NYPL RESEARCH LIBRARIES 3 3433 08230958 8 OF WASHINGTON EDMOND S. MEANT Me GOVERNORS OF WASHINGTON Territorial and State By EDMOND S. MEANY Professor of History University of Washington SEATTLE DEPARTMENT OF PRINTING, UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON 1915 THE NEW YO PUBLIC LI? Y 341930A *OX AND DEN , NDA1 LuNS R 19^7 L THIS BOOK IS PRINTED FROM TYPE IN A LIMITED EDITION, OF WHICH THIS IS NUMBER I . TO SCOTT C. BONE Who is Advancing the Cause of History PREFACE An Italian economist has said that a colony is to history what a mountain is to geology: it brings past forms to view. The commonwealth of Washington is a colony of the American Un- ion. With greatly accelerated speed it has passed through the log-cabin, Indian war, and other ex- periences of the older colonies. On account of that speed it is possible here for those of the present cosmopolitan generation to glean from living witnesses information about those who wrought upon the foundations in the wilderness. In this spirit these essays on the Governors of Washington have been prepared. The brief biographies should be an inspira- tion for western youth. Nearly every one of the governors achieved the high station from a hum- ble beginning. The qualities that have counted most are industry, perseverance, honesty and courage. Of the twenty-two governors, the youngest at the time of inauguration was Gov. Stevens, 35 years of age, and the oldest was Gov. Pickering, who was 64. The average age at inauguration was 48 years. The birthplaces of the govern- ors were widely scattered. Four were born in Ohio, three in New York, two in Maine, two in England, and one each in Germany, United States of Colombia, Massachusetts, Virginia, Kentucky, New Hampshire, Michigan, Utah, Kansas and Wisconsin. Acknowledgment is gladly given the Seattle Post-Intelligencer for its publication of the es- says on its editorial page. The type used in the original publication was kindly saved that the vi IMiEFArr, biographies might appear again in this more permanent form. During the governorship of Albert E. Mead, his secretary, Ashmun N. Brown, gave much time to a collection of portraits of all the men who had served as governors. So far as known to the present writer, the only uniform series of plates from that collection of portraits was made by The Geographical Publishing Company of Chicago. Acknowledgment is here made of the kindness of that company in supplying elec- troplates of the series for this publication. I wish also to publicly thank Professor J. Franklin Jameson, Director of the Department of Historical Research of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, for a careful search in the Library of Congress and other sources of information at the National Capital, especially in the baffling case of Governor Richard D. Gholson. Edmond S. Meany University of Washington Seattle, October 30, 1915. CONTENTS Page Introduction 1 TERRITORIAL GOVERNORS NO. I. ISAAC INGALLS STEVENS 5 NO. II. FAYETTE McMULLIN 11 NO. III. RICHARD D. GHOLSON 17 NO. IV. WILLIAM H. WALLACE 23 NO. V. WILLIAM PICKERING 27 NO. VI. GEORGE E. COLE 31 NO. VII. MARSHALL F. MOORE 35 NO. VIII. ALVAN FLANDERS 39 NO. IX. EDWARD S. SALOMON 43 NO. X. ELISHA PEYRE FERRY 47 NO. XL WILLIAM AUGUSTUS NEWELL 53 NO. XII. WATSON CARVOSSO SQUIRE 59 NO. XIII. EUGENE SEMPLE 65 NO. XIV. MILES CONWAY MOORE 71 STATE GOVERNORS NO. XV. ELISHA PEYRE FERRY 75 NO. XVI. JOHN HARTE McGRAW 79 NO. XVII. JOHN RANKIN ROGERS 85 NO. XVIII. HENRY McBRIDE 91 NO. XIX. ALBERT EDWARD MEAD 95 NO. XX. SAMUEL GOODLOVE COSGROVE 99 NO. XXL MARION E. HAY 105 NO. XXII. ERNEST LISTER Ill GREAT SEAL OF THE TERRITORY GREAT SEAL OF THE TERRITORY GOVERNORS OF WASHINGTON INTRODUCTION In a series of brief biographical articles the careers of the men who have exercised the chief executive power in this commonwealth are to be traced from day to day in the Post-Intelligencer.* The Astoria settlement of 1811 was too brief for the Americans to establish at that time even the rudiments of government in the Pacific Northwest. The British who followed, first with the Northwest Company of Montreal and later with the Hudson's Bay Company, established a rude sort of rule which became the first form of government during the years of joint occupancy by British and Americans. During this time Dr. John McLoughlin, chief factor of the Hudson's Bay Company, became the real executive. The British fur hunters increased in number, while the Astoria Americans disappeared. American missionaries began to arrive in 1834 and inside of ten years they were followed by American fur hunters and pioneer settlers. These objected to the rule of the Hudson's Bay Company and the result was the provisional government of Oregon. While it was intended that this government should be jointly British and American, the American influ- ence dominated. The land thus ruled extended from the forty-second parallel of north latitude (fixed in the Florida purchase treaty of 1819) to 54 degrees and 40 minutes (fixed in the American and British treaties with Russia in 1824 and 1825, respectively). The provisional government provided that the executive power should rest in a committee of three, The first executive committee consisted of David Hill, Alanson Beers and Joseph Gale. The oath of office then taken is interesting: "I do solemnly swear that I will support the organic laws of the provisional government of Ore- gon, so far as the said organic laws are consistent * The articles appeared in the week-day issues of that paper from Sep- tember 27 to October 22, 1915. (1) Gnvi-:i:N(.)i:s <>F WASHINGTON \vitli my duties MS M eiti/.en of tlie Uniti-il States, m- a subject of Great Britain, and faithfully demean my- self in office. S> help me God." The big immigration of Americans in 1843 can.-. a reorganization of the provisional government. on the second Tuesday of May, 1844, the new executive committee was chosen: W. J. Bailey, Osborne Kusseii and P. G. Stewart. These men ruled for a. little over one year, when a further reorganization plac.-d George Abernathy in power as governor of the pro- visional government of Oregon. Calm, sensible and honest, he was allowed to rule until the two noun- governments framed the treaty of 1846, fixing the northern boundary along the forty-ninth parallel ol north latitude. Congress was slow to act even then and Gov. Abernathy continued in power until 184'J. In 1848 congress enacted the organic law cre- ating the territory of Oregon. The first governor- ship was offered to Abraham Lincoln, but he de- clined it. The position was accepted by Gen. Joseph Lane, a hero of the Mexican war, who became a conspicuous figure in the history of the Pacific Northwest. His domain extended from the Rocky mountains to the Pacific ocean, between the forty- second and forty-ninth parallels of north latitude. He arrived in Oregon in 1849, but by May 1, 1850, he was removed on account of political troubles. In 1S51 he was called back from his California mines to be elected delegate to congress from Oregon ter- ritory. The governor's office was vacant from May 1 to August 15, 1850, when Gen. John P. Gaines arrived as the new executive. His rule was troubled with polit- ical opposition, until Gen. Lane was once more ap- pointed. It was a part of his campaign for re-elec- tion to congress. He arrived in Oregon as governor on May 16, 1853, and in three days resigned to run for his old place as delegate to congress. His name had before that appeared at the head of the Demo- cratic ticket. He was elected and the governorship went to John W. Davis, of Indiana. All these men, except the last named, had the future territory and state of Washington within the vast region they governed, until March 2, 1853, when congress created the territory of Washington. As the proposed series of articles will deal with the governors of Washington, this introductory sketch will suffice to indicate what executive authority was exercised prior to the creation of the new common- wealth. ISAAC INGALLS STEVENS ISAAC I. STEVENS First Territorial Governor 1853 to 1857 NO. I. ISAAC INGALLS STEVENS Maj. Gen. Isaac I. Stevens was killed while lead- ing his troops in a desperate charge at the critical battle of Chantilly on September 1, 1862. He had only attained the age of 44 years and yet he had rounded out a remarkably eventful career. En- dowed with a keen intellect, untiring industry and lofty ideals of civic duty, he made the hours of his life count for their full value. He was born near Andover, Mass., March 25, 1818, and was reared in a frugal home on a farm where there was little promise of an education, until his appointment as a cadet to West Point in 1835. His industry and ambition w'ere rewarded by graduation as first in the class of 1839. This rank at graduation put him in the engineering corps of the United States army. There he served with distinction, building a number of fortifications along the Atlantic coast. When the Mexican war broke out he sought and obtained active service. He took part in many of the principal battles, was three times promoted by brevet for meritorious conduct and was severely wounded at the taking of the City of Mexico. At the conclusion of that war, in 1848, he resumed the work of building fortifications in New England until September 14, 1849, when he was given charge of the United States coast survey. After the famous compromise of 1850, Stevens shared the prevalent idea of that time that the slavery question was settled. He wrote home that the chance of a soldier's career in America had dis- appeared and he would therefore enter civilian life by accepting the first governorship of the territory of Washington. The law creating the new territory was passed by congress on March 2, 1853, and signed by President Fillmore just before his term of office ended. President Pierce offered the governorship to Stevens soon after he was himself inaugurated, and Stevens accepted it on March 17. Again were the high qualities of his character manifested. He called attention to the fact that he had been educated as an engineer as well as a sol- dier. Congress had arranged to survey possible routes for railroads across the continent. Stevens asked for supervision of a part of that work and (5) GOVERNORS OF WASHINGTON was L;iven charge of the snrxey of tlie northern route. At the same time he asked to be :i ppoi n t ed superintendent of Indian affairs of the territory of \Yashington and that work was also liiv.-n to him. He prosecuted the railroad survey with vigor and skill, demonstrating the entire (Vasibilit y of constructing a railroad from the head of naviga tion on the Mississippi river to tide water on Puget sound. Subsequent surveyors and builders of the railroads have expressed wonder at the accuracy of the pioneer work by the Stevens party. When the reports of those surveys were published the volumes were found to be filled with information about the climate, soil, plants, animals, Indians, geology, zoology and history of the region through which the proposed railroad would pass. That work and the books recording it would constitute a sufficient monument for an ordinarily active life. Arriving in the new territory the governor se- lected Olympia as the temporary capital, called for the election of a legislature and set in motion the wheels of government. When the legislature as- sembled he presented his first gubernatorial mes- sage. It is one of the finest state papers in the history of the commonwealth. He had a prophetic vision of the prominence to be achieved by the terri- tory and state. He called upon the legislators to build carefully the foundations. They responded nobly to his leadership. AYhile the legislature was still in session the governor began his work as superintendent of Indian affairs. Before he had finished, that work resulted in ten treaties with the Indians. Years passed before all the treaties were ratified by the United States senate, but that was finally -done and the Indian title was quieted to 100,000 square miles of territory. There seems a paradox in the fact that as the treaties were being made, Indian wars broke out on both sides of the Cascade mountains. Gov. Stevens promptly assumed command of the volunteer troops and fought the wars of 1855-56 to a conclusion. Politics entered the volunteer soldiers' ranks and a singular situation was developed in the legislative session of 1857. The governor's great work in behalf of a railroad was recognized by giving his name prominence among the proposed directors in the charter of a "Northern Pacific railroad." But the same legislators adopted a vote of censure against ISAAC INGALLS STEVENS 7 the governor on account of an unfortunate disagree- ment as to authority over the Seattle company in the Indian war. The people of the territory resented that censure. The next legislature expunged the resolutions from the record. The governor was nominated for pro- motion to the position of delegate to congress and was elected by a two to one vote. He was re- elected, and during his two terms in congress he manifested the same energy that characterized his whole life. He got the Indian treaties ratified, the railroad reports published and many items of im- portance were given attention in congress and the various departments of government. In the last months of his experience as delegate to congress he manifested a high political courage. He was chairman of the campaign committee of the Breckinridge wing of the Democratic party and as such did his best to win success. After Lincoln's election, but before his inauguration, there came the news of the government's sending arms and ammuni- tion to Southern arsenals. Stevens went boldly to President Buchanan and as a Democratic leader and citizen urged the dismissal of the Southern members of the cabinet who w'ere responsible. Stevens also aided in the organization of the District of Columbia militia to protect the national capital. Soon after Fort Sumter was fired upon he volun- teered and was made colonel of the Seventy-ninth Highlanders, a volunteer regiment of New York. He won rapid promotion and after Gen. Pope's defeat at the second battle of Bull Run, Stevens was being considered by President Lincoln as a new commander of the Army of the Potomac. This, of course, was ended by the death of Stevens at Chantilly during the retreat of Pope's army from Bull Run. During the making of the Indian treaties in 1855, Stevens was accompanied by his son Hazard, then a boy of 13 years. During the battle of Chan- tilly, Hazard Stevens, a member of his father's staff, lay wounded not far from where the father met his death. Before the war ended, Hazard Stevens had risen to the rank of brigadier general. He is now a highly-respected pioneer citizen of Olympia. FAYETTE McMULLIN FAYETTE McMULLEN Second Territorial Governor 1857 to 1859 NO. II. FAYETTE McMULLIN The