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UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA 
AT LOS ANGELES 




THE GOVERNORS OF fflOESIA 



a dissertation submitted to the faculty of 

Princeton University 

IN June 1910 

IN CANDIDACY FOR THE DEGREE OF 
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY 

(department of classics) 



BY 

SELATIE EDGAR STOUT 



PRINCETON 
I9II 



THE GOVERNORS OF MOESIA 



a dissertation submitted to the faculty of 

Princeton University 

IN June 1910 

IN candidacy for the degree of 

doctor of philosophy 

(department of classics) 



BY 

SELATIE EDGAR STOUT 



PRINCETON 
I9II 



Copies of this dissertation may be obtained from The Library of 
Princeton University, Princeton, N. J., at seventy-five cents each, 
postpaid. 






, .. • .*, • .: .. •'. •• 

: • , , ' • •• • ..•••!♦• • • ' • • - 
... • ••-...•..•• • * . • ••♦ 



PRINCETON, N. J. 
THE FALCON PRESS 

igii 



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TV'-) rf Q, ^^ 



TO 
FRANCES BLODGETT STOUT 



X 



89544 



PREFACE 



I wish to acknowledge gratefully the kindness and the help 
that I have received from all of the teachers with whom I have 
studied in Princeton University and in The University of Chicago. 
My thanks are clue especially to Professor Frank Frost Abbott, 
whom I have followed more closely than any other teacher in my 
university study. His criticism of this paper, also, during its prepa- 
ration has been helpful at many points. I have received valuable 
suggestions also from Professor Duane Reed Stuart, of Princeton 
University, who read the paper in manuscript, and from Professor 
Mary B. Peaks, of Vassar College, who read it in the proof. I owe 
to Miss Peaks also the suggestion that the general field in which 
the subject of this paper lies was available for a dissertation. I 
wish also to thank my printer for courtesies extended me during the 
printing of this paper. 

S. E. Stout. 

William Jewell College, 

Liberty, Mo., 

September i, 191 1 



CONTENTS 

Page 

Introduction i^ 

Governors of Moesia before its Division i 

Governors of Moesia Superior 22 

Governors of Moesia Inferior 43 

Conspectus ''- 

Appendix 86 

Indices S9 



Vll 



INTRODUCTION 

1. Roman arms were first carried into the territory later known 
as Moesia by C. Scribonius Curio' in 75-73 B. C. and M. Licinius' 
in 72 B. C. Their campaigns were not serious attempts to reduce 
the tribes of this district to Roman rule, although the late historians 
of the empire usually give them the credit for the conquest of 
Moesia, but were intended to teach these tribes respect for Roman 
arms and to deter them from making marauding incursions into 
Roman territory further south. Dio' places in the mouth of Augustus 
in 27 B. C. the claim that Julius Caesar had conquered Moesia, but 
there is no other evidence of any campaign in this region under 
the auspices of Julius. He probably planned the conquest of the 
tribes of this territory, but never found leisure from more pressing 
cares to execute it. Augustus* himself in his campaigns in Illyricum 
in 35-34 B. C. did not reach the territory of Moesia. In 29-28 B. C. 
M. Licinius Crassus' made a thorough conquest of this territory; 
at least there is no evidence of a revolt here at any later time. 

2. The government of the country was for a time at least in 
the hands of allied princes," as was that of Thrace until 46 A. D. 
The evidence is slight and opinions differ as to just when Roman 
civil administration was organized here.' There is evidence that 
this district was regularly occupied in 6 A. D. by Roman troops 
under a consular commander.*' That it was continuously so occu- 
pied after this date is certain. I see no valid reason for assuming 
that civil administration was not in operation here at this date, and 
believe that this territory was regularly organized as a province 
some years before this time. 

3. When in 15 A. D. Achaia and Macedonia sought relief from 
the burdens of proconsular government under the Senate and were 
given to the Emperor, he placed them under the care of the governor 

^ Liv. Ep. 92, Florus 1.39.6, Eutrop. 6.2, Oros. 5.23, Ruf. Fest. 7, Front. Strat. 4.1.43. 

2 Liv. Ep. 97, Florus 1.39.6, Eutrop. 6.10, Oros. 6.3.4, Ruf. Fest. 9, App. Illyr. 30, .\m. 
Marc. 27.4.11, Serv. ad Aen. 7.604, Hieron. a. 1946 = 01. 277.2. 

3 Dio 53.7. Cf. Strabo 7.3.5, Jordanes Get. 11. 

^ App. Illyr. 16 ff., Dio 49..34-38, Suet. Aug. 20-21. 

5 Liv. Ep. 134-135, Florus 2.26, Dio 51.23-27, Zon. 10.32. 

8 Dio 51.26. Cf. Mommsen, The Provinces of the Roman Empire, Eng. tr., 1 p. 16, n. 2. 

' The evidence on tliis subject can be found most completely brought together in an 
article by A. v. Premerstein, JOI 1 (1898) Beibl. pp. 146-196. He argues for the date 15 A. D. 
See my note 18 below. This article has been briefly criticised by Gardthausen, Augustus und 
seine Zeit, 2 p. 786, n. 79. Cf. also Mommsen, 1. c. 

^ §§ 6, 7. 

ix 



of Moesia. This arrangement continued until 44." It led to a 
peculiar administrative situation in Moesia which is briefly dis- 
cussed in § 9. 

4. Moesia was divided into two provinces, Moesia Superior 
and Moesia Inferior, by Domitian, during his Dacian war, a. 86-89. 
This fact was proved by Gsell/" His evidence is as follows: i) 
Pliny in his Natural History, published a. ']'], knows only the undi- 
vided province;" 2) Oppius Sabinus seems to have been governor 
of the undivided province in 85 or 86;'^ 3) L- Funisulanus Vettoni- 
anus was governor of Pannonia as late as Sept. 15, 85, and after 
that he was governor of Moesia Superior,'^ and apparently it was 
as governor of Moesia Superior that he won the dona militaria 
during the Dacian war of Domitian ; 4) The exigencies of this war 
were likely to make the division necessary; 5) The earliest known 
governor of Moesia Inferior is of the year 100," but Moesia Inferior 
is mentioned in the time of Domitian.'^ On "5)" it should be added 
that the discovery of diploma CIII '" gives us the name of a governor 
of Moesia Superior in that province Sept 16, 93 ; Moesia had there- 
fore certainly been divided at that time. On 3) it should be noted 
that in both 3.4013 and 11.571 the reading of the inscriptions is 
"leg. aug. pr. pr. provinc. Delmatiae, item provinc. Pannoniae, 
item Moesiae Super.", in which the word provincia is not used with 
Moesia Superior though used with both Delmatia and Pannonia. 
This omission may mean that at the time when Funisulanus was in 
command of the troops of Moesia Superior the division of the forces 
of the province of Moesia and the assignment of them to two legati 
were regarded as tentative measures, and that the province had not 
yet been definitely and formally made into two provinces. It is 
probable however that the arrangement was made permanent at 
once. We may conclude from this evidence that the division was 
made certainly between the years 86 and 93, and probably in 86 or 
87. 

" §§ 8-16. 

'" Gsell, Essai sur le regne de I'empereur Domitian, Paris, 1894, pp. 135-137. 

" Plin. N. H. 3.149. Pannoniae iungitur provincia quae Moesia appellatur, ad Pontum 
usque cum Danuvio decurrens. Incipit a confluente supra dicto (sc. of the Save and Danube). 

'2 See § 28. 

'2 Bormann, JOI 1 (1898), p. 174, n. 6, thinl^s that he was governor of Moesia superior 
before Pannonia (Cf. Lieb. p. 160) and thus fixes on 83 or 84 as the date of the division of 
Moesia. See § 29 and n. 57. 

" § 60. Cf. § 59. 

^^ Vit. Hadr. 2.3 Post hoc in inferioreni Moesiani translatus e.xtremis iam Dumitiani 
temporibus. 

18 CIL 3 p. 2328™, partly quoted in 30. 



5- The province of Moesia before its division and both Moesia 
Sviperior and Moesia Inferior after the division were governed by 
imperial legates of consular rank. There is only one exception 
to this rule." In the troublesome period from the death of Alex- 
ander Severus to the beginning of the reign of Diocletian, when the 
central imperial authority was often weakened by dissensions be- 
tween the armies in different parts of the empire and when the pres- 
sure of the barbarian hordes was becoming greater and greater 
along the lower Danube, in order to organize a more effective de- 
fence, larger commands were often built up from var}'ing combina- 
tions of the two Moesias, the two Pannonias, Macedonia, and Del- 
matia. The epigraphical evidence for the governors in this period 
is slight ; the evidence of the coins ceases under Philip, and the 
literary evidence must be used with great care. Yet even in this 
period, so far as we have reliable evidence, the governors were 
uniformly of consular rank. 

It has not been my purpose to present and discuss all the evi- 
dence for the careers of the men treated below, but only such as 
connects them with Moesia as governors and serves to date that 
connection. The lower limit of the work is the beginning of the 
reign of Diocletian. All dates are A. D. unless marked B. C. Most 
of the abbreviations used will be self-explanatory to those who will 
make use of this paper. For a few works to which frequent refer- 
ence is made shorter abbreviations have been adopted as follows : 

A EM, Archeologisch-Epigrapische Mittheilungen aus Oesterreich, 
Wien, 1877 — . 

Bench., F. Beuchel, De Legione Romanorum I Italica, Leipzig, IQ03. 

IGR, Inscriptiones Graecae ad Res Romanas Pertinentes, Paris, 
1901 — . 

CIL, Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum, is referred to by numbers 
merely, without the usual CIL, where ambiguity would not 
arise, 

V. Dom., A. von Domaszewski, the particular article or work being 
referred to by abbreviation for its title. 

" This exception occurs in the reign of Alexander Severus (see 11'2), at the beginning of 
a period of internal disorder in the empire during which many precedents were broken and 
many changes made in administrative arrangements. The increasing importance of the Moesias 
from a military standpoint during this period, however, made it necessary to have in charge 
of them only tried and experienced men, and there is no other certain exception in either 
province to the rule that their governors had previously held the consulship. For a special 
arrangement giving praetorian legati Augusti pro praetore in Moesia a. 15-44, who were not 
however governors of the province, see § 9. 

xi 



Des., Inscriptiones Latinae Selectae. ed. Hermannus Dessau, Berlin. 
1892 — . 

Filow, Bog'dan Filow. Die Legionen der Provinz Moesia von 
Augustus bis auf Diokletian. Klio, Beitrage zur alten 
Geschichte. Erganzungsband I, Leipzig, 1906. 

JOI, Jahreshefte des Oesterreichen Archaeologischen Institutes in 
Wien, Wien, 1898 — . 

Klein, Josephus Klein. Fasti Consulares inde a Caesaris Nece usque 
ad Imperium Diocletiani, Lipsiae. 1881. 

Lieb.. W. Liebenam. Forschungen zur Verwaltungsgeschichte des 
romischen Kaiserreichs. I Band, Die Legaten in den romischen 
Provinzen von Augustus bis Diocletian. Leipzig, 1888. 

P-W., Pauly-Wissowa, Real-Encyclopadie, Stuttgart. 1894 — . 

Pick, Die antiken Miinzen Nord-Griechenlands, Band I, Dacien und 
IMoesien, bearbeitet von Behrendt Pick. Berlin, 1899. 

V. Prem., A. v. Premerstein. Die Anfange der Provinz Moesiens. 
JOI I (1898) Beibl. pp. 146-196. 

Pros.. Prosopographia Imperii Romani. Berlin. 1897 — 

Waddington, Pastes, Waddington, W. H., Pastes des provinces 
asiatiques de I'empire remain depuis leur origine jusqu'au 
regne de Diocletien. Paris. 1872. 

H. v. d. W., H. van de Weerd, Etude historique sur trois legions 
romaines du Bas-Danube, Paris, 1907. 

In the articles below, the date which is regarded as certain is 
placed to the right of the name at the head of the article, while in 
the discussion that follows an efifort is made to approximate the 
dates of the beginning and ending of the administration under con- 
sideration. In printing the inscriptions the brackets used in CIL 
to indicate restorations have often been omitted when no point in 
my argument is affected by the restoration or when the restoration 
is certain. Cross references are to sections unless n. = note, accom- 
panies the numeral. I have used to indicate that a part of an 

inscription has been omitted as irrelevant, .... to indicate that a 
part is missing and cannot be supplied. An asterisk placed after a 
name indicates that the person to be discussed, though requiring 
mention in this paper, was not, in my opinion, a governor of Moesia. 
In giving dates x/y means "at some time within the period beginning 
in the year x and ending in the year y". and x — y means "throughout 
the period beginning in the year x and ending in the year y." 



Xll 



GOVERNORS OF MOESIA BEFORE ITS 

DIVISION 

6 L. Calpurnius Piso Frugi * 

It has been thought by some that Piso was legatus August! pro praetore 
provinciae Moesiae in 13-11 B. C. There is no direct evidence for this 
hypothesis, but he was in command of a miUtary force with which he subdued 
the Thracians in these years, and at a later date miHtary operations in Thrace 
were on several occasions conducted by commanders from Moesia with 
Moesian troops. Dio, however, states that Piso was sent to Thrace 
iK IlafKpvXlas ^s ^px^, and his statement is supported not only by Anth. Graec. 
10.25, as pointed out in Pros. C 249, but by the circumstances under which he 
was sent to Thrace. The Bessi had risen against the Thracian kings Rhescu- 
poris and Rhoemetalces, who were in alliance with Rome, and after killing 
Rhescuporis they had driven Rhoemetalces into the Thracian Chersonese, and 
had done much damage there. When affairs had progressed to this point, 
Piso was sent against them, evidently bringing with him the troops over which 
he had been in command, for when the Bessi learned of his approach they 
retired before him into their own country. This looks as if he came from 
Pamphylia. Had Rhoemetalces fled north of Haemus instead of into the 
Chersonese it would have been natural to send relief from Moesia. Piso con- 
tinued his campaign in Thrace for three years. None of the ancient writers 
who mention these campaigns connects him at that time with any provincial 
command. Sen. Ep. 12.1.14 Huic et divus Augustus dedit secreta mandata 

cum ilium praeponeret Thraeciae, quam perdomuit, . Veil. Paterc. 2.98 

(quippe legatus Caesaris triennio cum his (Thracis) bellavit ) eiusque 

patratione Asiae securitatem, Macedoniae pacem reddidit. Tac. Ann. 6.10 
- - - - decus triumphale in Thraecia meruerat. He was probably not com- 
missioned as governor of any province, but under a special commission from 
the Emperor was assigned the task of restoring the allied king Rhoematalces 
to his throne and establishing him there by thoroughly reducing the Thracian 
tribes. If a provincial command aside from his special mission in Thrace 
must be assumed, the natural supposition would be that he continued to hold 
his command in Pamphylia from which he brought his troops, but it is not 
even clear what his official position there had been, for Pamphylia certainly 
had not yet been organized as a province. I find nothing to warrant the 
assumption that he was proconsul of Macedonia. (V. Prem. pp. 160-161.) 
Velleius states that Piso brought securitas to Asia, peace to Macedonia by 
his conquests in Thrace, and it should be noted that in mentioning the two 
countries he gives priority to Asia. This would not be the natural order if 
Piso had been acting in the capacity of proconsul of Macedonia. The prin- 
cipal sources for his Thracian campaigns are Dio 54.34, Sen. Ep. 12.1.14, 
Florus 2.27, Veil. Paterc. 2.98.1-2, Liv. Ep. 140, Zon. 10.34; to which it may 
be well to add Anth. Pal. 10.25, 6.335, 9428, 9.552, 6.241, 6.249, 9.541. 



7 A. Caecina Severus 6 

Dio 55.29.3 The Pannonian Breuci attack Sirmium but are kept from 
taking it by KaiKivas 1,eov7Jpos 6 ttjs irXrjcnox'j-'pov Mvaias apx^v. (a. 6) 

Dio 55.30.4 Kat /iera ravra toO re "^eovqpov is ttjv ^ivffiav 5td re Toiis AaKoi/s Kal 
S(.a Tovi ^avpofJidTas iropdovvTas avTrjv &TrdpavTos 

Veil. Paterc. 2.1 12.4 A. Caecina et Silvanus Plautius consulares 

Tac. Ann. 1.31 (a. 14) Duo apud ripam Rheni exercitus erant : cui 
nomen superiori, sub C. Silio legato, inferiorem A. Caecina curabat. 

Caecina is the first governor of Moesia'^ of whom we have record. 
The earHest reference to him in this capacity is of the year 6 A. D. 
when he was already a consular. This year may not have been his 
first in the province. He probably remained until sent to lower 
Germany, at least we hear of him nowhere else until he is spoken 
of as being there in 14, and we learn of no other governor of Moesia 
antedating Poppaeus Sabinus. (See next governor.) His public 
service seems also to have been continuous. Tac. Ann. 1.64 (a. 15) 
Ouadragesimum id stipendium Caecina parendi aut imperitandi 
habebat. 



8 C. Poppaeus Q.f. Q.n. Sabinus 11/12—35 

Tac. Ann. 1.80 (a. 15) Prorogatur Poppaeo Sabino provincia Moesia, 
additis Achaia ac Macedonia. 

Tac. Ann. 4.47 See under Pomponius Labeo, § 14. 

Tac. Ann. 6.39 Fine anni (sc. a. 35) Poppaeus Sabinus concessit vita, 
modicus originis, principum amicitia consulatum ac triumphale decus adeptus 
maximisque provinciis per c[uattuor et viginti annos impositus, nullam ob 
exiniiam artem, sed quod par negotiis neque supra erat. 

Dio 58.25.4-5 rioTTTraroy oi ^a^ivos rrjs re Mv<xias eKar^pas Kal Trpoffiri Kal ttjs 
MaKedovias es iKelvo tov xP^fo^ irapa iraaav Cjs €ive7v ttjv toO Ti^eplov apx^v yiye/Mvevaas , 
TJStcrra irpoa-irrfKKdyT] irpiv nva airlav \a^tLV. Kat avrbv 6 'V-qyovkos inl rots avTots 
Stidi^aTO- Kai yap ij MaKedovia, tlis Be rivis (pacri^ Kal i] Axaia, aKXrjpioTi irpoaeTdaaovro, 

Sabinus died in 35, after having had charge of important prov- 
inces twenty-four years. His administration seems to have con- 

'* v. Prem. 146 ff. seeks to prove that Moesia was not organized as a province before the 
time of Tiberius. His conclusions have been adopted by most writers who have had occasion 
to refer to the subject since the publication of his article. He would class Caecina as governor 
of the military district of Moesia, which he is careful to distinguish from the province of 
Moesia. The parts of his evidence which can be satisfactorily established do not however 
seem to me to be sufficient to warrant his conclusions. But to discuss the question in detail 
would require more space than can be given to it in this paper. See § 2. 



tinned uiiul tlie time of his death. The beginning of his adminis- 
tration of provinces then was probably in ii, not later than 12. We 
know that he was consul in 9."' So far as we know, Moesia was 
his first province, and although our first notice of him there is iri 
the year 15 the word prorogatur implies that his administration was 
then in progress."" It may therefore have begun in 11 or 12, and 
he may have been the successor of Caecina Severus. 

9. In the period 15-44, while Moesia, Macedonia and Achaia 
were united into a single administrative district under a consular 
legatus Augusti, Poppacus Sabinus a. 15-35, P. Memmius Regulus 
a. 35-41/44, several other men are mentioned in a way that would 
ordinarily be construed to mean that they were governors of Moesia. 
In three of these cases there is definite proof that the person con- 
cerned had not held the consulship, and in two cases there is definite 
proof that these legati were acting in subordination to the governor 
of the larger district. (See 10, 14, 16.) In one case the person i? 
known to have held the consulship previously, but he had held it 
very recently, and there were special reasons why he should at this 
time be temporarily placed in this position under a man who had 
preceded him by eight years in the consulship, and was probably 
even more his senior in years and experience. (See 12.) These 
ol^cers seem to have held command of the two legions directly, 
which were apparently without the usual legati legionis (see 11. 1835, 
quoted under 16), and to have had a certain amount of initiative in 
the employment of their troops (Tac. Ann. 3.39, quoted under 13). 
though subject in general to the control of the governor of the larger 
district. There is no evidence to show that these legati performed 
any civil or judicial functions in Moesia. Direct evidence on this 
point is equally lacking as regards Moesia for the legatus of the 
larger district, but the form of Tacitus' statement, prorogatur 
Poppaeo Sabino provincia Moesia, additis Achaia ac Macedonia, 
implies that Poppaeus was regarded by Tacitus primarily as gover- 
nor of Moesia, to whom the care of Achaia and Macedonia had 
been given in addition. Suet. Calig. 25.2 C. Memmio Regulo con- 
sulari exercitus regenti shows that to .Suetonius it was chiefly this 
governor's command of the legions of Moesia, for there were no 
le2:ions at this time in Achaia or Macedonia, rather than the exten- 



^^ 10.963, 10.6369 1. 1, and Fasti Capitolini. 

-" Of. appointment of lunius Blaesus to Africa, Tac. .Vnn. 3.35 (a. -21) and "prjvincia 
Africa lunio Blaeso prorogata," Tac. Ann. 3.5S (a. 22). 



sion of his command over the other two provinces, that p^ave him 
dignity. The inference from these authors is clearly that the civil 
and judicial functions in Moesia devolved upon him. His residence 
however, seems to have been Macedonia, from which at least both 
the negotiations and the campaign described in Tac. Ann. 4.46-49 
were conducted. That it was not in Moesia is to be inferred also 
from the fact that it is not Poppaeus Sabinus. but his lieutenant, 
Vellaeus, who acts in the emergency of a. 21 (Tac. Ann. 3.39). 
A. v. Domaszewski has discussed some phases of this anomalous ad- 
ministrative situation in Rh. Mus. 45 ( 1890) pp. 1-5. 



10 L. Pomponius L.f. Flaccus * 15 — 16 

Ovid, Ex Ponto 4.9.75-80: 

Praefuit his. Graecine. locis modo Flaccus, et illo 

Ripa ferox Histri sub duce tuta fuit. 

Hie tenuit Mysas gentes in pace fideli. 

Hie arcu fisos terruit ense Getas ; 

Hie raptam Troesmin celeri virtute recepit, 

Infeeitque fero sanguine Danuvium. 

This letter was written in the first half of a. 16, as is shown by lines 3-8, 
in which Ovid expresses the hope that it may reach Rome on the first day of 
Graecinus' consulhip, July i, 16. Flaccus' stay in Moesia ended therefore not 
later than the spring of that year. He may have been a legatus legionis under 
Sabinus, and at the end of 15, when Aehaia and Macedonia were added to 
Sabinus's district, may have been given increased authority in Moesia, Sabinus 
being absent that winter organizing the new administration in Aehaia and 
Macedonia. The words "Praefuit his locis" could hardly have been used of 
him while he was merely a legatus legionis; the time referred to, therefore, 
must be as late as the end of 15. The capture of Troesmis from the Thracians 
must, then, have taken place in the winter of 15/16, its recovery by the joint 
forces of the Thracian king Rheseuporis and the legatus of the Moesian 
legions in the spring of 16. 



II 



Latinius Pandusa * 19 



See Tac. Ann. 2.64-67. 2.64 laetiore Tiberio quia pacem sapientia 

firmaverat quam si bellum per acies confeeisset. Igitur Rhescuporim quoque, 

Thraeciae regem, astu adgreditur. 65. - - - - molliter rescriptum, si 

fraus abesset, posse eum innocentiae fidere ; eeterum neque se neque senatum 
nisi cognita causa ius et iniuriam decreturos : proinde tradito Cotye veniret 
transferretque invidiam eriminis. 66. Eas litteras Latinius Pandusa pro 



praetore Moesiae cum iniliiibus quis Cotys traderetur in 'Ihraciani misit. 
Rhescuporis inter metum et iram cunctatus nialuit patrati quam incepti faci- 
noris reus esse : occidi Cotyn iubet mortemque spontc sumptam cmentitur. 
Nee tamen Caesar placitas semel artes mutavit, sed defuncto Pandusa qucm 
sibi infensum Rhescuporis arguebat, Pomponium Flaccum, vctcrem stipendiis 
■et arta cum rege amicitia eoque accommodatiorem ad fallendum, ob id maxime 
Moesiae praefecit. 

This account is given under the year 19. It covers the events of several 
years connected with the succession to the throne in Thrace. The circum- 
stance that makes the account appropriate at this point in the Annals, as the 
word igitur suggests, is the adoption of subtle diplomatic means instead of 
resorting to military force for the settlement of the succession. It is the 
inauguration of tliis policy that belongs to the year 19, as is shown by the 
tense of adgreditur. The appointment of Flaccus marks the definite entrance 
upon the methods of diplomacy, in the deliberate efifort to avoid the war 
which would naturally have followed the failure of Rhescuporis to deliver 
Cotys to Pandusa on Tiberius's order. The appointment of Flaccus fell 
therefore in 19. It was probably well along in the year, for it was the an- 
nouncement of the success of diplomacy in the settlement of the troubles in 
Armenia that led to the employment of the same means in Thrace. Pandusa's 
death therefore probably occurred in 19 rather than in 18. He had probably 
succeeded Flaccus early in 16. See the preceding governor. 



12 L. Pomponius L.f. Flaccus * 19 — 20 

See the preceding governor for text and discussion. Flaccus was consul 
ordinarius a. 17. His full name is known from Tac. Ann. 2.66, 6.27; CIL 
10.6639.15; and Dio's index of consuls. His successor was in office a. 21. See 
next governor. He is the same as the governor of 15-16. See § 10. It was 
probably in his former administration that he had cemented the close friend- 
ship with King Rhescuporis, which made him a suitable instrument in the 
liands of Tiberius to manage the delicate diplomatic situation with that prince 
at this time, and led to this second appointment as lieutenant in Moesia. 



13 P. Vellaeus * 21 

Tac. Ann. 3.39 Quae (sc. that Thracian tribes were besieging Philip- 
popolis) ubi cognita P. Vellaeo (is proximum exercitum praesidebat), alarios 
equites ac levis cohortium mittit in eos qui praedabundi aut adsumendis au- 
xiliis vagabantur, ipse robur peditum ad exsolvendum obsidium ducit. 

This passage belongs to the account of the year 21. The nearest army 
can only have been that of Moesia. Vellaeus seems to have acted without 
receiving orders from his superior Poppaeus Sabinus. This fact may be ex- 
plained by the urgency of the situation. The events of the year 25 (see 14 
below) show clearly that the Moesian legions were subject to the orders of 
Sabinus. 



14 Pomponius Labeo -^ 25 — 33 

Tac. Ann. 4.47 At Sabinus, donee exercitns in unum conduceret, datis 
mitibus responsis, postquam Pomponius Labeo e Moesia cum legione, rex 
Rhoemetalces cum auxiliis - - - - venere, addita praesenti copia, ad hostem 
pergit. 

Tac. Ann. 6.29 At Romae caede continua Pomponius Labeo, quern prae- 
fuisse Moesiae rettuli, per abruptas venas sanguinem effudit; aemulataque est 
coniunx Paxaea. 

Dio 58.24.3 - - - - Kai IIoyU.Tr'Wj'tos Aajiedjv. Kat ovros fiev ttjs t€ Mvaias iroTk 6kt<1> 
fTecn fiera t7]v (XTpaT7]yiav dp^as, Kal ddipu^v pxTO, ttjs ywaLKos ypacpels, iOeXovrl avv avrr) 
Si.e(p6dpr). 

Tac. Ann. 4.47 forms part of the narrative of the year 26. The campaign 

there described ended late in the autumn. Tac. Ann. 4.51 rehquis quo 

minus vi aut obsidio subigerentur praematura Montis Haemi et saeva hiems 
subvenit. The first thing mentioned under the year 26 is the bestowal of the 
triumphal insignia upon Sabinus for this victory, so that the campaign must 
have been made in 25, This shows that Pomponius Labeo was legatus in 
Moesia in that year. He killed himself in 34 (Tac. Ann. 6.29) as a result of 
a charge of bribery lodged against him. ( Dio, 1. c. ) The charge would 
probably follow soon after the laying down of his command. Dio tells us 
that he was in Moesia eight years. His term probably began in 25, and 
ended in s^ or s;^. He had probably been recalled after the death of Sejanus 
and remained in disfavor as his friend.'"* 



15 P. Memmius P.f. Regulus 35—42/44 

IG 4.1139c (Asclepieum Epidaurium) 0: ' Axaiol USttXiov M^fifiiov UoirXlov 
viof 'Vrjy\ov rbv ea.vTG)v evepyiTtfv. 

Dio 58.25.4-5 Quoted under 8. 

IG 3.613 niTrXiop M^fJiixiov 'P'^7Xoj' [virariKdv, TTpedjievT^riv Ti^eplov Kaicrapos 
'Ee^aaTOv K[al avriar^pdrriyov Kai Tifieplov KXavdiov Kaicrapos 'Ze^aarov Tep/JiaviKov 
' Adrjvaiuv 6 iwl tovs OTrXt'ras ffTpar-qyos Kal dyoivod^Tijs tC}v Ti^epiov KXavdLov Kaicrapos 
Se/SatTToO dyojvuv Nowos ^iKeivov i^ Oi'ov rbv eavTov evepyirrjv iK twc Idicjv dvidr]Kev. 

Suet. Calig. 25.2 Lolliam Pauhnam, C. Memmio consulari exercitus 
regenti nuptam, facta mentione aviae eius ut quondam pulcherrimae, subito 
ex provincia evocavit ac perductam a marito coniunxit sibi brevique missam 
fecit, interdicto cuiusquam in perpetuam coitu. Cf. Dio 59.12, a. 38, a brief 
account of the same. 

6.2028c, 11. 34-5 [P. Memmius Regulus] ( probable restoration) chosen 
a frater arvalis. May 24, 38. Ibid., e, 1. 4 [P. Memmius Rejgulus present at 
meeting of fratres arvales, just before Sept. 22,, 38; ibid., 1. 10, [P. Mem]mius 
Regulus present Sept. 22,, 38; ibid., f, 1. i, [P. Me]mmius Regulus present 
Oct. 12, 38. 

2'"> Compare the contemporary case of Lentulus Gaetuliciis, Tac. Ann. 6.30. 



That P. Memmius Regulus was the son of Publius is fully estab- 
"lished by IG 4.1 139 c." He was consul a.31.'' He became imperial 
legate of the combined provinces of Moesia, Macedonia, and Achaia 
a. 35/' succeeding C. Poppaeus Sabinus in this command. IG 3.613 
shows that he governed these provinces under both Tiberius and 
Claudius. The name of Caligula has been omitted from the inscrip- 
tion as a damnatus, but Suet. Calig. 25.2 and Dio 59.12 show 
that he continued to hold the command under that emperor. He 
was absent from his provinces for a time in 38. at least from May 
until October (6.2028), having been summoned to Rome by the 
emperor. How long he held the office under Claudius we have no 
means of determining. He can not have held it later than 44, for 
in that year Macedonia and Achaia were given back to the Senate."' 
It may be that the union of the three provinces under one command 
was discontinued earlier than this in the reign of Claudius. (See 
n. 26.) This would mean that Regulus was relieved of this com- 



^ This inscription should have prevented tlio incorrect restoration [rat'ou] viov in 912a 
of the same volume of IG. It shows the text of Suet. Calig. 25,2 to be incorrect in giving him 
the praenomen Gaius. It also justifies Dittenberger's restoration in Arch. Zeit. 35 (1877) p. 
191, n. 93, which De^au, Pros. M 342, hesitated to accept. 

2= Tac. Ann. 5.11, 6.4; Dio 58.9-11, 13. 

23 Dio 58.25.4-5. The date has often been wrongly given as 36, especially in notes on 
Greek inscriptions. Dio's statement in this passage has been called in question without good 
reason by Mommsen in his note on 3.7267, an inscription of Epidaurus. [Aesculapio?] d. d.| [q 
prov. Cretae et Cyren]arum, trib. pi., | [XVvir s]acr. fac, sodalis | [augustalis], leg. 
Oaesarum | [D]|almatiae et exercitus | [Illyi-ici, procos] provinc Asiae. He restores 
this inscription in the way indicated above and suggests in his note that its sub- 
ject may be our P. Memmius Regulus. He adds, "obstat, quod legatus praefuisse dieitiu- 
non Dalmatiae, sed secundum Dionem 58.25 successit Poppaeo Sabino legato Moesiae utriusque 
et Macedoniae; (quotes Dio 58.25.5. See above). Sed potest in hac narratione error inesse." 
Tliere are several objections to the suggestions in this note. Dalmatia is not found as the 
name of a province so early as the proconsulship of Regulus in Asia. The expression exercitus 
Illyrieus is also later than this date. No other legatus Dalmatiae et exercitus Illyrici is 
ijnown. Dio's testimony that Regulus governed Achaia as a legatus Augusti is supported by 
Greek inscriptions (Cf. IG 3.613 above; and CIG 1076). We know from Tac. Ann. 1.80 and 
from other passages that Poppaeus Sabinus governed Moesia, Macedonia and Achaia; that this 
combination should have continued until Macedonia and Achaia were returned to the Senate 
a. 44 (Dio 60.24, Suet. Claud. 25) is more probable than that the new combination of Dalmatia 
and Moesia should have been made, especially since the latter would have placed the governor 
in command of very great forces close to Rome, a situation which would have been avoided. 
Even without the two legions of Moesia a governor of Dalmatia raised the standard of revolt 
against Claudius in the second year of his reign. (Dio 60.15, Sent. Claud. 13.) It should be 
added that Mommsen elsewhere (3.567 n.) accepts this passage of Dio at its face value. I am 
unable to believe that P. Memmius Regulus was the subject of the inscription 3.7267. 

^ Dio 60.24 (quoted n. 26), Suet. Claud. 25. Since we must suppose that the "veteran! 
qui militaverunt (in leg. V Maced.) sub P. Mem[mi]o Regulo legato Augustali et missi sunt 
Q. Eutetio Lusio Saturnino M. Seio Verano coss" (3.8753) were mustered out under Regulus 
tlie date of the consulship of Satuminus and Veranus, which is unknowTi, lies within the 
period of this administration. 



manci earlier than 44. We liave no record of any governors who 
held the joint command of the three provinces except Poppaeus 
Sabinus and Resrulus. 



-fe' 



16 Martius L.f. Pom. Macer * 41/44 

II. 1835 (Arretium). Martio L. f. Pom. [Mac]ro, trib. mil. leg. II, IIII- 
vir. v[iar. cur., q.,] aed. cur., pr., leg. Ti. Claudi Caes[aris Aug. pr.] pr. 
provinc. Moesiae leg. IV Scyt[hic. et leg.] V Maced., procos. prov. Achai[ae 
citr]a sortem, ex d. d. p. 

Since Martius Macer governed Moesia, with a garrison of two legions, 
as a praetor, he must have been subordinate to a governor of higher rank 
who was in charge of Moesia, Macedonia, and Achaia jointly, as Poppaeus 
Sabinus and Memmius Regulus (see 8 and 15) were. This arrangement was 
terminated a. 44.^ His legateship in Moesia therefore was in the interval 
between the accession of Claudius, a. 41, and this date.^*^ 



17 C. Avidius Nigrinus * 

3.567 (Delphi) is a decree of C. Avidius Nigrinus leg. Aug. pro pr., 
deciding a boundary dispute between Delphi and Anticyra, by the order of 
the emperor, who is styled "optimus princeps." 

Achaia was under a proconsul except from 15 to 44, when, together with 
Macedonia and Moesia, it was governed by a legatus Augusti pro praetore. 
It has been suggested that this decree belongs to that period. Mommsen has 
pointed out (CIL, 1. c.) that "optimus princeps" suits Trajan better than an 
earlier emperor. (Cf. Hirschfeld on 12.3164.) I have not found the title 
applied to an earlier emperor than Trajan, nor to Trajan earlier than 109/110 
(2.2010). An Avidius Nigrinus was killed in 118, either on the charge of con- 
spiring against the Emperor Hadrian, after having been designated by Hadrian 
as his successor (Vit. Hadr. 7.1-3), or merely because of his wealth and influ- 
ence, as Dio has it (69.2). It is evident that this man can not have been 
governor of the united provinces Moesia, Achaia, and Macedonia seventy-four 
years earlier. If there were evidence for a governor of that name and date 

25 Dio 60.24; Suet. Claud. 25. 

^ From the fact that he was procos. prov. Achaiae citra sortem it seems probable that 
he was transferred directly from Moesia to Achaia by the favor of Claudius, and that his term 
in Achaia may have ended rather than begvm in 44. His proeonsulship would then form a 
transition step between the recent arrangement and the return to the regular order of sena- 
torial government described by Dio, 60.24, t'^j' re ' Axa/ai' Kal tt]v MaKfdovlav atriboiKev 

6 KXavdios t6t€ ti} KX-qpifi Kal roiis arparrjyoiis roiis itrt ttjs dioiKifjcreics KaraKvcras raniais 
avT7]v Kara to apxawv iwiTpeypev^ . Compare aKKrjpWTi^ used by Dio 58.25.5. in de- 
scribing the appointment of Regulus, and citra sortem in 11.1835 above, used of the appoint- 
ment of Macer in Achaia, with airiSwKev tSts (sc. a. 44) ry /cX-^py in this passage. 

