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Full text of "Life sketches of government officers and members of the Legislature of the state of New York for 1875"

THE LIBRARY 

OF 

THE UNIVERSITY 
OF CALIFORNIA 

LOS ANGELES 





t/cts>^iA-j>-/_ Cs. 



LIFE SKETCHES 



GOVERNMENT OFFICERS 



MEMBERS OF THE LEGISLATURE 



STATE OF NEW YORK 



1875. 



' \ 



BY W. H.,MoELROY AND ALEX. MoBBIDE. 



ALBANY : 

WEED, PARSONS AND COMPANY, PRINTERS. 

1875. 



Entered, according to act of Congress, in the year eighteen hundred aud 
seventy-five, 

BY w. H. MCELROY AND ALEX. MCBRIDE, 

In the office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington. 



ALBANY, N. T. 

WEED. PARSON'S AND COMPANY, 

PRINTERS, STEREOTYPERS 

AND PUBLISHERS. 



F 



IKTEODTJOTIOlir. 



The publication of " Life Sketches " began in 1858, and 
has been continued, with an occasional hiatus, ever since. 
Each volume contains a condensed biographical sketch of the 
Governor, Lieutenant-G-overnor, State Officers and Members 
of both branches of the Legislature, and thus fills its niche 
and has its value in the not unimportant department of 
works of reference. The present editors prepared the annual 
for '73 and '74, and met with such encouragement and suc- 
cess as induced them to continue the series. The editor of 
Life Sketches for 1858 expressed the aim and limitation of 
all the volumes when he wrote, in his preface: " Beyond its 
usefulness as a work of reference, it is, comparatively, of but 
little interest to the public. The private details embodied 
in the sketches are designed only to give it interest as a 
volume for private circulation among the friends of those 
whose lives constitute its pages." 

As regards the merits of the present volume, the editors 
have only to say that they have taken great pains to avoid 
errors, either of fact or date, and to render the sketches as 
complete as possible within the limits prescribed. 

It will be noticed that, the sketches being arranged alpha- 
betically, the necessity of an index is removed. 



LIFE SKETCHES. 



SAMUEL J. TILDEIST, 

GOVERNOR. 

The tendencies of youth often point unerringly to the 
future career. It is related of Sir WALTER SCOTT that he 
would sit among his young companions and tell them little 
stories by the hour. So it was with the subject of this sketch. 
His earliest associations with public affairs, amid the men of 
note who visited and held familiar converse in the paternal 
home, developed the youthful love of aifairs which has since 
ripened into the higher and broader statesmanship. The 
public record of SAMUEL JONES TILDEN, twenty-fifth Gov- 
ernor of New York, was inspired in youth, and has been 
shaped after the simplest and purest models of character 
among our earliest and best statesmen. He was born in 
1814, near the close of the last war with England, at New 
Lebanon, Columbia county, N. Y., and descends from the 
best Puritan stock. NATHANIEL ' TILDEN, his ancestor, was 
a brother of one of the consignors of the May Flower. This 
ancestor, three years later, came to America in the ship Ann 
with nine other gentlemen from Kent, England, and founded 
the town of Scituate, Mass. 

Mr. TILDEN'S grandfather, JOHN TILDEN, came from 
Connecticut and settled in Columbia county, N. Y., in 1790. 
His father, a farmer and merchant in New Lebanon, was a 
man of great natural ability and sound practical sense, who, 
when SAMUEL was fitted to enter Yale College, had already 
become a prominent man in the county, the correspondent 
and intimate friend of SILAS WRIGHT, MARTIN VAN BUREN, 
MICHAEL HOFFMAN, the LIVINGSTONS, WILLIAM L. MARCY 
and others. By these associations young TILDEN was 



6 LIFE SKETCHES. 

inspired to become a student of the great questions of gov- 
ernment and political affairs. It determined his profession 
and his career. The record of his rapid progress, the inci- 
dents and some of the salient anecdotes of his student life, 
and of his first bold adventures, in the ardor of his early man- 
hood, into political life become a matter of deep interest to 
the people as they study the quality of that riper mind, that 
purity and strength of character, that breadth of statesman- 
ship which the exigency of the times demand in a Governor 
of the Empire State. These earlier years' disclosed the quality 
of the germ which has ripened into the inflexibly upright 
and rare legal mind, the highest capacity and moral purpose 
in legislation and administration. 

At the age of eighteen he was prepared for college. In 
the contest of that year, which resulted in the second elec- 
tion of Gen. JACKSON as President, VAN BUREN, Vice-Presi- 
dent, and MARCY, Governor, there was a coalition between 
the National Republicans and Anti-Masons. The success of 
the Democratic party depended on breaking it. Young TIL- 
DEN had even then mastered the leading questions of govern- 
ment, and of his own motion quietly wrote a powerful analy- 
sis of the political situation, showing that there could be no 
honest alliance. It was published in the Albany Argus, and 
was found to be so finished and vigorous that it was attribu- 
ted to the facile and able pen of Mr. VAN BUREN. His 
authorship was denied in self-defense, and when the real 
author was discovered it brought him at onoe into full fel- 
lowship with all his father's distinguished friends, who com- 
posed the Albany Regency. It gave him high rank among 
the seniors of the party, which he held for a period of twenty 
years, up to the decease of DEAN RICHMOND, when he 
became its head and trusted leader. It was among these asso- 
ciations, with the best men of the State, that he stepped 
thus early upon the public stage. 

Two years later Mr. TILDEN entered Yale College, in the 
noted class in which were War. M. EVARTS, Chief Justice 



SAMUEL J. TILDEN. 7 

WAITE, Professors LYMAN and SILLIMAN, EDWARDS PIERRE- 
PONT and STEPHEN YERKS. Here he became a proficient 
in all branches, and continued his studies with such close 
application that in a short time his health seemed irretriev- 
ably gone. He was taken home by his father, and abandoned 
the idea of ever returning. That was the year of the great 
contest of General JACKSON with the Bank of the United 
States, popularly known as the Panic year in finance. Mr. 
TILDEN had so far recovered his strength iu the fall that he 
appeared in various parts of his native county and addressed 
the people. 

In 1834 he entered the University of New York. In view 
of his partially restored health, and the study of the law as 
his profession, he found here some peculiar advantages. A 
pleasant anecdote is told of one of his first recitations, show- 
ing how thoroughly he mastered every study in hand. The 
lesson was in- the Latin of Juvenal. Prof. TAPPAN called 
upon Mr. TILDEN to recite the first four lines. So finished 
in style, and yet so fully did he give the meaning of the 
author, that the Professor had him proceed with the transla- 
tion of the whole lesson. He did so to the delight of pre- 
ceptor and class-mates. At the advent of MARTIN VAN 
BUREN as President, in 1837, occurred the great financial 
revulsion. During TILDEN'S summer vacation at the Uni- 
versity, Mr. VAN BUREN issued a message calling for a 
special session of Congress in September. He recommended 
the separation of the government from the banks, and the 
creation of a fiscal system known as the Independent Treas- 
ury, There arose a controversy upon this in the Albany 
Argus, in which young TILDEN wrote a series of able papers 
advocating the measure, and requiring the bills to be 
redeemed in specie. 

In the following year (1838) United States Senator TALL- 
MAGE, who had left the Democratic party and gone over to 
the Whigs, went to Columbia county to address his new 
friends. At the conclusion of his speech, the leading Whig 
of that vicinity and the manager of the meeting rose and 



8 LIFE SKETCHES. 

said that if there were any persons present who desired to 
reply to the Senator, the meeting would be happy to hear 
him. This challenge was generally understood to be aimed 
at Mr. TILDEN. 

The young Democrats in the rear of the hall, comprising, 
perhaps, one fourth of the assembly, shouted for TILDEN. 
who found himself compelled to speak. 

After an able argument upon the question in controversy, 
he passed to the personal aspects of the Senator's speech : he 
alluded to the Senator's statement that the Democrats had 
changed position, while he himself had remained consistent. 
Then turning to the Whigs, he asked if they found them- 
selves now in unison with the Senator who had been opposed 
to them in the contest he had narrated? He earnestly 
appealed to them to know if they, and not the Senator, had 
changed. He then addressed the chairman of the meeting, 
a venerable citizen of near eighty, and pressed him in a tone 
of mingled compliment and expostulation, until in the excite- 
ment of the occasion he declared audibly that he had not 
changed. Of this declaration Mr. TILDES availed himself 
to the utmost and applied it to the Senator in a strain of 
masterly sarcasm and irony. It is enough to say that this 
scene was electric. It thrilled the assembly. The youth of 
twenty-four had given the Senator a Eoland for his Oliver. 
The effect of this speech was so powerful that when young 
TILDES was requested to address another meeting to be held 
a few miles distant, the young Whigs declared, it is said, that 
if he did they would "whip him." 

ELAM TILDES' wrote an account of this meeting to SILAS 
WRIGHT, who responded in a letter highly appreciative of the 
talent and pluck of young SAMUEL J. TILDEN. 

Having finished his course at the University, Mr. TILDEN 
entered the law school of the late BENJAMIN F. BUTLEK, 
and the law office of Judge JOHN W. EDMONDS. Mr. TIL- 
DEN'S father, was a man of clear, practical mind, and when 
his son entered upon the study of the law he impressed upon 
him the importance of looking carefully and critically into 



SAMUEL J. TILDEN. 9 

the reason of every principle he studied. It is from this 
habit in the study of his profession that he has blended with 
its practice the study of metaphysics, political economy, and 
other branches which shed strong light upon the higher 
grounds on which the law rests. Hence, the study of law 
as it relates to a wise and beneficent government and to the 
duties and welfare of society, has been with him a subject 
of profound investigation. This has had its effect in induc- 
ing him to prefer to a general practice a line of cases embrac- 
ing the broader views of law and its principles as a science* 
This has led to the prolonged and thorough study of both 
financial questions, and the financial aspects of political 
economy. 

It has induced him to engage largely in important cases 
which have required argument in the higher courts cases 
which have led to a review of principles of law, that fitted a 
body of developed facts, which often required the development 
of facts themselves from various sources in the order of their 
legal value. It has often been said of DAXIEL WEBSTER 
that his simple, masterly arrangement of the fac^s of a case 
in the exact order of their legal value was in itself an irre- 
sistible argument. JUDGE HOGEBOOM once said of Mr. TILDES 
in a case where he had summed up during a day and a-half 
with similar force and power of statement, that he spoke as 
if in a trance. 

The long series of important cases in which Mr. TILDES 
has been engaged before all our higher courts, if reported 
only in the outline would extend this sketch beyond all pro- 
per limits. A few of the most significant are referred to, 
which show his keenly analytic and logical mind, and his high 
moral purpose in gaining the ends of right and justice. 

In 1855. AZARIAH 0. FLAGG received the certificate of 
election as Comptroller of the city of New York. His title 
to the office was contested by his opponent by the legal pro- 
cess termed quo warranto. The vote had been so close that 
a change in the return of a single election district would 



10 LIFE SKETCHES. 

alter the result. Upon a fraud inserted here this opponent 
proceeded. From the very data of the contestant, Mr. TIL- 
DEN, by a mathematical and logical analysis, reconstructed a 
lost tally list showing the number of tickets, candidates and 
aggregate votes, and proved conclusively that the return for 
Mr. FLAGG was correct, and won the case on his opening. 

As counsel for the BUEDELL heirs in the American rival of 
the TICHBOENE case, Mr. TILDEN tore to tatters the won- 
derful tissue of falsehoods of the claimant Mrs. CUNNING- 
HAM by an adroit examination of one hundred and forty- 
two witnesses, and' developed a series of circumstances 
which struck the mind of the judge with irresistible force, 
and led him to the conviction that the asserted marriage had 
never taken place. 

More than half of the railroad enterprises of the West, 
north of the Ohio, and between the Hudson and Missouri 
rivers during the last twenty years have, in one way or the 
another, stood in the relation of clientage to Mr. TILDEN. 
From 1855 to 1860, many of them became insolvent, and so 
put in peril the interests of people of all conditions who were 
their creditors. His legal knowledge and broad views of 
legislation were brought into requisition for the benefit of 
many of them in reorganization. He had a thorough knowl- 
edge of their history and requirements, and had made a 
thorough mastery as well of all the questions which could 
arise in their financial administration. 

To other of his great legal triumphs we can but refer to 
in passing. In an important case of the Cumberland Coal 
Company in Maryland, he established the application of the 
legal principle that a trustee cannot deal with trust 
property, to the directors of all corporations. In the 
defense in the leading case of the Delaware and Hudson 
Canal Company, against the Pennsylvania Coal Com- 
pany, Mr. TILDEN occupied twelve clerks for a year in 
gathering all the statistics and facts of canal navigation, 
covering a period of many years, and by carefully applying 



SAMUEL J. TILDEN. 11 

the law of average, he settled one of the most important 
economic principles in canal navigation, and gained this 
case against the canal company. 

He had, also, in this long period, settled all the important 
principles involved in the management of our canals. He 
had in this work obtained a clear view of all the relations of 
both canals and railroads to the interests of the people and 
the State. Mr. TILDEN'S power of analysis and combina- 
tion is rare. He has great skill in intricate research in 
bringing to light in consecutive order from a mass of chaotic 
material all the strong facts of a case. In this work he 
developes his force and acumen in analysis. Then comes 
into play the rarer gift of combination and organization, 
without which the results of analysis are never gathered up 
and applied to beneficent ends. 

MARTIN VAN BUREN was an eminent example of this 
power. Mr. TILDES, even in youth, was spoken ot by this 
statesman and his compeers as one " who had a plan " and a 
vigor which attracted their attention. 

In 1864, Mr. TILDEN was returned from New York city, as 
member of the Assembly, and also as member of the Consti- 
tutional Convention. In all the most important discussions 
in the two revisions of the State Constitution, 1846 and 1867, 
Mr. TILDEN bore a conspicuous part. 

In the Constitutional Convention of 1846 he was next to 
MICHAEL HOFFMAN in the Committee on Canals and the 
Financial Obligations of the State, and did much to shape 
our subsequent policy respecting finance and the canals. A 
speech on the currency will be found in the printed debates 
which contains the germs .of the opinions now adopted by 
the best thinkers in Great Britain against the celebrated bill 
of Sir ROBERT PEEL, passed as the basis of the Bank of Eng- 
land in 1844. He was also a leading member of the Consti- 
tutional Convention of 1867, taking a particularly active 
part in relation to financial and legal subjects. 



12 LIFE SKETCHES. 

Notwithstanding the engrossing nature of his profession 
and the absorbing demands of a large practice, Mr. TILDEST 
in these and other public councils has taken an active inter- 
est and share in the affairs of the State and Union. For 
more than thirty years he has been a trusted adviser in the 
councils of the leading men of the State, and in their ranks 
no man stands higher as an apt judge of men and motives, 
as a skillful and effective organizer, and as a hard worker who 
knows how to make others work hard also. Probably no 
other man since VAN" BUKEN'S day has enjoyed a wider per- 
sonal acquaintance in this State. 

During the height of the power of the Ring, in 1869, an 
effort was made to supersede him as head of the State Com- 
mittee. He accepted the contest, and was sustained by 
nearly seven-eighths of the convention. Early in 1870 be- 
gan the celebrated controversy concerning the new charter 
of the city of New York. The Ring had succeeded in mis- 
leading a majority of the best citizens, but although stand- 
ing well nigh alone, Mr. TILDEIST went to Albany, and on 
April 5, 1870, made a speech in scathing denunciation of the 
charter which restored the TWEED dynasty to power, not by 
the voice of the people, but by the vote of the Legislature. 
As it turned out, the bill was passed almost unanimously, and 
under it occurred the notorious six million robbery. 

In 1871 he led the revolt of forty thousand Democrats 
against the Ring in the city of New York. Notwithstand- 
ing he was then at the head of the party in the State, he 
openly announced to the convention that he should oppose 
the TWEED nominees and endeavor to crush their power in 
the legislative bodies of the State, declaring further that if 
this were considered irregular he should resign his chairman- 
ship of the State Committee, and, going among his plundered 
fellow-citizens make common cause with them for emanci- 
pation. That autumn he was elected to the Assembly for 
the avowed and express purpose of purifying the judiciary. 
Tne successful result of this, the most burdensome contest 



SAMUEL J. TILDEN. 13 

of his whole career, is too well known to be brought on here. 
He was watchful and untiring until he saw the Bench was 
purified by the resignation of some and impeachment of others. 

By his famous analysis of the accounts of the Broadway 
Bank, and subsequent investigation of a similar character, 
Mr. TILDEN furnished all the judicial evidence by which the 
suits against the Ring, whether by State or County, could 
be maintained. At the end of eighteen months' gratuitous 
labor for both he and Mr. O'CoNOR, not only received no 
professional compensation, but even paid their own traveling 
expenses he accomplished his object. While pursuing it 
he had completely retired from his lucrative practice and 
from attention to his personal business. 

Mr. TILDEN was nominated to the high office which he 
now fills by the Democratic State Convention which met in 
Syracuse in September last. Chief-Justice CHURCH, of the 
Court of Appeals, and Hon. A. J. PARKER, late Judge of 
the Supreme Court, had many warm supporters among the 
delegates, but Mr. TILDEN was the choice of the majority, 
and was unanimously named as the choice of the conven- 
tion amid much enthusiasm. In the election that followed 
he defeated General JOHN A. Dix, the Republican candi- 
date for Governor, by a majority of 50,317. General Dix 
had been elected two years before by a majority of 55,451. 

In the brief period which, at this writing (April 1st), has 
elapsed since his entrance upon his gubernatorial duties, 
Mr. TILDEN has accomplished notable things, and given 
earnest of an administration which cannot but redown to the 
best interests of the State, gladden all friends of reform and 
honest government, and write his name high among New 
York's wisest and most efficient governors. His message to 
the Legislature, of March 19th, relative to the canals of the 
State, produced, it is safe to say, a profounder sensation than 
any similar paper that ever emanated from the Executive 
Chamber. The message had its origin in a petition received 
by Governor TILDEN from forwarders, boatmen and others 



14 LIFE SKETCHES. 

engaged in transportation on the canals. They represented 
to him that the depressed state of their business called for 
legislation, and necessitated a reduction of tolls, and requested 
him to look into the condition of the canal commerce, and 
to make such recommendations to the Legislature as would, 
in his opinion, lead to measures of relief. In response, 
Governor TILDES sent into the Legislature a message brist- 
ling with points, which at once arrested the attention of the 
people and the public press, irrespective of party affiliations, 
from Lake Erie to Montauk Point. 

It presents a startling array of facts and figures, grouped 
and arranged with characteristic skill, showing the grave 
faults inherent in the present system of canal management, 
the gigantic frauds that had grown up under it, and con- 
cludes by offering, for the consideration of the Legislature, a 
number of valuable suggestions, designed to remedy the evils 
pointed out Every citizen, as he read the message, could 
not but feel impressed with the cheering fact that the time 
for reform in canal management, long delayed, had at length 
arrived, and that the man whose name was indissolubly 
associated with the downfall of the Tweed Eing was deter- 
mined to use the might, with which he was clothed as Gov- 
ernor, to compass the destruction of what has been called 
" the spinal cord of the political evil in New York State " 
the Canal Eing. The first fruits of the message have already 
appeared in the appointment of a Commission by the Gov- 
ernor and Senate, and a Committee of the Legislature, 
charged with the duty of thoroughly investigating the canal 
system from every possible standpoint. Guided by the light 
furnished by their reports, the Legislature will be enabled 
to frame the laws necessary to correct the fault in the canal 
system, and the proper tribunal to punish those who will be 
proven guilty of plundering from the public treasury. It 
will thus be seen that the message on the canals, considered 
by itself, would suffice to render Mr. TILDEN'S term of office 
as Governor, memorable in the history of the State. 



SAMUEL J. TILDEN. 15 

Mr. TILDEN has never been an office-holder. A bachelor, 
he has been able to devote a very large share of his time to 
the pursuit of his profession and the discharge of his pro- 
fessional duties. He is a man of cultivated literary and 
artistic tastes, and intimate with many literary men. His 
law library is excelled by but erne in the city of New York, 
and he possesses also a rare collection of books on finance 
and political economy and in general literature. His health 
he preserves by out-door exercise, of which he is very fond, 
taking frequent horseback rides and being often seen behind 
his well-known trotters. A recent trip to Europe, on leav- 
ing for which he resigned the chair of the Democratic State 
Central Committee, to be rechosen on his return, is the only 
extended vacation he has had time to take of late. 

Mr. TILDEN'S personal and professional character is abso- 
lutely unassailable ; his eminent ability is universally con- 
ceded, and his distinguished and invaluable services in the 
interest of pure government have long compelled admiring 
recognition from friend and foe alike. 



THE GOVERNOR'S STAFF. 

Maj.-Gen. FRANKLIN TOWNSEND, of Albany, Adjutant- 
General, 

Brevet-Maj.-Gen. JOHN B. WOODWARD, of Brooklyn, 
Inspector- General. 

Brig.-Gen. KILBURN KNOX, of New York, Commissary- 
General and Chief of Ordnance. 

Brig.-Gen. EDGAR M. CULLEN, of Brooklyn, Engineer-in- 
Chief. 

Brig.-Gen. CHARLES HUGHES, of Sandy Hill, Judge-Advo- 
cate General. 

Brig.-Gen. AUSTIN FLINT, JR., of New York, Surgeon- 
General. 



16 LIFE SKETCHES. 

Brig.-Gen. S. STEWART ELLSWORTH, of Perm Yan, Quar- 
termaster- General. 

Brig.-Gen. HERMANN UHL, of New York, Paymaster- 
General. 

Brig.-Gen. CHARLES H. SMYTH, of Oneida, Commissary- 
General of Subsistence. 

Col. CHARLES TRACET, Aide-de-camp. 

Col. LATHAM C. STRONG, Aide-de-camp. 

Col. JAMES B. PEARSALL, Aide-de-camp. 

Col. THOMAS STOKES, Aide-de-camp. 

Col. CLIFFORD A. H. BARTLETT, Aide-de-camp. 



WILLIAM DORSHEIMER. 17 

WILLIAM DORSHEIMER, 

LIEUTENANT-GOVERNOR. 

WILLIAM DORSHEIMER was born in Lyons, Wayne county, 
New York, February 5, 1832, his father, PHILIP DORSHEIMER, 
afterward Treasurer of this State, having been a native of West 
Germany. When four years of age young DORSHEIMER was 
brought to Buffalo, which thenceforth continued the resi- 
dence of himself and family. He was fitted for college at 
Andover, Massachusetts, and entered Harvard as freshman 
in 1849. Two years afterward a prolonged illness threw him 
out of his class and prevented his being graduated. Keturn- 
ing to Buffalo, he began the study of law, and in 1854 was 
admitted to the bar. From that time forward he practiced 
his profession, and, in 1859, became the law partner of the 
late Hon. SOLOMON G. HAVEN. 

Mr. DORSHEIMER'S tastes early drew him to literary work 
and study, and in 1858, he being then twenty-six years of 
age, two papers from his pen were published in the Atlantic 
Monthly. They were reviews of PARTON'S " Life of Aaron 
Burr " and " Life of Jefferson," respectively, and the lite- 
rary culture, the critical grasp and the historical research 
they displayed at once attracted attention. Among other 
recognitions of their merit was the bestowal, by Harvard, 
upon their author of the honorary degree of master of arts. 

Years, however, before the appearance of his intensely 
appreciative essay on JEFFERSON, Mr. DORSHEIMER had 
given a warm adhesion to the doctrines of the great states- 
mail and had molded his political faith on that of the sage 
of Monticello. Always an earnest Democrat in his notions 
of government and administration, his first vote was cast, in 
1854, for HORATIO. SEYMOUR as candidate for Governor, and 
his first political speech was made in behalf of Judge MAS- 
2 



18 LIFE SKETCHES. 

TEN, then running an anti-Know-nothing and Democratic 
candidate for judge of the Superior Court. His debut on 
the political rostrum, therefore, was made in support of the 
truly Democratic doctrine of the equal rights of the adopted 
citizen with those of the " native American." 

But the Know-nothing excitement was soon merged in the 
vaster and more radical agitation of the slavery question, 
and upon this issue young DOESHEIMER saw it to be his duty 
to bid farewell for a time to the party with which he had 
first associated himself, albeit to its fundamental political 
doctrines he never ceased to cling. In making this change 
of sides, whatever else of criticism he may incur, it cannot 
be said that he went with the multitude, or studied his per- 
sonal interests, for he joined the Eepublican party in 1855, 
in the very infancy of its organization, and voted its tickets 
when its force in the city of Buffalo comprised barely six 
hundred voters. The following year he campaigned for Fre- 
mont, and in 1860 voted and worked for Lincoln. 

In 1861 Mr. DORSHEIMER entered the military service of 
the country. He was appointed by Mr. LINCOLN an aide- 
de-camp, with the rank of major, and was assigned to duty 
on the staff of Gen. FREMONT. At the close of that officers 
brief campaign in Missouri the members of his staff were 
retired from service, and Mr. DORSHEIMER returning to 
civil life, shortly after published in the Atlantic the well- 
known and interesting series of articles entitled "Fremont's 
Hundred Days in Missouri," which warmly vindicated both 
the military and political policy of that commander. 

In 1867 Mr. DORSHEIMER was appointed United States 
District Attorney for the Northern District of New York, 
the duties of which position, as even his enemies admit, he 
discharged with signal ability. His term expired in 1871, 
and he did not seek a re-appointment. In the spring of 
1872, arguing that the reasons which led him into the 
Kepublican party in 1855 no longer existed to retain him 
there, Mr. DOHSHEIMER found himself sympathizing warmly 



WILLIAM DORSHEIMER. 19 

with the various movements which led to the inception of the 
Liberal Republican exodus. Once more casting his lot with an 
apparently hopeless political minority, he was the first person 
to take affirmative part in the Liberal movement in the State 
of New York. A letter signifying adhesion to the principles 
of the Missouri call and accepting the invitation to the Cin- 
cinnati Convention, and which was signed by HOEACE 
GKEELEY, HENEY R. SELDEIST and others, was drawn up by 
Mr. DOBSHEIMEE and by him submitted to numerous gen- 
tlemen who participated in the departure. Mr. DOBSHEI- 
MEE was prominent as one of the New York delegates in 
the Cincinnati Convention, and on his return to Buffalo 
made the first ratification speech for GEEELEY. His pow- 
erful and eloquent addresses, delivered during the campaign 
of 1 872, were listened to by tens of thousands of persons in 
this and other States. 

Mr. DOESHEIMEE was nominated for Lieutenant-Go vernor 
by Hon. De WITT C. LITTLEJOHN, five times Speaker of the 
Assembly, in the Democratic State Convention which met 
in Syracuse in September. Mr. LITTLEJOHN claimed the 
nomination " in behalf of the thirty thousand Liberals of the 
State," and presented his candidate in a characteristically 
vigorous and magnetic speech. The nomination was 
seconded by Hon. A. P. LANING, of Buffalo, at present sit- 
ting in the Senate from the thirty-first district, and ratified 
by the convention. Mr. DOESHEIMEE was nominated on the 
first ballot, and a motion to make the nomination unani- 
mous was adopted with three cheers. In the election that 
followed he defeated General JOHN" C. ROBINSON, by the 
rousing majority of 51, 488. 

The Lieutenant-Governor is President of the Senate and 
has the casting vote therein ; is a member of the Canal Board ; 
is one of the Commissioners of the Land Office ; is one of 
the Commissioners of the Canal Fund ; is one of the Trustees 
respectively, of the Capitol, the Idiot Asylum and the State 



20 LIFE SKETCHES. 

Hall. He is also, ex officio, one of the Regents of the Uni- 
versity. 

Mr. DOKSHEIMER is an honored citizen of Buffalo. One of 
the founders and original officers of the Fine Arts Academy 
and of the Buffalo Historical Society, he has borne a part 
and done his full share, with brain and purse, in pretty much 
all that has been achieved for the improvement and elevation 
of the city since he came to man's estate. 

The Buffalo Courier, in commenting upon his nomina- 
tion, expressed itself as follows : 

" In the election of the Hon WILLIAM DORSHEIMER, Esq., 
of this city, as the Liberal Democratic candidate for Lieu- 
tenant-Governor, the convention has appropriately recog- 
nized the claims of a gentleman whose distinguished ability, 
rare culture and influence in public affairs long since secured 
for him more than a State reputation. With a strong natu- 
ral aptitude for the pursuit of politics in their higher sense, Mr. 
DOKSHEIMER brings to their discussion a keen intelligence, 
a rare culture and grace in expression which have secured to 
him a high rank among the orators and leading men of the 
State. A lawyer by profession, he early won and has since 
retained an honorable place among the most distinguished 
members of the bar. As a citizen, as a lawyer, as a states- 
man, Mr. Dorsheimer is entitled to and enjoys in an unusual 
degree, the confidence, the respect, and the admiration of the 
people." 

Mr. DORSHEIMER'S inaugural address, on assuming the 
Presidency, is a model paper of its kind short and pointed. 
We give it entire, in concluding this sketch : 

" SENATORS : I appear here to enter upon the duty which 
the law imposes upon me of presiding over the sessions of 
the Senate. 

" I am without the training which legislative experience 
alone can give, and which most of my predecessors have had. 
I shall, therefore, need your indulgence and assistance, in 
return for which I assure you that I shall endeavor to do my 
duties without partiality or prejudice. 



WILLIAM DORSHEIMER. 21 

" Insomuch as it is only under special and infrequent cir- 
cumstances that 1 am called upon to take part in your action, 
it would not be suitable for me to discuss any of the matters 
that are likely to engage your attention, but I will venture 
to express the hope, which I am confident will be fully real- 
ized, that your labors here may meet with the approval of 
your several constituencies, and tend to the prosperity and 
advancement of the State." 



22 LIFE SKETCHES. 



DIEDRICH WILLERS, JR. 

SECRETARY OF STATE. 

In the person of the present Secretary of State, we have 
the first example, under our present State Constitution, of an 
elective State officer who has arisen through the various 
gradations, from the lowest round of the ladder to the top- 
most, through the positions of Clerk and Deputy, to that of 
head of the Department, a notable instance of the workings 
of " Civil Service Eeform." 

Mr. WILLERS was born of German parentage, in the town 
of Varick, county of Seneca, where he still resides, on the 
third day of November, 1833. 

His father, Reverend DIEDRICH WILLERS, D. D., a native 
of Bremen, Germany, who is still living at the advanced age 
of seventy-seven years (left an orphan in early childhood), 
was educated in the public schools of his native city, and at 
the age of sixteen years enlisted in the army of Hanover, for 
the defense of his fatherland, against the French invader. 
He was an active participant with the allied forces under the 
Duke of Wellington at the memorable three days' battle of 
Waterloo, in Belgium, in June, 1815, against Napoleon 
Bonaparte, and received a silver medal for bravery in action. 

After a military service of five years, he left the army, and 
having spent a short time with his friends, he embarked for 
America, in the year 1819, and landed in Baltimore, Mary- 
land, in November of that year, with only a few dollars in his 
pocket, but possessed of industry and perseverence, those 
indispensable requisites to success. Following a purpose 
formed in early life, he took up the study of theology, to 
which he had previously given much thought and reading. 
After a course of study under private tutors, he was licensed 
in the ministry and accepted a call to preach to congrega- 
tions in Seneca county, New York, in April, 1821, and has 




Respectfully yours 




Sc&rtfary of Sl>a3>6 



DlEDRlCH WlLLEBS, Jit. 23 

continued in the uninterrupted discharge of ministerial duty, 
preaching in the German and English languages, to his con- 
gregations in that county, to the present time, a continuous 
period of nearly fifty-four years. * 

As a clergyman he is highly esteemed and influential in 
his denomination, and a number of years ago received the 
honorary degree of Doctor of Divinity, from Franklin and 
Marshall College, at Lancaster, Penn. 

The mother of Secretary WILLERS, still living, was born 
in New Holland, Lancaster county, Penn., of German parent- 
age, her ancestry having migrated to this country, from the 
Palatinate, over 150 years ago. 

The subject of our sketch was the sixth of a family of 
eight children. Every one familiar with " life in a country 
parsonage " will know something of the trials and privations 
of the hard-worked and poorly-paid country pastor. 

It is not to be wondered at, that young WILLERS thus 
early became accustomed to a life of toil. Residing in a 
rural community, his time was divided between working upon 
a farm in summer and attending a district school in winter. 

With the exception of two terms of instruction at the 
Seneca Falls Academy, during one of which, in 1853, he 
recited to Gilbert C. Walker, late Governor of the State of 
Virginia, his course of study was confined to the district 
school, and to instruction in German and the classics with 
his father. When inquiry is made as to his Alma Mater, Mr. 
WILLERS always frankly answers that he is a graduate of a 
people's college, " School District Number Two, Varick." 

Subsequently, Mr. WILLERS engaged in teaching in the 
district schools of his town, commencing his first term at the 
early age of sixteen, at a compensation of twelve dollars per 
month, and boarding himself, and continued in this vocation, 
when not laboring upon a farm, during five or six years. 

After Mr. WILLERS had arrived at the age of twenty-two 
years, he entered a printing office with a view to learn the 
printing business, and to enter upon an editorial career, he 



24 LIFE SKETCHES. 

having been a frequent contributor to the political press; 
but, after a service at the printer's case of about two months, 
he was reluctantly compelled to abandon a cherished pursuit, 
oy reason of ill -health, from which he suffered for several years. 

Having, at intervals of toil, devoted himself to the read- 
ing of law and attended a course of instruction at the Albany 
Law University, he was admitted to practice as an attorney 
at law a number of years ago, but he has never actively 
engaged in the practice of his profession. 

Designed by his father for the ministry, he however early 
took a decided interest in politics, and long before he was 
twenty-one years of age, espoused the cause of the Demo- 
cratic party, identifying himself with the Hard-Shell branch 
of the Democracy, and casting his first vote for Judge 
GREENE C. BRONSON, for Governor, in 1854. After the re- 
union of the party in 1856, Mr. WILLERS took a very active 
part in the presidential canvass of that year, as well as in the 
canvass of 1857. 

Upon the election of the Democratic State ticket, in the 
fall of 1857, Mr. W. was appointed by Hon. GIDEON J. 
TUCKER, Secretary of State, to a clerkship in his office, upon 
the duties of which position he entered in January following, 
and in which, by industry and faithfulness, he soon won the 
confidence of his chief, and was re-appointed by Hon. DAVID 
R. FLOYD JONES, and served with him during his term as 
Secretary of State in 1860 and 1861. 

Although Mr. WILLERS actively supported Mr. JONES for 
re-election, and the entire Democratic ticket, in the cam- 
paign of November, 1861, he was, without solicitation on his 
part, re-appointed by Hon. HORATIO BALLARD, and remained 
in the office of the Secretary of State during the years 1862 
and 1863. 

Upon the expiration of Mr. BALLARD'S term, Mr. WILLERS 
was appointed by Governor SEYMOUR as his Private Secre- 
tary, and served as such during the most trying period of 
the late civil war. 



DlEDRWH WlLLERS, JR. 25 

How well Mr. WILLERS served in this capacity, the com- 
plimentary remarks made by Governor SEYMOUR, in the 
.Democratic State Convention at Utica, in October, 1873,. 
upon the occasion of Mr. WILLERS' second nomination for 
Secretary of State, will best attest, when he said : 

" Havfng known Mr. WILLERS for many years, having 
been closely associated with him in the discharge of duty, I 
can say that in my opinion there is no man in the State whom 
I conld vote for, for this position, with more pleasure than I 
can vote for DIEDRICH WILLERS, Jr. He is not only an 
honorable, capable and honest man, but a faithful one. Dur- 
ing all the time he was in that office, he was never known to 
be absent from his post of duty. For this office you want a 
man who will faithfully discharge its duties himself, and Mr. 
WILLERS is the man of all others to do this. It is no mere 
form, when we take up a man who has performed his duties 
at the lowest round of the ladder, and lift him to the highest. 
It means that there is true merit in the man. I have known 
Mr. WILLERS long and well, as I have already said. I knew 
him all through the trying time, when I was Governor, and 
of all the men surrounding me and my office, I found no 
man upon whom I could rely with more implicit confidence." 

Keturning, at the close of his term of service with Governor 
SEYMOUR in December, 1864, to his home in Seneca county, 
Mr. WILLERS resumed his old occupation as a farmer, and in 
March, 1865, was elected supervisor of his native town, and 
was re-elected the year following, serving as chairman of the 
board both years, and rendering great assistance to his town 
and county in the adjustment of war accounts, at the close 
of the war. 

In March, 1867, Mr. WILLERS was appointed, by President 
JOHNSON, to a clerkship in the office of the Second Auditor 
of the Treasury, at Washington, D. C., which position he 
held to the close of that year. 

The Democratic State ticket having been elected in the 
fall of 1867, Mr. WILLERS was appointed as Deputy Secre- 
tary of State, by Hon. HOMER A. NELSON, which position he 



26 LIFE SKETCHES. 

filled with great acceptance to the public for four years, 
developing executive ability of a high order. 

In the summer of 1871, the name of Mr. WILLERS was 
extensively canvassed by the Democratic press for the nomin- 
ation of Secretary of State, Secretary NELSON declining a 
reuomination in favor of his deputy. 

After a sharp preliminary canvass, during which Nearly all 
the older or managing politicians of the party opposed his 
nomination, the friends of Mr. WILLERS being strongly in 
the ascendancy at the Democratic State Convention at Roch- 
ester, he was nominated by acclamation for Secretary of State. 

Although the Democratic State ticket was borne down by 
adverse circumstances in the disastrous campaign of 1871, 
Mr. WILLERS handsomely led his associates upon the ticket, 
receiving the highest vote cast for any nominee of his party 
in that year. 

At the beginning of the year 1872, Mr. WILLERS received 
from Governor HOFFMAN the appointment of Assistant Pay- 
master General with the rank of Colonel, and was detailed 
for duty in the Executive Chamber, in charge of the exam- 
ination of bills passed by the Legislature, for which his 
extensive acquaintance with statutory law and the machinery 
of our State Government particularly fitted him. 

Upon retiring from the Executive Chamber, Mr. WILLERS 
received, in January, 1873, an appointment as one of the 
Secretaries of the Constitutional Commission, then in session 
at Albany. 

After the final adjournment of the Commission in March, 
1873, Mr. WILLERS returned to his home, where he devoted 
himself to the active duties of farm life during the year. 

His name having been canvassed by the Democratic press 
in the summer of 1873 for the nomination of Secretary of 
State, Mr. WILLERS was again strongly opposed by active 
leading political managers who usually make up the party 
slates, but after a sharp canvass, and notwithstanding a fac- 
tious opposition in the Convention, he was again unan- 



DlEDRICH WlLLERS, JR. 27 

imonsly nominated by the Democratic State Convention held 
at Utica, and his nomination was indorsed at the Liberal 
Kepublican State Convention held at Elmira, in the same 
month. 

The result of the election was favorable to the Democracy, 
and Mr. WILLERS was declared elected Secretary of State by 
about 10,000 majority over Hon. FRAXCIS S. THAYEE, one 
of the most popular Republicans in the State. 

Mr. WILLERS entered upon his office with an intimate 
knowledge of the duties thereof and of the machinery of 
the State Government, and having an extensive acquaintance 
with the politics and public men of the State. 

Emphatically a man of the people, self-made, a determined 
enemy of all rings and monopolies, aiming at the rights 
of the people ; courteous, attentive, faithful and capable, he 
entered upon office under the most favorable auspices. Dur- 
ing the first year of his term he has been constant in his 
attendance at his office (giving his personal attention to the 
daily routine of business), and at the meetings of State Boards 
of which he is a member, his votes having always been cast 
in the interest of economy, reform and the best interests of 
the people. 

Although active as a Democratic politician, and a frequent 
delegate at State and County Conventions, he has preserved 
a deserved personal popularity wherever he is best known, 
and when running as a candidate he received the highest 
majority ever given to a Democratic nominee in his town 
and county. 

Reserved and modest in demeanor, firm and decided in his 
convictions of duty, Mr. WILLERS has always carefully 
guarded the public interests, and is, in the true sense of the 
term, a " Reformer." 

The career of Mr. WILLERS affords another illustration 
how, under our form of Government, the humblest citizen 
may, by pursuing right paths, attain to high positions of 
honor and trust. 



28 LIFE SKETCHES. 

NELSON K. HOPKINS, 

COMPTROLLER. 

The family of Hon. NELSON K. HOPKINS, Comptroller of 
the State, was of New England origin. His father, General 
TIMOTHY S. HOPKINS, emigrated in the year 1800 from 
Great Barrington, Mass., to Williamsville, a small town in 
the vicinity of Buffalo, in the then county of Niagara. By 
occupation a farmer, he was a man of sterling sense and 
worth, and held various public offices of trust and honor, 
both in the civil and military service. He was commis- 
sioned as a Captain by Gov. GEORGE CLINTON, as Major, by 
Gov. MORGAN LEWIS, and as Lieutenant-Colonel and Briga- 
dier-General, by Gov. DANIEL D. TOMPKINS. NELSON, the 
second of the five sons now living, was born on the 2d of 
March, 1819. He remained on the farm until he was about 
sixteen years of age, when he attended school for a time at 
Fredonia, in the county of Chautauqua. From 1838 to 1840, 
he was a student in the Genesee Wesleyan Seminary, at 
Lima, where he completed his collegiate preparations, and in 
the spring of the latter year entered the sophomore class of 
Union College, graduating in 1842 with high standing. 
Among his classmates were several who have since attained 
distinction, including Hon. CLARKSON N. POTTER, member 
of Congress, and Hon. JAMES WOOD, late of the State Senate. 
In connection with the latter, an interesting circumstance is 
related of young HOPKINS. The two students, as was not 
unfrequent among their associates, visited Albany on one 
occasion, and neither being blessed with a surplus of money, 
they found themselves, at the close of their stay, without 
the means of returning. In this exigency, nothing daunted, 
the spirited young men started on foot, and faithfully 
trudged all the way from Albany to Schenectady. 



NELSON K. HOPKINS. 29 

Even before entering college, the subject of this sketch 
had evinced strong force of character and energy of pur- 
pose. At the age of nineteen, he had been elected captain 
of a company in the State militia, and at the time of the 
"Patriot War," which centered about the Niagara river, 
though still a student at Lima, he was called home to enter 
the service with his company, and for a month had command 
of Black Kock, in the vicinity of Buffalo. Eeturning from 
college, Mr. HOPKINS began the study of law in the office of 
Hon. ELBRIDGE G-. SPAULDING, at Buffalo, and, in 1846, was 
admitted as an attorney. From the very first, he has en- 
joyed an honorable 1 and lucrative practice. He has especially 
had confided to him the most delicate duties in the settle- 
ment of estates, the establishment of titles and all that branch 
of professional service, and, in these positions of fiduciary 
trust, has secured the highest respect for his honor, fidelity 
and capacity. In 1848, he married the only daughter of Hon. 
ORLANDO ALLEN. This union was severed by death in 1853. 
In 1855 he married his present wife, who is the eldest 
daughter of the late Hon. HIKAM PRATT, and a most estim- 
able lady. His family consists of five children, one by his 
first wife and four by his second. 

Although Mr. HOPKINS has always been actively engaged 
in professional labors, he has, at various times, been called to 
serve his fellow-citizens. Frequently elected supervisor and 
alderman, he was also one year president of the common 
council. In 1866, he was appointed Collector of Internal 
Kevenue, and filled that position with credit and satisfac- 
tion. He has also been for many years a director and attor- 
ney of White's Bank at Buffalo ; attorney for the Western 
Savings Bank ; life-member of the Young Men's Association ; 
trustee of the Free Grosvenor Library, and has held many 
positions o'f public and professional trust, attesting the high 
esteem with which he is regarded by the community where 
he lives. Such was the great respect entertained for him by 
those among whom he has always resided, and such their 



30 LIFE SKETCHES. 

elevated opinion, especially of the conscientiousness and 
ability for financial administration which he has displayed 
through his career, that without his own solicitation or knowl- 
edge, he was unanimously presented by the Erie delegation 
at the Kepublican State Convention of 1871, as a candidate 
for Comptroller, and promptly nominated. He and his as- 
sociates were recognized as embodying the reform sentiment 
then so pronounced among the people, and the ticket was 
elected by a handsome majority. 

Mr. HOPKINS having served the State for two years, and 
made a shining reputation for ability and integrity, the dele- 
gates to the Kepublican State Convention of 1873, were 
unanimously of the opinion that one good term, such as his, 
pre-eminently deserved another, and accordingly, when the 
time came to name a candidate for Comptroller, NELSON 
K. HOPKINS was renominated by acclamation, amid the 
hearty applause of the convention. This nomination was 
also made by the Liberals, and on election day, the people 
handsomely ratified it. Mr. HOPKINS, although he was 
figured out badly defeated the morning after the November 
election, was a few days after shown, by the official vote, to 
have been successful by a majority of 4,065. This result, 
in view of the fact that the rest of the State ticket met with 
very "heavy weather," was peculiarly gratifying. It was 
celebrated in a befitting manner by the members of the Re- 
publican General Committee and the Unconditional Political 
Club of Albany, who, accompanied by a goodly number of 
the other leading Eepublicans of the city, serenaded, paid 
their respects and offered their congratulations to Mr. HOP- 
KINS a few evenings ai'ter his election. Ex-Governor Dix, 
who was serenaded on the route, made a speech, in which 
he said : 

FELLOW-CITIZENS I am greatly obliged to you for this 
friendly call on me. It is the more gratifying because it affords 
me the opportunity of saying to you how cordially I concur 
in the principal object of your demonstration to-night to 



NELSON K. HOPKINS. 31 

congratulate Mr. HOPKINS on his re-election to the office of 
Comptroller of the State. His success, and the popular 
approval he has received, are a just and well-merited tribute 
to a faithful, efficient and conscientious public officer. In- 
deed, I should have regarded his defeat, at this juncture, as a 
calamity to the State. We all know that in past years, and 
years not very remote, there has been in the administration of 
our finances much which was loose, much which was unau- 
thorized and wasteful, and some things which, in my judg- 
ment, were in violation of our faith to public creditors. 
These wrongs I know Mr. HOPKINS to be earnestly desirous 
of redressing, and I do not doubt that, with the co-opera- 
tion of the Legislature, the good work may be accomplished 
within the time for which he has been re-elected. 

The Comptroller himself was found in one of the spacious 
parlors of Congress Hall, and an informal reception was 
held, during which nearly all of the Eepublicans present 
took advantage of the opportunity afforded to personally 
congratulate him on his re-election and the victory he had 
achieved. Hand-shaking over, the party proceeded to the 
front of the building, and after several airs had been per- 
formed by the band, Mr. H. made his appearance on the 
piazza, and after being introduced to the large crowd in 
attendance by the Chairman of the Central Committee, he 
spoke as follows: 

CITIZENS OF ALBANY Accept my sincere thanks for 
the compliment of this beautiful serenade. I do not receive 
it as personal to myself, but as an expression of your satis- 
faction at the popular indorsement, so far as they were rep- 
resented in my candidacy, of the principles and the public 
policy to which we are all equally attached. However glad I 
should personally feel to be relieved of the onerous duties of 
the Comptrollership, I share your congratulations upon the 
measure of success which attends our good cause. Beyond 
sincerely shrinking from another term of the always exact- 
ing and seldom agreeable labors of the office, my gratifi- 
cation in this hour of rejoicing, like yours, is only tem- 
pered by the reflection that some of your excellent and 
worthy candidates have been defeated at the polls. But 
it is a matter of satisfaction that the canvass through which 
we have passed has been marked, on both sides, by so little 



32 LIFE SKETCHES. 

of personal criticism, and has left so little of personal feel- 
ing, and I trust that it may be found that the officers you 
have chosen, and who will be associated in the administra- 
tion of public affairs, however much they maylliffer in their 
political affiliations, will be able to rise above all merely par- 
tizan considerations and work together in harmony for the 
public good. 

The great need of the present timeis honesty and economy 
in the management of public trusts. It is a time to enforce 
retrenchment of expenditures, reduction of taxation and re- 
lief of the popular burdens whenever practicable. During 
the period of my service I have tried faithfully to fulfill 
these duties, and, so far as the popular expression is an ap- 
proval of thafce labors, it will be an encouragement and a 
stimulus to still more earnest efforts in the same direction. 

None of his predecessors have received more general and 
cordial commendation than Mr. HOPKINS has for the sleep- 
less vigilance with which he has guarded the interests of the 
State, and the marked ability with which he has administered 
its finances. At the outset, Mr. HOPKINS adopted the rule 
of giving the most careful scrutiny to every matter coming 
before him, and this rule he has scrupulously observed, 
transacting the business of the State with the same care and 
watchfulness and frugality which he would carry into the 
conduct of private business. He reduced the number of 
assistants in his office, subjected every claim to rigorous in- 
spection, and made the auditing of accounts something 
more than a mere ministerial duty. So great is the confi- 
dence felt in his integrity and discretion that the Legislature 
has invested him with larger powers over the expenditures of 
appropriations in connection with public institutions than 
were ever before confided to the Comptroller and it is not 
an undue estimate to say that by his prudence and firmness 
he has saved the State at least half a million dollars. Not 
only in his practical administration of the department, but 
in his official discussions and recommendations, he has 
shown conspicuous talent for the position. His annual re- 
ports presented to the Legislature have attracted unusual 



NELSON K. HOPKINS. 33 

attention, and commanded the hearty and unreserved ap- 
probation of men and journals of all parties, for their in- 
comparably clear exposition of State finances, and their val- 
uable suggestions. The general judgment is that they fairly 
rank among the best of our State papers. 

Always among his own neighbors, and now throughout 
the State, Comptroller HOPKINS is respected for his un- 
swerving probity, his sound judgment, and his large ability. 
Personally he is a man of strong friendships, warmly at- 
taching to himself those with whom he is brought into con- 
tact. Frank, direct and outspoken, he is at the same time 
cordial and unaffected, and his fine, clear-cut features ex- 
press at once a firm decision of character and winning amia- 
bility of disposition.- 
3 



34 LIFE SKETCHES. 



DANIEL PRATT, 

ATTORNEY-GENERAL. 

Hon. DANIEL PRATT, Attorney-General, was born in 
Washington county in 1806 a county which gave birth to 
such well known men as Judges SAVAGE, COWAN, GRAY, 
PARKER, BACON and Judge NELSON of the Supreme Court 
of the United States. The parents of Judge PRATT were of 
New England origin, and in early life the mind of their son 
was embued with the positive qualities and sturdy strength 
that characterized the descendants of the Pilgrims. Judge 
PRATT'S boyhood was passed in attending school in the 
winter, and working on his father's farm at other times. 
At school he easily led all the scholars, and was recognized 
as the brightest boy in all the region round. At the age of 
eighteen he taught a district school, and was looked upon 
by every one as a prodigy. 

In early life he .placed his mark high and determined to 
work his way up to it, unaided by any one. Entering Cam- 
bridge Academy, Washington county, at the age of twenty- 
one, he remained there fifteen months. In 1833, he entered 
the junior class of Union College a class of which, it is 
interesting to note, WILLIAM CASSIDY, the late brilliant 
and accomplished editor of the Argus, was a member. So 
complete and thorough was his preparation that he found 
no difficulty in entering this advanced class. Mathematics 
and Greek were his favorite studies, and to these and the rest 
of his curriculum, he devoted twelve hours out of every twen- 
ty-four. He graduated in 1835, taking the highest honors 
in his class. Then the struggle with the world for fame 
really began. He determined to strike out into new fields, 
and journeyed to Memphis on a visit to an acquaintance. 
He remained there some time employed in teaching a select 
school, where he made the acquaintance of the late D. D. 



DANIEL PRATT. 35 

HILLS, at that time a lawyer in Camillas. Mr. HILLS was 
greatly impressed by the strength of mind and brilliant tal- 
ents of his new acquaintance, and invited him to study law 
in his office. 

Judge PEATT studied hard and determined to master the 
intricacies of his arduous profession, not content with merely 
grasping the rudiments. In 1836 he was admitted to prac- 
tice in the Supreme Court. He removed with Mr. HILLS to 
Syracuse, and formed a copartnership with him. The firm 
at once took a front rank in a profession already over- 
crowded and adorned by leading minds. Their business 
relations continued until 1843. 

Under the Constitution prior to 1846, the judges were 
appointed by the Governor and Senate, and in 1843, Gov- 
ernoi^ WILLIAM C. BOUCK appointed DANIEL PEATT Judge 
of the Court of Common Pleas of Onondaga county, a posi- 
tion he held until the Constitution of 1846 went into opera- 
tion in the beginning of 1848. For four years he held this 
position, discharging his onerous duties with an impartiality, 
fairness and justice that won the admiration of the entire 
bar of the State. His opinions and decisions, officially pro- 
mulgated, were characterized by sound judgment, practical 
common sense and eminent learning, which characteristics 
are the important elements of his character. The Constitu- 
tion of 1846 divided the State into eight judicial districts, 
and the Democracy of the counties of Onondaga, Oneida, 
Oswego, Herkimer, Jefferson and Lewis, forming the Fifth 
Judicial District, nominated Mr. PEATT as one of their can- 
didates for Supreme Court Judge. He was triumphantly 
elected, and discharged the duties so acceptably that he was 
renominated in 1851, and re-elected, serving until January, 
1859. His career as a judge met the approval of all parties 
by reason of his impartiality, while his opinions on cases 
brought before him were considered among the ablest that 
issued from any judge on the bench of the State. 

Upon his retirement from the bench, Judge PEATT formed 



36 LIFE SKETCHES. 

a partnership with D. J. MITCHELL, Esq., one of the most 
brilliant advocates in the State, and WILBER M. BROWN, 
an eminent office lawyer. The firm at once took a com- 
manding position as one of the strongest in the State, and 
still continues. Judge PRATT was appointed by Governor 
HOFFMAN a member of the Constitutional Commission, where 
he at once took a leading position by his sound judgment, 
his great legal ability, and his eminent learning. His posi- 
tion in the profession is also shown by the fact that the 
Impeachment Committee of the Assembly of 1872 selected 
him as one of their counsel to conduct the celebrated trial 
of the notorious Judge BARNARD. In politics Judge PRATT 
has always been a Democrat and an unwavering supporter 
of the party. 

Judge PRATT was elected to his present honorable and re- 
sponsible position by a majority of 10,111 over BENJAMIN D. 
SILLIMAN. The Syracuse Courier, to whom we are indebted 
for many of the facts in the above sketch, in summing up a 
brief biographical notice of the present Attorney-General of 
the State, says : 

Judge PRATT is a positive man whose clear and quick per- 
ceptions, sound judgment and practical common sense 
impress most forcibly all who come in contact with him. As a 
citizen he is universally esteemed and respected, while his 
charitable nature always displayed in an unostentatious 
manner has endeared him to those toward whom it has 
been exercised. As a lawyer, Judge PRATT occupies the 
front rank in the profession. Firm as a rock when bat- 
tling for the right, his mind is unswayed by extraneous 
circumstances. His integrity is acknowledged by all, and 
not a breath of suspicion was ever raised by a political or 
legal foe. Judge PRATT is a Democrat of the Jeffersonian 
school. He is a Democrat from principle, and his wisdom 
and counsels are often consulted by party leaders. He adds 
dignity to the office. 



THOMAS RAINES. 37 



THOMAS KAINES, 

STATE TBEASUBEB. 

THOMAS RAINES, the present Treasurer of the State of 
New York, is one of the youngest men ever chosen by the 
people for a position of so much importance. He is now in 
his thirty-second year, and was first called to preside over the 
Treasury when but twenty-nine. The American people, 
however, have regard rather to ability than years, agreeing 
with the Earl of Chatham, that youth is not that sort of an 
" atrocious crime " which stands in need of any palliation or 
denial. 

Mr. RAINES was born at Canandaigua, Ontario county, 
N. Y., on the 13th of August, 1842. He is of English 
descent on his father's side, and Scotch on his mother's. His 
grandfather, JOHN" RAINES, a sturdy Englishman, was born 
in 1784. At the early age of twenty-eight he had acquired a 
large fortune in mercantile pursuits, and, notwithstanding 
the cares of business, had found time while amassing it to 
fulfill the duties of the sacred office. He was the regularly 
installed minister of a Methodist congregation, and had inti- 
mate relations with the celebrated divine, ROBERT HALL, and 
other illustrious contemporaries. 

We believe the historians are not at one, as yet, as to the 
cause that induced the return of Napoleon from his island 
retreat at Elba, but very many men in England, France and 
elsewhere, knew too well the effect of the re-appearance of the 
Little Corporal. JOHN RAINES was one of these, and his 
financial losses were so heavy as to induce him to gather up 
the remnants of his broken fortune and try to better his con- 
dition in America. In the year 1821, the merchant-minister 
arrived at Philadelphia, and soon after commenced the busi- 
ness of manufacturing at that point. The usual ups and 
downs marked his life in the City of Brotherly Love, and 



38 LIFE SKETCHES. 

after being twice burned out, and declining an offer of part- 
nership from the since celebrated THOMAS TASKER, he aban- 
doned the Keystone for the Empire State, and took up his 
residence at Canandaigua. 

The father of the Treasurer, another JOHN" RAINES, was 
born at Hull, in the East Riding of Yorkshire, England, in 
the year 1818. While yet an infant he was brought to this 
country by his parents, and here he has resided ever since. 

After leaving school, and until his twenty-seventh year, he 
followed farming for a living. He then abandoned secular 
pursuits and entered the ministry. For many years he was 
widely known in Western New York, being recognized as 
standing among the foremost of his Methodist brethren. 
Mrs. RAINES, the mother of the subject of our sketch, was a 
Miss MARY REMINGTON. Her ancestors came from New 
England, but she herself was born near Canandaigua. 

The leading facts in the life of the Treasurer are about as 
follows : 

After receiving the usual common school education, and 
supplementing it with a good deal of self-taught instruction, 
he closed his text-books at the early age of fourteen. Those 
who think they can see the coming oak in every acorn, will 
be interested in knowing that the future financial head of 
the State left behind him, at the common school from which 
he graduated, a reputation for unusual proficiency in mathe- 
matics. Commencing his business life on the bottom round 
of the long ladder, he accepted a clerkship in a store at 
Lyons, Wayne county, in this State, at an annual salary of 
one hundred dollars. His industry, talents and determina- 
tion soon led to his promotion, and at the age of sixteen he 
had charge of the books of a large mercantile establishment. 
A little later we find him book-keeper in the Bank of Canan- 
daigua, in which institution his education in fiscal matters 
fairly commenced. Keeping the books of the bank for a year, 
he developed so much capacity as a banker that he was pro- 
moted to be acting cashier. 



THOMAS RAINES. 39 

At the age of twenty, Mr. RAINES had attained a broad 
and accurate knowledge of the important and intricate 
branch of business to which he had resolved to devote his 
future, and, in connection with a number of capitalists of 
western New York, he then proceeded to start a National 
Bank, one of the first, it may be remarked, ever organized in 
the country. This bank was located at Geneva, Ontario 
county, and, under the management of Mr. RAINES, enjoyed 
a high degree of prosperity. 

In 1867 he removed to Eochester, and at the age of 
twenty-four, became financial officer of the Farmers and 
Mechanics' National Bank of Rochester. In this position 
he continued until his election as Treasurer of the State of 
New York. 

On the 29th of December, 1864, Mr. RAINES was married 
to CHAEEIE, daughter of Hon. JOSEPH HALSTEAD, of 
Columbia county. She died on the 5th of March, 1870, to 
the poignant grief of a large circle of friends. A lady of 
high intellectual endowment, and the possessor of varied 
accomplishments, she was in very deed and truth a helpmeet 
for her husband. She left one child, a girl, who died in 
August, 1874. In September, 1874, he was married to Miss 
AGNES BULTEE, a lady of rare cultivation, and held in high 
esteem by all who know her. 

At the Republican State Convention, which met at 
Syracuse, in September, 1871, Mr. RAINES was nominated 
by acclamation for the position which he now holds. In 
the canvass that followed, he made a most gallant fight, 
and gained the day by an overwhelming majority. The 
estimation in which he is held by his fellow-citizens is 
shown in the fact of his running nearly a thousand 
ahead of the State ticket in Rochester. Almost the 
entire vote of the ward, in which he resided, was cast 
for him; a mark of esteem and confidence of which any 
man might justly be proud. Mr. RAINES' entire 



40 LIFE SKETCHES. 

majority in the State was 21,784; he polled the highest vote 
on the ticket. 

Mr. EAINES was for many years an active and ardent Ee- 
publican. Sympathizing, however, with the Liberal move- 
ment, he attended the Cincinnati Convention and helped 
place HORACE GEEELET in nomination for the Presidency. 
His position and ability received suitable recognition from 
the Convention, he being chosen one of its Vice-Presidents. 
Since that time Mr. EAIKES has acted with the Liberals, 
and is recognized as one of the leaders of his party in this 
State. At the Democratic Convention, called to nominate a 
State ticket, at Utica, in September last, Mr. EAINES was 
named by acclamation for the office which he now holds, 
by virtue of a re-election. The mutations of our politics is 
thus strikingly illustrated a renomination and election at 
the hands of Democrats and Liberals following directly after 
a nomination and election at the hands of Eepublicans ! 
Although he was. embarrassed in his canvass by the defalca- 
tion of one of his clerks, which came to light soon after 
his name was hoisted, yet, nevertheless, he led all the 
nominees on the State ticket, save the State Engineer, and 
secured his election by the handsome majority of 12,630. 

Since his induction into the office which he now holds, 
Mr. EAINES has justified the high expectations of his friends, 
demonstrating both his capacity and disposition to wisely 
administer the finances of the State. 

Entering office without particular political experience, but 
with the training and aptitude of a successful banker, he at 
once displayed quick apprehensions, a ready grasp of public 
questions, a clear insight into State polity and a broad under- 
standing, especially of its fiscal interests and public works. 
He initiated in the Canal Board, at an early day, a direct 
movement for the repeal of the repair contracts. Mr. EAIKTES 
undertook the task of pushing it into operation, and brought 
the question to a direct issue by a series of resolutions, pre- 
sented in the board shortly after his entrance into office. He 



THOMAS RAINES. 41 

advocated, in 1872, '73 and '74, the continuation of the low 
toll policy. In 1875 he opposed the further reduction, upon 
the ground of constitutional violation and the insufficiency 
of the reduction, it failing to meet the railroad tariff. He is 
opposed to levying taxes upon commerce and also to taxing 
people for canal expenses. He does not believe in the policy 
of the State owning canals or railroads. He advocated the 
payment of the debt of the State in coin. This act alone 
entitles him to the gratitude of all who are interested in the 
elevation of the standard of public morality. The estima- 
tion in which Mr. RAINES was held by those who differed 
with him politically, is shown in the tribute paid him by 
the Democrat and Chronicle, the leading Republican paper 
of Rochester, in the fall of 1873, when the danger of his 
becoming the nominee of the Democracy was among the 
possibilities. The following is an extract from the Democrat 
and Chronicle, September 15, of that year : 

" He made, early in his career, an earnest effort to secure 
a thorough investigation of the whole management of canal 
affairs. Believing, from personal observation, and the inspec- 
tion of the records of his department, that the popular sus- 
picions as to its extravagance and corruption were not 
unfounded, he called upon the Legislature for a complete 
examination. His speeches delivered before the Canal Com- 
mittee of the Assembly, last winter, on the necessity of re- 
trenchment in canal expenditures, created universal interest. 
Mr. RAINES carried his point in reducing the appropriations 
to the extent of a million dollars, a curtailment due almost 
entirely to his individual efforts. In the Canal Board he 
has steadily opposed all fraudulent claims, extravagant 
allowances and profligate jobs, exercising ceaseless vigilance 
in detecting and baffling every species of dishonesty which 
is continually endeavoring to obtain a foothold in this 
department of the public works." 



42 SYLVANUS H. SWEET. 



SYLVANUS H. SWEET, 

STATE ENGINEER AND SUBVEYOK. 

SYLVANUS H. SWEET, State Engineer and Surveyor, is a 
native of Oswego county, New York, and is a son of the late 
GAEKET C. SWEET, of Phoenix, Oswego county. He com- 
menced his professional career under 0. W. CHILDS, Esq., 
in the year 1847. In 1850 and 1851, he was engaged under 
Mr. CHILDS in making a survey for a Ship Canal across the 
Isthmus of Nicaragua, in Central America, and opening of 
the Nicaragua Transit Eoute, for California traffic and travel, 
under Commodore VANDEKBILT. 

Upon his return, he received an appointment upon the 
New York State canals, in 1852, where, owing to great dili- 
gence and application, he remained undisturbed through all 
the political changes of the next eight years, and in 1860, 
through the earnest application and recommendation of 
Hon. VAN E. KICHMOND, the then State Engineer and 
Surveyor, was appointed by a Republican Canal Board 
Resident Engineer at Syracuse. While holding this position, 
he compiled and perfected a complete set of plans of the 
most important canal structures, which were published in 
connection with the State Engineer's report for 1860. 

Upon his removal, Mr. RICHMOND appointed him principal 
assistant, under 0. W. CHILDS, on the " New York Harbor En- 
croachment Survey. " By reason of his skill and characteristic 
energy, Mr. SWEET had the honor of being the first to estab- 
lish, successfully, the original high and low water lines 
around Manhattan Island and the shores of Brooklyn, from 
which the first map was published in 1861, showing these lines. 

Upon the election of WILLIAM B. TAYLOR as State 
Engineer, in 1862, he was tendered and accepted the position 
of Deputy State Engineer. During his term as Deputy, 
Mr. SWEET devoted his leisure hours to writing a complete 
" History of the New York Canals," a work embracing 384 





ii> (5j\/vc^Vo 




IVVIV 



LIFE SKETCHES. 43 

pages ; also a history of the Hudson Kiver Improvements, 
some thirty or forty pages in length, and a scientific report 
of great practical value on coal. This last work, contained 
in about 100 pages, set forth the cost of coal over diflFerent 
routes to market. It was furnished, upon call, to the Senate 
during the session of 1864, and was read with interest by 
coal consumers generally, since it contained all the informa- 
tion necessary to a full and clear understanding of the 
actual cost of the commodity treated of in market. 

During the war (1865), he was the nominee of the Demo- 
cratic party for the same position he now holds, and although 
running ahead of the ticket about 4,000, was defeated with 
his party when all placed upon the ticket made up of 
JOHN VAN BUKEN, Gen. H. W. SLOCUM, Lucius KOBINSON, 
etc. were vanquished by the war cry. 

In 1865-6, Mr. SWEET had charge of surveys, plans and 
estimates for a canal across the State of Maryland, from 
Washington to Annapolis, thence along the shore of Chesa- 
peake to Baltimore, thereby saving in distance between these 
points 190 miles, and the danger of navigating the bay with 
small crafts, and perfecting an inland canal navigation from 
Albany or New York to Washington, upon a scale of navi- 
gation equal to the Delaware & Earitan. 

Upon the election of Hon. VAN K. KICHMOND for State 
Engineer and Surveyor, in 1868, Mr. SWEET was tendered 
and accepted the position of Deputy, which he held during 
the two terms of Mr. KICHMOND'S administration, serving 
also as Engineer and Inspector of the New Capitol, which 
latter position he retained after the defeat of his party in 
the fall of 1871. 

