NY PUBLIC LIBRARY THE BRANCH LIBRARIES 974.7 3333302621 5133 ISMITHt tOMUND BANKS. [GOVERNOR'S ISLAND; ITS MILITARY HISTORY* 10.95 MM NNUR 720076416 HSS The New York Public Library Aator, Lenox and Tilden Foundations VCf ONlM tu rROM MM HSS The Branch Libraries MID-MANHATTAN LIBRARY History & Social Sciences Depart. 455 Fifth Avenue New York, N.Y. 10016 BOOKS MAY BE RETURNED TO ANY BRANCH OF THE NEW YORK PUBLIC LIBRARY ALL RECORDINGS MUST BE RETURNED TO BRANCH FROM WHICH BORROWED NO RENEWALS ARE ALLOWED FINES FOR OVERDUE MATERIAL PER CALENDAR DAY: Adult books 10^ Juvenile books 5^ Recordings 10^ Form #0697 N oo fe <; U o H H 30Ianfc 3 un&er 1637-1913 BY THE REVEREND EDMUND BANKS. SMITH, B.D. CHAPLAIN OF GOVERNOR'S ISLAND iorft PUBLISHED BY THE AUTHOR 1913 v c COPYRIGHTED' . "" 1913 r BY THE * ' * " ,< t fcEVEREND EDMUND BANKS SM^TH ^.74-. S DEDICATED WITH RESPECT TO THE MEMORY OF MAJOR-GENERAL FREDERICK DENT GRANT UNITED STATES ARMY TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter I. Indian and Dutch Period ... to 1674 Pages 11-24. Chapter II. English Colonial and Revolutionary Period 1674-1783 Pages 25-58. Chapter III. Period of the War of 1812 . . . 1812-1815 Pages 59-77. Chapter IV. Mexican and Civil War Period . . 1846-1865 Pages 78-85. Chapter V. Garrison Notes 1865-1913 Pages 86-117. Chapter VI. Ferry Transportation in Four Cen- turies 1637-1913 Pages 118-124. Chapter VII. The New York Arsenal .... 1831-1913 Pages 125-128. Chapter VIII. Religious Work and Influence. Pages 129-152. Chapter IX. Governor's Island Extension. Pages 153-156. Chapter X. Commanding Generals, Post Com- manders, British and American Forces 1755-1913 Pages 157-169. Addenda British Regiments on Governor's Is- land H. M. 6oth Foot the King's Royal Rifle Corps. Pages 171-175. The Post Headquarters Building. Pages 174-175. Epilogue. Pages 177-179. PREFACE TT SEEMS to be a beneficent arrangement of Nature that all great harbours are provided with small islands. These serve highly important purposes as breakwaters or stations for various official uses, and especially for Army and Navy pur- poses as ship yards and bases for defensive works and military supplies. Thus the harbour of Rio de Janeiro has Lage with its forts- Cobras, Santa Barbara and others; Naples, its Ischia and Capri; San Francisco has Angel Island and Alcatraz; St. Petersburg, Basil and Petropski Islands ; Montreal, St. Helen's and He Ronde ; Manila has Corregidor, our Eastern Gibraltar ; and Panama in the South, Naos, Perico and Flamenco. New York Harbour is well provided with these friendly aids to good National housekeeping, which, beginning with the lighthouse islands in the lower bay, and including the mighty Richmond with its quarantine attendants, sweep in graceful lines through the curving East River to where it debouches into the open Sound. Among these sentries which stand on guard wherever an open door invites attack is one, the fairest of them all, the "Smiling Garden of the Sovereigns of the Province," as the old Colonial Governors used to call it, which in its long career has done more smiling than frowning, the subject of this History, Governor's Island. "Pagganck" in Indian days, "Nutten" in Colonial Dutch and "Governor's" in English and American occupation by every name it has been fair and sweet, and it deserves as well of the future as it has served well the past. 5 PREFACE May the day never come when it shall lose its beauty and its dignity and sink to the level of mere commercialism, swarming with restless crowds on outing bent or disfiguring the noble ap- proach to our Metropolitan city by ranks of cheerless chimneys and a dismal waste of warehouses ! Governor's Island has stood in four centuries for that which is best in our National life. It has represented authority and defense. The Dutch and English before us regarded it as a source of influence and power. Its nearness to the Metropolis gives it convenience; its isolation bestows dignity and security. In addition to its value and importance in time of peace for the preservation of civic interests and in war for defense as a centre of administration, a depot for supplies and a receiving and training station, a value may be mentioned which as a principle ranks above the definite purposes already men- tioned. Historical continuity and veneration for persons and places of dignity are not valued as they should be by the American of today. It is needless to say how important these considerations are for the higher development of our National life. The writer does not know of any one place in America where opportunities for developing these charac- teristics of a high National life cluster as they do at Governor's Island. Here, for two hundred and seventy-five years, since Von Twiller and the Indians signed their Roman-Dutch agreement, authority has held the keys; here, for one hundred and fifty- six years, since the "Royal Americans" mounted guard in 1756, the tramp of sentries has never ceased; here, since 1/83, our flag has welcomed and dismissed the sun each day at reveille and retreat; here, gallant officers and fair ladies have lived and served and by their simple devotion to God and country have taught to others that great silent lesson of patri- 6 PREFACE otism which is the alphabet of the Army ; here, have been re- ceived with dignified respect the representatives of the Powers of every land, who have returned to their homes with a better opinion of America because in seeing our greatest Port they have seen also Governor's Island with all it represents. Truly, this Island has served well the State. As a picture of our Past, as a living reality in our Present, for the development of our Future, it must be preserved and endowed with greater power and activity. The thought is not mere sentiment. It is practical patriotism. Our people need the object lesson which this military Station in New York can furnish. Washington has its Capitol, a pic- ture in stone and iron for the Nation. New York has its civic and mercantile buildings to inspire municipal pride and to encourage financial enterprise. Governor's Island is the one point in our vast City on which to centre a common patriotism. We have pride and enterprise strongly developed. Our pat- riotism which mounts to the sky in time of war lags sadly be- low in peace when it is most needed. If this book has any suggestion in its story of Governor's Island, it is of the im- portance of preserving inviolate this spot of National and Municipal interest, which through its long and honoured career has touched so many points in the history of the American Army and of the City of New York, and which today is a reminder to millions, as it watches o'er the Town, that the eternal vigilance of the Army is of fullest value to the State when every citizen is a patriot. Semper floreat. It has been found impossible to give the data in full of every organization and individual stationed here. The records avail- able are incomplete, and if they were not so to transcribe them in full would encumber these pages with a mass of details and not carry out the idea of the writer, which is to present a sim- 7 PREFACE pie picture of our Island in four centuries from a military point of view, with such touches of social life as can be gathered from various sources. The author desires to express his thanks to a number of friends for aid in writing this History, especially to Brigadier- General George Andrews, The Adjutant-General of the Army, and to Colonel Herbert J. S locum for valuable assistance, and to Captain Arthur F. Halpin for his kindness in preparing the illustrations. GOVERNOR'S ISLAND, New York Harbour. 1913. AUTHORITIES CONSULTED (The spelling and capitalization in original papers, orders and reports are retained.)* Reference is made in the following pages to the authorities mentioned, with the acknowledgments of the author: Manual of the Corporation of the City of New York. Manual of the Common Council of the City of New York. Memorial History of the City of New York by Gen'l James Grant Wilson. History of Trinity Parish in the City of New York by the Rev'd Morgan Dix, D.D., Rector of Trinity Church. The Story of the Chapel of St. Cornelius the Centurion, Gov- ernor's Island, by Dr. Dix. Historic New York, Half Moon Series, by Blanche W. Bellamy. Tompkins Military Papers, by Daniel D. Tompkins, Governor of New York 1807-1817. Journal Legislative Council of the Colony of New York. Colonial History of the State of New York. Brodhead. , Medical History of Governor's Island, by Charles Page, Sur- geon, U.S.A., F. W. Elbrey, Asst. Original General and Special Garrison Order Book, 1814-15. Colden Papers. Lt.-Governor Colden. Clinton Papers. Governor Clinton. Adjutant General's Department Compilation. Circular No. 8 Surgeon Genl's Office. * The profuse use of capital letters in the time of Washington, as ex- hibited in some of the Revolutionary Orders quoted in this History, may be defended on the ground of good usage at the period. Benjamin Franklin, as late as 1789, laments the new use coming then into vogue of the non-capitalization of the initial letters of all nouns. AUTHORITIES CONSULTED MSS. Minutes of Common Council subsequent to 1786, in Library of City Hall, New York. New York City in the War of 1812. Guernsey. Memorial History of Staten Island. Colonel Ira K. Morris. Historical and Statistical Record of the University of the State of New York. F. B. Hough. New York Historical Society Publications. Lee Papers. Kemble's Journal. Lt.-Col. Stephen Kemble, Royal American Regt. New Amsterdam and its People. J. H. Innes. Valentine's Manual. Lamb's History of New York. Historical Register U. S. Army. F. B. Heitman. Army List British Forces, 1756, &c. (Official.) CHAPTER I. INDIAN AND DUTCH PERIOD Of the occupation of Governor's Island by the Indians little is known except that they were here when the Dutch arrived and that they undoubtedly enjoyed its quiet retreats, as suc- ceeding generations of Dutch, English and American residents have done. That they were ready to part with it for what they deemed a fair consideration is evident from the deed of sale, as recorded, to Governor ,WOuter Van Twiller in 1637, and when we reflect that the Indians of Manahatas parted with their Island to Minuit, Governor and DirectCr-CJeneral of New Netherland, for sixty guilders (twenty-four dollars), we must conclude that they made a shrewd bargain with Van Twiller for Governor's Island,. . The Indian name for the Island was "Pagganck," referring to the groves of hickory, oak and chestnut trees with whicji it was well covered. The Dutch rendered, cl\Is name by "Nutter,'.' and it was so f ' 1 ' H J ' j o called till the late Dulc,h, a,nd ,even the. ^arly English Colonial period, the term "Nutter.," lingering in r.onie cases into the Revolutionary times, although the, rut trees that gave it that name had doubtless disappeared under the influence of the famous saw mill of which mention is frequently made in early times. The name of the Island was officially changed from "Nutten" to "Governor's" by Act of Legislature, March 29, 1784. That the Dutch had really a right to hold New York is denied by Dr. Dix in his History of Trinity Church (Vol. I, p. 21 ), in which he points out that "the Dutch had no right by virtue of discovery, for the River and the Bay had been well known since Verrazano's voyage in 1524. They had no rights by virtue of Charter: three years before the voyage of Hud- son . . . the region had been doubly covered by patents ii HISTORY OF GOVERNOR'S ISLAND issued by King James to the North and South Virginia Com- panies, a royal donation based on the claim of England to the North American Mainland acquired by John Cabot in 1497. The whole country was "preempted," as the Dutch very well knew, both by priority of discovery and formal occupation. Even if the Dutch had possessed a good title, a glance at the map will show that the position could not have been perma- nently maintained between the English settlements on the North and Virginia on the South : it was merely a question of time before inexorable laws must take their course." Woodrow Wilson in his "History of the American People" seems to hold an opposite view, regarding the claim of right as a pretext, but he acknowledges that under Colonel Nicolls, "no less a statesman than a soldier,. New Netherland was within a year transformed '.into New York under laws which promised toleration and -good,' government and which all sensible men accepted with satisfaction." The Dutch occupation of what is now New York, neverthe- less, conferred a lasting benefit upon the- community in the importation '6'i ( sturdy traits of character which are appreciable in some of it's most distinguished families today. Architec- tural remains 'are naturally non-existent,, except in the style of some modern adqpt|t<ons,'but the raines of streets and locali- ties, such as SpiiyteV Diiyvil, Corlaers Hook, Coenties Slip, Dutch and Van Dam Street's,' Stuyvesant Square and St. Mark's-in-the-Bouewrie, where Petrus Stuyvesant lies buried, and many other names of like character, remind us of those days when the foundations of our present greatness were laid. The foundation of the settlement may be dated from 1621, when the States-General of Holland gave the West Jndia Com- pany its Charter. In 1623 the "New Netherlands," a stout Dutch sailing vessel, Cornelius Jacobs of Hoorn, Skipper, with thirty families came to this western Land of Promise. So sea- worthy was this good ship that she continued in active service for more than thirty years after this and brought doubtless a large proportion of the early Dutch settlers to this land. In 1625 two more ships sailed from Holland laden with agricul- 12 INDIAN AND DUTCH PERIOD tural implements, seeds for planting, 103 head of cattle, house- hold furniture and 200 settlers. Upon arrival in the harbour the cattle were landed on what is now Governor's Island. The West India Company was incorporated June 3, 1621, through the efforts of William Usselinx to colonize the lands discovered by Hudson. In addition to the expectation of revenue to be derived from the Colony was the idea of estab- lishing a naval base for Dutch vessels in the war with Spain. "In 1621, the year of its establishment, the Company obtained a grant or patent from the States Generall for the setting and Planting a Colony here and was called the New Netherlands and made one of its first settlements near the mouth of Hud- son's River upon an Island called Nutten Island." From Colonial Documents London. The first permanent Colony upon Manhattan Island was made by Peter Minuit in 1626 and the first act of settlement was to acquire land from the owners. Governor Peter Minuit made a bargain with the Indians as already mentioned, estab- lishing thus early in what was to be the financial centre of the world a basis of real estate valuation. The prudent Van Twiller followed the precedent set by Minuit with careful attention to comparative values and so in 1637 our Island passed forever from the control of the original Race, the hut was abandoned, the tent was folded and stowed in the canoe, the stealthy tread of the moccasin gave place to the heavy tramp of the wooden shoe, "Pagganck" be- came "Nutten" and a momentous page was opened in the history of the subject of this memorial as tribal existence yielded to National life. The flag of Holland is the first to proclaim a National occupation, to be succeeded as time goes on by that of England and then by that of England's daughter, grown too big and free for Georgian leading strings. It is not the purpose of the author to point a moral to adorn this tale. The great fact stands out in considering the story of this spot, as in larger issues, that National life depends upon its standard of just dealings for continued existence. This is 13 HISTORY OF GOVERNORS ISLAND why the great Roman Empire fell and why little Switzerland endures. We may add many stars to the canton of our flag, but they must be kept undimmed, for even a just cause needs strong battalions. The author trusts this simple tale of our Island will be of interest to many and that the record of the illustrious Past will inspire to even greater successes in the future. Before going on to review events under the flags of Holland, England and our own country, let us give a thought to those early in- habitants who had no flag save the waving branch on the trees which gave the name of Pagganck in the days before American history began. The Indians who inhabited Pagganck Island_j^d_lhe_Islajid of Manhattan (named from them) were of the Manhattan^ tribe, belonging to the Wappinger Confederacy. Geographi- cally and linguistically they were intermediate between the Delawares to the south and the Mohegans who lived in other, parts of New York State. Their principal village was Nappeckamack (now Yonkers). Their fort was Nipinicksen on Spuyten Duyvil Creek. From this point they sailed out to attack Hudson on his return voy- age down the River that now bears his name a quarter of a century before their sale of Pagganck (Nutten, Governor's) Island to Wouter Van Twiller. The illustration (p. 16) is from a rare engraving, an "ancient engraving, executed in Holland," as its title sets forth. It shows Fort Amsterdam erected in 1623 but finished as de- picted in the engraving in 1635 by GovejLn^r__Wouter_Van_ Twiller, first Lord of Governor's Island. This engraving is believed to be the only portrayal of the Island under the Indian occupation as indicated by the tents and huts upon its shores and the fleet of canoes plying between their Pagganck Island and the mainland.* This engraving has been the subject of considerable discussion. As it appears (p. 16) Fort Amsterdam is on the East side of Manhattan Island, whereas it should be upon the West. J. H. Innes holds that the reversal is due to the fact that the original view was taken from the INDIAN AND DUTCH PERIOD The deed of sale to Van Twiller extracted from the ancient records of the Manual of the Corporation of the City of New York is given in full, 'as befits its importance in an historical account of this Island and also for its interest as a document of the period. We can imagine the effect upon Cakapeteyno and Pehiwas, the agents of their tribe in the sale to the Governor, of the sonorous phrases of the Roman-Dutch law and of the impres- sive circumstances with which the ceremony was doubtless invested. Whether the pipe of peace was passed around or not we are not informed, but doubtless these original pro- prietors were well content with the "certain parcels of goods" which they acknowledged "to their full and grateful satis- faction to have received into their hands and power," and in such simple form of transportation as the ancient engraving portrays they doubtless glided away to fish in other waters and enjoy their parcels of goods on other shores. Colonel Ira K. Morris in his "Memorial History of Staten Island" says that wampum at this period was estimated as fol- lows: "With the Dutch Governors six beads of the white or four of the purple were equal in value to one penny. This currency was used by Europeans for many years after their settlement here. Both the Dutch and English recognized it as currency for a long time. In 1683 the schoolmaster at Flat- bush was paid his salary in wheat "at wampum value." In 1693 the ferriage for passage from New York to Brooklyn was "eight stuyvers each in wampum." Colonel Morris points out the advantage the Governor's Island Indians had over those of Staten Island in making a sale of their land to the Dutch in that "on the adjoining Island (Staaten Eylandt) the Indians lived a most miserable life from the time of the arrival of the Dutch. War and blood- Long Island shore by means of a plain camera obscura and that the proper orientation was not restored when the engraving was made in Holland. The reader who desires to correct the error has only to hold the picture before a mirror, when he will, upon reflection, perceive that he has the proper view. 15 HISTORY OF GOVERNOR S ISLAND shed followed almost constantly. At times the whites were murdered or driven away. At others, the Indians perished. The Indians gradually decreased in number and power, and their dust to the very last mingled with the earth where their feet had trod. The last of the Raritans (or Aquehongas) on Staten Island passed away about 1826." It is a cause for gratification that our Island began ,its offi- cial career in 1637 by honourable purchase from its owners. During its documentary history of two hundred and seventy- six years not a single transaction can be found of a question- able character.* Under the three flags of; Holland, England and America, as well as under the curling smoke of the wig- wam, honour and justice have been the keynote of its existence and the glory of its history. * The alleged diversion of funds by Lord Cornbury in 1702 must be mentioned as an unfortunate exception to this statement. DC 5 n ffi 2 "n <-, *> > < o 25 s 3 o ,_< S a o so m O > 2 ^ s -S s _> o I! ORIGINAL DEED OF GOVERNOR'S ISLAND BETWEEN THE DIRECTOR AND COUNCIL OF NEW NETHERLANDS AND CAKAPETEYNO AND PEHIWAS JUNE 16, 1637 WOUTER VAN TWILLER DIRECTOR-GENERAL [FROM THE MANUAL OF THE CORPORATION OF THE CITY OF NEW YORK] ORIGINAL DEED "The Director and Council of New Netherlands residing on the Island of Manahatas in the Fort Amsterdam under the Government of their High and Mighty Lords, the States Gen- eral of the United Netherlands and the privileged West India Company, at their Chambers at Amsterdam, by these presents do publish and declare that on this day, the date underwritten before us, in their own person appeared and presented them- selves, Cakapeteyno and Pehiwas as owners and declared that voluntarily and deliberately at the special charge of the Rulers and with the approbation of the Community for, and in con- sideration of, certain parcels of goods which they, the said appearers, before the passing of these presents, acknowledged to their full and grateful satisfaction to have received into their hands and power, they in their rightful ownership have transported, ceded, given over and conveyed and by these presents they do transport, cede, give over and convey to the behoof of Wouter Van Twiller, Director General of New Netherlands, the Nooten Island (Nut Island), in the Indian tongue called Pagganck, situate over against the Island Mana- hatas between the North and East Rivers of New Netherlands, and that with all the action right (and) equity which to them the said appearers in their said quality appertained, constitut- ing and substituting the aforesaid Wouter Van Twiller in their place and stead in the real and actual possession thereof, and at the same time giving to the said Wouter Van Twiller or to his successors full and irrevocable power, authority and special license, tanquam actor et procurator in rent suam ac propriain the aforesaid land peaceably to possess, inhabit, cultivate and occupy, and also therewith and thereof to do, trade, and dispose in the same manner in which he might do with his own lands honestly and lawfully without their the granters any longer any part, right, action or authority what- ever, whether of ownership charge or jurisdiction, having, reserving or saving but to the behoof as aforesaid, now 7 and forever from the same resisting and denouncing, abstaining HISTORY OF GOVERNORS ISLAND and withdrawing, promising moreover not only by this their transport and whatever may have been done by virtue thereof forever by these presents, firmly, inviolably and irrevocably to maintain faithful and execute, but also the said Island, against all and everyone to deliver and maintain, free from all de- mands, prosecutions and incumbrances that thereto may be instituted by anyone all in good faith, without fraud and deceit. These presents are confirmed with our usual signatures and our seal thereto suspended. Done on the aforesaid Island of Manahatas the sixteenth day of June, 1637. WAS UNDERSIGNED JACOBUS CORLER ANDRIUS HUDDE JACOBUS BONTYN CLAUS VAN ELSLANT." The "certain parcels of goods" mentioned in this document are believed to have been an axe head or two, a string of beads and a few nails. General James Grant Wilson in the year 1875 in conver- sation with her Majesty the Queen of Holland asked her whether she did not think sixty guilders a very small consider- ation for Manahatas Island, to which her Majesty promptly replied: "If the savages had received more for their land they would simply have drunk more fire water," which reflec- tion will reconcile us to the very small amount involved in the "parcels of goods," for which our fair Island was signed away. However, if the Dutch made a good bargain in 1637, they did not do so well in 1667 when by the treaty of Breda they re- ceived Surinam as an equivalent for what is now New York!* -The Articles of Capitulation for the surrender of Surinam (Dutch Guiana) were drawn up 6th May, 1667, and state that "Peace between the States and England consists in the absolute abolition of all pretence on either side each to remain masters of what they were in possession of the 10/20 of May 1667." 20 INDIAN AND DUTCH PERIOD The doughty Van Twillcr had arrived from Holland in "De Zoutberg" in 1633, bringing with him 104 soldiers, the first military force sent to the Province. Van Twillcr is believed to have been the only private owner of Governor's Island. After his departure there were found "on Nut Island, containing about 80 morgens,* a house, 21 pairs of goats, together with various goods and chattels." The Island was then directly occupied by the Government. We do not read of any fortifications in those early days on Nutten Island, Van Twiller's soldiers being undoubtedly quar- tered in Fort Amsterdam, but in 1639 the saw mill on the Island was leased by the "Honorable, Wise and Right prudent, Mr. William Kieft" to Evert Bischop, Siebout Claesen and Harman Bastiensen. They were to pay five hundred mer- chantable or sound planks, one-half pine and the other oak and to saw not less than 65 to the bulk. We read in an old record that this saw mill was probably worked by the tide in the River (Buttermilk Channel). Peter Stuyvesant found this mill completely ruined and useless, and in January 1648 he and the Council resolved that the best interests of the Company required that it be dismantled by removing the iron work from it by burning the mill. J. H. Innes in his "New Amsterdam and Its People" states that the machinery for a saw mill arrived from Holland about 1626. "This mill was worked by wind power after the Hol- land fashion and was erected on the shores of Nutten now Governor's Island, a situation which will seem the less singu- lar if one calls to mind not only the facilities for floating logs to the spot from the neighbouring shores but also the one hun- dred acres and more on the Island itself.* The ancient engraving (p. 16) shows a windmill near Fort Amsterdam. In 1631 a windmill stood on Heere Straat (Broadway) near what is now Courtlandt Street. Governor * In Valentine's Manual we read that Nutten Island contained about 160 acres of land, an interesting fact in connection with the restored area amounting (1913) in all to 173 acres. "Morgen" is a word of Dutch origin denoting a land measure of two acres. 21 HISTORY OF GOVERNOR S ISLAND Van Twiller began the enlargement of Fort Amsterdam at Bowling Green in 1633. This Fort was 300 x 250 feet, with stone bastions. It contained within the walls the Governor's House, used for official and social purposes, and a stone Gar- rison Chapel, 72 x 52 feet in size. LORDS OF GOVERNOR'S ISLAND DUTCH AND ENGLISH COLONIAL GOVERNORS WOUTER VAN TWILLER, Appointed April, 1633 Bought Governor's Island i6th June, 1637 WILLIAM KIEFT, Appointed Mch. 28, 1638 PETRUS STUYVESANT May 1 1, 1647 RICHARD NICOLLS Sept. 8, 1664 FRANCIS LOVELACE Aug. 17, 1668 CORNELIS EVERTSE, JR., and a Council of War, Aug. (N. S.) 12, 1673 ANTHONY COLVE Sept. 19, 1673 EDMUND ANDROS Nov. (N. S.) 10, 1674 ANTHONY BROCKHOLLES, Commander-in-Chief. Nov. 16, 1677 SIR EDMUND ANDROS, Knight Aug. 7, 1678 ANTHONY BROCKHALES, Commander-in-Chief, Jany. (N. S.) 13, 1681 THOMAS DONGAN Aug. 27, 1683 SIR EDMUND ANDROS, Knight Aug. n, 1688 FRANCIS NICHOLSON, Lieut-Governor Oct. 9, 1688 JACOB LEISLER June 3, 1686 HARRY SLOUGHTER Mch. 19, 1691 RICHARD INGOLSBY, Commander-in-Chief July 26, 1691 BENJAMIN FLETCHER Aug. 30, 1692 22 INDIAN AND DUTCH PERIOD THE EARL OF BELLOMONT April 13, 1698 JOHN NANFAN, Lieut-Governor May 17, 1699 THE EARL OF BELLOMONT July 24, 1700 COLONEL WILLIAM SMITH \ Mch. 5, 1701 \ COLONEL ABRAHAM DE PEYSTER >- to v Council COLONEL PETER SCHUYLER ; May 19, 1701 ) JOHN NANFAN, Lieut. -Governor May 19, 1701 LORD CORNBURY May 3, 1702 LORD LOVELACE Dec. 18, 1708 PETER SCHUYLER, President May 6, 1709 RICHARD INGOLSBY, Lieut.-Governor May 9, 1709 PETER SCHUYLER, President May 25, 1709 RICHARD INGOLSBY, Lieut.-Governor June i, 1709 GERARDUS BEEKMAN, President April 10, 1710 ROBERT HUNTER June 14, 1710 PETER SCHUYLER, President July 21, 1710 WILLIAM BURNET Sept. 17, 1720 JOHN MONTGOMERIE April 15, 1728 RIP VAN DAM, President July i, 1731 WILLIAM COSBY Aug. i, 1732 GEORGE CLARKE, President Mch. 10, 1736 GEORGE CLARKE, Lieut.-Governor Oct. 30, 1736 GEORGE CLINTON Sept. 2, 1743 SIR DANVERS OSBORNE, Bart Oct. 10, 1753 JAMES DE LANCEY, Lieut.-Governor Oct. 12, 1755 SIR CHARLES HARDY, Knight Sept. 3, 1755 JAMES DE LANCEY, Lieut.-Governor -June 3, 1757 CADWALLADER COLDEN, President Aug. 4, 1760 CADWALLADER COLDEN, Lieut.-Governor Aug. 8, 1761 ROBERT MONCKTON Oct. 26, 1761 CADWALLADER COLDEN, Lieut.-Governor Nov. 18, 1761 ROBERT MONCKTON June 14, 1762 23 HISTORY OF GOVERNOR S ISLAND CADWALLADER GOLDEN, Lieut.-Governor June 28, 1763 SIR HENRY MOORE, Bart Nov. 13, 1765 CADWALLADER GOLDEN, Lieut.-Governor Nov. 12, 1769 EARL OF DUNMORE Oct. 19, 1770 WILLIAM TRYON July 9, 1771 CADWALLADER COLDEN, Lieut-Governor April 7, 1774 WILLIAM TRYON June 28, 1775 JAMES ROBERTSON j Mch. 23, 1780 ANDREW ELLIOTT, Lieut.-Governor j . April 17, 1783 Military Governors, not recognized by the State of New York. CHAPTER II. ENGLISH COLONIAL AND REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD 1674-1783 In 1698 the Island was set aside by the Assembly as being "part of the Denizen of His Majestie's Fort at New York for the benefit and accommodation of his Majestie's Governors for the time being," and hence it came to be familiarly called "The Governor's Island." In the course of time the word "The" has been eliminated from the title by common usage. Some authorities dispense with the possessive apostrophe, but this use has not been generally adopted.* An example is found in the use of "The," as referred to, in a letter from Governor Tryon to the Earl of Dartmouth, dated 5th September, 1775, in which he says: "The City has remained quiet . . . Fresh provisions are to be delivered on the Governor's Island for the Asia." The later Governors in some cases leased the Island for their own profit. There is a tradition that Governor Clinton leased the Island for a race course to a Dr. Price who built a hotel in 1784 and that horse races were run upon it in 1784-5. The account given by F. B. Hough in the Historical and Sta- tistical Record of the University of the State of New York is authentic. He says: "By Act of March 31, 1790, for the encouragement of edu- cation, Governor's Island was granted to the Regents unless needed for Military purposes. The Committee consisted of Genl Schuyler, Mr L'Hommedieu and Mr Benson. It was leased to Mr John Price for twenty one years at an annual rental of 93 with a deduction for taxes." However, this was not to last long, for, as the Report goes on to state, "in 1794 Commissioners were appointed to erect fortifications, works were begun on Governor's Island and the Regents' title was voided." *The Eastern Department in official papers has for some time past dis- continued the use of the apostrophe. 25 HISTORY OF GOVERNOR S ISLAND Other works cooperating later with the fortifications of Governor's Island may be mentioned as throwing light upon the progress of military art in the early days of the Province. Fort Amsterdam (at Bowling Green) not having been com- pleted up to the time of Van T wilier' s arrival in 1633, the structure was finished in 1635.* A barracks for the newly arrived soldiers was built within the walls, while to the south was erected the (garrison) Church in Governor Keift's time, 1642. The principal gate opened upon Bowling Green and was guarded by a small redoubt called a horn, which many think stood just where the present enclosed area now is. In 1664 when the English took New York the name of the fort was changed to Fort James, later to Fort Anne and then to Fort George. In 1667 Governor Nicolls referred to Bedlow's Island as the "largest of the Oyster Islands." It received its name from Isaac Bedlow, patentee under Governor Nicolls. Fort Wood was^erected on this Island in 1841 at a cost of $21,300. It mounted 77 guns and accommodated a garrison of 350 men. This was built upon the site of the first fortifications erected about the year 1800. Governor Lovelace in 1669 issued a commission for Isaac Bedlow (Bedloo) as follows, and a year later conferred special privileges upon Love Island, which later became known as Bedlow's Island and is so called today : COMMISSION FOR MR. ISAAC BEDLOO TO BEE CAPT. OF A FFOOT-COMPANY IN THIS ClTY. 1669. By Vertue of ye Commission & Authority unto mee given by his Royall Highness James Duke of Yorke and Albany &c I doe Constitute & Appoint you Isaac Bedloo to bee Captn of a Foot Company Lysted or to bee Lysted wth in this City and precincts. You are to take into yor Charge & care ye said Company as Captaine thereof & duely to Exercize both yor inferiour Officrs & Souldyers in Armes & to use your best care, skill & Endeavour to keep them in good Order & Discipline; hereby requiring * See illustration p. 16. 26 ENGLISH COLONIAL AND REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD all infcriour Officers and Souldyers under yor Command to obey you as their Captainc ; * * * : according to ye Discipline of Warr. Given under my Hand & Scale ye irst day of [ ] in ye 2ith yeare of his Maties Reigne, Anno Domini 1669. FRANCIS LOVELACE. From Minutes of the Executive Council of the Province of Neiv York. On August 10, 1670, Lovelace gave the new name of "Love Island" to a "Certaine Little Island in y e Bay neare this Citty comonly called Oyster Island" for which Bedlow had had a "patent graunted by Col Richard Nicolls and the Island was made a "Priviledged place where no Warrant of Attachmt or arrest shall be made of force or served unless it be by ye Governors Speciall Warrant in Cases of breach of ye peace or Cryminall Matt"." Ellis Island, called at one time Gibbet Island on account of the execution of a number of pirates upon it, called also Buck- ing- Island in 1674, and Oyster Island in 1808, had Fort Gibson built upon it in 1841 at a cost of $5,096, mounting 15 guns manned by a garrison of 80 men. As early as 1809 the Secretary of War reports on Bedlow's Island a mortar battery, and on Ellis Island an open barbette battery for heavy ordnance. A council was held at Fort William Henry on the 26th of September, 1691, at which it was decreed that Nutten Island and the so-called Oyster Islands, viz, Bedlow's, Ellis and a third (smaller) Island now submerged, be added to the County of New York, whereupon Colonel Cortlandt and Chidley Brooks, Esq., brought back the bill to the Assembly desiring to except Nutten Island from the provisions of the bill inas- much as it "belongs to his Majestie's Fort and Garrison." This decision being sent up again to the Fort and approved by the Governor and Council, the bill was finally sent to England for the King's approval and it was confirmed May 2nd, 1708, Nutten Island being excepted from the County, but later by the Montgomery Charter of 1750 Governor's Island was made 27 HISTORY OF GOVERNOR S ISLAND part of the City of New York and by act of March 7, 1788, of the County of New York. In this connection it is interesting to note the more romantic way in which our sister (Staten) Island gained her alliance with the Empire State. Colonel Morris in his History of Staten Island states that under the Dutch rule Staten Island taxes were collected by the New Jersey authorities without protest. When the Eng- lish came into power a number of the settlers on the Island refused to pay taxes altogether. In 1668, the trouble between the interested parties increas- ing, James, Duke of York, who had been made by his brother, King Charles II, the nominal ruler of the English Provinces in America, decided that "all Islands in the Harbour of New York which could be circumnavigated in twenty-four hours should belong to the Colony of New York; otherwise, to New Jersey," whereupon Captain Christopher Billopp, commander of a little vessel at the port of Perth Amboy, made the voyage around Staten Island with an hour or so to spare. It is said that he covered the deck of his vessel with empty barrels, thus gaining considerable sailing power. His reward from the Duke was the present of a tract of land of 1163 acres. The village of Tottenville now stands upon this tract. In spite of the settlement made by the Duke of York the question of State ownership still remained more or less open between New York and New Jersey until it was finally adjusted to mutual satisfaction in 1833. The English Colonial Governors Sloughter, Fletcher and Cornbury, from 1691 to 1702 urged the fortification of New York Harbour. All that was secured was 1500 for defences at the Narrows, which sum, a large one at that day, was ex- pended by Lord Cornbury for a pleasure house on Governor's Island to which he and other Governors were wont to retire to "free themselves from business." The picturesque title it bore described it well, no doubt "The Smiling Garden of the Sovereigns of the Province." Governor Clarke in 1738 again 28 ENGLISH COLONIAL AND REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD urged the importance of proper defences. Lord Loudoun's arrival with a large fleet in 1756, however, allayed fears of invasion and until June 28, 1775, Governor's Island was suc- cessively the perquisite and residence of Governors Hardy, Delancy, Golden, Moore, Dunmore and Tryon.