Von Domaszewski lias discussed this inscription in Rh. Mus. 45 (1890) pp. 1 f. 

8 



we should have to assume that lie was a different Nigrinus from the one killed 
in 1 18. But there is no such evidence. The most probable assumption is 
that he was a legatus of the emperor, whose special mission was to the 
civitates liberae as corrector or curator, such as are met with in Achaia 
from Trajan's time on, but do not appear earlier than the age of Trajan. 
The order of the names 'NiypTve Kal Kvvre in Plutarch Moralia 478 B, where 
he dedicates his Uepi <Pi\ad€X4>las to them, indicates that he was an older 
brother of T. Avidius Quietus. (See 26.) He can hardly have been identical 
with the C. Avidius Nigrinus of 3.7904. (See 58.) 



18 A. Didius Gallus 45/46 

3.7247 (Olympia) A. Didius G[allus, leg]atus [Ti.]| Claudi Caes[aris] 
Aug. Ger[mani] |ci, triumphal[ibus o]rnamen[tis| XVvir] s. f., proco[s. 
. . . . ]e et Sicilia[e, leg. | pro. pr. Moejsiae, pr[aefectu]s equitat. | [ . . . . 
impe]ratoris [iussu?] | . . . . ^' 

Tac. Ann. 12.15 At Mithradates Bosporanus amissis opibus vagus, post- 
quam Didium ducem Romanum roburque exercitus abisse cognoverat, relictos 
in novo regno Cotyn iuventa rudem et paucas cohortium cum lulio Aquila 
equite Romano, spretis utrisque, concire nationes, inlicere perfugas, . 

Catalogue of Greek Coins in the British Museum, Pontus, p. 52, no. i A 
coin of Cotys, head of Claudius on one side, on the other Ba. K. and BMT. 

Frontinus, De Aquaed. 2.102 Gallo, Q. Veranio et Pompeio Longo cos., 
(successit) Cn. Domitius Afer. 

The expulsion of Mithradates and the estabUshment of Cotys 
on the throne of Bosporus, which Tacitus here attributes to Gallus, 
would most naturally have been undertaken by him as governor of 
Moesia and justifies the reading [Moe]siae in 3.724'/. The coin of 
Cotys shows that Cotys was ruling in Bosporus Oct. 45/Oct. 46. 
Gallus was therefore governor of Moesia as early as 45 or 46. After 
the departure of Gallus from Pontus, Mithradates and Cotys each 
formed alliances among the neighboring kings and continued the 
war (Tac. Ann. 12. 15- 17). Mithradates after being defeated sur- 
rendered to Eunones, and finally after negotiations with Claudius 
went to Rome, arriving a. 49 (Tac. Ann. 12.18-21). These facts 
seem to favor the later of the two dates given above as the year of 
the interference of Gallus in the affairs of Bosporus, for the war 

^' I have used the restoration proposed by Moninisen in GIL. A different restoration is 
proposed by v. Domaszewski, Mitt. d. arch. Inst, zu Rom 6 (1891) pp. 163-167, which Momnisen 
criticises, CIL 3.12278. As they agi-ee in the restoration at the end of line 4 and the beginning 
of line 5, their difference does not affect the reading- of the inscription foi' the purpose for 
whicli I wisli to use it. 



between Cotys and Mithradates probably did not last more than one 
year after the withdrawal of the Roman governor. 

In a. 49 Gallus gave up the curatorship of the aquae at Rome. 
(Frontinus, 1. c.)'" He must have returned from his province some 
time, say two or three years, before this. It seems likely therefore 
that a. 46 or at latest a. 47 was his last in Moesia. 



19 Flavius Sabinus 46/54 to 52/60 

Tac. Hist. 3.7s Hie exitus viri (sc. Flavi Sabini) baud sane spernendi. 
Quinque et triginta stipendia in re publica fecerat domi militiaeque clarus. 
Innocentiam iustitiamque eius non argueres ; sermoni nimius erat : id unum 
septem annis quibus Moesiam, duodecim quibus praefecturam urbis obtinuit 
calumniatus est rumor. 

L. Volusius Saturninus died while prefect of the city in 56 (cf. 
Tac. Ann. 13.30 with Plin. N. H. 7.14.62). If duodecim is the cor- 
rect reading" in our passage Sabinus must have been appointed as his 
successor in 56. Borghesi, Op. 3.327-328, 9.265, emends here, with 
great probability, as it seems to me. for duodecim or XII totidem 

-^ The 111s. of Frontinus is corrupt at this point. The photo^'aphic facsimile of the ms. 
reproduced in Herschel, Frontinus and the Water Supply of Rome, gives the following reading: 
laenatiaquila iunianus. et nonius asprenate eon|sulebus. M.poreius cato huic successit.postquem 
serasinius celera. | tonio quintiliano consulibus.adidius.gallius.gallo Q. veranius. |et pompeius 
long"us consules.cn. domitius afer. The division of words, the points, and capitals are those 

of the nis. The space before tonio quintiliano is at the beginning of the line and the same 
amount of space in the line above it contains the letters sule. The acta fratrum arvalium In 
a fragment (see Henzen, Acta Prat. Arv., p. XLV; OIL 6.2028. d. 18) which seems to belong to 
the year 38 has .... nio Quinctlliano cos., being part of the name of the second of the 
consules suflfecti of the year to which the fragment belongs. Aquila luliaims and Nonius 
Asprenas were the consules ordinarii of a. 38. Nipperdey (Philologus, 6 (1851), 378; op. 450) 
arguing from Tac. Ann. 4.68 and 4.71 that Cato certainly was put to death under Gaius, and 
comparing the passages in Frontinus and the acta, emends "post quem" to "post mensem", 
and follovidng his emendation the passage is given in our editions as follows: Laenati Aquila 
luliano et Nonio Asprenate consulibus M. Porcius Cato. Huic successit post mensem Ser. 
Asinio Celere A. Nonio Quintiliano consulibus A. Didius Gallus. Gallo Q. Veranio et Pompeio 
cos. Cn. Domitius Afer. Tliis makes Gallus curator aquarum from a. 38 to a. 49. But we 
know, as shown above, that lie was governor of Moesia about 45. He could not, of course, 
have held both these offices at the same time. V. Domaszewski, 1. c, meets this difficulty by 
making a different restoration of our inscription and supposing that our evidence concerns 
two Galli, of wliich the curator aquarum and the governor of Britain, 51 or 52 to 57 or 58, is 
the father, and the governor of Moesia named in Tac. Ann. 12.15 and in this inscription is the 
son. We know from Tac. Ann. 12.40, Didius senectute gravis et multa copia honorum per 
ministros agere et arcere hostem satis habebat, that the governor of Britain was too old to 
keep tlie field in person. His predecessor had been worn to death by the heavy burdens im- 
posed upon him by tliis war (Tac. Ann. 12.39), and although Gallus made a hasty journey to 
Britain he foimd affairs in a bad way on his arrival. Tac. Ann. 12.40, Is propere vectus, non 
tamen integras res invenit, adversa interim legiones pugna. Tacitus |eems to imply that at 
the time of his appointment it was felt that he was not the proper man for the place, but 
that a suitable man was not available. Tac. Ann. 12.40 At Caesar, cognita morte legati, ne 

10 



or A'TT. We know from Tac. Ann. 14.42 that Pedanius Secundus 
was killed while prefect of the city in 61. It is difficult to account 
for a break in the prefecture of Sabinus to admit that of Pedanius 
and suppose that he was a second time appointed to this office in 61. 
If Sabinus became prefect for the first time in 61, he would have 
served about seven years by the end of Nero's reign, to which he 
added a few months under Otho and Vitcllius. We know that in 
43 he was an officer in Britain serving under his brother Vespasian 
who was at that time a legatus legionis. Dio 60.20.3 - - - - 
iTriSieTre/ii'^e tov re OvecrTraaiavov top ^Xdoviov - - - - Kai rov 
a8€X(f>ov avrov "^afilvov vTrocrrparruovvTci 01. Suet. Vesp. 4 Nar- 
cissi gratia legatus legionis in Germaniam missus est (V^espasianus) ; 

inde in Britanniam translatus . Sabinus probably had not 

been praetor, since he was serving under a legatus legionis. and 
would thus have the praetorship and the consulship yet to hold 
before being sent to Moesia. Vespasian seems at this time to have 
been ahead of Sabinus in the cursus honorum. It does not seem 

pio^ancia sine rectore foret, A. Didium suffecit. If there was an A. Didiiis Gallus, the Younger, 
wlio was governor of Moesia Inferior in 45 or 46, he must have been forty-five years old at 
least by 51 or 52; he had won triumphal ornaments for success in an independent campaign; 
he was surely back from Moesia by this time, and would have been much more suitable for 
the task in Britain than his aged father. Besides, if the elder Didius had a son of this age he 
must himself have been 65 or 70 years old at the time of his appointment and would hardly 
have been retained in the province for five or six years, as we know this governor was. These 
reasons, together with those urged by Mommsen against the novelties in the reading of the 
inscription proposed bj- v. Domaszewski, make it seem to me very improbable that we are deal- 
ing in our evidence with two men, father and son. But Nipperdey's emendation of the passage 
is also open to another objection. The copyist who made tlie manuscript of Montecassino seems 
to have been a very careful one, and whenever he could not make out the reading of his 
original his custom was to leave a lacuna or to indicate his uncertainty by a different style of 
lettering. (See Gunderman's review of Herschel's Frontinus in Berl. Pliil. Woch., Nov. 14, 
1903, col. 1454.) He indicates no uncertainty in 'post quem', and paleographically it 
would be a difficult thing to mistake mensem for quem. Again, post quem followed by the 
names of the consuls and the name of the new curator occurs a few lines further down, and is 
thus in harmony with Frontinus's mode of expression, and in this place it furnishes a varia- 
tion for the dative of the name of the retiring curator or the dative of huie standing for such 
name, which he has been using down to this point. It seems to me more probable that a line 
of the copyist's original has been dropt after huic successit, and that this line contained (1) 
the names of the consuls of some j'ear, possibly the suffecti of 38, and (2) the name of the 
successor of Cato. This would then be followed by post quem Ser. Asinius Celera .... tonio 
consulibus A. Didius Gallus. It is not at all certain that Ser. .\sinius Celer was consul in 
38. We know from Sen. De Mort. Claud. 13.5 that he was a friend of Claudius, a consular, 
and that Claudius caused his death. He may have enjoyed the consulsliip also under 
Claudius; or he may have been consul under or before Caligula, but Plin., N. H. 17.67 does 
not necessarily imply this. It is also to be seriously questioned whetlier the .... tonio 
Quintiliano of Frontinus is the ... . nio Quinctiliano of the acta of (probably) a. 38, or the 
Nonius of our fasti. No A. Nonius Quintilianus is known from any other source, and the 'a' at 
the end of Celera is plain in the ms., as is the 't' in the .... tonio. However the tangle of 
the ms. of Frontinus be explained, we can feel reasonably certain that Gallus did not become 
curator aquarum in 38. The most probable date seems to be 47, after his return from Moesia. 
The consules suffecti of that year are unknown. 

II 



likely that Sabinus would have been promoted faster than Vespasian 
while Narcissus was alive, especially since Vespasian's record in 
Britain was notably a fine one"' (Tac. Hist. 3.44; Agric. 13). Ves- 
pasian was consul in 51. Unless Sabinus was consul by 48 he could 
not have served seven years in Moesia, and after that have become 
praefectus urbis in 56. Even this would have required him to be 
sent to Moesia immediately after his consulship, which is hardly in 
accord with the importance of the command at this period. His 
predecessor was made curator aquarum and he himself praefectus 
urbis on returning from Moesia, offices filled only by the most ex- 
perienced and able men in the state at this period. Of the next 
three governors two had been proconsul of Asia before being sent 
to Moesia and the other was proconsul of Asia, but we cannot say 
whether before or after his Moesian command. These considera- 
tions seem to me to add somewhat to the probability of Borghesi's 
emendation. While no positive assertion can be made, the years 
53 to 60 seem probable dates for his administration of Moesia. 

20 Ti. Plautius M.f. Ani. Silvanus Aelianus 61 

14.3608 (Tibur) Ti. Plautio M. f. Ani. Silvano Aeliano pontif., sodali 
Aug., Illvir. a. a. a. f. f., q. Ti. Caesaris, legat. leg. V in Germania, pr. urb., 
legat. et comiti Claud. Caesaris in Brittannia, consuli, procos. Asiae, legat. 
pro praet. Moesiae, in qua plura quam centum mill, ex numero Transdanu- 
vianor. ad praestanda tributa cum coniugib. ac liberis et principibus aut regibus 
suis transduxit. Motum orientem Sarmatar. compressit quamvis parte magna 
exercitus ad expeditionem in Armeniam misisset. Ignotos ante aut infensos 
p. R. reges signa Romana adoraturos in ripam quam tuebatur perduxit. 
Regibus Bastarnarum et Rhoxolanorum filios, Dacorum fratrum (sic) captos 
aut hostibus ereptos remisit ; ab aliquis eorum opsides accepit per quem 
pacem provinciae et confirmavit et protulit ; Scytharum quoque regem a 
Cherronensi, quae est ultra Borustenen, opsidione summoto. Primus ex ea 
provincia magno tritici modo annonam p. R. adlevavit. Hunc legatum in 
Hispaniam ad praefectur. urbis remissum senatus in praefectura triumphalibus 
ornamentis honoravit, auctore imp. Caesare Augusto Vespasiano verbis ex 
oratione eius q. i. s. s. : 

"Moesiae ita praefuit ut non debuerit in me differri honor triumphalium 
eius ornamentorum; nisi quod latior ei contigit mora titulus praefecto urbis. 

^' Tacitus' statement, Hist. 3.75, Quod inter oninis oonstiterit, ante principatum Vespa- 
siani decus domus apud Sabinum erat, is to be understood only of the time after 51, and is 
explained by Sent. Vesp. 4, Medium tempus (from his consulship) ad proconsulatum usque in 
otio secessuque (Vespasianus) egit, Agrippinam tiniens potentem adhuc apud fllium et defuncti 
quoque Narcissi amici perosam. During- these years Sabinus was holding high offices, and was 
looked upon as the leading man of the family. 

12 



Hunc in eadem praefectura urbis imp. Caesar Aug. Vespasianus iterum 
COS. fecit. 

Le Bas 3.600 a (Tralles, Asia) N^pwva KXavdiov Kaicrapa Se/Sao-r^v TepfiaviKdv 
AiiTOKpaTopa debv 6 dijP'Oi 6 Kaicrap^asv KadUptvfffv^ iirl avdvirdrov Ti^eplov IlXavriov 
'SiXovavoO AlXiavov . 

The Greek inscription shows that Silvanus was proconsul of Asia 
under Nero. It was probably early in Nero's reign, possibly in 55. 
The Latin inscription shows that the proconsulship in Asia preceded 
the legateship in Moesia. His date in Moesia was therefore not 
earlier than 56. \'espasian's words, nt non debuerit in me differri 
honor triumphalium eius ornamentorum, imply that the deeds for 
which Silvanus is honored were performed under a former emperor, 
whom we readily see to have been Nero. This shows the date to 
have been not later than 68. All who have studied the inscription'" 
assign a date within these limits. Two statements in the inscription 
have formed the basis of attempts to date it more closely : per quem 
pacem provinciae et confirmavit et protulit, and, quamvis parte(m) 
magna(m) exercitus ad expeditionem in Armenian! misisset. Rea- 
soninp- from these statements one of two dates has usually been 

o 

reached, 57 or 62/63. 

The earlier date is usually arrived at by interpreting the 
first statement, per qu[ae] (sc. his deeds) et pacem provinciae 
confirmavit et [fines] protulit. It is proved by 3.781 and 
Latyschew i.i, that the era used in Tyra, a city on the coast 
of the Black sea north of the mouth of the Danube, subject in later 
years to the governor of Moesia Inferior, began with the year 57. 
It has been supposed that it was added to the empire and to the 
province of Moesia by the activity of this governor and began a 
new era in its chronology because of this. The change in the Latin 
required to secure this interpretation of the inscription is violent. 
It leaves Ab aliquis eorum opsides accepit without natural connec- 
tion with the preceding and the following clauses, changes quem 
to quae, moves et back to precede pacem, and introduces the word 
fines which could hardly have been omitted. Moreover it gives a 
sense that is not in harmony with the whole tenor of the praise 
bestowed on Silvanus. Nowhere in the inscription is it claimed that 

="• Some of these are the following: Borghesi, Op. 4 p. 230, S p. 427; Henzen, Annal. 
Inst. Arch. 1859 pp. 5 ff . ; Mommsen, Provinces of the Roman Empire, vol. 1, pp. 235 f., Eng. 
tr.; Dessau, CIL, 1. c. ; v. Domaszewski, Rh. Mus. 47 (1892) pp. 208-210; Vollmer, Rh. Mus. 
53 (1898) pp. 636 f. ; Sehmsdorf, Die Germanen in den Balkenlandern, pp. 34-.38; Filow, op. 
cit., pp. 8 ff. Many others have used it in discussions in such a way as to be compelled to 
pass judgment on its date. 

13 



he added to the territory of his province. He is honored for havinsj 
secured the peace of his province and made it profitable to the 
Roman people, achievements which Emperor and Senate were well 
able to appreciate at the time when this decree was passed, just after 
serious losses at the hands of these same troublesome neighbors, 
including the life of a consular governor'^' and perhaps the complete 
annihilation of a Roman legion.^" These events had occurred prob- 
ably not more than two or three years after the close of his admin- 
istration, which may have covered seven years. To 100,000 Trans- 
danuvians he gave homes within the province, changing them from 
a menace to payers of tribute ; he checked the Sarmatae who were 
threatening to disturb the peace of the province ; he won the grati- 
tude of the kings of the Bastarnae and the Rhoxolani, frequent 
marauders of the province, by helping them against some wandering" 
foe that had attacked them, probably the lazyges f^ a like service he 
performed for the kings of the Dacians who had been called fratres^' 
of the Roman people ; the Bosporan Chersonese, which had long 
been nominally Roman, he relieved from siege. His province, 
with the population within its borders increased and the blessings 
of peace secured, was able to furnish such a supply of grain to 
Rome as to lower the price in the city. The only change necessary 
in the passage in question under this interpretation is to change quem 
to quos,*" "ab aliquis eorum (regum) opsides accepit, per Cjuos 
pacem provinciae et confirmavit et protulit," through these hostages 
he both secured^" and prolonged peace for the province. 

The second date, 62/63, has been arrived at from the statement 
"quamvis parte [m] magna[m] exercitus ad expeditionem in Arme- 
niam misisset." In Tac. Ann. 15.6 we find named among the forces 
received from Corbulo by Paetus legio quinta "quae recens e Moesis 
excita erat." The further narrative of Tacitus shows that this was 
legio quinta Macedonica. This is the only expeditio Armenia that 
we know of for which Moesian troops were drawn in this period, 
and it seems that it must be the sending of this legion that is re- 

31 See 22. 

3^ Trommsdorff, Quaestiones duae ad historian! legionum Romanorum spectantes, Leipzig, 
1896, pp. 69-85; Filow p. 34. 

^ Sehmsdorf, 1. c. 

s*Vollmer, 1. c. 

^ Or quem may be changed to quae, "through these deeds," no other change being 
made, and this interpretation stands equally well. 

^" Cf. Tac. Ann. 2.1 partemque prolis flrmandae amicitiae miserat. 

14 



ferred to in our inscription. This gives us a date in the administra- 
tion of Silvanus in Moesia. The account is given in the Annals 
under the year 62. Schoonover"' has shown that the events de- 
scribed in Tac. Ann. 15.1-17 covered three winters and two sum- 
mers, and that the arrival of Paetus and of this division of troops oc- 
curred in 61. It was probably in the late summer, and the legion 
may have left Moesia in the spring of that year. It is reasonable 
to assume that Silvanus had arrived in Moesia by the end of 60. 

Recently Filow''*' has argued that the part of the Moesian army 
referred to in our inscription was not legio V Macedonica but legio 
IV Scythica. Tac. Ann 13.35 adiectaque ex Germania legio cum 
equitibus alariis et peditatu cohortium, has been shown by Grote- 
fend ^'■' and Mommsen '" to refer to legio IV Scythica. The account 
in Tacitus belongs to the year 58. Filow assumes that Tacitus was 
mistaken in the province and that the legion came to Corbulo from 
Moesia and not from Germany. His reasons are as follows: (i) 
We know that legio IV Scythica was in Moesia as late as the be- 
ginning of the reign of Claudius. (2) We do not know any reason 
why it should have been sent from Moesia to Germany between that 
time and the year 58. If it was sent to Germany within this period 
we must assume that its place in Moesia was taken by legio VIII 
Augusta from Pannonia. It would have been simpler to send legio 
VIII Augusta from Pannonia to Germany. (4) No trace of legio 
IV Scythica has been found in Germany. (5) If legio IV Scythica 
was sent to Corbulo from Moesia by Silvanus in 58, he sent away 
one legion out of a force of three legions ; if it was sent to Corbulo 
from Germany in 58 and Silvanus sent legio V Macedonica to him 
from Moesia in 62, one legion was sent away out of a force of two 
legions. The first supposition comports better with the words of 
the inscription magna [m] parte [m], which would naturally have 
been written dimidiam partem in the second case. 

But these considerations hardly furnish a reasonable ground for 
doubting the direct and detailed statement of Tacitus. Affairs had 
been quiet for several years along the Rhine in 57 or 58. When the 
army in the East needed strengthening it was more reasonable to take 

^' A Study of Cn. Domitius Corbulo as Found in the Annals of Tacitus, pp. 12 f., pub- 
lished by The University of Chicago Press. For parallels see 11, 12. 

^* Filow, op. cit., pp. 8 ff. 

3" Bonn. Jahrb. 11 (1847) pp. 82-85. 

" Res Gestae^, p. 68, n. 2. 

15 



away one of the eight German legions in these circumstances than to 
take two legions from Moesia within the space of three or four years. 
We can not fix the date when legio lY Scythica was sent to Ger- 
many, but Filow himself points out that in 46 legio XIII Gemina 
left Germania Superior and that we do not know what legion took 
its place if legio IV Scythica did not do so. Though no trace of its 
stay in Germany from, say 46 to 57, has been found, it is equally true 
that no trace of it has been found in Moesia after the first years of 
the reign of Claudius. The saving of a few hundred miles marching 
would not have been considered if the good of the service seemed 
to demand a shift for both legio IV Scythica and legio VIII 
Augusta. It is well known that with each legion stationed in per- 
manent quarters in a province there was joined about an equal force 
of auxiliaries. It may well be supposed that when legio V Mace- 
donica was sent to help out temporarily in the East it took only a 
small part of its auxiliaries in contrast to legio IV Scythica which 
was sent there to stay and never again left the East. This is cer- 
tainly suggested by the difference in the two statements of Tacitus, 
addita quinta (legione) quae recens e Moesis excita erat, and 
adiecta ex Germania legio cum equitibus alariis et peditatu 
cohortium. This being the case only a fourth or a third of his 
exercitus was given up by Silvanus in sending the fifth legion, that 
is magna pars and not dimidia pars. I have no hesitancy in believ- 
ing that the sending of legio V Macedonica is referred to in our 
inscription. This would show the presence of Silvanus in Moesia 
probably by the fall of 60. That he remained several years may be 
inferred from the results that he accomplished. So far as we know 
his stay may have equalled that of his predecessor. His adminis- 
tration may then have covered the years 60-67. 



21 M. Aponius Saturninus 69 

The full name is known from Tac. Hist. 1.79 and 2.85, and 
from GIL 6.2039-2042, 2044. Saturninus was in Rome as late as a. 
66. (6.2044.) As governor of Moesia under Otho he was presented 
with a triumphal statue for annihilating a predatory band of 
Sarmatae that had made an incursion into Moesia (Tac. Hist. 1.79). 
He continued to hold his post in Moesia under Vitellius (Tac. Hist. 
2.96), although he had probably been in charge of the Moesian 

16 



VToops that had gone to Otho's assistance, but had arrived too late 
for the battle with the Vitellians (Tac. Hist. 2.85). After waver- 
ing when Vespasian was proclaimed emperor he followed the temper 
of his troops (Tac. Hist. 2.96) and with the three Moesian legions 
joined the advance force of Vespasian's party under Antonius" 
(Tac. Hist. 3.5, 3.9-11). 



22 Fonteius Agrippa 69 — 70 

Tac. Hist. 3.46 Fonteius Agrippa ex Asia (proconsule earn provinciam 
annuo imperio tenuerat) Moesiae praepositus est, additis copiis e Vitelliano 
exercitu, quern spargi per provincias et externo bello inligari pars consilii 
pacisque erat. 

los. Bell. lud. 7.4.3 (90-92, ed. Niese. Cf. 89-95) iroWoiis fxiv tQv iirl 

rrjs (ppovpds 'Pw/maloiv dvaipoOffi (sc, oi 'Sapfxarai) Kal wpea-^evTrjv top vnariKOv 
^ovTrjiov AypLTTTrav inravTidcravTa KapTepds fjiaxofJ'-fvou KTeivovffi.^ rrjj' 5' \JTroKeiiJ.ivr)v x<^po-v 
Eiraaav Karirpexov dyovres Kal cp^povres drip wepLiriiTOi.ev. Oveairacnavbs 8i ra, yeyevTi/xdva 
Kal TTjv ir6pdT)(riv ttjs Mvcrlas TTvOdpievos 'Pov^piov VdWov iKTri/xirei dU-qv eiriS-qffovTa to2s 
Tiapp.a.Tai's. 

lordanes. Get. 13. Quoted under 28 below. 

The withdrawal of Aponius Saturninus (see 21) with his 
legions left Moesia open to the attack of the Sarmatae (Daci) from 
north of the Danube, an opportunity of which they did not fail 
to take advantage. They had mastered the north bank, were 
gaining a foothold on the south bank, and preparing to attack 
the camps of the legions, whose defenders had been in large part 
drawn away for the Italian campaign. Mucianus on his way from 
the East to Rome arrived in Moesia in time to save these camps with 
the sixth legion. He had already heard of the battle of Cremona 
which had been fought in the last days of October. He probably 
stopped only long enough to drive the invaders from the south bank, 
and he probably strengthened temporarily the garrisons in the 
legionary camps, leaving Fonteius Agrippa, who had just finished his 
year as proconsul in Asia, in command. This seems to have been 
about Nov. 15, 69. Soon increased forces were sent to the province 
from Rome. These can hardly have arrived before the middle of 
December, perhaps even later. It was some time after this, prob- 

** Van de Weerd's reference to "Antonius, le gouverneur de Mesie", p. 73, can not be 
other than a mere oversight, since tlie least attention to the account of Tacitus will show that 
Saturninus was the governor of Moesia and that Antonius was the legatua leg. VII. Galb. 
from Pannonia. 

17 



ably January or February, that Agrippa lost his life bravely resist- 
ing another sudden and unexpected attack of the same enemies, who 
unobserved had again crossed the river in force. 

23 Rubrius Gallus 70 

los. Bell. lud. 7.4.3 (92). See 22 for text. 

Gallus was sent out by Vespasian to avenge the death of 
Agrippa. He probably arrived before the middle of 70. There is 
no evidence to show how long he remained, except the rather in- 
definite considerations relied on to date approximately the beginning 
of the administration of the next governor about 75. There may 
or may not have been other governors between these two men. 
From the task that Gallus had to accomplish we should judge that 
he was there longer than the remaining portion of 70. 

24 Sex. Vettulenus Cerealis About 75 

Latyschew, Inscr. Antiq. Orae Septentrionalis Ponti Euxini, 1.197 (Cher- 
SOnesus) [S]^f[Toi'] Ov€TTov\rivbf^ KepiaXii', AiroKparopos Ov^ecr^Traffiavov Kalcrapos 
Se/SacToO Trpea^evTi^v Kal dvTicrrpdTTjyov, 6 ddfios. 

Latyschew is sure that the praenomen is Sextus from remains 
of the lower parts of the first three letters. Waddington (no. 104) 
shows that the consulship of Cerealis was about yT, or 74. Moesia" 
was probably his first command after his consulship. His military 
training in Judaea (los. Bell. lud. 3.7.22, 6.4.3, 7-6.i) made him 
the logical candidate for this post, which was usually filled in this 
period by men with military experience. 

25 C. Vettulenus Civica Cerealis 82 

Dip]. XIV, CIL 3 p. i960 Imp. Caesar divi Vespasiani f. Domitianus 
Augustus pontifex maximus, tribunic. potestat. II, imp. II, p. p., cos. VIII, 

designat. Villi, iis qui militaverunt equites et pedites in , quae sunt in 

Moesia sub C. Vettuleno Civica Cereale . A. d. XII K. Octobr. M. Larcio 

Magno Pompeio Silone, T. Aurelio Quieto cos. 

The date of this inscription is Sept. 19, 82. 

^ Dessau, Pros. V 351, makes him governor of Moesia Inferior, but the province certainly 
had not been divided at this time. Note "sunt in Moesia" in diploma of a. 82 (quoted under 
25 below), naming as governor of the undivided province at that time, C. Vettulenus Civica 
Cerealis, whom Dessau thinks to have been a son of our governor. 

i8 



26 T. Avidius Quietus * 

6.3828 Tmp. Domitiano [Aug. VIII] T. Flavio Sabi[no cos.] Idibus 
lu ....,--- - [Av]idio Quieto leg. Aug., ornalissimo viro [deferendum 
patrocinium] coloniae nostrae esse; - - - - Cum militaverimus in leg. VIII 
Aug. et, poti[ti honesta missione] a sacratissinio imp., in coloniam Deultum 
[deducti simus, ei, quod non]dum alicui, secundum sununam human [itatcni 
dandum esse, ut velit pat]rocinium succipere coloniae n[ostrae, tabulamque 
de ea re con]scriptam in domu sua poni per[mittere, ut sic coloniae nostrae] 
humanitate sua increment fum addat, quippe cui omnia singula]que eius nota 
sint 

The inscription is dated by the consuls of 82, imp. Domitiano [Aug. VIII] 
T. Flavio Sabi[no cos.]. The patrocinium coloniae is offered to Quietus. This is 
done, apparently, either because he is at the time legatus Augusti pro praetore 
provinciae Thraciae, with whom in their new capacity the colonists will have 
close relations, or because they have in the recent past as soldiers of legio 
VIII Augusta been intimately associated with him. Mommsen, EE 5 p. 
501, n. 5, assumes that he was leg. Aug. pr. pr. prov. Thraciae at this time, 
though he gives the date incorrectly as 89.^'* Liebenam, p. 93, Klebs in Pros. 
A 1 172, V. Rohden in P-W 2 col. 2385 n. 8, agree with Mommsen in making 
him governor of Thrace. HomoUe is not sure." Thrace was under a proc- 
urator, a freedman of the emperor, as late as 88/89." Hirschfeld**' and 
Kalopothakes^' harmonize the evidence of the two inscriptions by assuming 
that under Domitian Thrace was ruled at times by a freedman procurator 
and at other times by a legatus Augusti pro praetore. Clearly this assump- 
tion should not be made except upon very good evidence. No other legatus 
of Thrace is known earlier than 106/107. Quietus, it should be noticed, 
is not styled leg. Aug. pr. pr. but simply leg. Aug. Von Premerstein^^ pro- 
poses a solution of the difficulty. "Wir werden den T. Avidius Quietus wohl 
ohneweiters als Legaten von Moesia ansprechen diirfen, der im J. 82 die 
Deduction von Veteranen der legio VIII Augusta nach Deultum leitete." 
But the difficulties in the way of this solution also are great. We know from 
CIL 3 p. i960 dipl. XIV (quoted under 25) that C. Vettulenus Civica Cerealis 
was governor of Moesia Sept. 19, 82. We know too that legio VIII Augusta 
was stationed in Germania Superior in 82, and had not been in Moesia since 
69, and it is a little puzzling to see why Quietus, even if he were governor of 
Moesia, should be leading a deductio of veterans from this German legion to 
their new home in Thrace. We can hardly assume that the patronate of the 

** This error of date also appears in Lieb. p. 93; Dumont-Homolle, Melanges d'arch^ologie 
et d'epigraphie, p. 523; and CIL 3 p. 1969, n. 4. 

" Dumont-Homolle, op. cit., p. 523. 

** Dumont-Homolle, op. cit., 72 a, p. 381, whifh is incorrectly dated a. 94 on p. 490, the 
consular having been mistaken for a tribunicial number. See also Gsell, Essai sur le r6gne 
de I'empereur Domitien, p. 138. 

*^ Die Kaiserlichen Verwaltungsbeamten bis auf Diocletian, p. 372, n. 4. 

*' De Provincia Thracia, pp. 47 f. 

«0p. cit., p. 184. 

19 



colony was offered to him because he was governor of Moesia. It seems 
certain, however, that these veterani had been closely associated with Quietus 
in the recent past or that they were at the time of the inscription, that they 
had because of this some claim to a friendly interest in them on his part, and 
that this led them to make him their first patronus. It seems to me quite 
possible that he had been their legatus legionis at the time of the missio, and 
that, having been succeeded in this command by another at that time, under a 
special commission from the Emperor had led them to their new home and 
assisted in establishing them there. This would account for the simple form 
of his title in this official and very formal inscription, and make the "Cum 
militaverimus in leg. VIII Aug.", as a reason for choosing him patronus, 
especially applicable. 

2/ M. Cornelius M.f. Gal. Nigrinus Curiatius Maternus 

2.6013 (Liria, Tarraconensis) M. Cornelio, M. f., G[al.], Nigrino Curiatio 
Materno cos., leg. Aug. pro pr. provinc. Moes., provinc. Syriae. 
2-3783 is a duplicate of this inscription. 

Mtiratori and Borghesi identify the subject of this article with 
the Maternus who was consul in 185. Bormann, arguing from an 
incorrect reading of 2.3783 (See on CIL 1. c, note.) dates him 
earlier than Domitian. While the use of Moesia without Superior 
or Inferior after the division is common enough in the authors it is 
not found in inscriptions set up to governors after the division was 
made, unless 9.2592 (See 139.)' whose evidence seems to me to be 
worthless, be considered an exception. The mention of Moesia 
without distinguishing Superior and Inferior therefore favors a date 
as early as Domitian. The length of his name is not necessarily 
inconsistent with this date, and the name Curiatius Maternus appears 
in a long name in 3.429, 10.1486, in combination with Acilius Strabo, 
consul suffectus probably in 71. We may then with a fair degree 
of confidence place him in the number of the governors of the un- 
divided province." If this be correct he should in all probability 
precede Oppius Sabinus. 

28 Oppius Sabinus'" About 85 or 86 

lordanes, Get. 13 Domitiano imperatore regnante Gothi 

ripam Danubii iam longe possessam ab imperio Romano, deletis militibus cum 

^' If his date should be later there Is no means of deciding which Moesia he governed. 
Without reason he is included among the governors of Moesia Inferior in H. v. d. W., p. 299. 

=" If C. Oppio, C. f., Vel., Sabino - - - - , 9.5833, is the son of this man, as is assumed in 
Pros. O 77, we learn from it his praenomen. But the adlectio inter tribunicios a sacratissimo 
Imp. Hadriano could not have taken place before 117 or 118, which seems a little late for the 
son of a man who was consul in 84 and dead by 86. It is not impossible, but that he was a 
grandson is more likely. 

20 



eorum ducibus vastavcrunt ; cui provinciae tunc post Agrippam''' Oppius prae- 
erat Sabinus/'" 

Suet. Doni. 6 (Expeditiones) in Dacos duas (suscepit Domitianus), 
primam Oppio Sabino consular! oppresso, secundam Cornclio Fusco, prae- 
fccto cohortium praetorianarum, cui belli sunimam commiserat. 

