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CAHILL 4 CO., Printers, Dublin. 


THE Grammar of Spoken Irish presents many diffi- 
culties owing to the forms peculiar to different places, 
but as the literary usage embraces the dialects cur- 
rent in different localities, save a few archaic sur- 
vivals, the literary usage has been adopted as the standard 
of this grammer. 

Modern Irish may be said to date from the end of the 
16th, or the beginning of the 17th century. At the com- 
mencement of the modern period many forms are found 
which belong to an earlier period, and many forms which 
have since grown obsolete, side by side with those by which 
they have since been replaced. We have deemed it advisable 
not to introduce into this grammer any obsolete grammatical 
forms, how prominent soever they may be in early modern 
literature. However, as students preparing for public exa- 
minations are frequently required to read the works of early 
modern authors, we have added in the present edition an 
appendix containing the verb-system of early modern Irish. 
Such early modern grammatical forms as survive oaly within 
a small area are not given in the large type ; on the other 
hand, those grammatical forms generally found in literature, 
and which are still in use in any one of the three Irish- 
speaking Provinces, are given in the large print in preference 
to those more generally used by Irish speakers, but which are 
not found in literary works. It is hoped that this method 
may help to popularise Irish literature, and to reconcile in 
some degree the slight discrepancies which exist between the 
spoken and the literary usages. 

In the present Grammar the letters I, n, and p are 
reckoned among the asphable consonants, and p is omitted 


from the eclipaable ones. The declension of verbal nouns is 
transferred from the third declension to the chapter on the 
verbs. A collection of heteroclite nonns is inserted. The 
usual declension of the personal pronouns is not employed, 
and the terms Conjunctive and Disjunctive pronouns are 
adopted. The naming of the four principal parts of an Irish 
verb, the treatment of the Autonomous form of conjugation, 
the rejection of compound prepositions, infinitive mood, and 
present participle form a few of the features of this grammar. 
Among the appendices will be found lists of words belonging 
to the various declensions, of verbs of beth conjugation, and 
of irregular verbal nouns. 

Many of the rules have been taken from the " O'Growney 
Series " and from the " Gaelic Journal." The grammars of 
Neilson, O'Donovan, Bourke, Craig, and of many other 
authors, have been consulted. The chapter on the classifi- 
cation of the uses of the prepositions is based on Dr. 
Atkinson's edition of Keating's Uj\i t)iojv.AOtte An tXdip 
Some of the sentences which illustrate the rules have been 
culled, with the author's permission, from the tl1ion-Cc\inc 
of the Rev. Peter O'Leary, P.P. 

In the present edition the enunciation of the rnle C<.\ol 
te c-AOl i leAfcan te leAtAti has been modified so as to 
bring it more into harmony with the spoken language. The 
sections on the Relative pronouns, Demonstrative pronouns, 
Adverbs, and Conjunctions have been greatly enlarged and 
improved. A large collection of Idiomatic expressions and an 
exhaustive Index have been also added. 

The Christian Brothers acknowledge with pleasure their 
indebtedness to Mr. John McNeill, B A., and Rev. Peter 
O'Leary, P.P., for their generous and invaluable aid in the 
production of this grammar. To Mr. R. J. O'Mulrenin, M.A., 
Mr. J. H. Lloyd, to Mr. Shortall, and to many other friends 
their best tbanks are due, and gratefully tendered. 



The Letters 1 

Sounds of the Voxels ... ... ... ... 2 

The Diphthongs ... ... ... ... ... 2 

The Triphthongs ... ... ... ... ... 8 

Consonants, Division of the ... ... ... 4 

,, Combination of the ... ... ... 6 

Accent ... ... ... ... ... ... 6 

Words distinguished by ... ... ... 7 

Obscure Sounds of the Vowels ... ... ... 7 

Aspiration, Explanation of ... ... ... ... 9 

How marked ... ... ... ... 10 

Rules for 11 

Eclipsis 13 

Rules for 15 

Insertion of n ... ... ... ... 16 


h 18 

Attenuation and Broadening ... ... ... 18 

CAol te CAol i leAc^n le teACAn ... ... ... 19 

Syncope, Explanation of ... ... ... ... 20 

,, Examples of ... ... ... ... 21 

The Article ... 25 

Initial changes produced by ... ... 23 

Gender, Rules for ... ... ... ... ... 26 

Cases, Number of ... ... ... ... ... 28 

Bole* for formation of the ... ... 28 


First Declension ... ... ... ... ... 80 

Examples of vowel-changes ... ... 83 

,, Irregular Genitive Singular .. ... 8t 

Irregular Nominative Plural ... 34 

Second Declension ... ... ... ... ... 36 

Examples of vowel-changes ... ... 37 

,, Irregular Genitive Singular ... ... 39 

,, Irregular Nominative Plural ... ... 89 

Third Declension ... ... ... ... ... 41 

Irregular Nominative Plural ... ... 44 

Fourth Declension ... ... .,. ... ... 45 

Irregular Nominative Plural ... ... 46 

Fifth Declension 47 

Heteroclite Nouns ... ... .. ... ... 51 

Irregular Nouns ... ... ... ... 52 

The Adjective ... 56 

First Declension ... ... ... 66 

,, Second Declension ... ... ... 59 

Third Declension ... ... .. 60 

Fourth Declension ... ... ... 60 

Aspiration of ... ... ... 61 

Eclipsisof 62 

Comparison of ... ... ... 83 

., Irregular Comparison ... ... ... 68 

Numeral Adjectives ... ... ... ... 69 

Notes on... ... ... 71 

Personal Numerals ... ... 73 

Possessive Adjectives ... ... ... 74 

Demonstrative ,, ... . = . ... 78 

Indefinite ... 79 

Distributive ... ... ... 82 

Interrogative ,, ... ... ... 82 

Intensifying Particles ... ... ... 66 

Emphatic ... .- -.. 75 


Translation of "Some" ... ... ... 80 

"Any" ......... 81 

The Pronoun 

Personal ... ... ... ... 88 

Reflexive ... ... ... 84 

Conjunctive and Disjunctive ... ... 85 

Neuter Pronoun eA-6 ... ... ... ... 86 

Prepositional ... ... ... ... 87 

Relative ... ... ... 91 

Demonstrative ... ... ... ... 93 

Indefinite ... ... ... ... 94 

Distributive ... ... ... ... 96 

Interrogative ... ... ... ... 98 

Reciprocal ... ... ... ... 97 

The Verb 

Conjugations, Number of ... ... ... 98 

Three forms of ... ... ... 9 

M Autonomous form of ... ... 100 

Moods, Number of ... ... ... ... 102 

Tenses, Number of ... ... ... ... 101 

,, Various forms of the ... ... ... 104 

Principal Parts of a Verb ... ... ... 106 

,, Examples of ... ... ... 107 

First Conjugation ... ... ... ... 108 

Notes on Moods and Tenses of ... 113 

Rule for Aspiration of c of the Past Participle ... 116 

Participle of Necessity ......... 116 

Derivative Participles ..... ... 117 

Declension of Verbal Nouns ... ... ... 118 

Second Conjugation ... ... ... ... 118 

Verbs in 15 and 15 ... ... ... ,.. 119 

Syncopated Verbs ... ... ... ... 120 

Rules for formation of Verbal Noun .. ... ... 125 

Irregular Verbs . ... ... ... 127 


Irregular Verbs, Absolute and Dependent forma of ... 138 

CAIID ............ 127 

i r ............ 133 

beiti ............ 186 

C4t)4lft ... ... ... ,.. 137 

Abatjt ... ... ... UC 

5*6 ............ 142 

F*5 ......... 1 

Oeun ... ... 145 

PMC ............ 147 

Cloif or ctuin ... ... ... ... 150 

Ceij (Ceix.) ........... 152 

1c ............ 154 

tlijim ... ... ... ... 155 

Defective Verbs 

dp, DAr. peAt>Ati ... ... ... 156 

tif U, t)'r6bAHi, peuT)Aim ... ... ... 157 

Adverbs ............ 167 

Interrogative Words ............ 160 

"Up and Down,"&<;. ... ... ... 160 

11 This side, that side," &c. ... ... ... 162 

"Over" ............ 163 

North, South, East, West ......... 163 

Compound or Phrase Adverbs .. ... 164 

Days of the Week ............ 167 

"Head-foremost" ... ... ... ... 167 

"However" ............ 168 

The Adverb " The " ............ 168 

Prepositions ... ... ..168 

Conjunctions ... ... 169 

Use of HA and tU 50 ... ... 170 

Usesofnuji - 170 

Interjections ............ 171 



Prefixes 173 

Affixes 176 

Diminutives ... .." ... 178 

in in 179 

in An 179 

in 65 180 

Derivative Nouns ... 181 

Compound Nouns ... ... 182 

Derivative Adjectives ... ... 186 

Verbs derived from Nouns ... ... ... 190 

Adjectives ... ... 191 

Syntax of the Article 192 

Article used in Irish but not in English ... 193 

Syntax of the Noun ... ... ... ... 196 

Apposition ... ... ... 197 

Collective Nouns ... ... ... ... 197 

Personal Numerals ... ... ... ... 198 

Personal Nouns ... ... ... ... 199 

Syntax of the Adjective ... 201 

Adjective used Attributively ... ... ... 202 

Predicatively ... ... ... 204 

Numeral Adjectives ... ... ... ... 205 

Dual Number ... ... ... ... 209 

Possessive Adjectives ... ... ... 211 

Syntax of the Pronoun ... ... ... ... 213 

Relative Pronoun ... 214 

Translation of the Genitive case of the English 

Relative ... ... ... ... 216 

Syntax of the Verb ... ... 218 

Uses of the Subjunctive Mood ... ... 219 

Relative form of the Verb ... ... 22 1 

Verbal Noun and its Functions ... ... ... 224 

How to translate the English Infinitive ... 226 

Definition of a Definite Noun ... ... ... 285 


When to nse the Verb is ... ... ... 236 

Position of Words with 1S ... ... ... 240 

Translation of the English Secondary Tenses ... Z41 

Prepositions after Verb8 ... ... ... 243 

Translation of the word " Not " ... ... 246 

How to answer a question. Yes No ... ... 248 

Syntax of the Preposition ... ... ... ... 249 

Translation of the Preposition "For" ... ... 256 

"Of" 260 

Uses of the Preposition ... ... 262 

Specimens of Parsing ... ... ... ... 284 

Idioms . 289 

Idiomatic Phrases ... ... ... ... 305 

The Autonomous form of the Irish Verb ... ... 815 


i. List of Nouns belonging to First Declension 325 
ii. List of Feminine Nouns ending in a broad 
consonant belonging to Second Declen- 

eion 327 

iii. List of Nouns belonging to Third Declension 329 

iv. List of Nouns belonging to Fifth Declension 333 

v. List of Irregular Verbal Nouns ... ... 834 

vi. List of Verbs of First Conjugation ... ... 336 

vii. List of Syncopated Verbs ... ... ... 338 

viii. Termination of the Regular Verbs in present- 
day usage ... ... ... ... 33y 

ix. Verb-System of Early Modern Irish ... 340 

Index . 343 



The Letters. 

\. The Irish alphabet contains eighteen letters, five 
of which are vowels, the remaining thirteen are con- 

The vowels are -A, e, 1, o, ti ; and the consonants 
are to, c, t>, r, 5, n, I, m, n, p, p, r, c. 

2. The vowels are divided into two classes. 

(1) The broad vowels : A, o, u. 

(2) The slender vowels : e, i. 

The vowels may be either long or short. The long 
vowels are marked by means ol an acute accent (0 
placed over the vowel, as m<ty (big) pronounced like 
the English word more ; a short vowel has no accent, 
as mol (praise), pronounced like mid in the English 
word mulberry. Carefully distinguish between the 
terms "broad vowel" and "long vowel." The broad 
vowels (A, o, u) are not always long vowels, neither 
are the slender vowels (e, 1) always short. 

In writing Irish we must be careful to mark the 
accents on long vowels. See words distinguished by 
accent, par. 14. 

3. Sounds of the Vowels. 

The Irish vowel ia sounded like in the words 

A long au naught 

<j in HATJ (baudh), boat 

A short o not 

gUf (gloss), green 

6 long ae Gaelic 

cpe (klr-ae), cla/ 

e short e let 

ce (t'ye), hot 

i ee feel 

,, mAitfn (mawil-een), little bag 
1 i hit 

,, pi|i (fir), men 

6 6 note 

,, mojt (mor), big, large 

o 6, u done or much 

,, wofiAf (dhur-us), a door 

" oo tool 

,, glun (gloon), a knee 
u bull or put 

,, njir-A (ursu), a door-jamb 

A short vowel at the end of an Irish word is alwayi 

The Digraphs. 

4. The following list gives the sounds of the 
digraphs in Modern Irish. The first five aie ahviivs 
long and require no accent. The others are some- 
times long and sometimes short, hence the accent 
ought not to be omitted.* 

* Since but few words, and these well-known, have eo short it is 
not usual to write the accent on eo long. 

i A is pronounced like ee-a as t)ix* (dyee-a), God. 
UA ,, oo-a ,, ptMp (foo-ar), cold. 

eu or e.<\ ae ,, j:euf\ (faer), grass. 

Ae ae ,, lAete (lae-he), days. 

AO ae ,, T)Aop (dhaer), dear. 

e6 yo ,, ceol (k-yol), music. 

lu ew pu (few), worthy. 

Ai ,, au+i CAIN (kau-in), a tax. 

61 ,, ae+i ,, I6im (lyae-im), a leap. 

61 ,, o+i ,, m6m (mo-in), a bog. 

ui ,, oo+i ,, full (soo-fl), an eye. 

e^ ,, aa CAifte^n (kosh-laan*), 

a castle.] 
fo ee po|\ (feer), true. 

(thaish), damp. 

(far), a man. 
ei e ,, eite (el-e), other. 

01 ,, u+i ,, coil (thu-il), a will. 

10 \ pop (fiss), knowledge. 

uiJ " uifge (ish-ge), water. 

eo u -oeoC (d'yukh), a drink. 

Ai( = ^i"6e) : , ee COCAI (ko-thee), coats. 

The Trigraphs. 

5. There are six trigraphs in Irish. They are 
pronounced as follows : 
^01 = ee fAOi (see)=a wise man. 

eoi = o+i -ofeoilin (d'ro-il-een)=a wren. 

Also pronounced kosh-laun. 

e4i = aa+i CAipieMn(kosh-laain)=castles. 

1A1* = eea+i II<M$ (lee-ih):=a physician. 

it Ait = oo+i puAip (foo-ir)= found. 

iui = ew+i cium (kew-in)=calm. 

The Consonants. 

6. The consonants are usually divided into two 

(1) The liquids t, m, n, p. 

(2) The mutes b, c, r>, p, 5, p, r-, c. 

The letter ti is not given, for h is not usually recog- 
nised as an Irish letter. It can be used only as a 
sign of aspiration, or at the beginning of a word, to 
separate two vowel sounds. 

Sonio grammarians divide the consonants into 
labials, dentals, palatals, gutturals, sibilants, &c., 
according to the organs employed in producing the 

7. Every Irish consonant has two natural J sounds, 
according as it is broad or slender. 

An Irish consonant is broad whenever it imme- 
diately precedes or follows a broad vowel (A, o, u) 
An Irish consonant is slender whenever it immediately 
precedes or follows a slender vowel (e, i). 

8. The Irish consonants, when broad, have a much 

Pronounced like ille in the French wonl fille. 
tit cannot be proper^ represented by any English sound. It is 
somewhat like one in the b'rench word ouest. 

J Other sounds will be I rented of under the heading "Aspiration." 

thicker sound than in English; e.g. T> broad has nearly 
the sound of th in thy, i.e. d + h; c broad has nearly 
the sound of th in threw, &c. When slender the 
Irish consonants (except f) have somewhat the same 
sound as in English; but when they are followed by a 
slender vowel, they are pronounced somewhat like the 
corresponding English consonant followed immediately 
by a y, e. g. ceol (rrusic) is pronounced k' yol; Deo 
(alive) =b'yo. 

It must not, however, be understood that there is a 
"y sound" in the Irish consonant/ The peculiar 
sound of the Irish consonants when followed by a 
slender vowel is fairly well represented by the corre- 
sponding English consonant+an English "y sound." 
In some parts of the country this "y sound" is not 
neard. The y is orJy sajyexiitc, and is never heard 
as a distinct sound. 

Combination of the Consonants. 

9. There are certain Irish consonants which, when 
they come together in the same word, do not coalesce, 
so that when they are uttered a very short obscure 
vowel sound is heard between them. 

This generally occurs in the case of two liquids or 
a liquid and a mute. Thus bAlo (dumb) is pronounced 
boll-uv ; le<\nt> (a child) is lyan-uv ; -OO^CA (dark) is> 
dhur-uchu ; mAf\5<\-6 (a market) is mor-ugu.. 

The following combinations do not coalesce, : en, LO, 
15, Im, pt>, j\ti, pg, pn, irh, nt>, nrh, ^rh, nc, ft<5. 

10. In some combinations, one of the consonants is 

ol is pronounced like tt 
on ,, nn 

rro ,, nn 

In U 

Thus, COT>UYO (sleep) is pronounced kullu. 
(same) ,, kaenu. 

(ugly) graun-u. 

(beauty) ,, aul-ye. 

Notice the difference between tig and gn. 
long (a ship) is pronounced lung, 
gno (work) ,, gun-o. 

11. Only three of the Irish consonants, viz. the 
liquids I, n, jv may be doubled. This doubling can take 
place only at the end or the middle of words, but never 
at the beginning. The double liquids have quite distinct 
sounds from the single, except in Munster, where, 
in some positions, double liquids influence vowels. 
This doubling at the end of a word does not denote 
shortness of the preceding vowel, as in English : in 
fact, it is quite the opposite; e. g. eA in j?eAjif\ (better) 
is longer than e.\ in pe^fx (a man). 

In Irish there is no double consonant like the Eng- 
lish x, which =ks. 


12. The only accent sign used in writing Irish is 
the acute accent placed over the long vowels, and over 

the long sounds of those diphthongs, which may ba 
sometimes short. This sign is not intended to mark 
the syllable on which the stress of the voice falls. 

13. In simple words of two syllables the tonic accent 
is usually upon the first syllable, as Auf (6g-us), and ; 
tinA (oon-a), Una: but in derived words of two or 
more syllables the accented syllable varies in the 
different provinces. 

In Munster the accent falls on the termination 
or second syllable; in Connaught it falls on the first 
syllable, or root; in Ulster the accent falls on the first 
syllable, as in Gonnaught, but the termination ia 
unduly shortened. For instance, the word C4f\in, a 
path, is pronounced kos-aun in Munster, kos-aun 
in Connaught, and kos-an in Ulster. 

The Obscure Yowel Sounds. 

Whenever a vowel has neither a tonic nor a written 
accent, it has so transient and indistinct a pronuncia- 
tion that it is difficult to distinguish one broad or one 
slender vowel from another ; hence in ancient 
writings we find vowels substituted for each other 
indiscriminately: <-:.g,, the word flAnuigce, saved, is 
frequently spelled fUtiAigte, r'^'ioigte, rUmujct. 

14. Words distinguished by their accent. 

.Ate, a place. x\ic, funny, peculiar (what 

one likes or wishes). 
A\\, our ; slaughter. A\\ on ; says. 

bAp, death. 

bAp (or bop), palm of 


c^p, a caso. 

CAP, turn. 

ce" AT> (cent)), a hundred. 

CGA-O, leave, permissioii 

coip, right. 

coip, a crime. 

c<5ipce, a coach. 

coipce, a jury. 

06, two. 

oo, to. 

f.An, a wandering. 

f.An, wait, stay. 

peAf (peup), grass. 

peAf , a man. 

pop, yet. 

pop, a prop. 

f, she, her. 

1, in. 

teAfi, clear, perceptible. 

le,\t\, the sea. 

ton, food, provisions. 

Ion, a blackbird. 

triAlA, a bag. 

niAlA, an eyebrow. 

m6Ap. (meufv), a finger. 

meAn, quick, active. 

min, fine. 

mm, meal. 

nA, than; not (imperative). 

nA, the plural article. 

p\6p, a rose. 

l\op, flax-seed. 

f At, a heel. 

fAt, filth, dirt. 

feAn (peun), happy. 

p(Mn, old. 

fin, stretch. 

fin, that. 

p6lAp, comfort. 

f olAp, light. 

put, (gen. plural of pint) 

f ul, before (with verbs). 


c6, a person. 

cc, hot. 


15. Tho word "aspiration" comes from the Latit 
verb "aspirare," to breathe; hence, when we sayinlrish 
that a consonant is asj-r rated, we mean that the breath 
is not completely stopped in the formation of the 
consonant, but rather that the consonant sound ia 

Take, for example, the consonant b. To form this consonant sound 
the lips are pressed closely together for on instant, and the breath U 
forced out on separating the lips. Now, if we wish to get the sound 
of b aspirated (or b), we must breathe the whole time whilst trying tu 
form the sound of b ; i.e. we must not close the lips entirely, and the 
resulting sound is like the English consonant v. Henco we say that 
the sound of 6 (in some positions) is w. 

The Irish letter c corresponds very much to the English k, and the 
breathed sound of /; corresponds to the sound of 6 (when broad). To 
sound the English k, we press the centre of the tongue against the 
palate, and cut off the breath completely for an instant. In pro- 
nouncing c (when broad), all we have to do 13 to try to pronounce the 
letter k without preaing the tongue against the palate. The word 
loc, a lake, is pronounced somewhat like luk; but the tongue is not 
to touch the palate to form the k. The sound of c aspirated when 
slender (especially when initial) is very well represented by the sound 
of "h" in "humane." 

The Irish ij (5) has always the hard sound of g in the English word 
"go." In pronouncing this word we press the back of the tongue 
aguinst the ba,ck of the palate. Now, to pronounce 5 (and also -6^ 
when broad, we must breathe in forming the sound of y, i.e. ?e must 
keep the tongue almost flat in the mouth. 

The various sounds of the aspirated consonants aro not given, aa 
they are dealt with very fully in the second parl of the "O'Growney 
Series." It may be well to remark, however, that the sound of p is 
like the sound of the Irish p, not the English /. The Irish p ia 
sounded without the aid of the teeth. 


16. Aspiration is usually marked by placing a dot 
over the consonant aspirated thus, t>, C, &. How- 
ever, it is sometimes marked by an h t^ter the con- 
sonant to be aspirated. This is the method usually 
adopted when Irish is written or printed in English 

17. In writing Irish only nine of the consonants, 
viz., t>, c, t>, j:, 5, m, p, f , and c, are aspirated ; but in 
the spoken language all the consonants are aspirated. 

The Aspiration of l, n, p. 

18. The aspiration of the three letters t, n, ji, is not marked by any 
sign in writing, as is the aspiration of the other consonants (o or 
oh) ; but yet they are aspirated in the spoken language. An example 
will best illustrate this point. The student has already learned that 
the word leADAft, a book, is pronounced lyou-ar. mo, my, aspirates 
an ordinary consonant, as mo t>6, my cow; but it also aspirates 
I, n, ft, for mo leADAft, my book, is pronounced mtt low-ar (i.e. the 
sound of y after I disappears). 

, his book, is pronounced & low-ar. 
i, her book, fi lyou-ar. 

, their book, & lyow-ar. 

, his strength, ft narth. 

, her strength, ,, & nyarth. 

&c., &c. 

19. When t broad begins a word it has a much thicker sound than 
in English. In sounding the English I the point of the tongue touches 
the palate just above the teeth; but to get the thick sound of the 
Irish t we must press the tongue firmly against the upper teeth (01 
we may protrude it between the teeth). Now, when such an t is 
aspirated it loses this thick sound, and is pronounced just as the Eng- 
lish 1. 

20. It is not easy to show by an example the aspirated sound of n ; 
however, it is aspirated in the spoken language, and a slightly softer 
sound is produced. 


Rules for Aspirations. 

21. We give here only the principal rules. Others 
will be given as occasion will require. 

(a). The possessive adjectives mo, my; -oo, thy. 
and A, his, aspirate the first consonant of the follow- 
ing word, as mo t>6, my cow ; -oo rhACAip, thy mother ; 
A ciApAll, his horse. 

(b) The article aspirates a noun in the nominative 
and accusative feminine singular, and also in the 
genitive masculine singular unless the noun begins 
with -o, c, or r- ; An tieAti, the woman; C-A Art jreotl 
guipc, the meat is salt ; tru\c x\n pp., (the) son of the 

(c) In compound words the initial consonant of the 
second word is aspirated, except when the second 
word begins with -o or c, and the first ends in one of 
the letters T>, n, c, t, f . These five letters will be 
easily remembered, as they are the consonants of the 
word "dentals" ; v e An-tru\c<Mp, a grandmother ; CAC- 
ti<5pp, a helmet; leic-pmjcinn, a halfpenny; but ^GAII- 
otune, an old person ; p e<\n-ceAc, an old house. 

(d) The interjection A, the sign of the vocative case, 
causes aspiration in nouns of both genders and both 
numbers: A pip, man; A iinu\ women; A 
SeumAip, James. 

(e) An adjective is aspirated when it agrees with a 
feminine noun in the nominative or accusative sin- 

gular, or with a masculine noun in the genitive sin- 
gular, and in the dative and vocative singular of both 
genders ; also in the nominative plural when the noun 
ends in a slender consonant: as t)6 ti^n, a white cow; 
mAC AH p\\ m<5in, (the) son of the big man; <Vn mnAoi 
riiAit, from the good woman; cf\i cApAilt, tiitfjvA, three 
big horses. 

(/) When a noun is immediately followed by an 
indefinite* noun in the genitive case, singular or 
plural, the initial of the noun in the genitive is usually 
subject to precisely the same rules as if it were the 
initial of an adjective: e. g. utt Cipce, a hen-egg (lit. 
an egg of a hen); tnoe cipce, of a hen-egg; cloc 
mine, a stone of meal; mm coit\ce, oaten meal. The 
letters "o and c are not aspirated after T>, n, u, I, p; 
and p is often excepted, as the change in sound is so 

(g) The initial of a verb is aspirated (1) in the 

imperfect, the simple past, and the conditional, activo 
voice; (2) after the particles til, not; tru\, if; n\A]\, as; 
and f ul, before ; (3) after the simple relative particle, 
expressed or understood: t>i pe", he was; -oo fe^f p, 
she stood; ni fruilmi, I am not; nl t>eit> f6, he will 
not be; AH c6 ouAile-Af or AH ce A buAile-Ap, he (or 
the person) who strikes; T>O DUAiLpnn, I would strike. 

i.e. One not preceded by the definite article, possessive adj., &c. 
See par. 686. 


(h) The initial of the word following DA or out) (the 
past tense and conditional of the verb if) is usually 

DA rhAit tiotn, I liked or I would like. 

t>' teApp t e , rj } ie preferred or would prefer. 

(t) The simple prepositions (except AS, Ar-, le, gAn 
i, and 50) aspirate the initials of the nouns imme- 
diately following them: JM 6toi6, under a stone; tug 
f6 AH leADAfv "oo >eutnAi, he gave the book to James. 


22. Eclipsis is the term used to denote the suppres- 
sion of the sounds of certain Irish consonants by pre- 
fixing others produced by the same organ of speech. 

There is usually a great similarity between the eclips- 
ing letter and the letter eclipsed: thus, p is eclipsed by 
b ; c is eclipsed by t>, &c. If the student pronounce the 
letters p and t>, c and t>, he will immediately notice 
the similarity above referred to. Thus b and t> are 
like p and c, except that they are pronounced with 
greater stress of the breath, or, more correctly, with 
greater vibration of the vocal chords. 

* Except in N. Connaught and Ulster, where this rule applies only 
to b, p, ei. and sometimes p. 


23. Seven* of the consonants can be eclipsed, viz. 
b, c, -o, jr, 5, p, c ; the others cannot. Each consonant 
has its own eclipsing letter, and it can be eclipsed by 
no other. The eclipsing letter is written immediately 
before the eclipsed letter, and is sometimes, though 
not usually in recent times, separated from it by a 
hyphen, as m-bAfvo or rntMjvo (pronounced maurdh). 

Formerly eclipsis was sometimes shown by doub- 
ling the eclipsed letter: thus, A CCA^D, their bull. 
Whenever a letter is eclipsed both should be retained 
in writing, although only one of them (the eclipsing 
one) is sounded. 

