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mrEunr or iluvoii 







OF Illinois 







Edited with IrrrRODUcnoH and Notes bt 

UNiveR.i]TV or Illinoja 

Published vi thi Thuitkes or thr 







Several forces have united in bringing this volume 
inro being- Its inception was due to Mr, John A, 
Blfigham of Vandalia, whose enihiisiustic interest in 
the life of the most notable of the early governors of 
Illinois led him to Madison County, wherein the circuit 
dcrks office were pri'rscrved ihe legal documents iii 
suit bmught for political reasons against Coles by hh 
opponents in the slavery struggle of !823*i8l4. Mr« 
Bingham, feeling that the centennial year was a fitting 
occasion to pay merited honor tu the man responsible 
for presen-ing Illinois as a free state, proposed as ft* 
memorial the publication of the documents and the 
reprinting of Washbumcs Sketch qf EJward CoUs, 
For this project he secured the support of Governor 
Lowden, and it was suggested that the Centennial 
Commission undertake it. This proved to be impos- 
sible. Finally the Illinois State Historical Society^ 
consented to fiirnish the money provided the Illinois 
State Historical Library would permit the volume to be 
included in the Collcetions. Such \s the history of this 

When the editing of the volume was placed in my 
hands it seemed advisable that the search for new 
material upon Governor Coles should be extended, 
The results of this further search have been on the 
whole rather rich and arc presented in the later pages 
of the volume. They will be described more fully in 
this preface. 

The first and longest document here published ts the 
well known Skrtch of FJvmrd Coles by Flihu R, Wash- 




burne, which was prepared for the Chicago Historical 
Society and published under its auspices. The trustees 
of the Illinors State Historical Library desire me to 
express clicir Appreciation for the courtesy of the 
Chicago Histoncfll Socict>' in permitting this reprint. 

The author ol this sketch was bom in Livermorc» 
Maiiie> on September l6, »8l6, und belonged to a 
family rhat won distinction by the services of five 
brothers to their respective states and rhe Union, 
Four served thirir tountry in Congress :(s rcpre^ciita* 
tiles from different states; one was a senator; two 
became governors, and one served for seven years in 
the diplomatic service. These five Washburnc broth- 
ers were in publU: service an aggregate of L-ighty-cight 

Elihu \Vashbumc*s education was to a large extent 
in the school of cxpenencCi His first job w<"is on a 
newspaper After that he attendee! law school at 
Cambridge artd in 1840 came west and settled in 
Galena, lllmoist where he soon gained recognition in 
]>otnic.s, I If MTved in Congress from (852-i8^H;, and 
during the presidency of Abraham IJncoln was regarded 
as his spokesman. He early became a friend and 
admirer of General Grant and did all in his power to 
furrhcr his interests. It was not surprising that in 
i85o he was appointed Secretary of State, a position he 
almost immediately resigned to become minister to 
France. During the Franco* Prussian war he rendered 
service which gained the respect of Ujth the Fretich and 
the Germans, although on his first appearance he was 
not regarded ai eminently fitted for a diplomatic 
career- At the close of his service in France in 1877, he 
settled in Chicago- There was talk of his candidacy 

for the presidency in 1880^ antl lie actually wa<^ pl;icetl 
in nomination for the vice-presidency- He died on 
October 17» "*i87- 

GuytJkvc Koenier, who knew Mr. Washburnc very 
wdl, says in his Memoirs :hat he "had been a most 
efficient member of Congress for five or six years, and 
haii renilrrcd most valnalilr service in guarding the 
Treasuf)- againsr rings, jobs and corrupt lobbies, by 
which vigilance he had acquired the ^oubriqitet of the 
*\Varch-!>jg of the Treasury," He was Thoroughly 
honest, a:»d an cxaUe^l Uniun man,"' 

There follows the SkfU^ q/ Edvard CoUs by Wash- 
bumc, the group of documents from the Circuit Court 
of Madi^n County, furnished by Mr. Binghiim. 
Thes^ ;ire Itmitecl to the lawsuit brotjght against 
Governor Cole& for his failure to give bonds at the time 
of the manumission of his shiver. T\mi suit was a 
purely political one, instilured only after the lapse of 
several years and by a person who could not possibly, 
have been affected by the case. It was based, furthcr- 
morc, on a law which although pa-H-scd, had not been 
promulgated at the time of Coles' alleged violation of 
it. The verdict of the Circuit Court was ac^ainst 
Governor Coles, and a two thousand dollar fine was 
imposed.* Upon appeal the cawr was heard before the 
Supreme Court of the state and the judgment of the 
lower court reversed.* 

The next five documents concern the period during 
which Coles was register of the land office at Edwards- 
ville. The longest of these is a report of land claims 

'Sec pus, S0$^ 

*Thc judpnoit of dU MjpRSc Cowt u prini«d p$a, ir^si. 



at Peoria; it ispurcljr local in its interest. Thcposirion 
of rirgistcr n»tur»lly bruutjiic Coles into close connection 
with the origanized agricultural interests in the state- 
A letter from him to Henry S. Dodge, secretary of the 
State Agriciilutnil Society, dr^icribing his method* of 
breaking che prairie land is perhaps the best of chts 

Two of his governor's me^ages form the more 
important part of the group covering the years 1823- 
l8s6. It is interesting to note the insistence upon an 
abolition of the Use remnant of slavery or involuntary 
servitude. Several projects for state development arc 
advanced. The more noteworthy of these touch upon 
the Opening of new waterways, the careful choice of 
seminar}' lands, and a djgcstof the state laws. 

In a series of letters written to his agent in Illtnots 
after hts removal to Philadelphia, Coles shows himself 
aa a man of business. These letters are purely personal 
in nature, but they arc valuable for the insight they 
give into the financial interests which he succeeded in 
developing in spite of a life filled with official duties. 
All these letters may be found in the library of the 
Chicago Historical Society and were probably collected 
by Mr. Washburne during the preparation of his paper 
on Mr. Coles. 

On the whole, historians will find the next eleven 
doouncnts most valuable. The first ten of these are 
taken from the Chicago Free IVesi^ for the year 1854- 
1855, and represent a spirited controversy concerning 
the character and political career of Governor Coles. 
The writers, Hooper Warren, George Churchill (who 
contributed only one letter), and John M, Peck, were 
all participants in the convention struggle. They all 



knew Edward Coles through dose pcreonal aMoriarion, 
an association which made Warren strongly antagonist 
tic and Peck a nio>T loyal admirrrT. Although united 
in their opposition to the extension of slavery in the 
state, Warren's personal bitterness towards Coles pre- 
vented any real union of forces in the struggle, and 
obliged Coles to face a most complex situation. The 
controversy carried on through these ten letters arose 
as the result of a rev"iew of Governor Ford's History t^ 
Jllinois, written by Hiiopcr Warren and appearing in 
the pTec Wfs! for December 2i, 1854- Warren's criti- 
cism of the treatment of the convention struggle in 
Ford's volume drew a reply from Peck, and the two 
were promptly involved in an argumentative corre- 
spondence through the Free tFesL Both men had been 
actively connected with the political developments of 
1823-1824, and in this controversy the interplay of 
forces is disclosed without reserve. 

The last letter does not belong to this series- It 
was written by Edward Coles some twenty years after 
his removal to Philadelphia, in response to a request 
from the Chicago Historical Society for his memories 
of Morris Birkbeck. Through their long friendship 
and mutual interests, both in political aflPairs and in 
the development of improved agricultural methods. 
Coles was well qualified for the task, and the resulting 
memoir gives an excdient picture of t\it E^ngJi^hman 
who played so important a part in the dcA*elopment of 
agriculture in early Illinois* 

As the last doamient there has been included the 
Hhtory of thr OrJiname t^ ^ySj prcp^irrd by Mr Coles 
in i8;6 for the Pennsylvania Historical Society. It is 
as Mr. Coles himself says a mere sketch, but because 



of his familiarity with the later history of the tcrritor>', 
and his kcca interest in the slavery measures nf the 
ordinance, it deserves some notice- There arc included 
also scvcml miscellaneous documents, some of which 
arc of no great importance in themselves, but which do 
assist In the formation of a complete picture- 

In order to preserve ctenrly the identity of the 
original Skdch of Edward Co/ej and prevent any con- 
fusion with regard to footnotes, those appearing in the 
original edition arc indicaced by asterisks, those added 
by the editor, by numerals. 

in closing it is a pleasure t<> me to express my 
obligation to Mrs. Jessie Pahncr Weber of thc^ Illinois 
StiUc Historic:il Kibriiry far her aid in the collection of 
material for this volume, and to Miss Caroline Mc- 
Hvaine of the Chicago Historical Society, who has 
performed a similar service in the srarch for marertal 
in the collections of that society. In the performance 
of the ^"ork of editing 1 have had the assistance of 
Miiw Nellie C. Armstrong of my staff, to whose care 
and enthusiasm the result is in large part due. 

Claresce Walworth Alvord 
UaBAKA* Ituitoia 
April 14, 1930 

Titinois ami IUint>h mtn fiiUA an mpt/rmnty tj muh* 
* Uading rok in tkc struggle o^cr slazar^ and in the twir 
whiih resulteJ in its oterthrow. Co^jnnor EriicartJ CoU^ 
opened the haiile Jcr freedom in Illinois, It is almost 
certain that if it had net ^een for his persistence and 
eotiraget slavery would hate ^en written into the Illinois 
Constitution. The story ^ his jtru^le against the forces 
of slavery is one of the most inspiring in the annals of 
Ulinoij. If he had failed and lUinois had become a slate 
jtaee^ one '^oPtders what the subsf^ueni history of Illinois 
would have heen. It is not likely thai the great debate 
hetween Lincoln and Douglas tt:eiuld hate occurred. It 
teW this debate Ufhich made Lincoln president qf the 
United States. Indeed^ leish Illinois a slave siatty it is 
altogether possible that the Confederacy might have icon. 
And thus the battle uhich Edtcard Coles, in the new and 
sparsely settled state^ waged against the forces of slavery^ 
becomes an event of historical importance of the first class 
ft is therefore fitting that^ as a part ^ otsr celebration <^ 
our hundredth anniversary as a state^ we should grat^uHy 
fall attention anew to the life and jeruices of Edxeard Coles. 

Frakk O. Lowden. 





AND or TH£ 





"The world knows nothing of its greatest m? n." 

—Phiiip Van Arltoeide. 



Entcr«L acconiing to Act of CongrcM m the yeir iSBi, 


In the office of the Librarian of Congmit at Wiuhington, D. C 



One of the connecting links between the earlier and the later 
Illinois and who in his career as a lawyer, a magistrate and a 
citizen, has illustrated the history of our State for more than half 
a century, this Paper is dedicated, as a slight token of the pro- 
found reelect and high esteem in which he is held by 

The Writer. 


Ckicaoo, May, 18. 1881. 

Dra/^ 5«r:- I fravc llic lioimr tu inform )tn] ihor ar x srstrd 
mcrb'ni: of the Chicdfti lluloricjl Socidjr, held bit ncnJni; an 
nMioo of Hon. I> N. Arnold, iIk foUoi'rinc pTrnnlflc and rcvolu- 

"fi^ktrt^t. The late EJward Coi», i«cof>d Govcrrior nf Illin^tt, 
wtu ow of the most intcrr^tinc characters in American ht^Eory, 
Bwl rtpfciaHr ditrincuicird fnr rhr grrflt and tmportant strvicM h* 
rFiuIrfnl iii i»ir\nt(iir^ rhr rjttribiun of alat'rrr mio ihii State; and 

fFkerrct, Afany of tbe kiccn. p^ipcn nnd monutcnpfK of 
Gov. Coles H«vc been piftccd* by hi» f«milyf in ibc h^iitb of our 
Inmorcd issociiit. the Hon. £. Bh \Vaflit»urnc> vrith a view of 
preparing a Sk^cb of U« Jtfe and wrvicei; and fcnowtne thnt such 
a Sketch wouLd be a most viTuablc aiid imercMinfi contribution 
Id tlic hbtory of our State, and that Jblr. Waftbbumc, fraiu bia 
funiliar knowledge of the hviturv of Ulinoi). and hu deep intcrtfC 
in liie Rubject* i^^ould execute Mtch work whh fidelity, ifcill and 
^iljly: Thcr«for< 

Rf:tfhfii, That The Hon. E, B, WaiHhiirn^, on behalf of the 
Cliicaien HUloriciil Sociriy. laxil all tE(]deni% of Arnericaii H»ii)iy, 
It csinc&tly rrcjue^ted in prepare for this icdecy and publish a 
Paper un Governor EdHrard Coka>" 

1 have the honor to be 

Very rcfpeofully, 

Alurt D- HAontt S««ury. 

Ciiic.u:>o. Illinois, May 2^ ISSt. 
Albrut D. Haces, Esq.. 

Secretary of Chioaf^ HUtorica] Society. 
DfiOt 5*>; I ha^e the Iwnor to sickTu^wli^dgr rhe rrcripr n\ yoor 
letter of the ISih ini^rani, rnclmin^ iHt rBolmimi of i1k JIUtoricjd 
Society, requeitiiig irir lo picpAic for the Society a Paper on 
Governor Ednaid Colc5. t ha^c in my hamd> many of the paper*. 
Urter^H inanij*:npTs &c.. of Gowmor Cole*, placed .it my dit- 
po»tii>n by hi* »an. Edvard Cole*. Hsq., of PhiMelphin. nnd I 
bavc spent wme iLme in examining and looking tJiem over with a 
view to the publkaTion of lotne notice ni fbit dUrin^iihrd man. 


Whatever I may prepare, I will cheerfully contribute to the Soci- 
cty> unworthy and imperfect as the contribution may be. 

Important and interesting as the papers and correspondence 
which I have, may be found, there is a great deal lacking that is 
necessL^ry for the full accomplishment of such a purpose as I have 
in view. Many years ago Governor Coles presented to the Alton 
Historical Society a large mass of books» papers, and documents, 
pertaining to the history of the State during his administration. 
He requested, however, that they might be lent to his old friend, 
the Rev. J. M, Peck, to be used in a historical collection he was 
then making. 

Unfortunately, Mr. Peck's house was consumed by fire, in- 
volving the destruction of all this invaluable material. I have, 
however, made the best use I could of what 1 have in hand, and 
my P^wr, when finished, I will send to you to go into the archives 
of your Society. 

I have the honor to be, 
Very truly, 

Your obedient servant, ■ 

E. B. Washburne, 



''Nor being au-irv cf any cDondenuion whkh (bould restrain 
mp, bur on ihc contrary, believinic that my prcsmv office incrtujc« 
thr oblrgnnnn [ xm tmdfr. at- % ^^md drircn. ro ettrt m)-«eli to 
cnli'c^irrn the iiiiri(b oi nty Eclliyn- dlicais. uml s^rvnupiitly cipfKM^ 
every mcuurc wluch 1 xm cotivirK^ is lUijuM in priridp^c^ of 
in)uni>ui in i» c^ctv, uid bdicvinft ftUvcrr to be both iiijurotti 
lUi^ impdiitk, I belic%v mjrfcH bound, both ti a citizen anil un 
ofioeTn to <lo ill in my power to prvvtnt its introduction into thi« 

(Lrttrr tf Gt^^rra^ Mrs lo Rttkrrti Vrttix »/ PkUadrtfhio, 4aUtl 
Edii.wtrJxvilU, tlfhoh, June 17. I823J 

"The part vrtikh tJiw hu b^a culled to act pnv«Tdr> »» 
wdl u publicly and oRbdolIf, in rte>rd to the nchts of njankind 
and for the uphaULn^ o# tbe pniidplc« of justice and mcrq- to- 
wnrtl u i5rf;i^dcd and oilprr^!«d portijn cf our f«lt(iw tl(^if1^, ougbt 
tn br TCf^nJ ss ft fnAJiifntaiiun uf PmridrtitiAl pmcer, doiwi^m^ 
ine wliidi Kc lUUM ilw^iv^ brlicb'c tlic hiiuc Divine inicipuiitlcn 
will be extended In ocr^' emergency. I am iltOfctliCT iitiHxd 
ihii it ift reserved (or thee to witness the tniimph ol trtith md 
bmeficence in the nnijn;1e to which thee ha* beer exposed, and 
what ii of infniielj' (Erearrr value, stk it mprcts ihy^rU, ta trap 
ft plenteous hiivett in the raosi precious of all rewards — the ipprii< 
bsrinr nf Hravc-n! 1 ftel a deep Lniriot in ihy diaraclcr. and ^ 
lively platitude for [hy »emccs, nnd ii will olwayi be omone the 
purest cMuoktions of my mind to be awired of thy vrelfare and 

(L€tttr of Robrrti yatut n EJwtrd CoUt^ daffd Philadtttkta, 6 mo^ 

S4. 1824.) 



Ptpfr Prir]ured for <h« Chicago Hisiorkil SocJriy; TKc 
Oi^iJtlcr 4i{ Gottmui Culn Rrrrilci!; hlxtW 
Known of him 4t the Prri^nt Day; Hi» Relation to 
the SUvery Slru£glc ol IS^>1 15 

CHArrcR n. 

Iward CdI«, bom DttYmhcr ]$. 1786, in Virginia; 
Filu^rrH ar MjnipJrn S«(tnry, and Willinin awl 
Miry Cullcgr: HU Cl»a-mjim: Hb Fotnily: Hit 
RcUiioni to the Dislmietti^rU Men of fl«* Day; 
Private Sccicurr to Mr. Madison in IS09, .... 18 


Mr. JHfrrnon ind Mr Colec; Their Correbpondnicc in 
ISfi; The I^ur oJ Xfr, Col«: The CeleltntH 
Ahmvct dI Afr. Jrffenun: Correiixiii^eiKe Bri^it~«en 
Ur. Oilcs and Nidxjlji^ fiiddle 22 


&1t. Coles Refolves to Sdl hi« Ptontaiion in Vireinis and 
Liberate Uk Sbvc<^ Reiiem m Privite Secretary 
lo Mr Madnnn> in 1815; Visits the >Jorth-tt*«(em 
TetriTory: I« Sent ofi a Minim tu Ruffiia; hit Sidc- 


Mr. Colei lentove^ to lltinub, ^''H M his Negroes, ui 
1H19; l^itei ai Inttndudion from President Monroe 
10 Gov. CiiTaH»; Hb conduct tn Regard lo hif 
Siaret; Dil^cultirs in iHe Way of Freesni: then; 
JiMmey to Illinois ; Frees hU SUv»; a RenuriabEc 
Scene 40 





Afippinml Rrifitirr »f llit Ldnil Oftcr 4t Edwardiviltc. 
b) Mr. MtNimc, m 1619; XIako AcquiinTaDcr of ibc 
Pcoi^Tc; Pcnonal AF^irAiKc; IcnprmiPfl Made on 
ihc Pi^own of the Country: "Hic S«oond Section 
for Gowmor in 1822; A Stump CanvatB; CoUs Elect- 
nl bi' a ScTi3]l Piurilit^. Ihrouch Diviiion of ihc 

Ikiemhm • . 



liiAUETirntcd itf GoveriHir, Ucccmbcr, 1822: Sotiibd Views 
on tbo Currency' Qut^tion; Letttr in Rr^rd lo the 
Title of his Offi<«; Bold PenuncikiTon of SlaTeiy; 
TV Efffci o# rtic Oo*fmor"( Spcrrh; The Optfiiftj^ 
ij|i ni thr Orrnt QursTion i>f flTAltift];^ llliiKiih n SUvc 
Stair; Prtrtliivcty M^ijority in Ih>1)i Biaodio ox tlic 
Lec{»Ui[urc; Plui Conceived to m«ic a Slave Con* 



Tbe KiiMCrnn^ of Slav^ tn llllnoti; A Comminee of tfce 
Lq[ikJjiTiirr ipfxirt In F^vor of a Cnnrfntinn m Alrrr 
the Coii?;iiiuiioi>; The Early Inhabiuiits <jf the 
State ; Prejudice aeaii»t t!>t "Y«iikca :*' Judcc 
Gilkfpie'ft Statement of the SiTualion; Minner of 
Amending the Lonsiitutioo ; UifHeulty of Gcttio£ 
t!;e Rnquiftfic Vote in tbe LomTr House; The Otject 
to be Aceompliihed ar all Hazards^ ResisTed in the 
LrgiiUliire : Leiirr of W- P. McK«; RntiiniL^icci 
of JqIw Shaw, 


Co«itC41 B<^w-mt Hsiwti and Sbavr in the LreidHnm;; 
ITic Cry tif 'Tlte Convention or Dcntli;" Ml De- 
bate Rifled: HAn?<Ti Votes AffaiiM tftc Rcwlutnini 



Ofim&lnarBOfi Id Oust Hirti From HU Srnt; CgI. 
Alcxaidcr P. Fir!d; Htn RrMjlufwjti Admitiin^ Hin- 
Kn KcconaAtrcA. uid Shaw AdmiUcd: Hi^ Voic 
Ca/rics it: Uw- Colc« Appousis MRnacji Judcc of 


Trimcph oi iV.t C«fivmt>ofl Mm: Their [nikceni Joy; 
Stirtins Addr«* of iKf Ami^Corii-mtion M«nibcr« 
nf dv ]^fi*^=<'^i^: Tlic Silken of ih« AildriNi; 

xmfer P. FicliJ; Ills Chrcquftrd Hutury 


Tbr CuniTfiiiui Mm l»ur ;ifi AilJrm to thr Pmpb: 
The Wraknen of the ^^lldtc» :" Notice i^f Col 
Cool; Birly lr>ciij>ct^i» it) Iowa Tcrmorr: <Kc Baltic 
ui Bcllrvue; IV Fint ConMitution 4 Good One; 
Dvc^mtent of tli« Pfople; Enuuigniiofl through ihf 
Sow, 106 

CQctoition Coatett ComRirnccft; 1t« Violence and Bit- 
icniC9:«; Dr«cttpt»an of it by Govcrnorc Ford Aod 
Rtfouldfi And Wm. H. Ilrriw-ii: Hn«rility Towardi; 
GivT<rrofir Coin; Imiiltiti^ Ddnind tipon him by the 
Smmc; Hh Dicjiilxd ;iiid ConcltuiKc Rraputise; 
Letter to John G. Lofton 110 


Gornoor Col« the Leid«r of the Anti-Convcrtion 
Forc«; l^tt*f to Rktiard Flower; Governor Coi*5 
ind NUhdUi Biddip: C:>rrnpOiidence bpiu-pcri tbem; 
BUdIc ImrndiKci Governor Co1c» la Robcrtt Vaux, 
of Fbibu^lphlA; Cormpondtticc bccn«n Colcf and 
V^tu; j\notl:<r Letter of Mr. BkJdic to Governor 
Colt* 117 



Ifn;r««>ae Hxctlcmcm on ihc Con^YDtion Qucidon; 
Novapapcra in the Stale: Lu/dcn in the Cofircst on 
Both Stdti; Libon anil ActivUv ot the Anffi-Con- 
vtniion Mttti \Iorn» Birkbeck; Notice oi Birkbec^; 
Hie S^rvine 1q the Ami-Coftvention Cau««; Corrr- 
vpondence brtwcOT Coir* ttid Bifbb«i: 

IS5 ' 


The Ejection Take? Place; CcinveAtiofi Scheme Defcateil 
hr Won iUm Kigfitcen Hundred Majority; Coa- 
vention ^ten DrJeate<), bat the^ R«ily under the 
Burner oJ Jackson: Get Control of the State; Bifk- 
bcck'f ApfMiEnTmert « Secreriry of Stftfe Rejccred: 
His Dcaeb 



Further Corrcipondeace bet\recn Gnverror Cote» uti 
Rob«n> Vaux; huport^m and Intrrening Letter tA 
the Go^/«Tnor on the Sittiation; Hi* Account of the 
MaUeiotii Law Suit Instituted Afisinit Him for Free- 
ing SUva; His Noblr Wanlb in ib? Dred of tjTian- 
dpJilion; The PrcjtiiJicc uf the Jud^e: Veidiit 
Acaxiut Hiitt for Two Tf>ouuiid DolUr%: Jn^metift 
Kci'erKd; Beaiitiful Tribuce oi Mr. Vuix, . . . 



Letter of Mr. Vavx tu G^veinor Otlcc; Iiet]tenant-Oov< 
emo* Hubbuid Alierapft to U^urp tlic office of Go*- 
oveinor; Letter of Governor Colei to Mr. V'ltu; 
Eniorcca his Views on Slnverr in i Letter to John 
Kurhertoid; Vitvrt oo the Pardoning Power; An Est- 
tra S««»oo or the L<(|>«Uture etUed; V'itil of Lafayette 
to lUiftois; Letter of lAi^ymt; Governor Colw wndi 
hit Aid to meet him; Receptio«i of Gen. Lafayette, 





Valedictory Message of Governor Coles; His Tribute to 
Thomas Jcffer^n ; His Recommendations to the 
Legislature; The "Black Code;" The Character of 
Governor Coles' Administration; Becomfs a Candi- 
date for Congress in 1851 ; Beaten by Joseph Duncan ; 
Coles County named after Him; Settles in Philadel- 
phia in 1833; Marries Miss Roberts; His Private 
Life; His History of the Ordinance of 17S7; Death in 



jmo rut 


Papcm PjierxikeD ron tkg Cuicaoo Hi»roiLtCAL SocitTv; Tuc 


Stxur^iLK ur 1S1JL4; Ht& Ccitcr-sruxiiK^vK, PxivATr- 
Papck^ as'D Man^f-hcki^ti im TiiK ITawi)^ or ttiii HOK, Er>- 
WAMi CoLtii, or Puji,Ai>>:LritrA. 

The Chicacq Historical Societv has done rnc rhc 
honor to Invite mc 10 prepare a Paper on Edward 
Coles, the second Coventor of the State of lilmoia. 
No sketch of Governor D>Ics wxmUl Ik: complete with- 
out connceting wich it a reference to the struggle to 
make Illinois a slave State, which occurred during his 
term of office, and in which he took so prominent and 
cffrctive a pctrt; I shiill, thcrefure, not only s|ieak nf 
Go^'ernor Coles, but shall briefly [race the history 
of one of rhc most remarkable contests, not only in the 
.ann»Isof our State, hut in rhc nation. 

What I shall make known ccj you of the character, 
ihc ability and the statesmanship of lulward Coles, 
wiil reveal ro you a man whu^c life will, 1 am certain, 
challenge your admiration and respect, and whose 
services to our State will entitle him to the lasting 



gratitude of us all. In him is illustrated the saying 
which Sir Henry Taylor puts into the mouth of Philip 
Van Artevelde;* 

"The world knows nodung of its greaieat men-" 

That there Is so little known tothepeoplcoflllinois 
in relation to Governor Coles, is due to the fact of the 
comparatively short time he resided in the State (con- 
sidering that he had been Governor), and to the further 
fact of his complete retirement from public life when 
yet a young man. 

Though a resident of the State for more than forty- 
one years, I must confess to have had only a general 
knowledge of the character of Governor Coles, and of 
the services he rendered to our commonwealth. I 
knew that he was Governor of the State at the most 
critical epoch of its history, and that all his official and 
personal influence had been wielded to save Illinois 
from that blighting curse of human slavery which had 
been attempted to be fastened upon a soil that was 
supposed to have been consecrated to freedom by the 
ordinance of 1787. What little knowledge I had, how- 
ever, inspired in me great respect for his character; 
and desirous to know more about him, I made my 
wishes and my purposes known to his son, Edward 
Coles, Esq,, a well-known and highly respected citizen 
of Philadelphia, who has been kind enough to place in 
my hands much of the correspondence and many pri- 
vate papers and manuscripts of his father. A study 

"*Hc was one 

Of many thou&nnj, such u die bctimeA^ 

Whou srcry ia a. fr^m«nt known to few/* 

— Philip Fart Arle^ldet A Dramatic Roman 


of these papers and of the contemporary history of 
the State» enables me to contribute to the Society 
much that may not be generally known in regard to 
Governor Coles, and to aid, perhaps, in rescuing from 
forgetfulness and oblivion the name of a man whose 
memory should ever be cherished by the people of our 
State with pride and affection. 


Epward Coles, voiuf DiLCiJducii r;, nS^. ix Albcmarlc 
CovOTVf VihojyiA; Kuucatxo at Hami'dgx Sidmcv, and 
Wjluah ash Marv Collkwi;; Hii Clasx-Mates His 
Fauilv; His R>:i-viiow^ to rui: Iti^mHCot^ytrry Mek op 
His Day; Madc Privat& SECKi-TAftv to Ma. Mauj!>o)« in 
iSo9i Kr^OLvci TO Lis&KATS Hit Si;Avs& A»D Reuotb 
rnou VinoiMA. 

Edward Coles was bom December ifth, 1786, in 
Albemarle Coimty, Virginia, on ihr old f;in]ily estate 
called "Enniscorchy," on ihe Green Mountain. Hb 
fattier was John Coles, who ha<l been a colonel in the 
Revolutionary war, Having been fitted for college by 
private tutors, lie was sent to Hampden Sidney, where 
he remained till th^ autiimn of 1805, and was tlien 
removed to William and Mary College, ut Williams- 
burg* He remained at William atul Mary till the 
Slimmer of 1807^ when he left the college a short time 
before the final and graduating examination- Though 
Bishop Madison, cousin of President Ma^iison, then 
presitlent of th[^ college, was peifcrlly saiisfii-^i with 
the progress young Coles had made in his studies while 
under his supcr^'ifiion, it was impossible for him to 
graduate on account of a severe fracture of his Icg^and 
which at one time threatened the loss of the limb, '["his 
so interfered with his studies that he got behind in his 
das3. Among his class*inaccs who became distin- 
guished in public lifcj were Lieutenant-General Scort, 
President John Tytcr, William S, Archer, Unite?.! i^tates 
Senator from Virginia* and Mr. Justice Baldwin»of the 
Supreme Court of the United States- The family of 


Col^ was at the nine a promir>ent one In Mrgtmap and 
allied to some of the most distinguished politicians aod 
statesmen of that ancient commonwealth, 'ITic drst 
two years afrcr leaving college young Coles fcpent at 
Eivnisconhy in reading and study, going over the whole 
range of history and politics. Though the father. Col- 
onel John Coles, was not in public life, he had his most 
intimate friends among the distinguished polidcians 
and statesmen of the day. The family mansion was 
the scat of the old-fashioned Virginian hospitality. It 
wa* visited by Patrick Hcnry^ Jefferson^ Madison, 
Monroe^ the Randolphs, Ta2ewell, \Vtrt» and many 
others of the leading men of chat rime- The following 
letter of Patrick Henry to the father of Edward Coles, 
with z/at'jimiUj may be found interesting: 

Rew Hill, Mitrch igth, 1777, 

D^ar Sir:- Yuur Favoc, by OHisin Walter, I rcc*, I lun 
dtreiRcly obliged to yoo for the Attcnbon jrou have pud to 
siaca' Wood*' mtfasr. Poor Woman, I wi^ed to »en-c bcr, but 
am situated to far horn htr tittt 1 csm ncwr think of riding so 
far as her pUce. As Mr- Peier Jobnsttin and his Firmly are to 
be hoT iti a very little Tirne, I sKall wilt 'til I 5cc him; and I hope 
It) Kttlc «omc pUn viih him which mxy answer. 

1 rclcr CO the your^ aentic for my opinion oa 10 Lytc's 
Matter. 1 congratulate you on the very promisiag appearance 
of your two sons. They arc fine Boj-s indeed. 

Mt^ Henry joins mc In aficctkHiate Rc^rda 10 Mrs. Coles 
and the family, and I am. Dear ur, 

Affectioaately yourst 

P. Heifav. 

P.S. — When fthall we ece you all hcft? I want you to tell 
me how ro manage my low grounds^ and to make cropt, Stc, &c. 

The year tSck* found Etlward Coles a young man 
twenty-three years of age, the proprietor of a planta- 



tion which hi* father had bequeathed to him before his 
drarh, fhr pieviouji year, and a certain mmilitrnfshives- 
Of a polished ctlucation, fine persona! appearance, a^^xl 
Tnanncr:i, and irreproachable character* Pi-csidcnt Maidi- 
son tendered him the appointment of Wt<i priv^icc sec- 
retary, a pifeition at that time of much dignity and 
importance. It was made particularly pleasant for 
young Coles, from the acquaintance of his family with 
Mr, Madison, and from the fact of his becoming a 
member of the Presidential household. 

It was in his earlier college days that Mr. Coles had 
first presented to his mind the abstract question 
whether or not mart had a right of projieriy in his 
fellow man- He read cwrything on the subject that 
came inhis way, and listened ro lectures on thcrightsof 
man. The more he studied, the more he rcfloclcdj the 
more impossible was it for him to reconcile the immortal 
declaration ''that all men arc bom free and equal," 
with a state of society which held human beings in 
bondage. He rcsolveti, thrreforc, in his own mind chat 
he \^'OLild not only not hold slaves himself nor live In a 
State which upheld the institution of slavery- One 
reason wliicli determined him to accept the app'iiit- 
ment as private secretary to Mn Madison was, because 
he believed that through acquaintances hecojldmake 
at Washington^ he could better determine in what part 
of ihc noru*tlaveholding |K)rtion of the Union tl would 
be most advantagcf)u5 for him to settle* Mr. Coles 
remained the private secretary of Mr. Madison for ax 
years, enjoying in the fullest degree the confidence of 
ihat distinguished man* He soon acquired much 
knowledge of public affairs and of public men. His 



great intelligence and his sauvity of manner made him 
very useful to the President and very popular generally- 
He also enjoyed the confidence and friendship of Mr. 
Monroe, Mr. Jefferson and many noted men of the day, 
to a remarkable degree. 


Mr. Jeffek^ov and Mr. Cole»; Their CoRitni'oKijrKCn in 
i^i4;TM£LBTrEK0F Mr. CoLt!i;TMECELcn*Artt> Answer 
or Mr. JsrrcRsoH; Correspondence Uctueck Mr. Col^ 


The rctrttions of Mr. Jefferson and Mr. Coles seem to 
have htxn of i\ very friendly character, and arising from 
tKcsimilari cy of their viewson!henuesti<»nofsl3vcry,and 
their sympathy for each other in holding doctrines so 
much at variance with the prevailing sentiment in their 
own Starr, h was in }xtW^ r8t4, that Mr, 0>lc&, siill 
the private secretary of Mr. Madison^ opened a corre- 
spondence with Mn Jefferson^ which drew forth from 
the latter the most pronounced views on the question 
of slavery that had ever been put forth by so distin- 
guished a man residing in a slave-holding community, 
I present here the correspondence- Nothing can better 
illustrate the character and deep convictions of Mr. 
Coles titan his letter to Mr- Jefferson, dated July 14, 
1814, and which shows how deeply he felt on the 
subject of slavery; 

Wasmivctom, July 31, 1814. 
£)ATr Sir:. 1 never cook up my pen with more hesitation, or 
Mt more eiiib^ri^vMneiU than I now <1cj in aJdrexting ytiu on the 
subject of thid letter. The fear cf appearing premium ptuous dii- 
trcsaes mc, and wcoild deter ire from ventunng rhus to call four 
attention to a tubject of luch magnituUe, and so beset ^th diffi- 
culties as that of a general emandpginon of the slaves of Virginia, 
had I nor rhe higlie*t (rpinirm of yiwir gnodnew anrf lilirraliry, in 
not orly cxcu&m^ mc for the Itbtrcy 1 tike, but in jusdy apprc" 
dating my motives in doing so. 



I will not enter on the rigMi vhich man hii5 to cnsUrc fiia 
brother ma/i, nor upon the moral and political cffccM of slarcry 
on WividualsoronRrjciety; because these thin^ are better unjer- 
stood hy yo!! than by mc. Mr object i« 10 enrrcar and beseech 
you nt exert yuor knnvrlalgc ;inii InlliKncc in devising and getting 
into opcranon fome plan for the groduji] emancipation of »lavcr)r. 
Thi!i difficult task cxxiM be lcs3 exceptionally and more succcM- 
fuily pciformed by the revcre<l fathers of all our political and 
social blesun^ than by any aucceeding itatcsmen; and would 
aectn to come with pcculfar propriety and force from tho-^ wlwoe 
va3or, wbdoro and virtue have done so much in amclbrating the 
oonditjon of cnnnkind. And it is a duty, at I cuinceivc, that 
devdvefi partictdoHy on ><ou, from your known philoiopKiatl oiul 
enlarged view of mbjects, and from the principle* yoo have pro- 
lewieil and practLcol through a Inng ami uvful life, prr^rrninenrly 
distinifuished as ^c\\ by lidng foremost in e>ral>lkhing on the 
broadest basis the rights of mnn. nrd the liberty and inikpcndenec 
ol your eountry* as in bein^ ihroughour honored with the mo^t 
important tnist by your feQow citizenfi, whose confidence ai>d lore 
you have nrricd with you inro the shade* of old age and rrtirr- 
meni. Jo the calm of this reiiTenKni you inighi, mtoi beneSci- 
$Sy to society, and with much addition to your own firne. avail 
yuursdf of that love and confidence to pjt into complete practice 
iho^ hjilloweil principles contained in that renowned Declaration* 
of whi<^^H y<xi were the immortal author, and on which we founded 
Dur ri^^-ht lu rc!^i <vppre!i«'ujn aial eslablj.^h uur free^luin ati<l indc- 

I hope the fear of fiuling, at this time, will Have no intluenee 
in preventing you from employing your pen to eradicate this mo«t 
derailing fcamre of British Colonial policy, which is still per- 
nrifTnl tii t^xi^t, rtoTnirlrttimding il^ rrpugn^ntr at welt ti> the 
pTindpics of oor rcvc4Lftion as to our free instiiuiions. Foe how- 
ever prmd ntvX influential your opinions may now be, they will 
still be much mere ^ vhen you shall have been cslccn hx>m us by 
the coorte of namrc. If rhercforc your attempt should now fail 
ID rectify this tmfonunafc evi1---an evil most injurious both to 
the oppressed M%d lo the opprtss^ir — al some fuiutc day when 
vogr rmrmory will be conoccrattd by a grateful poateriry, what 



itt&utmx, irrc^^tiblc influence will the opiruons and wrttui^s of 
Thomaa JcffcTwn have in all quadona ccancctcd with the nglica 
cf man, and of that policy whieh will be the creed of your dttcipl^ 
Permit rac then, my dcfr Sir, again to entreat >'our great power* 
o^ mind and inAticnce^ and to employ M>mF oryour prcwnt leimre, 
m dcviMEig A tmnle tv liberate <»ne-half uf our (eU^Ar lie'mgs fntm 
an ignomifiioos bondage to the other, cither by making an immedi- 
ate attempt to put in tram a plan lo commence this goodly work^ 
or lo lea^'e human nature the invaluable Tt*t;iment — *hteh you 
are so capable oTiLoing — how lie^t ro establish its nghr*: so that 
ihc Height of your opinion may be on the side of emandpaiion 
when that quotkw sKaII be agiiatcd* and that it will be Acoacr 
or later 15 irtost certain, lliat \t mny be soofi ia my most nrdcnr 
prayei^ihat it wtti be, rescs with you. 

1 will only add aft an citeu»e for rhc liberry I take In nddrc«ft- 
tng you or this sitbjt^r uhich in so particularly lnteicsriii|j to me, 
that fmm (he time I was capable of rejecting on the nature of 
political society, aad of the rights appcftalninQ to man, I have 
noi only been principled tfgairiKr slavery, but have had feeling so 
repugnant to it aft to decide me nat to hoid them; which decision 
ha!t fut^-Cil me to leiivc ni> native Slate, and with it al\ my relatiiMU 
am! friends^ thUti I htiipe will be deemed by you sofne exca^c for 
the liberty o( this incruslon, of which I gladly avail myacif to 
aMure you of the ver>' great respect and esteem with which I am, 
my dear Sir, your very sincere and devotetl friend, 

RiiwAai) CuLKs, 
THOitA-i Jerr£asu«(. 

The celebrated answer of Mr, Jcffcpson to this 
letter, though before published, will bear to be re- 

MofmcEi-tA At^ 25, i$t4. 
De4r Sfr> Your favor of July 31 woa duly received, and 
was read with peculiar plciuure; the sentimenbE breathed through 
tile wlvolc df> honor to b^xli the liead and heart of the writer. 
Mine (tfi tlie subject uf the slavery of negraa have long since 
been in possession of the public, and time hat only served to give 


\^ *U rhM^ 



ft^<'C ^'^M A/TU4- JM1A^«' 

^jLm. ^^h«» A-Tb? 

^vfc A^ 

#*j- -^ - * 

^ ^« 'I ■ 



looj. The love of jusiicc and ihc Wc of country 
eqviJIy the mute of ehcss pcoptc, ftnd it U a mortal reproach 
to LH that they should hjivc pkottcd it sn bng m vain, and shcpuld 
htt*c produced not « single cffon, ray I fear not much seriota 
u'Ulm|pfi«, to relieve (hem and curwlvct from our present oon- 
diDon of moral and poliiiral rcpiohaiioit. Prom those of rhc 
formcf gcncralbti who wtrc io the fullness of age when I came 
LAto public hfet which was while our controversy with t^ngland 
was on pajier o«il]r, I soon mw that nothing was to be hoped, 
Ntirsrd and eduHrairJ in the datly habit of seeing thir dc^^: ' 
tnndinon, luih bcxlily and mental, of tbuic unfortunate Ui _ , 
not rcJlcctirg rbat that degtadatton was very much the woek of 
rbcmsdvcs aiul their fathers, few minds had yet doubtal but 
that they were aa legitimate tfubjecrs of prDjiert}' as their horses 
or cstlle. The quiet and monotonout course of colonial tife had 
been dkiturbed liy no alarm, and little ret^ectian fm the value of 
libertT; and whc.i aJarm ttan la-l^en at an eTitet])riv: iif cheir own, 
it wa4 r>ol easy iu carry them the whole tetigth of the phncipJca 
which they invoked for thcmsclvc*. In the ^rst or second sestfon 
of the legisUcufv after I bcciim^ a memher, I drew tn this sub)cct 
the atrentioTi of Colorwl RUtid, one of the oMcsr, RhJest, and moet 
re&pccrcJ mrfuben^ And Ik undertook tu niov^ foi certain moder- 
ate extensions of the protection of the laws to thc^ people. 1 
seconded his motion, anti, as a youn^r member, was more spared 
in x\\t debate; but he was denounced as an enemy to his country, 
and »*as treated uiih the gro**e*t indecorum. From an early 
Sta^cof Dur revtilutitidi, other and more dtstmil dultn wetc avti^fned 
to me, »t> that Imm that time till my return from Europe In 1789. 
And 1 may tsy till I returned to reside at home m 1609, 1 had 
Tittle 'jpjmnumty of knowing the progress of pubRc sentiment 
\\ttc on this tuhject. I ha<l alwayi hoprd that the younger gen- 
eration, rarovtng lltetr early impreiwioiiE after the flame of liberty 
had Wn kindled in every hrcasr, and had bectjmt: as it were the 
vital spint of every American; ih:it the gcncrcus temperament of 
youth, analo^Ais to the motion of their Mood, and above the 
suggettiam; of avarice, wo\ild have sympathised with oppreuion 
whctevrr found, ^rd proved their l^ve of lilicrry hryoml their 
own share of it. But my intercourse with them since my rcturUi 


iius'Ois msroRicJL collectio}<s 

bus not been mfHclent to oi^certam that they hod madt^ Cx>w:mifi 
thU point ihe- pnigrcwi I hnd hn|ird> Y^wir Mtliury bur welcnmc 
voice is ihc firit vphich has Ijrvnjglit this sound to my cat, nn<i I 
bare consiilcrcd the igcrcTftt silence which prcv^b on thU subject 
08 indicating an fipftthy unfavorAbJc to every hope, yci the hour 
ofemaricipanon is advanciiig in the march of time. It vrill come; 
anj whether brought on by the generous energy of ogr own minds, 
tiT by the bloixiy pruce^ts of St, Duiiiiui(Ut c3(t:itc(] aiid cundtictM) 
by tlie poifc^er vf our prc*cnt enemy* if once stationetl pcnnanently 
within our cciuctry, ord offering asylum and arms to the oppncuacdi 
ft (ejifofour hUtory not yet turned ever- 
A% to the method l>y wli^ch tha difficult work Is to be elated, 
if pcrmittn] to lie drinc by inmelveK, T hnvc xen lui prcijirivirii^n 
*o cjtpetlicnt on the whole, as that of cmandparion of those born 
^a/tcr B (liven day. and of thdr education and expatnAtion at a 
rr age- This would give time for a gradual excinction of that 
specicfi of labor %nd substitution of another^ ojul lessen the sever- 
ity of die shock which »n opentrion sn fiindamcnini cAnnoc fnil 
tu produce. The idea of emancipating Uic whole at once, the old 
05 veil as tbc young, and reiajnmg rheo) here, a of thodc only 
who have Dot the guide of either knowledge or expcnence of the 
tuUjeci; for men probably of any color, Ijutof this cdor we know, 

troughc up from iheir infAncy without necessity for tJiougbt or 
^lurecaKt, are Iiy ilteir h^hiLs nfridcrcd i.% incapable a*t children of 
tflktnB care of ihcmsetvcs, and are cxttngutthcd pn>mi>tly whenc- 
evcr Indu-itT}' i^ nccc^'^ary for raiding the young- In ihc meantime 

they are pe«ts in society by their idltn&ii, and thei.Eepredation«to 
which this leads them^ Their nma1g;imntion with the other color 
produces a degradatitin m which no lovrr of hi* finintry, no tfivcr 
of excellence in ihe huinan char-KCer, can innocently consent* 
1 am sensible of the partialities with which yo;i hnvc looked 

lowfirdfl rie as the: person wtio should undertake this salutary but 
arduc3iis wcirk; but this^ my dear ^r, is fike bidding old Priam to 

buckle the armor of Ht'ctiir "iremf»ti^us a^m humfris it intttiU 
/nrum eia^i." No, I have merlived tjjc ijeneration w':(h whl^h 

cnutual lahort and perils begat mutuaJ confidence and influence. 
This enterprise is for the ymjng, for those who can follow it up 

and bear it through to its consummatiein. It ihall have all my 

fTJSnBURyF/s EorrjRp colks 


pra>Tr«, ind thc«e arc th« orAy weapon* of an old man. Bur tn 
ihr mcaniimt, arc yoa right in aSandomr^g rhi,^ pmprrry, and 
youf couEiuy witli it? I chink noi* My opiniun has ever been, 
that until more CAn be done for chcm, wc shovild endeavor* 
with (hodc whom fortune has thrown on our handSt to feed 
aikI dothe th«m ^1, protect them from ill lOdige, require 
»iKh reifonable labor only as t» peri'ornicd voluntarily by freemen 
ami lie letl by ih> rcpui;iiiuiO» tu ab.lic4tc ihcm, aimJ uor duties 
to them. The lawit do not permit m to turn them loose, if that 
ivcrc for their good; and to commute them for other property iS 
to commit them to thoM whoAe uca^e of them we cannot control. 
1 hope then, my dear *>it, ytm will reconcile youndf to your 
cnuntry, nnd ii::i unforttiniite cDndit^n; thxr ytnt will not lessen 
!is slock of sound dbpcaitmn by wichdrawinfi your portion from 
ibc masst ihat, on the ci>ntrnr>- you wiil come forward in the pub- 
he eouncili, become the missionary of thi; doctrine rrvly christian, 
iounuate and inculcfltc it Kifdy Uii ste^ily thro' rhe medium of 
wrictng and conversation, as^oci^te othen in your labors, and 
when the phalanx is fornted^ bring on And prcAs the pruposicion 
pcDcvcrin^y until io accovnphahmcnt- It in an eacourac^ng 
observation that no good measure wjia ever proposed which, if 
duly pursued, failed to prevail in the end; *e have prtjof of this 
in the history of ihe endeavors in the HrirLsh parliament to lap- 
pTcoi that very trade which brought this cv:) on ui, and you will 
be supportcv't by the rcligjouit precept **l>c nor wearied in well 
domjE." That your mcceftt may be a^ speedy and complete, aa it 
irill be ofhonoraUeandimmortalconsolation toycur»eIf, lihallas 
fervcnrly and mncerely pray» as 1 ajuure you of my great friend^ 
ship and respect. 

Ti!. JerreR^K. 
P. S. WUyou Kive to the cnclocied Idler the prcpcr addrcsa 
of pbce to find your brother? 

Mr. Coles acknowledged the receipt of the letter of 
Mr. Jefferson as folfows: 

Tills letter of Mr Jefferson, one of the mosc remark- 
able and one of the most honorable to his character he 
ever wrote, is given^ also, xn/acsrmiU, 



WASItlMOTOK, S<p. l6tll, '14. 

I must be permitted ae*'"^ ^ iroobfc you, my dcAr Sir, to 
return my gmtcfiil thjinlt» i'jr the respectful :ind fnentlly atccniion 
sliown to m) letter m yotir »n«wcr uf the afth ult. Ynur favor- 
able rtccption of MntimcntH not gtncrjilly arowcd^ if :dr, \ry ty^r 
couDtrymcnt but which have ever been fo iiucporably interwoven 
with my opinions And feehngs as to beoume, Aa it wcrc^ the niddcr 
thftt shipes my courcc, even ag&intt a strong txlc of interest And 
of locnj partialities, could not hut be in the higheti <k'gre7 grati- 
fying to inc. And your intercinng «nd highly pnxed letter con* 
veying then To mc in such AattcHne terms. nv>uM finvc calkd 
fort^ my acknoi^lcd^mcnu bcturc this but i<rT iti hflving been 
forwarded to me to the Springs^ and from thence it wu again 
rcTumcd here be^ofe I received tc, which was only a few day* 

Your indulgent treatment cncourdgcs mc to add that I fed 
very Kitubly the force of your remorkn on tl*c impropriety of 
yielding to my repugnuncicu in AbxLndcvning my property in jlnve^ 
and my native Sute. I certamly should never hxmt been inclwied 
tu yield ta them if 1 had mippuseii my^lf capidiJe uf being initru- 
cnerlfll in bringing dbout a liberation, or that I cuuld by my 
e);amplc ameliorate the condition of these uppreiised people. If 
[ coidd be convinced of being in the slightest degree useful tn 
doing cither, it wcutd aFord me very gr^t happine^v, and the 
mtiTc Ui as ir MtvHihl cmtblc me la griiiify many pariialiikci by 
remaining in Vitginia. Bui never having flatccnrd myself with 
the hope of being able to contribute to either, I h«ve kmg »iticc 
derefmircd. and should hut for my had hcnlth ere this, have re- 
niovedr carrying alof^g with mc ihofc wha h^d been my slavct, 
to the country northwest of the river Ohio. 

Ymui prayers I tiuH will not only be Kenrd with indulgence 
ill Heaven, but with influence wj Karth. But I cannot agree with 
you that they are the only weapons of one at your age: nor that 
ihe difficult wtik of cleansing the escutcheon of Virginia of ihe 
ffljul «iun of slavery can best be done by the young. To erpcct 
u\ great and diiiicult an object, great and extensive puwers, both 
of mind and induence> arc requiredf which can never be possessed 



m fto great s tlcgrcc by tbc ^cxing u by the old. An;! amont; the 
f>ew of tkc former who might unite the dispositkMi with the rc()iii* 
site capacity, they are too often led by Ambitious viewi to go 
with the current of popular feeling rather than to mark oot a 
counr for thcmiehreK^ whrre they might be botfetcH by the wave* 
of oppraiiton; and irxlccd ir k fcarci] thai these wavcs wnuUl in 
thi^ CAM be too AtniLf^g to be crTcctiiAlI)- rciistcd by tny but those 
wbo K:i(i fCAi'^<^^ by t prcvicu» couffC of jscfiil employment the 
firmest footing In the con^dence and attachment of their country. 
It IS vrich them, therefore, I am periuflclcd, rhit the subject of 
einaiicipatiuTi must originate; for they are the uoly |.icr«o[» who 
Juvcicin thcirponxrciTcctually lo arouse and enlighten the public 
iciibment, whkh in maeicrs of this kind ought tiot to be expected 
to le»d, but io be )td\ nor ought it to be worKl>ered at that ther« 
fthould prevail a degree of apathy with the general maaa of man- 
kind, where a merepa^ive principleofrghthaa to contend againat 
the we^KtT inflLfcnce of hnlnr md intctmt. On rjch a question 
tbcre will alway;i cibt in SKxiety a kind of wj in^iid, to arouse 
and orercomei which requires a strong impulse, which can only 
be (pven by tho^e who hxvc acquired a great might of character, 
^nd on wKom rhm: devn!vrs it this ca*e a mow solemn ol^igation. 
It waa under thcac imprfuions thai I looked to yott, my dear Sir, 
,as the fint of our aped worthies to awaken our fcUonr-citizcRS 
'from tbcu- infatuation to a pro^xr Mnso of justice, and to the inic 
intercat of tlieir country; and by proposing a syatem for the grad> 
ual ema^tcipation of our ^lavn, at once to form a raltylng point 
fur its frirmdt, who enlighEc^ncd b;^ yc^r wiiidum and eK|>fTif^;(^, 
and supported and encouraged by your aanctW and patronage, 
might kx>k forward to a propitioufl and happy reiuh. Your ttmc 
of Ufe I had nut eonatdered as an obstacle to the untlcrtaking. 
Doctor Franklin, to whom, bv the way» Pennvylvinia awc« her 
eatif ridtlance of tlic eviU of slavery, wa« an acnvrly and a« toe-* 
fully empbye^l tin at arduous duties after he had post y^our agie 
as he bid ever been at any period of hb life. 

With apoJogiKJflg for hnvmg given you so much trouUc on 
this svhjccif and again repc^ating my thanks for the respectful and 
flartrring Rtrmtion yoo have h<xn pleased to pay to it, ! renew 


the osfriimnccs of tbe greie mpece and regard which makes me 
mo4l tincerdy ycurt 

Fdward Colks. 

Dunnjt the time that Mr Coles was the private 
secretary' of Mr. Madison, an iatimate friemlship seeitis 
to have spnmg up hcrwccn him and Nicholas Biddlc* 
afterward prtvMiictir of the United States Barik, and 
whose name *iubsccjijently cut such a figure in our 
history, Mr. Colcg and Mr. Biddle maintained for 
many years a tncndly and volunnirious correspondence, 
I have a large number of private letters of Mr. Biddle 
to Mr. Coles, the first dated in J8l,l, They arc a model 
of cpistolar>' correspondence, 

Mr. Biddle WASH mcmberof the Pennsylvania State 
Senate in 1814 and '15, and letters written by him at 
that time to Mr, Coles have a certain political interest, 
even at this day: 

Hakrisbvac, Jan'y 17, 1815. 

iWy Dfor Cofes: — Y«ur hit ItTtcr ioUuvr^d me to HarriMburg, 
and I um IkitIi aKKujiwiI ami Mirry nor to hxvt. ansiwcml ir sooner^ 
sn I misht iha^ have had another letter fn>m jrou. 

J have \>ciin beariirg my misfortunes here very philosophicany 
and filling my time with all the gravti dud mAtlcrt which occupy 
US- Amflng (itJier rhmg«, I propottd the other day a dr*fr nf R nr 
9 rhnii^nd men in -vrvr fur » yrar — a meflsutic which in ut weeks 
woiiEd have given us a tine amiy. By dine U h^id spcflking 11 
WAS carried xhro' the Senate hy n vote of si to ^, hut in the H. oi 
H. the name of conscription 1% given to it; and ma that horrible 
name, which has frightened all the old women* bodi in petticoats 
and pantidLKjns, h as fiifal as a mad dog. the Mil will her lost. 
Such in <hc iiifuluaiiti;! uf puiljr ihal 1117^ piililica! friend-H nrr [|uitc 
aitonbhcd at my having any concern :n Mich a ^Ijihohcal aifair; 
and altho* the bill U ^ilmoct a copy of an old act of Assernbly in 


17S1J with much mitder prtiri^na, «till ihere arc tnxny worthy 
pcr^iTN whii tWmk iluir lUt JiiU ix tJv:; wiiric of Bunapnrte. VVe 
thnlJ ncxi rcson to « project of raising regular troops b>^ tH>1untary 
CfllUunaUt and ir wc can tirsf raise the money for bounties^ then 
the men, in some months from thi*, after the capture i»f Phil* 
perhaps wc shall be prepared wirh a mour rrjittviablc sMppiy of 

But Ilcic, ii» ill Coii^ic^, ihcic scccks to be a Uiticnc^btc wAric 
of tiiat energy wrh:ch the crisis rei)uirc£- Unless your Con^^rcas 
«ccs wiih more propriety they will be ab^rKloncd by ihow who 
hflve hitherto been thetr warmest suppi^rccrt- Only a «hor? time 
SL^, 3 IcAfiing mvml-rr oi your paity rold me o( his inttrntion cjf 
submitting rcmlutionx ecnuiTintt tiic latilincvi of tlx; hciaomblc 
Congrcu —and I, so little of a promoter of mischief among you 
politicians, that I dii^njodcd him fr^m it, xHcxhibitinfjan iippdr- 
ance of tlivUioni which might be inj<iriouf;, io kt the Cocigreitmen 
Icok to it What iM this Unguitl, miieriblt: diteip; that nffllcrs 
Coii|pc»? Tlicrc seems tn be nctther energy, talent, nor any- 
thing c\x amon^ your rmijoricy. L'or God's s.ike« try ro animate 
them to somethmK fEcnetous nnd encrxcrc. Mr. Monroe and Mr. 
Dallas must he provokeid beyond measure at the eourftc of afi^airs. 
How does the laner come onf 1 have heard that he is not very 
pcpulflT at Washington. 

I hai^ just heaird from Mr«. Biddlc, «ho is tn good heAlih, 
and from Cra;^. who amu»c* himself na much iia ever. Will you 
not vbit uft chJtk winter? 1 havt been Auch a politician that I bave 
not vi»Med Phil* but once, and for a few d^vs, since ftnc I CMme 

God blc*s yoii, 
Ary y'r», 

Nicholas Biddlc- 

PuuAttKimtx^ Feb. 19, 1S15, 

Afjr Dtmr Sir* — I ^ivc you joy most cof<iiiUy oi" the glorious 

pacification which I have just been reading. Wt arc in truth a 

mo*t favored and happy nation. '] o have curried on irrumphantly 

a war 10 untquad and inauspkioua, oiul now when our forces began 



to fail iuai our means were alniosc cxhfujscctii to l^ thg& McauU 
wkh pcftcc on lioaorabic tCTDig, 10 a/i nbuncUncc of 0ood foriunc 
ttfaich «m: Ikad do right to expect. I rejoi<« at it with all my heart. 
Cod knows it was time for u> co make peace, for between the 
Yankees and the Congne** our affairs have been managed most 
>idl)r. If thinga had goiK on thiu much Iojikct, I should have 
begun to pray for »me Cromwell from fV Navy Yard (that is 
the Navy Yard that was,) to ckar llit Rill of the Rq>rtfM!ntativea 
and send them home. But now these good tidings put one in to 
pleasunr r irrmptr that we cari forgcc all that has pa«ed and kmk 
forward in the |>caccriil proitpcrity which iiwaits uv 

I have come down rather uncxpcctedlyi in consequence of « 
, alight indiff?o»'mon of Mrs. Kiddie, ^hc is much ttctter. She it 
'reading by my tide, and dcsifts to he remembered very kitsdly to 
you. Crnig has jvst left ua to go To Mr. Kenrw>wV In a day 
or two I (hall return to my den and make f^^eeehcs^ Fortunately 
the States have lost all thclt unportdJice since the peace, and hcrc- 
attcT «c 3hall content oursdves with making road» and nah-dams. 
This w'mter'& campaign has not m^de me exceedingly enamored 
of senatorial dignity. It is very dull and stxjpid, and the only 
P^good thing I wishevl to d« in the military way has so u^if^nished 
'4II my orthfdcix political friends, that I run some risk of being 
damred at Icaat, if not burned, (or a heretic These things do 
not aBeet me much, U'hcn a man takes the trc>ubl<: of p^avLing 
the winter in a vile country town, he should at least have the privi- 
lege of doing as he pleases. Shall we nor arc yoa when Congnrvi 
-adjcKirns? Now you have carried rhc treaiics of F.ngland and 
of the Creeks, and put ua at peace with the world* you might 
fird leisure for a visit. We aliall all be very glad to see you 

Affcct'y and SineereJy Y'ra, 

K. DlDCK-K. 

Fcb'yas, 181S- CiSi^?) 


My D^jr CcJrs:—l have had the pleasure of receiving your 
letter of the 18th, and must beg you 10 receive my thanks for the 
friCGdly incer^t you have taken in wha( concerns mC' 



Wih negard lo tlit first aqbject of your letter^ rhe informa- 
tion, dlrho' mich lu I anric^paievl, U still of some importance, 
WhtUr ihc mnurfH in rtflatiim to myself wktv *<* wiilcly circulated, 
however dciHtulc of fcunjation 1 knew them to he, I could not 
remain rocolly inKiwbie to them in ilecidini; upoin my courK of 
life for the next few ycant. I am therefore gl^d to knnw distinctly 
hnmr that maiter ilanda. Nf* per«o*i Jn the counrry witiiM, I bo|ic, 
hr loA dUpnted rfian mymrlf to advance unyihing like ii firetmuDn 
to any place whatever. I certAinly could not suppoic that the 
Frcsidcnt would 5uflcr his pcrswiJiJ rqinrd for me to ooitweish the 
obirioua con?idcmtionc cnnnected vri^ apj>ointmcnts of that 
sort— and ihc only amcicty I feel, is that in ascertaining riic matter 
of fact, there vas no appcjirftnce of an exprewion of n wish on my 
j>art. I rely very implicitly oii yiAtt judgment, that noihinf of 
chat son cotdd be conjectured from the manDcr in which the mlv 
ject wiW presented. How great that reliance U you need not be 
told, flince >Hju are the only person to whom the subject wa* or 
will lie meniiotKd. 

I have noc aa yet ilccided (ui the cuumc which 1 may purmc 
(or aomc time to come. With my habits the career of a public 
roan ia not without attractiona. My cxperteiKe of the but few 
years hcwcver, has noi» I confer, iirength^tted my early pre- 
dilrcrlon fa- that mode of life. Perlwp* I begin to feel ;i<l<^aynf 
that vrgoroiia amhiaon which mtttc yearn ago wtxild have c^irried 
nic thro' every scene of puMic trouble, and given an amniated 
interest to every public iranuction. Perhaps I have lived too 
cAsily and too happily. Whatever be the cause, it ia very certain 
thai I feel no deaire to rr^rumc a legisUtivc iiation— and if the 
c^veation were row fea|»sed, I ihin^ tliai after balancing the 
bopca of u&cm!zic!>4 to the country, and of persofial distinctiua 
agaimt the diaagrccabk things inseparable from that »on of bfc, 
I should decline an eltcdon to Congress. It ia not improbable 
frotn tl« present aituation of the Disipct. that if I were dttpoaed 
tn UK any exertion, 1 «Jiould have a reasonable chance of aucee». 
Whether, howe^'cr, niccesi be wxirth the attempt ia the question 
fti preienr. To go to Congren^ would probably int e rfe r e more- 
over vbith a project obooit which we have talked a great deal— of 
Spending some yean in Europe. The time when we shall go must 


dtptiod in a great dtgrce on the eituadoa of mj family, bat J feci 
■emt reluciance in ccntntcnng an engagement wMeK might pre 
R91I that oUjccl. Affcr all Uvc dcci^iuQ of lltrvr rhtngs must be 
left Id the oouiac of events. 

Wchave noncwsworthcommuDicatiiig toooc whohdniiking 
at the /ountam^lKacl- 

I'hc town is gay, and Ulcety to continue 9ao for «omc time* 
tg my n*grcr:% ar m>t lictng here ubcn yni Anr rame, otkt of 
UTonycM 19 my noi having h^ an ojipotTuntiy of inalctng yon 
MC aJid know Joseph Bon«p«rtc. 1 hare lately seen a good deal 
ofhmi, and rcaUy he \s by far the tnosi ir^tcrv^ting stranger I have 
seen In this couniry. He is free And communieacivc, and talks 
of all the great ewents and the great perdofis of h^ day with a 
frankiitvi whtdi uMuieH tmc uf hia good natu/e u well .vi nf hl^ 
vcraciCy. I am goin^; to dine with him as aotui aa 1 fiiii%}i du?i1ciccT. 

Mn, B*ddle desires to be particularly remcmWrcd to you, 
tnd bids me to warn you agoiiut the shepherdeses of the llUnoii, 
Write to rte before yoo leave Wasluagton, and believe mc always 
very afF'e'y y'ri, 

Nicholas Biddlc 

HARHisaoitG, March it, 1S15. 

M^ Dfsr Sir^-^\ thank you kindly for your note in relation 
tu my brother; I do nm. however^ perceive in the paper* ibat the 
nominations are confirmed. 

1 send you a report on ^ibject of the Hartford amendments; 
I drew it up as well because 1 think ihoie amenJmeni* injjdicious 
as bei:auK; ] was de)irDu& of preventing the adoption of another 
repr>rt ahuiting tlie New Fnglaiul peo[iJe. So many deluMons 
have been fr'^^pasJitcd en the subject, that I thought it might be 
of aervTCc to make a mi>icr«tc and candid statement— and this 
The more readily because we in Pennsylvania seem to be the 
nanirnl medbror* bcrwern you S<Hjrhprn people and the wine 
men of rhe Vjst^x, 1 do not ask you m rrad ^o long a ^fory, unlefis 

ton Bconc rainy day when you arc in Albemaile and have nothing 
rbc to do. 
llib \s the last evening w^ shall be in wsaion, and 1 wrrtc in 





the midst of the tumult of business which you know is crowded 
into the few last hours of the existence of a legislative body. I 
did not tell you that Mrs. Biddle, tired of my absence, has come 
to stay with me, and is now here. Shall we not see you this sum- 
merP Now that war and all its troubles are over, you are entitled 
to some recreation. 

Sincerely and afTy y*rs, 




Mh. Colr* Rf.solves to Sell hi& Pm»T*Tio« m Vircihia amd 
IjBKXATC HIS SLAvr.s; RKaicx) AS Private Skgkktakv to 
Mr. Madihox, in i3!i5; Vtstra thu Noit'nf-wK:iTt:Rx Tcrm- 


Ok iiii RiiTViur, Mr, Maohom Ssno^ him on a MtHVioif to 
Rti^iu; Hi*c RcuuvAL TT) Tilt: FioRTH-wtcvr DtLAv&ii; The 
Svcxr.i^ nr His \h^%H>N\ Covntrirs ov hie CoimMRnr 


In 1814, after tht conclusion of peace prith Greai 
Britain, Mr. Coles thought liimsdf enabled to rcmovi 
the obstacles in his wxy to selling his plantation and to 
leave the State and lilwratc his slaves. Accordingly 
in the following year, 1815. he resigned his position 
as private secretary, and spent a portion of :hc follow- 
ing autumn in exploring the Norih-wcsicrn territory, 
for the purpose of finding a location and purchasing 
land on which to .settle his negroes. This trip was made 
with a horse and buggy, having with him also a servant 
and a saddlr-horsc. It was tl»us that he travelled 
through many parts of Ohio^ Indiana and Illinois, and 
then crossed the Mississippi to Missouri. He reached 
St» IjOuis, than a little French village, and now become 
BO great and prosperous a city, in October of that year 
(1815), by way of Shawncetown and Kaskaskia* and 
which could then boajit of but one brick house. Send- 
ing his servant back with one of his horses to Virginia, 
Mr. Coles descended the Missifisippi to New OrleanSj 
and thence went by sea to Savannah^ Georgia. Froi 
thence be pushed his way to Charleston, and from th< 
to his home ac Enniscorthy. 



Tt was at this time that there arose a serious mis- 
understanding between our government and Russia, 
The Kmpcror had considered himself purposely in- 
sulted by mir government, and had tlircatcned to expel 
or imprison our consul at St- Petersburg, who was then 
acting us Our Charge d'Affaires tn the absence of the 
Minister. William Pinkney, of Maryland, had l»een 
appointed minister to Russia on the 7ih of March, 1816, 
but he was then at Naples, detained on public business. 
It was feared that he w*oiUd find difficulry in reaching 
St- Petersburg, if not prcvcntct! going there at all. Mr 
Pinkncy, holding already the appointment of Minister, 
another one could not be sent. Mr. Madison, there- 
fore, looked around for some able and discreet person 
wham he couid send to Rus?iia ro smooth over the 
difficulties. Mr< Coles had lately been his private sec- 
retary, a member of his own family, and who enjoyed 
hrs fullest confidence. He therefore selected him for 
this very delicate and important mission. Although 
Mr. Coles' arrangements had already been made to 
settle in IIIumms, he was so strongly urged by Mr, 
Madison to undertake the mission, that he consented 
to do so. To emphaM?e it, Mr, Coles was sent to 
Russia on a man-of-war, the 'Tromerhcus/' Captain 
Wadsworth. She sailed from Boston in the summerof 
]l!i6. The "Prometheus" was the first vessel of our 
navy which had ever sailed up the Baltic. Mr, Coles 
remained some three months at St. Petersburg await- 
ing the return of Emperor Alexander, who was then on 
a visit to Moscow and Poland. On the return of the 
Emperor the difficulties wcre^ upon the explanations of 
Mr, Coles, most happily adjusted. The troubles grew 



Out of matters connected with the Russian Minister at 
Washington, Dashkoff; and the Emperor^ to signilyi 
to the L'nitcd Siaic-s his disposition^ rtftcrr 3 knowledge 
of ail the facis, offered fo inflict any punishment on the 
oflTendinB Minister which the President of die United 
States might desire, and threatened to send him to 
Siberia. Mr. CoIc*i vrry proprrly rvplictl that our gov- 
eminent had no suggestion to make in regard to any 
piuiishmcnt of the offending Minister, but merely 
wished to have him rccallctl, which was promptly done. 

The *'Pn>methrus" did nt.u remain to bring Mr* 
Coles back to the United States. Alter concluding his 
diplomatic business, he made a journey in his private 
carriiLge from St. Petersburg to Berlin. The fact that 
he had been sent in a diplomatic capacity to Russia in 
nn American man-of-war. and the complete success of 
his mission, gave him the cntroc into diplomatic and 
official circles where\'er he went in Europe- He was 
presented in his diplomatic capacity to I-ouis XVIII, 
of France, by Mr. Gallatin* United States Minister at 
that lime. At a dinnrr at Mr. (iallaiifi s on the same 
day, he met for the first rime General La Fayette- 
Their mutual acquaintance with Jcffcr$on> Madison, 
Monroe, and many other men of the rcs^olutionary 
times, pnjcurcd for Mr. Coles an exceedingly cordial 
reception^ and led to his being much in the company 
of La Fayette during his stay in Paris. 

After three months sojouni in Pans, Mr. Coles 
passed over to England, where he spent many wtseks 
in London, and then making a tour through England, 
Scotland, Ireland and Wales, he saulcd from Liverpool 
for New York. 




T ■ , 










5 i* 

4 > 


1 ^ 

1 '4 j 




^■' 3 


The following is the letter offering this mission to 
Mr, G>les. Th&/ac-simile is presented: 


' MOITTPELIEK, July 7, IB16, 

Dear Sir: — Circumstances have arisen which make it expedi- 
ent to forward communications to St. Petersburg by a special 
I hand. Would the trip be agreeable to you? You probably know 
the allowance usual on such occasions. It is T believe %6 a day, 
J the outward and return passage provided by the public, the ex- 
! pcnses on shore borne by the party himself. Unless a direct 
opportunity can be promptly founds it is probable that the course 
will be via England- Should you think favorably of the proposi- 
tion, it may be well to ascertain by letter to Mr. Monroe, who is 
still at Washington all the particulars, which may be interesting 
to you, among others the precise amount of the allowance, and 
the probable time when your departure will be required. Whether 
your decision be in the aiErmative or negative, be so good as to let 
me know it as soon as you can. 

Accept my cordial regards, 

James Madisom. 
E. CoLESf Esq. 

Mr. Monroe, who was at the time Secretary of 
State, gave the following letter of introduction to Mn 
Coles to the consul of the United States to St, Peters- 
burg, it is also presented in facsimile: 

Dep't of State, 

Aug*t6, 1816. 

Sir: — The bearer, Mr. Coles, is sent to Russia on business of 

importance with our minister there. He was lately the private 

secretary of the President, and is a very respectable and amiable 

young man- This is to introduce him to your acquaintance, and 

request your attention to him white at the post where you reside. 

With great respect, I am, sir, y*r very ob't servant, 

Jas. Monroe. 
To rhe Consul of the U. States at St. Petersburg, and at other 
j^orcs in Europe. 


Tft, CoLi:v RmovKt rROM VifiotNU to EowARD$viti.c, Illinois^ 
wrm ALL HIS Negxo£s, tir thk SriuMG of 1S19; Was at 
Kaarasilia in iStS; Letter or Ihtao^^lchok rjiOM pKEst- 
OEaiT Moxftoc TO G<rt'. Edwards; The Comdvct or Mk. 
CoLfifl ttf Rec^kd to hu Slates; Diffki;ltie« m the 
Way or Fke^inc Them; JocAMcr to Ilukois; Vovacs 
uowK THf. Ohio Rivf-k; NIk, Colks Givd all ai^ Slavf-3 


I» the spring of 1819^ all his prcpariitiofis halving 
been completed, he made a final removal with all his 
negroes from Virginia to Edwardsvillc, in this State. 
The fir.Ht appearance of Mr. Coles in Illinois, except as 
he passed through the territory from Shawncctown to 
St. Loutf^ in 181;, was in the summer of 1S18, at Kas- 
kaskia^ then the scat of government for the Territory 
of IlliiKiis, A convention was then in session to form 
a constitution for the new St^ite of Illinois. Mr. Coles 
had before this time determined^ and for reasons which 
appear in this Paper* to remove from his native State 
of Virginia to Illinoiif. It was for this reason that he 
became much interested in the work of the convention 
at Ka3ka3kia, where he tarried several weeks to use 
what intliience he mij^t have to prevent any recog- 
nition of slavery in the constitution of the State which 
he desired to make his home. 

Mr. Coles was the bearer of the following letter of 
introduction to Hon. Ninian lulwards: 

Waskinotom, April 13, 181G. 
Dtar Sir: — Mr, FxJward CoU^t inicudifig to pws through 
Illinob, probftbt)' lo rcmAin some tinie tbert, I take much pleaftirv 



1ft intrcducing him to y<Mr acqualnuncc njt<l Wind »iiefitiiiti< J 
hxvt long krx>wn antt htghly rcxi^ecred htm for hit »icct1«iit quali- 
ri^ii und gaud tindcrttiLmllrig. He am, scri^ra] ynint, pnvscc 
necrctarv of ihc Utc Prcsuknc, ami «nplo>'ed bf Kim « a confi- 
Icnml mcMcngcr to Kusua, in wMch trutm he discovered Tound 
iajigmcnc, great mdiistry aiid Oddity, and U gcnerilLy Jovcd hj 
tfKAc who know him bcsT, Should he «ctftc with >'ou. )'ou will 
find him a vzry \:^c(\A iicquisifion-^-and I iiiukraiind ihar w nor 
an ImproluMc event. 

f hope that the arr^ingcmcnt made chit winter will avail our 
CDuncry uf yonir »orvicca, in the pru|)oeed treaty vrith the Indians, 
,iii a manrter satisfactory' to ycurielf; for success, on just principles, 
the object of my meet iirdeni wishes. 

\S\t}% great rcif)c<t aiid evtecm, 

1 am, d»r atr, very sincerely youn. 


HoK. NiNU3f Edwamxs. 

I know of nothing more creditable to the character 
and action of Mr. Coles than his cunduct in relation to 
hrs sUvc*i, That conduct will hoT»oy hi* name and 
memory. Born amidsc slavery and among slavc- 
Iwlders, wKo had given the be^t features po^^iblc to 
that dreadful insritution^ and ambd the luxury and 
refinement of the highest type of Virginia life, in silence 
and after long rejection, he formed the most distinc- 
tive and radical ideas on the subject of slavery. He 
ihen made the resolution in his own mind not to hold as 
slaves the negroes left to him by his father. I quote 
from his own language in tliis regard; '*! could not 
reconcile it ro my conscience and sense of propriety to 
participate in slavery; and being unable to screen my- 
self under such a shelter, from the peliings and up- 
Uniidingfl of my own conscience, and the just censure, 
as I conceived, ofcarth and heaven, I could not consent 



to hold as property what I had rto ngjit to, and which 
was not and could not be property Acconiidg to my 
undcn«tiindiiig of rhf rights a^»d duties of man — and 
therefore I determined that I would not and could not 
hold my fellow man as a slave." 

But when Mr, Coles came to the point, he was met 
hy gn^ar and ahiiosr insurmonru;i|ile difriculliirs in 
manumitting his tdavcs. All his relations and friends 
were slaveholders and the example which he proposed 
CO set would not only he an injury to them [>ccuniarily, 
but a reflection upon them as slaveholders, and would 
render him unpopular and odious. Independent of 
these considerations^ the law of Virginia required^ under 
penalty of forfeiting his freedom, that every negro 
should leave the Stntc within one year after he should 
be emancipated. 

Most men would have shrunk from wh:it Mr. Coles 
then had in contemplation. He had been bom and 
educated in wealth and luxury, and was apparently 
surrounded by all that could make a man happy and 
conU'Utexl in life:. Bm ihr hiileous pail of .slavery was 
ovier it alt. He had been for six years in the charming 
household of Mr, Madison as his private secretary; had 
been sent abroad under peculiar circumstances on a 
semi-diplomatic mi^^ian; had travelled in Kurope, and 
been associated with many of its most distinguished 
men. Mr. Coles, however, was equal to what he had 
pn>posrd to himself. On the ist of Aprils iSig, he 
started from his plantation ('^Ruckfish") with all his 
negroes, and all their offspring, which he had inherited, 
for Illinois^ except two old womcn^ too old and infirm 
to support tliemselvcs who rem^inetl in Virginia, but 


were supported by him during their lives. While the 
negmes knew chat rhey were leaving the land of their 
birth and going to the North-western tcrritorj', they 
knew nothing of chc intentions which Mn Coles had in 
regani n> them. But they followed with unfaltering 
faith chc man who had been so kind and indulgent n 
roaster. The party of slaves were put in charge of one 
of thcirnumbcr, a mulatto man named Ralph Crawford, 
who had accompanied Mr. Coles on one of his trips to 
Illinois* It was a long journey in emigrant wagons 
,ovcr the Allcghanic* to Brownsville, Pennsylvania- 
Mr. Cole^ starHfd a few days aftcrwartls on horseback^ 
and overtook them one day's journey from Brownsville. 
At this place he bought two tlat-bottomed boats, upon 
which he embarked himself and his traveling com- 
pan!nn» a Mr. Green, of Virginia, together wiih all his 
negroes, horses, wagons, etc. The pilot that he had 
employed proved so drunken and worthless that he waa 
ohiigc-'d to dischai^c him at Pittshurg. Frum thence, 
constituting himself captain and pilot, they proceeded 
On their voyage down the Ohio river for more than six 
hundred miles, to a point below Louisville. There the 
\MMns were sold, and Ralph Crawford agiiin took charge 
of his party, and continued the journey by land to 
Edwardsvillc, Illinois, where they arrived safe ami 

I will now let Mr- Coles himself describe a scene 
which must awaken deepest emotions in every generous 
heart. 1 copy fipom a matiu^tcript in his own hand- 
writing, which [ have had in my hands, and which has 
never yet been published: 

"The mumtng uficr wc left Piituburg, a inild,L'Alm and Wdy 




I tolil ihtttiit no. r bid reiaxit: tip rny mind lo giw to them 
immeiliatc aiul uncrumliTioital frccdofn; ihut I KiiJ lo^t^bccTiaiiKUHia 
to do U, but hod Ixcn prcvcntoj bjr the dclajrj. first in KUinj my 
property in Vir^nla, «tu1 th«i m coUectuifi the mot^tf, «nd by 
other circumEtiTKCA. That in coitsideration ofrhi^ dcU)*, and as 
jirewnrd (of their pa.*t irrvkt*, bi well n« a stimulant m thttr 
fiitwc cxmionft, ami vith a hope it iAx>u1d add u> their aciroteem 
■nd their sinndiTtg In the cstimjitioii of others, 1 n^ould ^ve to 
tNich hcftd oJ 4 Injnily a qunrtcr section, rontnirtifiK one hundred 
and ta%ty ocrts of \At>ti* To this at) object^, snying 1 h«j dofie 
enough for rhctn in giving them their frctdotn; ai^d invifited on 
mj kcrpitiif (he land iu supply my own wants, Rxid ndded, in the 
kuukai manDcr> the cxprcsuon of tbcif aolicitudc tlui t would 
not have the means of dr>iR^ so after I had freed them. 1 cdd 
them J hid thought much of my duty sad of thdr rights, and ihzl 
it was due alike to both that I ihouM do what I had taid 1 should 
do; aad at-c^mlingly. ^oon after rtaclung Etiwanlsvillcj I execufe*! 
ond delivered it> them deeds tu die landn (rtomUcd tliem. 

1 ^zalc^ to them chat the Eandn 1 intended to give them were 
unimproved Undii, luid as they would not have the means of mak- 
ittg the necetiiary improvementA, (.if sxodkmg their £MfniJ^ and 
procuring the marcrt;d« for at once living on chrm^ rhey would 
hai-c tu hire ihcnuclrct out till ihcy could acquuc by tficir labor 
the ncccssAO' means to cofnmciKic euliiratiitg and residing on 
their own Unds- lliae 1 w^ villiriK to hire ind employ ott my 
Jann a certain mimber of them (dcfii^nting the irdividualsO th« 
othera I sdvited to seek crrtploymeitt \r\ St. L/xtb, Edwardfville, 
aju\ orher |ifacc9« where smart, active young men and women 
eouJd obub much higlun' wages than they could on farms. At 
this some of tbcrti murmured, a« it indleated a pcirtiality they sntd, 
on my part to those des^nated to ^vc with me; and contended 
they should all be equally dear to me, and that I OQght not to 
keep a part unS tura rhe oclient out cm the wurld, to be b«d1y 
treated, etc- I reminded them of what they $ecmcd to have loiC 
aight of, that they were frve; that no one had a right to beat or 
ill use them; and if so treated, they oould at plenritjre leave one 
place and seek a better; that labor wa« much in demand in that 
new cpunrry, and highly paid for; th^r then; would be no diffieulcy 



in tliHr obfuining good pTaccs> And bt^ing kindly treAtpJ; but \i 
njt, 1 s&huutJ be %t hand, and would kc they wcrif wdl rre:tied, 
ami have justice <lt>nc titcm. 

I availed m^5clt of the deek scene to give the ncgroet some 
advice. 1 dwelt kng and with much e^rnestnea on their future 
conduct and $ucces«, and my BTeat anxiety that they uhodd be- 
tave thi-mvU-es and do well, not only fur rheir own si^ikcs, Imt fcjr 
the take of the black race held in bondage; many of whom were 
thu9 heldt becauw their masters believed they were iiKompctent 
to take care of themselves, and that liberty would he to them a 
eurse rather than .i bleating. My anidous wish war thni they 
&h<Hikt BQinndmT ihemKrlve? as ro^how hy their dtamplr that the 
dewendanis of Africa wctc competent lo lake care of and govern 
theniKlvca, and cojoy all the blcsftingt ol liberty, anj all the other 
binhnghts of rnnn, And ihos promote the univeraal erriancipaiion 
of that unfortunate nnd outraged race of the human family/' 

On board of the boat and before rhc party landed, 
Mr. Coles gave to the negroes a general certificate of 
freedom m which their najTtes, agc4, ctc,> were stated. 
It appeared, however, tha: at the last session of the 
Legislature of Illinois, a law had been pjissed, but 
which had not then been published^ requiring every free 
negro to have the evidence of his freedom; and unle?<s 
he possessed such evidence and had it recorded, he was 
liaWc to be imprisoned* and anyone hiring him was 
subject to a hcav)' tine for each day he should employ 
him. In consequence of the passage of this taw, he 
wasadvist:d that it would be necessary for him to give to 
each negro or family a certificate of freedom, in which 
:he individual or individual should be^ ramtrd and 
described! the same to be made a matter of record, and 
that the shortest and best mode would be for him to 
execute separate instruments of emancipation. Mr. 
Coles at first objected to this, for the reas<iii ihai he 



Iiad nlready given (o the negroes a general certificate 
of freedom before they had come into the State. His 
lawyer, the Hon. Daniel P. Cook, afterwards so clis- 
tinguishc'd ;is a member nf 0>ngrcs.s, advised him thar 
\i would be better for carrying out, in the shortest and 
best form die pro\n$ion5 of the law, and protecting the 
negroes, as well as those who should employ them, he 
should give them separate papers. In acctjrdancc with 
that advice, on the 4th of July, i8iq, he executed in- 
struments of emancipation to all the negroes who were 
then rrsuling in lllirKiis. He prefaced the instrument 
by setting forth that his father had bequeathed to him 
certain negro slaves and adding these great words: 
"Kot believing that man can have of right a property 
in his tcrllow man, but nn the contrary, that alt man- 
kind were endowed by nature with equal rights, I do 
therefore, by these presents restore to (naming the 
party) that inalienable liberty of which he has been 
deprived/' That certificate fi>rmed the basis of a long 
and bitter law-^suit, which will be alluded to farther on. 


AproisriED H^cisTtR or the Land Office at EowAitDsriLLe, 
Br Mn. Mo*<»os, IN 1819; THE AovAWTAOfie or that Poai- 
TTOff; Make£ AcquAiXTAKce or the People; Pe^onal 
Appeakaxce; iMPBEisiojf Made on the Piojeehs or TWt 
Corndw; Gow CoLt-t a»[> Gov. Ki>h'akii,s wji'h mr. Hi(;n- 
I13T Tvrca or Gi:KTLtMK»; Tub S«o«o Election foe 
Govr.KNoit IN 1G22; A Stvmp Canva^i; CoLr.s CtEcT-r.^ or 
A Shall Plurautv over Ciiiur Jut&TiCE PiiiLLiri; Cole!^, 

Ot^MOMNfl PAKTr; I.KGIMATirEi: lAEt.ELr Plll-5l-AV»i-RY; 

List or Memjieka. 

Mr< Colls having made known his determination 
to settle in Illinois, on MarcK $, iSig, Mr. Monroe con- 
ferred upon iiim the appointment of Registrar of the 
Land Office at Edwardsville, which was at that time 
one' of the principal land offices in the State. This 
appointment was a most fortunate one for Mr. Coks, 
AS It enabled him to make acquaintances over a large 
part of the State then settled, and to reach that posi- 
tion which made it possible for him in so great a measure 
to shupu iis future desnny- Tlierc wcrer no [lOsitions 
in the new Starcg in which the public lands were sit- 
uated, so favorable for forming acquaintances, and 
making political capital as tho!^ of land officers. 
Settlers from every part uf the land districts were 
oblisod to go to die place where the land office was 
located, to enter their hinds and secure their homes. 
To rnable themsdves to accomplish this purpose and 
acquire the means to enter ihelr lands, had cost the 
settlers great labor and man/ privations. It was the 
ambition and hope of their lives to gel a tide to their 




homes, and there was no man who was not wiHiout 
anxict)' that something might nor X\m\ up to thwart 
hU purpose^ nncl many thought thac the knd officers 
held their destinies, in some measure, in their handi- 
Whcn the settler reached Edwardsvillc, dressed in 
jeans and wearing moccasins, with his money in his 
belt, ha\'ing traveled on foot or on horseback long 
distances, and 6pst presented himself to the Register of 
the Land Office, ihcrc he Ibund Eilward Coles, who had 
recently emignited into the State from Virginia. It 
was known to some of them chat he had been the pri- 
vate secretary for President Madison, and had been 
Ofi an important inissloii to Europe- 

They found him a young man of handsome, but 
somewhat awkward personal appearance, genteelly 
dressed, and of kind and agreeable manners. The 
anxious settler was at uncc put at case by the suavity 
of his address, the interest he appeared to feel in aiding 
him, and the thoroughly intelligent manner in which 
he dischai^gcd his duty. No man went away who wa^s 
rwt delighted with his intercourse with the "Register/* 
And herein is illustrated the great mistake so often 
made by politicinns and candidates for ix>puUr favor. 
Too many candidates for the siitfrage of the people in 
our early political contests thought it necessary, in 
order to make themselves popular, to affect slovenly 
and unclean dress and vulgar maTiners in their cam- 
paigns. There was never a greater mistake. How- 
ever rough, illclothed and unintelligent the voter might 
be, he always preferred to vote for the man who was 
dressed and *tctcd like a gcntlcm^in to the one who 
dressed like and acted like himself- This was panic- 



ularly apparent in the case of Govemor Eclwanl:;^ wlio 
wa$, perhaps, the most successful political canvasser 
of his day in the State. In his canvasses betbre the 
people he never descended ta the ordinary tricks and 
subterfuges of the lower grade of politicians running 
for office* He showed himself as the highes: type of a 
welt dressed and polished gentleman. Always riding 
in his own carriage and driven by his nrgro servant, the 
people thought it ;in honor to vote ior such a gentleman. 
And as it was with Governor lidwards, 50 it was with 
his immediate predecessor^ Governor Coles. Such 
werr his dignified manners anil gt'nilrtnurdy deport- 
ment under all circumstances and upon all occasions, 
that he was always respected. 

The election for Governor of the State, to succeed 
Governor Bond, took place in August^ 1822. There 
were no political conventions in those days to nominate 
candidates, and the different aspirants for elective 
oBkes went in on their own hook, or, in the language 
of the day, *Vun stump-" There were no distinctive 
political parties at that time, and no great national 
questions occupied the attention of the people- Gov- 
ernor Bond being ineligible for re-election was not a 
candidate* The most prominent man brought out for 
Governor in this contest was Joseph Phillips, then Chief 
Justice of the State, His praminent supporters were 
among the early scttiers, particularly from the slave- 
holding States, and though the matter was rwt partic* 
ularly agitated, holding extreme views on the slavery 
question. Mr. Coles, who had only been three years 
in the Staie^ was brought forward by a cla^ of men 
who had no sympathy with the Phillips party-men who 



had known Coles bs Register of the Land Office, 
aii(] who aHmirrd and respected KLs character At the 
commencement of the contest these were rhc principal 
candidates. As the canvass advanced. Coles developed 
strength in the south-eastern part of the Statc> along 
the Wab.ish, which alarmed the Phillips men, and to 
take away votes ftom Coles they brought out as a can- 
didate, Thomas C. Browne* then an Associate Justice 
of the Supfcmc Courts who was supposed to have great 
strength in that par: of the State,* Both Phillips and 
Browne were pronounced pro-slavery men, while Coles 
was known to be anti-slavery- There were then three 
candi<latcs— PhillipSj Coles and Browne. Afterwards 
there appeared a fourth, and for what reason I have 
never seen explained, in the person of Major General 
James li. MiK>rc» of the State Mihria. This was a 
somewhat extraordinary contest, and Coles was elected 
by a plurality of only fifty votes over Phillips. Coles 
had rw<j thousand eight hundred and ten votes; Phillips, 
two thousand seven hundred and sixty votes; Browne, 
two thousand five hundred and forty-three; and Moore, 
five hundred and twenty-two votes." While Browne 
was brought out to help Phillips in the Wabash country, 
the result shows that it was his candidacy that beat 
Phillips- A largemajority of the votes given to Browne 
would un^loubtedly have been given to Phillips had not 
Browne been a candidate. Browne h:id only two 
huodred and seventeen votes less than Phillips, The 
aggregate vote of Coles and General Moore was three 

firuan in tb« mtc vhkh wjt kxclk to Phillip* iii wHi h% m CiUft. 

"Sec E^cnc« TAt Frwmtitr £i*irt 76. The mulci of [Ac drttioa nrr givtn it 
lbl««»* CdK*t l|Su void; niiinpti lji/^7i Stoitnc, iaa^, Mojrc. (fH. 



thousand three hundred and rhircj'-rwo. That might 
be considered the vote of those opposed to bringing 
slavery iiuo the State, while Phillips aiiii Urownc, in 
faivor of iniroducing slavery into the State, had a local 
vote of Ave thousand three hundred and three. Per- 
sonal considerations entered to some extent into this 
contest, but if this vote would Ikt considered a criterion 
or the slavery question, it would show a majority of 
one thousand nine hundred and seventy-one votes in 
favor of introducing slavery into the State by virtue 
of ail amemled con^titLition. 

It will have been seen, therefore, that Mr. Coles 
wa$ elected Governor by a large minorit)* of the whole 
vote casr, and thnjutjh the division of the pn.Kslavery 
men. At this same election, and where there was no 
such division, the pro-slavery men elected their can- 
didate for Licutcnant-Ctovemor, Adolphu5 Frederick 
Hubbard, by a decided majority^ as well as a majority 
in both branches of the Lqpslature, and strongly 
opposed to Govcnior Coles. 

The following is the list of Senator* and Members 
of the House of Representatives, composing the Le^s- 
latureof r8i;-:i: 


TII0M.\S LlPPINCOTTiSocrtttr^ 

Jifffjcojvr^ -Stephen Strllmjui.* 
Matiiion — ThcupIiiJus W. 

^«M/»f/<»tt'— Andrew Bank< 

AdW^/i^— Samuel Cro^icr- 
fVaync tind Lowrrwe— WiU 

liam Kinkitdc.* 
Greenr^ Morgan, eit.—G^^y. 




t/nioft anJ ^/tf*tf«Ar— John 

D>okl Parker' 

iiamilicrjt Jrfftrs^n^ and Mar- 
ion — Thomos Sloo, Jr. 

Bond^ FayciUt and Mttnti^m* 
<ry— Mnrtin Joik*. 

Jatkjam—VixWi^tix Boon. 

^Arf*--Uooard White. 
Edwards — Robert FraziCTt* 
Jensen and Fr^nkOn — Milton 

Si. Ciw— ttTlfram Kinney. 
Mtmr^i — Joseph A. BeairU- 
GailaSin — MkhacI Joim». 
Pcpt — LewU Bork^. 


WILUAM M. ALEXANDER, oi Akct^idcr. ?i|wilUT. 
CHARl.r:S DUS'N, Ckrk. 

P^pi*— 5*muci Alexander, 
Jaovcs a, Whiiwidc. 

Afaditt^n'-'CMrtn BEakefRVi,* 
George Churchill^* 
Emanuel J. West- 

FayfSUandhi9Hig9mtry — Wbi. 

i^^arttiff. — Abra h 4m Cii raen. * 

Itami^h Jfff^jon, anJ \iar' 
y*i— Zftdock Casey. 

fVrfw*//*!— Thomas DorriB, 

Gdliatm—}^ G. Daimwood, 


ffAae Joiin t^nmitt, 

Alexander Phi ill pa* 
G, R. Ix^ft. 

Cra^ord—Davtil McOaK*^* 
R. C. Ford. 

{/iff>^r— AlcKJindcr P» Field, 

John Mclnrofih. 
Ji^nt&n — WiUiam McFat- 

PiiU and FuhGn—'H I c b o I a t 

Hansen, f 
dark and Edzar — Wm. Low- 

St. Cijf'^-RUdon Mooctj* 
Jacob Ogle,^ 
James Tmtier, 
lia tiJsIpk— Thfimaji Matf^cr,* 
Raphael WidcA,* 
John McFcTTon. 
jBon^—Jna. a Pugh,* 

ijterfK and Morgan — Tlioo. 

ty^ashingf^m-'iwTxts Tumcy. 
yflfij^B— Conrad Will, 
Stmgemon — ^Janics Sims.* 
H'aym — J«nicA CajiipbcU. 

fSlMw, n^liiuBtd for ElMiatn, voted hr liic Coavcntion Ra«kliM. 


iNACQirRATED AS Gotekhor, Decembbr, i8zi; Hit "Specch" 
ow THE Otcasiok; Souko Views oh the Citrrewcv Qce&- 
TioKi Bold Dekukcution or Slaverv, the Buck Law* or 
iHE State, and of Kidnappjkc; Letteh ik R£C*ttD to the 
Title ok me* Okhl-h; Tmk Efrrscr or th*. Gove»s(o*'s 
SpEfcCK; Thc Okk.xjki; vt or the Gheat Qcestiox or 
MAKJ?dC Ilunots a Slave STA-rr.; CuAKACTCit op the Eui- 
CRATiON rnou the Slavi: Statkh; Incensed at tiic Elec- 
Tio)r orGovKRxofL, CoLC^; Pno-invtftV- Majowt*" is doth 
BRAxi:»it:-% or tmk T.MTi-vr.ATi;ftK; Pi^jn Cukcejvi'.ij io Makk 
A StAVit CowiTiTimos, 

This legislature convened at Vandalia on the firat 
Monday of Hcccmbcr, 1821, and on the 5th day of that 
month Governor Coles delivered in person what is 
called a "Speech on his inauguration in the presence of 
both houses of the General i^ssembly of Illinois/* No 
one who reads ihis "Sjjcech/' as it was called at ihat 
day, can but be struck with its elevated tone and the 
wisdom of its recommendations.* He spoke of the 
fluctuating and dcran^d sitatc of the circulating me- 
dium, and the mania for banking, which had brou^it 
its train of evils inseparable from its excesses. He said 
(he State should profit by the experience of others that 
had iidopifd dHuMv<? lutrasuix^s in attempring to relieve 
the community from pecuniary embarrassments, the 
effect of which had been to increase the evils they were 
intended to remove. He enunciated the scntimait 

■JUirwf of > )rtttr af MitrrU Bifkhfrk fo Gmn-mw Cblck ditrd ^Vanl- 
bofDiiEh. Drc. n, tim "I slKnild vrhi lo yv^i tvfn wtr tl ucil^ fui (bc;>)cuurc 
uf cdliMK >uu i^ir >uur h<aIi ^f^* ittmlc * wiy h^vralAt luipjxuion ii^ :hi> 
au*ncf» ind it highiy o>mmcn<tfd, borh ah to miiticr lai cvnpcMicioit. /udf* 
WMlUki » N«v Vdhcfk * iMn of tdltAti, >ariii r«iun4f him of Go^rnor QiRCon, 
» IDod s«n*c m\d pljiinnvw. Tfu^ I believe, he enuiden 1^ AAxieiMMi otf pru*« ' ' 




which row^ after a lapse of more than fift>"-dght years, 
in view of the prolongcti ;mcl hcsitcd discusskms on the 
theatre of national politics, must have u great interest* 
He continued: 

"ir behnovcs lUieKiis, whk-li hts been tempted IqJqIIowiIic 
GXARtpliC of her ncinhbors, to prof\t by thctr experience, and to 
rc»Cort> fts soon as she car, the currency of the State to the rive<l 
ind univereal standard of f^old and silver, or nrJiAt shall be etfuivai^ 
Writ to (htrm; brlirvin^ at she musf rhar thosr ari! che great 
desiJcratA in » hiuwiI airrciKy. A l:u^ren^:y ch;in2^.Ab^' in value 
cui fonn no sMndani for tKc vaIuc of other things; «nd of eourx 
foils in its objccE, inoiniufh as it is alvrava operatirit miunouiJy 
andunjusdy inthcdischafgeofdebts, by agreareror left«umount» 
intrtntrcdty, thin was contracted for/' 

It was but a few days after his inauguration thnt 
Governor Coles wrote the following letter touching the 
title of his office. It lUustrarcs the character of the 

Vakoalia, Dec. ro, 1821. 

Gtnt/rmfn^—iyfar State constitution ftivcs to the pcrMn exer- 
cising the functions of the Executive, the ap^clUtioh of (A»^fK^— 
a tit}c whtch ifi specific, intettigible, 9nd r^publicfln, and amply 
suiBctcnc to 4lrnQte ibv dignity of the oflice. fn yotir la:»t paper 
foa b^vc uoiiccd me by ilic addition of "HU Excellcticy/' an 
aristocratic and hEuh-M>ufuiing adjunct, which I am yjrry to say 
J^as become too comrnon among us, noi only in new&paper antiun- 
eiationa, but in the addressing of letters, and even in familiar 
diaeounte- ll i* n prarfice disagreral^Je to my feeJingstj ard in- 
covuKteni, 7t% I think, with the digmftcil Mmplicity n( frermcn, 
and to the nature of the vocation of thotc to whom it U ipptied. 
And havir^ mode it a rule thmugh life to address no one as His 
ExcelteAcy, or the Honorable, or by any such unmeaning title, I 
trtist I thall be pardoneid for asking it a» a favor of yoii, and my 
(citow-eilizens generally, not to apply them 10 me. 1 am, &c., 

KowAU) Coles. 
McssTEi- Broini& Berry, Editors of the Illinois Intelligencer. 



mone>r iTiftrlier, tc would noT he u judiciotiA timft to 0|MfftCc, IniC 
a« «(jon u rhis prct«ur« ts rcmovt*d» and it cannot last long, 1 rhink 
eKar u mviuM lie wrll to m*kr rhc rXf<nmrDC- And it ■rill, 1 
AASurc fiAu 4tTord mc tiigh sa<»rAfciun lo reiHkr Jill ibc aid io mj 
power in Ttvor of thU ]mi?oTtAnt chaoncl of communkaucn, 

t sm, very tcepcctftiHy, 

Your mo«t ob^. serv^mt, 

DtWtrr CuNTW. 


But the emphatic part of the message of Governor 
Coles was tUat in relation to slaver>% a subject always 
nearest to hi:^ heart. I le declared that notwithstand*- 
ing the ordinance of 1787, slavery still existed in the 
State, and he earnestly invoked the interposition of the 
Legislature in the cause of humanity. He strongly 
re^ronintcnded that the l^i^laturc makt: just and equii- 
able provisions for the abrogation of slavery in the 
State. He declared :hat "justice and humanity re^ 
quired of us a general revt»at of the laws relative to 
negroes, in ortlcr the better to adapr them to rhe 
character of our in«ititutions and the ^tuation of the 
country/' He also recommended to the Legislature to 
enact marc effective laws to prevent the kidnapping of 
free bUcti;, a crime which he was $orry to say was too 
often committed with impunity in the State* 

This "Speech" to the legislature by Governor 
Coles, so far ai* rcgardtxl slavery, opened up a cnmnv 
vTrsy of unheard of bitterness^ and involving conse-' 
quences to the State and to the Union which cannot be 
measured by human ken. A lat^ majoritj* of the 
inhabitants of Illinois at this time were from the slave- 
holding States. Many of them leaving their States 
because they were not able to hold slaves, and hoping 



to ficcomplisli a stare of things which would altow them 
to indulge in their cherished wish in the State in which 
they had made rheir homes, they were more ultra pro* 
slavery than the iilavc- holders of the States which they 
had IcfL Governor Coles, an aiiti-slavcry man, had 
been elected by a minority vote, and by a division of 
the pro-siavcry men. They saw that if their forces had 
been united^ their camisdatc. Chief Justice Phillips, 
would have been elecctrd Governor by » large majority- 
Notwithstanding they had lost their Governor, they 
elected decided majorities in both branches of the 
Legislature. Under these tircuinstaiiccv, as may well 
be conceived, the pro-slavery men now considered it 
thdr time to strike for a change in the constitution of 
the State* 


Tmc Rxi^irmTK oi^ SiJivi^Kr ik hojivms; Tkk OtuiirAKCK or 
17S7 CovrrNDMj SOT to sr. fiiKE3i\x;; A Couhittkk or t)IS 
LEOtsi^TOKn Rr^-onT is Kavor or a Convchitidx to Altbr 
TiiECvw^TirfnoK;!"!!!: Rahlv Ixiiabitakts ontit Statb; 
pKfijuoics ACAiN*T THK ''Yawkkci;" Incidext Relatci> 

BY C*t^. Gpa«; JllTKiH (tllLEKriK'^ STAT^MtXT <IT THE 

Situation in Illinois at rnni Tiihe; Manxes of Amend* 
iKc THE Coxstrnrnos; DimcoLT\- or OettihgtheReo- 
uisiTm VoTfi IN THE Loweft House; The Object to db 
Accoui>L[SHED at all Haz^rd^; The Project Resutcd Itf 
tWE Legislature; Loose Pt*cT(cEs in that Day in the 
"Kjm;e»mi i)t Pike;" Leti'kr 01 Wm. P. McKek; Rhmi- 
Ni^^i-AtcKA or Jortx Smaw; The \V»m; CfxainATioN at 
Ualcxa in 1S40; Jons S. MiLLtit \tif> JouN SiiAW; "Tir 

The first constitution p^oJlibiCl^d slavcTy, anditmay 
wcil be a^kcd how it was possible that a state of slavery 
could exist in Illinois at the time of which wc arc speak- 
ing. Illinois was slave territory before it was ceded by 
Virginia to the United States- The deed of cession 
from Virginia provided thnt "'the inhabitants of the 
TcrriD>ry ct-dt^i, whn pnjft'ssed rliemsi'lve?* to li:ive been 
citizens of Mrginia previous to the cession should have 
their possessions and titles confirmed to them> and be 
protected in their rights and liberties," This deed of 
cession was executed March jst, 1784. It was on the 
Oihof July, 1787, that Congress passed the ordinance 
which provided that there should be neither slavery 
nor involuntary servitude^ etc, in the Northwestern 
Territory, It was strenuously contended that this 
ordinance of 1787 was in conflict with the deed of ces- 
sion, and therefore of no binding effect. 



The first act of rhe Legislature was to appoint a 
committee on that portion of Governor Coles' message 
which refcrrtrri ro slavery. That committee rq>nrt«:I 
in subscancc that at "the period when Illinois was 
admitred into the Union upon an equal footing with the 
original States in aJI respects whatever; and whatsoever 
causes of regret were exjKrneiiccd by the reHtrictiuns 
imposed upon the first convention^ your committee are 
clearly of the opinion that the people of ilUnois have 
now the !Uime right to alter thctr constitution as the 
people of the State of Virginia, or any other of the 
original Stares, and may make any disposition of negro 
slaves they choose, without any breach of faith or vio- 
lation of compact, ordinances, or aces of Congress; and 
if the reasoning employed be correct, there is no course 
left by which to accomplish the objccr of this portion 
of the (lovcrnor's message than to call a convcnrion to 
alter the constitution." 

Tlic history of the attempt to fasten slavery on the 
State of Illinois is one of great interest to every eidixn 
of the State, 

The earliest inhabitants of Illinois were French 
Canadians and emigrants from Kciuueky, Tennessee* 
and North Carolina. The French Canadians had been 
slaveholders from the earliest limes in the Territory, 
which afierwanJs was Illinois, and were favorable to 
the institution- The emigration from Kentucky was 
by far the best, Tennessee was below Kentucky and the 
North Carolina emigration was mosdy the "poor 
whites," There was much ignorance and shiftless- 
nesa among many of them» combined with an intense 
prejudice against alt people from the free States^ whom 


they called "Yankees/^ Captain Gear, a very early 
;dcrof the southern pare of the State^ and who sifter- 
locatcd at Galena, once told me of an incident 
he had witnessed in early times in Southern Illinois, 
ic man from a free State had been addressing a 
litical meeting of these people on a certain occasion. 
le made an able and eloquent speech^ hut after its 
conclusion, its effect was entirely destroyed by some 
**Sucker" who succeeded him, making three jumps, 
and each time exclaiming, "I am a white man," ''J am 
a white man," "I am a white man." 

The following is Judge Ciilleivpic's statement of the 
fliruation at the time: 

*'lt WIS ccincfded in thoit dsys chxt a Stare formed out of 
the "Nofih West Tcrrif Of y" could not be tuimiunt wo the Unkai 
ilnry ro rhc proviiion* of the (irdintfncc of I7?7i whJdi pro- 
kilntcd slavery, but the slavery propagarvdiAts contended that 
yttn eoutd, the next day after bcin^ admittcid uiKkr an ^mii^sUvfrj 
coesututton, irhange the coriticutioii kd on to admit davciy, and 
tn that way, "whip the: <\xr\\ nn>unj the stump/' It was likc- 
wttr nifiicndcd that slavery ciUtcd in IllinnU Ijcyond Coit|[rea- 
Mool intcrfcrcjtcc, by virtucof the treaty (of 1763) between Fmncc 
and E-lnglandt nnd chat bcti^'ccn linftland and the Utiitod States 
at the cki«c of the Rcvohiti^jtary War, in both o! which the nghta 
ci/ the Frertdi inhabimnrs were gusiranieed. One of the«e rigbis 
waa that of holding slaves, wb;ch» it was contended) wasprolectrd 
by treaty stifHilatwtit and waa equal in binding cfFect. to the 
Constitution (of the United States) iiMir Besides, it waa main- 
tuned, that by the conqoCTt of George Rogers Clark, this country 
became a p«rt of Virgintj. and chnt Congress had no more power 
to abolisli ^avery in Illinois, than it had in Vlr^nia. 'Hie logic 
of the timca wat that the Frrnch inhabitants had the right iu hold 
-Javea, and that the otbtr inhabitants had equal rights with the 
French — ergo: they ail Had ihe right lo hold <iiavea. This wa» the 
argument of the celebrated coritituiional evpounder — John 




Grammnr, of Union county — Ui ihir TjcgtUatuiVt in rcjiy to an 
intimJiLion qncsriomne the validity of tlic title of *Uvcs in Illinois. 
The olij gciilicmnTi ingtnrily arose ami tcmnriiGd "t^t fictcncr 
men" than h? was '^moui hcv been fecund to defend the n^asten 
agin the sncnkin" way* af rhc infernal aSnlicioncrii; but havm' 
rights un my Mclr-, ! ifnn't kat^ Sir. I will shiiw th;»t *ar prop- 
coitiuit 14 uoconsiitaiJonAblct inlcg^f oi^d foriienst the eumjiact. 
Dc^n't c^cry one know, or lcft.«wisc hiul ought to know, tljtt the 
Cungrt^ that *ot ni Pojr Finj^n*', garnishccd to the old French 
inhabitants the ri^c to iKctt niggers, and haint 1 got A£ much 
rightic '4Kt any Frenchman in this Slaie? Anifwrr tne tliit, Sir/' 
Not wi tint &r 1(1 iijg tliis seeming connUciKc. these men wtrv cxtcctl- 
ingly de^roua of reinforcing their rights. They rcMrtcd to the 
indenturing method, by whicfi they got their servant to go before 
«jmc officer and bind himself to serve the master, s^i^^^b' fo"* 
ninety-nine years^ fur which be was to receive a flight equivalent at 
the end of each year. 

As the **Vinkcct'* incrcjucd in number^ conFideiK>c (on the 
port of the pri>-.-i]avery mvn) in the titles tn their ncfcroc^idimin- 
Uhcd* and they finally ccjincludeU that there was no assurance 
for them, except in chafi^jin^ the constitution sf> as to sanction 
alavC'hulding^ «nd thus the cnntcst commenced, which for fierce- 
ness and rancor occctted nnythtng ever before witnessed. The 
people were at the point of going to war with eacii otticr, llic 
pro gla^'cr)' men were* aa they have always been, ready to resort to 
violence whenever they daujil^ unwilling to liiten lo, or incapable 
of comprehending ar^mcnts. Their meHK>d of overcoming 
cpposltion wan by 'bullUozingi' but oa this occasion they hod to 
encounter men of invincible courage^ who were eager and willing 
to 'beofd the lion m his den/ and deDmd their righ» at all haaanjs. 
Many of theie men had removed to llliools to get r'\d of the curse 
of slavery/' 

By a provision of the then existing constitution, 
no changt thereof could be made unless the question of 
n convt^ncion lo form a new consMtmion shmild Ik- sii1>- 

*VKK«niiCB wu « «ulr timet ctllctl by the mtton of todiui^ «nd lUiftoit 



mittcd to the people by a joint resolution of the Lcgis- 
l»tunr, adopted by ei two-thirds vote. WIiilc the 
pro-slavcry men had precisely two thirds of the votes 
of the Senate, in the House, they Incked one vote of 
the requisite ninnl>er. 

The pro-slaver>" men diowed themselves in this 
controversy, sprung unexpectedly upon the T-ecis!aturc» 
vehement, determined, and unscrupulous. They con- 
sidcrcti fheir great object svould be accomplishc*! if they 
cuuld only secure a call of the convcnrian, for they 
bclic%'cd that a majority of the people of the State were 
ripe for rhc inrroducrion of *.!avcry. Influenced by 
great convictions, laving freedom and hating slaveryj 
the minority fought the question of the convention 
with a boldness and resolution ^-orthy of the great 
caii:se in whicli they were engiiwd, though one or two 
men faltered in the struagie. There was a noisy, 
demonstrative, and aggressive public opinion at Van- 
dalia at that limc. Judges, prosecuting attorneys, 
county officcTs, mt-n seeking office und sjK'cial li;gislation 
at the hands of the pro&lavcry Legislature, were all 
howling for a "convention/ ' Denunciations and curses 
unlimited were visited upon Governor Coles, and upon 
that little band in tlw Legislature which had attempted 
to thwart the pro-slavery party in passing the conven- 
tion resolution. But that object wa5 to be accom* 
plished at every c«^t, ;ind without regard tu the means 
to be employed. At almost the last moment, and wlien 
it was found that neither influence, nor threats, nor 
coaxing, would secure the requisite vote to pass the 
resolurion, it w« determined in ortier to accomplish 
the object that an anti^convention man should be put 



out of die House, and a convention man put in his 
place. Such a change would give the convention part>' 
precisely the two-thirds vote required. Nicholas Han- 
sen had rcccivcfl the certificate of election as a member 
of the House from Pike county, which then embraced 
the whole centraJ and northern part of the State, 
Hansen's competitor was John Shaw, one of the earliest 
sctflers of Illinois^ iinti who it is sakl wns the very first 
settler on the "military tract." And here a digression 
for a single moment, I am myself a citizen of lllinoisi 
old enough in have known John Shaw. The first time 
I ever saw him was in Galena, in July, 1840, where 
there was an immense political meeting, held by the 
Whigs in the interest of "Tippecanoe and Tyler too.'" 
Shaw, I think^ then lived at Hambunjj in Calhoun 
county, and owned and navigated a steamboat named 
the "John Shaw," This steamboat had been chartered 
by the Rock Island county Whigs, for the Whig gather- 
ing at Galena. The boat was a little behind time in 
arriving on the day of the meeiirg, and she was looked 
for with great anxiety by the crowd that expected her 
m bring great acccs-^ians to iheir numbers from Rock 
Island and the various towns on the Mississippi river. 
Coming slowly up Fever river, gaily dressed out with 
bunting, having a band of music on board, her arrival 
was )i:oIcrd with the most intense enthusiasm by the 
Whigs on the levee; but the culmination of this cntliusi- 
a^m was reached when a canoe named "Tip and Ty/' 
was seen suspended over the boiler deck, in which was 
seated John Shaw and John S. Miller, one of the very 
earliest settlers of the lead mines, holding paddles in 
their hands, going through the pantomime of paddling 


i t 

Tip and Ty/' I never saw him afterwards until at 
Washington, during the scs!iti3n o( Congress, iS55-<6, 
He was there in the prosecution of some claim against 
the Government, and had then become quite an old 
man, and quite blind. He called to sec me frequently. 
He was a short, spare man, of a quick and nervous 
movement^ with a vivid recollection of the early inci- 
dents of the countr>', full of anecdote and reminiscence, 
and withal a quiet humor, which made his visits always 
pleasant and agreeable. 

The historian of Pike County is not very compli- 
mciitar)' lo Shaw. lie says, in subsrancc, that Shan 
was a very early settler at Coles' Grove, which was the 
county Scat of Pike before Ctdhoun was set off from it, 
and was County Commissioner of Pike County before 
Calhoun was consrituCtxl. Me was a noted man, ani" 
bicious, restless^ un^rupuloiu; and engaged in all sorts 
of business^ and particularly in politics. At one time 
he had great sway over the community, and was called 
the "Blac'iC Prince," the name being given him on 
account of the control he had over a large number of 
"half breeds" in the county. "He forged deeds, even 
by the quire, doctored poll l>ooks, etc. So great was 
hU influence, but at the same time so injurious to tht 
yjtrlL-rs, that the public issue was gotten up in politics, 
of 'Shaw' and *Anti-Shaw,' and it was not until a great 
and imiled struggle, :liat Siiuw Inst his supremacy." 
After fhiti happened, Shaw left Pike county and the 
State, and n^vcd to Wisconsin and became the first 
settler of "Shaw's Landing/' now the city of Bcrlini 

^P "<Urw ivctWd af Si. Ml-«, about FaaTicvn milM tram 


The contest between Hansen and Shaw^ for mem- 
bers of the Legislature for Pike county, seems to have 
been a very hvcly one. I have a curious letter on the 
subject <»f this election, wrtiren :n Governor Coles from 
Edward svi lie, August iQth, [821, aiid a few days afcer 
the c!cctton» by William P. McKcc^ who I believe^ was 
a clerk in rhc Land Office under Mr, Coles, the then 
Register, I set the letter out herein, as an interesting 
item of that contest which was destined to take such 
proportions in the future. There seems to have been 
a warm timt: in the ''Kingdom of Pike," ^md prrtctices 
were resorted to at that early period, which have been 
too much in TOguc at a later day. 

£i>WAiLO«vjLtx, llibatf, August 17, i1El2- 
Dtar Str: — Since your ilt-parturc from this place, ! have 
!ciirnnl the trnrc of rhr palls m xrvcral onuntlcit. Mr Riickma^rer 
renirnni from Kaakaski^, ycsfcrtl:iy. He says th»i I/xkwciod 
fold him thai he hjtd heard from aJE the couancs but Crawford and 
White, cxdusTvt of which, you had a majority over Phillips (who 
ia now thought to have beaten Broivne), of frr^m rwo hundred ^nd 
fifty to throt hiiM4lred ^'otM. There appears to exist no do<il>t 
mjw, hut thiit jtju *ie cIcLicil, Mi\ Wancji fan ghtn it «p, us 
you will ace by hU paper cf this day. yint you to Albemarle. 
Mr. Cook, I prcttime, is doubdeu re-elected- It ]s eefieraUy 
thought, I ijelievtr, that KubhanI ift elected Licurcrant GovemcT. 
In our ca^cuUtionv rradc of the voter* given fur Govenror, I had 
m)t indudal your vote tn Pike aiunly, which wa« eighty-nine, 
coriHcqucntly in the counties wc had heard from before you left 
this, ycu had a majonty over him of live hundred and lifty vo1c>- 
In the "Kingdom of I^kc," I presume, they had a warm time. 
Vcfterday, a gentleman w:a9 from there who brought dispatches 
fifom Hansen and Smith to you nnd (irhcrs of rhU place; he told 
me the contents 4^ivd defied mc to open it. I did so and found 
A very warm letter from HainKn to you, desiring chose who have 
ever catertiiiicd a friendship for him not to de^paii- uf hi» pros- 



pccis tic; And m vhich vrji« a r«qucM rhat you should hand, ibr 
public«tioi>, a Ictrrr from Smith tn ynv, whtch nAvti xhu Shaw had 
ol>lAi»cid a grcAt ma&y of Iii^i votes hotn Grccnc> Mjidi^on tnd 
MuMuri; and knowing the fidelity and correctness of rhc JtKbfEca 
ap]>ointed by the Commiwioncr'a Court, h< (Shiwj hiul thought 
fie CO «tabh&h a mob poll, as he stylci it, at which Shaw had rc« 
cdvcd most all his voten; although Hansen wm very anxious to 
lave It u|T|ie4r in ihc pajicr nf ttwiay, I have laid it awdy m the 
pigcon-ho]c And ^hall %av nothing about it. He will be down Mon- 
day or Tuesday, he wrote you» when he can act for himsci/. Since 
you left this place, n-e have lost two cttiEenK of our county, James 
Rot^nvon (netghlxir to mother) and Of^neral Hf^pk'm^, who will 
he huriDcl lo-day. Nothing of vunKfijiimce haii iraniq>treid in the 
office since you kft. 

Accept my wMm Tor your health and prosperity. 

Yours mth e*r«m, 



Tmh Ckv of "TMe CosivtvTiox oe Death;" All Debate 


Pu,u>; His Rfi^oLunov AuMrmnn Han^em to mt skat 


RcAOLunoiv Caekini it; Gt^^n. NtrMnuti HAv^rw; TrrrEE 
o» Gov. CoLK* Norirriwc him or ms Ae»**« jh-mekt a» 
JvDOR or PiioiiATB or Pike Coumty; Hansen's LrrrER to 


Hakskn' Iiad cKc certificate of clccrion, but when 
the I^^Aturc met the first Monday of December, 
1811, Shttw came forward to contest his scat. It t3 
said by Governor Ford and Governor Reynolds, and 
o:hcrs> that Hansen was permitted to occupy his seat 
hr the purpose of giving his vote for die re-election of 
Jesse B. Thomas^ iw United States Senator^ who was a 
pro-slavery man, and afterwards turned out to put in 
Shaw who was a convention man. That does not 
appear to be the precise fact. The case of this con- 
testeti election seems to Iiave been decided on its merits 
and outside of the influence of any party feeling.* It 
was at an early period of the session, aiid before the 
question of a conver.tion had been much agitated. 
The contest for Senator was a personal one, and the 
convention question was in nowise involved in it- Both 

■Sec Pt«^, TA* Fr*MiifT Swr, 7^ 




candidates were pro-slavery m€n> and both became 
strong convention men. Thomas had the most 
strength and was elected over Judge John Kcynolds. 
Hamcn voted for lliomas^ as between him ard the 
other principal candidate, Reynolds, equallypn>slavery< 
I can find no sufficient evidence that Hansen was 
confirmwl in his scat m the first in^^unce, for tlic pur- 
pose of voting for Thomas. The only thing in that 
regard, which appears in all the proceedings^ is a state- 
ment made in the debate in the house by Mr I^wrcy, 
of Clark, that he had heard Ford, of Crawford, a 
Thomas man, as well as a convention man afterwards, 
say that ' 'if Hansen were turmd out Thomas wculd lose 
a mie*^ which was undoubtedly the casc> but which 
proves rotliing further than that Hansen prefcrrcti 
Thomas to Reynolds, both holding precisely the same 
views. This view of the matter is supported by the 
fact that anti-slavery and anti-convention men voted 
both for and against Hansen* in the case of his contest 
with Shaw. 

On the 2nd of Ilereniber, l8ll, the committee of 
elections of the Hou-se, m whom the matter was referred, 
rported unanimously in favor of Hansen's right to a 
'scat, and the report was adopted by the House by a 
large majority. The fact of tamttimUy of the com- 
mittee is good evidence chat it was not a party ques- 
tion. Hansen having been thus confirmed in his scat, 
Ihaw took his saddle-bags, mounted his horse and made 
lis way back to Pike county, neither he nor anyone 

Tlw deCtWm far SeiAtw •«« h«M Itnuirr V^i ll^ Jom B. TTinniAt 
rmny^ ivfviT-ninf n>ca; John Rrywikli, «(C<^ voCn; l«Qmnl W^kr, mt 
-vcAvt. Mil Ssmud D- l4:dnninl tn voccx Tbcmtu rtodfol ftre mainrliy over 
■It HiaKii'* Toic *n not tWnAm vcc»Hy to ckct TtKou* All the CaD' 
4I1I1IB wen C«iiirciTciao nuo cwept Lodtvood. 



