. 



rs. Doors in a fire barrier wall, including 
doors to corridors, shall be self-closing fire assemblies 
having a fire-protection rating of not less than % hour. 



415.9.5.7 Veetnlalnom. Mechanical exhaust ventilation 
shall be provided in liquid storage rooms, HPM rooms 
and gas rooms at the rate of not less than 1 cubic foot per 
minute per square foot (0.044 L/S/m2) of floor area or six 
air changes per hour, whichever is greater, for categories 
of material. 

Exhaust ventilation for gas rooms shall be designed to 
operate at a negative pressure in relation to the surround- 



ing areas and direct the exhaust ventilation to an exhaust 

system. 

415.9.5.8 Emergency alarm system. An approved 
emergency alarm system shall be provided for HPM 
rooms, liquid storage rooms and gas rooms. 

Emergency alarm-initiating devices shall be installed 
outside of each interior exit door of such rooms. 

Activation of an emergency alarm-initiating device shall 
sound a local alarm and transmit a signal to the emer- 
gency control station. 

An approved emergency telephone system, local alarm 
manual pull stations or other approved alarm-initiating 
devices are allowed to be used as emergency alarm-initi- 
ating devices. 



<J3 



415.9.6.1 General. Hazardous production materials pip- 
ing and tubing shall comply with this section and ANSI 
B31.3. 

415.9.6.2 SeppDy piping and tabing. 

415.9.6.2.1 HPM having a tiealtfe-lhazard ranking 
of 3 or 4. Systems supplying HPM Hquids or gases 
having a health-hazard ranking of 3 or 4 shall be 
welded throughout, except for connections, to the sys- 
tems that are within a ventilated enclosure if the mate- 
rial is a gas, or an approved method of drainage or 
containment is provided for the connections if the ma- 
terial is a liquid. 

415.9.6.2.2 Location In service corridors. Hazard- 
ous production materials supply piping or tubing in 
service corridors shall be exposed to view. 

415.9.6.2.3 Excess flow control. Where HPM gases 
or liquids are carried in pressurized piping above 15 
pounds per square inch gauge (psig) (103.4 kPa), ex- 
cess flow control shall be provided. Where the piping 
originates from within a liquid storage room, HPM 
room or gas room, the excess flow control shall be lo- 
cated within the liquid storage room, HPM room or 
gas room. Where the piping originates from a bulk 
source, the excess flow control shall be located as 
close to the bulk source as practical. 



In exit access corridors and 
above other occepancies. The installation of hazardous 
production material piping and tubing within the space 
defined by the walls of exit access corridors and the floor 
or roof above or in concealed spaces above other occu- 
pancies shall be in accordance with Section 415.9.6.2 
and the following conditions: 

1 . Automatic sprinklers shall be installed within the 
space unless the space is less than 6 inches (152 
mm) in the least dimension. 

2. Ventilation not less than six air changes per hour 
shall be provided. The space shall not be used to 
convey air from any other area. 

3. Where the piping or tubing is used to transport 
liquids, a receptor shall be installed below 



2003 8^STERMATD0MAL BUOLDBNG CODE® 



SPECIAL DETAILED REQUIREMENTS BASED OH USE AND OCCUPANCY 



such piping or tubing. The receptor shall be de- 
signed to collect any discharge or leakage and 
drain it to an approved location. The 1-hour enclo- 
sure shall not be used as part of the receptor. 

4. HPM supply piping and tubing and HPM nonme- 
tallic waste lines shall be separated from the exit 
access corridor and from occupancies other than 
Group H-5 by construction as required for walls or 
partitions that have a fire protection rating of not 
less than 1 hour. Where gypsum wallboard is used, 
joints on the piping side of the enclosure are not re- 
quired to be taped, provided the joints occur over 
framing members. Access openings into the enclo- 
sure shall be protected by approved fire-resis- 
tance-rated assembhes. 

5. Readily accessible manual or automatic remotely 
activated fail-safe emergency shutoff valves shall 
be installed on piping and tubing other than waste 
lines at the following locations: 

5.1. At branch connections into the fabrication 
area. 

5.2. At entries into exit access corridors. 

Exception: Transverse crossings of the corridors by 
supply piping that is enclosed within a ferrous pipe or 
tube for the width of corridor need not comply with 
Items 1 through 5. 

415.9.6.4 IdentMcation. Piping, tubing and HPM waste lines 
shall be identified in accordance with ANSI A13.1 to indicate 
the material being transported. 

415.9.7 Continuous gas-detection systems. A continuous 
gas-detection system shall be provided for HPM gases when 
the physiological warning properties of the gas are at a 
higher level than the accepted permissible exposure limit 
(PEL) for the gas and for flammable gases in accordance 
with this section. 

415.9.7.1 Where required. A continuous gas-detection 
system shall be provided in the areas identified in Sec- 
tions 415.9.7.1.1 through 415.9.7.1.4. 

415.9.7.1.1 Fabrication areas. A continuous gas-de- 
tection system shall be provided in fabrication areas 
when gas is used in the fabrication area. 

415.9.7.1.2 HPM rooms. A continuous gas-detection 
system shall be provided in HPM rooms when gas is 
used in the room. 

415.9.7.1.3 Gas cabinets, exhausted emclosures 
and gas rooms. A continuous gas-detection system 
shall be provided in gas cabinets and exhausted enclo- 
sures. A continuous gas-detection system shall be 
provided in gas rooms when gases are not located in 
gas cabinets or exhausted enclosures. 

415.9.7.1.4 Exit access corridors. When gases are 
transported in piping placed within the space defined 
by the walls of an exit access corridor, and the floor or 
roof above the exit access corridor, a continuous 



gas-detection system shall be provided where piping 
is located and in the exit access corridor. 

Exceptions A continuous gas-detection system is 
not required for occasional transverse crossings of 
the corridors by supply piping that is enclosed in a 
ferrous pipe or tube for the width of the corridor. 

415,9,7.2 Gas-detectloe system operation. The contin- 
uous gas-detection system shall be capable of monitoring 
the room, area or equipment in which the gas is located at 
or below the PEL or ceiling limit of the gas for which de- 
tection is provided. For flammable gases, the monitoring 
detection threshold level shall be vapor concentrations in 
excess of 20 percent of the lower explosive limit (LEL). 
Monitoring for highly toxic and toxic gases shall also 
comply with the requirements for such material in the In- 
ternational Fire Code. 

415,9.7.2.1 Alarms, The gas detection system shall 
initiate a local alarm and transmit a signal to the emer- 
gency control station when a short-term hazard condi- 
tion is detected. The alarm shall be both visual and 
audible and shall provide warning both inside and out- 
side the area where the gas is detected. The audible 
alarm shall be distinct from all other alarms. 



415,9.7.2.2 Shutoff of gas supply. The gas detection 
system shall automatically close the shutoff valve at 
the source on gas supply piping and tubing related to 
the system being monitored for which gas is detected 
when a short-term hazard condition is detected. Auto- 
matic closure of shutoff valves shall comply with the 
following: 

1 . Where the gas-detection sampling point initiat- 
ing the gas detection system alarm is within a 
gas cabinet or exhausted enclosure, the shutoff 
valve in the gas cabinet or exhausted enclosure 
for the specific gas detected shall automatically 
close. 

2. Where the gas-detection sampling point initiat- 
ing the gas detection system alarm is within a 
room and compressed gas containers are not in 
gas cabinets or an exhausted enclosure, the 
shutoff valves on all gas lines for the specific 
gas detected shall automatically close. 

3. Where the gas-detection sampling point initiat- 
ing the gas detection system alarm is within a 
piping distribution manifold enclosure, the 
shutoff valve supplying the manifold for the 
compressed gas container of the specific gas de- 
tected shall automatically close. 

Exception; Where the gas-detection sampling 
point initiating the gas detection system alarm is at 
the use location or within a gas valve enclosure of a 
branch line downstream of a piping distribution 
manifold, the shutoff valve for the branch line lo- 
cated in the piping distribution manifold enclosure 
shall automatically close. 



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2003 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



SPECIAL DETAILED REQUDREWaESSaTS BASED ON USE AINSD OCCUPAMCY 



An approved manual 
fire alarm system shall be provided throughout buildings 
containing Group H-5. Activation of the alarm system shall 
initiate a local alarm and transmit a signal to the emergency 
control station. The fire alarm system shall be designed and 
installed in accordance with Section 907. 



cordance with this section and the International 
Mechanical Code. 



An emergency control 
station shall be provided on the premises at an approved lo- 
cation, outside of the fabrication area and shall be continu- 
ously staffed by trained personnel. The emergency control 
station shall receive signals from emergency equipment and 
alarm and detection systems. Such emergency equipment 
and alarm and detection systems shall include, but not nec- 
essarily be limited to, the following where such equipment 
or systems are required to be provided either in Section 
415.9 or elsewhere in this code: 

1 . Automatic fire sprinkler system alarm and monitoring 
systems. 

2. Manual fire alarm systems. 

3. Emergency alarm systems. 

4. Continuous gas-detection systems. 

5. Smoke detection systems. 

6. Emergency power system. 

415,9.10 Emergemcy power system. An emergency power 
system shall be provided in Group H-5 occupancies where 
required in Section 415.9.10.1. The emergency power sys- 
tem shall be designed to supply power automatically to re- 
quired electrical systems when the normal electrical supply 
system is interrupted. 

415.9.10.1 Wlhere requnred. Emergency power shall be 
provided for electrically operated equipment and con- 
nected control circuits for the following systems: 

1. HPM exhaust ventilation systems. 

2. HPM gas cabinet ventilation systems. 

3. HPM exhausted enclosure ventilation systems. 

4. HPM gas room ventilation systems. 

5. HPM gas detection systems. 

6. Emergency alarm systems. 

7. Manual fire alarm systems. 

8. Automatic sprinkler system monitoring and alarm 
systems. 

9. Electrically operated systems required elsewhere 
in this code appHcable to the use, storage or han- 
dling of HPM. 

415.9.10.2 Exlhaiist vemtilaltioini systems. Exhaust venti- 
lation systems are allowed to be designed to operate at 
not less than one-half the normal fan speed on the emer- 
gency power system where it is demonstrated that the 
level of exhaust will maintain a safe atmosphere. 

41So9oll Fnre sprnmHer system pirotectiom m exlhaiiiist 



415.9.1L2: 

exlhanist dects. Automatic fire sprinkler system protec- 
tion shall be provided in metaUic and noncombustible, 
nonmetallic exhaust ducts where all of the following 
conditions apply: 

1 . Where the largest cross-sectional diameter is equal 
to or greater than 10 inches (254 mm). 

2. The ducts are within the building. 

3. The ducts are conveying flammable vapors or 
fumes. 

415o9.11o3 Combestlble monmetallk exhanist docts. 
Automatic fire sprinkler system protection shall be pro- 
vided in combustible nonmetallic exhaust ducts where 
the largest cross-sectional diameter of the duct is equal to 
or greater than 10 inches (254 mm). 



1 . Ducts listed or approved for applications with- 
out automatic fire sprinkler system protection. 

2. Ducts not more than 12 feet (3658 mm) in 
length installed below ceihng level. 

415.9.11,4 Amtomatic sprmkler locatDoms. Sprinkler 
systems shall be installed at 12-foot (3658 mm) intervals 
in horizontal ducts and at changes in direction. In vertical 
ducts, sprinklers shall be installed at the top and at alter- 
nate floor levels. 



[F] SECTION 416 
APPLICMIOM OF FLAMiyiAiLE FIWISHES 

.1 GemeraL The provisions of this section shall apply to the 
construction, installation and use of buildings and structures, or 
parts thereof, for the spraying of flammable paints, varnishes 
and lacquers or other flammable materials or mixtures or com- 
pounds used for painting, varnishing, staining or similar pur- 
poses. Such construction and equipment shall comply with the D 
International Fire Code. 



rooms. Spray rooms shall be enclosed with fire 
barrier walls and horizontal assemblies or both with not less 
than a 1-hour fire-resistance rating. Floors shall be water- 
proofed and drained in an approved manner. 

416,2,1 Surfaces. The interior surfaces of spray rooms shall 
be smooth and shall be so constructed to permit the free pas- 
sage of exhaust air from all parts of the interior and to facili- 
tate washing and cleaning, and shall be so designed to 
confine residues within the room. Aluminum shall not be 
used. 



415.9,11.1 Gemeral. Automatic fire sprinkler system 
protection shall be provided in exhaust ducts conveying 
vapors, fumes, mists or dusts generated from HPM in ac- 



ig spaces. Spraying spaces shall be ventilated 
with an exhaust system to prevent the accumulation of flamma- 
ble mist or vapors in accordance with the International Me- 
chanical Code. Where such spaces are not separately enclosed, 
noncombustible spray curtains shall be provided to restrict the 
spread of flammable vapors. 

416,3.1 Surfaces, The interior surfaces of spraying spaces 
shall be smooth and continuous without edges, and shall be 



2003 DNTERMATDONAL BUDLDIllMG CODE® 



71 



SPECIAL DETAILED REQUIREMENTS BASED ON USE AND OCCUPANCY 



SO constructed to permit the free passage of exhaust air from 
all parts of the interior and to facilitate washing and clean- 
ing, and shall be so designed to confine residues within the 
spraying space. Aluminum shall not be used. 

416.4 Fire protection. An automatic fire-extinguishing sys- 
tem shall be provided in all spray, dip and immersing spaces 
and storage rooms, and shall be installed in accordance with 
Chapter 9. 



rating of at least 2 hours, and openings in the walls shall be pro- 
tected with approved opening protectives. 



[F] SECTION 417 
DRYING ROOMS 

417.1 General. A drying room or dry kiln installed within a 
building shall be constructed entirely of approved 
noncombustible materials or assemblies of such materials reg- 
ulated by the approved rules or as required in the general and 
specific sections of Chapter 4 for special occupancies and 
where applicable to the general requirements of Chapter 28. 

417.2 Piping clearance. Overhead heating pipes shall have a 
clearance of not less than 2 inches (5 1 nmi) from combustible 
contents in the dryer. 

417.3 Insulation. Where the operating temperature of the 
dryer is 175°F (79°C) or more, metal enclosures shall be insu- 
lated from adjacent combustible materials by not less than 12 
inches (305 mm) of airspace, or the metal walls shall be lined 
with '/4-inch (6.35 mm) insulating mill board or other approved 
equivalent insulation. 

417.4 Fire protection. Drying rooms designed for high-hazard 
materials and processes, including special occupancies as pro- 
vided for in Chapter 4, shall be protected by an approved auto- 
matic fire-extinguishing system conforming to the provisions 
of Chapter 9. 



[F] SECTION 418 
ORGANIC COATINGS 

418.1 Building features. Manufacturing of organic coatings 
shall be done only in buildings that do not have pits or base- 
ments. 

418.2 Location. Organic coating manufacturing operations 
and operations incidental to or connected therewith shall not be 
located in buildings having other occupancies. 

418.3 Process mills. Mills operating with close clearances and 
that process flammable and heat-sensitive materials, such as 
nitrocellulose, shall be located in a detached building or 
noncombustible structure. 

418.4 Tank storage. Storage areas for flammable and combus- 
tible liquid tanks inside of structures shall be located at or 

I above grade and shall be separated from the processing area by 
not less than 2-hour fire-resistance-rated fire barriers. 

418.5 Nitrocellulose storage. Nitrocellulose storage shall be 
located on a detached pad or in a separate structure or a room 

I enclosed with no less than 2-hour fire-resistance-rated fire bar- 
riers. 

418.6 Finished products. Storage rooms for finished products 
that are flammable or combustible liquids shall be separated 

I from the processing area by fire barriers having a fire-resistance 



72 



2003 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



5®lol Scope. The provisions of this chapter control the height 
and area of structures hereafter erected and additions to exist- 
ing structures. 



[F] 5Cllo2 Premises DdleinitniScatnom« Approved numbers or ad- 
dresses shall be provided for new buildings in such a position as 
to be clearly visible and legible from the street or roadway 
fronting the property. Letters or numbers shall be a minimum 3 
inches (76 mm) in height and stroke of minimum 0.5 inch (12.7 
mm) of a contrasting color to the background itself. 



INDUSTMAL EQUIPMENT PLATFORM. An unoccu- 
pied, elevated platform in an industrial occupancy used exclu- 
sively for mechanical systems or industrial process equipment, 
including the associated elevated walkways, stairs and ladders 
necessary to access the platform (see Section 505.5). 

MEZZANINE. An intermediate level or levels between the 
floor and ceiling of any story with an aggregate floor area of not 
more than one-third of the area of the room or space in which 
the level or levels are located (see Section 505). 

STOMYo That portion of a building included between the upper 
surface of a floor and the upper surface of the floor or roof next 
above (also see "Basement" and "Mezzanine"). 



502.1 Definitions. The following words and terms shall, for the 
purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this code, 
have the meanings shown herein. 

AREA, BUILDING. The area included within surrounding 
exterior walls (or exterior walls and fire walls) exclusive of vent 
shafts and courts. Areas of the building not provided with sur- 
rounding walls shall be included in the building area if such ar- 
eas are included within the horizontal projection of the roof or 
floor above. 

BASEMENT, That portion of a building that is partly or com- 
pletely below grade plane (See "Story above grade plane" in 
Section 202). A basement shall be considered as a story above 
grade plane where the finished surface of the floor above the 
basement is: 

1. More than 6 feet (1829 mm) above grade plane; 

2. More than 6 feet (1829 mm) above the finished ground 
level for more than 50 percent of the total building perim- 
eter; or 

3. More than 12 feet (3658 mm) above the finished ground 
level at any point. 

GRADE PLANE. A reference plane representing the average 
of finished ground level adjoining the building at exterior walls. 
Where the finished ground level slopes away from the exterior 
walls, the reference plane shall be established by the lowest 
points within the area between the building and the lot line or, 
where the lot line is more than 6 feet (1 829 mm) from the build- 
ing, between the building and a point 6 feet ( 1 829 mm) from the 
building. 



J. The vertical distance from grade 
plane to the average height of the highest roof surface. 



T, STORY. The vertical distance from top to top of 
two successive finished floor surfaces; and, for the topmost 
story, from the top of the floor finish to the top of the ceiling 
joists or, where there is not a ceiling, to the top of the roof raf- 
ters. 



GENERAL HEIGHT AND AREA U 

503.1 General, The height and area for buildings of different 
construction types shall be governed by the intended use of the 
building and shall not exceed the limits in Table 503 except as 
modified hereafter. Each part of a building included within the 
exterior walls or the exterior walls and fire walls where pro- 
vided shall be permitted to be a separate building. 

503.1.1 Basemente. Basements need not be included in the 
total allowable area provided they do not exceed the area 
permitted for a one-story building. 

503.1.2 Special industrial occmpancies. Buildings and 
structures designed to house low-hazard industrial pro- 
cesses that require large areas and unusual heights to ac- 
commodate craneways or special machinery and equipment 
including, among others, rolling mills; structural metal fab- 
rication shops and foundries; or the production and distribu- 
tion of electric, gas or steam power, shall be exempt from the 
height and area limitations of Table 503. 

503.1.3 BuiMlegs on same loL Two or more buildings on 
the same lot shall be regulated as separate buildings or shall 
be considered as portions of one building if the height of 
each building and the aggregate area of buildings are within 
the limitations of Table 503 as modified by Sections 504 and 
506. The provisions of this code applicable to the aggregate 
building shall be applicable to each building. 

503.1.4 Type I constrectlon. Buildings of Type I construc- 
tion permitted to be of unhmited tabular heights and areas 
are not subject to the special requirements that allow unlim- 
ited area buildings in Section 507 or unhmited height in Sec- 
tions 503.1.2 and 504.3 or increased height and areas for 
other types of construction. 



Any wall located on a lot line between adja- 
cent buildings, which is used or adapted for joint service be- 
tween the two buildings, shall be constructed as a fire wall in 
accordance with Section 705, without openings and shall cre- 
ate separate buildings. 



O 



2003 I^STERMAT10iMAL BUILDIMG CODE® 



73 



GENERAL BUILDING HEIGHTS AND AREAS 



TABLE 503 
ALLOWABLE HEIGHT AND BUILDING AREAS 
Height limitations shown as stories and feet above grade plane. 
Area limitations as determined by the definition of "Area, building," per 



floor. 







TYPE OF CONSTRUCTION 




TYPEI 


TYPE II 


TYPE III 


TYPE IV 


TYPEV 1 






A 


B 


A 


B 


A 


B 


HT 


A 


B 


GROUP 


Hgt(feet) 
Hgt(S) 


UL 


160 


65 


55 


65 


55 


65 


50 


40 


A-1 


S 
A 


UL 

UL 


5 
UL 


3 
15,500 


2 
8,500 


3 
14,000 


2 
8,500 


3 
15,000 


2 
11,500 


1 
5,500 


A-2 


S 

A 


UL 
UL 


11 
UL 


3 
15,500 


2 
9,500 


3 
14,000 


2 
9,500 


3 
15,000 


2 
11,500 


1 
6,000 


A-3 


S 

A 


UL 
UL 


11 
UL 


3 
15,500 


2 
9,500 


3 
14,000 


2 
9,500 


3 
15,000 


2 
11,500 


1 
6,000 


A-4 


S 
A 


UL 
UL 


11 
UL 


3 
15,500 


2 
9,500 


3 
14,000 


2 
9,500 


3 
15,000 


2 
11,500 


1 
6,000 


A-5 


S 
A 


UL 
UL 


UL 
UL 


UL 
UL 


UL 
UL 


UL 
UL 


UL 
UL 


UL 
UL 


UL 
UL 


UL 
UL 


B 


S 
A 


UL 
UL 


]) 

UL 


5 
37,500 


4 
23,000 


5 
28,500 


4 
19,000 


5 
36,000 


3 
18,000 


2 
9,000 


E 


S 

A 


UL 
UL 


5 
UL 


3 
26,500 


2 
14,500 


3 
23,500 


2 
14,500 


3 
25,500 


1 
18,500 


1 
9,500 


F-1 


S 

A 


UL 
UL 


11 
UL 


4 
25,000 


2 
15,500 


3 
19,000 


2 
12,000 


4 
33,500 


2 
14,000 


1 
8,500 


F-2 


S 
A 


UL 
UL 


11 
UL 


5 
37,500 


3 
23,000 


4 
28,500 


3 
18,000 


5 
50,500 


3 
21,000 


2 
13,000 


H-l 


S 
A 


1 
21,000 


1 
16,500 


1 
11,000 


1 
7,000 


1 
9,500 


1 
7,000 


1 
10,500 


1 
7,500 


NP 
NP 


H-2 


S 
A 


UL 

21,000 


3 
16,500 


2 
11,000 


1 
7,000 


2 
9,500 


1 
7,000 


2 
10,500 


1 
7,500 


1 
3,000 


H-3 


S 
A 


UL 
UL 


6 
60,000 


4 
26,500 


2 
14,000 


4 
17,500 


2 
13,000 


4 
25,500 


2 
10,000 


1 
5,000 


H-4 


S 

A 


UL 
UL 


7 
UL 


5 
37,500 


3 
17,500 


5 
28,500 


3 
17,500 


5 
36,000 


3 
18,000 


2 
6,500 


H-5 


S 

A 


3 
UL 


3 
UL 


3 
37,500 


3 
23,000 


3 
28,500 


3 
19,000 


3 
36,000 


3 
18,000 


2 
9,000 


I-l 


S 
A 


UL 
UL 


9 
55,000 


4 
19,000 


3 
10,000 


4 
16,500 


3 
10,000 


4 
18,000 


3 
10,500 


2 
4,500 


1-2 


S 
A 


UL 
UL 


4 
UL 


2 
15,000 


1 

11,000 


1 
12,000 


NP 
NP 


1 
12,000 


1 
9,500 


NP 
NP 


1-3 


S 

A 


UL 
UL 


4 
UL 


2 
15,000 


1 

10,000 


2 
10,500 


1 
7,500 


2 
12,000 


2 
7,500 


1 
5,000 


1-4 


S 
A 


UL 

UL 


5 
60,500 


3 
26,500 


2 
13,000 


3 
23,500 


2 
13,000 


3 
25,500 


1 
18,500 


1 
9,000 


M 


S 
A 


UL 
UL 


11 
UL 


4 
21,500 


4 
12,500 


4 
18,500 


4 
12,500 


4 
20,500 


3 
14,000 


1 
9,000 


R-1 


S 
A 


UL 
UL 


11 
UL 


4 
24,000 


4 
16,000 


4 
24,000 


4 
16,000 


4 
20,500 


3 
12,000 


2 
7,000 


R-2^ 


S 

A 


UL 

UL 


11 
UL 


4 
24,000 


4 
16,000 


4 
24,000 


4 
16,000 


4 
20,500 


3 
12,000 


2 
7,000 


R-3^ 


S 

A 


UL 
UL 


11 

UL 


4 
UL 


4 
UL 


4 
UL 


4 
UL 


4 
UL 


3 
UL 


3 
UL 


R-4 


S 
A 


UL 
UL 


11 
UL 


4 
24,000 


4 
16,000 


4 
24,000 


4 
16,000 


4 
20,500 


3 
12,000 


2 
7,000 


S-1 


S 
A 


UL 

UL 


11 
48,000 


4 
26,000 


3 
17,500 


3 
26,000 


3 
17,500 


4 
25,500 


3 
14,000 


1 
9,000 


S.2b,c 


S 

A 


UL 
UL 


11 
79,000 


5 
39,000 


4 
26,000 


4 
39,000 


4 
26,000 


5 
38,500 


4 
21,000 


2 
13,500 


U= 


S 
A 


UL 
UL 


5 
35,500 


4 
19,000 


2 
8,500 


3 
14,000 


2 
8,500 


4 
18,000 


2 
9,000 


1 
5,500 



For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 square foot = 0.0929 m^ 
UL = Unlimited, NP = Not permitted. 

a. As applicable in Section 101.2. 

b. For open parking structures, see Section 406.3. 

c. For private garages, see Section 406.1. 



74 



2003 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



GENERAL BUILDING HEIGHTS AND AREAS 



• 



S04ol Geeeralo The heights permitted by Table 503 shall only 
be increased in accordance with this section. 

Exceptions The height of one-story aircraft hangars, air- 
craft paint hangars and buildings used for the manufacturing 
of aircraft shall not be limited if the building is provided 
with an automatic fire-extinguishing system in accordance 
with Chapter 9 and is entirely surrounded by public ways or 
yards not less in width than one and one-half times the 
height of the building. 

504.2 Automatic spirnmHer system Imcrease., Where a build- 
ing is equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprin- 

i kler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1, the value 
specified in Table 503 for maximum height is increased by 20 
feet (6096 mm) and the maximum number of stories is in- 
creased by one story. These increases are permitted in addition 
to the area increase in accordance with Sections 506.2 and 
506.3. For Group R buildings equipped throughout with an ap- 

i proved automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 
903.3. 1 .2, the value specified in Table 503 for maximum height 
is increased by 20 feet (6096 mm) and the maximum number of 

I stories is increased by one story, but shall not exceed four sto- 
ries or 60 feet (18 288 mm), respectively. 



1. Group 1-2 of Type IIB, III, IV or V construction. 

2. Group H-1, H-2, H-3 or H-5. 

3. Fire-resistance rating substitution in accordance with 
Table 601, Note d. 

504,3 Roof strectiareSo Towers, spires, steeples and other roof 
structures shall be constructed of materials consistent with the 
required type of construction of the building except where 
other construction is permitted by Section 1509.2.1. Such 
structures shall not be used for habitation or storage. The struc- 
tures shall be unlimited in height if of noncombustible materi- 
als and shall not extend more than 20 feet (6096 mm) above the 
allowable height if of combustible materials (see Chapter 15 
for additional requirements). 



L A mezzanine or mezzanines in compliance 
with this section shall be considered a portion of the floor be- 
low. Such mezzanines shall not contribute to either the building 
area or number of stories as regulated by Section 503.1. The 
area of the mezzanine shall be included in determining the fire 
area defined in Section 702. The clear height above and below 
the mezzanine floor construction shall not be less than 7 feet 
(2134 mm). 



The aggregate area of a mezzanine or 
mezzanines within a room shall not exceed one-third of the area 
of that room or space in which they are located. The enclosed 
portions of rooms shall not be included in a determination of 
the size of the room in which the mezzanine is located. In deter- 
mining the allowable mezzanine area, the area of the mezza- 
nine shall not be included in the area of the room. 



tmmi The aggregate area of mezzanines in buildings 
and structures of Type I or II construction for special indus- 
trial occupancies in accordance with Section 503.1.2 shall 
not exceed two-thirds of the area of the room. 

505.3 Egress. Each occupant of a mezzanine shall have ac- 
cess to at least two independent means of egress where the 
common path of egress travel exceeds the limitations of Sec- 
fion 1013.3. Where a stairway provides a means of exit access 
from a mezzanine, the maximum travel distance includes the 
distance traveled on the stairway measured in the plane of the 
tread nosing. 



1 . A single means of egress shall be permitted in accor- 
dance with Secfion 1014.1. 

2. Accessible means of egress shall be provided in ac- | 
cordance with Section 1007. 



less, A mezzanine shall be open and unobstructed 
to the room in which such mezzanine is located except for walls 
not more than 42 inches (1067 mm) high, columns and posts. 



1 . Mezzanines or portions thereof are not required to be 
open to the room in which the mezzanines are located, 
provided that the occupant load of the aggregate area 
of the enclosed space does not exceed 10. 

2. A mezzanine having two or more means of egress is 
not required to be open to the room in which the mez- 
zanine is located, if at least one of the means of egress 
provides direct access to an exit from the mezzanine 
level. 

3. Mezzanines or portions thereof are not required to be 
open to the room in which the mezzanines are located, 
provided that the aggregate floor area of the enclosed 
space does not exceed 10 percent of the mezzanine 
area. 

4. In industrial facilities, mezzanines used for control 
equipment are permitted to be glazed on all sides. 

5. In Group F occupancies of unlimited area, meeting 
the requirements of Section 507.2 or 507.3, mezza- 
nines or portions thereof are not required to be open to 
the room in which the mezzanines are located, pro- 
vided that an approved fire alarm system is installed 
throughout the entire building or structure and notifi- 
cation appliances are installed throughout the mezza- 
nines in accordance with the provisions of NFPA 72. 
In addition, the fire alarm system shall be initiated by | 
automatic sprinkler water flow. 



IS. Industrial equipment 
platforms in buildings shall not be considered as a portion of 
the floor below. Such equipment platforms shall not contribute 
to either the building area or the number of stories as regulated 
by Section 503 . 1 . The area of the industrial equipment platform 
shall not be included in determining the fire area. Industrial 
equipment platforms shall not be a part of any mezzanine, and 
such platforms and the walkways, stairs and ladders providing 
access to an equipment platform shall not serve as a part of the 
means of egress from the building. 



?003 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



75 



GENERAL BUILDING HEIGHTS AND AREAS 



505.5.1 Area limitations. The aggregate area of all indus- 
trial equipment platforms within a room shall not exceed 
two-thirds of the area of the room in which they occur. 
Where an equipment platform is located in the same room as 
a mezzanine, the area of the mezzanine shall be determined 
by Section 505.2, and the combined aggregate area of the 
equipment platforms and mezzanines shall not exceed 
two-thirds of the room in which they occur. 

505.5.2 Fire suppression. Where located in a building that 
is required to be protected by an automatic sprinkler system, 
industrial equipment platforms shall be fully protected by 
sprinklers above and below the platform, where required by 
the standards referenced in Section 903.3. 

505.5.3 Guards, Equipment platforms shall have guards 
where required by Section 1012.1. 



SECTION 506 

AREA MODIFICATiONS 

506.1 General. The areas limited by Table 503 shall be permit- 
ted to be increased due to frontage (/y) and automatic sprinkler 
system protection (/,) in accordance with the following: 

A.I. 

(Equation! 5-1) 



A„ =A, + 



100 



100 



where: 

Aa = 
At = 

If = 



Allowable area per floor (square feet). 

Tabular area per floor in accordance with Table 503 
(square feet). 

Area increase due to frontage (percent) as calculated 
in accordance with Section 506.2. 

Is = Area increase due to sprinkler protection (percent) as 
calculated in accordance with Section 506.3. 

506.1.1 Basements. A single basement need not be in- 
cluded in the total allowable area provided such basement 
does not exceed the area permitted for a one-story building. 

506.2 Frontage increase. Every building shall adjoin or have 
access to a pubhc way to receive an area increase for frontage. 
Where a building has more than 25 percent of its perimeter on a 
pubUc way or open space having a minimum width of 20 feet 
(6096 mm), the frontage increase shall be determined in accor- 
dance with the following: 



7^=100 



where: 



-0.25 



30 



I) 



If = Area increase due to frontage. 

F = Building perimeter which fronts on a pubhc way or 
open space having 20 feet (6096 mm) open minimum 
width (feet). 

P = Perimeter of entire building (feet). 

W = Width of public way or open space (feet) in accor- 
dance with Section 506.2.1. 

506.2.1 Width limits. \y must be at least 20 feet (6096 mm) 
and the quantity W divided by 30 shall not exceed 1.0. 
Where the value of W varies along the perimeter of the 



building, the calculation performed in accordance with 
Equation 5-2 shall be based on the weighted average of each 
portion of exterior wall and open space where the value of W 
is between 20 and 30 feet (6096 and 9144 mm). 

Exceptions The quantity W divided by 30 shall be per- 
mitted to not exceed 2.0 when all of the following condi- 
tions exist: 

1 . The building is permitted to be unlimited in area by 
Section 507; and 

2. The only provision preventing unlimited area is 
compliance with the 60-foot (18 288 mm) public 
way or yard requirement, as applicable. 

506,2.2 Open space limits. Such open space shall be either 
on the same lot or dedicated for public use and shall be ac- 
cessed from a street or approved fire lane. 

5063 Aetomatic sprinkler system increase. Where a build- 
ing is equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprin- 
kler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1, the area 
limitation in Table 503 is permitted to be increased by an addi- 
tional 200 percent (/^ = 200 percent) for multistory buildings 
and an additional 300 percent (/^ = 300 percent) for single-story 
buildings. These increases are permitted in addition to the 
height and story increases in accordance with Section 504.2. 



1. Buildings with an occupancy in Group H-1, H-2 or 

H-3. 

2. Fire-resistance rating substitution in accordance with 
Table 601, Noted. 

506.4 Area determination. The maximum area of a building 
with more than one story shall be determined by multiplying 
the allowable area of the first floor (A J, as determined in Sec- 
tion 506.1, by the number of stories as listed below. 

1. For two-story buildings, multiply by 2; 

2. For three-story or higher buildings, multiply by 3; and, 

3. No story shall exceed the allowable area per floor (A J, as 
determined in Section 506.1 for the occupancies on that 
floor. 



1. Unlimited area buildings in accordance with Section 
507. 

2 . The maximum area of a building equipped throughout 
with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance 
with Section 903.3.1.2 shall be determined by multi- 
plying the allowable area per floor (A J, as determined 
in Section 506.1 by the number of stories. 



507,1 Nomsprinklered, one story. The area of a one-story. 
Group F-2 or S-2 building shall not be limited when the build- 
ing is surrounded and adjoined by public ways or yards not less 
than 60 feet (18 288 mm) in width. 







one story. The area of a one-story. Group 
B, F, M or S building or a one-story Group A-4 building of other 



76 



2003 INTERNATiONAL BUILDING CODE® 



GENERAL BUILDBNG HEIGHTS AMD AREAS 



m 



than Type V construction shall not be limited when the building 
is provided with an automatic sprinkler system throughout in 
accordance with Section 903.3.1.1, and is surrounded and ad- 
joined by public ways or yards not less than 60 feet (18 288 
mm) in width. 

Exceptioms: 

1 . Buildings and structures of Type I and II construction 
for rack storage facilities which do not have access by 
the public shall not be limited in height provided that 
such buildings conform to the requirements of Sec- 
tion 507.1 and NFPA 23 IC. 

2. The automatic sprinkler system shall not be required 
in areas occupied for indoor participant sports, such as 
tennis, skating, swimming and equestrian activities, 
in occupancies in Group A-4, provided that: 

2. 1 . Exit doors directly to the outside are provided 
for occupants of the participant sports areas, 
and 

2.2. The building is equipped with a fire alarm sys- 
tem with manual fire alarm boxes installed in 
accordance with Section 907. 



• 



The area of a two-story, Group B, F, M or S 
building shall not be limited when the building is provided with 
an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 
903 .3 . 1 . 1 throughout, and is surrounded and adjoined by public 
ways or yards not less than 60 feet (18 288 mm) in width. 



;. The permanent open space of 60 
feet (18 288 mm) required in Sections 507.1, 507.2 and 507.3 
shall be permitted to be reduced to not less than 40 feet (12 192 
mm) provided the following requirements are met: 

1 . The reduced open space shall not be allowed for more 
than 75 percent of the perimeter of the building. 

2. The exterior wall facing the reduced open space shall 
have a minimum fire-resistance rating of 3 hours. 

3. Openings in the exterior wall, facing the reduced open 
space, shall have opening protectives with a fire-resis- 
tance rating of 3 hours. 



4 



igSo The area of a one-story. Group 
A-3 building used as a church, community hall, dance hall, ex- 
hibition hall, gymnasium, lecture hall, indoor swimming pool 
or tennis court of Type I or II construction shall not be limited 
when all of the following criteria are met: 

1 . The building shall not have a stage other than a platform. 

2. The building shall be equipped throughout with an auto- 
matic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 
903.3.1.1. 

3 . The assembly floor shall be located at or within 2 1 inches 
(533 mm) of street or grade level and all exits are pro- 
vided with ramps complying with Section 1010.1 to the 
street or grade level. 

4. The building shall be surrounded and adjoined by pubhc 
ways or yards not less than 60 feet (1 8 288 mm) in width. 



S07.6 Hngh-feazaird uise groups. Group H-2, H-3 and H-4 fire 
areas shall be permitted in unlimited area buildings having oc- 
cupancies in Groups F and S, in accordance with the limitations 
of this section. Fire areas located at the perimeter of the unlim- 
ited area building shall not exceed 10 percent of the area of the 
building nor the area limitations specified in Table 503 as mod- 
ified by Section 506.2, based upon the percentage of the perim- 
eter of the fire area that fronts on a street or other unoccupied 
space. Other fire areas shall not exceed 25 percent of the area 
limitations specified in Table 503. Fire-resistance-rating re- 
quirements of fire barrier assemblies shall be in accordance 
with Table 302.3.2. 



507.7 Aircraft palmt BiaBgar, The area of a one-story. Group 
H-2 aircraft paint hangar shall not be hmited where such air- 
craft paint hangar comphes with the provisions of Section 
412.4 and is entirely surrounded by public ways or yards not 
less in width than one and one-half times the height of the 
building. 

507.8 Groep E tounMrngs, The area of a one-story Group E 
building of Type II, III A or IV construction shall not be limited 
when the following criteria are met: 

1. Each classroom shall have not less than two means of 
egress, with one of the means of egress being a direct exit 
to the outside of the building complying with Section 
1017. 

2. The building is equipped throughout with an automatic 
sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. 

3. The building is surrounded and adjoined by public ways 
or yards not less than 60 feet (18 288 mm) in width. 



In buildings of Type I or II 
construction, the area of one-story motion picture theaters shall 
not be limited when the building is provided with an automatic 
sprinkler system throughout in accordance with Section 
903.3.1.1 and is surrounded and adjoined by public ways or 
yards not less than 60 feet (18 288 mm) in width. 



The provisions in this section shall permit the 
use of special conditions that are exempt from, or modify, the 
specific requirements of this chapter regarding the allowable 
heights and areas of buildings based on the occupancy classifi- 
cation and type of construction, provided the special condition 
complies with the provisions specified in this section for such 
condition and other applicable requirements of this code. 



A basement and/or the first story above grade 
plane of a building shall be considered as a separate and distinct 
building for the purpose of determining area limitations, conti- 
nuity of fire walls, limitation of number of stories and type of 
construction, when all of the following conditions are met: 

1 . The basement and/or the first story above grade plane is 
of Type lA construction and is separated from the build- 



2003 DNTERNATIIOMAL BUDLDliSiG CODE® 



77 



GENERAL BUILDING HEIGHTS AND AREAS 



ing above with a horizontal assembly having a minimum 
3-hour fire-resistance rating. 

2. Shaft, stairway, ramp or escalator enclosures through the 
horizontal assembly shall have not less than a 2-hour 
fire-resistance rating with opening protectives in accor- 
dance with Table 715.3. 

Exception: Where the enclosure walls below the hor- 
izontal assembly have not less than a 3-hour fire-resis- 
tance rating with opening protectives in accordance 
with Table 715.3, the enclosure walls extending above 
the horizontal assembly shall be permitted to have a 
1-hour fire-resistance rating provided: 

1 . The building above the horizontal assembly is 
not required to be of Type I construction; 

2. The enclosure connects less than four stories, 
and 

3. The enclosure opening protectives above the 
horizontal assembly have a minimum 1-hour 
fire protection rating. 

3. The building above the horizontal assembly contains 
only Group A having an assembly room with an occu- 
pant load of less than 300, or Group B, M or R. 

4. The building below the horizontal assembly is a Group 
S-2 enclosed parking garage, used for the parking and 
storage of private motor vehicles. 

Exceptions: 

1. Entry lobbies, mechanical rooms and similar 
uses incidental to the operation of the building 
shall be permitted. 

2. Group A having an assembly room with an oc- 
cupant load of less than 300, or Group B or M 
shall be permitted in addition to those uses inci- 
dental to the operation of the building (includ- 
ing storage areas), provided that the entire 
structure below the horizontal assembly is pro- 
tected throughout by an approved automatic 
sprinkler system. 

5. The maximum building height in feet shall not exceed 
the limits set forth in Table 503 for the least restrictive 
type of construction involved. 

508.3 Group S-2 enclosed parking garage with Group S-2 
open parking garage above. A Group S-2 enclosed parking 
garage located in the basement or first story below a Group S-2 
open parking garage shall be classified as a separate and dis- 
tinct building for the purpose of determining the type of con- 
struction when the following conditions are met: 

1 . The allowable area of the structure shall be such that the 
sum of the ratios of the actual area divided by the allow- 
able area for each separate occupancy shall not exceed 
1.0. 

2. The Group S-2 enclosed parking garage is of Type I or II 
construction and is at least equal to the fire-resistance re- 
quirements of the Group S-2 open parking garage. 

3. The height and the number of the floors above the base- 
ment shall be limited as specified in Table 406.3.5. 



4. The floor assembly separating the Group S-2 enclosed 
parking garage and Group S-2 open parking garage shall 
be protected as required for the floor assembly of the 
Group S-2 enclosed parking garage. Openings between 
the Group S-2 enclosed parking garage and Group S-2 
open parking garage, except exit openings, shall not be 
required to be protected. 

5. The Group S-2 enclosed parking garage is used exclu- 
sively for the parking or storage of private motor vehi- 
cles, but shall be permitted to contain an office, waiting 
room and toilet room having a total area of not more 
than 1 ,000 square feet (93 m^), and mechanical equip- 
ment rooms incidental to the operation of the building. 

508.4 Parking beneath Group R. Where a maximum 
one-story above grade plane Group S-2 parking garage, en- 
closed or open, or combination thereof, of Type I construction 
or open of Type IV construction, with grade entrance, is pro- 
vided under a building of Group R, the number of stories to be 
used in determining the minimum type of construction shall be 
measured from the floor above such a parking area. The floor 
assembly between the parking garage and the Group R above 
shall comply with the type of construction required for the 
parking garage and shall also provide a fire-resistance rating 
not less than the mixed occupancy separation required in Sec- 
tion 302.3.2. 

508.5 Group R-2 buildings of Type IIIA construction. The 
height limitation for buildings of Type IIIA construction in 
Group R-2 shall be increased to six stories and 75 feet (22 860 
mm) where the first-floor construction above the basement has 
a fire-resistance rating of not less than 3 hours and the floor area 
is subdivided by 2-hour fire-resistance-rated fire walls into ar- 
eas of not more than 3,000 square feet (279 m^). 

508.6 Group R-2 buildings of Type IIA construction. The 
height hmitation for buildings of Type IIA construction in 
Group R-2 shall be increased to nine stories and 100 feet (30 
480 mm) where the building is separated by not less than 50 feet 
(15 240 mm) from any other building on the lot and from prop- 
erty lines, the exits are segregated in an area enclosed by a 
2-hour fire-resistance-rated fire wall and the first-floor con- 
struction has a fire-resistance rating of not less than 1 V2 hours. 

508.7 Open parking garage beneath Groups A, I, B, M and 
R. Open parking garages constructed under Groups A, I, B, M 
and R shall not exceed the height and area limitations permitted 
under Section 406.3. The height and area of the portion of the 
building above the open parking garage shall not exceed the 
limitations in Section 503 for the upper occupancy. The height, 
in both feet and stories, of the portion of the building above the 
open parking garage shall be measured from grade plane and 
shall include both the open parking garage and the portion of 
the building above the parking garage. 

508.7.1 Fire separation. Fire separation assemblies be- 
tween the parking occupancy and the upper occupancy shall 
correspond to the required fire-resistance rating prescribed 
in Table 302.3.2 for the uses involved. The type of construc- 
tion shall apply to each occupancy individually, except that 
structural members, including main bracing within the open 
parking structure, which is necessary to support the upper 
occupancy, shall be protected with the more restrictive 



78 



2003 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



GEIMERAL BUBLDDMG HEDGHTS AiMD AREAS 



fire-resistance-rated assemblies of the groups involved as 
shown in Table 601. Means of egress for the upper occu- 
pancy shall conform to Chapter 10 and shall be separated 
from the parking occupancy by fire barriers having at least a 
2-hour fire-resistance rating as required by Section 706, 
with self-closing doors complying with Section 715. Means 
of egress from the open parking garage shall comply with 
Section 406.3. 



• 



2003 BNTERMATIOMAL BUBLDIMG CODE® 70 



80 2003 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



CHAPTER 



SECTION 601 
GENERAL 

Lol Scope., The provisions of this chapter shall control the 
classification of buildings as to type of construction. 



SECTION 602 
;TnUCT80N CLASSIFl 

Buildings and structures erected or to be 
erected, altered or extended in height or area shall be classified 
in one of the five construction types defined in Sections 602.2 
through 602.5. The building elements shall have a fire-resis- 
tance rating not less than that specified in Table 601 and exte- 
rior walls shall have a fire-resistance rating not less than that 
specified in Table 602. 

602,lol Mlmmum requirements. A building or portion 
thereof shall not be required to conform to the details of a 
type of construction higher than that type, which meets the 
minimum requirements based on occupancy even though 
certain features of such a building actually conform to a 
higher type of construction. 

602.2 Types I and II. Type I and II construction are those types 
of construction in which the building elements listed in Table 
601 are of noncombustible materials. 

602.3 Type III. Type III construction is that type of construc- 
tion in which the exterior walls are of noncombustible materi- 
als and the interior building elements are of any material 
permitted by this code. Fire-retardant-treated wood framing 
complying with Section 2303.2 shall be permitted within exte- 
rior wall assemblies of a 2-hour rating or less. 

602.4 Type IV, Type IV construction (Heavy Timber, HT) is 
that type of construction in which the exterior walls are of 
noncombustible materials and the interior building elements 
are of solid or laminated wood without concealed spaces. The 
details of Type IV construction shall comply with the provi- 
sions of this section. Fire-retardant-treated wood framing com- 
plying with Section 2303.2 shall be permitted within exterior 
wall assemblies with a 2-hour rating or less. 

602,4.1 Colemms. Wood columns shall be sawn or glued 
laminated and shall not be less than 8 inches (203 mm), 
nominal, in any dimension where supporting floor loads and 
not less than 6 inches (152 mm) nominal in width and not 
less than 8 inches (203 mm) nominal in depth where sup- 
porting roof and ceiling loads only. Columns shall be con- 
tinuous or superimposed and connected in an approved 
manner. 



(203 mm) nominal in any dimension. Framed timber trusses 
supporting floor loads shall have members of not less than 8 
inches (203 mm) nominal in any dimension. 



amimg. Wood beams and girders shall be of 
sawn or glued-laminated timber and shall be not less than 6 
inches (152 mm) nominal in width and not less than 10 
inches (254 mm) nominal in depth. Framed sawn or 
glued-laminated timber arches, which spring from the floor 
line and support floor loads, shall be not less than 8 inches 



aiiig. Wood-frame or glued-laminated 
arches for roof construction, which spring from the floor 
line or from grade and do not support floor loads, shall have 
members not less than 6 inches (152 mm) nominal in width 
and have less than 8 inches (203 mm) nominal in depth for 
the lower half of the height and not less than 6 inches (152 
mm) nominal in depth for the upper half. Framed or glued- 
laminated arches for roof construction that spring from the 
top of walls or wall abutments, framed timber trusses and 
other roof framing, which do not support floor loads, shall 
have members not less than 4 inches (102 mm) nominal in 
width and not less than 6 inches (152 mm) nominal in depth. 
Spaced members shall be permitted to be composed of two 
or more pieces not less than 3 inches (76 mm) nominal in 
thickness where blocked solidly throughout their interven- 
ing spaces or where spaces are tightly closed by a continu- 
ous wood cover plate of not less than 2 inches (5 1 mm) 
nominal in thickness secured to the underside of the mem- 
bers. Splice plates shall be not less than 3 inches (76 mm) 
nominal in thickness. Where protected by approved auto- 
matic sprinklers under the roof deck, framing members 
shall be not less than 3 inches (76 mm) nominal in width. 



rs. Floors shall be without concealed spaces. 
Wood floors shall be of sawn or glued-laminated planks, 
splined or tongue-and-groove, of not less than 3 inches (76 
mm) nominal in thickness covered with 1-inch (25 mm) 
nominal dimension tongue-and-groove flooring, laid cross- 
wise or diagonally, or 0.5-inch (12.7 mm) particleboard or 
planks not less than 4 inches (102 mm) nominal in width set 
on edge close together and well spiked and covered with 
1 -inch (25 mm) nominal dimension flooring or ' ^/32-inch (12 
mm) wood structural panel or 0.5-inch (12.7 mm) 
particleboard. The lumber shall be laid so that no continuous 
line of joints will occur except at points of support. Floors 
shall not extend closer than 0.5 inch (12.7 mm) to walls. 
Such 0.5-inch (12.7 mm) space shall be covered by a mold- 
ing fastened to the wall and so arranged that it will not ob- 
struct the swelling or shrinkage movements of the floor. 
Corbeling of masonry walls under the floor shall be permit- 
ted to be used in place of molding. 

602,4,5 Roofs, Roofs shall be without concealed spaces and 
wood roof decks shall be sawn or glued laminated, splined 
or tongue-and-groove plank, not less than 2 inches (5 1 mm) 
thick, 1 Vg-inch-thick (32 mm) wood structural panel (exte- 
rior glue), or of planks not less than 3 inches (76 mm) nomi- 
nal in width, set on edge close together and laid as required 
for floors. Other types of decking shall be permitted to be 
used if providing equivalent fire resistance and structural 
properties. 



2003 INTERNATBONAL BUILDBNG CODE® 



TYPES OF CONSTRUCTION 



602.4.6 Partitions. Partitions shall be of solid wood con- 
struction formed by not less than two layers of 1-inch (25 
mm) matched boards or laminated construction 4 inches 
(102 mm) thick, or of 1-hour fire-resistance-rated construc- 
tion. 

602.4.7 Exterior structural members. Where a horizontal 
separation of 20 feet (6096 mm) or more is provided, wood 
columns and arches conforming to heavy timber sizes shall 
be permitted to be used externally. 

602.5 Type V. Type V construction is that type of construction 
in which the structural elements, exterior walls and interior 
walls are of any materials permitted by this code. 



SECTION 603 

COMBUSTIBLE MATERIAL IN TYPE I 

AND II CONSTRUCTION 

603.1 Allowable materials. Combustible materials shall be 
permitted in buildings of Type I or II construction in the follow- 
ing applications and in accordance with Sections 603.1.1 
through 603.1.3: 

1 . Fire-retardant-treated wood shall be permitted in: 

1.1. Nonbearing partitions where the required fire-re- 
sistance rating is 2 hours or less. 

1 .2. Nonbearing exterior walls where no fire rating is 
required. 

1.3. Roof construction as permitted in Table 601, 
Note c. Item 3. 

2. Thermal and acoustical insulation, other than foam 
plastics, having a flame spread index of not more than 

25. 

Exceptions.' 

1. Insulation placed between two layers of 
noncombustible materials without an inter- 
vening airspace shall be allowed to have a 
flame spread index of not more than 100. 

2. Insulation installed between a finished floor 
and solid decking without intervening air- 
space shall be allowed to have a flame spread 
index of not more than 200. 

3. Foam plastics in accordance with Chapter 26. 

4. Roof coverings that have an A, B or C classification. 

5. Interior floor finish and interior finish, trim and mill- 
work such as doors, door frames, window sashes and 
frames. 

6. Where not installed over 15 feet (4572 mm) above 
grade, show windows, nailing or furring strips, wooden 
bulkheads below show windows, their frames, aprons 
and show cases. 



7. Finished flooring applied directly to the floor slab or to 
wood sleepers that are firestopped in accordance with 
Section 717.2.7. 

8. Partitions dividing portions of stores, offices or similar 
places occupied by one tenant only and which do not es- 
tablish a corridor serving an occupant load of 30 or 
more shall be permitted to be constructed of fire-retar- 
dant-treated wood, 1-hour fire-resistance-rated con- 
struction or of wood panels or similar light construction 
up to 6 feet ( 1 829 mm) in height. 

9. Platforms as permitted in Section 410. 

10. Combustible exterior wall coverings, balconies, bay 
or oriel windows, or similar appendages in accor- 
dance with Chapter 14. 

1 1 . Blocking such as for handrails, millwork, cabinets, and 
window and door frames. 

12. Light-transmitting plastics as permitted by Chapter 26. 

13. Mastics and caulking materials applied to provide flex- 
ible seals between components of exterior wall con- 
struction. 

14. Exterior plastic veneer installed in accordance with 
Section 2605.2. 

15. Nailing or furring strips as permitted by Section 803.4. 

16. Heavy timber as permitted by Note c. Item 2, to Table 
601 and Sections 602.4.7 and 1406.3. 

17. Aggregates, component materials and admixtures as 
permitted by Section 703.2.2. 

18. Sprayed cementitious and mineral fiber fire-resis- 
tance-rated materials installed to comply with Section 
1704.11. 

19. Materials used to protect penetrations in fire-resis- 
tance-rated assemblies in accordance with Section 712. 

20. Materials used to protect joints in fire-resistance-rated 
assemblies in accordance with Section 713. 

21 . Materials allowed in the concealed spaces of buildings 
of Type I and II construction in accordance with Section 
717.5. 

22. Materials exposed within plenums complying with 
Section 602 of the International Mechanical Code. 



1.1.1 Ducts. The use of nonmetallic ducts shall be permit- 
ted when installed in accordance with the limitations of the 
International Mechanical Code. 



,lo2 Piping. The use of combustible piping materials 
shall be permitted when installed in accordance with the 
limitations of the International Mechanical Code and the 
International Plumbing Code. 



• 



\A3 Electrical. The use of electrical wiring methods 
with combustible insulation, tubing, raceways and related 
components shall be permitted when installed in accordance 
with the limitations of the ICC Electrical Code. 



82 



2003 INTERNATBONAL BUILDSNG CODE® 



TYPES OF CONSTRUCTBOM 



TABLE 601 
FJRE-RESDSTAMCE RATBSMG REQUIRElViEIMTS FOR BUIILDBNG ELEMEMTS (hours) 



BUILDING ELEMENT 


TYPEi 


TYPE 11 


TYPE DDI 


TYPE DV 


TYPEV 


A 


B 


A'' 


B 


A^ 


B 


m 


A'' 


B 


Structural frame^ 
Including columns, girders, trusses 


3" 


2" 


1 





1 





HT 


1 





Bearing walls 
Exterior*^ 
Interior 


3 
3" 


2 
2" 


1 
1 






2 
1 


2 



2 
1/HT 


1 

1 






Nonbearing walls and partitions 
Exterior 


See Table 602 


Nonbearing walls and partitions 
Interior® 




















See Section 602.4.6 








Floor construction 

Including supporting beams and joists 


2 


2 


1 





1 





HT 


1 





Roof construction 

Including supporting beams and joists 


IV,^ 


P 


F 


0'^ 


P 





HT 


p 






For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 

a. The structural frame shall be considered to be the columns and the girders, beams, trusses and spandrels having direct connections to the columns and bracing 
members designed to carry gravity loads. The members of floor or roof panels which have no connection to the columns shall be considered secondary members 
and not a part of the structural frame. 

b. Roof supports: Fire-resistance ratings of structural frame and bearing walls are permitted to be reduced by 1 hour where supporting a roof only. 

c. 1. Except in Factory-Industrial (F-1), Hazardous (H), Mercantile (M) and Moderate-Hazard Storage (S-1) occupancies, fire protection of structural members 

shall not be required, including protection of roof framing and decking where every part of the roof construction is 20 feet or more above any floor immediately 
below. Fire-retardant-treated wood members shall be allowed to be used for such unprotected members. 

2. In all occupancies, heavy timber shall be allowed where a 1-hour or less fire-resistance rating is required. 

3. In Type I and II construcdon, fire-retardant-treated wood shall be allowed in buildings including girders and trusses as part of the roof construcdon when the 
building is: 

i. Two stories or less in height; 
ii. Type II construction over two stories; or 
iii. Type I construction over two stories and the vertical distance from the upper floor to the roof is 20 feet or more. 

d. An approved automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Secdon 903.3. 1 . 1 shall be allowed to be substituted for 1-hour fire-resistance-rated construcdon, pro- 
vided such system is not otherwise required by other provisions of the code or used for an allowable area increase in accordance with Section 506.3 or an allowable 
height increase in accordance with Secdon 504.2. The 1-hour substitudon for the fire resistance of exterior walls shall not be permitted. 

e. Not less than the fire-resistance rating required by other sections of this code. 

f. Not less than the fire-resistance rating based on fire separation distance (see Table 602). 



TABLE 602 
FIRE-RESIISTANCE RATSMG REQUDREMENTS FOR EXTERIOR WALLS BASED OM FIRE SEPARATSOIM DISTANCE^ 



F!RE SEPARATION DISTANCE 
(feet) 


TYPE OF CONSTRUCTION 


GROUP H 


GROUP F-1, Wi, S-1 


GROUP A, B, E, F-2, 1, r", S-2, U 


<5= 


All 


3 


2 


1 


>5 

<10 


lA 
Others 


3 
2 


2 
1 


1 
1 


>10 
<30 


IA,IB 
IIB, VB 
Others 


2 
1 
1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


>30 


All 












For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 

a. Load-bearing exterior walls shall also comply with the fire-resistance radng requirements of Table 601. 

b. Group R-3 and Group U when used as accessory to Group R-3, as applicable in Secdon 101.2 shall not be required to have a fire-resistance radng where the fire 
separation distance is 3 feet or more. 

c. See Section 503.2 for party walls. 



2003 DNTERMATIOMAL BUILDING CODE® 



83 



84 2003 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



MAPTl 



T 



L.l Scope. The provisions of this chapter shall govern the 
materials and assemblies used for structural fire resistance and 
fire-resistance-rated construction separation of adjacent spaces 
to safeguard against the spread of fire and smoke within a build- 
ing and the spread of fire to or from buildings. 



IS. The following words and terms shall, for the 
purposes of this chapter, and as used elsewhere in this code, 
have the meanings shown herein. 

The opening around the penetrating 



item. 



, A Hsted device installed 
in a ceiling membrane of a fire-resistance-rated floor/ceihng or 
roof/ceiling assembly to limit automatically the radiative heat 
transfer through an air inlet/outlet opening. 

COMBINATION FME/SMOKE DAMPER. A hsted device 
installed in ducts and air transfer openings designed to close au- 
tomatically upon the detection of heat and to also resist the pas- 
sage of air and smoke. The device is installed to operate 
automatically, controlled by a smoke detection system, and 
where required, is capable of being positioned from a remote 
command station. 



See "Ceihng radiation damper," "Combination 
fire/smoke damper," "Fire damper" and "Smoke damper." 

DRAFTSTOE A material, device or construction installed to 
restrict the movement of air within open spaces of concealed 
areas of building components such as crawl spaces, floor/ceil- 
ing assemblies, roof/ceiling assemblies and attics. 

F MATING. The time period that the through-penetration 
firestop system limits the spread of fire through the penetration 
when tested in accordance with ASTM E 814. 

FIRE AREA. The aggregate floor area enclosed and bounded 
by fire walls, fire barriers, exterior walls or fire-resistance-rated 
horizontal assemblies of a building. 



A fire-resistance-rated vertical or horizon- 
tal assembly of materials designed to restrict the spread of fire 
in which openings are protected. 

FIRE DAMPER. A listed device, installed in ducts and air 
transfer openings of an air distribution system or smoke con- 
trol system, designed to close automatically upon detection of 
heat, to interrupt migratory airflow, and to restrict the passage 
of flame. Fire dampers are classified for use in either static 
systems that will automatically shut down in the event of a 
fire, or in dynamic systems that continue to operate during a 
fire. A dynamic fire damper is tested and rated for closure un- 
der airflow. 



. The door component of a fire door assembly. 

ASSEMBLY. Any combinafion of a fire door, 
frame, hardware, and other accessories that together provide a 
specific degree of fire protection to the opening. 

FIRE PARTITION. A vertical assembly of materials de- 
signed to restrict the spread of fire in which openings are pro- 
tected. 

FIRE PROTECTION RATING. The period of fime that an 
opening protective assembly will maintain the ability to con- 
fine a fire as determined by tests prescribed in Section 715. Rat- 
ings are stated in hours or minutes. 

FIRE RESISTANCE. That property of materials or their as- 
sembhes that prevents or retards the passage of excessive heat, 
hot gases or flames under conditions of use. 



ATING. The period of time a build- 
ing element, component or assembly maintains the abihty to 
confine a fire, continues to perform a given structural function, 
or both, as determined by the tests, or the methods based on 
tests, prescribed in Section 703. 

FIRE-RESISTANT JOINT SYSTEM, An assemblage of 
specific materials or products that are designed, tested, and 
fire-resistance rated in accordance with either ASTM E 1966 or 
UL 2079 to resist for a prescribed period of time the passage of 
fire through joints made in or between fire-resistance-rated as- 
semblies. 

FIRE SEPARATION DISTANCE. The distance measured 
from the building face to the closest interior lot hne, to the cen- 
terline of a street, alley or public way, or to an imaginary line 
between two buildings on the lot. The distance shall be mea- 
sured at right angles from the face of the wall. 



WALL. A fire-resistance-rated wall having protected 
openings, which restricts the spread of fire and extends contin- 
uously from the foundation to or through the roof, with suffi- 
cient structural stability under fire conditions to allow collapse 
of construction on either side without collapse of the wall. 



A window constructed and 
glazed to give protection against the passage of fire. 

FIREBLOCKING. Building materials installed to resist the 
free passage of flame to other areas of the building through con- 
cealed spaces. 



IRE DOOR ASSEMBLY. A combination of a fire 
door, a frame, hardware and other accessories installed in a hor- 
izontal plane, which together provide a specific degree of fire 
protection to a through opening in a fire-resistance-rated floor 
(see Section 712.4.6). 



JT, The linear opening in or between adjacent fire -resis- 
tance-rated assemblies that is designed to allow independent 
movement of the building in any plane caused by thermal, seis- 
mic, wind or any other loading. 



2003 S^3TEF?NAT!0NAL BUILDBNG CODE® 



85 



FSRE-RESSSTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 



MEMBRANE PENETRATION. An opening made through 
one side (wall, floor or ceiling membrane) of an assembly. 

MEMBRANE-PENETRATION FIRESTOE A material, 
device or construction installed to resist for a prescribed time 
period the passage of flame and heat through openings in a pro- 
tective membrane in order to accommodate cables, cable trays, 
conduit, tubing, pipes or similar items. 

PENETRATION FIRESTOP. A through-penetration 
firestop or a membrane-penetration firestop. 

SELF-CLOSING. As applied to a fire door or other opening, 
means equipped with an approved device that will ensure clos- 
ing after having been opened. 

SHAFT. An enclosed space extending through one or more 
stories of a building, connecting vertical openings in succes- 
sive floors, or floors and roof. 

SHAFT ENCLOSURE. The walls or construction forming 
the boundaries of a shaft. 

SMOKE BARRIER. A continuous membrane, either vertical 
or horizontal, such as a wall, floor, or ceiling assembly, that is 
designed and constructed to restrict the movement of smoke. 

SMOKE COMPARTMENT. A space within a building en- 
closed by smoke barriers on all sides, including the top and bot- 
tom. 

SMOKE DAMPER. A listed device installed in ducts and air 
transfer openings that is designed to resist the passage of air 
and smoke. The device is installed to operate automatically, 
controlled by a smoke detection system, and where required, is 
capable of being positioned from a remote command station. 

SPLICE. The result of a factory and/or field method of joining 
or connecting two or more lengths of a fire-resistant joint sys- 
tem into a continuous entity. 

T RATING. The time period that the penetration firestop sys- 
tem, including the penetrating item, limits the maximum tem- 
perature rise to 325°F (163°C) above its initial temperature 
through the penetration on the nonfire side when tested in ac- 
cordance with ASTM E 814. 

THROUGH PENETRATION. An opening that passes 
through an entire assembly." 

THROUGH-PENETRATION FIRESTOP SYSTEM. An 
assemblage of specific materials or products that are designed, 
tested and fire-resistance rated to resist for a prescribed period 
of time the spread of fire through penetrations. The F and T rat- 
ing criteria for penetration firestop systems shall be in accor- 
dance with ASTM E 814. See definitions of "F rating" and "T 
rating." 



FiRE-RESISTANCE RATINGS AND FIRE TESTS 

703.1 Scope. Materials prescribed herein for fire resistance 
shall conform to the requirements of this chapter. 



not been tested as part of a fire-resistance-rated assembly are 
incorporated into the assembly, sufficient data shall be made 
available to the building official to show that the required 
fire-resistance rating is not reduced. Materials and methods of 
construction used to protect joints and penetrations in fire-re- 
sistance-rated building elements shall not reduce the required 
fire-resistance rating. 

Exceptioe: In determining the fire-resistance rating of exte- 
rior bearing walls, compliance with the ASTM E 1 19 crite- 
ria for unexposed surface temperature rise and ignition of 
cotton waste due to passage of flame or gases is required 
only for a period of time corresponding to the required 
fire-resistance rating of an exterior nonbearing wall with the 
same fire separation distance, and in a building of the same 
group. When the fire-resistance rating determined in accor- 
dance with this exception exceeds the fire-resistance rating 
determined in accordance with ASTM E 1 19, the fire expo- 
sure time period, water pressure, and application duration 
criteria for the hose stream test of ASTM E 119 shall be 
based upon the fire-resistance rating determined in accor- 
dance with this exception. 

703.2.1 Nonsymmetrical wall construction. Interior walls 
and partitions of nonsymmetrical construction shall be 
tested with both faces exposed to the furnace, and the as- 
signed fire-resistance rating shall be the shortest duration 
obtained from the two tests conducted in compliance with 
ASTM E 1 19. When evidence is furnished to show that the 
wall was tested with the least fire-resistant side exposed to 
the furnace, subject to acceptance of the building official, 
the wall need not be subjected to tests from the opposite side 
(see Section 704.5 for exterior walls). 



.2 Fire-resistance ratings. The fire-resistance rating of 
building elements shall be determined in accordance with the 
test procedures set forth in ASTM E 1 19 or in accordance with 
Section 703.3. Where materials, systems or devices that have 



components. Combustible aggre- 
gates are permitted in gypsum and portland cement concrete 
mixtures approved for fire-resistance-rated construction. 
Any approved component material or admixture is permit- 
ted in assemblies if the resulting tested assembly meets the 
fire-resistance test requirements of this code. 

703.2.3 Restrained classification. Fire-resistance-rated as- 
semblies tested under ASTM E 119 shall not be considered 
to be restrained unless evidence satisfactory to the building 
official is furnished by the registered design professional 
showing that the construction quahfies for a restrained clas- 
sification in accordance with ASTM E 1 19. Restrained con- 
struction shall be identified on the plans. 

703.3 Alternative methods for determining fire resistance. 
The application of any of the alternative methods listed in this 
section shall be based on the fire exposure and acceptance crite- 
ria specified in ASTM E 1 19. The required fire resistance of a 
building element shall be permitted to be established by any of 
the following methods or procedures: 

1. Fire-resistance designs documented in approved 
sources. 

2. Prescriptive designs of fire-resistance-rated building ele- 
ments as prescribed in Section 720. 

3. Calculations in accordance with Section 721. 



86 



2003 liMTERNAUONAL BUILDING CODE® 



FIRE-RESIISTAINICE-RATEDCONSTRUCTDON 



4. Engineering analysis based on a comparison of building 
element designs having fire-resistance ratings as deter- 
mined by the test procedures set forth in ASTM E 119. 

5. Alternative protection methods as allowed by Section 
104.11. 



tmni Type V construction shall be allowed for R-3 occu- 
pancies, as applicable in Section 101.2. 



istSo The tests indicated in Sections 
703.4.1 and 703.4.2 shall serve as criteria for acceptance of 
building materials as set forth in Sections 602.2, 602.3 and 
602.4 in Type I, II, III and IV construction. The term 
"noncombustible" does not apply to the flame spread charac- 
teristics of interior finish or trim materials. A material shall not 
be classified as a noncombustible building construction mate- 
rial if it is subject to an increase in combustibility or flame 
spread beyond the limitations herein established through the ef- 
fects of age, moisture or other atmospheric conditions. 

703.4.1 Ekmmeetary materials. Materials required to be 
noncombustible shall be tested in accordance with ASTM E 
136. 



Is. Materials having a structural 
base of noncombustible material as determined in accor- 
dance with Section 703.4.1 with a surfacing not more than 
0. 1 25 inch (3.18 mm) thick that has a flame spread index not 
greater than 50 when tested in accordance with ASTM E 84 
shall be acceptable as noncombustible materials. 



ECTDOM im 



Geeeral. Exterior walls shall be fire-resistance rated and 
have opening protection as required by this section. 

704.2 ProjectnoBTis. Cornices, eave overhangs, exterior balco- 
nies and similar architectural appendages extending beyond the 
floor area shall conform to the requirements of this section and 
Section 1406. Exterior egress balconies and exterior exit stair- 
ways shall also comply with Sections 1013.5 and 1022.1. Pro- 
jections shall not extend beyond the distance determined by the 
following two methods, whichever results in the lesser projec- 
tion: 

1 . A point one-third the distance to the lot line from an as- 
sumed vertical plane located where protected openings 
are required in accordance with Section 704.8. 

2. More than 12 inches (305 mm) into areas where openings 
are prohibited. 

704.2.1 Type I amd II cosisttractiom. Projections from walls 
of Type I or II construction shall be of noncombustible mate- 
rials or combustible materials as allowed by Sections 1406.3 
and 1406.4. 



[I, IV m V comslreclIoE. Projections from 
walls of Type III, IV or V construction shall be of any ap- 
proved material. 

704.2,3 CombusMlbk projedtnoms. Combustible projec- 
tions located where openings are not permitted or where 
protection of openings is required shall be of at least 1-hour 
fire-resistance-rated construction. Type IV construction or 
as required by Section 1406.3. 



it For the purposes of deter- 
mining the required wall and opening protection and roof-cov- 
ering requirements, buildings on the same lot shall be assumed 
to have an imaginary line between them. 

Where a new building is to be erected on the same lot as an ex- 
isting building, the location of the assumed imaginary line with 
relation to the existing building shall be such that the exterior 
wall and opening protection of the existing building meet the 
criteria as set forth in Sections 704.5 and 704.8. 



O 



m Two or more buildings on the same lot shall ei- 
ther be regulated as separate buildings or shall be considered 
as portions of one building if the aggregate area of such 
buildings is within the limits specified in Chapter 5 for a sin- 
gle building. Where the buildings contain different occu- 
pancy groups or are of different types of construction, the 
area shall be that allowed for the most restrictive occupancy 
or construction. 



Is, Exterior walls shall be of materials permitted 
by the building type of construction. 



L5 Fnre=resnstaEce ratings. Exterior walls shall be fire-re- 
sistance rated in accordance with Tables 601 and 602. The 
fire-resistance rating of exterior walls with a fire separation dis- 
tance of greater than 5 feet (1524 mm) shall be rated for expo- 
sure to fire from the inside. The fire-resistance rating of exterior 
walls with a fire separation distance of 5 feet (1524 mm) or less 
shall be rated for exposure to fire from both sides. 

704,6 Stractaral stalbility. The wall shall extend to the height 
required by Section 704. 1 1 and shall have sufficient structural 
stability such that it will remain in place for the duration of time 
indicated by the required fire-resistance rating. 



,7 Umexposed serface temperatiiire. Where protected 
openings are not limited by Section 704.8, the limitation on the 
rise of temperature on the unexposed surface of exterior walls 
as required by ASTM E 1 19 shall not apply. Where protected 
openings are limited by Section 704.8, the limitation on the rise 
of temperature on the unexposed surface of exterior walls as re- 
quired by ASTM E 1 19 shall not apply provided that a correc- 
fion is made for radiafion from the unexposed exterior wall 
surface in accordance with the following formula: 

A^=A + (AfXF^^) (EqraatioE7=l) 

where: 

Ae = Equivalent area of protected openings. 

A = Actual area of protected openings. 

Af = Area of exterior wall surface in the story under consid- 
eration exclusive of openings, on which the tempera- 
ture limitations of ASTM E 1 19 for walls are exceeded. 

Feo = An "equivalent opening factor" derived from Figure 
704.7 based on the average temperature of the unex- 
posed wall surface and the fire-resistance rating of the 
wall. 



2003 DNTERMATBONAL BUILDING CODE® 



F8RE-RESISTANCE-RATEDCONSTRUCT80N 



For SI: °C = [(°F) - 32] / 1.8. 



1.0 
0.9 
0.8 

I 0.6 



0.5 



® 0.4 

CO 

> 

^ 0.3 



LJJ 



0.2 



0.1 



m\\\\\\\\\\m\\\\\\\mM§^ 


HI 


?i.S -.h.M^i^ 


t^MmMM 


---- 'R^".---i- "wJE 

:::::; ::::: ::::: - :::::: i::! :(:::-: ::: 


::::::::;-:-:::::::--::::::::: --:::-(::::,-::,':::::::: ::::: 


lllllllllll'llliilllllilillllillillllll'IB 



200 400 600 800 1,000 1,200 1,400 1,600 1,800 2,000 
Average temperature of unexposed surface ( F) 



FSGURE 704.7 
EQUiVALEMT 0PEN8NG FACTOR 



704.8 Allowable area of openimgs. The maximum area of un- 
protected or protected openings permitted in an exterior wall in 
any story shall not exceed the values set forth in Table 704.8. 
Where both unprotected and protected openings are located in 
the exterior wall in any story, the total area of the openings shall 
comply with the following formula: 



a a„ 
where: 



(Equation 7-2) 



A = Actual area of protected openings, or the equivalent 
area of protected openings, A^ (see Section 704.7). 

a = Allowable area of protected openings. 

Au = Actual area of unprotected openings. 

au = Allowable area of unprotected openings. 

704.8.1 Automatic sprinkler system. In buildings 
equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in 
accordance with Section 903.3. 1 . 1, the maximum allowable 
area of unprotected openings in occupancies other than 
Groups H-1, H-2 and H-3 shall be the same as the tabulated 
limitations for protected openings. 

704.8.2 First story. In occupancies other than Group H, un- 
limited unprotected openings are permitted in the first story 
of exterior walls facing a street that have a fire separation 
distance of greater than 15 feet (4572 mm), or facing an un- 
occupied space. The unoccupied space shall be on the same 



lot or dedicated for public use, shall not be less than 30 feet 
(9144 mm) in width, and shall have access from a street by a 
posted fire lane in accordance with the International Fire 
Code. 

704.9 Vertical separation of openings. Openings in exterior 
walls in adjacent stories shall be separated vertically to protect 
against fire spread on the exterior of the buildings where the 
openings are within 5 feet (1524 mm) of each other horizon- 
tally and the opening in the lower story is not a protected open- 
ing in accordance with Section 715.4.8. Such openings shall be 
separated vertically at least 3 feet (914 nmi) by spandrel gird- 
ers, exterior walls or other similar assemblies that have a 
fire-resistance rating of at least 1 hour or by flame barriers that 
extend horizontally at least 30 inches (762 mm) beyond the ex- 
terior wall. Flame barriers shall also have a fire-resistance rat- 
ing of at least 1 hour. The unexposed surface temperature 
limitations specified in ASTM E 119 shall not apply to the 
flame barriers or vertical separation unless otherwise required 
by the provisions of this code. 



1 . This section shall not apply to buildings that are three 
stories or less in height. 

2. This section shall not apply to buildings equipped 
throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in ac- 
cordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2. 

3. Open parking garages. ■ 



88 



2003 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



FDRE-RESISTANCE-RATEDCONSTRUCTIOW 



TABLE 704.8 
OF EXTERIOR WALL OPEMSNGS^ 



CLASSIFICATION 
OF OPENING 


FIRE SEPARATION DISTANCE (feet) 


to 36.1 


Greater 
than 3 to 5" 


Greater 
than 5 to 10"'* 


Greater 
than 10 to 15"="'' 


Greater 
than 15 to 20':.' 


Greater 
than 20 to 25=.' 


Greater 
than 25 to 30='' 


Greater 
than 30 


Unprotected 


Not 
Permitted^ 


Not 
Permitted"- ^ 


io%g 


15%s 


25%s 


45 %g 


70%8 


No Limit 


Protected 


Not 
Permitted 


15% 


25% 


45% 


75% 


No Limit 


No Limit 


No Limit 



For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 

a. Values given are percentage of the area of the exterior wall. 

b. For occupancies in Group R-3, as applicable in Section 101 .2, the maximum percentage of unprotected and protected exterior wall openings shall be 25 percent. 

c. The area of openings in an open parking structure with a fire separation distance of greater than 10 feet shall not be limited. 

d. For occupancies in Group H-2 or H-3, unprotected openings shall not be permitted for openings with a fire separation distance of 15 feet or less. 

e. For requirements for fire walls for buildings with differing roof heights, see Section 705.6.1. 

f. The area of unprotected and protected openings is not limited for occupancies in Group R-3, as applicable in Section 101.2, with a fire separation distance greater 
than 5 feet. 

g. Buildings whose exterior bearing wall, exterior nonbearing wall and exterior structural frame are not required to be fire-resistance rated shall be permitted to have 
unlimited unprotected openings. 

h. Includes accessory buildings to Group R-3 as applicable in Section 101.2. 