24. It is much better not to consider the letter f as 
an eclipsable letter at all. c replaces it in certain 
positions, but in none of those positions (dative 
singular excepted) in which the other letters are 
eclipsed. In fact, f is often replaced by c when the 
previous word ends in n, as AT\ cpuil, the eye ; *.\on 
cpAl, one heel; fe^n c-Site, old Sheelah; t>ui i oe,.\n 
Cftu<\$, a crowd, &c. Some, however, maintain that 
p is really eclipsed in these cases, because its sound is 
suppressed, and that of another consonant substituted; 
but as the substitution of c follows the rules for 
aspiration rather than those for eclipsis, we prefer to 
class t' with the non- eclipsable letters, I, tn, n, |\, p. 

Bight is the number given in other grammnra. They include the 
letter p. 


25. b is eclipsed by m. 

c H- 

o n. 

A mtxAfvo (their poet) is pronounced a maurd, 

A gcApAlt (their horse) a gopal. 

Ap mo-Ati (our poem) aur naun. 

1 bptnt (in blood) a vwil. 

A tigioltA (their servant) ang illu. 

1 bpein (in pain) a baen. 

A -ocAlArh (their land) a dhol-uv. 

Although n is used as the eclipsing letter of 5, the 
sound of n is not heard, but the simple consonant 
sound 115; therefore it would be more correct to say 
that 5 is eclipsed by 115. 

Rules for Eclipsis. 

26. (a) The possessive adjectives plural &$, our ; 
I3u|\, your ; and A, their eclipse the initial consonant 
of the next word, as A$ T>cigeAf\ru\, our Lord ; t>up 
gcApAU, your horse ; A mbA-o, their boat. 

(b) The article eclipses the initial consonant of the 
noun in the genitive plural (both genders) : l<\riiA tu\ 
li-feAp, (the) hands of the men. 

(c) A simple preposition followed by the article 


and a noun in the singular causes eclipsis* : n^ f & A? 
An sc.jip.iU, he is on the horse; CAiiug fe Leip Ar 
bpe-Ap, he came with the man. 

(d) The numeral adjectives peACc, cc> nAOt, and 
oeic (7, 8, 9, and 10), and their compounds, as 27, 
28, 29, &c., cause eclipsis: feAcc mt>A, seven cows; 
occ scAoipts, eight sheep; feAcc t>-p>P piceA-o, twenty- 
seven men. 

(e) The initial consonant of a verb is eclipsed after 
the particles CA, not; AH, whether ; c A, where ; n,\c, 
whether . . . not or that . . . not; 50, that; nin HA, 
unless ; -o^, if ; and after the relative particle A when 
it is preceded by a preposition, or when it means 
" all that " or " what." The relative preceded by a 
preposition does not eclipse if the verb be past tense, 

"except in the case of a very few verbs, which will bo 
given later on : An ocuigeAim cu, do you understand '? 
tu\6 t>pml pe cimi, isn't he sick? CA tipuil f6, where 
is it? -oubAipc fe 50 -ociocpAt) pe, he said that he 
would come; An peAj\ ^5 A bpuil xMi leADv\n,t the man 
"\ho has the book. 

The Insertion of n. 

27. (a) When a word begins with a vowel, the letter 
n is usually prefixed in all those cases in which a con- 

* In many places they prefer to aspirate in thL> case, 
t In colloquial Irish this sentence would be, An v e -M' * &-KiL AH 
-ii,s c or An pe\p 50 b-fuil ^n Leoi&A|i ^150. 


sonant would be eclipsed : e.g., A\\ n-A\\An 

our daily bread; ctK\ix> Oipin 50 cip tu\ 11-65, Oisin 

went to " tbe land of the young." 

The n is sometimes omitted when the previous word 
ends in n : as A\\ An AOHAC, or ^p An n-AoiiAC, at the 

(b) Prepositions (except t>o and -oe) ending in a 
vowel prefix n to the possessive adjectives A, his, her, 
or their; and <Sp, our; le n-A rh.dt.Mp, with his mother; 
6 n-4p t)cip, from our country. 

The Insertion of c. 

28. (a) The article prefixes c to a masculine rioun 
beginning with a vowel in the nominative and accusa- 
tive singular : as An c-At^ip, the father. 

(ij) If a noun begins with f followed by a vowel, or 
by I, n, or \\, the p is replaced by c after the article iu 
the nom. and ace. feminine sing, and the genitive 
masculine, and sometimes in the dative singular of 
both genders, as An cpuil, the eye; ce^c An cp^5xtpc, 
(thej house of the priest, i.e.; the priest's house ; CA 
ruvo 45 ce.vcc 6'n cpeiLg, they are coming from the 

(c) This replacing of p by c occurs after the words 
Aon, one; pe^ti, old; and other words ending in n, as 
Aon cpe*.\l5 <xm<iin, one hunt. 


The Insertion of ti. 

29. The following is a pretty general rule for the 
insertion of ti before vowels : 

" Particles which neither aspirate nor eclipse, and 
which end in a vowel, prefix n to words beginning 
with a vowel. Such is the case with the following : 
te, with ; A, her ; 50, to ; -OA^A, second ; f 6, six ; 
cpi, three ; r\A, the (in the nom., ace., and dative 
plural, also in the gen. singular feminine) ; 50 before 
adverbs; the ordinal adjectives ending in rh AT), &c." 
Gaelic Journal. 

Attenuation and Broadening. 

30. Attenuation is the process of making a broad 
consonant slender. This is usually done by placing an i 
immediately before the broad consonant, or an e after 
it. Thus if we want to make the ^ of rn<3}\ (big), 
Blender, we place an i before the p; thus m6\]\. If we 
wish to make the p of p^-o (the termination of the 1st 
person singular future) slender, we write ve^*o> &c. 

31. Broadening is the process of making a slender 
consonant broad. .This is often done by placing a u 
immediately before the slender consonant, or an A 
after it ; thus the verbal noun of derived verbs ending 
in 1$ is formed by adding At) : before adding the AT> 
the $ must be made broad ; this is done by inserting 


a u; minis, explain; minHi5<v6, explanation. If w<3 
want to make the p of pit) (the termination of 3rd 
singular future) broad, we must write J\M-O. tDiuAilp-o 
f e, he will strike ; rne.AltpM-6 f e, he will deceive. 

Whenever a slender consonant is preceded by an i 
which forms part of a diphthong or a triphthong, tho 
consonant is usually made broad by dropping the i. 
Thus to broaden the I in SUAII, or the n in join, wo 
drop the 1 and the we get tniAl and son. The verbal 
nouns of btu\it and 50111 are tniAUvo and 50114-6. 

te CAOI ^U leAtx\n te 


Slender with slender and broad with broad. 
32. When a single consonant, or two consonants 
which easily blend together, come between two vowels, 
both the vowels must be slender or both must be 

This is a general rule of Irish phonetics. It has already been stated 
that a consonant is broad when beside a broad vowel, and slender 
when beside a slender vowel ; and also that the sounds of the con- 
sonants vary according as they are broad or slender : hence if we try 
to pronounce a word like jre,.v|tin, the fi, l)eing beside the slender 
vowel i, should get its slender sound ; but being also beside the broad 
vowel A, the p should be broad. But a consonant cannot be slender 
and broad at the same time ; hence, such spelling as fCAjtin, mAUn, 
and cAnin, does not represent the correct sounds of the words, and, 


therefore, the device adopted In writing Irish la to have both the 
vowela slander or both broad ; e.g., ijttn, mAitin, eitiin. 

This law of phonetics is not a mere spelling ruin. If it were, such 
spelling as peApAotn, mAlAOin, eAtiAOin, would be correct. But no 
such spelling is used, because it does not represent the sounds of the 
words. The ear and not the eye must be the guide in the observance 
of the rule " CAol te CAol -\ leACAn te teAtAn." 

Two consonants may come together, one naturally broad and tho 
other naturally slender. When this happens, Irish speakers, as a 
general rule, give the consonants their natural sounds, i.e., they keep 
the broad consonant broad, and the slender one slender. For in- 
stance, the ITI of com is naturally broad, and the I of lion is 
naturally slender. In the word comtton (fulfil), the first syllable is 
always pronounced broad, although the word is uaually written coim- 
tion. This is an instance of the abuse of the rule CAOI le CAol. 
There are many words in which a single consonant may have a 
slender vowel at one side, and a broad vowel at the other ; e.q. t 
Ajtein (latt night), Aniop (/), AJUAITI (ever), apif (again), etc. 

Although the rule cAot te CAot had been much abused in modern 
spelling, in deference to modern usage we have retained the ordinary 
spelling of the words. 

R VI. 


33. Whenever, in a word of two or more syllables 
an unaccented vowel or digraph occurs in the last 
syllable between a liquid (l, in, n. ]\) and any other 
consonant, ov between two liquids, the unaccented 
vowel or digraph is elided whenever the word is 
lengthened by a grammatical inflection beginning with 
a vowel. This elision of one or more unaccented 


vowels from the body of an Irish word is called 
syncope ; and when the vowels have been elided the 
word is said to be syncopated. 

35. The only difficulty in syncope is that it often 
involves slight changes in the other vowels of the 
syncopated word, in accordance with the rule c^ot te 


35. The following examples will fully exemplify the 
method of syncopating words. 

(a) Nmmt. 

The genitive singular of 

(morning) is 
(a rock) 

) , \ P 1n 5 n e 

(a penny) 
piginn ) pi$ne 


(a city) 

(a flame) 
olAtin (wool) 
bui-oe-Ati (a company) buit)ne 
bfui$e^n (a palace) bt\ui$n< 







(b) Adjectives. 

The genitive singular feminine of 
p Af6t>if\ (rich) is pAnoBpe not p A 

pAAiteAfhAil (princely) ,, p.U\iteArhlA 
Alumn (beautiful) Aitne Atuinne 

Aoittinn (pleasant) ,, Aoitme 
(notle) tiAiple 

(c) Verbs. 

Boot. Pres. Indicative. 

co-OAil coT)lAim, I sleep, not 

f iut)Ait piut>tAirn, I walk, ,, 

mnif innfitn, I tell, ,, mnipirn. 

A^t)Aij\ At)|VAitr?, I say, ,, 

tAbpAim, I speak, ,, 

The same contraction takes place in these and like verbs in all the 
finite tenses except the future and conditional (old forms). See par. 

A thorough knowledge of when and how Syncope takes place will 
obviate many difficulties 



36. There are nine parts of speech in Irish corresponding exactly to 
those in English. 

The Article. 

37. In Irish there is only one article, -An, which 
corresponds to the English definite article, " the." 

There is no indefinite article, so that cApAU mean? 
either "horse" or "a horse.'' 

38. In all cases of the singular number the article 
lias the form An, except in the genitive feminine, when 
it becomes nA. 

In all the cases of the plural it is nA. 

39. The article An had formerly an initial p . This 
p reappears after the following prepositions, i, m, or 
Ann, in ; 50, to ; te, with ; cp6, through. Although 
this f really belongs to the article, still it is usually 
written as part of the preposition ; as inf An teAttAp, 
in the book ; leip An r>peA|\, with the man. 




40. (a) If a noun begins with an aspirable con- 
sonant (except T>, c, and f),* it is aspirated by the article 

* The letters -o, r, and r> are aspirable in the singular, but not 
usually by the article 


in the nominative and accusative feminine and in the 
genitive masculine, as An ti6, the oow ; An DeAn, the 
woman ; mAC An pip, (the) son of the man ; ceAnn 
An CApAill, tho horse's head (or the head of the 

(I) If a noun begins with f followed by a vowel, or 
by t, n, f , the f is replaced by c, in the nominative 
and accusative feminine and genitive masculine, and 
sometimes in the dative of both genders : An cpAt, the 
heel ; An cf uit, the eye ; ceAC An cpAgAipc, the 
house of the priest ; mAC An cf Aoip, the son of the 
artizan ; -oo'n cfAgApc, to the priest ; AJ\ An tpleio, 
on the mountain. 

Strictly speaking, it is only in the dat. fern, that Ihd 
f is replaced by c, bufc custom permits it in the mas- 

(c) If a noun begins with a vowel, the article pre- 
fixes c to the nominative and accusative masculine, 
and n to the genitive feminine, as An c-AtAip, thu 
father ; An c-uipge, the water ; An c-eun, the bird ; 
An c-uAn, the lamb ; bApjt nA li-uioe, the top of the 
egg ; puACc nA ti -Aim pipe, the coldness of the weather 

(d) When the noun begins with an eclipsable conson- 
ant (except T> and c), the article generally eclipsed 
when it is preceded by a preposition, as AJI An ^cnoc, 
on the hill ; 6'n tipeAjx, from the man. After .the 
prepositions* t>o and -oe aspiration takes place, not 

For the effects of s*n and the article, see Syntax, par. GOG (b). 


eclipsis, as tug fe An c-AifiseAt) T>o'n feAp, he gave 
the money to the man ; cui-o -oe'n freuji, some of tho 

(e) No change is produced hy the article in the 
singular if the noun begins with T>, n, c, t, p (followed 
by a mute), or p . In Munstcr T> and c are often 
eclipsed in the dative. 


(/) If a noun begins with an eclipsable consonant 
the article eclipses it in the genitive plural, as A tteAn 
HA T>cf\i mt>6, woman of (the) three cows ; StiAO n-4 
mbAti, " the mountain of the women." 

(<7) If the noun begins with a vowel the article pre- 
fixes n to the genitive plural and h to the nom., the, 
,cc., and dative plural, as IUA tiA n-uri, the price oi 
fcho eggs ; m\ li-AfAil, the asses ; 6 IIA Ii-Aicib fee, 
from these places. 

(h) The letter f is never replaced by c in the plural 
number under the influence of the article. 


The Noun. 

51. There are only two genders in Irish, the mas. 
culino and the feminine. 

The gender of most Irish nouns may be learned by the application 
of a fow general rules. 


42. (a) Names of males are masculine: aa 
a man; puit, a prince; At^iis a father; college, a 

(Z>) The names of occupations, offices, &c., peculiai 
to men, are masculine: as oll^rh, a doctor; pie, a 
poet; tMjvo, a bard; bpeite-Arii, a judge; fAi$it)iuit\, a 

(c) Personal agents ending in flip, Aipe, uit>e (or 
Ait>e, oi-oe), or AC are masculine: as rgeulunoe, a 
story-teller; t><vo6ip, a boatman. 

(d) Diminutives ending in -An, and all abstract 
nouns ending in Af or e^f, are masculine e.g.: 

Ajvo-dn, a hillock. m^ite^r, goodness. 

(e) The diminutives ending in in are usually said 
co be of the same gender as the noun from which they 
are derived. Notwithstanding this rule they seem to 
be all masculine. CaiUn, a girl, is masculine,* i. e. it 
suffers the same initial changes as a masculine noun, 
but the pronoun referring to it is feminine. She is a 

fine girl, 1f t)pe^$ An CAilin i (not 6). 

(/) Many nouns which end in a consonant or two 
consonants preceded by a broad vowel are masculine : 
as bAll, a limb; UMC, a price; cjwmn, a tree, &c. 

Exceptions: (1) All words of two or more syllable? 
ending in ACC or 65. 

* Do not confound sex with gender. Gender is decided by gram- 
matical usage only. 

(2) A large number of nouns ending in a broad 
consonant are feminine. A very full list of commonly 
used feminine nouns ending in a broad consonant will 
be found in Appendix II. 


43. (a) Names of females and designations of 
females are feminine: be^n, a woman; ce-Apc, a hen; 
rriAtAip, a mother; inge^n, a daughter. 

(fc) The names of countries and rivers are feminine : 
as 6iF e > Ireland; An l.ipe, the Liffey; ^n t)e.apb.A, the 

(c) Words of two or more syllables ending in .ACC 
or in 65 are feminine: as puiredg, a lark; -o^ir-eos, a 
briar; mitfe^tc, sweetness; teAriin.ACc, new-milk. 

(d) All abstract nouns formed from the genitive 
singular feminine of adjectives are feminine: as 
height from Apo, high; 4itne, beauty from 
beautiful ; TMilte, blindness from r>All, blind. 

(e) Nouns ending in a consonant or two consonants 
preceded by a slender vowel, are feminine: as cip. 
country; onoip, honour; uAip, an hour; fuit, an eye. 

Exceptions: (1) Personal nouns ending in 6ip. 
(2) Diminutives in in. (3) Names of males, as .AtAip, 
a father; buACAilt, a boy. (4) Also the following 
Aouns:, a victory; otunvn, the back; Amm,* a 
mine; sp eiTTI a piece; geic, a fright, a start; and 
, dictionary, vocabulary. 

feminine in S. Munster. 

n. CASE. 

M. In Irish there are five cases the Nominative, 
Accusative, Genitive, Dative, and Vocative. 

The Nominative case in Irish corresponds to the 
English nominative when the subject of a verb. 

The Accusative corresponds to the English objective 
case when governed by a transitive verb. The accu- 
sative case of every noun in modern Irish has the 
same form as the nominative, and suffers the same 
initial changes as regards aspiration and eclipsis. 

The Genitive case corresponds to the English 
possessive case. English nouns in the possessive case 
or in the objective case, preceded by the preposition 
*' of," .are usunll}' translated into Irish by the genitive 

The Dative case is the case governed by preposi- 

The Vocative corresponds to the English nominative 
of address. It is always used in addressing a person 
or persons. It is preceded by the sign A, although 
"0" may not appear before the English word; but 
this A is not usually pronounced before a vowel or $ . 

N.B. These rules apply to all the declensions. 

i8. The Nominative case singular is always the 
simple form of the noun. 

46. The Dative case singular is the same as tbe 
nominative singular, except (1) in the 2nd declension, 
when the noun ends in a bread consonant; (2) in most 
of the nouns of the 5th declension. 

47. Tie Vocative case singular is always the same as 
the nominative singular, except in the 1st declension, 
in which it is Jike the genitive singular. 

48. Whenever the nominative plural is formed by 
the addition of ce, CA, Antra, AA, i or it>e, &c., it is 
called a strong nominative plural. Strong plurals 
are usually found with nouns whose nominative sin- 
gular ends in a liquid. 

Those ending in t or n generally take CA or ce. 
,, m or f 

The Genitive Plural. 

49. (1) The genitive plural in the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd 
declensions is like the nominative singular, except 
strong plurals, and a few nouns which drop the i of 
the nominative singular, as fuit, an eye, gen. pi. put. 

(2) In the 4th declension, and in the case of nearly 
all strong plurals, the genitive plural is like the nomi- 
native plural. 

(3) In the 5th declension the genitive plural is like 
the genitive singular. 

50. The Dative Plural. 

(1) When the nominative plural ends in A or a con- 
sonant, the dative plural ends in AID. 

(2) When the nominative, plural ends in e, the 
dative plural is formed by changing the e into 10. 

(3) When the nominative plural ends in i, the dative 
plural is formed by adding o. 

The termination of the dative plural is not always used v\ the 
spoken language. 

YocatiYe Plural. 

51. (1) When the dative plural ends in AID, the 
rocative plural is formed by dropping the ir> of the 

(2) In all other cases it is like the nominative 

III. The Declensions. 

52. The number of declensions is not quite settled : it 
is very much a matter of convenience. Five is the 
number usually reckoned. 

The declensions are known by the inflection of the 
genitive singular. 


53. All the nouns of the first declension are mascu- 
line, and end in a broad consonant. 

All masculine nouns ending in a bioad consonant are not of the first 

54. The genitive singular is formed by attenuating 
the nominative. In most nouns of the 1st declension 
this is done by simply placing an i after the lapt broad 
vowel of the nominative. 



S3. m AOH, a steward. 


Nom. & Ace. mAop 

Gen. mAOip 

Dat. tnAOf\ 

Voc. A rhAoip 

36. In words of more than one syllable, if the 

nominative ends in AC or e^c, the genitive singular is 

formed by changing AC or OAC into AI or i respec- 

tively. With a few exceptions, the nominative plural 

of these nouns is like the genitive singular. The other 

cases are quite regular. 

In monosyllables c is not changed into $; as bpuAC, 
a brink, gen. OI\UAIC. 

N.B. In all the declensions in words of more than 
one syllable -A6 and CAC, when attenuated, become AI 
and ig ; and AI$ and 1$ when made broad become AC 
and e^C. See dat. pi. of tnAfCAC and 


57. nu\pcAc, a horseman. 


Nom. & Ace. 

VOC. A rhAf\CxV$ 

N.B. -The majority of nouns in AC belonging to 
this declension are declined like 



uAlAC. ft load, burden. 


Nom. & Ace. 

UAlAC UAtAlge 




UAUC ll4\Ul$ltt 


A UAtAlg A UAlA1$( 

way; 6]\U\C, an inch; and AOTIAC, a fair, are declined 
like UvOAC. AotiAC has nom. pi. AonAige 

59. college, a cock. 

Nom. & Ace. coiteAC 
Gen. coiti$ 
Dat. college coileA<iAiti 

VOC. -A C01U$ A C01I6ACA 

60. Besides the above simple method of forming the 
genitive singular of most nouns of this declension, 
there are also the following modifications of the vowels 
of the nominative singular: 

Change eu or e"A in nom. sing, into 61 in gen. sing. 
i^ M , ei 

,, o (short) ,, ui ,, 

10 or eA usually ,, 1 ,, 

All the other cases of these nouns are formed in 
accordance with the rules given above. 


Examples of Yowel-changes in Genitive Singular. 
61. CUM, a bird. 


Nom. & Acc. eun em 

Gen. em eun 

Dat. eun euiiAit) 

Voc. A em A eutux 


Noin. & Acc. 

Voc. A ^ij\ x\ ITCA^^ 

N.B. The gen. of oilcan in island is oile<Mn; of 
grass, peip; and of fe^f, a man, pip. 

63. Cnoc, a hill. 


Nom. & Acc. cnoc cnuic 

Gen. cntnc cnoc 

Dat. cnoc cnocAift 

Voc. A cnuic A Cnoc*\ 

64. The following nouns change ex.\ into ei in geni- 
tive singular:- -"Le^nD, a child; tie-A^c, strength; cnex\p, 
skin; and ceA|\c, right, justice. (Cnip and ci|\c are 
sometimes found as the genitives of cne*.\p and 


Irregular Genitive Singular. 

tn^c, a son, has genitive imc 
bi4t>, food, bit) 

pi/m, a track, f win 

fpi^n, a bridle, ,, ft\u\m 

ttyULti, Bernard, Brian t)pi4in 
t1ev\c. a person; and 6mne, .Aonne (or Aonne<\c) } 
anybody, are indeclinable. 

65. Some nouns of this declension form their norni 
native plural by adding e. 

, a f air 

, a door 
, a learned man 

an angel 
, a road b6tAij\ b6icj\e 

f txt|VAt), a chain 7 

m^ps-At), a market r 

66 The following nouns take A in nominative 
plural : pectin, a pen; ^eo-o, a jewel; fUSti, a surety 
cne^f , skin ; me.AC.An, a carrot or parsnip ; T>eop, a 
tear ; Cxxop, a berry ; f meup , a blackberry ; u&All, an 
apple (pi U&LA); poc.Al (pi. foc^il or pocl-A); P.AC,* a 
debt (p<\C, pi. peiC or peij, a raven) ; fgeul, news ; 
and btuiAC, a brink. 

67. The following take CA, in nom. pi. : peol, a sail ; 
ceol, music ; neul, a cloud ; f geut, a story ; coj^vo, 

* This word is usually used in tlie plural ; as 
ojmi, I am not ill debt. 


war (pi. CO^CA*) ; CHAM, a harbour ; Turn, a fort (pi. 
OUIICA and -DUMA); ceut>, a hundred!; lion, a net; ceAp 
a trunk of a tree (pi. ceAptA) ; mup (pi. muptA), a wall. 

68. Other nominative plurals clAp, a board, a 
table, makes clAip or CLOACA ; cob,.\p, a well, makes 
tobAip or cobpACA, cobAipeACA or coibpeAdA : fluAg, 
a crowd, makes r-UiAigce. 

69. Many nouns of this declension have two or 
more forms in the nominative plural. The regular 
plural is the better one, though the others are also 
used. The following are a few examples of such 
nouns : peAp, a man (pi. pip, peApA); TDAC, a son (pi. 
wic, ITIACA) ; leAbAp, a book (leAbAip, leAbpA) ; Apm, 
an army (pi. Aipm, AptnA); CAp-Alt, a horse (pi. CApAilt, 

70. The termination -pA-6 has a collective, not a 
plural force; just like ry in the English words cavalry, 
infantry, etc. This termination was formerly neuter, 
but now it is masculine or feminine; the genitive 
masculine udhig -pAit>, the genitive feminine -pAi-oe. 
Hence UvocpA'O, a band of warriors, mACpAt), a company 
of youths, eACpAt), a number of steeds (cavalry}, are not 
really plurals of t^o6, TTIAC, and eAC, but collective 
nouns formed from them. Likewise e"AtilAit, (spoken 
form, eAnlAice) is a collective noun meaning a flock 
of birds, or birds in general, and it is not really the 
plural of CATI. However, lAocj\At> and eAnlAit are 
now used as plurals. 

Appendix I. gives a list of nouns belonging to this 

* cojjAive is also used. f When used as a noun. 



71. All nouns of the 2nd declension are feminine.* 
They all end in consonants, but the consonants may 
be either broad or slender. 

72. The genitive singular is formed by adding e, 
(if the last vowel of the nominative be broad it must be 
attenuated) ; and if the last consonant be c it is 
changed into $ in the genitive (except in words of one 

73. The dative singular is got by dropping th& 
final e of the genitive. 

74. The nominative plural is formed by adding A or 

e (A, if final consonant be broad) to the nom. sing. 



lil, a lily. 



Nom. & Ace. 








n Ub 


A 111 



cof, a foot! or 

a leg. 

Nom. & Ace. 










A COf 

A COf A 

* CBAC and ftiAt), two masculine nouns, are sometimes given with 
the second declension. We give them as irregular nouns (par. 132). 
t A foot in measurement is ttiois;, pi. ctjotjce. 


77. c.Aille.AC' , a hag. 


Nom. & Ace. cAilteAC 
Voc. A cxMtte^C A c.Aill,e.AC.A 

78. Like nouns of 1st declension, the vowels of the 
nom. sing, are sometimes changed when the final 
consonant is attenuated in the genitive singular. 

The following are the chief changes : 
Change 10 in the nom. sing, into i in the gen. sing 
eu ei 

'^ ei tt 

o (short) sometimes ui 

In words of one syllable change GA into ei (but 
ce^pc, a hen, becomes ci|\ce) ; in words of more than 
one syllable change e,A into t. 

79. be.AC, a bee. 


Nom. & Ace. be.AC 
Gen. ueiCe 


80. 5eug, a branch. 

Nom. & Ace. geug 
Gen. 5 ,.: 5 e 


81. SP 1 ^* a Blin ' 


Norn. & Ace. 



A 5I MAnx 



a ship. 

Nom. fa Ace. 










A tons 

A tonsA 

83. Pfeurh,* a root. 


Noin. & Ace. f peurii pf\eurfu\ (or 

Voc. A ppeurh A ppeurhA (A 

84. AJC, a place. 


Nom. & Ace. Aic .Aice, -AiceAnnA 

Gen. Aice ^ic, 4icex\nnA 
Dat. AIC Aicib, -^ic 

Voc. A AIC A Aice, AiceAnnA, 

The above are two examples -of nouns with strong 
nominative plural (see par. 48). 