* Other Gov- ernors leased it during their terms of office, as w r e learn inci- dentally from a communication to Lord Dunmore. In 1770 Richard Deane petitioned Lord Dunmore in the following plaintive strain : "Your Lordship's Petitioner most humbly showeth that he hath rented an Island called the Governor's Island from his Honour * * * * * that he hath been at great expence cultivating said Island * * * * that your Lordship's Petitioner hath been led by Ruleing hand of kind Providence to be your Lordship's first tenant in America * * * * And your Petitioner as in duty bound will not only ever pray but will pay your Lordship's Rent very punctually." It does not appear from what has come down to posterity just what Richard Deane desired to obtain from his noble landlord, but let us hope the sentiment with which he closed his appeal had the desired effect. Lord Cornbury came into possession of the Island as Gov- ernor of the Province of New York in 1702 and caused 1500 to be raised by various assessments, among the many enumer- ated being a "tax of Five shillings and six pence for every per- son that Wares a Perl Ring: Every Bachelor above the Age of twenty-five years two shillings and five pence," and used that money, according to Lt. -Governor Cadwallader Golden, and as above noted, to build a pleasure house for himself and succeeding Governors. It is not known on what part of the Island this Governor's House was situated. It seems most reasonable to suppose that Lord Corrubury chose the finest situation for elevation and general outlook in the middle of the Island where the present Fort Jay now stands. The building now used for Post Head- quarters was called "the Governor's House" as late as 1840, * Governor Kieft, who succeeded Van Twiller, had a plantation on the Island which he leased at an annual rental of 150 pounds of tobacco. 29 HISTORY OF GOVERNOR'S ISLAND but there appears no other reason than that to suppose it was built by Lord Cornbury. An oil painting from the collection of the late Revd. Charles Hoffman, D.D., now the property of his daughter, Mrs. J. Van Vechten Olcott of New York, marked "Governor's Island, 1750 F. Willa," shows a splendid castle in French renaissance style upon the N. E. part of the Island where the Post Head- quarters building now stands. This building is so massive and extensive that it appears incredible it should have disap- peared and left no trace behind. The presence in the channel of many Dutch vessels (1750) and other apparent inconsisten- cies lead to a belief that the artist used his imagination to an extent not justified by the facts in the case. The pomp and circumstance attending the office of Gover- nor at this period and the formality of official language are well illustrated in an Address presented to Lord Cornbury upon his arrival. This is taken from the Minutes of the Common Council of the City of New York, published by authority : To His Excellency the Right Honble EDUARD LORD CORN- BURY Capt Genii and Governour in Chiefe of his Majesties Province of New Yorke and Territories depending thereon in America and Vice Admiral of the same, &c.* The Humble Address of the Mayor Al[d]ermen and Commonality of the Citty of New Yorke (486) May itt please your Excellency In the Name and on the behalfe of the Freemen and Inhabitants of this his Majesties Corporation and Citty of New Yorke Wee doe heartily Congratulate your Lordships safe Arrival in this your Government & as Wee Cannot Entertain to Gratefull A sence of his Majesties Royall bounty * * in making soe Excellent and prudent A Choice in sending your Lordship A per- son of so great and Noble birth Skillfull in the Art of Warr : : to secure us from the * * Enemy Abroad and Cause us to flourish with * * Tranquility att home soe Shall we Studiously Endeavour to * Edward Hyde, Lord Cornbury, 3rd Earl of Clarendon, succeeded in 1709 to the title of his father, Henry, and Earl of Clarendon. 30 ENGLISH COLONIAL AND REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD Demonstrate and Express that Gratitude in our ready Complvance with Everything in our power which Your Lordship * * shall judge Necessary and Contribute to his Majesties' Service and Honour : * * That God in his Infinite Mercy and goodness will Vouchsafe to bless his Majesty with A long And happy Reign Over us * * * is the fervent prayer of Your Lordship's most dutifull May, 1702. humble servants. Governor Cornbury, twenty-second Lord of Governor's Island, built an official residence here in the early years of the i8th century according to good authority, but no records of it are to be found.* That the cost of living was high in New York in the time of Cornbury as now we learn from an order published for the benefit of officers and soldiers by the Common Council of the City of New York held at the City Hall on Tuesday the 26th day of May Anno Dom 1702, at which were present Thomas Noell, Esqr., Mayor, Sampson Shelton Broughton, Esqr., Recorder and ten Aldermen. The order is as follows: WHEREAS his most sacred Majestyf Among many Other princely favours Shown to this Province hath sent Over during the Late Warr A Considerable Number of forces to protect and secure us from the Insults of our Enemies the French of Canada and their Indians And Whereas all manner of Provisions and Apparrell are much dearer in this Citty than in England whereby the said Soldiers Cannot Conveniently subsist of their pay only, but the most of them being Tradesmen which had they A Liberty to Exercise within this Corporation itt would not Only Enable them to live  Comfortably but Im- pede their dissertion and Encourage them in them in their duty, * * And Whereas by the By Laws of this Cor- poration No person Whatever Can Keep Shop or Exer- cise Any handy Craft Trade or Occupation but such as are Freeman thereof, Therefore this Court doe hereby * See p. 29. t With reference to capitalization see note on p. 9. HISTORY OF GOVERNOR'S ISLAND Resolve and Order that all the Officers and Soldiers (who are his Majesties Natural born Subjects belonging to his Majesties Garrison Forte William Henry* within this Citty be made Freemen of this Corporation Gratis & Or- dered that the Mayor Recorder and Aldermen Administer unto them the Oath of A Freeman and Grant them Cer- tificates thereof under the scale of the Citty and that the Town Clerke Register their Names as Freemen Accord- ingly Any former Law to the Contrary in Anywise Not- withstanding. The provisions of this humane regulation were extended, as far as possible, to the troops later stationed on Governor's Island. In 1710 large bodies of Palatines were sent to America and it was decided by the Colonial Authorities that Nutten Island was the "properest place to put them," and two carpenters, Johannes Hebon and Peter Williamse, were ordered to "wait on the Presidentf to Nutten Island at two in the afternoon with respect to Building huts" for the Exiles. Governor Hunter immediately established special Courts of Judicature "because the said Island lyeth not within the body of any County of this Province and in noe wise subject to the Jurisdiction of any of the Courts that are established within the same." It is stated that from seven to ten thousand of these exiles were encamped here at one time. They were later sent up the Hudson to Greene and Columbia Counties, where their de- scendants may be found to this day. Governor Cosby during his office used Governor's Island for a game preserve. In 1738 the Legislature passed an act to preserve the breed of English pheasants in this colony. The Act declares that "whereas the late Governor (Cosby) did place about one half dozen couple of English pheasants upon Nutten Island and pinioned them to the end that they might remain there to propagate their species with a view that their increase would spread from there and stock the country with their kind ; and whereas the said fowls not only have increased vastly upon the said Island but many of them have already * The Fort at Bowling Green, t Peter Schuyler. 32 ENGLISH COLONIAL AND REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD spread over to Nassau (Long Island) and in all probability will soon stock the country if people are restrained from de- stroying them for a few years, the present Governor being also desirous that the whole Colony may be stocked with these birds it is enacted that no birds shall be killed nor eggs taken for one year."* So from the time the 103 head of cattle were landed on Pagganck Island from the "New Netherlands" in 1623 and Wouter Van Twiller had his 21 pairs of goats in 1637 and the Government in 1/38 went into the business of pheasant farming, down to the present day, when the squirrels introduced by Major-General Nelson A. Miles in 1895 are slill under official protection, our Island has maintained a creditable reputation for interest in animal life. The Governors of that period, however, took thought for more important matters than the propagation of valuable birds, as we learn from Governor Clarke's speech of 5th Sep- tember, 1738, in which he strongly recommends fortifications. Addressing the Legislature the I5th of April, 1741, he said: "There is great cause to apprehend a speedy rupture with France. Your situation ought therefore to awaken you to see the importance of erecting batteries in proper places and one at Red Hook to prevent the enemy landing upon Governor's Island." Governor Clinton, addressing the As- sembly April 1 7th, 1744, also urged action to prevent the enemy landing any force or artillery on Nutten Island. The first mention of troops on Governor's Island is in con- nection with Major-General William Pepperell's Regiment as follows : "NEW YORK, June the 3rd, 1755. Rec'd of the Honorable James De Lansea, Esq., the sum of Three Pounds, fourteen shillings and nine pence for five cords and three quarters of Oak wood for the use of Sir. Wm. Pepperell's Regiment encamped on Nutten Island in full pr. Me ben hildreth." It is interesting to note that this Major-General Sir William Pepperell was an American Soldier, born in Kittery, Maine, * From "Social Life under the Georges," by E. Singleton. 33 HISTORY OF GOVERNOR'S ISLAND in 1696. In 1726 Pepperell was made Colonel of Militia and in 1730 a Chief Justice of the Court of Common Pleas. In 1745 he was Commander-in-chief of the New England force of 4000 men which, assisted by a British Squadron under Commodore Peter Warren, captured the French fortress of Louisburg. For his services Pepperell was created a baronet, the only New Englander so honoured. He received the rank of Lieutenant-General in 1759. General James Grant Wilson and John Fiske say of Pep- perell that "the greater names of Washington and the Revo- lutionary generals have eclipsed that of Pepperell, but it should not be forgotten that he did more than any other man to pre- pare the army that was afterward to achieve American inde- pendence." A later reference to the regiment of Sir William is found in a bill for straw under date of Aug. 23, 1755, when it was stationed on Governor's Island: James Delansea, Esq., To Cornelius Tiebout. To 322 bundles straw for Gene'l Pepparill's Redgement, @ 4 d. 5" 7" 4. The following orders, taken from the certified minutes of the Common Council, make mention of the Military Establish- ment on Governor's Island in official records. At a Common Council held at the City Hall of the said City on Saturday the 28th day of August, Anno Dom. 1756, (462) Mr. Mayor Informed this board that Collo. Young in the name of Collo. Stanwich Desired that this Corporation would be pleased to advance and furnish his Majesties' forces on Nutten Island with Straw and wood during their Stay there, whereupon this board having Considered the Same Do agree that this board Do advance on the Credit of the Government a Sum not exceeding fifty pounds for the purpose aforesaid. Governor Hardy as early as 1/56 saw the strategical im- portance of Governor's Island and wrote as follows : 34 ENGLISH COLONIAL AND REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD Governor Hardy to the Lords of Trade. Fort George, New York 27 October. 1756. *#.;:*** * * It will be highly proper to put this Province into a State of Defence from any attack by Sea. Some heavy cannon should be mounted upon Nutten Island on the Ground that if the enemy should attack the City with a fleet they will make themselves masters of it from whence they can easily bombard the City. References to a Colonial Regiment styled the Royal Ameri- cans are found in the following orders. It will be noticed that the date is twenty years preceding the Declaration of Inde- pendence : Common Councill, City Hall, Oct. 19, No. Anno Domini, 1756. 1345 Warrant issued. Order'd the Like of Mr. Christopher Bancker or his order the Sum of Nine pounds two shillings in full for the Like sum by him advanced and paid for his fire wood for the use of the Royall Americans on Nutten Island as per his said Account Audited by this board and allowed of. Meeting of Common Councill, No. City Hall, Nov. 8, 1756. 1346 Warrant issued. Ordered that Mr. Recorder issue his warrant to the Treasurer of the City to pay to Jacob Bremington or his order the sum of five pounds four shillings in full of his account for Straw by him provided for the Royal Ameri- cans. Ten years later we read in Captain John Montressor's Jour- nal of further plans for the fortification of Governor's Island. Captain Montressor was styled the "Chief 'Engineer of America," and he reports as follows under date of Sept. 9, 1766: 35 HISTORY OF GOVERNOR'S ISLAND Delivered to the Commander in Chief my Report. Made my design on a Scale of 200 feet to the inch for fortifying Governor's or Nutten Island." And again: May 12, 1767. On return from inspection at Albany, May I2th, a fair wind & the I3th at York. The whole Regiment was found encamped on the Island, the 22nd and two Bat- talions of Royal Americans. Encamped outside of ye Stockade also the 44th." This Report indicates the presence of two Regiments in ad- dition to the Royal Americans and makes incidental reference to a stockade which probably enclosed the main Garrison. In Jared Sparks' Life of Washington we learn something of the formation of this Regiment, the first one of which there is record by name on Governor's Island. "Lord Loudoun as Commander of the forces in America," he says, "was empowered to raise a Regiment in the Colonies consisting of four battalions to be commanded by officers bear- ing the King's Commission and called the Royal American Regiment. Recruiting officers were employed in Virginia en- listing men for the Royal Regiment. The Assembly voted 8000 to be paid for enlisting men and transporting them to New York. The Maryland Assembly appropriated 5000 to aid enlist- ments in that Colony for the Royal Americans and resolved to raise 300 men. A bounty was given not exceeding 5 for each man enlisted. Horatio Gates, later (June, 1775) Adjutant-General in the American Army with the rank of brigader-general, was an officer in this Regiment. Gates was aide-de-camp to General Monckton in his expedition against Martinique in 1762. He was a bearer of despatches to London announcing the success- ful result of this victory and was rewarded 'by being made Major in the Royal Americans. It is fair to assume he was stationed on Governor's Island in 1767, for Captain John Montressor in his Report of May 36 ENGLISH COLONIAL AND REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD I2th in that year, says he "found the whole Regiment encamped on the Island, the 22d, and two Battalions of Royal Americans, also the 44th Regt." (p. 36). In the Military Department of the New York Public Library is a valuable set of Army lists of the British Forces, published by order of the Honorable Secretary at War, of separate vol- umes in superb bindings, 1754 to 1842. The volumes bear the crest and bookplate of Colonel FitzClarence, Earl of Munster, who died in London, 1842. The changes in the personnel of the various years are carefully written in. From these reports we learn that the 62nd Regiment of Foot was styled "Royal Ameri- cans" in 1756. In 1757 the number was changed to 6oth Regt of Foot and so remained, the Regiment being stationed here continuously till 1773 when it was ordered to the West Indies. The uniform of the Royal Americans originally was Red faced with Blue, but as we learn from these Reports, the uni- form was changed in 1770 to "Red faced with Blue, White Lace, with 2 blue Stripes." The uniform of the 44th Regiment of Foot, stationed in 1767 on Governor's Island, was Red faced with Yellow. The uniform of the 22d Regiment of Foot, which we learn from Montressor's Report was here with the Royal Americans, was Red faced with pale Blue. John Campbell, 4th Earl of Loudoun, was appointed Com- mander in Chief of the British forces in America, March 20, 1756. Lord Loudoun commanded the Royal Americans for a number of years with the title "Colonel in Chief," having under his command in 1756 four "Colonels Commandant," viz.: John Stanwix, Joseph Dusseaux, Charles Jefferyes, James Prevost and Majors J. Young, J. Robertson, J. Rutherford, Augustine Prevost and Chaplains Thomas Gawton and Wm. Nicholas Jackson. Eighteen years later, when the Regiment had been for a year at Jamaica and Antigua, 1774, many names of the officers, advanced in grade, and of Chaplain Jackson, are still found which were on the roster of 1756 at Governor's Island. The Royal American, 6oth Regiment of Foot, is (1913) the 37 HISTORY OF GOVERNOR'S ISLAND King's Royal Rifle Corps. Uniform, Green with Scarlet fac- ings. Two battalions are stationed in England and two in India. Motto : Celer et Auda.v The 44th Regiment of Foot is now the Essex Regiment. One battalion is stationed at Quetta and one at Bordon. The 22d Regiment of Foot is now the Cheshire Regiment. Uniform, Scarlet with Buff facings. One battalion is at Bel- fast and one at Jubbulpore. Hart's Annual for 1913 gives the King's Rifle Corps, as "formerly the 6oth." The Colonel in Chief is His Majesty the King and the Senior of the four Colonels Commandant is the Rt. Hon. Francis Wallace, Lord Grenfell, K.C.B., G.C.M.G. The other Colonels Commandant are Sir Wykeham Leigh Pemberton, K.C.B., Sir Cromer Ashburnham, K.C.B., and Sir Edward Thomas H. Hutton, K.C.M.G., K.C.B. During the Revolutionary War concerts were given by the Royal American Band at Burns' New Assembly Rooms. This popular assembly, where the fashionables gathered much as they do at Delmonico's and Sherry's today, was at the upper end of Bowling Green, near the Van Courtlandt House. Bene- dict Arnold lodged here for a time after his desertion from the Army. Another reference is found to this early Governor's Island Regiment during the Stamp Act troubles when General Gage ordered Fort George at Bowling Green to be dismantled in order to appear to the people "Less menacing and unfriendly." The work was performed by the detachments of Royal Ar- tillery, assisted by the Royal American Regiment who went over from Governor's Island for that purpose. It was not long before the mutterings of war were heard. An intimation of this which shows that Governor's Island was of value not only for "refreshment after the cares of business," 38 ENGLISH COLONIAL AND REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD but for more important reasons, is disclosed in a letter from Governor Tryon to the Earl of Dartmouth. NEW YORK, i6th Oct. 1775 MY LORD:- The City has been in continual agitation and ferment eticreased by a recommenda'tn and resolve of the Con- tinental Congress that this provincial Congress should take into consideration the expediency of siezing or securing the Crown Officers * * * I kept out of Town all Thursday at the Governor's Island and in the evening the Asia boat landed me at Long Island and (I) lay at Mr. Astell's at Flatbush. In a letter to Lord Dartmouth under date of June 7th, 1775, the Governor speaks of "the critical and dangerous situation of the British soldiers quartered in New York, the men desert- ing in considerable numbers and being the object of attack. General Gage proposed putting the soldiers and their families on board H. B. M. S. "Asia." After some delay, the situation becoming more acute, the following order was issued : To MAJOR HAMILTON, i8th Regiment, Spring Hill. 5th June, 1775 The difficulty about the Women and children which occasioned an alteration of our first Determination to put the troops under Command on board of the Asia being obviated by removing the Women to Governor's Island ***** You have my leave to encamp the Women on the Governor's Island and if there is any room in the House which the Family who live there do not make use of, I am willing the women should have it. You will please to give orders that they by no means burn or de- stroy the Fences or do any kind of Injury to any thing on the Island. I am, etc., CADWALLADER GOLDEN, Lieut. Gov'r Province of New York. A citadel and outworks were begun in 1775. General orders 39 HISTORY OF GOVERNOR'S ISLAND of April i6th, 1775, read: "Colonel Prescott's Regiment is to encamp on Governor's Island * * * They are to give every assistance in their power to the works erecting thereon." This Regiment, the famous Bunker Hill Regiment, was joined later by the 4th Continental Infantry, Colonel Nixon Command- ing. Some highly interesting facts in regard to the fortification of the Island at this period are learned from a letter written by Benjamin Franklin to General Lee in which he encloses a long communication from Trevor Newland Stafford. The fact of its quotation implies Franklin's approval of the senti- ments expressed by Stafford. Extracts from the letter follow : To the Honourable CHARLES LEE, Esq., Lieut. -General of the Continental Army, New York. 5th February, 1776. ********* I'm amazed at a ship or two laying at New York in open violation of ye United Provinces. The Asia lay along in the North River and refused to go into y e Sound. ***** There j s Nutten (Governor's Island) well situated to place Guns and I imagine 300 or 400 men would be sufficient to compleat all the works in one night : the greatest difficulty would be to get cannon to Nutten Island. It would be impossible to point out Either the facilitys or difficultys in the course of a letter. The great- est difficulty will be to keep it secret from the people of New York. * * * * * if there was a lodgement with some Guns upon Nutten Island * * * as soon as the Batterys upon Nutten Island began to play there should be some of the Connecticut men ready to run down upon the Wharfs with some few guns ahead and astern with grape to clear the decks and fire into the ports. Six Guns would be sufficient upon Nutten Island and 12 pdrs would be heavy enough. * * * * I imagine Lord Stirling would be a very proper person to command the detach- ment.* B. FRANKLIN. From the Lee Papers New York Historical Society. 40 ENGLISH COLONIAL AND REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD That the fortifications were finally completed we learn from a letter written three months later by General Washington to Lieutenant-General Charles Lee, as follows : NEW YORK, May 9, 1776. My DEAR LEE: We have done a great deal of work at this place. In a fortnight more I think the City will be in a very respect- able posture of defense. * * * Governor's Island has a large and strong work erected and a Regiment encamped there. All the ships of war have left this place and gone down to the Hook except the Asia * * * With compli- ments to the gentlemen of my acquaintance with you and with the most fervent wishes for your health and success, I remain your most affectionate G. WASHINGTON. That the guns mounted on Governor's Island gave an ac- count of themselves we learn from the journal of Lieut. -Colonel Stephen Kemble* of H. M. 6oth Foot. He notes under date of July 6, 1776, two months following Washington's statement, that Governor's Island has a large and strong work "Observe the Rebels have fortified Governor's Island very strongly "- and on July 12, 1776, that "About half after three in the After- noon His Majesty's Ship Phcenix, commanded by Captain Parker, and the Rose, by Captain Wallace, with the Tryal Schooner and two Tenders got under sail to pass the Town of New York. ********* They received the whole of the Rebel fire from Red Hook, Governor's Island, the Battery and from some Guns in the Town. ***** At half past four the ships were past all the Batteries. Number of Shots fired by the Rebels, 196. * Stephen Kemble was born in New Brunswick, New Jersey. In 1740 he was commissioned an Ensign in H. M. 44th Regt. of Foot, and in 1765 a captain in the Royal Americans, H. M. 6oth Foot. Colonel Kemble served under General Gage and Sir William Howe later in Boston, and in 1779 joined the 6oth Foot in Jamaica. HISTORY OF GOVERNORS ISLAND In August Lord Stirling wrote:* "The General bids me say that in our present situation Governor's Island is more strong and better guarded than any other post in the Army." The obstructions between Governor's Island and the Bat- tery mentioned in orders consisted of hulks sunk in the Channel. Cooperating with the defences at Governor's Island, which in those days of short range might be almost considered as outworks, were others in the City itself and it may surprise the reader of today to know of their number in close proximity to Governor's Island. General Washington had, very shortly after July 4, 1776, a force of 20,000 men, poorly equipped, armed and disciplined. They manned, among other works, the following: Grand Battery (still called The Battery), 23 guns : Fort George, Bowling Green, 2 guns ; McDougall's Battery, just west of Trinity Church, 4 guns; Grenadier's (or Circular) Battery, north of this point, 5 guns; Jersey Battery, near this, 5 guns ; Coenties' Battery on the East River, 5 guns ; Waterbury's Battery, 7 guns; and at other points near by, all within a small radius, Thompson's Battery, 9 guns; the Inde- pendent Battery, on Centre Street and breastworks at Peck, Beekman, Burling, Coenties and Old Slips, the Coffee House, Exchange, Broad Street and others, besides Brooklyn Heights, Red Hook, and a line of works from Fort Green at the Walla- bout (now New York Navy Yard) to Gowanus Creek. There was also a "barrier" or fortified line across the Island which crossed the Bowery in the line of the present Grand Street. This was begun in 1775 and strengthened by the British during their occupation of the City, 1776-1783. With this description may be compared a letter from Peter * Fort Stirling was situated on Brooklyn Heights, near the present Montagu Street. Lord Stirling, born in New York, was heir to a Scotch title. He married the daughter of Philip Livingston. He was Colonel of the ist New Jersey Regiment of Militia and after the Battle of Long Island received the commission of Major General from the Continental Congress. 43 ENGLISH COLONIAL AND REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD Elting to Capt. Richard Varick under date of 3Oth July, 1776, in which he says: "You would be surprised to see what Number of Empty houses there are in this place Verry few of the inhabitants Remain in town that are not ingaged in the Service. * * * * Great preparations are making here With Shiver de freeses and Vessels to stop up the Channel & sundry fire ships preparing two Brigs are Ready, something great will Be attempted soon five or seven Rogallies are already Come down from the Eastward * * * the fleet Remains Verry Quiet But the men of the two menwar up the River have a small brush Once in a While with our Guards long the River." The reader who needs a translation of some of the terms used in this letter for the information of Captain Varick will find it in the Memoirs of Major General William Heath, who notes therein, on the next day after, August ist, that thirty British sail have arrived at the Hook and that three or more row-gallies have gone up the Hudson, and further, that in bringing the hulks, cheveux de frise, &c., round from the East River to the Hudson one sloop was sunk between Gover- nor's Island and the Grand Battery. General Putnam arrived in New York on April 4th, 1776, and wrote to the President of Congress : "After getting the works in such forwardness as will be prudent to leave I propose immediately to take possession of Governor's Island which I think a very important Post." The works in June mounted four 32 and four 18 pdrs. On April pth Colonel Silliman of Connecticut wrote to his wife: "Last evening draughts were made from a number of Regiments here, mine among the rest, to the number of 1000 men. With these and a proper number of officers Gen'l. Put- nam at candle lighting embarked on Board of a number of vessels with a large Number of intrenching tools and went directly on * * * Nutten Island where they have been in- trenching all night * * * and have got a good Breast work there raised which will cover them from the fire of the Ships." The "New York Gazette" announces that on "Monday night 43 HISTORY OF GOVERNOR'S ISLAND looo Continental troops stationed here went over and took possession of Governor's Island and began to fortify it." General Putnam lived at this time in No. I, Broadway, Bowling Green, in a house called the Kennedy House. Since 1643 only three houses have occupied this site. The present one is called the Washington Building on account of the fact that General Washington frequently visited the original Ken- nedy House on the same site. Col. Wm. Douglas in a letter to his wife, Northford, Conn., dated N. York Aug'st 31, 1776, says: "We have evacuated Governor's Island where we have lost some cannon. They fired smartly from Fort Stirling yester- day at our boats passing from Governor's Island." In thinking of an historical period far removed from our own time one is apt to have in mind a general impression or composite picture of the whole in which unknown details are summoned up by the imagination to form a confused image of the shadowy Past. This is unsatisfactory at best and in order to make more clear to the reader the actual state of affairs at this time in the history of our City and Island, when Putnam and his men came over in all haste at candle lighting to fortify against the British attack, an extract follows from Lamb's History of New York. With its aid one seems to live in the scenes of war preparation it so admirably illuminates. "New York was one of the busiest spots on the Western Conti- nent just now. Men were working night and day on the forts, troops were coming in from all quarters of the compass in the most picturesque and greatest variety of costume. The old red coats used in the French War had been brought from the garrets and turned to account in Connecticut. In juxtaposi- tion with the tow colored frocks worn by her volunteers appeared every now and then a dingy regimental of scarlet with a tarnished three-cornered laced hat. Some of the Mary- landers wore green hunting shirts with leggings to match. Troops came from Delaware in dark blue coats with red fac- ings. Some of the New Jersey riflemen were in short red coats and striped trousers; others in short blue coats, old 44 ENGLISH COLONIAL AND REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD leather breeches, light blue stockings, shoes with brass buckles and wool hats bound with yellow. The Pennsylvania Regi- ments were in all the colours of the rainbow 'brown coats faced with buff, blue coats faced with red, brown coats faced with white and studded with great pewter buttons, buck- skin breeches and black cocked hats with white tape bindings, also blue coats faced with white. The Virginians wore white smock-frocks furbelowed with ruffles at the neck, elbows and wrist, black stocks, hair in queues and round-topped broad- brimmed black hats. A little later the Light Dragoons were uniformed in blue coats faced with red or in brown coats faced with green. The Washington Guards wore blue coats faced with buff, red waist coats, buckskin breeches, black felt hats bound with white tape and bayonets with belts of white. Hunting shirts, the 'moral aversion of the Red-coat/ with breeches of the same cloth as the shirts gaiter fashion about the legs were seen on every side, and being convenient garments for campaigning were soon adopted by the British themselves. This was the origin of the modern trouser or pantaloon." Of such composition was the force under General Putnam busy in throwing up the breastworks on Governor's Island. We can imagine the feverish haste of the day and night fortifi- cation work, the clumsiness of the hunters, the lack of disci- pline among the farmer boys, the fatigue of the volunteers from the counting-house. We can well believe many brown coats with their great pewter buttons were cast aside when the pick and shovel were taken up and that three-cornered hats and ruffles at the neck, elbows and wrist fared badly in the trenches. These men 'had coats of many colours, but their hearts were one for union and defence. Our admiration and gratitude must be theirs as their heritage is ours. We read further in Lamb's interesting account : "The scene was like one vast bee hive. Soldiers and civilians ran hither and thither in the performance of some exacting duty. Aside from the numerous fortifications and batteries in and around New York, on Governor's Island and Long Island, barricades 45 HISTORY OF GOVERNOR'S ISLAND were thrown up in every street leading to the water, chiefly of mahogany logs taken from West India cargoes. City Hall Park was almost entirely enclosed. Broadway was obstructed in front of St. Paul's Chapel, a barrier rose at the head of Vesey Street, another at the head of Barclay, one at the head of Murray Street, and many others at Centre St., Frankfort and Chatham Streets and an angular defence where the Tribune Building now stands." Trinity Church was the old Royalist Parish of 1696. The citizens, accustomed as they were and had been for three- quarters of a century to prayers in the Parish Church for the King and Royal Family, demanded however that they should now cease. The Reverend Charles Inglis, the Rector, was insulted wherever he went in the streets and finally his life was threat- ened if he did not desist from using the liturgy according to the text. To officiate publicly and abstain from the mention of England's monarch in his supplications would be to violate his oath and the dictates of his conscience. His embarrassment was very great. One Sunday morning a company of 150 soldiers marched into the church with drums beating and pipes playing and bayonets glistening on their loaded guns. The congregation was panic stricken and women fainted. It was supposed that if the Rector should read the collects for the King and Royal Family he would be shot in the sacred desk. But he went on boldly to the end, omitting no portion of the service, and although there were restless and hostile demonstrations he escaped injury. In a private letter to Peter Van Schaack, 23d February, 1776, two months before General Putnam began the works on Governor's Island, Frederick Rhinelander indicates the feel- ing of alarm in the City due to the arrival of American troops in force, when he says: "To see the vast number of houses shut up one would think the City almost evacuated. Women and children are scarcely seen in the streets." In a note of the same period we read: "Friday, Sept. 13, 46 ENGLISH COLONIAL AND REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD 1776. In the afternoon some Men of War went up the East River; the few cannons left fired on the ships which caused that they fired back from Long Island and Governor's Island, and very smartly." This was shortly after the Battle of Long Island, August 27, 1776, the "day that though so full of sorrow for the Ameri- cans, shed so little glory on British arms." Washington had 20,000 troops; Prescott's and Nixon's Regiments were sta- tioned on Governor's Island. Lord Howe sailed up the Bay and anchored near the Island, whereupon our troops withdrew to the mainland, sustaining only one injury, a soldier wounded as he was embarking, by a ball from the British man-of-war. Thomas Jones, a staunch Tory, Justice of the Peace for the Province, writes as follows: "Sept., 1776. The rebels in their hurry upon leaving Long Island left the Garrison upon Nutten Island (which they had strongly fortified) consisting of 2,000 men, 40 pieces of heavy cannon, military stores and provisions in abundance without the least means of quitting the Island. The Royal Army consisted of near 30,000 men ****** yet no steps were taken to make prisoners of the garrison and get possession of the forts, stores, artillery and provisions. In the evening of the same day (unaccountable as it is) a detachment of the rebel Army went from New York to Nutten Island with a number of boats and carried off the troops, the stores, artillery and provisions. * Had Lord Howe taken his fleet up the East River on the day of the action upon Long Island and the River been lined with the Ships from Governor's Island to Hellgate, "not a rebel would have escaped from Long Island. But this was not done, and why it was not done, let the brothers Howe tell." A more detailed account of this action is found in a con- temporary note by a Royalist: "In the evening of the 27th of August the army (British) encamped in front of the enemy's works. On the 28th at night they broke ground 600 yards from a redoubt upon their left and on the 29th at night the Rebels evacuated their intrenchments and Red Hook (Brook- 47 HISTORY OF GOVERNOR'S ISLAND lyn opposite Governor's Island) with the utmost silence and quitted Governor's Island the following evening, leaving their cannon and a quantity of stores in the works. At daybreak on the 3Oth their flight was discovered. The piquets of the line took possession and those most advanced reached the shore opposite New York as their rear guard was going over and fired some shot among them. Admiral Howe at this time sent up four ships which an- chored about two miles below the Island and kept up a most tremendous fire against the rebel fortifications there." Cannon balls are frequently dug up on the Island, as in making the foundations for the new Chapel in 1905, in laying the water mains across the parade and in digging trenches for telephone cables. In fact, digging of any considerable amount always discloses old cannon balls which are be- lieved to be, or some of them at least, from this bombardment. The British forces under General Howe and Admiral Howe seized Governor's Island shortly after this and occupied it until the evacuation of New York in 1783. The Battle of Long Island occurred on August 27th. Wash- ington called a Council of War on September I2th, which de- cided to evacuate the City. On September isth the British occupied the City. "Once more," says Jenkins in "The Great- est Street in the World," "the banner of Great Britain flew over the ramparts of the Fort, while the parade was trodden by men in the red coats of the English, the kilts of the Highlanders and the green coats of General Gage's men. * * * * They all departed forever on November 25th, 1783, when the American Army of occupation resumed possession of the City and Fort and flung its starry banner to the breeze." Botta, writing of the action of the retreat after the Battle of Long Island, says : "Whoever will attend to all the details of this retreat will easily believe that no military operation was ever conducted with more ability or prudence." He might have added that arms, ammunition and stores were never taken away from their victorious captors by the defeated with more skill and impudence. 