Eutrop. 7.23.4 - - - - a Dacis Oppius Sabinus consularis et Cornelius 
Fuscus praefectus praetorio cum magnis exercitibus occisi sunt. 

Sabinus was consul in 84, probably went out as governor in 85, 
and was killed in that year or in 86."" 

" This expression does not mean that Oppius immediately followed Agrippa in the prov- 
ince. Fonteius .\grippa is meant, who lost his life in fighting these same enemies in a. 70. 
(See 22.) After this war was settled the Romans p<issessod the bank long in peace (iam longe 
possessam), until the war of 85 or 86 S. broke out. To Jordanes then, who identified the Getae 
with the Gotlis, whose history he was following, Oppius Sabinus was the next Roman govemoi' 
that came under cognizance after Agrippa. 

°- In his edition of lordanes, Getica, Mommsen spells the cognomen Savinus as many of 
the mss. have it. The inscription quoted in n. 50 above, however, seems decisive as to the 
proper spelling of the name, though Jordanes may have written Savinus. 

^^^ Lieb. p. 276 and H. v. d. W. p. 296 make him a governor of Moesia Inferior, but it is 
not probable that tlie province had been divided at this time (see 4), and the authors quoted 
above seem to have regarded him as a governor of the undivided province. 



21 



GOVERNORS OF MOESIA SUPERIOR 



29 L. Funisulanus L.f, Ani. Vettonianus 86/89 

3.4013 (Anclautonia) L. Funisulano L. f. Ani. Vettoniano trib. mil. leg. 
VI Vict., quaestori provinciae Siciliae, trib. pleb., praet., leg. leg. IIII Scythic, 
praef. aerari Saturni, curatori viae Aemiliae, cos., Vllvir epulonum, leg. pro 
pr. provinc. Delmatiae, item provinc. Pannoniae, item Moesiae Superioris. 
(lonato^^ .... bello Dacico coronis IIII — murali, vallari, classica, aurea — hastis 
puris IIII, vexillis IIII. Patrono d. d. 

II. 571 (Forum Popili) [L. Funisulanujs L. f. Ani. Vet[toni]anus, cos., 
[Vllvir epulonum, s]odalis Aug., pro[cos. pr]ovinc. Africae, [leg. Aug. pr. 
pr. provi]nc. Delmatiae, ite[m provi]nc. Pannoniae, [item Moesiae Sup]er., 
curator aquaru[m, curat]or viae Aemil., praet., [trib. pleb., praef. aerajri, 
quaest. [prov. Sic, tr. mil. leg.] VI Victr., IIIv[ir a. a. a. f. f.] 

The second inscription was set up much later than the first, for 
Funisulanus had in the meantime been made a sodalis Augustalis 
and had held the offices of curator aquarum and proconsul Africae. 
The first inscription is arranged in the direct order, the second in 
the inverse. But in both we find the same order in the provinces 
Delmatia, Pannonia, Moesia Superior. It is therefore open to 
question whether he was governor of Moesia Superior after or 
before being governor of Pannonia. The position of cos. in the 
first inscription is an almost certain indication that it is strictly 
chronological throughout. The titles cos., [Vllvir epulonum], 
sodalis Aug., curator aquarum, [praef. aera]ri, in the second inscrip- 
tion all stand out of their chronological order. The prefectship of 
the treasury should come after the praetorship, as indicated in the 
first inscription. The curatorship of the aqueducts came after the 
governorship of the provinces of Delmatia, Pannonia, and Moesia 
Superior, since it is not mentioned in our first inscription, and since 
the name of Funisulanus is not found in Frontinus, De Aquaed. 
102, where a complete list of the curatores aquarum up to the begin- 

^* Des. 1005 supplies in tliis erasure ab imp. Domitiano, Aug., Germanico; Henz. 5431, 
ab imp. Caes. Domitiano, Aug. The title Germanicus was given to Domitian in 84, and it 
was probably found in our inscription. 



ning of Fronto's curatorship, a. 97, is given. The offices in the first 
inscription are given in an order entirely consistent with the nsage 

of the time. Even the phrase donato bello Dacico is in 

its chronological position, since it was surely as legatus of Moesia 
Superior that Funisulanus took part in the Dacian war. For these 
reasons it seems probable that the administration of Moesia Superior 
followed that of Pannonia, as indicated in the first inscription.^^ An 
additional reason for this conclusion is that F. was in Pannonia 
Sept. 3. 84 (Dipl. XVI, CIL 3 p. 1963) and Sept. 5. 85 (Dipl. 
XVII, CIL 3 p. 1964 and p. 855), while it is generally agreed 
that the evidence points to 86-89 ^s the time of the Dacian war of 
Domitian. (Suet. Dom. 6; Eutrop. 7.23.4.) It is probable that 
the administration of F. in Moesia Superior fell within these dates.'" 



30 Cn. Pinarius™ Aemilius Cicatricula Pompeius Longinus 93 

Dipl. cm, CIL 3 p. 2328"" Imp. Caesar divi Vespasiani f. Domitianus 
Augustus Germanicus pontifex maximus, tribunic. potestat. XIII, imp. XXTI, 

COS. XVI, censor perpetuus, p. p., equitibus et peditibus qui militant in 

et sunt in Moesia Superiore sub Cn. Aemiiio Cicatricula Pompeio Longino 
. A. d. XVI K. Domit., T. Pomponio Basso L. [Sili]o Deciano cos. 



The date of the inscription is Sept. 16, 93."' 



^* Lieb. p. I(j0, arranges his cursus differently, and Borniann, JOI 1 (1898) p. 174 n. 6 
thinks he was in Moesia before being in Pannonia. Another possible explanation of the evi- 
dence of these two inscriptions is that the three provinces were administered at the same time 
and that "leg', pr. pr. provinc. Delmatiae, item provinc. Pannoniae, item Moesiae Superioris" 
is all one title, a unit in the inscriptions, and therefore keeps the same order in the two. 
Ritterling, AEM 20 (1897), p. 12, rightly rejects this interpretation. Many other examples 
could be added to the three instances he cites showing that this is not the correct interpreta- 
tion of item connecting titles that contain a common part. 

^^ These inscriptions give us the earliest reference to Moesia as divided between two 
legati, and it should be noted that "provinc." is not used with Moesia Superior in either 
inscription. (See 4.) 

^ There can be little doubt that the governor mentioned in this diploma is Cn. Pinarius 
Aemilius Cicatricula Pompeius Longinus, governor of Pannonia in 98 (Dipl. XXVI = XIX, 
CIL 3 p. 862) and of Numidia in 79/80 (8.22060). From these inscriptions I have given the 
name Pinarius here. That he is not the Cn, Pompeius Longinus, governor of Judaea in 86 
(Dipl. XIX = XIV, CIL 3 p. 857) and consul in 90, is shown by the fact that the governor of 
Judaea and the Longinus of our inscription have different colleagues in the consulship. (Cf. 
dipl. XXI, CIL 3 p. 1965 and dipl. XXVIII, CIL 3 p. 1968.) 

" Wrongly given as 94 in L'annSe 6pig., 1897. This inscription narrows the known limits 
of the date of dipl. XXVIII, CIL 3 p. 1968, in which this governor is named as consul, to the 
years 74/92. Mommsen hesitatingly suggests a. 79 as the date of his consulship. This is not 
proved wrong, but it is made leas probable by the fact that he was governor of Numidia in 
that year. (8.22060. Cf. n. 73.) 

23 



31 L. Licinius Sura * 

6.1444 [cum?] imp. Caesar Nerva Traianus [Aug. Germanicus] Dacicus 
gentem Dacor. et regem Decabalum bello superavit ; sub eodem duce leg. pro 
pr., ab eodem donato hastis puris VIII vexillis VIII coronis muralib. II 
vallarib. II classicis II auratis II, leg. pro pr. provinciae Belgicae, . 

This inscription has been with probability referred to L. Licinius Sura. 
It is not necessary to assume with Liebenam, p. 74, that he was governor of 
any province. The number VIII shows that he took part in two expeditions, 
without doubt the two Dacian wars of Trajan, as commander of an indepen- 
dent corps of the army. This might mean that he was acting as governor of 
a province and commander of the troops drawn from that province for these 
wars, or it might mean that he was merely a commander of troops under a 
special commission, such an appointment being necessitated by the exigencies 
of the war. The latter seems more probable from the language of the inscrip- 
tion, since leg. pro pr. provinciae Belgicae is written out in full while here we 
have merely leg. pro pr., and since sub eodem duce leg. pro pr. seems to 
emphasize this as a purely military rather than a regular provincial assign- 
ment. If he acted as governor of a province, it was doubtless one of the 
Moesias or Pannonia, as Liebenam suggests. In that case he must have been 
twice governor of one of these, or governor of one of them at some time 
during the first Dacian war of Trajan and of another at some time during 
the second war. 



32 P. Tullius Varronis f. Stel. Varro About 138 

11-3364 (Tarquinium) P. Tullio Varronis fil. Stel. Varroni cos., auguri, 
procos. provinc. Africae, leg. Aug. pro pr. Moesiae Superior., curat, alvei 
Tiberis et riparum et cloacarum urbis, praef. aerari Saturn., procos. prov. 
Baeticae Ulterioris Hispaniae, leg. leg. XII Fulminatae et VI Victricis P. R, 
praetori, aedil. Cereali, quaestori urb., tribune milit. leg. XVI Fl, Xviro 
stlitibus iudicand., praetori Etruriae, quinquennali Tarquinis, P. Tullius 
Callistio posuit. 

Cf. 11.3365 (Tarquinium) L. Dasumio P. f. Stel. Tullio Tusco cos., comiti 
August.,^ auguri, sodal. Hadrianali, sodali Antoniniano, curat, operum pub- 
licorum, legato pr. pr. provinciar. Germaniae Superior, et Pannoniae Superior., 
praefecto aer. Saturni, praetori, tribun. pleb., leg. provinc. Africae, quaest. 
imp. Antonini Aug. Pii, trib. milit. leg. IIII Flaviae, triumviro a. a. a. f. £., 
P. Tullius Callistio posuit. 

Tullius Tuscus is believed by Mommsen (CIL 6 p. 1349)' Bor- 
mann (CIL 2 p. 513), and Dessau (Des. 1081, 1047) to have been 
the natural son of Tullius Varro and the adopted son of L. Dasu- 

*"' The words comiti Aug\ist. are cut in the margin of the stone. 

24 



niius Tuscus. This view finds support from the two cnrsuses given 
above. The son was tribunns niilituni leg. IIII Flaviae. This 
legion was stationed in Moesia Superior, and he was taken out by 
his father Varro when governor of this province. Varro's next office 
was the proconsulship of Africa, and the son was taken along in the 
rank of quaestor as his legatus, just as was L. Minicius Natalis 
Quadronius Verus^^ (see 71) by his father. This sequence in the 
offices of the son assists in dating the administration of our gover- 
nor, the elder Tullius. The quaestorship of the younger Tullius 
fell in the reign of Antoninus Pius. Both the mention of the name 
of the emperor in this connection and the son's later career point to 
the fact that he held this office at the beginning of the reign of 
Antoninus. The father then seems to have been in Moesia Superior 
about the close of the reign of Hadrian. 



33 Caecilius * 

3.8272 (Sknpi) Imp. Caesari divi Traiani Parth. f. divi Nervae nepoti 

Traiano Hadriano Aug. p. m. t[rib. pot cos ] ICIIIOR COI 

MI 

The note in CIL on this inscription is, — legatus nominari videtur fortasse 
ex gente Caeciliorum. I see no satisfactory basis for the note. The inscrip- 
tion belongs in the time of Hadrian. 



34 P. Mummius P.f. Gal. Sisenna Rutilianus About 158/160 

14.3601 (Tibur) P. Mummio P. f. Gal. Sisennae Rutiliano cos., auguri, 
procos. provinc. Asiae, legato Aug. pr. pr. Moesiae Superioris, praef. aliment, 
per Aemiliam, praef. aer. Saturni, leg. leg. VI Victric, praetori, tr. pi., quaest, 
trib. leg. V. Maced., Xviro stlitib. iudic, patrono municipii, cur. fani H. V., 
salio, Herculanii Augustales, 1. d. s. c. (In latere intuenti sinistro) Dedi- 

cata Kal. lun., Maximo et Orfito cos. - - - - 

Lucian, 'AX^^avSpos i) ^^evSo/xavTis 48. "'Ex'^" 7ap {' AXi^avBpos) oii puKpav iTri 
TO. ^afflXeia Kal ttjv avXrjv Kai top 'VovrCKLavbv evdoKiixovvra vdpodov, SiaTrdixireTai 
Xpr](riJ.bv tov iv Tepfiavlq. ttoX^/mov d/c/u.dfocTos, ore debs MdpKos TjSr) roii MapKOfidvois Kal 
Kovddois (TvveTrX^KeTo. 'H|/ov 5^ 6 XRV^'I^^^ Si/o Xiovras i/ipXrjOrjvaL ftSj/Tas ^s rbv 

'^ 14.3599 (Given in full in 71) - - - - quaestori candidate divi Hadriani et eodem tempore 
legato prov. Afric. dioeceseos Carthaginien. proconsulis patris sui, - - - - 

25 



' IffTpov fieTa TToWQv apw/xaTuv Kai dvcriCov pLeyaXoTrpeirQu^ . Tevo/x^vcov 8^ to^itwv 

avTiKa 8^ TO fj.iyt(TTOv rpavfia tois T^fj-eripoLS eyevero Sicrfivpiijiv ttov <rxeSbv ddpouv 
d.Tro\oixiv(i}v. E/ra iTTi^KoKovdrjcre to. irepl AKvXrjiav 7ej'6/xe;'a Kai i] wapa. fitKpbv eKelvrjs 
TTjS 7r6Xews aXwcrts. 

The inscription was set up in 172. At this time RutiHanus had 
been governor of Asia, after having been governor of Moesia 
Superior. His administration in Moesia can not therefore have 
terminated later than the end of 170 or the beginning of 171. In 
this inscription, as also in 14.4244, the singular form of Augustus 
is used so that he must have either continued in Moesia until after 
the death of Verus in 169, and therefore have followed Fronto (See 
39.), or he must have been there earlier than the joint reign of 
Marcus and Verus. This means of dating should be reliable in 
these inscriptions set up at Tibur so soon after the death of Verus. 
There is hardly time for his administration in Moesia after the death 
of Fronto and before his proconsulate of Asia, so that it is more 
probable that he was in Moesia at the close of the reign of Anto- 
ninus Pius. The date about 167 given by Waddington (p. 237) and 
Pros. M 519 is based upon the hypothesis that Lucian's account 
seems to require the presence of RutiHanus at the front at the time 
of the incident,"" but certainly his presence there is not necessarily 
implied and iirl ra ^acriXeia Kai rrjv avXrjv .... irdpohov seems 
rather to favor the presence of both Marcus and him at Rome. It 
may have been at the time of the burial of Verus in 169. The date of 
his consulship was probably about 157 (Waddington), and no offices 
are given in his cursus between that date and 167 if we accept 167 
as the date of his legateship in Moesia. It seems much more likely 
that he was sent to Moesia soon after his consulship, perhaps imme- 
diately thereafter. 



35 C. Curtius C.f. Pol. lustus About 160 

5.5809 (Mediolanum) C. Curtio C. f. Pol. lusto cos., sodali Augustali, 
leg. pr. pr. imp. Caes. T. Aelii Antonini .... 

3.81 10 (Viminacium) [Pro saljute [imp. Cae]s. T. Ael. [Anton. A]ug. 
Pii [et Veri] Caes., [vet. le]g. VII [CI. P. F., pr]obati [Serviajno et [Varo 

*" The date of tliis incident can not be certainly fixed from our sources, but it was 
probably after the death of Verus. Nothing but success is reported while he was, against his 
will, present at the front, and Roman success in clearing Pannonia, practically terminating 
the war, as was thought, was his excuse for setting out for Rome. It was in an early stage 
of this journey that liis death occurred. 

26 



et Po]ntian. [et Attic]o cos., [m. h. m. pe]r Cur[tium Ius]tum [leg. Aug.] pr. 
pr. 

Since these soldiers began their service in 134 and 135 the 
missio should fall in 160."' 



36 M. Statius M.f. CI. Priscus Licinius Italicus 161 

6.1523 [M. Stati]o M. f. CI. Frisco [L].icinio Italico, leg. Augustorum 
pr. pr. prov. Cappadociae, leg. Aug[g]. pr. pr. prov. Brittanniae, leg. Aug[g.] 
pr. pr. prov. Moesiae Super., curatori alvei Tiberis et clacarum urbis, c[os.], 
leg. Aug. prov. Daciae, leg. kg. XIII G. P. F.. leg. leg. [X]IIII Gem. Martiae 
Victricis, sacerdoti Titiali Flaviali, pr. inter cives et peregrinos, tr. pi., quaest., 
proc. Aug. XX hereditatium prov. Narbones. et Aquitan., pr. eq. alae I Pr. 
C. R., trib. mil. leg. I Adiutr. P. F. et leg. X. G. P. F. et leg. [Ill] Gallicae, 
praef. cob. IIII Lingonum vexillo mil. donato a divo Hadriano in expeditione 
ludaica, Q. Cassius Domitius Palumbus. 

He was consul in 159, curator alvei Tiberis et cloacarum urbis 
in 160, governor of Moesia Superior in 161 and probably in 162, of 
Britain probably in 163 and 164, of Cappadocia probably in 165 and 
166, certainly during the eastern war of Marcus and Verus, and 
probably at its close.*^ 



■^"j Avidius Cassius ? 162/165 

Vit. Avid. Cass. 4. 6, Cum exercitum duceret et inscio ipso manus 
auxiliaria centurionibus suis auctoribus tria milia Sarmatarum neglegentius 
agentum in Danuvii ripis occidissent et cum praeda ingenti ad eum redissent, 
sperantibus centurionibus praemium quod perparva manu tantum hostium 
segnius agentibus tribunis et ignorantibus occidissent, rapi eos iussit et in 
crucem tolli servilique supplicio adfici, quod exemplum non extabat, dicens 
evenire potuisse ut essent insidiae ac periret Romani imperii reverentia. 

This campaign against the Sarmatae would most naturally have been 
undertaken in the capacity of governor of Moesia Superior. He was consul 
161/169, probably early in this period."^ He was appointed legatus of Syria 
before 169 (Vit. Avid. Cass. 5) to discipline the legions which were in sore 

^^ Pros. C 1321 says circa a. 155 vel paulo post. The usual term of service for soldiers of 
the legions in this period however was twenty-five years, and there is no other reason for 
assuming that these inscriptions were set up earlier than the last year of Antoninus Pius. 

*^ Vit. Marci, 9.1, Gestae simt res in Armenia prospere per Statium Priscum, Artaxatis 
captis, delatumque Armeniacum nomen utrique principum. 3.7505 (Iglitzae) - - - - functus 
expeditione orientali sub Statio Prisco, C. V. 

"* Borghesi, Op. 6.93 ff. proposes a. 161. 

27 



need of it. His appointment may have been due to the vigorous discipHne he 
had practised in his Moesian legateship. It is Hkely also that Marcus did 
not wait many years after the beginning of his reign to correct the legiones 

Syriacae dififluentes luxuria. If this appointment may be supposed to 

have been made as early as 164 (Pros. A 1165) or 165, allowing his consulship 
to fall in 161 or 162, we should have him governor of Moesia Superior 162/164. 
This portion of the Vita is held by some to be untrustworthy. Nothing 
that we know of Avidius Cassius, however, from any other source contradicts 
it, and it has seemed proper to give it this notice. 



38 M. Servilius Q.f. Hor. Fabianus Maximus 163/169 

6.1517 M. Servilio Q. f. Hor. Fabiano Maximo leg. Augustorum pro 
praetore provinciarum Mysiae Superioris, item Mysiae Inferioris, curatori 
aedium sacrarum, cos., fetiali, praef. aer. S., leg. leg. Ill Gal, cur viae 
Valeriae, leg. pr. provin. Asiae, praet., aed. cur., ab actis senatus, q. urb., tr. 
mil. leg. I Minerv., Illviro viar. curandar. Licinii Fortis et Honoratus centurio 
leg. I . . . . amico. 

For other inscriptions and discussion see 82. 

The cursus of our governor is given in this inscription in inverse 
order. He therefore governed Moesia Superior after Moesia In- 
ferior/* that is, after 162. The plural Augustorum shows that his 
term in Moesia Superior began and probably that it ended before 
169. 



39 M. Claudius Ti.f. Quir. Fronto 167 or 168—169 or 170 

6.1377, with the corrections suggested in 6.31640 M. Claudio [Ti.] f. 
Q[uir.] Frontoni cos., .... leg. Aug. pr. pr. provincia[e Moesiae] Super, 
simul leg. Aug. pr. pr. provinciar. [trium] Daciar., leg. Augg. pr. pr. Moesiae 
Super, [simul] Daciae Apulesis [et Poroliss.], leg. Augg. pr. pr. provinciae 
Moesiae Super., comiti divi Veri. - - - - Huic senatus auctorem (sic) 
imperatore M. Aurelio Antonino Aug. Armeniaco Medico Parthico Maximo 
quod post aliquot secunda proelia adversum Germanos et lazyges ad 
postremum pro r. p. fortiter pugnans ceciderit, armatam statuam in foro 
divi Traiani pecunia publica cen[suit ponendam]. 

8* Dessau, Pros. S 415, places the governorship in Moesia Superior earlier than that in 
Moesia Inferior, but there seems to be no good reason to disregard the evidence of our inscrip- 
tion. There were three legions at this time in the lower province and only two in the upper. 
This would ordinarily make the lower province the more important province. This was a time 
of unrest, however, among the Germanic tribes adjacent to Moesia Superior, with whom war 
actually broke out in 167. This is a sufficient reason for a reversal of the more usual order in 
which the two provinces were held. Cf. n. 71. Cf. also Vit. Marc. 22 Provincias ex consularibus 
consulares aut ex consularibus proconsulares aut praetorias pro belli necessitate fecit. 

28 



3.1457 (Sarmizegetusa) M. CI. Ti. filio Quirin. Frontoni cos., leg. Aug. 
pr. pr. trium Dae. et Moes. Sup., comiti Divi Veri Aug., 

Fronto went out to the Marcomannic war as conies of Verus. 
Before the death of \'crus, which occurred between Dec. lo, i68, 
and Dec. lo, 169, he was made, first, leg. Augustorum Moesiae 
Superioris ; next, two of the three Dacias were added to his com- 
mand ; and after the death of X'^erus the third Dacia was also placed 
under his command. His administration of Moesia Superior began 
then in 167 or 168, and continued until his death, which he met in 
battle. His death occurred not later than 170, for we find another 

governor of the Dacias in 170: 3.7505 functus expeditione 

- - - - Germanica sub [Cal]pur[nio] Agricola,"' Cl[audio] Fron- 
to[ne], C. v., missus honesta missione in Dacia. Cethego et Claro 
consulibus, sub Cornelio Clemente, C. V. Another indication that 
this inscription, which was set up after his death, belongs soon after 
169 is the appearance of the titles Armeniacus Medicus Parthicus 
Maximus, which Marcus ceased to use after the death of Verus. 



40 L. Vitrasius L.f. Pos." Flamininus About 169 ? 

10.3870 (Capua) #L. Vitrasio L. f. Pos. Flaminino cos., procos. provinciae 
Africae, leg. pr. pr. Italiae Transpadanae et provinciae Moesiae Superioris et 
exercitus provinciae Dalmatiae, curatori alvei Tiberis riparum cloacarum 
urbis .... 

3.14499 (Vidin) L. Vitr[asio] Flamin[ali], leg. Aug. [pr. pr.] Moesiae 
[Supe]rioris [col.] Ulp. Tra. [Rat.] d. d. 

It seems probable to me that these two inscriptions relate to the 
same man, although the restoration Flamin[ali] implies that the 
editor of the second inscription, v. Domaszewski, did not think so. 
The date of the first inscription is certainly as late as Trajan, as 
cloacarum urbis in the title of the curatorship shows. The com- 
mand of the forces of Delmatia and the jurisdiction over Italia 
Transpadana added to the usual functions of the governor of 
Moesia Superior indicate that the post was given him at a time of 

^' It seems probable tbat Calpurniiis Agricola was governor of Dacia immediately pre- 
ceding Claudius Fronto, since this bf. cons. (3.7505) of leg. V. Mac. (which was just being 
transferred from Moesia Inferior to Dacia) fought in the German expedition under him just 
before fighting in the same war under Claudius Fronto, being finally mustered out imder the 
governor of Dacia tliat succeeded Claudius Fronto. 

^'^ The text of 10.3870 is admittedly not to be thoroughly trusted, "propter characteres 
iam fugientes." Pos. should be Pol. or Pom. or Pob. indicating the tribe. 

29 



unusual danger in this part of the empire, such as best corresponds 
to the latter part of the reign of Marcus, soon after the barbarians 
came almost to Aquileia (in 169?). The cura alvei Tiberis, etc., 
often immediately preceded the appointment to Moesia Superior in 
this period. See Tullius Varro, a. 138, § 32; Statins Priscus, a. 161, 
§ 36; cf. Servilius Fabianus, 163/169, §§ 38, 82, who was curator 
aedium sacrarum after his consulship before being sent out to 
Moesia Inferior. 



41 .... Caerellius .... 

13.6806 (Mogontiacum) [Caerellius .... leg. Aug.] pr. pr. provinc. 
Thrac, Moes. Sup., Raet., Germ. Sup., et Britt., et Modestiana eius et 
Caerellii Marcianus et Germanilla filii. 

This inscription is our only certain trace of this governor. The 
nomen is inferred from that of his children. Raetia received a 
legion and a legatus first about 170, during the first German war of 
Marcus Aurelius." Britain was divided into two provinces, prob- 
ably a. 197, after the attempt of Albinus, the commander of its 
legions, to gain the imperial power."" The language of the inscrip- 
tion, Moes. Sup., Ger. Sup., Britt., implies that Caerellius governed 
undivided Britain. He was therefore in Raetia after 170 and in 
Britain before 197. He governed Moes. Sup., Raetia, Britt. in the 
order named. His earliest possible date in Moesia Superior is 
therefore a little before 170, his latest possible date several years 
before 197. Raetia was regularly a praetorian command, but 
Caerellius must have governed it as a consular since he had already 
been governor of the consular province of Moesia Superior. It 
seems likely therefore that he was sent to Raetia at a time when the 
situation in that province or near its borders temporarily raised its 
importance as a command."" The period of the Marcomannic wars 
of Marcus suits this situation better than any other period within 
the limits above established for his date. Compare also the state- 

*' Peaks, The General Civil and Military Administration of Noricum and Raetia, Univer- 
sity of Chicago Studies in Classical Philology, vol. IV. 

"s Herod. 3.8.2; Hiibner, GIL 7 p. 4; v. Domaszewski, Westd. Zeitschr. 11 (1892) p. 304. 

*' The statement of Peaks, op. cit., p. 168, that the legates of Raetia ranked higher than 
those of Moesia Superior is based entirely on this inscription, and is clearly incorrect. Only 
consulars governed in Moesia Superior, which had a garrison of two legions, while the legates 
of Raetia, which was garrisoned by one legion, were regularly of praetorian rank. 

30 



ment of the biographer of Marcus. Vit. Marc. 22.9, Provincias ex 
proconsularibus consulares aut ex consularibus proconsulares aut 
praetorias pro bclH necessitate fecit. Since we know of several 
governors of Moesia Superior in the first half of the reign of Mar- 
cus, it is most probable that Caerellius governed in Moesia Superior 
after 170 and in Raetia toward the end of this reign." 



42 P. Helvius Pertinax 176/178 

Vit. Pert. 2.10-3.2 Cassiano motu composito, e Syria ad Danuvii tutelam 
profectus est atque incle Moesiae utriusque, mox Daciae regimen accepit. Bene 
gestis his provinciis Syriam meruit. Integre se usque ad Syriae regimen 
tenuit, post excessum vero Marci pecuniae studuit. Quare etiam dictis popu- 
laribus lacessitus. Curiam Romanam post quattuor provincias consulares, 
quia consulatum absens gesserat, iam dives ingressus est, cum earn senator 
antea non vidisset. 

He was consul absens" in 175, spending this summer as leg. leg. 
in the Cassian war. Returning from this war he was made gover- 
nor of one of the Moesias apparently in 176," and later of the other. 
While the language does not indicate clearly whether he ruled them 
consecutively or both at the same time, they are counted separately 
in the "quattuor provincias consulares." His administration of 
Dacia followed immediately and continued not later than 179, for 
he was sent to Syria as governor before the death of Marcus in 180. 
He must have left Moesia for Dacia in 178 or by the beginning of 
179. 

■"• Lieb. p. 129 calls attention to the fact that three Caerellii Macrinus, Faustinianus and 
lulianus were among the nobiles put to death by Septiniius Severus after tlie victory over 
Albinus. Vit. Sev. 13.6. Our Caerellius may have been one of these. 

'^ He had also been promoted to the praetorian rank by allection and did not serve in the 
office. Vit. Pert. 2.6 Marcusque iniperator, lit compensaret iniuriam, praetorium eum fecit et 
primae legioni regendae imposuit, statimque Raetias et Noricum ab hostibus vindicavit. This 
was apparently leg. I. Adiutrix, and as it was at no time stationed in Raetia or Noricum, it 
was temporarily used here, in conjunction with the regular forces of these provinces to clear 
them of the enemy. It seems probable since Pertinax was of praetorian rank at this time and 
since the gloiy and rewards of the campaign came to him (Vit. Pert. 2.7-9), that he was 
acting as governor of these provinces at this time (a. 174) rather than under their respective 
governors. There is no evidence showing which Moesia he ruled first. The lower province had 
been the more important command up to the reign of Marcus, and came to be so again later. 
But the wars with the Germans, though a truce was on just at this time, and tlie strengthen- 
ing of the garrison of Dacia by a legion di-awn from Moesia Inferior about tliis time, tended 
both to increase the responsibilities of the governor of Moesia Superior and to lessen the im- 
portance of Moesia Inferior as a command. They must have been regarded as of equal rank at 
this time. 



31 



43 M. Macrinius Avitus M.f. Claud. Catonius Vindex 176/180 

6.1449 M. Macrinio Avito M. f. Claud. Catonio Vindici cos., aug. p. R. 
Quiritium, leg. Aug. pr. pr. prov. Moes. Inf., leg. Aug. pr. pr. prov. Moes. 
Sup., cur. civitat. Arimin., proc. prov. Dae. Malv., praef. alae Contar., praef. 
alae III Thrac, trib. mil. leg. VI Victr., praef. coh. VI Gall., donat. donis 
mil. in bell. Germ, ab imp. M. Aur. Antonino Aug. hast. pur. II et vexill. II 
corona mural, et vallar. lunia Flacinilla marito karissimo et Macrinia Rufina 
patri piissimo, vixit annis XLII, m. V. 

The equestrian and senatorial offices are given in inverse order. 
The dona militaria were presented to Vindex as a prefect or as a 
tribunus militum, as is shown by their number and character, prob- 
ably after 169, since they are from Marcus and not from Marcus 
and Verus. It is not safe to assimie from the position of donat. 
donis etc. that he received the dona militaria in his first prefecture, 
but it could not have been later than his prefecture of the ala Con- 
tariorum, so that this position must have been held as late as 169. 
Since no mention is made of allectio it is probable that he held the 
offices of cjuaestor and praetor. The offices of proc. prov. Dae. 
Malv., [quaestor], curator civitat. Arimin., [praetor], consul, would 
bring him at least to 175 before he could have become governor of 
Moesia Superior, and 176 before he could have gone to Moesia 
Inferior as governor. It might of course have been later that he 
reached each of these appointments. Since they both came to an 
end before the death of Marcus, as may be inferred from the fact 
that he is not called divus in this inscription, they must have been 
held in the last years of his reign. 



44 . . . . n. Pompeianus 195 

3.14507 (Viminacium) [Pro salute imp. Caes. L. Septimi Severi Perti- 
n]a[cis Aug. Arab. Adiab. et M.] Aurel[i Antonini Caes. veterani l]eg. VII 
CI. [P. F. probati Prisco et Apjollinar. cos. [missi h. m. per .... ]n. 
Pompeianum [leg. Augusti pr. pr.] et Lael. Maximum [leg. leg. VII CI. P. F. 
Cle]ment. et Prisco cos., - - - - 

The restorations in this inscription seem to be certain. The 
date is a. 195. 

32 



45 L. Fabius M.f. Gal. Gilo Septiminus Gatinius 

Atilianus Lepidus Fulcinianus 195 — 196 



6.1408 L. Fabio M. f. Gal. Ciloni Septimino Catinio Aciliano Lepido 
Fulciniano cos., comiti imp. L. Septimi Severi Pii Pertinacis Aug. Arab. 
Adiab. p. p., sodal, Hadrianal., cur. min., leg. Aug. pr. pr. provinc. Pann. et 
Aloesiae Sup., Bithyn. et Ponti, duci vexill. per Italiam exercitus imp. Severi 
Pii Pertinacis Aug. et M. Aureli Antonini Aug., praeposito vexillation. Pe- 
rinthi pergentib., leg. Aug. pr. pr. provin. Galat., praef. aer. militar., procos. 
prov. Narbon., leg. Aug. leg. XVI F. F., pr. urb., leg. pr. pr. prov. Narb., trib. 
pi., quaest. prov. Cret. Cyr., trib. mil. leg. XI CI., Xvir stlit. iudic, cur. r. p. 
Nicomedensium inter Amnatium Nartium, item Graviscanorum. Ti. CI. 
Ambrelianus, (centurio) leg. V Macedonicae, ob merita. 

6.1409 L. Fabio M. f. Gal. Ciloni Septimino cos., praef. urb., leg. Augg. 
pro pr. Pannon. Super., duci vexill., leg pro pr. provinciar. Moesiae Super., 
Ponti et Bithyniae, comiti Augg., leg. Augg. pro pr. prov. Galatiae, praef. aer. 
militaris, pro cos. itemq. leg. prov. Narbonens., leg. leg. XVI Fl. F. Samosate, 
sodal. Hadrianal., pr. urb., trib. pleb., q. prov. Cretae, trib. leg. XI CI., Xvir 
stlitib. iudicandis, Mediolanenses patrono. 

Vit. Comm. 20.1 Et cum iussu Pertinacis Livius Laurensis, procurator 
patrimonii, Fabio Chiloni consuli designato dedisset, per noctem Commodi 
cadaver sepultum est. 