85. In forming the genitive, nouns are sometimes 

Mso spelled p^eum in Munster. 

syncopated, as bui-oe^n, a company, gen. tun-one (see 
pars. 33, 35) ; bpuit>ex\n, a palace, gen. sing. b|\uione.* 

86. Irregular Genitives Singular. 

, .... . fctomne, 

cUxnn, a clan, children, makes pi. 

oeoC, a drink, -oige 

i, a knife, 

a (solemn) word, 
i, buttermilk, bUiccet 

i, mud, mire, 

a vat, 
i, a face, Aigte Ajgte 

87. Many nouns of this declension form their nomi- 
native plural in AWIA or AA. The final A of these 
terminations may be dropped in the gsnitive plural. 


cuif, a cause cui^e-Ann.* 

iuit), an herb Luit>eAnnA 

a lathe t)eileAnnA 

C, a contrivance 
beim, a stroke 
ouAif , a prize, reward 
teim, a leap 

f eim, a course, a voyage f eimeAnnA 
Aic, a place Aice, 

tuc, a mouse UJCA, 

a school 

* Note the dative singular of these noons, btii-oin and bjiui-om. 
fAlao bUtAije. JAIso UCAIJC. 




in nominative plural 


, a step 
, a sound 

iu\ip, an hour, time 
), a street 
, a field 
peip, a festival 

88. Nouns that take 

, a work 
>, an oration 
, a rod 

nb, an egg 

a prayer 

i-o, a disease Aicix>eACA, AICI-OJ 

, an edgo ciunu\ire*.\<iA 

, a fortnight coictniipe^d^, coictf6ip! 

cpuAill, a sheathe, a scabbard cpu AI lle^CA 
Le,.\c, a flag, a flat stone ICAC^, IBACA&A, Le^cp.vCj 

89. The following take ce, Ce, or tA in the nomina- 
tive plural; A-O may be added in the genitive plural: 
coiLl*, ft wood; cuip, a pillar, a prop; cip, a country 
(pi. cioptA) ; A$<Mt>, face (pi. Ai$Ce); ppeup, a skv- 


90. Sometimes when the last vowel of the nomina- 
tive singular is i preceded by a broad vowel, the 

Coill is also 5th declension. See Ileteroclite nouns, par. 131. 


genitive pi a ral is formed by dropping the 1, as fi'itl, nn 
eye, gen. pi. put, ; f uAini, a sound, gen. pi. yuani, &c. 

For a list of nouns ending in a broad consonant 
belonging to this declension, see Appendix II. 


91. The 3rd declension includes (1) personal nouns 
ending in 6\\\ (all masculine), (2) derived nouns in ACC 
or AC-O (feminine), (8) other nouns ending in con- 
sonants which are, as a rule, masculine or feminine 
according as they end in broad or slender consonants, 

92. The genitive singular is formed by adding A. 
If the last vowel of the nominative be i preceded by a 
broad vowel, the 1 is usually dropped in the gen., as 
coil, a will, gen. colA. 

93. The nominative plural is usually the same as 
the genitive singular ; but personal nouns ending in 
6if add 1 or it>e to the nominative singular. 

94. Most of the derived nouns in ACc, being abstract 
in meaning, do not admit of a plural. ttlAllACc, a 
curse, and a few others have plurals. jruACc, cold, 
although an abstract noun in ACC, is masculine. 

95. The vowels of the nominative often undergo a 
change in the formation of the genitive singular. 
These changes are just the reverse of the vowel 
changes of the 1st and 2nd declensions (see pars. GO 
and 78. 

Change ei, i or 10 (short) in nom. into eA in the genitive 

u .. ui 




cti^rh,* a bone. 



Nom. & Ace. 










A en Am 

A cn.arh 


P'oti, wne. 

Nom. & Ace. 


1?1onA, r 








A f ion 

A ionA 

8. C|\1< 

of, a belt, a girdle. 

Xom. & Ace. 










A Cnior 

A cneAr 

L peoa, flesh, meat. 

Nom. & Ace. peoit 

Gen. jreolA 

Dat. peoit 

Voc. A f eoil A 

Also spelled cnAim in nom. sing. 


100. bAt>6ip, a boatman. 


Nom. & Ace. txAT>6ip tMT>6ifii (t>4t)6it\it>e) 

Gen. bAt)6|VA bAt>6i 

Dat. tXA-odip t>.<yo6inio 

Voc. A rjA-odiji ^ rjA-otiiju CA t>A-o6i|Mt>e) 

101. -ofuim, masc., the back. 

Nom. & Ace. "opuim 

Gen. opomA 

Dat. t)fuim 

102. 5F eirn m asc., a morsel, grip. 
Nom. & Ace. 

Voc, A $peim 

103. Some nouns of this declension, ending in t or 
n, form their nominative pi. by adding CA or ce to 
the nom. sing. These may add At) to form gen. pi., 

ndin,* a bog, nom. pi. m6mce 
cam, a drove, ,, evince 

tolM'OAin, a year, ,, bli-A-OAncAt 

m6tn is also 5th declension. See Heteroclite Noons, par. 131. 
tbli<v6n<i after numerals, as occ mbLtA-onA, eight years. 


103. Some nouns of this declension form their nom. 
plural by adding nnA to the gen. singular. These 
may drop the final A in the gen. plural : 


Am, time Am Anne A or Am Ann A 

n\ut, a stream rpotA mot Ann A 
opium, m., a back 
guc, a voice 
5peim,m., a morsel 
cit, or ciot, a ceAtA 


cte^f, a trick cleA|\\ ,, cleAr'AtinA 

AiiAm, a soul AtmiA ,, AnniAntiA 

OAt, a colour -OAtA -OAtAnnA 

Ainm, a name Ainmne, AinmneACA, Annu\nn.A 

mAitmi, a defeat mA-oniA, mAt>m<\nnA 

105. Other Nominatives Plural. 

Sniom, a deed, an act makes snioriiAptA* 
connpA-o, a compact, 

covenant ,, connApcA 

CAint, a tax ,, CATIACA 

a boy 
, a son-in-law 

f, a bed 
CHIT), a share, a portion 

For a list of nouns belonging to this declension, sco 
Appendix III. 

* Eeallv pi. of jnfomttA-o. f Cain is also 5th declension, 
t Abo spelled leAbAfO. 


106. The 4th declension includes (1) personal nouna 
in Aipe, xMte, uroe, .<M$e (sometimes spelled AI-O, ui*, 
AI), which are all masculine; (2) diminutives in in 
(said to be all masculine) ; (8) abstract derivatives 
formed from the gen. sing, feminine of adjectives (all 
feminine), as site, brightness, from se*.\l ; p6ile, 
generosity, from piAt; Ailne, beauty, from 4luinn,&c.; 
(4) all nouns ending in vowels, and which do not 
belong to the 5th declension. To assist the student a 
list of the most important nouns of the 5th declensiow 
is given in the Appendix IV. 

107. This declension differs from all others in 
having all the cases of the singular exactly alike. 

108. The nominative plural is usually formed by 
adding !, nbe or x\t>A. 

109. The genitive plural is like the nom. pi., but 
e^t) is frequently added in other grammars. There 
is no necessity whatever for this, because both cases 
are pronounced alike. 


110. Nouns of more than one syllable ending in A 
form their nom. plural in Anfte, or AI, as nu\lA, a bag, 
pi. niAUi-oe, or in^Ui ; coc^, a coat, pi. c6Cc\i-6e, 

111. CAitin, masc., a girl. 

Nom. & Ace. CAiUn CAiUni or (c.AiUnit>e) 

Gen. CAilin c^ilini (cAiLin) ,, 
Dat. cdiUn CAiUniB , 

Voc. A 6^iUn A c^iUni 

112. ciSeApn,* a lord. 

Nom. & Ace. 

113. The following nouns take ce immediately after 
(he last consonant to form the nominative plural : 
tMile, a town plural bailee or 

r-loinne, a surname flomnce 

tiiuiLLe, a mule rnuillce 

mile, a thousand, a mile ,, mitce* 
Leine, a shirt lemce, 

ceme,t a fire cemce, 

cuinne, a corner ,, cuinnce cuinnf 

114. The following nouns add te in nominativo 
plural, viz., all nouns ending in -6e or ge e.g. cnoit>e, 
a heart, pi. c^oi-ote ; also CAOI, a way, a method ; -OAOI, 
a fool ; f-Aoi, a wise man ; -ojv\oi, a druid ; -OLAOI, a curl. 

* mite, a thousand, or a mile, is invariable after a numeral. 
freina ia <Uso 5th. See HeUrocUte nouns, par. 131. 


5n<5, a work (pi. ^n6t^\),* nit>, or ni, a thing (pi. 
neite) ; -ouine, a person, makes DAoine in nom. pi. 
uinge, an ounce, 
x, a rib, 

115. A few proper nouns, although not ending in a 
vowel or in, belong to this declension, and do not 
change their form in any of their cases, viz.: 
;, Patrick; 5^x^61-0, Gerald; TTluifiir, Maurice; 

The word luce, a people, does not change in gen. 

H6. Most of the nouns belonging to this declension 
end in a vowel, and are, with a few exceptions, 

117. The genitive singular is formed by adding a 
broad consonant. 

This consonant varies in different nouns, but is 
usually n, nn, sometimes t>, T"), or C. When the nomi- 
native singular ends in a consonant, A or e^ comes 
^between that consonant and the consonant added. 

118. The dative singular is formed by attenuating 
the genitive. In the case of those nouns which form 
the genitive by adding C, the dative singular is usually 
like the nominative. 

gnocAi'oe is spoken in Kerry. 


119. The nominative plural, as a general rule, is 
formed by adding A to the genitive singular. A few 
form their nominative plural by adding e to the 
gen. sing. This is accompanied with syncope, as in 
CAiivoe, friends ; nAiriroe, enemies ; gAione, smiths ; 
and Aitine, rivers, which are the plurals of CAJAA, HAITIA, 
, and At>, or ADA. 

Some others form the nominative plural by attenu- 
ating the genitive singular, as in IACAHI, ducks; com, 
hounds; pcro, twenty; cAoipig, sheep; corhupr-Ain, 

The genitive plural is exactly like the genitive sin- 



120. peApfA, fern., a person. 

Nom. & Ace. 




121. CAJ\A, fern., a friend. 

Nom. & Ace. CA|\A c-iifvoe 

Gen. cA^t) 

Dat. CAjVAIT) 



Ik2. S^DA, masc., a smith. 

Nom. & Ace. 5-AbA 



VOO. A $At>A -A 

123. lAdA, fern., a duck. 

Nom. & Ace. IACA 

Gen. lACAti 

Dat. tACAin 


124. cuifle, fem., a vein. 
Nom. & Ace. ctnpte 

Gen. cuifleAtin 

Dat. cuiflinn 

Voc. A Cuifte A 

125. CAOpA, fem., a sheep: 
Nom. & Ace. CAO|VA 

Gen. CAO|\A6 

Dat. CAOJ\A1$ 


126. CACAOIJI, fem., a chair. 

. & ACC. CAtAOIp 

Gen. CAtAotp 

Dat. CAtAOtp 


SINGULAR ;no Plural). 

127. Nom. & Ace. 6ijie (Ireland) 

Voc. A 61 pe 

128. Nom. & Ace. UeAtfiAip (Tara) 

Gen. UeArhf\AC 

Dat. UeArhpAig or UeAriiAif 

Voc. A CeAthAip 

129. Nom. & Ace. xMbA (Scotland) 

Gen. AlbAti 



130. The following nouns are used only in the 
plural, referring originally rather to the inhabitants 
of the place than to the place itself : 

, England. 
Nom. & Ace. SACfxinA or SACf Ain 

Leinster. Connaught. Ulster 

Nom. <fe Ace. tAim ConnACCA 

Gen. lAijgeAn ConriACc 

Dat. tAigmt) ConnA^CAifj 

A large list of the commonly used nouns, which 
belong to this declension, are given in Appendix IV. 


Heteroclite Noons. 

131. Heteroclite nouns are those which belong to 
more than one declension. The following are the 
chief nouns of this class, We give only the genitive 
case in the singular, as the other cases present no 
difficulty. The irregular nominative plurals only are 
given : 


ft a word l&2j^ IACA1 ^ 

51 .At, a shield 1 & 

ceme, a fire 4 & 5J ceine ceince 


, life 

fli$e, a way 

com, a wood 2&5^ colUe 

mom, a bog 3 & 5- 

h, in., land 1 & 

cot lice 

^Uitfi, ru. 

Coptic, barley 

i, a judge 


h, a debtor 1 & 5 

, f., a nose 2 & 3 

i p n [cttdlCj m. CUA1C 

ctu\c, a cuckoo 1 & 2 1 

IciuMce, f. CU-ACA 

, a coffer, 4& . c6ffltwnA 

coffin (cOrhpx\n 

, a tax 3 & 

copoin, a crown 2&5j< 

' cpotuxc 

All abstract nouns ending in eAf or \f may belong 
either to the 1st or 3rd declension ; as, ^oibneAf 1 , plea- 
sure, gen. .Aoibnip or -AoibneA|v\. Being abstract 
nouns they are seldom used in the plural. 

Irregular Nouns. 


132. ce^c", masc., a house. 

Norn. & Ace. ceaC, cig cigte 

Gen. ci<;e* cite(xv 

Dat. CCAC, as ci$cib 
Voc. A Ce.\c, tig A tigte 

It has also the forms coi^e iu gen. and EOI in dative. 


pli-Aft, masc., a mountain. 
Nom. & Ace. 


Voc. A ftiAti A flfiifcce 

masc., a father. 
Nom. & Ace, Atxxip Aitpe 

Voc. A 

, f., a sister (by blood). 
Norn. & Ace. > oei|\t)fiuj\ 
Gen. oeipt)f % e.\cA|\ 
Dat. T)eipt)fuMfi 

In these words the bp is pronounced like p 

The words nu\tx\ip, a mother; bp^t^ip, a brother 
(in religion) ; and T)e*NppA6Mji, a brother (by blood), 
are declined like AA\\\. The genitive of fiiip, a sister 
(in religion), is fe^tAjv (or pi up A). 


pi, masc., a king. 
Nom. & Ace. ^i f'S^e, 1*1054, f f 

Gen. pio$ 
Dat. pig 
Voc. A i\i 



beAti, fern., a woman. 
Norn. & Ace. be^n mnS 

Gen. tnnA bAti 

Dat. mtiAoi imu\it> 
Voc. A beAn A rhtiA 

b6, fern., a cow. 
Norn. & Ace. b6 DA 

Gen. b6 bo 

Dat. Duin buxMt> 

Voc. A 06 A DA 

QIA, maec., God. 

Nom. & Ace. "OiA *O6e, T)eite 

Gen. T)6 
Dat. T)I 
Voc. A"0 

U\, masc., a day. 


Nom. & Ace. l& LAete, 

Gen. Lae t^eCeA-6, 
Dat. 16, t<S 

Voc. A LA A lAete, A 

cpe, fern., soil, earth. 
Nom. & Ace. c|\6 cpeit)eAnA 

Gen. cf\iAt>, cf 6it>eAt) 
Dat. Cf6it), cpe c 

Voc. A C\6 A 

\A is trcucrally used after numerals. 


mi, fern., a month. 
Nom. & Ace. mf 

Gen. tnior-A miof 

Dat. mif, mi 

ce<3, masc., a fog. 

Nom. <fe Ace. ced ceo-OAtiA, 

Gen. CIAC ceoi ce6 

Dat. co6 cedcAifc 

$A, masc., a spear, javelin, sunbeam 
Nom. & Ace. A S-Aete, 5^01, 

Geu. F^ 
Dat. J;A 

or UA, masc., a grandson. 
Nom. & Ace. 6, VM i 

Gen. !, ui MA 

Dat. 6, UA i5. uitJ 

Voc. A tti A ui 

54, masc., a goose 
Nom. & Ace. 56 or $e<v6 
Gen. 56 561-0, 
Dat. 56 ,, s^A-d 

VOC. A $6 ,, A gAt> A $6At1T1A. A 

f|M$, fem., a fleshworm. 
Nom. <fe Aoc. 

t mi after numerals as occ mi, 8 months: mionnA is apofcan 
Kerry as plural of mi. 



The Adjective. 

133. In Irish the adjective agrees with the noun 
which it qualifies in gender, number, and case. 

There are four declensions of adjectives. Adjec- 
tives are declined very much like nouns; the great 
difference is that they never* take the termination 
it) in the dative plural (though formerly they did). 
The dative plural is invariably like the nominative 

Adjectives, in forming their genitive singular, under- 
go the same VOWEL-CHANGES as nouns, as 
, blue, gen. masc. suiptn 
bright, 511, &c. 


134. All adjectives ending in a broad consonant, 
as mop, IKMI, ponn, & c>j belong to the 1st declension. 

135. When an adjective of the 1st declension 
ngriM-K with a masculine noun, it is declined like a 
lioun of the 1st declension (see mAojv, &c., pars. 55, 
57), except that the nom., ace., dat., and voc. plural 
are always alike, and are formed by adding A to ili3 
nominative singiilfir. 

'Who u u>X'd as nouns they Uike the termination. 


136. When an adjective of the 1st declension agrees 
with a feminine noun, it is declined like a noun of the 
2nd declension (see coj% par. 67, &c.), but it never 
takes ib in the dative plural. 

Adjectives ending in Ad form their plural by adding 
A, both for masculine and feminine. 


137. m6p, big. 


Maso. Fern. Maso. & Fern. 

Nom. & Ace. m6p tri6p 

Gen. m<5tp moipe 

Dat. tn<3p tn6ip ir.OpA 


138. seal, bright. 
Nom, & Ace. 

Gen. 511 site 

Dat. 56<a 511 

Voc. 511 564l 

139. oipe^C, straight, direct. 
Nom. & Ace. oipe.A 

Gen. "oipig 



140. The following list of adjectives gives examples 
of the vowel-changes mentioned above. The genitive 

masculine is given; the genitive feminine is formed 
by adding e: 










tuiro bare 

mif\ active 

cij\c (ceif\c) 


oeif pretty 

| NOM. GBH. 






ponn pinn 















141. There are five or six adjectives of the first de- 
clension which are syncopated in the genitive singular 
feminine and in the plural : 


Masc. Fern. 

, noble UAp-AiL triple 

, beloved, dear oilif oilfe 

, fat ^A^^'r f eiri1 P e 

low ipt ffle 


Both Genders. 



used in the spoken language. 


142. AH adjectives ending in a slender consonant, 
except those in AtfiAii, belong to the second declen- 

In the singular all the cases, both masculine ana 
feminine, are alike, except the genitive feminine which 
is formed by adding e. 

In the plural both genders are alike. All the cases, 
with the exception of the genitive, are alike, and are 
formed by adding e to the nominative singular. 

The genitive plural is the same as the nominative 


143. m<\it, good. 


Masculine. Feminine. Both Genders. 

Nom. & Ace. triAic 
Gen. mAit 

Dat. triAic 

Voc. rriAit mx\it incite 

144. Notice the following examples of syncope in 
the genitive feminine and in the plural: 

<\oit>inn, gen. sing. fern, and pi. .AOitme, pleasant 
AUnrm, ,, ^ilne (.Aille), beautiful 

in ili p, ,, ,, milfe, sweet 

145. The following adjectives are irregular: 
coif, gen. sing. fern, and plural COJVA, right, just 

v, difficult 


/4>6. The third declension includes all those adjec- 
tives which end in .\rJuMl. This termination has Hie 
same signification as the English affix like in warlike. 
( >r bj in manly, princely, &c. 

In both numbers the two genders are alike. All 
the cases in the singular are the same, except the 
genitive, which is formed by adding A. This is always 
accompanied by syncope. All the cases of the plural 
(except the genitive) are the same as the gen. sing. 
There are no exceptions or irregularities in this 


1W. pe4fiArfu\il, manly. 


Both Genders. Both Genders. 

Nom. & Ace. 



1*8. All adjectives ending in a vowel belong to the 
fourth declension, as JTATM, long; 6pt>.A, golden. They 
have no inflexions whatever, all the cases, singular 
and plural, being exactly alike. 


There are two exceptions viz., ce, hot, warm; and 
beo, alive. Ue (often spelled ceit), becomes ceo in 
the genitive singular feminine, and also in the plural 
of both genders. 

t)eo, alive, becomes beo-OA in the plural. In the 
singular it is quite regular, except after the word T)IA; 
its genitive is then t>i, as ITl^c t)6 W, the Son of the 
living God. 

Rules for the Aspiration of the Adjectives. 

These rules really belong to Syntax, but for the convenience of tha 
Itudent we give them here. 

149. (a) An adjective beginning with an aspirable 
consonant is aspirated in the nominative and accusative 
feminine singular, in the genitive masculine singular, 
and in the dative and vocative singular of both 

(b) The adjective is also aspirated in the nominative 
and accusative plural when the noun ends in a slender 

Exceptions to the Rules for Aspiration. 

150. (a) An adjective beginning with -o or c is usually not 
-aspirated when the noun ends in -o, ti, c, t, or p (dentals). 

(5) c and 5 are usually not aspirated when the preceding word 
ends in c, 5, or n_;, 

(c) p and b are usually not aspirated when the preceding word 
ends in p, b, or m. 

These exceptions apply to most rules for the aspiration of nouns 
as well as adjectives 

(d) The genitive of nouns of the 3rd and 5th declensions ought 
not to have the initial of the adjective following them aspirated. 
Usage, however, differs somewhat on this point. 

() In the spoken language of Connaught the adjective is not 
aspirated in the dative singular masculine. 

Rales for Eclipsing the Adjective. 

151. (a) The adjective is usually eclipse-i in the 
genitive plural, even though the article is not used 
before the noun; and if the adjective begins with a 
vowel n ifi prefixed. 

(6) The initial of an adjective following & noun in 
the dative sing, should, as a rule, be aspirated; but 
whenever the noun is eclipsed after the article the 
adjective is often eclipsed also; aspiration in this 
case is just as correct as eclipsis, and is more usual. 


152. Noun, Adjective and Article declined in com- 


AT\ peAp tndp, the big man. 
Nom. & Ace. An peAp tnrtp. nA pp in<5jxA 

Gen. An pj\ rho'iji TIA t>pe.\p m<"j\ 

Dat. ceif An trpeAp rh6p teif nA 
Voc. A pp iii6ii\ A freA^ 

An CfeAmpds gtAp tteAg, the green little shamrock. 
Nora. & Ace. An cpeAmptis glAr- nA f eAtni\65A slAf A 

Gen. nA f eAmpCise gLAif e nA peAtnfvo's 

Dat. 6'n CfeAtn|voi5 s^Aif 6 nA 

Voc. A 

be Ag 

An cfeAn-beAn boCc, the poor old woman. 
Nom. & Ace. An cpeAn-beAn nA f eAn-rhnA 

Gen. nA peAn-rhnA nA f 6An-t)An mboCc 

Dat. -oo'n cpeAn- -oo 

rhnAOi boiCc 
Voc. A f eAn - beAn A f eAn-rhnA 

N.B. When an adjective precedes its noun it is 

Comparison of Adjectives. 

153. In Irish there are two comparisons (1) the 
comparison of equality, (2) the comparison of 

154. The comparison of equality is formed by 
placing Com (or co), "as" or "so," before the adjec- 
tive, and te, "as," after it. (This le becomes teip 
before the article, and then causes eclipsis if the noun 
be singular.) 


If a verb occurs in the second portion of the sen- 
tence, *.\sur (not le) must be used for the second "as" 

in English. UA Se^g^n coin mop te Seurru\f, John is 
as big as James, tli pint f e com U\iT>tp teif AN t>j:eAt\, 
he is not as strong as the man. Hi f uit fe com m,\if 
AP) tii f e, he is not as good as he was. 

155. The comparison of superiority has three de- 
grees the positive, the comparative, and the super- 
lative. The positive is the simple form of the adjec- 
tive, as bx\n, se-Al. The comparative and superlative 
have exactly the same form as the genitive singular 
feminine of the adjective, as t>Aine, gile. 

156. The comparative degree is always preceded by 
some part of the verb if% expressed or understood, and 
in almost every case is followed by the word DA (or 


The sun is brighter than the moon. 

An pe^pp cup** n.d T>O oe^ixopAtAin ? 
Are you better than your brother ? 

157. In a comparative sentence the verb CA (or any 
other verb) may be used, but even then the verb ir 
must be used. 

"Whenever CA (or any other verb) is used in a com- 


parative sentence, the comparative must be preceded 
by the word niof (i.e., ni or nit), a thing, and the verb 
if) as 

C4 An |MAti niof jilc nA An e<M^C, 

The sun is brighter than the moon. 

An opinl cu niof peApp n4 t)o t>eApoj\At.Aip ? 
Are you better than your brother ? 

158. As stated in previous paragraph nior>=ni + ir- 
If the time of the comparison be past ni DA is used 
instead of niof. In conditional comparisons ni bAt) 
is employed. 

t)A -661 c lioin 50 HAitt tin A ni D'AOifoe nA lllAipe. 
I thought that titiA was taller than IDAi^e. 

1 59. Every superlative sentence in Irish is a relative 
sentence. Thus instead of saying " the best man " 
we say "the man (who) is best"; for "the tallest 
man," we say " the man (who) is tallest." The word 
" who " in this case is never translated, for the 
obvious reason that there is really no simple relative 
pronoun in Irish. 

160- If the sentence happens to be in the past or 
future " the best man " will have to be translated as 
"the man (who) was best" or "the man (who) will 
be best." In such cases if or Af can never be used. 
t)A or but> must be used in the past tense. 


If the first portion of the sentence contains a verb 
in the conditional mood, the conditional of ip (viz., t>o 
DA-O : t)o is often omitted) must be used. 

The highest hill in Ireland, An cnoc ip Aijvoe t 

The biggest man was sitting in the smallest 

toi AH peAp t)A rho nA fui"6e mp An gCACAOip bA 

The best man would have the horse, 
"Do t>eA"t> An CApAlL AJ An t>peA|\ -oo 
(Lit. The horse would be at the man (who) would be 


The English comparatiYe of Inferiority is trans- 
lated by niop IU$A followed by an abstract noun corre- 
sponding to the English adjective: e.g., niop tu$A 
peAfArhAileACc, less manly. 

Intensifying Particles. 
161. The meaning of an adjective can be intensified 

by placing any of the following particles before the 
positive of the adjective. All these particles cause 

An, very ; piop (or pip), very or truly (as truly 

good) ; fi' ver y 5 f i5 riiAit, very good. 
5le, pure (as pure white) ; \\6, too, excessively. 
f4f, exceedingly; up, very (in a depreciating 

mAic, good ; An-rhAit, very good ; piop-riiAie, truly 

good ; t\<3-puAp , too cold. 

PA|\ te, excessively hot (warm) ; uip-ipiol, very 
low: up-gpATOA, very ugly. 


162. In the spoken language the adjective is some- 
times intensified by repeating the positive twice, as 

oi fe" cinn cmn, he was very sick. 
c4 fe Ej\otn cpom, it is very heavy. 
IS ptiuC pliuc, a very wet day. 

163. Sometimes -oe is annexed to the comparative; 
it is really the prepositional pronoun -oe, of it. 

11i m<5i-oe (mo + t>e) 50 p^gAD. It is not likely 

that I shall go. 
11i mi^-oe (meAf^ + "oe) oeit 45 bp^t ope ! It is 

no harm to be depending on yon ! 

164. Although the comparative and the superlative 
are absolutely alike in form, yet they may be easily 
distinguished : 

(1) By the context ; the comparative can be used 
only when we are speaking of two persons or things, 
the superlative is always used for more than two. 

(2) By the word nA (than) which always follows the 
comparative, except when -oe is used ; the superlative 
is never followed by either. 

163. When comparing adjectives (i.e., giving the 
three degrees of comparison), it is usual to use niof 
before the comparative, and if before the superlative, 

txdn niof txdine if b^ine 

gUf niof sUipe if 5Uif e 

Remember that niof and if change their forms 
according to the tense of the verb in the sentence 

166. Irregular Comparison. 


, little or small tu&A 

long pui-oe, pMt>e, 

mfl|\, big mo 

olc, bad 
, good 

mime, often mimci, mioncA 

ce (ceit), warm ce6 

, dry 


tonrtium, dear, beloved ionriiuine or 
near (of place) 501^6 


cpeun, brave, strong j 

, ugly 
, high 

iomt).A, many m6 or UA (more numerous) 

tle^fA and cuifje, nearer, sooner, are comparatives 

which have no positive. 

N.B. The superlatives of the above adjectives have 

exactly the same forms as the comparatives. 

This word was formerly spelled bpeAjx^ or bfieAJcA, and these 
forms may be os<cl in the plural. 



2, -os 

3, up!, 

4, ceicjie 


8, otc 

9, TI.AOI 


12, T)A -66.45 


Numeral Adjectives. 

14, ceiti\e 




16, fe 

18, otc 

19, n^o 

20, pCe 

21, v\on if (or 



1st, ceut),* 








9th, ti.Aorh.At) 
10th, -oeACrfiA- 
llth, .Aonrh.A'6 
13th, cpeAfoeug, ct\ioriiAt) 


17th, f eACcrh-At) "oeug 
18th, oCcrhA-C "Oeug 
19th, nAorhAt) T)euj; 


* The c oi ceux> is ufiuall; aspirated after the article. 