Mr. SWEET received the nomination from the Democratic 
party at the convention held at Utica, in the fall of 1873, for 
State Engineer and Surveyor, and was likewise the choice of 
the Liberal convention held at Elmira the same fall for that 
office. He was triumphantly elected, his majority being 
some 4,000 greater than that of any of his associates on th 
ticket. 



SENATORS, 



JAMES W. BOOTH. 



The fifth Senatorial district consists of the eighth, ninth, 
fifteenth and sixteenth wards of the city of New York. It 
is represented in the present Senate by JAMES W. BOOTH 
who was born in the city of New York, on the ninth of 
September, 1822. After receiving a good education in 
various private schools in that city, he turned his attention 
to mercantile pursuits with marked success. As a dyer 
and manufacturer of cotton goods he was long known to the 
world of trade no less for his business sagacity than for his 
integrity. At present Mr. BOOTH is not actively engaged in 
business, being one of those fortunate mortals to whom 
effort has brought the wherewithal on which to complacently 
retire from the noisy marts of trade. 

In politics Mr. BOOTH was for many years a Whig, but 
since the formation of the Kepublican party he has been an 
ardent supporter of that organization. Until nominated for 
the Senate he had never been prevailed upon to accept a 
political office, although for many years he has been devoted, 
with his time and his means, to the support of honesty and 
efficiency in public affairs. In him the cause of education 
has ever had a warm friend, and to it he has given a long 
term of service. From 1850 until 1870 he was trustee of 
the Common Schools of the Ninth ward of New York. On 
the organization of the Fire Department, under its present 
system, he was made one of the Commissioners, a position 
which he held for three months and then resigned. In 1873, 



46 LIFE SKETCHES. 

when the Legislature was called upon to name a Eegent of 
the University in place of OSWALD OTTENDORFER, Mr. 
BOOTH received the unanimous nomination of the Republi- 
cans and was duly elected. In the election which resulted 
in placing him in his present position of Senator he ran 
against VIXCENT C. KIXG and received a majority of 2,437. 
Mr. BOOTH is Chairman of the Committees on Literature 
and Public Health, and is also a member of the Committees 
on Cities, and Commerce and Navigation. 



GEORGE B. BRADLEY 



GEORGE B. BRADLEY, who now represents the Steuben, 
Chemung and Schuyler district, was a candidate for the 
position which he now holds two years ago. At that time 
he made a gallant, but an unsuccessful fight. Although the 
Republican majority in that district had been counted by the 
thousands, he was beaten by a scratch, his opponent being 
chosen by a majority of seven. 

Senator BRADLEY was born in the town of Greene, county 
of Chenango, on the fifth day of February, 1825, and conse- 
quently he is now in the full maturity of his powers. His 
father, ORLO F. BRADLEY, now dead, came from Litchfield 
county, Connecticut. The Senator spent the early years of 
his life on a farm which his father had purchased in Chenango 
county, after leaving New England. Receiving a good com- 
mon school and academic education, he turned his attention 
to law, and after pursuing the usual preparatory studies, was 
admitted to practice. For the last twenty-five years he has 
occupied a prominent position at the bar of this State, being 
recognized in the profession as one of the ablest lawyers of 
the southern tier. 

The Senator was married in July, 1850, to Miss LATTIMER, 
of Stenben county. 



GEORGE B. BRADLEY. 47 

He and Judge RUMSEY of the Supreme Court were the 
representatives of their respective parties from the southern 
counties of their judicial district in the late Constitutional 
Commission. The Judge resigned when appointed to fill a 
vacancy, but Mr. BRADLEY served, and no man in the Com- 
mission made a more favorable impression upon all those 
amiliar with the work of that body. 

Mr. BEADLEY was placed in nomination by the Democrats 
and Liberal Republicans. It was a significant fact that his 
Republican opponent of two years ago, Hon. GABRIEL T. 
HARROWER, was one of his most ardent supporters through- 
out the canvass. He was triumphantly elected, carrying every 
county in the district, by a majority of 2,859 over EATON" N. 
FRISBIE. 

Mr. BRADLEY is an easy, effective speaker, and takes a 
prominent part in all the debates of moment. He signalized 
his entrance into the Senate by his minority report from the 
Committee on Privileges and Elections, on the ABBOTT-MAD- 
DEN contested election case. He favored the retention of AB- 
BOTT as sitting-member until all the evidence in the case had 
been offered and reported on by the committee. His speech in 
support of his report was the most able and eloquent presen- 
tation of Mr. ABBOTT'S claims that was addressed to the 
Senate. 

Mr. BRADLEY is a member of the Committees on Judiciary, 
State Prisons, and Privileges and Elections. 



48 LIFE SKETCHES. 



JOHN W. COE. 



The Second Senatorial district of the State of New York 
consists of the first, second, third, fourth, fifth, seventh, 
eleventh, thirteenth, fifteenth, nineteenth and twentieth 
wards of the city of Brooklyn. The Senator is JOHN" W. 
COE. 

JOHN "W". COE was born in the city of New York, on the 
26th of May, 1839. He received a good common school 
education, and then turned his attention to mercantile pur- 
suits. At the present time he is engaged in business as a 
manufacturer. He was married in 1862. 

The Senator has always taken a deep interest in politics, 
and has held some prominent public positions. He was for 
many years an active Eepublican, and, in 1872, embraced the 
Cincinnati movement, so called. He was a delegate to the 
convention that laid down the Liberal platform and nom- 
inated HORACE GKEELEY for the Presidency. In his own 
county of Kings, he has long enjoyed a high degree of polit- 
ical prosperity. In 1870 he was elected a member of the 
Board of Supervisors, and proved such a popular representa- 
tive, that, in 1872, the Liberal Eepublicans returned him to 
the Board from a strong Eepublican district. His second 
term as Supervisor was signalized by a most stubborn con- 
test for the Chairmanship of the Board. After a campaign, 
lasting five months, Mr. COE was elected to that office. 

In the fall of 1873, the Liberal Eepublicans placed him in 
nomination for Senator. The action of the convention was 
indorsed by the Democracy, and the result was his election 
over Hon. JOHN 0. PERRY, who was chosen to the last Senate 
by a majority of 1,968. Mr. COE'S majority was 1,414. 

Mr. COE'S political position in the Senate is a peculiarly 



DAN H. COLE. 49 

"independent" one. He was first nominated, as we have 
said, by a distinctively Liberal Eepublican convention, and 
afterward was indorsed by the Democrats. He made no 
pledges whatever to the latter, and, in refusing to do so, told 
them that they had simply to choose between him and his 
Eepublican opponent. As a consequence, party ties sit very 
loosely upon him, and he is left free to follow the promptings 
of an unbiased judgment in considering all questions brought 
before the Senate. He came to the Legislature with the 
reputation of having materially assisted in unearthing the 
labyrinth of frauds in the jail of Kings county, through 
which the public were swindled out of thousands of dollars 
annually. He signalized his entrance into the Senate by 
casting his vote in favor of awarding the contested seat of the 
tenth district to Mr. MADDEN". His speech, in explanation 
of his action, proved him to be a clear and cogent speaker. 

Senator COE is a member of the Committees on Cities and 
Public Health. 



DAN H. COLE. 



The Twenty-ninth Senatorial district of the State of New 
York consists of the counties of Genesee, Niagara and 
Orleans. The Senator is DAN H. COLE, of Albion, Orleans 
county. 

Senator COLE was born at Auburn, Cayuga county, in the 
year 1814. He is descended from New England stock, both 
of his parents being natives of Sharon, Conn., where his 
father followed the profession of medicine for many years. 
After receiving a good substantial education in the common 
school and academy, he applied himself to the study of law. 
He was for some time a student in the office of his brother, 
Hon. A. HYDE COLE, who, it is interesting to note, occupied 
a seat in the Senate in 1848-9. After being admitted to the 
bar. the Senator entered upon the practice of his profession 



60 LIFE SKETCHES. 

at Albion. Since 1850, other duties occupying his attention, 
he has not been actively engaged at the law. Of late years 
he has been prominently engaged in several important 
business enterprises, among others with the Curtis Agricul- 
tural Works, of which he is President. 

The Senator has had considerable experience of a varied 
nature in public life. In 1840 he was appointed by Gov. 
Seward Surrogate of his county, and held the office four years. 
In the fall of 1846, he was elected to the responsible and 
honorable position of County Clerk, and remained as such 
two terms, six years. In 1855, on the death of Judge H. R. 
CURTIS, he was appointed County Judge and Surrogate, and 
in the fall of the same year was nominated and elected a 
member of Assembly from Orleans county. As a member 
of the lower House of 1856, he participated in the long and 
exciting contest for Speaker, which ended, on the forty-ninth 
ballot, in the election of OEVILLB ROBINSON. In all these 
positions, Mr. COLE served the people to their entire satisfac- 
tion, and established an enviable reputation for capacity and 
integrity. 

The Senator is now serving his second term as a member 
of the Senate. He was first elected to that body in 1863, 
and, during 1864-65, held the same important Chairmanship 
which he now holds, of Canals. He was also Chairman of 
the Canal Committee when in the Assembly, and thus brings 
to bear in the discharge of his duties during the present 
session a perfect familiarity with the duties of his responsible 
position. He has also figured prominently, this session, as 
Chairman of the Committee of Privileges and Elections. 
There being no less than three contested election cases in the 
present Senate, that committee has its hands full. Senator 
COLE presented the majority report in the ABBOTT-MADDEN 
case, which excited so much interest all over the State, and 
which the Senate, after an exciting debate, adopted. 

Senator COLE was married, in 1836, to FEANCES M. 
ELLIOTT. 



HENRY C. CONNELLY. 51 



HENRY C. CONNELLY. 



The Fourteenth Senatorial district consists of the counties 
of Greene and Ulster. The Senator is HENRY 0. CON- 
NELLY. 

Senator CONNELLY was born at Shandaken, Ulster county, 
on the 25th of September, 1832, consequently he is now in 
the full maturity of his powers. Shortly after his birth the 
family removed to Esopus, in the same county, which has 
remained the Senator's home ever since. His father and his 
father's father were both born in the town of Olive, Ulster 
county. His grandfather was a physician and Baptist min- 
ister, and his father a farmer. The latter is still living at the 
age of 66. 

The Senator's education was received, for the most part, at 
the common schools of his county. A portion of one year 
he attended the Charlotteville Seminary at Schoharie. At 
the early age of 15 he began to learn the great lesson of self- 
dependence, and we find him teaching the young ideas to 
shoot. He followed teaching for three months, and then 
went to clerking it at Kondout. Here he remained four 
years, and then removed to Eddyville, Ulster county, where 
he spent some time in mercantile pursuits. * In 1856 he 
embarked in business on his own account, and to-day finds 
him in the same place in which he commenced, a successful 
and respected merchant. The firm of CONNELLY & SHAFER 
is widely known as manufacturers of Rosendale cement. 

In politics, the Senator, although brought up under Free 
Soil Democrat influences, has always been a Republican. 
For four successive years his friends and neighbors showed 
their regard for him as a man of capacity and integrity by 
electing him to represent his town in the Board of Super- 
visors of Ulster county. He cares very little for public life, 



52 LIKE SKETCHES. 

and never asked for an office in his life. Whenever he hag 
consented to represent the people the office has sought him, 
not he the office. 

Thoroughly known throughout the Fourteenth district, 
and everywhere, as a man fitted, by his sound business capa- 
city and inflexible integrity, to make a useful legislator, it 
was not strange that his party friends placed him in nomina- 
tion for Senator. The district had been counted unfailingly 
Democratic, and yet, although Greene county went against 
Mr. CONNELLY 543, his own county of Ulster gave him the 
handsome majority of 809, thus securing his election by 266 
over JACOB H. MEECH. In 1871 a Democratic Senator was 
elected by 828 majority. 

Senator CONNELLY is Chairman of two Committees, Erec- 
tion and Division of Towns and Counties and Charitable 
and Religious Societies ; he is also a member of Roads and 
Bridges and Printing. 

The Senator has been twice married. He was married to 
his present wife, a daughter of LEVI MANNING, of "West 
Park, Ulster county, in 1858. He has been connected with 
the Methodist Episcopal Church since 1852. 



JESSE C. DAYTON. 



JESSE C. DAYTON, of Watervliet, represents the Thirteenth 
Senatorial district, which consists of the county of Albany. 

The Senator's ancestors were English, and as far back as 
1600, certain of them emigrated from England and settled 
near what is now East Hampton, Long Island, where his 
father was born. His grandfather removed to Rensselaer- 
ville in 1800. 

The subject of this sketch was born at Westerlo, Albany 
county, in the year 1825. His life has been spent in Westerlo, 



JESSE C. DAYTON. 53 

Knowersville, Watervliet and New York city. After receiving 
good substantial education, he turned his attention to mer- 
cantile pursuits, and in 1844, being then in his nineteenth 
year, went to New York as a clerk. Developing good busi- 
ness qualities, it was not long before he passed from the 
position of clerk to the head of a nourishing house of his own. 
He is still actively engaged in business in the metropolis, but 
has his home away from its rush and roar in tranquil Water- 
vliet, where he has an extensive farm. 

The Senator takes a lively interest in politics, and has 
always been identified with the Democratic party. Last 
spring his friends and neighbors brought him forward as a 
candidate for Supervisor. He accepted the nomination and 
was elected by a majority of five hundred, in a town which 
had been previously carried by the Republicans. In com- 
menting upon his nomination for Senator, the Albany Argu* 
bore witness to the faithfulness and vigilance with which he 
had represented his constituents in the Board of Supervisors. 
It added, " taking his election for granted, he will be a credit 
to Albany upon the floor of the Senate, and a valuable servant 
in committees and all routine legislation. And his character 
is as exemplary as his qualifications for the position of 
Senator are superior." 

The Troy Press, a newspaper published outside of the Four- 
teenth district, noticed the nomination of Mr. DAYTON for 
Senator, as follows : " The Democracy of Albany county have 
nominated JESSE C. DAYTON, of Watervliet, for Senator. Mr. 
DAYTON" is not an office-seeker, nor is he a man that office can 
corrupt. He last spring accepted the nomination for Super- 
visor in a Radical district, and illustrated his popularity by 
carrying his election with nearly five hundred majority. In 
the Board he has been one of the most vigilant members, 
watching the interests of the people with constant care. 
Being a man of wealth, he has personal interests that are 
opposed to extravagant legislation, and that is one of the 
strongest guards that can be put upon a legislator. As there 



54 LIFE SKETCHES. 

is no doubt of Mr. DAYTON'S election, we congratulate onr 
Bister county upon the wise action of its convention." 

Mr. DAYTON was nominated for the honorable position 
which he now holds by acclamation, and elicited a hearty 
support. He was elected over CHARLES P. EASTON, Repub- 
lican, by a majority of 2,152. In 1871, CHARLES H. ADAMS, 
Eepublican, was elected by a majority of 656, leading the 
State ticket by 1,911. 

Mr. DAYTON was assigned, by the President of the Senate, 
to the following committees : Printing, Public Buildings, 
and Indian Affairs. He is a man of quiet manner and modest 
bearing. v Although not a talking member, as a general rule, 
he is always ready to take the floor when the success of any 
measures which he has in charge seems to require it. 



WELLS S. DICKINSON. 



The seventeenth Senatorial district, comprising the counties 
of Franklin and St. Lawrence, is represented by WELLS S. 
DICKINSON, of Franklin. He comes from a section of the 
Empire State which has always been in the van of liberal 
and progressive ideas, a section proud of its PRESTON KING, 
its SILAS WRIGHT, and which has produced many sons who 
have been potent in shaping the policy of State and nation. 

The subject of this sketch was born at Bangor, Franklin 
county, where he still resides, in the year 1827, and is of gen- 
uine American descent. After receiving the rudiments of 
his education at a common school, he entered the Franklin 
academy in his native county, where he remained two years. 
He then, in the year 1846, laid aside his books, and engaged 
in mercantile pursuits with his father, whom he joined as 
partner in 1850. In 1851 he took to himself a wife, marry- 
ing Miss THUSA FISH. In 1853 he bought out his father's 



WELLS 8. DICKINSON. 55 

interest in the business and associated Mr. A. 0. PATTERSON 
with himself. The copartnership thus formed continued 
until the year 1865, when he also admitted Mr. CHARLES 
WHITNEY into the firm, and carried on business under the 
name of PATTERSON, WHITNEY & Co. In 1857, Mr. WHIT- 
NEY went out of the concern and Mr. DICKINSON'S brother 
took his place. During all this time, however, Mr. DICKIN- 
SON had devoted himself chiefly to his private and individual 
business, the manufacture of potato starch and speculation 
in starch, hops, etc. In addition to the pursuits thus 
indicated, Mr. DICKINSON ran for some years extensive 
grist and saw mills, of which he was the owner, and had 
business interests at Bed Wing, Minnesota, as member of 
the firm of SMITH, MEIGS & Co. 

Thus much for the Senator's business history, and now a 
glance at his public and political life. In politics he was 
formerly a Whig, but he now is and has been for years an 
active and ardent Eepublican. His personal popularity at 
home is shown in the fact that for three successive years, 
1857-8-9, he was elected Supervisor of his native town. In 
1859 the Legislature of New York appointed him one of the 
Commissioners to whom was intrusted the settlement of the 
claim and damages arising on the contract between the 
State and J. D. KINGSLAND relative to convict labor. 

Senator DICKINSON began his legislative career some 
years ago. In 1860 he represented the county of Franklin 
in the Assembly in a manner at once creditable to himself 
and satisfactory to his constituents. He was a member of 
one of the most important committees in the House, that on 
Eailroads. In 1864 he was a delegate to the memorable Ee- 
publican National Convention which met at Baltimore and 
renominated ABRAHAM LINCOLN for the Presidency. 

Senator DICKINSON has already had one term's experience 
in the Senate. In the fall of 1871 he was first nominated 
for the office, going into the convention as the unanimous 
choice of Franklin county, and proving entirely acceptable 



56 LIFE SKETCHES. 

to the St. Lawrence delegates. Two years previous, when 
his name had been presented by his county, the convention 
paid him the marked compliment of passing a resolution 
recognizing him as "an upright and patriotic citizen, a 
reliable and active Eepublican, and one whom the people of 
the seventeenth district hold in high respect." He entered 
actively into the campaign and was elected by the handsome 
majority of 6,925. He was chairman of the Committee 
on Villages and Indian affairs, and a member of the Com- 
mittees on Claims, Eoads and Bridges and State Prisons. 

Mr. DICKINSON made so good a record in 1872 and 1873 
that the electors of the seventeenth district decided that he 
well deserved to be returned. The New York Times, in an 
editorial article on the senatorial nominations of last fall, 
commended Senator DICKINSON" as a gentleman who had 
had much experience in public affairs and who enjoyed the 
confidence and respect of the Republicans among whom he 
lived. He was re-elected by the comfortable majority of 4,626 
over his Democratic competitor. 

As a politician Mr. DICKINSON has an honorable reputa- 
tion and his course since he has been Senator has been such 
as to entitle him to thorough confidence and respect reposed 
in him by his constituents. He is chairman of two import- 
ant Committees in the present Senate, Claims and Villages, 
and is a member of Affairs of Cities and State Prisons. 



ALBERT G. Dow. 57 



ALBERT G. DOW. 



The Thirty-second Senatorial district, consisting of the 
counties of Cattaraugus and Chautauqua, is represented by 
ALBERT G. Dow, of Eandolph, Cattaraugus county. 

The salient facts of his history are as follows : ALBERT G. 
Dow was born in Plainfield, Cheshire county, New Hamp- 
shire, on the 16th of August, 1808. His father, SOLOMON 
Dow, who was also a native of " the Granite State," followed 
farming for a living. The Senator received his education in 
the " common " and " select " schools, so called, of Vermont 
and western New York, and after leaving his books, turned 
his attention to mercantile pursuits. During many years 
lie was engaged in the hardware business, and he was 
rewarded with a fair degree of success ; of late he has fol- 
lowed the business of banking. It may be added, just here, 
that he has been twice married, and has been a member of 
the Congregational church for over thirty years. 

The Senator's political history repeats that of a great 
many of his contemporaries. Until the breaking out of the 
late war he was a Democrat, and since that time has acted 
with the Eepublican party. He has had considerable experi- 
ence in public life, and evidently is held in high regard by 
those who know him best. For ten years he represented the 
town of Randolph in the Board of Supervisors of Cattarau- 
gus county, a fact that speaks emphatically of his capacity 
for affairs and his reputation for integrity. In the fall of 
1862 he was elected to the Assembly from the Second district 
of Cattaraugus county as a Union Democrat, by a majority 
of 971 over LEMUEL S. JENKS. He made such a satisfactory 
record that he was returned the next year. When we have 
added that the Senator filled the office of Justice of the 

Peace for twelve vears. and was. from 1857 to 1863, a Com- 

8 * 



58 LIFE SKETCHES. 

missioner of Excise, it will be seen that his experience of 
public service has been long and varied. 

The Senator was elected to his present position by a 
majority of 2,458 over DAVID N. BROWN, who ran on the 
Democratic ticket. He is Chairman of the Committee on 
Grievances ; also of that on Indian Affairs ; and is a member 
of the committees on Public Health and Manufactures. 

Senator Dow is a careful and sound legislator, always 
keenly alive to the material and moral advancement of his 
own locality in particular, and of the State in general. 
Making no pretensions to oratory, he nevertheless has the 
faculty of presenting his views clearly and forcibly. During 
the present session his speech in favor of the appropriation 
to academies was an able and well-considered effort. The 
Senator held that it would be in accordance with the dic- 
tates of sound policy for the State to distribute $125,000 
among the academies of the State, and supported his posi- 
tion with quite an array of facts and figures. Whether or 
no he is right or wrong is an open question, but he made one 
thing certain beyond a cavil his interest in the educational 
interests of the State. 



JOHN FOX. 



The seat of the Fourth Senatorial district, which remained 
vacant during the whole of last term by reason of the non- 
appearance of the Senator elect, WILLIAM M. TWEED, is 
occupied this session by JOHN Fox. The district includes 
the first, second, third, fourth, fifth, sixth, seventh, thirteenth 
and fourteenth wards of New York. 

Senator JOHN Fox was born at Frederickton, New Bruns- 
wick. His father, PATRICK Fox, and his mother, CATHARINE 
AHERN, were both natives of Ireland. The Senator received 



JOHN Fox. 59 

a common school education, attending school number twenty- 
nine, New York city. After throwing aside his books he 
commenced, while yet a mere boy, the great battle of life, 
and the development of those qualities of self-reliance and 
energy of character which have since marked his career. 

Until he was twenty-three years of age he was a block and 
pump maker. After that, thinking that he knew how to 
keep a hotel, he tried that line of business for two years. 
Since abandoning hotel keeping he has been engaged in the 
real estate and brokerage business. 

JOHN Fox is a name that has long been familiar in the 
ears of those at all acquainted with politics in the city of 
New York. Few men of his years have been as long in pub- 
lic life, in various positions of honor and trust, as the Senator. 
Always an uncompromising Democrat, he has been frequently 
called by his political friends to represent them. In 1861 he 
was elected Alderman, defeating one of the most popular men 
in New York, the late widely lamented .HENRY SMITH, 
Police Commissioner, by a majority of 800. Tn 1864 he 
was chosen to the Board of Supervisors of New York 
county by the overwhelming majority of 17,000. In 1866 he 
defeated HORACE GREELEY for Congress, and in 1868 was 
re-elected over General LEWIS by a majority of over 16,000. 
In Congress he served on the committees on Post-offices, 
Post Eoads and Invalid Pensions. The Senator's position in 
the State councils of his party is shown in the fact that in 
1873 he was made Chairman of the Executive Committee of 
the Democratic State Central Committee. He has long been 
a regular attendant at the State and National Conventions 
of the Democracy. He was a delegate to the National Con- 
ventions of 1868 and 1872, and has been present in similar 
capacity at every State Convention held during the past ten 
years, saving only the year 1871, when the TWEED ring 
defeated him and put in his place a man of their own. 

The Senator was married in 1861, in New York city, to 
Miss ELLEN BYRNE. He attends the Catholic church. 



60 LIFE SKETCHES. 

In the canvass which resulted in placing him in the seat 
which he now occupies he was opposed by MORGAN JONES, 
and defeated him by a majority of 6,063. He is a member 
of the Committee on Cities, Erection and Division of Towns 
and Counties, and Rules. 



JACOB A. GROSS. 



The Sixth Senatorial district of the State of New York 
consists of the tenth, eleventh and seventeenth wards of the 
city of New York. The Senator is JACOB A. GROSS. 

Senator GROSS is one of the youngest members of the 
present Senate, having been born in 1842. He is a New 
Yorker, and the son of MARTIN GROSS, deceased. After 
receiving his preliminary education in the private schools of 
the metropolis, he devoted some time to the study of law at 
the well-known Columbia College Law School. He gradu- 
ated in 1864 with the degree of LL. B., and the next year 
was made LL. M., by the same college. He has devoted 
himself ever since to law as his profession, and has been 
rewarded with a fair degree of success. 

In politics the Senator has always been a Democrat, but 
never a member of Tammany Hall until its re-organization 
a few years ago. He is now a prominent member of the 
Tammany General Committee. 

The Senator was elected to the position which he now 
occupies by a majority of 3,312"votes over GEORGE HENCKEN, 
Jr., the nominee of the Republican party. In 1871 there 
was a Democratic plurality in the district of 2,425. 



JACOB A. GROSS. 61 

Senator GEOSS is an easy and fluent debater, and takes an 
active part in the discussions arising on the important 
measures presented for the consideration of the Senate. As 
a legislator, he may be denominated cautious, deliberate and 
conscientious. He speaks often, but seldom at any length, and 
always with clearness and earnestness. He is a member of 
the Committee on Banks, the Committee on Charitable and 
Religious Societies, and the Committee on Villages. 

Senator GEOSS is unmarried, and attends the Catholic 
church. 



JOHN C. JACOBS. 



The Senator from the third district of Kings county, 
having served in the lower House during the years 1867, 
'68, '69, '70, '71, '72 and '73, was abundantly qualified, by 
legislative experience and knowledge, to respond to the call 
which came to him last fall from his constituents, " Friend, 
come up higher." A leader in the Assembly for seven years, 
it was to be expected, on the retirement of Hon. HENEY C. 
MUEPHT from the seat which he had filled so ably for twelve 
successive years, that he would be given the succession. Mr. 
JACOBS was elected to the Senate by a majority of 3,984 
over JOHN F. HENEY. 

The salient points in his history may be stated as follows: 
He was born in Lancaster county, Pennsylvania, on the 10th 
of December, 1838, and is therefore now in the thirty-fifth 
year of his age. His paternal ancestors were of the old New 
England Revolutionary stock, and several of them partici- 
pated with honor in the memorable struggle for independ- 
ence. Mr. JACOBS' mother was born in Pennsylvania, and 
was of German origin, one of her progenitors having held a 
high position under Frederick the Great of Prussia. 

"When Mr. JACOBS was quite young his parents removed to 



62 LIFE SKETCHES. 

Brooklyn, where he was placed in a select school as soon as he 
had reached a sufficient age. The family removed to Phila- 
delphia a few years later, and his school studies may be said 
to have closed when he attained the age of twelve. He was, 
nevertheless, able to turn every opportunity of obtaining 
knowledge to account, and the loss occasioned by the check 
thus given to his educational progress, is not as apparent as 
it might be in a duller man. Eeturning to Brooklyn, after 
a year's stay in Philadelphia, he entered a lawyer's office as a 
messenger boy. The drudgery there required of him was, 
however, very repugnant to his somewhat high-strung nature, 
and he left it after a short experience, and sought and 
obtained a position as copy-holder in the large printing 
establishment of JOHN A. GRAY & Co., New York. A 
large number of journals being issued from the establish- 
ment, Mr. JACOBS naturally came in contact with many 
newspaper men, and he soon developed a taste for journal- 
istic life. At the age of eighteen he became a reporter for the 
New York Express. He showed great aptitude and ability 
in the arduous duties belonging to the life he had now 
entered, and was gradually promoted on the Express staff, 
until he was given charge of the political news columns. In 
1859 he became correspondent of the same paper at Albany, 
remaining with it until 1865, when, in the same capacity, he 
represented the New YorK World. He also won distinction 
as a war correspondent, volunteering in 1862 to accompany 
MCCLELLAN'S army to the Peninsula. Becoming attached 
to the 1st New York Volunteers, then in KEARNEY'S 
division, he had a chance to see and participate in some of 
the hardest fighting of the war. His account of the evacua- 
tion of Harrison's Landing and the march to Yorktown, 
which he sent to the Express, was extensively copied by the 
press of the country. 

Mr. JACOBS began his political life when a mere boy. In 
1856, when but eighteen years of age, he was active in his 
opposition to FREMONT'S election. In 1860 he was well known 



JOHN C. JACOBS. 63 

in Brooklyn as a leader among the young men who com- 
bined against the LINCOLN" ticket. In 1863 he received the 
regular Democratic nomination for Assembly, against JOHN" 
C. PERRY, Eepublican member of the last Senate. THE- 
OPHILUS C. CALLICOTT ran as an Independent Democratic 
candidate, however, and the split thereby occasioned defeated 
him. In 1865 he also ran, being again defeated by WILLIAM 
W. GOODRICH, after an unusually spirited contest. Mr. 
JACOBS' friends insisted that he should run again in 1866, 
and the Democratic Convention nominated him by acclama- 
tion. A strong effort was made by the Eepublican s to defeat 
him, but the plucky young journalist was successful this 
time by 900 majority. From that time until his elevation to 
the Senate^ he was regularly returned every fall to the 
Assembly, his majority being usually larger than the State 
ticket received. 

In 1869 he served on the Committee on Commerce and 
Navigation, and on several special committees. In 1870 he 
was chairman of the Committee on Ways and Means, and a 
member of the Committees on Insurance, and Grievances. 
In 1871 he was a member of the Committees on Grievances, 
Judiciary, and Ways and Means, and Chairman of the latter. 
In 1872 he was a member of the Committee of Ways and 
Means, and Petitions of Aliens ; and in the last House he 
vas a member of Ways and Means, Insurance, and Eules. 
During the session of 1872 Mr. JACOBS was honored by being 
chosen as one of the managers to conduct the trials of Judges 
BARNARD and McCinor. In the years when the Democrats 
held the majority in the House, Mr. JACOBS displayed great 
effectiveness as a leader and party manager, winning deserved 
repute for his readiness and ability in debate, his tireless 
activity and his dauntless courage in battling for political 
principles. Two or three times he has been a candidate for 
the Speakership, but in the year when the party majority was 
with him, the Tammany interest of !STew York city, with 
which he was not always in entire accord, succeeded in 



64 , LIFE SKETCHES. 

defeating him. He was the candidate of the Democratic 
minority for the position in the session of 1872, and also in 
the last one, receiving the entire vote of his party. Inas- 
much as he possesses peculiar qualifications for the post of 
presiding officer, and is thoroughly versed in parliamentary 
law, the compliment thus twice given him was in every way 
deserved. 

Mr. JACOBS is a great favorite among all his friends. 
Though he is an ardent and active partisan, there is yet a 
courteousness of manner and a frankness of language in all 
his political endeavors, which invariably extorts admiration 
' and respect from his most decided opponents. He is a man 
of large heart and warm sympathies to his friends, and gen- 
erous to his foes, very few of the latter being such in other 
than a political sense. In legislative matters he devotes the 
largest share of his attention to local affairs ; but his ring- 
ing voice is often heard, also, in defense of party policy, and 
in denunciation of Republican measures and schemes. He 
is very fluent in debate, occasionally rising to heights of ora- 
torical eloquence ; and he never fails to command the atten- 
tion of the Senate when once warmed up with his subject. 
He unquestionably stands among the foremost members of a 
minority which includes a number of very able men. 

The Senator is a member of the important Committees on 
Finance, and Affairs of Cities. 



WILLIAM JOHNSON. 65 



WILLIAM JOHNSON. 



Senator JOHNSON probably does more than any other man 
in the Senate to promote a general good feeling all around 
the circle. Jolly himself, he is the cause of jollity in others. 
He has a keen sense of the ludicrous, and frequently chooses 
to place an adversary hors du combat by a racy repartee, 
rather than force his surrender by the slow processes of logi- 
cal reasoning. He rarely allows a subject to be disposed of 
without putting his mark upon it, and 

" is so full of pleasing anecdote, 

So rich, so gay, so poignant in his wit, 
Time vanishes before him as he speaks." 

Urbane and pleasant in his address, and carrying around 
with him "the atmosphere of gay, good cheer," he is a very 
popular gentleman. A natural talker, fluent and ready on a 
great variety of subjects, he is one of the marked men of the 
Senate. 

Senator JOHNSON represents the Twenty-sixth district, 
including within its territory the counties of Ontario, Seneca 
and Yates. He is a native of the good old Bay State, and 
is now not far from 50 years of age. He is of unmixed 
English descent, the son of DAVID and OLIVE STODAKD 
JOHNSON. His father died in 1825, at Herkimer, Herkimer 
county, this State. The subject of our sketch came to New 
York while he was yet an infant, with his parents, who took 
up their residence in Herkimer county. He received a com- 
mon school education, and subsequently was engaged some 
five years in mercantile pursuits. From 1349 until 1856 he 
followed the business of jobbing, as a contractor on the 
canals, and afterward was engaged in the manufacture of 
woolen goods at Seneca Falls, where he now resides. Of late 



66 LIFE SKETCHES. 

years, he has become prominently known as a railroad con- 
tractor. 

The story of his life, as he himself tells it in familiar con- 
versation, shows that his career has been indeed a chequered 
one. Full of ups and downs, of fortunes made and fortunes 
lost, it has been marked throughout by an unflagging energy 
and a disposition to make the best of the allotments of Fate, 
be the same fair or foul. Having tried his hand at a great 
variety of pursuits he has accumulated a stock of experience 
of a rich and varied nature. 

In 1862, having the year previous represented the county 
of Seneca in the Assembly, he felt moved to do his share in 
putting down the rebellion, arguing, doubtless, that it was 
useless to concern oneself about making laws for a country 
nntil it had first been conclusively settled in the minds of all 
men that there was, and was to be, a country capable of 
enforcing obedience to its laws and maintaining its own exist- 
ence. He raised the 148th regiment New York State volun- 
teers and commanded it until near the close of the year 1863, 
when he resigned and returned to civil life. 

In the Assembly of 1861 he was assigned a place on two 
important committees, Canals and Commerce and Naviga- 
tion, and made an intelligent and useful legislator. He was 
adjudged to have possessed a large degree of representative 
ability, and to have faithfully and efficiently discharged his 
official duties. 

Mr. JOHNSON has been elected and re-elected to the Senate 
from a district usually carried by his political opponents, and 
his success under the circumstances was a signal proof of 
great popularity. Notwithstanding the other side had a rec- 
ord of 332 majority for 1869 to take heart with, he succeeded 
in 1871 in wiping those figures out and gaining the Senator- 
ship by a majority of 964. In the last Senate he was on the 
Standing Committees on Canals, Manufactures and Griev- 
ances, and was Chairman of the Special Committee appointed 
to investigate the charges against Tweed. 



CHARLES KELLOGG. 67 

The record made by the Senator during the last two years 
commending itself to his constituents, he was unanimously 
and by acclamation renominated to represent the Twenty- 
sixth district. After an exciting and closely contested can- 
vass he was re-elected over his Republican opponent, NES- 
TOR WOODWORTH, by a majority of 174. He is a member 
of the important Committees on Canals and Manufactures, 
also of the Militia Committee. 

The Senator was married in the summer of 1855, to 
ANGELINE CHAMBERLAIN, daughter of the late Hon. JACOB 
P. CHAMBERLAIN. 



CHARLES KELLOGG. 



The Twenty-first Senatorial district of the State of New 
York consists of the counties of Madison and Oswego. 
The Senator is CHARLES KELLOGG. 

Senator KELLOGG, one of the youngest members of the 
present body, was born in Minden, Montgomery county, 
on the 4th of December, 1839. His father, DANIEL F. KEL- 
LOGG, was a member of the Assembly in 1864. After receiv- 
ing a thorough education at the Yates Polytechnic Institute 
at Chittenango, the subject of this sketch applied himself 
to the study of law. He attended a full course of lectures 
at the Albany Law School and graduated from that institu- 
tion in 1863. He has ever since been actively engaged in 
the practice of his profession. At the present time he is a 
member of the law firm of LANSING & KELLOGG, at Chit- 
tenango, Madison county. 

Mr. KELLOGG has always taken a deep interest in politics. 
Believing in the principles of the Republican party he has 
devoted himself as opportunity offered to the advancement 
of its interests, and is now recognized as one of the leaders 
of the organization in Madison county. Though still a 



68 LIFE SKETCHES. 

young man, being but a little past thirty, he is well and 
favorably known throughout the Twenty-first district. 

Mr. KELLOGG was elected to the high position which he 
now holds by a majority of 1,443 over MATHEW J. SCHOE- 
CRAFT, his Democratic opponent. In arranging his Standing 
Committees, the President of the Senate named the Senator 
for several important places. He is chairman of Eoads and 
Bridges and a member of two other of the most important 
committees of the Legislature, Judiciary and Canals. He 
is also a member of the Committee on Salt. 

Mr. KELLOGG is quiet and unassuming in his manner, and 
extremely courteous and affable to all with whom he is 
brought in contact. As a legislator he is capable and effici- 
ent ; seldom absent from his seat in the Senate chamber, he 
keeps a sharp watch on all that is going on. Although not 
a frequent speech-maker, he is by no means lacking in ability, 
to express himself with clearness and force. 



JOHN A. KING. 



THE First Senatorial district consists of the counties of 
Suffolk, Queens and Eichmond. The Senator is JOHN A. 
KING. 

JOHN A. KING was born in Jamaica, Long Island, July 
14, 1817. He is the son of JOHN A. KING, Governor of 
New York in 1857 and 1858, and grandson of RUFUS KING, 
who filled so large and honorable a place in the early annals 
of this State and of the Union. 

After attending Union Hall Academy at Jamaica for ten 
years, from 1822 to 1832, he entered the Sophomore class at 
Harvard College, from which institution he graduated in 
1835. For a short time following his graduation he engaged 
in mercantile pursuits, and then applied himself to the study 
of law, and in due course of time was admitted to the bar. 



JOHN A. KING. 69 

For the past twenty years he has been an agriculturist, 
seeming to take great pleasure in the pursuit so dear to his 
ancestors. 

In politics, Mr. KING was a Whig until the formation of 
the Eepublican party. Since then he has been an unswerving 
and ardent Republican. He has been a delegate to a number 
of the State conventions of his party, and assisted at the 
nomination of GKANT and WILSON, at Philadelphia, in 1872. 
He was elected Republican Presidential elector for the First 
Congressional district of the State in the fall of the same 
year. 

Mr. KING was termed by the parties opposed to him in 
his canvass for Senator, as " the ancestral candidate," a title 
of which he had no reason to be ashamed. A brief sketch 
of his distinguished father and grandfather will not be con- 
sidered out of place in this connection. 

RUFUS KING was born in Massachusetts, and filled con- 
secutively the office of representative in the State Legislature 
and delegate to the Constitutional Convention. He was, 
also, a member of the convention which framed the present 
Federal Constitution in 1787, and enacted an influential and 
conspicuous part in its important and difficult deliberations. 
In the same year, he removed to New York and became the 
first United States Senator elected from that State. In the 
Senate he was a recognized leader of the Federalists, or anti- 
Democratic party. He aided in the expulsion of ALBERT 
GALLATIN from that body, and subsequently, when he and 
ALEXANDER HAMILTON attempted to address a public meet- 
ing in the city of New York, called to uphold the celebrated 
"Jay Treaty" with Great Britain, the citizens refused to 
hear them lest they might defeat the treaty. They, how- 
ever, accomplished their purpose by publishing a series of 
articles in the newspapers of the day. Mr. KING was again 
elected to the Senate in 1795, and in 1796 resigned to accept 
the mission to England from President WASHINGTON. In 
1813, and again in 1820, he was returned to the Senate. In 



70 LIFE SKETCHES. 

1816 he was nominated for Governor by his party. In 1816 
he ran unsuccessfully against JAMES MONROE for President. 
In 1821 he sat in the New York State Constitutional Con- 
vention. He died in 1828 at the ripe old age of seventy- 
three. 

His friends claim for RUFUS KING, that he was the origi- 
nator of the celebrated Congressional ordinance of 1787, by 
which negro slavery was abolished in the North-west Terri- 
tories. "When in Congress in 1820, he also opposed the 
Missouri proviso or " Compromise," and was prominent in 
opposition to the admission of that State into the Union. 
THOMAS H. BENTON in his " Thirty Years' View " does full 
justice to the career of RUFUS KING. 

JOHN A. KING, father of the Senator, was mustered into 
the service of the United States in 1812, and held the rank 
of lieutenant in the militia during the war. He six times 
represented the county of Queens in the Assembly during 
the years 1812, 1820, 1821, 1832, 1838 and 1840, and was a 
member of the State Senate in 1823. In 1825 he was Secre- 
tary of Legation at London under his father. He was a 
member of the Thirty-first Congress, where he highly dis- 
tinguished himself in debate. He opposed the Compromise 
measures of 1850 and the Fugitive Slave Law with much 
ability and zeal. In 1856 he was a delegate to the Republi- 
can Presidential Convention at Philadelphia, and his name 
was suggested for the Vice-Presidential nomination on the 
ticket with Col. FREMONT. It is said he had only to signify 
his willingness to accept to have secured the nomination 
which was given to Mr. DAYTON, of New Jersey. He was 
elected Governor of the State of New York in 1856, defeat- 
ing Hon. A. J. PARKER, the Democratic nominee, by a 
majority of 65,784 

For the following brief sketch of the Senator, we are 
indebted to the Long Island Farmer. Writing of his nomi- 
nation, it said : 



JOHN A. KING. 71 

"Senator JOHN" A. KING, eldest son of the Governor, was 
born in Jamaica, at the old place on Beaver Pond, lately 
occupied by the Hon. WILLIAM J. COGSWELL. The house was 
destroyed by fire and the present one erected by the late 
TUNIS VAN BBUNT. Mr. KING graduated at Harvard Col- 
lege, Cambridge, Massachusetts, in the summer of 1835. He 
was married some few years after, and for a long time has 
resided at Great Neck, taking great pleasure in the pursuits 
so dear to his ancestors. From the retirement of his life as 
a gentleman farmer, he now comes forth for the first time, 
to occupy an important political position. His classical 
education, together with great familiarity with affairs of 
State, gained by seasons of residence in Washington, and by 
association with the most honorable of public men, makes 
him eminently fitted to fill with great success the place of 
State Senator. Inheriting not only the outward appearance 
of his noble father, but similar traits of character, we know 
that the First district will look with pride upon the career 
of its representative during the next two years, and at the 
end of that time, we doubt not that our party will unite in 
nominating JOHN A. KING as candidate for the National 
Congress, where his grandfather, father and uncle had been 
before him." 

The high esteem in which the Senator is held by those 
who know him best, is shown in the extraordinary vote he 
received in his senatorial canvass. He had a majority of 
1,707 in a district which had been known as a Democratic 
stronghold. It never had elected a Republican Senator 
before, and then only through a division in the Democracy 
with two Democratic candidates running. 



LIFE SKETCHES. 
ALBERT P. LANINGK 



The Thirty-First Senatorial district consists of the county 
of Erie, and the Senator is ALBERT P. LADING, of Buffalo. 
He was elected to fill the vacancy occasioned by the death 
of the brilliant and widely lamented JOHN GANSON, who 
was suddenly stricken down last fall in the midst of his 
years and his usefulness. 

Mr. LANING was born in Burlington, in the county of 
Otsego, New York, in the year 1820, and is of English and 
Irish descent. His father, who was a Methodist minister 
and a member of the Genesee Conference some forty years 
ago, was a native of New Jersey, and settled in Tompkins 
county, New York, in the year 1799. The Senator received 
a common school and academic education, and during the 
years 1838-39" attended the Oneida Conference Seminary, 
situated at Cazenovia. Leaving school, he determined on 
law as a profession and entered the office of Judge SHANK- 
LAND, of Courtland county. In 1845 he was admitted to 
the bar, and at once entered upon the practice of his pro- 
fession. After ten years or more spent in Allegany county, 
he removed to Buffalo, where he succeeded to the practice 
of Judge MASTEN of the Supreme Court. In Buffalo he has 
resided ever since, and, as a result of his talents and industry, 
has long been recognized as among the foremost lawyers of 
western New York. 

Senator LANIKG made his entrance into public life in 
1858, when he represented Erie county in the Lower House. 
His character and ability was appropriately racognized by 
Governor ALVORD, who was Speaker of the Assembly tha^ 
year, who gave him the Chairmanship of the Committee of 
Ways and Means. It is interesting to note that a fellow 
Assemblyman of that session, Hon. JARVIS LORD, of Monroe, 
is now one of Mr. LANING'S fellow Senators. Mr. LANING 



ALBERT P. LANING. 73 

has always taken a deep interest in politics, and has long been 
held in high esteem in the councils of his (the Democratic) 
party. He was, from 1854 until 1868, a member of the 
Democratic State Committee, and also a delegate to the 
Democratic National Convention of 1864 that nominated 
McClellan and Pendelton. He served besides as alternate 
Delegate-at-Large to Conventions in 1868, 1872. 

At present Mr. LADING is associated in business with Mr. 
WILLETT, under the firm name of LANING & WILLE.TT. He 
was elected to the Senate over FRANK A. ALBERGER, by a 
majority of 984. His predecessor, Mr. GANSON, was elected 
by a majority of 708 over Hon. L. L. LEWIS, who had been 
chosen to the preceding Senate by 1,845. 

Mr. LANING is a member of the following important 
Committees : Judiciary, Commerce and Navigation and 
Claims. He is a fluent and forcible speaker ; scans closely 
all the measures presented to the Senate, and may justly be 
regarded as one of the most able and useful members of that 
body. 



74 LIFE SKETCHES. 



THOMAS A. LEDWITH. 



The Seventh Senatorial district consists of the 18th, 20th, 
and 21st wards of the city of New York, and its present 
representative is THOMAS A. LEDWITH. Mr. LEDWITH was 
born in the city from whence he now hails on the 14th of 
February, 1840. He was educated at St. Francis Xavier 
College, New York, and graduated therefrom in 1856. He 
at once applied himself to the study of the law, which he 
had chosen for his profession, and in 1861 he was admitted 
to practice. "With him law and politics went hand in hand, 
and in 1862 he was sent to the Assembly from the Eleventh 
district of the metropolis, being elected by a majority of over 
2,000. He enjoyed the distinction of being the youngest 
member of the lower house of 1863, and signalized his entrance 
into legislative life by his opposition to the Broadway railroad 
bill, which passed and was vetoed by Governor SETMOUE. 
He was assigned a place on the important committee of the 
judiciary. The author of the " Biographical Sketches" pub- 
lished in 1863, speaking of Mr. LEDWITH, says : " He is said 
to be a young gentleman of excellent attainments, and prom- 
ises to rise early in his profession. He possesses a pleasant 
exterior, never attempts any forensic display, has many friends 
in the legislative circle, and serves his constituents truly and 
faithfully, being in every way worthy of their confidence and 
esteem." 

In the fall of 1863, Mr. LEDWITH, fresh from the Legisla- 
ture, was again honored with a testimonial of the regard in 
which he was held by his political friends. The Democracy 
nominated and elected him to the important and honorable 
position of police justice. His administration on the bench 
gave such satisfaction that, at the expiration of his term of 
office, he was in 1869 re-elected, notwithstanding the stubborn 



JAR vis LORD. 75 

opposition of Tammany Hall, which was then at the zenith 
of its power. 

In 1870 the Young Democracy of New York city made 
him their candidate for mayor, in opposition to A. OAKEY 
HALL. He made a spirited canvass, but did not succeed in 
securing the election. Mr. LEDWITH was elected to the Senate 
by a" majority of 680 over JAMES EVERAED, the Republican 
candidate, who also drew to his support the Apollo Hall 
branch of the Democracy. 

Senator LEDWITH is a thorough Democrat, following 
strictly party lines on all leading questions coming before 
the Senate. He is a member of the following committees : 
Insurance, Public Expenditures, and Engrossed Bills. 



JARVIS LORD. 



Mr. LOED, the Senator from the twenty-eighth district, 
was born at Ballston, Saratoga county, February 10, 1816. 
He is in the prime of life, and as vigorous as he was at 
twenty-five ; of good physical proportions, an excellent con- 
stitution, and a temperament adapted to severe endurance, 
both of body and mind; he has been favored with good 
health, and seldom tires by active labor. 

Mr. LOED was the son of poor parents, and had no other 
educational advantages than those afforded by the common 
schools in the days of his boyhood. He availed himself of 
these, however, so far as to acquire a tolerable knowledge of 
those branches which were to be most essential to his future 
success in business life. He early adopted the avocation of 
farming, and though, during most of his subsequent life, he 
has had large interests in other pursuits, he has made the 
farm his home, and has taken a pride in the culture of the 



76 LIFE SKETCHES. 

Boil. He has resided, for thirty years or more, at Pittsford, 
seven miles from Rochester, and has there one of the best 
cultivated and most productive farms in Monroe county. 
He takes delight in the cultivation of fruit and the raising 
of stock, devoting himself particularly to horses, of which he 
is a great admirer. 

Mr. LORD has always been a Democrat of the JACKSON 
and WRIGHT school. Devoted to the Union, he warmly 
espoused the Federal cause at the beginning of the rebellion, 
and gave freely to promote the national interests, and, it is 
said, did more than any other man in his town to keep the 
calls for men filled, and to help the soldiers in the field and 
at home. He has enjoyed a personal popularity in his own 
town equaled by few men, and when nominated for office, 
his neighbors have supported him with enthusiasm. He was 
made the recipient of a testimonial in the spring of 1871, 
which spoke volumes as to his success in office, and his 
assured place in the confidence of those who had intrusted 
vital interests to his keeping. Serving two terms in the 
lower House, and one term in the upper one, he had devel- 
oped signal legislative capacity, and an unfaltering devotion 
to the best interests of his constituents. On his return 
home in 1871, at the end of his first Senatorial term, his 
constituents, without distinction of party, gave expression to 
their appreciation of their gratitude for his services in their 
regard by affording for his acceptance a testimonial in the 
shape of an elaborate service of plate. The presentation cer- 
emonies took place at the Senator's residence at Pittsford, and 
a special train was run from Rochester for the accommoda- 
tion of the large number who desired to be present on the 
interesting occasion. The presentation speech was made by 
WILLIAM N". SAGE, and Senator LORD made an appropriate, 
eloquent and feeling response. Letters were read from 
prominent gentlemen regretting their inability to be present 
on the interesting occasion, and expressing their congratula- 
tions. 



JAR vis LORD. 77 

The formality of presentation over, the presents were 
inspected and admired. The testimonial consisted of the 
following articles : Silver server, coffee urn, two tea pots, sugar 
bowl, cream pitcher, slop bowl, card dish, fruit stand and 
soup tureen. The articles are all solid sterling silver, hand- 
somely engraved and gold lined. The silver is marked : 

" Hon. JAEVIS LORD, from the citizens of the twenty-eighth 
Senatorial district of New York, as an acknowledgment of 
faithful services.* 

All the articles named are marked with the monogram, 
"J. L." in handsome old English letter. The cost of the 
testimonial was $2,500. 

And now a few details of that legislative career of which 
we have spoken, and a word as to the Senator's business his- 
tory. He was elected to the Assembly in 1858, on the Demo- 
cratic ticket, when the district went Eepublican by several 
hundreds. He was elected again in 1866, by a majority of 
fifteen over a strong opponent, when the district gave Governor 
FENTON" 600 majority. At the opening of the Legislature, 
in 1867, his party presented him as the Democratic candi- 
date for Speaker, and sustained him by an unbroken vote ; 
but the Kepublican majority in the House accomplished the 
election of Mr. PITTS. He has once or more served as Super- 
visor. 

Mr. LORD has been engaged for many years in building 
canals in this State, and he is very widely known as a 
contractor. He is President of the Bank of Monroe, of 
Kochester, a sound and reliable institution, and as a business 
man is well and favorably known all over central and western 
New York. 

Mr. LORD has been a member of the Senate since 1870, 
and in that year was made Chairman of the Finance Com- 
mittee. Although a new man in that body, at that time, he 
took a leading position from the start, and gave evidence of 
an extensive knowledge of the wants and resources of the 
State. His report on the payment of a portion of the State 



78 LIFE SKETCHES. 

debt in coin, made during the first year of his term, was 
regarded as a paper of great clearness and force. The Senator 
was renominated in 1871, and again in 1873, under circum- 
stances which must have been peculiarly gratifying to him, 
indicating, as they did, that his course as a legislator met 
with the hearty approval of his constituents. Before the 
renomination was made in 1871, a letter was read to the 
convention from him, declining another senatorial term, and 
giving his reasons therefor. The convention not seeing eye 
to eye with Mr. LOKD on that point, and having nominated 
him by acclamation, sent a committee to inform the nominee 
of their action, whereof the Senator appeared in the conven- 
tion and said if his letter of declination would not suffice, he 
would yield to the wishes of his constituents and take the 
field. He was elected by a majority of 1,838, an increase of 
1,138 on his majority of 1869. He was elected to the present 
Senate by a still larger majority, 3,384, an increase of 1,546 
over the majority of 1871, and an increase of 2,684 over the 
figures for 1869. 

Mr. LOED does not claim to be an orator. His attention 
has never been bestowed on the embellishments of rhetoric 
and elocution. Whenever he has an opinion to utter he 
delivers it point blank and with force, if not with grace. 
His shrewdness, plain sense and knowledge of the world are 
his leading characteristics, and they serve him well in the 
accomplishment of his ends as a Senator. 



SAMUEL S. LOWERY. 79 



SAMUEL S. LOWERY. 



SAMUEL S. LOWERY, of Utica, who represents the Nine- 
teenth Senatorial District, consisting of the county of Oneida 
was born in county Down, Ireland, on the 5th day of Feb- 
ruary, 1831. It would, therefore, be a Hibernicism to say 
that he is a Scotchman, but his ancestry, not less than his 
characteristics, stamp him as one who is more a Gael than 
a Celt. 

Senator LOWERY'S parents emigrated to this country when 
SAMUEL was about fourteen years old, and settled in Oneida, 
county. He received a good common school education in 
Ireland, and, by reason of a strong taste for books, he has 
acquired, during his later years in this country, an extensive 
fund of knowledge. 

The Senator is, by occupation, a manufacturer of woolen 
goods. In this business he has been quite successful, and 
conducts, at the present time, an extensive establishment, in 
which he employs a large number of hands. He settled in 
Whitestown, Oneida county, on his arrival in this country, 
and there remained until the year 1848. From thence, he 
went to Manchester, New Hampshire, where he was con- 
nected with a woolen mill until 1855, when he left and came 
to Utica, and engaged in the dry goods business. Success 
crowned his efforts, and, in 1861, he abandoned dry goods to 
become a wool dealer, and, two years later, started the mill 
which he has since run. 

In politics Senator LOWERY, although a strict believer in 
the principles of the Eepublican organization, is never bit- 
terly partisan. Until his election to the Assembly in 1870, 
he neither held nor sought office. He was chosen to that 
body by a majority of 448, over a worthy and popular com- 



80 LIFE SKETCHES. 

petitor, in a district where the Eepublican majority, in the 
previous year, was less than 50. Serving upon the Commit- 
tees on Public Education, State Charitable Institutions, and 
Eoads and Bridges, he proved faithful to the interest of his 
constituents, and exhibited a comprehensive knowledge of 
the duties of a legislator. As a member of the Committee 
on Education, he was especially distinguished for his sturdy 
and unflinching opposition to the policy of sectarian appro- 
priations. 

Mr. LOWERY was elected to the last Senate by a majority 
of 1,591 over his opponent (who had been a member of the 
preceding Senate, and was elected by a majority of 52), in a 
canvass in which the Republican candidate for Secretary of 
State received a majority of 1,023, in the Nineteenth Sena- 
torial District. Senater LOWERY was very properly placed 
at the head of the Committee on Manufactures; he was also 
Chairman of the State Prison Committee, and a member of 
several other important committees. He had the honor of 
renominating ROSCOE CONKLING for United States Senator, 
and his speech, in joint caucus of the Republican members 
of the Senate and Assembly, in presenting that gentleman, 
was an able and eloquent effort. 

His name having been mentioned in connection with 
the mayoralty of Utica last year, the Senator informed his 
friends that, while representing the Nineteenth Senatorial 
District, he felt in obligation bound to decline any other 
office, the holding of which might interfere with his Sena- 
torial duties. 

The Senator was not ungrateful for the honor sought to 
be conferred upon him by his fellow-townsmen, but he wisely 
chose not to accept an office which might divide his atten- 
tion, caring first to redeem, to the satisfaction of the most 
strict constructionist, the obligations assumed with the office 
of Senator. 

Mr. LOWERY was renominated for the position which he 
now holds without so much as even the mention of a com- 



EDWARD M. MADDEN. 81 

petitor, or the suggestion of opposition in the convention that 
named him. He was elected by a majority of 2,829 orer 
ENOCH B. ARMSTRONG, running 1,200 ahead of the State 
ticket majority in 1871, which was 1,591. Commenting 
upon his renomination, the Albany Evening Journal paid 
him this handsome and well-deserved tribute : 

" Senator LOWERY is universally known, first of all, as a 
scrupulously honest and upright representative, the inflexi- 
ble foe of all jobbery, and the sworn enemy of the lobby. 
With this most important of qualifications, he unites sound 
judgment, ample ability and large acquaintance with the 
wants and interests of the State. As an influential member 
of the Finance Committee, Mr. LOWERY has faithfully co- 
operated in every effort to protect the treasury and defeat all 
improper demands upon it. He has met all questions with a 
conscientious sense of public duty, and his whole influence 
and action as a legislator have been wholesome." 



EDWARD M. MADDEN. 



There are some men who, remembering the implied injunc- 
tion of Holy Writ contained in the exclamation, " I would 
thou wert either cold or hot," do whatsoever their hands find 
to do with unqualified fervency. They recognize no such 
things in the world as half-truths; to them whatever is not 
radically right is radically wrong, and vice versa. Their 
trumpets never give forth an uncertain sound or one wanting 
in volume, and if all the Jericho walls at which their efforts 
are directed do not tumble, they gazing upon some stub- 
born piece of masonry on which their trumpeting makes no 
impression have the consolation that goes with the con- 
sciousness of always making a red-hot and never a luke- 
warm fight. 

Senator MADDEN belongs to this school of men. He has 
decided convictions, and is very decided in expressing them. 
11 



82 LIFE SKETCHES. 

Once his mind is made up, h is extremely hard to move 
from his position, and whoever questions the faith that is in 
him is sure to hear the reasons on which that faith rests 
couched in unequivocal language. His aye and nay are like 
a woman's : 

" When he wills, he wills, you may depend on't. 
And if he wont, he wont, so there's an end on't." 

GEORGE W. BUNG AT, the poet, in a volume of " Pen and Ink 
Portraits," issued in 1857, has a readable sketch of the 
subject of this biography, from which we take the following: 

" Senator MADDEN represents the county of Orange, where 
he was born, has always lived, and where he will probably 
die, unless political events so shape themselves that his 
unquenchable love of liberty, and intense hatred of slavery, 
should induce him to leave his Lares and Penates, and 
migrate to Kansas.* Like many other men of mark, he is 
wholly the artificer of his own fortune. He had no advan- 
tages of early education. From the age of nine to fourteen 
he commenced fitting himself for the great battle of life as an 
operative in a cotton factory; thence he pursued his studies 
as an apprentice in a tin shop ; graduated in a hardware 
store, and took his final degree, as a retail merchant, at Mid- 
dletown, where he now has a very extensive saw factory. 
Nature has done much for him. Gifted with a fine consti- 
tution, his iron will, unbending energy, indomitable perse- 
verance and unflagging industry have combined to make 
him a hard student and a well-read man. His mind is well 
stored with practical knowledge, and few men are so thor- 
oughly posted in the political history of our State or country. 
There is no man in the Senate of greater pluck or nerve. 
Governed in all his actions by fixed principles, nothing ever 
turns him from his purpose, when his course is once marked 
out. The State never had a more watchful guardian over 
its interests. He is extremely sensitive and jealous about all 

* He probably has given up the idea of going to Kansas. [Ed. 



EDWARD M. MADDEN. 83 

inroads upon the treasury more so than if it were his own 
private purse. His active business habits make him invalu- 
able on committees, and woe betide the unlucky wight who 
comes before him with a doubtful claim. He participates 
freely in all debates, dissecting the subtleties and sophistries 
of lawyers with the sharp scalpel of common sense. He is a 
nervous, rapid speaker, and no man in the Senate is more 
earnest, energetic, forcible or convincing. He goes in a 
straight geometrical line right to the point, without any 
flowers of rhetoric, but with a directness that there is no 
mistaking. He uses no pearls of poetry, or flights of fancy, 
but deals altogether in the purest and strongest Anglo-Saxon. 
He always votes in accordance with his convictions^ No 
motives of policy, expediency or interest ; no regard for 
individuals or localities ; no personal friendships, can make 
him swerve one hair's breadth from his line of duty. He 
engages in no * log rolling,' never aiding any project of doubt- 
ful propriety to secure assistance in measures of real merit." 

Senator MADDEN was formerly a Democrat, and was elected 
to the Senate in 1856-7 as an an ti- Nebraska man. He was 
Chairman of the Insurance Committee in that body, and a 
member of the Finance, Claims, and Commerce and Naviga- 
tion Committees. He made a good record, proving himself 
to be a strong, popular, earnest man. He was elected to the 
last Senate by a majority of 2,085 over his opponent, GEORGE 
M. BEEBE, a member of the present Assembly. 

In the election for Senator in the Tenth district, in Novem- 
ber last, the board of canvassers gave the certificate to FRANK 
ABBOTT, thereby declaring him elected, and Mr. MADDEN, 
his opponent, defeated. Mr. MADDEN claimed that the 
inspectors wrongfully rejected two sets of returns from Sul- 
livan county, whose admission would have made him the 
sitting member for the Tenth district. His petition, claim- 
ing the seat, was referred to the Committee on Privileges and 
Elections of the Senate, who presented a majority report, 
recommending that the seat be awarded to Mr. MADDEN. A 



84 LIFE SKETCHES. 

minority report, recommending that, pending a thorough 
investigation, Mr. ABBOTT retain his seat, was also presented. 
The Senate, after an exciting debate, adopted the majority 
report, whereupon Mr. MADDEN" appeared, was sworn in, 
and took his seat. 

Mr. MADDEN has great personal strength in the Tenth 
district, otherwise he could not so often overcome the fre- 
quently adverse majority in his own county. He is always 
careful of the interests of his constituents, and, as we have 
already indicated, frank and fearless in the expression of his 
own views on all questions which bear upon the interests of 
the whole State. 



ARCHIBALD C. McGOWAN. 



ARCHIBALD 0. McGowAN was born in Pownal, Benning- 
ton county, Vt, August 26, 1825. His grandfather, JAMES 
McGowAN", was born in Scotland in 1750, and emigrated 
to the Colonies before the ^Revolution. He served in 
the Continental army and participated in the battle of Ben- 
nington. Before the war he settled in Hoosick, Eenssalaer 
Co., where CLARK McGowAN", the father of ARCHIBALD, was 
born. The parents of the Senator died while he was an 
infant, leaving him an orphan and the youngest of the 
family. He was taken in charge by his relatives and given 
a common school education. At the age of 17 years he 
obtained employment as a clerk and procured the means to 
attend the Jonesville Academy, in Saratoga county. After 
leaving school he returned to his employment as a clerk and 
followed it for a few years, and then engaged in business for 
himself as a merchant, also attending to and carrying on 
tha business of farmer, boat builder, and dealer in lumber 
ai.d coal. At the age of 25 he was married to Miss MARY 



ARCHIBALD C. MC&OWAN. 85 

LOUISA EOGERS, daughter of H. H. ROGERS, of Saratoga 
county, and his partner in business for many years. 

The Senator, in politics, was a Democrat until 1856, when 
he voted for MILLARD FILLMORE, but in 1858 united with the 
Republican party, to which party he has ever since adhered. 
He represented the town of Frankfort in the Board of 
Supervisors of Herkimer county, for several years, and in 
1862 was elected a member of the Assembly from the 
county and served on the committee on canals. At the 
Assembly District Convention, 1863, he was tendered a 
renomination, which he declined, and the following resolu- 
tions were unanimously adopted by the Convention: 

Resolved, That this Convention cordially endorses the 
official course of Hon. A. C. McGowAN, as the Representa- 
tive of the 2d District of Herkimer county in the State 
Assembly at its last session ; that we are proud of the past ; 
that amid so general corruption in that Assembly, he stood 
pure and firm against all the seductive influences around 
him, and came back to us with an unimpeached integrity ; 
that we especially indorse the. course he pursued on the 
Broadway Rail Road and Erie Canal Lock questions, and 
the vote he cast relative to those measures, and we view 
with reprehension the attempts that were made to damage 
his reputation as a member of that Assembly, in consequence 
of the correct views he expressed and the sound policy he 
adopted respecting the great Canal interests of our State. 

In 1865 he was again sent to the Assembly from the same 
District and served on the Committees on Census and Ap- 
portionment, Engrossed Bills and was the Chairman of the 
Joint Library Committee. His official course in that 
session was such that when he returned home, his conduct 
was cordially indorsed by his constituents. He has several 
times represented his party in State Conventions. 

At the County Convention held at Herkimer, in 1869, 
delegates favorable to his nomination for Senator in the 20th 
' Senatorial District were unanimously chosen and the follow- 
ing resolutions passed : 



86 LIFE SKETCHES. 

Resolved, That appreciating political integrity and moral 
worth, and pointing with pride to the course of A. C. 
McGowAN" during his service of two years in the Assembly 
of the State, we do hereby present him to the Delegates of 
the Eepublican Union Senatorial Convention to be held at 
Richfield Springs, October 8th, as a gentleman of ability 
and of integrity, unassailable either in his private or official 
life, and as a most fitting representative of the Republicans 
in this District in the next Senate. 

Resolved, That, challenging the closest scrutiny of the 
entire career of the Hon. A. 0. McGowAN", we do hereby 
name him as our choice for next Senator for this district, 
and for the purpose of furthering this end to the interest of 
the whole people, and with the purpose to attest our appre- 
ciation of his honest, tried, official life, we do hereby appoint 
our delegates to the convention above named, relying upon 
their fidelity to carry out the wishes hereby expressed. 

At the Senatorial Convention held soon thereafter, the 
delegates from Herkimer county, in accordance with those 
resolutions, presented the name of the Hon. A. C. McGowAN, 
and the Otsego delegates presented the name of the Hon. A. 
B. ELLWOOD, and, each county having the same number of 
delegates, the balloting stood a tie between them for a great 
number of times. Otsego county claimed the candidate to 
be located in said county, according to the established usages 
of the party, and, by his request, Mr. McGowAN's delegates 
withdrew his name from the canvass, and Mr. ELLWOOD was 
unanimously nominated. 