• 



Vertical exposure. For buildings on the same lot, ap- 
proved protectives shall be provided in every opening that is 
less than 15 feet (4572 mm) vertically above the roof of an ad- 
joining building or adjacent structure that is within a horizontal 
fire separation distance of 15 feet (4572 mm) of the wall in 
which the opening is located. 

Exception: Opening protectives are not required where the 
roof construction has a fire-resistance rating of not less than 
1 hour for a minimum distance of 10 feet (3048 mm) from 
the adjoining building and the entire length and span of the 
supporting elements for the fire-resistance-rated roof as- 
sembly has a fire-resistance rating of not less than 1 hour. 

s. Parapets shall be provided on exterior walls 



of buildings. 



A parapet need not be provided on an exterior 
wall where any of the following conditions exist: 

1 . The wall is not required to be fire-resistance rated in 
accordance with Table 602 because of fire separadon 
distance. 

2. The building has an area of not more than 1,000 
square feet (93 m^) on any floor. 

3. Walls that terminate at roofs of not less than 2-hour 
fire-resistance-rated construction or where the roof, 
including the deck and supporting construction, is 
constructed entirely of noncombustible materials. 

4. One-hour fire-resistance-rated exterior walls that ter- 
minate at the underside of the roof sheathing, deck or 
slab, provided: 

4.1. Where the roof/ceiling framing elements are 
parallel to the walls, such framing and ele- 
ments supporting such framing shall not be of 
less than 1-hour fire-resistance-rated con- 
struction for a width of 4 feet ( 1 220 mm) mea- 
sured from the interior side of the wall for 
Groups R and U and 10 feet (3048 mm) for 
other occupancies. 



4.2. Where roof/ceihng framing elements are not 
parallel to the wall, the endre span of such 
framing and elements supporting such fram- 
ing shall not be of less than 1-hour fire-resis- 
tance-rated construction. 

4.3. Openings in the roof shall not be located 
within 5 feet (1524 mm) of the 1-hour fire-re- 
sistance-rated exterior wall for Groups R and 
U and 10 feet (3048 mm) for other occupan- 
cies. 

4.4. The entire building shall be provided with not 
less than a Class B roof covering. 

5. In occupancies of Groups R-2 and R-3 as applicable 
in Section 101.2, both provided with a Class C roof 
covering, the exterior wall shall be permitted to termi- 
nate at the roof sheathing or deck in Type III, IV and V 
construction provided: 

5.1. The roof sheathing or deck is constructed of 
approved noncombustible materials or of 
fire-retardant- treated wood, for a distance of 4 
feet (1220 mm); or 

5.2. The roof is protected with 0.625-inch (15.88 
mm) Type X gypsum board directly beneath 
the underside of the roof sheathing or deck, 
supported by a minimum of nominal 2-inch 
(5 1 mm) ledgers attached to the sides of the 
roof framing members, for a minimum dis- 
tance of 4 feet (1220 mm). 

6. Where the wall is permitted to have at least 25 percent 
of the exterior wall areas containing unprotected 
openings based on fire separation distance as deter- 
mined in accordance with Secdon 704.8. 



LI Parapet comstractiom. Parapets shall have the 
same fire-resistance rating as that required for the support- 
ing wall, and on any side adjacent to a roof surface, shall 
have noncombustible faces for the uppermost 18 inches 
(457 mm), including counterflashing and coping materials. 



2003 BNTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



89 



FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 



The height of the parapet shall not be less than 30 inches 
(762 mm) above the point where the roof surface and the 
wall intersect. Where the roof slopes toward a parapet at a 
slope greater than two units vertical in 12 units horizontal 
(16.7-percent slope), the parapet shall extend to the same 
height as any portion of the roof within a fire separation dis- 
tance where protection of wall openings is required, but in 
no case shall the height be less than 30 inches (762 mm). 

704.12 Opening protection. Windows required to be pro- 
tected in accordance with Section 704.8, 704.9, or 704.10 shall 
comply with Section 715.4.8. Other openings required to be 
protected with fire doors or shutters in accordance with Sec- 
tions 704.8, 704.9 and 704.10 shall comply with Section 715.3. 

Exception: Fire protective assemblies are not required 
where the building is protected throughout by an automatic 
sprinkler system and the exterior openings are protected by 
an approved water curtain using automatic sprinklers ap- 
proved for that use. The sprinklers and the water curtain 
shall be installed in accordance with NFPA 13. 

704.12.1 Unprotected openings. Where protected open- 
ings are not required by Section 704, windows and doors 
shall be constructed of any approved materials. Glazing 
shall conform to the requirements of Chapters 24 and 26. 

704.13 Joints. Joints made in or between exterior walls re- 
quired by this section to have a fire-resistance rating shall com- 
ply with Section 713. 

Exception: Joints in exterior walls that are permitted to 
have unprotected openings. 

704.13.1 Voids. The void created at the intersection of a 
floor/ceiling assembly and an exterior curtain wall assem- 
bly shall be protected in accordance with Section 713.4. 

704.14 Ducts and air transfer openings. Penetrations by air 
ducts and air transfer openings in fire-resistance-rated exterior 
walls required to have protected openings shall comply with 
Section 716. 

Exception: Foundation vents installed in accordance with 
this code are permitted. 



SECTIOM 705 
FIRE WALLS 

705.1 General. Each portion of a building separated by one or 
more fire walls that comply with the provisions of this section 
shall be considered a separate building. The extent and location 
of such fire walls shall provide a complete separation. Where a 
fire wall also separates groups that are required to be separated 
by a fire barrier wall, the most restrictive requirements of each 
separation shall apply. Fire walls located on lot lines shall also 
comply with Section 503.2. Such fire walls (party walls) shall 
be constructed without openings. 

705.2 Structural stability. Fire walls shall have sufficient 
structural stability under fire conditions to allow collapse of 
construction on either side without collapse of the wall for the 



duration of time indicated by the required fire-resistance rating. 

705.3 Materials. Fire walls shall be of any approved 
noncombustible materials. 

Exception: Buildings of Type V construction. 

705.4 Fire-resistance rating. Fire walls shall have a fire-resis- 
tance rating of not less than that required by Table 705.4. 

TABLE 705.4 
HRE WALL FIRE-RESISTANCE RATINGS 



GROUP 


FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING (hours) 


A, B, E, H-4, 1, R-1, R-2, U 


3' 


F-1,H-3^H-5,M, S-1 


3 


H-l,H-2 


4b 


F-2, S-2, R-3, R-4 


2 



a. Walls shall be not less than 2-hour fire-resistance rated where separating 
buildings of Type II or V construction. 

b. For Group H-1, H-2 or H-3 buildings, also see Sections 415.4 and 415.5. 

705.5 Hornzomtal continuity. Fire walls shall be continuous 
from exterior wall to exterior wall and shall extend at least 18 
inches (457 mm) beyond the exterior surface of exterior walls. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Fire walls shall be permitted to terminate at the inte- 
rior surface of combustible exterior sheathing or sid- 
ing provided the exterior wall has a fire-resistance 
rating of at least 1 hour for a horizontal distance of at 
least 4 feet (1220 mm) on both sides of the fire wall. 
Openings within such exterior walls shall be protected 
by fire assemblies having a fire protection rating of 
not less than V4 hour. 

2. Fire walls shall be permitted to terminate at the inte- 
rior surface of noncombustible exterior sheathing, ex- 
terior siding or other noncombustible exterior finishes 
provided the sheathing, siding, or other exterior 
noncombustible finish extends a horizontal distance 
of at least 4 feet (1220 mm) on both sides of the fire 
wall. 

3. Fire walls shall be permitted to terminate at the inte- 
rior surface of noncombustible exterior sheathing 
where the building on each side of the fire wall is pro- 
tected by an automatic sprinkler system installed in 
accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2. 

705.5.1 Exterior waDls. Where the fire wall intersects the 
exterior walls, the fire-resistance rating for the exterior 
walls on both sides of the fire wall shall have a 1-hour 
fire-resistance rating with V4-hour opening protection where 
opening protection is required. The fire-resistance rating of 
the exterior wall shall extend a minimum of 4 feet (1220 
mm) on each side of the intersection of the fire wall to exte- 
rior wall. Exterior wall intersections at fire walls that form 
an angle equal to or greater than 180 degrees (3.14 rad) do 
not need exterior wall protection. 

705.5.2 Horizontal projecting elements. Fire walls shall 
extend to the outer edge of horizontal projecting elements 



90 



2003 IMTERSMATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



FBRE-RESDSTAMCE-RATEDCOSMSTRUCTION 



such as balconies, roof overhangs, canopies, marquees and 
architectural projections that are within 4 feet (1220 mm) of 
the fire wall. 



1. Horizontal projecting elements without concealed 
spaces provided the exterior wall behind and below 
the projecting element has not less than 1-hour 
fire-resistance-rated construction for a distance 
not less than the depth of the projecting element on 
both sides of the fire walk Openings within such 
exterior walls shall be protected by fire assemblies 
having a fire protection rating of not less than '^1^ 
hour. 

2. Noncombustible horizontal projecting elements 
with concealed spaces, provided a minimum 
1-hour fire-resistance-rated wall extends through 
the concealed space. The projecting element shall 
be separated from the building by a minimum of 
1-hour fire-resistance-rated construction for a dis- 
tance on each side of the fire wall equal to the depth 
of the projecting element. The wall is not required 
to extend under the projecting element where the 
building exterior wall is not less than 1-hour 
fire-resistance rated for a distance on each side of 
the fire wall equal to the depth of the projecting ele- 
ment. Openings within such exterior walls shall be 
protected by fire assemblies having a fire protec- 
tion rating of not less than % hour. 

3. For combustible horizontal projecting elements 
with concealed spaces, the fire wall need only ex- 
tend through the concealed space to the outer edges 
of the projecting elements. The exterior wall be- 
hind and below the projecting element shall be of 
not less than 1-hour fire-resistance-rated construc- 
tion for a distance not less than the depth of the pro- 
jecting elements on both sides of the fire wall. 
Openings within such exterior walls shall be pro- 
tected by fire assemblies having a fire-protection 
rating of not less than ^1^ hour. 



Fire walls shall extend from the 
foundation to a termination point at least 30 inches (762 mm) 
above both adjacent roofs. 



1. Stepped buildings in accordance with Section 
705.6.1. 

2. Two-hour fire-resistance-rated walls shall be permit- 
ted to terminate at the underside of the roof sheathing, 
deck or slab provided: 

2.1. The lower roof assembly within 4 feet (1220 
mm) of the wall has not less than a 1-hour 
fire-resistance rating and the entire length and 
span of supporting elements for the rated roof 
assembly has a fire-resistance rating of not 
less than 1 hour. 

2.2. Openings in the roof shall not be located 
within 4 feet (1220 mm) of the fire wall. 



C3 



2.3. Each building shall be provided with not less 
than a Class B roof covering. 

3. Walls shall be permitted to terminate at the underside Q 
of noncombustible roof sheathing, deck, or slabs 
where both buildings are provided with not less than a 
Class B roof covering. Openings in the roof shall not 
be located within 4 feet (1220 mm) of the fire wall. 

4. In buildings of Type III, IV and V construction, walls 
shall be permitted to terminate at the underside of 
combustible roof sheathing or decks provided: 

4. 1 . There are no openings in the roof within 4 feet 
(1220 mm) of the fire wall, 

4.2. The roof is covered with a minimum Class B 
roof covering, and 

4.3. The roof sheathing or deck is constructed of 
fire-retardant-treated wood for a distance of 4 
feet (1220 mm) on both sides of the wall or the 
roof is protected with Vg inch (15.9 mm) Type 
X gypsum board directly beneath the under- 
side of the roof sheathing or deck, supported 
by a minimum of 2-inch (5 1 mm) nominal led- 
gers attached to the sides of the roof framing 
members for a minimum distance of 4 feet 
(1220 mm) on both sides of the fire wall. 

5. Buildings located above a parking garage designed in 
accordance with Section 508.2 shall be permitted to 
have the fire walls for the buildings located above the 
parking garage extend from the horizontal separation 
between the parking garage and the buildings. 

705.6ol Stepped tomildnrngs. Where a fire wall serves as an 
exterior wall for a building and separates buildings having 
different roof levels, such wall shall terminate at a point not 
less than 30 inches (762 mm) above the lower roof level, 
provided the exterior wall for a height of 15 feet (4572 mm) 
above the lower roof is not less than 1-hour fire-resis- 
tance-rated construction from both sides with openings pro- 
tected by assemblies having a V4-hour fire protection rating. 



C^ 



m Where the fire wall terminates at the under- 
side of the roof sheathing, deck or slab of the lower roof, 
provided: 

1 . The lower roof assembly within 10 feet (3048 mm) 
of the wall has not less than a 1 -hour fire-resistance 
rating and the entire length and span of supporting 
elements for the rated roof assembly has a fire-re- 
sistance rating of not less than 1 hour. 

2. Openings in the lower roof shall not be located 
within 10 feet (3048 mm) of the fire wall. 



7CD5o7 Combiustnlble framing m ire walls. Adjacent combusti- 
ble members entering into a concrete or masonry fire wall from 
opposite sides shall not have less than a 4-inch (102 mm) dis- 
tance between embedded ends. Where combustible members 
frame into hollow walls or walls of hollow units, hollow spaces 
shall be solidly filled for the full thickness of the wall and for a 
distance not less than 4 inches (102 mm) above, below and be- 
tween the structural members, with noncombustible materials 
approved for fireblocking. 



2003 INTERNATIOMAL BUILDING CODE® 



FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED COMSTRUCTlOfS! 



705.8 OpeniogSo Each opening through a fire wall shall be pro- 
tected in accordance with Section 715.3 and shall not exceed 
120 square feet (1 1 m^). The aggregate width of openings at any 
floor level shall not exceed 25 percent of the length of the wall. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Openings are not permitted in party walls constructed 
in accordance with Section 503.2. 

2. Openings shall not be limited to 120 square feet (11 
m^) where both buildings are equipped throughout 
with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accor- 
dance with Section 903.3.1.1. 

705.9 Penetrations. Penetrations through fire walls shall com- 
ply with Section 712. 

705.10 Joints. Joints made in or between fire walls shall com- 
ply with Section 713. 

705.11 Ducts and air transfer openings. Ducts and air trans- 
fer openings shall not penetrate fire walls. 

Exception: Penetrations by ducts and air transfer openings 
of fire walls that are not on a lot line shall be allowed pro- 
vided the penetrations comply with Sections 712 and 716. 
The size and aggregate width of all openings shall not ex- 
ceed the limitations of Section 705.8. 



706.1 General. Fire barriers used for separation of shafts, ex- 
its, exit passageways, horizontal exits or incidental use areas, to 
separate different occupancies, to separate a single occupancy 
into different fire areas, or to separate other areas where a fire 
barrier is required elsewhere in this code or the International 
Fire Code, shall comply with this section. 



P.2 Materials. The walls and floor assemblies shall be of 
materials permitted by the building type of construction. 

706,3 Fire-resistance rating. The fire-resistance rating of the 
walls and floor assemblies shall comply with this section. 

706.3.1 Shaft enclosures. The fire-resistance rating of the 
fire barrier separating building areas from a shaft shall com- 
ply with Section 707.4. 

706.3.2 Exit enclosures. The fire-resistance rating of the 
fire barrier separating building areas from an exit shall com- 
ply with Section 1019.1. 

706.3.3 Exit passageway. The fire-resistance rating of the 
separation between building areas and an exit passageway 
shall comply with Section 1020.1. 

706.3.4 Horizontal exit. The fire-resistance rating of the 
separation between building areas connected by a horizon- 
tal exit shall comply with Section 1021.1. 

706.3.5 Incidental use areas. The fire barrier separating in- 
cidental use areas shall have a fire-resistance rating of not 
less than that indicated in Table 302.1.1. 

706.3.6 Separation of mixed occupancies. Where the pro- 
visions of Section 302.3.2 are applicable, the fire barrier 
separating mixed occupancies shall have a fire-resistance 



rating of not less than that indicated in Section 302.3.2 based 
on the occupancies being separated. 

706.3,7 Single-occupancy fire areas. The fire barrier sepa- 
rating a single occupancy into different fire areas shall have 
a fire-resistance rating of not less than that indicated in Table 
706.3.7. 

TABLE 706.3.7 

FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING REQUIREMENTS FOR FIRE 

BARRIER ASSEMBLIES BETWEEN FIRE AREAS 



OCCUPANCY GROUP 


FSRE-RESISTANCE RATING (hours) 


H-l,H-2 


4 


F-1,H-3,S-1 


3 


A, B, E, F-2, H-4, H-5, 

I, M, R, S-2 


2 


U 


1 



706.4 Continuity of fire barrier walls. Fire barrier walls shall 
extend from the top of the floor/ceiling assembly below to the 
underside of the floor or roof slab or deck above and shall be se- 
curely attached thereto. These walls shall be continuous 
through concealed spaces such as the space above a suspended 
ceiling. The supporting construction for fire barrier walls shall 
be protected to afford the required fire-resistance rating of the 
fire barrier supported except for 1-hour fire-resistance-rated in- 
cidental use area separations as required by Table 302.1.1 in 
buildings of Type IIB, IIIB and VB construction. Hollow verti- 
cal spaces within the fire barrier wall shall be firestopped at ev- 
ery floor level. 



11 



1 . The maximum required fire-resistance rating for as- 
semblies supporting fire barriers separating tank stor- 
age as provided for in Section 415.7.2.1 shall be 2 
hours, but not less than required by Table 601 for the 
building construction type. 

2. Shaft enclosure shall be permitted to terminate at a top 
enclosure complying with Section 707.12. 

Horizontal fire barriers. Horizontal fire barriers shall 
be constructed in accordance with Section 711. 



5, Where exterior walls serve as a part of a 
required fire-resistance-rated enclosure, such walls shall com- 
ply with the requirements of Section 704 for exterior walls and 
the fire-resistance-rated enclosure requirements shall not ap- 
ply. 



m Exterior walls required to be fire-resistance 
rated in accordance with Section 1022.6. 



.7 Openings. Openings in a fire barrier wall shall be pro- 
tected in accordance with Section 715. Openings shall be lim- 
ited to a maximum aggregate width of 25 percent of the length 
of the wall, and the maximum area of any single opening shall 
not exceed 120 square feet (11 m^). Openings in exit enclosures 
shall also comply with Section 1019.1.1. 



1. Openings shall not be limited to 120 square feet (11 
m^) where adjoining fire areas are equipped through- 
out with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance 
with Section 903.3.1.1. 



92 



2003 INTERMATIOMAL BUILDING CODE® 



FlRE-eESBSmWCE-RATEDCOMSTeUCTIION 



• 



2. Fire doors serving an exit enclosure. 

3. Openings shall not be limited to 120 square feet (11 
m^) or an aggregate width of 25 percent of the length 
of the wall where the opening protective assembly has 
been tested in accordance with ASTM E 1 19 and has a 
minimum fire-resistance rating not less than the 
fire-resistance rating of the wall. 



Penetrations through fire barriers shall 
comply with Section 712. 

706.8ol Prohnbited pemetratnoisSo Penetrations into an exit 
enclosure shall only be allowed when permitted by Section 
1019.1.2. 



, Joints made in or between fire barriers shall com- 
ply with Section 713. 

706=10 Dmcits aed anir tramsfer openmgSo Penetrations by 
ducts and air transfer openings shall comply with Sections 712 
and 716. 



SHAFT ENCLOSURES 

707.1 GeEseral. The provisions of this section shall apply to 
vertical shafts where such shafts are required to protect open- 
ings and penetrations through floor/ceiling and roof/ceihng as- 
semblies. 



mire requniredo Openings through a 
floor/ceiling assembly shall be protected by a shaft enclosure 
complying with this section. 



1 . A shaft enclosure is not required for openings totally 
within an individual residential dwelling unit and 
connecting four stories or less. 

2. A shaft enclosure is not required in a building 
equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler 
system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 for an 
escalator opening or stairway which is not a portion 
of the means of egress protected according to Item 
2.1 or 2.2: 

2.1. Where the area of the floor opening between 
stories does not exceed twice the horizontal 
projected area of the escalator or stairway and 
the opening is protected by a draft curtain and 
closely spaced sprinklers in accordance with 
NFFA 13. In other than Groups B and M, this 
application is limited to openings that do not 
connect more than four stories. 

2.2. Where the opening is protected by approved 
power-operated automatic shutters at every 
floor penetrated. The shutters shall be of 
noncombustible construction and have a 
fire-resistance rating of not less than 1.5 
hours. The shutter shall be so constructed as to 
close immediately upon the actuation of a 
smoke detector installed in accordance with 
Section 907.10 and shall completely shut off 
the well opening. Escalators shall cease oper- 



ation when the shutter begins to close. The 
shutter shall operate at a speed of not more 
than 30 feet per minute ( 1 52.4 mm/s) and shall 
be equipped with a sensitive leading edge to 
arrest its progress where in contact with any 
obstacle, and to continue its progress on re- 
lease -therefrom. 

3. A shaft enclosure is not required for penetrations by 
pipe, tube, conduit, wire, cable, and vents protected 
in accordance with Section 712.4. 

4. A shaft enclosure is not required for penetrations by 
ducts protected in accordance with Section 712.4. 
Grease ducts shall be protected in accordance with 
the International Mechanical Code. 

5. A shaft enclosure is not required for floor openings 
complying with the provisions for covered malls or 
atriums. 

6. A shaft enclosure is not required for approved ma- 
sonry chimneys, where annular space protection is 
provided at each floor level in accordance with Sec- 
tion 717.2.5. 

7. In other than Groups 1-2 and 1-3, a shaft enclosure is 
not required for a floor opening that complies with 
the following: 

7.1. Does not connect more than two stories. 

7.2. Is not part of the required means of egress sys- 
tem except as permitted in Section 1019.1. 

7.3. Is not concealed within the building construc- 
tion. 

7.4. Is not open to a corridor in Group I and R oc- 
cupancies. 

7.5. Is not open to a corridor on nonsprinklered 
floors in any occupancy. 

7.6. Is separated from floor openings serving other 
floors by construction conforming to required 
shaft enclosures. 

8. A shaft enclosure is not required for automobile 
ramps in open parking garages and enclosed parking 
garages constructed in accordance with Sections 
406.3 and 406.4, respectively. 

9. A shaft enclosure is not required for floor openings 
between a mezzanine and the floor below. 

1 0. A shaft enclosure is not required for joints protected 
by a fire-resistant joint system in accordance with 
Section 713. 

1 1 . Where permitted by other sections of this code. 

Materials. The shaft enclosure shall be of materials per- 
mitted by the building type of construction. 

707.4 Fire-resistomce ratmg. Shaft enclosures shall have a 
fire-resistance rating of not less than 2 hours where connecting 
four stories or more and not less thanl hour where connecting 
less than four stories. The number of stories connected by the 
shaft enclosure shall include any basements but not any mezza- 
nines. Shaft enclosures shall be constructed as fire barriers in 
accordance with Section 706. Shaft enclosures shall have a 



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fire-resistance rating not less than the floor assembly pene- 
trated, but need not exceed 2 hours. 

707.5 Continuity. Shaft enclosure walls shall extend from the 
top of the floor/ceiling assembly below to the underside of the 
floor or roof slab or deck above and shall be securely attached 
thereto. These walls shall be continuous through concealed 
spaces such as the space above a suspended ceiling. The sup- 
porting construction shall be protected to afford the required 
fire-resistance rating of the element supported. Hollow vertical 
spaces within the shaft enclosure construction wall shall be 
firestopped at every floor level. 

707.6 Exterior walls. Where exterior walls serve as a part of a 
required shaft enclosure, such walls shall comply with the re- 
quirements of Section 704 for exterior walls and the fire-resis- 
tance-rated enclosure requirements shall not apply. 

Exception: Exterior walls required to be fire-resistance 
rated in accordance with Section 1022.6. 

707.7 Openings. Openings in a shaft enclosure shall be pro- 
tected in accordance with Section 7 15 as required for fire barri- 
ers. Such openings shall be self-closing or automatic-closing 
by smoke detection. 

707.7.1 Prohibited openings. Openings other than those 
necessary for the purpose of the shaft shall not be permitted 
in shaft enclosures. 

707.8 Penetrations. Penetrations in a shaft enclosure shall be 
protected in accordance with Section 712 as required for fire 
barriers. 

707.8.1 Prohibited penetrations. Penetrations other than 
those necessary for the purpose of the shaft shall not be per- 
mitted in shaft enclosures. Ducts shall not penetrate exit 
shaft enclosures. 

Exception." Duct penetrations as permitted in Section 
1019.1.2. 

707.9 Joints. Joints in a shaft enclosure shall comply with Sec- 
tion 713. 

707.10 Ducts and air transfer openings. Penetrations of a 
shaft enclosure by ducts and air transfer openings shall comply 
with Sections 712 and 716. 

707.11 Enclosure at the bottom. Shafts that do not extend to 
the bottom of the building or structure shall: 

1 . Be enclosed at the lowest level with construction of the 
same fire-resistance rating as the lowest floor through 
which the shaft passes, but not less than the rating re- 
quired for the shaft enclosure; 

2. Terminate in a room having a use related to the purpose 
of the shaft. The room shall be separated from the re- 
mainder of the building by construction having a fire-re- 
sistance rating and opening protectives at least equal to 
the protection required for the shaft enclosure; or 

3 . Be protected by approved fire dampers installed in accor- 
dance with their listing at the lowest floor level within the 
shaft enclosure. 

Exceptions: 

1. The fire-resistance-rated room separation is not re- 
quired provided there are no openings in or penetra- 



tions of the shaft enclosure to the interior of the build- 
ing except at the bottom. The bottom of the shaft shall 
be closed off around the penetrating items with mate- 
rials permitted by Section 717.3.1 for draftstopping, 
or the room shall be provided with an approved auto- 
matic fire suppression system. 

2. A shaft enclosure containing a refuse chute or laundry 
chute shall not be used for any other purpose and shall 
terminate in a room protected in accordance with Sec- 
tion 707.13.4. 

3. The fire-resistance-rated room separation and the pro- 
tection at the bottom of the shaft are not required pro- 
vided there are no combustibles in the shaft and there 
are no openings or other penetrations through the 
shaft enclosure to the interior of the building. 

707.12 Enclosure at the top. A shaft enclosure that does not 
extend to the underside of the roof deck of the building shall be 
enclosed at the top with construction of the same fire-resistance 
rating as the topmost floor penetrated by the shaft, but not less 
than the fire-resistance rating required for the shaft enclosure. 

707.13 Refuse and laundry chutes. Refuse and laundry 
chutes, access and termination rooms and incinerator rooms 
shall meet the requirements of Sections 707.13.1 through 
707.13.6. 

Exception: Chutes serving and contained within a single 
dwelling unit. 

707.13.1 Refuse and laundry chute enclosures, A shaft 
enclosure containing a refuse or laundry chute shall not be 
used for any other purpose and shall be enclosed in accor- 
dance with Section 707.4. Openings into the shaft, including 
those from access rooms and termination rooms, shall be 
protected in accordance with this section and Section 715. 
Openings into chutes shall not be located in exit access cor- 
ridors. Opening protectives shall be self-closing or auto- 
matic-closing upon the actuation of a smoke detector 
installed in accordance with Section 907.10, except that 
heat-activated closing devices shall be permitted between 
the shaft and the termination room. 

707.13.2 Materials, A shaft enclosure containing a refuse 
or laundry chute shall be constructed of materials as permit- 
ted by the building type of construction. 

707.13.3 Refuse and laundry chute access rooms. Access 
openings for refuse and laundry chutes shall be located in 
rooms or compartments completely enclosed by construc- 
tion that has a fire-resistance rating of not less than 1 hour 
and openings into the access rooms shall be protected by 
opening protectives having a fire protection rating of not 
less than V4 hour and shall be self-closing or automatic-clos- 
ing upon the detection of smoke. 

707.13.4 Termination room. Refuse and laundry chutes 
shall discharge into an enclosed room completely separated 
from the remainder of the building by construction that has a 
fire-resistance rating of not less than 1 hour and openings 
into the termination room shall be protected by opening 
protectives having a fire protection rating of not less than V4 
hour and shall be self-closing or automatic-closing upon the 
detection of smoke. Refuse chutes shall not terminate in an 



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FDRE-RESDSTAMCE=RATEDCONSTRUCTBOW 



incinerator room. Refuse and laundry rooms that are not 
provided with chutes need only comply with Table 302. 1.1. 

707.13.5 ledeerator room. Incinerator rooms shall com- 
ply with Table 302. 1 . 1 . 

707.13.6 Aetomatk ffire sprinkler system. An approved 
automatic fire sprinkler system shall be installed in accor- 
dance with Section 903.2.10.2. 

707.14 Elevator and dumbwaiter shafts. Elevator hoistway 
and dumbwaiter enclosures shall be constructed in accordance 
with Section 707.4 and Chapter 30. 

707.14.1 Elevator lobby. Elevators opening into a fire-re- 
sistance-rated corridor as required by Section 1016.1 shall 
be provided with an elevator lobby at each floor containing 
such a corridor. The lobby shall separate the elevators from 
the corridor by fire partitions and the required opening pro- 
tection. Elevator lobbies shall have at least one means of 
egress complying with Chapter 10 and other provisions 
within this code. 



1. In office buildings, separations are not required 
from a street-floor elevator lobby provided the en- 
tire street floor is equipped with an automatic 
sprinkler system in accordance with Section 
903.3.1.1. 

2. Elevators not required to be located in a shaft in ac- 
cordance with Section 707.2. 

3. Where additional doors are provided in accor- 
dance with Section 3002.6. Such doors shall be 
tested in accordance with UL 1784 without an arti- 
ficial bottom seal. 

4. In other than Group 1-3, and buildings more than 
four stories above the lowest level of fire depart- 
ment vehicle access, lobby separation is not re- 
quired where the building, including the lobby and 
corridors leading to the lobby, is protected by an 
automatic sprinkler system installed throughout in 
accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2. 



708.1 Gemeral. The following wall assemblies shall comply 
with this section. 

1 . Walls separating dwelling units in the same building. 

2. Walls separating sleeping units in occupancies in Group 
R-1, hotel occupancies, R-2 and I-l. 

3. Walls separating tenant spaces in covered mall buildings 
as required by Section 402.7.2. 

4. Corridor walls as required by Section 1016.1. 

5. Elevator lobby separation as required by Section 
707.14.1. 

708.2 Materials. The walls shall be of materials permitted by 
the building type of construction. 

708.3 Flre-resistaece rating. The fire-resistance rating of the 
walls shall be at least 1 hour. 



1. Corridor walls as permitted by Table 1016.1. 

2. Dwelling unit and sleeping unit separations in buildings 
of Type IIB, IIIB and VB construction shall have fire-re- 
sistance ratings of not less than '/2 hour in buildings 
equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system 
in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. 

708.4 Continuity. Fire partitions shall extend from the top of 
the floor assembly below to the underside of the floor or roof 
slab or deck above or to the fire-resistance-rated floor/ceiling 
or roof/ceiling assembly above, and shall be securely attached 
thereto. If the partitions are not continuous to the deck, and 
where constructed of combustible construction, the space be- 
tween the ceiling and the deck above shall be fireblocked or 
draftstopped in accordance with Sections 717.2.1 and 717.3.1 
at the partition line. The supporting construction shall be pro- 
tected to afford the required fire-resistance rating of the wall 
supported, except for tenant and sleeping unit separation walls 
and exit access corridor walls in buildings of Type IIB, IIIB and 
VB construction. 



1 . The wall need not be extended into the crawl space be- 
low where the floor above the crawl space has a mini- 
mum 1-hour fire-resistance rating. 

2. Where the room-side fire-resistance-rated membrane 
of the corridor is carried through to the underside of a 
fire-resistance-rated floor or roof above, the ceiling of 
the corridor shall be permitted to be protected by the 
use of ceihng materials as required for a 1-hour 
fire-resistance-rated floor or roof system. 

3. Where the corridor ceiling is constructed as required 
for the corridor walls, the walls shall be permitted to 
terminate at the upper membrane of such ceiling as- 
sembly. 

4. The fire partition separating tenant spaces in a mall, 
complying with Section 402.7.2, is not required to ex- 
tend beyond the underside of a ceiling that is not part 
of a fire-resistance-rated assembly. A wall is not re- 
quired in attic or ceiling spaces above tenant separa- 
tion walls. 

5. Fireblocking or draftstopping is not required at the 
partition line in Group R-2 buildings that do not ex- 
ceed four stories in height provided the attic space is 
subdivided by draftstopping into areas not exceeding 
3,000 square feet (279 m^) or above every two dwell- 
ing units, whichever is smaller. 

6. Fireblocking or draftstopping is not required at the 
partition line in buildings equipped with an automatic 
sprinkler system installed throughout in accordance 
with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2 provided that au- 
tomatic sprinklers are installed in combustible 
floor/ceiling and roof/ceihng spaces. 

708,5 Exterior walls. Where exterior walls serve as a part of a 
required fire-resistance-rated enclosure, such walls shall comply 
with the requirements of Section 704 for exterior walls and the 
fire-resistance-rated enclosure requirements shall not apply. 



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708,6 Openings. Openings in a fire partition shall be protected 
in accordance with Section 715. 

708o7 Penetrations, Penetrations through fire partitions shall 
comply with Section 712. 

708.8 Joints. Joints made in or between fire partitions shall 
comply with Section 713. 

708.9 Ducts and air transfer openings. Penetrations by ducts 
and air transfer openings shall comply with Sections 712 and 
716. 



Si 



SECTION 709 
/iOKE BARRIERS 



709.1 General. Smoke barriers shall comply with this section. 

709.2 Materials. Smoke barriers shall be of materials permit- 
ted by the building type of construction. 

709.3 Fire-resistance rating. A 1 -hour fire-resistance rating is 
required for smoke barriers. 

Exception: Smoke barriers constructed of minimum 
0.10-inch-thick (2.5 mm) steel in Group 1-3 buildings. 

709.4 Continuity. Smoke barriers shall form an effective 
membrane continuous from outside wall to outside wall and 
from floor slab to floor or roof deck above, including continuity • 
through concealed spaces, such as those found above sus- 
pended ceilings, and interstitial structural and mechanical 
spaces. The supporting construction shall be protected to af- 
ford the required fire-resistance rating of the wall or floor sup- 
ported in buildings of other than Type IIB, TUB or VB 
construction. 

Exception: Smoke barrier walls are not required in intersti- 
tial spaces where such spaces are designed and constructed 
with ceilings that provide resistance to the passage of fire 
and smoke equivalent to that provided by the smoke barrier 
walls. 

709.5 Openings. Openings in a smoke barrier shall be pro- 
tected in accordance with Section 715. 

Exception: In Group 1-2, where such doors are installed 
across corridors, a pair of opposite-swinging doors without 
a center mullion shall be installed having vision panels with 
approved fire-resistance-rated glazing materials in ap- 
proved fire-resistance-rated frames, the area of which shall 
not exceed that tested. The doors shall be close fitting within 
operational tolerances, and shall not have undercuts, lou- 
vers or grilles. The doors shall have head and jamb stops, as- 
tragals or rabbets at meeting edges and automatic-closing 
devices. Positive-latching devices are not required. 

709.6 Penetrations. Penetrations through smoke barriers shall 
comply with Section 712. 

709.7 Joints. Joints made in or between smoke barriers shall 
comply with Section 713. 

709.8 Ducts and air transfer openings. Penetrations by ducts 
and air transfer openings shall comply with Sections 712 and 
716. 



SliOKE PARTITIONS 

710.1 General. Smoke partitions installed as required else- 
where in the code shall comply with this section. 

710.2 Materials. The walls shall be of materials permitted by 
the building type of construction. 

710o3 Fire-resDstance rating. Unless required elsewhere in the 
code, smoke partitions are not required to have a fire-resistance 
rating. 

710.4 Continuity. Smoke partitions shall extend from the floor 
to the underside of the floor or roof deck above or to the under- 
side of the ceiling above where the ceiling membrane is con- 
structed to limit the transfer of smoke. 

710.5 Openings. Windows shall be sealed to resist the free pas- 
sage of smoke or be automatic-closing upon detection of smoke. 
Doors in smoke partitions shall comply with this section. 



,5.1 Louvers. Doors in smoke partitions shall not in- 
clude louvers. 

710.5.2 Smoke and draft-control doors. Where required 
elsewhere in the code, doors in smoke partitions shall be tested 
in accordance with UL 1784 with an artificial bottom seal in- 
stalled across the full width of the bottom of the door assembly. 
The air leakage rate of the door assembly shall not exceed 3.0 
cubic feet per minute per square foot [ftV(min ft^)] (0.015424 
mVsm^) of door opening at 0. 10 inch (24.9 Pa) of water for both 
the ambient temperature test and the elevated temperature ex- 
posure test. 

710.5.3 Self-closing or automatic-closing doors. Where 
required elsewhere in the code, doors in smoke partitions 
shall be self-closing or automatic-closing in accordance 
with Section 715.3.7.3. 

710.6 Penetrations and joints. The space around penetrating 
items and in joints shall be filled with an approved material to 
limit the free passage of smoke. 

710.7 Ducts and air transfer openings. Air transfer openings 
in smoke partitions shall be provided with a smoke damper 
complying with Section 716.3.2. 

Exception: Where the installation of a smoke damper will 
interfere with the operation of a required smoke control sys- 
tem in accordance with Section 909, approved alternative 
protection shall be utilized. 



HORIZONTAL ASSEMBLIES 

711.1 General, Floor and roof assembhes required to have a 
fire-resistance rating shall comply with this section. 



711.2 Materials. The floor and roof assemblies shall be of ma- 
terials permitted by the building type of construction. 



The fire-resistance rating of 
floor and roof assemblies shall not be less than that required by 
the building type of construction. Where the floor assembly 
separates mixed occupancies, the assembly shall have a fire-re- 
sistance rating of not less than that required by Section 302.3.2 
based on the occupancies being separated. Where the floor as- 



96 



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sembly separates a single occupancy into different fire areas, 
the assembly shall have a fire-resistance rating of not less than 
that required by Section 706.3.7. Floor assemblies separating 
dwelling units in the same building or sleeping units in occu- 
pancies in Group R-1, hotel occupancies, R-2 and I-l shall be a 
] minimum of 1-hour fire-resistance-rated construction. 



m Dwelling unit and sleeping unit separations in 
buildings of Type IIB, IIIB, and VB construction shall have 
fire-resistance ratings of not less than V2 hour in buildings 
equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in 
accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. 



Is. Where the weight of lay-in ceiling 
panels, used as part of fire-resistance-rated floor/ceihng or 
roof/ceiling assemblies, is not adequate to resist an upward 
force of 1 Ib/ft.^ (48 Pa), wire or other approved devices shall 
be installed above the panels to prevent vertical displace- 
ment under such upward force. 



rs. Access doors shall be permitted in 
ceilings of fire-resistance-rated floor/ceiling and roof/ceil- 
ing assembhes provided such doors are tested in accordance 
with ASTM E 1 19 as horizontal assemblies and labeled by 
an approved agency for such purpose. 



In 1-hour fire -resistance-rated 
floor construction, the ceiling membrane is not required to 
be installed over unusable crawl spaces. In 1-hour fire-resis- 
tance-rated roof construction, the floor membrane is not re- 
quired to be installed where unusable attic space occurs 
above. 

711.4 Contnmuity. Assemblies shall be continuous without 
openings, penetrations or joints except as permitted by this sec- 
tion and Sections 707.2, 712.4 and 713. Skyhghts and other 
penetrations through a fire-resistance-rated roof deck are per- 
mitted to be unprotected, provided that the structural integrity 
of the fire-resistance-rated roof construction is maintained. Un- 
protected skylights shall not be permitted in roof construction 
required to be fire-resistance rated in accordance with Section 
704.10. The supporting construction shall be protected to af- 
ford the required fire-resistance rating of the horizontal assem- 
bly supported. 

711.5 Penetrations, Penetrations through fire-resistance-rated 
horizontal assemblies shall comply with Section 712. 

711.6 Joints, Joints made in or between fire-resistance-rated 
horizontal assemblies shall comply with Section 713. The void 
created at the intersection of a floor/ceiling assembly and an ex- 
terior curtain wall assembly shall be protected in accordance 
with Section 713.4. 

711.7 Ducts and air tramsfer openlEgs, Penetrarions by ducts 
and air transfer openings shall comply with Secfions 712 and 
716. 



PENETRMIONS 

712,1 Scope, The provisions of this secfion shall govern the 
materials and methods of construcdon used to protect through 
penetrations and membrane penetrations. 



Is, Where sleeves are used, they shall 
be securely fastened to the assembly penetrated. The space be- 
tween the item contained in the sleeve and the sleeve itself and 
any space between the sleeve and the assembly penetrated shall 
be protected in accordance with this section. Insulation and 
coverings on or in the penetradng item shall not penetrate the 
assembly unless the specific material used has been tested as 
part of the assembly in accordance with this secfion. 

712.3 Fire-resistamce-rated walls. Penetrations into or 
through fire walls, fire barriers, smoke barrier walls, and fire 
partitions shall comply with this section. 

712,3.1 Through penetrations. Through penetrations of 
fire-resistance-rated walls shall comply with Section 
712.3.1.1 or712.3. 1.2. 



m Where the penetrating items are steel, fer- 
rous or copper pipes or steel conduits, the annular space 
between the penetrating item and the fire-resis- 
tance-rated wall shall be permitted to be protected as fol- 
lows: 

1 . In concrete or masonry walls where the penetrat- 
ing item is a maximum 6-inch (152 mm) nominal 
diameter and the opening is a maximum 144 
square inches (0.0929 m^), concrete, grout or mor- 
tar shall be permitted where installed the full thick- 
ness of the wall or the thickness required to 
maintain the fire-resistance rating; or 

2. The material used to fill the annular space shall 
prevent the passage of flame and hot gases suffi- 
cient to ignite cotton waste when subjected to 
ASTM E 1 19 time-temperature fire conditions un- 
der a minimum positive pressure differential of 
0.01 inch (2.49 Pa) of water at the location of the 
penetration for the time period equivalent to the 
fire-resistance rating of the construction pene- 
trated. 



712.3.1.1 Fire=re§istance=rated assemtolies. Penetra- 
tions shall be installed as tested in an approved fire-resis- 
tance-rated assembly. 

712.3.1.2 ThroMgh-penetration ffirestop system. 
Through penetrations shall be protected by an approved 
penetration firestop system installed as tested in accor- 
dance with ASTM E 814 or UL 1479, with a minimum Q 
positive pressure differential of 0.01 inctf (2.49 Pa) of 
water and shall have an F rating of not less than the re- 
quired fire-resistance rating of the wall penetrated. 

712.3.2 Memtiirame pemetratiosis. Membrane penetrations 
shall comply with Section 712.3.1. Where walls and parti- 
tions are required to have a minimum 1-hour fire-resistance 
rating, recessed fixtures shall be installed such that the re- 
quired fire resistance will not be reduced. 



1 . Steel electrical boxes that do not exceed 16 square 
inches (0.0103 m^) in area provided the total area 
of such openings does not exceed 100 square 
inches (0.0645 m^) for any 100 square feet (9.29 
m^) of wall area. Outlet boxes on opposite sides of 
the wall shall be separated as shown: 



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1 . 1 . By a horizontal distance of not less than 24 
inches (610 mm); 

1 .2. By a horizontal distance of not less than the 
depth of the wall cavity where the wall cav- 
ity is filled with cellulose loose fill, 
rockwool or slag mineral wool insulation; 

1.3. By solid fireblocking in accordance with 
Section 717.2.1; 

1 .4. By protecting both outlet boxes with listed 
putty pads; or 

1.5. By other listed materials and methods. 

2. Membrane penetrations for listed electrical outlet 
boxes of any material are permitted provided such 
boxes have been tested for use in fire-resis- 
tance-rated assemblies and are installed in accor- 
dance with the instructions included in the listing. 
Outlet boxes on opposite sides of the wall shall be 
separated as follows: 

2. 1 . By a horizontal distance of not less than 24 
inches (610 mm); 

2.2. By solid fireblocking in accordance with 
Section 717.2.1; 

2.3. By protecting both outlet boxes with listed 
putty pads; or 

2.4. By other listed materials and methods. 

3. The annular space created by the penetration of a 
fire sprinkler provided it is covered by a metal es- 
cutcheon plate. 

712.3.3 Ducts and air transfer openings. Penetrations of 
fire-resistance-rated walls by ducts and air transfer open- 
ings that are not protected with fire dampers shall comply 
with this section. 

712.3.4 Dissimilar materials. Noncombustible penetrating 
items shall not connect to combustible items beyond the 
point of firestopping unless it can be demonstrated that the 
fire-resistance integrity of the wall is maintained. 

712.4 Horizontal assemblies. Penetrations of a floor, 
floor/ceihng assembly or the ceiling membrane of a roof/ceil- 
ing assembly shall be protected in accordance with Section 
707. Penetrations permitted by Exceptions 3 and 4 of Section 
707.2 shall comply with Sections 712.4.1 through 712.4.4. 

Exception: Penetrations located within the same room or 
undivided area as floor openings are not required to have a 
shaft enclosure in accordance with Exception 1, 2, 5, 7, 8 or 
9 in Section 707.2. 

712.4.1 Through penetrations. Through penetrations of 
fire-resistance-rated horizontal assembhes shall comply 
with Section 712.4.1.1 or 712.4.1.2. 

tons: 

Penetrations by steel, ferrous or copper conduits, 
pipes, tubes, vents, concrete, or masonry through a 
single fire-resistance-rated floor assembly where 
the annular space is protected with materials that 
prevent the passage of flame and hot gases suffi- 
cient to ignite cotton waste when subjected to 



ASTM E 1 19 time-temperature fire conditions un- 
der a minimum positive pressure differential of 
0.01 inch (2.49 Pa) of water at the location of the 
penetration for the time period equivalent to the 
fire-resistance rating of the construction pene- 
trated. Penetrating items with a maximum 6-inch 
(152 mm) nominal diameter shall not be limited to 
the penetration of a single fire-resistance-rated 
floor assembly provided that the area of the pene- 
tration does not exceed 144 square inches (92 900 
mm^) in any 100 square feet (9.3 m^) of floor area. 

2. Penetrations in a single concrete floor by steel, fer- 
rous or copper conduits, pipes, tubes and vents 
with a maximum 6-inch (152 mm) nominal diame- 
ter provided concrete, grout or mortar is installed 
the full thickness of the floor or the thickness re- 
quired to maintain the fire-resistance rating. The 
penetrating items with a maximum 6-inch (152 
mm) nominal diameter shall not be limited to the 
penetration of a single concrete floor provided that 
the area of the penetration does not exceed 144 
square inches (0.0929 m^). 

3. Electrical outlet boxes of any material are permit- 
ted provided that such boxes are tested for use in 
fire-resistance-rated assemblies and installed in 
accordance with the tested assembly. 

712.4.1.1 Fire-resistamce-rated assemblies. Penetra- 
tions shall be installed as tested in an approved fire-resis- 
tance-rated assembly. 

712.4.1.2 ThroMgh-pemetration llrestop system. 
Through penetrations shall be protected by an approved 
through-penetration firestop system installed and tested 
in accordance with ASTM E 8 14 or UL 1479, with a min- 
imum positive pressure differential of 0.01 inch (2.49 Pa) 
of water. The system shall have an F rating and a T rating 
of not less than 1 hour but not less than the required rating 
of the floor penetrated. 

Exception: Floor penetrations contained and located 
within the cavity of a wall do not require a T rating. 



Penetrations of mem- 
branes that are part of a fire-resistance-rated horizontal as- 
sembly shall comply with Section 712.4.1.1 or 712.4.1.2. 
Where floor/ceiling assemblies are required to have a mini- 
mum 1-hour fire-resistance rating, recessed fixtures shall be 
installed such that the required fire resistance will not be re- 
duced. 



1 . Membrane penetrations by steel, ferrous or copper 
conduits, electrical outlet boxes, pipes, tubes, 
vents, concrete, or masonry-penetrating items 
where the annular space is protected either in ac- 
cordance with Section 712.4.1 or to prevent the 
free passage of flame and the products of combus- 
tion. Such penetrations shall not exceed an aggre- 
gate area of 100 square inches (64 500 mm^) in any 
100 square feet (9.3 m^) of ceiling area in assem- 
blies tested without penetrations. 



2003 INTERNATBONAL BUBLDING CODE® 



FDRE-RESBSTANCE-RATEDCOMSTeUCTIION 



2. Membrane penetrations by listed electrical outlet 
boxes of any material are permitted provided such 
boxes have been tested for use in fire-resis- 
tance-rated assemblies and are installed in accor- 
dance with the instructions included in the hsting. 

3. The annular space created by the penetration of a 
fire sprinkler provided it is covered by a metal es- 
cutcheon plate. 

712.4o3 Noinifflre=]re§5§toii]ice=ratedl assemMks. Penetra- 
tions of horizontal assemblies without a required fire-resis- 
tance rating shall meet the requirements of Section 707 or 
shall comply with Sections 712.4.3.1 through 712.4.3.2. 



712.4.3.1 Noimcoinnibiuistnble pemetiraltninig nil 
Noncombustible penetrating items that connect not more 
than three stories are permitted provided that the annular 
space is filled with an approved noncombustible material 
to resist the free passage of flame and the products of 
combustion. 



712.4.3.2 Pemetiratninig items. Penetrating items that con- 
nect not more than two stories are permitted provided 
that the annular space is filled with an approved material 
to resist the free passage of flame and the products of 
combustion. 

712.4.4 Dnjicts and anr Uramsffer opemnirags. Penetrations of 
horizontal assembhes by ducts and air transfer openings that 
are not required to have dampers shall comply with this sec- 
tion. Ducts and air transfer openings that are protected with 
dampers shall comply with Section 716. 



712.4.5 Dissimilar materials. Noncombustible penetrating 
items shall not connect to combustible materials beyond the 
point of firestopping unless it can be demonstrated that the 
fire-resistance integrity of the horizontal assembly is main- 
tained. 

712.4.6 Floor ire doors. Floor fire doors used to protect 
openings in fire-resistance-rated floors shall be tested in the 
horizontal position in accordance with ASTM E 119, and 
shall achieve a fire-resistance rating not less than the assem- 
bly being penetrated. Floor fire doors shall be labeled by an 
approved agency. 



=KESDSmi\iT 



n SYSTi 



713.1 Gemeral. Joints installed in or between fire-resis- 
tance-rated walls, floor or floor/ceiling assemblies and roofs or 
roof/ceiling assemblies shall be protected by an approved 
fire-resistant joint system designed to resist the passage of fire 
for a time period not less than the required fire-resistance rating 
of the wall, floor or roof in or between which it is installed. 
Fire-resistant joint systems shall be tested in accordance with 
Section 713.3. The void created at the intersection of a 
floor/ceiling assembly and an exterior curtain wall assembly 
shall be protected in accordance with Section 713.4. 



m Fire-resistant joint systems shall not be required 
for joints in all of the following locations: 

1 . Floors within a single dwelhng unit. 



2. Floors where the joint is protected by a shaft enclo- 
sure in accordance with Section 707. 

3. Floors within atriums where the space adjacent to the 
atrium is included in the volume of the atrium for 
smoke control purposes. 

4. Floors within malls. 

5. Floors within open parking structures. 

6. Mezzanine floors. 

7. Walls that are permitted to have unprotected open- 
ings. 

8. Roofs where openings are permitted. 

9. Control joints not exceeding a maximum width of 
0.625 inch (15.9 mm) and tested in accordance with 

ASTM E 119. 

713,2 Imstallation, Fire-resistant joint systems shall be se- 
curely installed in or on the joint for its entire length so as not to 
dislodge, loosen or otherwise impair its abihty to accommo- 
date expected building movements and to resist the passage of 
fire and hot gases. 



Fire-resistant joint systems shall be 
tested in accordance with the requirements of either ASTM E 
1966 or UL 2079. Nonsymmetrical wall joint systems shall be 
tested with both faces exposed to the furnace, and the assigned 
fire-resistance rating shall be the shortest duration obtained 
from the two tests. When evidence is furnished to show that the 
wall was tested with the least fire-resistant side exposed to the 
furnace, subject to acceptance of the building official, the wall 
need not be subjected to tests from the opposite side. 



m For exterior walls with a horizontal fire separa- 
tion distance greater than 5 feet (1524 mm), the joint system 
shall be required to be tested for interior fire exposure only. 

713,4 Exterior cortaim wall/ffiloor inntersectioiiii. Where fire- 
resistance-rated floor or floor/ceiling assemblies are required, 
voids created at the intersection of the exterior curtain wall as- 
sembhes and such floor assemblies shall be sealed with an ap- 
proved material or system to prevent the interior spread of fire. 
Such material or systems shall be securely installed and capa- 
ble of preventing the passage of flame and hot gases sufficient 
to ignite cotton waste where subjected to ASTM E 119 
time-temperature fire conditions under a minimum positive 
pressure differential of 0.01 inch of water (2.49 Pa) for the time 
period at least equal to the fire-resistance rating of the floor as- 
sembly. Height and fire-resistance requirements for curtain 
wall spandrels shall comply with Section 704.9. 



FD 



ITROCTORAL iiEMBER^ 



714ol Eequulrementeo The fire-resistance rating of structural 
members and assemblies shall comply with the requirements 
for the type of construction and shall not be less than the rating 
required for the fire-resistance-rated assemblies supported. 



m Fire barriers and fire partitions as provided in 
Sections 706.4 and 708.4, respectively. 



99 



FSRE-RESISTANCE-RATEDCONSTRUCTSON 



714.2 Protection of structural members. Protection of col- 
umns, girders, trusses, beams, lintels or other structural mem- 
bers that are required to have a fire-resistance rating shall 
comply with this section. 

714.2.1 Indlvidoal protection. Columns, girders, trusses, 
beams, lintels or other structural members that are required 
to have a fire-resistance rating and that support more than 
two floors or one floor and roof, or support a load-bearing 
wall or a nonload-bearing wall more than two stories high, 
shall be individually protected on all sides for the full length 
with materials having the required fire-resistance rating. 
Other structural members required to have a fire-resistance 
rating shall be protected by individual encasement, by a 
membrane or ceiling protection as specified in Section 711, 
or by a combination of both. Columns shall also comply 
with Section 714.2.2. 

714.2.2 Column protection above ceilings. Where col- 
umns require a fire-resistance rating, the entire column, in- 
cluding its connections to beams or girders, shall be 
protected. Where the column extends through a ceiling, fire 
resistance of the column shall be continuous from the top of 
the floor through the ceiling space to the top of the column. 

714.2.3 Truss protection. The required thickness and con- 
struction of fire-resistance-rated assemblies enclosing 
trusses shall be based on the results of full-scale tests or 
combinations of tests on truss components or on approved 
calculations based on such tests that satisfactorily demon- 
strate that the assembly has the required fire resistance. 

714.2.4 Attachments to structural members. The edges 
of lugs, brackets, rivets and bolt heads attached to structural 
members shall be permitted to extend to within 1 inch (25 
mm) of the surface of the fire protection. 

714.2.5 Reinforcing. Thickness of protection for concrete 
or masonry reinforcement shall be measured to the outside 
of the reinforcement except that stirrups and spiral rein- 
forcement ties are permitted to project not more than 
0.5-inch (12.7 mm) into the protection. 

714.3 Embedments and enclosures. Pipes, wires, conduits, 
ducts or other service facilities shall not be embedded in the re- 
quired fire protective covering of a structural member that is re- 
quired to be individually encased. 

714.4 Impact protection. Where the fire protective covering 
of a structural member is subject to impact damage from mov- 
ing vehicles, the handhng of merchandise or other activity, the 
fire protective covering shall be protected by comer guards or 
by a substantial jacket of metal or other noncombustible mate- 
rial to a height adequate to provide full protection, but not less 
than 5 feet (1524 mm) from the finished floor. 

714.5 Exterior structural members. Load-bearing structural 
members located within the exterior walls or on the outside of a 
building or structure shall be provided with the highest fire-re- 
sistance rating as determined in accordance with the following: 

1 . As required by Table 60 1 for the type of building element 
based on the type of construction of the building; 

2. As required by Table 601 for exterior bearing walls based 
on the type of construction; and 



3. As required by Table 602 for exterior walls based on the 
fire separation distance. 

714.6 Bottom flange protection. Fire protection is not re- 
quired at the bottom flange of lintels, shelf angles and plates, 
spanning not more than 6 feet (1829 mm) whether part of the 
structural frame or not, and from the bottom flange of lintels, 
shelf angles and plates not part of the structural frame, regard- 
less of span. 

714.7 Seismic isolation systems. Fire-resistance ratings for 
the isolation system shall meet the fire-resistance rating re- 
quired for the columns, walls, or other structural elements in 
which the isolation system is installed in accordance with Table 
601. 

Isolation systems required to have a fire-resistance rating 
shall be protected with approved materials or construction as- 
semblies designed to provide the same degree of fire resistance 
as the structural element in which it is installed when tested in 
accordance with ASTM E 119 (see Section 703.2). 

Such isolation system protection applied to isolator units 
shall be capable of retarding the transfer of heat to the isolator 
unit in such a manner that the required gravity load-carrying ca- 
pacity of the isolator unit will not be impaired after exposure to 
the standard time-temperature curve fire test prescribed in 
ASTM E 1 19 for a duration not less than that required for the 
fire resistance rating of the structure element in which it is in- 
stalled. 

Such isolation system protection applied to isolator units 
shall be suitably designed and securely installed so as not to 
dislodge, loosen, sustain damage, or otherwise impair its abil- 
ity to accommodate the seismic movements for which the isola- 
tor unit is designed and to maintain its integrity for the purpose 
of providing the required fire-resistance protection. 



SECTION 715 
OPENING PROTECTSVES 

715.1 Gemeral. Opening protectives required by other sections 
of this code shall comply with the provisions of this section. 

715.2 Fire-resistance-rated glazing. Labeled fire-resis- 
tance-rated glazing tested as part of a fire-resistance-rated wall 
assembly in accordance with ASTM E 1 19 shall not be required 
to comply with this section. 

715.3 Fire door and shutter assemblies. Approved fire door 
and fire shutter assemblies shall be constructed of any material 
or assembly of component materials that conforms to the test 
requirementsofSection715.3.1,715.3.2or715.3.3andthefire 
protection rating indicated in Table 715.3. Fire door assemblies 
and shutters shall be installed in accordance with the provisions 
of this section and NFPA 80. 

ions: 

1 . Labeled protective assemblies that conform to the re- 
quirements of this section or UL 10 A, UL 14B and UL 
14C for tin-clad fire door assemblies. 

2. Floor fire doors in accordance with Section 712.4.6. 



^ 



100 



2003 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



FDRE-RESDSTAMCE-RATEDCONSTRUCTIION 



•„ 



FBRE DOOR AND FIRE SB' 



IBLE 715.3 
JTTER FIRE 



TYPE OF ASSEMBLY 


REQUIRED 

ASSEMBLY 

RATING 

(hours) 


MINIMUM 
FIRE DOOR 
AND FIRE 
SHUTTER 
ASSEMBLY 
RATING 
(hours) 


Fire walls and fire barriers having a 
required fire-resistance rating greater 
than 1 hour 


4 

3 

2 

IV2 


3 


Fire barriers having a required 
fire-resistance rating of 1 hour: 

Shaft, exit enclosure and exit 
passageway walls 

Other fire barriers 


1 

1 


1 


Fire partitions: 
Corridor walls 

Other fire partitions 


1 

0.5 
1 


'/3^ 
%' 
% 


Exterior walls 


3 
2 
1 





both the ambient temperature and elevated temperature 
tests. Louvers shall be prohibited. 



a. Two doors, each with a fire protection rating of 1 '/j hours, installed on oppo- 
site sides of the same opening in a fire wall, shall be deemed equivalent in 
fire protection rating to one 3-hour fire door. 

b. For testing requirements, see Section 715.3.3. 



7153.1 Side=linEged or pivoted swinging doors. 
Side-hinged and pivoted swinging doors shall be tested in 
accordance with NFPA 252 or UL IOC. After 5 minutes into 
the NFPA 252 test, the neutral pressure level in the furnace 
shall be established at 40 inches (1016 mm) or less above the 
sill. 



rSo Other types of doors, includ- 
ing swinging elevator doors, shall be tested in accordance 
with NFPA 252 or UL lOB. The pressure in the furnace shall 
be maintained as nearly equal to the atmospheric pressure as 
possible. Once established, the pressure shall be maintained 
during the entire test period. 

715,3.3 Door assemtolies im corridors and smoke Ibarri- 
ers. Fire door assemblies required to have a minimum fire 
protection rating of 20 minutes where located in corridor 
walls or smoke barrier walls having a fire-resistance rating 
in accordance with Table 715.3 shall be tested in accordance 
with NFPA 252 or UL IOC without the hose stream test. If a 
20-minute fire door assembly contains glazing material, the 
glazing material in the door itself shall have a minimum fire 
protection rating of 20 minutes and be exempt from the hose 
stream test. Glazing material in any other part of the door as- 
sembly, including transom lites and sidelites, shall be tested 
in accordance with NFPA 257, including the hose stream 
test, in accordance with Section 715.4. Fire door assemblies 
shall also meet the requirements for a smoke- and draft-con- 
trol door assembly tested in accordance with UL 1784 with 
an artificial bottom seal installed across the full width of the 
bottom of the door assembly. The air leakage rate of the door 
assembly shall not exceed 3.0 cfm per square foot (0.01524 
mVsm^) of door opening at 0. 10 inch (24.9 Pa) of water for 



1 . Viewports that require a hole not larger than 1 inch 
(25 mm) in diameter through the door, have at least 
an 0.25-inch-thick (6.4 mm) glass disc and the 
holder is of metal that will not melt out where sub- 
ject to temperatures of 1,700°F (927°C). 

2. Corridor door assemblies in occupancies of Group 
1-2 shall be in accordance with Section 407.3.1. 

3. Unprotected openings shall be permitted for corri- 
dors in multitheater complexes where each motion 
picture auditorium has at least one-half of its re- 
quired exit or exit access doorways opening di- 
rectly to the exterior or into an exit passageway. 

715,3,4 Doors Ie vertical exit; enclosures and exit passage- 
ways. Fire door assemblies in vertical exit enclosures and exit 
passageways shall have a maximum transmitted temperature 
end point of not more than 450°F (232°C) above ambient at 
the end of 30 minutes of standard fire test exposure. 

Exceptloe: The maximum transmitted temperature end 
point is not required in buildings equipped throughout 
with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accor- 
dance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2. 



715.3.4,1 Glazing in doors. Fire-protection-rated glaz- 
ing in excess of 100 square inches (0.065 m^) shall be 
permitted in fire door assemblies when tested in accor- 
dance with NFPA 252 as components of the door assem- 
bhes and not as glass lights, and shall have a maximum 
transmitted temperature end point of 450°F (232°C) in 
accordance with Section 715.3.4. 



m The maximum transmitted temperature 
end point is not required in buildings equipped 
throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in- 
stalled in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 
903.3.1.2. 

715,3,5 Labeled protective assemblies. Fire door assem- 
blies shall be labeled by an approved agency. The labels 
shall comply with NFPA 80, and shall be permanently af- 
fixed to the door or frame. 



715,3,5.1 Fire door labeling requirements. Fire doors 
shall be labeled showing the name of the manufacturer, 
the name of the third-party inspection agency, the fire 
protection rating and, where required for fire doors in 
exit enclosures by Section 715.3.4, the maximum trans- 
mitted temperature end point. Smoke and draft control 
doors complying with UL 1784 shall be labeled as such. 
Labels shall be approved and permanently affixed. The 
label shall be applied at the factory or location where fab- 
rication and assembly are performed. 



715.3.5.2 Oversized doors. Oversized fire doors shall 
bear an oversized fire door label by an approved agency 
or shall be provided with a certificate of inspection fur- 
nished by an approved testing agency. When a certificate 
of inspection is furnished by an approved testing agency, 
the certificate shall state that the door conforms to the re- 



2003 BNTERiSSATSONAL BUJLDING CODE® 



FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTlOiS! 



quirements of design, materials and construction, but has 
not been subjected to the fire test. 

715.3.5.3 Smoke and draft control door labeling re- 
quirements. Smoke and draft control doors complying 
with UL 1784 shall be labeled in accordance with Sec- 
tion 715.3.5.1 and shall show the letter "S" on the fire rat- 
ing label of the door. This marking shall indicate that the 
door and frame assembly are in compliance when hsted 
or labeled gasketing is also installed. 

715.3.5.4 Fire door frame labeling requirements. Fire 
door frames shall be labeled showing the names of the 
manufacturer and the third-party inspection agency. 

715.3.6 Glazing material. Fire-protection-rated glazing 
conforming to the opening protection requirements in Sec- 
tion 715.3 shall be permitted in fire door assemblies. 

715.3.6.1 Size limitations. Wired glass used in fire doors 
shall comply with Table 715.4.3. Other fire-protec- 
tion-rated glazing shall comply with the size limitations 
ofNFPASO. 

Exceptions: 

1. Fire-protection-rated glazing in fire doors lo- 
cated in fire walls shall be prohibited except 
that where serving as a horizontal exit, a 
self-closing swinging door shall be permitted to 
have a vision panel of not more than 100 square 
inches (0.065 m^) without a dimension exceed- 
ing 10 inches (254 mm). 

2. Fire-protection-rated glazing shall not be in- 
stalled in fire doors having a 1 V2-hour fire pro- 
tection rating intended for installation in fire 
barriers, unless the glazing is not more than 100 
square inches (0.065 m^) in area. 

715.3.6.2 Exit and elevator protectives. Approved 
fire-protection-rated glazing used in fire doors in eleva- 
tor and stairway shaft enclosures shall be so located as to 
furnish clear vision of the passageway or approach to the 
elevator or stairway. 

715.3.6.3 Labeling. Fire-protection-rated glazing shall 
bear a label or other identification showing the name of 
the manufacturer, the test standard and the fire protection 
rating. Such label or other identification shall be issued 
by an approved agency and shall be permanently affixed. 

715.3.6.4 Safety glazing. Fire-protection-rated glazing 
installed in fire doors or fire window assemblies in areas 
subject to human impact in hazardous locations shall 
comply with Chapter 24. 

715.3.7 Door closing. Fire doors shall be self-closing or au- 
tomafic-closing in accordance with this section. 

Exceptions Fire doors located in common walls separat- 
ing sleeping units in Group R-1 shall be permitted with- 
out automatic-closing or self-closing devices. 

715.3.7.1 Latch required. Unless otherwise specifically 
permitted, single fire doors and both leaves of pairs of 
side-hinged swinging fire doors shall be provided with 
an active latch bolt that will secure the door when it is 
closed. 



715.3.7.2 Aintomatic-closlng fire door assemblies. Au- 
tomatic-closing fire door assemblies shall be self-closing 
in accordance with NFPA 80. 

715.3.7.3 Smoke-activated doors. Automatic-closing 
fire doors installed in the following locations shall be au- 
tomatic-closing by the actuation of smoke detectors in- 
stalled in accordance with Section 907.10 or by loss of 
power to the smoke detector or hold-open device. Fire 
doors that are automatic-closing by smoke detection 
shall not have more than a 10-second delay before the 
door starts to close after the smoke detector is actuated. 

1 . Doors installed across a corridor. 

2. Doors that protect openings in horizontal exits, ex- 
its or exit access corridors required to be of fire-re- 
sistance-rated construction. 

3. Doors that protect openings in walls required to be 
fire-resistance rated by Table 302.1.1. 

4. Doors installed in smoke barriers in accordance 
with Section 709.5. 

5. Doors installed in fire partitions in accordance 
with Section 708.6. 

6. Doors installed in a fire wall in accordance with 
Section 705.8. 

715.3.7.4 Doors m pedestrian ways. Vertical sliding or 
vertical rolling steel fire doors in openings through which 
pedestrians travel shall be heat activated or activated by 
smoke detectors with alarm verification. 

715.3.8 Swinging Tire shutters. Where fire shutters of the 
swinging type are installed in exterior openings, not less 
than one row in every three vertical rows shall be arranged to 
be readily opened from the outside, and shall be identified 
by distinguishing marks or letters not less than 6 inches (152 
mm) high. 



ig fire shutters. Where fire shutters of the 
rolling type are installed, such shutters shall include ap- 
proved automatic-closing devices. 

715.4 Fire-protection rated glazing. Glazing in fire window 
assemblies shall be fire protection rated in accordance with this 
section and Table 715.4. Glazing in fire doors shall comply 
with Section 715.3.6. Fire-protection-rated glazing installed as 
an opening protective in fire partitions, smoke barriers and fire 
barriers shall be tested in accordance with and shall meet the 
acceptance criteria of NFPA 257 for a fire protection rating of 
45 minutes. Fire-protection-rated glazing shall also comply 
with NFPA 80. Fire-protection-rated glazing required in accor- 
dance with Section 704. 12 for exterior wall opening protection 
shall be tested in accordance with and shall meet the acceptance 
criteria of NFPA 257 for a fire protection rating as required in 
Section 715.4.8. 



1. Wired glass in accordance with Section 715.4.3. 

2. Fire-protection-rated glazing in 0.5-hour fire-resis- 
tance-rated partitions is permitted to have an 
0.33-hour fire protection rating. 



102 



2003 SMTERNAT80NAL BUILDING CODE® 



FDRE-RESISTANCE-RATEDCONSTRUCTIION 



«l 



TABLI 
FIRE WINDOW ASSEMBLY IF 



715.4 
IRE PROTECTION RATINGS 



TYPE OF ASSEMBLY 


REQUIRED 

ASSEMBLY 

RATING 

(hours) 


MINIMUM FIRE 

WINDOW 

ASSEMBLY 

RATING (hours) 


Interior walls: 
Fire walls 
Fire barriers and fire partitions 

Smoke barriers 


All 
>1 

1 
1 


Npa 
Npa 
% 


Exterior walls 


>1 
1 




Party walls 


All 


Npa 



a. Not permitted except as specified in Section 715.2. 



ing MEder positive pressmreo NFPA 257 shall 
evaluate fire-protection-rated glazing under positive pres- 
sure. Within the first 10 minutes of a test, the pressure in the 
furnace shall be adjusted so at least two-thirds of the test 
specimen is above the neutral pressure plane, and the neutral 
pressure plane shall be maintained at that height for the bal- 
ance of the test. 



iSo Nonsymmetrical 
fire-protection-rated glazing systems in fire partitions, fire 
barriers or in exterior walls with a fire separation of 5 feet 
( 1 524 mm) or less pursuant to Section 704 shall be tested with 
both faces exposed to the furnace, and the assigned fire pro- 
tection rating shall be the shortest duration obtained from the 
two tests conducted in compliance with NFPA 257. 



715o4.3 Wired glass. Steel window frame assemblies of 
0.125-inch (3.2 mm) minimum solid section or of not less 
than nominal 0.048-inch-thick (1.2 mm) formed sheet steel 
members fabricated by pressing, mitering, riveting, inter- 
locking or welding and having provision for glazing with 
74-inch (6.4 mm) wired glass where securely installed in the 
building construction and glazed with V4-inch (6.4 mm) la- 
beled wired glass shall be deemed to meet the requirements 
for a V4-hour fire window assembly. Wired glass panels shall 
conform to the size limitations set forth in Table 715.4.3. 

TABLE 715.4.3 
LIMDT8NG SIZES OF WIRED GLASS PANELS 



OPENING FIRE 

PROTECTION 

RATING 


MAXIMUM 

AREA 

(square inches) 


MAXIMUM 
HEIGHT 
(inches) 


MAXIMUM 
WIDTH 
(inches) 


3 hours 











1 V2-hour doors in 
exterior walls 











1 and IV, hours 


100 


33 


10 


'^U hour 


1,296 


54 


54 


20 minutes 


Not Limited 


Not Limited 


Not Limited 


Fire window 
assemblies 


1,296 


54 


54 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 square inch = 645.2 mm^. 

715.4.4 Nonwired glass. Glazing other than wired glass in 
fire window assemblies shall be fire-protection-rated glaz- 
ing installed in accordance with and complying with the size 
Hmitations set forth in NFPA 80. 



n. Fire-protection-rated glazing shall be 
in the fixed position or be automatic-closing and shall be in- 
stalled in approved frames. 



Metal mullions that exceed a 
nominal height of 12 feet (3658 mm) shall be protected with 
materials to afford the same fire-resistance rating as re- 
quired for the wall construction in which the protective is lo- 
cated. 



715o4o7 Interior Ire window assemblies. Fire-protec- 
tion-rated glazing used in fire window assemblies located in 
fire partitions and fire barriers shall be limited to use in as- 
semblies with a maximum fire-resistance rating of 1 hour in 
accordance with this secdon. 



715.4.7.1 Where permitted, Fire-protecfion-rated glaz- 
ing shall be limited to fire partitions designed in accor- 
dance with Section 708 and fire barriers utilized in the 
apphcadons set forth in Sections 706.3.5 and 706.3.6 
where the fire-resistance rating does not exceed I hour. 



715.4.7.2 Size limitations. The total area of windows 
shall not exceed 25 percent of the area of a common wall 
with any room. 



js. Exterior open- 
ings, other than doors, required to be protected by Section 
704.12, where located in a wall required by Table 602 to 
have a fire-resistance radng of greater than 1 hour, shall be 
protected with an assembly having a fire protecdon rating of 
not less than 1 72 hours. Exterior openings required to be 
protected by Section 704.8, where located in a wall required 
by Table 602 to have a fire-resistance rating of 1 hour, shall 
be protected with an assembly having a fire protection rating 
of not less than '^1^ hour. Exterior openings required to be 
protected by Section 704.9 or 704. 10 shall be protected with 
an assembly having a fire protection rating of not less than 
V4 hour. Openings in nonfire-resistance-rated exterior wall 
assemblies that require protection in accordance with Sec- 
tion 704.8, 704.9 or 704. 10 shall have a fire protection rating 
of not less than V4 hour. 

715.4.9 Labeling requirements. Fire-protection-rated 
glazing shall bear a label or other identification showing the 
name of the manufacturer, the test standard, and the fire pro- 
tection rating. Such label or identification shall be issued by 
an approved agency and shall be permanently affixed. 



DUCTS AND MR TRANSFER OPENINGS 

716.1 General. The provisions of this section shall govern the 
protection of ducts and air transfer openings in fire-resis- 
tance-rated assemblies. 

716.1.1 Pucts and air transfer openings without damp= 
ers. Ducts and air transfer openings that penetrate fire-resis- 
tance-rated assemblies and are not required by this section 
to have dampers shall comply with the requirements of Sec- 
tion 712. 



O 



Fire dampers, smoke dampers, combina- 
tion fire/smoke dampers and ceiling dampers located within air 
distribution and smoke control systems shall be installed in ac- 



2003 IMTERNATJONAL B 



103 



FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED C0SS!STRUCT10N 



cordance with the requirements of this section, the manufac- 
turer's installation instructions and listing. 

716.2.1 Smoke control system. Where the installation of a 
fire damper will interfere with the operation of a required 
smoke control system in accordance with Section 909, ap- 
proved alternative protection shall be utilized. 

716.2.2 Hazardous exhaust docts. Fire dampers for haz- 
ardous exhaust duct systems shall comply with the Interna- 
tional Mechanical Code. 

716.3 Damper testing and ratings. Dampers shall be listed 
and bear the label of an approved testing agency indicating 
compliance with the standards in this section. Fire dampers 
shall comply with the requirements of UL 555. Only fire damp- 
ers labeled for use in dynamic systems shall be installed in 
heating, ventilation and air-conditioning systems designed to 
operate with fans on during a fire. Smoke dampers shall com- 
ply with the requirements of UL 555S. Combination 
fire/smoke dampers shall comply with the requirements of both 
UL 555 and UL 555S. Ceiling radiation dampers shall comply 
with the requirements of UL 555C. 

716.3.1 Fire protection rating. Fire dampers shall have the 
minimum fire protection rating specified in Table 716.3.1 
for the type of penetration. 

TABLE 716.3.1 
F8RE DAMPER RATBNG 



TYPE OF 
PENETRATION 


MDNIfVIUiU DAMPER RATING 
(hours) 


Less than 3-hour fire- 
resistance-rated assemblies 


1.5 


3 -hour or greater fire- 
resistance-rated assemblies 


3 



716.3.1.1 Fire damper actuating device. The fire 
damper actuating device shall meet one of the following 
requirements: 

1 . The operating temperature shall be approximately 
50°F (10°C) above the normal temperature within 
the duct system, but not less than 160°F (TTC). 

2. The operating temperature shall be not more than 
286°F (141°C) where located in a smoke control 
system complying with Section 909. 

3. Where a combination fire/smoke damper is lo- 
cated in a smoke control system complying with 
Section 909, the operating temperature rating shall 
be approximately 50°F (10°C) above the maxi- 
mum smoke control system designed operating 
temperature, or a maximum temperature of 350°F 
(177°C). The temperature shall not exceed the UL 
555S degradation test temperature rating for a 
combination fire/smoke damper. 

716.3.2 Smoke damper ratings. Smoke damper leakage 
ratings shall not be less than Class IL Elevated temperature 
ratings shall not be less than 250°F (12rC). 

716.3.2.1 Smoke damper actuation methods. The 
smoke damper shall close upon actuation of a listed 
smoke detector or detectors installed in accordance with 



Section 907. 10 and one of the following methods, as ap- 
plicable: 

1 . Where a damper is installed within a duct, a smoke 
detector shall be installed in the duct within 5 feet 
(1524 mm) of the damper with no air outlets or in- 
lets between the detector and the damper. The de- 
tector shall be listed for the air velocity, 
temperature and humidity anticipated at the point 
where it is installed. Other than in mechanical 
smoke control systems, dampers shall be closed 
upon fan shutdown where local smoke detectors 
require a minimum velocity to operate. 

2. Where a damper is installed above smoke barrier 
doors in a smoke barrier, a spot-type detector listed 
for releasing service shall be installed on either 
side of the smoke barrier door opening. 

3. Where a damper is installed within an unducted 
opening in a wall, a spot-type detector Usted for re- 
leasing service shall be installed within 5 feet 
(1524 mm) horizontally of the damper. 

4. Where a damper is installed in a corridor wall, the 
damper shall be permitted to be controlled by a 
smoke detection system installed in the corridor. 

5. Where a total-coverage smoke detector system is 
provided within areas served by a heating, ventila- 
tion and air-conditioning (HVAC) system, damp- 
ers shall be permitted to be controlled by the smoke 
detection system. 



D. Fire and smoke dampers 
shall be provided with an approved means of access, large 
enough to permit inspection and maintenance of the damper 
and its operating parts. The access shall not affect the integrity 
of fire-resistance-rated assemblies. The access openings shall 
not reduce the fire-resistance rating of the assembly. Access 
points shall be permanently identified on the exterior by a label 
having letters not less than 0.5 inch (12.7 mm) in height read- 
ing: SMOKE DAMPER or FIRE DAMPER. Access doors in 
ducts shall be tight fitting and suitable for the required duct 
construction. 