first United States marshal of Washington territory, J. Patton Anderson, had been elected as the second delegate to congress in 1855. As Gov. Stevens was elected to that position in 1857, the gov- ernorship was given to Mr. Anderson. He did not qualify, however, and Charles H. Mason, secretary of the territory, became acting governor until Fay- ette McMullin, the new appointee, qualified for the place. To pioneer citizens the name of this second governor of the territory brings up an unpleasant suggestion of divorce. Bancroft's history of the state of "Washington says: "The successor of Stevens was Fayette McMulin, of Virginia, a politician, whose chief object in coming to Washington seems to have been to get rid of one wife and marry another." Those were the clays of legislative divorces. Ar- thur A. Denny was a leading Whig, and later a Re- publican. Gov. McMullin was anxious to secure his vote declaring a divorce between Mr. and Mrs. Mc- Mullin. Mr. Denny objected. He declared his belief that the wife should have her day in court and that legislative divorces were unfair. In spite of Mr. Denny's opposition the bill was passed and the divorce completed. In July, 1858, Gov. McMullin married Mary Wood, a daughter of Isaac Wood, a pioneer of Thurston coun- ty. About the time of his marriage he was removed from office and returned with his new bride to his old home in Virginia. He had been governor during two big events in the Northwest and yet he had little or no part in them. The Fraser river gold excitement probably affected the humblest citizens who hoped for wealth more than it did the governor, who knew he was only temporarily in the Far West. The other event was Col. Steptoe's defeat by the Coeur d'Alene and other tribes of Eastern Washington Indians. Col. Steptoe was in the regular United States army and Gov. McMullin had no part in directing or influ- encing the campaign. All this does not make a very satisfactory record for a chief executive of a young and vigorous com- monw'ealth. The man had not been improved by moving from Virginia to the Pacific Northwest. At home he had been elected to the Thirty-first, Thirty- (11) 11' GOVKKMiiis >!' WASHINGTON second. Thirty-third and Thirty-fourth congresses. II. li.id e\ idently been well thought of in those days, and :itt. r returning from Washington territory he \\;is fleeted to the congress of the Confederate States of America. Gov. McMullin's service in the Confederate con- gress was in perfect accord with the sentiment he expressed in his one and only message to the legis- lature of Washington territory, delivered on Decem- ber 12, 1857. He said: "In conclusion, I will say to you, my countrymen, that if we wish to preserve this great and glorious Union which lias recently been shaken to its very center, and which, I seri- ously fear, is still in imminent danger it can only be done by adhering to the constitution that sacred instrument, which will be to us as a 'cloud by day and a pillow [pillar] of fire by night.' We must, at the same time, practice and carry out the clear and unmistakeable doctrine of nonintervention, a doc- trine which will and must be maintained so long as we recognize the doctrine of a representative gov- ernment." In the same message he outlined ways of pro- tection from Indian troubles, called attention to the beginning of the famous military road from Fort Benton to Walla Walla, and advocated the northern route for the proposed railroad across the conti- nent. He objected to Oregon's attempt to annex a part of the area of Washington territory. The mes- sage gives the impression of a governor who saw many needs of the new commonwealth and who was willing to co-operate in every way possible to have those needs supplied. The territorial newspapers published items about the governor's journey home to Virginia, and in many of those items w'ere facts showing that he was a consistent friend of Wash- ington territory. He gave public expression to his belief in its resources and attractiveness for settlers. All of this kindly service was soon silenced by the approach of the civil war. He was killed by a railroad train at Wytheville, Va., November 8, 1880. He was a native of Virginia and was 70 years of age at the time of his death. Mrs. McMullin, a native of Olympia, won a warm place for herself in the hearts of her Southern neigh- bors. When she died, in June, 1889, a Virginia news- paper said: "Mrs. McMullin was a kind and very charitable woman, and was a member of the Epis- copal church, and gave evidence to her friends that FAYETTE McMULLIN 13 she was fully prepared to meet her God. She was a firm friend of Marion Female college made dona- tions to it frequently, at one time giving- $1,000 and in recognition of her interest in the college, the board of trustees met her body at the depot and the faculty and students of the college joined the pro- cession and accompanied the remains to Round Hill cemetery," RICHARD D. GHOLSON No portrait of Governor Gholson has yet been found. NO. III. RICHARD D. GHOLSOX Search is still being made for information about the third governor of Washington territory, as well as for his portrait. Thus far the search has met with only meager results. It is known that he came from Kentucky and arrived at Olympia in July, 1859. Charles H. Mason, secretary of the territory, had been serving also as governor. His death about the time that Gov. Gholson arrived made it neces- sary for the latter to serve also as secretary until the arrival of Henry M. McGill in November. The new secretary was destined to render good service as secretary and acting governor for two years just prior to the outbreak of the civil war. In May, 1860, Gov. Gholson returned to Kentucky on a six months' leave of absence. During that time national affairs had developed along such troubled lines that the Kentuckian did not wish to return to Washington territory and Secretary McGill continued as acting governor. H. H. Bancroft quotes from the San Francisco Bulletin of August 30, 1859, and the Oregon States- man of March 11, 1861, evidence that Gov. Gholson wrote a letter urging the Kentucky legislature to call a convention and send commissioners to the Southern congress in Montgomery, Ala., to pledge Kentucky to stand by the South in the attempt to secede. During the scant eleven months of his actual gov- ernorship of the territory, two events were of prime importance. In the same month of his arrival, or, to be exact, on the night of July 26, 1859, American troops under Capt. George E. Pickett were landed on San Juan island. The dispute between Great Britain and the United States over the possession of the San Juan archipelago Was by that act passed to a critical stage. The other event was the capture by Northern In- dians of two schooners Ellen Maria and Blue Wing en route from Steilacoom to Port Townsend. The crews of white men were either killed or carried away into slavery. This occurred in February, 1859, but the memory of it lingered on through Gov. Gholson's administration. Historian Bancroft quotes from a manuscript by .Judge William Strong to the effect that Gholson had (17) IS GOVERNORS OF WASHINGTON a m.-iLvnif icd idea of the power of an executive that he wrote a proclamation authorizing the citi- zens to arm themselves ,-md to fit out vessels for acts of reprisal against the P.ritish for allowing- the In- dians to cross the boundary with hostile purpose. The governor showed his proclamation to Jiidg" Strong, who said it would certainly make him the most famous man on the Pacific coast. He then showed the document to Surveyor General James Tilton, who promptly persuaded him to suppress it. At that time there were five British ships of war at Victoria and not one worth mentioning under the American flag in this vicinity. Gov. Gholson gave only one message to the legis- lature. It was dated December 7, 1859. The mes- sage for the session of 1860 was given by Secretary Henry M. McGill, acting governor, while Gov. Ghol- son remained in the East on his leave of absence. In that one message, Gov. Gholson's language re- vealed the eloquent son of the South. He spoke en- thusiastically of the prospects of the new territory and especially of the railroad so near in the minds of the people. He welcomed the idea of "John Chinaman" as a laborer to work on the Western end of the road. At the close of his message he con- demned those who proposed to dissolve the Union because of the quarrel over slavery. Said he: "See- ing, then, that there is a possibility, nay, 'tis feared a probability, of such an awful catastrophe, let us in this embryo state beware of the hydra-headed monster dissolution, and at once, as faithful senti- nels, take our stand upon the watch tow'er of lib- erty, and by our devotion to the constitution and the Union the rich legacies our forefathers bequeathed us prove ourselves worthy sons of the noble sires, and leaving, as they did, unfettered and unmolested, to each political division of the Confederacy (who alone are responsible for them) the management of its own domestic affairs; imitate their wise, peace- ful, fraternal and sublime example. And firmly set- ting our faces, now and forever, against all who would jeopardize or destroy the palladium of liberty; profoundly thankful for past blessings, fervently be- seeching the almighty ruler of the universe that its legislation may be always right, yet recollecting that to occasionally err has been the unavoidable lot of ail mankind; relying upon the sagacity, wisdom and equity of our countrymen, with an abiding faith that ultimate public justice will be done; 'clinging RICHARD D GHOLSON 19 to the constitution and the Union as the shipwrecked mariner clings to the last plank when night and the tempest close around him,' let our motto ever be 'The Union.' " That peroration was probably forgotten when he wrote to Secretary of State Jeremiah S. Black, on February 14, 1861, that he was "unwilling, even for a day, to hold office under a Republican president, " and, therefore, he resigned as governor of Washing- ton territory before Abraham Lincoln was inaugu- rated. That letter is on file in the bureau of rolls and library, department of state. There are other letters on file concerning the occupation of San Juan island and other matters in Washington. In one he mentions that he was born in Garrard county, Ky., but, unfortunately, he does not mention the date. The barest biographical essentials are still missing in this case. Edwin Gholson, of Cincinnati, is said to be preparing a genealogy of the Gholson family. He has not answered an appeal for infor- mation. J. Franklin Jameson, director of the depart- ment of historical research, Carnegie institution of Washington, has caused to be made an extensive search in the great library of congress. The results are simply baffling in their meagerness. In Collins' history of Kentucky it was found that Gholson was a Democratic member of the Kentucky senate from 1851 to 1855, representing Hickman, Ballard, Fulton and Graves counties. His own county was Ballard. Kentucky and Washington newspapers were searched in vain. As for a portrait, no success was obtained by a search in the usual sources, including the list of 100,000 Americans in the files of the American Library Association. The search is still in progress WILLIAM H. WALLACE W. H. WALLACE Fourth Territorial Governor 1861 NO. IV. WILLIAM H. WALLACE The fourth governor of the territory was for many reasons a most interesting character in the history of the West. He "Was born in Troy, Miami county, Ohio, July 19, 1811. He studied law in Indiana and moved to Iowa in 1835. There he served as speaker of the house in the first legislature and later served as president of the council. He moved to Washington territory in 1853, the year the new territory was created, and served in several of the early sessions of the legislature, becoming presi- dent of the council as he had done in the territory of Iowa. Being appointed by President Lincoln in 1861, Wal- lace was the first Republican to become governor of Washington territory. He had been a Whig and went over to the new party on its organization. While still a Whig he was a candidate for delegate to congress at the first election in the new terri- tory, which was held on January 30, 1854. He was defeated by the Democratic nominee, Columbia Lan- caster. But that office was attractive to him and was deemed greater than the governorship. For this reason he accepted the nomination as the Re- publican candidate for delegate to congress soon after his appointment as governor. His opponents were Selucius Garfielde, Democrat, one of the most eloquent men known in the West, and Judge Edward Lander, Independent, who had gained prominence during the Indian wars through a clash of authority with Gov. Stevens. Wallace had also been in the Indian war as captain of a company he had organ- ized. He served in the field while his wife and son remained in the blockhouse fort at Steilacoom. His record made him a good candidate and the approach- ing clouds of civil war also aided his cause. He was elected and resigned the governorship. For a few months Secretary L. J. S. Turney performed the ex- ecutive duties as acting governor. Before his term in congress had expired the terri- tory of Idaho was created in 1863 and President Lincoln appointed Wallace as the first governor. The appointment was made on July 10, and on September 22 the governor issued his proclamation calling for the first election to be held on October (23) -I GOVERNORS OF w ASI 1 1 \< ;T< >.\ .'M. In that flection \Yallac<- \v:is i-li-i-t.-il :is Idaho'- first delegate to congress. < >n tin- .-\piration of that term in congress lie ret u rued to his home in Stella- COOm and was elected probate juduc of I'ierec county, which position ho held to the time of his death, !" ]>- riiary 7. 