At the next Senatorial nominating convention held in 1871, 
Mr. McGowAN was again the unanimous choice of his own 
county for senator, and, after a few complimentary votes for 
Mr. ELLWOOD by Otsego delegates, his name was withdrawn, 
and Mr. McGowAN received a unanimous nomination. 

The Journal and Courier, the leading Republican paper 
published at Little Falls, indorsed his nomination in the 
following editorial : 

" Of Mr. McGowAN, it is hardly necessary to record our' 
indorsement. He has long been known to the people of this 
county. He has been tried, and found not wanting, in those 



ARCHIBALD C. McGowAN. 87 

sterling qualities which endear a representative to his con- 
stituents. Mr. McGowAN is emphatically a self-made man. 
Thrown upon his own resources at an early age, he has won 
his way to a proud position in the esteem of the people of this 
locality. For several years he was a member of the Board 
of Supervisors of the county, and for two terms he repre- 
sented his district in the Assembly of the State, in each posi- 
tion performing his duties faithfully, without even the breath 
of suspicion upon his integrity, and with that respect of his 
associates which intelligence and uprightness always com- 
mand." 

The Eichfield Springs Mercury, a leading and influential 
paper of Otsego county (neutral in politics), gave him the 
following handsome compliment : 

" Mr. McGowA N" is a gentleman of fine abilities. He is what 
may be called a worker in his party. He represented Herki- 
mer county in the legislative halls, and returned to his con- 
stituents with a clean record. He is a gentleman who frowns 
upon stealing in high or low places, and we believe him to 
be incorruptible in private or public life. He is a man of 
sterling worth and will honor his district. We do not intend 
to take up the political gauntlet, but we have said this much 
for Mr. McGowAsr, for we know whereof we speak, having 
had a personal acquaintance with him for the past seventeen 
years. We hope he will have a rousing majority." 

JOHN" F. SCOTT, a wealthy and popular man, who, by a 
wide circle of acquaintances, was well known in Otsego 
county, was the opposing candidate. He threw his whole 
strength into the contest, and made an active and stirring 
canvass against Mr. McGowAN", and carried his own county 
by a majority of 680. But Mr. McGowAX was so popular in 
his own county, and his public record so clear, that he 
received a majority of 1323, the highest given to any candi- 
date on the ticket in that canvass in the county, and was 
elected. He was placed on five committees, Canals, Salt, 
Agriculture, Select Committee of Nine, General Orders and 
Congressional Apportionment. He was Chairman of the 
Committee on Agriculture, and it was through him as such 



88 LIFE SKETCHES. 

Chairman that all the Agricultural Societies of the State 
presented their affairs to the Senate. 

His official course during his entire Senatorial term was so 
satisfactory to his constituents, that, at the Senatorial Con- 
vention in 1873, to' nominate a candidate, Otsego county 
yielded her claims, and Mr. McGowAN" received the high 
compliment of a renomination for another Senatorial term. 
The opposing candidate this time was DAVID A. AVERT, of 
Cooperstown, a popular banker of that place. There was a 
full State ticket in the field which called out a full vote, and 
Mr. AVEEY with his friends entered on the canvass with 
much zeal. But Mr. McG-owAN had so well established his 
reputation as a wise and careful legislator, and kept his 
record so clear, that the majority in Otsego county against 
him was reduced to about 200, and he was triumphantly 
re-elected to the Senate. He ran ahead of his own ticket in 
both counties. His success demonstrates that honesty, even 
in politics, is the best policy. 



ANDREW C. MIDDLETON. 



ANDREW 0. MIDDLETO^ represents the eighteenth Sena- 
torial district, composed of the counties of Jefferson and Lewis. 
His father, SAMUEL MIDDLETON, was born in the town of 
Charleston, Montgomery county, in the year 1796. He moved 
to Eutland, Jefferson county, in the spring of 1807, and in 
the fall of the same year settled on the farm where he con- 
tinued to reside until his death in November, 1873, a period 
of sixty-six years. In those days of restlessness, when the 
first of each recurring May means moving to so many 
Americans, the fact of a man's living in the same place for 
the space of sixty-six years is indeed noteworthy. SERAPH 
MIDDLETON, the mother of the Senator, was born in Eut- 



ANDREW C. MlDDLETON. 89 

land in 1802, and was married to SAMUEL MIDDLETON 
April 26, 1821. A family of six children was the fruit of 
the union, all of whom are living, with the exception of 
one daughter. 

ANDREW, the second son, was born April 5, 1824. He 
was brought up on a farm, and has always made farming his 
main business. He received a common school and academic 
education, and after ceasing to be taught, continued in 
school as a teacher for a number of winters. In 1849 he 
became Town Superintendent of common schools, a position 
which he filled satisfactorily for two years. In the year 1858 
he was elected Supervisor for the town of Eutland, and was 
continued as such during the two following years. Again, 
in 1868, he occupied the same position. During the war he 
was appointed Deputy Collector of Internal Revenue. For 
the years 1872 and 1873 he was President of the Jefferson 
County Farmers' Club. This record of service indicates 
that the Senator is held in high esteem by his neighbors and 
friends. Mr. MIDDLETON is prominently identified with the 
Grange organization in this State, and at a meeting of the 
Independent Grangers of New York, held in Albany on the 
4th of March, he was honored by being elected President of 
the State Council. 

Senator MIDDLETON cast his first vote in the fall of 1845 
in favor of the Whig ticket, and a Whig he remained until 
the organization of the Republican party. In our later 
politics he has cast his vote for FREMONT, LINCOLN and 
GRANT. 

The nomination which resulted in the election of Mr. 
MIDDLETON to the Senate was made October 20, 1873, by 
a convention of farmers in the interest of reform, and bent 
on furthering the cause of the industrial classes. The call 
for the Convention was signed by over one hundred 
practical farmers. The Democratic Senatorial Convention 
which met soon after resolved not to make any nomination 
but earnestly recommended the Democratic and Liberal 
12 



90 ' LIFE SKETCHES. 

Republican electors of the District " to vote for the farmers' 
and industrial men's candidate." Mr. MIDDLKTON was 
elected by a majority of 903 over NOEKIS WINSLOW, who 
had been chosen to the previous Senate by a majority of 1,771. 
Mr. MIDDLETOK is very properly placed at the head of the 
Committee on Agriculture. He is also a member of the 
Committees on Public Expenditures and Grievances. 



HUGH H. MOORE. 91 



HUGH H. MOORE. 



The Eight Senatorial district, composed of the Twelfth, 
Nineteenth and Twenty-second wards of the city of New 
York, is represented by HUGH H. MOORE, the youngest 
member of the upper House. He was born in Ireland in the 
county of Limerick, on the 4th of June, 1844. Both his 
parents also were born in Ireland and are still living. 

The Senator was educated in St. Steven's church school in 
Canada, and in one of the many good schools of the city of 
New York. After leaving his books he learned his trade as 
a painter, but for many years he has been principally jknown 
in business circles as an extensive contractor. 

In the late war for the defense of the Union, Senator 
Moore bore his part manfully. He served in the One Hun- 
dred and Thirty-third New York Begiment under Generals 
BUTLER and BANKS, and participated in a number of the 
engagements that preceded the siege at Port Hudson. His 
army history is unique in one respect, he never actually 
enlisted. Having a brother in the One Hundred and 
Thirty-third regiment, he ran away from home, being at the 
time but a mere lad, and joined that command without go- 
ing through the form of enlisting. 

The seat of the Eight Senatorial district in the first public 
position ever held by Mr. MOORE. He did, indeed run for 
Alderman in New York in the years 1869 and 1870, as the 
Anti-Tammany candida L e, and in the opinion of many well 
informed in the premises, would have been declared elected 
at least on one of those occasions, if the votes had been fairly 
canvassed. He was, however, declared defeated. 

Severe illness, which at one time threatened to terminate 
his life, kept the Senator out of the Senate nearly the whole 
of the last session of that body. This year, however, he has 



92 LIFE SKETCHES. 

enjoyed vigorous health, and has been able to attend to his 
duties without interruption. 

Senator MOORE'S seat was contested by WALTER S. 
PINKNEY, his Eepublican competitor in the Senatorial can- 
vass. The petition of Mr. PINCKNEY claiming the seat, and 
Mr. MOORE'S answer were referred to the Committee on 
Privileges and Election of the Senate, who made a thorough 
investigation of the case. On the 12th of February, 1875, 
they reported that having taken the proofs and heard argu- 
ments of counsel on both sides fully and carefully, they 
unanimously came to the conclusion that Mr. PINCKNEY 
was not, and that Mr. MOORE was elected Senator. In course 
of their report the committee took occasion to express them- 
selves as follows : Inasmuch as it has been alleged and some 
evidence has been given tending to show irregularities at 
some of the polling places in that district at such election, 
your committee deem it but just to Mr. MOORE, who repre- 
sents that district in the Senate, to add that during the in- 
vestigation, which was full and thorough, nothing appeared 
to cast any reflection or imputation upon him of any act of 
impropriety on his part ; and your committee by their exami- 
nation of the matter are satisfied that he is no manner 
caused, consented to or countenanced any improper action 
or irregularities at such election, and they can say no less in 
behalf of Mr. PINCZNEY. 

Senator MOORE is a member of the following standing 
committees of the Senate: Commerce and Navigation, 
Poor Laws, and Retrenchment. 

He was married in May 1868 to Miss ANNA L. McG-uiRE, 
and attends the Roman Catholic church. 



R os WELL A. PARMENTER. 93 



ROSWELL A. PARMENTER. 



The twelfth Senatorial district, consisting of the counties 
of Eensselaer and Washington, is represented by ROSWELL 
A. PARMENTER. 

Mr. PARMENTER is the eldest son of the late Dr. AZEL F. 
PARMENTER, was born in Pittstown, Eensselaer county, is 
now about forty-five years of age, and in the full strength 
of useful manhood. He is emphatically a self-made man, 
and never received a dollar that was not earned by hard 
labor. In boyhood he worked upon a farm for wages, 
and in the winter seasons taught school to defray the 
expenses of his education ; and few men have been more 
thoroughly educated in the natural sciences and in the 
classics than he. Coming to Troy about the year 1848, with 
scarcely an acquaintance in the city, he soon made his way, 
formed a copartnership with the late Judge McCoNiHE, and 
rapidly built up a large and lucrative practice. He entered 
at once on the trial of his own causes, without falling into 
the common error of young lawyers, of employing assistant 
counsel, and on appeal to the General Term and Court of 
Appeals argued his causes in those courts with the first 
lawyers in the State as adversaries. By such means he 
acquired that experience and thorough use of every legal 
weapon that have since made him so distinguished as a suc- 
cessful lawyer and advocate. 

In the celebrated case of the Corn Exchange Insurance 
Company against Babcock, argued by Mr. PARMENTER in 
the Court of Appeals, a few years ago, that court paid him 
the high compliment of adopting his points as the law gov- 
erning the case, thus settling forever in this State the long 
agitated and vexed question as to the legal liability of a 
married woman as indorser for her husband. Mr. PARMEN- 



94 LIFE SKETCHES. 

TER also received a letter of thanks and congratulation from 
many of the leading lawyers of the State, for his efforts in 
procuring the satisfactory settlement of that highly impor- 
tant and most vexatious question. Aside from his legal 
ability and acquirements, Mr. PARMEISTTER is a man of exten- 
sive reading and information, of great diversity of talent, 
with a mind cultivated by the refinements of literature, and 
enlarged and matured by study and reflection. He has fre- 
quently been invited to address literary associations, but has 
never accepted the invitation except upon two or three 
occasions, the habits of his mind being too severely logical 
to make that kind of composition attractive to his tastes. 
Mr. PARMENTER has often been designated by the Democratic 
State Central Committee as one of the public speakers, and 
in that capacity has on many occasions addressed the people 
upon the political issues of the day, at their mass meetings 
in different parts of the State ; and last fall, at the request of 
the Liberal Republican State Central Committee, he devoted 
two or three weeks to the same object. And when the 
South raised its parricidal hand against the life of the nation, 
Mr. PARMENTER did not hesitate as to his course, nor stand 
idly by. He subscribed largely to aid the raising of recruits 
for the Federal army, and to the Soldiers' Belief Fund. Nor 
did his assistance stop here ; he traveled over the State, 
making war speeches at many of the large meetings held for 
the purpose of encouraging enlistments; and his lengthy 
and telling speech at the immense war meeting in Seminary 
Park, in Troy, during a dark period in our national affairs, 
is still fresh in the minds of those who heard it. 

As a political speaker Mr. PARMENTER is earnest, forcible 
and entertaining. Full of ideas and anecdote, clear and 
logical in argument, quick to catch the humor of the crowd 
and turn it to advantage, fluent and apt at illustration, he 
never fails to hold his audience. Besides, as we have said, he 
is an unflagging worker. The amount of professional toil that 
he has performed within the last twenty years bears witness to 



BENJAMIN RAY. 95 

this fact. As no member of the Troy bar has a larger or 
more important practice, so none devotes more hours to the 
stern demands of his profession. Mr. PARMENTER is now 
City Attorney of that city. When appointed to that respon- 
sible office, in the spring of 1871, he found a vast number 
of important suits pending against the city, some of which 
had been upon the calendar for years, involving in the aggre- 
gate about $50,000. With his usual zeal and energy he set 
about the herculean task of freeing the city from this enor- 
mous load of litigation, and succeeded so well that in two 
years he had disposed of forty cases, two of which had each 
occupied over thirty days in preparation, in taking evidence 
and in summing up. For these successful and arduous official 
duties he received the public acknowledgments of Mayor 
Kemp, a political opponent, and a unanimous vote of thanks 
from the common council. 

Mr. PARMENTER was elected to the Senate after an exciting 
and closely contested canvass, beating his opponent, Hon. 
I. V. BAKER, Jr., who was chosen to the last Senate by a 
majority of 4,458, by 828. He is a member of the committees 
on Canals, Literature, and Engrossed Bills. 



BENJAMIN RAY. 



The eleventh Senatorial district, consisting of the counties 
of Columbia and Dutchess, is represented by BENJAMIN 
EAT, of Hudson, who is well known in the eastern section 
of the State as a sound and trustworthy member of the 
Democracy. His father, Captain SAMUEL RAY, was a native 
of Dutchess county, a member of the Society of Friends, and 
a prominent man of his time. BENJAMIN was born in the 
city of Hudson in 1819, and descended from Scotch-Irish 
stock. In early life he commenced boating on the river, and 
followed this until about sixteen years of age, when he 



96 LIFE SKETCHES. 

apprenticed himself to a blacksmith in New York city. It was 
here that he first realized the importance^ gaining an educa- 
tion, and accordingly he devoted himself to its acquisition with 
all his youthful ardor, and laid the foundation for that general 
information on important topics, which has so well qualified 
him for the prominent positions he has since filled. During 
the winter months he attended select schools, paying for his 
tuition from his scanty earnings, and passed his evenings in 
hard study in his room, the small hours of morning frequently 
finding him poring over his books, or elucidating some difficult 
problem. His general reading was confined to works treating 
of the lives of public men, and the theories of government. 
Thus the future legislator passed the weary years of his 
apprenticeship, and soon after he reached his majority he 
entered the establishment of E. L. STEVENS, the celebrated 
boiler and boat builder. While employed here, Mr. RAY 
superintended the construction of the largest iron steamship 
that had been built at that time, and won considerable fame 
by his achievement. 

In the fall of 1849, at the breaking out of the "gold 
fever," Mr. EAT went to California, where he remained for 
four years. San Francisco was then a place of lawlessness 
and disorder, and the lives and property of the citizens were 
at the mercy of the mob. Mr. RAY was appointed the first 
Chief of Police, and organized the first police force and the 
first fire department in the "City of the Pacific," and so 
thoroughly did he perform his work, that both departments 
are still conducted upon the admirable system he adopted. It 
was an arduous task to subdue the army of roughs from all 
quarters of the globe that then infested the new settlement, 
but Mr. RAY proved equal to the emergency, and soon suc- 
ceeded in bringing order out of confusion and compelling a 
due obedience to the laws. While in the performance of 
these duties, he was seriously injured by the infuriated mob, 
and for some time his life was despaired of. 

He was subsequently appointed to the office of Inspector 



BENJAMIN RAY. 97 

of Steam Vessels for the Territory of California, and so well 
did he perform his duties, that after it was admitted as a 
State, he was tendered the same position by the general 
government, under President TAYLOR'S administration, al- 
though a prominent and active Democrat. Business calling 
him to the Atlantic States, he declined the place. 

In 1853, Mr. RAY returned to New York city, where he 
held various offices of public trust, among others, that of 
official appraiser for the city and county of New York, hav- 
ing in charge the adjustment and appraisement of estates of 
deceased persons, many of them of vast amounts and in- 
volving great responsibilities ; but in the settlement of these 
large and in some cases complicated interests, not a dollar 
was ever misapplied or lost, and no difficulty ever arose 
between the appraiser and the executors. 

In 1855, Mr. RAY was elected to the State Assembly from 
the Second district of New York city, and served his term 
with conceded ability. His constituents would gladly have re- 
turned him for many successive years, but important business 
interests at that time prevented him from accepting the 
honors. 

A few years ago he resumed his residence in Hudson, and 
in 1870 was elected to the Assembly from this district, and so 
faithfully did he serve his constituents that he was re-elected 
in 1871 and 1872. 

Having proved capable and faithful in the performance of 
the public trusts already imposed upon him, an appreciative 
people selected him for still higher honors and more 
important trusts, and hence his election to the Senate. He 
ran against JOHIT C. HOGEBOOM and was chosen by a ma- 
jority of 1,945. In 1871, the Republican majority of A. W- 
PALMER, his predecessor in the Senate, was 8,572. Mr. 
RAY'S voice is not often heard in debate, but he is capable 
of making a speech when he elects so to do. He is thorough- 
ly informed on all the details of legislation. 
13 



98 LIVE SKETCHES. 



WILLIAM H. ROBERTSON. 



The ninth Senatorial district, consisting of the counties 
of Putnam, Rockland and Westchester, is represented by 
WILLIAM H. ROBERTSON, of Katonah, Westchester county, 
one of the most able and dignified members of the present 
Senate, and its President pro tern. He was born at Bedford, 
in the county in which he now resides, October 10, 1823. His 
father, HENRY ROBERTSON, who was born in 1791, at Bed- 
ford, is still living. After pursuing his preliminary studies 
at Union Academy, Bedford, he read law, and in 1847 was 
admitted to the bar. 

The Senator has had a long and honorable career as a 
public man. The confidence so often reposed in him by the 
people has never been violated ; the interests committed to 
his hands never neglected. Beginning as Town Superin- 
tendent of the Bedford Common Schools, he subsequently 
served for four years as Supervisor and on two occasions was 
Chairman of the Board the only Republican who ever held 
that position. Rising rapidly in his profession, he was early 
elected County Judge of Westchester, and served in that 
capacity for three terms, twelve years. 

His experience as a legislator has been long and raried. 
He represented Westchester county in the Assembly, in 
1849 and 1850; and the ninth Senatorial district in the 
Senate of 1854-55. Later he was a representative in the 
fortieth Congress. In politics Mr. ROBERTSON is a represen- 
tative Republican, and has long been prominently identified 
with the organization of his choice. Until the year 1855 he 
was a Whig, and since that date has given his vote and 
influence to the party to which he now belongs. For three 
years he was a member of the Republican State Committee, 



WILLIAM H. ROBERTSON. 99 

and in 1864 attended the Eepublican National Convention as 
a delegate. He has also on many occasions attended the 
Whig and Republican State Conventions as delegate. 

The Senator did efficient service during the late war. He 
was Chairman of the Military Committee appointed by 
Governor MOKGAN", in 1862, to raise and organize State 
troops in the eighth Senatorial district. Later on he filled 
the important position of Commissioner to superintend the 
draft' in Westchester county, under an appointment of the 
Governor. For six years he was Brigade Inspector of the 
Seventh Brigade, New York State National Guard. 

He was elected to the last Senate by a most nattering vote. 
Running in a strong Democratic district, his defeat would 
have been a matter of course, had he not been conspicuous 
for his great ability, and as popular as he was worthy. As it 
was, he received a handsome majority in every town of West- 
Chester, and succeeded in carrying Rockland and Putnam 
counties as well his total majority being 5,851 over WILLIAM 
CAULDWELL, who had been chosen to the preceding Senate 
by a majority of 2,274. 

In the fall of 1872 the Senator's name was among the fore- 
most of those presented at the Utica Republican Convention 
for the office of Governor. As soon, however, as it was 
found that General Dix would accept the nomination, it was 
withdrawn in the interests of harmony. 

The Senator was elected to the present Senate by a majority 
of 2,364 figures that indicate great personal popularity in 
a district giving a large Democratic majority on the State 
ticket. The New York Commercial, in commenting upon 
his election, justly observed: "There must be some thing 
most extraordinary in a man's character, who can break 
down a Democratic majority of two or three thousand in his 
district on every occasion he is made a candidate, and carry 
it in his favor by the same majority." Senator ROBEETSOK 
was chosen President pro tern, of the Senate by a unanimous 
vote. Senator WOODIN, who held the position in the last 



100 LIFE SKETCHES. 

Senate, moved the nomination in caucus and the resolution 
of election, and it had the cordial approval of every Bepub- 
lican Senator. The concurrence of the Democratic Senators 
was a handsome personal tribute and a graceful testimony to 
the esteem in which Senator KOBERTSOJS" is held. He has 
had long experience in parliamentary practice, and makes an 
admirable presiding officer. 

Senator KOBERTSON has rendered the State signal service 
this year as Chairman of the Judiciary Committee, lie has 
proved himself an unrelenting foe of hasty and improvident 
legislation, and has strangled many a measure which, but for 
his challenge, might have succeeded in getting upon the 
statute book. 



JOHN H. SELKREG. 



Mr. SELKKEG has been a practical printer, and, conse- 
quently, has had all the varieties of experience and change 
appertaining to that occupation. He is editor and proprietor 
of the Ithaca Journal, a paper which has effectively aided in 
the achievement of many a hard-fought battle. He has 
published the Journal since 1841. 

He was born in Staatsburgh, Dutchess county, in 1817. 
His parents died when he was a mere boy (the youngest of a 
family of five children), and left him to the care of the older 
members of the family. He never attended school after he 
was eleven years old, and what little education he had gained 
up to that time had been acquired in the district school at 
Staatsburgh. His disposition, at the age of thirteen, rather 
inclined to printing as an occupation ; therefore, having left 
his brother-in-law, with whom he had been living, he began 
an apprenticeship in the printing office of the Poughkeepsie 
Telegraph, then published by Messrs. KILLEY & Low, and 
which was at that time the Democratic organ of Dutchess 



JOHN H. SELKREG. 101 

county. He continued there until the year 1838. Having 
arrived at that point where he thought himself sufficiently 
proficient to commence life on his own responsibility, he 
became a resident of Brooklyn, and, there entered into a 
partnership with the firm of Messrs. ARNOLD, VAN ANDEN 
& Co., publishers of the Brooklyn Eagle. Not being entirely 
satisfied with his business relations, he returned to Pough- 
keepsie in 1839, and published the Poughkeepksie Casket, a 
literary paper. 

Two years subsequently, he purchased an interest in the 
Ithaca Journal, and, in connection with Hon. A. WELLS, 
continued its publication for several years. He afterward 
became sole proprietor of the establishment. 

The Ithaca Journal was once a Democratic organ of Tomp- 
kins county. In 1848, Mr. SELKKEG refused to support Mr. 
CASS, and ran up Mr. VAN BUREN'S name. The HUNKERS 
established the Flag of the Union to break down the 
Journal; but, not succeeding in the attempt, the " Flag" was 
lowered, and the Journal still continued to be the exponent 
of the Democracy. From the year 1850 to 1856, Mr. SELK- 
REG saw that a great change was being "wrought in the 
Democratic party. The repeal of the Missouri compromise 
seemed to him an outrage upon political honor. Such was 
the drift of affairs, he refused to support BUCHANAN, and 
advocated the claims of FREMONT, thus undoubtedly carry- 
ing over the county to the " Path Finder," inasmuch as the 
Republican vote ran up, in a single year, from 1,460 to 4,030. 

From 1857 to 1861, he discharged the duties of Commis- 
sioner of Loans. President LINCOLN made him Postmaster 
of Ithaca in 1861. He was re-appointed, in 1865, by ANDREW 
JOHNSON, who, in the most nonchalant manner, subjected 
him to the guillotine on the 25th of August, 1866, for refus- 
ing to adopt Mr. JOHNSON'S peculiar views. Mr. SELKREG 
survived the shock, and, under the warm pressure of his 
friends, accepted the nomination for Member of Assembly, 
being elected by a majority of 1,472. Having once got him 



102 LIFE SKETCHES. 

in the Assembly, his constituents, finding him to be the right 
man in the right place, kept him there for five successive 
years. He was a Member of the lower House in 1867, 1868, 
1869, 1870 and 1871. During the session of 1869, he was 
Chairman of "Ways and Means, and, during all the years 
mentioned, was a member of that leading committee. 

Mr. SELKREG has held several offices of business interest. 
At one time, he was President of the Ithaca and Bingham- 
ton Telegraph Company, and, later, has been President of 
the Ithaca Calendar Clock Company. 

Mr. SELKREG was elected to his present position by a 
majority of 1,442 over GEORGE W. SCHUYLER. He heads 
two of the most important committees of the Senate Kail- 
roads and Public Printing. Thoroughly familiar with the 
varied interests and public policy of the State, Senator SELK- 
REG is a most useful and influential legislator. 



JAMES G. THOMPSON. 



The twenty-third Senatorial district, which is composed 
of the counties of Chenango, Delaware and Schoharie, is 
represented by JAMES G-. THOMPSON", of Norwich, Chenango 
county. Mr. THOMPSON" was born at Sharon, Schoharie 
county, on the 15th of January, 1829. His father, Dr. 
THOMPSON, was born and resided at Duanesburgh, Schenec- 
tady county. His mother was a daughter of PETER B. 
GUERNSEY, of Norwich. Both his parents are now deau. 
In 1857 he married JULIA FRANCES FOOTE, daughter of Dr. 
LYMAN" FOOTE, of Syracuse. After finishing his rudi- 
mental studies, the subject of this sketch entered the 
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, at Troy, with the design of 
fitting himself for the profession of Civil Engineering. This 
design he abandoned, however, after his graduation, and 



JAMES G. THOMPSON. 103 

after spending some time in teaching he embarked in the 
book and stationery business, which he has since made his 
leading support. 

Mr. THOMPSON'S standing among those who have the best 
opportunity for forming a correct judgment is shown in the 
positions of trust and responsibility which he has been 
called upon to fill. For five terms, extending orer a period 
of fifteen years, he was County Clerk of Chenango county. 
He has also served the county one term as County Treasurer, 
and two terms as Superintendent of Schools. At the present 
time he is Supervisor of his town. 

The convention that nominated Mr. THOMPSON for Senator 
was one of the most " complex " organizations ever assem- 
bled in the district. Schoharie, Delaware and Chenango 
each had a candidate, and each felt inclined to fight the 
thing out if it took innumerable ballotings. Mr. THOMPSON 
was not originally a candidate for the position which was so 
hotly contested, and the state of his health forbade him 
taking a very active part in the canvass. The preliminary 
contest was long and spirited, but at length on the one hun- 
dred and forty-third ballot Mr. THOMPSON was nominated. 
Hon. JAMES H. GKAHAM, Hon. J. H. EAMSET, .Captain 
CHAELES C. KEOMEK, and other prominent gentlemen, had 
their warm friends and supporters, but it was finally thought 
best to unite on a gentleman who has been called " the most 
popular man in Chenango." At the desire of the Schoharie 
delegation, that Delaware should agree with Chenango in the 
choice of a candidate, Mr. THOMPSON was finally nominated 
and nominated unanimously. Commenting on the nomina- 
tion, the Oneonta Herald said : 

" We suppose there is not a man in Chenango county who 
can poll a larger vote than Mr. THOMPSON. Five times he 
has been elected Clerk of the County, always running ahead 
of the ticket. He has served as County Treasurer, Superin- 
tendent of Schools, and is the present Supervisor of Norwich. 
He is of Schoharie birth, and the Eepublicans of that 
county ought to congratulate themselves that they have a 



104 LIFE SKETCHES. 

candidate of such eminent fitness. As a Senator, Mr. 
THOMPSON will have few superiors ; for he is a gentleman of 
education, extensive information, and practical common 
sense. He will talk enough and not too much, and work 
with satisfactory results every time. It is an honor to the 
district to have so able and honest a Senator." 

The figures of Mr. THOMPSON'S election are eloquent with 
the lesson of the necessity of getting out all the voters on 
election day, and speak forcibly of the importance sometimes 
of a single vote. Mr. THOMPSON beat his competitor, Mr. 
YEOMANS, by one vote ! Mr. YEOMANS is now engaged in 
contesting the seat before the Committee on Privileges and 
Elections of the Senate. 

Mr. THOMPSON is in the prime of life, possesses unusual 
aptness for the intelligent discharge of public business, and 
devotes himself with zeal and earnestness to his Senatorial 
duties. He is Chairman of two Committees, Internal 
Affairs of Towns and Counties and Poor Laws, and is a 
member of the committees on Militia and Literature. 



FRANKLIN W. TOBEY. 



The sixteenth Senatorial district, consisting of the 
counties of Warren, Essex and Clinton, is represented by 
FRANKLIN W. TOBEY, of Port Henry, Essex county. Mr. 
TOBEY enjoys the distinction of being the youngest member 
of the Senate ; he is now in his thirtieth year. He received 
no educational advantages in his boyhood, except those 
offered by the common schools. His father, ISAAC TOBEY, 
was, and is still, a plain Essex county farmer, and young 
TOBEY was trained to hard labor on the paternal acres. But 
he made diligent use of opportunities within reach, and suc- 
ceeded in acquiring knowledge to such a degree, that before 
he reached his majority he was permitted to study law in the 



FRANKLIN W. TOBEY. 105 

office of Judge AUGUSTUS C. HAND. He made good pro- 
gress, and in 1868 he was admitted to the bar, and has since 
been engaged in the practice of the law in the firm of 
WALDO, TOBEY & BECKWITH, at Port Henry. Several years 
ago he married the daughter of Eev. C. RANSOM, a Presby- 
terian clergyman, now Chaplain of Clinton State Prison. 
Mr. TOBEY'S political life does not extend very far into the 
past, but it has been remarkably successful. Always a Re- 
publican, he has taken an active part in local politics since 
his eighteenth year. In 1869 he was elected Supervisor, and 
on his being re-elected in 1870, was made Chairman of the 
Board. In the fall of 1871 he was elected to the Assembly 
by a majority of 1,406, and re-elected in 1872 by 1,981 
majority. 

His services during the session of 1872 are so well-known, 
that it seems almost needless to refer to them. On making 
his first appearance at Albany he was regarded as a beardless 
youth of no great account, but he soon showed his mettle. 
Speaker SMITH knew something about him, and assigned him 
the second place on the Insurance Committee, and also made 
him a member of the Judiciary Committee, which, as the 
event proved, were the two most important Committees of 
that Assembly. It fell to the lot of Mr. TOBEY to act as 
Chairman of the Sub-committee which conducted the long 
and arduous investigation into the official conduct of the 
then Superintendent of the Insurance Department. Weeks 
were occupied in the examination of witnesses, and the tes- 
timony taken constituted one of the most bulky documents 
of the session. Much of the examination was conducted by 
Mr. TOBEY in person, and it is but just to say that he 
efficiently discharged the difficult and delicate task devolving 
upon him. The result of that investigation is now a matter 
of history ; but the unanimity with which the Republican 
majority of the Assembly promptly indorsed the conclusions 
of the Committee, was a marked compliment, not only to 
Mr. TOBEY, but to every member of the Committee signing 
14 



106 LIFE SKETCHES. 

the report. As a member of the Judiciary Committee, it 
was Mr. TOBEY'S privilege to play a prominent part in what 
was pre-eminently the distinguishing achievement of the 
Legislature of 1872, namely, the impeachment, trial and ex- 
pulsion of the corrupt New York judges. The offenses of 
these men had long been a stench" in the people's nostrils, 
and it was peculiarly the province of a "reform" Legislature 
to bring about a needed change for the better in the judiciary. 
If the Legislature of 1872 had accomplished no other act 
worthy of commendation, the fact that it did effect this re- 
form should entitle it to the gratitude of the long-suffering 
people of the State. When the charges had been made 
against Judges BARNAED, CAEDOZO and McCuNsr, it de- 
volved upon the Judiciary Committee to investigate them, 
and to prepare articles of impeachment in case they were well 
founded. The committee -entered upon its work with alacrity, 
and prosecuted it with thoroughness. They proceeded to 
New York, where they took a great mass of evidence, and, 
except on one or two minor points, were unanimous in 
recommending the impeachment of the judges for mal and 
corrupt conduct. The impeachment articles were prepared 
and adopted by the Assembly, and the result of the protracted 
trial, which took place in the summer of 1872, is familiar to 
every one. In all these proceedings Mr. TOBEY bore a con- 
spicuous and honorable part, and won a reputation which few 
realize who spend long years in public service. Of course, 
with such a record as the result of a single session, his con- 
stituents had no choice but to return him by a largely in- 
creased majority, and they did so. In the Assembly of last 
year he was Chairman of the Committees on Insurance and 
Eules, and was a member of the Judiciary Committee. 
When it became evident that Mr. AMES, who represented the 
Sixteenth district in the last Senate, would be compelled to 
decline a re-election, on account of ill-health, Mr. TOBEY'S 
name became at once prominent as his successor. His nomi- 
nation was received with words of hearty approval by the 



WEBSTER WAGNER. 10? 

press in different parts of the State. The New York Times 
said, " Mr. TOBEY has experience in legislation, and in his 
two terms of service in the Assembly has won an enviable 
reputation for unwavering integrity, great watchfulness, and 
shrewd activity. No man ever thought of offering Mr. TOBEY 
a bribe, no matter how speciously the bait was gilded." Mr. 
TOBEY occupies the important and responsible position of 
Chairman of the Insurance Committee, and is a member of 
the Judiciary, Eailroads, and Privileges and Elections. 



WEBSTER WAGNER. 



WEBSTER WAGNER, to whom, in the present Senate, the 
interests of the fifteenth Senatorial district are committed, 
is descended from German parents, and was born at Pala- 
tine Bridge, Montgomery county, this State, where he still 
resides, in the year 1817. After receiving a common school 
education, he was apprenticed to his brother JAMES to learn 
the trade of wagon and carriage building. His apprentice- 
ship ended, and a good knowledge of the business acquired, 
he continued to devote himself to wagon and carriage making 
for a number of years. In 1845 he received the appoint- 
ment of station agent at Palatine Bridge for the Utica and 
Schenectady Eailroad, a position which he occupied until the 
year 1860. 

While acting as station agent, and watching the trains 
coming and going, he proposed to himself a problem, the 
successful solution of which has done so much for the com- 
fort of the traveling public, and made the name of WEBSTER 
WAGNER well known all over the country. The Senator 
would, doubtless, shrink from being designated by that much 
abused term " philanthropist," and yet if love for one's fellow 
men is to be inferred from benefits conferred on them, it is 



108 LIFE SKETCHES. 

difficult to see why he should not in all justice be named a 
philanthropist in virtue of his Wagner Palace Cars. 

With the appearance of the sleeping and drawing-room 
car as part of the regular railway train, the comfort and con- 
venience of travel was increased a hundred fold. Looking 
back a few years to the order of things that then prevailed, 
we wonder how it was that we ever rested content with the 
old time unsightly and uncomfortable cars. In virtue of the 
improvements, of which Mr. WAGNER was one of the 
pioneers, the terror of railroad traveling has been removed, 
and now, seated in a drawing-room car, or reposing in a 
sleeping-car, one approximates very nearly to the comfort 
and ease of a well-appointed home. 

Mr. WAGNER was on0 of the original inventors, and the 
first to put in operation the drawing-room and sleeping-cars, 
which have grown to be a necessity with those who travel by 
rail. His long experience at wagon and carriage building 
enabled him to proceed unerringly with his plans for an easy- 
riding car, while his taste and judgment suggested the proper 
interior arrangements. The result of his labors in this re- 
gard was first made manifest on the 1st of September, 1858, 
when he introduced the first sleeping-car on the Utica and 
Schenectady Eailroad. This effort proved eminently success- 
ful, and encouraged him to still farther exertions in the same 
direction. Having provided the means of accommodation 
and comfort for those who journeyed by night, he set himself 
to work in the interest of day passengers. Consummate 
skill, joined to great energy and perseverance, compassed the 
desired object, and on the 20th day of August, 1867, he pre- 
sented to an admiring and delighted public the first drawing- 
room, car that was ever built in America. 

These drawing-room or palace cars have introduced an 
entirely new element of pleasure into traveling in the United 
States, have indeed reduced it to a fine art. Taking one of 
these magnificent conveyances in New York on Monday, a 
pleasure-seeker can find himself in San Francisco in a week, 



WEBSTER WAGNER. 109 

not the least fatigued by travel or otherwise, and scarcely 
less fresh than when he popped his head out at Spuyten 
Duyvil Creek. 

The first sleeping-car that was ever built in America and 
used by Mr. WAGNER, cost but $3,000, whereas those used 
now-a-days cost $16,000 to $20,000 each, the difference in the 
figures representing the progress made in railway comfort 
and accommodation since 1857. Mr. WAGNER has now 
forty-nine drawing-room cars in active use, each of which 
cost near upon $14,000. 

The WAGNER Sleeping Car Company are now running 
sixty sleeping cars, which cost three-quarters of a million 
dollars. 

Senator WAGNER'S legislative career commenced in 1871, 
when he was sent to the Assembly from Montgomery county. 
Running with the odds against him, he was elected by a 
handsome majority, his vote being much ahead of that given 
to the general Republican ticket. He served on the com- 
mittee on Banks, and made a record as a legislator so satis- 
factory to his constituents, that in the Senatorial Convention 
of 1871, he was unanimously nominated to represent the 
Fifteenth district. Two years previous, the Fifteenth district 
had been lost to the Republicans by an unfortunate division 
among themselves, and the selection of Mr. WAGNER, who 
was not a politician, and represented neither faction, was 
considered a guarantee that the Democratic majority in 1869, 
of 2,003, was to be overcome. And overcome it was. Mr. 
WAGNER was elected over ISAIAH FULLER, his Democratic 
opponent, by the rousing majority of 3,222. 

So well satisfied were the people of his district with the 
manner in which he had looked after their interests and the 
interests of the State, that he was renominated by the Re- 
'publicans, by acclamation. The sentiment was universal 
that his election was due equally to him and the district. 
Indeed, the Democracy, at their convention, called to nomi- 
nate a Senator, resolved that it was inexpedient to nominate 



110 LIFE SKETCHES. 

a candidate against him, and accordingly he was elected, 
without opposition. 

Mr. WAGNER makes a faithful and good working Senator. 
He is attentive to the wants and interests of his own con- 
stituents, and intelligent and straightforward in his course 
upon matters of general legislation. He is direct, out-spoken 
and unequivocal upon all subjects, and no one will venture 
to cast reproach upon the purity and integrity of his action. 
You know where to find him every time. Without making 
any ostentatious pretentions, he has been an efficient and 
successful representative. His sound sense and practical 
ability have given him large influence among his associates. 



ABU AH J. WELLMAN. 



Colonel ABIJAH J. WELLMAN represents the thirtieth 
Senatorial district, consisting of the counties of Wyoming, 
Livingston and Allegany. He was born at Friendship, Alle- 
gany county, on the 6th of May, 1836. His father, JONAS 
WELLMAST, was born in Vermont, and was of English parent- 
age. He resided in Friendship for fifteen years, and for a 
long period prior to his death, which occurred in 1844, was 
an eminently successful and highly respected physician. 
The subject of this sketch enjoyed, after receiving the usual 
rudimental instruction, an academic course, and afterward 
entered the Oberlin Ohio College. In 1855, he entered into 
mercantile business, and a few years after took up the bank- 
ing business. In 1864, he started in at lumbering. At the 
present time, he has all these irons in the fire, and is suc- 
cessfully managing them. Col. WELLMAN has a war record 
of which he may well be proud. In September, 1861, he was 
appointed Captain of the Eighty-fifth New York. A few 
months subsequently, he was promoted to be Major, and, on 



ABIJAH J. WELLMAN. Ill 

tlie 8th of February, 1862, was again promoted to be Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel. He took part in the memorable battle of 
Fair Oaks, and was severely wounded on the 31st of May, 
1862. He also participated in the battles of Goldsboro, 
Kinston and Whitehall, and remained in command of his 
regiment as long as it was in service. 

Col. WELLMAN has always taken a deep interest in politics, 
and has been an active Eepublican since the organization of 
the party. For seven successive years, commencing in 1866, 
he was Supervisor of Friendship. For three years in succes- 
sion he was chosen Chairman of the Board of Supervisors of 
Allegany county. In 1872, he attended as delegate to the 
Philadelphia Convention that nominated Grant and Wilson. 

Colonel WELLMAN" was married, in September, 1863, at 
Friendship, to KATE, daughter of ASHEB W. MIXER, of that 
place. Early in life he united with the Baptist church, and, 
for the past eight years, he has been Superintendent of a 
nourishing Sunday-school. 

The nomination of Colonel WELLMAN for the Senate was 
received with hearty expressions of satisfaction. The Roches- 
ter Democrat and Chronicle pronounced it " one in every way 
fit to be made." It added : 

" Those who served with Colonel WELLMAN" in the army 
speak of him in the highest terms as an officer and as a man. 
He was idolized by the troops. Colonel WELLMAN will make 
a Senator of the right stamp, and he is sure to be elected by 
a large majority." 

The Warsaw New- Yorker said : 

" Col. WELLMAN", our next Senator, is a man of excellent 
ability, of culture and refinement ; served in the war with 
distinction, winning in an unusual degree the confidence of 
his generals and the love of his soldiers; is thoroughly 
trusted and believed in by all who know him, irrespective of 
party relations, and, by his high character and proved ability, 
is as well fitted to serve his district acceptably and well in the 
Senate as any new man in his county." 



112 LIFE SKETCHES. 

Colonel WELLMAN was elected by a majority of 3,297 over 
EDWARD FARNUM. He serves in the Senate on four im- 
portant committees. He is very properly Chairman on 
Militia ; he is also Chairman of State Prisons, and a member 
on Banks and Internal Affairs of Towns and Counties. 



DANIEL P. WOOD. 



DANIEL WOOD, the father of the subject of this sketch, 
came, in 1800, to Pompey, Onondaga county, from the Berk- 
shire Hills. DANIEL P. WOOD is of New England, Massa- 
chusetts stock. And this implies more than many men, 
whose minds are biased by religious, sectional or political 
antagonisms, are willing to admit. 

Massachusetts is, in some important respects, the inferior 
of this our native State. She has many faults of history 
and character. She has given birth to not a few unworthy 
sons and daughters. But, after all, in spite of what may be 
truthfully said about the Puritan sternness and Calvinistic 
bigotry, the persecution of Baptists and Quakers, the Cotton 
Mathers and Salem witches of the 'past, or the lax notions 
and heresies of the present, spite of all the business and 
political sins fairly or unfairly laid at her door, Massa- 
chusetts is a commonwealth eminent among her sisters for 
the nobler qualities. Considering her population, and the 
extent of her territory, her history cannot easily be sur- 
passed for variety of excellence. Her children get from her a 
moral and intellectual training, a personal independence and 
love of liberty, and a political education which subordinates 
the State to the nation, the interests of the individual to the 
interest of the masses, which holds the home prosperity as 
bound up in, and inseparable from, the prosperity of neigh- 



DANIEL P. WOOD. 113 

bors and sisters. Such sons of hers who go wrong are unjust 
to their mother and share nothing of her spirit. 

Hon. DANIEL P. WOOD inherited, and has exhibited 
through life, the New England traits readiness to labor and 
to learn, strength of will, forecast and sympathy with those 
movements which have for their end the well-being of the 
country for their means to that end the advancing condi- 
tion of all classes and races. His father was a lawyer and 
farmer, farming being his main occupation. Mr. WOOD 
worked diligently on the farm till he was twenty years 
old, acquiring a vigor of constitution which has since 
enabled him to endure the severest mental labor. After a 
preparatory course at Pompey Hill Academy, he entered 
Hamilton College. There he not only disciplined his mind 
by a mastering of the class studies, but expanded it by a 
wide range of reading. He studied law at Pompey, with 
VICTOEY BIRDSEYE, and in 1846 commenced the practice of 
law at Syracuse. His industry and skill were not long in 
securing him great success. He was Corporation Attorney 
for three years, and his general business was so large, and 
attended to with such fidelity, that in 1853 his health 
broke down, and in the year 1854, he consented to 
represent his district in the Assembly, in the hope of benefit 
from lighter labors and a change of occupation. But the 
legislation of those years was very important, and Mr. WOOD 
was too earnest and active to give the needed rest to his 
worn-out frame. In 1853, he was Chairman of the Com- 
mittee on Salt, and was on the Committee on Claims and 
the Code. On this last Committee was ARPHAXAD LOOMIS, 
while DAVID DUDLEY FIELD, another codifier, was often 
present at its sessions. The Committee sat many hours 
each day, entertaining the most important discussions, de- 
manding for their proper handling severe thought and wide 
knowledge, Mr. WOOD brought to them his legal acumen 
and conscientious industry. 

In addition, the canal policy came up for review and 
15 



114 LIFE SKETCHES. 

determination. The Legislature of this year submitted the 
question of debt for the completion of the enlargement to 
the people, and in the long, exciting and able debates, Mr. 
WOOD was prominent and influential. He was one of the 
Managers, on the part of the assembly, of the impeachment 
of Canal Commissioner JOHN C. MATHER. To have been 
assigned such important posts by a House politically opposed 
to him, and during his first year as a legislator, was no light 
tribute to his reputation and capacity. 

In 1854, as Chairman of the Committee on Colleges, 
Academies, etc., he matured and carried through the act 
creating the Department of Public Instruction. He was, 
this year, a member of the Committee of Ways and Means. 
He attended moderately to his profession during the three 
years immediately following; but, in 1857, a hemorrhage 
of the throat or lungs brought him to the borders of the 
grave. Most men would have given way, but the will of Mr. 
WOOD triumphed over disease, and as soon as /he became 
convalescent, he started for South Carolina, returning thence 
on horseback. 

In 1864, '65, '66, he was elected to the Assembly, as Repre- 
sentative from the Second district of Onondaga county. In 
1865 and 1866 he was Chairman of the Committee on Canals, 
a position requiring almost ceaseless labor. He understood 
the canals, and defended their interests with honor to him- 
self and usefulness to the State. In 1865 he was Chairman 
of the Committee to receive the remains of President LIN- 
COLN, at the city of New York, and conduct them through 
the State. He was also on the Ways and Means, a com- 
mittee of which, in the following year, he was Chairman. 

Mr. WOOD was a Whig; then a Eepublican. During the 
war he labored without ceasing. The first regiment which 
went from Syracuse was raised in one week. In the same 
period, mainly through the exertions of Mr. WOOD, nearly 
20,000 was contributed on behalf of the soldiers and their 
families. His patriotism knew no fear or faltering ; he kept 



DANIEL P. WOOD. 115 

up his patience and his hope, speaking words of good cheer 
all the more when hours were darkest. 

Mr. WOOD made such a magnificent record during his 
preceding term in the Senate that his renomination was a 
matter of course. He was renominated by acclamation and 
elected by a majority of 12,761, as against 3,991 received in 
1871. The Democracy made no nomination against him, 
and the only organized opposition of any kind was repre- 
sented by CHARLES D. B. MILLS, supported by the distinc- 
tively temperance vote. 

Mr. WOOD holds in this Senate, as he did in the last, the 
leading and important position of Chairman of the Finance 
Committee, which has required him to act upon the vast 
fiscal interests, claims and necessities of the State, and has 
given him a great weight in determining its public policy. 
He has used all the power of this place in enforcing retrench- 
ment, resisting unjust and unworthy claims, fighting ex- 
travagance and prodigality of expenditure, and relieving the 
burdens of the people. All who have any close knowledge 
of public affairs, know that to his firmness and courage and 
persistency the State is indebted for saving hundreds of 
thousands during the last session alone. 

In his more general duties as a member of the Senate, Mr. 
WOOD has shown himself equally watchful and straight- 
forward. He has stoutly opposed all corrupt and question- 
able measures, and has uniformly been on the side of honest 
and economical legislation. 

In April, 1874, the Governor appointed the senator Major- 
General of the Sixth Division of the National Guard. As a 
recognition of faithful and able public service, the compli- 
ment was well deserved. 



116 LIFE SKETCHES. 



WILLIAM B. WOODEN". 



WILLIAM B. WOODI:N", of Auburn, represents the twenty- 
fifth Senatorial district, consisting of the counties of Cayuga 
and Wayne. He was born at Genoa, in the county of Cayuga, 
on the 25th of September, 1824. After receiving a thorough 
academic education, and graduating at the Cortland Academy, 
he applied himself to the study of the law with so much suc- 
cess that, once admitted to practice, it was not long before he 
rose to a prominent place among his brethren at the bar. 

In 1859, his high character and conspicuous legal abilities 
secured his election to the office of Surrogate of Cayuga 
county. He brought to the discharge of the delicate and 
responsible duties incident to settling up estates, so much 
patience, industry and intelligence, that his re-election as 
Surrogate followed almost as a matter of course. A second 
re-election resulted at the proper time, and when Mr.WooDiN 
was elevated to the Senate, in 1869, there was a general and 
urgent request made of him to continue to discharge the 
duties of Surrogate. He may well be proud of the indorse- 
ment which he has thus received from home. 

The Senator's first experience as a law-maker for the 
Empire State dates back to 1855. In that year he repre- 
sented the second district of Cayuga county in the Assembly 
to the satisfaction of those who sent him there. He is now 
serving his third term in the Senate, haying been a member of 
that body in 1870, 1871, 1872, 1873. During his first term he 
took high rank as a legislator, especially distinguishing himself 
from the very start as a debate-r. On the second day of the 
session of 1871, he made an able argument on the right or 
power of one Legislature to rescind the action of a previous 
Legislature in relation to amendments to the Constitution 
of the United States, an argument which, although delivered 



WILLIAM B. WO ODIN. 117 

after a very slight preparation, commanded great attention, 
and was pronounced by those who heard it as an exhaustive 
treatment of the subject under discussion. 

Having, in his two years' service in the former Senate, 
taken rank among the foremost as an able, judicious and 
honest legislator, possessing both business and forensic capac- 
ity, he was, in the fall of 1871, renominated as Senator by 
acclamation. In the last Senate, Mr. WOODIN" played a 
very prominent part. The session of 1872 was presided 
over by Lieutenant-Governor BEACH, and, that gentleman 
being opposed politically to the majority, was, very naturally, 
desirous of being relieved from the responsibility of naming 
the standing committees. Accordingly, the task of commit- 
tee-making fell to Senator WOODIN", who had been chosen by 
his associates President pro tern, of the Senate. Probably no 
more thankless or delicate task can well be conceived of than 
that of forming standing committees. AETEMUS WAED 
thought he could achieve a military success by raising a regi- 
ment to be composed entirely of major-generals. The plan 
is more felicitous than feasible, but if something similar to it 
could be contrived for legislative bodies, in virtue of which 
every honorable gentleman should have a chairmanship, Mr. 
President and Mr. Speaker would have considerable less worry 
than under the present limitations. We believe Senator 
WOODIN gave general satisfaction with his make-up of the 
Senate committees for 1872 the chief if not the only point 
of criticism that developed itself being that he gave himself 
no appointments. 

Lieutenant-Governor KOBINSON, in arranging the Senate 
committees for 1873, designated Senator WOODIN as Chair- 
man on the Committee of Cities, .a position which was an 
appropriate recognition of his standing among his associates 
and his signal legislative capacity, but which is exceedingly 
responsible and onerous. It was impossible to satisfy all the 
conflicting interests and views that came up in connection 
with the New York charter and other leading measures, but 



118 LIFE SKETCHES. 

the vigor and capacity displayed by Senator WOODIN are 
nowhere disputed. 

He was elected to the present Senate by a plurality of 388 
over GEORGE W. CTJYLER, Democrat, and DEWITT C. PAR- 
SHALL, Independent Kepublican. He retains his position as 
Chairman of the Committee on Cities, and has demonstrated 
anew his signal ability, industry as a legislator, accomplish- 
ments as a lawyer, and his ready comprehension of public 
questions. 



HENRY A. GLIDDEN, 

CLERK OF THE SENATE. 

The duties of the Clerk of such a body as the Senate are 
not solely or chiefly clerical, in the ordinary acceptation of 
the word. Very much more is required of him than keeping 
the diary of each day's legislative doings in a large, legible 
hand; very much more than filing petitions, bills, reports 
and all that sort of thing in appropriate pigeon holes, and 
producing them when required ; very much more than tak- 
ing charge of that important but imaginary table attached 
to his desk, upon which so many documents of one kind and 
another are temporarily or permanently " laid ; " very much 
more than proclaiming, with stentorian voice, all the wisdom 
which " The People of the State of New York, represented 
in Senate and Assembly, do enact." 

A man may give satisfaction as regards all the points 
indicated, and, nevertheless, fall short of the stature of a 
Clerk of the requisite capacity and accomplishments. A 
thoroughly capable Clerk such an one, for instance, as he 
whose name stands at the head of this article is, on occas- 
ion, and must always stand ready to be, the prompter, if not 
the power, behind the Chair. When new and inexperienced 
legislators for the first time are called upon to preside over 



HENRY A. (} LID DEN. 119 

Senate or Committee of the Whole, where would they be 
what would become of them but for the friendly and incessant 
whispers of the clerk ? When a knotty point in parliament- 
ary law is brought forward to the disagreement of the Sena- 
tors, the Clerk who, on being consulted, fails to produce from 
his tongue's end a solution of the difficulty, is apt to be 
looked upon with a measure of disapprobation; as one not 
entirely fortified in his position. In addition to all this, the 
Clerk is expected to name, on the instant that a bill is intro- 
ducedno matter how queer and outlandish the bill 
the very committee set apart for its reception ; to keep in 
mind the title of every act " entitled an act " introduced 
from the commencement to the close of the session, includ- 
ing, as germain to the subject, the name of the committee 
to whom referred, and the date of subsequent report. 
Having added that, he must be as ready with answers to all 
sorts of questions as a metropolitan hotel clerk; that his 
legislative ability would avail him but little unless combined 
with great executive talents ; that it behooves him to have a 
knowledge of men as well as of affairs ; to be the possessor 
of the social virtue of unfailing good nature; and, as it 
were, to be a walking edition of the blue and red book. We 
refrain from further definition, and, merely repeating our 
preliminary observation, that the duties of the Clerk of the 
Senate are not solely or chiefly clerical, we pass on to give a 
brief sketch of the present efficient Clerk of the Senate, 
HENRY A. GLIBBER. 

HESTRY A. GLIDDEN was born at Clarendon, in the county 
of Orleans, on the 21st of August, 1830. He received a 
good academical education, and graduated at the State 
Normal School, at Albany, in 1848. After leaving school, 
he applied himself to the study of the law, studying with 
Hon. SANFORD E. CHURCH and Hon. NOAH DAVIS, at 
Albion. He also availed himself of the benefit to be derived 
from attendance at the law school in Albany. He was 
admitted to the bar in 1852, but the press of business in 



120 LIFE SKETCHES. 

other directions has given him very little time for the prac 
tice of his profession. 

Mr. GLIDDEJST has always been an active politician. Start- 
ing as a Whig, he cast his lot with the Republican party as 
soon as it was organized, and has remained a Republican 
ever since. His official experience outside of the Senate is 
included in a three years term as Supervisor of the town of 
Ridgeway, Orleans county. 

Mr. GLIDDEN has long been a familiar presence to those 
attending the sessions of the Legislature. For eight years 
he occupied the position of assistant clerk of the Senate, 
being retained under some administrations opposed to him 
politically. His retention for so many years of a position for 
which there is always such a crowd of applicants speaks 
well for his reputation for capacity and integrity. His elec- 
tion to the position which he now holds was a compliment 
of which he might well be proud. He was chosen by a 
unanimous vote, Democrats as well as Republicans recording 
themselves heartily in favor of a man whom they knew to 
be thoroughly equipped for the competent discharge of the 
many responsible duties devolving upon a Clerk. 

Mr. GrLiDDEN is prompt, intelligent, patient and courteous, 
and is as popular in his new position as he was always faith- 
ful in every public duty hitherto assigned him. 



MEMBERS OF ASSEMBLY. 



JEREMIAH McGUIRE, 

SPEAKEB. 

From the moment, almost, when the result of the Novem- 
ber election was known, Mr. McG-uiKE was talked of in all 
parts of the State for the Speakership of the new Assembly. 
Other worthy and able men were named for the position, and 
among them was one of commanding intellectual stature, 
who has since passed from earth, but none better united 
the essential qualifications required than the member from 
Chemung. Long before the House convened, Mr. McGuiRE 
virtually had the field to himself, and his was the only name 
presented to the Democratic caucus for the Speakership, the 
choice of that CAUCUS being, of course, equivalent to an elec- 
tion. On assuming the chair as presiding officer, he made a 
brief and exceedingly judicious speech, succinctly outlining 
the principles which would govern him in guiding the delib- 
erations of the Assembly. The following extract will show 
the spirit of this address, which was received with strong 
manifestations of approval from the members of both par- 
ties: 



OF THE ASSEMBLY It is not affectation 
when I say that it is with the greatest diffidence that I accept 
and enter upon the performance of the duties of the position 
to which your partiality has assigned me. I am not unmind- 
ful of the perplexing duties, the harrassing cares, and the 
peculiar responsibilities of the place. Confessing and admit- 
ting my inexperience, and it may be a lack of some of the 

16 



122 LIFE SKETCHES. 

requisite qualifications, I have no misgiving or doubt but that 
I can preside with the strictest impartiality, ignoring all par- 
tisanship, administer your rules with the utmost fairness, 
recognizing the rights of the minority, respecting the privi- 
leges of each individual member, and regarding and treating 
each as the peer of his fellow. * * * We have met under 
peculiar and delicate circumstances, at a time when trade is 
struck with the blight of stagnation ; when the business inter- 
ests of the State are in a measure prostrated, and industries are 
in a state of partial paralysis ; at a time when the public pulse 
is feverish and excited, and the eyes of the people are turned 
to their servants ; at a time when there is a wide-spread and 
deep-rooted suspicion if not an absolute conviction that 
government has been perverted from its true ends, aims and 
purposes ; that it has been administered in the interest of 
the few, at the expense of the many ; at a time when our 
proceedings will be, by all classes of our constituents, closely 
watched, canvassed and criticised ; at a time when there is a 
stern and inflexible purpose being formed and maturing in 
the public mind, to hold all officers to a strict accountability 
for the proper execution of the trust committed to them. 
With the argus eyes of the press upon us, ready to shoot 
from its quiver the barbed arrows of censure and condemna- 
tion if we err; with a watchful and vigilant people firmly 
resolving that hereafter their business, not ours, must be con- 
scientiously performed, it behooves us to move and act with 
wisdom, prudence and caution, and above all with honesty, 
fairness and integrity, and an eye single to the public good 
and welfare, resisting in legislation all evil, or appearance of 
evil. 

" It is expected, nay, it is imperatively demanded of us, that 
as we hold the keys of the public treasury, we be prudent in 
appropriations and economical in expenditures, that all 
extravagance and prodigality, all exclusively personal and 
selfish schemes be ignored, scouted and condemned ; that 
the corner-stone and fundamental principle of our action 
must be such legislation as shall conduce to good govern- 
ment and in the interests of the people at large recogniz- 
ing, respecting and guaranteeing the rights of corporations 
to manage their own affairs and control their own proceed- 
ings and actions, whether such corporations be moneyed or 
municipal, at the same time protecting the people against 
overshadowing monopolies or the encroachments of large 
and powerful associations. * * * 



JEREMIAH McGuiRE. 123 

" The majority of this body is responsible for its legislation. 
For a failure to execute the will of the people, as recently 
by them unmistakably expressed, for all bad and vicious 
enactments, you, gentlemen of the majority, must account 
to your constituents. Let there be no shrinking, no dodg- 
ing of responsibility. In view of the pledge that each of 
you gave when you accepted a nomination for a seat in this 
body, that you would be so accountable and responsible, let 
me entreat you to watch with more than ordinary care and 
vigilance to see that no improper or questionable legislation 
passes this body to bring discredit upon us, and thus render 
our professions a sham and delusion. Our constant aim and 
endeavor should be to elevate the standard of official life. 
It should be a high, proud and honorable position to be a 
lawgiver of the State of New York. In the early days it 
was so considered and regarded. Can we not, by the prac- 
tice of economy and retrenchment, remembering that it is 
for the large body of the people that we legislate and not for 
a favored few, exacting honesty and integrity in official life, 
acting only for the welfare of all and the prosperity of the 
State, bring back our Legislature to the high place it occu- 
pied when presided over by a SPENCER, a LIVINGSTON, and 
our own living and honored statesman, HORATIO SEYMOUR, 
instead of allowing it to sink, sink, until it becomes a by- 
word and reproach ? Majority and- minority are alike inter- 
ested in good laws, careful and prudent expenditures, an 
absence of all suspicion, or taint of suspicion, around this 
capitol. In this respect we can exclaim with one of the 
fathers of the Kepublic : " We are all Democrats ; we are all 
Kepublicans." 

Mr. McGuiRE was born in Ireland, in the year 1825, and 
came to this country at quite an early age. We are without 
details of his early youth and education, and can only state 
in a general way that, though deprived of many of the 
advantages of obtaining knowledge possessed by the youth 
of the present day, his energy and ambition enabled him to 
surmount all the difficulties which lay in his way in that 
respect. As a result he is to-day regarded as one of the best 
read lawyers of the State, being especially eminent as an 
advocate. In the management of intricate land cases he has 



124 LIFE SKETCHES. 

acquired wide fame, his success in that line of legal practice 
being very great. He has practiced for mauy~years in the 
courts of central and southern New York, and has, in fact, 
been connected with more celebrated causes than usually 
fall to the lot of lawyers outside of the great cities. He 
has had charge from their commencement of several heavy 
suits, which have been in litigation many years, and involve 
immense estates. 

His first and only legislative service, prior to the present 
year, was obtained in the Assembly of 1873. In that body 
he served on the Judiciary committee, and also on those on 
Local and Special Laws, and Claims. In the Judiciary com- 
mittee, though a minority member, he was exceedingly 
efficient, his experience and legal knowledge enabling him 
to render valuable aid in perfecting the important legisla- 
tion which came before that committee. He was conspicuous 
also on the floor, and his famous attack on the Cornell 
University land grant, which led to the appointment of a 
special commission by the Governor and an elaborate inves- 
tigation of the whole matter, is still fresh in the minds of 
those who watch public affairs. His speech on that occasion 
was an impressive and powerful effort, not only on account 
of the startling allegations which it contained, but because 
of the deliberate and earnest delivery of its carefully worded 
sentences, and the tone of scathing invective which charac- 
terized it throughout. Kegarded purely as a forensic effort, 
the speech was worthy of much praise, and it certainly added 
largely to Mr. McGuiRE's repute throughout the State. Of 
its subject-matter and the result of the subsequent investi- 
gation it does not become us to speak, further than to remark 
that while the vindication of the late EZRA CORNELL has 
been complete, no one has ventured to question, in the 
slightest degree, the motives of Mr. McGu-iRE in making 
the charges. 

In performing the difficult and oftentimes very perplexing 
duties belonging to his present position, Speaker McGuiRE 



JEREMIAH McGviRE. 125 

has won the praise of all parties. His rulings are uniformly 
fair and just, swayed a little, perhaps, by party sympathy, 
but never to an extent to provoke well-founded complaint 
from the individual who happens to be the victim of an 
adverse decision. In the chair he displays a serenity and 
coolness which are undisturbed by the most heated contro- 
versies on the floor. To a casual observer his manner is 
apparently over-deliberate, but the record will show that 
business has progressed with all desirable rapidity. At all 
events very few of those blunders attributable to undue haste 
are to be noted. 

Occasionally the Speaker descends to the floor and effect- 
ively takes part in the discussion of important measures. 
At such times his words possess controlling weight. His 
participation in the debate on the " Costigan bill," relating 
to New York city government, is one of the memorable 
incidents of the present session, and his withering denuncia- 
tion of certain Democratic members who arrayed them- 
selves in opposition to the bill, will long be remembered by 
those who heard it. That it was effective is sufficiently 
shown by the fact that most of the gentlemen referred to 
finally voted for the bill. 

Speaker McG-triKE has resided in Elmira about a year, 
and was formerly a resident of Schuyler county, which he 
represented during his first term in the Assembly. He 
enjoys the respect and esteem of a large acquaintanceship, 
not only where he resides, but throughout the State. His 
qualities of head and heart are such as to invite friendship 
and regard. In his manner he is always courteous and 
agreeable. Very little of the politician or the lawyer appears 
in his social intercourse, and he is in all respects a culti- 
vated gentleman, with something of the old school tinge per- 
ceptible in his bearing and conversation. His career as a 
politician, as a lawyer and as a man, is alike honorable to 
himself and to the community where he resides. 



126 LIFE SKETCHES. 



THOMAS GK ALVOKD. 



It seems well nigh a superfluous task to attempt a 
biographical sketch of the venerable and well known Mem- 
ber from Onondaga. The record of his long and honorable 
legislative career is part of the history of the State, and 
there ought to be very few people who need to be told who 
or what he is. While a member of the Legislature he has 
always ranked among its foremost men in point of ability, 
while his experience, tact and foresight have rendered him 
an exceedingly valuable and efficient member. His legisla- 
tive career has not been distinguished so much for that 
brilliancy Avhich captivates people for a time as for a plain 
matter-of-fact course, which has not been greatly interrupted 
by mistakes, and being almost invariably characterized by 
those efforts wtiich have a telling effect upon men. There 
is nothing visionary about Mr. ALVORD. If he theorizes, 
his theories are based upon substantial facts and lead to 
obvious conclusions, while his views upon every question are 
well considered and practical. As a " floor " member of the 
lower branch of the Legislature, Mr. ALVORD has had very- 
few, if any, superiors. He is always at his post, watches 
closely every step in legislative progress, always has a ready 
argument at his tongue's end, no matter what the topic which 
may call it forth, is fertile in expedients, in ready replies, or 
in daring parliamentary maneuvers, and is in every way a 
shrewd political manager and formidable opponent. Though 
he is reputed to be somewhat unscrupulous in his hostility 
to men and measures, he never seeks to gain an advantage by 
the questionable tactics sometimes resorted to by less skillful 
politicians. His great strength lies in his splendid oratorical 
ability, his practical and well nigh exhaustive legal and politi- 
cal 'knowledge, and his thorough mastery of parliamentary 
rules. In the latter respect he is almost without a peer, and 



THOMAS G. ALVORD. 127 

his opinion upon points of order is rarely questioned by the 
most self-sufficient opponent. 