Where required. Fire dampers, smoke dampers, combi- 
nation fire/smoke dampers and ceiling radiation dampers shall 
be provided at the locations prescribed in this section. Where an 
assembly is required to have both fire dampers and smoke 
dampers, combination fire/smoke dampers or a fire damper and 
a smoke damper shall be required. 

716.5.1 Fire walls. Ducts and air transfer openings permit- 
ted in fire walls in accordance with Section 705.1 1 shall be 
protected with approved fire dampers installed in accor- 
dance with their listing. 



.2 Fire barriers. Ducts and air transfer openings in 
fire barriers shall be protected with approved fire dampers 
installed in accordance with their listing. 



ni; Fire dampers are not required at penetrations 
of fire barriers where any of the following apply: 

1 . Penetrations are tested in accordance with ASTM 
E 119 as part of the fire-resistance-rated assembly. 



2003 INTERNATEOWAL BU1LD8NG CODE® 



FWE-RESBSTANCE-RATEDCOMSTIRUCTDOW 



Ducts are used as part of an approved smoke con- 
trol system in accordance with Section 909. 

Such walls are penetrated by ducted HVAC sys- 
tems, have a required fire-resistance rating of 1 
hour or less, are in areas of other than Group H and 
are in buildings equipped throughout with an auto- 
matic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 
903.3. 1 . 1 or 903.3. 1 .2. For the purposes of this ex- 
ception, a ducted HVAC system shall be a duct sys- 
tem for conveying supply, return or exhaust air as 
part of the structure's HVAC system. Such a duct 
system shall be constructed of sheet steel not less 
than 26 gage thickness and shall be continuous 
from the air-handling appliance or equipment to 
the air outlet and inlet terminals. 



3 Sihafft eeclosisres. Ducts and air transfer openings 
shall not penetrate a shaft serving as an exit enclosure except 
as permitted by Section 1019.1.2. 

716o5o3ol Pemetratnoms off slhafft emdosmreso Shaft en- 
closures that are permitted to be penetrated by ducts and 
air transfer openings shall be protected with approved 
fire and smoke dampers installed in accordance with 
their listing. 



[=> 



4 



4 



1 . Fire dampers are not required at penetrations of 
shafts where: 

1.1. Steel exhaust subducts are extended at 
least 22 inches (559 mm) vertically in 
exhaust shafts, provided there is a con- 
tinuous airflow upward to the outside; • 

1.2. Penetrations are tested in accordance 
with ASTM E 119 as part of the rated 
assembly; 

1.3. Ducts are used as part of an approved 
smoke control system designed and in- 
stalled in accordance with Section 909, 
and where the fire damper will interfere 
with the operation of the smoke control 
system; or 

1.4. The penetrations are in parking garage 
exhaust or supply shafts that are sepa- 
rated from other building shafts by not 
less than 2-hour fire-resistance-rated 
construction. 

2. In Group B occupancies, equipped throughout 
with an automatic sprinkler system in accor- 
dance with Section 903.3.1.1, smoke dampers 
are not required at penetrations of shafts where: 

2.1. Bathroom and toilet room exhaust 
openings with steel exhaust subducts, 
having a wall thickness of at least 0.019 
inches (0.48 mm) that extend at least 22 
inches (559 mm) vertically and the ex- 
haust fan at the upper terminus, pow- 



ered continuously in accordance with 
the provisions of Section 909. 1 1 , main- 
tains airflow upward to the outside; or 

2.2. Ducts are used as part of an approved 
smoke control system, designed and in- 
stalled in accordance with Section 909, 
and where the smoke damper will inter- 
fere with the operation of the smoke 
control system. 

3. Smoke dampers are not required at penetration 
of exhaust or supply shafts in parking garages 
that are separated from other building shafts by 
not less than 2-hour fire-resistance-rated con- 
struction. 

716.5o4 Fire partnltEOES, Duct penetrations in fire partitions 
shall be protected with approved fire dampers installed in 
accordance with their listing. 



nis: In occupancies other than Group H, fire 
dampers are not required where any of the following ap- 
ply: 

1. The partitions are tenant separation and corridor 
walls in buildings equipped throughout with an au- 
tomatic sprinkler system in accordance with Sec- 
tion 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2 and the duct is 
protected as a through penetration in accordance 
with Section 712. 

2. The duct system is constructed of approved mate- 
rials in accordance with the International Mechan- 
ical Code and the duct penetrating the wall meets 
all of the following minimum requirements: 

2.1. The duct shall not exceed 100 square 
inches (0.06 m^). 

2.2. The duct shall be constructed of steel a 
minimum of 0.0217 inch (0.55 mm) in 
thickness. 

2.3. The duct shall not have openings that com- 
municate the corridor with adjacent spaces 
or rooms. 

2.4. The duct shall be installed above a ceihng. 

2.5. The duct shall not terminate at a wall regis- 
ter in the fire-resistance-rated wall. 

2.6. A minimum 12-inch-long (0.30 m) by 
0.060-inch-thick (1.52 mm) steel sleeve 
shall be centered in each duct opening. The 
sleeve shall be secured to both sides of the 
wall and all four sides of the sleeve with 
minimum 1 '/2-inch by 1 '/2-inch by 
0.060-inch (0.038 m by 0.038 m by 1.52 
mm) steel retaining angles. The retaining 
angles shall be secured to the sleeve and the 
wall with No. 10 (M5) screws. The annular 
space between the steel sleeve and wall 
opening shall be filled with rock (mineral) 
wool batting on all sides. 



2003 BNTEFSMATBONAL BUDLDING CODE® 



105 



FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCT!O^S 



716.5.4.1 Corridors. A listed smoke damper designed to 
resist the passage of smoke shall be provided at each 
point a duct or air transfer opening penetrates a corridor 
enclosure required to have smoke and draft control doors 
in accordance with Section 715.3.3. 

Exceptions; 

1. Smoke dampers are not required where the 
building is equipped throughout with an ap- 
proved smoke control system in accordance 
with Section 909, and smoke dampers are not 
necessary for the operation and control of the 
system. 

2. Smoke dampers are not required in corridor 
penetrations where the duct is constructed of 
steel not less than 0.019-inch (0.48 mm) in 
thickness and there are no openings serving the 
corridor. 

716.S.5 Smoke barriers. A listed smoke damper designed 
to resist the passage of smoke shall be provided at each point 
a duct or air transfer opening penetrates a smoke barrier. 
Smoke dampers and smoke damper actuation methods shall 
comply with Section 716.3.2.1. 

Exception; Smoke dampers are not required where the 
openings in ducts are limited to a single smoke compart- 
ment and the ducts are constructed of steel. 

716.6 Horizontal assemblies. Penetrations by ducts and air 
transfer openings of a floor, floor/ceiling assembly or the ceil- 
ing membrane of a roof/ceiling assembly shall be protected by 
a shaft enclosure that complies with Section 707 or shall com- 
ply with this section. 

716.6.1 Through penetrations. In occupancies other than 
Groups 1-2 and 1-3, a duct and air transfer opening system 
constructed of approved materials in accordance with the 
International Mechanical Code that penetrates a fire-resis- 
tance-rated floor/ceiling assembly that connects not more 
than two stories is permitted without shaft enclosure protec- 
tion provided a fire damper is installed at the floor line. 

Exception: A duct is permitted to penetrate three floors 
or less without a fire damper at each floor provided it 
meets all of the following requirements. 

1 . The duct shall be contained and located within the 
cavity of a wall and shall be constructed of steel not 
less than 0.019 inch (0.48 mm) (26 gage) in thick- 
ness. 

2. The duct shall open into only one dwelling unit or 
sleeping unit and the duct system shall be continu- 
ous from the unit to the exterior of the building. 

3. The duct shall not exceed 4-inch (102 mm) nomi- 
nal diameter and the total area of such ducts shall 
not exceed 100 square inches (0.065 m^) in any 100 
square feet (9.3 m^) of floor area. 

4. The annular space around the duct is protected 
with materials that prevent the passage of flame 
and hot gases sufficient to ignite cotton waste 
where subjected to ASTM E 119 time-temperature 



conditions under a minimum positive pressure 
differendal of 0.01 inch (2.49 Pa) of water at the lo- 
cation of the penetration for the time period equiv- 
alent to the fire-resistance rating of the 
construction penetrated 

5. Grille openings located in a ceihng of a fire-resis- 
tance-rated floor/ceiling or roof/ceiling assembly 
shall be protected with a ceiling radiation damper 
in accordance with Section 716.6.2. 

716.6.2 Membrane penetrations. Where duct systems 
constructed of approved materials in accordance with the 
International Mechanical Code penetrate a ceiling of a 
fire-resistance-rated floor/ceiling or roof/ceiling assembly, 
shaft enclosure protection is not required provided an ap- 
proved ceiling radiation damper is installed at the ceiling 
line. Where a duct is not attached to a diffuser that penetrates 
a ceiling of a fire-resistance-rated floor/ceiling or roof/ceil- 
ing assembly, shaft enclosure protection is not required pro- 
vided an approved ceiling radiation damper is installed at 
the ceiling line. Ceiling radiation dampers shall be tested in 
accordance with UL 555C and constructed in accordance 
with the details listed in a fire-resistance-rated assembly or 
shall be labeled to function as a heat barrier for air-handling 
outlet/inlet penetrations in the ceiling of a fire-resis- 
tance-rated assembly. Ceiling radiation dampers shall not be 
required where ASTM E 1 19 fire tests have shown that ceil- 
ing radiation dampers are not necessary in order to maintain 
the fire-resistance rating of the assembly. Ceiling radiation 
dampers shall not be required where exhaust duct penetra- 
tions are protected in accordance with Section 712.4.2, 
where exhaust ducts are located within the cavity of a wall, 
and where exhaust ducts do not pass through another dwell- 
ing unit or tenant space. 

716.6.3 Nonfire=resistance-rated assemblies. Duct sys- 
tems constructed of approved materials in accordance with 
the International Mechanical Code that penetrate 
nonfire-resistance-rated floor assemblies and that connect 
not more than two stories are permitted without shaft enclo- 
sure protection provided that the annular space between the 
assembly and the penetrating duct is filled with an approved 
noncombustible material to resist the free passage of flame 
and the products of combustion. Duct systems constructed 
of approved materials in accordance with the International 
Mechanical Code that penetrate nonfire-resistance-rated 
floor assemblies and that connect not more than three stories 
are permitted without shaft enclosure protection provided 
that the annular space between the assembly and the pene- 
trating duct is filled with an approved noncombustible mate- 
rial to resist the free passage of flame and the products of 
combustion, and a fire damper is installed at each floor line. 

Exception: Fire dampers are not required in ducts within 
individual residential dwelling units. 

716.7 Flexible ducts and air connectors. Flexible ducts and 
air connectors shall not pass through any fire-resistance-rated 
assembly. Flexible air connectors shall not pass through any 
wall, floor or ceiling. 



106 



2003 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



SE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTDOW 



of the run. Enclosed spaces under stairs shall also comply 
with Section 1019.1.5. 



•t 



717ol Gemeral. Fireblocking and draftstopping shall be in- 
stalled in combustible concealed locations in accordance with 
this section. Fireblocking shall comply with Section 717.2. 
Draftstopping in floor/ceiling spaces and attic spaces shall 
comply with Sections 717.3 and 717.4, respectively. The per- 
mitted use of combustible materials in concealed spaces of 
noncombustible buildings shall be limited to the applications 
indicated in Section 717.5. 

717.2 Fireblocking. In combustible construction, fireblocking 
shall be installed to cut off concealed draft openings (both ver- 
tical and horizontal) and shall form an effective barrier between 
floors, between a top story and a roof or attic space. 
Fireblocking shall be installed in the locations specified in Sec- 
tions 717.2.2 through 717.2.7. 



717.2.1 FirebfiocMmg materials. Fireblocking shall consist 
of 2-inch (5 1 mm) nominal lumber or two thicknesses of 
1-inch (25 mm) nominal lumber with broken lap joints or 
one thickness of 0.719-inch (18.3 mm) wood structural 
panel with joints backed by 0.719-inch (18.3 mm) wood 
structural panel or one thickness of 0.75-inch (19 mm) 
particleboard with joints backed by 0.75-inch (19 mm) 
particleboard. Gypsum board, cement fiber board, batts or 
blankets of mineral wool or glass fiber or other approved 
materials installed in such a manner as to be securely re- 
tained in place shall be permitted as an acceptable fireblock. 
Batts or blankets of mineral or glass fiber or other approved 
nonrigid materials shall be permitted for comphance with 
the 10-foot (3048 mm) horizontal fireblocking in walls con- 
structed using parallel rows of studs or staggered studs. 
Loose-fill insulation material shall not be used as a fireblock 
unless specifically tested in the form and manner intended 
for use to demonstrate its ability to remain in place and to re- 
tard the spread of fire and hot gases. The integrity of 
fireblocks shall be maintained. 

717,2,1.1 Double sted walls. Batts or blankets of min- 
eral or glass fiber or other approved nonrigid materials 
shall be allowed as fireblocking in walls constructed us- 
ing parallel rows of studs or staggered studs. 



spaces, Fireblocking shall be pro- 
vided in concealed spaces of stud walls and partitions, in- 
cluding furred spaces, and parallel rows of studs or 
staggered studs, as follows: 

a. Vertically at the ceihng and floor levels. 

b. Horizontally at intervals not exceeding 10 feet (3048 
mm). 

717.2.3 Comeectioms toetweem horizomtal amd vertical 
spaces. Fireblocking shall be provided at interconnections 
between concealed vertical stud wall or partifion spaces and 
concealed horizontal spaces created by an assembly of floor 
joists or trusses, and between concealed vertical and hori- 
zontal spaces such as occur at soffits, drop ceilings, cove 
ceilings and similar locations. 

717.2.4 Stairways, Fireblocking shall be provided in con- 
cealed spaces between stair stringers at the top and bottom 



ngs. Where annular space 
protection is provided in accordance with Exception 6 of 
Section 707.2, Exception 1 of Section 712.4.2, or Section 
712.4.3, fireblocking shall be installed at openings around 
vents, pipes, ducts, chimneys and fireplaces at ceiling and 
floor levels, with an approved material to resist the free pas- 
sage of flame and the products of combustion. Factory-built 
chimneys and fireplaces shall be fireblocked in accordance 
with UL 103 and UL 127. 



1. Fireblocking shall be installed 
within concealed spaces of exterior wall finish and other ex- 
terior architectural elements where permitted to be of com- 
bustible construction as specified in Section 1406 or where 
erected with combustible frames, at maximum intervals of 
20 feet (6096 mm). If noncontinuous, such elements shall 
have closed ends, with at least 4 inches (102 mm) of separa- 
tion between sections. 

Exceptions: 

1. Fireblocking of cornices is not required in sin- 
gle-family dwellings, as applicable in Section 
101.2. Fireblocking of cornices of a two-family 
dwelling as applicable in Section 101.2 is required 
only at the line of dwelling unit separation. 

2. Fireblocking shall not be required where installed 
on noncombustible framing and the face of the ex- 
terior wall finish exposed to the concealed space is 
covered by one of the following materials: 

2.1. Aluminum having a minimum thickness of 
0.019 inch (0.5 mm). 

2.2. Corrosion-resistant steel having a base 
metal thickness not less than 0.016 inch 
(0.4 mm) at any point. 

2.3. Other approved noncombustible materials. 

717,2.7 Concealed sleeper spaces. Where wood sleepers 
are used for laying wood flooring on masonry or concrete 
fire-resistance-rated floors, the space between the floor slab 
and the underside of the wood flooring shall be filled with an 
approved material to resist the free passage of flame and 
products of combustion or fireblocked in such a manner that 
there will be no open spaces under the flooring that will ex- 
ceed 100 square feet (9.3 m^) in area and such space shall be 
filled solidly under permanent partitions so that there is no 
communication under the flooring between adjoining 
rooms. 



1. Fireblocking is not required for slab-on-grade 
floors in gymnasiums. 

2. Fireblocking is required only at the juncture of 
each alternate lane and at the ends of each lane in a 
bowling facility. 

717.3 Draftstopping im floors. In combustible construction, 
draftstopping shall be installed to subdivide floor/ceiling as- 
semblies in the locations prescribed in Sections 717.3.2 
through 717.3.3. 



2003 INTERNATIONAL BU8LDING CODE® 



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FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTSON 



717.3.1 Draftstopping materials. Draftstopping materials 
shall not be less than 0.5-inch (12.7 mm) gypsum board, 
0.375-inch (9.5 mm) wood structural panel, 0.375-inch (9.5 
mm) particleboard or other approved materials adequately 
supported. The integrity of draftstops shall be maintained. 

717.3.2 Groups R-1, R.2, R-3 and R-4. Draftstopping 
shall be provided in floor/ceiling spaces in Group R- 1 build- 
ings, in Group R-2 buildings as applicable in Section 101.2 
with three or more dwelling units, in Group R-3 buildings as 
applicable in Section 101.2 with two dwelling units and in 
Group R-4 buildings. Draftstopping shall be located above 
and in hne with the dwelling unit and sleeping unit separa- 
tions. 

Exceptions; 

1. Draftstopping is not required in buildings 
equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler 
system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. 

2. Draftstopping is not required in buildings 
equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler 
system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.2, pro- 
vided that automatic sprinklers are also installed in 
the combustible concealed spaces. 

717.3.3 Other groups. In other groups, draftstopping shall 
be installed so that horizontal floor areas do not exceed 
1,000 square feet (93 m2). 

Exception: Draftstopping is not required in buildings 
equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system 
in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. 

717.4 Draftstopping in attics. In combustible construction, 
draftstopping shall be installed to subdivide attic spaces and 
concealed roof spaces in the locations prescribed in Sections 
717.4.2 and 717.4.3. Ventilation of concealed roof spaces shall 
be maintained in accordance with Section 1203.2. 

717.4.1 Draftstopping materials. Materials utilized for 
draftstopping of attic spaces shall comply with Section 
717.3.1. 

717.4.1.1 Openings. Openings in the partitions shall be 
protected by self-closing doors with automatic latches 
constructed as required for the partitions. 

717.4.2 Groups R-1 and R-2. Draftstopping shall be pro- 
vided in attics, mansards, overhangs or other concealed roof 
spaces of Group R-2 buildings with three or more dwelling 
units and in all Group R-1 buildings. Draftstopping shall be 
installed above, and in line with, sleeping unit and dweUing 
unit separation walls that do not extend to the underside of 
the roof sheathing above. 

Exceptions: 

1. Where corridor walls provide a sleeping unit or 
dwelling unit separation, draftstopping shall only 
be required above one of the corridor walls. 



2. Draftstopping is not required in buildings 
equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler 
system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. 

3. In occupancies in Group R-2 that do not exceed 
four stories in height, the attic space shall be subdi- 
vided by draftstops into areas not exceeding 3,000 
square feet (279 m^) or above every two dwelling 
units, whichever is smaller. 

4. Draftstopping is not required in buildings 
equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler 
system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.2, pro- 
vided that automatic sprinklers are also installed in 
the combustible concealed spaces. 

717.4,3 Other groups. Draftstopping shall be installed in 
attics and concealed roof spaces, such that any horizontal 
area does not exceed 3,000 square feet (279 m^). 



ni Draftstopping is not required in buildings 
equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system 
in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. 

717.S Combustibles in concealed spaces in Type I or II con- 
struction. Combustibles shall not be permitted in concealed 
spaces of buildings of Type I or 11 construction. 

Exceptions: 

1. Combustible materials in accordance with Section 
603. 

2. Combustible materials complying with Section 602 
of the International Mechanical Code. 

3. Class A interior finish materials. 

4. Combustible piping within partitions or enclosed 
shafts installed in accordance with the provisions of 
this code. Combustible piping shall be permitted 
within concealed ceiling spaces where installed in ac- 
cordance with the International Mechanical Code 
and the International Plumbing Code. 



SECTION 718 

FIRE=RES8STANCE REQUSREIVIENTS 

FOR PLASTER 

718.1 Thickness of plaster. The minimum thickness of gyp- 
sum plaster or portland cement plaster used in a fire-resis- 
tance-rated system shall be determined by the prescribed fire 
tests. The plaster thickness shall be measured from the face of 
the lath where apphed to gypsum lath or metal lath. 

718.2 Plaster equivalents. For fire-resistance purposes, 0.5 
inch (12.7 mm) of unsanded gypsum plaster shall be deemed 
equivalent to 0.75 inch (19.1 mm) of one-to-three gypsum sand 
plaster or 1 inch (25 mm) of portland cement sand plaster. 

718.3 Noncombustible furring. In buildings of Type I and II 
construction, plaster shall be applied directly on concrete or 
masonry or on approved noncombustible plastering base and 
furring. 



108 



2003 IMTERNATBONAL BUILDING CODE® 



718.4 Double reimlForcemeiniL Plaster protection more than 1 
inch (25 mm) in thickness shall be reinforced with an additional 
layer of approved lath embedded at least 0.75 inch (19.1 mm) 
from the outer surface and fixed securely in place. 



m Solid plaster partitions or where otherwise de- 
termined by fire tests. 



718.5 Plaster altermatnves for coecrete. In reinforced con- 
crete construction, gypsum plaster or portland cement plaster is 
permitted to be substituted for 0.5 inch (12.7 mm) of the re- 
quired poured concrete protection, except that a minimum 
thickness of 0.375 inch (9.5 mm) of poured concrete shall be 
provided in reinforced concrete floors and 1 inch (25 mm) in re- 
inforced concrete columns in addition to the plaster finish. The 
concrete base shall be prepared in accordance with Section 
2510.7. 



^TB©M719 
ID-DWSULATDB 



iMERIAU 



719.1 General. Insulating materials, including facings such as 
vapor retarders and vapor-permeable membranes, similar cov- 
erings, and all layers of single and multilayer reflective foil in- 
sulations, shall comply with the requirements of this section.. 
Where a flame spread index or a smoke-developed index is 
specified in this section, such index shall be determined in ac- 
cordance with ASTM E 84. Any material that is subject to an 
increase in flame spread index or smoke-developed index be- 
yond the limits herein established through the effects of age, 
moisture, or other atmospheric conditions shall not be permit- 
ted. 



1. Fiberboard insulation shall comply with Chapter 23. 

2. Foam plastic insulation shall comply with Chapter 26. 

3. Duct and pipe insulation and duct and pipe coverings 
and Unings in plenums shall comply with the Interna- 
tional Mechanical Code. 

719,2 Comcealedl imsItaMatnoe. Insulating materials, where 
concealed as installed in buildings of any type of construction, 
shall have a flame spread index of not more than 25 and a 
smoke-developed index of not more than 450. 



mt Cellulose loose-fill insulation that is not spray 
applied, complying with the requirements of Section 719.6, 
shall only be required to meet the smoke-developed index of 
not more than 450. 



igs. Where such materials are installed in con- 
cealed spaces in buildings of Type III, IV or V construction, 
the flame spread and smoke-developed limitations do not 
apply to facings, coverings, and layers of reflective foil insu- 
lation that are installed behind and in substantial contact 
with the unexposed surface of the ceiling, wall or floor fin- 
ish. 

719.3 Exposed mstollatnoe. Insulating materials, where ex- 
posed as installed in buildings of any type of construction, shall 



have a flame spread index of not more than 25 and a smoke-de- 
veloped index of not more than 450. 

Exceptnoe; Cellulose loose-fill insulation that is not spray 
applied complying with the requirements of Section 719.6 
shall only be required to meet the smoke-developed index of 
not more than 450. 

719o3ol Attic lioors. Exposed insulation materials installed 
on attic floors shall have a critical radiant flux of not less 
than 0.12 watt per square centimeter when tested in accor- 
dance with ASTM E 970. 



Loose-fill insulation materials 
that cannot be mounted in the ASTM E 84 apparatus without a 
screen or artificial supports shall comply with the flame spread 
and smoke-developed limits of Sections 719.2 and 719.3 when 
tested in accordance with CAN/ULC S 102.2. 



m Cellulose loose-fill insulation shall not be re- 
quired to comply with this test method, provided such insu- 
lation comphes with the requirements of Section 719.6. 

nselatioiii. The use of combustible roof insulation 
not complying with Sections 719.2 and 719.3 shall be permit- 
ted in any type of construction provided it is covered with ap- 
proved roof coverings directly applied thereto. 

719.i6 Celtalose loose=ffll Imsulatiomo Cellulose loose-fill insu- 
lation shall comply with CPSC 16 CFR, Part 1209 and CPSC 
16 CFR, Part 1404. Each package of such insulating material 
shall be clearly labeled in accordance with CPSC 16 CFR, Part 
1209 and CPSC 16 CFR, Part 1404. 



.7 Imselatlom and covering on pipe and teMng. Insulation 
and covering on pipe and tubing shall have a flame spread index 
of not more than 25 and a smoke-developed index of not more 
than 450. 



PRESCRIPTIVE FDRE RESBSmWCE 

72(D).l Gemeral. The provisions of this section contain prescrip- 
tive details of fire-resistance-rated building elements. The ma- 
terials of construction listed in Tables 720.1(1), 720.1(2), and 
720.1(3) shall be assumed to have the fire-resistance ratings 
prescribed therein. Where materials that change the capacity 
for heat dissipation are incorporated into a fire-resistance-rated 
assembly, fire test results or other substantiating data shall be 
made available to the building official to show that the required 
fire-resistance-rating time period is not reduced. 

72([])olol Thickness off protective coverings. The thickness 
of fire-resistant materials required for protection of struc- 
tural members shall be not less than set forth in Table 
720.1(1), except as modified in this section. The figures 
shown shall be the net thickness of the protecting materials 
and shall not include any hollow space in back of the protec- 
tion. 



72(I]).lo2 Unit masonry protection. Where required, metal 
ties shall be embedded in transverse joints of unit masonry 
for protection of steel columns. Such ties shall be as set forth 
in Table 720.1(1) or be equivalent thereto. 



2003 INTERIVSATIOINIAL BUDLDDiSllG CODE® 



F!RE-RESISTANCE-RATEDCONSTRUCT!OfS! 



720.1.3 Reinforcement for cast-in-place concrete col- 
umn protection. Cast-in-place concrete protection for steel 
columns shall be reinforced at the edges of such members 
with wire ties of not less than 0.18 inch (4.6 mm) in diameter 
wound spirally around the columns on a pitch of not more 
than 8 inches (203 mm) or by equivalent reinforcement. 

720.1.4 Plaster application. The finish coat is not required 
for plaster protective coatings where they comply with the 
design mix and thickness requirements of Tables 720.1(1), 
720.1(2) and 720.1(3). 

720.1.5 Bonded prestressed concrete tendons. For mem- 
bers having a single tendon or more than one tendon in- 
stalled with equal concrete cover measured from the nearest 
surface, the cover shall not be less than that set forth in Table 
720.1(1). For members having multiple tendons installed 
with variable concrete cover, the average tendon cover shall 
not be less than that set forth in Table 720.1(1), provided: 

1. The clearance from each tendon to the nearest ex- 
posed surface is used to determine the average cover. 

2. In no case can the clear cover for individual tendons 
be less than one-half of that set forth in Table 
720.1(1). A minimum cover of 0.75 inch (19.1 mm) 
for slabs and 1 inch (25 mm) for beams is required for 
any aggregate concrete. 

3. For the purpose of establishing a fire-resistance rat- 
ing, tendons having a clear covering less than that set 
forth in Table 720. 1(1) shall not contribute more than 
50 percent of the required ultimate moment capacity 
for members less than 350 square inches (0.226 m^) in 
cross-sectional area and 65 percent for larger mem- 
bers. For structural design purposes, however, ten- 
dons having a reduced cover are assumed to be fully 
effective. 



SECTION 721 
CALCULATED FIRE RESISTANCE 

721.1 General. The provisions of this section contain proce- 
dures by which the fire resistance of specific materials or com- 
binations of materials is established by calculations. These 
procedures apply only to the information contained in this sec- 
tion and shall not be otherwise used. The calculated fire resis- 
tance of concrete, concrete masonry, and clay masonry 
assemblies shall be permitted in accordance with ACI 
216.1/TMS 0216.1. The calculated fire resistance of steel as- 
semblies shall be permitted in accordance with Chapter 5 of 
ASCE/SFPE 29. 

721.1.1 Definitions. The following words and terms shall, 
for the purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this 
code, have the meanings shown herein. 



CERAMIC FIBER BLANKET. A mineral wool insula- 
tion material made of alumina-silica fibers and weighing 4 
to 10 pounds per cubic foot (pcf) (64 to 160 kg/m^). 



_ CARBONATE AGGREGATE. Concrete 
made with aggregates consisting mainly of calcium or mag- 
nesium carbonate, such as limestone or dolomite, and con- 
taining 40 percent or less quartz, chert, or flint. 



CELLULAR. A lightweight insulafing 
concrete made by mixing a preformed foam with portland 
cement slurry and having a dry unit weight of approximately 
30 pcf (480 kg/m^). 

CONCRETE, LIGHTWEIGHT AGGREGATE. Con- 
crete made with aggregates of expanded clay, shale, slag or 
slate or sintered fly ash or any natural lightweight aggregate 
meeting ASTM C 330 and possessing equivalent fire-resis- 
tance properties and weighing 85 to 115 pcf (1360 to 1840 
kg/nP). 

CONCRETE, PERLITE. A hghtweight insulafing con- 
crete having a dry unit weight of approximately 30 pcf (480 
kg/m^) made with perlite concrete aggregate. Perlite aggre- 
gate is produced from a volcanic rock which, when heated, 
expands to form a glass-like material of cellular structure. 

CONCRETE, SAND-LIGHTWEIGHT. Concrete made 
with a combination of expanded clay, shale, slag, slate, 
sintered fly ash, or any natural lightweight aggregate meet- 
ing ASTM C 330 and possessing equivalent fire-resistance 
properties and natural sand. Its unit weight is generally be- 
tween 105 and 120 pcf (1680 and 1920 kg/m^). 



SILICEOUS AGGREGATE. Concrete 
made with normal-weight aggregates consisting mainly of 
silica or compounds other than calcium or magnesium car- 
bonate, which contains more than 40-percent quartz, chert, 
or flint. 

CONCRETE, VERMICULITE. A lightweight insulafing 
concrete made with vermiculite concrete aggregate which is 
laminated micaceous material produced by expanding the 
ore at high temperatures. When added to a portland cement 
slurry the resulting concrete has a dry unit weight of approx- 
imately 30 pcf (480 kg/m3). 

GLASS FIBERBOARD. Fibrous glass roof insulation 
consisting of inorganic glass fibers formed into rigid boards 
using a binder. The board has a top surface faced with as- 
phalt and kraft reinforced with glass fiber. 



A rigid felted thermal insulation 
board consisting of either felted mineral fiber or cellular 
beads of expanded aggregate formed into flat rectangular 
units. 



110 



2003 IMTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODEC 



?E-RESDSTAMCE-RATED CONSTRUCTSOM 



TABLE 720.1(1) 
JM PROTECTIOM OF STRUCTURAL PARTS BASED ON TBiWE PERBODS 
FOR VARIOUS NONCOMBUSTIBLE DiMSULATlNG MATERSALS'" 



STRUCTURAL 
PARTS TO BE 
PROTECTED 


ITEM 
NUMBER 


INSULATING MATERIAL USED 


MINIMUM THICKNESS OF 

INSULATING MATERIAL 

FOR THE FOLLOWING 

FIRE-RESISTANCE 

PERIODS (inches) 


4 
hour 


3 
hour 


2 
hour 


hour 


1. Steel columns 
and all of 
primary trusses 


1-1.1 


Carbonate, lightweight and sand-lightweight aggregate concrete, members 6" x 6" or 
greater (not including sandstone, granite and siliceous gravel).'' 


2V2 


2 


VI, 




1-1.2 


Carbonate, lightweight and sand-lightweight aggregate concrete, members 8" x 8" or 
greater (not including sandstone, granite and siliceous gravel).'" 


2 


IV2 


1 




1-1.3 


Carbonate, lightweight and sand-Ughtweight aggregate concrete, members 
12" X 12"or greater (not including sandstone, granite and siUceous gravel).^ 


IV2 


1 


1 




1-1.4 


Siliceous aggregate concrete and concrete excluded in Item 1-1.1, members 6" x 6" 
or greater.'' 


3 


2 


l'/2 




1-1.5 


Siliceous aggregate concrete and concrete excluded in Item 1-1.1, members 8" x 8" 
or greater.* 


1% 


2 


1 




1-1.6 


Siliceous aggregate concrete and concrete excluded in Item 1-1.1, members 
12" X 12" or greater." 


2 


1 


1 




1-.2.1 


Clay or shale brick with brick and mortar fill." 


3% 


— 





2V4 


1-3.1 


4" hollow clay tile in two 2" layers; ^l{' mortar between tile and column; ^/g" metal 
mesh 0.046" wire diameter in horizontal joints; tile fill." 


4 


— 


— 


— 


1-3.2 


2" hollow clay tile; ^Z/' mortar between tile and column; ^/g"metal mesh 0.046" wire 
diameter in horizontal joints; hmestone concrete fill;" plastered with %" gypsum 
plaster. 


3 


— 


— 


— 


1-3.3 


2" hollow clay tile with outside wire ties 0.08" diameter at each course of tile or ^/g" 
metal mesh 0.046" diameter wire in horizontal joints; limestone or trap-rock concrete 
fill' extending 1" outside column on all sides 


— 


— 


3 


— 


1-3.4 


2" hollow clay tile with outside wire ties 0.08" diameter at each course of tile with or 
without concrete fill; ^l^^' mortar between tile and column. 


— 


— 


— 


2 


1-4.1 


Cement plaster over metal lath wire tied to ^1^^' cold-rolled vertical channels with 
0.049" (No. 18 B.W. gage) wire ties spaced 3" to 6" on center. Plaster mixed 
1:2 V2 by volume, cement to sand. 


— 


— 


2V2'' 


% 


1-5.1 


Vermiculite concrete, 1:4 mix by volume over paperbacked wire fabric lath wrapped 
directly around column with additional 2" x 2" 0.06570.065" (No. 16/16 B.W. gage) 
wire fabric placed '^1" from outer concrete surface. Wke fabric tied with 0.049" (No. 
18 B.W. gage) wire spaced 6" on center for inner layer and 2" on center for outer 
layer. 


2 


— 


— 


— 


1-6.1 


Perlite or vermiculite gypsum plaster over metal lath wrapped around column and 
furred 1 V4" from column flanges. Sheets lapped at ends and tied at 6" intervals with 
0.049" (No. 18 B.W. gage) tie wire. Plaster pushed through to flanges. 


l'/2 


1 


— 




1-6.2 


Perlite or vermiculite gypsum plaster over self-furring metal lath wrapped directly 
around column, lapped 1" and tied at 6" intervals with 0.049" (No. 18 B.W. gage) 
wire. 


1% 


1% 


1 


— 


1-6.3 


Perlite or vermiculite gypsum plaster on metal lath applied to '^1" cold-rolled 
channels spaced 24" apart vertically and wrapped flatwise around column. 


iVa 


— 


— 


— 


1-6.4 


Perhte or vermiculite gypsum plaster over two layers of ""l^ plain full-length gypsum 
lath applied tight to column flanges. Lath wrapped with 1" hexagonal mesh of No. 20 
gage wire and tied with doubled 0.035" diameter (No. 18 B.W. gage) wire ties spaced 
23" on center. For three-coat work, the plaster mix for the second coat shall not 
exceed 100 pounds of gypsum to 2V2 cubic feet of aggregate for the 3-hour system. 


1\ 


2 




— 



{continued) 



2003 I^^TERMATDOMAL BUlLDliMG CODE® 



111 



FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE 720.1 (1)-^oir84!iniuedl 
WJIMIWiUiVi PROTECTION OF STRUCTURAL PARTS BASED ON TBiVlE PERiODS 
NONCOMBOSTDBLE INSULATING MATERIALS'" 



STRUCTURAL 
PARTS TO BE 
PROTECTED 


ITEM 
NUMBER 


INSULATING MATERIAL USED 


MINIMUM THICKNESS OF 

INSULATING MATERIAL 

FOR THE FOLLOWING 

FIRE-RESISTANCE 

PERIODS (inches) 


4 
hour 


3 
hour 


2 
hour 


1 

hour 


1 . Steel columns 
and all of 
primary trusses 
(continued) 


1-6.5 


Perlite or vermiculate gypsum plaster over one layer of '/2" plain full-length gypsum 
lath appUed tight to column flanges. Lath tied with doubled 0.049" (No. 18 B.W. 
gage) wire ties spaced 23" on center and scratch coat wrapped with 1" hexagonal 
mesh 0.035" (No. 20 B.W. gage) wire fabric. For three-coat work, the plaster mix for 
the second coat shall not exceed 100 pounds of gypsum to 2 Vj cubic feet of 
aggregate. 


— 


2 


— 


— 


1-7.1 


Multiple layers of ^l{' gypsum wallboard'^ adhesively'' secured to column flanges and 
successive layers. Wallboard applied without horizontal joints. Comer edges of each 
layer staggered. Wallboard layer below outer layer secured to column with doubled 
0.049" (No. 18 B.W. gage) steel wire ties spaced 15" on center. Exposed comers 
taped and treated. 


— 


— 


2 


1 


1-7.2 


Three layers of %" Type X gypsum wallboard.'^ First and second layer held in place 
by Vg" diameter by 1%" long ring shank nails with Vjg" diameter heads spaced 24" 
on center at comers. Middle layer also secured with metal straps at mid-height and 
18" from each end, and by metal comer bead at each comer held by the metal straps. 
Third layer attached to comer bead with 1" long gypsum wallboard screws spaced 
12" on center. 


— 


— 


1% 




1-7.3 


Three layers of ^/g" Type X gypsum wallboard,*^ each layer screw attached to l^/g" 
steel studs 0.018" thick (No. 25 carbon sheet steel gage) at each comer of column. 
Middle layer also secured with 0.049" (No. 18 B.W. gage) double-strand steel wire 
ties, 24" on center. Screws are No. 6 by 1" spaced 24" on center for inner layer, No. 6 
by 1 Vg" spaced 12"on center for middle layer and No. 8 by 2'//' spaced 12" on center 
for outer layer. 


— 


1% 


— 


— 


1-8.1 


Wood-fibered gypsum plaster mixed 1 : 1 by weight gypsum-to-sand aggregate 
applied over metal lath. Lath lapped 1" and tied 6" on center at all end, edges and 
spacers with 0.049" (No. 18 B.W. gage) steel tie wires. Lath applied over V2" spacers 
made of ^i^' furring channel with 2" legs bent around each comer. Spacers located 1" 
from top and bottom of member and a maximum of 40" on center and wire tied with 
a single strand of 0.049" (No. 18 B.W. gage) steel tie wires. Comer bead tied to the 
lath at 6" on center along each comer to provide plaster thickness. 


— 


— 


\% 


— 


2. Webs or 
flanges of 
steel beams 
and girders 


2-1.1 


Carbonate, lightweight and sand-lightweight aggregate concrete (not including 
sandstone, granite and siliceous gravel) with 3" or finer metal mesh placed 1" from 
the finished surface anchored to the top flange and providing not less than 0.025 
square inch of steel area per foot in each direction. 


2 


IV2 


1 


1 


2-1.2 


Siliceous aggregate concrete and concrete excluded in Item 2-1.1 with 3" or finer 
metal mesh placed 1" from the finished surface anchored to the top flange and 
providing not less than 0.025 square inch of steel area per foot in each direction. 


2-/2 


2 


l'/2 


1 


2-2.1 


Cement plaster on metal lath attached to ^Z/' cold-rolled channels with 0.049" (No. 
18 B.W. gage) wire ties spaced 3" to 6" on center. Plaster mixed 1:2 V2 by volume, 
cement to sand. 


— 


— 


2V2'' 


% 


2-3.1 


Vermiculite gypsum plaster on a metal lath cage, wire tied to 0.165" diameter (No. 8 
B.W. gage) steel wire hangers wrapped around beam and spaced 16" on center. Metal 
lath ties spaced approximately 5" on center at cage sides and bottom. 


— 


% 


— 


— 



{continued) 



112 



2003 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



FDRE-RESISTAMCE-RATEDCONSTRUCTBOSM 



TABLE 720.1(11)— continued 

lUWi PROTECTION OF STRUCTURAL PARTS BASED ON TIME PE 

FOR VARBOUS NONCOSWBOSTBBLE BNSULATBNG MATERBALS'" 









MlNIMUWl THICKNESS OF 








INSULATING MATERIAL 








■ FOR THE FOLLOWING 








FIRE-RESISTANCE 


STRUCTURAL 
PARTS TO BE 






PERIODS (inches) 


ITEM 




4 


3 


2 


1 


PROTECTED 


NUMBER 


INSULATING WiATERlAL USED 


hour 


hour 


hour 


hour 






Two layers of ^/g" Type X gypsum wallboard*^ are attached to U-shaped brackets 














spaced 24" on center. 0.018" thick (No. 25 carbon sheet steel gage) 1%" deep by 1" 














galvanized steel runner channels are first installed parallel to and on each side of the 














top beam flange to provide a V2" clearance to the flange. The channel runners are 














attached to steel deck or concrete floor construction with approved fasteners spaced 














12" on center. U-shaped brackets are formed from members identical to the channel 














runners. At the bent portion of the U-shaped bracket, the flanges of the channel are 














cut out so that l^/g" deep comer channels can be inserted without attachment parallel 














to each side of the lower flange. 












2-4.1 


As an alternate, 0.021" thick (No. 24 carbon sheet steel gage) 1" x 2" runner and 
comer angles may be used in lieu of channels, and the web cutouts in the U-shaped 
brackets may be omitted. Each angle is attached to the bracket with V2"-long No. 8 
self-drilling screws. The vertical legs of the U-shaped bracket are attached to the 
mnners with one V2" long No. 8 self-drilling screw. The completed steel framing 






IV4 




2. Webs or 




provides a 2 Vg" and 1 ^l{' space between the inner layer of wallboard and the sides 










flanges of 
steel beams 




and bottom of the steel beam, respectively. The inner layer of wallboard is attached 












to the top mnners and bottom comer channels or comer angles with 1 V4"-long No. 6 










and girders 




self-drilling screws spaced 16" on center. The outer layer of wallboard is applied 










(continued) 




with 1 ^74"- long No. 6 self-drilling screws spaced 8" on center. The bottom comers are 
reinforced with metal corner beads. 












Three layers of ^/g" Type X gypsum wallboard'^ attached to a steel suspension system 














as described immediately above utihzing the 0.018" thick (No. 25 carbon sheet steel 














gage) 1" X 2" lower comer angles. The framing is located so that a 2Vg" and 2" space 














is provided between the inner layer of wallboard and the sides and bottom of the 














beam, respectively. The first two layers of wallboard are attached as described 












2-4.2 


inmiediately above. A layer of 0.035" thick (No. 20 B.W. gage) 1" hexagonal 
galvanized wire mesh is applied under the soffit of the middle layer and up the sides 
approximately 2". The mesh is held in position with the No. 6 1 Vg"-long screws 
installed in the vertical leg of the bottom comer angles. The outer layer of wallboard 
is attached with No. 6 2V4"-long screws spaced 8" on center. One screw is also 
installed at the mid-depth of the bracket in each layer. Bottom comers are finished as 
described above. 




1% 






3. Bonded 




Carbonate, lightweight, sand-lightweight and siliceous^ aggregate concrete 


48 


38 


2V0 


IV2 


pretensioned 




Beams or girders 


z. /2 


reinforcement 


3-1.1 












in prestressed 








2 


I'A 


1 


concrete^ 




SoUd slabs*" 




1 '2 






Carbonate, lightweight, sand-lightweight and siliceous^ aggregate concrete 














Unrestrained members: 












4-1.1 


Solid slabs'" 


— 


2 


IV2 


— 


4. Bonded or 




Beams and girders' 










unbonded 




8" wide 




4V2 


2V2 


1% 


post-tensioned 
tendons in 




greater than 12" wide 


3 


2V, 


2 


1'/, 




Carbonate, lightweight, sand-lightweight and siliceous aggregate 










prestressed 




Restrained members:'' 










concrete^' ' 


4-1.2 


Solid slabs'" 
Beams and girders' 


IV4 


1 


% 


— 






8" wide 


2V2 


2 


1% 


— 






greater than 12" wide 


2 


1% 


l'/2 


— 



{continued) 



2003 BIMTERByiATBOBMAL BUBLDBESSG CODE® 



113 



FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE 720.1(1)— continued 

MINIMUM PROTECTION OF STRUCTURAL PARTS BASED ON TIME PERIODS 

FOR VARIOUS NONCOMBUSTIBLE INSULATING MATERIALS'" 



STRUCTURAL 
PARTS TO BE 
PROTECTED 


ITEM 
NUMBER 


INSULATING MATERIAL USED 


MINIMUM THICKNESS OF 

INSULATING MATERIAL 

FOR THE FOLLOWING 

FIRE-RESISTANCE 

PERIODS (inches) 


4 
hour 


3 
hour 


2 
hour 


1 

hour 


5. Reinforcing 
steel in 
reinforced 
concrete 
columns, beams 
girders and 
trusses 


5-1.1 


Carbonate, lightweight and sand-hghtweight aggregate concrete, members 12" or 
larger, square or round. (Size limit does not apply to beams and girders monolithic 
with floors.) 

Siliceous aggregate concrete, members 12" or larger, square or round. (Size limit 
does not apply to beams and girders monolithic with floors.) 


1'/, 
2 


IV2 


IV2 


IV. 

1V2 


6. Reinforcing 
steel in 
reinforced 
concrete joists' 


6-1.1 
6-1.2 


Carbonate, lightweight and sand-lightweight aggregate concrete. 
Siliceous aggregate concrete. 


IV4 
IV4 


IV4 
IV2 


1 
1 




7. Reinforcing and 
tie rods in floor 
and roof slabs' 


7-1.1 
7-1.2 


Carbonate, lightweight and sand-lightweight aggregate concrete. 
Siliceous aggregate concrete. 


1 
IV4 


1 
1 


1 


V4 
V4 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 square inch = 645.2 mm^, 1 cubic foot = 0.0283 m-'. 

a. Reentrant parts of protected members to be filled solidly. 

b. Two layers of equal thickness with a %-inch airspace between. 

c. For all of the construction with gypsum wallboard described in Table 720. 1 (1 ), gypsum base for veneer plaster of the same size, thickness and core type shall be 
permitted to be substituted for gypsum wallboard, provided attachment is identical to that specified for the wallboard and the joints on the face layer are reinforced, 
and the endre surface is covered with a minimum of '/,g-inch gypsum veneer plaster. 

d. An approved adhesive qualified under ASTM E 1 19. 

e. Where lightweight or sand-lightweight concrete having an oven-dry weight of 1 1 pounds per cubic foot or less is used, the tabulated minimum cover shall be per- 
mitted to be reduced 25 percent, except that in no case shall the cover be less than % inch in slabs or IV2 inches in beams or girders. 

f For solid slabs of siliceous aggregate concrete, increase tendon cover 20 percent. 

g. Adequate provisions against spalling shall be provided by U-shaped or hooped stirrups spaced not to exceed the depth of the member with a clear cover of 1 inch. 

h. Prestressed slabs shall have a thickness not less than that required in Table 720.1(3) for the respective fire resistance time period. 

i. Fire coverage and end anchorages shall be as follows: Cover to the prestressing steel at the anchor shall be Vj inch greater than that required away from the anchor. 
Minimum cover to steel-bearing plate shall be 1 inch in beams and ^1^ inch in slabs. 

j. For beam widths between 8 inches and 12 inches, cover thickness shall be permitted to be determined by interpolation. 

k. Interior spans of continuous slabs, beams and girders shall be permitted to be considered restrained. 

1. For use with concrete slabs having a comparable fire endurance where members are framed into the structure in such a manner as to provide equivalent perfor- 
mance to that of monolithic concrete construction. 

m. Generic fire-resistance ratings (those not designated as PROPRIETARY* in the hsfing) in GA 600 shall be accepted as if herein listed. 



114 



2003 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



FIRE-RESIISTABMCE-IRATED CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE 720.1(2) 
FIRE-RESDSTANCE PERIODS FOR VARIOUS WALLS AND PARTITIONS ^'°'P 



iWATERlAL 


ITEM 
NUMBER 


CONSTRUCTION 


MDNDMUM FINISHED 

THICKNESS FACE-TO-FACE" 

(inches) 


4 hour 


3 hour 


2 hour 


1 hour 


I . Brick of clay or 
shale 


1-1.1 


Solid brick of clay or shale'^ 


6 


4.9 


3.8 


2.7 


1-1.2 


Hollow brick, not filled. 


5.0 


4.3 


3.4 


2.3 


1-1.3 


Hollow brick unit wall, grout or filled with perlite vermiculite or expanded shale 
aggregate. 


6.6 


5.5 


4.4 


3.0 


1-2.1 


4" nominal thick units at least 75 percent solid backed with a hat-shaped metal 
furring channel %" thick formed from 0.021" sheet metal attached to the brick 
wall on 24" centers with approved fasteners, and V2" Type X gypsum wallboard 
attached to the metal furring strips with l"-long Type S screws spaced 8" on 
center. 


— 


— 


5'' 


— 


2. Combination of 
clay brick and 
load-bearing 
hollow clay tile 


2-1.1 


4" solid brick and 4" tile (at least 40 percent solid). 





8 





— 


2-1.2 


4" soUd brick and 8" tile (at least 40 percent soUd). 


12 


— 


— 


— 


3. Concrete 
masonry units 


3-1.1^-8 


Expanded slag or pumice. 


4.7 


4.0 


3.2 


2.1 


3-1.2f'g 


Expanded clay, shale or slate. 


5.1 


4.4 


3.6 


2.6 


3-1.3^ 


Limestone, cinders or air-cooled slag. 


5.9 


5.0 


4.0 


2.7 


3-1.4f'g 


Calcareous or siliceous gravel. 


6.2 


5.3 


4.2 


2.8 


4. Solid concrete*^' ' 


4-1.1 


Siliceous aggregate concrete. 


7.0 


6.2 


5.0 


3.5 


Carbonate aggregate concrete. 


6.6 


5.7 


4.6 


3.2 


Sand-lightweight concrete. 


5.4 


4.6 


3.8 


2.7 


Lightweight concrete. 


5.1 


4.4 


3.6 


2.5 


5. Glazed or 
unglazed facing 
tile, 
nonload-bearing 


5-1.1 


One 2" unit cored 15 percent maximum and one 4" unit cored 25 percent 
maximum with %" mortar-filled collar joint. Unit positions reversed in alternate 
courses. 


— 


63/8 


— 


— 


5-1.2 


One 2" unit cored 15 percent maximum and one 4" unit cored 40 percent 
maximum with %"mortar-filled collar joint. Unit posiUons side with %" gypsum 
plaster. Two wythes tied together every fourth course with No. 22 gage corrugated 
metal ties. 




6% 


— 


— 


5-1.3 


One unit with three cells in wall thickness, cored 29 percent maximum. 








6 





5-1.4 


One 2" unit cored 22 percent maximum and one 4" unit cored 41 percent 
maximum with V/'mortar-filled collar joint. Two wythes tied together every third 
course with 0.030" (No. 22 galvanized sheet steel gage) corrugated metal ties. 


— 


— 


6 


— 


5-1.5 


One 4" unit cored 25 percent maximum with ^//' gypsum plaster on one side. 








4% 





5-1.6 


One 4" unit with two cells in wall thickness, cored 22 percent maximum. 










4 


5-1.7 


One 4" unit cored 30 percent maximum with ^Z^" vermiculite gypsum plaster on 
one side. 


— 


— 


4% 


— 


5-1.8 


One 4" unit cored 39 percent maximum with %" gypsum plaster on one side. 


— 


— 


— 


4% 



(continued) 



115 



FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE 720.1(2)— contioued 
RATED FIRE-RES8STANCE PERSODS FOR VARIOUS WALLS AND PARTITIONS ^•''■P 



MATERIAL 


ITEM 
NUMBER 


CONSTRUCTION 


MINIMUM FINISHED 

THICKNESS 

FACE-TO-FACE" 

(inches) 


4 hour 


3 hour 


2 hour 


1 hour 


6. Solid gypsum 
plaster 


6-1.1 


V4" by 0.055" (No. 16 carbon sheet steel gage) vertical cold-rolled channels, 16" 
on center with 2.6-pound flat metal lath applied to one face and tied with 0.049" 
(No. 18 B.W. Gage) wire at 6" spacing. Gypsum plaster each side mixed 1:2 by 
weight, gypsum to sand aggregate. 


— 


— 


— 


2" 


6-1.2 


%" by 0.055" (No. 16 carbon sheet steel gage) cold-rolled channels 16" on center 
with metal lath applied to one face and tied with 0.049" (No. 18 B.W. gage) wire 
at 6" spacing. Perlite or vermiculite gypsum plaster each side. For three-coat 
work, the plaster mix for the second coat shall not exceed 100 pounds of gypsum 
to 2V2 cubic feet of aggregate for the 1-hour system. 




— 


2'/2'' 


2'' 


6-1.3 


V4" by 0.055" (No. 16 carbon sheet steel gage) vertical cold-rolled channels, 16" 
on center with V8"gypsum lath applied to one face and attached with sheet metal 
clips. Gypsum plaster each side mixed 1:2 by weight, gypsum to sand aggregate. 


— 


— 


— 


2" 


6-2.1 


Studless with V2" full-length plain gypsum lath and gypsum plaster each side. 
Plaster mixed 1:1 for scratch coat and 1:2 for brown coat, by weight, gypsum to 
sand aggregate. 


— 




— 


2'' 


6-2.2 


Studless with V2" full-length plain gypsum lath and perlite or vermicuhte gypsum 
plaster each side. 


— 




2'/2'' 


2d 


6-2.3 


Studless partition with Vg" rib metal lath installed vertically adjacent edges tied 6" 
on center with No. 18 gage wire ties, gypsum plaster each side mixed 1:2 by 
weight, gypsum to sand aggregate. 


— 


— 


— 


2" 


7. Solid perlite 
and Portland 
cement 


7-1.1 


Perlite mixed in the ratio of 3 cubic feet to 100 pounds of portland cement and 
machine applied to stud side of 1 V2" mesh by 0.058-inch (No. 17 B.W. gage) 
paper-backed woven wire fabric lath wire-tied to 4"-deep steel trussed wireJ studs 
16" on center. Wire ties of 0.049" (No. 18 B.W. gage) galvanized steel wire 6" on 
center vertically. 


— 


— 


3V 


— 


8. Solid neat 
wood fibered 
gypsum plaster 


8-1.1 


%" by 0.055-inch (No. 16 carbon sheet steel gage) cold-rolled channels, 12" on 
center with 2.5-pound flat metal lath appUed to one face and tied with 0.049" (No. 
18 B.W. gage) wire at 6" spacing. Neat gypsum plaster applied each side. 


— 


— 


2'' 


— 


9. Solid wallboard 
partition 


9-1.1 


One full-length layer V2" Type X gypsum wallboard^ laminated to each side of 1" 
full-length V-edge gypsum coreboard with approved laminating compound. 
Vertical joints of face layer and coreboard staggered at least 3". 


— 


— 


2" 


— 


10. Hollow 
(studless) 
gypsum 
wallboard 
partition 


10-1.1 


One full-length layer of ^/g" Type X gypsum wallboard^ attached to both sides of 
wood or metal top and bottom runners laminated to each side of 1" x 6" 
full-length gypsum coreboard ribs spaced 24" on center with approved laminating 
compound. Ribs centered at vertical joints of face phes and joints staggered 24" 
in opposing faces. Ribs may be recessed 6" from the top and bottom. 


— 


— 


— 


2'V 


10-1.2 


1" regular gypsum V-edge full-length backing board attached to both sides of 
wood or metal top and bottom runners with nails or iVg" dry wall screws at 24" on 
center. Minimum width of rumors 1^/g". Face layer of V2" regular full-length 
gypsum wallboard laminated to outer faces of backing board with approved 
laminating compound. 


— 


— 


^V 


— 



(continued) 



116 



2003 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



TABLE 720.1(2 
RATED FIRE-RESDSTAMCE PERIODS FOR 



IS ^•°'P 



MATERIAL 


ITEM 
NUMBER 


C0NSTRUCT10^S 


MINDMUM FINISHED 

THICKNESS FACE-TO-FACE" 

(inches) 


4 hour 


3 hour 


2 hour 


1 hour 


1 1 . Noncombustible 
studs — interior 
partition with 
plaster each side 


11-1.1 


3'//' X 0.044" (No. 18 carbon sheet steel gage) steel studs spaced 24" on center. 
Vg" gypsum plaster on metal lath each side mixed 1:2 by weight, gypsum to 
sand aggregate. 


— 


— 


— 


43/4" 


11-1.2 


3%" X 0.055" (No. 16 carbon sheet steel gage) approved nailable'' studs spaced 
24" on center, ^/g" neat gypsum wood-fibered plaster each side over ^/g" rib 
metal lath nailed to studs with 6d common nails, 8" on center. Nails driven 1 ^1^' 
and bent over. 


— 


— 


5Vg 


— 


11-1.3 


4" X 0.044" (No. 18 carbon sheet steel gage) channel- shaped steel studs at 16" 
on center. On each side approved resilient clips pressed onto stud flange at 16" 
vertical spacing, ^1^' pencil rods snapped into or wire tied onto outer loop of 
clips, metal lath wire-tied to pencil rods at 6" intervals, 1" perlite gypsum 
plaster, each side. 


— 


1%' 


— 


— 


11-1.4 


2'/2" X 0.044" (No. 18 carbon sheet steel gage) steel studs spaced 16" on center. 
Wood fibered gypsum plaster mixed 1 : 1 by weight gypsum to sand aggregate 
applied on ^/4-pound metal lath wire tied to studs, each side. '^1^" plaster applied 
over each face, including finish coat. 


— 


— 


4'V 


— 


12. Wood studs 
interior partition 
with plaster each 
side 


12-1.1'- "• 


2" X 4" wood studs 16" on center with ^/g" gypsum plaster on metal lath. Lath 
attached by 4d common nails bent over or No. 14 gage by 1 ^1" by ^1^" crown 
width staples spaced 6" on center. Plaster mixed l:l'/2 for scratch coat and 1:3 
for brown coat, by weight, gypsum to sand aggregate. 


— 


— 


— 


5Vg 


12-1.2' 


2" X 4" wood studs 16" on center with metal lath and ^/g" neat wood-fibered 
gypsum plaster each side. Lath attached by 6d common nails, 7" on center. 
Nails driven 1 ^1^' and bent over. 


— 


— 


5 '72" 


— 


12-1.3' 


2" X 4" wood studs 16" on center with ^/g" perforated or plain gypsum lath and 
'V gypsum plaster each side. Lath nailed with I'/g" by No. 13 gage by '%4" 
head plasterboard blued nails, 4" on center. Plaster mixed 1:2 by weight, 
gypsum to sand aggregate. 


— 


— 


— 


5V4 


12-1.4' 


2" X 4" wood studs 16" on center with -^/g" Type X gypsum lath and '/2" gypsum 
plaster each side. Lath nailed with 1 '/g" by No. 13 gage by '^4" head 
plasterboard blued nails, 5" on center. Plaster mixed 1:2 by weight, gypsum to 
sand aggregate. 


— 


— 


— 


5V4 


13.Noncumbustible 
studs — interior 
partition with 
gypsum 
wallboard each 
side 


13-1.1 


0.018" (No. 25 carbon sheet steel gage) channel-shaped studs 24" on center 
with one full-length layer of ^/g" Type X gypsum wallboard^ applied vertically 
attached with 1" long No. 6 drywall screws to each stud. Screws are 8" on 
center around the perimeter and 12" on center on the intermediate stud. The 
wallboard may be applied horizontally when attached to 3^/3" studs and the 
horizontal joints are staggered with those on the opposite side. Screws for the 
horizontal application shall be 8" on center at vertical edges and 12" on center 
at intermediate studs. 


— 


— 


— 


2V 


13-1.2 


0.018" (No. 25 carbon sheet steel gage) channel-shaped studs 25" on center 
with two full-length layers of ^Ij Type X gypsum wallboard^ applied vertically 
each side. First layer attached with l"-long. No. 6 drywall screws, 8" on center 
around the perimeter and 12" on center on the intermediate stud. Second layer 
applied with vertical joints offset one stud space from first layer using iVg" 
long. No. 6 drywall screws spaced 9" on center along vertical joints, 12" on 
center at intermediate studs and 24" on center along top and bottom runners. 


— 


— 


3%" 


— 


13-1.3 


0.055" (No. 16 carbon sheet steel gage) approved nailable metal studs^ 24" on 
center with full-length ^/g" Type X gypsum wallboard^ applied vertically and 
nailed 7" on center with 6d cement-coated common nails. Approved metal 
fastener grips used with nails at vertical butt joints along studs. 


— 


— 


— 


4% 



(continued) 



2003 INTERNATIONAL BUILDBMG CODE® 



117 



FSRE-RESISTANCE-RATEDCOMSTRUCTSOM 





TABLE 720.1(2)— continued 
RATED FIRE-RESSSTANCE PER80DS FOR VAR80US WALLS AND PARTDTSONS ^'° 


-p 








MATERIAL 


ITEM 
NUMBER 


CONSTRUCTDON 


MINIMUM FINISHED 

THICKNESS FACE-TO-FACE" 

(inches) 


4 hour 


3 hour 


2 hour 


1 hour 


14.Wood 

studs — interior 
partition with 
gypsum 
wallboard 
each side 


14.1.lh,m 


2" X 4" wood studs 16" on center with two layers of ^/g" regular gypsum 
wallboard^ each side, 4d cooler" or wallboard" nails at 8" on center first layer, 5d 
cooler" or wallboard" nails at 8" on center second layer with laminating 
compound between layers, joints staggered. First layer appHed full length 
vertically, second layer applied horizontally or vertically 


— 


— 


— 


5 


14-1.2'- "^ 


2" X 4" wood studs 16" on center with two layers V2" regular gypsum wallboard^ 
applied vertically or horizontally each side'', joints staggered. Nail base layer 
with 5d cooler" or wallboard" nails at 8" on center face layer with 8d cooler" or 
wallboard" nails at 8" on center. 


— 


— 


— 


5% 


14-1.3'' "^ 


2" X 4" wood studs 24" on center with ^/g" Type X gypsum wallboard'^ applied 
vertically or horizontally nailed with 6d cooler" or wallboard" nails at 7" on 
center with end joints on nailing members. Stagger joints each side. 


— 


— 


— 


4% 


14-1.4' 


2" X 4" fire-retardant-treated wood studs spaced 24" on center with one layer of 
^/g" Type X gypsum wallboard^ applied with face paper grain (long dimension) 
parallel to studs. Wallboard attached with 6d cooler" or wallboard" nails at 7" on 
center. 


— 


— 


— 


43/4^ 


14-1.5'-'" 


2" X 4" wood studs 16" on center with two layers ^/g" Type X gypsum wallboard'^ 
each side. Base layers applied vertically and nailed with 6d cooler" or wallboard" 
nails at 9" on center. Face layer applied vertically or horizontally and nailed with 
8d cooler" or wallboard" nails at 7" on center. For nail-adhesive application, 
base layers are nailed 6" on center. Face layers applied with coating of approved 
wallboard adhesive and nailed 12" on center. 


— 


— 


6 


— 


14-1.6' 


2" X 3" fire-retardant-treated wood studs spaced 24" on center with one layer of 
^/g" Type X gypsum wallboard^ applied with face paper grain (long dimension) 
at right angles to studs. Wallboard attached with 6d cement-coated box nails 
spaced 7" on center. 


— 


— 


— 


3Vg'^ 


15. Exterior or 
interior walls 


15-1.1''"^ 


Exterior surface with V4" drop siding over '/j" gypsum sheathing on 2" x 4" 
wood studs at 16" on center, interior surface treatment as required for 
1 -hour-rated exterior or interior 2" x 4" wood stud partitions. Gypsum sheathing 
nailed with 1 ^/^" by No. 1 1 gage by ^,5" head galvanized nails at 8" on center. 
Siding nailed with 7d galvanized smooth box nails. 


— 


— 


— 


Varies 


15-1.2'''^ 


2" X 4" wood studs 16" on center with metal lath and ^//' cement plaster on each 
side. Lath attached with 6d common nails 7" on center driven to 1" minimum 
penetration and bent over. Plaster mix 1 :4 for scratch coat and 1 :5 for brown 
coat, by volume, cement to sand. 


— 


— 


— 


5% 


15-1.3'- "^ 


2" X 4" wood studs 16" on center with %" cement plaster (measured from the 
face of studs) on the exterior surface with interior surface treatment as required 
for interior wood stud partitions in this table. Plaster mix 1 :4 for scratch coat and 
1:5 for brown coat, by volume, cement to sand. 


— 


— 


— 


Varies 


15-1.4 


3%" No. 16 gage noncombustible studs 16" on center with %" cement plaster 
(measured from the face of the studs) on the exterior surface with interior 
surface treatment as required for interior, nonbearing, noncombustible stud 
partitions in this table. Plaster mix 1:4 for scratch coat and 1:5 for brown coat, 
by volume, cement to sand. 




— 


— 


Varies" 



(continued) 



118 



2003 8NTERMATI0NAL BUILDSNG CODE® 



SE-RESJSTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTSOiM 



TABLE 720.1(2)— continued 
ED FDRE-RESISTASMCE PERIODS FOR VARIOUS WALLS AND 



S ^'"'P 



MATERIAL 



ITEM 
NUMBER 



CONSTRUCTION 



MINIMUM FINISHED 

THICKNESS FACE-TO-FACE" 

(inches) 



hour 3 hour 2 hour 1 hour 



15-1.5^ 



2V4" X 3^/4" clay face brick with cored holes over V2" gypsum sheathing on 
exterior surface of 2" x 4" wood studs at 16" on center and two layers ^/g" Type X 
gypsum wallboard^ on interior surface. Sheathing placed horizontally or vertically 
with vertical joints over studs nailed 6" on center with 1%" x No. 1 1 gage by ^/jg" 
head galvanized nails. Inner layer of wallboard placed horizontally or vertically 
and nailed 8" on center with 6d cooler" or wallboard" nails. Outer layer of 
wallboard placed horizontally or vertically and nailed 8" on center with 8d cooler" 
or wallboard" nails. All joints staggered with vertical joints over studs. Outer 
layer joints taped and finished with compound. Nail heads covered with joint 
compound. 0.035 inch (No. 20 galvanized sheet gage) corrugated galvanized steel 
wall ties ^1^" by 6^/g" attached to each stud with two 8d cooler" or wallboard" nails 
every sixth course of bricks. 



10 



15-1.6''"^ 



2" X 6" fire-retardant- treated wood studs 16" on center. Interior face has two 
layers of ^/g" Type X gypsum with the base layer placed vertically and attached 
with 6d box nails 12" on center. The face layer is placed horizontally and attached 
with 8d box nails 8" on center at joints and 12" on center elsewhere. The exterior 
face has a base layer of ^/g" Type X gypsum sheathing placed vertically with 6d 
box nails 8" on center at joints and 12" on center elsewhere. An approved 
building paper is next applied, followed by self-furred exterior lath attached with 
2 72", No. 12 gage galvanized roofing nails with a ^/g" diameter head and spaced 
6" on center along each stud. Cement plaster consisting of a V2" brown coat is 
then apphed. The scratch coat is mixed in the proportion of 1:3 by weight, cement 
to sand with 10 pounds of hydrated lime and 3 pounds of approved additives or 
admixtures per sack of cement. The brown coat is mixed in the proportion of 1:4 
by weight, cement to sand with the same amounts of hydrated lime and approved 
additives or admixtures used in the scratch coat. 



15. Exterior or 
interior walls 
(continued) 



15-1.7''"^ 



2" X 6" wood studs 16" on center. The exterior face has a layer of ^/g" Type X 
gypsum sheathing placed vertically with 6d box nails 8" on center at joints and 
12" on center elsewhere. An approved building paper is next applied, followed by 
1" by No. 18 gage self-furred exterior lath attached with 8d by 2V2" long 
galvanized roofing nails spaced 6" on center along each stud. Cement plaster 
consisting of a V2" scratch coat, a bonding agent and a V2" brown coat and a 
finish coat is then applied. The scratch coat is mixed in the proportion of 1:3 by 
weight, cement to sand with 10 pounds of hydrated lime and 3 pounds of 
approved additives or admixtures per sack of cement. The brown coat is mixed in 
the proportion of 1 :4 by weight, cement to sand with the same amounts of 
hydrated lime and approved additives or admixtures used in the scratch coat. The 
interior is covered with %" gypsum lath with 1" hexagonal mesh of 0.035 inch 
(No. 20 B.W. gage) woven wire lath furred out ^/jg" and 1" perlite or vermiculite 
gypsum plaster. Lath nailed with 1 Vg" by No. 13 gage by "^4" head plasterboard 
glued nails spaced 5" on center. Mesh attached by 1%" by No. 12 gage by %" 
head nails with ^/g" furrings, spaced 8" on center. The plaster mix shall not exceed 
100 pounds of gypsum to 2'/^ cubic feet of aggregate. 



8V„ 



15-1.8''"' 



2" X 6"wood studs 16" on center. The exterior face has a layer of ^/g" Type X 
gypsum sheathing placed vertically with 6d box nails 8" on center at joints and 
12" on center elsewhere. An approved building paper is next applied, followed by 
1 V2" by No. 17 gage self-furred exterior lath attached with 8d by 2V2" long 
galvanized roofing nails spaced 6" on center along each stud. Cement plaster 
consisting of a ^l-^' scratch coat, and a Vj" brown coat is then applied. The plaster 
may be placed by machine. The scratch coat is mixed in the proportion of 1:4 by 
weight, plastic cement to sand. The brown coat is mixed in the proportion of 1 :5 
by weight, plastic cement to sand. The interior is covered with ^/g" gypsum lath 
with 1" hexagonal mesh of No. 20 gage woven wire lath furred out ^Z,/' and 1" 
perlite or vermiculite gypsum plaster. Lath nailed with 1 Vg" by No. 13 gage by 
^^l(^' head plasterboard glued nails spaced 5" on center. Mesh attached by 1 V4" 
by No. 12 gage by %" head nails with %" furrings, spaced 8" on center. The 
plaster mix shall not exceed 100 pounds of gypsum to 2'/2 cubic feet of aggregate. 



8V« 



(continued) 



2003 D^STERESSATDO^SAL BUIILDING CODE® 



119 



RRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE 720.1(2)— continued 
RATED FIRE-RESISTANCE PERIODS FOR VARIOUS WALLS AND PARTITIONS ^'°'P 



MATERIAL 



ITEM 
NUMBER 



CONSTRUCTION 



MINIMUM FINISHED 

THICKNESS FACE-TO-FACE»> 

(inches) 



4 hour 3 hour 2 hour 1 hour 



15-1.9 



4" No. 18 gage, nonload-bearing metal studs, 16" on center, with 1" portland 
cement lime plaster [measured from the back side of the ^/4-pound expanded 
metal lath] on the exterior surface. Interior surface to be covered with 1" of 
gypsum plaster on V4-pound expanded metal lath proportioned by weight — 1:2 
for scratch coat, 1:3 for brown, gypsum to sand. Lath on one side of the partition 
fastened to V4" diameter pencil rods supported by No. 20 gage metal clips, 
located 16" on center vertically, on each stud. 3" thick mineral fiber insulating 
batts friction fitted between the studs. 



15-1.10 



Steel studs 0.060" thick, 4" deep or 6" at 16" or 24" centers, with V2" Glass Fiber 
Reinforced Concrete (GFRC) on the exterior surface. GFRC is attached with flex 
anchors at 24" on center, with 5" leg welded to studs with two '/2"-long 
flare-bevel welds, and 4" foot attached to the GFRC skin with Vg" thick GFRC 
bonding pads that extend 2V2" beyond the flex anchor foot on both sides. Interior 
surface to have two layers of Vj" Type X gypsum wallboard.^ The first layer of 
wallboard to be attached with l"-long Type S buglehead screws spaced 24" on 
center and the second layer is attached with l^/8"-long Type S screws spaced at 
12" on center. Cavity is to be filled with 5" of 4 pcf (nominal) mineral fiber batts. 
GFRC has 1 V2" returns packed with mineral fiber and caulked on the exterior. 



15-1.11 



15. Exterior or 
interior walls 
(continued) 



Steel studs 0.060" thick, 4" deep or 6" at 16" or 24" centers, respectively, with V2" 
Glass Fiber Reinforced Concrete (GFRC) on the exterior surface. GFRC is 
attached with flex anchors at 24" on center, with 5" leg welded to studs with two 
'/2"-long flare-bevel welds, and 4" foot attached to the GFRC skin with ^/g"-thick 
GFRC bonding pads that extend 2'/2" beyond the flex anchor foot on both sides. 
Interior surface to have one layer of ^/g" Type X gypsum wallboard^, attached 
with 1 V4"-long Type S buglehead screws spaced 12" on center. Cavity is to be 
filled with 5" of 4 pcf (nominal) mineral fiber batts. GFRC has 1 V2" returns 
packed with mineral fiber and caulked on the exterior. 



6V« 



15-1.121 



2" X 6" wood studs at 16" with double top plates, single bottom plate; interior and 
exterior sides covered with Vg" Type X gypsum wallboard, 4' wide, applied 
horizontally or vertically with vertical joints over studs, and fastened with 2V4" 
Type S dry wall screws, spaced 12" on center. Cavity filled with 5'/2" mineral 
wool insulation. 



6V. 



15-1.13" 



2" X 6" wood studs at 16" with double top plates, single bottom plate; interior and 
exterior sides covered with %" Type X gypsum wallboard, 4' wide, applied 
horizontally or vertically with vertical joints over studs, and fastened with 2V4" 
Type S dry wall screws, spaced 7" on center. Cavity to be filled with 5V2" mineral 
wool insulation minimum 2.58 pcf (nominal). 



6V. 



15-1.141 



2" X 4" wood studs at 16" with double top plates, single bottom plate; interior and 
exterior sides covered with ^/g" Type X gypsum wallboard and sheathing, 
respectively, 4' wide, applied horizontally or vertically with vertical joints over 
studs, and fastened with 2V4" Type S drywall screws, spaced 12" on center. 
Cavity to be filled with 3'/2" mineral wool insulation. 



4V. 



15-1.151 



2" X 4" wood studs at 16" with double top plates, single bottom plate; interior 
sides covered with %" Type X gypsum wallboard, 4' wide, apphed horizontally 
unblocked, and fastened with 2V4" Type S drywall screws, spaced 12" on center, 
wallboard joints covered with paper tape and joint compound, fastener heads 
covered with joint compound. Exterior covered with Vg" wood structural panels 
(oriented strand board), applied vertically, horizontal joints blocked and fastened 
with 6d common nails (bright) — 12" on center in the field, 6" on center panel 
edges. Cavity to be filled with 3'/2" mineral wool insulation. Rating established 
for exposure from interior side only. 



4'A 



(continued) 



120 



2003 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



FIRE-RESDSTANCE-RATEDCOMSTRUCTDON 



TABLE 720.1 
RMED FDRE-RESDSTAIMCE PEI 



S ^'"'P 



MATERIAL 


ITEM 
NUMBER 


CONSTRUCTION 


MINIMUM FINISHED 

THICKNESS FACE-TO-FACE" 

(inches) 


4 hour 


3 hour 


2 hour 


1 hour 


15. Exterior or 

interior walls 

(continued) 


15-1. le"! 


2" X 6" (51mm x 152 mm) wood studs at 16 " centers with double top plates, single 
bottom plate; interior side covered with Vg" Type X gypsum wallboard, 4' wide, 
apphed horizontally or vertically with vertical joints over studs and fastened with 2^1^' 
Type S dry wall screws, spaced 12" on center, wallboard joints covered with paper tape 
and joint compound, fastener heads covered with joint compound, exterior side 
covered with ''1^^' wood structural panels (oriented strand board) fastened with 6d 
common nails (bright) spaced 12" on center in the field and 6" on center along the 
panel edges. Cavity to be filled with 5 V2" mineral wool insulation. Rating established 
from the gypsum-covered side only. 


— 


— 


— 


6V,6 


15-1.17" 


2" X 6" wood studs at 24" centers with double top plates, single bottom plate; 
interior and exterior side covered with two layers of ^/g" Type X gypsum 
wallboard, 4' wide, applied horizontally with vertical joints over studs. Base 
layer fastened with 2V4" Type S drywall screws, spaced 24" on center, and face 
layer fastened with Type S drywall screws, spaced 8" on center, wallboard joints 
covered with paper tape and joint compound, fastened heads covered with joint 
compound. Cavity to be filled with 5V2" mineral wool insulation. 


— 


— 


7% 


— 


16. Exterior walls 
rated for fire 
resistance 
from the 
inside only in 
accordance 
with Section 
704.5. 


16-1.11 


2" X 4" wood studs at 16" centers with double top plates, single bottom plate; 
interior side covered with Vg" Type X gypsum wallboard, 4' wide, applied 
horizontally unblocked, and fastened with 2V4" Type S drywall screws, spaced 
12" on center, wallboard joints covered with paper tape and joint compound, 
fastener heads covered with joint compound. Exterior covered with ^/g" wood 
structural panels (oriented strand board), applied vertically, horizontal joints 
blocked and fastened with 6d common nails (bright) — 12" on center in the field, 
and 6" on center panel edges. Cavity to be filled with 3V2" mineral wool 
insulation. Rating estabhshed for exposure from interior side only. 


— 


— 


— 


4V2 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 square inch = 645.2 mm"^, 1 cubic foot = 0.0283 m^. 

a. Staples with equivalent holding power and penetration shall be permitted to be used as alternate fasteners to nails for attachment to wood framing. 

b. Thickness shown for brick and clay die are nominal thicknesses unless plastered, in which case thicknesses are net. Thickness shown for concrete masonry and 
clay masonry is equivalent thickness defined in Section 72 1 .3 . 1 for concrete masonry and Section 72 1 .4. 1 . 1 for clay masonry. Where all cells are solid grouted or 
filled with silicone-treated perlite loose-fill insulation; vermiculite loose-fill insulation; or expanded clay, shale or slate lightweight aggregate, the equivalent 
thickness shall be the thickness of the block or brick using specified dimensions as defined in Chapter 21 . Equivalent thickness may also include the thickness of 
applied plaster and lath or gypsum wallboard, where specified. 

c. For units in which the net cross-sectional area of cored brick in any plane parallel to the surface containing the cores is at least 75 percent of the gross cross-sec- 
tional area measured in the same plane. 

d. Shall be used for nonbearing purposes only. 

e. For all of the construction with gypsum wallboard described in this table, gypsum base for veneer plaster of the same size, thickness and core type shall be permit- 
ted to be substituted for gypsum wallboard, provided attachment is identical to that specified for the wallboard, and the joints on the face layer are reinforced and 
the entire surface is covered with a minimum of '/,5-inch gypsum veneer plaster. 

f. The fire-resistance time period for concrete masonry units meedng the equivalent thicknesses required for a 2-hour fire-resistance rafing in Item 3, and having a 
thickness of not less than 7% inches is 4 hours when cores which are not grouted are filled with silicone-treated perlite loose-fill insulation; vermiculite loose-fill 
insulafion; or expanded clay, shale or slate lightweight aggregate, sand or slag having a maximum particle size of % inch. 

g. The fire-resistance rating of concrete masonry units composed of a combination of aggregate types or where plaster is applied directly to the concrete masonry 
shall be determined in accordance with ACI 216.1/TMS 216. Lightweight aggregates shall have a maximum combined density of 65 pounds per cubic foot. 

h. See also Note b. The equivalent thickness shall be permitted to include the thickness of cement plaster or 1.5 times the thickness of gypsum plaster applied in ac- 
cordance with the requirements of Chapter 25. 

i. Concrete walls shall be reinforced with horizontal and vertical temperature reinforcement as required by Chapter 19. 

j. Studs are welded truss wire studs with 0.18 inch (No. 7 B.W. gage) flange wire and 0.18 inch (No. 7 B.W. gage) truss wires. 

k. Nailable metal studs consist of two channel studs spot welded back to back with a crimped web forming a nailing groove. 