1879. II is life was wholly on the frontier and he was highly respected in Indiana, Iowa, Washington and Idaho, where was achieved his eventful career. He was a Mason for more than forty years and at the time of his death he was master of Steilacoom LodK 1 . No. 2, of Free and Accepted Masons. Mr. Wallace Was married on February 3, 1839, to .Miss Suxana Brazelton, a native of Guilford county, North Carolina. To this union were born two daugh- ters and a son. WILLIAM PICKERING WILLIAM PICKERING Fifth Territorial Governor 1862 to 1866 NO. V. WILLIAM PICKERING The war governor of the territory of Washing- ton was William Pickering. He received his appoint- ment because of a close personal and political friend- ship with Abraham Lincoln. He was born in York- shire, England, in 1798, and graduated from Oxford university in 1820. A year after his graduation he came to the United States and settled in Edwards county, 111. He early allied himself with the Whig party and began his friendly relations with Lincoln. He is credited with having conceived the idea of and drawn the plans for the first railroad between Chicago and St. Louis. He had ten years' experience in the Illinois legis- lature from 1842 to 1852. In 1860 he was chairman of the Illinois delegation to the Republican national convention and thus had much to do with securing the nomination of Lincoln. It is said that President Lincoln offered his friend the choice of the United States ministry in England or the governorship of the territory of Washington. He accepted the governorship and arrived in Olympia in June, 1862. During the four years that followed he was able to impress the history of the territory with his ability and integrity. One of the first things he did was to place himself firmly in opposition to the vicious practice of granting legis- lative divorces. In his first message to the legis- lature, December 17, 1862, he said: "I should be rec- reant to the duties I ow'e to society if I failed to call your serious attention to the sad and immoral effects growing out of the readiness with which our legislative assemblies have heretofore annulled that most solemn contract of marriage." His earnest op- position won, such divorces ceased and the at- tempted constitution of 1878 and the effective one of 1889 each had a provision against legislative divorces. A civil engineer by education and profession, the governor was greatly interested in the projects of wagon roads across the Cascade mountains, and shared the hopes of the pioneers of securing rail- roads. In March, 1824, he had been married to Martha Flowers. Descendants of that union still live in the (27) 28 GOVERNORS <>F \V.\Sl 1 1.\< ;TI .\ state of Washington. His grandson is authority for the story that when Gov. Pickering unit hack Kast and railed on President Lincoln, tlie latter bowed liis head, clasped his hands behind him and walked back ami forth a few moments. He then turned abruptly in front of his visitor, exclaiming: "I was wondering, Mr. Governor, h<>w many rails I could split out of one of those Puget sound cedar trees you've been telling me about." The governor was so impressed with the possi- bilities of the territory that he secured a farm near Snoqualmie falls to be saved as a heritage for his family. As his term was drawing toward a close, he gave his last message to the legislature on De- cember 11, 1866. He again referred to the need of a highway across the mountains and in closing spoke glowingly of the approaching Paris exposition of 1867. Secretary of State Seward had sent him in- formation about it and he had arranged with Thorn a.- Craney to send from Utsalady, on the ship Belmont, Capt. Hurrol, a flagstaff 150 feet long as an exhibit. He said: "The glorious flag of our beloved country will float from its top, to the admiration of all visitors, far above the emblems and banners of any other nation." When his services as governor ended he lived a short time on his farm in King county and then returned to Illinois. He was planning to come back once more to the Northwest when he died, April 22, 1873. Downright honesty was one of Gov. Pickering's chief qualities. His last surviving son is Richard Pickering, now 85 years of age and a highly re- spected citizen of Seattle. He says his father saved from his salary as governor $900 which he sent back home to Judge Mayo, of Illinois, to be paid to Mr. Hanks, who had invested and lost in a railroad project planned by Gen. Pickering. The governor wanted to live long enough to pay off every dollar. His associates insisted that they only risked as he himself had done, but he would hear none of that, and paid every dollar in full. Later the sons re- alized a few thousand dollars from equities in the old railroad right-of-way. The father was dead, but the newspapers announced the fact that Richard Pickering stood ready to pay any proved debt that his father had left. The successor to the railroad enterprise that was so far ahead of its time then is now known as the "Air Line" between St. Louis and Louisville. GEORGE E. COLE GEORGE E. COLE Sixth Territorial Governor 1866 to 1867 NO. VI. GEORGE E. COLE George E. Cole was a forceful and typical pio- neer. He was born in Trenton, Oneida county, N. Y., December 23, 1826. He worked on a farm and got enough education to embark in the w'ork of teaching district schools. This he continued until the lure of California gold and adventure drew him across the plains in 1849. A companion on this journey was Phillip Ritz, for whom Ritzville, Adams county, was named. Not meeting with the desired success in California, the two embarked for the Umpqua river in 1850 and Cole soon became a legis- lator, farmer, trader and prominent pioneer of Ore- gon. As a legislator, he became chairman of the com- mittee that drew up the memorial to congress ask- ing for the creation of the Territory of Columbia, which, when being created, was renamed Washington Territory. After serving a brief term as postmaster of Corvallis, he decided to move to Walla Walla to participate in the trade being developed by the Oro Fino and other mines of the Idaho hills. He has left a little book of reminiscences called "Early Oregon,' in which he says that after moving his goods to Walla Walla in 1860 he returned to Portland long enough to cast his vote for Douglas for president. In 1863 two important events happened in his life. He w^ent back to Corvallis and was married to Miss Mary E. Cardwell. In the same year he was elected delegate to congress, being the first man living east of the Cascade mountains to win that honor. On the expiration of his term in congress, Presi- dent Andrew Johnson appointed him governor of Washington. His commission was dated November 21, 1866, but his administration ended within a few months, as the senate, being at outs with the presi- dent, refused to confirm the appointment. Through no quarrel or fault of his own, therefore, he was given no chance to show his ability in that office. The title of "governor," however, clung to him through the long and useful years that followed. He was appointed postmaster of Portland, Oregon, by President Grant and was re-appointed by Presi- dent Hayes. He was a contractor on the construc- tion of the railroad from Roseburg to Portland and (31) 32 GOVERNORS OF \v.\si 1 1.\< ;T< >.\ I.-ner on a portion of the Northern Pacific along Pend Orcille lake and Clark Fork. In 1SS3 he secured a section of land in Spokane county, between Cheney and Medical lake. He had had many kinds of experiences in mining, tradin-. steam boating, railroad building and in public of- fice. He now settled down as a farmer, which he declared was the best work of all. He consented to interrupt his enjoyment of farm life in 1888 by ac- cepting the office of treasurer of Spokane county, which he held for two terms, the limit allowed for that office under the state constitution. He died in a hotel in Portland on December 3, 1906. MARSHALL F. MOORE MARSHALL F. MOORE Seventh Territorial Governor 1867 to 1869 NO. VII. MARSHALL F. MOORE Marshall F. Moore was a well-educated man who had had a brilliant career as lawyer and soldier before he became governor of Washington territory. He was born in Binghamton, N. Y., on February 12, 1829. He graduated from Yale, studied law and then began the practice of his profession in New Orleans. After five years in the Southern metropolis he removed to Sioux City, la. There he was elected prosecuting attorney and was latfr promoted to be judge of the court of common pleas. He re- moved to Ohio and was married to the daughter of P. Van Trump, of Lancaster. Later, when he was appointed governor of Washington territory, he was accompanied to the Far West by his brother-in-law, Philemon B. Van Trump, who gained fame by making the first ascent of Mount Rainier with Gen. Hazard Stevens. When the civil war broke out Marshall F. Moore was quick to respond to the call for volunteers. He served under McClellan in Virginia and under Sher- man. Among the battles in which he took part were Rich Mountain, Shiloh, Chickamauga, Jonesboro and Missionary Ridge. During these battles he rose in rank, being breveted to that of brigadier general at Jonesboro, and as his military service drew to a close, he was breveted major general on March 13, 1865, a recognition that meant much to a brave of- ficer. In 1867 he was appointed governor of Washington territory by President Johnson. His term lasted but two years and he did not long survive its termi- nation. He died in Olympia on Saturday, February 26, 1870. The Olympia Transcript of the following Saturday said he had been in feeble health for a long time as a result of wounds received in the war. For several weeks no hopes had been entertained for his recovery, and "yet the announcement of his death cast a gloom over the community. In him the territory loses a useful and valuable citizen, one whose interests were closely identified rvith it for the good of the whole territory. He was a kind and courteous gentleman to all. We sincerely sympa- thize with his family in their loss. The deep affec- tion he held on the people was observable in the (35) 36 GOVERNORS OF \v.\si 1 1 N< ;T< >\ whisper, .nl word, the drooping of flags and the sus- pension of business to pay tin- last art of respect." Gov. Moore experienced but one session of tin ter- ritorial legislature, that of isr.T. His message was printed in the journals of both couneil and house. It is an able document and shows that the new governor was quirk to enter into the hopes of the people. Besides the local needs of roads, mail routes and institutions, he comments on the new treaty with the Sandwich islands and the possibilities of commerce. He wrote before the name of Alaska had come into use, as this extract shows: "Since the last session of her legislative assem- bly, Washington territory has ceased to be the ex- treme northwestern portion of the United States dominions. The acquisition, by treaty, of Russian America and the Aleutian archipelago gives her a comparatively central position with respect to our entire possessions on this slope, and adds materially to her geographical importance. This extension of the national boundaries wall give a new impetus to the commerce of the Northern Pacific and open a new market to our productions." The big advantage he saw was in the whale and cod fisheries of the new lands to the north. All this seems archaic to those who have lived to see the wealth of gold, furs, salmon and other things flowing out of the treasure land of Alaska, ALVAN FLANDERS ALVIN FLANDERS Eighth Territorial Governor 1869 to 1870 NO. VIII. ALVAN FLANDERS Alvan Flanders was a man of vigor and of wide experience. He was born in Hopkinton, N. H., on August 2, 1825. He attended the public schools and then learned the machinist's trade in Boston. Like many other young men of his day he was touched with the Western fever and emigrated to California in 1851. Instead of going- to the gold mines, he embarked in the lumber business. This he continued until 1858, when he joined with others in organizing and publishing the San Francisco Daily Times. He was elected to the California legislature from San Francisco and was rewarded with re-election. He was appointed by President Lincoln to a posi- tion in the San Francisco mint and later to the posi- tion of registrar of the United States land office in Humboldt. In March, 1S63, he removed to Washington terri- tory and entered into business in Wallula. In 1866 he was the Republican candidate for delegate to congress. His Democratic opponent was Frank Clark, of Steilacoom. The contest was a very close one, Flanders' majority being only 153 out of a vote of 5,000. His term extended from 1867 to 1869. As it drew toward a close he planned a campaign for re- election. Selucius Garfielde, formerly a Democrat, was also ambitious for the Republican nomination. Flanders was apparently persuaded to draw out of the race by the offer of the governorship, which was given to him by President Grant. It was one of the early appointments made not long after the presi- dent's inauguration. Gov. Flanders held his new office only one year. However, he was chief executive during the legis- lative session of 1869. His message was printed in both council and house journals. He submitted re- ports from other territorial officers, including Sur- veyor General E. P. Ferry, who later became gov- ernor. Wagon roads are mentioned as one of the most "pressing wants of our territory." Lumber, commerce and railroads are discussed. He is frank and outspoken in his opposition to the general gov- ernment's pending treaty to refer the San Juan dis- pute to the Swiss republic for arbitration. Among other things he said: "This claim of the British gov- (39) m GOVERNORS OF \v.\si 1 1 \< ;T< >.\ to tin- IV ll;iro archipelago, ami its offer to that claim if our govern im-n t would u|> Sail Juan, was an after thought. As tin- of Washington territory ('! a deep interest in the i-urrect and speedy settlement of this question, 1 would suggest that a memorial relating to this matter be sent to the senate of the United States by your honorable body." He concluded his message with this prophecy and advice: "On Puget sound will be built a city from whose wharves ships will sail to every ocean, and whose steamers will connect with every port on the Coast, with the Pacific islands and With Asia. A city that will compete successfully with San Francisco for the commerce of the Pacific, when that commerce shall be a hundred fold greater than now. It is your duty to foster and encourage every enterprise of capital and labor which will tend to produce this result, and by wise laws to secure to every individual the largest liberty possible, and to all equal protection and exact justice." Several citizens of Washington remember Gov. Flanders. Thomas H. Cann, of Seattle, was employed by Wells Fargo & Co., while Alvan Flanders was agent of the company at Wallula. Mrs. W. C. Painter, of Walla Walla, was an intimate friend of Mrs. Flanders. She sent a clipping from the Walla Walla Union of March 18, 1894, giving details of Gov. Flanders' death in San Francisco on March 14, 1894. After leaving Washington territory, he had suffered an accident necessitating the amputation of his right leg. He then opened an office as notary public in the stock brokers' neighborhood. Over his office was the law office of former Gov. Salomon. EDWARD S. SALOMON EDWARD S. SOLOMON Ninth Territorial Governor 1870 to 1872 NO. IX. EDWARD S. SALOMON Edward S. Salomon, a German Jew, born in Schleswig-Holstein on December 25, 1836, experi- enced an eventful career as an American citizen. On completing a high school education in his native land, he came to the United States and settled in Chicago. He became an alderman of that city in 1860. On the outbreak of the civil war he joined the Twenty-fourth Illinois infantry as second lieutenant and speedily rose to the rank of major. Through a disagreement a number of officers resigned and Mai. Salomon joined others in organizing the Eighty- second Illinois infantry, of which regiment he be- came lieutenant colonel. He was soon promoted to the rank of colonel and before the war ended he was breveted brigadier general. He had given a good account of himself in a number of battles, in- cluding such important ones as Chancellorsville, Gettysburg, Chattanooga and Lookout Mountain. When peace returned he was made clerk of Cook county, with his home once more in Chicago. President Grant appointed Gen. Salomon governor of Washington territory in 1870. He served but two years, during which there was but one session of the legislature. During the years following his ad- ministration there were echoes of political trouble?, but there is no doubt of the governor's courage. He vetoed a legislative reapportionment bill passed by both houses, saying, "This bill seems to me unjust, and would deprive some of the citizens of the territory of the representation they are en- titled to." Good evidence of appreciation is the following- resolution, unanimously adopted by the house of representatives on November 29, 1871: "Resolved, that the thanks of this body are due and are hereby tendered to Hon. E. S. Salomon, governor of Wash- ington territory, for his prompt attention to the acts of the legislative assembly, and his approval of their measures enacted into laws." jfhere is a choice reminiscence of the governor's visit to the then small town of Seattle. He landed at the principal wharf at Yesler's mill. The street leading from the wharf was called Mill street. It is (43) M GoVKi:.