Mr. ALVORD was born in Onondaga, Onondaga county, on 
the 20th of December, 1810. He is, therefore, a little over 
sixty-four years of age. His father, ELISHA ALVORD, was a 
merchant, and formerly resided in Lansingburgh, Kensselaer 
county. The ALVORD family are of English descent, their 
ancestors emigrating to this country in the year 1638. His 
mother's name was HELEN" LANSING, of Holland ancestry, 
and both his grandfathers were revolutionary pensioners, his 
maternal grandfather being a captain in the campaign which 
resulted in Burgoyne's surrender. The combination of the 
two national characteristics English and Dutch is quite 
apparent in the subject of our sketch. 

Mr. ALVORD graduated from Yale College in 1828, his 
previous preparatory education having been gained at the 
Lansingburgh academy. Having completed his collegiate 
course, he studied law for two years with THOMAS A. 
TOMLINSON and GEORGE A. SIMMONS, at Keeseville, Essex 
county, and one year with CHARLES P. KIRKLAND and WM. 
J. BACON, at Utica, N. Y. He began the practice of his pro- 
fession January 1, 1833, at Salina, now the first ward of the 
city of Syracuse, and continued until 1846. Since that time 
he has been a lumberman and salt manufacturer, and has 
been quite successful, though he has devoted much of his 
time to politics and legislation. 

In politics he was originally a hard-shell Democrat; but 
he united with the Kepublicans in 1864. When the war 
broke out he was conspicuous in his adherence to the Union 
cause, and was twice elected to the Assembly as a Union and 
War Democrat. Since that time he has been a Eepublican 
of independent proclivities. In the Presidential campaign 
of 1872 he acted with the Liberals and voted for HORACE 
GREELEY. In 1873 he was elected to the Assembly mainly 
by Democratic and Liberal votes, though he made no pledges 
and was recognized throughout the session as an independent 



128 LIFE SKETCHES. 

Republican in the fullest sense. Last fall he was re-elected 
on the regular Republican ticket. He was first elected to 
the Assembly in 1844, and he also served in that body in 
1858, 1862, 1864. 1870, 1871, 1872, and now 1874 and 1875. 
He was Speaker of the House in 1858 and 1864, and in that 
capacity gained great popularity. 

In 1864 he was elected Lieutenant-Gorernor, running on 
the ticket with Governor FEXTON", and served through 1865 
and 1866. As president of the Senate he presided with dig- 
nity, judgment and discrimination, ruling with uniform 
impartiality, and very generally winning the respect of 
Senators of both parties. He also represented his native 
county, Onondaga, in the State Constitutional Convention of 
1868, '69. In the deliberations of that convention, which 
was composed of some of the ablest gentlemen in the State, 
Mr. ALVOED played a prominent part and won a deserved 
reputation as a skillful debater. 

During his service in the Assembly, Mr. ALVORD has served 
on many of its most important committees, having been 
Chairman of Ways and Means, and member at diiferent times 
of Canals, Judiciary, Grievances and others. In the last 
House, he was on the Ways and Means and Canal Commit- 
tees, and this year he is on Ways and Means, Canals, General 
and Special Laws, and Rules. His vote in 1873 stood 2,851 
against 2,571 for WM. H. H. GERE, Republican, by whom he 
was defeated in 1872 by over four hundred majority. Last 
fall he received a plurality of 1,188, his opponents being 
JABKZ H. NORTON, Democrat, and WARREN S. WHITE, 
Prohibition. 



JOHN P. BADGER. 129 



JOHN P. BADGER. 



JOH.N" PBASLEE BADGEK, who is now serving his third 
term, was born in Ossipee, Carroll county, N. H., August 3, 
1834. He is a son of WM. P. C. BADGEK, a native of Comp- 
ton, P. Q., but born of American parents. While yet in 
early infancy he came with his parents to this State, and is 
consequently a New Yorker to all intents and purposes. His 
father and mother are still living in comfortable circum- 
stances, the former being about sixty years of age. Young 
BADGEK was educated in the common schools, and though 
his early life was spent upon the farm and in a country 
store, of which he was proprietor for several years, he availed 
himself of every opportunity to prepare himself for the legal 
profession, to which he looked forward as his chosen pursuit. 
He finally entered the Albany Law School, graduated with 
credit in November, 1871, and shortly afterward was admit- 
ted to the bar. Since that time he has practiced law with 
success, taking a respectable rank among the lawyers of his 
county. 

Mr. BADGER learned his first political lessons in the Amer- 
ican party, and was an ardent member of that party during 
its brief existence, voting for MILLARD FILLMORE for Presi- 
dent. When its elements were scattered he identified himself 
with the Eepublicans, with whom he has continued to act up 
to the present time. He is, constitutionally, quite an active 
man, and has therefore been a participant in Franklin county 
politics for a number of years past. Twice he has been 
elected to represent his town in the Board of Supervisors 
in 1870 and 1872. Though his town was formerly Demo- 
cratic, he carried it when first elected by a majority of 32. 
In his second canvass his majority was 46, in a total vote of 
300; and in the fall of 1872 he carried it in the Assembly 
canvass by the gratifying majority of 141, his entire majority 
17 



130 LIFE SKETCHES. 

in the county over W. W. PADDOCK, being I,x514, or about 
40 votes ahead of the State ticket. In 1873 his majority 
over BAKER STEVENS was 1,067, the majority for the State 
ticket being about 900; and last fall he received a plurality 
of 1,044, his opponents being THOS. W. CANTWELL, Demo- 
crat, and EDWIN A. TAYLOR, Prohibition. These figures 
speak well for the popularity of the Franklin county Member 
at home. 

Mr. BADGER'S frank and modest deportment and evident 
ability attracted popular regard very early in his legislative 
career. He developed great aptitude for legislative duties, 
being not only an excellent speaker, but an invaluable com- 
mitteeman. As member of the committees on State Prisons, 
Federal Relations, and Engrossed Bills, in 1873, he made an 
excellent record. Last year he was chairman of State 
Prisons, and member of Grievances and Sub-committee of 
the Whole, and at present is on Railroads and Sub-com- 
mittee of the Whole. 

He is a consistent and earnest member of the Methodist 
church, and possesses a character entirely above reproach. 
He was married in January, 1855, to Miss EMILY E. PHELPS. 



BENJAMIN F. BARKLEY. 



Mr. BARKLEY represents the county of Greene, and is 
known as a plain and unostentatious but exceedingly indus- 
trious member, watchful of the welfare of his constituents. 
He was born in Lexington, Greene county, December 14, 
1831, of American and German ancestry. His father, JOHN 
BARKLEY, a worthy farmer, and his mother, ROXINA, 
are still living at Windham in the same county. He 
received a common school education, and was reared on his 
father's farm. In the spring of 1853 he was infected with 
the California fever, and went to that State, arriving during 



GEORGE BARROW. 131 

the height of the mining excitement. He remained in the 
mines until 1857, when he returned to his native town. 
Subsequently he removed to the town of Jewett, where 
he still resides, prosecuting his old occupation, that of 
farming. 

Mr. BARKLEY has always belonged to the Democratic 
party,. and is one of the leading Democrats in Greene county. 
Besides being Supervisor two years, in 1865 and 1866, he has 
held the office of Sheriff, being elected in 1870 by a majority 
of 684 over JOHN J. FINDER. In last fall's canvass for the 
Assenrbly he was chosen by a majority of 564 over HORATIO 
S. LOCKWOOD, who represented the district last year. He is 
a member of the committees on Claims, Manufacture of Salt 
and Expenditures of the Executive Department. 

A Baptist in religious connection, Mr. BARKLEY is always 
foremost in every enterprise designed for the social or moral 
welfare of the community. He was married November 28, 
1860, to Miss ELLEN J. PECK. 



GEORGE BARROW. 



GEORGE BARROW was born in the brick house, still stand- 
ing, on the north-east corner of Clinton and Henry streets, 
New York city, March 14, 1839. He is a direct lineal 
descendant of EGBERT BARROW, who was baptized at Cart- 
mel Priory church, Lancashire, England, in the year 1530. 
The records of this church (endowed by the Earl of Pem- 
broke, A. D. 1187), do not extend back of this period. JOHN 
BARROW, the grandfather of Mr. BARROW, left Lancashire 
early in life for the West Indies, but shortly afterward came 
to Long Island, and subsequently, for many years, resided 
upon Pearl street, then a fashionable street in the city of New 
York, engaged in manufacturing, and afterward in insurance 
as President of the City Fire Insurance Company of New 



132 LIFE SKETCHES. 

York. JOHN BARKOW, the father, was born here in 1797, 
and, at the age of twenty-five years, was married to ELIZA- 
BETH M. PRIOR, who became the mother of the subject of 
this sketch, and nine other children. JOHN BARROW died 
in February, 1873, at an advanced age and greatly respected. 
ELIZABETH M. PRIOR is a lineal descendant of EDMUND 
PRIOR. He was a sterling old Quaker of anti-slavery fame, 
a puritan preacher, who came to America shortly after the 
arrival of the " Mayflower." Subsequently his family espoused 
the faith of the Society of Friends, and removed, for greater 
religious freedom, to the vicinity of Huntington, Long 
Island. EDMUND PRIOR, grandfather of Mr. BARROW, was 
a banker and merchant, residing in New York city, doing an 
extensive business, and having among his customers such 
men as Baron STEUBEN, LA FAYETTE, etc. 

Four of the brothers of Mr. BARROW died in early man- 
hood. EDMUND P. BARROW, who attained the greatest age 
of the four, was at the age of twenty-four a member of the 
Assembly of 1854, from the Fifth New York district, elected 
on a reform ticket. He died in the year 1857, at the age of 
twenty-eight. Mr. BARROW'S mother is still living in good 
health, at the age of seventy-eight years. 

Mr. BARROW'S only educational advantages have been com- 
mon school, with one or two terms at private school, and the 
general advantages of a cultured home. He studied law in 
the office of BENONI LEE, Esq., ac Skaneateles, and subse- 
quently in the office of SEDGWICK, ANDREWS & KENNEDY, 
at Syracuse, and was admitted to practice October 4, 1860. 
Since that time he has practiced law at Skaneateles with 
good success. He became interested in politics at the time 
of the formation of the Republican party, and has since been 
an active and ardent Republican, inclined to partizanship 
rather than liberalism. He has held several town offices. 
In 1863, he was elected justice of the peace for the town of 
Skaneateles, but the office interfering with the practice of 
his profession, he resigned it the same year. In 1865, his. 



GEORGE BARROW. 133 

name was presented to the Eepublican convention for mem- 
ber of Assembly, but Mr. KANNY, a former member, was 
renominated by a majority of one. He has repeatedly been 
a member of the Republican County Committee, and, during 
several active campaigns, a " stump speaker." 

During the late war Mr. BARROW was an active home- 
.worker, his office for about two years being practically a 
recruiting office. 

In the canvass of 1873, two candidates were arrayed against 
him, MATHIAS BRITTON, Democrat, and DANIEL PIBTCKNEY, 
'Temperance. He received a plurality, however, of 279, and 
a majority over both of 33. Last fall his plurality was in- 
creased to 417, and his majority to 291, his opponents being 
MATHIAS BRITTON, Democrat, and L. 1ST. STRATTON, Pro- 
hibition. Last year he was a member of the Committees on 
Villages, Banks and Engrossed Bills, and this year he serves 
on Villages and Engrossed Bills. 

Mr. BARROW was married September 29, 1863, to CARO- 
LINE M. TYLER, of Skaneateles. He is a member of the 
Protestant Episcopal Church. He has been a frequent con- 
tributor of editorials to the public journals, and as a writer 
of fiction has contributed to the Atlantic Monthly and other 
leading magazines. 

Mr. BARROW is a fluent and agreeable speaker, and a man 
of varied learning. During his student life his inclinations 
were of a literary nature, and he frequently lectured before 
the lyceums and literary societies of his own and neighbor- 
ing towns. He possesses, in a large degree, those qualities 
of head and heart which win favor and popularity, and he 
evidently has a brilliant career yet before him. In business 
matters he is the soul of honor, and socially he is genial and 
companionable a cultivated and courteous gentleman. 
His constituency may well felicitate itself upon being well 
and effectively represented at the capitol. 



134 LIFE SKETCHES. 



A. NELSON BEACH. 



Mr. BEACH represents the Thirteenth district of New York, 
and except Mr. STAUF, is the youngest member of the 
metropolitan delegation. 

He was born in Gooperstown, Otsego county, July 12, 1848, 
where he lived until he was five years of age. Since that 
time he has resided continuously in the Sixteenth ward of 
New York city. He attended the school of Dr. G-EOKGE 
PAYIST QUACKENBUSH, and for five years attended the Medi- 
cal lectures at the Bellevue Hospital Medical College. At 
the age of 21, he graduated with high honor. He has now 
been engaged a number of years in the practice of medicine, 
and has already attained considerable repute. During three 
years, 1870-1873, he filled with credit the post of Surgeon of 
the Police Department, in New York city. He has always 
been identified with the Democratic party, in which he has 
displayed a good deal of activity and usefulness. His 
present service in the Assembly, however, constitutes his first 
experience in an elective office. Inasmuch as he is a young 
man of great activity and efficiency, with most of the qual- 
ities which win popularity, he is probably at the threshold of 
a brilliant public career. 

Dr. BEACH is a grandson of the late SAMUEL NELSON", 
Judge of the Supreme Court of the United States. 

In the canvass of last fall, Dr. BEACH received a majority 
of 68 over CHARLES BLACKIE, a former ^Republican mem- 
ber of the House ; the Eepublican plurality the previous year 
being 687. The contest was a very close and exciting one. 



CHARLES 8. BEARDSLEY, JR. 135 



CHAELES S. BEARDSLEY, JR. 



Mr. BEARDSLEY, though a Democrat, has the honor of repre- 
senting a strong Eepublican district, the First, of Cay- 
uga, his opponent, LEONARD F. HARDY, baring previously 
been twice elected to the House by very large majorities. 
The district, however, will suffer no dishonor through his 
legislative action, as he is a young man of strict integrity and 
very decided ability. 

He is a native and life-long resident of Cayuga county, 
and was born in Auburn, March 7, 1845. His early studies 
were prosecuted in the public schools, and later he attended 
Auburn Academy. Deciding to embrace the law as his pro- 
fession, he then passed through the usual course of study in 
the Albany Law School. From thence he graduated with 
honor, was duly admitted to the bar, and for several years 
practiced ' at Auburn. He subsequently became connected 
with journalism, editing for some time the Auburn Courier, 
and latterly he has been engaged in iron manufacturing. 

He has always been known as an active Democrat, and 
enjoys in large measure the confidence and esteem of his fel- 
low-citizens. In 1872 he was a delegate to the State Conven- 
tion, and he also represented his ward in the Board of Alder- 
men for several years. In the House he is a member of the 
Committees on Internal Affairs, Militia and State Prisons, 
and has thus far shown himself to be an exceedingly capable 
legislator. 



136 LIFE SKETCHES. 



SAMUEL T. BENEDICT. 



SAMUEL T. BENEDICT, who represents the county of 
Schenectady in the present Assembly, is not a politician, in 
the ordinary acceptance of that word. He is, indeed, warmly 
devoted to the interests of the Democratic party a party 
with which he has always been identified but to him 
politics does not mean wire-pulling and place-seeking. 

The salient facts in his history may be briefly stated as 
follows : SAMUEL T. BENEDICT was born in Danbury, 
Conn., on the 8th of September, 1837, and consequently is now 
in the full vigor of manhood. His father, RUSSELL BENE- 
DICT, a retired merchant, is still living and resides in the 
city of New York. SAMUEL received the first rudiments of 
his education at the Institute at "White Plains, New York, 
and remained at the institution until his preparation for the 
Freshman class of college was finished. In 1856 he entered 
Union College, and from thence he graduated in 1860, his 
being one of the last classes at whose graduation the great 
Dr. NOTT presided. 

Having determined to adopt Law as his profession, Mr. 
BENEDICT, directly after leaving Union College, connected 
himself with the well-known Harvard law school at Cam- 
bridge, Mass., from which he emerged with his graduating 
diploma in 1862. After some months spent in the office of 
STEDMAN & STRONG, a legal firm at Albany, he removed to 
New York and there remained engaged in the practice of 
his profession until 1865, when he returned to Schenectady, 
where he has since resided. 

In 1865 Mr. BENEDICT was married to Miss JULIA JACK- 
SON, daughter of Dr. ISAAC W. JACKSON, of Union College. 

Mr. BENEDICT is still engaged in the practice of his pro- 
fession at Schenectady, and holds the office of United States 



WARREN C. BENNETT. 137 

Commissioner and Examiner in Chancery, to which he was 
appointed by the United States Circuit Court. He was 
elected to the Assembly by the substantial majority of 856 
over CHAELES STANFOBD, his Eepublican opponent. As a 
legislator he is faithtul and dilligent, very seldom indulging 
in elaborate speech-making, but keeping a close .watch on all 
the measures presented to the House of which he is a mem- 
ber. 



WAKREN C. BENNETT. 



Mr. BENNETT ranks among the quieter class of legislators 
possessing no marked gift for public speaking ; but there 
are, perhaps, few men in the capitol more watchful of legis- 
lation, or better able, as a rule, to vote understandingly upon 
the multifarious measures which come up for action. He is 
wide awake, practicaf and discreet three qualities of inesti- 
mable value, and, as he is scarcely erer absent from his seat, 
his constituents may be congratulated upon the possession of 
a faithful and useful representative. 

Mr. BENNETT was born in New York city, July 25, 1836, 
of American parents. He attended the Mount Washington 
Collegiate School conducted by Hon. GEO. W. CLAEKE, and 
received a good education in the higher English branches. 
Since his majority he has been engaged in commercial pur- 
suits in New York, being for many years clerk in a large 
dry goods house. 

During the war he served a three months term with the 
Seventh Eegiment at Baltimore, and was a member of that 
famous regiment for a number of years. During a period of 
ten years he was a member of the Volunteer Fire Depart- 
ment. Though always a Democrat, Mr. BENNETT has never 
before been an incumbent of any office. He has, however, 
been prominent and active in local politics, being a trusted 
18 



138 LIFE SKETCHES. 

member of the Tammany Society. He was elected to the 
Assembly by a plurality of 995, to succeed AUSTIN LEAKE, 
a Kepublican, whose plurality was 782. 

Mr. B., as we have intimated, is a man of quiet disposi- 
tion, but he, nevertheless, possesses fine social qualities, and 
is a favorite with all who have occasion to know him. 



GEORGE BERRY. 



Mr. BEEKY is well known as a prominent politician and 
reliable business man of Madison county. He represents 
the second district of that county, which is ordinarily 
Eepublican by several hundred majority. He was born in 
the county on the 12th of November, 1820, and had the 
benefit of a fair common school education. He was, however, 
obliged to begin early the struggle of life, and thus acquired 
habits of self-reliance which have since been of great value 
to him. His occupation is that of a tanner, to which he was 
brought up, but he has large and varied business interests in 
Oneida, where he resides, and is a director of the bank in 
that village. He has always taken an active part in the 
affairs of the county, political and otherwise, and is regarded 
as a man of sound judgment and unimpeachable character. 
He has never been in the Assembly before, but he served one 
term as Justice of the Peace, in 1856, and during three terms 
has represented his town in the Board of Supervisors, being 
now a member of the Board. He has also been president of 
the village and trustee for several years. He is a man of 
large physique, with a kindly face, and plain but courteous 
and agreeable manners. He wields a good deal of influence 
in the Assembly, being a member of the Committees on 
Banks and Agriculture and Chairman of the Committee on 
Expenditures of the House. 



JAMES BISHOP. 139 

It is worthy of note that the canvass, which resulted in 
his election to the Assembly, was one of the most exciting 
and closely contested in the history of the district. His 
opponent was J. WATSOJT ARMOUK, a very able Eepublican ; 
but he defeated him by a majority of 27, although the other 
side put forth extraordinary efforts. The Republican ma- 
jority, in 1873, was 404. 



JAMES BISHOP. 

Mr. BISHOP, the " gentleman from Tioga," as he is styled 
in parliamentary parlance, is a man of few words, but he is 
evidently a solid man of business and able and efficient in 
whatever position he may be placed. He has long been a 
prominent member of the Methodist Church, is one of the 
most influential citizens of Owego, where he has resided 
many years, and is well known as a man of cool and sound 
judgment and earnest impulses. He has long- been promi- 
nent among the Republicans of his town and county. 

He was born in Middletown, Conn., October 6, 1823, and 
received a Connecticut education, attending public and pri- 
vate schools at Middletown until his seventeenth year. After 
reaching man's estate, he came to Owego and became super- 
intendent of bridges and buildings upon the Erie railway. 
This responsible position he held for twenty-five years or 
.more, up to September, 1874, when he resigned it and is now 
successfully engaged in the lumber manufacturing business. 

During his early years, Mr. BISHOP was a Democrat in 
politics; but the repeal of the Missouri compromise and 
other indications of the aggressive designs of the slave power 
led him to renounce his allegiance to that party, and when 
the Republican party was formed he promptly joined it. 
Since then he has uniformly voted and acted with the 
Republicans, supporting earnestly all the measures for the 



140 LIFE SKETCHES. 

perservation of the Union when its safety was threatened by 
armed treason. 

Mr. BISHOP has frequently been honored, by his fellow- 
citizens, with important and responsible trusts. During 
five years, from 1865 to 1870, he was Supervisor of the town 
of Owego. He has also held the office of School Commis- 
sioner, and in 1871 was President of the village of Owego. 
He was elected to the Assembly by a majority of 113, defeat- 
ing FREDERICK 0. CABLE, a popular Democrat, and is. a 
member of the Committees on Trade and Manufactures and 
Joint Library. 



ORVILLE C. BORDWELL. 



Mr. BORDWELL is one of the most respected and best 
known citizens of Niagara county, and capably represents 
the Second district of that county in the present Assembly. 
His father, ENOCH W. BORDWELL, still living, and a resident 
of Hartland, Niagara county, is a native of Yates county. 
His mother, whose maiden name was MALAH STEBBIN"S, is 
of Massachusetts descent. Mr. BORDWELL'S grandfather was 
one of the first settlers of Yates county. He was a carpen- 
ter by trade, and it is related of him that on one occasion he 
traveled on foot through the wilderness to Niagara Falls, 
where he helped to erect the first building put up in the 
place. 

The subject of this notice was born in the town of Potter, 
Yates county, on the 13th of June, 1832. He received a 
good education in the common schools during his youth, and 
conceiving a liking for the medical profession, he attended 
the Eclectic Medical Institute, in Cincinnati, in 1859 and 
1860. He practiced with very good success from that time 
until 1867, but since then he has been engaged in farming 
and fruit growing, occupations which are congenial to his 



ORVILLE C. BORDWELL. 141 

rural tastes, and from which he has reaped an ample pecun- 
iary reward. 

Mr. BOKDWELL has been twice married. His first wife, to 
whom he was united in Royalton, on the 25th of March, 
1857, was SAEAH J. DAY, an estimable lady. She died in 
April, 1861, and, in July, 1862, he married EMMA A. 
ELDEBKIN, at Lockport. 

In politics Mr. BOEDWELL has always been a Republican. 
He has occasionally filled public positions, and has generally 
been quite active in the counsels of his party, but he has 
never been a seeker after office. In the year 1869 he was 
Overseer of the Poor of his town. The next year he was a 
candidate for the office of Supervisor, but was defeated by 
four votes, owing to the fact that the Democratic board of 
canvassers threw out five of his votes, because his name was 
misspelled. At the present time he holds the office of 
Assessor, to which he was elected by a majority of 82, the 
Democratic candidate receiving a majority of 84. He was 
elected to the Assembly in the fall of 1873, by a major- 
ity of 445 over ELTON T. RANSOM, Democrat, and served as 
member of the Committees on Roads and Bridges and Agri- 
culture. Last fall he was re-elected by a plurality of 455, 
nis opponents being HENEY F. PIEECE, Democrat, and BEN- 
JAMIN S. LOUGHLIN, Prohibition. In the present House he 
is a member of Roads and Bridges and Sub-Committee of 
the Whole. 

Mr. BOEDWELL, though brought up in the Free Will 
Baptist persuasion, has never made a profession of religion. 
He is a man of enlarged views upon all questions. Socially 
he is a favorite with everybody, and few men in the present 
House are more highly esteemed than the member from 
Niagara. 



142 LIFE SKETCHES. 



SHEPARD P. BOWEN. 



Mr. BOWEN comes from northern New York, from the 
district (Clinton county) which for two or three terms has 
been represented by Hon. SMITH M. WEED. He was born 
in Canada, March 28, 1824. When quite young his parents 
removed to Troy, Vt., where his youth was spent, and where, 
as he became old enough, he alternated study with work 
upon, his father's farm. He managed, however, to obtain a 
good common school and academic education. After reaching 
his majority he worked on a farm for a while, and afterward 
engaged in mercantile pursuits, which he has since followed 
with success, being now a wealthy merchant and iron manu- 
facturer at Plattsburgh. 

He is an influential and exceedingly active Eepublican of 
Clinton county, and enjoys the confidence of his fellow- 
citizens, having served in the Board of Supervisors nearly 
continuously from 1855 to 1857. His majority over GEOEGE 
ADGATE, Democrat, was 2,447, against a Democratic majority 
for Mr. WEED in 1873, of 1,245. Such a change of votes in 
a single Assembly district is almost without precedent, and 
it very clearly indicates the estimation in which he is held 
by his constituents. 

He is a member of State Prisons and Sub-Committee of 
the Whole. 



DANIEL BRADLEY. 143 



DANIEL BRADLEY. 



Mr. BRADLEY is a Democrat of the old school, but quite 
independent in his views, and is a gentleman of decided force 
of character, as well as considerable ability. He resides at 
No. 184 York street, Brooklyn, and represents the First dis- 
trict of Kings county. He was born in Londonderry, Ire- 
land, March 17, 1833. He was educated mainly in one of 
the parochial schools in his native city, and came to this 
country when quite young. After settling here he engaged 
in the tobacco business, which he continued for five years. 
At present he is a prosperous dealer in stoves and tin-ware. 
He is well known in military circles, having been for several 
years Captain of Co. G., Fourteenth Eegiment, National 
Guard. He has always evinced a warm interest in political 
matters, but has never before held an elective office. In 1868, 
he was chairman of the Democratic General Committee of 
Kings county, and rendered efficient service in the Presidential 
campaign of that year. In the Assembly canvass he ran 
against the regular Democratic nominee, JOHN" CON^ELL, 
defeating him by a majority of 91. 

Mr. BRADLEY has been absent from the House a good 
deal by reason of sickness, but he has shown that he posses- 
ses more than average legislative capacity, being a fair 
speaker, and a man of sound practical judgment. 



144 LIFE SKETCHES. 



WATERS W. BRAMAN. 



The present House contains very few more careful or con- 
scientious members than WATERS W. BRAMAN, of West 
Troy, Albany county. Though he is entirely new to legisla- 
tive duties, he has elicited the praise of veterans at the capi- 
tol, by the aptitude he has shown in mastering the details of 
his position. Always at his post in the House and in the 
committee room, he watches the progress of legislation with 
keen attention, and often discovers defects in matters under 
consideration which escape the scrutiny of older members. 
Especially do the interests of his immediate constituency, 
which is an unusually large one, receive his unremitting 
attention, as is evidenced by the fact that a large number of 
measures for the welfare of West Troy and Cohoes have been 
initiated since he has been in the Assembly. Maj. BRAMAN 
is not what may be termed a trained orator, but he is not by 
any means a silent member, being able to express his views 
pointedly and briefly when occasion requires. He is a man 
of rather commanding appearance, \vith a pleasant face and 
genial manner, and is in every respect an honor to the dis- 
trict which he represents. 

WATERS WHIPPLE BRAMAN was born in Troy, N. Y., on 
the 20th of April, 1840. His parents, both of whom are 
dead, were HORACE and CAROLINE E. BRAMAN", the maiden 
name of the latter being WHIPPLE. His mother died when 
he was but five years of age, giving him away on her death 
bed to her brother, WATERS W. WHIPPLE, of Troy, who had 
been a father to her. Mr. WHIPPLE faithfully performed 
the trust reposed in him, and cared for young BRAMAN as 
well as if he had been an own son, looking after his educa- 
tion and welfare until his marriage, which took place in 
1865, after his return from the army. Maj. BRAMAN'S pre- 
liminary education was obtained in a common school, and 



WATERS W. B RAM AN. 145 

from thence he went to the Troy High School, being one of 
the first scholars admitted into that institution. Having 
obtained an excellent English education, he left school at 
the age of seventeen to learn the lumber business, which he 
mastered in all its branches, and has continued to follow up 
to the present time. In the year 1860 he became a member 
of the firm of BELKNAP & BRAMAN, lumber dealers. The 
war, which broke out soon after, aroused his patriotism, 
however, and in the following year he sold out his business 
interest in order to enter the army. While closing up his 
business in the fall of 1861, he was a member of the Albany 
Board for the examination of volunteer officers. In the 
meantime he was engaged in enlisting men, and, on the 7th 
of December, 1861, was mustered into the United States ser- 
vice, and commissioned First Lieutenant of company C, 93d 
Kegiment N. Y. Vols., on the 15th of January, 1862. Soon 
thereafter, he proceeded with his command to the front, and 
it was his fortune to participate, in a greater or less degree, 
in all the battles fought by the Army of the Potomac. 
During his long and arduous service he was never an inmate 
of a hospital. He was repeatedly struck by rebel bullets, but 
was never wounded severely enough to incapacitate him 
from duty. In the Wilderness battles of May 5, 6 and 7, 
1864, he was hit no less than five times. On the 23d of 
March, 1864, he was promoted to Captain of H company in 
the same regiment, and was mustered out, February 14, 1865, 
by reason of expiration of term of service. On the 17th of 
October, 1866, he was breveted Major for gallant and meri- 
torious service, his muster out rank being that of Captain. 
Thus is briefly outlined the main facts in a military career 
which was in every respect honorable and praiseworthy. He 
was a brave and faithful officer, his sole ambition being to 
perfoi'm his duty to his imperiled country. 

On laying aside the sword, at the close of the struggle in 
which he had taken such an active part, Major BRAMAN 

immediately resumed his old business pursuit. In the Octo- 
19 



146 LIFE SKETCHES. 

ber following his retirement from the army he was married 
to MARGARET J. GETTY, at West Troy, and about the same 
time became a member of the lumber firm of WATERS W. 
WHIPPLE & Co., in which he is still an active partner. Aside 
from this, however, he at present carries on a manufacturing 
enterprise in Clinton county. 

Mr. B RAMAN'S political history is briefly told. He cast his 
first vote, by proxy, in front of Petersburg, Va., and it was 
cast for the re-election of ABRAHAM LINCOLN. Since then 
he has been an active Eepublican. He is now a Trustee of 
the village of West Troy, but other than that and his present 
legislative position, he has never held any elective office. He 
is, however, an earnest worker in the Eepublican ranks on 
all occasions, and is a man of considerable influence in the 
party councils. In the Assembly canvass of 1873 he had 
two Democratic opponents, DANIEL McELWAiN and PETER 
D. NIVER, whose combined vote was 4,422. Maj. BRAMAN'S 
plurality was 30, the district being usually strongly Demo- 
cratic. Last fall he again had two Democratic opponents, 
GEORGE T. SIMMONS and JAMES F. McGuiRK, but he in- 
creased his plurality to 373. He was placed last year on 
Cities, Public Printing and Expenditures of the Executive 
Department, and is on the same committees this year. 



BENJAMIN S. BROAS. 



Mr. BROAS, the representative of the Second district of 
Dutchess county, was born in Poughkeepsie, September 20, 
1838. He is a son of WILLIAM BROAS, now deceased, who 
was of German ancestry. His education was obtained at the 
Dutchess County Academy, and at the Poughkeepsie Col- 
legiate Institute, under the late CHARLES BARTLETT. He 
married at Little Rest, Dutchess county, CATHARINE TITUS, 
a daughter of the late OBADIAH TITUS, who represented the 
Thirteenth district in Congress for two terms. 



BENJAMIN 8. BROAS. 147 

Mr. BROAS entered a mercantile business in 1858, and con- 
tinued it until 1867, when he engaged in the banking and 
brokerage business in New York as a member of the firm 
of HUTCHINSON & BROAS. This he continued until 1862. 
In that year he returned to Poughkeepsie, and established 
himself in the same business, which he still carries on very 
successfully. 

Mr. BROAS served honorably in the late war. In 1862 he 
raised a company in Col. J. H. KETCHAM'S regiment, the 
150th N. Y. V., and went to the front with the rank of Cap- 
tain. He remained in the service about eighteen months, 
when he was compelled to resign at Normansby, Tenn., on 
account of ill health. 

In politics, Mr. BROAS was a Republican until 1867. In 
that year he became a Democrat. In 1872 he received the 
Democratic nomination for county Treasurer, with WALTER 
C. FONDA as his Republican opponent, and was supposed to 
be elected, the opposition journals conceding his success 
by a majority of between five and six hundred. When the 
Supervisors met to canvass the votes, however, his majority 
was swept away and the election given to his opponent by a 
majority of 34. In 1873 he was nominated for member of 
Assembly against HARVEY Gr. EASTMAN, then Mayor of the 
city of Poughkeepsie. He carried every election district in 
the county, coming into the city with a majority of 431, but 
owing to local issues, mainly relating to the new bridge and 
the Poughkeepsie and Eastern Railway, in which Major 
EASTMAN was largely interested, he was defeated by a 
majority of 126. Last fall he was again nominated, against 
VIRGIL C. TRAVER, and carried every town with the excep- 
tion of Rhinebeck, where his opponent resided, receiving 
the handsome majority of 1,475. Mr. BROAS is making a 
creditable record in the Assembly, being active in looking 
after the interests of his constituency, and preserves, in his 
intercourse at Albany, an agreeable courtesy of manners which 
wins him the friendship of all who make his acauaintance. 



148 LIFE SKETCHES. 



JOHN C. BEOGAN. 



Mr. BROGAN is one of the most promising of the new 
members of the House, and capably represents the Third New- 
York district. He was born in Ireland in March, 1840, 
and emigrated to this country at the age of six. He took up 
his residence in New York, where he obtained a good 
common school education, and finally became engaged in 
the manufacture of hats, and still follows that branch of 
industry. He served with honor in the war of the rebellion, 
enlisting as a private in the Fifth New York Volunteers. 
After two years service in the ranks, he was promoted to the 
Captaincy of Company I, and on a number of occasions 
subsequently he was distinguished by undaunted bravery in 
action. 

Mr. BROGAN is a thorough Democrat, and gives much of 
his time and influence to the party cause. He never before 
held a public position, but so well has he acquitted himself 
in the Assembly, that it is safe enough to predict that further 
honors are in store for him. 

Mr. BROGAN stands very high as a young man of charac- 
ter and pure purpose, and seems to possess all the qualities 
essential to the efficient law-maker. He has scarce succeeded 
as yet in wearing off a natural and excusable diffidence ; but 
he nevertheless shows power and facility in debate which 
betoken gratifying triumphs in the future. 

He was elected by a plurality of 670, his opponents being 
JAMES J. SLEVIJT, Independent Democrat, and THOMAS H. 
KEILI/X, Republican. He is a member of the committees 
on State Charitable Institutions, Expenditures of the House, 
and Engrossed Bills. 



JAMES C. BROWN. 149 



JAMES C. BROWN. 



Mr. BROWN represents the county of Rockland, and is a 
prominent and widely esteemed business man of that section. 
He is a native of Otsego county, and was educated at Hart- 
wick and other seminaries in that county. After reaching 
his majority he engaged in mercantile pursuits, which he 
has since followed successfully. He resided and did business 
in New York during a period of seventeen years. In Kock- 
land county he is known as an active Democrat. He has 
never before held an elective office, but in 1873 he was 
Chairman of the County Central Committee, and managed 
the campaign of that year with much skill. Owing to his 
personal efforts last fall, the Democratic majority in the 
county was materially increased. 

Mr. BROWN is a quiet member, and contents himself with 
faithfully watching and caring for the interests of his 
constituents. He is a member of the committees on Insur- 
ance, Petitions of Aliens, and Federal Eelations. 



JOHN H. BURTIS. 



Mr. BURTIS is one of the two Republicans in the Brook- 
lyn delegation, representing the Fifth district. He is a 
finely educated gentleman, an excellent debater, a polished 
speaker, and well informed upon all subjects which come up 
for legislative action. Hence he is recognized as a valuable 
member of the minority. He was born in Hoosick Falls, N. 
Y., September 5, 1832. His parents, however, removed to 
Washington county when he was but five years of age, and 
consequently his early life was spent in that section of the 



150 LIFE SKETCHES. 

State. He received a liberal education, attending a district 
school until his eleventh year, and fitting himself for college 
at Cambridge academy. Subsequently he entered Union 
College at Schenectady, and graduated from that institution 
in the class of 1854. He intended to adopt a professional 
career, but an unfortunate partial paralysis of one of his 
eyes which then intervened, prevented the realization of his 
hopes in this respect. After graduating he spent several 
years in teaching, and during two years he was principal of 
the Cambridge academy. Then he turned his attention to 
mercantile pursuits, which he has since followed, being now 
a successful merchant in New York. He is also President 
of the Brooklyn Elevated Eailroad Company, and is largely 
identified with the interests of the City of Churches. 

Mr. BUBTIS has never before held an office of a political 
nature, having always peremptorily refused honors of that 
character. Last fall he declined the Assembly nomination, 
which was tendered by the unanimous vote of the district 
convention, and only consented to serve after he had been 
again nominated and induced to believe that it was his duty 
to accept. He was born into the Democratic party, as it were, 
his father being of that political faith, and up to the com- 
mencement of the war of the rebellion he acted with it. He, 
however, found himself unable to indorse the position of the 
party on the union question, and since 1861 he has been a 
Eepublican. In the late election he defeated his Democratic 
opponent, W. B. C. THORNTON", by a majority of 884, carry- 
ing the Democratic ward of his district, , which gave Gov. 
TILDEN" a majority of 60. He is an exceedingly efficient 
member of th committees on Charitable and Keligious Socie- 
ties and Public Education. 

Like a large majority of those Americans who achieve suc- 
cess, Mr. BURTIS was born in poverty, and worked hard in 
early life to defray the expense of his education. He there- 
fore learned early to cultivate the qualities of self reliance 
and persevering energy, and these qualities are leading fea- 



WILLIAM E. CALKINS. 151 

tures of his character. He is gifted also with excellent judg- 
ment and a mind capable of keen analysis, so that he is gener- 
ally able to detect the true bearings of all questions- which 
come before him, and vote upon them understandingly. In 
debate he is ever courteous and refined, never descending to 
personality or acrimonious disputation, while his short and 
pointed speeches are almost invariably enriched by humor- 
ous anecdote and witty allusion. He enjoys in very large 
measure the esteem of his fellow-members on the floor, 
friends as well as opponents. 

Mr. BUETIS was married on the 4th of October, 1864, to 
Miss MARY GARDINER THOMSON, of New York, daughter 
of JAMES B. THOMSON, LL. D., a well-known arithmetician, 
whose text books are extensively used in schools. 



WILLIAM E. CALKINS. 



Mr. CALKINS is a Vermonter by birth, but has resided in 
Essex county during most of his life, and represents that 
county in the Assembly. He treats all with whom he asso- 
ciates in a gentlemanly manner, and in the House is quietly 
watchful of the interest of his constituents. He was born 
in Burlington, Vt., December 23, 1816. Mr. CALKINS' 
father, WILLIAM CALKINS, was a descendant of HUGH and 
ANNIE CALKINS, who came from Monmouth county, Eng- 
land, and landed at Plymouth, Mass., in 1 640. He was edu- 
cated at Eandolph, Vt. and Dartmouth College. He was a 
teacher for some twenty-five years, laboring in Burlington, 
"Waterbury and Stowe, Vt., then teaching school in Whitehall 
about four years, and finally settling in Ticonderoga, where 
he practiced law until his death in 1855. 

On his mother's side he is of Scotch descent, his maternal 
grand-father, THOMAS CRAIG, having emigrated from Scot- 



152 LIFE SKETCHES. 

land, and settled in Massachusetts, where he married a 
daughter of JOSEPH ALLEN", of Northampton. His mother 
is still living at the advanced age of ninety-one, and exceed- 
ingly active for a woman of her age. Mr. CALKINS' wife, to 
whom he was married in May, 1843, was AMANDA WEED, 
daughter of JOSEPH WEED, a merchant and lumber manu 
facturer of Ticonderoga. 

Until the age of sixteen, Mr. CALKINS was educated by 
his father. He was then bred to mercantile and general 
business pursuits, which he followed at Ticonderoga, as 
clerk and principal from 1832 to 1860, with varied success. 
During a portion of the time he was connected with a heavy 
lumber trade. Finally he purchased some valuable real 
estate, and for several years past he has given a portion of 
his time to the management of a farm, and though not 
educated as lawyer, is frequently called upon to act as ref- 
eree, to settle estates, draw wills, conveyancing, and to attend 
to real estate matters in general. 

During his long business career he has acquired wide 
repute as a man of strict integrity and high character, and 
has attained a foremost position in his county. During the 
later years of his life he has given a good deal of his time to 
the service of the publie. Formerly a Whig, he became a 
Republican on the formation of the party, and has ever 
since acted and voted with that organization. The public 
trusts he has filled have been numerous. In 1843 he was 
elected Town Clerk of Ticonderoga, holding the office three 
years, from 1846 to 1848, and Inspector of Elections in 1848 
and 1849. In 1851 he was chosen Supervisor, also in 1853, 
1854, 1858. He was again chosen in 1873, and has been in 
the Board until the present time, having been re-elected in the 
recent election. In the years 1853, 1854, 1873 and 1874, he 
was Chairman of the Board. During four consecutive 
terms he filled the office of Coroner of Essex county, and in 
1860 he was elected County Clerk and held the office up to 
1873. Besides the above he was a delegate to the Republican 



WILLIAM E. CALKINS. 153 

State Convention in 1868, an alternate delegate to the con- 
vention which nominated General GBANT for President, 
and also a delegate to the Judicial Convention at Rochester, 
in 1870. For the last eight years he has been a Notary 
Public. He has run for town- and county office twenty-four 
times, and was never beaten. 

As far back as 1842 he served in the State Militia, holding 
the rank of Colonel. During the recent rebellion he was a 
member of the County War Committee, and contributed 
largely in money, influence and active labor to uphold the 
flag. He has also been a leading member of the local Agri- 
cultural Societies of Essex county, being President of the 
Ticonderoga Farmers and Mechanics' Association, and of 
the Essex county Agricultural Society for several years, 
including in the latter 1873 and 1874. Twice, in 1871 and 
1874, he delivered the annual address of the county society. 
-From this resume it will be observed that Mr. CALKIHS 
has been in the public service nearly continuously for more 
than a quarter of a century. It is to be said that at all times 
and in every capacity he has been faithful to whatever duty 
was imposed upon him. 

He was elected to the Assembly by a majority of 264 over 
EDWAED F. EDGEELT, his Democratic opponent, adding 
over 200 votes to the Republican majority of the previous 
year. He is a member of the Committees on Insurance and 
Expenditures of the Executive Department. Exceedingly 
quiet and unassuming in his deportment, Mr. CALKINS 
represents his district most effectively in the Assembly. He 
shows no undue anxiety to consume the time of the House 
in speech-making, but he is nevertheless well able to express 
his sentiments when the occasion requires such an expres- 
sion, and, seldom missing a session, he acts and votes intelli- 
gently'upon all matters which come before him. Whether 
at home or in the legislative hall, he is a man who is above 
suspicion, and worthy to be intrusted with the most import- 
ant interests. 

20 



154 LIFE SKETCHES. 



THOMAS C. CAMPBELL. 



THOMAS COOPER CAMPBELL represents the Eighteenth 
District of New York city. He is a lawyer of brilliant abili- 
ties, and occupies a leading position in the present Assembly. 
He ranks as one of the best debaters on the side of the major- 
ity, possessing remarkable facility and skill in the percep- 
tion and grouping of points. Quick to perceive an advantage, 
he is adroit in turning it to account, and no man on the 
floor is more ready in understanding the precise bearing and 
drift of the complex mutations which original propositions 
oftentimes undergo during a debate. But while quick to 
discover weak spots in the armor of his antagonist, he is 
never guilty of resorting to unfair or questionable tactics to 
gain a point. His conduct is always governed by a strict 
sense of honor, and even when heated to the point of anger, 
his inbred courtesy never deserts him. He is somewhat of 
a terror to reporters, inasmuch as he speaks with almost 
nervous rapidity of utterance, but his ideas are so clearly 
and solidly stated, that to the ordinary listener his rapid 
enunciation is rather desirable than otherwise, as it gives to 
his sentences, which are sometimes quite long, and involved 
with extended parenthetical clauses, the effect, as it were, 
of a series of mind photographs. Mr. CAMPBELL also pos- 
sesses an excellent judgment, is thoroughly posted with 
regard to the public questions of the day, well versed in 
legal and general knowledge, and is completely equipped 
in all that goes to constitute the efficient legislator. 

Mr. CAMPBELL was born in Albany, August 26, 1845. He 
is a son of ALLAN CAMPBELL, of New York, and a grandson 
of ARCHIBALD CAMPBELL, of Albany, who filled the office 
of Deputy Secretary of State during a period of forty years. 
He had the benefit of a most liberal course of education. 
Commencing in the Albany Academy about the usual age, he 



TSOMAS C. CAMPBELL. 155 

soon obtained the essential rudimentary knowledge, and after- 
ward entered the Columbia College Grammar School, New 
York, and was for a time there under the tuition of that 
eminent scholar, the late Professor CHARLES ANTHON. He 
then passed through a course of study at Columbia College, 
and graduated with honor in 1865, his twentieth year. After 
this he went to Europe and completed his studies at the 
Berlin University. On his return he entered the office of 
WILLIAM M. EVAETS as a law student, and after a period of 
diligent application, was admitted to the bar. For several 
years past he has been engaged in legal practice, and has 
already gained excellent repute among the members of the 
metropolitan bar. 

Mr. CAMPBELL has always acted with the Democratic 
party, and is ardent and even enthusiastic in the advocacy 
of its principles. He took an active part in the overthrow 
of the Tweed ring, and generally has labored earnestly in 
behalf of reform and good government. About a year since 
he became a member of the Tammany Hall General Com- 
mittee, and was counsel for Tammany in the recent prose- 
cution of Police Commissioners CHAELICK and GARDNER. 
He is also a member of the Tammany Society. He was 
elected to the Assembly by a majority of 161 over BERNARD 
BIGLIN, Eepublican, who has twice represented the district. 
He serves on the important Committees on Banks and Gen- 
eral Laws. During the discussion of the General Savings 
Bank Bill, he effectively seconded the eiforts of Mr. SCHUY- 
LER in its behalf. 

Mr. CAMPBELL rarely misses a session of the House. He 
habitually gives close attention to every detail of legislation, 
and is especially watchful of the interests of the metropolis. 
No member of the present House will make a better record, 
on the whole, than the representative of the Eighteenth 
District. 



156 LIFE SKETCHES. 



TIMOTHY J. CAMPBELL. 



The pleasant face of the genial and popular member from 
the Sixth district of New York is as familiar to the regular 
habitu'es of the capitol as is the appearance of the venerable 
pile itself. Though he missed last year, he boasts a longer 
continuous service than any other member except Mr. 
HUSTED, and with him he ranks even in point of consecutive 
years. Mr..ALVOKD shows a longer roll of service, but it is 
not continuous. Though he ranks as to age with the 
younger members, his long experience and close habits of 
observation have rendered him an adroit politician. He 
sprang from Scottish-Irish ancestry, and unites the firmness, 
persistence and frankness of the Scotch character, with the 
characteristic humor, hearty friendship and unswerving 
fidelity of the Irish. With a nature combined with such 
sterling qualities, it is not strange that Mr. CAMPBELL has 
troops of friends in the metropolis and elsewhere. 

Born in the county of Cavan, Ireland, in January, 1840, 
young CAMPBELL was brought to New York by his parents, 
when he was but five years old. At suitable age, he was 
placed at a common school, where he remained until the age 
of 12. His parents were in straightened circumstances, how- 
ever, and this fact, as well as his restless and ambitious 
spirit, impelled him to seek a means by which to earn his 
own livelihood. Leaving school, therefore, before he had 
fully realized its benefits, he entered a printing office. By 
his own act, as well as by the necessities of the case, he was 
thrown upon his own resources, and, under the tuition of 
stern necessity, he learned the habits of industry and self- 
reliance which have brought him to his present position- 
Always watchful and studious, he availed himself fully of 
the many opportunities for acquiring general knowledge 



TIMOTHY J. CAMPBELL. 157 

afforded by a printing office, gradually making up for early 
deficiencies in book learning by attending evening schools. 
He also joined a debating club, gaining, by active participa- 
tion in its discussions, that familiarity with parliamentary 
practice, and with the social and political topics of the day, 
which has since been very valuable to him. In the mean- 
time he passed through all the grades of the printer's craft, 
from the fly boy of the press to general office manager. On 
completing his apprenticeship, he worked several years at the 
trade, serving in several job offices in New York, and also 
in the various newspaper offices, including the Herald, 
Express and News. 

During a portion of the year 1860, while portentous war- 
clouds were rolling up from the southern horizon, Mr. 
CAMPBELL sojourned at Augusta, Ga., and was connected 
with the office of the Despatch of that city. He returned to 
New York, however, before the storm burst upon the coun- 
try, and has since resided there, serving during several years 
as a clerk in the county clerk's office. 

Mr. CAMPBELL has for a number of years past been active 
in metropolitan politics, his ability as a local manager 
securing him a position as chairman of his district on the 
Tammany Ward Committee, which he still holds. He has 
always been a steadfast adherent of the Tammany wing of 
the Democracy, and so popular has he been in his Assembly 
district, that, during all the mutations of politics in New 
York, no serious inroad has ever been made in the bulk of 
the majority by which he is regularly returned to the 
Assembly. 

Mr. CAMPBELL was a member of the fire department in 
the good old days of the "volunteer" system. In that 
capacity he was behind none in enthusiasm and daring. 

He is now serving his seventh term as a member of the 
House, having been first elected in 1867. During his first 
year of service, he acted as Chairman of the Committee on 
Koads and Bridges, and a member of Internal Affairs. Since 



158 LIFE SKETCHES. 

then he has served several years on Cities, and also on Peti- 
tions of Aliens and State Charitable Institutions. 

Mr. CAMPBELL is a man of medium size, compactly built, 
well proportioned, and quite prepossessing in appearance. 



WILLIAM H. CHRISTOPHER. 



Capt. CHRISTOPHER needs very little introduction to our 
readers. Those who have had occasion to make an occa- 
sional night boat trip between Albany and New York, are 
familiar with his benign countenance as commander of the 
People's Line Steamers, and have had personal experience of 
his thoughtful care for their comfort. Few river captains, it 
may be said, have earned the gratitude and regard of the 
traveling public in greater degree than Capt. CHRISTOPHER, 
and none can - boast more honorable or faithful service in 
that capacity. 

He was born in Hunterdon county, N. J., on the 12th of 
October, 1807. He received a good education in the New 
Jersey common schools, and, during the early years of his 
manhood, he followed several avocations. He finally engaged 
in river navigation, gained a reputation as a careful and com- 
petent officer, as well as a whole-souled, genial gentleman, 
and, as a result, he has for many years been the favorite com- 
mander of the huge floating palaces of the Hudson. Though 
always a Democrat of the old school, Capt. CHRISTOPHER 
has never mingled much in politics indeed, the strifes and 
ambitions of party rivalry have been foreign to his nature. 
He has always, nevertheless, held decided opinions with refer- 
ence to the questions of the day, and his vote and influence 
have invariably been given conscientiously in accordance with 
his convictions. Though he has reached a somewhat advanced 
age, his present service in the Assembly is his first experience 
in official life. Last fall, at the earnest solicitation of his 



WILLIAM H. CLARK. 159 

friends, he consented to become a candidate for the Assembly, 
and, though a very popular Eepublican Hon. HAMILTON 
FISH, Jr. ran against him, he was elected by a majority of 
163. He is Chairman of Civil Divisions, and member of 
Commerce and Navigation, and Sub-committee of the Whole. 
Though he says little upon the floor, he is one of the most 
attentive of members during the sessions, and performs his 
manifold duties intelligently and efficiently. 



WILLIAM H. CLARK. 



The First District of Wayne county is represented by 
WILLIAM HEERMAHS CLARK, who was born in the village 
of Lyons, in that county, on the 12th of August, 1848. He 
is the older son of Hon. WILLIAM CLAKK, State Senator 
from the Wayne and Cayuga district in 1854-5, and Chair- 
man of the Judiciary Committee.* On the side of his father, 
Mr. CLARK is of English and Welsh deseen-t. Both of his 
paternal great-grandfathers served with credit in the revolu- 
tionary war. On the side of his mother, he is a descendant 
of the early Dutch settlers of this State, and has also a slight 
intermixture of German blood. His mother's father, Col. 
WM. P. HEERMANS, represented Rensselaer county in the 
Legislature, in 1829, and was for many years one of the 
largest manufacturers in the State. Mr. CLARK received his 
early education at the excellent union school in his native 
village, making such use of its advantages that, at the age 
of sixteen, he entered the Sophomore Class in Hamilton 
College. He remained at Hamilton one year and then 
entered the Junior Class in Union College; from which 
institution he graduated in 1868. His college course was a 
most brilliant and successful one. At the close of his junior 
year at Union, he received the second prize for oratory, and 



160 LIFE SKETCHES. 

at graduation was awarded the " Warner Prize " for " reach- 
ing the highest standing in the performance of collegiate 
duties, and at the same time sustaining the best character 
for moral rectitude and deportment ; " the " Ingham Prize " 
for the best essay on the " "Writings of John Milton," and 
one of the two prizes awarded to members of his class who 
presented the best essays on English literature on subjects 
previously assigned ; he also received honorable mention from 
the committee awarding the " Blatchford Medals " to the 
two members of the graduating class who delivered the best 
orations. The total amount in prizes, distributed to his 
class at graduation, was $210, of which the prizes awarded 
to Mr. CLAEK represented $130, and were more in number 
than have been awarded to any other student at any com- 
mencement since the college was founded. In 1871, he was 
invited by the Faculty to deliver the Master's Oration on 
commencement day, and represented his class on that 
occasion. 

Eeturning home from college, after a brief period of rest 
and recreation, he began tlie study of law in his father's 
office, and in December of the following year (1869) was 
admitted to the bar. He was soon after taken into partner- 
ship with his father, and has since been engaged in the prac- 
tice of his profession in his native place. 

In politics, Mr. CLAEK is an ardent Republican, and has 
done his party good service with voice and pen. He 
stumped Wayne county in 1870 and 1872, and was 
regarded by the Eepublican Committee as one of their 
most effective and interesting speakers. He has also 
delivered addresses and orations on various occasions, 
and has been a frequent contributor to the press, evinc- 
ing a taste and capacity for journalism, which could 
scarcely have failed of making him distinguished in 
that profession had he chosen it. His present office is the 
first which he has ever held. He was elected by a majority 
of 101 after the hardest fought contest ever known in his 



WILLIAM H. CLARK. 161 

district. The district is in reality Kepublican, yet, in 1873, 
the Democratic candidate for member was elected by a ma- 
jority of 285, and in the last campaign a most determined 
effort was made to retain the advantage thus gained. 

Though the youngest of the members (save one), Mr. CLARK 
has taken a most creditable position in the House. He 
serves with acceptance on the committees on Commerce and 
Navigation, and on Public Lands, is regular and faithful in 
his attendance upon his legislative duties, is vigilant in 
watching the interests of his constituents, and, though not 
given to continual talking, is always ready to take the floor 
when occasion demands. Shortly after the disturbances at- 
tending the meeting of the Louisiana legislature in January 
of the present year, he delivered in the Assembly a some- 
what lengthy and very able speech on national questions. 
This speech was published in full in some of the leading Re- 
publican journals of the State receiving the highest 
encomiums from the Republican press and party, and adding 
to the reputation he already enjoyed as a forcible and finished 
writer and speaker. 

In person Mr. CLARK is quite tall, standing over six feet, 
well proportioned, and of prepossessing countenance. He 
is modest and unassuming in manners, and socially, is genial 
and companionable. A gentleman of fine accomplishments 
and the highest character, he unites with these, energy, in- 
dustry and a conscientious thoroughness in the performance 
of whatever he undertakes. He is a member of the First 
Presbyterian church in his native place and is unmarried. 

21 



162 LIFE SKETCHES. 



WILLIAM V. CLEARY. 



Mr. CLEARY, a young and active Democrat, represents, for 
the third term, the city of Troy, where he has resided all 
his life, and for several years past nas been identified with its 
business interests. Born in Troy on the 12th of September, 
1847, he is still quite a young man, but he takes naturally 
to political life, and occupies quite a prominent position in 
the local councils of his party. His father, KYRAN CLEARY, 
who died in 1861, at the age of 45, was also active in politics 
and was once a member of the Board of Aldermen. The 
younger CLEARY received a good education in the common 
schools, and was brought up in the business followed by his 
father, the manufacture of ale and porter, and on his father's 
death, he took sole charge of his large establishment, con- 
ducting it with success up to the present time. 

Mr. CLEARY has already held a number of positions in the 
gift of his party. During two terms he occupied a seat in 
the Troy Board of Aldermen, and was chosen unanimously 
at his last election. In 1870 he was President of the Board 
of Common Council, and filled the position satisfactorily to 
the people, and with credit to himself. Three years ago he 
was Chairman of the Democratic Central Committee. He 
was elected to the Assembly of 1873 by a majority of 1,485> 
over DENNIS O'LOUGHLIN, an independent candidate, and 
served in that body on the Committees on Trade and Manu- 
factures and Federal Relations. In the last House, to which 
he was elected by a majority of 881, over EGBERT B. RANKIN, 
a popular Republican, he served on the Committees on 
Trade and Manufactures and Indian Affairs, and in the pres- 
ent House, to which he was elected by the largely increased 
majority of 1,510 over JOSEPH EQOLF, Republican, he serves 
on the Committees on Cities, Privileges and Elections, and 



MICHAEL COFFEY. 163 

Trade and Manufactures, and is Chairman of the latter. He 
is not particularly distinguished as a public speaker, but he 
watches closely the interests of his constituents. Young, 
vigorous, intelligent and capable, Mr. CLEABT evidently has 
a bright future before him. He is still unmarried, and is a 
member of the Roman Catholic church. 



MICHAEL COFFEY. 



Mr. COFFEY, who is serving his second term from the 
Third district of Kings county, is a young man of energy 
and ability, who wields considerable influence in Brooklyn 
politics, especially in the ward in which he resides. He was 
born in Ireland in 1843, and received a good education in 
the common schools. From 1861- to 1864 he was in the 
naval service of the United States, and during a por- 
tion of the time since his discharge has been a liquor dealer 
in Brooklyn. He served continuously in the Brooklyn 
Board of Aldermen from 1868 to 1872, being elected each 
year against five opponents. He was nominated by the 
Democrats in the fall of 1873, and chosen to the Assembly 
by a unanimous vote, which is certainly the strongest evi- 
dence of popularity that could be afforded. Last fall he 
was re-elected by a plurality of 1,165, PHILIP CLAKE, Inde- 
pendent, and A. E. MASTERS, Republican, being his oppo- 
nents. He served on the Committees on Claims and Public 
Health, and this year he is Chairman of Claims, and mem- 
ber of Railroads. Mr. COFFEY possesses many of those 
qualities which win popular regard, and evidently has a suc- 
cessful political future before him. In religious faith he is 
a Roman Catholic. 



164 LIFE SKETCHES. 



RICHARD D. COLE. 



Mr. COLE, representing the First district of Monroe 
county, was born in Mendon, in the same county, June 27, 
1837, and has all his life lived in the district. . He was edu- 
cated in the district schools and Rochester Collegiate Insti- 
tute. He is a farmer of intelligence and industry, and also 
deals quite largely in country produce, doing business in 
Kochester. He has always been a consistent Democrat, and, 
in whatever position he has been placed, he has never failed 
to acquit himself faithfully. For four years in succession, 
from 1867 to 1870, he represented his town, Irondequoit, in 
the Board of Supervisors. In 1871, he was a member of 
Assembly, being elected by a handsome majority over the 
Republican nominee, although the Eepublican State ticket 
received a majority in the district of nearly 500. In last 
fall's canvass, he was chosen by a majority of 145 over GEO. 
A. Goss, who represented the district in 1872, 1873 and 1874. 
Mr. COLE is recognized wherever he is known as an honest 
and upright man, and he certainly fully sustains that char- 
acter by his service at the State capitol. 



ARTEMAS W. COMSTOCK. 



Niagara county is represented by excellent men in both 
districts. Mr. COMSTOCK, of the First District, is a substan- 
tial farmer and extensive dairyman, residing near Lockport. 
He is a gentleman of high character and pure motives, and 
in short, precisely such a man as an intelligent New York 
constituency should send to the Legislature. He was born 
in the town of Cambria on the 15th of December, 1827. His 



ARTEMAS W. COMSTOCK. 165 

father, THOMAS COMSTOCK, was a Rhode Island farmer, in 
comfortable circumstances, who, soon after his marriage to 
TRYPHANA CARPENTER, of Pennsylvania, settled in Nia- 
gara connty and purchased of the Holland Land Company 
the farm in Cambria which the son now occupies. He died 
in 1864. Young COMSTOCK enjoyed ample educational op- 
portunities during his youth, attending the common schools, 
and also the academy at Yates Center, Orleans county. On 
completing his education he wisely chose his father's pursuit, 
and succeeding to the paternal estate, he now owns a fine 
farm of 370 acres, lying adjacent to the New York Central 
railroad, about four miles from Lockport. 

Mr. COMSTOCK has always felt a warm interest in the 
political movements of the day, giving to his party earnest 
counsel and active co-operation. He commenced his politi- 
cal life as a Whig, and when the Eepublican party came into 
existence he promptly identified himself with it, and was, in 
fact, one of its active organizers. In 1863 he was elected a 
member of the Niagara county Board of Supervisors, serving, 
except during an interval of one year, until 1868. He was 
thus a member of the Board during two of the war years. 
He felt strongly in reference to the issues which divided the 
country during those memorable years, but not being in a 
position to go to the front himself, he sent a substitute who 
served during the war. 

Mr. COMSTOCK, now serving his second term, has been 
nominated on both occasions with gratifying unanimity. 
His life-long residence in the county, his spotless character, 
and his sterling qualities of mind and heart, render him in 
all respects a fitting representative of a constituency which 
habitually sends to the Assembly men much above the aver- 
age. He was elected in 1873 by a majority of 686 over IRA 
FARNSWORTH, a prominent and able Democrat, his vote be- 
ing some 385 in excess of that received by the Republican 
State ticket, and re-elected by a majority of 878, R. M. 
SKEELS, Democrat, and J. W. G-ROSVENOR, Prohibition, be- 



166 LIFE SKETCHES. 

ing his opponents. He was a member last year of the Com- 
mittees on Banks and Manufacture of Salt, and this year of 
those on Claims and Banks. 

Mr. COMSTOCK was married on the 10th of March, 1857, 
to Miss EVELINE FOKSYTH, of Lockport, and is a member of 
the Congregational church at Cambria. 



JAMES E. COOKE. 



Mr. COOKE is a well-known banker of Morris, Otsego 
county, and is serving his first term in the Assembly. He is 
a gentleman of much ability and character, and capably 
represents his district at Albany. He was born in German, 
Chenango county, July 16, 1837, and is therefore in the 
early prime of manhood, and probably at the threshold of a 
successful and brilliant political career. His father, JASON 
COOKE, now deceased, was a reputable citizen of Otsego 
county, and followed agricultural pursuits during most of 
his life. 

Young COOKE received a good common-school education, 
and engaged in mercantile pursuits at an early age, being for 
several years a merchant at Morris. At present he is engaged 
in banking. He is a Democrat, but, beyond serving in the 
Board of Supervisors in 1873, he never before held office. 
He was married April 23, 1864, to VICTORINE MOOKE, of 
Morris. He is a member of the Committees on Charitable 
and Eeligious Societies, Militia and Engrossed Bills. 



THOMAS COSTIOAN. 167 



THOMAS COSTIQAN. 



Mr. COSTIGAN, who represents the Fifteenth district of 
New York city, and has taken a very prominent part during 
the session in legislation affecting the metropolis, is a native 
of Queens county, Ireland, where he was born March 9, 
1843. His father, THOS. COSTIGAN, now deceased, was an 
extensive farmer in Ireland, and for many years held the 
office of guardian of his parish, a position equivalent to our 
supervisors of towns. He was educated first at the National 
schools of Ireland, and subsequently at the Queen's Uni- 
versity, G-alway, where he graduated with first honors in 
1863. He, however, found that the legal profession, for 
which his parents designed him, was greatly overcrowded, 
and he attached himself to the newspaper press. For three 
or four years subsequently he filled several responsible edito- 
rial and reportorial positions on Irish newspapers, displaying 
marked talent and aptitude for journalistic work. In 1867, 
he sought a wider field, and came to New York, where, for 
the past several years, he has been connected at different 
times with nearly all the leading journals. During his 
career on the New York press, he has established a reputa- 
tion as a polished and forcible writer, being especially strong 
on political topics. In addition to his journalistic labors, he 
also devoted some time to the practice of the law. 

Since his residence in this country, Mr. COSTIGAN" has 
been a firm Democrat. At the outset of the ring difficulties, 
he took strong ground in favor of reform within the party, 
and cautioned his fellow-citizens against being inveigled into 
the Republican ranks under the specious cry of reform. His 
advice was disregarded for a time, but with years the convic- 
tion came to the Democratic leaders that his policy was the 
true one for the party to follow, and, in recognition of his 



168 LIFE SKETCHES. 

foresight and of the correctness of his views, he was nomi- 
nated and elected to the Assembly with great unanimity, 
being the candidate of the reorganized Tammany Hall, with 
which he is now identified. In the Assembly, he has become 
famous as the author of the " Costigan Bill," which sought 
to regulate the powers of the mayor over heads of depart- 
ments and other city officers. The bill attracted very great 
attention and discussion, and probably elicited more deter- 
mined opposition than any other bill before the present 
legislature. 

Mr. COSTIGAN was married in Ireland, in 1867, to MAET 
GEE. He is a good representative of the educated Irish gen- 
tleman, being chivalrous, whole-souled, generous to a fault, 
brilliant in conversation, quick to resent or condemn a wrong, 
and a genial, entertaining companion. He is constantly in 
his seat in the House, and, though not often upon his feet, 
occasionally takes effective part in the debates on New 
York city matters. He is a member of the Committees on 
Insurance and Public Printing. 



HENRY J. DAGGETT. 