1. Wood structural panels shall be permitted to be installed between the fire protection and the wood studs on either the interior or exterior side of the wood frame as- 
semblies in this table, provided the length of the fasteners used to attach the fire protection are increased by an amount at least equal to the thickness of the wood 
structural panel. 

m.The design stress of studs shall be reduced to 78 percent of allowable F^ with the maximum not greater than 78 percent of the calculated stress with studs having a 
slendemess ratio l/d of 33. 

n. For properties of cooler or wallboard nails, see ASTM C 5 14, ASTM C 547 or ASTM F 1667. 

o. Generic fire-resistance rafings (those not designated as PROPRIETARY* in the listing) in the GA 600 shall be accepted as if herein listed. 

p. NCMA TEK 5-8, shall be permitted for the design of fire walls. 

q. The design stress of studs shall be equal to a maximum of 1 00 percent of the allowable F^ calculated in accordance with Section 2306. 



2003 JMTERMATDOMAL BODLDDMG CODE® 



121 



FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE 720.1(3) 
MINIWIUWI PROTECTION FOR FLOOR AND ROOF SYSTEMS^'*' 



FLOOR OR ROOF 
CONSTRUCTION 


ITEM 
NUMBER 


CEILING CONSTRUCTION 


THICKNESS OF FLOOR 

OR ROOF SLAB 

(inches) 


MINIMUM THICKNESS 

OF CEILING 

(inches) 


4 
hour 


3 
hour 


2 
hour 


1 
hour 


4 
hour 


3 
hour 


2 
hour 


1 

hour 


1. Siliceous 

aggregate concrete 


1-1.1 


Slab (no ceiling required). Minimum cover over 
nonprestressed reinforcement shall not be less than 
3/4 inch.b 


7.0 


6.2 


5.0 


3.5 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2. Carbonate 

aggregate concrete 


2-1.1 


6.6 


5.7 


4.6 


3.2 


— 


— 


— 


— 


3. Sand-lightweight concrete 


3-1.1 


5.4 


4.6 


3.8 


2.7 











_ 


4. Lightweight concrete 


4-1.1 


5.1 


4.4 


3.6 


2.5 











_ 


5. Reinforced 
concrete 


5-1.1 


Slab with suspended ceiling of vermiculite gypsum 
plaster over metal lath attached to ^1^' cold-rolled 
channels spaced 12" on center. Ceihng located 6" 
minimum below joists. 


3 


2 


— 


— 


1 


% 


— 


— 


5-2.1 


%" Type X gypsum wallboard'^ attached to 0.018 
inch (No. 25 carbon sheet steel gage) by %" deep by 
2%" hat-shaped galvanized steel channels with 
l"-long No. 6 screws. The channels are spaced 24" 
on center, span 35" and are supported along their 
length at 35" intervals by 0.033-inch (No. 21 
galvanized sheet gage) galvanized steel flat strap 
hangers having formed edges that engage the lips of 
the channel. The strap hangers are attached to the 
side of the concrete joists with V32" by 1 '//' long 
power-driven fasteners. The wallboard is installed 
with the long dimension perpendicular to the 
channels. All end joints occur on channels and 
supplementary channels are installed parallel to the 
main channels, 12" each side, at end joint 
occurrences. The finished ceiling is located 
approximately 12" below the soffit of the floor slab. 


— 


— 


VI, 


— 


— 


— 


\ 


— 


6. Steel joists constructed with 
a poured reinforced 
concrete slab on metal lath 
forms or steel form units'*' ^ 


6-1.1 


Gypsum plaster on metal lath attached to the bottom 
cord with single No. 16 gage or doubled No. 18 gage 
wire ties spaced 6" on center. Plaster mixed 1:2 for 
scratch coat, 1:3 for brown coat, by weight, 
gypsum-to-sand aggregate for 2-hour system. For 
3-hour system plaster is neat. 


— 


— 


1% 


2V4 


— 


— 


'U 


\ 


6-2.1 


Vermiculite gypsum plaster on metal lath attached to 
the bottom chord with single No. 16 gage or doubled 
0.049-inch (No. 18 B.W. gage) wire ties 6" on center. 


— 


2 


— 


— 


— 


% 


— 




6-3.1 


Cement plaster over metal lath attached to the 
bottom chord of joists with single No. 16 gage or 
doubled 0.049-inch (No. 18 B.W. gage) wire ties 
spaced 6" on center. Plaster mixed 1:2 for scratch 
coat, 1:3 for brown coat for 1-hour system and 1:1 
for scratch coat, 1:1 '/2 for brown coat for 2-hour 
system, by weight, cement to sand. 


— 


— 


— 


2 


— 


— 


— 


5/ f 
'8 


6-4.1 


Ceiling of ^/g" Type X wallboard'^ attached to %" 
deep by 2^l{ by 0.021 inch (No. 25 carbon sheet 
steel gage) hat-shaped furring channels 12" on center 
with 1" long No. 6 wallboard screws at 8" on center. 
Channels wire tied to bottom chord of joists with 
doubled 0.049 inch (No. 18 B.W. gage) wire or 
suspended below joists on wire hangers.^ 


— 


— 


2V2 


— 


— 


— 


\ 


— 


6-5.1 


Wood-fibered gypsum plaster mixed 1 : 1 by weight 
gypsum to sand aggregate applied over metal lath. 
Lath tied 6" on center to ■'Z/' channels spaced I3V2" 
on center. Channels secured to joists at each 
intersection with two strands of 0.049 inch (No. 18 
B.W. gage) galvanized wire. 


— 


— 


1% 


— 


— 


— 


% 


— 



(continued) 



122 



2003 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



FIllRE-RESlSTAMCE-RATEDCONSTRUCTSOtS!! 





TABLE 720.1(3)— continued 
MBMMUWi PROTECTDOM FOR FLOOR AMD ROOF SYSTEiVaS^ 


q 














FLOOR OR ROOF 
COMSTRUCTION 


ITEWl 
NUMBER 


CEILING CONSTRUCTION 


THICKNESS OF FLOOR 

OR ROOF SLAB 

(inches) 


MDNDMUIV] THICKNESS 

OF CEILING 

(inches) 


4 
hour 


3 
hour 


2 
hour 


1 
hour 


4 
hour 


3 

hooir 


2 
hour 


1 

hour 


7. Reinforced concrete slabs 
and joists with hollow clay 
tile fillers laid end to end in 
rows 2 V2 " or more apart; 
reinforcement placed 
between rows and concrete 
cast around and over tile. 


7-1.1 


^/g" gypsum plaster on bottom of floor or roof 
construction. 


— 


— 


8h 


— 


— 


— 


\ 


— 


7-1.2 


None 


— 


— 


— 


5V2' 




— 


— 


— 


8. Steel joists constructed with 
a reinforced concrete slab 
on top poured on a V2" 
deep steel deck.^ 


8-1.1 


Vermiculite gypsum plaster on metal lath attached to 
%" cold-rolled channels with 0.049" (No. 18 B.W. 
gage) wire ties spaced 6" on center. 


2V2J 


— 


— 


— 


% 


— 


— 


— 


9. 3" deep cellular steel deck 
with concrete slab on top. 
Slab thickness measured to 
top. 


9-1.1 


Suspended ceihng of vermiculite gypsum plaster 
base coat and vermiculite acoustical plaster on metal 
lath attached at 6" intervals to ^1^' cold-rolled 
channels spaced 12" on center and secured to 1 V2" 
cold-rolled channels spaced 36" on center with 
0.065" (No. 16 B.W. gage) wire. 1 V2" channels 
supported by No. 8 gage wire hangers at 36" on 
center. Beams within envelope and with a 
2V2"airspace between beam soffit and lath have a 
4-hour raring. 


2'/2 


— 


— 


— 


l\^ 


— 


— 


— 


10. lV2"-deep steel roof deck 
on steel framing. 
Insulation board, 30 pcf 
density, composed of 
wood fibers with cement 
binders of thickness shown 
bonded to deck with 
unified asphalt adhesive. 
Covered with a Class A or 
B roof covering. 


10-1.1 


Ceiling of gypsum plaster on metal lath. Lath 
attached to %" furring channels with 0.049" (No. 18 
B.W. gage) wire ties spaced 6" on center. '^1^' 
channel saddle tied to 2" channels with doubled 
0.065" (No. 16 B.W. gage) wire ties. 2" channels 
spaced 36" on center suspended 2" below steel 
framing and saddle-tied with 0.165" (No. 8 B.W. 
gage) wire. Plaster mixed 1:2 by weight, 
gypsum-to-sand aggregate. 


— 


— 


1% 


1 


— 




'U 


V 


11.1 V2"-deep steel roof deck 
on steel-framing wood 
fiber insulation board, 17.5 
pcf density on top applied 
over a 15-lb asphalt- 
saturated felt. Class A or B 
roof covering. 


11-1.1 


Ceiling of gypsum plaster on metal lath. Lath 
attached to V/' furring channels with 0.049" (No. 18 
B.W. gage) wire ties spaced 6" on center. '^1^' 
channels saddle tied to 2" channels with doubled 
0.065" (No. 16 B.W. gage) wire ties. 2" channels 
spaced 36" on center suspended 2" below steel 
framing and saddle tied with 0.165" (No. 8 B.W. 
gage) wire. Plaster mixed 1:2 for scratch coat and 
1:3 for brown coat, by weight, gypsum-to-sand 
aggregate for 1-hour system. For 2-hour system, 
plaster mix is 1:2 by weight, gypsum-to-sand 
aggregate. 


— 


— 


IV2 


1 


— 


— 


%^ 


V 



(continued) 



2003 INTERNATIONAL BUDLDENG CODE® 



123 



FBRE-RESISTANCE-RATEDCONSTRUCTBON 



TABLE 720.1(3)— cootinoed 

FOR FLOOR AND ROOF SYSTESl 



jS^'i 



FLOOR OR ROOF 
CONSTRUCTION 


ITEWi 
NUMBER 


CEILING CONSTRUCTION 


THICKNESS OF FLOOR 

OR ROOF SLAB 

(inches) 


MiNliVIUiUl THICKNESS 

OF CEILING 

(inches) 


4 
hour 


3 
hour 


2 
hour 


1 
hour 


4 
hour 


3 
hour 


2 
hour 


1 
hour 


12. 1 V2" deep steel roof deck 
on steel-framing insulation 
of rigid board consisting 
of expanded perlite and 
fibers impregnated with 
integral asphalt 
waterproofing; density 9 to 
12 pcf secured to metal 
roof deck by ^l{' wide 
ribbons of waterproof, 
cold-process Hquid 
adhesive spaced 6" apart. 
Steel joist or Ught steel 
construction with metal 
roof deck, insulation, and 
Class A or B built-up roof 
covering.^ 


12-1.1 


Gypsum-vermiculite plaster on metal lath wire tied 
at 6" intervals to '^1^' furring channels spaced 12" on 
center and wire tied to 2" runner channels spaced 
32" on center. Runners wire tied to bottom chord of 
steel joists. 


— 


— 


1 


— 


— 


— 


% 


— 


13. Double wood floor over 
wood joists spaced 16" on 
center.""'" 


13-1.1 


Gypsum plaster over Vg" Type X gypsum lath. Lath 
initially applied with not less than four 1 Vg" by No. 
13 gage by ^^l(^' head plasterboard blued nails per 
bearing. Continuous stripping over lath along all 
joist hnes. Stripping consists of 3" wide strips of 
metal lath attached by 1 V2" by No. 11 gage by ^l-l' 
head roofing nails spaced 6" on center. Alternate 
stripping consists of 3" wide 0.049" diameter wire 
stripping weighing 1 pound per square yard and 
attached by No. 16 gage by 1 '/2" by %" crown width 
staples, spaced 4" on center. Where alternate 
stripping is used, the lath nailing may consist of two 
nails at each end and one nail at each intermediate 
bearing. Plaster mixed 1:2 by weight, 
gypsum-to-sand aggregate. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


% 


13-1.2 


Cement or gypsum plaster on metal lath. Lath 
fastened with 1 ^l{' by No. 1 1 gage by Vj^" head 
barbed shank roofing nails spaced 5" on center. 
Plaster mixed 1:2 for scratch coat and 1:3 for brown 
coat, by weight, cement to sand aggregate. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


\ 


13-1.3 


Perlite or vermiculite gypsum plaster on metal lath 
secured to joists with l'/2" by No. 1 1 gage by Vjg" 
head barbed shank roofing nails spaced 5" on center. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


\ 


13-1.4 


^I{' Type X gypsum wallboard*^ nailed to joists with 
5d cooler° or wallboard° nails at 6" on center. End 
joints of wallboard centered on joists. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


'/2 


14. Plywood stressed skin 
panels consisting of 
^/g"-thick interior C-D 
(exterior glue) top stressed 
skin on 2" x 6"nominal 
(minimum) stringers. 
Adjacent panel edges 
joined with 8d common 
wire nails spaced 6" on 
center. Stringers spaced 
12" maximum on center. 


14-1.1 


V2"-thick wood fiberboard weighing 15 to 18 pounds 
per cubic foot installed with long dimension parallel 
to stringers or Vg" C-D (exterior glue) plywood 
glued and/or nailed to stringers. Nailing to be with 
5d cooler" or wallboard" nails at 12" on center. 
Second layer of ^l{' Type X gypsum wallboard'^ 
apphed with long dimension perpendicular to joists 
and attached with 8d cooler" or wallboard" nails at 
6" on center at end joints and 8" on center elsewhere. 
Wallboard joints staggered with respect to fiberboard 
joints. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1 



{continued) 



124 



2003 SNTERNATBOMAL BUSLD8NG CODE® 



FDRE-RESIISTAWCE-RATEDCOWSTRUCTION 



TABLE 720.11(3)— con4!nued 
■ECTION FOR FLOOR AMD ROOF SYSTEiyiS^-" 



FLOOR OR ROOF 
CONSTRUCTION 


ITEM 
NUMBER 


CEILING CONSTRUCTION 


THICKNESS OF FLOOR 

OR ROOF SLAB 

(inches) 


MINIMUM THICKNESS 

OF CEILING 

(inches) 


4 
hour 


3 
hour 


2 
hour 


1 
hour 


4 
hour 


3 
hour 


2 
hour 


1 
hour 


15. Vermiculite concrete slab 
proportioned 1:4 (portland 
cement to vermiculite 
aggregate) on a 1 '/2"-deep 
steel deck supported on 
individually protected steel 
framing. Maximum span 
of deck 6'- 10" where deck 
is less than 0.019 inch 
(No. 26 carbon steel sheet 
gage) or greater. Slab 
reinforced with 4" x 8" 
0.109/0.083" (No. '2/,^ 

B.W. gage) welded wire 
mesh. 


15-1.1 


None 


— 


— 


— 


3J 


— 


— 


— 


— 


16. Perlite concrete slab 

proportioned 1 :6 (portland 
cement to perlite 
aggregate) on a lV4"-deep 
steel deck supported on 
individually protected steel 
framing. Slab reinforced 
with 4" X 8" 0.109/0.083" 
(No. '2/,, B.W. gage) 
welded wire mesh. 


16-1.1 


None 


— 


— 


— 


3V,^ 


— 


— 


— 


— 


17. Perhte concrete slab 

proportioned 1:6 (portland 
cement to perlite 
aggregate) on a ^/]6"-deep 
steel deck supported by 
steel joists 4' on center. 
Class A or B roof covering 
on top. 


17-1.1 


Perhte gypsum plaster on metal lath wire tied to %" 
furring channels attached with 0.065-inch (No. 16 
B.W. gage) wire ties to lower chord of joists. 


— 


2P 


2P 


— 


— 


% 


% 


— 


18. Perhte concrete slab 

proportioned 1:6 (portland 
cement to perlite 
aggregate) on 1 V4"-deep 
steel deck supported on 
individually protected steel 
framing. Maximum span 
of deck 6'- 10" where deck 
is less than 0.019" (No. 26 
carbon sheet steel gage) 
and 8'-0" where deck is 
0.019" (No. 26 carbon 
sheet steel gage) or 
greater. Slab reinforced 
with 0.042" (No. 19 B.W. 
gage) hexagonal wire 
mesh. Class A or B roof 
covering on top. 


18-1.1 


None 


— 


2V4P 


2V4P 


— 


— 




, 


— 



(continued) 



125 



FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTJON 



TABLE 720.1(3)— continued 
MINIMUM PROTECTION FOR FLOOR AND ROOF SYSTEMS^*' 



FLOOR OR ROOF 
CONSTRUCTION 



ITEM 
NUMBER 



CEILING CONSTRUCTION 



THICKNESS OF FLOOR OR 

ROOF SLAB 
(inches) 



4 hour 3 hour 2 hour 1 hour 



MINIMUM THICKNESS 

OF CEILING 

(inches) 



4 hour 3 hour 2 hour 1 hour 



19. Floor and beam 

construction consisting 
of 3"-deep cellular 
steel floor unit 
mounted on steel 
members with 1 :4 
(proportion of portland 
cement to perlite 
aggregate) 

perlite-concrete floor 
slab on top. 



19-1.1 



Suspended envelope ceiling of perlite 
gypsum plaster on metal lath attached to %" 
cold-rolled channels, secured to 1 ^l^' 
cold-rolled channels spaced 42" on center 
supported by 0.203 inch (No. 6 B.W. gage) 
wire 36" on center. Beams in envelope with 
3" minimum airspace between beam soffit 
and lath have a 4-hour rating. 



2P 



20. Perlite concrete 
proportioned 1:6 
(portland cement to 
perlite aggregate) 
poured to Vg-inch 
thickness above top of 
corrugations of 
lV]6"-deep galvanized 
steel deck maximum 
span 8'-0" for 
0.024-inch (No. 24 
galvanized sheet gage) 
or 6' 0" for 0.019-inch 
(No. 26 galvanized 
sheet gage) with deck 
supported by 
individually protected 
steel framing. 
Approved polystyrene 
foam plastic insulation 
board having a flame 
spread not exceeding 
75 (1" to 4" thickness) 
with vent holes that 
approximate 3 percent 
of the board surface 
area placed on top of 
perUte slurry. A 2' by 
4' insulation board 
contains six l?l^' 
diameter holes. Board 
covered with 27/' 
minimum perlite 
concrete slab. 



20-1.1 



None 



Varies 



(continued) 



126 



2003 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



FDRE-RESBSTAIVICE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE 720.1(3)— continued 





MDNIMUM PROTECTION FOR FLOOR AND ROOF SYSTESWS^-^ 














FLOOR OR ROOF 
CONSTRUCTION 


ITEM 
NUMBER 


CEILING CONSTRUCTION 


THICKNESS OF FLOOR OR 

ROOF SLAB 

(inches) 


MINIMUiV] THICKNESS 

OF CEILING 

(inches) 


4 
hour 


3 
hour 


2 
hour 


1 
hour 


4 
hour 


3 
hour 


2 
hour 


1 
hour 


(continued) 
20. Slab reinforced with mesh 
consisting of 0.042 inch 
(No. 19B.W. gage) 
galvanized steel wire 
twisted together to form 2" 
hexagons with straight 
0.065 inch (No. 16 B.W. 
gage) galvanized steel wire 
woven into mesh and 
spaced 3". Alternate slab 
reinforcement shall be 
permitted to consist of 4" x 
8", 0.109/0.238-inch (No. 
12/4 B.W. gage), or 2" x 2", 
0.083/0.083-inch (No. 
14/14 B.W. gage) welded 
wire fabric. Class A or B 
roof covering on top. 


20-1.1 


None 


— 


— 


Varies 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


21. Wood joists, floor trusses 
and flat or pitched roof 
trusses spaced a maximum 
24" o.c. with V2" wood 
structural panels with 
exterior glue applied at 
right angles to top of joist 
or top chord of trusses with 
8d nails. The wood 
structural panel thickness 
shall not be less than 
nominal '/2" less than 
required by Chapter 23. 


21-1.1 


Base layer %" Type X gypsum wallboard applied 
at right angles to joist or truss 24" o.c. with 1 '//' 
Type S or Type W dry wall screws 24" o.c. Face 
layer ^/g" Type X gypsum wallboard or veneer 
base applied at right angles to joist or truss 
through base layer with V/^" Type S or Type W 
dry wall screws 12" o.c. at joints and intermediate 
joist or truss. Face layer Type G drywall screws 
placed 2" back on either side of face layer end 
joints, 12" o.c. 


— 


— 


— 


Varies 


— 




— 


l'/4 


22. Steel joists, floor trusses 
and flat or pitched roof 
trusses spaced a maximum 
24" o.c. with V2" wood 
structural panels with 
exterior glue applied at 
right angles to top of joist 
or top chord of trusses with 
No. 8 screws. The wood 
structural panel thickness 
shall not be less than 
nominal V2" nor less than 
required by Chapter 22. 


22-1.1 


Base layer ^/g" Type X gypsum board applied at 
right angles to steel framing 24" on center with 1" 
Type S drywall screws spaced 24" on center. Face 
layer ^/g" Type X gypsum board applied at right 
angles to steel framing attached through base layer 
with 1%" Type S drywall screws 12" on center at 
end joints and intermediate joints and IV2" Type G 
drywall screws 12 inches on center placed 2" back 
on either side of face layer end joints. Joints of the 
face layer are offset 24" from the joints of the base 
layer. 


— 


— 


— 


Varies 


— 


— 




l'/4 


23. Wood I-joist (minimum joist 
depth 9V4" with a minimum 
flange depth of l^/ie" and a 
minimum flange cross- 
sectional area of 2.3 square 
inches) at 24" o.c. spacing 
with 1x4 (nominal) wood 
furring strip spacer applied 
parallel to and covering the 
bottom of the bottom flange 
of each member, tacked in 
place. 2" mineral fiber 
insulation, 3.5 pcf (nominal) 
installed adjacent to the 
bottom flange of the I-joist 
and supported by the 1 x 4 
furring strip spacer. 


23-1.1 


72" deep single leg resilient channel 16" on center 
(channels doubled at wallboard end joints), placed 
perpendicular to the furring strip and joist and 
attached to each joist by 1%" Type S drywall 
screws. %" Type C gypsum wallboard applied 
perpendicular to the channel with end joints 
staggered at least 4' and fastened with 1 Vg" Type S 
drywall screws spaced 7" on center. Wallboard 
joints to be taped and covered with joint 
compound. 


— 


— 


— 


Varies 


— 


— 


— 


— 



2003 8NTERNATI10NAL BUBLDBNG CODE® 



127 



FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTSOI^ 



Table 720.1(3) Notes. 

For Sr. 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound = 0.454 kg, 1 cubic foot = 0.0283 m^ 
1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa = 1 pound per hneal foot = 1.4882 kg/m. 

a. Staples with equivalent holding power and penetration shall be permitted to be used as alternate fasteners to nails for attachment to wood framing. 

b. When the slab is in an unrestrained condition, minimum reinforcement cover shall not be less than 1 Vg inches for 4-hour (siliceous aggregate only); 1 ^1^ inches for 
4- and 3-hour; 1 inch for 2-hour (siliceous aggregate only); and % inch for all other restrained and unrestrained conditions. 

c. For all of the construction with gypsum wallboard described in this table, gypsum base for veneer plaster of the same size, thickness and core type shall be permit- 
ted to be substituted for gypsum wallboard, provided attachment is identical to that specified for the wallboard, and the joints on the face layer are reinforced and 
the entire surface is covered with a minimum of '/|g-inch gypsum veneer plaster. 

d. Slab thickness over steel joists measured at the joists for metal lath form and at the top of the form for steel form units. 

e. (a) The maximum allowable stress level for H-Series joists shall not exceed 22,000 psi. 

(b) The allowable stress for K-Series joists shall not exceed 26,000 psi, the nominal depth of such joist shall not be less than 10 inches and the nominal joist weight 
shah not be less than 5 pounds per hneal foot. 

f. Cement plaster with 15 pounds of hydrated lime and 3 pounds of approved additives or admixtures per bag of cement. 

g. Gypsum wallboard ceilings attached to steel framing shall be permitted to be suspended with 1 Vj-inch cold-formed carrying channels spaced 48 inches on center, 
which are suspended with No. 8 SWG galvanized wire hangers spaced 48 inches on center. Cross-furring channels are tied to the carrying channels with No. 18 
SWG galvanized wire hangers spaced 48 inches on center. Cross-furring channels are tied to the carrying channels with No. 18 SWG galvanized wire (double 
strand) and spaced as required for direct attachment to the framing. This alternative is also applicable to those steel framing assemblies recognized under 
Note q. 

h. Six-inch hollow clay tile with 2-inch concrete slab above. 

i. Four-inch hollow clay tile with I'/j-inch concrete slab above. 

j. Thickness measured to bottom of steel form units. 

k. Five-eighths inch of vermiculite gypsum plaster plus Vj inch of approved vermiculite acoustical plastic. 

1. Furring channels spaced 12 inches on center. 

m. Double wood floor shah be permitted to be either of the following: 

(a) Subfloor of 1-inch nominal boarding, a layer of asbestos paper weighing not less than 14 pounds per 100 square feet and a layer of 1-inch nominal 
tongue-and-groove finished flooring; or 

(b) Subfloor of 1-inch nominal tongue-and-groove boarding or '%2-irich wood structural panels with exterior glue and a layer of 1-inch nominal 
tongue-and-groove finished flooring or ' ^j-in^h wood structural panel finish flooring or a layer of Type 1 Grade M- 1 particleboard not less than %-inch thick. 

n. The ceiling shall be permitted to be omitted over unusable space, and flooring shaU be permitted to be omitted where unusable space occurs above. 

o. For properties of cooler or wallboard nails, see ASTM C 514, ASTM C 547 or ASTM F 1667. 

p. Thickness measured on top of steel deck unit. 

q. Generic fire-resistance ratings (those not designated as PROPRIETARY* in the listing) in the GA 600 shall be accepted as if herein listed. 



721.2 Concrete assemblies. The provisions of this section 
contain procedures by which the fire-resistance ratings of con- 
crete assembhes are estabhshed by calculations. 

721.2.1 Concrete walls. Cast-in-place and precast concrete 
walls shall comply with Section 72 1 .2. 1 . 1 . Multi wythe con- 
crete walls shall comply with Section 721.2.1.2. Joints be- 
tween precast panels shall comply with Section 721.2.1.3. 
Concrete walls with gypsum wallboard or plaster finish 
shall comply with Section 721.2.1.4. 



721.2.1.1 Cast-in-place or precast walls. The mini- 
mum equivalent thicknesses of cast-in-place or precast 
concrete walls for fire-resistance ratings of 1 hour to 4 
hours are shown in Table 721 .2. 1 . 1 . For solid walls with 
flat vertical surfaces, the equivalent thickness is the same 
as the actual thickness. The values in Table 721.2.1.1 ap- 
ply to plain, reinforced or prestressed concrete walls. 

TABLE 721.2.1.1 

MINIMUM EQUIVALENT THICKNESS OF CAST-IN-PLACE 

OR PRECAST CONCRETE WALLS, LOAD-BEARING 

OR NONLOAD-BEARING 



CONCRETE 
TYPE 


MINIMUM SLAB THICKNESS (inches) 
FOR FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING OF 


1-hour 


iVj-hour 


2-hour 


3-hour 


4-hour 


Siliceous 


3.5 


4.3 


5.0 


6.2 


7.0 


Carbonate 


3.2 


4.0 


4.6 


5.7 


6.6 


Sand- 
Lightweight 


2.7 


3.3 


3.8 


4.6 


5.4 


Lightweight 


2.5 


3.1 


3.6 


4.4 


5.1 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



128 



721.2.1.1.1 Hollow-core precast wall panels. For 
hollow-core precast concrete wall panels in which the 
cores are of constant cross section throughout the 
length, calculation of the equivalent thickness by di- 
viding the net cross-sectional area (the gross cross 
section minus the area of the cores) of the panel by its 
width shall be permitted. 

721.2.1.1.2 Core spaces filled. Where all of the core 
spaces of hollow-core wall panels are filled with 
loose-fill material, such as expanded shale, clay, or 
slag, or vermiculite or perlite, the fire-resistance rat- 
ing of the wall is the same as that of a solid wall of the 
same concrete type and of the same overall thickness. 

721.2.1.1.3 Tapered cross sections. The thickness of 
panels with tapered cross sections shall be that deter- 
mined at a distance 2t or 6 inches (152 mm), which- 
ever is less, from the point of minimum thickness, 
where t is the minimum thickness. 

721.2.1.1.4 Ribbed or undulating surfaces. The 
equivalent thickness of panels with ribbed or undulat- 
ing surfaces shall be determined by one of the follow- 
ing expressions: 

For 5 > At, the thickness to be used shall be t 

For 5 < 2t, the thickness to be used shall be t^ 

For At> s> 2t, the thickness to be used shall be 



t + 






V y 



t -t 

e 



(Equation 7-3) 



V y 

2003 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



FDRE-RESlSTANCE-RATEDCOiSiSTRUCTBON 



where: 

s = Spacing of ribs or undulations. 

t = Minimum thickness. 

te = Equivalent thickness of the panel calculated as 
the net cross-sectional area of the panel divided 
by the width, in which the maximum thickness 
used in the calculation shall not exceed 2t. 



721.2.1.2 MeltDwyttie walls. For walls that consist of 
two wythes of different types of concrete, the fire-resis- 
tance ratings shall be permitted to be determined from 
Figure 721.2.1.2. 

721.2.1,2.1 Two or more wythes. The fire-resistance 
rating for wall panels consisting of two or more wythes 
shall be permitted to be determined by the formula: 



/? = (/?,0-59 + i?20.59. 



where: 



,+/?„o-59) 



0.59^1.7 



R = The fire endurance of the assembly, minutes. 

i?,, i?2» and R„ = The fire endurances of the individual 
wythes, minutes. Values of R^^-^^ for use in Equation 
7-4 are given in Table 721 .2. 1 .2(1). Calculated fire-re- 
sistance ratings are shown in Table 721.2.1.2(2). 

721.2.1,2.2 Foam plastic msulatiom. The fire-resis- 
tance ratings of precast concrete wall panels consist- 
ing of a layer of foam plastic insulation sandwiched 
between two wythes of concrete shall be permitted to 
be determined by use of Equation 7-4. Foam plastic 
insulation with a total thickness of less than 1 inch (25 
mm) shall be disregarded. The /?„ value for thickness 
of foam plastic insulation of 1 inch (25 mm) or 
greater, for use in the calculation, is 5 minutes; there- 
fore^ o-^^ = 2.5. 



3 ^ o 
OCDg 
U.-J — 
Oqui 



INSIDE WYTHE 
CARBONATE 



INSIDEWYTHE 
SILICEOUS 



W < 




THICKNESS OF INSIDEWYTHE, INCHES 



OUTSIDE WYTHE 
CARBONATE 



OUTSIDE WYTHE 
SILICEOUS 




THICKNESS OF INSIDE WYTHE OF SAND-LIGHTWEIGHT CONCRETE, INCHES 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



5E 721 .2.11 .2 
FDRE-RESESTANCE RATSNGS OF 
TWO-WYTHE CONCRETE WALLS 



721.2.1.3 Joimts between precast wall panels. Joints 
between precast concrete wall panels which are not insu- 
lated as required by this section shall be considered as 
openings in walls. Uninsulated joints shall be included in 
determining the percentage of openings permitted by Ta- 
ble 704.8. Where openings are not permitted or are re- 
quired by this code to be protected, the provisions of this 
section shall be used to determine the amount of joint in- 
sulation required. Insulated joints shall not be considered 









TABLE 721.2.1.2(1) 
VALUES OF R„°-^^ FOR USE IN EQUATION 7-4 










TYPE OF WIATERIAL 


THICKNESS OF WIATERIAL (inches) 


IV2 


2 


21/2 


3 


31/2 


4 


4V2 


5 


51/2 


6 


6V2 


7 


Siliceous aggregate 
concrete 


5.3 


6.5 


8.1 


9.5 


11.3 


13.0 


14.9 


16.9 


18.8 


20.7 


22.8 


25.1 


Carbonate aggregate 
concrete 


5.5 


7.1 


8.9 


10.4 


12.0 


14.0 


16.2 


18.1 


20.3 


21.9 


24.7 


27.2= 


Sand-lightweight 
concrete 


6.5 


8.2 


10.5 


12.8 


15.5 


18.1 


20.7 


23.3 


26.0= 


Notec 


Notec 


Notec 


Lightweight concrete 


6.6 


8.8 


11.2 


13.7 


16.5 


19.1 


21.9 


24.7 


27.8= 


Notec 


Notec 


Note c 


Insulating concrete" 


9.3 


13.3 


16.6 


18.3 


23.1 


26.5^ 


Notec 


Notec 


Note c 


Notec 


Notec 


Notec 


Airspace'' 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound per cubic foot = 16.02 icg/m^. 

a. Dry unit weight of 35 pcf or less and consisting of cellular, perlite or vermicuhte concrete. 

b. The R°-^^ value for one Vj" to 3 Vj" airspace is 3.3. The 7?,,°^' value for two Vj" to 3 Vj" airspaces is 6.7. 

c. The fire-resistance rating for this thickness exceeds 4 hours. 



2003 B^STERNATBO^SAL BUILDJIMG CODE® 



129 



FSRE-RESISTANCE-RATEDCONSTRUCTDON 



openings for purposes of determining compliance with 
the allowable percentage of openings in Table 704.8. 

TABLE 721 .2.1.2(2) 
FIRE-RESISTANCE RATBNGS BASED ON R°-^^ 



WMUilNUTES 


R0.59 


60 
120 
180 
240 


11.20 
16.85 
21.41 
25.37 



a. Based on Equation 7-4. 

721.2.13<,1 Ceramic fflber joint protectioe. Figure 
721.2.1.3.1 shows thicknesses of ceramic fiber blan- 
kets to be used to insulate joints between precast con- 
crete wall panels for various panel thicknesses and for 
joint widths of Vg inch (9.5 mm) and 1 inch (25 mm) 
for fire-resistance ratings of 1 hour to 4 hours. For 
joint widths between % inch (9.5 mm) and 1 inch (25 
mm), the thickness of ceramic fiber blanket is allowed 
to be determined by direct interpolation. Other tested 
and labeled materials are acceptable in place of ce- 
ramic fiber blankets. 

721.2.1,4 Walls with gypsem walltooard or plaster fflim- 
Islies. The fire-resistance rating of cast-in-place or pre- 
cast concrete walls with finishes of gypsum wallboard or 
plaster applied to one or both sides shall be permitted to 
be calculated in accordance with the provisions of this 
section, 

721.2.1.4.1 Nonfire-exposed side. Where the finish 
of gypsum wallboard or plaster is applied to the side 
of the wall not exposed to fire, the contribution of the 



finish to the total fire-resistance rating shall be deter- 
mined as follows: The thickness of the finish shall first 
be corrected by multiplying the actual thickness of the 
finish by the applicable factor determined from Table 
721 .2.1.4(1) based on the type of aggregate in the con- 
crete. The corrected thickness of finish shall then be 
added to the actual or equivalent thickness of concrete 
and fire-resistance rating of the concrete and finish 
determined from Table 721.2.1.1, Figure 721.2.1.2 or 
Table 721.2.1.2(1). 

721.2.1.4.2 Fire-exposed side. Where gypsum wall- 
board or plaster is applied to the fire-exposed side of 
the wall, the contribution of the finish to the total 
fure-resistance rating shall be determined as follows: 
The time assigned to the finish as estabhshed by Table 
721.2.1.4(2) shall be added to the fire-resistance rating 
determined from Table 721.2.1.1 or Figure 721.2.1.2, 
or Table 721.2.1.2(1) for the concrete alone, or to the 
rating determined in Section 721.2.1.4.1 for the con- 
crete and finish on the nonfire-exposed side. 

721.2.1.4.3 Nonsymmetrical assemblies. For a wall 
having no finish on one side or different types or 
thicknesses of finish on each side, the calculation pro- 
cedures of Sections 721 .2. 1 .4. 1 and 721 .2. 1 .4.2 shall 
be performed twice, assuming either side of the wall 
to be the fire-exposed side. The fire-restance rating of 
the wall shall not exceed the lower of the two values. 



tmni For an exterior wall with more than 5 
feet (1524 mm) of horizontal separation, the fire 
shall be assumed to occur on the interior side only. 



1 INCH JOINT WIDTH 
\ 
\ 




3 4 5 6 7 8 

PANEL THICKNESS, INCHES 



3/8 INCH JOINT WIDTH 
I 1 




3hr.-x 


^2hr. 






\ \ 




\^ 


1 i 






t'*.! 


\n 1> 




\.. 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



r% -A SI R 7 ft 

PANEL THICKNESS, INCHES 



1-" 



LU 

o 

LL 

o 

CO 
UJ 

z 
is: 

o 
3: 

t- 

b 



INCH MAXIMUM REGARDLESS 
OF OPENING RATING 



r CERAMIC FIBER 
BLANKET 




JOINT 
WIDTH 

CARBONATE OR 

SILICEOUS AGGREGATE 

CONCRETE 

SAND-LIGHTWEIGHT 

OR LIGHTWEIGHT 

CONCRETE 



?E 721 .2.1 .3.1 
CERAMIC FDBER J08MT PROTECTION 



130 



2003 INTERNATIONAL BU8LDING CODE® 



F1RE=RES1STANCE-RATEDC0NSTRUCTD0M 



TABLE 721.2.1 .4(1) 
MOLTIPLYIMG FACTOR FOR FINISHES OH MONFIRE-EXPOSED SIDE OF WALL 




TYPE OF FIWISH APPLIED 
TO MASONRY WALL 


TYPE OF AGGREGATE USED IM CONCRbllfc OR CONCRETE MASONRY 


Concrete: siliceous 

or carbonate 

Masonry: siliceous or 

calcareous gravel 


Concrete: sand 

lightweight concrete 

Masonry: limestone, 

cinders or unexpected slag 


Concrete: lightweight 

concrete 
Masonry: expanded 
shale, clay or slate 


Concrete: pumice, or 
expanded slag 


Portland cement-sand plaster 


1.00 


0.75^ 


0.75=^ 


0.50^ 


Gypsum-sand plaster or gypsum wallboard 


1.25 


1.00 


1.00 


1.00 


Gypsum- vermiculite or perlite plaster 


1.75 


1.50 


1.50 


1.25 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

a. For Portland cement-sand plaster % inch or less in thickness and applied directly to the masonry on the nonfire-exposed side of the wall, the multiplying factor 
shall be 1.00. 



721.2,1,4.4 MiminiMim comcrete ire-resnstaiiice rat- 
ipg. Where finishes applied to one or both sides of a 
concrete wall contribute to the fire-resistance rating, 
the concrete alone shall provide not less than one-half 
of the total required fire-resistance rating. Additionally, 
the contribution to the fire resistance of the finish on the 
nonfire-exposed side of a load-bearing wall shall not 
exceed one-half the contribution of the concrete alone. 



TABLE 721.2.1.4(2) 
TIME ASSBGSMED TO FINISH MATI 
FBRE-EJCPOSED SIDE OF 



FINISH DESCRIPTION 


TIME (minute) 


Gypsum wallboard 
•^/g inch 
'/2 inch 
% inch 
2 layers of Vg inch 

1 layer % inch, 1 layer V2 inch 

2 layers V2 inch 


10 
15 
20 

25 
35 
40 


Type X gypsum wallboard 
'/2 inch 
^/g inch 


25 
40 


Portland cement-sand plaster applied directly 
to concrete masonry 


See Note a 


Portland cement-sand plaster on metal lath 
^/4 inch 
% inch 
1 inch 


20 
25 
30 


Gypsum sand plaster on Vg-inch gypsum lath 
V2 inch 
^/g inch 
^/4 inch 


35 
40 
50 


Gypsum sand plaster on metal lath 
^/4 inch 
^/g inch 
1 inch 


50 
60 
80 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

a. The actual thickness of portland cement-sand plaster, provided it is ^/g inch 
or less in thickness, shall be permitted to be included in determining the 
equivalent thickness of the masonry for use in Table 721.3.2. 

721.2.1.4.5 Comcrete imlslTies. Finishes on concrete 
walls that are assumed to contribute to the total 
fire-resistance rating of the wall shall comply with the 
. installation requirements of Section 721.3.2.5. 



721o2<,2 Concrete floor and roof slabs. Reinforced and pre- 
stressed floors and roofs shall comply with Section 
721.2.2.1. Multicourse floors and roofs shall comply with 
Sections 721.2.2.2 and 721.2.2.3, respectively. 

721.2.2.1 Meimforced and prestressed floors and 
roofs. The minimum thicknesses of reinforced and pre- 
stressed concrete floor or roof slabs for fire-resistance 
ratings of 1 hour to 4 hours are shown in Table 721 .2.2. 1 . 

TABLE 721 .2.2.1 
MBNIiViUM SLAB THICKNESS (inches) 



CONCRETE TYPE 


FlRE-RESlSTANCE RATING (hour) 


1 


11/, 


2 


3 


4 


Siliceous 


3.5 


4.3 


5.0 


6.2 


7.0 


Carbonate 


3.2 


4.0 


4.6 


5.7 


6.6 


Sand-lightweight 


2.7 


3.3 


3.8 


4.6 


5.4 


Lightweight 


2.5 


3.1 


3.6 


4.4 


5.1 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



721.2.2.1.1 HoIIow=core prestressed slabs. For hol- 
low-core prestressed concrete slabs in which the cores 
are of constant cross section throughout the length, 
the equivalent thickness shall be permitted to be ob- 
tained by dividing the net cross-sectional area of the 
slab including grout in the joints, by its width. 

721.2.2.1.2 Slabs with sloping soffits. The thickness 
of slabs with sloping soffits (see Figure 721.2.2.1.2) 
shall be determined at a distance 2t or 6 inches (152 
mm), whichever is less, from the point of minimum 
thickness, where t is the minimum thickness. 



DETERMINE THICKMESS HERE 




2f OR 6 INCHES. 
WHICHEVER IS LESS 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



: 721 .2.2.1 .2 
DETERMDWATION OF SLAB THSCKiMESS 
SLOPIIING SOFFITS 



2003 8NTERMAT10MAL BUBLDIMG CODE® 



131 



FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 



721.2.2.1.3 Slabs with ribbed soffits. The thickness 
of slabs with ribbed or undulating soffits (see Figure 
721 .2.2. 1 .3) shall be determined by one of the follow- 
ing expressions, whichever is applicable: 

For s > At, the thickness to be used shall be t 

For s < It, the thickness to be used shall be t^ 

For At> s> It, the thickness to be used shall be 



CARBONATE BASE 



SILICEOUS BASE 



t + 



4l 
s 



(Equation 7-5) 



J 



where: 

s = Spacing of ribs or undulations. 

/ = Minimum thickness. 

te = Equivalent thickness of the slab calculated as 
the net area of the slab divided by the width, in 
which the maximum thickness used in the cal- 
culation shall not exceed 2t. 




NEGLECT SHADED AREA IN CALCULATION OF EQUIVALENT THICKNESS 




For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

FIGURE 721 .2.2.1 .3 
SLABS WITH RIBBED OR UNDULATING SOFFITS 



721.2.2.2 Multicourse floors. The fire-resistance rat- 
ings of floors that consist of abase slab of concrete with a 
topping (overlay) of a different type of concrete shall 
comply with Figure 721.2.2.2. 

721.2.2.3 Multicourse roofs. The fire-resistance ratings 
of roofs which consist of a base slab of concrete with a 
topping (overlay) of an insulating concrete or with an in- 
sulating board and built-up roofing shall comply with 
Figures 721.2.2.3(1) and 721.2.2.3(2). 

721.2.2.3.1 Heat transfer. For the transfer of heat, 
three-ply built-up roofing contributes 10 minutes to 
the fire-resistance rating. The fire-resistance rating 
for concrete assemblies such as those shown in Figure 
721.2.2.3(1) shall be increased by 10 minutes. This 
increase is not applicable to those shown in Figure 
721.2.2.3(2). 

721.2.2.4 Joints in precast slabs. Joints between adja- 
cent precast concrete slabs need not be considered in cal- 
culating the slab thickness provided that a concrete 
topping at least 1 inch (25 mm) thick is used. Where no 



^1 



gm 2 
UIO 1 







— 1 — 


K 


^v ^S^hr- 


- 


N 


\^ >s3hrV 


" 




\lhr. Ns^^ >v 


\- 


- 




\l 




TTHICKNESS OF NORMAL-WEIGHT CONCRETE BASE SLAB, INCHES 



CARBONATE OVERLAY 



SILICEOUS OVERLAY 




THICKNESS OF SAND-LIGhfTWEIGHT CONCRETE BASE SLAB, INCHES 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

FIGURE 721 .2.2.2 

FIRE-RESISTANCE RATINGS FOR TWO-COURSE 

CONCRETE FLOORS 




THICKNESS OF CONCRETE BASE SLAB, INCHES 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



FIGURE 721 .2.2.3(1) 

FIRE-RESISTANCE RATINGS FOR CONCRETE 

ROOF ASSEMBLIES 



132 



2003 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTIOW 



-STANDARD 3-PLY 
BUILT-UP ROOFING 



O- 

c/)q" 

(d) II 



OQ 

LU O 
(0) ZCD 



kWWW MINERAL BOARD WWXX^ 



4 CONCRETE -» ■ ^ 



CARBONATE BASE 



SILICEOUS BASE 





SAND-LIGHTWEIGHT BASE 

3r 




THICKNESS OF CONCRETE BASE SLAB, INCHES 



STANDARD 3-PLY 
BUILD-UP ROOFING 



r/////.GLASS FIBER BOARP///^ 



4 CONCRETE * ■ ■» 



CARBONATE BASE 



SILICEOUS BASE 



k\\. ' 




-\ 3hrX 


■ 


2hr. XX 






?S 



SAND-LIGHTWEIGHT BASE 

3fi 




3 5 "1 3 5 1 3 

THICKNESS OF CONCRETE BASE SLAB. INCHES 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



?E 721 .2.2.3(2) 
FIRE-RESISTANCE RATINGS FOR CONCRETE 
ASSEMBLIES 



concrete topping is used, joints must be grouted to a 
depth of at least one-third the slab thickness at the joint, 
but not less than 1 inch (25 mm), or the joints must be 
made fire resistant by other approved methods. 

721.2,3 Concrete cover over rennforcememt. The mini- 
mum thickness of concrete cover over reinforcement in con- 
crete slabs, reinforced beams and prestressed beams shall 
comply with this section. 

721o2o3<,l Slab cover. The minimum thickness of con- 
crete cover to the positive moment reinforcement shall 



comply with Table 721.2.3(1) for reinforced concrete 
and Table 721.2.3(2) for prestressed concrete. These ta- 
bles are applicable for solid or hollow-core one-way or 
two-way slabs with flat undersurfaces. These tables are 
applicable to slabs that are either cast in place or precast. 
For precast prestressed concrete not covered elsewhere, 
the procedures contained in PCI MNL 124 shall be ac- 
ceptable. 

721.2.3.2 Keleforced beam cover. The minimum thick- 
ness of concrete cover to the positive moment reinforce- 
ment (bottom steel) for reinforced concrete beams is 
shown in Table 721.2.3(3) for fire-resistance ratings of 1 
hour to 4 hours. 

7210203.3 Prestressed beam cover. The minimum thick- 
ness of concrete cover to the positive moment 
prestressing tendons (bottom steel) for restrained and un- 
restrained prestressed concrete beams and stemmed 
units shall comply with the values shown in Tables 
721.2.3(4) and 721.2.3(5) for fire-resistance ratings of 1 
.hour to 4 hours. Values in Table 721.2.3(4) apply to 
beams 8 inches (203 mm) or greater in width. Values in 
Table 721.2.3(5) apply to beams or stems of any width, 
provided the cross-section area is not less than 40 square 
inches (25 806 mm^). In case of differences between the 
values determined from Table 721.2.3(4) or 721.2.3(5), 
it is permitted to use the smaller value. The concrete 
cover shall be calculated in accordance with Section 
721.2.3.3.1. The minimum concrete cover for 
nonprestressed reinforcement in prestressed concrete 
beams shall comply with Section 721.2.3.2. 

721.2.3.3.1 CalcuMing concrete cover. The con- 
crete cover for an individual tendon is the minimum 
thickness of concrete between the surface of the ten- 
don and the fire-exposed surface of the beam, except 
that for ungrouped ducts, the assumed cover thick- 
ness is the minimum thickness of concrete between 
the surface of the duct and the fire-exposed surface 
of the beam. For beams in which two or more ten- 
dons are used, the cover is assumed to be the average 
of the minimum cover of the individual tendons. For 
corner tendons (tendons equal distance from the bot- 
tom and side), the minimum cover used in the calcu- 
lation shall be one-half the actual value. For 
stemmed members with two or more prestressing 



TABLE 721 .2.3(1) 
THICKNESS FOR REINFORCED CONCRETE FLOOR OR ROOF SLABS (inches) 



CONCRETE AGGREGATE TYPE 


FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING (hours) 


Restrained 


Unrestrained 


1 


VI, 


2 


3 


4 


1 


VI, 


2 


3 


4 


Siliceous 


% 


% 


'U 


V4 


% 


V4 


% 


1 


l'/4 


1% 


Carbonate 


% 


% 


% 


'U 


% 


'U 


\ 


'U 


l'/4 


IV4 


Sand-lightweight or lightweight 


% 


'U 


'U 


% 


% 


% 


V4 


% 


l'/4 


IV4 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



2003 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



133 



FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE 721 .2.3(2) 
COVER THICKNESS FOR PRESTRESSED CONCRETE FLOOR OR ROOF SLABS (inches) 



CONCRETE AGGREGATE TYPE 


FIRE-RESISTAMCE RATING (hours) 


Restrained 


Unrestrained 


1 


V/, 


2 


3 


4 


1 


VI, 


2 


3 


4 


Siliceous 


% 


\ 


% 


% 


'U 


iVs 


\% 


1^/4 


2% 


2V4 


Carbonate 


% 


\ 


\ 


% 


% 


1 


1% 


iVs 


2'/« 


2V4 


Sand-lightweight or lightweight 


% 


% 


% 


'U 


% 


1 


1% 


1V2 


2 


2V4 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



TABLE 721 .2.3(3) 

MINIMUM COVER FOR MAIN REINFORCING BARS OF REINFORCED CONCRETE BEAMS'" 

(APPLICABLE TO ALL TYPES OF STRUCTURAL CONCRETE) 



RESTRAINED OR 
UNRESTRAINED*" 


BEAIM WIDTH" 
(inches) 


FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING (hours) 


1 


VI, 


2 


3 


4 


Restrained 


5 

7 

>10 


V4 






P 


V4 


Unrestrained 


5 

7 

>10 


% 

'U 

% 


1 

V4 


IV4 


1^/4 
1 


3 
IV4 



For SI: I inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 

a. Tabulated values for restrained assemblies apply to beams spaced more than 4 feet on center. For restrained beams spaced 4 feet or less on center, minimum cover 
of ^ inch is adequate for ratings of 4 hours or less. 

b. For beam widths between the tabulated values, the minimum cover thickness can be determined by direct interpolation. 

c. The cover for an individual reinforcing bar is the minimum thickness of concrete between the surface of the bar and the fire-exposed surface of the beam. For 
beams in which several bars are used, the cover for comer bars used in the calculation shall be reduced to one-half of the actual value. The cover for an individual 
bar must be not less than one-half of the value given in Table 721.2.3(3) nor less than V4 inch. 



TABLE 721 .2.3(4) 
IINIMUM COVER FOR PRESTRESSED CONCRETE BEAMS 8 INCHES OR GREATER IN WIDTH 



RESTRAINED OR 
UNRESTRAINED^ 


CONCRETE 
AGGREGATE TYPE 


BEAM WIDTH" 
(inches) 


FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING (hours) 


1 


VI, 


2 


3 


4 


Restrained 


Carbonate or siliceous 
Carbonate or siliceous 
Sand lightweight 
Sand lightweight 


8 
>12 

8 
>12 


l'/2 
IV2 
IV2 
l'/2 


l'/2 
l'/2 
l'/2 
IV2 


IV2 
l'/2 
IV2 
IV2 


iV 

1V2 
1V2 
1V2 


2V2^ 

2^ 
1%^ 


Unrestrained 


Carbonate or siliceous 
Carbonate or siliceous 
Sand lightweight 
Sand lightweight 


8 
>12 

8 
>12 


IV2 
IV2 
IV2 
IV2 


IV4 
IV2 
IV2 
IV2 


2V2 

2 
1% 


5^ 
2V2 
3V4 

2 


3 
2V2 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 

a. Tabulated values for restrained assemblies apply to beams spaced more than 4 feet on center. For restrained beams spaced 4 feet or less on center, minimum cover 
of ^/4 inch is adequate for 4-hour ratings or less. 

b. For beam widths between 8 inches and 12 inches, minimum cover thickness can be determined by direct interpolation. 

c. Not practical for 8-inch-wide beam but shown for purposes of interpolation. 



134 



2003 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODEO 



FIRE-RESISTAMCE-RATEDCOMSTRUCTDOW 



TABLE 721 .2.3(5) 
COVER FOR PRESTRESSED CONCRETE BEAMS OF ALL WIDTHS 



RESTRAINED OR 
UNRESTRAINED^ 


CONCRETE 
AGGREGATE TYPE 


BEAM AREA" 
A (square inches) 


FBRE-RESISTANCE RATDNG (hours) 


11 


VI, 


2 


3 


4 


Restrained 


All 


40 < A < 150 


VI, 


IV2 


2 


2V, 


— 


Carbonate or 
siliceous 


150 < A < 300 


1V2 


IV2 


IV2 


IV4 


2-/, 


300 < A 


1V2 


.IV2 


l'/2 


l'/2 


2 


Sand lightweight 


150 < A 


\% 


IV2 


1V2 


l'/2 


2 


Unrestrained 


All 


40 < A < 150 


2 


2% 





— 


— 


Carbonate or 
sihceous 


150 < A < 300 


\% 


1% 


2'/2 


— 


— 


300 < A 


\% 


IV2 


2 


3^= 


4c 


Sand lightweight 


150 < A 


■ IV2 


l'/2 


2 


3= 


4c 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 

a. Tabulated values for restrained assemblies apply to beams spaced more than 4 feet on center. For restrained beams spaced 4 feet or less on center, minimum cover 
of V4 inch is adequate for 4-hour ratings or less. 

b. The cross-sectional area of a stem is permitted to include a portion of the area in the flange, provided the width of the flange used in the calculation does not exceed 
three times the average width of the stem. 

c. U-shaped or hooped stirrups spaced not to exceed the depth of the member and having a minimum cover of 1 inch shall be provided. 



tendons located along the vertical centerline of the 
stem, the average cover shall be the distance from the 
bottom of the member to the centroid of the tendons. 
The actual cover for any individual tendon shall not 
be less than one-half the smaller value shown in Ta- 
bles 721.2.3(4) and 721.2.3(5), or 1 inch (25 mm), 
whichever is greater. 

721o2.4 Concrete colemms. Concrete columns shall com- 
ply with this section. 

TABLE 721 .2.4 
MSNIWIUM DIWiEMSDON OF CONCRETE COLUMNS (Simclhies) 



TYPES OF 
CONCRETE 


FIRE-REStSTANCE RATING (hours) 


11 


VI, 


2a 


3a 


4" 


Siliceous 


8 


9 


10 


12 


14 


Carbonate 


8 


9 


10 


11 


12 


Sand-lightweight 


8 


87, 


9 


IOV2 


12 



For SI: 1 inch = 25 mm. 

a. The minimum dimension is permitted to be reduced to 8 inches for rectangu- 
lar columns with two parallel sides at least 36 inches in length. 

b. The minimum dimension is permitted to be reduced to 10 inches for rectan- 
gular columns with two parallel sides at least 36 inches in length. 

721o2o4.1 MnEtmiinm siseo The minimum overall dimen- 
sions of reinforced concrete columns for fire-resistance 
ratings of 1 hour to 4 hours shall comply with Table 

721.2.4. 



7210204.2 MnEimMm cover for M/C cotamms. The mini- 
mum thickness of concrete cover to the main longitudinal 
reinforcement in columns, regardless of the type of ag- 
gregate used in the concrete, shall not be less than 1 inch 
(25 mm) times the number of hours of required fire resis- 
tance or 2 inches (51 mm), whichever is less. 

7210204.3 Columms built insto wallSo The minimum di- 
mensions of Table 721.2.4 do not apply to a reinforced 



concrete column that is built into a concrete or masonry 
wall provided all of the following are met: 

1 . The fire-resistance rating for the wall is equal to or 
greater than the required rating of the column; 

2. The main longitudinal reinforcing in the column 
has cover not less than that required by Section 
721.2.4.2; and 

3. Openings in the wall are protected in accordance 
with Table 715.4. 

Where openings in the wall are not protected as re- 
quired by Section 715.4, the minimum dimension of col- 
umns required to have a fire-resistance rating of 3 hours 
or less shall be 8 inches (203 mm), and 10 inches (254 
mm) for columns required to have a fire-resistance rating 
of 4 hours, regardless of the type of aggregate used in the 
concrete. 



721o2.4.4 Precast cover emits for 
Section 721.5.1.4. 



. See 



721.3 Comcrete masomry. The provisions of this section con- 
tain procedures by which the fire-resistance ratings of concrete 
masonry are established by calculations. 

721o3ol Equivalemt tMckmess. The equivalent thickness of 
■concrete masonry construction shall be determined in ac- 
cordance with the provisions of this section. 



721o3.1ol Concrete masomry emit plus imisheSo The 
equivalent thickness of concrete masonry assemblies, 
r^Q, shall be computed as the sum of the equivalent thick- 
ness of the concrete masonry unit, T^, as determined by 
Section 721.3.1.2, 721.3.1.3, or 721.3.1.4, plus the 
equivalent thickness of finishes, T^p determined in accor- 
dance with Section 721.3.2: 



T = T + T 

^ ea ^ e ef 



(Equation 7=6) 



2003 INTERNATIIOWAL BUBLDING CODE® 



FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 



T^= V„/LH= Equivalent thickness of concrete ma- 
sonry unit (inch) (mm). 

where: 

V„ = Net volume of masonry unit (inch^) (mm^). 

L = Specified length of masonry unit (inch) (mm). 

H = Specified height of masonry unit (inch) (mm). 

721.3.1.2 Ungrouted or partially grouted construc- 
tion. Tg shall be the value obtained for the concrete ma- 
sonry unit determined in accordance with ASTM C 140. 

721.3.1.3 Solid grouted construction. The equivalent 
thickness, T^, of sohd grouted concrete masonry units is 
the actual thickness of the unit. 

721.3.1.4 Airspaces and cells filled with loose-fill ma- 
terial. The equivalent thickness of completely filled hol- 
low concrete masonry is the actual thickness of the unit 
when loose-fill materials are: sand, pea gravel, crushed 
stone, or slag that meet ASTM C 33 requirements; pum- 
ice, scoria, expanded shale, expanded clay, expanded 
slate, expanded slag, expanded fly ash, or cinders that 
comply with ASTM C 331; or perlite or vermiculite 
meeting the requirements of ASTM C 549 and ASTM C 
516, respectively. 

721.3.2 Concrete masonry walls. The fire-resistance rat- 
ing of walls and partitions constructed of concrete masonry 
units shall be determined from Table 721.3.2. The rating 
shall be based on the equivalent thickness of the masonry 
and type of aggregate used. 

721.3.2.1 Finish on nonfire-exposed side. Where plas- 
ter or gypsum wallboard is applied to the side of the wall 
not exposed to fire, the contribution of the finish to the to- 
tal fire-resistance rating shall be determined as follows: 
The thickness of gypsum wallboard or plaster shall be 
corrected by multiplying the actual thickness of the fin- 
ish by applicable factor determined from Table 
721.2.1.4(1). This corrected thickness of finish shall be 
added to the equivalent thickness of masonry and the 



fire-resistance rating of the masonry and finish deter- 
mined from Table 721.3.2. 

721.3.2.2 Finish on fire-exposed side. Where plaster or 
gypsum wallboard is applied to the fire-exposed side of 
the wall, the contribution of the finish to the total fire-re- 
sistance rating shall be determined as follows: The time 
assigned to the finish as established by Table 
721.2.1.4(2) shall be added to the fire-resistance rating 
determined in Section 721.3.2 for the masonry alone, or 
in Section 721.3.2.1 for the masonry and finish on the 
nonfire-exposed side. 

721.3.2.3 Nonsymmetrical assemblies. For a wall hav- 
ing no finish on one side or having different types or 
thicknesses of finish on each side, the calculation proce- 
dures of this section shall be performed twice, assuming 
either side of the wall to be the fire-exposed side. The 
fire-resistance rating of the wall shall not exceed the 
lower of the two values calculated. 

Exception: For exterior walls with more than 5 feet 
(1524 mm) of horizontal separation, the fire shall be 
assumed to occur on the interior side only. 

721.3.2.4 Minimum concrete masonry fire-resistance 
rating. Where the finish applied to a concrete masonry 
wall contributes to its fire-resistance rating, the masonry 
alone shall provide not less than one-half the total re- 
quired fire-resistance rating. 

721.3.2.5 Attachment of finishes. Installation of fin- 
ishes shall be as follows: 

1 . Gypsum wallboard and gypsum lath applied to 
concrete masonry or concrete walls shall be se- 
cured to wood or steel furring members spaced not 
more than 16 inches (406 mm) on center (o.c). 

2. Gypsum wallboard shall be installed with the long 
dimension parallel to the furring members and 
shall have all joints finished. 

3. Other aspects of the installation of finishes shall 
comply with the applicable provisions of Chapters 
7 and 25. 



TABLE 721.3.2 
MINIMUM EQUIVALENT THICKNESS (inches) OF BEARING OR NONBEARING CONCRETE MASONRY WALLS^' 


},c,d 




TYPE OF AGGREGATE 


FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING (hours) 


% 


'U 


1 


IV4 


11/, 


13/, 


2 


21/, 


2V2 


2\ 


3 


3V4 


31/2 


33/, 


4 


Pumice or expanded slag 


1.5 


1.9 


2.1 


2.5 


2.7 


3.0 


3.2 


3.4 


3.6 


3.8 


4.0 


4.2 


4.4 


4.5 


4.7 


Expanded shale, clay or slate 


1.8 


2.2 


2.6 


2.9 


3.3 


3.4 


3.6 


3.8 


4.0 


4.2 


4.4 


4.6 


4.8 


4.9 


5.1 


Limestone, cinders or 
unexpanded slag 


1.9 


2.3 


2.7 


3.1 


3.4 


3.7 


4.0 


4.3 


4.5 


4.8 


5.0 


5.2 


5.5 


5.7 


5.9 


Calcareous or siliceous gravel 


2.0 


2.4 


2.8 


3.2 


3.6 


3.9 


4.2 


4.5 


4.8 


5.0 


5.3 


5.5 


5.8 


6.0 


6.2 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

a. Values between those shown in the table can be determined by direct interpolation. 

b. Where combustible members are framed into the wall, the thickness of solid material between the end of each member and the opposite face of the wall, or be- 
tween members set in from opposite sides, shall not be less than 93 percent of the thickness shown in the table. 

c. Requirements of ASTM C 55, ASTM C 73 or ASTM C 90 shall apply. 

d. Minimum required equivalent thickness corresponding to the hourly fire-resistance rating for units with a combination of aggregate shall be determined by linear 
interpolation based on the percent by volume of each aggregate used in manufacture. 



136 



2003 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



FIRE-RESSSTANCE-RATEDCOMSTRUCTIION 



Is. The fire-resistance 
rating of wall assemblies constructed of multiple wythes of 
masonry materials shall be permitted to be based on the 
fire-resistance rating period of each wythe and the continu- 
ous airspace between each wythe in accordance with the fol- 
lowing formula: 



R^ = (R0.59 + /?^0.59 + ___ + R0-59+Ay + A2 + - + A„)' 



where: 



7=7) 



= Fire endurance rating of the assembly 
(hours). 

Rj, R2, ..., Rn = Fire endurance rating of wythes for I, 2, n 
(hours), respectively. 

Aj, A2, ...., A„ = 0.30, factor for each continuous airspace for 
1, 2, ...n, respectively, having a depth of V2 
inch (12.7 mm) or more between wythes. 



721.3.4 Concrete masomry llmtels. Fire-resistance ratings 
for concrete masonry lintels shall be determined based upon 
the nominal thickness of the lintel and the minimum thick- 
ness of concrete masonry or concrete, or any combination 
thereof, covering the main reinforcing bars, as determined ac- 
cording to Table 721.3.4, or by approved alternate methods. 

TABLE 721.3.4 

WilisSSiVIUWi COVER OF L0NGITUD8NAL 

REINFORCEMENT BN FIRE-RESJSTANCE-RATED 

RE8NF0RCED CONCRETE MASONRY LINTELS (inches) 



NOMINAL WIDTH 
OF LINTEL (inches) 


FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING (hours) 


1 


2 


3 


4 


6 


1% 


2 


— 


— 


8 


IV2 


l'/2 


1% 


3 


10 or greater 


1% 


IV, 


1% 


IV4 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

721.3.5 Concrete masomry columms.The fire-resistance 
rating of concrete masonry columns shall be determined 
based upon the least plan dimension of the column in accor- 
dance with Table 721 .3.5 or by approved alternate methods. 



TABLE 721 .3.5 

MDNSSVIUM DSMENSION OF 

CONCRETE MASONRY COLUMNS (inches) 



FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING (hours) 


1 


2 


3 


4 


8 


10 


12 


14 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

721.4 Clay brick and tile masonry. The provisions of this sec- 
tion contain procedures by which the fire-resistance ratings of 
clay brick and tile masonry are established by calculations. 

721.4.1 Masonry wails. The fire-resistance rating of ma- 
sonry walls shall be based upon the equivalent thickness as 
calculated in accordance with this section. The calculation 
shall take into account finishes applied to the wall and 
airspaces between wythes in multiwythe construction. 

721.4.1.1 Equivalent thickness. The fire-resistance rat- 
ings of walls or partitions constructed of sohd or hollow 
clay masonry units shall be determined from Table 
72 1 .4. 1 ( 1 ) or 72 1 .4. 1 (2). The equivalent thickness of the 
clay masonry unit shall be determined by Equation 7-8 
when using Table 721.4.1(1). The fire-resistance raring 
determined from Table 721.4.1(1) shall be permitted to 
be used in the calculated fire-resistance rating procedure 
in Section 721.4.2. 



T=VJLH 



where: 



(Equation 7-8) 



T^ = The equivalent thickness of the clay masonry unit 
(inches). 

V„ = The net volume of the clay masonry unit (inch^) . 

L = The specified length of the clay masonry unit 
(inches). 

H = The specified height of the clay masonry unit 
(inches). 

721,4.1.1.1 Hollow clay units. The equivalent thick- 
ness, T^, shall be the value obtained for hollow clay 
units as determined in accordance with ASTM C 67. 



TABLE 721.4.1(1) 
FBRE-RESSSTANCE PERIODS OF CLAY MASONRY WALLS 






MATERIAL TYPE 


n/ilNDMUM REQUIRED EQUIVALENT THICKNESS FOR FIRE RESISTANCES'''''^ (inches) 


1 hour 


2 hour 


3 hour 


4 hour 


Solid brick of clay or shale'* 


2.7 


3.8 


4.9 


6.0 


Hollow brick or tile of clay or shale, unfilled 


2.3 


3.4 


4.3 


5.0 


Hollow brick or tile of clay or shale, grouted or filled with 
materials specified in Section 721.4.1.1.3 


3.0 


4.4 


5.5 


6.6 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

a. Equivalent thickness as determined from Section 721.4.1.1. 

b. Calculated fire resistance between the hourly increments listed shall be determined by linear interpolation. 

c. Where combustible members are framed in the wall, the thickness of solid material between the end of each member and the opposite face of the wall, or between 
members set in from opposite sides, shall not be less than 93 percent of the thickness shown. 

d. For units in which the net cross-sectional area of cored brick in any plane parallel to the surface containing the cores is at least 75 percent of the gross cross-sec- 
tional area measured in the same plane. 



2003 I MTER NATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



137 



RRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE 721.4.1(2) 
FIRE-RESISTANCE RATINGS FOR BEARING STEEL FRAP 
BRICK VENEER WALLS OR PARTITIONS 



WALL OR PARTITION ASSEMBLY 


PLASTER SIDE 
EXPOSED (hours) 


BRICK FACED SIDE 
EXPOSED (hours) 


Outside facing of steel studs: 

^1" wood fiberboard sheathing next to studs, ^1" airspace formed with 
^1" X 1 ^/g" wood strips placed over the fiberboard and secured to the studs; 
metal or wire lath nailed to such strips, 3 V4" brick veneer held in place by filling 
V4" airspace between the brick and lath with mortar. Inside facing of studs: V4" 
unsanded gypsum plaster on metal or wire lath attached to Vi/' wood strips 
secured to edges of the studs. 


1.5 


4 


Outside facing of steel studs: 

I" insulation board sheathing attached to studs, 1" airspace, and 3^//' brick 
veneer attached to steel frame with metal ties every 5th course. Inside facing of 
studs: Vg" sanded gypsum plaster (1:2 mix) applied on metal or wire lath 
attached directly to the studs. 


1.5 


4 


Same as above except use Vg" vermiculite — gypsum plaster or 1" sanded 
gypsum plaster (1:2 mix) applied to metal or wire. 


2 


4 


Outside facing of steel studs: 

V2" gypsum sheathing board, attached to studs, and 3V4" brick veneer attached 
to steel frame with metal ties every 5th course. Inside facing of studs: V2" 
sanded gypsum plaster (1:2 mix) applied to 72" perforated gypsum lath 
securely attached to studs and having strips of metal lath 3 inches wide applied 
to all horizontal joints of gypsum lath. 


2 


4 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

721.4.1.1.2 Solid grouted clay units. The equivalent 
thickness of solid grouted clay masonry units shall be 
taken as the actual thickness of the units. 

721.4.1.1.3 Units with filled cores. The equivalent 
thickness of the hollow clay masonry units is the ac- 
tual thickness of the unit when completely filled with 
loose-fill materials of: sand, pea gravel, crushed 
stone, or slag that meet ASTM C 33 requirements; 
pumice, scoria, expanded shale, expanded clay, ex- 
panded slate, expanded slag, expanded fly ash, or cin- 
ders in compliance with ASTM C 33 1 ; or perlite or 
vermiculite meeting the requirements of ASTM C 
549 and ASTM C 516, respectively. 

721.4.1.2 Plaster finishes. Where plaster is appHed to 
the wall, the total fire-resistance rating shall be deter- 
mined by the formula: 



721.4.1.3 Multiwythe walls with airspace. Where a 
continuous airspace separates multiple wythes of the 
wall or partition, the total fire-resistance rating shall be 
determined by the formula: 

R = (/?,o-59 + R^o.59 + ...+/?^o.59 + as) >-^ (Equation 7-10) 



where: 
R 



i?„/?2and/?„ = 



as 



The fire endurance of the assembly 
(hours). 

The fire endurance of the individual 
wythes (hours). 

Coefficient for continuous airspace. 



R = (R„^'^+pl)\J 



(Equation 7-9) 



where: 

R = The fire endurance of the assembly (hours). 
/?„ = The fire endurance ofthe individual wall (hours). 
pi = Coefficient for thickness of plaster. 

Values for R„^-^^ for use in EquaUon 7-9 are given in Ta- 
ble 721.4.1(3). Coefficients for thickness of plaster shall 
be selected from Table 721.4.1(4) based on the actual 
thickness of plaster applied to the wall or partition and 
whether one or two sides of the wall are plastered. 



Values for /?„°^^ for use in Equation 7-10 are given in Ta- 
ble 721.4.1(3). The coefficient for each continuous air- 
space of V2 inch to 3 V2 inches (12.7 to 89 mm) separating 
two individual wythes shall be 0.3. 

721.4.1.4 Nonsymmetrical assemblies. For a wall hav- 
ing no finish on one side or having different types or 
thicknesses of finish on each side, the calculation proce- 
dures of this section shall be performed twice, assuming 
either side to be the fire-exposed side ofthe wall. The fire 
resistance of the wall shall not exceed the lower of the 
two values determined. 

Exception: For exterior walls with more than 5 feet 
(1524 mm) of horizontal separation, the fire shall be 
assumed to occur on the interior side only. 



138 



2003 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



FDIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 



E 721.4.1(3) 
ES OF R„°-^^ 



R,0.S9 


R (hours) 


1 


1.0 


2 


1.50 


3 


1.91 


4 


2.27 



TABLE 721 .4.1 (4) 
COEFFDCBENTS FOR PLASTER, pi' 



THICKNESS OF 

PLASTER (inch) 


ONE SIDE 


TWO SIDE 


% 


0.3 


0.6 


% 


0.37 


0.75 


% 


0.45 


0.90 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

a. Values listed in table are for 1:3 sanded gypsum plaster. 

TABLE 721 .4.1 (5) 
RE8NF0RCED MASONRY LINTELS 



NOMINAL 

LINTEL WIDTH 
(inches) 


IMINliMUlVi LONGITUDINAL REINFORCEMENT COVER 
FOR FIRE RESISTANCE (inch) 


1 hour 


2 hour 


3 hour 


4 hour 


6 


1'/. 


2 


NP 


NP 


8 


IV2 


1% 


1% 


3 


10 or more 


1% 


l'/2 


1% 


1% 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 
NP = Not permitted. 



TABLE 721 .4.1 (6) 
REDNFORCED CLAY MASONRY COLUMNS 



COLUMN SIZE 


FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING 
(hour) 


1 


2 


3 


4 


Minimum column dimension (inches) 


8 


10 


12 


14 



For SI: 1 inch - 25 A mm. 



Is. The fire-resistance rating for 
walls or partitions consisting of two or more dissimilar 
wythes shall be permitted to be determined by the formula: 



/? = (/?,0.59 + ^^0.59 



where: 
R 



+ ...+/?„°-5^) 



(EqeatnomT-ll) 



= The fire endurance of the assembly 
(hours). 

R,, /?2 and /?„ = The fire endurance of the individual wythes 
(hours). 

Values for /?„°^^ for use in Equation 7-11 are given in Ta- 
ble 721.4.1(3). 

721.4.2.1 Multtiwytie walls off diffferemt maternal. For 
walls that consist of two or more wythes of different ma- 
terials (concrete or concrete masonry units) in combina- 
tion with clay masonry units, the fire-resistance rating of 



the different materials shall be permitted to be deter- 
mined from Table 721.2.1.1 for concrete; Table 721.3.2 
for concrete masonry units or Table 721.4.1(1) or 
721.4.1(2) for clay and tile masonry units. 

721.4.3 Eeleforced day masomry IlnltelSo Fire-resistance 
ratings for clay masonry lintels shall be determined based 
on the nominal width of the lintel and the minimum cover- 
ing for the longitudinal reinforcement in accordance with 
Table 721.4.1(5). 

721.4.4 Relmfforced clay masonry columms. The fire-resis- 
tance ratings shall be determined based on the last plan di- 
mension of the column in accordance with Table 72 1 .4. 1 (6). 
The minimum cover for longitudinal reinforcement shall be 
2 inches (51 mm). 



721.5 Steel assemblies. The provisions of this section contain 
procedures by which the fire-resistance ratings of steel assem- 
blies are established by calculations. 

721.5.1 Strecteral steel columns. The fire-resistance rat- 
ings of steel columns shall be based on the size of the ele- 
ment and the type of protection provided in accordance with 
this section. 

721.5,1,1 General. These procedures establish a basis 
for determining the fire resistance of column assemblies 
as a function of the thickness of fire-resistant material 
and, the weight, W, and heated perimeter, D, of steel col- 
umns. As used in these sections. Wis the average weight 
of a structural steel column in pounds per linear foot. The 
heated perimeter, D, is the inside perimeter of the fire-re- 
sistant material in inches as illustrated in Figure 
721.5.1(1). 

721.5.1.1.1 Nonload=bearieg protection. The appli- 
cation of these procedures shall be limited to column 
assemblies in which the fire-resistant material is not 
designed to carry any of the load acting on the col- 
umn. 

721.5.1.1.2 Embedments. In the absence of substan- 
tiating fire-endurance test results, ducts, conduit, pip- 
ing, and similar mechanical, electrical, and plumbing 
installations shall not be embedded in any required 
fire-resistant materials. 



721,5,1,1.3 Weflght-to-pernmeter ratio. Table 
721.5.1(1) contains weight-to-heated-perimeter ratios 
(W/D) for both contour and box fire-resistant profiles, 
for the wide flange shapes most often used as columns. 




D=4bf+2d-2tw 



D=2(a+d) 



D=2{bf + d) 



FIGURE 721.5.1(1) 

SETERMJNATION OF THE HEATED PERIMETER 

OF STRUCTURAL STEEL COLUMNS 



2003 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



139 



FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 



Av 



^}A 



<3) 



■:^ 



•^ 



Av 




"»^ 



5/8° 



c^ 



au 



5/16" 
MIN. 



■No.8x1«" SHEET STEEL 
SCREWS SPACED 12°o.c. 



SNAP-LOCK PITTSBURGH SEAM 

CORNER JOINT DETAILS (A) 



LAP 



FIGURE 721.5.1(2) 

GYPSUM WALLBOARD PROTECTED STRUCTURAL STEEL 

COLUMNS WITH SHEET STEEL COLUMN COVERS 

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 305 mm. 