\Ac erer drramjng that the matter could come tip 


It wu npf until affer t\m concerted election caie 
wa» settled that the convcnrion question came to be 
seriously considered. The members of the Legislature 
who had opfKiscd ihr rlection of (Jovcrnor Coles be- 
csime embittered against him, after be had taken such 
radical grtjund in hia message in regard to the abolition 
of the remnant of slaver^' existing in the State* and also 
in ret^ttron tu the inhuman and di^gnicefiil Biatk Cojf. 
This feeling culminated in a determination to change 
the fundamental law of the State. This purpose was 
the more inexcusable, from the fact that the question 
had never been moote^l in the election of members to 
the I>egislature. The leaders of the conspiracy to 
change the Constitution entered actively on their work. 
They commenced by cauiioady sounding the membcnt. 
To those wh'jse pro-slavery sentiments were wdi 
known, the object to make Illinois a slave State was 
openly avowed; but to tho% who were not at first pr^ 
pared tu rake such a step, other reasons for the call of 
a convention were ui^cd as a pretext* Tlie question 
was, could the requisite two-ri\irds majority be had id 
lioth House-i to puss a resolution to call a convention 
to "alter, revise and amend the Conscitmion," That 
was the great work to be accomplished — '*Hulak(^^ 
hoc opus est." In the senate there was no doubt that 
Out of the eighteen mcrnibtTs^ twelve (iwo-thirds) were 
so/iftfoT the convention and slavcr>\ But in the House 
the question was doubtful. Counting McFatridgc of 
Johnson, and Hansen of Pike, as against a convention, 
tyh%> vutes were to be ubtaincd in some way to make the 



requisiTe fi*«-thini?. As :he session wore on, the 
excitement increased and tlic convention men became 
ikspcratc indccvi- Their rallying cr>' was "The con- 
vention or dca(h/' Everything in the Ijcgislarurc was 
shaped to effect final success. The convention ques- 
tion was paramount to all other business before the 
Ixgislatiirc, Local hills in which individual members 
were interested, and upon the passage of whicli their 
political life depended, were unceremoniously laid upon 
the table, or hetd in the hands of committees, until the 
refractory or doubtful memhcr yic-lilrd to the pressure- 
Offices in the gift of that b<Kiy were held in abeyance, 
and promises of political preferment lo those who 
sought distinction were abundant. Those who opposed 
ihf favorite measure were threatened and denounced- 
LpC^stattvc tiesp<3tism ruled supreme; and the co- 
orilinate branches of the government^ for the time 
being, were merged in the unlimited power exercised by 
the Senate and House of Representatives.* 

Tlie action of the convention party in the I-egisla- 
tore was to the last degree unfair, tyrannical and 
insulliii^. Fearing dIsCLissioii and the exjxisure of their 
real purp<uies, they shut off all debate on the mast viral 
and important question that could ever come before a 
I>c^slativc body. In the Senate, Mr. Kinkadc, of 
Lawrence, declared that it was due alike to the Senate 
and to the people, that the objects for which a con- 
vention should be called should be explained; but in 
accord with a previous underst^inding, not a single 
word was vouchsafed in reply; having the ftoor^ he then 
proceeded to state the reasons of his opposition to the 
Convention Resolution, and openly chatted that the 

'Hon Win. H. Brumi'i Riper htiitt the Chjt^^i^ptJbioricatSuoctx* 


* in view WAS tc) make a slave constitution. He 
*M ml thin {Hwnt violently iriEcrruptcit) calleii ro order, 
«ml coiupi'llej ri) rake hin scat- In the House, so fikr 
•■ I Btii ulile to gather, no general discuswon was 

hlow were tKc twxi necessary votes to be liad in the 
MiniHP? Ill l<x)kifig over the gnmnd the idea was con- 
ti^ivcd, ihat An Advantage could be gained by passing 
* Con\*cnnim Rcsolurion* by a joins vote of the two 
liKihc*. Tlie Senate, thcreftire, passed a resolution 
' :hat if two-thirds of all the mcmbcra of borh 

' I — ^^ >fnHiU rev^ommend m the people to votcforor 
'"^tTAuut « cvin\Tntion, it wvHild he in ■crordancc with 
the requimnents of the Constiturioa- Golooel Alex- 
P. Fields of Uaioci coont^ (wfaos m cofuoocoon 
\inwd J, Wc&tt of Madnon comry), had t^cn 
lwihniii4i ^ ^ pc^^-shrerr and uaimiUOB »cs 
tn tW Hooae. iatntdwced a mtAar m ofc u ioa m the 
Hottsc^ Wc feooi tlie fact, doc » matk ihac ao coft- 
MNctiM <rir die CoADOttiM amii 



in order to move a rc-consklenition if It should be 
leccKSAry. This affirmative vote would have ma^ie 
twenty-three, one less than was necessary. But ont 
voic more, therefore^ was nccessar>' to accomplish the 
great object for which such a snip^idnus effort had 
in made. That one viral vote was wanting and the 
resolution failed. In the meantime McFatridgc,* who 
had Ik:lvi an antUconventinii man, through some imscen 
influence had changed front, and hift vote, tugether with 
that of Hansen, now thought perfectly secure, would 
carry the measure through. Everything was now 
ready, and certain success seemed assured. On the 
nth of February, 182;^, the Senate resolution, which 
had been quiedy lying on the speaker s table, was taken 
up for \\s linal passage. 1'he convention men were in 
great glee. They felt that iheir hnpes were m»w to be 
realized, after so much labor and el7^>rt« so much coax- 
ing and driving during the entire session. But 

"rhv be*t bid »chcnia et mice and lafn. 

At the very pinch of the game, what was the aston- 
ishment and fury to find Hansen ch<mging front and 
voting against she resolusion. It is to be regretted that 
Hansen's course is neither ver>' clear, nor very satis- 
factory in this regard. It was, therefore^ loit; twenty^ 

rcvi I J hcut jsj c<iiti\i[» U:MKJMEi>^- He hij fitltii btodte ytTf 

xihI L.V1I u[ IT': Eimii, Bod dTink m»if iigjor eIiaji hiilcfciiUcivc Jutio uLtUAlli' 

km ijj fi^p, bfiiKviad ir, li vat <Brri«d W m Ivjic tuce, ind the spcftkcr 

kJ die Hou*« wioginKi. MiFicruJ^v, rtiung hit voue ^bcrra ihs naiig 

ittoAcd by rhr wh«ritl movrmui. McUimrd' "^1r Spvaka^Mr. Spvjk«rt^ 

fa«lon u-jTii ■unJowE, j.nd kuk tfirr The Uraedh 13^ hi* fnnptiTLirAit, ahl^ 
you »n t^P^iiti at Copii'icrvocir «rx] crttinf ilnink oa the hitii f irnirtti «J the 
|Wi4;|e.** Iff'. /A Bnvrt rat*' rr4J ^tfiiff *U CAI(0£9 Ituiaruat Stxitly^ 



three votes only being iti its favor» instead -of the 
necessary twenty-four. What was now to be done? 
A member who had voted with the lo^in^ side moved 
to reconsider, but the Speaker uf the House, William 
M. Alexander, a convention man, decided, that accord- 
ing to all parliamentary rules and practices, it could 
not l»c done- An iippe;«l (mm thiit dtx'iston wiis taken, 
and the Speaker was sustained by a vote of eighteen 
to sixteen, two members not voting. The resolution 
was therefore, deffrnteii and ap]>arently heyond the 
Teach of resurrection; but with men wniught up to such 
a decree of excitement as the convention men were, 
there was no such word as "fail," even in the worst of 
causes^ The "Convention or Death," was still the 

The indignation against Hansen knew no bounds, 
"ITie membt;rs who had become convention mcn^ and who 
had voted to c<.>fi6rm him in his seat, at the commerK&* 
ment of the session, were the most furious of all; and 
now was conceived and carried out a measure of rcMlu- 
tinnary violmcc and madnrss> happily without a 
parallel in our history — a blot upon the fair escutcheon 
of our State, and the villainy of which *'ret*imed to 
plague the inventory." By the .suffrages of his con- 
stituents, confirmed by a vote of the House, Nicholas 
Hansen had held his seat in the House of Representa- 
tives, from the vcr>" first day of the session; and after 
a contfstj solemnly decided in his favor on the qth day 
of December, 1S32, that sent was held unchallenged and 
unquestioned by anybody. The convention men in the 
House, in this crisis of their aflairs, proved themselves 
equal to rhc emergency which confronted them. On 



rhc Tirh of February, 1813, ami niitc weeks aftrr the 
House had decided that Hansen was duly and legally 
elected* and after he had sat all that time without one 
question being raised as to his right to a scat. Colonel 
Alexander l\ iMchi, of Union, made an cittraordinary 
motion. It was no other than a motion to reconsider 
the Resolution of the House, adopted December gth, 
1822, declaring Nicholas J!anM;n to be entitled to his 
scat- He made a long s[>e€<;li in favor of this motion, 
»ing over questions which had been fully decided by 
the House when the contest was up. He did not state 
a single reason fur the adoption of his motion which was 
worthy a moment's consideration; but it was simply 
the appeal of a desperate faction made through him, to 
bring members who might be supposed to have sonic 
ideaii uf conscience, up to a "scicking point." It seems 
chat the friends of Shaw had set up a bo^s poll, one 
independent of the legal voting place, where it was 
charged that eighty or ninety men from Missouri and 
other places had voted, and who had no qualification 
as electors. The House rejected all such votes when 
it came to decide the case. Field complained of this, 
and contended that these men, who h:td voted at the 
bogus poll, had only exercised a privil^e — ''A privi- 
lege/' he exclaimed, ''which when we cease to enjoy 
/ tcrjjA to iiase io &e a member nj sncieiy^ Continuing, 
he said, "chat ic was with astonishment and surprise 
he had heard gentlemen proclaim in the House that 
we, when adjudicating on questions of this \^md^camsQt 
depart Jr^m the str'ul letter of the law^ hut are hound to 
ohsefvt it in aif its nictfifsj'* Farther on he dwelt upon 
" *thc greatest privilege the Constitution conferred upon 



the people — the right to vote/' and concluded: "when 
a man approaches the polls, and exercbes his dearesc 
righc» he never stops to make the inquiry, will my rote 
be rejected if I exercise ir here? No; on the contrary 
he focls proud to think how t»r better his situation is 
over the person who is forced to ^w at the nod ^ an 
unjtcling despot afid ^arthe chahu ^ tyranny*" tAd^- 
ther, of R:kndolph, nnd Cluirchill^ of Madison, stated 
good reasons why the House should not disturb its 
former judgment^ but the speech of Field did the busi- 
ness. Tht^ n^soltition which the Houkc had ailopted 
and which it was proposed to re-consider w^ as follows: 

''^Rcsohed^ That Nicholas Hansen is entitled to a 
scar in this House," 

The motion to reconsider was carried and the reso- 
lution was before the House for action. It was thought 
necessary^ however, to base the ticdon which the mem- 
bers of the House pro]X)sed to take on some pretext and 
put the case on some different ground from tliat on 
which it had been originally decided. Here "Mr, 
Turncy presented the affidavit of Levi Roberts, dated 
Jnnu:iry 28r]i, iSij, who certified that, in his opinion^ 
Mr, Shaw received a majority of a<j of all the qualified 
votes of Pike County," This cx-parte affidavit, made 
by a friend of Shaw, then at Vandalta, and without 
notice and opportunity for cross-cxami ration, stating 
no fact, but merely expressing an opinion, was deemed 
sufficient to answer a purpose which was to be accom" 
plished in any event, A monon was made to strike 
out the words ''Nicholas Hansen" in the resolution and 
insert the words "Jolm Shaw," which motion was 
carried. In the interest of history I give the namea of 



those members who \'otcd that Hansen was entitled to 
tSe scat zt the cnm men cement of thr session^ «ntl that 

tvai no/ entitled w it at its ciose: Alexander, of Pope, 
'Campbell, of Wayne, Daimwood, of Gallatin, Daven- 
port, of CJaiiatin^ Dorriss, of Franklin, Kmmitt, of 
White, Ford, of Crawford, Logan, of White, McFcrron, 
of Randolph, West, of Madison, and Will, of Jackson. 

When it was decided at the last moment that Han- 
sen was to he put out and Shaw put /«, the latter was 
at his home in Pike county, some one hundred :md 
thirty miles distant, over a sparsely settled countr>". 
It was necessary to get Shaw to Vandalia at the earliest 
momc^nt. Thr journey, ^ing and coming would 
ordinarily occupy at least five days, bur by relays of 
horses and hard driving it could be made in four. 
A special mc*«cngcr wa* th(^reforc di«parc:h(*d to find 
Shaw and bring htm to Vandalia in the shuriest possible 
time, and he arrived there in season to perform the part 
allotted to him. After Shaw had taken his scat, 
another outrage had to be cnnimittcd before the work 
in hand could be consummated. The vote of the House 
sustaining the speaker in an appeal taken from his 
decision, that a member of the constitutional minority 
could not move a re-consideration, was reconsidered. 
Then a member voting on the losing side moved a re- 
consideration o{ the last convention resolution, which 
wa<i carried. All that wa<i then required wa«i the vote 
of Shaw to make the requisite twcnt)"-four votes. That 
vote was givcn^ and in that way the resolution was 
passed by a tw<Kthirds vote of both Houses, uutliori2ing 
the pet>ple of die State to vote on the proposition to 
call a convention to amend the Constitution at a gen- 



cral election to be held on the first Nfonday of August, 

As thU outrage m unseating Hansen became a great 
factor in the stupendous contest which IbDowed on the 
question of the Convention^ a brief allusion to the man 
and his history may not prfivc uninrerc:nting. Nicholas 
Hansen (m.n Hnnsony hs his name has gone into history 
and legislative records), was a young lawyer, who 
settled at "Coles" Orovc" {sometimes written "'Cols- 
gmve"), the first county sent of Pike co*inty, now 
"Gilead,*' in Calhoun county, tn t820, where he tat^ht 
school. He v/as commissioned Colonel of ihe tyth 
Regiment of the Illinois State Militia^ Aug^jst 11, 1821, 
by Gov. B(md. The ctumty seat of Pike count)' was 
removed in iSl^i, from Coles* Grove to Atlas, a town 
situated on the Mississippi bottom^ twelve miles west 
of Pittsficld, rhc prcscrit county scar of Pike- Hansen 
was of Dutch descent; a graduate of Union College and 
had been admitted to the Bar of New York before 
removing to Illinois. He was County Judge of Pike 
county in 1811-2, and w:is elected to the legislature 
from Pike county in August, 1S12, and at the same 
election tlmt Edward Coles was elected Governor. 
After the removal of the county scat of Rke from Coles' 
Grove to Atlas, Hansen removed to the latter place. 
At a Fourth of July celebration at Coles' Grovc^ in 
1823, Col- N. Hansen was the orator of the day. The 
folluwing toast was drunk, with "nine cheers;*' '*CoL 
Nicholas Hansen, a member of our last Legislature, 
sacrtticcd on the altar of Slavcr>"; may his services to 
his country be duly appreciated by the llepublicans of 



Hon. Wm. H. Browa, in his admirable Paper on the 
convcnrion struggle, read before the Chicago Historical 
Society, snya that the eflFccc of Hansen's cqui\'Ocal 
position in the Ijzgislaciirc was such that after he rc- 
tiinied home he closed up his business and left the State, 
In this he is mistaken. After the adjournment of the 
Lcpslaturc he returned to Adas and became a Justice 
of the peace, and deputy trlcrk of Colonel William Ross, 
"who held nearly all (he offices of Pike county/' He 
was elected to the Legislature a second time from Pike 
and Calhoun counties in 1S24, but resigned his scat. 
On rhe 2ilth of May, 1^24, hi: was commissioned by 
Governor Coles as Brigadier General of the Third Bri- 
gade of the First Division of Illinois State Militia. July 
5chf 1826, Governor CoIca appointed him Judge of 
Probate (or Pike county, as will be seen by the follow- 
ing letter. On the ^th of September, i8i7, Governor 
Edwards issued an official onlcr to General Hansen to 
enroll in the militia all pcrsonji subject to military duty 
at the "Lead Mines on Fever River or in chat vicinity/' 

fitter if Ct«uritM Cafrj is Cfntt^f fFsmai. 

Vamdaua^ July 5, }ti6, 
Dfor Sir: — ^Vour letter of May ajil, rtrccimnwnding Wm, 
K«iiA as a suitable i^^-nuiM ro ber apiviined Jtulgif of Probate of 
Pike* hnU been rtccivtii; anO I now mMrtwi you, not no mi^h far 
the purpoK of ackn<»«l edging it. a^ to make knovtn to ill w^m 
it may tTncern, and cspcdally to remove any miiiconccption as to 
your ccwiduct, thic your letter u the only written or verbil coni' 
municattnn I hstve received in relnnnn to die person who should 
fill Mr. night's vacATicy, and rhac 1 hiive nor rct^civnl a line or a 
word, or even a hint, hvm you or frcm any person cUc> Ui«t you 
wanted the ofticc^ or would accept fl: but believing you bctlcr 
qualified than tny other person in che county, ojhI that while 


you conUEiuc to hold iUc otfficc of Rccqnlcr^ thar you ouuhl ircry 
convcnicnilv and with 3omc litdc profit, tiischorgc the duties of 
JmL^ of Prt>t>ate» I bdivc determined to appoint >-au to that office^ 
and herewith inclose your commissnon, 1 have been chu« explicit 
in order that h should be? understood how vcfu, vho recommended 
anatlicr, aJiiHtld yrAirself receive ihf- nppciuitmenr. 

If it should rqc he agreeable to you to accept the office of 
Judge of Probate, you will be pIcAScd to oddrcM mc a letter lo 
£dwftrds%'ilEe, where 1 shall go in a few days, and ftrmain most of 
the warm and laclcly wi<on. 

The dc«{Ii of my mo*licr, which cccuirrd last spring, will 
render it nccc^uary for mc lo be in Virginiji in January next, At 
which bntc her cstaic is to be divided, and it b neccfsarr lor mc> 
4W one of the legatees, to be there. This will compd mt Co sec 
CUT in December, voon tfitr the meeting of tbc General Assembly^ 
ar which time, if not tTeforc, f hop? to have tfte pleasurc of seeing 
you. I proportc Ut rctiim to this State in the spring by way ot 
PhiUdcIpfua and New York. 

With great respect and sincere regard, 1 am your friend, 

Edward CoLSfi. 
Gew> N, Hanack, 

Pike County, 

Col, Benjamin Barney, of Barry, Illinois, who was 
a cotcmporary of Hansen* having Iwcomc aoitiaintcil 
with him in October, 182;, at Atlas, says that he came 
from near Albany* N. Y^ «nd from a place called "The 
Walnuts." Caprain John Wchh, one of the oldest 
cimens of Pike county* says he wenc to school to 
Hansen in iSlo, and that he onderscood that he came 
from Warren county, N. Y- In the fall of 1819, a 
brother-in-law of Hansen's came to visit him and he 
went back with him to the State of New York, and he 
never returned to Illinois, Captain Webb says the last 
dme he saw Hansen was in 1865* and that he died in 
1872, at die age of ninety-one years. He was never 


married- Col, Barney describes him as a man six feet 
high, ivcll built^ and of fine appearance. "He was a 
man of liberal education* of genial manners and well 
liked by tlic pioneers of Fikc county. His only fault 
was » love of liquor/ '* 

Gen. Hansen seems to have been a man of ability 
and of polished education* Though bred a lawyer in 
the NVw York school) which at iliat day meant s^^imc* 
thing, he appears never to have practiced his profession 
in this state to any extent. Neither docs he appear to 
have made the mark in life, which niighr: have been 
expected from a man of his endowments, but left the 
State making no sign. I made an efibrt to find out 
something of his history after he went back to New 
Yofk, but was unsuccessful. f 

! have also in my hands a letter from Hansen to 
Governor Coles, dated Vandalia, December 23d, 1826, 
which was after Coles went out of office. It is written 
in a very neat and scholarly hand, and I give it here- 
with, as a letter not without a certain historical interest. 

VAwtiAUA, Tec. ^3, i%if>. 
Dew G^^crn^: — I Iijlvc JclaycJ ii little while iii wriiiitg to 
youi wAiiu^s for something new artd inicrc^tin^* b^jt, ala^! I am 
where I bcpiHt and can only aay thAl Jliinoia is llImoi$* Our 
Ic^isUrurc ifl yet harmonious, ard thou^ boanitfully supplied 
viiih fhe gif; of x^Ap hi« not r<^r broughi forth nnyfkingiufficienTty 

'Judflc WiUiani Thnirjiii of Jacii«hvi]lc, who bnc* hJra «vQ, ««yi he vm 
"•4 kAbtfvtfA drinker, bu( nui a drunkfervi A ni«ji wdl uformod la rcgM to Ac 
IkiXflVT cf 1I4 nun fry dod rheleiulinB p^itii'>u«.'* 

Th« pri>^iJ4rtfT «Hn ot t^wWiviile sfre to «nrag«d *ith HaTittn, iHm 
iJt«rbt •** fBTi*<I Mil of tt* H(H.K ilic> tmrnpj him in tft^/; tut Hxntrn wii 
ffftff n w i L Tlif rintltKlcrin ihc rrtrmfiitr *>» '^^ !?«T)rnKfn, > Vrrnun. who 
vu incr*udi hutted n MsiiuippL 

M un iiiitdKoJ 10 fflf cftinincd fricnj, Judui Cl»uni^ 1. Untbcct of FSit». 
^U, Pike Coufilf. fofinuchof ihcinfwXTAlJOli I hjt^vobiainfdianKud toGca. 



indicdrivc of ita chAiftctcr upon ihc funirc mtcrcsta of our Sratc. 
The Circuit Courts will urdtxibicdly be xibolishcd, and in their 
stead we will have the Jiid^es of the Supreme Court, without 
an incr-f^st, O. . T. . . . S. . . iricaiu to niAkr all Illinrits for him, 
or cbc against hirr» plucijig h\% rcdeirptjon and rcfturrcct'ton cm 
the MX popuH. No iTiftn refu^ca Edward Cdc« the character of 
an honest man nod con«i«tetit politician; and it pleases me every 
day to hear men hear the strongest leitimonjr to j-our real merits. 
To be short, the wanr of yon is fell. 

On the nuhjcct of ihc agency at Pcurii, 1 have got Turncy^ 
Judge Brot»'nc. Mr. ForqiJcr» and Judge I^ekwood Co write to 
Mr. CVxik, HamUton has jtot the protein app<»nnncnt from 
Gen 'I Clark. 1 am indeed desirous of sucreeding, as it woulj 
I>cnrfit mc imUviiliiBlly; and ennhic mc to serve my friends and 
pmi»h my enemies. 

J will write you Again. 

Your friend, 

Nicholas Havssv. 


Hansen it seems at this time was seeking an office.^ 
Some of the pro-slavery men appear to have forgiven 
him for his course in the Legislature for two of them,. 
Judge Bmwne and General Turncy, joined George 
Forqucr and Judge I-ockwood in writing the eongrcss- 
man, at that ciay^ Hon. Daniel I*. Cook, in his behalf. 
It will be perceived that there is a charming frankness 
in the closing part of his letter, in which he says that 
the office he desires would enable him ' "io jO'ue his 
friinds ami punish his cncmits^" 


TtavuTH or the CoxveffrroN Mrw; thhdi Ikduccxt Joy; 
StcovKT or ■niRiB Mou i'ltoccKPixo*, ay Govcrkor Ford 
AKD GcvcfiHOR Joiisi Rewoldi; At^i-Qosvzsnoya Mem 


Orhaviick to Oki'k^t rut Rrifiurritii* at mr. Poll>i" 
SnhiuNG ADPR&5S or tht. AHTi-CoHv^NTtox McMDERs or 


S&&TCHKS; Al£XAHOBR P. Ficu>; MIS cnEC<i<;ER£D HisroRr, 
The )oy of the convention nien over this triumph 
outran all bounds- No consideration of decency or 
discretion could restrain them. An impromptu jollifi- 
carion wa^ gotten up> not only to celebrate their 
hard-earned victory, but to insult and degrade their 
opponents. I wil! let Governor Ford describe this 

'*Thc night after this resolution passed, the conven- 
tion partj* assembled ro triumph in a great carousaL 
They formed chcmsclvcs into a noisy, disorderly and 
tumultuous procession, headed by Judge Phillips, Judge 
Smith, JuHgc Thomas Reynolds, late (lovcrnor of Mis- 
souri, and Lieutenant Governor Kinney, followed by 
the majority o( the Legislature^ and the hangers-on 
and rabble about the seat of government; and they 
mitrched with the blowing of tin horns and the beating 
of dnims and tin ]>ans, to the residence of Governor 
Coles, and to the tioarding houses of their principal 
opponents, (owards whom they manifested their con- 
tempt anis disjileasurc by a confuic^d medley of groans, 
waihngs, and lamentations. TTieir object was to in- 
timidate and crush all oppodcion at once."* 




Governor John Reynolds, who was a pro-slavcry, 
as well as a convenciun man ar the lime, in his Histor>^» 
'M/> Ootw Timts*' thus speaks of the action of the 
House in turning out Hansen and of the conduct of the 
mall aftCTwanls: "This proceeding in the General 
Assembly looked rfvo/iuionary^ and was condemned by 
all honest and reflecting men. This outrage was a 
iieaf/j i/ow tQ the cometuion. The night after the pa&sage 
of the resolution there was at the scat of Government 
a wild and indecorous procession by torch-light and 
liquor, and that was niso unpopular/' 

Tlie tncniK'nt of ihe I^gislalure who had heroically 
Hut unsuccessfully, resisted the passage of the conven- 
tion resolution, as welt as Governor Coles and the anti* 
convention men of the State, then at Vandalia, were 
appalled HI ilie pnKslavcry triumph. 

The convention men, certain of the success of their 
.schemes ar the polls* were arrogant, insulting and de- 
fiant. Such was the apparent strength of the pr*»- 
slavcry and convention men that there was scarcely a 
ray of light ir the gloom thiu enveloped the cause of 
freedom. There were, however, some courageous 
hearts who delrrmintxl to accept the giiuntlet which 
had been thrown down. As soon as the Lcgi^nturc 
adjournctl, Governor Coles invited all the principal 
anti-convention men of the State, who were then at 
Vandalia, to meet him at the Governor's room to con- 
sult upon the course to be adopted in view of the late 
action of the Legislature. Fully appreciating the 
supreme importance of the question which had lieen 
thrust upon them, and animated by great impulses, 
they determined upon an immediate organization^ and 


^7k0 COLJiS 

to resist at the very threshold the conspiracy to make 
llfinoisaiilaveStatCrand measurers were takcti to accom- 
plish their purposes- TTic first thing to be done wns to 
have the members of the LegisJaturc^ who voted Against 
the convention scheme, issue sin address to the people 
of Illinois^ 'Hiis address, which ivas undoubtedly 
dmwn up by Governor Coles, unmrtsked the purposes 
of the conspirators to make a slave constitUiioir, and 
exposed ail rhe various devices and means char had 
been resorted to to accomplish their purpose- It was 
an impassioned appeal to the people to rise up in their 
might nitd save the State Ifom the greatest %hamc and 
disaster that could e\"cr be visited upem any people. 
This address, now read after a peViod of nearly sixty 
years, cannnt but excite the most stirring emotions- 
Speaking of slavery' it says: "Whar a strange si>eciaclc 
vBould be presented to the civilized world, to sec the 
popic of Illinois, yet innocent of this great national 
sin^and in the full enjoyment of all the blessings of free 
gfivcrnment, sitting down in sf>tcmn convention to de* 
'liberate and determine whether they should introduce 
^^n^mg rhcm a portion of their fellow beings, to be cut 
f^n from those blessings, to he lonidrti with the vliaini^ 
<*ntfmdage, and rendered unable to leave any other 
"^pcy to their posterity than the inheritance of their 
'*'n servitude! The wise and the good of all natinns 
'Ould blush at our political depravity. Our profes- 
sifiasof republicanism and equal freedom would incur 
tneccrision of despots and the scorn and reproach of 
tyrants. Wr should write the epitaph of free govern- 
ment upon its tombstone/' 

After dwelling upon the moral aspects of slavery, 



chc address argues againM its introducdon on account 
of lis inexpediency^ and closes with the fciUowing elo- 
quent appeal: "In the name of unborn millions who 
frill rise up after us, and call us blessed or accursed, 
according looi^r dtrcd^ — in the namc^f the injured sons 
of Africa, whose claims to equal rights with their fellow 
men will plead their own cause of^inst their usurpers 
before the tribunal ol eternal justice, wc conjure y<w^ 
fellow citizens, to pokdrr upux ihesf. thixg^/' 

There were fifteen members of ihe l^islaturct 
Senators and Representatives — brave, conscientious 
and Ciod-fcaring men — who signed this noble and tinidy 
Appeal to [he people of Illinois. 1 give all their names, 
for they deserve to be written in letters of gold on chc 
tablets of the State's history. The signers arc: 



A-^DKEw Bamkson George Chvichill, 

JACoe (>OLe, GiLaear T. Fell, 

Ctian^^ BLAK£MAHt David McGakcv 

Abraham Caikmc^, STiini£» SriLLUAN^ 

TllOUA^ MATlllUt. 

There were three other members of the l-egislature 
who voted against chc convention resolution but who 
did not sign this appeal. They were Robert Krazicr, 
a Senator from Edvrards county, Raphael Widen, a 
Representative from Randolph county,* ant! J. H. Pugh, 
a Representative from Bond county. What influenced 
them not to join in this Appeal is not now known, but 
it IN probiible that ihey iiiighi have left Van<la]ia l^efore 
the paper had been drawn up. 


I wish it were in my power to do something to rescue 
from oblivion the namefi of theitc hravc niwl tnic men 
in the Legislature^ who bughc out the battle against 
the Introduction of slavery into the State, and whose 
labors and influence contributed 50 much to save our 
cummom^ealth from one of the most appalling calam- 
ities ever visited upon a people. They were men of nO 
partJcuInr distinction in their dfly and generation, and 
there was rmr a man among ihem of any great promi- 
nence, or distinguished by taleiu or eloquence. But 
they had grent convictions and true courage, and during 
all the long and fearful conflict it could be said of them, 

Earnest as these men were, and devoted and patri- 
otic as they were, yet it is cviticnT that ihey "buildetl 
better than they knew.'* It wt)uld have seemed almost 
impossible in that day to comprehend the stupendous 
CQn^uence.<4 which would have resulted from the suc- 
cess of the slave p:irty. 

Through the kindness of friends in different parrs 
of the State, I have been able to obtain some informa- 
tion in regard lo these anti-convention men in the Legis- 
lature. It is much to be regretted tha: it is not more full. 
The two members from St- Clair county, who voted 
against the convention resolution* were Kisuo?* Moorb 
inJ )acos Oulk, Mr, Xfoore w^s u member of the 
IVjLie in the Territorial I^islature in 1814 and 18(5, 
^^ viiich he was the Speaker, both sessions. Born in 
Delaware in 1760, he served in the Navy for a short 
time toward the close of the Revulution. His father, 
Oudes Moore, also scr\*C\l in the Revolution, After 
d»e:!oscof the war, Risdon learned the trade of a black 



smith. In 1789, he moved to Guilford Court House, 
N- C. He flierc marrwxl ;% dsiiigluerof Col. Wm^ Bent>^ 
and in the following year moved to Hancock counry» 
Georgia* and settled near Spnrta. He resided cwenry- 
two ycant in (icor^ia and raised a family of nrnc 
chiklrcn. He was a member of rhc Georgia l.egislaiure 
from Hancock county, in 17qj and 1746, and also in 
the years 1808 and iSoq^ He was brought up an 
Episcopaliatu but Icfl ihat church to join the Methodist, 
a deniiminarkm with a more martcd hostility to the 
institution of slavery, which he held in abhorrence. In 
jKii he moved from Ciecirgia to St. Clair county. Hii 
own family with his white servant, whom he broughj 
with him, numbered fifteen, and his colored peopl 
numbered ctghceoi. He wa^ distinguii^hed for his great 
kindness to the ci^lorwl people, and he frcquenily saii 
that he had never inflicted punishment on a slave, H* 
was a member of thebwtr hou^ie of the l<^slaturc froi 
St- Clair cou»t>\ from the fst to the jih (icncral 
Assembly — l8i8 to i82fi> He was a most vehement 
opponent of the Convention Resolution, and he and 
George Churchill, rhc an n -convention manber from 
Madison county, were burned in effigy in Troy, in that 
county.* Mr, Moore wasa strong Adams man in 1824 

Ml » iurj Vv bcivcvv «i Thik J^y thai tW4 wcH itMri m Gtoitot OiusntLt 
4Aii KlKCriiAi MotMf w*rr burnal in r^iy « v^it i) aom the iib4 umI volwr coufttr 

Governor Kormcr kiy« tuth mt tht hct, api'1 Jud^c OiAHpie aatSrnt U, Hr 
■■ft ihdt ihc lUv, Jcqe Hfitfro ntm Imnc 4t Vmv. itn t>Trvra 4ml fe4v tkn 1«> 
■en IvuMicil ■■ cAc<i', It vu in ihi« un< ii^incv of Mi>l:vxi. at Atus, a« th< 
■«k« of tlic 7'h o^Na¥tnilKr, iSjt. ihtt Elijah R Loi«io> »*• nunic^ bf • 

Wrty bc«oc «ftcTv«rdi ■ tticng uitUla«v?- ctnmEr. uiJ hr« ;«apW wit of rtw 
'lluiuaiiilV **t*ps oftwvd, 

Ob ihc fnoTTo* <r9»;bc« J utl^K 
With ihc »ilw in kit kaa^ik" 



and in 1828. He was once or twice a member of the 
County Court, and was cnltcd Judge MoorCj to dis* 
tingu'sh him from his cousin, Risdon Moorc, a democrat 
and a Jvnatnr fr)m St. Clair county from i8i3 to iSjO- 
Judge Moore was a m»n highly respected in every walk 
in lil^, and always a prominent member of the Metho- 
dist CSurvh. His mtmntiiis di-Ntrndnnts i*nr all of the 
highest respectability. He settled about four miles 
east of Belleville, at what was at that Hmc called the 
•Turkey Hill Settlement-" 

Jacob Oci.E, born in Virginia, was the son of Capt, 
Joseph Ogle, of Mrgijiia, who was a soldier of the 
Revolution. Both father and son came to what is now 
Monroe county^ in 1785; and they moved to a point 
near where OTallcn is now sUtiated, in St. Clair 
county, on a creek named after him, Ogle's creek, in 
1821. Jacob Ogle was a "Ranger" in \^\z. They 
wrre Iioth leading tncadwr^ of the Methodist Chuith. 
In addition to being a member of the "Convention 
l.jegislati:re," in ifcf^io Jacob C^lc was elected to the 
luwer house of the (iciicral Assembly, from Sr, Clair 
county. He seems to have liekl no other position 
except Justice of the Peace- He was a well-to-do 
farmer, highly respected znd intelligent. He died in 
1844, aged 5cvcnty*two years. 

Raphakl Widen, who, a« a member of the Houj^ 
from Randolph county, voted against the Convention 
Resolution,* was a native of Swcilcn, bat left there 
when but eight years old tor France, where he wa& 
educated for a Catholic priest. He emigt^tcd from 
France to the United States in 1815. He married 
M)vs Frances Lalcmier in Cahokia, in 1818^ and died of 



cholera, in Kaskasku, in 1833- His widow aftcm^arda 
niiirried Capt, E- Walker, and she Hied in Chester, rhc 
present county seat of Randolph, in 1874, He lias a 
son, \Vm- S. Widen, and a daughter, rhc wife of John 
l» Wwards, both of whom live in Chester. Mr- Widen 
WHS a member of the State Senate, from Randolph 
county, from 1824 to 1818. 

Andrew Baskson was first elected a Senator from 
Washington county in i8l2< He voted agiiinst the 
Convention Re&oKitlon. He was re-elected to the 
Senate in 1824 and served till 1816. He settled in St, 
Clair county, on Silver Creek, four mile* south of 
l^rhanotij in 1808 or 1810, from whence he must have 
removed to Washington county. In 181^ he was 
CobncI of the Rangers. He was a Captain in the Black 
Hawk war in 183I, Removing from Illinois he settled 
in Iowa Territory, some distance west of Dubuque. 
He was a member of the Iowa Legislature and held 
other offices. He was a native of Tennessee and died 
in WiiiCijnsin, in t^^j, while visiting a soii-in-law. 

Abraham Cairxes was a mtmber of the House 
from Lawrence county, and voted againstthcconvcntion 
resolution. He settled in Crawford county in 1816^ 
and in th:u part of Jt afterwartU embraced in Lawrence 
councy, which was organized in 1821. He was a 
member of the House in the previous General Assembly, 
in 1820-2, from Crawford county. He iioe% not appear 
to have been a member of the Legislature after 1812-4, 
I can get but httic information in regard to him, further 
than that in the canva-ss he was an active and efficient 
opponent of the Convention Resolution^ He removed 
from Lawrence county to some point on the Mississippi 
Kivcr, in 1826, He was a native of Kentucky. 



David McGahrv was a member of the House fmm 
Crawford county. He settled in that aiunry in 1817 
and continued to resiile there imtil his death in rS-;!. 
He was nr-clcclcd to thcHouw in 11*24 f^^^ Crawford, 
and from Lawrence and Crawford in 1832, and elected 
a Senator from the same counties in iS,';4. His son, 
James D. McGahcy, was elected to the House from 
Crawford at :hc same time, and died during his term of 
service. Though a Tcnnessean, Mr- McGahey was a 
strong opponent of sinvcry, and was one of the twelve 
mcmlK'ni of the House who voted aguinst the Convcn- 
tw^n RcNolution. Kroni the mimher of nmes he was 
elected to the legislature it is evident he enjoyed the 
confidence of the people to a high degree. 

WiLMAU KiNKADi^ scttlcd ill whai is now Lawrence 
county in 18J7, Ht- was a niembLTtjf the Start' Senate 
from Wayne and Lawrence from 1822 to iil24, and 
voted against the Convention Resolution. When the 
question was up before rhc Senate, he demanded of the 
friends uf die resolution to define their position^ as the 
people had a right to know whether or not cheir object 
in calling a convention was to introduce slavery into 
the State. As tlie converuiaTi men hiul determined in 
caucus to permit no discussion, they sat silent in their 
>,eats and made no response. Mr. Kinkadc then com* 
mmced a hold and aggressive speech, and charged On the 
convenrion parry a purpuse they dared nut avow* As 
he was treading on dangerous ground, he was imme- 
diately called to order. Lt, Governor Huhhard> the 
presiding ufiiccr of the Senate, unhesitatingly applie<] 
the (;ag, and he was not permitted to proceed. He only 
served once in the Legislature, 



Mr- Kinkade was appointed postmaster at I^-iw- 
rcnccvillc by John Quincy Adams and held the office 
many years. He was a Tcniicescaii by birth. He died 
in 1846, leaving two sons, one of whom, A. G. Kinkade^ 
now lives in Richland county; the other son only 
survived his father for a few years* 

Koai£Kr KkA/itK, the Scnatrir from Edwards county, 
who voted s^ainst the Convention Resolution, had 
been a Senator in the previous l.^slaturc from the 
same county, and elected in 1S20. Unforttinarely t 
have not been able tti find out much in reg;ird to him. 
He was a farmer, and lived in that part of Fdwards 
which was afterward set off to Wabush. Kc afterward 
rcMjk up his residence in Edwards county, aUnit four 
miles east of Albion, and died on his farm. He was a 
Kentuckian by birth. "Fraxicr's Prairie/* in Edwards 
county, was named afier him. 

Thomas Mather, of Randolph county, was tl 
most active and efficient opptincnt of the Convention' 
Kcsolunon in the House of Representatives. He was 
one of nine members of this House who had been 
members of the House in the preceding legislature. 
Thomas Mather and his colleague Raphne! Widcn> 
Kiadon Mixire^ of St. Clair, and Abraham Catrnes, of 
Crawford, were the only memliens of the House, in the 
"Convention l-egislalure/' who were opposed to the 
Convention Resolution* who had been members of the 
previous". Mather was Therefore an "old mem- 
ber," and from his experience and ability he naturally 
became the leader of the opposition. In the campaign 
which followed the adoption of the Convention Resolu- 
tion Mn Mather bore a conspicuous part in the public 



riiftcusHion against thr measure* and renderrd a great 
and valuable service to rhe cau^ie. A native of Conncrc- 
ticut, he came to Illinois and settled in Ka<{kaskia in 
tSrS, and engaged in mercantile busineA.^. Bceoming 
Intcrrstcd in |J*j]itica! aff.iirs, two years later iS^o, he 
was elected a member of the House of Representatives 
of the General Assembly^ fmm Randolph counry> in 
conjunction with Knphncl Widen, hie was again 
elected lo the Hijuse in 1822^ and re-elecieti iti 1814. 
Governor Coles appointed him an aid-^e-camp on his 
staff, and he ever aftcrwattis bore the title of ColoncL 
lie was cleiTtrcl Spcak(^i of the House in fhe legislature 
elected in 1824, and scrvetl during the first ^essiion. 
He resigned the speakership at the end of this session, 
and David Blackwclt, of St. Clair, was elected in his 
place for the second session. He was again elected to 
the House from Randolph in 1828, in conjunction with 
Hypolite Menard. In 1832 he was elected Senator 
from Randolph and Pcrrj", and resigned in T8J4. His 
l^islative service w^s a long and honorable one and 
useful to the State. Col. Mather held no political 
position after he resigned a:« Senator in it!j4» but 
became idenritiril with many public rnterprtscK. He 
became widely known in the Stare as the President of 
the State Bank of Illinois, and ever maijitained the 
highest character for integrity, liberality, and public 
■spirit. He was the only member of the convention 
l^slntore I ever knew, except John Shaw. Though a 
resident of Springfield, he died in Philadelphia, March 
18, 1855. The lust time I met him was a little while 
before this date, at the Astor House, New York City. 
He was then in very bad health. His widow, now over 


jLusors imromcAL coLLEcnom 

eighty" years of age> still survives him, and resides at 

Jonathan H- Pi'oh represented Bond county in the 
l-^islamrcj and voted againsr the call n{ the Conven- 
tion. He afterwards removed to Springficld» where he 
figured in politics and at the Bar. He was reputed to 
be a ver>' fine lawyer, but died at an early age, univer- 
sally re?ificc:edp He ran for Congress as a Whig in 

Doctor Georck Caowell, first physician of Mo^an 
county, was bom the list of February, 1773. inWcthcrs- 
field, Connecticut. He received his literar>* education 
at Hartlord, his inedictti education at Kutlnnd* Vermont. 
He waN fcjnitcd in niarri^c with Miss Pamclia Lyon, 
daughter of Hon. Matthew Lyon, on the nth Febru- 
ary, 1797, in Vergennes, Vermont. 

Gov. Reynolds, in his history of [llinnis, says: *' In 
the year ly^q, sailed down the Ohio river Mairhew 
Lyon and family, with John Messenger and Dr. George 
Cadwcll and their respective families, TIic last two 
named were the sons-indaw of Lyon, aixA all settled 
in KenuK-ky, at Eddyvitic- Messenger and Dr. Cad- 
wcll left Eddyville in i8o2» and landed from a boat in 
the American Bottom, not far from old Fort Chartrcs. 
'ITiey reniaiiic'ti in ihf liouom for some lime, and Dr, 
Cadwell moved and .^vectled on the Illinois bank of the 
Mississippi, opposite the Gasharit Island, and above 
St. 1-ouis. He was quite a rcspccTahIc citir^n — 
practiced his prt>fe?isiun, and served the ]»cople in 
various public offices. He was justice of the peace and 
county judge for many years in St. Clair county, and 
in Madison also after its formation. Since the cstab 



lishmrnt of the Slate fJovcmmcnt he served in the 
General Assembly from Mndison »nci Greene coimcies» 
at different times* and nlwiiys acquitted himself with 
sansfactioii to thr public. Al;er a l<:)ng life six'nt in 
usefulness, he died in Morgan county quite »n old in:in. 
He was moral and correct in his public and private life, 
and left a character much more to be adntircd than 
condemned; was a rcspcciahle physician, and ilway:i 
maintained an unblemished character/' 

The doctor was elected State Stmator from the 
county of Madison in iSiH, and served the full term of 
four years. In the fall of i8io, he removed into the 
tcrrit«>ry subsequently included in the county of 
Morgan— still in his Senatorial district; he settled in 
the poini of limber known a> Swinorton's l*r>inf, cast 
of the Allisf>n MouikI, where he remained with his 
family until he died- In 1S21, He was elected to the 
Senate from the county of Greene, and attached 
territory, and vt>tcd against (he convention rcs<j!utian- 
Iii dividing the Senators elected from nine districts into 
EwtJ classes, the seats of one to be vacated ac the end of 
two years, and the other at the end of four years* the 
doctor's term was made tu expire at the end of two 
ycrars, so that he served but one session. He died ist 
of August, 1826, from an attack of bilious fever.* 

Danifi. P*»REit, who was the senator from Craw- 
ford and Clark counties, was a Baptist minister who 
emigrated from Tennessee. He I'esided at Palestine, 
Crawrord county- He removed from Illinois to Pales- 
tine, Te^as (date not known), and for some time had 
chat^^t: of a church at that place. 

William Lowrlv, representative from Clark coun- 



ty, voted agaiTi^c the Cunvcnnon Rrsujlution, and 
resid<:d in what t& now Kdgar county, a few miles north 
of Paris. He was from Kentucky and had been an 
jusociate judge of (irecnup county. After the organi- 
zation of lulgar county he served for a time as circuit 
clerk of that county- Sometime after the year ifi^^o 
he removed to DcWitt county, [llinob, where he died. 

James Sims was bnrn in Virginia and was taken by 
his parents to Sotith Camlina, where he was married. 
From thence he moved to I^gan county, Kentucky, 
Thence to St- Clair county, Illinois, and from thence to 
Sangamon county in i8ao* He was the first Represent 
tativc from Sangamon county in the Stare LcKislaturCi 
and elected in August^ i^2i. From Sangamon county 
he removed to Rock Crrckj in what is now Menard 
county, and from thence to Moruan count>\ He was a 
Methodist preacher and formed the first circuit ever 
organized in Sangamon count)'. 

STtVHiiN Stilimak, who was the first Senator ever 
elected from Sangamon county> was born in Massa- 
chusetts and emigrated with his mother, the widow of 
Benjamin Stillmar), to Sangamon rnunty, lUinois, it} ihe 
spring of 1820. The family serried near WilliamsviHe- 
A post office was established ttiere and Mr. Stillinan 
was made postmaster It was the first post office Tiorth 
of the Sangamon river, Mr. Stillman died in Peoria 
between 18^15 and 1840, His brother Isaiah Stillman 
vrtks in command of a body of troops in the Black Hawk 
war in 1832, at a point in Ogle county, which has ever 
since been known as "Stillman 's Run." 

Gilbert T Pell was a member of the House of 
Representatives from Edwards county^ in the Conven- 



Hon t^gisiarure. He was the son-in*law o( Morris 
Birkbeck, And vxry naturally was an anti-slavery man, 
who voted iigiun^t the convention scfacxnc. He con- 
timied to live in Fxiwards county some line after tfic 
death of Mr. Birkbeck, and was elccred ro the lower 
Houw of the legislature in 1828. He afterwrirdt left 
(he Siaic, and dying subscqucnily, his widow removed 
ro Auscratia. 

My old and valued friend, Judge Joseph GilleHpiej 
of Kdward^villc, who still remains among us in all his 
physical and inicllcctual vigar^ honored, respected and 
beloved, and who is a connecting link between the 
earlier and later Illinois, and whose knowledge of all of 
our earlier puhhc men surpasHes that of most men in the 
State, ha^ heen kind enough tn give me some sketches 
of the members of the "Convention Legislature," as it 
was called. The members of the House from Madison 
dttnty who voted against ihc convention were Curtiss 
Blakeman and George Churchill. 0( Captain Blake- 
man he says: 

"He emigrated Iroin New York in t^i-j, and itong mch 
sevtraJ other sea captains ma<le a sciikmcnt in Madhon cotinvy, 
iti whkli iJto' ijarc the iiamr of ''Marine." They dmpUycd 
grCAC tutc in the fnckction of a locuuon. It i» my de&bcrate con- 
viction that frr beauty of vccncrr and ffrtiliiy of aoil it has no 
equaL •*••♦*• Captain Blakeman wat always an 
oucspokcn aholilirmttt ;ind bc^came a member of a Mctecy that 
wu Jmmal in FilwarcUville ajt cjirly » i83o, in ski of the anti- 
iUvcrv caux. Oppovilior to slavery wn* hU ruling pit^on, and 
he fell Lt to be his duty to strike at it whenever it ^oiMred it» head. 
He look no part in pojitici except for the purpose of figfati.ig 
jtlavery. He fcmmardcH rhc ship rhat rook Gereral Moreau Co 
Europe, who uym to join rhr allied afmics againiif Xapnicon in 
181J- He Mid he took the liberty 10 ask the GcncTAl who he 


thought wsA ihc ||rc4tot oqvta'm m Etinipe. Moreau unh^t^-! 
ttngly wwwertd- ^r^ng th^t BooApucc wis the grcaitat general 
who ever ih"<tt"** 

Ckom^c CuiriHnuix wu another member ftota Ma<iUon 
oounrf, ftJiJ offKMcii the call of the ct)RveTtiion< He was a 
ihcHtMgh pncni akihiinQiir all Wi\ ft^^ By profcnifm be was a 
pfuiTcr, arU i*as connected vriih rhc first paper puMi.nhnl in Si? 
Louu* He wa3 from one of the easccm States. Coming to lUi- 
DMft, He carT>cil un farming iltinnfi the rc»t of bis tifc. He vaa 
frt<tttently elected ru the Lx^latMrc, and wa« accounted the beot^ 
Mrorkin^ member wc cvrr had- He toiled (iltc a dra>'hor«c, buc 
i>rver nuide a xpcaJi vl more than &vc minute'^ lengrh, Utat, 
himcveT, contained all that ought to he said. He entered mtu no 
fit^ or clititic^i hut went right alont; with hts w^trit, and was 
IMVcr out oi h\fi »eat when he ought lo be in it- He was never a 
ouididate and necce wanted office. If elcctod, he wmild serve, 
and thitr w» nil ibcrc was jIk^ji ii. He was a perii^rt walking 
encyi lu)fcvlui of pofttkal knowledge. It was aa dungenxjii to 
fliiAik hiai rin a question of politicdl history as it was John Qume^ 
A^Umft^ He wai never marrkd. ]n pcrwn he wa» badly formed, 
and impTt|'0*scsairi|i in 4p|K-arAncc; his complexion was saltow, 
M» eye luitrrless irul expression dull. But he possessed great 
luiowledge and Ncnx-t 

Miirr4u v» uiriicd TO TCturr from ihc Uniicl Stift^ tn ;« th« 
■llir ^k "nfi S'A(<.4ntB I't Ott Tmj^vsv A\cxt:\iUt of Kcwi, it trai but 

« r»* AiL-iiilwi *'lrr hn fr^nk ODnvrJMiHiti miiIi eIi( Amcvu^JQ Kit I4pfi-r« ihsr 
*t4iiilwv I^T tliu <i4lr %ri ihr llnifcnuf 4l tl» kiitTc uf DrchJcn fic w^i nmtuJIr 

»■' ,,' t ■ t Ti I>ut1c4 or ihe :7Th oMmi*<. ifij. He died on the 3d of 

th . ' 1 ^f t''*' «' ihf Ht«l Nipoleon, whom ht hml w h^ftly 

1.111 I ^<^>iiN>h wiEh Cjpriin Hl^keman, :md in ii£hfin|E 4|EilPbV 

•I I > p*W Tfc* <lr*iid'nl diutlen to Hoji^iwrff't 

t'- '• I . * *£ I.utlM jnri tlji^firA AfrrnnlvrrTirrrd aihcci 

tb^ I lJli >;r«^t '^J.licr trmrnktHltnB iri pcnon JpII Lwn ^-l n^itlr 

ik I ' of Wroi(\ BiTAJMr.h At Ibiitmu. Gcitcr^l Mtrmu tn ia 

In -iilriviiina hii fttrei [ike Ciacinn^tvL He ira one ^ the 

|P. I rH«, ^ome e^ tLe (rctidt *ntien uT that m a uciicii.i kc 

W. I ^V4 aiipenur ol Napolron, but on Che ^M tit bmtk he vat 

mil' f'^' 

• tiL *ik« 4 mMdbcr of the ]loa*c cf ReprevoaeAtivei in the 
f.> \tt^mn <«v>ntv Uom iKaa to iSi4> if 14 co iSafr, i]}:j6 ro 

' »>Ji Hf W4B t Semtof rteen Mndm rog^tv from 
A tcrncCBi the t^d&Turc of ^bunc«A }«»>. 


It is a melancholy reflection that after a period of 
less than sixiv' year* s<> liiric is known of thcM 
members of the legislature who fought the battle of 
frccciom anti who rendered a service ro the State and 
to humanity which can never be fully mcasurcil. I 
can appropriately repeat here what I once said on u 
c<>gnate subject. In the wild and ra;iid whiH of events 
in our country wc are too apt to neglect or torgct history, 
"Humatiity sweeps onward/* but the recollections of 
men and the histories of peoples and nations are too 
often buried in forgctfutness and obHvionp To rescue 
a name worthy to hr femrinl>c!red and honored, to recall 
great events, to look back upon the deeds of tho^ gone 
before us, arc objects worthy uf all our corisideratioti. 

It 'xn a somewhat Tcmarkablc fact, and in the highest 
degree hoiM*rab!e m the parties, that out uf the eighteen 
members of the Ic^slature who voted against the Con - 
vcniion Resolution, at least ten of them were from the 
slave-holding States.* 

Their names are: 

V^iLUAM Ki'fLAivi, from T<nnc9«^. 
ApiutiEAK CAiiE.tL). from KcAiudiy. 

jAC0«Octr. hot Vif^inra. 
Weuiau |.n» (■'I', fftim Kritmrhr. 
Dakipl PAHLtk, fnin Trnncww- 
Jamj-> Srutp ftfifr Stn^ffi CarnliiiA. 

In addition to the sketches which Judge Gillespie 
gave me of certain members of the legislature, who 

m>pci( i>( iti^x JAib-«oriV4iiri>>'i cnctntHn of iho Ift^uUiurT, but «■ jtniBe Wm. 
Ti^rkRlB^, r>i J jLt^fefiATilW; Guvttnor KoarKv of Scllcvillcj Hun N\ VV. f^hvuilJi, of 
S^^T^i-TJ.i, H.-n Hr-i-. ni>lur UmenF, "^rttitty fil Smi-; Chir^r* I'h-jTvKrti, 
l-«j . ij.' AILii' I. M.-iii -. -r* .>-' Hiin', nf Pniri; Hr»n, VVm, M S*yil^r, oi B^llrvillci 
>\4>nr 1. B- \fi-.lie>, .:J N^^JiviIlc. *a,t\ rw Inrmti n^Ucjigiir* in tht HncE* oi Rcf^ 
mEi^ativti^ Han, ^Vln- K- Morritaft, of ^Yacc^luc^ Aiiit Hoo- Jt^r^ca C- Allfn. of 



agomcit die call ottbccoavcuDOQ, he lus skctcl 
of (he Icttiitng t^^uavcntioo imm They had che 
ailvmitnge ol rite uiD-cooTcnpon mtm m the body, not 
Mily tiithcnumbcrfvbuttnxUicTajidpoGtkalocpcricncc. . 
In the Senate there «u TheopbAn W. Smirh, afte^H 
wd» Judyc «if At Supfcvie Courr; William Kinne;^^ 
tA«nr«r\b Ijeucsaaike GMcnor; Joseph A. Bcaird and 
YKittukt Skn\ h: In the House were \VUlitm M. 
\ ^ V WhitciiJc, EniMucI J, \V< 

/.jt^L. . ,,.,.,^.,.\ liAJttOAttC Governor and mi 

her o: , ^" ^ MmfcrP* Fkil, GcQcral Jami 

1 V V . t.iencral of the State 

" VhKOfhSm W, Smith was 
' ^ivorcd the call of a con* 

,«jrtff and soon obtained 

the brach oi the ^i^ifveme Court of llttnoi] 
whcne h< iwimU have %und pre-couiKodjr if he hj 
V ^^ncSk biat ckn he wmld noc; he wj 

' ,.j ^ V ^^ ^ ■' '-^-'^ pofitkai inlrijuc of rhc da; 

He *A* mM» the *^ N^r* York, and gor his politic 

rducaln^n in Tammany Hall, aad must have been an 
Adept in the rncl^try tot wtuch iha: institution wj 
turned* cvT" "1 ihar early day* tvcrytting done 
our (xiUncal ai^Air^ that was ra:fch, recUcss and unprece^ 
dvntriK was laid ts* Judge Smith's charge/' 

fc|w»te ji 
Vt*u*»u^ He w*L5 


Continuing hia sketcties, Ju^ts^ GiUespie says: 

'*l «a» a<^uMiiatod «jlb '^*i'arMiii Kiaoey frm St. 

enunEy< He wm a pci^-^lavny ma, aid voccd aad worked 
ihv call of « eonvvQiioct. He was oee cl the rf i r ewdetc mtat I eref 
fatie«, ^U of vn uid «arc«tm, sad oooU ertricate himadf fVonn i 
imrmma idmirtthly ffe vdiMradDRd adrantafn had bem vrry 
liBUird. «o [Hi^^h lo thmi bc cnpkyed the Ludc i as a pcraoaal 



pKcicun, and, when he was rallied about it, aakl that hit rctaon 
^dotn^ M W4» thjLF OovcrtKT Edwanis hftd aacd up all tbc b«g 
Tf, an4 left nothing for him but the little oei««. He Alied very 
^ToJirsbly iKeoJBce of LieuTenanTGov'crnoiT and Internal Improve- 
meat Coir^miKifonerr of ihe Sraie. He had great power over men. 
^^^ a *'liard dicU" Baptint preacher, and hul absoolutc domin- 
KQ c^cr fti» flock, spirituaUy and politically. Kinney vru a very 
btld ffan^ and iroald |;rappie with any foe. He wrote and put^ 
Uvd % cnticLi^ on Dickena' note* on America, in wh:ch, I t^inlc^ 
U mailc the lartcr look very small. Kinney and John Reynolds 
*m politicitl rivals, and Wh iivcd iji the same county, and were 
of lie Democratic faich. Reynolds got the belter of Kinney, 
Jihhoa^h the latter was a man of the best natural parts. It vaa 
unponihle for Kinney to "trim;" he had to be an ultra. Rey- 
nd^ctn the other hand, could «Kift his ssils to meet every chuig- 
Ufhttetef andin that way he retained a portifin of ihedentocracyt 
■Qd foe ikc whole of the oppoution^ which gave him the iuccn- 
d^CT, Kume>' was like a cat, he invariably fell upon his feet. 
}^ M. Peck, a v«ry talented Xew England preacher, once 
i^ght be had Kinney down. The bttcr wait in the habit of 
*bttbig the Vankeeit, l«ir, on viniting Kew En^and, became 
^*WiHy imprcK«nI with it^ peo]>le, and «n his return home 
^■Dcllcd Ehcm in the highest tcnns. Peck» hearing of ihi5, thought 
b»r«|d tnumph over the Governor, and remarked that he under> 
*5ccd that his views ahoqt the VflnVce* had totally changed^ The 
Cwwnor said thai rhcy had undergone a partial cliEingr- He 
•tti be used to believe that the Yankees were «// mean^ but now 
^ vu Mtiidxd that they had s&mt goed onea, but ihcy kept the 
9Q4odc4 at hon:e, and sent oniy the mean ones out We&t. 

Jxuefi TiJUscEY I knew kit dlghtly. He represented Wash- 
tiirtofl county, tad I think removed to Green county. He was 
^-Jd Attorney-General. He wai a Uw>'er, by ptofeuion, not 
Xppcvcd to be very deeply read, but ntccecded very well by the 
'cvtt cf hU native abilities. I think he was from Tennesisce, and 
^fi ^ loflg time ago. 

Ek&AnrKL J- Wtht wis vomethlng of a character. He was a 
^ttsfX'MX^ and in favor ^i slavery. He wxf. a 3plendi<! conver- 
M^Jist, and pooseascd of Anc majinerv, and to these qualities 




fir owed hn eVcnon ar time tiar what pdb6c opimoa i 
%mM^} en opfusitjoi lo bio pisfibcal pcvfonro. Wctt wu 
I tbitik, io I>iiwwr,Ewt wtot cd dte IsUnd of Tcacritfc. 

He rvadMid UbiMft abotif i8iS. wul xttkd on « beauti^l 
him, jfmut seven sitlrs nofth*e« of' EdwvtkviUe, which 
dtnitennl "GWictra/* He wu oppoiDCed Mtniiier to Moaed' 
by Geocml Jai^k^w, but cticd bcJrn reachhng htt pcnr. 

He wu pnatoaatclr fond of politicf, And wk>, cortK^ticnrly. 
HOC a Mccev u a fnmer. 

Mr^ \\t%t had few superion in conrenaCMML He inu ab90' 
lurely charmtw lq thar Tin^ Hhc hid lived he ccmU hare ftgured 
in paUic life. 1 thmk the dcpornncnr of difJrmkacf lEiiircd ht 

Alcxavcvcii p. Ficii>, of Vtkm County, wms a native 
Kentucky^ and was the nephcv of Nathaxiiel Pope, who vraa 
retmry of the Territor}- of Iliinoist afcervardA ddegace \a Con 
from the Trrntor>-, and then Jw%c of the Unin^ Sates Digtrict 
Court for fhe St^te of lUinots- ! was well ao^jtinted v'irh Pidd. 
atid iTfattkni law in the »afiK CLTcuit wiih htm for minx yctn. 
He vras a ^-crr powtrful and svccosfttl cnmina! lawyer. The fint 
tinsel ever *nw him w^swhcn he wasoanvn^ni:: for General Jackvon, 
Brcc«e n-^s ypeuking in oppo^cion Co him, Bf%e»e wu tui Adams 
man- They iifrerwan^ changed places: Fvid deplored at an 
Adamn man an^l Brcr.^e ii ;< tlemocnif. THc dehiitr wa\ a vrry 
able ortc- Tield W4» afierwird* appQinted Sccrctiry of Suic 
and held the office for mnny yx^n* thoujth the State was demo* 
iTatic. He was Ic^i^ated out of offic« o«i accoont of Us polities. 
He rett>ovfd to New Orleans hefeirc the war, where he dbfinguish^d 
himtelf ni a criminal law^-er* An outspoken opponent of scce^ 
Hinn. he fetl urder the dbpleaautc of the rabbfc of the cit:r, and he 
WAk constantly in dant;er of looins hi& life. He told mc, after the 
war wa5 over, that before the Union forces got possession of N 
Orleans, he neldom \a^*i down at night expecting to be alive in 
niiirmnd. Infuriated crowds would beset him at e%Try turn wh 
ever he \ch his hou«c, thrtatcnirg him with death/' 

This is the first appc:intnce in public life of Al< 
aiulcr IV Field, who represented Union county, th 
ont* of t\K most impoitanc counties in the Stare. 



wu a lawyer by professioM. He Afterwardft assumed a 
good deul of imporcance )n official positions in Illinois 
arkl dscwhcrc. He was a member of rhc Lower House 
in ri\c legislature from Union county from 1822 to 
1S28. Krom iS^8 to iS^jo he represented Union> John- 
wi and Alexander counties. He was Secretary of 
State of Illinois from i8i8 to j840> when he was legis- 
Utcil OLM of office^ and fmiilly remnvcd by judicial pn>- 
L'etdifigs, After the election of General Harrison he 
w>s appointed Secretary' of Wisconsin Territory in 
iS^r, and it wa?t rhen rhar I lirsr knew him. Some 
)*car>i afterwards he removed to St. Louis, and then to 
Nc'A Orleans and was in the latter city at the breaking 
out of the war. He was rcgartlccl as a Union man, 
thoiigh on the arrival of Tarragur's fleet m 1862, he 
*fiBi m have been driven by the threats of the mob 
inio publishing a card intending to convey a different 
"Jiprcsaion. As soon as he was safe from personal vio* 
WKe he publi-shed a second card, repiKttating the first 
(*ie if) bold and delianr lan^age and ever afrer that 
■tijod in the fn)nf ranks of the Union men- 

At the opening of the jfirh Omgrcss, December 7, 
■863, Cob Field (in conjunction with his colleague, 
Tiw>ma<i Cottman) was put on the roll of the House as 
3 member of Congress from Louisiiana. They both 
VWcJ on preliminary questions and for Speaker, hut 
*ffiT the organization was perfected the House refused 
ro swear them in as members, and :ajbsequcntly decided 
that tliey wcrr not cntitleii to seats. Cob Field made 
ifl ible speech in supjwjrt of his claim. In answer di 
suggestions touching hi^ loyalty, he made an eloquent 
3nd indignant protc:tt: "I have always been a loyal 



man. I fought againdt secession to the utniosr ofmy 
power. 1 endangered my life for months and month*i. 
I have never been anything else than a loyal man, and 
I hope that I never will be. 1 will stand by thut flag 
wherever ic Boats, and when 1 die 1 hope it will be in 
that country over which it wave:^" It aflbrded me 
pleasure in this connection to speak a few words in 
vindication of Col. Field. I quote from the Congres- 
siona] Gtobe: 

"Mit. WAsuauRMB, of UlinoU: The attention of the Hoax 
has been called to a c«ni said (o have been publitKcd in New 
Ortcans by zUt genttemin from l^utmna (Mr. Field], aboot the 
erne of the surrender of die city. I h*vc not seen that e«rd, but 
I desirp lu bear a word of tnnmcny in regard to (he genileman 
wbo daicna a. xm here, frum l-ouinana. He vru A>rmer]y a rc- 
iFpected and influenttiil citizen of Ilbnoi5> long and weU-known for 
bu patnolUm and ability. I have known hint for neariy a quarter 
of a century, and it a^cirds rrc plciuurc to «peak from my 
kncwialgr in ihl^ rc^jitd- 1 mncivrd n Icrrer Jrxim a diaiingiii^hed 
citizen of Tllinois whc ha« been bng in New Or)ciuii, in rcl^lion 
to thii claimiuit. He sutcs thai he wiu ^ways one of the moat 
lofai nicn^ in that State, to the flan of the Union. He commended 
him to me for devotion to the Union under the moGt trying df- 
ciimsiances. That i« all I desire to say. I have made the state- 
ment w justice tt> the L[jitn:Hni fur a scit opun ilii^t R<xjr, and wkaL 
I believe to be due tu tnidi and juMicc/' ^^^| 

The resolution paying the claimants passed by a 
large majority. The Illinois del^ation (wich one 
esEceplion) bclicvinp; in its propriety, and out of sym- 
pathy for an old Illinoisan, voted for it, Hon. J_ C- 
Allcn made a strong spctxh in favor of the rcsoiution. 

Col- Field was a man of atiiking personal appear- 
ance, tall and well proportioned, of polished manners, 
and possessed rare conversational powers Ai a lawyi 



he was particularly successful in criminal cases. After 
the war he became Attorney-General for the State of 
Louisiana, and died in 1877 at New Orleans, after a 
long and painful illness. From a * 'Convention man" 
he became a * 'Jackson man," and then a prominent 
and influential Whig^ and dying at last as a loyal man, 
and, as he expressed it, "where the flag of his country 
waved." Many old settlers of Illinois, his contem- 
poraries, forgetting and forgiving his course on the 
Convention question, will always have a warm place in 
their memories for the gifted ''Aleck Field." 


Action or rnr Coyvr..V7iox W^h; Thkv U«uk ax Axvatttms to 
TjtR P(U)rLic; Col. Thouaa Cox. Cnahui^x «r tmhik MkjtT' 
rsrc; Tiir, Wr.AK?«r>s or tmk "Ain>aEs5;" Nortct or Coi. 
Cox; bARLV l\cii>r!as ts Iowa 'ItRWTOitVi The Battlc 
01* Brllbviie; Ilumiii Dovch-Faciu or that Day m 


Cotes; The Kikst CoxsiiTirno)! a Gooo Ose; Cauae ov 


tkiloucu nffi State. 

'I"hc convention men anticipated their opponents in 
an :iddrcss to tht i>ci»ple of IllinoU. Ac u "very large 
and respectable meeting of citizens from all part* of 
the State/' which was held immediately after the 
adjotinimeni ti{ xhv Ir^ishiiurc (the tlay l>efore the 
"AppeaP'of the other side was issued), to express their 
views relative to the Convention Resolution, Colonel 
"nTOmas Cox,* of Sangamon county, was chairman of 

*Cat TltAmat Cat vji nrir nf thr Irailinif nen oi Wn lUjr Jb llluiow Hr vam 
flDC * member of ihc ''Convctttioii Le^isiaiuic/' but he vu ax VamblB diirii4[ 
lU vPOJOiXt xJnl tjnt vt (Ik Tmn* pvutniticci «ihS nfluHUml «irf ikc ■ - ■ i.'tr i»f 
uiiKiu cf the S:4Cr, «hi> liiitcd the ttM of (jcA«r»«>GnT, (o aLi ijc a/ 

the Com-ccitian Rcs^Tiiritn- He nuied M Kdiknkia More ii — — i ^on- 
inn^iod J itrftE<4y, Ami ^t wj^ At hit houK "^^ K^tLuJua, lidi ifc< rirrc J'crnr*fi4l 
tvegiililUK ntt. Oft (Ite i;Th d*^ of Noi-fmbc, itc;, li did ngiU^n v«rytt/g« 
bauH tn accnmrrixlarc rhn bMv, far fhe l^^liTtrc Counol OCouiUei) nn|v of 
^rf memhrr*. j;nd ihr Houff of KrL7'r^«nt4T^lriof Mivn moibcrt. Hp jf»r«trd% 
REPiaytd in \'ftvif\ C<Hinty, and vu a mvinhcr ot the Seainc Th cbe rint Scftrc 
LnisLiruTr- H< wa» fur Ji lun|[ l»u liie Ro^nifi vt tJic Un^cd Si«tc> Lackd 
Otftti at SiiiifLkLlitU* Im< «h«riccn»c*P iruJ? j|Eain>i hliTi. which Vsn him hi* oifict- 
In itjA hf c-LijJnctj .1 cdhetjct t^r the survey uf the j:ub^< Ua>li m th>i p^it nf 
WhOHtift TciritoTi ifhicK, in Jvnc, i9j(, vu ^^nftidruied l<>« Tgrrkory. )ft 
KtttcJ on ihc Mut<jiAc<' Kivcr, in f utt^'L ciuntv. and m iHjV wa* elected ■ 
f|ii««1wr of ifiF Hriiv* ^i Rt^)er*entiU\^t in ikt £r«f rcmtnriil Lr^ittMurc- He 
««■ ftf-eWceit in iH.^ iifWl hKimr Sfwnkrr of (ht Hfwv. Hf wji i^fiiin «Imi^ 
in iftfix I wet him lt ihr laoaTh ol April 11/ fhaf f e*r, «i HcfLFvur. (hr ictdi* 
ttituf jHkHirt (Dunii, inii a few ^)-i irfut (he Jcipetaie and iikcAlv ^(Pti 7?^ 
Utd iMiUTTfti flt (hiT |J«K. A icvac tff ui4:deicr>i hunc thicTc4| counurfettcrt 
•mi ILifk^Icti, hjLcJ pji pTpirEif 1I conirvt nf (h»i ta<wn,Mhl had hnscnc npcwvrf^L 
«* to df fi' ihi Lr^jJ iiuih<^^>n- A mjh v^t calU oui ii> iTjka ArMtd, HUd C4I. 
Con «vw«w i^infn ^Jid of ih< tzitK tLac hidji»finUed^KA«t||>ufiof theeoyntr, 
lite 4HiiU«« c«ir«n<heU in ihe kctj v vf ihc nnglMdert, dttcnnuvJ on «4Mpfnt« 



the meeting. At this meeting seven of the most prom- 
inent convention men of the State then at Vandalia, 
were ;ippointed a cr>mmJttcc to draw up resolutions and 
an address on the subject- This committee consisted 
of John McLean, afterwards United States Senator; 
Senator 'Vhcophihis W- Smrih, Knianud J. West, and 
Thomas Reynolds, afterwards Governor of Missouri; 
Wlliam Kinney, afterwards Lieutenant Governor of 
Illinois; Alexander P. Field and Joseph A. Heaird, 
This conunittee rcix^rted resolution* and an Address to 
the people of llhnoist, at a subsequent meeting, Feb- 
ruary 17, 1823. The resolutions endorsed the Coiivcn- 
rion Kesohirion, declami that it wa& the right and duty 
of the people to amende alter or change their form of 
government whenever it ceases to be productive of the 
objects for which all governments are Instituted, ctc-» 
and RW>mmended the petiple to vote fur a convention, 

*ririri*<e- Coi mnntaiU^il hifl rcriY undrr the bjinlu of the MtAMHip^ htf«a 
irt>] ^Th 1^1 1 RniTa|{« hr *M hit mm cli>r>^i1 iipcm fhr hnivr. Iei tliti iln^^ntr 
Ofoii-^Trt uren jMn wrtc t^lcd aurruHr and tome itn or */r«P »niir>dfiL The 
rcviili «jk that itiit tfAfW v*^' viHtim in^l dchprfjiiloTx, (>!« iif ihc rriLiii LlxnremuH 
tk6«^i tml poikcrfijl^ ihdi fTir uifntoJ iHr Ncnhvcsi, wu cumpk^ly broken 
1^ I jircbdct) coutC dl ndlcvuc •& bcw J&M •iffcr thu &(hi twk place irhieh 
^Ai c^ .\p^^l ^^f' 1^4^ Pccjple hul come to the "«eit nf vrjf" from all pamof 

afjrcj 'Q ehc i*tth: l'f«KI)' smvod fVimw »U]J inJ loliet Nc"» hn^t-nJ, rhe tiuhife 
h^^brkl virr* !n n\r »mng^ >ii4 ninnui. I vTopo^ ar ihr tuvrrti. nhi^h liij 
k«p« b^' W. W ItrcvD, Bho UK rht leader m rhf funu* ii^fi wiia hn^l Iv^n 
My mom-nurr wit Juilijr Junc% OruriF, ni Davmivrt. whn hit hrri ^r 
hall ■ «iiturf cnr of (fie jiiuit i]uiiiU£uitJiFd fi[iHru jriii U«Tcr> of loi>a; 
n wcit nUiul in reiire, ii4ut wja nty jifh».fci:nent ttj ace ni) raom-miI«, 
wham J hid never nMlWonv^t^Aw^i 'rom imJrriHrbaekdf hi^ con animmcnsr 
bbwit-lni^ «n<t plw< \\ uniW hu pillow. Wn^ft ibrckkj 1 vtiotf n Iciicr <«> a 
Crural in rtA4nI lo ihia iruulcfll, mij Jr*fRV<«] JuJgf Gnnt't bo«ir-Lml« « h4iix|| 
ftifT* fr^ fr-nj Tfctt JcFffT gor tril'j Th<* rurtf^pjfim 1'hc h^^f^ wnx* nw i 

i-r- ■ v\%.tfn\y iwijmhnt. CfiL CVn wji^ ore of ihr in(Kt imr(»inc 

louki^ intn t t^^ti «*w. He iiiti l'ik tV<i ull; wcii^htil tA>j humlfc^l inj Ibriv 
pomdij uml vMuUi Aitntt ihe,i ui cvcrv oiie whfrncf lir wcnr. My 
£ntfk{lt Tr.] \V ^. Warr«n«of B<(lflru<, who KitTcd in J*£kson vounrr flSom ihfl 
kamv I Coit if«alii of hiAi u 4a tblc 4eu1 pooutur mvi, with frtntiy 

ru«fT( ' twM «flM* uwFulneu W4t impaired 1^ hia unKjrtunitc hitafi. 

lie iZ>T-l Hi hhiitrin Dr jr iht rowA«f MHc|uok«(i«i 14C4J, iinJ hit fimill^ ifitniririila 


The address is not what might have been expected from 
the able and distinguished men on the committee to 
draw it up. They felt that policy dictated that the 
real question at issue — freedom or slavery in Illinois — 
should be obscured, and hence reasons for a change in 
the Constitution, which nobody cared anything about, 
were amplified and general principles stated in high- 
sounding and pompous phrase, while the real reason 
was studiously concealed- This address could have had 
no great effect, while the bold and manly "Appeal" of 
the anti-slavery men was well calculated to awaken 
public attention and arouse public feeling.'" 

The truth is, that the first constitution, which was 
now sought to be changed, was, in its main features^ 
a good one, and the mass of the people were satisfied 
with it. They had never manifested any particular 
desire for a change until after the pro-slavery dema> 
gogues in the Legislature had initiated the project for 
a revision- It was then suddenly discovered that the 
fundamental law of the State was an ill-digested jungle 
of faults, cither containing or lacking provisions ne- 
cessary to the prosperity of the State and the happiness 
of the people* Unfortunately, at this time, there was 
a general discontent among the people of the State. A 
scape-goat was wanted. It was the existing constitu- 

*It is somewhat remarkable that while so Urge and influential a portion of 
the people of lUinoU* and some of them the mo&t prominent men from the free 
StaCcs> were laboring to malce Illinois a slave state, some distinsuLshed Southern 
men were opposed to the whole scheme. I find in an autograph letter of Wm. H. 
Crawfordf who was then so prominent as a candidate for President, written to 
Governor Coles June 14th, iSii, the following: "Is it possible that your Conven- 
tkon is intended to introduce ii\a.vcry into the Stated I acknowledge if 1 were a 
citizen I should oppox it with ^reat earnestness; where it has ever been introduced 
it is extremelj' difficult to get rid of^ and ought to be treated with great delicacy." 
This declirAQon so honorable to Mr. Crawford, a slave-holder, then Secretary of 
wflr> and one of the oaosr distinguished citizens of the South, should have crimioncd 
the cheeks of the dough-facea of Illinois of that day. 


rion and it was necessary to change it- The times were 
hard. The farmer could find no market for his abundant 
crops. Manufactures languished^ improvements were 
at a standstill, and the mechanic was without 
work. The country was cursed by a fluctuating and 
irredeemable paper currency, which had driven all real 
money out of circulation. The flow of emigration to 
the State had in a great measure ceased, but a great 
emigration passed through the State to Missouri. 
Great numbers of well-to-do emigrants from the slave 
states, taking with them their slaves, were then leaving 
their homes to find new ones west of the Mississippi. 
When passing through Illinois to their destination, with 
their well equipped emigrant wagons, drawn by splen- 
did horses, with their retinue of slaves, and with all the 
lordly airs of that class of slaveholders, they avowed 
that their only reason for not settling in Illinois was that 
they could not hold their slaves- This fact had a very 
great influence, particularly in that part of the State 
through which the emigration passed, and people de- 
nounced the unwise provision of the constitution pro* 
hibiting slavery, and thus preventing a great influx of 
population, to add to the wealth of the State. 


CoKVK.vnOK Cij3rnt.1T Couul:vcl:^; Thx uo^tt Reujircj^dt-G 
r,Ti:Ji IX TiiP ivvATr; Its Violkkck awr RiTTriN^Av; Kvf«v- 
»0D¥ EXTKiu iiTTO IT; Dcsciimosr or IT or CovKuroits 
FoKD AND KGvrfau>» ABTD Wm, H. EIaowk; Ho&tiutv To- 
WAILD« GovEftsOft CoLCs; Inslltikg Drxia>'d vpoh him bv 
THE Scxatg; Hi« DiC9fir)£t> a]cd CoMCLUStVE Re^poitsb; 
RejEcriOM of «is NoMiit*no>fs; Li^i-tck to Jomh G. Loitosc. 

The legislature hod adjourned* and both parries 
had issued their manifestoes. The members and the 
greui number of the prominent men of the State who 
had been attracted to Vandali:i during the struggle, hnd 
gone :o their homes- The two parties were now to 
meet face to face to decide the question btrforc a tribu- 
nal from ivhiih rhcre lOiiK! bt- nn appral. Porlimaicly 
there was ample rime for discusftion, and voices could 
not be stifled as they had been in the Leslalature. 
Under the constitution the vote of the people on the 
Convention ReM^Kitinn could not take place until the 
ocxt election of members of General Assembly, which 
would be on the first Monday of August, i824»along 
perifid of eighteen months. 

There now commenced one of the most remarkable 
contests that was ever fought out at the hustings in 
this countr>". 'ITic pro-slavery men had defiantly 
rhn^ivn ilown the g.Tuntlci, ami rhc anri-slavery men 
took ir up wirh equat defiance. The conflict was long 
and bitter^ and no quarter wns given on either side. 
There were not only rhc strong men of both parries^ 
orators, judges, lawyers, but the nink and file of people 
entered into the struggle with a violence, a zeal, and a 



dcrermination alike wiihoiu iiniic and wJrhoui example, 
in the State- There was a perfect avalanche of per- 
sonalities, threats and denunciations, and Governor 
I'ord well says that had not the people made allowance 
JV>r all the exag^^Tations and falsc^hoodis, the reputa- 
tions of all men would have been overwhelmed and 
consumed. "Newspapers, handbills anil pamphlets, 
were scattered hroadrasi. Tliest; missive wca|ions ^{ a 
fiery contest were scartered everywhere, and every- 
where they scorched and scathed as they flew. Almost 
every »tump in every county had its bellowing, indig- 
nant orator on one side or the orhcr, and the whole 
people, for the space of months, did scarcely anything 
but read newspapers, hand-bills and pamphlets, quarrel^ 
wrangle and argue with each other whenever they met 
together lu bear the violent harangues of their ora- 
tors." — {Ftmfs History of IllhtoisA 

The following is the account given of this celebrated 
c^jntest, by Governor Reynolds in his history, "My 
Own l*imes;" 

'The cwivcntkm question %vfc rise lo two ycAfs <jf the mort 
furitxia and boisterous excitement and contcBt that ever w** 
vifli^ed <?n Illinois. Men, «'Ofnen arxl children enicrcj the arena 
of l^arty ivirfare ant! sirifc. ami (he familitt and nei^hlii^rhooitK 
vnrc 9u divided 2i>d funoi;^ And bitter aguinKC unc Another, that 
ir seemed a regular crvil war might be the rcHuk^ Mary personjd 
cofnbau were indulged in on the ques^uon, and the whole country 
secfDed, at dmes, to be ready And willing to re«on to phyucml 
force to decide tlie umfevt. All the mranii known t« man ra con- 
vex Kkas to one anotkex were rc»otied to, and pcacoiied with 
energy. The press teemed with puhlications en the subject. 
The * turn p^rii tors were invoked, and the putpit rhnndered onatfw 
cmw igamsr the in Traduction of BJavery. The religious com- 
monity eoi^led freedom and chnstiarity together, wh:ch was oi« 



dmvy isflu tk: State. " 

The Hon. WiLUAM H. B&owiff a fbcmcr proklctit 
i4 the Oiicago Histnncal Scxnecy, in his admirable 
tfcccd) o{ the "Early Movement in IIEiMs for the 
LqpltzatKm of SUver/*' ' read before the Sobecy Oc- 
cnnber $, 1864, thus q>eaksof the peai coniest: 

*T1ic ttniBg^ whick now oMamcacid, sad «ai cosfiBaKi' 
fivuiivli rhe *uccrciJiftg ngKtcen moorlH, «« one of m> ovdifHiry 
dmacttf. Ooi prcviuui dcc6oft> had bcca OMtdoCtcd mih 
irxmth Aod ic^t Iml into tho caavais wu tofuxd « btttttnas 
awl aufiftuty «h»ch the aiptatMo of the Slavery qtMsbon aafy 
my rim Wbr ic ahraj^ produces this result, b worthy of the 
iansnguion of rbc mciralm and pbiknopher. Oher grot irvUs, 
prJirifd «r mcnl, arc iIucukvI w\iU frrrdam, ami aica«uraa fnf 
their unc&onilktfi or prcvcn^on meet vith no cutwvid opposdoo; 
but caU in qocsivon the figbt of one man to eiulave another, «r 
even make aa cfhfi to <o«6n« this Bigaatk sin to the ccnitocy 
in vtuch 11 cxxti, and the ficroest patiioas are amustd ta the 
hcarta of its acUocatcs, aiKl the lade of povcr akmc savei rti^ir 
r^iptjncnis ffom ultcr <icttruction. 

In rhi> tp^m wu the contest of 1^2^-4 ivsfxd. Old ftiend- 
•Hi|M were »undefed. farmiies divided artd neighborfioods an-ayed 
in oppo«irion to each other. Threics of personil viokace »ere 
frrqurnr, and pefwial colliMona a common occiirrtnce. As in 
timet of vtarfare, tvety mar expected an atl^tck, and wu prepared 
to meet it. Pisloli and ditk% were in great demand, and formed 
a part of the pcrtonoJ hnbqlimcnESof all thoae conspacxioui for their 
oppcwiion to the Convenrion nKasure. Even the gentler sex 
cmtat within the vortex of thi* whirlwind of luioion; and many 
were the angry dbpuiaikMifl of thote whose caru and incercsts 
were luually con^ncd to their hoiaehold duties-" 

The hostility of the pro-slavcry men, both tn and 



Out of the legislature, towurd Governor Colors, was in- 
tense during the winter of l82l-^i. It culminuied in 
mobbing his residence after the legislature adjouniai. 
It wj|$ ihe high ch-ir»cter of the Governor, the great 
inHucnce he began to exercise over public opinion* and 
his intense anti-slavery procUvitics^ which made him as 
much lm;ed as feareil. No violcnie or abuse h:id any 
effect upon him, but he pursued the even tenor of hi* 
way, always maintaining the dignity of his position, 
but never slackening hi^ cifort^ nor abating ht-t zeal. 

h was in ihe height of the contest on the Conven- 
tion Resolution in the Legislature that the Senate made 
an impudent demand on the Governor. It was not 
enough to rcs|>rctfully request him, but it showed its 
ammus in ].>:is?>intt 3 curt resolution which ''rfquired*' 
him to fay certain papers before that body. This un- 
warranted, not to say insulting, action of the Senate, 
was promptly met by the following message from the 
Governor, which showed how ridiculous was the 
assumption of the honorable Senators: 


I Havc received a RewKition from the Senafe, by which 
"tbeGovcmorivrequiivd to lay before the SefiAte ill the necom- 
mcn(Jacx>[» of all the [)cninfls recammcnded for ihc oSvxA of 
Recorder of the coantic?f of Mo<ian and Fullon." In come* 
quencc of the novel and unprecedented nanirc of lhi» KdoJution. 
[ have given rhe fLubject great ccnsidc ration, and ^th cvtry dis- 
posirion to ctimply, not only with whirei/er rhe Senate has a 
right CO T^i^ttiie, bin wlih every reasonable request ii may rvprcm, 
I feel naysclf constrained^ under my vnprcM»uns of the relative 
cofjstinitional pe^ver^ of the Senate and the Bxecutirc, to dccTine 
complyir^ wirh the reqittMCion contained in the above resolution. 


ttXryOIS mSTORICJL collectfoss 

l*Sc ConstiuitJon of thi* Srjite, the source ^rom whcnw tht 
poittrTS Ami fiiincs us wt-ll of ihr Srtiairr %% i>f the Gtwrmnr irr 
derived, Je-clarcs iKhi *'ihc Ciovcrcor ahdl nointnatCi aixl by aitd 
viih ihc advice tnii consent of the Scnstc. Appoint aII officers 
irhosc offices Are fsiablishcd by this CoRstitufion, or shall Ik 
ceiiibri&hed by Isw^ and whose .ippoinrniencs arc nor herein othcr- 
wiw provideii for/* By « fair constniction of this provxsioii, it 
trcma tliai il i* th^ pri>virKc cf liic Guvtiitor lu homiitarc, ant\ tst 
the Senate i<i adviac and cuniciili or rut lu aidvitc and conKnt lo 
fMmm&iion; and a judicious cxcrciM; of thm power, on the pare 
cf tlieSuiate, it iif conceiv-«d, lit abundantly mlficient to guard thi 
State atpiirutt tlie appointment of pcrwns u-ho4e character an* 
qualiiicatiiint tre nor Kuch as to rtrnder tlioti gouil and uoefDl 
officet?(. The power of the Senate iTcmg thus C3q>rculy conUm 
to approving or rcjccttnjt nominaboni, it in not known by whi 
auihortty it derives the ri(iht to require of the Govcnv>r all 
rpcnrntnendations of the pcrtoriK namedi much Ic^ rhotc of al 
the orhrr* whn may hwrr hern rrrtummmdcd; ii prrccdmr f< 
which, it is bcbevcdt ctu^nul be found in the pnKcedinies of tl 
Federal Cfovcrnmcnt, or the CJovcrnnicnl ot ariy of the Stati 
whose Consittuiion contains a similar provision. Indeed* SJch 
an authority could nut be ncerciscd by the Senate without grcatl] 
abridging the coni^tirutiunal powtrr^ M the Governor in rQakingf 
hi.H scleciiuns;. 

If the Senate is to be govcrncti, or its dccbiona inJ!ucncod, byJ 
the ttrttUtt evidence which might be in the handa of the GovemoTi' 
it would very frequently act on imperfect and very different dxta 
from that which pmbuMy dccidwi bim in making thf rorrinarion, 
as il il well knfiwn thar mmt rTCnmmcnJ*iti<in?( tiJ offltc arc matSe 
verbally, and the Governor oceisionally nominates or appointi 
AT individual from hi« own personal knowledge of his character 
and i|UAli fixations. 

Fdwabd Col£S. 
Pcbniaf}' t4, iSsj. 

The following It'Ctcr of Governor Coles to Jolin G. 
Lofton^ illustrates the \nndicrivc feeling of the Senate 
towards the Governor: 



Vandaua, Feb. i6, 1S23. 

Dfor Srrr -Bcin^ vrry Bcns'iblc of the atrcng cltiins you hftvc 
on the StaW from your long rcstdeuM, the tntny valuable services 
yoM have TcnJcf€<l it, anj the justly high chancter you hare 
iicquirrd from your horturdbic and manly conduct; lo one word^ 
hdioir^ there was tK> man who hud sttnxigcr daima or better 
q;i.Tfifieatio?iSt 1 hare been induced from thcac eQnndcTationjt, oa 
Mcll a» the pleosure 1 felt In fgiving you a proof of my high retpect 
And nncere regard, to nominate you to the Senate as. recorder (or 
the niunty of Pultun. In thev timeit of lurty heat« when the 
worn feelin|cs arc cntixtei^l in ihc wumt of cau»c«; when the friends 
of f^cdom arc opprevtcd, denounced and protcrbcd by the 
frichdi of Slavery— in such timet E aay, as ihUi I feiidtaicd my»df 
in having been able to (elect an individual »c> perfectly fitted m 
c|ua]i1icstioo, and w pcrfrrrly iincvrqirM-nitJrr in rhiinu.'tcr, that 
I lud nut supposed that the blackest demon of faction could have 
rojacd his head ag'unsc hini, bur in thU [ was mlstaVcn, for 01 
yeaterday the Senate, to my incMpicssiblc suiprise, rcJL-cteU your 
nomination. 1 have done you the justice to state that you had 
lK>t applied for the office, but that f had been induced to nominate 
you jniicl)' fot my icgaid for you, ami from a eunvictiij^n of your 
pre-eminent daim« and (juohficatioiu, and that I thought the 
enohiments of the cJBce would be such as to mducc you I0 accept 
It; and tliat I wat the more conArmed in my belief of your accept- 
jULce, from the circumstarwe of your not h^mng yet purchased the 
pbce on which you now realdc, ThiK statement iif the rcav<inH 
for my nominating you is due to you oa wdl aji to myself. The 
regret I feel at your rejection could greatly be incre^iKd if I should 
find that you were morttlied at it, and it would be especially pgun- 
ftil to mc if I should have done what may prove displeasing to 
yoa- As I writr in haste^ I must conclude by assuring you of my 
grcai respect and sincere regard- 

Edward Cot,£S. 
J, G-LorroM, E»j. 

P^, Not having bod an opportunity of fonnrding thts 
Iccrer, 1 have opened it to add chat since your rejection I have 
nominated to the Senate, Pascal P. Knon, who has also been re- 
jected— after which 1 nominated O. M, Rof5> of Fulton county^ 


which nomination the Senate neither rejected nor confinned, but 
adjourned this evening precipitately without having given previous 
rx>ucc of their intention, cither to the House of Representatives 
or to the Govchkh'. I refer you to the gentleman who will hand 
you this for an account of the late cxtraorcUnarv proceeding here. 

E- C, 
Feb- i8tk 

Govi:ftNoitCoL£-*«T!ir Leader mrvr, ANn-CoNvrs-nos Forcc*; 
Hi.*< x^rrf^um tJif^SKJ-rsiZMi Lettk>l to Keckakd Ftowck; 


BinoLE; CoRRrt;pf>Nr>Pii7ce arrweEV them; Didole Iktko- 
mirrROtJVfiivoB Coj.K^ToRQSE»TsVAiTx,r>rPim.AnEi.PHiA, 
Member of the Socierv or Frikmqs; Nonce oi Kobekt^ 
Vavx; His okeat Scrviccs to thb AxtuCowvextioh 
CArsc; CoRRcapovoEVce RCTwcev Cote) aico Vaiht; 
Akohiek Ltmeit or Mr. Biddle to Goveuxor Col£a. 

ArrHR the adjournment of chc Legislature, Govcr- 
w>r Coles addrcsii<xl himself with gn:at earnestness to 
the task which confrontcil him» gs the acknowledged 
leader of tSc anti-convention forces- There were a 
large niiml>er of able men :itlover the State who devoted 
their time and talents to the ^cAt cati^e, but the posi- 
tion of Governor Coles, his residence at the seat of 
government, h\s prestige bs an anri-slavery man, and 
his ahilit)' as a writer, placed him in ihe very front rank 
of the anti-corvcntioii men. He rook steps ro get con- 
trol of the only newspaper published in Vandalia at the 
timc> find entered into correspondence with rhc leading 
men in the Stale and elsewhere, opposed to the con- 
vention. The following letter of Governor Coles, to 
Richard I'lowcr^ shuws how intensely c^irnest he was 
and with what a lofty spirit he was animated. Mr. 
Fbwer was an Englishman and one of the founders of 
the English colony of Edwards cotmty.* 

Tbit ictin gf G^fcr^oE Coki vill miur.illi flBak<n in iDierui in BdmnU 
counlr, myd ufrpc aCits iw-eccn vho fuufkl wJC)i like GofCtMtf th^ ttn:iT bjiUlc 
BfpiiniF WnTtrr. ECdfnroi Anmtv hu ah inMrettii^ hHtory. Ii wn argmrMd 
vuff LUiitrit Vftk yf A T?Fiir.rv, jh^ nuwd LLinjirdi fDunty, *inr ici Ttrri- 
*tjnit Govp'v>-, si ■ 1'- \ vj ' li Fnbncvil ill ihc cyj-itrv wirtW oi Vt'^itr 

c«^ipf)t, on iv «ai«:rfn s»,Je nJ tin Sr«f. Thr KngliJi ccAmi- tnjir Krclr^ in rht 
^tMnty piiot ta tt^c^^vturmt thMt^ter to ir bj rrium of the tftLtirtguikhed men 



|p Vakdaua, April 13, iSa^* 

ftfT Str. — I w<Hjid h»vc made my acknowledgments to yosi 

lunK liticc for juur kimi Ictrrr nf ijrh of February, but for ray 

kjiving been prevented from wfiting 1>>' ikc bcjirrr of it, frum Uic 

ha*ie with which he took his dcp.irtutc hence, tnd ft>r my bcii^ 

ucH KaratKctl by the btisuKss aciendane on the approAchli^ 

Ijoumment of the Lc^aturt; and for my having gone soon 

after liie itdjnurnmcnt to l-xlwardKvillf, where I wai detmiaed 

^ondt ■ few uay4 ^ince by tofrenli of nun, which have ilduged the 

^KOuntT)' and rendered the streams and ruads Impaualdc The 

^■Umail of >\>iir letter aftbnkd nic particular pfeasore. It breads 

^^RgeniJirc ^nttments of a Republican and of a pfuUnthfopiat; 

and imxliKed am emotion which was ''pieaving though moantful 

to the jiDuL*' Ptuuin^ tha? an adopinl citbim xhnuld possess 

prm<:ip]c9 » cntjrdy accordant with our free ioAtitutiona; and aa 

It held f)ut encoura^cfiicnt that the people would not «ancbOfi the 

i^latc corkduct and meamrcs of their Repnsscntatnrca — moumfd, 

Bihar \i the tlave raciion should succeed, how unplcaaAOt and truly 

unfortunate the situadon of many of us, who have removed from 

a great ducarwe aod inveatnl our all in {vupcrtj wkkh wc ahall 

■*rt f u M f ii ju i k. TWy «uMd dwcMaffT«cM*'AlbM»-*' MiKh b nid ta^ua 
|Sp^«f MQrTbll«thKt,«kD«ttk|itirhu<dBndGeartt naiHr, «u dtcfaoAdw 
if III* **EnffMh Ktrlfnntt." The Flswn wvfip men of «T*lth tad «l«ntian. 
A •nwifh fUimMkan le mtiiBmi, lad t^Isndf kBO-iUtirT. Tlw kxltr <d 
ivfrtinr Oi^ lo Rkhinj Haver Aaw\ Ax h^^ otiswcv he pbccd oa lai 
nCC Wa% amina tu lUaneo be khl >c<-k « rt^r «t Lrviia«a«. KcatviJlTt 
hfn W^wnlioacnV dicrabr Ur. CUjr. U« ■ohU luttr «i*tk hn bvmc 
~ r ■> RoEun.* ' bur h» Juipcd of sUt^r ^ilvMd km cu lisin cr am! 

'«. A*f« hx vm. Ghvbc VIb^tt, had prtcc-lnl h'Oi. Gin qp L 

■rmjir )i *ttf nn thh fivktry. Heifrtir a«e inswr wich T h aM JrlftmDh 

1 Mof i(iiT4b^ «n| va iir t*« or thiTV iviiBrki ihc pi»lof Hcbtt OU7, « Aik. 

^, Hr '»fc\ n tMf i ij yi u iidgKc ofmwiF fe u i ^ wb W i l«wff g»d patekJ wetu 

ll^r, «:t^ I fttoaaht^l GbcraljrT, k t«naEcd to Ac Cbvuco llManul &»> 

J Wi:cTiaddi«aBcdB»1iialnrLA£iTCttc,]effe/vA,CQUvR,dic 

Mr>i:f i«rJtrfthcbfa**fclljrfWay<),a)nifliWfd« r if - fc ^ l ^tr^ O M- 

VWiuiiHJ fft 1 ntftfi^ He mn a lieeftn S4A ud polincw. A> idm^iiigUi. 

nT hit ikxtrin.-v H'n d«i«hE«F. S^tak Flww -Uuu. -a 4« aadn* «/ «lk« 
|itit*uUr hymn, "Nwrtr. ml CoJ^tA d»ee/' 


ht cofi^pdlcd tci Jthi»i<l<»n of to hjictiIil'c, to s^k »cw hucncs we 

knoiv n\A where: or rnnam in Ji commun»iy wIxxk prrnctplcs luul 

pr&cucc Arc no* only aitircly at variA^cc with our own. tnit of a 

character calculated <!aily to harrow up ouf feelings in the must 

painful way, I wai horn In the very hviom of negro sUver;r; hnvc 

»ren it fn all \tA brarii^; r«rArci«\t wril u|>on ihc nature of it, uml 

having fouml it imixiaaihlc to reconcile it cither wtih mj- political! 

or religious creed, I ahindoned my native State, mv aged parents 

ftnd rdation.t| to seek in this State a community whose principles 

and practice 1 prif«umed «^en; in unison with my own. Jodge, 

f hen, of my r«?elingt at the eflbrta which have been ma^k nml are 

now making ro chAngv \h\if. free mmmunity of ijur« intti a rruly 

odiooK ore, ccinmtintf of mailers and alav'cs — and you on jud|ce 

tiw better as >XAjr situation and principle* are very similar with 

nine. The grea: inducement with ufi both to emigTaie to this 

ite WAS the lirm hclief ihat we fhouM not be dunirhe^l by the 

mkintfof ihc fetters of Slavery; thai tyranny wouM ik>i lie given 

a Ici^al sanction, nor afforded the food on which it could prey. 

But ihc majority of the people's rcprc9cntativcAi having by the 

moct violent and unpeece^cnied measure, taken a step with ihc' 

new of breaking down ibr<«e bamers to oppretaion, which had 

been erfcteci by the wisdom and virtue of (liiMe who framed fhe 

fundamental law of the State, aitd which yt>u and many of us 

cociaderedt ^ not sacred, a? least tc have been permanently 

«nkd, it becomes us to be on the atert to defeat a meoiurc, wKsch 

if « ilbould succeed, will nor only be ruinous, md in the higheit 

^nx unjust to many of uk wh;i have emigrated liere under tl^ 

fTrfi^t vjftmn iiMuratKC that "neither slavery nor involuntary 

^rvjivJc" sh<^Jd exist; bur ir will be of incalculable injury to the 

^iiverr^t of the State, of the Union, and of the extenaion and >d- 

v^nrement of freedom, and the amelioraticsn of the human race. 

Vnu re«)ik in a f;iviir:tblr ^matiim tn %m\ with effect thh 
S^at quexiion. The couniy ju^i: bdow you form* ihe dividing 
^ between the section* of countn' i" which the free and slave 
1*^1*1 predominate. It has occutrcd to me that the friends of 
f^rnijTO would give ample vupport, ard ihat the good cause trould 
Ic pearly iwnmc^red hy e^rnhlishirg a printing press on rhc FUst- 
^ 9B^c of the State. And I kiTOw ai no place where it could be 



tsrublUhcd ro so much jidvanrsigf. as at Albton. Bcs'xln the 
advanta^ k has in locality^ dicrc trc m .^Iaoii, and it» vkimtjr. 
mnny persons who wield cbaatc and ixmcrful pcn», luid who have 
the mcaAS, and I crusuthc dinposiuon of patron ixin^ an cftablish- 
ment of the ldnd< PArJcn mc for a^tng it as a favor to in« per- 
ftonalljr, und as a sacrifice fo th« furtherance of the best *nd most 
virtuDus (if c;iu-sr«, cUnl ;d1 pt^nan;d, sfcHima), nautmil, aitmty 
or town fccllngi, and ali other unkind fcclirgs let them originate 
from what cause they may. nhali he buried, at icnst while the great 
qutttion is pendinfl. I will write And Etck the aamt favor of Mr, 
Birkhevk. T hai^ btji Eitrlc news^ Krom at! that ! can learn a 
uinKitlrrahle mttjctriry tif rhc ppople of chr roiinrics sitttared iri iIk 
ronh'WcstpnTtofthcSliilc, as far south as Monroe, St- CUir and 
Washifigton, arc opposed fo a eall of a convention, hut great and 
eKtrctordinflry c^fTons at« already malcing to induce the people to 
vote foe IT, 

Prrsrnt my rr'ipe<*tfut o"impliments ro Mrs. F. and fnmily, 
and to y<jur sou and lu% ladyj urxl la: aasured of my respect arid 
cace^m. EowAfto Colci, 

To RiCHAfto FLowKk, E»q., 

Albion, E4ward« Cojnty, 111. 

I have spoken of the relation* cxiBting between 
Govtrnur Coltris and Nicli<il;is Biddle. In vii;w of ihc 
smiggk which the Governor hnd entered upon in Uli- 
tms for the purpose of defeating the introduction of 
slavciy inro the Starc^ and from ihc necessity of obrain- 
ir^ help whenever it could be had in aid of the work, 
he addressed the following letter to Mr. Biddle; 

Vamdaua, iliinois April la, I8ij, 
Dear Sir: — Ii Iuli bccji a long time wince 1 cither »Tule Icj jroM 
or beard from yau. I riadc a viMt Use summer to my relatione 
in VtrRinid, and intended to have extended my tour as ^ as 
PhiladclphiA. which [ shoLild cert.iinly have done, for I »m *ti1l 
more ati^hcii to PhiUdelphut than any utber city in rhe l!n:on. 



^iMtfbtmy trr;> Ksving been dcliiyt<l by a severe avtack of bilxMU 
6nr, and havirg been prolonged in \'^Lrginia be)'on<l zha time 1 
oEpcctcd, and (he nccewiiy 1 w*« ttnder ro !k hack hme by tbc 
incrting of the Lc^isbrurc, lo enter c-ri ihc iluncs of the o6Scc 1Q 
which 1 hjd been rcccnily cicctcU. I *Mgre you, when ^bouE 
lo kttve W^hingtofi (where T ftn>d only four or five dtya) nnd to 
cum my fftcc to the west, rhcrc uras a great scniggte between a 
«efue of duty which dragg^^i me here, and my inclinifwi* and 
many ftrunfj attmctioiiii which drew nie to your Lhurmin|g uty. 
There hu lorg existed ir this State a iCrong party in faror dt 
alccnng the constUuEton and making It a :tiavc-lioldn|j: State; 
while there v arother party in favor of a convention to alter the 
conttttutian, hut deny th»t Slavt^ry i* thetr abject. Thc%e two 
panie?( have finaUy, by the mttvr urpreceLlenTcd 4zid imwarrsnt- 
abU pr<Kccidin8S (on account of whkh you hare no doubt Kcn in 
the newspapers), sticceeded vn poAsinfc a resolution requiring the 
ficnic of the people to he taken at the next general election (August* 
ifL^), on the propriety of calling a canveniion for the purpoo? f>f 
altennx the con^itiluiioii- Knowing iluii this ineasitTe wouhj be 
dtfcr^uously urged dut^ng the late session of the Legislature, and 
that many vrho profcsaed to t>c hostile to the further introduction 
of Slaver^-, would Advocate it, and bclic\'ing that it would h^vc a 
sahitsfj effect lo furnish them an opportunity of evincing ike 
vince-nFy of iKirir professions; and bein(( also urged by a stmng 
xt^sc of cfic <>bheitiori& imposed on mc, by my priocipica and feel- 
ings, to take notice of tlic subject, I called the attention of the 
Le^isbture in a speech 1 delivered on being >worn Into offiee (a 
printed co^sy of which I sent you by mail) to the existence of 
Slavery in the Stale, in tnolation of the great fundamentnl prin- 
Liplca of the ordinance, and recommended that junt and equitable 
proviaicn he n^adc for it* abrogatitjn. Aa I antidpttted. Chin part 
of my speech created u considerable excitement wit^ those who 
were openly or (ecrecly in favor of makinu Illinois a slave- holding, 
rather than maiiing it really as well as nominally, a free State — 
who niihed to All it rather than einjUy it of slaves^ \evcr did 1 
wc or hear in AnKtica of party ^pini fioinjc to such lengths, as 
well oAiciotly as privately^ as it did here on tht5 question. In- 
deed, il »Dem« to me that Slavery is so poisonous as to produce a 



kiml *jf tleltriutti in thiwc tnirvb who anr excited by ic, Thi* 
4|urxtu>n, And the manner »f cjirr^inif it, a exciting (jrcal intnrHl 
throu|^out the State, srid ha^ already killed an cxtrfkordinary 
degree of excitement and warmth of feclbgt which will do doubt 
wMitinuc to incnfase until the qiK^tion ti decided. I wtfurv Ytxi, 
1 never before felt vo deep an interest in any pHliricil question. 
It pre)-* up*Hi me ro such n degree, ihnt 1 jihull nui \k happy or 
feci Al case until it is settled* It is imposublc tcr foresee the 
bijurioua cffccta resultinft in this State or the unhappy corpse- 
qucrccs which may arite to the Unintfi, from the suixct^ of xht 
ilavc pany in this Stfiic, Many of m who immigrated to this 
Scare undrr the solemn Et^sunincc chat there should exist here 
"ocithcr ylavcry nor involuntary scrvifudc>" will, if the ilavc 
faction auccccda, be compelled to sacn5cc or at>ftrLdon our prop- 
trty and setk new honie«, we know not where, or remain in a 
community whose principles wc thftlt disapprove of^ and who«« 
practice will be ahhorrent to our lecVni^. And already we hear 
disputed tlie binding cf&ct of the ordinance— the power of Con> 
grcss to rcitrict a State, etc-, etc.« from which I fesir, if the intro- 
duc6on of Slavery' should be tolerated here, the discuMiortft on 
the expetlTcncy and uncoTwtitutiooality of the measure will not 
m all prolrtTjitity be confined to tlie cirzcna of fhi* State, But 
this is a part of the question too painful for me Co dwell on. I 
trust the good Knjtc and virtue of the citizens of lllinoia will never 
sanction a mea^jrc sa well calculateci to disturb the harmony of 
the Union and to injunouE to its own prosperity antt happiness^ 
as wril P.S sn dirrrrly oppraitc fo the pf<»gre« nf thoite enlightened 
and lihcral prndplcs which do huitot to tIic Age. But to inmire 
thit it is necessary that the public mind should be enlightened OA' 
thcmorolandpoliticalcffocts of Slavery, You willconftrapnrticu- 
Ur favor on mc and promote the virtuous cause in which 1 am 
enlisted, by giving me information, or refrrring me to the sources 
from whence 1 can draw it. cAlcuUtcd io elucidate tJie gctKral 
character and cffecis of Savcry— us iiioral* political and social 
effects— facts showing its efFeeis on the price of lands, and general 
improvement and appearance of a countfy — of labor both as it 
respect! agriv-ulture and manufactures, etc,, etc. The State of 
Pennsyivaniit having been lofig distinguished for its atiadimcnt to 



fnc prhicipks, rhcre i$ no <loitbt ivut wtiat you cafi |>Tocurc in 
FliiUdelphia many valuable pamphlets and publicdtKws which 
would dirow 1*sht on this quettion. Any uhicl> you may hnvc it 
in ^CRir power to procuir aixl fcrwjtrd, will be tno»t thanWriilly 
rrccivnl. and the amount of the cvpenK rfpaul as %aon aa \i \% 
knnwn. Your oiti fln<l inily sincere fri<nd. 

Ed w A an Colm, 
To Nu^H€>lab BiODLC, Ei(^, 

Prc»it!mr tif ilic lUnk of the Umrl^[| StatEv, 

PHjLAOtLPiltA, May lo, I8lj, 
Sir: — 1 have j»*r rrivivrH yotir ffxndly Irnrr of fbs 
32nd uIl, tii iiihicli I &haJl take tht iirai inomcnt ofltlAurc to ^rc 
a Aorc ticraikd answer. Jn ibc meantime I can only aay due I 
foci most &'m<cn:1y the cmb^tfras^^ncrt cf your situarion, and hope 
that you may be able to tnumpb in ihc good cau^c. That no 
eff<vt may be wanting, you sKnll have all rhe aasiitancc whi<h I 
can pre ur procure. My fjccu|>a!ii*n* nccrwarily al^MJtb wj inuch 
of my lime tbai 1 can pramlac you Iictlc on my part, pcraoti ally, 
but I have alrea4ly engaged two ot our irost a<:tivc gentlemen 
familiar vitb that subject, who will cheerfully and zcabudy con- 
iribiite to your auppurt. The fr*t fruit of tficir hboc b che 
pamphlet actnmp;inyi[ig ihit leirer- I luive nal had Time lo read 
It, as I am anxioua lo l<>rwarLl it wirhnuc delay, but I understand 
thar it ts the latest aitd best work on the subjeet, and goes directly 
to the qLicatioji of the 9iijper>cTity of free over slave labor. Mn. 
B. and Mr. Cr>>g are glad :o hear of ycur proipericy, and dcfare 
ID be particularly rcniemlvrcd to you. 

With grcAt ftsncerity of rcsardt 


Rdwako CoLSi, Esq., N. BtoDtr 


Mr. BiddUnt Gor^ntrCe^i. 

E^iLAOBLmUp May 2/», iJij. 
Mj Duu^ Sir: My present ticcti]ialionx ucccN^trily cogroHi 



so much of my ttme tJuit 1 can scarcely coatribute more than my 
Bond wtthcK tn the gresr cmijjc wktch ko mmirally And itcfcfiljr 
intcTCKtx you. h ^tvcs mr pcculijir xniinfiicKon, th^tcCciK, to pro- 
cure for yoB the cofrcipoiidcncc ai my fncnd, Mr. Kolacfts Vjlox, 
to whocT) thi« note u intended to MTve u an introducrion. Mr, 
Vaiuc is & genttcman of education^ talent;, fortane, leisure ttnd 
high ^rnnding in the rnmmuriry. l\r ft*rU irrmihjy all the pm. 
bftrrft&snients of your situaEion; he perceives the deep imporuncc 
of defcAtins lUii 6rsi cl7ort w extend co ihe ncnh-wcsTcm country 
the misfortunes of the ainvc populAcior, nrd he \& diapowd to eo- 
operate warmly and 2calou«ly vith yoo, I know of no individual 
more calculated to render you the most cffincit service. He n 
worUiy of mII yuur conlidcricci uiid I icctiinmend ca yau to yield 
it to him implifiily. a* 1 am iurc it will be repaid by every kiiid" 
nc« and every service in his power. 

With great esteem and regard, 

HoWAJtD CoLJi^, E3<tp N. BtDDLfi. 


1 ninety 

This letter of Governor Coles to Mr. Btddic was the 
incatiH of bringing the Governor and Mr. Rohcrhi Vaux 
intu communication, sis will be seen by the following 

Mf, ^i^Jit to G^wibor C9U3. 

PiiiLADUL^xiAt May 36, iSaj. 
Xty Dfar Sir- I have put into the hnnds of my friend, Mr. 
VauK, a note for you which hr will accompany with a crmmimica- 
llon OUI the subject which nuw tK:i:u;>ies you. Mr. Vaux will be 
hearty and ^caluuA in the caubc. and I really deem it a subject of 
congrflTulatioA to you, to procure the a9«iatance of one who w 
more able und willing than any individual of my acquaintance to 
•uist you. There is one thing which 1 wiih to add. The Aboli- 
rittn Stjucty of this ciiy, ha* been llie wibject, whether junily or 
not I am umnbic to determine, of much hoitility at a dUtance, and 
il would l>c rather in)urioiis than beneiidal to have it supposed 



thai ihc «c)ciciy wax acrivf in rhr cjuvac vrhich ymj are supporting, 
Vou will rltcrefv^ i>ndcn:jind that nciihtr ibc AbolitioD Society 
nor Mjy other wxict>" has the lc«t «)nccm in thi» mfltter. ITw 
KiinpW fact is thflt Mr. Vaux, and two or throe of hw fti«mt*. Have 
bec« *o much pleased with >-our pa«r conduct in rctatioci to Slavery, 
anl hare so dwp a sctm: o/ thtir duty to mis* the extension uf 
thai ayatcni, tiutt tl>cy mcAn to vultiniecr in assUting ycu^ with- 
out any conncciiotia with any act of men, and Kilhout iiiiy motivej 
vrhich the moec hof^orablt might not be proiid to arow. 

Very sincerely, 

EowftaD Coles, E^., N. Bir>OLe. 



Mr. VauK having thus been introduced by Mr. 
Biddlc, he Addressed the following letter to Governor 

Philadelphia, 5 Mo. 27> I&3J' 
To EnwAat) Coli«, iLs<c>: 

fjurmtJ Frirrt/f.' — My friend. Nicholas Siddle^ haa kindly 
furrichcd lue nith a note of tntrnducclon to thy corre5i>or>dcncc, 

*| » - — I I r.f thf l«rivrfl of Roh*rri V«u]i » GovifraAr Coin (innot Uil 
ro ii*j> -tiTiT loifira *he {mplr of lUlnoU- I am gbd to fiiibliili ehrm, 

«■ cJk.^ ;' 4nii imifmih mr'mr rhii mnarkihrr mnn ronL in prrwrvifi^ 

f fi'- I r.oii ir> ftcfilom- He va rhf tjT* ^'^ clui of men CFrVniU"} iB 

I'i I , fclwiK nimci iin-l Jr<ii^ Un^f ilJh^firAtciS the liiT(»r> tjJ thm ciir, 

fUtLtiJi V^Mi wj> tcm tn Phitidtlphii, Jihhijt ii^ 17^1 and dicJ jAiiUArT 7, 
rlffr, tind wMc holJinc Uic fivyiinn o( .^hxrciifc Juhticc oftlie Cuurt oTCoincnoii 
1*1^41, 6M <hc n(y mJ ciMmf* erf I'KilaJrlrh*. RIcHTd wilh h«ttli itj oo<n- 

Siv^fC, be punvrd A fifnr mirkrit b> Kunor. tfffi« valence un<J uiefulriHc Mr 
kORu* M<^>lnn HHttF in ki< intn\tir, }a\i]y vf}% a? him, '"l~hr tiijiir of n ftnt 
iatdlrcE, wtvh trcm of uv^ut infiTU-Tnt^ri^^n. a lcni:r«trdgp of mp/v tnd huAttm, 
obrtVft-l t.T jjluiout *>h*cf ririiin Jml ."iftful traJniflu, whkh comMnei, CtmtUt 
h' '.cnfulh t^rr;n.1 iri the <ic(jiiifitioii of ^tnlib, uf tiic trarAoitioR <if 

ic< to thciffieAt icrvicet rindnoi by Mr^ Vujx, inaleiicf of jtcknowl- 
. rrnor t'oUi thm vricH fo hirnJ '^^ch Aoblc, rincroui Aod fervid 

:^,,.- .r».,.. ^ T<^f« 11 hi(;lily KaTiiw*b1e, tv«i *i5 a fVw«\^ irxl ii 11 ft** *nd 
i.-rnk.irc pnuf i?f th^t dtrn^l^jl fl.ii:iiirhropiTi %nd pi'rr> intt fKavfrt-Som (p^rii of 
Btoi^rly Idv«, by vhiL^h t^ii (>(iiMnini(ion of Chri^'ViniLt ^ii t\tr hn-n iltitifi- 

^ 7^ pari vfikfe Mr. BulJlc took m this Erc^i oaticrovtn^, inj the dmclf 
JMtUACc be fcnikrvd. dcKf¥n lu Ic rtincnilxieU tv hi) kfcilu. am) wiH >uf(rn 
Ebc aiij<vdic( vhicb «» (]tdtc>i icflinii hin^ a4 liic Prfvdcnl oi ih*; Lrirt«d 5»rMCt 


which is tranamittcd by the mail that conveys this letter, 1 have 
been induced thus to solicit access to thy notice, because thy con- 
duct in relation to the emancipation of thy slaves could not fail 
to beget great respect for an individual whose noble, and generous 
example displayed so much practical wisdom, and Christian benevo- 
lence. Nor has it been less gratifying to be informed of thy 
official efforts to prevent the overthrow of those constitutional 
barriers, which were erected to protect the State of Illinois, from 
the moral, and political evils inseparable from domestic slavery. 

Ic is really astonishing, that any pare of the inhabitants of 
your State should wish to introduce a system which is generally 
reprobated where its effects have been longest known, and from 
the dominion of which, such of our fellow citizens of the South as 
are disposed to examine the subject with the gravity which it 
certainly merits, most anxiously desire to be redeemed. 

Notwithstanding, however, the lessons which eKperience has 
taught in this respect, it is likely that Illinois will be agitated by 
the exertions of unreflecting men, and possibly without timely 
and energetic efforts to counteract their schemes, they may be 
enabled to persuade a majority of her people to violate their early 
vows on this subject, and pollute your soil with the blood and 
tears of slaves. 

Feeling as I do, a deep sympathy for thyself, thus threatened 
with the most unhappy consequences, and desirous that miseries 
and mischiefs, the amount of which no mind can iuiiy calculate, 
may be averted from the extensive and fair region of which Illi- 
nois forms a pnrt. I would wUUngW contribute anything in my 
l»nwer. flHd with these views T offer my own, and the services of a 
few of n)y friends, in this interesting cause. 

We hrtvc thought thnt benefit might result from making 
judti^iovis selt^ctions from wjiters whose purpose is to show the 
iniquity, and impolicy of slavery — these selections to be printed 
in the TtmcifiJrm (at our own ei^pense) and forwarded to Illinois 
for grat\iitoiis distribution. If this plan should meet thy appro- 
batton^ I shi^iUl be glad to receive an early intimaDon to that 
effect* but should thy (Official station, or duties, render it ^ther 
impri^jxrr or inLXVivcntenr for ihee to take an active p>art in this 
l^nc^ i^crha^^t* it will be in thy power to selet:t a few Individ^ 



uttls vrfto may be cUfifxiscxl Co aid us, and tn tJiAt event, [ shall be 
obliged bf xhy introduction of such pen>ons to my correspondcficc. 
Accepr rhc ftaiuiAtion of my rr^jiccT, 

RosKftrs Vaux. 

The above IcfCcrr of Mr. Vaux was answered hy 
Govcrrwr Coles as follaws: 

EDWARDSviitG, Illinois, June 27, iSij* 

Yoiir kind iiml h'rghly infcrrsfii^ letter of ihc avih uU. wjis 

rccM by iJic lavi rnail, and Kiu liccn pcniMxi vvilh vtry Krcat 

pleasure. The bcncvcilcnt sentiments yoti cxpnas, ami the cof- 

rw;t \Tcws you take of (be great quesnoti which is now tinfortu- 

fiaedy agitating thu ^tatc, and the deep interest ynu evince for tke 

prospeTity and h-i|>pmesK of IllinoU, ;tnd the preservation of the 

right and llWrly of \ts inhaliiliinu> do ctcdlc alike tn the njittve 

baievofeiwc cf your heart and to thox divine and political princi- 

ptea which disiinitu^>h the rc^t Qirbttan And Kcpublican, and 

CABFioc fail ro prc»eHt u contrast, whkh, however mortifymg it 

may Iw 10 me a^ an lllinoisnn, cintirit \>\n be highly gratifying to 

mc OS a man, to sec one so far removal friom the scene, and with- 

out aiiy other incere^r except thai which he fccLs tn the general 

happincn of his species, nohly and generously volunteering hU 

tervion to oasiat In promoting rhc cause of humanity, whilst there 

are thu^^samtt here ttrenuon^isly advtKattng the giving a legal 

sanukjD to the upprcssiun ^nd ^Lbjetr slavery uf ilieir fdlow^ 

<7esiurcs. Such noble, gciicruu^. Ai^d fcrviJ benevolence as yiiursi, 

It Ijchly honorable even to a Fritnd; and is a ncv and striking 

proof of that extended philanthropy, and pure and heavenborn 

^ri! of Brotherly love, by which that denomination ofChristittnt 

kau rrer berti dn itJiguuheti^ and eanntti lad tn cxi^itr rhe atimira- 

tioo and win the tonfidcoce and att<idimcnr of 41II — c5|XxUIty 

fi tho«c like myself, who daily experience pain nnd moriificatioo 

n leoring doccrinct advanced which ar^^ directly in oppo«ic>on to 

thc|[Ticat fundamertal tmthi of oiir religious and political creeds. 