22, -06 or VA ip pice; -06 22nd, -OA^A Af. picit) ; 
or T>A AJ\ pici-o x>At\A...piceA-o 

28, Cff ip pice; cpi AH 23rd, cpiotfiA-6 &\\ picit> or 

pICI-O CfteAf Ap 

30, DCIC if pice [C^IOCA] 80th, T>eAcniAt) A|\ 

31, AOII -06115 if pice 31st, AonrhAt) "oeug 


32, "OC or T)A tjeug if pee 32nd, DAHA -06115 AJ\ 

37, fGACc t>eu if pice 37th. feACcttiAt) -oewg Af 


40, IDA picit> [ceAtfACA] 40th, -OA pttmeA-o 

41, Aon if "Oxi picit) 41st, AonrhAt) A|\ "64 piciT> 
44, ceAtAif or ceit]\e f 44th, ceAtf AttiA-6 AJ\ t>A 

OA plClD pICIT) 

50, t>eiC if t)4 pici-o; Leit- 50th, -oeAcriiAt) Af -OA picm 

ceut), CAO5A 

51, Aon T>eu5 if -OA picit) 51st, AonitiAt) 


60, c^T pi6it) [fe^fgA] GOth, cff 

61, Aon if cfi pitit) 61st, AonrhAt) AJ\ tf.i 
70, T>eic if c^i picit) 70th, -oeACttiAt) At\ti\i 

71, AOII oewg if cpi pitit) 71st, AonrhA-6 -oeug Af\ c^i 


80, centre piCit) [occ- 80th, ceitf.e pici-oeAt) 


81, Aon if coitpe picit) 81st, AonrhA-6 A<A ceit^e 

90, -ceic if ceitpe pici-o 90th, -ueACitid-o A|\ ceitpe 



91, Aon -oeus if ceitpe 91st, AonmAt) -oeug AF 
pcit) Ceicpe pern 

100, ceA-o (ceu-o) 100th, ceu-OA-6 

101, Aon if ceu-o 101st, AonrhAt) Ap ceut) 
200, DA Ceu-o 200th, t>A ceu-OA-6 
300, cpi Ceu-o 300th, cpi Ceu-OA-6 
400, ceitpe <ieut> 400th, ceic^e Ceu-o<y6 
800, o6c gceu-o 800th, oCc gceu-oA-O 

1000, mite 1000th, mile.A-6 

2000, -o^ mite 2000th, VA miteA-6 

3000, cfi mite 8000th, qvi miteA-6 

4000, ceit|\e mite 4000th, ceit^e miteA-6 

1,000,000, mittiun 1,000,000th, mittiunAt) 

Notes on the Numerals. 

168. There is another very idiomatic way of express- 
ing the numbers above twenty-one, viz., by placing the 
wordpiceAt) aloneafterthe firstnumeral: oeiCv iceA '' 
30 : piCe^t) is really the genitive of pice, so that the 
literal meaning of x>eic pcexyo is ten of twenty ; t>ei<i 
gCApAitt pCeA-o, 30 horses ; re^cc mbA pCe^-o, 27 

169. Whenever any numeral less than twenty is 
used by itself (i.e., not followed immediately by a 
noun), the particle A* must be used before it. This A 
prefixes tv to vowels : A ti-Aon, one ; A T>O, two ; 
A n-oct, eight. 

CA pe A ceAtAi|\ A 6U>5, it is four o'clock. 

CA pe teAfc-uAif\ T>'eif A -oo, it is half past two. 

* In Ulster and Munster the article AH is used instead of this &. 


170. Very frequently in modern times the particle 
A f (=-A5Uf) is used instead of if in numbers. Af in 
numbers is pronounced iss. 

171 . A -06 and A ce^tAip can be used only in the 
absence of nouns. If the nouns be expressed imme- 
diately after "two" and "four," -ad and ceitjve must 
be used. 

172. Aon, one, when used with a noun almost 
always takes the word Am-din after the noun ; as, Aon 
pe-Ap ArhAin, one man. Aon by itself usually means 
"any;" as, aon pe^p, any man; Aon 14, any day. 
Sometimes Aon is omitted and Aiii-dm only is used, as 
14 Arh4in, one day. 

173. Under the heading "Ordinals'* two forms will 
be found for nearly all the smaller numbers. The 
forms given first are the ones generally used. As the 
secondary forms are often met with in books, they are 
given for the sake of reference. C6<vo, first, is used 
by itself, but AonrhAd is used in compound numbers, 
such as 21st, 31st, &c. 

First, as an adverb, is AJX -o-cuf or AJ\ -o-cuip, never, 

174. The -o of -o4, two is always aspirated except 
after a word ending in one of the letters, t>, n, c, I, r-, 
or after the possessive adjective ^, her. 

The words for 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, given in 
brackets, are the old words for these numbers; they 
are not used now, and are given simply for reference. 


175. piCe, ceu-o, and mile, together with the old 
words for 30, 40, 50, &c., are really nouns* and can 
be declined. 

Nom. pice gen. ptcexvo dat. picit) pi. pici-o 
,, ceuT) ,, ceit) ,, ceut) ,, ceut>CA 

,, mile ,, mile ,, mile ,, milce 

The other words are 5th declension, and form their 
genitive by adding -o. 

176. mile, a thousand, or a mile, and ceu-o, a 
hundred never change their forms after a numeral ; 

n,\oi mile, 9,000, or 9 miles. 

The Personal Numerals. 

177. The following numeral nouns are used especially 
of persons. All, with the exception of T>tp and beipc, 
are compounds of the word pe^p, a man (the p of 
which has disappeared owing to aspiration), and the 
numeral adjectives. 

AotiApf (-Aon-pe^p) one person 

[Dip (oUp)] a pair, a couple 

two persons, a couple I 

(or cpiAp) (qtf-peAt\) three persons 

(ceAtAtp,-p.ex\n) four persons 

cuige^p, five persons 

peipe<\p six persons 

* See Syntax, par. 511 and 512. 

f Used in the idiomatic expression for "alone." See par. 654. 
I tJ,nAtTiA, a married couple. 


seven persons 

eight persons 
nAono.A|\ or ntintMfi nine persons 

ten persons 

(o<S-Fe.AH- > 6eu5) twelve persons 
N.B. The singular form of the article is used be- 
fore these numerals; as An cuige^ treats the five 

The Possessive Adjectives. 

178. The term "possessive pronouns" has been 
incorrectly applied by many grammarians to the 
" possessive adjectives." A pronoun is a word that 
can stand for a noun and be separated from the noun, 
as the words "mine" and "his" in the sentences, 
" This book is mine," " This cap is his." If I wish 
to say in Irish, "Did you see his father and mine?" 
I say, "An bpAc^tp A AA\P ^guf m' AtAip" (not 
Aguf mo). The possessive adjectives in Irish can 
never stand alone; hence they are not pronouns. 

179. The possessive adjectives are as follows : 


mo, my A?, our 

oo, thy t>up (or VM^), your 

A, his or her A, their 

180. A, his ; A, her ; and A, their, are very easily 
distinguished by their initial effects on the following 


181. The o of mo and -oo is elided whenever they 
are followed by a word beginning with a vowel or , 
as m' pumnebg, my window; r>' ACAI^, thy father. 

182. Before a vowel -oo, thy, is very often written c 
or c, as -o' ACAI|\, c' At&w, t' AtAip, thy father ; even 
h-ACAij\ is sometimes wrongly written. 

183. The possessive adjectives may take an emphatic 
increase, but this emphatic particle always follows the 
noun, and is usually joined to it by a hyphen ; and 
should the noun be followed by one or more adjectives 
which qualify it, the emphatic particle is attached to 
the last qualifying adjective. 

The Emphatic Particles, 

18$. The emphatic particles can be used with (1) 
the possessive adjectives, (2) the personal pronouns, 
(3) the prepositional pronouns, and (4) the synthetic 
forms of the verbs. Excepting the first person plural 
all the particles have two forms. When the word to 
which they are attached ends in a broad vowel or 
consonant use the broad particles, otherwise employ 
the slender. 


1. -jM, -r-e -ne 

2 -r-A, -re -r^, -re 

(Masc., -p*Mi, - 
o. <_ 

(Fern., -re, - 



mo teAC-p A, my house ; A teAC-pAn, his house ; Ap 
oceAC-ne, our house: mipe, myself; peipeAn, himself; 
i, at themselves ; buAiiim-pe, I strike. 

185. The word pern may also be used (generally as 
a distinct word) to mark emphasis, either by itself or 
in conjunction with the emphatic particles : as 
mo teAC pein, my own house 
mo CeAC-pA p6m, even my house 
mo teAC br\eA m6rx-pA, my fine large house 

mo teAC p6m and mo teAC-pA may both mean "my 
house," but the latter is used when we wish to dis- 
tinguish our own property from that of another per- 
son; as, your house and mine, T>O CCAC-PA Agup mo 

186. The possessive adjectives are frequently com- 
pounded with the following prepositions : 

i, in (^nn), in; te, with; t>o, to; 6, from; and p.A. 


i, tn or Ann, in. 

tm, Am 'mo, in my n<\t\, mAp, i n-Ap., in our 

ID, At), 'T>O, in thy, in your noup, 1 noup, in your 
'nA, i n-A, inA, in his, in her nA, 1 n-A, HIA, in their 

In the third person singular and plural IOHA, tonn^, Anna are also 
found written. 


187. te, with. 

tern, te mo,* with my Le n-Af\, with our 

let), te TDO,* with thy or your te noup, with your 
te TI-A, with his or her te n-A, with their 

188. -oo, to. 

oom', -oo mo,* to my T>AP, to our 

t)OT>', -oo -oo,* to thy or your t>o oup, t>Abut\, to your 

DA, to his or her T>A, to their 

189. o, from. 

6m, o mo,* from my n-A|\, from our 

OT>, o -oo,* from thy or your nt>tn, from your 
6 n-A, from his or her n-A, from their 

190. PA or 6, under. 

p^m, pom, under my PA n-Af , pO n-Af , under 

PA-O, pot), under thy, your PA nt>ut\, p6 Tittup, 

under your 
pA n-A, p6 n-A, under his, her p4 n-A, p6 n-A, ondep 


191. The following compounds are frequently used 
with verbal nouns : 

AS, at. 

AS mo,' at my 'gAp, AP, AS /p, at our 

AS DO,* at thy, your AS t>uj\, at your 
* '5^, $A, at his, her ASA, 'SA, or gvi, at their 

The forma marked with an asterisk are used in the North. 


192. When "you" and "your" refer to one person, 
the singular words cu and -DO are used in Irish, 

o' At dip, your father (when speaking to one person), 
t>ujv n-.At.din, your father (when speaking to more than 

193. Those of the above combinations which are 
alike in form are distinguished by the initial effect 
they cause in the following word ; as, 6 n-A tig, from 
his house ; 6 n-A ci$, from her house ; <5 n-A -005, from 
their house. 

194. The above combinations may take the same 
emphatic increase as the uncompound possessive 
adjectives; om ti$ p6m, from my own house; 6m ti$ 

rh6f.-p.A, from my fine large house. 

Demonstrative Adjectives. 

195. The demonstrative adjectives are r* ^ B > 
pn,t that; and tro, that or yonder. 

fo is frequently written feo when the vowel or 
consonant preceding it is slender. 

These words come after the nouns they qualify. 
and should the noun be followed by any qualifying 
adjectives, fo, fin or u-o comes after the last quali- 
fying adjective. 

It is not enough to say peA|\ fo or bean fin for 
"this man" or "that woman." The noun must 

Also fA, feo, or pe. f Also r 1T1 T Ain or r* n> 


always be preceded by the article. "This man" is 
An jreAfA fo; "these men," nA pf% feo; An bean fo, this 
woman; AH beAn pn, that woman. 

196. The word ti-o is used when a person or thing 
is connected in some way with the person to whom 
you speak or write ; An peAf tVo, that man (whom you 
have seen or heard of) ; An oit>ce fit), that particular 
night which you remember ; or in pointing out an 
object at some distance, as 

An bjreiceAnn cu An bAt) ut> ? Do you see that 

Also with the vocative case, 

A Cloigmn UT> tAll ACA gAn ceAti 541*6. 
Thou skull over there that art without tongue. 

Indefinite Adjectives. 

197. The chief indefinite adjectives are Aon, any ; 
ei5in,some, certain; eite, other; uile (after the noun) , 
all, whole; and the phrase A|\ bit, any at all; pe, 

e.g., Aon IA, any day ; Aon CApo^U, any horse ; An 
cip uile, the whole country ; -otnne eigin, a certain per- 
son ; An peAp eile, the other man. An O^ACA cu An 
LeAbAf i n-<\ic Ap bit ? Did you see the book anywhere ? 
"Hi puii AipseAt) A|\ bit AgAin, I have no money at all. 
t)iteAtfiAC t)ob' CAT!) ATI SiogAi-oe, pe UAipLeACc T>O b! 
Aige n6 nA ^Aib. The Siogaidhe was a rascal, what- 
ever nobility he had or hadn't. 

198. The following words aro nouns, and are fol- 


lowed by a genitive or -oe with the dative. As they 
are employed to translate English indefinite adjec- 
tives, we give them here: 

mrt|vAn, much bpuil m6p<in ptonA -A^AC, 

Have you much wine? 
(An) tomAT), a great deal, An IOTHAT) Aipsm, a great 

a great many deal of money 

beAgAn, little beASAn A^AITI, a little bread 

(ATI) lomAjxcA, too much -AM lomApCAuipse, too much 


), rather much ATI-CUIT> fAlAinn, rather 
much salt 


enough, sufficient 
) I have sufficient bread 

(Agup), as muchJAn oipexxx) fin 6ip, so much 
(as), so much (as) ) gold 

, more cuilleAt) AfVAin, more bread 

neAt\c, plenty, abundance neApc Anigit), plenty of 

cuit), pomn or poinnc, cuir>, f\oinn or pomnc 6ip, 

a share, some some gold 

A IATV, many, numerous c^L A Uln peAf rnbpe^g i 
n-6ipmn. There are many 
fine men in Ireland 

199. Translation of the word "Some." 

(a) As has been said, cuit>, pomn or poinnc is used 
to translate the word "some," but there are other 
words used, as bjvAon, a drop, used for liquids; 


or t>oifAtvn, a fistfull, used for hay, straw, corn, pota- 
toes, &c. ; sfAinin, a grain, used for meal, flour, 
tea, &c.; pingirm, a penny, used for money. All 
these words take a genitive. 

(fr) "Some of" followed by a noun is translated 
by euro T)e followed by a dative case. 

(c) " Some of" followed by a singular pronoun is 
translated by cum t)e; when followed by a plural 
pronoun, by euro 45. 

n tXAinne A^AM, I have some milk 

ucpA ^156, He has some sugar 
Curo -oe rtA peApArt, Some of the men 

O euro -oe pn olc, Some of that is bad 

O euro ACA ro olc, Some of these are bad 

Translation of " Any." 

200. (a) When "any" is used in connection with 
objects that are usually counted it is translated by 
Aon with a singular noun ; as Aon e^, any man ; 
fcpuil Aon C-APAU AS AC? or ftpuit c^pAtU A$ bit A$AC? 
Have you any horses? 

The following phrases followed by a genitive case 
are used for "any" with objects that are not counted: 
Aon gpeim, for bread, butter, meat, &c. : ^on 
for liquids; Aon gt^min, for tea, sugar, &c. ; 
peotA Aige? Has he any meat? 

(6) " Any of" followed by a noun is translated by 
aon tDume T>e, for persons ; Aon ce^nn -oe, for any 
kind of countable objects ; Aon jpeim ^e, &c., as 

above. An &JMCA cu Aon t>uire T>e nA feApAit* ? Did 
you see any of the men? &c. 

(c) " Any of " followed by a plural pronoun is 
translated by the phrases given in (fo), but the pre- 
position AS is used instead of -oe ; as 

Hi fruit Aon ceAnn ACA Annpn. There is not any 

of them there. 

tli fiAit> AON T>utne A^Ainn Annpo ceAnA. Not one 
of us was here before. 

Distributive Adjectives. 

201. SAC, each, every, as 546 U, every day: tute 
(before the noun), every ; the definite article, or 546, 
must be used with uile; as An tnle freAp, every man. 
t)i SAC uile ceAnn ACA cinn. Every one of them was 

S^C fe, every other, every second; 546 ]\e ttpocMl, 
every second word. 

202. The Interrogative Adjectives. 

CA or ce, what, as c meAt). what amount? 

i.e., how much or how many? 

CA h-Aic, what place? CA ti-Ainm ACA ope? What 

is your name? CA ii-tiAip, what hour? when? 

In English we say " what a man," "what a start," 

&c., but in Irish we say "what the man," " what the 

start,'' as CAi-oe" An geic -oo rjAinpeAtb f6 AI^CI ! What 

a fright he would give her ! (lit. he would take out of her). 

The Pronoun. 

203. In Irish there are nine classes of Pronouns : 
Persona], Reflexive, Prepositional, Relative, Demon- 
strative, Indefinite, Distributive, Interrogative, and 
Reciprocal pronouns. There are no Possessive pro- 
nouns in Irish. 

204. Personal Pronouns. 


1st pers, me", I rinn, we 

2nd pers. cii, thou fiti, you 

ri ^t>, they 
p, she 

Each of the above may take an emphatic increase, 
equivalent to the English suffix self. 


Emphatic Forms of the Personal Pronouns. 

1st pers. mii'e, myself r-mne, ourselves 
2nd pers. cur- A, thyself f^fe, yourselves 

(reireAti. himself] 

3rd pers. i > riA-o-rAti, themselves 

(rife, herself j 

206. The word p6m is added to the personal pro- 
nouns to form the reflexive pronouns ; as -oo ttuAitexxr 
me pein, I struck myself. 


The reflexive pronouns are as follows . 


me" p6m, myself p' 1 " Vein, ourselves 

cu pein, thyself p T^ 1n yourselves 

6 r6in, himself 

.. , 
, themselves 
i j:e"in, herself 

207. The above are also used as emphatic pronouns ; 
as, CuA-CAtnAp A t>Aile, tn6 p6m Astir- 6 p6m. Both he 
and I went home. 

208. The Personal Pronouns have no declension. 

It has already been shown that mo, -oo, A, etc., 
which are usually given as the genitive cases of the 
personal pronouns, are not pronouns, but adjectives ; 
because they can never be used without a noun. 

The compounds of the pronouns with the preposi- 
tion -oo (to) are usually given as the dative cases of 
the personal pronouns ; but A^AITI, AS AC, etc., or the 
compounds with any of the other prepositions in 
par. 216, are just as much the datives of the personal 
pronouns as T>om, T>UIC, &c. Hence the Irish personal 
pronouns have no declension. 

209. The Personal Pronouns have however two 
forms : The conjunctive and the disjunctive. The 
conjunctive forms are used only immediately after a 
verb as its subject; in all other positions the dis- 
junctive forms must be used. The disjunctive forms 
are also used after the verb if 


Tho reason why these forms follow if is that the word 
immediately after if is predicate,* not subject', and it 
has just been stated that the conjunctive forms can 
be used only in immediate connection with a verb as 
its subject. 

Conjunctive Pronouns. 

210. m6, cu, fe, fi, finn, f'&, PAT>. 

Disjunctive Pronouns. 

211. A [cu, (firm, [po, 


me e, 1, 

(cii, (i 

In me, cu, cu, the vowel is often shortened in Munster, when there 
is no stress or emphasis. It is shortened in me, re, e, r'^o and IA-O 
in Ulster, when there is no stress. 

212. The disjunctive pronouns can be nominatives to 
verbs, but then they will be separated from the verbs : 
or they may be used in immediate connection with a 
verb as its object. 

He is a man, if -pe^f. & (nominative). 

He was the king, -oob'e ATI fi 6 (both nominatives). 

This is smaller than that, if tu$A 6 feo HA e 

(both nominatives). 
I did not strike him, niorv t>Aite^f 6 (accusative). 

This statement will be explained later on. See par 589. 

The Neuter Pronoun 
213. The pronoun e^vo is most frequently used in 
replying to a question asked with any part of the verb 
ip followed by an indefinite predicate.* 11 AC bjie^g An 
U 6 ? 1f CA-6 50 -oeiiiiin. Isn't it a fine day? It is 
indeed. An SACp,.\nA6 ? 1li II-CAT^. Is he an 
Englishman ? He is not. 

This pronoun corresponds very much with the " unchangeable le' 
in French: as, Etes-vous sage? Oui, je le suis. 

Whenever if in the question is followed by a pronoun, 
e<y6 cannot be used in the reply. An 6 CopmAC 
AM pi ? 11i n-e". Is Cormac the king? He is not. 

ip eA-6 is usually contracted to Ye^t) (shah). 

214. The phrase if eAt> ('peAt>) is often used to refer 
to a clause going before; as, t gCAtAip HA UlApc, ip 
e^t), CoD^il in6 Ajveip. InWestport, it was, that I slept 
last night. 11iuM|\ if mo An AnpoCAin (AnACAin), if 
eAt>, if goipe AH CAttAip. When the distress is greatest, 
then it is that help is nearest. 

215. In Munster when the predicate is an indefinite 
noun it is usual to turn the whole sentence into an 
eA-6-phrase; as It is a fine day. IA opeA$, 'peAt> 6. 
He is a priest. SAJAPC, 'peAt> 6. He was a slave. 
OAOJI, -oob 'eAt) 6. Elsewhere these sentences would 
be, if Ui bp eA 5 e ; T r A 5 A r c 6 ; *>A -OAop 6. 

* For " indttinite predicate " refer to par. 585. 

Prepositional Pronouns 

Pronominal Prepositions. 

216. Fifteen of the simple prepositions combine 
with the disjunctive forms of the personal pronouns; 
and to these combinations is given the name of Pre- 
positional Pronouns or Pronominal Prepositions. 

All these compounds are very important. As five 
or six of them occur most frequently these will be 
given first, and the remainder, if BO desired, may be 
left until the second reading of the book. The im- 
portant combinations are those of the prepositions, 
45, at; Afvon ; -oo, to; le, with; 6, from; and cun, 

All the combinations may take an emphatic suffix. 
One example will be given. 


217. 45, at or with. 

1st pers. A$Am, at ma AgAinn, at us 

2nd pers. " 'at thee AgAiG, at you 

. at him 

3rd pers.] , , ACA, at them 

(AICI, at her 

218. The combinations of 45 with the emphatic 

1st pers. AgAmfA, at myself AgAmne, at ourselves 

2nd pers. x\5ACfA, at thyself 4541 &re, at yourselves 

(AisereAn. at himself 

3rd pers. I ACAIMTI, at themselves 

F Uicip, at herself 


219. Ap, OD. 

1st pers. oj\m, on me opAinn, on us 

2nd pers. ope, on thee opAio, on you 

(AIP, on him 

3rd pers. I onA or opru\, on them 


220. DO, to. 

("oom * 
1st pers. -I, to me -ouirm, to us 

2nd pers. -ouic, to thee -OAOID, -010, to you 

(06 to him 

3rd pers. \ T)6ifj, to them 

(-01, to her 

The initial -o of these combinations and also those of x>e are usually 
aspirated except after a word ending in one of the letters -o, n, r. L, f- 

221. te, with. 

liotn, with me linn, with us 

. with thee 

.,, , . lib, with you 

leip, with him 


with her leo. with them 

222. 6, or uA,t from. 

uAim, from me uAinn, from us 

UAIC, ,, thee UAID, you 

uAit),t him 

, UACA, them 

uAiti ,, her 

* x>Aiii (= -com) is the literary and also the Ulster usage. The 
emphatic form is "ooriip &, never x>omp A, except in Connaught. 
+ UA is never used as a simple preposition. 
I UAX> and uAi-oe (= UAI-O) are also both literary find spoken forms. 



223. cun, towards. 

CugAni,* towards me CugAinn, towards us 

' U5AC) [ thee 
Cuige, him 

, CUCA. them 



224. foim, before. 

p6mAtn, before me ptiriiAinn, before us 





out of me 



out of us 
AfAit, you 





226. i, in (or Ann) in. 

in me lonnAinn, in us 

thee lonnAitt you 

Ann. ,. him 

mnci, her 

227. -oe, off, from. 

oiom, off or from me -oinn, off or from us 
oioc, thee t)it>, you 

oe, him 

-PI, ., her 





The 5 in these combinations is aspirated in Munster. except iu 



228. p, pi, PAOI, under. 

pum, under ine puinn, under us 

puc, thee Fti'ty ,, you 

PAOI. him 

putA, them 
ptiiti, her 

229. it>ip., between. 

, between me eAt>pAinn, between us 

thee e,vopAiD, you 

6, ,, him 

i / N them 

i, her (or 

230. e-Ap, over or beyond. 

or topm, over me tApAinn or top^inn, over us 
or tope, j, thee CApAib copAift, you 
p, him) 

eopr.orfe.nrc..,, herj*^ .fenrc*. ,,them 

231. cpe", through. 

cpfom, through me cpinn, through us 

cpioc, thee cpitt, you 
cpi-o, him 

epic,, her " tbem 

The c of these combinations is often aspirated. 
232. urn, about. 

i, about me umAinn, about us 

thee uniAiG, you 
uime, him 

. , them 
uimpi, her 


The Relative Pronoun, 

In Old Irish there was a relative particle used after preposi- 
tions, and also a compound relative, but no simple relative in the 
nominative and accusative cases. The modern relative, in these 
cases, has arisen from a mistaken idea about certain particles. Befora 
the imperfect, the past, and conditional the particle t>o should, 
strictly speaking, bo used. Certain irregular but often used verbs 
had also an unaccented first syllable, as ACA, -co-tie i pirn, -oo-ttm, Ac. 
These particles and syllables being unaccented were generally dropped 
at the beginning, but retained in the body, of a sentence, where the 
relative naturally occurs. Hence they were erroneously regarded as 
relative pronouns, from analogy with other languages. 

In Modern Irish the relative particle may or may not be used in 
the nominative and accusative cases. 

Although this is the origin of the modern relative nevertheless it is 
used as a real relative in modern Irish. Whether we call this A a 
relative particle or a relative pronoun is a mere matter of choice. 
We prefer the first name. 

There is a relative frequently met with in authors, viz. noc, 
meaning who, which or that. This relative is not used in modern 
spoken Irish, in fact it seems never to have been used in the spoken 

233. In modern Irish there are three simple relatives, 
the relative particles A aud 50, which signify who, 
which, or that ; and the negative particle DAC, 
signifying wlio...not, which. ..not, that. ..not. 

The rel-itive 50 is not found in literature, but it is so generally used 
in the spoken dialect of Munster that it must be regarded as a true 
relative. 50 is not used as the subject or object of a, verb, its use is 
confined to the prepositional (datire) case. 

There are also the compound relatives pe\ gibe, 
cibe, whoever, ivhosoever, whatever, aud A (causing 
eclipsis) what, that whicJt, all that. 

234. The relative particle A expressed or under- 
stood, causes aspiration ; but when preceded by a 
preposition or when it means " all that," it causes 
eclipsis, as do 50 and 11 AC. 


btiAilim. The man whom I strike. 

An p-eAp A tiuAile-Ann me. The man who strikes me. 

An bUACAill nAc mbei'o ^5 The boy who will not be 

obAip. at work. -,.. 

An beAn 50 bp.uil AH bo The woman who has the 

-A1C1. COW. 

A scAicim PAH LA. All that I spend per day. 

Sin A fVAib -Ann. That's all that was there. 

X)o pgAipc A P A1 l<Aicpe.\c. All who were present 

burst out laughing. 
An Aic MIA bpint pe. The place in which he is. 

235. The relative A when governed by a preposi- 
tion, or when it means " all that," unites with po, 
the particle formerly used before the past tense of 
regular verbs, and becomes A\\. This Ap unites with 
the prepositions -co (to) and le (with) and becomes 
T>Ap and lep. 

Ap CAice^p pAii LA. All that I spent per day. 

An f-CAp T)Ap geAllAp mo \ 

leAbAp. or ( The man to whom I pro- 

An pe^p Ap geAlUp mo C mised my book. 

l6AbAp T)6. 

An cpLAc lep buAiLeAt) e. The rod with which he 

was beaten. 

236. The pronouns ce and pe unite with -po, but only with the 

Ce 'f fc'i pern ? Who was she ? 
pe 'f t'e pern ? Whoever he was 

237. Whenever the relative follows a superlative, 
or any phrase of the nature of a superlative, use 

OA ( = -oe + A). Before the past tense of regular 
verbs TD-A becomes t)Ap ( = T>A + po) 

t!)eApp.AT> "ouic 5 AC uile nit) T>A bp.u 

I will give you everything that I have. 