\"i:s OP WASHINGTON now Vt-slcr way. The lower part of the street running past the mill to the wharf had been built 11)1 of slabs and filled in with sawdust from the mill. Traffic and the weather had made the saw- dust Hark, but it still held some of its granular form. "What fine soil you have here!" exclaimed the governor, as he reached down and fondled a handful of it. "You ought to raise fine grapes on such soil." The old settlers always relished the telling of that incident to newcomers. The writer heard it as a boy, though he had not the privilege nf meet- ing the governor who was being gently laughed at. On the conclusion of his term as governor, Gen. Salomon removed to San Francisco. There he was twice elected to the California legislature and also held the office of district attorney of San Fran- cisco. He was department commander of the Grand Army of the Republic and for eight years was com- mander-in-chief of the Army and Navy Republican League. Gov. Salomon died in San Francisco on the eve- ning of July IS, 1913. His son occasionally visits Seattle from his home in San Francisco. The son is Doctor Max Salomon, who resides at 1634 Fell Street, San Francisco. ELISHA PEYRE FERRY ELISHA P. FERRY Tenth Territorial Governor 1872 to 1880 First State Governor 1889 to 1893 NO. X. ELISHA PEYRE FERRY No man in the history of the commonwealth of Washington has had so long and intimate an asso- ciation with its public life as Elisha Peyre Ferry. He lived here twenty-six years and nearly every one of those years was filled with some form of public service. He was a clean, upright, courageous man, whom the public loved to honor and to follow. He left Illinois in July, 1869, to take up the duties of his new office as surveyor general of Washing- ton territory. Not long after his arrival at Olym- pia he was called upon by Gov. Alvan Flanders for a report on the number of acres of public lands surveyed in the territory. His report was brief and to the point, showing more than 5,000,000 acres sur- veyed, about equal portions on each side of the Cas- cade mountains. That early evidence of promptness and thoroughness characterized his whole public career. He had received his appointment at the hands of President Grant, who promoted him to the gover- norship in 1872, and reappointed him to the same high office in 1876. He served two full terms, or eight years, in that office, thus exceeding the rec- ords of all other territorial governors. On the ad- mission of the territory to statehood he was chosen by the people as their first chief executive and served the first term of three years. His first message to the legislature, dated Octo- ber 9, 1873, reveals a firm grasp of the duties and responsibilities of his office. The most important item related to the Northwestern boundary settle- ment. After reciting in brief its history down to its arbitration by the emperor of Germany on Octo- ber 21, 1872, he says: "Immediately after receiving notice of this decision, I caused civil authority to be re-established over the islands lying between the two channels, and I am pleased to be able to inform you that these islands now form, indisputa- bly, a part of the county of Whatcom, in the ter- ritory of Washington. I suggest the propriety of forming these islands into a new county." Within the month the legislature responded by the creation of San Juan county. (47) is OOVEIl.XOKS OF WASH INCT >.\ IFc calli-.l mi tin- legislature t<> in;ikc provision for participation in 1)1.- tVntennial exposition of L876, aixl treated the subjects of railroads, finance, a uriculture ami nliiration in a \vay to enroll rage the citi/.ens and friends of the territory. In the session of 1875 Gov. Ferry took a firm stand in a coimtx -division fight by vetoing tin- hill to create the "County of Pins" out of Walla Walla county's area. The origin of that name is revealed l>y the journal of the next council, 1877, where Klisha Ping appears as joint councilor for Columbia, Whitman and Stevens counties. The courage of Gov. Ferry was shown during the Nez Perce Indian war of 1877. Though that war was fought in Idaho and lands east of that terri- tory, there were disturbances in Eastern Washing- ton, and the governor made a trip to try and quiet matters. At that time such a journey was much more difficult and dangerous than at later periods. At the last session of his territorial governorship there were the usual expressions of mutual thanks between governor and legislature, to which was added the following: "Resolved, by the council, the house concurring, That we take this method of ex- pressing our thanks to Mrs. E. P. Ferry for the bountiful collation provided for the members of this assembly." On retiring from the governor's office in 1880 he removed to Seattle and resumed the practice of law in the firm of McXaught, Ferry, McXaught & Mitchell, one of the most prominent legal firms in the Pacific Xorthwest. Though in private life for about ten years, he was called often before the public to defend by his eloquence causes and issues that appealed to him. In September, 1887, he re- tired from the practice of law and became vice pres- ident of the Puget Sound National Bank. When the territory became a state in 1889 there was a lively contest for the first nominations to the principal offices. Two of the territorial gov- ernors became the standard bearers in the state's first political race Gov. Ferry for the Republicans, and Gov. Semple for the Democrats with the result as above indicated. Another of the territorial group, Gov. Squire, became one of the first United States senators. Gov. Ferry presided in his usual charming and effective manner as chief executive during the first session of the state legislature from November 6, 1889, to March i'S, 1890. He called an extra session ELISHA PEYRE FERRY 49 of the legislature in September, 1890, to enact a leg- islative apportionment bill. When the regular ses- sion of 1S91 drew near, Gov. Ferry was compelled by feeble health to leave the state. He went to California, and the duties of his office devolved upon Charles E. Laughton, lieutenant and acting governor. On Gov. Ferry's return to the state he resumed his work and continued with unabated zeal until his successor was inaugurated in Janu- ary, 1893. Gov. Ferry was usually thought to be a native son of Illinois. He came to Washington from that state and his first successes were achieved there. However, he was born at Monroe, Mich., on August 9, 1825. After attendance at the public schools ci his home he began the study of law. This he con- tinued at Fort Wayne, Ind., and was admitted to practice law when but 20 years of age. In 1846 he removed to Waukegan, 111., and settled down for twenty-three years of work as a lawyer. This w T ork was interrupted during the civil war. He served on the staff of Gov. Yates from 1861 to 1865 as assistant adjutant general, with the rank of colonel. In this capacity he assisted in organizing and equipping many Illinois regiments. Not long after the war he came to Washington territory as surveyor general. When his term as state governor ended in 1893 he lived in quiet retirement in Olympia and Seattle. He died on October 14, 1895. He was survived by his widow and four children, who made their homes in Seattle. Mrs. Ferry died in Seattle on January 6, 1911. Both she and her distinguished husband had been earnest and consistent members of the Episcopal church. Mrs. Ferry found a multitude of ways to exercise her quiet, motherly charities, while Gov. Ferry not infrequently conducted the services of the church as lay reader. Two well- known members of the family still living in Seattle are Mrs. Eliza Ferry Leary and Pierre P. Ferry. WILLIAM AUGUSTUS NEWELL W. A. NEWELL Eleventh Territorial Governor 1880 to 1884 NO. XI. WILLIAM AUGUSTUS NEWELL Dr. William Augustus Newell was one of the few territorial governors who served a full term of four years. He was appointed by President Hayes in 1880. There were three sessions of the legislature during his administration. These were the two regular sessions of 1881 and 1883 and a special ses- sion which he called to assemble on December 2, 1881, immediately upon adjournment of the regular session. In both the regular sessions money was not plentiful enough to print both council and house journals. The house journals alone were printed. The session of 1881 had to publish the proceedings of the extra session and on that account seemingly the governor's message was omitted from its pages. His message of 1883 was published in the house journal and shows a keen appreciation of the needs and prospects of the territory. He touches upon a great variety of topics, including the hope of state- hood. One reference reveals high aspirations of the people: "The completion of the Northern Pacific railroad from Lake Superior to Puget sound is an event of immeasurable importance to the entire Pacific coast country north, and especially so to the territory of Washington. * * * To Washington it brings as- surance of early greatness, by placing us in the very van of commercial importance on this newly opened highway of nations, including us in its circuit around the globe, and making our great waters the necessary counterparts of the seas of China and Japan, the North sea of Europe and the bays of Boston and New York." He favored wholesome legislation for the terri- tory and throughout his administration he seemed the embodiment of optimistic hope for the early greatness of the commonwealth. He deserves only the kindest remembrance in Washington, and yet his memory is more highly cherished in New Jersey. The main reason for this may be seen in his dread of advancing years. He was 63 years of age when he arrived in Olympia as governor. He wanted to appear younger and constantly dyed his hair and beard. The people misjudged his motives in this and never held him at his real worth. (53) :,i GOVERNORS OF WASHINGTON He had a career before coming to Washington that any man would be proud of. He was born in Franklin, O., on September 5, 1817, descending from revolutionary forebears. He graduated from Rut- gers college in 1836, took graduate work and lat.-r took the medical course at the University of Penn- sylvania, graduating in 1839. He removed to N--\v Jersey and successfully practiced his profession untii he entered public life. He was elected to congress in 1846 and re-elected in 1848. His skill as a physician being well known, h<- was called to attend John Quincy Adams when that "grand old man eloquent" fell on the floor of the house of representatives with what proved a fatal shock of paralysis in 1848. During that same con- gressional experience he introduced a resolution that led to the establishment of the agricultural bureau. In 1848 he secured an appropriation of $10,000 to establish life-saving stations on the coast of New Jersey, which was the beginning of that important national service. He had been a Whig and joined the Republican party at its organization. He was elected as the first Republican governor of New Jersey, serving from 1857 to 1860. From 1861 to 1S64 he was super- intendent of the lifesaving service in New Jersey. He was then returned to congress and was for a time the family physician of President Lincoln. He represented New Jersey at the funeral of President Lincoln, as he had also done at the funeral of John Quincy Adams. At the end of his second congres- sional experience, in 1867, he resumed the practice of medicine. In 1877 he was again the Republican candidate for the governorship of New Jersey. This time he was defeated by Gen. George B. McClellan. When his term as governor of Washington terri- tory ended in 1884, he became United States Indian inspector, serving from 1884 to 1886. He was resi- dent surgeon of the Soldiers" and Sailors' Home, 1894-1898, and in 1899 he returned to Allentown, N. J. It was in that town he had begun the practice of medicine just fifty years before. He bravely re- sumed his work at the place of beginning and con- tinued until his death, on August 8, 1901. Rutgers college had honored her distinguished alumnus with the degree of Doctor of Laws in 1881, while he was governor of Washington territory. He had married in 1884 Joanna, daughter of Dr. William Van Deur- sen, of New Brunswick. It should be added that Dr. Newell's purse was always a slender one. When not employed by the WILLIAM AUGUSTUS NEWELL 55 government it was necessary for him to fall back at once upon his profession. There are not a few cases of poor people whose needs he served without cost, and for whom he bought medicines at times when he himself was in need of money. Slowly the people of Washington are learning that the one they thought an eccentric governor was in reality a man of skill and of many talents, as well as a warm-hearted, sympathetic friend of those in need. WATSON CARVOSSO SQUIRE WATSON C. SQUIRE Twelfth Territorial Governor 1884 to 1887 NO. XII. WATSON C. SQUIRE At a time when partisanship was tense it was a great gratification to the friends of Gov. Squire that he was retained in office for the first two years of President Cleveland's administration. He was appointed by President Arthur