In behqlf of ihe frii-nd^ of frrrttofn in fhis State, 1 pvc vom 

sinccru and gr^tcru) thanks fur the offer vi yooi services to assist 



uh iv enlighten the mind* uf ant fcUw dtucna, by {ntbliiilung 
judicious Aclcctiors and otiMrVBtions cfi the inUjuity aiul impolky 
of Slavery, in trad Jorm, and distributing them gratuitoiisty 
through the State. It may he proper^ however, to re/nark that 
dtvtant Triendft fthot^ld he caurimis in the m;inner of inakmg their 
hencvalent cxcrtinrtt, ;»< iheir ts dinger ihar deilgmTig parTT^ni 
here may not only pitrAlyr-c the citotXt but turn it flijAinH the cdusc 
it wiia intended to promote, by rcpret^ntinK >t to be the intcr- 
feftftcc of Qthci" State* for the purpose of inHuencing the opinion 
of the people of this. An ingiMiious pen could dress up this sub^ 
ject in A manner lo give it jiirwit effect in this ei>Hntr>'. Would it 
nt*U therefore, be bc*c nut to aiiiic en the face of the pubiicatiiina 
where they were printed? They could be printed in Philadelphia, 
and ftcnc with the goods of som« merchant of St. LoviA at u much 
les£ e?cpen»e than by mail. 

Nof l>eing aware of any ran»ideraii<wi vrbich «hmj1d revtrain 
me, but im ihc Lrontr^ry tfelieving that my ptcacnt office incjeasci: 
the obligations I am under, as a pood citijrcn, to exert my^f Ic 
enlighten the minds of my fdiow eitizcnji, nnd strcruously to 
oppose every measure which I am convinced t^ unjust in principle 
or injunous in ht cfTccu, ard belirving Slavery ro be both iniciui' 
tous and imix^titk, 1 conceive myself bound* both &s a citizen and 
dts an offikicr, lu do all in my power ro prevent it* introduction intt» 
this State. I will therefore chccrfLilly render you a^aistancc in 
distributing any publications you may forward, or give you any 
mforn^ation you may dcsire- 

Thr fficnd* of freedom her? propose making publication 
similar to ihcific you ^ugge&t, bui they will not have the umc 
mcdnn of doing justice to the subject that you will have in Phila- 
delphia. We are particularly anxious, not only to prcaert tt? the 
people proper viewK of the immoral and anti-christian, unjust and 
an ti- republican character of Slavery, hut also /nm showing its 
impolicy and injurious effects in retardirg the settlement and 
prosperity of the State, by checking emigration to it, and para- 
lyzing the enterprise and nctivity of its citruna — that it would 
impede the progress of manufacture, be prcjudicbl to agriculture^ 
and in one word, to the fmirc pro^prritj- a* *rll aft to the immedi- 
ate interest of the Si»te. The great argumenc hrrr in favor of. 



rhe introductiovi nrd lolcraiioo of SlavcfT, is rhat ii would h^tvc the 
immediate clTifCC of raising the prke of lands, and adding to 
d>E i^opuUiiwi and wealth of tf>c cuttnuy. Wc warn /acts to 
ilbprovc ttiCK MScrtioiiSi And aJ»o to shovr tluit Slavery would 
opentce to ihc tojury of the poor or laboring cTosdcs of 5oc!tty. 
Strung? » it m»y appear, it is ncverthekss true, that fHere are 
nuny penon** wIk) are in principle nppfwed to Slavery who will 
yet vttlt for ntalcmg thi.t a %lave-FKilding State, under iHe Ijelief 
that In' 90 doing they will he cnnMcd to make aji immediate and 
advant£ti;er'u« «aJc of their londfl, urd thus gratify ih&c rc«tleM 
And riniMin^dupewition which if^foe«jmmon with frontier ^ctdcrs- 
Pardon ihU long nrvd ha«ry letter. Give my rsgardit to cxir 
niiihidl frir^d Rklillir, jnd hr aitninl iha( yonr grocroxiB tirncvn* 
IciKc hA» inspired mc with srrni respect and sincere regard for yoti. 

Iiow^iin Cores. 
Roarai^ Vavx, 


BiRDvrooo Loocc [nc4r PbirL), 7 Mo. I4, iSij. 
Kstffmfti Frifnd: — J irartnor delay an immcdifltc acknowledg- 
ment of thy letter of the 37lh Ultimo^ which reached me at my 
summer residence to-day. 

It iiiFords mc unfeigned 9ali8f4iction to Jeam from it that thoe 
[illpp^ves ihcplan which T &ijhniiried for thy (x>nei deration. Antici- 
^fnang a favuraMc nutil^f of the ^iggestior, hy a mind «o devoted 
ai thine tutl)e|vuinrit)mi uf ihc great riid^ of humajiiry, t;f;uiitice, 
And of Naiional hom>r, thrrc pamphlets were prepared, whkh will 
he tmmediatcly printtvl, and iransjmtted to thv addrcu at St. 
IxuU. Ole <^f tiie4« tracts is designed to thow the impolicy and 
unpro6t3hlefv:«» of Slave Labcr, etc., and some arguments are 
draw?) from the pulillshcd upiriun^ of several dL^iiti^ulnheil clti- 
rcnii i^/V tiatt'hcUinz ^A*^.'/, among which CoL Taylor "i arc not 
z\n Ica-Ht aittfioritative and cotsent. Another e-f$ay exhibits a 
fitecinct account of the cruelties of the Slave Tnide, derived from 
outhenii^ fuurcct; :ird a third p^tmphlet x% intended to (how that 
rhr inrcrminahlc bondage nf ;iny pnrnrin nf the- htiman race i«, 
un the part of the oppfeasors, a flagrant violaUoii of natural and 



Divine Jumicc, mixl uHefly incoftsisccnt with thcdoctrincaof our 
Holy Redeemer 

Avr^rc o( the unpopuUritv- of Ptitladdphui, and cspccinTly of 
^^ter stdiimtnis on rhis particuUr topii!, with all those who 
attempt to jn^dfy aJavtry* it waa ori^iTUiIly dctcrmtiKd to avoiil 
gmn^ anv complexion whjitcvcr to chc9c puhlkatioiu which 
might irducc the bclicl' tliat they proceeded from dut State, or 
that individuaU of the Society of Friends had any agency in the 
prepiiration of rhem. Tht coincideDCC of our judgmetif in re^jard 
Id the nmnncr ^f trcalijig the subject U worthy of rcfnArk. 

If the leAU hencJit result* from tht» humble dfbrr, it wiU 
administer to my happincttt, which will be augmentcti by the 
reflecEion, ihAt ii ow^^s ha origin to thy own emphatic xummons 
for aid^ in a caun which demands ilic cucrcue of every gcnerouf 
and pairidlic feeling. 

That indulgcnr Hcavrn may crown thy labors with sucocsi}* 
15 the smccre desire of thy friend* 

With fpvat tnith and respect, 
Tc EuwAkD OiLK^, F.s£|iiir?, Ri)ai;ftrK Vai'x. 

Govcrn[>r of Illinois, Etlwjrdsville, lUtniHs. 

P^.— On my next visit co ihc CJiy, I intend to commutucatc 
thy measagc to our friend Nicholas l^ddle> 


iUunttr CWfi l» Mr. Bi^dlt. 

EDWAiDsviLtE. Sept, iS» 18Q3. 
Dear Sir: — 1 have hvtn lung anxiom to return you my thanlui 
for your kind letters ui May 2oth and 36ch, and bUo fnr the accept- 
able service you rendered mc ir makinc mc known to Mr, Va\»(, 
from whom I have had the pleasure of receiving two letters, and 
a promise of hb jift«istance in preventing our «^l Irom being 
polluff^d with the fmil and diTigraceTul *raln nf slavery. The lit*- 
inicn:nio.i and praise *\jrthy xcal he cvini.i:s is a^ lnjnorabk to him, 
as it is srAtifying to mci and ia well calculated not only to give 
me an ciealrcd oj^iniwi of his character, but to awaken the most 
lively feelings of rcgarci aniJ friendship for him. I wiih, when 
you see him, yoj would tender hm my kmd regnrd» and thanks 
for bis leiccj of July 24, and say to hir»» I hope 500D to receive 




d>c p>ackiii:c« pnunifcd. The prDi>rictr of callirift t coitvcntion, 
or mctt properly speaking, of makirg tliis a sbvc-hoUing StAtCi 
is srill dlwruMcd Riih considerable wirmih, and cr»nnnu«s to cn- 
giifie tin; tiiutlvidcci atitntion ci the pfople* bciri^ the consuuic 
tbctnc uf conrcrMtion in cvcr)r cikIc^ and every newspaper tccmi 
with no vtUer »u1)jec<. Unfcftuniidy for the frfcTi<ii of freedom, 
(oust out of 6vc of the n^wnpapers printed in thiit State are opposed 
to them; ind the or!y pre** ii/ho^e editor %% in fivor of freedom, 
jl(huu|c1i .1 prcltjr smArr ed'ifur, hau rendtrred himftclf unpufMiIar 
with maity by his foolish and pOMionAic attuclu upon mviy of 
the promincnc men on his side of the question. If, however, the 
advocates of Slavery have the advantage of us in printing presses, 
vc have greatly fhe axiva.ntii^ oi them m pofues^nng mtn of the 
moftt talents, and mmr nhle lo wield thr pen Jtm] uk^ rhe pre^ 
with effect; awi a» three out of four of thrir prwscs have pro- 
fessed A iv^ilii^piess to admit wcll-wntten onjcinAt cuava on both 
wks of the ipc^tion, we shall h.ive not only the besc of the argu- 
ment, but be abk, J nvai, to present it in the best dre&£ to the 
public. I am happy m telling you rhar the sdvocnies of a con* 
vciitiofi fwvc been kairvj grounti ever since tJie adjournment of 
tbc Lcgt^ature; and there is no doubt with mc if the question 
were now to be decided, that a majority of the people would be 
opposed to it. But wb,it will he the «tatv of the parties next 
August A anuther <jU4'srion. Many ol t)ie people in thiif State 
ait: very fickle and creduloui, and much con lie done by designing 
and unprincipkd psrtbsas, and that e%'cr>ihing v^htch can p-is- 
dUy be done will be done, we cannot but infer from the extra- 
ordinary ar>d unwarrantable measures resorted to last winter ui 
iW LegiiUnire in getting up the question, and the great ansWty 
evinced, and exertions which have been mmie and are Mill making 
taprcvafloR the people losanctioo it- Rut as the friends of free* 
doa are awnre of thi*, they will watch the movements of their 
t^ponents, and be on the alert to counteract their inirigucs and 
imcltlnatianfi. The object for which a convention is wanted ia ao 
Judy odious, ar>d [he conduct of the /Vicrrds of (he measure 90 
d^raccful, that I ciimui bring myaelf to t^ltcve they will ^cceed. 
But i rcjtm to state that the advocates oi Slavery in ihh State 
tie gaining strength, from the indiscretion of the advocates of 



freedom our ol the Stati;. Certain (aiding ncw^fHtpcr? \n the 
Adttntk citke have taken a stand, and hdJ langUJigc which la 
viacd here m a wi»y wk^jUtoJ todo much niischwf. Whether w« 
hare fhc conHTicutiortal right to make this a slave-holding state, 
or noti or whether the opponents of the dtenaioti of HUrerf, here 
or elsewhere, mav think propct hcrca/tcr to call foe the mtcr- 
fiosttion of the l*edcr^l Gov't to r»Tniin the people of thu State, 
it » certainly b;ul policy at ihit time vety strotigly to urge IC, and 
eapeciatly in wHnt m;«y be wmsietered dicurorial language; at it ii 
of ail other ijiic-^tioriA the Lakul.ilcti lo urnu^ :hc tccling% of 
State pride, and State rights, and that nntural love of unrestrvncd 
libetty and independence which i* common ro our eountryriKn, 
anii cspecbily to our fronikcr cetilcrt, who of at) men in the world 
have ihestrongest jealousy of authority and avenion rorcsaaint. 

1 wish, my friend, yoii woiitd use ynur influence m prevail oti 
the newspaper writers to let this qvcation alone for the present. 
If they are sincere in their opposition lo the further oetcnsion of 
Slavery, they will not prematurely urge it, when thoy are assured 
that by so doing they can do no good, Ixit much harm. 

1 shs1l go to St. I.ouis in a day or two. when 1 hope to have 
ihc plca.>iurc of seeing and cungratulaling ytjut brother on his late 
marriage, and becoming acquainted with his lady. T\i\% has been 

m<»c Cool ind agteeable, and by far the moat healthful <iummer 
have ever seen in this country. The spring was too wet and 
u-e were apprehensive of an unfavrraltle season both for health 
ami ve^ctdlion, Uil we have liccn rno^t agreeably disap;>nintc(U 
My health wa* never belter. I Ixcyou loptcsentmy Wind rcsarda 
to Mr«. H. and to Mr- Crciig, and ro he assured of my sincere 

EnwAai> O^t-Ks. 

NicnotA« BiuDLCf Hsq-> 

President of the bank of the U. S.— Philadelphia. 
P.S, — Could you or Mr, Vaux furnish me with an asseasmcnt 
of [andb in the di^crent counties of Pennsylvania? 1 wattt to 
ahow that lanjs are hi^ce in price in free than alavc States. 



V'AKDitUA, lllinoia, December ii, t8i> 
Est^fmeJ FrtenJ: — 1 receive aomc time »ince your letter of 
the nth of Oct., and by the Jut mail vours of the 4th Ul:o, Pin 
unusual pmt of public buvinen prevented my sooner aclcrvowl- 
cdging tlic fijrmer, and will now prevent my making WA long An 
umver to the tiro x^ \ dcrfirc. For the last four ircckt there has 
been a ^rcmt crowd of penonH ii«rc, Attending the Circuit and 
Supretnc Coiirt of ifc St^iic, and the U. S. and District Court And 
the »lc at auction fnr raxes of about 7,Oc3o tracts of land, bebng- 
iog tP non-ticfideni pro^clors. Tfib hats necessarily given me 
mtich to do; bitt w \\m, at tlic »amc I'mie afforded inc an cKcirllcnt 
opportunity of coUcctme rhc acn^ <A the people on the great 
quesrioft whicii is now agitating the State- And 1 im happy in 
asniring you, from the best Information J have been aMc to collect 
froin all pans of chr SraK-, I am more confirmed iri my belief that 
a majority of the people will be opposed to CAlIlng a corivcntion 
for the purpose of aJtering the Con^idtution »q as to make chi.<i a 
^«-« holding Slate. But the extraordinuT}- effortA that have 
Seen made here during ihe la*t three oir four week* by the friends 
uf Slavery, in otganiung their p-irty, iiid enabling its leaders tu 
act with the mo^t concerc and effect ainvince the fricnd-s of free- 
dan that their opponents arc yet in the field, and that they should 
be on the alert, for fear I>)' some rnst de z^'^^* *^ wrh-ch their 
opponents arc known from sad experience to be great adepts the 
advDcaTrs of opprewnn thnulii rriumph, Vrarly all the leading 
inendn of a conveniion have been assembled here, and lield cau- 
osics for the purpose of deliberating upon the best means of pro- 
moriniiE the ajccces of ihcir favorite mcaswrc; have adopted sundry 
resoluOons, and made many arrangements; among others have 
appoinrcd cnmmitteta ka each counry in the State, and reiioested 
that the county cunmntieci appoint a coiiiEiilitee in c^ih lowii^ 
ihipfur the purpose of corresponding with cich uthcr, and of influ- 
encing by c%'ery poonbic means the public opinion. 

With refpect to yovr inquiry whether there is not some more 
expedttiou& and safe mode of sendmg out the pamphlet* than 
through a commercial hnus- at St. IdOub, 1 can think of no othcr^ 



except (c Forwtrd th«m, ■> pampKleCgi, by mtil to me to tti» pla«e, 
whi^h is at ihU season of the year slow snd precanoirt, 

The pamphlcr ymi fimrar^lexi irc by mail, nlong wirli yc«r 
Ift&t kitcr* I received safe; but have been so hixsf aa m>t yet tu 
have had time to reid ir> Tiro iHoumukI of each kind, will* I 
presumCi be enough, M\d m mnTiy as 1 ^aW be able conveniently 
to diAiributr, There will be for the next six months, bo Few per- 
sons viiirirg this place, that T ihall be compelled To rely chiefly 
un the maiK jih the mcAit^ uf dbtnbuirii{f |f4/nphlc(ft, ue other 
inftirmailon to the puUtc, If po»ibk, I tntciul to have all tbc 
pampMcts puhlt^lted in one or more of our weekEr ncwapapcrs. 

Accotnpinying thii f »end >'ou a pamphler, which has Se^i 
lately ptibltiho.1 by my old frrend Birtlieck, which is by far the 
hc(t injMtcntKin whiiJi han lieen yet giveri w the publte. Afrer 
you have perused it, ycu will confer a favor on mc to Wii it W 
tbc perusal of our mutual friend Bi<ldle, to whom [ bca you to 
pra«nt my kind re|tards. 

Wirh grtat respect and viiKicre regards, your friend, 

BitwAao COLCK, 
To RoaERTs VacXp 


Wc have had the oiisfortiine (two <lays since) to Iwc our 
State House by fire. This accident will nperate in favor of a COfi- 
vcniion. Many profew to l>e opp'»«:d V\ SUvery^ but in favor of 
a c«;fivcntion to remove the scat of Governincni. There la now 
of course IcJs inducement for keeping it here, I MtU. however, 
hope atid believe wc ^nfl have no eonveniion. 

Ixcftr-AiiMCi KxciTr.MEirr ox th£ Cohvkxho:* Qucsnox; Orro^ 

OAOASiZATiorf or Tiir Cosvtxnojtf Partv; Kx#o*co ir a 


SurrM ATA) \VA«((rK at KnM«ki>«vn,L»-; l.rai>i;ti^ iv ini; 
Cotfit^r o!i Both Sipcs; Labom and Acnvtrr or the 
Aim-Coirvcinnov Mesi, (iove&Nok Coles, Rtr. Jon» A- 
PicK, Morris BiRKBtCKt \once or Birkbeck; Hr» Ability 
A« A Writer; His Services to the Akti Coxvewtiok 
CAmE;CoiiBE!i^o]in>pKCE BrrwiiSN Colck Ain> Berevecr, 

With the advent of the ywr 1824. the excitement 
on the Convention question increased. The more the 
question of making Illinois a f;lave Srate was discuised 
in all its various phases, the more intense theoppc^sitiun 
became. As ihi.soppostrian incrrancd, thcc^urtsDfihe 
Convention party were redoubled. On the 6th of 
December, J82,i, the "Friends of a Con^tuion^*' from 
idl parts of the Statc^ held a meeting at Vanualia^ for 
thepaqioscofinjcituting a morr perfect organization^of 
which General Willis Hargrave, the official Inspector 
of the Gallatin Saline, was the chairman. General 
Hargrave was a member of the House of Ucprcsenra- 
tives from White county, In the Territorial Legblature, 
in the sessions of 1817-18, and a member of the first 
Senate of the State in il? 18-22, and was one of the bold* 
HI and mojc outspoken advocates for a convention in 
ibr State; while others temporized and hesitated, he 
openly advocated making Illinois a Slave State. At 
this meeting committees were appointed, composed of 
the most efficient pro-Slavery men, for every coimty, 
but whose names were not made public. These com- 


mittees were to appoint township committees for the 
purpose of a more complete organizationp This action 
of the Convention men becoming known, was met by 
the Anti-Convention men by a hand-bill, circulated 
over the State, in the early part of 1824^ a copy of 
which is given as showing a somewhat ludicrous side 
of the contest; 

" By Auikoriiy! 

Whereas, certain evil disposed persons did, in the month 
of December last, assemble at Vandalia, and enter into a com* 
bination to control the freedom of election enjoyed by right by 
the good people of this State, in order to exclude fix>m public 
service all citizens who are not of the Convention partyi however 
suitable and well qualified they may be to promote the public 
interest; and for that purpose did presume to appoint certain 
secret conunitteea of five of the said party in every county, who 
were to appoint sub-committees of three for every precinct, for 
carrying into effect the scheme as above mentioned; and, whereas, 
the first Monday of August next is set for the trial of the authors 
and abettors of the said conspiracy against the sovereignty of the 
people, all good citizens are hereby required for the furtherance 
of political justice, to And out and detett, as far as in them lies, 
these county and totonship commiliee men, and to publish their 
proceedings in such manner as shall most effectually bring to light 
their underhand transactions. All newspapers that are friendly 
to freedom and independence are desired to give this notice a 
conspicuous place- 
January, 1824- 

Pro Bono Pubuco» 

During this contest on the Convention question^ 
there were but five weekly papers published in the 
State. Two of these were anti-Convention before the 
close of the contest; of them the "Illinois Intelligencer/ ' 
published at Vandalia, the seat of Government, might 



be considered the leading one. It was .it Arse a Con> 
vcfitkm paper, but wa» subsequently jnirchascd by 
Govcrm>r Coles ami other anri-Convcndon men, and 
placed under ih<: editorial management of David Black- 
wcll» a prominent lawyer of his time and Secretary of 
State under Ciovemor CoIch, The second was "The 
Spri-tiuur/' at Edw^rdsville, edJred by Ho<j|ier Warren, 
The nrst of these papers was not tallied to the anti- 
Convencion cau=^ till the contest vfos :iomcwhat 
advanced. The I'Alwanisvillc Spectator was anti-Con- 
vention from the beginning, though Its editor. Hooper 
Warren, was nor friendly to Governor Coles, and had 
opposed him in his election. The three papers advocat- 
ing the Convention were the "Republican Advocate/* 
at Kaskaskia, managed by Elias Kent Kane, after- 
wards U. S- Senator, Tliomas Reynolds, subsequently 
tiovcrnor of Missoun, ex-Ciovcrnor Bond and others, 
the "niinoi% Ga/-c:te,'* at Sliawncetown, anti the 
Edwardsville paper, "The Republican/' under the 
direction of Judge Theo. \V. Smith. Rmanuel J. West, 
Judge Samuel McKoberts, afterwards LI, S- Senator^ 
and others- 

The controversy between the two papers in Ed- 
wardsvillc, representing Convention ;ind anti-Convcn- 
cion, was waged wirh ^rciU violence. Staie Senator 
Theophllu)^ W. Smith, afterwards Judge of the Suprane 
Courts editor of the Convention paper, undertook to 
cowhide Hooper Warren, editor of the anti-Coiwcntion 
p:i{ier. Failing in his purpose he drew a dirk on htm. 
Warren then pulled out his pistol, when rhe combat- 
ants were separated and "nobody hurt." 

As before stated, the ablest^ most prominent and 



mc>5t inBuauidl men of vhc State were champions of 
the Convention; among them, were ex-Govemor Bond 
ajitl six gcnttemcn who afterwards became United 
States Senators; Jc55c B. Thomas, John Mclean, Rlias 
Kent Kane, John M. Robinson, Samuel McRobcrts and 
Richar^.1 M, Voting; there were also, Chief Justice 
Phillips, of the Supreme Court, Wm. Kinney and 
Xadoc Casey, subsequently Ltcut, Governors of t. 
State, Colonel Alexander R Field, Joseph A, Beaii 
GcnemI Willis Hargrave, Emanuci J. West, Lieutenant* 
(itivcrnor Hubbard, John Rcyrwids, Justice of tl 
Supreme Courtj Thomas Reynolds, ami others- 

On the anri-Convention side^ a great cause produced 
earnest ami effective leaders- At their head was Gov- 
ernor Cole*, entering heart and soul into ihc contest, 
carrying nn an cxtcn^jiivc ctjrretpondence with the anti- 
Convention men in all parts of the State, or^ani^ing 
Opposition everywhere and wielding his fadJc and 
powerful pen in the newspapers- HcnotonIyexpcnd*nl 
iiiii whoU" salary in the cause but contributed largely 
from hin prtvAte means. But the man who aoconv 
pliiihed most again&t the Convention by personal excf' 
lion amt by untiring work »-=«* the Rev, John M. Peck, 
of St. Clair county- Mn Peck was a Baptist minister 
who cnuijrated to the West from Connecticut in 1817, 
Kind locatcfl in St. Clair coimty in T821, He was a man 
III' fHcellcnt education, of a strong and comprehensive 
mind anvl with an energy and perseverance rarely 
MirpuvHcd. The attempt to make the State of hi: 
iidi>piion a filmve State awakened in him the most ii 
irH»e feeling of opposition. Endowed with a strong 
il^nniiitution and great physical strength^ he entered 



Tnin it pcr^ional caiivass againsT tlic Convcnlion scheme 
and labored assiduously, in season and out of season, 
during the long campaign. He organized a society in 
Sr, Clair immcdiardy after the pa^^^agc of the Conven- 
tion Resolution which adopted a constitvition to resist 
the introduction of slavery into llhnois- Eitablishing 
his headquarters in St. Clair countj', he extended his 
nri^ani'/atinn ro fourteen other cnunvies, establishing 
:ietie« in each to act in unison with the parent society 
inSt. Clair* Thisorganization, perfected and kept up 
by the exertions of Mr. Peck, was productive of great 
resulcs to the anti-Cunveniion cause. It was with the 
religious element of the communuy and with the clergy 
that he most labored. Uniting the establishment of 
Sunday scht>ols and icmpcrancc societies with (he di*^ 
tribudon of the Bible* he preached a crusade against 
slavery wherever he went. It may be said to the 
eternal honor of the clcrg)- of Illinois at that day, that 
they were almost withinit exception, opposed to the 
Convention, and that they exercised great influence in 
securing the rejection of the Convention Resolution at 
the (xills. The prevailing denomin;itions in the State 
at that time were the Methodists and BaptistSj and most 
of the preachers were from the slave States- 
Next to Governor Cole?t and the Rev, Mr- Peck, 
the man who did the most in forming public opinion 
against the convention was Mottais Birkbecic, of 
Edwards county. The active part which Mr, Birkbeck 
took in the great struggle^ and the inestimable services 
he rendered to the State in that vital epoch, are such 
as to entitle him to the gratitude of the people o( Illi- 
nois, Today^ little is known of him or his works* and 

"•Sij Owi Time*/' by J<.hii Ktynokb. 



it is fitting that his name should be rescued from obliv- 
ion, and justice done to his mcmor>*- Fxiwards county 
could not do a more appropriate act than to erect a 
monument to his mcmor>\ 

Morris Birkbeck was bom in Wanborough, Eng- 
land* in 1763. Receiving a most thorough classical 
edi'carion, Utr devoicd himself tu thr study of agrtcul- 
(cre. He soon came to enjoy n widespread celebrity as 
being one of the lirst practical a$ well as theoretical 
fanners in the kingiiom.* Making the acquaintance 
of many Americans in England, and among them Mr. 
Coles, when he was abroad in 1816, he came to the 
determination to emigrate 10 the United States, to use 

own language, "in quest of a new settlement in the 
western wilderness/' This settlement was made in the 
fall of 18J7 in Edwards county^ and it soon became 
known as the "Enghsli scrtlcmcnt/'t 

Thougli Albion was the: wunty sear, Mr. Birkbeck 
located adjoining thereto, and built up a town which he 
named Want^rough, after Wm native town in England. 
It was here that he was living when the Convention 
struggle broke out. Surrounded by his family, in 
companionship with his targe and valuable Ubrar>' 
which he had brought with him from England, and over- 
looking tile impnivcment i^i his scttlcmcntj he enlisted 
heartily in the an ci- Convention cause as soon as the 
Convention Resolution had passed the Legislature. 
His son-in-law, (iilUeri T Pell, wa,s a member of rhe 
lower branch of iWia legislature, and strongly opposed 

*Mi. ttukliELk WB> cLdJc llic Arvl i^raiiJriil ot (he llliniut Succ Asiicullur-i-l 

lOmnor RcynnUi sm tliai "Mf. Birkbetk wai the lu« |jnfrify mm wlw 
ftcitlcil id Ellinuiit. ami lie IihJ ilchcrvEJlT luuMiJcublc rct>uU(iij3 At ■ m^n <if 
Itncri.' ' 




the ''c-ill." Before this timc^ in his published "letters 
from Illinois," Mr. Birklieck had inadt* krw^wn his views 
on slavery. In a lerrer dated July 28, 1818, written en 
a friend in France, he says: 

"In passing from rbcory to practice, I have cxpcr^ 
ienced mi diminution nf my Invc for freedom; but I 
ha!c tyranny more cordially, and I want lafif^ua^c to 
express the loathm^; I feci for personal .slavery; prac- 
ticed by freemen it is most detc?itablc. It is the leprosy 
of the United States; a foul blotch which more or lts& 
contnminates the entire system* in public and in private^ 
from the President s chair to the cabin of the hunter/*" 
TIic acquaintance of Governor Coles and Mr. Birtt. 
beck made in England in 18161 ripened into a warm 

'icndship after they both became citizens of Illinois. 

'hey were in complete sympathy on the slavery ques- 
tion generally, but the Cunvencion struggle brought 
them still nearer together. The correspondence bc- 
^ccn them cannot fail to interest all who have followed 
fhe progress ot the great struggle uf that day. 

Wan&ukouch, March 1. i8a,;. 
My J^tmr Sir; — I hare quite lott ^ght of St. Domins^. 
C]<>uds and ijArkfiesa »Dem to overhang our own State too hcarily 
to oJUfwof my k>okin{{ hcyond it. Very glad, iiulccd, should I be, 
could 1 hops to do anything, however little, co dispel them. I'he 
pnoT rrm^inlrr o( my lifr 1 «r<H]td gladly devote ro rlii^ rausc. I 
am exceedingly dciurous of seeing yoti to confer with you about 
our afTairs. The diSfEUSting scenes at Vandalu, occjuioncd by the 
unprincipled irjingxjcs cf the STivc party would itfford a fine scope 
for the enemies of polirical freedom, to declaim against a repre- 
sTTTiAttve Government; whereas, in truth, it is the only guard 

*^Lerrm frwr fllJnoit, bv Mcrrit Birkh«ck,' luihar uf "Sotn oo « Toui 


n0:iin«t the tp^nny of ^ch pcrfohc. If ihc ^vp// Arc Absi^lurely 
CflTfMft nnd wirhmu princip!^, wrh hicti will gain ihcir obj^ri 
under anjt ayfitcni. Nothmg is so (Icsuucuvc of moral chamclcr 
ws Slftvery; of thn the trjinaaction^ of our Lcgialaturc arc a frc&Ii 
iHuacrnttort. D^y and right this mi^rablc subjccr i^ before me> 
I foresee rhai, if I live rill next yeiir, 1 xnnu attempt, wichmy |>cn, 
my only weapon, to do aomething; an*! have alrtaily writwfl « 
ihon acldmsi In )k pcitifishcd, If yuu ami uur orhcr fricixU a|>pr\>ve 
of it, a &tt]c bcfurc ihc clccnun, or at the time when yxni may 
think it b«t. Having dorc this 1 am something more at «aM< 
1 uriih 1 could prevail with you to come here and stay^ Vou 
can't /iW at VandalU. Edwordftville, 1 ^ncy, ia not very healthy. 
] won't insure ycoj here; but I have a ri|^r to give ywi goiid liii|ieH 
of ctcapiikg the Hiiumer complaints at our pljicc. I have room 
plenty, in hov^c and heart, to accommodate you m a plain way. 
Your political influence would, I think, be promoted by your 
tpendirg a good part nf the ycnr on (his side of the Sratc; and to 
c:ireTtd and liTrengrher^ ihar influcmr ii, nr rhifi timr, your imperi- 
ous dut>'. You shall hove the library lo yourself to retire to whc;i 
you please, and be as independent niul welcome a3 a sincere friend 
can make you. It gives me grear pleasure to find that XIr Pell 
WM what I expected of him in his pclitical commencement. His 
being thrown «o advantageousty into the lame berth with your- 
self lAiLl tend to confirm hu chaiacur. It ts a ironMjIatioii to mc 
that one fto ncAr mc ha^ ao much ^cod princi|^c and diacreiion. 
I ekoJI expect a few lines from you loon and often (I don't ask 
you for long elaborate epiotics) until 1 may hope for the pleasure 
of receiving )ou Iitfre. My plan on that he*d tw certatnly » good 
one. I entreat y»u i» full in wich it without fic«tiE»c>n^ Mxcunc 
this scrawi from your sinoere frkod, 


Sunday Morning. Mr. Pell inferms mc that you will be 
engaged thin mmmcr on the A«iern Mde of the State, revwvnng 
mtlitia, and that 1 mu«t not hope to «ee much of you. Perhaps 
you may have time and inclination tci pay us a vim liefbre you 
take the field. If a correspondence couki be set o{\ ft*ot among 
the friends of freedom scattered over [he StatCi they might 



ilrcogfJicn «tx] Inform uch other, Mnd chc influence of ^oad hcU 
<ng might be ircfcjucd. I wuuld gUdi^ bear a part in it. Is 
Unci higher in Mt!W)uri than in l>U£ State, or n>ore »laible? or 
m Kentucky, iaetnis parihij, ikztt In OhioF The Mii*oun^n« 
and Kentueiiini have (tU the idvtnify ofihe ttmev equally with 
tmrKlvcjif it may lie pic?aia>cil^fmTi ihcir having pUyeil the 
^amc game of I^^egUlation about Currency and Stay laws, llic 
auppoMd advatKe in the price of land from the admisiion of 
!»lAver>% tppeart to be the yrand tefn|icadon with our people. 
If thb r^Enion he ill fiiundc\i, a« I liclieve tr », f wish ibe caac 
c<Mild he dcaHr Jind simiily sraicd. I kmam dijit vcr>- many 
rcspvctabjc farmers m hnsUnd arc looking to chis State as a 
fcfuirc when they can clear out of thcrr farm^, but not one in n 
htiryircd would aetrk in a Slave State; and a great part of tboac 
frvm that ccxintry who arc now here would fly frtwn ii. 

It is esft^nt'ia! to imprrs?i on the miruls of our citizens twu 
ihtngft, in rcgafd lo the present criai:»> One is the mfamy uf the 
prncecdirigs of the Slave ^don at Vandalia; this I have attempted 
to point out, lAith Jtt conse<]uenc«», if sanetiored by the people, 
in the paper 1 have allu^led to ahov%, and which I wish to submit 
eo ^iMir uiApcclioci;* that if you apj>Tovec)J'it yuu may jixlgcof the 
beii time and maancr of giving it circulation among the electon. 
The other -ts the impoiky of Slnvcrr— for this purpoK, iho" the 
fiict is demofkstrable from the nature of tfungs, I want particular 
statements (ctunded on experience, derived from authentk Aourcct. 
If yiiM girc yniiT aticntton rn rhr ■ubj«ci y<Kj may direct my irw 
quirio inco a proper chfuiiwl. Is there any cnlighlencd individunl 
in the Sure of Ohio, or any where else, with whoni 1 could open 
a corrc-ipomiencc for ibis purpoocr An* pubhc.iti'vrjfl by citvicns 
of the Tnited Stares? lias not Mr. Jcfftffcon written on Slavery? 
Tu GtivriE\n« Coi.r*, 


Vaxiuua, Apfil tlth, iSlj. 
Dfar Sirt — I roc'd a few days since, via J^wanjav-illc, your 

'jAjKuhfil July, itaj, tt Ji» Jppiist tt 1^ fi^flt V /'*Wj/ mi Hi ^^tifhn 
i/s Oi«rwjn, 



luod si>d jtccc|)rable Ipirrr of rhc Isv tilro, I :un mwrh frxtificvl 
to fitsd you have abamjoncd all uk:a uf a tour for the prcMflti *nd 
rbat four feelings uc warmly ^nfifltcd tn the s^AE question on 
which lianf;s our dcftUAy. Feeling a» you do on EhU subject, 
with Ji mind so diKriminiting And so well stored with mfortnationt 
and gifTed with s^ peail-arly happy talent of cxprt^ng j-our 
ideal in a plain mid lurclblc »tyle, I know of nu man in the State 
who could be of more service than yourself tn cr.liehtcninc the 
pe<;ple and giving them correei views of tbe moral and polif'ical 
characrer of tK< <iueitian, u well » of its irameJijite bearing upon 
llirir pmcnr interc^rK and future wdfare. As the tipp^niie {urTV 
will icep up an inccuant dfnrt ihrtKigh the prcis Ui make convcrijt 
to the ConventioOk our aide of the qnettion mil have to follow 
their example, not only tot the purpo^ of correcting their mb- 
reprettntations and refuting their a^rumentn, but from time to 
lime to present correct views of the real objects, and injuriom 
elTecift rc^iilimjF fn^i a Con^enrjon. TJic great Inirmt the pecw 
pie t»kc, the cxiTaofdiMary anxiety they feel, either for or against 
the Convention, forces its eomtdcration on the community, and 
already we f nd in every nasemUafCi however amall, it i« a subject 
of dif»cu«sk>f^, and thnt the people are daily making up their mind« 
and comnutiiiTft tbeniselvrs by taking «ide3. IVh^st ihU is goin^ 
00 »^ oufifii nui tu lajr on our arm-% and let the enemy under- 
mine the fcc1Jn^?i and judgment of the people, and thjs sap the 
ly)vndaDo» of our strength. Considerable eflmt has been niadc 
by both parc'>e* to procure the support of the diHerent priming 
presses in the Srjre. The Slave party will have the support of 
the press of this place, at Shawnee (own, ani) ciiic c^ the two prcSKa 
catahliHhcd al Fxlwardavillc; the other cspoijncf tNe cause of free- 
dom- The editom here, however, though avowev'lly and decidedly 
in favoT ci a Convention, declare char willingnw* to admit ptecea 
into their paperc T>arh fnr and agninfit ii. It U r>or known posi- 
tively what side the pre»»s av KsiskaKkiA will take: but T am dis- 
potcd to think it will be on our side The friends of freedom 
hetnK thus situated, is it not dc^rablc, nay necessary, (or the 
mieccM of their holy cause, to have a press established on the 
e«!icrfn side of »hc Stare, Tr appear* lo me thni Albion, as well 
frcnn its local Sr'\ruation« a< frcm ilw mrant in and about 11, both 


menriJ a^aiJ pccvniArj^, wouhl rentier it ibc moot eligible pbtc fur 
such flf] caubliahnicnt* I rncnrior^ct} this aubjoct lut nmicr 
to Mr. Pcil, to whom I refer you for ifie reasons and view* which 
JniluoNl in« to uigge^t the ]>ropne<x of ii. I have juftc written 
lo Mr. R. Fifjwrr, ro whum I have a\ui saken rhe liberty ro lugQur 
it» xnd a 3itiJI further Ihi-rty ui Ask it aa a favor to me luid 4s a 
5ACrifiee cAleuUtcd to promote the «Jcoe« of the great cnuAc in 
w^ich we, and I truAt, a great maionty of lulwaniA county, Jtre 
aluo Atfply interested to bun', ac Ico^tt during the pendency of 
the i|uevt'(in, all prrvonal. national, locals Anti other unkind fnU 
ing», and unite heart inti ha-nd to pr^>nx»a' the good citw. 

I am exircriKly 9orr> not to have h in my power to answer 
ttlisfactorily your enquiries* Aliho' the fact 13 nototioa»« Un^s 
are always higher in price ir non -Ebv-e- holding St tte? than in 
Klftvr.hoJding'Sratrs, yet I cannot rcfrr in any fluihenric statistical 
ttt othfT poMi^^Htioo« pointing out the fact in JetatL I know the 
fftct to Ifc 30 fwm my own pcrdcnal oh^crvjitiotfi and enquiries, 
made while travchri^ ihrtntgli the different sections of the Union, 
anj especially along ihe Atlantic sejiboard, where the general 
face of the country brightens, and the cultivation and value of 
the jwil increases, with the acccKniom of Tree labor. This could 
at otjce be motle Mtiifiicfanlv fn appear if wc tnuM Uy mit hand<( 
on the aajesMncrtr of land.i lor taxation made in the !tcvcral 
States. In my native State (Vo.), if I mbtake not, the a%%it^s^ 
mcni rf land* of the dlfierent counhc*, made by the general 
IwKm! nf auriiorx, go ru rstnblUli the farr In general ibat the 
bndA bear the highest price in the counties where there were 
fcwc*r sTave» in pri:rportion :o the white populacton. It is true, 
in the rear 1S18 the Gov't wki Iftirds btg]\cr m MMwuiri than it 
Ma ever done in this State: bnr this arose from peculiar circvm- 
aianer^, which rimimstanrrs I have nn dr>uhr wnittd have made 
itmilar lomh scU a» high In thi?i State. As a pioof of iu lands are 
now no higher in that State than in th^s and the **hard amcs," 
as tbff>' are emphatically called, have been as sersil>Iy tele there 
t4 here. Fictitious banks, the political locusts which have 
dewiurrd the fruili of the land, have been more encouraged, an<l 
of cout>e the tuinl t;rnes have lieen rmich inure dctrimefital In 
KenTxicky and Ohio than to Mi^smiti and thia State. Bui in this 


Slavery has had no hand, but it has been the chief and only cause 
why Ohiof with a caldcr cliniate and much less fertile soil and many 
years the junior of Kentucky, has far outstripped her in population 
and in wealth. With respect to the relative value of land in Ohio 
and Kentucky, since the currency of chose States has been so 
deranged, I have no particular information; but 1 feel very certain 
that the land still continues much higher generally in the former 
than in the Latter State. 

With respect to your inquiry as Co the best source of infor- 
mation, founded on experience collected in this country of the 
effects of Slavery^ 1 can give you but little information^ as, in 
truth, but little has l*een written on the subject. I know of no 
one who has touched so feelingly and forcibly on the moral and 
policieal character of Slavery as Mr. Jefferson in his "Notes on 
Va-' ' I f you could lay your hands on the debates on the ' 'Mis- 
souri question" in Congress, you would be able to collect many 
interesting facts. I shall probably have it in my power to send 
you one or two of the best of these speeches. There is a news- 
paper princed monchly at Greenville, in Green county, Tennessee, 
by a Quaker of the name of Ben. Lundy, called the **Genius of 
Universal Emancipation," the columns of which are exclusively 
devoted to the subject of African Slavery as it exists in the U, S, 
I have seen but a or j numbers of this paper, in each of wMch there 
was something more or less valuable on this subject. I have 
determined to subscribe for it, and shall endeavor to prevail on 
the edicor to furnish me with a regular die of his paper since its 
commencement, which I believe was about 2 or 3 years ago. If 
this paper has bKTcn well edited it ought to contain the substance 
of everything interesting on this subject. Soon after the adjourn- 
ment of rhe Legislature, I was compelled by business to go to 
EdwarcJsville and Belleville, where happening to be during the 
sitting of the Court, I had it in my power to sec many of the 
people, and was much gratified to find the counties of Madison 
and St. Clair as much opposed to the call of a Convention as I 
had imagined theni to have been. The people in those counties 
received and treated me with great kindness, insisting upon my 
giving them an upportuniry of evincing publicly their approbation 
of my public conduct, etc., etc, by inviting me to partake of a 



ditio«r, at which minjr actcnticd, prcning by their ootiduct 

ditj' "Wfe not only ihe Wends of /r«</o« but of order. 

I ijwc yooi a ihnitianil apcifugicsi, my tlru' fiicni, t'ur your 

ffry, very kitM invliiicif^n to vint anxl spend some tiinc wiHi you. 

Tda kriow what ptciuurc it would oSovd mc, and w^I thcrc/orc 

koow if I should not visit you soon that it will not be my fnult. 

■ do not now t^now nrhcn it will be in my power to visit you, but 

I fcir if will nnr lir vrry soon; 4« sooti» hmrcver, a« ir la in my 

ftrwcr you miy expect lo sec me. 

I bcf: you to let Mr. I'cll »cc this letter, (or whom it is intended 
['* ptTt. My rcspeei* to him and Lftdy* aj* wcH ftS tool! the m«m- 
fcr» of your family^ includrng Mr- and Mre. Hanks. Vou will 
pat-cinn mt for writing so long fl ^ttrr, to which t have been 
prompted by ilic ilocp intcrcHt I fed in the grtdC queaiioi^p and tbc 
pteo^urc 1 find in holding converse with you. 

Your friend, 

Edwa&d Coles. 
o Motus BiuKnecjc, 

Wftnlxiniugh, Rdwards Cuunty, 

Wansoroqch, Dec. 6^ i8a> 
Dtar Sir: — * *♦•♦••! (^ice the liberty by thij 
^'^^^ tn srnd ytiu Ivalf a driA^n; and if, tvi reading a ctipy, ymi 
**^^id chink It n~.ay \yc uAcful to any of the unconverted Con- 
"^twni^ts, you niiy put it in their w^y. I am glad you think 
"OrttJy of the course the queftton h taking. I bebcvc the ad- 
'^'^^^tta of a Gmvcntton arc not «o numerous tts rhey have been 
t* this side of the Sfatr. The leaders do nor seem to be so san. 
IWtic. This may. however, be a rits^ de £turrr preparatory to a 
t^tl push in die spring. 1 am rejoiced that you have escaped^ 
■icknc39 this summer My family liaa enjoyed excellence 
., and the ndghborhood-^as heretofore. We should be gW 
V sre you amongst uf; and a friendly visit from you would give 
Mr pcKuhar plcamrc. 1 have no: seen Mr. Pell since the morning. 



wlicn I received your Idler, I ^liatl dchvcT youritic3»Agt 10 hintt 
oxkI I Ixg you Co bcLici'C mc your sincere IricncJ, 

To CoVEHlfOll COLS9» 


Mt AViir Sir:— I hod Ihc i>lcft!(ure 10 receive, in due cotirtbe 
of mail, ycAir letter cf the 6th ullo-. Cogelher with t\x of your 
pamplilett, which Vfju were w> gotwl a« to (send me, for which I 
Fen^rn ytui my thunkH, I hiui previou^tly «mi republi^iheti m a 
newspaper your pamphlet, wid hnd read "it with great pUasjft- 
I could not h;xt wish every Conventioniat tn the St^tc hfid it nnd 
was compelled to read it with attention. Our socict)' at lulwardf- 
vtlLe intends hnving another and large edition o( it reprinted Kir 
ihr pnrptiv: of having ir rxirJiMvrly I'imilaied. 1 tiMik thr 
liberty 10 send one or two of your pantphlcts to ^mc distant and 
particular friends, who titkc « dcq> interest in the Slave quc^cion 
in this Strtte. Hy the by, should not the review of your pumphlet, 
whii:h Appeared iirst in rhc Illinois Gazette, and since republished 
ir> all ihe Convention papers of the State, he noticed? It is very 
ingeniously written, but what more particulady require* ctarcc- 
lioii 13 the fabrications and miwcprcsentationa of faot5. One or 
two of these were hastily noticed and sent to be in^rted last 
wcel: in the paper published here; but no paper ba^ uncc icftMxl 
from eIkt pre**- 

During tlie ^ctt.lng uf the Cc^urtSt ami the sale of the landx of 
non-rC5tdent« !or taxes, we hnd a considerable number of persons 
auembled here from almost every part of the State; and a pretty 
good cpportunity was aflorded of collecting the publie lenTimeot 
in reUeion t" the ga-at tjue^rion which k now convuUing rbe State, 
The fricmU nf a Convcniion pretended to he pleaJMxl; but it was 
very apparent they were nnt; and the more honest and libcrd 
amonK them acknowledged that they thought their prospects bad. 
Ouf friends on the other hand were much ple^tscd, and rendered 
much more sanguine of nuttrvs from ihr informnnon they received. 
The frierids of Slavery, liowcver, were caucusinit nearly cxery 



fiiglir, Ax^\ mode many arrurigcmcTiu Ifir thdr clcciiojiccnng 
ctinpaign> Aoiong otiicrs, it i^ ^\^, ihcy have appolntctt five 
penons m each county, with a rcctue^; that che^e fi\x appoint 
three m each elccricn prt^cinct, for the fnirpodtccf difTtiMng their 
dncinne*, e^ml^tdying their fnrce% niul acting with the greatest 
HFticcn ami cflcct. This is well ^IojIutciI lo l>ring their sirength 
to hear in the hcst pni^vhlc rmr.ncr. tird should, as far as possible, 
be cnunrcractcd. When had men conspire, pood men shoviiij be 

The ffxmiw oi a Convcntinn apprar to becumfr m<irr ami 
fnnre bitter ami vloiteni in their crimity ti.> mc, anil seem tletrr- 
mined not only to injure my ataJi<iine with the people, but to 
break down my pecuniary nr»ourcc&. A £uic has been lately 
nutitutcd at Edn^rd&viUc Againu mc fur the recovery of the sum 
of fToa for fath negro emancipated by me an:l brought to thi* 
Statt' The Mill hH?i been brciuj^lK under a law paMAprd un the 
joth tii March, i^i'ii but which w.xh mil prjjitcd ur pruniiilfpitetl 
unti) the October following. In the nie4inttni<:, chat U about the 
lint we«tc of May, my negroes emigrntcd tu and aettled in thl« 
Stuie. Whur u truly fartic^il in this «mc ik, that a poor worthier 
feUovr, wlu> hix nn (iniiicrty, am! [>f vmirv pays no tax, ha« beeti 
■rice ted to in:ttituc<c it, from the fear he h^i of being taxed to 
tupport the nesroc5 I emancipated, when they, who Arc all young 
and hralFhy^ arc m> protpcrmiK dji tn pontjcss comfortable Hving« 
and some of them pay ai; much a« four dollari a year tax on their 
prt^rty. t should indeed, my friend, br unfortunate were 1 
now compelled ',*^ pay Jsoo for each of my negroc** Kig and little, 
dead and livins (tor the suit goes to iht^) after the sacrifices I have 
lAKk. and my efForts to befriend nnd enable ihem to live oomfoft- 
ably. For I not only emancipated all my negroes, which amounted 
tn one-third of all ihr pmperry my father Iwiiieathcil rte, but I 
removed them out here at an expense of between live and six 
hundred dollar?!, and then gave each hcAd of a fAmily, and all 
ethers *ho had parsed the age of 24, one hundred and sixty acres 
of land each, and exerted mytelf to prevail on them to be honesf, 
indu$triuu<( and correcr in thtixT corduct. Thi« thL^y have done 
in a remarkable degree^ >u much m>, with oil ihc prejudi;;c j^ainKt 
free negroes^ there never ha:i been the least ground for charge or 


iLU^ots fiisroRicjL collections 

ccriMire against any one of them- And now, for the first time in 
my Itfct if> hr mied fer wh^r I rtiought trss gimeroiia juid prtia^ 
ttorihy ccinducc, crciics stTangr fcc!ir»g^ which, however, cease 
topvc me pcnonal mL^TtincJiticut, tfrhcfi I rcHcct oa the character 
luid ntocivc» of iKosc who have mstttutod it.* 

Just dboitt tiie time this suit wu iiuticutrd, I had the mU- 
fovtune to lose hy fire two-thirdt of all the buildings a nd en c Toy tires 
on my farm, lugcllwr wUh alxiat loo apple trees ami 4.t many 
peach trees — iKvera! of each kind large eDgttgh tu bear fnuL 
And Aoon after, the "Stale Houitc" having been consuoied by 
fire, a project was set on loot to rebuild it by subscHptbn. Xot 
liking the plan anj arrnngements;, I declined subscnblng, and 
pro|icififvl [tthcTK, which T ihmigbr wiiiiM be more for the Interrtt 
of the Seaic, of the ootmiy, »nd of the town — and which hy the 
way arc now scncrally admitted would have been best. This 
however was imraediatuly laid h<»ld of by «ome of the factious 
CoTivendoniflCs who Ikih^ aware that the lo>« of the State House 
would operare ro the injury of their favorite me**arc in ikU caunry^ 
and be! »{; anxious to db^play great stJkltude for the interest of the 
pcopk here, arvd that, too, a» mud as posiible at the experts of 
the nuti-tonventionistSt they busied thcoiselves in misn^prescnt- 
Ing to the multitude my reaw»is and motives for not subtcribitg 
my ftame t£> their paper^ and wttli tHl- aid of large poti-jns of 
whUi-ey, contnve<l tngr-j up a rc-id Mmlal tmA\ who vented t-hetr 
aplecTi £igainst me. in the most nouy and riotous manner, nearly 
all night, for my opposition to a convention and for my refusal* 
a« they termed it, to rebuild the Sintc House- All this am! other 
in«tanees of defamation and pcrsccuiiQn> create in my boiom 
oppnsilc f!^lmgi;; on- of p^^in, the other of plea:wre. Pain 1o sec 
my fellow man su iU-nntufcd and vindictive merely because 1 am 
the friend of my species, and am opposed to one portion oppresuRR 
another — pleasure that 1 should be in a »tusticn which cnablert 
me to render ser^ces to the just aind good cause in which we are 
engaged; and ui far from repining at thr^ indignit>es jUiJ per- 
aecutiuns, I am tha/ikful tu Providence for placing me in rhe van 
of this cventfuJ contest, and giving me a temper, zeal, and reso- 
lution which ! trust w%\\ enable me to bear with proper forcitode 

*^ appenefic for tttaed ti *dt. 



tbe fcttin^ which «re insei>Ar>l}lc from it. Tfi nmctujnnn, 1 pray 
you CO do OK ibc ju&ticc oo bclkve, thar no dtcid of pcmnal 
COinc<nKn<cs Kill ever aSatc my efforts co pnunotc tbc 9cod of 
tbe public, much l<i6 to at anUon the grMt lumUff>cni4il principJcs 
of civil ami pcrwnd liberty*-And lo be itsoffd of my ttncm 

Howard Cole», 

UjinboroQuh, EdvrAnls County. 

WASKokovcu. Feb. 19, iSi4, 
My i>* Sir: — I have jwtt reeeivrd your letter of Jatiaafy 
39f Eiid I a«iurc yini ihc receiving ti hu-i ^ivm nie unfc^netl plci«- 
ure, alEhough its contenu, n Ur u tbe unworthy coi>duct of the 
iwrty b prcniuctivc of vcxAtK*) to you, I « siticorly Iflmenc. I 
am lorry rhat it should be at yoar expense; but as it tends to 
expose lite badness of the cause and tbe inj([i]ity of its supporters, 
ihe fVirndH of lilicrty ind virmc can hardly rrgn't iliat riwy 
simihl luvc thus d'^plajrcd their [me chniaclcr, 

tor iny«if. my private situaiioii screens mc in great nKOSurc 
from pcrseoibon, though I prewme, not from the honor of thear 
I am glad you approve my little pamphlet: if 1 could 
it, I wudd spare thesocicty at Edwiirdsvitle the expense of 
RpuUUhii:^, &C. I liavc llie satia/iKtiuri uf knowing that U liaa 
doae some good, by chan^ng the acndnicnts of K^^ral, who 
iKrough want of reflection or knowledge, had been advccatcs of 
Slavery. And a^ there are many up and down in all parts of the 
Suie, whu are in that nitmiiinn^ 1 tru»;t it* gereril cirirJation will 
be tifitful. T am nmnnually ptying rhe Slave pATijr, throit^ the? 
Illk>cis Gazette* with popular dtscussiona and lomctifflcs with 
^il arguments, under ihc sij^naturc of Jonathan Freeman, and 
■coie mhcrs. You wit! see, if you reAd that paper, an ironkal 
pfopcual of a pUn for raising a ^nd to eolonizc the negroes as tn 
I'penjAgc to limilrd SUvery, ugned J., which I thinW may show 
ibc abfiijrdicy of thai plan of the Convcnticjui^ts more efTcciually 
ibao scr»out arsximcnt. The Kilwsrdwillc Spectator pjblishod 
iboQt a do:!cn of those short letters, and I suppose you will »ee a 



few marc of tlicm sluirily. Ak thty prcM^nl tht qur*rion in 
various 1^i£, pointing out ikc wiciicdi>CM and folly of (he S\sivc 
SL-hcmc, dissected ^ ic were into distinct portions, 1 im&ginc they 
make An impre^ion on ttirne readers more eTfcctually rhan a 
continued cciurw of argument- 1 submit, uith ^r^^x riefcrence, 
X thcHight thttc Knmr of thefir would he uitrfii) if republished Hy 
way of Appendix iu the /fppcaL TerhAps \uu will revert to tlicni. 
4i>d notice a few more ^hich yoo will soon sec; then do as you kc 

As pn&fUairon is esMrnrial to t^e binding power of Ji law, in 
ficr to its t'lristcncc as /itw, you will of course defeat yotir per**- 
cutors, and put them tu abame, un die principle of ce pt^u facto. 
Vou could not in^ngc m May a Uw pti3m\j]g«tcd in October 

The fire at Vandalia i> rather againat the Conventtomsts in 
that quarter. The idea of re-building rbe Srate Huuuc by *ob- 
acnption, you, aa Governdtr could haidl)^ countenance. UTiJit 
authority have mdividuab to act in thizt ouk:, even at ihezr own 
expensed And what claim hsve they on yi»jr private purse? I 
am only sorry for your peritonal vexation under thcsae attAcfcs. 
They discover the weakncc* ami fully uf the party, and I am in 
hopes they arc lojang ground. They have gtcat j:cnl und activity 
and no delicacy about the means; there l» considerable /cal, loo. 
and activity on our iiidc; and fretting the ^ood principles of our 
cauic a^fainft their total wnnt of principle, 1 tru«i we ore a match 
for ihem, provided we do not rctnv in our efforn. 'Die attack on 
my pamphlet by Amcricanus, (who ia Mr. Webb, of tionpa&,) 
accms lobe ridiculed and dc»pi»cd. even by their own side. I haivc 
acne to the Illinois Gflicitc a short reply to the personalities; 
further 1 thought ncc<ilc&a, and have just written another to the 
aavne elTccr, which 1 shnll send to the Vandalia paper. Not being 
presumed to know the author^ some acveritj' of retort seems 

Vou have a circle at Von^tiilia chiefly* 1 fear, of the wrong 
sort in regard to the vital qucMion, which circumstance must 
detract from your social enjoyment, where at best it could ill b<r 
ifximi. The cause on which you are engaged so heartily U so 
thoroughly good that \i wd) l>car you up through many a^criiicca 

n'JsriBVRyE'S edu'jrp coles 


lad pnvariofls. Your scntimcnis on the «ub)ect rejoice and ca- 
courage me, and ia return (podsnrry as It may «*m) I ihall ^irc 
jtMi « w^iiirmt (nun Hinatc fmyvur ciHXiurjgvinrfit,' 

J'tifum «t TMiom pn^pfHiii virum. 
Son c^inim jirvlur |rMt'4 lulxnliirm, 
N«n tutrut mictrjiA i>rAnrv, 
McntT i^>jlK wlkU. 

1 remain, with grt^r r%tccm, ynnrx^ 

M> BlRKDKCi:. 

Of the many orhers who took an active part against 
rhc_ Convention, thrrc were David Blackwcil, Jndgc 
Samuel D. LockwiMjd, Hooper Warrciij Jonarhun H< 
Pugh, Ge*>rgc Forqucr, Danid I*, Owk, Thomas Lip- 
pcncott, George Churchill, Thomas Mather and Henry 

Mr, Birkbctk wrote a scries of letters during the 
Convention canvass, over the rtom d^ plume of""Jona- 
than Freeman/' which were widely publi:ihcd and 
almost universally read. Tliey were written in :i plain 
but captivating style, full of facts and arguments, and 
cmliellished by h'imcly but apt illustrations. They 
proved a si>urcc of great annoyance m the Convcniion 
party, and as he was known to be tlie author, he was 
most bitterly assailed. He was denounced as a "foreign 
emissary," and an "exile/' sneered at as a "Quaker," 
and charged wJlb being iin "ItitideL" Hut it was all 
to no purpose. The more he was attacked, the more 
were his letters read. Speaking of these letters in his 

•n»c U« funfRiph ai Mr- Birlilieck'* Itrtfr cinnot huf ttCtXt Alimntlrui. 
TV ijooianwj from nortec *t*P'"^J ^^'^ ttc^i rc»rr to tlw i-iw uf (iuvcnwr 

' 'NfiiSff ihc Hiirir cjf iniifcnii iitclcriEiN liux ihintitk twt tli^r ikve vi ihc rKr»i- 
fumcptfui ihdkcai nt*D |ui( inU trndcV»u>t>^|]fincip1c from W*^ iBrm inierirror».** 

'Htarr &iJy wjs in ixTot nf a conrenrion. alihou^li hi* pMper. ll>c lihims 


manuscript history of Edwards county, Mr. George 
Flower well says: 

"Whatever may be thought of Mr. Birkbeck, by 
those who would square every man's opinion by their 
own, the inhabitants of the State Illinois, if for nothing 
else, should hold his memory in respect and gratitude 
for the decided part he took against the introduction of 
Slavery in his letters of 'Jonathan Freeman,' '* 

CHAi'^riiR XV, 

Tiir EuccTiojT Takizs Puce; Vote of CouitTit* roii Asro 
AGAiK^T'nii: CottvKKTios krj^oLi^Tiox; Coi-r op A CoifVCK- 
Tiow BAtLwr; CowvEjrnoK Scbsus DcfFiIT^o bv 'Mokk 
TiiAir Et<^TKF»c HMn>ftCfi MAjutm-; CcntvcvnoK Mr* 


J«>v; (jBt Cowtrol of the State; pRO-Si-wEitY Mew 
Elected UvrreD Stated Sbmators; Bikkkeci; Appoimteo 
Skcutaut or State r/^r BtACKwttL; Biiu:b£cil Rejected 


The day had now arrived when the people of IllinoiSi 
in their sovcrtign capacity^ were to pass on a question 
involving inreresu and consequences of the most 
supreme imporrance to rhemselves and their posterity. 
Should a convention bccallcdT there wasnoquestion that 
the then cxifitlngconfiritutionprohihitingSlavrfy would 
be changed, and a cunsricution authuming Slavery 
would be adopted. Whatever attempts had been made 
b the earlier part of the campaign to make it appcAr 
that, should a new constitution be made, it did not 
fallow it would authorize Slavery, yet, as the contest 
progressed, the Convention men were driven to the 
avowal that it wa^ a Slave Constitution they intended 
W adopt- So, in the end, the naked question was pre- 
lented, "Shall Illinois be a Free or Slave State?" The 
diwussions on the stump, through the prcss^ in the 
churches, at the croi-s-mads and at the fireside, had 
prepared the people to decide the question. It was on 
the first Monday of August, 1824, that the election was 
to take place. The hand-to-hand stru^Ic had con- 
tinued eighteen month*?, and su^^rliuman exertion;; had 
been made on both sides. Both parries welcomed the 




arrival of the moment that was finally to end a struggle 
thnt had evoked so much feeling and passion, involved 
so much labor and absorbed such intense interest. The 
following 1:5 a vote of counties for and against the Con- 
vention Resolution:'" 

Alnvidrf, . . . 












Votr «||Bin4i Cnnvci- 
VoM ibi ConvFnri^ri 

Iftf 131 

lion RcaoluTion 

Ijiwrfn^. . , . i . I5fi 

Mulitari, j$< 

Minaa, 4f 

MoAfgomcrr, . , , . 74 

Monror* I4I 

Moni«»> -I* 

rtt*. -J 

Pnpp :tj 

RaDilcIl^. - ' - ' ' jn 

Siiwumm, . . . . 1^ 

3i..O«ir 4^7 

Lniart, ...... 3iJ 

WaiMnfron, . . , . ill 

W«vn«, tH 

^^^^ Z$$ 

re cf . 








4~>ut of A Tuft 

Judge Gillespie has ^nt me a ticket which he says 
*'camc from the papers of a man nnmed Samuel Mc- 
Kitrick, now deceased, and which was used on election 
day on the Convention i^iic^rion. It shows how art 
fully the tickets were gotten up 10 give the Convcrn- 
tionists the benefit of accidents; the figures on the back 
of the ticket -'1824.'- arc in the hand-writing of Mr. 
McK. When you arc done with rhc ticket, please hand 
it to the Ht!i^J^i<:al Society, to be kept ajs a mtmaUo.^^ 
I'he following is the ticket: 

ptx>pu:'s BAi.ixn\ 

For nfvr Oinntituiion. 

For jrricic prnliibitmg bonks. 

'"Sec Pciir, Tht Fiantifr Starr. R^- 'Hie rnuli o^tiu vole k|tlrea m lbtlo««L 
4(07 J Utr BtonvcntiDn: M*o nitain*! it. 



No tijEht (jfiulFrAgc or office to ncgroe» or muUttocs. 

For Uffs cxctudmg ncgro«s mid muUnoca from coming uito 

Ajuj voting m Thi« Stitc. 
For Coagrounonnl apponinnrnent. 

TTie Convention scheme was ovcn^hclmingly de- 
feated, and it would natumtly he supposed that the 
men who had thrust it ii[>on tht people would have 
!iecn driven from putilic life. Not S4>j howc%'er. It 
wa.s the year of the Presidential election. While the 
anti-Convention party was united, harmonious and 
vehement in its opp<wition to the call for a Convention, 
there were serious divisions in it as to Presidential prt:f- 
erenccs. General Jackson had been brought out RS a 
candidate, and his name c^-oked great enthusiasm. The 
Convenrinn men generally railieil under his banner, 
while the anti-Convention party divided its vote be- 
tween Adams, Crawfordand Clay." Fighting under the 
Jackson flag, the Convention men achieved great advan- 
tages in the legislative elections, particularly in view of 
the division of their opponents. The Convention 
question out of the way, the Jnckson party having been 
formed, became irresistible. The Convention men 
flocked to the standanl of "Old Hickory/' and though 

1^ popuiir vote fru u frW^rw^-. }aA^on ottc chuuB^mi nine JluriilreJ MThJ 
oik; ^d»tn*trte thoofjAJ Arc huntirrd ap^ fnily-iwn, Crawford two h^ndrtd and 
Mfwrccn; C'l^y «bc ihouimd nrj fitfiy-Kv«n. There «■■» tia ctioiA of Prcsiiicnt 
b^ <hs pccfilc it tkm iJveiKin, ahJ ehir Htmtc nl Re|utHncarmt clKthl John 
QiHrT A«ltint Hon OtTiip] P. Coo^. rhf onLv Rrpfrvtrarivr »ii CaAgnna ivsaa 
mmrMt *»*< tW ^te oi rtit ^fl^e for Mr. AJimi The rafc of \U. Cock ■** 
■vwrfly dfiUJiinrrJ hy the lirtrtn mm, hut rt «-j» cfitircly iu^rk&iliK Vililc 
JscfcuB \kiii « iiijjfcitv of thrtK Jiumlrcd 4nd fifly vuici over A4iit&» chc hii^»< 
■yiTCTilrtrr t'»-lMbtCi jtt ^c v^^ in a miiaurity of riv hmiilrcd itnJ cifhty-icven 
ftnow (be Stirr. Cook vj^t iltcuil ta ibc nincicfiitb C<iritZ'Cn i^ Aufvit, i};«, 
Wt W tr^i Uauii tor rh? twcnticfti Con^ren in jtih L) JoAcph Quauri» th« 
JtdivM nnJidtar^ In iRii' J»kMin anJ Atlvint w*tt tht oppo«in^ candklcita 
Lr Hrruicru. snJ aur of ngliF rhouiAod thrtt hunJrvd jful lony'raur votn in 
JU^iv, JkIutiii fmrivttl t'i% ihtmtttml VTCn hunilrad anJ k\%ty-thnv. 


rLLn\'ors historical coixections 

so badly beaten on the Convention Resolution before 
thp i>enplc> yet as Jtukson men rhcy snon found thcrn- 
sel^'es in the majority in the State, controlling every^ 
thing, while rhe anri-Convcntion men, who had won 
so gtnrious a triumph for liberty and preserved to the 
pcopb the bicssingsuf our free constitution^ politically 
Went to the wail. The Legislature of 1824-5, instead 
of electing CJovcnior Coles or some other prominent 
anti-Convention man Saiattjr, to sneered Niniaii 
Edwards elected Eti;is Kent Kane, a strong pro-Slavery 
and Convention man, for the long term, and John 
Mclxanj equally Convention and pro-Siavcry, fbrthc 
short term. Four Jtidges of the Supreme Court were 
elected by the same Legislature: William Wilson, Chief 
Justice, Samuel D. Lock^xxid, Thcophilus W. Smith, 
and Thoma<i C. Browne, Justices. The two larter had 
been Convention men, and Smith one of the most vio- 
lent and offcHiiivc, tliough one of the ablest in the State. 
There is nothing stranger than this in our political 
his tor}"- 

David Blackwell, having been elected a member of 
the House of Representatives from St- Clair county, 
resigned his office as Secretary of State in Oct., 1824. 
In the following letter Governor Coles offered the posi- 
tion to Mr. Birkbeck. 

Gcdtnvf Cola n Mr. BkH^L 

Et>wari>^*iii.e, Sep. 22, 1814. 
Uwr ^ff-.— Mr. Bbckwdf, having been ckcccd a member of 
the Legbiaturc, bu ootilicd mc that he shali resign the office of 
Secretary of State un the 3nd or 3d of next month- The object 
of this ktter is to offer tfixi sir^iAiioa to ycm. It U Jeiirable that 
I ihcAihJ Iwv from you un thin stibji:i:i xt iutm siit ptiuible, and if 
you should thiJik ;>riipcr to accq>t, I wish yoti to meet me at 



VuhUIu dunng ihc firvt vcdt of October. It bas occomd gq 
Bic iKa: if die office ofScrrctai^- of ihc State shouM not be agn^ 
able to you a> hoJd rermnncnily, ii vouJd be bo it Icut during 
tbe ncKc winter. Be this, however, fts it majr, ft ai^>rd5 ric T>lc«saro 
^ ' ' vcf ir> gtrr you to strong % proof of the Ugh 

i 1 htAd >our charKTCcr, anj ro ^arify the derp 
rooted ftttAchfikcnt of your friend^ 

Ho WARD CoLi^. 
MOEUV Bl&KBECK, &<£., 

Wan borough. 
I had hoped after die grvat and (Ie<:ided majority wHieh wat 
at die late ctoction against a CoiarcDbon, my poljljcal 
ervctnka would ha^'c ocaacd to pcnccutc hk* Bvt in this I was 
tnuukea. It would »eem 1 must Im MCrdioeit. Nothing shctft 
of my entire ruin will siatitfy rny enemies, and they ceem deter- 
mined to e?<rct it M'ithmit r^gartj in the mean^ YeMerday the 
^auit which hu^ been in»nmicd ag^iiuc me for lieting my neume^ 
called vp for trial. Judftc Reynolds oot only decided Kircral 
itats of law iigainsT me, in oppo»i>on to the opin^ of several of 
the be«t Uwycrs in the State, but he and Mr. Tumcy rejected aO 
my testimony as iMegal, artd would not pe^rmtc a solitary word to 
be utrcrcd by a witness of mine. Under siKh circumstances the 
j^iry found a verdict of again&t Enc, which, with the cost* 
wiU be a difficult Mim for me to rassc, thcae hard times, I shall 
aak for a n«w trial. If thb applicdtion should share the fate of 
all the othen I haw made, it is to be hoped he will not assume 
tile power, to ]>revcnt my takiri)^ an a|)^«:!al to the Supteinc CourL 

In haste* your friend* 

£o. COLEl^ 

In the following letter Mr. Birkbcck accepted the 
office tendered: 

Va?rDALIA» Oct. 9. it^U- 

t}f^rSir:"\ revived your favor of Sept. ii^offcriHR rac the 
^tttation of Secretary of Slate, and expressing your wUh^ in case 
of my accepting the oJfice, that 1 would meet you at this place 


(hiring itic fii^i vftek of tim monrli. Rrlyiny cm your jiulgment 
tftchcr ihitn my own in regard to my qu^ilificiirion*, stfid fcclfiig 
great plcastirc in the prospect of its »tfoTdinjc mc ihc «Kca»*>n nf 
more frtqucnc friendly intercourse with you, I conclu<lcd'co acce]>t 
yoiir proposal, and arcoT<iiTi9ly arrived here Inur nights ! :im mily 
Aorry m kam frc^m^ Oil. I'irld <Kai yon <«rr ^Irlaiocd m I'Vlw^tni^ 
viJlc by iiidi^posiiion. Waiting for your insuiictiona, I raiiaw. 
Dear Sir, 

Yours mo5( tiulji 

Gov. COLfiS, 

Though the call of a Convention had been largely 
defeateilf yet the pro-Slavery men at the same election 
elected a majority of the Scnare» which had to pass on 
the Governor's nomination Kir Secretary o\ Mtacc. 
They were but ttK> well pleased to be enabled to vidt 
their wrath on Mr- Birkbeck, who had wielded 90 potent 
ati influence in securing rhc rejection of their Conven- 
tion project. Mis mniiination was therefore rejected, 
and he only held the office for the period of three 
ironths, from Oct- 15, 1814, to Jan. ij, 1825- Tlic 
rejection of Birkbcck by the Senate was urrrrly unjusti* 
fiable, for a better appointment could not have been 
made. The office at the time he went into it was in a 
state of confusion afid disorder^ but during his brief 
occ*i]>ancy he reduced it to jwrfect order and arntnge- 
ment. Sometime afterwards, speaking of Mn Birk- 
beck, Govenior Duncan said to a gentleman: "I came 
to Vandalia with every prejudice againutt Mr, Birkbcck 
as Secretary of State, but when I looked into the office 
and ^w the order and management, especially when 
contrasted with the previous confusion* my opinion was 
completely changed/' This was the only office that 



Mr, Birkbcck ever lit-M in the St;itc. 'Hiough rejcctcii 
by 3 parnsun and pn>'SUvcrry Senates, And rrum motives 
unwjrihy of such u body, Illinois was honored by his 
holding the position cA'cn for ^ short a time. But it 
was n<»i permitteti to Mr. Birkbtft'k t<i live to sec the 
development of that State which he had labored so 
effectually to keep free. On the 4lh of June, 1825, on 
hift return 10 Wanhomiigh from a visit to New liar* 
oiuoy, Indiana, he was drowncfd while cnissing Fox 
River, His body, taken two days afterwards to New 
Harmony, was burictl with every mark of resptxt and 
affection. Thus perished at the age of sixty-two years, 
Morris Birkbeckjoneof the ablest and most cultivated 
men <»f his time in Illinois, wh(jse inHacnce wielded in 
the cauAc of freedom and humanity -ihould always be 
gratefully rcnienihcrcd. None of hts descendants re- 
mained in the State after his death. Two of his sons 
went to Mexico, some members of his family returned 
to England, and subsaiucntly removed to Australia. 

KoKKierK Val'x; Ihportaxt ahd IrrrcRcsriMO Lkthk or 


Mauc]o^» l^w Suit lwi-nrL'TEL> Acaijcst Hjm ro» Fitcc- 
tKO H» SipAvct; H» NoBLC Wonos ix tiik Ored op Emabt* 


Him i'ok Twi» TtifiiiMna Ooli^k^; Casi: Appcaleu to tmi 
SoriiEaiECouRTA»Djut>oMi:MTR£vr«Koi till UrrPLeA5AJ 
AVD EMaAhftA5»tv<: F<uitiok; Monaco av a Kabblc a' 
Vaxdaua; The Sp;jut wkich S'jataikkd Him amd th; 
fAriu WHICH UiiieLo Hih; 6GAi;npi;L Tumure or M*. 
Va«x to Governor Colls. 

The following letrer of Govcmor Coles to Mr. Vaux 
has a great historic interest. It illustrates the feeling 
ill the Sf,iic at ihc time it was written^ and shows the 
persecution which thc^Governor was subjected to on' 
account of the decided stand he took on the Slavery 
que5tion. The lawsuit which he gives so full arvd inter- 
esting an account of, has gone into the judicial annals 
of the State. The manner in which the prosecution 
was abetted by the jut^s, and the political character 
that wiis given to it, will forever stain ihe history of our 
judiciary. Governor Coles had freed his staves beforc^^ 
entering the State* but after his arrival at Edwanb^H 
villct for the better protection of the frecdmen* and on 
the advice of the Hon, Daniel P- CcMik^ one of the 
most eminent law>'ers of the State in his time, he gave 
separate papcnt of manumission to all his former staves. 
Ai thiii time neither Govcmor Coles nor Mr, Cook 
knew anything abuut a law of the State that had been 
previously passed, but which was not promulgated ttl 



several months afTcrwards. This law prohibited any 
person from bringing into tiiL- State any negroes for the 
purpose of emancipation^ unless he should give bonds 
in the penalty of ont thousand dollars that the negro 
would not become a county charge, and that if the 
emancipator negiecced tn give this bond he should for- 
feit and pay the sum o: cwo hundred dollars for every 
nqjro emancipated- Governor Coles had executed 
papers of maniiniisston to persons, who bad been his 
slaves, after rhey had been brought into the Sute, in 
technical violation of :hc statute in such case miidc and 
pfovidrd> and the pro*Slavcry men were quick to avail 
diemselvcK of an opportunity to harass and punish him* 
A suit was instituted^ "The County of Madifion versus 
Edward Coles/' and the writ was made rciumablc at 
the March term of llic Circuit Court at Edwanlsvillc, 
1814. John Reynolds was the presiding Judge. The 
defendant i^ead the Statute of Limitations, and put 
in several special picas to plaintitTs declaration. A 
demurrer was filed by plaintiff to the special ^eas. 
The Court took time to consider, and the case went 
over to the September tcrt^. At this term of the Court 
John Reynolds again prcMticd, A demtirrvr to the plea 
of the Statute of Limitations having been sustained^ 
id the demurrer to the special picas having been up- 
Lcld, the defendant pleaded nildekif. Issue was joined, 
and the case was submitted to tlic jury, who returned 
a verdict against defendant for two thousand dollars. 
From a Bill of Exceptions taken during the trial and 
spread upon the records of the Court, it appears that 
the defendant. Coles, offered to give in evidence and 
prove to the jury that three of the negroes mentioned 



in the declaration of tlie plaintiff had departe^l this life 
before rlic commencement of the suit; but the astute 
Judge woiikl not jxrrmit fhe cesfimony to be given, 
thus practically deciding that it was necessary u> give 
a bond to hold the county harmless from the support of 
iiead meiu The defendant ihcn offered to prove by 
juseph Conway, ilie cicrkof the County Commissioners 
Court, that the defendant had never been notified or 
required to give bond, but the Court would not permit 
such evidence to be given- The defendant further 
offered to prove by Daniel P. Cook, the attorney luider 
whose advice he acted* the conversation he had with 
him before the date of certificAtc of manumi^ion, and 
chat he, C(»nlc, advised the giving of such certilicatc in 
order ro protect the negroes, and to "enable them to 
live themselves;" and also to prove by said Cook all 
the circumstances and convcrsaiion hclwecn said wit- 
ness and defendant, which induced and led to the execu- 
tion of said certificate, all of w*hich evidence was 
rcjcctcd^thc record to state that the plaintiff gave in 
evidence the fullowiny certificate: 

"Whereas, my father, tlie late John Coles, of Albe- 
marle, in the State of Vir^nia, did in his Inst will and 
testamrnt give and bequeath to me certain negro slaves, 
among othen* Robert Crawford and His lister Polly 
Crawford, the said Robert Crawford being a mulatto 
man, about five feet seven inches high» and now about 
iwcnty-seven years of age; and the said Polly being a 
mulatto woman about five feet one inch high, and now 
about sixteen or seventeen years of age- //«*/ wk^eas^ 
I do not beliftf that man can hat^ a right oj property in 
his/iUcw man, ^ut on the conirary, that all mankind art 



atdo^ptd by nciure with eqnal righfs^ I do^ therefore, by 
theftc pre*enw restore to the said Robert and his sister 
Polly, (hat iftaiUnaifU lihriy <^ which they ha^ ieen 
iffriixil. And I do hereby renounce for myself and 
my heirs forever all claim of every description whatever 
to them and their servicer, and I do hereby emancipate 
and make free the said Robert Crawford and his sister, 
Polly Cr:twford. tn testimony whenrof, the said Coles 
set his hand, and seal, on the 19th day ot July, 1819/' 

Thia act of emancipation executed by Governor 
Cute?» ami sprcaxi it[^nn the records of the Cotirt^ stands 
out TO his immortal honor, and makes more conspicuous 
the infamy of his persecutors, 

H)c motion for a new trial, which had been made 
in the case at the September term, 18I4, was not 
decided at that term, and the case went over to the 
March term» 1825, At this term of the court Judge 
Saniucl McRobcrts presided. The motion for a new 
trial in the case which he found undecided, was 
promptly overruled. Between the term of the court 
in September, 1824, and the March tcnn, 1825, the 
Legislature (in January, 1825), pah>ed an act releasing 
att penalties incurred under the act of iSig (including 
those sued for)^ upon which Coles was prosecuted. 
The law required as conditions precedent to the release 
of the penalties, the execution of a bond that the 
negroes should not become a charge upon any county 
ia the State, and that all the costs of the suit and 
damages incurred should be paid. To enable the 
defendant to take advantage of this act at the June 
term, it was moved at the same term to set aside the 
verdict and judgment to enable him to plead puis 



dmrim coftihiuance. McRobcrrs proved equal to this 
last phase of the case; he overruled the niotk*n for a 
new rriat and rejected the plea, holding that the Legis-* 
laturc could not make a law to bar the recovery of the 
penalty in this case. The judge, however, was DOt 
able to prevent the defendant from talking an appeal 
10 the Supreme Court of the State. This ap[>eal was 
taken and heard at the June term of the court at \ttn- 
dalia, 1826. The judgment of the Circuit Court was 
reversed and the cause remanded, with directions to 
receive the defendant's plea. Cliicf Justice Wilson 
gave an able and elaborate opinion. Co/r/, piamSiff in 
erroTy versus the Couniy of MaJijofiy d^endant hi nror; 
BncJts RepGTis, pa^r iiS- The case was argued 
befoK the Supreme Court by Henr)' Starr for Coles> 
and Tumcy and Reynolds for the count>* of Madison- 
Henry Starr was at this time residing at Etlwardsville, 
and one of the best lawyers in the State, He was a 
strong personal and political friend of Governor Colcs» 
and took a deep Intercast in this ca^c. After being 
several years at Edwardsvillc, he returned co Cinctn- 
nacif where he attained great eminence in his profession. 
He died only a few years since. 

Vandalia, JanV i>> "^U- 
My friend:— \yink at EdwardsvUle a few days since, I 
received n letter from D. B. Smithy nocifyitig me that he had fee- 
warded to the care of L I. Smith & Co^ of St. Loois, cerraiit 
pamphleix; previous to which, howcvrr, I hiiJ iKtn irtformt^ by 
one vf ihal company thar he cxpc^tcii ihcm, and lud requested 
him to notify mc so soon as ihcy should be received, and to for- 
vrard them to mc 10 thh place by the l^r«t «afe opportunity, I 
alio had the pleasure to receive at EdvrardfviUc the pamphlet 

n^jsHSVRyB's EorrjRD cou£ 


^•0 *crt >o iBood m b aiclofc mc by nuiL The icJbntutk» 
<«auiiicii ta tiui ptraHilct m rchtioQ to tfac feccisn ilave tnde, 
b highir inw«ttin^ I raiMt, fc iwwu , be Allowed to ecpnn ny 
rrgRf dut it ilot« noi brar raccc directly on the qucsoon, wfakh 
■ ncrw a^CflOns m betr* by ahmring tlv tttenbUACC brnncn 
dw/orr^ md damoHt sUvc trade, and the inmCablc dTcct of 
dMCxte«LUioaof5Uva7iati}oewreporu, tocontiaue and ioocaw 
rhu odioufl trafic To odd to tfw omiUtioft of tins, as well as 
the ptmphlet I had |>revK»slj tJi« pleasure to recore from jrw, 
I shall, [f ptB^Ue, prcviU on xmtc of iKc ediTon ta publish them 
to tliar ocwspapcn. Bui unfnrtunaidf (6r cur cauic, of the five 
fie^npMjKn pruned in tiu» Siatc, four arc the avowed ad^^xAtci 
ofSlavefT (in othtf vrordi iof a ConTcatioBj and but cne of Free- 
dom, and clut one not frkiKUy to rac and other oppoottits of the 
Conimnnn. Thu <fivig*cm anwxig us an«a Itori fa<monf, por- 
soaal asd local frcliA^ and from the drcumttxnoe tint we have 
ouusy avowed fncnda of ficcdom, who arr Ehanadrcs die mutcrt 
or»iavoi and wiio» while they unite with us in opposn^ the means 
of the fufthcr latnxtuctioo of SU\try, are at the same tun« 
vio^dy oppoaed to oar dhrts to abotith the remnant of Slavery 
which is itin allmred Co stain oar «!. There ts also annthtr 
cltv aoKing U5 who profess Co Ijc opposed to Silvery^ and who rail 
voch a^nst it, but yet who arc friendly to it, a» is fully evinced 
by dior advocating every measure cakuUted to lACTOduoe afid 
tolerate it here. The chsrscter and feelings of these several 
dsMGCt nf our cUizrrw wrrc stmn^y cvnnplifi^ last winter, whrn, 
<tt entering into office, I calkd the attcnuon of chc Lc^blaturc to 
ihc acbtcncc of Slavery among us, and urycd m abdinoo* As 
it cnay be the means of throwing »omc fieht on the alavv question 
tn this State, I will send you, accompguvyuig ihia letter, a pfinted 
KOpf of my speech^ and a report made by a committee of the 
Lqpi^atorc on a part of it. 

My remarks and recommcndaiton on the subjeet of slarcry 
produced a great exdicment among thoic who held sbveSi of 
were dcstroui of holding them, particularly among thoM advo* 
calc» of a Corvvrntioo who were profeuficdly the upponcnt* of 
Slaver^', Inif KiTcrly its friends, and wliu hoped under die fair 
mask of freedom, to dccdrc the ptxsph:, and to smufl^tc in tht 



nKmattr SUvcrr. Bru%'uig forward tbe meanm of abofibcxi at 
the OUTK time they broi^ht forward ilse Convenuon qud^doo, 
pl«cnJ ihtte jKofested fncndc to xhit nghti of nuia i& an a«kward 
aituation, Sot it wax apparent if ilic? voted agTccable to ilidr 
licctarabofi*, they, lAficthcr vnth the real and fcauttK fncad* of 
frwdom, would coiutiTutc a Ena)oritr of the Lcipjlaccrc, and of 
couTMT past the abolitkin 1^11. ThU state of things had the tifcci 
oranntflfkiriK thrir m^c opuiioiti and vievs, and of dearly cxhih* 
itni§ 00 the (TuliJic the rtaJ object tue which ■ conwntxui was to 
be called— thai of makise: thU a Slivc-hoUinc Suic For haring 
been inscnimcttial in elfcctug this, and also for hairing acted up 
to my principles in reston^ liberty to certain ftlavea given to me 
by rnf father. It would teem 1 am ne^r to be forgir^-n, but to be 
subjeL:t Eu iin unrcldiling ami iruel |>cr3accution. which aims tu 
dc&trvy not ijuly my political ioiluenee, but my personal character 
and property. After having resorted to vanoua means to injure 
my standing with the people, an eHort is now mode ti3 ctipple my 
pecuniary resource*, and thus to di»1>Je me frc^m promoting the 
causae of freednm^ luid fif punixhing me fur what 1 hawdtmein 
this way. A nut has been recently mttiiutcd against nte to re- 
cover the penal ftum of $too foe f4cA ncgTO emancipated and 
bm^C by me to this State- ThU suit has been brought under 
a law pAfl«cd zbtxiX the first of April, iSi^, which prohibited any 
pmwtfi fmm brinpng Into thi* Stare any nrgm lor the piirp<uie nf 
cmaiKipation, unEcAfi he vtoukl give bund under a pcraliy ofj 
fi,iOOO that the negro »hould not booocnc a county charge, and that 
if tlic enancipator neglected to give thi» bond he sKouM forfeit 
and pay the sum offsco for e:ich negro emancipated. Myncgroea 
emigrated to and settled in tlii* State about onf m^'uh a/trr the 
p:iKxagt! of tbi:i act, but more than.ffcv m^nsh htfar€ it wat pnntnl 
or prom ulg;i ted. Ta the peculiar hardship of my cttsc, front the 
impos3ibiJit>- of knowing of the existence of the law, until after I 
had violated its provifticins and incurred ita penalty, \% to be added 
the fact of my nor hinng content with freeing the negrort in 
Virginm, and rhi^s rrtimtiiiKhing mor*' than one-thin.! uf the prop* 
eriy given mc by my father^ but ^ni a desire to promote their 
intercut, removed them to this State, at an expense of between 
five and aix Jiundred doll&n, and then gave them aa a remunera- 



tioi for thw post serrioo, nnd « ttisuikut to future exeriio*, 
coe htifuirtd and mty ttatt of Uml tc «ftcb who hul pused the 
;igr of 24. TUcf all be ha r al uiiiibnnl)^ wc^, and arr hcincwt, 
irtclutnnia and prD«fKnui. A/kl «h«t u tmly fjimcal in ihii 
Mt 13 that it has been irtsrimrcd at the miance of a irorihlc«» 
fcilcw, the toolof auction, who bdctotute of property, And poyt 
nc tax, and of course has no direct interest whether the negroes 
t^rmnr a onnry charf^r or nor, when they are all young and 
HcAlthf , atid GO pro6pauB& chac one of the families poiy ms much 
os/mr' doJlan ai a tax ro the county. Never having been sued 
btfere, 1 /c<t the more morttfied at being pro»ecvtcd for violating 
the laws of a State over which the people have called me to pre- 
side, but this fnoriiiUratioQ U co«iMlerably abited when I reflect 
on the tiaittrc o{ my iiffenv, anil the character of the prnoeculor^ 

About the time of instituting this suit I h»d the mbiortuDc 
to loae hy Arc about two-tMnii of all the buildings and cncloMires 
on my hm- Soon after which the ''State Hou»c'* ^as a]»o con- 
■WRed by £fe^ The tnhabtrants of this pUce, feeling rhat ther 
had an tntcresr >n its being immcdiarely rebuilt, pmposied to ilo 
so by cocitribution. After my recent lo&s by lire, and with this 
fioit hanging over me, 1 did not feci mysctf in a situation to be 
very itber«li and not liking fromc of the arrangements, proposed 
an fliteratton of thciti, and in the meantime declined subficrihing> 
ThU was tmmr-diatcly ^ei^cd huM of by the friends of s Conven- 
tion, wfio forined a mob, aitd paidtkd the sticeta nearly the whole 
night, giving vent to their spleen against me for mr opposttton 
to M Convention, and refusal, as they termed it, to rebuild the 
Svs^xc Hcute. In this way every little circumstance b laid hold of 
to rcmler me unpcrpuUr; hut in thi* owe their pauions led them 
too fat» as their cufiduct has produced <vi the community a re- 
nction which has been of service to me, and the cause I advocate. 
Discovering this, they now deny having had anything to do with 
the mob. 

Having had the gcxxl fortune, through every penod uf my 
tile, to live in great harmony with my fellow man, the enmity 
and pcrxcution I have lately hod to encounter, have created a 
new state of feeling, and caused mc to took into my own cotuluct 
to «ee whether it has been correct- In this review I have been 


gnUtficid Co find 1 hare not given jittt cau9c of oSfcnse to oJxj one} 
but I have been grieved to perceive with what virulence I have 
heen pelted, ^^hcn the only compUint against me t>, that I am 4 
ftiend lo the cqiial nshu of manj nnd am consldcrctl n lurncr to 
my opponents Acquiring rhc power of opprtssing their (dlow men. 
Under this view of my firjatir^n^ I am lErattticd ihftt Prcridence 
has pbccd me id ;hc van of this great contest; and 1 am truly' 
thankful that tny s^^tcri is so organbcd as to learc no room f<ir 
d<Jubr, fear or hesitation. My opinions have long since been 
matiirdy fonnod> and my course dcJibctatdy taken, and is not 
nov to he chanj^ by ^tractioHf proMcudons, or threats of 

1 beg you excuse my troubling ycu with the pentdl of lo long 
a letter, and that you wilJ pcirdon me Ajt having laid «o much of 
myacif, in conMHctation of ics connection with the great qiscstion 
nov agitating \W\f StatCi by inicrestii^ younelf in which you 
ha%^e dispiayod so signal and praisewoithy an mntance of youTi 
benevolence — for whieh T pray you to accept the grateful thanks'^ 
of your friend, 

EowAiu> COLIU. 


This letter of Governor Coles, written in the con- 
fidence of private friendship, now made public after a 
period of nearly sixty years, will show to the people of 
Illinois at the present day the extent of his persecution 
for ^'righteousness sake-" Harassed by malicious 
lawsLiifik, St victim of the prejiidit^s of unjust judges, 
mobbed by a rabble* maligned and misrepresented in 
every possible way, his position was one of the mosi 
unpleasant and embarrassing in which a public man 
can find himsdr But armed with the panoply of truth 
and justice, and batding in a great and holy cause, 
he was never dismayed Or discouraged. The spirit 
which sustained him» and the faith which upheld him^ 


are manifested in the following extract from tlie above 
letter to Mr. Vaux; 

"Having had the good fortune ehroogh evcr^ period of my 
life, lo live in grcftt luirmony with m/ fellow men, the enmity and 
pcr^cution I h»ve tatclr had to eaioounrer, h*vc created 2 new 
sintc of fcdifigs and cAu»ed mc to look into my own conduct, to 
sec ivhcther it hai been correct. In ihis review f have been grnci- 
fird to find I h*w? not given just cause of offense to any one; Ivjc 
1 hivi' Iwen ^licvtil ro prrcp-ve with uhat violciict" I have been 
pclttd, when tiic only comipUint AtP<)^t mt b that ) ain a fficnd 
to tlie cqufti Hghu of man^ ind ttm conaidered a barrier to nky 
oppoi>enia acquiring the power of cpprecsiJig their feUow-men. 
Ufuler this mw of my situation, I am gratified that Providence 
hu placed me in the v;in oi* thit great trtmtctt^ nnd T am truly 
ihA^VJul that my sT-iicni is »n (jr^niz.rd u to Icbvc nn room fjr 
doubt, fear or hcsitatior. Mf opinions have Ions since been 
mamrely formed^ a/id my cour»c deliberately taken* and is iK>t 
DOW to be changed by dctnction, pertccatioo» or threata of ' 'Con- 

This tetter of January 11, 1824, was answered b/ 
Mr. Vaux July 14, 18^4* by a letter containing the 
following most beautiful and just tribute to Governor 

"TIlc part which fhre has been called to act, prlrately «s 
-U ht publicly and ofHdally, in regard to the lights of mankind^ 
^d for the upholding of the principlca oF juatictt and mercy 
toward a degraded and oppressed portion of our fellow beings, 
ought to be regarded a* a manlfe*taiion of Providential power, 
cont'eming which we mu*r always belitve the tame Divine intcr- 
posjiiijti will be extended in cx'cry exigency. I am altogether 
aatinficd that ic is rcscrrcd for thcc to witness the triumph of 
truth and beneficence in the struggle tt; which thee has been 
exposed; and, what is of inlinitcly greater value, at it respects 


thyself^ to reap a plentiful harvest in the most precious of all 
rewards^ the approbation of Heaven! 

I feel a deep interest in thy character, and a lively gratitude 
for thy service, and it will always be among the purest consola- 
tions of my mind to be assured of thy welfare and happiness.' ' 


:it OF Ro»?:ftTs \'av\ to Govgrkor Colks; Lieitt&kawt- 
Gm-ERxoji H('&aAitii Attempts to XJ^vttv the Ofrcc or 
Goverkok; Defeated by the Su^r^me Codrt, akd Fails 
TW mc Leqi»lati:re; Letteh or Covermou Colcs to 
Roiem Vaux; EsfroRCes his Vjevts oh Su^very ih a 
Ln-rct to Joi<v RirmeRroRDj Views ox the Par^oking 
Power in a Letter to Oasviel Hay; Ak extra Se^siok or 

THE. Lf.til^LATl-RE CALLtiEt; Gli%'ER3fllR Cot.tS^ Mt'^^Al^F.; 

Hi« RfcOMMr.f&DATioxt; Vian or l-AFATRm: to IluxOis; 
LrrrcR of I^favcttc to Govcrnor CoLt^; Govrrivor 
CoLtsscjVDs Ills Aid, Col. Hauiltov, to uErrMUi; Nonce 
or Cou Hawiltom; RRCtmov or Gkk. I^favcttr at 

tMntt Fan ta Gntrirtr Cc/ti, 

PniLAD&u>HiA, 6 Mo., [4. 1824. 
fMffmfd AViVwrf"— My dclny in the Rcl:no«l«dgm<nt 0/ ihc 
receipt of ih> injy jntcn^tiiig letter of Jjw'y ai, last, wiJl twii, I 
trttti, be Rttnuutcd to any WAnt of rtspcct uid kuuiitct^ but to 
the rtRl cRuaeiL, which were, fint, »n unuautl press or bun^wtt 
rtbttve to cever^] public tnstitutjunc, which ai the iea«on of the 
rrccipi of that communication demandctl my ittentiofi; aikl sec- 
omJly, to ihe tKjiectation ?iuti»eqtjcntly c^ntcriained here, tliRi ihy 
proeacc might he expected ac Wjuhington u succcsftor in tke 
ScciRCC of the Ceiled ^tatt) to N. RdwRrds. Appointed on a foreign 
mmion. The likelihood that the btter event might bring us to 
a piTMtnaf acquaintance in thw niy, when the iw^ion fjf Congmw 
shooM terimnare, wiu rnn;cmpJaird with pU-jKurr. ^dcicc u dimT 
iDtCTchatiffc of opinion would be preyed to cputolaiy corre- 
spondence. Time, however, hfts tcrved to show that this prospect 
with many ochcra upon which we dwdl with satisfaction, failed 
of realbation, and I rhcrcforc avail mywlf of the only means 
whirh arc left to renew ihc a&§urance of my remcmbri(Ke, of my 
andivKinUcd regard, and vi my sincere sympathy. Tlic part 
which thee has been calkd to act privately, as well aa ptibJidy, 


and officially, in wgard to the rights of oumkindt Aod for the 
uphokHng of the pmcii^ oTjusdoe, fti>d m«rcy Covjird i degnicled 
and oppfr»s«d portktd of our feliow hcingt, ought to be rcc|;airclcd 
a« a niinif»t«tiuo of Pmvidcntul power, cuoccrning wlikh me 
inust ft1wa>-t bdicvc the SMxac Divine intctpoattioD will be cxte.idcd 
in fftrr cxiffener* I am altogether aatufied that it ~v% Tavcncd 
for thee 10 witness the triumph of truth and beneficence la the 
tmi|tgle tn which thee hue been erpo«ed; and, ahat u of infimtely 
gtratct Tjduc, si it rri|Tectn rhy?ieir, to reii|> x plenieicHi« hunre«r 
in the most ppc«.w)ti* of all rewards, the approbation of flea w-cn! 

I ftel a deep inicttAt in ihf character, and a livclv graiirudc 
(br thy services, vid it w^tl always be nmor^ the purest conaola- 
thma of my mtrd to be asfured of thy wdfare and happtnc^; with 
thete impressions I saJuce thee, and rrmain fdirhfully. 

Thy Friemi, 

KOBCITi Vavx, 

Governor of Illinois. 
P, S. — I yc*i(rrdny j>awwl half an hour wllh oiir frieiKl, N, 
llkhtit; he tx well* bul vciy much occupied widi ulTicijil duti:f« at 
the bank^ 

BiaDU'oco LoDGi:, 9 Mo. 1, 18x4. 
JJufrFri'^J: — Tl>c Ust intelligence from PhilaclphU U, that 
fh« ipva' ipidkiifir^ which hi« ^n Inng iigitateil ycnir Si;iTr, Jim} whkh 
had a bearing so important upon the common iiitcfc»t« of human* 
Ity rtpul jiiiiice, Uas been dctermmed. Happy for youi oommon- 
wmlih! Creditable for o^ir cctuntry! Slavery will not be 

Iivrmitted to overrun Illinois? The re«\dt of the conflict it truly 
nytriii: you hnve said to the mora) plsguc, "Thuf/aTt ha w>far- 
tkft\ ihafi lAcfi tcmf*'* 

My >varmeat congratulations an: tendered on this great cvent^ 
(hfuah I know how inferior all exterior circumstances mu»t be in 
i4itTf|iari*on with the heart-solacing reward which is reaped by 
fhy ilrvi^ledncM in thiii noble cause. 

H^nfe 1 have lieen at my xummer rcaSdenre, 1 have received 
ifWral numbers of an Illinois new^apcr, and a pamphlet from 



tlic sime qLAricr, Jtll whicli coiilxrncd bifUf intcrcstuif matter 
rtJ&tivc CO xhc question Uicn unUccidcd in your Sutc; I presume 
r am indebted to xhj kindnoe for those documents, for whicfa I 
feel greatly obliged. The Ictccr of Thoe. JdT«9oa addrrwed to 
ihpdf, i* very intr^mriftg, and 1 have if in oontemplatiitfi to 
cauK it to be pnnccd m a tract fann» (or gcrxraJ dutribudoo^ 
provided such MX of it. may be alto^ther agreeable to thee. 

I hare iitdulsed myself with a hope that it may be within the 
range o^ probability, thtf thee will make a vi^t t:> FhiUdelphta 
ere long. Nur anythmjj wouUl gtvc; nve mote pWnire th:m thy 
pcocnce in our dty, and thnt grstiAcution wicmld be iiKroucd by 
thy mA^ine my ho\tK ihy hon>c- J have much more io com- 
municate than \ have leisure now to put on paper, a» we arc today 
preparing to return^ oo the narrow, xc our Kouae in town. 
With rinccrc regard 1 remun rhy friend, 

RosEtT^ Vacx. 
To Edwakd Cole5, 

Governor of Idino<«t 

ITic following letter giving an account of the ahsurd 
attempt of Lieutenant-Governor Hubbard, tn usurp 
thcofficcof Governor will revive the history of astrange 
and ludicrous transaction. It also alludes to t^c libd 
suits insrituted againsr the Governor for his just criri- 
ci$ms on the scandalous conduct of the judge who tried 
the ca^ against him for freeing his slaves. 

On the 2ind of June, 181I5, CJovcmor Coles notified 
Lieutenant-Governor Hubbard that he would bn ;thscnt 
from the State after the 18th of July» and that the 
duties of the Kxccutivc would devolve on him during 
his absence, which would nor be longer than about 
three months. Coles returned to the State on the 3 1st 
of October, 182;* and entered on the discharge of his 
duties, being recognized as Ciovernor by all the Exccu- 



tivc officers of rhe Siare. Hubb:ird having been the 
acting Governor for about ten weeki;^ and being pleased 
with his position, concluded that it would be a good 
thing to hold on to it. He ihcrcforL' set up the claim 
that Governor Coles, by absenting himself from the 
State, had abdicated and forfeited the office, and that 
he, as Lieutenant-Governor* was entitled to it- On 
ihc ^nd of November, and two day?; after Coles had 
assumed the duties of his office, Hubbard issued a 
commi3sion appointing Wm. I- D, Ewing Paymaster 
(Jcncrai, and rcquc?;tcd the Secretary of State to 
countersign and seal the commission. This the Sec- 
rctar>'> George Forquer, refused to do. Then Ewtng 
applied to the Supreme Court for a mandamus to com- 
pel Fonjucr to sign his commissionf imd the motion 
was heard by the full court at Vandalia, at the De- 
cemberterm, 1825, 'Vht court assumed that its decision 
would decide the question whether Coles or Hubbard 
was Governor of the State, Able opinions were given 
by Justices Lockwood and Smith, and the court unani- 
mously decided that it wtiuld not award the mandamus. 
Hubbard ihen went to [he LcgisJature, but with no 
better success than he had before the Court* Not 
much is now known of "Lieutenant Governor Hub* 
bard. ' 

In 1826 a new election for Governor Uyok place, and 
there were three candidates — Ninian Edwards, Thomas 
C. Sloo, and Adolphus Frederick Hubbard. The latter 
gentleman having failed to step into the shoes of Gov- 
ernor Coles, offered himself as a candidate before the 
people. As a part of a picture of the times and as 
illustrative of what a candidate thought of himself and 



of the people. Governor Ford, in his history of IllinoU 
gives one of Hubbard's speeches in the canvass, 
"FcUowcitizens/' said hc» "I offer myself as a candi- 
date before you, for the office of Governor, I do not 
pretend to be a m-in of extraordinary talents; nor do I 
claim to be equal to Julius Caesar, or Napoleon Bona- 
parte, nor yet ro lie as great a man as my opponent^ 
Governor Edwardi^. Nevertheless, I think ! can govern 
you prctry well I do rot think it will require a very 
cxrraordinar>- smart man to govern yow; for ro tell you 
the truth, fellow citizens, I do nor believe you will be 
very hard to govern no how/' 

Lieutenant-Governor Hubbard was at Washington 
<m the winter of 1824, and at the time that Ninian 
Edwartis resigned his seat in the Senate on being 
apijointed Minister to Mexico. He took it into his 
head that he could advance his own fortunes by this 
resignation, and he prevailed on the Senator to cntnisl 
htm with h\& letter of resignation to take in person 
to Governor Coles, As to how he proceeded, I will let 
Ciovcrnor Colc^ speak, in a letter to his brothcr-in-Iaw, 
the Hon, Andrew Stevenson, afterwards Speaker of the 
United States House of Representatives, and dated 
[Apni 7th, 1824: 

'^n ihe li^l day of March the Lieu tenanuGoYc mar of this 
State {Dubbard) irrircJ here irom Wa.<^ington. where he had 
been on a vii>ti, bringing me the olfctal notice of the re^tgnaiion 
of Ninian Kdwarris. fU t&lif tote Mr Cook and Mr. Edwards had 
induced htm to come on, under the belief that 1 would either 
resign my office and acccm a 9Cac in iht Senate from htm, or cocifer 
it on him, h wbs with some diftculn" ihar I couUi rcstmin my 
indij|;nauon at the idea ol thus aneitkina into the ScfMce, or of 
ficnding to it such a simpleton as my Liwtenant." 



From the sp<:cch of Hubbard above quoted, arul 
from what is generally known of him at the present 
day» I think the verdict will be that Governor CoIc3 
was right when he called him a '^simpleton." 

Vamdaoa, iniooif, FeUnjAry E, i3^. 
My D^ar Sir: — When 1 hud the happincw tt> enjoy four 
tociety U^t summer in Phiituldphit, you were » kind as to express 
a wish to bear from me on my return to this State. I should 
long sirwc h»vc ^ItUIed ehe promise then made you to eomply 
vnth (his rrcjitc^E, whirh 1 frlr wai iw flartcTing icj ntr, ns ir wav 
kind in yo-j; but for a niftss of Uisine»» which hiVJ Accumulated 
during my absence, the prcparAtion for the meeting, And rhe Ubur 
and inrcrmption niccnduit on the »c«sion of the Legislature, 
which adjourned a few day^ since; and the novel and extraordinary 
efforts made by some of my oU poUtlcal opjioncnts to supplant 
mc in tile ulTicc of G^cinar, by thrvadng in my place the 
Lieutcnant-Gorcmor, a zcaWs and thorough-ecing adrocate of 
Stavery. I had heard notJimg of this intention (forolthoush many 
letters were wntten to me, it so hsppcned not one ever came to 
hand, or baa since been heard of > ufitJI i reai'hcU Lc»uiiviile on my 
way heinw-, wbrn 1 wa^ foUl by a fncnd tli^il lie bad been informed 
by A distinguished opponent of mine that it had been determined 
that 1 should i»ot be permitted to resume the offioe cf Governor- 
On my anriving in the State, I fcniod that there had been several 
eaucuves held m diflerent places, by what are called rhc knowing 
ones, for rbr purpose of drvtising the tiewt modeof profrrding, and 
of urguiiiiii^ their forces to act again^i me. All the Executive 
officers of ttic State recognizing me as Governor, I found no 
difficulty in entering at onec on tbc duties of the offiee. The 
Lieutenant-Governor, however, still remained at the seat of Gov't, 
c<ont«nding that I had vacated the office by my absence from 
the StatCf and th»1 he wai, under the consutulion, the acting 
Gorcmor. On the meering of the Supreme Court he applied for 
a raardamus against the Secretary of State. The court refosec 
the mandamiJS on an incidental pointy and got rid of the main 



qccvtioo itiihoiit deciding ic. Soon sftcr this the General Atscm- 
biy mn, and tTic€t% twit- made in tndoo* it rn recngntE^ i\m \xq- 
tcrutnt as ihc Acting Govcrri'X: but [hc^K efforts fuiving failed, he 
miidc ft comrnunicfltion to boc^ Motives, sctnng foftJi hia cUima 
to the office Of Governor, And asking to be heard bf himself or 
counsel in support of thc/n. Nothing vas done with this com- 
manicauon, chcrr beings tm\j oftf nicmbcr in MtA Kou«c openly in 
favt>i of the licuiciiant-Guvcfriur'* pictcrisuios. Tlicrc would 
doubijcts Ii4vc been more ifthcrc had l>o£n any pt^pcotofouatinB 
mc. I utmWtc the umrxpected unanimity to the circumitancc 
of the <iuc£tion having been stirred ui time to alTbrd the people 
an opi^wtunity of making known their optnicn* and feeling to 
their Rq^rt?iacu)tatn-e3(, prcvlfiu^ to their leavin^^ home to take 
their icAts in the Ixgi^Uturc, The current cf public cpinioa on 
this qucjitioo was too fttrcng in my favor u* be n^sisted by any 
but a mo«c desperate antn^tonisE. Thi« effort of my opponents 
has recotled very much to my advanrage, in wrakcntng their 
popuJarity, and addiEiif to the aircngili of minc- 

You will recollect my having shown you l^&t summer sontc 
Mricttircs. which 1 had brtn induced to publish on the jiKlge's 
opinion in the malicious suit which had been ia^titutcd ag^umt 
me. for freeing my negroes, inconsequence of several extraordinary 
of facfy Hi ur!1 asoflnw, which it conra^ned.and ihcuniHual 
paim taken by the jurlgc tn publtih and clrculurt: ihcw errors to 
my mjury. Two actions have been instituted against me for this 
publication— one by the criurt— the ether in the name of the 
judge as an individual, tn which he has laid hi:^ damages at ^5,000. 
The former u to be tried at EdwarHcville next month — the latter 
lit this place in ApHL The original suit, or mother of the j^tdgc's 
tvvin suits, is stilt pending in our Supreme Court, and is expected 
wdJ be decided at the June term. 1 trxist I shall get rid of alt of 
these miH in the courte of the spring and summer I feet the 
more anxious 10 do bo ss they art the f rst suits that ever were 
inatituird aga!n«t me. 

1 have not heard anytliifig of the pampldcts which you were 
90 eood as to promise to Mnd me. 1 »hjdJ go to St. \jM3 in about 
m motfith, when I hope to receive ihcm. 1 see noticed in the 
public prints a new pamphlet, pubBshed by G. And C. Carville, 



RT New York, on rhd cmancipitrion and rrmnval of the sljivci r»f 
the U. S. If you could convctiTCDtly hy your Kiuids on this 
pampMcT, you would ccnf<T a favor on mc by Mf^din^ it to nic by 
milK Mfty I a^k ihc favor of you 10 hand to Mr. Fry rhc cfvcloMd 
five dollar note, and rcquear him 10 forward the National Gnciic 
to \MlliAm Wdson (Chief Justice of the Stflte) Carmi, White 

I hcs you to present my Kind regards tu Mr»- Vaux, »nd to 
Acccpl my fateful ackrowledgments for yoKiT very kind and tnily 
friendly attentions to me while in Philadelphia; and permit me 
again tcj renew to yuu tfte »«Euitanof« or' my ohli^afiUMS tu you fut 
the Nc^rviLcs remtercil Ut limnuniiy and u> lllinot^c ^lumig tbe Utt: 
vile c^ort to prcscituic tKcir rights ^nd eharactcr^ and ro repeal 
that the virnioiti: and benevolent mtere»t you evinced on that 
occafinn vill ever endear you to 

Ed w Alio COLKS. 
RoHKkix Vai?x, P«|-, 

The above letter of Governor Coles contains further 
cvklcncc of the judicial pcrst'cutioii to whicii iic was 
subjected. In » temperate article in a nt;wspaper he 
made a legitimate criticism on some of the outrageous 
and indcfcnsHilc nilirigs of Judjc McRobcrt?, in the 
CBsc of Madison t:oiLnry against him, for freeing his 
slaves in the Scate, without giving bonds. Eagerly 
seizing hold oi this publication, the Judge had the gpuss 
indelicacy to go before the Grand Jury of his own 
Court, ;md by virtue of his official Inriitence iind |.H>si- 
don he procured an indtctmeiu for libet against Gov- 
emor Coles* As that was not enough, he commenced 
a civil suit againsr the Ciovcrnor, laying his damages at 
five thousand dollars. This acrion of McRoberr^ was 
as malicious as was the suit of Madison county, as the 
sequel proved- A fw//e prosequi was entered in the 
case of the indictment and the civjl suit was never 



brought to trifll. The following letter of Governor 
Cal€3 to A. Cowlcs, the Circuit Attorncyr shows chat 
he never conscnccd to the dismis«tnl of the indictment, 
and thiit he was determined to probe McRolxrr's con- 
duct to the bottom. It is to be regretted that rfic 
answer of the Circuit Attorney is not to be found to 
publish wirh the letter of Governor Coles. 

F-x>wAiiD«vtLLiE, Aug, i6, 1S26, 

Dt4r JiV." — Bclic^Hng that I shnuhl have lieen able to prcjvc 
that I ha<] not IJWcd JiMgc McRoWts, and explain how the 
Ciraixl Jury Kad been induced to present tne Tor so doin|r> it was 
widi great reitret th«< 1 hccird yoii had thoufihi proper Co dismisa 
the protecatiofl. Fearing that «>mc malicious person mty mtt- 
reprcjaetii iKis rranwction at sonie fiinirc day, when those who 
now un^k-r^tard it may have forgiitirn many of chr deiojls in 
TcUtion to it, or perhaps be dead, or have removed from the 
country, I have dcttrmintd to ask the favor oi you to (pv« mc 
a written nnftifter to the Tollowin^ qucsTions; 

Did you iummon or request Judge MoRolscrt* to appear 
hdiin: iIk Grnnil Jur^', whii.4i presentcii mc Utr tibelift^ him? 

Dtd noi Judge McRobcns request to sec the imlictnicnt 
before it wa* delivered U* the Gmnd Jury, ;ind did he not examine 
and alter Uf and if fio wliai were the olierattum motlc by him^ 

Did you asV Mr. Blockwell to aid you !n the prosecution of 
me, am) do yivti krow whether he waic employed by Judge Mc- 
RobcTt^i u> do to? 

As you have cxpresacd the opinion vcd>ally to jcvcral perM)n«. 
that 1 had not libeled Judp;e McRnbcrts, I n*k the favor of you 
to give nve your opinion in wniinp, whether the matter eontainod 
in the indictment was a libel? 

Wiih ^reat respect, I am &c^ &Cn 


A- Cowi.Es, Esq.. 

Circuit Attorney^ 
P. Sp — VMiy wast not Judge McRofccrw rcmmcd as a wiii»e*s^ 
on the back of the indictment? 



What will be remarked in regard to Ciovernor Coles, 
is That tSc subject uf Slavery was always uppcrmust in 
his mind, and that he lost no opportunity in enforcing 
his views. The foHowing letter to his brother-in-law, 
John Rutherford, who had just been elected to the 
Virginia I-egislature, exhibits the deej> interest he felt 
in ameliorating the eonditjons of Slavery in hts nadve 
commonwcalTh of Virginia. 

Vawdalm, July 5, i8a6. 

1 give you many tlinnks, my dear Sir^ for your long and vnily 
sfTccnorsfo letter of Fcbrunrj'^ and awunr you, I feet great eun- 
tfiljoti fur }iavtitg ui lung ticUycd iKc expression uf llirm, iuul of 
saying bow much gratiBcd I was at perusing your kiiui letter, and 
the ghd tidings it ^rc mc of the health and happincas of our dc«r^ 
Emily and her litt]t ones; and abo the pleasure I liave sBce^ 
d«rivedatnndtng from the netvst>aper3 In what a dattcrins fnanner 
yuur Icllow i;Ul^^rvi have elected yoj U> represent ihcm in the 

I am E^atly gratified at your election, not only from the 
regard I have for you as a mttrtt &c.^ and the consequent interest 
1 tflkc in, and the plcn:5urc I derive frtim your success; hui f am 
parnriiUrly kr in src^ing mm nf ynvir prinripfr^ in relanon co 
ncgio Slavery in the Couricib of Vir^mia^ a& it cheers me vnih tftic 
hope that something will itoon be done 1o rq>udittc the unnatural 
connection wfi'ich h^u there &o long cxiated t^twccn the freest of 
the free and the moat sUvHh of the slave*. 

Even if it were fcasihle, from the cxtraordmary apathy in the 
great mas* <jf ilic i>oui>lc. »tkl the /c*d displayed by many to per- 
petuate the evil, I could not hope for speedy emancipation^ but I 
do trust for tlic honor xt well aa interest of the State that ameUo^ 
rating lairs w^l be sq^eedily paiued, which wiQ gradually ha;-e the 
effect tif reconciling nnd hnb^tuaring the mnsten, ami prep;iring 
the Klaveit for a change whicJi, a< Mr, Jt&tmtm ^tayK, mu«t ^ixmer 
or later t*kc pln« wiih or without the coniictit of the mutcrs* 
It behooves Virginut to move in this great qucstfron^ and it is a 



»otcmn duty whkK her politioniis owe to tftdr councn'. u> them- 
«clv<«i and to thelf posferity, to look ihcaU njvd mike provUion 
for ihc fururc^ anU iccure the peace, prosperity and glory of ihcir 

The policy of Virginia ka some years piit has been ino&t 
unfertunate. So fur fTom Aclirg &s if $lavfr>- were an evil which 
ought to be goEten rid of, every measure w)iich could be taken h^a 
been taken to perpetuate it» a> if it were a b)e«ftng. Her politkaJ 
[nli>t*i liive acted like x}\c iitex pr rWoccd navitf^tnr, wbu, tu yet 
rid of the sJighi inconvenience of ihe sarery.vAlvc-.i luivc hermeti- 
cally tfcalcd them, not forcsccinn that the uteviriUc convequcocc 
wiU be the bursting of the bodler* and dreadful haroc among all 
on board. No Uw has been paised under the c:>mjK6ii^x4ahh to 
uncliorair the black code of the ro/oflry of Virginia; oti rhc conrrary^ 
new lau's hare Ixen passed, adding to the oppressiori of the 
unfortunarc negroes, and M'hich have not only abridged the rifihta 
of humanity, but of the criizen. Such ia ihc character of the law 
«hich rcifricti, and to a great degree prohibits the master from 
minitnittting hta slaves^ The idea should be ever present to tftc 
pfjJitLianit iii Vlr^tma, tiiitt the ntale of Slavery \% an tiimaiural 
atate, ard cannot exitt fbrevcr; it muat ccimc to an end by consent 
or by force; and if by consent, it must frum all v:xpcncace, aa 
frcm t)je nature of things, be preceded by ajnel>oranng laws, 
whkK wiUhave tlie effcci of gradually and imperceptibly looicning 
tbe bond;( of Jiervitude. 

Nothirg is more crroneoui than the idea which i* entertained 
by many, that Ameliorating laws, and cspccinlly monumis^iona, 
are productions of tnfturrcctioofi among the slaves. The his Tory 
of the Brifith md Sp.intsH \Ve*t Indict ^how» that In ihortc !«1nndc 
where rWy havr prcvaiW moisT, the slaves hjvc brhaved l>rsr, 
'and insurrcctJona have oocurncd ofteiiest where the sJavca hare 
been most oppressed and mAnumissiona most rairicccd. Indcodi 
we never hear of in^urrcciiona in the Spanish Islands, where the 
tlavft are most under the protection or" the law, anj where there 
are no restriciiors on mAnumi>»ions. Virginia «J>on3d repeat the 
Uw agaiJial emimitatiuii, pTuhiUii tlie dumcscic alavc trade-* 
which b nearly allied in all its odiuu features to the Airican sUvc 
trade -r es trict the power of the master in disposing of hia slaves* 



bv prevailing Iilm ftwn scpoiatirig die chilJ rrom its parenc, tlie 
liD^banil Iroffl hb wife, etc., iitd if pOMiblc, coAnccC the ^arc 
unUcr prcpcr modiiicn&on« to the sodl. or At kut to the victnitr 
of hUbirch^ instruct the ibv«5 e«pectjillx m the doiie^ofR^lig^on; 
extend ru rli^m the prDtection uf the fav^s tnd ptinuh tevrnty m 
tlie misiert ititA when cruelly exercised b^ liiin. It ^uukl voit 
the right in the tiavc lo his freedom; or to be !toU at an aMCMcd 
valuation. These and moAy other provbions itiisht be adopted 
n^htch would have a tncut fLoJuiary effect, and eKfecially the 
Spanish provUinrij which givc^ the right to the tlavc to hujr a 
pcirrum nf hk noie as %oon bb he can pciHurc the meann, rttJ»er bf 
his own labor or by the bounty of others; thus, for In^lancc. 
suppose A negro i^otth }6oOv on his paying ^too, he is entitled to 
one day in each week, and so on. lt\ connection with the cman- 
eipAdon of alftvcs, 1 should provide for the removal by bounty 
xnd oiherwi&r, ul free ncgrues from th^ counir)', as ihe natural 
difference, and uiifuttunatc prrjudiccs cxi!kttng bciwocn the whiten 
and blacks would make it the interest of both to be separated. 
This subject is too big for a letter, and J can only odd, tJiat if I 
could see omelioraiing laws adopted, If I did not live to see the 
emancipaiiun, I shtmld at !ea»t die with the happy consolation 
of believing that mcumiten were in progress for the auisummation 
of ultimate justice to the descendants of the unfortunate African; 
and that my country, and the descendants of my family, if qoc 
my nephews otid niecei, would lie down in peace and safety, tind 
vrauld nor have entailed on them an tmnattiral and odioua system 
productive t>f strife, enmity and war, bctweai ilicnwdvcs and their 
domcAtkS' I woi in hopes to htvc been able by this bme Bo hare 
irfcrme^f you and my other friends of the result of the m«licio\ia 
(uit instituted against me Tor freeing my negroes, and which is 
pending in our Supreme Court. The cfl*e was argued last wcek^ 
but the criurt has adjourned 10 the 1st Monday of January neKi» 
without deciding it. I ^s^ mu^h disapptjjnccd in not getting a 
decision; I have however but httle fear a^ to the result, 

The views of Governor Ct^lc^ on the pardoning 
power, which wc give in the tbilowing letter, arc worthy 



of the fullest con!>itIeratiort by all vested wirh such 

Vaxdaua, Sq»r, 171 1834. 

VksrSh: — Voir letter of iht nth in*it., wiih iht accoinpany- 
ing (jDcumenix, has juii \>c^x\ rrcL'ivLil^ jnd lijts prcxlucetl, at you 
may imagirK, ^somc cmburra^Mmcrt. The power of pardoning la 
ihc most unplcaj»ant duty which devolves on the Fjcecutirc, // 
is B^I proper thai he ihottld j& ^xrrau this povrr m to arreif and 
dfftAi iht rrj^u/ar course and iMfnt of iht /jtt, hm ihst it sht>ufd 
only ifjfJ as a shitid io pn^til iht u^foriunaJe irt txlrajrjhupy 
<atfj QJ fiHitbhipt oflni iht lia has an op<ntiioM wj i'iitrtdeJ cr 
<^'iitmp''ate4, I 6,^ not fed myself «ufficicntly acqjaintcd with 
ihc circumstances of the caw now presented lo decide whether 
it is one of that extranrdinarj' character whtch would jmrify the 
Exccuovc iTi arTCf^rifig ihe scntciuc pronounced w;"»n ii by the 
proper tributial. To giix time for the receipt of further infor- 
mation, and ntorc reflection, and to nfford an opportunity for 
further development of tJie guilt or ?nnf)cejicc of" the parties con- 
cvmed, 11 the rrifll of the other two >ihipicys, which it is pnrsumeil 
will take place in N07, next, I have itetemiincd 10 susjirnif the 
CLccutioji ui tiic Kntciice of the court lintil ihc 15th of Dec-, 
befon: wliicii rime it is hoped every necesaary iiifi>rnifttion will be 
renaved lo cnaMe me to act correctly on the subject. In the 
meaniime, rhoie who take an incemt in the case will have an 
up|>ort\iriiiy of nial^ini; the f^i'ts ard llieir wi!thc:*t known- ia^mS I 
shsXX have it in my power of seeing aixl convcimng on the 5ubjei 
wuh Judge Wilxon, younelf and other pcDonv, who will asiembtc 
at VandaKa at the meeting of the General Assembly. 