1. Structural steel column, either wide flange or tubular shapes. 

2. Type X gypsum wallboard in accordance with ASTM C 36. For single-layer 
applications, the wallboard shall be applied vertically with no horizontal 
joints. For multiple-layer applications, horizontal joints are permitted at a 
minimum spacing of 8 feet, provided that the joints in successive layers are 
staggered at least 12 inches. The total required thickness of wallboard shall 
be determined on the basis of the specified fire-resistance rating and the 
weight-to-heated-perimeter ratio {W/D) of the column. For fire-resistance 
ratings of 2 hours or less, one of the required layers of gypsum wallboard 
may be applied to the exterior of the sheet steel column covers with 1-inch 
long Type S screws spaced 1 inch from the wallboard edge and 8 inches on 
center. For such installations, 0.0149-inch minimum thickness galvanized 
steel comer beads with 1 V2-inch legs shall be attached to the wallboard with 
Type S screws spaced 12 inches on center. 

3. For fire-resistance ratings of 3 hours or less, the column covers shall be fab- 
ricated from 0.0239-inch minimum thickness galvanized or stainless steel. 
For 4-hour fire-resistance ratings, the column covers shall be fabricated 
from 0.0239-inch minimum thickness stainless steel. The column covers 
shall be erected with the Snap Lock or Pittsburgh joint details. 

For fire-resistance ratings of 2 hours or less, column covers fabricated from 
0.0269-inch minimum thickness galvanized or stainless steel shall be permit- 
ted to be erected with lap joints. The lap joints shall be permitted to be located 
anywhere around the perimeter of the column cover. The lap joints shall be se- 
cured with Vj-inch-long No. 8 sheet metal screws spaced 12 inches on center. 
The column covers shall be provided with a minimum expansion clearance 
of Vg inch per linear foot between the ends of the cover and any restraining 
construction. 





1 LAYER = 5/8" OR 1/2" 



2 LAYERS = 1 1/4" OR r 





3 LAYERS = 1 7/8" OR 1 1/2" 



4 LAYERS = 2 1/2" OR 2" 



FIGURE 721 .5.1 (3) 

GYPSUM WALLBOARD PROTECTED STRUCTURAL STEEL 

COLUMNS WITH STEEL STUD/SCREW ATTACHMENT SYSTEM 

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = -305 mm. 

1. Structural steel column, either wide flange or tubular shapes. 

2. 1%-inch deep studs fabricated from 0.0179-inch minimum thickness galva- 
nized steel with 1^,^ or 1 V|g-inch legs. The length of the steel studs shall be 
'/2 inch less than the height of the assembly. 

3. Type X gypsum wallboard in accordance with ASTM C 36. For single-layer 
applicafions, the wallboard shall be applied vertically with no horizontal 
joints. For multiple-layer applications, horizontal joints are permitted at a 
minimum spacing of 8 feet, provided that the joints in successive layers are 
staggered at least 12 inches. The total required thickness of wallboard shall 
be determined on the basis of the specified fire-resistance rating and the 
weight-to-heated-perimeter rafio (VV/D) of the column. 

4. Galvanized 0.0149-inch minimum thickness steel corner beads with 
iVj-inch legs attached to the wallboard with 1 -inch-long Type S screws 
spaced 12 inches on center. 

5. No. 18 SWG steel tie wires spaced 24 inches on center. 

6. Sheet metal angles with 2-inch legs fabricated from 0.0221-inch minimum 
thickness galvanized steel. 

7. Type S screws, 1 inch long, shall be used for attaching the first layer of wall- 
board to the steel smds and the third layer to the sheet metal angles at 24 inches 
on center. Type S screws l^-inch long shall be used for attaching the second 
layer of wallboard to the steel studs and the fourth layer to the sheet metal an- 
gles at 12 inches on center. Type S screws 2^1^ inches long shall be used for at- 
taching the third layer of wallboard to the steel studs at 12 inches on center. 



For different fire-resistant protection profiles or col- 
umn cross sections, the weight-to-heated-perimeter ra- 
tios iW/D) shall be determined in accordance with the 
definitions given in this section. 

721.5.1.2 Gypsum wallboard protectioM. The fire re- 
sistance of structural steel columns with weight- 
to-heated-perimeter ratios {W/D) less than or equal to 
3.65 and which are protected with Type X gypsum wall- 
board shall be permitted to be determined from the fol- 
lowing expression: 



/? = 130 



where: 



hiW'ID) 



(Equation 7-12) 



R = Fire resistance (minutes). 

h = Total thickness of gypsum wallboard (inches). 

D = Heated perimeter of the structural steel column 
(inches). 

W = Total weight of the structural steel column and 
gypsum wallboard protection (pounds per lin- 
ear foot). 

W = W+50hDn44. 

721.5.1.2.1 Attachment. The gypsum wallboard 
shall be supported as illustrated in either Figure 
721.5.1(2) for fire-resistance ratings of 4 hours or 
less, or Figure 721 .5. 1(3) for fire-resistance ratings of 
3 hours or less. 



140 



2003 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



FSRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 



21/2" 



2° 1 7/8' 



1 1/2° 



1 1/2 




WEIGHT-TO-HEATED-PERIMETER RATIO (W/D) 
For SI: I inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound per linear foot/inch = 0.059 kg/m/mm. 



721.5.1(4) 

FIRE RESISTANCE OF STRUCTURAL STEEL COLUMNS 
PROTECTED WITH VARDOUS THDCBCNESSES OF 



a. The W/D ratios for typical wide flange columns are listed in Table 721 .5. 1(1 ). For other 
column shapes, the W/D ratios shall be determined in accordance with Section 
720.5.1.1. 



721J,1„2,2 Gypsum 
cretSo The determination of the fire resistance of 
structural steel columns from Figure 721.5.1(4) is 
permitted for various thicknesses of gypsum wall- 
board as a function of the weight-to-heated-perimeter 
ratio {W/D) of the column. For structural steel col- 
umns with weight-to-heated-perimeter ratios {W/D) 
greater than 3.65, the thickness of gypsum wallboard 
required for specified fire-resistance ratings shall be 
the same as the thickness determined for a W14 x 233 
wide flange shape. 



A3 §pray=applledl 15re=re§l§teiit materialSo The 
fire resistance of wide-flange structural steel columns 
protected with spray-applied fire-resistant materials, as 
illustrated in Figure 721.5.1(5), shall be permitted to be 
determined from the following expression: 

R = [C^{W ID)+C^'\h (Eqraatlorai 743) 

where: 

R = Fire resistance (minutes). 

h = Thickness of spray-apphed fire-resistant 

material (inches). 

D = Heated perimeter of the structural steel col- 

umn (inches). 

C, and C2 = Material-dependent constants. 

W = Weight of structural steel column (pounds 

per linear foot). 




INS WITH 



FIGURE 721.5.1(5) 
m FLANGE STRUCTURAL STEEL COLOI 
H FIRE-RESISTANT MATE 



7213.1,3.1 Materlal-depemdeiit corastaets. The ma- 
terial-dependent constants, C, and C2, shall be deter- 
mined for specific fire-resistant materials on the basis 
of standard fire endurance tests in accordance with 
Section 703.2. Unless evidence is submitted to the 
building official substantiating a broader application, 
this expression shall be limited to determining the fire 
resistance of structural steel columns with 
weight-to-heated-perimeter ratios {W/D) between the 
largest and smallest columns for which standard 
fire-endurance test results are available. 

721.5.1.3,2 Spray=applied Meettllcatloii. Spray-ap- 
plied fire-resistant materials shall be identified by 
density and thickness required for a given fire-resis- 
tance rating. 



72I.S0I.4 Concrete-protected columms. The fire resis- 
tance of structural steel columns protected with concrete, 
as illustrated in Figure 721.5.1(6) (a) and (b), shall be 
permitted to be determined from the following expres- 
sion: 

R = R„{1+ 0.03m) (Eqeatnom 7=14) 

where: 

R, = 10 {W/D) «-^ -I- 17 (h'V)t,o.2) ^ 
{\ + 26 {H/p,c,h{L + h)f-^) 

As used in these expressions: 

R = Fire endurance at equilibrium moisture condi- 
tions (minutes). 

Rg = Fire endurance at zero moisture content (min- 
utes). 

m = Equilibrium moisture content of the concrete by 
volume (percent). 

W = Average weight of the steel column (pounds per 
linear foot). 

D = Heated perimeter of the steel column (inches). 

h = Thickness of the concrete cover (inches). 

k^ = Ambient temperature thermal conductivity of the 
concrete (Btu/lir ft °F). 

H = Ambient temperature thermal capacity of the 
steel column = 0.1 IW (Btu/ ft °F). 

Pc = Concrete density (pounds per cubic foot). 

Cc = Ambient temperature specific heat of concrete 
(Btu/lb °F). 



2003 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 



= Interior dimension of one side of a square con- 
crete box protection (inches). 

721.5.1.4.1 Reentrant space filled. For wide-flange 
steel columns completely encased in concrete with all 
reentrant spaces filled [Figure 721.5.1(6)(c)], the 
thermal capacity of the concrete within the reentrant 
spaces shall be permitted to be added to the thermal 
capacity of the steel column, as follows: 

H=0.11W+ (p,cjl44) (bjd -A,) (Equation 7=15) 

where: 

bf = Flange width of the steel column (inches). 

d = Depth of the steel column (inches). 

As = Cross-sectional area ofthe steel column (square 
inches). 

721.5.1.4.2 Concrete properties unknown. If spe- 
cific data on the properties of concrete are not avail- 
able, the values given in Table 721.5.1(2) are 
permitted. 

721.5.1.4.3 Minimum concrete cover. For struc- 
tural steel column encased in concrete with all 
reentrant spaces filled, Figure 721.5.1(6)(c) and Ta- 
bles 72 1 .5 . 1 (7) and 72 1 .5 . 1 (8) indicate the thickness 
of concrete cover required for various fire-resistance 
ratings for typical wide-flange sections. The thick- 
nesses of concrete indicated in these tables also ap- 
ply to structural steel columns larger than those 
listed. 

721.5.1.4.4 Minimum precast concrete cover. For 
structural steel columns protected with precast con- 
crete column covers as shown in Figure 
721.5. l(6)(a), Tables 721.5.1(9) and 721.5.1(10) in- 
dicate the thickness of the column covers required 
for various fire-resistance ratings for typical 
wide-flange shapes. The thicknesses of concrete 
given in these tables also apply to structural steel col- 
umns larger than those listed. 

721.5.1.4.5 Masonry protection. The fire resistance 
of structural steel columns protected with concrete 
masonry units or clay masonry units as illustrated in 
Figure 72 1 .5 . 1 (7), shall be permitted to be determined 
from the following expression: 

R = 0.ll (W/Df' + [0.285 (TJ''/K°-^) ] 
[1.0 -H 42.7 { (A/d^ T,) I (0.25p + T,) } «•« ] 

(Equation 7-16) 
where: 

R = Fire-resistance rating of column assembly 
(hours). 

W = Average weight of steel column (pounds per 
foot). 

D = Heated perimeter of steel column (inches) [see 
Figure 721.5.1(7)]. 



Te = Equivalent thickness of concrete or clay ma- 
sonry unit (inches) (see Table 721.3.2 Note a or 
Section 721.4.1). 

K = Thermal conductivity of concrete or clay ma- 
sonry unit (Btu/hr ft °F) [see Table 721 .5. 1(3)]. 

As = Cross-sectional area of steel column (square 
inches). 

dm = Density of the concrete or clay masonry 
unit(pounds per cubic foot). 

p = Inner perimeter of concrete or clay masonry 
protection (inches) [see Figure 721.5.1(7)]. 

721.5.1.4.6 Equivalent concrete masonry thick- 
ness. For structural steel columns protected with con- 
crete masonry, Table 721.5.1(5) gives the equivalent 
thickness of concrete masonry required for various 
fire-resistance ratings for typical column shapes. For 
structural steel columns protected with clay masonry, 
Table 721.5.1(6) gives the equivalent thickness of 
concrete masonry required for various fire-resistance 
ratings for typical column shapes. 





k*« 



(a) 


(b) 


(C) 


PRECAST 


CONCRETE 


CONCRETE 


CONCRETE 


ENCASED 


ENCASED 


COLUMN 


STRUCTURAL 


WIDE-FLANGE 


COVERS 


TUBE 


SHAPE 



FIGURE 721 .5.1 (6) 
CONCRETE PROTECTED STRUCTURAL STEEL COLUMNS^ 

When the inside perimeter ofthe concrete protection is not square, L shall be taken as 
the average of L, and L,. When the thickness of concrete cover is not constant, h shall be 
taken as the average of /j, and h^. 

Joints shall be protected with a minimum 1 inch thickness of ceramic fiber blanket but 
in no case less than one-half the thickness ofthe column cover (see Section 720.2. 1.3). 



D=2(w+d)+2(vir-t^,) 




D = 7id 
d 



D = 2w + 2d 









D 


DC 


D 


U 
D 

D 


DD 


D 
D 
D 




0.25p 











D 

n 


u 


n 

D 

n 


nan 


□ 



W SHAPE COLUMN STEEL PIPE COLUMN STRUCTURAL TUBE COLUMN 

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

FIGURE 721 .5.1 (7) 

CONCRETE OR CLAY MASONRY PROTECTED 

STRUCTURAL STEEL COLUMNS 

d = Depth of a wide flange column, outside diameter of pipe column, or 

outside dimension of structural tubing column (inches). 
t^ = Thickness of web of wide flange column (inches). 
w = Width of flange of wide flange column (inches). 



142 



2003 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



5E-RESDSTANCE-RATED C0MSTRUCT80M 



721.5.1(1) 
STEEL COLUWINS 



STRUCTURAL 
SHAPE 


CONTOUR 
PROFILE 


BOX 
PROFILE 


STRUCTURAL 
SHAPE 


CONTOUR 
PROFILE 


BOX 

PROFILE 


W14x233 


2.49 


3.65 


W10xll2 


1.78 


2.57 


x211 


2.28 


3.35 


xlOO 


1.61 


2.33 


xl93 


2.10 


3.09 


X 88 


1.43 


2.08 


xl76 


1.93 


2.85 


X 77 


1.26 


1.85 


X 159 


1.75 


2.60 


X 68 


1.13 


1.66 


xl45 


1.61 


2.39 


X 60 


1.00 


1.48 


xl32 


1.52 


2.25 


X 54 


0.91 


1.34 


xl20 


1.39 


2.06 


X 49 


0.83 


1.23 


xl09 


1.27 


1.88 


X 45 


0.87 


1.24 


X 99 


1.16 


1.72 


X 39 


0.76 


1.09 


X 90 


1.06 


1.58 


X 33 


0.65 


0.93 


X 82 


1.20 


1.68 




X 74 


1.09 


1.53 


W8x67 


1.34 


1.94 


X 68 


1.01 


1.41 


x58 


1.18 


1.71 


X 61 


0.91 


1.28 


x48 


0.99S 


1.44 


X 53 


0.89 


1.21 


x40 


0.83 


1.23 


X 48 


0.81 


1.10 


X 35 


0.73 


1.08 


X 43 


0.73 


0.99 


X 31 


0.65 


0.97 




X 28 


0.67 


0.96 


W12xl90 


2.46 


3.51 


X 24 


0.58 


0.83 


X 170 


2.22 


3.20 


X 21 


0.57 


0.77 


xl52 


2.01 


2.90 


X 18 


0.49 


0.67 


X 136 


1.82 


2.63 




X 120 


1.62 


2.36 


W6x25 


0.69 


1.00 


X 106 


1.44 


2.11 


x20 


0.56 


0.82 


X 96 


1.32 


1.93 


X 16 


0.57 


0.78 


X 87 


1.20 


1.76 


X 15 


0.42 


0.63 


X 79 


1.10 


1.61 


X 12 


0.43 


0.60 


X 72 


1.00 


1.48 


X 9 


0.33 


0.46 


X 65 


0.91 


1.35 




X 58 


0.91 


1.31 


W5xl9 


0.64 


0.93 


X 53 


0.84 


1.20 


X 16 


0.54 


0.80 


X 50 


0.89 


1.23 




X 45 


0.81 


1.12 


W4x 13 


0.54 


0.79 


X 40 


0.72 


1.00 





For SI: 1 pound per linear foot per inch - 0.059 kg/m/mm. 



2003 BNTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE 721 .5.1 (2) 
PROPERTIES OF CONCRETE 



PROPERTY 


NORMAL WEIGHT CONCRETE 


STRUCTURAL LIGHTWEIGHT CONCRETE 


Thermal conductivity (k^) 


0.95 Btu/hr ft °F 


0.35 Btu/hr ft °F 


Specific heat {cj 


0.20 Btu/lb °F 


0.20 Btu/lb °F 


Density (PJ 


145 Ib/ft^ 


1101b/ft3 


Equilibrium (free) moisture content (m) by 
volume 


4% 


5% 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 Ib/ft^ = 16.0185 kg/m^ Btu/hr ft °F = .1.731 W/(m ■ K) 



TABLE 721.5.1(3) 

THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF CONCRETE OR CLAY 

MASONRY UNITS 



DENSITY (dj OF UNITS (Ib/ft^) 


THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY (K) OF UNITS (Btu/hr ft °F) 


Concrete Masonry Units 


80 


0.207 


85 


0.228 


90 


0.252 


95 


0.278 


100 


0.308 


105 


0.340 


110 


0.376 


115 


0.416 


120 


0.459 


125 


0.508 


130 


0.561 


135 


0.620 


140 


0.685 


145 


0.758 


150 


0.837 


Clay Masonry Units 


120 


1.25 


130 


2.25 



For SI: 1 pound per cubic foot = 16.0185 kg/m^ Btu per hour foot °F = 1.731 W/(m • K). 



144 



2003 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



FlRE-RESaSTANCE-RATEDCOMSTRUCTlOM 



TABLE 721 .5.1 (4) 
TO-HEATED-PERIWIETER RAT50S 
WIDE FLANGE BEAM AMD GDRDE 



STRUCTURAL 
SHAPE 


CONTOUR 
PROFILE 


BOX 
PROFILE 


STRUCTURAL 
SHAPE 


CONTOUR 
PROFILE 


BOX 
PROFILE 


W36 X 300 


2.47 


3.33 


X 68 


0.92 


1.21 


x280 


2.31 


3.12 


X 62 


0.92 


1.14 


x260 


2.16 


2.92 


X 55 


0.82 


1.02 


x245 


2.04 


2.76 








x230 


1.92 


2.61 


W21 X 147 


1.83 


2.60 


x210 


1.94 


2.45 


xl32 


1.66 


2.35 


xl94 


1.80 


2.28 


xl22 


1.54 


2.19 


xl82 


1.69 


2.15 


xlll 


1.41 


2.01 


xl70 


1.59 


2.01 


xlOl 


1.29 


1.84 


xl60 


1.50 


1.90 


X 93 


1.38 


1.80 


xl50 


1.41 


1.79 


X 83 


1.24 


1.62 


xl35 


1.28 


1.63 


X 73 


1.10 


1.44 




X 68 


1.03 


1.35 


W33 x241 


2.11 


2.86 


X 62 


0.94 


1.23 


x221 


1.94 


2.64 


X 57 


0.93 


1.17 


x201 


1.78 


2.42 


X 50 


0.83 


1.04 


xl52 


1.51 


1.94 


X 44 


0.73 


0.92 


xl41 


1.41 


1.80 




xl30 


1.31 


1.67 


W18X119 


1.69 


2.42 


xll8 


1.19 


1.53 


xl06 


1.52 


2.18 




X 97 


1.39 


2.01 


W30 x211 


2.00 


2.74 


X 86 


1.24 


1.80 


xl91 


1.82 


2.50 


X 76 


1.11 


1.60 


xl73 


1.66 


2.28 


X 71 


1.21 


1.59 


xl32 


1.45 


1.85 


X 65 


1.11 


1.47 


xl24 


1.37 


1.75 


X 60 


1.03, 


1.36 


X 116 


1.28 


1.65 


■X 55 


0.95 


1.26 


X 108 


1.20 


1.54 


X 50 


0.87 


1.15 


X 99 


1.10 


1.42 


X 46 


0.86 


1.09 




X 40 


0.75 


0.96 


W27 X 178 


1.85 


2.55 


X 35 


0.66 


0.85 


xl61 


1.68 


2.33 




xl46 


1.53 


2.12 


W16xl00 


1.56 


2.25 


xll4 


1.36 


1.76 


X 89 


1.40 


2.03 


xl02 


1.23 


1.59 


x 77 


1.22 


1.78 


X 94 


1.13 


1.47 


X 67 


1.07 


1.56 


X 84 


1.02 


1.33 


X 57 


1.07 


1.43 




X 50 


0.94 


1.26 




X 45 


0.85 


1.15 


W24 X 162 


1.85 


2.57 


X 40 


0.76 


1.03 


xl46 


1.68 


2.34 


X 36 


0.69 


0.93 


xl31 


1.52 


2.12 


X 31 


0.65 


0.83 


xll7 


1.36 


1.91 


X 26 


0.55 


0.70 


xl04 


1.22 


1.71 




X 94 


1.26 


1.63 


W14xl32 


1.83 


3.00 


X 84 


1.13 


1.47 


xl20 


1.67 


2.75 


X 76 


1.03 


1.34 


xl09 


1.53 


2.52 



(continued) 



2003 INTERMAT50NAL BUBLDINIG CODE® 



M5 



RRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE 721.5.1(4)— continued 

WEIGHT-TO-HEATED-PERIMETER RATIOS (W/D) 

FOR TYPICAL WIDE FLANGE BEAM AND GIRDER SHAPES 



STRUCTURAL 
SHAPE 


CONTOUR 
PROFILE 


BOX 
PROFILE 


STRUCTURAL 
SHAPE 


CONTOUR 
PROFILE 


BOX 
PROFILE 


X 99 


1.39 


2.31 


X 30 


0.79 


1.12 


X 90 


1.27 


2.11 


X 26 


0.69 


0.98 


X 82 


1.41 


2.12 


X 22 


0.59 


0.84 


X 74 


1.28 


1.93 


X 19 


0.59 


0.78 


X 68 


1.19 


1.78 


X 17 


0.54 


0.70 


X 61 


1.07 


1.61 


X 15 


0.48 


0.63 


X 53 


1.03 


1.48 


X 12 


0.38 


0.51 


X 48 


0.94 


1.35 




X 43 


0.85 


1.22 


W8 X 67 


1.61 


2.55 


X 38 


0.79 


1.09 


X 58 


1.41 


2.26 


X 34 


0.71 


0.98 


X 48 


1.18 


1.91 


X 30 


0.63 


0.87 


X 40 


1.00 


1.63 


X 26 


0.61 


0.79 


X 35 


0.88 


1.44 


X 22 


0.52 


0.68 


X 31 


0.79 


1.29 




X 28 


0.80 


1.24 


W12 X 87 


1.44 


2.34 


X 24 


0.69 


1.07 


X 79 


1.32 


2.14 


X 21 


0.66 


0.96 


X 72 


1.20 


1.97 


X 18 


0.57 


0.84 


X 65 


1.09 


1.79 


X 15 


0.54 


0.74 


X 58 


1.08 


1.69 


X 13 


0.47 


0.65 


X 53 


0.99 


1.55 


X 10 


0.37 


0.51 


X 50 


1.04 


1.54 




X 45 


0.95 


1.40 


W6 X 25 


0.82 


1.33 


X 40 


0.85 


1.25 


X 20 


0.67 


1.09 


X 35 


0.79 


1.11 


X 16 


0.66 


0.96 


X 30 


0.69 " 


0.96 


X 15 


0.51 


0.83 


X 26 


0.60 


0.84 


X 12 


0.51 


0.75 


X 22 


0.61 


0.77 


X 9 


0.39 


0.57 


X 19 


0.53 


0.67 




X 16 


0.45 


0.57 


W5 X 19 


0.76 


1.24 


X 14 


0.40 


0.50 


X 16 


0.65 


1.07 






WlOx 112 


2.14 


3.38 


W4 X 13 


0.65 


1.05 


xlOO 


1.93 


3.07 




X 88 


1.7 


2.75 


X 77 


1.52 


2.45 


X 68 


1.35 


2.20 


X 60 


1.20 


1.97 


X 54 


1.09 


1.79 


X 49 


0.99 


1.64 


X 45 


1.03 


1.59 


X 39 


0.94 


1.40 


X 33 


0.77 


1.20 



For SI: Pounds per linear foot per inch = 0.059 kg/m/mm. 



146 



2003 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



FDRE-RESDSTANCE-RATEDCONSTRUCTDON 





TABLE 721.5.1(5) 
FIRE RESISTANCE OF CONCRETE MASONRY PROTECTED STEEL COLUMNS 








COLUMN 
SIZE 


CONCRETE 

MASONRY DENSITY 

POUNDS PER 

CUBIC FOOT 


MINIMUM REQUIRED EQUIVALENT 
THICKNESS FOR FIRE-RESISTANCE 

RATING OF CONCRETE. MASONRY 
PROTECTION ASSEMBLY Tg, (inches) 


COLUMN 
SIZE 


CONCRETE 

MASONRY DENSITY 

POUNDS PER 

CUBIC FOOT 


MINIMUM REQUIRED EQUIVALENT 
THICKNESS FOR FIRE-RESISTANCE 

RATING OF CONCRETE. MASONRY 
PROTECTION ASSEMBLY 7^, (inches) 


l-hour 


2-houir 


3-hour 


4-houir 


1-hour 


2-hour 


3-hour 


4-hour 


W14 X 82 


80 


0.74 


1.61 


2.36 


3.04 


W10x68 


80 


0.72 


1.58 


2.33 


3.01 


100 


0.89 


1.85 


2.67 


3.40 


100 


0.87 


1.83 


2.65 


3.38 


110 


0.96 


1.97 


2.81 


3.57 


110 


0.94 


1.95 


2.79 


3.55 


120 


1.03 


2.08 


2.95 


3.73 


120 


1.01 


2.06 


2.94 


3.72 


W14x68 


80 


0.83 


1.70 


2.45 


3.13 


W10x54 


80 


0.88 


1.76 


2.53 


3.21 


100 


0.99 


1.95 


2.76 


3.49 


100 


1.04 


2.01 


2.83 


3.57 


110 


1.06 


2.06 


2.91 


3.66 


110 


1.11 


2.12 


2.98 


3.73 


120 


1.14 


2.18 


3.05 


3.82 


120 


1.19 


2.24 


3.12 


3.90 


W14x53 


80 


0.91 


1.81 


2.58 


3.27 


W10x45 


80 


0.92 


1.83 


2.60 


3.30 


100 


1.07 


2.05 


2.88 


3.62 


100 


1.08 


2.07 


2.90 


3.64 


110 


1.15 


2.17 


3.02 


3.78 


110 


1.16 


2.18 


3.04 


3.80 


120 


1.22 


2.28 


3.16 


3.94 


120 


1.23 


2.29 


3.18 


3.96 


W14x43 


80 


1.01 


1.93 


2.71 


3.41 


W10x33 


80 


1.06 


2.00 


2.79 


3.49 


100 


1.17 


2.17 


3.00 


3.74 


100 


1.22 


2.23 


3.07 


3.81 


110 


1.25 


2.28 


3.14 


3.90 


110 


1.30 


2.34 


3.20 


3.96 


120 


1.32 


2.38 


3.27 


4.05 


120 


1.37 


2.44 


3.33 


4.12 


W12x72 


80 


0.81 


1.66 


2.41 


3.09 


W8x40 


80 


0.94 


1.85 


2.63 


3.33 


100 


0.91 


1.88 


2.70 


3.43 


100 


1.10 


2.10 


2.93 


3.67 


110 


0.99 


1.99 


2.84 


3.60 


110 


1.18 


2.21 


3.07 


3.83 


120 


1.06 


2.10 


2.98 


3.76 


120 


1.25 


2.32 


3.20 


3.99 


W12x58 


80 


0.88 


1.76 


2.52 


3.21 


W8x31 


80 


1.06 


2.00 


2.78 


3.49 


100 


1.04 


2.01 


2.83 


3.56 


100 


1.22 


2.23 


3.07 


3.81 


110 


1.11 


2.12 


2.97 


3.73 


110 


1.29 


2.33 


3.20 


3.97 


120 


1.19 


2.23 


3.11 


3.89 


120 


1.36 


2.44 


3.33 


4.12 


W12x50 


80 


0.91 


1.81 


2.58 


3.27 


W8x24 


80 


1.14 


2.09 


2.89 


3.59 


100 


1.07 


2.05 


2.88 


3.62 


100 


1.29 


2.31 


3.16 


3.90 


110 


1.15 


2.17 


3.02 


3.78 


110 


1.36 


2.42 


3.28 


4.05 


120 


1.22 


2.28 


3;i6 


3.94 


120 


1.43 


2.52 


3.41 


4.20 


W12x40 


80 


1.01 


1.94 


2.72 


3.41 


W8xl8 


110 


1.22 


2.20 


3.01 


3.72 


100 


1.17 


2.17 


3.01 


3.75 


100 


1.36 


2.40 


3.25 


4.01 


110 


1.25 


2.28 


3.14 


3.90 


110 


1.42 


2.50 


3.37 


4.14 


120 


1.32 


2.39 


3.27 


4.06 


120 


1.48 


2.59 


3.49 


4.28 



(continued) 



147 



FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE 721.5.1(5)— continued 

FIRE RESISTANCE OF CONCRETE MASONRY PROTECTED STEEL COLUMNS 



NOMINAL TUBE 

SIZE 

(Inches) 


CONCRh 1 b MASONRY 

DENSITY, POUNDS PER 

CUBIC FOOT 


MINIMUM REQUIRED 
EQUIVALENT THICKNESS 
FOR FIRE-RESISTANCE 
RATING OF CONCRb 1 b. 
MASONRY PROTECTION 
ASSEMBLY r^, (inches) 


NOMINAL PIPE 

SIZE 

(inches) 


CONCRb lb MASONRY 
DENSITY, POUNDS 
PER CUBIC FOOT 


MINIMUM REQUIRED 
EQUIVALENT THICKNESS 
FOR FIRE-RESISTANCE 
RATING OF CONCRETE. 
MASONRY PROTECTION 
ASSEMBLY T^, (inches) 


1-hour 


2-hour 


3-hour 


4-hour 


1-hour 


2-hour 


3-hour 


4-hour 


4 X 4 X '/2 wall 
thickness 


80 


0.93 


1.90 


2.71 


3.43 


4 double extra 

strong 0.674 

wall thickness 


80 


0.80 


1.75 


2.56 


3.28 


100 


1.08 


2.13 


2.99 


3.76 


100 


0.95 


1.99 


2.85 


3.62 


110 


1.16 


2.24 


3.13 


3.91 


110 


1.02 


2.10 


2.99 


3.78 


120 


1.22 


2.34 


3.26 


4.06 


120 


1.09 


2.20 


3.12 


3.93 


4x4x^/8 wall 
thickness 


80 


1.05 


2.03 


2.84 


3.57 


4 extra strong 
0.337 wall 
thickness 


80 


1.12 


2.11 


2.93 


3.65 


100 


1.20 


2.25 


3.11 


3.88 


100 


1.26 


2.32 


3.19 


3.95 


110 


1.27 


2.35 


3.24 


4.02 


110 


1.33 


2.42 


3.31 


4.09 


120 


1.34 


2.45 


3.37 


4.17 


120 


1.40 


2.52 


3.43 


4.23 


4 X 4 X 74 wall 
thickness 


80 


1.21 


2.20 


3.01 


3.73 


4 standard 
0.237 wall 
thickness 


80 


1.26 


2.25 


3.07 


3.79 


100 


1.35 


2.40 


3.26 


4.02 


100 


1.40 


2.45 


3.31 


4.07 


110 


1.41 


2.50 


3.38 


4.16 


110 


1.46 


2.55 


3.43 


4.21 


120 


1.48 


2.59 


3.50 


4.30 


120 


1.53 


2.64 


3.54 


4.34 


6 X 6 X V2 wall 
thickness 


80 


0.82 


1.75 


2.54 


3.25 


5 double extra 

strong 0.750 

wall thickness 


80 


0.70 


1.61 


2.40 


3.12 


100 


0.98 


1.99 


2.84 


3.59 


100 


0.85 


1.86 


2.71 


3.47 


110 


1.05 


2.10 


2.98 


3.75 


110 


0.91 


1.97 


2.85 


3.63 


120 


1.12 


2.21 


3.11 


3.91 


120 


0.98 


2.02 


2.99 


3.79 


6 X 6 X Vg wall 
thickness 


80 


0.96 


1.91 


2.71 


3.42 


5 extra strong 
0.375 wall 
thickness 


80 


1.04 


2.01 


2.83 


3.54 


100 


1.12 


2.14 


3.00 


3.75 


100 


1.19 


2.23 


J3.09 


3.85 


110 


1.19 


2.25 


3.13 


3.90 


110 


1.26 


2.34 


3.22 


4.00 


120 


1.26 


2.35 


3.26 


4.05 


120 


1.32 


2.44 


3.34 


4.14 


6 X 6 X 74 wall 
thickness 


80 


1.14 


2.11 


2.92 


3.63 


5 standard 
0.258 wall 
thickness 


80 


1.20 


2.19 


3.00 


3.72 


100 


1.29 


2.32 


3.18 


3.93 


100 


1.34 


2.39 


3.25 


4.00 


110 


1.36 


2.43 


3.30 


4.08 


110 


1.41 


2.49 


3.37 


4.14 


120 


1.42 


2.52 


3.43 


4.22 


120 


1.47 


2.58 


3.49 


4.28 


8 X 8 X 72 wall 
thickness 


80 


0.77 


1.66 


2.44 


3.13 


6 double extra 

strong 0.864 

wall thickness 


80 


0.59 


1.46 


2.23 


2.92 


100 


0.92 


1.91 


2.75 


3.49 


100 


0.73 


1.71 


2.54 


3.29 


110 


1.00 


2.02 


2.89 


3.66 


110 


0.80 


1.82 


2.69 


3.47 


120 


1.07 


2.14 


3.03 


3.82 


120 


0.86 


1.93 


2.83 


3.63 


8 X 8 X 3/g wall 
thickness 


80 


0.91 


1.84 


2.63 


3.33 


6 extra strong 
0.432 wall 
thickness 


80 


0.94 


1.90 


2.70 


3.42 


100 


1.07 


2.08 


2.92 


3.67 


100 


1.10 


2.13 


2.98 


3.74 


110 


1.14 


2.19 


3.06 


3.83 


110 


1.17 


2.23 


3.11 


3.89 


120 


1.21 


2.29 


3.19 


3.98 


120 


1.24 


2.34 


3.24 


4.04 


8 X 8 X 74 wall 
thickness 


80 


1.10 


2.06 


2.86 


3.57 


6 standard 
0.280 wall 
thickness 


80 


1.14 


2.12 


2.93 


3.64 


100 


1.25 


2.28 


3.13 


3.87 


100 


1.29 


2.33 


3.19 


3.94 


110 


1.32 


2.38 


3.25 


4.02 


110 


1.36 


2.43 


3.31 


4.08 


120 


1.39 


2.48 


3.38 


4.17 


120 


1.42 


2.53 


3.43 


4.22 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound per cubic feet - 16.02 kg/m-'. 

Note: Tabulated values assume 1-inch air gap between masonry and steel section. 



148 



2003 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTSOSM 







RRER 


TABLE 721.5.1(6) 
ESBSTANCE OF CLAY MASOBMRY PROTECTED STEEL COLUMNS 








COLUMN SIZE 


CLAY 

MASONRY 

DENSITY, 

POUNDS PER 

CUBIC FOOT 


MINIMUM REQUIRED EQUIVALENT THICKNESS 

FOR FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING OF CLAY. 
MASONRY PROTECTION ASSEMBLY T,, (inches) 


COLUMN SIZE 


CLAY 

MASONRY 

DENSITY, 

POUNDS PER 

CUBIC FOOT 


MINIMUIVi REQUIRED EQUIVALENT THICKNESS 

FOR FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING OF CLAY 
MASONRY PROTECTION ASSEMBLY T., (inches) 


1-hour 


2-hour 


3-hour 


4-hour 


1-hour 


2-hour 


3-hour 


4-hour 


W14x82 


120 


1.23 


2.42 


3.41 


4.29 


W10x68 


120 


1.27 


2.46 


3.26 


4.35 


130 


1.40 


2.70 


3.78 


4.74 


130 


1.44 


2.75 


3.83 


4.80 


W14x68 


120 


1.34 


2.54 


3.54 


4.43 


W10x54 


120 


1.40 


2.61 


3.62 


4.51 


130 


1.51 


2.82 


3.91 


4.87 


130 


1.58 


2.89 


3.98 


4.95 


W14x53 


120 


1.43 


2.65 


3.65 


4.54 


WIO X 45 


120 


1.44 


2.66 


3.67 


4.57 


130 


1.61 


2.93 


4.02 


4.98 


130 


1.62 


2.95 


4.04 


5.01 


W14x43 


120 


1.54 


2.76 


3.77 


4.66 


W10x33 


120 


1.59 


2.82 


3.84 


4.73 


130 


1.72 


3.04 


4.13 


5.09 


130 


1.77 


3.10 


4.20 


5.13 


W12x72 


120 


1.32 


2.52 


3.51 


4.40 


W8x40 


120 


1.47 


2.70 


3.71 


4.61 


130 


1.50 


2.80 


3.88 


4.84 


130 


1.65 


2.98 


4.08 


5.04 


W12x58 


120 


1.40 


2.61 


3.61 


4.50 


W8x31 


120 


1.59 


2.82 


3.84 


4.73 


130 


1.57 


2.89 


3.98 


4.94 


130 


1.77 


3.10 


4.20 


5.17 


W12x50 


120 


1.43 


2.65 


3.66 


4.55 


W8x24 


120 


1.66 


2.90 


3.92 


4.82 


130 


1.61 


2.93 


4.02 


4.99 


1-30 


1.84 


3.18 


4.28 


5.25 


W12x40 


120 


1.54 


2.77 


3.78 


4.67 


W8xl8 


120 


1.75 


3.00 


4.01 


4.91 


130 


1.72 


3.05 


4.14 


5.10 


130 


1.93 


3.27 


4.37 


5.34 


Steel tubing 


Steel pipe 


Nominal tube size 
(inches) 


Clay masonry 

density, pounds 

per cubic foot 


Minimum required equivalent thicl^ness 

for fire-resistance rating of clay. 
Masonry protection assembly 7., (inches) 


Nominal pipe size 
(inches) 


Clay masonry 

density, pounds 

per cubic foot 


IVIinimum required equivalent thickness 

for fire-resistance rating of clay. 
Masonry protection assembly T,, (inches) 


1-hour 


2-hour 


3-hour 


4-hour 


1-hour 


2-hour 


3-hour 


4-hour 


4 X 4 X V2 wall 
thickness 


120 


1.44 


2.72 


3.76 


4.68 


4 double extra 

strong 0.674 

wall thickness 


120 


1.26 


2.55 


3.60 


4.52 


130 


1.62 


3.00 


4.12 


5.11 


130 


1.42 


2.82 


3.96 


4.95 


4 X 4 X 3/g wall 
thickness 


120 


1.56 


2.84 


3.88 


4.78 


4 extra strong 

0.337 
wall thickness 


120 


1.60 


2.89 


3.92 


4.83 


130 


1.74 


3.12 


4.23 


5.21 


130 


1.77 


3.16 


4.28 


5.25 


4 X 4 X V4 wall 
thickness 


120 


1.72 


2.99 


4.02 


4.92 


4 standard 

0.237 

wall thickness 


120 


1.74 


3.02 


4.05 


4.95 


130 


1.89 


3.26 


4.37 


5.34 


130 


1.92 


3.29 


4.40 


5.37 


6 X 6 X V2 wall 
thickness 


120 


1.33 


2.58 


3.62 


4.52 


5 double extra 

strong 0.750 

wall thickness 


120 


1.17 


2.44 


3.48 


4.40 


130 


1.50 


2.86 


3.98 


4.96 


130 


1.33 


2.72 


3.84 


. 4.83 


6 X 6 X Vg wall 
thickness 


120 


1.48 


2.74 


3.76 


4.67 


5 extra strong 

0.375 
wall thickness 


120 


1.55 


2.82 


3.85 


4.76 


130 


1.65 


3.01 


4.13 


5.10 


130 


1.72 


3.09 


4.21 


5.18 


6 X 6 X V4 wall 
thickness 


120 


1.66 


2.91 


3.94 


4.84 


5 standard 

0.258 

wall thickness 


120 


1.71 


2.97 


4.00 


4.90 


130 


1.83 


3.19 


4.30 


5.27 


130 


1.88 


3.24 


4.35 


5.32 


8 X 8 X '/2 wall 
thickness 


120 


1.27 


2.50 


3.52 


4.42 


6 double extra 

strong 0.864 

wall thickness 


120 


1.04 


2.28 


3.32 


4.23 


130 


1.44 


2.78 


3.89 


4.86 


130 


1.19 


2.60 


3.68 


4.67 


8 X 8 X Vg wall 
thickness 


120 


1.43 


2.67 


3.69 


4.59 


6 extra strong 

0.432 
wall thickness 


120 


1.45 


2.71 


3.75 


4.65 


130 


1.60 


2.95 


4.05 


5.02 


130 


1.62 


2.99 


4.10 


5.08 


8 X 8 X 1/4 wall 
thickness 


120 


1.62 


2.87 


3.89 


4.78 


6 standard 

0.280 

wall thickness 


120 


1.65 


2.91 


3.94 


4.84 


130 


1.79 


3.14 


4.24 


5.21 


130 


1.82 


3.19 


4.30 


5.27 



2003 BNTERNATIONAL BUILDIMG CODE® 



FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE 721.5.1(7) 

MINIMUM COVER (inch) FOR STEEL COLUMNS 

ENCASED IN NORMAL-WEIGHT CONCRETE^ 

[FIGURE 721 .5.1 (6)(c)] 



STRUCTURAL 
SHAPE 


FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING (hours) 


1 


^\ 


2 


3 


4 


W14x233 


1 


1 


1 


IV, 


2 


xl76 


2V, 


xl32 


2 


X 90 


IV, 


X 61 


3 


. X 48 


IV, 


2V, 


X 43 


W12xl52 


1 


1 


1 


2 


2V, 


X 96 


X 65 


\% 


1V2 


3 


X 50 


1% 


X 40 


WlOx 88 


1 


l\ 


1% 


■ 2 


3 


X 49 


1 


1\ 


X 45 


X 39 


3V, 


X 33 


2 


W8 X 67 


1 


1 


IV2 


2V, 


3 


X 58 


X 48 


iv, 


3V, 


X 31 


2 


3 


X 21 


X 18 


4 


W6 X 25 


1 


1V2 


2 


3 
3V, 


3V, 


X 20 


2 


2V2 


4 


X 16 


X 15 


1% 


X 9 



TABLE 721 .5.1 (8) 

MINIMUM COVER (inch) FOR STEEL COLUMNS 

ENCASED DN STRUCTURAL LIGHTWEIGHT CONCRETE^ 

[FIGURE 721 .5.1 (6)(c)] 



STRUCTURAL 
SHAPE 


FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING (HOURS) 


1 


IV, 


2 


3 


4 


W14 X 233 


1 


1 


1 


1 


IV, 


xl93 


IV, 


X 74 


2 


X 61 


2V, 


X 43 


IV, 


2 


W12x 65 


1 


1 


1 


IV, 


2 


X 53 


2 


2V, 


X 40 


IV, 


W10X112 


1 


1 


1 


IV, 


2 


X 88 


X 60 


2 


2V, 


X 33 


IV, 


W8 X 35 


1 


1 


IV, 


2 


2V, 


X 28 


3 


X 24 


2V, 


X 18 


IV, 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

a. The tabulated thicknesses are based upon the assumed properties of struc- 
tural lightweight concrete given in Table 721.5.1(2). 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

a. The tabulated thicknesses are based upon the assumed properties of nor- 
mal-weight concrete given in Table 721.5.1(2). 



150 



2003 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



FIRE-RESIISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE 721 .5.1 (9) 
liMMUM COVER (inch) FOR STEEL COLUiViNS 
m NORMAL-WEBGHT PRECAST COVERS^ 
!E721.5.1« 



TABLE 721.5.1(10) 
WilNlMUM COVER (inch) FOR STEEL COLUMNS 
STRUCTURAL LIGHTWESGHT PRECAST COVERS^ 
[FIGURE 721 .5.1 (6Ma)] 



STRUCTURAL 
SHAPE 


FlRE-RESlSTANCE RATING (hours) 


1 


IV2 


2 


3 


4 


W14x233 


1% 


iv, 


IV, 


2V, 


3 


x211 


3V, 


xl76 


2 


xl45 


3 


xl09 


2 


2V, 


X 99 


4 


X 61 


3V, 


X 43 


4V, 


W12xl90 


IV2 


IV, 


IV, 


2V, 


3V, 


X 152 


2 


xl20 


3 


4 


X 96 


X 87 


2 


2V, 


3V, 


X 58 


4V, 


X 40 


W10xll2 


IV2 


1% 


2 


3 


3V, 


X 88 


4 


X 77 


2 


2V, 


X 54 


3V, 


X 33 


4V, 


W8 X 67 


IV2 


IV, 


2 


3 


4 


X 58 


2 


2V, 


3V, 


X 48 


X 28 


4V, 


X 21 


2V, 


3 


X 18 


4 


W6 X 25 


IV2 


2 


2V, 


3V, 


4V, 


X 20 


2% 


3 


X 16 


4 


X 12 


2 


X 9 


5 



STRUCTURAL 
SHAPE 


FIRE-RESISTANCE RATONG (hours) 


1 


11/2 


2 


3 


4 


W14X233 


IV, 


IV, 


IV, 


2 


2V, 


xl76 


3 


xl45 


2V, 


xl32 


xl09 


X 99 


2 


X 68 


3V, 


X 43 


3 


W12xl90 


IV, 


IV, 


IV, 


2 


2V, 


xl52 


xl36 


3 


xl06 


2V, 


X 96 


3V, 


X 87 


X 65 


2 


X 40 


3 


W10X112 


IV, 


IV, 


IV, 


2 


3 


xlOO 


2V2 


X 88 


X 77 


2 


3V, 


X 60 


X 39 


3 


X 33 


2 


W8 X 67 


IV, 


IV, 


IV, 


2V, 


3 


X 48 


2 ■ 


3 


3V, 


X 35 


X 28 


2 


X 18 


2V, 


4 


W6 X 25 


IV, 


2 


2 


3 


3V, 


X 15 


2V, 


4 


X 9 


3V, 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

a. The tabulated thicknesses are based upon the assumed properties of nor- 
mal-weight concrete given in Table 721.5.1(2). 



For SI: 1 inch - 25.4 mm. 

a. The tabulated thicknesses are based upon the assumed properties of struc- 
tural lightweight concrete given in Table 721.5.1(2). 



2003 BNTERNATIONAL BUILDSNG CODE® 



151 



FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 



721.5.2 Structural steel beams and girders. The fire-re- 
sistance ratings of steel beams and girders shall be based 
upon the size of the element and the type of protection pro- 
vided in accordance with this section. 



K = 



(W, /Di)-k0.60 



(Wj/Dj-hO.eo 



K 



(Equation 7-17) 





D = 3bf + 2d-2t^ D = 2d + bf 

FIGURE 721.5.2 
DETERMINATION OF THE HEATED PERIMETER 
OF STRUCTURAL STEEL BEAMS AND GIRDERS 



721.5.2.1 Determination of fire resistance. These pro- 
cedures establish a basis for determining resistance of 
structural steel beams and girders which differ in size 
from that specified in approved fire-resistance-rated as- 
semblies as a function of the thickness of fire-resistant 
material and the weight (W) and heated perimeter (D) of 
the beam or girder. As used in these sections, VV" is the av- 
erage weight of a structural steel member in pounds per 
linear foot (plf). The heated perimeter, D, is the inside 
perimeter of the fire-resistant material in inches as illus- 
trated in Figure 721.5.2. 

721.5.2.1.1 Weight-to-heated perimeter. The 
weight-to-heated-perimeter ratios {W/D), for both 
contour and box fire-resistant protection profiles, for 
the wide flange shapes most often used as beams or 
girders are given in Table 721.5.1(4). For different 
shapes, the weight- to-heated-perimeter ratios {W/D) 
shall be determined in accordance with the definitions 
given in this section. 

721.5.2.1.2 Beam and girder substitutions. Except 
as provided for in Section 721.5.2.2, structural steel 
beams in approved fire-resistance-rated assemblies 
shall be considered the minimum permissible size. 
Other beam or girder shapes shall be permitted to be 
substituted provided that the weight-to-heated-perim- 
eter ratio {W/D) of the substitute beam is equal to or 
greater than that of the beam specified in the approved 
assembly. 

721.5.2.2 Spray-applied fire-resistant materials. The 
provisions in this section apply to unrestrained structural 
steel beams and girders protected with spray-appUed 
fire-resistance-rated materials. Larger or smaller unre- 
strained beam and girder shapes shall be permitted to be 
substituted for beams specified in approved unrestrained 
or restrained fire-resistance-rated assemblies provided 
that the thickness of the fire-resistant material is adjusted 
in accordance with the following expression: 



where: 



h 



W 



= Thickness of spray-applied fire-resistant mate- 
rial in inches. 



Weight of the structural steel beam or girder in 
pounds per linear foot. 

D = Heated perimeter of the structural steel beam or 
girder in inches. 

Subscript 1 refers to the beam and fire-resistant mate- 
rial thickness in the fire-resistance-rated assembly. 

Subscript 2 refers to the substitute beam or girder and 
the required thickness of fire-resistant material. 

721.5.2.2.1 Minimum thickness. Equation 7-17 is 
limited to beams with a weight-to-heated-perimeter 
ratio (W/D) of 0.37 or greater. The minimum thick- 
ness of fire-resistant material shall not be less than Vg 
inch (9.5 mm). 

721.5.2.3 Structural steel trusses. The fire resistance of 
structural steel trusses protected with fire-resistant mate- 
rials spray applied to each of the individual truss ele- 
ments shall be permitted to be determined in accordance 
with this section. The thickness of the fire-resistant mate- 
rial shall be determined in accordance with Section 
721.5.1.3. The weight-to-heated-perimeter ratio (W/D) 
of truss elements that can be simultaneously exposed to 
fire on all sides shall be determined on the same basis as 
columns, as specified in Section 721.5.1.1. The 
weight-to-heated-perimeter ratio (W/D) of truss ele- 
ments that directly support floor or roof construction 
shall be determined on the same basis as beams and gird- 
ers, as specified in Section 721.5.2.1. 

721.6 Wood assemblies. The provisions of this section contain 
procedures by which the fire-resistance ratings of wood assem- 
blies are established by calculations. 

721.6.1 General. This section contains procedures for cal- 
culating the fire-resistance ratings of walls, floor/ceiling 
and roof/ceiling assemblies based in part on the standard 
method of testing referenced in Section 703.2. 

721.6.1.1 Maximum fire-resistance rating. Fire-resis- 
tance ratings calculated using the procedures in this sec- 
tion shall be used only for 1-hour rated assemblies. 

721.6.1.2 Dissimilar membranes. Where dissimilar 
membranes are used on a wall assembly, the calculation 
shall be made from the least fire-resistant (weaker) side. 

721.6.2 Walls, floors and roofs. These procedures apply to 
both load-bearing and nonload-bearing assemblies. 

721.6.2.1 Fire-resistance rating of wood frame assem- 
blies. The fire-resistance rating of a wood frame assem- 
bly is equal to the sum of the time assigned to the 
membrane on the fire-exposed side, the time assigned to 
the framing members and the time assigned for addi- 
tional contribution by other protective measures such as 
insulation. The membrane on the unexposed side shall 
not be included in determining the fire resistance of the 
assembly. 



152 



2003 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



721o6.2o2 Time asslgeed to membraimeSo Table 
721.6.2(1) indicates the time assigned to membranes on 
the fire-exposed side. 

721.6o2o3 Exterior wallSo For an exterior wall having 
more than 5 feet (1524 mm) of horizontal separation, the 
wall is assigned a rating dependent on the interior mem- 
brane and the framing as described in Tables 721.6.2(1) 
and 721.6.2(2). The membrane on the outside of the 
nonfire-exposed side of exterior walls having more than 
5 feet (1524 mm) of horizontal separation may consist of 
sheathing, sheathing paper, and siding as described in Ta- 
ble 721.6.2(3). 

721=6o2.4 Floors amd roofs. In the case of a floor or roof, 
the standard test provides only for testing for fire expo- 
sure from below. Except as noted in Section 703.3, Item 
5, floor or roof assemblies of wood framing shall have an 
upper membrane consisting of a subfloor and finished 
floor conforming to Table 721.6.2(4) or any other mem- 
brane that has a contribution to fire resistance of at least 
15 minutes in Table 721.6.2(1). 



FlRE-RESBSTAMCE-IRATEDCONSTRUCTiOM 



TABLE 721.6.2(1) 
TIME ASSIGNED TO WALLBOARD MEiWBRANES^-''''^'^ 



721.6o2o5 AddlMoeal protectlomio Table 721.6.2(5) indi- 
cates the time increments to be added to the fire resis- 
tance where glass fiber, rockwool, slag mineral wool, or 
cellulose insulation is incorporated in the assembly. 

721<,6=2o6 Fastemlmgo Fastening of wood frame assem- 
blies and the fastening of membranes to the wood fram- 
ing members shall be done in accordance with Chapter 
23. 



DESCRIPTBON OF F8M8SH 


TIWIE^ (minutes) 


Vg-inch wood structural panel bonded with 
exterior glue 


5 


'V32-inch wood structural panel bonded with 
exterior glue 


10 


'%2"inch wood structural panel bonded with 
exterior glue 


15 


Vg-inch gypsum wallboard 


10 


V2-inch gypsum wallboard 


15 


^/g-inch gypsum wallboard 


30 


V2-inch Type X gypsum wallboard 


25 


Vg-inch Type X gypsum wallboard 


40 


Double Vg-inch gypsum wallboard 


25 


'/2- + %-inch gypsum wallboard 


35 


Double V2-inch gypsum wallboard 


40 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

a. These values apply only when membranes are installed on framing mem- 
bers which are spaced 16 inches o.c. 

b. Gypsum wallboard installed over framing or furring shall be installed so that 
all edges are supported, except Vg-inch Type X gypsum wallboard shall be 
permitted to be installed horizontally with the horizontal joints staggered 24 
inches each side and unsupported but finished. 

c. On wood frame floor/ceiling or roof/ceiling assemblies, gypsum board shall 
be installed with the long dimension perpendicular to framing members and 
shall have all joints finished. 

d. The membrane on the unexposed side shall not be included in determining the fire 
resistance of the assembly. When dissimilar membranes are used on a wall as- 
sembly, the calculation shall be made from the least iire-resistant (weaker) side. 

e. The time assigned is not a finished rating. 



TABLE 721 .6.2(2) 
TDMIE ASSSGNED FOR CONTRBUTDON OF WOOD FRAME^'^'*^ 



DESCRIPUON 


TIME ASSIGNED TO FRAME (minutes) 


Wood studs 16 inches o.c. 


20 


Wood floor and roof joists 16 inches o.c. 


10 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

a. This table does not apply to studs or joists spaced more than 16 inches o.c. 

b. All studs shall be nominal 2x4 and all joists shall have a nominal thicicness of at least 2 inches. 

c. Allowable spans for joists shall be determined in accordance with Sections 2308.8, 2308.10.2 and 2308.10.3. 



RflEMBRAMI 



TABLE 721.6.2(3) 
ON EXTERIOR FACE OF WOOD STUD WALLS 



SHEATHli^lG 


PAPER 


EXTERIOR FINISH 


Vg-inch T & G lumber 




Lumber siding 


V, 6-inch exterior glue plywood 


Sheathing paper 


Wood shingles and shakes 


'/2-inch gypsum wallboard 




'/4-inch wood structural panels — exterior type 


Vg-inch gypsum wallboard 




'/4-inch hardboard 


V2-inch fiberboard 




Metal siding 
Stucco on metal lath 
Masonry veneer 


None 


— 


Vg-inch exterior-grade wood structural panels 



For SI: 1 pound/cubic feet = 16.0185 kg/m^. 

a. Any combination of sheathing, paper, and exterior finish is permitted. 



153 



RRE-RESISTANCE-RATEDCONSTRUCTSON 



TABLE 721 .6.2(4) 
FLOORING OR ROOFING OVER WOOD FRAMING^ 



ASSEMBLY 


STRUCTURAL MEMBERS 


SUBFLOOR OR ROOF DECK 


FINISHED FLOORING OR ROOFING 


Floor 


Wood 


'V32-inch wood structural panels 
or ' Vi6 inch T & G softwood 


Hardwood or softwood flooring on building paper resilient 
flooring, parquet floor felted-synthetic fiber floor coverings, 
carpeting, or ceramic tile on Vg-inch-thick panel-type 
underlay 

Ceramic tile on 1 '/4-inch mortar bed 


Roof 


Wood 


'V32-inch wood structural panels 
or "/,6 inch T & G softwood 


Finished roofing material with or without insulation 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

a. This table applies only to wood joist construction. It is not applicable to wood truss construction. 



TABLE 721 .6.2(5) 
TIME ASSIGNED FOR ADDITIONAL PROTECTION 



DESCRIPTION OF ADDITIONAL PROTECTION 


FIRE RESISTANCE (minutes) 


Add to the fire-resistance rating of wood stud walls if the spaces between the studs are 
completely filled with glass fiber mineral wool batts weighing not less than 2 pounds 
per cubic foot (0.6 pound per square foot of wall surface) or rockwool or slag material 
wool batts weighing not less than 3.3 pounds per cubic foot (1 pound per square foot 
of wall surface), or cellulose insulation having a nominal density not less than 2.6 
pounds per cubic foot. 


15 



For SI: 1 pound/cubic foot = 16.0185 kg/m^. 



721.6.3 Design of fire-resistant exposed wood members. 
The fire-resistance rating, in minutes, of timber beams and 
columns with a minimum nominal dimension of 6 inches 
(152 mm) is equal to: 



Beams: 2.5AZb (4 -2(b/d)) for beams which may be 

exposed to fire on four sides. 

(Equation 7-18) 



2.54Zb (4 -(b/d)) for beams which may be 
exposed to fire on three sides. 

(Equation 7-19) 



Columns: 2.54Zd (3 -id/b)) for columns which may be 
exposed to fire on four sides 

(Equation 7-20) 



2.5AZd (3 -(d/2b)) for columns which may 
be exposed to fire on three sides. 

(Equation 7-21) 



1.60 



1.50 



1.40 



Z 1.30 



1.20 



1.10 



1.0 















COLUW 


hJS Kgl/d • 


L11 








\ 


K 








BEAMS 
1 Kel/d> 


- COLUM 
11 


MS ^ 


X.. 








\ 


V 


^^ 


^^ 








\ 


N.^ 












^ 


"-- 


..^.^ 



40 50 60 70 80 90 100 

LOAD ON MEMBERS AS A PERCENT OF DESIGN LOAD 



where: 

b = The breadth (width) of a beam or larger side of a 
column before exposure to fire (inches). 

d = The depth of a beam or smaller side of a column be- 
fore exposure to fire (inches). 

Z = Load factor, based on Figure 720.6.3(1). 



FSGURE 721 .6.3(1) 
LOAD FIGURE 

The effective length factor as noted in Figure 721.6.3(2). 
The unsupported length of columns (inches). 



154 



2003 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODEC 



FKE-RESHSTAWCE-RATEDCONSTRUCTSON 





a 


^ 


f 


1 
1 


f 

\ 
1 




1* 

/ 
/ 


1 

1 


BUCKLING MODES 












/ 
/ 




\ 
1 

1 
/ 




/ 

; 




1 
( 
/ 
; 




5 


' 




i 


4 


^ 

« 




THEORETICAL Kq VALUE 


0.5 


0.7 


1.0 


1.0 


2.0 


2,0 


RECOMMENDED DESIGN Kg 
WHEN IDEAL CONDITIONS 
APPROXIMATED 


0.65 


0.80 


1.2 


1.0 


2.10 


2.4 




¥ 


ROTATION FIXED, TRANSLATION FIXED 


END CONDITION CODE 




ROTATION FREE, TRANSLATION FIXED 

ROTATION FIXED. TRANSLATION FREE 
ROTATION FREE, TRANSLATION FREE 



FIGURE 721 .6.3(2) 
EFFECTIVE LEWGTH FACTORS 



721.6.3.1 EqeaMonn 7=21, Equation 7-21 applies only 
where the unexposed face represents the smaller side of 
the column. If a column is recessed into a wall, its full di- 
mension shall be used for the purpose of these calcula- 
tions. 

721.603.2 Allowable loads. Allowable loads on beams 
and columns are determined using design values given in 

ANSFAF&PA NDS. 

721.6.3.3 Fastemer protectiom. Where minimum 1-hour 
fire resistance is required, connectors and fasteners shall 
be protected from fire exposure by 1 '/2 inches (38 mm) of 
wood, or other approved covering or coating for a 1-hour 
rating. Typical details for commonly used fasteners and 
connectors are shown in AITC Technical Note 7. 

721.6.3.4 Mlmmiiim size. Wood members are limited to 
dimensions of 6 inches (152 mm) nominal or greater. 
Glued-laminated timber beams utilize standard laminat- 
ing combinations except that a core lamination is re- 
moved. The tension zone is moved inward and the 
equivalent of an extra nominal 2-inch-thick (51 mm) 
outer tension lamination is added. 

721.7 Other referemce docmnniemts. Refer to Section 703.3, 
Item 1, and NBS BMS 71 and NBSTRBM-44 for fire-resis- 
tance ratings of materials and assemblies. 



2003 SNTERNATEONAL BUILDING CODE® 



155 



156 2003 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



IMTI 



8®lol Scope. Provisions of this chapter shall govern the use of 
materials used as interior finishes, trim and decorative materi- 
als. 

801ol,l Interior SmIstieSo These provisions shall limit the 
allowable flame spread and smoke development based on 
location and occupancy classification. 



1 . Materials having a thickness less than 0.036 inch 
(0.9 mm) applied directly to the surface of walls or 
ceilings. 

2. Exposed portions of structural members comply- 
ing with the requirements for buildings of Type IV 
construction in Section 602.4 shall not be subject 
to interior finish requirements. 

[F] 801.1.2 Decorative materials amd trim. Decorative 
materials and trim shall be restricted by combustibihty and 
flame resistance in accordance with Section 805. 



For buildings in flood hazard areas 
as established in Section 1612.3, interior finishes, trim and 
decorative materials below the design flood elevation shall 
be flood-damage-resistant materials. 

801.2 Application. Combustible materials shall be permitted 
to be used as finish for walls, ceihngs, floors and other interior 
surfaces of buildings. 



s'So Show windows in the first story of build- 
ings shall be permitted to be of wood or of unprotected metal 
framing. 

801.2.2 Foam plastics. Foam plastics shall not be used as 
interior finish or trim except as provided in Section 2603.7 
or 2604. 



8®2.1 General. The following words and terms shall, for the 
purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this code, 
have the meanings shown herein. 

EXPANDED VINYL WALL COVERING. Wall covering 
consisting of a woven textile backing, an expanded vinyl base 
coat layer and a nonexpanded vinyl skin coat. The expanded 
base coat layer is a homogeneous vinyl layer that contains a 
blowing agent. During processing, the blowing agent decom- 
poses, causing this layer to expand by forming closed cells. The 
total thickness of the wall covering is approximately 0.055 inch 
to 0.070 inch (1.4 mm to 1.78 mm). 

FLAME RESISTANCE. That property of materials or combi- 
nations of component materials that restricts the spread of 
flame in accordance with NFPA 701. 



FLAME SPREAD. The propagation of flame over a surface. 

FLAME SPREAD INDEX. The numerical value assigned to 
a material tested in accordance with ASTM E 84. 



ISH, Interior finish includes interior wall and 
ceiling finish and interior floor finish. 



I, The exposed floor surfaces of 
buildings including coverings apphed over a finished floor or 
stair, including risers. 

INTERIOR WALL AND CEILING FINISH. The exposed 
interior surfaces of buildings including, but not limited to: fixed 
or movable walls and partitions; columns; ceilings; and interior 
wainscotting, paneling or other finish applied structurally or 
for decoration, acoustical correction, surface insulation, struc- 
tural fire resistance or similar purposes, but not including trim. 



SMOKE-DEVELOPED INDEX. The numerical value as- 
signed to a material tested in accordance with ASTM E 84. 

TRIM, Picture molds, chair rails, baseboards, handrails, door 
and window frames and similar decorative or protective mate- 
rials used in fixed applications. 



803.1 Gemeral. Interior wall and ceiling finishes shall be clas- 
sified in accordance with ASTM E 84. Such interior finish ma- 
terials shall be grouped in the following classes in accordance 
with their flame spread and smoke-developed indexes. 

Class A: Flame spread 0-25; smoke-developed 0-450. 
Class B: Flame spread 26-75; smoke-developed 0-450. 
Class C: Flame spread 76-200; smoke-developed 0-450. 



(tions Materials, other than textiles, tested in accor- 
dance with Section 803.2. 

803,2, Imterior wall or ceillmg Snishes other tham textiles. In- 
terior wall or ceiling finishes, other than textiles, shall be per- 
mitted to be tested in accordance with NFPA 286. Finishes 
tested in accordance with NFPA 286 shall comply with Section 
803.2.1. 

803,2.1 Acceptaece criteria. During the 40 kW exposure, 
the interior finish shall comply with Item 1 . During the 160 
kW exposure, the interior finish shall comply with Item 2. 
During the entire test, the interior finish shall comply with 
Item 3. 

1 . During the 40kW exposure, flames shall not spread to 
the ceiling. 

2. During the 160 kW exposure, the interior finish shall 
comply with the following: 



2003 8NTERN1ATI10NAL BUJLDSWG CODE® 



157 



INTERIOR RNtSHES 



2.1. Flame shall not spread to the outer extremity 
of the sample on any wall or ceiling. 

2.2. Flashover, as defined in NFPA 286, shall not 
occur. 

3. The total smoke released throughout the NFPA 286 
test shall not exceed 1 ,000 m^. 

803.3 Stability. Interior finish materials regulated by this chap- 
ter shall be applied or otherwise fastened in such a manner that 
such materials will not readily become detached where sub- 
jected to room temperatures of 200°F (93 °C) for not less than 
30 minutes. 

803.4 Application. Where these materials are applied on walls, 
ceilings or structural elements required to have a fire-resistance 
rating or to be of noncombustible construction, they shall com- 
ply with the provisions of this section. 

803.4.1 Direct attachment and furred construction. 
Where walls and ceilings are required by any provision in 
this code to be of fire-resistance-rated or noncombustible 
construction, the interior finish material shall be applied di- 
rectly against such construction or to furring strips not ex- 
ceeding 1 .75 inches (44 mm) applied directly against such 
surfaces. The intervening spaces between such furring strips 
shall be filled with inorganic or Class A material or shall be 
fireblocked at a maximum of 8 feet (2438 mm) in any direc- 
tion in accordance with Section 717. 

803.4.2 Set-out construction. Where walls and ceilings are 
required to be of fire-resistance-rated or noncombustible 
construction and walls are set out or ceilings are dropped 
distances greater than specified in Section 803.4.1, Class A 
finish materials shall be used except where interior finish 
materials are protected on both sides by an automatic sprin- 
kler system or attached to noncombustible backing or fur- 
ring strips installed as specified in Section 803.4.1. The 
hangers and assembly members of such dropped ceilings 
that are below the main ceiling line shall be of 
noncombustible materials, except that in Type III and V 
construction, fire-retardant-treated wood shall be permit- 
ted. The construction of each set-out wall shall be of fire- re- 
sistance-rated construction as required elsewhere in this 
code. 

803.4.3 Heavy timber construction. Wall and ceiling fin- 
ishes of all classes as permitted in this chapter that are in- 
stalled directly against the wood decking or planking of 
Type IV construction or to wood furring strips applied di- 
recdy to the wood decking or planking shall be fireblocked 
as specified in Section 803.4.1. 

803.4.4 Materials. An interior wall or ceiling finish that is 
not more than 0.25 inch (6.4 mm) thick shall be applied di- 
rectly against a noncombustible backing. 

Exceptions: 

1. Class A materials. 

2. Materials where the qualifying tests were made' 
with the material suspended or furred out from the 
noncombustible backing. 



803.5 Interior finish requirements based on group. Interior 
wall and ceihng finish shall have a flame spread index not 
greater than that specified in Table 803.5 for the group and lo- 
cation designated. Interior wall and ceiling finish materials, 
other than textiles, tested in accordance with NFPA 286 and 
meeting the acceptance criteria of Section 803 .2.1, shall be per- 
mitted to be used where a Class A classification in accordance 
with ASTM E 84 is required. 

803.6 Textiles. Where used as interior wall or ceiling finish ma- 
terials, textiles, including materials having woven or 
nonwoven, napped, tufted, looped or similar surface, shall 
comply with the requirements of this section. 

803.6.1 Textile wall coverings. Textile wall coverings shall 
have a Class A flame spread index in accordance with 
ASTM E 84 and be protected by automatic sprinklers in- 
stalled in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2 or 
the covering shall meet the criteria of Section 803.6.1.1 or 
803.6. 1 .2 when tested in the manner intended for use in ac- 
cordance with NFPA 265 using the product mounting sys- 
tem, including adhesive. 

803.6.1.1 Method A test protocol. During the Method A 
protocol, flame shall not spread to the ceiling during the 
40 kW exposure. During the 150 kW exposure, the textile 
wall covering shall comply with all of the following: 

1 . Flame shall not spread to the outer extremity of the 
sample on the 8-foot by 12-foot (203 mm by 305 
mm) wall. 

2. The specimen shall not bum to the outer extremity 
of the 2-foot- wide (610 mm) samples mounted in 
the comer of the room. 

3. Buming droplets deemed capable of igniting tex- 
tile wall coverings or that burn for 30 seconds or 
more shall not form. 

4. Flashover, as defined in NFPA 265, shall not occur. 

5. The maximum net instantaneous peak heat release 
rate, determined by subtracting the bumer output 
from the maximum heat release rate, does not ex- 
ceed 300 kW. 

803.6.1.2 Method B test protocol. During the Method B 
protocol, flames shall not spread to the ceiling at any time 
during the 40 kW exposure. During the 150 kW expo- 
sure, the textile wall covering shall comply with the fol- 
lowing: 

1 . Flame shall not spread to the outer extremities of 
the samples on the 8-foot by 12-foot (203 mm by 
305 mm) walls. 

2. Flashover, as described in NFPA 265, shall not oc- 
cur. 

803.6.2 Textile celling finish. Where used as a ceiling fin- 
ish, carpet and similar textile materials shall have a Class A 
flame spread index in accordance with ASTM E 84 and be 
protected by automatic sprinklers. 



158 



2003 eNTER^SATSO^SAL BUILDING CODE® 



rERJOR F8MSSHES 





TABLE 803.5 
BMTER50R WALL AND CEILING FDNISH REQUSREMENTS BY OCCUPANCY'* 




GROUP 


sprinklered' 


iMONSPRINKLERED 


Vertical exits and 
exit passageways^' ^ 


Exit access 
corridors and 
other exitways 


Rooms and 
enclosed spaces*' 


Vertical exits and 
exit passageways^' ^ 


Exit access 
corridors and 
other exitways 


Rooms and 
enclosed spaces'' 


A-1&A-2 


B 


B 


C 


A 


A'' 


B^ 


A-3^ A-4, A-5 


B 


B 


C 


A 


A" 


C 


B, E, M, R-1, R-4 


B 


C 


C 


A 


B 


C 


F 


C 


C 


C 


B 


C 


C 


H 


B 


B 


eg 


A 


A 


B 


I-l 


B 


C 


c 


A 


B 


B 


1-2 


B 


B 


Bh.i 


A 


A 


B 


1-3 


A 


AJ 


c 


A 


A 


B 


1-4 


B 


B 


Bh.i 


A 


A 


B 


R-2 


C 


C 


c 


B 


B 


C 


R-3 


C 


C 


C 


C 


C 


C 


S 


C 


C 


C 


B 


B 


C 


u 


No restrictions 


No restrictions 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 square foot = 0.0929 m^. 

a. Class C interior finish materials shall be permitted for wainscotting or paneling of not more than 1 ,000 square feet of applied surface area in the grade lobby where 
applied directly to a noncombustible base or over furring strips applied to a noncombustible base and fireblocked as required by Section 803.4. 1. 

b. In vertical exits of buildings less than three stories in height of other than Group 1-3, Class B interior finish for nonsprinklered buildings and Class C interior finish 
for sprinklered buildings shall be permitted. 

c. Requirements for rooms and enclosed spaces shall be based upon spaces enclosed by partitions. Where a fire-resistance rating is required for structural elements, 
the enclosing partitions shall extend from the floor to the ceiling. Partifions that do not comply with this shall be considered enclosing spaces and the rooms or 
spaces on both sides shall be considered one. In determining the applicable requirements for rooms and enclosed spaces, the specific occupancy thereof shall be 
the governing factor regardless of the group classification of the building or structure. 

d. Lobby areas in Group A-1, A-2 and A-3 occupancies shall not be less than Class B materials. 

e. Class C interior finish materials shall be permitted in places of assembly with an occupant load of 300 persons or less. 

f. For churches and places of worship, wood used for ornamental purposes, trusses, paneling or chancel furnishing shall be permitted. 

g. Class B material is required where the building exceeds two stories. 

h. Class C interior finish materials shall be permitted in administrative spaces. 

i. Class C interior finish materials shall be permitted in rooms with a capacity of four persons or less. 

j. Class B materials shall be permitted as wainscotfing extending not more than 48 inches above the finished floor in exit access corridors, 
k. Finish materials as provided for in other sections of this code. 

1. Applies when the vertical exits, exit passageways, exit access corridors or exitways, or rooms and spaces are protected by a sprinkler system installed in accor- 
dance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2. 



2003 INTERNATIONAL BUILDBNG CODE® 



159 



INTERIOR FINISHES 



803.7 Expanded vloyl wall coverings. Expanded vinyl wall 
coverings shall comply with the requirements for textile wall 
and ceiling materials and their use shall comply with Section 
803.6. 

Exception: Expanded vinyl wall or ceiling coverings com- 
plying with Section 803.2 shall not be required to comply 
with Section 803.1 or 803.6. 

803.8 Insolation. Thermal and acoustical insulation shall 
comply with Section 719. 

803.9 Acoustical ceiling systems. The quality, design, fabrica- 
tion and erection of metal suspension systems for acoustical 
tile and lay-in panel ceilings in buildings or structures shall 
conform with generally accepted engineering practice, the pro- 
visions of this chapter and other applicable requirements of this 
code. 

803.9.1 Materials and installation. Acoustical materials 
complying with the interior finish requirements of Section 
803 shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's 
recommendations and applicable provisions for applying 
interior finish. 

803.9.1.1 Suspended acoustical ceilings. Suspended 
acoustical ceiling systems shall be installed in accor- 
dance with the provisions of ASTM C 635 and ASTM C 
636. 

803.9.1.2 Fire-resistance-rated construction. Acousti- 
cal ceiling systems that are part of fire-resistance-rated 
construction shall be installed in the same manner used 
in the assembly tested and shall comply with the provi- 
sions of Chapter 7. 



SECTION 804 
INTERIOR FLOOR FINISH 

804.1 General. Interior floor finish and floor covering materi- 
als shall comply with this section. 

Exception: Floors and floor coverings of a traditional type, 
such as wood, vinyl, linoleum or terrazzo, and resilient floor 
covering materials which are not comprised of fibers. 

804.2 Classification. Interior floor finish and floor covering 
materials required by Section 804.5. 1 to be of Class I or II ma- 
terials shall be classified in accordance with NFPA 253. The 
classificadon referred to herein corresponds to the classifica- 
tions determined by NFPA 253 as follows: Class I, 0.45 
watts/cm^ or greater; Class II, 0.22 watts/cm^ or greater. 

804.3 Testing and identification. Floor covering materials 
shall be tested by an approved agency in accordance with 
NFPA 253 and identified by a hang tag or other suitable method 
so as to identify the manufacturer or supplier and style, and 
shall indicate the interior floor finish or floor covering classifi- 
cation according to Secfion 804.2. Carpet-type floor coverings 
shall be tested as proposed for use, including underlayment. 
Test reports confirming the information provided in the manu- 
facturer's product identificafion shall be furnished to the build- 
ing official upon request. 



804.4 Application. Combustible materials installed in or on 
floors of buildings of Type I or II construcfion shall conform 
with the requirements of this section. 

Exception: Stages and platforms constructed in accordance 
with Secfions 410.3 and 410.4, respectively. 

804.4.1 Smbfloor construction. Floor sleepers, bucks and 
nailing blocks shall not be constructed of combustible mate- 
rials, unless the space between the fire-resistance-rated 
floor construction and the flooring is either solidly filled 
with approved noncombustible materials or fireblocked in 
accordance with Section 717, and provided that such open 
spaces shall not extend under or through permanent parti- 
tions or walls. 

804.4.2 Wood finish flooring. Wood finish flooring is per- 
mitted to be attached directly to the embedded or 
fireblocked wood sleepers and shall be permitted where ce- 
mented directly to the top surface of approved fire-resis- 
tance-rated construction or directly to a wood subfloor 
attached to sleepers as provided for in Section 804.4. 1 . 

804.4.3 Insulating boards. Combustible insulating boards 
not more than 0.5-inch (12.7 mm) thick and covered with 
approved finished flooring are permitted, where attached di- 
rectly to a noncombustible floor assembly or to wood 
subflooring attached to sleepers as provided for in Section 
804.4.1. 

804.5 Interior floor finish requirements. In all occupancies, 
interior floor finish in vertical exits, exit passageways, exit ac- 
cess corridors and rooms or spaces not separated from exit ac- 
cess corridors by full-height partitions extending from the floor 
to the underside of the ceiling shall withstand a minimum criti- 
cal radiant flux as specified in Section 804,5.1. 



L5.1 Minimum critical radiant flux. Interior floor fin- 
ish in vertical exits, exit passageways and exit access corri- 
dors shall not be less than Class I in Groups 1-2 and 1-3 and 
not less than Class II in Groups A, B, E, H, I- 4, M, R-1, R-2 
and S. In all other areas, the interior floor finish shall comply 
with the DOC FF-1 "pill test" (CPSC 16 CFR, Part 1630). 

Exception: Where a building is equipped throughout 
with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with 
Section 903.3. 1 . 1 , Class II materials are permitted in any 
area where Class I materials are required and materials 
complying with DOC FF-1 "pill test" (CPSC 16 CFR, 
Part 1630) are permitted in any area where Class II mate- 
rials are required. 



[F] SECTION 805 
DECORATIONS AND TRIM 

805.1 General. In occupancies of Groups A, E, I, R-1 and dor- 
mitories in Group R-2, curtains, draperies, hangings and other 
decoraUve materials suspended from walls or ceilings shall be 
flame resistant in accordance with Section 805.2 and NFPA 
701 or noncombustible. 

In Groups I-l and 1-2, combustible decorations shall be flame 
retardant unless the decorations, such as photographs and 
painfings, are of such hmited quantities that a hazard of fire de- 



160 



2003 8NTERMAT80NAL BUILDING CODE® 



FERIOR FINISHES 



velopment or spread is not present. In Group 1-3, combustible 
decorations are prohibited. 