The position of comiti and sodal. Hadrianal. in these two 
inscriptions shows that the chronological order of the honors of Cilo 
is better preserved in 1409 than in 1408. Beginning with the con- 
sulship Cilo seems to have been successively consul, leg. Aug. pr. 
pr. prov. Galatiae. praepositus vexil. Perinthi pergentibus, comes 
imp. Severi, leg. Aug. pr. pr. Ponti et Bithyniae, leg. Aug. pr. pr. 
Moes. Sup., dux vexil. per Ital., leg. Aug. pr. pr. prov. Pannon. 
He was designated by Commodus in 192 to be consul in 193 (Vit. 
Comm., 1. c), but not to be one of the consules ordinarii, who were 
Erucius Clartis and Sosius Falco (Dio 73.22). Our inscriptions 
show that he entered upon the consulship. It was probably in the 
place of Falco, who gave up his office after the abortive plot to 
make him emperor (Dio 73.8). After a short consulship he was 
sent out by Pertinax as governor of Galatia. After the death of 
Pertinax, Mar. 28, 193, and before Septimius reached Rome, about 
Nov. I, 193, Pescennius Niger had been proclaimed emperor by the 
Syrian legions, and his cause made rapid progress in the East. Cilo 
favored Septimius, and had to withdraw into Europe. Septimius 
placed him in charge of the vexillationes gathering for the defence 
of Thrace (Perinthi pergentibus), and he stopped the advance of 

33 



the Pescennian party at Perinthus, not without severe losses. (Vit. 
Sev. 8.13 Perinthum etiam Niger volens occupare phirimos de 
exercitu interfecit.) When reached by Septimins in his advance 
against Pescennius at the end of 193 or the beginning of 194 he was 

made one of his staff (comiti imp. L. Septimi Severi 1408. 

comiti Augg. 1409.) After the victory over Pescennius in the 
summer of 194, Cilo was placed over Pontus and Bithynia.'" (Cf. 
vit. Veri, 7.8 confecto sane bello, regna regibus, provincias vero 
comitibus suis regendas dedit.) Then in 195 he was sent to govern 
Moesia Superior, where there was need of a faithful and able lieu- 
tenant to checkmate the plans of Geta, Septimius's brother, who was 
ruling in Dacia at that time (3.905,7794) and aspiring to imperial 
power. Vit. Sev. 10.3 Et cum iret (Septimius) contra Albinum, 
in itinere apud Viminacium filium suum maiorem Bassianum 
adposito Aurelii Antonini nomine Caesarem appellavit, ut fratrem 
suum Getam ab spe imperii quam ille conceperat summoveret. It is 
not probable, since Moesia Superior and Bithynia are separated by 
other provinces, that Cilo was governor of Moesia Superior 
and Bithynia-Pontus at the same time, as might possibly be inferred 
from the way the names of the provinces are combined in our 
inscriptions. In the summer of 196 after declaring Albinus, who 
had been Caesar up to this time, a public enemy, Septimius set out 
from the East to contest the throne with him in the West. On the 
way, at Viminacium, he made Caracalla Caesar in his stead, hoping 
thereby to stop the intrigues of the elder Geta. (Vit. Sev., 1. c. ; 
Herod. 3.5.2.) He turned aside to Rome for a short time where 
disaffection was arising. (Herod. 3.5.2 ff . ; Dio 76.8; Petr. Patr., 
Exc. Vat. 130, p. 210, 19-26, Dind.) He probably took Cilo with 
him from Moesia Superior and made him dux vexillationum per 
Italiam exercitus imp. Severi Pii Pertinacis Aug. et M. Aureli Aug. 
(6.1408; cf. Herod. 3.6.10: eTrefi^e Se koX arparov [8vvdfxe(o<;] rbv 
TO, areva twv " AXirewv Kara\7]y\r6ixevov Koi (^povp-qaovra rrj^ 
'IraXia? Taf; etVySoXa?.) The use of Aug. with the name of Anto- 
ninus here seems to indicate a date later than the summer of 198. 
But the position of this item in 1409 shows that his ducatus fell 
between his administrations in Moesia Superior and Pannonia 



" It is interesting to note that the first town of Bithynia to take up the cause of Severus 
was Nicomedia (Herod. 3.2.9), of which much earlier in his career Cilo had been curator 
(6.1408). Bithynia was the first province of the East visited by Severus after the victory over 
Niger at Cyzicus. 

34 



Superior. Ritterling. AEM 20 (1897) PP- 34-36. Has shown that 
his administration of Pannonia began before Nov. i. 197. Numer- 
ous inscriptions show him to have been in this ofifice as late as 201. 
(e. g. 3.4638,4642). He was curator Aliniciae and praefectus urbis 
before his second consulship, which was in 204. These two inscrip- 
tions were set up before his designation for his second consulship. 
There seems no place then so probable for his ducatus vexillationum 
as between the Moesian and Pannonian administrations, and at no 
other time within this period were conditions in Italy such as to call 
so imperatively for the services of one of Septimius's ablest and 
most trusted lieutenants in such an ofifice. Caracalla was already a 
Caesar, as shown above, and in the summer of 197, after the end of 
the campaign against Albinus and before the start from Rome for 
the Parthian campaign the imperatoria insignia were decreed to him 
by the senate (Vit. Sev., 14.3), and this may have led one writing 
an inscription several years later (a. 203) to use the title Augustus 
rather loosely in connection with his name. Compare comiti Augg., 
leg. Augg. pro. pr. prov. Galatiae of 1409 with comiti imp. L. Sep- 

timi Severi and leg. Aug. pr. pr. provinc. Galat. of 1408. 

For these reasons it seems probable that his administration of 
Moesia ended in 196. Certainly it can not have continued longer 
than the autumn of 197. 



46 Q. Anicius Faustus 202/210 



3.1685 (Ulpiana) Imp. Caesari, divi Marci Antonini Pii Germanici 
Sarmatici filio, divi Commodi fratri, divi Antonini Pii nepoti, divi Hadriani 
pronepoti, divi Traiani Parthici abnepoti. divi Nervae adnepoti, L. Septimio 
Severo Pio Pertenaci Aug. Arabico Adiabenico Parthico Maximo pontifici 
max., trib. pot. Ill/, imp. XI, cos. Ill, procos., r. p. sua Ulp., curante Q. 
Anicio Fausto, leg. Augustorum pr. pr. 

This stone is no longer extant. We have reports of several 
who saw it between 1680 and 1742. Their copies do not agree in 
the part reported above "trib. pot. Ill, imp. XI," and it is impossible 
to have any confidence in a conjecture at this point based on their 
reports. They do all agree in reporting "cos. III." This fixes the 
upper limit of the date of the administration of Faustus in Moesia 
as 202. This conclusion is supported by 8.6 and 8.10992, which 

35 



prove that he was governor of Numidia'' as late as 201. Since the 
title Britannicus is not among the cognomina of the emperor the 
lower date is probably not later than 210, and it is certainly not 
later than his death, Feb. 211. 

It seems probable to me that his administration began early in 
the period marked by these limits, and it may have lasted several 
years, as did his administration in Numidia. 

47 Pomponius Bassus 212/217 

Dio 78.21.2 6s akXovs ri Tivas Kdi tov Bdffcrop rbv rod Yloixwixiviov 7ra?5a, i^ 

TTJs Mvalas dp^avTL vTreffTpaT-rjyi^Keij i(j€<TVKO(f)avTfiKei. Kai o^toI (the informers) "re 
^s vf)crovs \nvepwpicrdr)(xav (by Macrinus a. 217). 

His administration must have been before the reign of Macrinus. 
and probably was in the latter part of the sole reign of Caracalla. 
This is the only passage that certainly refers to him. He may how- 
ever be identical with the consul of 211, and with the Pomponius 
Bassus killed in 219 by Elagabalus (Dio 79.5), who had conceived a 
passion for the wife of Pomponius. I have no means of deciding 
whether he ruled upper or lower Moesia. 

" Q. Anicius Faustus was governor of Numidia 197-201. 8.6048, 17870, 18256, "M. Aurelio 
Antonino - - - - imperatori destinato" indicate probably a. 197, certainlj' not later than an 
early month of a. 198. (See discussion of preceding governor, and appendix.) See references 
above for the lower date. Between these two dates he was consul designatus, consul amplis- 
simus, and consularis. As he was legatus of Numidia and consul at the same time, he was 
consul in absentia. The year of his consulship is variously given. Klein, Pros. A 439, and 
VVaddington p. 259, make him cos. sufF. a. 198; Lieb. p. 298, and CIL, a. 199. The considera- 
tions which follow seem to me to prove the correctness of the later date. 

In three inscriptions he is named consul amplissimus. 8.17871 Imp. Caesari M. Aurelio Anto- 
nino Aug. Parthico Ma.ximo tribuniciae potestatis bia proconsuli - - - - dedicante Q. Anicio Fausto 
[leg. Augustorum pro praetore, cos. am]plissimo - - - - . 8.18068 - - - - dedica]nte Q. Ani[cio 
Fausto] leg. .^ugg. [pr. pr. C. V. cos.] ampl[issimo] veteran[i leg. Ill] .4ug. P. V. q[ui 
mi]litare c[oeperunt] Cn. CI. Se[vero] II Tib. CI. P[ompeiano II coss.] 8.2553 Impp. Caess. 
L. Septimio [Severo . . . . et M.] .\urelio Antonino - - - - [dedicante Q. .\nicio] Fausto cos. 
ampl. - - - - . 17871 seems to be dated clearly a. 199 by tribuniciae potestatis bis. The use of 
bis in giving the number of the tribunicial power is found in 8.3746 - - - - tribuniciae potestatis 
bis, COS. bis, designatus ter - - - - , and in 12.5563 tribunicia potestas bis, consul bis, and may 
be the correct reading in 8.7002. 8.17940 is similar to 17871. To read bis proconsuli would be 
quite exceptional, 10.8028 - - - - procos. IIII being the only instance that I have seen where a 
numeral stands with procos. among the titles of an emperor. 6.537 contains bis proconsulis 
used in a different way of a man not an emperor. 8.18068 contains no means of dating it 
independently with certainty, but the fact that these veterani enlisted in 173 makes it probable 
that their missio would fall in 199, since the usual term of service in the legions at this period 
was twenty-six years. Cf. 3.14507, 6580. There are no means of dating 8.2553 with exactness 
independently, but it justifies the reading "consul amplissimus" in the other two. Pros., 1. c, 
bases its "cos. amplissimus (suff.) a. 198" on these same three inscriptions, together with 
others that can not be independently dated, but does not explain on what grounds the date is 
assigned. 

Four inscriptions refer to Faustus as consul designatus. 8.2550 Imp. Caes. - - - - Septimio 
Severo - - - - Aug. Arabico Adiabenico Parthico p. m., trib. potestati VI, imp. XI, cos. 

3^ 



48 L. Marius Perpetuus'' 212/221 

3.1 178 (Karlsburg, Dacia) L. Mario Perpetuo cos. Dae. Ill, leg. Aug. 
pro pr. provinciae Moesiae Super., curat, rerum publicar. urbis, item Tus- 
culanorum, praesidi prov. Arabiae. leg. leg. XVI Fl., quaes, candid. Aug., 
trib. latic. leg. IIII Scyth., praes. iustiss. M, UIp. Caius (centurio) 
[leg.] Ill Ital. Antoninianae. 

This inscription was set tip between the years 212 and 222. as 
is shown by the tise of Antoninianae as cognomen of the legion. Per- 
pettius was at this time cos. Dae. III. Since his administration of 

II - • - - et imp. Caes. M. Aurelio Antonino Aug. - - - - dedicante Q. Anicio Fausto, leg. 
Augg. pro pr., C. V., cos. desig. - - - - . 8.2551 Imp. Caes. L. Septimio Severe - - - - Aug. 
Arab. Adiaben. Parth. Ma.ximo et M. Aurelio Antonino Aug. - - - - dedic. Q. Anicio Fausto, 
leg. Auggg. pr. pr., cos. desig. - - - -. 8.2527-252S - - - - pro salute iuipp. Caess. L. Septimii 

Severi Aug. et M. Aureli Antonini Aug. Aug. - - - - dedicant. Q. Anicio Fausto, 

leg. Augg. pr. pr., C. V., cos. des. - - - -. 2550 is definitely dated 198 by trib. potestati VI, 
with which every thing in the inscription is in accord. That 2551 is not earlier tlian 198 is 
shown by Parth. Ma.ximo, Antonino Aug., and Auggg. (See appendix.) The same is shown 
for 2527-2528 by Antonino Aug. and the third Aug., which once belonged to Geta. The leg. 
Augg. would not be conclusive, as is shown by 8.17870. These four inscriptions show that 
Faustus was consul designatus in 198. (See n. 73a.) 

8.2438 Imp. Caes. L. Septimio Severo Pertinaci Aug. Pio Fel. Fortissimoque Principi 
Arabico Adiabenico dedicante [Q. Anijcio Fausto [leg.] Aug. pr. pr., [desig.] cos., C. V., 
[possess, vici La]mb. Afundensium faciendum curaverunt pecunia conlata quorum nomina at 
latus basis inscripta sunt Laterano et Ruflno cos. This is the inscription that has given the 
trouble. The restoration [desig.] does not seem to be doubtful, and these are the consuls of 
197. But possibly this dating belongs only with the last thing mentioned in the inscription: 
the collection of the money for the monument and the beginning of it may have been in 197, 
and its completion and dedication by the consul designate in 198. The omission of Parthicus 
Maximus from the titles of Septimius indicates an early month in 198 for the dedication. (See 
appendix, and Wirth, Quaestiones Severianae, pp. 31-2.) However, no matter what tlie inter- 
pretation of this inscription, the main contention here, that Faustus was consul suffectus in 
199, is not affected. 

'^» The seven inscriptions just discussed show tliat Faustus was leg. Augg. pr. pr. of 
Numidia in 198 and 199, and that Lieb. p. 316 is therefore in error in assigning this office to 
Victorianus in 198. This is also inconsistent with his own assignment of Faustus to Numidia 
in 197-199 (p. 316), and with his con-ect extension of Faustus's term in Numidia to 200 and 
201 on page 295. 

'* (a) He is sliown by his cursus not to have been identical with L. Marius L. f. Quir. 
Maximus Perpetuus Aurelianus of 6.1450-1453. 

(b) The indications of date in 3.6709 and 6710 of L. Marius Perpetuus as leg. Augg. leg. 
X\'I F. F. do not agree. Henzen's conjecture by which he dated tliese two inscriptions a. 200 
(reported in Mommsen's note to these inscriptions in CIL and EE 5 p. 20) is made less prob- 
able by 3.14150, from which Perpetuus appears to have been governor of Arabia in 200. It is 
dated by "Septimius Severus - - - - tribun. potest. VIII, imp. XI, cos. III". Trib. pot. VIII 
indicates the year 200. Imp. SI is often found in a. 200 and later, even to the time of his 
death. Cos. Ill belongs to 202. We may feel reasonably sure in assigning 200 as the date of 
this inscription. If the stone cutter's mistake in 3.6709 and 6710 be supposed to be the cutting 
of trib. pot. XII instead of the VII of his copy the date 199 would be indicated, and cos. II 
would harmonize with this assumption. The number of the salutations of Septimius is often 
wTongly given on the monuments and could not be held to invalidate a dating based upon the 
number of the tribunicial power. In 3.1178 Perpetuus' service as praeses Arabiae is shown to 
liave been his next public employment after ser\ing as leg. leg. XVI Fl. Thus the date 199 
for 3.6709 and 6710 agrees well with 200 for 3.14150. 

37 



X) 



9544 



Moesia Superior was earlier than his governorship of the Dacias it 
can not have ended later than 221. If we may trust the one 'g' in 
the title leg. Aug. pro pr. provinciae Moesiae Super., his term of 
office in Moesia began after the death of Geta in 212. 



49 



C. Furius Octavianus C. V. ? About 223 



3.8169 (Near Ulpiana) Fortunae Aeternae domus Furianae pro salute C. 
Furi Octaviani C. V. Furius Alcimus et Pontius Veranus pecunia Octaviana 
faciendum curaverunt. 

3.8238 was set up by a slave of C. Furius Octavianus, and 3.8240 to a 
slave of his mother (cf. 6.1423). Both inscriptions were found in the south- 
ern part of Moesia Superior. These with the inscription quoted seem to 
show that he had estates in this region. He may have been a governor of the 
province, though our evidence is not conclusive. The date a. 223 is given 
from 9.338, in which he is named as a patronus of Canusium. 



50 



Severianus 244 



Zos. 1. 19. fin. - - - - Se^Tjptoyy Se ri^ KTjdeffTri ras iv Mixrt^ Kal MaKedoviq, 
5vvdfi€i.s iirlffTevffev (sc. ^tXtTTTros). 

This was at the beginning of the reign of Philip, the selection 
of a relative being a measure of precaution on the part of the new 
Emperor in establishing himself on the throne. Probably both 
Moesias were included in the command." If only one Moesia is 
meant, it would certainly be Moesia Superior which was contiguous 
to Macedonia. 

51 Ti. Claudius Marinus Pacatianus 248 

Zos. 1.20. end. to. 5e MvaQv rdyfiara Kal UaL6vu}v MapTvov { ir a pr)'} ay ov eh ttjc 
rwv 6\u}v dpx'^v). 

Zon. 12.19 (PI 624 end) O&tos 5' 6 avTOKparup ^iXiiriros npbs S/ci/^as dpdnevos 
irdXefiov els "Pufi-ov ivavrfKdev. 'Ev 5e Mvaoh M-aphbz tls ra^idpxv^ <^i' Trapd tCiv 
(TTpaTiwTwv ^aaiXeveiv rjpidy). 

Cohen V p. 182, n. 7 Imp. Ti. CI. Mar. Pacatianus Aug. 1 Romae Aeter. 
an. mill, et primo. 

The name and date are from the coin. The fact that Zonaras 
mentions only the Moesi and that Zosimus mentions them first 

" Large commands were common on the lower Danube in these troublous years. See 5. 

38 



indicates that they were the prime movers in elevating Marinus and 
that, if his command did not inckide both the Pannonias and the 
Moesias. which is probable, it was in the Moesias. In 248, the date 
of the coin, he was wearing the imperial insignia. The accounts of 
the historians indicate that the war against the Scythians came late 
in the reign and that Marinus was placed in charge of affairs on the 
lower Danube after this war was begun. He probably held his 
imperial station but a few months. His administration in Moesia 
as governor therefore may have begun and ended in 248. 



52 C. Messius Quintus Traianus Decius 249 

Zos. 1. 21 irap€Kd\et Toivvv rbv AiKiov tuv iv Mvcriq, Kal Ilaioplq. TayfxaTwv 
dvadi^acrdai ttjv dpxV". rod 5^ dta to Kal iavrqi Kal ^i\lTnr({i tout' d^vfxfpopov iiyeia-dai 
irapaiTov/jL^vov, ttj QerraXiKy Xeyofiivr] ireidavdyKT] xp7;crdju,ews iKiriixTrei Kara. Tr)v 
Tlaiovlav avrdv^ ffoxppoviovvra tovs eKeiae to, Maplvov (ppovqcavres. oi 5e TavT-r) 
aTpaTiCoTai rbv A^kiov opwvTes tois rjnapTrjKoaii/ e7re^t6i'Ta, KdWiov eivai <7<piffLv ifyqaavTo 
Kal Tbv irapd wodas diroffelaaaOai Kivbvvov Kal d/xa irpocxT-qcraadai. p.ovapxop 6s Kal rCov 
KOLvwv cLv iTniJ.€\r]deiri Kpeiacrov Kal oii ffiiv irovcp irepiiarai ^lXlttttov iroXiTiKri re dperrj Kal 
TToXe^i/cTj Treipq. TrporjKOJv. (22) Trept^evres odv aiin^ ttjv dXovpyida, Kal i(p^ eafTiij 
Xonrbf oppusdovvTa Trpbs ttjv tQ>v wpayp.dTwv Kal aKovra avvoidovct. Krjde/jioviav. 

Zoii. 12.19 (PI- 625) Qavfxdaas o5v 6 <Pi\nnros 8id toOto Tbv AeKiov, direXdeTv 
irpoeTp^Trero els Mvfflav Kal Ko\d<Tai tovs ahiovs Trjs crrdaeuis. 5e T-ijv dwoaToKriv 
TraprjTeiTO, \^7aji' p.-rid'' eavTC^ /xriTe tQ (tt^Wovtl <Tvp.<p4p€LV avrbv iKei dTreXdelv. 'O de 
<^lXnnros Kal eTi ev^KUTO. KdKeTvos Kal S.kwv dTrrjei- Kal dweXdbvra evdvs avTov oi 
ffTpaTiQTat paaiXia eixprjfi-qaav. ToO de diravaivofxevov to. ^l<pr] cnraad/xevoi de^acrdai 
avTOP iivdyKacrav tt}v dpxvv. 

It is evident that Decius had scarcely reached his command to 
take charge as governor when the soldiers proclaimed him emperor. 
The battle with the Philips to decide who should bear the imperial 
authority took place in the autumn of 249. Decius had probably 
gone out to his provinces in the spring of that year. Zosimus and 
Zonaras evidently follow the same source here. Zosimus first says 
that Decius was asked by Philip to take charge of the armies in 
Moesia and Pannonia, and later that he was sent to Pannonia. 
Zonaras says that he was asked to go and did go to Moesia. It 
seems then that he was really placed in charge of both Moesias and 
both Pannonias. This assignment was not unusual at this period. 
See 5. On the possible identity of this governor with Q. Decius 
Valerianus see 115, end. 

39 



53 M. Aurelius Claudius * 

Vit. Claud. 15. 1 Dux factus est (Claudius) et dux totius Illyrici. Habet 
in potestatem Thracios, Moesos, Dalmatas, Pannonios, Dacos exercitus. Vir 
ille summus nostro quoque iudicio speret consulatum - - - -. 

This extract from a letter of Valerian dates his appointment between 253 
and 259, but the evidence of the letters in this biography is worthless.™ It 
should be noted here that Claudius had not yet been consul and his command 
was a very large one. It looks like an invention from the time of equestrian 
duces limitis. Cf. 54, 128. 



54 Regalianus 258/268 

Vit. Tyr. Trig. lo.i Regilianus denique in Tllyrico ducatum gerens im- 
perator est factus auctoribus imperii Moesis, qui cum Ingenuo fuerant ante 
superati, in quorum parentes graviter Gallienus saevierat. 10.14 Nee a 
Gallieno quidem vir iste promotus est, sed a patre eius Valeriano. 

Vict. Epit. 32 His (sc. Valeriano et Gallieno) imperantibus Regillianus 
in Moesia, Cassius Latienus Postumus in Gallia, Gallieni filio interfecto im- 
peratores efifecti sunt. Cf. Vict. Caes. 33.2 Ibi Ingebum quem curantem 
Pannonos comperta Valeriani clade imperandi cupido incesserat Mursiae 
devicit; moxque Regalianum qui receptis militibus quos Mursina labes 
reliquos fecerat bellum duplicaverat. 

AEM 16(1893) P- 240 Imp. C. P. C. Regalianus Aug. | Liberalitas Augg. 

The form of the name given is based on the coins" and Vict. 
Caes. 33.2. The brief elevation of Regahanus by the Moesian troops 
occurred some years after the defeat of Ingenuus in 258 and before 
the end of the reign of GalHenus in 268. Vit. Gallieni 9.1 implies 
that his administration as governor was in progress in 263. In Tyr. 
Trig. 10.9 he is called Illyrici dux. Cf. 10. i In Illyrico ducatum 
gerens. This may be an anachronism of the author in applying a 
title from the administrative arrangements of his own day to an 
earlier time." Regalianus may, however, have had the armies of 
both Moesias under his command or even have had a wider com- 
mand than that. 

'« Cf. Klebs, Hist. Zeitsch. N. F. 25 (1889) p. 229 f. 

" This rare coin is published by Th. Rohde, AEM, 1. c. It is figured in connection with 
the same article. Cf. Eckhel 7 p. 462, Coh. 6. p. 10, n. 3. His name as emperor is given 

from this coin Imp. Caesar Publius C ius Regalianus. This may or may not have been the 

exact form of his name before his elevation. The two g's are explained as referring to him 
and his wife, and a parallel is found in coins of Aurelianus and his wife. 

'* Cf. 53 for a similar anachronism. 

40 



55 Egnatius Marinianus 

JOI 6 Beibl. 14 (Viminacium) E[g]natins Marinianus leg. Aug. pr. pr. 

This inscription is on the base of a statue. I see no means of 
determining with any confidence the date of this governor. A coin 
of diva Mariniana was minted at Viminacium, a. 253/254.'" A 
Marinianus was consul a. 268."" Egnatii are not uncommon after 
the latter part of the first century. V. Premerstein suggests" that 
our governor may have been connected with the emperor Gallienus 
on his mother's side. His administration may belong within the 
reign of that emperor. 



56 M. Caecilius Novatilianus C. V. Third Century 

9.1572 (Beneventum) M. Caecilio Novatilliano, C. V., oratori et poetae 
inlustri, allecto inter consulares, praesidi prov. Moes. Sup. 

I have found no means of dating his administration of the 
province within narrow limits. "Litteris aevi labentis" is the note 
in CIL on this inscription. The title praeses, the allecto inter con- 
sulares, and the order of the letters C. V., indicate probably the third 
century.^ 



57 Calpurnius lulianus V. C. 

3.1566 (Mehadia, Dacia) Herculi, genio loci, fontibus calidis, Calpurnius 
lulianus V. C. leg. leg. V Mac., leg. Aug. pr. pr. [prov.] Moesiae .... 
[eriori]s v. 1. s. 

I have given the reading of Mommsen, whose note is, ContuH 
ectypum non optime factum partis inferioris. Hirschfeld, Sitzb. 
Wien. Akad. 'JJ (1874) p. 365, n. 2, having re-read the inscription, 
reports having made out [M]oesiae [....] s, with the vertical 
strokes of PE or FE in the position to make out in the second word 
'Superioris' or 'Inferioris.' We may then consider him to have been 
governor either of Moesia Superior or of Moesia Inferior. But of 

"Pick, p. 59, n. 191. 
s» Pros. M 213. 
SI JOI, 1. c. 
82 Pros. C 50. 

41 



which province we can not say." The fact that the inscription was 
found in Dacia proves that its date is later than the conquest of 
Dacia under Trajan. The same inference might be made from the 
title vir clarissimus. 



58 C. Avidius Nigrinus * 

37904 (Sarmizegetusa, Dacia) Eponab. et Campestrib. sacr. M. Calven- 
tius Viator (centurio) leg. IIII F. F., exerc. eq. sing. C. Avidi Nigrini leg. 
Aug. pr. pr., V. s. 1. m. 

V. Domaszewski's note in CIL is, Litterae omnino saeculi tertii. In 
AEM 13 p. 143 he suggests that Nigrinus was probably governor of Moesia 
Superior in which leg. IIII F. F. was stationed rather than of Dacia, in whose 
capital the inscription was found. It seems better, however, with Dessau 
(Inscr. Sel. 2417 n.) and Jung (Fasten d. Provinz Dacien p. 15, no. 18) to 
believe that the exercitator eq. sing. C. Avidi Nigrini leg. Aug. pr. pr. (prov. 
Daciae) was an ex-centurion from the army of the neighboring province. Cf. 
A. Miiller, Philologus 41 (1882) p. 497: Da dieses Corps (sc. singulares) nur 
Decurionen hatte, so konnen jene Officiere nur von anderen Truppenkorpern 
abcommandiert gewesen sein. We need not, however, with Lieb. p. 5 identify 
this C. Avidius Nigrinus with the legatus of the same name of Trajan's 
time (3.567. See 17 above.) No other inscription of an exercitator equitum 
singularium of a governor, nor even of an exercitator outside of Rome, is 
known earlier than the last half of the second century. 

^' Mommsen, CIL, 1. c, n., saw that the fact that Julianus had been leg. leg. V. Mac. 
gave no reason to assume that the province which he governed was Moesia Inferior. Domas- 
zewski's hypothesis (AEM 13 (1890) p. 142 ff.) that Mehadia formed part of Moesia Superior at 
this time lacks convincing proof, and has not commended itself to Dessau (Inscr. Sel. 2417) 
and Jung (Fasten der Provinz Dacien, p. 16). On this hypothesis he wished to make Julianus 
a governor of Moesia Superior (1. c. p. 144, n. 81). 



42 



GOVERNORS OF MOESIA INFERIOR 



59 Sex. Octavius Fronto 92 

Bull. corr. hell, ii (1887) pp. 163-168 (Chersonesus) '^^^tov 'Oktoloviov 
4>p6i'T[aj] j'o, Trpea^evTTjv Kal dvrio'TpdTrjyov AiiTOKparopos AopLeriavov Kalcrapos Qeov 
SejSacTTOiJ YepfxaviKov. '0 oijfios. 

Dipl. XXII = XV, CIL 3 p. 858 Imp. Caesar clivi Vespasiani f. 
Domitianus Augustus Germanicus pontifex maximus, tribunic. potestat. XI, 
imperator XXI, censor perpetuus, consul XVI, p. p., iis qui militant in classe 
Flavia Moesica, quae est sub Sex. Octavio Frontone, . 

Fronto was consul suffectus in 86. (Dipl. XIX = XI\", CIL 
3 p. 857.) The inscription from Chersonesus makes it certain that 
he was governor of Moesia Inferior.*** Diploma XXII had left the 
question as to whether he was a governor or merely the prefect of 
the fleet in some doubt,** though the fact that he had been consul in 
86 might have seemed decisive, since the praefecti classium were of 
the equestrian rank. The Greek inscription may have been set up 
at the time of his departure from Moesia when his successor was 
named by Nerva. His administration began as early as 92, the date 
of the diploma. 

60 Q. Pomponius Rufus 99 

Dipl. XXXI, 3 p. 1971 Imp. Caesar divi Nervae f. Nerva Traianus 
Augustus Germanicus pontifex maximus, tribunic. potestat. Ill, cos. II, p. p., 

** See 4. Tins inference is based on the supposition that Moesia had already been divided. 

55 Of. Mommsen, CIL 3 p. 909, praeses nisi est praefectus classis, and p. 910, praefectus 
nisi est legatus provinciae. Later in CIL 3 p. 2013 he explains the name following sub in 
this diploma as nomen praefecti, but on p. 2020 he lists him as praeses and on p. 2023 omits 
his name from the list of praefecti classium. Fiebiger, P-W 3 p. 2648 names him as prefect 
of the fleet. This confusion seems to have arisen from the fact that most of our diplomata 
referring to fleets are concerned with the fleets at Misenum and Ravenna, and name the prae- 
fectus classis, preceded by the preposition sub. But these fleets of Italy were not subject to 
any provincial governor. There are only seven diplomata known that are concerned with 
provincial fleets. Six of these (Dipl. XXX, XXXIII, XXXVI, LIX, CVIII, and the one under 
discussion, XXII) do not mention the praefectus classis and do name the provinical governor. 
(The name has been lost in dipl. CVIII.) One of them, dipl. XVIII, the earliest, names the 
praefectus classis after naming the governor, "sub C. Septimio Vegeto et Claudio Cleniente 
praefecto classis." In another, dipl. XXV, where classicis seems to be a correct restoration, 
only the provincial governor is named. A provincial fleet formed a unit in the military forces 
of a province, just as a legion, a cohort, or an ala, and over this entire force the governor was 
commander. It would be surprising rather than natural to find the name of the praefectus 
classis in a diploma in the position occupied by the name of Fronto in this diploma, when the 
names of legati legionum, and praefecti cohortium et alarum are not so found. 

43 



equitibus et peditibus qui militant in - - - - et sunt in Moesia Inferiore sub 

Q. Pomponio Rufo . A. d. XVIIII K. Septembr. Q. Fabio Barbaro, A. 

Caecilio Faustino, cos. 

8.13 (Leptis) Q. Pomponius [Q. f. R]ufus cos., pont., so[dalis . . . ., leg. 
Aug.] pro pr. provinc[iae M]oesiae, Dalmati[ae .... 

Dipl. XXXI and XXX = XX. CIL 3 p. 863 show him to 
have been governor of Moesia Inferior Aug. 14, 99. 



61 M'. Laberius Maximus Circa 100 — 102 



Plin. ad Traj. 74.1 Appuleius - - - - scripsit mihi quendam nomine Cal- 
lidromum - - - - indicasse servisse aliquando Laberio Maximo captumque a 
Susago in Moesia et a Decibalo muneri missum Pacoro, Parthiae regi, pluri- 
busque annis in ministerio eius fuisse, deinde fugisse atque ita in Nicomediam 
pervenisse. 

Dipl. XXXII = dipl. XXI 3 p. 864 . A. d. XIII K. Febr. M'. Laberio 

Maximo II Q. Atilio Agricola II cos. 

6.854 Imp- Caesare Nerv[a Traiano Aug.] Germanico [Dacico II] M. 
Laberi[o Maximo II cos.] 

Dio 68.9.4 - - - - Md^tyaos ev tQ a.vT<^ XP^''V '''^^ '''^ a5e\(pr)v aOrov (sc. Ae/ce- 
/SdXoi/) /cat x'^P'-^^ ■'"' ic^X^P^" f^^c, . 

Borghesi, Op. 3 p. 70 f., infers that Maximus was governor 
of Moesia during the first Dacian war of Trajan. This seems very 
probable from all the evidence. He was cos. II in 103*" first with 
the Emperor and later with Q. Glitius Atilius Agricola, who was 
also holding his second consulship. Agricola had won laurels in 
this war as governor of Pannonia in 100-102." The high honor of 
a second consulship seems to have been bestowed on both these men 
this year in recognition of their achievements in the same campaigns. 
The probable date of the administration of Maximus in Moesia In- 
ferior is 100-102, during which the preparation for the war and the 
principal campaigns were made. 

The praenomen is from the diploma. It is given also in the 
apparatus to 6.854 as a variant reading for M., though not there 
printed in the inscription by the editor. 



80 6.854 is incorrectly dated a. 104 in CIL. 

8' 5.6974-6980. Ritterling, Die Statthalter der pannonischen Provinzen, AEM 20 (1897) p. 14. 



44 



62 [Fa]bius Postuminus 102/103 

3.14451 (Tomi) .... Nervae f. Nerv .... pot. VTI, imp. TTTT, c[os.] 
.... [Fajbio Postumino [leg. Aug. pr. pr ] 

This restoration is fairly certain. Postuminus is known as a 
consular or an ex-praetor, a. 97, from Pliny, Epist. 9.13, and as a 
proconsul of Asia from coins.'*^ 

63 L. Licinius Sura * 

For text and discussion see 31. 

64 A. Caecilius Faustinus 105 

Dip]. XXXIII, 3 p. 1972 = XXII, 3 p. 865 Imp. Caesar divi Nervae f. 
Nerva Traianus Augustus Germanicus Dacicus pontifex maximus, tribunic. 

potestat. Vim, imp. IV, cos. V, p. p., equitibus et peditibus qui militant in 

et sunt in Moesia Inferiore sub A. Caecilio Faustino . A. d. Ill 

Idus Mai C. lulio Basso Cn. Aeranio Dextro cos. 

The date of this diploma is May 13, 105. 

65 P. Calpurnius Macer Caulius Rufus 112 

3-777 (Troesmis) Imp. Caes. divi fil. Nervae Traiano Aug. Germ. 
Dacico pont. max., trib. pot. XVI, imp. VI, cos. V[I], p. p., P. Calpurnio 
Macro Caulio Rufo, leg. Aug. pro pr. 

Dipl. XXXVIII, 3 p. 1974 is probably to be restored - - - - et sunt [in 
Moesia Infjeriore sub P. Ca[lpurnio Macr]o 

The inscription shows him to have been in Moesia in 112. 

66 Q. Roscius Sex.f. Quir. Coelius Murena Silius Decianus 

Vibullus Pius Julius Eurycles Herclanus 

Pompeius Falco. 116—117 

3.12470 (Tropaeum Traiani) [Imp. Caes. divi Nervae f.] Ner[vae Traiano 
Op]t. Aug. Germ. Dae. Parthic. [pont. max., trib. p]ot. XX, imp. XII, cos. VI, 
p. p., [Tra]ianenses Tropaeenses [Q. RJoscio Murena Coelio Pompeio Fal- 
cone, leg. Aug. pr. [pr.] 

** Waddington, Fastes, no. 115. 

45 



3-7S37 (Alakapu) Imp. Caesari divi Nervae f. Nervae Traiano Optimo 
Aug. Ger. Dae. Parth. pont. max., trib. pot. [X]XI, imp. XII, cos. VI, p. p., 
respublica Tomit. Q. Roscio Murena Coelio Po[mp.] Falcone, leg. Aug. pr. pr. 

10.6321 (Tarracina) Q. Roscio Sex. f., Quir. Coelio Murenae Silio 
Deciano Vibullo Pio lulio Eurycli Herclano Pompeio Falconi cos., XVvir 
s. f., procos. provinc. Asiae, leg. pr. pr. imp. Caes. Traiani Hadriani Aug. 
provinc. Brittanniae. leg. pr. pr. imp. Caes. Nervae Traiani Aug. Germanici 
Dacici provinc. Moesiae Inferior., curator! viae Traianae et leg Aug. pr. pr. 
provinc. ludaeae et leg. X. Fret., leg. pr. pr. prov. Lyciae et Pamphyliae, leg. 
leg. V Macedonic, [in bello Dacico donis militari]bus donato .... 