The Third district of Oswego county is represented this 
year by HENRY JEFFERSON DAGGETT, a prominent .Repub- 
lican of the town of New Haven. He was born in Boston, 
Mass., August 16, 1827, and is therefore in the vigorous 
prime of life. He has had large experience among men, and 
is an able and judicious legislator, doing the work before 
him quietly and effectively. Both his parents, HENRY and 
MARY DAGGETT, were natives of Boston, and are now de- 
ceased. He was taught at the public schools at Newbury- 
port, Mass., and at the Academy and High School at Os- 
wego, and obtained a good English education. He is now 
engaged in farming, but for twenty years he has navigated 



JAMES DALY. 169 

the Western lakes, and at different times has owned a num- 
ber of large class sailing vessels. In politics he has never 
been other than a straightforward earnest Republican, be- 
ing content as a rule to labor in the ranks. For the past 
three years, however, he has occupied a seat in the Board of 
Supervisors of Oswego county, and was re-elected at the last 
town election (1875.) In the House he serves on the Com- 
mittees on Commerce and Navigation, and Sub-Committee 
of the Whole. 

He was married in 1860, to FBANCES L. HOLLY, of New 
Haven, N. Y. He is a prominent member of the Masonic 
order, being well advanced in the degrees, believes in a 
Supreme Being, but is connected with no particular religious 
denomination, and is in every respect an upright and worthy 
citizen, one who cannot fail to reflect honor upon his con- 
stituency. 



JAMES DALY. 



Mr. DALY represents the Fourteenth district of New York 
city, and ranks as one of the ablest members of the metropo- 
litan delegation. He is a native of Ireland, where he was 
born about the year 1843. His parents, still living, belong 
to the agricultural class in the old country. He received 
an excellent collegiate education, and was at first intended 
for holy orders, but though he is a consistent Roman Catho- 
lic, his mind took another bent, and since the completion of 
his studies he has been engaged in mercantile pursuits. He 
did not identify himself very prominently with politics until 
the year 1870, when he joined the Reform movement inau- 
gurated in New York that year, the object of which was the 
overthrow of the corrupt Tammany regime. He threw him- 
self into this movement with a good .deal of enthusiasm, and 
rendered efficient aid to those who were caraying on the good 

work. He held no political office, however, until he was 
22 



170 LIFE SKETCHES. 

ohosen member of Assembly, in 1873, by a plurality of 636, 
and last fall was re-elected by a plurality of 849. 

Mr. DALY'S career upon the floor of the Assembly has 
shown that he possesses unusual ability. Modest and unas- 
suming in deportment, he is an extremely clear and forcible 
speaker, and his efforts are usually embellished with much 
oratorical grace. He speaks with studied carefulness, and 
uses well chosen and exceedingly appropriate language. He 
attracted attention in the early portion of the last session by 
his championship of the bill to settle the vexed question 
relative to the powers of the common council and certain 
departments over public works. During the present session 
he has been regarded as one of the leaders of the majority 
on the floor, and in that capacity he evinces much judgment 
and circumspection. Last year he served on Charitable and 
Eeligious Societies, and Trade and Manufactures, and this 
year he is Chairman of Cities, and member of Ways and 
Means, and Rules. 



EMERSON E. DAVIS. 



Mr. DAVIS is a conceded representative of the commercial 
interests of the State. He is largely engaged in the lumber 
and transportation business in Whitehall ; and, though a 
Democrat, has been twice elected by a decided majority from 
a strong Republican district. No man in the State, perhaps, 
is better acquainted with the needs of the canals, or the 
intricacies of their management, than Mr. DAVIS. He has 
made the transportation problem the study of the larger 
portion of his lifetime, and, just at this time, when that 
question is attracting unwonted attention, his presence in 
the Assembly may be deemed fortunate for the people of the 
State. During the debate- in the last Assembly upon the 



EMERSON E. DAVIS. 171 

proposed Fifth Article of the Constitution, he took decided 
ground in favor of it, mainly because it would place the 
appointment of the Canal Commissioners in the hands of 
the Governor, and thus do away with the existing irrespon- 
sibility and clashing of authority. 

He also submitted and warmly advocated a bill abolishing 
the office of superintendent of canal repairs, giving to each 
canal commissioner entire control over his own division, and 
embodying other important reforms. The bill aroused bitter 
opposition, and failed in the Senate after passing the Assem- 
bly. In the course of his extended arguments in its behalf, 
Mr. DAVIS made a scathing arraignment of derelict canal 
officials, and presented a startling exhibit of the mismanage- 
ment connected with the existing system of canal lettings. 

At the beginning of the present session he promptly re- 
opened his apparently hopeless warfare by again introduc- 
ing his bill, but it met, at first, with as little favor as before. 
He, however, made quiet preparation for the approaching onset 
against the Canal Ring, and extended important aid in the 
procurement and arrangement of the facts embodied in the 
Governor's Canal Message. The effect and result of that 
message are familiar to the public. Ample credit is and 
should be given to Governor TILDES for his bold and 
trenchant exposure of the shameful frauds which are now 
subjects of investigation, but it must not be forgotten that 
Mr. DAVIS was very largely instrumental in originating the 
movement. His speeches of last winter furnished the 
ground work of the Executive document, and it is but jus- 
tice to Mr. DAVIS to say that those speeches have been sup- 
plemented by efficient personal co-operation in the work 
of reform. As a result several important canal measures, 
including the one already referred to, have passed that body. 
It is noteworthy that both parties are now in substantial 
accord with him in this matter, though but recently he was 
deemed to be almost without the pale of party fellowship. 

He also attained wide prominence because of his determined 



172 LIFE SKETCHES. 

hostility to the " COSTIGAN " amendment to the New York 
charter, and he has been a conspicuous participant in some 
of the most exciting debates of the present session. 

Mr. DAVIS was born in Hampton, Washington county, 
September 1, 1823, and is therefore now in the full prime 
of life. His education was mainly obtained at Granville 
Academy. Soon after leaving school he read law for a time 
with BOYD & BILLINGS, in Whitehall, and qualified himself 
to that extent that he was admitted to the bar in January, 
1846. He practiced more or less for a number of years, but 
he finally became engaged in commercial life at Whitehall, 
and he is now one of the most successful lumber merchants 
and forwarders in that thriving city. 

He has long been a leading Democrat in Washington 
county, but we believe he never held any public ofiice 
of importance until he came to the Assembly. He was 
elected to that body in 1873, by a majority of 393 over JOHN" 
HALL, the Kepublican candidate, and was re-elected by a 
majority of 547 over WM. H. TEFT, Republican. He has 
been a member of the Canal Committee during both ses- 
sions, and also serves this year as member of Ways and 
Means, and Chairman of Privileges and Elections. 

Mr. DAVIS is noted as being one of the most thoughtful 
and attentive members of the House ; and though he votes 
with his party on most party questions, his action on public 
measures in general is dictated by a regard for the welfare of 
the whole people. He is a man above the average height, of 
agreeable presence and courteous manners. His complexion 
is somewhat dark and his features spare, but his face habitu- 
ally wears a mild and thoughtful expression, and his general 
appearance is that of a studious and cultivated gentleman. 
He is a good speaker, and a clear, incisive reasoner, but he 
deals in facts, and the conclusions therefrom, rather than the 
meretricious graces of oratory. His speeches embrace the 
results of deep thought and mature conviction, and are, 
therefore, generally logical and sound. He is a valuable mem- 
ber, and his ability is acknowledged even by his opponents. 



GEORGE G. DECKER. 173 



GEORGE G. DECKER. 



GEOEGE G. DECKEE was born at Eoxbury, Delaware 
county, N. Y., February 15, 1824, and was married at the 
same place to CATHABINE H. MORE, September 5, 1849. 

His maternal grandfather, Hon. JAMES MOEE, was a son 
of JOHN MOEE, one of the first settlers of Delaware county, 
having emigrated to this State from Scotland a few years 
prior to the war of the revolution. His father, WILLIAM 
DECKEK, was of Dutch and Huguenot parentage, and was 
born in Columbia county, N. Y. In early life he settled in 
Koxbury, N. Y., and engaged in mercantile business and 
farming. Having lost his store stock of goods, and all his 
books and papers, by a fire in 1831, he then removed to 
Andes, N". Y., where he died in 1852. 

Mr. DECKER was educated at the common schools, and at 
Delaware Academy, at Delhi, N. Y., from which he gradu- 
ated in 1840 with its usual honors. He has been in the mer- 
cantile business since 1840, beginning as clerk with his 
uncle, Hon. E. I. BUEHANS (a former member of the 
Assembly and Senate of this State), which position he held 
till 1846, when he became a member of the firm. In 1849, 
a branch store was started at Margaret ville, N. Y., of which 
Mr. DECKER took the sole charge till 1856, when he pur- 
chased Mr. BUBHANS' interest, since which time he has been 
pushing mercantile pursuits among hosts of opponents. Mr. 
DECKEE has made a good deal of money, but has not 
hoarded it. He is neither rich nor poor in the modern 
acceptation of the term; but has ample means for the 
necessary wants and comforts for himself and family. 

He was formerly a Free Soil Democrat, and acted and 
voted with that wing of the Democratic party till the forma- 
tion of the Eepublican party. Since then he has always 



174 LIFE SKETCHES. 

voted with that party on all National and State issues. His 
town is largely Democratic, and he has the honor of being 
the only Republican in the town (save one) that was ever 
elected to the office of supervisor. He also held the office 
of school commissioner of the town for a number of years, 
and was the first post-master of the village of Margaretville. 
He was appointed a deputy collector of internal revenue for 
the larger portion of the Second Assembly district of Dela- 
ware county, holding the position for two years. He has 
been one of the railroad commissioners of his town for the 
last nine years, still holding that position, and for the last 
two or three years has served as a director of the Delhi and 
Middletown railroad. 

Mr. DECKER experienced religion in 1848, and united with 
the Methodist Episcopal church. He was founder of the 
Methodist Episcopal church at Margaretville, there being no 
church in the village when he went there in 1849. He has 
been a class leader, steward, and Sunday school superintendent 
in that church since its organization, and was elected alter- 
nate delegate to the General Conference of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church from the New York Conference in 1 872. 
He was elected to the present Assembly from the Second 
Assembly district of Delaware county, comprising ten 
towns, over APOLLOS C. EDGERTON", his Democratic oppo- 
nent, by the unprecedented majority of 699, it being more 
than double the majority any candidate in that district ever 
before received. He is in all respects a straight-forward, 
solid man of business, upright in all his dealings, and thor- 
oughly capable of filling any position in which he may be 
placed. It is no disparagement to previous members from 
that locality to say that Delaware county has never before 
sent a better representative to the capitol at Albany. 



LEO C. DESSAR. 175 



LEO C. DESSAR. 



The subject of this sketch is one of the youngest and 
most active members of the House. He represents the 
Seventeenth district of New York. Apparently familiar 
with every topic of legislative discussion, he is a good public 
speaker, and does not hesitate to measure lances with the 
veteran parliamentarians of the Assembly. It is not fre- 
quently the case that so young a man as he succeeds in con- 
quering a recognized position among those who habitually 
debate the public questions which come before the Legisla- 
ture. Mr. DESSAE, however, has views of his own, usually 
sound and eminently sensible and practical, upon all the 
questions of the day. Possessing the gift of oratory, he but 
performs a manifest duty, therefore, in giving utterance to 
them. 

Mr. DESSAE was born in Bavaria in 1846, and came to this 
country with his parents while an infant. His father, Dr. 
JULIUS H. DESSAE, was a distinguished German philoso- 
pher, and was the author of many philosophical and other 
literary works. He was professor for many years of one of 
the first universities in Europe, and also in Cincinnati, Ohio. 
Many of his works are now used in Western colleges. His 
son, the present Assemblyman, received a thorough collegi- 
ate education, after which he studied law and graduated with 
high honor at Columbia College Law School. Since then 
he has established an extensive legal practice in the metropo- 
lis. While yet a mere boy, during his college days, he left 
his studies to take part in the war for the Union, joining 
the three months' volunteers, and performing honorable ser- 
vice in Kentucky. Since the war he has held the positions 
of Lieutenant and Adjutant in the Ninety-sixth regiment, 
National Guard. 



176 LIFE SKETCHES. 

He has obtained repute as a well-read and able lawyer, and 
has been connected with a number of important cases. It is 
worthy of mention here, that he was one of the attorneys 
in the contested seat case of Killian v. Frear, in the Assem- 
bly of 1872, which at the time attracted considerable atten- 
tion. 

Mr. DESSAR has always been an actire working Demo- 
crat, and during exciting campaigns has given his best ener- 
gies to the effective prosecution of the canvass. For two 
years past he has been Corresponding Secretary of the Tam- 
many Hall General Committee, and has been a member of 
the Tammany organization since the demolition of the ring, 
being one of its most effective campaign speakers. His elec- 
tion-last fall was the result of one of the most exciting can- 
vasses on record in the district. Not only the strongest 
Republican, but two of the strongest Independent Demo- 
cratic candidates ran against him. He delivered in all some 
seventy-five speeches during the canvass. The attention of 
all the prominent politicians in the city was directed to the 
unusually spirited contest, and his election, by a plurality 
of 169, was received with great satisfaction by his political 
friends. He serves on Judiciary, Aliens and sub-Committee, 
of the Whole. 

Young, ambitious, talented and popular, few members of 
the Assembly have a fairer prospect for the future than Mr. 
DESSAR. It is not often that old members show so thorough 
a familiarity with legislative requirements. Added to this he 
possesses what is no less a requirement to the appreciation 
of the public and the esteem of his fellows, a habitual cour- 
tesy of manner and pleasant disposition, with a character 
entirely above reproach. 



OBED EDSON. 177 



OBED EDSON. 



Mr. EDSON, of Chautauqua, is a descendant of SAMUEL 
EDSON, who came from England in 1638 or 1639, and set- 
tled at Salem, Massachusetts, and afterward became an 
original proprietor, and first settler of Bridgewater, Plymouth 
county, in that State. His father Hon. JOHN M. EDSON, 
formerly a Judge of Chautauqua county, was a native of 
Madison county, in this State, but came with the family of 
Maj. SAMUEL SINCLAIR, to Sinclairville, in Chautauqua 
county in 1810, where he has since resided. His mother is a 
native of Vermont. 

He was born in Sinclairville, February 18, 1832, and ob- 
tained a good education at the common schools in Sinclair- 
ville, and at the Fredonia Academy. In 1851 he commenced 
the study of law at Sinclairville, and in 1853 attended the 
Albany Law University. He was admitted to the bar April 
8, 1853, and has since then practiced law in his native village. 
At intervals his business has been that of a practical surveyor, 
and to some extent that of civil engineer also, having assist- 
ed in the survey of several railroads in New York and Penn- 
sylvania. Although Mr. EDSON has always been an earnest 
and unwavering Democrat, yet his attention has not here- 
tofore been principally devoted to politics, but more especially 
to the practice of his profession. He was, however, soon 
after attaining his majority, elected for two years Superin- 
tendent of Common Schools of his town, and in 1856 was 
chosen Justice of the Peace, which office he has since held. 
In 1857 and 1858, he was Justice of Sessions of the county, 
in 1865 the Democratic candidate for District Attorney, and 
in 1867 he was elected Supervisor of his native town. In 
1873 he was the Democratic candidate for member of As- 
sembly against the Hon. JOHN D. HILLER, who was elected 
23 



178 LIFE SKETCHES. 

by a majority of but seventy-two ; the Eepublican majority 
upon the State ticket in the district then being between 400 
and 500. In 1874 he was elected to the Assembly by a ma- 
jority of 225, over HARVEY S. ELKINS, the Republican 
candidate, notwithstanding the Republican majority for 
Governor in the assembly district at that election was 1,059. 
He is the ouly Democratic member of Assembly that has 
been elected from Chautauqua county in the last thirty 
years. In the present Assembly he is Chairman of the Com- 
mitteee upon Petition of Aliens, and a member of Claims, 
and Roads and Bridges. 

He has devoted considerable attention to local historical 
research. Of A. M. YOUNG'S elaborate history of Chautauqua 
county, soon to be issued, the first part, giving a history of 
the Indian tribes, and of the explorations of the French 
missionaries and trayelers, and of the operations of 
the French and English in the western part of the State 
during the French and Indian, and Revolutionary wars, 
was written by Mr. EDSON, and he has also made other 
contributions to the early and local history of western 
New York. 

In 1859 Mr. EDSON was married to EMILY A. ALLEN, the 
daughter of Hon. C. J. ALLEN, formerly of New London, 
Connecticut. He is rather a quiet member, unassuming in 
his manner, but he has made an excellent impression thus 
far. In the practice of his profession he has been somewhat 
in the habit of public speaking, but he is not prone to ora- 
tory unless the occasion demands it, and he fully understands 
his subject. The votes he has received when before the peo- 
ple for their suffrages, indicate that he enjoys wide popular- 
ity at home. 



WILLIAM H. ELY. 179 



WILLIAM H. ELY. 



Mr. ELY is a quiet but extremely attentive member, repre- 
senting the first district of Otsego countv for the second 
term. He is well known throughout Otsego county, where 
he has resided all his life, and enjoys deserved popularity. 
He was born in Middlefield, Otsego county, on the 2d of 
October, 1829, being the son of Hon. SUMNER ELY, now 
deceased, who was a prominent physician, and at one time 
President of the State Medical Society. He was also a mem- 
ber of the State Senate from 1840 to 1843, both years inclu- 
sive, a member of the Assembly in 1836, and has filled numer- 
ous other positions. 

Mr. ELY, the pre sent member, was educated in common 
and select schools, and brought up to mercantile pursuits. 
He was married, in 1855, to Miss ELLA CARYL, of New York 
city. Establishing himself in business, he followed it suc- 
cessfully until a few years ago. when he turned his attention 
to farming, and is now the owner of a desirable estate at East 
Worcester, where he resides. 

He has always been a Democrat, and has from an early age 
been more or less in politics. Possessing, as he does, a rare 
degree of tact and judgment, his co-operation and counsel 
have been highly esteemed by his party. During a period of 
six years, commencing in 1863 and omitting 1867, he served 
in the Otsego Board of Supervisors, making an excellent 
record for integrity and legislative capacity. So well satisfied 
were his constituents, indeed, that he was twice returned to 
the board without opposition. 

He was elected to the last Assembly by a majority of 486, 
over an extremely popular Republican, Hon. WM. W. CAMP- 
BELL, and re-elected by a plurality of 406, his opponents be- 
ing H. W. BROWJT, Eepublican, and GEO. D. HYDE, Prohi- 



180 LIFE SKETCHES. 

bition. He was a member of the Committee on Roads and 
Bridges last year, and is now Chairman of Roads and 
Bridges, and member of Grievances and Two-Thirds and 
Three-Fifths Bills. 



ALONZO H. FARRAR. 



Mr. FARRAR is young man who has as fair a future before 
him as any other in the Assembly. He has but recently 
made his entry into public life, and being in the flush of 
early manhood, and possessed of much more than ordinary 
abilities, it is reasonable to anticipate for him a brilliant and 
useful career. Personally, he is one of those whole-souled 
fellows who are popular with everybody. He is quick of 
perception, pleasing of address, keenly appreciative of the 
ludicrous side of human nature, and an excellent talker. 
It is not surprising, therefore, that he should be a general 
favorite. In point of solid attainments, also, he is fitted to 
rank with the most accomplished members of the House, 
and he is in all respects a gentleman whose character it is a 
pleasure to contemplate. 

ALONZO HAWLEY FARRAR was born in Middletown, Vt., 
on the 29th of March, 1843, and is, therefore, thirty-two 
years of age. His father, FRAXKLIN A. FARRAR, still 
resides at West Rupert, Vt, and is a retired farmer. His 
mother's maiden name was MARY A. HAWLEY. Young 
FARRAR received his education at Fort Edward Institute, 
Burr & Burton Seminary, Manchester, Vt., and the Albany 
Law School. Graduating from the latter institution with 
honor, he was admitted to the bar in 1864. Soon after, he 
commenced practicing law at Kiuderhook, Columbia county, 
and has met with gratifying success. In December, 1868, 
he was married to ANNA. C. MESICK, of Kinderhook. As 
the result of his eight or nine years of practice, Mr. FARRAR 



ALONZO H. FARRAR. 181 

enjoys wide repute as an advocate, and is to-day one of the 
most brilliant members of the Columbia county bar. 

Since attaining his majority, Mr. FARRAR has taken a 
warm interest in politics, being always identified with the 
Kepublican party. He never ran for office, however, until 
1873, *when he was opposed in the Assembly canvass by a 
popular Democrat, PETER F. MESICK, and elected by a ma- 
jority of 307, in a district which was Democratic the pre- 
vious year by 224 majority. Last fall he was re-elected by a 
majority of 186 over HENRY H. GIBBS, Democrat. 

Mr. FARRAR holds orthodox views in religion, and posses- 
ses a character, in all respects, above reproach. Since he 
has taken his seat in the Assembly, he has made an excel- 
lent record. His maiden speech last year, made in opposi- 
tion to the proposed amendment to the Fifth Article of the 
Constitution, attracted general attention, and not only placed 
him in the front rank of debaters, but gave indication of his 
independent spirit, his action not being in accordance with 
what' was regarded as the policy of his party. He, however, 
deemed it his duty to enter his protest against any attempt 
to take the powers of government out of the hands of the 
people, and the fact that the proposition was defeated was 
undoubtedly due to the strenuous opposition of Mr. FAR- 
RAR and Col. CHARLES S. SPENCER, of New York, both 
Kepublicans. Since then and during the present session, 
Mr. FARRAR has frequently participated in the discussions, 
always placing himself upon the side of such measures as 
are calculated to improve the tone of government and 
society. Among the measures which received his warm ad- 
vocacy was the compulsory education law of last year. In 
the last House he was a member of the Committees on 
Judiciary, Grievances, and Local and Special Laws. This 
year he is on Insurance and Grievances. 



182 LIFE SKETCHES. 



JAMES FAULKNER, JR. 



Mr. FAULKNER is a banker, residing in Dansville, Lijving- 
ston county. He is a man of much ability, and being of 
extremely social disposition and agreeable personal manners, 
he is a universal favorite in the Assembly, and quite popular 
and influential. He was born at Dansville, January 22, 1833, 
and comes of good stock, his father, JAMES FAULKNER, hav- 
ing been a member of Assembly in the years 1825 and 1826, 
and State Senator from 1841 to 1845. JAMES FAULKNER, 
Sr., is still living, and was very active last fall in assisting 
at the election of the subject of this sketch. 

Young FAULKNER received his preliminary education in 
the common schools, and afterwards entered Yale College, 
graduated from that institution in 1859, with two brothers 
in the same class, and has since been engaged mainly in com- 
mercial pursuits and banking. He has always been an active 
Democrat, and stands high in the councils of his party in 
Livingston county. He was elected to the Assembly by a 
plurality of 302, defeating JONATHAN B. MOREY, Repub- 
lican, who was elected to the previous House by a majority 
of 1,197, and A. M. BINGHAM, Prohibition. A man who 
can effect such an extraordinary change of votes cannot be 
otherwise than popular. He is Chairman of the Insurance 
Committee, member of Public Education and Expenditures 
of the Executive Department, and also chairman of the 
Assembly portion of the Joint Committee to investigate the 
canal frauds. 

Mr. FAULKNER is an excellent speaker, and frequently 
takes part in debates, ranking as a very able member of the 
House. 



GEORGE W. FAY. 183 



GEORGE W. FAY. 



Mr. FAT is a native of Westboro, Worcester county, Mass., 
where he was born December 25, 1834. His father is GrEO. 
FAY, a reputable mechanic of Framingham, Mass. His 
mother died in 1868. After obtaining a good education in 
the common schools and Framingham Academy, Mr. FAY 
was employed for five years as clerk in the Suffolk Bank of 
Boston, thus acquiring an, excellent business training. 
Afterward he removed to G-loversville, and engaged in the 
clothing trade, which he has continued until the present 
time, and is now one of the oldest established merchants in the 
place. He has uniformly been very successful in business, a 
fact due to his energy and sagacity, and a fact also gratify- 
ing in view of the circumstance that he has been the archi- 
tect of his own fortune. He was married on the 6th of 
March, 1861, to ELECTA A. HILDRETH, youngest daughter of 
S. G-. HILDRETH, Esq. 

As may be gathered from this brief reference to his career, 
Mr. FAY is an energetic, shrewd and capable man, fitted 
for almost any emergency, and especially fitted for the varied 
requirements of legislation. Thus far he has acquitted 
himself well in the Assembly. He is not over anxious to 
display himself in debate, but he is faithful in attendance 
at the sessions of the House, sound as regards political action, 
and watchful of the interests of his constituents. He has 
always been a Eepublican, invariably giving his support to 
the regular nominations, and aside from a few unimportant 
local positions, has never before held office. 



184 LIFE SKETCHES. 



WILLIAM H. FISH. 



The seat occupied by Dr. FISH, of Schuyler, is seldom 
vacant during the hours of legislative business. He performs 
his duties quietly and unostentatiously, and it is evident that 
when the record shall be made up, few members will be 
awarded credit for greater faithfulness than he. Dr. FISH 
is well and favorably known in Schuyler county, where he 
has resided all his life. Personally, he is genial and social, 
and has a habit of making warm friends of all with whom 
he comes in contact. Furthermore, he is quick of percep- 
tion, pleasing of address, and thoroughly humane and kindly 
in all his characteristics. No man enjoys a joko with greater 
relish, and few are more ready to sympathize with mis- 
fortune. 

Though he is not particularly distinguished as a floor 
debater, the Doctor is fluent in conversation, and able to 
express his sentiments freely, when the occasion requires. 
No blot or stain rests on his character as a Democrat or citi- 
zen, and he enjoys fully the confidence and esteem of his 
neighbors and friends. 

Dr. FISH was born at Mecklenburgh, in what is now 
Schuyler county, April 14, 1827. His father, Dr. HENRY 
FISH, was from Bennington, Vt, and settled in Mecklen- 
burgh, as a physician, in the year 1821, residing there until 
his death, in April, 1873. He was a prominent Democratic 
politician, and served his town as Supervisor several terms, 
both before and after it was merged in Schuyler county. 
His mother, whose maiden name was MARY COLONY, was 
from Connecticut. 

Mr. W. H. FISH was educated at the common schools, 
and at the Ithaca Academy. He studied medicine with his 
father, attended lectures, and graduated in medicine at the 



WILLIAM H. FISH. 185 

University of Buffalo in 1851, and has since practiced medi- 
cine in his native place. It is said a prophet is not without 
honor save in his own country. His case is an exception to 
the rule, he having had a very extensive practice for the last 
twenty years, being regarded as the leading physician and sur- 
geon in that section, and having performed some delicate and 
difficult operations in surgery. He has been president of 
the County Medical Society, is a permanent member of the 
State Medical Society, and a curator of the University of 
Buffalo. 

In politics he has always been a Democrat, and an active 
worker with the rank and file. He has never consented to 
accept any nominations to office until within the last four 
years. 

In 1864 he was chosen delegate to the Convention by the 
Democracy of Schuyler, and was nominated for member of 
Assembly in 1867, but declined the honor. He was elected 
Supervisor of Hector in 1871 by 32 majority, and was the 
only successful candidate on his ticket. He was re-elected 
in 1872, 1873 and 1874, by majorities averaging over 200 in a 
town that usually gives over 200 Kepublican majority. 
While in the Board of Supervisors he gained considerable 
reputation by taking a bold stand against the payment of the 
county war bonds, claiming that they were forgeries. He 
carried the fight successfully through the courts, and rid 
the county of the bonds, thus saving many thousands of 
dollars of unjust taxation. 

During the war he was regarded as a "War Democrat, hav- 
ing assisted in raising volunteers to fill the quotas. Under 
the government call for surgeons after the second battle of 
Bull Kun, he was sent by the District War Committee to 
help meet the exigencies of the hour. He was married in 
1858 to Miss ELIZA C. NOTES, of Starkey, Yates county. He 
was elected to the present Legislature by a majority of 606 
over H. L. GKEGOEY, a member of the last House. 
24 



186 LIFE SKETCHES. 



JOHN FREAM. 



Mr. FREAM, who represents the First district of Ulster, is 
a retired steamboat man and forwarder, of large means. 
For many years he has been actively interested in the trans- 
portation business on the Hudson river, and he enjoys the 
highest reputation for personal integrity and business capa- 
city. His father, JOHN FREAM, was a life-long Democrat, 
and was at one time very prominent in New York politics, 
being in 1827 a candidate for the Shrievalty nomination, 
but was beaten in the convention, through a trick, by Major 
NOAH of the Courier and Enquirer. The circumstance gave 
great dissatisfaction to the rank and file of the party, and a 
people's convention, which was immediately called, offered 
the nomination to Mr. FREAM. He declined, however, and 
the honor was bestowed upon a Mr. SHAW, who was tri- 
umphantly elected. In the year 1828 the elder Mr. FREAM 
procured, mainly at his own expense, a fine hickory tree, 
which grew near what is now 90th street, and planted it on 
the corner of Grand and Ludlow streets, it being the first of 
the forest of hickory poles raised in honor of Gen. JACK- 
SON during the ensuing exciting campaign. 

The subject of this sketch, and the present member of 
Assembly, was born in New York on the 31st of March, 
1812, and was educated in private first-class schools in the 
metropolis, and at a boarding academy in Bedford, West- 
chester county. He, therefore, acquired a good English edu- 
cation. After leaving school, he remained a couple of 
years under parental instruction as a mechanic, and was 
afterward with a brother-in-law, WILLIAM HAISELL, until 
he reached his majority. For several years he was a mem- 
ber of the Volunteer Fire department, and became popu- 
lar and well known in the Fifth and Eighth wards. In 



JOHN FREAM. 187 

1835, he bought out his employer, and carried on business 
on his own account for five years. From 1840 to 1845, he 
dealt in paints, oils and glass, as a member of the firm of 
HANN, SMITH & FEEAM, the SMITH being J. LEE SMITH, 
president of the Stockholders' Bank of New York. About 
the yar 1845, he settled in Saugerties, and became engaged in 
the passage, freight and towing business from Saugerties 
to New York, owning and running the steamer "K. L. 
Stevens." This he continued successfully until 1852, when 
he retired from active business. In 1863, he purchased a 
half interest in the Tivoli freighting, produce and commis- 
sion business, the firm name being SILVER & Co.'s New York 
and Tivoli Freight Line. Two years later, he purchased the 
steamer "Ansonia" on his own account, and organized, 
under State law, the New York and Saugerties Transporta- 
tion Company, serving until January, 1873, as its president, 
and subsequently as director. In April, 1874, he sold his 
entire interest in the Tivoli freighting establishment, and 
until drawn into politics last fall, was free from all business 
relations. 

Mr. FREAM has been a Democrat all his life, and an 
exceedingly active and influential one, being on terms of 
intimacy with most of the leading politicians of the times. 
We believe, however, that this is his first entry into public 
official life. He was elected last fall over MOSES STONE, 
Eepublican, by a majority of 573. He is a member of the 
Committees on Commerce and Navigation, Civil Division 
and Engrossed Bills, and is regarded as a capable and ener 
getic legislator. 



188 LIFE SKETCHES. 



JOSEPH D. FRIEND. 



Mr. FRIEND represents the Second district of Orange 
county. He was born in Salem, Mass, November 12, 1819. 
Most of his boyhood was spent in Hartford, and in that city 
and in Hamilton, N. Y., he obtained his early education ; 
when he reached a proper age, he commenced the study of 
medicine, which he prosecuted for some time in the schools 
of Hartford and New Haven. About the year 1841, he com- 
menced the practice of medicine in Middletown, and there 
he has since resided, having established a large and successful 
practice. 

Mr. FRIEND is widely known as a writer and journ- 
alist. For several years, he was editor of the Middletown 
Mail, and, on the consolidation of that paper with the 
Middletown Mercury, was editor of the new journal, and 
evinced much ability. He has the reputation of being one 
of the ablest political writers in his Congressional district. 
Besides his labors in this regard, he has, in his intervals of 
leisure, contributed largely to the literary and medical pub- 
lications of the day. He is consequently favorably known 
beyond the circle of Middletown life. During a period of 
five years, he was Professor of Obstetrics in the Metropolitan 
Medical College of New York. For several years, also, he 
has been a member of the Board of Education of Middle- 
town, and now holds the position of health officer of that 
village. 

He has always been prominent as a Democrat, and gen- 
erally active in local politics. He was elected to the Assem- 
bly by a majority of 585 over ELLIS HARRIKG, Republican, 
and is Chairman of the Committee on Printing, and mem- 
ber of Public Education and Charitable Institutions. 



EDWARD GALLAGHER. 189 



EDWARD GALLAGHER. 



Mr. GALLAGHER succeeds Hon. F. A. ALBERGER as the 
representative of the Third Erie district, and, though not 
given to oratory, is a clear-headed, practical man, and fully 
alive to the true interests of his city. Previous to 1856, he 
was a Democrat, but he joined the ^Republican party on its 
organization, and has ever since acted with it. He is new to 
the business of legislation, and, in fact, has not been in the 
habit of accepting political offices of any kind ; but he has 
already taken rank in the House as an honest, intelligent 
and useful working member. 

He was born in Albany on the 20th of December, 1829, 
and received a good education in the public schools. For 
many years he has been extensively engaged in Buffalo as a 
forwarding and commission merchant; his business being 
mainly on the canals. He has been a member of the Board of 
Trade for 14 years, serving two years in the Board of Trus- 
tees. His knowledge of New York's great water-way is, 
therefore, of a practical character, and renders his services in 
the Assembly of especial value. In the canvass last fall he 
received a majority of 1,190 over GEORGE SAHDROCK, the 
Democratic candidate. He is a member of the Committee 
on Internal Affairs. 



190 LIFE SKETCHES. 



WILLIAM H. GEDNEY. 



Mr. GBDNEY is one of the ^Republican members of the 
New York delegation, a practical man of business, and 
though not often occupying the time of the House in 
speeches, is a capable and influential member of the Legisla- 
ture. He was born in Harrison township, Westchester 
county, June 14, 1818. He was well educated in the com- 
mon schools of Westchester and Chemung counties, and in 
New York city. During boyhood he worked on his father's 
farm, but he subsequently learned the carpenter's trade, and 
during the greater portion of his life he has been a builder, 
meeting with uniform success in his undertakings. 

In politics, Mr. GEDNEY was formerly a Whig, and for 
many years he has acted with the Eepublican party, holding 
several offices of responsibility. In 1861, he was a member 
of the New York Common Council. Later, in 1865 and 1866, 
he was a member of the Board of Aldermen, and during a 
period of thirteen years he was School Trustee of the Ninth 
ward of New York. He is serving his first term in the As- 
sembly, to which he was elected by a majority of 140 over 
KANSOM PAKKER, Jr., Democrat. He is assigned to the 
Committees on State Prisons and Federal Kelations. 



NEWTON H. GREEN. 191 



NEWTON H. GREEN. 



Mr. GREEN is the son of ANDREW H. GREEN, an eminent 
citizen, who came from Columbia county to Genesee in 1809, 
and died at Byron, in January last, at the age of 77. He 
was a member. of Assembly in 1838, '39. His brother, 
LORREN GREEN, was member of Assembly in 1862-63. 

Mr. GREEN was born in Byron, his present place of resi- 
dence, September 16, 1828. He was educated in the common 
schools, and has followed farming all his life, though he 
taught school during winter months from 1843 to 1853. He 
was married October i7, 1855, to SYLVINA M. DEWET, of 
Byron. He is a man of high character, and has always 
been active in local politics, having been a straightforward 
Kepublican since the formation of the party. Previous to 
to 1856 he was a Whig. He has held the offices of Town 
Superintendent of Schools from 1843 to 1853, Assessor, 
from 1856 to 1862, and Supervisor from 1872 to 1875, being 
recently re-elected. He is a member of the Committees on 
State Charitable Institutions and Indian Affairs, and is re- 
garded as a careful and judicious member. 



STEPHEN GRIFFIN. 



Mr. GRIFFIN, who is a plain and unassuming gentleman 
considerably past middle age, represents the county of War- 
ren, of which he is a native and life-long resident. He has 
had a somewhat checkered life, but spite of misfortune and 
discouraging obstacles, he is now comfortably situated and 
possesses an ample fortune. 

He was born in Warrensburgh, where he still resides, Octo- 
ber 18, 1812. His father, JOHN GRIFFIN, was a native of 



192 LIFE SKETCHES. 

Dutchess county, followed farming and lumbering, and died 
in 1827. He was of Dutch ancestry. His mother, who 
died in 1840, was a native of Warren county, and of Scotch 
descent. They were frugal, honest people, and though they 
worked hard all their lives, they were in comparatively 
straightened circumstances. The subject of our sketch was 
the oldest of a family of twelve, and at the age of fifteen, 
when his father died, the care and education of the entire 
family devolved upon him. He had very little opportunity 
therefore of securing an education himself, but at an age 
when other boys are engaged in study, he went to work with 
energy to acquit himself of the trust. He had a hard strug- 
gle for several years, but he succeeded not only in properly 
educating his younger brothers and sisters, and starting 
them fairly in life, but became prosperous and wealthy him- 
self, and had the satisfaction of furnishing his mother 
with a comfortable home while she lived. In 1838, he mar- 
ried Miss MAKIA COMAN, of Ehode Island ancestry. He 
was brought up as a farmer and lumberman, and is now en- 
gaged in those pursuits, but he has also followed other branches 
of business, having kept a hotel several years, and for a long 
period he was engaged in mercantile life. He had the mis- 
fortune to lose a large portion of his savings in the panic of 
1857, but his energy and industry soon made the loss good. 
It will be seen from this hasty resume, that Mr. GEIFFIN is 
in the nature of things a self-made man, thoroughly self-re- 
liant, and capable of acquitting himself with credit in what- 
ever situation he may be placed . 

In politics he is a Democrat of the old school, faithful to 
party traditions, and unswerving in his allegiance. For 
many years he has occupied a leading position among the 
Democrats of Warren county, possessing in fact a controlling 
influence in the caucuses and conventions of the party. Dur- 
ing most of his life he has served his town in official capaci- 
ties, holding at different times various town offices. For six 
years he was County Superintendent of the Poor, and dur- 



STEPHEN H. HAMMOND. 193 

ing three terms he represented his town in the Board of 
Supervisors. His present service in the Legislature is his 
first essay in State politics, and though not giving to speech- 
making, he has shown himself thus far to be a faithful and 
efficient member of the lower House. He was elected by a 
majority of 246 over G-EO. W. WAIT, his Eepublican opponent, 
and serves on the Committees on Roads and Bridges, Public 
Lands, and Trade and Manufactures. 

Mr. GRIFFIN'S parents were Methodists, and though he 
himself has never united with the church, he is a regular 
attendant at the religious services of that denomination. 



STEPHEN H. HAMMOND. 



STEPHEN H. HAMMOND, the efficient Chairman of the Ways 
and Means Committee, was born in Groton, Tompkins 
county, ]ST. Y., on the 24th day of November, 1828. His 
father, CLARK HAMMOND, came, early in life, from Vermont, 
and settled in Tompkins county, where he married a sister 
of the Hon. E. G. SPAULDING, now of Buffalo, N. Y., and 
the mother of the subject of this sketch. The first part of 
Mr. HAMMOND'S life was spent at Ithaca in attendance, in 
due time, at the common schools and at the Ithaca Academy, 
with the usual struggles and accompaniments which follow 
youth in humble life. He acquired, however, quite early, 
much general information, from books and otherwise, outside 
of the routine of mere school life, and his intelligence, and 
varied and extensive reading, soon made him the welcome 
companion of his seniors drawn together by t the common tie 
of a love for literature. His law studies were commenced at 
this time, and progressed with a good degree of success. His 
literary attainments were abundantly recognized, and when, 

at the age of twenty, he was announced to lecture in the 
25 



194 LIFE SKETCHES. 

regular winter course at Ithaca, the large hall, on the even- 
ing appointed for the lecture, was crowded to overflowing, 
and hundreds were unable to gain admittance. This success' 
stimulated him to make the effort to secure a more complete 
education, and he accordingly prepared for college, and in 
September, 1850, entered as a student at Geneva (now Hobart) 
College, from which he graduated, in 1854, with distinguished 
honor. Mr. HAMMOND spent a portion of his last college 
year in the State Treasurer's office, his uncle, Hon. E. G. 
SPAULDING, being then Treasurer. 

In the meantime, Mr. HAMMOND had been admitted to 
practice in all the courts, and in January, 1856, he received 
the appointment of Deputy Attorney-General of the State, 
which office he held continuously for sixteen years, under all 
shades of party administration, thus being brought into inti- 
mate relations with prominent public men and affairs during 
a very memorable period of the history of the State. 

Mr. H. married, in 1856, the second daughter of the late 
Hon. A. W. LANGDON, of Geneva, in this State, where he 
now resides. 

Mr. HAMMOND was selected to deliver the address before 
the Alumni of Hobart College, in July, 1871, and acquitted 
himself with great credit. The correspondent of the Neio 
York Tribune thus referred to the oration on that occasion: 

" His theme may be designated as ' The Philosophy of the 
Times.' It was an exposition, at once learned and popular, 
of the genius and characteristics of the age. He signalized 
the more potent forces of cotemporary history, indicated the 
fundamental distinctions between the present times and 
other times, and showed, by the great transforming move- 
ments in politics, science, industry, society and war, that our 
age, from a philosophical point of view, must be recognized 
as among the wonderful ages of the world's history. About 
one half of his discourse was devoted to a consideration of 
the subject of war as a historical phenomenon. Here his 
knowledge of history, his powers of description, his ability 
in generalization, had full scope. He concluded by showing 



STEPHEN H. HAMMOND. 195 

that, though the enthusiastic hopes of philanthropists had 
not been realized, that though in fact the last twenty years 
had been one of the most sanguinery periods- of history, there 
were yet the profoundest reasons for faith in the approach 
of an era of universal peace. His delivery was admirable, 
and the audience rewarded him by its attention and ap- 
plause." 

Mr. H. is serving his second term in the Assembly. Hia 
great familiarity with public affairs, in consequence of his 
connection with the Attorney-General's office for so long a 
time, adds greatly to his usefulness in the Assembly ; and 
Speaker McGuiRE's choice, in placing him at the head of 
the leading Committee of the House, is universally approved. 

Last year he served on the Judiciary Committee, and also 
on the Committee on Public Printing. Besides his Chair- 
manship of the Ways and Means, he serves this year on 
Judiciary and Public Printing. His election as a Democrat, 
by a round majority, from a district usually largely Repub- 
lican (Mr. H. being the third only in a quarter of a century), 
is an endorsement which any man might covet. His major- 
ities were, in 1873, 236 ; and in 1874, 678. During this and 
the last session, Mr. HAMMOND has been prominent as the 
advocate of a bill, which he originated, to reform abuses in the 
County Treasurers' offices, and to simplify the mode of paying 
the State taxes. He has also initiated several bills designed 
to improve the practice in the courts of the State. He is, in 
short, one of the most active and valuable members of the 
majority, and few legislators, enjoy a better reputation in 
every way. In religion, Mr. H. is an Episcopalian. 



196 LIFE SKETCHES. 



PATRICK HANRAHAN. 



PATRICK HANRAHAN, who represents the First District 
of Erie county, was born in county Clare, Ireland, in the 
year 1843. He was educated in the common schools, came 
to this country at an early age, and is at present engaged in 
the grocery business in Buffalo. He is a Roman Catholic in 
religious belief, and has been a life-long Democrat and quite 
active in the local politics of Buffalo, though he never held 
office until he was elected to the Assembly in 1873. He was 
chosen in that year over JOHN" O'BRIAN, who previously 
represented the district, by a majority of 469, and was re- 
elected by a majority of 1,187 over the same opponent. He 
was a member, last year, of the Joint Library Committee 
and Sub-committee of the Whole, and this year is on Com- 
merce and Navigation, Grievances and Two-Thirds and 
Three-Fifths Bills. 



GERMAIN HAUSCHEL, 



Mr. HAUSCHEL is one of the most watchful of members. 
Always in his seat with a well-thumbed file of bills before 
him, he keenly watches the progress of law-making, and is 
therefore prepared to act understandingly when his vote is 
called for. He is, also, a man of much force of character 
and keen judgment, and though not to be ranked with those 
who have the trickeries of parliamentary debate at their 
tongue's end, he nevertheless combines within himself much 
of the material of which statesmen are made ; and when he 
addresses the House, he does so in pointed sentences and plain 
common-sense language. He represents an important dis- 
trict of the metropolis, and attends faithfully to its interests. 



GERMAIN HAUSCHEL. 197 

Mr. HAUSCHEL is a German by birth and partly by educa- 
tion. He was born at Wendelsheim, a village in Wurtem- 
berg, southern Germany, on the 22d of September, 1839. 
JOSEPH HAUSCHEL, his father, was a school teacher in Ger- 
many, and also taught in this country, in Eichmond, Va., 
and Cincinnati, 0. He is still living ; his mother died when 
he was but five years old. Young HAUSCHEL emigrated to 
America with his father in 1854, previous to which he had 
attended the Latin school or gymnasium at Eottenburg. In 
this country he attended St. Charles College, Howard 
county, Md., and St. Peter's Academy at Cumberland, Md. 
He was intended for the ministry, but abandoned it because he 
felt inclined for a more active career than is afforded by pul- 
pit or pastoral labor. He completed his collegiate studies 
in 1858, and during the next four years taught school at 
Allegheny City, Pa., and read law with the firm of KIRK- 
PATEICK & MELLON. Subsequently, for a couple of years, he 
edited the Pittsburgh Republican, the daily Democratic 
organ of the Germans in that city. In 1865 he removed to 
New York city, where, for three or four years, he followed 
teaching, prosecuting his legal studies meanwhile with 
Judge GROSS of the Marine court. In December, 1869, he 
was admitted to the bar, and has practiced law ever since. 

During most of his adult life, Mr. HAUSCHEL has been a 
Democrat. He cast his first vote for President LINCOLN" and 
Governor ANDREW G. CURTIN, being strongly opposed to 
slavery. He found himself unable, however, to indorse all 
the measures adopted by the administration during the 
spring and summer of 1861, and became a Democrat, and 
with that party he has since steadfastly acted, taking a very 
active part in most of the elections which have been held, 
especially in the MCCLELLAN, SEYMOUR and GREELEY cam- 
paigns. At present he is a member of Tammany Hall, and 
is Chairman of the District Committee. He never before 
held an elective office. 

His success in the recent canvass was very gratifying 



198 LIFE SKETCHES. 

to himself and his friends. He was opposed by JAMES A. 
DEERING, a former member of Assembly, and SIXTUS 
CHARLES KAPFF, a popular young German, who together 
combined against him the influence of some of the repre- 
sentatives of the old Tammany Ring interest, the Republi- 
cans and the Department of Public Works. Nevertheless 
he was elected by a plurality of 265. 

Mr. HAUSCHEL was married October 25, 1860, to Miss 
EMMA A. GANTER, a native of Allegheny City, Pa. In 
religious faith he is a Roman Catholic, and is a gentleman 
of high character, refinement and culture. Though he was 
brought up in comparative poverty, and was obliged to teach 
school for a living while prosecuting his legal studies, he oc- 
cupies a high position among the lawyers of New York, and 
has been very successful. 



A. BARTON HEPBURN. 



Mr. HEPBURN, one of the younger members of the House, 
is a lawyer in good practice, and resides in Colton, St. Law- 
rence county, representing the Second district of that 
county. He is a young man of ability, and takes an active 
part in the deliberations of the Assembly. He was born in 
Colton, July 24, 1846. His father was one of the pioneers of 
St. Lawrence county. Mr. HEPBURN, the elder, was a man 
of strict probity of character and great industry, gaining 
nothing except as the reward of hard and persistent labor. 
He died in the fall of 1874. Mr. HEPBURN'S mother, who 
is still living, is a sister of Hon. N. A. GRAY of Washington, 
D. C., and of J. W. GRAY, a well-known journalist and 
founder of the Cleveland Plaindealer. 

Mr. HEPBURN is liberally educated, and, like a good many 
prominent Americans, his education is due mainly to his own 



A. BARTON HEPBURN. 199 

exertions. He left home at the age of sixteen, and begun 
unaided the task of acquiring knowledge, that being then 
the supreme desire of his life. To secure the means he had 
recourse to teaching in winter, and farm work in summer. 
He spent a preparatory period in Falley Seminary and St. 
Lawrence Academy, and entered Middlebury College, Vt., 
in 1867. He went no further than the beginning of the 
Sophomore year, however, as ill health compelled him to re- 
linquish his studies. Subsequently, he became Professor of 
mathematics and physical science in the St. Lawrence Aca- 
demy, and later, in 1870, we find him Principal of the 
Ogdensburgh Educational Institute. He read law for a time 
with FOOT & JAMES at Ogdensburgh, and in November 
1871, he was admitted to the bar ; since which time he has 
been engaged in legal practice at Colton. 

Mr. HEPBUBN has always acted with the Kepublican party, 
casting his first vote for candidates of that political persua- 
sion, and has been quite active in the political councils of 
his county. At the time of his election he held the office of 
School Commissioner, which he had held since July, 1871, 
but he resigned the position in order to take his seat in the 
Assembly. He was elected to that body by a plurality of 
1,551 over Democratic and Prohibition opponents, and 
serves acceptably on the Committees on Affairs of Villages 
and Education. 

Mr. HEPBURN was married in December, 1873. He is a 
man of earnest impulses, unimpeachable character and 
pleasing exterior, possessing many of the traits of his highly 
respected father, and is much esteemed by those who know 
him. Three older brothers were captains in the Union Army 
during the rebellion, and all of them served with credit. 



200 LIFE SKETCHES. 



JACOB HESS. 



Mr. HESS is one of the youngest and most active members 
of the lower House. He represents the Twentieth District 
of New York, and is one of the four Eepublican members of 
the metropolitan delegation. He was born in Hesse Darm- 
stadt, Germany, 'November 18, 1847. He was brought to 
this country by his parents when only three years old, and 
having resided in New York city all his life, he is, to all 
intents and purposes, an American in education and feeling. 
He received a good education in the public schools and pri- 
vate academies of New York city, and early became engaged 
in mercantile pursuits, in which he has continued to the 
present time, being now a prosperous commission merchant 
in West Washington market. He started in business with- 
out capital save an energetic and determined spirit, and is 
well known and highly esteemed in New York commercial 
circles. In the politics of his district, he has always identi- 
fied himself with the Eepublicans, exercising, however, con- 
siderable independence in his support of men and measures. 
He has never before held office; but the fact that he was 
elected by over 700 majority, in a district ordinarily Demo- 
cratic by a very large preponderance, ought to encourage him 
to continue in public life. He is very popular among his 
German fellow-citizens, and indeed, among all classes. In 
the Assembly he is prominent and popular, and is an efficient 
member of the Committee on Cities. 



OTIS D. HINCKLET. 201 



OTIS D. HINCKLEY. 



The representative of the First Chautauqua District is a 
pleasant appearing gentleman of middle age. His voice is 
not often heard upon the floor, but he is, nevertheless, active 
and wide awake in behalf of local legislation, as well as fully 
posted as regards the general business of the House. 

Mr. OTIS D. HINCKLET was born in Leicester, Livingston 
county, August 12, 1827. He is of English descent, his an- 
cestry on both sides having settled in Massachusetts at an early 
period in the history of that commonwealth. He was edu- 
cated mainly in the Westfield and Fredonia academies, and 
on completing his studies, turned his attention to mercantile 
pursuits. These he followed a number of years, but for some 
time past he has been a civil engineer. 

Mr. HINCKLEY was brought up in the old Whig party, 
being attached to the HENRY CLAY wing; but, on the 
organization of the Republican party, he joined it, and has 
remained with it to the present day. He has always been 
active in politics, and has held several important local offices 
in his county. For 22 years past he has held the office of 
Justice of the Peace, being regularly re-elected, sometimes 
without opposition. He has also been Deputy Clerk of 
Chautauqua county, and Justice of Sessions. In the winter 
of 1869, he was Clerk of the Engrossing Committee of the 
Assembly. He was elected to the Assembly last fall, after a 
very close contest with his Democratic opponent, THEO. S. 
Moss, and serves on the Committee on Public Health. 



202 LIFE SKETCHES. 



WILLIAM HOGAN. 



Mr. HOGAN is a wide-awake and influential Democrat of 
Seneca county. He was born in Fayette, in that county, 
April 15, 1822, and received a liberal education in the com- 
mon schools of Fayette and Waterloo, and at the University 
of St. Louis. Early in his career, he followed* teaching, but 
he subsequently turned his attention to farming, and then 
to mercantile pursuits. In all of them, he has displayed 
marked ability, and won a fair degree of success. 

He has been prominent in Seneca county politics for many 
years, and has held numerous offices of responsibility. He 
served as Town Superintendent of Schools for two terms ; 
was County Superintendent of Schools in 1847, Justice of 
the Peace during four terms, and School Commissioner of 
Seneca county during two terms, in 1857 and 1870. He was 
elected to the Assembly by a majority of 135 over MARTIN 
L. ALLEN", the Republican candidate. 

Mr. HOGAN is able to talk, and to talk well, upon the 
floor, but he seldom addresses the House, being content to 
perform his duties quietly and modestly. He is a man some- 
what above the medium height, with jet black hair and 
whiskers, dark complexion, and grave and intellectual cast 
of countenance. He is a member of the Committees on 
Canals, Public Education and Joint Library. 



DANIEL M. HOLMES. 203 



DANIEL M. HOLMES. 



Mr." HOLMES has the honor of representing a Republican 
district, though at times, as was the case last fall, the figures 
are pretty close. He was born in New London county, 
Conn., November 7, 1818. He was educated partly in com- 
mon schools, and partly in Mystic Academy, in Connecticut. 
At the age of 18, he removed to Chenango county, and for 
several years he taught school winters and worked at farm- 
ing summers. Finally he engaged in a mercantile business, 
which he continued successfully for a period of 26 years. 
He has in the meantime held numerous local positions of 
trust. He was School Inspector under the old school law, 
and when the new law was passed about the year 1842, he 
was the first Town Superintendent of his locality under it. 
He has been Trustee of the village of Norwich six consecu- 
tive years, and during the entire period of the war, was 
Supervisor of the town of Norwich, and a member of 
the County Committee of Three, for paying the county 
bounty to volunteers. He was also Chairman of the Town 
Committee during the war, for recruiting and paying boun- 
ties to volunteers. In the performance of this duty, fully 
half a million dollars passed through his hands. At the 
present time, he is a member of the Board of Education of 
Norwich Academy and Union Free School, and was formerly 
Trustee of Norwich Academy. 

Mr. HOLMES has always been a Democrat, and occupies a 
leading position in his county. Last fall the Assembly 
canvass was hotly contested on both sides, but he received 
the handsome majority of 326 over E. J. LOOMIS, the Repub- 
lican candidate, against the Republican majority the pre- 
vious year of 136, and also in face of the fact that Gov. Dix's 
majority in the district was 654. It may therefore be as- 
sumed that he enjoys some popularity at home. 



204 LIFE SKETCHES. 

Since his advent at Albany, he has taken part in a number 
of important discussions on the floor, and his strong speeches 
in opposition to the repeal of the Midland tax exemption bill 
created a marked impression. 



NATHANIEL M. HOUGHTON. 



Dr. HOUGHTON has acquired considerable familiarity with 
legislation, the present being his fourth term of service in 
the Legislature. He is a man of the sternest honesty of 
character, and though he says very little, and is even a trifle 
ungraceful in his speech, his unfrequent remarks are always 
straight to the point, and embody wholesome truths. He 
is a vigilant representative of the interests of his constitu- 
ents, and though he occupies in the Assembly chamber the 
farthest corner of " Sleepy Hollow," he does not permit him- 
self to be caught napping. 

NATHANIEL MITCHELL HOUGHTON was born in Corinth, 
Saratoga county, on the 23d of January, 1816. His father 
was a native of Worcester, Mass., and was a farm and stock 
dealer. His mother, whose maiden name was MITCHELL, 
was born and reared at Proctorsville, Vt. Mr. HOUGHTON'S 
early educational advantages were very limited. Six or eight 
months at a district school embraced the extent of his op- 
portunities. He is therefrom a self-taught and self-made 
man, owing much of his early training, however, to the 
teachings of his mother. Later he pursued the study of 
medicine in the Castleton Medical College of Vermont, from 
which he graduated in 1843. He then practiced as a physi- 
cian for many years with marked success, but was compelled 
a few years ago, to abandon the profession on account of 
impaired health. During ten years past he has been engaged 
in the manufacture and sale of lumber, and also in agricul- 
tural pursuits, in both of which he has been very successful. 



NATHANIEL M. HOUGHTON. 205 

Dr. HOTJGHTON was a "Whig until the organization of the 
Republican party, and has since been a firm and uncompro- 
mising Republican, having the reputation of being somewhat 
radical in his ideas. He has never swerved from his allegiance, 
however, being always an ardent Whig as long as the party 
lasted, and afterward an equally ardent Republican. Being 
always active and thoroughly reliable in his political attach- 
ment, he has frequently been selected to fill important offi- 
ces. He has held the office of Superintendent of Schools of 
his town four or five times, and has also been Supervisor, 
and an incumbent of other local positions. As already inti- 
mated, the present is his fourth term of service in the Assem- 
bly, having thus represented his district in 1862, 1863, 1872, 
and now 1875. His majorities ranged from 969 to 1,430. 
His course in the Assembly has been exceedingly satisfactory 
to his constituents, among whom he is held in the highest 
regard. His personal manner is marked by eccentric char- 
acteristics, and his exterior is rough, and to a stranger rather 
uninviting, but a closer acquaintance develops true qualities 
of head and heart, and no man in the House possesses a more 
kindly disposition, or more native courtesy of manner than 
the gentleman from Saratoga. 

He was married in 1846, to Miss 0. A. DAYTON, of War- 
ren county, N. Y. Though he is a member of no religious 
organization, he is a firm believer in the orthodox doctrines 
held by evangelical denominations. 



206 LIFF SKETCHES. 



ERASTUS H. HUSSEY. 



Mr. HUSSEY is a native and life-long resident of the town 
of Ledyard, Cayuga county, and owns a fine farm near the 
village of Aurora. He was born, January 19, 1827, and 
though he has thus reached his forty-seventh year, he has 
never married. He has been a farmer since boyhood, and 
during his early years was fortunate enough to secure a good 
common school and academic education. Being also a 
good reader and keen observer, he is, in addition to being a 
persistent and hard-working agriculturist, a gentleman of 
considerable culture, and well posted upon public affairs. 
He is a man of sound judgment and unusually sensible views 
upon all questions, and few men in his locality are more 
highly esteemed. The confidence felt in him by the com- 
munity is perhaps sufficiently indicated by the fact that he 
has been regularly elected a member of the Board of Super- 
visors since the year 1867. He was elected to the Assembly, 
in 1873, by a majority of 1,292, though two candidates ran 
against him, EFFINGHAM T. BROWN, Democrat, and WM. H. 
MANCHESTER, Temperance. The vote was an extraordinary 
light one, and, under the circumstances, the large majority 
he received was exceedingly gratifying. Last fall he was 
re-elected by a majority of 440 over JEROME S. FULLER, who 
received the Democratic and Prohibition vote. He is to be 
ranked rather among the workers than among the talkers 
of the Assembly, and served acceptably, last year, upon the 
Committees on Villages, and Trade and Manufactures, and 
this year on Villages, and Privileges and Elections. 

Mr. HUSSEY has been uniformly successful in his farming 
operations, and is therefore in comfortable circumstances. 
The fact that he is a member of the Society of Friends, and 
that he endeavors conscientiously to square his life in accord- 
ance with the precepts of that sect, is, perhaps, a sufficient 
indication of his personal character. 



JAMES W. HUSTED. 20? 



JAMES W. HUSTED. 



Gen. HUSTED'S personal record, during the twenty years 
or more he has mingled in the politics of the State, has been 
a brilliant one. Born in Bedford, in this State, on the 31st 
of October, 1833, and descended from an ancestry chiefly re- 
markable for honesty and respectability, he enjoyed fair 
opportunities during his youth. He prepared for college at 
the Bedford Academy, in his native town, and at quife an 
early age entered Yale College, from which he graduated on 
reaching his majority in 1854. While in college he stood well 
with his class, and was complimented with university honors 
when he graduated. Subsequently, he studied law with 
EDWARD WELLS, of Peekskill, and was admitted to the bar 
in 1857. As a lawyer he possesses fine abilities, and is re- 
garded with confidence and respect. His political life has 
been somewhat varied, and not entirely devoid of vicissitudes. 
In the early years of his career he was identified with the 
American party and served two years as Secretary of the 
State Council of that short-lived organization. He was 
selected Town Superintendent of Common Schools, in 1855, 
on the Know-Nothing ticket, 'and in 1858 he was chosen by 
the same party as one of the School Commissioners of West- 
dhester county. But in 1859 " Know-Nothingism " degen- 
erated into a mere tender to the Democratic party of the 
day, and Mr. HUSTED became disgusted and left it, feeling 
justly that he could not consent to a betrayal of the princi- 
ples upon which the party was founded. 

During the Utica Convention, held in that year, when 
the " Hybrid " ticket was formed, he published a protest 
against it and joined the Eepublican party. In 1860 he 
was appointed Deputy Superintendent of the State Insur- 
ance Department by Hon. WILLIAM BARNES, the then 



208 LIFE SKETCHES. 

Superintendent, and during the presidential campaign of 
that year was Vice-President of the large and flourishing club 
of Albany " Wide Awakes," of which Hon. J. MEREDITH 
BEAD, Jr., now minister to Greece, was President. During 
this campaign Mr.HusxED performed effective service for the 
Republican cause. Since 1862 he has been Harbor Master 
of the city of New York, and until recently, was Deputy 
Captain of the port. 

In the fall of 1868 Mr. HUSTED was elected to the Assem- 
bly from the Third district of Westchester county by 307 
majority. He made an honorable record as a debater and 
as a legislator during his first session, being Chairman of 
the Committee on Federal Relations, and member of the 
Committee on Commerce and Navigation. The next year 
he was re-elected by 1,144 majority, running 837 ahead of 
his ticket, and 417 ahead in his own town. Since then he 
has been regularly re-elected, his majority in 1871 reaching 
the unprecedented figure of 1,509. In 1872, owing to local 
complications and the defection of Liberal Republicans, it 
was reduced to 502, but in 1873 he again demonstrated his 
popularity and astonished friends as well as opponents by 
achieving a majority of 1,864. Last fall the "tidal wave" 
had its effect upon his district, and his majority was reduced 
to 444, two candidates running against him. He has served 
on the Committees on Commerce and Navigation, Insur- 
ance, Militia, Ways and Means, Grievances, Rules and Fed- 
eral Relations, being again Chairman of the latter Committee 
in 1872, and Chairman of Education in 1873. In 1872 he 
was also Chairman of Rules, Local and Special Laws, and 
Congressional Apportionment, being again Chairman of 
Congressional Apportionment in 1873. 

Last year, as Speaker of the House, General HTJSTED 
added greatly to his reputation as an able parliamentarian, 
and won the high praise as well as the formal thanks of 
minority and majority members alike, for the impartiality of 
his rulings, and the uniform dignity, courtesy and ability 



JAMES W. HUSTED. 209 

with which he discharged his exceedingly difficult duties in 
the chair. 

Gen. HUSTED has been frequently honored with responsible 
positions by the party to which he belongs, and he in turn 
has honored the party with his best efforts, but his sphere of 
useful activity has not been confined to politics. He is one 
of the most prominent members of the Masonic Fraternity in 
the State, and has reached to the highest honors in the order, 
being a member of the Order of Knights Templar, and 
entitled to wear the jewel of the 33d degree. For several 
years he has held the rank of D. D. G. M., and is now Junior 
Grand Warden. He has also been Judge Advocate on the 
staff of the Seventh Brigade, New York State Militia. 

On March 26, 1873, he was nominated by Gov. Dix to be 
Major-General of the Fifth Division of the National Guard, 
in place of Gen. GATES, who had resigned, and he was imme- 
diately confirmed by the Senate. The appointment was 
universally recognized as an eminently fit one, and none were 
more hearty in their congratulations than his fellow mem- 
bers of the Assembly. On the evening after the announce- 
ment of his appointment, the following resolution was offered 
by a Democratic member (Mr. McGuiKE), and unanimously 
adopted : 

Resolved, That always feeling a deep interest in the per- 
sonal and official relations of our fellow-members, and a warm 
regard for them individually, we desire to express our heart- 
felt thanks to Gov. Dix for his promotion of the Hon. JAMES 
W. HUSTED to the command of the military forces of the 
Fifth Division, and that, as he has been first in peace, we 
know he will, in the event of a great military necessity, be 
first in war, and in the future first in the hearts of his coun- 
trymen. 

The General's popularity among the members of the 
National Guard is well shown by the fact that he was unani- 
mously elected, in January, 1874, as President of the State 
27 



210 LIFE SKETCHES. 

Military Association. During the present session, he has 
actively promoted the passage of important amendments 
to the military code. 

General HUSTED has enjoyed a pre-eminence among poli- 
ticians and legislators by reason of his splendid abilities. Few 
men in the State excel him in those accomplishments which 
mark the successful statesman. He possesses a clear and 
brilliant intellect, sound judgment, a ready off-hand manner, 
and is, withal, an acute reasoner and polished orator ; and 
when we add that his gifts of mind and heart are never 
used to further corrupt or doubtful schemes, we complete a 
catalogue which is infinitely to the credit of our subject. 

His dashing style of debate, and the lightning-like rapidity 
with which he grasps the situation of the moment, together 
with his bold, concise and incisive mode of argument, and 
sometimes startling readiness at repartee, render him not only 
formidable to his opponents, but exceedingly popular among 
all classes of men. He is a master of the art of sarcasm, and, 
as he usually veils his keen and merciless retorts in elegant 
language and apt classical allusion, the wounds made by his 
sharp thursts produce much more pleasure than pain, even to 
those upon whom they are inflicted. In the most exciting 
passages of partisan debate, Mr. HUSTED is ever courteous 
and cool, while in argument he is clear, connected and logical, 
his more ambitious speeches being frequently enriched with 
pointed anecdote and scholarly illustration. He speaks very 
rapidly, and has surprising command of language, while his 
thorough knowledge of parliamentary rules enables him to 
be perfectly at home in the most bewildering cross-fire of 
motions and counter-motions characteristic of legislative 
fillibustering and bushwhacking. 

Socially, the ex-Speaker possesses rare gifts. 'Genial and 
talented, a brilliant conversationalist, and an adept in all the 
accomplishments and qualities which constitute the gentle- 
man, he is peculiarly fitted to ornament society and win 
. friendship and esteem. His unaffected manners and sterling 



SILAS T. IVES. 211 

qualities have rendered him extremely popular with the peo- 
ple at large, while the same traits, in connection with his 
solid attainments, have secured him hosts of friends in the 
fields of letters and politics. 



SILAS T. IVES. 



Mr. IVES is the representative of the Second district 
of Oneida county. He is a fine looking gentleman, large of 
frame, benevolent of countenance, and of attractive man- 
ners and address. He is, besides, a sterling and faithful 
Democrat, self-made in the largest acceptation of the phrase, 
and in every way an earnest and efficient member of the 
lower House. He was born in Clinton, Oneida county, 
December [26, 1828, his parents originally coming from 
Connecticut. He received a good English education in the 
district schools of his native place, and in the Clinton Liberal 
Institute, and has followed the business of a butcher during 
most of his life, though he has also engaged in other pursuits 
at different times. 