1p e pin AM v e< M v 1 P AOip'oe T)Ap buAit tiom 

That is the tallest man that 1 have ever met. 

Hi niAit leip Aon nit) "DA T)cii5Ap T>6. 

He does not like a single thing I gave him. 

Demonstrative Pronouns, 

238. The demonstrative pronouns are po or p eo, f/u's ; 
I'm, pAin, pom, pAn, /ta; put) or piut), f/*a (yonder). 
The secondary forms o or eo, m, and iut) are very com- 
mon in colloquial usage in Connaught and Minister. 

These secondary forms have sometimes been written f o, fin, etc. 

1p poj\ pin. 

'SeAt) pAn. 
CA pe 50 h-Ain-oeip AJAC, 

CA pAn 

t)'in i An AIC. 
"Oeiftitn-pe gupb iut) 6 An 

That is true. 
The matter is so. 
You have it in a mess, so 

you have. 

That was the place. 
I say that that is the man 
P.CAH t)ib. for you. 

t)' in e cpioc An pseil. That was the end of the 

-An in 6 An bopgA ? Is that the box? [affair. 

tli h-oi An AIC. This is not the place, 

t)' m 6 AH btiACAiU Cinge. That was the boy for it. 

239. When \ve are referring to a definite object these 
pronouns take the form 6 peo, i peo, IA-O po, e pin, 
i pm, KA-O PAIII, etc. This is especially the case when 
this," " that," etc., are equiva- 
1 that one," etc. 

Lift (or take) that. 
This is the man. 
That was John. 
That's Brigid. 

the English words 
lent to ' tins one," 
Cog e pin. 
'So peo An pe^f. 
T)ob' 6 pin SeAjAti. 
'Si pin t)fi$i-o. 
Ce h-i,vo po? 
An e pmt) ConiAp. 

i h-e, 'pe 
piu-o e e. 

pi ut) c, or 

Who are these ? 

Is that (person yonder) 


No ; that's he. 


"Se peo = tp 6 peo ; 'S6 pin = if 6 pin, etc. 
In the spoken language the phrases if 6 fin e, 
if 6 piut) e, etc, are very frequently contracted to 
fn 6, fin i, f iuT) e\ etc. 

Siu-o e. That is he. 

SiuT) 6 CsVOg. Yonder is Thade. 

Sm e An CApup. That's the hammer. 

The forms pm, pint, piT)6, f rol, are also frequently used. 

Six>6 ACA opm. That is what ails me. 

Sini AH AIC. That's the place. 

SitDi Annpo i. Here she is here. 

Smi i. That is she (or it). 

Sit>e e. This is he (or it. 

240. Sii-o, yonder, qualifies a pronoun; whilst ut> 
qualifies a noun : as, An f.e*\p UT>, } r onder man ; A p.eAp 
put), yonder woman's husband. 

Indefinite Pronouns. 

241. The principal indefinite pronouns are 

CA<i (gen. CAIC), all, everybody, everyone else, 
uile, all. 

6mne, 6mneA(i (AOin'ne), anybody. 
The following are nouns, but they are used to trans- 
late English indefinite pronouns, hence we give them 
here : 

oume Ap. bit, anyone at all. 
cum... cu it) eite, some. ..others 
a few. 


An -ocAims einne Annpo ? Did anyone come 

"Cu\ h- T)0 OAI* An triACpAi*?" A? cAt. "Who is 

he who drowned the youths?" said all. 
Ce rhetro uftAll 45 AC? (or An 'm6 uftAtt AJAC ?) 

UA beA^An AS Am. How many apples have yon ? 

I have a few. 
Uite -66it>. To them all. 

"Oo-seitrnii-o uite An bAf. We all die. 
t)o CUAT>AH ro i"te feA6A AitiAil r5^Le. All these 
went past like a shadow. 

Distributive Pronouns. 

242. The distributive pronouns are: JAC, each; 
5A6 uile, everyone ; gA<i Aon, each one, everyone ; 
ceACcAp, either. 'Cuite is a contraction for g^.c uite. 
Ili puii ceACcAp ACA AgAiri, I have not either of 


t)iot> A piof Ag SAC Aon. Let each one know. 

Oin bionn (bi) pioc X)6 Leif (pip) 5^<i h-Aon CAiUeAf A 

feACc. For the anger of God is on each one who 

violates His law. 

N.B. The tendency in present-day usage is to em- 
ploy distributive adjectives followed by appropriate 
nouns rather than distributive pronouns : e.g. Every- 
one went home. TJo CUAI* SAC uae -oume A t>Aiie. 

Interrogative Pronouns. 

243. The chief interrogative pronouns are : CIA or 
ce\ who, which; CA-O, cpeuT), or CA1T>6, what; c or 
ceujvo (CIA put)), what; CIA leif, whose; CIA *.CA 
(CIOCA), which of them, ce (or CIA) AS AID, which of you. 

Ce nmne 6 fin? Who did that? 

CAT> ACA A$AC ? What have you ? 

CA-O 6 fin A$AC ? What is that you have ? 

CA1T)6 ACA One ? )_., ... . 

SWhat ails you? 

CAT) CA one? 

CG ACA it* cc*? 

[ Which of them is the better? 
CIOCA if peAnp? 

Which or what man? 

CIA HA pp ? Which men ? 

CIA AH IUAC ? What price? 

CAi-oe" An t\u-o e fin ? What is that? 

Ce leif An leAt>A^ ? Whose is the book? 

244. Notice in the last sentence the peculiar position 
of the words. The interrogative pronoun always 
comes first in an Irish sentence, even when it is 
governed by a preposition in English. In Irish we 
do not say "With whom (ib) the book?" but "Who 
with him (is) the book?" 


Further examples of the same construction: 

Ce leip e po ? Whose is this? 

Ce .Aige xin leADAp ? Who has the book '? 

ASe.A$<*in, -ociocpxMt) cii 50 John, will you come 
5MUtrii? CA-O 11158? to Galway? What 


CIA leip fcpuil cu coprhAil? Whom are you like? 
We may also say, OA bpuil cu coprhAil leip ? 

Notice that the adjective copiiAil, like, takes Le, with ; not -oo, to. 

255. N.B. The interrogative pronouns are always 
nominative case in an Irish sentence. In such a 
sentence as, CM t>u<Mle<yo.Ap? Whom did they strike? 
CIA is nominative case to ip understood, whilst the 
suppressed relative is the object of GuAileAtixxp. In 
CM leip , CAT) cuige, &c., leip and cuige are preposi- 
tional pronouns, not simple prepositions. 

Reciprocal Pronoun. 

246. The reciprocal pronoun in Irish is A c6ile,* 
meaning each other, one another. Cuij\ ponn A 
UirhA i lArfixMfc A ceile, Finn put their hands in the 
hands of one another. X)o ps^t\ OpgAji ^gup T)tAp- 
mui-o te II-A ceile. Oscar and Diarmuid separated 
from each other (lit. "separated with each other"). 
c6ile. They struck each other. 

Literally, his fellow. 


Phrases containing the Reciprocal Pronoun. 

6 Ceile,* from each other, separated or asunder. 

Le Ceile, t together. 

niAt\ A Ceile, like each other, alike. 

confused, without any order. 
c\\G n-A Ceile, 

oipeAt) le C6ile, each as much as the other. 
i m>iAi-6 A ceile, one after the other, in succession. 
AJ' SAC jTArAC i n-A Ceile, out of one desert into another 



247. In Irish there are two conjugations of regular 
yerbs. They are distinguished by the formation of 
the future stem. All verbs of the first conjugation 
form the first person singular of the future simple in 
-FA-O or -peAt), whilst verbs of the second conjugation 
form the same part in -6C<vo or -e6CAt>. 

6 ceile, = 6 n-A ceile. 

+ le ceile, = le n-A ceile. This last form is often used and 
explains the aspiration in le ceile 


Forms of Conjugation. 

218. Every Irish verb, with the single exception of 
ip, has three forms of conjugation : The Synthetic, 
the Analytic, and the Autonomous. 

249. The synthetic, or pronominal form, is that in 

which the persons are expressed by means of termina- 
tions or inflections. All the persons, singular and 
plural, with the single exception of the third person 
singular, have synthetic forms in practically every 
tense. The third person singular can never have its 
nominative contained in the verb-ending or termina- 

The following example is the present tense synthetic 
form of the verb mol, praise : 


motAim, I praise. moldimi-o, we praise. 

moUMf\, thou praisest. motcAoi, you praise. 

moUnn p e, he praises. moUro, they praise. 

250. In the analytic form of conjugation the per- 
sons are not expressed by inflection ; the form of the 
verb remains the same throughout the tense and the 
persons are expressed by the pronouns placed after 
the verb. The form of the verb in the third person 
singular of the above example is the form the verb 
has in the analytic form of the present tense. 

The analytic form in every tense has identically the 
same form as the third person singular of that tense. 

N.B. The analytic form is generally employed in 
asking questions. 


The following is the analytic form of the present 
tense of mot : 


molAim, I praise. moUxnn finn, we praise. 

mol^nn cu, thou praisest. molAnn fib, you praise. 

fe, he praises. moU\nn PAT>, they praise 

The analytic form is used in all the tenses, but in 
some of the tenses it is rarely, if ever, found in some 
of the persons : for instance, it is not found in the 
first person singular above. As the analytic form 
presents no difficulty, it will not be given in the 
regular table of conjugations. 

251. We are indebted to the Rev. Peter O'Leary, 
P.P., for the following explanation of the Autonomous 
Form of conjugation : 

"This third form ihe Autonomovs has every one of 
the moods and tenses, but in each tense it has only 
one person, and that person is only implied. It is 
really a personality, but it is not a specific personality. 
It is only a general, undefined personality. 

" This third form of an Irish verb has some very 
unique powers. ... I shall illustrate one. An Eng- 
lish verb cannot of itself make complete sense alone ; 
this form of an Irish verb can. For instance, 
1 bu^itce.Ap ' is a complete sentence. It means, 
'A beating is being administered,' or, 'Somebody is 
striking.' Irish grammarians have imagined that this 


form of the verb is passive voice. No, it is not passive 
voice, for it has a passive of its own; and, again, all 
intransitive verbs (even the verb CA) possesses this 
form of conjugation. The nearest equivalents in sense 
and use to this Irish form are the German 'mann' 
and the French 'on' with the third person singular 
of the verb." Gaelic Journal. 

The usual translation of the French phrase "on 
dit" is, "It is said." "Is said" is certainly passive 
voice in English, but it does not follow that " dit" is 
passive voice in French. The same remark holds 
with regard to the Irish phrase "tWAitceAp An s^voAp," 
which is usually translated, "The dog is struck." 
bu.\ilce.\i\ is not passive voice; it is active voice, auto- 
nomous form, and 5<y6Aji is its object in the accusative 
case. The literal translation of the phrase is, "Some- 
body strikes the dog." The passive voice of buAiLceA|\, 
someone strikes, is CAtAfi buAiLce, someone is struck. 

252 As this is the firsi grammar that has adopted the term 
" Autonomous form of the Verb," we think it advisable to state 
the form of the verb which we give as the Autonomous foi-m is 
given in other Irish grammars as the passive voice. A fuller 
treatment of the Autonomous Verb will be found at the end of the 
book, where we endeavour to show that in modern Irish, at least, this 
form of the verb is active voice. The name by which this form of the 
verb ought to be called is not merely a matter of terms, for on it de- 


pends the case of the following noun or pronoun : i.e., whether Fncb 
noun or pronoun is the subject or object of the verb. 

As all Irish scholars have not accepted the Autonomous form of the 
verb, since it appears that formerly, at least, the verb was not Auto- 
nomous, being inflected for the plural number, it has been suggested 
that both names be retained for the present. In the first edition of 
this grammar the term " Indefinite " was given to this form, but as 
the name "Autonomous," which means possessing the power of self 
government, is far more expressive, it has been adopted instead of 
" Indefinite." 

As the Autonomous form has only one inflection 
for each tense, this inflection is given immediately 
after each tense in the tables of conjugation. 


253. Verbs have three moods, the Imperative, the 
Indicative, and the Subjunctive. 

Some grammars add a fourth mood, the Conditional ; 
and some omit the Subjunctive. The Conditional 
form, however, is always either Indicative or Subjunc- 
tive in meaning, and is here classed as a tense under 
the Indicative Mood. 

The Imperative has only one tense, the Present. 
Its use corresponds to that of the Imperative in 

The Indicative Mood has five tenses, the Present, 
the Imperfect, the Past, the Future, and the Condi- 
tion ah 


The Present Tense corresponds to the English 
Present, and like it usually denotes habitual action. 

The so-called Consuetudinal or Habitual Present i.e., the third 
person singular ending in -Arm in 110 way differs from the other parts 
of the Present in regnr.l to time. The verb bi, however, has a. dis- 
tinct Present, bim, denoting habitual action. In English the Present 
e.g., I write generally denotes habitual action. Present action is 
usually signified by a compound tense, / am writing. So in Irish the 
Present, pgjiiobAim, denotes habitual action, and present action is 
denoted by the compound tense, CAHH ^5 p5jmjtu\T>. However, as in 
English, the Present Tense of certain verbs, especially those relating 
to the senses or the mind, denote present as well as habitual action 
e.g., clinrmn, / hear; ciien>im, / believe. 

The Imperfect Tense is ~lso called the Habitual or 
Consuetudinal Past. It denotes habitual action in 
past time; as, "oo fg^ioOxMnn, / used to write. 

The Past Tense is also called the Perfect and the 
Preterite. It corresponds to the Past Tense in Eng- 
lish ; as, -oo f5f lott^r, I wroie. 

Continuous action in past time is denoted by a compound tense, as 
in English e.'j., -oo bior- AS rj^iobA-o, I was writing. 

The Future Tense corresponds to the Future in 
English: as r5t\iot>r-xyo, I shall write. 

The Conditional corresponds to the Compound 
Tense with "should" or "would" in English: as 
oo f5|\ioop4, thou wouldst write. 

The Conditional is also called the Secondary 
Future, because it denotes a future act regarded in 
the past: as, XVOUO,MI\C re 50 r5i\iofcjMtJ re. He said 
that he would write. 


In the Subjunctive Mood there are only two Tenses, 
the Present and the Past. This mood is used princi- 
pally to express a wish, and also after certain con 
junctions. See par. 550, &c. 

Active Yoice, Ordinary Form. 
284. Each Tense has the following forms : 

1. The action is merely stated, as 

t)uAileAnn SeA$An An clA|\, 
John strikes the table. 

2. The action is represented as in progress, as 

U<\ SeA$An Ag buAlAt) An CtAif\, 
John is striking the table. 
8. The action as represented as about to happen 

( Cum ) 

U<S SeAgAn ] > An ClAip -co DUAUVO, 

(AP ct) 

John is about (is going) to strike the table. 
4. The action is represented as completed, as 
UA SeAgAn T)'6ip An CLAip -oo DUAtAt), 
John has just struck the table. 

Active Yoice, Autonomous Form. 
255. Each Tense has the following forms, corre- 
sponding exactly to those given in the preceding 

1. t)u Aitce Af\ AH clAp, 

Someone strikes the table. 


2. CAtAft A bUAlA-6 An 

Someone is striking the table. 


Someone is about to strike the table. 

4. C<itA|\ T>'ip An ClAip -DO 

Someone has just struck the table. 

256. Passive Voice, Ordinary Form. 

1. (This form is supplied by the Autonomous Active.) 

2. UA An clAp T)A (or A) 
The table is being struck. 

( Cum ) 

8. CA An clAn < Y A 

(A|\ ci) 

The table is about to be struck. 

4. UA An ctAfi 

The table has (just) been struck. 

257. Passive Yoice, Autonomous Form. 

bu <\ilce, 
Someone is struck. 

2. UACAJ\ 

Someone is being struck. 

f turn } 

3. CACAn ^ [ Geit bu Alice, 

W cij 

Someone is about to be struck 

4. CACA^ bUAilce, 

Someone has (just) been struck 


288. The Principal Parts of an Irish Verb are 

(1) The 2nd sing, of the Imperative Mood. 

(2) The 1st sing, of the Future Simple. 

(3) The Past Participle (also called the Verbal 

(4) The Verbal Noun. 

(a) The Imperative 2nd. pers. sing, gives the stem 
of the verb from which most of the other tenses and 
persons are formed. 

(6) The Future tells to what conjugation (first or 
second) the verb belongs, and gives the stem for the 

(c) The Past Participle shows whether c is aspi- 
rated or unaspirated in the following persons, which 
are formed from the past participle i.e.: 

Present, 2nd plural. 
Imperfect, 2nd singular. 


Imperative, Present, and Imperfect. 

Verbal noun. 
Gen. sing, and nom. plural. 

(d) With the Verbal Noun are formed the com- 
pound tenses. 


The four following types include all verbs belonging 
to the first conjugation : 

259. Principal Parts. 

Type. Impel. Future. P. Participle. Verbal Noun Meaning 

1. mol molpvo molCA tnotdf) praise 

2. peub peubpvo peubcd peubAt) burst or tear 

3. bu-Ail buAiljre.AT> bu^Uce buAUv6 strike 

4. j:6ij\ p6ippe.<yo jroipte poipicin help, succour 

N.B. No notice need be taken of the variation in 
form of verbal nouns, as the} 7 cannot be reduced to 
any rule, but must be learned for each verb. The 
ending At) or eAt> is that most frequently found, but 
there are numerous other endings. (See pars. 315 
and 316). 

260. (1) and (2) are the types for ail verbs oi' the 
first conjugation whose stem ends in a broad consonant; 
whilst (3) and (4) are the types for ihe verbs of the 
same conjugation whose stem ends iii a slender con- 

As the conjugations of types (2) and (4) are identical with those of 
types (1) and (3) respectively, except the aspiration of the c in the end- 
ings mentioned in par. 258 (c), we do not think it necessary to con- 
jugate in full the four types. We shall give the forms in modern use 
of the verbs mol and bu.\il, and then give a rule which regulates the 
aspiration of c in the Participle. (See par. 282). 



In tho following table the forms marked with an asterisk are not 
generally used in the analytic form. The forms in square brackets 
were used in early modern Irish, and are frequently met with in books. 
Alternative terminations are given in round brackets. 



1st. - 

2nd. mot, praise thou DuAil, strike thou 

3rd. moLdt) f 6, let him praise bu.Aile*y6 p 6 


ip (-Aimnp) llet us fbuxMlimip ( 

' (moUvm ) prase 

2. molArt, praise (you) 


3. 1 let them praise 


The negative particle for this mood is MA. 


Present Tense. 
8ING. l.*motAim, I praise *bAilim, I strike 

2. TttolAtp, &c. 

3. motAnn a p6 

PLUli. 1. moL<MtniT) (AtnuiT)) biuMlimiT) (-unit)) 

2. mol-Ann 


Relative form, ttloi^p 
Negative. rii rfioUim, 

,, til bt1.Alll|A, 

Interrogative. An mol-ann re ? 

An mbuAiUm? 

Neg. Interrog. me mou\u>? 


I do not praise. 

You do not strike. 

Does he praise ? 

Do I strike ? 

Do they not praise? 

mbuAiLeAnn pe ? Does he not strike? 


Imperfect Tense. 

SING. l.*riiotAinn, I used to praise ::: fciu\ 

<\, &c. 
3. riiou-o r-e" 

PLUB. 1. iriolAimip (-Am nip) 
2. molAO pit> 


Negative. Hi tiiolAinn, 


Interrogative. An 

An mbuAiLit)ip? 

Neg. Interrog. HAC tnol*Mnn? 

r)tuMlimip(or imip) 


I used not praise. 
He used not strike. 
Used you praise ? 
Used they strike ? 
Used I not praise ? 
Used I not strike ? 

264. Past Tense. 

SING. 1. tfiolAp, I praised 
2. rhotAip 
8. mot pfe 

t>UAil p6 


PLUR. 1. 

2. rholAbAjt 

8. tflOUVOAtt 


Negative. tliop riiolAp, 

11 ion buAil p 

Interrogative. AprholAip? 

<A|\ bUAttCAp 

Neg. Interrog. mj\ rhoi pe? 

I did not praise, 
He did not strike. 
Did you praise? 
Did I strike ? 
Did he not praise ? 

11 AH OuAileAnu\p? Did \ve not strike ? 


Future Tense. 

SING. 1. molpA'o, I shall praise 
2. molpAtp, thou wilt praise 

PLUR. 1. molp^imit) (-Am nit)) 
2. tnolp.An!> pio" 

Relative form. rholp<\p 
Autonomous. motpAj\ c 
Negative. tit itioipAT), 

Hi tiiAiipiii pe, 

Interrogative. An motpAi-o pe ? 

An mbuAilp.e<vo? 

Neg. Interrog. 

pit) 6 

I shall not praise. 
He will not strike. 
Will he praise ? 
Shall I strike? 
Will you not praise ? 
Will they not strike? 


266. Conditional or Secondary Future. 

SING. 1. rholpMtin, I would praise 

PLUR. 1. ttiotjMimir 

2. moLp^t) po buAitpeAt) ptt 



Negative. tli rholpo^mn, I would not praise. 

ni DuAiLpexi, You would not strike 

Interrogative. An molpA, Would you praise ? 

An mbuAilpeA-O p6, Would he strike? 

Neg. Interrog. rue motpAt) p6? Would he not praise? 

Would we not strike? 

267. Present Tense. 

SING. 1. mOtAt) 

2. moLAip 

3. moUxit) 

PLUR. 1. tnolAimi-o C-^muTo) bwAiUmlx) (-imro) 

2. rnoUAi* pb a 


The negative particle is n-Ap, which always aspirates 
when possible. 


268. Past Tense. 

SING. 1. mot iinn ou AI linn 

3. molA-6 fe 

PLUR. 1. molAitnff (Atruitf) buAilinvf (-imif) 

o. molAT!) fib buAileA'O/ fib 


' (moUVOAOIf 

Autonomous, molc,\oi 
Verbal Noun. molA* 
Verbal Adj. mole A 

The Present Tenses. 

269. The Present Tense is always formed by adding 
Aim, Aip, &c., to the stem when the last vowel is 
broad ; if the last vowel is slender add im, ip, eAnn, 
fcc. The last syllable of the first person plural is 
often pronounced rapidly e.g., molAirun-o (mul'-a- 
mwid), cperoimi-o (k'red 'inaid) ; but in the South of 
Ireland this syllable is lengthened, tnotAimit) (mul'- 
a-meed), cperoimro (k'red'-imeed). Verbs of more 
than one syllable ending in 15 add mit), not imi-o, in 
the .first person plural of this tense. 

270. In Ulster the ending mun> of the first person plural is verj 
often separated from the verb, and used instead of the pronoun pnn 
as Connate mvnx> e. We saw him ; Connate j-e muix>. He saw us. 
On no account ahould this corruption be imitated by the student. 


27i. The old form of the third person singular 
ended in Art or 1-6, and the analytic forms found in 
books, and sometimes in the northern dialect, are got 
from this form : as motAi* rinn, we praise. 

272. The analytic form is not usually found in the 
first person singular of this tense, nor is the synthetic 
form often used in the second person plural. 

The Imperfect Tense. 

273. The initial consonant of this tense is usually 
aspirated in the active voice, when possible. 

The termination ATI or e<v6 in the 3rd sing, of this tense, as also in 
the Imperative and Conditional, is pronounced AC, or AHI. 

274. When none of the particles ni, ATI, tiAC, &c., 
precede the Imperfect Tense, -oo may be used before it. 
This T)O may be omitted except when the verb begins 
with a vowel or p. The compound particles, niop, Ay, 
n ^P> 5 U F> CA V> & c -> can never be used with the Imper- 
fect Tense. 

275. Whenever the word "ivould" is used in English 
to describe what used to take place, the Imperfect 
Tense, not the Conditional, is used in Irish, as 

He would often say to me. 1p mmtc A-oeipe-dt) p6 Horn. 

The Past Tense. 

276. In the Past Tense active voice the initial con- 
sonant of the verb is aspirated. The remark which 


has just been made with regard to the use of T>O 
before the Imperfect Tense applies also to the Past 

In the Autonomous form -oo does not aspirate, but 
prefixes ti to vowels. 

277. With the exception of the aspiration of the 
initial consonant, the third person singular of this 
tense is exactly the same as the second person singular 
of the Imperative (i.e., the stem of the verb). 

278. The particle formerly used before the Past 
Tense was po. It is now no longer used by itself, but 
it occurs in combination with other particles. 

The most important of these compounds are : 

(1) Ap, whether (An +po). AptunMlre? Did he strike? 

(2) gup, that (50+1*0). "Oeip r^ 5 u r tttiAileAf e. 

He says that 1 struck 

(3) C4|\, where (c^-r-po). CAJ\ ce.<vrmui$ir ^n C^PAU? 

Where did you buy the 

(4) fflun<xp, unless (rnunA ttlun^p t>UAil f6, unless 

+ po). he struck. 

(5) tliop, not (ni+po). Tliop Cpeit> p6. He did not 


(6) tlxxp or n<J6Af\, whether VUjv cpeiT) fe? Did he not 

...not. believe? 


(7) TXSp, to whom (T>O, to-*- An pe^p -o.Ap e<Ml.*r mo 

a+po). le-AO^f. The man to 

whom 1 promised my 

(8) tep, by or with which An rriAi-oe lep bu^ile^t) 6, 

(te+4-hpo). The stick with which 

they beat him (or he 
was beaten). 

279. The compounds of po aspirate. These com- 
pounds are used with the Past Tense of all verbs 
except the following : pxMb, was ; cug, gave or 
brought; pug, bore; F.JC.A, saw; cxSinig, came; pu.Aip, 
found, got; t>eAC.Ait>, went; r>e^r\A, made or did. 

The compounds of jio are used in some places before cug and 

N.B, "OeACxMt) and -oe^pnA are used instead of 
Cux\tt> and pmne after negative and interrogative 
particles. Instead of -oe<\e<M-6 and -oe^pnA, Ciuit) and 
t>em (bin) are used in Munster. 

The Future Tense and Conditional. 
280. All the inflections of the Future and Condi- 
tional in the nrst conjugation begin with the letter j:, 
which in the spoken language is generally pro- 
nounced like "h." This "h" sound combines with 
the letters b, t> and 5 (whenever the stern ends in 
these) changing them in sound into p, c, c, respec- 


is usually pronounced k'ret'-udh 
p,\5j.vvo fau'-kudh 

I'SluobpA-o ,, ,, shgree-pudh 

N.B. p is sounded in the second sing. Conditional 
active and in the Autonomous form. 

281. The particle -oo, causing aspiration, may be 
used before the .Conditional when no other particle 
precedes it. 

Note that the terminations of the Imperative Mood, 
the Imperfect Tense, and the Conditional are almost 
the same, excepting the letter p of the latter. 

Rule for the Aspiration of U of Past Participles. 

282. The U of the past participle is generally 
aspirated except after the letters "O, tl, U, I, S, t, 

"0, C, and (in verbs of one syllable) 5. 

There is a great tendency in the spoken language 
not to aspirate the c in all verb inflexions after con- 
sonants : e.g., CUSCA, cugCAn, oei^ceAf, etc. 

283. This participle cannot be used like the English 
participle to express action. He was praised is gene- 
rally mo l At> e ; very seldom oi r-e molCA. The Irish 
participle has always the force of an adjective denoting 
the complete state, never the force of an action in 

284. After ir- the Past Participle denotes what is 
proper or necessary, as, Tli mote A -onic e. He is not to 
be praised by you. This form, called the Participle 
of Necessity, should probably be regarded as distinct 


from the ordinary past participle, as it may occur in 
verbs which have no past participle, e.g. : 

"1r- oeirmn nA<i opuil -oume nAC beitce "66 A\\ 
coimeA-o o[un." " It is certain that there is no person 
who loill not have to be on his guard against me." 
(Letter of Se^n T16ill, 1561.) "UuigteAp Af An 
rgeul, nA6 beitce -oo neAC x>ul i n-eu-oOCAf." It 
may hence be learned that it is not proper for anyone 
to fall into despair, tli beitce AS A feunA* ( or 
simply, ni feunc^). It must not be denied. Here 
beitce is the Participle of Necessity of the verb bi- 

283. DeriYatiYe Participles. 

lon-rholtA in-jveubtA lon-toUAilce ion-fr6ipte 


286. The prefix ion- or in- denotes what is proper or 
fit to be done: as ion-mote^, fit to be praised, deserv- 
ing of praise. 