3.12117 (Budrum) Q. Roscio Sex. f. Qui. Coelio Pompeio Falconi decem- 
viro stlitibus iudicandis, trib. mil. leg. X Fret., quaestori, trib. pleb., pr. inter 
cives et peregrinos, leg. Aug. leg. V. Maced., leg. Aug. pr. pr. provin. Lyciae 
et Pamphyliae, leg. Aug. leg. X Fret, et leg. pr. pr. provinciae ludaeae con- 
sularis,** XVviro sacris faciundis, curator viae Traianae, leg. Aug. pr. pr. 
prov. Moes. Inf., IIo^Treroj' ^oKKova ASXos Aa^^pios Ka/xepTvos Kai Xa^epios KafxepTpos 
vlbs aiiTov eKarovTapxv^ ^ey. E MaKedoviK^s, rbv Idiov (j)l\ov Kai evepyeTrjv eK rod idioVj 
T€tp.r]S 'iv€Kev, 

3.12470 is dated Dec. 10, 115/ Dec. 10, 116. His term may have 
begun before that time, and probably did, since he seems to have 
been governor of Judaea by 107. and the curatorship of via Traiana 
and possibly the consulship (See note 89.) are the only offices that 
intervened between his administration of Judaea and of Moesia In- 
ferior. Since in 10.6321 he is styled legatus of Trajan in Moesia 
Inferior and legatus of Hadrian in his next province, his successor 
in Moesia probably was appointed at the beginning of Hadrian's 
reign. 



67 [A^]rtorius 120 

3.12493 and 3.7539 (Tomi) [Imp. Caesari divi Traiani Pa]rthici [fil. divi 
Nervae nepot]i Tr[aian]o Hadria[no Aug. pont. max., trib.] pot. IIII, cos. 
[I] II, respublica Tomita[norum dedicante .... rto]rio, leg. Aug. pr. pr. 

\KvTOKp. Kats., ^eoO Tpatai'oO] YlapdiKov iity, deov [Nepoi^a wwyfj;, ' KbpiauQ 
Se/SacTcJS] , apxiepet /xeyiarcf)^ d7)[piapxi-K. e^oi/s. to . . , vwaru) to ... ^ 7} ^ovXr] dijfios 
TofieiTwv. . . ['AJpraipios Trpecr^evTris tov [I.ejBacTTOu /cat dvT laT pa] Tijy 6s KadiepQcrev. 

The Latin part of this inscription (3.7539.) is republished as 3.12493.®" 
its readings being supplemented by the help of an additional fragment. I 

*' The word consularis in this inscription is puzzling. There was no ludaea consularis. 
The legates of Judaea were regularly of tlie praetorian rank. If we suppose that by exception 
Falco was sent to Judaea as a consular, we find him strangely filling next another praetorian 
office as curator viae Traianae. 

^" The reference in OIL is to 7359 by mistake. 

46 



have given the Latin part from 3.12493 and ihc Greek part from 3.7539. It 
is republished in IGR 1.606. 

The date is fixed as 120 by the tribunicial number, from the 
newer portion of the Latin part of the inscription. 



68 Sex. Minicius Faustinus [C. ?| lulius C.f. Serg. 

Severus 128/131 

3.2830 Cf. 3 p. 1059, 3.9891. (Kistagne, Dalmatia) [Sex.] Minicio 
Fanstino [C. ?] I[uli]o C. ? f]il. Serg. Severo [V. C. se]v[iro] turmae V Eq. 
[R., I]IITviro viarum curandarum, XVviro s. f., trib. mil. leg. [X]III (or 
XIIII) Geminae, quaestor, provinciae Macedoniae candidate divi Trai. 
Partici, trib. pleb. candidate eiusdem, praetor, leg. leg. XIIII Geminae, leg. 
pr. pr. imp. Traiani Hadriani Aug. provinciae Daciae, cos., leg. pr. pr. pro- 
vinciae Moesiae Inferioris, leg. pr. pr. provinciae Brittaniae, leg. pr. pr. 
provinciae ludeae, leg. pr. pr. provinciae Suriae. Huic [senatus] auctore 
[imp. Tra]iano Hadriano Aug. ornamenta triumphalia decrevit ob res in 
ludea prospere gestas. d. d. 

luHus Severus was consul suffectus Oct. 11, 127 (See dipl. 
XLIV = XXXI, 3 p. 874.), and is probably identical with this gov- 
ernor. Dio 69.13, speaking of the war in Judea, a. 130-134 (Cf. 
Schulz. Leben des Kaisers Hadrian, p. 82 f., with Anm. 235.), and 
apparently under the year 133, says: 

rdre Sr] rSre tovs KpaTlarovs tQiv (TTpaT-qyOiv 6 'ASpiavbs ^tt' avTovs eirefjApev^ u)v 
irpwTOS loi/Xtoj 'S,€ov7jpo% VTTrjpx^v^ dvo BpeTTavias ■^s ^px^" f'""' Toys 'lovdaiovs crTaKeis. 

His administration of Moesia Inferior, falling between his con- 
sulship and his administration of Britain, belongs within the years 
128/131. 

69 L. Minicius L.f. Gal. Natalis Quadronius"' Verus 128/133 

14-3599 (Tibur) L. Minicio L. f. Gal. Natali Quadronio Vero. cos., pro- 
cos, prov. Africae, auguri, leg. Aug. pr. pr. provinciae Moesiae Infer., curaton 
operum publicorum et aedium sacrar., curat, viae Flamin., praef. alimentor., 
leg. Aug. leg. VI Victr. in Britannia, praetori, trib. pleb. candidate, quaestori 
candidate divi Hadriani et eodem tempore legate prov. Afric. dioeceseos 
Carthaginien. procensulis patris sui, trib. mil. leg. I Adiut. P. P., item leg. 
XI CL. P. F., item leg. Gemin. Martiae Victric, Illviro monetali a. a. a. f. f., 
patrene municipii, curat, fani Here, - - - - 

" The cognomen Quadronius was probably assumed in honor of Q. Licinius Silvanus 
Granianus Quadronius Proculus, his father's colleague in the consulship. 

47 



8.4643 (Thagora) [Imp. Caes. T. Aelio] Hadriano [Antonino] Aug. Pio 
[pont. max., trjib. pot. II, [cos. II. des. Ill], d. d., p. p., [L. Quadroniusl 
Minicius [Natalis Verus] procos., dedic."" 

From the second inscription he is known to have been proconsul 
of Africa in 139. His father was consul in 106''^ and held the pro- 
consulship of Africa, therefore, not far from 118, which would, 
therefore, be the date of the son's quaestorship. ( 14.3599, 2.4509, 
4510, 451 1.) Both these facts point to about 127/130 as the date 
of our governor's consulship. (Cf. Borghesi, Op. 8 pp. 46 ff.) 
His administration of Moesia, therefore, probably immediately pre- 
ceded or followed that of Julius Severus (see the preceding gover- 
nor) and certainly came before 139. 



70 Sex. lulius Maior 134 

Dipl. XLVIII, 3 p. 1979 = XXXIV, 3 p. 877 Imp. Caesar divi Traiani 
Parthici f. divi Nervae nepos Traianus Hadrianus Aug. pont. max., trib. 

potest. XVIII, COS. Ill, p. p., equitibus et peditibus qui militaverunt in 

et sunt in Moesia Inferior, sub lulio Maiore . A. d. IIII Non. Apr., T. 

Vibio Varo T. Haterio Nepote cos. 

8.10296 (Near Constantina, Numidia) Ex auctoritate imp. Caesaris 
Traiani Hadrian. Aug. pontes viae novae Rusicadensis r. p. Cirtensium sua 
pecunia fecit Sex. lulio Maiore leg. Aug. leg. Ill Aug. pr. pr. 

The praenomen is known from the Numidian inscription. From 
the diploma we learn that he was governor of Moesia Inferior April 
2, 134- 



92 Other inscriptions of this governor are 2.4509, 4510, 4511, 8.4643, 14.3554, 3599, 11.2925; 
IG 14.1125 = CIG 5977, IG 7.89. A few other fragmentary inscriptions add nothing to our 
knowledge of him. Ritterling JOI 10 (1907) pp. 307 ff.) seems to be right also in correcting 
the restoration of the inscription from Callatis given in AEM 19 (1896) p. 108, n. 63=IGR 1.653 
and referring it to this governor. The order of the three military tribuneships is, however, the 
reverse of what we should expect. The use of the cognomen Nei/ci7<^opos of the fourteenth 
legion without the other titles seems to be justified by IG 7.89, tliough I have not observed 
a parallel in a Latin inscription. 

93 The date of this consulship is shown by 6.2016, and is wrongly given as 107 in 2.4509, 
10.5670, and 8.4676; also in CIG 5977, an inscription of the son there incorrectly assigned to the 
father. IG 14.1125 re-edits this inscription without mentioning CIG in the list of previous 
editions of it. 

48 



/ 



I Antius Rufinus ( ?) 136 



3.14422' (Jajdzi) Ex auctoritate imp. Caesaris divi Traiani Parthici filii 
divi Nervae nepotis Traiani Hadriani Aug. p. p. pontifici maximo, tribuniciae 
potest. XX, COS. Ill, Ant[ius]''* Rufinus inter Moesos et Thraces fines posuit. 

3.749 (Cf. 3 pp. 992, 1338) and 3.12407 are other occurrences of the same 
inscription. 

These boundary stones inter Moesos et Thraces were set up by Antius 
Rufinus in 136 under a special commission from the emperor. Perhaps 
trouble over jurisdiction had arisen through the aggressiveness of the thriving 
Thracian municipium of Nicopolis ad Istrum, now about thirty years old, 
which with its territorium was transferred a half century later from the 
authority of the governor of Thrace to that of the governor of Moesia 
Inferior. We are not told in what capacity Antius Rufinus was acting. It 
has been generally considered that he was a governor of Moesia Inferior."'' 
More can not be asserted, however, than that he may have been. It seems 
a little remarkable, if the boundaries were in dispute, that the decision should 
have been left to the governor of either province.'" If left to either governor, 
it would naturally have been to the Moesian governor, who had the more 
important command and was an ex-consul, while his neighbor was only an 
ex-praetor. But Rufinus may have been a special commissioner, and not the 
governor of either province." 



72 Fuficius Co[rnutus] About 138/146 

IGR 1.609 (Tomi) (a) [AvTOKparopi TiTi{j AlXlifi] 'Aopiaix^ 'AvTuveivif} 
Evcre^eT ^e^acTTi^ kuI [Mdp/cc^ Avpr]\]iifi K[aiaapi\ .... 
(b) [^]ov(I)(.kIov Koi[vriavov . . . . ] 

'* The restoration of the nomen Ant[ius] is made certain by the otlier stones bearing the 
same inscription. The praenomen Marcus, given by v. Prem. p. 189 and with an indication of 
doubt by Klebs in P-W 1 p. 1265 (not in Pros. A 621), seems to liave no foundation other than 
a guess in the restoration of 3.749, and is clearly not used in the later copies of the inscription, 
3 p. 992 and 3. 14422*. The dative pontifici maximo of 3.749 is corrected to the genitive in the 
later reading 3 p. 992, but occurs also in 3.12407 and 14422*. 

^ Mommsen, CIL 3.749, thought the name might have been Antoninus Rufinus, whom he 
identified with the consul of that name of a. 131, and on the basis of his having held the 
consulship thought that he was a governor of Moesia Inferior. The more recently discovered 
copies of tlie inscription have shovni this identification to be wrong. Klebs accepts him as a 
governor of Moesia Inferior, but without discussion. 

^ In 12.113, referred to by v. Prem. p. 189, the governor of Germania Superior, ex 
auctoritate imp. Caes. Vespasiani, marlts tlie boundaries inter Viennenses et Ceutrones, neither 
of which was in his province. 

^' Cf. I'annee epig. 1894 n. 65 (Henschir-es-Souar) ex auct. imp. Vespasiani Aug. p. p. 
fines [provinci]ae novae et veteris derecti qua fossa afuit per Rutiliu[m GJallicum cos. pon[t. 
et] Sentium Caecilianum praetore[m l]egatos Aug Here we seem to have special com- 
missioners, an ex-consul and an ex-praetor, to mark the boundaries between the old and the 
new province. That Gallicus was not the proconsul of Africa at this time seems to be suffi- 
ciently indicated by the word legatos. 

49 



These are two of several fragments apparently of the same in- 
scription. The restoration given is that proposed by Tocilescu. 
As Fuficius Ouintianus is otherwise unknown, Cagnat proposes 
with much more probability the restoration Ko[pvovTov]. Fuficius 
Cornutus is known from dipl. LIX. 3 p. 1984, dated between 138 
and 146"^ by peculiarities in its formulas. He was at this time gov- 
ernor of Pannonia. This date agrees with that of our inscription."" 

y;^ T. Pomponius Proculus Vitrasius Pollio 139/151 

6.1540 [T. Vitrasio f. Pollioni cos. II, ... . Aug]ustorum comit[i 

M. Antonini et L. Ver]i Augg. expeditio[nis .... Germ]anicae, item comiti 
[M. Antonini et Comjmodi Augg. expedit[ionis Germanicae Sar]maticae bis 
donis m[ilitaribus donato corjonis muralibu[s II vallar. II aur. II] has[tis 
purls nil, vexillis IIII, procos. Asiae, .... leg. Aug. pr. pr. Moesiae Inf.. 

.... leg. Aug. leg pontif., sjodali Antonin[iano, praef. alimento]rum, 

praetori, qu[aestori, Illviro monetal]i a. a. a. f. f., - - - - 

3.14214^ (Tropaeum Traiani) I. O. M., Her. In., Cer., Lib. Patr., pro sal. 
imp. Caes. T. Ael. Hadr. Ant. Aug. Pi et Aur. Ces., libero. eo., T. Vitrasio 
Pollioni leg. Aug. pr. pr., M. Stabius M. f. fil. Fab. Colonus, d. Luca, trib. 
mil. leg. XI CI. d. d. 

3.7420 (Almus) Herculi, pro salute T. Vitrasi Pollion. leg. Aug. pr. pr. 
L. Messius Primus, (centurio) leg. I Ital. fr. 

2.5679 (Leg. VII G. P. R, Conventus Asturum.) Nymphis. T. Pom- 
ponius Proculus Vitrasius Pollio cos., pontif., pro cos. Asiae, leg. Aug. pr. pr. 
provinciar. Moesiae Inf. et Hisp. Citer., - - - - 

3.762 (Odessus) Imp. Caesare T. Aelio Hadriano Antonino Aug. Pio, 
p. m., p. p., civitas Odessitanorum aquam novo ductu adduxit, curante T. 
Vitrasio Pollione, leg. Aug. pr. pr. 

'Ayadrji Tvxvh AvTOKparopi Kaiaapi Ttrwt AtXi'wi 'Adpidvcoi ' AvTO)v[€lvui 
Se/SacTwt] Evce/Se?, dpxi-epfT fJ-eyicTTuij irarpl Trarpidos, i] ir6X[is Odriafft]Tu>v Kaivd 
6\kw to vSiljp iffriyayev ■!rpovoovfji.i\^vov Tirov Bi\Tpaaiov IloXXiwvos, wpea^evTov 
Kal avTiarpar [17701'] . 

IGR 1.663 (Dionysopolis) 'A. T. [Owrp] dcrioi' UoWiuva, Trpej^evr^v Kai 
avTicrrpdrriyoi' Se^acrToO Kaiaapos, evepyirrjv /SouXt? dijijios AiovvaoTroXirQv. 

His full name is given only in 2.5679. He was governor of 
Moesia Inferior under Antoninus Pius (3.i42i4\ 762), after M. 
Aurelius became a Caesar (3.14214* and others). It was probably 
in the early part of the reign since he became proconsul of Asia in 
152 (Waddington, Pastes, no. 142), consequently his consulship 
should have fallen in the early years of Antoninus. 

^ IGR, 1. c, gives a. 148, apparently overlooking dipl. LVII, 3 p. 1928. 
S3 9.6078.91 is also of a Fuficius C!omutus. 

50 



74 C. Prastina Pacatus Messalinus After 147 

15.960 L. Annio Largo C. Prast. Pacat. cos. - - - - 

9.4957 Dedic. V L (Sic) — Kal. Mai L. Annio Largo C. Prastina Mcs- 
salino cos. - - - - 

3.7529 (Tomi) Genio loci. C. Prastina Messalinus, leg. Aug. pr. pr. 

Comparison of 15.960 and 94957 gives us the full natne 
Tocilescu, AEM 8 (1884) PP- 5-6, editing this inscription, says. 
"Unser C. Prastina Messalinus ist nach der Buchstabenform ohne 

Zweifel der Statthalter von Numidien aus dem Jahre 144-146. 

An Prastina Messalinus, den Statthalter von Moesia Inferior unter 
Kaiser Philip ist wegen der schonen Schrift keineswegs zu denken." 
V. Domaszewski, CIL, 1. c. approves this statement. Prastina was 
consul in 147, hence his administration of Moesia Inferior was 
later than 147. 



75 lulius Crassus'"* 138/161 

3.13727 (Razgrad) [Imp. Caesari,"' divji Hadriani f., divi [Traiani 
Parthici nep., divi Nervae pronepoti, T. Ae]l. Hadriano Anto[nino Aug. Pio 

p]er lulium Crass [um, leg. Aug. pr. pr. coh ] fecit, cui prae[est 

.... ]anus. 

There is no reasonable doubt that leg. Aug. pr. pr. stood in this 
inscription as restored. The inscription belongs in the reign of 
Antoninus Pius, and perhaps can not be dated more exactly. 



"je Tib. Claudius Saturninus 139/160 

3.7474 (Viniinacium) I. O. M. pro salute imp. Caes. T. Aeli Hadriani 
Antonini Aug. Pii et Veri Caes. - - - - . Dedicatum est per Tib. CI. Satur- 
ninum leg. Aug. pr. pr. Tib. CI. luliano leg. Aug. 

It is known from dipl. LXX, 3 p. 1990 that Tib. Claudius 
lulianus was consul with Calpurnius Agricola in some year between 
145 and 161. Our inscription, in which he appears as leg. leg., is 

Kw Not in Prosopographia. 

10^ Incorrectly restored Caesar, in CIL. 

51 



therefore earlier than i6i. Verus became Caesar Jan. i, 139. The 
date of this inscription is, therefore, within the period 139/160.'°^ 

']'] M. Pontius Laelianus C. V. 145/147 or after 149 

3.6182 = 774 (Troesmis) M. Pontic Laeliano C. V., patri Pont. Laeliani, 
leg. Aug. pr. pr., ordo Troesm. 

Dip]. LX, 3 p. 1985 Imp. Caes. divi Hadr. f. divi Traian. Part. nep. divi 
Nerv. pronepos T. Aelius Hadrianus Antoninus Aug. Pius pent, max., tr. 
pot. XI, imp. II, cos. nil, p. p. equitib. et peditib. qui militaver. in - - - - 
et sunt in Pann. Super, sub Pontic Laeliano - - - - . A. d. VII Id. Oct. C. 
Fabio Agrippino M. Antonio Zeno cos. - - - - 

Cf. also the following: 6.1497 M. Pontic M. f. Pup. Laeliano Larcio 
Sabino cos., pontifici, sodali Antoninianc Veriano, fetiali, leg. Aug. pr. pr. 
prov. Syriae, leg. Aug. pr. pr. prov. Pannon. Super., leg. Aug. pr. pr. Pannon. 
Infer., comiti divi Veri Aug., donate donis militarib. belle Armeniaco et 
Parthico ab imp. Antonino Aug. et a dive Vero Aug., [coron.] mu[rali vallari 
clas]sica aur[ea .... 

We have in these inscriptions two Laeliani, father and son. The 
father was governor of Moesia Inferior,"^ and of Pannonia Superior 
in 148-149."'* The son's cnrsus is given in 6.1497. The son was 
consul in 163, with A. Junius Pastor™ (Klein), the father in 144/147 

^°- Attempts to date this and allied inscriptions more closely have been unsuccessful. 
Borghesi (Fasti) thought 158 probable for the date of the consulship of lulianus and Agricola, 
but he has not been followed in this by later WTiters. In P-W 3 p. 2727 n. 194 v. Rohden dates 
our inscription not later than 146 because of form of the expression "et Veri Caesar." But 
Verus is referred to by the simple title of Caesar later than 146, as is shown not only by the 
exception which v. Rohden himself notes in P-W 1 p. 2284, but also by .3.7466, and especially by 
3.8110, almost certainly of the year 160 (see § 35), where the formula is identical with the one 
used in our inscription. I am inclined to regard as correct the suggestion of Klein that the 
Claudius lulianus leg. Aug. pro prae. of Germania Inferior a. 160 (Des. 2907) is the Ti Claudius 
lulianus of our inscription. If this suggestion is correct, the limits of our date are narrowed 
by at least one year. CIL, 1. c., and P-W 3 p. 2866, n. 334 give the date 139/161. 

103 The reading leg(ati) in 3.6182, suggested in Pros. P 599, would make the son the 
governor of Moesia. It would certainly be remarkable for the capital city of a province to set 
up a tablet in honor of the father of its governor, and for no other stated reason than that he 
was the father of the governor. V. Domaszewski's suggestion in Rh. Mus. 45 (1890) p. 206, n. 2, 
that the inscription was not set up until the son had become a leading man in the state under 
Marcus acounts much better for the mention of both in the inscription. See note 105 below. 

i<^Dipl. LX, 3 p. 1985 (a. 148); dipl. LXI, 3 p. 1986 (a. 149). 

^"^ Renier, Comptes rendus, 1864, p. 197 f. doubts this, and identifies the Laelianus of 
6.1497 with the governor of Moesia in 3.6182. (See note 103 above.) V. Domaszewski, discussing 
this in the article above referred to, points out that the year 163 for his consulship agrees 
much better with his cursus as given in 6.1497. In addition to the references given in Klein, 
a. 163, we may note also the following: 

IG 4.1534 - - - - [rajv Ai)]7oi^crTWj'. 'TTrdrots Map)C((j YiovTii^ Aaj[Xtai'4j, AiJXcjj 
\o\xviig\ nci(7Topt Kara, EmSavpiovSj [erovs reffaapaKOffrov] rijs deov 'Adpiavov to irpGiTov 
els T-qv ['EXXdSa eiriSrip.ias p.7)vbs\ deKdrov TpiffKaideKarrj, - - - - a letter from the emperors 

52 



with Q. Mustius Priscus. His administration of Moesia may have 
been in 145/147, or after 149. The latter is more probable as the 
later date is more consistent with the setting up of tiic stone in his 
honor in 163/166, or a short time thereafter. 



78 T. Flavins Pal. Longinus Q. Marcius Turbo 155 

3.7449 (Kutlovica) .... Longini leg. Aug. pr. pr., vexillat. leg. XI CI., 
sub cura Fl. Maximi (centurionis) leg. eiusdem, Severo et Sabiniano (bene- 
ficiarius) cos. Ulpius cos. Alexander - - - - 

3.7542 = 3.767 (Near Tomi) T. Flavio Longino Q. Marcio Turboni leg. 
Aug. pr. pr., Titius Crispus, cornicul. eius. 

IGR 1.622 (Tomi) T. A. "A jSouXa Kal 6 dd/xos raj deoKTiarov 'Hpa/cXeias 
irelfMCav rbv iavrds vdrpuva /cat evepyirav T. 'i>\. UaXareLuq. Aoyytvov K. MdpKiou 
Toi^p/SwTO, viraTou, irpea-^. "Le^. Kal d[vTiarpdrriyov i]Trapxelas Mvffias ttjs K[dT(x>, 

The year of his consulship is unknown. His full name is given 
by the second and third inscriptions above, the tribe by the third. 
The year 155 is determined by the consuls in the first inscription. 



79 L. lulius Statilius Severus"" Soon after 155, in 159 ? 

3.12371 (Kutlovica) Dianae Reginae et ApoUini pro salute L. Iu[l]i 
Statilii Severi leg. Aug. pr. pr., et liberorum eius. Aelius Artemidorus, 
(centurio) leg. [I] Ital,, r. 

The only L. lulius Severus known is the consul of Dec. 11, 155, 
known from the acta arv., 6.2086.I.62. V. Domaszewski, in a note 
on 3,12371, thinks that this governor is not the same as T. Statilius 
lulius Severus, governor of Moesia Inferior in 159. (See 3. 125 13. 
and next governor below). Neither of the inscriptions, however, 

Marcus and Verus to the consuls. The restorations in this inscription are based on IG 4.1406, 
showing Hadrian's presence in Greece between December 10, 123 and December 10, 124 (Sept. 
124, Weber), and are so probable as to add support to the other evidence tor 163 as the date 

of the consulship of Laelianus and Pastor. 6.24162 D. M. Phoebus - - - - natus C. Bellicio 

Torquato Ti. Claudio Attico Herode cos., defunctus Q. Mustio Prisco M. Pontio Laeliano 

cos. shows a Pontius Laelianus consul with a different colleague. Phoebus was born in 143, 
the consulship of Priscus and Laelianus was therefore later than that. Since the Laelianus 
who was governor of Pannonia Superior in 148 must have been consul before that time, it is 
probable that he was the colleague of Priscus and that their consulship fell within the period 
144/147. The tact that the consulship of the father and son are thus nearer together than 
twenty years is easily accounted tor by the fact that the father's influence with the emperors 
and the son's evident ability won a rapid promotion for the younger man. Of. § 90. 

106 Pros. I 382, treating this man, has two incorrect references to GIL. 

S3 



has been read by more than one person, and it may yet be found 
that they refer to the same man. The dates of their legateship in 
Moesia Inferior come as near to coinciding as do their names. 

This may be the lulius Severus of 3.7505. If he was consul 
Dec. II, 155, and governor of Moesia Inferior in or about 159, he 
may well have been in Syria during the Parthian war of Verus."' 



80 T. Statilius lulius Severus 159 

3.12513 (Kassabkioi) Imp. Caes. divi Hadr. fil. Trai. nep. T. Ael. Hadr. 
Ant. Aug. Pius p. m., tr. pot. XXII, cos. IIII, p. p., T. Statilio Jul. Sever., 
leg. Aug. pr. pr., m. p. XVIIII. 

See the preceding governor. Tocilescu, AEM 14 (1891), p. 
21, editing this inscription says: T. Statilius Severus, der hier zum 
ersten Male als Statthalter von Moesia Inferior erscheint, ist sicher 
der Consul des Jahres 171 n. Chr." The governor of Moesia must 
have been consul before 159, the date of this inscription, and the 
consul of 171 is nowhere referred to as cos. II. It seems therefore 
not unreasonable to doubt their identity. 



81 C. Zeno * 

A coin of Antoninus Pius struck in Nicopolis ad Istrum and bearing the 
name of C. Zeno as governor of the province led Liebenam (Lieb. p. 281) to 
regard him as a governor of Moesia Inferior. But in the time of Antoninus 
Pius Nicopolis ad Istrum belonged to Thrace, and Zeno was governor of 
Thrace and not of Moesia Inferior. See 138. 



82 M. Servilius Q.f. Hor. Fabianus Maximus 162 

3.12385 (Gromsin) I. O. M. pro salute imp. Caes. M. Aureli Antonini 
Aug. et imp. Caes. L. Aureli Veri Aug. M. Servilius Fabianus leg. Aug. pr. 
pr. templum vetustate corruptum a solo per reg. Mont, restituit. 

3.12514 (Kassabkioi) Imp. Caesar M. Aurelius Antoninus Aug. pontifex 
maximus, trib. potestat. X[VI], cos. Ill, et imp. Caesar Lu. Aurelius Verus 

^"' Another lulius Severus, with the praenomen Gaius was a consul ordinarius of 155. Of 
him we know nothing further and it is suggested in 3.7505 n. that he may be the lulius 
Severus of that inscription. 

54 



Aug. trib. potestat. II, cos. IT, divi fill Pii, divi Hadriani nepotcs, divi Nervae 
abnepotes, M. Servilius Fabianus Maximus leg. Aug. pr. pr., m. p. XVIIII. 

Fabianus Maximus was governing Moesia Inferior in 162 
(3.12514). He was consul in 158 (Dipl. LXVII, 3 p. 1989.). See 
§ 38 for another inscription and further discussion concerning him. 



83 M. lallius M.f. Volt. Bassus Fabius Valerianus 165 

3.6169 (Troesmis) Pro sal. imp. x'Vnt. et Veri Aug., leg. V Mac, lalli 
Bassi, leg. Aug. pr. pr., Marti Veri, leg. Aug., P. Ael. Quintianus, Magni fil., 
(centurio) leg. V M. 

12.2718 (Joyeuse, Gallia Narb.) M. lallio M. f. Volt. Basso Fabio 

Valeriano cos., prae[f. aer leg. Aug. pr. pr.] provinc. Pannoniae 

Inferioris, curatori oper. pu[bl., leg. Augg. pr. pr. prov.] Mysiae Inferior., 
comiti Augustorum Partbicae ex[peditionis?]. 

6. 1 1 19 b Locus adsignatus ab lallio Basso et Commodo Orfitiano cur. 
oper. pub!., C. V. ; cur. M. Caecilio Athenaeo, M. Valerio Midia, L. Aelio 
Amphitale; dedic. XVIII k. Ian. Augustis n. Antonino III et Vero II cos. 

Martins Verus, mentioned as leg. Aug. in 3.6169 at the time 
when lallius Bassus was leg. Aug. pr. pr., was consul March 23, 166. 
(Dipl. LXXIII. 3 p. 1991 ; Orelli 4038.) As he would be leg. Aug. 
before being consul. 3.6169 is earlier than March 23, 166. 6.1119 
b shows that lallius Bassus was curator operiun publicorum Dec. 
14, 161. 12.2718 names him as comes Augg. Parthicae expedi- 
tionis. Verus returned from this expedition in 165, and it is likely 
that lallius Bassus was sent at that time to be governor of Moesia 
Inferior. Cf. Jul. Cap. Verus, 7.8 Confecto sane bello, regna regibus, 
provincias vero comitibus suis regendas dedit. He may of course 
have been sent to Moesia earlier and probablv remained later than 
165. 



84 Antonius Hiberus Before 201 

3.781 (Tyra) In a letter from Septimius and Caracalla to 
their procurator in regard to the iinmunity of the Tyrani are the 
words, — tamen quoniam divi Antonini parentis nostri litteras, sed 
et fratrum imperatorum cogitamus, item Antonii Hiberi grivissimi 

praesidis, . This letter is embodied in a communication from 

the governor of the province to the people of Tyra, under date of 

55 



Feb. 17, 201. Antonfus Hiberus was therefore earlier than that 
date. The fact that there is no mention here of a rescript of Corn- 
modus on the question shows that the immunity of the Tyrani was 
not in dispute during his reign. It is not Hkely that the question 
would be brought before the emperor for decision more than once 
in the same reign. It had not therefore been decided by Septimius 
earlier than the present instance in 201. The letter of the governor 
Antonius Hiberus would therefore most naturally have been written 
in connection with the case when it was being considered by Marcus 
Aurelius or by Marcus and Verus. Since rescripts both of Marcus 
and of Marcus and Verus are mentioned, the case may have been 
under consideration about the time of the death of Verus, and 
Antonius Hiberus may have been governing Moesia about 169. He 
may have been the son of the Antonius Hiberus who was consul 

in 133- 



85 P. Vigellius Raius Plarius Saturninus Atilius Braduanus 

Caucidius Tertullus 168/175 

3.6183 = 3-775 (Troesmis) P. Vigellio Raio Plario Saturnino Atilio 
Braduano Caucidio Tertullo leg. Aug. ordo Troesmen. ex decreto suo. 

Acta Sanct. Scillit.,"'' init. Praesente bis et Claudiano consulibus XVI 
Kalendas Augustas, Kartagine .... Saturninus dixit 

Tertull. Ad Scap. 3 Vigellius Saturninus qui primus hie gladium in nos 
egit lumina amisit. 

P. Vigellius Saturninus was proconsul of Africa July 17, 180. 
We may then with Dessau"^ place the date of his consulship circa 
a. 167, If he was leg. Aug. leg. V Mac. at the time of our inscrip- 
tion the date would then be a short time before 167, if leg. Aug. pr. 
pr. prov. Moes. Inf. it would be a little later than 167. Legio V 
Mac. was transferred from Moesia to Dacia probably in 167 or 
168"* and was absent from Moesia in whole or in major part with 
its legatus from 162/164 to 166."' Troesmis was at this period the 
residence of the leg. Aug. pr. pr. provinciae. In these circumstances 
we should believe that the subject of our inscription was the gov- 

^"S From the text given in Robinaon, Texts and Studies, Cambridge, 1893, vol. 1, p. 112. 

"'Pros. V 434. 

"• Pilow pp. 77-78, H. V. d. W. pp. 37-44, v. Dom. in Rh. Mus. 48 (1893) p. 244. 

"1 H. V. d. W. pp. 85-86, Filow pp. 74-76. 

56 



ernor of the province rather than that he was the legatus legionis. 
Inscriptions in honor of a legatus legionis by the ordo of the muni- 
cipium where the legion had its quarters must be very rare. In a 
brief search I found no inscriptions of any ordo civitatis honoring 
a legatus legionis. Inscriptions set up by the ordo of the capital 
city of a province in honor of the governor of the province are 
common."" It is not inherently any more probable that, if such an 
inscription were set up, the last and distinctive part of the title leg. 
Aug. leg. V Mac. would be omitted than that the last part of the 
title leg. Aug. pr. pr. should be omitted. It ought to be even less 
likely when the leg. Aug. leg. was quartered in the capital city of 
the province when he would be outranked by the consular leg. Aug. 
In such a city any one seeing a stone set up to the leg. Aug. would 
think at once of the governor of the province. The more probable 
explanation of our inscription is that it was set up after the legion 
had been removed, when there was but one leg. Aug. left in 
Troesmis, the leg. Aug. pr. pr. provinciae. 

His administration came after his consulship and probably 
before that of Pertinax ; that is, within the period 168/175. 



86 P. Helvius Pertinax 176/178 

See Moesia Superior § 43. 

87 M. Macrinius Avitus M.f. Claud. Catonius Vindex 175/179 
For reference and discussion see under Moesia Superior § 44. 



88 M. Caecilius Servilianus * 

A coin of Commodus struck in Nicopolis ad Istrum and bearing the name 
of M. Caecilius Servilianus as governor of the province led Liebenam (Lieb. 
p. 283) to regard him as a governor of Moesia Inferior. But in the time of 
Commodus Nicopolis ad Istrum belonged to Thrace, and Servilianus was 
governor of Thrace and not of Moesia Inferior. Cf. 138. 

^12 See 3.6177, 6182 for other instances in Troesmis. 

57 



89 Cosconius Gentianus 193/197 

Pick 1.544 f- coins of Marcianopolis. Ai). K. A. SeTr. Sei/^poj ne.| 'U. K. 
VevTidvov MapKiavoTToXiTiiv. 

Pick 1. 1264 ff., coins of Nicopolis ad Istrum. Ai). Kat. A. SeTr. Sei/ijpos 
Ilep.l 'Vtt. Koctk. TevTidvov. NikottoXi. 7rp6s Icrrp. 

This governor is known only from coins. Since no coins of 
other members of the royal family are found bearing his name, his 
date probably lies between the beginning of the reign a. 193 and a. 
197, when Caracalla became Caesar and Imperator Destinatus, or 
a. 198, when Caracalla became Augustus and Geta Caesar."^ (See 
Appendix.) 

90 Pollenius'" Auspex 196/198 

IGR 3.618 - - - - [IloWrjvla] v 'Ovuparav^ eKydvrjv <i>X. AaTpioviavov virariKOv, 
wovrLcpLKOS, {Trdpxov 'PJifiTjs, /cat AiiffTriKOS vTrariKoO BptTavvias, Mytrt'as, Aa/ccas, ev X'^P? 
Se/SacTToi; diKdcravTos, TvpoeKybvqv Avctttikos inrariKov, dvOvwdrov A(ppiKr}i, iirdpxov 
dXetfiivTuv ATTjrtas Kal ^Xafxivias rpis, KVLvdeKepivipov, iv xd}pa 'Ze^affTuv diayvSvTOS, 
virariKOV AeXfiarias, dvyaripa Tt/3. IIo [XXtjw'oi'] ' Apfxeviov Uepeypeivov .... 

Pick 1.543. ^^- ^^- ■'^- ^f". ^fvijpos He. { MapKiavoTToXeiTuiv vir. AijcnreKos. 

Pick 1. 1252 Av. Kat. SeTT. 'Si€vrjpo[s Hep.] 'VTa. IIoX. AijcnriKos NtKOTroXtrw. 
■n-phs'Iar. Similar are 1252-1263. 

From the fact that no members of the royal household except 
Septimius appear on the coins of Auspex we may conclude that his 
administration came early in the reign, probably between 193 and 
197 or 198. Coins of this governor and the preceding are found, 
of which one side is made from the same die. This is true both of 
coins of Nicopolis and of Marcianopolis. From this we may conclude 
with Pick, Num. Zeitschr. 23 (1891) p. 36, that one of these two 
governors followed the other immediately. We cannot, however, 
as he does in Pick i pp. 186, 198, 331, 357, without giving any 
reason for the order in which he there places them, say which was 
the earlier. 