48 ENGLISH COLONIAL AND REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD The American forces at this time were not able to hold New York, as the following letter from the highest authority indi- cates: 8th September, 1776. That the enemy mean to winter in New York, there can be no doubt; that they can drive us out is equally clear. Nothing seems to remain but to determine the time of their taking possession. G. WASHINGTON. Whereupon Congress resolved that the President should inform General Washington it was by no means the sense of Congress in their resolves of the 3rd instant respecting New York that the Army or any part of it should remain in that City a moment longer than he should consider proper. Governor's Island remained in the possession of the British troops, who fortified it heavily, from 1776 until the restoration of peace in 1783. The following extracts from "Revolutionary Papers" (New York Historical Society) throw light upon the activities of the British during their occupation of Governor's Island. In 1779, Gen'l. Patterson, the English Commandant, wrote to the Lord Townshend that "he is repairing the ruined forti- fications and batteries erected by the Rebels on Governor's Island. We secured by public appeal the services of 500 citi- zens, a great many of them merchants and shopkeepers, who with great cheerfulness labored at the fortifications and would accept no pay. Those who required pay received ten shillings and rations per day." We have little information regarding the period of occupa- tion by the British. The following letters and orders are of interest and value in throwing light upon this era of the Island's history: To ADMIRAL ARBUTHNOT: Major General Pattison presents his Compliments to Admiral Arbuthnot and is justly sensible of his kind dis- position to contribute to the Comfort of the Army and * the Sick of the Troops will be removed to Governor's Island to-morrow. New York, Sept. i, 1779. 49 HISTORY OF GOVERNOR'S ISLAND Aii order of Sept. 29, 1779, directs that by orders of Major General Pattison a "daily allowance of provisions, Rum and Spruce Beer be issued to 300 laborers employed on the King's works on Governor's Island and that tents, blankets, camp kettles, fuel and boats be ready at 6 o'clock in the morning at White Hall." To MAJOR ANDRE NEW YORK, Oct. 4, 1779. SIR: I am directed by Major Gen'l. Pattison to acquaint you that * * he has deferred giving orders for removing Lieut. Col. Buskirk's Battalion to Governor's Island till His Excellency the Commander-in-Chief's Pleasure shall be known. * * * * As there are 150 of Lowes- berg's Regiment returning from sea, * * * the greater part of Buskirk's Battalion might be sent to Governor's Island. Gen'l. Pattison therefore requests that you will take His Excellency's Commands. I am, etc. Major Andre STEP. P. AYDE, A. D. C. To CAPTAIN MERCER, NEW YORK, December 2, 1779. SIR: I am directed by Major Gen'l Pattison to signify to you that it is indispensably necessary that Guard should be on Governor's Island for the protection of the Bastions, etc., the Guns being at present exposed to be spiked every night. He desires that a Guard Room sufficient to contain 20 men may be erected there and that you will inform him when it is ready. I have, etc. Capt. Mercer S. P. A. Com'dg. Eng'r. (STEP. P. AYDE) As a state of alarm among the British is disclosed in the foregoing order of 1779, so the dawn of peace is suggested in the following report from General Heath : 50 ENGLISH COLONIAL AND REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD HEADQUARTERS CONTINENTAL VILLAGE, Sept. 23rd, 1781. To GOVERNOR CLINTON, SIR: I am honoured by yours of the 22d. * * * * An account from Long Island says a 74 gun ship was taken and that three were dismasted. The greatest part of the troops with Governor Clinton are embarked. All the heavy cannon both of the Grand Battery and of Governor's Island have been taken on board the ships. W. HEATH, Major General. There are few records known to exist during the intervening years relative to Governor's Island. The war ceased in 1783 and from the Clinton MSS. the following orders are taken: Amphion, off New York, 25th November 1783. GOVERNOR CLINTON. SIR: I have given orders that all the Buildings now re- maining upon Governor's Island shall be left untouched, whenever I am able to leave. I am, sir, your most Obed't humble servt. (Admiral) ROB'T. DIGBY GOVERNOR'S ISLAND, Dec. 3rd. 1783. 7 A. M. SIR: Having received orders from Rear Admiral Digby to withdraw the Guard together with the whole Naval Hos- pital from this Island I acquaint you Excellency that at the hour of eleven A. M. this day the Guard together with the Naval Hospital will be withdrawn from the Island. I am also desired to inform your Excellency that the only property disposed of belonging to Government on Governor's Island are the hulls of two Brigantines hauled up on each side of the wharf. I shall do myself the honour to inclose for your Excel- HISTORY OF GOVERNOR'S ISLAND lency's better information a list of the different buildings regularly numbered with the keys to the person you shall think it fit to take charge of them from Lieutenant Gra- ham. I have the honour to be your Excellency's most obed't and most humble serv't JAMES DUNCAN, Capt. in the Navy etc. To His Excellency GOVERNOR CLINTON etc. etc. State of New York. The descriptive list includes among other buildings, etc., a Captain's and Lieutenant's Barracks and Kitchens, a guard house, a convalescent hospital, a barn, a gardener's house, all of which have long since disappeared.* With the close of the Revolution in 1783 the American com- mand was reestablished on Governor's Island and the British works were occupied. That the young Republic was mindful of its dignity is shown by an order from the President through the Secretary of War dated Nov. 18, 1794, stating that the Secretary of War Knox informs the Officer Commanding upon Governor's Island that the Minister of the French Republic has represented that the French frigate "Semillante" had saluted the flag with fifteen guns and that the fort had not re- plied and that the President of the United States wishes the Commanding Officer immediately to fix a time when he would fire the Federal Salute of Fifteen guns. On April 19, 1795, Alex. Thompson, Capt. Corps, of Ar- tillerists and Engineers respectfully reports to Governor Clinton that the French man-of-war has left the North River and that at this time the fifteen gun salute was duly delivered from the battery which he commands on the Island. Another bit of correspondence on the subject of Salutes is interesting to compare with our modern telegraph-telephone- quick-order-fixed-ammunition methods. * This guard house is probably the one mentioned in Major General Pattison's Orders (p. 50), as that was evidently of hasty construction. The Convalescent Hospital was part of the British Naval Hospital (v. p. 51). 52 ENGLISH COLONIAL AND REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD GOVERNOR'S ISLAND, Oct. n, 1794. To His EXCELLENCY. SIR: Yesterday morning Admiral Murra sent a Lieutenant to this Island to learn from me as a commanding officer whether it would be proper or whether it had been custom- ary to salute the Flag of the United States at such a dis- tance and what number of guns would be given. In an- swer to his salute, I informed the Lieutenant that the Admiral lay at such a Distance I thought it Improper to Salute, but should it so happen that the Admiral did Come I 'p within i mile in a S. Direction of this Island accord- ing to Your Excellency's orders, I should Return his Salute. But as to Stipulate for the No. of Guns it was out of my power, But that our Natl. Salute was 13 at present. Agreeable to your Excellency's Orders sometime ago, I shall attend to Returning the Salute should the Admiral Come Up. Your Excellence will please to understand that Admiral Murra lays at the watering place so called here Staten Island. I am Yours Excellency's Most Obt. and Humble servt. CORNS. R. SEDAM,* Captain ist Sub Legion. On February 28, 1794, the Committee of the House of Con- gress directed to report on such Harbour forts as required to be put in a proper state of defence made a report in relation to Governor's Island stating that the expense of constructing batteries, embrasures and platforms for 24 pieces was $1727.52; * Spelled also "Suydam" (Heitman). The Legion of the United States was organized March 5, 1792, and comprised Infantry, Dragoons and Artillery. It consisted of four Sub Legions, each commanded by a Lt. Colonel. The ist Infantry (1784) formed part of the First Sub Legion. Nov. i, 1796, the Legion was disbanded, the Infantry of the ist, zd, 3rd and 4th Sub Legions becoming respectively the ist, ad, 3rd and 4th Regiments of Infantry. Two companies of Light Dragoons were also formed from The Legion. The uniform of the ist Sub Legion was white binding upon their caps, with white plumes and black hair. 53 HISTORY OF GOVERNOR'S ISLAND a redoubt for embrasures, $810; a magazine, $200; a block house or barracks, $500. On March 26, 1794, Congress appropriated for fortifications on Governor's Island $150,000. This expenditure was under the direction of George Clinton, Mathew Clarkson, James Watson, Rich'd Varick, Nicholas Fish, Ebenezer Stevens and A. Hammond. A further sum of $100,000 was appropriated on April 6, 1795, to complete the works on Governor's and Ellis' Islands. In 1797 $30,117 were appropriated for the Fort now known as Fort Jay. Such was the fear of French invasion that the Professors and Students of Columbia College came to the Island and worked with shovels and barrows to complete the work. The Garrison at this time consisted of one Major, one Captain, one Surgeon, two ist Lieutenants, one cadet, three Sergeants, one corporal, four musicians, five artificers and 34 privates. It was not alone at this period that Columbia College showed its practical patriotism. Again, in the war of 1812, the students assembled on Sept. 8, 1814, and worked at the fort in Harlem, going to that then distant part of the City by steamboat. In 1799 $30,116 were appropriated for the work; in 1800 $20,124; in 1801 $10,338. The Secretary of War had reported to Congress in 1794 that one bastion commanding two low batteries had been under- taken but that the works, being only sodded, would not last long. Later, in 1796, January 18, he reported that Gover- nor's Island had been fortified with an earthen fort of two bastions partly lined with brick masonry, two air furnaces, a large powder magazine and barracks. From 1794-1797 Quarantine was located here. The building of Castle Williams, and especially of Fort Jay, which was forty years in construction (1794-1833) and had many periods, is difficult to describe smoothly in connection with other events and the reader's indulgence is asked for such lack of sequence or repetition as he may observe. In 1801 Fort Jay had a "handsome gateway with a corps de 54 55 O 1 55 P O * P fe u, a: o *r< O 00 U, 55 O O 55 S < w -J S ^ 2 C_ s o ENGLISH COLONIAL AND REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD garde drawbridge." In connection with this gateway there is a pretty legend which, though persistent, cannot be verified as to time or person. The story is that a prisoner who was a stone- cutter by trade was detailed to make the fine carving which adorns the gateway. During the progress of the work one day the commanding officer's little daughter stood under the gateway with the stonecutter who was inspecting his work from below. Just then a heavy block of stone or a stone cannon ball fell and would have killed the child, but the prisoner, too late to pull her aside, interposed his own body and saved her life with serious injury to himself. His re- ward for the gallant act was pardon. If the story cannot be proved, neither can it be disproved, and it has been told long enough to entitle it to a respectful hearing and a willing accept- ance. In the centre of the Fort Jay of 1801 was a square block- house of timber two stories high, but probably not cannon- proof, with a well under it. This is probably the block house for which Congress appropriated $500 in 1794. As for the well, as late as 1905 the remains of the superstructure of the pump remained in situ, requiring everyone who crossed the quadrangle to make a detour. It has lately been removed, but its situation in the crosswalks is plainly indicated. No further improvements were made till 1806, when Fort Jay was de- molished, except the walled counterscarp, the gate, sally port, magazine and two barracks. All the rest of the works was removed to allow of more durable material to be used in con- struction. On the site of old Fort Jay was erected a new Fort with the name changed to Fort Columbus, which name was retained until 1904 when by orders of the War Department it was re-named Fort Jay. The new fortification consisted of an en- closed pentagonal work with four bastions of masonry to hold loo guns. On three of its sides it was built the same as Fort Jay the elder with the addition of 14 feet on each side ; and on the north wall of a ravelin with two retired casemated flanks. Guns to command the (dry) moat were located here. Their 55 HISTORY OF GOVERNOR'S ISLAND casemates are now bricked up. The minutes of the Military and Philosophical Society of West Point (1808) state that two detached batteries were built about this period, one mounting four 18 pdrs. and one 8 in. French mortar, with platforms for four others; and the other, ten pieces, 18 and 24 pdrs. The parapet had 52 embrasures and it would take 1,000 men to man the parapet. This work was completed in 1809. Castle Williams was begun in 1807 and completed in 1811, as the crumbling dates in the stone over the gateway set forth. It was designed and built by Lieut. -Colonel Jonathan Williams, Engineer Corps. The material of the castle is Newark red sandstone. It rests on a bed of rock at the extreme north- westernly point of the Island. In form it is 3/5 of a circle, 200 feet in diameter. The walls are 40 feet in height, case- mated with bomb-proof arches for 2 tiers of guns. Guns were also mounted upon the top, to which access was had by two in- terior stone turret staircases. The walls are 8 feet thick on the lower tier and seven feet on the upper tier. It had on each side of the gate on the inside a stone building. One of these was used for a powder magazine and one for solitary con- finement at some period. There is a walk for sentry duty in the thickness of the wall over the main gate and a picturesque stone sentry box at the angle. The stone buildings referred to here have been taken down (1912-13) and the material is being used for the building of a two-story structure on the same site. The lower story contains a guard house and the upper story rooms for court martial and other purposes. It is an admirable re-arrangement, giv- ing at once much needed facilities for garrison administration and increasing the military appearance of the interior court of the Castle. For many years Castle Williams has been used as a military prison. During the Civil War it is said 1500 prisoners were confined in the Castle at one time. All the tiers were used for the prisoners and a large cooking house was erected in the middle of the court. A stockade was built in front of the gate and strongly guarded. The reveille gun and saluting battery 56 ENGLISH COLONIAL AND REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD arc mounted on the top of the castle and a fog bell and siren are a part of its equipment. A passageway connected the Castle with the main fort in the middle of the Island. Its remains arc clearly visible to-day. What is left of the way extends from the Fort to the Post Hospital. The rest of it was destroyed evidently to make way for modern constructions on the northern edge of the Island. A large tree has grown up in this passage. The question as to the name of the Castle frequently arising, it may be of interest to quote the order on the subject: IST INDORSEMENT. 1111709 WAR DEPARTMENT, THE MILITARY SECRETARY'S OFFICE, WASHINGTON, March 20, 1906. In a letter dated New York, November 27, 1810, ad dressed to the Secretary of War, Colonel Jonathan Wil- liams of the Corps of Engineers says : "I take the earliest opportunity of expressing my gratitude for the high honour conferred upon me by adding my name to the Castle I erected on the west point of Governor's Island in this harbor." Accompanying the letter referred to above is a copy of an order dated Fort Columbus, 24 November, 1810, issued by Colonel Henry Burbeck, commanding Harbor New York, which directs that "In future the stone tower on this Island Cby the approbation of the Secretary of War) will bear the name of Castle Williams, in honor of the commandant of the United States Corps of Engineers who designed and erected it." E. F. LADD, Military Secretary. The earliest designation of the Castle seems to have been "The Tower," as in the order above quoted and also in the following, issued a year later: 57 HISTORY OF GOVERNOR'S ISLAND Orders: FORT COLUMBUS 7th Deer, 1811. ******** The practice of landing and leaving boats at the Tower is improper. In addition to violation of orders, it gives a facility to desertion : boats therefore of any description are prohibited landing at or near Castle Williams. ******** By order of COL. BURBECK. C. VAN DEVENTER, Lieut, and Acting Adjutant. The S. W. Battery, built at the lower end of Manhattan by Colonel Jonathan Williams, was called Castle Clinton after May, 1812, and in 1823 its name was changed to Castle Garden. The North Battery was thrown up at the foot of Hubert Street, and Fort Gansevort at the foot of Gansevort Street, while on the Staten Island shore were Forts Rich- mond, Tompkins and Hudson. Opposite was Fort Diamond (now Fort Lafayette). These four forts mounted about 500 guns. Other early military defences near Governor's Island were Half Moon batteries at Coenties Slip and at the water gate of Wall Street, now occupied by the Q. M. Dept. pier. There were also defences in those days along Wall Street and a curtain at the land gate, where Trinity Church was built in 1697. These fortifications were mounted with the miniature guns of the period, known as demi-culverins, sakers and minions. o PC oo H OS 75 o cc > c O 2; o /o CHAPTER III. PERIOD OF THE WAR OF 1812. The "Second War of American Independence" found us with an army of 10,000 men, maximum limit, composed of 46 regiments of infantry, 4 rifle regiments, an artillery corps, a regiment of light artillery and of dragoons and an engineer department. It is interesting to notice that the Infantry regi- ments were to be recruited each from the State or district assigned. The districts were numbered, however, not named. The farthest west were the "territories of Indiana, Michigan, Illinois and Missouri." The district in which Governor's Island was situated was designated as "New York from the sea to the Highlands of New Jersey except that part of the state which furnishes the ist division of Militia." From an old Garrison Order book of 1810-11 are taken the few extracts following, some of which may be considered ap- propriate to a chapter on the War of 1812 as disclosing pre- parations for the War. Others are interesting as reminding us of the fact that human nature and Garrison conditions pre- sent the same difficulties in one century as in another. Colonel Burbeck, who assumed command of all the troops in New York Harbour in 1810, shows an earnest desire in his orders to preserve order and to promote discipline in every way. This book of orders is almost pathetic in its simplicity. It consists of a number of sheets of paper, yellow-brown with age, tied together with red tape of the pattern used today, though faded to a lighter shade. The penmanship is uniformly excellent and abounds in the graceful flourishes characteristic of the period. They are all signed Justus, Post Adjt, except one signed by Lt Van De Venter, Actg Adjt and one of 1812 by Amos Stod- dard, Majr Comdg. . Colonel Burbeck had served in General Knox's Regiment, Continental Artillery and other Regiments from 1775 to 1789, 59 HISTORY OF GOVERNOR S ISLAND and in the Artillery and Engineers to 1798. Lieut. Chris- topher Van De Venter entered the U. S. Military Academy from New York in 1808, and Major Stoddard, Major ist Ar- tillery March, 1812, died in 1813 of wounds received at the siege of Fort Meigs, Ohio. We learn from the pages of this book that Colonel Burbeck assumed command of all the troops in the Harbour of New York on the I7th August, 1810, and issued, among other orders from Fort Columbus, several showing the activity of fortification construction work. In the first Garrison order issued, 26th August, 1910, occurs the following: * * * "All's Well" will be called out every quarter of an hour from Tattoo till day light, beginning at No. I at guard house. All the other sentinels will observe to answer the call in rota- tion, * * * in doing which they will observe to turn their faces towards the guard house that they may be the more distinctly heard by the Sergt. or Corporal of the guard who will pay particular attention that it be repeated all round." This order, dated Fort Columbus, is signed "Justus Post Adjt." Another order of the same month forbids all officers, non- commissioned officers, soldiers, citizens and all other persons of every description from getting upon the parapet, and also directs the Adjutant to sign the returns for the extra Liquor served the fatigue men employed upon the public works. On Sept. 3d it was ordered that only those prisoners confined in the guard house who had been sentenced to hard labour would be indulged in the privilege of their ration of liquor, but that rations retained would be left in store and the amount thereof appropriated to furnish articles of nourishment for the sick of the Garrison. An order of 1811 forbids the landing of rum, brandy, gin, spirits, cordial or ardent spirits of any kind except for the use of the officers of the Garrison and the ration liquor furnished by the Contractor. Another states that "as the smoaking of pipes or segars in the open air is both danger- ous and indecorous," it is strictly forbidden (except in quar- ters) at any post in the Harbour. 60 PERIOD OF THE WAR OF l8l2 Still another one, regretting that "some of the soldiers of this Garrison had so far abandoned the strict principles of honour as to bear the stigma of a black eye or a bruised face/' states that those thus disqualified will not be permitted to ap- pear on parade or to mount their guard, but will be obliged to make up all omitted tours of guard upon the cessation of such disqualification. The commanding officers of Garrisons and Companies are ordered (August 5, 1811) never to suffer more than two men to be absent in one day on pass or furlough. On a military map of the Island made in 1857 cowsheds are shown, but an order of this period dated 4th October, 1810, by Colonel Burbeck directs that "Swine being considered a nui- sance to a Garrison and improper animals to range or be harbored, after those which now belong here shall have been disposed of, none will be suffered to be landed or kept upon the Island. The extracts from this Garrison order book will close with one upon a more serious subject. ******* Garrison Orders. FORT COLUMBUS, 23d Novr., 1810. The sixteen gun Battery being now completed it will be appropriated to the particular use of firing salutes and the old Guard will hereafter be considered the party to per- form that duty : * * under the immediate direction of Sergt Campbell. No one except the non-commissioned officers will go into the Magazine and those will be careful when they enter it to leave their shoes without the door. Of the period of 1812 on Governor's Island we learn many interesting details through the courtesy of (the late) Brig. ( K- nl. T. F. Rodenbough, who has allowed the author to quote from the original MSS. Garrison order book of 1814-15. This book, formerly the property of General Harvey Brown, was presented to the Military Service Institution by Miss Emily * See also order issued the following day (plate, p. 65). 61 HISTORY OF GOVERNOR'S ISLAND Brown. No better idea of the social manners and military usages of that day could be given than by a few of the quota- tions from this voluminous official record, which the author has the pleasure of doing. These orders are written in a clear, beautiful hand, with a quill pen, and show a careful style of literary composition sadly lacking in these clays of typewriting haste. It may be of interest in this connection to quote the Regula- tion concerning stationery for the Army issued (May 2, 1814) at this time : To a Major General as much stationery as necessary for the discharge of his public duties. To other General officers 24 quires of paper per annum. To a Major 6 quires of paper and i blank book per annum. For the use of every other commanding officer 2 quires per annum and a proportion of other stationery at the rate of 50 quills, as many wafers and a paper of ink powder to each 6 quires. The orders include a large number of court martial cases with charges of desertion, absence without leave and disobedi- ence of orders. The sentences on the whole appear lenient, the various courts evidently being actuated by a desire to temper justice with mercy. Others are of necessity severe, as became a state of war. A few examples are given, as throwing light on the prac- tices of the day : FORT COLUMBUS, May 10, 1814. Garrison Orders. ******** At a Garrison Court Martial whereof Lieut. Bailey was President, convened on the 9th inst, was tried the fol- lowing offender, , a private in Captn Swett's Company, charged with neglect of duty in leaving his post, stealing whiskey and getting two of his guard drunk while on post on the morning of the 2d May, 1814, to which charge the prisoner pleaded not guilty. The court found the prisoner guilty of the charge and sentenced him 62 PERIOD OF THE WAR OF l8l2 to be confined four days in the Black Hole* and to be drummed off the Island. The same court found a private in Captn Humphrey's Company guilty of suffering a patroling party to pass into the South Battery without demanding the countersign, being himself a sentry at the gate, and of making use of abusive language to the Sergeant of the Guard, and sentenced him to be confined three days in the Black Hole on bread and water and to have his whiskey stopped 30 days. ******** Apropos of the stoppage of whiskey imposed in this and other sentences, it may be mentioned that on Dec. 8, 1830, the issue of whiskey was by G. O. commutated for cash and on Nov. 5, 1832, this money allowance for whiskey was converted into a coffee or ration allowance. ******** The Black Hole referred to in the orders of 1814 is believed from indirect references in other parts of this order book to have been in the present Post Headquarters Building (1913). An order of Jan. 8, 1815, orders the officer of Police to have the window of the Black Hole stopped up and well secured that Private may begin his 10 days' solitary confinement therein. A sentence which would be considered to day "unusual," if not "cruel," is seen in the following order: Garrison Orders. FORT COLUMBUS, Aug. 13, 1814. ******** A Garrison Court Martial will convene this morning at 10 o'clock A. M. for the trial of such prisoners as may be brought before it. Captn Bennete will preside. The court being duly sworn in the presence of the Prisoners proceeded to the trial of , a private in Captn Swett's Company of Artillery. Charge, theft; spcfn., stealing a watch from Private Bernard. Plea, guilty. The court sentenced him to be drummed once up and down the Parade with the rogues' march, with his coat turned and the word THIEF written thereon in large *V. Addend am, page 175. 63 HISTORY OF GOVERNOR'S ISLAND letters : further, that he stand within view of the evening parade each day for one week with his coat in the same manner, except when on guard duty, and to have his whiskey stopped for one month. Another order of this character is noted under date of Jan. 19, 1815, according to which Corporal is to be "reduced to the ranks at guard mounting when his knot will be taken from his shoulder on parade in front of the Battalion;" and Mary of Captain Watson's Company was con- victed of conveying whiskey to a Sentinel on post, whereupon the court sentenced her "to be drummed off the Island im- mediately after guard mounting and never to be suffered to return." Another order of the same period orders that Corporal shall have his knot cut from his shoulders by the smallest drummer in the Battalion. An Execution Order follows; ******** Garrison Orders : FT. COLUMBUS, July 7, 1814. The Troops on Governor's Island will parade tomorrow morning at half past n o'clock on the Grand Parade for the purpose of witnessing the execution of the prisoner sentenced by a Gen'l order of the 2d inst. to be shot to death. The Troops will form three sides of a square, the Artillery will form the right : left flank the Infty ; the rear, the execution party consisting of a Sergeant and 12 pri- vates which will parade at half past n o'clock, and be placed under the command of Lieut. Farley, Provost Marshal. The guards of the advanced posts will leave their entries at their respective posts and will repair to the Parade at half past n o'clock, those under charge of the Provost Marshal will join the execution party for the purpose of escorting the Prisoner to the place of execu- tion. The execution party in Divisions preceded by the music with the Provost Marshal at their head will march in front of the Prisoner, the music playing the Dead* * The dirge played at the military executions of this period was "Roslyn Castle," with muffled drums. 64 3 >* v ! ^ I PERIOD OF THE WAR OF l8l2 March : the guards formed in divisions will march in rear of the Prisoner. The procession will enter the Square from the rear, face ten paces from the coffin placed in the center upon which the Prisoner kneels. By a signal from the Provost Marshal the music ceases, the signal to fire is then given to the execution party. By order of M. SWETT, Com'g. A pleasing incident of pax inter bellum is discovered in an Artillery order of Jan. I, 1815, when Mars unbends for the moment and in the presence of the ladies of the "Stocking, Hood and Mockason Society" removes his helmet and becomes amenable to the softening influence of woman's sympathy. The courtesies of the day are well illustrated in the charming reply of the gallant commanding officer. Artillery orders. FORT COLUMBUS, Jan. i, 1815. ******** Lieut. Col. House has received the following communi- cation from the ladies of the "Stocking, Hood and Mockason Society of New York," accompanied with 46 Hoods and 46 prs. of mittens to be presented to the Sol- diers and Sentinels on duty at the several Artillery posts under his command : NEW YORK, Dec. 30, 1814. "SiR: (After reciting the action of the Society) The Society regrets that the present state of their funds does not enable them to do more for those whose claims are strengthened by every consideration of Patriotism and Gratitude. By order of the Board of Managers. COL. HOUSE. N. D. S. B RADISH, Sec. "This Humane and pleasing attention to the wants and privations of the Soldier from a Body of the most respect- able Ladies of New York cannot fail to excite in the minds of every individual the most grateful sensation, and to animate in his bosom a peculiar ardour and zeal in the performance of his duty. I am honored, madam, with 65 HISTORY OF GOVERNOR'S ISLAND your letter of the 3Oth ult. with 46 Hoods and 46 prs. of mittens. I beg leave, madam, to assure you that this flatering attention to the wants and privations of the Sol- dier from so respectable a Body of Ladies cannot fail to animate every bosom with a degree of Chivalrick ardour when it is recollected that the service in which they are engaged is the defence of the City of their amiable and virtuous patronesses. Accept, madam, for yourself and the Society the assurances of respect with which I have the honor to be, Yr. most obt. Servt. JAS. HOUSE, Lieut. Col. Arty. A few extracts typical of the rest follow from the Garrison Order Book: Garrison Orders. FORT COLUMBUS, July I5th, 1815. ******** Parole Europe. C. Sign American. Officer for the day Capt. Howell. Officer for the guard Lieut. Berier. The Parole and Countersign will in future be com- municated to the officers of the Guard Mounting con- formable to an antient practice. Garrison Orders. FORT COLUMBUS, Aug. 8, 1815. 3|C 3JC 5|C 3J 3j 5JC IfC 3)S Parole Galatin. Csign Bayard. Officer for the day tomorrow Lieut. Davis. General's Guard from Capt. Richard's Company. Corporal Snarts, privates Mandaville, Plunkett and Bond of Major Hall's Company, and Texton, Holt and Spencer of Captain Howell's Company are detailed for Col. House's boat, and to report on daily duty until fur- ther orders. By Order, CHAS. ANTHONY, Adjt. 66 PERIOD OF THE WAR OF l8l2 Garrison Orders. FORT COLUMBUS, 9th Sept. 1815. ******** For the preservation and better regulation of the boats belonging to the Island, those for use are appointed as follows : The boats formerly in the use of Lt. Col. House, Major Hall and Adjutant Anthony and the yellow oared barge are assigned to the use of the Corps or Artillery at this post, to be turned over to and distributed by Lieut. Col. House. For the use of the Infantry are assigned the Green six-oared barge, the whale boat and the seven- oared barges which are to be turned over to and distrib- uted by Lt. Col. Swetting. The 4-oared Green boat is reserved for the Gen. Hospital. No. 12-oared barge known by the name of Genls. Barge and the 6-oared Green boat are reserved for the use of the Commandant. No interference is to be made by either Corps with the boats assigned to the other. * * * * * Another Order relating to transportation is extracted as follows : Garrison Orders. FT. COLUMBUS, May 6, 1815. * * * * * * * * The licensed ferry Boats will be governed by the fol- lowing Regulations: Neither shore to be left destitute of a ferry Boat for more than twenty minutes between the rising and" setting of the Sun. * * Where one Boat starts from one shore, leaving no Boat there, another Boat starts at the same moment from the opposite shore, whether with or without a passenger. * * * JAS. HOUSE, Lt. Col. Artillery. Comdg. Orders for Sept. 15, 1815, show the retention of the old English name for Mess call. Sept. 15, 1815. ******** Parole Wolf. Csign Montgomery. Troop will be beat at 8 A. M. Roast beef at half past 12. 67 HISTORY OP GOVERNOR'S ISLAND The War of 1812 followed shortly upon the building of the Castle. Governor Daniel D. Tompkins reports as follows: NEW YORK, Jan. 19, 1810. Fort Columbus on Governor's Island is finished and capable of mounting 104 guns, of which 50 are already on the parapets. This is a regular erected work of masonry with a ditch, counterscarp, covert way and glacis capable of resisting a long siege. Two tiers and platforms in the Castle are finished, each capable of receiving 26 guns. Eleven French 36 pdrs. are already mounted. The whole armament of the Castle when completed may be stated as 100 guns, includ- ing the terrace on the top. The following Report is valuable as referring to a fort on Buttermilk Channel. This was probably situated at or near the present South Battery. It is not known when it was demolished, but probably at the time of building South Bat- tery. It is indeed possible that South Battery is an enlarge- ment of the fort of 1812. NEW YORK, March 15, 1813. Fort Columbus, Castle Williams, and a fort to guard the pass at Buttermilk Channel, all upon Governor's Island, are completed and equipped with everything need- ful for action. * * * * There is an abundant supply of cannon balls on Governor's Island, 27,000 blank cannon cartridges, six travelling forges and a number of grates for heating shot. At this time considerable alarm was felt by the inhabitants of the City at a report that the troops stationed on Governor's Island had been ordered to the Northern frontier. The "National Advocate" in its issue of August 3Oth, 1812, allayed the natural fears of the people in saying: "We are authorized to state that no troops stationed on Governor's Island have proceeded or are ordered to proceed to the North. The rumour that such an order is to be given is false and groundless." 