The prefix fo- denotes what is possible or easy to do: 
as f o-peubtA, capable of being burst, easy to burst. 

287. The prefix -oo- denotes what is impossible or 
difficult to do: as -oo-buAitce, incapable of being 
struck, hard to strike. 

288. These derivative participles seem to be formed 
rather from the genitive of the verbal noun than from 
the participle : as pAg^it, finding. 

, easily found. -OO-^A$AIA. hard to find. 

19. Declension of Verbal Noun. 




Gen. tnotca molAt) (mole A) 

Dat. molAt) molCAiD 

Nom. ) 

> t>UAlAt> btMilr.e 

Ace. ) 

Gen. bu Alice DUAIA-O (buAilce) 

Dat. buAlAt) tniAilcib 

290. Many verbal nouns are seldom or never used 
in the plural. As a rule the genitive singular of the 
verbal noun is identical in form with the past parti- 
ciple; but many verbal nouns are declined like ordi- 
nary nouns: nearly all those ending in ACC, Ail, and 
AriiAin belong to the 3rd declension e.g., g^Ail, act 
of taking; gen., JA&AIA: fit, running; gen. 
leAtiArhAin, act of following; gen. leAnArhtiA: 
act or walking; gen. pufrail: F^f ac ^ of growing; 
gen. pAir-, &c. 


291. The second conjugation comprises two classes 
of verbs (1) derived verbs in 1$ or uig; and (2) 
syncopated verbs. 

292. Syncopated verbs are those in which tb.e vowel 
in the final syllable of the stem is omitted when any 
termination commencing with a vowel is added : as UvB<Aip, 
speak; tAbfUMtn (not u\b<MfMtn), I speak. Verbs of 
more than one syllable whose stem ends in a, in, if\. 
ip, ing, belong to this class 

293. Principal Parts. 

1. bAilig bAileoCxvo bAilite bAiLiuj^-O gather 

2. ce4nnui ceAnn6Cvo ceAnninjte ceAnn^C buy 

294. Except in the Future and Conditional, all verbs 
in 15 and ui$ are conjugated like buAit (first conjuga- 
tion), except that the c is aspirated in all terminations 
beginning with that letter. It is, therefore, necessary 
to give only the Future and Conlitional in full. 

295. Future. 


1. bAileoCAt), I shall gather, ceanndcat), I shall buy 

2. baite<5C<Mf\, 

3. bAile6CAit> pe, 


2. l)<MLe6<iAi-t) pib, 

3. b<MleO(i<Mt), 


296. Conditional. 


1. rjAite6CAinn, I would gather. 6eAnn6CAinn. 

2. t><Mle6<itA, 

8. DAile6<i.At> f6, 





297. In early modern usage, when the stem ended in -uij, preceded 
by T>, n, r, t, or p, these consonants were usually attenuated in the 
Future and Conditional : as Ajroui5, raise, future AijvoeocA-o; fAtuij, 
soil, future fAiteocAt); but nowadays AJVOOCA-O, pAtocAX), &c., are 
the forms used. 

Syncopated Verbs. 

298. The personal endings of syncopated verbs vary 
somewhat according as the consonant commencing the 
last syllable of the stem is broad or slender. 

Type (1). Stems in which the last syllable commences 
with a broad consonant* as yu^SAip (pSsAip), proclaim. 

Type (2). Stems in which the last syllable commences 
icith a slender consonant, as 001511, spare. 

* A few of these take ce in past participle ; as ofjAil, open, 
orjAiice; ceAnjAiL, bind, ceAnsAilce. The parts of these verbs 
[258 c.] which are formed from the past participle will, of course, 
have slender terminations, e.g., o'or-jiAilceA, you used to open. 


299 In early modern usage the Future is formed by lengthening 
the vowel sound of the last syllable of the stem from AI or i to eo. In 
the case of Type 1 the broad consonant which commences the final 
syllable of the stem ruust be made slender. Examples: mnif, 
inneop-vo, / shall tell; t>ibi|i, -oibeotiAiji, you will banish; \rniy, 
inieojijLi-o pe, he will play; 00151!, coi5eot<vo, I shall spare ; puAjAip, 
puAijeopAix), they ic'iU proclaim; x>'puAi5eo|u\T> pe, he would pro- 
cltiim; co-OAil, coi-oeolA-o, / nhall sleep ; coix>eolAinn, I would sleep. 

300. In the present-day usage the Future stem is 
formed as if the verb ended in i or ui$ : by adding 
-6C in Type 1 and -eoC in Type 2. 

801. Principal Parts. 

Imperative. Future. Participle. V. Noun. 

Type (1). 


Type (2). 001511 coi5le6C<vo co^ilce 


BING. 1. 

2. FUAgxiip, proclaim 001511, spare 

8. pUAgf At) f6 coigleA* f6 

PLUB. 1. yuAgpAitnif coisLimip 

2. pu^gjVAit) coi 511-6 

8. fUASpAI'Olf (-AT)AO1f) 



304. Present Tense. 

BING. 1. pu<\5p<Mm, I proclaim coigtim, I spare 
2. pu-AgpAip coigltp 

8. pu.\5]VAnn pe a coigleAnn 6 p 

PLUR. 1. fUASp-Aitni-o coiglimit) 



305. Imperfect Tense. 

SING. 1. T>'p.UA5p.Ainn CoigUnn 

3. x>'p.UA5pAt> p6 CoigleAt) p<5 

PLUB. 1. T>'ptu\5pAimip toigLJtnip 
2. "o'pu^gp^t) pili 

8. t>'fU4g|t4it>ff (-t)AOlp) 

Autonomous. ptiA5<\pcAoi coigiLci 

306. Past Tense. 

SING. 1. 


PLUB. 1. 



307. Future Tense. 






Relative Form. 

303. Conditional. 

STNG. 1. 

PLUR. 1. 


Present Tense. 

oING. 1. puA5ft<vo coijtexvo 

'2. puAgpAip coigtijt 

3. pUAgJVAITf) f6 COIgilTp |6 

PLUR. 1. pu^gpAinii-o coi^Limix) 

2. piM5|\Ait) fib 001511-6 pib 



310. Past Tense. 

SING. 1. UA5jvAinn coigtinn 

8. puAgpAt) f6 coi^leA-ft 

PLUB. 1. 



311. Past Participle and Participle of Necessity. 

812. Compound Participles. 

813. Verbal Nouns. 



NOM. -j 

4cc. } c 151tc 
GEN. 00151 ice 


31*. In stems of Type (2) ending in p, the Participle is usually in 
the form CAJICA, not i|tce, as -oi'bip, banish : T>\beA\\i&, banished; 
iTni|i, play; imeAficA, played. 

The endings formed on the participle [see par. 258 c.] follow this 
change, e.g., Imperfect 2nd singular, x>ibeAtic.\ ; Present Anton., 


315. General Rules for the formation of Verbal 

(a) As a general rule verbs of the first conjugation 
form their verbal noun in A-O, if the final consonant 
of the stem be broad ; in e.A-6, if it be slender, as 

oun, shut T) tin At) 

mitt, destroy milted 

mot, praise moU\-6 

t6i$, read teie<vo. 

(6) When the last vowel of the stem is i preceded 
by a broad vowel, the i is usually dropped in the 
formation of the verbal noun, as 

buAit, strike t>u<xtAt> 

001$, burn 
501 n, wound 
bj\iii$, bruise 

The 1 is not dropped in 
, lament 
, loose 
, reflect 

(c) Verbs of the second conjugation ending in in, 
it or ip generally form their verbal noun by adding 
c, as 

oibip , banish oibipc 

cof Am, defend cor-Ainc 

LAb-Aip, speak 

coigit, spare 

126 . 

(d) Derived verbs ending in ui form their verbal 
noun by dropping the i and adding ^-6 ; as, .iivouij, 
raise, Ajvou$At>. 

(e) Derived verbs in 15 form their verbal noun by 
inserting u between the i and $ and then adding xvo ; 
as mini, explain, mimug<\t>. 

316. There are, however, many exceptions to the 
above rules. The following classification of the modes 
of forming the verbal noun will be useful. 

(a) Some verbs have their verbal noun like the 
stem, e.g., p^r-, grow; 61, drink; pit, run; pi^ni, 
swim, &c. 

(Z>) Some verbs form their verbal noun by dropping 
1 of the stem, e.g., cuip, put or send, cup; coirs, check, 
cease, f5p; 5"il, weep, gul, &c. 

(c) Some verbs add AriixMn or e^rh^m to the stem to 
form their verbal noun, e.g., CAilt, lose, 

cpeiT), believe, Cf\eiT>e.Atti<Mti(c); v^ n . stay, 
lean, follow, LeAnAitiAin(c) ; f5A|\, separate, 
<\m(c), &c. 

In the spoken language c is usually added to the classical termina- 
tion -Amain. 

(d) A few add AD or e-^n for the verbal noun, e.p., 
, knock down, teA5^n ; leig, let or permit, l^ige^n ; 

abandon, cp6i;5e<\n; ceitg, throw or cast, 


(e) A few add <\rh ore-Atfi, e.g., fex\r, stand, re.Af.Arh ; 
cAit, spend, consume, c-Aitex\rh ; T>eun, do or make, 
oeun^rh (or -oeuiiAt)) ; peit, wait, yeite^rh. 

(/) A small number end in Ait or $Ait, as 5^0, take v 
gADAil ; JM, find, jMjAil ; pig, leave, p<.\5<Ml '> pevo, 
whistle, pexyojAil. 

A fairly full list of irregular verbal nouns is given 
in Appendix V. 


317. In Old and Middle Irish the conjugation of verbs was very 
complex, but by degrees the varieties of conjugations became fewer, 
and nearly all ve>-bs came to be conjugated in the same way. At the 
commencement of the modern period (i.e., about the end of the 
sixteenth century) about fifteen verbs in common use retained their 
old forms. These are now classed as irregular. Excepting occasional 
survivals of older forms, all the other verbs had by this time become 
regular ; so that from the stem of the verb it was possible in nearly 
every instance to tell all its forms except tha verbal noun. 

During the modern period even the irregular verbs have, through 
the operation of analogy, shown a tendency to adopt the forms of the 
modern regular conjugations. 

, I AM. 

318. The correct spelling of this verb is undoubtedly AC Aim, but 
long since it has lost its initial A, except when it occurs in the middle 
of a sentence, where it usually has a relative force. Some persons, by 
confounding this initial A, which really belongs to the verb, with the 
modern relative particle A, write the A separated from the CA: as A CA 
instead of ACA. 



319. bit-nip, let us be 
bi, be thou bitiit), let you be 
bio-6 fe, let him be bi-oir. let them be 

Autonomous, bfce^t\. 
The negative particle is n^. 

All the persons, except the 2nd sing., are often written as if fonnec 
from the spurious sfcein btx>: e.g., bix>eyo pe 


320. Present Tense Absolute. 



cairn, I am c-dimtt), we are 

CAi|\,* thou art cxi p'^, c*5c*oi, you are 

Cxi pe, h e is CAit), they are 

Autonomous, c^tAp 

Present Tense (Analytic Form). 
CA me, I am CA r inn > we ar Q 

CA cu, thou art CA pifj, you are 
Cv\ pe, he is c4 ptAT), they are 

321. Present Tense Dependent. 

puil pit> 

puit f 6 


* The early modern form, viz., CAOI, is still used in Monster, e. 
Cionnuf CAOI ? (or Connu r c^o.'n cu ?) How arc you . 


Negatively. Interrogatively. Neg. Interrog 

I am not, &c. Am I, &c. Am I not, &c. 
ni fruititn An bjruilim 

ni f uilip AH bpuilip nAC 

ni uit, f6 An bj:uil f6 nAC 

ni puiltnit) AH bjruiUniT) nAC 

ni fruit f 10 An G^uil po nA<b ttpuil f iO 

ni fruilit) An DjruiliT) nAC opuilTO 
The analytic forms are like those given above ; as, 
n.i uil riAt), nAC t>puil cu, &C. 

322. Habitual Present. 


t>im (oi-oim) ttnii-o 

t)if (bfoip) bionn f itt, biti 

bionn f 6 (bit) f 6, bit)6Ann f 6) bro (bit)iT)) 
Negatively, ni bim, &c. Interrogatively, An mbim, &o, 
Neg. Interrog., nA6 rnbim, &c. 
Relative form t>ior 

823. Imperfect Tense (7 used to be). 


DO binn (-00 bit)inn) T>O bimip (onJmff) 
biteA ( Cit)teA) biot) pb 
biot) fe ( bit)6At)re) t>i-oif (bit)-oir) 
Autonomous, bici 
Negatively, ni binn 

Interrogatively, An in binn ? 
Neg. interrog. nAC rnbinn "> 


324. Past Tense. 


oo biop (bnteAf) *oo bionuAf. 

bip (bit>ir) OiobAp (bit>eAbAp) 

t>i p6 bioT>Ap., 

AutonDiaous, bfce^p 



Negative, ni f^GAf, ni tuxtAir, ni JVAIO f6, &c. 

Interrogatively (Was I? etc.). 

An |VAt)Aif An p<MG pe An fuxtMrtiAjv, ifec. 

Neg. interrog. (Was I not? <c.). 

j &C. 

326. Future Tense. 


eAT3 (beit)eAD) b6imi-o, beimit) 

beip, l>eip (beit)ip) b6tt) pb, beiti 

), bei-6 r^ b6it>, beit) 

Relati'/e Form, beAp, beAf (beit>eAp) 


Negatively, ni 

Interrog., ATI 

Ne^. Interrog., nA 

327. Secondary Future or Conditional. 

Autonomous, t>eit>j:T, t>eiti 

Negative, ni 

Interrog., An 

Neg. interrog., n^ 


Present Tense. 

50 pAftAT) 50 pAbmtMT) 

gO JlAftAlp gO f\Alb fib 

jgO JVA1b f-6 50 JVAbAlt) 

The negative particle for this tense is n4: as, 
T\s |\Aib mAit AJAC. No thanks to you. 

329. Past Tense. 

50 mbfrm 50 mbfmif 

50 mbiteA 50 mbio-6 fir) 

50 mbio-6 f 50 mbit)i|* 

The negative partiole is nAp. 

Autonomous Form. 

i ! may (they) bo ! (for once). 
141 ' ,, ,, (generally). 


Verbal Noun. 

t>eit, to be. 

330. Phrases containing the Verb Noun 
1f pei-oif tiom (A)* tieic I can be, &c. 
tli pel-Dip Horn (A) tteic 
Uis leAC (A) tteit 
fli tig leAC (A) t>eit 
CAitpt) f6 oeic 
CAitp-6 me t>eic 
Hi putAip 50 f AID cti 1 
1f cor-riiAit 50 tvAio cu f 
tliop ft'^ei-oin nO t>i cu i 
Hi coprhAil 50 |v<MD rn6) 
C |tAiti m6 j 
(A) teit 

Hi c6i|\ -ouic (A) Deit 
Du-6 C6if "66 t>eit 

(A) tieit 

I cannot be, &c. 
You can be, &c. 
You cannot be, &c 
He must b^, &c. 
I must be, &L. 

You must have been, &c. 

I must not have been, &c. 

I ought to be. 

You ought not to be. 

He ought to have been. 

I ought not to have been. 
Du-6 rhAic Uom (A) tteit Ann I wish I were there. 
t)A rhAit itom 50 JVAID m6 I wish I had been there. 

"CS, f6 te 

He is to be there. 

331. The forms puilim and p AttAf are used 
(1) After the particles ni, not ; CA, where ? AH (or 
A), whether? 50, that; and nAC or nA, that (con j.)... not. 

This A is usually beard in the spoken language 


(2) After the relative particle A, when it is preceded 
by a preposition, after the relative A when it means 
" what," "all that," "all which," and after the negative 
relative nA, who... not, which... not. CA 
re? Where is it? Mi puii A fiop ^5^. I don't 
know. "C& pop A^Am TIA puit fe Ann. I know it is 
not there. "Oein fe 50 Optui fe flAti. He says that 
he is well. Sin e An ^QA\(. n^C o-puit -AS obAifi. That 
is the man who is not working. 'OuttAipc re 
-Ann. He told me he was not there. 

332. We sometimes find the verb j:uil eclipsed after 
the negative ni, not ; as, n! Opuii re he is not 

For the use of the Relative Form refer to pars. 

333. The position of a verb in an Irish sentence 
is at the very beginning; hence, when a word 
other than the verb is to be brought into pro- 
minence, the important word is to be placed in 
the most prominent position viz., at the begin- 
ning of the sentence, under cover of an unemphatic 
impersonal verb. There is no stress on the verb so 
used; it merely denotes that prominence is given to 
some idea in the sentence other than that contained 
in the verb. There is a similar expedient adopted in 
English: thus, "He was speaking of you," and, "It 


is of you he was speaking." In Irish there is 8 
special verb for this purpose, and of this verh there 
are forms to be used in principal clauses and forms to 
be used in dependent clauses e.g. : 

1f rmfe An feAf. I am the man. ' 
X) gup Ab 6 SeAgAn An peAf\. I say John is the 

334. Forma of the Assertive Verb. 

(a) In Principal Sentences. 
Present Tense, if. Relative, if or Af . 
Past Tense, bA. 

[Future Simple, but). Relative, buf]. 
Secondary Future or Conditional, bA-6. 
Subjunctive, Ab ; sometimes bA. 
Subjunc. Pres. (ivith 50) 50 mt>A, 5f.Ab; ( w ^ 

HA) tiA'HAb, nAjvA. 

Subjunc. Past. -DA mbAt>, " if it were." 
335. Present Tenso. 

if me", I am ; or, it is I. if firm, we are, it is we. 
if cu, thou art, it is you. if fib, you are, it is you. 

if e\ he is, it is he. ., . ,, 

if i AT), they are, it is they. 
if i, she is, it is she. 

335. Past Tense. 

I>A me, I was. it was I. 

bA to, thou wast, &c. 

oob' 6, b' 6, bA ti-6, he was, &c. 

oob' i, b' i, bA n-i "she was, &c. 

bA finn, we were, &c. 

bA fib, you were, &c. 
t>ob' iAT), b' 1A-D, bA ti-iAT> they were, <Sco. 


Du-6 or ftuf is never used in the spoken language, 
and scarcely ever in writing, except when a super- 
lative adjective or adverb occurs in a sentence, the 
verbs of which are in the Future Tense. 

337. In the Present Tense the verb 1S is omitted 
after all particles except tTIA, if: as, 1f me An f.eA|\. 
I am the man ; Hi m6 An ?e&]\. I am not the man. 

338. In the Past Tense t)A is usually omitted after 
particles when the word following t>A begins with a 
consonant: as, Ap mAit leAC AH AIC? Did you like 
the place? TUp OCAS An UJA e? Was it not a small 
price? I)A is not usually omitted when the following 
word begins with a vowel or f, but the A is elided: 
as, tliop b' 6 fin ATI fAgAjxc. That was not the priest. 
Notice that the word immediately after DA or OA-O, 
even when DA or bAt> is understood, is usually aspi- 
rated when possible. 

(6) In Dependent Sentences. 

339. Present Tense. Ab is used instead of if after 
Sup, meaning " that "; as, meAf Aim stifiAb e fin An 
peA^. I think that is the man. Before a consonant AD 
is usually omitted ; as, -oeifA fe guf. mipe An peAjv He 
says that I am the man. Ab is always omitted after 
nAC, that... not. SAOitim nAC e fin An j\i. I think that 
is not the king. 

340. Past Tense. The word b.\ or bAt> becomes t>' 
in dependent sentences and is usually joined to the 


particle which precedes it. When the following word 
begins with a consonant the t>' is usually omitted. 
TneAf\Aim 5ut\b 6 peo An ceAC. I think that this was 
the house; meAfAnn pe nAfv riiAit te TliAlt t>eit Annpo. 
He thinks that Niall did not like to be here. xXn 
meApAnn cti gup iliAit An pgeul 6 ? Do you think 
that it was a good story ? 

341. Conditional. In dependent sentences bA or 
bAt> becomes mbA. SAoilim 50 IDDA riiAit teif -out 
teAC. I think he would like to go with you. T)eif\ p e 
nAC mbA rhAit teif. He says that he would not like. 
In the spoken language the tendency is to use the past 
tense forms in dependent sentences ; hence Irish 
speakers would say gup rhAit in the above sentence 
instead of 50 mbA riiAit, and HAJ\ rhAit instead of nAC 
mbA rhAit. 

The Future is never used in dependent sentences 
in the spoken language. 

Dem, BEAR or CARRY. 

342. Principal Parts. 

Imperative. Future. Participle. Verbal Noun. 

beirt beuripAT) bei|\ce bpeit 

This verb is conjugated like buAil, except in the 
Past, Future and Conditional. 

343. Past Tense. 

fugAf, fugAif , &c., like molAr (par. 264). 

The prefixes -oo and jio were not used before this Past Tense in 
early usage and not generally in present-day usage. 



, &c., like mot^'o (par. 265). 

In early modern usage there was no p in this Tense, or in the Con- 
ditional. The rule was that when a short vowel in the Present 
became long in the Future stem 110 p was added. This rule is still 
observed in the Futures ending in -OCAT> or -eoc<vo. 


beunpAinn, &c., like rhotpAirm (par. 266). 

Verbal Noun bpeic, gen. bpeite or beipte. 
355. This verb is of very frequent use in the idiom 
"beijA A|\"; lay hold on, catch, overtake', e.g., JUI^A-D 
optn, I was caught. tti fruit topeit Aip. Tliereisno 
laying hold on him (or it). 


Principal Parts. 

Future. Participle. 

Verbal Noun. 







847. Present Tense. 


SING. 1. COQ-) tieifMtn 

2. (t)O-) t>ei]Mf\ 

8. (T>O 

PLUB. 1. Coo-) rjewtnit) 
2. (T)O-) 
8. (T>O-) 

&c. (like motAim), raay be used in both 

Autonomous, Coo-)tteifvueAf\, cxxb^f i*\|\ or CUSCAJ;. 

348. By the " Dependent Form " of the Verb we 
mean that form which is used after the following 
Particles, viz., ni, not; An, whether; nA6, whether... 
not; or who, which or that... not; 50, that; c<\, where, 
munA, unless; T>A, if; and the relative when governed 
by a preposition. 

349. Imperfect Tense. 


&c., like ttuAitirm (262) (805) 

Or, tugAinn, tu^tA, <fec., for both absolute and 

dependent constructions. 


Past Tense. 

350. The Past Tense has only one form: 
CugAif, &c., like r;i3tAf (264). Auton CUSA-O. 

In early usage this Past Tense did not take T>O or jto, as. 
50 o-tujAf, "that I gave." In present-day usage this peculiarity ia 
sometimes adhered to and sometimes not. 

331. Future Tense. 


&C., C1U&JUMf\, 

like molp<vo (265) ciut>jvAit> fe 

CAbAIApyo, &c., may be used in both constructions. 

Autonomous, l>eufvp.At\ CAt>A|\jMp 
352. Conditional. 

, ciot>f\Airm 

like rholp<Mnn (266) &c. 

inn, &c., may be used in both COD ^ructions. 


This Mood occurs only in dependent construction. 

353. Present cusxvo, cugxMp, cug^it) fe, &c., or 

CAbpAT), CAt)pA1|\, &C. 

354. Past cugAinn, &c., like molAinn (268). 

Verbal Noun. 

, gen. 


585. At)A1Tl, SAY. 

Principal Parts. 

Imperative. Future. . Partiriule. Verbal Noun, 





357. Present Tense. 



3. (^)-oeif or oeipeAtin f 6 .\bf\Ann p 6 

The initial A of Atjeiftim, <tc., is now usually dropped. The same 
remark holds for the other tenses. The t> of -oei|tim, &c., is not 
usually aspirated by a foregoing particle. The absolute and dependent 
constructions are sometimes confused in spoken usage. 

358. Imperfect Tense. 



&c. &c. 

Autonomous, <voeit\ci 


Past Tense. 


Future Tense. 

f 6 
Autonomous, o&AppAp 

In the spoken language the absolute and dependent forms are often 

361. Conditional. 


In spoken language the two constructions are often confused. 





f 6, &c. 
fe, &c. 


Yerbal Noun. 

, gen. sing, and norn. plur. 


5At>, TAKE. 
364. Principal Parts. 

Imperative. Future. Participle. Verbal Noun, 

This verb is regular except iu the Future and Con- 

363. Future. 

5eot>AT), geoDAip, geotJAit) f6, &c. 

366. Conditional. 

, &c. 

367. In the spoken language the Future is often made 546^4-0, &c, t 
and the Conditional, 546 p AMI n, as in regular verbs. 

Verbal Noun. 
or s^O-dl, gen. sing, and nom. plural 

368. Principal Parts. 

Imperative. Future. Participle. Verbal Noun. 



2. pA$ 



370 Present Tense. 




Autonomous, (T>O-) 

In spoken usage pAJAim, &c., is used in both dependent and 
absolute constructions. 

In the Auton. f ASCAII, fAigceAti and pAcc^tt are used. 

371. Imperfect Tense. 


(oo-) geitnrm 

&c. &c. 

Autonomous, Jeittt?, PA$CAO 

Spoken usage, Absolute, jeiftinn or pAJAinn, &o. 

372. Past Tense. 

This Tense has only one form for both absolute and dependent con- 
structions. The prefixes -oo and |to are not used with it. 






In spoken usage pt^c often becomes 

373. Future Tense. 


1. geofrAT), jeAtt-AT) ttpuigeA-o or 

2. eot>Aip, &c. &Ft"$ip 

8. geottAit) re ftpuigit) f6 


8. geottxM-o t>pui$i-o 


374. Conditional. 


JjeOOxMnn or ge.Ati.Ainn ttptnginn or 

&c. tipuigteA, &c. 

f6 bpuigeA-o f 6 

Autonomous, SeoW<si 

Present, ^A-O, ^$Ai|t, pA$Aii6 r6. & c . 
Past, f.A$Ainn, p^gcA, pAgA-o f6, &c. 

376. Participle. 

^A$CA, pAijce or JMCCA. 

The derivative participles of this verb are usually 
formed from the genitive of the verbal noun. 


377. "Oeutl, DO, MAKE. 

Principal Parts. 

Imperative. Future. Participle. Verbal Noun. 

oeun -neunpvo -oeuncA 


2. -oeun oeun.Ai'6 

8. -oeun-Aift f6 
Autonomous, -oeuncAt\. 

379. Present Tense. 


1. CDO-) gnirn (jnitwn) "oeunAim 

2. $nif\ &c. 

3. ni f6 or gnionn 

1. gnimit) oeunAimi'o 

2. jnitl "oeunAnn fi 

3. S' 1 '' 
Relative, gniop, 
Autonomous, $nice^t\ 

In present-day usage -oeunAtm, &c., are very frequently used in the 
Absolute construction. 

880. Imperfect Tense. 



jo-jninn, mt)inn 


gniteA, &c. 


gnio-6 r^ 

oeunA* f6 



gnio-0 fi 

oeutixvti fib 

Autonomous, " 
381. Past Tense. 

Autonomous, oo 

In Munster dialect -oeineAf, -oeinif, -oein fe, -oeineAmAii, 
oeitie-dbAft, and 6e*neA'OAii are used as the Past Tense in both 
absolute and dependent constructions. 

882. Future Tense. 



383. Conditional. 





"oeunAMt) pe 


, &c. 
, &c. 


Verbal Noun. 
t>eunx\rh (-oeunAt)) gen. -oeuncA 


j?eic, SEE. 


Principal Parts. 

Future. Participle. 


( Cipe^vo 

Verbal Noun. 




1. peicimip ( 

2. peic peicit) 
8. peicexv6 f6 peicit)if 

387. The imperative 2nd sing, and 2nd plural are hardly ever 
found; for we rarely command or ask a person to "see" anything, 
except in the sense of "look at " it. In Irish a distinct verb is always 
used in the sense of "look at,'' such as peuc, t>e.dfic, bfteAcnuij;, &c. 
The verb feuc must not be confounded with pete; it is a distinct 
verb, and has a complete and regular conjugation. 

388. In early modern Irish JMIC was the stem used in the impera- 
tive and in the dependent construction throughout the entire verb. 



Present Tense. 