805.1.1 Nomcomtastllble materials. The permissible 
amount of noncombustible decorative material shall not be 
limited. 

805.1.2 Flame-iresnstainit matedals. The permissible 
amount of flame-resistant decorative materials shall not ex- 
ceed 1 percent of the aggregate area of walls and ceilings . 

ExcepMomi: In auditoriums of Group A, the permissible 
amount of flame-resistant decorative material shall not 
exceed 50 percent of the aggregate area of walls and ceil- 
ings where the building is equipped throughout with an 
automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 
903 .3.1.1 and the material is installed in accordance with 
Section 803.4. 

805.2 Acceptemce criteria smd reports. Where required to be 
flame resistant, decorative materials shall be tested by an ap- 
proved agency and pass Test 1 or 2, as appropriate, described in 
NFPA 701 or such materials shall be noncombustible. Reports 
of test results shall be prepared in accordance with NFPA 701 
and furnished to the building official upon request. 

805.3 Foam plastic. Foam plastic used as trim in any occu- 
pancy shall comply with Section 2604.2. 

805.4 Pyroxylim plastic. Imitation leather or other material 
consisting of or coated with a pyroxylin or similarly hazardous 
base shall not be used in Group A occupancies. 

805.5 Trim. Material used as interior trim shall have minimum 
Class C flame spread and smoke-developed indexes. Combus- 
tible trim, excluding handrails and guardrails, shall not exceed 
10 percent of the aggregate wall or ceiling area in which it is lo- 
cated. 



2003 INTERN AUONAL BUILDING CODE® 1611 



1 62 2003 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



ITECTIOr^ SYSTi 



SECTIOM 901 
GENERAL 

9(Dlol Scope. The provisions of this chapter shall specify where 
fire protection systems are required and shall apply to the de- 
sign, installation and operation of fire protection systems. 

9Cl)lo2 Fire protectlom §y§temSo Fire protection systems shall 
be installed, repaired, operated and maintained in accordance 
with this code and the International Fire Code. 

Any fire protection system for which an exception or reduction 
to the provisions of this code has been granted shall be consid- 
ered to be a required system. 



ui Any fire protection system or portion thereof 
not required by this code shall be permitted to be installed 
for partial or complete protection provided that such system 
meets the requirements of this code. 



IS. No person shall remove or modify any 
fire protection system installed or maintained under the provi- 
sions of this code or the International Fire Code without ap- 
proval by the building official. 

901,4 TlireadSo Threads provided for fire department connec- 
tions to sprinkler systems, standpipes, yard hydrants or any 
other fire hose connection shall be compatible with the connec- 
tions used by the local fire department. 



ests. Fire protection systems shall be 
tested in accordance with the requirements of this code and 
the International Fire Code. When required, the tests shall be 
conducted in the presence of the building official. Tests re- 
quired by this code, the International Fire Code and the stan- 
dards listed in this code shall be conducted at the expense of 
the owner or the owner's representative. It shall be unlawful to 
occupy portions of a structure until the required fire protec- 
tion systems within that portion of the structure have been 
tested and approved. 



Where required, fire protection 
systems shall be monitored by an approved supervising station 
in accordance with NFPA 72. 

901.6.1 Automatic sprlnkleir systems. Automatic sprin- 
kler systems shall be monitored by an approved supervising 
station. 



1 . A supervising station is not required for automatic 
sprinkler systems protecting one- and two-family 
dwellings. 

2. Limited area systems serving fewer than 20 sprin- 
klers. 

901.6.2 Fire alarm systems. Fire alarm systems required 
by the provisions of Section 907.2 of this code and Section 
907.2 of the International Fire Code shall be monitored by 
an approved supervising station in accordance with Section 
907.14. 



1. Single- and multiple-station smoke alarms re- 
quired by Section 907.2.10. 

2. Smoke detectors in Group 1-3 occupancies. 

3. Supervisory service is not required for automatic 
sprinkler systems in one- and two-family dwelhngs. 

).3 Group H. Manual fire alarm, automatic fire-extin- 
guishing and emergency alarm systems in Group H occu- 
pancies shall be monitored by an approved supervising 
station. 



!i; When approved by the building official, 
on-site monitoring at a constantly attended location shall 
be permitted provided that notifications to the fire de- 
partment will be equal to those provided by an approved 
supervising station. 

901.7 Fire areas. Where buildings, or portions thereof, are di- 
vided into fire areas so as not to exceed the limits established 
for requiring a fire protection system in accordance with this 
chapter, such fire areas shall be separated by fire barriers hav- 
ing a fire-resistance rating of not less than that determined in 
accordance with Section 706.3.7. 



902.1 Defimitlons. The following words and terms shall, for the 
purposes of this chapter, and as used elsewhere in this code, 
have the meanings shown herein. 

[F] ALAMM NOTIFICATION APPLIANCE. A fire alarm 
system component such as a bell, horn, speaker, light or text 
display that provides audible, tactile or visible outputs, or any 
combination thereof. 

[F] ALARM SIGNAL. A signal indicating an emergency re- 
quiring immediate action, such as a signal indicative of fire. 

[F] ALARM VERIFICATION FEATURE. A feature of au- 
tomatic fire detection and alarm systems to reduce unwanted 
alarms wherein smoke detectors report alarm conditions for a 
minimum period of time, or confirm alarm conditions within a 
given time period, after being automatically reset, in order to be 
accepted as a valid alarm-initiation signal. 

[F] ANNUNCIATOR. A unit containing one or more indica- 
tor lamps, alphanumeric displays or other equivalent means in 
which each indication provides status information about a cir- 
cuit, condition or location. 

[F] AUDIBLE ALARM NOTIFICATION APPLIANCE. A 
notification appliance that alerts by the sense of hearing. 

[F] AUTOMATIC. As applied to fire protection devices, is a 
device or system providing an emergency function without the 
necessity for human intervention and activated as a result of a 
predetermined temperature rise, rate of temperature rise or 
combustion products. 



rEF 



RRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



[F] AUTOMATIC FIRE-EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM. 
An approved system of devices and equipment which automat- 
ically detects a fire and discharges an approved fire-extinguish- 
ing agent onto or in the area of a fire. 

[F] AUTOMATIC SPRINKLER SYSTEM. A sprinkler sys- 
tem, for fire protection purposes, is an integrated system of un- 
derground and overhead piping designed in accordance with 
fire protection engineering standards. The system includes a 
suitable water supply. The portion of the system above the 
ground is a network of specially sized or hydraulically de- 
signed piping installed in a structure or area, generally over- 
head, and to which automatic sprinklers are connected in a 
systematic pattern. The system is usually activated by heat 
from a fire and discharges water over the fire area. 

[F] AVERAGE AMBIENT SOUND LEVEL. The root mean 
square, A-weighted sound pressure level measured over a 
24-hour period. 

[F] CARBON DIOXIDE EXTINGUISHING SYSTEMS. 
A system supplying carbon dioxide (CO2) from a pressurized 
vessel through fixed pipes and nozzles. The system includes a 
manual- or automatic-actuating mechanism. 

[F] CEILING LIMIT. The maximum concentrafion of an 
air-borne contaminant to which one may be exposed, as pub- 
hshed in DDL 29 CFR Part 1910.1000. 

[F] CLEAN AGENT. Electrically nonconducdng, volatile or 
gaseous fire extinguishant that does not leave a residue upon 
evaporation. 

[F] CONSTANTLY ATTENDED LOCATION. A desig- 
nated location at a facility staffed by trained personnel on a 
continuous basis where alarm or supervisory signals are moni- 
tored and facilities are provided for notification of the fire de- 
partment or other emergency services. 

[F] DELUGE SYSTEM. A sprinkler system employing open 
sprinklers attached to a piping system connected to a water sup- 
ply through a valve that is opened by the operation of a detec- 
tion system installed in the same areas as the sprinklers. When 
this valve opens, water flows into the piping system and dis- 
charges from all sprinklers attached thereto. 

[F] DETECTOR, HEAT. A fire detector that senses heat pro- 
duced by burning substances. Heat is the energy produced by 
combustion that causes substances to rise in temperature. 

[F] DRY-CHEMICAL EXTINGUISHING AGENT. A 
powder composed of small particles, usually of sodium bicar- 
bonate, potassium bicarbonate, urea-potassium-based bicar- 
bonate, potassium chloride or monoammonium phosphate, 
with added particulate material supplemented by special treat- 
ment to provide resistance to packing, resistance to moisture 
absorpfion (caking) and the proper flow capabilities. 

[F] EMERGENCY ALARM SYSTEM. A system to provide 
indication and warning of emergency situations involving haz- 
ardous materials. 

[F] EMERGENCY VOICE/ALARM COMMUNICA- 
TIONS. Dedicated manual or automatic facihties for originat- 
ing and distribudng voice instructions, as well as alert and 
evacuation signals pertaining to a fire emergency, to the occu- 
pants of a building. 



[F] EXPLOSION. An effect produced by the sudden violent 
expansion of gases, that is accompanied by a shock wave or dis- 
ruption of enclosing materials or structures, or both. 

[F] FIRE ALARM BOX, MANUAL. See "Manual Fire 
Alarm Box." 

[F] FIRE ALARM CONTROL UNIT. A system component 
that receives inputs from automatic and manual fire alarm de- 
vices and is capable of supplying power to detection devices 
and transponder(s) or off-premises transmitter(s). The control 
unit is capable of providing a transfer of power to the notifica- 
tion appliances and transfer of condition to relays or devices. 

[F] FIRE ALARM SIGNAL. A signal inifiated by a fire 
alarm-initiating device such as a manual fire alarm box, auto- 
matic fire detector, water flow switch, or other device whose 
activation is indicative of the presence of a fire or fire signature. 

[F] FIRE ALARM SYSTEM. A system or portion of a com- 
bination system consisting of components and circuits ar- 
ranged to monitor and annunciate the status of fire alarm or 
supervisory signal-initiating devices and to initiate the appro- 
priate response to those signals. 

[F] FIRE COMMAND CENTER. The principal attended or 
unattended location where the status of detection, alarm com- 
municafions and control systems is displayed, and from which 
the system(s) can be manually controlled. 

[F] FIRE DETECTOR, AUTOMATIC. A device designed 
to detect the presence of a fire signature and to initiate action. 

[F] FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM. Approved devices, 
equipment and systems or combinations of systems used to de- 
tect a fire, activate an alarm, extinguish or control a fire, control 
or manage smoke and products of a fire or any combination 
thereof. 

[F] FIRE SAFETY FUNCTIONS. Building and fire control 
functions that are intended to increase the level of life safety for 
occupants or to control the spread of harmful effects of fire. 

[F] FOAM-EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM. A special system 
discharging a foam made from concentrates, either mechani- 
cally or chemically, over the area to be protected. 

[F] HALOGENATED EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM. A 
fire-extinguishing system using one or more atoms of an ele- 
ment from the halogen chemical series: fluorine, chlorine, bro- 
mine and iodine. 

[F] INITIATING DEVICE. A system component that origi- 
nates transmission of a change-of-state condition, such as in a 
smoke detector, manual fire alarm box or supervisory switch. 

LISTED. Equipment, materials or services included in a list 
published by an organization acceptable to the building official 
and concerned with evaluation of products or services that 
maintains periodic inspection of production of listed equip- 
ment or materials or periodic evaluation of services and whose 
listing states either that the equipment, material or service 
meets identified standards or has been tested and found suitable 
for a specified purpose. 

[F] MANUAL FIRE ALARM BOX. A manually operated de- 
vice used to initiate an alarm signal. 



2003 I!\STERNATIONAL BUILDING CODEC 



FDRE PROTECTBON SYSTESMS 



[F] MULTIPLE-STATION ALARM DEVICEo Two or more 
single-station alarm devices that are capable of interconnection 
such that actuation of one causes all integral or separate audible 
alarms to operate. It also can consist of one single-station alarm 
device having connections to other detectors or to a manual fire 
alarm box. 

[F] MULTIPLE=§TATION SMOKE ALARM„ Two or more 
single-station alarm devices that are capable of interconnection 
such that actuation of one causes all integral or separate audible 
alarms to operate. 

[F] NUISANCE ALARM. An alarm caused by mechanical 
failure, malfunction, improper installation or lack of proper 
maintenance, or an alarm activated by a cause that cannot be 
determined. 

[F] RECORD DRAWINGS. Drawings ("as builts") that doc- 
ument the location of all devices, appliances, wiring sequences, 
wiring methods and connections of the components of a fire 
alarm system as installed. 

[F] SINGLE=STATION SMOKE ALARM. An assembly in- 
corporating the detector, the control equipment and the 
alarm-sounding device in one unit, operated from a power sup- 
ply either in the unit or obtained at the point of installation. 

[F] SMOKE ALARM. A single- or multiple-station alarm re- 
sponsive to smoke and not connected to a system. 

[F] SMOKE DETECTOR. A hsted device that senses visible 
or invisible particles of combustion. 

SMOKEPROOF ENCLOSURE. An exit stairway designed 
and constructed so that the movement of the products of com- 
bustion produced by a fire occurring in any part of the building 
into the enclosure is limited. 

[F] STANDPIPE SYSTEM, CLASSES OF. Standpipe 
classes are as follows: 

Class I system. A system providing 2.5-inch (64 mm) hose 
connections to supply water for use by fire departments and 
those trained in handling heavy fire streams. 



standpipe systems require water from a fire department 
pumper to be pumped into the system through the fire de- 
partment connection in order to meet the system demand. 



, A system providing 1 .5-inch (38 mm) hose 
stations to supply water for use primarily by the building oc- 
cupants or by the fire department during initial response. 



A system providing 1.5-inch (38 mm) 
hose stations to supply water for use by building occupants 
and 2.5-inch (64 mm) hose connections to supply a larger 
volume of water for use by fire departments and those 
trained in handling heavy fire streams. 

[F] STANDPIPE, TYPES OF. Standpipe types are as follows: 

Aiitomattc dry. A dry standpipe system, normally filled 
with pressurized air, that is arranged through the use of a de- 
vice, such as dry pipe valve, to admit water into the system 
piping automatically upon the opening of a hose valve. The 
water supply for an automatic dry standpipe system shall be 
capable of supplying the system demand. 

Automatic wet. A wet standpipe system that has a water 
supply that is capable of supplying the system demand auto- 
matically. 



wet. A wet standpipe system connected to a water 
supply for the purpose of maintaining water within the sys- 
tem but does not have a water supply capable of dehvering 
the system demand attached to the system. Manual-wet 
standpipe systems require water from a fire department 
pumper (or the like) to be pumped into the system in order to 
meet the system demand. 



fc A dry standpipe system that does not have a 
permanent water supply attached to the system. Manual dry 



A dry standpipe system that is ar- 
ranged through the use of a device, such as a deluge valve, to 
admit water into the system piping upon activation of a re- 
mote control device located at a hose connecfion. A remote 
control activation device shall be provided at each hose con- 
nection. The water supply for a semiautomatic dry 
standpipe system shall be capable of supplying the system 
demand. 

[F] SUPERVISING STATION. A faciUty that receives sig- 
nals and at which personnel are in attendance at all times to re- 
spond to these signals. 

[F] SUPERVISORY SERVICE, The service required to 
monitor performance of guard tours and the operative condi- 
tion of fixed suppression systems or other systems for the pro- 
tection of life and property. 

[F] SUPERVISORY SIGNAL. A signal indicating the need 
of action in connection with the supervision of guard tours, the 
fire suppression systems or equipment or the maintenance fea- 
tures of related systems. 

[F] SUPERVISORY SIGNAL=INITIATING DEVICE. An 
initiation device, such as a valve supervisory switch, wa- 
ter-level indicator or low-air pressure switch on a dry-pipe 
sprinkler system, whose change of state signals an off-normal 
condition and its restoration to normal of a fire protection or hfe 
safety system, or a need for action in connection with guard 
tours, fire suppression systems or equipment or maintenance 
features of related systems. 

[F] TIRES, BULK STORAGE OF. Storage of tires where the 
area available for storage exceeds 20,000 cubic feet (566 m^). 

[F] TROUBLE SIGNAL, A signal initiated by the fire alarm 
system or device indicative of a fault in a monitored circuit or 
component. 

[F] VISIBLE ALARM NOTIFICATION APPLIANCE. A 
notification appliance that alerts by the sense of sight. 

[F] WET=CHEMICAL EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM. A 
solution of water and potassium-carbonate-based chemical, 
potassium-acetate-based chemical or a combination thereof, 
forming an extinguishing agent. 

[F] WIRELESS PROTECTION SYSTEM. A system or a 
part of a system that can transmit and receive signals without 
the aid of wire. 

[F] ZONE. A defined area within the protected premises. A 
zone can define an area from which a signal can be received, an 
area to which a signal can be sent or an area in which a form of 
control can be executed. 



2003 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



165 



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SECTION 903 

AUTOMATIC SPRINKLER SYSTEMS 

[F] 903.1 General, Automatic sprinkler systems shall comply 
with this section. 

[F] 903,1.1 Alternative protection. Alternative automatic 
fire-extinguishing systems complying with Section 904 
shall be permitted in lieu of automatic sprinkler protection 
where recognized by the applicable standard and approved 
by the building official. 

[F] 903.2 Where required. Approved automatic sprinkler sys- 
tems in new buildings and structures shall be provided in the lo- 
cations described in this section. 

Exception: Spaces or areas in telecommunications build- 
ings used exclusively for telecommunications equipment, 
associated electrical power distribution equipment, batter- 
ies and standby engines, provided those spaces or areas are 
equipped throughout with an automatic fire alarm system 
and are separated from the remainder of the building by a 
wall with a fire-resistance rating of not less than 1 hour and a 
floor/ceihng assembly with a fire-resistance rating of not 
less than 2 hours. 

[F] 903.2.1 Group A. An automatic sprinkler system shall 
be provided throughout buildings and portions thereof used 
as Group A occupancies as provided in this section. For 
Group A-1, A-2, A-3 and A-4 occupancies, the automatic 
sprinkler system shall be provided throughout the floor area 
where the Group A- 1 , A-2, A-3 or A-4 occupancy is located, 
and in all floors between the Group A occupancy and the 
level of exit discharge. For Group A-5 occupancies, the au- 
tomatic sprinkler system shall be provided in the spaces in- 
dicated in Section 903.2.1.5. 

[F] 903.2,1.1 Group A=l, An automatic sprinkler sys- 
tem shall be provided for Group A-1 occupancies where 
one of the following conditions exists: 

1. The fire area exceeds 12,000 square feet (1115 
m2). 

2. The fire area has an occupant load of 300 or more. 

3. The fire area is located on a floor other than the 
level of exit discharge. 

4. The fire area contains a multi theater complex. 

[F] 903.2.1.2 Group A-2. An automatic sprinkler sys- 
tem shall be provided for Group A-2 occupancies where 
one of the following conditions exists: 

1 . The fire area exceeds 5,000 square feet (464.5 m^). 

2. The fire area has an occupant load of 300 or more. 

3. The fire area is located on a floor other than the 
level of exit discharge. 

[F] 903.2.1.3 Group A-3. An automafic sprinkler sys- 
tem shall be provided for Group A-3 occupancies where 
one of the following conditions exists: 

1. The fire area exceeds 12,000 square feet (1115 
m2). 

2. The fire area has an occupant load of 300 or more. 

3. The fire area is located on a floor other than the 
level of exit discharge. 



Exception: Areas used exclusively as participant 
sports areas where the main floor area is located at the 
same level as the level of exit discharge of the main 
entrance and exit. 

[F] 903.2,1,4 Group A-4. An automafic sprinkler system 
shall be provided for Group A-4 occupancies where one 
of the following conditions exists: 

1 . The fire area exceeds 1 2,000 square feet (1115 m^). 

2. The fire area has an occupant load of 300 or more. 

3. The fire area is located on a floor other than the 
level of exit discharge. 

Exception: Areas used exclusively as participant 
sports areas where the main floor area is located at the 
same level as the level of exit discharge of the main 
entrance and exit. 

[F] 903.2.1.5 Group A-5. An automatic sprinkler system 
shall be provided in concession stands, retail areas, press 
boxes and other accessory use areas in excess of 1 ,000 
square feet (93 m^). 

[F] 903.2.2 Group E. An automafic sprinkler system shall 
be provided for Group E occupancies as follows: 

1 . Throughout all Group E fire areas greater than 20,000 
square feet (1858 m^) in area. 

2. Throughout every portion of educational buildings 
below the level of exit discharge. 

Exception: An automatic sprinkler system is not re- 
quired in any fire area or area below the level of exit 
discharge where every classroom throughout the 
building has at least one exterior exit door at ground 
level. 

[F] 903.2.3 Group F-1, An automatic sprinkler system shall 
be provided throughout all buildings containing a Group F-1 
occupancy where one of the following conditions exists: 

1. Where a Group F-1 fire area exceeds 12,000 square 
feet (1115 m2); 

2. Where a Group F- 1 fire area is located more than three 
stories above grade; or 

3. Where the combined area of all Group F-1 fire areas 
on all floors, including any mezzanines, exceeds 
24,000 square feet (2230 m^). 

[F] 903.2,3.1 Woodworking operations. An automatic 
sprinkler system shall be provided throughout all Group 
F-1 occupancy fire areas that contain woodworking oper- 
ations in excess of 2,500 square feet (232 m^) in area 
which generate finely divided combustible waste or use 
finely divided combustible materials. 

[F] 903.2,4 Group H. Automatic sprinkler systems shall be 
provided in high-hazard occupancies as required in Sections 
903.2.4.1 through 903.2.4.3. 

[F] 903.2.4.1 General. An automatic sprinkler system 
shall be installed in Group H occupancies. 

[F] 903.2.4,2 Group H-5, An automatic sprinkler sys- 
tem shall be installed throughout buildings containing 
Group H-5 occupancies. The design of the sprinkler sys- 



166 



2003 BNTERNATSONAL BUILDING CODE® 



FDRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



O 



tern shall not be less than that required by this code for the 
occupancy hazard classifications in accordance with Ta- 
ble 903.2.4.2. Where the design area of the sprinkler sys- 
tem consists of a corridor protected by one row of 
sprinklers, the maximum number of sprinklers required 
to be calculated is 13. 



[F] TABLE 903.2.4.2 
GROUP H-5 SPRIMKLER DESDGN CRITERIA 


LOCATION 


OCCUPANCY HAZARD 
CLASSIFICATION 


Fabrication areas 


Ordinary Hazard Group 2 


Service corridors 


Ordinary Hazard Group 2 


Storage rooms without dispensing 


Ordinary Hazard Group 2 


Storage rooms with dispensing 


Extra Hazard Group 2 


Corridors 


Ordinary Hazard Group 2 



[F] 9(0)3.2.4.3 PyroxySm plasitics. An automatic sprinkler 
system shall be provided in buildings, or portions 
thereof, where cellulose nitrate film or pyroxylin plastics 
are manufactured, stored or handled in quantities exceed- 
ing 100 pounds (45 kg). 

[F] 903.2.5 Group I. An automatic sprinkler system shall be 
provided throughout buildings with a Group I fire area. 

Exceptloim; An automatic sprinkler system installed in 
accordance with Section 903.3.1.2 or 903.3.1.3 shall be 
allowed in Group I-l facilities. 



[F] 903.2,6 Grounp M. An automafic sprinkler system shall 
be provided throughout buildings containing a Group M oc- 
cupancy where one of the following conditions exists: 

1 . Where a Group M fire area exceeds 1 2,000 square feet 
(1115 m^); 

2. Where a Group M fire area is located more than three 
stories above grade; or 

3. Where the combined area of all Group M fire areas on 
all floors, including any mezzanines, exceeds 24,000 
square feet (2230 m^). 

[F] 903.2.6.1 ffigh-pnledl storage. An automatic sprin- 
kler system shall be provided in accordance with the In- 
ternational Fire Code in all buildings of Group M where 
storage of merchandise is in high-piled or rack storage 
arrays. 

[F] 903.2.7 Gromip R. An automatic sprinkler system in- 
stalled in accordance with Section 903.3 shall be provided 
throughout all buildings with a Group R fire area. 



[F] 903.2 J Group §=1, An automatic sprinkler system shall 
be provided throughout all buildings containing a Group S- 1 
occupancy where one of the following conditions exists: 

1. A Group S-1 fire area exceeds 12,000 square feet 
(1115m2); 

2. A Group S-1 fire area is located more than three sto- 
ries above grade; or 

3. The combined area of all Group S-1 fire areas on all 
floors, including any mezzanines, exceeds 24,000 
square feet (2230 m^). 



[F] 903o2.§.l Repair garages. An automatic sprinkler 
system shall be provided throughout all buildings used as 
repair garages in accordance with Section 406, as shown: 

1. Buildings two or more stories in height, including 
basements, with a fire area containing a repair ga- 
rage exceeding 10,000 square feet (929 m^). 

2. One-story buildings with a fire area containing a 
repair garage exceeding 12,000 square feet (1115 
m2). 

3. Buildings with a repair garage servicing vehicles 
parked in the basement. 



[F] 903.2.8.2 Belk storage oiF tires. Buildings and struc- 
tures where the area for the storage of tires exceeds 
20,000 cubic feet (566 m^) shall be equipped throughout 
with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with 
Section 903.3.1.1. 

[F] 903.2.9 Group S=2. An automatic sprinkler system shall 
be provided throughout buildings classified as enclosed 
parking garages in accordance with Section 406.4 or where 
located beneath other groups. 



w. Enclosed parking garages located beneath 
Group R-3 occupancies as applicable in Section 101.2. 

[F] 903.2,9.1 Commercial parking garages. An auto- 
matic sprinkler system shall be provided throughout 
buildings used for storage of commercial trucks or buses 
where the fire area exceeds 5,000 square feet (464 m^). 

[F] 903,2.10 All occupaecles except Groups R=3 and U. 
An automatic sprinkler system shall be installed in the loca- 
tions set forth in Sections 903.2. 10.1 through 903.2. 10. 1.3. 

Exception," Group R-3 as appHcable in Section 101.2 
and Group U. 

[F] 903.2.10.1 Stories and basements without open- 
ings. An automatic sprinkler system shall be installed 
throughout every story or basement of all buildings 
where the floor area exceeds 1 ,500 square feet ( 1 39.4 m^) 
and where there is not provided at least one of the follow- 
ing types of exterior wall openings: 

Openings below grade that lead directly to ground 
level by an exterior stairway complying with Sec- 
tion 1009 or an outside ramp complying with Sec- 
tion 1010. Openings shall be located in each 50 
linear feet (15 240 mm), or fraction thereof, of ex- 
terior wall in the story on at least one side. 

Openings entirely above the adjoining ground 
level totaUng at least 20 square feet (1.86 m^) in 
each 50 linear feet (15 240 mm), or fraction 
thereof, of exterior wall in the story on at least one 
side. 



1. 



[F] 903.2.10,1.1 Opening dimensi 
Openings shall have a minimum dimension of not less 
than 30 inches (762 mm). Such openings shall be ac- 
cessible to the fire department from the exterior and 
shall not be obstructed in a manner that fire fighting or 
rescue cannot be accomplished from the exterior. 



2003 ISMTERMATDOiMAL BODLDING CODE® 



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[F] 903.2.10.1.2 Openings on one side only. Where 
openings in a story are provided on only one side and 
the opposite wall of such story is more than 75 feet (22 
860 mm) from such openings, the story shall be 
equipped throughout with an approved automatic 
sprinkler system, or openings as specified above shall 
be provided on at least two sides of the story. 

[F] 903.2.10.1.3 Basements. Where any portion of a 
basement is located more than 75 feet (22 860 mm) 
from openings required by Section 903.2.10.1, the 
basement shall be equipped throughout with an ap- 
proved automatic sprinkler system. 

[F] 903.2.10.2 Rubbish and linen chutes. An automatic 
sprinkler system shall be installed at the top of rubbish 
and linen chutes and in their terminal rooms. Chutes ex- 
tending through three or more floors shall have addi- 
tional sprinkler heads installed within such chutes at 
alternate floors. Chute sprinklers shall be accessible for 
servicing. 

[F] 903.2.10.3 Buildings over 55 feet in height. An au- 
tomatic sprinkler system shall be installed throughout 
buildings with a floor level having an occupant load of 30 
or more that is located 55 feet (16 764 mm) or more 
above the lowest level of fire department vehicle access. 

Exceptions: 

1. Airport control towers. 

2. Open parking structures. 

3. Occupancies in Group F-2. 

[F] 903.2.11 During construction. Automatic sprinkler 
systems required during construction, alteration and demo- 
lition operations shall be provided in accordance with the 
International Fire Code. 

[F] 903.2.12 Other hazards. Automatic sprinkler protec- 
tion shall be provided for the hazards indicated in Sections 
903.2.12.1 and 903.2.12.2. 

[F] 903.2.12.1 Ducts conveying hazardous exhausts. 
Where required by the International Mechanical Code, 
automatic sprinklers shall be provided in ducts convey- 
ing hazardous exhaust, or flammable or combustible ma- 
terials. 

Exception: Ducts in which the largest cross-sectional 
diameter of the duct is less than 1 inches (254 mm) . 

[F] 903.2.12.2 Commercial cooking operations. An 
automatic sprinkler system shall be installed in commer- 
cial kitchen exhaust hood and duct system where an auto- 
matic sprinkler system is used to comply with Section 
904. 

[F] 903.2.13 Other required suppression systems. In ad- 
dition to the requirements of Section 903.2, the provisions 
indicated in Table 903.2.13 also require the installation of a 
suppression system for certain buildings and areas. 

[F] 903.3 Installation requirements. Automatic sprinkler 
systems shall be designed and installed in accordance with Sec- 
tions 903.3.1 through 903.3.7. 



[F] TABLE 903.2.13 
ADDITIONAL REQUIRED SUPPRESSION SYSTEMS 



SECTION 


SUBJECT 


402.8 


Covered malls 


403.2, 403.3 


High-rise buildings 


404.3 


Atriums 


405.3 


Underground structures 


407.5 


Group 1-2 


410.6 


Stages 


411.4 


Special amusement buildings 


412.2.5,412.2.6 


Aircraft hangars 


415.7.2.4 


Group H-2 


416.4 


Flammable finishes 


417.4 


Drying rooms 


507 


Unlimited area buildings 


IFC 


Sprinkler requirements as set forth in Section 
903.2.13 of the International Fire Code 



[F] 903.3.1 Standards. Sprinkler systems shall be designed 
and installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1, 
903.3.1.2 or 903.3.1.3. 

[F] 903.3.1.1 NFPA 13 sprinkler systems. Where the 
provisions of this code require that a building or portion 
thereof be equipped throughout with an automatic sprin- 
kler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1, sprin- 
klers shall be installed throughout in accordance with 
NFPA 13 except as provided in Section 903.3.1.1.1. 

[F] 903.3.1.1.1 Exempt locations. Automatic sprin- 
klers shall not be required in the following rooms or 
areas where such rooms or areas are protected with an 
approved automatic fire detection system in accor- 
dance with Section 907.2 that will respond to visible 
or invisible particles of combustion. Sprinklers shall 
not be omitted from any room merely because it is 
damp, of fire -resistance-rated construction or con- 
tains electrical equipment. 

1. Any room where the application of water, or 
flame and water, constitutes a serious life or fire 
hazard. 

2. Any room or space where sprinklers are consid- 
ered undesirable because of the nature of the 
contents, when approved by the building offi- 
cial. 

3. Generator and transformer rooms separated 
from the remainder of the building by wails and 
floor/ceihng or roof/ceiling assemblies having 
a fire-resistance rating of not less than 2 hours. 

4. In rooms or areas that are of noncombustible 
construction with wholly noncombustible con- 
tents. 

[F] 903.3.1.2 NFPA 13R sprinkler systems. Where al- 
lowed in buildings of Group R, up to and including four 
stories in height, automatic sprinkler systems shall be in- 
stalled throughout in accordance with NFPA 13R. 



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[F] 9®3«3ol.2.1 Bakomes. Sprinkler protection shall 
be provided for exterior balconies and ground-floor 
patios of dwelling units where the building is of Type 
V construction. Sidewall sprinklers that are used to 
protect such areas shall be permitted to be located 
such that their deflectors are within 1 inch (25 mm) to 
6 inches (152 mm) below the structural members, and 
a maximum distance of 14 inches (356 mm) below the 
deck of the exterior balconies that are constructed of 
open wood joist construction. 

[F] 9033.1o3 NFPA 13D sprinkler systems. Where al- 
lowed, automatic sprinkler systems in one- and two-fam- 
ily dwellings shall be installed throughout in accordance 

with NFPA 1 3D. 

[F] 903o3o2 Qunck-respomse amd residential sprimkkrs« 
Where automatic sprinkler systems are required by this 
code, quick-response or residential automatic sprinklers 
shall be installed in the following areas in accordance with 
Section 903.3.1 and their hstings: 

1 . Throughout all spaces within a smoke compartment 
containing patient sleeping units in Group 1-2 in ac- 
cordance with this code. 

2. Dwelling units, and sleeping units in Group R and I-l 
occupancies. 

3. Light-hazard occupancies as defined in NFPA 13. 

[F] 903.3o3 Obstracled locatloimSo Automatic sprinklers 
shall be installed with due regard to obstructions that will 
delay activation or obstruct the water distribution pattern. 
Automatic sprinklers shall be installed in or under covered 
kiosks, displays, booths, concession stands, or equipment 
that exceeds 4 feet (1219 mm) in width. Not less than a 
3-foot (914 mm) clearance shall be maintained between au- 
tomatic sprinklers and the top of piles of combustible fibers. 



1. Valves shall not be installed between the do- 
mestic water riser control valve and the sprin- 
klers. 



mi Kitchen equipment under exhaust hoods 
protected with a fire-extinguishing system in accordance 
with Section 904. 

[F] 9033.4 Actuatlom. Automatic sprinkler systems shall 
be automatically actuated unless specifically provided for in 
this code. 



[F] 9®3o3.S Water supplies. Water supplies for automatic 
sprinkler systems shall comply with this section and the 
standards referenced in Section 903.3.1. The potable water 
supply shall be protected against backflow in accordance 
with the requirements of this section and the International 
Plumbing Code. 

[F] 9®3.3o5.1 Domestic services. Where the domestic 
service provides the water supply for the automatic 
sprinkler system, the supply shall be in accordance with 
this section. 



[F] 903.3.5.1.1 LI 
Limited area sprinkler systems serving fewer than 20 
sprinklers on any single connection are permitted to 
be connected to the domestic service where a wet au- 
tomatic standpipe is not available. Limited area sprin- 
kler systems connected to domestic water supplies 
shall comply with each of the following requirements: 



m An approved indicating control 
valve supervised in the open position in ac- 
cordance with Section 903.4. 

2. The domestic service shall be capable of sup- 
plying the simultaneous domestic demand and 
the sprinkler demand required to be hydrauli- 
cally calculated by NFPA 13, NFPA 13R or 
NFPA 13D. 



,5.1.2 Mesidemtnal comMmatiom services. A 
single combination water supply shall be permitted 
provided that the domestic demand is added to the 
sprinkler demand as required by NFPA 13R. 

[F] 9033.5.2 Secomdary water supply. A secondary 
on-site water supply equal to the hydraulically calculated 
sprinkler demand, including the hose stream require- 
ment, shall be provided for high-rise buildings in Seis- 
mic Design Category C, D, E or F as determined by this 
code. The secondary water supply shall have a duration 
not less than 30 minutes as determined by the occupancy 
hazard classification in accordance with NFPA 13. 

ExceptioiHo Existing buildings. 



[F] 903.3.6 Hose threads. Fire hose threads used in connec- 
tion with automatic sprinkler systems shall be approved and 
compatible with fire department hose threads. 

[F] 903.3,7 Fire departmemt coimectioms. The location of 
fire department connections shall be approved by the build- 
ing official. 

[F] 903.3.7.1 Locking fire department coenectiomi 
(FDC) caps. The fire code official is authorized to re- 
quire locking FDC caps on fire department connections 
for water-based fire protection systems where the re- 
sponding fire department carries appropriate key 
wrenches for removal. 

[F] 903.4 Sprimkkr system monitoring and alarms. All 
valves controlling the water supply for automatic sprinkler sys- 
tems, pumps, tanks, water levels and temperatures, critical air 
pressures and water-flow switches on all sprinkler systems 
shall be electrically supervised. 

Exceptions; 

1. Automatic sprinkler systems protecting one- and 
two-family dwelHngs. 

2. Limited area systems serving fewer than 20 sprin- 
klers. 

3. Automatic sprinkler systems installed in accordance 
with NFPA 13R where a common supply main is used 
to supply both domestic water and the automatic 
sprinkler systems and a separate shutoff valve for the 
automatic sprinkler system is not provided. 

4. Jockey pump control valves that are sealed or locked 
in the open position. 



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5. Control valves to commercial kitchen hoods, paint 
spray booths or dip tanks that are sealed or locked in 
the open position. 

6. Valves controlling the fuel supply to fire pump en- 
gines that are sealed or locked in the open position. 

7. Trim valves to pressure switches in dry, preaction and 
deluge sprinkler systems that are sealed or locked in 
the open position. 

[F] 903.4.1 Signals. Alarm, supervisory and trouble signals 
shall be distinctly different and automatically transmitted to 
an approved central station, remote supervising station or 
proprietary supervising station as defined in NFPA 72 or, 
when approved by the building official, shall sound an audi- 
ble signal at a constantly attended location. 

Exceptions I 

1 . Underground key or hub valves in roadway boxes 
provided by the municipality or public utility are 
not required to be monitored. 

2. Backflow prevention device test valves, located in 
limited area sprinkler system supply piping, shall 
be locked in the open position. In occupancies re- 
quired to be equipped with a fire alarm system, the 
backflow preventer valves shall be electrically su- 
pervised by a tamper switch installed in accor- 
dance with NFPA 72 and separately annunciated. 

[F] 903.4.2 Alarms. Approved audible devices shall be 
connected to every automatic sprinkler system. Such sprin- 
kler water-flow alarm devices shall be activated by water 
flow equivalent to the flow of a single sprinkler of the small- 
est orifice size installed in the system. Alarm devices shall 
be provided on the exterior of the building in an approved lo- 
cation. Where a fire alarm system is installed, actuation of 
the automatic sprinkler system shall actuate the building fire 
alarm system. 

[F] 903.4.3 Floor control valves. Approved supervised in- 
dicating control valves shall be provided at the point of con- 
nection to the riser on each floor in high-rise buildings. 

[F] 903.5 Testing and maintenance. Sprinkler systems shall 
be tested and maintained in accordance with the International 
Fire Code. 



SECTiOM 904 



F!RE=EXTIfSIGUiS 



m 

GSY; 



[F] 904.1 General. Automatic fire-extinguishing systems, 
other than automatic sprinkler systems, shall be designed, in- 
stalled, inspected, tested and maintained in accordance with 
the provisions of this section and the applicable referenced 
standards. 

[F] 904.2 Where required. Automatic fire-extinguishing sys- 
tems installed as an alternative to the required automatic sprin- 
kler systems of Section 903 shall be approved by the building 
official. Automatic fire-extinguishing systems shall not be con- 
sidered alternatives for the purposes of exceptions or reduc- 
tions permitted by other requirements of this code. 



[F] 904.2,1 Hood system suppression. Each required com- 
mercial kitchen exhaust hood and duct system required by 
the International Fire Code or the International Mechanical 
Code to have a Type I hood shall be protected with an ap- 
proved automatic fire-extinguishing system installed in ac- 
cordance with this code. 

[F] 904,3 Installation. Automatic fire-extinguishing systems 
shall be installed in accordance with this section. 

[F] 904.3,1 Electrical wiring. Electrical wiring shall be in 
accordance with the ICC Electrical Code. 

[F] 904,3.2 Actuation. Automatic fire-extinguishing sys- 
tems shall be automatically actuated and provided with a 
manual means of actuation in accordance with Section 
904.11.1. 

[F] 904,3,3 System interlocking. Automatic equipment in- 
terlocks with fuel shutoffs, ventilation controls, door 
closers, window shutters, conveyor openings, smoke and 
heat vents and other features necessary for proper operation 
of the fire-extinguishing system shall be provided as re- 
quired by the design and installation standard utihzed for the 
hazard. 

[F] 904.3.4 Alarms and warning signs. Where alarms are 
required to indicate the operation of automatic fire-extin- 
guishing systems, distinctive audible and visible alarms and 
warning signs shall be provided to warn of pending agent 
discharge. Where exposure to automatic-extinguishing 
agents poses a hazard to persons and a delay is required to 
ensure the evacuation of occupants before agent discharge, a 
separate warning signal shall be provided to alert occupants 
once agent discharge has begun. Audible signals shall be in 
accordance with Section 907.9.2. 

[F] 904.3.5 Monitoring. Where a building fire alarm sys- 
tem is installed, automatic fire-extinguishing systems shall 
be monitored by the building fire alarm system in accor- 
dance with NFPA 72. 

[F] 904.4 Inspection and testing. Automatic fire-extinguish- 
ing systems shall be inspected and tested in accordance with the 
provisions of this section prior to acceptance. 



.4.1 Inspection. Prior to conducting final accep- 
tance tests, the following items shall be inspected: 

1 . Hazard specification for consistency with design haz- 
ard. 

2. Type, location and spacing of automatic- and man- 
ual-initiating devices. 

3. Size, placement and position of nozzles or discharge 
orifices. 

4. Location and identification of audible and visible 
alarm devices. 

5. Identification of devices with proper designations. 

6. Operating instructions. 

[F] 904.4.2 Alarm testing. Notification appliances, con- 
nections to fire alarm systems and connections to approved 
supervising stations shall be tested in accordance with this 
section and Section 907 to verify proper operation. 



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[F] 904o4o2.1 Andnble aimdl visible sigmalSo The audibil- 
ity and visibility of notification appliances signaling 
agent discharge or system operation, where required, 
shall be verified. 



[F] 904.4,3 Moeitor testiinig. Connections to protected pre- 
mises and supervising station fire alarm systems shall be 
tested to verify proper identification and retransmission of 
alarms from automatic fire-extinguishing systems. 

[F] 904.5 Wet-chemkal systems. Wet-chemical extinguishing 
systems shall be installed, maintained, periodically inspected 
and tested in accordance with NFPA 17A and their listing. 

[F] 904.6 Dry-clnemicall systems. Dry-chemical extinguishing 
systems shall be installed, maintained, periodically inspected 
and tested in accordance with NFPA 17 and their listing. 

[F] 904.7 Foam systems. Foam-extinguishing systems shall be 
installed, maintained, periodically inspected and tested in ac- 
cordance with NFPA 1 1 and NFPA 16 and their listing. 

[F] 904.8 Cartoom dioxidle systems. Carbon dioxide extin- 
guishing systems shall be installed, maintained, periodically 
inspected and tested in accordance with NFPA 1 2 and their hst- 
ing. 

[F] 904.9 Halom systems, Halogenated extinguishing systems 
shall be installed, maintained, periodically inspected and tested 
in accordance with NFPA 12A and their listing. 

[F] 904.10 Cleaim-ageet systems. Clean-agent fire-extinguish- 
ing systems shall be installed, maintained, periodically in- 
spected and tested in accordance with NFPA 2001 and their 
listing. 

[F] 904.11 Commercial cooknmg systems. The automatic 
fire-extinguishing system for commercial cooking systems 
shall be of a type recognized for protection of commercial 
cooking equipment and exhaust systems of the type and ar- 
rangement protected. Preengineered automatic dry- and 
wet-chemical extinguishing systems shall be tested in accor- 
dance with UL 300 and Usted and labeled for the intended ap- 
plication. Other types of automatic fire-extinguishing systems 
shall be listed and labeled for specific use as protection for 
commercial cooking operations. The system shall be installed 
in accordance with this code, its listing and the manufacturer's 
installation instructions. Automatic fire-extinguishing systems 
of the following types shall be installed in accordance with the 
referenced standard indicated, as shown: 

1. Carbon dioxide extinguishing systems, NFPA 12. 

2. Automatic sprinkler systems, NFPA 13. 

3. Foam- water sprinkler system or foam- water spray sys- 
tems, NFPA 16. 

4. Dry-chemical extinguishing systems, NFPA 17. 

5. Wet-chemical extinguishing systems, NFPA 17 A. 

Exceptlomi Factory-built commercial cooking recirculating 
systems that are tested in accordance with UL 197, and 
listed, labeled and installed in accordance with Section 
304.1 of the International Mechanical Code. 

[F] 904,11.1 Mammal system operatioe. A manual actua- 
tion device shall be located at or near a means of egress from 
the cooking area, a minimum of 10 feet (3048 mm) and a 



maximum of 20 feet (6096 mm) from the kitchen exhaust 
system. The manual actuation device shall be located a min- 
imum of 4 feet (1219 mm) and a maximum of 5 feet (1524 
mm) above the floor. The manual actuation shall require a 
maximum force of 40 pounds (178 N) and a maximum 
movement of 14 inches (356 mm) to actuate the fire sup- 
pression system. 



tmni Automatic sprinkler systems shall not be re- 
quired to be equipped with manual actuation means. 

[F] 904.11.2 System leterconmectnoiii. The actuation of the 
fire suppression system shall automatically shut down the 
fuel or electrical power supply to the cooking equipment. 
The fuel and electrical supply reset shall be manual. 

[F] 904.11,3 CartooE dioxide systems. When carbon diox- 
ide systems are used, there shall be a nozzle at the top of the 
ventilating duct. Additional nozzles that are symmetrically 
arranged to give uniform distribution shall be installed 
within vertical ducts exceeding 20 feet (6096 mm) and hori- 
zontal ducts exceeding 50 feet (15 240 mm). Dampers shall 
be installed at either the top or the bottom of the duct and 
shall be arranged to operate automatically upon activation 
of the fire-extinguishing system. Where the damper is in- 
stalled at the top of the duct, the top nozzle shall be immedi- 
ately below the damper. Automatic carbon dioxide 
fire-extinguishing systems shall be sufficiently sized to pro- 
tect against all hazards venting through a common duct si- 
multaneously. 

[F] 904.11.3.1 Vemtllatloii system. Commercial-type 
cooking equipment protected by an automatic carbon di- 
oxide-extinguishing system shall be arranged to shut off 
the ventilation system upon activation. 



[F] 904.11.4 Special provisioms for automatic 
systems. Automatic sprinkler systems protecting commer- 
cial-type cooking equipment shall be supplied from a sepa- 
rate, readily accessible, indicating-type control valve that is 
identified. 

[F] 904.11.4.1 Listed sprinklers. Sprinklers used for the 
protection of fryers shall be listed for that application and 
installed in accordance with their listing. 



SmWDPlPE SYSTEIViS 

[F] 905.1 General. Standpipe systems shall be provided in new 
buildings and structures in accordance with this section. Fire 
hose threads used in connection with standpipe systems shall 
be approved and shall be compatible with fire department hose 
threads. The location of fire department hose connections shall 
be approved. In buildings used for high-piled combustible stor- 
age, fire protection shall be in accordance with the Interna- 
tional Fire Code. 



[F] 905.2 Imstallatioim standards. Standpipe systems shall be 
installed in accordance with this section and NFPA 14. 



[F] 905.3 Required nmstallatloes. Standpipe systems shall be 
installed where required by Sections 905.3.1 through 905.3.6 
and in the locations indicated in Sections 905.4, 905.5 and 



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905.6. Standpipe systems are permitted to be combined with 
automatic sprinkler systems. 

Exception: Standpipe systems are not required in Group 
R-3 occupancies as applicable in Section 101.2. 

[F] 9053.1 Building height. Class III standpipe systems 
shall be installed throughout buildings where the floor level 
of the highest story is located more than 30 feet (9144 mm) 
above the lowest level of fire department vehicle access, or 
where the floor level of the lowest story is located more than 
30 feet (9144 mm) below the highest level of fire department 
vehicle access. 

Exceptions: 

1. Class I standpipes are allowed in buildings 
equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler 
system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 
903.3.1.2. 

2. Class I manual standpipes are allowed in open 
parking garages where the highest floor is located 
not more than 150 feet (45 720 mm) above the low- 
est level of fire department vehicle access. 

3. Class I manual dry standpipes are allowed in open 
parking garages that are subject to freezing tem- 
peratures, provided that the hose connecfions are 
located as required for Class II standpipes in accor- 
dance with Secfion 905.5. 

4. Class I standpipes are allowed in basements 
equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler 
system. 

[F] 905,3.2 Groep A. Class I automatic wet standpipes 
shall be provided in nonsprinklered Group A buildings hav- 
ing an occupant load exceeding 1,000 persons. 

Exceptions: 

1. Open-air-seating spaces without enclosed spaces. 

2. Class I automatic dry and semiautomatic dry 
standpipes or manual wet standpipes are allowed 
in buildings where the highest floor surface used 
for human occupancy is 75 feet (22 860 mm) or 
less above the lowest level of fire department vehi- 
cle access. 

[F] 9053.3 Covered mall buildings. A covered mall build- 
ing shall be equipped throughout with a standpipe system 
where required by Section 905.3. Covered mall buildings 
not required to be equipped with a standpipe system by Sec- 
tion 905.3 shall be equipped with Class I hose connections 
connected to a system sized to deliver 250 gallons per min- 
ute (946.4 L/min.) at the most hydraulically remote outlet. 
Hose connections shall be provided at each of the following 
locations: 

1 . Within the mall at the entrance to each exit passage- 
way or corridor. 

2. At each floor-level landing within enclosed stairways 
opening directly on the mall. 

3. At exterior public entrances to the mall. 

[F] 9053.4 Stages. Stages greater than 1,000 square feet in 
area (93 m^) shall be equipped with a Class III wet standpipe 



system with 1 .5-inch and 2.5-inch (38 mm and 64 mm) hose 
connections on each side of the stage. 

Exception: Where the building or area is equipped 
throughout with an automatic sprinkler system, the hose 
connections are allowed to be supplied from the auto- 
matic sprinkler system and shall have a flow rate of not 
less than that required by NFPA 14 for Class III 
standpipes. 

[F] 905.3.4.1 Hose and cabinet. The 1.5-inch (38 mm) 
hose connections shall be equipped with sufficient 
lengths of 1.5-inch (38 mm) hose to provide fire protec- 
tion for the stage area. Hose connections shall be 
equipped with an approved adjustable fog nozzle and be 
mounted in a cabinet or on a rack. 

[F] 905.3.5 Underground buildings. Underground build- 
ings shall be equipped throughout with a Class I automatic 
wet or manual wet standpipe system. 

[F] 905.3.6 Helistops and heliports. Buildings with a 
heUstop or heliport that are equipped with a standpipe shall 
extend the standpipe to the roof level on which the helistop 
or heliport is located in accordance with Section 1107.5 of 
the International Fire Code. 

[F] 905.4 Location of Class I standpipe hose connections. 
Class I standpipe hose connections shall be provided in all of 
the following locations: 

1 . In every required stairway, a hose connection shall be 
provided for each floor level above or below grade. 
Hose connections shall be located at an intermediate 
floor level landing between floors, unless otherwise 
approved by the building official. 

2. On each side of the wall adjacent to the exit opening of 
a horizontal exit. 

3. In every exit passageway at the entrance from the exit 
passageway to other areas of a building. 

4. In covered mall buildings, adjacent to each exterior 
public entrance to the mall and adjacent to each en- 
trance from an exit passageway or exit corridor to the 
mall. 

5 . Where the roof has a slope less than four units vertical 
in 12 units horizontal (33.3-percent slope), each 
standpipe shall be provided with a hose connection lo- 
cated either on the roof or at the highest landing of 
stairways with stair access to the roof. An additional 
hose connection shall be provided at the top of the 
most hydraulically remote standpipe for testing pur- 
poses. 

6. Where the most remote portion of a nonsprinklered 
floor or story is more than 150 feet (45 720 mm) from 
a hose connection or the most remote portion of a 
sprinklered floor or story is more than 200 feet (60 
960 mm) from a hose connection, the building official 
is authorized to require that additional hose connec- 
tions be provided in approved locations. 

[F] 905.4.1 Protection. Risers and laterals of Class I 
standpipe systems not located within an enclosed stairway 
or pressurized enclosure shall be protected by a degree of 



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fire resistance equal to that required for vertical enclosures 
in the building in which they are located. 



[F] 905.7.2 LocMei 
locked. 



m; In buildings equipped throughout with an 
approved automatic sprinkler system, laterals that are not 
located within an enclosed stairway or pressurized enclo- 
sure are not required to be enclosed within fire-resis- 
tance-rated construction. 



[F] 905,4.2 Imtercomiiniecltlom, In buildings where more than 
one standpipe is provided, the standpipes shall be intercon- 
nected in accordance with NFPA 14. 

[F] 905,5 Locatiom off Class II stamdpipe hose comumectnoms. 
Class II standpipe hose connections shall be accessible and lo- 
cated so that all portions of the building are within 30 feet (9144 
mm) of a nozzle attached to 100 feet (30 480 mm) of hose. 



[F] 905.5,1 Groeps A-1 aed A=2. In Group A- 1 and A-2 oc- 
cupancies with occupant loads of more than 1,000, hose 
connections shall be located on each side of any stage, on 
each side of the rear of the auditorium, on each side of the 
balcony and on each tier of dressing rooms. 



[F] 905,5.2 ProttecMoim, Fire-resistance-rated protection of 
risers and laterals of Class II standpipe systems is not re- 
quired. 



[F] 905,5.3 Class II system l-nmcln liose. A minimum 
1-inch (25 mm) hose shall be permitted to be used for hose 
stations in light-hazard occupancies where investigated and 
listed for this service and where approved by the building of- 
ficial. 

[F] 905.6 Localtiomi off Class III sHamidpIpe hose comnmecitioes. 
Class III standpipe systems shall have hose connections located 
as required for Class I standpipes in Section 905.4 and shall 
have Class II hose connections as required in Section 905.5. 

[F] 905.6.1 ProtectioE, Risers and laterals of Class III 
standpipe systems shall be protected as required for Class I 
systems in accordance with Section 905.4.1. 

[F] 905.6,2 lEtercoEeectSomi. In buildings where more than 
one Class III standpipe is provided, the standpipes shall be 
interconnected at the bottom. 

[F] 905,7 Cabmets. Cabinets containing fire-fighting equip- 
ment such as standpipes, fire hoses, fire extinguishers or fire 
department valves shall not be blocked from use or obscured 
from view. 



[F] 905.7.1 Catonmelt eqenprnemit MemtMcsatrnmc Cabinets 
shall be identified in an approved manner by a permanently 
attached sign with letters not less than 2 inches (51 mm) 
high in a color that contrasts with the background color, in- 
dicating the equipment contained therein. 

Excepttnoims: 

1 . Doors not large enough to accommodate a written 
sign shall be marked with a permanently attached 
pictogram of the equipment contained therein. 

2. Doors that have either an approved visual identifi- 
cation clear glass panel or a complete glass door 
panel are not required to be marked. 



[F] mt 

stalled. 



, Cabinets shall be un- 



Visual identification panels of glass or other ap- 
proved transparent frangible material that is easily 
broken and allows access. 

Approved locking arrangements. 

Group 1-3. 

Dry standpipes shall not be in- 



ns Where subject to freezing and in accordance 
with NFPA 14. 

[F] 905,9 Valve supervisiom. Valves controlling water supplies 
shall be supervised in the open position so that a change in the 
normal position of the valve will generate a supervisory signal 
at the supervising station required by Section 903.4. Where a 
fire alarm system is provided, a signal shall also be transmitted 
to the control unit. 



1. Valves to underground key or hub valves in roadway 
boxes provided by the municipality or public utility 
do not require supervision. 

2. Valves locked in the normal position and inspected as 
provided in this code in buildings not equipped with a 
fire alarm system. 

[F] 905,10 Dinrmg comstriuictioE. Standpipe systems required 
during construction and demolition operations shall be pro- 
vided in accordance with Section 3311. 



PORTABLE FIRE EXTINGUISHERS 

[F] 906,1 General. Portable fire extinguishers shall be pro- 
vided in occupancies and locations as required by the Interna- 
tional Fire Code. 



SECTION 907 
FIRE ALARia AND DETECTION SYSTEil/lS 

[F] 907.1 General. This section covers the application, instal- 
lation, performance and maintenance of fire alarm systems and 
their components. 

[F] 907.1.1 Coestmicltiom docmmemlts. Construction docu- 
ments for fire alarm systems shall be submitted for review 
and approval prior to system installation. Construction doc- 
uments shall include, but not be limited to, all of the follow- 
ing: 

1. A floor plan which indicates the use of all rooms. 

2. Locations of alarm-initiating and notification appli- 
ances. 

3. Alarm control and trouble signaling equipment. 

4. Annunciation. 



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5. Power connection. 

6. Battery calculations. 

7. Conductor type and sizes. 

8. Voltage drop calculations. 

9. Manufacturers, model numbers and listing informa- 
tion for equipment, devices and materials. 

10. Details of ceiling height and construction. 

1 1 . The interface of fire safety control functions 

[F] 907.1.2 Equipment. Systems and their components 
shall be listed and approved for the purpose for which they 
are installed. 

[F] 907.2 Where required. An approved manual, automatic or 
manual and automatic fire alarm system shall be provided in 
accordance with Sections 907.2. 1 through 907.2.23. Where au- 
tomatic sprinkler protection, installed in accordance with Sec- 
tion 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2, is provided and connected to the 
building fire alarm system, automatic heat detection required 
by this section shall not be required. An approved automatic 
fire detection system shall be installed in accordance with the 
provisions of this code and NFPA 72. Devices, combinations of 
devices, appliances and equipment shall comply with Section 
907.1.2. The automatic fire detectors shall be smoke detectors, 
except that an approved alternative type of detector shall be in- 
stalled in spaces such as boiler rooms where, during normal op- 
eration, products of combustion are present in sufficient 
quantity to actuate a smoke detector. 

[F] 907.2.1 Group A. A manual fire alarm system shall be 
installed in accordance with NFPA 72 in Group A occupan- 
cies having an occupant load of 300 or more. Portions of 
Group E occupancies occupied for assembly purposes shall 
be provided with a fire alarm system as required for the 
Group E occupancy. 

Exception: Manual fire alarm boxes are not required 
where the building is equipped throughout with an auto- 
matic sprinkler system and the notification appliances 
will activate upon sprinkler water flow. 

[F] 907.2.1.1 System initiation in Group A occupan- 
cies with an occupant load of 1,000 or more. Activa- 
tion of the fire alarm in Group A occupancies with an 
occupant load of 1,000 or more shall initiate a signal us- 
ing an emergency voice/alarm communications system 
in accordance with NFPA 72. 

Exception: Where approved, the prerecorded an- 
nouncement is allowed to be manually deactivated for 
a period of time, not to exceed 3 minutes, for the sole 
purpose of allowing a live voice announcement from 
an approved, constantly attended location. 

[F] 907,2.1.2 Emergency power. Emergency 
voice/alarm communications systems shall be provided 
with an approved emergency power source. 

[F] 907.2.2 Group B. A manual fire alarm system shall be 
installed in Group B occupancies having an occupant load 
of 500 or more persons or more than 100 persons above or 
below the lowest level of exit discharge. 



Exception: Manual fire alarm boxes are not required 
where the building is equipped throughout with an auto- 
matic sprinkler system and the alarm notification appli- 
ances will activate upon sprinkler water flow. 

[F] 907.2.3 Group E. A manual fire alarm system shall be 
installed in Group E occupancies. When automatic sprinkler 
systems or smoke detectors are installed, such systems or 
detectors shall be connected to the building fire alarm sys- 
tem. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Group E occupancies with an occupant load of less 
than 50. 

2. Manual fire alarm boxes are not required in Group 
E occupancies where all the following apply: 

2.1. Interior corridors are protected by smoke 
detectors with alarm verification. 

2.2. Auditoriums, cafeterias, gymnasiums and 
the like are protected by heat detectors or 
other approved detection devices. 

2.3. Shops and laboratories involving dusts or 
vapors are protected by heat detectors or 
other approved detection devices. 

2.4. Off-premises monitoring is provided. 

2.5. The capability to activate the evacuation 
signal from a central point is provided. 

2.6. In buildings where normally occupied 
spaces are provided with a two-way com- 
munication system between such spaces 
and a constantly attended receiving station 
from where a general evacuation alarm can 
be sounded, except in locations specifi- 
cally designated by the building official. 

[F] 907.2.4 Group F. A manual fire alarm system shall be 
installed in Group F occupancies that are two or more stories 
in height and have an occupant load of 500 or more above or 
below the lowest level of exit discharge. 

Exception: Manual fire alarm boxes are not required if 
the building is equipped throughout with an automatic 
sprinkler system and the notification appliances will acti- 
vate upon sprinkler water flow. 

[F] 907.2.5 Group H. A manual fire alarm system shall be 
installed in Group H-5 occupancies and in occupancies used 
for the manufacture of organic coadngs. An automatic 
smoke detection system shall be installed for highly toxic 
gases, organic peroxides and oxidizers in accordance with 
Chapters 37, 39 and 40, respectively, of the International 
Fire Code. 

[F] 907.2.6 Group I. A manual fire alarm system and an au- 
tomatic fire detection system shall be installed in Group I 
occupancies. An electrically supervised, automatic smoke 
detection system shall be provided in waiting areas that are 
open to corridors. 

Exception: Manual fire alarm boxes in patient sleeping 
areas of Group I-l and 1-2 occupancies shall not be re- 
quired at exits if located at all nurses' control stations or 



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other constantly attended staff locations, provided such 
stations are visible and continuously accessible and that 
travel distances required in Section 907.3.1 are not ex- 
ceeded. 



„2.6ol Grouip 1=2, Corridors in nursing homes 
(both intermediate-care and skilled nursing facihties), 
detoxification facilities and spaces open to the corridors 
shall be equipped with an automatic fire detection sys- 
tem. 



1. Corridor smoke detection is not required in 
smoke compartments that contain patient sleep- 
ing rooms where patient sleeping units are pro- 
vided with smoke detectors that comply with 
UL 268. Such detectors shall provide a visual 
display on the corridor side of each patient 
sleeping unit and an audible and visual alarm at 
the nursing station attending each unit. 

2. Corridor smoke detection is not required in 
smoke compartments that contain patient sleep- 
ing rooms where patient sleeping unit doors are 
equipped with automatic door-closing devices 
with integral smoke detectors on the unit sides 
installed in accordance with their listing, pro- 
vided that the integral detectors perform the re- 
quired alerting function. 



[F] 907o2.6,2 Groiap 1=3. Group 1-3 occupancies shall be 
equipped with a manual and automatic fire alarm system 
installed for alerting staff. 

[F] 907,2i6.2ol System nmitiatiom. Actuation of an 
automatic fire-extinguishing system, a manual fire 
alarm box or a fire detector shall initiate an approved 
fire alarm signal which automatically notifies staff. 
Presignal systems shall not be used. 



[F] 907,2.6.2.2 Mammal ire alarm boxes. Manual 
fire alarm boxes are not required to be located in ac- 
cordance with Section 907.3 where the fire alarm 
boxes are provided at staff-attended locations having 
direct supervision over areas where manual fire alarm 
boxes have been omitted. Manual fire alarm boxes 
shall be permitted to be locked in areas occupied by 
detainees, provided that staff members are present 
within the subject area and have keys readily available 
to operate the manual fire alarm boxes. 

[F] 9CI)7,2.6.2o3 Smoke detectors. An approved auto- 
matic smoke detection system shall be installed 
throughout resident housing areas, including sleeping 
areas and contiguous day rooms, group activity 
spaces and other common spaces normally accessible 
to residents. 



Other approved smoke detection arrange- 
ments providing equivalent protection in- 
cluding, but not limited to, placing detectors 
in exhaust ducts from cells or behind protec- 
tive guards listed for the purpose are allowed 



when necessary to prevent damage or tam- 
pering. 

2. Sleeping units in Use Conditions 2 and 3. [] 

3. Smoke detectors are not required in sleeping [] 
units with four or fewer occupants in smoke 
compartments that are equipped throughout 
with an approved automatic sprinkler sys- 
tem. 



.2.7 Group M. A manual fire alarm system shall be 
installed in Group M occupancies, other than covered mall 
buildings complying with Section 402, having an occupant 
load of 500 or more persons or more than 1 00 persons above 
or below the lowest level of exit discharge. 



1 . A manual fire alarm system is not required in 
buildings not over two stories in height where 
all individual guestrooms and contiguous attic 
and crawl spaces are separated from each other 
and public or common areas by at least 1-hour 
fire partitions and each individual guestroom 
has an exit directly to a public way, exit court or 
yard. 

2. Manual fire alarm boxes are not required 
throughout the building when the following 
conditions are met: 

2. 1 . The building is equipped throughout with 
an automatic sprinkler system installed in 
accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 
903.3.1.2. 

2.2. The notification appliances will activate 
upon sprinkler water flow, and 

2.3. At least one manual fire alarm box is in- 
stalled at an approved location. 



mt Manual fire alarm boxes are not required if 
the building is equipped throughout with an automatic 
sprinkler system and the alarm notification apphances 
will activate upon sprinkler water flow. 

[F] 907,2,7.1 Occupant iiotlicatlon. During times that 
the building is occupied, in lieu of the automatic activa- 
tion of alarm notification appliances, the manual fire 
alarm system shall be allowed to activate an alarm signal 
at a constantly attended location from which evacuation 
instructions shall be initiated over an emergency 
voice/alarm communication system installed in accor- 
dance with Section 907.2.12.2. The emergency 
voice/alarm communication system shall be allowed to 
be used for other announcements, provided the manual 
fire alarm use takes precedence over any other use. 



[F] 907,2,8 Group M=l. Fire alarm systems shall be in- 
stalled in Group R-1 occupancies as required in Sections 
907.2.8.1 through 907.2.8.3. 



[F] 907,2,8.1 Manual ire alarm system. A manual fire 
alarm system shall be installed in Group R-1 occupan- 
cies. 



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[F] 907,2.8.2 Automatic fire alarm system. An auto- 
matic fire alarm system shall be installed throughout all 
interior corridors serving guestrooms. 

Exception: An automatic fire detection system is not 
required in buildings that do not have interior corri- 
dors serving guestrooms and each guestroom has a 
means of egress door opening directly to an exterior 
exit access that leads directly to an exit. 

[F] 907.2.8.3 Smoke alarms. Smoke alarms shall be in- 
stalled as required by Section 907.2. 10. In buildings that 
are not equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler 
system installed in accordance with Section 903.3. 1 . 1 or 
903.3.1.2, the smoke alarms in guestrooms shall be con- 
nected to an emergency electrical system and shall be an- 
nunciated by guestroom at a constantly attended location 
from which the fire alarm system is capable of being 
manually activated 

[F] 907.2.9 Group R-2. A manual fire alarm system shall be 
installed in Group R-2 occupancies where: 

1 . Any dwelling unit or sleeping unit is located three or 
more stories above the lowest level of exit discharge; 

2. Any dwelling unit or sleeping unit is located more 
than one story below the highest level of exit dis- 
charge of exits serving the dwelling unit or sleeping 
unit; or 

3. The building contains more than 16 dwelling units or 
sleeping units. 

Exceptions: 

1 . A fire alarm system is not required in buildings not 
over two stories in height where all dwelling units 
or sleeping units and contiguous attic and crawl 
spaces are separated from each other and public or 
common areas by at least 1-hour fire partitions and 
each dwelling unit or sleeping unit has an exit di- 
rectly to a public way, exit court or yard. 

2. Manual fire alarm boxes are not required through- 
out the building when the following conditions are 
met: 

2.1. The building is equipped throughout with 
an automatic sprinkler system in accor- 
dance with Section 903.3. 1. 1 or 903.3. 1 .2. 

2.2. The notification appliances will activate 
upon sprinkler flow, and 

2.3. At least one manual fire alarm box is in- 
stalled at an approved location. 

3 . A fire alarm system is not required in buildings that 
do not have interior corridors serving dwelling 
units and are protected by an approved automatic 
sprinkler system installed in accordance with Sec- 
tion 903 .3 . 1 . 1 or 903 .3.1.2, provided that dwelling 
units either have a means of egress door opening 
directly to an exterior exit access that leads directly 
to the exits or are served by open-ended corridors 



designed in accordance with Section 1022.6, Ex- 
ception 4. 

[F] 907.2.10 Single- and multiple-station smoke alarms. 
Listed single- and multiple-station smoke alarms shall be in- 
stalled in accordance with the provisions of this code and the 
household fire-waming equipment provisions of NFPA 72. 

[F] 907.2.10.1 Where required. Single- or multiple-sta- 
tion smoke alarms shall be installed in the locations de- 
scribed in Sections 907.2.10.1.1 through 907.2.10.1.3. 



,10.1.1 Group R-1. Single- or multiple-sta- 
tion smoke alarms shall be installed in all of the fol- 
lowing locations in Group R- 1 : 

1. In sleeping areas. 

2. In every room in the path of the means of egress 
from the sleeping area to the door leading from 
the sleeping unit. 

3. In each story within the sleeping unit, including 
basements. For sleeping units with split levels 
and without an intervening door between the 
adjacent levels, a smoke alarm installed on the 
upper level shall suffice for the adjacent lower 
level provided that the lower level is less than 
one full story below the upper level. 

[F] 907.2.10.1.2 Groups R-2, R-3, R-4 and I-l. Sin- 
gle- or multiple-station smoke alarms shall be in- 
stalled and maintained in Groups R-2, R-3, R-4 and 
I-l, regardless of occupant load at all of the following 
locations: 

1 . On the ceiling or wall outside of each separate 
sleeping area in the immediate vicinity of bed- 
rooms. 

2. In each room used for sleeping purposes. 

3. In each story within a dwelling unit, including 
basements but not including crawl spaces and 
uninhabitable attics. In dwelhngs or dwelling 
units with split levels and without an interven- 
ing door between the adjacent levels, a smoke 
alarm installed on the upper level shall suffice 
for the adjacent lower level provided that the 
lower level is less than one full story below the 
upper level. 

[F] 907.2.10.1.3 Group I-l. Single- or multiple-sta- 
tion smoke alarms shall be installed and maintained in 
sleeping areas in occupancies in Group I-l. Single- or 
multiple-station smoke alarms shall not be required 
where the building is equipped throughout with an au- 
tomatic fire detection system in accordance with Sec- 
tion 907.2.6. 

[F] 907.2.10.2 Power source. In new construction, re- 
quired smoke alarms shall receive their primary power 
from the building wiring where such wiring is served 
from a commercial source and shall be equipped with a 
battery backup. Smoke alarms shall emit a signal when 
the batteries are low. Wiring shall be permanent and 



176 



2003 SNTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



FIRE PROTECTDON SYSTEMS 



without a disconnecting switch other than as required for 
overcurrent protection. 



shall be installed in accordance with NFPA 72, and shall be 
audible throughout the entire special amusement building. 



c=> 



o> 



mt Smoke alarms are not required to be 
equipped with battery backup in Group R-1 where 
they are connected to an emergency electrical system. 

[F] 907.2.103 ImltercoiniiniectnoEi. Where more than one 
smoke alarm is required to be installed within an individ- 
ual dwelling unit in Group R-2, R-3 or R-4, or within an 
individual dwelling unit or sleeping unit in Group R-1, 
the smoke alarms shall be interconnected in such a man- 
ner that the activation of one alarm will activate all of the 
alarms in the individual unit. The alarm shall be clearly 
audible in all bedrooms over background noise levels 
with all intervening doors closed. 

[F] 907.2.10,4 Acceptance testimg. When the installation of 
the alarm devices is complete, each detector and intercon- 
necting wiring for multiple-station alarm devices shall be 
tested in accordance with the household fire warning equip- 
ment provisions of NFPA 72. 

[F] 907.2.11 Special amesemeimt biuiiMimgs. An approved 
automatic smoke detection system shall be provided in spe- 
cial amusement buildings in accordance with this section. 



imni In areas where ambient conditions will cause 
a smoke detection system to alarm, an approved alterna- 
tive type of automatic detector shall be installed. 



[F] 907.2,11.1 Alarm. Activation of any single smoke de- 
tector, the automatic sprinkler system or any other auto- 
matic fire detection device shall immediately sound an 
alarm at the building at a constantly attended location from 
which emergency action can be initiated, including the ca- 
pability of manual initiation of requirements in Section 
907.2.11.2. 

[F] 907,2.11.2 System respomse. The activation of two or 
more smoke detectors, a single smoke detector with alarm 
verification, the automatic sprinkler system or other ap- 
proved fire detection device shall automadcally: 

1 . Cause illumination of the means of egress with light 
of not less than 1 foot-candle (11 lux) at the walking 
surface level; 

2. Stop any conflicting or confusing sounds and visual 
distractions; and 

3. Activate an approved directional exit marking that 
will become apparent in an emergency. Such system 
response shall also include activation of a prerecorded 
message, clearly audible throughout the special 
amusement building, instructing patrons to proceed to 
the nearest exit. Alarm signals used in conjunction 
with the prerecorded message shall produce a sound 
which is distinctive from other sounds used during 
normal operation. The wiring to the auxiliary devices 
and equipment used to accomplish the above fire 
safety functions shall be monitored for integrity in ac- 
cordance with NFPA 72. 



[F] 907.2.11, 

system. An emergency voice/alarm communication system, 

which is also allowed to serve as a pubUc address system, 



[F] 907.2.12 Hlgln-rise tomnMings. Buildings having floors 
used for human occupancy located more than 75 feet (22 
860 mm) above the lowest level of fire department vehicle 
access shall be provided with an automadc fire alarm system 
and an emergency voice/alarm communication system in 
accordance with Section 907.2.12.2. 

Exceptioms: 

1 . Airport traffic control towers in accordance with 
Sections 412 and 907.2.22. 

2. Open parking garages in accordance with Section 
406.3. 

3. Buildings with an occupancy in Group A-5. 

4. Low-hazard special occupancies in accordance 
with Section 503.1.2. 

5. Buildings with an occupancy in Group H-1, H-2 or 
H-3 in accordance with Section 415. 

[F] 907.2,12,1 Automatic fire detectnom. Smoke detec- 
tors shall be provided in accordance with this section. 
Smoke detectors shall be connected to an automatic fire 
alarm system. The activation of any detector required by 
this section shall operate the emergency voice/alarm 
communication system. Smoke detectors shall be lo- 
cated as follows: 

1. In each mechanical equipment, electrical, trans- 
former, telephone equipment or similar room 
which is not provided with sprinkler protection, el- 
evator machine rooms and in elevator lobbies. 

2. In the main return air and exhaust air plenum of 
each air-conditioning system having a capacity 
greater than 2,000 cubic feet per minute (cfm) 
(0.94 mVs). Such detectors shall be located in a 
serviceable area downstream of the last duct inlet. 

3. At each connection to a vertical duct or riser serv- 
ing two or more stories from a return air duct or 
plenum of an air-conditioning system. In Group 
R- 1 and R-2 occupancies a listed smoke detector is 
allowed to be used in each return air riser carrying 
not more than 5,000 cfm (2.4 mVs) and serving not 
more than 10 air inlet openings. 

[F] 907.2.12.2 Emergency ¥oice/aIarm commueica= 
ticm system. The operation of any automatic fire detec- 
tor, sprinkler water-flow device or manual fire alarm box 
shall automatically sound an alert tone followed by voice 
instructions giving approved information and directions 
on a general or selective basis to the following terminal 
areas on a minimum of the alarming floor, the floor above 
and the floor below in accordance with the International 
Fire Code. 

1. Elevator lobbies. 

2. Corridors. 

3. Rooms and tenant spaces exceeding 1,000 square 
feet (93 m^) in area. 



2003 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



n? 



FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



4. Dwelling units or sleeping units in Group R-2 oc- 
cupancies. 

5. Sleeping units in Group R-1 occupancies. 

6. Areas of refuge as defined in Section 1002. 

Exception: In Group I-l and 1-2 occupancies, the 
alarm shall sound in a constantly attended area and a 
general occupant notification shall be broadcast over 
the overhead page. 

[F] 907.2.12.2.1 Manual override, A manual over- 
ride for emergency voice communication shall be pro- 
vided for all paging zones. 

[F] 907.2.12.2.2 Live voice messages. The emer- 
gency voice/alarm communication system shall also 
have the capability to broadcast live voice messages 
through speakers located in elevators, exit stairways 
and throughout a selected floor or floors. 

[F] 907.2.12.2.3 Standard. The emergency 
voice/alarm communication system shall be designed 
and installed in accordance with NFPA 72. 

[F] 907.2.12.3 Fire department communication sys- 
tem. An approved two-way, fire department communi- 
cation system designed and installed in accordance with 
NFPA 72 shall be provided for fire department use. It 
shall operate between a fire command center complying 
with Section 911 and elevators, elevator lobbies, emer- 
gency and standby power rooms, fire pump rooms, areas 
of refuge and inside enclosed exit stairways. The fire de- 
partment communication device shall be provided at 
each floor level within the enclosed stairway. 

Exception: Fire department radio systems where ap- 
proved by the fire department. 

[F] 907.2.13 Atriums connecting more than two stories. 
A fire alarm system shall be installed in occupancies with an 
atrium that connects more than two stories. The system shall 
be activated in accordance with Section 907.6. Such occu- 
pancies in Group A, E or M shall be provided with an emer- 
gency voice/alarm communication system complying with 
the requirements of Section 907.2.12.2. 

[F] 907.2.14 High-piled combustible storage areas. An 
automatic fire detection system shall be installed through- 
out high-piled combustible storage areas where required by 
the International Fire Code. 

[F] 907.2.15 Delayed egress locks. Where delayed egress 
locks are installed on means of egress doors in accordance 
with Section 1008.1.8.6, an automafic smoke or heat detec- 
tion system shall be installed as required by that section. 

[F] 907.2.16 Aerosol storage uses. Aerosol storage rooms 
and general-purpose warehouses containing aerosols shall 
be provided with an approved manual fire alarm system 
where required by the International Fire Code. 

[F] 907.2.17 Lumber, plywood and veneer mills. Lumber, 
plywood and veneer mills shall be provided with a manual 
fire alarm system. 

[F] 907.2.18 Underground buildings with smoke exhaust 

system. Where a smoke exhaust system is installed in an un- 



derground building in accordance with this code, automatic 
fire detectors shall be provided in accordance with this sec- 
tion. 

[F] 907.2.18.1 Smoke detectors. A minimum of one 
smoke detector hsted for the intended purpose shall be 
installed in the following areas: 

1. Mechanical equipment, electrical, transformer, 
telephone equipment, elevator machine or similar 
rooms. 

2. Elevator lobbies. 

3. The main return and exhaust air plenum of each 
air-conditioning system serving more than one 
story and located in a serviceable area downstream 
of the last duct inlet. 

4. Each connection to a vertical duct or riser serving 
two or more floors from return air ducts or plenums 
of heating, ventilating and air-conditioning sys- 
tems, except that in Group R occupancies, a listed 
smoke detector is allowed to be used in each return 
air riser carrying not more than 5,000 cfm (2.4 
mVs) and serving not more than 10 air inlet open- 
ings. 