Accompanying this letter f send n reprieve <A Coiner, at 
acateil idiuve, until Dec- v$. 

In hojte, 1 am, whh much respect, your friend, 

Edwakd Colcs. 
Daxict. Har, Esq. 

Owing to A (ItrfeiT in thf I;tw for th<^ election of 
electors for President and Vice President of the United 


Sutes^ Governor Coles was obliged to convene an extra 
session of tlic General Asscmbiy» to meet prior to the 
time fixed for the regular session. TliU cxrra ^rn^ion 
was called for November i8, 1824, and its duiy was k> 
"legalize and render effective the vote of the State in 
the election of a Prcsidcn: and Vice President of the 
United States," and to afford "an earlier opp^>rtuniiy 
of electing a Senator to the Congress of the United States 
in the place of Ninian Edwards,"* 

The message sent by Governor Coles to this extra 
»ion of the General Assembly, is unc of the ablest 
most statesman-likc documents ever transmitted 
by any Governor of the State. Admirable in temper 
and style, it is marked by wise and sagacious recom- 
mendations. He called attention to "the remnant of 
African Slavery which still existed in the State,'' and 
entreated the Assembly, in view o^ the rejection of the 
people of the principle and policy of perianal Slavery, 
to make provision for its speedy abolition. He ad- 
verted to the infamous black laws then in existence, and 
the ineffective and inefficient laws against thcunnalunil 
crime of kidnapping. "To put an end to that nefari- 
ous traffic is the imperious duty of tlie Lpegislnturc. 
There can coitie before you no subject with a more 
direct appeal to the generous feelings of humanity^ or 
with stronger claims on your sense of justice, than the 
exposed and defenseless condition of free persons of 
color." Thr siay-laws were strongly condemned, and 
the Assembly was urged to repeal them. The inter- 
ference of the Legislature with contracts, he said, *'had 

*Mr. EdvaMt h^ rtwmityi htt leua in rh* S«ni£« rn aett^t the ftpiuntnent 
tl MinliirT m Mfxico, Jonn hCclevi, a pro4lii^itry and Cixmailn ttiA, wa* 
■loctcd m fill out Ht vivaaKr* 



a tendency w dcscmy punctuality, to impair confidence 
and injure the character of a community- It is not less 
ihc duty than the tnic policy of a tiovcrnmcnt striccly 
to comply with all its uwn engagtrmcntSf and to enforce 
punctuality upon its citizens. It should then be borne 
in mind that character is capital, and that a people 
dcsimus of increasing their resources m»d promoting 
their prosperity, shnuld preserve their faith inviolate." 
On the subject of educ^ition, the Governor says: 

'*Tkere U no lubjcct ctatmmg the attention of xhc Lcgisia- 
Ife of marr vital tmportAncr tn tJvc wdfArr t%( the Srarr, nfld its 
iTurc grcAtnc&s and lupcct^biUty, thdin the pfovision which 
Id be m^dc iar the cducA:>oti of the rising And 9uccrcdin|; 
idona. Intdlt|{tncc oitd virtue are the main f^Uirs in the 
ipt« of liberty. A govrrriment founded on the sovereignty of 
people, und rrsring f-n, afnl conJrolW by ihcm, cannot be 
:uble. or even lon^ endure, utilr^s they arc cMightcncd. 
To prc^crrc tnd hand down to a continuoun liiK of gciKradons, 
lAt libcTtjr «hi<h was obwned by the ralor and virtue of our 
Fathen, wv muei make provi^on for the tDoral and itttcUectual 
irovefnent of rliwie who are tt> follow m, and who are to Inherit 
id hare the din|xiaal of the incs^iinabJe buoti of self-ifovernnimf.' ' 

In rhifi mc*vsagc the (lOvemor renewed his rccom- 
lendation in regard to the Jliinui^ and Michigan 
^ana^and gave to the General Assembly some cxcel]t:nt 
Ivicc touching the selection of judges. He said: 

"It is one of the most important and rc3f>04uible duuts tou 
\in\i have to perform during the prtKnt scSMon, when it is reeol- 
Iccted that the jud^^ are now to be appointed during good 
behavior — that tliey will occupy the nM«e unpunanc itatioa In 
MKiicty, that our livei aiid furtunei may depe^iJ nn their wudom 
and virtue — it ^ouUI awaken in the member* the most acnotjs 
rdlecnona on the iinportance of their choice and their obligations 


to litjr sside pcrftonaL |>r€Jiidk«« aad partiilibed, and assiduously 
endeavor ro select the bf*t men— those distingubhed for their 
cttpaciEjr, ihcir Kquircmcnt^ imd Uicir moral character." 

The great event during: Governor Coles' admin^ 
ation was the mif of Lafayette rt> IHinois, in May, 
25, In the monrh of December previuus, tiie Legis- 
lature of the State had extended to the General a most 
cordiid and pressing invitation to visit Illinoij. This 
invitation was forwarded hy Governor Coles, accom- 
panied by an »ppropri;ite letter. It is a singular fact, 
that l,afayctte found as Governor of Illinois^ the 
young man whose acquaintance he had made in Paris 
4>nly seven years hefore. In annwering ihe invitation 
of Governor Coles, Lafayette expressed all rhe happi- 
ness he felt in finding the Chief Magistrate of Illinois a 
pcTHonal friend, whom he requested to receive the 
■ assurances of his affectionate regard- 
H General Lafayette from New Orleans wrote the 

H following letter, ix/ac-jimHe of which is inserted; 


L^'^jflii w tJ)B»rJ C9ifi. 

NBwOaUMv% ApTil ratli, 1815. 
JW/D*'Ar J'r.^-Notwithiitanding many cxpoflt\iliit:ona I have 
received uo the impo«thihty to perform l^ctwwn the «lid of; 
Febniiry, nni^ tW 15th of June, the ujmr of vUin which I would 
Imi'c liccn vcfj- utthappy to relinquish, for wc iicivr^l limit far, 
my com[3iinion3 and myulf, anj 1 don't doubt but that by rapid 
foovcmcnts, can gratify my nracnt desire 10 wc every ocx of the 
VVciUr^i StiiCeft, and yet to fijtlilE a sacred duty aa the repreaenta- | 
live oi ihc Rc\<yitixwn!try Army, on the half secular jubilee ofl 
Bunker HilL But tu do tt, my dc^t Sir, 1 muM avail myvlf nf, 
ihc kiJid indulgent proposal made by several friends to meet me 
on tame point near the nver, in the Stare of Dtinois^I unll «3y, 
Coutd Kaskftskia or Sliawneetown suit you to \>asi oot^ day with 











mt^ I expect to leave St. Lcvji^ on the s^tli of April, bur being 
engaged lo a d*y'i vhit at Gen^ Jac^ljoii's^ T migHt be ar Shawrkc&- 
luwn un ilie 8tti of May, if yciu don't take mcr (lirc;.tJr fmm 
St, 1aju» to Kjuka^kia or some other placc^ Facusec the karry 
of my wntiriKi eu rhc pcAt U going, and receive in tJus private 
letter, for indeed, to the Governor I wciuld not know bow to 
apclogiie for i» polite propouls^ receive, 1 n\% my high and 
aiftr« tionatc rrgRrd, 

Will you be pkued to fonbard tbe enclosed (cctcr- 
His Kiceilency, Govi:nNOft CoLts^ Illinois. 

On the 28th of the same month Governor Coles 
addrcs^d the General the following letter, a Jac-simsh 
of which h also inserted: 

EDWJhRi>«viLLH, April aR. i825» 
ZVor JiV, — TJuH will be haiiJnl to )'<a] by my friend and 
aiddc-camp. Col. WUIiJim Schiiylcr Hamilton/ who 1 take partlc- 

* A word ja to Wm. S. HAmitccn may I'lt Inr jimis&i » tie wiioJi<ofih«oi/tHa( 
tcttkrt id IDaoiK baJ T^cJ in the S^utc duriiK rhx juVni£ii»(rjliun ^f Gvrcrntff 
ColcL He w« npptiirtT*d b> the (iarcrncr vt l^ip Ai(i'de-CJiti^\ wHf» th< r4nk of 
Cotofitl, »on R^tfr hie iidiiliiion imo off>w, lit wma (h# lai ol Amt«t>ciL 
VtucTLroK* iflii hii nirtja wu Wilttam Sfqihcn, rf-I rt'tlfum AVAiiylrr HvnilCon, 
a:t wrirtm h/ linvr'nr-? rnlfv Hr wni hum in Nr« Vnfk, AHfiKf 4, 'T]??. amd 
«it itmitifd tn tht \V«t Poini Miiiurv Acjultiny in I'^i^. iml rwi^ncvl in 1817, 
He V»: Im Immc 'm N'c*i Yoik *riij Kttlcil it m\ (aiW J*v m -^intfjniur vuanry, 
lltuuri. Ht WAS LuiJicd Si;iici Deputy SurTc^ur of ihc Pulitk Limb. 11^ in ihut 
cafUOlT kuivcycU if^c lrmt^*hit> in w^K^ Spruiitf'icUL eiu^a V4nil>- In iSi^ lu tti« 
C^tC^iS II mtrnWr of sbr Hnuic of Rcpf<»cr»tntn-w frgfn SangAfnon cojnty, !■ 
i|)7 be «>n^«i«i from ftiii StuTc ro ihe "l-Vvcf Rn^r LciJ Mirici/" He cofli- 
mcnfed owna for IcjU <-fc af » iKHnf tonn known %\ "HArnllEcin'a I>r^iM," 10* 
ffkiTJlf \% \M%yf'tf crnirur^ V\T«TTnfin, 1 ItfifV Oilr^nrl flirr.ilinn wfir fram 
ri^i CO it4«> ■hm ^le fmiBF.iteJ to CaltforTiu- Ik oivuiiirJ 1 pn»niH»rit pari- 
(ion in SounifCMKfn Wvcumin. i%] wa^ 1 will'ltricmn Wlij^ iritiTUun, He wu 
A member of the llouac of Re^^PxwTU'iivc^ in ibc Tcruoiinl LcfitlMU'C of Wi>- 
ccoitn In it^S'J' lie dib! in i^r^mciiEOk C4lift4n;«« OifuFKr <i, iSfA Pov 
iTTiItcn ytat\ n<itlii:f tIort< ncr iUb mjirkcd rhc jfxic irh^rt npoi*^ hii aibf& 
When ftif «i«l«M gfAve-digi^ ihrev^' hi> ■hovclfLilt of cuth on nu Oi:ilS«, bttk 
nukl *K bavr ihmij[hT he ifit i.^<ivtrintf thf rrmtrrm of a ton cF Altiamlrr Hxnt- 
ilf<>n, in -r.t joilgrrpfrf 'hr t'™-'^^< nf i^\ .^mfficin «i Twiner. Cilohrl Hmriion 
w** biavc, ur/i«OLii. rn^TMiihlt 4m1 hi^iTiafic; iruL umiwully i^^lft h prrrrfvtrin 
iinil dnkJcd in saKm, In iRjij, C^ru:^ WrioJrnari^ Hw., of Csitibrklifr, Miba- 

(huKtHi tt\mj <m*i Iu4l|: * TChiJent uf MulcIJlI PoitK, \Vnujr4Alfl, AUJ A JcTUlCtI 

fricad of CUun([ llunilron, purchticd ■ kit m C^e (ontiafyuf SA(t«ifKnvOi >i>d 



At tfce nccpoon of Lafayette in Kaskaskia, Gor- 

ernfff CfAc% made the address of welcome. It was 
a/fmiraUe in style and expression, and the Governor 
/rfi the tHMSLSUm gave utterance to the ruling sentiment 
fff hw life- He »pokc of the progress of our countr}-'s 
jfP'earnGM, and the arrival of the period when the 
tihilanrhr</pi<^t might fook with confidence to the uni^ 
piTtal resiorafhn of man to his long lost righiSj and to 
that nation in the Creator's work, and that moral eleva- 

mw/k¥i\ 'hr Kr>¥« vitb arjinife head and ftni-^tonn. In the pdishcd surface of 
%\w^ b*iiul M'tnc be jrlicoj the fVJTnwing iiucrjpiion: 


lorf or 



*ua 4, T797. 


CtTllCM or WllCOHilM. 




IN Jir?;e AND tutuie, 




A rhtlKD ERECT! THll >TOHB< 



iion to which he was destined** Though the seat of 
government had been removed from Kaskaskia, and 
the sceptre of empire which had been wielded there for 
almost a century and a half was about passing away^ 
there yet resided in the town many men whose names 
have gone into the history of the State, Among those 
who participated in the reception ceremonies were 
General Edgar, Gov. Bond, Judge Nathaniel Pope, 
Elias Kent Kane, Lt, Gov. Menard, CoL Thomas 
Mather and Sidney Breese. 

ciurrKK xviii. 

Valkpictoily McvfAGR or GovKRNOR CoiBx; Hi( Tkibute to 
Thomas JcifKitsos; \h% Rfcommfvdations to the I_eoi>- 
LATUKE; The "Ulack Code;"* SxnE.'^orH or PRo-£LAveftv 


Cbaraciek or Go\eakok Cot£&* ADMis-tsraATioii; ApFAJka 
or itiE State Aatv, Cakefltllv awd CoN^GtBNTJOUALv 
Admiki^tekfd; Rxtkact or mik Le'jtcr ,to Oii-Onrl 
Hamuton; Becomes a Caivdiuate for Concrk-Hji in t$.{i: 
His Ai>dk£Ss to the People; Beaten* sr Jobetk Du^fCA^v, 
TTiE Jacjwon Candtdate; Arpx£CiATio?* or GovtRVCR 
Coles bv Judge Culeshe Asn> Ji'oce Catos; Colrs 
Coumtv \amed AiTBJt HiMj Remove;! erom tw« Stati 
AM> Sf.iTtES tx PHii^ohrrHr;^ ix i!^3^^; MAHHTts Sim 
RoitERTS; Tiie Cii^rm a^d J-lA/riKc^s ur iii5 Private 
l.irt; Hii GRAciotrft Hosrir^uTYj IxTCjii;ir in Uooo 
WoijKi; Hi* Hi*torv or tmu Ordixanci: or 1787; Death 
i» iRftB. 

The valcdicrory message of Governor Coles wa* 
sent to the legislature on the 5th of Dcccinbcr, 1826, 
It t& maini/ devoted to the affairs of the State, He 
made however, a touching allusion to the deaths of 
Thomas Jefferson and John Adams on the 4th o\ Ji'Iy 
precciling, "thus sanctioning by their deaths, a day 
rendered glorious by the most imiwrtanc event of their 
lives, and in the history of thc^r countrj'." To Mr. 
JcflfetNon, to whom htr was allic\l hy so many tlH of 
sympathy and of friendship, he paid a just and eloquent 
tribute, describing him as a "sage and a philanthropist^ 
a5 a Statesman and a patriot, tl;c author of the l}cc)ara- 
rion of Independence, the great pi^Iitical reformer to 
whose strong, bold and original genius, we are in a 
great degree indebted for our civil and religious freedom 


and foroiir correct urnlcrstandmgof thcW^A//<j/w^nand 
of rattons." Mn Jefferson's bold and outspoken 
i^cnttincnts on the subject uf Sbverry hiid clKiIltnged 
the profoundcst respect and Admiration of Govenior 
Coles. He again carne?(tly ap]'>eAU\! to the lH<^gis!anirc 
to [Hit ;in end to the remnant of ^>I;lvc^y in the State 
and D> '*make the laws In relation co that unforninatc 
class of our fellow beings, the descendants of Africa, 
lc^s repugnanr to ojr ]Ki1iikal iniititutionH and local 

situation," "It is also rtrquisitc! that 

provision should he made not only for loosening the 
fetters of scr\"itiidc, bur for the security and protection 
of free persons of color," ...... '*To effect 

which, it is indispensable that the law should be altered, 
and so far from considering every coloaxl person a 
Slave, unless he can procure written evidence of hb 
freedom in Illinois, every man should be pi^sunieil free, 
until the torurary is made to appear.*' 

11k "Black Code" of Illinois the repeal of which 
Governor Coles urged sti strongly and so repeatedly 
^frw one of the most infamous and barbarous enact- 
m^ntf: that ever disgraced a civilized State. All his 
appeals were disregarded, and it ain bo scarcely credited 
at tJiis day that these disgraceful laws were not com- 
pletely repealed until after the political revolution in 
thill country which followed the repeal of the Missouri 
Compromise in 1(^54. The truth of the matter is, thac 
H pro^SIaverv srrwimenc fotmd a lodgment among a 
portion of the people of that day in this State, and that 
sentiment was vastly stronger from 1S25 to 1854 than 
it was in ii^i4, when the people so emphatically voted 
down the atrocious proixisttion to call ;i convention to 





make 3 conscjturion auth<in/ing the iiunKlucmin into 
tile State of the hideous institution of human Slavery, 

The administration of Governor Coles, so far as it 
IS known by the record, and from other sources, was 
ont; of the ablest, the purest and most successful the 
State hns ever had. He fully understood all the 
interests of the common wealth, and administered its 
nfl^airs cartfully^ inielligenrly and conscientiously- He 
gave his own personal attention to nil the details of his 
office, and all his official correspondence is in his own 
handwriting. The copies of his letters were made by 
himself, and arc a^ nearly and handsomely written as 
the originals ihcmsetves. T\\%fa€-simik of the letter 
to Gen. Lalayctte is a copy of the original found among 
his p^tpcrH, and it ih a fair specimen of the copirs of all 
his letters, both official and personal, which he retained. 
Nothing can better show how carefully he watched over 
the interests of the State, nor more fully illustrate his 
idt?as of official dtity> than an extract of a letter, a copy 
of which I have before me, to Col. William S. Hamilton, 
dated July 26, 1826. 

In rht' .Slimmer of 1826 a mntirr came up in relation 
to an exchange of certain lands selected as Seminary 
lands. Some of these lands had been settled on before 
their selection, and valuable improvements made. The 
quc-slkm was, whether the State could not select other 
lands of equal value and leave the settlers on the lands 
they had impmvcd. Governor Coles appointed Col- 
orel Hamilton to examine the lands settled upon and 
those proposed to be substituted. In this letter of 
instructions the Governor says: 

"Aad DOW I most tAy to you, if you undertake this business 



it vrill be expected of you that you will go tn person and in^pecc 
t]i« tracts vrh^ch u tf wuhed sh^jld be relinquished, ai veil i 
thovc to be KubfHuit?d, and thsit you ikiII take great f>ains to 
inform yoorself af their rcliiEivc value, nrd tlut yoa viil itct per- 
mit your s> mpathy for irtdividuab [o ga coo far^ or to induce you 
to hfc sighc of. or be inauentivc to the KreAt rnccr^it ihe StatQ 
hits in havini: valuable acice(ior» msdci to aufoncnt a* fir a>' 
|>o$$ib)c the invaluable fond which is destined to contribute so 
much ro the character of the Staie^ and to the knovledgc and 
cbaracter or'irH ciittt^ni." 

In the winter and spring of 18,11, Governor Col< 
was invited by a large number of his friends to become 
a candidate for Congress at the election to take place 
in the following August. In a short "Address to the 
People of Illinois," dated Edwardsville, May 11, 1831, 
he accepted the invitation- He did not offer himself 
as the candulate of any party, and smd if elecfcii he 
should be faithful to the trust reposed in him^ and should 
vote and Act on all questions agreeably to the 
known withes of the people, and what he believed to be 
their true interests — that he would not be the creature 
of party, nor the humble follower of any man, but, 
guided by republican principles, he would endeavor to 
promote the interest of the country; in fine, that he 
would not be tlie follower of party or of man, but of 
principle. He stated what particular objects he would 
be in favor of, and one of which was ''the subdivision 
and sale of lands in foriy-acrcr tiacts/' a most atlmir- 
able proposition, which was afterwards enacted into a 
law. which proved of immense benefit to the actual 
settler. He would also be in favor of a reduction of the 
price of the public iandsj and of liberal grants and 
appropriations of them for the promotion of internal 



improvements, education, and all such objects as would 
benefit the frontier settlers, increase the population and 
advance the pmsjufrity of the State. 

WTiile the Governor announced himself as the can- 
didate of no party, yet he was known to be on anti- 
Jackson man> and his candidacy drifted into an 
cipi>o^iti'Jn to Joseph Duncan, tlic candidare of the 
Jackson party* The late Judge Brccse also came out 
as a national rcpuWican candidate. Nothing, however^ 
could withstand rhc prestige ol" the candidate who was 
ruTinifig as a fricfid of rhe Jackstm adniinistration- 
Buth Breese and Coles were overwhelmingly beaten by 
Duncan- The vote stood, thirteen thousand and 
thirty-two far Duncan, four thousand %\x hundreil and 
(ifty-ninc for Breesc, and three thousand three hundred 
nnd nincty-flcvcn for Coles, 

The number of persons now living in the State who 
were residents during the time that Governor Coles 
was a citizen* is ver>' small. It is certain, however, 
^that chose who did know him personally, and those who 
new most in reganl rn him, erntnained (lie highest 
degree of respect for his character, and gratitude for 
his services. Among those still hving who were 
acctuaintcd with Governor Coles during his residence in 
Illinois, is Judge Gillespie^ to whom I have had occasion 
'to refer more than once in this Paper, In a letter 
addressed to me, dated Edwardsvillc, February l8ch, 
1881, the Judge says: 

"I am pIcAAtd to find th&t yuu arc employed in rescuing from 
oblivion the life and character of one so dc^cntng of fame as our 
second Governor^ E*I«r.ird Ct^ka, F knew the Governor well- 
He lived m this pbcc while he uos a citizen of 11finoit> He was 



« rrmari4blp msn, ami devoted hinnaclf ro fhc propagirinn of the 
»cnrirticnt» of freedom, ilc wu the rau»c unrckfictiig foe lo 
■Slavery I ever knew. Hb time, money, cvcn'thmp; beloi\^ng 
[to him, WAS expended in the caum so dear to Eiis heart. He brought 
iliis slave* Iwre from Virginia, and iTbcrattd them, and gave to 
each liead of a family, 3^ iraci of land within four miles of this 
place, wlicrc ihcy Mtllc^l hxmX livcil lur moiiy j-ears. . . . 
.... He wu tmmarriial while he lived In lUinois, and 
when in Kdwardsrille, hianlcd in ^e family of Jameft Ma»on. 
Hit character wan wuhotit s^lot or blemish in all the Vp-alk* of life/' 

The Hon, John Dean Caton, who was Judge of the 
jrcuir and Supreme Courts of the State, and who hy 
\\s lung and honored service on the Rencb has illus- 
Itratcd and adorned our judicial annals, did not come 
\tQ the State until after Governor Coles had removed 
im it. In answer to a letter from me inquiring if he 
lad any reminiscences in regarxl to the Governor, he 
rritcs under date of May lo, l88r: 

"I wa* never perwinally acquainted with Govemoe Col<4, 
ibut when I came to the State forty eight year* ago, hb praise* 
v^imded hy all who had opj>o«ed, with him, the Constitu- 
rional AmcJidmenr to admit Sjavcry. He wa» rrciAtnifcd as the 
rat kodcr in thai lighE, iind for that 1 kamo.1 to tcvxrc hi) 

Judge Caton has recently made a very able argu- 
lent before the United States District Court at Chi- 
cago. It was in a case brought against the city of his 
residence, Ottawa, on certain bonds issued by the city. 
An attempt having been made to repudiate the bonds, 
the city W5IS sued, and Judge Caton appeared for the 
plaintiff to uphold the validity of the bonds and 
,lhe honor of his cit>'. The Judge dwelt largely on the 
lisgracc and impolicy of repudiation, however specious 



the gin<c might be> ^j\i referred pauticularty to the case 
of our Srarc, which had uphdd its faith under the most 
advene circumstance^ and paid crerjr dollar of its 
tndebtedness- I quote ^m his printed ari^mcnt, in 
which he refers to the three great nico of lUinois, one 
of whom was Gora7>or Coles: 

*'Tit ctncQg thU reference to tin p«»l uT our St^tc, allow me 
CO wr thit Illuscas his prodocnj three grcvt men, whoftc co^- 
Wptcoom ternca wtll render their namta inuDortal, and whJch 
•ImaU be comineioorated by eiuluring monuments, and to whom 
«e o«c 4 debt of gradnKk that c^n oerer be tepauL The fint 
«4> Fdword Ciies wbo «2i Gorenior of \hc State m 1S14, and 
«bn lAvtd the Stxtc froni the bUck curse of African Slavery, then 
and fbrevcr. Tlic second was Thocnos Ford, vrlio was Oovcrnof 
b If43, ami who sared the State frocn the scarcely le^ blighting 
rune n/ repudiation; and the thtnl was Alimham Ltncoln, who 
saved the l^nioo from diMncmbcrment, and the Nation fmnt 
destruction. Not alone cither of them, for all were auiatcd and 
aup|>orted by other great men whose names shpould be KarcciT 
less boflored, bui they were th€ g"^' leaders in these great labors, 
whose ralenci ind whmc integrtly lead the people to chc«c great 
accQcni^khments- In all time to come posterity shotiM bow its 
IkkI in gratitude whenever cither of thc4C names ihould be 


After the expiration of Governor Coles' term of 

icCt he continued to have his residence in Edwards* 

lie and attending to the cultivation of his farm in the 

righborhood. He was very fond of agriculture, and 

rss the founder of the first agricultural society in the 

itaie. Without a family, having no business 10 tic 

down^ and suffering fmm ill-health, he spent much 

{.at his old home in Virginia, and in Washington, 

lelphia, New York and Saratoga. Ac what par- 

''■ lime he finally removed from the State I am not 




aware, but probably in the fall of 1S32, I have in my 
hands a letter addressed to him at Edwardsville, written 
by GencnU Scott, from "Fort Armstrong, Rock Island/' 
and dated August nth, ^^3'^- The Cicner^l had just 
successfully closed his campaign against Bl:ict Hawk, 
and had arrived at Rock Island from Prairie du Chien, 
As he expected to remain at Fort Annstrong for some 
fifteen day.s, and as at the expiration nf that time he 
might have co move west against some hostile Indians, 
who were not captured with the other Indians of Black 
Hawk, he in\^tcd the Governor to make him a visit, 
and to bring with him a pair of blankets, saddle and 
bridle, and saddle hags. 

It is no part of my purpose to continue my sketch 
of Governor Co]e?> ?^ubscc]uent to his leaving the State, 
After quitting Illinois he took up his residence in Phila- 
delphia, where he had made ' 'tmops of friends/ * among 
the most distinguished and cultivated people. On the 
28ch of Noveinber, 1833, he was married by Bishop 
Dc Lanccy to Miss Sally Logan Roberts, adriughterof 
Hugh Roberts, a descendant of Hugh Roberts of 
Pciillyn, Wales, who came to this country with William 
Penn, in i68z. i\isscssed of an ample fortune, his 
private life seems to have brought to him every chann, 
and surrounded him with every happiness. Of a very 
happy, bright and cheerful disp*>sition, he entered 
sympathetically into the pleasures of all, and promoted 
in every possible way the happiness of all. He was an 
affccrionarc husband, a devoted father and a kind 
friend. Governor Cnlcs was a very little less than six 
foct in height; of a slender buikl, and strongly-marked 
features. His eyes were brilliant, and his countc- 


nance — particularly when lighted up by a smile — was 
one of rare beauty- The splendid steel engravings by 
Sartain, which will illustrate this Paper^ when printed, 
cannot but be admired- 

He always took much interest in public affairs, and 
was in correspondence with many of the most distin- 
guished men of the time. His "History of the Ordi- 
nance of 1787," which was read as a Paper before the 
Historical Society of Pennsylvania^ June q, 1856, is one 
of the most elaborate reviews of that celebrated l^is- 
lation which has ever appeared. As Illinois was 
within the Territory covered by that ordinance, the 
Governor very naturally alluded to the attempt to 
make it a Slave State at the time he occupied the 
gubernatorial chair. He said: 

"I tKink that I shall meet with indulgence from the zeal 1 
have always felt in the cause, for adding that it has ever since 
afforded me the most delightful and consoling reflections that the 
abuse 1 endured, the labor I performed, the anxiety I felt, were 
not without their reward; and to have it conceded by opponents 
as well as supporters, that I was chiefly instrumental in preventing 
a call of a Convention, and in making Illinois a Slave-hotding 

In view of the services of Governor Coles, it was 
fitting and proper that Illinois should honor his name 
by giving it to a large and important county — Coles 
County — organized Dec, 25, 1830, out of Clark and 
Edgar counties. 

Governor Coles died at his residence in Philadelphia, 
July 7th, i868, at the ripe old age of eighty-two, and 
after many years of much suffering, debility and general 
feebleness. His widow, his oldest son, Edward Coles, 



and a daughter^ survive him. His youngest son died 
in February, i86x 

Governor Coles is buried at **Woodlandj" near 
Philadelphia. Though his ashes do not lie mingled 
with the soil of the State he served so faithfully, and to 
which he rendered such an inestimable service in saving 
it to freedom, yet his name and his memory shall live 
in Illinois so long as the State shall have a place in 






SvMMOwi cr Edwako CoLti TO CiitcuiT Couftt or Madisok 
County, January 7, t&lf 

[KMordv oi C-rcuit Court of MadiKtn Counry) 

The Pcnplc of the Sraiic oflllinoiH, 
To rhc Sheriff cf Madison county, Grcctins: 
YoL- arc hereby commanded to summon Kdward Coles to 
b« and appear before (be Cireuii Court for NUdiaon county, at 
the next term to be holdcn At E^wflrdavitle at the Courr Hount 
ihtrrof, on rhr ^th Miifiday m the mnniK of Msirrh ficir, ti> aiHiwer 
the Cuuniy Coittiiii&sloncr& of the County of Madison in a pica of 
Dcl>t I'wD chouaand Dollars which to chcm he owca and fron 
them he cri}i.ifltlr dc^tjiins to ihcir Dotno^c Five Hundred Dolbrt* 
And hav« you then there rhis writ. 

Wiincsa, Joseph Conwat, Clerk of 
die sa»ii Court, at Edi^ardsvillc, ihia 
7th day of January in the year of our 
Lord one thousand eight hundred and 
twenty-four and of the Independence 
(jf ihe Uniteil States of America the 
forty Sth 

J091SPK Com WAY 

CHAiioci or County Cou&n»iOKfta!i or Madisop? Covntv 

AcAtN^T Rdwaho CoLr,JC, March, 1R14 

(Rcconb of CinuM Conrt of M«<dwL>n Councyl 

Statk or Ilunuu 

Mauuox CoL'jfTY CiacuiT Couar March Term 1B14. 

The county commb^ioners for the County of Madison who 
sued for the use of vfiid county, complain of Fdwnrd Coles in 
cuatody of the shernff in a pica of Debc: wherein rhey compUin 
and lay that wherca.s Uy thr thinl Keetinn of an Art made by the 
people of the Suce o( lllmois represented m the General aucmbly 
entitled) An Act rcApcciinx free negroes muUttoca »ervania aiKl 



slaves Approved March ^ih 1819, it » enacted. Ui« it shall not 
b« lavjul for any person or pcr»oni to bring into this state after 
the pussgfi or chb act ^^j nfgro or nauUtto ivho shall be a slave 
or hdd to service at the time for the purpose of cnuincipating or 
scttiog at lihcrty any such negro or muUfto, and Any pervia 
or persons, who shall so bring \t\ any such negro or iru1alif> for 
the purpose afbrcsoiLJ^ shall ^ivc a Bond to the county comitiii- 
tioner of the county when such slave or slaves are emancipated; 
>n the pcfiA^cy of one thouiand dollars; contJitioned chat such per- 
son *o cmaji;:ipait\i hy liim; shall not hrcume a charge on any 
OOunty in this ^tJite, and every pericon neglecting or rcfuiung ro 
^vc such bond, shall fbrfdc and pay the ^um of two hundred 
Dollars for each negro or mulatto »o emancipated or set at liberty; 
CO be recovered by action of D^jbt before any court competent to 
try the same, to be sued for in the name of the county commission- 
ers of the county, when ;hc sjme tiIiaH happen, co the use of the 
county. Yci the said tdwArd Coles (Defendant) no twidi& land- 
ing the act aforesaid on the fourth day of July in the ycorof Chriat 
one thousand Eight hundred and nineteen did bring into this 
state (state of ItUnois) and in the county of Madison aforesaid for 
the purpose cf emancipating the same the following named ten 
pcnoni of colour slaves and held to service at the time to wit 
Robert Crawford and his si&tcr Folly Crawfordi the Md Robert 
b^g a mulatto man about five feet seven Inches high about 
twenty five ye^tnt of age and the said Polly being a mubtto woman 
aliout five feel one inch hii^h ahfHii %iicieen «r wventeen years of 
age Ralph Crawford and hU wife Kate Crswfijrd and their children, 
Betsey. Thomas, Mary and William, the said Ralph being a mu- 
latto man about five feet three inches high about forty six or seven 
years of age, and r he said Karc being a mulatto woman about tivc 
feet two inches high about forty three or four years of afc and 
the aaid Bct*<ey behig a ycnmg woman alx>ut siacecn or se^^nieen 
years of age about five feet high, and the said Thomas a boy of 
about thirteen or fourteen years of age and from hts infancy has 
been weak and defective in Ms right arm and leg and cht 
laid Mary a gjrl from Eleven fo twelve years of age and the said 
Wdham a boy about nine ycanof ugeTliumas Cobb :i BUck man 
about five feet six inches high and from thirty Eight to forty 



years of agt, Nancy Games a black iroman about five feet high 
ar<t about sixteen or acvcntccn years of aae iwhcreof the UJd.j 
EdwaM Colc« (Defendant) was master^ and the »ai<l Edward 
Coles Defendant in violation of the ace aforetaid cwi the aamc day 
and year aforcsaitl did bring into the state oi" f llinois the afimesaid. 
ur abo/c licACrilicd ten pcntuna of coltjur and slavca whereof the 
said Defendant »-&» maatcr for the purpose of emancipating and 
getting the .^ame at lib^ty and die said Defendant did tlicn and 
there in tKc County aforesaid on iht day and year cfortsaid 
emardpntc and set at liberty the above dctcnbed ten penons of 
Colour ?>1ave^ a^ nforcTiaid, the said Defendant not havinu prc- 
viou^y Of since hU setting at liberty or etnandpating the aamc 
Btvcn hi» bond to the county comminioner^ for the county of 
Madi«on in the penalty of one thousand dollara in conformit>' 
with the pmviiions of the nfotrtaid recited act; and hath thereby 
foffcited the sum of two thoLisard dolUrs lo ihe use <yi the county 
of Madison; yet the ^aid Defendant thou^i often requested 
rd^j3Cd to pay the aame- 

jAM&a ToaKBv Atto- for 

Plka or Epwakd Colki ag^inat thr Dkclaration or thk 
Coiwrr Co»M]«»iOMi;a.s, ScptcmbcT> \%z^ 

IRccords of Circuit Gurc of Mddiwn CouQiyl 


Cov^mr CouuHHfoifciu 
or MAniKoic Co. 

And the »aid Defendant by Starr & Loekwood his AttyS' 
eomea Ac defends the wrong & mjury vhen &'c & tay« that he docs 
noi owe ro rhr County Commmioncrs of the County of Madison 
the aaid aum of money above demanded or «riy part dtercof, m 
manner & form aa the saiii i'Uintiffa have above thereof com- 
plained gainst him Ac of this he puta himself upon the County 
5ce. Pka iravcrjed Itouc joined Tumcy for plff 

And the «4Jd Defendant k>i a further plea in hi* behal/, 
•ccoidijiK lu llie form uf ibe SehIijtc In utiil cane made & pmvideil 
Wft that the a&idpllfs ought not to have or maintain their aforcnid 


action thereof against him because he says that he wa.9 not guilty of 
the said supposed offences in the said declaradon Mentioned or 
of any or either of them, at any time within one year next before 
the commencement of this suit* in manner & form as the said 
PlfFs have above thereof complained against him, & this he is 
ready to verify wherefore he prays judgment if the said Plffs 
ought to have & maintain their aforesaid action thereof against 
him &c And the said Deft for a further plea in this behalf, accord- 
ing to the form of the Statute in such case made & provided, saye 
that the Plffs ought not to have or maintain their aforesaid action 
thereof against him, because he says that he was not guilty of the 
said supposed offences in the said declara-tion mentioned, or of 
any or either of them at any time within three years next before 
the commencement of this suit, in manner & form as the said 
PIffs have above thereof complained agst him & this he is ready 
to venfy wherefore he prays Judgment if the said PlfFs ought to 
have & maintain their aforesaid action thereof against him &Ec — 
And the said Deft for a further plea in this behalf according 
to the form of the Statute in said case made & provided, says that 
the PlfFs ought not to have or maintain their afd action thereof 
against him because he says, that he was not guilty of the sd 
supposed offences in the said declaration maintained, or of any 
or cither of them at any time within three years next before the 
commencement of this suit, in manner & form as the said Plffs 
have above thereof complained against him & this he is ready to 
verify wherefore he prays judgment if the said pIfFs ought to have 
& maintain their action therefore agst him &c^ 

Starr & Lockwood Attys, 
for Deft 
Demurrer to the foregoing three pleas 

TtJRWEV for Plff— 
We join in demurrer 

Starr & Lockwood 

Verdict Against Edward Coles, September, 1824 

{Records of Circuit Court of Madison CouniyJ 

We the jury find for the plaintiff Two thousand 

John Howard, Foreman. 

\'erdzct against Kdward Cules 

IFrom Records of Circuit Court of Mndison CountyJ 



R&iM>M% rojt Nkw Trial Atwakcko by Edwako Coi.hx 
Soprcmber 11, 1804 

[ttcoo'ib^' CiKuir C«urtof MAiUson Covnlj) 

Edwaku ColK5 

or Mapi*on" (Jot'WTV 
Rc«w>na for a New Trial — 

I, Brraii^c iKc Coiirr rrjrrrcid rhc Trsnrifiny nf DaniH P. 
CocV & Pmanu^l J. Wtst— The oKjeci IdfJ whic^i was 10 cipUin 
tlic rc«M>n3 8c moiivca of tKc [>cfcrttJflnT in giving ihc Certificates 
which were used m Evidc^ncc by the PIfF— 

3. Bccauec the Court refused to permit Joseph Conway to 
testify whether j of the Negroes mentioned in Plffs declaration 
Umi not dtetl lon^c bciuri' thr Cor[ir:tcM(.cnictit of thi^ Huit. 

^3< Bccau&c John HuwarJ one uf the Plfli wiu sworn on tlic 
Jury& gave a veniict agat Defl— 
4, Because the Jury ^ve found the Deft guilty of a Weaeh 
of a Jaw, when the act complied of wa« done before the statute 
wsts puUlixhed (ir generally known. 
5. Because the Verdict wan contrar}' 10 l^w & cTidcnoe 
SlT^RafiC IXCKWOOO Att)-> 
. for Deft. 

Rkasovs roft Nlw TuiAi. Advamccd by Edwako Coles 
*>ep1emlier 34, 1S34 

|Rc««cii> of CinuiE CouH of Mulawi Coaaiyl 



or Maoisom Co. 

Edward Coles, deft In thtn ^Mit bein^ sworn sayf, that John 
Howard Fjsq, one of the C^iunty Commiuronen of the County of 
Mailt^n wa* *wnrr ax nnc nf thr Jumnt tn the above caimc & gave 
4 vcTtiict thereiit — Ocponcnr further 5.iya> that ai the lin^e ihc 
said ] loward was sworn ft& a Juror oa aforcsftid Deponent did acK 

iLuson itrsTORicJL coitecrtONS 

nceOcct ^Mt wtid HomwxA mm ooe o£ dK vd 

Ddr dU It oocor ID hm cii>tncfa wtj^facr nstX apvtof ibr 

ttfldADi^iarfaccaDiclttdlvenpVTvin&lttrdKrcmli not 

Svora tobcfcvc toe Uiis ii«t dsf of Scpc r8X| 

lotmi CotrwATdk 

Bom Of £dwau> Colo to Cutrjrrr CowusrosEKt or MAnr^oir 

[Rccocdi </ Cnur Govt of UidbM CoHiH 

Kaow «n owi hf ifccae prcsena tl»c I Edwvd Cole* am 
hoUcQ sad SmUf booftd nnm rfic County Cnamsncnvts tor the 
county orMadbun and ikdr sueccnon in office tn ikc pent) sum 
cf one thouund dolUn. for the pAymcat of mhkk I biod myxir, 
my hctn^ cxccuconi and iidmiaatnton Bnofy by Efaese prcseots 
fMkd witJi my BcaJ and dated thie tluny fiirt day of Jaimary ooc 
tbouuiul dght hundred aad twenty five. The cowditicfi oiF this 
obliginon b such, tltxt whercai the said Edward Coles hroughr 
incoibccwinty of Madisnci fmni the State ufVirgunaio the spniqi 
of the ycftr iflt? ccmin negroes emancipated hy him that is to 
My Robert Crawford, Polly Crawford, Thomas Cobb> Nancy 
Gttin^, Ralph Crawford and KUwifc Kate and their four childreSi 
Beuey^ Thomas, Mary be William, (of whom the said Ralph 
Crawford, Tliomas Cobb and Nancy Gaines ar>e ticitl,) Now. 
if the said negroes of a/iy of (hem ahall doc become a charge on 
any county in this State, and the Mid Edwtrd Colei &halj accure 
and iatcr every county in the Stite of Illinois from their support 
and naintoiance, and »hall alw* further indemnify and sav« 
hannlcii thr van! umnty uf M^dlaun fmm any charge* or liability 
whatioc%-CT heretofore inoirrcdt or that may hereafter be incurred 
on account of the cmanctpatiooi of said negroes, then tlus ohtU 
gttion to be void) otherwise to be in fon^e — 
Joicm CoKWAY E:>wAKo Colks mil 



CiRTincATp. or JosRFit Covt«AV TO Boj4i> or Edward Coles, 

Febnjary^, 1815 

{Rcoonji of Circuit Court of Majwon Countfl 

Stat£ or Iluxoia 
Madjion Cdi'Sfrv 

This Aay penHjn:&ll>- jippcnrcd before rnc Joseph Conwiy 
ckrk of ihc Commissioners Covirt for the AforcsAu! County of 
Madison, Hdward Coles ancL signed and acknowledged the v^-nctcQ 
Boii<i to be hi« Act and deed. Given under my tuind at Ed'uruidv 
vill<* this 4th day of Febmary i8ij. 

Plea or Edward Colc* roii DiscOMD^rA^icc or AcnoM op 
CouKTV CoMMistroKEFLi;, March, \%i$ 
IRccof di of Cirr uic Omn d M^^^wn CouAty] 

Edward Cotca 


And now ar this term rhac t« to sny At the March tttm ilif 

.0/ the siiid Majkjii Circuit Coujt comes the said Coks u«d say* 

that the aaid pUmtifTs ooi^ht not iurU>cr to h^vc and maintAin 

their action nfomaid Agair>st him because he says that sjnct the 

-k*t wjTtinyanceof ihiscojft lowit on the ^utday of January loat 

and within 6c day* after the p^^sage ol the act of the General 

Antembly of the State nf Illinois entitled tn "An act to amend 

.no act entitled an act re^spccting free negroes. muIattoc», scrrants* 

:«nd slaves approved .pth March t'^\% he the 5iud Colea ^gned 

scaledf and dcLtvered to the said county Commissioneri his certain 

bond in the penal Aum of ^1,000 and which bond i« agreeably ro 

'tbe provisions of rhr iMitd att nf rhr jarh vii March [fti9 and to 

rhich bond there n annexed a ceviain condition that if certain 

negroes therein named and which were the ftame neicroet m the 

^declaration ol the plaintiffs meniior/cd, should not become a 

charge on any county in the State of Illinois, and ihe said Coles 

should secure and 'tave every county in the said State from their 

supjxirt jtml nrfilri uinancc, and should al^i indemnify and uvc 

harmlos the said county of Madiaon Innn hU charge and liability 


whaMorver incuirtd bffwe that time or which miglu thertrifter 
be incarrcd on account of Uic cmaiadpation of the negroes rumcd 
in the dcdarabofi of the said pUintiHs. then m]<1 bond vras lo be 
vQJd^ which bond with the condition lh«r«to Bnnexed the said 
Edward Colct bringi here into court. And the ftaid Coles further 
*ay* that smcc the ^d day r»f January latr Se \in% oftfi offered ro 
pay up all lh« C(Ht» of ibii Auit, nnd mnrc piiriiLuUriy thji he 
dill on the 14th day of t[u» preitcnt month of March otfcr to pay 
end did tender to the said plaintift^ all the costs of this suit but 
they did refuse to acecpt or receive the sum^ all which he is rca4y 
to renfy—^ 

H/STAkft fef pUGr— 

Plea or Ei^wAaD Colks to^ RtcoitDiifQ Bill or Excb^io?«s, 

March, }%!$ 
[Rc<onJp of CucuU CoMti «F MaUjwh CouhitI 
£i>WARn COLKit 

Cot/S'Tr CoMMinsJONKiu March tefni iSlf 

Be it remembered that on thia day bein^ the i3th day of the 
court (he above named deft Edwar\] Coles moved the coutt to 
vet aside the verdict rendered m thii ca\>tc at the last term and 
award him a new trial in order co enable him 10 plead the act 
parsed at the laM scfi^oji of the legi^atufc of the State of lUinoda 
entitled ' 'An act ta amend an act rt^ecttng free Negroes, Mtilat- 
toea, servania and slaves, and offered in court the foliowme plea 
to wit (here copy it) but the court overruled the motion, for a 
new trial dc would not permit the plea to be filed to which opmion 
of the court in ovcrrulling aaid motion the liefl by his council 
excepts and prays thia hia bill of exception to be signed scaled and 
Dwdc part of the reccr^l 

Saml McKoBERTS seal 

Judge of the Circuit Court 
of the arid judicial circuit 



Bill of Exceptions Advamced bv Edward Coles, March, iSaj 

Ifceeoriiic/Cirfuif Court of MsdiMni Couhiyl 
Cdwakd Colea 

CouvTV Commission fins 

Beit nrmcmiwred tharon ihf tnil of ihis cause thederenilant 
iWTcrrd to k'vc in evidemnc and |)rtjvc ta ilir jury that three of the 
ncgfou mcniiorc<i in the dcdoration of the ptiinciflhi, had departed 
this life sometime befcrc the coinmencement of this siitt, but the 
restimony being objcrcted Co, die court sustained the objection, 
and would rot permit the proof to be made. — Jowph Conway 
cJ«k of the county cornmisaioncrs TOurt wm called and sworn oa 
a wUtiCM, aod w,u Askcd if the county commi&»oncrs had ever 
directed or requested him 13 ihcir ctcrk to inform the defendant 
thtt no bond had ever been executed as required by the Slaiute, 
flnd to re<iuire hvm to ^vc bond, which evidence the Court would 
not permit to \vc given, 

Djmicl P. Cook was called And nrtjrn as « witness, who ccsd- 
ficid that he was an Attorney st Law he waa then nAcd if any 
convcrtation look plate between him & deft before ihc date of ihe 
cetTificate* & whedier he adviwd Deft to execute the certificaica 
given in evidence by Plff*. in order to protect the ncgroe* & enable 
them Ui hire themselves which evidence the Cocrl overruled — 
ana olao to prove by »aid Cook all the circumatancen & convcrsa- 
tioDs between witness & Ueft^whtch induced Scltd to the execu- 
tion of said certi<icatei which wa* alio overruled — The record 
lo state chftE the PIff gave in evidence ihe Certificate* of which 
the followiog %xic is a true Copy (here Copy one of Ceriilicatcs.) 

John REruoij>s acal 

OrmiOM or SurnEMc CotaT or Ilumoia ih Strir or Edwam> 


(flhvar, n tM'i^H 

EnwAU) CcLES^ Plaintiff in Errcr^ p. The Couktv of Maoisok, 

Defendant in Error. 

Eekok to Madhopt- 

Tlic legislature have the power, by an act of their own, to release m 

penalty accrubg to a ccvontyi after verdict but before jadg- 


moit. Such an «ct tt not unctmstirutlonal, it bciitg neither 

iin rx fa»jt fart'i Umt, <x law imj>ainEig the obligatinn nf rtkrw 

tract*, anti tt can be pleaded, ^Wf Jarritn ^oHiinuamf. 
Counties atc public corporatioru, and can be chanffcdt niodiAcd* 

cnlargcrif rv^tmincdf or repealed, to %<ai\t the eirer VAtying 

«3ugciicicii ot' the :!<Aie — tliey arc completely under legislative' 


Opinion ^ the Court l^y ChitJ JuuUr Wil5ok.*— TJits Isan 
ACtirjff) of debt brouKKt by ilic county commissioners of Madison 
cciirtty, for the ii«c of the cotinty, a^inst Edward Colc3> 
itpoo, as a pcralty fr>r bringing tnto th« criuiiiy, and ietring 
llbfrty, ten negro slaves, wirKout giving a bnnd, as required by aji< 
act of the Ic^isluiiirc of |B|<>, To (his acumi, Culc« ploKl tJieJ 
sttttulc etf limitaticns, wtucb pica was demurred to« and the demi 
rcr Sustained by the court, ackl die parties ircnt to tria) upoa the' 
iMue of niV ^rM, A verdict vtus found ;tgain«t Cole», at tl 
Sepicm^ier term, 1814, of the Ma(1i«on circuit court, but no 
judf^mcnf was rendered upun ir, till Septemlier, iSa5, the cause 
having been coniinijcd till that time, under advi.iemcnt, xipon t 
mttticn for a new trial. In January, iSi^, the IcgisJaturc pj 
nn net rcleunirg all penalties incurred under tbc act of l3ii 
{including <ho»e «ucd for.) upon which CoIe« waft pmnecutcd. 

I'his act 'Coles plead puh Jarrun eontinua^ur, and rencrwi 
tlie mocion fur a new trial, but the court ovcrnilcd the nioiio<ti 
and rcfccted the pica, and rendered judgment for the plaiEmfB. 

There are several causes a&signed for error, but the <H)M 
prinerpalJy relied upon i*, that the court rejected the defendant's 
plea. (sLS a bir fo ihe further prftnecution of the suit,) allrging a 
compliance un Kt% pun ytttU the ;Kt uf Jaruary^ 1825. 

The only queatior for the decision of the court, from thia 
Matement of the ca^c, is, wa-; the legislature competent to telease 
the plaintiff in error from the penalty imposed for a violation of^ 
the ftctof ifli9, after 4ULI brought, htit l^ore judgment rendered! 
or in other wurdst coitlJ they, by a repeal of the act impniing the' 
penalty, bar m recovery of iir It the Icftislaturc can not paw an 
act of this dcscnpnon* it must be because it would be in violation 
of that provision of the c^snsiitution of the United State*, (and 

*Ju»]ee L/ici£<t<Mrat hiving brr« eounvl in thi« caiAt, i^vc no optfilon. 



which hA« in subsuncc been adopted ixilo ours,) >«hicli denies to 
fhc sn4Tc Ir^^lnturet rhe right to pn« an ex post/<t^o law, or bw 
impainng iIk obli^atiun (jf cuiitTjii;i>. ThU in ihc only pcuvUion 
in ihtx insirumcnti that ha* my bearing upOTi ihc preKnt t\\»c^ 

U the law of 1825, ihen, an « pc/t/ac:c law, « tloe* it im)>air 
tKc oMigaium €>f a contract* The term rx pos/fa^c \% technical, 
und m\n: \k vonfcrmcil atixnlui^ lu im Icij^il impurt^ a.^ iim)er?itu>d 
and ukJ bv the mail approved wntcrf upfin Uw and tccu-crnment. 
Jud^e Blactutane says, *'mn fx porijatto law h irherc. after mn 
oiitiur (indrFtrtnt in itielO «* commiltedj the legislature then, for 
lilt' limt t\mv, il^lare it to have been a crime, and inflict a punish- 
ment ujHin the pcTDin wKd commifce^l it." 1^4 tjefimrion k 
familiar to every lawyer, and ! am not aware of any <a»c in either 
ihe hnglUh or ixjuris, in which ita correctness i» dcr)ic\l. 

It appears from the Kedcraltst, a work which hai been 
emphatically sn-lcd the teit-book of the confttrtulton. that the 
term wa^ unifc-rsiciud anil iisti] in tJiii scnte l>>- the fraimers of that 
instruincru. Tlic authors uf chi& work wtte amojifj the abtoit 
aiaiesmcn and civilians of the a^,- two of them wxie members of 
ihe convention that framed the coivttimtion, and woliU not have 
been miitalccn in the meaning of tJie terms used >n it- Judge 
ToiiVrr, lit hiik ncJte^ on tl^e ComTrenr^ntri t>f Blacktlorwft alio 
adopia it as ihe true one, and it ia evident from the tenor of hit 
comment:! opon the principles containeti in that work, that if there 
had bc«n an> doubt of the corrcctncis of this one, that it would 
not hav« been pa«ced in lilenee, much lem would it have receive<l 
hi« approhation. 

But thai (he icrm tx post Jtum is Applicable only to laws 
relating to cririK^, pains and pcnaUics, docs not rc«t upon the 
barv aoctuieMrenec of the courts, or the authority of elementary 
^-ritert. It has received a judicial exposition by the higbeat 
triliunat in ihc narion. The decision of the Supreme Co^iee of 
ihe llritcd StAits, in xhf <l^sr of CaUrr and wi/f, x, Bu.'i antf m/^t 
.1 DallftSi 3S&, tniiii he cor^idcrcd as having put thia question to 
rcat- The point decided in that case was. as to the vahdity of an 
act of the legislature of Connecticut, which had a retrospective 
operation, but which dtd not relate to crime:*- All the state 



W tfcrC 

Oitnf cv 


» tfv |«0/ad» law; dw farmer 

tlkcpravcMi in tlie 
^aoMJtoDQQ to r c c n jw p gJTTg Iawb m (ueru, uMi ciwritkfei Iim 
nwirfci by Myiogi^ "but od (oB oowadtrtrjoa, I am conrahced 
ttec cr /vi/ /jdto kvi aoat be Smtted in dte mnno- ftlicAdr 

crickAcc, 1 bcfcry, can bctddncocl, of ifcc oiiwean f cf «ny princi- 
|ifa of U«, t&4A u tSbcdo] bf Aoc ostWitja, dut die Uv uaikr 
coinUcraboa it not aa fx poUfmiQ aoc. It n coomletd tbat it 
ii rvtmpoctive, uid tiist oa a 0cacnl pnn dpte of kpd*t>on it is 
oo«iae to enact nKh bira; }Betitbnoc the prmnocof acourt to 
ckcUrr cbeoi vo«L So prohibi6oa to tJie eicercae of auch a 
pu«er by tbe SegnUtxmf n cnotamtl in the coastilutum of 
L'j>iTe4] Sutea or of tbii statct and it la ui inooo troy erti falc prini 
pk, tiuit all powcra which are noc denied them b;r one or other of 
ihoae inatniRienta, are granted- Tbe ncut inquiry k, dos ihia 
law vioiare the «>Uigfiiion of a contracc? 

ThU cjur^rkei is ea»}y an^wrrd- A ronrracr n an tgrc^e- 
irtcnE becwccn two or more^ to do, of not to do» a panicuW ac: — j 
iKrihing like ihii appears in ibc prcscrtt case* If a judgnicni hj 
been obtained, the law mi^t, by implkation, raise a coni 
bcmcen thepanin; buttintil judgment, the defendant is rvgard' 
ai a {w9jtatori he it prosecutod upon a penal stanire for ■ tarf; 
attion wuuhi die with him, which wuuld tK>i happen ijt) the caac ol 
a contract. It is idle, therefore, to talk of a contract bctwccD the 
plaintiff and defendant, and it is only between the contracting 
pirtien thit the legislature it pruhibited from inTerfering. Bot in 
ihi* tMT there \% no t'cjnlr;ict l>etween «ry pames, and »11 reaaoiv 
ing founded upoii the uka r>r a L-untract, vt rut^atriry. But itN 
audf the Icgitilaturc could not paaa tHii law, because the phiintiffa 



travt aciiuirrxl a vested interest in the pctialty, by coramencing 
auir> vrliich cun m>t be taken away. 

Tlie authorities rdicd upon to support this poaieion^ arc not 
appoNie. The dediions m thoM case»t turned on the cuniiruction 
of the laws, and not on the authority of the kgitlaturc to paa* 
thcfn, f n tine case of Cohman v. Shtt^fr^ (2 Sh*»W-,) whith was an 
aL^tiun brau|{ht after the paadip; cif the 9ttaru(e uf frauds ;inil per- 
juries, upon a mftrriigc promise made by parol, the judges >Aid, 
they believed the intention of the malccn of that stntulc woa only 
10 provide for the future, and not to annul f>arol promises whscii 
were good and valid in law, ai the rime they were puide. Tn the 
ca« of Co«fA V"' «"» v» J^ffrirs^ (4 Burrow, i^ho,) I jml Mantficid 
placed his cpinicn 011 the intcniion of the legislature, which, he 
believed, was not to do injustice to the plainiitf, by subjcctiniE him 
to eoftts. So, too, in D^h v, t^an Kittfk^ 7 Johns., 577, the same 
groimd WIS assumed. The court did not intend to decide that 
the 1ri:i<bttrrc; could not pavt a retrospective law, but that the one 
under consideration was not ncccsiMrily retrospective, and thcrc' 
fore ought rot to receive that construction. In thL» opinion, the 
ctnirt «ss divided three to two. But had the plaintiffs a vested 
ihierest in the penalty before jtidgment* a vested right is one 
perfect in ifsclf. and whtch does not depend ujwn 1 contingency, or 
the Gommenccn^ent of suit. Suit is the means of enforcing, or 
acquiring possession of a prt^iously vested irtcrest, hut the com- 
menocment of suit does not of itself, even in a f nr /<3W, or popukr 
action, vest a right in the penalty sued for. The only consequence 
that results fmm the cnmrncnccment of a popular action is, chat 
it prevents another person fmm suing, and tlie executive from 
rtkftsing the pcnslcy, BUckstonc. (vol. £. p. 441^ in speaking of 
the means of vesting a n^ht in chittcl interests, says, "and here 
we must be careful to distinguish between property, the right of 
which is before vested in rhe patty, and of which only privfcttW 
is recovered by suit or action, and property, 10 which a man before 
had no detctmtnate tide, or cenain claim, but he sstris as well the 
right, as the pos^c^ion, by the process and judgment of the law. 
Of the (bftner sort, are debts and choscs in action " In these 
cifei the right is vested in the creditor by virtue of the coctract^ 
and the law only ^ves him a remedy to enforce it. "But,** 



tootinucs he, *'thcrc is alio s species of prcpercy to wkkh a man 
haa noi anf ctatm or title, what^uiever, lill after suit commcnccH 
and judgnnent obtained in a court of law, where before jiuigmeai 
hjid, no one can say he ha« any ahsaclute property, either in po«3ae«- 
iion or in action; of this w>rE arc, firsi, such pcnaliics as arc given 
by parciculur stanitcs to be recovered ir an Action popular" 
Here 13 an authority directly in poinr. In ihc present case no 
JLdgineni had been rendered prcv^ioiis to the passage of the b« 
releasing the penally, consc<iuently, no right lo the penalty had 
vested in rht^ pIniniifFii, whiih this Uw direcia. Tfte right winch 
the plaintiffs had acquired hy the ccmnxcnccmcnt of the suit was, 
according to Biackstonc, "an inchoate, imperfect degree: of prop- 
erty,*" which reqmred the judgment of the court to consumnute, 
andrendcr it a vested right. Before judgment in a popular action^ 
the prupiTty in ihe penalty ii imperfect and contingent, liable Cobc 
destroyed by a repeal of the statute upon which suit is brouj^t. 
Thia pnndple u settled in a variety of cases; in that o( Sffofan v. 
The UrritfJ SiateSt 5 Cranch, p. Itj;?, Jadgc Maruhall, in delivering 
the opinion of the court Hiys, "That it hag l>ecn long sdcW upon 
genrral principlnt, that after the expiration or repeal of r )%w, no 
penally cJin be imposed or puninhnieni uiflicted, for vidatiois of 
the law corimittcd while it wns in force/' The same point was 
decided m the case of the A^Aeow-r R^hsti v. The VmUd Stititi^ 
6 Cranch> 33^; and in the case of the VntttJ Statts v. Ship Hfitn^ 
^ Cranch, ^oj, the docrrine 1* fully settled that, even after judg. 
nicnt of cuddcinnation in trm for a btc^i:h uf the embargo laws* 
provided the party appeals^ or obtains a writ of crtoTt he may avail 
himself of a statute repealing the pcnnlty enacted subsequent to 
guch condemnation. In Thi PtopU v. CoUman, the court unani- 
mously awnrded a new trial, m order chat the defendant might 
avail himself of a dt'fcnst* given by a statute passed suUequenr to 
the commis!iion of the ol^cnie; and in the case of the Comm^tt- 
tD^aiih w DkofU, ] Binney, 601, the defendant had lieen mdictcd 
at common law for a libel: after a verdict, and before judgment, 
the legislature passed a law that^ *' after the passage of thift ace 
ro person shall br pro*t-nirrd E'Hniinally for a lilitO." The liiiprrmtr 
couri refuAcd to give judgment on the verdict. The terms of thia 
act were nof retrospective, yet the court considered 11 8o» Aod must 



iteceSK^rnT- have ncknc^wkdgtfd the pcikrr of the Icgblurure to past 
sudi ]au«. (Srcat«ri5>c?ryr>nr*Kcnnvririiiional law, 348; 1 Cranch, 
105. »nd J Djill, 279,) These tA*cs require no comment. They 
■rc directly on the poini under consideration, ind hftvc settled the 
doctrine, rhttt a repeal of a law irnvvising a penalty, after verdict 
for ihe penalty, is a har xo n judgmrrit or the verdict. The court 
han nn Tongrr any jiirUdicrinn of the c«rc. l^hTr is n*i law in IVircv 
upun which they Oifi pronounce juUgjiient. If then, the IcjiislaiuTc 
can, by a total repeal of the law of tSi^, dcfcAt a recovery for an 
infraction of it before judgment, can they not by the net of it^lji 
release :ill penalties incurred anterior to its passage? Thcte iti no 
rJe of law which di'ulr* thcrn the power of doing thai indirectly, 
which llicr may du directly. In cfTecl and m prmupfc, thcfe in im 
dtffcKncc, and the power to do the greater acG, induJej the 1cM< 
It is said tJiitt the king can not remit an mforirer's interest 
in a popular ac:ii>n after suit brought; this is no doubt tr\jc, but 
it is equally true that the parliament can. It is noi pretended 
that the executive could rctnic thr jjcnalty in this case, but that 
the Ecffitlature may. Neither the constitution uf the United 
State*, or of this state, contain any prohibitipn 10 the exercisie of 
such a power by the legislature, and their powers have no limits 
beyond what arc imposed hy one or ciEhcr of those tnsirtiment*^ 
nor U it necessary ihni they should. They form an ample barrier 
afainsi tyranny and oppression in every department of the govcnu 
mcnt, and secure to the citijtcns every right Jn as perfect a manner 
as is compatible with ti state of govern men t. If they should, by 
roisiake, or from any other cause, attempt the exercise f>f a power 
incompAtibte with the constitution, the obligation of j court 10 
resist it is imperative. But "it h not in doubtful cases, or upon 
alight inapt icat ions, that rhe court should pronounce the Icf^slaturc 
to have iranscendeil their powers. In the prc»enc case^ I am 
dearly of opinion, they have not done io. The law under con* 
sideraii«n is not an ex po!tjac:o law, because the generally rcoeivrd 
an<lwcll<iCCc!edim[Hjri(jf the term is not applicable to a law of this 
character. It imi^iirt the obligation of no contract, for the con- 
dkisive reason that no contract ever existed^ and for thesamc 
rmson ie can not be said to destroy a vested right. 1 Dall, jOf. 
I Craneh, 109. 



The o1ijccH<m thttx this hw warL« injuniicr en ihc counry, i$q 
not veil founded. All the rights of ihc county^ coEiccmpbcod 
be Kcurod by ihc Uw of i3]<^, arc secured bj ihta. 

Thcobicct of the la'v cf 1819 woa to compel persons>'^ 
tlnvrt into this siAtc for ibe purpose of rmanciiHition, 10 give bend 
for thdr m^iinrctianct. This Uw Tcf|Hirfs the bor<l to be giv«ii, 
wbkh has bocn Jocic. and all cwta uf&uic ^nd daunagcH incuTreil 
in any caic to be paid, which the (Icfendant baa also offered to 
<k> in thifl coac. The county, thcn^ is sccurtd, not ani}- agfiii 
prosp«ciivt injury^ but Against all damage* heretofc^re iuacflined.' 
There b 00 ground of eomptaint. then, on the pare of the count>'; 
ihey yre sttum-l in ihcii ri^but, and Uvtt nothing. In nntirhcT 
point of view which thb case i» susceptible of, I am satisAcd thai 
the law under cx)n3ide ration u not unconstitutional. On an 
inquiry into the Jiderenl ktnJH of corporationfl, their uacfl and 
objects, it will appcnr that a plain line afdistinnion cxUta bciwe>en 
auch n% are iif a pn^'arc and hucH ait an* nf a public natiine, 
form A part of ihc gcncnd police of the ^laie. Those that are of a^ 
private nature, and not lEcncriU to the whole communiiy, tJic 
t^slatufc can not interfere with. The grant of incorporation 11 
a conrracc. But all public incorporations which ate established 
a part of the polkr of the Mate, are subject 10 k-^&iartve control^' 
and may be thangcd. n^odilied, enlarged^ rcsttaincd, ur repealed, 
to suit the ever varying exigencies of the »tate- Countiea arc 
corporation of thie character, and are, consequently, subject to 
Legislative control. 

Were it oiherwUe, the object of their incorporatirin urould 
be dcfeaial. It can not be doubccd that MadUan eouncy, aa 
coancyt might be stricken out of cxi,^tcncc, and her int e r es t in a> 
popular action thereby defeated. Upon what principle, then, 
can it be contended^ that the Legialature can not remit a penalty 
in a popular acrkm brought fur her benefit? Fvery view I have 
been able tu tiikc of ibw intcrcsnng and iniwHant subject leads 
to the conclusion that the Icglalaturc have the constitutional power 
to pass the ace of 1815, rclcajii^ Coles, upon the tcrraa prescribed 
in that act. 

The judgment of the court below muac be reversed, and the 



procctillngs tcniArrictlt with dircctjors lo the circuit court to 
receive chec<i<rndai^t'5 pica upon his pAjixie co«t5, &c. (a) ii) 

Starr^ for defciulant in error 

Tkrwy arul Rtynttids, for dcfrntljint in rrrtir. 

Noncx OF Salk or Puilic Lai^dy, September 30, iS^d 

Snnwy. L'riiTvriirrof llTinoia, htm o^igmaU in Litirarr of OM|;feMj 

ToTMB Punuc, 

On Tuc^Ay Iftst wc, the Rc^i^rcr nnd Receiver of the Lavul* 
Office ftt EdwArdsville, made ):iiown thsc the public sde of tanils, 
advtrrrised hy the Prcsidcni's proclnmanon of the i8th of April 
Uar, would commence at Fdwardsville on \fonday ike id, znd 
continue until SaturdAy ihc list of October. This wai in pur- 
iuance of the prodAmation, which stntea th«t "emch sole ^aH 
contmue t^^f ew^*J flnd no longer." But it would 3eein> by a 
subsequent Iaw, viz: "An act making further provivion for ihe 
■de of public lamh/' appruvnl April 14, 1S20, "that ike sevcnl 
public Milc:t authori^CLl l>y this act shall mpcclively he kept open 
(or rtWJ ttffks and no lon^^cn" 

Now as it It thought that this U ofie of the public lale* con- 
templated by ihb act, it is neccMary to correct our former notice, 
by informing ihe public that the sale will, in purMinnoe of the 5ih 
MCtion of the wd law, continue two wecka only: and that the 
Und» will be offered for sale, a» near as pooaiblct in tbc manner and 
on the days foJiowing, viz: 

On Monday, October 2, townfthip* 1 1 and n, north of range I 

On Tuesday, Ociobcr j, townahips 1 1 and 13, north of raoBC 2 

On Wednesday, October 4, townships n and la, north of 
range 3 we«t. 

On Thursday, October 5, townsbtps ti and 11 north of ranges 
4 and S ^f^^' 

Friday. October 6, townships 11 and 11, north of ran^ 6 
w«t, and township 6, north of range 7 west. 


On Saiurdny, OctoW 7, lournshipt 7, 8, and 5^ north of range 
7 wc«- 

()n Monday, Ocioiicr 9, iown»hipa 10, ri, ttml ii» north ot 
rnngc 7 wot. 

On TueadAV, OtioWr 10, township* 6^ 7, 8, and % north of 
range 8 WAt. 

On WcUncsduy, Oiiulicf Ji, UiwnahtpA 10, ii* and 12, wmh 
of S wc»t. And township 6, north of ran^ 9 vrc5i. 

On Thursday, Octubvr 13^ townships 7, fE, 9^ and 10^ north of 
r«ngc 5 wcir. 

On Friday, Octolwr 13. tonntliips 1 1 and i5, noith cif range 9 
wcsU «id lownshTjn 6 ami 7 riiJith of ruf^c lo wr?it. 

Or Satxirday. Octt^bcr I4, cuwnihipH 3, 9, and 10, nnrth of 
range 10 west. 

The sale wUl commence ev^- morning at 9*oclock. 

EovAitn Coi.K«, 
Btv. S'mpNicxMJN. 
Ed^XitrdMtU^ Sfpt, ^o^ 1830. 

CoLEfH TO CftAwrohD, November 10^ i93o 

Lako Orncc at F4>wAat}KvjtLS, November iCi 1820. 

In compliAncr with an act nf Congrc^ eniiricd "An act for 
the nVivi uf the inhahUanu of the vUlagic of P^ria» in the Stute 
oflllinuza/'l have the honor to tranwnu to youarcportofi^vcnty 
claima to lots in Peoria, and chc subfltance of the evidence ui 
BupporC thereof, which have bci*n reeeiwd, and ni>w remain on 
file in my offiee; 10 which I rmjst add my regrets at the insurmount- 
able dilficulciirii I have mcl with m complyini; with a pruvisioti 
of this law which rciiuirea me to rtiRkc out a list of such claim* 
US, \n my opinion, ought to be confirmed. The law not having 
defined the nature of the clain^s intended to be conjirmed, nor 
prescribttl any i^jlc of adjudicafion, nor referred Co any lawf or 
usages by u'hich 1 was rn he governed in forming an opinion, I 
have Iwer iit a Inss to detcnmnc ii|>on what principles (« decide, 
and have, tlicieforct been compelled to omit maUng out a li«t of 



such claims ii», in my opinion, ought to be confirmed. I have, 
howervcr, ocldcd to the repiirt a tabular nVatcmert showini; at one 
view the character of all and each of the claimft from which, 
after hii\'ing decided \vfuT dare or length of poMes^ion «htll give 
A litW (o the cjccujwnt, it will Ik wy la sdccc the particular 
cTftims which should be conlirmcd. 

Believing rh*t the chief object of Congress in pASsing the Uw 
wo; to obtain informatir^ Ri. to the nature of the cUimn to lou in 
Pecirfa, T have rndcnvorrvl to cnllecf fill the informntion which 
could be obtmncd, and to uanscnbc iz in dctJiil in the nq^ort of 
evidence hcrcwfth traliimiucd. And :o ifUflTd as far a* pi^ssjblc 
AgAinsi inacctiracics or fr.nuds, nnd to obtain as full and correct 
information as practicable, I dceir«d that the T<$iimony Bikould 
be taken in my presence, etorpt where advanced age or infirmity, 
or U>c tcmottnoii of ihc wiljics?iCi, lenJercd tlicir dltciLdmicc at 
my office xnconvcnTcnC. With a fev cxctptionv, »t\ the deposi- 
tions have been thus taken, and the evidence, though sometimes 
contrAdiceorVf and no doubt often innccurate as to dates, will, tn 
general* be found as consistent as could reasonably have been 
cxpecte<l, contiderinis tlie length 4»f i\me whicS has elapiet!, and 
the illiterate character of most of ihe dcpcnenr.v 

Thc o!d vtlZa^ of PL^ciria waa situated on the northwest shore 
of I^ke Pcorix, about one mile and a half al>ove the lover ex- 
tremity nr nutlet of the lake. Thii; village had been mhnbited by 
the French pre viouH ro ihcrrtijllecmnof any of tlie prewntgeneta- 
tkin. About the year 17:8 or 1779* the first house was built in 
what WAS then called Ls Vdle dc MaiUct, afterwards the New 
villagcof Tcorin, andof Inic the pUce has been known by the name 
of Fon Clari, siruftted about one mile and s half below the old 
village, immediately st the Inwer point or outlec of lake Pniria. 
The situjtiufi bclrg prcfcned in con&cc]ucnce of the water being 
better, and its being thought more hcaltliy. the inhabitants grad- 
ually de&crted the old village* and, by the year 1796 or 1797, had 
tntirdy abnndoned it. and removed to the new village. 

The inhabitants of Peoria consi^te<] generally of Indian 
traders* hunters, and voya^ert, and had A>rmnl a link of cunncctioa 
between the French rending on the waicrh uf the great lakes and 
the Missiasippi Kver. From that happy facility of adapting them- 



setveft TO ibcir siiuanon ind associates, fbr whtch thr Frrnch nrv 
10 remarkable, the lahabiuntd uf PccfiA lived gcncTAlly in h^nnui 
with ihcir savage aci^bon. It would seen* however, that, aboul 
cheycor 1781, they were induced to«b«Adon the viUae« from the 
apprehension of Indian hostilit)'; but aowi after the peace of 1783, 
they again rewmed, and continued to rcvidc (here until tl 
autuain a( ilie year iSil, when they were Torulily rentoved fmm 
ii, And the pUce dcatroycd by a Captain Craig* of the lllmi 
mJlttia, on the ground, aa it waa said, that be and his compj 
of miUtia were fired 00 in the night while at anchor in the boata 
before the rlllage, by Tndtanft^ with whom the mhabitants were 
m^iccted by Craig co be too intimate and friendly. 

The ii^abitanta of Peona, it would appear, from all I can 
learn, Mitled there without any grant or pertnE««ion from the 
authority of any Govemnent; that the only title they had to their 
land was derived from potsesnon, and that the only value aTrachc^^ 
to it, grew out of the improvements placed upon it; that each 
person took to himself such portion of unoccupied land as he 
wished to occtipy and cultivate, and ntadc u his by incorporating 
his labor with it; but as »oon as be abandoned it his title was 
vndcntDod to cease with his poascssionG and improvemenes, and 
it reverted loiunininUrate, ami wailiabde again to be improved 
and posscaAcd by any one wlio should thiidc proper. This, to- 
gelber with the itinerant character of the inhabitants, will account 
for the number of persoaa who will fretjuently be found, from thC' 
testimony contained in the report, to have occupied the same lot, 
many of whom, it will be eeen^ prcaent conflictiRj^ claimi. 

As ts usual in French villager, ibc posseuiona in Peoria con- 
mted gencrslly of village lots, on which they erected their build- 
ings and made their gardens, and of out-lota or fields in wbkb 
they cultivated grain> flcc. The village tots contained in geaeral 
about onehali of sn arpcnt of land; the out-lots or fields were of 
Vaiious sjfcs, depending upon the industry or meaiu of the owner 
to cultivate more or leas land- As neither the old nor r^w village 
of Peoria were ever formally laid out, noc had ddined limita 
aasigned them, it ia impossible to have of thtxn an accurate map^ 
I have, hoi»^ver, sketched off one [see plate 7^ fig. 3;)* founded on 



the testimony rcccivccl m support of the dAtm^, and froro the 
tnronnfttion obtained Irom the most intelligent of the former 
inhabitants of the place; and thoufth 1 ant aware of ita inaccuracy, 
yet 1 am induced to forward it along with the report, as ic will 
tend to (how the cUimtt, and clucidnfc the r^^itmory in support 
of ihcm, t ha\T not hccn able rti »s^"e■rrnin wriih prrCLMOn on 
witfc particular quArtcf sections of the military sorvey thcK 
claims ft» s;tujitcd< It ia hellcved, however, thnt the greater 
part of the lan^ covered both by the old and new villages are in 
fractional qLsner sections, and that the out-lota or fields arc 
iJKludfd in quirtcf sections which have been granted aa bounty 
Uads to the soldien of the late war. 

J atn> very respectfully, 

Rfpitfr cj fhf Land Offiu at Edttardrpifte. 

To William H. CitAwroat>. 

Sfertiary »J ihe Treasury t^ the V. S. 

In obnlicncc to an net nf Cnngrest, entitled "An act Ibr tfe 
relief of ihc inliftlMunt* of chc village of Pmria, in the State of 
Illinou," npprovcd May 15. 1S30, the Rcijtstcr of the Land Office 
at Edwardavillc hAS the honor of tayin^t before the Secretary of 
the Trcasurj' the following reporr of claims, and the wib«tance 
of the rvidence in support Thereof, which have been receivcd» and 
now remain on fdc in \m (j/Hlc. 

No. I. Eticnnc Bernard claims a lot in the villiftc of Peoria, 
coniaifimg about one arpetit of land, situate about forcy or fifty 
yardfi »outh of the lot of Jcwph Graveline, and bounded east- 
ward]y by a road or vtreet, teptrmtiiig it from the lower part of 
lake Peoria; suut)iw;itd]y by a road sepatatttig it from a I^t occu> 
by JoKr BaptUtc Maillet, and westwardly and northwardly 
eommona or prairie, 

Pro^. TouEint Soulard and Jos^h Gravellne testify, on 
oath, that Etiennc Bernard improved and cultivated a lot of one 
or two arpcnij; nf land in Peoria^ which rhey de«:rihc as above, 
about the year 177$, and continued to culcivau the some for about 



tc» ymrs, whcii he tv«s diivai uS tUc ptcmucs by the tkpredaticas 
of the lrv<li«n». 

RemarJc. The evidence in thb case tvfts fiat t»kcn in the prc»* 
ence of thtf RegiKCei; the deponents being Ot viix» nid) too old 
>ncl mfim to atfenJ at hh ciffitr, Jiiclgirg fn>m ii* tituititia, the 
almve Ifjt muisi have been afternards built upon iird n<xii|iittS liy 
Francis Wilcttc, anj rn>w cUimal by Ijouis Pilcttc. See cUim 
No- It. 

No. 1. AugtiRtinc Roqae claims a lot in Peoria, containmg 
about one arpent <>f bnd» and bounded northwardly by a lot 
occupied by John Bapli^tc Maillct, catiwardly by a mad wparat- 
Lnf it from the IlliooiA rivcti and southwardly and vrcatwordiy by 
the prairie. 

Pr^/^ E6cnnc Hcmird tcstitics, on oath, that Augustai 
Koque, deceased^ did, the year before the con^juesi of ihc couni 
by O^lonel Clark, buitd a house on and improve the above described 
lot m Vco:)&^ which loE containcti Abuat unc ar[^^' "^ land; and 
that fhc said Koquc contirmcd Co rcsidt thereon for ten or twelve 
yean, when he was driven frum it by the depredations of the 
Indiana. And the «aid Bernard further testifies that the above 
namevl Au^^iine Roqu*?, whu daims this lot, is the mwi of ihe late 
Augustine Roque of Peoria. And Tou»ant Soulard tcstilK», on 
oath, that one Augustine Roquc did settle and cultivate 'bttt at 
what time is not stated) a Ic^t described as ab^ive in I'coria, and 
continued to reside on the same for at least ten years, when he 
wan forced to remove by the depredarioni of the savages^ 

Rfmark^ The above dcsirnlwd lo( muM have been after- 
wards imptovcd and cultivated; and it is probable it covered a 
part of the land embraced by the lots which are now cUimcd by 
Forsyth and Mct<6 See claims, No. 7, and No. 14. 

No, J. — Gabriel I.arrcillc, as guardian of Charlotte Ti 
who ha^ loAC her reason, and who woa wifr to Pierrr Troge, 
ceased, and daughter of tJie late Antoinc Saint FnsnciSt claims a 
lot contuininf; abc/ut t^^o arpcnts of land» situated about two 
niile^ above Fort Clark, and near the old fort of FeoHa, and 
bcunded eastwardly by bke Peona, northwardly by t lot of 
Francis Novelle, (fir T.ovcl,) southwardly by Pascal Chevalier, and 
westwardly by prairie. 



Prw^. Bapti«ic GfAZJi and Charlotte Lrinigu tcKtify, un ixitli, 
iliAt Anrninr St Frnnris, (Icrr;xvd, dWi ncfttlc: anil culriv^iti- n Inr 
coRtdiiiir^e near two arp^nu of Ur;d> situaictl and boundcil M 
above <lcKnl>C4). ftr^^ to ihc bc9C of their rccolJccbon, resided on 
jhc same, fltKJvc twelve vents, when he was driven from the prem- 
ises by the depredations of the Indians, which they state \*as» 
to the best of their recollecivin, abotit forty year* since- 

Remark. The evidaite in this caw: wa» n^t Lakcri in the i^rc*- 
eocc of the RcgiMcr, the dcponcnta being very old ami mfirfn. 
Thia be, Uke the two preceding oncs> must have been covered 
landr whieh ha* been since improved and occupied by others; 
but who now claim* ir, ir i* impoiaiblc to say wirh precision. 

No. 4. — The liein of Gabriel Cetr^, by iheir ;igear Pa^^al L. 
Cen^, c1ain}« lutdcr Ijoais ChatcHcrcan, in the old village of 
Hboria, a double lot of one hundred artd tixty feet \n front, by 
three hundred feet in depth, {Trench meaRare,f bounded on the 
north by ;i nFreet wpjrating if frnm a lot occupied hy Pierre I.a 
Vflsjficur, dit Oiamberlain; on the casr by a «trcct separating it 
IVom a lot of John Baptiste Kmelin; on the south br jt street 
8ep:tratinit it from the lots of Parent find Sibingcr; and west by 
the cultivated lands of the oid villa^ of Peoria. 

Proof. Hyacinthc -St. Cyr tcttifie.*, on oath, that \iw% 
Charellerean, in ihe year 1778, builc a house im, and cultivated 
the above described lot i» tiic old village of Peoria, and continued 
to occupy tbc same untrl the year 17S1, when he, and all the \x\' 
habitants of Peoeia, were induced to leave the place from fear of 
Indian hostility; but that bd CharelTerean^ reiuraed to Peoria 
*oan aftrrr the peace of I7!tj, and ccintinued to reside on the ^d 
lot until hut death, {cJie year of his death he, St. Cyr, cfjuld not 
recollect,) after wtuch, the said lot was occupied by one Chorcttc 
and his wife, Marie Joscphc Twriereau; and he, Si, Cyr, «'ell 
recollects that the laid lot wa^ aftfruardK void at auction by 
Chaiellerean'K sdminivtraton, and bought by Gabriel Cerr^^ and 
that the »id loc conialned about one aipent of land. Marie 
jOKphe Tieriereau te«iftc«, on oaih, chat in the year 17^5 she 
removed to Peoria, and settled on a lot, the property of Louia 
Charcllerean, in the upper town, which «be described m above. 

Rrm^k. This IfJt iv also daSmed hy l-oiiis Chatellerean^ as 



t^ >on of tlic Utt horn Qwidlovan of Peorift. See dmim Ni 

No. f.— Tlu bct» of Cfftbrid Ccrrr* br tbdr ayent PiKat 
CcfT^ daba an ajtloc or fidd mnnd ianecfiifely in 
of. and adjcnntng id, the las: A g ribo i kic 

/Vo^. Hyacinikc Sc Cyr ariAcsy on oath, rrut, p< 
to ihc mUhnry ccpcdicion cocm^Nkd bj Captain Montj 
wKiflt C«loi>d Clark acni up to Peoria in die yar l7lto, he i»tD 
rtcolket* amng Lorn Chatdkrean onidvarr on out-lot or 6eid 
fn die rra/ of, and adjonn§ id. the lor on vhkh hr livrd in Peorb, 
■nc! to the heat of ho (St. Cyr's) recoUntiun, (he laut tut nr iirU 
coQtaincil between thirty aj»d forty aipcntA of land, which the ted 
ChateUerean continued Co cultivatt tintit fail death, after wl 
it w occupied for a onve by one Chnrette aod hb wife, 
Jotephe Tieriereau, and then told hy Oiarellerean's a^lmliutl 
tm, and hocghl hy Gabnd Ccrr^; he, St. Cyr, eouhl not 
at vlui tunc CKatcUcrean died, or bow long Chorettr and 
mfc lived on the »aid lot. Marie Jooepfac Tienetcau, 
en oath, that the weB recol^ta chat, about the year I795i 
QtateUerean had in btt powewion, uul cultivated a certaan 
or porrion of lind in a conunon &dd, which abe describes as 
ID the wc4t| in the rear of his town lot; the uu of the lot or portico 
»f land b not »laced by her. 

ftfmMrk, The quantity of land contained in this oui< 
field b not stated by the claimants- 

No, ^5— Lfluii Chatrllcrean cbimt a lor in the old vil 
Pcrwia, coDiAJnins about two arpcniA of land, and bounded 
wardly hy a street, ca«twanlly by a atrect, southwardly by a IM 
of Wtlkite, and weatwardly by a Sdd. 

Prpi^, Poacal L. Cerr^ tcsiilies, on oath, that be well kneon 
that LouJi Chatcllcrean resided on a lot id th« old village of Pecitii, 
^jm the >caT f;</o to tlve year \79U when the Hiiid ChateUeteaa 
fixd on the said k>t, which wa» bounded on the north by a atitet 
rhich separated it from the lot of Pierre Lavatateur, dit Cham- 
rtain, on the eaat by a street, and on the west hv a 

Reantrki. TKb lot » al%o daimed by the hein of Ga! 
Ccm^ 5<e claim NV 4- 

No. 7. — Thomas Forsyth dahns a lot of three hundred 



in front, by three hundred feet in depth, French menmre, in the 
village of Pcorii, uii<l lM7tm;)e(l eAfttwanily by i street^ xe-mrating 
it from the Illinois river, north^Jirdly hv n ctom street, vrcAtwanllr 
by a back street^ and southwardly by n lot claimed by Jtcques 

pTtt^f. H>ponte MaiEkr te«nfltt, on oath, that he 15 now 
about IWiy-twn nr forrz-rhn-c yeim ofagr, and )u^ alwayn under* 
Stood he hod been bom in a stodiided fbfC which stood 011 the 
above dcacTibcd lot, in the new village of Peoria, and that hu 
father, John Bapmtc NUiJWt, hod lived on the said lot for a long 
ttme- And PScrre Lavossiear, ctic Chamberlain, in like manner, 
Ecstiftea rhnt, when he firu went to live in Peanut, in the year 
1790, he found John Dftptistc Moillet occupying ami cultivutii^g 
the above described lot. And further, both Maillet uid Cham< 
bcrbin testify, that the said John Baptisrc continued to live on, 
ami cultivate the wud lot unril he was killed, in the year iSoi; 
ttficr which ihey understood the said lot was sold to one John M. 
Couranll, by whom it wu» miUI to the aN)v? named Thomai 
Forsyth, who continued to occupy and culuvice the said lot until 
dt>c year 1811, when the inhabitants were expelled from Peoria 
by ft Captain Craig of the Illinoaft miUtia, 

Remark, A part of thtt Int must have been embraced by the 
lot claimed by Aupistinc Roquc. Sec cUim No. 2. 

No. £.— Thonias PoTsyth daimi a lot in Peoria of three 
hundted fcct square, French measure, and bounded to the cost by ft 
street sepjirating it from the last detcnbed lot; to the north 
by a cross street, to the west by unoccupied tond, and to the 
south by a lot claimed by Jacques Mett^. 

/Voo/. Pierre LavsMicur, dit Chftmbaloin, testifka, 00 oathi 
that he wcjic to live in Pc^^Hft b the year 1790, when he found 
John Baptiftte MsiUet cultivating the above described lot; and 
Hypolite Maillet testifieSj on oiih. thit he is now about forty-two 
or ferty-three years of age, ^ind that he recollects that his father 
John Bapliate Ma^llei cultivated the above described lot for a 
Icfig hmc; and boih ChambcfUin and Maillet testify, that tbs 
same John Bapi:ite Maillet continued coculciyftce the said lot until 
ht was killtdt in the year lEoi, after which they understood it 
waa sold to one John M. Coursoll, who> they also understood^ 


iLUjfoa asrroMMCAL cxhimctmbu 


Uc or Ml, vliidk, to tfe ktf of dber 

Ma* er «ucn arprva </tf J; vkI Mfnf 

Forvf fli niFtmtad ife mA Utf sc I^mx tvo fem. 

No. ye,— TKaMg Fogytli daw ^» oa c ki c cr Ud, costaa*- 
miE afcu0 M>ctti7 ■rpents of UwJ, wiwIcJ ip dr Litrie prwic* 
tfbovc opo mi^ froa Pcvii- , 

Pr^ef. JvxpiM Mrtrt and Fdn FooDiani laofy-. on ood^i 
rtwi TbemM Fcnfrb commenced fW imprDVoneni of die alxmc 
denibal lot ur fidd in tW jar iBor or iSof, md that be oil- 
bfjced pt iot «oc fca^; «>d tlui cfcc taai loc er field oooa m od^ ' 
lo tlv bctt dI their belief. Dot own thaa tboui seven trpents of 

Nft, it.«-fvCNit9 PtlrrtE, tn right of hn vUr, AnyAca. the 
ilMfhter of the Utc Ffsnm Wikrrc, of ihc vilbge of PcorU, 
diimt a lot in Pcona, containing about one-half of «n arpcui of 
Land, ft/td bouridcd nofihwardly by a ttfcec, ctacwirdJjr bjr a lot 
of Antoioa De«ehanip«, Mxithwardfy by a street ftcpartong it 
from ihc llinm* rirer, and ircslwardly by a »irrrC. 

Pn^. Drezjr Blondeau tCMiibcK, on oaih, that Franro 
VMlctfc builr a home i}n» ind improTcd the aborc described lot in 
Peoria, m tf>c year I7S9 or 1789, and itvcd thereon until ha death) 
In (he year 1S06 or 180I. Simon Roi tesitftcs, on oath, that be 
went ift live in Pcona about thr ycat J79l1» "' which time he found 
Krancit Wilcttc livinn on the abuvt described tot in Peoria, where 
he continued 10 reaidc until hU death; and both Blondcau and R09 
fctufy %\\%\ ihc wA lot conuincd about onc^halT of an arpcni of 
lind, And thut i-rancii WUetCe died, leaving but one child, «^ho, 
to their certain knowledge, it now the wt/c of the above named 
Lcti1» Pilrtte, 



Rfmark. It ia believed there is an unintcnttuniJ mUcake \r% 
ike bouruliirics of the above described lot. For, to coercspond 
vUb tht dfKTipttofli ^veo of the other lot* in Peona, it fthuuM 
Iww been m>T(.liwarUly Uy Antmnc OtNt-'Imnip's !cif. -astwanJIy 
hy n street icp^rati^ig il fToni the ILlinoin river, aiui iq thr Nuuth 
And went by streets. 

Thi« Tct IK nW) claimed by Fdix FduntAiiii vho contends that 
Fnuicift Witetce u>\d it, » aiII be Keen bv referene^ to ht« elaim 
No. 41. 

No. !2-— I,ouiA HIettc, in right uf his wife ,\n^bcd, the 
<iiui|thtcr of the lute I'VancU Wilccrc, cUims a h>i conuinin^ onc- 
hfttf of ;tn arp:-ni nf Und in the villigc of PcoH.^, tmmcitiiitciy tn 
ibe fear rt rSe Ijiti drttribod tot. anj «cpirated from ti by a «irect, 
»nd adjoining tfi ih<" cnsr |nonh| a lot of Antoire Dcwrhamps. and 
bounded tjti the south »nd west by Mi'tct). 

Pr^o/, Drciy Blondcau tc«ifica, on oath, that Krancia 
Wilcttt boil: stabler an<l other oui-houtci on the above de^cnbcd 
Toi in the year 17SS or fj^, atkl continued to utc cb« «me until 
hi* death, in tlie y«ir iSc6 or 1808. Simon Rii in like manner 
i&tines, thjil, when lie vcnl tti live m PetoTia, xbout tile year 
£791* he found Trancb WiJcrteir* ptKrtcs^lon of the above described 
lot, which he continued to occupy tdl htji death. And they both 
testify that it contined about one-hatf of on arpent of land, niul 
that Franfi* Wilette and hi* wife, on iheir decease, left fnit one 
tWWdy who IS now tUt wife (if thr nKivc-namcd !^im Pilcllc. 

No. ^y — l-ouis ISleitc, in righr of his wife Angelica, the 
daughter of the late Krnncis Wilctte, clatma an out-tot or *idd, 
containing lifteen or cweniy arpcnts ti( land, situated about three- 
fetiTthft of a mile northeaftwardly 1 northwestwardly I from the 
village of Pcorin. 

Pr&qf, Drciv Blondeau cestilic-s, on oath* lh« Francis 
\^'iIct1c commenced improvii>^ nnd cultivaiins an out-lot or fields 
of fri>m fifteen to Twenty ari>cnTs of land, situated as above 
described. aLiout the year lyS's, which he coniinued to cultivate 
until his death, in xhe year iSoti or li^; and Simon Rui tcittfiey, 
on oath, that, when he went to live in Peoria, in the year [79Jt he 
found l-Vancis Wilctte in po«acstx>n of, and cultivalin^ , the above 
described out-k>t or field, which he supposed to contain al»out 


tiiaioa BOTomcdL axxicntjttt 



rinr, M ife aerril fcr * >"* diMcd by Thw Fmsv^k «■ 

«tM br a bKk •o«v^ aad « Ae lootfc bf s lac of Pnas Bi 

A»y: Hn>fi» M^Ib uofa^ « Mb. dm w « 

ctrioc rccoBcctJOA, the ibovv dewnbcd be n p n a c^t d ad 
cakmtcd by feai bdw, Jofai BcpWCr Madkc «Ik> cmtiMed to 
calcnrsu rt natil ha dmh m tfa 3«v ttoo or iSott nd FWnv 
t«n««vvr, tin ChM^btAmf ako twifia, oa oath, dur, «4wn be 
«t»t Cm live ID Peom, in tKc rear 1790, he feufi^ Jcte BaptiMc 
Mflidkc JO poBMoo of. tad culdvAbag. the ahorc ikacnbcd be; 
4nd tfccr both taitity thtr ther «J«a3« imalenttod that the abow 
/Mm«d M^i^ b*d purch^ued the fdd lot, (bat when knot «attdj 
wktth th^y vrD ircoUtcT he cDntiooed to oeoipjr tintS the spring 
tAjeAT idu; vidihu the nid lot wu, thrj rhongbr, abuul oghiy 
Ictt m froriT, by about tknc hundred feet in depth. 

fUmm-k, The land embraced by this lot mtiat, tn put, h«ve 
been covered by the lot of AcfoadijM Roquc. Sec clum No. 3, 

No. Jj,— Jacqnca Meit£ daim* a lor in Peoria, of eighty feet 
ui front, hf three htimlred m depth, (Frmch meawrej attuaccd 
Immrdutcly in tJie rear of the laat described loc^ aitd separated 
ffOfnit by a Btrccf, and bounded north bfaloi of noRiAiForvyth, 
and lo the west and south by unoccupied lands, 

Pttx^. Hypolice MaillcC ttitifics, on oath, that he u now 
forty-two or ftirry-rhrre yesr* of age, and thar, Jrnm hi* earlieirt 
recollectufi, his faihcr, John Bapmic MaUlet, had cultivated the 
above dtscribed \oU and E^crtc Ljiya3aicur> dit Ch^mbcriain, 
teiufiri, in like manner, that he went Fo live in Pcork in the year 
1790^ at which time he found John Baptiste Maillct in poeieanan 
of, and cu1ttvafing» tbe abuw detcnlicd lot; and bolh ceatify that 
the aaid hUilict LUiitlnuod tu culhvalt: ihc aatd Jut until bis death. 



m the ytat 1800 or r8oi, and that ihey had always uiulerarootl 
ihat ihf ab^ivc ramcil Mett^ purduuBcd Ji, and they well rwollect 
kc culcti-atcd it until thf spKng of the yeir 1812, ard that it was 
about eishty feet in front, bv about thnc hundred ia depth. 

No. 16.— Picrrt Lav«ssicur, dit Chamherlain, clauna a lot or 
aqtjarc of nhout two arpcntt of land in the old viUa^ 0/ Peoria, 
bcHimtcd northinardfy by a hill, rn the Sfnirh and cast by siTccIs, 
and 10 tbc west by ai) out-loE, also clarmcd by !iim, 

Ffwtf. Joseph La^attrf and Hypolitc Matllct testify, on 
oath, that Aufustinc FlaUtcau. in the year 17S9, "csrabtiahcd 
himvelf on four lots^ofoghtr by [hrre h«indr^ (ect^tcW which 
lots rhcy describe aa being Ujundcd on x)tt r^orih by a liill, south 
hyacruM street, caiat iy a strccr, and west by an uut-lot, then 
posscawd by the said FkaJltcau, and that the said Fiailtcau sold 
the said tots to the above named Pierre Lavusieur, dit Chamber- 
lain» in the year 1794, 

Rfmark^ The tescimfwiy, in this case, w*t not taken In tlw 
pretence of the Register. This lot ia al>o claimed by Augustine 
Fiatltcau. Sec claim No. 11. 

No- 17,— Pierre LavasMeur, dit Chamberlain, ckima an out- 
lot or field, containing abcAir twel^r^ arpenti of land, near, if not 
adjdning to, the old village of Petirii, and atijointng, to the vouth 
and wcs:, the ht\d of l^ois Chatcllcrcnn* 

/V^. Joseph Lapattr^ and M>'polttc Malllct testify* on 
oatS, that Augustine PiAiIteau "established*' the above described 
lot or field, which contained about twelve aq>ents of land, in the 
ymr i7fE9, and that he sold ir, in the year 1794, to the above namod 
Pierre Lavauieur, dii Charnberlain, 

Remark. The testimony, in this case, was not taken in the 
prcsenec of the Hegiscer, 

No, iB- — Pierre I^vasdeur, dit Chamberlain, claims a lot in 
Peoria, boiinded northwardly and westward! y by onoccupied 
lands, eastwatdly by u Hirect separating it from the lot of Louia 
Bitson, and acuthMaidly by a cron itreet^ 

Fro^f. HypoHtc Maiilct end Michael La Claire testify, on 
oath, that Pierre Lavasfitrur, die Chamberlain, fenced in, and 
built a huitc on, the above described lot, about the year 179S, 
but tbry do not know that he ever occupied the hooKr or cultivated 



ihc laid lot. They de«cnb« the be to hare bccrt atiout the usu&l 
mCf tKjt b, ftboue one-hairufdm Arpent of land. 

No. 19, — Pierre l^vataieur, dit Qiambcrtain, daims 2 lot in 
Peoriiit of eighty feet in front, by three hundred ietx in dq^th, 
(French mcuurej and bounded northwardty by a lot of Michael 
La Croix, castwardly by a street separating it froRi the lUlnott 
riref, iouthwardly by a loc of Au^afitine Iji R«he, and wesr- 
wafdfy by a nrrcct. 

Proe^. Hy(iolite \1iiillct and MicIiAcl I^ Claire teftttfy, on 
oath, that Francis Jourdan made an tmproven>cnt on the above 
dc^ribcd lot, in Pcivii, about rhc year iBoo or i8ot, n^re he 
resided about on« year, wh^n he (Jourdan) sold thcaoid lot to 
Pierre Lavaisieur. dir Chambrrlain» who resided on it until he 
wa> ftimtl frofn !t by C^puio Cr^if^. vltu dolrijyei! fhr village of 
Peoria In ibe fall of :hc )car i8t2; that the :iaid toi was ahtwt 
cvb^' feet in front, by nbout three hundred in depth. 

No. ao, — l^erre l-ivas*ieyrj dit Chamber4am« clmm« an out- 
lot or fieldi contiiining about seven arpentx of land, situated near 
hairs mih- rn :he «nithwe«i of Pe»Ha, antf ad joining, on the north, 
the field of Anioine J-ipanc^. 

Prtx^, Hypolitc Mailkr and Antoinc Lapnnc^ tcatify, oci 

loath, that Pierre l^vas«ieur, dit Chnmbcrlain, did, in the year 

1810, enck»c and cultivate the above described lot or field, and 

that he contimied ro cultTvarr it until hr and all the inhabitanie 

»ere foixevl to leave l*ct>ii;i, by Captain Cr^ii^. "i the year 1R13. 

No. £1.— (Jabricl Latcraillc, as adminiAtrator of AuguuuK 
iMdiUcau, cUlmit a lot in the old village of Peoria, containioK about 
f>Tie-hntf of ar arp<;nt oi land, and bounded eaucwardly by a lot 
of one Lapierre, southwardly by a street teparacing it from a 
lot clatme^l by Ixniis Chatellerean, and to the north and west by 
unoC<upled land. 

Prm/^ Lricnnc Hcmard teitificSt on oath, that he saw Augus- 
tine hiailtcau living on^ arid cultivating the above described lot 
in live eld vTlbg;^ rf Peoria, about ihc year 1791, on which He, 
iMaiittau, hud a MaclciJTnirh's shop, and tliat he cotiTtnued to reside 
un the «aid lot for about five or mx ytaxa, when he abamloned it: 
and that the said lot contained about onc-balf f>f an arpcnt of 
lami- Tousjint Soulierc tcslific), on uath, that Augustine MniU 



teau, deceafied, lived on, and cuUivjited th« ftbo%-e described lot, 
(but whnt it ti: not ftnC«d,) ard that he corilnvM to roLJde on it 
for AT li^afit ten yrnrs whrit hr wrac dnvcn off by savage Hrpn*(1ft* 

Remark. The tcnimony of Tousant Soulicrc wns not tjik^n 
in the ptcKncc of rhc KcpiCcr. llib lot i» also claimed by l^Grre 
l^vassicur, die Chflml>cr1ain, who conttndt that be purchaiaed it, 
in f he year 1794, of Kiailnrim. Srr rlaim rCo. 16. 

Nii. as- — Thomsu Luab) claims a liit in the old village of 
PcorijW coaraiaiiig about four hundred arpcjita of land, and 
bounded on the e^Asi by a scre^r or read, at the distance of aboje 
one hundred and twenty yards from ULce Ptrona, on she sooth 
by a street fei>arating it fron* the lot of Joseph Leframbroifie, 
yrat by umK:uu[il&1 linds, and, on ttie north, by ilie lot of cme 

Pmf. Joseph Ijipattn? and Louii Coinot Ecttify, on oath, 
that Thomat lAjftby purchaiied, about the year 17^5, a lot, which 
they dcscritic as ci>ntaining four jr;ieni* of land, nnd situated In 
ihc «p|ier rnwn of Pcona, fnim fsnc Siiinr Jnbn, wW^ tbry state, 
had rcHdcd on the said lot for ncjir fifteen yeara» Simon Roi 
testifies, on oath, ih^t, when he went to live in Peoria, in the year 
1794, he found one Saint John living on a lot^ which he describes 
ai it is above dc*cribt^i by l.u«by. and chat he had been informed 
ihat Saint John sold the snid lot to Thomas l.usby. Michsel La 
Ooix testifies, in like mmnci, that, in die year 1797. Thonias 
Lusby purchaKd the said lot fnom one Saint John, who had pre- 
rioufly lived thereon; and that the said Lusby Uved on the uid 
Jot for one or two ycars^ when he abandoned it; ard bofh RoJ and 
La Crotx testify that the lut coniained about four arpent* of land. 

No. 23. — Tlionta^ KuAbjr claim:! a lot In the old villa^ of 

.containing about one-half of an arpent of land, and bounded 

mMi tt&«ast by lake Peoria, «outh by a lot of one Bouchi3, wejt by 

ft ftreet separating it from the lot cf Lout« Chatellerean, and 

■orth by the lot ^^i i>r\t^ l-aiiieire. 

pTottf. Jo«qih l^pannr ami Louis Coinoi testify, on odth, 
that Thomas Luiby purchased of one Laroach a tor on which he* 
l^roach, redded »evcn yeari^, nrd which they merely describe aa 
being in the upper town of Pcc^ria, and containing about onc-hatf 


of an Bipcnt of Und. They do not umte when I.u«by ptnrhsaed, 
or ham long he re-ramcd po&^csnon of ibc be* 

Etmark. The ibovc tc&ttraonx w&s noc taken in ihc presence 
of the Kc^cr, 

No- ^.^-Thomas Lusb^ cUitns t lot ia the new viIIa^c oI 
P<ona, contiining about onc-half oT in arp^tit of Uod, and 
boufiJcd trjuimardJy by a strtet ^trparating tt from the lUinou 
river; KXJtkwanlljr by a bt urce occupied by Gtorcttc. aficnvurds 
by Loub Ddbnil; ¥restvrardly, by a back street; atid, mfthwdlf . 
by B lot of one Chtmplain«, 

ProcJ. Simon Ro< taufieHf on oath» that, uKen he went to 
live in Pccd»j in the year 1794, \vt fmml one Crqueltc living on 
the above de^crtbeJ lot; lliar he, RtK, docs^ not know whether 
Urquctte sold it or not, but tba[ he ^<li recdkcta seeing one 
Caption arierwnrdi living on it, who sold it to Thomas Luiby 
about the year 179$ or 1799, and that when he, Roi, removed 
from Peoria, in rhe year i3o3 or rScj, he left the laid IjJiby living 
on (he said lot- [jouis Comoi and Jmpeh 1*Ap4iin^ icatiff, on 
OAtht that they knew of Thomoa Lpmbya purchasing a bt of about 
one-half of an arpcnt in the lower town, aJ»ut the year 1794, from 
one Castion, and that the ^id Castton ]>un:hacicd the said bt the 
ytta before of one Uniuette* who had lived on the said bt, they 
thought^ ibr nearly twenty yean. 

Remark, ThU bt it abo claimed by Antoinc La Claire, who 
contends that Hiomos Luaby 90M it. Sec claim No. 35, Coinoi 
And LapattT^'a tc&timony not taken in the presence of the Reg- 

No. 25, — Antoanc Iji Claire elairoa a lot in Peuria of eighty 
feet in fronts by thtee hundred feet in depth, (French meosurej 
and bounded eajtwurdly by a street acparatirtg it Irom the lUinob 
river, sxnitfawardly by n bt of John Baptisie Defend, westwardly 
by unoccupied lands, and northwardly by a be which he, La 
Cbirc, purchased of J- R. Champlaine. 

Froqf, Francis Racine teatiliesj on oath^ that one Lablond 
maidc an improvement on the above dcKribcd lot in the year 
1798 or 1799, and that the said lot was al'cen^'ari» in posM«don 
of several persons, among whom he well recollects Joseph Caadoa 
and Thomas I^sby; that Lusby sold the said bt in the year 1805 



to Him, (Rdcine,) wbo sold \i to Joseph Dejcney, who sold it to 
cKf jidoTr nanxxi Arminr I^ CUirr in the yrar 1S09, «lw> txxu- 
ptcd said lot nil the year iSii, ivhcn Pcorii was destroyed by 
explain Craig, Jactjucs Mctt^ testifies, on oath, ifcat TKonus 
Lusby WAS in poAseseion or the above dcftcnbcd lot in the year 
tSoJ, when he, Mctt^, went eo live in Peoria, aind thic Lusby 
cof>tiru<d to reside thereon for nbout twx* y^^rs, iftcr which he, 
McK^% suw tike said lut m ptaMKUon of otic Ju»ci»h D^ciiey, who. 
he understood, lold it to the above namod Antoine La CUirc in 
the year %%o% who continocd to occupy the sunc upilil the year 
1%\1. Both Racine and Mett^ testify^ that the lot was abuur 
eighty feet in frort, by about three hundred feet in depth. 

RtTHori, Tluft lot in nito daTined by the above named Tlumai 
Liuhy, Sec claim No. I4- 

No. 16, — Artoinc La Ciaire claims a lot in Pcona of eighty 
feet in front, by ;hree hundred lisct in depth, (French measure,) 
and bounded chstwanily by Matti street, separating it from the 
lllinmii livrr, nonhwardly hy n lor nf Prancii RaciT«c, wntwnrdly 
by unoccupied iaadt and southwardly by t lot on which, he, Ui 
ClairCt hrcd. 

Prvcf, Francis Racine and Jacques MeU<i testify, on oath, 
that John BapTiste ChsmpUinc made in improvemcr» on the 
above docrihcd lor in the year 1801 or 1802, ard chat he, Cham- 
plaine, sold ihc Mid lot, in the year iSic, to the abwe named 
Aatdnc La Claire, who cultivated it as a girden uatil the year 
181J- Both Racine and Mett^ testify that said lot was about 
eighty feet in front, by about three hundred feet in depth. 

No- 17. — Michael la Cruix claims a 3ot in Ptoria of ei^thty 
feet in frunt, by three hundred feet in depth. (French mca^urc^) 
and bounded eastwardiy by a street separating it from the Illinois 
mer, southwardly by a lot occupied hy Pierre Lava»ieur, dit 
Chamberlain, westwnrdly by a back street, and northwardly by 
a cross street. 

Proq/, Antoinc Dcschamps te^tificf, on oath^ that Louis La 
Bo*«icur had the above described bt in possession, and was living 
.on it in the year 1794, and that 1^ liossicur sold it to Michael 
11. And ^c<iues Metti^ teatifies, in like manner, that, when 
went to lire in Peorta in the year iSoi or tSos^ he found Michael 



Couraol] living on the alwve e1e»cnbc<l lor; that Michad CoursoU 
wjld the Kaxl W U) John Si. CoanntW, wha be, Mctt^, uEbkntood 
K>M il, liKiut lltc yrar i8ot^ ctf 1R09, ici the ;ihovc njiineii Mkhad 
La Croix. Anioinc Saint l)cnn$», a» well as the abtjvc named 
Mettv, rci'ttfy, on oacH, ihat Michael \ji Croix, vtn' Mon after he 
puFchii«d the ihovc dc*crihed let, btiilt a large tv^t stoiy <JijveUtn{' 
h(iu«-, and a Inrgr ^lone-hmise, and othrr oiir-huUdtji^ atvi cull* 
liviccd a gAfdcii on the uid loi» and continued to occupy ihc 
*ftmc until the year 18 ! 2, when the vill^c of IVof it was destroyed 
by CapiAiii Crnig. 

No, ct. — Simon Roi claims a lot in Peoria, containing about 
one-half of an arpent of land, and bounded on the east by a lor 
uf Julm CoitnuHt uri tIic vfc^l by a lur of Ijniis Btiiaun, imi the 
aovith and north by itrccis. 

Prot^. Urccy Blondenu imd John BapHste Blondeau teatify, 
on oath, that Simon Roi w^nt to Peoria some rlnve during the 
year >7'^j; soon afrer 'which he made an improvement, and tioiSe 
a houtc nn the ;ilinvr dniiTibed Lut, in which tie Uved near iiui 
>'cars, when he abandoned it. 

K£mark, 'Ihc above boundanes are pteMimed not cortect. 
To correspond with the points of the compo^i aa stated in the 
other descrrpifons m Peoria, it should have Erccr. stared north- 
wardty l»y tlie lot of Jr>hn Courgoll, and southwardly hj a tot «f 

Loui& BiN!4013p 

No. sg.-Sijnon Koi, In n%\ii of his wife, fvho w» the mfe of 
Charles Le Doux, of Pconn, claims a tot in Peoria, containing 
about one-half of an arpent of land^ and bounded on tSe south 
by a lot of Antoine Roi, on the north by the lot of Franm Dupr#, 
and cm the t'Asx and west by iircets. 

Pn^of, Drezy Blondcaii and John Baptists Blondcau testify, 
on oath, that Charles ix Ooux made an improvement on the above 
de%crihe%l lot in the year 1793. and continued to reside on and 
cultiv-icc the same until hJH death; rhat the above namwl Simon 
Roi married ihc widow of the *a!U Charles l-c Doux aboac the 
y^ar 1799; and that ihcy, the said Simon Roi and wife, continued 
to reside on and cultivate the said tot until about the year iSoS 
or 11^09, when they removed from Peoria. 

No. JO. — Simon Roi, in right of his wife, the late wid<iw «J 



ChaHes Lc Duuii, deceased, cUimft a tot in Peona, concatning 
ibout one-haif of an «q>enc o( Innd, and sioiaccd tmmediatel]'' in 
the rear of tlic lust ilcscnbcd lul, Jtrul jcq^ariitci] frcim ar li^ > strret. 

iVoo/. Dnr/y Blomlcau ami John Bapli^tc Blondcau tatif/, 
on ftath, tZiat CKarlrt Ix Dotix commenced an improvement nn 
the above described lot during the year 1793, by building a stable 
and other oul-bo4iftes on it, and that he continued to occupy tlie 
%nu\ lor until hii death; rbdt the ahovr mimed Simnn RnJ mirnetl 
his widc>w aKiuT the year 1799; aiul rh^i 'hey, Roi ind vrjfe, 
continued to u*e (he mmc until they ld"t Po^ria, which wa* about 
Che year l8<^3 or TSC9. 

Nov 31, — Simon Rd1» in right of his. wife, the Ute widow of 
CharlrK 1^ Dmix, deora^ed, chitms nn cviif-lcir immediarely in rhe 
rear of. and odjcinins to, the Iasi d<:Kriled lot, conuining altout 
5ix Arpcnis of Innd. 

Pnx^. Dt^zy Hlondeau and John Bnpiiatc Blondeou tcadfyi 
on osih, that Charles I^ Dout made nn iji>|^rovcnvent on the above 
<l«cTil*rd cniT-Int or field, \i\ the year iTjjt and that he continued 
Eo culEi>ate it until h'13 ileaih; ihat Ehc ivitlow of the SMid Charjo 
Lc Doux married the above named Simon Roi ^bcsut the year 
1709* and thAC they, Roi and wi&\ continued to cultivate the same 
until about the ye^r i!o8 or 1^9^ when tiiey left Peoria- 

No- 3I- — Simon Roi claim* one-third of an out-lot or field, 
combining about fhiny arpenia of land, improved and cultivated 
by himself, hJ* brother, Antoinc Roi, and Franci* Racine, situated 
on the cast bank of the river Gatinan, near one le^m^e 5outhwe«t- 
wfirdly from the village of Peoria. 

Proof. Antoine Cicare and Antoinc Roi tettify, on oath, 
that, in the year iSo2, Simon Roi, with his bmthcT> Antoinc Roi, 
a/id Francis Racine, improved and culiivAted an out-lot ot field, 
at tiie rivcT Gatinan, containing atx>ut thirty arpcata of larul, 
which they continued to cultivate for many yean- 
No. 3J. — Antoine Roi claims a lot in Peoria, containing about 
one-half of an arppnt of land, and hounded northwardly by a lot 
of CKarlcA T-e Dfjux, cascwirJly by a street acparating it from the 
lUinoos river, southwardly by unoccupied land, and wcatvrardly 
by a street* 

Pr^-^. Michael Le Claire and Simon R<^ testify, on oath. 



chat Antotnc Koi, m tfic jcor 179:^ or 1794, boilt a hov»e on and 
c&ItivAtcd Jia a ganl«n> the above described lor, which combined 
about oftc-halfof An srpcnrcf l(u>d;andoTi whtchhe continued to 
reside and cuUivRic for five or s!k years, when he abandor.-ed if, 
and removed from Peoria. 

No. X*. Antoinc Koi claims a lor in Pcorin^ contaJmtig about 
one-hnlf of iu\ arpcnt of Und, And situated immediately in the 
Tear of the last described lot, and from which it w« teparaeed by 
« stm% aitd to the north It jciined the Tot of Charles Le Doux, 
and to rhc wnjtli atid wcHt lc waa bcundcil hy commoos or pratnc. 
Pro&f. Michael Le CJaire and Simon Roi tcAcify, on oath, 
that Antoiiie Koi, in the year t?^ or 1794, made an improvcracnt 
by building stables and other out-houm on the a\yyve described 
lot, which lu: .tnd InitMings he continunl to lue fiir fit^c or 
yeans when he ahandnncd them, and removed from Peoria; that 
thcanid lot contained about one-half of an arpcnrofUnd. 

No. 35. — Antoine Roi cJaimv OTic-third of an oui-Iot or field, 
oontaininfi about thirty arpents of land, improved and cultivated 
by hlmi«elf, Mr bmrhrr Simon Rni, and Pmncis Racine, situated 
on the ease bank of the river Gadnant near one league south- 
wcstwardly from the villas of Peoria. 

Pr^. ,-\ntoine Cicare and Simon Roi testify, on 0(ith> that, 
in the year l£o2, Antoine Roi had in possc^eion, and cultivated] 
an oot-!ot or field at rhe river Gannan. in partnership with Stmoa' 
Roi and Frajicitt Racliic, which field iliey cultivated oiany years; 
thdit the said lidd contained about thirty arpenta o( land- 
No. 36.— Francis Racine, Sen., claims a lot bi Peoria, coi 
taining about one-half of an arpencof land, bounded northwardlyi 
by a cross street, eastvardly by a streec separattng it from the 
IHinoi* river, vjuihwardly by a lot oci^upicd by one ChampUine, 
and we^twardly by a back street* 

ProTf. Simon Roi tcacifiev, on oath, that, when he went to. 
live in Peoria in the year 1794, the above described Ie>i constimi 
a part of a field then possessed and cultivated by John Baptist 
Maillcr; rhat he, Roi, onderftood Marllcr afterwards gave it to^ 
Francis Radnc. Sen,, who, in the year 1796, built a house on it, 
and contimjcd to reside on the ^id lot unb! the vitUgc waa 
destroyed by Captain Crai^ in the year 18 is, .\nioinc Burbonntf 



mtiiics, oa uarh, that^ when he went to five tn Peon4 in the yeaf 
iBojfc he fotind Francis RacW, Sen., living on the above described 
It>i, vlicre he cunlinued to ruHide until iIk yc^r ifiil, Fnind« 
Rftcinc, Jon., tcstiBcft, on o>ath, that he it now twcncy-iix j^cois 
of age, and that, from h'.» cuTltctit rceoUcction, hia father^ Krancii 
Racme, Sen., lived upon the above described bl, aiul that he 
continued to live on ie until the year 181^. M three of them «ute 
that the said Inl conuincd ahnut »nr'hu1f nf un urgent !if laml^ 

No. 37--^rTiinci3 Rjicinc, Sen,, cUini5 an ont^loi oc field, 
containing about tv^eniyarpentAofUndt situated nearly adjoining 
the viltage o( Peoria, and between the lieldA of Simon Roi Aod 
Antoinc Rurbonr^> 

Profit AntoJnc Burbonn** and Kranri* Racine, Jim-, testify 
that Francis R^ciiie. Sen.. LnipruvcU the aLx>vc described out'lot 
or held about the year i3c7, and continued to cidcivace it until 
the rear i8i3; and that it contained about twenty nrpcnts. 

No. j8. — Frands Racine, Sn., chim« an out-lot or field, con> 
taming abuut cifjhteen ^rpt^rifn of lanj^ ai^d ^iruHtL-d about tvo 
milcA below ihe village of Pctiria, und bu;ji]dal to ihe north by 
the out'lot of Stmoo Roi, to the vouth and wcit by the river 
Gsitinan, and to the east by the praiHc, 

Pr9^J, Simon Roi tettifiet, on oath, that, in the year llloi 
or iBoj, he (Simon Roij hi* brtJther, Antcjijie Rtii, and Francb 
Racine, Sen., enclosed ami cultivated a field on the bank of the 
Gaiinan river, abr^t two or thfcc milca below the village of Peoria; 
that the said f eld ccnraincd about thirty arp^ntn of land, and that 
it was divided cnuslly belween the above nometl three persons; 
that they continued tr» mlri^Tite the said field, each one hk own 
separate portion of about ten arpems, for two or ihree years, 
when he, Roi, removed from Peoria- Hy-politc Mtiilet atkl An- 
toine Roi testify, on oath, that, about chc year i8o.i, Francis 
Racine, S<n., made a field o^ the bank of the rwer Gatinan, about 
two mik« from Fore Clark, (PcoriaJ which, they think, contained 
about eighteen arpents. 

Remark. The above testimony' of HypoUce Maillet and 
Antoine Roi was not taken in the prciotcc of the Renter; and it 
is quite cer^in, from the evidence received in clums No. ^2 and 
No. 35, that this claim does not exceed above ten arpenu of laad. 



No, 39' — KnncU R-irine, Jun,, tn right of hi» wife, iht Ut* 
iridoir of John Bapr^^rr Drfoixi, drir^ivicl, cUimc a Ioe in P«ori<, 
fnntainin^ abcut oix-fialf of an Atpcfit of land, ami (KHinded 
northwardly by a lut occupied fofnicrly bv llionias Luaby, aftcr- 
ward» by Antoine 1^ Claire, catttwardiy by a street separating it 
ftoiti the 1Uin<^i rii*cr, and ro rhc «nj<h and w«st by strcctt. 

proof. Anioine Burbonn^ and Francis Racine, Sen., testify, 
on oath, thai, al>out tfc)ear iSoovoncChtrrcllc made an imptnvc- 
ment on ihc above dcM:Hticd bc, which contained about one-hnlf 
of on Bipcntj and that, soon afterwarJa, he, Chorette, oold the 
wd lot to John Baptt«te Defond, ^ho resided on it until the 
viQige wa> deitroyed by Captain Craig in tJw year i8ia; that, 
since then, thr «aid Dcfond h;u dicd^ and his wicJow boa married 
the above named Prannn Radne, Juu. 

No. 40,— Franci* Ractnc. Jan.. in right of h« wife, the late 
widow of John Hapiiste Dcfond, decco^, claimt a tot in i'coHa, 
containing al^out three or fnur arpentK of land, and bounded cost- 
wardly by a trreer, trparaiitrg >r fmm the I/jt laxz described* 
froutliwardly by a cross sircer, aiid to the iKtfdi and wc^t by 
unoccupied UodS' 

Pnntf* Antomc BLfbonnf^ and Francis Rscme, Sen., testify, 
on OAtJi, that John Baptitie Defond made an improvement on 
th« above described lot about the year 1^05 or jSo6, and continued 
to cultivate it iLH a garden and (idd cill tlie year t8l3;aod tlut the 
said lot contained three or four orpcnts of land. 