68 PERIOD OF THE WAR OF l8l2 Apropos of the importance of troops in the Harbour of New York, not only in popular feeling hut also in the judgment of the War Department, a brief extract may be quoted from the autobiography of Major Joseph Dclafield, 46th U. S. Infantry (Lieut-Colonel Wm. S. Tallmadgc commanding), who was commissioned April 15, 1814: "The term of service being about to expire and Majr Tallmadgc & myself being desirous to remain in the Army and to seek some more active service concerted a plan to form a new regiment, to select our officers from the Volunteer regiment and upon the strength of our recruits and the experience of our officers to ask for their com- missions. These arrangements being made Majr Tallmadge and myself proceeded to Washington and presented our scheme to the Secretary of War (Genl. Armstrong). At this time an Act of Congress authorized the addition of five regiments to the Hue of the Army. We were given one of the new regiments, Major Tallmadge to be Lieut. Col : Captains Par Lee and my- self Majors and the Company officers all in compliance with our scheme of selection and commissions were given accord- ingly. We began to recruit with activity and soon had be- tween two & three hundred men; and as the most of us had been confined to the harbor defense and were desirous of more active service we established our headquarters at Pokeepsie, which district was beyond the command of the officer com- manding in N. York. Being in charge of the recruiting ser- vice my orders were to prepare the men as rapidly as possible to march North to join the Army on the Canada frontier. Our recruiting district embraced the State of New York. The enemy however continued to threaten attacks along the coast, and the alarm for the safety of the city was so great that all the available forces were collected in the harbor and orders were obtained from Washington to bring our detachment to the harbor. We joined the garrison on Governor's Island and there remained until the close of the War." In the Summer of 1814 there were over 1000 officers and men in the Garrison and great activity was displayed in pre- paration for actual war, as the following order indicates : 69 HISTORY OF GOVERNOR S ISLAND Garrison Orders. FORT COLUMBUS, Aug. 28, 1814. * * * * * * * * The Artillery and Infantry will be drilled at the Battery on Governors' Island every Monday, Wednesday, and Friday from 5 to 6:30 A. M. commencing at Fort Colum- bus, taking the guns in course through all the batteries. The commanding officers of companies will cause their companies to be drilled with muskets every Tuesday, Thursday and Saturday at the same hours. All officers are punctually to attend drills. Sgt. Dillahunty will drill the non-commissioned officers of Artillery from 9 130 to 1 1 until further orders. At the sound of the alarm by the bugle the troops will turn out on their company parade. The Infantry will be conducted by their Senior officers to the covert way of the ditch of Fort Columbus as its proper alarm post, and the Artillery will be conducted by companies to their bat- teries. The conductor of Artillery aided by the Q. M. Sergeant and Powder Monkeys will furnish implements and ammunition and arrange them at the batteries. By order, CHAS. ANTHONY, Adjutant Corps Artillery. The Island served a valuable purpose during this war as a basis for recruits and school of instruction. Colonel Burbeck according to orders issued in June instructed in Artillery exer- cises the Pennsylvania Detachment under command of Cap- tain Connely, the New York Detachment under Captain Sproul, and Captain Ogden's Company of Artillery of the Jersey Line, while Lieut. Colonel David Brearly forwarded to Fort Colum- bus all the recruits of the Pennsylvania and Jersey Lines from the Trenton Depot. Some details of pay and equipment prevailing at this period are quoted as a basis of comparison with the conditions a cen- tury later. The extracts are from Regulations in force May 2d, 1814: 70 PERIOD OF THE WAR OF l8l2 PAY IN 1814. PAY PER FORAGE RATIONS MONTH NO. OK HORSES 1'ER DAY Major-General $200 7 15 Brigadier-General 104 5 12 Brigade Chaplain 50 2 4 Professor of Math. Eng. Corps 5 3 4 Apothecary General 1,800 per annum. Commissary General 3>ooo per annum. Cadet 16 Colonel (ex. of Cavalry) .... 75 4 6 ist Lieut, (ex. of Cavalry) 30 o 3 (Forage supplied for Lieut. Artillery and Light Dragoons.) Corporal $10 Private, bombardier, sapper and miner 8 (Women in proportion of I to every 17 men a ration in kind.) Private waiters Major-General 4 Colonel 2 and others in proportion. CLOTHING 100 YEARS AGO FOR INFANTRY. REGULATIONS OF 1814. Coat $6.07 Cap 2.18 Frock Shirts (4 at $1.30) 5.20 Stockings 54 Socks 10 Shoes 1.05 Stock 12 Cockade and eagle Pompon 25 While the pay and clothing of 1814 were more satisfactory to the troops than during the Revolutionary Period, the thou- 71 HISTORY OF GOVERNOR'S ISLAND sand officers and men stationed on Governor's Island in the summer of 1814 undoubtedly suffered many discomforts. The Castle had been completed, however, just before the outbreak of the War. Inasmuch as this is an important building, always in evi- dence but really little known, the author quotes at some length from Guernsey's technical description of Castle Williams in his "New York in the War of 1812," which states that the lower tier had 27 French 35 pdrs. and the second tier, 39-20 pdrs. The terrace over the bomb proof, he tells us, formed a barbette battery upon which 45 columbiads carrying 50 pd. balls could be placed. The walls are about 40 feet high, of Newark red sandstone, hammered, and consist of 13 arches of 30 ft. span, 2 ft. thick and 24 long. The cross walls are 7 ft. thick between the arches and 12 ft. at the termination of the segment. The guns are mounted in such manner that the centre of motion is immediately under the muzzle of the gun, so that, although the angle of fire is 54, the mouth of the gun occu- pies always the same place, which permits the throat of the embrasure to be so small that a shot could not pass between the gun and its side and the line of fire cross at 20 feet distance. The interior of the Castle is open to the sky and the aper- tures for smoke to escape amounts to 144 square feet in the rear. The walls are 8 feet thick on the ground tier and 7 feet on the next tier and in the mass of the wall arches are turned over each pair of embrasures, so that if it were possible to batter or break into the lower tier, the upper one would rest upon these arches and exhibit the appearance of a bridge com- posed of very solid tiers. The outside cut of the wall was laid in Flemish bond and each stone dovetailed in such a man- ner that no one could be dislocated without first being broken to pieces. Over each embrasure is a flat arch of remarkable strength. It also contains 2 stone magazines for 200 barrels of powder and within the walls is an inexhaustible well of finest water from which all the shipping might be watered with ease. 72 PERIOD OF THE WAR OF l8l2 Colonel Williams resigned his commission July 31, 1812, on account of dissatisfaction felt and expressed by the Artillery at an Engineer officer's being assigned to command the Castle. Major Joseph A. Swift relieved Colonel Williams as Colonel and Chief Engineer, with headquarters in New York. The Hon. Saml. Mitchell pays a deserved tribute to Colonel Williams in his letter of October Qth, 1808, written during the construction of the Castle, as follows: "The Chief Engineer who planned the general fortifications of New York and who actually superintended their construction is Colonel J. Wil- liams, the learned and ingenious director of the American Military Academy at West Point and President of the Ameri- can Philosophical Society. The high professional talents dis- played by this gentleman in projecting the works have been very ably seconded in carrying them into operation. At Governor's Island Fort Columbus is now finished. It consists of 4 bastions, 3 curtains and an attached casemated ravelin with two retired flanks, the whole capable of mounting 96 guns and might without inconvenience bring one-half its face at one instant against any passing ship, while it com- pletely commands the East River. It is a work composed of a walled rampart 8 feet thick at its base, diminishing by its slope to 6 feet at the line of the cordon with counter forts of five feet in depth at the distance of 13 feet from each other, surmounted by a solid brick parapet of 10 feet in thickness. The ditch is about 40 feet wide, with a walled counterscarp, a walled covert way and a sodded glacis extending to the water edge. At Bedlow's Island a mortar battery commands all the chan- nel. This battery is on the level of the ditch of a Star fort in its rear which not only commands it but commands and pro- tects Ellis Island. The old wooden parapet is taken down at Ellis Island and a platform for a gun battery is completed. Under charge of Colonel Williams a Castle at the Battery is being built similar to that on Governor's Island. The North Battery, foot of 73 HISTORY OF GOVERNOR'S ISLAND Hubert Street, is a circular battery of 20 guns in one tier which will cross fire with the S. W. Battery. In Fort Columbus there are actually in place 60 cannon, in Castle Williams 52, in S. W. Battery (Castle Clinton) 28, at Bedlow's Island 24, at North Battery 16, Ellis Island 14, Arsenal near Custom House 34. Adding for the uncompleted third tier of Castle Williams, Governor's Island, 26, and for the bomb battery at Ellis Island 4 mortars, we have a total of 258 pieces. The estimated complement to man these guns is as fol- lows: On Governor's Island: Fort Columbus 780 men, Castle Williams 1014; Bedlow's Island 312, Ellis Island 182, S. W. Battery 364, North Battery 208, Arsenal 442, making a total requirement of 2,302 men." The larger estimate for Castle Williams is based upon the additional 26 guns in the third tier. The above quoted letter of the Hon. Saml. Mitchell was written in 1808. During the continuance of the War of 1812- 15, references to which are to be found in this Chapter, oc- curred a practical test of the efficiency of the guns of Castle Williams in a target practice for the benefit of the Artillery Militia. The one of which we have an account took place on the 1 4th August, 1812. The target was an old hulk anchored in the stream about 1,000 yards from shore, equidistant from Castle Williams and the Fort at the Battery. General Mor- ton's Brigade at the Battery Parade opened fire with 6, 9, 12 and 18 pdrs. The Veteran Corps of Artillery commanded by Captain Delamater fired from a long nine, which repeatedly raked the hull of the target.* Several heavy shot from the guns in Castle Williams also hulled the target. After the firing had continued two hours * The Veteran Corps of Artillery nearly a century after this event in- stituted relations with Governor's Island of a more peaceful character, (v. p. 150). 74 PERIOD OF THE WAR OF l8l2 the hulk was perceived to be on fire. This was caused by the hot shot fired by Colonel Curtenius' Regiment, which were heated in a travelling forge attached to the Brigade. The re- sult of the firing was as follows : NO. OF SHOTS. EFFECTIVE. MISSED. Castle Williams 30 27 3 Castle Clinton 40 36 4 The Artillery V. C. A. and others 314 254 60 384 317 67 The military activity of the regular forces on Governor's Island at this period was reflected in the atmosphere of ex- pectation that prevailed throughout the City. In every walk of life there was but one theme of conversation, and the various armed organizations, whether shooting long nines or smoking churchwardens, were porati ad helium. Even the fashionable restaurants of the day were redolent of war, as we judge from the description of the Shakespeare Tavern, which was one of a number of similar establishments. The Shakespeare Tavern was situated at the southwest cor- ner of Fulton and Nassau Streets. It was here that the Vet- eran Artillery Corps had their holiday dinners, although it also dined, as it does to this day, at Fraunces' Tavern, on occasions of ceremony. The Shakespeare was kept by one Hodgkinson and it was adorned in 1815 by a great sign of Columbia and Britannia with joined hands and an olive branch and the words, "Forgive and Forget." Over the Eagle were draped the American colours and over the Lion was the shield of Great Britain. Over all were the names of our Commissioners, Adams, Bogart, Gallatin, Clay and Russell, and the word "Peace," with intertwined flags. The decorations thus described were added to the other at- tractions of the Tavern at the establishment of peace, which was officially announced in the following orders : 75 HISTORY OF GOVERNOR'S ISLAND General Orders. ADJT. GEN. OFFICE, 30 MILITARY DISTRICT, NEW YORK. Feb. 6th, 1815. ******** A Martial Salute will be fired tomorrow from Gover- nor's Island in honor of the Glorious Victory obtained over the enemy at New Orleans on the 8th January by the troops under Major Gen. Jackson. This order was followed by a Gen. order, Feb. 20, reciting that a Treaty of Peace had been signed between the United States and Great Britain at Washington on Feb. I7th, and ordering a Martial Salute to be fired at noon on Feb. 2ist from Governor's Island and all posts from Sandy Hook to the forts at Harlem, the Salutes to be followed by a "Feu de joie" and an "Extra Ration of Liquor to be offered to the troops to drink the glorious termination of an honorable War." It was also ordered that Feb. 25th should be "passed by the Troops of this Garrison in festivity and rejoicing and in the evening an illumination of the officers' Quarters and Barracks and Guard House to begin at dusk and to continue till 9 o'clock. At half after 7 o'clock in the evening "18 rockets will be discharged from the castle under the direction of the Artillery Quarter Master." That War was over and Peace assured may be gathered from the following Orders relative to details generally neg- lected under war conditions: Artillery Orders. FORT COLUMBUS, 14 March, 1815. A long standing Genl. Order regulating the cut of Hair & Whiskers has for some time past been too little attended to and there appear in the ranks as many fashions with regard to this part of the dress as there are kinds of men. There may be some excuse for these irregularities in new- raised Regts., but it ought to be expected that so old and respectable a corps of the Army as the Artillery would set the example of neatness. ********* At the next weekly inspection every non-Com officer and Soldier will appear with his whiskers trimmed off in 76 PERIOD OF THE WAR OF l8l2 a line from the tip of the car to the bottom of the nose and the Hair cropped, and it is expected that Officers of Companies will set the example. By order CHAS. ANTHONY, Adj. Corps Artillery. It is interesting to compare with these Orders of 1815 the following Orders on the same subject thirty-three years later at the close of the Mexican War: Genl. Orders WAR DEPARTMENT, No. 35 ADJUTANT GENERAL'S OFFICE, WASHINGTON, July 6, 1848. A Proclamation by the President of the United States of America announcing the termination of the War with Mexico. (Here follows the Treaty) (Here follow directions as to discharge of officers and men of the ten additional Regiments, of the Volunteer troops, Recruits, &c., in 10 paragraphs.) Paragraph No. 1 1 is as follows : ii. The hair to be short, or what is generally termed cropped: the whiskers not to extend below the lower tip of the ear, and a line thence with the curve of the mouth : Moustaches will not be worn (except by Cavalry regi- ments} by officers or men on any pretence whatever. (Army Regulations, page 215.} The non-observance of the above regulation (tolerated during the war with Mexico) is no longer permitted. It is enjoined upon all officers to observe and enforce the regulation. By order of the Secretary of War. R. JONES, Adj* Genl CHAPTER IV. MEXICAN AND CIVIL WAR PERIOD. The Mexican and Civil Wars were so far removed geo- graphically from New York that the activities of the Gover- nor's Island Garrison were naturally of a different nature from those in the stirring times of the Revolution of 1776 and of the lesser War of 1812. This period may therefore be passed over more briefly in order not to prolong unduly our story. In 1847 the ist New York Volunteer Infantry was mustered in on Governor's Island, Colonel Ward Burnett, a graduate of West Point, commanding. After gallant service in Mexico the Regiment returned to New York and their colours were preserved for many years in the Governor's Room in the City Hall. In 1907 they were presented to Governor's Island by the City and with imposing military and ecclesiastical cere- monies were installed in the chapel of Saint Cornelius the Cen- turion, where their tattered remnants now hang. A dozen or more survivors of the Mexican War participated in the cere- monies. The history of the colours which follows is taken from the official tablet accompanying the flags upon their re- moval from the City Hall. HISTORY OF THE COLORS OF THE IST N. Y. REGIMENT MEXICAN WAR. The First Regiment of New York Volunteers in the Mexican War was presented with a stand of Colors on January 8th, 1847, by the City of New York. The Colonel of the Regiment, Ward B. Burnett, received the Colors personally, part of the Regiment having sailed for Mexico before the date of presentation. The flags were received by the Regiment when the first parade took place after the presentation, on the Mexican Island of Lobos about sixty miles north of Vera Cruz where the fleet con- 78 MEXICAN AND CIVIL WAR PERIOD taining the army assembled. The officers of the Regiment were called to the front and centre, where they formed a circle about the Colors. Each officer placed his left hand on one of the staffs, raised his right hand, and took a solemn oath under the direction of Colonel Burnett to protect the flags with his life blood. The Colors consisted of two flags and two guide colors, one the national flag and the other a red flag with the coat of arms of the City of New York on one side and the coat of arms of the State on the other. The red flag was the first over the inner wall of the Castle of Chapultepec, on the morning of September I3th, 1847. Color Sergeant Hipolite Dardon- ville carried the red flag. Orderly Sergeant Robert M. Harper, of Company D, supported him on one side and ist Lieutenant Francis E. Pinto supported him on the other. All went over the wall together. The Regiment took an active part in the siege and capture of Vera Cruz, the storming of Cerro Gordo Pass, the taking of the City of Puebla, the battle of Contreras and Churubusco, where Color Sergeant Romein was killed, the storming of the Castle of Chapultepec, where Color Guide Zimmerman was killed inside of the inner wall of the Castle, and the capture of the City of Mexico. The Regiment belonged to the ist Division that entered the City at daybreak of the morning of September 1/j.th, 1847. Four cannon, 24 pdr. bronze howitzers, are mounted at the steps of the Chapel leading from -the nave into the choir. The inscription on each of these cannon, which are used to carry chains across the choir, is as follows: Vera Cruz, Cerro Gordo, Contreras, Churubusco, Chapultepec, City of Mexico, 1847. A letter from Captain Hungerford to George W. Morton, Esq., New York, gives some additional data in regard to this distinguished Regiment, mustered in on Governor's Island and memorialized by the exhibition of their Colours in the Chapel. It may be mentioned in this connection that Veterans of this Regiment come occasionally to look upon their old 79 HISTORY OF GOVERNOR'S ISLAND colours and at the cannon mounted below them inscribed with the names of the battles in which they served. The letter follows : CITY OF MEXICO HALLS OF MONTEZUMA. Deer 7", 1847. The 2d Regt New York Volunteers in the Mexican War (known later as the 1st New York) were at Churu- busco with 300 men, 2 companies being on detached ser- vice. The Regiment lost in killed and wounded 115. At Chapultepec the Regiment was the first to enter the works, carrying our colours, and the National standard was the first that took the breeze over Chapultepec. The flag of the Empire State was displayed from the balcony of the building (City Hall?) the Colour Sergeant not being able to find 'the passage leading to the top of the building. The colours are in a very tattered condition, the National ensign in particular having only part of the Union and a little fringe left. This is reasonably supposed to be the state in which they were brought back from Mexico, as they have been preserved since 1847 * n a glass case in the Governor's Room, New York City Hall. Another interesting reminder of the Mexican War to be seen in the Chapel is a large oil painting, a Pieta, which was once the property of Colonel Thomas Staniford. The brass plate underneath recites that the "painting is donated as a memorial to the widow of the late Doctor N. S. Jarvis, U. S. A., Jennie B. Jarvis, a noble and faithful servant of God, identified with the Army for a period of over 70 years, who died May 26, 1907." Colonel Staniford was a veteran of the War of 1812, and was distinguished for gallantry and good judgment in the Florida and Mexican Wars. He served on Governor's Island in the 30*8. The Votive Shield in the Chapel referred to on p. 148 recalls the dramatic sinking of the San Francisco in 1853. 80 H 70 s rn 73 n o 73 B ffi c 7! o a 73 > O MEXICAN AND CIVIL WAR PERIOD 111 November and December, 1853, the Headquarters, Band and Companies, A. B. C. D. G. H. I. K. and L. of the 3rd Ar- tillery, about 300 officers and men, were on Governor's Island awaiting orders for station on the Pacific Coast. They sailed for San Francisco via Cape Horn on December 22, 1853, on the "San Francisco," a side wheel steamer of 3000 tons, Captain James T. Watkins. There were 740 per- sons on board. Before leaving they had placed in the G^ver- nor's Island chapel an heraldic shield with the name of the organization and date of their being here, little thinking of the way in which they were to return to their station. The "San Francisco" almost at once ran into heavy weather which soon became a tornado, and at 9 A. M. on December 24th a huge wave swept everything from the upper deck, including the main cabin, and carried with it about 175 persons who had taken refuge there. The brig "Napoleon," too small to render practical assistance, carried news of the wreck to Boston. The Government at once sent vessels to the rescue, and the survivors, nearly 600 persons, were taken off the "San Fran- cisco" by the American Ship "Antarctic," the American bark "Kilby" and the British ship "Three Bells." The boats of the vessel were swept away by the sea and her fires were put out and she soon sprang a leak. The soldiers and other passengers rendered aid by manning the pumps and jettisoning the cargo. Lieutenant L. K. Murray, U. S. N., a passenger on the "San Francisco," set a splendid example of heroism. The "Kilby" took her rescued people to Boston. The "Antarctic" proceeded to Liverpool, where the survivors of the wreck were not allowed to land and after long delay they were returned to New York. The survivors of the "Three Bells" were more fortunate, being landed at New York Janu- ary I3th, 1845, three weeks after the disaster. The return of the survivors to Governor's Island is de- scribed by the son of a 3rd Artillery bandsman, whose father and mother were on the "San Francisco," as being a thrilling occasion. Visitors to the Chapel will find a second shield Si HISTORY OF GOVERNOR S ISLAND erected by the survivors of the Regiment "in sorrow and thankfulness." The shield is described with others of the Mexican War period, on p. 148. The 3rd Artillery at the time of leaving Governor's Island was commanded by Colonel William Gates. His son was lost in the wreck, also the wife of Captain George Taylor. The officers lost were Major John Macrae Washington, ist Lieu- tenant Horace B. Field, ist Lieutenant Richard H. Smith, all of the 3rd Artillery. PERIOD OF 1861. "Another interval of pipeclay and monotonous guard duty was succeeded by the stirring times of 1861-65, when Gover- nor's Island became the important depot for the United States. The ancient Castle became the dungeon for Confederate prisoners of war, large numbers being confined there during the war and several executions taking place." Doctor Rob- ertson recalls an interesting event of 1863. During the draft riots of that year the troops stationed on Governor's Island were guarding the Sub-Treasury in Wall Street. Their ab- sence was seized by the rioters as a time for attacking the Island and capturing ammunition, rifles and stores. The City authorities, hearing of this movement, withdrew all ferry-boats from their slips. The rioters, however, secured other boats and soon were on their way to the Island. Eighty employes of the Ordnance Department hurriedly armed themselves with muskets, trained some cannon on the invaders and succeeded in repulsing the attack. At various periods of the Civil War large bodies of troops were encamped on Governor's Island going to and returning from the front. On one occassion seven regiments were encamped here at one time and an eye- witness has described to the author the stirring events of those days and the inspiring scene from the glacis when this large body of troops was formed for retreat. A Hospital was erected at this period. The middle wing survives in the present Dept. Hdqrs. Bldg., the school build- 82 MEXICAN AND CIVIL WAR PERIOD ing, printing office and Hospital Steward's quarters repre- senting various wards. The Castle was crowded with prison- ers during the Civil War. Chaplain McVickar, who began his chaplaincy in one war and ended it in another, with the visitation of Cholera in 1849 between the two, had much to do with and for these prisoners of War. Bishop Whittingham of Maryland writing to him in 1861, says: "I am greatly pleased to find how thoroughly you had anticipated all that I wished to ask you about your work in the Port of New York." The Castle is still (1913) used as a Military Prison. The stone magazines at the gate have been taken down to provide place for a much-needed guard house, which is being built of the same material just inside the main gate. A picture in Harper's Weekly (May, 1861) shows troops drilling on Governor's Island near the Administration Build- ing. A view of the courtyard of the Barracks discloses a fence around the centre of the enclosure. The book records on file in Washington of Fort Columbus at this period are as follows : Record of Convalescents, Strag- glers, etc., Union Forces, Received and Forwarded, 1863, 1864, 1865, and Record of Deserters and General Prisoners confined 1865-1870. To transcribe these would be hardly warranted by the scope of this book. An incident of April, 1865, throws light upon the use of the Castle for prisoners of war, of whom there were sometimes 1,000 confined at one time. The account was written lately in connection with the elec- tion of the hero of this incident, William Robert Webb, as United States Senator from Tennessee. "Three days before the surrender of Lee at Appomattox, in April, 1865, a young Confederate officer, William Robert Webb, was held as a prisoner of war in the stockade about Castle Williams on Governor's Island. He had been brought North from Virginia only one day before. Webb could look over the stockade toward the lower end of Manhattan, and could see the city easily. Although he had been so badly in- 83 HISTORY OF GOVERNOR'S ISLAND jured that he could not march with the infantry, and had changed to the cavalry arm, he seemed to see only the city wharves, and not the four hundred yards of water in the channel between. After dark he climbed the stockade and slipped from the wall into the bay. "The chill of early April was still in the water. In spite of it, Webb swam across to a point just below Castle Garden now the Aquarium, and lifted himself upon the dock. He wore a faded Confederate uniform, and found himself enjoy- ing the doubtful freedom of a hostile city clad in this garb and wringing wet. A citizen spoke to him in Battery Park. " 'Who are you?' he said. 'How did you come to fall in?' " 'I swam across from the Island,' Webb answered. 'I escaped from the prison stockade over there. I am Capt. Webb of the Confederate army.' "The citizen laughed and passed on. There with the lights of the prison twinkling just across the channel several other loungers and passers-by asked Webb the same questions and got the same answer. "Webb stayed in the city for three days wearing his uniform and telling every one who asked for his story the plain truth. Doubtless if the war had gone on for some time, he might have been retaken. As it was, he went free." Webb was Captain and Adjutant of the 2nd North Carolina Cavalry. Another amusing escape from the Castle related by a con- temporary was that of a Confederate soldier who in some way managed to get out of a gate just as the sentry had passed. He ran as far as he could while the sentry was on the beat. Just before the sentry turned the prisoner also turned and boldly approached the main gate. The sentry, perceiving him, ordered him peremptorily away from the Castle, stating that visitors were not allowed to come near the gate, an order that coincided remarkably with the views of the Southern tourist who carried it into instant effect and did not return. The inscription on the Castle, not often seen because of the 84 MEXICAN AND CIVIL WAR PERIOD < overgrowth of vines, is the name Castle Williams carved on a keystone over the main gate with graceful flourishes. To the left on a large block of stone are the words Commenced 1807 and to the right, in the Compleated spelling of the day, 1811 The guns, except those on the parapets, were removed in 1893. CHAPTER V. GARRISON EVENTS AND NOTES, 1868-1913. In this chapter various data of more or less importance are cited to throw light upon the life of the Garrison. Governor's Island remained an Artillery post till 1850, then it was a Recruiting Depot till 1878, when it became Division Head Quarters with an Artillery Garrison. In 1894, the Gar- rison became an Infantry one and so remains. The following brief extracts are taken from the Medical History of the Post by Surgeons Page and Elbrey, 1866: Sea wall built at S. W. side of Island 1868 July, Mean strength of the Garrison in this month 618 men. 1870 August 172 cases of yellow fever Troops in camp drills omitted. 1869 The Music Boys being too crowded in South Bat- tery, half their number went into camp, wall tents being used. 1870 September yellow fever 66 cases. The S. E. portion of the Island appears the most infected. In one set of quarters 21 were sick out of 22. In another, 33 out of 40. This part of the Island was quarantined from the rest. The caretaker in the Chapel stricken with the disease removed to hospital. October Total number of cases of yellow fever, 131. Patients transferred to West Bank Hospital, 10 miles down the Bay. Many died as result of transfer. Chaplain Alex- ander Davidson caring for soldiers, takes the disease and dies. 1871 March Buildings in which yellow fever existed torn down. In 1868 the barracks in Fort Jay were as now, but the one on west side was used for Officers' Quarters. The officers' quarters were divided on either side of the sally port into two parts by a hall, on each side of which were communicating rooms, 1 6 rooms in all and 8 kitchens reckoned for 8 sets of quarters. 86 JARRISON EVENTS AND NOTES, 1868-1913 From Circular No. 8, Surgeon Generals' Office, by Surgeon J. J. Millan we learn some details as to buildings on the Post. The building now used as Administration Building was at one time a Court Martial and billiard room and was used occasionally for dances. This is the long building just east of the Main Fort. The Q. M. Row, near Corbin Hall was built in 1871. This Row contains 19 quarters for families of employes. On the site of the present Chapel stood a frame building used for band quarters, later for Post Library and later still as residence for the Boat Captains. In 1905 when the Chapel was built it was removed to a position near the Quartermaster's Office and stables. This building at one time was the Garrison Library and contained a fine collection of books. The first floor was used for school purposes ; the second floor for the library. It was burned in 1869 and the books were destroyed. The first cemetery was near the present Colonel's Row ; the second was near the old Chapel. The victims of the yellow fever and cholera were buried here. The iron fence that sur- rounded this graveyard stands now behind the General's Row on the Lower Road. The Pest House stood near the present Colonel's quarters, Regimental Row. The present hospital was built about 1878. No interments were allowed in the Cemetery after 1878 and in 1886 the remains were re- moved to the National Cemetery, Cypress Hills, Brookyn. A few years ago (1907) remains were found during ex- cavations for repairs at one of the quarters in Colonel's Row. This discovery recalled the site of the first Cemetery estab- lished on Governor's Island. There is no known record of its date, and it is quite possible that the British used it during their occupation, 1776-1783, as war conditions would make it difficult to establish one elsewhere. Governor's Island was visited by epidemics of cholera in 1854, 1857, 1866, 1867 and 1868, and by the yellow fever in 1856 and 1870. These epidemics were general in their char- acter, affecting not only New York but adjacent territory. The fact of the Island's being a Recruiting Station during 87 HISTORY OF GOVERNORS ISLAND that time serves to explain the failure to quarantine the Gar- rison. The Hospital was overcrowded with soldiers and the other cases of which there were an enormous number, as noted on p. 86, were treated in the various houses in which they occurred. The following list of burials, while accurate in detail, prob- ably omits the names of some, especially of those who were transferred to West Bank Hospital during the yellow fever of 1870, and of the prisoners of War, it being believed that more died in confinement than given in the list below : LIST OF OFFICERS AND MEMBERS OF THEIR FAMILIES BURIED ON GOVERNOR'S ISLAND. DATE OF DEATH Charles Frye, child Sept. 27, 1798 Constant Freeman, child Au-g. 5, 1799 Robert Heaton, Jr., Lieut. 2d U. S. Art'y Oct. 17, 1799 Mildred K. Souder, child Sept. 6, 1807 James H. Boyle, Major U. S. Art'y Feb. 8, 1816 Helen S. Churchill, child Sept. 27, 1818 Samuel Armstrong, Lieut. U. S. Art'y Sept. 8, 1819 Lydia Gates, wife of Major Lemuel Gates. . . . Aprl. 26, 1822 W. J. Page, child Febr. 10, 1823 James C. DeKamp, status unknown Febr. 29, 1854 Susan J. DeKamp, wife of above Sept. n, 1824 James Mann, Surgeon Nov. 7, 1843 Eliza F. Brown, child of Capt. H. Brown June 3, 1835 Julia A. Brown, child of Capt. H. Brown Dec. 15, 1836 William Gates, Col. and Bvt. Brig.-Genl., 3d U. S. Art'y Oct. 7, 1868 Collinson R. Gates, Bvt. Major, 8th U. S. In- fantry June 28, 1849 Sarah M. Gates, wife of Col. Wm. Gates Oct. 27, 1843 88 GARRISON EVENTS AND NOTES, 1868-1913 DATE OF DEATH Mary Reed Collins Gates, child of Wm. Gates. Dec. 3, 1838 Lydia Bedloe Gates, child of Wm. Gates Febr. 28, 1839 Samuel L. Russel, Capt. 2d U. S. Inf'y Fcbr. 26, 1839 James Green, Capt. 2d U. S. Art'y Aug. 17, 1842 Alexander Cummings, Colonel Jan. 31, 1842 L. M. Shackleford, Lieut, ist U. S. Art'y Oct. 12, 1847 H. D. Wallen (Samuel G.), child of H. D. Wallen Mar. 22, 1848 Sidney Smith, Lieut. 1st U. S. Art'y Nov. 6, 1849 B. K. Pierce, Lt.-Col. ist U. S. Art'y Aprl. i, 1850 Pierce, daughter of above No date F. F. , Lieut No date C. B. - , Lieut No date William Walters, Capt. M. S. K June 27, 1864 Katie Walters, daughter of above June 26, 1860 Ward Miller, child of Lieut. T. E. Miller Sept. 25, 1862 Robert O. Abbott, Col. and Surgeon June 16, 1867 T. A. H. Gabel, Lieut. Batn. Major 45th U. S. Infantry Dec. 12, 1868 Bessie Auman, child of Lieut. Auman Febr. 19. 1875 Joseph Plympton, Col. ist Inf'y. ) No date *removed to Woodlawn Cemetery, N.Y.C. [ .Nov. 6, 1897 Courtney, child No date Thomas B. Weir, Captain 7th U. S. Cavalry. .Dec. 9, 1876 Charles McCormick, Col. and Surgeon U. S. A. .Aprl. 28, 1877 Officers and families 39 Enlisted men and their families known are 169 Enlisted men and their families unknown are. . . 191 Military convicts 4 families 60 Total 463 * From National Cemetery, Cypress Hills. 