[F] 907.2.18.2 Alarm required. Activation of the smoke 
exhaust system shall activate an audible alarm at a con- 
stantly attended location. 

[F] 907.2.19 Underground buildings. Where the lowest 
level of a structure is more than 60 feet (18 288 mm) below 
the lowest level of exit discharge, the structure shall be 
equipped throughout with a manual fire alarm system, in- 
cluding an emergency voice/alarm communication system 
installed in accordance with Section 907.2.12.2. 

[F] 907.2.19.1 Public address system. Where a fire 
alarm system is not required by Section 907.2, a public 
address system shall be provided that shall be capable of 
transmitting voice communications to the highest level 
of exit discharge serving the underground portions of the 
structure and all levels below. 

[F] 907.2.20 Covered mall buildings. Covered mall build- 
ings exceeding 50,000 square feet (4645 m^) in total floor 
area shall be provided with an emergency voice/alarm com- 
munication system. An emergency voice/alarm communi- 
cation system serving a mall, required or otherwise, shall be 
accessible to the fire department. The system shall be pro- 
vided in accordance with Section 907.2.12.2. 

[F] 907.2.21 Residential aircraft hangars. A minimum of 
one listed smoke alarm shall be installed within a residential 
aircraft hangar as defined in Section 412.3.1 and shall be in- 
terconnected into the residential smoke alarm or other 
sounding device to provide an alarm that will be audible in 
all sleeping areas of the dwelling. 

[F] 907.2.22 Airport traffic control towers. An automatic 
fire detection system shall be provided in airport traffic con- 
trol towers. 

[F] 907.2.23 Battery rooms. An approved automatic smoke 
detection system shall be installed in areas containing sta- 
tionary lead-acid battery systems having a liquid capacity of 



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more than 50 gallons (189.3 L). The detection system shall 
be supervised by an approved central, proprietary or remote 
station service or a local alarm that will sound an audible 
signal at a constantly attended location. 

[F] 907.3 Maraeal Hire alarm IboxeSo Manual fire alarm boxes 
shall be installed in accordance with Sections 907.3.1 through 
907.3.5. 

[F] 9(D7o3 J Locatiomio Manual fire alarm boxes shall be lo- 
cated not more than 5 feet (1524 mm) from the entrance to 
each exit. Additional manual fire alarm boxes shall be lo- 
cated so that travel distance to the nearest box does not ex- 
ceed 200 feet (60 960 mm). 



tmmi Manual fire alarm boxes shall not be re- 
quired in Group E occupancies where the building is 
equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprin- 
kler system, the notification appliances will activate on 
sprinkler water flow and manual activation is provided 
from a normally occupied location. 

[F] 9073.2 Height The height of the manual fire alarm 
boxes shall be a minimum of 42 inches (1067 mm) and a 
maximum of 48 inches (1219 mm), measured vertically, 
from the floor level to the activating handle or lever of the 
box. 



[F] 907.3. 
color. 



Manual fire alarm boxes shall be red in 



[F] 907.3.4 SigMS. Where fire alarm systems are not moni- 
tored by a supervising station, an approved permanent sign 
shall be installed adjacent to each manual fire alarm box that 
reads: WHEN ALARM SOUNDS— CALL FIRE DE- 
PARTMENT. 



m." Where the manufacturer has permanently 
provided this information on the manual fire alarm box. 

[F] 907.3.S Protective covers. The building official is au- 
thorized to require the installation of listed manual fire 
alarm box protective covers to prevent malicious false 
alarms or provide the manual fire alarm box with protection 
from physical damage. The protective cover shall be trans- 
parent or red in color with a transparent face to permit visi- 
bility of the manual fire alarm box. Each cover shall include 
proper operating instructions. A protective cover that emits 
a local alarm signal shall not be installed unless approved. 



[F] 907.4 Power supply. The primary and secondary power 
supplies for the fire alarm system shall be provided in accor- 
dance with NFPA 72. 

[F] 907.5 Wirimg. Wiring shall comply with the requirements 
of the ICC Electrical Code and NFPA 72. Wireless protection 
systems utilizing radio-frequency transmitting devices shall 
comply with the special requirements for supervision of 
low-power wireless systems in NFPA 72. 

[F] 907.6 Activatlomi. Where an alarm notification system is re- 
quired by another section of this code, it shall be activated by: 

1 . A required automatic fire alarm system. 

2. Sprinkler water-flow devices. 

3. Required manual fire alarm boxes. 



[F] 907.7 Presigeal system. Presignal systems shall not be in- 
stalled unless approved by the building official and the fire de- 
partment. Where a presignal system is installed, 24-hour 
personnel supervision shall be provided at a locafion approved 
by the fire department, in order that the alarm signal can be ac- 
tuated in the event of fire or other emergency. 

[F] 907.8 Zones. Each floor shall be zoned separately and a 
zone shall not exceed 22,500 square feet (2090 m^). The length 
of any zone shall not exceed 300 feet (91 440 mm) in any direc- 
tion. 



tioes Automatic sprinkler system zones shall not ex- 
ceed the area permitted by NFPA 13. 

[F] 907.8.1 Zonieg indicator paeeL A zoning indicator 
panel and the associated controls shall be provided in an ap- 
proved location. The visual zone indication shall lock in un- 
til the system is reset and shall not be canceled by the 
operation of an audible alarm- silencing switch. 



ngs. In buildings used for hu- 
man occupancy that have floors located more than 75 feet 
(22 860 mm) above the lowest level of fire department vehi- 
cle access, a separate zone by floor shall be provided for all 
of the following types of alarm-initiating devices where pro- 
vided: 

1. Smoke detectors. 

2. Sprinkler water-flow devices. 

3. Manual fire alarm boxes. 

4. Other approved types of automatic fire detection de- 
vices or suppression systems. 

[F] 907,9 Alarm eotiflcation appllamces. Alarm notification 
appliances shall be provided and shall be listed for their pur- 
pose. 

[F] 907.9.1 VislMe alarms. Visible alarm notification ap- 
pliances shall be provided in accordance with Sections 
907.9.1.1 through 907.9.1.3. 



1. Visible alarm notification appliances are not re- 
quired in alterations, except where an existing fire 
alarm system is upgraded or replaced, or a new fire 
alarm system is installed. 

2. Visible alarm notification appliances shall not be 
required in exits as defined in Section 1002.1. 

[F] 907.9.1.1 Pelblic amd commom areas. Visible alarm 
notification appliances shall be provided in public areas 
and common areas. 



[F] 907.9.1.2 Employee work areas. Where employee 
work areas have audible alarm coverage, the wiring sys- 
tems shall be designed so that visible alarm notification 
appliances can be integrated into the alarm system. 

[F] 907.9.1,3 Groups 14 amd R-l. Group I-l and R-1 
sleeping units in accordance with Table 907.9.1.3 shall jj 
be provided with a visible alarm notification appliance, 
activated by both the in-room smoke alarm and the build- 
ing fire alarm system. 

[F] 907.9,1,4 Group ]R=2. In Group R-2 occupancies re- 
quired by Section 907 to have a fire alarm system, all 



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dwelling units and sleeping units shall be provided with 
the capability to support visible alarm notification appli- 
ances in accordance with ICC A 11 7.1. 

[F] 907.9.2 Audible alarms. Audible alarm notification ap- 
pliances shall be provided and shall sound a distinctive 
sound that is not to be used for any purpose other than that of 
a fire alarm. The audible alarm notification appliances shall 
provide a sound pressure level of 15 decibels (dBA) above 
the average ambient sound level or 5 dBA above the maxi- 
mum sound level having a duration of at least 60 seconds, 
whichever is greater, in every occupied space within the 
building. The minimum sound pressure levels shall be: 70 
dBA in occupancies in Groups R and I-l; 90 dBA in me- 
chanical equipment rooms and 60 dBA in other occupan- 
cies. The maximum sound pressure level for audible alarm 
notification appliances shall be 120 dBA at the minimum 
hearing distance from the audible appliance. Where the av- 
erage ambient noise is greater than 105 dBA, visible alarm 
notification appliances shall be provided in accordance with 
NFPA 72 and audible alarm notification appliances shall not 
be required. 

Exception; Visible alarm notification appliances shall 
be allowed in lieu of audible alarm notification appli- 
ances in critical-care areas of Group 1-2 occupancies. 

[F] TABLE 907.9.1 .3 
VISIBLE AND AUDIBLE ALARMS 



NUWiBER OF 
SLEEPING UNITS 


SLEEPING UNITS WITH 
VISIBLE AND AUDIBLE ALARMS 


6 to 25 


2 


26 to 50 


4 


51 to 75 


7 


76 to 100 . 


9 


101 to 150 


12 


151 to 200 


14 


201 to 300 


17 


301 to 400 


20 


401 to 500 


22 


501 to 1,000 


5% of total 


1,001 and over 


50 plus 3 for each 100 over 1,000 



[F] 907.10 Fire safety functions. Automatic fire detectors uti- 
lized for the purpose of performing fire safety functions shall 
be connected to the building's fire alarm control panel where a 
fire alarm system is required by Section 907.2. Detectors shall, 
upon actuation, perform the intended function and activate the 
alarm notification appliances or a visible and audible supervi- 
sory signal at a constantly attended location. In buildings not 
required to be equipped with a fire alarm system, the automatic 
fire detector shall be powered by normal electrical service and, 
upon actuation, perform the intended function. The detectors 
shall be located in accordance with NFPA 72. 

[F] 907.11 Duct smoke detectors. Duct smoke detectors shall 
be connected to the building's fire alarm control panel when a 
fire alarm system is provided. Activation of a duct smoke de- 
tector shall initiate a visible and audible supervisory signal at a 



constantly attended location. Duct smoke detectors shall not be 
used as a substitute for required open-area detection. 

Exceptions: 

1. The supervisory signal at a constantly attended loca- 
tion is not required where duct smoke detectors acti- 
vate the building's alarm nofificafion appliances. 

2. In occupancies not required to be equipped with a fire 
alarm system, actuation of a smoke detector shall acti- 
vate a visible and audible signal in an approved loca- 
tion. Smoke detector trouble conditions shall acfivate 
a visible or audible signal in an approved location and 
shall be identified as air duct detector trouble. 

[F] 907.12 Access. Access shall be provided to each detector 
for periodic inspection, maintenance and testing. 

[F] 907.13 Fire-extinguishing systems. Automatic fire-extin- 
guishing systems shall be connected to the building fire alarm 
system where a fire alarm system is required by another section 
of this code or is otherwise installed. 

[F] 907.14 Monitoring. Where required by this chapter or the 
International Fire Code, an approved supervising station in ac- 
cordance with NFPA 72 shall monitor fire alarm systems. 

Exception; Supervisory service is not required for: 

1. Single- and multiple-station smoke alarms required 
by Section 907.2.10. 

2. Smoke detectors in Group 1-3 occupancies. 

3. Automatic sprinkler systems in one- and two-family 
dwellings. 

[F] 907.15 Automatic telephone-dialing devices. Automatic 
telephone-dialing devices used to transmit an emergency alarm 
shall not be connected to any fire department telephone number 
unless approved by the fire chief. 

[F] 907.16 Acceptance tests. Upon completion of the installa- 
tion of the fire alarm system, alarm notification appliances and 
circuits, alarm-initiating devices and circuits, supervisory-sig- 
nal initiating devices and circuits, signaling line circuits, and 
primary and secondary power supplies shall be tested in accor- 
dance with NFPA 72. 

[F] 907.17 Record of completion. A record of completion in 
accordance with NFPA 72 verifying that the system has been 
installed in accordance with the approved plans and specifica- 
tions shall be provided. 

[F] 907.18 Instructions. Operating, testing and maintenance 
instructions, and record drawings ("as builts") and equipment 
specifications shall be provided at an approved location. 

[F] 907.19 Inspection, testing and maintenance. The mainte- 
nance and testing schedules and procedures for fire alarm and 
fire detection systems shall be in accordance with the Interna- 
tional Fire Code. 



SECTION 908 

ElVfERGEhJCY ALARM SYSTEMS 

[F] 908.1 Group H occupancies. Emergency alarms for the 
detection and notification of an emergency condition in Group 



2003 SNTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



FIRE PROTECTDOW SYSTEMS 



H occupancies shall be provided in accordance with Section 
414.7. 



[F] 908.2 Gromp H-5 occinpamcyo Emergency alarms for noti- 
fication of an emergency condition in an HPM facility shall be 
provided as required in Section 415.9.4.6. A continuous 
gas-detection system shall be provided for HPM gases in accor- 
dance with Section 415.9.7. 

[F] 9083 Higlhly toxk amd toxic materialSo A gas detection 
system shall be provided for indoor storage and use of highly 
toxic and toxic gases to detect the presence of gas at or below 
the permissible exposure limit (PEL) or ceiling limit of the gas 
for which detection is provided. The system shall be capable of 
monitoring the discharge from the treatment system at or below 
one-half the IDLH limit. 



mi A gas detection system is not required for toxic 
gases when the physiological warning properties are at a 
level below the accepted PEL for the gas. 

[F] 9®§.3.1 AlarmSo The gas detection system shall initiate 
a local alarm and transmit a signal to a constantly attended 
control station when a short-term hazard condition is de- 
tected. The alarm shall be both visible and audible and shall 
provide warning both inside and outside the area where gas 
is detected. The audible alarm shall be distinct from all other 
alarms. 



mi Signal transmission to a constantly attended 
control station is not required when not more than one 
cylinder of highly toxic or toxic gas is stored. 

[F] 9CIi83o2 Sliintofff olFgas suipplyo The gas detection system 
shall automatically close the shutoff valve at the source on 
gas supply piping and tubing related to the system being 
monitored for whichever gas is detected. 



m; Automatic shutdown is not required for reac- 
tors utilized for the production of highly toxic or toxic 
compressed gases where such reactors are: 

1. Operated at pressures less than 15 pounds per 
square inch gauge (psig) (103.4 kPa). 

2. Constantly attended. 

3. Provided with readily accessible emergency shut- 
off valves. 

[F] 9(0)8o3o3 Valve closmreo The automatic closure of shutoff 
valves shall be in accordance with the following: 

1 . When the gas-detection sampling point initiating the 
gas detection system alarm is within a gas cabinet or 
exhausted enclosure, the shutoff valve in the gas cabi- 
net or exhausted enclosure for the specific gas de- 
tected shall automatically close. 

2. Where the gas-detection sampUng point initiating the 
gas detection system alarm is within a gas room and 
compressed gas containers are not in gas cabinets or 
exhausted enclosures, the shutoff valves on all gas 
lines for the specific gas detected shall automatically 
close. 

3. Where the gas-detection sampling point initiating the 
gas detection system alarm is within a piping distribu- 



tion manifold enclosure, the shutoff valve for the 
compressed container of specific gas detected supply- 
ing the manifold shall automatically close. 

Exceptiom: When the gas-detection sampling point initi- 
ating the gas-detection system alarm is at a use location 
or within a gas valve enclosure of a branch line down- 
stream of a piping distribution manifold, the shutoff 
valve in the gas valve enclosure for the branch line lo- 
cated in the piping distribution manifold enclosure shall 
automatically close. 

[F] 908.4 Ozone gas=gemerator rooms. Ozone gas-generator 
rooms shall be equipped with a continuous gas-detection sys- 
tem that will shut off the generator and sound a local alarm 
when concentrations above the PEL occur. 

[F] 908.5 Repair garages, A flammable-gas detection system 
shall be provided in repair garages for vehicles fueled by 
nonodorized gases in accordance with Section 406.6.6. 

[F] 908.6 Meffrigeramt dettecton Machinery rooms shall con- 
tain a refrigerant detector with an audible and visual alarm. The 
detector, or a sampling tube that draws air to the detector, shall 
be located in an area where refrigerant from a leak will concen- 
trate. The alarm shall be actuated at a value not greater than the 
corresponding TLV-TWA values for the refrigerant classifica- 
tion indicated in the International Mechanical Code. Detectors 
and alarms shall be placed in approved locations. 

Exceptioms Detectors are not required in ammonia system 
machinery rooms equipped with a vapor detector in accor- 
dance with the International Mechanical Code. 



SOiCE CONTROL SYSTE 



use. This section applies to mechanical 
or passive smoke control systems when they are required by 
other provisions of this code. The purpose of this section is to 
establish minimum requirements for the design, installation 
and acceptance testing of smoke control systems that are in- 
tended to provide a tenable environment for the evacuation or 
relocation of occupants. These provisions are not intended for 
the preservation of contents, the timely restoration of opera- 
tions or for assistance in fire suppression or overhaul activities. 
Smoke control systems regulated by this section serve a differ- 
ent purpose than the smoke- and heat- venting provisions found 
in Section 910. Mechanical smoke control systems shall not be 
considered exhaust systems under Chapter 5 of the Interna- 
tional Mechanical Code. 



^.2 General desigm reqeirememte. Buildings, structures or 
parts thereof required by this code to have a smoke control sys- 
tem or systems shall have such systems designed in accordance 
with the applicable requirements of Section 909 and the gener- 
ally accepted and well-estabhshed principles of engineering 
relevant to the design. The construction documents shall in- 
clude sufficient information and detail to adequately describe 
the elements of the design necessary for the proper implemen- 
tation of the smoke control systems. These documents shall be 
accompanied by sufficient information and analysis to demon- 
strate compliance with these provisions. 



2003 INTERNATiONAL BUBLDING CODE® 



FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



909.3 Special inspection and test requirements. In addition 
to the ordinary inspection and test requirements which build- 
ings, structures and parts thereof are required to undergo, 
smoke control systems subject to the provisions of Section 909 
shall undergo special inspections and tests sufficient to verify 
the proper commissioning of the smoke control design in its fi- 
nal installed condition. The design submission accompanying 
the construction documents shall clearly detail procedures and 
methods to be used and the items subject to such inspections 
and tests. Such commissioning shall be in accordance with 
generally accepted engineering practice and, where possible, 
based on published standards for the particular testing in- 
volved. The special inspections and tests required by this sec- 
tion shall be conducted under the same terms in Section 1 704. 

909.4 Analysis. A rational analysis supporting the types of 
smoke control systems to be employed, their methods of opera- 
tion, the systems supporting them and the methods of construc- 
tion to be utilized shall accompany the submitted construction 
documents and shall include, but not be limited to, the items in- 
dicated in Sections 909.4.1 through 909.4.6. 

909.4.1 Stacli effect. The system shall be designed such that 
the maximum probable normal or reverse stack effect will 
not adversely interfere with the system's capabihties. In de- 
termining the maximum probable stack effect, altitude, ele- 
vation, weather history and interior temperatures shall be 
used. 

909.4.2 Temperature effect of fire. Buoyancy and expan- 
sion caused by the design fire in accordance with Section 
909.9 shall be analyzed. The system shall be designed such 
that these effects do not adversely interfere with the sys- 
tem's capabilities. 

909.4.3 Wind effect. The design shall consider the adverse 
effects of wind. Such consideration shall be consistent with 
the wind-loading provisions of Chapter 16. 

909.4.4 HVAC systems. The design shall consider the ef- 
fects of the heating, ventilating and air-conditioning 
(HVAC) systems on both smoke and fire transport. The 
analysis shall include all permutations of systems status. 
The design shall consider the effects of the fire on the HVAC 
systems. 

909.4.5 Climate. The design shall consider the effects of 
low temperatures on systems, property and occupants. Air 
inlets and exhausts shall be located so as to prevent snow or 
ice blockage. 

909.4.6 Duration of operation. All portions of active or 
passive smoke control systems shall be capable of continued 
operation after detection of the fire event for not less than 20 
minutes. 

909.5 Smoke barrier construction. Smoke barriers shall 
comply with Section 709, and shall be constructed and sealed 
to limit leakage areas exclusive of protected openings. The 
maximum allowable leakage area shall be the aggregate area 
calculated using the following leakage area ratios: 

1. Walls: A/A, = 0.00100 

2. Exit enclosures: A/A, = 0.00035 

3. All other shafts: A/A„ = 0.00150 



4. Floors and roofs: A/A^ = 0.00050 

where: 

A = Total leakage area, square feet (m^). 

Ap- = Unit floor or roof area of barrier, square feet (m^). 

A, = Unit wall area of barrier, square feet (m^). 

The leakage area ratios shown do not include openings due 
to doors, operable windows or similar gaps. These shall be in- 
cluded in calculating the total leakage area. 



^.5.1 Leakage area. The total leakage area of the barrier 
is the product of the smoke barrier gross area monitored by 
the allowable leakage area ratio, plus the area of other open- 
ings such as gaps and operable windows. Compliance shall 
be determined by achieving the minimum air pressure dif- 
ference across the barrier with the system in the smoke con- 
trol mode for mechanical smoke control systems. Passive 
smoke control systems tested using other approved means 
such as door fan testing shall be as approved by the building 
official. 

909.5.2 Opening protection. Openings in smoke barriers 
shall be protected by automatic-closing devices actuated by 
the required controls for the mechanical smoke control sys- 
tem. Door openings shall be protected by fire door assem- 
blies complying with Section 715.3.3. 

Exceptions: 

1. Passive smoke control systems with auto- 
matic-closing devices actuated by spot-type 
smoke detectors listed for releasing service in- 
stalled in accordance with Section 907.10. 

2. Fixed openings between smoke zones which are 
protected utilizing the airflow method. 

3. In Group 1-2, where such doors are installed across 
corridors, a pair of opposite-swinging doors with- 
out a center mullion shall be installed having vi- 
sion panels with approved fire-rated glazing 
materials in approved fire-rated frames, the area of 
which shall not exceed that tested. The doors shall 
be close fitting within operational tolerances and 
shall not have undercuts, louvers or grilles. The 
doors shall have head and jamb stops, astragals or 
rabbets at meeting edges, and automatic-closing 
devices. Positive-latching devices are not required. 

4. Group 1-3. 

5. Openings between smoke zones with clear ceiling 
heights of 14 feet (4267 mm) or greater and 
bank-down capacity of greater than 20 minutes as 
determined by the design fire size. 

909.5,2.1 Ducts and air transfer openings. Ducts and 
air transfer openings are required to be protected with a 
minimum Class II, 250°F (121°C) smoke damper com- 
plying with Section 716. 

909.6 Pressurlzation method. The primary mechanical means 
of controlling smoke shall be by pressure differences across 
smoke barriers. Maintenance of a tenable environment is not 
required in the smoke control zone of fire origin. 



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909.6«1 MneniiiMraii pressure difffereeceo The minimum 
pressure difference across a smoke barrier shall be 0.05-inch 
water gage (0.0124 kPa) in fully sprinklered buildings. In 
buildings permitted to be other than fully sprinklered, the 
smoke control system shall be designed to achieve pressure 
differences at least two times the maximum calculated pres- 
sure difference produced by the design fire. 



ward the fire exceed 200 feet per minute (1 .02 m/s). Where 
the formula in Section 909.7.1 requires airflow to exceed 
this limit, the airflow method shall not be used. 



^ ressure dnffFeremceo The maximum air 
pressure difference across a smoke barrier shall be deter- 
mined by required door-opening or closing forces. The actual 
force required to open exit doors when the system is in the 
smoke control mode shall be in accordance with Section 
1008. 1 .2. Opening and closing forces for other doors shall be 
determined by standard engineering methods for the resolu- 
tion of forces and reactions. The calculated force to set a 
side-hinged, swinging door in motion shall be determined by: 



F=Fa, + KiWAhP)l2{W- d) 



(Eqiiuiatloini 9=1) 



where: 

A = Door area, square feet (m^). 

d = Distance from door handle to latch edge of door, 
feet (m). 

F = Total door opening force, pounds (N). 

F^^ = Force required to overcome closing device, pounds 

(N). 

K = Coefficient 5.2 (1.0). 
W = Door width, feet (m). 
AP = Design pressure difference, inches of water (Pa). 



«7 Airffilow desigm mnietliod. When approved by the building 
official, smoke migration through openings fixed in a perma- 
nently open position, which are located between smoke control 
zones by the use of the airflow method, shall be permitted. The 
design airflow shall be in accordance with this section. Airflow 
shall be directed to limit smoke migration from the fire zone. 
The geometry of openings shall be considered to prevent flow 
reversal from turbulent effects. 



o7.1 Velocity. The minimum average velocity through a 
fixed opening shall not be less than: 

v = 2n.2[h(Tf-Ty{T^+460)V'^ 

For SI: v = 1 19.9 [h (Tf TyT^V'^ 

where: 

h = Height of opening, feet (m). 

7} = Temperature of smoke, °F (°K). 

Tg = Temperature of ambient air, °F (°K). 

V = Air velocity, feet per minute (m/minute). 



hl.2 Protilblted conditnomSo This method shall not be 
employed where either the quantity of air or the velocity of 
the airflow will adversely affect other portions of the smoke 
control system, unduly intensify the fire, disrupt plume dy- 
namics or interfere with exiting. In no case shall airflow to- 



.8 Exhaust method. When approved by the building offi- 
cial, mechanical smoke control for large enclosed volumes, 
such as in atriums or malls, shall be permitted to utilize the ex- 
haust method. The design exhaust volumes shall be in accor- 
dance with this section. 

909.80 1 Exhaust rate. The height of the lowest horizontal 
surface of the accumulating smoke layer shall be main- 
tained at least 10 feet (3048 mm) above any walking surface 
which forms a portion of a required egress system within the 
smoke zone. The required exhaust rate for the zone shall be 
the largest of the calculated plume mass flow rates for the 
possible plume configurations. Provisions shall be made for 
natural or mechanical supply of air from outside or adjacent 
smoke zones to make up for the air exhausted. Makeup air- 
flow rates, when measured at the potential fire location, 
shall not exceed 200 feet per minute (60 960 mm per min- 
ute) toward the fire. The temperature of the makeup air shall 
be such that it does not expose temperature-sensitive fire 
protection systems beyond their limits. 

909.8.2 Axisymmetric plumes. The plume mass flow rate 
(nip), in pounds per second (kg/s), shall be determined by 
placing the design fire center on the axis of the space being 
analyzed. The limiting flame height shall be determined by: 

Zi= 0.5330,2/5 (Equation 9-3) 

For SI: Z/ = 0.1660,2/5 

where: 

nip = Plume mass flow rate, pounds per second (kg/s). 

Q = Total heat output. 

Q^ = Convective heat output, British thermal units per 
second (kW). (The value of Q^ shall not be taken as 
less than 0.700. 

z = Height from top of fuel surface to bottom of smoke 
layer, feet (m). 

Zi = Limiting flame height, feet (m). The Zi value must be 
greater than the fuel equivalent diameter (see Sec- 
tion 909.9). 

for z>Zi 

nip = OmiQJ'h'" + 0.00420, 

For SI: m^ = 0.071 0,"^^ + 0.00180, 

for z = Zi 

nip = 0.011 Q, 

For SI: 771^ = 0.0350, 

for z<Zi 

nip = 0.02080,3/5^ 

For SI: m^ = 0.0320,^/5^ 

To convert nip from pounds per second of mass flow to a 
volumetric rate, the following equation shall be used: 



y=60m/p 



(Equation 9-4) 



2003 



FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



where: 

V = Volumetric flow rate, cubic feet per minute (mVs). 

p = Density of air at the temperature of the smoke layer, 
pounds per cubic feet (T: in °F) [kg/m^ (T: in °C)]. 

909.8.3 Balcony spill plumes. The plume mass flow rate 
(nip) for spill plumes shall be determined using the geomet- 
rically probable width based on architectural elements and 
projections in the following equation: 



m = 0. 1 24(QW^) ''\zi, + 0.25//) 



(Equation 9-5) 



For SI: m^ = 036(QW^y'\Zb + 0.25H) 

where: 

H = Height above fire to underside of balcony, feet (m). 

nip = Plume mass flow rate, pounds per second (kg/s). 

Q = Total heat output. 

W = Plume width at point of spill, feet (m). 

Zb = Height from balcony, feet (m). 

909.8.4 Window plumes. The plume mass flow rate (m^) 
shall be determined from: 

m, = 0.017(AJiJ'y'\z^+ar' + OAMJiJ'^ 

(Equation 9-6) 

For SI: m^ = 0.6S(AJiJ'T\z^ + aY" + l.SAJi^ "^ 

where: 

A^ = Area of the opening, square feet (m^). 

H^ = Height of the opening, feet (m). 

nip = plume mass flow rate, pounds per second (kg/s). 

Zw = Height from the top of the window or opening to the 
bottom of the smoke layer, feet (m). 

a = 2AAJ'mj''-2.\H^. 

909.8.5 Plume contact with walls. When a plume contacts 
one or more of the surrounding walls, the mass flow rate 
shall be adjusted for the reduced entrainment resulting from 
the contact provided that the contact remains constant. Use 
of this provision requires calculation of the plume diameter, 
that shall be calculated by: 



^=0.48 [(r, + 460)/(r, + 460)]'/2^ 



(Equation 9-7) 



For SI: d = (dA%{TJT,y'h 

where: 

d = Plume diameter, feet (m). 

T^ = Ambient air temperature, °F (°K). 

T^ = Plume centerline temperature, °F (°K). 

= 0.60 (T, + 460) Q,^''z"' + T, 
z = Height at which T^ is determined, feet (m). 
For SI: T, = 0.08 T, Q,'"^ z '"^ + T^ 



909.9 Design fire. The design fire shall be based on a (2 of not 
less than 5,000 Btu/s (5275 kW) unless a rational analysis is 
performed by the registered design professional and approved 
by the building official. The design fire shall be based on the 
analysis in accordance with Section 909.4 and this section. 

909.9.1 Factors considered. The engineering analysis shall 
include the characteristics of the fuel, fuel load, effects in- 
cluded by the fire and whether the fire is likely to be steady 
or unsteady. 

909.9.2 Separation distance. Determination of the design 
fire shall include consideration of the type of fuel, fuel spac- 
ing and configuration. The ratio of the separation distance to 
the fuel equivalent radius shall not be less than 4. The fuel 
equivalent radius shall be the radius of a circle of equal area 
to floor area of the fuel package. The design fire shall be in- 
creased if other combustibles are within the separation dis- 
tance as determined by: 



R = [Q/{l2Kq")V'' 



where: 



(Equation 9-8) 



= Incident radiant heat flux required for nonpiloted 
ignition, Btu/ft^ • s (W/m^). 

= Heat release from fire, Btu/s (kW). 

= Separation distance from target to center of fuel 
package, feet (m). 

.9.3 Heat-release assumptions. The analysis shall 
make use of best available data from approved sources and 
shall not be based on excessively stringent hmitations of 
combustible material. 

909.9.4 Sprinkler effectiveness assumptions. A docu- 
mented engineering analysis shall be provided for condi- 
tions that assume fire growth is halted at the time of 
sprinkler activation. 

909.10 Equipment. Equipment such as, but not hmited to, 
fans, ducts, automatic dampers and balance dampers, shall be 
suitable for its intended use, suitable for the probable exposure 
temperatures that the rational analysis indicates, and as ap- 
proved by the building official. 

909.10.1 Exhaust fans. Components of exhaust fans shall 
be rated and certified by the manufacturer for the probable 
temperature rise to which the components will be exposed. 
This temperature rise shall be computed by: 



T, = (QJmc) + {TJ 



(Equation 9-9) 



where: 

c = Specific heat of smoke at smoke layer temperature, 
Btu/lb°F (kJ/kg • K). 

m = Exhaust rate, pounds per second (kg/s). 

Q^ = Convective heat output of fire, Btu/s (kW). 

r„ = Ambient temperature, °F (°K). 

T; = Smoke temperature, °F (°K). 

Exception: Reduced T^ as calculated based on the assur- 
ance of adequate dilution air. 



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Is. Duct materials and joints shall be capable 
of withstanding the probable temperatures and pressures to 
which they are exposed as determined in accordance with 
Section 909.10.1. Ducts shall be constructed and supported 
in accordance with the International Mechanical Code. 
Ducts shall be leak tested to 1.5 times the maximum design 
pressure in accordance with nationally accepted practices. 
Measured leakage shall not exceed 5 percent of design flow. 
Results of such testing shall be a part of the documentation 
procedure. Ducts shall be supported directly from fire-resis- 
tance-rated structural elements of the building by substan- 
tial, noncombustible supports. 



m? Flexible connections (for the purpose of vi- 
bration isolation) complying with the International Me- 
chanical Code, that are constructed of approved 
fire-resistance-rated materials. 



iitlets. Equipment shall 
be located so as to not expose uninvolved portions of the 
building to an additional fire hazard. Outside air inlets shall 
be located so as to minimize the potential for introducing 
smoke or flame into the building. Exhaust outlets shall be so 
located as to minimize reintroduction of smoke into the 
building and to limit exposure of the building or adjacent 
buildings to an additional fire hazard. 



rso Automatic dampers, regard- 
less of the purpose for which they are installed within the 
smoke control system, shall be listed and conform to the re- 
quirements of approved, recognized standards. 



BSo In addition to other requirements, 
belt-driven fans shall have 1 .5 times the number of belts re- 
quired for the design duty, with the minimum number of 
belts being two. Fans shall be selected for stable perfor- 
mance based on normal temperature and, where applicable, 
elevated temperature. Calculations and manufacturer's fan 
curves shall be part of the documentation procedures. Fans 
shall be supported and restrained by noncombustible de- 
vices in accordance with the requirements of Chapter 16. 
Motors driving fans shall not be operated beyond their 
nameplate horsepower (kilowatts), as determined from 
measurement of actual current draw, and shall have a mini- 
mum service factor of 1.15. 



IS. The smoke control system shall be 
supplied with two sources of power. Primary power shall be the 
normal building power systems. Secondary power shall be 
from an approved standby source complying with the ICC 
Electrical Code. The standby power source and its transfer 
switches shall be in a separate room from the normal power 
transformers and switch gear and shall be enclosed in a room 
constructed of not less than 1-hour fire-resistance-rated fire 
barriers ventilated directly to and from the exterior. Power dis- 
tribution from the two sources shall be by independent routes. 
Transfer to full standby power shall be automatic and within 60 
seconds of failure of the primary power. The systems shall 
comply with the ICC Electrical Code. 

909.11.1 Power sources aed power surges. Elements of 
the smoke management system relying on volatile memo- 
ries or the like shall be supplied with uninterruptable power 
sources of sufficient duration to span a 15-minute primary 



power interruption. Elements of the smoke management 
system susceptible to power surges shall be suitably pro- 
tected by conditioners, suppressors or other approved 
means. 

909.12 Detection amd control systems. Fire detection systems 
providing control input or output signals to mechanical smoke 
control systems or elements thereof shall comply with the re- 
quirements of Section 907. Such systems shall be equipped 
with a control unit complying with UL 864 and listed as smoke 
control equipment. 

Control systems for mechanical smoke control systems shall 
include provisions for verification. Verification shall include 
positive confirmation of actuation, testing, manual override, 
the presence of power downstream of all disconnects and, 
through a preprogrammed weekly test sequence report, abnor- 
mal conditions audibly, visually and by printed report. 

909.12.1 Wiring. In addition to meeting requirements of the 
ICC Electrical Code, all wiring, regardless of voltage, shall 
be fully enclosed within continuous raceways. 

[F] 909.12.2 Activation. Smoke control systems shall be 
activated in accordance with this section. 

[F] 909.12.2.1 Pressiiiriaation, airflow or exhaust 
metlnod. Mechanical smoke control systems using the 
pressurization, airflow or exhaust method shall have 
completely automatic control. 



[F] 909.12.2.2 Passive method. Passive smoke control 
systems actuated by approved spot-type detectors listed 
for releasing service shall be permitted. 

[F] 909.12.3 Automatic control. Where completely auto- 
matic control is required or used, the automatic-control se- 
quences shall be initiated from an appropriately zoned 
automatic sprinkler system complying with Section 
903.3.1.1, manual controls that are readily accessible to the 
fire department and any smoke detectors required by engi- 
neering analysis. 



.13 Control air tubing. Control air tubing shall be of suffi- 
cient size to meet the required response times. Tubing shall be 
flushed clean and dry prior to final connections and shall be ad- 
equately supported and protected from damage. Tubing pass- 
ing through concrete or masonry shall be sleeved and protected 
from abrasion and electrolytic action. 



^.13.1 Materials. Control air tubing shall be hard drawn 
copper. Type L, ACR in accordance with ASTM B 42, 
ASTM B 43, ASTM B 68, ASTM B 88, ASTM B 251 and 
ASTM B 280. Fittings shall be wrought copper or brass, sol- 
der type, in accordance with ASME B 16.18 or ASME B 
16.22. Changes in direction shall be made with appropriate 
tool bends. Brass compression-type fittings shall be used at 
final connection to devices; other joints shall be brazed us- 
ing a BCuP5 brazing alloy with sohdus above 1,100°F 
(593°C) and Hquids below 1,500°F (816°C). Brazing flux 
shall be used on copper-to-brass joints only. 

Exception: Nonmetallic tubing used within control pan- 
els and at the final connection to devices, provided that 
all of the following conditions are met: 

1. Tubing shall be listed by an approved agency for 
flame and smoke characteristics. 



2003 !^^TERNAT10MAL BUILDING CODE® 



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FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



2. Tubing and connected devices shall be completely 
enclosed within galvanized or paint-grade steel en- 
closure of not less than 0.030 inch (0.76 mm) (No. 
22 galvanized sheet gage) thickness. Entry to the 
enclosure shall be by copper tubing with a protec- 
tive grommet of neoprene or teflon or by suitable 
brass compression to male-barbed adapter. 

3. Tubing shall be identified by appropriately docu- 
mented coding. 

4. Tubing shall be neatly tied and supported within 
enclosure. Tubing bridging cabinet and door or 
moveable device shall be of sufficient length to 
avoid tension and excessive stress. Tubing shall be 
protected against abrasion. Tubing serving devices 
on doors shall be fastened along hinges. 

909.13.2 Isolatioo from other fuinctsoiis. Control tubing 
serving other than smoke control functions shall be isolated 
by automatic isolation valves or shall be an independent sys- 
tem. 

909.13.3 Testing. Control air tubing shall be tested at three 
times the operating pressure for not less than 30 minutes 
without any noticeable loss in gauge pressure prior to final 
connection to devices. 

909.14 Marking and identification. The detection and con- 
trol systems shall be clearly marked at all junctions, accesses 
and terminations. 

[F] 909.15 Control diagrams. Identical control diagrams 
showing all devices in the system and identifying their location 
and function shall be maintained current and kept on file with 
the building official, the fire department and in the fire com- 
mand center in format and manner approved by the fire chief 

[F] 909.16 Fire-fighter's smoke control panel. A 
fire-fighter's smoke control panel for fire department emer- 
gency response purposes only shall be provided and shall in- 
clude manual control or override of automatic control for 
mechanical smoke control systems. The panel shall be located 
in a fire command center complying with Section 911, and 
shall comply with Sections 909.16.1 through 909.16.3. 

[F] 909.16.1 Smoke control systems. Fans within the 
building shall be shown on the fire-fighter's control panel. A 
clear indication of the direction of airflow and the relaUon- 
ship of components shall be displayed. Status indicators 
shall be provided for all smoke control equipment, annunci- 
ated by fan and zone, and by pilot-lamp-type indicators as 
follows: 

1 . Fans, dampers and other operating equipment in their 
normal status — WHITE. 

2. Fans, dampers and other operafing equipment in their 
off or closed status — RED. 

3. Fans, dampers and other operating equipment in their 
on or open status — GREEN. 

4. Fans, dampers and other operafing equipment in a 
fault status— YELLOW/ AMBER. 

[F] 909.16.2 Smoke control panel. The fire-fighter's con- 
trol panel shall provide control capability over the complete 



smoke-control system equipment within the building as fol- 
lows: 

1 . ON- AUTO-OFF control over each individual piece of 
operating smoke control equipment that can also be 
controlled from other sources within the building. 
This includes stairway pressurization fans; smoke ex- 
haust fans; supply, return and exhaust fans; elevator 
shaft fans and other operating equipment used or in- 
tended for smoke control purposes. 

2. OPEN- AUTO-CLOSE control over individual damp- 
ers relating to smoke control and that are also con- 
trolled from other sources within the building. 

3. ON-OFF or OPEN-CLOSE control over smoke con- 
trol and other critical equipment associated with a fire 
or smoke emergency and that can only be controlled 
from the fire-fighter's control panel. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Complex systems, where approved, where the con- 
trols and indicators are combined to control and in- 
dicate all elements of a single smoke zone as a unit. 

2. Complex systems, where approved, where the con- 
trol is accompUshed by computer interface using 
approved, plain English commands. 

[F] 909.16.3 Control action and priorities. The 
fire-fighter's control panel actions shall be as follows: 

1. ON-OFF, OPEN-CLOSE control actions shall have 
the highest priority of any control point within the 
building. Once issued from the fire-fighter's control 
panel, no automatic or manual control from any other 
control point within the building shall contradict the 
control action. Where automatic means are provided 
to interrupt normal, nonemergency equipment opera- 
tion or produce a specific result to safeguard the build- 
ing or equipment (i.e., duct freezestats, duct smoke 
detectors, high-temperature cutouts, temperature-ac- 
tuated linkage and similar devices), such means shall 
be capable of being overridden by the fire-fighter's 
control panel. The last control action as indicated by 
each fire-fighter's control panel switch position shall 
prevail. In no case shall control actions require the 
smoke control system to assume more than one con- 
figuration at any one time. 

Exception: Power disconnects required by the 
ICC Electrical Code. 

2. Only the AUTO position of each three-position 
fire-fighter's control panel switch shall allow auto- 
matic or manual control action from other control 
points within the building. The AUTO position shall 
be the NORMAL, nonemergency, building control 
position. Where a fire-fighter's control panel is in the 
AUTO position, the actual status of the device (on, 
off, open, closed) shall continue to be indicated by the 
status indicator described above. When directed by an 
automatic signal to assume an emergency condition, 
the NORMAL position shall become the emergency 
condition for that device or group of devices within 
the zone. In no case shall control actions require the 



186 



2003 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



FBRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



smoke control system to assume more than one con- 
figuration at any one time. 

[F] 909ol7 System response itnme. Smoke-control system acti- 
vation shall be initiated immediately after receipt of an appro- 
priate automatic or manual activation command. Smoke 
control systems shall activate individual components (such as 
dampers and fans) in the sequence necessary to prevent physi- 
cal damage to the fans, dampers, ducts and other equipment. 
For purposes of smoke control, the fire-fighter's control panel 
response time shall be the same for automatic or manual smoke 
control action initiated from any other building control point. 
The total response time, including that necessary for detection, 
shutdown of operating equipment and smoke control system 
startup, shall allow for full operational mode to be achieved be- 
fore the conditions in the space exceed the design smoke condi- 
tion. The system response time for each component and their 
sequential relationships shall be detailed in the required ratio- 
nal analysis and verification of their installed condition re- 
ported in the required final report. 

[F] 909.18 Acceptamce testlmgo Devices, equipment, compo- 
nents and sequences shall be individually tested. These tests, in 
addition to those required by other provisions of this code, shall 
consist of determination of function, sequence and, where ap- 
phcable, capacity of their installed condition. 

[F] 909.18.1 Detecltnoe devkes. Smoke or fire detectors that 
are a part of a smoke control system shall be tested in accor- 
dance with Chapter 9 in their installed condition. When ap- 
plicable, this testing shall include verification of airflow in 
both minimum and maximum conditions. 

[F] 909.18.2 Decls. Ducts that are part of a smoke control 
system shall be traversed using generally accepted practices 
to determine actual air quantities. 

[F] 909.18.3 Dampers. Dampers shall be tested for function 
in their installed condition. 

[F] 909.18.4 Imlets amd oetlets. Inlets and outlets shall be 
read using generally accepted practices to determine air 
quantities. 

[F] 909.18,5 Faitiis. Fans shall be examined for correct rota- 
tion. Measurements of voltage, amperage, revolutions per 
minute (rpm) and belt tension shall be made. 

[F] 909.18,6 Smoke barriers. Measurements using in- 
clined manometers or other approved calibrated measuring 
devices shall be made of the pressure differences across 
smoke barriers. Such measurements shall be conducted for 
each possible smoke control condition. 

[F] 909.18.7 Comtrols. Each smoke zone, equipped with an 
automatic-initiation device, shall be put into operation by 
the actuation of one such device. Each additional device 
within the zone shall be verified to cause the same sequence 
without requiring the operation of fan motors in order to pre- 
vent damage. Control sequences shall be verified through- 
out the system, including verification of override from the 
fire-fighter's control panel and simulation of standby power 
conditions. 

[F] 909.18.8 Special imspectioms for smoke coetrol. 
Smoke control systems shall be tested by a special inspector. 



[F] 909.18.8.1 Scope off testing. Special inspections 
shall be conducted in accordance with the following: 

1 . During erection of ductwork and prior to conceal- 
ment for the purposes of leakage testing and re- 
cording of device location. 

2. Prior to occupancy and after sufficient completion 
for the purposes of pressure-difference testing, 
flow measurements, and detection and control ver- 
ification. 

[F] 909,18,8.2 Qealiications, Special inspection agen- 
cies for smoke control shall have expertise in fire protec- 
tion engineering, mechanical engineering and 
certification as air balancers. 

[F] 909.18,8.3 Reports. A complete report of testing 
shall be prepared by the special inspector or special in- 
spection agency. The report shall include identification 
of all devices by manufacturer, nameplate data, design 
values, measured values and identification tag or mark. 
The report shall be reviewed by the responsible regis- 
tered design professional and, when satisfied that the de- 
sign intent has been achieved, the responsible registered 
design professional shall seal, sign and date the report. 

[F] 909.18,8.3.1 Report fiimg. A copy of the final re- 
port shall be filed with the building official and an 
identical copy shall be maintained in an approved lo- 
cation at the building. 

[F] 909,18,9 WemtiilcatioE and docnmemtatiom. Charts, 
drawings and other documents identifying and locating 
each component of the smoke control system, and describ- 
ing its proper function and maintenance requirements, shall 
be maintained on file at the building as an attachment to the 
report required by Section 909. 18.8.3. Devices shall have an 
approved identifying tag or mark on them consistent with 
the other required documentation and shall be dated indicat- 
ing the last time they were successfully tested and by whom. 

[F] 909,19 System acceptance. Buildings, or portions thereof, 
required by this code to comply with this section shall not be is- 
sued a certificate of occupancy until such time that the building 
official determines that the provisions of this section have been 
fully complied with, and that the fire department has received 
satisfactory instruction on the operation, both automatic and 
manual, of the system. 



immi In buildings of phased construction, a tempo- 
rary certificate of occupancy, as approved by the building 
official, shall be permitted provided that those portions of 
the building to be occupied meet the requirements of this 
section and that the remainder does not pose a significant 
hazard to the safety of the proposed occupants or adjacent 
buildings. 



£S. Where required by Section 
1019.1.8, a smokeproof enclosure shall be constructed in ac- 
cordance with this section. A smokeproof enclosure shall con- 
sist of an enclosed interior exit stairway that conforms to 
Section 1019.1 and an outside balcony or ventilated vestibule 
meeting the requirements of this section. Where access to the 
roof is required by the International Fire Code, such access 



2003 IMTERfMATIONAL BOBLDIING CODE® 



187 



FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



shall be from the smokeproof enclosure where a smokeproof 
enclosure is required. 

909.20.1 Access. Access to the stair shall be by way of a ves- 
tibule or an open exterior balcony. The minimum dimension 
of the vestibule shall not be less than the required width of 
the corridor leading to the vestibule but shall not have a 
width of less than 44 inches (1118 mm) and shall not have a 
length of less than 72 inches (1829 mm) in the direction of 
egress travel. 

909.20.2 Construction. The smokeproof enclosure shall be 
separated from the remainder of the building by not less than 
a 2-hour fire-resistance-rated fire barrier without openings 
other than the required means of egress doors. The vestibule 
shall be separated from the stairway by not less than a 
2-hour fire-resistance-rated fire barrier. The open exterior 
balcony shall be constructed in accordance with the fire-re- 
sistance-rating requirements for floor construction. 

909.20.2.1 Door closers. Doors in a smokeproof enclo- 
sure shall be self-closing or automatic-closing by actua- 
tion of a smoke detector installed at the floor-side 
entrance to the smokeproof enclosure in accordance with 
Section 715.3.7. The actuation of the smoke detector on 
any door shall activate the closing devices on all doors in 
the smokeproof enclosure at all levels. Smoke detectors 
shall be installed in accordance with Section 907.10. 

909.20.3 Natural ventilation alternative. The provisions 
of Sections 909.20.3.1 through 909.20.3.3 shall apply to 
ventilation of smokeproof enclosures by natural means. 

909.20.3.1 Balcony doors. Where access to the stairway 
is by way of an open exterior balcony, the door assembly 
into the enclosure shall be a fire door in accordance with 
Section 715.3. 

909.20.3.2 Vestibule doors. Where access to the stair- 
way is by way of a vestibule, the door assembly into the 
vestibule shall be a fire door complying with Section 
715.3. The door assembly from the vestibule to the stair- 
way shall have not less than a 20-minute fire protection 
rating complying with Section 715.3. 

909.20.3.3 Vestibule ventilation. Each vestibule shall 
have a minimum net area of 16 square feet (1.5 m^) of 
opening in a wall facing an outer court, yard or public 
way that is at least 20 feet (6096 mm) in width. 

909.20.4 Mechanical ventilation alternative. The provi- 
sions of Sections 909.20.4.1 through 909.20.4.4 shall apply 
to ventilation of smokeproof enclosures by mechanical 
means. 

909.20.4.1 Vestibule doors. The door assembly from the 
building into the vestibule shall be a fire door complying 
with Section 715.3. The door assembly from the vesti- 
bule to the stairway shall have not less than a 20-minute 
fire protection rating in accordance with Section 715.3. 
The door from the building into the vestibule shall be 
provided with gaskets or other provisions to minimize air 
leakage. 

909.20.4.2 Vestibule ventilation. The vestibule shall be 
supplied with not less than one air change per minute and 
the exhaust shall not be less than 150 percent of supply. 



Supply air shall enter and exhaust air shall discharge 
from the vestibule through separate, tightly constructed 
ducts used only for that purpose. Supply air shall enter 
the vestibule within 6 inches (152 mm) of the floor level. 
The top of the exhaust register shall be located at the top 
of the smoke trap but not more than 6 inches (152 mm) 
down from the top of the trap, and shall be entirely within 
the smoke trap area. Doors in the open position shall not 
obstruct duct openings. Duct openings with controlling 
dampers are permitted where necessary to meet the de- 
sign requirements, but dampers are not otherwise re- 
quired. 



[).4.2.1 Engineered ventilation system. Where 
a specially engineered system is used, the system shall 
exhaust a quantity of air equal to not less than 90 air 
changes per hour from any vestibule in the emergency 
operation mode and shall be sized to handle three ves- 
tibules simultaneously. Smoke detectors shall be lo- 
cated at the floor-side entrance to each vestibule and 
shall activate the system for the affected vestibule. 
Smoke detectors shall be installed in accordance with 
Section 907.10. 

909.20.4.3 Smoke trap. The vestibule ceiling shall be at 
least 20 inches (508 mm) higher than the door opening 
into the vestibule to serve as a smoke and heat trap and to 
provide an upward-moving air column. The height shall 
not be decreased unless approved and justified by design 
and test. 

909.20.4.4 Stair shaft air movement system. The stair 
shaft shall be provided with a dampered relief opening 
and supplied with sufficient air to maintain a minimum 
positive pressure of 0. 10 inch of water (25 Pa) in the shaft 
relative to the vestibule with all doors closed. 



,20.5 Stair pressurizatton alternative. Where the 
building is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler 
system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1, the vestibule 
is not required, provided that interior exit stairways are pres- 
surized to a minimum of 0.15 inch of water (37 Pa) and a 
maximum of 0.35 inch of water (87 Pa) in the shaft relative 
to the building measured with all stairway doors closed un- 
der maximum anticipated stack pressures. 



[),6 Ventilating equipment. The activation of venti- 
lating equipment required by the alternatives in Sections 
909.20.4 and 909.20.5 shall be by smoke detectors installed 
at each floor level at an approved location at the entrance to 
the smokeproof enclosure. When the closing device for the 
stair shaft and vestibule doors is activated by smoke detec- 
tion or power failure, the mechanical equipment shall acti- 
vate and operate at the required performance levels. Smoke 
detectors shall be installed in accordance with Section 
907.10. 



D.6.1 Ventilation systems. Smokeproof enclosure 
ventilation systems shall be independent of other build- 
ing ventilation systems. The equipment and ductwork 
shall comply with one of the following: 

1 . Equipment and ductwork shall be located exterior 
to the building and directly connected to the 
smokeproof enclosure or connected to the 



loo 



2003 SNTERNATSONAL BUILDING CODE® 



FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



smokeproof enclosure by ductwork enclosed by 
2-hour fire-resistance-rated fire barriers. 

2. Equipment and ductwork shall be located within 
the smokeproof enclosure with intake or exhaust 
directly from and to the outside or through 
ductwork enclosed by 2-hour fire-resistance-rated 
fire barriers. 

3. Equipment and ductwork shall be located within 
the building if separated from the remainder of the 
building, including other mechanical equipment, 
by 2-hour fire-resistance-rated fire barriers. 



power. Mechanical vestibule and 
stair shaft ventilation systems and automatic fire detec- 
tion systems shall be powered by an approved standby 
power system conforming to Section 403. 10. 1 and Chap- 
ter 27. 



isttego Before the mechan- 
ical equipment is approved, the system shall be tested in 
the presence of the building official to confirm that the 
system is operating in compliance with these require- 
ments. 



9CIi9o21 Umdergrouinid tanMnmg 
Where required in accordance with Section 405.5 for under- 
ground buildings, a smoke exhaust system shall be provided in 
accordance with this section. 



• 



hlhl Extnaest capabiltty., Where compartmentation is 
required, each compartment shall have an independent, au- 
tomatically activated smoke exhaust system capable of 
manual operation. The system shall have an air supply and 
smoke exhaust capability that will provide a minimum of six 
air changes per hour. 

[F] 9D9.21.2 Operatiomio The smoke exhaust system shall be 
operated in the compartment of origin by the following, in- 
dependently of each other: 

1 . Two cross-zoned smoke detectors within a single pro- 
tected area of a single smoke detector monitored by an 
alarm verification zone or an approved equivalent 
method. 

2. The automatic sprinkler system. 

3. Manual controls that are readily accessible to the fire 
department. 

[F] 9®9.21o3 Alarm reqeiredl» Activation of the smoke ex- 
haust system shall activate an audible alarm at a constantly 
attended location. 



SMOKE AND HEAT ¥EMTS 

[F] 9Wol GemeraL Where required by this code or otherwise 
installed, smoke and heat vents or mechanical smoke exhaust 
systems and draft curtains shall conform to the requirements of 
this section. 

Esceptlomi: Frozen-food warehouses used solely for storage 
of Class I and II commodities where protected by an ap- 
proved automatic sprinkler system. 



.2 Where required^ Approved smoke and heat vents 
shall be installed in the roofs of one-story buildings or portions 
thereof occupied for the uses set forth in Sections 910.2.1 
through 910.2.4. 

[F] 910o2.1 Groups F=l ami S=lo Buildings and portions 
thereof used as a Group F-1 or S-1 occupancy having more 
than 50,000 square feet (4645 m^) in undivided area. 

Exception; Group S-1 aircraft repair hangars. 

[F] 910o2o2 Group H. Buildings and portions thereof used 
as a Group H occupancy as shown: 

1 . In occupancies classified as Group H-2 or H-3, any of 
which are over 15,000 square feet (1394 m^) in single 
floor area. 



ni Buildings of noncombustible con- 
struction containing only noncombustible materi- 
als. 

2. In areas of buildings in Group H used for storing Class 
2, 3, and 4 liquid and solid oxidizers. Class 1 and un- 
classified detonable organic peroxides. Class 3 and 4 
unstable (reactive) materials, or Class 2 or 3 water-re- 
active materials as required for a high-hazard com- 
modity classification. 

Exception; Buildings of noncombustible construc- 
tion containing only noncombustible materials. 

[F] 91CD.23 Hlgh-piled combustible storage. Buildings 
and portions thereof containing high-piled combustible 
stock or rack storage in any occupancy group in accordance 
with Section 413 and the International Fire Code. 

[F] 91®o2.4 Exit access travel dlstamce imcrease. Buildings 
and portions thereof used as a Group F-1 or S-1 occupancy 
where the maximum exit access travel distance is increased 
in accordance with Section 1015.2. 

[F] 910o3 Design and nnstallatiom. The design and installation 
of smoke and heat vents and draft curtains shall be as specified 
in this section and Table 910.3. 



[F] 910.3.1 Vent operatiom. Smoke and heat vents shall be 
approved and labeled and shall be capable of being operated 
by approved automatic and manual means. Automatic oper- 
ation of smoke and heat vents shall conform to the provi- 
sions of this section. 

[F] 910.3.1.1 Gravity-operated drop=out vents. Auto- 
matic smoke and heat vents containing heat-sensitive 
glazing designed to shrink and drop out of the vent open- 
ing when exposed to fire shall fully open within 5 min- 
utes after the vent cavity is exposed to a simulated fire, 
represented by a time-temperature gradient that reaches 
an air temperature of 500°F (260°C) within 5 minutes. 



[F] 910.3.1.2 Sprleklered buildings. Where installed in 
buildings provided with an approved automatic sprinkler 
system, smoke and heat vents shall be designed to oper- 
ate automatically. 

[F] 91®.3.1,3 Monsprinklered buildings. Where in- 
stalled in buildings not provided with an approved auto- 
matic sprinkler system, smoke and heat vents shall 
operate automatically by actuation of a heat-responsive 



2003 INTERNATBOMAL BUILDIMG CODE® 



FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



TABLE 910.3 
REQUIREiVlENTS FOR DRAFT CURTAINS AND SMOKE AND HEAT VENTS^ 



OCCUPANCY 

GROUP AND 

COMMODITY 

CLASSIFICATION 


DESIGNATED 

STORAGE HEIGHT 

(feet) 


MINIMUM DRAFT 

CURTAIN DEPTH 

(feet) 


MAXIMUM AREA 

FORMED BY DRAFT 

CURTAINS 

(square feet) 


VENT AREA 

TO FLOOR AREA 

RATIO 


MAXIMUM 

SPACING OF 

VENT CENTERS 

(feet) 


MAXIMUM 

DISTANCE TO 

VENTS FROM WALL 

OR DRAFT 

curtains" 

(feet) 


Group F-1 


— 


0.2 xH 

but>4 


50,000 


1:100 


120 


60 


Group S-1 

I-IV 
(Option 1) 


<20 


6 


10,000 


1:100 


100 


60 


> 20 < 40 


6 


8,000 


1:75 


100 


55 


Group S-1 

I-IV 
(Option 2) 


<20 


4 


3,000 


1:75 


100 


55 


> 20 < 40 


4 


3,000 


1:50 


100 


50 


Group S-1 

High hazard 

(Option 1) 


<20 


6 


6,000 


1:50 


100 


50 


> 20 < 30 


6 


6,000 


1:40 


90 


45 


Group S-1 

High hazard 

(Option 2) 


<20 


4 


4,000 


1:50 


100 


50 


> 20 < 30 


4 


2,000 


1:30 


75 


40 



For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 square foot = 0.0929 ml 

a. Requirements for rack storage heights in excess of those indicated shall be in accordance with Chapter 23 of the International Fire Code. For solid-piled storage 
heights in excess of those indicated, an approved engineered design shall be used. 

b. The distance specified is the maximum distance from any vent in a particular draft curtained area to walls or draft curtains which form the perimeter of the draft 
curtained area. 



device rated at between 100°F (38°C) and 220°F (104°C) 
above ambient. 

Exception: Gravity-operated drop-out vents comply- 
ing with Section 910.3.1.1 

[F] 910.3.2 Vent dimensions. The effective venting area 
shall not be less than 16 square feet ( 1 .5 m^) with no dimen- 
sion less than 4 feet (1219 mm), excluding ribs or gutters 
having a total width not exceeding 6 inches (152 mm). 

[F] 910.3.3 Vent locations. Smoke and heat vents shall be 
located 20 feet (6096 mm) or more from adjacent lot lines 
and fire walls and 10 feet (3048 mm) or more from fire bar- 
rier walls. Vents shall be uniformly located within the roof 
area above high-piled storage areas, with consideration 
given to roof pitch, draft curtain location, sprinkler location 
and structural members. 

[F] 910.3.4 Draft certains. Where required, draft curtains 
shall be provided in accordance with this section. 

Exception: Where areas of buildings are equipped with 
early suppression fast-response (ESFR) sprinklers, draft 
curtains shall not be provided within these areas. Draft 
curtains shall only be provided at the separation between 
the ESFR sprinklers and the conventional sprinklers. 

[F] 910.3.4.1 Construction. Draft curtains shall be con- 
structed of sheet metal, lath and plaster, gypsum board or 
other approved materials which provide equivalent per- 
formance to resist the passage of smoke. Joints and con- 
nections shall be smoke tight. 



[F] 910.3.4.2 Location and depth. The location and 
minimum depth of draft curtains shall be in accordance 
with Table 910.3. 

[F] 910.4 Mechanical smoke exhaust. Where approved by the 
building official, engineered mechanical smoke exhaust shall 
be an acceptable alternate to smoke and heat vents. 

[F] 910.4.1 Location. Exhaust fans shall be uniformly 
spaced within each draft-curtained area and the maximum 
distance between fans shall not be greater than 100 feet (30 
480 mm). 

[F] 910.4.2 Size. Fans shall have a maximum individual ca- 
pacity of 30,000 cfm (14.2 mVs). The aggregate capacity of 
smoke exhaust fans shall be determined by the equation: 



C=Ax 300 



where: 



(Equation 9-10) 



C = Capacity of mechanical ventilation required, in cu- 
bic feet per minute (mVs). 

A = Area of roof vents provided in square feet (m^) in ac- 
cordance with Table 910.3. 

[F] 910.4.3 Operation. Mechanical smoke exhaust fans 
shall be automatically activated by the automatic sprinkler 
system or by heat detectors having operating characteristics 
equivalent to those described in Section 910.3.1. Individual 
manual controls of each fan unit shall also be provided. 

[F] 910.4.4 Wiring and control. Wiring for operation and 
control of smoke exhaust fans shall be connected ahead of 



190 



2003 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



the main disconnect and protected against exposure to tem- 
peratures in excess of 1,000°F (538°C) for a period of not 
less than 15 minutes. Controls shall be located so as to be 
immediately accessible to the fire service from the exterior 
of the building and protected against interior fire exposure 
by fire barriers having a fire-resistance rating not less than 1 
hour. 



[F] 91CD.4.S Supply air. Supply air for exhaust fans shall be 
provided at or near the floor level and shall be sized to pro- 
vide a minimum of 50 percent of required exhaust. Open- 
ings for supply air shall be uniformly distributed around the 
periphery of the area served. 

[F] 910.4.6 Interlocks. In combination comfort air-han- 
dling/smoke removal systems or independent comfort 
air-handling systems, fans shall be controlled to shut down 
in accordance with the approved smoke control sequence. 



13. Worktable. 

14. Generator supervision devices, manual start and trans- 
fer features. 

15. PubUc address system, where specifically required by 
other sections of this code. 



ECTI0N911 



[F] 911.1 FeatareSo Where required by other sections of this 
code, a fire command center for fire department operations 
shall be provided. The location and accessibihty of the fire 
command center shall be separated from the remainder of the 
building by not less than a 1-hour fire-resistance-rated fire bar- 
rier. The room shall be a minimum of 96 square feet (9 m^) with 
a minimum dimension of 8 feet (2438 mm). A layout of the fire 
command center and all features required by the section to be 
contained therein shall be submitted for approval prior to in- 
stallation. The fire command center shall comply with NFPA 
72 and shall contain the following features. 

1. The emergency voice/alarm communication system 
unit. 

2. The fire department communications unit. 

3. Fire detection and alarm system annunciator unit. 

4. Annunciator unit visually indicating the location of the 
elevators and whether they are operational. 

5. Status indicators and controls for air-handling systems. 

6. The fire-fighter's control panel required by Section 
909. 16 for smoke control systems installed in the build- 
ing. 

7. Controls for unlocking stairway doors simultaneously. 

8. Sprinkler valve and water-flow detector display panels. 

9. Emergency and standby power status indicators. 

10. A telephone for fire department use with controlled ac- 
cess to the public telephone system. 

1 1 . Fire pump status indicators. 

12. Schematic building plans indicadng the typical floor 
plan and detailing the building core, means of egress, 
fire protection systems, fire-fighting equipment and 
fire department access. 



2003 SNTERMATDONAL BUILDIMG CODE® 



1 92 2003 INTERNATSON AL BUILDING CODE® 



CT AFTER 10 

User Note: See Preface page iv ("marginal markings") for Chapter 10 reorganization information. 



• 



SECTQOM 1001 
ADIiiNISTRMlON 

.1 GemeraL Buildings or portions thereof shall be pro- 
vided with a means of egress system as required by this chapter. 
The provisions of this chapter shall control the design, con- 
struction and arrangement of means of egress components re- 
quired to provide an approved means of egress from structures 
and portions thereof. 



L2 Mlmimum reqelrememtSo It shall be unlawful to alter a 
building or structure in a manner that will reduce the number of 
exits or the capacity of the means of egress to less than required 
by this code. 

[F] 1001„3 MaimteiiaEce. Means of egress shall be maintained 
in accordance with the International Fire Code. 



icimM mm 



5. The following words and terms shall, for 
the purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this code, 
have the meanings shown herein. 

ACCESSIBLE MEANS OF EGMESS. A continuous and un- 
obstructed way of egress travel from any point in a building or 
facility that provides an accessible route to an area of refuge, a 
horizontal exit or a public way. 

AISLE ACCESSWAY. That portion of an exit access that 
leads to an aisle. 

ALTERNATING TREAD DEVICE. A device that has a se- 
ries of steps between 50 and 70 degrees (0.87 and 1.22 rad) 
from horizontal, usually attached to a center support rail in an 
alternating manner so that the user does not have both feet on 
the same level at the same time. 



An area where persons unable to use 
stairways can remain temporarily to await instructions or assis- 
tance during emergency evacuation. 

□ BLEACHERSo Tiered seating facihties. 

COMMON PATH OF EGRESS TRAVEL. That portion of 
exit access which the occupants are required to traverse before 
two separate and distinct paths of egress travel to two exits are 
available. Paths that merge are common paths of travel. Com- 
mon paths of egress travel shall be included within the permit- 
ted travel distance. 



, An enclosed exit access component that defines 
and provides a path of egress travel to an exit. 

DOOR, BALANCED. A door equipped with double-pivoted 
hardware so designed as to cause a semicounterbalanced swing 
action when opening. 

EGRESS COURT. A court or yard which provides access to a 
public way for one or more exits. 



EMERGENCY ESCAPE AND RESCUE OPENING. An 
operable window, door or other similar device that provides for 
a means of escape and access for rescue in the event of an emer- 
gency. 

EXIT. That portion of a means of egress system which is sepa- 
rated from other interior spaces of a building or structure by 
fire-resistance-rated construction and opening protectives as 
required to provide a protected path of egress travel between 
the exit access and the exit discharge. Exits include exterior exit 
doors at ground level, exit enclosures, exit passageways, exte- 
rior exit stairs, exterior exit ramps and horizontal exits. 

EXIT, HORIZONTAL. A path of egress travel from one 
building to an area in another building on approximately the 
same level, or a path of egress travel through or around a wall or 
partition to an area on approximately the same level in the same 
building, which affords safety from fire and smoke from the 
area of incidence and areas communicating therewith. 

EXIT ACCESS. That portion of a means of egress system that 
leads from any occupied portion of a building or structure to an 
exit. 

EXIT DISCHARGE. That portion of a means of egress sys- 
tem between the termination of an exit and a public way. 

EXIT DISCHARGE, LEVEL OF, The horizontal plane lo- 
cated at the point at which an exit terminates and an exit dis- 
charge begins. 

EXIT ENCLOSURE, An exit component that is separated 
from other interior spaces of a building or structure by fire-re- 
sistance-rated construction and opening protectives, and pro- 
vides for a protected path of egress travel in a vertical or 
horizontal direction to the exit discharge or the public way. 

EXIT PASSAGEWAY. An exit component that is separated 
from all other interior spaces of a building or structure by 
fire-resistance-rated construction and opening protectives, and 
provides for a protected path of egress travel in a horizontal di- 
rection to the exit discharge or the public way. 



FIRE EXIT HARDWARE, 
use on fire door assemblies. 



Panic hardware that is listed for 



FLOOR AREA, GROSS. The floor area within the inside per- 
imeter of the exterior walls of the building under consideration, 
exclusive of vent shafts and courts, without deduction for corri- 
dors, stairways, closets, the thickness of interior walls, col- 
umns or other features. The floor area of a building, or portion 
thereof, not provided with surrounding exterior walls shall be 
the usable area under the horizontal projection of the roof or 
floor above. The gross floor area shall not include shafts with 
no openings or interior courts. 



||ET. The actual occupied area not including 
unoccupied accessory areas such as corridors, stairways, toilet 
rooms, mechanical rooms and closets. 



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FOLDING AND TELESCOPIC SEATING. Tiered seating 
facilities having an overall shape and size that are capable of 
being reduced for purposes of moving or storing. 

GRANDSTAND. Tiered seating facilities. 

GUARD. A building component or a system of building com- 
ponents located at or near the open sides of elevated walking 
surfaces that minimizes the possibility of a fall from the walk- 
ing surface to a lower level. 

HANDRAIL. A horizontal or sloping rail intended for grasp- 
ing by the hand for guidance or support. 

MEANS OF EGRESS, A continuous and unobstructed path 
of vertical and horizontal egress travel from any occupied por- 
tion of a building or structure to a public way. A means of 
egress consists of three separate and distinct parts: the exit ac- 
cess, the exit and the exit discharge. 

NOSING. The leading edge of treads of stairs and of landings 
at the top of stairway flights. 

OCCUPANT LOAD. The number of persons for which the 
means of egress of a building or portion thereof is designed. 

PANIC HARDWARE. A door-latching assembly incorporat- 
ing a device that releases the latch upon the application of a 
force in the direction of egress travel. 

PUBLIC WAY. A street, alley or other parcel of land open to 
the outside air leading to a street, that has been deeded, dedi- 
cated or otherwise permanently appropriated to the public for 
public use and which has a clear width and height of not less 
than 10 feet (3048 mm). 

RAMP. A walking surface that has a running slope steeper than 
g^ one unit vertical in 20 units horizontal (5 -percent slope). 

I SCISSOR STAIR. Two interlocking stairways providing two 
separate paths of egress located within one stairwell enclosure. 

SMOKE-PROTECTED ASSEMBLY SEATING. Seating 
served by means of egress that is not subject to smoke accumu- 
lation within or under a structure. 

STAIR. A change in elevation, consisting of one or more risers. 

STAIRWAY. One or more flights of stairs, either exterior or in- 
terior, with the necessary landings and platforms connecting 
them, to form a continuous and uninterrupted passage from one 
level to another. 

STAIRWAY, EXTERIOR. A stairway that is open on at least 
one side, except for required structural columns, beams, hand- 
rails and guards. The adjoining open areas shall be either yards, 
courts or public ways. The other sides of the exterior stairway 
need not be open. 

STAIRWAY, INTERIOR. A stairway not meeting the defini- 
tion of an exterior stairway. 

STAIRWAY, SPIRAL. A stairway having a closed circular 
form in its plan view with uniform section-shaped treads at- 
tached to and radiating from a minimum-diameter supporting 
column. 

I WINDER. A tread with nonparallel edges. 



SECTION 1003 
GENERAL MEAHB OF EGRESS 

1003.1 Applicability. The general requirements specified in 
Sections 1003 through 1012 shall apply to all three elements of 
the means of egress system, in addition to those specific re- 
quirements for the exit access, the exit and the exit discharge 
detailed elsewhere in this chapter. 

1003.2 Ceiling height. The means of egress shall have a ceiling 
height of not less than 7 feet (2134 mm). 

Exceptions: 

1. Sloped ceilings in accordance with Section 1208.2. 

2. Ceilings of dwelling units and sleeping units within 
residential occupancies in accordance with Section 
1208.2. 

3. Allowable projections in accordance with Section 
1003.3. 

4. Stair headroom in accordance with Section 1009.2. 

5. Door height in accordance with Section 1008.1.1. 

1003.3 Protrading objects. Protruding objects shall comply 
with the requirements of Sections 1003.3.1 through 1003.3.4. 

1003.3.1 Headroom. Protruding objects are permitted to 
extend below the minimum ceiling height required by Sec- 
tion 1003.2 provided a minimum headroom of 80 inches 
(2032 mm) shall be provided for any walking surface, in- 
cluding walks, corridors, aisles and passageways. Not more 
than 50 percent of the ceiling area of a means of egress shall 
be reduced in height by protruding objects. 

Exception; Door closers and stops shall not reduce head- 
room to less than 78 inches (1981 mm). 

A barrier shall be provided where the vertical clearance is 
less than 80 inches (2032 mm) high. The leading edge of 
such a barrier shall be located 27 inches (686 mm) maxi- 
mum above the floor. 



1.3.2 Free-standing objects. A free-standing object 
mounted on a post or pylon shall not overhang that post or 
pylon more than 12 inches (305 mm) where the lowest point 
of the leading edge is more than 27 inches (686 mm) and less 
than 80 inches (2032 mm) above the walking surface. 
Where a sign or other obstruction is mounted between posts 
or pylons and the clear distance between the posts or pylons 
is greater than 12 inches (305 mm), the lowest edge of such 
sign or obstruction shall be 27 inches (685 mm) maximum 
or 80 inches (2030 mm) minimum above the finish floor or 
ground. 

Exception; This requirement shall not apply to sloping 
portions of handrails serving stairs and ramps. 



1.3.3 Horizontal projections. Structural elements, fix- 
tures or furnishings shall not project horizontally from ei- 
ther side more than 4 inches (102 mm) over any walking 
surface between the heights of 27 inches (686 mm) and 80 
inches (2032 mm) above the walking surface. 

Exception: Handrails serving stairs and ramps are per- 
mitted to protrude 4.5 inches (1 14 mm) from the wall. 



194 



2003 SNTERNATIONAL BUILDiNG CODE® 



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3.4 Clear width. Protruding objects shall not reduce 
the minimum clear width of accessible routes as required in 
Section 1104. 



Walking surfaces of the means of egress 
shall have a slip-resistant surface and be securely attached. 

1<D03,S EkvaMom chamge. Where changes in elevation of less 
than 12 inches (305 mm) exist in the means of egress, sloped 
surfaces shall be used. Where the slope is greater than one unit 
vertical in 20 units horizontal (5-percent slope), ramps comply- 
ing with Section 1010 shall be used. Where the difference in el- 
evation is 6 inches (152 mm) or less, the ramp shall be equipped 
with either handrails or floor finish materials that contrast with 
adjacent floor finish materials. 



1 . A single step with a maximum riser height of 7 inches 
(178 mm) is permitted for buildings with occupancies 
in Groups F, H, R-2 and R-3 as applicable in Section 
101.2, and Groups S and U at exterior doors not re- 
quired to be accessible by Chapter 1 1 . 

2. A stair with a single riser or with two risers and a tread 
is permitted at locations not required to be accessible 
by Chapter 11, provided that the risers and treads 
comply with Section 1009.3, the minimum depth of 
the tread is 13 inches (330 mm) and at least one hand- 
rail complying with Section 1009.11 is provided 
within 30 inches (762 mm) of the centerline of the 
normal path of egress travel on the stair. 

3. An aisle serving seating that has a difference in eleva- 
tion less than 12 inches (305 mm) is permitted at loca- 
tions not required to be accessible by Chapter 11, 
provided that the risers and treads comply with Sec- 
tion 1024.1 1 and the aisle is provided with a handrail 
complying with Section 1024.13. 

Any change in elevation in a corridor serving nonambulatory 
persons in a Group 1-2 occupancy shall be by means of a ramp 
or sloped walkway. 



F egress comttmelty. The path of egress travel 
along a means of egress shall not be interrupted by any building 
element other than a means of egress component as specified in 
this chapter. Obstructions shall not be placed in the required 
width of a means of egress except projections permitted by this 
chapter. The required capacity of a means of egress system 
shall not be diminished along the path of egress travel. 



,, escalators amid movimg waiks. Elevators, es- 
calators and moving walks shall not be used as a component of a 
required means of egress from any other part of the building. 

Excepticm: Elevators used as an accessible means of egress 
in accordance with Section 1007.4. 



OCCUPAWT LOAD 

.1 Desngm occepamt load. In determining means of egress 
requirements, the number of occupants for whom means of 
egress facilities shall be provided shall be established by the 
largest number computed in accordance with Sections 
1004.1.1 through 1004.1.3. 



.1.1 Actual miimber. The actual number of occupants 
for whom each occupied space, floor or building is de- 
signed. 

1004.1.2 Number by Table 1004.1.2. The number of occu- 
pants computed at the rate of one occupant per unit of area as 
prescribed in Table 1004.1.2. 

TABLE 1004.1.2 
dAXilViUEVi FLOOR AREA ALLOWAiSiCES PER OCCUPANT 



OCCUPANCY 


FLOOR AREA IN SQ. FT. 
PER OCCUPANT 


Agricultural building 


300 gross 


Aircraft hangars 


500 gross 


Airport terminal 
Baggage claim 
Baggage handling 
Concourse 
Waiting areas 


20 gross 
300 gross 
100 gross 

15 gross 


Assembly 
Gaming floors (keno, slots, etc.) 


1 1 gross 


Assembly with fixed seats 


See Section 1004.7 


Assembly without fixed seats 

Concentrated (chairs only — not fixed) 

Standing space 

Unconcentrated (tables and chairs) 


7 net 
5 net 
15 net 


Bowling centers, allow 5 persons for each lane 
including 15 feet of runway, and for additional 
areas 


7 net 


Business areas 


100 gross 


Courtrooms — other than fixed seating areas 


40 net 


Dormitories 


50 gross 


Educational 
Classroom area 
Shops and other vocational room areas 


20 net 
50 net 


Exercise rooms 


50 gross 


H-5 Fabrication and manufacturing areas 


200 gross 


Industrial areas 


100 gross 


Institutional areas 

Inpatient treatment areas 
Outpafient areas 
Sleeping areas 


240 gross 
100 gross 
120 gross 


Kitchens, commercial 


200 gross 


Library 

Reading rooms 
Stack area 


50 net 
100 gross 


Locker rooms 


50 gross 


Mercantile 

Areas on other floors 
Basement and grade floor areas 
Storage, stock, shipping areas 


60 gross 
30 gross 
300 gross 


Parking garages 


200 gross 


Residential 


200 gross 


Skating rinks, swimming pools 
Rink and pool 
Decks 


50 gross 
15 gross 


Stages and platforms 


15 net 


Accessory storage areas, mechanical 
equipment room 


300 gross 


Warehouses 


500 gross 



For SI: 1 square foot = 0.0929 m^ 



2003 WTERWATDOfSiAL BUBLDIWG CODE® 



MEANS OF EGRESS 



1004.13 Number by combination. Where occupants from 
accessory spaces egress through a primary area, the calcu- 
lated occupant load for the primary space shall include the 
total occupant load of the primary space plus the number of 
occupants egressing through it from the accessory space. 