in 1884, the last year of his own administration. The appointive officers were soon changed from Republicans to Democrats after President Cleveland's inauguration, but Gov. Squire, though he had early tendered his resignation, was the last territorial governor to be removed at that time. The reason for such favor- able treatment is found in the quality of his serv- ice during a most trying period. The whole Pacific coast was torn with agitation against the Chinese. In the territory of Washing- ton the trouble reached its climax in the winter of 1885-1886 when all the Chinese were driven out of Tacoma, several were killed during an assault in Issaquah valley, and a serious riot was quelled in Seattle. In all this, Gov. Squire was firm and courag-eous, relying on the local militia to maintain his martial law proclamation until President Cleve- land sustained his acts and ordered federal troops to relieve the militia of the patrol in Seattle. The governor's patriotic behavior in that crisis would have been enough to attract favorable atten- tion to him, but he supplemented it with another service of great value. He formulated a remark- ably good report to the secretary of the interior. This embodied papers by experts on the natural resources of the territory and conditions favorable to growth. Many thousands of copies were printed by the government and by private means. They were circulated broadly, just after the Northern Pacific railroad was completed and while the state- hood agitation was active. Population increased rapidly, and Gov. Squire's name was more and more favorably known. But one session of the legislature was held dur- ing his three years as governor, and that session of 1885 had no money to print the journal of either council or house. Though the printed evidence is missing 1 , his bearing there is known to have been (59) 60 GOVERNORS OF WASHINGTON quite as url>aiie :unl sa t is! a < I ory :is in :ill his oth--i duties in tin- office, mown l i ^ n i fi. > I and iin|>nri an t with th' evolution of tin- common \v-a 1 1 h. It is difficul t to compress \villiin brief compass a record of Watson C. Squire's life. He lived well through dramatic ami stirring years. He was Imrn at Cain- \" im-i-nt , X. Y.. on May IS, 1S:!S, and came from pre-revol ut ionary ancestors. His educa- tion included graduation from the \\'- sl-y ;i n univer- sity at Middleton, Conn., in 1859, and from the Cleveland Law School in 1862. He was principal of the Moravia Institute, Moravia, X. ST., when the civil war broke out, and he was the first man to enlist in Company F, Nineteenth New York Volunteers. Though elected captain, he stepped aside in favor of an older man and became first lieutenant. After six months' service he shared the opinion that the war was about over, and, receiving an honorable discharge, he completed his law studies and began practice in Cleveland, O. When another call for troops was issued he responded promptly, organized a company of sharpshooters and saw service through the rest of the war. He rose to the rank of colonel and participated in such battles as Chickamauga, Missionary ridge, Resaca and Nashville. He also served as trial judge-advocate of the departmental court under Gen. Thomas, and later in a similar ca- pacity on the staff of Gen. Rousseau. At the end of the war he accepted employment with the Remington Arms Company, becoming in time its secretary, treasurer and manager. During that service he signed the first contract for the manufacture of typewriters. He visited foreign countries for the company. On December 23, 1868, he was married to Miss Ida Remington, granddaugh- ter of the founder of the company. Two sons and two daughters were born to this union. In 1876 he invested in Seattle lands and three years later made his home here, engaging in various en- terprises. He had made many friends among promi- nent men in the East. Among these were President Arthur and Republican leaders of New York. Through this influence he secured appointment as governor of Washington territory. After his term as governor he continued to work actively for statehood. This work and his record as governor won for him election as one of the first two senators chosen on the territory's admis- sion to statehood, and was re-elected in 1891 for a full term of six years. In this new office he was WATSON C. SQUIRE 61 active and successful. The matters that received his attention were of wide range, probably the most important being that of coast defense. One biogra- pher says: "At a single session he increased the coast defense appropriation and authorizations of con- tracts from $600,000 to $11,500,000." Since his retirement to private life Senator Squire has divided his time between Ilion, N. Y., where his \vife prefers to live, and Seattle, where his sons are in business. His life was beautifully summa- rized at the eightieth commencement of Wesleyan university by President Shanklin, as follows: "Watson Carvosso Squire, your alma mater de- lights this day to honor you; soldier with a distin- guished record which won you promotion from the ranks to colonelcy; successful business man; gover- nor; United States senator; thirty-six years a faith- ful trustee of Wesleyan university in all these relations clear-sighted, just and patriotic. I admit you to the degree of doctor of laws." EUGENE SEMPLE EUGENE SEMPLE Thirteenth Territorial Governor 1887 to 1889 NO. XIII. EUGENE SEMPLE The administration of Eugene Semple as gov- ernor of Washington territory has suffered at the hands of historians. There are many causes for this, among which are the following: He was appointed as a Democrat for only the last half of President Cleveland's term. The territory under normal condi- tions was overwhelmingly Republican. Partisan bias was intensified by the agitation for statehood, for it was known that then the people would choose their own governor. There were three large issues in the public mind. The anti-Chinese agitation had grown tense and had culminated in fatal riots in the first two months of 1886. The elections in the fall of that year had gone in favor of the leaders of the agitation and the air was charged with threat- ening outbreaks during the first year of Gov. Sem- ple's administration. He won applause from the law and order press by maintaining the same firm attitude as his predecessor. This was wholesome and w'ise, but there was no spectacular outbreak to challenge the attention of the historian. Similar conditions surrounded the issue of woman's suffrage. Just before his administration the su- preme court of the territory, on February 3, 1887, decided as unconstitutional the law giving the fran- chise to women. The people were divided on the issue, but the agitation was continued and the legis- lature passed a new law framed to meet the court's objection to the old law. When this new law went into the hands of Gov. Semple for approval or veto he was subjected to a severe bombardment of let- ters and resolutions. He approved the law and was warmly thanked by its advocates, but again his record was overlooked in history, because statehood came so soon, with a constitution omitting woman's suffrage, that the law approved by Gov. Semple had no chance of being put to use. Another issue of that day was on the Wane. Charles S. Voorhees, Democrat, had been elected delegate to congress on the clamor for the forfeiture of the unearned land grants to the Northern Pacific Railroad Company. He was re-elected in 1886, but in 1888, during Gov. Semple's administration, John B. Allen, Republican, was elected to that office, fore- (G5) 66 GOVERNORS OF WASHINGTON which of the two parties would be successful in the first election under statehood. Gov. Semple was a fearless, honest and talented mail. It was. of course, no fault of his that his two Democrat ii- years of administration should fall in the midst of a Republican rush toward statehood. In private life he was well beloved. Not only was he a clean man, affable and refined, he was also a man of great vigor and enterprise and he came honestly by an intense love of the Far West. He was born on June 12, 1840, in Bogota, Colombia, his father being the United States minister to the South American republic, then known as X<-\v Granada. The father was the famous Gen. James Semple, of Illinois, who took a prominent part in the agitation for retaining the whole of Oregon, popularly phras.-u as "Fifty-four Forty or Fight!" Gen. Semple made speeches in Illinois and Ohio along these lines in 1842 and 1843. It was he who, as United States sen- ator from Illinois, introduced the resolution giving the necessary twelve months' notice to end the joint occupancy of Oregon by America and Great Britain. The Pacific Northwest is indebted to Gen. Semple for his valiant advocacy, and it is not surprising to learn that it was with difficulty that his son was restrained long enough to finish his education be- fore starting out for Oregon. As soon as the boy had graduated from the law school of the Cincinnati college, he traveled by way of New York, Panama and San Francisco to Port- land, Or., where he begun his career as a lawyer in the fall of 1863. Seven years later he became editor of the Daily Oregon Herald, leading organ of the Democratic party. In the same year that he changed from lawyer to newspaper man he was married to Miss Ruth A. Lownsdale, daughter of one of the early pioneers of Oregon. To this union were born three daughters and one son. After serving as state printer of Oregon, clerk of the circuit court and police commissioner of Portland, he removed, in 1882, to Vancouver, Washington territory, where he became extensively engaged in the manufacture of lumber. In Vancouver he took a leading" part in organizing the Columbia Waterway Association, and in a paper on river improvements showed that he possessed great ability as an engineer. It was this part of his many-sided nature that was to fill his last years. When his term as governor had ended and the de- sired statehood was achieved, he moved to Seattle and accepted appointment as a member of the board EUGENE SEMPLE 67 of harbor line commissioners. Later he organized the Seattle & Lake Washington Waterway Company. The city directory of Seattle for 1894-95 carries Gov. Semple's name as president of that company, and also states that the state of Washington, through the commissioner of public lands and the governor, had entered into a contract with the company "for filling in of the tide lands of Elliott bay, the excavation of the waterways and the Lake Washington canal from the harbor to the lake." The directory for the fol- lowing year speaks of the interest still maintained in the government canal and states that the private canal had behind it a company organized "a little over a year ago," with $7,000,000 of Missouri capital. To this company Gov. Semple gave the energy of his last years. The government canal is about finished. The private canal is not, but the "waterways are im- proved and wide areas of tide lands are redeemed and filled, ready for use. The governor's broad vision was thus in great part realized when he was stricken with paralysis in the summer of 1908. He was hurriedly removed to San Diego, Cal., to regain his strength, but he died in that city on August 28, 1908. MILES CONWAY MOORE MILES C. MOORE Fourteenth Territorial Govern *r 1889 NO. XIV.- -MILES CONWAY MOORE The last territorial governor had a brief term, but that term w'as important, and, moveover, the man himself is a very useful citizen, with an inter- esting 1 history. When Benjamin Harrison succeeded Grover Cleveland in the presidency on March 4, 1889, the principal appointive officers in the terri- tories beg-an soon to be changed from Democrats to Republicans. It was during- that year of change that Miles C. Moore, of Walla Walla, was appointed, in April, governor of Washington territory. It was expected that the territory would soon become a state, and this added a sort of sentimental value to the office, since the man who held it during- the birth of the state would always be remembered. As it turned out, Gov. Moore was chief executive for seven months. He took to the office a certain dignity of character and charm of personality that made his brief administration a very acceptable one. The great event was, of course, the acquisition of statehood. The niceties and intricacies of the transition were all met by Gov. Moore with a gen- uine suavity that precluded any social or political mishap. Prior to the actual change an uncomfort- able burden was placed upon the governor. From June to August, three cities Seattle, Spokane and Ellensburg suffered severely from devastating fires. Help was needed. Gov. Moore's proclamations met with instant response from all over the United States, and even from foreign countries. In Seattle it was necessary to call out the militia to guard the sixty acres of ruins. In all this the governor showed a commendable vigor and steadiness of purpose. His career is one of those that show success achieved by true manhood in action on the American frontier. Born in Rix Mills, O., on April 17, 1845, he was but 12 years of age when his family moved to Wisconsin, and the boy entered Bronson institute at Point Bluff. He studied there six years. During that time he read about the Western explorations by Bonneville, Fremont and others. On leaving- that Methodist academy he started for the West, locating first in Blackfoot, Mont. He soon moved farther westward, until he found himself penniless in Walla Walla. Kyger & Reese gave him a clerkship in their (71) 72 <;oYKKN<>i:S OF WASHINGTON store. He must have been an attractive youth, for he obtained a partnership at 21 years of age in the store of H. E. Johnson & Co. From that time his progress and success have been constant. In 1869 he entered the firm of Paine Brothers & Moore, dealers in general merchandise and farm implements, to which business he gave his energies for nine years. During that time he was married, in 1873, to Mary Elizabeth Baker, daughter of Dr. D. S. Baker, one of the early and well-beloved pio- neers of Oregon and Washington. He was twice elected to the city council and in 1877 was elected mayor of Walla Walla. At the end of that one year as mayor he formed a partnership with Dr. Baker, under the firm name of M. C. Moore & Co., to participate in the grain business. On the death of Dr. Baker his large es- tate was managed, in part, by Miles C. Moore. He became vice president of the Baker-Boyer National Bank in 1889, and has served as president of the same substantial institution since 1899. He is also president of the corporation known as M. C. Moore & Sons, engaged in the business of loans and invest- ments. From 1909 to 1912 he was a member of the execu- tive council of the American Bankers Association. In 1913 he was elected president of the board of overseers