89 HISTORY OF GOVERNOR'S ISLAND The reinterment of officers was made in a row on the North side of the Cemetery; of the non-commissioned officers and privates about the middle of the Cemetery, east of the centre line. Among the stones which were removed from Governor's Island and re-erected in 1878 are two of a fine brown sand- stone, beautifully cut in the ancient style with inscriptions which are given here : SACRED TO THE MEMORY OF WILLIAM MCINTYRE, LATE SERJEANT IN CAPT. RICHARD WHILEY's COMPANY U. S. REGT. OF ARTILLERISTS, WHO DEPARTED THIS LIFE MAY THE I2TH 1808. The other is in memory of HIRAM ANDRUS OF CO. F, 4TH REGT. OF U. S. ARTILLERY WHO DIED AT FORT COLUMBUS JULY 10, 1833. Another of white marble, with a non-commissioned officer's sword and belt carved at the top records the death of SERGEANT CHARLES HENKE BORN IN DENMARK NOV. 12, 1794 DIED JAN'Y 14, 1872 AGED 78 YEARS IN THE 5OTH YEAR OF HIS SERVICE IN THE U. S. ARMY QO GARRISON EVENTS AND NOTES, 1868-1913 LIST OF ENLISTED MEN AND THEIR FAMILIES AND CIVILIANS BURIED ON GOVERNOR'S ISLAND. Hh DATE OK DEATH William Mclntyre, Sergt. U. S. Art'y May 12, 1868 Ann Snelling, child Oct. 28, 1815 William Patterson, Sergt Sept. 3, 1826 Catherine Littlefield, wife of Walter Littlefield. Aprl. n, 1829 William Cherrington July 10, 1830 Adeline M. McGuire, daughter of James Mc- Guire Oct. 3, 1830 John B. Manning June 2, 1831 Hiram Andrus, 4th U. S. Art'y Febr. 10, 1833 Harman L. Hemstreet, Music Boys Mar. 7, 1833 Douglas Morrison, child Dec. 19, 1833 May Morrison, child Dec. 19, 1833 Ann E. L. Morrison Aug. 27, 1845 Jane Douglass, wife of R. Douglass Mar. 24, 1847 George W. Douglass, child of R. Douglass. . .,.Mar. 24, 1847 William F. Fried, child .Oct. 31, 1848 Wilhelmina Fried No date John Fried, Sergt. Co. B, Union Boys Sept. 20, 1865 John Hughes, Sergt. 4th U. S. Art'y Jan. 7, 1851 Martha Hughes, wife of John Hughes ,. Mar. 7, 1852 Mary , "our Mary," child of John Hughes (supposed) No date Charles Stanley, Musician Mar. 18, 1854 Ann Henke, wife of Charles Henke Sept. 2, 1856 Charles Henke, Sergt. Co. B, Music Boys Jan. 14, 1872 Esther T. Pfefferle, child July 28, 1856 Francis Smith Oct. 3, 1856 David L. Walsh, Sergt Jan. 9, 1857 Jessie Horan, child May 15, 1861 91 . HISTORY OF GOVERNOR'S ISLAND DATE OF DEATH Ann M. Lowe, child July 17, 1861 Alexander D. Hoyt, child ' May 29, 1861 John B. Pinghard Feb. 28, 1856 Maria Pinghard, wife of John B. Pinghard . . . May 29, 1862 Bridget Stuart, wife of Sergt Patk. S. Stuart. Aug. 12, 1868 William R. Stuart, child of Sergt. Patk. S. Stuart May 5, 1863 Mary J. Stuart, child of Sergt. Patk. S. Stuart . Apr. 28, 1868 Rosanna Stuart, child of Sergt. Patk. S. Stuart . Aug. 22, 1868 John Haintz, Sergt. Ordnance, U. S. A Feb. i, 1864 Julia Haintz, child of John Haintz April 18, 1865 Mary Haintz, child of John Haintz No date Fred Haintz, child of John Haintz Sept. 25, 1870 P. H. Guerin, Sergt. Co. A, Permt. Party, U. S. A Feb. 23, 1864 Emeline Allen, wife of G. W. Allen Apr. 16, 1864 John Henion, Pv't Co. B, Union Boys Nov. 21, 1864 William Head, Sergt Apr. 24, 1865 William N. Head, child of Wm. Head Nov. 3, 1865 James Casey, Pv't Co. A, Permt. Party, U. S. A Aug. 13, 1866 Hutchinson M. Howe, Pv't. Co. A, Permt. Party, U. S. A Sept. 13, 1870 Albert Lagenboner, child Jan. 24, 11877 Gustav N. Lagenboner, child Feb. 9, 1877 Hannah M. Kieley June 12, 1861 Patrick Kieley, child No date Giles D. Taylor, child July 15, 1869 Winford R. Farlie, child May 18, 1864 George H. Arthur, Pvt. Co. D, Gen. Serv., U. S. A Aug. 16, 1866 92 GARRISON EVENTS AND NOTES, 1868-1913 DATE OF DEATH William Meredith, Pvt. Co. D, Gen. Serv., U. S. A Aug. 5, 1866 John Moore, Pvt. Co. D, Gen. Serv., U. S. A.. Aug. 3, 1866 David Lieberson, Pvt. Co. D, "Gen. Serv., U. S. A Aug. 8, 1866 James Smith, Pvt. Co. D, Gen. Serv., U. S. A.. Aug. 6, 1866 Thomas Kelly, Pvt. Co. D, Gen. Serv., U. S. A.. Aug. 5, 1866 Patrick Riley, Pvt. Co. D, Gen. Serv., U. S. A. July 28, 1866 Rudolph Kaimer, Mus. Co. B, Gen. Serv., U. S. A July 20, 1866 Charles McKoon, Pvt. Co. D, Gen. Serv., U. S. A July 15, 1866 Robert Wolf, Pvt. Co. D, Gen. Serv., U. S. A.. Aug. 4. 1866 Herbert Dailey, Pvt. Co. D, Gen. Serv., U. S. A July 21, 1866 Elias Morris, Pvt. Co. D, Gen. Serv., U. S. A. July 24, 1866 John McHugh, Pvt. Co. D, Gen. Serv., U. S. A July 25, 1866 Thomas Wheeler, Pvt. Co. D, Gen. Serv., U. S. A July 30. i g66 Thomas Martin, Pvt. Co. D, Gen. Serv., U. S. A July 30, 1866 Isaac J. Robinson, Pvt. Co. D, Gen. Serv., U. S. A July 28, 1866 Peter Glandon, Pvt. Co. D, Gen. Serv., U. S. A July 16, 1866 James Connors, Prisoner July 15, 1866 Francis King, Pvt. Co. D, Gen. Serv., U. S. A. July 13, 1866 John McMahon, Pvt. Co. B, Gen. Serv., U. S. A July 18, 1866 John McColgan, Mus. Co. B, Gen. Serv., U. S. A July 20, 1866 93 HISTORY OF GOVERNOR'S ISLAND DATE OF DEATH Lawrence Broderick, Mus. Co. B, Gen. Serv., U. S. A July 20, 1866 Frederick W. Johnson, Pvt. Co. D, Gen. Serv., U. S. A July 2!, 1866 Alexander Wise, Pvt. Co. D, Gen. Serv., U. S. A July 19, 1866 Henry Wier, Pvt. Co. D, Gen. Serv., U. S. A.. July 31, 1866 George Rixforcl, Pvt. Co. D, Gen. Serv., U. S. A July 26, 1866 David Ewing, Prisoner Co. B, Gen. Serv., U. S. A Aug. 3, 1866 David Forney, Pvt. Co. D, Gen. Serv., U. S. A. . Sept. 28, 1866 Fritz Mathisson, Pvt. Co. D, Gen. Serv., U. S. A Aug. 18, 1866 Daniel Dunford, Mus. Co. B, Gen. Serv., U. S. A July 20, 1866 Francis Lurst, Pvt. Co. D, Gen. Serv., U. S. A Aug. n, 1866 Monroe McKelsey, Pvt. Co. C, Permt. Party, U. S. A Aug. 7, 1866 Carl Gross, Pvt. Co. D, Gen. Serv., U. S. A. .Aug. 7, 1866 Charles Howe, Pvt. Co. D, Gen. Serv., U. S. A Aug. 4, 1866 Martin Coster, Pvt. Co. D, Gen. Serv., U. S. A Sept. 15, 1866 Henry Boyer, Pvt. Co. D, Gen. Serv., U. S. A. . Augj. 3, 1866 Josiah Harrison, Mus. Boys, Co. D, Gen. Serv., U. S. A .' July 20, 1866 Emanuel Ferguson, Pvt. 9th U. S. Inf'y July 23, 1866 Abraham Walk, Pvt. Co. B, Gen. Serv., U. S. A July 31, 1866 Joseph Emerson, Pvt. Co. D, Gen. Serv., U. S. A Aug. 10, 1866 94 GARRISON EVENTS AND NOTES, 1868-1913 DATE OF DEATH John R. P. Smith Aug. I, 1866 J. Denanny No date James Neland, Pvt. Co. D, Gen. Serv., U. S. A.. Sept. 26, 1866 Christ. Saltmeyer, Pvt. Co. D, Gen. Serv., U. S. A Sept. 12, 1866 Peter Burke, Pvt. Co. D, Gen. Serv., U. S. A.. Sept. 26, 1866 John Bush, Pvt. Co. D, Gen. Serv., U. S. A.. Sept. 17, 1866 Lewis T. Young, Pvt Jan. 3, 1856 Elizabeth G. Ives July 7, 1873 Charles Bessamore, Co. B, Union Boys June 20, 1861 Frederick O'Brien, child Mar. 24, 1862 Winifred O'Brien, child Mar. 27, 1862 Fred. Reynolds Aug. 17, 1862 Reynolds No date William Gtilick, Sgt. Co. F, Permt. Party June 25, 1863 Alexander Moore, Pvt. Co. M, 2d U. S. Art'y.Sept. 24, 1861 Franz Hooper, Pvt. Co. A, Permt. Party Apr. 28, 1865 C. McCormick, Sgt. Co. A, Permt. Party, U. S. A Aug. 12, 1865 F. Holfriede, Pvt. Co. F, ist U. S. Art'y Nov. 2, 1861 Frederick Grunert, child July n, 1872 J. Johnson, Pvt. Co. C, 6th U. S. Infty Dec. 25, 1861 Walter Kilborn, Pvt. Co. K, Qist N. Y. Infty. Jan. 5, 1862 J. Morrison, Pvt. Co. G, 98th N. Y. Infty Jan. 6, 1862 W. A. Huckbone, Pvt. Co. I, 9ist N. Y. Infty. Jan. 9, 1862 W. McBride, Pvt. Co. F, Permt. Party May 19, 1862 John Fish, Pvt. Co. E, 915! N. Y. Infty Jan. 17, 1862 W. Simmons, Pvt. Co. I, gist N. Y. Infty. . . Jan. 30, 1862 Joseph or James Trumble, Sgt. Co. G, Permt. Party Dec. 2, 1861 David Flecke, Corp. Co. A, Permt. Party Dec. 16, 1861 95 HISTORY OF GOVERNOR'S ISLAND DATE OF DEATH Francis Shields, Sgt. Co. I, Permt. Party Oct. i, 1861 Robertson, woman No date Grace Robertson, child No date P. Griffin, Pvt. Co. H, ist U. S. Infty Feb. 20, 1862 Alfred Pitt, Pvt. Co. E, Q8th N. Y. Infty Feb. 23, 1862 Patrick Conkly, Pvt. Co. H, 28th Mass. Infty. .Mar. 7, 1862 James Carr, Musician Feb. 22, 1863 Charles Allen, Corp. Co. K, ;th N. Y. Infty. . .Dec. 18, 1864 Rudolph Schaer, child Sept. 15, 1867 William Muller, Pvt. Co. D Mar. 6, 1866 James Kellog, Gen. Serv., U. S. A Sept. 19, 1867 Fernando Snyder, Gen. Serv., U. S. A Sept. 18, 1867 Adelbert Rogers, Pvt. Co. D, Gen. Serv., U. S. A Sept. 16, 1867 William Swain, Pvt. Co. D, Gen. Serv., U. S. A Sept 14, 1867 Christ. Nolte, Pvt. Co. D, Gen. Serv., U. S. A. . Sept. 6, 1867 Adolph Aikens, Pvt. Co. C, Gen. Serv., U. S. A Sept. n, 1867 John H. Etzold, Pvt. Gen. Serv., U. S. A Sept. 12, 1867 Benjamin Williams, Pvt. Co. D, Gen. Serv., U. S. A Sept. 5, 1867 John Horan, Recruit, U. S. A Sept. 3, 1867 Christ. Liesbert, Pvt. Co. D, Gen. Serv., U. S. A Sept. i, 1867 Henry Peck, Pvt. Co. D, Gen. Serv., U. S. A. . Sept. 5, 1867 Edward McLaughlin, Pvt. U. R. C., U. S. A. . .Sept. 3, 1867 Charles Donnely, Pvt. Co. B, Gen. Serv., U. S. A Sept. i, 1867 Frank Gallagher, Pvt. Co. D, Gen. Serv., U. S. A Aug. 31, 1867 96 C GARRISON EVENTS AND NOTES, 1868-1913 DATE OF DEATH Francis McKeon, Pvt. Co. D, Gen. Serv., U. S. A Oct. 2, 1866 Thomas Patston, Pvt. Co. D, Gen. Serv., U. S. A July 24, 1867 James Patston, child of T. Patston No date Lewis Vassell, Pvt. Co. B, Gen. Serv., U. S. A Aug. 2, 1867 Joseph Recaid, Recr. Co. D, Gen. Serv., U. S. A Aug. 31, 1867 Oliver Hersher, Pvt. Co. D, Gen. Serv., U. S. A July 4> 1866 William Hilliers, Pvt. Co. D, Gen. Serv., U. S. A Sept. 6, 1866 Patrick Hart, Pvt. Co. D, Gen. Serv., U. S. A. .Aug. 8, 1866 Frederick Weil, Prisoner, Gen. Serv., U. S. A.. Sept. 22, 1866 Simon S. Schultz, child Sept. 16, 1866 P. McGuire, Pvt. Co. G, 28th Mass. Infty Feb. 19, 1862 Henry Shipley, Pvt. Co. D, Gen. Serv., U. S. A Oct. 3, 1866 Andreas P. Karberg, Pvt. Co. D, Gen. Serv., U. S. A Oct. 6, 1866 Henry Schlegel, Pvt. Co. D, Gen. Serv., U. S. A Oct. 13, 1866 Frank Jones, Pvt. Co. D, Gen. Serv., U. S. A. .Oct. 15, 1866 John H. Totten, Pvt. Co. D, Gen. Serv., U. S. A Oct. 19, 1866 John Heberger, Pvt. Co. D, Gen. Serv., U. S. A Oct. 20, 1866 John Sanberg, Pvt. Co. D, Gen. Serv., U. S. A _---- Oct ' 27 ' l866 Frederick Traub, Pvt. Co. D, Gen. Serv., U 5. A Nov. 6, 1866 97 - ft HISTORY OF GOVERNOR'S ISLAND DATE OF DEATH Martin Leonard, Pvt. Co. D, Gen. Serv., U. S. A Dec. 4, 1866 Edward Tryer, Pvt Feb. 2, 1867 John Jones, Corp. Co. C, Gen. Serv., U. S. A. .Mar. 27, 1867 Louis A. Harry, Pvt Apr. 6, 1867 Andrew Flickinger, Pvt Apr. 15, 1867 Thomas McHugh, Pvt. Co. D, Gen. Serv., U. S. A Nov. 7, 1867 John Hooley, Pvt. 1st Prov. Co., Gen. Serv., U. S. A Apr. 14, 1869 Thomas Cryon, Pvt. Co. C Aug. 25, 1868 Patrick Byrne, Pvt. Co. E, Gen. Serv., U. S. A Apr. 25, 1868 John Kennedy, Pvt. Co. A, Gen. Serv., U. S. A Jan. 3, 1868 John Burke, Pvt. Co. A, Gen. Serv., U. S. A. .Nov. 22, 1867 John Smith, Pvt. Co. A, Gen. Serv., U. S. A.. .Oct. 29, 1867 Charles Iluber, Pvt. Co. D, Gen. Serv., U. S. A Oct. 8, 1867 Frank Burke, Pvt. Co. A, Gen. Serv., U. S. A.. Sept. 26, 1867 Carl Schaer, Pvt. Gen. Serv., U. S. A Sept. 18, 1867 Henry Weber, Pvt. Co. C, Gen. Serv., U. S. A. . Sept. 14, 1867 George Gass, Pvt. Co. D, Gen. Serv., U. S. A. . Sept. 14, 1867 Robert F. Jern, Pvt. Co. C, Gen. Serv., U. S. A Sept. 11, 1867 John Hyler, Pvt. Gen. Serv., U. S. A Sept. 10, 1867 Thomas McGrath, Prisoner Co. B, Gen. Serv., U. S. A Sept. 9, 1867 Thomas Flynn, Pvt. Co. D, Gen. Serv., U. S. A Sept. 6, 1867 Frank Keckynar, Pvt. Co. D, Gen. Serv., U. S. A Sept. 8, 1867 9 8 GARRISON EVENTS AND NOTES, 1868-1913 DATE OF DEATH James C. Elliot, Pvt. Co. D, Gen. Serv., U. S. A Sept. 6, 1867 Charles Dillman, Pvt. Co. B, Union Boys, U. S. A Sept. 29, 1865 Andrew T. Ford, Sergt. Co. C, Permt. Party, U. S. A Sept. 10, 1865 Jacob Haefele, Sergt. Co. C, Permt. Party, U. S. A Apr. 20, 1873 James Bodgers, child Jan. 15, 1878 Magdalen Stigler, wife of Band Master Mar. n, 1878 Ann Mouriff No date George E. Hanna, child Oct. 28, 1861 Samuel Meades, Pvt. Co. E, Gen. Serv., U. S. A Apr. 26, 1871 William Gibson, Pvt. Co. E, Gen. Serv., U. S. A Mar. 31, 1870 Stephen D. Lockwood, Pvt. Co. A, Permt. Party, U. S. A Feb. 20, 1870 Ellen Farrell, child Apr. n, 1862 Mela Reynolds, child Aug. 25, 1873 Chris Marlin, Pvt. Co. B, Music Boys May 23, 1873 William McFarland, Pvt. Co. E, Gen. Serv., U. S. A Sept. 1 6, 1870 Peter Luck, Pvt. Co. E, Gen. Serv., U. S. A.. Aug. i, 1870 James Kelcher, Pvt. Co. E, Gen. Serv., U. S. A June 24, 1870 Francis Bungent, Pvt. Co. D, Select Recruits. .Apr. 12, 1870 William Seery, Pvt. Co. E, Gen. Serv. Recr. . .Feb. 18, 1872 Henry Carroll, Pvt. Co. E, Gen. Serv. Recr. . .Jan. I, 1872 William F. Curtis, Pvt. Co. E, Gen. Serv. Recruit Aug. 27, 1871 Joseph Villenger, Pvt. Co. E, Gen. Serv. Recr. Jan. 18, 1871 99 HISTORY OF GOVERNOR'S ISLAND DATE OF DEATH Thomas Sullivan, Pvt. Co. E, Gen. Serv. Recr.Sept. 25, 1870 Henry Rathkamp, Pvt. Co. A, Permt. Party. . .Sept. 27, 1870 Henry Bennett, Pvt. Co. B, Music Boys Oct. i, 1870 Patrick Daley, Pvt. Co. E, Gen. Serv Feb. 8, 1871 Willet C. West, Fifer Co. B, Music Boys Mar. 25, 1871 Michael Kinsell, Pvt. Co. E, Gen. Serv. Rets. .May 7, 1871 James Colgan, Pvt. Co. E, Gen. Serv. Rets Mar. 5, 1872 Patrick Golden, Pvt. Co. E, Gen. Serv. Rets. . .May 25, 1872 Peter Storms, Sergt. Co. A, Permt. Party Oct. 19, 1863 Lizzie Corliss Lynch, child No date Daniel Nowlan, child No date John C. Indale, child No date Alfred B. Haynes, Pvt. Co. B, Music Boys. . . July 23, 1873 Julius Steinman, Pvt. Co. E, Gen. Serv. Rets. .Oct. 24, 1873 Michael Morrissey, Pvt. Co. C, 22d U. S. Infty .Aug. 20, 1872 Albert O. Dennis, Pvt. Co. E, Gen. Serv. Rets.. Mar. 29, 1872 Justus Schlessing, Pvt. Co. E, Gen. Serv. Rets. Mar. 13, 1872 Henry Christopher, Pvt. Co. C, Permt. Party. .Jan. 8, 1872 William Skelly, Pvt. Co. M, 5th U. S. Arty. . .Dec. 17, 1871 Robert Scott, Pvt. Co. A, Permt. Party June 10, 1871 Jacob Mertins, Sergt. Co. A, Permt. Party Sept. 19, 1870 Patrick Leonard, Corp. Co. C, Permt. Party. . .Sept. 17, 1870 Ernest Dallye, Pvt. Co. A, Permt. Party Sept. 13, 1870 Peter Creamer, Corp. Co. B, Music Boys Sept. 10, 1870 CONFEDERATE PRISONERS OF WAR. J. E. Barbury, Co. D, 28th N. Carolina June 7, 1862 Hosea G. Blount, Co. F, 7th N. Carolina Sept. 29, 1861 David L. Rodgeron, Co. F, 7th N. Carolina. . .Oct. 8, 1861 M. G. Roberson, Co. F, 7th N. Carolina Oct. u, 1861 IOO GARRISON EVENTS AND NOTES, 1868-1913 DATE OF DEATH Stephen Kite, Co. G, 7th N. Carolina Oct. 27, 1861 Saml. D. Titterton, Co. F, 7th N. Carolina Oct. 29, 1861 - Simpson, Co. F, 7th N. Carolina Nov. 19, 1861 Alpha Modlin Nov. 24, 1861 - Jennings Mar. n, 1862 Smith Hartley May 30, 1862 G. Townsend, Pvt. Co. E, 27th N. Carolina. . .June 3, 1862 In the early days Governor's Island must have been a dark place after retreat. Up to 1854 candles were the only source of illumination. Later, whale oil was introduced and then kerosene. Until 1878, when General Hancock made his head- quarters here, there were no street lights at all, except one light at the dock, a condition which was not so brilliant as that enjoyed by New York in 1697, when the Common Council ordered the city to be lighted by lanterns from poles that pro- jected from every seventh house. The Common Council, at a stated meeting held at the House of John Simmons, Innholder at the N. W. corner of Wall and Nassau Streets (now the site of the Bankers' Trust Building) on the I7th day of February, 1784, issued a Warrant No. 15 to Win. Deal and others for lighting the City lamps, to the amount of 21 55. Electric lighting was introduced on May 10, 1904. The Arsenal at that time had and for some time later continued to use acetylene gas manufactured at a private plant in the Yard. Dances were held in various places at various times: at one time in the present Administration Building; in the Hospital (now Dept Headquarters Building), where the Grand Duke Alexis of Russia was entertained in 1872, a marquee being erected in front; at one time in the present Q. M. Storehouse, east side of Island, and later, as now, in the Officers' Club House, Corbin Hall. 101 HISTORY OF GOVERNOR'S ISLAND The water supply was in those days a troublesome question. Surgeon Page in his history (1868) writes: "The wells are four in number. One is in Castle Williams and furnishes a small supply of tolerably good water. It dries in ten minutes and requires some time to refill.* An- other well is in front of Fort Columbus, but unfit for drinking purposes. Another is near the Hospital (now Department Headquarters) and is the best and most used on the Island, all the animals being watered at this well." Water from the City (Ridgewood) was introduced by mains under Buttermilk Channel about 1880, soon after General Hancock's arrival. The Hospital mentioned in this report is the Hospital of 1868, now (1913) Eastern Department Hdqrs. The pump connected with this well was in situ, handle and all, as late as 1905. Another well not mentioned was in the Arsenal Yard. This was quite a pretty spot, arranged in the nature of a spring house, with a flight of stone steps going down and a little arbour to protect it from the sun." A well of pure water in South Battery is also mentioned by Surgeon Page, who goes on to say that rain water is collected from the roofs of nearly all the buildings in cisterns. No attempts were made to sink artesian wells on account of the geological formation and great dip of the strata. In this con- nection it may be interesting to mention the natural history of Governor's Island. "The basic rock of the Island is gneiss composed of quartz, feldspar and mica arranged in laminae, the rock being strati- fied and hypozoic, covered with alluvial and drift deposit. The direction of the stratum corresponds with N. S. and the dip, though generally to the west, averages within 10 vertical. The water now in use, derived from shallow wells, is hard and contains a great quantity of organic matter. The high angle dip and deep surrounding channels make good water unattain- able. The alluvial deposits consist of loam, clay, sand and gravel. The drift is composed of abraded boulders, gravel *It was more efficient in 1812 (v. p. 72). 102 GARRISON EVENTS AND NOTES, I868-IQI3 and sand and all were driven probably by ice pressure. The alluvial and diluvial deposits are probably 100 feet deep at the N. and S. ends." The Island was undoubtedly separated from the mainland during the Glacial period. Circular No. 8 (1875) states that the cisterns frequently ran dry. At these times they were cleaned and fumigated and filled with Croton water brought from the City in tanks of Quartermaster boats. These cisterns are being gradually filled. A number were filled from the excavations of the new Chapel in 1905-6. The use of the drum for calls was given up about 1876. There is a tradition that the last official drum hung in the tree where it was kept for a year or so after that time. An officer has told the author he remembers seeing it so on several occa- sions. A marked depression in the surface of the Park near the fountain often arouses curiosity, as to what it represents in the otherwise level surface of the ground. Major Kendall, a veteran of the War of 1812, lived on Governor's Island after retirement with his daughters and held the position of Sutler. His residence was at the western end of a long row of houses that stretched from the present Post Quartermaster's office and carpenter shop to what is now No. 1 8, Colonels' Row. This row was of wooden houses, one story in height, with cellar, and besides the Sutler and his store accommodated a number of soldiers and their families. According to tradition, these buildings were erected for the accommodation of the builders of Fort Jay after the American Revolution. Some believe they represent the English occupa- tion of 1776-1783.* The beams and all the wood were of very heavy construction. Some were burned down in 1856, and the rest were removed after the yellow fever epidemic in 1870. In removing them it was found inconvenient to fill in all the cellars, *This is confirmed by the fact that the group of buildings as late as 1850 was called "Rotten Row." 103 HISTORY OF GOVERNORS ISLAND the supply of earth being limited. The depression alluded to marks this ancient row and probably Major Kendall's quarters. Major Kendall, upon the burning of his quarters in 1856, moved to quarters in the S. E. angle of the barracks, Fort Columbus. The condition of the works on Bedlow's and Ellis' Island and of the fortification at the Battery may be learned from Colonel Williams' Report of Jan'y 19, 1810, in which he says Ellis Island mounts 8 32 pdrs. with a platform capable of mounting 20; that Bedlow's Battery is ready for 8 or 10 mortars, with the main work of 40 guns half completed, and that by July the first tier of a castle at the Old Battery will be completed, mounting 30 of the heaviest guns. This castle was at first officially known as the South West Battery, after the war as Castle Clinton, whence its peaceful designation of Castle Garden was derived. In 1822 Castle Clinton was ceded by the Government to the City of New York, and the soldiery were removed to Gover- nor's Island. At this time and for many years following Castle Clinton was separated from the shore by a channel and access was had by a long wooden bridge. In addition to its military uses Governor's Island served as a flagging station to report the arrival of ships before the in- vention of the telegraph. New York's most famous hotel in 1823 was Holt's, afterward the United States Hotel, on Fulton Street. This hotel had a lofty cupola in which a ship signal station was located. When ships were sighted at Sandy Hook the news was flagged to Staten Island, from Staten Island to Governor's Island, the station being probably at the Castle, and from there to the station on Holt's Hotel for the benefit of the whole City. In Wall's painting of the Castle (frontispiece) appears on the parapet a cupola which it is reasonable to suppose was the ship signal station. Old pictures of the Castle, though later than this painting, show a flag flving from a staff erected in the middle of the courtyard. This flag was used 25 years ago for saluting and 104 GARRISON EVENTS AND NOTES, 1868-1913 other special purposes only, the garrison flag being at Fort Jay. The staff was removed about 20 years ago. The guns, except those on the parapet, were removed about the same time. In 1821 Fort Columbus was garrisoned by a battery of the ist Artillery under the command of Lieut. Peter Melendy, Jr.* It is not known what troops garrisoned Governor's Island upon its occupation in 1809. In 1826, Bvt. Colonel W. Mac- Rea, 2nd Artillery, was in command. In 1832, thorough repairs of the works were begun and prose- cuted until August, when the work was abandoned on account of the cholera. In September. 1832, new barracks were begun within the fort, some of the troops having previously en- camped on the parade. The scarp wall, the counter scarp revetments and the revetments of the glacis were completed, also the facing of the covered way revetment leading from Fort Columbus to the Castle. In this year the Post was re-occupied by Battery F. 4th Artillery, under command of Captain L. Whiting. In Sep- tember Captain W. W. Tompkins with a large detachment of recruits of the 2nd Dragoons arrived and assumed com- mand. In 1833 the sum of $50,000 was appropriated for repairs to Castle Williams and Fort Columbus. How this was expended ?o far as the fort is concerned we learn from the report of Capt. J. L. Smith, Corps of Engineers, who writes under date of Oct. 19, 1833 (condensed) : "The scarp and curtain are finished. The counter scarp and revetment of the glacis are finished except the W. front. The passage way through the postern is raised to the height of the spring of the arch. Four cisterns, of 4,000 gallons each are finished under the rampart. Four more are to be made. The redan with casemated flanks on the N. front was formerly approached from the parade through a gap in the rampart. The gap has been filled by a magazine. The part of the hollow passage near the salient of the redan *For full list of Commanding Officers (v. p. 161). 105 HISTORY OF GOVERNOR'S ISLAND is to be occupied by two magazines for fixed ammunition or storage. This will enlarge the terreplain and the salient of the redan. The parapets are sodded and the glacis is being graduated." Other additions and repairs to the Castle and Fort were made in 1836, for which were appropriated $20,600. Company B of the permanent party called the "music boys," a detachment of recruits for the field music of the army, occu- pied the South Battery. On Dec. 28, 1836, the troops in gar- rison, with the exception of the recuits of the 2nd Dragoons, were ordered to Florida for the Seminole War. On April 18, 1837, a battery of the ist Artillery under Capt. J. Dimick occupied the post and Fort Columbus continued to be an Artillery Post until November 15, 1852, when Gover- nor's Island became a General Recruiting Depot vice Fort Wood, pursuant to Genl. Orders No. 38, Series of 1852, A. G. Office. GARRISON EVENTS AND NOTES, 1868-1913 The Post was at once occupied by Battery A, ist Artillery, under command of Capt. Joseph P. Sangcr, the garrison being shortly afterwards strengthened by Battery D, of the same Regiment. From the Adjutant General's Notes we learn that a new Barbette battery was built in the So's. This extended from the neighborhood of the Post Chapel N. W. across the Parade towards the Castle. It mounted a few guns and a modern earthwork battery was begun but not completed, and the entire battery was removed about 1893.* Plans were drawn as early as 1869 for a "New Barbette Battery" to cross the parade from the Castle S. E. to the Colonels' Row, but this was for some reason never begun. In June, 1892, the armament of this Post, as given by the Adjutant General, was: Thirty-six lo-inch Rodman guns, five 1 5-inch Rodman guns, two 8-inch siege howitzers, five loo-pdr. Parrott guns, two 45^2-inch rifles, two 24-pdr. Coehorn mortars, two 8-inch siege mortars, two lo-inch siege mortars, one 13-inch sea coast mortar. Field Artillery three Catling guns, long bar- rel, caliber 45. No continuous records exist to show the dates of the various buildings on the Island except the fortifications. The best available data at present indicate the building dates about as follows : The Administration Building date unknown probably about 1840. The Post Headquarters Building is believed to be of some antiquity. As stated elsewhere, the old name for it was "The Governor's House," which, if historically correct, would take it back to 1775 at the least. As late as 1872 and later it was used for the main guard.f The Commissary Building, 1845, and the Commanding Gen- eral's Quarters, 1840. * Remains of this battery were discovered in the Summer of 1910, when the salt-water mains were laid across the Island. t See p. 174. 107 HISTORY OF GOVERNOR'S ISLAND Numbers 2-5 inclusive, General's Row, 1855-7. Other quarters in General's Row, 1875. Colonels' Row Various periods 1875, 1878, 1888 and 1905. Old Hospital Main wing, now (1913) used as Eastern Dept. Headquarters, 1840. Regimental (Brick) Row, 1889 to 1908 (various dates). New Hospital, 1880. South Battery, 1812. A tradition that this Battery was erected in 1834 arose probably from the fact that a second story was added to it in that year. This upper story was in red brick. The lower story was painted yellow, and for several years this striking artistic effect prevailed. At some period, perhaps the same, the outer walls of the Battery, built of the Newark sand- stone used for Castle Williams, were treated to a similar wash, which is happily disappearing under the kindly in- fluence of Nature. Second addition to South Battery (Corbin Hall), 1904. The present Officers' Club (South Battery) was used as a Club house first about 1879. No records are available to show the date of the foundation of the Club. A tradition lingers that General Schofield was the founder of the Club, but' this cannot be verified. Previous to that time at various periods dances had been given in the (present) Administration Building (west end), the old Hospital, and in the (present) Quartermaster's Store House adjoining the Post Quartermaster's Office. The wooden wings of the Hospital of 1840 were built in 1862 and used as a General Hospital during the Civil War. The School House and Printing and Telegraph Offices are reminders of this War Hospital. Circular No. 4 (1870) mentions a married quarters near the old brick Hospital, and states that the Post Cemetery referred to elsewhere consisted of about half an acre. An engineer map of 1857 shows a pump in the courtyard of the Castle just 15 feet south of the centre. 108 GARRISON EVENTS AND NOTES, 1868-1913 As late as 1870 there was in the courtyard of the Castle a reminder of the Civil War time in a long wooden building used as a mess hall and kitchen for recruits. The upper tiers of the Castle were used as recruit quarters during the re- cruiting period, 1852-1878. The wooden building in the Castle was 60 x 30 feet and had a roof-pitch of 8 feet. It contained three small store-rooms and was furnished with two doors and ten windows. A reference to this is found under date of Deer. 7th, 1871, when permission was asked to remove the powder from the magazines in the Castle and to store it in the Post magazines on the ground that "the fires kept in a wooden building used as a mess room and kitchen renders the opening and closing of the magazines dangerous." In spite of the apprehension expressed in 1871, the powder remained till after the arrival of General Hancock, when it was removed from the Island except that which is stored in the Garrison magazine on the west glacis of Fort Jay. This magazine in the midst of traffic, passed monthly by thousands, is probably not visited annually by a half dozen, and yet it is, next to the Castle, the oldest building in undis- turbed condition on Governor's Island, and is worth, for that reason, a few words of description. This little magazine on the west glacis slope is a stone build- ing with a stone dove-tailed roof and double walls, the interior ones of brick with ventilating apertures arranged to avoid the outside windows. The interior sheathing of the magazine is one inch white pine. On the north side is a ventilating win- dow which at some period was bricked up and cemented. The wooden inside door is furnished with fine copper bolts. The interior ceiling is of heavy rough-hewn oak beams. On these beams are painted in black a number of names and initials of an early period, showing the magazine to date from at least the period of the Castle, 1807-11, and probably earlier, as the Castle had its own magazines and Fort Jay was (in part) of earlier construction. These names are painted in bold char- 109 HISTORY OF GOVERNOR'S ISLAND acters and some of them are of artistic excellence. Among them are W H 1812 C M 1812 C F Morton 1815 This magazine is at present used for the storage of saluting powder. It is surrounded by a fence of venerable appearance which is believed to have done picket duty long enough to entitle it to honourable mention. The warning sign over the door, though frequently renewed, also shows evidence of antiquity in the lettering employed. Other powder magazines are to be found in Fort Jay in the north side of the barrack square. These magazines are on the right and left of the enclosed area under the ramparts. They have copper ventilators and barred entrances. In magazines Nos. 2 and 6 are inside wooden doors, grated, with small wooden trap doors near the top secured by a button on the outside. These have no value for purposes of ventilation and it is believed that at one period the magazines were used for prisoners and that the traps were for passing in food. During the Civil War a double guarded cell was maintained in what is now the basement of K Co., 29th Infantry. This consisted of an outside cell in which the guard was locked in and an inner one for the prisoner. One or more celebrated Confederate officers were imprisoned here before execution, including Captain John G. Beall, a Naval officer, who with two others, captured the S.S. "Philo Parsons" and S.S. "Island Queen." His execution took place February 24, 1865. An historical account of Governor's Island would not be complete without reference to its oldest inhabitant, to whom the author of this work washes to express his thanks for many notes of historical interest. Sergeant David Robertson, Hospital Steward, U. S. A., entered the Army in July, 1854, and has served continuously in the Hospital Corps for 59 years. Such length of service is almost unprecedented, and when it no GARRISON EVENTS AND NOTES, 1868-1913 is combined with unbroken duty in one Garrison it deserves more than passing mention. In addition to his length of ser- vice, Doctor Robertson has endeared himself to thousands of officers and their families by his kindly nature as well as by his professional skill of high order which has been unsparingly given to all who needed his care, commanding Generals, offi- cers of every rank, soldiers and civilians for nearly sixty years of service, during three epidemics of cholera and two of yel- low fever, besides the innumerable cases, surgical and medical, that have been submitted to his skillful treatment. While Doctor Robertson has been retired with full pay and allowances he still remains (1913) on active duty, where his friends hope long to find him. Doctor Robertson and his wife lived for many years in their cottage near the Chapel in the midst of an old-fashioned garden that was one of the sights of Governor's Island. Mrs. Robertson was the daughter of Lieutenant Michael Moore, who was born July 4, 1800, and enlisted in 1812 for the War. He retired in 1871 after many years of meritorious service on Governor's Island. Thus these two officers in one family represent in their own persons 118 years of active service. The little group of Lombardy poplar trees still left (1913) at the edge of the Arsenal Yard is a reminder of a forest that adorned Manhattan and Governor's Islands 100 years ago and should be viewed with the respect due to the survivors of an ancient race. The poplar was largely used in the i8th cen- tury for the beautifying of the city. Guernsey tells us in his book, "New York in the War of 1812," that Broadway was literally lined with them on both sides from Bowling Green to Sailors' Snug Harbour (loth Street) and that they were found along the streets and lanes of the City and in the door-yards of the homes. Paintings of that period show Governor's Island with a lordly crown of stately poplars from its Eastern to its Western end, notably the "Wall View," by Wm. C. Wall, 1823, now the property of Mr. Wm. Havermeyer. An- other view by Wall, belonging to the same family, painted in in HISTORY OF GOVERNOR'S ISLAND 1820, shows Castle Williams with the surf breaking at its base and a sentry in uniform of the 1812 period.* Drawings and paintings of Governor's Island by Chapman, Wood, Howell, Stubbs, Stevenson and Bachman in the 3o's and 4o's also show the long regimental line of poplars now shrunken to the dimensions of a squad, but well worth notice, both for their dignified beauty and for the story they tell us of the days when old New York was young. John W. Francis in his "Old New York" says the Lombardy Poplar was found in great abundance in 1800-1805 and that it was introduced in New York under direction of Louis XVI, who sent out the elder Michaux from the Jardin des Plantes accompanied by a gardener, Paul Sanier, who spread the poplar everywhere. The old name of Jay, which had been discontinued about the year 1810, was restored in 1904, according to the following order: General Orders. WAR DEPARTMENT, No. 18. WASHINGTON, January 25, 1904. The following order is published to the Army for the information and guidance of all concerned WAR DEPARTMENT, WASHINGTON, January 20, 1904. The fortification on Governor's Island, New York Harbor, partly built 1/94-1795, enlarged and completed 1798-1801, and partly rebuilt 1806-1808, now known as Fort Columbus, is hereby restored to its original name of Fort Jay; and the said fortification and the Military post located on the said Island will hereafter be known and designated as Fort Jay. ELIHU ROOT, Secretary of War. The change of name from Jay to Columbus is supposed to have been due to Jay's temporary unpopularity with the Re- publication party, which was not satisfied with the Jay Treaty with England (1794). The treaty, however, proved its value, * (Frontispiece.) 112 GARRISON EVENTS AND NOTES, 1868-1913 and Jay was twice elected Governor of New York after its adoption. The restoration of the original name is a graceful recog- nition of the splendid character of the man of whom Daniel Webster said: "When the spotless ermine of the judicial robe fell on John Jay it touched nothing less spotless than itself." BUTTERMILK CHANNEL. The question of the early condition of what we now call Buttermilk Channel has been for many years an interesting one. References to the matter appear in the Peter Jay Origi- nal Letters (New York Historical Society). Peter Jay was the Father of John Jay. The date of these letters was about 1750. "Marabie Bevois says she is aged 84 years (near 85), was born in New York. It's last May 63 years since she came to live at Brookland (Brooklyn). Heard Jeromus Remsen's mother say that there was only a small creek between Nutten Island and the shoar and that a squah carried her sister over it in a tub." "Joost Van Brunt aged 77 years and upwards, born and lived at New Utrecht says he was about seven years old when the Dutch came to take New York says that a great deal of the land's washed away against Nutten Island and it went further out than now but can't say how much. Jeromus Rem- sen aged 77 years says that he heard his mother say she was carried off Nutten Island by a squah and that it was all sedge and meadow, only a creek between Nutten Island and Long Island; it is now 116 or 117 years since his mother was born; has often heard people say that there was but a small creek between Nutten and Long Island." "A Mr. Van Alstine, upwards of eighty years of age in 1786, said he remembered when Governor's Island was sepa- rated from Long Island only by a narrow creek, which was crossed upon logs raised above the high tide." 113 HISTORY OF GOVERNORS ISLAND The Minutes of the Common Council of New York furnish this early reference to Ntitten (later, Governor's) Island, which indicate that at that time it was so slightly separated from the main land as to serve as a point of reference for the main shore line. Otherwise the Red Hook line would have been mentioned. Report of the Committee appointed for enquiring into the Ancient Rights and Privileges of this Citty was read in the words following (vizt.) NEW YORK, Jan. Ye 24th, 1698 (9). We have viewed And Examined the Records of the Citty and doe find * * * * that all that Land from Ye Eastern End of Nutten Island for half A Mile deep to Ye West point of Ye Wallabout," &c.