No. 41.— Felix I'oncainc daitno a lot in Peoria of eighty feet 
in front, by three hundred feet in depth, (French meauire>) and 
bounded eautwardly by 1 Ktrcer^ iteparating ir from lake Peoria, 
norrhwardly by a !or formerly occujMed by Anu>inc DeschampA, 
but now ciaincd by him, Fonuinie^ and to the south and west by 

i'r&tf/. Ai^ioine DcKhamps testififis, on oath, that he saw 
the abo\'e described lot in po&sesaion of and cultivated by John 
Baptiste Mnillct, in the year 1793; and rhat Maillet gave ic to 
Franti* Wilcttc, who rciTiained in po^ession of it until his death, 
in the year 1804. Hypolicc MaiUct and Pierre Lsvo^ieurt dit 
Chamberlain, tes^tify, in tike mariner^ that Francis Witette made 
an improvement and b^iilt a house on rhe above describ«d lot 



abour tHe year 1797 w 1798, vrfierc he cor^tinued to rc*i<Ic antil 
hU d^arh, in the ye*r 1S04 or rfejj; artl all three of the deponenis 
tcitirjr that his widow uwilinued tu ixcupy titc laid liouiier ami lot 
uiicU Her tkalh, which ha)>pcnC(1 abuvit two ycurs alter the death 
of her hufthind. And the jaid Ucichampri funhcr tcsctficft that* 
after the death of Vrilccte and hJH wife, he, Deschamps, purchased 
fn>m Wlletie'fl ail mtn intra tor« the »aid lot, ami occupied h until 
the year iSii, when he itnld it m Felix Fontaine. And the naid 
Maillei and ChnmhcHain hirthcr tcsiify, that the said Fontaine 
coniinued to cccupy the said lot until the rilla^t of Peoha wa* 
dcstroycdi and the inhabttwits drivm off by Captain Craig, in the 
year 18 U; and that the bt wat about cighry feet in frontj by three 
hundred in dcpih^ 

RctMtk. This lot is aho claimed by Louis PUeric, in right 
of his wifci who WAS the daimhccr ol the above named bVancia 
WiiettCt aa wlil be aecn by reference to claim No^ n. 

"So. 42. — FdiK Fontaine, in right of hia i>rife, Josette Car- 
s«re!»u, dU Fontatfte^ claims ft lot in Pcona of t-i^ty fc?n in front, 
by ihiee bumlrcd feel in depth. (French iTicaaurc,) Ixjundcd eaai* 
wardly by a street^ acparatinfi it from lake Peoria, northwardly 
by a lot elaimed by the heirs cf La Bonnier, weAtwardly by a 
ttrcet, and wnifhwardly by a Jot on which he, Fontaine, lived. 

Proi^^ Hypolife Mailler and Pierre lavaatieur, dit Cliam* 
lieHainT tt^Tify, cin oaih, tluT Fraiici* Wilctle ercloseid and toU 
tivate<l the above described Int in Peoria about the year 1797 ^r 
179H; and that the tuiid Tnt wa*s about eighty feet in front, by 
about three hundred feet in depth; that they had understood that 
the tiid Wifctte, about tu-n ycant after he had made the improve- 
ments, gave the said lot to one JoacHe Carsereaii, who aficrwarLls 
married the above ramed Fctix Fontaine; and that, soon after the 
lot was fcive-n, ii waa built upon, and that they (Fontaine ami hia 
wife} continued either to live upon rhc said lot, or to cultit^te 
ii until they were dfivcn from Peoria by Captain Craig, in the 
year iSis. 

No. 4:1. "Felix Fontaine claims an out-lot or fielJ. containing 
about nine arpents oi land, situated abotit one-half of a mile to 
the aouihwcee of the village of Peoria, and bound<<d on the south 


hy dw ouT-Jot of Aatmt Lipanc^ and to the wx^ by cJir out4ot 
of Francn RioDr, 

MsHkt tcMtfr* ^o «*<^ ilutt AMsbc Docfctmp* cDdofcd itd 
caltiratcd the above dcMribcd fidd ia dtf Ttar ito?; dwt hectit- 
tirtied it for thrc« fw, wfaeo be wld it to the sbov« tumrd 
Fdx Foatsioe, vbo co ftrimi cd to cdCTvtc it undl tbe sufunm c/ 
the yesf ifiil; mod tbat tbe »d be or fieU cofitvned Abuut nine 

N<^ 44-— Fcbx F«titnae dviiRS u out4ot coouwing ahoat 
tv<oti>d A hAirmrpcnuofluidcimAtMiabactofir^lburtbora mile 
to rhc itf«T of the t^Ibgr o' Pfeora. 

/Vtw/. Jacqua Meiif and AQWac Lc CUrt tcadfy, no cvtlit 
Umi FcElx Fonc^incDMdc an trnpr o r coun t in thcapritigof the ^cmr 
1810 on the aborvc d tWf ib ul out4ot, and coodnvcd to cultivate 
it ttntil 1I1C village of Pcoffta vu dmtroytd li>' Caplvn Cm^, tn 
iii« autumn of the ^^ear 1S13. 

W 4.^. — Baptr^rr Ralvitr daimi a lot \n Peoria, containing 
abuui odc-ha!/ uf aa arpcnt of \iujd^ and Uraixlcd castwanily by 
a street Kparatinc it hrxti Ac Ellincu nvcr« aoutbwardly by a bt 
claimed by AntoiTvc Lapat^ci, irotwardly by a street^ and north- 
wirdly by a crt:«« *trc«t. 

Proof. Sirnor Roi testifi«s, on oath, that, when be wcni m 
live \r\ Pcnrii in ihe year 1794, lie found ihe above described lot 
occupied by Lcuis Cicare, wbo aold k to one Joordan, vho add 
it to Fierre Lavaa«^r, dtt ChambcHain, who sold it to him, 
(Roi^ vrho (old it ID Bapttstc Rabnin, who h< (Roi) left rn po«an- 
aion d ii when h« kfi Pcon:i, which was abour the year i8oj or 
1604. Jacques Metr^ icstilics on oath, that he ^aw BiptUie 
Rntmin livina on the above described lot in tl»c year 1S07 or i?oS* 
and fhat he well recollects he conUnocd to live on it until about 
the year '^09 of >8 lo, when he abandoned it, and thai it remained 
unoLTupird for about one year^ when one Louis Binet wcnr to 
lire on if, which he continued to do until ihf villageof Peoria was 
deaifoyed by Cariain Craig, in the year idia. 

Rfm^k. This lot is also claimed by Louia Pencenncau a« 
Bsaignee of the above named Louis Binet. See claim 6^ 

No. 46.— Joacph Condier, for hiiawlf and the othef heirs of 



th« Ucc Joseph Condier, daim^ a lot in Peoria of tlghty feet in 
front, by three hundred feet in de{>th, ind hounded norihwsirdlf 
bj m lot cUtmcd by ChaHrt 1^4 Bcllc^ cAKtwanSly by a strccr 
tfCfiaraimg li Irom a lot claimed by Pierre I^VA^icur, dit Chani* 
bcrhuDt southwardly by a lot claimed by Hypolicc Mailtct. and 
wcscwardly by on out-lot claimed by Charles 1^ Belle. 

Fr^. Simon Roi, i*ierre Lpavatsieur, and Hypclitc Maillct, 
rcmifyf on oath, that Joteph Condier, drccAsed, improved and 
built 2 hou9c on the above described lot in the year 1796, and thar 
the said I0C waa about eighty fccr in front by about three hundred 
feet in depth; and the said Roe hirthcr tcattnes that JcMph Con- 
dief refr>ded on the said lot one or two year?, when he abandoned 
it, And rcm<wed from Peoria. 

Na47. — Hypi^Hce MaiUct, in ri^jhtuflm wife JuEcite Demon' 
chdic, the lace widuw of LouL-t Lc Bonshicr, dcccAAcdt claims a 
lot rn Peoria, containing about osie-half of an aipcnt of Und» and 
bounded northwardly by a lot occupied by Louift Binet, ejwt- 
wxrdly by a ctreet teparaHns it from the lUlnoit river, southwardly 
by a Int ociupir^l Iiy Fraficin Willere, and wcHtwardly by a itrect, 

Pr^J. Pierre l^va-uieur, dit Chamberlain, and Michael L« 
Claire testily^ on oath, that the lacc Louis l^ Bon»hicr improved 
and built » house on the ab^rve dcscnbed lot in Peona, in ch« 
year 1796 or 1797, and rhar rhe wid lot ccniained aho«c one-half 
of an arprnr of land, on vrhtch hr (\jv Ron»hirr) rr-fudrd unrtl hU 
death, whith happened in the year iSoi or iSoj; after which hU 
widow lived about one year on the snid lot, when »he abandoned 
it; and chat thc^aid widow of Lc-uis Le Bonsbicr has since marntdt 
and ia now the wife of the above named Hyp^nlirc Maillct. 

No. 48^ — Hypofitc Miiillet. in right of li'^t wif« Josette Demon- 
(hcllc, ihc latt widiiw of \j.m^ Dunshier. deceased, claims an out- 
lot or field ccntainins alxjuc four arpcnts of land, sihtatcd about 
one-half of a mik to the weit of the villain of Peoria. 

Pr9tff. Pierre l^rassJeur, dJt Chamberlain, and Michael I-e 
Claire ratify, i>n oath, that Tvuui« I-e Bonshier irnpruvcd and 
cultivated, nlwHu the year i/y^ <n 1797, the above descnbcd lot 
!« a garden, and which ihcy thtnV contained about four arpcnts 
of land; and that he continued to cultivate \t until bJft death in 
the year tSoi or 1800, ^t\^ that his widow cultivated it for one 



ynr mftcT the dotb of bcr huifaaaJ, vWvi »bc tfauMkmd 1 1^ and 

tluT she bu liiKX insmcd, jnd u nov the vife of the mbcivv oaibed 

Ko. 4^ — HfpcJitc Mullet diim> « lot m Pcona, aHttaiittnc 
flboat one-half of VI arpenr of land, ^ind booDdctl northwsnlly by 
a Icir nf Charhs Iji BcDc, ea>iraxll)r hy a itnet, aouthwardlf 
by a lot daimcd hj htm, (MaillctO aad «t»twardly by an guT4x 
dasmcd abo br him. 

^w/. jAcques Mctt^ and Afitoane Lapwioi tc«tiff , om oatb, 
thiT HrpofTce Maillet commenced an trnprtn-cmimt t3e th« atrnvv 
dncT^brd lot In fhr ynr 1^09. tiA<l thar he crvtiimicd ro n^sdr on 
thcaakllor uniiJ the year 181?, when Ac vkQa^ wu^lcicroyod by 
Capiaio Crag, ami th«t (he bt coniaincd about on^half of an 
arpciit of land. 

No. 50. — Hypolife MaJllct cUims a lor m Pcofitt cuntajning 
about one-half of in arprttc of UnJ. ami boandtd norih*ardl¥ hy 
ihc laai cletcribal bt, ckHvanlly anJ Mnithwar^Jly hy ?itrwts, 
and wcitwardly by an out4oC churned by him (Matlkt.) 

Prf^, Jactfuen Mett^ tnd Antolne Lipanc^ testify, on oath, 
that Hypolitc MaiUct commenoed an impro^^emenr on the above 
fle%cnbed lot in the year 1*09, and conriniBed to txnipy amj cul- 
livalc ihc said lot, which containoi about onc4ull i>f an arpent 
of land as a garden until the year i3 1 1, whtn he was driven ftom 
I'coria hy Cnptairt Crais- 

No, 51,— Hypolitc Maillet claims an ou^l>oe immcdtardy in 
the rear of, and adj<Miiing to the two la^c described lots in the 
village of Peoria, contflirting ablaut six Arprnt^of Und, ar>d bounded 
norihitardly by an out-lot of Char In La Udic, and southwardi; 
by «n out-lot of John Bapti»tc I>cfond» 

Frt^. Jac<|ues Mctt^ and Antoine Lapone^ testify, on o;iUi« 
that Hj"polite Maillet imprwed the above dcKribed lot, which 
ciMitained about %\% arpents of land, in the year 1809, and con- 
tinued to cultivate it as a field, until he wai forced by Captain 
CratfE to abandon it, and the villa^ of Peoria, in the year iSii. 

No, ^2. — Hypolite Maillet datmi an out-kit or lield, con- 
taining about fifteen arpenti of land, tituated ibiHit one mtle and 
a half tc the nr^hof the dll^ of Peoria, and iMMmded on the 



iK>rEh t3> ihc out-lot o^onc WiUtic, wcstwariilr by the bJviff, wad 
to the ifOiith and cast by the pmiric. 

ftw/. Krancis Rncinc, Sen., Francis Jourtlan, and Antoioe 
Burbonn^, testiTy. on oaih. That The above described Held waa 
"fftiablitht'i" in (be year 1777 by John Bapiisic Mailler, ihe 
father of Hypoblc Maillclf and that Jt cunl«iiiod, Co the best uf 
their recollection, abuut ^fttxn arpvnt» of land* 

Remark. The evui^ncc in favor of this and the foLlowing 
cbim wai rot taken in the pre«nce of the Register, 

No. ;j. — Hypulite Maillci «Iaim« an mit-Iut or field cunrsifv 
tng about f ft<:en arpent^ uf lanti, KiCuuted alioiit iwu milct l>clow 
the villafic of Peoria, on the caitem bank of tbc river Gatinin, 
ahJ a&i.tominfi to the s/iuih the field of Francis Montpiuiser. 

i*rooJ. ^Vancis Racine, Sen,, Kranci« Jourdan, and Anrfjine 
Htirbonni^, retnfy, on oxrh, rhar Hypnlitr Maillci had cbr above 
cicscnbed oui-Iot or field m his f(is?^c»ion in tbc yt*,T t8o6, and 
that be continued to cultiv^iic it until the year 1811, when he ami 
all the inhabitants were forced hy Captain Craig co leave Peoria, 
and tJiat the said lield or out-ior, to the best of ihdr recollection^ 
contained ahont fifrerti arpcnis of land- 
No. 54-— The heiri of the late Anluinc Giiuid Hois, by tlieir 
a(cnt Antoinc Lapaoc^^ claim a lot in Peoria of eighty fccc in 
Iront br thre« hundred in depth, (French mcii^LircJ ami bounded 
northwardly by a lot of Raphiiel B^lon^e, eastw;irdly by a ttre«t 
aepirating it frurn lak? Pt>jriA, southwardly by 3 crosa street, and 
we?itwardly by uniKoipInl land. 

Prw^f. Pierre Lavaaneur, dtt Chamberlain« and llypollte 
Maillet, testify, on oath, that the late Antoane Grand Bois 1x11* 
proved the above deficribed lot, and butit a house on it, about the 
year i8oij and re*idtfd un tt until h\% death in the year i8o(> or 
1807, afrcr whiirti Wts vtidnw rrsided no the maJd lor lor ehic or two 
ycarit when she abandoned it> after which »he died, Icavinif Kvcral 
children; that the said lot was about eighty foet in front by about 
three hur^drcd in depth. 

No. 55-— Michael l-e Claire claimB a lot m Pooria, conciini»g 
It one-half of an aqieru cf land, and bounded eastwrardly by 
^back MrccC> auuihwardly by the lot ol enc GitnoiUe, wotwardty 
by unoccupied land, and northwardly by a croos Mrcct. 

/Vc^* Pktrc Lav4S«icur, dit ChAmbcrijun* and H]rpoUtc 
Moillci testify, on oarh, that one WKitby WU it houM on iht 
above described lot in the year iSoi. thftc the lor rontiined ftbo«t 
one-half o/ an arpent of land; thai he (\Vii3cby) wid the »ftid lof 
to one lUcinc, wbo sold it to the aborc aamcd Lc Oaire in tpruif 
of the year %^y, t»d chat he, the 9Aid Lc Qmire, occupied the 
said lot UAtil the year iSo6»irhen he abaadoncd h, aAdlefc Ptena< 
No. 56.— Francis Buch^ elaima an outJot or field conouung 
about ten aqicniA of land, situated at the foot of i\%c bluJT, about 
half a mtle west of vUIafC of Feoeta* 

Pnc/' Jaicquea Meti^ and Fdtx Fontaine testify, on 
that Fronds Buch^ made mi impfovcmcttt Ofi the above de^cn 
oui-lot ortfieldin the year 1^, and that be continued to cultlvaCe 
it until ;he falJul cHe year 1S12, wfaca Ik and the other inhabits 
were driven frDm Peoria by Captain Craig« of the IlUnoi» mil] 
and that the laid lot or lield contained about ten arpenta of 1, 

No. 57- — Jo«ephte Boucher claima a lot in the old village 
Peoria, containing about one-half of an arpenC of Lu>d> and 
bouruled mHrrhwanily by a kit o( Francis Beihun»er, CA^rwjirdly 
by lake PcofU* souihwjirdiy by a k>t of Jcacpli Laframboi 
wcatwardly by a street. 

Pr^^, joaeph Lapattr^ and Ptore l-avaaneur teao 
oath, that Fiancia Boucher, deceased, had in hts po»esaioii, 
the year 1795, the above described lot, on which rhere was a hooae, 
which they afterwards wdl recollect acciiv in a state vf decay and 

K^mtfri. The evidence in thia caae waa not taken in the 
pcetence of the Register. 

No. 58. — Joaephte Boucher claima an out-kn contaiaing 
about £1 or neven arpcntB of laiid, fiifuaicd near the oid vilUge of 
^. Peoria. 

^^P Pm/. Joaeph Lapaetr6 and P'wire Lavasueur teaaly, on 

^^ oath, that Francis Boucher, deceased, had in his poasesaon, in 
I the year 1795, "^ out-lot oir IteU at the hill near the old village of 

I Peoria, containing about six or seven arpents- 

^^L Rem^i- This testimony was not taken in the procacc of 

^H the Register. 
^^^ No- 59. — John Baptiste Blondeau claims a lot in Peoria 



tuinmg ahoui onrJialf of an arpcnr of tukd, Mtii botindcd 
northwanil)^ by « sirctl, tasiwiidly by a loi of John Dcinonchdfc. 
southwardly by 4 lot of Fnocia Dupr^. 

Ptim/. Drc£y Bk>n<l«<u and Slmo:! Roi Cfdtif>\ on o«th. that 
John Bapmre Blondcau nuuic an improvement on the abow 
deacribnl lot in ihc year 1799, and resided on the same for more 
rhan five ycur«, and OiuC the said lot cunmincd aUiut uric-half of 
on arpcnt, 

Rfmarrk* The boundaries af the above lot do not correspond 
arith thoftx generally given of the ot)ier lori m Peoria. It should 
hare been, caatwardly by ;t Mreet wrpuratbg it fmm the Illinois 
river, nocEhwanUy by a Ust of JuHn Dcmonchclle, nouihw^dly 
by a lot of FrancU Oupr^« and westwardly by a >creict. 

No. 6cl — The heirs of Charlca Im Bdlc, by their dgent 
Antoine Le Ctaire^ claim a lot m Peoria, containing about one- 
half of an Arpent of land, and bounded northwardly by a crcas 
Krtxt, separating it fron a loi of Pierre I.flTa?wieur, dit Chanibcr- 
hmt caatvnxdty by a strccc, souibiVArdly by a lot of Jowph 
Condier, and wcstwardly by an oot-loc claimed by them, 

Pfoof. Jaci^ycB Mclt^ and Antoinc BtirhonniS tc:?ti(y, on 
oath^ that ChAHr« Iji Rrlle, dcce^nvl, buili a hou9c on the above 
described loE in the year 1S09 or iSiq, and continued to reside on 
it until the tillage of Peoria vriy destroyed by Captain Cratg in 
the year iSta, and that the auid lot contained about one- half of 
an arpent- 

No. 61k— The heirs of Chnrles La Belle, by their agent 
AntDine I.e Cla'trr, claim afi out-lut cjr field, cutitaiiiing about trn 
arpcnts of land, situated immediately in the rear of, and adjolmng 
to the last d»cribed lot, and adjoining on the south an out-lot of 
Hypolite Miilllet. 

Proqf. Jacques Metttf and Antoine Burbonn^ testify, on 
oath, that Oiarln Ka Belle, endoaed an*.l cultivated the above 
described lot or field in the ytMi tflog or iSto^ and that he con- 
tinued to cultivate it until he vrat forced by Captain Craig Co 
leave it in the fall of the year 1811, and that the said lot or Add 
contsdned about ten arpenti of land. 

No. Aa. — Simnn Brrmnd, in righr of hii; wife Mary, the late 
ridow of John Ucmonchcllc. deceased, clainu a lot in Peoria, 



coatnining about ont-haSf of An »rpcnt of laod» and l>ouiided 
DOTThvnmlly by a lot formeHy occupied liy Jounian, afterwards 
by Roboin, c^ntv^rdlr by a street «cparating it from the IIIum^ 
river, «ou(hir«nily by a lot of John B. BInndcau, and vcstvan^Ey 
by a urcct. 

/Vo^. Simon Rot tc$ii^€9t on oath, tfaat, in tike year 1799 
or 1S00, Krancia Dupr^ built a hooae on the above ck«cnbc<i tott 
4nd lived \m ftir i^imr fnr mn or thmr ycstrt; iKar 1^14] fhipn^ sold 
the said loc to John Dc^nonchclic, who also lived (xi it for two or 
tkrte ycAti, when he ftb«iKlonc<{ it, and lefc Poorii. Jacques 
Metf^ also rc«nBe5, thaf, in <hc ycjir iSoj or 1804, he sav one 
John Demoiichclic living on the ibcvc described lot, vho continocd 
to live on it for oitc or nvo year\, when he Abandoned it, «nd the 
houne wul tmprurcnvcnts iMcnt 10 ruin; tliat the uid lot wu again 
improved and built upon in the year 18 to by Antomc LApatic^. 
Both Roi and Metc^ state that the lot eontalnei about onc4i&lf 
of an arpent- 

Hentark. Thi« lot b alio claimed by the above named 
Antoinc I^panc^. Sec ^laim Nt>^ Jij, 

No. 63.— Antoinc Ljipanc^ claims a lot in Peori<i, of eighty 
feci in front, by about three humlnzvi feet m depth, (French hkas- 
urej and boundctl rorthwardiy by a lot occupied by Louia Binet, 
eastwardly by a street separating ir from the THinudt river^ south- 
wardly by unoccupied lami» und westwandly by a aireet. 

proof. Pierre I^viMicur, dit Chambctlsin, ard H>"politc 
Mftillct testify, on oath, that Antoinc Lap«nc^ built a house on, 
and oiltivatcd is a ^[afdcn^ the above described lot, in the yoir 
fSlc\ and continued to reside on and cnlrivAie the same tjnni the 
fall of rho yrstr iHt2. and rhat the sfiid lor wss atviui eighty ^t 
in from, by about three hundred feet In depth. 

lUm*rk, I'his lot is alio claimed by Simon Bcrrrand. Sec 
claim No. 63- 

No. 64.— Antoinc Lapanci! claims an out-loc or field contain* 
ing about nine arpents ci lamU Mtuaird abour orC'-fourth of a 
mile from Pcuriii. und bounded un the north by mi uuc-bt ur Ikid 
of Felix Fc^ntamc, and on the south by the field of Pierre Lavoj- 
a»eur, dit Chamb*;r1ain, 

Fnx^J. Picrrcr Lavassieur, dit Chamberlain, and Hypolite 



Mailltit testify, on oath, that Aiituirie Lapanc^ encloMd and cul- 
tivated the above dcwnbcd lot or *iel4 in the iprlng oi the ytur 
1^1 1 ^ and ctiltivaltii it until ihf jtiitumn uf rhe ycat iff ii^ ami that 
the ftdtd dd\l CL)nlairal atxiut nine aq>cnt»- 

No. 6^.' — Antomc Burbonn<? claims a !ot in Pcoda, bounded 
itwordly by a street »;epaTating it from lake Peor Ja, MMchwardly 
by & lot of Louis l.e Bomhter^ wettwanlly' by a street, and north- 
wardly by a cruvt ^trm. 

Proof. Jacques Mcti6 and Francis Racmc, Scn< testify, on 
oath, that l^uia Htnct made an unprovcmcnt on the above 
de«cnbcd lot in the year igoi or i8o2; that he (Bind) sold said 
Ice to one Parqucttc. who sold it to the shove named .Ancoine 
Rufhonn^, who lived on rhr said tor uniil he wba driirrn rbr^rfrom, 
juid tlic vilEjiue of PeotiA dcf^lroycd, by CflptAir Crj|i^> in ihe }xar 
i6ia, arrd thuc the AAcd lot conC8incd about one-half of an arpcnt 
of land. 

Remark. This lot is alio claimed by Louis Penccnncati, as 
ai&igntrt-' of the uhiive namnl Ijonis Bincr. Sec clatni N^o. 6S. 

No, 66» — Antomc Burboimi^' cUitms a lot in Pttiria, bounde^l 
northwarxlly by a iitrcct, ^tjuthwardly by a lot occupied by Louis 
La Bon^hier, eoiitwiirdly by a street separating it from due last 
deftcrihed lot. and weatwardly by astreet- 

Prot^. Anioine I^ Claire indjuciiuef Metr^ testify, on twth, 
that they well recollect to have sccn» in the year 1B09 or iflio^ 
Antoine Burbonrt^ have in bif po^w^on, And occupy as an out- 
lot for fiablcf, the above described l:>t, which contained about 
onC'fourth of :in arpent of land, and vhtch tot be continued to 
occupy until the year ijtii, when Captain Craig conLpelled him 
lo leave Pct'rla- 

Nc 67.— Anioinc Burbonn^ claims an out-lot or field co<i- 
lainir.R fovtr or Ave arpents of land, situated f\^^t Peoria* and 
adjoinmg on the north (he tidd of hVancis Racine. 

ftwqf, Francis Racine^ Sen., atid Franci* Rarine, J«n-, 
testify, 00 onih, that Antoine Burhunn^ cnclo«ied and cultivated 
the above described out-Joi or field one year prior to his bcin^ 
driven away from it* and the destruction of Peoria, by Captain 
Craig, of The Illinois militia, in the year iSil; atn^ thjt the loc 
conraicMxl about four or five arpcnts of land^ 



P«ona. Both Meti^ smd Sr. D^^ruus detcnbe the lot u coouinlng 
abcvt oi>e-h;fclf of an ;irpcnt oi bnd. 

Remarks Tliit lot in alwi cUimnl by the above nameii Raboln - 
Sec daim No, 45. 

No. 70. — Ijoutjt Pcnccracou clumi ■ lot in Pcona, bounded 
nGrthwanily by 1 lot of Pierre Lavuftieur, dit CbamberLun, eait- 
wartlly by a %tnct ficpinitinB it from the Illinois river, Kturiiwardly 
by a criDA Htrrrrj and wcttVArdly by a back ^Tnrec. 

Prw^, Jact^ucs Mcic^ icstifici, on oath, ihat vrKcn he went 
CO live in Pcorin, in the year iSot or 1S02, he found AuttuRtine 
r^octK residing on and cuUivAting the ibnve dc«cribcd lot, where 
he continued ?o rccidc unril lome Itme in the year 1 Si^. Antome 
Si. Denm« In Tike manne^r vcstifics^ ihnt, when 1m: went to live in 
PeorU w the year idio, he found AuiEUSUDe Laroche living on 
the above dcacnbed loc, where be continued fo live until sook 
■time towards the close of the year Uit, and that the houH was 
destroyed by Caprjiin Craig in the year following. LouU Pen> 
cenneau, Jun., mtifi» thir hr had i]way« undcntood that 
AugusiiiK LaruclK gave the above iicscribcd kit tu hu father* tilt 
Above named Louu Pcnecnneau. And Antoinc St- Dennis and 
LoubPencenneaUfJun., totify, that, soon after the peace in ltEi$, 
the above named Louis Pencenneau built a house on the above 
dencnlied lot, and that he continued to occupy the Kome ontil the 
autumn of ibc ye^ iSt7; and all three dcvcrtbe the lot asoomain- 
ing about one-half of an arpcnt of land. 

All which ts respectfully aubmittod' 

Fd«vaiu> Colm, 

To WiLUAM H. Ciuwn>AD, 

Srtnt^j </ /Af Tttmury ^/ the UniitJ Sma. 
Novejnbcr 10, l^ia 

Cot^ks TO CuOK, November I j^ 1S10 

(Chir^e^ HitfevKU -^irETi Aufofriph trrf^ 41}: J^i 1 .3«j] 

KDWAai>3VJLl,£NoVl 1$ l930 

Da. Silt 

By the last mail T ^r«-ardly \sic\ to the Secretary 0/ the 



I kare boai sC is r 1 imwirt witac»C9> 
<ad tnBKnbiqg«v rt j^i ff of die »!>- 

(clki)ratur of Frmtk uBkn csa term vM»r i^ ci Air time 
ifcc p wjU c jncndm^ dtc okaof of tkyimwa Ajt 

Awr d^favcucui. 'Ha C omi M n a ko q ^ eo «ttk efauca ^ Kaa ka^* 
kk nmfrl fconvcd loa tbaa 5009 ndi, ui^ wu oftea tShomtA \n 
■iMidwi $00^ lor an tnfefptveer and ctrrk— and if I nnvtake tuat 
ki i3Mv or rwo nutaocei rqjuried on ^irwcr dajnu thaa I have doae, 
I am quite ttOvcD, mx^ wnic jroa ut great haacc, you win 
lherel<«rt r«cuM! diW haaty scrawl— ami panlcM me£L>roal)ra<ldmg 



ihar ytturjair cue i% virrjr well and tivik^ murh lieritcr ^luin wliirn 
you parted with her, 

I am mcti much rup«ct and esteem yours 

Edwakd CoLtx 
n. P. Cook, Fwj, M.C. 

CoLEt TO DoDOE, FcljTuary ll, tSii 

rSamy, I'ftrrcrHiii uT llJt-^t. frum «if in»k in l.ibrvr of Curvrc^ 

EDU-AltDSVlLL£t F«b. 12d, llfSI 

Dear Sia, 

A (jrcat ptirtion of »tir dtmn* having cmigntted fmm nrwiy 
acttkd states aboundiniC^rt fcirotji. in (he midst of which they hav« 
been accvitnmcd ro make thctr fftrms, hy felling Aid ckarins off 
the timber, hii-c, from larg hsliic, become %o familiar to this kind 
of lalwr, that, when they remove to thii country, where the Crciw 
t*>r, tn the mu riititrrnc if hi* Wmiity, hat happily t(ivrr*ili<ti woml 
with prairie, and prepared i^ full proportion of the land for the 
plough, and even for the scyihci chcy seem to be Inath to avvl 
ihemue1ve« of the advantages of their Bliu-ilion. Slill, from the 
fnme of hahU, in mnny oimc, preferring the Uboriojs task of 
clraring lands, and cultivating crops in the midsr of stum}^ ami 
fools, lo cultivating lamb alreaidy cleared, in which ihcnr is 
nothing to obsiruci or impede the plou^. You have no doubt 
Wt, as 1 hare often done, mortification ami chagrin at weing the 
rimhce destroyed in parts of the country where, from the great fliu 
and fertility of the surrounding ptairie^, it w*a particularly wanteiL 
I think it 13 to be dq>lured a» an evU to the state, the prulileccion 
of many of our acttlcrt for building and making their improvc- 
mentain the forest. For, besides the de^tructkMi of timber, which 
from ifi tearcity in plact* *itl soon become pecollarly valuable, 
»tuat)iinsin it. bi>rdering on large prairies, are generally mud* more 
unfavorable lo health, than thosr in the prairies^ In general, as 
you well know, the praTricf occupy the mo^t elevated BToiimls, the 
timber beinK corfinetl to the vrcinity of the creck«, or natural 
drains of the country. From these low^ and often wet Unda^ the 
exhaUtion of the pntllcrTiial missmfl, ihe noiious ciufic of our 


m ckx 
AcAAcf Ac ■■inii^ after m 
Uv To» bMc ao doobf ofxm 

M dt At ■MBM- Ia Mtf!*"* 

I dir pnirinv ^ *ir ^ dim 

BttnvptEd drrahrifw; aad wlwt 

ID tbe hcaithMaf oi Ac «niMi oo t ia dK pfairit, b 

flic fvpenor puiitf flnd nriiWM of the vstcf oMUDAd froAi iv 

vdb tvik IB cl eytcd grauad- It b onf M n c OBHBCTi th«r clir 

vstcr of vcJb tank ai rhe edge of the amber, m Ww iBTssDofn, 


latcc. Icbicyook, tfcvcr, m tlmpBnofdKOOUQtry, 
tltat « Urfc TcsB of WBtff u fbnnd ta wUag wdb; ia pcsktbI iIict 
srr Mppbcd bjr vull rasB. mad «tei by peatk oosBfi, vtuch i« 
lov pUcct frtqucBilr covtt from to bcst die mrftce of tlie ctnfti 
disE rbc wBter is aoi only vBrnwd bur r^nnd bj- iW k^Ut hnt- 
ThU a pB/tkiilmrt]r die cbm wtdi Uk BUinut poob in dv bcdt of 
cTccki, whkh have ceased to nm. sad «ridt whidi maiiT of our oar 
Bctden content th et mdve a frith driBluBg. far t «OMdcrabk Qmc, 
in prefenace to beatowiag tvo or dirce diy^ Ubor in diggijif i 
well, 5och vatcr votU prodoce dbeBie in the miilst oF rbc Altr- 
gluutjr mountab*. Wlulc an thb nubjeci I vUl uki. that ftom 
pbacrvationj niadc ta ihU, a> wdl as other countnca, 1 am pcr- 
auadcd that much dcpeiKla, not only upon die pimty, but the 
temperature of the wafer; that warm nr ttpid waWT w unfavorable 
tn health m Inlioui eountrie» aiul thar very cold waFrr vt aaii. 
biliou* in its tendency, and la alike bcnefidal u the preservation 
Bi in the ncatoration of health. 

Beaides ihc predilections for forest landA, anstng from old and 
deep rooeed habit*, they arc often selected by the poor man (ram 
a befief that, a]rh<Hfgb they reqtrire mo-e miimial labor to bring 
ihcm iniQ cultivatiun, yet they require less capita] to do «o than 
die prairie lands. The idea is very pre^ralcnt that it reqiwvs at 
least (our horses and a p«tcntcd bar shear plough to break prairie. 
Thb Is by no meant correct-— The prairie lands require very liitk 
if any, more force of team to break them, than the sod lands 
wUch have been long set on old farms.*-) know from experience 



tiuit « \tik\x uf hursct, or a pair of oxen arc perfccdf competent to 
the task of plou^'iniE «nJ preparing; prairie biid for cuhivation* 
A* the experiment 1 iriatlc proved very aatiafactor)*, both in the 
execuiion and in the result; and believing. If fdbvcd by thoac of 
liinite<l means, it would be highly advantagrous, f beg leave here 
to slate the particulars of ir- 

In rhcfnonlhaof May and June last,] broke prairie, on wkkh 
there was a thick 5od» by Urat plou^ing it with a plain knife 
cnuttcr, such at is generally u»e>d to break new rooty Und«; I then 
immcdiiilciy phiughni tlie Und a tecorrd time, with a f^mll bar 
shear, oblKiucly acio«* the lir&i ploughing, in order to reihicc the 
size and dtmini^S the number of the cIod?L; ihi? wm followed by 
two hflrrowinK!! with an tron ttxjth drag, which c^cctually broke 
the Un<^, pulvefizod it, and put it in an execQent atate of prcpani- 
ticn for a crop of com. Each of thc*c opcratton^ wa* per/nrmed 
with case by one pair of hnrscs. The poor man of the fmnticr, 
who should find it expensirc or difficult to procure iron, might 
njbititute wood for the teeth of hfs drag. Although this mode of 
breakiDg prairie consumes nearly tripk the time ordinarily laken^ 
)*ci when tt is recollected that ir requires only one perwrr, and but 
half of the usual Irani, it will ftor be conttidcrcd (ediou?! or labor* 
ious, especially by those who. poweMcd of bmitcd mean* could not 
prepare for cultivation a» much land in the same time, in any other 
way{ and v^hcn it h aUo taken into consideration that the land 
it belter Woke, and will yield a much greater crop, than new 
prairie grncrally dor«, in the onlinwry way (if pluugbirg it. \VIien 
ibe sod of the prairie i» inverted by ihe plough in Lng (laken, in 
the spring of the year, it does not decay and become meilow until 
the cn<:uing autumn; the eLms«<]u«ncr is that the com whtch is 
pUnTed in it caniy^t be cuUivatetJ, and of courvc seldom brings 
mure than ahntit one thinl, and nftcn nor more than one fbijrih of 
a crop. By ihis mode of couUering, ploughing, ard harrowirtg, 
the land is put mto a ntatc which enables the farmer to list, check, 
pbinti and cultivate it, and the yield, judging from my crop, U but 
little short of what it would be in old land- 
While o»i the subjecr fif rhr nilrivation of com, permit me to 
reoominend to our farmers the use of the one-horse harrow, con- 
dating of cither three or five teeth. The farmers in the com 


d»[nct» on the ■cibciard kavc fbuod p^tat advantage in the eoN^ 
flvif of biMT, tke pfe ier^a rion of soil ami tbc incrouc dF tfaeir 
con crept, from R]b»bmting dm kmd of lurrow to place of ibe 
ploogfi; whKh in rhe advanced stagie* of the cnrn ha» an mjtiriDat 
effect m oiirnif its ncccn«ry nna, amd cipottAg them and the 
wi\ roa much co die drytnff cfibta of die tun and wind. If ihe 
laiid t* tfiorouf hly broke ia the •pfing, it will be ompflf toflkient to 
IJw dw com, after tt U up. om ploughinf. fftlloti-ed at proper 
inirrvaU, hy two or three hamowings. The plan rA ailtminoa 
m>m ai>|.vrifvcii c>f, ii after the oirn ha& pMrm up, and dj that 
ftiate when it rcqoirca the caith near it to be »urrtid» A fuirow u 
run ofi bo-h tidca of it, leaving the middle of the row untouched 
In lhi> way die whole crop is ploughed over, WTven thia ia denie. 
two other Arrows are run in the middle of each n)w, which com- 
picm the pltMighing of it; after wl^ch the harrow* alone ue lucd 
tn the cultivation of the com. 

ThcK harrowa, or cvltivatom, «re of a triancuLar shape, with 
teeth made cither of square barit of iron ^-om thtve fourths of oAe 
inch in diamerer, whtch are flattened^ curved, and tharpcned 3t 
the lower end> to enable them the better to pterce and «rir the 
earth; or ihey arc msidc of flat Iwrs of imn aliout twa inchcri in 
width by o«ic inch in chicki^cM the upper ends of wfatch arc made 
square to lie into the beam, with a shovldcr, and the blades ofd 
teeth arc curved, the sides stre bcvclbd, and the atd« shai 
in one word, they are made v^y miM-h in vhapc like a cmva 
tongue, from which circumstjince ihcy are called the TicrT^ foJiKue 
harrow teeth- These are deemed the best kind. The h«rrowi 
containing these teeth are m»lc ao narrow that it U ncccswry «o 
nin them twice in a com row, wd arc calculated to cultivate 
siilT lju^d&, or lo be draa'n by a weak horse: those thir contain live 
Iccih are mo wide that rhey cultivate the whole row by once pas^ng 
through it; t>f course one of this dcMrription of harrows will cuiti* 
vatc 05 miich land as four ploughs, and do it too in a way more 
salutary to the corri. These harrows are also used to great advan- 
tage in seodtrg smflll gr^ilr. This saving of labcr, pniticxilarly 
in a njimrry lilcr this where it is *o scarce and sin-x|«:nsivc cannot 
fail to rcconimemi the cultivating harrow to the use of every 
iudicious farmer* 



^ bcf ytjii lotxcitst mc (ot truublme you witli tlic |»cru*ijtl of 
solona; 4 kctcr the contcncs of which, thcugh more evincive of my 
ze;il than of cny c^ip^dty, may yet tend to remind other*, l>etter 
qimlificd to beuftcfut in rhii way rh^n my«c)f, (hat tync of the chief 
ohjcft* ofotxT sociery rt, to cm hotly anj impart to all^ the ohaerva- 
tiooK «ncl experience of each. 

I am v}lh much respect and c!itccm, your fricml, 

El>WAJlO Cotft<^. 
HcNiiy S. DoocR, Esq., 

Secretiryof the Agricultural Sctciety 
q{ the State ut Ellijiois- 

NnncE TO Debtors ron Ptguc Lands, September 17, tSll 

[Edv^jn/3t SpNi*isr. Scptcmbtr ll, iSti- (^t»rsC) in lUiruD Hb^diieaI 
Surrey, Univu-iiljr 0' Illinoii, ^oni ongin^ in LiMary of C^nffVMiJ 

T^ D^.BTORS ro thk Unitsd Statt:s roa Punuc I^nd^, 
RegI5Tcii'.i Orricr. \ 

H>vt»c received hy the last mail, frftm the Comminioiier 
of the General 1-and fMficr^ inTiin*ctinn^ cxpWmrip, alrenng. ami 
adding to those heretofore rcveivcil and actcj nn, f hsi^rcn tu 
make known, to tho»c inicrcatcdi the fjllowinic provisions, vhicH 
)l is conceived arc the onlv iccm« contained in thcK Additional 
instructions which arc important, at this late penoJ, to be made 
ktinwn, lA this way, to tbc p^abltc, \\i-. 

"In cues where twii or morr quiirrer settioiiit have \yert\ 
pun:hj.3cd at the Jaatt iimt, and one tir mure of such quaricr sec- 
tions has been assigned, the fi^ignee, in hicH cnaes, cannot he 
mitted to re^M^tuLsh a lew quantity cf Ttuid than the nrif^nftl 
^fnirrhaier could have done under the t^ut proviw of the first 
teciion of the act, which itnics, *'ihii1, when? a purchaser hu 
putchascd two or more qtiirter sections at the %Atnt: lime, he 
c«nnot be peTmittcH to r^hrtquish kv*i thari a iiviartce section/' 
Tlie words "at the samr fimCt* arc to be unttenitood to menn either 
on the tamf day at private «ale, or nt the ^amc ptibiic salc- 

"Aftcr rhr |>arry ^hail have filei! 3 derUrnrinn or rrlinqoi<li- 
kt fordt the tracts he may hold at ihe timeof the lihng ofsuch 



inttnim^nts, Unds suht^ttently o^aimJ may be the subject of 

■*\ViicTc frMTtional wrcrions h^w been claucd with entire 
BCCtioR> or qujirtcrq, tftc purchase hcintt cqntl to, or excccdui^ the 
quantity of three hundred and iwetit^- Jicrcs, that is, two quaitcr 
Mictions, ivot k^ than the amnunt of one quarter »ccEioA, that b, 
nor \rvi tfutn one hundred and miy scr*^ nn in such cue be 
relinqukithcd, Jtgreealile to the I&ai proviM^ of ttic firsi »n:liun of 
the act. But where the quantity contained in the cUaaeil fractioni 
is leas thnn three hundred And t^'cnty ftcrca, > quantity not le^ 
thftf] cighiy Acre« may be rclinquuhod, but a quanuty that would 
leave m the pnrt retained of the fraction a Un quamity ikan fif^kty 
atra caiiriol be TttlnquisliuL Sec CtrcuW uf the J5ih of J jne 
Wt, The patt relinqut«hod of a fractional section ihcmJd, aiwaf^ 
be such, A^ to ndmit cf \ts Uruig laid off on the secbond line, 
which hai been aciuallx *tirveyed. 

"Wlien the quaniity of acrt» U equal to one half of the frac- 
tion^ let the denii^iuitiun tie, the norih, sTuih, east or wenr hatf nf 
such ^cbon. You will be cateftjl. in all C4wca, to secure to cbc 
part of a tract relmquishcd, natural advantages proportionally 
equal to those of the tract relained^ 

"One of two or more partners, holding a certificate^ where the 
ulhert arc either decraned or oiir of the counny, or a widowed 
mother as the n«cural guardian of her minor children, may dcclatt 
fir>r the further (T^ir^ without the dcl^y artcndins IcRal formalities.. 

"The Hf£ht of a discount of yjii per cent, fee tempiefe pay- 
ment for any tract of land, on of before the 30th day of September, 
1 332, is unconditional. It i«, therefore, demandnble on the whole 
sum payable, principal iind intcml. — Therefore, where an eviu*I 
aimval vnatallmciic on land further credited, ia chargeaUe with 
intcreat of aix per crnt. from ^'loth September, iSai, to :iotb 
September, iHaa, and complete pa>ment is made on the day bst 
menrioned, the diaeount i^ to be calculated un the interent cbirge- 
■hte, as well a?i the principal then due. ^^*heTc the tirsc rS the 
equal annual instalments on land fLiithcr credited, has been pak) 
at the legal petiod, and complete payment is made of the remain- 
ing inatatments on the joih of September, i$l3, the diKOunt is to 
be calculated on ruch installment, as well as on the remainder. 



^/rrr /A* ^H Sff^rmSfr^ J822, when the right to a dncouot 
nf J7)^ prr ccdt. will crjur hy bw, inKr;tlineii» ctur tin landa 
further credited wiJI be »uhjccr in the old ducount of eight per 

1 nviil my»clf of this oecn«ion again to remind debtors to 
the United Sitres for land, thftt unle«t ih«y «hnl], on or ntrORE 
■me L*tT n*v "r tmj* moivth> i«iy to thr Rrccivrr the viMe 
Inlancc dtic, or aign Jind ^le witli the Kcitistci a dcvlaraEH^n of 
■cc^tanct or of rcUnquishmcnt, that they iriQ not he ciuitkd to 
any of the benefits of the act of the and of March, for the relief 
of the purchasers of public bndB. 

En W A Mil COLES^ 

C0LE3 TO EoiTOit or UJimh frUifHtem^r, June 4, i32i 

^EJ^ttJjtiJie Sf^^itr, J^ky 6, tiix. PhotOMiCi h lUnots llbtocioil SorvcT* 
tMfvtniry of IllJnoi*, inm onifjiiAlt U Library of Coo^vm] 

June 4, 1S23. 

Sir: Inanswcrtoyotirenquir^-, astoibc trwthofastatcmcnt, 
conttmed in an anonymous publication, which lately appeared in 
the lihncis Intelligencer, In which it wan asserted that I had 
cmancipaTcd *ix or eight old and worthle** negroes, and yet hold 
in bondagr, in a neighboring itnte, many yonng and vahiable- ones, 
I will state the faCEs, nnd leave you to judge what foundation 
there t» for the assertion, and how far my conduct deserves ceiw 

In accordftiKc with way principles and feelings, which have, 
from an early prtmd of my life, been very fttmngly opposed to 
slaircry, I eiKaiKipated, as loon as 1 cuM dtspo^ of the property 
left mc by my father, all the slaves he bc<]ucathcd mc. amounting 
to nbotir iwcfity in nvmbcT, except two old and superannuated 
women, one of whom has since died of otd age, and the other scill 
bve^ and is vitpjiorteU by nic. Itirl Hmtvi|^ ihe nef^rucK thoi left 
me, tlierc waai a ¥mman wfio wa^ the iDOthcr of Jirc diildrcn, the 
oldest of whom waa not large enough to nurgc the youngcat; and 
whose husband belonged to a man living in the ndghborhood. 
Finding her in this hejpless sttuatioit, and knowing that ic would 



be impiwUe ior her to ntpptm htncli vWn frvnS, with Ht Ufyc, 
hclfdns, and, » the ncne tiinc, iaav^m^ familr, I Uc it mj datr 
ID miu h«T, «■ far at ir was m my pcrwtn stid I knrw no more 
cffcrtu^ frsy of doiRg »>, iluui by ptm:b«iig bcr bosbftruL lie, 
bovcvtr, «-&v noi u tfivc (or life. He had foftnc rf y bdoofcd to 
BO old (^akcf, **ba K^d Left in His «riU that Ke «hc«U bectimc frvc 
in Au^ii, >S^5- I fttrronfin^y furcbifted tbc mnxindcT of the 
timr be vaa to tctvc; bui ruU him u 1 wv> prindjM xirairu^t 
boUiftl iUirc», 1 ftbould hbcf arc hrni u be bail rtpmid mc the roKncy 
I bad p«id for him. Af^cf I brooi^T hin m iht» country, bim and 
hit fafliily Ttvcd in St. I^ui«, where he rcnrcd a bouse, ami 
ttbcfi iM for «hofn he rhoo^t proprr, 6nr near f«o yrars, diini 
wittch time, rrwln^ lo the sxkneu ol bitnvrtf and ^milv, uu) to 
the bard vtfiKS, &c, &c. be *a§ tiarcly able to MtpfKvn bi« family; 
atid af ibc cupiriiiion of that lime I was informed by Nm that Dr. 
Walker had an acrour.t c^ainefy-six dollars azkl 6(t} centi ogAinM 
mc for n'.rd^ral atterilanfc on him and hi* family. He th»;n told 
me ihaf \k [{c3f>airtJ uf being able lu tty^y the rnuney I had paid 
hr him, and proposed that t should let Dr. Walker hairc the fd^ 
mainder of tbc Hrnc be was bound to serve by the VfiH of hi.^ oKI 
maftter, and added that be and hb W\k boEh liked the Juctor and 
his family, ar4 preferred Irving with them tx> any ntber j^cnon^. 
Oft ihi« 1 affreeit i» let Dr. Walker liave him and hJi^ family until 
August, tf^2$. I %iy b>m antt hi^ family, for kno^ng, as I uhI 
before, that cbc »«man could not aupporC hcnwlf and family 
witbcut the Bx^istancc of her husband, 1 executed her irec palters 
tn take e^ect wlicn her hu«liand i^hould become free; in the mean- 
tinK the wppfirr of her and Ikt family dtrvnlve^l upon m^. So 
for* ihcrcforc, from freeing old and nY>rthlc» rKgrocs, 1 have taken 
upon mywif tbc support of all those left mc l>y my faehcr, who 
wcfc unaNc from age or o:her ciri-tinuiani'cs, cif vjppornnii rbcm- 
«clvcs. And anwnft thoic cmflnciparcd ibcre were tiut tbrc« ibove 
the age of thirty, and to tho» thrrr I f;ave A qoaner acction of 
IamJ e^ch as a remuiicraiion for ihdr p^iit services. Ai'd lo fnr 
from holjitig in bor^dagc many yoatif: and valunbic ociEroes, i own 
noDCt but lutve liberated allt in the manner ahoi'c dcscnbcd; and 
hsi'C not 1^'cn had any of their cbiUlrtn binrd to strvc m»r durincE 
their minority, uiff^pr tlir cSiidr^rn of the wi>:nan whtop ImtbanJ 



1 iHircha«cd. In Addition to rhU, 1 mighT ndd, that I iM>t im\f 
cmAm:ip«rnl my sUvcs, fmm a conviciion of ihc impropriety 
of hoMing tiKm, Uu, rroin a desire to sci*vc M\d bcfncnd them- 
t removed, Rt my own cMp^iuct flU thow who were wittinn to come 
1(1 this free, new, and prosperous cumrry. 

You have now the whole, in minute deiAil, of my owning. 
lMi>ing, and selling regroes.-' For I :issure you I own none; nor 
ncvtr owned. iKir bcuniht. notr »o1d oik, except hs above st«tcd. 
And if there be an>tliintt in my conduce as above n:iatcd» or 
indeed in rcUtion to any of the unfoftwnate dwccndent* of Africn, 
«uhkh 1% in violation of my religious or pUitic^l creed, 1 am not 
aware of it. 

The Wihjctl tfi ihlji Tetter i* i^ne abcwt whUH [ hflve not been 
in the habit of iptiakln^^' until of late, when I have been conttrarned 
to <k> su in antweri;^ the inqniriea of my friends, and iIbo from 
the oldigutiun I felt myself ufvkr lo correct the falsehocKli *nd 
miKn^iLrr^rntationx whiili snmc cit my |>o]itical op|wnCTit?& liavr 
circulafni for tie piirpu>e of injoring my ntordmg in the eaiima- 
lion of ibc public. I am, very re»pcetlvilyi 

ColiitoThoma* Sloo Jft„ June jo^ i8ij 

^^ fAthiVp^UtaJ Sof it^ q/0\h,iiSo^ A, it] 

Fi>WARi>Gviu.i:t June JO, 1813 

In cabling my eyes around lo find a pcrM>n well quahltcd for 
the aatuAtion, and at the Mfnc time who should t>c pArticulfirly 
pleiumg to me personally, 1 have singled you out as the mxtt I 
should prefer to appuint as an Aid-de<amp to the Coramandcr- 
iiKhief. I now offrr you that appointment; and must recniewt 
tjie favcv uf ytJu to let me km;*, ii« Mion (a*] povtille^ whether »t 
will be agreeable to ygu, or will suit yuui convcrucacCi to accept 
ib It Gonfein the rank, us you know, of Colonel, but nt the same 
time impotc* the expense, not only of an equipment, hut thai 
attencUnt upon at-LMmjinnying the Commander-in-t-Jjief whenever 
he reviews the Militia, whiirh by ihe way f %W»\\ do iiext October. 


W Ptaaukvc ftod Vice E^taiijent of the UfutnJ StACCi" approvod 
Mvdii, 1S19, 1, Edward CoLCi^GcM^eraord'clivScateo^niJiwo, 
nio fa0«^ {findc >hr lud Starr cam rluw rlrctunl t&tnctv, a4 
iialD««i ID n: 

Tk&m£mct id oottwt o( tfac Cousin of Ptibt. FatoM^ 
fnpniot. Moffs»m Gncfl, MadMOo. St. CUr, Bochd. Umi- 

Thf flcoond dnmcT co cotmt c/ dbt ctmAOC« ol P4fir. CUrt, 
Crivffxd, 1^«trDcr, Wavnr, pjlw&nlst Wtitr. GaJtadn, tlaratU 
ton aaci Hariofw 

The tJunl dbtrkt u> cooust «f the Couocica <3i Moaixie, 
Raadolph, Jackson, Tiibom Ate^oxider, JohnaoM. Pope. Franklin, 
JHfentm and WaahiAgtoo. 

la CcsiiimAf whereof, 1 love benrtiRiD auUvrifaeit 
my tiMtnct wtd cavsed the aeal of the %tmte to be 
■Ak«1 at \'a>Mlalia thb the ttnt Moadsy in 
(cftaLl September (being the uxtk dav of the fDonfhJ 

m the year of our Lofd tuie thovuaod eigJic 
hvfidnd *nd iwmT^ ^f, and af the Indrpen. 
dcDCc of the Uoiicd Staica ihc fa«(>'-ninth. 

tiiWAan COLK*. 
By thf C^vfr/MT^ 

Davip BiAGfLwcm Sitrtury M Sia^r. 

PftoCLAftun^Tff ar liowAiu) Cotes CoifVBMiira the Grvc&AL 

AciEusLT tn Special Sesnoai, Scptcmbcf 9i tS^ 

U^iw'i GriftoKr, ScmkWt i,Mlt+, Phoioatiuin DlinoB HsMrkd Smtitc* 
Uuwutf t4 lLis4i*t frrm oripuli in t^Lritry of Cofigna^J 

By lite Gtmexncir uftjie Siaie of lUiiiuis. 


WueacAS^ by the ninth section of the third Jtrtide of the 
cMiititution of the state of lUmvu, the Governor tnay, on extra- 
ordinaiiy uccations, cxmvene the General Aftembly hy proclama- 
ticffi: and i«lieTca\, liy jui acI entitled *'An act pft)vidin(t fbr the 
electors of President and Vice President cf ih< Ijnttod States," 
approved Match 1, 1S19, 11 is pro\-idcd, thji the returns of the 
election of »aid electors shall be investigated in the aanw manner 



04 die election returns of tepncMJirajivci m congress art rcquimi 
to he. b>' the xct to TCKulacc cicciinr,}., ^hich acc requires iJic 
ckctioti returns of representatives to conttrcin, to be canviucd by 
the Cental AsecmUy; and vrhcrcas, the electors of P.'csideni and 
Ykv Prcwdenc to be eltrctevl In said ^ratc in NovcmIxT next, *re 
rrtjuired by bw rn mcei inj givv ihcir votes, bcfoic the day fixed 
by law for the rommcn rcincnt of the next scision of the (icncral 
AMcmbly; Now. ihcrcforc> I, Edxard C^Jts^ Governor ot tJie 
statv of Hltnoie, do hr thefte prc(«ri£, appomt Monday the 
jf//^m/A*/tfK^;Vo;vw^^«r*^, for thrmtc ling of the fourth General 
.^«emb1y of said state, la the town of Vandalia; hereby requiring 
the respective Senatora and Rcpr«cnTai"i>'C5 then ai:d there tu 
MMcmbIc, to act and ad^iK upon the matter aforesaid, and upon 
such other aubjects as ihall be submitted to ihem, and to consult 
and determine upon SMch measure*! as ii> fheir wisdom shall be 
deemed l»e^t uak-uUicd li> promote the *»elfarc ni the ittmitt. 

In ttsiijnmiy whereof, 1 have herctinto sub- 
scribed my -iamc> and caused the Acaf of state to be 
aftxed, at Vund^dia, thU eighth day i.i September^ 
|L. S>] in the year oi our Lord otie thounml ei&^t hundred 

and twenly-fuir, and uf the Ittdcpendcacc of the 
United Staee%, the forty-ninth, 

KDWAai> Coi,c.t» 
By the Govcrnoe^ 

David Ri^acawcu,, 

5wTrtary nf StatA 

Gav£RNoa'i; M^smcEt November J6, 1814 

{/Hhttit CtneHtt SotxrnlK' 3?, if^ t^ntotni* in lllijiou lluioricnl Survey. 
l/ni*vnrty of Elliecii, from OTLginitk tri libnrrof Coi^tfuJ 

^>yW CiiJXMJ c/ fh( Sennit 

and ^jihf Hgus4 a/ RcprtunJMwcs. 
\ have convened wu at an earlier period than that fixed by 
Ic^t to obviate a defrcr in the act entitled "An aet providing for 
the elcctioT* of rlcitor* of president and vfcc^>residenf of ihe 
L<nit«l Siaie%." Bythtsaci it is pmvided, that the reiurn^of the 
election of elector? of ire^dentan^l vice president ihall be in^^cstJ- 



gated in the lame muiner mhc reoirm ofthc tl ec ti oB of Ji mem- 
ber tWCtuKgrm w rrqutml tu be liy the act taregabtreleciionf; 
vliich set pnmdo tlut the returns tA tlv dectiofi of a mgrobcr of 
Conpcv thiU be mi^cstissted hf the ^evcnl ancmMy; ud u 
the general jusembly thu veir would oothtw met until miter the 
Qine fixed by Uv for the asfrmblTng of* the eleccora] rcJkp, it 
rhcTrfbre became oecentiy tu convene the grfveral assetably, in 
order co k«afize and render c&ctive dkc rote of IBioois in the 
eketioR of a president anJ vke prcmkat of the United Scatea. 

It i» expected thatdl the return* vUl be received at the 
of The secretary of vtavon Fridajr next; at soon as (hey an, they 
UmJi hr Uid hrfbrc yiai. 

Whibi I rcgrcc the ncceastty of calkn^ you to the dbtchftrgc 
of your oJSciaJ dutia rather sooner than the appointed xmc^ 
feel greac saiitfiction In the belief thai vhilst it will not sol 
the members tJ any perxonal tnconvcntmre, \i will promote the 
pubBc inK-rf^> not only in girinf to out f lare her proper voice and 
inflxJCJKc m the election of a chief m«^siracc for the nation, but 
will al»o be attended ^«ith tiuft furthtr advania^. of afforditig an 
earticr opportunity to the representatives of the people to dcct a 
•enatoriothecongreuofihe Unitni Scate«in the place of Ninian 
Edwafds. Notice of the rc^i^idtion of Mr. EclifrirLlx wac rceeived 
too late lasi ftprinf;, ail conccivoitfor me tomakcon appomrmmt 
in time for the individual to ha^e reached Washington bcfo/e the 
probable adjournment. If a successor to our late senator be now 
promptly appointed, he will bes)»le to roach Washington very soon 
after the merting of congreas. 

It RfTord* me peculiar gyatifitaiion, on the convora(ion «/ the 
legislature, to eongntutate the ti:t>rc!icnTativcs of the pcuplc, on 
the incrcaaed and increatsng dev^ikm of our dtiacm to their 
rights, and attichmeni to their firec lutitotionsj on the continvcd 
peace and prf^tpcnty i^/fiur cooiitiy; ^ the plentiful hnrveit with 
which the earth haa rewarded the Ubouier; on the iinusoaJly good 
health enjoyed by owr citircna for the Ta»viwo years; and particu- 
larly on the truly propitious and happ^ decision, by a laj^ 
majority, of the impon;int quenion which hu so greatly ngitate4 
the people of the stnrr ^ntc tJwr adjoum<icnr of tie l«giilanirc. 
For theae great and manifold bleasinga ^f a kind Providence, it 



becomes u& to be grAtcful; and to show chat wc dttly Appreciate 
and are worrhy of ihcm, Irr us in imitation of Htm from whom 
they pfuanatc, mate duly allowance foi tht frailties of human 
nature; let tia a»uia^ all perturbed pa»iofis and prejudices; 
allay the uapcntiea ^f party feeling ard cordially unicc to correct 
put errort, and provide for the future the best meant of prumotirg 
indKndual happine^and general iwoiiierity. 

Araong the }*KC errors which operate mtAt injuriovLsly, and 
which are yet within Icgialative correction arc the law^ which hare 
bccri passed for chaaging the long eitabtiahed mode d enforcing 
coarractc, by tub«tinut>ng new legal provifiioas^ not contemplated 
by the pariiet, by which their contracts have been mntrna)ly 
changed, and even infringed. The crrnilirution cxprr^wJy p^<^• 
hibita the patAge of any law impairing the validity of contracu. 
But ilit wcreailcnton thisaubiecc, a sense of juAlicc would require 
an ettraordinary and iintooked for, and even impn>b*blc state of 
things to w*tify an imcrference on the part of rKe legislature in 
coatracts between individuals in the material injurj' of one party, 
and bcn^lic of the other. Such interferences have a tendency to 
destroy punctualiiy, to -mpiir confidence, «t>d to 'injure the 
character of a community, [t is not lew the dgty» than the true 
po)ic>' of a government sincrty to comply with all itaown enga^ 
menis, and to enforce punituality upon its citi^ens^ It should 
ever be borne in mind^ that character ia eapiial, and that a people 
d»trou» of CACrco^ng thdr rcMunrea and promoting their pros- 
perity, should pr«eTVc thdr faith inviolate. Whatever may have 
been fhe causes which proJuccd these meaauret, it K not believed 
that the pre&eni slate ci things requirvi their eonti nuance, I 
ihercfbrc recommend to die ci>n4idcration of the Icgislacurc the 
pri^priet)' of repealing, asAoon aa may be deemed most equitable 
to tho^e concerned, all new legal provinoiu which have been made 
lor debying or rhnnging the obligation of contractfl» and re- 
macrir^ ibe fuimet ami long cstihlt^hnl tntidr of rnforfirfj ihem> 

Tke ciiabJi»hmcTit of the it»te hmk was amjthcr error com* 
milted from the aaac impatient desire to relieve the community 
from w^at was called the pressure of the timce* but which was 
ch-e fly produced by ev<e»]ve i»uet of paper currency. This, like 
moAi olxt es^wdienis </ the kind, has had the effect to eitcre^ise 


the evil it was intended to relieve. The great depreciation of its 
paper has been attended with embarrassment to the community, 
affecting very injuriously individual transactions, and has dnven 
from circulation what remained of the precious metals. The 
honour of the state, and the interest of the people. Individually 
and collectively, imperiously require that the wisdom of the legis- 
lature should be exerted in an especial manner to devise means for 
restoring the credit of the paper of the banl. 

Nothing short of a strict examination into the manner in 
which the bank has been conducted, and an exposition of its 
present situation, will be satisfactory to the people; and nothing 
short of legal provision for the extinction d the amounts paid in 
annual instalments, as well as by voluntary payments, and the 
prohibition of the re-issue of one dollar on any pretext whatever, 
unless it be for the necessary expenses of the situauon, will sustain 
its credit and it is submitted to the wisdom of the legislature^ 
whether those expenses could not be reduced, and the business 
better managed, by substituting for the bank a more simple 
agency for the superintendence and collection of the debts. 

In the observations 1 had the honour to make to the last 
legislature, I recommended that provision should be made for 
the abolition of the remnant of African slavery which still existed 
in this state. The full discussion of the principle and pdicy of 
personal slavery, which has taken place since that period resulting 
in its rejection by the decided voitr of the people, still more 
imperiously makes it my duty again to call your attention in an 
especial manner to this subject, and earnestly to entreat you to 
make just and equitable provision for as speedy an abolition of 
this remnant of slavery, as may be Jeemed consistent wiJi the 
rights and claims of the parties concerned. 

In close connection with this subject, is my former recom- 
mendation, to which 1 again solicit yoar attention, that the law, 
as it respects those held in service, should be rendered less scvtre^ 
and more accordant with our political institutions and local 
situation; and that more severe penalties should be enacted 
against the unnatural crime of kidnapping, which then prevailea 
to a great extent, and has since considerably increased, in conse- 
quence of the defects of the present law- Regarding ths former. 



our luvif. m gcneml are A mere craniicripf of thoM of the mrire 
^u:hcTTi »t4trs, vhcrt die grcnt number of tiavet maki^i it nt»:c»- 
%nry for ihr lafi-ijr of tHc ivkircK, thar r)ic bwa far iheir gnvern- 
tncnr, intl conLcniing frix l>bck.s, shtiiiM Ik very strict. Q\;t, 
there being no *uch motive here, the neccMit>' of such lftw» ceA$<f, 
nrt<i coFij%qucntl>' fhcir injojinc*^ nrd cruelty arc the mone apparent. 
'ITie Utter arc foiird every day more and more defective and m 
cfficirnt; and kidrtapping ha^ nrw Imtimr a rrgular trade, vhirh 
cafrit*! on loa vast cjtimt ro iheeouniry bonlcHngoji the lower 
lisstuippi. up chc Red River, And to the West Indies* I'o put 
an immedinrc and eA^cetua) stop to ihU ncfnrioufl tmffic, is the 
imj>crious duty of the legiKlature^ There eJin come before you bo 
subject with a more direct appeal to the gcnemns feelings of 
humatihy, ur with heroii^cr elaims on your flcruc of justice, than 
the expoMrd and defcn^deM eondllion of free perwrn of <xdour. 
Ard tt t^ hoped tliat peraltio more proponionate to the en^mnity 
of the crime, and provbion^ better adapted to counteract the 
f;ici1liic« of commiEting Hj arising from our pnrttcular local ailua- 
tior, will be tnac^irtl. 

I aUo rceommendcd to the lane ^neral assemlvly. the opening 
of nnvigjible cummunicnti:}n5 t>ct«ecn the grear laitea ami the 
\VahaAh and IMi'«)«i rivers, and co dfe<t these ohjecti, that a 
porrion M rhe revemie ahould be annually set itparr to ereate and 
ftusialn a htnd tci lie r^nUrnvrly appcirrionftl to internal impmve- 
mcnn: ami I *i*ssf cd (h;i( humantry^ hq 1cm than ilic iniercfti d 
Ihe state, called for the cfcctton of it penitentiary. As further 
refleetiQU hat ttvnfirmed my wntlment?* regarding each of these 
ineflnure*, I Heg leave now to renew my former rcconiniendation. 

The rci'-ort wbich wiU be made w you \yy the commissioners 
appcirted by the la^t UfEi^lature to have sur^^ys and cAtimatca 
made of the etpcnecs of opening a navYKabfc communicatioi 
between Lake MK-hisan and the Mlinoifi river, will doubtless 
enable you to understand the aubjccE and judge whcrn, and in 
what manner, you can Ijgx exen^rc thai great and detirAl>1e work. 
1 still cherish the itdtef thac, under * JudicK?us nyiicni, ihii, as 
well a» the oilier imivjrtant measure of i>pcnin£, to co-o^icration 
with Indiana, the navigation between l^ke Erie and the Waboiah, 
may be aceompliflhed in a much leas time than has been *uppo*eti. 


UndSft from ilic <kfcct in the Uw^ in rclauott to L-«f>At3, lo which 
1 would invitt your attention. If the trespasser should not |>oss<«» 
more property than the law exempt* from execution, he p*y$ 
nothing, goes ui^puni&heil and can condnue to trespass with iin- 

In the year iBlt the Treasurer received the sum of l5«95<>8l 
from the Treasury of the United Stnten; it bttn^ a portion of ihe 
three percent, fund, dcnvcd from the »ai£ of lands, and appropria- 
teil hy Cnngr»s for the eneaumgemenr of leamlr^- No dtspnxi- 
rion nA^ made of thU fund by iHc last legtKliture; and wlicn the 
Bsnk v-oi ro4>hed in March, iSlJ, SS61.73 of it were taken and 
have i>ot aince been recovered, 1 wouJd suflgest whethCT it would 
not, for the pre*eni, ht the best dUpositicn of thi* fund to luthnr- 
be it* invrfttmenr, wirh «uch additions u% miiy fmm time tn time 
be receivenl, in fionie prodLietive stocks yfcLling an interest, and 
at a\\ times oonvcniblc into cash, 

^rom eircum^ianecs of hardship, which haw fallen under 
iBy observation, I fee) it a duty to invite your attention to the 
subjcctof lands the property of nr-nresTdcnw^fioM through default 
of the payment of t**L"», li spj*ear* that many owners of fhesr 
lands, from the remoteness of their residence* or their absence on 
distant voya^uea, have <jf necessity depended on af^nts for the 
payment of their taxes; thai in many instAnces tlic^ 4^nt& have, 
through neglect, dishonesty, or other causes, proved unfaithful. 
The l^nda h:ive been s<diJ^ anii tlie year uf redeinp lion hiu eUpted^ 
bcfi^re the ctrcumMance htf» eome to ihe knoiivlcdgc of the pro- 
prietors, I aik the attention of the Legislature 10 this sukji^ct, 
and wouU sxiggctc the propriety of extending the term allowed for 
the redcmiition of the lands of non-resident*, which may hereafter 
lie *r)ld for the pnymenr nf laxes. 

There is no subject claiming the attention of the Lq^atun; 
of more ritoJ inipotranoc to the welfare of the state, and it* Jxiturc 
pratress and respectahility, rhan the pmvUion* which vhiMild be 
made fat the education of the rifting and Kuccee<:linf| gcneratinos. 
IntdligiMirrntid vifTuenrr rhr mntn pillarKinrhe tem|>lcnf l.iberr)r, 
A goverojlicni founded on the sc^^crcignity of the people, ami 
resting on and controEkd by them, cannot be respectable, or c%'cn 
long endure, unless they are enlightened. To prc^rve and hand 



down xo a continuous line of gtrncranoiTis char liberty vKich vrst 
obtained by the vsXnt «nd virtue of otir forefathers, we must nuke 
provision ioT jiic motA and in telle ctiuil improvemcdC of ihusc vrlio 
Are tofollowua, and vrhoarctomheritandluvc thediApo^dofthc 
incatimabfe boon of scirgovcmincnc- The United States b&i 
nade a most liberal provision In lands for Towntkip SchooU» and 
a IJniverMty- But, from ihc preient «uperabtttdaiKe of lands, 
tbe»e wUJ nux be prtiJuclivc of mueli revenur for many yrJira 1o 
ccTHc; ibcy should however be strietly haabandcd as a rich source 
of supply frcim which to wjpply future generations with the mcana 
of education, fn the meantime wnuld it not be wuc to make 
legal provision to assiRt ir the Kuppnrt of local schools? 

Considrrahlr rRon,% have liccn ma^le. hy the Eieaitivc (o 
cffcci a compliance with the law which requires annual rctums to 
be mode to the Adjutiuit (General of (be number of the mibtia, I 
regret to be Cfnnpelled to sute that thcM c^orts have failed, atKl 
chat such are the defccrs of the law that it cannot be enforced. 
[[ is lo be particularly regretted that this neglect of the officers 
to perform their duty. hi» utCjisioned considerable low ro t1;e 
atatc, in the laic apportionment of «rins, received from the Federal 
Government. A portion of die arms received by my ptedeces«or( 
wax put in the hands of a company in Randolph county. Hie 
portion rcceive<l last year remain* in store ar Shawneetown, It it 
rcspectfuLly submitted to the Lei^isJature, in regard to the^ and 
any future Arms which may be received from the United States, to 
direct whether they should be preserved in an arsenal, to be used 
when wanted in defence of the country, or be ctif:tnbutcd to the 
mititra; and if the latter, what secimties should be required for 
th«r pTe-Jcrvation- 

In a free ecvernmcnt where the law is supreme, controlling 
c;]ually the ^vcrnors and the ftoverncdt and where proviMon is 
made for the adjtistmeni of the divcrsilied relations between man 
and man, it i* of the first importance rhar rhe laws should be 
aitalaabic by all and so explicit as to be, as far a^ possible, within 
the comprehension of alL To dfcct this cucntial purpooe, our 
sister stales have been in the habit, from time to time, of revising 
their laws, and publtshin^ them in a digested code. This code, 
when judiciously compiled, classei the subjects in so syscematie 


«i»d ftimplc a manncf, tlut a fiUin hnnl wnrtung fvmer may iti 4 
frtv mini.iit-« atcrrtiin th^ ti« cm asr convaon iiat-(f>on; ani] rl 
vciluinc u Ml tnlucrcl in ^Uf and price u tn Se u'Uhin the 
of circry ciiiicn to pcccurc, thn u of tminen>c idvanrage lo tbc 
«rcac body of the p^orJc. And uvet them much cim« and cjcpctiac ill 
aceking the opinion oi Uvyers oft »]»ple nwe«« ^hcTc it Untsy u 
mukr ihfl Uw plain ifld cvplicti. rcidvr these impressions, I 
rt^icfiftilly su|:g«»( %hr |*ft>pntMy of appoiming sontc one or man 
pcntun Icarncvl in the fav to ^ucapilc « digested code of our lam^ 
iiKtkqMrating inta )t u much of the conuxwo lav a3 practkaMc, 
10 Sc mbmined tt> the cootaderation flivi approval of the nest 
Gcorral A»*tmWy, 

A% much biccitvniicnc^ b nffen felt hy every branch of the 
fovrmmcnr, and partkuUrly hy the JudKiary, Ibr the want of a 
library at ihe 3eat of pxr^ramcnt, I am induced to sa^grn to your 
ctkaaid^ration the pntpnety of makuig a amal annual appn>pnat>M 
19 chn object. 

We had the msfbrtune in Decemb e r last to haec the «atc 
bouK coteumrd by &e. ^~ith the dicumviaacea wMch caused 
tkb disntcr, 1 am not paraodarfy acqwuncccL The dtaeA» of 
Va&daha have ibkc TCbutt it* and «iU doofcdw not be diMf^ 
pointed in thetr ftat «pcctitM« c< bdag UMihgicd cbfta^efiaM 
dkey ha«T inL^rfvd in vWsptTindaif ferArp«Mk«ccBaniodamL 

On the first day of juuary, iSsj^ there mainfid in the 
Trmnry the noB of 9jj^i.ii; frotti that d^ mti the fint of 
Norember, t9i4» the reeeipta aBouatcd 9» $^1^66^3^ ^uram 
the M»e pctioid the ifasb«tf70neftts amottfttcd m f?^^^; 
Icavtn^a balance io the tteasvy of }35,7$6uc^ 

It ««a tttf inuauuu 10 hare ratted d« vate Safiaea tha* 
aDnttaB. Bot havioc bnm pcerrflted by S kaJth. I SM^t ajntcnt 
MtTMfT vtth rcKfimf yevi tBir niamaDBtt ob iva tttcreattf^ aoi^ 
JKt to tlKRcroR wlu^ «« be ted bd«re ?«■ b« tke m&k 

Br tfa Coaswtma h « ai* Ac dstr flf Ik Oocn! Am» 

Jwlpvthmof. hafen to dKwiadoBafifeGicscnl AaanUr 
*nWr dtt J«^C9 «f d« S^Ra> Com ^C B 
■ wot dMM. er «tekr UH«- IMV Ad W 



appoint^ for 1fk^i purpose. The chirf objecnoRs co iKc appomt- 
mcnr of Circoit Judg^, fl( rhls time, nrr, rhar rhere ts very licri* 
bu^inc»» ID the Supreme Court, and that the JuJgea thereof could 
perform eircurt duties with caac to them»cLvca and advantsee to 
tiic public; abo that the appointment cf Circuit Judges would 
^atljr »dd to the evpcivses of the state; and it \% feAred, in die 
prrsent early &ta|^ iiijunou^ly muliipty oAicers, ihr icTffilton of 
wWn Is rcodcrcd the mttrc difl^cult a^id imporrant fruin the uir* 
cumstaxicc of thdr hoUlin^ thdr offices during good behavior. 
Whether the Gerernl Assembly shalli however, think proper to 
or^niie one or both of theae Courts, I take leave to urge on the 
memben the necesitty of paylrif^ great attenliun to the selection 
of JoHgc*. ll t«aoe of the mnst important 4nd reaponnihle duHc* 
that )'ou will ha« to perform during ihc present ae^^on. When it 
is recollected that the JtidRcK are now to be appointed during good 
behavior; that they will occupy the most importarLt station tn 
society; that our fivca and fortune* may depend on their wisdom 
aJid vinuc; \x should HwaJten in the members the most serious 
reflection en rhc importance of their choice, ftnd their obligation 
to lay nsidc pergonal prcjudtccs nnd pariinlmcs, and assidiously 
endeavor to select the best men, ihoee most diuiDgLi]sh>cd for 
their capacity, their rcqvurements, their pniicipres, And chclr 
moral character. 


November 16, 1S14 

GoTKRMCPa'^ Mi::E:kAcg» December $» iSafi 

FfUov: Ciiiurts 0/ the Senatt 

J W of Mf Houi€ €f RtprafmAtiTes. 
On tbu the fiftieth year of our existence as an independent 
nation, it is a source cf murh feliriTStion to find ciur heloved 
country in the lull e^ijoyment of its ri^ts and liberties, and of 
every aocial blesMng. But al3ovc all, to wiine^ the wonderful 
success of our political institutions, in preserving the peace, and 
in prcumoting the pros-perity, happiness, and glory of oar cc*intry. 
On such an occasion, the functionaries of the government, repre- 



acAtbg a people who took upon dxir Ul>ertics ms the gP^t ^^ ^^od, 
and as the greatest of all cartKEy blonngs, cannoc but derive infi- 
nite gradHeabon, when convened lor the ftovercign dtade] of 
l^nlation, in mirgltng chctr congraCubdonK and uniting in ferven! 
gratitude lo the Authcx^ of our beings, for ikc iignal tad and pmTi- 
dcnnal c4rc and proiection extended to us, in acquiring our lodc- 
pcndcnce, in establishing our liberty* in guarding our rif^ts, aftd 
in promotbig our hsppfoees- The bocom of cvvry American swtdli 
«iiH emotions of joy and gratitude, vhen he rdleco on t)\< risf 
anil pnr^rcTkH of his counirjr, from iis ^nt settlement by the victimi 
of rcligioua and civil persecution, to its prcMnE proud cm'uKnct 
amonc the Nation:^ of the vrorld; when he reficctd on its infant, but 
heroic struggle againHt rhe oppressionofitspcmeiful parent country, 
resulting in the establishment of dvU and rdigious freedom, on 
ihc sacrtJ principle of the e«tufll rights of man. by a ctmstitutioo 
of government, ax un'squc ok it 'i% feliciUTiu, aod which li nut less 
the jiiRc pride of our countr^^ than the admiration of the workl* 
It would seem to be aInxMi Aupcmatura!, that a country setded 
about 30O years ago, aiul but ha!f a century cnce it asftimed its 
station among the nsrrons of ihe earth, shoiitid already be one of 
ihc most poitxrful, and the mode) tor the imiiaiicn of all. \Vhtbt 
wc should adhere to such a country, and cherish with a fervent 
and holy 2cal its inesiimable instituiioris, vc cannot too mwk 
revere the memory of thost who achieved so much for xis and ii^r 
mankind. Two of the most efficient in this great work, after 
having been permitted by a kirul PrDvidence to assise in adminis< 
Kiing the government, and wiinc»ing its good effects for filt^ 
years, wtrc on the National Jubilee taken from the scene of tlwr 
good works to that of their great rcward&. On the 4lh day of July 
last, Thomas Jefferson, the renowned Author of the T>eclarsrion 
of Iridqiendenre, and John Adami, its ablest advocate, cnuttd 10 
live! Thun ^aactifying by their deaths a day rendered glortcaiS 
by the mo«t important event of their lives, and in the history of 
their country. Thot these two Father and Ex-Fresidents of the 
Republic, one of whom draughted the Declaration of Independeoa 
the other sfconded rhc mniinr which led to its adoption, both 
members of the aclect committee which reported it, and conadtut* 
ing at the time of Mtcir deaths two out of the only three surviving 



I' signers of rh» mcmomblc instrument, should have died on the 
same day, and that day the fiftieth annivcnary since its adoption, 
is such an exiraordinary cnincidcnce, tbar k wouM seem As if 
Hnrrri i*err desirous of inurasmg our tcvcrtncc for our libert)' 
und ire dcpcn<lr lice » and for the memory of thu&c vfho were so 
I mAtrumenuI in achieving it. This mclAnchol^ l>ereavcmcot has 
I placed the nadon in mourning; and it ha« Ixren a subject of regret 
thai the sparce population of Illmois ha» prevenfe<l its cimetis 
frtini |(ublidy ttianifestiny thtir respcvt for the inenioneti of thew 
two great atAicsmen of our country and benefactors of mankind- 
The General Assembly, in gratifying chctr own feelings, will but 
truly reprc^nc thoRc of the people, by giving a public mnnifcsta- 
tion of the bigheat estimation in which the character and services 
of Jrffrnson atid Ailamn arr held, of grief f-lt f<ir rheir Uiw, am3 of 
gratitude to ProvidciKC for giving, ard pcrmlttiiig ihcci) bo long 
to remaia, to labour for the benefit of our country and of the 

There is one painful circumstance cotinecred with this mourn- 
ful evenr which rratcs a direct appeal to the best feelings of our 
nature. Thomas Jtffersun, prc-ciniricJit a* a tagc jjid a philan- 
thropi»t, ai a atatcaman and as u patriot; the author of the Decla- 
ration of Independence; the great political refonner, to whoae 
ftrony, bold and crlginal genius we are in a great degree indebted 
for our civil and religion* freedom, and for (jur correct undentand* 
ing of the n^hti cif man and nf natiun?t; be u'ho was 6rtl in the 
cabinet^ a^ Washington was tir^c in the Held, in acquiring our 
liberty and incicpcndence; and, as the Chief iVlagUcrate of the 
Republic, doubled it« territcjry, extending it south to the Gulf of 
Mexico, and west to the Pacific Ocean, and that not by cont|ucst 
but by a judicious and c<ioilalilc purchase, — after h:iving devoted 
sixty one years of his life to the service of hii country, to the 
neglect of his pecuniar^' affairs, vhilst his losses and expenditures 
were greatly augmented, by the fluctuation in the value of 
propcny, and a misplaced confidence, and particuUHy by the 
contimifhc of persons who were induced to vi^it him from the 
Celebrity he had acquired for hia wisdom, virtue and pre-eminent 
servicer in tiK cauic of \\\& country, and of human righta, IbunJ 
himself involved in debt to ifvch an extent that nearly all his 



propotf, even MonttcelLo, hu favorite re^ence, where are now 
deposiTed his renuimi^ will fuvc to be sold? Ic will ever be t 
mortiryijig rejection that this face was known six months before 
his dcftth, and ycr no cFcctuil rdicf was extended to this ^r^at: 
Patriarch of the RcpuUhc, who has deroccd hin whole Life, and 
saenhced hb patrimony in its service. The opportunirr, however, 
b stiJI s&fl'ordetl his counuymen to remove this reproach, snd to 
indtitge their 3trecnf>iiate and grarefut feelingv, by contributing mi- 
the payment of his debts, and thun cnnblc his accomplish^ 
Uaughtcf, and her numcrcm* family, who he hu left to his country, 
to retain potscKstons rendered the more valuable and preciowt 
them from having been owned by their illustrious parent, lul 
what manner IllinoiR should roniritjurc hrt proportion of this Jusi 
claim on the gratitude of the RcpuMic, will btr dctctmined by 
generous and niAenarimous RcprcKntativci. 

There is a great interest felt in the proceedings of the presei 
General Assembly^ from the circvm«tancca ofiu having to paaS. 
upon the Digest of the L^iw*, which ha^ bwn prepared by oi 
at the l^gisbiurc. To cune*.l the into ny ml lies in i^tir present' 
code, and to make the Digeat as perfect as the people have a right 
tocxpect« will require considerable labour, and the most Bundftouij 
and watchful attenrionn The experience of our lister state*, 
wdl afi that of our own, will, I trust, leave no room to doubt, that 
it U not Irts pnimutivc of the irue interest of the peoiilr, than of 
the prosperity and character of the State, to prc*enc the stability 
of the lawafor the enforcement of contracts, and to be esicccdingly 
cautious in chan^png them, and retorting to temporary expedients, 
calcubted to produce momentary relief but wttimate distress. The 
people of nimnis having rxpprienred great injury from this 
erroneous and short sighted system, it is to be hoped that every 
necessary measure will now be adopted to brins: it to a close; and 
that ^t will not again be rc&orte<l to; but, in future, ind'jatry 
and economy will be encouraged as the best means, un<ler the 
protection of good Jaws, for relieving the temporary embarrafs- 
menrs, and prurnoting the permaJiein proiipeniy of the people: — 
And I will tiufOE^t, a.% Another means well cdcuhitcd Co promote 
this great object, that the system of Jurisprudenee shcxild be more 
simpbAedj and in its operation made more prompt, efficient, and 



economical, for thcprcftecrbnandciirorccmciitorthcriiAaof the 

Thedtfccts in our crimiaal code will altocbiiTB your atttntwn, 
cvjwtl;il1y tlic t]ispn)pijr[i«Mi of pun'v^hmcnts to cr'.niM, whtcli t<xj 
frequcndy call fur rlic iiuerpoiiiion of cxccutivt clemency. The 
winC of a State Prison Htibjects the counties toa heavy expense, And 
often induces the ciuxens to petition for the pardcn of a cnminal 
liy torii thecourtr>' cf the expense Jiicentlant on hU imprij^n- 
^ment. Tfi nrticvc this^ inconvenience, rs well ax l» ciiuullur and 
promote the great cndt of punishment, the State nhciuld erect n 
;micnt]ary. And liclicvjng aa [ d<j, that it hu the means of 
^B^ecting one sufficiently lo^fc for prctcni luc, and that it c^n be 
convenientJ)^ built in a form Admitting of future enbrgement, I 
illd he wanring in my diit^' wrrr 1 tiiit ;igain tu recommend It 
your fftvouraLIc ctvisidcrjtion^ and the more so, as [ conaiUcr 
it • fooac jtu:, wiic, and humane system, and one which should 
embrace the pjni&hmcnt of every crime, lo the exclusion of diat 
(Rnguinary and exterminating code, which gives to .tggrcgatcd ntftn 
a poirer which nature, it 19 acknowledged, has nnt given to indi- 
vidual man, of ddiberaCcly depriving of life, and sei>Jing from 
omeCDCtemitya fellow-being, who, however wickod, iidefcnMleu 
can be rrndercd harmless, and made kucful 10 him^lf and to 
icn. 1 fondly indulge the hope^ that the time n not distant 
rhen t)ic Jmt, liberal, and i>hiUnthropic principle* of o«r govern- 
:nt, will so fai get ihi^ better uf error and prejudice, and conform 
'to the grc4it fundamental kw« of nature, and of nature's Cod, as 
no longer to sanction by law the taking of human life, either by 
imuntliet or lndivi<iualt, except in telf Jefeiice- 
In revising and publishing a digested cude of the lawv, I 
mot hut call yout attention in an especial manner to rheexutti% 
'provision:! In relation to that unfortunate class of our felloW'lieirgs, 
the descendants of Afnca, and earnestly recommend ihar they be 
amended, and made \cfs repugnant to our political institutions and 
local situation. On two former occasions, under n strong sense 
of duly, 1 urged du; gradual atKjJitiLjn ol [he remnani of slavery 
which still exists in violation of the FundamcntAl laws of the State, 
and an amelioration of our code in rdation to free Negroes. 1 
noir emphaiically renew, and earnestly press this rccommcndacion- 



But if the Le^tUnm thiU itil lUak pmpcr to decfiae ■**nfifl^t*g 
thTCTf, xhen I bowcii rHr Rtxvorfturivn of A pvrfilc who Imre 
Ubcrry, and b^^-r naolvcd ifcttt ifacir Uad ahiU be the Und of d«c 
^K, to Aiiopi &uch BKASva » viO ultiiiutdr poi u end co 
ilaTcry. Let us 4c Icut cnc the cauii. «>d hoc give vhftC ii 
vTOAfmligai dc«ctm» feitfii the nme when voriaidcifl Dlnois 
tfaftll cnK-.--^TU> bdiK to oar pciiKipla «jid contntcscr. tnd majr 
pnxxiorc tlw ictcrat uf the dgamit m prtq^rtr, by luIltnK '^ 
djnnaor to liberty, and prcvcnl the qoexboo ^ocn haa^ mi^odi- 
citcdt «5 it hu beta m a nd^bouncs StACe. It n ibofcqouate 
that provitioa ibouU be made, not only ibr looaeiung the felters 
of tJwce in temtude, but &r the (enmy and protectk» of &ee 
permva of culoar. It n not dretnrd good policy to encxntrage 
thdr cxnigraiion; but it U due alike to ihdr ri^hrs m^ to the char- 
acter of tli€ State, B^ tile fcclino of its citizewt that iho»c who 
are here, ot who may be admittcdi should be secured in tbe enjoy- 
iTient of thctr personaJ ngfitt. To dFect whkh it is indispensable 
ihat rhe law diould be altrrrd, and fto far ftniR tfinvdering every 
coloured pcnon a slave, ualcu he can produce the i^riticn evidence 
of his freedom, in ILIicx^^. every wxn should be presumed free 
Ufilil the contrary is made to appear. 

TSc State Bankp an unfortunate expedient, resorted to for 
relief from a temporary pre^ture* crear^d by the excessive issue 
of a paper currency, having been pnxluciive of much derangement 
and loss to the State and County Treaaurics, and cmbatTWsment 
to individuals, and having operated very injurionaly to the interest 
and character of the State, has;, I am happy to say at length, so 
far rwovered its credit, ai to ocase in a great degree the deleterious 
effects arislog frc^m ttie dq>rectat]<in of ti^ notei; which fnint 
having sunk to one fourth, have now ri*cn to near three fourths of 
thdr cominal value. This appreciation of the value of the notes 
of the Bank, whilst it operates mosr bcneficLally co the interest of 
the Gcvernm^nt and of the commonicy, is prejudicial to the 
incercsr of {Ut Mmwn of the Dank. lUii ihey have obi»ned 
loans from the Bank at a lime when its notes were neatly equal to 
specie, and in moat, if nor nil cascsi pa;d with them specie dcbtsf 
and the loss attendant on their depredation having fallen, not on 
zhtme vha borrowed them, but on those to whom they «vre paid^ 



tmd on the community gcncfftll^, W wculd be unreasonable in chc 
Rank dchrora to wish any conrsir taken vrhicb wruld deprrciarc the 
value Lif ihc nutci, to Uic grcii injury of the ujmnmmty, which 
has already i^ttaincd 50 great a leas by an institution cstabliBlKd 
for ihcir benel^c, and who have, by its mcan^ been enabled to pay 
off old debts, by obtaining loans to be repaid in ten equal annual 
instalmencr And a» it« Charter prohibited ^ny one (eiccvpt 
l)irrc<ur?i, who were i>rivLleiied a3 *uch lo recrive ?75o) from 
receiving mLrc than $loo on personal Kcunty, or Si,ODO on a 
pleigc of real ettate, there cannot be any of that indivklual dbtreas 
which Would JLUtif>' the rewrting to measurea ivhich <a^uld have 
die injunr>u% effect of deprccbting the currency ard credrt of the 
Stale, or of Increasing it» Itabiltty fur the debts of the B;ink, by 
offering a great dUc^iuivt far prompt payment; or of cxrcnding the 
tJtne, and oi courje the nsfc. of repayment of the loans. The 
cnsjB in the alfair« nf the Bank hni: now piuscd, and if no rrvensure 
should be .'idni>red hy rhe l-e^slaiorc to injure ire credir, wc shall 
soon ccftsc to feci ic> ill cffccr*. Vmm every view I can take of the 
sgijecl, I am fully impressed with ch? belief thai there la no ntxd 
of LcftiaJativc interference with the Bank, except :o reduce its 
expen<lirurea, and rentier more efficient ita admi mat ration, by 
£>.ibsii tilting a more simple^ economical, and efficient agency Ibr 
the nia/iagement and colli-ciion of its dc-bra. 

To enable rnc to impart to the Lcgialaturc full and correct 
infofmatwn of the manner in which the Insiicution haa been 
c^^nducrttd^ I called on the cashiers for detaiSed rcpt>rts of the pro- 
ceedings and present situation of the PHnctpal Bank and its 
branches- Having thi* Hubjm moth at htart, I have been 
greatly diNap|K>intcd by the caihier of the principal bank mtt 
having furnished the information Co the extent ukcd for; and in 
recctvinft no report from the hranch at Sbawneetown, in conte- 
qucnec of the recent death of it« cashier, and the refusal of hia 
adm'mitcrator to surrender the bnnk tn hta successor To the 
repons fwrcwiih irantmirtcti, and ro the general condition of rhc 
liank, ] invite ihc particular attention and rigid scrutiny of the 
Legislature- From These reporta it will be «<n, that there have 
been loaned and t*cloan>cd at the principal bank, and at the lul- 
wardsville, Palmyra^ and HrownsvilJe branches, >ii^,ooo, of 



which 1109^15, have betn repaid, And 1105^84 remain \o ht piid 
during rke nnrt five y«ars; that their aggrrgare annual cipeme it 
l4fOoo, and the whole anumnr of eKpcn«« uiowrcd «ircr tbdr 
estiiUUhmcnT ia }4jrSao— excelling the jtinount of the profits 
accruing Oin the Icnuis hy i^ut {11,000; which, aXxxt dcJucctog 
the value of the bank buitdinf;^^, b the anuKini of lo«4 up to the 
prewnc time, exclusive of thai Arising from bad deht« and uifuffi- 
ciem ttecuriry, ut tlie pnndpal Umk, ami three uul of iti fuur 
branches. AulI .-tt thcpralicKonducauriu willtnfutute be Icn^cocd, 
P4 veil from 1J1C dimimiticn of the atnount koncd* a« from ihc 
odditionof intercut accumulated on ihcnotcs; and m the pixibaUe 
lo«f Irom bad debt* wtll be greater irt the Tcrmhation than in the 
early iTagntnfrhc iiiRtinitic-n, the l^td:inirc «)11 vrr rhc nrte^ty 
afrcirenctunif (hcexpctidiiurcf of the Bank* and of affording every 
facility of winding it up with ns litdc ultimaic 1os$ as pombk to 
the ^jtfltc. 

Titcfc had been issued by the Auditor, &nd w^rc OQtstAndinf 
ngainn the Treasury, nn the fini day of January last, f^fjAj-f^ 
uf woifuiiu; sJntc then ihc dcmandA ojj the Trcasuty have 
amounted ro S47» 096.1^, making the aggregate »uin of f9-i$59*Bj. 
To meet whkh, there were in the Treasury, on the ftrsr of January, 
^5,503, and have »inee been received ^jit^^so.? 3; *nd m tliecoune 
of thii month, there will be received from Sheriff^ for the taxe^ of 
tliit year, aliouc $7,500, and in the itcxt niuciih ^36^5^.71 fmm\ 
the sale of land^ now advcrtued for taxes— maktog the aggftgate 
njm of {91,180.83. Kfoim which it appearSt that if the laxe.ft 
(hould be realised from rhe lale of lancU, there wQl be in Janinry 
a balance againtiC the TreaiSitir}-, on account uf warrants heretorure 

The rate of taxation 13 nominally higher in Ufinois than in 
the neighborins states oind is oppressive to its citizens, and If 
oontirued will opcmte injuriously to the prospcritj- of the State- 
The depreciation of our currency has had the effect of greatly 
reducing the raxes; and hs the former rues in value, it ia proper 
that the latter should be lowered' To ahow that the taxes C4ir> 
and ought to be reduced, I will state that the annual rcvcfiue 
derived from a tax on land^ amounts to upwards of {45,000; 
whilst the average annual expenditure of the State, on the tup- 



podtion that there will be no extra lession of the Legiilatun^ will 
not exceed ifi^^ooo in tpecte; even should ic be deemed expedieac, 
which ir is not prr^umfvl ir will, ro cofitimie thr prc«enr utineccn- 
Mnly Ijirgc & cK|>cnsivc Judiciary. Without therefore t4king iniQ 
ihc catimarc the revenue accruing from ihc Salines and Vandalm 
lota, if the currcticy were at par, there might be n reduction in the 
present lYominal tnxcs of near lifcy per ccnt^ But considering its 
pmrni depreciation, and on the pr<e4uniption th^t nothing will be 
done to dc|)VC9A it, or increase the liability of t)ic Stjitc it>i the dcbt^ 
of the Bajik, and making due allowance for special jppfopriaiiont, 
»nd contingent expenses, I recr>mmend a reduction of twenty-five 
pfT cenL on the amount of the taxes; under the firm conviction 
that Uiree-fourthK of our present nominaJ revenue, will he amply 
tuiBcient to defray the ordinary etpenso uf the Guvernment, and 
kave an cxce:iA which wiU be annually incrcjuing aa well from the 
additional quantity of land subject to taxatxtn, as chc *pprccia- 
of the currency to be applied to the great and vital objcctl of 
'educar^in and tntcrnnl imprnvemcnisi. And under a fltrong «cnte 
uf irHpfopricrry and im|KYcancc rci the well iKringit/ihr Treaiuiry, I 
[he recommendation I made on a loxmcr occasion, that the 
Luditor should not be required to issue his warrants tor the state 
paper, buispccie value of the demands on the Trcaftur^-; and alfio, 
that the collectors of the revenue should be requincd to account 
fur and pay over the p^TtKidnr kind of monry which they may 
rccave. As t)ic ordera off warrants of many of the counties are at 
a much greater d:KOunt than state paper, this provision is more 
needed, and, if adcf>tcd, would prove more Lenelicial in the oollec- 
tk>n of county thsn of state revenue. 

The present mode of sellini; lands ar.nually for the default in 
the |iuyment nf taxe«, and the furfehure of them if nut redre^metl 
ia two years claims the serious coniidcration of the Legi$lattu'e> 
both as it respects the propriety and policy of the proceeding. 
Under the impresaion that the penalty i:( di^proporliunatc to the 
Tence, and that it dre« rot becftme a just and paternal govcrn- 
:nt to deprive its citizens of their lands for mj trifling ftnonii«»osi 
duty, nor a wise and provident one to jeopardise or disturb die 
title to a lar^c portion of the said estate of the community and to 
make so vast a hotbed of litigation; and believirg, as I do, that 



ihc cullcction ofihc Kvcnuc can be cnfixccd by pcnaltica less 
ruifiMit, to the defaulters aivI Ic^a pcrniciouB in Oictr consequences 
to the community, I conccux it my duty to invict the attention 
t4 the LegWbtvre to Ehie interesting subject, and to suas^^st for its 
conuderarion, either that Ji mucb logger j^eriod be allowed for the 
Tedeir]inon uf laml iold fur taxes, during whicJi lime (he uwncr* 
Ahoiild he rci^uired to pay a hi^b annual interest; or that lands 
thotild not be annually sold for the taxes, but that a penalty of a 
giran percent sbovild be Incurred for want of puncttiality in the 
paymrnt of ihem, ami an htgh annu^d intcrett charged on the 
amniini duCj which «brjiiTd aict n.i alien on rhe lan^ for a^^iccified 
number "f years, when tt shraild be w>M or Ibrfcircd to the St«tc; 
and a\\ ihe infcrtsi whitb sbmild thijs ae<r\ic above *omc XKf\ or 
fifteen per cent per annum, should be applied to the promotion of 

] lay before iht Ixgislanire a Report of the Superintrndcilt 
of the Gallftlii^ County Snlinc, made in pursuance of an act of like 
last session of the Cjencral Assembly; and renew the rccommcnda' 
lion, made tn rbAt sc&sion, that the mode of leading tlit- Saline be 
changed from a stipulated rent for a term of yearif to a specific 
duly on cacli bushel <'/ Salt manufacturrU. This change recom- 
mends iucif from its being leSiS hazanious to the manufacturex, 
and more Mfe and productive to the State. When the lota of the 
Salint^ are leased for a term of years at a fixed renl^ hoi^rcver 
vahiable ihey may prove, ehe state receives but the stipulated 
Slim, whfrn, on ihe fitlirr barTd^ the leases prove bad bargains, or 
the lr»s'\ee> b^ul manugcri, ibe rent is not paid, and the purt'ica 
petition, and Eencrally with «uecc», to be released frotn the pay- 
ment of the rent, olthoii^fh the lots under good managcnwnt, 
migl^t have yielded annu^dly a considemble quantity of tftli. 
Chir Btanires show^ that in the last four yean, the Srnrc has rrlrasrd 
and actually lost about $5,000: and in the accitmpanyin^ irpoirt 
is seen that of the rent accrued for the last three years, f ic\$zo 
Iwve been released on the condition of the Lessees mnkiniE certain 
improwemenis at the Saline, and it appears from the Auditor'a 
books that there is now due a considerable sum for rctir^ metal, Arc, 
If the manufacturers were required to pay in pnipurtioii to the 
amount of italt made, there would be to them no accumulation of 



<lct>t, nor risk of bcinft niincd. nor to the State ofcntirc loss of the 
rent, or occaaon for relief acr*, but a just proporcion of iW ralue 
of whjicvrr wlr was macjc woultl llow promptly and rcgulvly 
uitu Uic Sutc Tfcasuf} . 

In fulfillment of iKc duly impoacd hy the Lcdjslaturc, ikc 
Executive has endeavored co asccruin the terma on ^hich a loan 
could be procured hy tlie State, for the purpoac of construetiAg a 
Canal from Lake Michigan to the Illinois River. Buf owing to 
the giciit fluciualion atuI dcprnniun of tfic rnujicx iii;Lrkcc, auitl the 
uncertainty of ltd situation during the next year, capicalLHtn were 
reluctant to commit thcm!(elve» as to any spcaftc tcrmt on which 
they wxiuM he willing to make a lo«n at «>o remote a period. Fraoi 
the be« information, however^ which h» been received, ic is 
CDnftdctitly hcUcvai, ihar tf Congrmx Nlumld make a lilirral grant 
of land, there will be no difficulty on the part of the State, in 
obtaining a Ic^an Rt 5Jx per cent, per annum. Considcrinvt the 
favourable manner in which our applicatipn fcr a grant of land 
was received t>y Congrew, at its Ia« ^esuon, would it not he v/'isc 
in ihc I^(;iularurr, rn fliiopr at ii*i pirsent neMJtrn, prrjuirnmry 
mcafiurc^ to commence rhi^ifrcaT workot rmprovcnncnt, predicated 
on a liberal ^rant of land bcintc nude by Congress previous to the 
meeting of the next General Assembly- 

By a statcmcni f^iroislicd by the CommiMioner of rhc General 
l.and Office it appears, that there havi^ accrued lo fhis State for 
the use of Schools Ji4.j16.1c, from dircc per cent, on the ncti 
proceeds on the aalc oi pLibbc Lantis within it. from January i, 
1819, to June JO, i8a6. Of this ium?i],657.1J8 have been received 
by the State, and the CommUaioners of the School Fund have, 
with Jio,fi77.3l*of it, pufchjfted $a9,ijj.5oofAuditnr'i Warrants, 
I recommend thai the amc^uni of these Warranto he maiie produc- 
tive, by being voted in ilic nocea of the State Bank, which bear an 

Of the chirty-six itccttom! of Und granted to thii State, by 
CongreaK, for the use of a Seminary uf h^arning, I have, under the 
authority of the President of the United States, had tweniy-aix 
selected and reserved from sale. Entertaining doubt? of the 
propriety of ^ckctins some of the sections dwignated hy rhe Com- 
missioneri iepuied for that purpose^ and as they were cituatcd ia a 



citttricr of country not yec brought into ouikct^ it h» been thmight 
bc» for titc interest of tllc Sutc, thit iIk rcrnAUiiai ten vcctioni 
<jf ScminifT- Und slwiuld not be dcfirntivdf 4Ctcd on, but furtlKT 
tinie illoved to obtain more certvn mfemution, ftnd* H pocsiblc, 
to makr better srirotions. 

My cnfutiEuttofvil tcnO of aervvx bctng about to nqiirc, I 
AVtil myxlf of this occasion Agmio to make tny acksovlcdftmcnci 
to my fellow-citieertt for the honorable coniuSencc they have 
rcpoved m me; and to assure tf>em that if 1 have not (liftchai^ 
to their at ti«fact>on all the duties of the nation aligned me, it hn 
arwn from no want nfdbpciHnont or of anxious ami inikfadgali)? 
efforts on my part to promolc their inicrcst, and adrancc the 
provperity of the State- llic fbcal cmbomusnunts occMoned liy 
the Bank, and the agitation of an unfortunate question, vhich 
distracted the councils^ and disturbed the harmony and social 
order of [he community, have added to the duties and increaiird 
the difficulties m the adini nitration of the Goternmcnt. But 
having now in a great debtee gotten rid of the til dfccts of thcM, 
and other injudicioua measures, I retire from it, with the pleasing 
rejection, that, if profiting by experience, a wise and prudent 
course thoutd be pursued, we htvr every reason to anticipiate m 
rapid increaM of the population and resources of the State» and 
of the prosperity and hnppinesa of its dtizcns* 

Edvaud Coles, 
Extcimvic DtPAaTumrr, 1 
December 5, i8a6- J 

Coles to Eady, [>ecembcr 9, 1826 
(UJr MS3*I 

Vakoaua Dec: 9. i8a6 

From what you told me when I had last the pleaaurc of seeing 
you, 1 had hoped to have seen you here before tht!^^ prepared to 
go to the Kaftward. 1 o.n) terry to hear from JudRC Brown that 
rou have gilvjcn over ycHjr contemplated tour. I expect to Kt 
out Aome time nevt week, snd should have been aiMch grari&ed 
to have h*d your company- 



I believed 1 hftvc paid for the IJh Gsscttc up ro abotit this 
time, and lu I ahfli) be absent from heme forfoar or live monthd* 
I wish rhe piper not sent to mc again unni you hear from mC) in 
ether words 1 wi^h ir disconrinucd for the prcwnt. 

Wirh t^tai rapcct & cstixtii yuan 

Cdwaiu> CoLsa 
\Ad^H€^:\ Henry Edd^ Esq; Sh»wRcciowii 
\Ef^tjrsc4:\ Gov, QoXts 9 Dec. 1826. 

CoLKA TO TrtouAi Stoo Jfc.j Fcl>fU4ry 15, 1817 

md PAiktopHctl SwieTy if mh. ^^ ^Q. t- i^] 

My tkar Sir: 

Owiiig tc ni> Itavi^ig Ucii dcutincd in Vl^^inia^ l>y the busi- 
ness inhich ciK>k me there, 1 did not rcadi this until the $th insitnt, 
when I hoci the pleasure to receive your tetter of 3th itU|imo| 
previoua to which however your fathers letter to the Comlmis- 
Koner) of the Gen[era)! Land Office had been delivered by Mr. 
Kjiiic. I immcdialely wait^l on rhc Gimlmi-vKinntfr] rea*! with 
him your Fathers lericr, And made lo h)m» and afterwards to ch« 
Scc[rerAr>'| of the Treasury, and hi* chief clerk, alj the explana- 
tions ncce^f;ary to a thorough understanding of the subject; and 
^m what passed \ think ihcre will he no hesitation, when the 
Hjhjccr of compensation fnr clerk hire is paraed upon hy ih^ 
5u(rccar|y> to allow your Father the Hmouni claimed by him vi£: 
as much as ia allowed to any other Kegbtcr in whose office the 
£ajne jimIoun]t of labour was performed- There are several other 
Land OfScers who arc in the same situation; unable to produce 
vouchers from the death or removal of the clerks employed. 
There will u( course be or;c unifunn rule catJibliahcd, and from 
what I can ^thcr from the Sccrctarys conversation it will be a 
bbcral one. I have explained to htm in detail the amount of 
labour done by ytMt Brothers, and tvtrv thing sn relation to your 
Fathers ca*e; and alao of the haTduhlp!* of other cane^i, especially 
of ffiat of Mr Humphnezi of Ka;(ka.%kia, "nho employed no clerk, 
but performed all the labour himself. 1 have Adduced other 


cases, and by various illustrations endeavoured to show that 
sheer justice required that clerk hire should not be allowed by the 
vouchers only, but other considerations, all of which I expliun to 
him, should be taken into the estimate; and gave it as my opinion 
that the most just and equitable mode would be by an exact 
appointment of clerk hire to the labour performed; whether per- 
formed by the principal, by his children, or by hired clerks. Vouch- 
ers have not yet been rec[eive]d from the different Land Officers, 
they are however coming in from time to time. But such is 
the press of business at thb time, that if the vouchers were all 
in, the Sec[retaryl would not have time to attend to it until after the 
adjournment of Congress, 

Before my arrival here the Sec[retaryl of War had appointed 
young Menard, on the recommendation of Cook, as the Indian 
Agent at Peoria; and also had filled the vacancy at Chicago, of 
the existence of which I was unappraised until my arrival here, 
by the app|ointmenlt of some one from Virginia. I spoke very 
freely in disapprobation of this last app[ointmenJt to the Sec- 
retary, told him it was disrespectful to the State, and unjust to 
its citizens, that we did not claim as a right to share in the loaves 
and fishesj but that we did to the crumbs which fell from the 
public board on our soil. But it was then too late to reconsider, 
the app[ointmen]t had been made. I cannot but think if \ had 
been here I could have prevented it, and if 1 could not have 
gotten it for a friend, T could at least have had it confered on a 
citizen of the State* 

I find prevailing here an extraordinary degree of excitement 
among the active politicians. Men who were heretofore of the 
same party are now separated; and as to the boundaries of party 
are not well defined, there is a good deal of jostling and irritation* 
Each one makes himself the standard, and charges upon the 
other a dereliction of principle or a desertion of friends. From 
the language of the late supporters of our friend Crawford, among 
whom were the purest Republicans of the country, you would 
suppose this the age oi evil alternatives \ forthey neither like Adams 
or Jackson, and arc driven, they say, to a choice of evils; and arc 
unfortunately divided in opinion as to the greatest evil. I waa 
much gratiiied two nights since, in explaining our Illinois politics^ 



and the CAU»c» which led to Kdwsrds election, and apc^tking of 
you M a good CntwfordJic. who, like myMri/, had prcficrcid to 
all other men at the last dccdort, and were uncommitted as to 
whom wc should support at the next^ willing to wait events and 
ai the pmpcr time to sdctt the brst man. T*r> or three of ilic 
Crawforditcs present. Kiniultancoual)' exclaimed that they [torn 
off| concurred with us, and that it wan the proper cour&e for all 
tc pursue- 1 have many old friends on hoth M^e$ of the question^ 
both for and ag[ainfilt the Adm{imitratia|n, and have a good 
opponunit)' of hearing much on IkiiK %\<\vt. When we mccr I 
>hal1 be ahlc !w umuw you with mnnir anccdoTcs, both a» to men 
iDd TO things. 

I shall leave this in about one week for Phi[Udclphi|a, and 
shall return through this place to Virginia in March* and from 
ihence shall renirn in Illinois in April or May. T cannot say 
cuacrly when I shall l>c hack, as the husinciw connecte^l with my 
late Mother* estate has not ycc been settled; but J have reason 
lo believe it will he in April. As soon u thie h done I shall sec 
out for the West- I am ver}" anxious to hear the result of my 
suit before the Supreme Court, and what the Legislature hat 
done, and how things are guing on in Illinois. Our la.Ht ncw»- 
pai>cr date wis January ao. 

1 caught u vcr>- had ct^ld on my way here, and have anil 
tiilj suffer very much with it- I haw not been » sick however 
but that 1 have been able ro dine out fvny Asy in large parties 
and gcine every cvcnitig bui one tu an evening jjarty. Thrt y*>u 
will »y is rather too dtAsiparcd for a quiet fire side Western 
man. I own it. But 1 have many vdued friend-t here, where 1 
reaidedm of the happiest yean; of my Hfe, ha%'e not enjoyed their 
society for Kcven yearv^ and shall not remain among chem but 2 or 
J weckii. I'hiiL will tx^iw^ tnc even with you whr> are a more 
quiet fire side man than my5clf- Gen[erali and Mrs. piiidlay 1 
see often, they ore both well. 

My rcepeccJiil compliment* to Mrs. SJoo nnd your Father 
and accept for yourself the n^Aurance? of my great retpcct and 
sincere regard. 


CoLZi TO PitKKr.rr, July 8, J$38 

|Quc«iiu HWcumxl 5<KiciTf ALjCd^iaFh Lsllcnit 4j; ty-fO) 

AlBCMAJtL& CovxTV ViKctNiA, July 8 iSjB 

Your kitcr of June t$, directed to PKiUdelphu, wa for* 
«4rded from ihcncc and rtccivt^ by mt yesterday, I Am grttifii 
by tiK rtoxkc pivcn you by Mc«'' I'umance & Scyoold, u 1 •m^ 
& hive long been inxioui tn rccdve rhc SLmounte^iic mc. 1 decirc 
yoii will employ crmmjitfl, xnd tnke nil ihe prefer steps to krcclt 
ihcir iTiomgAgc, hnvc ihc priipcxty sold under ic, & if ir should noi 
mU For a sum auftciczic to pay the Amount of principal 5c inicrcst 
due mc, to Cftll upon And tna'kc the poicics pfty the dciicicni 
under their noie- In short I want to collect tKc amount due 
soon AS T can under rhcJr mortgc^f & nore. The amouDts 
rtofore paid on (his note were paul on account of interest-^ 
ihcrcfore the full sum Loaned remains due, logctlicr with' 
interest with the exception of the Aonall amount vhjch has been 
paid en account of interest. 

1 do nci mth you to remit me the amount ivhidi m>y be 
received^ but to depfwir it in rhr Bank at Affon to my eredTtj & 
notify mc of it »x soon ta you Juvc done so— kiting mc know the 
txact amount deposited. If you should not be abk to make the 
vrholc5umof pnncipal and IntercAt out of thf morit^aged propertfi 
deposit what you may receive in the Bank, & let mc know w] 
I may expect to rrcrivc the balanrr. 

\ hfti^e been here but a few days — shall rcm-iin bcrc till S< 
tcmbcr, when 1 ihail return to Philadelphia. My health has nol 
been good for the last month— I hope however the mountain air 
of this place will Boon restore me- Tell Robert & Kate thei] 
friends art all vrell here. 1 vrire you this In hasre ro aend it b] 
a gentleman who is going tv Charlottesville — The Poat-Office of 
this place in Garlands store, 

I congratulate you on your appointment as Receiver & am 
in great haste your very 

^ficere friend 

Edwaro CoL£a 
To Uaac PaiCKErr E*<j: 


Coua TO PucKtTTi Miy lo, 1839 
|Cli[c*BiD Hitlorfnl SoclfVy. Aalograph Lfet«nt 4$t ji| 

S^ Lous M«r 10 iB^ 
Dear Sir: 

It fi«ffns Mr Lask & inywlf were equity unfortunate m our 
dforts ro sec each olhex while he was over here- I do no( know 
tb^t it was InipoTUnt ihat wc shouM, except Uuii I wa» a^rLxious 
to ace Sc pay him for bringing my Box &c Trunk from your cown 
CO this. Having left chii before J saw him, 1 have to a&k the favor 
of you CO pay him for brinj^ing chem> & to ehaigc rac wicih ic— 
letlingit comcouc of fhc f loo left in yourhanda (o piy myTaxtt 

I am sorry as to wli^t (nukcI between Robert & myself, as Co 
the amotini paid sent by Jesse On receiving your letler by Mr, 
Lutk, I turned to ii little mem*" of our a/c made out from your 
letten,d£ found 11 wnh at yr^j nnted ic, & that all waa right. 

I have not icen or hawd any thing fmm Dr. Hdwardx & Mr- 
WJaoFi- 1 hope the Doctor has not fixed upon the time of holding 
the Court in Edwaidsvitk for chc payment of the Note, to prevent 
suing out prc<«s a^amxt him & Wilson until after the next term 
of ihc CoiJn — hut *-irh the liorir [jwlfide intrntior; of then pnying 
me. Time will ^w. 

1 hope lo leave thiA plact this afternoon or tomorrow mornittg 
for PhiUdetphJa 

I am with great respect your friend 

Eo: Coles 

CoLCS TO PftiGKFTT) November 5, i8;j9 
(CbkafoHubonejJSodMy.Anceflnipli Lcnm^ 45: ss^sH 

PkILADELHIIA Nov; 5. 1839 


Your conduct while here in July Us; not only surpriaed me^ 
but gave mc jmi cause to find fault with you. Having lived ao 
long aa netghbuTS & friends 1 had a tight Co expect yi>u would 
have given me opportunities of seeing much of you during your 
sojourn in the City. So for from it you never came near me but 



cocc^ tnd iZui WIS on Sunder momirif dunof Ckorcli 
vbca you K^d i rifEht to opcct mc At Cburdi« wiicnr I 
Thoueh my duld ra ill ^ad suftmt yttf ondi, I cdkd to 
]rou at th« Hotel vlinotr cvrry iIat wb^ jou rettuMd* «rii 
bjivine Kul t!tr good fertune to «c« jjm. At kngth 1 nnr t^ 
jou my torprnc «l>cn the Bariieriicr tnld eqc yiau lud fcA 
Gt7, U tr pottvUc, I ctclaimcdt he hu left the City wii 
lec^og me >ce him? ReoUf I did oof liunk you «nUd lure 
Cnaced me si titb way. I thought not only your attsdiBient to 
me, but yaar runoaity to «ee my VVtJe & children »oaM Kjire 
indQcrd you m have taken much painsi to have jven la. Well it n 
■ud iKii 11 rhc way of the wt>rld. And wc dtonU learn to bevi| 
without tco much mortiiication. But iadepeftdcnt of ihetc 
fidcTAcions, fit my desire to h^ve veen hi entcnuned you it 
Hook, 1 was enxiouF to hnve seen you ahout vhac I am 
going to irriic youn Vou will rcroTlcci when I was m Fd^ 
vifle in Miy Lut, D* Ldwa/ds proinucd mc he would pay up all 
he & M' WilAon were dtxr mc at Aucusc Court, i bo|>c hchts 
done ao. But if he has not, & h* iSiU nf^^ttU t» jMy thf intfrfjt 
due on ihf note, 1 desire you vr\\\ place the noie in the huda of 
some fpuX & trusty lawyer in time to Imtiture mil before die 
iKKt Icrm of the Court m your Courty. I beg you wiU bear chn 
in mind & not let another term of the Court pASs before suioj 
him. if however he should pay up all the Intenut due you m^y 
fp\t him funher time to pay the priccipjtl — provided >-ou think 
hiriher dtlay wUI not endxnger the <lebt. 

I winh you aUci to presit the GiUham» for payment, and if 
ihey »houM ncukct to pay Interest, >uc them ftl»o>. They owe 
me tro small n sum for me to dcnre it to remun at intereat — 1 
ihcrefofc i«iKh you to urge them to pay m« fl« soon a« po«stble. 

Ycu kiww I h^vt wriitcn co Mew" Nfoort, Mnrron & O To 
draw on you not only for my Taxes for iPjS but alwi for 1839.— 
They will pay aJI my Taxes for the State. CcAinty, road &c on 
my Militiry Bounty Lands— of course you will have no Taxes to 
pay for mc this year ac V^andsliji. You know [ count on y< 
payingjmy Taxes in Madison CjTunty — that is on my farm nej 
Edwardsvillc, contaimng 474 acres, lind two Lota in your town, 



all of which T Inred with the u^w-Asur fur tavHtion when I wu in 
EdwanKvillc in May \usU 

1 am happy to tell you» my hctic Boy, who was so afllklcd 
wh«n you were herct ^ ^^^ Y^^ canxi «o liidc abouc tccintc^ has 
gotten entirely well — and to add th;it wc arc all now in ^ood 
kcfllih- MeniiDn thi« to Roh^ & Kate when yoxi see them, & 
wlicn you wrilc let nw know hiiw tlicy irc> Prtscrt me kindly 
to your Wife nnti Nephew Ami to M' & M" Uiik— M' U M" 
Thoflipsofi— M^ & M** Aiwarcr & all my old fncntis near you 
antS believe me to be truly and sincerely your Iriend 

BiJWj4 Rn Cot EC 

C0LE5T0 PlUCKETT, June li, 184O 
lOiitiitfct HixuHcai Socinj, Autopfl|j|i IxEtcn, 4(1 61 -^jl 

PuiLAC^ELPltlA June 12 I84O 
OicAa Sir: 

1 cannot express my a^tonishmetil on die receipt of your 
Ictterof thc3o"'ofMay K»lcam the scare of the debt from Witson 
Be r.Uwardd to me— that the sttuntiun of rhc latter should have 
hcen 00 dcfperaEc an to hstvc confessed judgement for thoucands, 
& mnde nn assignment of his proper:}' to hi* Brorhfr & others to 
settle h'i« business in M;jrch last. Hi ihat there should have hecn 
Aochinij known uf all this at Edward^vilk until it woa too Ute to 
do any thing for mc but above all that the morteAee I hold on 
Wilaoi^a property i^ worth nothii^g) U seema to me there must 
be some mistake rn this, :ts the incney was loaned for me £^ the 
inortgag^ taken by Alex: Miller, who br^ng nut, only one of the 
most buuneii but otic of tJie inoit vttEilant & cautious men I ever 
knew, seetns almoti impuaaible ihat he should have taken a Mort- 
gage horn Wilson on property which did not legally belong to 
bim. You ftay I should have gained nothing by >'our complytog 
iWith my rrciiirsir ro insEinire suil ^ them before the laxr term of 
the Court. Perhaps fioi — nor am [ prepared to say what 1 s^hould 
have gjiincd by the prc^trcss which would have been mjide in 
obtaining a juditcmentt nor what advantage a speedy judgement 
would nfiW he ol to me — 'Iliew arc queitions with which I wi(h 
you to make yourself actjuaintM— & if nccrssarj- to obtain \cfft\ 



advKt— *«o ftj> 10 pursue Thm mirsCf undct emting circumtnincrSr 
whkh will tc best calculatcil (o secure mc all, orst much ait possi- 
ble of vhat b due me fram Wboit 6c E{<lward». 1 beg you vrilL 
give yoiar iinincdittc attention to the Mibject, U do all m your 
power to f^cover as nnicb as pocnble of the amount due me. 
And as a stimulous to your prompt & acdvc exertion, & in the 
candur nf an <iht frirml, 1 will Kiy ta ytxj, you have nof Iieen aai 
attentive to my mstriKtions as to this debt ai you ovgbt. Time 
after tinw, & for years past, 1 hnvc written yoti if you thoviftKc 
the debt in danger^ or if they omitted to pay the interctt on their 
debt regularly to sue them hi make them pny up the whole imounc 
due mc. As f*r back n$ Jtily •!. iRj6 ! wn>tc you — "if rfiey 
(\V. & £.) refuse or Reflect to p^y the Interest ihcn due I desire 
you CO place the note & mort^^ in the hands of aomc Lavryer in 
time to have it acted on at the n^i meetii^g of the Court in Madi- 
80B County/' On Oct: jo. tS^S 1 vrocc again ^ used almott the 
same rnf hatk languAgc 1 had used in July t8j^, — If Wil»o« has 
DO Icgil title CO the Hou3c, he prubaL'ty owns the fuinitu/c and 
«thcr property^ which should be Kcurcd if possible to mc The 
propcrcy too which FdunrdB has aangncd for the payment of his 
debts, will 1 fxke it lor granted be dispoaed of for the benefit of 
a3l those to whom htr is in debt, Tlie question ts what steps 
ihould be taken to recnver my debt sgainst WiUnn & Edwards — ■ 
to get podsasiOD of any means the former may hive, & my just 
proportion of the property as^gned by ehe latter for the payment of 
hb debet. Aa to relying on what may be effected by "^caxiMg^" 
wliich you seem inclined to, 1 thtrtk wc^ have ro encouragement to 
pursue further tbat aystcm — which ha« in my oirinion been 
earricd too far already — & must be totally unavailing to ihoac to 
whom Edwarda' property has been auiencd— they will pay only 
legal cEaims prci^cnrcd in a legal form- The time ifl now oome for 
the payment or settlement of the debt, & I wieh you to take legal 
advice aa to what steps should hat be taken lo eflfecc it. If 
Wilson hA3 little or nothing to pay with, & 1 have to rely on 
Edvards property which has been assigned to the payment of his 
debts, it should not be suifered to be sacrificed under the auction- 
eers hammer— hut a portion of it purchased in so as to save my 
debt — I desire you therefiire ict consider yourself autiiori;ied by 



mc thus Co purchiM in [he property, so u to save the debt — if 
moKfj ttiHmt ^ ckdincd in payimnt ^ it. 