of Whitman college, of Walla Walla. He is interested in the historical, literary and educa* tional development of the Pacific Northwest, as well as in its economic, industrial and financial prog- ress. He is a frequent and welcome visitor in all of the principal cities of the Northwest. GREAT SEAL OF THE STATE GREAT SEAL OF THE STATE NO. XV. ELISHA PEYRE FERRY Gov. Ferry has the distinction of being the only governor of territorial days to be elected to that office after or upon attaining statehood. He was the first governor of the new state. His biography was published in the territorial group as No. X. (75) JOHN HARTE McGRAW JOHN H. McGRAW Second State Governor 1893 to 1897 NO. XVI. JOHN HARTE McGRAW The second governor of the state of Washington may be said to have been a graduate of the "Uni- versity of Hard Knocks." Born at Barker's planta- tion, Penobscot county, Me., on October 4, 1850, he had but scant schooling- in that far northeastern cor- ner of the Union. The story was told that one cold winter day, when the boys were made to toe a line, he was ordered to step forward, and later to step back again, before the teacher found that the little fellow was wearing cast-off boots much too large for him. His father was drowned and, the mother marrying again, the boy struck out for himself at 14 years of age. At 17 he was manager of a general store, and on reaching his twenty-first birthday ne formed a partnership with his brother. Through no fault of the brothers, the business failed in 1876, and John H. McGraw started immediately for the Far West. A few months Were spent in San Francisco, and on December 28, 1876, he landed in Seattle, "which city became his home for the rest of his life. While in business with his brother in the state of Maine, he was married in 1874 to May L. Kelley. The two children survive their parents and live in Seattle Mrs. Kate McGraw Baxter and Thomas H. McGraw. On arriving in Seattle, McGraw was penniless, but he soon found employment as clerk of the Occidental hotel, and not long afterward he became proprietor of the American house, near Yesler's wharf. Losing all by fire, he accepted work as a policeman. From this point his upward progress was rapid and con- tinuous, though he had by no means passed all the hard knocks. He became city marshal, chief of police and sheriff of King county. He was re-elected to the latter position a number of times. When the anti-Chinese agitation culminated in a severe riot m Seattle on February 7, 1886, Sheriff McGraw was found true to his trust. He joined with his fellow citizens in contributing to a fund to pay the fares of Chinese who desired to leave the city, but at the same time he declared that the others w'ould be given full protection of the law. This (79) NO ;<tvi-:i;x<>i;s < >K WASHINGTON \\;us clone effectually, but when the election took place in the following \n\ i-mbcr. Sin -riff Mn ; ra\v ami all others on the Krpubl ica n ticket in Kin;;' county met defeat, except H. G. Thornton, candidate for constable. The popular furor.' cooled, however, ind Mr. McGraw was returned to tin- sheriff's office in tin.- next election, 1888. In the meantime he had passed through another '\perience that showed the progress of his self- education. While sheriff he had been using all his spare time studying law and in 1887 he joined with t\vo eminent jurists Judges Roger S. Greene and Cornelius H. Hanford in the formation of a firm of lawyers. His prospects were excellent for suc- cess in the legal profession when he yielded to the call to lead another political battle in King county. During this last term in the sheriff's office he be- came president of the First National Bank. He de- clined re-election as sheriff in 1890 and gave his whole time to the bank. During all his years as an officer of the law he took great pleasure in helping boys and young men whom he found struggling for an education. This side of his life received no publicity, but the present writer knows about it, for he was one of the boys so helped and encouraged. Mr. McGraw' had risen in his party's councils. He was a member of the Republican national conven- tion in 1892 and was elected during that same year as governor of the state. He was inaugurated in January, 1893. As a member of the legislature in 1893, the present writer was a witness of the earnest manner in which Gov. McGraw applied himself to his duties. The state had plunged into extrava- gances during the first few years after emergence from territorial tutelage. To check this and to face the troubles growing out of the panic of 1893, the governor began economies to which he compelled the adherence of the state institutions. He also vetoed a number of appropriation bills. These rather drastic measures added no glamor to his administra- tion except in the minds of the relatively few citi- zens who observed and approved the businesslike methods of the chief executive. One issue cost him much of his popularity in those lean years of panic. The legislature yielded to the clamor for a deficiency judgment law. It was repugnant to the governor, who could see in it nothing but a repudiation of debts. He vetoed the bill and brought down on his head a crash of indignant protest. As in all his JOHN HARTE McGRAW 81 other transactions, he did not waver in what he thought was right. His administration was closed by the famous free silver campaign of 1896, when the Republican party in the state of Washington was thoroughly beaten. Then Gov. McGraw was called upon to face the worfit hard knock of his whole career. In territorial days the sheriff's office had been on the fee system. The office in King: county during McGraw's last term in it involved more money than any other similar office in the territory. At the end of his term he had all his books and accounts audited and checked more than once by independent and legal authorities. Six years later, after he had suffered with others through the panic and when the county administra- tion had changed, a new audit caused the surprising announcement to be made that McGraw owed King county nearly $10,000. This was a staggering blow. Times were hard. No property could be sold. Little or no money could be raised. In this crisis McGraw chose a well-known Democrat, and he requested the Democratic prosecuting attorney to choose an- other. In the hands of these two men he placed escrow deeds to all his property, to be sold as soon as possible to pay the debt due the county. Soon afterward, in that same year, 1S97, the Klou- dike treasure ship Portland arrived at Seattle. Mc- Graw decided to try to recover his broken fortun^ in the Nrrth. The present writer stood on the whaix all day to jay farewell as his friend sailed away. One old pioneer on that wharf declared, waving his hand toward McGraw: "I have fought that man in many a campaign, but when I see him take his pick and shovel to dig a new fortune out of the frozen earth, I'm done. I will never fight that man again." When he returned from Alaska he formed the real estate and insurance firm which still is doing busi- ness under the name of McGraw, Kittinger & Case. He never again sought public office, but he con- tinueu to serve his city and state in the best way.; he knew how. He had always been one of the fore- most advocates of the Lake Washington canal ana he maue j.rcquent journeys to the national capital in behalf of that and other enterprises pending be- fore congress or governmental departments. He was elected president of the Seattle Chamber of Com- merce in June, 1905, and served in that capacity for four years. He was a trustee and vice president of the Alaska-Yukon-Pacific exposition. In such public and semi-public positions he was >p ten called upon to preside at meetings and to maKe 82 GOVKi:.\"i;s OF WASHINGTON addresses. His self-education was li'-arin.n- fruii. ife gave evidence of wide reading. and all was tem- pered with his natural and warm-hearted sympathy. Once he failed. His voice choked and tears trickled down his cheeks. The audience was made up of poor little unfortunates in the reform school. Soon after his death, June 23, 1910, the citizens of Seattle, through a committee appointed by the Se- attle Chamber of Commerce, began the work of erecting a suitable memorial to him in the city he loved and served so well. A statue, wrought by the sculptor, Richard E. Brooks, was erected at McGraw place. With suitable ceremonies it was unveiled on July 22, 1913. JOHN RANKIN ROGERS JOHN R. ROGERS Third State Governor 1897 to 1901 NO. XVII. JOHN RAXKIN ROGERS The "barefoot schoolboy bill" made John R. Rogers governor of the state of Washington. There were many other contributing 4 causes, but that was the main one. As a Populist member of the legis- lature in 1895, he made himself the champion of that measure. It was bitterly opposed by the three largest cities Seattle, Tacoma and Spokane. Those cities were already carrying heavy burdens of school taxes. The new law provided a way to make those wealthy cities contribute to the support of the schools in the smaller towns, and more es- pecially those in the rural districts. The barefoot schoolboy alw^ays makes a fine issue in a political campaign. This time he came to the surface at a most opportune crisis. The Republicans were being criticized for the de- ficiency judgment veto by Gov. McGraw. The free silver agitation was at its height. Times were hard and people were reaching out in all directions for relief. Economic readjustment was the demand of the hour. To insure success for their side, the op- ponents of the Republican party Democrats, Popu- lists and Silver Republicans united into the Fusion party for the big campaign of 1896. Right there is where the barefoot schoolboy saw his champion hailed as the best possible standard bearer for the new party. At the election his majority was more than 12,000. Many people shuddered as he entered upon the duties of his office. He refused to ride to his in auguration in a carriage with his predecessor. His austere bearing gave promise of attempts to en- force the doctrines that seemed flamingly fantastic during his campaign speeches, but alarming and revolutionary when he had become the governor. This feeling of dread was soon modified, however, when he announced that he would try to serve the whole people rather than any single party. Before the first year of his administration had ended, the Tacoma Daily Ledger published, on No- vember 11, 1897, a large special edition. In it Gov. Rogers had an article on "The Future of Washington." It was optimistic throughout and ended with this prophecy: "It will thus be seen (85) M; GOVERNORS OF WASHINGTON that, so far as \vr arc able to discern the future, conditions favor tin- development in the state of Washington of the strongest, no.-t prosperous an<l happy people to he found anywhere upon the face of Cod's .Hl-et'll earth." '["lie change in the governor was accelerated by two big events. Hard times were seemingly ban- isln-d in a single clay by the arrival of the Klondike treasure ship in July, 3897. Politics as well as busi- ness shared in the golden glow of promised pros- perity. And then the outbreak of the Spanish- American war called to the surface executive tal- ents of high order. As the legislature assembled in January. 1899, the Republicans showed great gains, but Gov. Rogers was undaunted by the political re- verses of his party. His message was full of com- mon-sense advice about further economies in gov- ernment. He favored fewer normal schools and better support of the common schools. He also fa- vored a railroad commission, the examination of <=tate banks and the protection of fisheries. !!> .uave most of his attention to taxation and how to reduce the burden. His closing words were char- acteristically grim and pointed: "Men whom we are anxious to attract and wh< are worth attract- ing, whose coming among us would aid and strengthen us, are close observers in these matters and cannot be allured by the mere glittering gen- eralities of the real estate dealer or the panegyrics of hired scribblers." The territory and state of Washington have been nominally Republican ever since that party has been in existence. However, at political crises the voters have shown a wholesome independence. This w^as first shown by adherence to the Union cause in 1864 during the second Lincoln campaign. It was again shown by two elections of Charles S. Voor- hees, Democrat, to congress in 1884 and 1886 on the issue of forfeiting the unearned land grants of the Northern Pacific Railroad Company. It was shown again by the re-election of Gov. John R. Rogers in 1900. He was the only man in our history that was so honored. Gov. Ferry had been twice appointed to the office before being elected in 1889, but Gov. Rogers was twice elected. The people had become convinced that the rugged old man was thoroughly honest, and there were none, even among his numerous foes, who ques- tioned his courage. In that election of 1900 the Republicans elected their entire state ticket with the exception of the governor. When the legisla- JOHN RANKIN ROGERS 87 ture assembled and the second inauguration of the governor was completed they encountered a man much broadened by his four years in office. He was still quick for the combat, however, when questions of appropriations or taxation came up. He avoided an affront by withholding his veto from the legis- lative reapportionment bill and simply showed his disapproval by allowing the bill to become a law without his signature. Toward the end of the first year of his second ad- ministration and, as it turned out, within a week of his own death, the governor gave out an inter- view criticizing President Roosevelt's attitude to- ward the trusts. One vigorous pronouncement in that interview was as follows: "But one force in this nation is sufficiently powerful to curb the enor- mous pow'er of the trusts, and tha' is the national government. Government ownership is the only and final end of the tremendous concentration of wealth which, so far, has proceeded without let or hindrance." After suffering for a week with an attack of pneumonia, Gov. Rogers died on the evening of De- cember 26, 1901. It was especially appropriate that the school children of this state, with their pennies and dimes, should raise a fund to erect a statue of the governor in the capital city. John R. Rogers was born in Brunswick, Maine, 1838. After a common school education in his na- tive town he went to Boston and learned the phar- macy business. He managed a drug store in Missis- sippi until the approach of the civil war, when he became a farmer and school teacher in Cumberland county, Illinois. In 1876 ho moved to Kansas and had a varied experience in that state. He was a farmer and was elected to local offices and estab- lished and edited the Kansas Commoner. He came to the state of Washington