- In the Colonial Documents (London) we read of this period that in 1691 "Governor Sloughter arrived in New York in the Ship "Arch Angell" in March, the troop ship having arrived two months before. The officers of the two foot companies de- manded entrance into their Matyes Fort of the Cittey but were denied entrance by Jacob Leisler with the Stile of Lieut Gover- nour. * * * * * * * * * * * ' * The Sd Leisler fortified himself in ye Fort and had 16 or 17 bulletts in ye fire Red hott to fire y towne withall. The Noyze and Shouting yt followed upon ye Govr's landing (being come in ye pinnas by the back side of Nutten Island) made the hearts of his followers to divide," &c. Nearly one hundred years later General Scott wrote as fol- lows to John Jay, son of the Peter Jay whose Original Letters are above quoted relative to Buttermilk Channel : NEW YORK, 6th September, 1776. ******** We are liable every moment to have the communication between us and the City cut off by the entrance of frigates 114 GARRISON EVENTS AND NOTES, 1868-1913 into the East River between Governor's Island and Long Island, which General McDougall assured us from his own nautical experience was very feasible. ******** Later, same date. ******** The Garrison was drawn off in the afternoon after our retreat under fire of shipping which are now drawn up just behind Governor's Island and the fire of some cannon from the Long Island Shore, but with no other loss than that of one man's arm. Watson's Annals state that "an old gentleman in 1828 re- members that as late as 1786 the Buttermilk Channel was deemed unsafe for boats to pass through it because of numer- ous rocks there. It was, however, secured for a boat channel through which boats with milk and buttermilk usually made their passage. My mother told me that when she first entered New York Harbour (then a girl) she was surprised to see all the market boats in the East River rowed by robust women, their heads fitted with close caps, two women to an oar." Also the same authority states of Nutten Eylandt that it was formerly nearly joined to Long Island by a low interven- ing morass and a small dividing creek and that cattle passed to and fro at low water. Mr. James Le Baron Willard of Brooklyn writes to the author: "I do not like to give up the idea which I have held as a truth since childhood of 'crossing the channel'. told by those whose word was well worthy of credence. It may be the tales were but traditions so often told that they became accepted as facts. However, I knozv that our Bay tides were very much lower formerly than now." There seems to be a strong consensus of opinion among residents of Brooklyn Borough that the Channel was fordable at an early period. Mr. Charles B. Pearson, a gentleman in his QOth year, writes to Mr. Willard on the subject. He says his father in law John Davidson was born in 1802 and was "5 HISTORY OF GOVERNOR'S ISLAND a Trinity Church school boy and chorister and that he had often told the writer of wading across from Brooklyn to Gov- ernor's Island through mud and over the stones that he used to skate from the Battery on the Hudson to Canal Street, the main inlet, and along the inlet to Broadway and under a stone bridge to the present Tombs prison. In those days Water Street, as its name indicates, was on the East River front. Now, there are two streets east of it, thus narrowing the River there as the Atlantic Docks later did east of the Island and deepening the channel to a considerable extent. The excavations for the Atlantic Docks were made in 1842 and at a depth of 20 feet many roots of trees were found and beneath them peat was discovered in considerable quantities. Other old residents of Brooklyn recall that the tides in the Buttermilk Channel were formerly less high than now ; and that the Red Hook flats were not filled in until after 1846. These facts, coupled with the building of the Atlantic Docks opposite the Island and subsequent dredging of the Channel, would easily explain the present navigable conditions of the Channel. A resident of Governor's Island told the author that she walked half across the Channel in 1849. This was with the use of stepping stones at low tide. It is difficult to reconcile the foregoing statements in toto without fuller knowledge of conditions. For example, we have the statement that in (about) 1630 it was a small creek and that a "squah carried a child over in a tub" ; that it was crossed in 1710 by "logs raised above the high tide" ; that the "pinnas of the 'Arch Angell' came to the back side in 1691"; that the British frigates for shipping of war) were drawn up "just behind Governor's Island" in 1776; that it was "full of rocks and unsafe" in 1786; that John Davidson, born in 1802, "waded across as a boy," probably in 1812, and that the "fort to guard the pass at Buttermilk Channel was completed and equipped" in March, 1813. From the building of the fort in 1813 the obvious conclusion is that it was navigable for ships of war, as Genl. Scott inti- mates in his letter to John Jay in 1776, and yet statements of 116 Ui a < a: < CU X o C P c o; u 2 W u. O (W d. a: O O o w N PJ GARRISON EVENTS AND NOTES, 1868-1913 most undoubted veracity are made from 1630 to 1812 that it was a sedgy creek, a fordable stream, a crossing for cattle, a wading place for children. Probably the safest conclusion in absence of positive infor- mation is that local conditions varied with the years and that it may have been possible to cross it occasionally under ex- ceptional conditions of wind and tide, as the falls of Niagara under certain conditions of ice formation may be crossed by the daring adventurer. Of one thing we may be certain, viz, that the sedge marsh of the lyth century is today a highly important artery in the commercial system of the Port of New York with a channel 1000 feet wide at the narrowest point and a depth of 25 feet. The Navy Department sends large battleships now through Buttermilk Channel, in striking con- trast with the wooden Dreadnaughts of 1776, and it is planned to increase the Channel to a depth of 35 feet, as it affords a more direct route from the Navy Yard to the sea and also obviates the necessity of excavating Diamond Reef, which lies between Governor's Island and the Battery. The encircling sea wall was built at different periods in the development of the Island the S. W. portion in 1866, and the N. portion from the Castle to the Arsenal at a later period by the now w r ell- known writer, F. Hopkinson Smith. We learn from the Tompkins papers that a fort existed at an early period to defend Buttermilk Channel (p. 68). A plan of the Fortifications of New York in 1814 in Lossing's Field Book of the Revolution shows a considerable work at the South Battery. This corresponds closely with this order and with the fact that repairs were ordered for the South Battery in 1832. CHAPTER VI. TRANSPORTATION IN FOUR CENTURIES. i 1600-1913. THE GOVERNOR'S ISLAND FERRY IN FOUR CENTURIES. 1600-1913. It is a long cry from the Indian canoe of prehistoric times and the colonial barge of Wouter Van Twiller in 1637 to the "General Otis" of to-day; from the Pagganck Island of the aborigines and the Nutten Island of the Dutch and the Gov- ernor's Island as it began to be called in the time of Charles II of England, to the Department and Regimental Headquarters of the United States Army of 1913. With little imagination one can see the gliding canoe of the red men putting out from its wooded shores, and at a later period the thick-prowed yawl of the Dutch occupation, succeeded again after 1674 by the stately barge of the English Colonial Governors. How busy our little port must have been when the famous sawmill was built in 1639, and again when it was burned in 1647 "to save the Iron!" How our shores must have re- sounded to the tramp of visiting thousands during the days of the racetrack, in the time it was used as quarantine for immi- grants by the act of June 13, 1710, and subsequent periods, especially when the ten thousand Palatines were detained here before being sent to populate Columbia and Greene Counties ! What stirring scenes during the erection of Castle Williams, with landing of stores and supplies, and the feverish building of the original Fort Jay, when professors and students of Columbia College came down with their shovels and picks to help the workmen complete the fort! How the English Governors Hardy, De Lancey, Colden, Moore, Dunmore and Tryon crossed over in the days when our Island served as their official residence, the "Smiling Garden of the Sovereigns of the Province," as an old historian 118 TRANSPORTATION IN FOUR CENTURIES calls it, we do not know, but one can imagine the dignified barges of that period, with their passengers of official import- ance and the pleasant social activities which they served much as our Quartermaster transports do to-day. In 1732 appeared in Parker's "Post Boy" the following advertisement : "On Monday the 2nd of October next will be exposed for sale at Pnblick \ endue a large fine barge with Awning and Damask Curtains, two sets of oars, sails and everything that is necessary for her. She now lies in the Dock and did belong to the late Governor Montgomerie." The following orders throw light upon the subject of later English Colonial transportation : COMMON COUNCIL, CITY HALL, Nov. 8, 1756. No. (1346) Warrant issued. Ordered that Mr. Recorder issue his warrant to the Treasurer of this City to pay the further sum of twenty- eight pound, sixteen shillings, and five pence in full for the Government Tax * * * of the ferry (to Governor's Island). The latest use of the term "Nutten" vice "Governor's" the author has found contained in the MSS. Minutes of the Common Council of the City of New York under date of May 5, 1794, in which John Hillyer is authorized to keep the Ferry to Nutten Island for one year and is enjoined to provide "good boats." He is allowed to "re- ceive three pence for each passenger and to carry fatigue parties free." FROM MSS. MINUTES OF COMMON COUNCIL. Monday the 22nd June, 1795. The Committee on the subject of a ferry from this City to Governor's Island made a verbal report on the sub- 1 ject Whereupon it was ordered that it be referred to the Committee for directing public works on Governor's Island, to make such arrangements for the establishing of a safe and convenient ferry from this City to said 119 HISTORY OF GOVERNOR'S ISLAND Island as they shall judge most proper, and that the keeper of the said ferry be allowed to demand and receive from each person (except such as shall be employed at the Public Works and the Troops of the Garrison there) six pence for going and six pence for returning. Coming down to modern times we are reminded of the Civil War period when the Castle was filled to overflowing with prisoners and when at one time seven regiments were en- camped within our limited borders. One who was living here at the time describes the scenes in those days as being stirring in the extreme. The Wisconsin regiment marched on the Island 1,200 strong and made a particularly fine ap- pearance, and the scene at Retreat from the parapets of Fort Jay, with seven regiments, seven bands and seven separate functions going on at once is described as having been a thrilling spectacle. About ten years before the Civil War the recruiting depot was transferred from Governor's to Bedlow's Island. This was before the advent of the steam ferry and the difficulties encountered by all who had occasion to visit either Post may be gathered from the recorded mention of the movements to and fro of the Reverend John McVickar, D.D., Chaplain of Governor's Island from 1844 to 1862, as found in Dr. Dix's History. He says (p. 9 of his book) : "Transit was effected by open barges. In all seasons of the year, in stormy or fair weather, on Sundays and when required on week days, the venerable Chaplain might be seen making his journeys from the Battery to the two Islands, visiting the permanent gar- rison at Governor's Island and the recruits at Bedlow's; and in the most bitter winter's cold, sitting in the stern sheets, wrapped in his military cloak, as the oarsmen pushed their way through drift ice in the bay and against the strong tides off the Battery." This transfer of recruits to Bedlow's Island was only temporary. During Dr. McVickar's Chaplaincy there was no steam ser- vice between the Islands and the City. All communication was by barge at all seasons of the year, the Government land- 120 TRANSPORTATION IN FOUR CENTURIES ing being at Castle Garden, now the Aquarium in New York City, which at that time was connected with the Battery by a bridge-way. Such adverse circumstances were met daily by the members of the Garrison in the winter months. A lady who is now making her home with an officer's family on Governor's Island remembers distinctly the barge in which she used to travel to and from the City in visiting the Island sixty-eight years ago. It was similar in general appearance to the launches now used by the Navy and had a close-fitting canvas cover. Great were the difficulties of passage for those on pleasure bent in cold and storm and darkness, but, as she recalls, greater still was the difficulty of remembering the counter- sign without which no one was admitted within the frowning draw-bridge gate of Fort Jay, where in those days all the officers' families resided. It is interesting to note that the Barge Office at the Battery recalls by its title the fact that from the earliest days of the occupation of Governor's Island by the Colonial Governors in the I7th Century to the Civil War of the igth Century transportation with the mainland was effected by small boats and barges. The first place of which we have record as a point of de- parture from the Battery was a landing just south of the Castle, later Castle Garden, now the municipal Aquarium. This was in 1854 and probably had served for very many years, as the Castle was until the Civil War period separated from the mainland by water and the land on which the pres- ent Barge Office now stands was not made until about the same period. There were at this time two barges in service, similar to the one in the illustration, one the Commanding Officer's, and one for general service. These boats carried twelve passengers each and were manned by a crew of six rowers in naval uni- form, with a non-commissioned officer in command as cox- swain. They made three trips a day each, the last one being 121 HISTORY OF GOVERNOR'S ISLAND at 5 P. M. in summer and 4 in winter. The landing-place on Governor's Island was at a stairway just north of the present pier. The Ordnance maintained its own boat, rowed by two men. There were in addition to these official barges a fleet of eight or ten small boats plying to Pacific Street, Brooklyn, which were found convenient for persons going to market. The fare on these boats was i2 l / 2 cents a trip. The late Captain James Feeney began his career in this service about the year 1860, and these private boats continued in service some time after the steamboat era. During the contract period of transportation the price of passage was fifteen cents, return for twenty-five cents. School children received commutation rates of ten cents a day, and a late theatre boat cost fifteen dollars. The family of the late Reverend E. H. C. Goodwin, Chap- lain from 1871-1904, have in their possession an original order signed by General Hancock, as follows : HEADQRS MILITARY DIVISION OF THE ATLANTIC AND DEPARTMENT OF THE EAST. GOVERNOR'S ISLAND, N. Y. To the A.A.G.- October 30, 1883. or Captain Tug "Atlantic" Let there be an extra boat coming this way for Rev. Mr. Goodwin and party at 11:30 P. M. to-night. W. SCOTT HANCOCK, Major Gen., U. S. A. (From Battery at n 130 p. M.) It was in 1861 that the steam vessels were first engaged regularly in the ferry service. The first boat was the "Gen- eral Scott." This was succeeded by the "General McClellan," and that by the "Governor's Island." These were small ves- sels of the tugboat type. In 1878 the "Atlantic," a larger boat of the same type, was employed. At this time Head- quarters of the Department were established on the Island, 122 o o m O w 55 D n Js m '7-.- > TRANSPORTATION IN FOUR CENTURIES and with this boat, or possibly earlier with the "Governor's Island," a Government contract was made and persons using them were not required to pay ferriage. At first, and for some time, the steamers ran only till dark. This service has been gradually improved till the present admirable schedule of a boat every half hour from 6:45 A. M. till I A. M. has been reached. The "Madden," a small tugboat, owned by Sergeant Gub- bins and a man named McKitchie, ran from 1870 to about 1873, when its owners sold it and bought the "Governor's Island," which was used for about five years. The fare on this boat was twenty-five cents the round trip. In 1898 a great improvement was inaugurated in the build- ing of the "General Hancock," a vessel on ferry-boat lines, which has done good work for fifteen years. The "Col. Wikof" served as an auxiliary boat for about twelve years, and there have been various launches of late years for the use of the Department Commander, the present one, the "Lieutenant Ward Cheney," being a beautiful speci- men of marine architecture. In 1910 the "General Otis" took the place of the "General Hancock" as the transport between Governor's Island and the Battery. This boat, with its larger cabins, more ample decks and accommodations for horses, carriages, wagons and motor cars, gives better service than has ever been enjoyed before, and in the fourth century of the history of the Governor's Island ferry points to the future of the enlarged Post and populous Garrison that is to be. The official figures given by the Chief Quartermaster's Office for transportation of passengers between Governor's Island and the Battery on the Q. M. Steamers "General Hancock" and "General Otis" for the month of April, 1913, state the number as 45,999. This is considered an average month. A new landing has been made on the north side of the Island near the Quartermaster Storehouse. When this is in service the time of transit will be reduced. A new Barge Office is also being constructed at the Battery just opposite. The accompanying illustration of the barge is the only one 123 HISTORY OF GOVERNOR'S ISLAND known to exist, and is taken from a photograph belonging to the late Captain James Feeney, who served, with great faith- fulness, forty-nine years, boy and man, in the transportation of the Governor's Island Garrison to and from the City. Captain Wm. Gray Loring has been in the Government transportation service for 40 years, of which 4 have been spent in Boston Harbour and 36 in the Governor's Island service. There are few officers of long service in the Army who do not know Capt. Loring and all who know him recall with pleasure his genial character, his fund of deep-sea yarns and his attachment to the friends he has made on his countless trips across the salt highway. If - ''"< v ' 4* / CHAPTER VII. THE NEW YORK ARSENAL. The date of the establishment of the New York Arsenal is unknown. In Vol. I of "Ordnance Reports" Colonel Decius Wadsworth of the Ordnance in a letter to the Secretary of War dated Nov. 13, 1812, relative to the duties of the Ord- nance Department as a "new Establishment" and of needed stations says: "The present establishment at New York may be continued on a reduced scale as subordinate for the purpose of supplying the seaboard with such articles as a laboratory can most con- veniently furnish." During the War of 1812 Governor's Island was the scene of great military activity, but whether the laboratory men- tioned above was in New York City or on the Island cannot be definitely determined from the records here. Colonel Wadsworth in another letter to the Secretary of War dated February 8, 1816, says: * * * * "The laboratory near New York will suffice for supplying Maritime posts." * * * Whether this refers to a place on Governor's Island cannot be determined from the context. It is possible the reference is to one of the Arsenals in the City. In June, 1812, as we learn from Guernsey, there was a United States Arsenal on Bridge Street, back of Government House, near the Battery. This was of brick and was con- sidered a good work for the locality. There was also a three- story brick magazine near it. The United States also held a plot of 2 acres on the Hudson River at the foot of West I2th Street on which were a maga- zine, arsenal and laboratory. The laboratory was surrounded by a brick wall 9 feet high. Fort Gansevoort was erected later upon this site. Another U. S. Arsenal was at the junction of the old Bos- ton Road and Middle Road (now Madison Square), in the 125 HISTORY OF GOVERNOR'S ISLAND grounds laid out for the Parade in 1811. This Arsenal was built by State appropriation with the expectation that the United States would repay. The Parade contained 238 7/ IQ acres and extended from 23d to 34th Street and from 7th Avenue to 3rd Avenue. It was used for military exercises and for a place to assemble the forces destined to guard the City. In April, 1814, it was reduced to 89 i/io acres; later to less than 7 acres, the present Madison Square. On page 68, Vol. I of "Ordnance Reports," referred to above, will be found a "Statement of the battering cannon, mortars, howitzers, shots, shells and carriages not in service, deposited in the several arsenals and depots in the United States." A statement is given there of the number of each stored at "Arsenal, New York City." This is under date of January 29, 1822, and refers, no doubt, to an ordnance storage yard on Governor's Island. The Arsenal may be said to have been definitely started when buildings were commenced here in 1833 under an ap- propriation made by Congress, the work being carried out by an Engineer Officer, Captain J. L. Smith, Captain of. Engineers, under direction of the Chief of Ordnance. The buildings were paid for by the Ordnance Department. The Commanding Officer's quarters and quarters No. 2 were erected in 1839 an d enlarged in 1852. Quarters No. 3 were built in 1884. The old office was built in 1853, the new (present) office in 1860. The seven other buildings were erected between 1835 and 1904. A fire engine was maintained in service on the Arsenal Reservation from 1867 till 1910, when salt water mains were installed for the entire Island. An old Engineer map of the Arsenal marks a pump at a point near the S. E. corner of the store-house connected with the commanding officer's quarters. This probably represents the spring house described on p. 102. In 1878 the Military Service Institution was formed, with General Winfield Scott Hancock as its head. The Institution was located on Governor's Island, where it established its 126 THE NEW YORK ARSENAL headquarters, with library and museum. It is at present (1913) housed in the building known as the "Clock Tower Building," in which the late Brig.-Gen. T. F. Rodenbough, Secretary, had his office and where the present Secretary, Brig.-General James N. Allison, is now located. The area of the Arsenal is about 6^/2 acres. A list of commanding officers, from 1831 to the present day, follows : NEW YORK ARSENAL. ASSUMED NAMES OF OFFICERS RANK COMMAND SAMUEL PERKINS M. S. Keeper Dec. 31, 1831 S. H. WEBER M. S. Keeper Nov. 11, 1834 SAMUEL PERKINS M. S. Keeper April 5, 1835 J. A. J. BRADFORD Capt. O. D Sept. 15, 1835 GEO. D. RAMSEY Capt. O. D Oct. i, 1836 L. L. VAN KLEECK M. S. Keeper Nov. 9, 1836 J. F. LEE Lt. Cps. Engrs Oct. 1 1 , 1837 GEO. H. TALCOTT Lt. O. D Oct. 1838 I. A. D'LAGUEL Capt. O. D Mar. 27, 1839 L. L. VAN KLEECK M. S. Keeper May 21, 1840 W. A. THORNTON Capt. O. D July 2,1840 GEO. H. TALCOTT Bvt. Lt.-Col. O. D. July 31, 1849 W. A. THORNTON Bvt. Major O. D. . .Oct. i, 1851 R. H. K. WHITELEY Capt. O. D Nov. 20, 1854 W. A. THORNTON Bvt. Major O.D...May 31, 1858 R. H. K. WHITELEY Capt. O. D May 14, 1861 R. A. WAINWRIGHT Major O. D Oct. 23, 1862 SILAS CRISPIN Capt. O. D Apr. 14, 1864 A. R. BUFFINGTON Capt. O. D July 12, 1864 W. A. THORNTON Col. O. D June 19, 1865 C. BRYANT Lieut. O. D Apr. 6, 1866 T. T. S. LAIDLEY Maj. O. D May 15, 1866 127 HISTORY OF GOVERNOR'S ISLAND ASSUMED NAMES OF OFFICERS RANK COMMAND SILAS CRISPIN Lt.-Col. O. D Apr. 10, 1871 T. G. BAYLOR Maj. O. D June 10, 1876 G. W. McKEE Maj. O. D July 17, 1883 T. G. BAYLOR Col. O. D Oct. 3, 1883 CHAS. SHALER Capt. O. D May 15, 1885 A. MORDECAI Lt.-Col. O. D May 25, 1886 J. MCALLISTER Col. O. D July i, 1886 A. MORDECAI Lt.-Col. O. D Dec. 30, 1886 CHAS. SHALER Capt. O. D Mar. 28, 1887 A. MORDECAI Lt.-Col. O. D Apr. 16, 1887 J. E. GREER Capt. O. D Dec. n, 1889 A. MORDECAI Lt.-Col. O. D 'Dec. 17, 1889 G. COMLY Maj. O. D Feby. 9, 1892 FRANK HEATH Capt. O. D Apr. 19, 1894 F. H. PHIPPS Maj. O. D May 18, 1894 JOHN G. BUTLER Maj. O. D June 10, 1899 J. W. REILLY Lt.-Col. O. D Sept. 13, 1900 J. E. GREER Lt.-Col. O. D Aug. i, 1903 R. BIRNIE Lt.-Col. O. D Sept. 19, 1907 O. B. MITCHAM Lt.-Col. O. D Oct. i, 1907 The New York Arsenal has a charm and interest all its own, with its well-situated quarters, its groups of offices, its trees and walks and splendid views of the City, its towering buildings, the harbour, rivers and bridges. The records of Commanding Officers herewith given for a period of 82 years are exact and the author is indebted for these and for the dates of the buildings to the present Commanding Officer, Colonel Orin B. Mitcham, Ordnance Department. 128 o Ox Z ta \0 *t- oo U4 O u (X [K O W CHAPTER VIII. RELIGIOUS WORK AND INFLUENCE. The earliest mention of religions ministrations on Gover- nor's Island, beyond the occasional services of the Church of England held for Colonel Prescott's Regiment in 1776, is in connection with the Reverend John McVickar, D.D., Chap- lain of Governor's Island from 1844-1862. Dr. McVickar was a resident of the City of New York, a man of culture and distinction in literary and church circles, and at that time professor of moral and intellectual philosophy, belles-lettres, political economy, and the evidences of natural and revealed religion in Columbia College, a position which he rilled with dignity and success. As he had already reached the age of fifty-five, his friends were fearful of the consequences of adding to his other duties those of an army chaplain; nay, strenuous efforts were made to persuade him to decline the offer. But remonstrance was in vain ; Dr. McVickar was a devoted churchman and deeply interested in mission work, and had felt for a long time a warm and special interest in soldiers and all their concerns. He therefore promptly ac- cepted the proffer of the Government, and, as the call came during vacation at the college, he entered on his duties with- out the loss of a day. For eighteen years (1844-62) he held that position, serving not merely with efficiency, but with what might be called an enthusiastic devotion to the work. It is recorded of him by his biographer that he declared that he would resign his professorship in Columbia rather than the chaplaincy with its hard work among the soldiers and its salary of $700 a year. He was obliged, however, to resign in 1862, at the age of seventy-five. There was then no chapel and Dr. McVickar held services in fine weather in a little grove of trees near the present Colonels' Row. At other times he used one of the rooms of the Post Headquarters, which proved inconvenient to all con- 129 HISTORY OF GOVERNOR'S ISLAND cerned. He made requisitions for a chapel building, but without success. He therefore set about building one himself, and with gener- ous contributions from his own family and of friends whom he interested in the work and with substantial aid from Trinity Church, New York, which at that early date evinced an inter- est it has never ceased to hold, he gathered funds sufficient for the purpose. The Commander-in-Chief, General Scott, was strongly in- terested in the plans and gave them the benefit of his influence for the good of the churchless garrison. The War with Mexico broke out during the period of the Chapel's erection, but it helped rather than hindered the work, and the little building, which Chaplain McVickar describes as "having the two elements of humility and reverence," was soon completed and was consecrated by the Rt. Reverend Wm. H. De Lancey on April 19, 1847. Chaplain McVickar served with great faithfulness from 1844 to 1862, at which time the War Department insisted that the Chaplain, owing to war conditions, should reside on Governor's Island. This was impossible in that day of limited transportation, and so with great regret he resigned his posi- tion and devoted the remainder of his active life to his Col- lege duties. Chaplain McVickar was born in New York the loth of August, 1787, and died in 1868, six years after giving up his much-loved duties on Governor's Island. Inasmuch as he was the founder of religious work and in- fluence here, it may not be deemed amiss to mention some matters of interest connected with his life and work in and for the Garrison taken from his biography written by his son, William A. McVickar. Speaking of Dr. McVickar's appointment by the Secretary of War upon the nomination of the Council of Administration of the Garrison of which Dr. Joseph Pynchon Russell, Post Surgeon, was a member, in 1844, his biographer says: "My father had now reached his fifty-sixth year; a time of 130 RELIGIOUS WORK AND INFLUENCE life when most men, if they do not think of rest, do still hesi- tate about adding to their work. Yet we find him this year accepting the chaplaincy of Fort Columbus in the harbor of New York. J Ie had always been fond of parochial work, and was not only ever ready to assist his brother clergymen, but constantly went out of his way to do so ; generally singling out those, whether young or old, who he had reason to believe were over-worked. A friend and relative knowing his feelings in this respect, and being also acquainted with the officers of this Post, mentioned his name and secured his appointment. This unexpected proffer of missionary work, for it was really such, the performance of which was rendered possible by residence at the post not being required, came during the college vaca- tion, and my father accepted it at once. On first entering upon his duties, the chaplain found no place set apart for public worship, except the large room used on week-days as Post Headquarters, and on several Sundays business requirements forced him to vacate even this and go to an inconvenient upper room for service. This quickly de- termined him to make an effort for a chapel, but he found the matter surrounded with apparently insurmountable diffi- culties. Government was not accustomed to build chapels; nor was it willing either to make an appropriation for the pur- pose, nor to allow others, even if prepared, to build on gov- ernment ground. But there was determined perseverance on the one side, and probably friends at court on the other; not least among the latter being the then commander-in-chief of the army, General Scott. The result was a personal lease from the government of about one hundred and fifty feet square, on the south side of the island, subject to the exigen- cies of war; and within the year, the completion of a most tasteful and church-like building of wood after my father's own plans, and from funds, given and collected by himself. The war with Mexico breaking out at this time increased greatly the difficulties to be overcome. These were fully ap- 131 HISTORY OF GOVERNOR'S ISLAND predated, as the following extract from a letter from an Army officer to the chaplain shows : "To me, and I believe all of us, the interest of the Church is greatly enhanced by its erection in war times on the very scene of active preparation for distant service. It seems a happy omen of those times when war shall be known no more. That it is fairly erected and completed seems to me almost a miracle, and to you, dear sir, it must seem almost a creation. It has taught me a lesson in the power of faith and perseverance that I trust I shall never forget. Those of us who knew the peculiar and tormenting discouragements under which you labored, and which seemed to us insurmountable, cannot too highly appreciate a labor which not only benefits Governor's Island but the whole army." Another officer, writing from the far-off field of battle, says: "I am much pleased to hear of your final and complete suc- cess in building a church on the Island, and shall place my small donation in your hands at the first good opportunity. May its hallowed walls echo back strains of pure devotion from the hearts and lips of its fortunate attendants, and may its erection prove the means of turning many from the power of Satan unto God. If it shall be my privilege to return again to the United States, it will arouse no ordinary feelings of emotion in my heart to enter into the courts of our little sanctuary, and there to join the voice of prayer and praise to Him who is the God of dangers and of protection. Be so kind, my dear sir, in your next letter, as to describe its posi- tion and its form, even in details." Fort Columbus from 1850 was the great recruiting depot of the army; the numbers, therefore, that came under the chap- lain's notice in war times was greatly increased. As the com- mon soldier is not generally considered very impressible, we may judge somewhat of the spiritual power of the work centring round this little chapel by knowing that it received several bequests from soldiers dying in the hospitals of Mexico. The circle of its influence was a large one. The regiments 132 RELIGIOUS WORK AND INFLUENCE were often changed, and when they were, a practical symbolism was enlisted to give permanency to the spiritual impressions already made. The communicants among the commissioned officers were assembled by the chaplain and requested to choose a Bible text which should be the motto of their regi- ment, this was then inscribed, with proper device and color, on a metal shield, with the name of the regiment and solemnly hung on the walls of the chapel, a binding link to the absent, a suggestive subject of reflection to the present worshippers. In July, 1849, writing to an absent son, my father says: 'The little Church of St. Cornelius is growing in historic in- terest as well as beauty. The three successive commands of the Island have all their mementoes on its walls texts selected by them with appropriate shields; and what is more satis- factory yet, I never had better attendance from the officers."