1004.2 Increased occupant load. The occupant load permit- 
ted in any building or portion thereof is permitted to be in- 
creased from that number established for the occupancies in 
Table 1 004. 1 .2 provided that all other requirements of the code 
are also met based on such modified number and the occupant 
load shall not exceed one occupant per 5 square feet (0.47 m^) 
of occupiable floor space. Where required by the building offi- 
cial, an approved aisle, seating or fixed equipment diagram 
substantiating any increase in occupant load shall be submit- 
ted. Where required by the building official, such diagram shall 
be posted. 

1004.3 Posting of occupant load. Every room or space that is 
an assembly occupancy shall have the occupant load of the 
room or space posted in a conspicuous place, near the main exit 
or exit access doorway from the room or space. Posted signs 
shall be of an approved legible permanent design and shall be 
maintained by the owner or authorized agent. 

1004.4 Exiting from multiple levels. Where exits serve more 
than one floor, only the occupant load of each floor considered 
individually shall be used in computing the required capacity 
of the exits at that floor, provided that the exit capacity shall not 
decrease in the direction of egress travel. 

1004.5 Egress convergence. Where means of egress from 
floors above and below converge at an intermediate level, the 
capacity of the means of egress from the point of convergence 
shall not be less than the sum of the two floors. 

1004.6 Mezzanine levels. The occupant load of a mezzanine 
level with egress onto a room or area below shall be added to 
that room or area's occupant load, and the capacity of the exits 
shall be designed for the total occupant load thus established. 

1004.7 Fixed seating. For areas having fixed seats and aisles, 
the occupant load shall be determined by the number of fixed 
seats installed therein. 

For areas having fixed seating without dividing arms, the oc- 
cupant load shall not be less than the number of seats based on 
one person for each 18 inches (457 mm) of seating length. 

The occupant load of seating booths shall be based on one 
person for each 24 inches (610 mm) of booth seat length mea- 
sured at the backrest of the seating booth. 

1004.8 Outdoor areas. Yards, patios, courts and similar out- 
door areas accessible to and usable by the building occupants 
shall be provided with means of egress as required by this chap- 
ter. The occupant load of such outdoor areas shall be assigned 
by the building official in accordance with the anticipated use. 
Where outdoor areas are to be used by persons in addition to the 
occupants of the building, and the path of egress travel from the 
outdoor areas passes through the building, means of egress re- 
quirements for the building shall be based on the sum of the oc- 
cupant loads of the building plus the outdoor areas. 



Exceptions s 

1. Outdoor areas used exclusively for service of the 
building need only have one means of egress. 

2. Both outdoor areas associated with Group R-3 and in- 
dividual dwelling units of Group R-2, as applicable in 
Section 101.2. 

1004.9 Multiple occupancies. Where a building contains two 
or more occupancies, the means of egress requirements shall 
apply to each portion of the building based on the occupancy of 
that space. Where two or more occupancies utilize portions of 
the same means of egress system, those egress components 
shall meet the more stringent requirements of all occupancies 
that are served. 



SECTION 1005 
EGRESS WIDTH 

)5.1 Minimum required egress width. The means of 
egress width shall not be less than required by this section. The 
total width of means of egress in inches (mm) shall not be less 
than the total occupant load served by the means of egress mul- 
tiplied by the factors in Table 1005. 1 and not less than specified 
elsewhere in this code. Multiple means of egress shall be sized 
such that the loss of any one means of egress shall not reduce 
the available capacity to less than 50 percent of the required ca- 
pacity. The maximum capacity required from any story of a 
building shall be maintained to the termination of the means of 
egress. 

Exception: Means of egress complying with Section 1024. 

TABLE 1005.1 
EGRESS WIDTH PER OCCUPANT SERVED 



OCCUPANCY 


WITHOUT SPRINKLER SYSTEM 


WITH SPRINKLER SYSTEM^ 


Stairways 
(Inches per 
occupant) 


Other egress 

components 

(inches per 

occupant) 


Stairways 
(inches per 
occupant) 


Other egress 

components 

(inches per 

occupant) 


Occupancies 
other than those 
listed below 


0.3 


0.2 


0.2 


0.15 


Hazardous: H-1, 
H-2, H-3 and H-4 


0.7 


0.4 


0.3 


0.2 


Institutional: 1-2 


NA 


NA 


0.3 


0.2 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. NA = Not applicable. 

a. Buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accor- 
dance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2. 

1005.2 Door encroachment. Doors opening into the path of 
egress travel shall not reduce the required width to less than 
one-half during the course of the swing. When fully open, the 
door shall not project more than 7 inches (178 mm) into the re- 
quired width. 

Exception: The restrictions on a door swing shall not apply 
to doors within individual dwelling units and sleeping units 
of Group R-2 and dwelling units of Group R-3. 



w 



196 



2003 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



lEANS OF EGRESS 



ECTION 1006 



■CTiON 1007 



. The means of egress, including 
the exit discharge, shall be illuminated at all times the building 
space served by the means of egress is occupied. 



1 . Occupancies in Group U. 

2. Aisle accessways in Group A. 

3. Dwelling units and sleeping units in Groups R-1, R-2 
and R-3. 

4. Sleeping units of Group I occupancies. 



1. The means of egress illumination 
level shall not be less than 1 foot-candle (11 lux) at the floor 
level. 



m: For auditoriums, theaters, concert or opera halls 
and similar assembly occupancies, the illumination at the 
floor level is permitted to be reduced during performances to 
not less than 0.2 foot-candle (2.15 lux) provided that the re- 
quired illumination is automatically restored upon activa- 
tion of a premise's fire alarm system where such system is 
provided. 

10063 Illirniinatloini emergemcy power. The power supply for 
means of egress illumination shall normally be provided by the 
premise's electrical supply. 

In the event of power supply failure, an emergency electrical 
system shall automatically illuminate the following areas: 

1 . Exit access corridors, passageways and aisles in rooms 
and spaces which require two or more means of egress. 

2. Exit access corridors and exit stairways located in build- 
ings required to have two or more exits. 

3. Exterior egress components at other than the level of exit 
discharge until exit discharge is accompHshed for build- 
ings required to have two or more exits. 

4. Interior exit discharge elements, as permitted in Section 
1023.1, in buildings required to have two or more exits. 

5. The portion of the exterior exit discharge immediately 
adjacent to exit discharge doorways in buildings required 
to have two or more exits. 

The emergency power system shall provide power for a du- 
ration of not less than 90 minutes and shall consist of storage 
batteries, unit equipment or an on-site generator. The installa- 
tion of the emergency power system shall be in accordance with 
Section 2702. 

1006.4 Performamce of system. Emergency lighting facilities 
shall be arranged to provide initial illumination that is at least 
an average of 1 foot-candle (11 lux) and a minimum at any 
point of 0.1 foot-candle (1 lux) measured along the path of 
egress at floor level. Illumination levels shall be permitted to 
decline to 0.6 foot-candle (6 lux) average and a minimum at any 
point of 0.06 foot-candle (0.6 lux) at the end of the emergency 
lighting time duration. A maximum-to-minimum illumination 
uniformity ratio of 40 to 1 shall not be exceeded. 



.1 Accessible means off egress required. Accessible 
means of egress shall comply with this section. Accessible 
spaces shall be provided with not less than one accessible 
means of egress. Where more than one means of egress is re- 
quired by Section 1014.1 or 1018.1 from any accessible space, 
each accessible portion of the space shall be served by not less 
than two accessible means of egress. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Accessible means of egress are not required in alter- 
ations to existing buildings. 

2. One accessible means of egress is required from an 
accessible mezzanine level in accordance with Sec- 
tion 1007.3 or 1007.4. 

3. In assembly spaces with sloped floors, one accessible 
means of egress is required from a space where the 
common path of travel of the accessible route for ac- 
cess to the wheelchair spaces meets the requirements 
in Section 1024.8. 

1007.2 Continuity and components. Each required accessi- 
ble means of egress shall be continuous to a public way and 
shall consist of one or more of the following components: 

1. Accessible routes complying with Section 1 104. 

2. Stairways within exit enclosures complying with Sec- 
tions 1007.3 and 1019.1. 

3. Elevators complying with Section 1007.4. 

4. Platform Hfts complying with Section 1007.5. 

5. Horizontal exits. 

6. Smoke barriers. 



1 . Where the exit discharge is not accessible, an exterior 
area for assisted rescue must be provided in accor- 
dance with Section 1007.8. 

2. Where the exit stairway is open to the exterior, the ac- 
cessible means of egress shall include either an area of 
refuge in accordance with Section 1007.6 or an exte- 
rior area for assisted rescue in accordance with Sec- 
tion 1007.8. 

1007.2.1 BMiMings with foer or more stories. In buildings 
where a required accessible floor is four or more stories 
above or below a level of exit discharge, at least one required 
accessible means of egress shall be an elevator complying 
with Section 1007.4. 



In buildings equipped throughout with an auto- 
matic sprinkler system installed in accordance 
with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2, the elevator 
shall not be required on floors provided with a hor- 
izontal exit and located at or above the level of exit 
discharge. 

In buildings equipped throughout with an auto- 
matic sprinkler system installed in accordance 
with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2, the elevator 



2003 SNTERiMATSOtSlAL BUILDDNG CODE® 



197 



MEANS OF EGRESS 



shall not be required on floors provided with a 
ramp conforming to the provisions of Section 
1010. 

1007.3 Enclosed exit stairways. An enclosed exit stairway, to 
be considered part of an accessible means of egress, shall have 
a clear width of 48 inches (1219 mm) minimum between hand- 
rails and shall either incorporate an area of refuge within an en- 
larged floor-level landing or shall be accessed from either an 
area of refuge complying with Section 1007.6 or a horizontal 
exit. 

Exceptions: 

1. Open exit stairways as permitted by Section 1019.1 
are permitted to be considered part of an accessible 
means of egress. 

2. The area of refuge is not required at open stairways 
that are permitted by Section 1019.1 in buildings or 
facihties that are equipped throughout with an auto- 
matic sprinkler system installed in accordance with 
Section 903.3.1.1. 

3. The clear width of 48 inches (1219 mm) between 
handrails and the area of refuge is not required at exit 
stairways in buildings or facilities equipped through- 
out with an automatic sprinkler system installed in ac- 
cordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2. 

4. The clear width of 48 inches (1219 mm) between 
handrails is not required for enclosed exit stairways 
accessed from a horizontal exit. 

5 . Areas of refuge are not required at exit stairways serv- 
ing open parking garages. 

1007.4 Elevators. An elevator to be considered part of an ac- 
cessible means of egress shall comply with the emergency op- 
eration and signaling device requirements of Section 2.27 of 
ASME A17. 1 . Standby power shall be provided in accordance 
with Sections 2702 and 3003. The elevator shall be accessed 
from either an area of refuge complying with Section 1007.6 or 
a horizontal exit. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Elevators are not required to be accessed from an area 
of refuge or horizontal exit in open parking garages. 

2. Elevators are not required to be accessed from an area 
of refuge or horizontal exit in buildings and facilities 
equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler sys- 
tem installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 
903.3.1.2. 

1007.5 Platform lifts. Platform (wheelchair) lifts shall not 
serve as part of an accessible means of egress, except where al- 
lowed as part of a required accessible route in Section 1 109.7. 
Platform lifts in accordance with Section 2702 shall be in- 
stalled in accordance with ASME A18.1. Standby power shall 
be provided for platform lifts permitted to serve as part of a 
means of egress. 

1007.6 Areas of refuge. Every required area of refuge shall be 
accessible from the space it serves by an accessible means of 
egress. The maximum travel distance from any accessible 
space to an area of refuge shall not exceed the travel distance 
permitted for the occupancy in accordance with Section 



1015.1. Every required area of refuge shall have direct access to 
an enclosed stairway complying with Sections 1007.3 and 
1019.1 or an elevator complying with Section 1007.4. Where 
an elevator lobby is used as an area of refuge, the shaft and 
lobby shall comply with Section 1019.1.8 for smokeproof en- 
closures except where the elevators are in an area of refuge 
formed by a horizontal exit or smoke barrier. 

1007.6.1 Size. Each area of refuge shall be sized to accom- 
modate one wheelchair space of 30 inches by 48 inches (762 
mm by 1219 mm) for each 200 occupants or portion thereof, 
based on the occupant load of the area of refuge and areas 
served by the area of refuge. Such wheelchair spaces shall 
not reduce the required means of egress width. Access to 
any of the required wheelchair spaces in an area of refuge 
shall not be obstructed by more than one adjoining wheel- 
chair space. 

1007.6.2 Separation. Each area of refuge shall be separated 
from the remainder of the story by a smoke barrier comply- 
ing with Section 709. Each area of refuge shall be designed 
to minimize the intrusion of smoke. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Areas of refuge located within a stairway enclo- 
sure. 

2. Areas of refuge where the area of refuge and areas 
served by the area of refuge are equipped through- 
out with an automatic sprinkler system installed in 
accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2. 

1007.6.3 Two-way communication. Areas of refuge shall 
be provided with a two-way communication system be- 
tween the area of refuge and a central control point. If the 
central control point is not constantly attended, the area of 
refuge shall also have controlled access to a public tele- 
phone system. Location of the central control point shall be 
approved by the fire department. The two-way communica- 
tion system shall include both audible and visible signals. 

1007.6.4 Instructions. In areas of refuge that have a 
two-way emergency communications system, instructions 
on the use of the area under emergency conditions shall be 
posted adjoining the communications system. The instruc- 
tions shall include all of the following: 

1 . Directions to find other means of egress. 

2. Persons able to use the exit stairway do so as soon as 
possible, unless they are assisting others. 

3. Information on planned availability of assistance in 
the use of stairs or supervised operation of elevators 
and how to summon such assistance. 

4. Directions for use of the emergency communications 
system. 

1007.6.5 Identification. Each door providing access to an 
area of refuge from an adjacent floor area shall be identified 
by a sign complying with ICC A117.1, stating: AREA OF 
REFUGE, and including the International Symbol of Ac- 
cessibility. Where exit sign illumination is required by Sec- 
tion 1011.2, the area of refuge sign shall be illuminated. 
Additionally, tactile signage complying with ICC A117.1 
shall be located at each door to an area of refuge. 



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o7 Sigmageo At exits and elevators serving a required ac- 
cessible space but not providing an approved accessible means 
of egress, signage shall be installed indicating the location of 
accessible means of egress. 



.8 Exterior area for assisted rescmeo The exterior area for 
assisted rescue must be open to the outside air and meet the re- 
quirements of Section 1007.6.1. Separation walls shall comply 
with the requirements of Section 704 for exterior walls. Where 
walls or openings are between the area for assisted rescue and 
the interior of the building, the building exterior walls within 10 
feet (3048 mm) horizontally of a nonrated wall or unprotected 
opening shall be constructed as required for a minimum 1-hour 
fire-resistance rating with V4-hour opening protectives. This 
construction shall extend vertically from the ground to a point 
10 feet (3048 mm) above the floor level of the area for assisted 
rescue or to the roof line, whichever is lower. 

WQ7M,1 Opemeess. The exterior area for assisted rescue 
shall be at least 50 percent open, and the open area above the 
guards shall be so distributed as to minimize the accumula- 
tion of smoke or toxic gases. 



Exterior exit stairways 
that are part of the means of egress for the exterior area for 
assisted rescue shall provide a clear width of 48 inches 
(1219 mm) between handrails. 



Exterior areas for assisted rescue 
shall have identification as required for area of refuge that 
complies with Section 1007.6.5. 



SECTDOW 1008 
mS, GATES AND TURNSTBLES 

rs. Means of egress doors shall meet the require- 
ments of this section. Doors serving a means of egress system 
shall meet the requirements of this section and Section 1017.2. 
Doors provided for egress purposes in numbers greater than re- 
quired by this code shall meet the requirements of this section. 

Means of egress doors shall be readily distinguishable from 
the adjacent construction and finishes such that the doors are 
easily recognizable as doors. Mirrors or similar reflecting ma- 
terials shall not be used on means of egress doors. Means of 
egress doors shall not be concealed by curtains, drapes, decora- 
tions or similar materials. 

10©8ol.l Size off doors. The minimum width of each door 
opening shall be sufficient for the occupant load thereof and 
shall provide a clear width of not less than 32 inches (813 
mm). Clear openings of doorways with swinging doors shall 
be measured between the face of the door and the stop, with 
the door open 90 degrees (1.57 rad). Where this section re- 
quires a minimum clear width of 32 inches (813 mm) and a 
door opening includes two door leaves without a mullion, 
one leaf shall provide a clear opening width of 32 inches 
(813 mm). The maximum width of a swinging door leaf 
shall be 48 inches (1219 mm) nominal. Means of egress 
doors in an occupancy in Group 1-2 used for the movement 
of beds shall provide a clear width not less than 41 Vj inches 



(1054 mm). The height of doors shall not be less than 80 
inches (2032 mm). 

Exceptioms; 

1 . The minimum and maximum width shall not apply 
to door openings that are not part of the required 
means of egress in occupancies in Groups R-2 and 
R-3 as applicable in Section 101.2. 

2. Door openings to resident sleeping units in occu- 
pancies in Group 1-3 shall have a clear width of not 
less than 28 inches (711 mm). 

3. Door openings to storage closets less than 10 
square feet (0.93 m^) in area shall not be limited by 
the minimum width. 

4. Width of door leafs in revolving doors that comply 
with Section 1008.1.3.1 shall not be hmited. 

5. Door openings within a dwelling unit or sleeping 
unit shall not be less than 78 inches (1981 mm) in 
height. 

6. Exterior door openings in dwelling units and 
sleeping units, other than the required exit door, 
shall not be less than 76 inches (1930 mm) in 
height. 

7. Interior egress doors within a dwelhng unit or 
sleeping unit which is not required to be adaptable 
or accessible. 

8. Door openings required to be accessible within 
Type B dwelling units shall have a minimum clear 
width of 3IV4 inches (806 mm). 



lOOB.l.lol Projections into clear widtlh. There shall not 
be projections into the required clear width lower than 34 
inches (864 mm) above the floor or ground. Projections 
into the clear opening width between 34 inches (864 
mm) and 80 inches (2032 mm) above the floor or ground 
shall not exceed 4 inches (102 mm). 

1008.1,2 Door swieg. Egress doors shall be side-hinged 
swinging. 



Private garages, office areas, factory and storage 
areas with an occupant load of 10 or less. 

Group 1-3 occupancies used as a place of deten- 
tion. 

Doors within or serving a single dwelling unit in 
Groups R-2 and R-3 as applicable in Section 
101.2. 

In other than Group H occupancies, revolving 
doors complying with Section 1008.1.3.1. 

In other than Group H occupancies, horizontal 
shding doors complying with Secdon 1008.1.3.3 
are permitted in a means of egress. 

Power-operated doors in accordance with Section 
1008.1.3.2. 



2003 BNTERNATSOfSSAL BUlLD!iS!G CODE® 



MEANS OF EGRESS 



Doors shall swing in the direction of egress travel where 
serving an occupant load of 50 or more persons or a Group H 
occupancy. 

The opening force for interior side-swinging doors with- 
out closers shall not exceed a 5-pound (22 N) force. For 
other side-swinging, sliding and folding doors, the door 
latch shall release when subjected to a 15-pound (67 N) 
force. The door shall be set in motion when subjected to a 
30-pound (133 N) force. The door shall swing to a full-open 
position when subjected to a 15-pound (67 N) force. Forces 
shall be applied to the latch side. 

1008.1.3 Special doors. Special doors and security grilles 
shall comply with the requirements of Sections 1008.1.3.1 
through 1008.1.3.5. 

1008.1.3.1 Revolving doors. Revolving doors shall 
comply with the following: 

1 . Each revolving door shall be capable of collapsing 
into a bookfold position with parallel egress paths 
providing an aggregate width of 36 inches (914 
mm). 

2. A revolving door shall not be located within 10 feet 
(3048 mm) of the foot of or top of stairs or escala- 
tors. A dispersal area shall be provided between 
the stairs or escalators and the revolving doors. 

3. The revolutions per minute (rpm) for a revolving 
door shall not exceed those shown in Table 
1008.1.3.1. 

4. Each revolving door shall have a side-hinged 
swinging door which complies with Section 
1008.1 in the same wall and within 10 feet (3048 
mm) of the revolving door. 

TABLE 1008.1.3.1 
REVOLVING DOOR SPEEDS 



INSIDE DIAMETER 
(feet-inches) 


POWER-DRIVEN-TYPE 

SPEED CONTROL 

(rpm) 


IWANUAL-TYPE 

SPEED CONTROL 

(rpm) 


6-6 


11 


12 


7-0 


10 


11 


7-6 


9 


11 


8-0 


9 


10 


8-6 


8 


9 


9-0 


8 


9 


9-6 


7 


8 


10-0 


7 


8 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 

1008.1.3.1.1 Egress component. A revolving door 
used as a component of a means of egress shall com- 
ply with Section 1008.1.3.1 and the following three 
conditions: 

1. Revolving doors shall not be given credit for 
more than 50 percent of the required egress ca- 
pacity. 

2. Each revolving door shall be credited with no 
more than a 50-person capacity. 



3. Each revolving door shall be capable of being 
collapsed when a force of not more than 130 
pounds (578 N) is applied within 3 inches (76 
mm) of the outer edge of a wing. 

1008.1.3.1.2 Other than egress component. A re- 
volving door used as other than a component of a 
means of egress shall comply with Section 
1008.1.3.1. The collapsing force of a revolving door 
not used as a component of a means of egress shall not 
be more than 180 pounds (801 N). 



tion: A collapsing force in excess of 180 
pounds (801 N) is permitted if the collapsing force 
is reduced to not more than 130 pounds (578 N) 
when at least one of the following conditions is sat- 
isfied: 

1 . There is a power failure or power is removed 
to the device holding the door wings in posi- 
tion. 

2. There is an actuation of the automatic sprin- 
kler system where such system is provided. 

3. There is an actuation of a smoke detection 
system which is installed in accordance with 
Section 907 to provide coverage in areas 
within the building which are within 75 feet 
(22 860 mm) of the revolving doors. 

4. There is an actuation of a manual control 
switch, in an approved location and clearly 
defined, which reduces the holding force to 
below the 130-pound (578 N) force level. 

)8.1.3.2 Power=operated doors. Where means of 
egress doors are operated by power, such as doors with a 
photoelectric-actuated mechanism to open the door upon 
the approach of a person, or doors with power-assisted 
manual operation, the design shall be such that in the 
event of power failure, the door is capable of being 
opened manually to permit means of egress travel or 
closed where necessary to safeguard means of egress. 
The forces required to open these doors manually shall 
not exceed those specified in Section 1008.1.2, except 
that the force to set the door in motion shall not exceed 50 
pounds (220 N). The door shall be capable of swinging 
from any position to the full width of the opening in 
which such door is installed when a force is applied to the 
door on the side from which egress is made. 
Full-power-operated doors shall comply with BHMA 
A 156. 10. Power-assisted and low-energy doors shall 
comply with BHMA A 156. 19. 

Exceptions: 

1. Occupancies in Group 1-3. 

2. Horizontal sliding doors complying with Sec- 
tion 1008.1.3.3. 

3. For a biparting door in the emergency breakout 
mode, a door leaf located within a multiple-leaf 
opening shall be exempt from the minimum 
32-inch (813 mm) single-leaf requirement of 
Section 1008.1.1, provided a minimum 32-inch 
(813 mm) clear opening is provided when the 



200 



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• 



two biparting leaves meeting in the center are 
broken out. 

100§.13o3 Horizontal sliding doors. In other than 
Group H occupancies, horizontal sUding doors permitted 
to be a component of a means of egress in accordance 
with Exception 5 to Section 1008.1.2 shall comply with 
all of the following criteria: 

1 . The doors shall be power operated and shall be ca- 
pable of being operated manually in the event of 
power failure. 

2. The doors shall be openable by a simple method 
from both sides without special knowledge or ef- 
fort. 

3. The force required to operate the door shall not ex- 
ceed 30 pounds (133 N) to set the door in motion 
and 15 pounds (67 N) to close the door or open it to 
the minimum required width. 

4. The door shall be openable with a force not to ex- 
ceed 15 pounds (67 N) when a force of 250 pounds 
( 1 100 N) is apphed perpendicular to the door adja- 
cent to the operating device. 

5. The door assembly shall comply with the applica- 
ble fire protection rating and, where rated, shall be 
self-closing or automatic-closing by smoke detec- 
tion, shall be installed in accordance with NFPA 80 
and shall comply with Section 715. 

6. The door assembly shall have an integrated 
standby power supply. 

7. The door assembly power supply shall be electri- 
cally supervised. 

8. The door shall open to the minimum required 
width within 10 seconds after activation of the op- 
erating device. 

I®08.13o4 Acces§=comtrolIed egress doors. The en- 
trance doors in a means of egress in buildings with an oc- 
cupancy in Group A, B, E, M, R-1 or R-2 and entrance 
doors to tenant spaces in occupancies in Groups A, B, E, 
M, R-1 and R-2 are permitted to be equipped with an ap- 
proved entrance and egress access control system which 
shall be installed in accordance with all of the following 
criteria: 

1 . A sensor shall be provided on the egress side ar- 
ranged to detect an occupant approaching the 
doors. The doors shall be arranged to unlock by a 
signal from or loss of power to the sensor. 

2. Loss of power to that part of the access control sys- 
tem which locks the doors shall automatically un- 
lock the doors. 

3. The doors shall be arranged to unlock from a man- 
ual unlocking device located 40 inches to 48 inches 
(1016 mm to 1219 mm) vertically above the floor 
and within 5 feet (1524 mm) of the secured doors. 
Ready access shall be provided to the manual un- 
locking device and the device shall be clearly iden- 
tified by a sign that reads "PUSH TO EXIT." When 
operated, the manual unlocking device shall result 



in direct interruption of power to the 
lock — independent of the access control system 
electronics — and the doors shall remain unlocked 
for a minimum of 30 seconds. 

4. Activation of the building fire alarm system, if pro- 
vided, shall automatically unlock the doors, and 
the doors shall remain unlocked until the fire alarm 
system has been reset. 

5. Activation of the building automatic sprinkler or 
fire detection system, if provided, shall automati- 
cally unlock the doors. The doors shall remain un- 
locked until the fire alarm system has been reset. 

6. Entrance doors in buildings with an occupancy in 
Group A, B, E or M shall not be secured from the 
egress side during periods that the building is open 
to the general public. 

10®§J.3.5 Security grilles. In Groups B, F, M and S, 
horizontal sliding or vertical security grilles are permit- 
ted at the main exit and shall be openable from the inside 
without the use of a key or special knowledge or effort 
during periods that the space is occupied. The grilles 
shall remain secured in the full-open position during the 
period of occupancy by the general public. Where two or 
more means of egress are required, not more than 
one-half of the exits or exit access doorways shall be 
equipped with horizontal sliding or vertical security 
grilles. 

1008.1.4 Floor elevation. There shall be a floor or landing 
on each side of a door. Such floor or landing shall be at the 
same elevation on each side of the door. Landings shall be 
level except for exterior landings, which are permitted to 
have a slope not to exceed 0.25 unit vertical in 12 units hori- 
zontal (2-percent slope). 

Exceptions? 

1 . Doors serving individual dwelling units in Groups 
R-2 and R-3 as applicable in Secfion 101.2 where 
the following apply: 

1 . 1 . A door is permitted to open at the top step 
of an interior flight of stairs, provided the 
door does not swing over the top step. 

1 .2. Screen doors and storm doors are permit- 
ted to swing over stairs or landings. 

2. Exterior doors as provided for in Section 1003.5, 
Exception 1, and Section 1017.2, which are not on 
an accessible route. 

3. In Group R-3 occupancies, the landing at an exte- 
rior doorway shall not be more than VI ^ inches 
(197 mm) below the top of the threshold, provided 
the door, other than an exterior storm or screen 
door, does not swing over the landing. 

4. Variations in elevation due to differences in finish 
materials, but not more than 0.5 inch (12.7 mm). 

5. Exterior decks, patios or balconies that are part of 
Type B dwelling units and have impervious sur- 
faces, and that are not more than 4 inches (102 



201 



MEANS OF EGRESS 



mm) below the finished floor level of the adjacent 
interior space of the dwelling unit. 

1008.1=5 Landings at doors. Landings shall have a width 
not less than the width of the stairway or the door, whichever 
is the greater. Doors in the fully open position shall not re- 
duce a required dimension by more than 7 inches (178 mm). 
When a landing serves an occupant load of 50 or more, 
doors in any position shall not reduce the landing to less than 
one-half its required width. Landings shall have a length 
measured in the direction of travel of not less than 44 inches 
(1118 mm). 

Exception: Landing length in the direction of travel in 
Group R-3 as apphcable in Section 101.2 and Group U 
and within individual units of Group R-2 as applicable in 
Section 101.2, need not exceed 36 inches (914 mm). 



used only for security purposes and not used for normal 
operation are permitted at any height. 



$.1.6 Thresholds. Thresholds at doorways shall not ex- 
ceed 0.75 inch (19.1 mm) in height for sliding doors serving 
dwelling units or 0.5 inch (12.7 mm) for other doors. Raised 
thresholds and floor level changes greater than 0.25 inch 
(6.4 mm) at doorways shall be beveled with a slope not 
greater than one unit vertical in two units horizontal (50-per- 
cent slope). 

Exception: The threshold height shall be hmited to 7 % 
inches (197 mm) where the occupancy is Group R-2 or 
R-3 as applicable in Section 101.2, the door is an exterior 
door that is not a component of the required means of 
egress and the doorway is not on an accessible route. 

1008.1.7 Door arrangement. Space between two doors in 
series shall be 48 inches (1219 mm) minimum plus the 
width of a door swinging into the space. Doors in series shall 
swing either in the same direction or away from the space 
between doors. 

Exceptions: 

1 . The minimum distance between horizontal sliding 
power-operated doors in a series shall be 48 inches 
(1219 mm). 

2. Storm and screen doors serving individual dwell- 
ing units in Groups R-2 and R-3 as applicable in 
Section 101.2 need not be spaced 48 inches (1219 
mm) from the other door. 

3. Doors within individual dwelling units in Groups 
R-2 and R-3 as applicable in Section 101.2 other 
than within Type A dwelling units. 

1008.1.8 Door operations. Except as specifically permitted 
by this section egress doors shall be readily openable from 
the egress side without the use of a key or special knowledge 
or effort. 

1008.1.8.1 Hardware. Door handles, pulls, latches, 
locks and other operating devices on doors required to be 
accessible by Chapter 1 1 shall not require tight grasping, 
tight pinching or twisting of the wrist to operate. 

1008.1.8.2 Hardware height. Door handles, pulls, 
latches, locks and other operating devices shall be in- 
stalled 34 inches (864 mm) minimum and 48 inches 
(1219 mm) maximum above the finished floor. Locks 



LI08.3 Locks and latches. Locks and latches shall 
be permitted to prevent operation of doors where any of 
the following exists: 

1 . Places of detention or restraint. 

2. In buildings in occupancy Group A having an oc- 
cupant load of 300 or less. Groups B, F, M and S, 
and in churches, the main exterior door or doors are 
permitted to be equipped with key-operated lock- 
ing devices from the egress side provided: 

2.1. The locking device is readily distinguishable 
as locked, 

2.2. A readily visible durable sign is posted on the 
egress side on or adjacent to the door stating: 
THIS DOOR TO REMAIN UNLOCKED 
WHEN BUILDING IS OCCUPIED. The sign 
shall be in letters 1 inch (25 mm) high on a 
contrasting background, 

2.3. The use of the key-operated locking device is 
revokable by the building official for due 
cause. 

3. Where egress doors are used in pairs, approved au- 
tomatic flush bolts shall be permitted to be used, 
provided that the door leaf having the automatic 
flush bolts has no doorknob or surface-mounted 
hardware. 

4. Doors from individual dwelling or sleeping units I 
of Group R occupancies having an occupant load 1 
of 10 or less are permitted to be equipped with a 
night latch, dead bolt or security chain, provided 
such devices are openable from the inside without 
the use of a key or tool. 

1008.1.8.4 Bolt locks. Manually operated flush bolts or 
surface bolts are not permitted. 

Exceptions: 

1 . On doors not required for egress in individual i 
dwelling units or sleeping units. | 

2. Where a pair of doors serves a storage or equip- 
ment room, manually operated edge- or sur- 
face-mounted bolts are permitted on the 
inactive leaf. 

1008.1.8.5 Unlatching. The unlatching of any leaf shall 
not require more than one operation. 

Exception: More than one operation is permitted for 
unlatching doors in the following locations: 

1 . Places of detention or restraint. 

2. Where manually operated bolt locks are permit- 
ted by Section 1008.1.8.4. 

3. Doors with automatic flush bolts as permitted 
by Section 1008.1.8.3, Exception 3. 

4. Doors from individual dwelling units and 
guestrooms of Group R occupancies as permit- 
ted by Section 1008.1.8.3, Exception 4. 



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1008.108.6 Delayed egress locks. Approved, listed, de- 
layed egress locks shall be permitted to be installed on 
doors serving any occupancy except Group A, E and H 
occupancies in buildings that are equipped throughout 
with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with 
Section 903.3.1.1 or an approved automatic smoke or 
heat detection system installed in accordance with Sec- 
tion 907, provided that the doors unlock in accordance 
with Items 1 through 6 below. A building occupant shall 
not be required to pass through more than one door 
equipped with a delayed egress lock before entering an 
exit. 

1 . The doors unlock upon actuation of the automatic 
sprinkler system or automatic fire detection sys- 
tem. 

2. The doors unlock upon loss of power controlUng 
the lock or lock mechanism. 

3. The door locks shall have the capability of being 
unlocked by a signal from the fire command center. 

4. The initiation of an irreversible process which will 
release the latch in not more than 15 seconds when 
a force of not more than 15 pounds (67 N) is ap- 
plied for 1 second to the release device. Initiation 
of the irreversible process shall activate an audible 
signal in the vicinity of the door. Once the door 
lock has been released by the application of force 
to the releasing device, relocking shall be by man- 
ual means only. 

Exceptnomis Where approved, a delay of not 
more than 30 seconds is permitted. 

5. A sign shall be provided on the door located above 
and within 12 inches (305 mm) of the release de- 
vice reading: PUSH UNTIL ALARM SOUNDS. 
DOOR CAN BE OPENED IN 15 [30] SECONDS. 

6. Emergency lighting shall be provided at the door. 

1008.1.8.7 Stairway doors. Interior stairway means of 
egress doors shall be openable from both sides without 
the use of a key or special knowledge or effort. 



1. Stairway discharge doors shall be openable 
from the egress side and shall only be locked 
from the opposite side. 

2. This section shall not apply to doors arranged in 
accordance with Section 403.12. 

3. In stairways serving not more than four stories, 
doors are permitted to be locked from the side 
opposite the egress side, provided they are 
openable from the egress side. 

18.1.9 Panic amd ire exit hardware. Where panic and 
fire exit hardware is installed, it shall comply with the fol- 
lowing: 

1 . The actuating portion of the releasing device shall ex- 
tend at least one-half of the door leaf width. 

2. A maximum unlatching force of 15 pounds (67 N). 



Each door in a means of egress from an occupancy of 
Group A or E having an occupant load of 100 or more and 
any occupancy of Group H-1, H-2, H-3 or H-5 shall not be 
provided with a latch or lock unless it is panic hardware or 
fire exit hardware. 

If balanced doors are used and panic hardware is re- 
quired, the panic hardware shall be the push-pad type and 
the pad shall not extend more than one-half the width of the 
door measured from the latch side. 

1008.2 Gates. Gates serving the means of egress system shall 
comply with the requirements of this section. Gates used as a 
component in a means of egress shall conform to the applicable 
requirements for doors. 

Exception: Horizontal sliding or swinging gates exceeding 
the 4-foot (1219 mm) maximum leaf width limitation are 
permitted in fences and walls surrounding a stadium. 

1008.2,1 Stadiums. Panic hardware is not required on gates 
surrounding stadiums where such gates are under constant 
immediate supervision while the public is present, and fur- 
ther provided that safe dispersal areas based on 3 square feet 
(0.28 m^) per occupant are located between the fence and 
enclosed space. Such required safe dispersal areas shall not 
be located less than 50 feet (15 240 mm) from the enclosed 
space. See Section 1017 for means of egress from safe dis- 
persal areas. ^ 



3 inumstiles. Turnstiles or similar devices that restrict 
travel to one direction shall not be placed so as to obstruct any 
required means of egress. 

Esceptloe: Each turnstile or similar device shall be credited 
with no more than a 50-person capacity where all of the fol- 
lowing provisions are met: 

1 . Each device shall turn free in the direction of egress 
travel when primary power is lost, and upon the man- 
ual release by an employee in the area. 

2. Such devices are not given credit for more than 50 
percent of the required egress capacity. 

3. Each device is not more than 39 inches (991 mm) 
high. 

4. Each device has at least 16.5 inches (419 mm) clear 
width at and below a height of 39 inches (991 mm) 
and at least 22 inches (559 mm) clear width at heights 
above 39 inches (991 mm). 

Where located as part of an accessible route, turnstiles 
shall have at least 36 inches (914 mm) clear at and below 
a height of 34 inches (864 mm), at least 32 inches (813 
mm) clear width between 34 inches (864 mm) and 80 
inches (2032 mm) and shall consist of a mechanism other 
than a revolving device. 



1008.3.1 High terestile. Turnstiles more than 39 inches 
(991 mm) high shall meet the requirements for revolving 
doors. 

1008.3.2 Addltloeal door. Where serving an occupant load 
greater than 300, each turnstile that is not portable shall have 
a side-hinged swinging door which conforms to Section 
1008.1 within 50 feet (15 240 mm). 



2003 SNTERMATIONAL BUILDIMG CODE® 



203 



MEANS OF EGRESS 



SECTION 1009 
STAIRWAYS AND HANDRAILS 

1009.1 Stairway width. The width of stairways shall be deter- 
mined as specified in Section 1005.1, but such width shall not 
be less than 44 inches (1118 mm). See Section 1007.3 for ac- 
cessible means of egress stairways. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Stairways serving an occupant load of 50 or less shall 
have a width of not less than 36 inches (914 mm). 

2. Spiral stairways as provided for in Section 1009.9. 

3. Aisle stairs complying with Section 1024. 

4. Where a stairway lift is installed on stairways serving 
occupancies in Group R-3, or within dwelling units in 
occupancies in Group R-2, both as applicable in Sec- 
tion 101.2, a clear passage width not less than 20 
inches (508 mm) shall be provided. If the seat and 
platform can be folded when not in use, the distance 
shall be measured from the folded position. 

1009.2 Headroom. Stairways shall have a minimum head- 
room clearance of 80 inches (2032 mm) measured vertically 
from a line connecting the edge of the nosings. Such headroom 
shall be continuous above the stairway to the point where the 
line intersects the landing below, one tread depth beyond the 
bottom riser. The minimum clearance shall be maintained the 
full width of the stairway and landing. 

Exception: Spiral stairways complying with Section 
1009.9 are permitted a 78-inch (1981 mm) headroom clear- 
ance. 

1009.3 Stair treads and risers. Stair riser heights shall be 7 
inches (178 mm) maximum and 4 inches (102 mm) minimum. 
Stair tread depths shall be 1 1 inches (279 nrni) minimum. The 
riser height shall be measured vertically between the leading 
edges of adjacent treads. The greatest riser height within any 
flight of stairs shall not exceed the smallest by more than 0.375 
inch (9.5 mm). The tread depth shall be measured horizontally 
between the vertical planes of the foremost projection of adja- 
cent treads and at right angle to the tread's leading edge. The 
greatest tread depth within any flight of stairs shall not exceed 
the smallest by more than 0.375 inch (9.5 mm). Winder treads 
shall have a minimum tread depth of 1 1 inches (279 mm) mea- 
sured at a right angle to the tread's leading edge at a point 12 
inches (305 mm) from the side where the treads are narrower 
and a minimum tread depth of 10 inches (254 mm). The great- 
est winder tread depth at the 12-inch (305 mm) walk line within 
any flight of stairs shall not exceed the smallest by more than 
0.375 inch (9.5 mm). 

Exceptions: 

1. Circular stairways in accordance with Section 
1009.7. 

2. Winders in accordance with Section 1009.8. 

3. Spiral stairways in accordance with Section 1009.9. 

4. Aisle stairs in assembly seating areas where the stair 
pitch or slope is set, for sightline reasons, by the slope 
of the adjacent seating area in accordance with Sec- 
tion 1024.11.2. 



5. In occupancies in Group R-3, as applicable in Section 
101.2, within dwelling units in occupancies in Group 
R-2, as applicable in Section 101.2, and in occupan- 
cies in Group U, which are accessory to an occupancy 
in Group R-3, as applicable in Section 101.2, the max- 
imum riser height shall be 7.75 inches (197 mm) and 
the minimum tread depth shall be 10 inches (254 
mm), the minimum winder tread depth at the walk line 
shall be 10 inches (254 mm), and the minimum 
winder tread depth shall be 6 inches (152 mm). A nos- 
ing not less than 0.75 inch (19.1 mm) but not more 
than 1.25 inches (32 mm) shall be provided on stair- 
ways with solid risers where the tread depth is less 
than 1 1 inches (279 mm). 

6. See the International Existing Building Code for the 
replacement of existing stairways. 

^.3.1 Dimensional uniformity. Stair treads and risers 
shall be of uniform size and shape. The tolerance between 
the largest and smallest riser or between the largest and 
smallest tread shall not exceed 0.375 inch (9.5 mm) in any 
flight of stairs. 

Exceptions: 

1. Nonuniform riser dimensions of aisle stairs com- 
plying with Section 1024.11.2. 

2. Consistently shaped winders, complying with Sec- 
tion 1009.8, differing from rectangular treads in 
the same stairway flight. 

Where the bottom or top riser adjoins a sloping public 
way, walkway or driveway having an established grade and 
serving as a landing, the bottom or top riser is permitted to 
be reduced along the slope to less than 4 inches (102 mm) in 
height with the variation in height of the bottom or top riser 
not to exceed one unit vertical in 12 units horizontal (8-per- 
cent slope) of stairway width. The nosings or leading edges 
of treads at such nonuniform height risers shall have a dis- 
tinctive marking stripe, different from any other nosing 
marking provided on the stair flight. The distinctive mark- 
ing stripe shall be visible in descent of the stair and shall 
have a slip-resistant surface. Marking stripes shall have a 
width of at least 1 inch (25 mm) but not more than 2 inches 
(51 mm). 



.3.2 Profile. The radius of curvature at the leading edge 
of the tread shall be not greater than 0.5 inch (12.7 mm). 
Beveling of nosings shall not exceed 0.5 inch (12.7 mm). 
Risers shall be solid and vertical or sloped from the under- 
side of the leading edge of the tread above at an angle not 
more than 30 degrees (0.52 rad) from the vertical. The lead- 
ing edge (nosings) of treads shall project not more than 1 .25 
inches (32 mm) beyond the tread below and all projections 
of the leading edges shall be of uniform size, including the 
leading edge of the floor at the top of a flight. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Solid risers are not required for stairways that are 
not required to comply with Section 1007.3, pro- 
vided that the opening between treads does not per- 
mit the passage of a sphere with a diameter of 4 
inches (102 mm). 



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2. Solid risers are not required for occupancies in 
Group 1-3. 

Stairway lamdnimgs. There shall be a floor or landing at 
the top and bottom of each stairway. The width of landings shall 
not be less than the width of stairways they serve. Every landing 
shall have a minimum dimension measured in the direction of 
travel equal to the width of the stairway. Such dimension need 
not exceed 48 inches (1219 mm) where the stairway has a 
straight run. 



1. Aisle stairs complying with Section 1024. 

2. Doors opening onto a landing shall not reduce the 
landing to less than one-half the required width. When 
fully open, the door shall not project more than 7 
inches (178 mm) into a landing. 

h§ Stanrway comsltrtLictloiii. All stairways shall be built of 
materials consistent with the types permitted for the type of 
construction of the building, except that wood handrails shall 
be permitted for all types of construction. 



hSA Stairway walking serffaceo The walking surface 
of treads and landings of a stairway shall not be sloped 
steeper than one unit vertical in 48 units horizontal (2-per- 
cent slope) in any direction. Stairway treads and landings 
shall have a solid surface. Finish floor surfaces shall be se- 
curely attached. 

Exception: In Group F, H and S occupancies, other than 
areas of parking structures accessible to the pubUc, open- 
ings in treads and landings shall not be prohibited pro- 
vided a sphere with a diameter of 1 '/g inches (29 mm) 
cannot pass through the opening. 

1009.5.2 OiBtdoor condltloms. Outdoor stairways and out- 
door approaches to stairways shall be designed so that water 
will not accumulate on walking surfaces. In other than occu- 
pancies in Group R-3, and occupancies in Group U that are 
accessory to an occupancy in Group R-3, treads, platforms 
and landings that are part of exterior stairways in climates 
subject to snow or ice shall be protected to prevent the accu- 
mulation of same. 



^.6 Vertical rise. A flight of stairs shall not have a vertical 
rise greater than 12 feet (3658 mm) between floor levels or 
landings. 



mt Aisle stairs complying with Section 1024. 

^,7 Circanlar stairways. Circular stairways shall have a 
minimum tread depth and a maximum riser height in accor- 
dance with Section 1009.3 and the smaller radius shall not be 
less than twice the width of the stairway. The minimum tread 
depth measured 12 inches (305 mm) from the narrower end of 
the tread shall not be less than 1 1 inches (279 mm). The mini- 
mum tread depth at the narrow end shall not be less than 10 
inches (254 mm). 



lis For occupancies in Group R-3, and within indi- 
vidual dwelling units in occupancies in Group R-2, both as 
applicable in Section 101.2. 



El .9 Spiral stairways. Spiral stairways are permitted to be 
used as a component in the means of egress only within dwell- 
ing units or from a space not more than 250 square feet (23 m^) 
in area and serving not more than five occupants, or from gal- 
leries, catwalks and gridirons in accordance with Section 
1014.6. 

A spiral stairway shall have a 7.5-inch (191 mm) minimum 
clear tread depth at a point 1 2 inches (305 mm) from the narrow 
edge. The risers shall be sufficient to provide a headroom of 78 
inches (1981 mm) minimum, but riser height shall not be more 
than 9.5 inches (241 mm). The minimum stairway width shall 
be 26 inches (660 mm). 



Oi Alternating tread devices. Alternating tread devices 
are limited to an element of a means of egress in buildings of 
Groups F, H and S from a mezzanine not more than 250 square 
feet (23 m^) in area and which serves not more than five occu- 
pants; in buildings of Group 1-3 from a guard tower, observa- 
tion station or control room not more than 250 square feet (23 
m^) in area and for access to unoccupied roofs. 



^.8 Winders, Winders are not permitted in means of egress 
stairways except within a dweUing unit. 



Dol Haedrails of alteraatimg tread devices. Hand- 
rails shall be provided on both sides of alternating tread de- 
vices and shall conform to Secdon 1009.1 1. 

1009.10,2 Treads of alternating tread devices. Alter- 
nating tread devices shall have a minimum projected tread 
of 5 inches (127 mm), a minimum tread depth of 8.5 inches 
(216 mm), a minimum tread width of 7 inches (178 mm) and 
a maximum riser height of 9.5 inches (241 mm). The initial 
tread of the device shall begin at the same elevation as the 
platform, landing or floor surface. 

Exception." Alternating tread devices used as an element 
of a means of egress in buildings from a mezzanine area 
not more than 250 square feet (23 m^) in area which 
serves not more than five occupants shall have a mini- 
mum projected tread of 8.5 inches (216 mm) with a mini- 
mum tread depth of 10.5 inches (267 mm). The rise to the 
next alternating tread surface should not be more than 8 
inches (203 mm). 

.11 Handrails. Stairways shall have handrails on each 
side. Handrails shall be adequate in strength and attachment in 
accordance with Section 1607.7. Handrails for ramps, where 
required by Section 1010.8, shall comply with this section. 

Exceptions; 

1. Aisle stairs complying with Section 1024 provided 
with a center handrail need not have additional hand- 
rails. 

2. Stairways within dwelling units, spiral stairways and 
aisle stairs serving seating only on one side are per- 
mitted to have a handrail on one side only. 

3. Decks, patios and walkways that have a single change 
in elevation where the landing depth on each side of 
the change of elevation is greater than what is required 
for a landing do not require handrails. 

4. In Group R-3 occupancies, a change in elevation con- 
sisting of a single riser at an entrance or egress door 
does not require handrails. 



2003 INTERNATSOWAL BUJLDIIWG CODE® 



MEANS OF EGRESS 



5. Changes in room elevations of only one riser within 
dwelling units and sleeping units in Group R-2 and 
R-3 occupancies do not require handrails. 

1009.11.1 Height. Handrail height, measured above stair 
tread nosings, or finish surface of ramp slope, shall be uni- 
form, not less than 34 inches (864 mm) and not more than 38 
inches (965 mm). 

1009.11.2 Intermediate handrails. Intermediate handrails 
are required so that all portions of the stairway width re- 
quired for egress capacity are within 30 inches (762 mm) of 
a handrail. On monumental stairs, handrails shall be located 
along the most direct path of egress travel. 

1009.11.3 Handrail graspability. Handrails with a circular 
cross section shall have an outside diameter of at least 1.25 
inches (32 mm) and not greater than 2 inches (51 mm) or 
shall provide equivalent graspability. If the handrail is not 
circular, it shall have a perimeter dimension of at least 4 
inches (102 mm) and not greater than 6.25 inches (160 mm) 
with a maximum cross-section dimension of 2.25 inches (57 
mm). Edges shall have a minimum radius of 0.01 inch (0.25 
mm). 

1009.11.4 Continuity. Handrail-gripping surfaces shall be 
continuous, without interruption by newel posts or other ob- 
structions. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Handrails within dwelling units are permitted to be 
interrupted by a newel post at a stair landing. 

2. Within a dwelling unit, the use of a volute, turnout 
or starting easing is allowed on the lowest tread. 

3. Handrail brackets or balusters attached to the bot- 
tom surface of the handrail that do not project hori- 
zontally beyond the sides of the handrail within 1 .5 
inches (38 mm) of the bottom of the handrail shall 
not be considered to be obstructions and provided 
further that for each 0.5 inch (13 nmi) of additional 
handrail perimeter dimension above 4 inches (102 
mm), the vertical clearance dimension of 1.5 
inches (38 mm) shall be permitted to be reduced by 
0.125 inch (3 mm). 

1009.11.5 Handrail extensions. Handrails shall return to a 
wall, guard or the walking surface or shall be continuous to 
the handrail of an adjacent stair flight. Where handrails are 
not continuous between flights, the handrails shall extend 
horizontally at least 1 2 inches (305 mm) beyond the top riser 
and continue to slope for the depth of one tread beyond the 
bottom riser. 

Exceptions: 

1. Handrails within a dwelling unit that is not re- 
quired to be accessible need extend only from the 
top riser to the bottom riser. 

2. Aisle handrails in Group A occupancies in accor- 
dance with Section 1024.13. 

1009.11.6 Clearance. Clear space between a handrail and a 
wall or other surface shall be a minimum of 1.5 inches (38 
mm). A handrail and a wall or other surface adjacent to the 
handrail shall be free of any sharp or abrasive elements. 



L7 Stairway projections. Projections into the re- 
quired width at each handrail shall not exceed 4.5 inches 
(1 14 mm) at or below the handrail height. Projections into 
the required width shall not be limited above the minimum 
headroom height required in Section 1009.2. 

1009.12 Stairway to roof. In buildings four or more stories in 
height above grade, one stairway shall extend to the roof sur- 
face, unless the roof has a slope steeper than four units vertical 
in 12 units horizontal (33-percent slope). In buildings without 
an occupied roof, access to the roof from the top story shall be 
permitted to be by an alternating tread device. 

1009.12.1 Moof access. Where a stairway is provided to a 
roof, access to the roof shall be provided through a pent- 
house complying with Section 1509.2. 

Exception: In buildings without an occupied roof, ac- 
cess to the roof shall be permitted to be a roof hatch or 
trap door not less than 16 square feet (1.5 m^) in area and 
having a minimum dimension of 2 feet (610 mm). 



SECTION 1010 
RAMPS 

1010.1 Scope. The provisions of this section shall apply to 
ramps used as a component of a means of egress. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Other than ramps that are part of the accessible routes 
providing access in accordance with Sections 
1 108.2.2 through 1 108.2.4. 1 , ramped aisles within as- 
sembly rooms or spaces shall conform with the provi- 
sions in Section 1024.1 1. 

2. Curb ramps shall comply with ICC Al 17.1. 

3. Vehicle ramps in parking garages for pedestrian exit 
access shall not be required to comply with Sections 
1010.3 through 1010.9 when they are not an accessi- 
ble route serving accessible parking spaces, other re- 
quired accessible elements or part of an accessible 
means of egress. 

1010.2 Slope. Ramps used as part of a means of egress shall 
have a running slope not steeper than one unit vertical in 12 
units horizontal (8-percent slope). The slope of other ramps 
shall not be steeper than one unit vertical in eight units horizon- 
tal (1 2. 5 -percent slope). 

Exception: Aisle ramp slope in occupancies of Group A 
shall comply with Section 1024.11. 

1010.3 Cross slope. The slope measured perpendicular to the 
direction of travel of a ramp shall not be steeper than one unit 
vertical in 48 units horizontal (2-percent slope). 

1010.4 Vertical rise. The rise for any ramp run shall be 30 
inches (762 mm) maximum. 

1010.5 Minimum dimensions. The minimum dimensions of 
means of egress ramps shall comply with Sections 1010.5.1 
through 1010.5.3. 

1010.5.1 Width. The minimum width of a means of egress 
ramp shall not be less than that required for corridors by 
Section 1016.2. The clear width of a ramp and the clear 



206 



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• 



width between handrails, if provided, shall be 36 inches 
(914 mm) minimum. 



jm. The minimum headroom in all parts 
of the means of egress ramp shall not be less than 80 inches 
(2032 mm). 



IS. Means of egress ramps shall not re- 
duce in width in the direction of egress travel. Projections 
into the required ramp and landing width are prohibited. 
Doors opening onto a landing shall not reduce the clear 
width to less than 42 inches (1067 mm). 

11)10,6 LamdingSo Ramps shall have landings at the bottom and 
top of each ramp, points of turning, entrance, exits and at doors. 
Landings shall comply with Sections 1010.6.1 through 
1010.6.5. 



.6.1 Slope. Landings shall have a slope not steeper than 
one unit vertical in 48 units horizontal (2-percent slope) in 
any direction. Changes in level are not permitted. 



n. The landing shall be at least as wide as the 
widest ramp run adjoining the landing. 



li.6,3 Leegth. The landing length shall be 60 inches 
(1525 mm) minimum. 



us Landings in nonaccessible Group R-2 and 
R-3 individual dwelling units, as applicable in Section 
101 .2, are permitted to be 36 inches (914 mm) minimum. 



_ : m dnrectnom. Where changes in direction 
of travel occur at landings provided between ramp runs, the 
landing shall be 60 inches by 60 inches (1524 mm by 1524 
mm) minimum. 



m Landings in nonaccessible Group R-2 and 
R-3 individual dwelling units, as applicable in Section 
101.2, are permitted to be 36 inches by 36 inches (914 
mm by 914 mm) minimum. 



7S. Where doorways are located adjacent 
to a ramp landing, maneuvering clearances required by ICC 
A 1 17.1 are permitted to overlap the required landing area. 



D. All ramps shall be built of materi- 
als consistent with the types permitted for the type of construc- 
tion of the building; except that wood handrails shall be 
permitted for all types of construction. Ramps used as an exit 
shall conform to the applicable requirements of Sections 
1019.1 and 1019.1.1 through 1019.1.3 for vertical exit enclo- 
sures. 



.7.1 Mamp serfface. The surface of ramps shall be of 
slip-resistant materials that are securely attached. 



L7,2 OeMoor conditioes. Outdoor ramps and outdoor 
approaches to ramps shall be designed so that water will not 
accumulate on walking surfaces. In other than occupancies 
in Group R-3, and occupancies in Group U that are acces- 
sory to an occupancy in Group R-3, surfaces and landings 
which are part of exterior ramps in climates subject to snow 
or ice shall be designed to minimize the accumulation of 
same. 



Ramps with a rise greater than 6 inches 
(152 mm) shall have handrails on both sides complying with 
Section 1009.11. 



Edge protecttnomi. Edge protection complying with Sec- 
tion 1010.9.1 or 1010.9.2 shall be provided on each side of 
ramp runs and at each side of ramp landings. 



1 . Edge protection is not required on ramps not required 
to have handrails, provided they have flared sides that 
comply with the ICC Al 17.1 curb ramp provisions. 

2. Edge protection is not required on the sides of ramp 
landings serving an adjoining ramp run or stairway. 

3. Edge protection is not required on the sides of ramp 
landings having a vertical dropoff of not more than 
0.5 inch (13 mm) within 10 inches (254 mm) horizon- 
tally of the required landing area. 

I(lll0o9ol Mailmgs. A rail shall be mounted below the hand- 
rail 17 inches to 19 inches (432 mm to 483 mm) above the 
ramp or landing surface. 



r. A curb or barrier shall be pro- 
vided that prevents the passage of a 4-inch-diameter (102 
mm) sphere, where any portion of the sphere is within 4 
inches (102 mm) of the floor or ground surface. 



Is. Guards shall be provided where required by 
Section 1012 and shall be constructed in accordance with Sec- 
tion 1012. 



EXIT SIGNS 

reqeired. Exits and exit access doors shall be 
marked by an approved exit sign readily visible from any direc- 
tion of egress travel. Access to exits shall be marked by readily 
visible exit signs in cases where the exit or the path of egress 
travel is not immediately visible to the occupants. Exit sign 
placement shall be such that no point in an exit access corridor 
is more than 100 feet (30 480 mm) or the hsted viewing dis- 
tance for the sign, whichever is less, from the nearest visible 
exit sign. 



1 . Exit signs are not required in rooms or areas which re- 
quire only one exit or exit access. 

2. Main exterior exit doors or gates which obviously and 
clearly are identifiable as exits need not have exit 
signs where approved by the building official. 

3. Exit signs are not required in occupancies in Group U 
and individual sleeping units or dwelhng units in 
Group R-1, R-2 or R-3. 

4. Exit signs are not required in sleeping areas in occu- 
pancies in Group 1-3. 

5. In occupancies in Groups A-4 and A-5, exit signs are 
not required on the seating side of vomitories or open- 
ings into seating areas where exit signs are provided in 
the concourse that are readily apparent from the vomi- 
tories. Egress lighting is provided to identify each 



2003 ONTERNATJONAL BUILDSNG CODE® 



207 



MEANS OF EGRESS 



vomitory or opening within the seating area in an 
emergency. 

1011.2 Illumination. Exit signs shall be internally or exter- 
nally illuminated. 

Exceptioni Tactile signs required by Section 1011.3 need 
not be provided with illumination. 

1011.3 Tactile exit signs. A tactile sign stating EXIT and com- 
plying with ICC A117.1 shall be provided adjacent to each 
door to an egress stairway, an exit passageway and the exit dis- 
charge. 

1011.4 Internally illuminated exit signs. Internally illumi- 
nated exit signs shall be listed and labeled and shall be installed 
in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions and Section 
2702. Exit signs shall be illuminated at all times. 

1011.5 Externally illuminated exit signs. Externally illumi- 
nated exit signs shall comply with Sections 1011.5.1 through 
1011.5.3. 

1011.5.1 Graphics. Every exit sign and directional exit sign 
shall have plainly legible letters not less than 6 inches (152 
mm) high with the principal strokes of the letters not less 
than 0.75 inch (19.1 vnm) wide. The word "EXIT" shall have 
letters having a width not less than 2 inches (5 1 mm) wide 
except the letter "I," and the minimum spacing between let- 
ters shall not be less than 0.375 inch (9.5 mm). Signs larger 
than the minimum established in this section shall have let- 
ter widths, strokes and spacing in proportion to their height. 

The word '"^XIT" shall be in high contrast with the back- 
ground and shall be clearly discernible when the exit sign il- 
lumination means is or is not energized. If an arrow is 
provided as part of the exit sign, the construction shall be 
such that the arrow direction cannot be readily changed. 

1011.5.2 Exit sign illumination. The face of an exit sign il- 
luminated from an external source shall have an intensity of 
not less than 5 foot-candles (54 lux). 

1011.5.3 Power source. Exit signs shall be illuminated at 
all times. To ensure continued illumination for a duration of 
not less than 90 minutes in case of primary power loss, the 
sign illumination means shall be connected to an emergency 
power system provided from storage batteries, unit equip- 
ment or an on-site generator. The installation of the emer- 
gency power system shall be in accordance with Section 
2702. 

Exception: Approved exit sign illumination means that 
provide continuous illumination independent of external 
power sources for a duration of not less than 90 minutes, 
in case of primary power loss, are not required to be con- 
nected to an emergency electrical system. 



SECTION 1012 
GUARDS 

1012.1 Where required. Guards shall be located along 
open-sided walking surfaces, mezzanines, industrial equip- 
ment platforms, stairways, ramps and landings which are lo- 
cated more than 30 inches (762 mm) above the floor or grade 
below. Guards shall be adequate in strength and attachment in 
accordance with Section 1607.7. Guards shall also be located 



along glazed sides of stairways, ramps and landings that are lo- 
cated more than 30 inches (762 mm) above the floor or grade 
below where the glazing provided does not meet the strength 
and attachment requirements in Section 1607.7. 

Exception: Guards are not required for the following loca- 
tions: 

1. On the loading side of loading docks or piers. 

2. On the audience side of stages and raised platforms, 
including steps leading up to the stage and raised plat- 
forms. 

3. On raised stage and platform floor areas such as run- 
ways, ramps and side stages used for entertainment or 
presentations. 

4. At vertical openings in the performance area of stages 
and platforms. 

5. At elevated walking surfaces appurtenant to stages 
and platforms for access to and utilization of special 
lighting or equipment. 

6. Along vehicle service pits not accessible to the public. 

7. In assembly seating where guards in accordance with 
Section 1024.14 are permitted and provided. 

1012.2 Height. Guards shall form a protective barrier not less 
than 42 inches (1067 mm) high, measured vertically above the 
leading edge of the tread, adjacent walking surface or adjacent 
seatboard. 

Exceptions: 



1. For occupancies in Group R-3, and within individual 
dwelling units in occupancies in Group R-2, both as 
apphcable in Section 101.2, guards whose top rail 
also serves as a handrail shall have a height not less 
than 34 inches (864 mm) and not more than 38 inches 
(965 mm) measured vertically from the leading edge 
of the stair tread nosing. 

2. The height in assembly seating areas shall be in accor- 
dance with Section 1024.14. 

1012.3 Opening limitations. Open guards shall have balusters 
or ornamental patterns such that a 4-inch-diameter (102 mm) 
sphere cannot pass through any opening up to a height of 34 
inches (864 mm). From a height of 34 inches (864 mm) to 42 
inches (1067 mm) above the adjacent walking surfaces, a 
sphere 8 inches (203 mm) in diameter shall not pass. 

Exceptions: 

1 . The triangular openings formed by the riser, tread and 
bottom rail at the open side of a stairway shall be of a 
maximum size such that a sphere of 6 inches (152 
mm) in diameter cannot pass through the opening. 

2. At elevated walking surfaces for access to and use of 
electrical, mechanical or plumbing systems or equip- 
ment, guards shall have balusters or be of solid materi- 
als such that a sphere with a diameter of 21 inches 
(533 mm) cannot pass through any opening. 

3. In areas which are not open to the public within occu- 
pancies in Group 1-3, F, H or S, balusters, horizontal 
intermediate rails or other construction shall not per- 



208 



2003 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



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m 



4 



c^ 



• 



mit a sphere with a diameter of 21 inches (533 mm) to 
pass through any opening. 

4. In assembly seating areas, guards at the end of aisles 
where they terminate at a fascia of boxes, balconies 
and galleries shall have balusters or ornamental pat- 
terns such that a 4-inch-diameter (102 mm) sphere 
cannot pass through any opening up to a height of 26 
inches (660 mm). From a height of 26 inches (660 
mm) to 42 inches (1067 mm) above the adjacent walk- 
ing surfaces, a sphere 8 inches (203 mm) in diameter 
shall not pass. 

1012.4 Screen porches. Porches and decks which are enclosed 
with insect screening shall be provided with guards where the 
walking surface is located more than 30 inches (762 mm) above 
the floor or grade below. 



Guards shall be provided 
where appliances, equipment, fans or other components that re- 
quire service are located within 10 feet (3048 mm) of a roof 
edge or open side of a walking surface and such edge or open 
side is located more than 30 inches (762 mm) above the floor, 
roof or grade below. The guard shall be constructed so as to pre- 
vent the passage of a 21 -inch-diameter (533 mm) sphere. 



The exit access arrangement shall comply 
with Sections 1013 through 1016 and the applicable provisions 
of Sections 1003 through 1012. 

1013.2 Egress Hhroegh ietervemimg spaces. Egress from a 
room or space shall not pass through adjoining or intervening 
rooms or areas, except where such adjoining rooms or areas 
are accessory to the area served; are not a high-hazard occu- 
pancy and provide a discernible path of egress travel to an exit. 
Egress shall not pass through kitchens, storage rooms, closets 
or spaces used for similar purposes. An exit access shall not 
pass through a room that can be locked to prevent egress. 
Means of egress from dwelling units or sleeping areas shall 
not lead through other sleeping areas, toilet rooms or bath- 
rooms. 



1 . Means of egress are not prohibited through a kitchen 
area serving adjoining rooms constituting part of the 
same dwelling unit or sleeping unit. 

2. Means of egress are not prohibited through adjoining 
or intervening rooms or spaces in a Group H occu- 
pancy when the adjoining or intervening rooms or 
spaces are the same or a lesser hazard occupancy 
group. 

1013.2.1 Multiple temants. Where more than one tenant oc- 
cupies any one floor of a building or structure, each tenant 
space, dwelling unit and sleeping unit shall be provided with 
access to the required exits without passing through adja- 
cent tenant spaces, dwelhng units and sleeping units. 

1013.2.2 Group 1=2. Habitable rooms or suites in Group 1-2 
occupancies shall have an exit access door leading directly 
to an exit access corridor. 



Exceptions s 

1 . Rooms with exit doors opening directly to the out- 
side at ground level. 

2. Patient sleeping rooms are permitted to have one 
intervening room if the intervening room is not 
used as an exit access for more than eight patient 
beds. 

3. Special nursing suites are permitted to have one in- 
tervening room where the arrangement allows for 
direct and constant visual supervision by nursing 
personnel. 

4. For rooms other than patient sleeping rooms, 
suites of rooms are permitted to have one interven- 
ing room if the travel distance within the suite to 
the exit access door is not greater than 100 feet (30 
480 mm) and are permitted to have two intervening 
rooms where the travel distance within the suite to 
the exit access door is not greater than 50 feet (15 
240 mm). 

Suites of sleeping rooms shall not exceed 5,000 square 
feet (465 m^). Suites of rooms, other than patient sleeping 
rooms, shall not exceed 10,000 square feet (929 m^). Any 
patient sleeping room, or any suite that includes patient 
sleeping rooms, of more than 1 ,000 square feet (93 m^) shall 
have at least two exit access doors remotely located from 
each other. Any room or suite of rooms, other than patient 
sleeping rooms, of more than 2,500 square feet (232 m^) 
shall have at least two access doors remotely located from 
each other. The travel distance between any point in a Group 
1-2 occupancy and an exit access door in the room shall not 
exceed 50 feet (15 240 mm). The travel distance between 
any point in a suite of sleeping rooms and an exit access door 
of that suite shall not exceed 100 feet (30 480 mm). 



1, In occupancies other 
than Groups H-1, H-2 and H-3, the common path of egress 
travel shall not exceed 75 feet (22 860 mm). In occupancies in 
Groups H-1, H-2, and H-3, the common path of egress travel 
shall not exceed 25 feet (7620 mm). 



mss 

1 . The length of a common path of egress travel in an oc- 
cupancy in Groups B, F and S shall not be more than 
100 feet (30 480 mm), provided that the building is 
equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler sys- 
tem installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. 

2. Where a tenant space in an occupancy in Groups B, S 
and U has an occupant load of not more than 30, the 
length of a common path of egress travel shall not be 
more than 100 feet (30 480 mm). 

3 . The length of a common path of egress travel in occu- 
pancies in Group 1-3 shall not be more than 100 feet 
(30 480 mm). 

,4 Aisles. Aisles serving as a portion of the exit access in 
the means of egress system shall comply with the requirements 
of this section. Aisles shall be provided from all occupied por- 
tions of the exit access which contain seats, tables, furnishings, 
displays and similar fixtures or equipment. Aisles serving as- 
sembly areas, other than seating at tables, shall comply with 



2003 iWTERNATJOiSSAL BUDLDiNG CODE® 



MEANS OF EGRESS 



Section 1024. Aisles serving reviewing stands, grandstands 
and bleachers shall also comply with Section 1024. 

The required width of aisles shall be unobstructed. 

Exception: Doors, when fully opened, and handrails shall 
not reduce the required width by more than 7 inches (178 
mm). Doors in any position shall not reduce the required 
width by more than one-half. Other nonstructural projec- 
tions such as trim and similar decorative features are permit- 
ted to project into the required width 1.5 inches (38 mm) 
from each side. 

1013.4.1 Groups B and M. In Group B and M occupancies, 
the minimum clear aisle width shall be determined by Sec- 
tion 1005.1 for the occupant load served, but shall not be 
less than 36 inches (914 mm). 

Exception: Nonpublic aisles serving less than 50 peo- 
ple, and not required to be accessible by Chapter 1 1 need 
not exceed 28 inches (711 mm) in width. 

1013.4.2 Seating at tables. Where seating is located at a ta- 
ble or counter and is adjacent to an aisle or aisle accessway, 
the measurement of required clear width of the aisle or aisle 
accessway shall be made to a line 19 inches (483 mm) away 
from and parallel to the edge of the table or counter. The 
19-inch (483 mm) distance shall be measured perpendicular 
to the side of the table or counter. In the case of other side 
boundaries for aisle or aisle access ways, the clear width 
shall be measured to walls, edges of seating and tread edges, 
except that handrail projections are permitted. 

Exception: Where tables or counters are served by fixed 
seats, the width of the aisle accessway shall be measured 
from the back of the seat. 

1013.4.2.1 Aisle accessway for tables and seating. 
Aisle accessways serving arrangements of seating at ta- 
bles or counters shall have sufficient clear width to con- 
form to the capacity requirements of Section 1005.1 but 
shall not have less than the appropriate minimum clear 
width specified in Section 1013.4.1. 

1013.4.2.2 Table and seating accessway width. Aisle 
accessways shall provide a minimum of 12 inches (305 
mm) of width plus 0.5 inch (12.7 mm) of width for each 
additional 1 foot (305 mm), or fraction thereof, beyond 
12 feet (3658 mm) of aisle accessway length measured 
from the center of the seat farthest from an aisle. 

Exception: Portions of an aisle accessway having a 
length not exceeding 6 feet (1829 mm) and used by a 
total of not more than four persons. 

1013.4.2.3 Table and seating aisle accessway length. 
The length of travel along the aisle accessway shall not 
exceed 30 feet (9144 mm) from any seat to the point 
where a person has a choice of two or more paths of 
egress travel to separate exits. 

1013.5 Egress balconies. Balconies used for egress purposes 
shall conform to the same requirements as corridors for width, 
headroom, dead ends and projections. Exterior balconies shall 



be designed to minimize accumulation of snow or ice that im- 
pedes the means of egress. 



tton: Exterior balconies and concourses in outdoor 
stadiums shall be exempt from the design requirement to 
protect against the accumulation of snow or ice. 

1013.5.1 Wall separation. Exterior egress balconies shall 
be separated from the interior of the building by walls and 
opening protectives as required for corridors. 

Exception: Separation is not required where the exterior 
egress balcony is served by at least two stairs and a 
dead-end travel condition does not require travel past an 
unprotected opening to reach a stair. 

1013.5.2 Openness. The long side of an egress balcony 
shall be at least 50 percent open, and the open area above the 
guards shall be so distributed as to minimize the accumula- 
tion of smoke or toxic gases. 



SECTION 1014 

EXIT AND EXIT ACCESS DOORWAYS 

1014.1 Exit or exit access doorways required. Two exits or 
exit access doorways from any space shall be provided where 
one of the following conditions exists: 

1. The occupant load of the space exceeds the values in Ta- 
ble 1014.1. 

2. The common path of egress travel exceeds the limitations 
of Section 1013.3. 

3. WhererequiredbySections 1014.3, 1014.4 and 1014.5. 

Exception: Group 1-2 occupancies shall comply with Sec- 
tion 1013.2.2. 

TABLE 1014.1 

SPACES WITH ONE EWEANS OF EGRESS 



OCCUPANCY 


MAXIMUM OCCUPANT LOAD 


A, B, E, F, M, U 


50 


H-1, H-2, H-3 


3 


H-4, H-5, 1-l, 1-3, 1-4, R 


10 


S 


30 



1.1.1 Tlliree or more exits. Access to three or more exits 
shall be provided from a floor area where required by Sec- 
tion 1018.1. 

1014.2 Exit or exit access doorway arrangement. Required 
exits shall be located in a manner that makes their availability 
obvious. Exits shall be unobstructed at all times. Exit and exit 
access doorways shall be arranged in accordance with Sections 
1014.2.1 and 1014.2.2. 

1014.2.1 Two exits or exit access doorways. Where two 
exits or exit access doorways are required from any portion 
of the exit access, the exit doors or exit access doorways 
shall be placed a distance apart equal to not less than 
one-half of the length of the maximum overall diagonal di- 
mension of the building or area to be served measured in a 



210 



2003 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



ilEANS OF EGRESS 



m 



Straight line between exit doors or exit access doorways. In- 
terlocking or scissor stairs shall be counted as one exit stair- 
way. 



1 . Where exit enclosures are provided as a portion 
of the required exit and are interconnected by a 
1-hour fire-resistance-rated corridor conform- 
ing to the requirements of Section 1016, the re- 
quired exit separation shall be measured along 
the shortest direct line of travel within the corri- 
dor. 

2. Where a building is equipped throughout with an 
automatic sprinkler system in accordance with 
Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2, the separation dis- 
tance of the exit doors or exit access doorways 
shall not be less than one-third of the length of the 
maximum overall diagonal dimension of the area 
served. 

.2.2 Three or more exnlts or exit access doorways. 
Where access to three or more exits is required, at least two 
exit doors or exit access doorways shall be placed a distance 
apart equal to not less than one-half of the length of the max- 
imum overall diagonal dimension of the area served mea- 
sured in a straight line between such exit doors or exit access 
doorways. Additional exits or exit access doorways shall be 
arranged a reasonable distance apart so that if one becomes 
blocked, the others will be available. 



nt Where a building is equipped throughout 
with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with 
Section 903.3. 1 . 1 or 903.3. 1 .2, the separation distance 
of at least two of the exit doors or exit access doorways 
shall not be less than one-third of the length of the 
maximum overall diagonal dimension of the area 
served. 



Two exit ac- 
cess doorways are required in boiler, incinerator and furnace 
rooms where the area is over 500 square feet (46 m^) and any 
fuel-fired equipment exceeds 400,000 British thermal units 
(Btu) (422 000 KJ) input capacity. Where two exit access door- 
ways are required, one is permitted to be a fixed ladder or an al- 
ternating tread device. Exit access doorways shall be separated 
by a horizontal distance equal to one-half the maximum hori- 
zontal dimension of the room. 

1014.4 Refrigeratloe machimery rooms. Machinery rooms 
larger than 1 ,000 square feet (93 m^) shall have not less than 
two exits or exit access doors. Where two exit access doorways 
are required, one such doorway is permitted to be served by a 
fixed ladder or an alternating tread device. Exit access door- 
ways shall be separated by a horizontal distance equal to 
one-half the maximum horizontal dimension of room. 

All portions of machinery rooms shall be within 1 50 feet (45 
720 mm) of an exit or exit access doorway. An increase in travel 
distance is permitted in accordance with Section 1015.1. 

Doors shall swing in the direction of egress travel, regardless 
of the occupant load served. Doors shall be tight fitting and 
self-closing. 



1. 5 Refrlgeratedl rooms or spaces. Rooms or spaces hav- 
ing a floor area of 1,000 square feet (93 m^) or more, containing 
a refrigerant evaporator and maintained at a temperature below 
68°F (20°C), shall have access to not less than two exits or exit 
access doors. 

Travel distance shall be determined as specified in Section 
1015.1, but all portions of a refrigerated room or space shall be 
within 150 feet (45 720 mm) of an exit or exit access door 
where such rooms are not protected by an approved automatic 
sprinkler system. Egress is allowed through adjoining refriger- 
ated rooms or spaces. 

Exception; Where using refrigerants in quantities limited 
to the amounts based on the volume set forth in the Interna- 
tional Mechanical Code. 

1D14.6 Stage means of egress. Where two means of egress are 
required, based on the stage size or occupant load, one means 
of egress shall be provided on each side of the stage. 



The means of egress from hghting and access catwalks, gal- 
leries and gridirons shall meet the requirements for occu- 
pancies in Group F-2. 



O 



1 . A minimum width of 22 inches (559 mm) is per- 
mitted for lighting and access catwalks. 

2. Spiral stairs are permitted in the means of egress. 

3. Stairways required by this subsection need not be 
enclosed. 

4. Stairways with a minimum width of 22 inches (559 
mm), ladders, or spiral stairs are permitted in the 
means of egress. 

5 . A second means of egress is not required from these 
areas where a means of escape to a floor or to a roof 
is provided. Ladders, alternating tread devices or 
spiral stairs are permitted in the means of escape. 

6. Ladders are permitted in the means of egress. 



SECTION 1015 
EXIT ACCESS TRAVEL DiSTAWCI 



Exits shall be so located 
on each story such that the maximum length of exit access 
travel, measured from the most remote point within a story to 
the entrance to an exit along the natural and unobstructed path 
of egress travel, shall not exceed the distances given in Table 
1015.1. 

Where the path of exit access includes unenclosed stairways 
or ramps within the exit access or includes unenclosed exit 
ramps or stairways as permitted in Section 1019. 1 , the distance 
of travel on such means of egress components shall also be in- 
cluded in the travel distance measurement. The measurement 
along stairways shall be made on a plane parallel and tangent to 
the stair tread nosings in the center of the stairway. 



1 . Travel distance in open parking garages is pe