1^* The incorrect interpretation of the abbreviation of the notnen on the coins by Mionnet 
accounts for the incorrect fomi of this name, C. CI. Gentianus, given in Lieb. p. 286. 

"* 6.32327 twice and 8.2743 give this name Pollienus, 6.2101, IGR 3.618 and 556 
give it Pollenius. The gi'and-daughter's name is given as Pollenia. Pros. P 410, gives this 
governor the praenomen A(ulus). This is apparently due to a misinterpretation, or at least to 
an unsafe interpretation of the letter following vtt on the coins (Cf. Picli 1.1252 above), which 
usually belongs to tlie abbreviation for inraTevovTOS. Pick warns against tliis interpretation 
in Num. Zeitschr. 23 (1891) pp. 33 ff. Cf. n. 122. The son (or grandson) of this governor has 
the praenomen Tiberius. (IGR 3.556.) 

58 



In the inscription of Pollenia Honorata the senatorial offices 
held by two Auspexes, her grandfather and her great-grandfather. 
are given, and we get the impression that none has been intentionally 
omitted. Her grandfather is said to have governed Moesia. This 
is not said of her great-grandfather. The mention of the quin- 
decemvirate and the plural of l€/3aa-T(ov make it practically certain 
that the great-grandfather is the same as the Pollenins Auspex 
of 6.32327, a fragment relating to the ludi saeculares Septimi of 
a. 204. If his son was the governor of Moesia in 193/198 it seems 
strange that his grandson, the father of Honorata, did not attain 
the consulship until 244 (See IGR 3.618, 556; CIL 6.413; 7.103;'" 
Wilm. i486.), thus throwing the consulships of father and son fifty 
years apart. This is however the best solution of the difficulties 
presented by our evidence. IGR, 1. c, and Stein, AEM 19 (1896) 
pp. 148-149, make the great-grandfather the governor of Moesia. 
but this seems very unlikely since this position is not mentioned 
among his honors, while his governorship of Delmatia is mentioned, 
and the governorship of Moesia is given among the grandfather's 
honors. That the first of these Auspexes was of great influence 
with Severus is shown by his honors, by the fact that in the list 
of the quindecemvirs given in 6.32327 but one name separates his 
from that of the emperors, and by his having been able to shield 
his nephew from punishment for misconduct in his province (Dio 
76.9.2-3). It is likely, therefore, that his son would attain the 
consulship at the earliest legal age, and that important commands 
would follow quickly. This is especially likely since the son's own 
career shows him to have been an able man. He seems to have 
governed Spain and Dacia before Moesia, though we need not 
necessarily assume a chronological order in an inscription written 
so long after the offices were held. His administration of Moesia 
may have been as late as 196 or 197. His consulship as suffectus 
may then have fallen in 193 or 194. If he was at this time only ^2, 
his son may have been born a few years later, say 200/210. The 
influence of the family may have declined after the death of 
Septimius, its representative in the third generation may not have 
been as able or as ambitious as his fathers. We hear nothing of 
him from any source except as governor of Lycia and consul in the 
two inscriptions IGR 3.618, 556, and he may not have reached 
the consulship before the age of forty or forty-five. It therefore 

^'^ The date with this inscription is incorrectly given in CIL as a. 22i. 

59 



seems to me that there is not sufficient reason for assuming, contrary 
to the authority of our inscription, that the great-grandfather was 
governor of Moesia in the early years of Severus."" But we do 
need to assume as late a date as possible for the administration of 
the younger Auspex in Moesia, and it is therefore better to place 
him after than before Gentianus. 



91 lulius Castus * 

H. V. d. W. p. 298 gives lulius Castus as governor of Moesia Inferior a. 
198-199, referring to L'Annee fipig. 1902, n. 116. This inscription is missing 
from the copy of L Annee Epig. to which I have access, but its date is there 
given as 184-185. C. Ovinius Tertullus is also given by H. v. d. W. as 
governor of Moesia Inferior a. 198-199. (See next governor.) It is well 
known that lulius Castus was governor of Thrace under Commodus. In 
addition to the coins quoted in Pros. I 170 and Kalopothakes, De Provincia 
Thracia, p. 44, n. 22, in support of this, the inscription from Nikopolis ad 
Istrum given in IGR 1.573, belonging to the years 184-5, may be quoted 
(Cf. n. 138). I suspect that it is this inscription that has misled van de 
Weerd in assuming that this man was a governor of Moesia Inferior, and 
that he has taken the date 198-199 from L'Annee fipig. 190^, n. 115. 



92 C. Ovinius Tertullus 198—201 

3.14428 (Lometz) Imp. Caes. L. Septimo Severo Pio Pertinaci Aug. 
Arabico Adiabenico Parth. Max., pont. max., trib. p. VI, imp. XI, cos. II, 
p. p., pro consuli, dedicante C. Ovinio Tertullo, leg. Augg."' pr. pr., T. 
Aurelius Aquila, praef. Coh. II Matt., devotus numini eius, de suo posuit. 

AEM 10 (1886) p. 243, n. 11"* 'Ayadrji Tux^t. 'lovXiav Ad/xvav Beav Se^. 
IJLr]Tipa KdcTTpwv, avTOKparopos A. SeTrrt/xtoy Hievripov JleprivaKOS 2e;8., Ewe^oCj, 

"' If Stein and IGR are correct in assuming that the great-grandfather of Honorata was 
the governor of Moesia in 193/198, we should then on the authority of this inscription assume 
that his son was also governor of the same province, probably under the sole rule of Caracalla. 
See § 102. 

^^' The inscription is dedicated to one emperor, but in the title of the governor the plural 
of Augustus is used. The only inscription giving an earlier date than this one for Caracalla 
Augustus is 8.2465. 6.1052 and 11.3876a are others of the year 198. 

"8 IGR 1.575 edits this inscription from Dobrusky, Materiaux d'archeologie en Bulgarie 
5 (1901), to which I have not access at the time of writing this note. It seems to be from 
the same original as this inscription though a slight variation, not affecting the sense, is 
reported as to the condition of the stone in 11. 9 and 10. IGR 1.576 is from another stone 
bearing the same inscription. 

6o 



TlapdiKov, BpeTavviKoO,^'^^ Apa^iKov, ' \dial3riviKov, dpxtep^ws fjieylffTov, 87]fj.apxiK7Js 
i^ovaias rb t^'. avTOKpdropas rb la', vrrdrov rb tj', narpbs iraTplbos, yvvaiKa, K^ai) 
aiTOKpdropos Kalffapos MdpKOV At'pTjX. ' AfTuvlvov 2e/3. K(ai) [A. Y.ewTiiJ.iov Vira 
Kafo-apos] p.y)Tipa, inraTevovros rrji iirapxelas V. 'Ooveivbv TeprvWov, npeap. "^efi^. 
dvTiffTp. 7} lepojTdTT} /SoyXr; \'(at) 6 KpdrKjros drjuos OuXirlas NtK0ir6\ews r^s Trpds 
'lo'Tpov dvidTriaev. 

3.7602 (Near Cernavoda) Imp. Caes. L. Septimius Severus Piu.s Per- 
tinax Aug. Arab. Adiab. Parthicus Max. pon. max., trib. pot. VIII, imp. XI, 
p. p., et imp. Caes. M. Aurel. Antoninus Aug., trib. pot. 11,'^" et P. Septimius 
Geta Caes. Aug., restituerunt per C. Ovinium Tertullum, leg. pr. pr."" 

3.781 (Tyra) (Cf. 3 pp. loog, loio, 1366, and 3.12509 11. 41 ff.) : 

ATred6dri Trpb cy' KoKav^Cbv Maprluv, ArjveQvos tj'. ' Avea-rddT] fTrl MovKiavov Kal ^a^iavov 
VTrdrcov^ . 

Pick 1272 Av. K. A. SeTT. Sen^pos 11. I'Vira. '22 'Qovlvi. Tepr^Wov, NtKoiroXcriSj' 
fTT. "lo-rpoj. Similar are 1271-1283. 

Coins of NikopoHs bearing the name of Tertullus as governor 
are found with the names and images of Severus and Caracalla as 
Augusti (Pick 1449), of Domna (Pick 1450-1452), of Caracalla 
Augustus (Pick 1516-1534), and of Caracalla Augustus and Geta 
Caesar (Pick 1622- 1625). 

3.14428 shows Tertullus to have been governor of Moesia by 
July 20, 198. The Greek inscription quoted from AEM 10 (1886) 
is also of a. 198. 3.7602-7604 and 14461 belong to 200. 3.781 is 
of date Feb. 17, 201. In 3.7540, of a. 201, the name of Tertullus 
is correctly restored. 



"^ The earliest appearance of Britannicus among the titles of Seveiiis is usually stated to 
be in 209 (Egbert, Lat. Inscr., p. 136) or 210 (Cagnat, Cours d'epigraphie^, p. 195). I am 
unable to account for its use in these inscriptions (See n. 118). It does not seem possible to 
assume that tliey were not set up until after that date. 

^^^ 3.7603, 7604, and 14461 are similar to this inscription in having VIII for the tribunicial 
number of Severus and II for that of Caracalla. The former gives us the date 200, the latter 
199 according to the usual reckoning. The date 200 is probably correct, since the tribunicial 
numbers of Severus as the senior emperor were more likely to be given without mistake. 

Most inscriptions that contain the names of both of these emperors show a difference of 
five in their tribunicial numbers. In the following however the difference is six: 3.14201, 
9.2122, 8.2550, of the year 198; the four inscriptions mentioned above of the year 200; 3.14485a, 
of 201; and 8.14395, of 209. In 10.7275, a. 199, the difference is seven; in 3.5981 and 4624, a. 201, 
the difference is eight; in 8.S469 the difference is nine; in 3.13800 and 8.6306, a. 205, the differ- 
ence is four. This list of exceptions to the rule of five is probably incomplete. It is not the 
result of a special investigation, but contains only the instances that have forced themselves 
on my attention in the course of this investigation. 

^^ 3.7604 and 14461 also are similar to this one in omitting Aug. from the title of Ter- 
tullus. 

^-- This governor was formerly thought to have the praenomen Lucius through a mistake 
in reading the A of 'VIIA on the coins as A and connecting it with the name of the governor. 
Compare n. 114. 

6i 



93 P- Antonius Faustus * 

Lieb. p. 286 gives P. Antonius Faustus as a governor of Moesia Inferior, 
a. 202, quoting Orelli 909. From Liebenam H. v. d. Weerd, p. 298, transfers 
him to his list of the governors of Moesia Inferior. But OrelH 909 is only 
an imperfect copy of 3.1685 ( See § 46.) and properly gives us the name of 
Q. Anicius Faustus, governor of Moesia Superior. The date is 202/210. 



94 L. Aurelius Callus 202-205 

Pick 1632 "PovX. nXavrlWa SejSacr. '\]ir. A. Avp. FaXXoi; 'NeiKonoXiTwv Trpbs I. 

This governor is known only from coins. Although the number 
of the extant coins of Plautilla is not large they are of at least nine 
different varieties from the mint at Nicopolis ad Istrum. As the 
name of Gallus is on all of them, it is likely that he was governor 
during all of the time that Plautilla was Augusta. Coins in her 
honor would almost certainly have been struck immediately after 
the marriage, which occurred in 202 (Dio 76.1.). Callus's admin- 
istration seems therefore to have begun by this year. Dio 76.6.3 
says that she was banished after the death of her father, and the 
account implies that her banishment followed his death immediately. 
If we can fix then the date of his death we should think that Callus's 
term in Moesia extended at least to near that date, possibly of 
course beyond it. 

The Chronicon Paschale. p. 496. ed. Dindorf, has the entry,, 
'Utt. TlXavriavov koX Vera, Il\avriavo<; 6 viraro^ ia(f)d>yT] irpb ta 
KaXavhpSiv (^e^pvaptcov.'"' According to this statement Plautianus 
was killed January 22, 203, the year of the consulship of Plautianus 
and the elder Geta. But Herodian, speaking of Plautianus just before 
his death, says (3.1 1.2) ev re tol<; Sevrepov virarevaaaiv ireTaKTo. 
Dio, 76.2.4, leading up to the account of the killing of Plautianus says : 
eTrei Be 6 a8€X4>o^ avrO) FeVa? reXevroiv iravra to, Kara rbv 

TlXavTtavov iixr^vevaev, oviced^ 6110 loi^ irLfirjaev, aXXa Kal 

T?}? 8vvdiJL€(o<i Tri<i TToXXrj'i irapeXvaev. The last statement could 
hardly have been made if Plautianus had been consul as well as 
prefect of the pretorium at the time of his death. Vit. Sev. 14.10, 
Filios dein consules designavit. Getam fratrem extilit. This im- 

^^^ Plautianus probably owes the distinction of a mention in this Chronicle to activity in 
the persecution of the Christians. 

62 



plies that the sons were designated consuls before the death of Geta 
frater. They were the consules ordinarii of 205, hence their desig- 
nation was in 204. The earliest date at which it can be said with 
certainly that the successors of Plautianus in the prefectship of 
the praetorium were in office is May 28, 205. (6.228.) The name 
of Plautilla as the wife of Caracalla and an Augusta was inscribed 
in 8.2557, dated Aug. 22, 203, and in 6.1035, dated 204. Consider- 
ing all the evidence then it seems probable that the statement of the 
Chronicle is incorrect,"' and that Plautianus was killed late in 204 
or early in 205. (Cf. Borghesi, Op. 11 p. 85; EE 8 p. 295; 
CIL 6.1035, note.) 



95 C. lunius Faustinus Postumianus C. V. 

8.597 (Byzacena) [I]unio'^ Faustino . . a . | . . . do Postumiano C. V. 
. . COS., adlecto inter comites Augg. nn., sacerdoti Flaviali Titiali, leg. Augg. 
pr. pr. provinciae Mysiae Inferioris, leg. Augg. pr. pr. provinciae Belgicae, 
[legato] Augg. pr. pr. provinciae Lusetaniae, [leg. Aug. leg]ionis . . . 

Ma e Victricis [Piae F]idelis, iuridico per Aemiliam et Etruriani 

et Tusciam, praetori kandi[dato, leg. pr]ovinciae dio]eceseos,''" 



It is under Marcus and Verus that we first find the comites 
Augusti constituted as a sort of board. Before this time we find 
only occasionally a single official bearing the title of comes Augusti. 
This quasi-board disappears apparently under Alexander Severus. 
(Seeck, P-W 4 p. 626 fif.) Within this period the only years when 
there were two Augusti were 160-169, 198-209, 21 1-2 12. Our 
governor's consulship would come between his legateships in Lusi- 
tania and Moesia since Lusitania was a praetorian and Moesia a 

'" The Chronicle has so many inaccuracies in its dates as to be practically useless for 
anything more than approximate dating. For example it gives the date of the death of M. 
Aurelius as Mar. 25, 178 instead of Mar. 17, 180, that of the death of Septimius Severus as 212 
instead of 211, that of the death of Alexander Severus as 237 instead of 235. The material of 
many of the statements inserted in the Chronicle is evidently derived from Epiphanius Cyprius, 
but the chronology of the work in general does not agree closely with that of Epiphanius in his 
Hep! Mirpwv koX Sra^jocwv. 

■'^ 8.11763 gives the name in the form C. lunius Faustinus Postumianus. 

'-^ It is not clear to me why this word is written dioeceseros in the second column of 
8.597, unless it is merely a misprint. 

^" The order of offices in the cursus of this governor given in Pros. I 490 would lead one 
to suppose incorrectly that the legateship in Moesia Inferior preceded the consulship. 

(>3 



consular province.'" The period of the two Augusti would there- 
fore be too long for 211-212. The general style of the inscription 
favors the period 198/212 for his career. 



96 Flavius Ulpianus 208/209—210 

Pick 579 All. K. A. 'EeTTT. "Eevijpos \ 'V. ^\ OvXiriavov MapKiavo ttoKitQiv. Sim- 
ilar are Pick 578-584 from Marcianopolis, and 1332-1339 from Nicopolis ad 
Istrnm. 

Pick 595 Ail. K. A. 2e7r. "Levripos 'lovKla AopLva 2e;8. | 'V. ^\ OvKiriavov 
MapKiavoiroXiTibv. Similar are Pick 595-602. 

Pick 622 Av. K. M. Avp. ' Avruvlvos | 'V- 'i'X. OvXiriavov MapKiavoTroKiruv. Sim- 
ilar are Pick 622-626 from Marcianopolis and 1564-1585 from Nicopolis ad 
Istrum. 

Pick 649 Ail. K. M. Av. ' Avrwv'ivos, Av. K. 11. S. T^ras \ "V- *\. OvXiriavov 
MapKiavoTToXLTibv. Similar are Pick 649-652. 

Pick 1660 AiiT. K. n. SeTT. Teras Av. | 'V- 4>X. OvXTnav. NiKOTroXtr- irpos 'I. 
Similar are Pick 1660-1678. 

This governor is known only from coins. The coins of Severus 
and of Severus and Domna show that he was governor before the 
death of Severus, Feb. 4, 211 ; those of Geta Augustus show that 
he was governor after the beginning of 209. As he is the only 
governor whose name appears on coins of Geta Augustus or of 
Caracalla Augustus with Geta Augustus, he was probably already 
in the province at the time that Geta was made an Augustus, for 
this event would certainly have been celebrated at once by coins 
bearing the face and name of the new Augustus. See the text 
under the next governor, with note 129 for further discussion. 



97 L. lulius Faustinianus 211 — 212 

3.6177 (Troesmis) L. Itilio Faustiniano, leg. Aug[gg] pr. pr., ordo 
municipi Troesm. 

3.7485 (Axiopolis) luliae Domnae Aug., matri castrorum, nautae universi 
Danuvi ex r. p. [sua] sub cura L. lul. Faustiniani, leg. Aug. n., n.'" 

Pick 569 Ail. K. A. ZeTTTt. Sen^pos 11. | 'V- !• ^avcmvdvov MapKLavoTroXirQv. 
Similar are Pick 560-577. 

Pick 610 Ail. K. M. 'Avp. 'Ai'Toi^'rvos |'V. 1. ^avcrrLvidvov ^lapKiapoiroXLTdv. Sim- 
ilar are Pick 610-613. 

12s 9.729 is of the same man. So 6.2003.11. See note to 3.7485, where the reading Ti. 
of 6.2003 is corrected to L. 

64 



Pick 614 A.VT. M. 'ApijXt. 'Aj'TWJ'erj'os | "V- I- ^avcrrLviduov MapKiavowoXiT iov. 
Similar are Pick 614-621. In 610-613 the face of Caracalla is without beard, 
in 614-621 it has a light beard. 

The three g's in 3.6277 show that Faustinianus was in the prov- 
ince between 209 and 211 ; the one g in 3.7485 that he continued 
there until after Caracalla was sole ruler in 212. We should be 
able to depend on this evidence in this case, for the inscription was 
set up during his administration and in his own province, so that if 
there had been more than one Augustus at the time he would surely 
have been styled legatus Augustorum. The only time when he 
could have been a legatus of one Augustus was after the death of 
Geta. Hence I have placed him after Flavins Ulpianus."" 



98 Aurelius Pontianus * 

This man is given by Lieb., p. 286, as a governor of Moesia Inferior 
under Septimius Severus, on the evidence of coins described in Mionnet 
Suppl. 2.74, 115. Pick 1.584* shows that these are incorrectly copied, and 
there is thus no evidence that Pontianus governed Moesia Inferior. 

'^ Pick p. 18(), places Faustinianus before Ulpianus. "Dagegen kBnnte allerdings einge- 
wendet werden, dass Caracalla auf den Jliinzen des Faustinianus in der Kegel alter aussieht als 
auf denjenigen des Ulpianus; auf der ersteren hat er nieistens schon leichten Bart, auf den 
letzteren ist er unbartig. - - - - Aber es ware doch sehr aufltallend, dass es mit dem Nanieti 
des letzteren (sc. Faustinianus) gar keine Fiinfer giibe; dass solche mit Caracalla und Geta 
(ehlen, liesse sich zur Noth durch spatere Einziehung (nach Getas Erniordung) erkltiren; aber 
warum es keine mit Severus und Donma geben, iiberhaupt das wichtigste Nominal von Marcian- 
opolis nachdem es einmal eingefiihrt war, gerade unter diesem Statthalter nicht gepragt 
vvorden sein sollte, ware unverstandlich. Ich glaube daher, dass trotz der Miinzen mit dem 
unbartigen Gesicht des Caracalla, Ulpianus der spatere Statthalter ist". Pick thus accounts 
for the absence of Fiinfers under Faustinianus by supposing, against the weight of other 
evidence, that he was governor before they began to be coined. But the absence of Fiinfers 
is not sufficient to outweigh the evidence both of the existing coins and of the inscriptions 
that his administration was later than that of Ulpianus. Pick has sufficiently accounted for 
the absence of Fiinfers of Caracalla and Geta. If Faustinianus had been governor only during 
the last year of Geta's life such coins might not have gone largely into circulation at Geta's 
death, and it would have been easy to destroy the whole mintage of them. He may have been 
in office only a month or two, or even less at the death of Severus, and in that case it would 
not be remarkable if no Fiinfers of Severus and Domna had been struck in that time. Fiinfers 
had been made for the first time under the preceding governor, and while they were popular 
later, the demand for them may not have been great at firet. Pick, Num. Zeitschr., 23 (1891) 
p. 37, doubts the reading of three g's in Auggg. in 3.6177, but it seems to be well attested. 
Even if this difficulty were disposed of, the one g in Aug. in 3.7485 would be difficult to 
account for on his theory. The fact also that Caracalla is nearly always bearded on the coins 
of Faustinianus, and never is bearded on those of Ulpianus except on the four Fiinfers where 
his younger brother is also complimented in the same way, brings strong support to the in- 
scriptional evidence for the later date of Faustinianus. 

65 



99 Aurelius Appianus * 

This man is given by Liebenam, p. 286, as a governor of Moesia Inferior 
under Septimius Severus on the evidence of coins described in Mionnet 
Suppl. 2.76 189-131. These coins are shown by Pick 1.600* ff. to have been 
incorrectly copied and restored, and there is thus no evidence that he gov- 
erned Moesia Inferior. 



100 



Quintilianus 211/217 



Pick 635 Hioj Au7. ' AvTOJvlvos \ 'Vt. KwriKiavov MapKiavooMXirwv. Similar are 
Pick 635-648. Some of these read 'Avtuvivos Uios Avyoiia-ros. 

Pick 653 'AvTOJvivos AiryoviTTOs, 'Iot;Xia AA/uca ] 'Vtt. KvvTi\iavov MapKiavoirvXiTwv. 
Similar are Pick 653-695. 

This governor is known only from coins of Antoninus Pius 
Augustus and Domna.''" These determine his date to be between 
201, when Caracalla received the title Pius, and 217, when he died. 
The absence of coins of Severus and Geta make it probable that the 
date is between 212 and 217, during the sole reign of Caracalla. 



loi Pomponius Bassus 212/217 

It is uncertain whether he was governor of Moesia Inferior or 
of Moesia Superior. See § 47. 



102 Pollenius Auspex * 

There is no evidence that there vi?as a governor of this name at this 
period if my interpretation of IGR 3.618 is correct. See discussion under 
Pollenius Auspex, § 90 and n. 116. 

ISO Liebenam, p. 292, gives L. Quintilianus as governor of Moesia Inferior a. 247/249 from 
two coins reported in Mionnet, Suppl. 2.115, 350, having on one side the heads of the elder 
Philip and Otaeilia. Pick 1206** says that the heads are those of Caracalla and Domna, and 
refers them to this governor. Tlie L. is derived as pointed out in n. 122. 

66 



103 ^- Statius Longinus 217 

Pick 1764 AiiT. K. M. 'OTreX. Sei/^pos M.aKp2vos | 'Vtt. Srarfov Aopyivov NtKOTroX. 
. . . . 7rp6s'Icr. Similar are Pick 1720-1785. 

Pick 1833 K. M. 'OTreX. ' Avtwv. AiaSovfji.evi.di'os \ "Vjt. ^rarlov Aovyivov Ni/coTroXtTtDj' 
7rp6s "la-Tp<o. Similar are Pick 1827-1872. 

Among the names of the patroni of Canusium of the year 223 
(9-338) M. Statius Longinus (column i, Hne 8) and M. Statius 
Longinus, lun. (column i, line 31) appear. The first of these is 
probably our governor, and the praenomen given above is from this 
inscription. For discussion of the date see § 105, end. 



104 P. Fu. Pontianus End of 217 

Pick 1680 Ail K. 'Oirir4\. I,€vrj. MaKpTvo^ \ 'Yw. 11. <i>oi'. Uovriavov NeiKowoXiruv 
vpbs'la-Tpwv. Similar are Pick 1679-1682. 

Pick 709 AvT. K. 'OiriWi. I.ev^. MaKpeTvoi | 'Vtt. Uovriavov MapKiavoTroXeirCov. 
Similar are Pick 708-714. 

Pick 717 Ail. K. 'Oiri\. Seu. MaKpeTvos, K. M. 'OiriX- ' AvruveTvos K. | 'Vtt. 
llouTiavov MapKiavoTToXeiTdv. Similar are Pick 715-784. Several of these con- 
tain also some abbreviation for Diadumenos, the name of the younger 
Augustus. 

This governor is known only from coins, the nomen and prae- 
nomen only from Pick 1681 and 1682. See the next governor for 
discussion of the date. 



105 Marcius Claudius Agrippa 218 

Pick 1683 Ail. K. 'OirirdX. ^evrj. MaKpivos | 'Vtt. 'AypiTnra ^ikottoXltwv irpbs'lcrTp. 
Similar are Pick 1683-1719. The governor's name in 1691 is MdpK. 'Aypiinra, 
in 1709 KXai/. 'Aypiinra. 

Pick 1794 K- M. 'OiririX. 'Avroivi. AtaSov/uefidyos | "Vw. ' Ay piwrra '!>iiKO'iro\iTui' 

Similar are Pick 1792-1826. 

Pick 785 .... 'Ott^X 7vos K. M. 'OireX. ' AvTwveivo^ MapKiavo-iro\€iTwi>. 

The name Claudius is froniKXay. in Pick 1709. Several other 
coins have K. for KXauSto?. At the time of the murder of Cara- 
calla Agrippa was not yet of consular rank and was prefect of the 
fleet. (Vit. Caracallae 6.7.) He was enrolled among the consulares 
by Macrinus and sent to govern Pannonia. He was soon replaced 
there and sent to Dacia. (Dio 78.1 3.1.) These coins show that 
he was sent to Moesia Inferior before the end of his reign. The 

67 



appointment to Moesia was not mentioned by Dio because the other 
two appointments, both made in the first weeks or months of the 
reign, were those that aroused the censure of the better element. 
His administration in Moesia Inferior, then, probably came in the 
second year of Macrinus. Coins of Macrinus from Moesia Inferior 
are numerous, and three governors of the province are known in 
this short reign. Two coins made from the same die, one bearing 
the name of Pontianus and the other that of Agrippa, indicate that 
one of these was the immediate successor of the other. (Pick p. 
432.) The reasons stated above for putting Agrippa late in the 
reign make it probable that he, and not Longinus, was the last of 
the three. If this is true Longinus must have been the first. The 
probable reason for the sudden promotion of Agrippa and the fre- 
quent change of governors under Macrinus is that there were not 
many men of the higher class of the nobility on whose loyalty the 
emperors could count with assurance. Dessau, Pros. M 165, infers 
that Agrippa was governor of Dacia and Moesia Inferior at the 
same time, but this would be unusual. The appointment to Dacia 
in the first place certainly did not include Moesia, since Moesia is 
not mentioned by Dio and was a more important command than 
Dacia. 

106 lulius Antonius Seleucus 218/222 

Pick 810 Airr. K. M. khpr). 'AvTuvdvos A117. | "Vtt. 'Ioi/X. 'Apt. SeXei/KOU, 
MapKiavoiroXiTuiv. Similar are Pick 810-875. 

Pick 935 AiV. K. M. Aiip. ' AvTOjvecvos 'lovXia MaTcra A117. | 'Vtt. 'IoijX. ' Avt. 
SeXei^Kov, MapKiavoiroirXLTCiv. Similar are 935-974. 

Pick 979 Avt. K. M. Avp. ' AvTwvelvos Airy, '\ov\ia Zouai/xt's. Similar are Pick 
979-981. 

This governor is known only from coins of Marcianopolis. 
Pick p. 162, points out that the face of Elagabalus is unbearded on 
the coins of Seleucus but usually bearded on those of Titianus, and 
infers from this that the administration of Seleucus is earlier than 
that of Titianus, 

107 T. Flavius Novius Rufus 218/222 

3.6170 := 3773 (Troesmis) Imp. Caesari M. Aurelio [Antonino] Pio 
Fel. Aug. divi Severi [nepoti] divi Antonini [fil.], dedicante T. Fl. Novio Rufo 
leg. Aug. pr .pr., M. Ulp. Antipater sacerd. provin. et bis duumviral., ob Hon. 
pontif. 

68 



Pick 1898 AvT. K. M. Aup. ' AvTuive'ivos \ 'Yir. No^iov "Poi50ou JUikowoXitwp irpbs 
'larpu). Similar are Pick 1893-2010. 

There are no coins of this reign from NicopoHs ad Istrum bear- 
ing the name of any other governor than Novius Rufus. There is 
nothing to determine with certainty whether he preceded or followed 
either or both Seleucus and Titianus. 



108 Sergius Titianus 218/222 

Pick 876 AiiT. K. M. Avp. ' Apt cave ivos | 'Vxr. ^epy. Tiriavov M.apKLavoiro\iTC)v. 
Similar are Pick 876-902. 

Pick 977 AiiT. K. M. Ai/p. ^ AvTWveivos. A117., 'lovXta Matcra 'A117. | 'Vtt. "Siipy. 
TiTMvoO. 'MapKiavoTToXiruv. Similar are Pick 975-978. 

Pick p. 262 Fast auf alien gut erhaltenen Miinzen mit dem 
Namen dieses Statthalters ist das Gesicht des Kaisers leicht bartig; 
Sergius Titianus scheint also die provinz Moesia inferior erst in der 
letzten Zeit des Elagabalus verwaltet zu haben, jedenfalls spater als 
Antonius Seleucus, auf dessen Miinzen der Kaiser immer unbartig 
ist. 



109 lulius Gaetulicus 222? 

Pick 983 AvT. K. M. Avp. '^levij. 'AX^^avdpos \ 'Yir. 'Ion. TerovXiKOV, ^lapKLaviroXi- 
Twv. Similar are Pick 982-984. 

Pick 1068 AvT. K. M. Ail. Iievt]. 'AXi^avSpos, 'lov. Map-p-ia \ 'Vw. 'lov. TerovXiKov, 
MapKMVOiroXiTw v. 

Pick p. 281 Von den vier Statthaltern, die unter Alexander auf 
Miinzen von Markianopolis genannt sind, ist lulius Gaetulicus sicher 
der erste ; denn auf den Miinzen mit seinem Namen ist das Gesicht 
des Kaisers ganz iugendlich wie auf den ersten romischen. Fiir 
die drei anderen (Tib. lulius Festus, Um. Tereventinus, Fir. Phi- 
lopappus) ist die reihenfolge nicht sicher festzustellen. 

Our only inscription of a lulius Gaetulicus (8.8421) throws no 
light on this question. 

69 



I lo Tib. lulius Festus 222/235 

Pick gg6 Aut. K. M. Avp. 'Eevi]. ' AX^^avdpos | 'Vt. Tt/3. 'loi/X. ^t^cttov, MapKiavo- 
wo\iruv Similar are Pick 995-1022. 

Pick 1051 AiiT. K. M. Avp. 'Zevij. 'AX^^aeSpos, 'lovXia Maicra \ 'Vtt. Ti^. 'loi^X. 
^riffTov MapKiavoTToXiTuiv Similar are Pick 1051-1062. 

Pick 1070 AvT. K. M. Avp. ^evij. ' AX^^avdpos, 'lovXla Ma/j,tj.aM | 'Vt. TtjS. 'loi^X. 
^■^arov MapKiavoiroXiTuiv. Similar are Pick 1070-1075. 

The coins of Maesa show that his administration came early in 
the reign of Alexander Severus. Cf. Her. 6.1.4 eVi iroXv 8' ovrco 
ap')(ri<i BLOiKovfJi€V'r]<i, rj fiev ^alaa Trpea^vTt'i rjhrj ovaa aveiraixraro 

Tov ^lov . This may also be inferred from dipl. LXXVI, 3 p. 

1993, which shows him to have been a tribunus militum in 178, forty 
years before the beginning of the reign of Alexander Severus. For 
this reason I have placed him earlier than Um. Tereventinus and 
Fir. Philopappus. 



111 L. Annius L.f. Quir. Italicus Honoratus 224 

3.6154 (Tom!) L. Annio L. f. Quir. Italico Honorato cos., sodali Hadri- 
anali, leg. Aug. pr. pr. prov. Moes. Inf., cur. oper. pub., cur. Neap, et Atell., 
praef. aer. milit., leg. leg. XIII Gem., iurid. per Fl. et Umbriam, cur. viae 
Lavic. et Lat. veter., praetori qui ius dixit inter civ. et civis et pereg., trib. p., 
q. prov. Achaiae, sevir. turmar. equ. Illlvir viar. curandarum Fl. Severianus 
dec. alae I Atectorum Severianae candidatus eius. 

3.7591 (Moesia Inferior) - - - - dedicatum XII Kal. Oct. luliano II et 
Crispino tos. per Annium Italicum"^ leg. Aug. pr. pr. 

The full name is from the first inscription, the second is dated 
Sept. 20, 224. 

112 Um. Tereventinus 222/235 

Pick 1023 AvT. K. M. Avp. Seu^. ' A\i^a.v5pos \ 'H7.132 Ouytt. Tepe^evTivov 
MapKiavoiroXiTuv. Similar are Pick 1023-1039. 

Pick 1063 AiiT. K. M. Avp. Seu^. ' AXi^avdpos, 'lovXla Marua | 'H7. Ovp.. Tepe^ev- 
rlvov MapKiavoTToXLTwv. Similar are Pick 1063-1066. 

Pick 1076 AvT. K. M. Avp. Seu^. ' A\4^avdpos, 'lovXla Manfiaia \ 'H7. Ov/x. Tepe- 
^evrlvov MapKiavoiroXiTuv. Similar are 1076-1081. 

^31 An earlier incorrect reading of this inscription (3.6224, EE 2.363) is responsible for the 
form Annius Felix given Ln Lieb. p. 290. 

^^^ 'Hy{efU)V€vovTos) indicates that Tereventinus governed Moesia Inferior before having 
held the consulsliip. No other praetorian governor of the province is known. 

70 



Cf. Pick's statement, quoted under 109. 

From the coins of Maesa we may infer that his administration 
fell in the first half of Alexander's reig^n (cf. Herod. 6.1.4, quoted 
in § no), probably then in 222/230. The fact that her coins bear- 
ing the name of this governor are more numerous than those bearing 
the name of Philopappus may indicate that his administration is the 
earlier, though little reliance can be placed on such an inference. 



113 Fir. Philopappus 222/235 

Pick 1040 AiiT. K. M. Ai/p. Seu. ' AX^^avdpos \ "Vir. ^Ip. ^iKoiraTTirov MapKiavo- 
iroXirwv. Similar are Pick 1040-1044. 

Pick 1067 Airr. K. M. Avp. ^evij. 'A\4^av8pos Kal 'lovXia Maicra | 'Vir. ^ip. 
^iXowdTrirov MapKiai/OTroKiTuv. 

Pick 1082 AvT. K. M. Avp. Seic^ 'AX^^avdpos, 'lov\ia Mafuiia | "Vtt. 4>ip. 
^iKoirdTTirov MapKiavoTroXiTuii'. Similar are Pick 1082-1085. 



See remarks under Um. Tereventinus, above. 



114 Anicius Faustus Paulinas 230 

37473 Imp. Caes., divi Magni Antonini Pii fil., [divi Severi Pii nep., M. 
Aur. Severe Alexandre Pio Felici Aug., pon]tif. maximo, t. [p.] IX, cos. Ill, 
p. p. [et luliae Mammaeae matri] Aug. n. et castrorum balnea coh. II Fl. 
Britt. Alexandrianae a solo restitutae sub Anicio Fausto Paulino leg. Aug. 
pr. pr. per Septimium Agathonicum praef. 