* An interesting episode occurred after the close of the Mexi- can War in the encampment for a time on Governor's Island of what was called the California Regiment of Colonel Steven- son. This was a semi-military colony, under government patronage, going to take practical possession of the newly acquired territory of California. The proposed expedition aroused all my father's clear-sighted zeal, both for the com- monwealth and the Church. He saw how much of the future of California, civil and ecclesiastical, might depend on the character and moral impetus of these men. He knew that they were mostly adventurers, but he never doubted the germ of goodness within. He worked among them untiringly, and before they sailed they were going by the six months' voyage round the Horn he persuaded them to elect a chaplain, de- termine on daily prayers on shipboard, and take the nominal position at least of a God-fearing body. The American Bible Society and the New York Bible and Common Prayer Book * These shields are described on p. 148. When the new Chapel was built (1906) they were removed from the old Chapel, carefully mounted on oak and hung on the walls of the south transept, where they serve as a reminder of the devotion of Dr. McVickar and of the manly piety of the soldiers of his day and generation. Requiescant omnes in pace. HISTORY OF GOVERNOR'S ISLAND Society were brought into requisition to enable him to make distribution to every man of a Bible and, to every one that desired it, a Prayer Book. This distribution was made the occasion of a farewell address, which, at the request of the officers, was printed and distributed among the men as a memento of home, for California was then a terra incognita, and felt to be, as it really was, very far away. The request of the Committee of Officers for a copy of this farewell address, which was made at the distribution of Bibles and Prayer Books to the Regiment prior to its sailing for Cali- fornia and which was printed, is dated "Camp Polk, Gover- nor's Island, 7th Reg't N. Y. U. S. A. Volunteers, Sept. nth, 1846," and the Doctor's acknowledgment of the courtesy was dated the following day. Of his ministrations among the sick, it is sufficient to say that he was faithful, and never allowed personal fear, and seldom personal weariness, to interpose a barrier. When the cholera was raging on Governor's Island in 1849, he writes to an absent member of his family : "Dr I was with last night, who, both for his own sake and that of his family, is very dear to me. I am afraid we shall lose him. It has terminated in cholera, which has carried off so many. I shall return to a sorrowing, perhaps desolate house, but God's will be done. It is painful beyond measure to lose, as I do, the mourners also, by their removal from my care and sympathy." As I copy these lines, evidently written before breakfast, after an anxious night's visitation, and telling of the simple way in which the chaplain went in and out among his cholera sick, I am forcibly reminded of his devoted successor in the chaplaincy, the Revd. Alexander Davidson, the second chaplain from Trinity Church, who has but just laid down his young life, a sacrifice to the same sense of duty, as he went in and out among the sick soldiers, during the late prevalence of yel- low fever on the island. His record as given by his com- manding officer is a very noble one, and if imagination might be allowed to picture choice meetings in the spirit world, it would find here congenial material. RELIGIOUS WORK AND INFLUENCE Many letters show the personal interest which my father took in the new recruits, especially those who had seen better days, and who, by misfortune or wrong-doing, had been in- duced to enlist in the army. Several, so situated, were through his influence at Washington freed from their enlistment and restored to their friends. Foreigners also, who could neither speak nor write English, but who were well educated, and who from necessity had been forced to enlist, often found in the Latin tongue a means of communication which must have been to them a great comfort. * The following letter, found among the Chaplain's papers, is an example of this, pathetic in its simplicity. DOMINE PASTOR: Quod tibi scribo, excusa me. Te rogare volui tit curam haberes pro me Majorem optare ut me in Partem Permanentem transferret. Simul curriculum vitse mese tibi refero ut de me jtidi- care possis. Filius Pastoris primarii Magdeburgiensis sum, In prima classe Gymnasii Latini Halbertstadiensis versatus sum. Postea quinque annos mercator fui in quibus Collegium Carolinum Brunoswigii visitavi. Capitanus in Bello Danico fui et infelix fortuna politicio me in hanc partem mundi translulit. Non amicum qui me novit habeo. Rogo ut te metim optatum audias. * CAROLUS ARMINIUS THRYHSSON. The "permanent party" referred to in the above was the per- manent garrison of the Island, the members of which were not liable to be sent to distant posts, and had other privileges. * Translation REVEREND PASTOR: Excuse me for troubling you with a letter. I wish to ask you to be so very kind as to request the Major to transfer me to the Permanent Party. I will now tell you something of my life so that you can judge what kind of man I am. I am the Son of the Chief Pastor of the City of Magdeburg and a grad- 135 HISTORY OF GOVERNOR'S ISLAND Only the best men were put upon it and it was considered an honor as well as an advantage to belong to it. These chaplaincy duties, running over a period of eighteen years, having commenced with one war, were destined to terminate with another. My father's feelings with regard to the War of the Rebellion are well expressed in the following few lines of a home letter: "April 17, 1861, Our April has been stormy, but less so than our national affairs. It is a crisis I could never have believed in, and even now can scarcely realize ; but it alters not our rule of life duty and Christian hope. When earth is dark, we must look to Heaven for light. Civil war is upon us. It might, perhaps, have been avoided, but must now be met, and the Federal government supported at all hazards and any cost. We must now conquer peace. The interval, long or short, will be one of trials and self-denials such as we have not been accustomed to, but with a brave heart and God's Blessing we shall go through them." Under the regulations then in force soldiers were required to attend divine service and on the sounding of the Church call were marched to and seated in the lower half of the Chapel. Those only were excused who were on duty that prevented or who could plead religious scruples. These, how- ever, had to remain in quarters during divine service and have the Articles of War and Regulations read to them and some amusing tales are traditional from McVickar's time of men who after comparing the Regulations and the Chaplain's ser- mons decided in favour of the latter as the less of two evils. The reader who has followed thus far this historical ac- count will have observed that Governor's Island is sui generis uate in the highest class of the Latin Classical Academy of Halbertstadt (Prussia). For five years after my graduation I was engaged in business during which time I attended the Caroline College at Brunswick. I also served in the Army with rank of Captain in our war with Den- mark and then by an unhappy turn of the wheel of fortune I find myself in this part of the world, unknown, without a friend to help me. I earnestly beg that you will hear this my prayer. 136 RELIGIOUS WORK AND INFLUENCE in every department of its military and social activities. It will not be surprising, therefore, to find it so in its ecclesiastical relations. Dr. McVickar was selected by the Post Council of Ad- ministration according to the regulations of 1838. In those days the pay of Chaplain was forty dollars a month, four rations per day, quarters and fuel, increased in 1849 to not to exceed sixty dollars a month, subject to the approval of the Post Council. The Chaplaincy of Governor's Island has remained during all succeeding years on the basis of its establishment in 1844, except that since 1868 the financial support of the Chaplain has been borne by the Trinity Church Corporation. This is somewhat analogous to the corps of Acting Post Chaplains in the British Army, of whom there are a number carried on the rolls in addition to the regular commissioned Chaplains. These have their regular parochial work but may be called upon, as reserves, by the War Department for special duty when their services are required. The arrangement in force at Governor's Island is more favourable to the Government, however, as is also the status of the Chapel building, which is for the sole use of the Government in the persons of the Governor's Island establishment, whereas in England and Germany today the Military Garrisons in most cases share a parish Church with the regular congregation, as, for instance, at Carlisle, where the author has been present at service on Sunday, the command from the Castle in the City marching in and occupying assigned sittings, the officers sitting in the choir stalls. In Germany there are but a few Garrison Chapels besides the ones at Berlin and Potsdam and the garrisons use the local churches as best they may. The author quotes the following passage on this subject from the valuable observations of Chaplain Joseph Clemens, I5th U. S. Infantry, on duty at Tientsin, China: "The French have no chaplains, neither have the Italians, except for soldiers in the provinces. The Germans have i37 HISTORY OF GOVERNOR'S ISLAND Romanist and Protestant chaplains at all garrisons, who also visit the smaller posts periodically. When no chaplain is ob- tainable the commanding officer reads the service. Regimental chaplains rank as captains, superintending chaplains as lieu- tenant colonels. They are paid from the war budget. Roman Catholic and Protestant chaplains are forbidden to talk to any but those of their own faith; the orthodox (Lutheran) may talk to all. They visit the hospitals and prisons. The Russians provide an Orthodox, a Romanist and a Pro- testant at each large garrison. For smaller posts they provide an Orthodox chaplain, and for each prison and hospital, but for others they provide chaplains by districts. They do not rank as officers nor wear uniforms, on account of the union of Church and State. The chaplains of one creed are not for- bidden to talk to men of another creed. In Russia soldiers are ordered to service twice a week, but elsewhere a priest comes at certain times, and the C.O. conducts services on holy- days and special occasions. Chaplains are paid from the war budget. The British provide chaplains for soldiers everywhere, ac- cording to the credal preference made by the soldiers when entering the service, whether Orthodox (Church of England), Romanist or Dissenters (Methodists, Baptists, Presbyterians, etc.). Chaplains rank from citizens to a chaplain general, but do not wear uniforms. They visit the outposts of their com- mands weekly. When civilian chaplains are employed they receive one shilling a man per annum. An officer accompanies each detail of men to their various services once a week under orders. Speaking generally, it may be said the chaplains of European Armies are employed in religious work only." Dr. McVickar, the venerable founder of the work here, was, like some of the recognized Chaplains in the British Army to-day, a civilian chaplain, and all who have followed him for 70 years have been the same, except Chaplain La Tourette, who served here 1865-8. The students of Columbia in the 40*5 and 5o's had a song 138 RELIGIOUS WORK AND INFLUENCE about this distinguished scholar and cleric in allusion to his Army chaplaincy which it is supposed amused him as much as the students themselves. The refrain was as follows : "01 Johnny McVickar s a warlike man; Pie's built on the preaching and fighting plan- He s chaplain of Governor's Island." At this time Columbia College was at Park Place near the Battery. Dr. McVickar wore a military cape and cap in his attendance at the College as well as when on duty at Fort Columbus and was accustomed to hang them on a hook in view of the students. The author has been told by a dis- tinguished clergyman of the Church who was a student at Columbia under Dr. McVickar in the Class of 1856 that the Reverend Professor-Chaplain was very proud of his chaplaincy at Governor's Island as well as of the cap which he wore, and the students, who, it seems, were very much as students are today, appreciating this very pardonable pride, but determined to turn it to good account, formulated a set of verses of which the chorus as given above alone remains. Columbia College thus has three points of connection with Governor's Island first, when under the early Governors a certain tract was set apart for the College Revenue, but never used; second, in 1797, when its Professors and students in a body worked on the fortifications ; and third, in giving one of its Professors, from 1844 to 1862, as the Chaplain of Gover- nor's Island. The labours of the College body on the Harlem fortifications in 1814 must also be remembered (p. 54). The following inscription is carved on one of the stone sedilia in the Chapel: 139 HISTORY OF GOVERNOR'S ISLAND In Memory of JOHN McViCKAR Priest and Doctor Born 1787, Died 1868 Chaplain of this Post 1844-1862 By whose wisdom and liberality the first Chapel of St. Cornelius the Centurion was erected in 1846 The law of truth was in his mouth, and iniquity was not found in his lips. Dr. McVickar was succeeded in the chaplaincy by the Rev. Mr. Scudder, who held that office from 1862 until 1865. Upon his retirement the Rev. James Armour Moore La Tourette was appointed in his place. He was a clergyman of the Episcopal Church and served as commissioned chaplain from 1865 until 1868. One of the Sanctuary sedilia has been designated as a memorial of him, and is thus inscribed : In Memory of JAMES ARMOUR MOORE LA TOURETTE, Priest. Born 1826. Died 1891. Chaplain of this Post, 1865-1868. Faithful in the dis- charge of duty, notably in the siege of Asiatic cholera of 1866. Instant in season Out of season. 140 RELIGIOUS WORK AND INFLUENCE In 1868 it was announced by the War Department that as the Island is within the limits of the City of New York, the religious bodies of that city ought to feel interest enough in the spiritual welfare of the men on the Island to supply them with the ministrations of religion. Trinity Church being in the First Ward, in full view from the Island and close at hand, the Rector and Vestry responded without delay to the sug- gestion of the Government, and immediately made a pro- posal to the War Department to maintain a clergyman at the post at their own expense, who should perform the accustomed duties of a commissioned chaplain. The proposal was ac- cepted August, 1868, as appears from the followng extracts from the collection of documents relating to this subject: WAR DEPARTMENT, ADJUTANT GENERAL'S OFFICE, WASHINGTON, August nth, 1868. BREVET MAJOR GENERAL D. BUTTERFIELD, Superintendent Gen'l Rec'g Service, New York City. SIR: Referring to the recommendation contained in your in- dorsement of the 3ist ultimo forwarding a proposition made by the Vestry of Trinity Church, New York, to fur- nish and pay a clergyman to conduct religious and school exercises at Governor's Island, New York Harbor, said clergyman to be allowed quarters and fuel by the Govern- ment and have the facilities usually furnished to chap- plains, you are respectfully informed the same has been approved by the Secretary of War. Very respectfully Your obedient servant, (Signed) E. D. TOWNSEND, Assistant Adjutant General. HEADQUARTERS GEN'L REC'G SERVICE, NEW YORK CITY, August 14, 1868. Official copy respectfully furnished Brevet Brig. Gen- eral H. D. Wallen, Commanding Fort Columbus, N. Y. H., for his information and guidance and with reference to 141 HISTORY OF GOVERNOR'S ISLAND copy of the letter of Rev. Dr. Dix furnished him from this office, July 3ist ultimo. By order of Bvt. Major Gen'l Butterfield. (Signed) ASA BIRD GARDINER, ist Lieut, of 9th Infantry, A. A. A. G. The first chaplain under this arrangement was the Reverend J. B. C. Beaubien, appointed October 12, 1868, in the following Orders : GENERAL ORDERS No. 104. H'DQ'RS PRINCIPAL DEPOT, G. R. S. FT. COLUMBUS, N. Y. HARBOR, Dec. 3, 1868. The Commanding Officer has the pleasure of announc- ing to the Command that through the generosity and Christian sympathy extended by Trinity Church, New York City, the services of the Rev. J. B. C. Beaubien have been secured as resident chaplain of the Depot; and that certain necessary improvements are about to be made in the Chapel of St. Cornelius for the comfort and con- venience of the officers and soldiers here stationed. Under this beneficent arrangement worship is perma- nently resumed at the Depot: with Sunday morning and evening services : a Sabbath School and Bible Class. Although "it is earnestly recommended to all officers and soldiers diligently to attend divine service," and not- withstanding all are cordially invited to attend, yet this invitation is in no sense compulsory and must not be so considered or construed by the officers or non-commis- sioned officers of the Depot. All must be left free to worship God after their own forms and in accordance with the dictates of their own consciences. By order of Bvt. Brig. Gen. H. D. Wallen. I. E. PUTNAM, ist Lieut. 1 2th Infy & Bvt. Capt. U. S. A., Post Adjutant. At the same time order was taken for certain work for the improvement of the chapel and supplies for the schools in charge of the chaplain. He was transferred after a little more than a year to .an- other Post and the Rev. Alexander Davidson was appointed, January 10, 1870. Dr. Dix writes of him as follows in his History of the Chapel of St. Cornelius the Centurion: 142 RELIGIOUS WORK AND INFLUENCE "The name of this devoted young priest shines brightly in the annals of our venerable parish ; he attained an honor which many have coveted but few secured the death of those who give their lives for their fellow-men. His career was brief, but glorious. Cordially welcomed to the Island by Bvt. Brig. Gen. Thomas H. Neill, commanding the Depot, and furnished by that officer with instructions for his information and guid- ance, he began his work with the opening of the year and speedily gave proof of ability and devotion. But, unfortun- ately, his health was not strong, and after a few months it was deemed advisable that he should take such time as might be necessary for a complete, recovery. While he was away on leave of absence, the yellow fever broke out on the Island, late in the summer, attacking officers and men. On receiving the news Davidson returned at once to his post of duty, in spite of the remonstrances of his friends, and after laboring strenuously among the sick contracted the fatal disease and died. His name has been borne upon our rolls thenceforth as one who fell in the service of Christ and of the brethren. In appreciation of his character and acts the vestry adopted these resolutions : (October 10, 1870.) The Comptroller was authorized to pay the expense of printing connected with the memorial of the late Reverend Alexander Davidson, Post Chaplain at Governor's Island, who died recently from yellow fever contracted in his attendance on the sick soldiers under his charge. Resolved that a tablet be erected in Trinity Church in memory of the Reverend Alexander Davidson, late in the service of this Parish as Chaplain on Governor's Island, who died at that post during the epidemic lately prevail- ing there, in the discharge of his duties to the men under his spiritual care. And that it be referred to a Committee of three, of which the Rector shall be chairman, to procure a design for such tablet and to select a suitable position for it, and to report the same to the Vestry with an estimate of its cost. Mr. Strong and Mr. Sackett were appointed on the Committee. 143 HISTORY OF GOVERNOR'S ISLAND At the same meeting a substantial gift was made to the mother of the deceased Chaplain, and an appropriation was voted to enable the Rector to provide for the services at St. Cornelius' Chapel in the interval between the death of Mr. Davidson and the appointment of his successor. The tablet to his memory was placed in Trinity Church, and may now be seen in the sacristy. It bears this inscription : In memory of the Rev. ALEXANDER DAVIDSON Chaplain at Ft. Columbus New York Harbor Who died of Yellow Fever Sept. A.D. 1870 Though absent on sick leave when the Disease broke out he came back, and while ministering to the Sick and Dying was himself struck down and thus gave his life for his Brethren. The above inscription is also carved in stone on one of the memorial sedilia in the new Chapel. The Revd. Edward Hackley Carmichael Goodwin was ap- pointed chaplain Jan'y 17, 1871, and served with great faith- fulness until Sept. 30, 1904, when he was retired on a pension. Upon his reporting at Governor's Island the following orders were issued : HEADQUARTERS PRINCIPAL DEPOT RECRUITING SERVICE, FORT COLUMBUS, NEW YORK HARBOR, SPECIAL ORDERS, Jan'y J 7. 1871. No. 15. j [EXTRACT.] II. Rev. Mr. E. H. C. Goodwin having reported at these Headquarters is hereby announced as Chaplain of the Post. He will be obeyed and respected accordingly. By command of Lieut.-Col. T. H. Neill, 6th Cavalry. JAMES REGAN, ist Lt. pth Infantry, Post Adjutant. 144 o 70 PI C C 73 o z RELIGIOUS WORK AND INFLUENCE When he went to Governor's Island there were two separate commands, Fort Columbus and the New York Arsenal. Fort Columbus was a two-company post, commanded at that time, as appears from the special order just quoted, by Lieut- Col. Thos. H. Neill, 6th Cavalry, while Lieut.-Col. Theodore T. S. Laidley was in command of the Arsenal. To these two officers Mr. Goodwin was indebted for a very cordial recep- tion, and for whatever assistance could be reasonably expected by one entering on duties so novel. Mr. Goodwin speaks of the feeling toward him throughout his long term of office, both personally and in his work, as so kindly that it is difficult to single out names for mention. Colonel Neill's successors, as a rule, were as warmly his friends as was that distinguished officer. Of Colonel Laidley he has spoken to me with peculiar affection, remarking that he was never absent from the chapel when it was open for service, and that, if on the Island, the Colonel was always in his place, with kindly greeting, wise counsel, helpful suggestion, and hearty sympathy. Among the officers subsequently in command at the Arsenal may be specially mentioned Col. Alfred Mordecai, Col. Julian Mc- Alister, Col. J. W. Reilly and Col. John E. Greer. Of the ladies resident from time to time on Governor's Island, Mrs. Hancock organized an efficient choir and played the organ at the chapel services, besides being at the head of several entertainments on the Island given by the officers and ladies at the Post for the benefit of the Chapel. Mrs. Schofield may also be mentioned as greatly interested, and as having made altar cloths and other vestments for the Chapel. The subject of the music was a difficult one, as it was entirely voluntary, an arrangement rendered uncertain and unsatis- factory by the changes in command and the coming and going of regiments. During the whole of her residence Mrs. Han- cock took charge of the musical part of the service ; Miss Julia Gilliss was also noted for prolonged attention to the work; Mrs. David Robertson, wife of Hospital Steward Robertson, was for a long time the acceptable leader of the choir. Mrs. Schofield, Mrs. Ruggles, Mrs. Arnold, Mrs. Taylor, Mrs. i45 HISTORY OF GOVERNOR'S ISLAND Roger Jones, Mrs. Morrison, and many others, were active helpers of Chaplain Goodwin, and aided in many ways in the adornment of the chapel with contributions of sacramental vessels, altar cross, eucharistic and other lights, altar desk, vases, etc., and hangings which were the work of their own hands or purchased by them and presented as offerings of love and devotion. The sympathy of the ladies has been al- ways a strong encouragement to the chaplain and an incentive to, as well as a reward of, his work ; and so it continues to the present day. I may also add to this record the names of General Gillespie, who was especially interested in the work; of Col. J. W. Reilly, who supplemented the offices of the quarter-master by having the pews repaired by the workmen in his employ, and raised money to recarpet the entire chapel ; and of Col. Samuel Brook, adjutant-general, who provided cushions for the pews. Upon retirement of Chaplain Goodwin the Revd. Edmund B. Smith was appointed and announced by special orders : HEADQUARTERS ATLANTIC DIVISION, SPECIAL ORDERS, GOVERNOR'S ISLAND, NEW YORK CITY, No. 72. j October 28, 1904. [EXTRACT.] i. The Reverend Edmund B antes Smith having re- ported at these headquarters on the ist instant, is hereby announced as Chaplain of this station pursuant to au- thority of the War Department contained in letter dated Adjutant General's Office, Washington, August n, 1868. He will be obeyed and respected accordingly. ****** BY COMMAND OF BRIGADIER GENERAL GRANT: H. O. S. HEISTAND, Colonel, Assistant Adjutant General, Adjutant General. "In 1904, after nearly sixty years of constant use, the old chapel was found to be in a state of partial decay and no longer safe or convenient for occupancy. There were leaks in the roof and sides ; one of the window frames fell out in a high wind; it was very cold in winter; it was battered by the 146 RELIGIOUS WORK AND INFLUENCE storms of years. The Corporation, after due consideration, abandoned the idea of repairing or endeavoring to restore the old edifice, notwithstanding the associations connected with it, and decided to ask permission of the Government to replace it with a new building. Negotiations with the War Depart- ment were carried on for several months, during the years 1904 and 1905, during which time we were greatly indebted to Maj.-Gen. James F. Wade, Maj.-Gen.. Frederick D. Grant, Brig.-Gen. John W. Clous (retired), Col. H. O. S. Heistand, Majors E. M. Weaver, II. Rowan, G. H. G. Gale, and Albert Todd, for valuable advice and assistance, both here and in Washington. To these officers I now have the honor to present our thanks for their cooperation in our cherished plan, and their assistance in enabling us to carry it into effect. After due time consent was given by the War Department; designs for the new building having been sub- mitted, examined, and approved, and a site was designated not far from that of the old chapel. The ceremony of laying the cornerstone, by the Right Rev. David H. Greer, D.D., Bishop Coadjutor of New York, took place on Friday, October 27, 1905, and the chapel was consecrated, with imposing ecclesi- astical and military ceremonies, October 19, 1906." The architect selected to build the chapel was Mr. Charles C. Haight, a gentleman well known and esteemed in his pro- fession. He has a military record which merits attention in this connection. During the war for the Union, Mr. Haight served as captain of the 39th Regiment, New York Volunteers. On the second day of the Battle of the Wilderness he com- manded that regiment and was severely wounded. He also served as adjutant of the 3ist Regiment, United States Volun- teers, and in other capacities during the war. His wife was a grand-daughter of the Rev. Dr. John McVickar, chaplain, by whom the first chapel was built, and his eldest son is Capt. Charles Sidney Haight, 5th U. S. Cavalry. A number of historical shields of metal which had hung for many years in the Chapel of 1846 were removed to the new Chapel upon its completion and are in the South transept : HISTORY OF GOVERNOR'S ISLAND A shield commemorating the wreck of the "San Francisco" has on it: "Wreck of the San Francisco, Christmas, 1853. The survivors of the 3d Arty in Sorrow and in Thankfulness hang up this Shield." Four smaller shields bear the following inscriptions: "Recruiting Depot. Came, I7th March, 1842. In- scribed these to the Glory of God. Trinity S., 1849." "ist Regt Arty Cos. A, B & E. Came Oct., 1848. These as good soldiers of Jesus Christ, Whitsunday, 1849." "3d Regt Arty, Octr, Novr, Deer, 1853." "4th Regt Infy J u f e ' [1852" Juty, i Two shields placed in memory of the soldiers who fell dut- ing the Mexican War are inscribed : "Thou, O Lord, hast covered my head in the day of battle." "Thy truth, O Lord, shall be my shield and buckler." A smaller shield above these two is inscribed: "These Shields are set up at the cost of Soldiers re- turned from Mexico, 1848." Military trophies connected with the Mexican War are mentioned in the chapter dealing with that period. On the walls hang flags representing every branch of the service, in- cluding a number of Spanish captures. Their number is being added to from time to time. The same is true of memorials to officers of the Army. The list at present in- cludes memorial windows to Major-General Winfield Scott Hancock and Mrs. Hancock and to General Daniel Butter- field; a massive stone font in memory of Bvt. Colonel Alex- 148 2 o S BJ O <n O p Ox a Q W g B u- O UJ CM a u RELIGIOUS WORK AND INFLUENCE ander H. Hoff and Ann E. Van Renssclaer, his wife; altar vases in memory of Sylyvester Day, Surgeon, U. S. A., Bvt. Brig.-Gen. C. Hannibal Day and Maria Hotighton his wife, Lieut. Russel H. Day, U. S. A., Murray S. Day, U. S. N., and Bvt.-Col. A. H. Hoff and Clifton Comly, Major Ordnance Corps; in the side chapel a credence and piscina of carved stone in memory of Sumter Loring Edmunds, a credence at the high altar to commemorate the marriage in the old chapel of Mr. and Mrs. Henry Fairfield Osborn. Other gifts are crosses in memory of Charles C. Morrison, Capt. Ordnance Corps, and of Chaplain McVickar, given by his great grand- children ; tablets in memory of Joseph Pynchon Russell, Sur- geon, 1790-1849, who served at Fort Columbus 1824-1849, of his son Lieut-Colonel Edmund Kirby Russell, 1st Artillery, who was born on Governor's Island in 1840, and of members of their family; a Bible in memory of Brig.-Gen. John W. Clous and a group of paintings of sacred subjects in memory of General Grant. These are assembled in a shrine under a flag canopy and are marked by a brass tablet inscribed by Mrs. Grant, who presented the paintings, as follows : tin flDemorfam FREDERICK DENT GRANT Major-General United States Army April 13-26 1912 Services of the Roman Catholic Church have been held for many years on the Island. Prior to 1883 they were under the auspices of St. Peter's Church in Barclay Street, but for twenty-eight years past they have been attended from the Mission at No. 7 State Street, New York. At one time, according to the remembrance of old residents, services were held in a building near the old Hospital, at other 149 HISTORY OF GOVERNOR'S ISLAND times in the barracks and the Castle for a short period till a more suitable place could be found. In later years, and for a long time, they have been conducted in the South Battery, and with the completion of the new building in the Battery in 1904 a spacious hall has been used for that purpose, where service is held every Sunday morning. The Clergyman in charge (1913) is the Rev. Michael Joseph Mitchell, from the State Street Mission. For several years past the 22nd Regiment, Corps of En- gineers, N. G. N. Y., Colonel Walter B. Hotchkin command- ing, has had an annual Church parade on Memorial Sunday. The Veteran Corps of Artillery, Military Society of the War of 1812, of whose services in 1812 mention is made on p. 74, comes to Governor's Island annually at All Saints' for a Memorial Service. This annual service of commemoration of Departed Com- rades who have served with honour in the Army and Navy of the United States of America and in the Militia of the State of New York, in the War of the Revolution and in later National Wars is authorized by the Secretary of War and contains, in addition to trie features usual at such a service, the ancient Bidding Prayer as used at Oxford University, the Academic offices and titles being replaced by Military. The Prayer is given here, not only for its beauty of noble English and the high ideal of national life it sets forth, but because, so far as can be learned, this is the only military station in England or America at which it has ever been used. THE BIDDING PRAYER Ye shall pray for Christ's Holy Catholic Church and for that pure and Apostolic branch of it which God has planted in these United States of America : and as I am more especially bound, I bid your prayers for the Parish of Trinity Church in the City of New York, that our LORD may bless its labours for Religion in the Army and in the Commonwealth. Ye shall pray for the President of the United States, and for the Governor of this State, and for all that are in civil authority over us ; that all, and every of them, in 150 RELIGIOUS WORK AND INFLUENCE their several callings may serve truly to the glory of God, and the edifying and well-governing of His people, re- membering the account they have to give. Ye shall pray for the Secretary of War, the Secretary of the Navy, and all others in authority: and more espe- cially for the Commanding General of this Military De- partment and for those who serve with him : for the Com- mander of this Post and all officers and soldiers here stationed, that they may by Thy Divine assistance pre- serve peace and tranquillity in our Land. Ye shall pray for the National Guard of this State and for all the Military Societies of the Nation, and herein more especially for the members of this Venerable Corps and Military Society, that they may adorn the doctrine of GOD our Saviour in all things: and that in this State and City and throughout the land whatsoever tends to the advancement of patriotism and true loyalty may for- ever flourish and abound. Finally, let us praise God for all them that are departed out of this life in the faith of Christ, for the Patriarchs and Prophets, Apostles, Evangelists, Doctors, Martyrs and Confessors, whom He hath bestowed on His Church to shine as lights in their generations from the beginning of the world; for patriots and soldiers, for those who have given their lives in defence of country, for the Founders of this Corps and those who bear their names : and for all our departed members who having finished their course in faith do now rest from their labours. There was found, a number of years ago, in a little gilt frame of ancient design, a Prayer for Soldiers, evidently com- posed by the Revd. Dr. McVickar. This prayer is still used today at the public services of the Chapel, and is given here- with : A PRAYER FOR THE ARMY, CHAPEL OF ST. CORNELIUS THE CENTURION, GOVERNOR'S ISLAND, NEW YORK HARBOUR. O Almighty Lord God, Who didst choose Thy Servant Cornelius the Centurion, a devout man, and one that feared God with all his house, to be the first fruits of the Gospel among the Gentiles, and an example to those who 151 HISTORY OF GOVERNORS ISLAND should follow him in the profession of arms, we humbly implore Thy blessing upon those who serve in the Army of the United States. Make them to have a love of order and good discipline: may they have the victory over all their enemies, and by Thy Divine assistance preserve peace and tranquility in our land. Do Thou comfort and help the sick and show Thy pity upon all prisoners and captives. [*Look with the eyes of Thy mercy upon the wounded, and have in Thy holy keeping the souls of those who have fallen in battle.] More especially we pray for St. Cornelius' Chapel and all Benefactors of the same, and this Station in which we dwell. Send a blessing upon the officers and other soldiers and all under authority: and grant that in the true Faith of Thy Holy Name we may manfully fight under Christ's banner against sin, the world and the Devil, and continue His faithful Soldiers and Servants unto our lives' end: All which we ask in the name and for the sake of the great Captain of our Salvation, Thy Son our Saviour Jesus Christ. Amen. * In time of war. CHAPTER IX. GOVERNOR'S ISLAND EXTENSION. It was not until 1797, after Washington had retired from the Presidency, that the irritation between the United States and France grew serious. Pressing remonstrances were made to Congress that the City be protected in its helpless condition, the State having by the Constitution ceded to the General Government the power of providing for the common defense. The Government contended that it had not the power to pass any law impairing the obligations of contracts; that a balance of $2,075,846 due from the State of New York to the United States by an award of the "Commissioner of Accounts," dated Philadelphia, Dec. 1793, must first be paid. At length, after much altercation, Congress declared, by a law passed May 3, 1798, that "Where any State, which was found indebted to the United States, should, with the President's approbation, pro- ceed to finish or complete any fortifications heretofore com- menced by such State for the defense of any port or harbor within the same, or shall, under the direction of the President, make and erect any additional fortifications, pursuant to the act entitled 'An Act to provide for the further defense of the ports and harbors of the United States/ providing that no expenditures exceeding the balance found and reported against the respective States shall be allowed as aforesaid : and provided, that the fortifications for which the -whole or any part of the expenditures shall be allowed and credited as aforesaid, with their privileges and appurtenances shall be, and shall be declared and established, as the property of the United States while maintained by them." Under the provisions of the Act, the State was duly credited with the several amounts of money it had expended by au- thority of legislative acts, in the erection of fortifications on Governor's Island. By the authority of an act passed March 26, 1794, 30,000 had been so appropriated. This sum had 153 HISTORY OF GOVERNOR'S ISLAND been expended under the supervision of George Clinton, Mat- thew Clarkson, James Watson, Richard Varick, Nicholas Fish, Ebenezer Stevens and Elijah Hammond. A further sum of ^20,000 had been granted April 6, 1795, to complete certain works on Governor's Island and Ellis' Island. This Island, together with other islands in the vicinity, was ceded to the United States Government by an act of the Legis- lature passed February 15, 1800. The following is a copy of the said act: CHAPTER 6, LAWS OF 1800. AN ACT to cede to the United States the jurisdiction of certain islands situate in and about the harbour of New York. Be it enacted by the people of the State of New York represented in Senate and Assembly: That the following islands, in and about the harbour of New York, and in and about the fortifying of which, this State hath hereto- fore expended or caused to be expended large sums of money, to wit, all that certain island called Bedlow's island, bounded on all sides by the waters of the Hudson River; all that certain island, called Oyster Island, bounded on all sides by the waters of the Hudson River ; and all that certain island called Governor's Island, on which Fort Jay is situate, bounded on all sides by the waters of the East River and Hudson River, shall here- after be subject to the jurisdiction of the United States: Provided, that this cession shall not extend to prevent the execution of any process, civil or criminal, issuing under the authority of this State, but that such process may be served and executed on the said islands respectively, any thing therein contained notwithstanding. The island referred to as Oyster Island, in the foregoing act, was subsequently named and is now known as Ellis' Island. The Sundry Civil Act of 1901 made an appropriation for beginning the Extension of Governor's Island. This was ex- tended to include an addition of about 82 acres to the area of the Island by enclosing with a bulkhead part of the shoal to the S. W. of the Island and filling the enclosure, the building of a wharf on the N. shore and dredging to a depth of 26 feet in front of the wharf and the erection of buildings. The work 154 GOVERNOR S ISLAND EXTENSION of enlargement, including the construction of a wharf and dredging, was estimated to cost $1,100,000, and was assigned to the Engineer Corps. By a modification of the plan adopted in April, 1902, the enlargement was to be extended S. W. over the shoal to reclaim an additional area of about 19 acres, making the total area on enlargement 103 acres. In January, 1913, the Extension was turned over by the Engineer Depart- ment to the Commanding Officer, Fort Jay. That it was the intention of the Legislature to cede title as well as jurisdiction is clearly evident from the Act approved May 7, 1880, ceding certain lands covered with water, which is as follows : SECTION I : "All the right and title of the State of New York to the following described parcels of land covered with water, adjacent and contiguous to the lands of the United States, in the harbor of New York, at Governor's Island, ********** anc j jurisdic- tion over the same, are hereby released and ceded to the United States under Article I, Section 8, Paragraph 17 of the constitution, for the purpose of erecting and main- taining docks, wharves, boat-houses, sea walls, batteries, and other needful structures. Provided that jurisdiction hereby ceded shall continue no longer than the United States shall own said land at Governors Island, : ******* and the adjacent lands covered with water herein described and hereby released; and provided fur- ther that all civil and such criminal process as may law- fully issue under authority of this state may be served or executed over said released lands." Subsequent to the passage of the foregoing Act, to wit, May 26, 1880, the submerged premises were granted and conveyed to the United States of America by the Gover- nor of the State of New York, by letters patent, : *****. Patent recorded in Book of Patents, No. 44, page 604, etc., in the office of the Secretary of State for the State of New York. Laws of the State of New York, Chapter 57, Consoli- dated Laws of 1909, Article 4, Section 22. "Title and jurisdiction to the following described tracts or parcels of land have been ceded to the United States by this state on condition, etc., ********** Governor's Island," &c. 155 HISTORY OF GOVERNOR'S ISLAND Referring to the letters patent (as above), the acting Cor- poration Counsel, City of New York, stated June i6th, 1910, in a communication addressed to the President of the Depart- ment of Taxes and Assessments, New York, that the "lands under water covered by these letters patent are the property of the United States and therefore exempt from taxation."