in 1890, making his home at Puyallup, Pierce county, until he took up his residence in the capital city. At the time of his death Federal Judge C. H. Han- ford addressed his court, briefly eulogizing the character of the man and concluding: "The record will show that the court, upon the motion of Sen- ator Allen, stands adjourned for the day, out of rescect to the memory of Gov. Rogers." HENRY McBRIDE HENRY McBRIDE Fourth State Governor 1901 to 1905 NO. XVIII. HENRY McBRIDE Henry McBride was the first man to succeed to the governorship from the office of lieutenant gov- ernor. In territorial days the secretary often acted as governor during- the absence of the chief execu- tive. After statehood, the lieutenant governor did the same thing on a number of occasions. On the death of Gov. Rogers, December 26, 1901, Mr. Mc- Bride was at once sworn iji <u. governor. Being a Republican, he and the other state officers, as well as the legislature, were brought into political accord. Former Gov. Miles C. Moore, who had journeyed from Walla Walla to attend the funeral of Gov. Rogers, took occasion to say: "The people of the state are to be congratulated that the unfinished work of this great office has descended to one so able to discharge it. Gov. McBride is a man of power and executive force, and the people may rest assured the varied interests of our commonwealth will be safe in his hands." An even more intimate note of approval was sounded by Mayor J. P. de Mattos, of Bellingham. who said: "It is just nineteen years ago since, on a journey to Whatcom on a Sound steamer, I stopped at La Conner, in Skagit county, for a few days. There I became acquainted with Henry McBride, who was teaching a country school." He then sketched his rapid rise to the governorship. The teaching of that country school is somewhat of a key to the success of Gov. McBride. He was born at Farmington, Utah, on February 7, 1856. After attendance at the public schools in Western New York, he entered Trinity college, in Connecticut, for a term of three years. After leaving school he start- ed West and spent two years in California before moving to Washington territory in 1882. He began his school teaching at Oak Harbor, on Whidby island. His spare time was used in the study of law. As La Conner was the county seat of Skagit county and a better place to study law, he moved his residence to that city, but still continued his work of teaching the country school. This strenuous life of teaching, studying and traveling back and forth continued for two years, and yet they were happy years. There are few places on earth more beautiful than Oak Harbor and Coupeville, on the northern end of Whidby island, and the waterway to La Conner. In addition to the (91) GOVI-:I:NMI:S < n-' WASHINGTON sheer beauty of the surroundings, .M< -I '.ride Was young and he was making progress. The records slio\v that at the end of those two years he was admitted to practice law in the < "iirts of Washing- ton and he was also married to Alice Garrett, of Coupeville. lie at once entered upon the serious business of his new profession at La Conner. In 1887 he mov.-'l to Mount Yernon, Skagit county. In that same year lie formed a partnership with I-:. M. Carr and Har- old Preston, of Seattle, but the firm was dissolved in two years. He was elected prosecuting attorney for the district comprising Whatcom, Skagit and Snohomish counties. The legislature of 1891 having created a new su- perior court to embrace Skagit and Island counties, Lieutenant and Acting Gov. Laughton appointed Me- Bride to be its first judge. In 1892 the people elect- ed him to the same position for a full term of four years. His record made him a state figure and he was nominated and elected lieutenant governor in 1900. On succeeding to the governorship in 1901, he pur- sued a calm and businesslike course. Changes were made slowly and with deliberation. His message to the legislature of 1903 showed his poise as well as his familiarity with the needs of the state. It is rather a long document, but the following paragraph will reveal its good sense: "In passing, permit me the suggestion that our educational institutions should be kept entirely free from politics, or political influence of any kind. Ap- propriations for their support should not be made to hinge upon other legislation. In this matter but two considerations should govern their actual needs, and the ability of the state to meet those needs. I have not caused the removal of any mem- ber of the board of regents, or board of trustees, of these institutions, nor have I appointed any such member for political reasons; nor shall I do so. And, whatever contests may face us during this session, I indulge the hope that no one of our educational institutions may be made the football of contending forces, or of aspirants for place." All the institutions found him true to his word. Vt the end of his administration he resumed the practice of law in Seattle, forming the firm of Mc- Bride, Stratton & Dalton. The firm was not of long duration, however, as Gov. McBride decided to give ap the practice of law and to devote himself to the manufacture of shingles and lumber. He has con- tinued to reside in Seattle. ALBERT EDWARD MEAD ALBERT E. MEAD Fifth State Governor 1905 to 1909 NO. XIX. ALBERT EDWARD MEAD In looking over the list of the governors of Washing-ton, territory and state, not many would pick out Albert E. Mead as one who occupied the of- fice during 1 a political crisis. Reference is here made to the enactment, during- his administration, of the direct primary law. He was the last governor to be nominated by the older plan of the party conven- tion. It is not likely that he could have secured the nomination under the new law. He was relatively poor in worldly possessions, and the direct primary law has proved very expensive to the candidates for the greater offices. Since his day it has become necessary for candidates for the governorship, or groups of their friends and supporters, to spend large sums of money and untold energies in con- tests for the nomination and election. Another change during his administration, large enough to merit mention, may be epitomized with the words "extra gubernatorial duties." The confer- ence of governors called by President Roosevelt dig- nified the office and increased its power for good by pointing the way toward greater co-operation of the states. Coincident, seemingly, with these dis- tant conferences came a multiplying of calls within the state for the governor to participate in meetings and public enterprises. Every governor since that time has had difficulty in filling such extra engage- ments. Besides the direct primary law, there were a num- ber of other important measures enacted during Gov. Mead's administration. These included provis- ions for a state railway commission, a state tax commission, a public highway department, the office of state bank examiner, the establishment of a re- formatory and the indeterminate sentence of con- victs. After four busy but enjoyable years in the high office of governor Mead went back to his home in Bellingham and resumed his work as a lawyer and as a public-spirited citizen for the four years of life that remained to him. Albert Edward Mead was born at Manhattan, Ri- ley county, Kansas, on December 14, 1861. From the public schools of Kansas, Iowa and Illinois, he en- (95) !< 'Yi:i:.\' -i:s r WASIIIM :T< >.\ tere.l tin- Southern Illinois normal university at i'arboixlale, from whieh lie .uTaduat.-d in 1882. TWO years more at the rnion College r Law in Chicago fitted liim for admission lo the bar of the courl of Illinois iii L885. ror r<>vir years in- law al Leotl, \Vieliita COUHty, Kansas, after whieh. in 1SS9, he moved to Washington territory and set- tled at I'.lain-', \Vlialeom county. He was mayor ol" IMaine in 189L'. and in that same year lie was elected a member ot" the house of rep- resentatives in the legislature. In 1 v^- he w;is elected prosecuting' attorney, which required his re- moval to Bellingliam, the county seat. Jle was re- elected in 1900 and in 1904 he secured the nomina- tion and election to the governorship. Before coming to Washington territory, he \vas married, at Anna, 111., in 1887 to Miss Lizzie Brown. To this union three sons and one daughter were born. Mrs. Mead died in 1898, and on May 5, 1899, at Van- couver, B. C., he was married to Mina J. Piper, a widow, daughter of Albert Hosmer. One son was born to this wife. Among other activities after the governorship, he devoted himself to the work of the Bellingham Cham- ber of Commerce. He became president of that or- ganization in 1911, and in December, 1912, he was unanimously re-elected. An attack of grip devel- oped into valvular disease of the heart. He died on March 19, 1913. He had always been a vigorous, campaigning Re- publican. It was therefore a pleasant commentary on his genial personality when Gov. Ernest Lister, an equally vigorous Democrat, telegraphed to Mrs. Mead a message of sympathy including these words: "In his death the state has lost one of its foremost citizens and I a personal friend." SAMUEL GOODLOVE COSGROVE SAMUEL G. COS GROVE Sixth State Governor 1909 NO. XX. SAMUEL GOODLOVE COSGROVE Here is a man who was governor of the state of Washington for a single day. The record of that day and the struggles that led up to it is a story fraught with profound pathos and, at the same time, filled with buoyant, optimistic hope. The senate journal for January 27, 1909, says that, on motion of Senator Cotterill, the senate adjourned at 3 o'clock to the house chamber "for the purpose of \vitnessing the inauguration of Samuel G. Cos- grove as governor of the state of Washington.' 1 Gov. Cosgrove entered the joint session with Gov. Mead, escorted by a committee of senators and rep- resentatives. On being introduced by Lieut. Gov. Hay, Gov. Cosgrove, pale and emaciated, made a brief address that sorely taxed the small remnant of his strength. Among other things he said: "A few weeks ago I was led down into the valley of the shadow, and I was allowed to peep almost on to the other side, but for some reason or other I have been called back, and I am here with you again. But I do want to show that I appreciate the sympathy that has come to me from all over the state." He spoke of three items of legislation close to his heart. He wanted a strong local option law, a constitutional amendment to insure the efficiency of the railroad commission and a law to strengthen the plan of primary elections. He asked as a special favor that he be granted a leave of absence to go in search of health, and then he closed w r th the hope that he would come back "to be governor in deed and in truth." Many faces were tear-stained that afternoon, and by unanimous vote the requested leave of absence was promptly granted. On the next day the special car was speeding the enfeebled governor back to Southern California That was the single day of his actual administra- tion. However, as his death did not occur until Sunday, March 28, he was technically governor for two months. There is a sense in which it may be shown that he gave his life for the climax of thai- single winter's day. The terrific labor of that first campaign under the direct primary law began to tear into his health. He was warned, but he per- (99) 341 930 inn GOVERNORS OF WASHINGTON .-isted to the end, and in November, after the voting was over, he went to Paso Uobles, Cal., hoping for Bpeedy recovery. He was accompank-d by Mrs. Cos- uro\ e. who bore ber share of impending trouble with remarkable fortitude. It was slie who superint ended tin- journey home for tin- inauguration and who re- 1'iained constantly on watch until thai "valley of the shadow" was finally passed. The personality of Samuel G. Cosgrove was an un- usual compound. The most conspicuous portion of it was by many thought to be almost boyish. Tt was rare that he was not ready to laugh and joke. For half a century he had cherished the ambition to be the governor of a great American state. Know- ing this, one of his political friends, an editor, asked him why he had made a joke about some serious political plan. His reply was that he honed he would be found smiling when the Great Reaper called for him. He could not help it. Jollity was a large part of his nature. He always sought to sur- prise into happiness those about him. At his home on Christmas eve every one, even those temporarily employed, had to hang up their stockings and he WHS Santa Glaus. "L,ike begets like." People joked with him. One pleasant occasion was when he was graduating from the Wesleyan University of Ohio in 1873. A custom had arisen that no diploma should be issued to a student with only one given name. Samuel Cos- grove was zxsked if he would accept a middle name and the professor, receiving pin affirmation, gave him the name of Goodlove. which he bore ever after- ward and handed it on to his son, Howard Goodlov? Cosgrove. After his graduation he became principal of a Cleveland, O., high school. The class tha* graduated from that institution on June 2">, 1878, had thirteen members. After the exercises were over Principal Cosgrove waved the audience to their seats, saying one matter had been overlooked. He then called to his feet a minister among the guests on the platform, and escorting one of the girls 7epphora Edgerton of the graduating class to the front, he and she were thereupon made man and wife. As principal he had signed his wife's diploma, and years afterward his daughter Myrn was about to graduate from the University of Washington while he was a regent. The president of the board of re- gtnts resigned for a day in favor of Regent Cos- grove, that he might surprise his daughter by sign- SAMUEL GOODLOVE COSGROVE 101 ing her diploma. Besides this pronounced quality of eifervescent geniality his character had two other less conspicuous qualities, parallel layers above and below one of lofty ideals, the other of deep, sin- cere purpose. These kept his life, his language and his thoughts perfectly clean at home and among hi? fellow-men. They led him into the army at 16 years of age when he heard the call to save the Union. They extended his hand in many a helpful service. They urged long hours of preparation when invited to give the commencement address at his son's grad- uation from the University of Washington. On the train from his home he threw that address away and began a new one. Those same less obtrusive qualities kept him a sincere and earnest Christian gentleman. He was by no means sordid in his political am- bitions, although he frankly avowed at an early date that he wanted the governorship. He spent a year mining in Nevada, another year in California and then, in 1882, he settled in Pomeroy, county seat of Garfield county, Washington, which remained his home for the rest of his life. He served as mayor of Pomeroy for five terms, pulling the city com- pletely out of debt. His county was a small one, and people joked when it came to the Republican conventions with a candidate for governor. But Cosgrove was patient and good natured. He helped others win. He never failed in campaign seasons to do his level best. He became so well and so favor- ably known that the party managers named him a presidential elector in 1900 and again in 1904. In the last named year he refused a place on the su- preme bench of the state. When the direct primary law was enacted his opportunity had come. He threw himself into the campaign of 1908 and won. As lawyer and farmer he had gained a comfort- able fortune and could afford the financial cost of that campaign, but, as the result showed, he wan not equal to the physical strain. He was born in Tuscarawas county, Ohio, on April 10, 1847. He and his family believed that he was young enough and strong enough to overcome the dread Bright's dis- ease. In the presence of that persistent hope his death seemed sudden. He was given a state funeral at Olympia, the most prominent men by their pres- ence and their words showing how surely he had won his way into their hearts. Senator George Turner lamented the loss of a friend and recalled the efficient services of Mr. Cos- 102 r,( >VKI;.