Your Icticf of March 12. was d»Jf rcc':— I regret jqm did 
AOt jpvc mc s M\ fiCaicnw^nt of our account — showing u well 
what you h«d pnid out a^ wh^t you had rrc'; Moore Morton & 
Cti write just as you did. ilui ihry had paid my Tancs for 1839 
irithoui sayiEki; how mtjch they had paid, or whether they had 
drawn Ort you or not. Ih*: 5T44.1 l rcportotl in your letter of 
March \2 a» having rec*:, together with the? 100 left in your hands 
in May itJV-p & ih« >i3o the am': of Interest due on the Luilc 
note on the V" of Miiy <la«t jnonth) would togtiher make in 
your hands $^64 lyi — Kow if I knew i\\t ain^ youSc Mixjre Acc 
had paid for Taxc» &c I tht^uld know ihc am^ you had left. 
I am the more anxiouit tn know if my Taxea have Lecn mcrea»d 
or diminished by the late Tax Law. I with you would ciOI on 
th^ Gillham« for payment, & If they rcfuac or omit tn do so — to 
auc them. Agreeably to your request I annex a no:c to the Mew" 
i.usk, which you will please dchvcr 10 them* Wc arc ail pretty 

well. I desire lo be remembered (o your Wife, friend Thompaan — 
& to Robert & Kate — I am vcr>' truly your friend 

Edwaro Co lks 

To IiAAC FatCKETf Esq: 
■^ pKiUOttPHiAfe Tunc II. 1840 

Your ncite rn me for fiooOv, with Incerevt for one year* bc> 
came due on the 4'^ day of May last, I have rec*: a letter from 
Mr Prickett, dated the .jo"' of that month, in which nothing ia 
ftaid about the payment of the note or the Interest due on it- Aa 

e mfircy wap loaned for bu: one year, with a very evplictt & 
dwelt on declararion that you would be pjiierual lo a dfty in :hc 
payment of the Iiiicresc, & not having dune »o, or faid any thing 
about continuing the loan, and having rcc^ an intimation of ■ 
ire to have ihe note p*id by one of the parties to it — it become* 

y dury to call on you for the payment of the note, & 10 detlre 
you to pay the money into the handt of my friend and Agent 
M'- Isaac Prickeit, With my best wrshca fcr your health and 
happiness I am your sincere fncnd 

EoWAftO COLftt 

To A. J. U-»K&Co— J. T, LusK^ Isaac Paicitrrr Esqs 



CoiBS TO PutcKrrr, September 4, iffO 
|Qk««goHiaBcncalSMttrrvAueop"pli teiccnp45:if-^ 

FALiiuieRSpiuNO& ViftGiMA Se^pmber 4. t&fo 
DtAR Sir; 

Your kttcr cif Avi^: IL, ciirccCed to me to Phtladdphia, hat 
bwn forwiirdcd and tec^i by me hen-- 1 hunter to ackxiuwiedge 
it,& to say ! expect to be luck in PhitmJeJphtfl the firtt — certsunlf 
dtirin]^ ibf first wr^k in October — wben 1 »liall be ir want of money, 
ar>il muKl ask tht^ faviir of you toncnj mc all the tmmty yuu may 
hAvf in hjintl of mine — after paying my Madison County Taxc* 
§at ih'u jiw;^^tvKtch I sec from the ^atcmcnt of receipts & dU- 
burxementu contstined in your letter of Au^7 li had not bc«it 
then jiHtd. The Rank giot^k whuh 1 fjwn having given me no 
Dividend lc>r the last it months, mukcs it the more ncce^ary fori 
me to receive the balance which may rcm-iin in your hands. I 
vmh you to«cnd it tome n«ftOon lu you can after the M' of Oct: — 
fto that IT shall not reach Phil* fill after 1 get there — if by a Draft 
ro he mndr payable to my order — lo be sent by the mail, or by a 
friaid as ytni may have wii opjMjriumiy or may prefer. My 
fticjul & A^tnt Col; John OFaiUon cf St. Louis aendi me nioney 
occasionally by miul which hiu always come saJe, and at miKh 
leu diKOunt than 1 could obtain a Draft in Philadelphia or St. 
Louis. — Dont forget to pay my Madiion County Taxes— on my 
Farm & Kdw*'"' lj»ts fnr 1840. 

Vou would confer a Favor if when you next wrote you ivould 
inform mc by what riijht or title Wilson held & occupied the 
House which >-ou »ny he mortgaged to mc in Ap: i8,U? ^'^t which 
Greathcniic Derded to Edwards in Feb: 1837. t am as ture From 
tny knnwieflgr nf \\cx\ Miller, thai hr had rvidcn**c lirfoft he 
took the mortgage ihaL the Hook belonged to Wilson^ a5 I am 
that both WilKin Ec Edwards always spoke to me of the Houk 
being ihc property of VVtlson, J shoiild ftlw> like to know what 
consideration Edwards paid for the l-lou«e— what led him to buy 
it— or rather have (he Dwd made to him — & whether Grcathouse 
did itot fuse make a Deed to WiboM^^rjjive himhbobligatlonlo 
make a Deed & whether the Deed to Wilaon, or the obligation 
to Wilson, was not destroyed, & the title instead of passing to 
Wiliton was passed to Edwards, in order to avoid iny mortgage. 



or secure Edwirds in hts Uabllirj^ for Wi]«ans tc hU deUc to me — 
In ,1 word f vhniild likr lu linv« iKis myvrcHciUE biHincM cxpUined. 
There m;ty be some thih|t^ not tif record which, if knowih voukt 
viti«rc what arc oi record, & which ycu «cem lo rhinlc wxt con- 
clusive bccnu^ they arc of record- 
Art yoLt not misuken in daccft where you %xf iit your Uat 
letter ihac I "on the 7^ July i8j6 rc(|ue«ied thit »iii iliouM be 
comrficriiicJ, & upmi the 26''* of thai ntooth I {yoa> liauJni the 
IMipcra to <JiUi3j>ic ljfV| & Cowlca who commenced suit on thai 
day, & at the next Aug": term found thut your (my) mortgaigc 
nrjia in the Mtuation as tured above, & made ^ motit>n co wiib- 
driiw the suit, which was ^r;tn(«?d, ihe 10*1 uf thjit auic & I^wyerri 
fees 1 (yau) have puid myrelfauc of my oivfi fundN." Now it ift 
true I wrote & requested yoa to Kue WIIhou & Edward^^ on the 
2M of July i8.;^i but you certainly mtut be mKitakcn when you 
tfy, on the 16^^ of that mrjnrh (July iSj6) that suit wjut com- 
menced, & dt the i«xt Aug? term {viz Aug: 1S36J the suit was 
withdrawn, in amsequtnu 0/ having dUcQVerrJ tht^t Grraffiouj^ htki 
wa,/f If Deeti "on tftc ftt AVi; iSjf lo lutward& — when the Deed 
to Edwards wis itot made till sU months ^ter tht sitting 0/ ihe 
C&tiri. 1 must aim Bay it \MS, ia^\ extraordinary chat I should 
m^ver have heard of this Deed Irom Greaiho<kSe to L^ward4, 
made In Feb: 1837^ tifl June [S40— thou^t I hiul nor unly rec** 
many letters from you, bul had spent »omc daya at Edwardsvillc 
in May 1839. in company with you, WiJaon, Edwards £^c &c. 
With respect to any cost you may have been at In suing \ViUon 
& Edwards, I mu«t insist on its coming out of my funds in your 
hands^ & not out of your fumU- I d«ire rlierefort; you will take 
this co*l out of the funds now in ygur hand^ of mine. 

The Gilthams must pay the sum they have been so long due 
me — if ihey refuse, they must be forced. 

I (ihall leave this in a few day* to make a vttit to my relations 
in Albemarle County— my I^amlly have been well this summer. 
i am sorry to hear thai yoM & yours have nni been — I hope this 
will find you all well— as well aa Robert ^ Kate Ecc 

With my kind recoUcciions to you & yours if also to Robcri 
& Kate— A: hoping you will be able to send me, so that I may be 



Mc to receive it during cfie 6r&t week in Oct:, tbc b4ljiticc in your 
llHfidv, I irn vcrj' truly your sincere friend 

Edwailp Colcs 

COLCA TO PWCWTT, NovCHltlCr 4. 184I 
[Qmjvo HvccncU Scdeir. AnigfrafiA IfCtcn, 4>^ ^7c) 

Philaosuwu Nov; 4. 11141 


I wrote Tou on tKe 21'* of May, »^nce then I hare not he;u\l 
from j^oti, csiccpf 4 abort pcaucripr co Mr Martim letter nf June 
« from yojr Nephew Ctcor^ ia which he informed me ymi wcfc 
th<n too unwell to write. 1 noaw^red Mr. MLiniiii letter Jijly is, 
under cov«r to you, with the view that you should ice it-*and 
jiltho' T urged htm to give his immediate atteniion to the subject, 
It Is now nezr/our m^Tsfhi and no letter or won) have I ree': from 
Mr. Martin or yourxlf- [n a ktter junt rec^ : Irom Robert Crtvi- 
fonj, he inform-i me you had told him you had written me^ & you 
presumed I haU rec^r your letter by that time (October a^*) 
ihm mnken me fear your & Mr. Martin 'c Ictrcrt may have mis- 
carried, & I am ihe more aniious alwui it> as I think it piobable 
you »aii mc money in ycur letter^ aa 1 de»retl you to do ao In my 
letter of May 11.- & what mnkes me the mere anxioua b several 
suAii have recently been purloined from the Po«t office which 
were sent to this City, 

1 hope- Mr. Martin has read my letter carefully, an<l Irom 
that & Dthet sources made himaclf accurately a«iuaintcd with all 
the facts of the ca»e. ^ that he hoa not been » neglectful of my 
interest as he appears to have been. 1 hope 0000 tu hear the 
matter hnj been satiafactorily adjusted — And that you u-UI let 
me kmiw nil about the pn>peny incluilcd m my m<icT|taf{« — che 
size of the IIuusc & \x>i — what state of preservation ihey arc 
in — & what ihey are worth ^ could be obtained for them IT now 

1 presume from what you wrote me that the Mess" Luftk 
paid the amfwinr nf IntrrcsT tine mc in May, & rfiat the CMlhams 
have at last paid the amoynt of fhcir note- After paying my 
Taxcs in Madi»on County, and Moore, Mortons & Co draft fci 



the amount of Taxes paij by thcni— or rctainmg nboiitunoit^ 
for th«t; purposed — I wUh you would lend me the iimouTit rou 
may have collected for mc, u I am in want of money^ Send in« 
also the Madisnn Tax Receipt for iht* ycai. 

My hcAlih. whicJi \\xf. noc \kkj\ %oQd this summer, in now 
gDod^whicb is the CA5C with my Faintly. I hope you have 
resamcid yours, & that you U yours arc ^^xJl & well ro do, U may 
long live in the enjoyment of health &: happiness, prays your 
sincere friend 

Eo: CoLCS 

[ wish you to sty to my old friend Mr, Barnci. if I ever 
authorized him to cut JU use fallen timber oii my place near hinii 
1 rec^l the p^mission, as timber is scarce, & all the fiUea or 
decayed, as i*«ll as the standing ^ growing, i* w-jnc^i for the ufte 
uf tlic ^Ucc. I dciirc yuu also lo mtiuiiJii this lu Ruben Craw- 
ford, aft he has the place Zi timber In his special care & keeping. 

Say also ti> Robert that his letter iu»t received docs not 
at^twer mine, nor give the infi^rmutiun 1 applied to him fur. The 
gentleman in whose behalf I wrote to Kitn wanted Robert to refM- 
to (he partlctilar texts In the BiMe which Robert once relrrrei! 
me ca 

Coics to PwcKCTT, September a, 184I 

iChkaso Hirtwial Sgmty, AutG9^i>h Utttn, 4J! TJ-7*I 

ScHOOLurs MotriTAiM New JcKser September 1, 18142 
My DcAiiSiit: 

My heatth being such as to require the uae of Saratoga water, 
I left my Kamily here and went on to the Spnngs, from whence 
I returned yesterday, and fpund ynur letter of the 11'^ of August, 
which you directed co me to Phil^clphia, & wi> froni thence 
forwarded to this place. I hasten to express my rcjcre: that you 
should so long Ftave n^lecred Co attend to the request contained 
in my letter of FVc: :[0, in which ! enclosed you a letter to the 
Mr^V l^i^k, calling on thrm to pay me, & stating 10 you, if they 
would not pay ntc* & it should become necessary tu sue ihcnu 8c 
CO have their Note, 1 would send it to you on your writing me that 
it vras necessary co have it in EJwardsville. — I regret this dcby 



Lol in Kdwardivillc, I hope you ha^x h*d ihcm KcctK-dcd^f 
not do sc promptly 

Gtw my cofnplimcnts to your Wife & other fricndi, not for- 
iglctTirt^ my nld fnn^d Uisk^dc ^tl h!m from mc to pay mc Af not 
forrc mt tn sue nn o\d friend. 

Remember mc alao to Robert & Kaic & believe mc to be very 
truly & sincerely your friend & wcU wi&hcr 

£dwau> Coi*es 
[£iw/rtrj/i/] Answered at Length Nov i6^* 1(43 

COLKN TO GlLLCANE, NovcmbcT IJ, l943 
[ChiCiiKo liUlonut SocJCCF. Autoftriph Ultcra, U: Ii9-I39f 

pKiLADCLPiriA Nov: 1;. 1841 
Dka> Sis: 

Fjicltnni 1 send yntJ a Note of A. J. I^isk — ^J. T. Ij4»k & 
(Ajic Pnckert for one thousand dolUr«« mftdc payable May 4. 
I4C, and on whtch Interest hns been paid to May 4. 1841. M' 
■ictetT one of the partie* tc the Note, hui who became so as a 
ncnd ^ surety of ihr Mess'* !.ink, fin« written to me to »ay he 
IS no longer willing 10 continue liable for this debt, & is desiiouv 
that I shotiid coerce payment. 1 requeue you will immediately 
eall on M' Priekeit* & let him know you have received this Note 
from me, and Apply for his dirccrions as to what you are to do. 
For myself I had ratJicr not sue my two old friends J. T. Lusk & 
Isaac PtSckett^liut if M' Prlckctt tt anxious fur llie debt tu be 
p«dt and the Mesa" Luak refuse to pay it. or make any arrange- 
ment satisfactory to Prickett— yuu will he plcaAcd to bring suit 
when M' Pnckett directs It to be done. A« I shall be anxioui; to 
hear of the receipt of rhe enclosed Notc^ I mmt atk the favor of 
you to wrirr- me as »Mjn a* you have Tec*" ; if, and seen M'. Prickrtt 
& learnt what will probably have to be done. When the money 
is pttid or collected, I wish it to be placed in M'. Isaac Prickett5 
hands (<iT safe keeping— he acting as my Agent & friend in that 
part of the Country'. 

1 should sooner have wririen to >t)u but for my having been in 
daily expcctatiun of hcdiing from M'. Prickctt in reply to my 
letterofScp:3,—l wish you would cell M'. Pricketti am extremely 

fmtJkSmxJwXA Dec: soi i^s 
Deab Sibi 

Tour kov of Non i& bis hei aec<:» nd I rauAt ft^y 
conlcci I MB u « pcftt las v» kae« «fcu imir id mike lo it, 
or how m cvpfOB Bjr ficaprm t^r 50a & m^ oU Meiul Losk 
ftboulcl rtqucaj tnc tti Ufa kad io | f€Jtt ctf jw debt to 
mc Frocn mj locg *- q m«tiJ > tt fc fTtat regard far you both. 
I ehoald Bke to do any tfaiaf I oouU to oUbb yoa, but in dus 
cuac you uk «bat I cbumc da, Wbcft I nude tfae loo^t I ptc- 
fBTTcd tndiridtul vecuHty to t^ teamry of a Mongi^e, bectusc 
1 IcArrd The Nfnrtgjiged prop er ty suglit be tbnma do my binds, 
& I should be cocapcOed to t4k« it— tfacre bbof ootliuig the for 
mc to have. But when I nude Ac loan, with you & my old fnoid 
Lusk &9 jointly & sevcnly bound* I Me confideat tbe money vts 
SRfe, & thjir the contract «odd be &hh&Uly coffipl)r«d mh— uid 
thii 1 must yet Mtnrc, nocwidtsnoding the mw vie«s tikea in 



your lo*t Ictr<;r. For ycvr j^recedtng letter of Aug: ii. waa 
written for the *olc & cxprcw purpose ol rcmiTxitng inc that jrou 
were ihr wQiriiy, and urging me as MirJi ro send nit the now fir 
commerce fuit immedifltcly, that ju(]|Fcmcnt mljfhi be ubi^uod 
AC the lost Sep; term of the Court. Lvcry cxprcMiotfi of your 
letter of Aug; 1 1, w«s founded Dn the ide* thftc the parties vould 
hdvc fo pay Theamount of the Note in mono'— Judge then of my 
siirpriw at your ptopositini*, \\ your remark in your last letter, 
ihai if you ahfjuld be compelled lo pay the Noic you would "have 
to turn out LAnd^." I ouiaot account for thia cliar^ in your 
view & conduct; ^nd I regret you should hnvc me risk the Note 
by sending it by mail, & put me to the expense of employing a 
Liwycr^ whWh wa* done only in compliance with y<>iir wtichMj & 
to t»b!igc you, & lo promote your intercut, I hail m» wihH or 
intention to 9uc j-ou £c the Men"* Luak, 1 only yielded to your 
urgent solicitations, under the impresiton thai I was by *o doing 
befriending you, [ waited a long time under the hope & expecta- 
tion of hearing from yon, in rq>ly tn my leitcrof Sep: 5^, but not 
htLvin^ done m>, & fcarinij further delay might operate h^uTioo^ly 
tojroAi, I wrote & enclosed the Note to M', Gillespie, Ac stmcd to 
him that I had rather no 3ijit should be for the present instituted; 
but dTTcctcd hJm to see & confer with >*ou> & if you wished suit 
to be imtinjted to so do, & to conform to your direction*. I 
must now dJrect that no suit or legal proceedings be cemmciiced, 
tin I have furtl«r time to confer with my Counitl on the pro- 
priety of bringing auit [if it inust be brought At all) in tbe Fed!*: 
Court, Of £uch Court »& 1 shall have the be&c chance of obtairung 
justice $e my Coniiitumnai righti- In the mean rime, if the 
Mess^ Luak will not pay caoLtgh of the Interett due last A/ay, to 
pay my Taxes, 1 muHt inttpt on yatt, as one of the parties to thdr 
Note, doing so, At f cant but think you wtl) believe It but rcason- 
oh\t 5: proper that you should do so- The am^ : of Moore Mortom 
& C" draft for Tascefi will not be ai great this year as u«ua), as diey 
have a balance of }i6 of my money lying in their hands^ At to 
M*. Nfartins charge of J30 for taking Hdward» Deed to me ficc, 
1 think it cnormou5« & as far ai 1 underhand the service rendered 
to be unjuat, and ftuch as no Lawyer here would consider proper. 
If It ia a^st H reasonable charge money must be very abundant 


<c ^ W It 


1 «D^««4f a 

. beoo aM pHHl vbei tw Jr tfarv can per 
rklMBt a **^***'* If ;«! & tWr viB 

'f fLH ttsy BIVV ff^V OVQ Q lf^C tD 

n i^sK te ae tD be |vcBd* ife ben 
DO oooFtinQC ibc debt en ibcac ttraft, rubo ihjka 
Mcnftct pg tyatj m Mcb tioM* as tboe id pay dw defaf — >o 9«r 
M^Mffif die gr«ftt cxpcflar wbcl v3 MXtmd awe, earned » 
U prolsefaly «wU be to die Sofvnike Courr of cfae U. 5^--fttf' tf 
am Jmtn to rbr Lav. I viH p m i^ end of ibe bw, & gcf all 
tbc Lbv & ibc Coft»titut>oa «3 ^tc mc 

la ipcabJB^ of M'. Miftm, 1 aa^ to krre added tb^t ha 
fee dwdd have been die k«ia coaMqiMoce of lua m^fact to do 
vhat he oa^t xo bav* doi>c--tD answer car bner of Dect jo 
{vliicb fDo saf via haadrd tu bun) 6i infcrrard U»i me if dbe 
mwcakg 1 pomtol out m d» Bond bad been comctcd— if tbc 
Bood bad been nx*; flc d^vcred— dkc Deeds of ibc as s iftPctJ of 
Ed«ardt,ltfrT3ci£d«aM»&WLfetoepebadbtaB rec'tAc recorded 
he &c— aD dib, ft vanovi od»«T laattvn coaocctfd witb dut 
Ittttr, I bare beta kepf in ipwraace for aar «Ur J'a^, tboogfa 
I ha-*e vtirtcn twkc sxnce dwn cnQwvig about tbcm. — M'* 
^^'iboa ferfctted bis House as much hj failbg to par tbc lntcrc»t 
laK Sep% aa be will forfeit it by Dot paying ibe principal next 
Sep. — & if I am to get nctlung more next Sep: than the House* 
tbco of course I kne the Rent of cb^ home ktt ooe jrcar by nor 
cnfbtdng the contract thU rear. Bui jrou uy be could no« be 
|ottcn out of tbe houx by tbc Cbrau of Jaw fee a rear. TbU 
iccau a loofc ^^^f*^ 'c> gee a man out of a booac vhicK did not 
belosg to him> You tay he premises to ^ve up tbe House next 
Sep: — WiH he keep h» pfrimw? Tou know Vr.m hmx Ar can beit 
judge. If he is CO remain, bave hia retaoval ar ihc appointed 



tinw (Sept next) pUccci hcj-onci a doubt. Ii will then be too bad 
to have in Sep: nwt tn go en law lo gci hrm nut, & lose Rem for 
two ytajfs^ — Yuu 4&W For a lUi ofmyTaxAUIc property m M^uI'laor 
County on which you aic to pay Tascc* — S. W, 4. — Si. E-5* — 
East ^ N. E. 6.-ac the X. ji N- W. 9. in T, 4 N. of R. 7^ \V«t^ 
containing in all 474 acres (all being complete ^ or ^ quAtiers> 
cxcrpr F. yi N. R. 6., which i-ontains hut 74 acrts). \ also own 
two xmall Lots in EilwanJsv'itlc N — 193 & lyj on Main Sl unim* 
proved. ThcK two Lot*, & the N. >J N» W, of Sec; 9., were not 
inclut^ed in the Tnx Receipt cf iH4l'^aboiit which 1 wrote you 
Dec: y^, '4I, & which you way in your letter Nov: 16 you hare 
unce paid. Will the Rttate of Gillhiui] never pay its debta? 
TTi.inW Mess" <)i]lr^pir & Vifrs ffir their Icitet «f Dec: j. — girc 
them my directions not to sue until ihcy hear further from mc^ 
Ac take good care of the Note till ihcy hear from mc, of mc me 
early in April. You say L^dwards Deed to mc has hccn placed 
oa Record— I Uvc yo*i not had Recorded the l>cd of the assignee* 
of o|A/,«7- /£r;i|ard3 to mc? Take care of these Deeds & the 
(Jtf, S. ter/j| receipts till you ace mc in the Spring. Your frictid 

Kdwakij ColE5 

Coles TO PwciCETT, May it, 1843 

[Chii:«4Li> HjKtunctl Socict/, AutoKrip^ l^ilcr*, 4f: Sl| 

^ gj^_ St. LoDis May 11. 1843 

I write to say I am here -»hall leave it [/«f this altcmoon 
tot the upper Country—^ expect to be in Edwardsvillc about the 
middle or last of next week — when 1 hope I shall have the good 
forturrc to see you, Sf the Luslt»— Wilson — Gillaspic, tr/V] & all 
with wliom I have busincw — a» well a,n ny old fncniU^ acquain- 
tances gcncriiUy. 1 hope you will have collected the balance of 
Gillhams cicl>t. Tell Robert of my eommg, & my hope that aU 
rent for my place near him will be paid mc when I am in Edwards- 
\'ille. — Tell M'. Gillwipic also of my inrention to be with you — »o 
tJial if be should have to leave Home iicfote my arrival he wiD 
leave the Note sent htm of the Lusks &c to mc, so that I may 
gttit — 

I am very ftrtpcctfully 

Edwari) Col&s 


Snct f srrmd here T hivr scnr vhp Mess*" Mfvvp, Mnnna 
ic C* ^ nccTcMiry iuoda with vkkli co pay mjr T«ic»— whicii 
mt rou had rcf4xd to xad dkcOL 

COLU TO PftTCKflTT, JoQC 34t 1^43 

fOaoiD Hk»fk«] Sodccr* Avn^rvfih t^fttn. 4f ^ l^^ 

Pnii>DEt.nnA June $4. 1S4J 

TW Kiffl, fhc atmiuni of whicfi >ou rouU not rrcciflect, whiirh 
yva iafomcd ok had bccQ paid to the Judfc of I^obalc of i\K 
C3ks0i« dt^t, & whkh I w%A unabk to cactrtam, in consequence 
cf iIm abscQCC of the Judge of Frol»te vben 1 W9s in Edv&nU- 
rdW, I bofie you hive in purvuiince of my requor coUerted of Him, 
h that rhii turn togcth^ with whit Robert praini«n] to eoltect 
of Kent owocyt & pay to you the week After I left yiou,rt:pJLid you 
the MiuU vuRi you were in advance to mc, fit put you in fund^ to 
pay my County Tauon for 184a-, which ! hope you wiil hare paid 
befere the receipl of thii letter. 

Vcu wiQ rrrulleit thdV 1 tnid }-ou M** Mason had 
ID bofc amung her paperv for the Deed from Jnrdan t^ell to 
JuMi M^aon for the l^t on which is »tuatcd the two beidc 
houata owDtti hy you & me m Edwafd«villr, and to cncloae 
Deed tA you, if the &>ond ir, if not to let you know she had 
lifm Bbtr tn iind if. If she «hnii)d not be ahk to find the Deed,' 
which lA an cucntiAl link in our title. I dtairtd that yuu wotdd at 
our i<Mnt cxpcjue obtain a quit zXam Deed frocn Jocdan UzzcQ 
lo yog Ac me, & thb I expressed a wish should be done a» soon u 
poavible* It Uxieli might die, & as he wa« an <^d man the danaer 
vaa the greater of his death. UueHa Deed to Jas: Mason, or tf 
thai should not be found, Ujc/HU quit claim Deed tn ux^ you will 
of cDurK have reeordod. 

You wtU recoltect the l>eed from B. F. Rdwoids & W\St 
hia avcignee* to me for the brick hoo«e, whicK you had 
Ac whbch ycni pave me while in Edwardaville, waa found by mc 
be CTTOfleoii«ly drawn, ai; to the dnrripmn of thr tv^m-lnrvrs 
the Lot, by Lawyer Martin, & thai I reiurncd it lo him mhilc in 
Edwardavilk to hare it Gorrccccd, or another Deed drawn & 



executed, aikI dcutci) Kim Co [»cnd) jrou that Dtcd & the cotrcctol 
one, Sc also Jamcn Muson) Deed fo John S. Greath<XJ3C — & GreAC> 
houses Deed to B. F. Edwartl*— & Edwards Deed to m«— and 
you will recollect 1 fi«ked the favor of foc ;o A^w iwd«^^^ M^ 
c^rrtiitd Dftji t€, mtjr^m f^^strds ii H'ije ti his assipttfS. I have 
now to rqicat these variiwi* requests, & lo ask your prompt & 
ftuthful actcnripn to them, & a^ soon a* you have done »o to write 
roe ivWy on ibc different sut^cccs — and by th« Arae »afc oppor- 
tunit)' (& if none should offer focmtr yoti cculd send thom hy one 
of your Member* of Congress in Mov: next) wnd me i^UwelU 
Deed 10 Mason, or to ws a« ii may be — 2iMawns l>eTd to Grear* 
JiouK— 3.Grcathou5CS Deed to Edwards— 4.Ed«rards&\Vife& hia 
uvgnoes Deeds to mc- ike ^rrone^w ^i wV/ aj /V f^rrc<ied one— 
& 5. my Roceipt for Madison County Taxes for the ytAri«43. 

On your receiving the cotrccted Deed from M'. Martin, ^ 
before you have it recorded, I wish you woyld ciumine it & see 
tljat ii b correct!) drawn. The !^t b described in the s^m€ o>vdi, 
both in Masnns Deed to Greathouie and in Greathcuscs Deed to 
Edward^ as you will see in the Recorders office, in Book N* 14. 
in pages 476 & 478. — The wafUK nrc — ^"Beginrmg at a point on 
the Itncnf rhc public ujiiare fipjxi^irr to (hr ccnitrr of ilieafore«iid 
dividing wall — thence N. 40*" B. on a line with the centre of Mid 
wall iQp. feet— ihcncc S. 50* E. 67, feet to the cross street — thence 
N, 40* E. alonR the line of snid cross street 100 feet— thence N. 
S<>* ^^"- '34 feet— thcnoc S. 40" W, 30S feet— theticc S- 5c* E. to 
the brginning." M'. Marrins blunders in drawing the Deed, Bt 
want of Attention to tlhcj matter — p^jticuUrlj' after my poiniiit^ 
cut a similAT error in the Bond he drew for me in my tcticr of Dec: 
^Q. 184!— arc tnexctJsahIc-& in justice he should rather pay me 
dams^s then I should pay him f<jr such kind of profcwonal 

An >'uu cxprciucd a winli not lo attend ru the renting &c &c 
of the Orick House for mc, I shall write by thb days mail tu my 
old friend M'< Benaiah Robtnaon to ask & empower him to act 
as my friend Si Agent in the renting and superintending that 
House for me; and as it wUI save trouble in every way to have all 
tny IniMncsA in & *!«jut FtSwnrdi^inc in one jier«>ns tare, I shall 
ask him also to pay all my Taxes in the county — to receive from 



Robert the TcnT of my Fafin»& from yo«, or the Judac of Prohal 
tbtf lMi]±ncc du« me by th« GiUhams, after paying yourself 
msU bounce 1 am dxx you, & rite amonnc of mr Taxes foe Utf 
y*«r h*U^) "lii^^h 1 hope vnii will have pau\ hcfnrr you nrceire 
thn lellcr. 1 dotrc you also to pay M'- Martin wAoi is righl— 
he ought not to rccci^'et nor expect to receive, « fuU or uwji] fn 
for Krvi<«s 8o uvtjsaally hadly doti«. I called on htm in Alton 
tcttlc thb matter of the fee with him, & to complain of hU 
finit ntanner of attendini^ to my btsinesK intrusted ro htni br 
you^hc was not in his office, 6c when I aftcrwanU S4«r him, 
fifofcaacd io he »o much cnfEiuecd at the momcrt as r>ot tg 
dmc, but vroulvl »ee me a^ain— but he took cmtc not to kc 
And irheti I tent ihe Detxl to him for correction, be wrote 
aa you told me that he had not tune to attend to it tKen — ] 
wtwi imdeTtakc biwnc^s shouki have rime to attend to it. 
M^ to bear from you toon, & thankful for your kmdncas in attcni 
Ing to my bitfine» foe me, & with my hest wishes for you, 
Family, & Nephew, ] am tnily & tineercly your friend 

RnwARD Couu 

EoiTtiaiAL ar WARarN / December it, iS$4 

Our columns thu week cofitain an extract from the 
chapter of Ciovemor Ford's History of lllinott* As wc Ut-cd com' 

'Whtoe. llDDFvr, bom «i VTjlnjItt Scv H^mpiliiR, l^io; Innicd 
Indr «■ R«d«ad 5'cniianO //<>''Mf 1S14, «t«l M t>iUvtfT; 1M7, 
Kortvefcr, «Bd ra%i(4 r« a t^nc «^ « l-rankfort Bcvmpci itit, 1 
LeiM MHJ worked in ite oAc* d dt« oU l/ujnm <rfaaf IjwAcaijar 
A9*l4f«a>, atid jJio Acted cs •feni Inr ■ lumber coafvar mx CufOt |J 
Utfch, 1I19, e«tshlnlird ir FilvirritviUr thr -<^AMr, 4i£ fltifd wiawy 
Ubaoii; ilif, Vh the Edmnb^ilfe p«|iEr &%1 vn awxia nrf vhb fW Varin 
Crialt^ an ariri^lnrrr p>|Kt ac CiBcinrL*u« but »oob niigweJ fiD *^'~ *~ 
WtiWiiheJ the 5«aj[«fiP SpK*alw, ihc fir>i ncvmnr pvb^^ibcid it 
ilftT-iCj:^ «a» onnceud «kh the JJtgnijtr ^ ^'fP^ Miiiuriffi 
G4n^ iSja, afcandonrt tiiM <JJi **i riMorei to JkaoepM, » hfec wbAm tW 
•CM £vc foA ke wtf dcfk of tW cvctat aod CMoTf canDuvwn«rt' ootf^ tm4 
n^fkit fcoonkr W d w di ; iSjA, bcfiA piAfacaoon of ^ tbi<d i n Bi jimM ^ 
OacMo. d»e Cw > i rr fc rf vjjb ftf firr itn.tniWoa ■ ftfmmar Hcwy: «« bt« 
CDMKB4 «^h At paUl^fhM ctf dte <Siil«r 4^/ikm. 11 Ua»^ 

vd dif JTfJWni Wn. aUdi htamx dx /rrr V'rjr, flf Oiut^ 1856. 
•cdrad ID the fam; ifeed A«bvc 13» t»&4« Btttmm Ad SAr, Hi^tmuti, 



tcmporancous]}' wiih Th« Mcnr4 ilcscnbed. and our nime u 
hunoraNx mcntionai hy ihc author in connccibn wiih the cvcnis 
naiT&tCLlt vrc hope to be excused for vcniuring a few rcmdirks upon 
the subject. 

The people of lUinoia are under obligations to the tate Gover- 
nor Forcl, for being the fimt to mdke a reconJ <yf the polUica! Mitory 
of the StdtCr ar ihin early peritMl. The liisioriajin vi F.nglind do 
not attempt to bring their narratives down to lesn than froxn fifty 
CO one hundred and lifty yean of the time of writing- Thb policy 
iJuclds the Authors from corktcmporaneou^ crtticUm and detection 
of error, and probably from the rrftmimenr and pervrciietoci nf the 
government or individuals- It its to be hopeld] that this custom 
will never become the prcvitilir^K practice in our country; for 
though it will allay prejudice* it may prevent the truth from being 
vindicated. Governor Ford's example wilt be u^ful in this 
revpect. It is understood that the foimer Governor, John Rey- 
nolds, and the Rev. John M. Pccit, both ofSt, Clair county^ are 
e»ch writing a history of Illinois- They will both, it is supposed, 
go back to the first discovery of tlie country by French travelers. 
That of Mr- Peck is expected to contain, not only the civil And 
political, but llie ecclesiasficfll and literary history of rhe State, 
He U t»mj>tflent lo The perlurmanceorxuch a wurk; anil u.*i tte )uu( 
hilcly retired from an active and arduous ministerial Ufe^ it la 
trusicd> that, in his old age, )ic will divest himself of alt prejudice, 
and gix'e the public a history which f^iall be satisfactory to all 
parties, and as nenr as may be^ to individuals. 

The cWirr TO vindirarr his adminnrtration, atm! his public life 
from misrcprescntarion. was doubtless the principal motive of 
Govcfncr Ford for writing his hook. In relation to this part of 
the work, his slatcmcnc^ may be explicitly relied upon, because 
they refer to matters which came within his personal oh«cr\'Acion- 
Such is the tsse, aWi^ in his narratives <if the Hlark Hswk and 
Mormon wuii. lit rebtion cu the former, he h»5 vindicated the 
duractcr, and established the claim of chc Illinois Vcluntcers^ 
under the command of the Intc Gencrnl Henry, to the honors of 
ttiat war, against the unfounded pretensions assumed in behalf of 
ai Colonel of Milira, who commanded n harralion in a neighboring 
Territuty, And not less accuracy niay be imputed to his inter* 


csiirg account of the Mc>rmon Sfboultit^ whfrch w<fc so embar 
rttitng to hu Adni]nittr;iriofi. 

But in die chapter «li)cli (prcs a very brvef, ami uppvrcnti/ 
burned nUtenicnt a( the grcal contcac ta 1811-3-4, in regard to 
the catling of a CcnventLon 10 amend the Ccnstttunon, >o d5 to 
authofize the iDiroiiuction oti^avery irto the State, there are aome 
niitaket, which, though not of much pubtk bnportaoce, jret, \{ 
ihc itatemeniK wcrt wnrrh thr milking, dicy will Ix^tir comxting. 
Mr, Fofd, at the time of These transactions, woj a law student at 
Bclkvillc; andit cannoi be expected that hiaknowlc^^of evcnti 
should be so thorough, or hie relatu>n of them so accurate, as tn 
those of after life, tn which he took an ACti^ and responsible pan. 

The historian fir^t mrroduccs to our nnricc, the raiKtidarrs fcr 
the office of the &c(und Guvcniur of lUinoit^ the socccssful one of 
whkh wflH Mr, ttlward C(;lc£i who woa a Viriimian; had cmanci- 
ptaicd his %Jflve» in Virginia, brou^r them to lllifioia, and settled 
ihcm on farms, etc. Govcrncr Ford cannot be held respOfisiUe 
for this staiemfnt. It had often before been made in newapapen, 
and by Icctufcrti, kttcr-writcrs. etc, Tlic facts arc ihcc: Mi. 
CoIcH bruught his slaves, consisting of a w«>maii with five cKilt 
fourgiHsnndaboy.fnjmVit^ma to Illinois, in the spring of 18 1< 
Mr. C. was the owner of an improvement a few miles from Ed- 
wafdsviUe, calln! "CrJes* Farm". He hired moi to work 
fain>, and jnit the mother in the cabin to oook fur ihem, 
girK itenc out to service, two of whom, altcroatetirt acted in that 
capacity in our family. The boy Mr. C. kept a^ his body servant, 
until he became of a luitabte age to be bound to a barber in St. 
luniis- In a )'ear or two he relinquished his agricultural operatiunt 
and !i[>ld oir his farming tools ami implements. TlLat Goremor 
Coica carcid for the welfare of his coktfcd people^ we know; but as 
to h\% pe-ttlir.f; ihcm on farms ^hc assertion is gratuitoija, and we 
ant unu-iUing to bclie\e that the Governor ever gave oountcnancc 
10 s^ich a report- 

Ii is statrd that lie emancipated his davc« in W^niL The 
ivcciie place U where he crossed the line vith his slaves into a fnx 
Stare, probably Oh>o; for that net was of itself emancipatii 
Ur. Coles, bcin^ no Uwycf> was pmbably not awmre Oif that 
and being nmbitiocn of poptiUrity, and having U^ aqsmdocw to 



preferment, on the 4th of Jdy, 1819, at E<!wardmlle, lie executed 
deod» of emEincipation for each person, tn the prcMQce of two 
Methodist mimslent as mbscnbing witncfsc*. 

Wf m^ght ixTupf avlumrK t^n the jxiinni iJvcncd to in ih!a 
book, in reUiion to Oovcmwf Coin 4t rhiit period; \nit w<ni of 
rime prcvcttts ma horn doing sa Wc will further «i«cc, hoH^vcr, 
that the rccomp^eiulatioti of Governor Coles in his 6f«t mcaaifee 
to the I-c^tlarurc, to cmanclpfltc the "French »Uve*'\ wm s^n 
cTOCecdingly injiidiooiK and indiscreet pmposinon, at ch« time, 
extremely mortifjrins nnd emlxirrassmg to his sinii*slavcry fiierah. 
The grent stnjttglc to moke Jlhnois a sUvc State wiis bc|[un; And 
the only meAns the friends of freedom hod to oppoae and prevent 
that oonsummation, was to oppose and prevent the calling of a 
Convention. The very firsT thing to be done under the Gover- 
nor's rc^ummcfiiiatiuii was Uj autliuHic the call of ai CtinvefitUm 
to alter the Coiutitution, which was all the sUvc party wanted, 
and which they were ilci ermine*;! to do at all hazardf before the 
dose of the sei&ioii< Th« ccmmittee to whom that part of 
the Gcn-ernor's metcage was referred, made a report, (writtet) by the 
Hon. ThruphilcL^ W. Smith, ihuugli not u member of ihe cummlt- 
teCi) i^ v^hich i hey expatiated largely on '*thc benevolent views of 
the i'lxcciitivcV' and refircctcd that Legislative relief could not be 
extended to the objects of the Governors commiiaeration [sicl 
witiiocit an amendment of the Comtiiocion; and for that purpose 
rhey reported :i rr^olLition for rheeafi of a Convention. Thaq was 
the subject precipitated. 

In 1851, after the decease of Governor Ford, there wa» pub- 
lished at several times, in the Pcona Rcpul>l]can, what purported 
to be "Leaves from Governor Ford's Hisrory of Illinois," one of 
whicli w the eatract on the first page of ihi« paper from the book. 
On conipjtiin^ the Ixxjk witli ihc "Leaves" wc find that several 
Important and matcritil alterations have been made in the book, 
for the worse instead of better. For instance, in the ''Leaves/' 
ia a liar of what purports to be the names of the principst men 
in tlie State uhu touk part in the contest, in which the name 
of Governor EdwanU, one of our Senaic;rs in Coiigtcs4f is not 
mentioned at all. In the book, as it will be seen, his n^mc appears 
in the list of partianns for n Convention. Nothing can be more 



untrue; for alihou^ Governor Edwards then bctd slaves ID 
Kcniuclc}- fliw) Mi»oiirt, he npfintrfl rhc mnkinif r>f lUinotfi a aliir 
Stare, bo!h at cftc formaiioTi of the <Jd CnnstitxiiSona and at tliiti 
mbftcqiKnt attempt to aincnd it k>t tliat purpose. In this cast* 
wc tc»t'ity to whai we pcrwBallj' know. He nrrott, anonymovisly, 
the most powerful argument figflsnir the expediency of the fnea»- 
tire, in the new^apcr which we p\ibfished; and he often ai^ued' 
the points m our prcxnce, mith the Cuivention parti^ana. 

In the "Leaves" wa^ a aimple statement that on the defeat 
of the tinti-conventjon party in tiK LegtsluturCi they rallied to 
oppose the roeasure be^re the people; and for that purpose, 
ettflblUhed i^i^-spapers, etc. "niis is merely a misrepresentaHon — 
no new ncwupajicnt weir mabiiiihed un the anti-conventMin ude. 
But it U truth kself, in cotnparbon with the paragraph in the Ixiok, 
which appcarti to have been manufactured out ol it. — Wc will fij 
bring thin paragru^ph over to k>ok at^ and then analyse tc± 

"But they were mistaken: the inti^convcntion party roolcl 
new courage, ami rallied tc a man- They CTtiahlished nrwspapm^ 
to oppose the Conveiiiioii; one at Shawncctown* edited by Hearer! 
Eddy; one at fc^wjvdsvillc, edited by llooper Warren, with Guv. 
ColeSf Thomas Lippineoft, George Churchtil> tuid Judge Lxxk^voodi 
fer its princtpsl conrribviors; and Anally, one at Vandalia, edti 
by David nUrkmcll. thr Secrrrary of Srafr/' 

t. Ow at SfuiivrKtt&t^ftt rJiirJ Ij Ihmji Edsly. 

l^ic "Illinois Emigrant" was established at Shawncciown, 
It xtift or the next ycsr, by Henry Eddy anj Stnglcton H. Kti 
0iel. No other paper was established there duiing the pendcn' 
of the Convention question, thou^, we think, the name wag 
changed- — U woa decidedly pro-slavery in its clur:ic(er, and cf 
course supported that party. During the latter part of the pen- 
dency of the question, Morria Birkbeck, who^ residence was in 
that section of the State, mode an arrangement with the editors of 
that pa|^r, to insert in n a series of, "Letters to the PeD|^c" to 
he written by him, under the signuturc: uf ''Jonathan Freeman." 
Mr. Kimmel retired from the C5tal>lijhmcnt, and his place was 
supplied by Jame^ Hall, afterwards a Judge of ihc Cireuit Court, 
State Tieasurer, etc, Mr. Birfcbcek's appeal to the people 
became alarming to the slavery propifjandisis, and ihey loc^ 



m«ft«urc( to muntcra^t him. Mr. Hall nttaclced him In the paper, 
furictiMly and in the mo«t abusive %ty\t. 

2. On^ tit Fjirtar^sti/U^ rdiuii hy Hoopfr lyarrm, with Gov. 
Oyfts, ffi.-, rSt^t ^f*t ^s feniri^/Oori, 

The EdwTArdBviilc Spectator was established by H. Warren m 
1S19, three years before these extraordinary events took place in 
tke Legislature, which Governor Kord U msde to sny, as on ihc 
spur of the occasion, wa's established m r-|>pjBit* the Convefition, 
It wu from ihc aiuti ihuroughly and uncompromisingly aiiti*- 
flbvery, and stood the brunt alone in thi» then Far West, dunng 
the agitation of the Missouri qucaltor. 

If die book ha« reached PhUaiclphia, Goverrwr Ccles tnust 
have WgheJ, or sworn, 00 rraUing the ahove j>«nigra[>h, lu we 
liin^-iclf placed m the iKiMtioji uf aix uppomTcd uintiibuTor Id 
the EdwardavUlc Spcctiatjjr, ecnsidcTii^ his personal relation 
to the paper and its eciitor 

Judge Lockwood wrutc but one article on the question, amL 
that was a stnjrg and convincm^E argument against the policy 
of makfng ihji a «lnvr State- MerctfTt- l.ippinttilt ;irul Chur^rhill^ 
and others* wrote articles occasionally fcFf the paper, but it had no 
regular contnbutor* 

^. An^finedty^ ow at y^nJaiia^ tdittJly David BfofkiiffUj the 
Sfcr/far^ 0/ Stafr. 

The ''Illinois Intdiigencer" wflstlicfir^t newipflperSn lUmoiSt 
located at Kaskaskia, the scat of ihcTetricorinl guvcrnment. On 
oor first a«]uAJncarcc with it, in 181S, it was eonducred by Robert 
BUclcwclIt the Territorial Auditor Rlijah C Berry was soon 
afterwards taken into the corcern^ As the public printing was its 
main supp<jft, the estabtishmcnt folktwcJ the seat cif government 
to Vandalia. when a change of pcopnctore or conducton tLX^W pla^e. 
and the management of the paper was a^untcd by \ViJ[iam H, 
Brown and William B^rry. This wa$ an iiicongrjous political 
connection, Mr. Brown being nn anti-convention man> and his 
partner, as a member of ihe Lrgiilaturt:, bad voted for all the 
obncjkiuus meanirea at tiie session referred to. The paper, on the 
question, wtiji tbereforc nt-utrolitcd. 

In the Month uf June, 1KI4, six weeks before the dectioa 
which terminated the comteftt, David Blackwell, a lai^^er of 



Bcllevilkk antl a tioUicr of the fornwr propnctur, by some mcatu, 
of which wc arc not adviaoi, (eoe poftics&ion vid control of the 
Intcll'igcnccr ar Vandilia, unOl the election. He tumeid it, fot 
that hmf period, with grctt effect, upon \he Convention p^^- 
Mr. Brown, wc Wicve, had no connection wiih the p«p«r ifler 
that! lime. 

So much for the atoiy about the estaUishment of paper* b> 
appoM the Convention.-- We can tell it bettef : 

Upon thepocsjigvof theresolucion for thccaHof aConvenCiofl, 
in the evtraor^linar)- manner which hxt fic^n rdx'ed, the memhert 
m the mirxmcy, both of rhc 5)cnaic and Hthisc of Rcprc>cntniivc&, 
met together, tnd mr^zd *n Addrc«> to the People, wirmng them 
of the immLncni dunf[cr of the mtrodnciioo of SUvcry into the 
State, and entreating them to rally thcmaclvta agaiiwt it. 

They aUo concerted meatufrs to incrcaise the ctrculntion of fh« 
MdwarOavillc Sp>tctaToT. For that purpose, the sum of oii« 
thousand dollar* was »]l«irihcd at oncc^ to be paid over to ilte 
Editor of the Spectatort prorklcd he would a^rtc to supply thcoi 
with it at hill the mjWripcion price; an<l they appt^inted a com- 
mittee to call upcvn him with the proposition, ft wat aooepted> 
though in the end it proved a to!et,owntg to the gr«ar depredation 
of the currency- 

Wc intend neict week to rcpuhJish alctto'^om thcHan^Gcoj^e 
Churvhtll, of Madi»on County, oo this subject, to the Editor of 
the Burtau Advocate, and poKlWhcdui thai piper ofMay 14, tfiji, 
when we may have some further remark* to make. 

H. W. 

CMUkCHiLi* TO Ei>rroa or Bi;t£Av Advocate, May 3, iSf I 

To TitR KotToa OF T14E Bi'HEAu Advocats. 

Under the hc*d of *'Smiy Ixavci from Fotil's Hiirory of 
IDinoti" I rrad in the N- W, Gaiettect of Feb. 27, (credited to the 

K:W«UI, ikortt^ bont M Mobbfti^iivim, RtxliAd CoMtr. Vcvm««, OitAa 
n, (T^j_rfCfi#«4fo«J^lw(4tnnL ktf««il fnMW'* W«di; 1 106, bcuuK apftfri- 
^QiUoW.-f t^lW JUbwiy ^Nev Ytfll SnCi^ tfd «fer wirvna JiB TSM, wvU>t 
*i )nw*«fni*a |im«wi puiehMM hdf wmmim I« aul prkfinr -^^^ ^l.\ (m< 
■I f nj rf wo ww^ wwt <tt aii—hi to Me* ToA, thm tortr- .^xm* 

tttllUMb; pi«Wldli*dftM64w4v<ibiU«&n County. Oct ». 

rMM OMMT fitf bi t upi MHM «f Mk, ww i a d ■» tiAn oi Uk Mu«««r< CflMcrf,: 



Ptcria Republican,) nn account of "the first State Bank" of 
niinoU, It u ir. ihc main rnrrrrt, hui conrainfi xome rrmn which 
wuuUi doubtless have been rcctitieii had Gov. Ford lived to prcpvc 
hia work for the prc»». 1 will name a few. 

I. 1 1 is said that <hc notes of ibc Bank were payable in two 
years. They werv^ in fact, to be redeemed in un ycare. See the 
23d section of the chaner. 

1. " In the auRmiei of 1814, tbc Bank went iiuu opcmtioii/' 
It went into operation in 181K 

[These two errors are not in the book us printed. The/ 
probably originated with the compositor of iFm; "Leaves".] 

3, "Every man who cmild ger jn indorier, burrowed his 
hamlreil di^iAUrv" This rcmaH( \% singularly byiicrlioltcaJ, 

4, "More than half of those who borrowed con^dcred what 
ht got ns ao much gaitf." It is acarvely put^iblc that Gov. Fordi 
who was a good Engiifth uirtiolar, could hnve suffered thit senteiKe 
to idip if he had reaiL it a ^ca-imX time. 

[Thi» IS also Gorreetcd in the book^j 

The histonan ought to have stated thai the paper of [he Bank 
was receivable in payment of tX\ taws and debts due the State. 
This fact gave \i nearly nil rhc value and currrncy which it pos- 
sessed, and ss ft was at a grcst dtGcoimt, x\\ the taiccs were paid in 
ihi* paper. Hence the necessity for the policy afterwards adopted, 
of burning the paper as fast as it cjtnie to the hands of the State, 
and of borrowing money to defray the expenses cf government 
uracil good money could come into the treasury. This policy has 
been frequently condemned by men who knew nothing about the 
sia?e of fiLCTs which iJirn existed. — The establiahmait of the State 
Bank uf Idli, was the lir^t ^rraf ciroi of cur Legislature, 

In the Bureau Advocate, of Aprd 1,1 obMrve another "LeaT' 
from Gov, Fcrcl's History of lllim»s, in which he treats of "the 
great contest on tlie Slavery Question" in i8ai, '13, and '24. 

■role uiide* over wEpAiure of " A Fjf mcr of Sl CliArUi Countv," vdrocBtins \he 
KUibliibiiv ihff S^i4i«f, nnd to iuUcq«ci|}y frtr^ucnt foniribuior lo ici col- 

IkAstc; '^fi- ^"TiWv u1 HcuACL tS3t, ^idcd m rvvmcjn of ttatuica ul itif«i 
rolltctor rtf h]»ror*'il rr'<jr,t4; j|if.J iKtj, Bifproin and Sf^lhy, HiOVfU^ £w- 
ihfi^ia «f tUmoii. i: lOj ,307» f77: Rpynoldi, -Xfj Own nj^^;. U^, WJ Biat 
tf ifiirMiu IMJ-IVU. PI*- 344. J4S. i*&. Hh ^*. JJ*. JW- 



of the LcKislanirc, {Senator StilliriAn and xnysclf>) voted for Mr. 
(Lockwood, vho WHS not s candidate. \Vc could not conMitt to 
aid in the diction of a friend of slavery. Yet there were at l^ast 
twenty mcmhcrs, who were opposed w slavery, eighteen of whom 
vored fcr some friend of slavery for U, S. Scnsior. The old 
tciritonjil parlies ruled in ihis election. 

Ccv. Ford says "VVIicn the Lcuialaturc adacmblcd it was 
found that the Senate «incained the requmtt two-thirdv majority; 
bot in (he Houie, by deciding a eonie*ted election in favor of one 
of the camiidaie*^ thr *la\-e party would have a majority €>f one 
lore than two-thirtU; ami hy deciding in favxir of the other, ihey 
wculd lack one of having that maionty." 

Thu \r* not exactly correct. Senator Grammar took his seat 
on the 7th February, iSl.^j until which time rhc Seitatc did nf>t 
contain rwo-rhirds in f*vnr of thr Cnnvpntion. In thr Housr, 
after turning out Mn Hsm^cn and admifling Mr, Shaw, they had 
iwo-thtrds. nnd no more. 

The "diBorderly procewion" deacribed by Governor Kord, 
took place the ni|^t before the paaeage of the Convention Kcsniu 
lion — notflfrerwards s^he state*. A sufficicnr nimihcf ofmrmhcrs 
had bound ihcjuwlvcs to turn uul the ^ittinti rruinbcr. and take; 
xn Mr. Shaw; and they considered their object as accomplUhcd. 
To guar;! c^ainat accidents, they had made preparation to turn 
out Mr. Emmiu^ of White, and to admit in his atead a Mr» Craw, 

The Convention RcfiOlurion was ofTered in the House on the 
2T[h J;in, 181^. and althinj^h Mr. Hansen ihen voted fur it, it 
uras defeated for thnt time for want of the requisite two-third>. 
At this lime Mr. Mcl'atridgc of Johnson, and Mr. Rattan of 
Greene, voted againtt the resolution. .At the noct trial, on the 
nth Feb., it wu again defeated, Mr. Hanien voting against it, 
and MfMTv MtFatridg:" luid Rart;in fr>r It, Ir wa* nndenriKwl 
that ihc member fmm Greene had been broLight over by "instruc- 
lioma," and that the member from Johnson changed hi» vote in 
[^ur«uanee of a "compromiie," hy which it wae sripubted that the 
faeat of justice of that county ^houTd be removed- The resnlwtion 
was jia*^*rd Sy bis vote; tmt the other parr of the compmmitc was 
not ful5lled. 



wpott thf occa»on of the apprarancc of "Lcav<* from Goirriwr 
Fcrd'ji Hiitory of lUInulh/' some tJifcc years in wUvanoc of it» 
publication, Mr. C. was a ncmbcr of :hc Lcgblaturc referral to» 
and 15 doubdcss tn po«sesaion of the Jount«U for that period. — 
He was also a liberal aulwcriber to new»p»per*, and regularly filed 
them, ai well ;l* all *uch, and orher cUH.UTn(.'nt& thai occasionally 
came to }i\% hanch. Full cralii 15 tlierefore tJue to hix »raicment!i 
of fflct, which thow: who ha*l the mana»cript of the tfutory in 
charge mifihc have avaikci chemfc)ve« of, ond thereby «o f^ 
render any "vindication of the trucTi of hbtory" unneccuary. 

A narrative of tKc affair Wtw'ccr Mewra, Manner and Shaw, 
in ibe l^gislanirc, mas publ-ybnl in the ^"GcnSiis of Inibcrty," at 
txwcll> La&allc county, in December, 1840; another, of the aftmc 
events^ wa« K^vcn by William H. Brown, Esq., in a lecture in this 
cit>', ahoitt xht sairc time- It is presumed that Governor Ford 
read thew statcmer^is on their puhlicatic^n ; buc that, on writiDg 
his tiook, he <:onsiilertd them of secondary imponaiKc 10 the great 
evcnt»orhisovrnpubliclifcand times, and consequently, in rtgard 
to the former, did nr>t advert to dommcnts, or charge hb memory 
with thexn. 

U was not known to the Convention or slave party, at the 
commencrmeni of the seuion, that rhcy wouVI need txiih Hansen 
andShavtf, 10 carry die twopcinls — therc^lcctic^nof Judj^Thonuut 
to the United States Senate, and the Convention question. Han- 
sen wasoflhetr party, and chcy relied upon hisfdellty and^pport 
in all the measures they might undertake, 

TnbisacciHjnt of theatnvsuaof iflll, Gc>vernorFt)nt mentions 
ti«o Chief JiiEiiIccTir (Joseph Phi]Iip:i and Tliomas Reynolds^ 
which may to readers not acquainted with the circumsuincca, 
need explanation. 

Upon becoRiin^E a candidate for Governor in iSli^ Mr. Phillips 
relived his offi<-r of Chief Jtmrirr of rhc Supreme Courr. He was 
unquc^rionably the nio»t talented man of his party, ^nd had the 
fijil confidence of the bar, which we take to be (he best criterion 
of ft good Judge. We never hciird anything dt&rep'.i tabic to his 
mcrsl character, excepting the taking of a prominent piart in the 
"rnisy, disorderly, and ntmulroiis procession" at Vandalia, as 
relatcU by Govctnoi Fe^iI, affd corrected «9 tu time tn the letter 


iLUsois ttisroRicjL cotiscnoss 

at Mr. QmrduO- Ahtr tiK dcfc«t of tfcc Coovcncioa Ji 

tilljp& ret unte d to Tennwwr, «faetK« he cvnc, xod wn 
wirds a tftcttber oi dw Doted ""wldtt-truluag eotiunittee*' »F 

' Gov. Bond appoiotad Tloma KcfutUMy the Ocrk of the 
Hoam nf Reproentath'a. to Be Outl Jioacc in tlie pUct 1/ 
Judve Pliillip>t wtudi ofioc ke heU until the noqpuiizatkMi of tltc 
judtciajy In 1824, at teqaind by the Cdn$tittition, He wu « 
i&Wnteil man, bvt dot over-^ce sad ccnipaloDs rn - ~ ^ J 

dcpcinnicnt. At Hx ocw c fa i kj o of Jud^es^ W «4^ 1, 

voy OHKh CO iIm samfacbon of the fncndsof focid oid^ 
rrionvL Aftcf pntcticinf; law « year oc two* he p«tlcd op stmkcs in 
llliAO«,flnd moved to theuppcr pvtof Mi0oun,«4wrc he fouml 
a people more congcnttl to Kit t»rc ai^il limbics. — ^There he rose 
rapidly to prtfcrmtni, Firat, a mrn^icr of the Legiabtarr; artt, 
asSpc^erof thcHouMof KcpfcicziuuvcA; and lastly, u Gi^Trr- 
nor of the Sratc. While bolduig the U(tcr oftec he oonmitrcU 
sukide. PoDtical trouble* were md to he the eauge of 
devperate act. 

Ainuog the mcaaurrs of Gciirrtwr Colci which gave dtssatti* 
faction to the anti-slavery party, waA hu dmngcnuov» trratmcnt 
of Morris Btrkhcek, whom he hod ippotnted Secretary of State 
durini: thcrcccig. Mr. Birkbeck conferred honor upon the»tationt 
not the station upon him. Although an En^i^hman by birth, be 
WH* a rrpublican in principle; of htgh endowmenrs in literary 
aa|uiremcntSr and of deep research in the scicncesr Hr wa« an 
honorary member of most of the threat literary ai>d scientific 
aioucia^ions lsu\ of l^ngland af>d France* Dnfin^ the vi^c of 
General Lafajvttc to :his country, upon hb arrival in St. Loub in 
lS34, he made earnest nqoiries of s driver* of Illinois prfrMrnt, foe 
Mr. Birkbeck— Ai^caking of hioi mt a perwnal frieiid, anJ of hiii 
desire to ^c lum. Such a man vtAi of too mucb wurtbt and of 
h^h standing to be trilled with, even by the Cjovcmoir of a Stau 
The letters of "Jonathan Freeman" had not b«n for];otten 
by the leaders of ihe Conventior party, at the commencement cf 
tbe se^i^inn af iS^-5- Vrt it waxconi'etled on all -t^deit^ ihst had 
the nomination of Mr. Birkbeck been immediately «ent to the 
Senate upon the organization of that body, it would have bcca 



confirmed without an^r diflicultT-, if iK>t without oppo&itJon. But 
ic was deUyed till near llic doee of the e«»don, when parties wtre 
better organized and rival interefts formed. Hb rejection then 
wa« aJmost a matter of ciHirac A few yean after, Mr. Btrkl^etk 
wax drowncil while atiemptiog to cross a swollca creek, on horse, 
back, near New Harmony, 

PfcCK* ■n> Wahkk\, Manh 34, 1855 
\Fnt it'ftf, Arrll 13, lajjl 

H, Warucjc, Esq, D^ar J^rr,— While attending the March 
term of our Circtiit Court m Bcllevilte, Jll, I saw al the hou<ie of 
Gov, ReyroltU, "The Fuee West/' of December aJ, 1854, wuh 
the nrttdr tivcs thr initiiU nf yimr name. On reaching hnmt rhi* 
week, I found a cnpy of the same paper addrcractl to my ruime- 
Pcrmit mc in chiR public mnnncr to rcmm you ny many thftnk* 
for rhis expression of old rca>llecrion5, and fo make some cocrec- 
dons in >'our etatcments, and come brief animadversions on th« 
l»tc Governor Ford'* "History". 

I am not wittiuij: a "Hutort" of Illinois, nor do I regard 
cny«1f under obti^ationa to produce fl book of that dcscriptJon* 

In February, iS^;^, the writer gave two hisforical Iccturca, 
ia the Scate House at Vandnlia. in the presence of the members of 
tlw Legislature and a large company of gentlemen and ladic*: — 
one wa^ lan tlie Indian Hi»tury, and the utiicr on tlie French 

*Pt«t, Johf* M«on* U*ra in I-itcKAcldt ConnKticuT, Ortobfr ji, 17J9: I Si I, 
rv«i:iired 10 Gn<f*f i^auM^. Sew York- cnrcre-l on puioml work in DupfiK 
chuTfh, *iip|wrfing him^lt tiy teaching; TB14, l^e^iinir p»aTur of 1 ^Kurdi 4t 

the Rock 5|^riiiif Scminjirr (i>r iliccUut-JtiiLn t/rcat^cri jiiii minttccr^; muh irutni* 
racfilAl in *<ojfLn« enilti*mcrfct far ShurilclF CoUtg«, »^lith icveluptd ftotn Rock 
Sphnif Sent'inarft and wt^ foumlcJ 4E Upper Alwa in lU^f; uncci ut tnutcv W 
in«ny jvJintj aid^J in firibljthinif t ht^htnficiil intitrution nt C>vingt«n, Ktfiryckyt 
jC43-i]Uf, served « corrcipofiitinir i«fcf*fT nnd finnncinl aflent of the AoMrkjia 
lUplUl Pifblication ScifiH>, vith Keiilqiinrun av PhlliUelpnid: btcr irrmd h 
pBDM of churchn in Mitt^uri, Kcnrnrky. ittd tninnis: wrty^t much fcr varioot 
pcricidk«b: jMji, iiuhlitlial « GtiJtfvr Fjmip4tUii lAj*, ;>LibtUhnl d Gttautfr tf 
fffiawi if5Cp imMiihcil ^yunfj/f 0^ J^ Witl; trty ail EEiJutTiviiiB Uitlciior o 
hiitu!cdl rei:ord>; J^S^* ic^eiTcd die dqirce cjf D.D. fmm fWw^rd IMii^rsiy; 
dKi]«tRo<k Sprmif, March if. v3fB, BnleniiLn 4qilSclt>y, fttrforit^ ErK'jt^tftdh 



HtsTury of thin State. A committee HitKappainlcil, ar rhe hcAfi n( 
which* vr« ih^ Utc Govtrmw Ford, who reported a serto 
of ruolution», calling en the writer Co make Acompfete hutoiyof 
lUinots, and a "Committee of Correspondctioe'' vu mppointtd Co 
aid in collecting inaiemli- 

AII the prfimi-ies thr. wrlrcT mttde wa* to do hii? hrnt to €ottf<i 
maimtilj for such a work; leaving it to ProvJdcrvcc a^d fuFurr 
coo tingenc{ ilea whe^er he would write our An<l publbh them. 
In gathcnn^ matcnala, ;hc writtr soon found he could compile a 
BoctK rhiT inighc pass current as > Hiktokt or Uunois; but bke 
similar workn, gotten up from wcond hand authoririrft, and in 
CuMomaiy htHc^ it would be a mixture of tmtli and fiction, of 
facts and fables; like a large proportion of the "HifTORiKs" 
fllrtftdy publiahcd. He knew it would be the laboc- of years to 
prepare an accurate And truthful hibtory of Illinois, 

Two resolutions introduced by ^irrtTemen^ at the meeting 
referred to, after cunsultution witJi the writcrt cxpnaa W\a oitt^i 
of the characteristics of /m-A a History. 1 give tktm herewith, 

"On moiioTi of J. M. Hewitt, Eaq-, 

fUst^hrJ, That a complete history of Illinois should embrace 
the various <(tages of Irs progrew, fmm iis c*"irlic*t dtseovcrio to 
the preseni rime; and the various relatione of its iahabicancSt 
political, military, commcrical, moral, and rdigicas- 

On motion of Jesse B. Thomas, F^«]., 

Rfso/iMfj Thar a histo^^' of lliinois should be complete in its 
parte, merhnctical In it^ arrangement, nccumte antldi^tcriminaiing 
iji all its details, perfectly impaniaJ in its charge (eristics^ and 
diverted of all politicai* religious and local prcposac-ssions. 

Any hooU thnt docs not pos^K■^s these charactcHscic«> docs not 
deserve the grave title of T*/ Waory oj liJinoh, oe any other 

In collc*mng materials, it was ioon found noccuaTy^ to inclDd^ 
in the collection the earfy hhtory ^' thf Missmippi Faihy. This 
has been done. A Urge amount of newspaper files, public docu- 
ments, pamphlets and other printed matter, amounting to several 
thousand ^^olunies, unboundi va^ consumed in the fire that burnc 
the old building long known as Rockspring Srnitnary, on Kov. iS, 
1%$^ But the most valuable things, for such a hiatocy were 



pfC!fcr%'cd in ihc ilwcUmg liousc of the «nccr. He bast Tell easy, 
ftnd dispcocd to approve the labors of othcn in the some field. 
No writer has been in his w*y, or retarded his progress. The 
public have been omu^, invtrucced said gratified in rc^idtng both 
Brown 'ft and Ford's Hi«tone« of lllinniK, The iirsf n a conglom- 
merjulon {sir) of fa^is moral xuggc?ilinns npcculatinnx, and the 
notioJi5 of the writer. It cont&irs *n trrcgvlar jcries of hisiorical 
ootcs and skctchw of vonoos Europcjirv and Amchcun affair*, 
in which lllinotfi h« a share. So many imponint events were 
Iffi Dill, and R> many cJcubtful things jnir in, nndso many mistakes 
were mAde about ocainen^e? Ivfiirc the aufhur knew ihe counrry, 
that the work ia of httlcwoith even aa a soiir« of reference. 

F^r^s Hhi^ry^ with all its nusttXca* is far auperior to Ac otic 
by Brown. Bur as yoxj juttly remark, he wrote the book ta defend 
his own adminbi ration, and it is to be regretted that he did not 
confine himself to h'ts "Ovn Timei ". He would have done himadf 
and hi* friendSs and even his cj|'poncnis more justice. The writer 
ever rcgttrded Goverrior Ford :n a friendly swpect, heard him read 
portions of his work 'm mariu8criT>t, and had his friendly corre- 
tponderce during rbe term of hii administration as Governor. 

The " PiofjcfT Huiary of lUinoh'*, |jy Gov, RcyncildK, pub- 
lished in Belleville, iSj£, you have not noticed. Have jou ever 
seen it? 

It purport* to be a history of the discovery cf rhecountry 
from 1673, to the formation of the State government in 1S1S, It 
rommeree* wirh rhr aborigines, rakrs tn ihr rrcnch period, jhen 
the BiitUh period from 1765 ro 1778, whe« ihc country was taken 
by Ocn, Clark, annexed 10 Vincinia; and in 1784, ceded to the 
continental Congress. For much of ihb portion 0/ the history, 
chcGovernoracknowledgcshimsclfindebted to the "AKfmJj€/ih4 
9Vtst" which the writer rrvi^rd and grcarly enlarged, for Mr. 
Albach the pruprJClOT and publisher, in iSja In that ^Aork \1^ a 
sufficiency of original niattci to constitvitc the Annals of Missouri 
and lllinoc^ with copious references to authorities^ 

From ttJOf, Governor Reynolds relies mudi 00 hit memory 
and that of the old inhabitants of this and neighboring couades. 
Tbe writer^ by request of tlic autluir, prejiared a chapter of 



sixteen pagc&, hca^lcd* " T*r R^iziws anj Xtorttis ^ liUn^h^ prim 
U rStS:' 

The particular vttuc of thu work as a book of rvfercn^, 
coiuuifi in The abcrcbcs of families arnj im£vii)ujils, ani] a vast 
multitude of incid^ntB and anecdofrs connected with ihcir Uvo 
aod punuits. There are miaukes of courae, for who can give a 
perfect uid accurate history of acreraJ hundred pefaofla* the most 
of wiiom with their personal acquaintances have loog dnce paued 
any. The book 14 without an indciG, sikI contents to the chap- 
ters; — a mu&t seriou^i Uefett a« a wurk uf refrrtncvt, which ihe 
author now regrets,— Fifteen hundred copies vrcrc printed hf a 
"jour/' on a Kamagc press and an old fount of type, in the Gorcr- 
nor's law office in BeUerU&e; the author supfxiaing non« but the 
old aetders, and pliin illiterate peof^ would read it. It iiras Mt \\ 
type, fa« ^ fhe author coiild scritch off the «heen, mthout any' 
ckrical airrcctifjn;(, and the proofit badty read. And yet, with all 
these defects, this "Romcer History" is a unique and valuablr 
book, and will be sought after by the future htstorion, as a 
moft valuable cevt bock. I.asT ycir the Governor wrote and 
pvUbhed a little M mo. v<ilume of ?^ pp. entitled "Skftt^s y 
the Counay en ihe Norfhtn Rt>asf/rvm Be/lrvWf^ f//., to tkr fitj ^ 
New York^ and Aac* iiy ihc Ohi& i^aliry^ toifther mth m lUnte «f 
the Crysta! PaJoif" The trvr was made in iB^j, and the 
"Sketches" fiirnt^ much vtJuabte tn^>m)atk>n and a mass of 
statiKiirnl facr« jirminiDg to rhc commermt and ocbcr bustnea 
in the cilice and fown« akxi^ the rmiTc, 

Gov< Reynolds is now employed on a work thai will exceed 
in sincj •* Ford's Hktoey of ininoia,"— entitled " Mr Ou'k TiMts". 
I have read p<>rtioTisof this work, and hestJtate not topre^iict there 
vill he diuppotntment nn the parr of tho^e who arc di*pt»»cd to 
smile at the appearaucc of ttx au to- biography from the "Old 
Ranptr;" and I sm disposed to leave the **yankees" to ''ii:ue%s" 
and the 'nanves*' to "reckon/* 'u\ what way they wdl be 

Thus you see, Mr. "Associscc Editoe/* I have oorreci 
your cmmi about die per^ms yini name in St. Clair LTHiniy, 
"each writing a history of Illinois". 

I will now tell you what I am doing. As an itinerant preitchcr 



or tvtn a ]o<a\ one, E am "used up'** I CAn neither eruiu re tbe 
fadgiie and exposure of traveling on the range, or performing 
pi»roral services. Providence hn^ left me wiih The ability to 
pctfotm hut one branch of busincto. I luii uw: the jjcn wiih nmre 
focilit)' ^mJ ici% fati^e than must men at my age- Hence I a.m 
flhut up TO one pumuit; writini; for periodicals, and making bootu. 
A printed circular, that accompamci this communication, will 
inform you of my plan of operatjoni; the iwue uf which depends 
un that merriful Providence who guanlft uur health ;ind proh^ngs 
the thread of life. My principal work in anticipacioni ts a Inrge 
volume to be called '^Tiic Moaal l'kOc;ar.»^ or The MlKHisMrrr 
VALLcv/'ofwIitch I willgive the fallowing cxtmci* from a printed 

"Such a wnrt, afrrr much condensflricin. nnd mtrng Hiir!xncil 
tables, can be comprised in an octavo volume of about cighl or 
nine hundred pages. "ITit general plan will be a combinarion of 
ftnnaU, and eoniJnuous history of periods. The compiler will aim 
to give, from authentic documents and the testimony of li^ng 
witnesses, a concise account of ihr principal facrs concerning 
die riHT, pnjf{ie!«, and prcM:ii( condition of each Clirblian dcnunu- 
nation, from the earliest settlement to the present time - the com- 
mencemcnc and progress of Sabbath School and Bible Class 
Instruction — Tract dbtribution — efforts of Bible Soeleties — the 
flitmhutifm of religiout ^Kxjks by itlner:tnt preachent, and latterly 
by ihr cmpiijyrncnt of c«lpartcurs — the lal«jnt of mi%sionarict, 
and [he operAlions of the denominational missionary societies of 
the Aeloniic State*: in this Valley; with the operations and effects 
of othe:r henevolenc and philanthropic »x>cictic5 rhac have aided In 
the moral pnigre^ of the inhahitantt. ^jjucatjos', and irx pro- 
grewve tfftti* by common schools public scbools in iiue%, 
academics seminaries and colleges will be reviewed- 

'I'hc Pncss^ with its various influcnccft and bearing?, will be 

Lawk in the several Slates foT the comcrvanon of morals and 
good order, witH the inlliience of our political inscituticns on the 
morals of the people, will be nociced. 

BiooiCAFHicAL SfcETCHCi of miniaccr^ of the gospel, jumtj, 
legislators, and other latymen, who In public or private life have 


>ulnl in the ftJvancemsfnt of fntitBlK oiul r^ltgkm in th» Vallfy, 
will be tntcrspcrKt) through the vorlc. 

It » not the buiincu ci the hiuotUn to hold controversy, of 
prcsuDK to adjudge disputes between the fe^gious sects, but to 
^ve the fncts a« accurately rb poMiblc, and le^ve the reader 10 
deduce his ijwn infctrnrcs, and do his own moraluin^. The Buthnr 
propoKs 10 allow a wide mar^a for diversities of oi>bLun on dis- 
puted points of faith t^nd practkc; but it will be hi^ pnninoe to 
juUge of the kgirUnacc tendencies of customs, institutions, afid 
aocia) organizations, whether as a whole they have been beneitcial 
or injurious to tho tnonil progress of the p'>[iolati<jn of this Valley. 

While coUccliri^ fufihcr nmtemh for ihe ImjuI ilc?iiail>cd in 
thia circular, he will dniih and have published fcvcrat timafler 
books, chiefly of a biographical character, but specially intended 
to illuftcrate the manners, usagea, and incidtrnta of frcntier life." 

Thiw ^rommunication u alrendy pmtroctcd to lafBcicnt length 
for ihe ccilunin» uf a ncwstpaper But rhcre jirr facu withm the 
writer'* pergonal knowledge, connected with the aniUslavct)- 
eontest in ilJ2^'24 in ILlinoU, and eipedaljy pertatntng to Gover- 
nor Coles, that may aa well go before the public, and will be fhe 
topics of another art tele. 

Respectfully ynurs, J. M. Pkck. 

Rock Spring, 111,, March a^di, 1855 

Peck to WAaaEW, March 26, 1&5J 

H. WftaKEii, Esq. Dear Sir: — The pooitipn of Governor 
Cokfl and the Editor of the Edwardsvlllc Spectator, in rcUiion li 
each ether, [^oliticftlly and personally, had the cenniency to cau: 
cadi to mistake and prejudge the other, during the period of ilie 
political exntemenc of iSzj-^. Both wen the unflinching 
oppoinetits of the Convention and SJavc-introvUicirg scheme. 
Each in his sphere of action performed valiant service in the cauac 
of freedom, '1 he writer at that time ^05 honored wi:hihcpcr»onal 
frTctidshipof both. 

(rtivemor Fdwsrds, tlirn n Srnarorin Congress, and Govenior 
Co!es, then Chief Magistrate of Illinois, ocoipied po$<tk>n« H>ine- 



Vhat oilvcnc in national politics. Both were pcnond frictuU 
with the writer, who occupied a position somewhat distuit frtfin 
the political ag'itftiion« of WaAhbigton city. The l«u Goi^emor 
p€>T(i wasi mil "m flcitvc life, nnd fi>r |wrt of the time was not in ihc 
Stale durini the pcrioii of the Convention Question, and the real 
of the period he resided in Mortroe cou;ity. DfiubtlcM he wrote 
from impre«»ioiii that floated thr<}ush Un mindi from what he 
heard others tay^ hut he has left in his Iwok a tiettieofmiiitak^^c. 

Governor Rdwsrda, in the most frarik tn^ cpen manner, ai 
all ^mci in convcruition, jliiU by strong and well wtittcn articles 
in the papers, opposed the Slivcry project* 5o did the Utc 
Daniel P. Cook, our rcprcM&rarive in Confines. 

Governor Co^ wu then, and is to this day, an opponent a( 
Slavery, and especially of every attempt to ctrend it irnj frrc 
territory, I have cnjuyed hla fricndihap, and had the honor of an 
intimate acquaintjincc with him aincc the commencement ot the 
anti-sluvery contest in i83j. He has furnished me the leading 
incidents of his life, including hi» edHiest convictions of the vrrong 
of slave-iiolding. and all the cifcumsiances attendant on tlie eman* 
cipation of his slaves. 

At the request of the writer^ after long andrcpeatcd interviews, 
Governor Ccle« stent lum a ajmmunication, intended to be used 
at h^ discretion in the "MoRAt," etc, already te&rred 
to. In relation to the attempt to intrnduce slavery into Illinois 
during hi« ndminintmtion, Mr-, Coles uv^ iIiik Uncage: 

"[ often recur to that rime as the most intcrcsring period of 
my life; and the longer I live, the rrtorc I approve and rcjoite at 
Our fticce«afu! labors in preveniing the rminKiTous cBorts then 
made to make Illinois a slave-holding stftte. Or, in the cant 
phra» of the prevrn: day, of our 'prcvenTing the wieniion of the 
area of freedom,' by preventing the exteniion of slavery o^'er 
llHnoia;^ an absurd and outrageous perversion of lanicuage, as 
wcUaaofprinciple. and adding absurdity to the glaring and revolt- 
ing inconsistencies of poor, frail human nature, in roicraring and 
justifying the existence and peq)etiiity of slavery in this country/' 

Edward Coles was born in Albemarle county, Va., Dec, 15, 
17S6- Hb fitJier was a rich planter, and owned several planta- 
tions, with a large number of slaves. But having ten children to 


divide his «tait« among, tKe property to each child was not great. 
He rccctvc^l hiN citiK-4liun 3kt Witlijirn and Mury Ctilfcge^ tinder tlv 
Prci^cocy of Bishop Modifton. He writer in the letter I h«vc 
drewiy quoted {}^n. 7> 1K47, and we heard htm narrate the par^ 
ticulars before this date,) 

''Before 1 6n[ihed my education, I became convinced that 
man cnuhl not nghtfully Jiave a (imperty In Vm fellow man; and 
not being able to reconcile slavery as it exU(cd in VirfjEinia, ivith 
my /eclinea and pHncTplcs^ [ dctctniiiK^ to free my slaves, and 
leave the State" 

Mis father died a year after he left c^!ege, and he inherited 
a farm and about tweaty sUve% when h<" cnadc his Tiitention 
known to the family utid olTcred his pUniatioo (or mIc. But the 
cmbarraasments of the country prevented a »lc for acvcnd years, 
during which hie slaves n-maincd there, increaaed in number, and 
were made comfortable. In the mean time, Mr, Coin received 
the appoirttfntfnt i>f private Secretary, and resided fn tlie family wf 
Prcsidc'K Ma;!iM)r:, ticurly nix yearit. He was fhen sent on ^qiciuii 
public bu?tincji, as bearer of de^paCchea to Riixtia, aAd mode the 
tour of the continent. On Wis return, accompiiinicd by Charter 
ooie of hi« servants, he made a lour on horseback to St. 1-ouis and 
ininoi<(, explored the country and determined to bring hi^ alavc« 
to i\m Stiiic for frceJorr. In March, iRiy, he removed to this 
StAtc with wagon» and horsea to Bmwnaville. and there he pro- 
cured three Racboats, and with his ^crvnnts ar>d chattels, dcsccruled 
the Ohio to New Albany. There were then, aa now^ officious 
intermedtdllers along the right bank of the Ohio, who made efforts 
topcr&uadrthcdarkir!iloctc)[H-ro a free country. Hie^r uridprsir>uj 
their place of dcstiniuuci tube St. I^ouis, andso ihcy (old inquirers, 
--Charlea h^d been there and to Illinois, and he waa enthusiastic 
tn praise of the country', at: a very parAdieie for the darkie^H No 
intimations of freedom had been given them.— Their master wa* 
an eiprrimenial phil(uupher, and decired to witncju their behavior 
at the moment of learning rhelr freedom. They were encampeil 
above the falU, and descended the Shute J Jst after daylight. The 
inftant the Ixjats, which were lashed todcther, were in Ktnooth 
water near the Indiana shore, all the fcr^^antt, young and old, 
were ordered on dcok to hear " the la*! words and dying speech " 


of & slaveholder! lie remindnl ihcm of their nimmofi binhpUcr 
on ch^ same pJjncjlion, cHaI ihcy had been rjilscd together, that 
they hAd recoj^nizcd h;m as their masicT, aind had gi^cn tibundanc 
proofs of their itttachmcnt and obedience to him- He cold them 
the councr>' ihcy saw on the left hand side of the river was Kei»- 
tucUy, where the colored |icople were slaves as in old Vir]gimd; 
but OR the right ham! wab IndUn^^ where there were fio slaves 
but all Were free He pointed out the town uf New Albftny 
lowaida which they were Ifoatlng and said, "there I nhall leave the 
boats and take the wagoni and borse» across by land to UlinoU, 
where the colored people are free. From thtt mamitsl you arf aU 
Jitc. Yiiti rntty gv ta-itA m^, or you may jiay Aert** lie watched 
their countenances and behavior with intenx: intcrtst. — It waa 
juKt after the sun threw hi» golden bearn^ over the lan<Ucape. For 
a minute^ not a wnrd wo« spoken. The expression was that cf 
ovem helming ait to ni^h merit, until one of rhc older one* hunu out 
in a ]xi»ionaie cwlamation^^'No Massa, ram: ho" and choked up 
itith sobs and tears, "No— no— no—'* responded on every side, 
from affectionate henrts. ThcolderoncswcTercli(tioo3andbclonRed 
to the MethodiftC society. One of the men, somewhat Advanced 
ir life, Bpoke xL« if on bchnlf of the rest, and remonstrated a^iTisr 
the whole business; that their young m^uter, as they called him, 
could not labor, and they were ncceAS^ry to hU support, and would 
JCO with him wherever he chcae. 1 might give page after page of 
dctaib, but it will ^liffice to sny, time they ali landed in New 
Alhanyi the boats were 4old for old lumber, and the caravan 
moved ucruss the country by Vim:enne*. A part of the servants 
were located in Hdward&vitte, am) a part at St. I.,out-i, &t<ordinx to 
their cxtn choUt^ I will give here the UnguaEc of Gov. Cotea in 
the written document already quoted^ at an answer to alt cur- 
misingf on die subject. 

Writing about the uillnztion of hbt mrmey for hU plantation 
in March, i % 19, he wys, " I then took at my e^peaw all my negroes 
to llhnois and St. l-ouis and emancipated thcm^ except the i)ld 
wxirocn, wKo being incapable of suppof ling thcmscUcf , I retained 
as fJave«, and supported tbem during their lives, ^s a rf«arJ/or 
past tervUts^ tixjii a siimuht mjutur/ fxrtthn^ I ffKf tt> fhret/amUUs 
tmuiuifiaSidt a qttttrfcr udtoH {i6o aati) nf iand to EACll^ 



A more fuU account of iny negroes «« ^ven bj^ me m a 
letter in June, \%n, aod pub&tbed m that or the next riKiDtli In 
the Illincm Nr^ipapcr-'** 

] hare juii cxAxtii(k£(l the Fdwutltvillc SpeclAtor^ and find 
m the niimber of July &ih, iSii, du> kttcr, with Ml cxpUoBtkini, 
of ft mnnT hb wife And five children; in St. IxuU, aU of whom 
l>ecunc free, by a fpccUl srrftngemeflt^ ntide m Virginia, in 
Augiiti, 1825. — The letter wac ^nt puUishcd in the linncaa 
Intelligencer, and copied into the Sftrc»tor. Hie letter ctmtaiu 
the umc sutcmcnt about the g^ft of a quarrcr KCi>on of Und to 
e^if:h of the three families that settled in Mlinov. They became 
Baptiitt at t subcequent period, and vith John LiviAgston^ 
Stmuel Vinmii, and scvctrI others, became the ntiHeus of the 
colored bapti&r churches in ihi» sraic. Robert Crawford (wifh 
his infc, and one of iNcsc familid^ hai been an ordtined prt^cher 
in the Baptiaf connection, for about tv-cnty-hvc ytam- He lives 
in Fajetieeotinty^ where he hu a Urge farm, and is "wcU to do" 
in this world. 

Gorenicr Coles wan perKcuted aiul reviled, both while in 
and out of oiiice, by a clan of men whose moral and political 
characters would have disqijalificd them for blacking ha boots. 
But they are gone! — with thouttind* of othen who destroyed 
thenudveN by whitkey and towdyiim, while he whom they rpviled 
amj dopisetl, i« ihr pnouensor of large v«ealrh, and at the head of a 
moiC inrcmidng family in Philadelphia, bdo^xd and retfiecied 
by a Urge circle of friends. The writer ktio%Ti him inttmttiely> 
and never fails to enjoy his hospitality, when in ;hat city. 

Gov. Coles performed a part in the anti-tlavery content in 
1S24, knnwTi to bur few. There arc a scrim of facn; kno*-n 10 the 
writer m that cofitcst, never )CC made public, and which wdi 
re<tuirc Mn additional article. 

J- M. Feci;, 
Rock Spr'mg, 111. March a6. 

P«CR TO Warsev, Mar^h 37, 1855 
ToH. WAaaE«, Esti, — In flm article^ it will be the aim of d>e 



writer to dhibit htatoricAl hcxSt not publbbcd in any Kiatorjr of 
the State, And known at the lime 1o l^it few. 

I. Then! waft an onisi^t infimme at work from the first, 
even befen thtf <|ue«lkm was op«n«d in lllmoii. A ttill And quiet 
cffc»t wa* made by leading puliildanK in »]ave-iv>Idiny Statr<, lo 
bring about 4 rcvt^lucion ^t\ nlavcry' in iKc nc>i|1i-wcKtcr]i Statcn, 
capcdally ill Illinois and Indi4na, and ultimatcl)' ti vras cKotight 
in Ohio, 

The mfitivc for such s movement ww ^nd tn the efcn« of 
rhr r^orth to suppress tiavcry in Misscun, The writer hat bng 
rcganlcd the imroiiuttion ot the " Missouri Question " Into 
CongrrUt aa one of the moftt unfortanatc aiid misicuidcd move- 
ments, for the cau5c of freedcim and nejirD cir^ancipation, tn the 
hiitory of our country. IvOuUiana, includiDg Missouri, wa« a 
sUvcholding country from irs carli«t wrtlement. Slavery was 
oiablifihed there by the poaliive laws of the Crown of France^ in 
the eaily pitrt of the t8th century. The CerriBc convulsion in An 
dTotI of ConKTCSS to limit and control slavery, vhere it had 
existed for more than a century by the law of the counti?, resulted 
in placing certain leading poltiidans \n the slave.holdmg States 
m an aggrrsoave jx-i^Juun tuwxfd^ micIi im: St^lIc^ ;u were dennc\1 
susceptible In a change of pulley. The writer derived his infor- 
mation from three sources of undoubted nuthonty,ard with others, 
made uidc of the facts to arouse the jealousy of the people to resist 
this encroachment on the^r rights from abroad- He, with others, 
ihm rrx>k ami maintained ihr ptxiiiinn^ that the j^eo^ile f>f other 
Sutcs had no buMincM with" the qucMion of slavery in Illinois; 
that it wa* a subject thai belonged to the voter* in ihU State, and 
TC ihcm alone to settle. — Hf n/nains */ M^ jamr opmtcn uiU, and 
herui has i€en cppM^J jq ail mierftrtnct ^ ih* ciiizeta cf Jrtt Ssaits 
M sUtrry in arJirr Staijrt, 

1. Sooi^ 2sihc ncwsofthepA65ftgc of the Convention reaolu- 
lion reached St* CUir countyi an individual well known to the 
writer, promptly vititcd a number of KCTtlcnien in the county 
known to be opposed 10 slavery; a preliminary meeting was called, 
the outlines of a plan of operanons was propoted, and a committee 
ras (^pointed 10 draft acujistituiion, aiidcall a^cncr;ii mcctifi^.— 
much larger meeting was held in BcUcvillc, March nimU 181J1 


jincp^ w Mf 5rtf/ o^/i/tttMjy*' vas doJy orguiizcd, ukd the 
nKTurted to pnrwv ukl ptibloli bh Bdilfctf lo die pcociIk^ 

You auy find Ax CoMtiEutiDrt sad AcUrca in ihc Jtlea 
tk Eilwttnisviflc Spectator of Apol iich, Tboti^ Kc tkcEiocti 
ofice IB dkc Mociy, cW CanctiTutioe Aad Addreu* mere bodt 
wrnica fay thi vritcr. AiBong cht cvrksitic* of tkc naw vas the 
prrirfKrifi ch»mccrifig<if Al^pr«*cbcnof dhcfo^xJpfnccboduu 
wid bsptisis: scvct*] axiun^ horn adjcxnin^ oMnneii. John 
McMnccft E^. wu Prtsadcot. amI Dr* Qudcs Woudfronli, 
Cor- SccTCtftry. Rev. Sdu&ud MitcHeO [MctfeodKt. wte it still 
Itviagui Xlbacun, at ike very Advanced «ge of 96,^ w one of rJ 
manxpn, umJ fbiirman of the conumnee. In the «ddteM 
« caIJ «>s ni«k I#u] 00 ihc ofi|ioDent3( of the tatraloclMn 
SUrery in IlUncts to lorai similaj aodeiies in other coundcL li 
leM thmn m months, /e«rtrm sociedcs hni been of^uuzetl tn 
many countsee, and A Crain of mevuns adopted, that produced 
effect in every county and prednct through the tahabited portiofi 
of iheSratc. BrllcvUIc w^as thcturofcficratianL Doci. ChaHr« 
Woodinxth, (who died of cbe cholera in ihc Anxrricsn EWntcn:, 
in 1851) vas the laodjum of ooer ca poodcncc E4ch society tud 
it» coi>&leott^l*l corrcspoadenta in each pftcinct, aihl everr ^uc- 
cndhif month, accurate knofarledgt waa obcahwd at ihe ofice in 
Btdmlie, of the ^raic ind progre w of the qncstion. An afL 
pcrvsJta^ tnfluetKc wa& flHt in evcrr scttkmoii* The individual 
botcofere aJkkkd 10, had occasioQ to travd into ncariy cvcry 
eouaty in the Sutc dunnf the pendency of the qotsnon. And 
■ithout being known aa a paiticafli, [sU\ he eould cauly find cut 
who coutd be depended upon itx coevcspocidenK. And tt \t a 
upibr fact tlut not an muace ever oxne to the knunledgr uf 
the oomnvttee, of any one betraying hit trust, .\nothcr phncipfe 
vaa sacredly rtsarded by the loanager); to use ha vniair meam, 
and to avoid all exaggeration and aU nuwepreaentadoAb. f$^ 
Jmsiitui TMM Cttdmm^ wai their pevctical motto. The Antt- 
Con^-cntioa fiarty had the whole State under tint concml, and 
the qucation mtuidly decided, bcMc their opponents got up a 
puhtic otfaniiation «t V^ndilia. 

J. Nor only did the oppoiMnts of slavery nobly contribute 



$1,000 in stacc p'pcr from their perquisites, &9 mcmbcn of the 
k^t^Aturc, bui otKcr fCTttlcmcn contributed libenlJy, and Gover- 
nor Coles, gast, privattfy and <h4trfuUy^ his x^kry pj %r/>oo pfr 
annum^/o^ thf pm^d of jtt\tr \aw/. TPik fact was published in 
the '* Annals of ifi^ H'trsi,'^ in i ^50, If is afHrmeci on the tmimony 
of the writer, who has Kntnvn the fact Cot many ycar^- 

SuTcir you rccolkct of boxes of j>arnph!ct»« or traet» being 
acnt to different parts of the State dicring the eonteat? TJiese 
dcKximentv wt^re ably wriiren and proved effective mivilea in the 
war. Ycni may recollect there Wiw nu small cariosity, about where 
they tainc fiom.anti whnpaid ihcpviblJihcr? — Our opponents weic 
put to chcir wiift end to find ouc the secret. For a long tune it wai 
eonlincd to the hrca^c of an indit'idual in this State, and twoor 
three benevolent pcntlcmen who Rupcrrtsted the printing and sent 
off fhr pflvkagrs- Y^hi know now ihr fcmntain fmm wheeTrei«ui"(l 
these Utile nils. 

4. SimuTlancous vriih the movement in St» Clair count;% the 
offiec of Secretary' of Slate bc<:Bmc vacant by the resignation of 
Jjdge Lockwood' The wrticr was in I^dtvardsvillct and had 
sroppcd for a shorr time at the hoii^ of Mr. Hopktn<(, inren^ttng 
lu reach hinne the same night. He rcccivctl d private note frcm 
Governor Coles* requesting him to call at his roum at tJie houAc of 
|sjnc9 Mason, on special and private business, without f^il* On 
arriving at Mr. Mason's, the Governor urged the writer to tarry^ 
as he had imporianr bcisincM on hand, and desired to consult ihe 
wriuT alont;. It was ihe appiiintrnent ii[ Serreiarjr 0/ Staff. He 
must be ^lufHcicntly learned in the law, to Hi-^^chargc the duties of 
the office ivith ability. He must he jin antt'Conrcntion man in 
position and principle; and as a matter then utrictly confidential, 
he must be able on a certain cfjniingency to conduct the editorial 
drfanmrni of n newspaper. — Gov. C. tbrn made known to the 
writer the project of purcbajing, through a friendly agency, an 
interest in the Intelligencer ar Vandalta, a paper that by an outrage 
041 the port of the mnjcrity of the leginlahirc, had been taken frcm 
the control of Wm. H. Brown, F^q,, »nd made the leading organ 
of the eonvenrion parry-' 

frrcvd Brown 10 lite im hi* inttmi in the fii^naii JnuUiitntrr^ See /tof* Jft- 



RcRcciing oa the subject tn ill iia bcaruifs, tbc imicr kiw 
in the Gi>vcmor*s pUn a bold and auccca^ful atrokc- WliAtrver 
mi^i have bce& the cncouragcmcDi, when the Edwjfd^villc 
Sp«cta7or vai our stitgk baiter^, to capture and turn the Intellt- 
E^QCcr againiE the enrtnY, ^vn\d ensure Hii defeaT. Dasi^ B/tvk^ 
\Ktil, F-n|., (^f BcUcvitk, wjci tltc onJy man in the Siaic ihar wouldj 
answer all the parpcoo, wtthtn our VEvowIcdgc, and wc augscaicd 
him. The Governor sprang to his feet, and exclaimed "He U the 
very man; why dtd I not think of hifn/* Next mornrng the writer 
trah (in Hi* way uKin osl day'^ighi appeared, and after fihtam!ng 
a Lire hrcakfAfti ai a certain Ing cabin ri Rnck SpfJnf^ WA^cUncced 
in the office of David Blackwcll, Eaq.* in Belleville* on a »caet 
mi8»on of Mate conccni. 

Mr. Bhckwell had not vovtd foe Govtmor Coles, had no 
personal flcf|i]ainiance with him, and newr dreamed of an oJBce 
fmntchat tjuafitr. Of course, hcKacl to be informed confidcnfially. 
of ihc Nem'spapct proiect-— take other lawyers in that nioneylcat 
crt» be wft3 in Mrai^htencd circumsfanoo, and the Secretary* 
aKip was a real God fiend to supply the wantt of a young family. 
The question being settled on his part, it deNxJvcd on the writer to 
coonnnjnicaic witli thv Guvernoc, who had promised to issue the 
COmmia»ion the moment be had the rcpoft of our mUaioa. Well 
might >-ou sayj (i*>cc Wcat, Dec, ai, '^4,) "DaTJd Blackwell, a 
lawyer of BeLicviIle> and a brother of the fbmer proprietor, by 
$9mt mfanit of tthkkt 'ju mt ho/ ttjhistd^ j^cr possefiicn and control 
^ thf InsetiiifJ9€€r a$ yawiaiia^^^. Fornrany month*, the project 
wu known only to three per«on», of which the writer was one. 
tt vraa not for nearly twelve moniha, that it wu consummated. 
Yoti «ay (from mcmt>TT, doubtless) '*in the month of Jooc. mx 
week* before ihcelccliofi-" It wsAthefirtCof May, thennnounce- 
menr was made by a hand^hill, while deie^arrs from the Convention 
pBTty were assembled av the ^C9X of government, m adopt vigomus 
mcasiurca to carry out the election. A bomb>«hcll fall^ntt from the 
aky and exploding in a camp, where no enemy waa thought to be 
neaif could not have produced greater conBtefDat^l Turning 
the gun«j of that battery into the thickest of their ni^ks w^s fatal 
(u the |>ar(y. 

Tlic question being decided in Auguat^ the anti-coDvcntion 



paity disbanded, rlic county societies died, and in a \ztj kw 
monibs there y^ts not a vngle protfnincnt man {£*ve in St. CUir 
,ecuDty,) who would own he w^ m favor of mtroducuig 6l4\Yry 
riiKin the Sute. 

RcipPcduKy yours, J. M. PacK, 

Rock Spring, 111. Morcli 17th. 

RsrucATior^ BV \VAnnt«, Mayj, 1855 

The lui of the sericn of communicatioiu from ihe rexrcrcnd 
and vrrcrftbic Johr M- Peck, i* imierte^l an the firsr page <rf rhw 
f«per. It w hdi^ei! thar th« i«fi prccrriing nmnlim; havff rrccivrd 
A due iharc of ihc retention of ihc rciidcrs of the Prcc West, Jtnd 
that ihe &amc favor will be extended to chc present article from 
his pen. 

As thcK number* Are addrc««ed to me, mdividuftUy, .ind pur- 
pDfi to have been wriilcn m conscc^ucnce of my review of that 
chapter of Governor Ford's I iUiory of IllinoUt m which I am per- 
tly idcntiAcdt although 1 diitikc lo be cicotisCTCA), it will be 
lore convenient to Adopt the style of the first p^twn singular in 
my replica tion> 

Ai assocmtc editor o?* the Western Citizen, as well as the Free 
West, in wbidi tlic ia merged, I have acvcral limes hail 
oceaaioA to allude to the religious and pdickal bearings of Mr. 
^edL, past and present, in whkh, with re«Hngs of cnthusaum, ) 
admiration and approval of hU eiHy career. Our llrst 
tnerring was at St. Louih, in iSiS, where he appeared as a Mission- 
ary from an eastern Sucicty fbi Illino'iit atii\ Mrraouri. With an 
industry indefatigable, and an eloquence which riveted the attcn- 
tion of his hearers wherever he spoke, he soon ncquircd a widely 
extended influence for good in the several communiiid he visiicd. 
Col. Benton, the editor of a *<currilou* newspaper, called the '\St, 
Ixiuis Enquirer/' emlcavored to curtail his uKfulness by ridicule, 
but in vain. 

At an early period of the pendency of the Convention qacation, 
Mr. Peck n-as engaged m the extreme southern portions cf 11lTT%oiK» 
in the dittribution of Bibles, and the organization of Sunday 



Schook. While in that service he had the nddress anid fkiti to 
discover, and rmUidy in Appropnarc nctian ill rhc nnrU«Isvcry 
cicmoit of iKar region wnhcJiti O'u^^ing the mspidor oi ibc s1<vcr>' 
propttgindistA- H^d thnt hccn done, there is no douht be would 
have been mobM and his life endAntecred. In a tetter to a friend 
ir EdwArd^vilIc, giving a cheering account of the progTc»4 arul pro«- 
pect of our caus.c in rh? pfifcs visircd by him, and advising rhai 
|iru|ier H^eniit tnr sent to rhoM: scccioi» of ihcSracc, lie reiTiAiknl. 
"I am intensely eiigaged in a more impoitant mis»on." 

Bui in the allusjona to the course of Mr. Peck, atmvc referred 
to, 1 cook occa^oR to lament hU sad derefiction* afi he ha» ever 
*ince the termination of that contest occupiexl a position, whidi n 
certair reliyioun dtrnominauon Icrnn, in regard 1o iia rccuiuuit 
memheri who have gone back again to the world — "faUen from 
grace." He i$ even more obnoxicu* to ihc charge of tielinquency. 
AS he has gi>Re over to the side of'thcoppressor, by placing hitntelt 
in antflgonitm to the efforts of the IVicndi of freedom to check and 
limit thr Slave Powrr. Mort^ivcr> fin the p*nsagc of the Fugitive 
Slave Law, he essayed in approval and suppor: of that execrable 
caactnacnt— a position which it seems to mc impmsiMe for a tovcr 
ofhiakindi or of homan rights, to occupy. But hccLoe«not itand 
alone. He has gone with the muttiiwle, 1 will not wy for evil 
intentionally^ though practically^ as I am consrrained to Wievc^- 
and «jf the ho^t w)io opjiuseil the intruduction of Slavery into the 
States at that time, I knuw of hut three individuals bcsdcfl myself, 
who have since taken ait active part to stay ii3 strides, and conAnc 
it to iia own conceded bounds- These are Major Hunter, of 
Alton, Judge Snow, uf Quincy, and the Rev. Thoma* Lipiiincott, 
of Madiuin eminty. The event pruvei: that the majufiiy acted 
through fear, a dread of the en nance of the munaterin their mid>t, 
and not from any principle of right or wrong m the matlvf* 

Mr. Pccrk commence* hifi second number by saying, "The 
potitinn of Goveri^or Coles and the Fditor of the Edwardaville 
Spectator, in relation to cArh other, politically and perviitally, 
had the tendency lo cause each co mistake and prejudge the other, 
during the period of political excitement of iJ^i.i 34-'' So f at » 
1 am myself concerned > I cannot subscribe to the accuracy of this 
ttaiement; for I had all the opportunities of knowing Mr, Colo, 



withfiut mis T akc, Ai» well and wt rhtiroughlx aton«injincoiiltl know 
anochcr. The mi«iakc and prcjuclgintj van all or his part. For^ 
Althouf^ a native of the Granite Sracc, (gt b Inrtg lime After o\sr 
firsLi Ac<{uatntiknce he mUtcxik me for a Kentuckun, and for aught 
he knew to the contrary t wAsennrJed tn affix the iniiial»"F.F.V," 
to my name. Wc boarded Ic^ether at a hoiel, and for several 
months lodged in the same room. During thi^ lime* aa he waa 
very coinmunicaiivci I learned his inmost hearty morally, politi* 
cally snd socially. On the score of the first characteristic, 1 was 
not tlispoMd to cake any exception; but in regard to the two latter^ 
my *ensr of propriety forbid mc for a moment to receive or enter- 
tain him him us u leader. I found him to poaKSa an inveterate 
and unconquerable prejudice agai^m "Yankees/' and hia aversion 
to them tould only he allayed by the hope or prospect of uaing 
them to the advancement of his purpc>«e». In politics, "the 
Sokitli" was all in all lo him. The Riclimond Enquirer was his 
Bible, and Father Riichcc hi^ oracle. Southern Ktaresnvcn only, 
appeared to be m his vie* as having a right ro the mana|xr»cnt 
and contn^l of public aifaTrs. He was exceedingly loquacious, andi 
although hi* conversation* were generally interesting, (our 
cotirhc5 Mng side by side) hr vanrtr. rban oner calked me ro sleep. 
The »ibjecis of hia narmtivcs were, bis manaipxment of the cit' 
quettc of the President's Ilou*c, while Private Secretary of Mr. 
Madison, and of the adventurer of his liuropenn tour. The inci* 
denes of the latter were aometimcfivcr^' amusing. They consisted 
of accounts of his dining and fporting with the Lords and Nobles, 
and of ihe great respect and rtltcnfioH iraid to him, partifjutarly 
white at l^jndon, Pari» and St. l^tentburgh; of hid gallanting the 
Ladica of the Courts^and how they oBifred to learn him the 
"TwcK-c Position^/' 

The third number commence* wich an averment that there 
was An '*tAiti^ide influence*' at wurk before the Conventinn <|tirs* 
ttofi was opened in Illinois, and that the writer derived his infor- 
Oiation from three sources of undoubted authority. 1> too, was 
cognizant of that fact, from as many reliable sources, as well as by 
anonymous letters from Kentucky and Missouri. But the won- 
der is, why Mr. Perk did nnt imparr Mich impnrranr InforrnaEion 
to hia conAdcntiat friend, Mr, Coles. The Eaticr was wholly 



ujiApfiriaed of any sjch incvifrricnt abruMl, 7& it will }x seen in the 
sequel. I will be at 1>ner'n^ pusiibU if' the <3etail ofe^-ents. 

John Mcl-car wa« eleciwl the first Rcprc*ent»rivc to CongTMJ 
froTn niinoii, to ^axz one !ic%doii only, tfuit c:f iEl)S-t9, bcaiu 
Djuiicl V. Cook, hy a smiLll mnjoniy. The btll authnnxing tl 
people of the MiviounTcTntory tockct Delegates co a Convention, 
/or the |>urpo«e of forming a Con^titudon cf Slate govcmrnenf, 
WAS rc]X>rTc<l ftr Thai «»»inn; nml dunng its pmifrcxt rhrott^ th« 
Houwof RqjTeseinativw Mr. THlInia^igCjofNcw York, moved the 
rcstfiction of ^Iftvcry clsusc, wKich^ after ticbatCt w«5 cnrricil, and 
the kill wo* pn^Bcd and sent to rhc ±?cnaiG- In rhar tKxly the 
elivcry rcirncfir>n was struck out, and the hill ao returned to 
Hou^e of Representatives, the disciisuon on it was ^CH^cwcd. The' 
Houie refusing to concur with the Senate in 5inkin(( out the 
rcatrtcdon, the bill fell for the scssio.i. Messrs. Edwaids and 
Thotnas, of the Senate, and Mr. McLean, of the Hou»e, €Ofni>ri3)rv 
the lllindt delegadon, voted against the rcstrietiofi in every 

AiMtther election wai 10 he held ihe ne:Kt August, 1819, Mr. 
Mclxan and Mr. Cook were again the candidates. In the Spnng 
of that year I e5Uib]i>thed the Edwardnville Spectator^ and in the 
Unt numt>eT took strong anti-slnvcry ground, and in favcur of the 
Mlsiourl refitrictJon. 1 wat a stranger to both the candidates, as 
well on hnrh tlie Seratnm. Mr. Ciiok had p!edgrr] himjtrlf to 
oppose the admmion of Miuoun without icsliictton. ami of 
course 1 c<>uld not oppose him cm political tr<>k'>^d». I soon lii^ 
covered that there was no party in the State organized on any 
pniKiplc of govemmcrt, htJt that two rival intcrctis were pitted 
sgain^r each other, undrr thr mgnomrn of "Kdwards-nrkcn" and 
"'Thoma^mcn/' The evident de^nn of Mr- Coles was, to put 
himself at the head of a third, and dupersede both the others, I 
was told that Mr. Cook was a per^onai friend and partisan of 
Edwards, and that no reliance could be placed upon his anti 
slavery professions. A friend of Mr Coles vras iuix^om to obtain 
my coniient to cjilf a iTteetift^ to numiriaFr a new (undidate, namvQi 
a Judge Sprigg for that purpo.ic. f consulted with a friend, Gi 
Oiurchil), E>q., known to me as having no pentonal preddcctions 
ka either of the parties. He said nuch el movement would as9uk 



tke Tt-«leciion of Nfr. McL«in, arid that would be considered as 
an endorsement by the people of his pro-slavery Mtssotiri vote, 
hfy tuurw was (hen licddnU and dwritc to tlic clcttitHi 6'h\ all I 
could Co the adv«iKCmcnt of Mr. Cook. The candidates were 
eaknied men. Tlwy stumped the Slate— Mn McLpCan agflinst 
the Miwouri restriction, N!r, Coo^ m favor of it. The election 
wns htld^ and the returnt ^hnwed chat Mr. Cook was cluMcen Vty a 
ded»u-e majority. I ^^imbn^^d to make rlie lul^'trcacy of ih= 
Mi«30un rcstricitnn the principle characteristic of the Spectator, 
till the firutl tcrminatton oi the cortc^t. 

Mr. Cook took his scs.x \n the Houm of Represent a tivea tHe 
next lleocmher, tSi?. — The MiksoxiH hill was again reported, 
and thr minrilvr cIauk^ again Incorporatril with it. After 
debate, in which Mr, Qock look part, the bill passed the House, 
and was sent to the Scnatc^thc same proceedmic of strikmx out, 
and the rcturring of the bill from House to HoufCi took plACC* as 
at the prtviotts »eisioA» 

The people of Maine, with the conscni of MaMachuKitt, had 
hdd a Ccnrcoijon, aiul sJoptcil a State CoiTsiitutton. Applica- 
tion vas made at this acAsion for admissloti into the t'Dton, The 
bill reported for that purpose waa rvfvrred to the same comirattee 
vhieh had the Missouri bill in cliirge, of which our Senator, Judge 
Ttiooias, wa* chairman^ Instigated by hi* ajllcague, G^jveinor 
Edwards, he tacked the two bilb toi^ethcr, a^ul so rn:karted them 
to the Senate; aiul the two, so united, passed that bcdy. Mr. 
Cook wrote me a letter, denouncing in the most jmlignant terms, 
this proceeding. 1 published thU letter in the Spectator, omitting 
the signature. On the arrival of the paper at Waihington, 
Governor Fxlward* resented the article, ami the friendly personal 
intercourse between him and Mr. Cook was for a time inierruptcd- 

Ic was during this winter that the "outside mfluence," 
mentioned by Mr, Peck, was matured for action. TTiroi^ the 
medium of leaky vri?«f"!s h^'h tn Kentucky and Miwnuri, I wa.« 
duly apprised ofthc project to make Illinois a slave Sute, and that 
the first move w^ to be, the brinfting out of Elias Kent Kanc» 
then Secretary of State, in opposition to Mr, Cook at the next 
election. 1 had not heard Mr- Kane's name mentioned in that 
connection by any person in ITIinois, but I soon ascertained that 



dw whole icheroc wu koown to Kir. Cook obJ hb &icads ■< 
Washington. And in a itm weeks 1 wat dnljr aurhcinicd *n 
aaoouocc Mr. Kane » a candidate for Coa^vn- 

Soon after The Ajjijummcnt of dioeaMon, Governor Edw 
ainved at hit reskkncc in Rdwardmlk. A4 soon a» it wma 
to do so, 1 called upnn him to f»ay my respects, and to 
how ht Mood an ro the new s^pra of ibr sJtivrrj- quc-istion, fts 
vras shoitly to be prccipitateid upoii us* From hU niptutc 
Mr. Cook, and the fi:c thai he hdd sUrcs in Kentucky uul 
souri, I had some misgivir^ 05 to h» future ooursct though 1 
well persuaded that under no circum&taiices vnjU h« suppurt Mr, 
KatM. He rc^'eivcd nie cordislly. and with hit acci»iomcd frank- 
iicas entered into cunvenxiion un the tcwding lup!^ uf the rimev 
He rq)CAtcd the assurances he had given me before, that be ^ 
oppowd to permitting the inCroductioQ of slavery into tcrrin 
from which i t had been excluded ; that he oppoved i ts aneorporvti 
in the constitution of that State, and omtriUjCed to tts deles 
againar a itmng influence In it* favor. With regard In Mr. 
he said, he was displeased witk him for writing the Ictter 
rocntioncd, because he STippo^d their pergonal relaitiona 
such, that each could diiFer on public nutters withcKit 
dr censure from the other. Thsr seeing the new cnmhuiatiDns 
for agiiating fhr qi^ntinn v( ^lavrry In Illinois, and chat the 
bUm was to be struck ifi ai\ attempt 10 put down Mr. CckA. he 
cast Mdc fill hard fecSngs toward him, and wouU support 

I informed him of my intention to m;tke an expostrion 0/ 
plot in the next Spectator. He then said, that it hod been ibIs- 
cnatcd to him at Washington, that an attempt wouhl be made la 
implicate him in the affair, and he h»d consequently writira 
scxreral letters, the answers to which he expected would rwt only 
exculpate him, but shov*^ that he had positively dccHned to ha*e 
any participoiion in the matter, and had moreover dciounced the 
whok scheme. Thai my intended exposition might deicr has 
correspondents from answering his letters according to their rencr, 
or induce them to evade the application altogether. He thcrefon 
requested me to po«tpone the notice a week or two, to which I 
assented. 1 did not sec him again till after the exjnntioa WA 




fnibluhcil, he hiving left tc attend 10 his affairs at Belleville On 
the morning of the secomi publication day sSxtT the interview^ I 
concluded lo wait no longer^ anJ «et up the article in iy\y^y without 
firM wriiirrg it, drUylny tlie prewi for that puqwise. In it I stated 
the nuhntiince of all the Lnformatioii 1 hul Fcocivcd, ^i the machina- 
tions of the slaver)- propagandi^ii abroad, in cftmbinanon with 
traitors and recreants to freedom ftt home, to wftkc llbnc^ia a Slave 
StatCf i^ith »uch remarkfi oj; the object called forth. In the artTcle 
1 ako «rarcd tliar a ptilincal missionary, from Kenrucky. wa* rhcti 
in the Slaic. 

As soon xt the paper containing the vticlc arrived at Kaski^ 
kia, Mr, Kane issvied a furioaft handbill, charging Governor 
Edwards with having written the article, and denouncing him in 
opproWoiis language — Within the same hour of the arrival of the 
handbill, mLxlintf Guvctnor Eldw^irds for the fiiai licnc aJ'tcr our 
interview before mcritioned, he ob^rvcd us he huTriedly po^cd 
me — "Stand your ground, Watren, and I will bear you out in it. 
I will answer Kane under my own to^jruture/' And he fuimilied 
an article for the ncict number of the Spectator* stating that, Mr. 
Kane having thaiigcd him with being the writer <if curtain editurial 
rcmarlu. In that paper of a previous date, making developments of 
preparatory meo^^ures Jcr Agitating again the slavery question in 
Illinois, instigated by ciri2ens of other Stacev, he begged leave to 
assure the public, that he did not write the article referred rn^ nor a 
line of ir, nor furninh thr edftiir with any rhcughr ^tatetl in it. 
lie then aaid if Mr, Kane would call on him, he would ochibit to 
him conclusive evidence and references to show that every material 
allegatian stated by mc was true, and proceeded to reeapilulaie 
the facta at brge. 

The next day after tW publieatinn, Govcrror Pdwarxb, 
received a letter signed by seven \yv eight gentlemen of Edttifcrds- 
villc. the most prominent of vihom wis Hdward Colca* in which 
they cvpresacd their aatonUhment at hi9 endorsement of my 
exposition of the slaver)' plot, and averring their disbelief of any 
mcvrmenr^ begun or in coniemplatim^ having fur lis object the 
biinxhiciion of slavery into lliis State. Governor F, wrote a 
reply on the instant, stipulating if their correspondence wai t<i he 
published, to withdraw the present letter^ and substitute another 

3« iujs&n mrroEicJL cousjcnaxs 

A Mr. WtffcjM, « Wtf-lwrttf of Hmy CVr> 

nj iifr. During m^ cfinUod ooocfilsdn, mj &)cikls ""i^j t ti^ J 
WBox^ Jifjuavt Im. Mr. Colo hccaax hi* l«i, iMiixd Im ia 
p ffpc tf f ip g ftw>ei, aad rendered Iwn all die 2i4 snd CD«txt in In* 
p0Mer. Ib b fcw «eekt Mr. Coles f e to re d b letter of duohs 
frun Mr CUy, far Iw^cns Im jom^ bmcber m !w cBSmlr; «it^ 

Mr, Peck will ncm tec die fo^cMi vky I lud w^ very ardcar 
krvc for CovcriMr OJo. Up ta that ttne 1 Itad ibJeoi do pert 
agsiiMt kirn, nor cnNBcdlriipsdimBi>7wiy. Mr- P. w^abofit, 
xhMX if hr had W ppgree d &> Mr. Ciefl the mlomurioft he had 
received of the "Outnje taftueftn,'* Ik mij^t lu*v p <c> m tr d lui 
ftknd from plactng hiAudf ia ao awkward a pccdicanacnt aa to 
deny it* cwtcDcv, or all kflowtrdfc of it. 

Finding that I eannof condode chest rcfnuuaaacea withour 
delaying tlie baue of the paper be^-ond the osnal hour, 1 must 
poacpunc the remark* I have yet to make till next week, when I 
win live a staieinciit of my course ia relattco to Mr. Cole* aa a 
ouulidate for Governor, and notice aofne of the incUcot) narrated 
by Mr. Peck in regard co htm and the Convention Question. 


RaruCATiox nr Wakkeh, May ia» i8f5 

IFirr ^r j/« M«r lo. if (5! 

The Congreasional election of iSlo wa* warmly contested hy 
llie parties. Mr. Cook recetved a larger majoirity over Mr. Ka&c. 
than he obtained against Mr. McLean at the prcvtoua election. 
Tlic slavery propasandtst?, both in and out of the State, were 
extremely moriifed at rhe result, as they had put up tbetr be$t 



mAt\, with the cxpecratiou that his great tAlcnIs oiiil pupuUnty 
rouM cnftbic them Co ?iupcr3cdc the mcumbcnt, who stood &o 
luch in their way. 

The times were cumpjirmtively qui«t for the next mcceeduig 
tweire or fifttfen month*. Tlie Mi%wmn Qiietttcn AhcorlyrEl all 
jMlfitAiiofi on the ftuhjcct of kImvct)', while i>ihcr tuples of puhlic 
concern excited but little interest. The Legislature ehotcn at 
jhb elcctioji, enacCcd the first State Bftnlt law, which instead of 
[facilitating the busmcsK operations i>f the community, cauR«t more 
emh&rTSUsmcnT, and finally rcsxih«l in the loss of hundred* of 
thousands of dollars to the Stale. Mt. Coles, in the oiean time, wss 
announced as a candidate for the office of Governor, to succeed 
Governor Dond» he bcins the first in the field for the canvass of 
tMz. Judges Joseph Phillipc and Thomas C Browne, and 
General Jamc« B. Mcnro* were suhsetjuently announced for the 
Sflfnr offitCp Mr. Kane wa^ ni>t di^oMvI to try his strength a 
second lime wiih Mr. Cook» tnJ he gave away to Mr. MtLcjn, 
whc>Pppearedagainas the opponent of Mr. C/in the Congrcaiionsl 

Ftt)m the dUingenooutness of Mr. Coles' conduct towards rae» 

he could have no reaaun Ui believe he could roaeive the support of 

le FJwarLbvillc Spccue^^r, unlci:i it wit upon his sittutncd anti- 

tavcry ground. I vtas an admirer of Judf^e Phillips* for his gnat 

talents and the urbanity of his miuinett. But he was avowedly 

laver\-, and the candidate of the party. General Moore was 
II prominent in tUe canvaiA, and finally ret'eivetf Intt ttime five 
hundred of ihe votes of hU ncighhgr^ and dd terntorial friends. 
With Judffc Browne I did not hceome acquainted until he made 
hU appearance upon the rounds; hut Irom the first, considenng 
the position of the several candidates^ f was convinced chat the 
latter nnly i^uld receive my suppnrr^ ctruisTently with Kelf-rirs|Hvr, 
or from principle. 

I did not think it necessary or advisable to show any scnous 
of>po«]tion to Mr. Coles, and therefore adopted the hutlesquc, or 
what has since been known as the "Major Jaclc Downing" style 

I succeeded in thst kind nf com jvisi tin n far beyond my expec* 
>t«tioti. A portion of my friend*, who iiupixjrtcd Mi. Coles, 
remonstrated with mc against it; others liked the fun, and between 


hj dinj pcnont, dot Gdvcrk* Ed«0^ waA Btfr. Cnok had 
Km fd"Cf any fi**™ to^ lof tsc puvpoic erf monaai^ dlcm ^o ok 
dttv wppoMd t rf M^tf B over mt to diiiidE inc \m mef can^r «nd 
«igvd to Mr- Cole*, but t^it hcA^ «rtdiDBt 
tpprobAtka of my coant lo tlur rcipcct, de dia c d «e 
Mr- Ctfjk« wkik abtent, loiurnKii nc tif letter ilor lie In 
ID »idi Mr. Colts oo tlic war, and tluit die latter vs> vo^- 
to run «itli hun. He rtpcated the laac perao oaB y c^cn 
at borne, but he mUBkatcd ootlwig to nr aa to Ini «i^ or tni»bs« 
re|[ardf ag the prapoastaott- Mr, Cbofc was a aaall aaae. aod I k^ 
no apfircJienaoo of Mm taking anodier, d ihe mi^i crf'Mr. f*n^^ 
IQMO biftsbooUcta. 