Mr. IVES has always been very active in local politics, ex- 
ercising a controlling influence in the Democratic councils 
of his town and county, and also at the party conventions. 
For a number of years past he has regularly attended the 
Democratic State Conventions, either as looker-on and ad- 
viser, or as delegate. He was a delegate to the Utica Con- 
vention of 1873. A Democrat by nature and education, he 
has always acted with the party, and is thoroughly embued 
with its principles. 

He has held a number of local offices during his career, 
but has never before been in the Legislature. In 1870 he 
was Trustee of his village, and in 1872 was its President, and 
through his efforts the town was carried for GKEELEY by 



21/J LIFE SKETCHES. 

three majority, though it had not given a Democratic ma- 
jority in forty years. In 1873 and 1874 he served as Super- 
visor from the town of Kirkland, and was Chairman of the 
Sheriff Committee, through whose instrumentality very seri- 
ous charges were recently brought against Sheriff BENEDICT. 
He was also Village Trustee last year. In his public action 
he is a reformer, and he devotes much time and effort to 
weeding out abuses in the body politic. He was elected to 
the Assembly by a plurality of 175 over JOHN W. BOTCE, 
Eepublican, and SILAS PUKDT, Prohibition. He serves on 
the Committees on Insurance, Militia and Indian Affairs. In 
religious matters he holds liberal views, while his integrity as 
a business man is unquestioned. 



WILLARD JOHNSON. 



Mr. JOHNSON is of New England parentage, his father, 
LOWELL JOHNSON, having been a native of Vermont, while 
his mother was born in Massachusetts. He was born in the 
town of Volney, Oswego county, on the 16th of May, 1820. 
He attended common school at an early age, and subse- 
quently attended the Mexico and Cazenovia academies, thus 
securing an excellent education. In the year 1852, he 
engaged in the lake and canal transportation business at 
Fulton, and continued it successfully for about twelve years. 
Afterward he became a contractor and has completed several 
important works for the State and national governments, 
among which may be mentioned the improvement of the 
Mississippi river at Rock Island, and the construction of a 
lock in the Illinois river, which is probably the largest in 
the world, being 350 feet long, 75 feet wide and 30 feet 
high, and capable of accommodating twelve ordinary canal 
boats at once. He has been largely engaged in work upon 



WILLARD JOHNSON. 213 

the canals, and has successfully completed contracts which 
amount, in the aggregate, to several millions of dollars. 

Mr. JOHNSON has always been a Democrat of the old 
school, and for many years he has been prominent in the 
councils of that party. During the rebellion he was classed 
as a War Democrat, and gave his influence and means freely 
to the cause of the Union. In 1862 he was elected to the 
Assembly without opposition, and co-operated heartily in all 
the measures designed to sustain the national government in 
the contest which was then being waged against armed treason. 
Subsequently he served two years on the War Committee of 
Oswego county. He was also a member of the Board of 
Supervisors in the years 1861 and 1862. In 1860, he was a 
delegate to the memorable Charleston Convention, and was 
afterward also a delegate to the National Democratic Con- 
ventions at Chicago in 1864, in New York in 1868, and in 
Baltimore in 1872. During the five war years, he was a 
member of the State Committee. It will thus be seen that 
Mr. JOHNSON'S political experience is extensive and varied, 
and there are really few men in Central New York whose 
counsel is held in greater estimation. He still holds to the 
political creed of his earlier years, and is popular among 
the Democrats of Oswego, and, ittdeed, among men of all 
parties. This is shown by the fact that he was elected in 
1872 by a majority of 189, over THOMAS W. GREEN, Eepub- 
lican, who represented the district the previous year, re- 
elected in 1873 by a majority of 747, CHARLES D. WALKUP 
being his opponent, and again elected last fall by a majority 
of 970 over HENRY C. HOWE, Eepublican. In 1873 he 
served on the Committees on Roads and Bridges, Internal 
Affairs and Militia ; in 1874 on Commerce and Navigation 
and Internal Affairs, and is at present Chairman of Internal 
Affairs and member of Ways and Means. He is a man of 
modest, unassuming deportment, and seldom addresses the 
House, being a man who believes in action rather than 
words. His large experience, ripe judgment and active 



214 LIFE SKETCHES. 

mind are of great value, however, in the practical work of 
legislation. He was married, at the age of twenty-seven, 
to MAET GASPE, and as a result of his prudently managed 
business operations, he is quite wealthy. 



WILLIAM A. JOHNSON. 



WILLIAM ALFOED JOHNSON was born at Collins, Erie 
county, New York, on the 26th of May, 1834, upon the farm 
and in the house where he at present resides. His father, 
KENDALL JOHNSON, a farmer, was of New England descent, 
and was one of the pioneers of the town. The subject of our 
sketch is the youngest of a family of nine children. His 
father died a few months before his birth. His mother's 
maiden name was JULIA FORD, and is likewise of New Eng- 
land descent. She still survives, and resides at her old 
home with her son. Mr. JOHNSON owns and carries on the 
farm upon which he was born; but it is the least of his 
cares. His \name is inseparably identified with the cheese 
manufacturing interests of Western New York. The Marsh- 
field Cheese Factory, of which he owns a controlling interest, 
is, with its seventeen branch factories, the largest in the State, 
and probably the largest in the world. The main Marshfield 
factory, was the first undertaking of the kind in that part of 
the country, and, like Aaron's rod, it has swallowed up the 
most of its less ably managed competitors. It annually 
manufactures about 2,300,000 pounds of cheese. The 
proceeds of a single sale have reached $47,000. Mr. JOHN- 
SON has been too busy during his life to mingle much in 
politics. Hitherto he has been simply the modest, unassum- 
ing, successful man of business. He has never held an 
office other than the one he now holds. His business integ- 
rity, as well as ability, are too well known to be questioned 



JOHN KEENAN. 215 

by even his bitterest enemies, of whom, however, he has very 
few. He has not had more than ordinary common school 
advantages ; but from earliest childhood he displayed great 
aptitude and love for his studies. His especial forte was 
mathematics, and he has acquired a reputation as a correct 
and careful accountant, and from boyhood one of his chief 
pleasures has been derived from the solution of mathematical 
problems. But for an innate love of, and capacity for, busi- 
ness, he would have attained distinction in the walks of 
learning. Diffident to a fault, he has to be known, and 
known intimately, to be appreciated. In active life few men 
accomplish so much with so little noise. 

Mr. JOHNSON'S parents were Baptists. He is orthodox in 
his religious views, though not a member of a church. 

In politics he has ever been a Republican. He cast his 
first vote when the foundations of the party were being laid, 
and has supported it steadily ever since. 



JOHN KEENAN. 



Mr. KEENAN" represents the Twelfth New York district, 
and is a native of Ireland, where he was born February 27, 
1844. He came to this country at an early age, however, 
and took up his residence in New York city. There he 
received his education in the public schools, and afterward 
became engaged in mercantile pursuits. He is at present a 
dealer in wines and liquors, and is doing a prosperous busi- 
ness. He was elected to the Assembly by a plurality of 930, 
two candidates, JOSEPH AROHBOLD, Republican, and L. S. 
GOEBEL, Independent Democrat, being opposed to him. 
He is Chairman of the Committee on Public Lands and 
member of Expenditures of the Executive Department, and 



216 LIFE SKETCHES. 

Trade and Manufactures. He has very little to say in the 
House, but he is seldom absent from the sessions, and is 
regarded as a very attentive and efficient member of the 
present Assembly. 



JOHN R. KENNADAY. 



Mr. KENNADAY may be regarded as one of the foremost 
members of the present majority in the State Assembly. 
He is always in his seat, closely watchful of the progress of 
legislation, and no measure which does not commend itself 
to his judgment passes unchallenged. I[e wields a com- 
manding influence in the House, and the manner in which 
he has thus far acquitted himself, shows that Speaker Mo 
GUIRE made a wise selection when he placed him at the head 
of what is now one of the most important committees in the 
Assembly, that on General Laws. 

JOHN EGBERT KENNADAY was born in Kingston, N. T., 
on the 12th of September, 1830. Both his parents were na- 
tives of New York city, his father being the late Eev. JOHN 
KENNADAY, D. D., a prominent clergyman of the Methodist 
Episcopal church, and a colleague, and in some respects the 
counter-part, of Rev. Dr. BETHTJNE. The services of these 
two divines, as representing what is best in the life and his- 
tory of Brooklyn, and in brilliant and effective pulpit work, 
are a part of the most cherished record of the city of 
churches. Dr. KENNADAY, at the time of his death, in 1863, 
was presiding elder of the Long Island Conference district. 

Young KENNADAY received an excellent preparation for 
college, and graduated at an early age with distinction from 
Dickinson College, Pennsylvania. He studied law after his 
matriculation with that eminent Philadelphia jurist, the 
late JOSIAH RANDALL, and he began his professional prac- 



JOHN R. KENNADAY. 21 7 

tice in New York with Mr. JAMES R. JESUP, now a dis- 
tinguished lawyer, with whom he is still associated. Mr. 
KENNADAY'S residence has ever since been in Brooklyn. 
His social and professional position is well known to be of 
the first order, and his discharge of the duties of a citizen 
has been marked by identification with the best institutions 
of Brooklyn. He is a member of the Historical Society, a 
patron and officer of the Art Association, and the Art 
Schools, and succeeded FRANKLIN WOODRUFF in the Presi- 
dency of the Mercantile Library Association. 

In politics Mr. KENNADAY has always been a Democrat of 
the most thoughtful and progressive school, though with 
what is called " practical politics " he has not been identi- 
fied beyond the quiet discharge of his duties as a voter. Two 
years ago, Mr. KENNADAY was made a member of the Brook- 
lyn Committee of One Hundred. He has . served in that 
organization on the Committees of Law and Nominations. 
In the Hundred Mr. KENNADAY was active for good govern- 
ment and for economy and purity in administration. He is 
a son-in-law of Mr. JOHN T. MARTIN, a well-known citizen 
of Brooklyn, and in every personal, intellectual, social and 
political aspect, he is a man of exalted type. 

Mr. KENNADAY'S district is strongly Republican, gener- 
ally from 600 to 800 majority, and the fact that he received 
441 majority in a total vote of 6,000, is perhaps the best 
proof of his popularity we could cite. In his immediate 
neighborhood, the old Third ward, he received a majority of 
3, in a total vote of 1,417, while Governor Dix's majority 
was 303. Besides his Chairmanship of General Laws, Mr. 
KENNADAY holds the second place on the Judiciary Com- 
mittee, and hence he wields a large influence in shaping the 
most important legislation of the present session. 

While not much given to ambitious efforts in the way 

of oratory, Mr. KENNADAY frequently takes part in the 

debates, and expresses his views clearly and tersely, his legal 

experience and varied information adding great value to 

28 



218 LIFE SKETCHES. 

his suggestions. In debate as well as in ordinary intercourse 
he is exceedingly courteous and refined in manner and 
speech, and his relations with all his fellow-members, with- 
out regard to party, are of the most pleasant and agreeable 
character. 



WILLIAM P. KIEK. 



Mr. KIRK, the representative of the Second New York 
district, is a man about whom there is no nonsense in any 
respect. He is a plain matter-of-fact gentleman, well-posted 
in most matters demanding the attention of the Legislature, 
and performs the duties which devolve upon him quietly and 
unassumingly. He was born in the city of New York on 
the llth of August, 1833. His father and mother were both 
born in Ireland, though they were married in New York city, 
having emigrated at an early age. The father is a carpenter, 
and is still living in New York city at the age of 75 
years. The subject of our sketch was educated in the 
common schools of New York city, and, at the proper age, 
was apprenticed to a sawsmith. He followed this occupa- 
tion a number of years, but he finally became a wine mer- 
chant, and is successfully engaged in that business at 
present. He was married, about 19 years ago, to Miss 
ANNA L. QUINN, of New York city. He has always acted 
with the Tammany wing of the Democracy, and, being a 
life-long resident of New York city, he is well known in 
political circles. He was a Member of the Assembly of 
1864, to which he was elected by a majority of 800, and also in 
1874, his majority being 673, and his opponent being THOMAS 
WILD, a popular Republican. Last fall he was re-elected by 
a plurality of 1,124 over THOMAS WILD and CHARLES 
ZOLLER. Aside from his legislative positions, he has never 



CHARLES H. KRACK. 219 

held any very prominent public office, preferring rather to do 
effective work in the ranks of his party. He is a Roman 
Catholic, and, being a man of fine traits of character, he is 
greatly esteemed by his associates of the New York dele- 
gation. 



CHARLES H. KRACK. 



Mr. KEACK was born in Hanover, Prussia, in the year 
1828. At the age of seven years he was sent to the common 
school of Hanover, and subsequently graduated at a military 
school. He served in the army three years, and then came to 
America, and procured the position of pilot on one of the 
Hudson River steamboats, serving in that capacity until the 
breaking out of the Mexican war, when he enlisted in the 
army. Before starting for Mexico, he was promoted captain 
of a company of dragoons. He served with great gallantry 
under General SCOTT during the entire war, participating, 
with few exceptions, in all the important engagements, and 
was promoted to the rank of colonel as a reward for bravery. 
He had the honor of being present at the capture of the city 
of Mexico. 

At the close of the war, he went to Charleston, S. C., and 
was overseer of a cotton plantation for some time, but, on 
the breaking out of the yellow fever, he started for New York 
city by land, being ninety days on the way. On his arrival in 
New York, he resumed his old occupation, this time securing 
a place on one of the East Eiver boats. After three years, he 
went to Galveston, Texas, and thence overland to San Fran- 
cisco, Cal. Joining a party of hunters, he traveled extensively 
through the Western territories, and met with many exciting 
adventures in the wilds of the Eocky mountains. Finally, 
he returned to New York and engaged in the hotel business. 



220 LIFE SKETCHES. 

He sold out, however, after a few years, and bought a farm, 
which he managed successfully, and finally he purchased 
the salt-water swimming baths in New York, which he owns 
and conducts at the present time. As a result of his ven- 
tures and undertakings, he has amassed a respectable fortune, 
most of which is judiciously invested in farm property. He 
owns a fine country residence near Woodstock, where he 
spends much of his time during the summer months. 

In politics, Mr. KKACK is and always has been an old 
fashioned Jeffersonian Democrat, and as such he has 
several times received honors at the hands of his party. He 
is representing the Third district of Ulster county for the 
third time in the Assembly. He was chosen in the fall of 
1869, by a majority of 381 over JACOB C. DEPUY, re-elected 
next year by 87 majority over MARTIN SCHUTT, and again 
elected last fall by 645 plurality over EDGAR KUSSELL, Ee- 
publican, and E. D. LOUNSBERY, Temperance. He serves 
this year as Chairman of the Committee on Grievances, and 
member of Expenditures of the House. 

Mr. KRACK was married at Woodstock, in 1848, to Miss 
SARAH HARDER. He is a member of the Lutheran denomi- 
nation, and is a man of strict personal integrity, kindly 
impulses and benevolent disposition. 



' LEOPOLD C. G. KS-HINKA. 



Mr. KSHINKA, now serving his second term, is in every 
sense a self-made man. He occupies a high position in the 
bar of Albany county, solely as the result of his own exer- 
tions and persistent, unwearied industry. He is still a young 
man, and has, perhaps, the most brilliant portion of his 
career yet before him; but his decided ability and fine 
natural powers lead us to believe that he will fully realize 



LEOPOLD C. G. KSHINKA. 221 

the anticipations of those who know him best. He was born 
in Zerkwitz, province of Brandenburg, Prussia, June 9, 
1835. His parents, MATHAUS K. and WILHELMI^A 
KSHINKA, emigrated to this country in 1850, and are still 
living on a farm in Bradford county, Pa. His father is 
finely educated, and for thirty years was an instructor in the 
provincial schools of Prussia, under a system which, in some 
respects, is probably the best in the world. He also took a 
leading part in the Revolution of 1848, and was chosen a 
Federal and State elector by the Liberal party. 

The subject of our sketch received his early education in 
the Prussian common schools. During the years 1861 and 
1862, he attended Fort Edward Institute, and in 1867, he 
graduated from the Albany Law School, being soon after 
admitted to the bar. Since then, he has been engaged in the 
practice of his chosen profession in the city of Albany, with 
a good and steadily increasing practice. 

Upon reaching his majority, Mr. KSHIKKA identified 
himself with the Democratic party, and has since been stead- 
fast in his allegiance; but while he maintains his party 
fealty, his views in reference to all public questions are 
liberal and progressive, and he never permits partisan consid- 
erations to blind his sense of right and duty. He has had 
what may be deemed a preliminary legislative experience in 
the Board of Supervisors of Albany county, having been a 
member of that body since the spring of 1872, representing the 
Tenth ward of Albany city. Since he commenced his public 
career, the expressions of popular regard for him have been 
exceedingly gratifying. In 1872, when he was first chosen 
Supervisor, he ran largely ahead of his ticket, and in the 
spring of 1873, when he was re-elected, he carried his ward 
by a respectable majority, though it went Republican at the 
previous fall election. In the fall of 1873, he was elected 
member of Assembly from a district (the Second), which had 
elected Republican members for three successive years, by 
majorities ranging from 193 to 464. His majority over 



222 LIFE SKETCHES. 

RICHARD B. ROCK, Republican, was 553. He was re-elected 
last fall by a majority of 426 over CHRISTIAN" SCHURR. 
The district, on a square party vote, is Democratic, and Mr. 
KSHIKKA enjoys the honor of having reclaimed it from the 
enemy. He has proved himself a very active member of the 
Legislature, especially in looking after the interests of the 
city of Albany. 

He was married August 18, 1869, at Oorinth, Saratoga 
county, to MAGGIE N. EARLY, daughter of ELIJAH EARLY, 
Esq. He was brought up in the Evangelical faith, and is a 
man of deep convictions and high moral purpose. 



ALEXANDER B. LAW. 



The gentleman whose name heads this article is a plain, 
honest and substantial farmer, and ranks, in age, among the 
oldest men of the House. He was born in Salem, Washing- 
ton county, in October, 1809. His grandfather and father 
emigrated from the north of Ireland in the year 1769, and 
settled in what was then the town of New Perth, Albany 
county, now Salem, Washington county. They were well- 
to-do farmers, and the son naturally grew up to the same 
occupation. During his younger days he attended the com- 
mon schools and the academy at Cambridge, Washington 
county. He therefore received a fair English education, 
which, however, has been well supplemented by the knowl- 
edge derivable from observation and experience. 

Mr. LAW was formerly a Whig, but since the Republican 
party was formed, he has been an earnest and active member 
thereof, and wields much influence in the town where he has 
all his life resided. Sufficient evidence of this is, we appre- 
hend, to be found in the fact that he has held the office of 
Justice of the Peace steadily for the past thirty years, hav- 



HENRY LAWRENCE. 223 

ing been first elected in 1845. He was also a member of 
Board of Supervisors from 1861 to 1866, both years inclu- 
sive, and for four years was Chairman of the Board. In his 
first Assembly canvass in 1873, he received all the votes cast 
in the First District of Washington county, no opp6nent be- 
ing in the field. Last fall he was elected by a majority of 
693 over G-EO. SHANNON, Democrat. 

A Protestant in religious belief, Mr. LAW is a man of 
large and liberal views upon all subjects. He is also gifted 
with common sense and sound judgment, and, being a man 
of unimpeachable private character and immovable princi- 
ples, he is in every respect a fit representative of such a con- 
stituency as that in the First District of Washington 
county. 

He served last year on the Committees on Eoads and 
Bridges, Civil Divisions and Expenditures of the House, and 
is this year on Roads and Bridges and Expenditures of the 
House. 



HENRY LAWRENCE. 



The first district of Columbia county is represented by a 
man of very decided ability and experience, in the person of 
Hon. HENRY LAWRENCE, of Claverack, who is serving his 
second term. He was born in New York city, October 15, 
1825. His father, PHILIP LAWRENCE, who resided in Col- 
umbia county many years, is now dead, but his mother is still 
living. Young LAWRENCE obtained a fair education at the 
common schools, and became a marine engineer, in which 
occupation he has visited nearly every country on the globe. 
He has, therefore, seen a good deal of the world, inasmuch 
as he has followed that pursuit about 30 years. During the 
last several years he has been a hotel proprietor at Claverack, 



224 LIFE SKETCHES. 

and may be regarded as quite comfortably off. Since he 
closed his roving life, he has taken an active interest in poli- 
tics, being a Democrat. He has never before held office, 
however. He was elected to the Assembly, in 1873, by 334 
majority over JOHN D. LANGDON, Ms Republican opponent, 
and served on the Committees on Expenditures of the Execu- 
tive Department and Public Lands. He was re-elected last 
fall by a majority of 764 over the same opponent, and now 
serves as Chairman of Indian Affairs, and member of State 
Prisons and Manufacture of Salt. He is not himself a mem- 
ber of any religious denomination, but his family are Dutch 
Eeformed. He is quiet and unassuming in the House, but 
his physiognomy indicates a good deal of force of character, 
and he is unquestionably a man of ability. 



WILLIAM W. LAWSON. 



Mr. LAWSON, of the Second Erie district, has, by his 
own unaided exertions, risen to a prominent position, both 
in the business community and in political circles. He is 
self-made, and possesses those sterling traits of character 
that win respect and admiration. Always conservative in 
his views, he is a strong advocate of the right. He possesses 
qualities which eminently fit him to occupy a place in the 
legislative halls of the State, and his record thus far in the 
Assembly is such as to reflect credit upon the city and county 
of Erie. He has twice served in the Board of Supervisors of 
that county, his straightforward course of conduct and his 
excellent business talents rendering him one of the most 
useful members of the board. The same talents and quali- 
fications he now employs with advantage in a wider field. 

He was born in Buffalo, June 16, 1845, of English parents, 
his father, RICHARD LAWSON, emigrating from Liverpool. 



WILLIAM. W. LAWSON. 225 

Both his parents are now deceased. He was educated in the 
public schools, and at Bryant & Stratton's Commercial Col- 
lege at Buffalo, thus securing a good preparation for business 
life. After completing his studies he served as an apprentice 
with DAVID BELL, one of the largest manufacturers of steam 
engines in western New York. For some reason, however, 
he did not follow that occupation, as he subsequently entered 
into a business partnership with JAMES FABTHING, his 
father-in-law, one of the heaviest stock dealers in that sec- 
tion of the State. This connection, which has been exceed- 
ingly advantageous and successful, is still maintained, the 
firm also running a meat market, and being engaged in feed- 
ing cattle awaiting shipment. 

He served seven years in the Buffalo Volunteer Fire De- 
partment, being a member of Eagle Hose, an old and crack 
organization. For some time he was treasurer of the com- 
pany, and has always been extremely popular among the 
" boys," to whose influence, in great measure, he attributes 
his political success. He accompanied the organization on 
its famous excursion to Philadelphia in 1867. 

Mr. LAWSON'S political status is very easily defined. He 
cast his first vote for ABKAHAM LINCOLN for President, and 
ever since has been an ardent and active Kepublican, doing 
effective work for the party at every election. He is well 
known throughout his district as a man of ability and strong 
common sense, and enjoys wide popularity. Sufficient evi- 
dence of this is found in the fact that he was elected Super- 
visor in 1871, in a Democratic ward, and re-elected in 1872 
by an increased majority, while, last fall, in spite of the 
" tidal wave," as it is termed, he succeeded in defeating, by 
a decided majority, a popular Democrat, who represented 
the same district in the last House. He is a member of the 
Committees on Privileges and Elections and Public Printing, 
and in the performance of his legislative duties, whether in 
the committee room or on the floor, he is able and efficient. 

Mr. LAWSON was married, on the 4th of March, 1864, to 
29 



226 LIFE SKETCHES. 

Miss ADELIA J. FARTHIHG, of Buffalo. He is a man 
against whose character no word of reproach can be cast, 
and in every relation of life he strives to retain the esteem 
and good will of his fellows. 



EDWARD LEWIS. 



Mr. LEWIS, who represents the third district of Oneida 
county, was born in Newport, Herkimer county, on the 17th 
of December, 1846. His education was obtained at La Salle 
Academy, New York city, and at the Christian Brothers' Col- 
lege at St. Louis. He spent several years in the western States, 
and finally settled down to agriculture, being now engaged in 
the management of a fine farm at East Florence, Oneida 
county. In 1870 he held the office of Justice of the Peace. 
He also held the office of Justice of Sessions, for two years, in 
the county of Oneida. In the recent Assembly canvass he 
had two opponents, STEPHEN CROMWELL, Republican, and 
JAMES LONGLAJTD, Prohibition, but he succeeded in wiping 
out an adverse majority of nearly three hundred the previous 
year, and securing his election by a plurality of 446. 

Mr. LEWIS has always been a Democrat and is very popular 
in Oneida county. He is a man of high standing and large 
influence, and is making an excellent record as a legislator. 
He is a member of the Committees on Affairs of Villages, 
Grievances and Civil Divisions. 



HARRISON LILLYBRIDGE. 227 



HARRISON LILLYBRIDGE. 



Mr. LILLYBRIDGE is the son of IRA and LAURA LILLT- 
BDIDGE, who removed from Stafford Springs, Conn., in Jan- 
uary, 1824, settling upon the farm in the town of Annsville, 
Oneida county, on which the son still resides. Mr. LILLY- 
BKIDGE, Sr., died in April, 1848. HARRISON was born at 
Stafford Springs, on the 25th of December, 1821. He was 
brought up mainly upon the farm, obtaining, meanwhile, a 
good common-school education. He has always followed 
farming, his place at Saberg station being one of the finest 
farms in central New York. He has been very successful as 
an agriculturalist, mainly because of the fact that his farm- 
ing operations are conducted according to scientific as well 
as common-sense principles. 

Previous to 1856, Mr. LILLYBRIDGE was a Democrat, but 
in the Fremont campaign he identified himself with the 
newly organized Eepublican party, and has acted with it ever 
since. He is a strong temperance man, however, taking an 
active interest in all practical measures for the advancement 
of the cause. He has also been active and influential in the 
Republican party for many years, occupying a leading posi- 
tion in the local organizations and conventions in Oneida 
county. He has never been anxious for office, however, his 
present service in the Assembly being, we believe, the first 
public position of importance he has held. 

Mr. LILLYBRIDGE was married September 30, 1850, to 
MATILDA SWARTWOUT. His religious sentiments are Baptist. 
He may be regarded as in every respect a first class man, and 
is a gentleman of high character, large influence and great 
usefulness. He is always to be found on the side of reform 
and progress in public affairs, and, personally is genial, com- 
panionable, courteous and a typical country gentleman. 



228 LIFE SKETCHES. 



CYRILLO S. LINCOLN. 



Being a man of acknowledged ability, sound principles 
and inflexible integrity, and possessing a large share of per- 
sonal magnetism, Mr. LINCOLN wields an influence not 
inferior to that of any other member of the present Assembly. 
His habit of thinking and acting for himself on all important 
questions, at the same time maintaining an attitude of entire 
party fealty, and doing so with such tact and judgment as to 
commit no mistakes, has secured him the respect as well as 
the hearty esteem of friends and opponents. 

Mr. LINCOLN was born in South Bristol, Ontario county, 
on the 18th of July, 1833. His father Lucius LINCOLN, 
was born in Otsego county, and is still living and engaged in 
farming. Young LINCOLN enjoyed ample educational advan- 
tages. At the age of twelve he entered the Genesee Wesley an 
Seminary, subsequently spent some time in the New York 
Conference Seminary, and, in 1855, entered Union College, 
graduating from that institution with honor in 1858. He then 
read law for a year or more at the office of F. L. DUE AND, in 
Rochester, and was very soon thereafter admitted to the bar. 
Since then he has practiced successfully, devoting much of 
his time, however, to grape-growing, owning one of the finest 
vineyards in that section of the State. In 1864, he was 
elected Justice of the peace, and held the office until 1871, 
when he was first elected to the Assembly. 

His career in the Assembly has been most creditable to his 
constituents and to himself. He was elected in 1871 by a 
majority of 510, but in 1872, his majority reached 810, and, 
in 1873, in a very light vote, it was 355. Last fall, owing to 
local influences, and the extraordinary efforts made to defeat 
him, his majority was reduced to 10. His recognition in Albany 
has also been marked. Though he had been placed on no 



C TRILL o 8. LINCOLN. 229 

very important committees the first year, a deserved tribute 
was paid him by the House later in the session in choos- 
ing him as one of the managers in the BARNARD impeach- 
ment trial. The result of that trial is well known, and no 
one, with perhaps one or two exceptions, labored harder to 
bring it about than Mr. LINCOLN. In 1873 he was Chair- 
man of the Committee on Claims, and also a member of the 
Committee on Petitions of Aliens, of the Sub-Committee of 
the Whole, and of the special committee to investigate the 
affairs of the Erie Eailway Company. In 1874 he was Chair- 
man of Railroads and Eules, and Member of Ways and 
Means. In the present House he suffers the fate of a min- 
ority number, and is only on Claims and Sub-Committee of 
the Whole. 

Mr. LINCOLN'S Republicanism is a part of his personality. 
It is " dyed in the wool." Since the party was organized he 
has steadily acted with it, voting for FREMONT in 1856, for 
LINCOLN twice and for GRANT twice. He is, in fact, one of 
the most active and influential Republicans of Ontario 
county. As a public speaker he has few superiors. With a 
voice full and sonorous, an easy and natural manner of de- 
livery and clear enunciation, he has no difficulty in securing 
the attention of the House, whatever the topic of discussion. 
He talks well on all subjects, and is also a clear and acute 
reasoner, holding, in the main, sound views on all the politi- 
cal, social and financial questions of the day. 

Physically, Mr. LINCOLN is well built, and the embodi- 
ment of perfect health. His prepossessing countenance is a 
true index to the man, and harmonizes well with the broad 
intellectual forehead, luxuriant brown hair and clear blue 
eyes. The people of the Second district of Ontario are for- 
tunate in being so well represented in the Assembly. 



230 LIFE SKETCHES. 



JAMES MACKIN. 



Mr. MACKIN, a man of prepossessing appearance and 
pleasant address, represents the First district of Dutchess 
county for the fourth term. He is a lineal descendant of 
genuine Irish stock, though his parents were natives of this 
country, his father having been born in New York, and his 
mother in Newburgh. They both died, however, within 
three years of each 'other, before young MACKIN" had reached 
his eighth year, and he was left entirely without means. 
Compelled thus to struggle for his own support, from early 
youth, Mr. MACKIN is necessarily one of those practical self- 
made men, who contribute so largely to the prosperity of the 
country. 

Born in Newburgh, Orange county, on the 25th of Decem- 
ber, 1823, he was educated in the common schools of New 
burgh and Fishkill, and has spent the greater portion of his 
life in the latter town, where he has had the care of a large 
estate. During the years 1860, 1861 and 1862, he conducted 
a mercantile establishment at Fishkill quite successfully. 
The responsibilities of the estate mentioned were, however, 
sufficient to give him ample occupation, and he retired from 
business. Subsequently, he became President of the First 
National Bank of Fishkill Landing, and still holds that 
position. 

Mr. MACKIN has mingled largely in public and political 
life. He was an active and influential Whig of the Free Soil 
stamp, until the party was dissolved. He was not only a 
delegate to the convention which gave form and cohesion to 
the Eepublican organization, but, previous to 1866, he was 
several times a delegate to the conventions of that party, and 
has held a number of public positions. For four years he 
was postmaster at Fishkill, holding the position under the 



JAMES MACKIN. 231 

appointment of President FILLMOEE. In 1862 President 
LINCOLN" appointed him United States Assessor for the llth 
(now the 13th) district, and he held the office two years and 
a half. Four times he was elected Supervisor of his town, 
and once he was chosen President of the Board. In 1859 
he represented his Assembly district in the Legislature, serv- 
ing on the Committee on Claims, and Internal Affairs of 
Towns and Counties. 

During the past six or seven years, Mr. MACKIN has acted 
with the Democratic party, and was elected to the Assembly 
in 1872 as a member of that political organization, receiving 
a majority of 828 over EDWAKD M. GORING. In 1873 he 
was re-elected by a majority of 830 over SIDNEY E. BAR- 
TEAM, and he was re-elected last fall by a plurality of 1,993 
over HENRY H. HUSTIS, Kepublican, and G-EOBGE POTTEE, 
Prohibition. He served in 1873 on the Committee on Kail- 
roads and Public Printing; in 1874 on Eailroads, Villages and 
Militia, and is now Chairman of Eailroads and member of 
Villages and State Charitable Institutions. 

Though not greatly given to debate, Mr. MACKIN possesses 
excellent qualifications for legislative position. He enjoys a 
large degree of popularity, both in private and public life, 
and there are few men in his section of the State more 
deserving of public confidence. He was married in July, 
1858, to Miss SAEAH E. WILTSIE, a very intelligent and 
accomplished lady, and a daughter of JAMES WILTSIE, an old 
and respected citizen of Fishkill. She was a devout member 
of the Reformed church, where Mr. MACKIN also worshiped. 
Her death took place in 1862, and her place in the family 
circle has never been filled. Mr. M. has been reasonably 
successful in all his business undertakings, and may be 
regarded as in quite comfortable circumstances. 



232 



KNOX MCAFEE. 



Mr. McAFEE represents the Eleventh New York district, 
and is a young New Yorker of unblemished character. He 
is of Scotch descent, both his parents, WILLIAM and ELIZA- 
BETH McAFEE, being also residents of the metropolis. Mr. 
McAFEE was born in New York city, January 3, 1843, and 
has resided there all his life. Aside, therefore, from his 
unquestioned ability and his qualifications in other respects, 
he is peculiarly well-fitted to represent the great city in the 
Legislature. Mr. McAFEE is finely educated, having gradu- 
ated from the College of the City of New York in the class 
of 1862, receiving the degree of A. B. Though a man of 
much literary culture and fine taste, his inclination has not 
led him to adopt either of the professions. During the past 
few years he has been in the real estate business, in which he 
has been reasonably successful. 

During the war, Mr. McAFEE organized a company for the 
12th New York Infantry, and was commissioned as Captain, 
April 29, 1862, being at the time but nineteen years of age. 
He proceeded to the front with the regiment. He was, how- 
ever, taken prisoner at Harper's Ferry, and paroled. On being 
exchanged early in 1863, he immediately returned to service 
with his regiment, and was promoted to the rank of Major 
and afterward to that of Lieutenant-Colonel, remaining with 
the Twelfth regiment during its term of service. His war 
record is, therefore, in the highest degree honorable. When 
he returned home he brought with him a youthful " contra- 
band," a bright, young fellow, who became devotedly attached 
to him. Col. McAFEE reciprocated the attachment by giving 
him a thorough education in New York city, and he is now 
filling a position of responsibility, being respected and trusted 
by all who know him. 



KNOX MCAFEE. 233 

In politics, Mr. McAFEE has always been a Eepublican. 
He was never before a candidate for any elective office, but 
during four years he held the position of Deputy Collector 
of Internal Eevenue of the eighth district of New York, 
and for three years he was a United States Gauger in the 
Custom House. He resigned both positions, however, pre- 
ferring the emoluments of a business rather than an official 
career. He was greatly disinclined to accept the Assembly 
nomination, which had been repeatedly tendered by his 
friends, but, at the earnest solicitation of those friends, he 
finally consented to accept what was to him a personal sacri- 
fice. His majority in 1873 over the combined Tammany and 
Apollo Hall vote was 896, his opponent being OLIVER P. 
BUEL, and his plurality last fall over Mr. BUEL and C. H. 
COURTNEY, an independent Democrat, was 1,561. Such 
majorities are not frequently vouchsafed to Eepublican Assem- 
bly candidates in the metropolis, and it indicates the regard in 
which he is held by the voters of the eleventh district. Mr. 
M. served last year on the Committees on Cities and Militia, 
and is this year a member of Banking and Militia. 

Adhering to the Presbyterian faith the faith of his 
fathers Mr. McAFEE is, in all respects, -a man of integrity 
and rectitude. His legislative action is, therefore, governed 
by principle, and his vote on every question may be regarded 
as the expression of what he conscientiously believes to be 
right. His course in the House is marked by a quiet and 
reserved demeanor, in strong contrast with the volubility of 
some other members of that body, but his keen black eye 
intently watches the progress of legislation, and he is able to 
vote understandingly when his name is called. 

Mr. McAFEE was married on the 8th of June, 1870, to 
Miss OLLIE V. KIRBY, of New York. 



30 



234 LIFE SKETCHES. 



JOHN T. McGOWAlST. 



Mr. McGowAN represents the sixteenth New York district, 
in which Governor TILDEN" resides, and is a wide awake and 
active member of the majority. He achieved some promi- 
nence early in the session because of his determined opposition 
to a couple of bills relating to the disposition of children. 

He was born in Ireland, December 21, 1838, but came to 
this country with his parents at a rery early age. He was 
then bereft of both father and mother when but seven years 
old. Consequently he was obliged to depend upon his own 
resources at a very tender age, and it is greatly to his credit 
that he succeeded in acquiring an excellent education. This 
he obtained in the day and evening schools of the metropolis, 
improving to the utmost such advantages as were within his 
reach. On January 6, 1851, at the age of 12, he entered the 
law office of BEEBE, BETTS & DONOHUE. Five years later 
the firm was changed to BEEBE, DEAN & DOXOHUE, but he 
remained in the office until November, 1868, becoming at an 
early period general manager and having an interest in the 
firm, which had the largest clientage of any law firm in 
the country. He was duly admitted to the bar while con- 
nected with the firm 1 mentioned, and is now practicing the 
profession on his own account with success. ' 

Mr. McGowAN has always been a Democrat, but he never 
before held any office in the gift of the party. In the recent 
canvass he became a candidate for the Assembly at the sug- 
gestion of Governor TILDES, and was elected by a plurality 
of 1,030, after a very exciting contest, his opponents being 
PETER WOODS, who has twice represented the district, and 
CHAS. E. L. HOLMES, a popular Eepublican. 

Mr. McGowAN is a member of the Eoman Catholic Church, 
and is yet in a condition of single blessedness. 



JOHN MCGROARTY. 



JOHN McGEOARTY. 



Mr. McGrKOARTY represents, for the second time, the dis- 
trict which, for several years, sent us the veteran JACOBS, 
who is promoted to the Senate. He is a well-known poli- 
tician of the Ninth "Ward, Brooklyn ; and though he is com- 
paratively a young man, he has mingled considerably in the 
local politics of the City of Churches, where he has resided 
all his life. He was born in Brooklyn on the 14th of Febru- 
ary, 1838, and educated in the public schools of that city. 
He learned the trade of a hatter, and followed that occupa- 
tion some years, but of late he has been engaged in the real 
estate business, and, pecuniarily, is quite well off. For sev- 
eral years he has been an Alderman for the Ninth Ward of 
Brooklyn. 

He does not take a very active part in the Assembly, so 
far, at least, as the debates are concerned, but his name is 
attached to a good many measures designed to advance the 
inrerests of his constituents, and he makes a creditable 
record. His majority over JOHN" OAKET, the Republican 
candidate in 1873, was 714, a gain of nearly 150 over Mr. 
JACOBS' last majority, and, last fall, he was re-elected by the 
largely increased majority of 1,079 over JOHIS" STINSON, 
Republican. He has been a member of the Committee on 
Cities two years, and serves, also, this year, as chairman of 
the Sub-committee of the Whole and member of Federal 
Relations. 



236 LIFE SKETCHES. 



JAMES A. MERWIN. 



Mr. MERWIN, who serves in the Assembly for the first 
time, was born at Leyden, Lewis county, January 8, 1827, 
and still resides at Port Leyden, where he is a prominent and 
valued citizen. He was educated partly in the common 
schools, but mainly at Wileston Seminary, Massachusetts. 
Soon after reaching his majority he entered business life, and 
for many years he has been an extensive lumber dealer, and 
has been quite successful. He has served three years in the 
Lewis county Board of Supervisors. Though chosen from a 
district usually Kepublican, Mr. MERWIN is a life-long Demo- 
crat, and wields much influence in the councils of his party. 
He defeated SIDNEY SYLVESTER, a former member of the 
House, in the late canvass, by a majority of 302. 

Mr. MERWIN possesses a fine physique, his physiognomy 
indicating strength of character, and a clear and well bal- 
anced judgment. He is a very capable member, and enjoys 
the esteem of his associates. He is a member of the Com- 
mittees on Roads and Bridges and Agriculture. 



JAMES W. MILLER. 



Mr. MILLER is one of those nervous and energetic indi- 
viduals who conquer success by sheer impetuosity. He is 
not brilliant, as the phrase goes, but he is able, courageous, 
and undaunted, and gifted with a large stock of common 
sense and discriminating judgment. These are prime quali- 
ties in mercantile life, and they are undoubtedly the secret 
of his success. Those who have marked his career in the 



JAMES W. MILLER. 237 

Assembly thus far predict for him a pronounced success in 
the field of politics. He came to Albany with no legislative 
experience whatever. He never had made a speech before a 
public assembly in his life ; nevertheless he has taken fair 
rank as a debater, and has shown himself to be a good off- 
hand speaker. Inasmuch as he is a man of sterling honesty 
and high purpose, there is every prospect that he has a dis- 
tinguished career before him. 

Mr. MILLER is the son of JAMES W. and ELZA MILLER, 
who resided in Newburgh all their lives, and lived and died 
much like the patriarchs of old, being simple and unosten- 
tatious in their habits, and greatly honored and respected by 
a wide circle of friends. He was born in Newburgh in the 
year 1830, and after receiving a fair education at home and 
in the common schools, followed the footsteps of his father 
and entered mercantile life. He still conducts the business 
established by his grandfather, and is able to boast a reason- 
able success. 

In politics Mr. MILLER has always been a Democrat, and 
is an ardent advocate of the principles of free trade and home 
rule. He has always lived and voted in the first assembly 
district of Orange county, which, though usually Republican 
by from 400 to 1,200 majority, elected him to the Assembly 
by a plurality of 371 over the Eepublican and Temperance 
candidates. He is a member of the Presbyterian denomina- 
tion, is still unmarried, and is well known in Newburgh as 
an upright and public-spirited citizen. 



238 LIFE SKETCHES. 



WARNER MILLER. 



Though Mr. MILLER made his first appearance in public 
official life as a member of the last Legislature, he leaped 
at once into a prominent position in that body, and wields a 
large influence. He possesses marked ability, and is ex- 
tremely clear-headed and practical in his ideas. Accustomed 
to think and act for himself upon every question, his views are 
characterized by originality and boldness, and he does not 
hesitate to back up his opinions by arguments which are 
couched in the plainest and most effective language. Being 
an extensive manufacturer, whatever tends to advance the 
industrial interests of the State naturally enlists his warm 
sympathy, but at the same time his efforts in that direction 
are inspired by no selfish considerations. The welfare of the 
community at large is uppermost in his mind. He is also a 
warm friend of the common schools of the State, and is a 
steadfast opponent of any efforts to encourage other educa- 
tional systems at the expense of that which, in its scope and 
mission, is peculiarly adapted to the whole people. In the 
last session Mr. MILLER attracted attention because of the 
proposition, initiated by himself, to strike from the general 
appropriation bill the clause giving $125,000 to the academies 
of the State. He made a powerful speech in advocacy of his 
motion to strike out, and carried the House with him by a 
decided majority, but when the bill reached the Senate, the 
clause was re-inserted after protracted discussion. He gives 
to the consideration of every question great earnestness and 
deep thought, and his speeches are always direct and to the 
point. 

Mr. MILLER was born in Oswego county, August 12, 1838. 
He is of German descent, his ancestors having emigrated to 
this country previous to the Revolutionary war. His great 



WARNER MILLER. 239 

grandfather was a colonel in that memorable conflict, and his 
dwelling, which is still standing at White Plains, was occupied 
by Gen. WASHINGTON as- his head-quarters. ABRAHAM MIL- 
LER, an uncle of the present Assemblyman, represented 
Westchester county for fourteen successive years in the As- 
sembly. 

Young MILLER was fortunate in the educational oppor- 
tunities he enjoyed. He passed through the usual common- 
school experience in early youth, and when he reached a 
proper age, entered Union College at Schenectady. From 
that institution he graduated in 1860, standing well with his 
class. After graduating, he taught for a short period at Fort 
Edward Institute. After the war broke out he enlisted as a 
private in the Third New York Cavalry, and was afterward 
promoted to the grade of Sergeant- Major. "He saw much 
arduous service in Virginia under SHERIDAN and others, and 
at the battle of Winchester he was taken prisoner by 
" STONEWALL" JACKSON'S brigade, and was paroled on the 
field. At this time he was acting Lieutenant. After receiv- 
ing an honorable discharge from the army, Mr. MILLER 
spent some time in Europe, gaining important knowledge 
concerning the manufacture of paper. On his return he es- 
tablished himself in the paper business at Herkimer, and is 
still carrying on that branch of manufacture successfully, 
employing a large number of hands. In July, 1864, he was 
married at Gloversville, N. Y., to CAROLINE CHURCHILL. 

Mr. MILLER is known throughout Herkimer county as an 
active Republican, but he has never before accepted office. 
Of refined tastes, rare culture, and possessing excellent social 
qualities, he is deservedly popular. He is also widely re- 
spected and honored for his high character and strict prin- 
ciples. No man in the present Assembly is more entirely 
unsuspected, or free from contaminating influences than the 
member from Herkimer. He is a consistent member of the 
Methodist church, and in his private life is entirely without 
reproach. Last year he was a member of the Committees on 



240 LIFE SKETCHES. 

Insurance, Engrossed Bills, and Sub-Committee of the 
Whole, and took rank among the most effective of the 
working members. This year he is a member of Ways and 
Means and Canals. 



NICHOLAS MULLER. 



The gentleman who represents the First district of New 
York merits a more extended notice than our space affords, 
as he is a man of marked characteristics in whatever light 
we regard him. Commencing his manhood amid penury 
and hardship, and beset by discouragements that would appal 
a less determined spirit, he fought his way step by step until 
he occupied a position of influence in the community, where 
he was able to extend a helping hand to others not so for- 
tunate. Very few residents of the lower wards of New York 
need to be told who NICHOLAS MULLER is. His public 
spirit, kindness of heart and fine social qualities are widely 
known, and hundreds have had occasion to know and appre- 
ciate the generosity and benevolence which are distinguishing 
characteristics of his nature. He is best known in the First 
ward, where he has spent thousands of dollars in rendering 
practical aid to his friends in misfortune. As a result, he 
possesses unbounded popularity, without much regard to 
party lines. He has resided in the ward about twenty- 
three years, and so thoroughly is he identified with its 
interests that he is undoubtedly the fittest representative that 
could be selected from its precincts. 

NICHOLAS MULLER was born in the village of Differyange, 
near Metz, in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, on the 15th 
of November, 1836. He is, therefore, now about thirty- 
eight years of age. 



NICHOLAS MULLER. 241 

His father, JOHN" MULLEE, was a man of considerable 
importance in the place, being a member of the Board 
of Councilmen, a position analogous to our municipal 
aldermen. He was a wholesale wine merchant, and pecu- 
niarily interested in a large iron foundry. In 1852 he 
emigrated to this country, and is now a wholesale grocer 
and liquor merchant at Savannah, Ga. Young MULLER 
obtained the rudiments of an education in the Luxem- 
bourg Athenaeum and in a private institution at Metz, 
and determining, at the age of fifteen, to try his for- 
tunes in America, he embarked for New York two years 
before his father, and landed in that city without a friend 
to whom he could look for counsel, ignorant of the Ian-' 
guage and customs of the new world, and possessing very 
little ready money. After a fruitless search for employment 
in the city he went to the interior of the State, and in the 
neighborhood of Schenectady he obtained employment on a 
farm at seven dollars a month, in the meantime diligently 
applying himself to the study of the English language. 
After a year spent in this way he returned to New York, 
and after some viscissitudes and spending a brief probation 
at minor duties, he obtained employment at Castle Garden 
as passenger agent of the Pennsylvania Central Kailroad 
Company. This was his starting point. Fidelity to his 
duties secured promotion, and he steadily advanced from one 
point of responsibility to another until he became one of the 
most valuable and efficient railroad men in the metropolis. 
The emigrant department was his speciality. When his 
engagement with the Pennsylvania Central closed, he entered 
into relations with the Central Eailroad of New Jersey, and 
mainly through his efforts a new system of the emigrant busi- 
ness was inaugurated, the object of which was to facilitate 
the rapid transit of passengers to their destination. Mr. 
MULLER visited the principal points of debarkation in 
Europe and established agencies. He also opened offices for 
the sale of tickets in all the principal cities and large towns 
16 



242 LIFE SKETCHES. 

of continental Europe, which enabled passengers to go direct 
to any part of the United States without delay or trouble. 
He thus established an immense and important business, in 
which he is still engaged, being, however, at present con- 
nected with the Erie Railway. 

Mr. MULLEB is a Democrat of the old Jackson school, 
and for many years he has been exceedingly active and influ- 
ential in the politics of his district. He has been connected 
with the Apollo Hall wing of the Democracy, though for 
some time past he has been a member of Tammany Hall. 
Though contributing largely in time and means in support 
of the local organizations, he has never before held a 
political office. Last fall he accepted the Assembly can- 
didacy and was elected by the handsome majority of 1,178. 
He serves in the House on the Committees on Railroads, 
Salt, and Two-thirds and Three-fifths Bills, being Chairman 
of the latter. He is not a frequent speech -maker in the 
Assembly, preferring to win distinction in a more quiet and 
oftentimes more effective way, namely, by doing his whole 
duty toward his constituents without parade or ostentation. 
During the recent canvass a political club in the First ward 
was named in his honor, and he was also a member of several 
such organizations, being President of the Germania Demo- 
cratic Union, and also of the Magnus Gross Association. 

In addition to his railroad connection, Mr. MULLER has 
other large interests, and has been a director in the Germania 
Bank since its organization. He is a man of family, having 
married an amiable and accomplished lady in the year 1859. 
In person, Mr. MULLEB is about five feet ten inches in height, 
of a robust and vigorous frame, full, round face, beaming with 
amiability and good nature, and features on which the best 
traits of humanity are indelibly stamped. He is the personifi- 
cation of health, his fresh complexion, and clear, sparkling eye, 
indicating exemplary habits. His character, socially and polit- 
ically, is above the slightest reproach, and his legislative career 
cannot fail to be honorable to himself and his constituents. 



JAMES M. OAKLEY. 243 



JAMES M. OAKLEY. 



Mr. OAKLEY is now serving his fifth term as the represen- 
tative from the second district of Queens county, and ranks, 
in point of continuous service, as next to the oldest Demo- 
cratic member of the present Legislature. He was born in 
New York city, on the 19th of June, 1839, received a 
thorough academic education, and for several years was 
engaged in the buying and selling of real estate. Latterly 
he has, in a measure, retired from active business. He now 
resides at Jamaica, Queens county, where he is very popular 
among all classes. 

Mr. OAKLEY has mingled considerably in politics, and 
enjoys the confidence of his party in a very large measure. He 
was a Republican previous to 1864, but in that year he voted 
for Gen. MCCLELLAN, and he has since been steadily identi- 
fied with the Democratic party. No other man in his district 
ever had' the fortune to be elected to the Assembly so many 
times in succession. In the canvass of 1872 extraordinary 
efforts were made to defeat him, but he received a majority of 
141 over THEODORE J. COGSWELL, Republican, and was the 
only Democrat elected in Queens county. His majority in 
1873 was 895, HENRY C. JOHNSON running against him, 
and last fall he was elected by a plurality of 1,058, his oppo- 
nents being H. H. ROWLAND, Republican, and OWEN S. 
GAVIN and H. T. BEDELL, Independents. Mr. OAKLEY is a 
man of unusually prepossessing appearance and genial man- 
ners. Well posted in the routine of legislation, though not a 
great talker, he is an efficient and valuable member, and much 
esteemed by all so fortunate as to possess his friendship. 

He has served on the Committees on Roads and Bridges, 
Banks, Militia, Sub-Committee of the Whole, Commerce and 



244 LIFE SKETCHES. 

Navigation and Public Printing, and this year he is Chair- 
man of Commerce and Navigation and member of Insurance. 
In 1873 his seat was contested by Mr. COGSWELL, but the 
committee unanimously decided in favor of Mr. OAKLEY, 
after a thorough investigation. 

I 



MICHAEL O'KEEFE. 



Mr. O'KEEFE is a young man of much ability, and worthily 
represents the Seventh district of Kings county. He was 
born in Ireland, September 28, 1837, and came to this country 
at an early age. Locating with his parents in New York 
city, he received his education in the public schools of that 
city, and finally engaged in mercantile pursuits. For several 
years he was clerk in the office of a New York gas company. 
He is now a wholesale dealer in ales. 

When the Eebellion broke out, Mr. O'KEEFE was among 
the first to volunteer, and went to the front on the 19th of 
April, 1861, with the famous Sixty-Ninth Regiment, New 
York State Militia. In the following May he was promoted to 
Lieutenant, and a few months later commissioned as Captain. 
He acquitted himself honorably during his term of service, 
and enjoyed the esteem of his comrades. Though long 
known as an active Democrat, Mr. O'KEEFE has not before 
held office. He was elected at a special election, held to fill 
the vacancy occasioned by the death of Hon. STEPHEN J. 
COLAHAN, by a plurality of 120, J. C. DENCKE, Republican, 
and JOHN W. FLAHERTY, Democrat, being his opponents. 
He is a member of the Committees on Roads and Bridges 
and Public Health, and is regarded as an able and conscien- 
tious member of the House. 



ALANSON S. PAGE. 245 



ALANSON S. PAGE. 



Mr. PAGE, who is now for the first time in the Assembly, 
is a well-known lumber manufacturer and dealer in Oswego ; 
a man of sound financial standing, unswerving integrity and 
high character, a fit representative of a city which deems it 
essential to her interests to invariably send one of her best 
men to the Legislature. With the progress and growth of 
that city, Mr. PAGE is intimately identified. He possesses, 
moreover, liberal ideas and comprehensive knowledge con- 
cerning her commercial needs and possibilities, and is fully 
awake to the nature of her business relations with other 
cities, and to what constitutes her rightful share in the volume 
of trade. His undoubted prominence in commercial and 
financial circles, and his knowledge of our great channels of 
intercommunication, led to his being placed at the head of 
the Canal Committee, and in that commanding position 
he has amply justified the confidence of the Speaker of the 
House and deserved the approbation of commercial men 
throughout the State. 

Mr. PAGE, who is of New England stock, was born at 
Providence, Saratoga county, on the 30th of June, 1825. 
His father, DAVID PAGE, was one of the early contractors 
in the construction of the Erie canal, in connection with 
the late Hon. STEPHEN CLAEK and ALANSON SUMNEK, of 
Albany. He died about a year since, at the advanced age 
of 87. Mr. PAGE'S maternal ancestors were SUMMERS. His 
maternal grandfather, KOBEBT SUMNER, who was a man of 
marked ability, emigrated from Connecticut about the year 
1795, and settled in the town of Edinburgh, Saracoga county, 
where he died at a very advanced age. 

Mr. PAGE was educated at common schools until his six- 
teenth year. The next three years were spent in Galway 



246 LIFE SKETCHES. 

academy and the Oneida Conference seminary at Cazenovia 
He designed adopting the profession of J;he law, and with 
that object in view he entered the law office of Hon. CLARK 
S. GRINNELL, at Northampton, Fulton county, where he 
remained a student for some time. Afterward he studied 
with the well-known law firm of S. & C. STEVENS, in Albany, 
and was admitted to the bar in 1848. After practicing a 
year in the village of Salina, however, he abandoned the law 
and entered upon a business career, settling soon afterward 
in Oswego, and embarked in the manufacture of lumber, 
which he carried on very extensively, having large mills and 
extensive timber tracts of land in Canada and Michigan. 
He is still engaged in the lumber trade, and has- acquired a 
wide reputation as a business man of great ability. 

Though gifted with abilities which fit him for any posi- 
tion of trust or responsibility, Mr. PAGE has generally 
declined the honors of public life, the only office he has 
held, previous to his present position, being that of Mayor 
of Oswego, which he filled during the years 18G9, 1870, 1871 
and 1872. He won universal esteem from men of all parties 
for the discreet performance of his municipal duty, and his 
popularity steadily increased during each year of his 
incumbency. The fact of his popularity, however, needs no 
further evidence than is found in the circumstances attend- 
ing his election to the Assembly. He was placed in nomi- 
nation by a party which the previous year was in a minority 
to the extent of eleven hundred votes, to oppose a man (Mr. 
CHENEY AMES), whose qualifications were in all respects 
fully equal to his own, and he succeeded in defeating him by 
a majority pf 376. Such a mark of confidence is not fre- 
quently paid to public men, but it was no more than a just 
tribute to the sterling worth of ALANSON S. PAGE. Mr. 
PAGE has always been a sound Democrat, and has for many 
years occupied a leading position in the party. Besides being 
Chairman of the Canal Committee, he is member of the 
Committee on Charitable and Religious Societies. He is a 



JOHN F. PECK. 247 

man of few words, straightforward, practical and methodical 
in advancing legislation in his charge, and is habitually cour- 
teous and dignified in his manner. He was married in 1853, 
to ELSIE B., only daughter of the late Dr. D. M. BENSON, of 
Geddes. 



JOHN F. PECK. 



Mr. PECK comes from Jefferson county, where resides a 
constituency from whence is derived a steady-going and honest 
class of legislators, men whose mission it is to make laws 
that will benefit the people and not oppress them. Of this 
class, Mr. PECK is a fair representative. He has been a 
farmer all his life, as was his father before him, and like 
most of that class of citizens he is plain and practical in his 
ideas. Having resided all his life in Jefferson county, he 
is fully conversant with the interests and needs of that sec- 
tion of the State, and is well qualified to speak and vote in 
its behalf. 

He was born on the 22d of September, 1824, in Cham- 
pion, Jefferson county, and married thirty-one years later to 
a Jefferson county lady, Miss EMILY A. GORDON". His fa- 
ther, JOSEPH PECK, Jr., also a native of the same county, 
and a farmer, resided during most of his life on the farm still 
occupied by the son, and died in 1846. JOSEPH PECK, his 
paternal grandfather, lived in the same town and was also 
a farmer. He served as an artificer during the Revolution- 
ary war, and the family still hold his honorable discharge, 
signed by Gen. WASHINGTON. The subject of the present 
narrative received a good education at the common schools, 
and also at the Black River Literary and Religious Insti- 
tute, and qualified himself thoroughly for the duties of man- 
hood. He was brought up as a Whig, receiving his politi- 
cal education from the Albany Weekly Journal, which he 



248 LIFE SKETCHES. 

took for more than thirty years. He joined the Republican 
party on its organization, and has acted with it ever since. 
Besides representing his town in the Board of Supervisors, he 
has never before held any important office. He was elected 
last fall by 453 majority over ANDREW SMITH, his Demo- 
cratic opponent. 



NATHAN D. PETTY. 



Mr. PETTY is a prosperous and influential lawyer of River- 
head, Suffolk county. He is now serving his second term in 
the Assembly, and is well known to the bar of the State, and 
to the entire community in his section, as a man of fine 
ability and a wide-awake politician. He was born at Good- 
ground, Suffolk county, on the 6th of January, 1842, and is 
therefore still quite a young man. His parents, CHAKLES 
and HAREIET PETTY, are both living. His ancestors were 
American for two or three generations back, but they were 
originally English in both branches. His father is a farmer, 
and owns a valuable estate at Goodground. In 1857 young 
PETTY entered Sanbornton Bridge Seminary, N. H., and 
remained one year. Afterward he spent a term at Fort 
Edward Institute, and also a year at Eastman's Business 
College in Poughkeepsie, and deeming himself fully qualified, 
he entered Princeton College in 1860, graduating therefrom 
in June, 1865. In 1864, while a student at Princeton, he 
obtained a leave of absence from the Faculty, and stumped 
the States of New York and New Jersey in the Presidential 
canvass, making numerous exceedingly effective speeches for 
the Republican cause. He has always spoken in most of the 
campaigns since that time, and in this respect his service to 
the party has been invaluable. After graduating from 
Princeton with high honors, Mr. PETTY entered the Albanv 



NATHAN D. PETTY. 249 

Law School, from which he graduated the following year, 
and was admitted to the bar of the State, in May, 1866. 
He commenced practicing at Goodground the same year, but 
that locality not affording sufficient field for his talents, he 
removed to Kiverhead, his present place of residence, in 1868. 
He has been eminently successful in his profession, and is 
now enjoying a large and constantly increasing practice. 

Mr. PETTY has been a Republican all his life, and from a 
very early age was actively engaged in politics. Never but 
once, however, did he hold public office previous to his elec- 
tion to the Assembly. In 1869 he was appointed Assistant 
Assessor of Internal Eevenue for Suffolk, and held the posi- 
tion until May, 1873, when the office was abolished. In 
1873 he ran against WILSOK J. TERRY, the Democratic 
nominee, and EDWARD Y. REEVE, Prohibition, and was 
elected by what was, in proportion to the votes polled, the 
largest majority ever given to a candidate in Suffolk county. 
His majority over TERRY was 1,285, and over both TERRY 
and REEVE, 1,199. The total vote was 6,385. The Republi- 
can majority in the district the previous year was 1,302, but 
the total vote was 8,390. Last fall he was elected by a 
plurality of 411, his opponents being RICHARD JENFIHGS, 
Democrat, and DAVID M. EDWARDS, Prohibition. 

Mr. PETTY'S personal appearance is quite striking, and, 
indeed, he may be regarded as one of the good-looking 
members of the House. His finely proportioned form, pale, 
but expressive countenance, well moulded features, and coal- 
black eyes and hair, make up an outward individuality 
which would attract attention anywhere. He is also an 
excellent speaker, and, whether it be on the political stump, 
in a court of law or on the floor of the Assembly Chamber, 
he is equally at home in the delivery of those short and 
pointed speeches which seem to exactly cover the point at 
issue, and carry conviction with them. His language is 
invariably chaste and well chosen, and his views are generally 
sound. His oratorical efforts are therefore quite effective. 



250 LIFE SKETCHES. 

He is not, however, noted for " much speaking," and when 
he does rise to address the House, it is usually upon the spur 
or inspiration of the moment. In the last House he was 
especially earnest in his advocacy of the Compulsory Edu- 
cational bill, but he also took an active interest in all the 
important legislation of the session, and made several excel- 
lent speeches upon the constitutional amendments then 
under discussion. In the present House he is equally active 
and prominent, his brilliant oratorical efforts, and his judi- 
cious course as a member of the minority serving to greatly 
increase his reputation. A. number of his speeches have 
attracted newspaper comment, and some of them may be 
ranked among the best speeches of the session. 

In religious faith, Mr. PETTY is a Congregationalist. His 
private character is, in all respects, irreproachable, and he is 
greatly respected in the community where he resides. He was 
married June 29, 1865, to CORNELIA BAIMAN, daughter of 
WILLIAM KAIMAN, of Newtown, R. I. 



LUCIUS C. PIERSON. 



Mr. PIERSON", the Democratic member from the Second 
district of Steuben county, is an influential citizen, and a man 
of considerable ability. He was born in Cameron on the 6th 
of December, 1833, and is, as the phrase goes, a self-made 
man, owing nothing to family or money influence. His 
parents were in limited circumstances and consequently he 
had no other educational advantages than those afforded 
by the common schools. His father, GEO. S. PIERSOST, 
was a lumberman in early life and finally turned his atten- 
tion to the practice of law. Mr. PIERSON readily saw, as 
he grew up, that his future prospects depended entirely 
upon himself, and he applied himself with energy to 



SETH G. POPE. 251 

qualify himself for the battle of life. His steady habits and 
turn for business won confidence and esteem, and he soon 
made a place for himself. During most of his life he has 
been actively engaged in farming or mercantile pursuits, and 
has been reasonably successful in both. His main business 
at present is farming. He has also found time to serve the 
public in a number of capacities. He was elected Justice of 
the Peace at the age of twenty-one, and held the office eight 
years. Twice, in 1872 and 1873, he was elected Supervisor of 
the town of Cameron and served in the board with credit. In 
the larger field to which he has been transferred by his election 
to the Assembly, he is doing good work for his constituents, 
and bids fair to materially add to his already enviable repu- 
tation. He is a quiet and modest member, but very attentive. 
The fact that he, a Democrat, was elected by a plurality of 
over 800, in a Kepublican district, shows that he is well 
thought of at home. He is a member of the Committees on 
Claims, Manufacture of Salt and Civil Divisions. 

Mr. PIERSON was married, on the 4th of August, 1860, to 
CHARLOTTE L. BRIGGS, of Corning. He* is a firm believer in 
the Christian religion, and is in all respects a quiet, useful 
citizen. 



SETH G. POPE. 



The most casual visitor to the Assembly chamber would 
scarcely fail to notice the tall and striking form of the mem- 
ber from Ogdensburgh. He is head and shoulders above the 
average of men in height, and his face, in which are strongly 
marked lines of character, is set in a flowing iron-gray beard. 
He gives the impression at once that he is a man of much 
ability, force of character, and tenacious purpose, and it is 
but just to observe that acquaintance strengthens such an 
impression. 



252 LIFE SKETCHES. 

SETH GEISWOLD POPE was born in Great Harrington, 
Berkshire county, Mass., on the 14th of December, 1819. 

His father, EBENEZER POPE, a native of Connecticut, 
moved in early life to Berkshire, Mass., where he lived until 
his death, in 1842, at the age of 68, and was a man of sterling 
worth and integrity. He was a Democrat of the Jeffersonian 
school, and as such represented his town several terms in the 
Legislature. His mother's maiden name was ZADT PED- 
DLE. She was widely known as a lady of exalted Chris- 
tian faith and character, remarkable alike for her kindly 
and loving disposition and large charity. She died in 
1863, at the age of 84, leaving a large family, the young- 
est of whom is the subject of our sketch. Mr. POPE 
enjoyed rather limited educational advantages during his 
youth, though he obtained some instruction in a common 
school. Previous to his majority he served four years at the 
carpenter and joiner's trade, having charge of part of his 
employers' business before his term expired. At the age of 
twenty-two he commenced business for himself. During the 
eight years following, he built some of the best buildings in 
southern Berkshire, as well as several railroad bridges. He 
removed to Ogdensburgh in 1850, and engaged in the manu- 
facture of doors, sashes, blinds, and similar articles. This 
business he still successfully continues at Ogdensburgh. 
Since he has resided in Ogdensburgh, however, he has also 
been extensively engaged as a contractor, among his numer- 
ous works of magnitude being a portion of the new reservoir 
in Central Park, New York, and several grain warehouses 
and elevators in Canada. For some years he has been gen- 
eral agent for the King Iron Bridge Company in the eastern 
States, where he is well known. He is also engaged in the 
hardware business in Ogdensburgh. In all his multifarious 
enterprises he has been uniformly successful, and enjoys 
wide repute for strict integrity, rare business sagacity and 
indomitable energy. 