\OKS OF WASHINGTON grove as a member of the convention that frame. I the state's constitution in l.vs'.t. Kormer < Jovrrnoi .s Midraxv, Mead and Moore expressed tln-ir sorrow, .-is did thousands of others. Former Vice President Charles W. Fairbanks sent to Mrs. < 'osgrove a mes- sage of s\ mpathy which closed \vitli these words: "The state which so greatly honored him lias lost an able, loyal, honored public servant, and we who knew him and loved him from our youth, a dear an.l noble friend." The widow and the son and daughter (now Mrs. Roy J. Kinnear) mentioned above and one other son, Klliott Cosgrove. have lived in Seattle since the governor's death. MARION E. HAY M. E. HAY Seventh State Governor 1909 to 1913 NO. XXI. MARION E. HAY On the death of Gov. Cosgrove the lieutenant governor succeeded to the governorship for the sec- ond time in the state's history. Lieut. Gov. Hay had been acting governor except for the single day when Gov. Cosgrove was inaugurated. The governor's re- covery was hoped for and expected. When the sad news came, Acting Governor Hay said: "While it never was my privilege to become intimately ac- quainted with Gov. Cosgrove, nevertheless I, like the thousands of others in the state, knew of him, and our knowledge bred in our hearts a love and affection for him that grew with the years. Thus it is with the deepest personal sorrow and a sense of great personal loss that I heard of the untimely death of our beloved governor and esteemed fellow- citizen." Again on the same day he declared: "As is well known, when I became a candidate for the office of lieutenant governor it was without the slightest thought that I would ever be called upon to fill the executive position. Now that those duties have de- volved upon me, I shall perform them to the best of my ability." He lived up to that promise and the ability he pledged proved to be of no mean quality. The extra gubernatorial duties that began to develop in Gov. Mead's administration increased greatly during the term of Gov. Hay. This was largely due to the Alaska- Yukon-Pacific exposition held in Seattle during the year 1909. The governor was in con- stant demand for public functions, and he responded with a prompt and winsome cordiality. He had not had the practice of speaking in the law or other learned professions. He had been a successful mer- chant. It was therefore a source of great satisfac- tion to his friends that he arose to the new duties with abundant grace and good sense. The legislature of 1909 had appointed a committee to investigate certain public officers. When that committee's report was prepared, Gov. Hay called an extraordinary session of the legislature to meet on June 23, 1909. He gave a message full of forceful injunction to make a thorough cleansing. He quoted (105) 106 GOVERNORS OF WASHINGTON fr<>m former President Koosevelt: "The exposure of corruption is an honor to a nation, not a disgrace. The shame lies in toleration, not in correction." In his own words the governor declared: "Opposition to further investigation can come only from those v.ho have something in their official records which they desire to conceal. An honest official welcomes examination into the conduct of his affairs, as such examination can only reflect credit upon him." That note of honest candor was maintained throughout his whole administration. His efforts were not al- ways successful, but his aim was high and his pur- pose true. At the regular session of the legislature, on Jan- uary 10, 1911, he gave his one full gubernatorial message. It is a long document, covering a wide range of topics. The language is simple and clear. Through it runs the insistent purpose that all phases of the state government shall be made efficient. He concludes by asking the legislature to "exercise the strictest economy consistent with practical achieve- ment." The state had grown progressive In politics. It had not been found necessary to elect a third party majority of the legislature. The Republican major- ity in the session of 1911 enacted a number of the progressive measures and they were approved by Gc-v. Hay. Chief among these measures were the provisions for the initiative and referendum. The popular legislation, together with the acknowledged sincerity and courage of Gov. Hay, seemed, at the half-way station in March, 1911, to assure him a re- election in November, 1912. As the election ap- proached, nowever, enough opposition to the hign- v. ay policy and to certain land entanglements in Douglas county developed to defeat him. Marion E. Hay is a native of Wisconsin. He was born in Adams county of that state on December 9, 1865. His education was obtained in country schools and at Bayless Commercial Business College, Du- buque, la. He was clerk in a store at Jackson, Minn., from 1882 to 1888. During that time, on Jan- uary 16, 1887, he was married to Lizzie L. Muir. The couple decided to carry out the frontier spirit of their parents; so the next year, 1888, found them in Davenport, Washington territory. For one year Mr. Hay was in partnership with Charles Grutt, the firm being Hay & Grutt. He then moved to Wilbur and began general merchandising in his own name. MARION E. HAY 107 The business prospered and in 1901 it was incorpo- rated under the name of M. E. & E. T. Hay. In addition to building up a large mercantile plant at Wilbur, Mr. Hay acquired other property, farms and city realty. Part of his wealth is worse than nonproductive. Just before the Madero revolution some one persuaded Gov. Hay to invest in large areas of lands in Mexico. When peace is restored to that unhappy land he will probably seek to de- velop his property there. Gov. and Mrs. Hay have an interesting family of five children. The youngest of them was born at Olympia, in the executive mansion. The two oldest children are married, but the others are with the parents in their beautiful home in Spokane. ERNEST LISTER ERNEST LISTER Eighth State Governor 1913 to NO. XXII. ERNEST LISTER Ernest Lister, the present governor of the state of Washington, is the only man of foreign birth who has occupied that office since statehood. He was born in Halifax, England, on June 15, 1870. In terri- torial das^s two men of foreign birth were appointed as governors William Pickering, born in England, was appointed by President Lincoln, and Edward S. Salomon, born in Germany, was appointed by Presi- dent Grant. One other, Eugene Semple, was born outside of the United States, but he could not be counted of foreign birth. His father was United States minister to New Granada (now Colombia) when the son was born in Bogota. But, even with his foreign birth, Ernest Lister is more of a Wash- ingtonian than many of the men w'ho have been governors. When scarcely 14 years of age he came to America with his father's family and settled in Tacoma. That city has been his home for more than thirty years. When the city was incorporated, Lister's uncle, David Lister, became its first mayor. The father, J. H. Lister, was a pioneer iron founder in Tacoma. After the son had gone to business col- lege a while, on completion of his studies in the grades, he became an iron molder. He was a mem- ber of the union and later was selected as delegate to the union's national convention. At 23 years of age the iron molder became a mem- ber of Tacoma's city council and four years later he was chairman of the state board of control under Gov. John R. Rogers. He was strong and active physically. His five years of close association with John R. Rogers added to his native ability a cer- tain ruggedness of mental processes and of political purposes. He declined passes from the railroads when such favors were freely given and as freely accepted. He gave to his manifold duties a service of such high quality that success in a business career was assured to him as soon as he resumed private life. Not long after the death of Gov. Rogers, he be- gan that business career. He succeeded in the contracting business which culminated in the or- ganization of the Lister Manufacturing Company, a lumber enterprise of importance, in Tacoma. Asso- (111) 11J <:< >vi-:i;\ >i:s OF \V.\SI 1 1 \< ',T< >.\ Dialed -with liim in this enmpany \v:is his hrot li.-r Albert. At tin- time <>r his flection to the governor- ship, his brother Alfn >] was secretary of the Tacoma board of education, and another brother, Arthur, was general foreman of tin- pattern department of the Northern Pacific railway. In his own family Gov. List' -r lias an ideal home life. lie was married in Tacoma on February 28, 1893, to Alma Thornton, a native of Oregon. Their daughter, Florence, had graduated from the Tacoma high school and Was a student in a girls' college in the East when her father was elected governor. Their other child, a boy of 12, bears the name of John Ernest Lister one name for the father and the other for the father's great friend, John R. Rogers. Music, art and religious activities have made in their house a happy American home of the best sort. The Lister campaign for the governorship was a spectacular one of the whirlwind variety. There was a dispute about the nomination in the primary election. When that was settled only three weeks remained before the final election. Every known vehicle but the flying machine was pressed into service. Eleven speeches a day was not an uncommon program. The Republicans carried their state ticket with the exception of governor. Lister, the Demo- cratic nominee, had won that place in those three weeks. His administration is about to enter its last year. He has met two sessions of the legislature. To each session he submitted a long, carefully thought-out message. The ground covered by those documents shows how the state was expanding in a multitude of institutions, offices and interests demanding the at- tention of the governor and the legislature. He desired and urged economy, but he also requested that care be used in applying the economies so that no real need be jeopardized. In his second message, 1915, he favored a new constitutional convention, but, if the legislature should not favor that, its duty w'as pointed out to follow the present constitution and "apportion and district anew the members of the senate and house of representatives according to the number of in- habitants." He urged an educational survey to see if the cost could not be reduced and the effi- ciency of the institutions be promoted. Each de- partment of the government received attention, as did a number of new proposals, such as rural credit, the publication of school books, and especially the advocacy of good roads. ERNEST LISTER ll:J The legislatures, with heavy Republican majori- ties, were not in political accord with the governor. Members of the legislatures were quite as anxious as the governor to secure efficiency and economy. They strove for those ends in their own way, but their deliberations were disturbed by a number of bitter contests, notably over appropriations for state highways and provisions for state-wide prohibition. Into several of these contests the governor was necessarily drawn, apparently to the hurt of his political standing. The most casual visitor at the capital during the session of 1915 would frequently hear from legisla- tors and their friends that Gov. Lister had no chance whatever of re-election. Now, the present writer has no knowledge as to whether or not Gov. Lister desires re-election, but this reflection has resulted from a study of the governorship: Such political judgments at the middle of a governor's administra- tion are not at all dependable. This has been par- ticularly true in Washington since statehood. Gov. Ferry w'as ill in California during the winter of 1891 and was not expected to be in the following cam- paign. But Gov. McGraw's political star was at zenith height in 1894, and yet in two years the whole Republican ticket was beaten. Gov. Rogers was triumphant in 1896. Within two years he saw his Fusion party congressmen defeated and his own political chances lowered. Political prophets de- clared that the governor could not hope for re- election. However, in 1900 he was the only candi- date on his ticket that was elected. Gov. McBride stood high in 1902, but was defeated for renomi- nation in 1904. This reversal of midadministration judgments was not so marked in the case of Gov. Mead, as the new direct primary law was to change conditions. Gov. Hay stood highest in the middle of his administration and his re-election seemed se- cure until late in the campaign of 1912. In the light of w'hat has happened in the past, it may be that the governor, should he enter the race, will feel encouraged by the adverse political judgments of January, 1915, rather than be dismayed by them. The extra gubernatorial duties have reached a climax in Gov. Lister's term. Eastern conferences of all the governors, Western conferences of groups of them, two expositions in California, the open Columbia river celebrations and other occasions have called him out of the state. Within the state events have frequently arranged themselves seem- ingly in chains so that the governor makes a tour ill GOVERNORS <'!' WASH I \< '/!'< >\ with fuin -lions in the morning, afternoon and eve- ning- for a week at a time. His friends marvel that he is able to keep his health, and his good nature throughout the never-ending strain. He is still in the prime of life. There is every probability that he will continue for years an energetic, robust and useful citizen of the state he loves after his release from the burdens of public office.