Ia tlv ipnnc of iSas, four cncmf&i before tbe dectsoa^ Jem^ 
Pope catne up to Edvafiitwilk from KaafriaHij and, callb^ «pao 
loe, be mnarked vith much eamcatBeaa, "If you do i^c vwt 
Phillipa dectrdi ^ou niu«t let Colea ak)oe.*' And he wetR on te 
dcmonatraic thai audi vai the fact. Hut miurmatmia alarmed 
JDe, and I held up. I had euppoacd that every vole I oould *^bj> 
6on Colet would go to Browne or Moore. But the Judge ahcnral 
eoQdu^rc}y that the proepeet of PIdlKpa wai Mng rapidly* aivl 
tbar ijf Cuieft as fui dcdinbg. The friends of the latter w«re 
desponding, while ihcMC of the £braicr were dmtcd witb new 

All personal eonndcrations a^dc, 1 pre f erred Co4ca to Pbilrpat 
and my chief concern now was, bow properly to adjutt the bataoce 
between them, so that the former should not kkk die beam. J 
aaid nothing in hia favor, \mx his frieiKk seeing I had ceased to 
aanof him by attempts at irony and sadrc^ took new coura|p% and 
rallied to his support. 

Mr. Coles cAuscd to be inserted in the lUuio^ InrelUgcnccra 
publUhcd at Vandnfis, a letter from Mr. Jefferson to himi on the 
subject of slavt-ry, in wh'-ch he excused himself fmm undertaking 
to act against it, on acctxjntofhis great agCt but adviK:^! his corrv- 
Bpondcnt tc enter the councUs of his country, and carry out h» 
principles, I co;»ed this letter into the Spectator, without request 
from any one, and without comment. Extracts frxMn the aAme 
letter of Mr. Jefferson to Mr. Coles has \sk\ lieen published 



in acvcful &nti-&lavGry books* concAining extracts from Oit wxit- 
ingsofanti slavery authors- Soon aftcTf anoih«r arcidc afvpcAtcd 
in ihc Vnndfilia pstpcr^ und^r rhc signature ci Mr Cotes, giving an 
account of the cmaricipaiinn cf hifc f^Uvrn. Thift ! copici) into tlic 
Spectator* al^ without rcqticat or comment. I will bcrc rcTnarV, 
that this Letter of Mr, Coles was wholly erad'tcaced from my 
memcr}-, until bitrnght again to nx^llection by Mr. Peck, In the 
MCOiuI number cf hi& eommunicattonv. I menticn Ehi« fact in 
e^itcnualiun uf tli^f ittiubt I cxpr-t^neil in iht^ Free West af the ii%t 
of last December, of Mr. Cule« having settled his slaves on farniit- 

The firsr Monday in August came, and thz election was held. 
It pTDvrd a pretty even race bctwcca the three highest candidates, 
Mr. Colea coming out a litdc ahead. Hdf gratified and half 
chagrnrdj 1 imhiTgnt iri some rdirnrial rrin^rk^ on rhr rcsiilr of 
the election; anJ, in Jcfcrcivcc to Mi. Coles, observed that whcri' 
crcr the President wished to get rid of a u»elc9S Uckcy, he could 
send him nut to f IlinoU, and the people would make a Governor of 
htm. This enabled my enemies to raise a prodigious excitement 
against me, by n^resenring that I was rebelling against the 
dcciatoi) of the people. Dot it did ni^t lifit long. 

Governor Coles did not so far fall out with mc as to withdraw 
his sub5<Tiption to my paper, until after his inaugufation; he then 
did aO| and to explain which. I muat refer to two prior tncidcnts- 

j, Mr- Coles, in his narratives of events at the Pirsident's 
HouM-', bcfiire mentioned, gieatly ma^nilitd the imporlafkce *jf his 
o0acc as Piivatc Sccrctarr, and seemed to think it second only 
too \sw\ the Presidencry itself. )n allusions to him during the 
canvaNC, 1 li;id represented ^1^1^ although not invidiously, as a «ort 
of upper servant in the Presidential mansion. 

1. A Ixamily resided near nay office in EdwardsviUc, the 
mispress of which kepr a little ncgrn boy as waiter. Frequently 
during the day, the mistress would call out "Jo!*' The boy, in 
the street or yard, as quick as lightning, would answer, "Coming 
Msdam." The remarkable rcftdiness of the boy in making his 
fe^ponse, elicited the olwicrvation of the ncighbors- 

An account of ihe in^uguranon of the Governor was duly 
published in the tJlinois InEcIliKCticcr, in which the editors used 
the terms, "His tatoellcncy*" His EiEccllency Governor Coles," etc. 



TKe nevt week the Governor wrote a letter to tlie erlitors of 
the Inlclligencer, requesting them in no cue lo %xy ''Hit Rticl- 
lency," in reference to him, fcr he eontidereJ the simiilc ftppelli 
tivci "Govcrror/' a sufficient honor. 

I copied tills letter into the Spectntor, and ippendcd to it 
tin editorial remark, u near ai; I cin recollect, ju follows; 

We rejjrrc, cxcerdingt)', ihat our n^w fiovefnor ^hnutd 
matiircst Ko much fB»iidiausnc«« in regard to the mcivirtg of the 
honors of the itation; and cjin Acccunt lor it tn no other wjiy than 
by the supposition, that the phrase, "Hia Excellency^" applied to 
himself, seems so very odd, in contrsisc with hia former poeition 
in Mr, MatlUnn'u Tamily, Rut time and prarrice will soon mnke 
it &s fjimiliar loju&cai, aa the response uf"Ci*jnlng Madam" was 
ihen TO hi» tongue* 

This touched the Governor in a tcndLT pkcc, and oa soon a.% 
the return of the mAil from Vandalia, ^ friend of hla in Ed^arda- 
villc called tipon me, and piying up arrears, informed me that 
Governor C, wUhcd (udiscijnlinijc his auhi(cripli(JtL> 

During this session the Convention rewlutton vr« posted by 
the Lcgi^aturc* the eKtraordinary measures adopted to effect 
which have often been puUliihed, and with which the reader \% 

At the eltjse of the Mrtalun Gtivernur Cole* left for VandolJu 
for his 'home in Virginia^' without returning to EdwardsvUlc, and 
was al)sent aeveroJ months. The dUcussionn on the Conv^ntton 
question, in the mean time, became exdting. The Hon. T. W* 
Smith established s paper at Edwartlwvitle, called the "Illinois 
Rcpublicun/'puqioscly losuMAin ihc affirmative of that question, 
and to counteract the Spectator* In the courKof the discuutcns 
it became my duty to dcfcrid some of the mcastirca of Go^xrnor 
Coles, against the attacks of Mr. Smith. The Utter* thcreupon» 
flccmcd ro he a^tnnishcd at the "reconciliation/' and *aid sonae- 
thing about 'TiUie and Herod." In reply [ stated that T had 
not aeen Governor Coica since the passaipe of the Convention 
resolution by the Lcgt^laturc* nor held any corrcapondcncc with 
him; that he was not a sjb^criber to my paper; and that there 
vix% nothing in our relations to prevent ovir co-operation in any 
public measure in which »e were both agretd^ 



ThcGovcrrorreturncdftom Virginia in June or July. Sbovtly 
ifter, tiis friend^ the »m« who wu employ«d the fait prtviou* 
TO wirHdmir hift lubscrlptlon. called upon ntt tnd renewed ic 

GcvermjT Colt* vimfil Virginia again ilie rnt winter. On 
Kb letum, In May or June, ar uion after, "the bcrxci of pampfilcts 
or tracts," mtntioneti by Mr, Feck, vrcre found dtitributcd *I1 over 
ihcStatc, andasthr ctcctiofi WK totalceplacem about two months 
ihtrir nj^pcnrance wot n^ott propUiouM^ and showed thkl the Gover- 
nor hiul not h^^cn idlr during }u\ absence, f Hml rot rhr KbaJcw 
off! doubt concerning thctr origin. One thing about them I knew 
to a certainty— they were not printed ir Illinois. Oncof those 
pamphlci&iit vrstt, clear to my mind^ was wntten by Mr- JcffcTVon, 
and contained a conclusive argument againtt the policy of slavtry 

Mr. Ptdc's vcraion of ihc *tory of the emancipation, Uy 
Gorcrnor Coles, of hia «Utvca, docs not rcficci ao much credit upon 
that g^nilcmAn fcr philanthropy, ua I supposed him entitled to. 
If stcmSf After nll> that he did not let the old vronten go free, but 
that they were comprlied to die under the reflcctior that they Irene 
"chat tela ".—The *Maai word^ a:id dying speech ofa darc-htilder," 
on board the flat boats ntar New .'Vibjny, were thercforcprcmatuie, 
It appears, alao, that Ew sent a part of hi» negroes to St. Louis, 
with only a prospectit-e freedom. His brother. Col. !>*ac A. 
Ccjlts, of Virginia, who wa* the Private Secretary of Mr. Jefferson 
durmg hi:i Presidency, (and who, by :he way, i% tlie mu«t accnm- 
pliihcd senticman, in manners and eon^-crsation, f ever met,} had 
a plantation with slaves, near St. Charlea, Missouri. He viaited 
this esiabltshment three or four times a year, and always stopped 
St few clays with hh brother in Fdwardi^ville, As they were 
originally of one family in Virginia, h is not improluihle ibat the 
■cgroca sent by Governor Cole* to Sr. Louis, were rc-anncxed to 
those on the Sr. Charles plantatic^n. 

Near the close of Mr- Peck's second article, he refers to the 
moral and political character of Governor Coles' rcvilers and 
persecutory and sa>s *':hey arc gone! — with ihour^ands of others 
who destroyed themselves by whiskey and rowdyism," He docs 
nor name ihcm, probably out of tender rcK^rd to the feelings of 
thctr s&irviving friends and families* On reading this paragraph. 

luneon aaroxscML 


ah^ aeo^ffimg ck 



a^ dMft conmtciad wiriJf vUr iKif die Eac oo we qSce, 
AwKlhn^— bst t vin ftiuC prutEoi vifk tk cBt^lnyig,. 

€iu¥fmoe Cola, m PUidelpluft. In cjA < i«iag fcr the office 
r40'/vctrtaf at f hi> Sr^ff, hr aafumed the pvoad bdbn die peofUe, 
iImI h« li^l moiJe httmeli' poor hf eoMUkdpacuig tu» rfjnfU. After 
fffflkriif tjt be etmAd In niawm, and du^mi'mg df farth er pnrfe' 
meof, be decfM^J rl npctiWnt to teek hn fcrtaoc rl>ewhrrr. 
Aftofhcr llfiooi* itflteanun followed or vet tfae vnx evjutipk. 
hat irliilr Judge Dovglu wmt to North Caroltma, md by an 
fupvulMiB wpetvimiUfti^ acquired hundred* of Uackiei^ the Kx- 
GoVcnuir, IT II laid, if mir with mcirt judfrmcnCi cerrainly with 
Iwiicr tute, went to PhilAdcl|>hu» and bj^ a Ukc opcmdon. 
obtained ptiMCMion of thoti^ada on chouMndi of *' yellow boy3.*' 

Rtit it ift lime for mc to doM these reminlKrcnccft, haring 
Qlreaiiy,doiibiJc»i, gofvebejrticid the patience of the mdcr, though 
I hnvt not tnid half to whirh my tnclininon would lend- 1 tnll 
nhftcrve thui 1 cnicrTjin no Ammosity towirdt Governor Colc^; 
on the contmry, J wiih him all the happinc^ the world U capable 
or «l^f>rdi^|^ Notwithttanding all ovr dtlfercnccs during an 
Mqudintofiev of ten or t«'«lve year«, the first iix of which wei^ a« 
neiuhl)or», he rievrr met me nor [Mtucd me wlihotit givmg hts hand, 
wht^li hIkiwh liim nut to he vkndktiveH 

For Mr. I'cck, 1 cnieriam a grateful rccollccttOR^ for personal 
favorir, And Um cnily coufm- in favcr tjf tiherty nrtd right. But he 
IHIghl Ui krinw and nnuidef, that hiv tlii^ nt abolitJoniAU ibuw 



him to be behlbd the times as a rtfarmer- H« even confesAL-n 
rq>udi3tton cf former principles, m ihc ch.inge of hit vtevri, from 
tlic jtide of iTL'nInni 1» ?Juvcry, on the M'mnMn quv^btlan. 

Peck 7o Editors or Faee West, May 2j^ iBjj 

McsARS. Fujtom: — Supiiuiinjj from the mt'unuucin frcivn H. 
Wirrcnt Ivi^*. given iit u i>Tiv^U: letter nf the Jrd ol April, lliat he 
^is now ahscrtt from Chicago, 1 send the follovnng extract of a 
Jtter from Hon. Ei>wAftD Coles, formerly Governor cf Illinois, 
in reference to the mUtaken matte in Mr. Warren'* article of 
DettmlKT itMj 1*^54- A% a pcrsunul fncr^l tn ihe Rx-Covrrmir, 
1 deem ii my duty co place this un«po.tcd ccnCfovcny in its true 
light l)eforc the people of Illinois. The Governor's letter to me 
dated Philadclphiii, April 30th, And rclAlcfi to the editoiLal in the 
" Free West," n( I Vcpmbcr list. I think it is a sufficicnr amwcr 
rtj Mr, Warrrn's "Rrminisrrnrcs** in hit responses tn my rom- 
municAtiDns, already publtbhcU in the *'Free West" of M«ky jrd 
and loth indeed i iva» Quite aurpnecd at the reasons of his 
arupaehy and personal hostility to GovcriTor C> at the period 
of the anti-sJavery contest of iSsj-'a^, and I regret with hia old 
friends in this pan of the State, that ili^^e feelings remain and 
jippcai to Ixconic intense as Utiic adraiiLts^ The cii^itciicc cJ 
thn pergonal ho»rittty vts^ n matter of regret to his friends at tlic 
time, but it was thought at that period, ncme knev*' the caune, ar>d 
it has remained « tecret until hit rermnintccnces of May 3rd, In 
commennng on my aimmtuiieatsoiu. The cauue of this hosttUty 
wa» four-foldn 

1. The Virginian had inveterate prejudices against "Yan- 

3. He was loquacious, and talked about FreAident Madkon 
"ind hi* tour in Europe. 

J. In politics, ihc south was all to him; the Richmoaid 
Enquirer was his oradc; (that is, he was a Jctfcrsonian Democrat, 
chough decidedlr anti-slavery from his yootht) 

4. He gave bail for Mr. Watkins who had inilicted a casti- 



gKtion on the Hxlitor of r)i« Spcctavor, for jiq ofiWisivc edicofid; 
Aiwl the late Henry Clair, a rclutive [i4 the) nfltiukr, wrnte Mr. 
Cckft 4 ktler of cbiuilu fcf hx* kindnes^t. 

All I wtH 5«y in reUtion to the "invcicrfltc prejudice*** Mr- 
W. r«tBTiu ELgntiwt Gov, C, ■ftcr more than thirty years have 
passed, u, they are regretted by His old friend* in Soutbem Illinois, 
anJ t»y nnnr mtsrr than the writer. 

The iitsinu«tK>n3 and chirgci Jigiuiisc me fts havrng chani^d 
my position on the subject nf Slavery, demand no oEhcr reply th&n 
that ■ man mmt be peculiarly stiff-necked, who can Icam nothing 
in the period of an otrdinary life tTinc;— and that the change in 
thi main p&sittQn nn i\v\s rjucsrion is in ihc ^mcr Editor of rhe 
Spectator, aiid nof in hii old frjctidi this way. He llieii. at rbe 
writer docs now, maintained that the pcoi>lc uf South Carolina, 
Virginia, Kentucky, or any other slave- hotdinc: State, had no 
political ri^hr ro inierfcre, directly or IndirecFly, with the question 
tn Illinois. Thai the Editor occupied this piMitiun in the Edward*- 
ville SjTcctaEor, there b abundajit pruuf in tlie tuluinnit of that 
paper, during the contest; and he tacitly admit* it Ln hi* late 
"Remini-iccncca.*" I occupy the name position or thij subject 
*it II, whereas the present alxjlitwnparty of the north^and probably 
the three (gentlemen f the nnly remaining adherents of the a*sociate 
r^itnr that Tought the battle in 1B14, have with him changed 
position - 

There art now but a fcv of the anti-davery men of that 
period still livinft, and 1 am not aware of any oEher* than the three 
mentioned, whn differ with the writer on that subject, or, any 
other concerning slavery, that grows c^ii of the legal and judicial 
constnictioji of the Constitution of the United Stales- 1 will 
only add* 1 shall have no occasion for further controvcray on thia 
topic with the "Associate E<iiror^" of the Fkee Wk*t. 

J. M. Pgck, 
RocV Spring, 111 May 25, 1S55. 
Ci>p:f 0/ Gw, CoU/ Litter fo /, M. Peck, Jateti PhUadtl^a^ Afirit 

"Mv Dear FRreKO:— Your kind letter of the a^th ult., and 
the Chicago Newspaper (Free West) dated the aist December 
lasi> were duly received. 



If the cfror alluded to hy Mr, Warren, :n Ford's Hisrory o/ 
lltlnris., would^ as he supposed^ r%ci[e rnc^ how much morr so are 
Im u»n error* ciitcuUtcd to do ii. Mr, Furd'i error wais one tlut 
a rabonnl man tvo\i\d Ix apt to fall tnto^ who knew the public 
stations, and th« part taken by Mr. Warren and myself; ind who 
did rot know _thc rabid feelings of hit hoiom. As co-laborers in 
[a] great poiitical conreflt, which atii^rficd >)I others, and enlisted 
OUT l>nt fcelinipE, i( wu.h nattiial tonupiHiMC that pHvafr-andt^crsiioal 
bickerings would have been merged and supplanted by fraternal 
^eJings. Not so, however* wich Mr. Warren, who, without 
cause, (For 1 know of nothing 1 ever did to injure him, or even hurt 
his feeling) became immicAl m me, thai rmicual labon;, and corri' 
man nicee!^* in a noble cauw, whirh like rhariry> ought to have 
covered a niu!iii\ide of »ins, — and a^ ii now appears, no length of 
tiirei or ripencM of ase can abate his hostility. Such an instance 
c4 the frailty of human nAivrc is truly melancholy and much 
better calculated tfi make me mourn, rban Mr. Ford's little 
mistake wa* to make mc "laugh or awcar," as Mr, Warren sup* 
poeed it would. 

"No one v'ho has a knowledge of the subject, can be otherwise 
thsn amaied at the mistakes Mr. Warren makes in attempting to 
correct those of Mr. Feed. So extraordinary are they that the 
moot charitable way of at-Counring for them xit ro suppcne the 
Aci^ty of [us be^rt hud corroded hrs brain and impaired his 
memory. Mr. Warren in cxteruaEton of some of Mr Ford** 
errors, says they related to thingi: which occured before lie was in 
active life. But no such excuse can be made for Mr. W., as the 
statemt?nt3£ he makn^ relate lo facts and nrcumstancca which 
occured to the btilc village in whtch he publinhed a newspaper, 
and where he was an active citizen. Moreover they relate to 
things of which he profev^cs to be personally and particularly 
acquainted, and wereof acharacterj too to make impt^essions most 
easily effaced. 

"The scitliiig i^ and near a small village of a number of free 
negroea, at^d several of whom acted as domcsticsi and one (Robert 
Crawjbrd, who you know) being an officiating cIcrjEvman; another 
(Thomas Cobb) having been killed by accidentally falling into the 
public well of the village, were circumstances to bring them (0 



notice, tnd retain them in KcoU«ccion. Yet Mr. Wurcn sccnu 
TO have rM> recollection that there w'ere any men among rficm, nor 
recollects of ihtrre !>cttig imirr rhan ore fvnily, which he s«yv 
conaiMed of « Wuman ami Hvc ^hikircn— rftmr (Laughters and oi;e 
aon;^And even tha scanty remnant ofmcfnoiry U erroneous, for 1 
Treed no such fAtnily,^none conSBtirg of fc^r daug^teri and one 
«on, — nor wlicrv there was not a man at m head, 'r ean be scan hf 
referruiu tn the (inpeni nf emancipatinn on record in the Recorder's 
office in Ft{wan!»vl[le. 

''The fAiniL^ I presume he «Uudcs to, from V19 paying the 
woman coclted for ihc hired men ac my fwm, had rwo daui^htcrs 
and t«o ftorifi, IVhif^ti ! ought to add as a poetible motie of 
explaimnfl ihi* errnr, rh^r ihrfr were an¥»ig my negroes two 
other yrrurtf womcn» who went into «mce, and may have ;icted 
M \It. Warren say* m that capacity-, l>ot they were oot sifters, nor 
dfltightcT^ of the woman that cooked at my form. 

''The nen mentioned hy Mr- Warrer a* having been hrred 
« my farm were cmancipsted by me; one of whom w»» tlie h-J*- 
baod of the cook« aftc* whose dcaili sIk nutrria) unullier of my 
freed men. jind lived fur many years in Montgomery county, 
Illmois— I mention ihcie und other simiJar facts to show thac 
though Mr. VVftrren ts so minute and parucular in his detaiU, h^ 
is nwr Jt% accurate In hit knowleJge of the suhjeci at he would 
lea<l one tv Iiclievr, ami miglil l>t- mferrcil (mm his -statements. 

"As a furtherppoof of it, the Recorder's office will aUo show 
that Mr. Warren is mistaken in stating that I G>:ccated deeds of 
emarcipation to each person. The deed« were not so exceuted* 
bur where there were families they were piven to families. And 
here Icr rnr auk, k ir nor vrry nirifni^ rhat he *houH have tak< 
the pairs tc caaniine the free papers 10 learn their Uatei, and by 
whom witnessed even, *nd yet not learn their form, *nd the num- 
ber and character of the slaves emancipated? Anci is it not also a 
vtry extraordinary circumstance that he should have taken an 
interest and make publications about my freeing my slaves^ and 
yet not have ^tmc to ihc ftrunt^m head in the village in whk^h he 
for year» resided, for full and authentic infoTmatioD, afi vrell about 
the deeds of emancipatior. a!^ of conveyance of land to my negroes; 
— which deeds he knew by law should be recorded? If he had 



done «o, Wt vrauU at onc« luve se«n the number adiI character 
of the ncgroe* 1 emancipati-t!, who wdcd in s^tmI near E<lvidir(U- 
villr; and hnwcviT Incrcdvilmis tu briirt-i: it, ihc rrcnnln wtiuUl 
have corivmccd him that I had given to three of the men I cmAn- 
cipAtcd, vrho resided in the count>', ore: hundred tnd trtty icrei 
of land each. And it would have given him very liitlc: more 
iro\ibte> fu he was in the habit of going toSt, l^utjt, if heha^l looked 
into thr Rrrnfdrf's nfficr thrre, uml seen the free papers of the 
tic^oc6 of mine who scrtlcd in th^il cit>'. 

" I will notice mioihcr instance of the Upsc of ircmcrri And of 
unkind conduct on the part of Mr. Warren. There wns piibiiahcd 
in iSai, (and you wrife mc it was rcpuhlUhed in the "Spectator," 
edited hy Mr. Warrrn) a letter of mine giving many paniciilara 
aUmc frreins ""X :^Uvti, whicli wax nor then contravened by 
him^ the truth or knowledge of which he now denies. 

"WTien you consider he was then openly hostile, Acclung 
every occasion to traduce and injure mc; that the accuracj- of 
my tiatementx eould be cniifronTed and tr«(ed hy living wirnrK*u^4, 
ard recollect l\uii fine third of a ccnlury hji% now p^a^ed ofT, and 
with it, nearly all who had knowledge of the subject; 1 rcmoN'cd at 
a distance, and out of the way of knowing of hl» actack^^ivtng n 
retired and tjuiet life,— that he should make a publication attack- 
ing my moTivei and mitrepresenttng my eosuluct, and not *;cnd 
il to mc, — is indeed conduct tliat I did not expect, ever from Mr. 
Wancnn He c^-cn insinuate^ whfch never wa», I believe done 
tseforCi that the cmancipattcn of my slaves was not dcsiffncd, but 
wa4 hrouffhr about by my igm:irance in Tiot knowing that by taking 
them to a frr<' Stiite they becime free, Jnd when 1 frnind they had 
become *o, I made for effect, it vjin display "f freeing ihem jScc 
Mr. Wflrrcn's editorial in the Free West of December sist.) Now 
so far from there bcins; any tuith ir thin, ind of my ignorance of 
tl*.e effect of bringing slaves and settling them in a free State, it 
waB the mode I intended to take to free mirCi and acred on ic as 
the simplest ami easiest mnde, uiuil 1 was informed by D, P. 
Cook, Esq,, that a law hfld passed the preceding session of the 
LegtftJatuTc. net then published^ rec]uirin(E every free nc^ro to have 
written evidence of his freedom, and subjecting to fine per<^ns 
who thould hire thc« who had ror such evidence of their freedom. 


In consequence of xY^ ^nd ihc Advice of Mr. Cook, 1 was utduccd 
TO gtvc my negroes frrc pipert, And I will add a Irirfhcr (Xinse^ 
qtieiKc of not krvowing jnd confomiing 10 all itic requisites of thri 
unprortiulg^ed Uv, wia s/lcrvr«rds formed the buts of a aajic 
[die only dme 1 «a» ev<r GuedJ and a proaeoicion ^tih which I 
WM peTMCured for feare," 

P. S. IThe Coventor wjn prosecuted, under a Uw of the 
»1Bte t)i«t !ud ncil liecn made public, when lie had recorded the 
docda uf the emancipation of hi» slaves, for not giring lecuHcy for 
thetr good behavior and chat they mtKbt not become a chvgc 
on the county; and the Judge ofthe loA'er coun being a prejudiced 
enemy, impovcLl an oneroitt 6ne. It was re%-ened in the supreme 
court, after x lung vricK of litigation and coMt. The pnKrcgrion 
was regarded by all impartial persons as malicious, and the effect 
recoiled on hU enemies. 

J. M- H, 

RfiTUCATto.v BV Wakkkm^ June 39^ lflj5 

It is with extreme rc^eret I perceive that Mr. Peck tal 
offense at the commenu I felt myself bound to make upon hi 
late series of commimicaiic^ns in the Free West. Thcj' appear" 
to have been'' unexpected" 10 him; hut fmm hi-<(kmiwledgr of me, 
he had no good reason to hope I would paM the subject by in 
silence, though the topics of discui^iion had in them but little to 
interest the reader of the prcwnt day. 

Upon the appearance of Governor Ford's History of Illittois, 
T fbimd rnysrlf inHuiJed in rhe t:nralfigxie of names who took a 
prominent pan on the siJc of Freedom, in the great ^nd desperate 
stnttftlc waited by slavery propsgandt^ts to introduce their hateful 
inatltutioH tntolllinMS — a position 1 was proud of having occupied. 
But there were errors in that list on b-Kh sides, of thrnie in favor 
and against the calling of a Convention 10 admit slavery. For 
inuancc, Governor Edwards was put donn as among diosc in 
favor of the proposition* and Mr. bddy, the editor of a paper at 
Shawnectown which favored the cause of the con vcn lion ist*, as 
against it. The reverse was the fact. The organifstlon of 



prc^Sf too» was cm>necu5lx atAted and needed correction, whkh i 
made tn a bncf notice of the book. In that reriew, with « acricc 
adherence to truth, tt was impocslble Cor ri« noc to cross the track 
of Govcmcr Colct; »nd cSecircuni«t>nce thai s rhird of i) century 
hsK cUpscd Mncc ibc evcr.cs occurred, doc* not slicr the facts of 
the ca»c. As to andiMthr ^nti personal ho5tilitr, 1 have drcady 
stated in reply to Mr< Peck, that upon the announcement of 
Mr. Colc£ asac;tndidst« for the office of Governor, at che electkm 
of t8^3, I dEcmod It nciihrr necessary nor cipcdicnr to show iny 
serious opposition to him, but adoprcd the mode of touchmg him 
Ely AiEcnT)>i5 At goud naturcd irony uid satire — a manner of attack 
to which he yma extremely obnoxious. As to such feelings towards 
lum, if I ev-er indulged them» I entertain none of diem now. 
Should he igain visit thii State, I would not hesitate to jom in the 
tender to him uf such public hamirs !uh wquLI be due to a former 
Chief Magistrate, after an absence of more than twenty years- 
Even if his protcg^, Mr- Watkins, whn csj^nycd tc murder me, 
should come again to the State, and olTer me his hand, 1 WT>tjId 
not rc/usc to take It^ The lap«e of time in matters of history docs 
nor rrtiuire me to Kupprrts rhe tr\ithf nr to refrain from vifidicaHng 
ii, so far as the subject is fiimilUr to niC' 

My failure to s^^pporc Mr. Coles as a candidate for Governor, 
it 15 true, was SI matter of rvgrct to some of my anci-slavery friends; 
but they did not alTAch blame to mc- They knew [ could not 
support him with a due regard fo self reipccr, Mr. Pe^k himself 
did not w:e fii to remoitsuate with mc in behalf of hiA friend. 

The numencaJ dtatcmcnt by Mr. P., of t)ic causes of my 
presumed opposition to Mr Coles as a candidate, does not partake 
of the car:dor or sincerity which should ever characterize the aver- 
ments of a ditciple and minbter of the meek and lowly Jesus> I 
fnippTRnl at t)v lime I had his symjiaFhy ir the bruiat attack 
made upon my life by Watkins; hut by his terming it a "castiga- 
tion," which according to Webster means "correction," it would 
seem that the act row meets hit approval. 

Tn my remark* in reply to Mr, Peck's articlefi in the Free 
Wrstj it waj« my desire nor tn rre-cpam too much upon the patience 
of its readers, on ihe subject peraortal to myself and others; and 
having given 90 much space to Governor Coles, 1 was induced to 



fango wJiit I iHUKti TO wy <n iryani to roost or the posttiom' 
■iBttni in Mr. P.'s nomrivr, T «rx« Jkpotrd lo ler hit ttJTr- 
mcfits $p for whit thef wctv wwih, ■oEvkksrABcKn^ some of 
AcinindiMtcdtlMthWocymof g>aonryaaaJcfecdyg 05 minr. 
He Ittd the adrioiitcof iMt by bamgin bb pcnMSSwri « complcic 
(k of the Ed«inbville Spccnior, Utclj F>rtscnted ro him 
by GmeTBor Cde«, 15 he Kb iafemed me in a pHvAce 
icciMVtpviytng hii cnmiRntucatMHiA. By ihix it ippeAT* II 
mtwhhataoding "Ifu ExccQcncv,*' to punbb tnc in rcigmrd to 
^Cofnmt Mtt<itm" atfiur, disconiinucd hb wbocriptKin, And d^ 
not renew ttyntilaTter tixmocfhthaddBpEtec], he took good ^trc to 
provide that hi* hie thoold trot he hrokm^ I w3l here remarks 
thif I Irnr my- file of that paper in moving fitnn F^wiMsvilU: tn 
1615, and that all f have crcr said or tniltcn in reference to the 
events of those timeSt has proceeded wholly Irom mctnory, vriihout 
print or scrip to refer to. The onlf file of the 5pecintor emont, 
that I wa« previovftlf aware of, was in the the hands of the Hon. 
Georgr tTiurcKfll, of Madi*ior Cniinty, who designs ti, upon his 
(kccaaCr as a IqfAcjr to ibc LlHrtut^ Anttqu^ian Sc<iet>- at Alioru 
I was correct in staving the residence of the late Govcrnnr 
Foed during the pendency of ihc Convention qucsaon. Mr. Peck 
^vea it a different [oration, ^therein hi& memory is at fault. Hav- 
ing poftfMsion of the tilei. he was enabled to ducover an em>r of a 
month and a half ui my statcrnent of live time M which Mr. r)a\*i[1 
BJackwcU got pcaacinion of the Vaiulalia ncw^apcr e-ttablishmcni 
— making it three months instead of mx weeks before the election- 
There is a discrepancy- in his statement of the time of the concep- 
tion and the accrimpli^hment of that grand and my?tter4ouii projcct- 
Tn my KtaicmEtit of ihc affair, I ^aid iha: T knew not the mrnnf by 
which the change was cficctcd- Mr. Peck in his ea^meas to 
enlighten me, mentions the agent, which I already knew, but not 
the means. I supposed that ^Villiam H. Brown, I"J<1^» now of 
Chicago, was in the csrabfiEhmcnc ar the rime; but in a momentary 
convef»aiton with that gcnrlemnn, Uiely, he informed me ihac 
Robert Blackwell. the former partner of Mr. Gcny, had retaken 
his place in the concern. Jn answer to my in<)uiry aa to the time 
of ihcecoceurance6tandhowit was that the Leigi^iure compelled 
him to withdraw from the eatablishmenr, u stated by Mr. VtcK 


he safd he could ncii bring hi« [nemory ti> hear a<t to datet, bur all 
llic l^inlanirr ever did xgoinst him, susa. to re-sciml a lururact far 
public printing- The "means," therefore, of ousring Mr- Berry, 
and the letune in of David Blackwell, the brother of Roberr, was 
doubtless a part of the "four years' salary*' of Governor Colc$. 
The iKJStcsKiDn of the VaimJalia prc« was \ master stroke «f policy 
on hix pan, and he dr-terves credir for ii. Rut ma Mr. Pink *^rareN 
that his Jcsign was formed simuliaiieously wfitK the poASflge of ihc 
Convention rcAolulion, he wns but n lew days lew than Hftecn 
months m malcing chc achievement, and not until Che battle, as it 
were, h.ij hecn Wght and won, the 0rcflte«t importance resulting 
frcm it was in making assurance doiitil) sure. 

'Vixw is a part of ihc secret histuiy of the Convention content 
which Mr. Peek professes to Rive, Another was the oriaiti of the 
anti slavery pamphlets and cractfi scatiereii over the State before 
the cleeiioT), In my repTicacion I showed that there was nor so 
much wondeimcnr abour it at the limif, ax fie ^eeim to supp^^at 
prevailed, but that pxrt of his narrative of the crcnti which he 
Jaya were '"luiown to but few,*' and which ludicrously show* hi« 
'tack of mc fnory, \% that in which he divulgm the "outside Intluenee'' 
—in other word*, the forming of comhinaiions amcuig (lave- 
brccdt-r* in the uliivehnlding States, to raifcc the question of intro- 
ducing xiavery into llhnois. It was my expcl:^it]on of that project, 
more than mao years before the passage of the Convention resolu- 
tion, that hrst brought me into collision with Mr. Coles. If Mr- 
Peck was in ptKseiition of the facts, as lie says he A'ai, he should 
have matle them kmtwn tn Mr. C, and rherrhy savH hiii friend 
fnim pl.icicig himself in an aivkward ililenima. Tlir week or two 
previously, a rumor w»* current in the town that a project was on 
fool to rai^ the question of calling a Convctition Co admit slavery 
into the State. 

The rnemim of Governor F^wflrd« were in strong hopes of 
identifyioB him with the Kcheoic. Mr. Coles was uproarous 
about it, and declared he would spend all he was worth to prevent 
itn Bui no sooner did my expomtion appear, in which it was shown 
that the nomination of Mr. Kans for Congress, in oppoacion to 
Mr. Cook, was a part of the plot, and his election first lo be cried, 
tlianhii tunc was changed. Mr. Co1c^andhiMfuilE;wcr»dcD(MiKcd 



me u d calumtuAtor, and denied th« exUtCACtofanir intCDtioa or 
movuncnt^ in Hir Stflfc or out oTic, having for in objfCF tbe lotro- 
duction of aUvcTv inio Illtixw. Governed Fdwi^rds having cn- 
dor>cd my suicmenc, in hia reply to tfacoutntgcotaftcuck of Mr. 
K&nc upon him, they, (Mr. O^s and five or six other eendcmca 
of E<iivafd£viUe,) addr^sed him a Utiet denying the Atatem^ti, 
«nd calling upon Kim fc-r pr<»f. This he put them in the way of 
finditiitt *^<) chuIlciifjCEi ilicm tu ciMi*icnt to iuve their dwmputKl- 
cocc puUishcd. This they pnidcntly declined, ant! ihcttl>f 
saved themselves from a public exposure. 

MrPeckcomplabsthitin my replkation I evaded the" main 
point," ami he thinlu by my silence I tacitly admitted his propost- 
tion. H)K "main point" appears to be» thxt the pevipJe of ntir 
State have not the right to interfere with thoftc of uiQihcr in the 
matter of slavery, or thai each State hns the nght in itself to 
introduce or exdude slavery, f have not the Free West before raci 
containing my replicaiicn, hut if I reeollecc ri(^t}y, I stated that no 
anti-ilavcry partj' that ndoptrti the policy of pntiiicat artion, had 
ever claimed the right to inicrlVrc with slavery in the States. 
llisisaditfcTcnc qut:3E:on from that of admitting a Tcmtory a» a 
alaveholding State into the Union. I do not, however, admit 
thcrightof a Scate^ or of an individual to do wrofig— to perpetrate 
"ihe grrAif«T vilbTiy under the utn," Mr Peick has yet to lemra 
the A DC of ujui'&lavcry. I supposed hconce knew ii; butifwi, 
he hoa for^ttcn it all, and must be turned back. He shows him- 
self to be twenty years behind the times on that subject. 

It appears by Governor Coles' letter to Mr. Peck, published 
in the loat Free West, that his feelings are very much hurt at my 
tvmarks cDneerring him, ir the ctHtiirial rtolitc of Gdvcmor Fi>rd'« 
book on the list of December, I supprcued the only paragraph 
in that article with which ] supposed he could justly take olfensc* 
after it was In type. The purport of it wok, that from my thorough 
knowledge of Kim at the onset, I had no confidence whatever in his 
profession'* of oppositinn to slavery; and his fubsctjuent life has 
fully conlif rued me in thatopmion. Elc has had ample opportunity 
Co prove his faith by worki; but instead ofdoinicsOt he bos opposed 
thoee whose wx>iks have proved their principles .—I^oncipadon is 
not aboUtJon. If all the slaves in the States were emancipated 



todny, slavery would not be ftboHshed, but mighr and would b« 
comin^icd, without spcctftt Ic^Gldcion igatnst ihe obvaining of 
new supplies by kidnapping or illicit iinponation. One vov« of 
GoverriuT Culo m oppuftUkin to slavery itarlf, woulj have motr 
inAucnce in abotiAhing the system, than the emancipation of hh 
slaves ten times over 

Contrary to my expectation, Governor Colea seems not uc mil 
displeased that Judge Ford^ hy hii History, should place him, the 
Chief M;igi->trrme ut fhe Staic, under me, as vtminhuutr ru the 
paper of which 1 vuls the editor and proprietor. Well, if lie n 
content, 1 mrcly should be; for it would not become me, Utely, to 
dlspju-agc the stAtson of ^b-cdttoVf m* to anign to it« incumbent 
mfenority. The wonder is that a proud Virginian ihould not 
do to. 

In my answer to Mr. Peck 1 aclcnowlcdgcd myself corrected 
by him, in rcfcard to the doubt I expressed as to Mr. Coles' »ettlin0 
his oefirocs on farm«- My >dca of sl farm was, a piece of land 
enclocedt with a house, bnTo and crchard on it, wiih fields of 
OaD), priw» beans and barley, 
And where corn and cabbage grow* 
Stich were scarce in lltiroia at thar time; but Mr Coles dkl as 
well, or perhaps better, by giving rhem the matcnaJ for making 
farms; and thia he could do without any great drain upon his 
pockety as almosF any quantity of patented land couM then be 
purchased for a trifle, say frum ten to c>iciity dutlars per quarter 
section, in the Military Tract, aU the deeds for which were then 
required to be recorded at the Recorder's office in EdwardsviUe, 
to vhich Governor Colea refers me. On other lands in the county 
and district, only one-fuurth t]f the purchase money had been paid 
to the governmcnl, uiHin entry at the Land Office. T did not take 
intcreai cnotigh in hx^ aiTaim, to go to the Recorder's office to aec 
to whom he had conveyed Land; nor should I have thought of 
goong there to find the record of "free papers/' nor the disposition 
to do so if 1 had. 

While Mr. Coles and mywlf Ixurded together at Wiggiits' 
hotel, there were three coloired iprls in the kitchen and hou»f, who, 
as I understood, were of those brought to the State by him* Two 
of these were afterwards servants in my family. An elderly 



colored ladjr, wlio 1 understood to be ih« mother of the fprls in the 
kitchen, occA«ionftlly visired the hotd. She resided on Mr. Coles' 
fftmit fls coclc for the men- Shr Hnd wUh her two younger chtldrvn^ 
B, boy anJ girU mu/attofj. 't'hcsc were all ihc colored people ol 
whom I liftvc any pcnonfll knovicdgCt t3 having belongtvi to Mr> 
Coles; nnU if there were others, 1 have wholly lost mil rccoIlectio*i 
of them. Thcj' were B<:-mi: times incidcnully ihc ii.ibject of convcr- 
£Stion between Mr. Coles and myself, at hi* in^ta/ice — for my 
curktsity nrvrr W me to muUe inquiries about rhem. 1 have no 
rccollccriun of ihc two men }ic mcntioiu, the Rev. Robert Craw- 
fonJ, and Thomas Cobb, I knew a colored m40 in the town, 
CAlleJ Robert, but I never heard of his preAching, or of )u» beioi 
ODeofMr. Coles' freed men; nor ha»re 1 any reco]le<"tion of a mani 
Iteini; kfHtfd by f^tllini^ into tlie public welL I atn no* e*m*"er?tanl 
with che ftirtn of a deed of emanttpaiiun; but I iiui>poaed each 
person set free must be named, to make it valid, even if a whole 
family •ncn included >n a single instrument. 

Governor Cole^ proceeds to say that, it the time 1 republished 
Ills letrer in 1^:2, giving nn aecDunr of ibr em^ncipaiion of hi« 
adivc«, I *'wiw openly hmiile, Kecking every occMion to traduce 
and injure him>" Thi^ is notoriously untrue, as th^ h\c$ of the 
Spectator will abundnncly ihow; und in this respeet he is m cul- 
pable for not examining the maircr, at he wodd hold mc for noi 
going to the Recorder's office to ascertain the number ni ivegroes 
cniAiicipatcd by hiin. At that itry tijuct and by the dec 
copying thai letter I wa» holding him up. &» with a long polc- 
tryine to keep him uHoat on the surface- 1 h^ve atated in 
" Reminisce lie tfs" that Judge Pope came all the way from Kaskai 
kia, to apprise me of the progress of the carva** in his section 
the Slau, and eamettly ativi^eil ine, lhal« if I did uul wjiik Philli|] 
elected 1 must let Coles alone; and he convinced mc that »uch 
was the state of the case* As the election of the former would be 
considert-d as a tnumph of the slave part[yh I c;ime to A pAuse, 
and gave Mr. Colcc a chance to recruit his strength, whidi had) 
run very low; and to raise him to a level with PhiUzi>H, trr abovT 
him, 1 copied, without request or comment, from the Illinois 
InteiliRcnccr, two urticlcs which lie had communicated to thai 
papee— one a letter from Mr. Jcffcrsoti to him; the other ibc 



nrtklc aUuve mi^Qtluncd. By this m«ns he ^m«i viowly uniil 
the election, whtn he came out with a pluralily of furty-four vntet 
over PhilUp%. So, Governor Coles owul hw election to iHc call of 
Judffc l^opc \iron me, in hi* bchfllf^n man who did nor cure any 
more for him than 1 dld- 

1 have not chargetl Mr. Colw with bad motive* in emancipat* 
ing Ilk Javes w i" calling upuri Methoditi ministrr*. who reiHrd 
oui c{ iown^ 10 witness the dcc^U. Aj a political onpimin, he had 
a pcrfccT riiEbt, And it was n nark of his shrewdness, to mAkc all 
the capital he could out of rhe performance of a praiseworthy act. 

Governor Coles avers that he waji awflrc of the fact, that the 
bringing of his slaves into ihU Stale, unqtulifiedly and ahWutely 
act Uicm free. Why, then, did he go chrou^ the farct of fijrmally 
emarcipaiin^ them* at Edwardsville, on the then ncict enduing 
fourth of July? He would explain it by saying that Mr, Cuok 
advised him thai his negroes should have free papers, to save 
them frrtm betnjf taVen tip under one of the hlack lawi, whiL^h waie 
then an well as now, generally regarded uv a dead leccer. A 
ocrtiftcatc that the negroes were fonrcily slavcH in Virginia, and 
c»me to tht$ Stnte with fhc consent of (heir mn-ttet, would have 
b«en sufficient. But I do not Mieve Mr. Cook designed to set ft 
trap fnr Mr. CoIcje, hy inJucing him to put his: violation of the 
Mack code ujx-n rcc<»rd, and thereby furnish evidence for a prose* 
cuiion against himaclf- 

In that prosecution Governor Coles had all my sympathy. 
It WM iitfiiituted by the Commissioners of Madisor county, whoAC 
attention had been called (o the subject in an anonymous publica- 
tioHt written by (he late Jiidge Smith, It was to recover the 
penalty, which inured to the county, for cmAncipating fu5 ^Uvcs 
in the State, without giving ix>nil and surety againtt their becom- 
ing a county charge- Mr. P«<k** memory also fails htm in this 
matter. The "onerous** penalty W3»s prescribed by Iaw, noe 
impiMed by the *' prejudiced judgr/' (McRohcrt*0 and reversed hy 
the Su|>reme Court. The penalty was rcmittekl by a special act 
of the l-egi^lature. My own recollection i* not dear about it — but 
if the case wn* previouaiy before the Supreme Court, the ftrst trial 
in the Circuit Courc mu«t have been before Judge John Reynolds, 
(Mr- Peek's prrvnt hospEtable friends) and the decision raust 



hare been cunfifmeil on aippcal, ftmJ the cautc rcmuulol to 
Court bcknr for the rendering of Judccmcnt. And Hus 
pfecttdy the phmae of the cue, u IE wai beii:tre Judge McRol 
ai the Spxin^ term, 1S15, being the Ar»t under the operation of 
new organ'tuitjon of the Jtidicbir. Ther« mts no actiork before 
the Cnuri at thtt rrm Init the quc^Tinn of rendenng )iKlgcment; 
and ihn had been prcclu<k«i hf the Ixgialaturc the prcviout 
winter. This was Judge Mc Robert*' miudcn dcdsson. He 
pompouslf pronounced an elaborate opinion, in which he decTwd 
the rcsnbsion of the penalty by the Ije^ittire untroRftiturional, 
herausc il was a ve«ial righr accruing to the county of MadiAjn. 
The case was in the Suprcric Court, on Appeal or writ of error, 
the crau<n|t summer, Jtidiccs Wilson, Browne, and Smith, present. 
The latter, as J havt before intimated^ wa» the prime mover oi the 
pro»ciit>on. Judge Lockwood, having been of Governor Coles' 
axime), »aJ a*ide. The case was hen- arguctJ by Judge John 
Reynuldft Ux tlic pitiictutxii], aiiii foe tlic dclcnsc by Hctuy Starr* 
Esq,, who took the ground of the " Higher law/* 1 do not rci 
ber what the deddon of the Court was, if any were ma<le- Il 
ieenu to me that a tompromiM was made by the attorneys; b-jt be 
that n% it may, Gcvernrir CoTea wa« nut required to }»y the jienalty, 
bot only the coau of prosecution. 

But i muai conclude rhesc remark*, having abcaii?', perhapi, 
said more than the occajion rendered necessary. Ai Governor 
Cole* t( to f giire a« the principal character in the great worit in 
preparation tW the pre** by Mr. Peck, "The Moral Progrcw r>f the 
Mosiuippi Valley," and as he has (umUhcd a ikcich of his life 
for ita pages, I tender co Mr. P. full hbcrty to frccty uac all I have 
nid of him in this dbcvssion, n^kirt^ ncthins in return but tl 
present of a copy <^ the boolc, when published- 

Menry, Marshall Co^ III., June 19» i%$S 

CoLr^H -m BAaar, June 2f, 1^58 
(Chinfo Hftmricil Sivi«tKt AiiSc^Eriph l^tfm, 44T JJ-^I} 

\EnJorse4 in Ptncih] 'llic following was flddre5>^l to Wm- Btrry, 
who visited 1^- Gov. CoJcs at Phil*, about the same time. 



PniLkDtLPMiA June 25. t8^ 
Dear Sift— 

I would sooner have replied ^^ the letter addressed me by 
you as Secrcur^ of the Historic^] Society of Chicago, for my 
remiaiK<nccfi of Morris Birkbeck, hm fur my having been suffer- 
ing rrom the effects of a coM, And not ItcinK "bic to ky my handa 
00 »ome of [he few document, J suppoKd I hAd. which would 
tts^iit mc in doin^ so, I mlludc to the pSLinphlcF published by 
M', Birkbcck of an Agncuitural tour he made through France, n 
few years before he left Europe, Sind to the second pamphlet (the 
first I have) he publiflhtrd in j8ij>, in opposition to the attempi 
then niadc to make Ul'moift a skvc-holdirrg Stutc; and al»o to some 
pub!iciittun» he made in the ncwapapcrj on ih4t And other subjccta, 
w welJ as the annual addreeiMS he made to the Agricultural So 
cietyof die State including an eway he publbhed on the origin of 
prairies &c. Feanng if I delay tofiger to reply, my health ami the 
warcn season will require me tt> leave the City for a more a^jrccaljle 
6c hcoJthy suntmcr rcjidcnce, I hare determined to lumUh a few 
general facts in the bc$t way I can irom recollection, and the 
few aidt I have nt command. Before doong so I munt »tate, as ft 
grmter difKL-iilry in my fiilnlling yoiiir rpt^iiesr, to my ^aritfactinn 
or that of your Sodety» » thst on Icnving lUin^s I presented to 
the HiscoHcal Society of Alton nil the document^ in the form of 
books and papers, I hAd collected in relation to that State — scipu- 
Isting that my friend the Ke\'^ : J. M Feck should> in compliance 
With his request, he allowed to retain and have the use of them, 
to aid him in ihr hisconcal (t>1ln:iLuitH hr wam ihcn engaged in 
making. This peovcd unfortunate^ ai my buoks and papers were 
in consequence in M'. Pecks house when it, and his hbrary, were 
consumed by lire. A portion of ihcm, he wrote me, had beeo, 
with some of hii books, saved from the flames. How many, or 
vrhxl panicular ones had been saved, f was not informetL Among 
the books aful papers of mine thus left in the hands of M'. Pcck» 
was a file of tllinoin ncwtpapers bound in volumes, embracing a 
period of twenty years, from May 1G15 to the year iSj^ — believed 
to be the oldest file of Illinois newspapers in existance |r;V[— which 
would, if ac(Tv*ib3e rn mr, tv of grcar service in rhH as wtll as tn 
other cases in Fuini^hing mc dttc& and facts whicli hxvc escaped 

^/366 lUJyOIS mSTORlCJL collectioss 

inymeinory. IgaveftbotollUaoifttftadlpresumcitisinthcLlbnry 
of the ofiicr of the Sccrcturf tyf Sfarc, a irolinnc of rhr Illinurt 
Ififclltgrncfr* whkfi includn the trying and cxciniig trmcs frtun 
tB^l tu t&l4, whca cifofts were muk to mikc Illinois ■ sIatc 
Koldinf Succ. 1 mention these ficuibat you. and other mcnbca 
of jrour Society, may know whert to lind thcM files— if not burnt 
in M*. P^cks hou»p. 

I h€^ }>»rik)fi ^ thu digriuikin (irV), tnU for sajring so ini»:b 
in cxpUnattoo of the pa»I, and Ui cxcux for the <lbj^>po«stnaenC 
thtscominurucfttion will occasion the Hisloricjil Society of Chicago^ 
and «iU proceed at once to sketch a few general fact», chlflly 
from a waning memory, of my old fnend Birkbeck- 

! wa« maile an|u»ninl with MoniK Birlbcck in IjortdoQ lit 
the *)>riiig of tSi7 1^ John Q. A^liuni, then our Minister in E^- 
laod, who told mc he had asked it of him, tn oooftcqucTice of har- 
ing heard I had traveled much, p<articulariy over the wcsreni 
portion of the United Stitet. M'. Adams prepdiFcd roe for the 
no|ttamiance by rdlir>g rac M', BirkHcck contrmpJated retnovnf 
to cur CouiLtr^, and vtovU be a gftac ac^uUition to it» as he TO 
ooc Oflly OIK of the best pniccical and »cicDtiiic agriculiuralisca of 
Great Britain, but hai much literary taste and knowledge. On 
making hii acjuiintancc M'. Birkbeck invited me to visit him 
at hh residence in the Country, which I did and remsttned with 
hun (tnir or Ave dayi- He hcli a lar;^' CTitatc In Surrey, under 
lcii.*ie tar a term of ycarif which he cultivated and managed with 
all that skill taalc and judgcmcrnt for which he had teputaticn* 
He took me over every part of the estate, and pointed out and 
explained everything pectiliar, or in which rhc English agrietit- 
iiiraltus excelled- Thift wan the mnrv intcrvxting and grucifying 
to mc frotn my having a predilection for agricultural pursuits. 
The pJcoaure I evinced, and the information 1 was enabled to 
impart, of how simitar thm^ were done in my Country, encour- 
aged him to ask, and Co give, the most minute detaik as to how 
estates were cwlrivatfxi and managed in oiir re**|Kctivc Countrm 

With a heart bc^mini; *iih the reiTublkan and phiUnthrop- 
icalfcelbpcongeniAJ with our political Institutional it was zva curat 
that he should be partial to the United States* and in early youth 
'Thii volajne b in the [Uinoii State I&ioritiJ liWarr mt SsKvngSeld. 



ro haw imbiM ihcm, wirh a d«iTt ro m*lte our Rcjmhtic Ws 
hciriK. T)icac Tcclm^ ind iKin dcsin; bircominfj ki^own, :u he 
prc5umc<li IctI lo hii receiving & dattcrin^ inviEatioo to reside in 
ihc UnUcd States. But for hb modctty he «^uld have attributed 
it to the ^rly partiality he duplay«d Tor agriculttiral pursuits, 
ihc kfiETwlcdge he poisessed «f t?i«n, his higli monl and tfircllcc- 
tual diarartcr, and t^1l^li^? of pre-eimDcnt:cf ax an agriailttiralisr, 
as doubtlc^A they had gttatct influence in ohcaJning the invitation 
refcred to, and which 1 will row explain; 

Gen: W^hinifton, being prevented by official duties, and 
other calls on hi« time, and having nvk 2 high opinion d English 
akill in AgricidEure* wrote 10 one of his ngnculrursl corrispondents 
I/iV] in EngUnd fM% B. told mc hi^ name* but I have forgoittn 
it) lo employ for him fi skillful and judicloxj^ RKriculturidisC to be 
hia Agent and manager of hi£ Mount Vcnion estate. Young 
Birkbcck was selected and offered tK« station. Mis paniatLCy for 
the I'nried States made him At once accept the offer But on 
making it known to hi* i-ather, he bcsecchcd him. as his only 
aon, t)ot to leave him. and with rhac filUI afleetion, congenial with 
his nAiure, he acquiesced in the wishes of his aged Pa.rvnt— and 
thu4 delayed his becoming a Citizen of the LMired Stat*;*. Thi* 
tncidemof his life he wa^ fond of dwelling on, and ii had the effect 
Df itKTcaAintj HiK i>rcdilcct]t>n fur thin Cmjnlry* and stimuUtirg 
h» hope of ultimately making it hitt home- Never having Iwt 
9ght of this* nor abated in hia de«ire to remove to the U* S., he 
availed himself of every opportunity of gaining tn^rmation of 
what he conKidrrt'd hi* future htime, Fnr thin piitpn?^ he read 
ciir flciff>iMpers, and all our publications he could lay hi« hands 
on, and stowed in his citensivc Librar>' alJ books which treated of 
this Country, In this way he became unusually well informed of 
all things in relation to it. I was frequenriy astonished to find 
how divcrsifled and miriire was the inrormarion he possessed of 
die United States. 

P'rom all M'. Birkbcek had read t^n^ heardi he wa^ inclined 
lo give the Miami Country above Oacinnati the preference, and 
looked to ic a« his future home. 1 concurred with him in consider- 
ing if a delightful Country, and Tike htm had looked on tr with 
partial eyes. But on accing the Prairie tegian, 1 tcjld him, 1 



becnmc cnmrmcrd ir was grr^iiljr to he prcfcrtrd for m^n^ ai 
UBporlaiu ica^fis, partkul^tly fur Euro|)cjiD5, ur cmtgrAUU (t 
old and settled Countries. The bcaucics «fid gnuidcur displaj 
in fhcsc great farms of nature, the faeUitics ihc^ afforded, arKi rhe^ 
conveniences and advaatages denved, for more than rSe life time 
of a youthful emigrant, are inconceivable to one who had not 
acai and ^uinparcd ^ch a Country tu a den;ccly nrd hcavtlj 
timbered one^ where everything had to be done to make it aub- 
scrvtent to the uitcs of man. I told him 1 had often thought 
beholdmg a new settler in the foreit, commencing to make hit' 
improvement, that it required more retolutioot firmnesadf per- 
servwanc^ in a farmer t" cncnuntcr a Hensc fomt^ to convert i| 
into a farm, than for a mtliur>' man to lead a fbr-lorn-hopc 
battle I'hcn again the trouble and labor arc tK>t conhncd to 
malting the fArm^ Init extend to the opening of roada; Ui hoch caai 
when the rrcca arc cur down and removed, and the farm fif 
are said to be opened* thcrr atill remain the animiia and roota to 
impede the ptogrcss, and increase the labor of callivating the oae* 
and traveling over the other On my telling him the hngliah 
laborers, he contemplated carrying with himi would be out 
place and unprofitable in a new forest country* — that one bael 
iroudunan could do the work of two or three Engliah laborcn^ n 
ckartii^ lands, in cuttini^ down trees, making rails for fcncea 
&c- he laughed at what he cci-aidered mf ignorance of the dcxtci 
ity of Ergliah laborers. He afterwards told me in Jllinoia that 
found what I ^aid waa correct, \anj chat he had to empl[o]|^ 
Americans. «r backwoodsmen, for "■Jie purposes 1 mentioned. 

M^ Blrklieck came Cn thin Oju.Ury, accompanied by hia l\ 
grown Daiighrcnt, and two sona (he Md lost his SVifc many yeai 
before) leaving two aona m Europe — we of which wmo MU 
and resided near him in lllinoic — the cU>er was a Merchant 
resided in Hamburg in Germany. He^Had ^Itn jicoompanyti 
him hia friend George Flower Cccj makiis ^^ all a jurty of nil 
persona, who came with him from EnglanB to IlUnoU. On Icari 
injf his intention to embark wItK his famj1>land friends for Xorf< 
in Virginia, and to proceed from thence b? land through parts 
X^f^pnia Maryland and Pennsylvania to Bhio, I (umudied Mi 
^ith letters of introduction to friends of ftiine residing near t1 



line of his route; and Mievms he would follow my advice^ tnd 
visit IQinots before he settled himaeir, 1 give him let:er« «l»o to 
that State and tndiana. At Richmond in Virginia, where he aod 
hia family rcmitinril eight or lai dayn^ my friend.s had Otc yAvAsarc 
of ahovring Kim ncvcnl plantations — nne of which was on die 
bankfl of Jamc» River, and among the larg»c and best cultivated 
in the State* He was ogrfe-nbly Mjrpri»ed to find the agriculture 
better on thrl place than he had expected. But as a general 
tiling, he riiumi on rht; line iif hi« mute chrniigh ihc lower portiiin 
(rf Vbginia, the agriculture und gencraj face of the Country much 
wor»c rhnn he expected— which he attributed to the trstitntTon 
of Slavery. He witnessed a sate of Slaves acaiictioti in Richmond, 
at which hU fe«Ung» were haraued, and &o much overcome that 
he slnN.1 rrnni at thr grief dii;pUyrd by some of the women on 
bciitg scpcratcd |jfV| from their fanitlics. 

In hia highly interesting pamphlet, cntitJcd, "Notes of t 
journey tn America from the Coast of Virninia to the territory of 
Illinoit, with proposals for the establishment of a Colony of Eng- 
lish. ByMorrisBirkbeck, author of Notes on a tour in France" — 
He iittya^-"On taking leave of Vinj'mia, I mu&t obicrvc, that I 
found more misery in the condition of the negroes, and a much 
higher tone of moral feeling (^ their owners than 1 hadnnticipatcdE 
and 1 depart, confirmed in my <Letestadon of slavery in prtnctpte 
and practice; buc with esteem for the general character nf the 
Virgimans," In another pla<-e M'. Btrklvck nays — "1 must 
hoi^vver, do this justice to the sUvc master of Vir^nia:it was not 
fix«m him that J ever heard a defence of Slavery: some extenua- 
tion*, on the score of expediency or n>cce£sity, is the utmost range 
now taken by that descripibn of reasoners who, in former timea, 
wmild have itirempicd to support the principle as well as the 

Soon after my return to Amcricft. 1 received letters from M'- 
fiirkbeck, representing hvs journey to O^o aa having been very 
agreeable to him and his party, and the Country to have improved 
ar^ become more cheerful and intcrciiing in appearance aa he 
pfocccded Wcsf. Frofn Madi&on in Indiana he wrote me July 
13. 1617, that *'aftcr havin([ looked in vain throu^ Ohio and 
en()uited with like elFecc abou; vacant landa suitable fef ray pur- 



poses in rhc State of li^duni, we, rhat it lo sij', self & family, 
art mikiiig iKir imy incu jruur fawitr lllttviis." 

Tbaugli [ hoU cuuIKiicd Him jii;aiii»I n^cddin^ hlm^f ro tbc 
ArM lovely und bewitching Fniric Iw saw, and wivued him ro 
take time Jind evptore the Country- generally, before he purcKused 
or looted himself, he t*e«^rihel»s became enraptured with tftc 
Bfiit Urge prame he IvJteM, and h» ailmiratinn increasing an hr 
proceeded, he could not rcfi^t purchasing and uniting himwlf, 
better for worse, to the ^fcord and neighbonng prairk- On mr 
expressinj; regret he had not before purchasing gone to the western 
ajde of the State, and seen more of lUinos;, he said emphatically 
that thr rn<)n whn was nnr narii^ni and wanted anything hcticfi 
wa» IM>1 fit for this world, and it was cvninous thai he Ax^ukl :iut 
be satisfied & happy in die next. 

There hcinfc no dwellings or inrprovcment^ on the LaikU lie 
purchased, nor com fi^r table acccmadaiion |/fr) near it, he antl hts 
family loratrd thcmsHvcs, until they could be prepared, at Prnee- 
ton in Indiana. From which plaic he wiMc me a cheaful letter 
J&nuar>' 7. 1818, in which, among other things, he aays; "The 
aitxiation I have choecr is I think an escepc>on to the general char- 
acter you have justly given c>f the lower Wabash. It is far out 
of the reach of that river ^i\i\ it* attendant minhn, and ailortk 
a?i gucaj pioibprciH, in jxHiit nf health, ai any cuuiiiry T huvr neen 
west of the Ohio, Vou give us reaMin to hope that wc ahall 9cc 
you in tlie spring: 1 will ihcret^re wait for the pleasure of con- 
ducting you over our Prairie, without further attempts to weaken 
yuut objection*; for I daresay you have learnt to conlvie Iittie in 
the statements of settlers with rcganl to their own choice. We 
emigrants arc generally sanguine. I think myself tolerably w^iry 
and cool headed; but many, who suppose they kr.ow mc, would 
laugh at my pretensions. My daughters, I am n>ost happy to 
say, are anything but rcrpcntants. They adapt themselves mo« 
cordially to all that is comfortable in our new conditioii, and have 
a good knack in eiciracting some pleasures from circomstanccai 
[which! <o minds of a ainisrcr cast, would be mtscry untnu 
No &ir, in good truth wc are not penitents: wc left behind us 
thing to regret, and wc find here much to enjoy; and our enjoy- 
mertce have the charm of improwment, which brightens ertrj 

thing in a new Country'; vhiUt the privatjons arc in their nature 
tempoTory- For a man of my age you will say lh» way of view- 
ing the i^bject 11 a litde too remote: but if it answen; the parpo^, 
ro matter! 1 ought to have mentioned when on the subject of 
my fipplieaiion for bnJ, that 1 have received a very polite and 
Irieftdly letter from Mr, Mwiison, wHosc scrurmcrts atc 5imiUr 
10 those you express- -[ sho^tld jclndly have smoothed the way for 
many of my oM (rlcndA^ who arc weighed down t>y taxation and 
paiiprriiru : AU \ want of inditlgencc i* in pninrof tim^, I might 
oiherwiw expow: myself ro ^at in conveniences, Htiwe/tT hav- 
ing made the application I leave it to the ^pod acMC o( the LegU- 
latun*. Ic h a trifle to grant, hxxu to the object of it* it would he 

If yoixr visit to our Country should not be before Maty, I 
hope to receive yv\i in our Cabin on Bolting house pratne; where 
yv\i ihall have a hearty wttcomc to a nhatc uf our mu^h & rnilkt 
ftW'ectcnod, if you please, with deliciouH honey," 

In explanation of the above extract, f will adJ that Mr. 
Birkbeclc made application to Congresi that winter to grant him 
and hiH cumpinicinK a hmger rime tn critnplere lUeir payments Tt> 
the Government for the land?' they proposed to and settle 
on— which however was not ffn&nted. J ffave Mr. B. a teller of 
introdiicucn to ex President M-idiaon, which in puffing through 
Virginia, not going near hi> residence, he did not deliver. This 
will explain ht« wnring to Mr, M. 

Owing to my ftoin^e to Illinois in n 5tcaml>o4t to St. txiuli, 
and being oc<^upicd in the western, my favorite part of the StatCi 
I was prevented from visiting M', Birkhcck unci! in the autumn 
of lAift,,' when f was exceedingly gratified— the more so from hia 
assuring mc (hat I was the ra»iw of his being an inhTihiranr of rhe 
pfairiea — to find hiin and hia family very comfortaUy fixed in 
fhcm, had then been in the enjoyment of unintcrmptcd health, 
with no abatement in th<ir fir^t preposscasiona for their new home, 
and in fine that all wcr« contented and happy, with their expect;^ 
tionft more than real'r/ed- Tliey were aM kindness and devotion 
t« mc, and I enjujed my visit ex<.calingly, which i did in all tlic 
Dumcroua vl.Mtn 1 made them. 

*Ur. C'oIm mad* tvo cr^pi tn lltin«i Man hi« 6b>] rtmaval with tit alive* 
in llTsi. Hia Ant rhp «ii made in 1B15. 



Und^ rbe cvpeciaiion that the numb^ of emigranu lookod 
for wnniM hAvc tlit- effect gn-atly ta advance the finoc of lands Ri 
iJic vKinagc M'. Birkbeck |xjtcha:«c(l a. Ur^rr amaufil than he 
cared About permanently boldmg, & hop«d to »dl a |>on»oa of it 
at an advanced price, bur on ttnns of credit and accommodation 
to the emigrants which wvre expected. BqC in this he did not 
rcalifir [fu] hW amidpanonv For nlrhough emigmnrs as ex- 
pected, soon lollcAVed him, ai>d to an caicni thjtt tn a year ur t*o 
amounlcd to some 6 or ^oo En^ish pcoplc> yet owing to an 
unfortimarc schi»in which tpnin^ up bctv^cen M'. Birkbeck and 
M'- George Fb»-cr, his old friend and coadjutor tn tfw scheme of 
emigTAtion; ;and second only to Hirkbrck in wraith and influence 
tn the En^^liih seitlcmaK!! and tlm feud spre^ing through ibe 
settlement, had a bad influence un the social tntercourae ami joint 
action oi the tnglksh settlement, and proved very dclcccHcKu to 
its advance and proiperity. Another cauie which had tnJIucnce 
in retarding it* progn-w *as Kapp^ settlement near it on the 
WaLa&b tabled "Harmony/* in which, cumislcnlly with ibs nntne, 
there iras for many years a great deal of harmony and friendly 
eommurion which contributed to its prosperity, S<ich were tl 
dfects of disccrd at the one place, and harmony at the other, 
with oil llie skill ami dexterity of English fabcirE^n, they foond it 
thtapri, as they told ine, Xo buy many agricultuNit pm<liKltiinft 
S< other ncccs^ino cf life, n\ Harmony than tn mikc thcni them" 
seU'ct at and near their town of Albion* Noewithjtandinic ihit 
unnatural, ard from Mr, Birkbec^ amiable and hcrevolent 
fee]in|j!(, p*vuli;irly painful itate of things to him, l^eiween friends 
and acquaintances who had left tlicir naiivt land kindred aJ>d 
catIv fricnd5» oitd removed together to a distant country and 
settled omonfl strangcrs^Mr. Birkhcck remained constantly at 
home, indulging in the intcllectural [u^\ enjoyments of his luge 
and well seTected library, and in the nirfll and agricultural pur- 
suits of his new rotate. I had the pleasure of vit-iting him near^ 
every spnnK and autvmn* and parcicipAiing fn his efijoymcnia, 
and witnessing the annoyances arising from the feud the only 
drawback he seemed to have. Everything else conoected with 
liis settlement arid residence m IHiiiois, was more agreeable than 
even his sanguine imagination had antieip:itcil. 



In October tSi^ovcr the signature cf "A Farmer of Madison 
County," I invire\i the h'nrmers of lUincis to meet on the loth 
of the next month to ibrm an Agricultural Society of the State cf 
fllincFiK, lliiK wax accnnJingly done, Mr Birfcbeck »-a« prc- 
vcniciJ iVum aitcnding thr meeting, ami never having visited the 
western portion of the Stale, nor gone to any distance from homCi 
he w«« kncum only a^ the head und founder of the ^ngltfth settle- 
ment m Hdwarda Count}-, and not i>crflonalIy known to but very 
iVw of the pcoftlc of Illinois. T nevertheless venrurod to bring 
htm 10 nonce <)f thr SiKicty as ihc best qxialifiCLl man in rhe State 
to be ita PrcsidaiE; Jind had the ntore influence in effecting my 
ob}cef. a* I was alao brouight forward for the same auticn, which 
I declined in favor of M'. Biikbeck- He ^vas annually re elected, 
and coninued it* Preaidefit for four years, when he declined 
serving longer, in t-onsequence ai he avowed, of ihe Society meet-* 
ing at tlie Scat of Gov*: in the winter, and the length and dis* 
coRiforta of traveling 90 far at that Indcmcnt season of rhe year. 
There was another reason which he whispered to me, as having 
its inftuence in le^ing him to decline serving us President^ and 
disheartening him in die csuse. It wax a conviction that the 
Country WiLt not ripe for it, u mn evincei.] in the want of zeal 
displayed in its support, Mr> Birkbccks annual Addrc?iscs to the 
Society were tkM written, su everything from his pen waji, and 
displayed all that kniiwWgc which was to be expected from his 
high rcpuiniicn ns a snrnr!6ir nnd practical agriculturitt. In 
aome instances however, I will venture to say> it was perceptible 
CO a practical American AgricultiirAJiflt, that his Wnowledge how- 
ever great, was better adapted to the place of its nativity- — to 
England than to America—To an old Country where Und i« of the 
fint con aide ration^ and labor of the second— rhan to a new nnd 
sp(irscly settled Cut^ntty, where land i« plenty aiM cheap, andlabor 
sconce and dcar< This want of adaptation of his knowledge and 
practice, in every in»canoc to a new and sparsely inhabited 
Country, was to be e:xpected of a msn reared as he had been, and 
with his short experience of the difference between an old and 
new Country. It wa?i apparent in many things in the manage 
itjcnl of hi* Bstate in lUinois, especially in its not being a$ profit- 
able u it should have hcct^ But then in justice to htm, and to 


all of vs of tfiait day^ it should be aut^, tii4t the want of profit 
on landei <»titM arose from »he wan: of intemal imiirovcnicnes, 
and Sis L-umr^itrni uaiir of opportunities of leading to or Anding 
a market fur oijr productions. 

In tfic spring of i$lj, after the f^egislatun: Kad taken the 
first ntcf toward making Illinois a liave^hofding State, by wb- 
mitting the qoection for the consent of the people, Co call a Con- 
vcnrinn to alter the ConsHmtlon fnr that puq>ose, I wrorc fo Mr. 
Brrkhrck utsing him ro ukc an A^nvc part in cm^mg in thi^ UmI 
a measure irioonsTstcnt and rcvohirtg to the spiiit of the age, 
disgraceful to the IStntc: 'Hint no time should be lost in the aeti' 
empioymcnt of his powerful pen, in oommcncirg and continuL 
\vs labors in diAwing up nnd publishing, pampfUcts, newspaj 
pftr^i^TAphs, and \n rvtrry way in his power, to enlighfen x\tc pci 
on rhc question which had been Bubmittcd to them. Tliis 
promised me to do, and accordingly published in July 1815 "Ai 
Appeal to the people of Illinois on the question of a Conventi< 
By Morris RJtkbeck/' In this pamphlet Mr. B. dt^layed 
great power*! of ciiimpoMtion, and skJD in hnndtli^ the <]ueatioA. 
He continued hia lalH>rs tn pobli&hing a second pamphlet, and 
numctnuf articles in the newspapers, ^tome over his own name, 
and many over that of "Jonathan Freeman'* — *"Q." — and others- 
Moft of these articles were published tn the Illinois GtxectCt and 
many of them repuHished in othrr nrv^s^iaprrx; urtd the pam* 
]>t]lris were reprinted for greater eirctiUririn among the Ciiiiens of 
Illinois. No one rejoiced more than Mr. Birkbeek in our succen 
in preventing Illinois from being m«de a slav-e-holdtng-State. 

David Blackwell havinpt been elected a Member of the Legis 
laniTT, and having nonfied me in Scprrmher of hi^ inrrntion 10 
resign the office of Secretary of State on iIk firU of the follow ing 
moniht I wrote and tendered the office to M'. Birkbeek. Thh 
Airprised him very much, a3 no intimation of such an intefitkin 
had been given him, or wish for the office had been hinted at by 
Kim, or any of his friends. Expre^ing gratifieation at such a 
llattcring pruuf of jiiy friendship nnd liiyh opinion of bun, and the 
opportunity tt would aitord htm of being near and associating with 
me, he conaenrcd to accept, and accordingly in a few days attended 
at the scat of government, and entered on the duties of hU ol^ce. 



He went to work At once to make himself' jicquaintcd with them, 
and hiK methodical ]>ti«me«fi luliu^, and faitiiliani^r with arran^*ing 
books and paper* in hi* exttouivc library, were soon visible in tJ»e 
imprcvrd and clitvtjfird ^Lrrangemem of tliost bclurLgtng la tlie 
office uf Scctelory of Stale. In a rcasoiiable time after the meet- 
ing of the Lcipsiature, and After he had time to becoftie acquainted 
with the Memben^ 1 nominated him to the Senate for ihetr con- 
firmation of hb appointment a« Secretary of State. Much to my 
TCgrct> ami Ki hiK morTt^canon^ cm the vore hc'tn^ ukcn ihe^rer taa 
found to be a ^mall mojontx of ihc Senator* opiio^ed to his con- 
iinnaiion. lltb arcac fr^m no doubt of his ahilit>' and qunhfi- 
catton for the office, but from his being n foreigner rccctitly 
naturalised; find from his retired habtis he hod made him^lf but 
very lirrlc known; and from hU having givrn offrnre rn vamr from 
the active iiid elTicieiit part lie had lakcii in prevciLtini^ IlJiriuii 
from bc>i^ m&dc a slavc-holding-Statc: and aUo from his having 
been thought to have meddled in wme measures l>cfore the 
Le^Rlature in a way not pleasing to «ome of vhe Members. Soon 
after his rejection hy the Senate he n^nimed ro WanbotDUgh his 
fcvdcTice in Edwards Ciiunty, ami rt-sunieii hii quid domestic hfc 
devoting himself to his fjirm, n^hkU h;: never left to ^o a distance 
(roin heme. 

On the adjcnimmcnt of the Court at Albian [i'V| in {ifank in 
A/-^>] Mr. Birkbfck^ JudgE? Wanle*, and wvctal of the I-awyer*, 
made a vinii to the ^cWateLi Rubcri Owen and lii» a^aucialeH, 
who had purcha^d out Rapp and Acrc residing at Harmony. 
After spending fevend days in a very sociatile and agreeable man- 
ner, Mr. Btrkbeek and his Son set ouc to return home, soon after 
a very hcnvy ^howtr i^f rain had fallen, which ftwelleil the little 
creek oppcHitc tlatmony un the wet! side of the Wal>a«h river, 
in attempting co cross which Mr. Birkbec;k and hia horse urere 

I hnve not had opportufiities since Mr. Birkbccks death, and 
ly removal from Illinois, to learn about his children, and whar 
title ] have heard ha* bccJi in the furm tif rurtKrr, and may not 
be correct- It is certain hov^^vcr that his poetcrity have not 
;taken that deep root in the prairica of JTlinois as waa to have been 

imed chey would have done, from hie gr«at predilection for 


Am. I wB^emMMd h» iMAip, Boe b^ ^g fck ^tatf^ >dM 

£rQM tfce Stx^e; Obe am Cd t**y»"j oeax Hamoej, and tm oT 
In «o«^ ad h» tvo daogkCBv nipstcd a^7 jem »c= cc 
M cttco^ and «0St t^ &■>( I besrd of tfa^ cMpioy ai m wapct- 

■MBVdbly tOOK land H iBdML 

Witfc agns aiking yonr ioAdpenae fer e^ tBperlectioas of 

dpi f^<Mii»Wirio«T a* well far Aemaoitt ui^fied^MM far 
4nHPS fron tw buffdcD mdq vBfmoct oi ape* ■■ui ***^t 
tadipii and labofioua, I will c om fa d g ^di racwv 
ny fmc mapcct- 

FxnKAao Col £5 
WituaM Bauot Ea^: Scottary of the tbtoncJ Soocty U C^ 

CoL»' HisTOftvorTaeOtDtKJjsct or 17^7 

||UidWleirvrbctfiHWMilS«knr«f taHif4*WHwJw»9.iVS* |niii(lii|*iii 
Pra« <^ d» SdtviT, lifll 

Otm>u9icKor 17S7, 

To inz HtrrouCAL sociktv or f cautavLrjiXU. 

I AM tcnttblc oi the comf^iment p^ me bf ^ paance 
Hk RcMlvtion of tbe Sgciety, requesting rae to prvpare for it 
luuorkal dcrrch of tbe celebrated Orduunce of 1787, aoJ 
that ledentary occiipaiion, and particularly ibe labnr of rhc pri 
bcittg prejudicial to my health, will preircnt my makii^ >uch t 
rctponac <o rbc call 05 the h^ly inrcrcating character of the 
subjeci rcqutrea, or fulnlting ibe cxf«canoitt doubticssly enter- 
tained hy the Society when the resolgtion was adopted. Thit 
stare of rhing& will disable mc fmir mnkinft rhe rroeardtcs neCY\- 
iary to a full exposition of facu, or even wriiing out my rccolirc- 
liontof them to the cittcni desired. iiariW require mc to ccuno* 
itiocmy labors in ever*' way I can, and particularly the prejudicial 
one of wTitir|{, and content myself with developing only such facts 
aiarecftscntiai) to undrntflnding the hitiory of the Ordinance. To 
thii ] mu&c add, an a furtlicr barrier to my doing jmticc to the 
Aubjcct, that i caruiot procure, here, a hbtory of Indiana, or 
irdccd anything that devervo that name of any of the yubdiviaiona 



nrr> whirti rhe Nnrrhwp«rrrn Tr-mrory was ^ividrii; wliich com- 
pcb mc to rely moijil)' for IocaJ ucu on my aicniory aruJ pcisruaal 
mcmorindA. Wirh this expljuiAcion, 1 will proceed at once to 
comply with the rcciu^t of the Hiscorical Society of Pcnnsyl- 

The country situated to the iiorchwesi of the Ohio River, 
lung ktiu«ria& die SorchwcfitcraTcri-itoty.WAiLUirTiciJby Virginia, 
cxccpi a small part of it bortlchng on L;tkc Enc, whtch was 
claimed by Connecticut. The^e tvo States ceded nil their claims 
to the United States, and thus iJiey olit:tined a perfect title to 
the whuir Tht'decJ of ccssuin frum Virginia was dated March r, 
1784; and waa idgiieti* among othcTTs by JdFer«un ttnd Mimroe, 
afterwards Presidents of the United States It ceded all her 
right and titte to the soil and juris^Jctic^n to the United States, 
fliul made many itipulanons; among othcT«» "That the French and 
Canadian inhabitants and uther letilers of the Kafikaskiafi, St. 
Vincents, and the nciehhoring villAgcs» who have profeucd thcm- 
schx5 citizena of Virainta, }thail have their possessions and ritlcs 
oonlinncd to them, and be protected in the ci^joymcnt of their 
rights «nd liberties/' It aI»o referred 150,000 acres of land near 
the Tftp:d« of the Ohio for that porrion of her Stare iroops which 
had reduced the covintry, and about 3,500,000 acres uf land 
between the rivers Scioto and Little Miami for bounties to her 
troops on the "Continental Establishment/' These fftcis are 
mentioned, and should be borne in mind, \s. they will be shown 
to hnve an influeitcc in forming the opinions and txplainit^ 
the conduct of a portion of the inhihitints under the operation 
of the Ordinance, In consequence of the objectionable atiint* 
lotiona made by Virginia, as to the divisJona of the territory 
into States, the deed of cesaion was referred back to that State, 
witJi a recommendation from Coiwjres*, that these nipuUtions 
should be altered. On Derember 30^ 1788^ Virginia assented 
to the wi«U of CongrenH, and formally ratifici:! and confirmed 
the ^fth article of compact, which related to this subject, and 
tftcttly gave her assent to the whole ordinance of 17S7. A few 
days after the execution of the deed of cession by Virginia, at 
the instance of Mr. JefTrrscm, a rrrnmJTcee wcu ratscil, consisting 
of Thomas JefTcrson, of W-t Samuel Chov, of >farytand, and 

be Ticichcr slavery nor mvcJuntary Kcrvimilc in Jiny of the tttj 
SratOr cithcTviM than in punUhmcnC of crimes vhcrcof the 
party^hAll hiivc been duly convicted to have been person ally guilty. 
Before proceeding further in making refep^ncnand^uoiaiionF, 
I mmx inl'nrm ihotc who luve not had occuslon to examine the 
Journuls of the Old Cvtignr«s, ihtt ibcy uic so impcrrccdy made 
out, with so niaTiy oniissionSt that it U impoMtblc to rracc the 
proceedings, and fully to Li«derstajid what took place in forming 
the Ordinance or any other measure of the kind- It may also 
be well to ^tnte^ in order to en*l>le alt to undcrsrand the JtiMtnalt, 
ihar the Old CotTgrc^s, uruii-'T the Artulc-^ tji Confrderaiicm, 
voicd by States; that to entitle a State to rote it must hare at 
least two members present; and that for the Adoption ofa measure* 
at least seven States (the majority of the whote number of the 
thirteen Sutet) must vote in favor o( it: iiuk«d in some impoe- 
taot case* nine Stat« were required. 

Previous pniccetlini^ arc to be inferred from the following 

entry in the Journal»» though 1 have not beer able tc fir>J them. 

April 19, 17S4, **Confcm* look into consideration the report of 

a cvimmittee eon^utiog of Mr^ JefTervaon, Mr Cha«e, and Mr* 

Howdl, to whom w.ik rrcommineil ih^ir rrj*iirt: of a plan (<tr a 

tempordry Government of the WesHcm Tcrricrry; when a motioii 

was made by Mr. Spaighr, seconded by Mr. RcaJ, to strike out 

the following piragraph: "That after the year 1 800 of the CKrist- 

ian era there «h;ill Uc netihcr «tavery nor involantory servitude 

in any of the $ji'h1 STaret, otherwiMr than in imni^hmenr of crimes 

where^jf the p^itty »ha!l ha/e been coiU'icted to have l>ccn pcr- 

aonally guilty." And on the queition, shall the words, mov«l 

to be struck *}vu stand. The yens and nays bcrng required by 

Mr. Howell: 

Xnv ffaaipthirt-^Mr. FosKcr^ay; Mr. Rlanrhard, ts^ . Aj^ 

Afa^tuAMJr/fj^Mt, Gerry, nj; Mr, raiuidge, tfj . . //jr. 

Confff^VJc*i/— Mr, Sherman, rfv; Mr. Wadiwurthjay * Ay* 

AVw V*r-t— Mr- Dc Witt, ay; Mr. Painc, *y - - - . /</< 

/6W/ ///-a«y— Mr, EDery, ay; Mr. Howell, -:/ . . , Ay. 

AVw Jersey — Mr. I>tcV, ay 

Pernssyloania—Mi, Miffln, ay; Mr, Mont^mctyt ^y: 
Mr. Handy, -it Ay. 


Marj^awi—Mr. McHenry, i»: Mr Stone. «o , . . Ato, 
Firiitiia — Mr- JcflcRBun, Jiy; Mr, HarJjj *ro; Mr. Mercer, 

no No. 

North Cmr&hna—Mr* Sought, pk; Mr. WlliamiotT, s^ 

Soitih CffroHnG^Wr. Rcud, wo; Mr. Bcirtford, iKi • , W>- 
Sd the C|uc3it*(]n wa» laif and llw words were ^tntck oat." 
Thit ia, although there vrcrc aix Staict in h\oi of retaining 
chc dauK, i>u< of ihc ten States that voted, it was neverthcl^ 
f crxidc out, because there won wunted the vote o/ one more StAtfi, 
to mike A majority cf all ilic ^ntr^ia rhen in the co^fcdt^^ntiCln. 

Gingrr^S festimetl the inn^ldrTiiltonof the plan t/ the Gi^vcm- 
menc of ihc Territories, frovii day xo dft^^ until April sj, 17^4, 
when ii was agreed <<», as amended, with the concurrcr.ce of every 
StAtc (except DcUwarc and Gccrgta, not represented), %i\d a( 
every mcmhcr of Congress except the two firom South Carolina. 
The plan of Government rhus adopted by Con^fresswasfoumkii 
on one icporied by Mr. Jcffefwn, with some altcraijons. The 
chief of thcftc conaiatcd in striking out the clauses prohibiting 
slavery, m seen above, inhibiting citizens from hol<fing any hered- 
itary title^ and giving names and boundaries to the new Stated; 
and alio irt »dtiing !» the furTdameniat anidet of compacr, as 
drawn by Mr, JciTerson, that the new State? should In nu case 
interfere vrith the primary disposal of the soiJ by chc United 
States, chut no tax should be imposed on lands the property of 
the United States, and that the lands of nom-rcsideiits were r^ever 
ro be taxeJ higher than the lawii of residents. ^Vith these excep- 
tions, the plan adopted by Oingres?^ April 23, 17$^ was sulistan- 
tially the same, and for the most part, in rhc words of the one 
submitted to Congress by Mr. Jefferson- Fourteen days after its 
pacsflgc, via:^ May 7, 1784, Mr. Jefferson wm appointed midster 
to France and vacntixi hU seat in CVrngre*?, 

The next notice of ih? subject 1 have been able to find in 
the journals of Corigrcaa, is on the i6th cf Msrch, 1785* *hcn 
"a motion was made by Mr. King, seconded by Mr Lllery, that 
the following proposition be coinmitted; that there shall be neither 
slavery nor involuntary lervitude in any of the States described 
in the resolve of Cf>ngre^ i»f the 13d of April, 1784, otherwise 



than in fiunUhmfnt of crimn whereof the parry thall have hem 
pcr%anM\{y gulliy; tnd that tWt% rcgulittKin htf an nrfick of com- 
pact, and remain a fundAmcncal principle t>f the Constibitiofis 
bccwccn the thifcecn origicial States and each of the States dc- 
Kribcd in the said reK)lv« oif the ijd of April, 17B4-** 

On the question for commitrnent, the yea* and nay* bong 
m|viircJ h)' Mr, King, ci^jhi Siaics, vii: New Ilamp^hiTe, Mawi- 
chusctts, Rhoitc Inland, Gjnncciicut> New York, New Jctacy, 
Fcnnaylvania, and Maryland voted in the afHrmativc; and tiifcc 
Scatcft. vi2i Virginia. North Carolina, and South Carolina voted 
in the ncganvc^ Georgia had but one member pre&cnt, and of 
course, her vote waa not counted. To what coDiitiiticc ibia 
moiioji was rcfcrrcdt or iifhat further was done on the subject ii 
not stated in thcjoumal, 

On the 7th of July, 1786, this entry is i&ade: "Congress took 
into coEisideration a report of a grand committee, to whomi among 
other things, was referred a motion of Mr Monroe respecting the 
cession of Western Territory, and forming the same into States;" 
when it nas " resolved that it be and is hereby reeammended to the 
Lefpslature of Virginia, to take into consideration their ftct of 
cession, and revise the ssme, so far as to ma^ such a division of 
thctciritory of the Umccd St*trs lying northwardly and westwarxl- 
ly of the river Ohto, into dttcinct ami republican Sraces, not more 
than five ncr ks^ than three." &c. 

Tite next enrry in the journal which has reference to the 
sobject is under dale of Scptcmhcr 29, iT^^i when, "Congress 
proceeded in rhr consitieratinn of an OrviinnnLr for rhr giivrmmenr 
of the WcsfcfnTcrHlory, reported by Mr- Johnson, Mr, f'incLncy, 
Mr. Smith, Mr. Dane, and Mr. Henry." On the 4th of October 
following, *'Cong;res9 resumed the considcratfon of The Ordinanoe 
for the government of the Western Territory." On May 5, 1787, 
"Congress proceeded in the swxMid reading of the Ordinance for 
thcgovcinmeotof ti>e WcatcrriTcitittjfy," On May 10, 17S7. the 
third reading was postponed. On Juiy 11, I7^7i "the commincc 
corui^tingof Mr. CirringtOin,Mr. Dane, Mr. R.H- L«c,Mr. Kean, 
and Mr- Smith, to whom was referred the report of a commtctcc 
touching the tempottry government of the Western Territory, 
rcfvortcd an Ordinance for the govcnuncnt of tJtc Territory of the 



United Slates aorthwen c( die mtr Ohio; vkkh waj rrad a 
first ume" 

The next (bjr it wa^ rrad a accot^l time, and the day fiillowinf, 
Jul^ 15^ nS7r it «u read a third time mud pwd by ihc ruOomE^ 
volci '*thc yeu anii navi being required hy Mr. Yates. 
jW^^tf^Auff/u— Mr. Hdton^^f Mr, Dane, tf^ . - . ^r. 
A^rtr Yeri — Mr, Smltfi, *t; Mr- Haring, jtj; Mr. Vatv«i 

wo /fy^ 

JWfBy^^irr— Mr- Clarke, 07,- U. Sclicurmajii rirj • , ^jr, 
/Mi»ar^— Mr. Kcarocr, tfv; Mr. Mitcbdl, ^ . , , /fj, 
^wX'j>''*»"Mr- Gray^oDj *jr: Mr, R. H. L«. -V; Mr. 

Carriiijtoa, ^t jfy. 

Nanh CarcAW— Mr, BUwnr, ay; Mr HaK-ktns, <^ /fjf. 

S^Hih Caro/ina — Mr- Kcdn, 4f.>; Mr. Mugcr, ivj • , . ^, 

C«r/ftf— Mr. Few, *rr; Mr. I'iciTc, <*,v ,^_t. 

So it was resdvcd in the alfirmativc/' 
The Onlii^ancc M ic ihus finally p^L^sed CoogretS with vmh 
eTrmnridiiiarf uranimityj finr j>fovid« rule* for the iriKeritar-w 
andconvoaDccurfiroperiyi it then pruviJn fotf the uiipcitnunent 
of tKc Cfovtrnor, Judges, and other oflkers of the temporary or 
territorial governments, and defines their powers and dutic*; it 
aTs« provides for the clectioi) of a delegate to Congrest, to have 
t\K ti^t of ikbate but not of voting during tlie temporary govci 
mcni- It ihen ^let un to say, "fiv exteiuling the fundomrni 
principles of eivil iuvd religiooi liberty," Uc. "It U h 
ordained and declarcdt hy the authority aforesaid, that lUi. : 
lowing article* shall be considered as articles of eojnpact between 
the original State*, and tlie penplc and States tn the taid tetr'T r ■ 
and forever rcniaiii unaltcTalilr unless hy ctknimnn convr! '. 
Of these the first article secures ihc religious freedom of the 
inhabitants: the sccnnd secures to them the riithl of the writ of 
habeas co^pLI^ the trial by jury, the inviolability of contracts, 
htc.\ the rhird declares that schoob nnd the means of education 
shall lie cfit^mraKixl, und ^lod faiih shall lie observed towards 
the Indians: the tfouf ih provides th^i the Territories shall remun 
forever tt psM ot the United Srstcs; psy their juai propordon of 
Ihe Federal debts and expenses; not interfere with the primary' 
dispotal of the ^il by the United 5iaie»j nor iix non-re^denr 



proprietors higher than rcsidcnT*; and ihac the navigable waters 
leading inTo thr Miwiwippi and ^r. 1,awrrni!r rivers, and the 
carrying placet between ihc same, shall be coimnoik lilghwa>% 
and forever free to all the dtiieas of tJie United St^twi the fifth 
provides ibr a division of the Territory into States And their 
admii&ion into the Union when they shall have 60,000 inhabi- 
lanta, on an <s]ual focjting wirh the other States, provided the^r 
cun»tituit(inH be rcpub1kai;t; ami itie xixih nnlainii that flkcre 
shall neither be slavery nur involuntary servitude in the aaid 
Territory, otherwise than in the punUhment of crimes whereof 
the party t^hall h;ive beer duly convicted: Provided olwayt that 
any iicrson escaping initj the icame from wh«m labor or senrice 
is lawfiiUy rUimed in any f>rc «f rSe (jriginisl Surrs, Micli fiigitivr 
may Ix lawfully recUimcd and CQnve>'ed to the person cUimins his 
or her labor or servicer as «iore»aid- 'Inhere is then Added n repeal 
of the re)jo)utionfi of April £3^ I7^-|' 

A CE7mpari«in of thr plan of government, as drawn by Mr. 
Jeffetwn, anJ that linally adoprctl by Congress, boih of whieh 
1 have cndcftvofcd briefly to sketch, will show— \$i. That with 
Mr> Jclfcraon, oriKinnted the idea of a compact between the original 
State* and the nc* States to be formed out of the territories, 
unalterable bur by their joint consent* ^nd- That his plan of 
government or ordmancc was intended to apply w all lerrirorjr, 
ceded t>r to be ceded by individud Statea to tlw United Statca; 
while the ordinance passed by Concrcsd confined it to territtvy 
previously acquired — that is to the territory northwest of the 
river Ohio, jd. That by Mr. Jefferson's plan or ordinance the 
frmtt>ry was to fx; formed int:; disrincc Srate«, whoie name« and 
boundaries were designated; with a pnjvision that they might Jtirm 
a temporary uT^vcrnment; adopt the constitution and laws of any 
one cf the onginoJ Slates, such lawn beitif;, hoivcver, subject to 
alteration by rhemteTvet; have a reprcKntation in Congress, 
though withcnu a vnte; and wlv*n thry nhould havr 2f3,oc30 inhah:- 
lAnli^, fcinn a permanent Stale government, and l:>c adn:iito^l into 
the Union, en an equal footing with the original States — all which 
provisions were those which formed inhRtantinllv the ordinance 
as finally adopted by Congre*s> thuugh it wa^ so far qualified^ that 
n Siarc cotiM not clatm a right of admUsion into the Union until it 





hitd 6opoo in habitants; to wkich wcr« added in roort detail ti 
form of lemtoriaJ g^veromcnt and »me sp«ciftc regulafioni 
rtri^nl to the inberitantc ur<l tonvcjaiKc of prupcrty. ft 
That to the proviawnv which Mr, JciTcnDti oriuinartfd and inserted 
in his plan, znakinf tt a matter of compact that thr new Scar 
ftJioutd forever remain par: of the UniEed States; be subjccc 
government of CongrcM, and the articles of confederation; 
ihrir ^larr of the frdrril drhn; adhrrr la n ncpulilican 
gnvcTTimcn:, and Jtdmit no one to cit.j^cnsHip who vhouhJ UM in 
hereditary title— ic these the Ordinance as adopted bv Con^rcn 
added provision* to protect the public lands from interference and 
taxation; toprcseT\-c as highwji}'sftomcof thegreat nv«r»; and 
enlarge the enumerniiou of the pcr»oi>n1 Tt^is of the citizen, 5 
That the nHJ4l iiriporiant clause in Mr- Jcffcrioji'i plan — 
which provided that "after the year 1800 of the Chfiatian 
there should be neither slavery, nor involuntary wrvitudc, in 
of the ssid States* otherwi«e than in punishment of crimeS) vth 
the parry shall have been duly convicted to have been peTV)fiall 
guilty" — wua ^idopted hy Congress with no change^ ciwpt the 
omlvion of the postponement of its operation until iBoo, and the 
introduction of the clause for the restoration of Jugitivc slavca- 

Some of the above particulars would not hax-e been seated no 
fully but for a claim which has t>ecn made to the auchorshtp of the 
ofdinanccon Ivchalf nfNaihan Danr^of Mxts4i.-finselts, Toshow 
a misconception somewhere, and in a word> the gt^undlcss charac- 
ter of this claim, it is only ncccMao" to state that Mr. Dane too! 
his seat in Congress for the first time, on the I7ih of Novem 
17S5, more rKan eighteen monih* after the ordinatKc had been 
conccival nrd hnnight (vinh by its ^re&i nurhor, and brcn 
adopted by Congress, with cerlain alterations, the principal one 
of which, on motion cf Mr. Kina^ hsd bc^n in effect cancelicd and 
the original provision rcstcreil nearly in the words of Mr Jefferson* 
eight months before Mr. Dane took his «eai in Congress- The 
JournaUof CongrrssdonnT ^how that Mr. Danehsdany particular 
part in forming the urdinaiHL-. beyond serving un two of the several 
ooflimitteea to whicli ic wjis referred. \Vhat he did on thoftc 
ccmmittcw, I have no means of knowing. He may have been 
active and instrumental in working into the ordinance his favorite 

If-**!* V 

provisions about titl« to property; and :hus his phrodc mmy he 
rctidcrc<i micllifiible, where he say« that he had "formed it mainly 
from the laws of Ma«achut*tt«-" 

Having pivcn fhis sketch of ihp origin and fermnnon of Th<r 
ordinar^tc, 1 will now trace rhc history of its praecksl operation, 
to which I will add. the local oppostrion ii encountered, and dK 
gcncrnl asierit and unciion it received from Congrc^ and horn the 

To form a correct idea of what pns^ in relation to the ordi* 
juincc, ii h nccchury to recall to mind the etTutts iiuJc hy France 
(o cncompasa and restrict the wc&fcni frontiers cf the Engli^ 
Colonica^ by establbhing a cordon of forts with surrounding 
•ectlement* connecting \u colonics of Ixuiaiana and Canada; 
and thti France claimed and occupied much of the territory to die 
ejiHtward of the Miasiaslppi RJvcr, prior tt> 1763, when )twa» ceded 
to En^ond; after which it formed pans of the Englbh slave* 
holdine colonies. When these facta are con^dcnxj, it wiU not 
CKcite vurpriM thut the inhibitintA of the settlementx, thua 
formed and B*>ve'"ncd, fthould liave been favorable to the existence 
nf ,%bvcr}'f a% it was eHtiiblifthed hy the French lawj; iif l^omiianaj 
and by ihc liws of the Hngli^h Colonies to which the country cASt 
of the Mi*sia>ippi River became attacked t>y the ccwion of France 
io 1763. From the first settlement, thercfor^^ by the white race, 
of thecounTry norrhwcvi of the Ohio river, by the French at and in 
rhc virimty of K-iskoAki.iT ubowt ihr year rft8l, and hy a compjny 
of cmigiants IVom Virginia about one hundred years subscquendyi 
slaverx^ had existed, and was as Uwfully ct^tAblishcd m it had been 
under the laws of Louisiana or tWc or" Virginia. It was the 
knowledge of this exiitence of slavery, and his Icnown opinion in 
(Avtn Elf a prospective rather than a sudden abolilimi, that induced 
Mr, Jtffeiion to use the phrase he did in the ordi nance— "That 
after the yeaf 1800 of the Christian era there shall be neither 
slavery not involuntar>' servitude in any of the latd States, &e." 
This provision recognized the existence of slavery, and contem- 
plated the toleration of it in th<tse States for fflxteen yFttrH(hf dr«w 
the ordinance In I7^4)t when it was iv cease. From thn it is 
dearly seen that the illusiriuus author of the ordinance intended 
it to abolish the then existing state of slaver}', as well as to profubtt 


m cvrr being wleraicd In the country w«thwcsT of rhr Ohio 

To these rcA5on5 for the existence ihcti of ncfcro slaver)^* nxd] 
be Added rhe ffict of ^'irgtnia having granted Un4 to many of 
eiirzem »bo had served in rhe war?; carried on against th^ I ndiani 
and in iWn wny havirnj had oppiLru>niik«of sn-in^ rhc irountrj' W 
the nurth«c»L of the Ohio, a:id t>cliift picued wiih it, tlicy vctilrJ 
on the lands thus ^aiucd to them- In this way the firit s^ttlcm, 
both of French nnd English descent, were from slavchfllditii 
colonies, and the laws of chose c<^orics having been extended 
and lieing in full o|^eraiion ai the time of rlie adoprion of the nrdU' 
nancr^ ii viis ui have itcii irK|>ecied lliat its jimvtsltin frtr the 
prohibition of slavery would nut be popuJar wiih many of them* 
TH»c feelings tif disapprobation at one*; evinced ihemiiclvcn tiy the 
larger and more intelligent slaveholders removing aCTLift the n\-cr 
Into I^nmianUr and E;iking with ihem their slaves, to prcvcnr their 
being emancipated by the Ori^linance, The poorer and Ic^ !nir1U- 
gent ma*tcra, each owning hut .-i very few slaves, being ignorani 
of the I*Jigli«h Inn^a^e nnd Inw.*^, and being abo ait oif from a 
knc»vledgc of pauiitg events, by there being ih«i no mails njnmn^- 
to their remote «ettterrcnrs, eonrlnu^d to hold and to trrat their 
Iflii" Slavics us if the Ordinance had noi emnnnpjteil tbcrn. Thij 
state of things continued for a Icnjt time, in consequence of thi 
i^^norancc of the negroes of the hngli^ language and of the mode 
of obraining their rights^ and from rhc fear of pimisHnwnc if ihey 
afiempted it^ snd also, (mm the ndiam which rittachcd to those 
who should aid them. To this &hoitV1 lie addevl, that many of the 
officet^ in who^ hands the law had placed the power, were them- 
pelves claimants of the negro aervtL.'cs, und interested in cuntinuing 
tht then existing state of things. The long and extraordinary 
acquiescence in the continuance of the bondage of the French. 
.■d;ivin (au ihcy were odlckl) rntiiuragt-J those wfio can ^Iwayt find.] 
resMms fur doing what will promote ihcir own tmmcdiacc intercs*,^ 
or what they Itkc to do, to net up a right to the French negroes' 
scr^ces; some contending for it under the treaty of 176.1, and 
some under the lerms of cctsion from Virginia. 

Bur U is useless ro mpcwr nr dwell longer cm fhc errors oTj 
these prejudiced and inieresied partisans* It is enough 10 confute 

jind filmcr tfitm^ to tetnc the f*cti thuT rht? hitflictt jujlicial 
triburuib nf individual States and of the Fcdcnd Go^-cmmcni, 
hftvc dcGuIed and put the question at rest, that davc$ cannot be 
lawfully held in the country northwest of the Ohio River. At on 
early period, tr won %o decided hy the Supreme Court r>rEndiann; 
arreTWRrd% a i^imiUr dccit^nn w*s made Ij>' the Supreme CourtK of 
Mi^ouri and Illinois; and in TSjt thc5c dcci^on^ were concurred 
in and confirmed by the hiichot judicinJ authohty o\ the United 
Scatcs. A doubt can no longer exist, that vnch a decision would 
have been made ftt any, even ihe earliest period after the adoption 
of (he i>fdirianc^\ if the qurstitm had been hrotight befort the 
judkiajy. Of coufNC, the coniiimancc of tlic rcmtiani of French 
s1arc» fcr %q long a time in illinob. arose from the fact of iti being 
quiedj-acquicitced in. and not brought to the decision of the Courts 
of Jmtice- If the queitton had ever bc«n brought before mCj as 
Gov^nfjr of theSfaTc, I would not have hesttttcd foramomeot to 
decide, and, tf iiccei%a7y to have cnforc&l the dc^Kion^ that slavery 
did not legally exist in Illinois, and of course all held in »cnncc, 
as such, were entitled to their freedom* This opinion I c&prcMed 
in my Inau^ral Addre**, and in mettagec to the LegnJaCurc. 

Although the twdinantT, from neglect to enforce it, wa* not 
made nvaiUhle for a cunKiderablc timi:, aa it respected the French 
negroes held in servitude, it went into immediate operation liroin 
its adoption, so far ns to exclude the further introduction of slaves 
into Iliinoi?- No flavc« were brought by those who acquired 
military lands from Virginia, or who were induced by othee con- 
Aiderationt to emigrate to the nonhwcsiem terriiory, from a con- 
viction ihat ihcy would become free under the OrdiTmnce. With 
cJm exception therefore of aome hundred* of French negroes who 
remained in the country, and continued in bondage for a time iti 
violation of the Ordin^rce, that instrximent effected the object of 
itaealighteiicdaiul t^cncvolcnt author meKcludinf^ibveemignintH^ 
and maVing a noH'Slavcholdiiig State of IllinoiK, and of all the 
other Statcx formed out of the northwestern territor)". 

In addition to die causes already atoted for creating a pre- 
judtce against the provimn of the Ordinance, prohibiting ftlavery^ 
many prruifvi, pariicidarly in Indiana am) Illinois bnd their 
prejudices further increased by thi^r contiguity to sUvc-liolding 

fuisots HirroMicJL coLL£cnos$ 

die OvdnsBoe. To cfca mmx he addid, n a 6stlaT ckI hv 
pDwtrM iaiKXc* iIk fad thu tfat U^ Md ■A>tmBl ttminil 

advociUi btft cBoied iftor potttf iafccBc* ID pn the iHDkkaorr 

M «» fldatf ^ dtf ImUic c^ tb vc^ at leaff fa a Eonted QRK. 

opcrxCBB n> create lUnfttHactxn, 
pvtKUAnjr witJi tbc pirlifim « Ine UJilMiti] ^"iiT-'T, ttHQ 
■«ch citzseRt ai werv uitensted nif or were under cfce ^■ffitf*-* «f 
die famev » y i teio of aerritode, ind of coutk of that dasi of bk* 
to be bond everywhere, vbo deiigbc in eieiuuug Uk ngfat> and 
pnvtlefcft of muieti. All these auK» prodnced evdirmeau 
sod had their rffcct in ckcbona* aAd rTpcamiK tbcrwed thcnadvtl 
m the Tofm of pctiooA* from Uic poopk «Ad the K^«lature3 to 
Conpuft, asktog a repeal or modiAcaitOQ of rhe elaiuft of tbe 
OnJiutKe iirohilnmig ^avcry. To dtese appticatbns, Cofifroi 
ttnifarnitir and dcodcdly revised iis aswnt, ml antimd the 
prohohitory etaoje of ehc Orximaace. A3 iiijUACcs of thb, 1 
friQ itAtc, that in MArch, 1801, the celebrated John }Uiidolpli,of 
Vtr|;in:a, a« chaimian of a conuQittrc of the House of Repraenta- 
lives of Congreis, to whkh one of theie petiiions wai referredi 
asking the mitpennon of the provision tr iht- ordmance prahibtting 
ilavcry, made a rc|)ort igaimc it, which was concurred in by the 
HottM, In (hb report the following strong and hi^y approba- 
tory language is u«ed in relation to the ordinarct — "That the 
rapid populaiioo of the Sttte of Ohio tuffidemly evinced, tn the 
optnicio of yffur committee, thai the lalvor ofsda^'v:! ivnocnccejwiry 
to proitio'c ihc gnnvth and settlement of colcmies in ihat fegioo: 
That ihi^ labor, deoionstnibly chc dearest of any, con only be 
employed to advantage in the cultivation of products mon? valua^ 
ble than any kjumn rothit quarter of the United Statet: That the 
CDDimtttee deem it hzghEy d^n^mm and inetprdienr tn impair a 
provision wiicly calculated to promote the happincu and pra»- 
perity of the nonhwc«[Gfn country, and to ipvc strength and scoir- 



ny w tliiT extensive fruniicr. In the ^alufury q^fauon of Uiis 
5acJicicu5 and benevolent rcAtmint, it is bclJcvcJ that the :nhHt>i- 
t«nC5 oi Indinrui vlU, at no di^tunt dsy, find ample remuneration 
for (I temporary privauon of lalwir and of emigration/' 

In M:irch, 1804, another report wai made, on a tiinilar 
ftpplii^alinn fnim Indiana, Ivy a oommittee af the Hmtftc, of which 
Mr. Rodney, cf OcUwarc, wa.* chairman, in which a itufpcnuon 
fof ten years of the anii-.ikvcry pro\ iitiun was rccomincrdedi on 
the cordilion chat the d«ieendcnts of all such slaves dioutd, if 
malc«, he free at the Eige of 25 yean, and, ifrrmatet, at the age of 
21 >^ar*. In ihis rtp*>Tt ihc llonst- refuj^eil w concur. In Fd*- 
ruary, tSofs another report was made recommcndinf a suspension 
for ten years, ty a committee of wliich Mr. Garnctt, of VirginUj 
was chairman, with a similar result— the non concurrence of the 
House. In February, iSoj, a eommirree of rhc Houfi«, of which 
Mr- Par>:e, Delegate from Indiana, waa chairman, made still 
another report in favor of suspending the prohibitory daiuc for 
ten years, in which ilic Huu&c a^atn rcfuacd to concur. By vrhat 
niajonties tht4e disapproving volts were given, is not stated on the 
Journals of the House of Representatives. But in Xovember, 
!3c9, Mr. Franklin, tif North Caiolina, as chairman of a committee 
of the Senate uf the United Suies, to which had been referred a 
petition from the Le|;islutive Council and House of Representativca 
of Intliana Territory, and a^so a remonstrance against the sarrtt 
Irom the ciii/ent of Clark County in said Territory-, made a report 
Againf^r thr snKj^ension of the prohiliitory e1ait«r of ihc ordinance, 
which wa% ctiTicurrcd in by the Senate *ilh"iK a drvienting vokc. 

In olluding to thcM: proceedings of Cnngrcwi, Senator Benton, 
ID ft speech he made in the Senate of the United States, on the 
icwh of June, 1850, said — '^TJitis five time* in four ^^ears the 
fespecrive HotKrt of CiTngm* rrht^cd m admit even a temporary 
eiKteiisiofi or rather re-extension of slavery Into Indiana Tcrritofy, 
whkh had been, before the ordinance of i"87> * slave tcrntc^, 
holding: many staves at Vincennes. These live refusals to Siispend 
the ordinance of '^"j were so many confimiations of ir. All the 
reeiof the action of Congre^ on the subject, was lathe *?ime effect 
or stronger. The MisAouri Cornpronnsc line was a curtaibncnt uf 
slave territory; the Texas annexation resolution wa^ the same; the 



curtftilmcnc of slave rcmtory — in (ka il& mctuat aluJinDn; &r 
it li ccnain tiut sUvery cxntcd in fict i& the Frrocb ictiicaKM 
of tfacJUrTWasftitbMtimc; sndtikuthcOtiiRAncc tcrmt^ - 
1 3Kt then," he uid, "tn coAfocauT^ to ik* long unUbrmly -^: 
Iblkrd pnliry of Cotfigrm, as «t1l as in codfomatty to my o«q 
|)nm:t))lct, in rcfuHOg to vote (or ibc rxtcoaion uf ilavrrr/' 

That rtpcMtd TcAiAftb of Coofrcn to jibmgjic r>r oircr tht 
dau»e proKilMtinf aUvtry, the mo«t importMUt of the arcmt fund^ 
mcfital arrick* of compact^ cvnblUhcd by the Ordinance hcnrco 
the origmal Statc4 and those to be fbtiMd out i>( rhc Northmen 
Tcrritury, iiKlucnl ita di%ap)fuinted AtlTticaicx tn Indrana (tW« 
iochMJirg lllinoU), in the yev T^. to authorac by « Uw uf tlic 
Territory the indcnlunf of »U%^e3 over fifteen jKVt of «4(<c, for a 
specified term of year*. In many case* tt wascxten^kd in practice 
ID niticty-rtre yrar*, or fiv a trrm vhich was intended to fr^. '_ ' 
the life nf the party imlenrtin^. Ak a ic!ivc U nor cnmperi 
law to make ah agrecn^cDtDrcaiiTiacr>he had fine tu hr rande frae 
beJctrc he could ent^ into the indcntufe. Buc thi) w^s made a 
mere matter of form, hdng done simtiUaneo^taly, and the m^Xcr 
taking care thai neither tn«inimcni«hooU be valid until the ochet 
ms executed- If a sU^'e, after his nujiter had lign^d hi* inttn»- 
Dkcnt of cmancipacion, and he «a4 noni'maily (rcc» nhinild rrfus- 
to »|En hia rndenturc* the muter had the riKh; to dcnd him 
the Siaie, to sell him« and retain over him all hiin^t axr , 
The indenture for a term ec|uivalent to the duration of Ufc, - 
not aj>parrni1y change rnarerlally rhe condition of the kIavc; bai 
il liid so in iH'a, that hla condition is always licttcr where there arc 
but few »Iave», as they arc then more immediately under ikc c<rt 
and protection of iheir masters. But above all ihr hearts of 
parents, vrho are indentured, find an incxprcssiUe pleasure and a 
consoling coimfort from the knowledge of the ^ct that their 
children nilL be free; m.ilc^ ai thirty, aiid fcrTlnl(^<l ar iwenr y-^|dit 
years of age> the iimc fixed hy (he 1r>diar>4 law «tjthoTi/iri|,' imin- 

It may be well to add— a« an incident worth mcntwnjsg, 
particularty ns showing the opin^n And fcding that had their 
influeiKc in brining it about— the pn^amblf to an act passed by 



the Leffblatore cf Illinois to rvpcol this liw of indenture, ^vhich 
rtp«aling »ct was vetoed by ch« Territorial Governor; in thU it is 
nfSLlcd thai, "wKcfCAS rhe »ct ofihc l-cgitlaiure of this Temrnrjj 
pu^^i-i the I7ih of Sc|>icm!icr, 1807, ta inicndcd to introduce and 
loAcnitc slavery, under the pretence of Toluntory servitude, in 
contravcnttcsi ofthc pimmcunt law of the land; And whereas sueh 
a lyntem tt caloilited, m its operation, not only to prejudt<:« 
rhc interrsr of IndividiiaU. but alwi, xn InrfrxJuce a hnsr of perxptc 
0/ color» who in [inic will become free, arJil iit an age when they 
arc unable to support themselves. The tcnitory conset^ucntly 
cnnnci ht benefited by such a aystcm, the Adoption of whieh is 
contrary to the Ordinance, and the feelingi and wishes of th« 
people of this territory/* 

Tile same party, with the jduiic views which led ihein, as 
described above, tu countenance the continuance of the l-'rcnch 
scrvicude; to petition Congrcsis to allow them to introduce and 
hold orher slaves; and to authoTi2e the introduction of negroes 
tinder iiuiencuirH, inJuced them to pas* a law aurhoriung the 
hbing (if slaves from other Stalest to labor at the %]dt works near 
Sliawnectown. !t is needless to *Ay that all these acts were « 
violation, in fcrm as well as in splriCf of the Ordinance of 17E7. 

It is proper I should add, chat the foregoing rentarlu have 
reference to thar part of the Northwest Territory which t* now 
iQchidcd in the States of Indiana and lllirois. AllhoLigh Virginia 
granted to her ciilTcns more land for military services in the 
country now embraced by the State of Ohio, than in any other 
part of the Territory which she ceded in 17S4 to the United StatcSi 
yet there being ;n the bmindi of zhstx State no ench French popuU* 
tion, po«sc36.ed of ^lavc^ but on the contrary l[« first settlers con* 
aisled chiefly of associations of cidzcns from non-slave holding 
Stfltcs. who held large tracts of land, containini; alto^thcr many 
hundrcdsof thousands of acres, of which the principal were — '*thc 
Connecticut western rtservc," bordering on i-ake Erie; " the Ohio 
land coripany,'*coinixisni (;f citucns from thcNtwEnglandStafc*, 
for land on the Ohio and MuAingum Rivers; and '*5ymmc« and 
his associates" of New Jersey, for land on the Rivera Ohio and the 
Miamis. l^be^c and other diJTereiKcs, which have been pointed 
out, in the urigiii and character of the £rst settlers of the east and 



^^tt•^x purlioo of the N(jrlKi%c::<t Temtivy, will rxpUin the oppopci 
fcclm^AndopinionAcntotaincii bv ihcm,in i^aiion tu thccbnc 
of Ihc Ordinance proKilviting slavery, \Vc have accn tlu coOiiK! 
of Indvma and IltinoU— that of Ohio both u ft Tcmtory «k1 
Starc^ ithnwed thar iKr Jiffcrrd from thrm^ arxl apprond 
Onltnar>cr in all u« |i:ir(K, To rKU ii thi^iM br added that 
gftD And Widconnn, the remaining porCwns of tlic Nank 
Tcrntory, Vfhosc settlers having also chiefly cmigratdl from 
sIftVG holding communiticfit bolh Mitivc and furcnffii, hare 
airrrd wi^h Oliio in approving the Ordinance. Iowa, too^ hariii 
from infarrcy grown up under thf Ordinance, which bad bca 
extended <nreT her by thc"Mi>suuh GjunptumJic," and CahJivnii* 
where slavery had been inhibited by the Spaniards befitfc «C 
acquired ii, both of ihc»e States on eoming into the Unioo cott- 
plimented the Ordinance by adopting itt {r^idiar Ungua^, aod 
inacribang it in their omftritutiun — "Thai neither ata%-ery atf 
involuntary »ervi(ude, unleu for ptimsbmcnt of crim^, ahall eitt 
be tokratcd in these Stales,'' 

After the diviMon of Indiana into two terntorial sovemmcnti, 
which look plae« in 1S09, the eastern or Indiana p«rt, not hm% 
as much under tbe inAuence of the pro-slivery prodivides at the 
western or lllinmK ponion. the contests in the fortner became loi 
violent. Tfos conliniKd to diminish with the isvcrcuc »f popoU- 
tion* which came chiefly from Uhio and the NortJvcro Sutc^ uodl 
two or ihm years before Indisna became 1 State {in 1816), wiiai 
the Issr grest struggle took place, in which, althoogh rhe tcrritohsl 
officers rook an active part tn favur of the advocates of slavery, 
the result was so decisive and overwbcbning, in favor of the aiil> 
slavery party» as to have the eflect of putting down the supporidV 
of fdaveryt snd on end to the slavery questioa in IrKiiaiia. U 
efFecting this, the moct pr^mtnent and infhxntial nun was Jona' 
tbnn Jenningi, whu KTved as a T>elegire in Ou^ress, and afctf* 
wanb ms Gnvcmor of ;bc State. 

In lllincMs, which wts separated from Indiina, and organbc^ 
first as a Temtorial Govcmrtteni in 1S09, and then as a State 
Go\cTnmenr, and was admitted into the Union in ]tEi9, the strift 
was cot^timird with more or lets violence. It was strongly dis* 
played in the election of the convention to fbm a etMUtiruri^vi l« 



iht ntw Smti:, v/hen an effort wna made before flie people, and si- 
Sltll greater one, in die Gmvcnnonj t;i ;ii:iiiijrij:*' the toferatinn of 
sUvcrf \t\ the Sutc. In this its otivocat^ faiicJ, but not licspAtr- 
ing of ultimate fucce«s^ they continued their ctfort« untit iSil, 
when it wcis maje the controlling i]tJ»tion in the election of that 
year. And ntchuugh 1, the arti-tluvery candidaTc, wa^f elected 
Govrrnnr, the LegisUiAirr wunled liut ivnc memher in have A 
Enfoority of tiro-thirda m each House, in favor of submitLmg ihe 
question to the people whether there should be a convention callcii 
fcr Altering die consiitucion; this one member was obtained in 
what I consider an unprecedcrtcd manner Thus the i^uesTion 
WAS submitcod to the people under tlie influence of a twoihirds 
Toic of the Lcfctislfiturc, Under the pro%i*iona of the ajiistiliitioii 
oi i8i5, when two-thirds of the members of each Houk- of the 
Legp»lature should submit the question to the peoplc> if a majority 
of the voters at the netc election shoulU be in favor of it, « conveiv 
tion n-As io be callul to revise tht^ ci>nstitution. 

The introduction of slavery vra» not openly avowed by all the 
Advocates of a ccnvcntton, aa the object in view, but it wu well 
known to be ^o^ and not denied by many, though there were cer- 
tainly other objections to ihecunttiiucionof isiS, which had their 
influence in inrrea*rng the tlesire for n tonvencion to alter it. 
When chi,<( quc^ttion came before the people, it pnxluced peculiarly 
intcnitc excitement alwaya aCtendant on the agitation of the ques- 
tion of the cxtenMon of slavery; and which in this ca-w was in- 
crcaiiecj by the manner in which it had paued the Legialature; and 
the advaniaite inrendnl to he taken nf a trmporary inecpulicy in 
the reprewnmclnn, whereby portions of the Sutc favnraMc lo 
slavery would have a ireater in^uence in the convention than they 
were justly entitled to. Havinit been placed in the icad, by the 
station a&signcd me, and my opinions and feelings being so warmly 
oppo*rd to slavery as to make mc leave my native state (Virginia), 
I soon placed my pen and exertions in rG(^ui«ition, and brought 
them to bear, doin^ all I could, personally andofficially.toenligh ten 
the people of Illinoia, and prevent their msiking it a slave holding 
State* 1 tnifit I s-hall meet with indulgence from the zeal 1 have 
always felt in the cause, for adding, that ic has ever since afFoeiled 
n>c tiv must deli^ilful and comtolirig rcHectiun»» tliat the abuae 


««l endured, tlte labor [ performed, and Ak anwiy I fell, were not 
without their rtvnrd; and xq hA%'c it corecdtd by opponent* u 
well %% ftupf.'crterc, than I i*m chiefly iimrxixnentftl in prcvenrias 
fl mil of > convcncioEi, luid nuiking Itlinois a sUve holding St^tv. 
Wc wcTC sustain^ by ■ mjjijriiy of about 1600 votL-3 of the pmpfc, 
AC the KcnerAJ clcciicin irt Augvistt >S24; and thus lermmated ihr 
Uitt icru^lc, ihc lfl3l clfort of th« slave ptrty, to defeat the wtv 
and phibfiihropic purposes of the Ordinance of I7)J7> 

It vould not be doing justice CO the Ordiruincer rtot woukl 
wlui his Iterr writti-n dt-srrve the nami! of a hjuty ikcteh of its 
hiatory, were 1 to omit Eu add &ome of the repeated and unprri:e' 
dented sanctions it has rceeircd from Con^reM and the American 
people. We have seen it waa the oA'spring of the grcatcac slater- 
man of our country; and no one can fail to itet m it the kindred 
political feature* at it* elder bmtlier, the Declaration of Amencnn 
Indqxndencc. It haa been shown with whai rxtraurdiEiary 
tinafTimity it paascd the old Cot^rc» — but one member vxrtinf 
against iti nor woa hU particular o^jeetiocv to the Ordinaoce 
known. He bad been f<rving in the convention In Phi[a<klphia 
frtim irjv ciimmrrtrfmrnT, and H;«i Irft it nor otfily in dfrspair buF tn 
dngust, and be reached New Yorkt and cook hU Kat in Cnngme^ 
}ust in iin)c 10 bPvc hU solitary voce agAinst tbc UrdinaiKc* But 
from hit political chnractcTf aiid bein|* a northern man (Mr. Yates, 
of the State of New York), it i< not unreasonable to suppoecp that 
it did not arUe from any objection he Hsd to the and-slavtrry 
proviaW. On the owtrary, it voutd be fair to preaumct that riif 
dauK, added before its Snat pasMpc, for the re&tituixw of fugttire 
slaves^ which rendered the Ordinance the raore acocpubte to ihe 
ultra xlaver>- i^irttaans of South Carodtna and Georgii, may hare 
made Mr Yatet vote against \i. 