The year is determined to be 230 by the number of the tribunicial 
power. 



115 Q. Decius Valerianus 234 

3.12519 (Near Ezibey) Imp. Caesar M. Aurelius Severus Alexander Pius 
Felix sanctissimus Aug. tribuniciae potestatis XIII, consul III, pater patriae, 
proconsul, pontes derutos et vias conlapsas restituit, curante Qointo Decio 
pr. pr. leg. suo, m. p. 

3.13724 (Markova Kapii) - - - - Quintus Decius, leg. ac pr(aeses) pro- 
vinciae. 

2.4816 (Tarraconensis) Imp. Caes. C. lulius Verus Maxsiminus P. F. Aug. 
Germ. Max. Dae. Max. Sar. Max. Pont. Max. trib. pot., imp. V, p. p., cos., 
proc, et Gains lulius Verus Maxsumus nob. Caes. Germ. Max. Sar. Max. 

71 



princips iuventut. f. d. n. Imp. C. luli Veri Maximini p. f. Aug-, curante 
Quinto Decio Valeriano leg. Augg. . 

3. 1 25 19 shows him to have been governor of Moesia Inferior in 
234, 2.4816 shows him to have been governor in Spain in 237, where 
he still was in the early part of 238. (2.4756.) His cognomen is 
given by 2.4816, and fragments of it remain in 2.4831, 4834, and it 
is corrupted in 2.4828. It is more often however omitted in the 
inscriptions of Spain (2.4788, 4826, 4853, 4858. 4870, 4886, 4887) 
as it is in the two from Moesia. This fact seems to make sure the 
identification of the two men. While it is possible that the later 
emperor, C. Messius Quintus Traianus Decius, is the same man, the 
fact that he was proclaimed by the troops of Moesia does not com- 
pel us to assume this when we consider the circumstances of his 
proclamation as described in Zosimus 1.21 and Zonaras 12.19. The 
omission of Valerianus from the name of the emperor seems opposed 
to it. If they are the same man he was twice governor of Moesia. 
(See § 52.) 

116 Flavius Lucilianus"' 235 

3.14462 (Cogelak) [Imp. Caes. C. lul. Verus Maximinus Pi] us Fel. 
Invictus Aug. et C. lul. Verus Maximus nobilissimus Caes. restituerunt per 
Fl. Lucilianum leg. pr. pr., m. p. C. 

3.7605 is a duplicate of this inscription. The date certainly falls 
between 235 and 238. It is probably 235, for after Jan. i, 236 we 
should have had cos. and after Jan. 16, 236 tr. pot. II among the 
titles of the emperor. 

117 Domitius G . . . /'' 236 

3.14429 (Near Lometz) Imp. Caesari Caio lulio Vero [Maximino] Aug., 
pontifici max., tribuniciae potest., cos., p. p., coh. I Cis^adensium, devota 
numini maiestatiq. eius, d. p. quaestur., dedicante Domitio Goii....in leg. 
Aug. pr. pr. 

There is no further evidence concerning this man. This in- 
scription is dated a. 236. 

'^' 9.3608 (Aveia) Imp. Severo Antonino Aug. IIII cos. T. Fl. Lucilianus eq. pub. et T. 
Avidiaccus Furianus eq. pub. speleum Soli Invicto consummaver., cur. ag. P. Peticen Prime. 
In this inscription of a. 213 we may have the father of the legatus of 235. L. Flavius Lucili- 
anus, patronus Ganusii a. 223 (9.338) may be our governor. 

134 The letters of the name following Domitio in the inscription have perhaps not been 
correctly read. 

^2 



ii8 C. Pe 238 

3.7606 (Near Hirschova) Imp. Cae[s.] M. Antonio Gord[iano] Pio 
Fel[ici in]victo A[ug. p. m.], trib. p[ot. p. p.], pr[ocos., pontes] et vi[a- 

restituit pe]r C. P[e ] leg. A[ug.] pr. [pr.]. (An inscription of Dioclc' 

tian was later placed on the same stone.) 

3.7607 (Near Hirschova) [Imp. Caes. M. Antonio Gordiano Pio Felici 
Invicto Aug. p. m., tri]b. pot., p. p., procos., C. Pe !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !"', leg. 
Aug. pr. pr., m. p. 

Comparison of these two inscriptions makes the restorations 
fairly certain. They belong to the year 238, the first of the reign of 
Gordianus III. See the next governor also. 

119 Tullius Menophilus 238/241 

Pick 1087 AvT. K. M. ' AvT. TopSiavos Aijy. \ 'Vtt. Mr]vo(pi\ov 'MapKiavoiroXi.Twv. 
Similar are Pick 1087-1097. 

Pick 1121 Al'T. K. M. 'AvTibvios Topdiavbs Aijy. \'Yir. MTjvo(pl\ov MapKiavoiroXirw., 
with busts of Gordianus and Serapis. Similar are Pick 1121-1170. 

Petr. Patr., Exc. 9 (Script. Hist. Byz.) "On Kaprrot €ireiJ.4/av wpbs 

TvWiov Mr]v6(pi\ov TTpea-^eiav OBtos 5^ 5oi>^ '^v Mvcrtas, Oi di fiera 

dyavaKTrjcrewi dvex^^pvc^f, '^''' ''^V'' '''O'J M7)vo<(>L\ov apxv" ^'5 Tp^a 'ir-q dwaOetaav ■fjcrvxl'O-i' 
eaxov. 

There are no coins of Tranquillina bearing the name of this 
governor; he seems, therefore, to have preceded Tertullianus. He 
was governor three years, according to Petrus Patricius. 3.7607 

(see preceding governor for copy) proves C. Pe a damnatus, 

to have been governor in 238. This may have been his last year, 
however, and Pros. T 281 and IGR 1.580 may be correct in assign- 
ing the administration of Menophilus to 238-241, though it may have 
been a year later. 

120 Sab(imus?) Modestus 238/244 

Pick 2040 AvT. K. M. 'Ait. VopSiavbs Aijy. \ 'Yir. 2aj3. MoSicTov NtKoiroXtTyiD 
irpbs'IcrTpov. Similar are Pick 2040-2107. 

Sab(inius?) Modestus may have been a relative of Furia Sabinia 
Tranquillina, whom Gordian married in 241, and may have owed his 
appointment to her. If this is so he probably succeeded Menophilus 
in 241 or 242, and preceded Tertullianus. 

^^ The fact that he was a damnatiis, and that we have no evidence that Tullius Menophilus 
was such, makes it probable that IGR 1.580, an inscription of the time of Gordianus, belongs 
to him rather than to Menophilus. The inscription adds nothing however that can serve our 
purpose here. 

73 



121 P. Rosius (or Prosius) Tertullianus 241/244 

AEM 17 (1894) = IGR 1. 581 (Nicopolis ad Istrurti) Avt. [KatVopa] 
M. ['AvTujv. T]opdi[a]i'[6v Kal I,a]^ivi[ap T]pav-/K[v\\eiva]v 2 [e/3. Avy]ov(rTav 
[rj] ^ov[Xr] Kal] 6 leptliTaTos [d^fws N«K]o7roXeiTW»' [Oi/XTTias NeiKOTr] 6Xews [dvi(rTTi<7a\v 
evTvxCos [i']7raTei;o[j'T]os ITROSIOV Tepr [vX] XiawD, 7rpe[(r]/3. [ai']TL(TT[paTTiyov]. 

Pick 1098 Avt. K. M. 'Avt. Topdiavos Aijy. \ 'Vtt. TepTvWiavov MapKiavoiroXirw. 
buovoia. Similar are Pick 1098-1100. 

Pick 1 172 Avt. K. M. 'Ayr. Topdiavbs A£;7. 2^., TpavKvWeTva \ 'Vtt. TepTvWiapov 
MapKiavoiro\iTu)v. Similar are Pick 1172-1192. 

The name may be P. Rosius or Prosius. Both Rosius and Prosius 
are found elsewhere as nomina, but only the former among names 
of the nobility, so far as I know/'" His coins that bear the name of 
Tranquillina show that he was governor under Gordian after 241. 
His term was probably at the close of Gordian's reign. 



122 Severianus 244 

See § 50 for text and discussion. 



123 L. Quintilianus * 

From an incorrect description of two coins of Marcianopolis in Mionnet, 
L. (CI.) Quintilianus has been given by some as governor of Moesia Inferior 
a. 247/249. See n. 130. 



124 Prastina Messalinus 244/249 

Pick 1 194 Avt. M. 'Iov\. ^IXiiriros Aijy., M. ' WTaK. Se^apa Se. | "Vtt. UpdaT. 
MeffffoXeLvov MapaawTroXeiTtDv. Similar are Pick 1194-1206. 

Pick 1207 M. 'Ioi;Xto5 'i>^Xt7r7ros KaTaap. | "Vtt. MeffffaXeivov MapKiavoTroXiTQv. 
Similar are Pick 1207-1209. 

This governor is known only from coins. He came later in the 
reign of Philip than Severianus (see § 122) and earlier than 
Marinus (see following). There is no evidence that his command 
extended over Moesia Superior, but it seems probable on general 
grounds that it did. 

^38 The inscription seems to have escaped the notice of Dessau in Pros. T 89, and of 
van de Weerd, in H. v. d. W. p. 299, where this governor is given without his nomen. Ct. 
Pros. V 572. There is no doubt that the same man is referred to in the inscription and the 
coins. 

74 



125 Ti* Claudius Marinus Pacatianus 248 

For texts and discussion see § 51. 

126 C. Messius Quintus Traianus Decius 249 

For texts and discussion see § 52. 

127 P Post 249/250 

3.12515 (Kasabkioi) Imp. Caes. [Gaio] Messio [Quin]to Tra[iano] 

Decci[o P. F. Aug.] G re[stituit] FP per P O C 

Post .... O leg. Au[g. pr. pr.] R 

The italicized letters appear to belong to an older inscription on 
the same stone. Trebonianus Gallus (see next governor) was gov- 
ernor at the close of the reign of Decius ; this governor's term, there- 
fore, ended by the close of 250 at least. 

128 C. Vibius Trebonianus Gallus 251 

Jordanes Get. 18 The Goths attack Novae and are repulsed "a Gallo 
duce." Also from Thrace the Emperor Decius fled into Moesia "ubi tunc 
Gallus dux limitis cum plurima manu bellantium morabatur." (19) "Defuncto 
tunc Decio Gallus et Volusianus regno potiti sunt Romanorum." 

Zos. 1.23 TdWov 8t] iwKTT-fiffa's ttj tov Tavaidos 6xdjl /J-era Swd/ieus apKO^cr-ris avrbs 
ToTs XeiwofJiivois ^■jrj/et. 

Zon. 12.20 TdWov 'iva tQiv rrj's <TvyK\-f)TOV . 

Jordanes differs materially from Zosinus and Zonaras in many 
details of this campaign,"' but all agree that Gallus was the leading 
general assisting Decius, and Jordanes is doubtless correct in con- 
necting him with Moesia Inferior. The title dux limitis is an 
anachronism. Cf. §§ 53, 54. It is probable that the troops of both 
Moesias were under his command. He became emperor in the 
autumn of 251. He was therefore governor of Moesia Inferior in 
that year. The full form of the name is known from many inscrip- 
tions set up while he was Emperor. 

^^' In these details however he agrees with SjTicelhis, who quotes Dixippiis, an excellent 
source for this period and locality. Di.xippus seems therefore to be the ultimate source of 
Jordanes in making Gallus commander of the Moesian forces. 

75 



129 



M. Aemilius Aemilianus 253 



Eutrop. 9.5 Sub his (sc. Gallus and Volusianus) Aemilianus in Moesia 
res novas molitus est. 

Jordanes Get. 19 Tunc et Aemilianus quidam tyrannidem in Moesia 

arripuit.Cf. Romana 285 Aemilianum, qui in Moesia res novas molieba- 

tur, . 

Zon. 12.21 Ai/uXLavbs 64 rts Ai^vs avf}p, &px(^v tov ev Mvcriq. arparevixaros, . 

Zos. 128 Kifu\Lavbs IlatowKuJJ' ijyovfj.evos rd^eiov - - - -. 

3.8270 (Kacanik) Imp. Ca[esar]i M. [Aemil.] Aemiliano P. F. [Invic]to 
Aug. pontif[ici] maximo trib[unicia] pot. p. p. cos. procos., ab Vi[m.] m. 

p. cc. 

The reign of Aemilianus began in 253, so that he was governor 
of Moesia in that year. He may have been there throughout the 
short reign of Galhis and Volusianus. Zosimus is either mistaken 
in giving him Pannonia instead of Moesia, or his command covered 
both the Moesias and the Pannonias. It is at least probable that it 
extended to both Moesias. The inscription was found in Moesia 
Superior. 

130 Regalianus 258/268 

For texts and discussion see § 54. 

131 M. Aurelius Claudius * 

See § 53 for text and discussion. 

132 Aur 270/275 

IGR 1. 591 (near Nicopolis ad Istrum) 'Ayaeiji Tvxvi-, tov yijs Kal eaXdaarjs 
Kal Trdo-ijs otKOV/uevijs 6e<nrbT-qv {Avr. KatV.] Avpy)\iavbv [Eiice^^ Eurvx]^ Se^. i) 
KpaTi\aT7i jSovXtj Koib lepdiraroi Srjfxos ttJs NeiA:o7r]o[Xei]Tw[i' irbXeus, vir]a[Te]voi>[T]o[s 

Trjs] iiralpxeias] ro[v] 8ia[(rr]ij.]oTdTOV Avp evTVxC!)^ ^v e/^ [tt] opic^; [N]€i(co(7ro\etTu;j/) 

Aoi/poT^Xts. 

The inscription is from Gastilica on the lantras river near 
Nicopolis. The restoration vTrarevovro'i is certain, Ataarj fioTarov 
is not used in its later technical sense. Aur .... was clearly a gov- 
ernor of Moesia Inferior under Aurelian. The omission of the titles 
Medicus Maximus and Gothicus Maximus seems to indicate a date 
at the very beginning of the reign, 

76 



133 Claudius Annius Natalianus 

IGR 1.582 (Nicopolis ad Istrum) rbv -y^s Kal $a\d(ra-r]s Secrir&rrjv .... 
Ei't(i'xi7) 2;e(3( atrroi') [r]e[T]tKdi' ? Miyiffrov ]\ap6iK6v yi^yiarov 7} KparlaTt) ^ovXr] Kai 
6 iepiiraToi drjfjLos ttjs NeiKOwoXeiTdv wpbs I crrpo f 7r6Xf cos av^cTTTjcrav evrvx^s, VTraT€v(ovroi) 
KX. 'A»'(i'/ou) N [ot] aXia^'ou Trpe<rl3(evTov) S€/3j3. a.vTt.<TTp[aT7]yov), iirLtieKovpiivov 
AcrKXriTTiodupov A<TK\r]in,d5ov apxi^fpcLTiKov. 

The name of the emperor has been erased. It seems to have 
been Aurehan. Probus also has been proposed. If AiireHan is 
correct the date is 2y2/2yc^.''^ 

134 Vittennius luvenis Third century 

IGR 1.593 (Polikraste, near Tirnovo) . . . . M iir [i] (paviffrarov Kai 

Ev<T. SejS., VTrare^ovTos iirapxl^as OviTTevvlov 'lov^evlov a.vT[i](TTp., iirifj.eXov/xdt'ov 'lovXlov 
EvTVxovs apxi-fpo-TiKOVj iK tS)v Idluiv dv^crrjffe virip (piXoTifiias. 

The identification with A. OuerTio? 'lov^evf (Pros. V 516 and 
Homolle in Dumont-Homolle, Mel. d'archeol. et d'epigr., p. 365), a 
governor of Thrace, is not satisfactory to the editors of IGR, 1. c. 
This stone, found in Moesia, is supposed by Dessau and Homolle to 
have been brought from Thrace. The word v7raT€vovTo<i, properly 
used of a governor of consular rank, instead of r)yefiovevovTo<;^ regu- 
larly used of governors of praetorian rank, indicates that we have 
here a governor of Moesia Inferior, not of Thrace. This inscrip- 
tion seems to belong to the time of some emperor of the third cen- 
tury of proscribed memory. I see no way to date it more closely. 

135 Calpurnius Julianus V. C. 

For text and discussion see § 57. 

136 Incerti 

3.6222, 3.7516, 3.12457 are each fragmentary inscriptions of 
governors of Moesia Inferior. In 3.6175 the first letter of the nomen 
of the governor seems to have been F ; there is no indication of the 

13S Pros, c 629 states that Natalianus was governor of Thrace, referring to this inscription. 
But Nicopolis was transferred from Thrace to Moesia Inferior under Septimius Severus. The 
word virareiJOVTOs used here also points to a consular governor, and therefore to the consular 
province of Moesia Inferior, since Thrace was governed by ex-praetors. 

77 



date. 3.14460 is an inscription of the time of iVurelian from which 
the governor's name has been erased. 3.14430 is a similar inscrip- 
tion of the time of Gordian. Cf. § ^^. 

137 L. Ovinius L.f. Quir. Rusticus Cornelianus * 

2.4126 (Tarraco) L. Ovinio L. f. | Quir. Rustico | Corneliano 1 cos. desig., 
praet., | inter tribunicios | adlecto, | curat, viae Flamin., | leg. leg. Mys. In- 
ferior., I curat, viae Tiburtin., | curat, r. p. Riciniens., | Rufria Ovinia | Corne- 
liana fil., | patri pientissimo. | 

The reading "leg. leg. Mys. Inferior" is certain, but so far as I can see is 
inexplicable as it stands. Mommsen's note is, "Est legatus legionis Mysiae 
Inferioris, ut CIL 3.1701 videtur nominari legio Viminaciensis, ut certe legio 
Mesiaca invenitur in titulo urbano Annal. 1864 p. 18; nisi erravit quadratarius 
et pro leg. Aug. dedit leg. leg." This leaves us almost no nearer to its mean- 
ing. Since Cornelianus died before reaching the consulship he could not 
have been legatus Augusti pro praetore Moesiae Inferioris. 

The most probable explanation that occurs to me is that the stonecutter 
deliberately changed the copy given him. He has evidently tried to give each 
office in one line. In the fifth where he could not cut 'inter tribunicios 
adlecto', and where each word was necessary, he gave the entire sixth line to 
the word adlecto. In the eighth line his copy may have been 'leg. leg. XI CI. 
(or I Ital. or V. Mac.) in Mys. Inferior.' {VII CI. as given by Gruter 'ex 
interpolatione' is not good, since that legion was not stationed in Moesia 
Inferior.) He chose the first two words and the last two as filling his line 
and as to him sufficiently describing the office. The offices are given in two 
divisions, the constants of the cursus together and the remaining offices to- 
gether, those in each division being in inverse order. Those of the second 
division are all of praetorian rank, so that his designation to the consulship 
came while he was curator of the Flaminian road. This curatorship immedi- 
ately precedes the consulship in 6.1529 (an inscription of the year 221, wrongly 
referred by Korneman, P-W 4 p. 1783, to the reign of Macrinus, and wrongly 
restored, Valerius instead of Vettius in CIL. See Bonn. Jahrb. 55 and 56 
(1879) p. 219; LeBas et Waddington, Voyage, 3- 1839; EE i p. 136, n. 4) and 
immediately follows the legateship of a legion in 6.1333, 2.4510, 14.2933. The 
cursus of the last inscription is much like that in ours, [cur. viarum] Flamin. 
et Ti[burtinae] utriusque, l[egato legionum] - - - - et XV Apollinaris, 

pr., , in which the curatorship of the via Tiburtina probably preceded 

the legateship of the legion. 

Our inscription seems to belong about the middle of the second century. 



138 T. Suellius Marcianus * 

IGR 1.584 (Nicopolis ad Istrum) 'AyaOrji Tiixv- • • . • ivarpos varpldos 
dvdvwdTov, [rj-yeixovevovTOi r^s] iirapxdas T. SoiieX\[toi; ^lapKiavov irpe<7^€VT0ii Se/Sacr- 
Tou dvTLiXTpa.T-fiyov\. 

78 



Cat. Brit. Mus., Thrace, p. 163, n. 17, a coin of Philippopolis of the time 
of Commodus has on the reverse, 177- Soi^A. MapKiavov. 

The note in IGR, 1. c, is, T. SueUius Marcianus Moesiae Inferiori praefuit 
Commodo imperante. The coin quoted above shows that he was governor of 
Thrace under Commodus. The coins of Nicopohs ad Istrum under Antoninus 
Pius and Commodus — there are none under M. AureHus — use the word 
riyefwveJiju to describe the rule of the governor, those of Septimius Severus 
and later, virarevw. The former is the word used of a praetorian legate, the 
latter of a consular legate. Pick i pp. 67, 330 rightly concludes from this that 
Nicopolis belonged to Thrace until the time of Commodus and to Moesia 
Inferior from the reign of Septimius on. The coin of Commodus from 
Philippopolis taken in connection with our inscription from Nicopolis naming 
the same man as governor supports this view for the time of Commodus. 
There is therefore no reason to conclude with IGR for this inscription that 
Marcianus was ever governor of Moesia Inferior. 

We may note also in regard to Marcianus that 6.30967, by correcting the 
reading of 6.3702, shows him to have been curator aedium sacrarum et operum 
locorumque publicorum in 192 instead of 175 as given in P-W 4 p. 1789. 



139 M. Salonius Longinius Marcellus C. V.* 

9.2592 (Terventum) M. Salonio Longino Marcellus C. V. quest, cand., 
leg. pro. Afr., trib. pie., leg. pro pret. prov. Moestae, pr. pe. aer. Sat., Tertuen- 
tinates patrono pimo d. d. 

Litteris pravis, is Mommsen's note in CIL. It seems probable that 
Moesiae is meant by Moestae. It should be noted however that the subject 
of this inscription is not said to have been leg. Aug. pro pret. prov. Moestae. 
He is given as a governor of the undivided province by Liebenam, who, how- 
ever, dates the inscription in the third century. In CIL 9, index, p. 763, he 
is given among the legati Augusti pro praetore provinciae. Henzen 5172 
explains, "sc. legatus legati consularis Moesiae." He held the office, whatever 
it was, just before his praetorship. This makes the assumption that he was 
governor of undivided Moesia or of either Moesia quite untenable, for these 
governors were ex-consuls. We have not, then, here merely the omission of 
Aug. from the title of a regular consular governor, as in 3.2830 and 9.2454, 
2455, and as is frequent on milestones, e. g. 3.7602, 7604. There seem to be 
no parallels to Henzen's legatus pro praetore legati consularis of an imperial 
province. The only one that he cites, Henz. 5449, an ex-praetor, styled simply 
legatus Citerioris Hispaniae, is rightly explained in Des. 1021 n. i, as a legatus 
iuridicus. No legati iuridici are known for Moesia. Legati pro praetore 
provinciae, as officers subordinate to the governor, are common enough in 
senatorial provinces, and often they have not yet reached the praetorship, but 
I cannot explain the presence of such an officer in an imperial province.^*^ 

^5' The peculiar administrative situation in Moesia existing from a. 15 to a. 44 (see §§ 5, 
9 ff), giving us several subordinate legati of praetorian rank, the last of whom is styled 
legatus Claudii pro praetore provinciae Moesiae et legionum quartae Scythicae et quintae 
Macedonicae, ended in 44. This inscription is shown by C. V. to be of the second century or 
later. 

79 



Nothing else in the cursus given in our inscription gives any ground for 
assuming that it is not strictly chronological, and our Marcellus had not 
reached the consulship at the time the inscription was set up. In the 
rank of quaestor he was leg. prov. Africae of the diocese of Hippo (9.1592) 
or of Carthage (2.1262, 14.3599, 2942, cf. 5.4347). Such quaestorii legati are 
also known from Asia (14.3609, 10.3724, 3.6814, 5.4327). The praefecti aerari 
Saturni were chosen from the ex-praetors at this period. The only conclusion 
then that I can reach is that among the many mistakes in this wretched in- 
scription one is that the "Tertunentinates" have not made it clear in what 
capacity this man served his country in "Moesta." 



140 A. lulius Pompilius A.fil. Cornelia Piso T. Vibius 

Laevillus Berenicianus * 

8.2582 (Lambaesis) [A.] lulius Pompilius A. fil. Cornelia Piso T. 
Vib[ius .... Laevillus] Berenicianus Xvir stlitibus iudicandis, tri[bunus 

militum leg ], item XV Apollinaris, quaestor urb., adlec[tus inter 

tribunicios, praetor] candidatus Augustorum, legatus leg. XIII [Geminae, 
item IIII Flaviae], praepositus legionibus I Italicae et III [I Flaviae cum 
omnibus copiis] auxiliorum dato iure gladi, leg. August[orum pro. praetore 
leg. Ill Aug.], consul desig[natus]. 

8.2745 (Lambaesis) [Laevillo Berenici]ano [Xviro stlit. iud.], trib. m[il. 

leg ], item XV A[poll., quaest. u]rb., alle[cto inter tri]bunicios, 

[praetori] Candida [to Augustor.], leg. leg. XII [I Gem., item IIII Fl., 
prae[posito Ie]gionib[us I Italicae et IIII Fl. cum [auxiliis]. 

8.2547 (Castra Lambaesitana) [Imp. Caes. M. Aurelio Antonino Aug. 
Germ. Sarm. pont. max. trib. p]ot. XXX"" imp. VI [II cos. I] II p. p. fortis- 
simo [libe]ralissimoq. [prin]cipi dedicante [A. I]ulio Pisone [le]g. Aug. pro 
pr. veteran! leg. Ill Aug. [qui] militare coeperun. [Glab]rione et Homullo 
[et Praesente et Rufino cos.]. 

The name Laevillus is from 8.2488. The inscriptions quoted above make 
the restorations in the cursus certain. The restorations at the end of 8.2547 
are vouched for by 8.2744, where the names of the consuls remain on the 
stone. 

At some time during the first Marcomannic war (a. 167-173) legio I 
Italica of Moesia Inferior and legio IIII Flavia of Moesia Superior were 

'^ Beuch. p. 84 n. 3 seems to be at fault in assuming that since Marcus's trib. pot. XV 
extended into a. 161 his trib. pot. XXX extended into 177, and we must with Wilmanns and 
Dessau assign 8.2547 to a. 176. This shows that discharge was granted to certain soldiers of 
leg. Ill Augusta, some of whom had served only twenty-four years and some only twenty-three 
years. But the first Marcomannic war was now ended and a very large number of new troops 
had been enlisted in preparation for this war and during its progress. Moreover the treasury 
was well nigh depleted. It is hardly surprising, therefore, that when peace came, with extra 
troops on hand and without extra need, expenses were reduced by granting an early missio to 
some of the troops that had almost served out their time. This does not of course disprove the 
assumption of Klein and of Goyau (Chronologic de I'empire remain) that Julius Piso was 
consul sutfectus in 178, and yet there is no proof that this was tlie exact year of his consulship, 
since 8.2582 cannot be certainly dated a. 177. He may have been in Numidia several years. 

8o 



detached from the commands of the governors of the provinces to which they 
regularly belonged and formed into an independent corps for some special 
service. Julius Piso, who was leg. leg. IIII Flaviae at the time the corps was 
formed, was placed in command of the united force, that is, the leg. leg. I 
Italicae was subordinated to him. It is probable that he still acted as leg. 
leg. IIII Flaviae. He was given the ius gladii that he might have sufficient 
authority to maintain discipline in the legions, now detached from the com- 
mand of the governors of the provinces who ordinarily exercised the ius 
gladii over them. We should not, however, it seems to me, assume with 
Bench, pp. 84 f. that the civil jurisdiction over Dacia was at the same time 
given to Julius Piso. Had he been leg. Aug. pro pr. Daciae such would have 
been stated in our inscriptions. (Cf. § 31.) That he was not a governor of 
either Moesia is clear since it is not claimed for him in the inscriptions and 
his troops were partly from one province and partly from the other, and 
since he was afterwards sent to the praetorian command of Numidia before 
attaining the consulship. 



141 C. Caecina Largus * 

C. Caecina Largus is given by Lieb. p. 284 as a governor of Moesia 
Inferior on the evidence of AEM 10 (1886) p. TZ. Later editions of this 
inscription, 3.7418 = 12337 = I4207^^ report it as belonging to Thrace. 



81 



CONSPECTUS^ 



Governors of the Undivided Province 

Date'" Section 

6-12 A. Caecina Severus 7 

12-35 C. Poppaeiis Sabinus 8 

15-16 L. Pomponius Flaccus (Cf. § 9.) 10 

16-19 Latinius Pandusa (Cf. § 9.) II 

19-20 L. Pomponius Flaccus (Cf. § 9.) 12 

21 P. Vellaeus (Cf. § 9) 13 

25-33 Pomponius Labeo (Cf. § 9.) 14 

35-44 P. Memmius Regulus 15 

41-44 Martius Macer (Cf. § 9.) 16 

45/46 A. Didius Gallus 18 

53-60 Flavins Sabinus 19 

60-67 Ti. Plantins Silvanns Aelianus 20 

69 M. Aponius Satnrninns 21 

69-70 Fonteius Agrippa 22 

70-74 Rnbrins Gallus 23 

75 Sex. Vettnlenns Cerealis 24 

82 C. Vettnlenns Civica Cerealis 25 

84 M. Cornelius Nigrinus Curiatius Maternus 2."] 

85-86 Oppins Sabinus 28 

"^ Several men who have at times been assumed to have been governors of Moesia are 
omitted from this conspectus, but are discussed in the text. For references to these discus- 
sions see the general index tmder the following names: P. Antonius Faustus, C. Avidius 
Nigrinus, T. Avidius Quietus, Aurelius Appianus, M. Aurelius Claudius, Aurelius Pontianus, 
Caecilius, M. Caecilius Servilianus, C. Caecina Largus, L. Calpumius Piso Frugi, lulius Castus, 
A. lulius Pompilius Piso, T. Vibius Laevillus Berenicianus, L. Licinius Sura, L. Ovinius 
Rusticus Cornelianus, Pollenius Auspex, L. Quintilianus, M. Salonius Longinius Marcellus, 
T. Suellius Marcianus, C. Zeno. A few others in regard to whom it is doubtful whether they 
ever governed Moesia or not, are included in this list, with an interrogation point after their 
names. A few who governed one of the Moesias, but it is uncertain which, are given in this 
list under each province and enclosed in brackets. 

"' The date given here is usually an approximate one. For discussion of the evidence see 
the sections to which reference has been made. In the articles in the text the dates that are 
regarded as certain are placed beside the names at the head of the sections. 

82 



Governors of Moesia Superior 

86/89 L. Funisulanus Vettonianus 29 

93 Cn. Pinarius Aemilius Cicatricula Pompeius Long-inus 30 

138 P. Tullius Varro 32 

158/160 P. Mummius Sisenna Rutilianus 34 

160 C. Curtius lustus 35 

161 M. Statins Priscus Licinius Italicus 36 

162/165 Avidius Cassius ? 37 

163/168 M. Servilius Fabianus Maximtis 38 

168/170 M. Claudius Fronto 39 

169 L. Vitrasius Flamininus 40 

168/194 Caerellius 4^ 

176/178 P. Helvius Pertinax 42 

177/180 M. Macrinius Avitus Catonius Vindex 43 

195 11. Pompeianus 44 

195-196 L. Fabius Cilo Septiminus Catinius Atilianus Lepidus 

Fulcinianus 45 

202/210 Q. Anicius Faustus 4^' 

212/217 [Pomponius Bassus] ' 47 

212/221 L. Marius Perpetuus 48 

About 223 C. Furius Octavianus ? 49 

244 [Severianus] 5° 

248 [Ti. Claudius Marinus Pacatianus] 51 

249 [C. Messius Quintus Traianus Decius] 52 

258/268 [Regalianus] 54 

253/268 Egnatius Marinianus 55 

Third century M. Caecilius Novatilianus 56 

After Trajan [Calpurnius lulianus] 57 

Governors of Moesia Inferior 

92 Sex. Octavius Fronto 59 

99 Q. Pomponius Rufus 60 

100-102 M', Laberius Maximus 61 

102/103 Fabius Postuminus 62 

105 A. Caecilius Faustinus 64 

112 P. Calpurnius Caulius Rufus 65 

116-117 O. Roscius Coelius Murena Silius Decianus Vibullus 

Pius lulius Eurycles Herclanus Pompeius Falco 66 

120 Artorius 67 

83 



1 28/1 3 1 Sex. Miniciits Faustinus lulius Severus 68 

128/133 L. Minicius Natalis Quadronius Verus 69 

134 Sex. lulius Maior 70 

136 Antius Rufinus ? 7^ 

138/146 Fuficius Co[rnutus] 72 

1 39/1 5 1 T. Pomponius Proculus Vitrasius Pollio 73 

After 147 C. Prastina Pacatus Messalinus 74 

138/161 lulius Crassus 75 

139/160 Tib. Claudius Saturninus 76 

After 149 M. Pontius Laelianus "J"] 

155 T. Flavius Longinus O. Marcius Turbo 78 

Soon after 155 L. lulius Statilius Severus 79 

159 T. Statilius lulius Severus 80 

162 M. Servilius Fabianus Maximus 82 

165 M. lallius Bassus Fabius Valerianus 83 

About 169 Antonius Hiberus 84 

168/175 P. Vigellius Raius Plarius Saturninus Atilius Bra- 

duanus Caucidius Tertullus 85 

176/178 P. Helvius Pertinax 86 

175/179 M. Macrinius Avitus Catonius Vindex 87 

193/197 Cosconius Gentianus 89 

196/198 Pollenius Auspex 90 

198-201 C. Ovinius Tertullus 92 

202-205 L. Aurelius Gallus 94 

198/212 C. Junius Faustinus Postumianus 95 

208-210 Flavius Ulpianus 96 

211-212 L. lulius Faustinianus 97 

21 1/217 Quintilianus 100 

212/217 [Pomponius Bassus] loi 

217 M. Statins Longinus 103 

217, end P. Fu. Pontianus 104 

218 Marcius Claudius Agrippa 105 

218/222 lulius Antonius Seleucus 106 

218/222 T. Flavius Novius Rufus 107 

218/222 Sergius Titianus 108 

222 lulius Gaetulicus 109 

222/235 Tib. lulius Festus no 

224 L. Annius Italicus Honoratus iii 

222/235 Um. Tereventinus 112 

222/235 Fir. Philopappus 113 

230 Anicius Faustus Paulinus 1 14 

84 



234 Q- Decius Valerianus 1 1 5 

235 Flavins Lucilianus i i<J 

236 Domitiiis G : i^7 

238 C. Pe 118 

238/241 Tullius Menophilus , 119 

238/244 Sab. Modestus 120 

P. Rosius TertuUianus 121 

[Severianus] 122 

Prastina Messalinus 124 

[Ti. Claudius Marinus Pacatianus] 125 

[C. Messius Quintus Traianus Decius] 126 

Pi. 1 1. Post 127 

C. Vibius Trebonianus Gallus 128 

M. Aemilius Aemilianus 129 

258/268 [Regalianus] 130 

270/275 Aur 132 

272/275 Claudius Annius Natalianus 133 

Third century Vittennius luvenis I34 

After loi [Calpurnius lulianus] I35 

Incerti 136 



241/244 
244 

244/249 
248 

249 
249/251 

251 
253 



For names not included in this conspectus see note 142. 



85 



APPENDIX 

Some Titles of the Emperor Septimius Severus, 
and cil 3.6904 and 691 1. 

Parthicus Maximus. 

Wilmanns. Exemp. Inscr. Lat. (a. 1873). 978, n. 2: Ceterum 
nescio cur obsit Parthici Maximi titulus qiiem suscepit Severus iam 

a. 199. CIL 5 (a. 1877), index, p. 1158: ab a. 197 Parthicus 

Maximus; but the earhest of the inscriptions to which it refers is 
dated a. 198 in the body of the work. CIL 2 Suppl. (a. 1892), 

index, p. 1103 : a. 198, 200 Parthicus Maximus ; but the earliest 

of the inscriptions to which it refers is dated a. 200 in the body of 
the work. Egbert, Lat. Inscr. (a. 1895), p. 136: 198, Parthicus 
Maximus. Cagnat, Cours d'Epigr.^ (a. 1898), p. 195: Parthicus 
maximus en 199; and in a footnote to this (n. i, p. 195), Le titre 
Parthicus Maximus n'apparait qu'en 199. He refers however in 
n. 3 on the same page to 8.10337, 10338, in which Parthicus Max- 
imus is found, and dates them a. 198. CIL 3 Suppl. (a. 1902), 
index, p. 2430: a. 198 seq. Parthicus Maximus. 