* The actual extension of work was begun August, 1901, and the sea wall was first built to enclose the area. Its length is 7,219 feet and there are 4,787,748 cubic yards in the extension, the material having been obtained from dredged channels and excavation earth, New York City. The number of acres is IO 3-55 m the extension, as compared with 69.8 in the Old Island, 173.35 acres in all. The work was done by the Engineer Department under the command of Colonel W. L. Marshall (Retired Brig.-Gen.) and Colonel S. W. Roessler, both of the Corps of Engineers. When work on the enlargement was begun the contractors for building the sea wall were required to mark the end of their work with a lantern. As the foundation advanced into deeper water, better signals became necessary, and a wrecked schooner was used for the purpose. In the winter of 1910 the schooner was released and a house built on the land. The lantern, fog bell and striking mechanism were loaned by the Light House Bureau. This light was taken over by the Light House Bureau May loth, 1912. The average number of men employed was 40 ; locomotives, 3 ; engines, 3 ; derricks, 2. As late as the year 1900 the sea wall was in front of the present Regimental line (Brick Row), and when the sea was high, spray would dash upon the front of the houses. A fine level plain (sown to grass in 1911) now stretches its hundred acres of refreshing green to the west and south. The estimated cost of this improvement was $1,100,000 and the Engineering Department completed the extension for this amount. The approximate cost per acre was $10,000. * It appears from the foregoing that the United States owns Governor's Island in fee simple. 156 o o O 73 on X a W o OS 1 CHAPTER X. COMMANDING GENERALS, POST COMMANDERS, BRITISH' AND AMERICAN FORCES, I755-I9I3- July i, 1878, the Headquarters of the Military Division of the Atlantic and the Department of the East were transferred from the Army Building, Houston Street, to Governor's Island, in compliance with G. O. 42, c. s., with the following personnel : MAJ.-GEN. WINFIELD SCOTT HANCOCK, Commanding. COLONEL JAMES B. FRY, Adjutant General. MAJOR GUIDO N. LIEBER, Judge Advocate. COLONEL LANGDON C. EASTON, Chief Quarter-Master. COLONEL MARCUS D. L. SIMPSON, Chief Commissary of Subsistence. COLONEL JOHN M. CUYLER, Medical Director. COLONEL NATHAN W. BROWN, Chief Paymaster. Attached. CAPTAIN WM. G. MITCHELL, 5th Infantry, aide-de-camp, Acting Engineer Officer. CAPTAIN JOHN S. WHARTON, I9th Infantry, aide-de-camp. IST LIEUT. GEORGE S. L. WARD, 22nd Infantry, aide-de- camp. On detached service. COLONEL NELSON H. DAVIS, Inspector General's Depart- ment. Battery A, ist Artillery, Captain J. P. Sanger, 2nd Lieut. A. Slater, Adjutant, was transferred from Fort Warren, Mass., to Governor's Island, arriving July 2nd, 1878. Battery D, ist Artillery, was ordered here from Fort Inde- pendence, Mass., arriving July 19, 1878, relieving the Garrison HISTORY OF GOVERNOR'S ISLAND which in April, 1878, consisted of the following: Go's. A and C, Permanent Party; Co. B, Music Boys, quartered in South Battery (now Corbin Hall); Co. D, select; Go's. E. and F recruits; Co. H, coloured Infantry, Capt. E. G. Bush, loth Infantry, commanding. COMMANDING OFFICERS. With the coming of the Division and Headquarters Com- manding General and Staff a change was made in the life and interest of the Garrison. The Recruiting Service which had had its Depot here was transferred to David's Island (Fort Slocum) where it still remains. Fort Wood was at this time garrisoned by a detachment of the 3rd Artillery, under command of Lieutenant J. C. White. The various events connected with the period have been mentioned incidentally. It remains now to give the names and years of command of the General Officers who have served on Governor's Island since it became a Division Headquarters : MAJ.-GEN. WINFIELD SCOTT HANCOCK,, July i, 1878- Feby. 9, 1886. MAJ.-GEN. JOHN M. SCHOFIELD, April 13, i886-Dec. 12, 1888. MAJ.-GEN. OLIVER D. HOWARD, Dec. 12, i888-Nov. 8, 1894. MAJ.-GEN. NELSON A. MILES, Nov. 20, i894-Oct. 4, 1895. MAJ.-GEN. THOMAS H. RUGER, Oct. 4, iS95-April 10, 1897. MAJ.-GEN. WESLEY MERRITT, April 10, iS97~May 19, 1898. January 7, i899~May 19, 1900. BRIG.-GEN. ROYAL T. FRANK, U. S. V., May 19, i898-June 30, 1898. BRIG.-GEN. GEORGE L. GILLESPIE, U. S. V., June 30, 1898- Oct. 4, 1898. MAJ.-GEN. WM. R. SHAFTER, U. S. V., Oct. 4, i8cj8-Jany. 7, 1899. MAJ.-GEN. WESLEY MERRITT, Jany. 7, i899~May 19, 1900. MAJ.-GEN. JOHN R. BROOKE, May 10, lOXDo-July 21, 1902. MAJ.-GEN. ARTHUR MACARTHUR, July 21, i9O2-Nov. 8, 1902. 158 COMMANDING GENERALS, POST COMMANDERS, ETC. MAJ.-GEN. ADNA R. CIIAFFEE, Nov. 21, i9O2-Oct. 26, 1903. MAJ.-GEN. HENRY C. CORBIN, Dept. East, Oct. 26, 1903- Oct. i, 1904. (Atlantic Division, Jany. 5, i9O4~Oct. I, 1904.) MAJ.-GEN. FREDERICK DENT GRANT (Dept. East), Oct. i, 1904-Nov. 10, 1908. MAJ.-GEN. JAMES F. WADE, Dec. i, 1904- April 4, 1907. (Atlantic Division discontinued June 30, 1907.) MAJ.-GEN. LEONARD WOOD (Dept. East), Nov. 10, 1908- July 19, 1910. BRIG.-GEN. WALTER HOWE (Dept. East), April 8, 1910- July 20, 1910. MAJ.-GEN. FREDERICK DENT GRANT (Eastern Division and Dept. East), July 25, I9io-April n, 1912.* BRIG.-GEN. TASKER H. BLISS (Eastn. Div. and Dept. East), Jan'y 29, I9i2-Aug. 31, 1912. MAJ.-GEN. THOMAS H. BARRY (Eastern Division and East- ern Department), Sept. i, 1912. Regiments of the English and American forces have been stationed on Governor's Island as follows : English. 1756-1773. II. M. 6oth Regiment of Foot, the Royal Americans. 1755-1767. Maj.-Gen. Sir William Pepperell's Regiment. 1767. H. M. 44th Regiment of Foot. 1767. H. M. 22d Regiment of Foot. * Major-General Frederick Dent Grant died April u, 1912. His body lay in the Chapel under guard from April 13 till April 26, on which day the funeral ceremonies took place. The interment was in the Cemetery at West Point. 159 HISTORY OF GOVERNOR'S ISLAND American. 1775- General William Prescott's Regiment, the "Bunker Hill Regiment." 1776. The 4th Continental Infantry, Colonel John Nixon com- manding. Brig.-Gen'l, 9th August, 1776. April, 1776. Genl. Putnam's forces, 1,000 men, draughts from Colonel Silliman's Regiment, Colonel Wm. Douglas' Regiment and others. August, 1776. 2,000 tropps, Regiments not specified. English. Aug., 1776, to Dec. 3d, 1783. Forces under Major-General Pattison, Buskirk's Battalion and other troops detailed list not known. American. 1794 Artillery. Capt. Cornelius R. Sedam, Sub-Legion. 1795 Artillery. Captain Alexander Thompson, Corps of Artillerists and Engineers. 1799 2nd Artillery. Implied in the recorded burial of Lieut. Robert Heaton, Jr., 2nd Artillery. 1808 Artillery. Capt. Richd Wiley. 1810 14. Colonel Henry Burbeck, Lieut. Vandeventer, Justus, Ad- jutant of the Artillery. 1811 ist Artillery Major Stoddard. 1 60 O s Q 55 a; O cu W O Q 5 03 02 Q COMMANDING GENERALS, POST COMMANDERS, ETC. 1814 Infantry. Lt.-Col. Tallmadge, Major Delafield. 1815 Artillery, troops. James House, Lt.-Col., commanding. Charles Anthony, Adjutant. 1816 'Artillery troops. Implied in the recorded burial of James H. Boyle, Major of Artillery. 1819 Artillery troops. Implied in the recorded burial of Samuel Armstrong, Lieut, of Artillery. From 1821-1913 the following list of commanding officers is furnished by the kindness of The Adjutant-General, Wash- ington, who states that there are no returns on file previous to 1821. The early records were destroyed by the British when they invaded Washington in 1812, and no records be- tween that date and 1821 are on file. POST COMMANDERS I82I-IQI3. ASSUMED COMMAND IST LIEUT. GILES PORTER ist Art'y May, 1821 IST LIEUT. PETER MELENDY. . .ist Art'y June and July, 1821 CAPT. S. CHURCHILL 4th Art'y Aug. and Sept., 1821 IST LIEUT. GILES PORTER ist Art'y Oct., 1822 CAPT. MILO MASON ist Art'y April, 1823 IST LT. W. WHEELRIGHT. . . . .ist Art'y July, 1823 CAPT. A. C. W. FANNING 2d Art'y Aug., 1823 CAPT. MILO MASON ist Art'y Sept., 1823 CAPT. A. C. W. FANNING 2d Art'y Oct., 1823 IST LT. E. LYON 2d Art'y April, 1824 LT.-COL. WM. McRAE 2d Art'y Aug., 1824 161 HISTORY OF GOVERNOR'S ISLAND ASSUMED COMMAND CAPT. R. A. ZANTZINGER 2d Art'y April, 1827 MAJOR I. B. CRANE 4th Art'y Aug., 1828 LT.-COL. A. EUSTIS 4th Art'y June,- 1831 MAJOR I. B. CRANE 4th Art'y Nov., 1831 MAJOR A. C. W. FANNING. . .4th Art'y Feb. 10, 1833 CAPT. B. K. PIERCE 4th Art'y June 2,1834 LT.-COL. A. S. BROOKS 4th Art'y May 2,1835 CAPT. WM. W. TOMPKINS. .. .2d Dragoons ... Sept. 28,1836 LT. JOHN C. PEMBERTON 4th Art'y Aug. 26, 1837 CAPT. WM. L. MCCLINTOCK. . ^d Art'y Oct. 5, 1837 LT. WILLIAM HOFFMAN 6th Inft'y Mch. 23,1837 ASST. SURG. JOSEPH EATON. . .Jany., 1838 IST LT. E. C. Ross 4th Art'y June 30, 1837 CAPT. JOHN ERVING 4th Art'y Sept., 1838 (Entire Regiment) LT.-COL. A. C. W. FANNING. . .4th Art'y Apr. 30, 1839 COL. D. E. TWIGGS 2d Dragoons. . .June 5, 1839 CAPT. JUSTIN DIMICK ist Art'y Nov., 1839 COL. JAMES BANKHEAD 2d Art'y Aug., 1841 CAPT. CHAS. S. MERCHANT. . .4th Art'y Dec. 10,1841 LT.-COL. A. C. W. FANNING. . .4th Art'y Jan. 2, 1842 COL. JAMES BANKHEAD 2d Art'yi July 2, 1842 CAPT. GABRIEL J. RAINS 7th Inft'y Jan. 13, 1847 COL. I. B. CRANE 4th Art'y Sept. 12, 1848 MAJOR JOHN L. GARDNER 4th Art'y Dec., 1850 MAJOR GABRIEL J. RAINS 7th Inft'y July 26, 1852 LT.-COL. JOHN L. GARDNER . 4th Art'y. .... .Aug. 5, 1852 LT.-COL. M. M. PAYNE 4th Art'y Sept. 26, 1852 CAPT. JOHN T. SPRAGUE 8th Inft'y Nov. 27, 1852 LT.-COL. J. J. ABERCROMBIE.. .2d Inft'y Aug. 2, 1854 MAJOR ELECTUS BACKUS 3d Inft'y July 2,1855 162 COMMANDING GENERALS, POST COMMANDERS, ETC. ASSUMED COMMAND MAJOR ALBERMARLE CADY 6th Inft'y July 12,1857 MAJOR THEOPHILUS H. HOLMES 8th Inft'y July 2, 1859 MAJ. SAMUEL P. HEINTZLE- MAN ist Inft'y Apr. 14, 1861 LT.-COL. CHARLES F. SMITH. . .ioth Inft'y. . . .May 8, 1861 COL. GUSTAVUS LOOMIS 5th Inft'y Aug. 26, 1861 CAPT. JOHN D. WILKINS 3d Inft'y Aug. 6, 1864 COL. J. D. BOMFORD i6th Inft'y. . . . Sept. 6, 1864 MAJOR M. COGSWELL 8th Init'y Feb. 16, 1865 LT.-COL. JULIUS HAYDEN ioth Inft'y. . . .May 27, 1865 LT.-COL. HENRY D. WALLEN. . . i4th Inft'y Mch. 7, 1867 LT.-COL. THOS. H. NEILL Inft'y May 5,1869 MAJOR M. M. BLUNT I4th Inft'y June 22, 1871 MAJOR JAMES P. ROY 6th Inft'y Feb. 26, 1873 MAJOR R. E. A. CROFTON i7th Inft'y. . . .Oct. 2, 1874 MAJOR ALEX. CHAMBERS 24th Inft'y. . . .Oct. 14, 1876 CAPT. E. G. BUSH ioth Inft'y June 30,1877 CAPT. J. P. SANGER ist Art'y July 3, 1878 CAPT. THOMAS WARD ist Art'y July 2,1880 MAJOR JOHN MENDENHALL. . . ist Art'y Nov. 9, 1880 CAPT. THOMAS WARD ist Art'y Oct. 5,1881 CAPT. F. L. GUENTHER 5th Art'y Nov. 4, 1881 CAPT. W. B. BECK 5th Art'y Nov. 11,1882 MAJOR R. A. JACKSON 5th Art'y Dec. 21, 1882 CAPT. W. F. RANDOLPH 5th Art'y Nov. 7, 1886 MAJOR M. P. MILLER 5th Art'y May 6, 1888 CAPT. W. B. BECK 5th Art'y Dec. 8, 1888 MAJOR TULLY McCREA 5th Art'y May 16, 1889 CAPT. W. B. BECK 5th Art'y June 18, 1889 MAJOR TULLY McCREA 5th Art'y Oct. 9, 1889 163 HISTORY OF GOVERNOR'S ISLAND ASSUMED COMMAND MAJOR W. L. HASKIN ist Art'y May 15, 1890 CAPT. P. H. ELLIS I3th Inft'y Oct. 2,1894 L/r.-CoL. W. S. WORTH i3th Inft'y. -Dec. 30, 1894 CAPT. LUIGI LOMIA 5th Art'y Apr. 20,1898 COL. THOMAS H. BARBER. . . j Ist ** Y. ) j une II} ^98 CAPT. THOMAS R. ADAMS 5th Art'y July 8, 1898 ( ist Mass. ) LT. E. S. FULLERTON -j Heavy Art'y f - Au & 5> 1898 MAJOR P. H. ELLIS Infantry Sept. 14, 1898 L/r.-CoL. JOHN N. COE I3th Inft'y. . . .Sept. 19, 1898 CAPT. B. K. ROBERTS 5th Art'y Apr. 20, 1899 MAJOR G. A. CORNISH i5th Inft'y. .. .Jan. 23,1900 MAJOR E. R. HILLS 5th Art'y July 24, 1900 MAJOR A. L. MYER nth Inft'y. .. .Aug. ir, 1900 L/r.-CoL. C. L. DAVIS nth Inft'y. . . .Dec. 22, 1900 MAJOR E. R. HILLS Art'y Corps. . .April 7, 1901 CAPT. JOHN CONKLIN Art'y Corps. .. .Aug. 24, 1901 CAPT. ARCHIBALD CAMPBELL. . .Art'y Corps. . .Sept. 9, 1901 MAJOR W. P. DUVALL Art'y Corps. . .Dec. 4, 1901 COL. W. E. DOUGHERTY 8th Inft'y Oct. 12, 1902 CAPT. JOHN STAFFORD 8th Inft'y Jan. 25, 1904 CAPT. W. Y. STAMPER 8th Inft'y Aug. 26,1904 COL. F. A. SMITH 8th Inft'y Aug. 13,1904 MAJ. FRANCIS P. FREMONT. . .5th Inft'y Feb. 20,1906 COL. LEVEN C. ALLEN i2th Inft'y. . . .May 24, 1906 CAPT. MOOR N. FALLS i2th Inft'y. . . .July 16, 1906 CAPT. WINFRED B. CARR C. A. C Aug. 5, 1906 MAJ. J. S. MALLORY i2th Inft'y. . . .Aug. 31, 1906 COL. LEVEN C. ALLEN i2th Inft'y. . . . Sept. 30, 1906 L/r.-CoL. ROBERT F. AMES....i2th Inf t'y . . . . May 27,1908 164 COMMANDING GENERALS, POST COMMANDERS, ETC. ASSUMED COMMANIi CAPT. JAMES P. HARBESON. . . . i2th Inft'y June 12, 1908 COL. WM. H. C. BOWEN i2th Inft'y- . - July 15, 1908 MAJ. CHAS. L. BECKURTS 5th Inft'y June 29,1909 COL. H. K. BAILEY 29th Inft'y Sept. 18, 1909 CAPT. J. F. MADDEN, Adjt. . . .29th Inft'y. .. .May 21,1910 CAPT. CHAS. H. PAINE, Q. M. . .29th Inft'y June 12, 1910 CAPT. J. F. MADDEN, Adjt 29th Inft'y. . . July 31, 1910 COL. H. K. BAILEY 29th Inft'y. .. .Aug. 27,1910 CAPT. J. F. MADDEN, Adjt 29th Inft'y Aug. 24, 1911 COL. G. R. CECIL 29th Inft'y. .. .Sept. 3,1911 CAPT. A. C. DALTON, Q. M. . . .29th Inft'y. . . July 6, .1912 COL. G. R. CECIL 29th Inft'y. .. .Aug. 8,1912 COL. JOHN S. MALLORY 29th Inft'y Sept. 10, 1912 INFANTRY COMMANDS. The Garrison remained an Artillery one till October, 1894. In June, 1894, the last Artillery command consisted of Bat- teries B, H, and M, ist Artillery, Major Wm. L. Haskin commanding. The command was relieved on October 2nd and 3rd, 1894, by the arrival of the following companies of the I3th In- fantry Co. F, Capt. J. Forance; Co. B, Capt. H. Gilman; Co. D, Capt. P. H. Ellis. Lt.-Colonel Daingerfield Parker was assigned to the command. He was relieved in 1895 by Lieut-Colonel W. S. Worth. The I3th Infantry remained till April 19, 1898, when it was ordered to Cuba. It returned from Montauk Point in Sep- tember, 1898, and left for service in the Far East April 28, 1899. The 1 3th was temporarily relieved by Battery A, 5th Ar- tillery, Captain Benjamin K. Roberts commanding the Bat- tery. A battalion of the nth Infantry, Lieut.-Col. Charles S. 165 COMMANDING GENERALS, POST COMMANDERS, ETC. Davis commanding the Post, was stationed here from August 12, 1900, to April 7th, 1901. In April, 1901, Fort Columbus was Garrisoned by the 49th, 52nd and 83rd companies C. A. C. and the 8th Artillery band under command of Major E. R. Hills. Headquarters, Band and the 2nd Battalion, 8th Infantry, under command of Colonel W. E. Dougherty, arrived October 12, 1902, and left for Manila Feby. 19, 1906, under com- mand of Colonel Frederick A. Smith. The Headquarters, Band and one Battalion of the I2th Infantry were stationed here from May 24, 1906, to June 29, 1909, commanded successively by Colonels Leven C. Allen and W. H. C. Bowen, and were relieved Sept. 18, 1909, by the Headquarters, Band and 3rd Battalion of the 29th Infantry, Colonel Hobart K. Bailey in command, the ist and 2d Bat- talions being at Forts Porter and Niagara respectively. Colonel Bailey was followed upon his retirement by Colonel G. R. Cecil Sept. 3, 1911, and Colonel Cecil by Colonel John S. Mallory, Sept. 10, 1912. It seems fitting to give in full at this point in the history of Governor's Island the names of the officers on duty at this Station. It is obviously impossible to reproduce the roster in full for a period of one hundred years. The list, therefore, up to this time has been of commanding officers only. The following names are of those on duty (June, 1913) at Depart- ment Headquarters and at Fort Jay, taken from the published rosters of Department Headquarters and Fort Jay respectively : HEADQUARTERS EASTERN DEPARTMENT. GOVERNORS ISLAND, NEW YORK CITY. MAJ.-GEN. THOMAS H. BARRY commanding. CAPT. JOHN E. WOODWARD, 29th Infantry, Aide-de-Camp. 166 COMMANDING GENERALS, POST COMMANDERS, ETC. STAFF. LIEUT.-COL. WILLIAM G. HAAN, Gen. Staff, Chief of Staff. COL. SAMUEL W. DUNNING, Officer in Charge of Militia Affairs. COL. WILLIAM A. SIMPSON, Adjutant. LIEUT.-COL. FRANK L. DODDS, Judge Advocate. COL. STEPHEN C. MILLS, Inspector. COL. JOHN B. BELLINGER, Quartermaster. COL. L. MERVIN MAUS, Surgeon. COL. WILLIAM M. BLACK, Engineer Officer. COL. ORIN B. MITCHAM, Ordnance Officer, commanding New York Arsenal. LIEUT.-COL. SAMUEL REBER, Signal Officer. ADDITIONAL STAFF. LIEUT.-COL. BENJAMIN ALVORD, Asst. to Adjutant LIEUT.-COL. ALFRED E. BRADLEY, Sanitary Inspector. LIEUT.-COL. WILLIAM C. BROWN, Cav., Acting Inspector. LIEUT.-COL. ALFRED M. HUNTER, C. A. C., Inspector. MAJ. WILLIAM B. ROCHESTER, Q. M. Corps, Asst. to Dept. Quartermaster. MAJ. WILLIAM E. HORTON, Q. M. Corps, Asst. to Dept. Quartermaster. MAJ. GORDON G. HEINER, C. A. C., Acting Inspector. MAJ. FRANK H. LAWTON, Q. M. Corps, Asst. to Dept. Quartermaster. MAJ. ALBERT E. TRUBY, M. C., Attending Surgeon. CAPT. PAUL GIDDINGS, Q. M. Corps, Asst. to Dept. Quarter- master. CAPT. GEORGE D. ARROWSMITH, Q. M. Corps, Asst. to Dept. Quartermaster. 167 HISTORY OF GOVERNOR'S ISLAND CAPT. ELISHA G. ABBOTT, S. C, Asst. to Dept. Signal Officer. CAPT. JAMES J. MAYES, Inf., Asst. to Dept. Judge Advocate. MAJOR JAY E. HOFFER, Ord. Dept., Resident at New York Arsenal, Governor's Island, on duty at Sandy Hook Proving Ground. REVD. EDMUND BANKS SMITH, Chaplain. OFFICERS OF THE 2QTH U. S. INFANTRY ON DUTY AT FORT JAY, GOVERNOR'S ISLAND, JUNE, 1913. HEADQUARTERS AND 3RD BATTALION. COLONEL JOHN S. MALLORY commanding. MAJOR DOUGLAS SETTLE, commanding 3rd Battalion. CAPTAIN ROBERT H. ALLEN, Adjutant. CAPTAIN KIRWAN T. SMITH, Quartermaster. CAPTAIN HENRY C. CLEMENT, JR., Commissary. LIEUT. JACOB H. RUDOLPH, Battalion Quartermaster and Commissary. IST LIEUT. CARROLL R. BAKER, M. R. C. CAPTAIN JOHN F. MADDEN, commanding Company K. CAPTAIN JAMES A. Moss, commanding Company M. CAPTAIN THOMAS W. DARRAH, commanding Company I. CAPTAIN GEORGE H. SHELTON, commanding Company L. 168 COMMANDING GENERALS, POST COMMANDERS, ETC. Lieutenants. FIRST LIEUTENANT CARROLL B. HODGES, on duty with Com- pany L. FIRST LIEUTENANT CHARLES A. DRAVO, on duty with Com- pany I. FIRST LIEUTENANT JAMES G. MC!LROY, on duty with Com- pany K. SECOND LIEUTENANT JOHN R. EMORY, JR., on duty with Company I. SECOND LIEUTENANT WILLIAM E. LARNED, on duty with Company M. SECOND LIEUTENANT WILLIAM J. MORRISSEY, on duty with Company L. SECOND LIEUTENANT HENRY C. McLEAN, on duty with Com- pany K. n Ptr.- CIRC HUDSOMWI ah AVENUE SOUfh ADDENDA BRITISH REGIMENTS STATIONED ON GOVERNOR'S ISLAND. Reference has been made in Chapter II to the Royal Troops stationed here in the Colonial days. A record of their service will be of interest on account of their association with Gover- nor's Island. II. M. 22d Regiment of Foot, stationed here in 1/67, now the Cheshire Regiment, served at the Battle of Louisburg, where Major-General Sir William Pepperell, whose Regiment was stationed here in 1755, won his title, also at Bunker Hill and at Quaker Hill. H. M. 44th Regiment of Foot, now the Essex Regiment, stationed here in 1767, saw service at Ticonderoga, Fort du Quesne, Niagara, Brandywine, and the Battle of Long Island, and later at Bladensburg under Colonel Brooke and at Balti- more under Major Johnson. The Regiment of most interest to Americans, however, is the Royal American Regiment, H. M. Goth Regiment of Foot, now the King's Royal Rifle Corps, of which H. M. the King is the Colonel in Chief. This was raised in 1755, the recruits coming mainly from Virginia and Maryland, and was organized on Governor's Island and for many years was on duty here, as mentioned in Chapter II. Walter Richards in "Her Majesty's Army" points out that this Regiment and the Rifle Brigade are the only Infantry Regiments the Chief Officers of which are denominated Colonel in Chief and Colonel Commandant, and that a distinctive feature of the King's Rifle Corps is that no fewer than six Acts of Parliament have been passed concern- ing it. "Their first active employment," he says, "was in 1757, two years after their organization on Governor's Island, when they were engaged at Charleston, on the Canadian frontier 171 ADDENDA and at the affair of Port William Henry. The following year (1758) gained for them their first distinction, which com- memorates the share they had in the 2nd Expedition against Louisbtirg. Nor was Louisburg the only scene of their prowes. Six companies were with the British force * * * at Ticonderoga. They fought at Kingston and Prince Edward's Island. In 1759 they fought under General Prideaux at Fort Niagara : some of the Regiment were with Sir Jeffrey Amherst, while others again were with Wolfe when on the Heights of Abraham he gained Canada for the British Crown and died in the gaining. Here they so distinguished themselves that according to tradition the gallant Wolfe himself bestowed on them their motto CELER ET AUDAX It does not seem that there exists any positive record of this fact, but the wording of the order in 1824 giving special permission for the resumption bears out the theory. The order was as follows: SIR: I have the honour to acquaint you by direction of the Commander in Chief that His Majesty has been pleased to permit the 6oth Regiment to resume the motto Celer et Audax which was won by the Regiment in commemo- ration of its distinguished bravery whilst employed with the British Army in North America under Major General Wolfe in the year 1759. The Regiment has as a badge a bugle on the glengarry. On the helmet plate is a bugle and a maltese cross bearing the motto. On the cross are the names of the great Regimental battles, viz. : Louisburg, Quebec, 1759, Roleia, Vimiera, Martinique, Talavera, Busaco, Fuentes d'Onor, Albuera, Ciudad Rodrigo, Badajoz, Salamanca, Vittoria, Pyrenees, Nivelle, Nive, Orthes, Toulouse, Peninsula, Punjaub, Mooltan, Goojerat, South Africa (1851-3), Delhi, Taku Forts, Pekin, South Africa (1879), Ahmad Khel, Kandahar (1880), Afghanistan (1878- 172 ADDENDA 80), Egypt (1882-4), Tel-El-Kebir, Chitral, S. Africa (1899- 1902), Defense of Ladysmitli, Relief of Ladysmith." It is a cause of deep satisfaction to realize that this dis- tinguished Regiment, celer ct anda.v in practice as well as by motto, not only came from our soil in the persons of its first recruits, but that it gained its growth and training in this Island-Garrison, where it remained for a long tour of duty, and that by what we may now regard as a most happy occur- rence of military routine it was ordered away to the \\Vst Indies before the outbreak of hostilities in 1775-6. Thus the 6oth Foot were never arrayed against those who were their brethren in blood as well as in sympathy, and the author ventures at the close of this story of the Past to present his compliments, with which he feels he can unofficially join those of the Command Stationed on Governor's Island today, to the 6oth Foot of 1756, the King's Royal Rifle Corps of 1913. It is not alone in arms that Governor's Island is bound by lasting ties of interest and sympathy to the mother country. The Church and the Army in every land have much in com- mon the Army to protect and the Church to bless. This Garrison has been no exception to the rule. There is, how- ever, a deeper connection than would appear upon the surface as a part of our history. It is that the ministrations of religion here for nearly seventy years carried on at the request of the Army by the venerable Corporation of Trinity Church have been, and are today, possible because of the Royal endow- ments of the British Crown which constitute the wealth of the Parish of Trinity Church. The Parish regards it a privi- lege to minister to the spiritual needs of the Army. From the point of view of the historian there is an added interest in reflecting that when in the providence of God the existing close relations between the Army and the Old Parish began, they not only opened the way to mutual acquaintance and esteem, but gave the Parish an opportunity among its other works to pay from the Royal endowments a tribute of appre- ciation of this very distinguished Regiment of the British Army born on Governor's Island. 173 ADDENDA Thus remembrance of the Past and loyalty to the Present go hand in hand. The Prince of Wales' Feathers still bend over the pulpit of old Saint Paul's Chapel, the Coronation of His Majesty King George V is solemnly observed in the Parish Church. Such things as this help to show that men do not even in this age altogether forget the deeds of their forefathers, a careful remembrance of which, with entire de- votion to the duties of the Present, will constitute a nation admired of men and blessed of God. THE POST HEADQUARTERS BUILDING. Although, as stated in Chapter V, no date can be assigned for the erection of the building now used as Post Head- quarters, it seems clear to the author, as well as to others, that it is at least one of the oldest buildings on Governor's Island. Reference to it will be found on page 107. A careful examination of the building indicates that it was built for a dwelling-house and used for a guard house or headquarter building. The rose panel decorations over the doorways and windows and the expensive character of the base mouldings carry out this theory. This was possibly the family house mentioned in the British orders, page 39, but it was undoubtedly the guard house and headquarters of the period of 1812.* The lower part was at one time used for the main guard house, as the heavy iron bars of the ancient four-sided pattern clearly indicate, as well as their considerable corrosion at the lower ends due to the settling of moisture. One bar has been replaced by a modern round bar, revealing a probable escape, and one window is now entirely without bars, but the square sockets are plainly to be seen in the upper sill. The building itself is cross or T shape and additions of frame construction have been added at some unknown period. In one of these, at the N. W. angle, may be seen the sill of an exterior door. This shows signs * Previous to 1840, when the present Cornd'g Genl's Quarters were built, the Post Cmd'r lived with his family in this building. It was as late as that period called "The Governor's House." 174 ADDENDA of long use in the wearing away of the surface. In the lower part of the house the walls have been ceiled with wood and plaster and in one place part of the old foundation appears, disclosing a red sandstone similar to that used in Castle Williams, but for the most part the foundations, like the walls throughout, are of brick. The lower room now used as a furnace room contains within it an interior apartment with remains indicating a door in the thickness of the wall. This is lighted by a very small, deep-set window with double iron bars of the old pattern. It is more than reasonable to believe this was the Black Hole referred to on page 63. In addition to the fine rose mouldings on the first floor, a fire place and mantel of elaborate construction and the original arrangement of doors, both exterior and interior, lead to the theory held by some that although undoubtedly the guard house of 1812, it was perhaps used as a dwelling house at an earlier period as its common name of "Governor's House" in 1830 would seem to imply. An interior stair case was re- moved a few years ago and an outside stairway was erected, connecting the Sergeant-Major's office below with the Com- manding Officer's above. The author inclines to a belief that it is at least of the post-Revolutionary early American reoccu- pation (1783), built for the Commanding Officer of the Gar- rison. LETTER FROM GENERAL GRANT REGARDING THE NEW CHAPEL. "GOVERNOR'S ISLAND, NEW YORK, October 7th, 1908. To THE RECTOR, CHURCHWARDENS AND VESTRYMEN OF TRINITY CHURCH. MY DEAR SIRS: As Commanding General of the Department of the East, residing here on Governor's Island, I beg to express on my own behalf and for the officers of the United States Army in general, and more especially for those stationed here, with their families, as well as on behalf of the enlisted men and all others residing here within my ADDENDA command, the very deep appreciation felt by myself, and by those mentioned, of the work so generously and liber- ally carried out by Trinity Church here, for years past. It appears from the records that the first Chapel building in 1846-7 was due largely to the contributions of Trinity Church Corporation, and for many years after the date mentioned, annual appropriations were made by the Church regularly, for its support and to assist the Chap- lain here in his work on Governor's Island. From 1868 to the present time, by authority of the Secretary of War, Trinity Church has maintained the Chaplain, and in 1906, completed the beautiful stone chapel, which was dedi- cated that year, October igth, with ceremonies of a Mili- tary and Ecclesiastical character. St. Cornelius Chapel is the most beautiful and in- spiring place of worship of the United States Army, now in existence, and decorated with its historic flags and cannons is deeply appreciated by all who enter within its sacred walls, and has been the cause of several requests from other Military Garrisons that similar Chapels might be built in those Garrisons as inspirations for Christian work, and benefit. I, myself, gratefully realize the happy relations existing between the Church and the Army brought about by the munificent donation of Trinity Church in placing this Chapel on Governor's Island. The Reverend Morgan Dix, late Rector of Trinity Church, was in his lovable, noble example and his Christian char- acter, a wonderful aid and inspiration in establishing the happy relations between the Church and the Army, and he exerted a most elevating influence over those coming within the sphere of his labors and gentle sympathy. I deeply appreciate the opportunity I have had, as De- partment Commander here, to witness the work so nobly accomplished by Trinity Church for the good of the United States Army, and I beg to express my own grate- ful thanks, to you, the Rector, Churchwardens and Vestry- men of Trinity Church, for your Christian help extend- ing in results from Governor's Island throughout the De- partment of the East and to the Army of the United States. Believe me, Sirs, Your faithful servant, FREDERICK D. GRANT, Major General, U. S. A." 176 V... EPILOGUE History is more than a mere statement of facts. It is, or should be, all of this for accuracy, for truth, but many are satisfied with statement as the end, whereas it should be but the beginning. Herein lies the explanation of the frequent failure of the nation or the individual to learn by experience, which is an- other name for applied History, in that many mistake experi- ences for experience and fail to recognize in the rapid onward march of individual events the slower, grander movement of History, which is the sum total of the fleeting figures which compose it. These figures come and go ; they are added up by the infallible hand of time and are erased to make room for others. All that shall finally remain is Result. We may not on that account despise the fact nor the figure because it is small, but rather pay our respect because it, so small, is a controlling factor in the great Result, in some way contributing to that "one far-off divine event to which the whole creation moves." Emerson tells us that History is the "record of the works of the one mind common to all individual men ; that a man is the whole encyclopaedia of facts: that the creation of a thou- sand forests is in one acorn, and that Egypt, Greece, Rome, Gaul, Britain, America lie folded already in the first man." These profound words may be applied to the subject of this history. If the fate of a nation lies folded in one man, it is certainly true that three hundred years of the activity of many men concentrated in one spot must have an enormous influence upon the community in which that spot is enshrined. And Governor's Island, the "Jewel of New York," as the author's friend Baron Nicholas de Lodygensky calls it, lying a pendant of her larger sister of Manhattan, both by geographical posi- tion and in history carries out the idea of concentration and importance as well as of beauty. GOVERNOR'S ISLAND is a name to conjure by in our City and State and Nation, both military and civilian, for the reason EPILOGUE that it has without exception in all its history represented im- portant circumstance and high ideal. Purchased honourably by treaty from its aboriginal owners, it passed at once into the official life of the Dutch Colonial Government. Consequent upon the final English conquest of 1674 it increased in im- portance as in value. The "Smiling Garden of the Sovereigns of the Province" in the piping times of peace, it took on the frown of war when danger beset its borders. Governors, Statesmen, the Military, all agreed in its value for defence. Washington issued orders for the breastworks of '76 and Put- nam made haste at candle-lighting. The literates of Columbia College toiled in the post-Revolutionary trenches, and from that day to this it has been a citadel of defence ; artillery and infantry in turn have garrisoned its forts and mounted the guard upon its grassy slopes. Of later years it has become in addition the Headquarters of Administration, and thus in its whole career it has exemplified the two cardinal principles of continuity and progress. In our haste for results rather than for the Result we forget that progress can be best secured by conservative continuity. This would seem to be the lesson Governor's Island teaches. It is a silent lesson and it is to be read in the mirror of experience into which he gazes who studies History, or even so small a part of it as this brief book contains. Continuity of official life in one spot for three hundred years means much in the history of any land. When it is recalled that official status on this Island has prevailed under the flags of three distinct Powers, each one at war with the one follow- ing or preceding, and one with both, it will be granted that the subject of this history has inherited sufficient conservatism to explain some things that harass the would-be progressive to- day. Our Island in its story recalls to the thoughtful mind visions of the shadowy red man lurking in its virgin forest, traditions of the sturdy Dutch with their windmill and planta- tion, of the elegant English Colonial of the Charles and the Georges, and coming finally to our own more recent history and to the present day, we confess to conscious pride when 178 EPILOGUE we view our splendid soldiery, which in its personnel of otticer.s and men unconsciously inherits and exemplifies the virtues of those who under other flags but with much the same ideals have trod this land before us. The three Flags of Holland, England and America have known the winds of our Island since 1637. This spot has had its part in the forging of the nation, the welding together of materials differing in their character but not in their sub- stance. The work is going on here today of perfecting the work so well begun but never to be so completed that labour may cease. This is continuity, and because it is on right lines, actuated by high motives, it will receive the reward that a distinct law of nature prescribes. The purpose of the author in writing this history has been attained if he has correctly stated facts as they occurred and if he has so entwined the Three Flags which have floated here that while each preserves its identity, it still lends colour to the rest and deepens the strength of that Flag we must love best because it is ours. In the great destiny of Nations we know not yet what part we shall play. Continuity on the lines of that wisdom which belongs to the ages and progress in every application to the changing conditions of the century or of the hour are elements of lasting power and prepare a people for that struggle which is sure to come soon to the weak and some time to the strong. It is not too much to say that Governor's Island has played well and consistently its part for God and Country in the past, and not too much to hope it will ever do so in the un- known years that are to come. ? THE NEW YOBK HUDSON PARK nt_i-""t> CQHP8 ENLARGEMENT GOVERNORS ISLAND NEW YORK COMPLETED ENLARGEMENT OUTLINES :AND ELEVATIONS- OCTOBER.I.9I2. 1 c 9*1 I N. AtST. [_* . *IJbuST,ll). ; */' .WFOLbbLtW.COH^SOF t NCI NCC^S. U&Jk. ENGINEERS' PLAN GOVERNOR'S ISLAND 1912. n. J . * . ... N/;'