Th\% Unrt^ iu my reojlWctiun what 1 was told by Mr, Madison 
and which 1 do not remember ever to have seen in print. Tlic Old 
CongTeK held its tcwocis^ in 1787, in New York, while at the 
aame time the convention which ^mcd the constitution of t*ie 
United Statrt heLl its sections in E^Uade^is- Many indiviijuj'i 
vefe members of lioch bodies ^^ Hni« wmr enabled m know what 
was paassiii in each— both siitinf with cloeed doors in the Sccr« 
seaaiDcts, The dtstracting cjueatton of slavery was aptxtuB and 



rmrding the luhan of both, jnd led to conferences And inier* 
rnrnmiinicftivinx at ihr mcnihcn*, A'hicli rr^ulteti m n (i>rnpromi9i- 
by whicii ihc norrhcm or anti^lavcry portion of the countiy 
tgrcccl to incorporate, into ehc UrdinarLcc snd ConatiCution, ihc 
provjeion to restore fogiiive £Tav»; iiui ihis mutual «nd concvr- 
rtitC action was the <am%c of the simiUrity of the provision 
»nisii>fd in l>ochi nnd hati its influence, in creating the |^ar 
in«oInitty by which the Ord'uiincc passcJ^ snd abo in laskijig 
the constitution the more jiccq>tab!c to the aUvc holders. 

Among tl^efir»tUw« parsed {>y the lir^tCongreMandf^>p^uvcd 
by President Washington^ August jth, t7S9^ was one to adapt 
the Ordinance to the new constitution o( t\\c United States. It 
thu* received the SjtnctW of Congrcvt under the prcirni i-oniiitu- 
tion^ as it had previously do»e of the Old Congrcft under the 
.^ticies of Confederation. 

The yth Congress p«isscd an act, which was a^^proved by 
Preiident JelTemfjr, April 30, iSoa, authorizmg Ohio tu form m 
State constitution and for her admuv^ion into the Union; "Pto- 
vidcd the name shall be republiciLn, and not repugnant to the 
Urdinnncc af the J.^th of July, 17S71 hcc^xen the original States, 
and the people and Statci of the territory northvrcat of the River 
Ohio." 'Vh'in wax the firstof the Ststestrniocd during its minority 
under the gc»veniment of rhe Ordinance, which was admitted at 
maturity into the Unions and no doubt xu author felt a peculiar 
pleasure at being then President of the United Staler, and haviniE 
it in his power to use hU influence in shaping the to'ma of her 
admission, tti as to carry out, arid perpetuate, his original purpose 
in making permanent the great fiindamc-ntat pruvf^ioiis of the 
Cnlirancc, by extending them to the States, ta veil as to the 
Territories, to be formed out of the Northwestern Territory- 

On the 19th of April, iSiti, the 14th Congrese passed an act 
authorizing Indiana to form a State constitution, and for her 
admission intii tliclTnion; ;tiid uti the iftlli of April, 181^, the tjth 
Congrc^f pasicd a I'miiCar Uur. ft^r the ^dmiMion of llliitott. Both 
of thcM acts were approved by President Madison, and both con^ 
taJned Mrnilar provUcM^— diat their eonstitutions when formed 
should be " republican, and not repugnant to the Ordinance of July 
13, 1787" 



The t6tk Congress passed «n acr, commonly known as rhe 
Miavwrt Cunipcnnusc, authoruitig rbc people of Mt^acnjn to fotm 
a cocudtuDon and State govcnLmcat " tod to prohibtc slavey kb 
certain te rn to ricj," a{rpr^\^ hj President Monroe, Marcb ft, 
1810, ill wliich ii i* provided "Thai in all thti lemtory ceded by 
France to the Unitnl Statet, under ihe name of ixrumAnz^minA 
be% ncMih <]^ j6 JO north latitude TKit inrfmlcii witiiin rke Itmin 
of the State coatcmpiatcd by tliu act, ularcry and uivotuntair 
tcrricudc, otberwice than m panuhntent of criina, whereof 
partiei shall ha\<e been duly conrictcd, fthall be, and n 
foceverpTDhilHred? Provided ahraya, that any povon evapingli 
the tanne ^om vrhoot labor or tervwie ifi laarfuUy claunptl 
State Of Territory of Uie United States, such ^gitive auLf 
Uwfuliy rrclajmtd, and conveyed 10 the pct30n claiming hb or 
her labor or wnice aA afoec&aid." Thu act, by usir^g lun^ua^ 
»o simiUr to that contained in the Ordinance, fTG0gni2n aad 
sanctions m pruvi&ions in relation to lUvrry, ind extendi theio 
to all the trrritory o«-ned by the United Siares we»t uf the Ki\x! 
Mis3i»ippi and north of yft* 30', except the State of Mt3»ouri# 

By the }Ddnt Resohitktfi aonexui^ Texas to the Untied Seal 
paged by the iSth Congrsi, and approved by Pretadent T] 
March i*t, 1K45, )t it stipulated, that n*ch Srare* ai may 
fomted out of thai portiuci of >aid temtDv>' lying Aouih of j6' 
north Uitrude. commoniy known as the Misvouri C<Mnpr9ml>e lii 
shall be admitted mro ihe Union with, or without jbvery, ■& 
people of ca^h 5uic, asking admittion, may dectrct And >n 
State or States as shall be formed 00c of said rerritary, north of 
sard Missoun Compromise line, slavery at inrohiniafy acrs'ttude 
(except for crimea) shall be prohibited-" 

The act pftMcd by the 30th Cofigress, and approved by Presi- 
dent Folk* August I4, i)^$« to estatJish a territorial govemi 
far Otegon, provides "That the inhabitants of said Terriroty 
be entitled to enjoy all and nnguUr the rights, priviW^n^ and ad-'' 
vantages granted and secured to the people of the Temtury of the 
UriKcd ^iatc5, nonhwtat of the River Oh>c\ by the artklcs of 
compact* contained in the ordinance for the govcmmcnt of said 
Territory, on the 13th day of July* tT^Ti uid dull be subject co 
^ the conditions and restrictions and prohilmions in said anicies 



nfcompjicl impa&nl upon l^r (People Df^d Territory,** It cannot 
c»cj^>c noacc> that rhi^ ibc lut of the m«ny acts of Coiigrco 
approbfltcry tnd conlirrtitttcry of the Crdinnncci should be most 
complimcnur}' of it. The Inngungc u«cd rcprcj^ntft the Ordinance 
95 3L boon hy which the people of Orege^n became ctiTttled to enjoy 
all the rights pHviTe^ts and aclv«niRgrs which thac mestsurc 
grsntctl aad Accuicd to the people of the Northwcsicin Territory. 
This 3tacemcnl shews thut between 17^7 and iSh^ when the 
Mmouri comproniisc vjm fcp^-atedt a period of ^ixty seven ycarSt 
ei^t different Congresses pa&sedf and six different individuJiU 
JKfing OA Presidents uf the UnitL\l Slates, viz: Wjisliington^ 
JcfTcr^on, Madison, Moniuc* Tyler, and Polb:, approved cit^hc Ik^s 
cf the Ur^itcti States, enacting and rc-cnacting. aanctionmg and 
w6rming and extending, afi well in lengtb of tirne^ as txttnt of 
tpa<«, the ordinance of 17S7, Yes — all sections cf our extensive 
and diversified cuuntry, and all rhe numerons parties tnio which 
our peo]ile have been divided since our ooniciletatiut^ vrasi foTincd» 
have given to it their approbation ajid sanction, ard that aha to 
a measure involving intere^tSi cf alj others, the most exciting^ 
ftr^d on which there hax even beer the greatest and most angry 
diverMry of npinionv. It U lirlirvrd thar no uirrilar meo^aire 
ever iccdvcd Mich signal and repeated i^roofs of the approbation 
of the people, as this Ordinance has done. To those, who will 
trace the history of this quesiior. It vv\\\ appear mnr^cUous, and 
shew the profound wisdom of those who framed such an efficacious 
mea£\irr for onr country. Conrrasr these evidences of approharifsn 
of the Ordinance, with ihtisr given to the Constitution of the 
United States, and it will result greatly in favor of the former- It 
will show, if unanimity of opinion and repetition of legislative 
scbon can give weight, that the Ordinarce is entitled to even 
more than the Constiiution, whic^h encountered much opposition 
in the futional cu«ivciitiun thai maile U, in which it recetveil the 
signatiirca or votes of but thirty-nine out of Jifty-fivc members 
who attended the convenEion, and wo^ ratified by small majorities 
in many cf the State cunvcMitions. 

To a cool and dispassionate observer, who has a ):nowledge 
af the cjdightened origin, ilie great popuUnty, and bcneiicial 
effects of the ordinance, it seems to be incredible that it should 




» be •/ ihe Jdfe nmi •cfcoel of 

of iBtti tt>pMon Snrwdf, u in 

lb« bcBS die bci, <ad vfaat 
lu»bccs damhf 
pQ&tki- TV 
be&rrc, « vdl m Ac 

dbe radovi vni wnbftiT «f 

above d ocfavi, hoi hapiiiBa 

Ik co nHuwn n T «9 «if, tbe viftlom, e^e&nc^, and tila- 
imtf pract ica l cSecta of ibe OUmancc, csold mc he mar cV^aHt 
•faewn dtts bf tfo o traitttn ita nprfabnBtt vitb tLotc of Its vofavo- 
Tote. Under tbe o nti amce from iTf? to 1S54, die Termom 
■object ID it were ifuiet, bappjr, and proepena u ^ Smoe itv pn»- 
ciplcs «vre repuduited, m 1854, we have bat) n ot kl a ^ bur cooto^ 
tiev, noo, and tbrrat^ >f wit ibe avU r ee Et» of ctti] «ar, 
«bkb painAil atstc of diiaci hu beta bnugb: sbuut by tW 
«ubveitnboa of tbe te^^^adOA of i9(4 Fbr tbac ol i-S?* loi^ oonse* 
cnted es it ha^ been by tioie, and bf tbe approb«iiixi of tbc 
greatest aod bot swn of our co m >iry. 




Patrick Henry to John Col«j Mirch 19: ackfiowlocls- 
incrit uf a service 

Edward Coles to Thomis Jefferson. July 31: pica for 

inOucncc in fflvor of gradufti cmancipAOon . . . 
Thomns JcfFcrson 10 I^dwatd Cola. Au^uAt 3>: fctling 

in fftvor ofgriLiui)! cTnAnci|vAnon— infirn\iti«« of age 
EdwflrcJ Cotrft ro ThoriBS Jtffcrson, Scptembef 26: fiir- 

iJicr pica for influence in f»rar i>rgradDx1 cinaiHtpa- 



NichcTofl Biddk To Edwaril Coles, January 17: problem 
of conscription in Pennsylvflnitt l.qpslaturc— i&rdi- 
ne«s of Congress in war crisis . - 

Nichols Biddlc to Rdirard Coles, February igt rejoicing 
ai end of war — senaTonal cantpnign 

NichoUs Biiidlc 10 Edward Coles, March ii; ihc Hart- 
ford amendments feeling between the South and 

James Madiiton Eo Edward Colcs^ July 7: odFer of special 
misiiiun to Rjsata 

Jamc^H Monmc icj the irriMi! fjf the llnimi Sfstcs ar Sr, 
Pciersburg. August 6; introduction of Edward Coles 


Nicholas Biddlc to Edward Coles, February 35; attitude 
toward election to Congress — acquaintance with 
Joseph Bonaparte 

James Monroo 10 Ninian Hdwards, April 13: introduction 
of l-^ward Cole* 








Koikt of sale of public tuids, September JO , , . . 
EdwaM Coles lu William Cr;iwford, November lo: rrpon 

of seventy clainu lo lots m PcortA 

Edwird Cole» to Doftid Cook, November 15; matter of 

the PcorU land cltims 

Edward Coles fo Mcnry S. Dodge, Fc^bruary 13: julvan- 

t:iced<7f|>rairle farming 3^ 

Notice to dcbton for publk Undsi September rj * - , ii 


Edward Coles to Editor of l//$n9h InUUix^ftr^ June 4: 
cm*ae)pation of »la%'c»— falw charge of holding val- 
uable ewgroca 3* 

Wlliam MfKrc x<y Rdwarvl Giles, Atig^ini i?: gubctnato- 
rial clectitin — cxcncment in Pike County .... 

Edward Coles to Mc»rs. Brf>wn and Hcrry, Ueecmber 
10: protect against ciitc "Mis Ktcellcncy.' * . . . 

Edward Cq1« 10 the Govcrnoar of In<tiann, December 31 : 

act en the navigatioo of the Wabash Rjvcr ... 4;^ 

Edvmd Colen to Ninian Edwards, Jc«M nomas, and 
IJanicI Cook, January 5: reservation of Vetmtlion 
Saline — wlcctinn of *emmjiry lands 4K 

Julwstrd CVilcs 10 Ninian lulwarvb^ JcMC Tl^ocnAA and 
Daniel Cook, January 11: resolution on sectionAl 
roftd ' • 4< 

Edward Coles to the l'rc»idcntofciie United State*, Jan* 

uary 3o: memorial oti seminary land* .,-.*. 4: 

Edward Cuica fo the Semiit, February 14: rights of govw 
eriu>r in matter of sppuitumcni • > 

txlwnrd Cole* to John Lofton. Fcbniary 161 rejection of 
Lofton's nomination by the Senate 



£dwfird Coin CO the Go^mor of Indiaruk, February 35: 

cxarninaitur of Wuliaiti River 4^6 

Mortia Birkhcck co Eulvrard C'olcs March 1: sUvcr^ 

i^uc— prvpanition of pomphlecs 14] 

Edwird CoI» to th« Governor of Ohio, April to: action 

of Genera) Aisemhly on Ohio resolution* , - - - 4^7 
EttwATE} Ct>lti u> Conrad Witt, April jo: lease of Muiid/ 

Saline 4:37 

Edward Cole5 co Richcricl Flower, April lit slavery 

uaue-— plea for Cfiiablii^mGnt nf inti^slaveiy preat . tt8 

EcKvartl Colra to Morris Birfchcck, April \it sUvery 

i^Mic — jtiiiuilc of prcw — cffecc of slavery on laiui 

pricca 143 

lulword CVkTcs :o Nicholas Biddic, April alt slavery- 

itwuc— opposition to Governur'a And slavery speech tlD 

Edward Cole* oWilliarti Crawford. May u;rc»rvaiTon 

fljid Icj.^: of Vctmilioii Saline— selection of seminary 

Unds 4:38 

Nicholas Biddic to Edw^ Coles, May 20: anii-sUvcrr 

ptunphlcc iij 

Edward CclcstorhcGovctror of Indiana, May 34:affio'^ 

on the Wabash River 4:39 

Niclkol<is Oidcilc to Edward Co[e9> Ma>- 16: ininxlLLCtioii 

of Roberts Vaux I2,l 

Nichols BiddJe 10 Edward Colef, May 16: concerning 

RobertsVauK — Abolition Society of PhiladdphJa - - 114 

Rolirrts VatiK tu Edward Colt*, Moy 171 ollifr of aid in 

anti-Alavciy canipiign 117 

Edw4iid Coles to :hc ncvcrnors of the different statcvt 

June 10; transmtti ntate laws — requests exchange of 

law* 4T4D 

Edward Cde^ toChcOovcmnrof Indiann, June i4:cxAni- 

tnaiioti of Waba.%h Rircr 4:41 

Edward Cole* lo Roberts Vaiw, June 3?: tluinlu for offer 

of ur>'tcc9— cnuiion 04 to manner of A»i^aiice - * X^^ 

Edward Coleg to ThoniRS Sloo, June jo; offer of .tppoint- 

inctrr a^ aid-drj-ftmp 363 

Edward Colca to WUiam Crawford, JtJy I9: rvKrvattim 

of Vermilion Saline — adcction of seminary laiuU . . 4:4( 



^dhrtts Vaux en FdmnI Colrc, Jnl^- ^t siuvMincrmmc 

of the pftp^ratkici of ktctaI pamphKccs . * . . 1 39 

Edward Coles 10 tbc Uovtrnor i>f IntUaiu, August 3: 
Appowoncac of Wabuh River commiMiooer — exam- 
ination of mtt 4^.J 

Fdward Cfilt4 (u thcfovemoriof rbciliffcrcncvtAicA anij 
IlBnuas aoiAtun ami i^prcxtiEBErrcs in Congress, 
Au^5t iC:cncU>»c3rcpo(-c AEkl n39hitM>ns . . « 4:4^ 

Edwtird Coles to John <^'tr^7 .Uanft. Au^st I4: copies 

of state Uw»— Congt«»iorial Journals rtcdv«d , , 4;^ 

Edward Coles to the Govetnor of Maryland* August 14; 

finances oT iilutc 4^15 

Edwvd Ciics to John Mcs^ngcr. Robert McLa^j^hlin, 
oDdCurtus BUkefnan, August 3t: appolntmciit of 
commiuioners to select icminary lands — inicructions 4^7 

Edward CoW to I. V, U. Yates, Srpicmber 4:NVw Vock 

poor taws received — y^vns in lllioois 4'50 

Edvard CcJc» to Thocnai Hvndc, September 1 5 ; examin- 
ation of U'aba^h River 4:51 

Edward Colc« to NicboAai BSddle, September \%i slaver]' 
itsue — ditirodc of pcesa — danger of iarerfertncE from 
withoMi ;Kc Mife . 1 JQ 

Edward Coles to G- Bomiord» September 22: qooca of 

arnid diic state 4-M 

Edward Coles to D< Dranc, September 11: quota of arms 

due &tafe 4:55 

Edward Cola to the Governor of Nfi-viouri, Sq>cember 

26: requisition for oiurdcrer 4:56 

Edward Coles to Thomas Cox and I'ascal Enos, October 

iiirtservationof seminary land* 4:57 

Edward Coles to WlUam Crawford^ November 10: rescr- 

vation of seminary kiitls ^i^% 

Morris Btrkhcck to Edward Coles* December 6: pamph- 
lets scat "47 

Edward Coles to Roberts Vaux, December 11: slavery 
issue — hope for anti-<x»nvent>on viaoty— pamphlcrs 
received' — de^truciion uf State House ijj 




Summons of £<lwAnl Coles to the Ctntiil Court of Midi- 
son Criunry, Janinry 7? to Jinswcr in Ji pica of debt. ooj 

Edward Cotes t^j t^lias Kme, Jatiutfrv 15: Iiank of 

Edw4r^vil!c 1^4 

Edward Cu!rt to Roberta Vaux, January 21 ; transporU- 
limi of tifrtaiii puirpWcu— institnticn of «uit ogdnsi 
Colc« for crrancipation of negroes wichio itaw . 166 

RdwurdCalei Ui Ullliurn Hamilinn, Jjimiaf7 34: xppoinU 

niciit of ^ardiiin uf ^emiIlUIy lands 4:59 

Edward Coles to Aaron Wilson^ January 24:appcintincn' 

OA guordun of seminary lnnd4 4:^9 

EdwaidCoIet to Morris Birkbcck, Jjinuary 29: pampjileti 
received — insnriiiion nf cinr kgaln^r Cciltfi fnr rman- 
ctpatton of negroes withm S1AIC ....'... 14^ 

Edwdtd Coles CO Matthew UuncAn* rebnuirr 5:lejtscof 

Muddv Saline 4:61 

Moffrii: Hirkbcck lo Edward Cole*, Febniary 19: Free- 
man Pap(rr^"*A]tr ag.iin^r Coles relwifding of rhc 
Sutc llou^ ijl 

Charge) of County Cofiirnisfiicneri of Madison Counry 

flgftii^st Edward Coles. March term Circuit CoMPt ttoj 

Ediv;trd Coles to Richard Hamilton, March 19; lease oF 

Muildy Srtline 4:6a 

Edwaid Coles to WiUUiu HainiUon^ March 19; uistruc* 

tian» concerning; seminary lands 4^3 

Edward Colei to Andrew Stephenson, April 71 attcmpc of 
li<uten3nt'Go%-ernor Hubbard to usurp govern- 
ment 177 

Editjird C^ilc^ to Aaron Wil<«in, June lu: appuininicnt of 

guardian cf seminary lands 4^ 

EdwATd CoJei to Richard Hamilton, June lOi Ibrmef 

letter enclofted 4:64 

Roberts Vauv m E^lwarxl Cole^, July I4: assurances of 

dec !> regard 173 

Edward Colc« xq George Grnham^ July i3; selection and 

ref4:rvation of »cmirvar>' I'^ds 4164 

EdiAaid Cok* n> ihe Govcrnnr of New Yorlt, July lo: 
imiQ ry of mfwagcmcnt of New York saline* . . . 

Edvmrd Coles to the (iov<mor of Ohio, Auguir if: m* 
quirt- on mAnigrmcni of Ohto scmtn^n' lands and 
salmt-« ..,,.. .... . - - 

Fdwaid C*:Jl*s lo Willis Hargrjvr, August Ji: rcpori im 
GalUtln S^lmc requested . • 

PIcftS of EdwoLTd Coles iigainftt the dcctirftiiofli of the 
ConunUsiontrs of Nfodiaon County, Sq>tefnber 
term of Cifcutt CfAin • • , 

Ri>f)erf J V;iux lo KxlwAfd Coin, SqMcmt>cr I ; con^ratu*- 
UtiiiriN on ittMUCOnrcnvoa victory in [lUrioii . < . 

Edward C<jIc», n prodamatioin. September^: diviuon of 
state into electoral di«tncKS 

Edward Coic9, » prociamaiion. Sepi«m1wr I: C0ttV«hUig 
the General A;(*he(r»My m hikkwA ics^ion • > . . 

Hdwnrd Cole? to Diui'icl llay, September 17; matter of 
pardon— cajc of Cotncr and of ivroShiplcya • . . 

Verdict AAsw^t Edward Ccte» in soit with the Commis- 
Moners of Madi*«n County, Septemher ai , . . 

Reai^on W 3 iirw rriat lulv^iKeti by Edward Cutct in tlic 
suit ittcninsc ihc Commii^oncrs oJ* Maduon County. 
Septembers: . . 

Rcji*or»s for o new crisi, Advanced by Edward Coles' Se|>- 

Kdwafd Cf>te« to Mnrnti Rir1:1vrk, September 22: offer 
of appmntfiicnt as secretary of state 

Moms Birkbcck to Edward Cotes, October 91 acoeptance 
of appointment aasccretaryofuftte 

Edward Coles* governor's message, NovcmSer 16: rem- 
edy for law providing for ejection of presidential 
electors— tnforwc incur of coniraccs — state bank — 
abolition of slavcry—atatc waicrways^scrninanr 
lands — ctxie of Uw 

EdwanJ Cole* zo Thomii Coi and Pa»c»l Enc«, pccera- 
berg: ncxervitiion of terainary lands 

E4wsnl Coirs lo Djui>f t Cook* December 9; memorial on 
lUinoiv Michigan Canal 







Hdwftrd Colc« to John McLean nnd Jusc Thotnit, De- 
ccml>rr 9: mctnnnHl an niinoiv-Mtcbtgan Cnna]. . 

Morrix Birkbcck (u dcrk of Greene Coanlj-i December 9: 
election of sheriff , 

lulwArd Co!e« zo MarquU de LafAvettc, December 9; 
tcsrimoftid enclosed — Inviuiion to Illinois . . , 

Cklwsird Coles to George Graham^ Occrmbcr 16: reserva- 
tion of seminary UnJs 

Edward Coles to Daniel Cook, December jO; mcmonal 
on public lands 

Edward Cole* to Jcsw Thomas lad JoKn >fcLeiA. De- 
cember 30: mcnior a' on public land* encloted • 


Edward Coles to Daniel Cook^ January t^; Ricmoiial on 

Indians enclosed 4:73 

Edward Coles try John Mrl^an and Jc^k Thonins, Jan- 
uary 13; memorial on Ir^dian^ cnduscd .... 4;74 

Edward Colea to the PivsiJcnt of the United Sutcs, 
January 20; report on Ulinois-Miehigan Canal en- 
dosed 4:74 

Edwanl Cole* to Daniel Cook^ January 20: report 00 

lUinoti-Michi^an Canil cnc'oscd 4:75 

Edward CoIca to John Mclean and Jcue Thomas, Jan- 
uary 20: report on Illinois- Michigan Canal enck>««d 417$ 

Hdward Coles to the Governor of Indiana^ January 1^: 
act incorporating Wabash Navigation Company cn- 
c'nfvd . • 4:75 

Bond of Ed«ard Coles 10 Commissioners of Mad^soa 

County, January :ii: lio 

Certificate of Joseph Conway to bond of Edward Colefli 

February 4 Hi 

Plea of l^dward Colts for dssconiinuancc of action of 
Commits ioncrv of Madiion County, March term of 
Circuit Court: ail 

Plea of Edward Coles for recording of bill of exception, 

March ferm of Circuit Co^rt: , ill 

HUXOIS tmrORICAL collfctions 

BiU of Exceptions advanced by Edwud Colc«, Marclt 

:cfft) of C TCuii Courr . ^ . >} 

Edwird Colu to George Graham, March lot acbool 6md 

due MMtt , , ^ . t 1 rH 

F-dwrard Coks to Rkhanl Hamilton, April i: bond o( 

»Tat 1 ank caih ct5 . 4^^ 

Edward Colf4 to Sklne^ Brev»e, April I; examination o~ 

ca»luef\ bond - 47J 

Rdward Colen to Edward Mundy, A^kW 7: Ixmd 1/ state 

batik ca»hien 4:/ 

Edward Cole* to cashier of Sliawneecown Uank, Apnl 7 , 

bond of state bank coahier . . , . . ^rrf 

Edward Coles to John Robincon, April 7: euml.iailof) of 

cashier \ tvknd 4:79 

Edward Cclcs to Grcuit Auoracf of Fourth Judicial 

Circuit, April 7: ocaminacion of castucr'a bond . > 4^ 
Edward Cotes to Aleicandcr MiLlcr, April 7: inveaeigation 

ofShawTiectowTi Iwink 4-75 

Edward CoIe« to F. B, \\\ Jones, AprtI 7c inrMtifarion 

ofShawnccfuwn bank 4J0 

Edward CoJo to Ebjoh Berry, April 9; report on Mate 

bank rc<iuircd 4;tl 

Mnr<iuis de Lafavctre to Edward Cdea, April n: invfoi- 

tion to Cotet <i> itkce him at KaakiKkia or Shawnee- 

lowa * . . . . itf 

Edward Coles to Edward Mui»d]r, April 1?: boi«d not 

acc^ted *...>. , 4jf3 

Edward Coles to Jame« Barbour, April 30: boundary 

dtcpute wirh Michigan Territovy 4:^ 

Edwani Coin to the Govemor of the Terrtlorr of NHchU 

fan, April loi bourtdaiy dispute with M^chisao 

Territory - • , . 4*3 

Edward Coks 10 Marqui& de l^fatvtte, April 98 : arraofe- 

ments for a itxctifig ttq 

Edward Coles to Alcaaodcf MilWr, Mar 33: commis- 

nonrd hank cashier — hood 4 J4 

Edward C^iln to tbc acting Govcrmr of loduna, Ma^r 

Sf: WAbaah-Erte Canal ttrged-HiKofpof^non ojf 


Oinnion of Supreme Coiiri t>f JIliTiob in iuU of Eilwin) 

Cutca ver»i» iIk Courtier of Mtditon. June terra . . 
Edwiird Coles to the KOVcrnorB of the different states, 

June $: copies of ctAtc law tran&mitted — interchifige 


Ftlward Coin to Gcciqjc GraJisim, June tj: act on free 

3chcK>b enclosed 

Edward Coles co George Grahjun, June i^: selection of 

seminflry land* , 

Edward Coles co Thomas Tuckert Juite t$t school fund 


Edward C<^cs (c the governors of the dilFcrenc slices. 

June 15: resolution on colonization of ne^ocs > - 
Edward Coles to Adotphus Hubbard, June 33; noiifica- 

tion of intended absence , . . , 

Edward Culcs to Shawneetown bank cuhicr, Jitnt 30: 

semi-annual re|>orts of branch bank» 

Edward Coks to Brownsville bank cashier, June 30; 

semi-annual rtportt of t>raRch banks 

Witt Clinton to Edward Coles, October 10: Michigan 

ami Illinois Canal 

F-dwani Coirs lo WlUam Claik, Ocloher 37: Indbn 

troubles in Sangaman Count)' 

Edward Oilcs to Jamc?i Johnson, Novcml^r j : education 

in Illinois— schfjol fund — *emmary landfi — private 

■cadcmies— internal impToivements 

Edward Ci>les ro the Governor of Indiana, November 4: 

action uf Indiana on Wabash River 




Edward Coles 10 Daniel Cook, January 3c: memorial on 
Illinois-Michigan Cansl 

Edward Coles 10 Jesse Thumns and Elias Kane, January 
30: niemtinal on [|linii(<i-Mkhitian Canal .... 

Edward Co1c« to RolKrts Vaux, February 3: attempt of 
Lieutenart-Cti^^ernor Hubbard to u^urp govern- 
ment — suit insticuCed against Coles 



Edward Cotes fo E. Briftum^ FcltruAr>' 15: guirdivi of 

seminary Undi appotnird 49J 

Bdwird Cotes to George Hickctr, FcSruary t5;gu«rdun 

of Acminary Ijwds Appo'unEcd 4< 

E^lblic letter of Edwjird Coies, March 4: inv«$u{Ettion of 

Edwardsville bank 4:99 

Edvtxrd Cole« to Thom»> CoviUe, Mftrch 14: idbc dit- 

covered — leuc iif Kaline 4:96 

Edward Colcrs in Uiac Morgan, April 4: appointment of 

guardian oFjcminarx lands 4' 

Edward Coica to James Ma^n, June lo: information on 

canal-loan desired 4' 

iidttftrd Coles to Henry Dodge, June lot tnfonnalkxi on 

cAiuil-Ioan desired 4;tot 

Edward Colca to David Ofdcfl, June 10: ixilofitiabon on 

canaUlcan desired 4=>* 

Edward Coles to J. Smilh, June ^: information on canaU 

loan d<?«ired 4'>o|~ 

Edward CiAn tv Ttiumiu Smitli, June lO; information on 

canal-loan deNiTcd ...•■■ 4-t< 

Edward CoIc9 to Ntcholu Hansen, Jaly f : appointment 

aa judge of probate court uf Pike County .... 
Iward Cole* to John Rutherford, July f ; con^tulft- 

tion« on clrcnon ro legitlature — slaire laws in Vir- 
ginia ifll 

Edward Coles to George Graham, July io: reservation of 

seminary lands — school fund due state 4110] 

HdwardColes to William Hamilion. July 26; eiamination 

of seminary lands '94 

James Mawin U) Edward Coles* July 30: rcpocc on cana^ 

loan 4^'' 

Edward Coles to A, Cowiea, August t6: investigation of 

diimiual of indictment of Judge McRobercs . . * I8j 

Edward Colet to caiLhiers of state bank, August 35: inirca* 

ligation fif ^taie bank 4ti 

Edward Coles to Thomas Cox and Pascal Enos Scpteii>- 

bcf J: reservation of seminary lands . - , • • 4:108 


Edward Coles to James Btrbour, Sqvtcmber %i tikXt 

ciiilStia 4'ios> 

Edward Cnlcs to WilJis Hargravc, September 30: rq>ort 

on GtdUtin Siiire dciired 4:111 

Edward Coki to the Governor of Tennessee, September 

30: rcquiaitton for miirc!erer 47111 

Edwairl Colei tii Henry Fildy, November 3 :cxaminiiicni 

of cashier's bond 4:113 

Edward L'olcs to Kichard Rush, November 15: silk indus- 
try in llJinoU 4-1I3 

Rdward Coles to George Grsham, November jo: rtserva- 

clon of seminnry landi 4'"5 

Edward Coles, ^uvcniur's niciugc. December 5; prw* 
pcrity of country- death of Jefferson and Adams - 
digest of laws- criminal code— state bank^caxation 
^salines — state Wns 177 

Edward Colea to Henry Eddy, Decemlwr 9: disountin* 

Uiincc t>f 1llbo'i?t Gazette requested - . ^ ^ . , l8t 

Nkholai Hiuiscn to Edward Coles, December aj; prob- 
able abolishing of circuit courts— agency at Peoria Si 


rdward Coles to Thomas S!oo, February 1 <: paymerit of 
land rrgiMcrs — np^ioirLtmrni of Indinn a|^ni at 
Peoria — propowd visit 10 Philadelphia 169 

Edward Coles to Isaac Prickett, July 81 business matters lyl 


Edward Coles to Isaac Prickctc, May to: business mat- 
ters 1^ 

Edward Coles to Isaac Prickert, November y: failure of 
Prickett to pay expected visit — business matters- 
payment of taxes 293 


Edward Coles to Isaac Prickctt, June lat business mat- 
ters — enclosure to A- J. Lusk 195 



Edward Cokf to IsBiic Prickect, Scpumber 4: buAficM 

mflrirrv — propoced vtuc to nrUriva ^ 

164 1 

EdwATd Coles to Tsa4c Frickctt* Novtmbcr 4: busuicM 

m&tt^« . , . . r 300 


Kdwtfd Colc5 to Jute Prickctt, September i; buiinca* 

ntttera IM 

Edw&rd Colc« to Jowph Oillcipie, November if; btisi- 

nes» mattera loj 

Edward Coks tu Intuc Prickecr, December 20: bucinem 

mattera jon 


Edward Cclc3 to Isaac Prickctt, May t ! : propoved vtut 

to EdwanJ^^nlle — bufinesa matteri ^ 

Edward Colei to Isaac Prkkett, }une I4: buMne«s mat- 

tera ^ 


Gcofg^e Churchill to the Editor of the Bureau jiJvvMf^ 
Miy 1: correction of errors appearing in Ford'g 
Hiiiifry 4^ II/tM&ij 



Hooper Warren, an editoria] m the Frrrff^/jit December 
au comment of Ford's Hisicry qf lUitoh — relation 
of Fdward Coles to antl^lavicry movement of 181J- 
1 8i4"-T*rly newspaper* of Illii>o'»8 Jio 

Hooper Wattcn, an editorial in the /'W #V^, December 
38: HanAcn-S[inw nffuit in the I egUlature— ^Justices 
PbiUips and Reynolds of the Illinois Sgpremt Court 
— appointment of Moms Birkbeck as secretary of 
state ju 




jonn yivson Peck to Hooper Waircn, March I4: state- 
ment corccrning hT«tnrir« nf IlUrow — propo(«i worlc 
on "The Mnra! [*mgrcs!* oCthc Mississippi Vftllcr" 

John M4Bon Peck to Hooper Wnircn, Murch 36; rclfi* 
tions bctwcc* Hooper Wirrcn and bdwnrd 0>lcs - 
-^^miLnclpfttion of Slaves ^^y Edw^M Coles - . > 

John Maion Prck tn Honpcr Warren, Mafch 17: slavery 
struggle iti lllfnois — su;^1y of anti-&1avcry parnph* 
Icis^contT] button of funds— Appointment of Divii 
Blackwcll ;i5 sccretarv of state 

Edward Col<;a to John Maion Peck, April 30! correction 
of errors mfldeb}* Hooper Wnrren in ediiomb in the 

Hooper Wiurcn to John Ma»oti Peck^ Nf^iy 3; relation 
with Mr, Peck— Uttcr's vtond on slavery question — 
pcnonal attitude tcward Edw-uxl Coten . . - . 

Hooper Warren to John Mason Peck, May ro: guW- 
naronal riecrion, iB^i — retarinni with Rdward Cole^ 

John MoAon Peck to editnrt of Pr^c ^tsiy May ij: 
cnclo«ct letter from Edward Colca ansiftcring ehargc^ 
cf Hooper Warren 

Hooper Warren co John Mason Peck, June 29; explana- 
tion of former cdiroriala 



Edward Cales^ June 9: Hi^iory of the Ordinance of 17S7 J76 


EdwKTd Coles to WLiliam Bairy. June 15: dispo^iiioo of 
documents— remmiscciKts of Morris Birkbeck . • 





^^^^^^^^^ IN DEX ^^^^^^^^^B 

H Abolitiofl Sedecr of PtilUdrlphMt un- 

AibmIi (NT,),J4Jel ^^H 

H |>ct^uUr lit Itltaou. It4. 

AnicticiA Bapcvr Publicieion Sodeer, fl 

H A(lun»»Mn.<katli, l9li^7W7^. 

Ptcl'» iiuocH n. jijEi- 1 

^1 Aftam** |6bn Q» 9I, 39c; lociui'mtsncf 

Aniftkaa Sottorn, ^- 1 

H witk Birkbe<k, ^\ «ppCHniv Kin- 

ffflW/ o/fAf fVfity jajo, jif- ^^M 

H kA&le pMmiuterj jj; vote W« 15711. 

Acvhcr. ^MIIi^iD S., 18. ^^1 

AfnaM, Hon- i N-, prcpcwi mcmotr of ^^H 

H Flower, llBn- 

FJwArd COlov f. ^H 

H AMnitfr t-itJ U^pft Sihiiuipfi Hrrtii 

Attcmlilv, Ocnrrilh «ff IrsblatuK, ^^H 

^m (Cftlenif, ^VJrrrn rnipfirir«d«D,3iau 

Adat, 7W, frv 1 

H AftnCukuriJ Socictr' B^beck £nc 

AuBtialiiiv B'rrkbc<k'i aiijoff mitoTCT C0» ^^fl 

^1 pjciaicne, 14011; Cufo a«k> tuirpurt 


^B ^, j6; inTcmnI improvrmenti, fA^ 


^^ Agneulturv, brie rreChoJ for pminca* 

B«tJ«in, Htnry, iS^ ^^H 

H IfWf^ 

Bank ti^ F-dirifdfvillCt irt Ed vju^tiUe, ^^H 

■ Albtfiy (N.Y J. «0, 

frtTll!. ■ 

H Albnavk Coant^ kVt.). £4, 1^, ^: 

Bftftkin^, 14^,156,^45; Co]ciDn,f4'f5, 

^B birihplsct Cilwiril Oiloip li^ 

s6v-s?o, 3S!-i<4. 

^1 Albion. 99'>^<«<'>173: 4n<)«lftirf rj pm* 

n^rkten, Andrew* 991 vigna anticon. 

■ prafosoi, ittki»,t44« i«jl oouncx 

TvnTion P^ftt^ 9^; titccb. ^oe *i)«« 

H <ne, 1 [la, 

on tohvccicioo rewtiit^nt fi- 

H Alfsimdcr. l-i^pcH*, J7; invii«« Mor- 

Hirfccr» LDiii«, vole on ccnvrntie* 

^^ C4u'l «bi igo^aar Sifolofiiii ^Vn. 

roolaEbn. 53, 

^1 Alcai«ider,34rnoft.oonTradi(tarrvocaH 

Btuflct, . jo(. 

H SkAW clecu&n, 77: tocc cm «onirth. 

Buney, Benjamin, on K&Hen. fto. 

^V tion rculutioft. 53^ 

Binr« WillMin, J&4. ^^H 

H Alnvckr, Wtllium M., ico: bin re. 

Biirv. , 3a ^^H 

^1 cctttideralion of n^nvvniion cnolu. 

Bfaird, Joatp'i A^ Xtjo; cnnwrtion ^^H 

H tian. 7«. ipcakcr onkuvt^Rcpn* 

ftddrc* conmiircc, i«7; conrcniion ^^H 

H icnurivd, jj. 

iMckr. i3t: nMe on Qonvtmion reu- ^^| 

H Almackr Cwnry, t<A; mcmben In 

lurioA, 5> ^^H 

H Iwiduurc. n^ i(>J; vutc on caawb- 

ScltkiimEr, PraMu. 34!. ^^^| 

^f iron moTorion, i^rt. 

Bcncvt[lf,^99P,j>^3^j36; cvntrr ^^| 

H Allen, JamH C, Q9nj I0+. 

■ntirfAvtiyoptraiMni, 33^,334- ^^H 

H AIk^, ,«!&; Lovtjcr/ murJcrk fL8. 

BcHevuc. aoT»i outUvi it, to6n, ^^| 

^B AImp Hl«fark4l Socitiry, IcncU matuui 

Bcbage, R<pfc*d, Ml' ^^H 

H i« 1^ M. IVk, ^ 36; j ne«v» bu- 

BenttHifllioniM, ^^. ^^H 

H uncil mticrni /rom Edwird Cok«] 

BcotOPt CoIomI, cdiiDf St. iAau K^ ^^H 

■ «.J«f- 

^uiftr, 3J7. ^H 



^ fc ■. ,JM_ ■^_ '"^^^^^^^B 



vole tA ^ivcr^ 



ciaiMe of Norftivrtr Ordtuncf, J9a. 
B«ri« tGcnHnr). Cola viaiu, !&. 

BcTMrd, ECLenncv )ud ddm, nf; 

Bcny, ^J«h C-. cocvuciiua mh 

8efTT» WiUiun, oanneciion vilK IlJh/iais 

ktt»t from Coik* on ov of ciilo, ^5: 

vot« <n conrtncion molutioci, 53- 

Beraud. Miry, UoJ «Ulin, i4fn&^ 

Bcm^ad, Simofi, lurd claim, ?«^-9^ 

Biddit, Kidiolu, )47j in Peii;iiT(rani« 

State SeiKtc, jc: 

Vtipr fmm^ Calfi, ca CtMventuni 
ito-iaj. ij«>'i3Si 

kcKiiiotColeSfrCii coavcntloa, 133; 
€m election vt Conpr«i, ^3~34; o" 
Hartford uncnJinrntt, j4-3f; 011 
Wiwof ifli:. JO-3I.31-JI; concern- 
tf](Viuv,n^it4- inrroJucios Vaux, 
pmidmi UnlEr^ Sutt* Ba«l(, ^ 
* Bincr, ljnii«v 5-(4. 34f, 150, iti, ^51, 
8ifkl4ck,Morrit| 134; ukedfofn&navc 
W«»hingion Hiiit, 346-j67i Colei 
m«im>rf on, 3A4-376; Jft <oftv**HJon 

<*»<*««. JT^ *le"K >*». 3^J. J75i 
WfiJcf u^ Endudi scttl^meni c£ 
Ei1v4fili Coun^Ti it^T^; FrniBAJi 
L«Ur», 151^ I5J. JI4, 3W, j74i 
hiitoncil wdilfifi, 369; 

letter from: Coltii appoincnivil u 
tttttuty of Bi»M, 15^1591 on ha^ 
lUlty iQ Cctd, r4^i5i; on proK 

Und phtftfl, inciaUvety litctiture, 

keter eui Coin, *ccvt^is ap^pt* 
luni A« ivTTf rmrv oF uitv, 1 f^iAoc 
on Colu lulc, 141-1^.1; <m UjLUfiuial 
ipcnh. f4n; ^^r^ alxvery, i4i-i4j,D[i 
trwtt, UT-14'i 

nocnln*ricn if^Md, i^ Ji-^J^ 
37t; rrnif^Fnt of 5iai« Agrkulnir. 
kl Socitty, j7ji nUtioh to GiLbcrt 

367-36^: irCTmrxof •ttte.l 
jaa-W> JT^-JTSI •«<!«■• 
570-373; skctdi* ri9-i4i;on 
141. 143. 
Bi»03, E.oau, 33!. 

Btuk Cak> 7^ IJ»-I94* ^^ «&« 


(■ptu tn. vj; Scitlman'i Ranfe06h 
B^ukvHt, Dirid, ifj, i«t, 36^ It^ 

314; tkcnitpMka.^ji rtMcn 

RtNO^vip ^ »<»»• 1*8- J74- 
l«7 of ita|«, U;-Jj6- 
Bl*ch«x11, RobcTT, oonncciioo wM 

nij-kcmiLa, CoTtiadi Ufo* ftnikonvvAOGA 

Tfrtiim nfohirifm, jj, 
SUndtColoTLct. tf, 
BLondeu;, Dmy> irtcnm, ijo^ U*« ^ji* 

Blondcu, John BirbitiP, ijt, a^i ^M 

Und cliivi. a48-^49> 
itl««nr. SViUum, vote oa Odbflm if 

RofMpiirrc, Jo«ph, j4. 

Horn], StkAdnch, 71 IJV, i^l. J«a» J«$l 
coAticCTcd with RtptMit^H AJitctkt 
tjt; d«<tkiBof<uocesttr. 50. 

Bond County, U, ^ afrS; fMafacfi w 
Leifiiliturvt llji mt CD CORWIJ^M 
rcmlutioo. (f6. 

Boon, Wjlliwn, von «■ cta^ftiwi 
roolution, y. 

Bar he. , ijj, 

Bcuclitr, Knnefi, 34I. 

Bn-rtFt Sidnry, lo?* i^u tMiifidiCefcr 

DfhlnlL l>1cv CiJn visit*, jG. 

bowft, VTjtlUm H^ 3^1; connmiHi 

iXU in^' 35*-35»i «n oonvtntioB 
itruisk, 111: <m Haiue% 7)>; lf«ier 
fion Cold, on OM of tklo^ 551 

^M Bn^wa. Willi^tn H. (cuiiO. pfciiJciiit uf 

CcErc^ Giluicl. Ii'id lUim. 127, 2i4. ^^H 

H Chirsffa HiiFnrifiil SacWrjt 111. 

Crrr^ PuraE, land tltim, iyy, ^%. ^^H 

^^ BfOviit W, W-, Itxdtr of CHiclavr*, 40711, 

OiunplaihCt Jtt^n tfuptiTtt, sjfi, 3401 ^^H 

^B Biowaci Emzuj« «icbtor to Edwds 

wtnoB.^. ^^M 

H «ilt« hutk. :6j. 

Chattiattan ^. C), CoIm vbiti, jA, ^^M 

^1 BrovM, Thomui C-, S^; uiDci*te 

OiuC|S«mo«T| on committee for ofc*!^ ^^^H 

H justice of 9ij|j(tnic cuurtt (i^ cundi 

itaiion oi NorthwctC IVtritcrr, j,t- ^^^| 

H dicv for governor, ft, AA^ 31^, j^f^ 

J?S.J79- ^^1 

H 3«&1 pKoltvCfTp 511 juoiice of 

Cluit«llcrc«n» Louii, 3j,i, 7^* ^51 ^Aod ^^H 

^P jkuiTrcme courl^ 158^ J^ 

cU'm, 317, 12H. V 

■ BrovniTilli (PaX 4^^ 

Chevirr, ^g. ^^^H 

H Bvchf, Fr^ncitT l»d dumift^i- 

CKci-alict, Puce], :36. ^^^^H 

H Duibcnoc. Antgbc, Und diim, 15I1 

Cliicjsci, ig?; Arc, i iBn. ^^^^^| 

■ iji; vlnUM, 14>-14J,1«^.^,149. 

Cbicjso Huton^Al Socittj. if, 79- 15^; ^^^| 

^H Amwi *fJB9ft e i_Pnnc€tot^f 516^ Jt7, 

Brovn praidcJlE, TJl; gift froni ^^^H 

H 3^ 

Gtoric flower, Ii3n^ mtraocr of ^^^| 

Birbcbec^. J64, JA51 r«*alutIon c<fn- ^^^| 

H CtdwcH, GforKCi iignt uiticoHT^Ation 

ccrnJnfi SkrH^ <// EdtMri Ctkl^ {< ^^H 

H Appeal, X6: *kcich, 04; vote on cqev 

Chnnit;, . 337. ^i^< U^, X4I. ^^H 

^H wntion maluruyi, p- 

Churrhrt, Btpiiif, 9$, ij^; Kfnco^t ^^H 

■ Cthoktf* Widen in, 9^. 

SB; EllclHodiit, SS, 89» 091 OFFQ«i- ^^| 

H Clirno, Abraham. 99; ^ieim inii- 

lion in ilAvcry, i n. 1 jp, a^. ^^H 

H CDnvention ippral, fi»; tto^^h. 9:); 

Chur<liiLE, Ch«rtefl, 99n, ijj. ^^^| 

^1 vote on eonvenCion ntolutioc, fj, $3. 

Churchit], Gcorsc. JUi Jl*> .13<< ^4^ ^^H 

H Cvn>, Wirrcn rmploTVLl at. jlon> 

bumctl ir fffify, Mfl; on rr»lution to ^^^| 

H Cjlhoun Cbuoiy, 64. 7H. 

viucM U>Ai«n, 76; «ign* 4rd«>nv«n' ^^^| 

H Cdltfiamuia tt^n. Approve OrdinAoCi 

hon appeal, #6; iik<tcht4l,i>in,jt6n- ^^^| 

■ rfl7a7.3^ 

JI711; vote nn rwiTcntlan reuHit^on, ^^^| 

■ CttmbndB* IMm^>, iS^n. 


H C*rnpWllt JarnM, coairttdicrcrv vote*, 

Citm, Antmnt, w'ttncM, Ij9. ^^^H 

H Shnw rl«tioht 77: voir on CDnvrn. 

CicafT, Loom, I44. ^^^| 

H tion rewluiion, fj. 

Cinf^nniri, ti6. ^^^| 

H C«n«d«, ji ;. 

CiKuii court, wit a|«lr»i Cdc*, Jvtf ^^H 

H Canili. 1/' HifTicultural nxiecr. 

Rdward Cdcs. ^^H 

H Capital punithnifiiEt Iti- 

H CarriPEton, Edward, ;;Si; roEc on 

CUrIc, GvorgE Rog«n>, cIuim lUiiKiu for ^^^| 

H OHlnjLTKe of 17*7, 3^1- 

^B C«nMr«AU, tfi' t'ontAme, JoKtee. land 

Qorict Csp»in, »«- ^^1 

H dAiiHt HJ> 

CUtlGCDunTr,9;,tar\M; senb^nni ^^fl 

H Cjrnl1«, C, iraco pcnpceed by, t7p- 

hfiaUiurt^ 53I MU on cQfnnention ^^H 

■ t«o. 

iie*a1ucion« i f6. ^^H 

H Cwkillck GL, tract* pKipoted hy, 17^ 

QukB, Alrahitni, vot« On Ordm«nce«4 ^^^| 

■ l&a. 


^1 Cuay, Zadoc, loo^ connection lrad«i^ 

Clar.H0"T.J««<J5^; fnendofGrni* ^^H 

H ij^; voiecncanvTntiont«iotuiiaa,5j* 

Flowtr, iL^n; voi< foi, 157I' ^^H 

H Cation, J^tsqiih^ ^6. 

Qinto-in l>«>Vi», ,'4A- letter to Colcfl, ^^H 

H Cflton, John D^ on Cola, 197-191^ 

on canal Khqmc, J6~J7> ^^^| 


rjA-'- — 





^wi^urd t44rtmj ittrnkim^ 54; 

ift^f MRU, >a, 3i4f J>^ i>mvr fai 
•tfkHiiurr, ivti 
Irittffninii Bkldlt, on aMveadbn* 

)>-Jii lt^1>H Bi'kbcck, MOepfMct 

IfT-lAc; ail Coin kiiiT, Hl-lfj; op 

on tntcti, 14^1^; Cliflfc*, fit c'fiol 
iflknif, }6-f7i CrtwfoKl, on tiay^ty, 
lotn; IhnxfH on acvncr *< Poena, 

itl-iKl MfK(«, 0* P*« CaBHtjr 
tlccihCA^ M~<Ci \f JiJwii, yti Vault, 
?L «« «fl(iciiovffit*ryi vic«rrf' ^?4~ 
iT(i offmif MtwvB, nf-i¥7i on 

L4Afl>, <■ fcartiif? ^ 
>tf-ff£; EWli, « Wvitf 
Jf^^-C^; Prkifn. CD tiHiniw 
^9h 9M-*»f- *^S-*97i ^••'JKW J»- 
JW. ?oi-3C-J. >a4-W. JDT-jdf. J*- 
jic^ RoihCf^tfil. en tlivT^, tl^lt^ij 

36j-^^ SlocM UwIcAkc. 
frivtivi, 1$9->9K 3»TT ni O * , 
HoblHrd, 1T7; ViiU| 7; on ^ 
r«*» iST-iiy, 13J-IJ4; 00 tlubUrid'i 
ACrcnptTd uvrpftrun . liM tuit, 171 
1791 on tmurtipniEon nk^ 16^171 
Tibel tmit W4in*C| 1:5, r;v- '*■« 
mrrin StU? Roberrt, i^; n< 
Ljtiircier, ^; ncmon «i Uirki*t<k,{ 

rvquni for cwnin popm, uj^im^I 
BWBifti, »*7-*77t »7T-^Wi 
to Rj4u, 37-19. 4". 1)0; atij«ai 

4>- 3J0: pt< <i tft? dntPOTnl b^ in. 


131, ;-;>-^2S, i5V"i^*i ntntivai ru 

fron public Lir«p 16^ >han renJciut 
in lllmou, i4. i^^]40> jfo; sketch «f 

4«. 3JW ''«■***. U9> 1^ 164-165. 
ioi-M7, »*>-s63, JI&-3IJ, aj>>3j:, 

t«9, 197, 36J. Jia. Jji. JJ^. Jis; 
inh«ri«f, X, 3jC^ flhiitJie]#« ro frwing 
m VirftiriLt, 43; khiovcs to Illjr^ijUi 
*1"47, l4«< »6<.WO"i3i; 
•uic ngaintt, 149-1^ t$% tA>-i^ 

j^; 111*, 4d, iiioi tfiNur? ^ Vflu*, 
171-171; vtkidictoty fncitfic*, i>>)- 
iM; viiie* Vlfgfitk, 130, 111, iU* 

LjColai Ijm£ a., t>ro(hcr uf £ii««rd 
Coll.. 3(9, 

19. 164J Vttrr fmcn H^nr?, 19 
Coin' Grove, 70; (tvnir w^i ai Vikt 

OititwrrW ^/smit^ lChi<«^). ^Dilv 

Mnditfin Cnunry, 

C^ndicr. J«<9^ ^9' bnd dainf,345> 
Cmvcu, in Wu-c/iSUi JJ, 
ConfirctBCUt. gj, 94, IjB, J79, J»l. J9T: 

dflim* to N<»ftfcw*»rTfTrit«y, J77- 
ihfiiiulioii, dufiipt ptD|xn(d» }#. 60, 
jl J, 3$9- <crrvenricn fnr Tormarnv, 
.|0; nnnncrordhiCipng,(r>»llO,3vj; 
object ot dtanHc cu»cnleiU 70^ t^^ 
393J prohibit* tbwry. J^; right to 
Coairoct*. iavioltbSitF. uxkt Ordi- 
MincE of i:G7i jSi: Uvv of, 1^- 

ii|Thol(tir||t lo^ioSj tfiiccnvmdon 
hwid l>in, 13$; ■ntidirvrT forc«t 

jvttbtatcfT kuten. 1^; opt>eil 

1 57^ tc^orc F<>oplc, [(o-M3;llinKc'* 
»DK dtfeus, 74- 319: j™™^ '^e^ of 
houte* pfcfofted, 7^: a«4io«t «o le- 
cmiKkr. 74; ftecoAur for dun^ of 
Corwitucton, 6j, 31%, 319; pitfDd br 
M««n.J vol*, 77; prMlavtfr <irifbr»- 
tioD» ^ii N* .119^ rfwLvcir leAd?r»i 
13*: ilivcfT forca rwiruflrfTa, I3f* 

136; rote o( lc(ifclaryrT on, <i-$^ 
ttJtc of r<>o(Ot: mi dcU>v(I aXl gtmtmi 
cl«»ion , i 10; *Trtf of ptcf If, 1 5 (-156, 
3^ ^M *!t9 fomtponitncie of 

Cok>, II>'1J4, Sb^irJItAJteB. 

Conway, J/vviih. In tiilf i^sliut Cnlis, 

Cook, D^nkl ?■■ 64, Is, jfj. if;T>, s^ 
345* i4^: adrkn Cola canfimins 
frnji^ (Uirc», 47. 1*1, 164, jjj, J«3J 
dcction to Congio*, ^4°~J4N M'^' 
3H' 359~3^> 1" ctinrcnTioni*ciontfsr, 
3J9i in Ml JsaifiFf Cc^i S07'i<3( 
kiGtr £r«ni Cblo, un i^puii uJi liod 
claimt, 1JJ-^J5- 

(loEncr, - — », wpnffwt, i*J* 

CottmoQ, Utomsa, IQ3. 

Cour«fJ1. John M., as^h, ^3*- 

CogrtolT, Michael, aj7, 13*. 

GmrCt, diiifiao in, tl^ 17(1-1771 j4|* 

OiTiTigton, (KT')* S^"' 

CorniM, A., 3991 ^ WM nut igUMt 
Cola, lit. 

Cot. Tlioinjn, «kei<h, itf^n-tOTa. 

Cfiif, , 131. 

Crt«, C^iid, detiioTi Pcotit, j;^, 
«0, *J*, *J7. >J» U,». a**, M< 149- 

Crtw, ,319, 

Cnw.^d, Kate, 31ft 39f. W, I«» JCQI 

CrKwTerd, PoFIyi iroi fnt^, K^j 
CfAwfoiU, R«IiJh. iioi fraed, 106; in 
(kjr^ of ortier «l>*v&, 43- 


^^^ Cr»«fonl, Rohtft, IK^ t^^ «^f. 1^, 

Dortu*. ThoAWL, coBCradvetarr ftcaa, 

^H *w. jocv JOS *>J. J07, ^w, yji, 

Eh4« election, 77i wtc on ^ooventlBa 

^ JEJ. 3*-i ff«=J- ^^ 

rrtubriiA, jj- 

Cnvfonii Williun, 390, s^k vot« far, 

Df««kn, Honao Bounded aF, 9^4. 

ipn; Colo rrport to, Da-sfj; <n 

DonC4Q, JoK^ i^ct; uat&Utc ibf 

fntroctuciion of ^avcrf tnio IUimv, 

Concroo, ig6: oe BiriEhc^, r^tx 


Dnpit, I'nnm, I49, i;o. 

Crawford CoiinEr, 66, TTb 9^ $t, 95, 

iA4: vmbciv in k^dUiurt. ^3, 91; 

Rddr. itcnrfp 3i^: conorctioa vWi 

Tobc oQ ccnveetion roolutioA, i^. 

/i/iHWf (;fMr#, i;j4; aHaUtfia 

Cruict. Suiiuel, vi>te on coftvcntica 

tUima EniffanTt jUj kic«r fios 

rei(^utii>n, p- 

Colt^ t>cfv M>4icriin«n to fTiimir 

CurrtDCft .'4t bflnkin^ 


ElilKUf Geoctnl, [«L. 

llalRivrvhl, J^ G-, comajlictnry rofei. 

hj^r CAim<7t9r^ 30n, 2&fi; mcmtm 

5h««4l«ftian,77; voeeoQconvwittwi 

in hgkbtdrvv Jjs voM on oocivuifwa 

rodluiioci. (J. 

roDliuion. !£&. 

D^u, AWandrf J, jt. 


D«nc,N4ihu,3Bt( (Uim toftvitionlup 

Education, Coles 00, itj, aj^^ji 

of Ordinance of ItB?. J?-«-38f: TOlc 

fundi, iZ^i utwlct Onlinbncc of tjtyt 

oa Onlininrr rf i?!'?, 3»X 

jftl. Sff it/jc trmiairr I'«<1k 

Duhkoff, Rqmui minsn^ to WMhinf^ 

Eijvud«, V, F-, »*J, i94->«^> >9< a»f 

tVlL, jfl' 

JOf , jA J0<, JO*. 

Dimiporr, Jtona i., runfrulicTofy 

FdvinSA, John I-, wn*ln4» otf WIdf«, 

voM«, Shaw «l(Clioni 77 ; ^rotv on 


canvtriioii iwolutJon, 53. 

E4iwuiJ% NiniJA, 79. V3*i> LOli Jl^ 

Davfrport (!».). te7fi. 

J*4. J*^ 34', ,141; 34jt 34*: c*ndidi«f 

Dcfondt John B»plittet ^^ I4U H^- 

for s^^vemori 17^; in coATC&tion €en- 

DcfoAilk Uiua» ^tf» ^ji* 

W«. J^rJM. Jifl. IJ*. 3*9. i6<^- 

Dfj^nry, JoKph, 137. 

Ed«anH Coitnfy htmrf fofj 117*1; 

Dc LuiccTi Bbh«fii marriea Coks, t^g. 

«(ecEion «f mcctMQfi aMi fortiiii 

ndimn. S7. K'l. jSo. i^» 

mlttlon, 173: letEo- from Slonive, 

HcmtfiF, Henry D-, 9511. 

intrivlucing Coin, *o-4i: m pfJitlfal 

Dcraacfitia, 191, 101, 

CKBi'ivwr, fo; rMfiu »( in ScnitCa 

Dcmonchcllc, John, ^49* -50- 

177* <**"' 

UemoncheLltft Ju;rt«, luid daiin, H!- 

H^IviMa C«u»typ (6, 96^ 97. I'W, J7J1 

DcnC^ WiUiun, fktlier-ln-lAvr af RLnion 

iebt «o Blrkbecki t4^\ m^mbct9 of 

MooTT, 8R, 

Itipnluurr, JJ; ftSuich, ll7n-litD; 

Dc* Ch«mfitj Anrom«, 'iya, a|t, ft^^ 

voce on corivrntion rnoltitton* If6. 

S4J, U4i *itncM, 3.17- 

E4iv*rdm11c. tos. til, i(j, 1^ 151, 

Df Wir r, Clitrlr?!. v^ne on ihvery cUuw 


oF North *a»c Urdinmot, J7^ 

J4t, >4>» 3J<! *nQa**Br7 flocicfy, 971 


t>^k, d^on of, ^£4-1^5; Coks 

Dick. SRmuc1> VDfr pn ilavrrr cl«uiv of 


NotthwBi OriJm»nc«t J79, 

144L Bi]c of pablic Ih^ aii-iii. 

Doiltfc, Hcnrr ^ Ictlci from Cula on 

Edvmniit^ Spc£r4itr 15'. 33** 34'i 

hrralung prurica, ^if-^5p' 

y^t 347. Jjt; inikonvcatnci otwi- 



>37> 3>fr 3it^: ChutchlU's mnjvfcdcm 
wit*, 3i*ft-ji7n: fSTiUuhcd. jion, 
Jifi 340i^Wamn unfriendly to G^Id, 

Ek^lion of lS?>, n.ndid*te« fv goiwr- 
nor: BravDc. s, 66, jtl. ,i4f, .^uAt 

(», 661 SI %, 34^ J4^ J*i J63; 

i»Me. S>-P- ??-S*- 3i<. 34*1 vo^^ 

fi, (1, 6£, jiB. ^fr ri/j0 Sh«v, 

Kllfry^ William, rot* on ibvwy cbuef 

of NorthwcK Ordinartcc, ,17ft, 
Emclin. John B:iptutt, 337, 
Emmit, Jebfi, jifj coatradiciery vatct, 

Sh4w<Tcciiont 77^ votvon cgnventiDn 

nadaiion* 53, 
EfigUnd. rrrtiy *itii Frsn^v, frt. 3*5, 

£hfiiKOTlhr, CoT«i F«fntlr«4t*fCt <^ <9i 


Fof F^ilton Count/. 1 tj. 
Cvb«, ViDt'iani L. D., 176. 

PuraBbi, David, tOJ. 

t-nyvttc County^ ^66; m«fnbcrt in rhc 

latalAtUKi fji *ofe on ccnvenoor 

rvcduibm, 156, 

Ffvcf ftjver. 6«. 79; Ir^fi mines. itr^Jin 
Fe% Williim, vote on OrdJianoe of 

17(7. jSj. 

Field, A^eiaiNkr P.| loot cion««ntio<i 
Addrtu coramtttce^ %qt. umvcntLgn 
IcBdcTf l^Si intr«du«« resolviriaD 
r«TQnr9 JMnc retc, 7t; novQ b> 
rvcnuidcr Hmbvi'a dcttion» 75: 
iL«fch, 191-103 : vow en ronvrnti«n 
rwtduiion, jj, 

F1n*cr. Benjamin, brailvf of Ricliard 

Khism mih Birkbec^k.. J7i: »n cf 

Ri^flrd Flowtf, itSn, 
Flower, Rjehud, l4fi founJcr of 

Kngliih cntnny of Kdwardi Count}, 

H7;l«Wf from Cnl?t,on cenvmfion* 

Il9-t30; »kcich, ii8n. 
Fontaine ^FcunTKln) Felii, ifo; Ufid 

diim, ^3if 345-^+4! witno*, 3jo, 

Ford, R C,,oonir«d)cn>ry Toi«t, Sbiv 

dctftioQ, 77; vo^ «n convrttiion 

rtioldljon, f J. 
Fnnl, Thr>iT]a^, Catcin nn, 1^: t%ft enw 

vvnijori tirugglt, in; Hiotry ^ 

Itihith, Wairtn on, ii^jM, 356" 

jn- Peck 6n. jij. Cote* 00, 3i3J 

Htibhard en, 177. 
Forquer. Gtotte, 3:, 15J, 17^ 
Fonych, Thomatt ^3; lind cL«init 1^, 

Foft Churl JCB, 44. 

Fwt Clark, nnr vilUgP of Pcnrii, 13J, 

aa6, I4I. 
Foarex, ^ vote on slivny d«i;»« of 

?forfhveit Ordintnn^. J79. 
rouniain, h'dik, '/' {'cnttine, 
Franct. inmriK in Nonhwcit TcmtovT> 

3*1: tT«atT«ith Fii;bnH,'Si;Vildrn 

FmnXfuri f Kf.>. jion. 

Franklin, BrnJ^min, tg. 

FnuikLint jcntt jty- 

FrenkliEi CovntTkT?* 36C; ncnbcii in 

lefiiilarore, 5J- voiv ^ fOMi-«nrinn 

rcM>lution, 15^ 
Fnmvr, Robert, w; ^uh, 9^; vole oa 

nonvrnrinn r<«nlurion, 53, Bfi. 
/>« fl^frt (Chica^), 347, iJL J5=. Ji^i 

,16^: ^S'arTen cntploycd on. jicv* 337. 
Fpeemin, Jonathan, ut Monk Bifk- 

Fr^ndi Cuiadkm, t^j icnkn. Ur, 

right (o iliwt, 61. 

Fry. -, iBo, 

Fulton CounE^, 26A; mcmbm in kai^ 

lafuf^ jji nomination of weordn. 


^^H Mum Cvdnrjr. ietmxX 115; von oa 

CfWHi V Koonp^fikA Cdki trtV^ 

^^^1 «oavvn6H KMlvboi, 15$^ 

Gncne Countr, 7^ 9f, toi, 1^ 

■ Gftinis NiAcy, 110; /rccd, tV}. 

nif mhcn U iiQnl«rnrffv i^i vM« «■ 

H G«laa«, ii : poetical niMtiiif , 64^ 

ComTilioo PoJarioiH t^. 

H 0«IUcini AtWrt, miniatcr to rriKcc, jflL 

Greenup Gnncy fKy-). 9^ 

^^_^ IqpilioiVi fj; rote 00 vtAveoDOB 

Gdilford am Hmk (N.C). II. 

Gilliflfi Sillnf. ijf, lAh^t). 

Gtftwtr. JimnM., lJ«. 

fUbeu corpuf, ueckr Ordinsnc* td 

Gulurf Ultriil, M. 

1T«7. J»i- 

GitinfO ltri«r,, I491 S4t> 

B«cr> Albert [L, itcnurT of Chkag* 

G»uiiet. AI^S^ iiftn. 

Ifjcorkk] Socior* 5- 

Gear. Ciptflin. inecdoie. Ai, 

Hk^k Jft'nn. ooiMecdon viih /Amij 

Gclicnt Anemblv'i Hr le^itUliarc 

£rt^Xf#nf» ji*. 

Grai'ir;^Mfrrj. (LovtUl^ j3J;W«ifcft 


cmplof"«d OKr J»On. 

HADvilrofi, Aknntlir, iB^q, t»aA. 

Gm/«f ^ CMntj^ Ensmtiptlk^t 14C- 

HMuhon. WVUm &, letter &cm C«H 

Oto«ii# j>o. Jli. Jll, J94^ 

on «^nvr tu^ <M-<«r: omA 

Gerry. Elbri(%e, wit« on •Uvvry duvc 

L«ffty<etee, 119-190; frv JV* ■ppqial. 

RicAt Mjadvcofproiotc. *?; ^faetdk 

Gikwt. 7R' 


GJ1ki|Hc, JoMph, «■, 156^ J»*. a». 

HkMittoA Countr* >^t fntMban m 

^^^1 JOf< jof ; kcter firam CJo, «a bmi- 

lc|y«tm, J3j vuc <M oaarviaon 

^^^1 »n mcQcr*. j03-js»; »br«dkc« of 

fuuhiFioiv if6> 

^^^1 awtban «f lisiiUtura, 97* vi rftwy 

H«npd<n SUMT,C«i«UM4t 1I; 

^^^1 utuatioA ift DUmhi TcrntotTi ^ihSi. 

Hancock CowiT fGb)» tl. 

^^^ joo-301, jcrt, jtt7, jrt, jio. 

<rf Nonhvoe Ordiftuot^ jj^ 

■^ Comnor, mouco, ^brTTj^ »77-*Wi 

Hnki. , UT. 

^^^L noiniiurnev, 11^114: ne of tiilei^ 

HaaBfa. NkbnUs, f,r>. 3'9* .^»: 

^^H ff. j:M«rMEd*»dColc*.5h*indk 

ceawit vith Skiw: nm^ntm 

^^H Stond. De >Kh OincoM, Tlttaw 

^; PSVc counCT dnion. €6-* -. 

^^1 F(v4. J«lw lUrobldL 

HrctiaB CAntfiEfd. 61 ^9, 74, j ; 

^^H Gminar, JoHa, m tl^vtry^ £t-(3i vo<« 

ooMradictwy VMc* 7j[ Aa^atfittA J 

^^H OK convent joo rrmJatioiu U* 

fertMiiaktWinirt, 7c-T^fartqiw ■ 

^B Cmid BcBi, Afteobie, Ml- 

vore td tefbltntc 71; tttrr ff« 

H Gnnc, jinm^ Mneiotc, f«7*^ 

C«^ «■ ■ppjlurMim ai pi9*>^ 

■ (hwdiv, loMpK ■itnwfci nf > 

jadu, 79-^ Icnv ID GJtt, «i 

■ G<ttyn&,WiUi>«.VMr«aCMuum«f 

■Bvaff «t hark, l>-«t{ g^iiMW m 

^^ tTt7,jtl- 

Mmbcf «tf RouK from fikc Cdontr, 

^^K Onm, &■*<»*«. vicnm. JI7. 


^^H Onm Ldm, wid •cfctoi*. 5«. 

tbrir, S—Bol. mrtr «i d^wrr cbn* 

^^H OnmUiuc, J«^ S., d«ti^ >*•, »f9i 

of NorWmi (Miniavt, j^ 


Hiisnv*. mb, fWEMn ^ p^ 



^^^^^^^^^K ^H 

^V Hafpriw, WJ]i■(con^X il>v*rT or^v 

/AVtnj'f fnfjmir (/iFMdJj CfUAirj, in ^^| 

H tMit«n. 135; conventiea Imkr, 13V- 

convenfion oooisi. J14-JI5. H 

H lUjtnK. Jiihfi, v4;iCe Ofi OriltnuiCE of 

l^ivaU Gtutit 14S. ifii if2, J74: CQcv ^^H 

■ I7H.JI1, 

vmcvm nm^ipfr, 137, Stt tlit ^^^H 

^H H«nnMf Jlnd*!) Eirkb«ck viiin, 375; 

//AirtMi £«' jfiVliU' ^^^1 

^P de<r«i;ti fmm Blrfcbctk'i K^demcnti 

//tfavJj/n;r»Airw<r..-U<S& bcccacikaJ- ^^H 

■ 37?- 

ing uilicaiivatWn Twip^pn, iji^ ^^^| 

H H^tfotii (C«riiv)i ^ 

137. J>f -Ji^* J4f JJ^; BUekvell ^^| 

H HutarJ Univci>itt,33.Jii. 

n£iif, 137, 315; buucki br Colrtk ^^^| 

H Hiwk^nt, RfnjjtmJrip v<iie on Or^mvirif 

■37< 35J~3J^' Al« in StUK HitiorrAl ^^^| 

H of 17^1 3*)- 

Libru). 3<iHi Ittttr frov) C«io on ^^H 

H Il*y« Dulel, btfcr fnxn Cola on pw- 

fmlnK(lAvc*,4&i-j6^:onu>ci:^i]tkt. ^^^| 

^1 flnn^nf power, tSj, 

«. J*7-3l'<; Mf«()™(f*t» Jij-Ji*. ^H 

^H HtnncT^ WarrtR <!> jron. 

llbnms Mu^^ian C4aal| Mf ntcnuJ ivi' ^^H 

^H Httijy, Junn, jE t. 

pnivtnKDiih ^^^^1 

^H Henry, Psiriok.tcW'iaJoh'iOit^ft, 19. 

ttliFioB Suce l4»icrtC4l iJbntf, Bt of ^^H 

H /^fftf//, HtudwHl, VM, 3ioo< 

Ui%mu lMt!^itntrff ji^n. ^^^| 

■ Bcir.iT.J. M..^;*. 

IIUboii Siatv MJ^iM. 311; Hantm tn. ^^H 

■ H^hM, CliaurCT U, Viil 

7»> T^> rvrur^S ??^ ^^| 

^H ¥■-_& - 

IIGnou Tfrricorr, oeiJcd Vy ViipftUt ^^H 

H n^i> — — * 7> 

^L HiibvftTi, jirei tystenu open, jd^, 3S4. 

59: riithu fi/dtinni, fO- ^^^| 

^H HefcoQ, Stfniul, vcCc on OrdrnAncc of 

Immtgri't*. praittirvrj, f^SK ^ ^^^| 

V iTiTOB"- 

Imkntvnni^ Mt ti^rtrf* ^^^M 

H Hopkim OtwnJ.t?' 

loifiani, j$Q, ji7, 3^. JO'. 39^! Colo ^^H 

^K Hdw« of R«pfe*cht«iiTt«i m* kRiilA- 

*MU, 36, ^^H 

^H tnre. 

Imiljiru, under Or&UACt cf H^r j'** ^^^| 

^V Hov&nL John, b «uii xilnu Coks. 

tntrrnil imfimvcfiwrit. oraamiwaonrt, ^^^| 

■ &^, 339 

lai; v4Bmrdr<, S*-S7i "T'^-P- -<7- ^^| 

l(nt«, *0t J^ni JDppom Ordinance of ^^H 

^B lurktt of NffthwHl Tuntnrr, J73t 

17»7. J91- ^M 

^H 379: vole on tldivc?7 dftOM of KortV 


^H ttcU Onlinmncc, 3T9. 

j«dE>«n, AaJrv, lof, iga^ appotat* ^^H 

^H Halihard, Aildfphiit F,^ t^i; attrmfits 

Wnt minittrr rr> Mnofo, loj; l^fty- ^^^| 

^H uRirp«(ioi>, 17^-1741 t'ii-tTQ: ort^ 

cVc viiiTi, jf:^;MVMCon^n(ioniiKn ^^^| 

^K di^Ate for RQvemor, 1761 convei^- 

pnlluuliri ifT'MV. Toce ^« in«- ^^| 

^K tiott tavler. tjS; eJocrvd litutcs- 

Jjtckiarr CouPly. 77< 10*0. sW; metn^ ^^^ 

^H K*t 0Dv€mor, fl, 66j prmbwy, fl. 

btn in IqptUtur*, ^3; outljvt ui, 1 

^H Hibbtrdiowa (Vr,>, ^iiCm. 

iQ6n-t9Tai Yocie oa oonventioB r«M>- ^^H 

^H HqJjoc Rivtr, canAl vchmft 56. 

btnoo, ifi ^^^1 

^1 tfafef, Dinid> rott cQi OrdiiMncv of 

J«dE»av]U«, Sin, 990, ^^M 

^1 itSt, 3^1- 

JeffoMn/rSon]u,i9,3S,lTj,349ij6l, ^J 

^^1 Hont. Gmr^, p^. 

377< 3!^$> J9T^ '^ oairnrtiitciv f(v nr^iu ^^^M 

^H tWnrvr, ChjtfW W., itbtor to Kdvudt' 

EXttion ol NonKvt4f Tttfitxjtj, 377- ^^^| 

^B vtUc bsik. sC*. 

j7t> 379; 6rath, t^a. 3T*-fT9; <''>«nd ^^H 

^H Hnnur, Major, jjS, 

of (tenrsv Fkmer. iiSo; ktur frco ^^H 

Ceks od Uiftrjr, ttfc-^ ^^ letier ^^| 

^H DGnont popy1«Ii«(i» ^ 

toCgfe*! on aUtvTt ±4~^i moaMcr ^^^ 


^^^ J«cf«rfloa, Tfiomci (coAf.), lo Fniifv, 

Kiitt«de, Utfhaoe* p^; oa convvfttiaa^^l 

^^^H jfto; Atein f'irt^nU, I46; npoet 

RSdutiMr 71 ^r; Btgu AnHconvta^^H 

^^^B on Scrtkacu Trmiixy, jSiA 

tarn ind, B&: «kcEc^. 91; vece o^^^H 

^V jt^jt4E voM on tlavvrr clum of 

eonwif kn mofution, 5a, ^^^| 

^m KotthvcM 0n£n4nc«, jlo. 

KiKr«r> ^f^un. too^ <tlcWam p^^^H 

^^ Jttknaa County t i64; mcntier* m 

up of oMiTcouoA rcKilotlac^ 'S^^^l 

^^^H ligiilAfOPa, jj; vote CA »n*ceiion 

Mavmtion iJdfgw oMamirtM, isvi 

^^^P rt«alu6o», if5- 

coavcntinn kadcr, tjfli ikcicli. ICcr 

^^^^ Jtntant^ Jciniihan, a^ikfavor leader 

iQi: voce on convtndcin nvot«iiaftt 

H in lAt&uift, jyi^ 


H T^trr SJk*w, ^ 

KoefXf Gvuskv Sla, gv"- 

H Johnon, Williim S^ Jli. 

H Johnun Couiiiy, 9^ rifaibm la Irgit- 

La Btllf^ C^Hm, l4;« ^6: Ujhd d^m. 

H Ucurv, fi, 10,1; voce oo convoii»n 


H rocJutian. t$6. 

H JonBi, Martin, vote on tonmiiiion roo- 

Ls BoMhitr, Leu^ l«^ ^5, 151, i^l 

■ lulJBQ, f J 

L4 BconccTr Lc», tJ7. 

H Joain, Michirt^ vi>fc firi con^wirion 

h* Gain AnccoMi 1^3: b^4 dtloit 

H rHoluiion, 5,1. 

3j^M7' «ninvi, 3ft. 5a- «£«« Lr 

H JunUn. Froiidi. 134, iw. ifOt 3^3; 


H vtenen, 247, 

Li Cblff; M&tlttri, wiriiH*, t^ 134. 

^^^^^^^Uryf J" fi*! br jury- 

^4V j/j« L4 0>^ 

LfCroii Micbivl, i.UiUi. Utii|tl«tzni 

^ Kinc, Fltjw K., igr* M9-34*: "urti' 


^^^^ i*» fur Uniecd Sutci RcfctMnUfive, 

L*J<1, Mitioop voic o» coonviiioA wo- 

^^^B Ji^-MJt Si9-}^i convention Icidcf j 

|ii?H>n <j. 

^^^V 13ft: editor RepuHU^n Advtf^^t. IJ7: 

I^fjijviff Mjir^ndf, Itlo, t94;leti«ff 

■ ervcdoncoC'AJFvilStinftSfiiADr, 15^1 

rrom C<4tt «rt pnpoaed ti>4t «(> nU- 

H Idler frvijTi CjJc*. un l!4hri«tl»viUc 

iHM, itv-itfo; .^EEo to CUc^ ^*^^| 

H fitnlt, ^4-]^;- 

propannl vUlt. iRt-tlg: nMtii^^^H 

■ KHkaBkto, 6b, 5C W, iW, 1J4, jA 

villi Cafa, jKj vttit » IHinob. f*^^^| 

^^ j6a» J77f J<<; Colea visits, A 40; 

191; >i«i ID ICukutii, 190* ^^H 

^^^^ confrirunona1oortt«ndo»,4o;Coacit, 

tafnmhoiv, J«rph, l^M^ S/r j6» 

^^f io«jpras,ij7 144. 


^ K«*n, Julkti, it:; roic wi Onlioonu uf 

L^lcnirnier. Frsjiiv), mat^i^ WiJrn. 1^ 

■ 17I7, JI1. 

IjnH nHirr, CrAn Tf^ktrtr, ^R; iiDpof- 

ia*c< of pwiiicp, 4*( McKce, ckil. 

■ of 17B;, jSl. 

M; smaEE p«r, iB^-i^cx £rf abv 

^B Kcntudcy, d^ion ra F^vifdciriUe 

Edvird Colo, noRitt Ccn. 

H bank, a«5: hnnl umc*, l^f; imnV 

Upancf, Anto3«, S^i* a*Tt »SC^ >5=i 

H I^FAnts lu Iflinvii, ^ 7;% SMt 9^ toi. 

Und diini, ifo-ifi: «iiM«K 1^, 

■ Kickjpwi Crrrk, lyv 


H Kinijn«i> Siiffleien H^, fonncciion «i<b 

L*p.terf. JowpK ^»M», 333, 13J, ijC. 

^B iWriait £ffef/rdn/, lU 


^1 Kins. RuW J^' 

■ ltiak*ifr,A.&, Kn orWitliam Kinlvuk, 

IjtO^, , 3JS> ^^1 


U Rode, Aufwtbe, 7 j« au- ^^| 

^^^■^Ha ^^^^^^^h 



^^^^^^^^^^^^i\r>Ex ^^^^^^^^S^^^B 

^H tjMtynt, Count dft iitn. 

ti(n«n of uiEiconvajicnn >p[MaL fA| H 

^m L«(hun, Rgbert, de^ioi <» dlvaidi" 

crMiu^r <>f picp^'v^iy forces, 7 utvfc^ H 

^H lilU baitk, ^64. 

thXrAt vote newi»*ry (o pui mnven- ^^H 

^H Lfttnil^, G«bfid, lAflJ cIalo), 3^, I31, 

tion rctolution, 6j, 7&. JVir^JV* CCii'- ^^^^| 

H ^l- 

vii^iion nwtmujrir Hjuscn, Shj« ^^^| 

^H La VatsAfur^ f^rnr, <lii ChambrrUmt 

l^irtrt/fftm HTmoii, B\rkhtA\ I41, ^^^H 

H 3^7, 31$, 1J3, ijTi 1+4. M9> ^S3t 

L«:iingMia (K>-0, iiSn. ^^^| 

^B Und cUlm* 113-1^; nitncH. i«it 

Lmcdn, Abr^thtm, Cicon ori, i^A. ^^^H 

■ 1*1, IM. m, I4T. I4», i;<>-ip. 

Lirpl^cWf, Thrimsrt. Jl, 'fj. JM. JM. ^^B 

^H La ViUc da Mullet^ new vUlagv ot 

^s. 1 

^P Pmnt, I'i^. 

LLcdkneM (CgciA.), 33jn. ^^^| 

^B Lfivrtrtcr Coaniji lAA; motibm in Ici!. 

L>rtle Miami, J77. ^^^| 

^H alAture, 5a, ^^, v>w 9tj tQte «p «dD' 

LMkvood,S4uriudD,,««,S^, MJ, IT^, ^^1 

^H vB»i]un [ttuluiiun, if&. 

514, 3' <» *' vi CuIq* UiTTKF, 107, ^. 1 

^H |jwrrn<rvi1lr, Ktnksdr 9t» 9^. 

?i4n^3(^4-}EiiiuTtuprrnirmtirt, 10: 1 

^H Livi, diflcti, 37j'-3Tfr, ito, Stt shp 

rHigiu '1 H<Tf rojy of turf, JJf . 1 

^M IcgulMUn. 

Lofton, John G,» IciDcr from Colet, on H 

^M L<fc«non, ^- 

hoffiliiT oTlrj^Unirf. 115-116. H 

^H L« ElonAicr, itt Ld Bomhccr. 

Lc^OrG, R.,eonmdiciDry vo<VvSk«w H 

^1 Lc CUuc, AntoiiJc, £49; ttimcut 144- 

dtciioa, 77i vt«c t»a lonvmtion rai«- ^^^B 

^m A/r A/fo 1 J Cliiir, 

lotion. 53k ^^H 

^1 L« CUirc. Michad, Uiid dum, o^T-^t 

Lof«n Counrr (lhT*J» 9** ^^^| 

^1 witDCtf, l,|V~l4l9t l4f. JW «J^« Ll 

LuniHu, CJiuludc. witncui SI?. ^^^^| 

■ ai^. 

]jn Anuelq CC^ll^-). i^n. ^^^| 

^1 I4 Oou^, CflAHo, ajt, IJf, 149< 

l-D4n Will, Colc« pr«vcnttJ to, 3$, ^^H 

^B Lcc, Ricfiaid Itg jSi; tqw on Ordi< 

LoiiUluija, jj.i. 38*^ J96i FidJ itloiiLcT- ^^^ 

^B nanoe of 17S7. j83. 

govnl, idj: FiHd mrrilwF of Cofi- U 

^H Lcfrunbralae, JoM^hk ijji /M j/ft 

gioa frctfn, loj, ^^^H 

^H L!<rr4RiUii>?. 

Loiiovillct Colta voilVi iJ- ^^^H 

^^1 Lfptlifurr, frlrhrnfpi pat^t^r nf ovu 

\jiwrrjt WiJliaiTi) 9>: tifri* jtntimn* ^M 

^H TcnUonrcHiuti^iiiVjjeoiivrnH iSMt 

veniioci api>«Ii 8t, ikcich^ *!-^i ^^H 

^H (4^ cdrii KBitMii iS>-iS(tinu9aacti>, 

%vce on oonventicc ictoliiikpnt ^j. ^^^| 

^H 16A-1U; h«itL]tr n^ Cotecv iij-tit(j 

Ijiwty, Wllliftm, tff William Uiwerf. ^^^| 

^H ^flsf Tote prcpoKd, 71; 

London^ iCngUnd)^ Cola viiitt. 3I. ■ 

^B bwi: Act ■nitiiiluiie net of Mnch, 

Lundr> Ekojunia, G^niiu (/ Umtrrtsi H 

^H iVtf), 31 1, It 3; bond k^ «v?ry wtro- 

£vMiin/drr^>*, 146^ H 

^1 freed in^ii auk* i£j, 304-30&; 

Liub>\ Thom«u. 353: ItAd clum, 135- H 

^37- ■ 

Litik,.VJ^bebtcoCok«,3<o,30i,joa, H 

J=>J. y>J' J=*. J»7- ■ 

^H^^ id ckcccrv, lS;-i£6j reUAilng j^f^'l' 

^^^^f be hiring iliw ffom othrr «rai«t, 

Luk,J.T.,i:lchctdCoIci, ^jt3«o>J«>> ■ 

^^^^1 3tt- ^ pnshibit iflclenturing, ^91; 

.T^ 3^J. J^. JC'f J ?^ J07* ^^H 

^^^^B &t «' mcmlcn, {-"ij; mcanicc 

Lyon, Miith«v, ^ ^^^H 

^^^^H CDnvrning, 966*i67j prmlivtry foicci 

LroD, Ptireli*, Wvof Ca4ir«l^94- ^^^| 

^^^H Mftaniif, 70k ?>■ ffvdtrvry in 1833, 


^^^^B Si: ncioniUciTt Huuen's dcoioa. 7&i 

A4«ak>n«k|, D., itAn- ^^^| 

^^ 428 llUSOtS aiSTORlOAL COtLBCTlOSB ^ 

^M \frF>rriilfr, WitlijRi, Afiiiiiirjcirnl rocr 

M«>&rt, HTpolicf-, iBfifl (Iiin, ^f>U7. 

^^^ ftfrtgnbtorvj 7I; chtngv v»4«. 7Jt 

wito«», i»^ ija, 431 a^*, 141, u*- 

^^^H J19; ijosiiica Ruintftum]. 7c; «kciil^ 

145, aw- U7. uK ajo--an- 

^^^V 7jii; Tore oA ciyiVT*tian Rx^httioJ, 

H ^ 

Mt^Mker*. 1070, 

Mvr»kctji Rivtr >o6k. 

^H ShiwvWtion,^; votv on oivtvMitioM 

Mvinc 5^7 

^V PcwilHlft^n, sj> 

Mmm Coufiiy, Mi aanhtn m thr 

^^ McGahEy, DaviJ, v^; iipa Aiitkua- 

li«uUii^'(^ 5J; v^c oB tonrCTUaa 

^^^K vtniW fppral. iiC; sketch, 9I; role 

rcacJaUOn, tf^L 

^^^P OA (onT«nt-^n rrtolutiscH 5^ 

Mutin, ^. 30CV 3W, 305, )0«t 

^ MtGihcy. Juneit mi uf DiviilMc' 


^1 Gilicy, 91. 

MikfThancl 3«M,3H^'- 

^1 McHcftr^. Jxnits^ vote on it^rery 

Miion. ;**«, 157. je*» joji Jil 

H d^iAc tjl' Nixilwdt OnLuPcc jl^ 

Mbuchu»rtt>, ^^ JJ9* jK 1 ► J<», Jt^ 

^1 Mctnro«ht John, tttfc on ^onvtntion 

hUrhn* TbsisMj r^, i>lc d« wu^ 

H fx»Lut>7«, $3. 

HoA t«aticii lU'i^n, 7*^ ^'r* 

H M<Kce, WjUuin. letter to Cole^ m 

tJOnvcatioo Jippeal, lA- tt 

H P^k« Coun'r «lMtk)n, 66. 

»oit on coarttrbaA Tmohincjn, jj 

H McK-iiikk, i^utocd, t^ 

McurJf Hrpol^tc. i^ii oleccol ftp 

^1 McLeu, lo'n, ondiiljtvAarCnirnB- 

Houtc. 9J- 

^J^^ Sto-J^'- 345; corwvndon oddlVM 

Mmrd, , IndUn igeni. sfloi 

^^^K co«3«ittcei tor; coawaDon IcMkr, 

Mcriud Coflftry, <>6, 

^^^1 1 3V; ckctnl la Uni«nl SUK* ScnaCc, 

Mcrocr, Jimo. viilr » tUvcry cUuv of 

^^^H i;r, tS^; UniiH SrJiiva rvfvnvntft- 

XorchiK«( Orxiiii V*, Jto- 

^^V tnv, 340. 

Moni/icrr, John, imAMcr«itt to lUJno<j« 

^V McRcbrr;!, Sciniutl. conneciHirL ni^h 

D4; pmidefti uviilAverT *adrTT, ; ^4- 

^^^^ the fffpuMti-sn, IJ7; <anv(.i[un Iwd- 

McillJ, JkTqws, ^1^ LAihJ citim, ^^ 

^^^M a, 1 Jf^ u cnrnsopAUoa luie ■C4£nit 

ajl Ijj; inlxag^ 1^3^ ^J7. £««, W^ 

^^H Cold. i£^ >66. 21 J. j6j. yi4; In iiUt 

ni> 249^ iS^ >S>i 'S^. ^»J^ ^^1 

^^^P <uit aentnii Ccitt, 17;, 179, ift3-iBr. 

McrcD, tdvjrdc tvaiier to, 177, ^^^| 

^^"^ M*dJBi% Juncv, 19, 19, 39, J9, «3, >»» 

MuBu River» 3^1. ^^^| 

^B^^ ^fu JT>- ,W4. J9*» J*:; *woi"t* 

Mkliifiii, wpfntu Qrdiiuacv n( iTl^^^l 

^^^K Cold pfiVAte lecnurp, ^; ktfcr To 


^^^P Colci^ on Runin niMconi 39; «cnJ» 

MifiD» tlcoM, n)lc oa Btivtfj dm^^^^f 

^ Cdti ojt Rufrinn miamofJ^ J7. 

uT NordnPtK Onlkunce, 379- ^^H 

H Ma^JtcHif BUKof^prctidvil Allium and 

Miliiu, iM niu» 9ufc Mibtia. ^^1 

H NU^ CoUc^, 18, XJ^ 

Mlllcf, Aleunckr, vi^ ^H 

^^^ UadiKM Couniy. 7a. 7*> 77. Wi «* 97. 

Miller, Joha S.. ciHt tttrlrr^ it Vil^i^^H 

^^H lor\ ^66, ft>S, joo, joi, J04, 337, 

political EftwrinB^ (F^o, ^^ ^^^| 

^^^H 39^ menlKr* of legitlanuc* fS. f3- 

MiacfdJ PoicH (Wu.;, 1I9C . ^^| 

^^^H CETannpition uii ifairur Cale», 14^ 

MiuioippiiSin. ^^M 

^^H ifo, M9, ifr^ir^ 3^, ^^3^4. 

Misiiuppi Rivef J*, fin, >5, ^, To7«,^^B 

^^^H docujrcnU« I&5-32J; voIe on conircn- 

jSj' Jftj» J^i "n»l Khcme, ji 1 

^^^^ tkin rcwlmiuiir 156' 

MUaoon, 3^7. J^^; C0I9 oun, J^^H 

^^ MAil/et, )fhn Sapriil*, :i5> )j:), 2«Oi 

d«btoi» ro l^<ivlKkvtUe b«nk« >S^^^| 

^^^L t4ii land ddnit ii5< 

ei^Ct of iRunKr«lion Co on Ubn^^^H 

^^^^^^^^^^^^ ^^^ 429 1 

^g^ Mi»ouri tcomi.), lop. jSfl: lindpfwei 

Nflpoiloon, g7i 9*< ^^1 

^M in, 14;; vonpi m SluvHifiKn *\t^ 

NMhPill^ rr<rin.), 99". }i^ ^^H 

H Mr, 75. 

P/4Ji*^u! Cfifi/ CCmciqniti, Ohio), Wb^ V 

H Mbutiri ComproAiUc. 193- J33i |4^ 

rrn emplovctd on, 3101!' 1 

■ 5ii-3>9<J9A' 

Nff<al*^L.S.,99n. ■ 

^1 .IfiiAMiW GUwnr. ChurchftT rmploycd 

Ntfrots, 10 be denied )ulfra|e, 1 p; to ^^fl 

^1 «Ai3i6n; Wkmn cinploTcU on. jion. 

be ndoded. ijT- ^m Wi« Ccja. ^^| 

^1 MiKhel), Nirhthiel, von on OMiainre 

sUvvry. '^^^H 

■ »l*vcr^ K^iitr, 3J4- 

Ne* AlUnr (Ohw), jjo, JJJ, J49- ^^M 

Ntw Hftrmony (Ind,)^ uSn. ^^^^H 

New Jtfiwy, J7% j!i, jSit iti. ^^M 

■ Mc»rDcJiRu>,i9, Sl,ji,3S,J7T,jtl, 

K«v Orlcink (I^), cand id^mc, 56: 1 

H J961 yu'. nf^tiu Cdc» rapMnr «f 

Colt* <rurCt, j6t ri*M Ij^, IM, )Oji 1 

^M l(Lh<l oriicy, 4f(: 

Uf«yGttic in, iM. 1 

H ]ettti ttnayr\BAofVaattd$tMtt it 

N** Yoft. 9J, 100, iB9'»* J9*»379. Jll- 1 

^1 St. PctcriLuEiu .tq; Ediriintt, uitn> 

3>^. ^4: ciail »{b(me, 56; Hn»u ^^fl 

H ducmg CcWt, 4O4I- 

>iuo, lo^ ^^^ 

H Mnnroc Cfflintyi Ay, 130, 3^; mcml^cn 

Nc«>pipnii on coRvcncion. 131, 13^ ^^1 

^M in l«fulatur«, ;ji vor* on ronvtntion 

137, 144, 167. 3<4-3'fil 0/ fOi( 01 ■ 

^M r«iolutiori, tjG. 

conirendon. t,ia. ^^fl 

H MonCffOfTurrr, Jovfih. vote on tUi-erT 

Norfdlt(VVhjfta ^H 

H clwjae of NMthwcm Ordinancs, J79. 

Norfh CMolm«, Jlo jUl, Jtl; muki- ^^| 

H MoncgarnsrT, CjirtiJn, tiS, 

KTitnEf to tlliaoiir 6cl J 

H Monrflrirnjrry Counry, 166: mnnbcn of 

Nortlivot TrrhtorTp appropriitkmt hr ^^H 

^1 rhc Ifflultdirv, ^: voiv on ^onvcntioD 

cioopt, ^77, J9IJ dft^i 10, J77, jti- S 

^^ rculuijon, 15$. 

ifiiikrcoca of Kciiono, J»i-JWi 

^H Monrpldikrr^ FmnCifl. 1|7. 

ftunlng of flrdbincc uaS CorM-Ai>- 

^H Moort|Chjul«,tfith*r«f Kiidon M»or«, 

tion nmultanHut, 394-J9K fonns' 

■ »7. 

tion of BUKs, .194> lOiprr^lk* «/ 

H Moore, Junet B., cuiduUrc fat gorcf- 

record*. 3T9i intcvra] part of United 

H nor, jli 31I, 34;, 346^ ratjot gcac««l 

Sum*, jVsi JcffcfMo'i lepon, 37I- 

^1 of t^AiG mi^lU, J|. 

jT9k JlV^ 3Bj-j'4i OrdiojuKc oJ IT»7 

^1 Moore, ftJKton, 99; iiipiR intkonirtfiHon 

pMrd, jll-jto; H<<* of BCFVtrnmcnt ^m 

H 'P?*^ ^; •kflt';h, 87-V9J voi« on 

Mkpt«d| j90| provifion fct- tnnth ^^^ 

^1 conrfiitun fcaolution^ ^j» 4). 

■Dd Consdiaft inhatiu^Ok jtt; Pfo- ^^ 

^P Mi»rt, Morton, ind Coniptnr* 194,300, 

*i<la(ui/Ovdhiatt, 399-314; timrr 1 

■ y^^ 3^^ i^ 

^< 57' $9 6t-4>> ^flAi ittraf pttAA^ 1 

^^^^ MorcAH, General, 97, 

Kccd. 37B-3T9- JT9-J^S jfc-i^li 1 

^^^^blarsfti CoiJ9)tTi9f 1 ^64; finr phr^mnn. 

3«J-3fl«.3«J-J9»- 1 

^^^B fk4; memb«rt of k^ilarurv, ;i; votv 

^crMM^JVnv CU«0Hr (G*lttbur|) ^l^ ^J 

^^^HF on cimvtnt~Lon rtvoluiKOt i{6. 

NoTtllc (Lovd), PnncU, 2^ ^H 


^^^HlAortOn %n4 Company, Moofi, /rr 

Ol-'illtn. John, f^; CcAn affnt, 49V. ^^| 

^^^^ Moore, Morion* «Ai Cornp«nr. 

Ofile. l^cob, 99. >iciu innconvtoiion ^^| 

^H Muikmgum Ritrr, 391. 

flppnl, 46; tkeich, B9: vore on tern- ^^^t 

^^^■J^OvH TVarr, I41 qiio«Ml» Ml-llX 

ventton rttclution, 53. ^^^| 



i^K J«. J»< JH! CdU. «Uk>, jft« 

■UMV itf i7t7* J»3t iM4 ri ^iPT, 

Ohv Riw, 4J, ♦», 3»>- rtl. J»5. 3l>^ 
j$T, dim fnn >lnn en )a u r w y 

OrdlAAftcc of 1717, wf Monhwu T«r*i- 

CteaoB, 197. 
Outliifi, in Jtikman countjr, lOl&i^ioTn 

or Norriwnr Ordicuivie, jTfi, 

P4f I*, 5^. 9Sn, 

Pukci Beniiuiiii, jt? 
Parbr, l>intel, ^; iifni intlfanven- 
tion ippcJ, Ui't ikcicht 9fi rare on 

Pirricv, Ji» poliiiol, ^ S/4 riCftf coo- 

rcntlnA looluiion. 
l*u-rriiltf, Uvarvc. vo«e on lAtvtrj 

dauM of NorihwMl OnJUjrioc, 379, 

httewkaJ mHtinr*. Jij-Ji*. JS7"J*>< 
3^1 «kaGclk, jjjr, JJT-,U*I 

Itncr ffWl Cok«. wi Warrcn'A hat- 

lc«ttr ic: Wtnen, oa Colo. jU- 

«a UuMM Kiitcry, JU-J*»; 

on I^Dnfi, Browa'i at^ %UfM^t 

Fti^ Glbcn T^ i«d, t4^ U', *s* 

V^oceiHB^ Iaei^ bad ckiv. lu. ni ■ 

hoMjIvMJa, >*• ,M- 4J. ' J^ ifiL 
Jll; b Wm t^ tli3, jo; artttodr< 

hem, ^s dcMTor^ br C«p[^ Cf«S§, 
114; lad cbimi, "a-i4J, 15J-S55- 

^IfWTd Affdhtfira, Pitr x tt from Forf< 

PffR^ThonuiMcK^oo V«ns» iijx. 
PAiliJdiihEdi,uj, IB^ 17*, i^t, J92. 1^, 

laf; CdIci bufio) ■!, «&t; C;^ 

raalutbn, f 3- 
PhiMip*, JotSpb, c» Jiiatff for povr '-% -■ , 

5^ J8. **, Ji», J4;i J4^ j*j-i^a; 
cvlebrmici pmigc of con^endon it*o- 
luiion, S3; <liief fM«ioe of lEiat^ 50> 
311 jlliOeeTCPMalndcr, l^l^tHV' 
tl«vcrv, 5^x 
FkftCt Willi«m, «c«c on Orduuffcc U 

tn ie^iiuR, $x '^; ^lu« «o«ar« 
coBiminiMicri 6ji Stunt tcavB* bf; 
vote ct 0invtrtiun raokisn, 15^ 
PtlMt*. Anplicj, vifr fJ l-ftuai, ^y^ 
rUctte, Lo<iB. Und d«ini. u6, tjo-^ii 


PinkMT, WilfiM», aMrtcr co Rm^^ 

f^, Xithubd, 10% T^, jA Jfa.. 

H th'DSX 481 ^J 

^F Pbpe County, 77^ srtf^i cnmben hi 

tUgmhtkan J/dpatJtff ronvntion ■ewi- ^^^B 

H legiil&iurci $^t vote on coamitxsi 

f^Aprr^ IJ7; Kine, BeyoMt^ Bond 1 

^M roulutiuii, 1(6. 

munrf^cn, IJ7' ^^H 

^M Paii< Vimin, Vinficnnr*, fila. 

K4[^t»'UEiant ip7-t$t. ^^^| 

H Prickct<i hjuc, Icctfr from Col«i| on 

lUvoianoavr Wv^ 87, 9^ irtAtr *i<h 

H ^luinewt ^3. i^^ ^1-39f > 39S-^7, 

Efiglu(L6i. ^ 

■ ^pt-3«\ ,**>-^- y-ju :i^-rr. 

Reyhditi, John, jtT, jjj; an Rtficbefk. 

■ J07"j=fi, je^Jio, »iiit fi«4ia»f. joj 

i+on^ on Culwvll, 94^ cu4kIjiic K 

B J^ 

UnitnJ Si'Cca Srnjitc. Ji8; oonrcn- 

■ PrvHMWj, j7, J*. 

tion IcMler, Ij8; on oonvmcion 

H PhiUk UihK itlini m-»i, iItc rv- 

Mtvt^ iii-ii£l 00 Hudcn't 4U- 

H Itnqukh/ncnt bv dcbtcn* I5ir^6r. 

mino], S4; on Hafdcn't dccdon ic 

H Pnhlif (ipinion, nt Vindilia. f^j; on coo- 

Icgjdilvre, &!^; hiiborical wri:Jng«, 

■ rtniion, i_}t, 1^5. J35» ««, i**-!*?. 

Pbcl on, 335-31*; ri**! of Kliinty, 

H 14,8, 167; on iLiTicry. i^J-iMi J^V- 

lOK in Buii awainsi Cds. ij^^ i6j, 

H pLJgJ^> Johnfithu H., Toi« on TO>TT«n. 

'**. 3*3» 364- 

H ticin n»ldl»n, 53, B6, 1 J j; llul<h, 94. 

R«ynold«b ThomUt cclcbnia p>M^ 

H hrvbuicr antl Svfb0}d, ^- 

of oonvtndun tdoluiio?. >j; thlti 

)ntt\n, 331-311; ciefTnffi:t«d with 

H Rjttvd, Bip^ittct ]jO| tja; luid cldm. 

f^ptt^ik*n JJM0r<, lyji convtnfion 

H 344. ?(> 

4ddrcu oommiticc. it;. ^^ 

^H RjiCiM, frSMii, Sea-, UnJ dstinij I40- 

Rhuk 1iI*aJ. 379. 3B1- ^^H 

H 34i;*'»e«>> ^^ ^7i a»l* 

RicMdnd Counry, 9^ ^^^^ 

H Racine Fnndi* Jr., jjg^ U0> u^JiriJ 

HiEhmgml CVi.), BirtbctL vuiu, j6v^ J 

H cltlin. u^: vicrtHi, l^^f^, 3j7t I4I, ij}. 

R^impnJ K^fmiffr, jj^ ^5 1 . ^^^ 

H RftrxLUrJii Juhu, M:-^in«r mtroJaciioi) 4^ 

Robert)* Levi* 00 SSaw dcctkin, 76b ^^H 

^H ntarcfT t*^^ Ncirthwtil Tcrritorf, 

RobcrUf Silfy 1... ntunet Cdc%, i^j. ^^B 

■ 2^^ 

Rotii^aon, llcnii*ti, CvEn iginr, j::^, I 

V R&idoTpli C<fui^ir, 7^, 77. 9*f* 7^ »i. 9,1, 

Robinion, Jumct, &t. 1 

H 76S: membcn in lerfislEittiit, 5i. S3i 

Robinwi^, John M-, coavtntbn k»def, ^^B 

^1 vofton convffiEiofl Htu^ution. ty6. 


^H Aftppi, GcOrc^* rAjndtr ^f HjirmDrif, 

RockCr«h.«6. ^^M 

H J73.J75- 

RiicklHh. Coin plumjiTiQa, 4^ 1 

^H Rano^ Thomav, on joint nscrluiMn of 

Rock Spring, Peek vfCtlM dl, Jljn; ^^J 

^1 lcv*l«nireiTi^,t:*«tcoBC04ivcniioEi 

seminary dncnrcdt iU- ^^| 

■ rtuluron, fj,jt9. 

Rodney* Dinid, j*». ^* 

^B Uetd, tJeor^t, vole oa tlircry diise of 

Roi. Antomc, i^l^ Uad <bini, 139^4P», 

^^^H Notchwtst OdinATcci J79^-33^ 

Ren, ^uKHii lind cUlm, tjt 139; vie- 

^^^H lt«SBtr«roflind office. J// Ccl<fsThoav 

ntts. 1J3, ijj, ij*, i#!X 141. 3«, Mf . 

^^^1 abCoh. 

149, a^^ifi. 

^^^H R«1it>ou« fftcJum, under Onlin«ncc cf 

Rdfoc, AuKuiiioc, Iftad dtiea, «i4 )19- 


Kou. <1 M^ niunlnjiiion u r«onkt of 

^^H lUnlKs jfuf, VVn. 

Kdlton Countf, Ii5-]i6i. 

^^^B Rnii|tteatiii<rc» sa Icsitlilvrc- 

RcM, V>lE[]«mi 79. ^^H 

^^^B T&r /UptMii^'t. conrrnrkD) otinpipet. 

Riutii, Cofci miEicn n^ 37^* ^^B 

^^^V lj7; Saxith, Wc«t, McRokcru, nuiv 

Ruttitrford. John, Utter from Co^, on 1 

^^1 «>e<tJ7' 

•UnrTt ifi^iB;!- ^^J 



Si, Chvio (Mo >, 3^9, 

Se C1«ir County, ^ 9^, 9i^ ^, tCO^ 
111, itoj ijl, 166, 3n. jaij Bnti- 
4iTvr •pdctT* i3>. 3JJ-J34i «"*«<*■ 
hvn VI IfgiiUrwe, jj, i8| 5^. 9j: 

TO«C «« COAVCftttOA KMluCmBi 1 5^. 

$1. Cji, llrACinitic. viuctf, itrr, >i8. 

St. Dmnu, Aneoiit, viincta, 13I, ip. 

54. Fnuid*, Anioiike, i>6, U7 

St. John, ^. «j. 

St- La«fCAM Rmr, 3IJ, 

St. U^ 5^, ^, i&j, 135, as*. Ji«- 
Jjl. Jja. WWi 355- JTi; Cc*<* mil», 
3<^i ^, U^: l-ifir«ite nnct, (£91: 
UHfi icni ic^ i;9, jA£. 

Si. Leult En^uim, Aiin^ki Peck, Jj7. 

St- MbHv, «j>t- 

St. Pttcrtburg :Rimiji\ T7j J3. 

Sl Vioctnci, set Vincetinw. 

$«le4tf bAdty ijj, Vfl, »i*m. 

lithfd, J ICO. 

fif IqptlAEure, $1, $j. 'Hn: v«ce go 

Cdnvcntjon rttaluiion, 1J&. 
Sftvuinili CC>«.)v CcJu Ti«jl>k Jl^ 
Sdicarmin tSchurrniiii), JjiinrB, rote 

on OrdiftHAc^ <>f 17*7. 3*x 
Sthocdtyi Modr>ULn (N. J.), Cotci 

Scv^o Ri*fT, 377, 


Sntimii (AllMnr. N- Y.). ChuKhiirt 
connection «nth,jl6n. 

?4h>*, John, ^ 3tp, J3I; aiidjvic el 
tltctidn^ 76^ 

conical aich IUak«l comF^^Vn, 
64: Pifct ccunty elcftWiri, 6^-67, 7j; 
eeMctti dt^cion, 6U-^ 3aO( muAi 
10 E% Counrfp 69; 

SJu«. Je^ 'anr.>, In Wat ptAU 

of fife. «5; 

ir«tt«« «onvmt)on ipWiiikw, 53- 
4(^p<OB, 1J7, iu. 314- 

SWrm^ RoyBTt votv OB titTErr cLw 

0/ Ncrih*t« OrJjnuiCT, 379, 
Shiplrr*. cat ornccivini;^ il^- 
Slmnkd' Colk«a. >Vck'a Satcm i^ 

S«M. JKAtt, {^; fign* *nekiottv>ntkA 

«ff«alt G&i ikctdh, y^^ tdCv on con- 

TtniMfn fnolmiooi 53- 

Edwud Cola Jr., f; ££hu R W«fc. 
bufix Appcnnted t» wrkr^ J, ij; 
prcfVMd. ii valuaUc nutrnat 4B>i 
SlavoTf iniislivtrr waetiv, fi, jj^ 
334! Bsrkb«dc oo, I4I. 1*1. >»J br 
•hdeorunoCi 61, 390; Colfi OA, X]-l4« 
l|-*6, 11^ 133, l3E-it4« 770-171, 
Sli-tKl, 3^91 dct«rmia«tMa to iptr*- 
Aottt 5I; cfl^i or bnd prka, i«3, 
US-j^ti: ciUtrnic In »»rc- 57, 1^ 
Oi-«]; laMfWbcc «vtiide itiM, 333, 
iJ9 J44. Ji*; lie<r*tx« «f 146^ m 
Ncrihwcil Tfniiotr- 3^^JJ9* J7V- 

public •praioA oHg 193- IM( ^uaiM«, 
in rlcetlun of iftit, fo, (T, (t, 5^ 
Sm </j« BlKk Gait, Cotei, 
lion, contcituiifrj^ Jeflcneoh 
Stoo, Thomaa C-, candid«et lor 
HOI, [7$. 

5(«OtThoinw Jr., io»; 

fetwf /fon: Ce^ xppobitmenc « 

«ld-^CJUQp, 163-9^4^ a« Ei:^ oftcv, 

po'iricat iitiMticiit, 1^9-191; 

vorc go convttuDn rtndtaikni 

Sfn'icH, D, B-, 166- 
Siurht [. J^ i6(. 

SmU^ MdtXQOA, 3I1; vo«< on Odi- 
nonce of i?^?, 301. 



Smith, Thfophilui W , II lUAt Wjmn. S««iin«en, 

ivVeiutLcn. Sj: <Ofiftettioli wi* *he 

MffMf^, "3^. 34*. J*3l ""• 
rftoiion «iMrcw cofiunktcc, ro?: 
^pcpon on t^nivr's mcii mr; . jij; 

MprcmB coon, if^, ^; 
^tjcctb, lOo; iron on toftT<BD*n to*- 
lutkin, S" 

Sru^kr. Willum tU99«<- 
Se*Jnri. ToortBf, «iinc4S. saf . llA 
Soulicn, ToiAUit, wtn<«, 1J4, AJJ- 
Soutli CaroluM. 9^, 3lc% jSti J<^ J94- 
St^BitfkT, D„ vote oil *l*if«r» di«M of 

TA* Spttsaar, tft EJtaivdlvUlt Sprft*- 

StifT, Htwy, Cda h«>«f. "^ W7» 

S«w A«ri(iJiarit Sodciy. y^ A^ieol- 

5i«ic Bwk of Illittoi*, vTtM of Fcni"» 

prtf iftff»t, 5J. 
Sijcc Hoiix, d«t»T^. IW- I5«V M^ 

169: ixbuJl, 17*. 
Suit *lfcTnnLl Ji*mc» ^i-lfifi* 
Suet UbrtTT upproprifltwn, »J<V. 

Sttphcnun* B«n>iniin< ^»- 
Swvtnvon, Andp*", 1««« fr«n Crtlw, 

on HubbarcE* 177' 
SullmiLii> Rrnjunin, fsilifr of Stephen 

S?»](nv). U4i-b, fcnstKtf ol Sttpbea 

Sdilm4n> Swphoi, 3T5; "gfti anri* 
roavenEJon *ppe'li 8^ AtKht 9^- 

StOK, "niom**. vo« on tl*wry flimc 

of NorthnrtH OrjinnHUe, ,1*0- 
SuprfdiB Coon, opmicm la not d" 

E-iwiM Cclo, ai3-^>i, a*J- 3^i 

SmJth vKmbctt 100. 


Symnics. » J9<* 

TamoiMnr Hall, loo. 

TaMs, of aonraidtaM in NorCbveif 
Tmiiwy, J»ii **fc of Und fee, 174, 
aEf-}i6, 5ff a/j» ^MtL lands. 

T«nMwec, mmiFinu w IDiooi*, *^ 

Tbooiv. Jeifc B., jai, 31*, 3#o* «•; 

&U«a Stn*«. t>K :^^2^9 
Thomu, William. 99D, 341; «n Huatn. 

Txtiena^, M">< Jo»ephc» SJ?- =**- 
Tillu, Colt* fll>jc«» to imtoCTiUc. jf- 
Tdbnm, Danirl, debiof re EJurardtville 
Unk, ifi*-**!- 

prn>>^> ^r Birkbccfc, I4T1 I4"* 
Iji; by G. *fid C. Cwrnlk, r:9-lloi 

in mi«j4e1phi% icottlr. US. IJ^ 
Km toSt, Lci»i», n6- 
Tri*t b* jury, vindef Ordinanee of 17*7* 

Treer. ChwUWt l*nd dii^ *5^ 

Tfomr, Jamou to*« on ian*cii:ipn 

nMludon* (3- 
Tttney. J*mei. fla. iocs *ffdiivit for 

Shftv, 76; Bk«c«h, 101 : in luk i«dUit 

Cdtt. i514^ >6^ »7i '^^^ **" ™"*^ 
tioo nsoluilon, $3- 
Tjicr.Joho, i».J0*»3eT. 

tiin Cotk^> HioKo S'«^|»*^ 7» 

L'siOft Cfluniy, 7^. 75. J^^" '*^'» '^ 
a6£i membvn la Itg tttiTiirr. JJi *0M 
cp conttnuon tnolucnn, 156, 

UwtvJ S«»i. f«»ir "HI C«Und, 61. 

Uppcf AlMK, 313a- 

UniiKttt, 1 K^ 

UtuU, J«Rlin, 3^t JC^ 

1 i.U ILUX0I8 niBTORICAL C0LLBCTl0y6 ^| 

H Vand*lti,54,«T,Jt^itf>^ic7. i«i, uj: 

Wvirr DmMr (N.T^ fc. ^| 

^^^^ ed<l»«tiMLar,Gjirm«,)44,jf5,j;l, 

W^, R., >(;. ^H 

^^^H t$9i piwUtcit >n»cciiii, ijj; fidUic 

Wuhbofnc, EJJ^ B., Mtn;li ^^^^^^H 

^^^H opinion, Aj, t;^ 

t^l Skruh t/ F^mted C^i, i,^. ^^^M 

^ VauT, ftobem, intrdciuffd to Coltfcj 

WuhinB'^A, Gtorgc, 395, 3971 wA^^H 


Barkbcck to Dunjse ^tMtc, J67. ^^H 

^B l«tir^ fnnmi Colftt 7: <>n rrtnirffi. 

WuhingfOA (IXC.), Coki rkin, iv|^^| 

^1 lioA) IJJ-^U«L ^'^ Hiibthint** Mttcm^ 


^H icJ ii>uipiiiiij^\ libct luiti J';&'i7vi on 

VTuMiiClon GMntTt 1^ 166; munbo^^^B 

^H tuil afpuniil CuTct, ifti^i?!^ 

of ^^Curr, ;^ fj^ 9C^ lof i vole «*V^f 

^B Uiicr loi Colw, 7i on «niici>nv«n* 

OOKTontTon ittoluticiH Ij4. 

^1 fiooi tdctcWk I74-ITJ< «r< ccnrcntioni 

W4tcrloc^ «$[>. 

^M 117-139: oiV^nna servient, ii;-i**: 

W^tkin*, , onipeki Wonot 

^M on poHiUc meeting, 173^17+: on 


^H mcUi ta^i^; 

Watdo, Jodtc. j;j; a|)9*<i>«ti Ctla 

^M Atfclif lapiftribuft toCoUt, 171- 

Insugnrelj X^. 

H 37^ 

WftTBt Cotiarr> 77i "V^i sMfobct* in 

^M VtrttBha (ViX ^. 

k^Ulufc, f^ ^J, f>l; TOfc on coa. 

H l^Mienna, 'Ind.). ^la, 377, JI9. 

rcniion maluiion, :$«», 

■ Vksinin, v^ ti^ j«j, 36S, 360, j3i. 

Wcbh, John, qh Hx-ifcr, ^ 

^^^^ J^>t S9ii cliim to Nonhwcsi Tern- 

WcK, HmAnvd }.» ico; cwinuSctorr 

^^^1 *m7> 377> J* ■ '- C^o^ Euva «»k, 40; 

T«<f, Shaw dKcion, 771 connt^tion 

^^^H Coia T»ib, 130, 131, iv^, 191, J4f> 

with tkt Rrffi/k^tt 137; oonvccfioa 

^^^B 34a; lllboli terriurf nf, jo, £j; 

Midivn (oniniitm« 107; conrrrnor. 

^^^" vliTtTT poiiey, tBt-ll^ 

kodar, ijl: tt*d«r pF procfanry 
Affcieftt 73i ikctcb, »oi-(oii m nnl 

^B Wwkaonht Jcrcmi«h, n>r« en ^Uvcrr 

igiimt Colex, M9, ^^B 

H dautc of Northwdt Urdknitncc, JT9- 

WiMirM DfAnk, iff frrr Vrtl. ^^| 

^B Wklkcr, Cipuin H., ^ 

WcthcnAcil fCoonO, 9>*> ^H 

■ W.lpok (N. H.), jicn. 

Wb«^ 94* losi P^<i*ca1 meeting, i<4ia^^| 

^1 Wanbofouih, hamt of Morfii Birtb«(kt 

t>4-65< ^M 

H S^it^ 

Wkiiby, , Hi. ^H 

^m WAnboTOLigh fRnnltad^i Dlribeck'* 

Vrhit?, Ixonsi^ cinilUan far UtdM^^^f 

^1 Mrthplicc, 140. 

Siat«i 5«nBio, 31? j VOH fi <yvnVH«^^^H 

^1 W«r of iSj3, Biddic t>a, 39-3:. 

lion toolot^oo, f J. ^^B 

H WuTfTi, Hooper, ijj. ju; mctcude 

Whitf Cnnniya A£, 77, ^t^i mttatHfi ^^^H 

■ n-Hnl Coles. 66, 157, ji«» j«. j*^ 

lexi^Aiurt, Uk ij<; tote on oohcB^^^B 

^^^ J47-J;|"J^^J^(.^-J^^J<^'J5a.J^ 

tjan rvboliififiB, ifA^ ^^^H 

^^^^B 3^< corrpkpondrrcv with Pofk, cin 

WliKciiilc, Jftina A., 100; vo(e en fiMi^^H 

^^^B nyiv^Ci>n conmt, ^:j-j^, j}S- 

vcntion moloriont JJ' ^^^| 

HliJ^j R«[thari, tfeftch, Ap-9iA; ic^^^^f 

^^^H «i(ti Co[«i. ^^t; editor EiiMrdmlh 

«onv*niJ<m phoIoimo, fj, S6, HlU ^^^B 

^^^H Spt^taJsr, 5i$i on Ford'i Hl^try rf 

W»i?ft, Wiirram S^ HM of R»pb*fi"^^ 

^^^P /Af>i«f,^t^j:6; Smirb ntticbi, 137- 

WiJcn, ^x B 

^B vkecch, J ion. 

Wil«tf«, Fruci*, 216, >J0, ajit A4I, B 

^K Wunn, Vr. A^ ,o:n. 

U% US> ^7- 1