(i) The titles Parthicus Maximus. trib. pot. VI, imp. XI, cos. 

II, appear together in the following inscriptions: 3.205, 3745. 6723, 
6725, 12178, 12186 = 6928, 12197, 12203, 12204, 14184=^*, 14428, 
10.7274. 

(2) The titles Parthicus Maximus, trib. pot. VI, imp. XII, 
COS. II, occur together in 3.14201. 

(3) The titles Parthicus Maximus, trib pot. VI, imp. XI, cos. 

III, occur together in 3.691 1. 

(4) Orelli, Inscr. Lat., 352 L. Sept. Severo 

Parthico Maximo et imp. Caes. M. Aur. Antonino, t. pote. I, 

cos. I, . 

CIL 10.7276 Imp. Caesari M. Aurelio Antonino Aug.. trib. pot., 
procos., L. Septimi Severi Parthici Maximi filio, . 

86 



The inscriptions in (i), (2), and (3), above are shown to 
belong to a. 198 by trib. pot. VI, found in each. 3.14428 is also 
dated 198 by the names of the consuls for that year. In CIL, 
3.14184-^* is dated a. 196, evidently by an oversight or misprint since 
on the same evidence it gives a. 198 with several of the others. 

Of the inscriptions of Caracalla in (4) above, the text of the 
first is perhaps not reliable, but its date and its use of Parthicus 
Maximus as a title of Septimus agree with 10.7276, whose text is 
not in doubt. Both belong to a. 198, as shown by t. pote. I and trib. 
pot. 

These inscriptions all agree in showmg that the title Parthicus 
Maximus was used of Septimius as early as 198. I have found no 
inscriptions showing an earlier use. 

3.5745 and 5980 give the title Parthicus Maximus to Caracalla, 
but they were evidently set up in 213 and 215 respectively, and not 
in the year 195, which accompanies the name of Septimius in each. 
The honorary titles of Septimius were not used by Caracalla until 
after his father's death in 211. 



Imp. XI AND Imp. XII. 

Cagnat, 1. c, gives 199 as the earliest date of the use of the 
titles Imp. XI and Imp. XII by Septimius. His footnote 3, p. 195, 
however, refers to CIL. 8.10337 f., of a. 198, as showing imp. XII 
among his titles. Since imp. XI must have preceded imp. XII, as 
early a date as 198 must be given for both. The evidence of the 
inscriptions quoted above agrees with this. I have not found an 
earlier use of these titles than a. 198. 



Cos. Ill, AND CIL 3.6904 AND 69II. 

3.691 1, group (3) above, of a. 198, gives cos III. Mommsen 
in editing this inscription seems to have had no doubt of its correct- 
ness, and on the basis of this inscription he used cos. Ill in restoring 
3.6904. The thirteen inscriptions of groups (i) and (2) above 
agree in indicating that Septimius was properly styled cos. II in a. 
198. The references given in Klein, Fasti Consulares, p. 89, op- 

87 



posite the year 202, show condusively that Septimius was consul III 
in that year. Cos. Ill in 3.691 1 is therefore an error, probably of 
the stone-cutter, for cos. II, and cos. II should have been used in 
restoring 3.6904."' 

»•• From tlie above it appears that 3.404-2 Imp. Caes. L. Sep. S . . . . Pius [P]ertinax 

Au[g] .... Arab. Adiab. Part. Max pont. max., trib. pot , imp. XI, cos 11, 

p sliould be dated 198/201 instead of 198 as given in OIL. 



88 



INDEX LOCORUM 



(References are to sections and notes.) 



Authors 

Acta Sanctorum Scillitanorum 85 

Anthologia Palatina 6 

Ammianus Marcellinus 27.4.1 1, n.2 

Appian, Illyrian Wars i6ff., n.4 ; 30, n.2. 

Cassius Dio 49.34-38, n.4; 51.23-27, n.5; 
51.26, n.6; 53.7, n.3; 54.34, 6; 55-29.3, 
7; 55-30.4, 7; 58.9-13, n.22; 58.24.3, 
14; 58.25.4-5, 8; id., 15; id., n.23; 
id., n.26; 59.12, 15; 60.15, n.23; 
60.20, 19; 60.24, n.23; id., n.24; id., 
n.25; id., n.26; 68.9.4, 61; 69.2, 17; 
69.13, 68; 73.8, 45; 73.22, 45; 76.1, 
94; 76.2.4, 94; 76.6.3, 94; 76.8, 45; 
76.9.2-3, 90; 78.13.1, 105; 78.21.2, 
47 ; 79-5, 47 ! index of consuls, 12. 

Chronicon Paschale p. 46 Dind., 94 

Epiphanius Cyprius Uepl tiirpuv Kai 
aTadfj-Qv n.124 

Eutropius 6.2, n.i; 6.10, n.2; 7.234, 
28; id., 29; 9.5, 129. 

Florus 1.39.6, n.i ; id., n.2; 2.26; n.5; 
2.27, 6. 

Frontinus, De Aquaeductis, 2.102, 18; 
id., n.28; id.. 29; Strategematon 
4.143, n.i. 

Herodian 3.29, n.72; 3.5.2ff., 45; 3.6.10, 
45; 3.8.2, n.68; 3.11.2, 94; 6.1.4, no; 
id., 112. 

Hieronymus, Chronicle, a. Abr. 1946, 
n.2 

Historiae Augustae : Vit. Hadr. 2.3, 4; 
7.1-3, 17. Vit. Marci 9.1, n.62; 22, 
n.64; id., 41. Vit. Veri 7.8, 45; id., 
83. Vit. Avid. Cass. 4.5-6, 37. Vit. 
Comm. 20.1, 45. Vit. Pert. 2.6-9, 
n.71 ; 2.10-3.2, 42. Vit. Sev. 8.13, 45 
10.3, 45 ; 13.6, n.70 ; 14.3, 45 ;i4. 10, 94 
Vit. Caracalli 6.7, 105. Vit. Gallieni 
9.1, 54. Vit. Tyr. Trig. lo.i, 54 



10.9, 54; 10.14, 54. Vit. Claud. 15.1, 

53. 
Jordanes, Getica, 11, n.3; 13, 22; id., 

28; 18, 128; 19, I2g. 
Josephus, Bell. Jud. 3.7.22, 24; 6.4.3, 

24; 7.4.3, 22; id., 23; 7.6.1, 24. 
Livy, Epit. 92, n.i; 97, n.2; 134-135, 

n.5 ; 140, 6. 
Lucian ' AXe^avdpos ■^ \f/evSofjLa.vTLS 48, 34 

Orosius 5.23, n.i ; 6.3.4, ".2. 
Ovid, Ex Ponto 4.9.75-80, 10 
Petrus Particius, Excerpta Vaticana 130 

p. 210 11. 19-26 Dind., 45; Exc. 9. 

119. 
Pliny. Ad Traj. 74.1, 61 ; Epist. 9.13. 

62. 
Pliny, H. N. 3.149, n.ii ; 7.14.62, 19; 

17.67, n.28. 
Plutarch. Moralia 478B, 17 
Rufius Festus 7, n.i ; 9, n.2. 
Seneca Ep. 12.1. 14, 6; De Morte 

Claudia 13.5, n.28. 
Servius ad Aen. 7.604, n.2 
Strabo 7.3.5, n.3 
Seutonius : Aug. 20-21, n.4; Calig. 

25.2, 9; id., 15; id., n.2i; id., n.23; 

Claud. 13, n.23; 25, n.23; id., n.24; 

id., n.25; Domit. 6, 28; id., 29; Vesp. 

4, 19 ; id., n.29. 
Tacitus: Ann. 1.31, 7; 1.64, 7; 1.80, 8; 

id., 9; id., n.23; 2.1, n.36; 2.64-67, 

11; 2.66, 12; 3.35, n.2o; 3.39, 9; id., 

13; 3.58, n.2o; 4.46-49, 9; 4.47, 8; id., 

14; 4.51, 14; 4.68, n.28; 4.71, n.28; 

5.1 1, n.22; 6.4, n.22; 6.10, 6; 6.27, 12; 

6.29, 14; 6.30, n.2oa; 6.39, 8; 12.15, 

18; id., n.28; 12. 18-21, 18; 12.39, 

n.28; 12.40, n.28; 13.30, 19; 13.35, 

20; 14.42, 19; 15.6, 20; I5-I-I7, 20. 

Hist. 1.79, 21 ; 2.85, 21 ; 2.96, 21 ; 3.5, 

21; 3.9-1 1, 21; 3.44, 19; 3.46, 22; 

3.7s, 19; id., n.29. Agric. 13, 19. 



89 



TcrtuIHan. Ad Scap. 3, 85 

Velleius Paterculus 2.98.1-2, 6; 2.1 12.4, 

7- 
Victor Epit. 32, 54; Caes. 33.2, 54. 
Zonaras 10.32, n.5 ; 10.34, 6; 12.19, 5i ; 

id., 52; id., 115; 12.20, 128; 12.21, 

129. 
Zo.simus 1.19, 50; 1.20, 51; 1. 21, 52; 

id., 115; 1.23, 128; 1.28, 129. 

Inscriptions 

CIL II 1262, 139; 2010, 17; 3783, 27; 
4126, 137; 4509-4511, n.92; 4509, 93; 
id., 69; 4510, 137; id.. 69; 451 1, 69; 
4756, 4788, 4816, 4826, 4828, 4831, 
4834, 4853, 4858, 4870, 4886, 4887, 
115; 5679, 73; 6013, 27. Ill 

205, App. i; 429, 27; 567, 17; id., 
n.23; id., 58; 749, 71; 762, 73; 767, 
80; 773, 107; 774, 79; 775. 85; 777, 
65; 781, 20; id., 84; id., 92; 905, 45; 
1178, 48; id., n.74(b) ; 1457, 39; 
1566, 57; 1685, 46; id., 93; 1701, 137; 
1839- '^37; 2820, 70; 2830, 68; id., 
139; 3745, App. i; 3746, n.73; 4013, 
4; id., 29; 4624, n.i2o; 4638, 45; 
4642, 45; id., n.144; 5745, App. i; 
5980, App. i; 5981, n.i2o; 6154, in; 
6169, 83; 6170, 107; 6175. 136; 6177, 
n.112; id., 97; 6182, 77; id., n.103; 
id., n.112; 6183, 85; 6222, 136; 6224. 
n.131 ; 6580, n.73 ; 6709-6710, n. 74(b) ; 
6723, App. I ; 6725, App. I ; 6814, 
139; 6904, App. 3; 691 1, App. i; id., 
App. 3; 6928, App. i; 7247, 18; 
7267, n.23; 7418, 141; 7420, 73; 
7449, 78; 7466, n.102; 7473, 114; 
7474, 76; 7485, 97; 7505, n. 62; id., 
39; id., 79; 7516, 136; 7529, 74; 
7537, 66; 7539, 67; 7540, 92; 754^, 
78; 7591, in; 7602-7604, 92; id., 
139; 7605, 116; 7606, 118; 7607, 118; 
id., 119; 7794, 45; 7904, 17; id., 58; 
8110, 35; id., n.102; 8169, 49; 8238, 
49; 8240, 49; 8270, 129; 8272, 33; 
8619, 51; 8753, n.24; 9891, 68; 12117, 
66; 12178, 12186, 12197, 12203, 12204, 
App. i; 12278, n.27; 12337, 141; 



12371, 79; 12385, 82; 12407, 71 
12457, 136; 12470, 66; 12493, 67 
12509, 92; 12513, 79; id., 80; 12514 
82; 12515, 127; 12519, 115; 13724 
115; 13727, 75; 13800, n.i20 
14150, n.74(b) ; 14184'', App. i 
14201, n.i20; id., App. i; 14207'^ 
141; 14214', 73; 14422', 71; 14428: 
92; id., App. i; 14429, 117; 14430 
136; 14451, 62; 14460, 136; 14461 
92; 14462, 116; 14485. n.i2o; 14499: 
40 ; 14507, 44 ; id., n.73. Diplomata 
XIV, 29; XVII, 29; XVIII, n.85 
XIX, n.56; id., 59; XXI, n. 56 
XXII, 59; XXV, n.85; XXVI, 30 
XXVIII, n.56; id., n.57; XXIX 
n.43; XXX, n.85; id., 60; XXXI 
60; XXXII, 61; XXXIII, n.85; id. 
64; XXXVI, n.85; XXXVIII, 65 
XLIV, 68; XLVII, 70; LVII, n.98 
LIX, n.85; id., 72; LX, 77; id. 
n.104; LXI, n.104; LXIII, 84 
LXVII, 82; LXIX, 61; LXX, 76 
LXXVI, no; CIII, 4; id., 30 

cviii, n.85. V 4327. 139 

4347, 139; 5809, 35; 6974-6980, n.87 

VI 228, 94; 413, 90; 537, n.73; 854: 
61; 1035, 94; 1052, n.117; 1119b, 83 

^333, 137; 1377, 39; 1408-1409, 45 
1423, 49; 1444, 31; 1449, 43; 145a 
1453, n.74(a) ; 1497. 77; 1517, 38 

1523, 36; 1529, 137; 1540, 73 
2003.11, n.128; 2016, n.93; 2028c, 15 
2028d, 18 ; id., n.28 ; 2039-2042, 21 
2044, 21; 2086.62, 79; 2101, n.114 
3702, 138; 3828, 26; 24162, n.105 
30967, 138; 31640, 39; 32327, 90 

VII 103, 90. VIII 6, 46 
13, 60; 597, 95; 2438, n.73; 2465 
n.117; 2488, 140; 2527-2528, n.73 
2547, 140; 2550, n.73; id., n.i20 
2551, n.73; 2553, n.73; 2557, 94 
2582, 140; id., n.140; 2592, 140; 2743: 
n.114; 2743-2745, 140; 4643, 69; id 
n.92; 4676, n.93; 6048, n.73; 6306: 
n.i2o; 7002, n.73; 8421, 109; 8649 
n.i2o; 10296, 70; 10337, App. I and 
2; 10338, App. I. and 2; 10992, 46 
11763, n.125; 14395, n-i2o; 17870- 



90 



17871, n.73; 17940, n.73; 18068, n.73; 
18256, n.73; 22060, n.51; id., n.57. 
IX 338, 49; id., 103; id., n.133; 
729, n.128; 1572, 56; 1592, 139; 2122, 
n.i20; 2454-2455, 139; 2592, 2T, id., 
139; 3608, n.133; 4957, 74; 5833, 
n.50; 6078.91, n.99. X 963, 
n.19; i486, 27; 3724, 139; 3870, 
40; 5670, n.93; 6321, 66; 6369, n.19; 
6639, 12; 7274, App. i; 7275; n.i2o; 
7276, App. I ; 8028, n.73. XI 
571, 4; id., 29; 1592, 139; 1835, 16; 
id., 9; 2454-2455, 139; 2925, n.92; 
3364, 2,2; 3365, Z2; 3876, n.117. 
XII 113, n.96; 2718, 83; 3164, 17; 
5563, n.73. XIII 6806, 41- 
XIV 2933, 137; 2942, 139; 3554, 
n.92; 3599, n.59; id., 69; id., n.92; 
id., 139; 3601, 34; 3608, 20; 3609, 
139; 4244, 34. XV 960, 74. 



Dessau 1005, n.53; 2907, n.102. 

AEM 10(1886) p.243 no. II, 92 

IG III 613, 15; id., n.23. IV912, n.2i; 

1139c, 15; 1406, n.105; 1534, n-ios; 

id., n.135. VII 89, n.92. XIV 1 125, 

n.92; id., n.93. 
CIG 1076, n.23; 5977, n.92; id., n.93. 
CIA 613, 15 
IGR I 573, 91; 575, n.iiS; 576. n.ii8; 

580, n.135; id., 119; 581, 121; 582, 

133; 584, 138; 591. 132; 593. 134; 
606, 67; 609, 72; 622, 78; 653. n.92; 
663, ^z. III 556, n.114; 618, 90; id., 
102. 
Bull. cor. hell. 11(1887) PP- 163-168, 

59- 

Dumont-Homolle 72a, n.45 
Latyschew I i, 20; 197, 24. 
Le Bas 3.600a, 20 



INDEX NOMINUM ET RERUM 
MEMORABILIORUM 

(References are to sections and notes.) 



Achaia 3,8,9,i5,n.23,n.24,i6,n.26,i7,i39. 

Acilius Strabo 27 

adlectio n.50,n.7i,43,56,i05. 

M. Aemilius Aemilianus 129 

Cn. Aemilius Cicatricula Pompeius Lon- 

ginus, see Pinarius. 
aera, change of, in Tyra, 20 
Africa n.20,32,69,n.97,85,i39. 
Agrippa, see Fonteius,Marcius. 
ala Contariorum 43 
Albinus 41,45. 
Alexander Severus, emperor, 5,n. 124,95, 

109,110,112. 
anachronisms 53,54,128. 
Q. Anicius Faustus 46,n. 73,93. 



Anicius Faustus Paulinus 114 
annals, events of more than one year 

given together, 11,14,20. 
Annius Felix n.131 
L. Annius Italicus Honoratus 11 1 
Antius Rufinus 71 
Antoniniana, cognomen of legion, 48 
Antoninus Pius, emperor, 32,34,n.6i,73, 

75,81,138. 
P. Antonius Faustus 93 
Antonius Hiberus 84 
M. Antonius Primus 2i,n.4i. 
Antonius Rufinus n.95 
Antonius Seleucus, see lulius Antonius 

Seleucus. 



91 



M. Aponius Saturninus 21,22. 
Aquila lulianus n.28 
Aquileia 40 
Arabia n.74(b) 
Armenia 11,20,11.62 
[A]rtorius 67 
Asia 6,19,20,22,34,62,73,139. 
Ser. Asinius Celer n.28 
Augustus, singular and plural of, in in- 
scriptions and coins 34.38,45."73> 

48,n.77,90,n.i 17.95,97- 

Augustus Caesar,emperor, i 

T. Avidiaccus Furianus n.133 

Avidius Cassius 2>1 

C. Avidius Nigrinus I7,58- 

T. Avidius Quietus 17,26. 

Aulus, incorrectly assumed from coins 
as praenomen, n.114 

Aur 132 

Aurelian, emperor, 132,133,136. 

Aurelianus n.77 

Marcus Aurelius, emperor, n. 124,84,138; 
policy of, in appointment of gover- 
nors, 41 ; Marcomannic wars of, 
39,40,41, i40,n. 140; titles of, 39-73. 
n.140. 

Aurelius Appianus 99 

M. Aurelius Claudius 53.I3I- 

L. Aurelius Gallus 94 

Aurelius Pontianus 98 

auxilia 20 

Bastarnae 20 

C. Bellicius Torquatus n.105 

beneficiarius consularis n.65 

Bessi 6 

bis, with titles, n.73 

Bithynia 45 

boundary lines, establishment of, '71 

Bosporus 18 

Breuci 7 

Britain I9,n.28,36,4i, 46,68. 

Caecilius 2)2> 

A. Caecilius Faustinus 64 

C. Caecina Largus 141 

M. Caecilius Novatilianus 56 

M. Caecilius Servilianus 88 

A. Caecina Severus 4.7.8- 



Caerellius 41 

Caerellii Macrinus, Faustinianus, luli- 
anus, n.70 
L. Caesennius Paetus 20 
Caligula, emperor, 15. n.28. 

Calpurnius Agricola 39,n.65,76. 

Calpurnius lulianus 57-135- 

P. Calpurnius Macer Caulius Rufus 65 

L. Calpurnius Piso Frugi 6 

Canusium, patroni of, 49,i03,n.i33. 

Cappadocia 36 

Caracalla, emperor, 45.47,84,n. 116,89,92, 
96,97, 1 00, 105, App. I ; tribunicial num- 
bers of, n.i2o; titles of, 89,n.ii7, 
App.i. 

Chersonese, Thracian, 6 

Chersonese, Bosporan, 20,61. 

Christians, persecution of, n.123 

Chronicon Paschale, trustworthiness of 
its dates, 94,n.i24; a source of, 
n.124. 

clarissimus vir 56,57.139- 

classis Misenensis n.85 

classis Moesica 59 

classis Ravennas n.85 

Claudius, emperor, 15,16,18,20. 

Claudius Annius Natalianus 133 

Ti. Claudius Atticus n.105 

Claudius Clemens n.85 

M. Claudius Fronto 34,39- 

C. Claudius Gentianus n.113 

Claudius lulianus n.102 

Ti. Claudius Marinus Pacatianus 51.125. 

L.Claudius Quintilianus 123 

P. Claudius Regalianus, see Regali- 
anus. 

Ti. Claudius Saturninus 76 

cognomen, of legion, 48 ; of person, n.91. 

colonia, deductio of, 26 

comes Augusti, n. 58,45,83,95. 

Commodus, emperor, 45,84,91,138. 

consul, position of, among titles in in- 
scriptions, 29,n.i27; absens, 42, 
n.73 ; iterum, 61 ; dates of certain 
consules suffecti, n.24,n.28,i9,27,n.57, 
42,45, n.73,47.69. n.93.73,76,n.i02, n.105, 
8o,n.io7,82,83,85.90,94.95,n.i40 ; time 
between consulships of father and 
son, 90; consul II, 61. 



92 



Corbulo, see Domitius. 

Cornelius Clemens 39 

M. Cornelius Nigrinus Curiatius Mater- 

nus 27 
corrector civitatium 17 
Cosconius Gentianus 89,90. 
Cot3-s, king of Bosporus, 18 
Cotys, king of Thrace, 11 
Cremona, battle of, 22 
curator aedium sacrarum 40,138. 
curator alvei Tiberis 40 
curator aquarum 18.19,29. 
curator civitatium 17 
curator cloacarum urbis 36,40. 
curator operum publicorum 83 
curator viarum 137 
Curiatius Maternus 2^ 
Curio, see Scribonius. 
C. Curtius Justus 35 



Daci 20,22. 

Dacia 39,n.65,42,434548,S3,57,58,85,90, 

105,140; Dacia Malvensis, 43; 

Daciae III, 48. 
Dalmatia, see Delmatia. 
damnati 15,118,133. 
L. Dasumius Tuscus 32 
Q. Decius, see the following and Mes- 

sius. 
Q. Decius Valerianus 52,115. 
deductio veteranorum 26 
Delmatia n.23,29,40,53,90. 
destinatus 89 
Dexippus n.137 
h 10.(7 r\\xJtnaro^ 132 

A. Didius Callus 18 
dioecesis 139 
Diocletian, emperor, 5 
diplomata, form of d. classiaria, 59 
Domitian, emperor, 4,26,27, 29,n. 53. 
Cn. Domitius Afer n.28 
Cn. Domitius Corbulo 20 

Domitius G 117 

Domna, see lulia. 
dona militaria 31,43. 
dux Illyrici 53,54. 
dux limitis 53,128. 
dux vexillationum 45 



Tjyeixoveiju} n. 132, n.138, 134,138. 

Egnatius Marinianus 55 

Elagabalus, emperor, 47,106,108. 

Epiphanius Cyprius n.124 

era, of Tyra, 20 

Erucius Clarus 45 

Eunones 18 

Q. Eutetius Lusius Saturninus n.24 

exercitator equitum singularium 58 

F 136 

L. Fabius Cilo 45 

Fabius Postuminus 62 

Fir. Philopappus 109,110,112,113. 

T. Flavins Longinus Q. Marcius Turbo 

78 
Flavins Lucilianus 116 
T. Flavins Lucilianus n.133 
T. Flavius Novius Rufus 107 
Flavins Sabinus 19 
Flavius Ulpianus 96,97,n.i29. 
Fonteius Agrippa 22,23,n. 51. 
Fratres Arvales 1 5, n. 28,78. 
fratres populi Romani 20 
P. Fu. Pontianus 104,105. 
Fuficius Cornutus 72 
Fuficius Quintianus 72 
L. Funisulanus Vettonianus 4,29. 
Furia Sabinia Tranquillina 119,120,121. 
C. Furius Octavianus 49 

Galatia 45 

Gallienus, emperor, 54,55. 

Germania Inferior 7,n.i02. 

Germania Superior 20,26,41. 

Geta, emperor, 48,92,96,97,100. 

Geta, brother of Septimius Severus, see 

Septimius Geta. 
Getae n.51 

Q. Glitius Atilius Agricola 61 
Gordianus III, emperor, 118,120,121, 

136. 
Goths n.51 

Hadrian, emperor, i7.n-50,32.33>66, 

n.105. 
Haemus 6 

P. Helvius Pertinax 42,45,85,86. 
Hispania 90,115. 



93 



M. lallius Bassus Fabius Valerianus 83 

lazyges 20 

Illyricum i ; exercitus lUyrici, n.23 

incerti 136 

Ingenuus 54 

insignia triumphalia 14 

lordanes n.5i,i28,n.i37. 

Italia Transpadana 40 

item, meaning of in inscriptions, 4,n.i3, 

29-11.54- 
ludaea 24,n. 56,68. 
lulia Domna 92,96,97,100. 
lulia Maesa 110,112. 
lulius Antonius Seleucus 106,107,108. 
lulius Castus 91 
C. lulius Caesar i 
lulius Crassus 75 
L. lulius Faustinianus 97 
Tib. lulius Festus 109,110. 
lulius Gaetulicus 109 
Sex. lulius Maior 70 
A. lulius Pompilius Piso T. Vibius Lae- 

villus Berenicianus I40,n.i40. 
lulius Severus, see Minicius, Statilius. 
C. lulius Severus 79,n.io7. 
L. lulius Statilius Severus 79 
lunius Blaesus n.20 
C. lunius Faustinus Postumianus 95 
A. lunius Pastor "j"] 
ius gladii 140 

M". Laberius Maximus 61 

Latinius Pandusa 11 

legatus Augusti 26,83,137. 

legatus Augusti pro praetore 6,17. 

legatus consularis 9,12,15,22,28,68,138. 

legatus imperatoris alicuius 92,n.i2i. 

legatus iuridicius 139 

legatus legati consularis 139 

legatus legionis 9,10,16,19,26,85,137,140. 

legatus praetorianus 9,n.89,i38. 

legatus pro praetore 31 

legatus pro praetore provinciae 139, 

n.i2i. 

legatus quaestorius 32,139. 

legio. Annihilation of, 20; length of ser- 
vice in, 35,n.6i,n. 73, n.140; cognomen 
of, 48; legio Mysiae Inferioris 137; 
I Adiut., n.71 ; I Ital., 137,140; III 



Aug., i40,n.i4o; IV Flavia, 32,58, 
i40,n.i4o; IIII Scyth., 20,139; V 
Mac, 20,n.65,n.83,85,i37,i39; VI 
Ferr., 22; VII CI., 137; VII Galb., 
n.41; VIII Aug., 20,26; XI CI., 137; 
XIII Gem., 20; XV Apol, 137; 
XVI F. R, n.74(b). 

Lentulus Gaetulicus n.20a 

libertus imperatoris 26,n.i39. 

M. Licinius Crassus i 

M. Licii>ius LucuUus i 

Q. Licinius Silvanus Granianus Quad- 
ronius Proculus n.91 

L. Licinius Sura 31,63. 

Lucius, incorrectly assumed from coins 
as a praenomen, n.i22,n.i3o. 

Lucullus, see Licinius. 

ludi saeculares of Septimius Severus, 90 

Lusitania 95 

Lycia 90 

Macedonia 3,6,8,9,io,i5,n.23,n.24,i6,n.26, 

17-50. 
Macrinus, emperor, 47,105. 
M. Macrinius Avitus Catonius Vindex 

43.87. 
Maesa, see lulia Maesa. 
Marcianopolis 106 
Marcius Claudius Agrippa 105 
Marcomanni 39,40,41. 
Marcus Aurelius, emperor, 34,36,39,40, 

4i,42,43,n.io5,84,95,i40,n.i40. 
Mariniana 55 
Marinus, emperor, see Ti Claudius 

Marinus Pacatianus. 
L. Marius Maximus Perpetuus Aurel- 

ianus n.74(a) 
L. Marius Perpetuus 48 
Martins Macer 16 
Martins Verus 83 
Mehadia, in Moesia Superior? n.83 
P. Memmius Regulus 9,15. 
C. Messius Quintus Traianus Decius 

52,115,126,128. 
Sex. Minicius Faustinus lulius Severus 

68 
L. Minicius Natalis Quadronius Verus 

32,69. 
missio 26,35,n.73,n.i40. 



94 



Mithradates, king of Bosporus, i8 

Moesia, conquest of, i ; organized as a 
province, 2,n.i8; administered for a 
time jointly with Achaia and Mace- 
donia, 3,8,9,15,16; as a part of other 
administrative units, 5,42,50,52,53,54, 
105,126,128,129; use of the word 
Moesia without Superior or Infe- 
rior in inscriptions, 27; division of, 
4,n.43,n.52a,n.55,59; rank of the gov- 
ernors of, 5,9,19,20; legions of, n.23, 
20,21,26,51,54,126,128; receives colo- 
nists from north of the Danube, 20; 
sends wheat to Rome, 20. 

Moesia Inferior becomes a province, 
4; rank of governors of, 5,38,n7i, 
95,n.i38,r37,i39; forms part of a 
larger administrative district at va- 
rious times, 5,50,51,52,53,54,124,128, 
129; legions of, n.64,85,137; boun- 
daries of, 20,71,81,88,138, see also 
Nicopolis ad Istrum in this index. 

Moesia Superior becomes a province, 
4; rank of governors of, 5,29,34,38, 
4i,n.7i,i39; forms part of larger ad- 
ministrative district at various times, 
5,39,40,50,51,52,53,54,124,128,129 ; le- 
gions of, 32,n.64 ; boundaries of, n.83. 

Mucianus 22 

P. Mummius Sisemia Rutilianus 34 

Q. Mustius Priscus 77,n.io5. 

name, long, as indication of date, 27 

Narcissus i9,n.29. 

Nero, emperor, 19, n. 29,20. 

Nerva, emperor, 59 

Nicomedia 45 

Nicopolis ad Istrum 7i,8i,88,i32,n.i38, 

138. 
Niger, see Pescennius. 
Nonius Asprenas n.28 
Nonius Quintilianus n.28 
Novius Rufus, see Flavins Novius 

Rufus. 
Noricum n.71 
Numidia n.56,n.57,46,n.73,n.73a,74,i40. 

Sex. Octavius Fronto 59 
Oppius Sabinus 4,27,28. 



optimus prmceps 17 

Otho, emperor, 19,21. 

L. Ovinius Rusticus Cornelianus 

C. Ovinius Tertullus 91,92. 



137 



Pamphylia 6 

Pannonia 4,20,29,n.4i,n.54,n. 56,31, n.6o, 

45>5i>52,53,6i,72,77,io5,i29. 
Pannonia Superior 45,77,n.io5. 
Parthicus Maximus, a title of Septimius 

Severus, n.73,App.i. 
patrocinium (patronus) 26,45,49,103, 

n.i33- 

C. Pe 118,119. 

Pedanius Secundus 19 

Perinthus 45 

Pertinax, see Helvius Pertinax. 

Pescennius Niger 45,n.72. 

Philip, emperor, 50,52,74,124. 

Philopappus, see Fir. Philopappus. 

Philippopolis 13 

Cn. Pinarius Aemilius Cicatricula Pom- 

peius Longinus 30 
Plautianus 94 
Plautilla 94 

Ti. Plautius Silvanus Aelianus 20 
Pollenia Honorata 90 
Pollenius Auspex 90,102. 
Pollienus, see Pollenius. 
. . . n. Pompeianus 44 
Pompeius Falco, see Roscius. 
Cn. Pompeius Longinus n.56 
Pomponius Bassus 47,101. 
L. Pomponius Flaccus 10,11,12. 
Pomponius Labeo 14 
T. Pomponius Proculus Vitrasius Pollio 

Q. Pomponius Rufus 60 

M. Pontius Laelianus T] 

M. Pontius Laelianus Larcius Sabinus 

V 
Pontus 18,45. 
C. Poppaeus Sabinus 7,8,9,10,13,14, 

n.23. 
M. Porcius Cato n.28 

P. Post 127 

praefectus aerari 29,139. 
praefectus classis 59,105. 
praefectus praetorio 28,94. 



95 



praefectus urbis 19.45- 
praepositus legionibus 140 
praepositus vexillationibus 45 
praetor 16,19,29,43. 
praeses provinciae n. 74(b), 56,11. 85. 
Prastina Messaliiius 124 
C. Prastina Pacatus Messaliiius 74 
Probus, emperor, 133 
proconsul, with numeral, in an inscrip- 
tion, n.73 
procurator provinciae 26,43. 
prorogatus 8 
Prosius, see P. Rosius. 



quaestor 32,43. 
quaestorii legati 139 
quindecemvir sacris faciundis 90 
Quintilianus n.28,100,123. 

Raetia 4i,n.69,n.7i. 

Regalianus 54'i30- 

Regulus, see P. Mumniius Regulus. 

Rhescuporis 6,10,11,12. 

Rhoemetalces 6 

Rhoxolani 20 

Q. Roscius Coelius Murena Silius Deci- 
anus VibuUus Pius lulius Eurycles 
Herclanus Pompeius Falco 66 

P. Rosius Tertullianus 119,120,121. 

rtorius 69 

Rubrius Gallus 23 

Rutilianus, see Mummius. 

Rutilius Gallicus n.97 



n.74('b),n.ii9,App.i-3; tribunicial 

numbers of, n.74(b),n.i20. 
C. Septimius Vegetus n.85 
Sergianus Titianus 106,107,108. 
M. Servilius Fabianus Maximus 3840. 

82. 
Severianus 50,122. 
socii 6 

sodalis Hadrianalis 45 
Sosius Falco 45 

Statilius, see L. lulius Statilius Severus. 
T. Statilius lulius Severus 80 
M. Statins Longinus 103,105. 
M. Statins Priscus Licinius Italicus 36, 

40. 
T. Suellius Marcianus 138 
Syncellus n.137 
Syria 37,42,45,79. 

Tacitus, chronology of the Annals, 11, 

12.20. 
Tertullianus, see Rosius. 
Thracia,Thraeci, 2,6,10,11,13,26,45,53,71, 

81,88,11.138,134,138,141- 
Tiberius, emperor, 3,9,11,12. 
Trajan, emperor, 17,31,40,57,61,66. 
Tranquillina, see Furia. 
Transpadana 40 
Trebonianus Gallus, see Vibius. 
tribunus milituni 32,110. 
Troesmis 10,85. 

Tullius Menophilus n.135,119,120. 
Tullius Tuscus s^ 
P. Tullius Varro 32,40. 
Tyra 20,84. 



Sab. Modestus 120 

M. Salonius Longinius Marcellus I39 

Sarmatae 20,21,22,37. 

C. Scribonius Curio i 

Scythi 51 

Seianus 14 

M. Seius Veranus n.24 

Sentius Caecilianus n.97 

septemvir epulonum 29 

Septimius Geta, brother of the emperor 

Septimius Severus, 45,94- 
Septimius Severus n.70,4S.n.74(b),84, 

9O,92,n.i24,96,97.i0O,i38; titles of. 



Valerian, emperor, 53 

P. Vellaeus 9,13. 

Q. Veranius n.28 

Verus, emperor, 34,n.6o,36,39,43,76,n.i02, 

n. 105,79,83,84,95- 
Vespasian, emperor, 19,20,21,23. 
L. Vettius lubens 134 
Sex. Vettulenus Cerealis 24 
C. Vettulenus Civica Cerealis n.42,2S, 

26. 
C. Vibius Trebonianus Gallus 127,128, 

129. 
Victorianus Censitus n.73,n.73a. 



96 



p. Vigellius Raius Plarius Saturninus Um. Tereventinus 109,110,112. 

Atilius Braduanus Caucidius Ter- L. Volusius Saturninus 19 

tullus 85 Volusianus, emperor, 129 

Vimiuacium 45.55- worei/w 132, n.ii4,n. 122, 132, n. 138, 134,138. 

Vitellius, emperor, 19,21. 

Vitennius luvenis 134 

L. Vitrasius Flaminalis 40 C. Zeno 81 

L. Vitrasius Flamininus 40 Zonaras, a source of, 52 

Vitrasius Pollio, see Pomponius. Zosimus, a source of, 52,128,129. 



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