1. T>o-(iim (Citnm) peicitn 

2. oo-Cip, &c. peici|\ 

3. t)o-6i fe, Ciorm fe peiceAnn f6 
1. oo-titniT) feicimro 

'2. -oo-Citi peicexMin fib 



390. The prefix t>o-, now usually dropped, is an altered form of the 
old prefix AC e.g., Accim. This form survives in the spoken Ian- 
guage only in the Ulster form, 'cfm or cix>im, &c. 

391. Imperfect Tense. 

oo-Cinn, Cit>mn petcmn 

, &c. 


In spoken language feicmn, *c., is used in both Absolute and 
Dependent constructions. 

Ulster usage, ci-oeatiTi, CI-OCCA, <J:o. 

392. Past Tense. 


(connAC (pACAp (peACAr 

1. (connAfCAp) r 

(connACAp (PACA (peACA 

2. connACAip (connApcAip) pACAip peACAip 
8. connAic pe (connAipc f 6) JMCA f 6 



Autonomous, conn CAP pACAp or 

The olJer spelling was AccontiAC and AcconnAjic, &c. The c is 
still preserved in the Ulster dialect: CAJIAIC me, &o., I saw. 

393. Future Tense. 

(T>o-)cipeAt), ci-opeA-o, peicpeAT), 

(oo-)Cipi|\, cit>pip, peicpij% 

&c. &c. 


394. Conditional. 

(-oo-)cipinn, cit>pinn, peicpinn, 

&c. &c. 

In the Future and Conditional peicpeAT), &c., and 
peicpinn, &c., can be used in both constructions. 

Present, peiceA-o, peicip, peicit) pe, &c. 
Past, peicmn, peicteA, peiceA-6 p6, &c. 

Participle, peicte. 


396. Verbal Noun. 

peicfinc, peipcinc, gen. 

From the genitive of the verbal noun the compound 

participles are formed: viz., m-jreiCfe^nA, fo-eic- 

397. CtOIS or cUntl, HEAR. 

These two verbs are quite regular except in the 
Past Tense. 

In old writings the particle AC or -oo- is found prefixed to all the 
tenses in the absolute construction, but this particle is now dropped. 

398. Past Tense. 


CUAl-A f 6 


Verbal Nouns. 

ctop or cLoifinc (or more modern ctuinpnc or 



SING. 1. PLUS- cigimfr 

2. c^ C1 5 1-0 



400. Present Tense. 

1. dsirn cij;inm> 

2. cigip cigti 
8. cig r<* 

Relative (wanting). 

The Present Tense has also the forms 
inflected regularly. 

401. , Imperfect Tense. 

Cigmn, t<\5<Miin, or teA^Ainn, regularly. 

402. Past Tense. 

403. Autonomous, 

The nj in this Tense is not sounded like 115 in Lonj, a, tihvp, but 
with a helping vowel between them e.g., 2nd pers. sing. is pro- 
nounced as if written cAnAgAir; but in Munster the 5 is silent except 
in the 3rd pers. sing. e.g., cAngAf is pronounced haw-nuss. 

404. Future Tense, aocpyo,&c., inflected regularly; 
also spelled ciucpvo, &c. 

Relative, tiocjMr 

Conditional, tiocpAinn, &c., inflected regularly. 



Present, cisexvo, C-ASXVO, or ce.A5<vo, inflected regu- 

Past, cisinn, CAgAinn, or ce.A5.dinn, inflected regu- 

406. Verbal Noun, CBACC (or ciot>A6c, 
Participle, ce^gtA or 

407. rl5, GO. 

N.B. The present stem is also spelled tei-6, bat ceij is preferable, 
as it better represents the older form, CIAJ or ceig. 



8. c^igeA* f6 

409. In the Imperative 2nd sing, and 2nd plur. other verbs are now 
usually substituted, such as 540, tmcij, reijtij. The use of cei|5, 
plur. ceititsi-6, seems to be confined to these two forms; imtij has a 
foil, regular conjugation. 

410. Present. 

1. c6i$im (ce"i-6im) 1. 

2. cSijip &c. 2. 
8. c6i$ r 6 ceigeAnn f 6 8. 



Imperfect Tense. 

teijmn (or t6it)irm), &c., regularly. 

411. Past Tense. 


1. ClKVOAf 

2. CUAt>A1f 

3. CuAit) r& t)e.A<iAi-6 




In Munster cuA-oAf, &c., is used in the dependent construction, as 
niop cuAi-6 fe, he did not go. "OeAJAf, &c., is also used in Munster. 

512. Future. 


1. fACAT), f AJAt) jiACAmAOI-O 

2. jVA^xMp, fAgxMp jtdCdlt) flO, 

3. f AC^it) f e, f^jxM-6 f6 



or fu\$Ainn, &c., regularly. 

The Future and Conditional aro sometimes spelled ji 
and p4cp Ainn, <&o. 



Present, ccM$eAt>, c6i$i|\, c6i$j* p6, &e. 
Past, ceijmn, ceigce-A, ceijexvo pe, &o. 

413. Verbal Noun. 

t)ut, gen. -OOUA (sometimes 

Participle of Necessity. 
T>uLCA (as, ni -oulCA t)6, he ought not to go). 

Derivative Participles. 
ton-'ooUx, fo-t)otx3i > 'oo-'OoUv. 

416. 1U, EAT. 

This verb is regular except in the Future and Con- 

Principal Parts. 

Imper. Future. Participle Verbal Noon. 

it iotwo itce iCe 

417. Future Tense. 


1. iopAT) (foppAt)) 

2. 1OpA1|\, &C. 

3. ioiMi-6 p6 iof AI-O 

Relative, iop^p (iopp^p). 

418. Conditional. 


1. iop^inn (iopp^inn) iopAtnAOip 

2. iopcxi, &c. lop^-O pit> 
8. iopA* f6 


419. As well as the regular Past Tense, -o'lte^f, &c., 
there is another Past Tense, viz., -ou^t)Af, in use. 


3. TUl-Alt) fe 

Tl15im, I REACH. 

420. This verb is nearly obsolete, its place being taken 
by the regular verbs n^oicim and 

Its Past Tense is inflected like 


421. Verbal Noun. 

foCc.Mn or fiACcxMn. 

tligim has a special usage in the phrase p i im A teAf , 
" I need" (whence, fiACcAn^f, need, necessity: pi^CcA- 
tiAC, necessary: from the verbal noun.) 

mAtlt)Aim or TTIATlt)tl15im, I KILL. 

422. This verb is quite regular except in Future 
and Conditional. 

Future, m^p6ft.<vo, mAft>(5CAt), tnAipeotiAt), tnAip- 
UeoCAt) or muipftpeAt) (with usual terminations). 
Conditional, rhAf6t)Ainn, rhAf\ti6CAinn, rhxMpeot>Ainn, 
or rhuipttpinn, &c., &c. 

Verbal Noun. 

or mxxr\t>u$At), to kill or killing. 


128. Atl, quoth, say or said. This verb is used 
only when the exact words of the speakar 
are given. (It corresponds exactly with 
the Latin "inquit.") It is frequently 
written A^FA or Af\p , as Aj\p A mife, said I. 
When the definite article immediately 
follows this latter form the f is often 
joined to the article, as, Apr An jreAp or AJI 
f AH peAp, says the man. " CIA tfi jre"m ?" 
Ap feipeAii. *' Who are you?" said he. 

When the exact words of the speaker 
are not given translate " says " by -oeip, 
and "said'' by outjAipc. When the word 
"that" is understood after the English 
verb "say" 50 (or HAC if "not" follows) 
must be expressed in Irish. 

424. "OAU, It seems or it seemed. This verb is 
always followed by the preposition le : 
as, -DAP tiom, it seems to me, methinks ; or, 
it seemed to me, methought. T)Ap LBAC. 
It seems to you. "OAp teip An ttpeAfl. It 
seemed to the man. 

423. jreA'OAK, I know, I knew. This verb is 
nearly always used negatively or inter- 
rogatively, and although really a past 
tense has a present meaning as well as a 


past. t1! feATMtt. I do, or did, not 
know. Hi peAT>Ai|\ f 6. He does not know, 
or he did not know. 

1. peATDAp 1. 

2. jreAT)]A.Air (-If) 2. 

3. peAtMip p6 8. 

N.B. The forms just given are those used in the 
jpoken language, the literary forms are: j:e<yodp, 
cu, peA-OAip f6, pe<voAtn,Att, peA-OAti-Ap, and 

426. UATltA, There came to pass, it happened or 

happened to be. It is also used to express 
the meeting of one person with another. 

427. D'fotJAIR or t>A t)Ot>Am, "It all but 

happened." E.g., -o'fxttMitA -OAm ctucim, 
It all but happened to me to fall, I had 
like to fall, I had well nigh fallen. The 
same meaning is expressed by -o'fr6bAi|\ 50 

428. jretTOAIttl, I can, is regular in all its tenses, 
but it has no imperative mood. 


The Adverb. 

429. There are not many simple adverbs in Irish, 
the greater number of adverbs being made up of two or 
more words. Almost every Irish adjective may be- 


come an adverb by having the particle " "^O " pre- 
fixed to it: as, m^ic, good; 50 mAit, well; urh^t, 
humble ; 50 ti-urhAt, humbly. 

430. This 50 is really the preposition 50* with its 
meaning of "with." (Do not confound this word 
with 50 meaning "to," they are two distinct preposi- 
tions). Of course this particle has now lost its 
original meaning in the case of most adverbs. 

431. Adverbs may be compared ; their comparative 
and superlative degrees are, however, those of the 
adjectives from which they are derived ; the particle 
50 is not used before the comparative or superlative. 

432. It may be well to remark here that when 
an adjective begins with a vowel 50 prefixes n, as 
50 h-Ann-Arii, seldom. 

433. The following list may now be regarded as 
simple adverbs although many of them are disguised 

Am AC out (used only after a verb of 


, ATTUHC outside, out; never used after a 

verb of motion. He is out, TA 
f 6 Amui. He is standing out- 
side the door, CA p e 'TIA 

* This preposition is now used only in a few phrases ; as mite 50 
teic, a mile and (with) a half : plac 5 teit, a yard and a half : 
bli-y6ain 50 leic 6 foin, a year and a half ago. 


,arh, AriiAc , , f.6f., yet. 

> however. , . 

Arht.dC, ) i in u* A, Amu, astray (mis- 


AfhAin, alone, only. irrae (Ane), yesterday. 

AriiAil, as, like. itroiu (An-oiu), to-day. 

, thus. i mbAfuxC (AtnAj\Ac), to- 


, to-night. ifceAC, in (motion only}. 

Anoif , now. 'f^S) inside (rest). 

, last night. 50 h-AnnArii, seldom. 

again. 50 poill, yet, awhile. 

CA ? where ? ni (niop), ) 

Ce^nxx, already, previously. CA (C^p), (Ulste.r),) 

conup ? cionnuf ? how? nu*xip, when. 

Corn, corn, as (see par. 154). CAtv\ 

, henceforth, at once, c^f oin ? 

when ? 

Leir. ) . niAt\, as, like. 

ppeipnj m&\\ fin, thus. 

PIU, even; as, niop L*\t)AH\ f e piu Aon VOCAL 
//"g (/ici no speak even one word. 5 AM F 1 " nA 
oo CAppAing. IFi^/iotti even taking breath. J?iu is 
really a noun, and is followed by the genitive case, 
whenever the definite article comes between it and 
the noun; otherwise it is followed by a nomina- 
tive case. 

434. It may be useful to remark here that the words 
itiiDiu, to-day; itroe, yesterday; i mbApAC, to-morrow; 
Apeip, last night; AnoCc, to-ni<jlit; can be used only 
as adverbs. He came to-day. CAinis fe itroiu. He 


went away yesterday. T)' imcij f6 in-oe. When the 
English words are nouns, we must use An LA (or ATI 
oit)ce) before int)iu, inT>e, A|\eip, etc. Yesterday was 
fine. t)i An IA int)e bpeAg. To-morrow will be wet. 
t)eiT) An IA i mbAfiAc pliuc. Last night was cold. t)i 
An oitxie Apeip 


ce An... ? 

Interrogative Words. 

when? CAtAin ? ce An UAip ? which 

ce An c-Atn ? 

where? CA? ce An AIC? what? CAT)? 

conAT) ? ceufvo ? 

how? conuf (cionnuf)? ce whither? CA? 

An CAOI ? 50 T)e mAp ? 

why? CAT) 'nA tAoti ? CAT) whence? CAT) Af? CA'P 

CUIge ? CAT) At ? Ce At>Af? 

An fAt ? 

how far ? j ce An AIT) ? how much ?) ce rhetiT) ? 

how long?) An PVOA ? how many ?j An mtf ? 

which (pron.) ? CIOCA? ce? who? ce? CIA? cen-e(i, 


Up and Down. 

436. fUAf, upwards, motion upwards from the 
place where the speaker is. 

, upwards, motion up from below to the 
Up. place where the speaker is. 

CuAf (also spelled f UA r)> up, rest above the 

place where the speaker is. 
Anior; (Abuf),* up, rest where the speaker is. 

* This form is used in Ulster and North Connaught, but generally 
this word is used only for rest on this side of a room, river, Ac., or 
here, where we are. 



'flop, downwards, motion down from where 

the speaker is. 
Anu^p, downwards, motion down from above 

to where the speaker is. 
tiop (flop), down, below, rest below the place 

where the speaker is. 

(.Atwp),* down, rest where the speaker 


437. The following examples will fully illustrate the 
use of the words for "up" and "down" : 


A says to B, I'll throw it down, C^itpit) me piop e. 
Is it down yet? t)puit pe tiop pop? 

mi :j. CxMt -Antop 6. 

UA pe Atiiop Anoip. 
C^itpit) me pu^p e. 
t)puil p6 tiixip p6p? 
CxMt Anu^p e. 


Throw it up, 
It is up now, 

B says to A, I'll throw it up, 
Is it up yet ? 
Throw it down, 
It is down now 

N.B. He is up (i.e., he is not in bed), C4 p6 
We are up, 

* See foot-not* at end of page 160. 





Motion from 
the speaker 

towards the 

Prepositional use, 

this sido of, etc. 

i bpup, Abup, 
this side 


An All 

lAfcbup -oe, tAob i 
bptij' ue 

tAll, the other 
side, yonder 

f Aii 

An All 

lAfCAll X>6, CAOb 

tAll -oe 


iftij, inside 

Am AC 


Am AC 

Amtnj -oe 
IAIJ^CIJ, cAob ifci^ 


439. The following sentences will exemplify the 
translation of the word " over " : 

A says to B, I'll throw it over to CxMtp* m6 x\nonn 

you, CugAC 6. 

Is it over yet ? t)puiL f 6 t^U p6f ? 

Throw it over to me, CAIC AHAU, CugAtn 6. 

It is oyer now, Cxi f 6 

He went over the wall. 
He went over to Scot- 

He came over from Cairns f6 


re ^nonn 50 


North, South. East, West. 
The root oip means front : ix\|\ means back. 
440. The ancients faced the rising sun in naming 
the points of the compass ; lience tO1R, east; C1AR, 
west; CUAlt), north; U6AS, south. 


Motion from 
the speaker 
towards the 


torvards the 
from the 

Prepositional use, east of, 
west of, north of, south of, 

coif, east 



I*l/ApCO1-fl T>e ; Afl ATI 
CAo5 coi|t tie ; 
oiAf coip "oe 

I*l/Aifz;tAn ~oe ; A-p ATI 

ciAfi, west 


Am Aft 

CAo5 tiA^t -oe ; 

Q1A C1A|1 T>e 

I*tAfCA1T -OG; Af ATI 

tuAi-6, north 

6 tttAnj 


CAob tuAi-6-oe; 


f'lAifceAf -oe; AJI An 

teAf, south 

6 -oeAf 


CAot) teAf -oe ; 

( X>IA ceAf T>e 

2. The noun "north," etc., is AH UAOt) 
CAOD UtiAS, etc., or cuAifceAp 

, and oir\tex\t\. These latter words are obso- 


The Nort-n wind, An Aot A-QCUAI-O N.W. wind, JAOC AniAji A'oruAi'6 
South An-oeAf S.E wind, JAOC Anoiri An-oeAf 

East ., Anoifi etc., etc. 

West AniA^ Notice the change of position in 


444. With reference to a house, ri^p is inwards 
foi|\ is outwards. 

P or lo,r may be used, t Probably a corruption of i -OCAOO. 


445. Compound or Phrase Adverbs. 

i seem, far off (space). 
i t>pAT>, far off (space and 

time) . 

Ap Aif , back. 
Ap scut, backwards. 
Ap -ocuf, | at first, or in 
Ap -ouuif, ) the beginning. 
Annfo, ture. 
Ann f An (fAin, fin), there, 

oo fiop, 

coi-oce, ever (future). 
piArh, ever (past). 
50 -oeo, for ever. 
50 bpAt(AC), for ever, 
pe (or PA) -66, twice. 
p6 (or PA) tpi, thrice. 
p6 (or PA) f GAC, by turns. 
1 tAtAip, present. 
Af tAtAip, absent. 
oe tAtAip, presently, just 


nAC m6p, 
geAtt le, 
50 teip, 
50 h- 

i entirely. 

at all. 

Ap Aon Cop, 

1 n-Aon Cop, 

Ap bit, 

Cop Ap bit, 

Cop teif fin, moreover. 

Ap Aon CumA, | at any 

ApCumAApbit, J rate. 

pefgeAteJ however, 

p6 pu-o e, j at any rate. 

^ gratis. 

?, in safe keeping. 

in vain. 

cuitte eite, ") moreover, 
cuitte p6f, ) besides, 
i teit, apart, aside. 

CAT> Af ? ) , 

> whence ? 

CA h-Af ? ) 

c6 rheuT) ? 'v 

. I how much? 
CA rheut)? V . 

j how many ? 
An m6 ? J 

oe t6, by day. 
ifc' oi-oCe, 
o' oit>Ce, 
6 C6ite, 

ie, ) . , 

| by night. 

- i 

. asunder. 
6 n-A Ceite, 

i n-empeACc, together. 
p6 tuAipim, conjecturally. 


eA-oon (written .i.)> 



50 leop, 

oo $eic 


Af\ All T>C01f\C, 
A|\ UAIJVlb, 

awhile ago. 
ages ago. 
sure, surely. 

immediately, instantly. 







AJ\ bAll, by and bye, after awhile. 

DAlAAnfjeilor-oAtcAfiut), by the bye. 

i n-Aijvoe, 

50 oeirhm or 50 
50 oeirhm if 50 

AtTb|\1AtA|\ 'f AtnbAf A, 

6 foin i teit, 
C foin 

on high. 

at full gallop. 


really and truly. 

really, in fact, 
likewise, in like manner, 
from that time to this, 
from that time out. 
hardly, with difficulty, 


AT\ cum if m6 t>e 
AH (A) iomAT>, 
An CUIT> if IU$A -6e, 
Af A IA$A-O (lAijeA- 
Af\ A fon fAti (if uiLe), 

at most. 

at least. 

notwithstanding (all that). 

com f.AT>A V (use le before noun)) 

. . . ' [whilst, as long 

An f AIT) (rel. form of verb) \ 

just as if. 
at dawn. 


t)' Aon n 
com m Ait 
le h-eipge An IA& 
JAH coinne le, 
5Ati fuil le, 
T)e jnAC 

mA|V ACA, mA|\ ACA1T), 

6f ipol, 

6f AfVO, 

fA cpAcn6nA, ) 
um CfiAtndnA,] 
Ap mAiDin int)iu, 
Afi mAit)in 
fA cjvAtnotiA 

1 mbAJVAC, 





namely, viz., i.e. 
secretly, lowly, 
aloud, openly, 
in the morning. 

in the evening. 

this morning, 
to-morrow morning, 
this evening, 
on the day before yesterday 

Ion the day after to- 

on the following day. 
(during) this year. 
(during) last year. 
(during) the year before last 


4$ b. The phrases which have just been given about 
morning, evening, &c., are strictly adverbial, and 
cannot be used as nouns. 


Adverbs. Nouns. 

OIA t>orfinAi, on Sunday 'Dotting, m., Sunday 

DIA tuAin, on Monday titan, m., Monday 

IDIA TTlAifAC, on Tuesday TtlxSipc, f., Tuesday 

o i A CeutMom', on Wednesday CeutxAom, f., Wednesday 

oiA'O.Atvo.Aoin', on Thursday T)AtvoAoin,f., Thursday 

TMA n-Aome, on Friday Aoine, f., Friday 

OM S.AtAifui, on Saturday SAtAjui, rn., Saturday 

448. T)1 A takes the name of the day in the genitive 
case ; it is used only when "on" is, or may be, used 
in English i.e., when the word is adverbial. 

T)IA is really an old word for day. It occurs in the two expressions 
t n--oiii, to-day; i n-t>e, yesterday. It is now never used except before 
the names of the days of the week, and in the two expressions just 

M9. "Head-foremost" 

He fell head-foremost, "Do tuic re i troiAi-o* A cmn. 
1 fell head-foremost, t)o tuicex\f 1 troi.Ait) mo cum. 
She fell head-foremost, "Do euic fi 1 nt>i.Ait> A cmn. 
They fell head-foremost, t)o tuice^-OAp 1 troiAi-6 A 

inx)iAi-6 is a phrase meaning " after," and is followed by a geni- 
tive case. 



However followed in English by an adjective or an 
adverb is translated into Irish by the preposition -oo 
(or T>e), the possessive adjective A, and an abstract 
noun corresponding to the English adjective or 

However good, T>'A feAtiAf. However long, -O'A 
However great, -O'A tfcei-o. However violent, 

However high, T>'A Aoitvoe. However young, -O'A oige 
The Adverb " The." 

O'A lUAite Y exVO Or 
AtfilAit)) if 

The sooner the better, 

ni'l T>A lUAite 

_ A lUAlt6A(iC If 

The longer... the bolder, T>'A pAit) 'f eA> U 
The sooner... the less, D'A lUAite 'peAt) ip 



450. The following list contains the simple pre- 
positions in use in modern Irish : 
i, A, in, (.Ann) in. 50, to (motion). 

A 5> ( A1 5)> at. t\oirh, before. 

^P, CAIP)> on. i-oif, between. 

Af, out of. le, with. 

OAp, by (in swearing). <3, from. 

oe, off, from. tAn 

' over, across. 

00, to. CA, 

AOI, f<3, PA, under. cpe, cpit), through. 
without. um, im, concerning, about. 





351. The following is a list of the conjunctions in 

use at present : 

oe t>pi 50 

niA, -OA, if. 

f.Aoi PA-O 'f 5 o, becauge 

cion if, 

tnutiA, muriA, if... not. 
Si'oeAi!), however. 

cion if 50, 

cop leif fin, \ 

ACC, but, except. 

r ux> eite (t>e), 1 moreover> 

A5 u r ( A 'r> l r> 'r)> an( ^ 

cuitte f.6f, 

iT>ip...A5Uf, both. ..and. 

cuitte eite, J 

An (AP), whether (interrog.) 

niAp, as. 

Ap A f on 50, 

nA, than ; nor. 

fit>if 5 o, although . 
ci-6, 51*, 

mAp if 50, as though. 

0650,51-650, ) 

1 -ocpeo 50 (nAc), 

50, ' ... 

ACC 50, 

verbs) . 
50 -oci 50, J 

AP n<5f 50 (nAc), 
Ap rho-6 50 (nAc), 
i 5CAf 50 (IIAC), so that 
Ap cop 50 (nAc), ( not )- 

corn tUAt Af, | 

Ap t)6i5 50 (ViAc), 

OA UiAf i, [ as soon as. 

1 5CAO1 50 (nAc), 

An cuifse 50, i 

lonnuf 50 (nAc),* 

fOf, yet, still. 

f eACAf , compared with. 

fuL ; f Ar, ^j 

n6, or. 

a before ' 

6, since, because. 
6 nAc, since... not. 

f Ul -OA T)Ci, ) 

<5ip, for, because. 

* 50 and tiAc are very frequently separated from ionnuf by a sub- 
ordinate or relative clause : e.g., " ionnr , ATI ri AJI A mbnvo AH t 11 ^ 1 " 
fin, 50 mbiA-6 reAjimAnn AIJC 6'n oitileAc ;" so that the person who 
would be marked with that sign would have protection from the 


. well, if so. 6 tAplA 50, whereas. 

uime fin, therefore, where- CA^ CeAnn, moreover, be- 
fore, sides, furthermore. 
Ap An A-ooAp fAin, therefore. tiAci 

that... not. 
pin p6in, even so. IIA, nA 50 

lMot> 50, although, whether 

452. In Munster "that. ..not" is usually translated 
by HA followed by the dependent form of the verb. 
11 -A neither aspirates nor eclipses. In the past tense 
it becomes nAj\ which causes aspiration. Whenever 
" that... not " follows a negative (or a virtual negative) 
phrase, nA 50 is used (HA guf\ in the past tense). 

CA fiof Aige pein HA puiL An ce^pc Aige. He 
knows himself that he is not right. 

tli -Dei^im (or t>eifim) nA 50 t>ptnl An ce^pc Aige. 
I don't say that he is not right. 

tl^C is used in Munster as a part of the verb ip, 

453. The use of m Aft before a clause is noteworthy. 
AT>ut><Mpc p6, (according^ as he said, 
tii p6 1 oei<i nibLiAt)nA picexvo 6 fom. 
Beyond (or compared with) how it was 30 years 

-oei|\ cu, regarding what you say. 
p6 niA|\ A pAiE> V 1onn - H S came to where 
Finn was. 


CA or triAti ACAI-O, that is, viz., i.e. 
mA\\ 50 mbxro IAX> v 6m ~o -oeunAtii An 
gniorhA, as if it were they who per- 
formed the act. 
n\A\( AT\ gceu-oriA, likewise. 

, on account of. 

454. Interjections and Interjectional Phrases. 



tTIo CpeAC ! 

mo 16 AH ! 

1T)o L6An 5<2iij\ !/ 


bu bu ! oc ! u6 ! uccn ! 

ino iiAipe tu ! 

A bu ! 

O (the sign of the Vocative 
hushl list! 


Behold ! lo ! 
Alas ! 

Shamo on you ! 
Hurrah for . 
Welcome ! 


"OlA -00 OeAtA ! ") 

, [ Hail! 

'S6 t)O t)6AtA ! ) 

Stdn leAC (lift) ! J 

StAn beo AJAC (ASAIG) ! \ Good-bye ! 

"OiA linn ! 

0151-0 (poigne) ! 


50 oc6it> ctS 

*OlA t)UICl 

Di '-oo tope ! ") 
Gifc TO t>eut! ) 
tTlo $oipm tu 1 





50 n-eitugi* At) 

HA^ 16151-6 T)IA fin ! 

50 tnt)eAnnui$r6 X)IA -Ouic 





T)IA ot\Ainn! 
t)uic ! 

God be with us ! 
Well! Musha! 
Patience ! 
Take care ! Fie ! 
Safe home ! 
God prosper you! 

Silence ! 
Bravo ! 
Good health ! 

Good man ! 
Good fellow ! 

Thanks! thank you! 

Good luck to you ! 
God forbid! 

God save you ! Good 
morning ! &c. 

Long life to you ! 

God help us ! 
May you have a good night ! 
May God give you a good 
night i 


^o mbuA-OAit) "OiA 
StAti co-oAtcd tiA 

50 5COT>tAif\ 50 f-Arh ! 
t)Ait 6 "OiA ope ! 
Cui-oeACAti "Oe leAC ! 

FAT) f40$All AgAC 1 

tlAt go 

'SeA-6 ! 

1 leit ! 

TTlo $pAi-6in cpoi-oe Cu ! 


God grant you success ! 

Sound night's sleep to 


May you sleep peacefully . 
God bless you ! 
May God accompany you J 
Long life to you ! 

Success to you ! 


There now ! 
Whisper (here) ! 
Indeed ! 
Bravo ! 
My dear ! 
Dear me ! 