L. BRADFORD PRINCE. 253 

In early life Mr. POPE was a Free Soil Democrat, but he 
was one of the first to enlist in the Kepublican ranks, and 
he has since been a strong supporter of the principles of that 
organization. He was the first Republican President of the 
village of Ogdensburgh, and during the years 1863, 1864 
and 1865, he represented the town of Oswegatchie in the 
Board of Supervisors. He invariably carries into every 
public position the same qualities which govern his conduct 
as a business man, and in him, therefore, the people have a 
clear-headed and capable representative. Lie was elected to 
the Assembly, in 1873, by a majority of 582 over EDWIN 
G. DODGE, and served on the Committee on Commerce and 
Navigation and Manufacture of Salt. Last fall he was re- 
elected by a plurality of 1,690, his opponents being LEWIS 
HASBROUCK, Democrat, and S. V. E. HENDRICK, Prohibition. 
He serves now on Trade and Manufactures and State 
Charitable Institutions. 

Mr. POPE has been twice married. His first wife was 
ISABELLA M. CARTER of Whitesboro, Oneida county. She 
died in 1857, leaving one child. In 1860 he married Mrs. 
H. C. CHAPIN, daughter of B. F. HASKELL, of West Corn- 
wall, Vt. The result of this marriage is one son and one 
daughter. 



. L. BRADFORD PRINCE. 



In view of his five years' record as a legislator, his emi- 
nence in the legal profession, his prominence in literature 
and politics, and his honorable connection with societies and 
institutions of learning, Mr. PRINCE may be regarded as one 
of the prominent men of our State. A finely cultivated 
gentleman, a thorough scholar, a brilliant and forcible 
speaker, and a man of decided and advanced opinions in 



254 LIFE SKETCHES. 

most departments of thought, he is well qualified to main- 
tain a leading position in a legislative body. Mr. PRINCE 
was born in Flushing, his present place of residence, on the 
3d of July, 1840. He is a lineal descendant of Gov. WM. 
BRADFORD, of Plymouth, one of the "Men of the May- 
flower," and inherits many of the sturdy virtues of his 
Puritan ancestry. Both his grandfather and his great-grand- 
father, on the maternal side, were Governors of Rhode 
Island, and on the paternal side, he comes of the well-known 
PRINCE family, of horticultural fame. After spending 
much of his youth in South Carolina and Florida in search 
of health, he was engaged, for a short time, in horticultural 
pursuits at Flushing, but his tastes leading him to the law, 
he entered Columbia Law School, from which he graduated 
with the highest honors, receiving the $200 prize in Political 
Science. In 1868 he was complimented by being chosen as 
the Alumni orator, and is now President of the Alumni As- 
sociation of the Law School. As a lawyer he stands high, 
being a clear and incisive reasoner, and possessing rare 
ability as an advocate. He indulges in very little fanciful 
rhetoric, relying mainly upon carefully presented facts and 
well digested deductions therefrom. 

Mr. PRINCE'S political career reaches over a period of 
more than sixteen years, embracing the whole history of the 
Republican party. His interest in political matters early 
developed itself, and as long ago as 1856 in the Fremont 
campaign he was an active writer and worker, receiving a 
special vote of thanks from the town club, of which he was 
too young to be a member. In 1860, though still not a voter, 
he acted as officer of the local organization, delegate, speaker, 
etc., enthusiastically supporting the Lincoln ticket. Since 
that time he has always been actively engaged in political 
work, though living in a county where the heavy Demo- 
cratic majority precluded all expectation of personal advance- 
ment ; and, as a political speaker, is well known in many 
sections of the State. Thirteen years ago he was chosen a 



L. BRADFORD PRINCE. 255 

member of the Republican Committee of Queens county, and 
has been its presiding officer for several years. He was also 
a delegate to the Chicago National Convention in 1868, and 
in the following year a member of the State Committee. He 
was first elected to the Assembly in 1870, when he received a 
majority of 1,415, although the district is about 600 Demo- 
cratic. 

Mr, PRINCE'S popularity, in fact, has never been bounded 
by party lines, men of all shades of political belief recogniz- 
ing the fact that his splendid abilities are available for the 
welfare of the whole people. Though not entirely unknown 
in the State at large when he entered the Assembly, his 
talents commanded speedy recognition in that body, and his 
skill as a debater and his legislative efficiency were soon appa- 
rent. In the fall of 1871 he was again placed in nomina- 
tion, and though his opponent was the strongest Democrat 
in the district, and a man who had served two terms in the 
Assembly and one in the State Senate, Mr. PRINCE received 
a majority of 1,169. In the fall of 1872 he received the 
extraordinary compliment of a request for his continuance in 
office, signed by over 2,000 voters, irrespective of party. He 
was thereupon nominated by acclamation, and elected with- 
out opposition. Such a tribute to high personal character and 
exceptional official fidelity, is rarely extended to a public 
man, and all who know Mr. PRINCE will readily admit that 
it was in every way deserved. In the fall of 1873 he was 
tendered the Senatorial nomination, but he declined it for rea- 
sons in the highest degree honorable to him. He received a 
unanimous renomination for the Assembly, and was elected 
by a vote of 2,424 against 401, for his nominal opponent, J. 
H. WRIGHT. In the ensuing canvass for the Speakership, he 
was the opponent of Mr. HUSTED in the caucus. The con- 
test was close and exciting, but it was conducted with entire 
good feeling on both sides ; and though Mr. PRINCE was 
defeated, it furnished another proof of the high estimation 
in which he is held by the people. The fact that he was, in 



256 LIFE SKETCHES. 

an especial sense, the candidate of .those desiring purity and 
reform in legislation, is exceedingly creditable to him. Last 
fall he was elected by a majority of 771 over SOLOMON" 
TOWNSEND, Democract. 

His service in the Assembly has been an honorable one. 
As Chairman of the Judiciary Committee in 1872, 1873 and 
1874 his labors were not only multifarious and arduous, but 
exceedingly valuable to the State. It was his province dur- 
ing the winter of 1872 to conduct the investigation into the 
official conduct of Judges BARNARD, CARDOZO and McCuNN. 
This investigation extended from February 19 to April 10, 
during which time 239 witnesses were examined, and over 
2,400 pages of evidence taken. The thoroughness and fair- 
ness with which the investigation was prosecuted, secured 
the approbation of all parties, and its results form the 
brightest page in the history of that Legislature. The ver- 
dict of the committee was so evidently based upon justice 
and evidence, that- it met with very general acquiescence. 
The report in favor of impeaching two of the judges and 
removing the other, was adopted by the House, and, in the 
choice of managers to conduct the impeachment trial, which, 
as is known, resulted in the disgrace of Judge BARNARD, 
Mr. PRINCE received 110 of the 113 votes cast by the House, 
the others chosen varying from 104 to 50 each. He was also 
appointed to proceed to the Senate and formally impeach 
Judge BARNARD at its bar, for high crimes and misdemea- 
nors. He was active in the matter until the trial closed, 
and it is probably due to him more than any other one man, 
that the Judiciary of the State was relieved of the disgrace 
that would have attended BARNARD'S continuance on the 
Bench. 

Mr. PRINCE has, during his whole legislative career, been 
the uncompromising foe of special legislation. He favors 
the passage of no act the object of which can be attained 
under a general law, or which can be taken care of by the 
boards of supervisors. As a result of his influence and 



L. BRADFORD PRINCE. 257 

efforts, the volume of annual legislation was, even before 
the adoption of the constitutional amendments, materially 
reduced, to the decided advantage of the State. In the last 
session, besides the Chairmanship of the Judiciary Com- 
mitttee (which committee annually considers nearly 400 
bills, having over one-quarter of the legislation of the State 
referred to it), he was member of the Committee on Ways 
and Means and Eules, and this session he is on Judiciary 
and General, Local and Special Laws. During the last ses- 
sion he was especially active in securing the passage of the 
amendments to the Constitution, adopted by the people last 
fall, and he not only wrote a pamphlet explaining those 
amendments, but has rendered invaluable aid in framing the 
general laws required by the amended instrument. 

It is not alone, however, in the field of politics or law that 
Mr. PRINCE has won honor and fame. He is well known, also, 
as a thoughtful writer and lecturer on various topics, among 
which, perhaps, those relating to Legislative and Govern- 
mental Eeform have attracted the widest notice. Several 
years ago he wrote a work entitled " E Pluribus Unum, or, 
American Nationality," which passed through several edi- 
tions, and was warmly commended by statesmen and political 
scientists. Something over a year since he delivered a lec- 
ture in New York and several other cities, in which some of 
the evils of the present system of law-making were severely 
handled. He inveighed very strongly, in particular, against 
special and local legislation, the bulk of which has compelled 
much of the important work of every session to be crudely 
and hastily performed. His suggestions attracted much atten- 
tion and some of them are embodied in the amended Con- 
stitution. Mr. PRINCE is also a prominent member of the 
Masonic fraternity, having been D. D. Grand Master of 
Queens and Suffolk counties for three or four terms. For 
ten years he was Superintendent or Director of the Queens 
County Agricultural Society, and during nine years has been 
an officer of the Long Island Historical Society. With all his 
17 



258 LIFE SKETCHES. 

attainments, Mr. PRINCE is a quiet, courteous, unassuming 
gentleman, strictly conscientious in all his dealings with 
others, and it is evident that still greater honors are in store 
for him in the future. 



HARRY B. RANSOM. 



Mr. RANSOM modestly, but ably, represents the Fourth dis- 
trict of Erie county. He was born in Clarence, Erie county, 
November 20, 1834. He was educated in the common 
schools and afterward studied medicine, graduating from 
the Fourteenth Street College, in New York. He practiced a 
number of years, but finally abandoned the profession and 
now cultivates a farm at Grand Island. 

Mr. RANSOM has always been a Democrat in politics, and 
though not what might be termed a thick-and-thin partisan, 
he has generally been quite active on that side, and has been 
honored a number of times with important official positions. 
During the years 1870 and 1871, he represented his district 
in the Assembly, and thus obtained a familiarity with legis- 
lative duties which is of great value to him now. He served 
with credit during both years, being on several important 
committees. He has also been a member of the Erie county 
board of supervisors during several years, being first elected 
in 1865. His majority in the Assembly canvass last fall was 
288 over CHRISTOPH SCHWINGER, Republican, which is 
very gratifying, considering the fact that the district has been 
represented by a Republican for three years past. He is a 
member of the committees on Canals and State Prisons, and 
Chairman of that on Manufacture of Salt. 

Rarely participating in debate, Mr. RANSOM occupies an 
influential position in the Assembly, not less by reason of his 
earnestness and sincerity, than by judgment and carefulness. 



CHARLES REILLY. 259 

He attends closely to the interests of his constituents and to 
the general business of the Legislature, and is a good repre- 
sentative of that class of quiet, thoughtful men on whom 
devolve the real work of the session. 



CHARLES KEILLY. 



Mr. KEILLY represents the Fourth district of Xew York 
city. He is a quiet member, having very little to say in the 
way of debate ; but he is influential and active, and valuable 
in connection with that necessary work of legislation which 
is not so apparent to the ordinary observer. He was born in 
Norwalk, Conn., February 22, 1844. After spending his 
youth in the public schools of New York, he learned the 
cooper's trade ; but he subsequently abandoned that avoca- 
tion for mercantile life, and he is now and has been for a 
number of years engaged in the wholesale and retail liquor 
business. 

Mr. REILLY is in the Assembly as the representative of 
the regular Tammany organization, with which he has 
become identified since its rejuvenation. He never held 
an elective office before. In 1873, however, he was the 
candidate of the Apollo Hall Democracy for Assembly, and 
was defeated by 131 votes, and the year previous he was 
defeated in the aldermanic canvass in his district by a vote 
of 228. Last fall he was elected by a majority of over 4,000, 
over CHARLES E. ABBOTT, the Republican candidate. He 
is a capable member of the committee on Charitable and 
.Religious Societies. 



260 LIFE SKETCHES. 



JOSIAH RICH. 



Mr. RICH enjoys the distinction of being the first Demo- 
cratic Assemblyman ever elected in the third district of 
Monroe county. He was born in Ogden, Monroe county, 
December 23, 1833. His father was a native of Washington 
county, and settled, in 1825, upon the farm in Monroe county 
on which the son now resides. He was educated in the 
common schools, and has followed farming all his life. For 
eight years past he has represented his town in the Board of 
Supervisors, and is known as a capable and judicious mem- 
ber of the board. He was elected to the Assembly by a 
plurality of 159 over the Republican and Temperance candi- 
dates, and serves on the Committees on Internal Affairs, 
Trade and Manufactures and Sub-Committee of the Whole. 
He is an attentive and intelligent member, and is doing good 
service for his district. 



JOHN M. ROSCOE. 



Schoharie's present representative is a successful farmer of 
the town of Carlisle, a man of wide popularity and influence. 
The fact that he has been elected Supervisor for nine terms 
in succession without opposition is a sufficient indication of 
his status at home. He is well educated, being a graduate 
of Carlisle Seminary, and after completing his studies he 
taught school several years. He was born in Carlisle on the 
the 8th of March, 1837, and is therefore young enough to 
anticipate a successful career in public life, for which he 



ALLEN 8. RUSSELL. 261 

seems well fitted. Aside from his service in the Board of 
Supervisors, of which he has been chairman, he has never 
held any important public position until he came to the 
Assembly. He was elected to that body by a majority of 
1,887 over his Eepublican opponent, C. B. FEATHERS. He 
has always been a Democrat since he had a vote, but his 
political action is, as a rule, dictated by a regard for the inter- 
ests of the people rather than that of party. Hence his 
popularity with men of both parties. He serves in the 
House on the Committees on Villages, Internal Affairs, 
Grievances and Sub-Committee of the Whole. 



ALLEN S. RUSSELL. 



Mr. RUSSELL capably represents the Second district of 
Wayne county. Although he came to Albany without pre- 
vious legislative experience, he has developed much aptitude 
as a debater, and takes rank among the prominent members 
of an unusually able minority. It is worthy of note that up 
to the present writing (March 1), he has not been absent 
from the sessions of the House a single hour. Possessing 
numerous agreeable personal traits, and much native courtesy 
of manner, he is popular among the members, without regard 
to party, and has made many friends during his brief stay 
in Albany. 

He was born in Williamson, Wayne county, on the 8th 
of June, 1834, and is therefore in the early prime of life. 
His parents are both living in Battle Creek, Mich., and on 
both sides he is able to boast a very illustrious ancestry. 
His father, MOSES B. RUSSELL, is descended from the Dukes 
of Bedford, of England, the line being traced back very dis- 
tinctly through a period of one thousand years. His mother 



262 LIFE SKETCHES. 

is a descendant of John Rogers the Martyr. His ancestry, 
on both sides, took an active part in settling the country and 
defending it from its foes. His paternal grandfather, DANIEL 
RUSSELL, who came from Connecticut, settled in Wayne 
county, in 1796. His maternal great-grandfather perished 
in the terrible Indian massacre at Wyoming, and his mother's 
father was a soldier in the war of 1812. His mother's maiden 
name was ELEANOR L. STODDARD. 

Mr. RUSSELL enjoyed the advantage of a liberal education. 
Until 1860, he attended the Marion Collegiate Institute ; 
subsequently he entered the University of Michigan, where 
he remained two years. In 1863 he entered the College of 
Physicians and Surgeons, and graduated in 1864 with high 
honors. During 1860 and 1861 he was a teacher in the 
Marion Collegiate Institute, becoming in the latter year its 
Principal. Since his graduation, he has been a practicing 
physician aud surgeon, and owns an extensive drug store in 
Marion. In April, 1864, he entered the Union Army as an 
assistant-surgeon, being attached to the general hospital 
service, and it fell to his lot to gain his early experience in 
the terrible Wilderness battles, where he was active in caring 
for the wounded. After this he was on duty with the troops 
garrisoning the defenses of Washington, and in January, 
1865, he was promoted to the rank of brigade-surgeon. He 
had the reputation of having the best field hospital in the 
army corps with which he was connected. He left the ser- 
vice in July, 1865. During his service he was placed on 
duty as a member of the Army Medical Board for the exam- 
ination and discharge of sick and disabled soldiers, and has 
been offered a commission, which he declined, in the medical 
corps of the United States army. He was in the defenses of 
Washington when President Lincoln was assassinated, and 
heard him deliver his last speech. 

Mr. RUSSELL has always been a steadfast Republican, and 
has generally taken an active part in the politics of his dis- 
trict. He held the office of Justice of the Peace two years 



JONAH SANFORD. 263 

and then resigned it. At present he is Town Clerk of Marion, 
having been elected by a majority larger than any other 
candidate on the same ticket. He was elected to the Assem- 
bly by a majority of 767 over HIRAM WESTFALL, his Demo- 
cratic opponent, and serves on the Committees on Public 
Health and Federal Kelations. 

Mr. RUSSELL is a member of the Baptist denomination, 
and was really designed for the ministry, but failing health 
interfered with his studies in that direction, and his mind 
was turned in another channel. Eight times in succession 
he has been elected superintendent of the largest Baptist 
Sunday school in his county. He believes in the largest 
liberty of opinion in religious matters. He was married to 
EMILY A. WEIGHT in 1856. 



JONAH SANFORD. 



JONAH SANFORD was born in Hopkinton, St. Lawrence 
county, New York, on the 24th of October, 1821. In 1847 
he married CLARINDA RISDON, daughter of ELISHA RISDON, 
one of the earliest settlers of the town a man of sterling 
integrity and unimpeachable character, and for many years 
a general land agent. Mr. SANFORD is a son of the late 
Judge JONAH SANFORD, a man who deserves more than a 
passing notice in this sketch. Judge SANFORD was one 
of the most remarkable men Northern New York has 
known. He was the intimate friend and associate of such 
men as SILAS WRIGHT and PRESTON KING, and it is but 
paying a just tribute to his memory, when we say, that 
no man labored more arduously and successfully for the 
advancement of the interests of his locality than he. He 
was the son, of Hon. BENJAMIN SANFORD, of Cornwall, 



264 LIFE SKETCHES. 

Vermont, and was born November 30, 1790. His parents 
being poor, his early advantages were meagre indeed, and at 
the age of twenty he started westward with all his posses- 
sions upon his back, and selected a spot in Hopkinton, where 
he set to work to construct a home. Here he incessantly 
toiled, and, being a man of indefatigable industry, he suc- 
ceeded in wresting from stubborn nature a fine homestead, 
upon which he resided till his death, on the 25th of Decem- 
ber, 1867. Soon after settling in Hopkinton, he studied law, 
and for many years thereafter he was one of the most suc- 
cessful, if not one of the ablest practitioners of the law in 
Northern New York. He held many important civic and 
military positions; was Justice of the Peace and Supervisor 
of the town for several years, Member of the Legislature, 
Judge of the County Court, Member of Congress for the 
unexpired term of the late SILAS WRIGHT (when the latter 
was elected Comptroller) and a member of the Constitu- 
tional Convention of 1846. In the military service, he began 
as a volunteer in the war of 1812, and was present at the 
battle of Plattsburgh, September 11, 1814. By successive 
promotions he rose to the rank of Brigadier-General, being 
the successor in the latter capacity of Governor WEIGHT. 
In 1827 he was appointed a Commissioner to lay out and 
build the Port Kent Road through a wilderness of fifty 
miles, a work of great difficulty. But the noblest effort of 
his life, perhaps, was his organization, armament and disci- 
pline of the 92d New York Regiment of Volunteers when 
seventy-one years of age, and which he led as Colonel to the 
seat of war on the James. In politics he was a Democrat 
till the organization of the Republican party, with which he 
early united; and its principles found in him an earnest 
advocate and steadfast adherent. He was a man of noble 
figure and commanding presence, and a fluent and forcible 
speaker. His example and worth as a man will be long 
remembered. 



JONAH SANFORD. 265 

Mr. SANFORD, the son, attended school in the winters only 
of his boyhood, and completed liis education in the St. Law- 
rence Academy, at Potsdam, N. Y. On arriving at major- 
ity, he spent the first four years following as superintendent 
of his father's farm. He then moved upon a small farm of 
his own, and toiled with such perseverance that he was soon 
able to purchase a larger property, upon which he has since 
resided, and to which he has added extensively. He also 
turned his attention to manufacturing and speculation, and 
by the aid of good judgment and management has succeeded 
in accumulating a competence. In politics he was a Demo- 
crat up to the organization of the Eepublican party, to 
which he early united, and to which he has steadfastly ad- 
hered. His first vote as a Republican was for FREMOXT, in 
1856. His townsmen have often called him to positions of 
trust, and have always re-elected him by an overwhelming 
vote. In 1862 he was appointed Assistant Assessor of Inter- 
nal Revenue, by the Secretary of the Treasury, which posi- 
tion he held till the consolidation of tl\e system, in 1872. 
As an Assessor he bore a high reputation for his prompt- 
ness in the performance of duty, his faithfulness to the 
government, and his exactness in the affairs of the office. 
At the termination of his service, the Assessor thanked him, 
in warm terms for the prompt and efficient manner in which 
he had performed his duties. 

In August, 1862, he was appointed Enrolling Officer for 
his town. In 1867, some eighty enterprising and well-to-do 
farmers of the towns of Lawrence, Hopkinton, Parishville 
and Dickinson established a union store. Mr. S. was and 
still is its President. Under his judicious management it 
has prospered financially beyond expectation. 

He was first elected Supervisor of his town in 1868, and 
has been annually elected by a two-third majority ever since, 
being the first who has held the position for more than two 
years in succession. The fact that he has been each time 
opposed by a Republican (except last year, when he had no 



266 LIFE SKETCHES. 

opposition), speaks well for his performance of the duties of 
the trust. Mr. S. is, at the present time, a Vice-President 
of the St. Lawrence County Agricultural Society, and also a 
Director of the Kaquette Valley Agricultural Society. 

He is serving his second term in the Assembly, his judici- 
ous, straightforward and honest course in the last House 
securing the warm approval of his constituents, who re- 
elected him last fall by a largely increased majority. 

Mr. SANFOKD is an active, upright business man a man 
of large and varied experience affable in his manners, and 
pleasing in appearance. Though not of the " talking- 
machine " class, he expresses his opinion when he thinks it 
his duty, and always to the point. He is not one of those 
" who wear their heart out on their sleeve," but looks on the 
bright side of things generally. Few men enjoy with 
keener relish the pleasure of social intercourse. He gives 
freely to all benevolent and charitable purposes, and is a 
thoroughly public-spirited man. All movements for the 
benefit of the public, or undertakings to alleviate the dis- 
tresses of personal misfortune have his hearty support and 
pecuniary aid. 



MARTIN SCHENCK. 



Mr. SCHENCK is one of the young men of the House, and 
ably and intelligently represents the interests of Montgomery 
county. His ancestors came from Holland in 1665 and 
settled on Long Island, but his father, who died in 1873, 
resided in Montgomery county, and was a well-known 
farmer and lumber dealer. The subject of this sketch was 
born in Palatine, where he still resides, January 24, 1847. 
He received his preliminary education in the common 
schools at his native place and in the High School at Fonda. 



CHARLES M. SCHIEFFELIN. 267 

Afterward he entered Union College at Schenectady, and 
graduated in the class of 1862. For some years afterward he 
followed the profession of civil engineering, and during the 
years 1868 and 1869 he was engaged in the important work 
of locating the line of the Missouri, Kansas and Texas Bail- 
road. At present he is engaged in the lumber trade and also 
in farming. 

Mr. SCHENCK has always been an active Democrat, and 
although he held no official position previous to his elec- 
tion to the Assembly, he has played a prominent part in the 
politics of his district and has frequently held posts of honor 
in the county organization. His first vote was cast for 
HORATIO SEYMOUR in 1868, and he has since been unswerv- 
ing in his allegiance to the principles and candidates of the 
party. 

He was elected over MARTIN L. STOVER, the Republican 
Member of the last House, by a majority of 781, and is a 
member of the Committees on Railroads and Militia. 

A gentleman of fine presence, courteous manners and 
numerous graces of character, Mr. SCHENCK is quite popu- 
lar in the Assembly. He is a member of the Reformed Dutch 
Church, and is unmarried. 



CHARLES M. SCHIEFFELIJST. 



The present Assembly contains an unusual number of 
young men under thirty years of age, a fact which should not 
be lost sight of in any estimate of that body as a whole, as it 
will be found that a large proportion of the really progres- 
sive legislation is due to the influence and efforts of precisely 
that class, and upon them, also, mainly devolves much of 
the active work of the Assembly that labor which calls 



268 LIFE SKETCHES. 

especially for the exercise of alert and untiring energy. 
Among the young men of the House those who have just 
entered public life, and have a promising future yet before 
them none are more conspicuous than Mr. SCHIEFFELLN", 
of the Second district of Westchester county a rising 
lawyer, and a gentleman of fine attainments and engaging 
personal manners. He has attracted much attention 
throughout the session, because of his straightforward 
course, his independent spirit, and his evident determina- 
tion to prove himself in all respects a faithful representative, 
not only of the interests of his own immediate constitu- 
ency, but of the State at large. Keenly watchful of the 
progress of legislation, and ready at all times to interpose an 
earnest and vigorous protest against impioper schemes, no 
matter whence they emanate, he is recognized as a man who 
proposes to discharge his duties zealously and conscientiously 
under all circumstances. 

Mr. SCHIEFFELIN was born at Little Falls, N. J., June 14, 
1847. He is really a New Yorker, however, as he has lived in 
the town of East Chester, Westchester county, since early 
childhood. He comes of excellent stock the SCHIEFFELINS 
being an old and respected family their ancestors having 
settled on Manhattan Island early in the year 1700. He 
received a classical education, and also graduated from the 
Columbia College Law School with the degree of LL. B. 
Subsequently, in the year 1870, he was admitted to the bar, 
and has since practiced in the courts of New York city and 
Westchester county with marked success, enjoying an excel- 
lent reputation and an extensive and remunerative practice. 
Notwithstanding the demands made upon his time by his 
increasing legal business, Mr. SCHIEFFELIN* is a diligent 
student and spends much of his time in his library. A 
short time since he made an extended tour in Europe, and 
made a very close study of the different shades of political 
opinion prevalent on the continent, rendering himself familiar 
with the views of all the leading statesmen of the old world. 



CHARLES M. SCHIEFFELIN. 269 

Such a study cannot be otherwise than profitable and inter- 
esting to a rising American politician, the mutations of 
parties in Europe affording material for many valuable lessons. 

Mr. SCHIEFFELIN is a Democrat of liberal views. He 
frequently takes part in the discussions on the floor, his 
speeches being always exceedingly short and very pointed 
and vigorous in tone. At home he is deservedly popu- 
lar, as is shown by the fact that he was elected over 
two candidates by upward of 1,100 plurality in a district 
which for three years previously had sent a Republican to 
the House. As member of the important Committees on 
General Laws, Villages and Federal Relations, he is an 
exceedingly useful and able legislator. 

Mr. SCHIEFFELIH is a man about the medium height, 
robust and well built,, and always genial and agreeable in his 
intercourse with his fellow-members. He married a lineal 
descendant of FREDERICK AUGUSTUS MUHLENBERG, first 
Speaker of the House of Representatives. He is a member 
in good standing in the Masonic order, and for seven years 
was an active and useful member of the National Guard of 
this State, having as a recognition of his efficiency as an 
organizer and disciplinarian, received a commission as Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel of the Sixth Infantry, N. G. S. N. Y., one of 
our best German regiments. The present is the only political 
office he has ever held. 



X 



270 LIFE SKETCHES. 



GEORGE W. SCHUYLER. 



Mr. SCHUYLER is well known throughout the State as au 
exceedingly careful and shrewd financier, a judicious coun- 
sellor in political matters, and a successful man of business. 
His ripe judgment and rare executive ability have been of 
great value to the State in the responsible positions in which 
he has been placed, while there are none of our statesmen of 
the present day who rank higher than Mr. SCHUYLER in 
point of private character. Strict honesty has been the 
invariable rule of his business and official life, and though he 
had the control and care of the moneys of the Common- 
wealth at a trying period in its history, no word has ever 
been breathed that would express a doubt of his faithfulness 
or his capacity for the trust. 

Mr. SCHUYLER was born in Stillwater, Saratoga county, on 
the 2d of February, 1810, and was educated in the common 
schools, Ithaca Academy and the University of the city of 
New York, graduating from the latter in the year 1837. 
His tastes led him into business life, and for many years past 
he has been at the head of a prosperous drug business in 
Ithaca. He has never before been a member of the Legisla- 
ture, and indeed has never courted public life, but yielding 
to the solicitations of friends, who knew his qualifications 
for the position, he, in 1863, allowed his name to be used for 
the State Treasurership, and was elected on the Eepublican 
ticket. His services in that capacity were so entirely satis- 
factory, that on the expiration of his two years term, he was 
induced to take the Superintendency of the Bank Depart- 
ment. That office he held four years, or until 1870. In 
these positions he gained an experience and knowledge con- 
cerning the finances of the State which stand him in good 
stead on the floor of the Assembly, and Speaker McGuiRE 



GEORGE W. SCHUYLER. 271 

/ 

evinced wisdom in awarding him the Chairmanship of the 
Committee on Banks. His presence in the Assembly is 
especially valuable this session, inasmuch as the amendments 
to the constitution render necessary important general laws 
for the incorporation and regulation of banks of savings and 
discount. The general savings bank act, which seeks to es- 
tablish a uniform charter for all those institutions, and 
which at this writing is still under discussion, is largely the 
result of Mr. SCHUTLEB'S industry. The measure has elici- 
ted protracted and sharp debate, in which Mr. S. has borne 
himself with admirable tact and skill, not hesitating to cross 
swords with the leading parliamentarians of the House. His 
success in this respect is a subject of complimentary remark 
among those who have listened to the discussions referred 
to, while it is evident to all that he is thoroughly familiar 
with the intricacies of bank management in this State. 

During eighteen successive years Mr. SCHUYLER was 
Trustee of the Public Schools in Ithaca, and during that 
long period there never occurred a serious difference of opin- 
ion in the Board. 

In politics Mr. SCHUYLER is a Liberal Eepublican, 
though previous to 1872, when he supported the Cincin- 
nati movement, he was a Republican. In the late canvass 
he received the entire Democratic vote, and notwithstand- 
ing the fact that his opponent was WM. L. BOSTWICK, a 
very able and popular member of the House last year, he 
also received the support of many Eepublicans. His triumph 
was all the more gratifying, as he made no personal effort to 
secure his election, and indeed, consented very reluctantly to 
the use of his name. 

Mr. SCHUYLER is in some respects a model legislator. He 
scarcely every misses a session, and is always watchful and 
alert. He is. not given to much speaking, but as he forms 
very decided opinions upon all questions which come before 
him, he is not chary about giving them expression when he 
thinks the occasion requires it. His speeches are short and 



272 LIFE SKETCHES. 

to the point, and always courteous and pleasantly dignified 
in tone. His manner in private intercourse has the same 
characteristics, and few members of the House are more 
popular, socially speaking, than the member from Tomp- 
kins. 



SAMUEL SCUDDER. 



Mr. SCUDDER, a substantial farmer and lumberman of 
Cattaraugus county, is serving his first term in the Assembly. 
His popularity at home is sufficiently attested by the fact 
that he was elected by a majority of over 100 in a Republi- 
can district, defeating a Republican who has twice in succes- 
sion represented the district in the Assembly. Though elec- 
ted as the Democratic candidate, he has on several occasions 
shown on the floor of the Assembly that he is a man of inde- 
pendent views, and his legislative action is dictated rather by 
a regard for the welfare of the whole people than for any 
mere party advantage. This principle has evidently dictated 
his action during his entire political career, inasmuch as he 
has never allowed himself to be bound by his party connec- 
tion when it conflicted with his ideas of duty. Originally a 
Henry Clay Whig, he joined the Eepublican party at its 
organization, and up to 1872 acted with that party. In that 
year he was one of those who espoused the Cincinnati move- 
ment, and he gave earnest support to the Liberal cause. With 
other participants in that movement, he has gravitated toward 
the Democratic party, but styles himself a Liberal Repub- 
lican. 

Mr. SCUDDER is of Scotch descent on the paternal side, 
though his mother was born and reared in the Mohawk 
Valley. Both his parents died within a few hours of each other. 
His father served in the war of 1812, and his grandfather in 



FREDERICK W. SEWARD. 273 

the Revolution. The son was born in Randolph, where he 
now resides, on the 3d of April 1830. Attending the com- 
mon schools, during early youth, and afterward the Chamber- 
lain Literary Institute, he acquired a good education, and has 
followed farming and kindred occupations all his life. Indom- 
itable energy and determination and sterling honesty are the 
chief features of his character, and as a result he has been 
successful in every thing he has undertaken. 

He has several times been honored with public trusts, hav- 
ing held the office of Supervisor during a period of eight 
years, and being several times elected unanimously. During 
the rebellion he rendered important aid in filling the quota 
of volunteers. He was married on the 3d of June, 1853. 
His religious creed consists mainly in obedience to the injunc- 
tion, " Love thy neighbor as thyself," and in all the relations 
of life he is an upright and straightforward citizen. 



FREDERICK W. SEWARD. 



The Seventh Assembly district of the county of New 
York consists of parts of the ninth, fifteenth and sixteenth 
wards. The representative is FREDERICK W, SEWARD, one 
of the most capable, accomplished and eloquent members of 
the House. He was born in Auburn, Cayuga county, New 
York, on the 8th of July, 1830, and is a son of the late 
Governor WILLIAM H. SEWARD. He received his earliest 
schooling at the Auburn Academy, Prof. WILLIAM HOP- 
KINS, Principal, and, it is interesting to note, numbered 
ROSCOE CONKLING among his school-mates. Coming to 
Albany to reside while yet a mere lad, he was sent to the 
Pearl Street Academy an institution that has long since 
vanished and there attended recitations 'with MORGAN 
35 



274 LIFE SKETCHES. 

Dix and other boys, whose names have since become well 
and widely known. In the fall of 1845 he entered the 
Freshman Class of Union College, and, four years later, 
graduated from that ancient seat of learning. The Class 
of '49 contained not a few members that, in their subse- 
quent career, have done honor to their alma mater, and 
played a prominent part on the stage of the world. ALLEN 
C. BEACH, late Lieutenant-Governor of New York, DANIEL 
A. BUTTERFIELD, Major-General and Chief of HOOKER'S 
staff during the late war, ANSON G-. CHESTER, editor and 
poet, EGBERT POTTER, since Major-General POTTER, ALONZO 
FLACK, now Professor FLACK of Claverack, and ALBON 
MAN, were among the youths who graduated with the subject 
of our present sketch. 

In the latter part of the year 1849 Mr. SEWARD went to 
Washington, where he spent a year or more as Private Sec- 
retary to his distinguished father, who at that time was one 
of New York's representatives in the United States Senate. 
While thus employed, as occasion offered at Washington, 
and during the Congressional recess, at Auburn, he devoted 
himself to the study of law, which he had adopted as his 
profession. In the spring of 1851, with a view of complet 
ing his preliminary legal studies, he took up his residence in 
New York, and entered the office of KENT and DAVIES as a 
student. In the latter part of the same year he was admit- 
ted to the bar at Kochester, but before he had time to enter 
actively upon the practice of his profession he received a 
letter from THURLOW WEED, inviting him to come to 
Albany, and embark in journalism. The invitation was 
accepted, and, before the close of the year 1851, Mr. SEWARD 
was enrolled on the editorial staff of the Albany Evening Jour- 
nal. He held the position of Associate Editor of that paper 
from that time until 1861. While living at Albany he took a 
'deep and active interest in politics, espousing the side that 
enlisted his sympathy and judgment with much energy 
and efficiency, and was also alive to whatever tended or 



FREDERICK W. 8s WARD. 275 

seemed likely to tend to the best interests of the city. He 
heartily assisted in getting up the meeting that resulted in 
the foundation of the University of Albany, and presided at 
the meeting of the Young Men's Liberty Association, held 
in behalf of down-trodden Hungary. When KOSSUTH passed 
through the city he -was selected by the Association as their 
spokesman, and as such welcomed the distinguished exile 
to Albany. 

In 1854, directly after the State of New York had gone 
"fusion" the Whigs and Know Nothings electing their 
ticket he was one of the many " malcontents" who met at 
Albany to inaugurate a Kepnblican party. That party had 
already found foothold in the New England and North- 
western States, and in the opinion of the school of politi- 
cians with which Mr. SEWARD was identified the time had 
come for the Republicans of New York to organize. The 
meeting, which was attended by JOHN L. SCHOOLCRAFT, 
BRADFORD K. WOOD, C. P. WILLIAMS, WILLIAM BARNES 
and many other well-known citizens representing different 
shades of political belief, was, it is believed, the first formal 
Eepublican gathering ever held in the State. It resulted 
in an invitation to Hon. HENRY WILSON, now Vice Presi- 
dent of the United States, to address the Republicans of 
Albany. He complied and soon afterward made an eloquent 
speech at the Capitol. 

In 1857 WILLIAM H. SEWARD, PRESTON KING, F. B. 
BLAIR and FRANCIS E. SPINNER made a pleasure tour 
through Canada, and the subject of our sketch accompanied 
them. Having seen the sights of Canada, he and his father 
left the rest of the party, passed down the Gulf of St. Law- 
rence and so to Labrador. Three years previous young 
SEWARD had married Miss WHARTON, of Albany, and she 
accompanied her husband and father on their voyage to 
Labrador. 

The election of ABRAHAM LINCOLN in 1860 and the 
consequent appointment of Governor SEWARD as Secretary 



276 LIFE SKETCHES. 

of State in the spring of the next year, had an important influ- 
ence in shaping the story of FREDERICK W. SEWARD'S life. 
In February, 1861, he was requested by his father to leave 
Albany and join him at Washington. He did so without 
delay, and as confidential friend and adviser and secretary he 
was, we need not say, of immeasurable service to Governor 
SEWAED, who found himself confronted with the trying and 
many-phased problem of secession. He remained with his 
father constantly until after the inauguration of President 
LINCOLN". His was the memorable and historic mission from 
"Washington to Philadelphia to warn the President elect that 
he stood in grievous danger of being assassinated in passing 
to the National Capital, through Baltimore. The exciting 
story of the warning and the escape has been told so often 
that we will not stop to rehearse it here. 

On the 4th day of Match, 1861, Mr. LINCOLN was inaugur- 
ated President, and on the following day submitted to the 
new Senate the name of WILLIAM H. SEWARD, as Secretary 
of State. A day later he nominated FREDERICK "W. SEWARD 
as Assistant Secretary of State, and the nominee had the 
pleasure of hearing, from the lips of CHARLES SUMMER, the 
first intelligence of his prompt and unanimous confirmation 
by the Senate. The Assistant Secretary's first duty was to 
assist his father in the delicate and arduous duty of weeding 
out the disloyal element from the Department of State. 
This was accomplished within the first week after the organi- 
zation of the new government so successfully, that during 
Mr. SEWARD'S entire term in the department, covering a 
period of eight years, ic was never found necessary to dismiss 
another clerk. The distribution of duties in the State 
department was such that the Secretary took charge of the 
diplomatic business, and the Assistant Secretary that con- 
nected with consuls, etc. Assistant secretaries of the various 
departments of government are usually commissioned to act 
for their superior officers in case of absence or sickness, and 
during the eight years of his service as Assistant Secretary 



FREDERICK W. SEWARD. 277 

of State, Mr. SEWARD was appointed by Presidents LINCOLN 
and JOHNSON, Acting Secretary of State some twenty times 
or more. An acting Secretary occupies his chiefs place in the 
Cabinet councils, and directs the business of the department. 
From 1861, when he became connected with the State 
department until 1869, when he resigned his office, FREDE- 
RICK W. SEWARD aggregated some six months as Secretary of 
State. As such he sat in the Cabinet meeting in the winter 
of 1862, when an advance along the lines was ordered, whose 
fruits were seen in the victories of Forts Donelson, Henry, 
etc. As acting Secretary of State, he also attended the 
important Cabinet meeting held after the second defeat of 
Bull Eun, at which LINCOLN decided to restore McCLEL- 
LAN to the command of the army, and sanctioned the 
movement which resulted in South Mountain and Antietam. 
Again he sat in the Cabinet on the great occasion when the 
policy of reconstruction was decided on the day of the 
evening on which Mr. LINCOLN was assassinated. Parting 
with the President at the close of that meeting, Mr. SEWARD 
reminded him that a new British Minister was to be pre- 
sented and inquired if the ceremony should take place the 
next day. " Yes," replied Mr. LINCOLN, " I'll receive him at 
two o'clock in the Blue Boom." That was their last inter- 
view. 

Mr. SEWARD was intimately connected with most of the 
important events in the history of the American Union of 
that stormy period included between the years 1861 and 
1869. 

In 1866 he was sent on a special mission to St. Domingo, 
by the government. The United States had long been desir- 
ous of obtaining a harbor for coaling, etc., in the West Indies, 
and the republic of St. Domingo had offered the Bay of 
Samana and asked that an envoy might be sent to treat with 
her for its transfer. Mr. SEWARD was intrusted with the 
mission, being clothed with plenipotentiary powers so as to 
enable him to conclude a treaty if he thought fit to do so. 



278 LIFE SKETCHES. 

The Naval Department detailed Admiral POKTEB to examine 
and advise in regard to naval advantages that might arise 
from obtaining the harbor ; and Mr. SEWARD and he pro- 
ceeded to their destination in the vessel Gettysburgh, which 
was placed at their service. On their arrival at St. Domingo, 
they entered into negotiations with President CABEAL and 
his cabinet, and found what they were willing to concede. 
Concluding that it was not desirable for the United States to 
make the treaty required, they returned to "Washington and 
reported to that effect. Later, Senor PTJJOL, representing 
St. Domingo, brought word to the State Department that 
that republic was willing to make the treaty on the terms 
proposed by Assistant Secretary of State SEWARD, and Admi- 
ral PORTER. When his offer was made, however, the discord 
between the President and Congress had reached such a 
point that negotiations were no longer practicable. 

For a detailed record of the scenes and events with which 
Mr. SEWARD was connected during his connection with the 
State Department as assistant Secretary of State, the treaties 
with England, China, Japan, and other foreign powers, the 
blockade of the southern ports, the assassination of the 
President, the attempted assassination of the Secretary of 
State and the Assistant Secretary, the impeachment of Presi- 
dent JOHNSON, etc., etc., we refer the reader to the biography 
of WILLIAM H. SEWARD, upon which the subject of this 
sketch is now engaged. 

On the fourth of March 1869, he and his father resigned 
from the State Department. In June they made the journey 
across the continent, stopping at Utah and Colorado, and 
after a month in California, proceeded to Vancouver's Island, 
Puget Sound, Oregon, Washington Territory, British Colum- 
bia, and so up the inland passage to Alaska, where they 
remained a month. Eeturning to California by steamer, 
they next proceeded to Mexico. Here they spent three 
months, Governor SEWARD being the guest of the nation. 

During the last few years Mr. SEWARD has resided most 



STEPHEN D. SHATTUCK. 279 

of the time at Montrose, Westchester county. He was 
elected to the Assembly by a majority of 342 over SMITH E. 
LAN~E, his Democratic competitor. He is a member of the 
Committee on Charitable and Keligious Societies, and Gen- 
eral, Local and Special Laws, and also of the Joint Committee 
charged with investigating the affairs of the canals. 



STEPHEN D. SHATTUCK. 



The First district of Steuben ranks among the " closely 
contested" localities of the State, and neither party can 
claim a monopoly of its representation. This year Mr. SHAT- 
TUCK, an able and well known Democrat, has the honor of 
representing it for the second time. He is a man about the 
middle age, rather undersized, active and full of vitality, and 
amply qualified to fill his responsible position. He was born 
in Cohocton, where he still resides, on the 5th of April, 
1828. Educated mainly in the common schools, and being a 
man of keen powers of observation, he is well informed upon 
all subjects which would naturally engage the attention of the 
average legislator. He commenced his business life, at the 
age of 18, as clerk in a store, and going into business for 
himself in the course of time, he has followed mercantile 
pursuits ever since, being reasonably successful. 

Always a straightforward and consistent Democrat, Mr. 
SHATTUCK has been active in politics since his youth. Dur- 
ing the Eebellion he was prominent as a War Democrat, 
giving his active co-operation to the work of filling the mil- 
itary quotas of his town and county. During his career in 
the present Assembly he has shown much independence of 
party dictation, being especially rebelliously inclined toward 
the demands of Tammany upon the rural members. When 



280 LIFE SKETCHES. 

the famous "Costigan bill" was under discussion, he 
made one or two speeches which drew upon him the 
hostility of the party leaders on the floor, and at- 
tracted wide attention throughout the State. He has held 
several town offices, and during a period of five years was a 
member of the Steuben county Board of Supervisors. He 
was elected to the Assembly in 1873 by a majority of 455 
over CHARLES K. MINOR, his Republican opponent, and re- 
elected last fall by 648 majority over HENRY SCHLY, Repub- 
lican. This year he is a member of the Committee on Banks 
and Internal Affairs, and last year was on Banks and Sub- 
Committee of the Whole. He is a Universalist in religious 
belief, and possesses many of those traits of character which 
win popularity and respect. 



KICHAED U. SHERMAN. 



RICHARD U. SHERMAN, the member from the First district 
of Oneida county, is a native of that county. He was born 
in 1819, and was educated for a merchant ; but on arriving 
at the age of manhood he adopted journalism as a profession, 
which he followed till 1851, when he was elected Clerk of 
the 'Assembly. While in that position he prepared the 
Clerk's Manual, which is considered an indispensable guide 
in legislative proceedings. He held the position five years, 
and was then elected Member- of the Assembly of 1857, in 
which he was Chairman of the Sub-Committee of the Whole 
and of the Special Committee of Suffrage, and member of 
Ways and Means and Commerce and Navigation. After 
serving one year he was nominated for the Senate, but 
declined. In 1860, he was appointed an Assistant Clerk of 
the House of Representatives. He served ten years, when he 
voluntarily resigned on account of pressing trust duties at 
home. In 1867, he was chosen a member of the Constitu- 



RICHARD U. SHERMAN. 281 

tional Convention of this State. In that body he was con- 
spicuous for his efforts to correct the evils of special legisla- 
tion, which had been brought prominently to his notice 
during his long public service. 

Mr. SHERMAN has been engaged actively in politics for the 
last thirty years, and his skill as a party organizer has given 
him much prominence. He commenced political life as a 
Whig, and when the organization under that name ceased 
to exist, he became a Republican. In 1872, he joined the 
revolt of the Liberals, and was the candidate for Congress 
of the Democratic and Liberal alliance in the Oneida district. 
Since that time he has been identified with the Democratic 
party, and was elected as a Democrat to the present Assem- 
bly. He has held many official trusts in his native county, 
and is practically familiar with nearly every class of public 
business, being, in turn, Alderman, Supervisor, Brigadier- 
General of the National Guard, Justice of the Peace, and 
President of the village of New Hartford. This experience, 
together with his natural executive ability, renders him a 
valuable member. He is not a debater ; but as a writer is 
distinguished for terseness, elegance and force. In com- 
mittee duty he is one of the most efficient and useful mem- 
bers of the House. He is chairman of the Committees 
on Rules and State Prisons, a member of the Committee on 
General Laws, and of the Joint Select Committee to investi- 
gate Canal affairs. 

Mr. SHERMAN'S name was prominently mentioned for 
the Speakership of the present House, an office for which 
his fitness was generally recognized ; but as this seemed to 
involve an antagonism with the interests of his friend and 
neighbor, Hon. FRANCIS KERNAN, who was a candidate 
for United States Senator, he declined to press a canvass 
that might otherwise have been successful. 

Mr. SHERMAN'S counsel is much sought by the new 
members who desire advice and assistance in framing and 
forwarding their measures. He is affable, friendly and unpre- 
36 



282 LIFE SKETCHES. 

tending qualities which make him warm friends every- 
where, and have given him at home a popularity which no 
political changes seem to affect. This popularity is shown 
by the fact that he defeated Mr. CHADWICK, the Republican 
member of last year, by a majority of 255, overcoming an 
adverse majority of 764, the district at the same time giving 
Dix -the Republican candidate for Governor, a majority. 



GEORGE SHERWOOD. 



Mr. SHERWOOD was born at McDonough Springs, Chenango 
county, January 18, 1820. His grandfather, on his father's 
side, was a soldier in the revolutionary war, and served during 
the seven years. His mother's father was Rev. DAVID BUD- 
LONG, a pioneer Baptist minister in Oneida county. His 
advantages for acquiring an education were limited, and 
consisted of very irregular attendance at a country common 
school, as such schools were thirty years ago. But notwith- 
standing his early disadvantages, he has absorbed, from much 
reading, a practical education, and acquired a good under- 
standing of the world, if not of the Latin and Greek classics. 

He has always followed the occupation of a farmer, and 
now owns and resides upon a farm a short distance from 
Binghamton, and overlooking the city. His wife, whom he 
married twenty-five years ago, is a daughter of ALLEST C. 
JEFFORDS, a surveyor, and a citizen somewhat prominent in 
the northern part of Broome county. In personal appear- 
ance, Mr. SHERWOOD indicates that he is a laboring man in 
his occupation, and not in any sense a " fancy farmer." He 
is of medium height, somewhat stout, black, bushy hair and 
beard sprinkled with gray, piercing black eyes and well- 
marked features, which are unmistakable evidences of 
firmness. 

Following, perhaps, the predilections of his mother, he 
early united with the Baptist Church, and has since been a 



GEORGE SHERWOOD. 283 

communicant, although from settled convictions he has for 
several years refused to taste fermented wine at communion. 
For a time his refusal to touch the wine used in his church 
was regarded as a tentative, and was the subject of severe 
criticism. He was denounced as a " one-idea man ;" but his 
"one idea" was finally acknowledged to be singleness of pur- 
pose, and now his pastor, the Rev. LYMAIST WEIGHT, D. D., 
and a large portion of his congregation are fully in accord 
with Mr. SHERWOOD on the subject of communion wine. 

As might be supposed from his views upon- the sacrament, 
Mr. SHERWOOD is a zealous temperance man. He has given 
much time to the cause, in lecturing, speaking and working 
for it. He holds no association more precious than the 
church, but the church usages, when they conflict with his 
views on temperance, must submit to a modification, or he 
dissents. It is so in politics and all things else. He was 
prominent in the Maine law movement in this State, and was 
a delegate to the convention that nominated Hon. MYRON" 
H. CLARK for Governor in 1854. His political antecedents had 
been with the original abolitionists, when to advocate 
the universal manumission of slaves required more nerve 
than it did subsequently to take up a musket and 
march with the "three hundred thousand more" to put 
down the slavery rebellion. So few were the abolition voters 
in his section that tickets were not distributed to them, and 
Mr. SHERWOOD frequently voted a ticket cut from a news- 
paper, or copied the names from posters. Still he voted, 
although nearly alone, for the abolitionists' principles, rather 
than for men, until the Republican party organized, in 1856, 
to vote with him. Since the Republican party has existed 
he has been one of its most ardent supporters. 

Notwithstanding Mr. SHERWOOD has been elected to office, 
he was never an aspirant for political position. In 1870 he 
was chosen to represent his town that of Binghamton in 
the Board of Supervisors. The campaign in 1873, that 
resulted in his election to the Assembly, had features of 



284 LIFE SKETCHES. 

peculiar interest. His nomination was unsought and unex- 
pected, and almost without his knowledge that his name was 
to be presented to the convention. In a speech accepting 
the nomination, he said that his motto was " Purity and 
Righteousness." The motto was acceptable to the Republi- 
cans of Broome, and Mr. SHERWOOD received 3,909 votes. His 
opponent was J. STEWART WELLS, a wealthy manufacturer. 
The Democrats made a special effort to elect Mr. WELLS, by 
concentrating their votes, means and tactics upon him. He 
received 3,364 votes. Last fall Mr. SHERWOOD was re-elected 
by the increased majority of 725, his opponent being BENJA- 
MIN S. CTJRRAN, Democrat. This indicates that the people 
approve his course as a legislator. 

Mr. SHERWOOD'S career in the Assembly thus far has shown 
that he is faithfully endeavoring to act strictly in accordance 
with the principles embodied in his striking motto. His voice 
and his vote are invariably given upon the side of purity and 
righteousness, and his speeches, made in the interest of econ- 
omy in the expenditure of the people's money, have attracted 
wide attention. His oratorical efforts are quaintly original 
in their style, and the language is the strongest Anglo- 
Saxon, put with almost startling directness. He uses expres- 
sions, sometimes, which sound strangely, but no one can 
gainsay the truth of what he says, or withstand the force of 
his honest logic. He holds what now-a-days would be deemed 
old-fashioned views, but it would be vastly better for the 
country were such views more widely current among our 
public men. 



DENNIS R. SHIEL. 285 



DENNIS R. SHIEL. 



Mr. SHIEL is the son of PETER SHIEL, a well-known citi- 
zen of Auburn, having resided there since his emigration 
from Ireland, in 1839. He was born in Auburn, June 23, 
1841, and was educated at St. John's College, Fordham, 
graduating in the class of 1865. Deciding to adopt the 
legal profession, he studied law with MICHAEL S. MYERS & 
JOHN T. PINGRU, and in 1869 was admitted to the bar, in 
Kochester. Soon thereafter he removed to Fordham, West- 
chester county, where he has since resided, practicing his 
profession with good success. 

Mr. SHIEL served honorably in the Union Army during 
the war. He enlisted as a private in the Nineteenth New 
York Volunteers immediately after the storming of Fort 
Su niter, and was subsequently promoted to the grade of 
quartermaster-sergeant. He always retained the good opin- 
ion of both officers and men, and performed his duties faith- 
fully and satisfactorily. 

Mr. SHIEL has always been a straightforward member of 
the Democratic party, and has usually made himself very 
active in local politics. The only office he has held, how- 
ever, is that of Justice of the Peace, to which he was twice 
elected, in the town of "West Farms (now Twenty-fourth 
ward of New York). He has yet one year to serve in that 
capacity. He was elected to the Assembly by a plurality 
of 1,338, EZEKIEL Y. BELL, Republican, and GEORGE F. 
TREMPER, Temperance, being his opponents. 

He is an able and prominent member of the House, serv- 
ing acceptably as member of Judiciary and State Prisons 
and Chairman of Joint Library. He does not frequently 
address the House ; but when he does, he, clothes his ideas 
in well-chosen language, and is able to make a graceful and 



286 LIFE SKETCHES. 

eloquent speech. He is popular among the members of both 
sides of the House, always pleasant and courteous in his 
intercourse with his fellows. In religious belief he is a 
Koman Catholic, and is a thorough adherent of the church. 



BERNARD SILVERMAK 



Mr. SILVERMAN is an able member of the Brooklyn dele- 
gation, representing the Eighth district, and residing at 
Greenpoint. He was born in New York city, August 30, 
1838. His parents were natives of Bavaria, Germany, and 
came to this country in 1837, marrying after their arrival. 
Mr. S. was educated in the public schools, and also at Brook- 
lyn City Institute. During most of the time since reaching 
his majority he has followed the occupation of bookkeeper. 
He has always acted with the Democratic party, and is and 
has been quite prominent in its counsels, possessing a good 
deal of influence in his district, in which he has resided for 
the past eight years. He was also prominent in New York 
politics for several years. He was a delegate to the last 
Democratic State Convention at Syracuse, and has also been 
a member of several local and county conventions of his 
party. In 1873 he was a candidate for the Assembly nomi- 
nation, but was defeated by F. W. KALBFLEISCH, who was 
defeated at the election by GEORGE C. BENNETT, the Eepubli- 
can candidate. Last fall he was more successful, securing 
his election by a plurality of 1,219, defeating both the Repub- 
lican and Prohibition nominees. 

He serves on the Committees on Commerce and Naviga- 
tion, and Banks, and is a quiet, modest and exceedingly able 
member. 



PETER SLINGERLAND. 287 



PETER SLINGERLAND. 



Mr. SLIKGERLAND, of the First district of Albany county, 
is a prosperous farmer of New Scotland. He has always 
been quite active in politics, but has never before held office, 
though nominations have been frequently tendered by his 
party friends, and invariably declined. He has nevertheless 
performed efficient service for the party, having been for 
many years a worker at the polls, and ever ready to aid, both 
with money and personal efforts, the election of Eepublican 
candidates. He has been a Republican since the formation 
of the party, and previously acted with the Whigs. 

Mr. SLINGERLAND was born September 20, 1829, in the 
town of New Scotland, and still resides there, on a portion of 
the tract of land purchased of the Indians by his great grand- 
father, TEUXIS SLISTGERLAND. His father, MAUS SLINGER- 
LAND, is still living in New Scotland at an advanced age. 
The land owned by the family has by careful and thorough 
management become very valuable, and affords its occupants 
a handsome income. 

Mr. SLINGERLAND'S education was obtained chiefly in the 
common-schools, and at Coxsackie Academy. He is, how- 
ever, a man of much natural ability and shrewdness, and is 
capable of filling almost any position in life which calls for 
the exercise of good judgment and practical common sense. 
He was married at Albany on the 13th of June, 1 849, to 
RACHEL ANN' MOSHEK, and is a member of the Reformed 
church, of which his ancestors for several generations have 
been faithful and earnest supporters. 

During the war Mr. SLINGERLAND was very active in rais- 
ing funds for the benefit of drafted men. Finally he vol- 
untarily procured a substitute, who represented him in the 



288 LIFE SKETCHES. 

army. He was then and has ever since been a firm suppor- 
ter of the Administration. 

Mr. SLIKGEKLAND'S seat in the House is seldom vacant 
during the sessions. He is not conspicuous in debate, but 
is well posted in the routine of legislation and represents 
his district effectively and intelligently. Socially, he is a 
favorite with all the members, being extremely pleasant and 
agreeable in his intercourse with others. 



JOHN W. SMITH. 



As is the case with quite a number of the members of the 
present Assembly, Mr. SMITH is holding his first elective 
office. He represents the Twenty-First district of New 
York city, and is a man of modest and unassuming deport- 
ment, but possessing many qualities which render him a 
valuable legislator. He is always at his post in the House, 
and bids fair to so continue to the eud of the session, as the 
ruddy and healthful hue of his complexion indicates that 
there is sufficient vitality in his constitution to withstand 
the mephitic atmosphere of the chamber. 

He was born in New York city, on the 17th of February, 
1839, and obtained a good education in the public schools 
and also in St. Stephen's Parochial school. He commenced 
life as a conductor on the Second Avenue Eailroad, in the 
city of New York, and has since occupied every position in 
the service of the company up to superintendent, which 
office he has filled for seven years past. This fact speaks 
volumes for his efficiency and faithful performance of duty. 
He has always been an active Democrat, being identified 
with the Apollo Hall wing of the party until the reform of 
the Tammany organization, since which he has been a Tarn- 



ORRIN T. STACY. 289 

many Hall man. He was elected last fall by the largest 
majority ever given to a candidate in the district, though 
two Democrats and one Republican were against him, his 
plurality being 1,550. 

Mr. SMITH was married on the 8th of October, 1860, to 
Miss ANITA RABADAN, of New York. He is a consistent 
member of the Roman Catholic Church, and in all respects 
is an estimable and worthy citizen. 



ORRIN T. STACY. 



Among the more prominent of the Republican members 
of the Assembly, we may fairly rank Dr. ORRIN" T. STACY, 
of Allegany county. He does not frequently favor the House 
with speeches, but, when he does, he invariably commands 
attention, for he possesses a very engaging style of delivery. 
His eloquence is not of the soaring kind, but his speeches 
are plain and practical, couched in well chosen language, 
expressed with ease and grace. He is blessed with a fine 
physical development and exuberant health, and being a 
gentleman of thorough culture and correct principles, he 
constitutes a legislative character pleasant to contemplate. 
There are few members of the present House, more thor- 
oughly qualified for the duties devolving upon the law- 
maker, than Dr. STACY. 

He was born in Centerville, in this State, November 5th, 
1835. His father, WILLIAM A. STACY, was a native of Ver- 
mont, but removed to Allegany county in 1824, and followed 
the practice of medicine and surgery during a period of forty 
years. He died in 1867. The son, the present member, 
received a thorough academic and collegiate education, 
graduating from the Buffalo Medical College in March, 
37 



290 

1860. Since that year he has been engaged in the practice 
of medicine. On June 25, 1862, he was married to Miss 
ANTOINETTE KENDALL. In 1863. in addition to his medical 
practice, he became interested in a dry goods store and also 
in a drug establishment, and in both a business and profes- 
sional sense he has been successful, so successful, in fact, 
that he is now enabled to give the public the benefit of his 
talents in the field of statesmanship. 

In politics he has always been a Republican, and an active 
and energetic one. He cast his first vote for FREMONT in 
1856, and since then has never swerved in his allegiance to 
the party of his choice. His present position, however, is 
the first political office he has held, and we may safely 
venture the prediction that it will not be the last, as he 
shows unquestionable aptitude for public life. He was 
elected to the Assembly, in 1873, by a majority of 1,347, his 
Democratic opponent being 0. T. HIGGINS, and re-elected 
last fall by a majority of 1,595 over ITTAI J. ELLIOTT, Demo- 
crat. Last year he served on the Committees on Public 
Education, Public Health and Sub-committee of the Whole, 
and this year he is on Eailroads. 



GEORGE A. STAUF. 



Mr. STAUF comes from the Eighth District of New York 
city, and is one of the most active and popular members of the 
metropolitan delegation. He also enjoys the distinction of 
being the youngest member of the present House. He is a 
whole-souled, genial gentleman, liberal to a fault, and a 
favorite with all who possess his acquaintance or friendship. 
He is of German ancestry, his father being Col. ANDREW 
STAUF, the well-known brewer of 122 Delancey street. 



STEPHEN D. STEPHENS, JR. 291 

The latter served in the late rebellion, has been a member 
of the National Guard since 1850, and for a number of 
years past has commanded the 96th Regiment. Both parents 
are still living. 

The subject of our sketch was born in New York city on 
the 18th of June, 1849, and obtained his education mainly 
in the public schools. He, however, qualified himself for a 
legal career, and is now practicing law with a good degree of 
success. For a number of years he has actively interested him- 
self in politics, being known as one of the most active young 
Democrats in his ward. In 1872 he was a candidate for 
Alderman, but was defeated by JOHN THEIS by 117 majority. 
In the late canvass he had three opponents, SOLON B. SMITH, 
Republican, who represented the district in 1872, and JOHN" 
THEIS and ALBERT ELDRIDGE, both of the latter being 
Democrats. He received a plurality of 900, and is the first 
Democrat elected from the district in four years. 

Mr. STAUF is unmarried, but at his age it is not safe to 
predict that he will long remain in , that condition. He 
serves capably upon the Committees on Internal Aflairs and 
Indian Affairs. 



STEPHEN D. STEPHENS, JR. 



Mr. STEPHENS is an active and energetic young man, 
under thirty years of age, and represents the Democratic 
county of Richmond for the second time. He is a finely 
educated gentleman, a good public speaker, and owing to his 
industrious habits and executive ability, is exceedingly val- 
uable in the details of legislation and committee work. He 
was born in Richmond, Staten Island, where he still resides, 
April 19, 1845. His father and paternal ancestors, three 
generations back, were born in New York city, his ancestors 



292 LIFE SKETCHES. 

on his mother's side being natives of Staten Island. Both 
his grandfathers, paternal and maternal, served in the war 
of 1812, while their fathers distinguished themselves in 
active service during the war of the revolution. Mr. 
STEPHENS pursued his preparatory studies at Trinity School, 
New York city, subsequently passed with honor through the 
several departments of Columbia College, and in 1866 he 
graduated from that institution with the degree of Bachelor 
of Arts. Subsequently he entered the Columbia College 
Law School, and in 1868 graduated with the degree of 
Bachelor of Laws. In the following year he received the 
degree of Master of Arts. He is now engaged in the 
practice of the law, and is meeting with such success as to 
indicate that the future has many honors in store for him. 

In politics, Mr. STEPHENS is a Democrat, and during 
a number of years he has been an active worker in the 
ranks of his party. He has never before held a public 
position, however. He was a member last year of the 
important Committee on Eailroads, and also that of Vil- 
lages. This year he is Chairman of Villages, and member 
of Kailroads and Public Lands. He was brought up in the 
Episcopal denomination, of which he is still a member, and 
is unmarried. 



HANFORD STRUBLE. 



Mr. STKTJBLE is an able and prominent lawyer of Yates 
county, and a young man of more than ordinary ability. 
He is also a gentlemen of fine presence, and few would meet 
him casually without bestowing upon him an involuntary 
second glance. Physically, he is a fine specimen of man- 
hood. Deep-set and piercing black eyes, an ample mous- 
tache and a wealth of flowing black hair, serve to adorn a 



HANFORD STRUBLE. 293 

remarkably well-shaped head, every characteristic of which 
denotes force of character and a high degree of intellectual 
power. As an orator, Mr. STKUBLE has few, if any, superiors 
on the floor of the Assembly. To a deliberate and impres- 
sive^ style of delivery and a happy facility in the choice of 
language is united a deep and musical voice, whose tones 
penetrate every corner of the chamber, enabling him to com- 
mand the attention of all within hearing. He does not 
often address the House, but when he does, his words are 
worthy of attention. 

Mr. STRUBLE was born in Milo, Yates county, on the 14th 
of May, 1842. He received his preliminary education in 
Starkey seminary from 1853 to 1857. Afterward he entered 
Genesee college, from which he graduated with honor in 
the class of 1861. For some time subsequently he followed 
teaching, being, in 1861 and 1862, principal of Dundee 
academy. After the war closed he studied law, and in 1867 
received a diploma from the Albany Law school, and was 
duly admitted to the bar. From that time to the present, 
he has practiced the legal profession with a good degree of 
success. 

In September, 1862, he entered the army as first lieuten- 
ant of company B, 148th New York Volunteers. Early in 

1 863, he was appointed on the staff of General EGBERT VIELE, 
and for nearly a year subsequently, he was Provost Marshal 
of Portsmouth, Va. He then served with honor on the staffs, 
successively, of Generals WILD, POTTER and VOGDES, and so 
highly was he regarded by his superiors, that in January, 

1864, he received from Secretary STANTON an appointment 
as permanent Aid on the staff of General GEO. F. SHEPLEY. 
In February of the following year he was assigned to duty 
before Eichmond, under General WEITZEL, and he entered 
that city with the victorious army on the 3d of April ensuing. 
At the close of the war, he held the rank of brevet-major, 
and he received his honorable discharge from the service in 
July, 1865. Major STRUBLE performed long and arduous 



294 LIFE SKETCHES. 

service for the Union cause during the war, and his record 
as a soldier is without a blot. 

Politically, Mr. STRUBLE has always been fully identified 
with the Eepublican party, and his activity and zeal have 
been of great advantage to the Republicans of Yates county. 
He is recognized as occupying a leading position, and his 
counsel is sought by men much older in politics than him- 
self. During two terms he has held the office of District- 
Attorney of Yates county, being elected in 1868 and 1871, 
and he discharged the- duties of the office with signal 
ability. He is making an excellent record during the pres- 
ent session of the Assembly, and, though in the minority, he 
is influential in shaping much important legislation. Early 
in the session he attracted attention by introducing a pro 
rata freight bill, and he has been quite persistent in his 
efforts to secure its passage, despite adverse influence. He 
is a wide-awake minority member of the Judiciary Com- 
mittee, and because of his agreeable personal traits, is very 
popular among members of both parties. 



TUNIS V. P. TALMAGE. 



The subject of this sketch, who represents the Fourth 
District of Kings county, is a very popular Democrat of 
Brooklyn, and a man who has long been identified with the 
prosperity of the city. He is not much given to words, but 
is a plain practical man of business, and bears an unblemished 
character. 

TUNIS VAN PELT TALMAGE "was born in New York city 
on the 24th of July, 1832. His father shortly after removed 
to Brooklyn, and afterward became mayor of that city. His 
uncle, JACOB MILLER, represented New Jersey in the United 



TUNIS V. P. TALMAGE. 295 

States Senate during a period of sixteen years. Mr. TAL- 
MAGE was educated in the common schools, and also in the 
New Brunswick (N. J.) Grammar School. On reaching 
manhood he embraced a business life, and for twenty years 
he was a successful coal merchant. He is still in that busi- 
ness, but the greater portion of his time is devoted to real 
estate operations. He has taken a warm interest in the 
improvement and growth of Brooklyn, and every enter- 
prise having that object in view receives his encouragement 
and often his active co-operation. He was one of the origi- 
nators of Brooklyn's picturesque pleasure ground, Prospect 
Park, and was one of the building committee of the Kings 
County Court House. 

Mr. TALMAGE has been all his life an active Democrat, 
but has not frequently held office, probably possessing very 
little ambition in that direction. From 1860 to 1862, how- 
ever, he was a member of the Board of Supervisors, and dur- 
ing the years 1863 and 1864 he was President of the Board 
of Aldermen. In both positions he gave great satisfaction to 
his friends, and materially augmented his growing popularity. 
In 1865 he was a candidate for mayor of the city in oppo- 
sition to the late MARTIN KALBFLEISCH, who defeated him 
by one vote. In the recent canvass he ran some seven hun- 
dred votes ahead of Governor TILDEN, and was elected by 
2,208 majority over JOHN* F. CLTKE, Eepubiican, the major- 
ity being the largest ever given in the district. He is repre- 
senting his district faithfully, being instrumental in initiating 
much important legislation for the city of Brooklyn. 

He occupies an important position on the committees, 
being chairman of Engrossed Bills and member of Ways and 
Means and Insurance. 



296 LIFE SKETCHES. 



GEORGE TAYLOR. 



Mr. TAYLOR is a successful Kochester business man, well 
fitted for the practical duties of legislation. He capably 
represents a second time the commercial interests of that 
important inland city, with which he has been identified 
many years. He was born in Stoddard, Cheshire county, N. 
H., November 26, 1832. He is therefore in the prime of a 
vigorous and finely-developed manhood. He is of English 
descent, his ancestors having emigrated to this country about 
the year 1700. He was educated in the common schools, 
Marlow Academy and Tubbs' Union Academy, at Washing- 
ton, N. H. His schooling was therefore very thorough, 
and enables him to be well armed, at all points, for the battle 
of life. 

Mr. TAYLOR engaged in business pursuits very soon after 
reaching his majority, and by dint of industry and persever- 
ance he has become one of the "solid men" of Eochester. 
For several years he was engaged in the manufacture and 
sale of boots and shoes, and he built up a large trade in that 
line of business. A few years ago, however, he commenced 
the manufacture of thermometers, barometers and other 
meteorological instruments, and to this he mainly devotes 
his attention at present. 

Mr. TAYLOR was born and educated a Democrat, and 
nothing has ever been able to swerve him from what he 
regards as the principles of that party. He has always, since 
an early age, taken an active part in the local politics of 
Rochester, and enjoys the confidence of his party in an unlim- 
ited degree. The proof of this is found in the fact that, for 
several years, he was a Member of the Eochester Board of 
Aldermen, and during one year was President of the Com- 
mon Council, and also in the fact that he was elected to the 



WILLIAM F. TAYLOR. 297 

Assembly in 1873 by the large majority of 1,054, the Peo- 
ple's ticket the previous year receiving a majority of 173, 
this majority being increased last fall to 1,427. He was 
opposed in his first canvass by JOHN BOWEK, a well-known 
Republican, and in his second, by NEWELL A. STONE. 

Mr. TAYLOR obtrudes himself upon public notice very 
little, but he is known as a very efficient member of the 
Assembly. 



WILLIAM F. TAYLOR. 



Mr. TAYLOR is a representative business man of Rensselaer 
county, and is now in the Assembly for the first time. He was 
born in Berlin, where he still resides, on the 5th of October, 
1830. He was educated in common and select schools in 
Berlin and also in Jefferson county. On reaching manhood 
he had very little capital beside ample capacity and an ener- 
getic, ambitious spirit, but he gradually established himself 
in business, both manufacturing and mercantile, in which 
he has been quite successful. At the present time he is 
engaged in the manufacture of shirts, and also operates quite 
extensively in real estate. As may be well supposed he has 
aided greatly the growth of the town, and is therefore to-day 
one of its most influental citizens. 

Previous to 1860, Mr. TAYLOR was a Democrat, but as was 
the case with a good many others of that ilk, the issues 
of the war and the slavery question impelled him to 
act with the Republicans, and since that year, when he voted 
for ABRAHAM LINCOLN, he has been a steadfast member 
of the Republican organization and always votes for its can- 
didates. He has not frequently been induced to accept office, 
however. Last spring he was elected Supervisor of Berlin 

without opposition, and was the second Republican Super- 
38 



298 LIFE SKETCHES. 

visor chosen by that town during a period of sixteen years. 
The nomination for the Assembly last year was entirely 
unsought on his part, and it was a discouraging fact that his 
opponent, Mr. PEEBLES, was in every respect a popular and 
worthy man. He went into the fight with energy, however, 
and succeeded in increasing the Republican majority in the 
district by 160 votes. In his own town, which polled 525 
votes, he received all but 81, a fact which indicates very con- 
clusively the estimate in which he is held at home. The Troy 
Press, a Democratic paper, in commenting upon the result? 
shortly after the election, spoke as follows of the canvass : 

" Mr. PEEBLES made a gallant fight, but he had a strong 
opponent in the person of Mr. TAYLOR, who is deservedly 
popular. There are few men who could have beaten Mr. 
PEEBLES, and Mr. T A YLOE deserves an ovation from his party 
for doing it." 

Mr. TAYLOR probably thinks that the votes of his fellow- 
citizens constitute ovation enough. 

He is doing good service on the floor of the House, though 
he displays very little tendency to shine as an orator, and will 
undoubtedly make an excellent record. He is a member of 
the Committees on Militia and Public Lands. 

Mr. TAYLOR has just been re-elected Supervisor of his town 
without opposition, and has been tendered the chairmanship 
of the Board. He, however, declined the honor in favor of a 
personal friend in the district. 



SAMUEL W. TEWKSBURT. 299 



SAMUEL W. TEWKSBUKY. 



Wyoming county is again represented by SAMUEL WIL- 
LARD TEWKSBURY, of Perry Centre, he having served his 
district very efficiently last year. He is a plain, substantial 
farmer, past the meridian of life, and though he has fre- 
quently held political office, he maintains the character of a 
man who is thoroughly incorruptible and upright in all his 
dealings. He was born in York, Livingston county, on the 
23d of July, 1820, and is of New England parentage. He 
received his education partly in the common schools and 
partly in Middleburgh Academy, which he attended during 
the years 1838 and 1839. After leaving school he turned 
his attention to teaching, and for several years he followed 
that honorable pursuit. He finally purchased the farm on 
which he now resides, and, during a long series of years, he 
has been known as a prosperous, hard-working agricultur- 
ist. 

Mr. TEWKSBTTRY'S first political lessons were learned in 
the Whig party, with which he was identified until 1856. 
In that year he supported FREMONT for President, and since 
then he has been a straightforward, conscientious and active 
Eepublican, fully in sympathy with the efforts to extirpate 
the slave power, as well as with the distinctive principles of 
the Republican party. His sterling traits of character have 
evidently been known and marked by his neighbors and poli- 
tical friends, as he has frequently been called upon to fill 
local positions of responsibility. During a period of eleven 
years he was Town Superintendent of Common Schools, five 
times he was elected Justice of the Peace, and during six 
years he represented his town in the Board of Supervisors. 
In the important Republican State Conventions, held in 
1868 and 1872, he was a delegate from Wyoming county. In 



300 LIFE SKETCHES. 

all these positions he has invariably sought to perform his 
duties with a single eye to the public good, and he came to 
the Legislature, and will leave it, with a record that is not 
tarnished in any way. 

In the canvass of 1873, he was chosen over EUSSELL C. 
MORDOFF, the Democratic candidate, by a majority of 640, 
a decided gain over the Republican majority the previous 
year. In 1870, the Liberals and Democrats carried the 
county, on Member, by 718 majority. Last fall he was re- 
elected by a majority of 508, over S. N. HOPKINS, Democrat. 
He was a Member last year of the Committees on Charitable 
and Religious Societies, and Agriculture, and is on the 
same committees this year. He does not often indulge him- 
self in speech-making, but in other and more effective ways 
he is an exceedingly valuable member. 



CHARLES TREMAIN. 



Mr. TREMAIN" is a young and energetic business man of 
Manlius, Onondaga county, and is thoroughly identified 
with the material interests of that thriving town. He pos- 
sesses full knowledge of the varied wants of his constituents, 
and has the ability, sagacity and determination necessary to 
secure for his locality proper recognition at Albany. In 
addition to his qualities as a business man, Mr. TREMAIN is 
an accomplished gentleman, with agreeable manners, and 
possesses every qualification necessary to make him success- 
ful and influential as a legislator. 

He was born in Fayetteville, Onondaga county, on the 23d 
of April, 1843. His family connections are all of the high- 
est respectability, and some of his relatives have risen to 
high position. He is a grandson of Judge AUGUSTUS TRE- 



COMMODORE P. VEDDER. 301 

, who, in 1818, represented Columbia county in the 
Assembly, and who won deserved eminence for his legal 
attainments. His father, the late Hon. POETEK TEEMAIN, 
was also an eminent and esteemed citizen. 

Mr. TBEMAIN received a good academic education, and 
entered business life at an early age. For some years he has 
been engaged in the manfacture of paper, cement and plas- 
ter, and has large business connections in Syracuse and other 
cities. He stands very high in the business community, and 
is in all respects a man to be trusted and relied upon in any 
emergency. His popularity is shown by the fact that he was 
elected to the Assembly from a Democratic district, in a 
Democratic year, over a popular Democratic opponent, who 
very capably represented the district last year. He received 
a plurality of 131, two candidates, CHABLES SIMON, Demo- 
crat, and D. L. SHEEWOOD, Prohibition, being in the field. 



COMMODORE P. VEDDER. 



Few members of the present Assembly exert a more com- 
manding influence or possess greater legislative talent than 
Mr. VEDDEE. He is known throughout the State as an 
active, earnest and independent Kepublican, who, while 
unswerving in his party fealty, is nevertheless incapable of 
being made the tool of cliques or rings. He is a man of 
exceptionally clear views of public interest as well as of 
party policy, while his convictions regarding all questions 
are the result of careful reflection and the exercise of sound 
judgment. When once formed they are tenaciously adhered 
to. 

Mr. VEDDEE is the son of American parents, his father, 
JACOB VEDDEE, being an industrious Cattaraugus county 
farmer. He was born in Ellicottville, his present place of 



302 LIFE SKETCHES. 

residence, on the 23d of February, 1838. Before reaching 
man's estate he spent five years as a sailor on the lakes. He 
secured a good education, partially in the common schools, 
but mainly in the Spriugville Academy, which he entered in 
his twentieth year. Afterward he studied law, and was 
admitted to the bar in 1866. In 1862, after teaching school 
a few months, he enlisted as a private in the 154th regiment, 
New York Volunteers, and remained with the regiment until 
the close of the war, participating with uniform credit to 
himself in the battles of Chancellorville, Wauhatchie, 
Lookout Valley, Lookout Mountain, Chattanooga, Rocky- 
faced Eidge, Siege of Savannah, and Bentonville. He bore 
an honorable part in SHERMAN'S celebrated march to 
Atlanta and the sea, and for his gallant conduct in that cam- 
paign and at Lookout Mountain he was promoted succes- 
sively to Lieutenant-Colonel of Volunteers, 1st Lieutenant, 
Captain and Brevet-Major, U. S. A. His war record is 
therefore something to be proud of. 

When the war ended Mr. VEDDER commenced the practice 
of the legal profession, in which he has continued to the 
present time with marked success. In 1867 he was appointed 
Register in Bankruptcy, and still holds the office. He was 
also Assessor of Internal Revenue from. May 10, 1869, until 
May 4, 1871, filling the office, as he fills every position, to 
the satisfaction of every one interested. In the fall of 1871, 
he was elected member of Assembly by a majority of 401, 
defeating CHARLES S. GARY, his Democratic competitor. In 
1872 he defeated the same opponent by a majority of 688, 
after a very sharp canvass, in which the combined strength 
of the Liberal Republican and Democratic elements was 
brought against him, and herculean efforts made to defeat 
him. Tn 1873 he was elected over WM. F. WEED, by a major- 
ity of 386, and last fall his majority over DANIEL E. BART- 
LETT was 228. 

Mr. VEDDER'S course in the Assembly has been in every 
way creditable to himself and his constituents. In 1872 he 



COMMODORE P. VEDDER. 303 

served on the Judiciary Committee, of which he is still a prom- 
inent member, and took an active part in the investigation 
into the conduct of the New York judges. He was also 
chairman of the committee which drew up the articles of 
impeachment against Judge BARXARD, and was one of the 
managers selected by the House to conduct the trial of that 
unworthy wearer of the ermine. His connection with these 
momentous proceedings aided largely in developing his fine 
legal talents, and added greatly to his reputation. He has 
been prominently identified with much of the important leg- 
islation of the last two sessions, serving on several commit- 
tees faithfully and well. Besides occupying the second place 
on the Judiciary Committee in the last session, he was Chair- 
man of Privileges and Elections, and Local and Special 
Laws, and being in the minority this year he is on Judiciary 
and Indian Affairs, with no chairmanship. 

As an orator Mr. VEDDER has few equals. Though he 
always speaks extemporaneously, and often without prepara- 
tion, his efforts upon the floor are generally models of com- 
pact symmetrical argument. He clothes his ideas in direct 
and forcible yet elegant phraseology. Sometimes bold almost 
to audacity in his utterances, especially when discussing 
political questions, he frequently rises to heights of eloquence 
attained by few public speakers. 

Previous to the war Mr. VEDDER was a Democrat, but the 
reverberation of the first gun at Sumter affected him much 
as it did thousands of other honest Democrats throughout 
the State. The so-called Democracy was effectually elimi- 
nated from his political constitution. He has since acted con- 
sistently with the Eepublican party, and is popular with men 
of all parties, as his personal and social qualities are of the 
most genial character. Whether we regard him in his private 
or public life, he is above reproach, and is in all respects an 
honest, able and efficient legislator. He is a man of fine 
personal appearance and unusually pleasing address, and evi- 
dently has a brilliant career yet before him. 



304 LIFE SKETCHES. 



FRANCIS W. VOSBURGH. 



For fifteen years past, Mr. VOSBUEGH has been engaged in 
the transportation business on the Hudson, being at the 
present time connected with the Schuyler Steam Tow Boat 
Line. He has therefore had a very extensive business ex- 
perience, of that sort which greatly adds to the efficiency of 
the legislator. His father was for many years a farmer at 
Kinderhook, Columbia county, and was a prominent Demo- 
crat, in 1837 representing his district in the Assembly ; sub- 
sequently he carried on business in New York as a wholesale 
commission merchant. Both father and mother died very 
advanced in life the one being 81 and the other 79 at the 
time of their decease. 

Mr. VOSBUKGH or Capt. VOSBURGH as he is known in 
Albany, was born in Kinderhook, on the llth of April, 1836, 
and was mainly educated in the Broadway Grammar School, 
in New York city. He commenced business life as a book- 
keeper in that city, but soon after reaching his majority he 
removed to Albany, where he married the daughter of Capt. 
SAMUEL SCHUYLEK, a leading citizen. 

Capt. VOSBURGH has always been a straightforward and 
active Democrat, exceedingly popular among all classes, and 
a man of unexceptionable character. For some time past, 
he has been commander of the Albany Burgesses Corps, an 
organization of citizen soldiery which has a national reputa- 
tion and embraces in its ranks many of the best citizens of 
Albany. Though always more or less active in politics, 
Capt. VOSBURGH has never accepted official honors until 
now, and considering the circumstances of his election, his 
success may be regarded as a marked personal triumph. His 
opponents were Dr. JOHN SWINBURNE, formerly Health 
Officer of the port of New York, nominated by the Liberals 



Louis C. WAEHNER. 305 

and what is locally known as the Meegan wing of the 
Democracy, and HENRY W. DWIGHT, a very popular and 
well-known Kepublican. His plurality, after a very hotly 
contested canvass, was 111. Capt. VOSBURQH is Chairman 
of the Committee on Militia and Member of Ways and 
Means and Commerce and Navigation, thus occupying a 
very influential position in the House. He has proved to be 
an able legislator, both on the floor and in the Committee- 
room, 'and attends closely to his duties. 



LOUIS C. WAEHNER. 



The Tenth district of New York city is represented by a 
brilliant young lawyer, who, since his advent in legislative 
halls, has taken a front rank in point of ability and address. 
Louis C. WAEHNER was born in the city of New York in 
1847. He is therefore one of the youngest members of the 
present House. He is of German parentage, both his par- 
ents being still living and residents of the metropolis. Mr. 
WAEHNER'S education was obtained almost wholly in the 
public schools of New York city, and it is apparent that the 
excellence and efficiency of those institutions can scarcely b 
questioned if they habitually turn out such scholars as the 
subject of our sketch. On leaving school, he studied law 
for a time with STILLWELL & SWAIN, of New York city, and 
about six years' ago he was admitted to the bar. 

Mr. WAEHNER'S political career, though brief, has been 
brilliant. He has always been a Democrat, and very decided 
in his convictions. His position as a legislator last year was 
the first office he had held, though he has generally been 
quite active in political campaigns, and in the fall of 1872 he 
ran as an independent candidate for the Assembly, and was 
defeated. 
39 



306 LIFE SKETCHES. 

In the last House he made an exceedingly honorable re- 
cord, his legal ability being so well demonstrated that he was 
selected without opposition as the Chairman of the Judiciary 
Committee of the present House. In that position he has 
acquitted himself well. With an unbounded earnestness and 
driving power, he is an indomitable worker, applying him- 
self closely to all matters to which his attention has been 
called, irrespective of the interests to be affected. He has 
a fine and rather commanding presence, a powerful and re- 
sonant voice, and a good delivery. He is also felicitous in 
choice of language while on the floor, and there are not a 
few who rank him among the best orators in the present As- 
sembly. As a tactician and debater he is clear-headed, quick 
to apprehend the gist of a question, direct and forcible, com- 
ing at once to the real point at issue. In manner he is 
suave, off-hand, genial, and has a dash that indicates cour- 
age, promptitude, great energy and independence. Thus far 
Mr. WAEHNEB'S record as a legislator gives promise of great 
future usefulness and distinction should he continue in pub- 
lic life. 



D. GERRY WELLINGTON. 



Mr. WELLINGTON is a straightforward Eepublican, and a 
clear-headed lawyer. He resides in Hamilton, Madison 
county, where he enjoys a lucrative practice, and possesses 
the confidence and esteem of his fellow-citizens. He was 
corn in Cazenovia, Madison county, on the 8th of January, 
1838. He attended the Oneida Conference Seminary at 
Cazenovia until 1859, where he graduated with honor. He 
then entered Union College, and passed through the Sopho- 
more year, finishing his studies in the Albany Law School, 
from whence he graduated in 1861. In the fall of that year 
he opened a law office at Hamilton. In the following year, 



D. GURRY WELLINGTON. 307 

however, his patriotic impulses led him to abandon a prac- 
tice which had already grown with promising rapidity, and 
he enlisted as a private in the 176th Regiment, New York 
Volunteers, and was almost immediately elected Captain of 
Company E. His modest distrust of his abilities led him to 
decline such a responsibility at the outset of his military 
career, but he yielded to the earnest desire of the company 
that he should hold a leading position in their ranks, and he 
accepted the position of First Lieutenant. The regiment 
w/nt into camp at Jamaica, Long Island, and remained 
there until January, 1863, when it became a part of BANKS' 
expedition, and performed arduous service in Louisiana. 
Lieut. WELLINGTON was taken prisoner at Lafourche cross- 
ing, on the 23d of January, 1863, and taken to camp at Fort 
Tyler, Texas. There he was kept until exchanged in the 
summer of 1864, after being a prisoner thirteen months. 
In August, 1864, he was honorably discharged from service. 
Mr. WELLINGTON has always been a Republican, and gen- 
erally quite active in local politics. In 1865 he was elected 
Justice of the Peace of Hamilton, without opposition, and 
held the office two years. In 1868 he was a member of As- 
sembly from the district he now represents, and served with 
marked ability on the Railroad Committee. He was elected 
last fall by a majority of 1,389 over CHAKLES H. MAXSON, 
his Democratic opponent, the Republican majority the pre- 
vious year being but 928, and though not specially favored 
by the majority in respect to committee work, he is doing 
good service for his constituency on the floor of the Assem- 
bly. Thus far he has repeated the very excellent record 
made in 1868. He does not frequently indulge in speeches, 
but when he has any thing to say he presents his points , 
clearly, forcibly and effectively. Mr. WELLINGTON'S ability 
as a lawyer, his business qualities and sound judgment, and, 
not least in importance, his habitual courtesy and agreeable 
manners, have won him a host of friends, and there are few 
more popular men in the Assembly. 



308 LIFE SKETCHES. 



ADOLPHUS E. WENZEL. 



Mr. WENZEL is a prominent Democrat of Callicoon, Sul- 
livan county. He is ; of German descent, and was born in 
New York city, on the 4th of March, 1837. His early life 
was spent in the metropolis in attendance at the public 
schools, though his education was largely obtained at Cazen- 
ovia seminary, in 1855 and 1856. He learned the machinist's 
trade ; but for sometime past he has been successfully en- 
gaged in lumbering and in the management of an extensive 
grist and saw mill at Callicoon. 

Mr. WENZEL'S father was always active in politics, gener- 
ally acting with the Democratic party. In 1867 the son 
became interested in political matters, and has actively 
co-operated with the Democratic party ever since. Since 
the spring of 1872, he has served in the Sullivan County 
Board of Supervisors, being re-elected last year without 
opposition. This indicates his growing popularity at home. 
He was elected to the Assembly by a majority of 1,389, his 
Republican opponent being CHAELES JOHNSON", and he 
serves his constituents very efficiently as member of the 
Committees on Affairs of Villages, Expenditures of the Exec- 
utive Department and Sub-Committee of the Whole. 



GEORGE WEST. 309 



GEORGE WEST. 



Mr. WEST is a fair representative of the successful busi- 
ness man. By dint of energy, sagacity and perserering 
industry, he has risen in a few years from comparative 
poverty to opulence, and is now one of the largest manufac- 
turers in the eastern section of the State. His career is 
instructive and worthy of emulation. Born in Keentsbeer, 
Devonshire county, England, on the 17th of February, 1823, 
of parents in very moderate circumstances, he had very little 
adventitious aid in making a future for himself. He received 
a good common school education, however, and inherited from 
his parents industrious habits and a robust constitution. 
"With these as his capital he commenced the battle of life. 
His father and uncle were paper makers, but he served a 
thorough apprenticeship with JOHN" DEWDNEY, one of the 
leading manufacturers in the west of England, learning the 
business in all its branches. Soon after reaching his majority 
he married an English girl, whose prudent management and 
wise, counsel, no doubt, contributed in no small degree to his 
success. He soon discovered that England failed to afford 
full scope for his abilities, and, in 1849, when he had reached 
his twenty-sixth year, he came with his young wife to this 
country. When he arrived on our shores he was almost pen- 
niless, but he possessed a good stock of indomitable pluck. 
He procured employment in New Jerse), where he worked 
about a year. From there he went to Massachusetts, where 
he obtained employment in a paper mill as an ordinary opera- 
tive, continuing in that capacity about three years. Ulti- 
mately his employers discerned and appreciated his value, and 
he soon found himself the responsible manager of one of the 
largest manufactories of writing paper in the Bay State. 
During several years' experience in that position, he rapidly 



310 LIFE SKETCHES. 

developed the sterling qualities by which he finally won suc- 
cess ; and before he had been ten years in this country he 
became a partner in an extensive paper mill. In the year 
1860 he sold out his business in Massachusetts, and seeing a 
favorable opening at Ballston Spa, removed thither. How 
well time has demonstrated the wisdom of his venture i& 
shown by the fact that he is now sole proprietor of six 
large paper mills, all of which are run exclusively on manilla 
paper, used in the manufacture of grocers' bags, and also 
a paper bag manufactory, which turns out from eighty to one 
hundred million of those bags per year, transacting in con- 
nection therewith a business which averages about $65,000 
monthly. One of his mills was added last October, at an 
outlay of $60,000. He is also an equal partner in the firm 
of G-AIR & WEST, whose depot for the sale of paper, paper 
bags and twine is located at No. 143 Eeade street, New 
York, as well as director in the First National Bank of 
'Ballston Spa, and the largest individual stockholder in the 
bank. 

In personal appearance, Mr. WEST is a good specimen of 
the sturdy Briton. Though of short stature, his robust form 
and broad shoulders seem well able to carry the massive and 
well-developed head, which seems a fit repository for a brain 
of more than ordinary activity. He bears with him, how- 
ever, the air and manner of one who has earned the right to 
take the world easy, and the geniality characterizing his 
intercourse with others strengthens such an impression in the 
mind of one who judges men by first impressions. He is a 
man of much earnestness of character, and is still a hard 
worker, carrying much of his energy and thoroughness in 
the committee rooms, though he very rarely attempts to 
make more than a brief and pointed off-hand speech on the 
floor of the House. 

Mr. WEST has always been an ardent ^Republican, and 
enjoys a large degree of popularity in his own district, as is 
evidenced by the fact that he was elected to the Assembly of 



JOHN M. WETHERDEE. 311 

1872 by the large majority of 1,166 over WILLIAM T. ODELL, 
his Democratic competitor. In the fall of 1872 he was re- 
elected without opposition, no other candidate being nomi- 
nated, and in the Legislature of 1873 was the only member 
of the Assembly having no vote against him. In the fall of 
that year, local issues which arose rendered him less for- 
tunate, his majority over GEORGE A. ENSIGN, his Demo- 
cratic opponent, being 420. Last fall he was elected by a 
majority of 709 over BEI* JAMIST H. KNAPP, Democrat. Mr 
WEST was last year Chairman of the Committee on Trade 
and Manufactures, and member of Public Printing and Pub- 
lic Lands. This year he is member of Public Printing and 
Trade and Manufactures. 



JOHN M. WETHERBEE. 



The seat allotted to Mr. WETHERBEE is rendered vacant 
by his death, which occurred in March last. Owing to ill 
health, he has not taken much part in legislation ; but had 
he been permitted, he would have doubtless occupied a 
prominent position, as he was a man of decided ability 
and unusually amiable character. He was born in Claren- 
don, Orleans county, September 12, 1838. His parents 
were of New England descent. His father, SAMUEL WETHER- 
BEE, is a well-to-do farmer, residing in Clarendon. Honesty, 
integrity and industry were the distinguishing characteris- 
tics of both father and mother. 

Mr. WETHERBEE attended common schools until the age 
of fourteen. He then spent some time in a store, and in 
the y5ar 1856 entered Albion Academy. He prosecuted his 
studies for a time, and again engaged in mercantile pursuits, 
which he followed, except during a brief absence in the 



312 LIFE SKETCHES. 

army, until 1869, when he was compelled to relinquish busi- 
ness life because of ill health. 

In 1862, he enlisted as a private in Company G-, 151st 
New York Volunteers, and remained with the regiment in 
all the actions in which it was engaged, until he was dis- 
abled. On November 27, 1863, he was wounded in a skir- 
mish while on the advance to Mine Run. His leg was 
amputated on the field, and as eight days elapsed before he 
reached an hospital, he was utterly broken down, having 
suffered the keenest torture during that time. After nine 
months of hospital life, he came home with a ruined consti- 
tution, and a condition of health which was a serious obsta- 
cle to his business pursuits ever since. At the time he was 
wounded he was first sergeant of the company, and had 
established a reputation for bravery and excellent soldierly 
qualities. 

Mr. "WETHEEBEE was always a Republican, and has held a 
number of positions of responsibility. In 1860, he was 
elected Town Clerk, and held the office two years. From 
1864 to the spring of 1867, he was clerk in the treasury 
department at Washington. During 1870 and 1871, he acted 
as distillery surveyor on the Pacific coast, traveling exten- 
sively through the vineyard portion of the State, but returned 
to the eastern States in 1872, on account of the unfavorable 
nature of the climate at San Francisco. He was elected to 
the Assembly by a majority of 698 over URIEL TIMMERMAN, 
his Democratic opponent. 

Mr. WETHERBEE was a man of unbounded energy and 
perseverance, always pushing through to a successful issue 
every thing he undertook ; but it was perhaps a fault with 
him that his indomitable will was apt to overtask his bodily 
strength. He was a believer in a large-hearted liberal Chris- 
tianity and was universally popular and respected, as & 
citizen. 






DANIEL E. WHITMORE. 313 



DANIEL E. WHITMORE. 



The subject of the present sketch, who is an influential 
citizen of Cortland county, possesses abilities which have 
already commanded attention on the floor of the Assembly 
chamber. He is a clear and forcible speaker, generally sound 
in his judgment of men and measures, and quite decided and 
tenacious in his opinions. He is not, however, a politician 
in the ordinary sense of the term, and hence the purification 
of parties, and the advancement of the moral as well as the 
material welfare of the community are, with him, paramount 
objects of honorable effort. 

He has been a popular educator for the better portion of 
his well spent life, and has labored with much more than 
ordinary success in elevating the Primary or Common 
Schools, with which he has been most intimately con- 
nected. 

DANIEL E. WHITMORE was born in Columbus, Chenango 
county, N, Y., January 6th, 1825. He is descended from 
good and patriotic ancestry. His father's name was LUTHER 
WHITMORE ; his mother's maiden name was ELSIE PERKINS. 
His grandfathers on both sides were among the early settlers 
of Columbus, having emigrated there in 1796. His paternal 
grandfather was from Connecticut, and his maternal grand- 
father was from Khode Island. His father was alternately 
engaged in teaching, merchandising and farming, and lived 
to the age of seventy-six. He possessed a remarkable 
memory, and down to the last year of 'his life was able to 
repeat page after page of books which he had read in his 
youth. His mother was an exemplary woman, and remarka- 
bly 'energetic in the performance of household and social 
duties. 

Young WHITMORE commenced attending school at a very 
40 



314 LIFE SKETCHES. 

early age and learned rapidly. . At the age of ten, he had 
the misfortune to lose his left leg, as the result of an abscess 
which necessitated its amputation near the hip. He, how- 
ever, performed considerable work about the farm during his 
remaining years of minority, and in the meantime he studied 
diligently. At the age of fourteen, he entered the Sher- 
burne Academy, and a year later commenced teaching a dis- 
trict school, at ten dollars per month boarding around 
among his pupils. He met with much to discourage him in 
this, his first experiment ; but he persevered, and achieved a 
success. After this, for several years, he alternated his win- 
ter terms of teaching with his studies in other schools, and 
he successively attended the Academy at Norwich, the Clin- 
ton Liberal Institute and lastly, the Normal School at 
Albany, from whence he graduated in the fall of 1846, 
standing among the first in a class of forty-six, and excel- 
ling especially in mathematics. Among his classmates in 
the Normal School were ex-Senator HENRY E. LOWE, Hon. 
WILLIAM ORTON", now President of the Western Union 
Telegraph Company, DAVID P. PAYST, a popular educator, 
and G-EO. R. PERKINS, Professor of Mathematics. He was 
then engaged as Principal of the village school at Marathon, 
and was also, for a year or two, in charge of mathematics at 
the Chenango county Institute. In 1848, he took charge of 
the English Department of Cortland Academy, at the invi- 
tation of Prof. S. B. WOOLWORTH, then Principal of that 
institution. Among his pupils at Marathon was DAVID R. 
LOCKE, now famous as Petroleum V. Nasby. 

On the 9th of July, 1850, Mr. WHITMORE was married to 
Miss LTDIA M. SHATTUCK, of Marathon, a young lady who 
had already distinguished herself as a teacher, and in the 
fall of the same year, Mr. and Mrs. WHITMORE the one as 
Principal and the other as Preceptress took charge of the 
Union School at Orleans, and conducted it successfully until 
late in the year 1853. He then taught a couple of years 
in Canandaigua and Marathon, when he relinquished teach- 



DANIEL E. WHITMORE. 315 

ing and turned his attention to mercantile pursuits, holding, 
for a couple of years, in the meantime, the office of Justice 
of the Peace, by appointment of Gov. CLARK. In the fall of 
1857, he was elected School Commissioner, and held the 
office, by successive elections, for fifteen years. It is by his 
special efforts that the Cortland County Teachers' Institute 
has taken rank among the first in the State, and he always 
labored generously and incessantly in the discharge of his 
official duties being almost always in attendance at State 
and local educational gatherings. In 1870, he was chosen 
Corresponding Secretary of the State Association of Commis- 
sioners and Superintendents, and at the meeting of the 
Association, held at Utica, in May, 1871, he delivered an 
able address on " School Visitation." In his annual reports, 
he has advocated a number of educational reforms. In 1872, 
as a fit recognition of his ability and learning, Hamilton 
College conferred upon him the degree of Master of Arts. 

At the present time, Mr. WHITMORE is a wholesale produce 
dealer and insurance agent, having business relations with 
G-EO. B. WHITMORE of New York, and has been quite success- 
ful. He was one of the charter trustees of the Cortland 
Savings Bank, and acted as its secretary until it was fully 
organized. In politics he was originally a Whig, but he 
united with the Kepublican party on its organization, and 
has acted with it ever since. Twice he has been a delegate 
from Cortland county to the State conventions of the party 
in 1871 and 1872. Last winter Mr. WHITMORE'S name 
was presented to the legislature for the office of Superin- 
tendent of Public Instruction, being backed by recommenda- 
tions from members of the Republican County Committee of 
Cortland county, and also by a large number of distinguished 
citizens. His qualifications were fully conceded, but another 
received the office, which he would have filled to universal 
satisfaction. He has not, however, been a seeker after office, 
and only entered the canvass last fall at the solicitation of 
his friends. That canvass was contested much more sharply 



316 LIFE SKETCHES. 

than usual, but he succeeded in defeating his opponent, 
DANIEL S. LAMOOT, by a majority of 138. 

In person, Mr. WHITMORE is of medium size, has a well 
compacted brain, a clear intelligent eye, and a well modu- 
lated voice ; his manners are courteous and agreeable ; his 
benevolence is commensurate with his means, while his hospi- 
tality is of that elegant kind which always makes its recip- 
ient at ease, and gives them an agreeable welcome. In 
short, he is a gentlemen of refined culture, character and 
influence, possessing the inborn sense and the outward graces 
of the polished scholar. He is an influential and consistent 
member of the Presbyterian Church, and has frequently been 
a delegate to the Presbytery. For three years he was Com- 
missioner and Examiner of the Auburn Theological Semi- 
nary. He was also a delegate to the General Assembly at 
Cincinnati in 1862, and he has from early manhood taken a 
deep interest in the success of Sabbath 'schools and temper- 
ance associations, holding the position of superintendent of 
the former for fifteen years. 



WARREN G. WILLIS. 



Mr. WILLIS represents the first district of Delaware county. 
He was born in Masonville, where he still resides, on the 
llth of March, 1827. He comes of an ancestry distinguished 
in two wars, his grandfather, SOLOMON WILLIS, having been 
an officer in the French war, and also in the Revolution, 
espousing in the latter the patriot cause. His father 
WEARAM WILLIS, came from Tolland county, Connecticut, 
to Delaware county when the latter was little more than 
wilderness and forest. He afterward held the office of Justice 
of the Peace and Supervisor many years, and became a 
prominent man. 



WARREN G. WILLIS. 317 

V 

The subject of our sketch was educated in the district and 
select school? at Masonville and at Delaware Literary Insti- 
tute. Since his majority he has engaged in a number, of pur- 
suits, being at different times farmer, teacher, real estate 
conveyancer, and attorney at law, doing considerable business 
in settling estates and purchasing lands. At the present 
time he is a farmer. In 1850 he visited California and Cuba, 
and subsequently he sojourned a short time in the Western 
States. He has made a number of judicious real estate 
investments, and owns considerable land in Minnesota and 
New York, some of the latter being in Albany county. 

in politics Mr. WILLIS was formerly a Whig and an 
admirer of HENRY CLAY. He voted for SCOTT in 1852 and 
FREMONT in 1856 for the Presidency, and though he has at 
times voted with the Temperance and Abolition organiza- 
tions, he has generally been in line with the Republican 
party. During most of the time from 1860 to 1871 he filled 
the office of Justice of the Peace in his town. In the years 
1869, 1871 and 1872 he was a member of the Board of Super- 
visors, and has besides held a number of minor offices. In 
all of these positions he evinced ability of a high order, and 
performed his duty to the satisfaction of the public. As 
Supervisor he, in 1861, advocated a county bounty for volun- 
teers. He was elected to the Assembly over HENRY WELSH, 
Democrat, by a majority of 470, which was about the 
same as the previous year. He performs his duties in the 
Assembly with zeal and intelligence, and proves to be an 
excellent representative. 

The speeches which he occasionally makes are fine speci- 
mens of homely, clear-cut common sense, going right to the 
heart of the subject in hand. He is especially eloquent 
when defending the interests of the farmer. He speaks with 
great facility of utterance, and possesses a powerful voice, 
which is heard in every part of the chamber. 



318 LIFE SKETCHES. 



JACOB M. WITBECK. 



Mr. WITBEOK is engaged extensively in milling at Nassau 
Rensselaer county, N. Y., where he resides, and is also a part- 
ner in a large brick business in Castleton. He was born on 
the 17th of September, 1820, in the town of Schodack, Rens- 
selaer county, and is of Dutch descent. His paternal grand- 
father came from Holland, and was one of the first settlers 
in Schodack, on the Van Eensselaer Manor. Mr. WITBECK 
may be styled a self-made man. At the age of eleven he was 
taken from school and left to work his own way in the world. 
His subsequent career as mechanic, farmer, hotel-keeper, 
brick manufacturer and miller, has been a success such as 
honesty and persevering industry only can secure. 

Although a life-long Democrat, Mr. WITBECK was elected 
Supervisor of the town of Nassau, one of the strongest 
Eepublican towns in the county, in 1868, an undoubted tribute 
to his patriotic efforts in raising soldiers during the dark days 
of the war. His position throughout the community in 
which he is best known, is that of a man of influence, char- 
acter and real moral worth. Mr. WITBECK was married June 
7, 1848, to Miss AMANDA NIVEE, of Kinderhook, Columbia 
county, N. Y., and attends the Reformed church. 

He is an excellent working member of the House to which 
he has now been twice elected, and serves on the Committees 
on Claims and Agriculture, being last year on Federal Rela- 
tions, and Two-thirds and Three-fifths Bills. 



JACOB WORTH. 319 



JACOB WORTH. 



Mr. WORTH is a resident of the sixteenth ward of Brook- 
lyn, and represents the Sixth district of Kings county in the 
Assembly. His parents emigrated from South Germany in the 
year 1837, locating in New York city ; five years later they 
removed to Brooklyn, and there the family have since resided. 

Mr. WORTH was born in New York soon after his parents 
arrived in that city, and therefore he is now about thirty-six 
years of age. His father died when he was but seven years 
of age, and from that time he was practically obliged to 
depend upon his own efforts to earn a living, as well as to 
provide for his widowed mother. He thus had very little 
opportunity to obtain an education. In point of fact, the 
first time he ever saw the inside of a school-house was in 1863, 
when he was a candidate for legislative honors. He is, there- 
fore, self-made, as the phrase goes, and self-educated. 

His life has been quite eventful. At the age of fifteen he 
went to sea, and, during an absence of three years, made the 
circuit of the globe. Soon after his return he entered the 
political arena, and at the early age of nineteen was elected 
to represent his ward in the Democratic General Committee. 
When the war broke out in 1861, he was enthusiastic in cham- 
pioning the Union cause, and since that time has been a firm 
and consistent Eepublican, devoting much time and effort in 
spreading a knowledge of the principles of his party among 
his fellow-countrymen. It is probably due to him more than 
to any other man that, in spite of adverse influences arising 
from excise laws and other issues, the Germans of the Eastern 
district of Brooklyn, comprising a large portion of the popu- 
lation of that section, have been kept true to Eepublicanism. 

In September, 1862, Mr. WORTH was commissioned a First 
Lieutenant in Col. CROCK'S regiment, the ]39th New York, 



320 LIFE SKETCHES. 

and went with his regiment to the front. Shortly after he 
was promoted to a Captaincy, and was given a command in 
the 84th New York regiment. He participated with credit 
in all the battles and skirmishes of the regiment until the 
latter part of 1863, when he resigned because of ill-health. 

In the fall of the same year he was placed in the field as 
the Eepublican candidate for Assembly in the district com- 
prising the 7th, loth, 16th and 19th wards of Brooklyn, and 
succeeded in defeating FRANK SMITH, the Democratic can- 
didate, by over 1,000 majority. In 1864 he was re-elected 
by about 700 majority over JOHN HANSON, the district 
giving the Democratic State ticket at the same time 500 
majority. In 1865 he was once more chosen to the Assembly, 
receiving about 1,200 majority, Judge EAMES, a very popular 
man on the Democratic side, being his opponent. In 1866 
he was a candidate for Street Commissioner against EGBERT 
FURY, and was defeated by 1,400 votes, in a poll of more 
than 48,000, running 8,800 votes ahead of the Kepublican 
State ticket. In the fall of 1867 he was elected to the Assem- 
bly from the district composed of the 16th and 19th wards 
of Brooklyn, by 30 majority, the Democratic State ticket 
receiving over 1,100 majority. In 1868 he represented the 
Second Congressional district of this State in the Electoral 
College which gave Gen. GRANT the 34 votes of the Empire 
State. He ran again for Assembly in 1869, but was defeated 
by BERNARD HAVER, a Democrat, by 58 votes, owing to the 
fact that an Independent Republican was in the field, and 
polled some 458 votes. In 1872 he was elected to the Assem- 
bly, receiving a majority of 555 over AUGUST MERRINGER ; 
in 1873 by a plurality of 958 over JOHN RABER, Democrat, 
and JOHN HINMAN, Independent, and last fall he was again 
chosen to the Assembly by a plurality of 453 over JOHN 
MAERTZ, Democrat, and ISAAC N. HOLLY, independent, 
being now in his seventh term of service. 

It is almost impossible to overcome his popularity in the 
16th ward. He has suffered much detraction at the hands 



JACOB D. WURTS. 321 

of political opponents, but he is ever ready to meet his assail- 
ants face to face on any issue, and his manly course of action 
invariably compels respect and admiration. His energy and 
perseverance are distinguishing traits in his character, and 
the Committee of One Hundred showed obvious appreciation 
of his merit, by requesting him to champion their Eeform 
Charter through the Assembly in 1873. It is conceded that 
he worthily perfermed the task allotted to him, not hesitating 
to measure lances with the ablest debaters in the House. Mr. 
WORTH has been elected to represent the 16th ward in the 
Eepublican General Committee every year for the past twelve 
years, and during the past ten years has been the elected rep- 
resentative of his assembly district to all the State Conven- 
tions of the Republican party. He is a gentleman of good 
presence and commanding figure, standing six feet in height. 
If he lives to the usual age allotted to man, he bids fair to 
become as popular in the State as he is now in Brooklyn. 
He was married in 1861, and has two interesting children. 



JACOB D. WURTS. 



JACOB DAVID WURTS, from the second district of Ulster 
county, is a prominent physician of New Paltz, and a young 
man of ability and high character. He was born in New 
Paltz on the llth of May, 1846, and is of German and 
French extraction. His father, DAVID WURTS, now de- 
ceased, was a physician of eminence as well as a prominent 
Democrat, and held, during his life, numerous political 
positions. Young WURTS was educated in the common 
schools, Bellevue Medical College, and Geneva Medical Col- 
lege. He was obliged to rely largely upon his own resources 
in prosecuting his studies, and his attainments are, therefore, 
fairly the result of energetic effort and youthful perseverance. 
41 



322 LIFE SKETCHES. 

At the age of twenty-one he commenced practicing in his 
native village, and, though he had to work his way against 
two old physicians, he was not long in establishing a lucra- 
tive practice, and now his counsel and advice are frequently 
sought by his rivals. 

Dr. WURTS has always been a Democrat, and has generally 
taken an active part in politics ; but with the exception of a 
few town offices, which have been pressed upon him, he has 
never held public position before. In the late canvass he 
was opposed by Eepublican and Temperance candidates, but 
received a plurality of 508 in a district usually giving 
about 300 Republican majority. He is chairman of the 
committee on Public Health, and member of Petitions of 
Aliens, and Two-thirds and Three-fifths bills. 

In religion Mr. WURTS is a Protestant, and he is, in all 
respects, a sound and able man and good citizen, possessing, 
also, many of those peculiar qualifications which mark the 
successful and efficient legislator. He was married in New- 
burgh in 1867, to Miss ARABELLA D. BLOOMER. 



GEORGE E. YOST. 



Mr. YOST is serving his first term as a legislator, repre- 
senting the Second district of Jefferson county. He is well 
known in the business circles of Jefferson county, as a man 
of unquestioned probity of character, and marked ability as 
a financier and tradesman. He was born at Theresa, April 
7, 1838, and received a good practical education in the dis- 
trict school, and at Theresa High School. Since reaching 
manhood he has been at different times a farmer, teacher, 
manufacturer and produce dealer, and is now engaged in 
banking. He has been quite successful in all his ventures, 



HIRAM CALKINS. 323 

and has reached an influential position in the community 
where he resides, solely as the result of his own ability and 
energy. 

In politics Mr. YOST has always been a Kepublican, and a 
very active one. Since the spring of 1873 he has represented 
the town of Theresa in the Board of Supervisors, and in 
1871 he was elected without opposition as the first President 
of the village of Theresa. Last year he was re-elected Super- 
visor without opposition. Last fall he received the assembly 
nomination with great unanimity, and was elected over JOHN 
JOHNSTON, his Democratic opponent, by a majority of 602. 
He ably serves his district on the floor of the House, and 
while not being a man of frequent speeches, is well able to 
sustain his share in the debates. He is a member of the 
Committee on Internal Affairs. 



HIRAM CALKINS, 

CLERK OF THE ASSEMBLY. 

The subject of this sketch, the present Clerk of the 
Assembly, is familiar to legislative halls, having, besides 
being Clerk of the Senate, spent several years as Albany cor- 
respondent of the New York press. 

He is a native of Wyoming county in this State, and was 
born in the town of Gainesville on the 28th of December, 
1833. He has therefore passed his fortieth year. His father, 
ELISHA D. CALKINS, was one of the earliest settlers of that 
section of the State. He left Saratoga in 1813, and purchased 
a tract of land in the town of Gainesville, and moved his 
family upon it in 1815, when there were but few in the 
neighborhood. Out of the wilderness which he found, he 
gradually evoked one of the most productive farms in that 
region. 



324 LIFE SKETCHES. 

The ancestors of Mr. CALKINS, both paternal and mater- 
nal, were prominently connected with the events of the 
country in its early history. On his father's side, they came 
from "Wales about the middle of the last century, and were 
for years members of the Colonial Council of Massachusetts. 
During the Revolutionary war they were foremost in the 
ranks of the patriot army. The great grandfather of Mr. 
CALKINS was with ETHAN ALLEN at the. capture of Ticon- 
deroga, and subsequently died in the service at that point. 

His ancestors, on his mother's side, came from England in 
the early part of the eighteenth century, and settled in Con- 
necticut, in the village of Norwalk. His mother's name 
was LOCKWOOD, a name familiar to all conversant with the 
early history of western Connecticut. His great-grandfather, 
on his mother's side, was a general in the Connecticut Mili- 
tia during the Eevoluntary war, and, as such, was a special 
favorite of General Washington during his campaigns in 
New England. 

The early boyhood of Mr. CALKINS was spent upon the 
farm. His father died when he was but seventeen years of 
age, and upon him devolved the superintendence of a large 
farm in that grain growing section of the State. He was 
equal to the task, however, and until he reached his majority, 
he remained with his mother on the homestead, solely 
responsible for the management of the farm. Prior to the 
death of his father, the only educational advantages he pos- 
sessed were those afforded by the district school. 

Those conversant with farm duties would infer that he 
could have no better advantage after that period. But with 
all the responsibilities upon his shoulders, he found time to 
attend to the cultivation of his mind. Having access to one 
of the best libraries in that section, every leisure moment 
was spent in reading, and during the winter months, until 
he was twenty-one, he attended at Castile, studying dili- 
gently and with a determination to excel in every branch of 



HIRAM CALKINS. 325 

knowledge. As a result, he had secured a fair education 
by the time he reached his majority. 

He then conceived the idea of travel, and became anxious 
to see something of the world. He took a trip through some 
of the western States, and finally brought up at Harris- 
burgh, Penn., where he engaged in book-keeping and 
corresponding for the Philadelphia Sun and other papers 
during the session of the legislature. He was then a 
Whig, having been educated in that school of politics. 
At the age of twenty-three he was elected Chairman of 
the Whig County Committee of Dauphin county. He 
made one of the most thorough canvasses of the county that 
was ever made, personally organizing in every school district 
of the county, and succeeded in obtaining for Gov. POLLOCK 
and the balance of the ticket the largest majority ever given, 
before or since, in that county. At the demise of the Whig 
party, and the organization of the Republican party, he 
retired, for a time, from active participation in politics, and 
soon after began to identify himself with the Democracy. 
His first Presidential vote was cast for MILLAED PILLMORE, 
in 1856. About that time he commenced corresponding for 
the New York Herald, and was so successful that Mr. HUD- 
SON, then managing editor of that journal, offered him a 
situation on the paper in New York. In the fall of 1857 he 
went to Milwaukee, Wis., with the view of purchasing a 
paper at that place. But in consequence of the panic of that 
year, he abandoned the idea and engaged in other business. 
In January, 1859, he left Milwaukee and took up his resi- 
dence in New York, where he soon after accepted a situation 
on the Herald. During the session of the Legislature in 
1860 he was sent to Albany as the representative of the 
Herald, and soon attracted universal attention by his spicy 
letters and exposures of the inside workings of the Legisla- 
ture. Independent and fearless in his course, his letters 
became the feature of the session. He gave the name of 
" Gridiron " to the city railroad legislation of that session. 



326 LIFE SKETCHES. 

He was the correspondent of the Herald during four sessions 
of the Legislature, and during that period had the reputation 
of presenting the most complete and truthful report given by 
any of the New York correspondents. 

In the fall of 1864, Mr. BENNETT sent him to Washington 
to represent the paper at the national capital. He soon 
obtained the reputation of being the best posted of any man 
at that point. He established confidential relations with the 
President and the members of the cabinet, and for a long 
time was the only correspondent whom Secretary STANTON 
would permit about his office or communicate with. He had 
free access to Mr. STANTON'S office at all times. He was in 
Washington at the time of the assassination of Mr. LINCOLN, 
and on the evening previous was invited by Mr. LINCOLN to 
accompany him to the theater on that eventful night. He 
was present at the death of Mr. LINCOLN, and his description 
of the scenes attending that event were the most graphic that 
were published. The account of the affair which appeared in 
the Herald, embracing nine columns, was telegraphed by him 
on Saturday. So great was the demand for details that 161,000 
copies of the Herald were sold on Sunday morning. Dur- 
ing that summer and the following winter, he visited Wash- 
ington regularly once each month and was present at every 
important event of that year. Just before the organization 
of the Congress of 1865, he gave a full description of the pro- 
posed conflict of Congress with the President, with Mr. 
STEVENS' programme for precipitating the contest, which was 
subsequently carried out in detail. During that period he 
was the medium through which Mr. BENNETT commmuni- 
cated with the leading men at Washington, and thus per- 
sonally obtained a more intimate knowledge of the public 
men, both in Congress and Cabinet, than any other person 
connected with the press outside of Washington. Few knew 
better than Mr. CALKINS of the inner workings, the secrets, 
the schemes and the conspiracies of that period. 

In the fall of 1866 he severed his connection with the 



HIRAM CALKINS. 327 

Herald and engaged on the World, with which he has been 
connected more or less continuously until the present time. 
He was the Albany representative of the World during the 
legislative session of 1866, when an exposure which he made 
of the canal ring created a sensation throughout the State. 
It led to an investigation, a number of changes among the 
canal officials, and an almost universal demand for the abo- 
lition of the contract system. Those who then read Mr. 
CALKINS' prospectus of the Canal Academy at Little Falls, 
will never forget its satire and practical hits upon the canal 
men of that day, many of whose names are mentioned quite 
freely in connection with the expose just set on foot by GOT. 
TILDES. 

In the fall of 1868, soon after the death of MILES O'KiELLEY, 
Mr. CALKINS became editor of the New York Citizen, and 
some of the best literary work he has done was performed 
upon that journal. In 1870 he was chosen clerk of the Senate 
by the unanimous vote of the Democratic Senators, and in 
that responsible and difficult position he performed his duties 
to the satisfaction of all parties, and brought to his task great 
energy, close application, and an exhaustive talent much 
beyond that which his most sanguine friends anticipated. 

In 1872 he was again the correspondent of the World at 
Albany, and has since remained in the service of the paper, 
except when engaged in the performance of official duties. In 
the winter of 1873 he was clerk of the Constitutional Com- 
mission, and rendered more aid than is generally supposed 
in reducing to presentable form the valuable suggestions of 
the distinguished men composing that commission, and 
at the close of its labors he received a unanimous vote of 
thanks for the ability and courtesy which had characterized 
his official conduct. 

Long before the present Assembly convened, Mr. CALKINS 
was by all odds the favorite candidate for the clerkship, his 
well known ability and experience being strongly in his favor, 
and when the Democratic caucus met, there was virtually no 



328 LIFE SKETCHES. 

opposition. He was finally chosen unanimously, and received 
on the formal election the entire vote of his party. In his 
performance of the onerous duties which devolve upon him, 
he has fully vindicated the wisdom of the majority of the 
House in selecting him. The operations of the clerk's desk 
have progressed smoothly and orderly during the entire 
session, the legislative business being dispatched with con- 
siderable speed, and yet without unseemly haste or confusion. 
He has gathered about him a very excellent force of assist- 
ants, and has, in the main, avoided the blunders which 
sometimes occur even in the best regulated legislative 
bodies. He is also courteous and obliging to every mem- 
ber, officer and reporter in the House, and is esteemed by all. 

Mr. CALKINS was married in January, 1858, to Miss 
JENNIE PAKTCH, of Burlington, Vt. She died, however, in 
the winter of 1872. 

Mr. CALKINS' character is very correctly described in a 
sketch recently published in the New York Phrenological 
Journal. The writer sums him up as a penetrating observer 
and sharp critic, a rapid reasoner, a ready, off-hand worker, 
able to meet duties arising from a multiplicity of responsi- 
bilities ; is positive, steadfast and thorough in whatever he 
undertakes ; possesses considerable inventive talent, and, in 
short, has those capabilities indispensable to the man who 
occupies a position where accuracy of judgment and exten- 
sive knowledge are required. 



MEMBERS OF THE SENATE. 329 

SENATORS. 

NAMES, DISTRICTS, COUNTIES IN WHICH THEY BESIDE, POST-OFFICE 
ADDRESS AND POLITICS. 



Lieut.-Gov. WM. DOKSHEIMEB, President of the Senate. 



5 


Name of Senator. 


County. 


Post-office address. 


Politics. 


i 


John A. King ............. 


Suffolk 


Great Neck 


Republican. 


2 


John W. Coe 


Kings . 


Brooklyn 


Democrat. 


3 


John C. Jacobs 


Kings 


Brooklyn 


Democrat. 


4 


John Fox 


New York 


New York 


Democrat. 


5 


James W. Booth 


New York 


New York 


Republican. 







New York 


New York. . .. .... 


Democrat. 


7 


Thomas A. Ledwlth 


New York. 


New York. 


Democrat. 


8 


Hugh H. Moore 


New York. 


Nw York 


Democrat. 


9 


William H. Robertson 


Westchester . .. 


Katonah 


Republican. 


10 


Edward H Madden 


Orange ........... 


Middletown 


Republican. 


11 


Benjamin Ray ........................ 


Columbia 


Hudson 


Democrat. 


12 


Roswell A. Parmenter.. .......... 


Rensselaer 


Troy......................... 


Democrat. 


13 




Albany ........... 


West Troy 


Democrat. 


H 




Ulster _ 


Fly Mountain. . 


Republican. 


15 


Webster Wagner . _. 


Montgomery .... 


Palatine Bridge. 


Republican. 


16 


Franklin W. Tobsy.................. 


Essex 


Port Henry ...... 


Republican. 


17 


Wells 8. Dickinson.................. 


Franklin 




Republican. 


18 


Andrew C. Middleton 


Jefferson 


Black River.............. 


Independent 


19 


Samuel S. Lowery ....... 


Onelda ............. 


TJtica 


Republican. 


20 


Archibald C. McGowan .. 


Herkimer ......... 


Frankfort 


Republican. 


21 




Madison...... 


Chi ttenango.. ............. 


Republican. 


22 


Daniel P. Wood ...................... 


Ononda&a ......... 




Republican. 


23 


James G. Thompson............... 


Chenango 


Norwich 


Republican. 


24 


John H. Selkreg. ............ 


Tompktns 


Ithaca........................ 


Republican. 


25 


William B. Woodm ............... 


Oayuga 


Auburn 


Republican. 





William Johnson.................... 


Seneca 


Seneca Falls... 


Democrat. 


27 


George B. Bradley.................. 


Steuben ........ 


Corning .................... 


Democrat. 


28 


Jarvis Lord......... .... .. 


Monroe ......... 


Rochester ................. 


Democrat. 


29 


Ban H. Cole 


Orleans . ............ 


Albion..................... 


Republican. 


30 


Abljah J. Wellmaru 


Allegany ......... 


Friendship ................ 


Republican. 


31 


Albert P. Laning................. 


Brie 


Buffalo ., HIM. ....... 


Democrat. 


32 


Albert G. Dow................... 


Cattaraugn*. 


Randolph 


Republican. 



330 



LIFE SKETCHES. 



MEMBERS OF THE ASSEMBLY. 

ALPHABETICALLY ARRANGED, WITH THE DISTRICTS AND COUNTIES 
THEY REPRESENT, POST-OFFICE ADDRESS AND POLITICS. 



Hon. JEREMIAH McGUIRE, Speaker. 



Name. 


County. 


Post-office. 


Politics. 


Alvord, Thomas G 








Badger, John P 


Franklin 


Burke 




Barkley, Benjamin F 
Barrow, George 


Greene 


Jewett 


Democrat. 


Beach, Alfred N 


New York 






Beardsley, Chas. S., Jr 
Benedict, Samuel T 
Bennett Warren C 


Cayuga 
Schenectady .... 


Auburn 
Schenectady 


Democrat. 
Democrat. 


Berry, George 


Madison 






Bishop, James 


Tioga 


Tioga 




Bordwell, Orville C. 


Niagara 






Bowen, Shepard P 


Clinton 


Plattsburgh 


Republican. 


Bradley, Daniel 


Kings 






Braman, Waters W 


Albany 


West Troy 




Broas, Benjamin S 


Dutchess 






Brogan, John C 


New York 


New York city 
Spring Valley 


Democrat. 


Burtis, John H 
Calkins, William E 


Kings 
Essex ...t, 


Brooklyn 


Republican. 


Campbell, Thomas C 
Campbell, Timothy J 
Christopher, William H 
Clark, William H 


New York 
New York 
Putnam 
Wayne 


New York city 
New York city 
Croton Falls, West. Co 


Democrat. 
Democrat. 
Democrat. 


Cleary, William V 
Coffey, Michael 
Cole, Eichard D 


Eensselaer 
Kings 
Monroe 


Troy ~ 
Brooklyn 
Rochester 


Democrat. 
Democrat. 
Democrat. 


Cooke, James E 
Cost! an, Thomas 


Otsego 
New York _ 


Morris - 
New York city 


Democrat. 
Democrat. 



MEMBERS OF THE ASSEMBLY. 



331 



4 
5 


Name. 


County. 


Post-office. 


Politics. 


3 
14 
2 


Daggett, Henry J 
Daly, James 
Davis, Emerson 


Oswego 
New York 


New Haven 
New York city 
Whitehall 


Be publican. 
Democrat. 


2 
17 
2 
1 
2 


Decker, George G - 
Dessar, Leo C 
Edson, Obed 
Ely, William H 


Delaware 
New York 
Chautauqua 
Otsego 


Margaretville 
New York city 
Sinclairville 
Worcester 


Republican. 
Democrat. 
Democrat- 
Democrat. 




Faulkner, James, Jr 
Fay, George W 
Fish William H 


Livingston 
Fulton & Ham.. 


Dansville 
Gloversville, Ful. Co., 


Democrat. 
Republican. 


1 


Fream, John 


Ulster 






2 

3 


Friend, Joseph D 
Gallagher, Edward 


Orange 
Erie 


Mlddletown 
Buffalo 


Democrat. 
Republican. 


9 


Gedney, William H 
Green, Newton H 
Griffin, Stephen, 2d 


New York 
Genesee 


New York city 
Byron 


Republican. 
Republican. 
Democrat . 


1 


Hammond, Stephen H. 






Democrat. 


1 


Hanrahan, Patrick 


Erie 


Buffalo ~ 


Democrat. 


1< 


Hauschel, Germain 






Democrat- 


VI 


Hepburn, A. Barton 




Colton 


Republican. 


80 








Republican. 


1 


Hinckley, Otis D" 






Republican. 


1 


Hogan, William 
Holmes, Daniel M 
Houghton, Nathaniel M 


Seneca 
Chenango 


Waterloo 
Norwich 
Corinth 


Democrat. 
Democrat. 
Republican. 


> 


Hussey, Erastus H 






Republican. 


I 


Husted, James W 




Peekskill 


Bepublican. 


a 


Ives, Silas T 




Clinton 


Democrat. 


a 


Johnson, Willard _ 




Fulton 


Democrat. 


ft 


Johnson, William A 


Erie 


Collins Centre 


Bepublican. 


1 




New York . 


New York city 




2 

71 


Kennaday, John B 
Kirk, William P 


Kings 
New York 


Brooklyn 
New York city 


Democrat. 
Democrat. 


3 
H 


Krack, Charles H 
Kshinka, Leopold C. G 


Ulster - 


Woodstock - 


Democrat. 


1 


Law, Alexander B .... 


Washington. ... 


Shushan ... 


Republican. 



332 



LIFE SKETCHES. 



1 


Name. 


County. 


Post-office. 


Politics. 


1 


Lawrence, Henry 






Democrat 


2 

3 
4 
2 
1 
11 
If. 
9 


Lawson, William W 
Lewis, Edward 
Lillybridge, Harrison 
Lincoln, Cyrillo S 
Mackin, James 
McAfee, Knox 
McGowan, John T 
McGroarty, John. 


Erie 
Oneida 
Onelda 
Ontario 
Dutchess 
New York. 
New York. 
Kings 


Buffalo 
East Florence 
Blossvale. 
Naples 
Fishkill-on-the Hud. 
New York city 
New York city 
Brooklyn 


Republican. 
Democrat. 
Republican. 
Republican. 
Democrat. 
Republican. 
Democrat. 
Democrat. 


1 


Miller James W 








1 
2 

7 


Miller, Warner 
Muller, Nicholas, 
Oakley, James M 
O'Keeffe, Michael 


Herklmer 
New York.... 
Queens 
Kings 


Little Falls 
New York city 
Jamaica 
Brooklyn, E. D. 


Republican. 
Democrat. 
Democrat. 


1 
1 

2 
] 


Page, Alanson 8 
Peck, John F 
Petty, Nathan D 
Pierson, Lucius C 
Pope Seth G 


Oswego 
Jefferson 
Suffolk 
Steuben 


Oswego 
Great Bend. 
Riverhead 
Cameron 


Democrat. 
Republican. 
Republican. 
Democrat. 


1 
4 


Prince, L. Bradford 


Queens 

Erie 


Flushing 


Republican. 


4 
3 


Reilly, Charles. 
Rich, Joslah 


New York 
Monroe. 


New York city 
Spencerport 
Carlisle 


Democrat. 
Democrat. 


> 










3 
? 


Sanford, Jonah 
Schenck, Martin 
Schieffelln, Charles M 


St. Lawrence... 
Montgomery... 
Westchester 


Hopklnton 
Spraker's Basin 
East Chester 


Republican. 
Democrat. 




Schuyler, George W 


Tompkins 




Liberal 


o 




Cattaraugus ... 




Liberal 


7 


Seward Frederick W 


New York 






1 


Shattuck, Stephen D 








1 






New Hartford 














1 


Shell Dennis R 


Westchester 






1 


Sllverman. Bernard 


Kines .... 


Brooklyn. E. D 


Democrat. 



MEMBERS OF THE ASSEMBLY. 



333 



i 

5 


Name. 


County. 


Post-office. 


Politics. 


\ 






Clarksvllle 




21 


Smith, John W 
Stacy Orrln T 


New York 
Allegany 


New York city 
Rushford 


Democrat. 


8 
4 


Stauf, George A 
Stephens, Stephen D., Jr 
Struble, HanforU 
Talmadge, T. V. P 


New York. 
Richmond 
Yates 
glngs 


New York city 
Richmond 
Penn Yan 
Brooklyn 


Democrat. 
Democrat. 
Republican. 









Rochester 




g 


Taylor, William F 










Tewksbury, Samuel W 




Perry Center 




3 

1 


Tremaln, Charles 
Vedder, Commodore P_ 


Onondaga 


Manllus 
Ellicottville 


Republican. 


| 


Vosburgh, Francis W 




Albany 




in 


Waehner, Louis 




New York city 


Democrat. 


i 


Wellington, D. Gerry. 




Hamilton 


Republican. 




Wenzel, Adolph E 


Sullivan 


Calllcoon 


Democrat. 


i 


West, George 
Wetherbee John M.* . 


Saratoga. 


Ballston Spa. 


Republican. 
Republican. 




Whltmore Daniel E 






Republican. 


1 


Willis, Warren G. 


Delaware 


Masonville - 


Republican. 


i 


Witbectc Jacob M 






Democrat.. 


6 

2 
7 


Worth, Jacob 
Wurts, Jacob D 


Kings 
Ulster 


Brooklyn, E. D 
New Paltz 


Republican. 
Democrat. 
Republican. 













Deceased. 



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This book is DUE on the last date stamped below. 




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