455. The following is a list of the principal prefixes 
used in Irish. Some of them have double forms 
owing to the rule CAOI t,e CAOI. 


or 6if , back, again ; like the English re- ; 

foe, payment; ^ipoc, repayment, restitu- 







/p6i-6, even ; Aimpdrt, un- 


c-p*\c, time ; i n-AntfiAt, un- 


ce*Min, a head ; "oiceAnnATO, 


to behead. 


commie, an advice; mio- 

corh,Ai]U,e, an evil advice. 

nit), a thing ; neirhmt), no- 

thing, non- entity. 

aditvoe^f , friendship ; e^p- 

\ c*\!jvoex\p, enmity. 

ne-Afh nenti, 

6 or 6-a, a negative particle. It eclipses c and c and 
becomes 6^5 before f . COip, just ; 6x^50 61 p, 
unjust; cpom, heavy; 6AT)C|\om, light; 
copfiAil, like; euspAmAiL, different. 

DJVOC, bad, evil; me^f, esteem; cpoC-me-ap, reproach, 

com, e|ual; Aimfip, time; corii-Aimfe^fuxc, contem- 

* -01, t)io eclipse words beginning with b or p, 


An, ' 

ll, 101, 


Intensifying , 


leAt, a half; leA-uAif 

'mop, big; xMi-tfi<5n, very big. 
oat, a colour ; ioit>Afrd, many- 

tn6f\, big; tv5-rh6p, too big. 

ce, warm; f^f 


6B61L, vast 

awfully vast. 
5^nt)A, ugly; 


half an hour ; 
leit-f jjeui, an excuse. 



a story; 

in, ion, fit, suitable; t>euncA, done; in-t>euncA, fit to 
be done ; juAit>ce, said ; ion-|\Ai*ce, fit to be 
said ; ion-rholCA, praiseworthy ; ion-6lcx\, 
drinkable ; in-ttce, eatable, edible. (See 
pars. 286, 288.) 

t\euifi, before ; f4i-6ce, said ; peutfi-n Ai-oce, aforesaid. 

ppit, back ; p pit-teACc, coming and going ; pp 
palpitation, or a return stroke. 

bAn, a feminine prefix; t<Mt, a prince ; b 
princess ; DAin-ciseAfn^ a lady. 

At, a reiterative particle: IIA-O, a saying; ^t-^-6, 
a repetition ; AtuxMp, another time ; .an 
AtDtiA"6Ain, next year ; -An dtfeACcrhAin, 
next week. At has sometimes the force 
of "dia" in dismantle, as cunuvo, to form; 


to deform, destroy; 
to crown, to elect a king ; Atfio^At), to de- 

bit, biot, lasting, constant; biMn, lasting; 

everlasting ; t>ic-f ipeun, ever-faithful. 

oo and j*o, two particles which have directly opposite 
meanings, as have often the letters -o and f . 
T)o denotes difficulty, ill, or the absence oj 
tome good quality ; f o denotes the opposite. 

oo-'oeiinr.A, hard to be done f o--6eunc.a, easy to be done 

sorrow f<5Uf, comfort, joy 

, bad-luck f 011 ^ good-luck 

outu\C, sad futile, merry 

poor f Artftip, rich 

i, a fool f A i, a vdsQ man 

oit, want, misery fit, peace, plenty 

vice pufrAitce, virtue 

, condemned, dear r A r> ^ ree > cheap 

, Jbarm foC^p, profit 

OOTIA, unlucky, unhappy f OHA, lucky, happy 

, bad weather fome-Ann, fine weather 

inconvenient focAttiAil, convenient 

456. Affixes or Terminations. 

i, when it is the termination of an adjective, mean? 
full of, abounding in: bpiAtAf, a word; 
i, wordy, talkative; peup^c, grassy, 


, when it is the termination of a noun, denotes a 
person or personal agent: as 6ipe.<uinAC, an 
Irishman; AlbAnAt, a Scotchman. 

is an abstract termination, like the English -ness: 
, sweet; milfeAcc, sweetness. 

N.B. The termination -.aCc is usually added to 

Ai"6e, tntte, it>e, are personal terminations denoting 
an agent: fseuL, a story; rgeiilui-oe, a story- 
teller; cop, a foot; coipt>e, a pedestrian. 

Aipe, if e, are also personal terminations denoting an 
agent: ceAlg, deceit; cexMgxMpe, a deceiver. 

.arii Ail, a termination having the very same force as 
the English like or ly. pe^f^tfi-Ail, manly; 
, princely, generous. 

> or sometimes f alone, an abstract termination 
like aCc: mdit, good: miiteAf, goodness; 
ce^nn, ahead; ce^nn^f, headship, authority. 

>^p and ttye have a collective force: as, T)uitte, a leaf 
(of a tree) ; ouiLteAt)<.\|\, foliage. 

A, DA, or CA, is an adjectival termination which has 
usually the force of the English -like' 
TTiOjnbA, majestic; 6p-6^, golden; 5411/04, 
exotic, foreign (from gAlt, a stranger, a 
foreigner). E 2 


e is an abstract termination like ACc or AJ*: whenever 
it is added to an adjective the resulting 
abstract noun, owing to the rule " CAOI 
le CAOI/' has the very same form as 
the genitive singular feminine of the adjective: 
as, pAl, generous; p6ile, generosity; A|VO, 
high; Aifvoe, height; geAl, bright; giie, 
brightness; Aiine, beauty. 

LAC, nAC, fia6, CAC, cf\A6, have all the same meaning 
as At, viz., full of, abounding in: muc, a pig; 
muclAC, a piggery; coitt, a wood; coillceaC, 
a place full of woods; jruilceAC, bloody; 
coilceA6 (coilce.Ann.AC), willing. 

means full of, abounding in: ceot, music; ceot- 
ttiAf, musical; gfeAnn, fun; gpeAnnrhAp, 
full of fun, amusing ; ciAllrhAf, sensible, 

T><5if\, or cCif, denotes a personal agent: fpeAt, a 
scythe; rpeAlA-ooip, a mower, reaper; 
a door-keeper. 


457. In Irish there are three diminutive termina- 
tions, viz., in, An, and 05. However, in is practically 
the only diminutive termination in Modern Irish as 
.MI and 65 have almost lost their diminutive force. A 
double diminutive is sometimes met with, as Apx>Ainin, 
a very little ktic/ht. 



458. The termination 111, meaning " small M or 
" little," may be added to almost every Irish noun. 
Whenever the final consonant is broad it must be made 
slender (as the in always remains unaltered), the 
vowels undergoing the same changes as in the 
formation of the genitive singular, but C is not 
changed into 5 ( Bee P 8 - 1 " 8 - 60 and 78). 

an ass apaitin, a little ass 

s a man Pf in, a man 

, a field gtnftcin, a field 

c.<MtteAC,anoldwoman cAitticin, & old woman 
nuti-o, a street nuii-oin, a street, a lane 

If the noun ends in e, drop the e and add in ; but 
if the noun ends in A, drop the A and attenuate the 
preceding consonant ; then add in. 
p-aip-oe pAip-oin nojta M6i|\in m-Ata 

459. An. 

ff ut^n, a brook, from fp ut, a stream. 

Ajvo.dn, a hillock, ^jvo, high. 

, a knitting-needle, oe-Alg, a thorn. 
, a pin, biop, a spit. 

n, a booklet, teAt>A|\, a book. 

n, a twig, geug, a branch. 

, a little lake, toe, a lake. 

f5i^tx.\n, a wing, ,, fguxc, u shield. 

The above are examples of real diminutives, but 
such examples are not very numerous. 


MO. 05. 

piAfc6$ (p6if ceog), a worm, from piAfc, a reptile. 
UAf 65, a match, tar-, a light. 

5-A&165, a little fork, 540^1, a fork. 

These are examples of real diminutives in 65, but 
such real diminutives are not numerous, as most nouns 
in 65 have practically the same meaning as the nouns 
from which they were derived (the latter being now 
generally obsolete) : cuileGg, a fly, from cuil, a fly ; 
of if 665, a briar, from "o^if, a briar; pumnfeog, an 
ash, from puinnpe, an ash. 

In Craig's Grammar we find 111(65, a rat (Ui6, a moose). This 
example is a striking instance of the fact that the termination 65 is 
losing (if it has not already lost) its diminutive force. 

All derived nouns in 05 are feminine. 

Derived Nouns. 

461. Words are of three classes Simple, Derivative, 
and Compound. All simple words are, as a general 
rule, monosyllables ; they are the roots from which 
derivative and compound words spring. Derivative 
words are made up of two or more parts. These parts 
undergo slight changes when they united to form 
words, and thus the component parts are somewhat 
disguised. The difficulty which presents itself to a 
student in the spelling of Irish is more apparent than 
real. The principle of vowel-assimilation is the key to 


Irish spelling. Let a student once thoroughly grasp 
the rules for " CAOI Le cx\ol, &c,'' " aspiration," 
" eclipsis," " attenuation," and "syncope," and im- 
mediately all difficulty vanishes. 

Derivatives are formed of simple words and particles. 
The most important of the latter have been already 
given under the headings "Prefixes" and "Affixes." 
We will here give some examples of derivative nouns, 
a careful study of which will enable the student to 
split up the longest words into their component parts, 
and thus arrive at their meanings. 

462. cpom means heavy; cpomAr, i.e., 
(the abstract termination) means heaviness or weight ; 
6Ai), light, from cpom, and the negative particle 
&A, which eclipses c and c, hence the -o ; 6A-octvomxXf , 
lightness, from A, not; cpom, heavy; A?, ness; 
corhtfvotn, impartial, fair, or just; from com , equal, 
and cfom, heavy; corhtfom^f, impartiality, fair- 
ness, &c.; exxscorhCpotn, partial, unjust ; from A+ 
corh + crvotn ', 6A5cotfitfotnAf, partiality, injustice; 
from eA+ corn + cpom+^f. SpeAtAt)6ip, a reaper; 
from ppeAl, a scythe, and -otfip, an affix denoting an 
agent ; the A is put in between the t and T> to assist 
pronunciation : c^ifvoe, friends ; CAi^-oe^f , friendliness, 
friendship ; euscAip-oe^f, unfriendliness, hostility : 
pexifx\rhlAcc, manliness ; from pe^t\ + AtitAit + 
ACc : neirii-$eAnxMrilACc, unamiability ; from neirh, 
not + s e<in . affection + Amail + ACc : fiog^Cc, a 


kingdom, from pio$ + ACc : com6f\CAf, comparison, 
emulation, competition ; from co (com), equal, and 
mtipCAf, greatness, i.e., comparing the greatness of 
one thing with that of another. 

463. Compound nouns are formed by the union ot 
two or more simple nouns, or of a noun and an 

(A.) A compound noun formed of two or more 
nouns, each in the nominative case, has its declension 
determined by the last noun. Its gender also is that 
of the last noun, unless the first noun-part be such 
as requires a different gender. The first word quali- 
fies the second, and the initial consonant of the 
second is usually aspirated. 

(B.) If the compound is formed of a noun in the 
nominative form followed by a genitive noun, the 
first is the principal noun, and determines the de- 
clension and gender; the second qualifies the first, 
and generally remains unaltered, and the aspiration 
of the initial consonant in this case depends on the 
gender of the first noun. See par. 21 (f). 

We will give here a few examples of the two chief 
kinds of compound nouns. It is usual to employ a 
hyphen between the nouns in Class A, but not in 
Class B. 



bj\eii5-t\i, a pseudo king 
bun-pput, a fountain 

, a helmet 

, twilight 
, a belfry 

cul-6Ainc, back-biting 

C4oi|\-f eoil, mutton 
lAoig-peoii, veal 
muic-peoil, pork, bacon 
eoil, beef 
, a household god 
a handker- 
chief, a napkin 
Urh-6iA-o, a hand-sledge 
leic-eut* an excuse 

Glass A. 

bpeug, a lie, and |\f, a king 
bun, a source, origin, and 

pput, a stream 
At, a battle, and 
top, head 

clog, a clock, bell, and 
, a house 

branch, and 
, a wreath 
cut, the back of the head, 

and c-Ainc, talk 
peoa, flesh ; GAO^A, a sheep 
a calf; muc, a pig 
, a beef 

a hand; T)i4. God; 
, a cloth; ojvo, a 


, a half, and 
a story 

, a sceptre ; <5p, gold ; and pu\c, a rod 
, patriotism; cfp, country; and 

*j;At> mo Leic-fgeuL I beg your pardon. (Lit. Accept my excuse). 


469. Class B. 

cAipe, a winding-sheet (a garment of death). 
ceoit, a musician (a man of music). 

, a Beer ( a man f knowledge ; poj% 

ci$e, a householder (a man of a house). 
n\AC ripe, a wolf (son of (the) country). 
cti rhafVA, an otter (a hound of the sea; tnuip, gen 

a seal (a calf of the sea). 
pe^p ion AIT), a lieutenant, vicegerent (a man of place) 
ce.dc orc<\, an inn, hotel (a house of entertainment). 
ttiAigir-cip fcoite, a schoolmaster (a master of a school). 
ut> cifce, a hen-egg (an egg of a hen.) 

f it>e or be^n c-fit>e, a fairy (a woman of the 

fio-6, a fairy hill). 

466. A Noun and an Adjective. 

ro-pi, a high king. 

a sovereign lord. 
supreme power, chief power. 

partiality; cUvon, inclined: and bpeit, s 

, a druidical altar ; cp om, bent ; and 
a stone, flag. 

condemnation ; tMop, condemned. 
, a bond-slave ; OgUc, a servant. 


tAip), a brother by blood [ b^tAi^ and piujv, brother 
Mpopiun, a sister by ( and sister (in reli- 
blood. J gion). 

, spring water: piop, true, pure; uipge, water. 
,a tempest: SAJAD, rough; andpion, weather, 
a hare: 5e.\pp, short; and pi^-o, a deer. 
, an upstart : mi<y6, new, fresh ; and T)ume, 
a person. 
, a grandfather, 

old; AtAip, a father. 

a great grand- 

father. A0 ir. age. 

a grand- 


, old age. 

a mother ; 

law; oiige is a 

more common word 
for law. 
the old law. 
a brave man. 
i, a hero. 

\-pe.AlD, a freehold : pe^lo, possession, 
cpom-luige, a nightmare. 
\, a patriarch. 

.,, folly, silliness: p^\ot>, silly; and ciAtl, sense 
p6ip-O|vu\t^ft, an adverb: p6ij\, before; and bpiAtAp, a 

p6tp-imeAll, a frontier, extremity; imeAll, a border, a 


pCip-opeit, a prejudice (a fore- judgment), 
^, oppression, compulsion. 


Formation of Adjectives. 

467. (a) Adjectives may be formed from many 
nouns by the addition of AC or 6AC, which signifies 
full of, abounding in. All these adjectives belong to 
the first declension, and are declined like Dipe^c. 


peApg, anger ^CA^SAC, angry 

puil, blood puilceAC, bloody 

grass jreupAC, g ra8SV 

>, victory buxvOAC, victorioup 

a lie bjAeugAC, false, lying 
oiceALL,oue's best endea- t>iceAiUAC, energetic 


feAfArh, standing feAprhAC, steadfast 

5n6, work gnOtAC, busy 

cLu, fame cLuice^C, famous 

fAotAjv, toil fAotfuvC, industrious 

lub, a loop tub-AC, deceitful 

life fAogtAC, long-lived 

sufficiency f.AtA(i, satiated 

Scotland Alb*\nAC, Scotch 

i, England SAcr-An^, English 

branch ctvAobAC, branchy 

a rock CAif\j;e.A<i, rocky 

sorrow bpotiAC, sorrowful 

f\At, durt ^AtAt, dirty 

piof , knowledge popAC, intelligent 

joy AtAf AC, joyous 

sorrow X)oiliorAC, sorrowful 


, tricky 
, weary 
, watery 
, cloudy 
Mc, childish 
540CAC, windy 

c, anxious 

, powerful 
, starry 
, attentive 

, patient 
, timid 

, willing 
cuf\AtnAc, careful 
iotnA|\cAC, excessive, 

(ft). Many adjectives arc formed by adding itlAU 
to nouns. 

All these adjectives belong to the first declension 
and are declined like m<5p. 

A-O, luck 
ceot, music 
ciAll, sense 
peup, grass 
, flesh 


, a trick 
cuipr-e, wearinesa 
inp^e, water 
netiL, a cloud 
, a child 
, wind 
i mm tie, anxiety 
cutfu\cc, power 
petite, a star 
Aijve, care 
poigit), patience 
eAgiA, fear 
coil, a will 
, heed 

too much 

ponn, fancy 

^-6nK\tv, lucky. 
ceoLitiAp, musical 
cu\UrfuAp, sensible 
peuprh<\p, grassy 
peoLrh<\p, fleshy 
ponnriiAp, desirous 



5l6i|\, glory 5l6t\rhAf\, glorious: 

fun grie.AnnrhAp, funny 

, price, value luAcrhAft, valuable 

tion, number tionrii^tS numerous 

, strength ne.At\crhAj\, powerful 

a shadow fgAtriiAp, shy, startled 

we, activity tutt-hAp, active, nimble 

(c). Yery many adjectives are formed from nouns 
by the addition of A1VIA1I or eAttlAlt (both pro- 
nounced oo-il or u-wil). All these adjectives belong 
to the third declension. 


Ve.Afi, a man freAjvArhAil,, manly 

be^n, a woman beAn^rhAit, womanly 

a prince pkaite.Arh.Ai I, generous 

, a name AinmeArhAil, renowned 

, esteem meAr^tfiAil, estimable 

U\ (pi. LAete), a day taete.Arh.Ail, daily 

grtAin, hatred Sfi^meArh^il, hateful 

CAftA (pi. CAip"oe), a friend OAijvoe.Arh.Ail, friendly 
nArhA(pl.riAirh-oe),anenemy nAirh-oeArhAil, hostile 

cpoit>e, a heart cfoi-beArhAit, hearty, gay 

pi (gen. rtio$), a king fiojAttiAit, kingly, royal 

CAOI (pi. CAoite), a way cAoite.Arh.Ail, opportune 

order l\iA|VArhAil, subject, docile 

, affection SeAnAttiAiL, affectionate 

mot), manner mot)ArhAiL, mannerly 


cip (pi. cioptA), country 


ceine (pi. cemce), fire 
fliAtt, (pl.fleit5ce),amoun- 


SpeAtin, fun 
eun, a bird 

comuff A, a neighbour 
t>At\AncAf, authority 


opfcAriiAii, country-like, 
homely, social 


ceinceArhAit, fiery, igneous 
fleiticeArhAit, mountain- 


bird-like, airy 
, authentic 

(d). There is a fourth class of adjectives formed 
by the termination 'OA (t^.; ; but it is not as large 
as the three preceding classes. The following are 
some of the principal ones : 

, godly, divine 

, feminine 
golden, gilt 




5t\An-OA, ugly 
cp6t>A, brave 
, lively 

exotic or foreign 
tiAorhtA (nAorht>A), 

Compound adjectives are extremely common in 
Irish, being usually formed by the union of two or 
more simple adjectives (sometimes of a noun and an 


adjective) ; but these compound adjectives present no 
difficulty once the simple adjectives have been 


468. Verbs can be readily formed from noons and 
adjectives by the addition of 15 or tng. The addi- 
tion of this termination is sometimes accompanied by 
syncope, which often necessitates slight vowel changes 
in accordance with the rule " CAOL Le 

469. (a). Verbs derived from Nouns. 

a name 

cuirhne, memory 
cuit), a part 

ctil, the back of the head 
, exertion 
, a visit 
, improvement 

, strength 
ACC, a decree 
bAf , death 
cAt, a battle 
c6im, a step 
cpioc, an end 
cpit> ft trembling 

VERB (Stem). 


, nourish 
cuirhni$, remember 
cuit)i$ Le, assist (take part 


cutuig, retire 
visit, search 

, decree, enact 
t)Afui$, put to death 
CAtin$, contend, fight 
c6imni$, step, advance 
cf\iocmn$, finish 
cf\if;ni$, tremble 


NOUN. VERB (Stem). 

5O[\CA, hunger, injury gopcut?;, injure 

idm.<vo, multitude lomA-ouij, multiply 

6|ro, an order <j|votii, order, command 

fotuf , a light foitlfig, enlighten 

cup (cor), a beginning coping, begin 

, a guide c^eofvuig, guide, lead 

i, pain pidtiuig, cause pain 

work oibpig, work 

(b). Verbs derived from Adjectives. 


.AIYO, high -Ajvouig, raise 

b,in, white b-Anuig, whiten 

ouli, black * -outtui^, blacken 

A, deaf bot)iiui5, deafen, bother 

, lasting DuAnuig preserve 

, ai)parent poatfi?;, reveal, show 

, cold puAf tug, cool, chill 

, weak tAguig, weaken 

, well flAnuig, make well, cure 

, dry ciopmuig, or ctumijg, dry 

boCc, poor t)o6cui$, impoverish 

ceAtac, right ce*\i\cui$, correct 

min, fine mi nig, make fine, explain 

ipol, low ir^ 1 5 lower 

uitiAl, humble utiiluig, humble 

fAfottip, rich f^it)t)|\ig, enrich 

The compound verbs are very few, and are there- 
fore of little consequence to the beginner. 




The Article. 

470. In Irish the article always precedes its noun, 
and agrees with it in gender, number and case 
as, AH peA|\, the man ; HA pn, the men; AH pip, of the 
man; HA run A, of the woman. 

471. When one noun governs another in the geni- 
tive case the article cannot be used with the first 
noun : as, ITIAC ATI f?ip, the son of the man ; pe^n An 
ci$e, the man of the house, &c. 

Notice the difference between the son of the man, 
n\AC An pt\, and a son of the man, TDAC -oo'n jreAfl. 

Exceptions. (1) When a demonstrative adjective is 
used with the first noun (the governing one), the 
article must also be used ; as, t:\ ATI CBAC fAin mo 
tAtvA-o te -olol, that house of my friend's is for sale. 

(2) If the two nouns form a compound word, the 
article is used before the first, if used in English : a 
newspaper, pAipeup miAit>eACcA ; but, the newspaper, 
An p^ipeufv nuAit>eACcA. 


(3) When the noun in the genitive case is an 
indefinite* one, which denotes a part of something, the 
material of which a thing is made, or the contents of the, 
first noun, the article is used with the first noun when 
it is used in English : 

An 5p eirn -aiiAin, the piece of bread. 

An mAlA mine, the bag of ineal. 

An cpuifSin uipse, the little jug of water. 

We say blAp Ajvdin, for, the taste of bread ; bolAt, 
eifs, the srnell of fish ; TTIAC 1*105, the son of a king , 
because if the noun in the genitive expresses quality, 
connection, or origin, the governing noun does nol 
take the article. 

472. If a nominative be followed by several geni- 
tives the article can be used only with the last (il 
"the" be used in English), as, cpuime Cinn An 
cApAiil, the weight of the horse's head. 

The article is often omitted before a noun which is 
antecedent to a relative clause ; as, 1p 6 -oume t>o oi 
Ann. He is the person who was there. 

473. In the following cases the definite article is 
frequently used in Irish though not used in English. 

(1) Before surnames, when not preceded by a 
Christian name, as, TUib An t>t\eAtiiAC Ann ? Was 
Walsh there ? 

' See par. 585. 


(2) Before the names of some countries, as, ATI 
SpAinn, Spain; AH f\Ainc, France; pi nA h-GipeAnn, 
the king of Ireland : also before Rome, 'p^ n Tl6nti, in 
Borne; o'n Konfi, from Rome. The article is not used 
before the names of Ireland, England or Scotland in 
the nominative and dative cases. 

(3) Before abstract nouns : An C-OC^AP , hunger. 
1p tnAit An c-AnntAnn An c-oc^Ap. Hunger is a good 

We frequently use An bAp for " death." 
The article is not used in such sentences, as: 
UA oc|\Af oj\tn. I am hungry. 

(4) Before nouns qualified by the demonstrative 
adjectives: AH pe^p pAin, that man ; An tieAti .po, this 
woman . 

(5) Before adjectives used as nouns : 

An rfiAit Agup An c-olc, goodness and badness. 
1p peAff Uom An slAp nA An TieAps. I prefer green to 

(6) After " C6 " meaning "which " or " what." 

Ce An peAf\ ? Which man ? 
Ce An leAt>A|\ ? What book ? 

(7) To translate " apiece," " per " or " a " before 
words expressing weight and measure ; 

TlAoL An ceAnn. Sixpence apiece. 

In speaking of a period of time pA (inp ATI) is used . 
PA rnt>UAt>Ain, once a year. 


(8). Before titles : 

An C-ACAIH 605x301 UA St^- Father Eugene 

An c-AtAip peA-oAp UA UogAipe. Father Peter 

An -ooCcuip T)ut5Ur De n-Voe. Dr. Douglas Hyde. 

(9) To express any attribute : 
A tteAn tiA -ocf i mt>6. woman of three cows. 

(10) The article is used before the word denoting 
the use to which a thing is put, or the place where a 
thing is found or produced. 

tttAtA nA mine. The meal bag, i.e., the bag for hold- 
ing meal. 

An uipge. The water-jug. 

Compare these with the following : 

An mAlA mine. The bag of meal. 
An q\uif5in uifge. The jug of water. 

(11) Before the word "uite" meaning "every." 

An utte peA|\. Every man. 
An u ile tip. Every country. 

(12) Whenever an indefinite noun, accompanied by 
an adjective is predicated of a pronoun by means of 
the verb if, the definite article must be used with the 
noun whenever the adjective is placed immediately 
after the verb. 

1r t)|\eA5 An u e. It is a fine day. 

1f mAit An j?eAf\ tu. You are a good man. 


(13) Before the names of seasons, months, days of 
the week (when not preceded by the word t>e). 
An 6 An S^t^n ACA AgAinn ? Is to-day Saturday? 

An int>iu \n tuAn ?) T 

. Is this Monday ? 

An 6 feo An LuAn ?j 

IITOIU AH Aome. To-day is Friday. 


The Noun. 

474. In Irish one noun governs another in the 
genitive case, and the governed noun comes after the 
governing one. 

Ce^nn AH CApAill. The horse's head. 

The noun, odpAilL, in the genitive case is aspirated by the article 
because it is masculine gender. It would not be aspirated if it were 
feminine. (See par. 40.) 

475. When the governed noun in the genitive is a 
proper name it is generally aspirated, whether it be 
masculine or feminine, although the article is not 

Mary's pen. 
John's book. 

The last rule is by no means generally true of place 


576. When the noun in genitive case has the force 
of an adjective, it is not preceded by the article, but 
its initial consonant is subject to precisely the same 
rules, with regard to aspiration and eclipsis, as if it 
were a simple adjective, i.e., it is aspirated if the 
governing noun be nominative or accusative singular 
feminine, or genitive singular masculine. It is 
eclipsed if the governing noun be in the genitive 

uD Cipce, a hen-egg (an egg of a hen) 

uioe ci|\ce, of a hen-egg. 

pe.Afv ceoil, a musician. 

pip Ceoil, of a musician. 

nA t>peAf\ gceoiL, of the musicians. 

477. Apposition has almost entirely disappeared in 
modern Irish, the second noun being now usually in 
the nominative case, no matter what the case of 
the first may be. 

478. A noun used adjectively in English is trans- 
lated into Irish by the genitive case. 

A gold ring, pSinne 61 j\ (lit. a ring of gold). 
A hen-egg, UD 
Oatmeal, mm 

479. Collective nouns (except in their own plurals) 
always take the article and qualif} r ing adjectives in 
the singular ; they sometimes take a plural pronoun, 
and may take a plural verb. 


fin t>o U\tAip i 

TOO be^nnuig p*yo -oo. That company of warriors 
came into the presence of Finn, and saluted him 
(lit. to him). 

480. Nouns denoting fulness or a part of anything 
are usually, followed by the preposition -oe and the 
dative case, but the genitive is also used. 

ce^nn (or 5^-6^) -o'^p M5<v6fXAio, one of our hounds. 
bAfp mo 0^6156, the top of my shoe. 
Ldn mo t)ui|\n, the full of my fist. 

In phrases such as "some of us," " one of them," 
&c., " of us," " of them," &c., are usually translated 
by AgAinn, ACA, &c. ; but -oinn, -oiob, &c., may also be 

481. The personal numerals from -oi^f to t>5peu5 
inclusive (see par. 177) generally take their nouns 
in the genitive plural: beipc m^c, two sons; 
, nine men (lit. two of sons, nine of men). 

A tpiun mx\c Aguf A ocfiup b^n. 
His three sons and their three wives. 

482. When used partitively they take -oe with the 

t)4it> f6 nAOtibA|t *iot> ?A 'n loc. 

He drowned nine of them under the lake. 

Nine times nine of the stewards of Erin. 


Personal Nouns. 

483. An Irish name consists of two parts, the 
b-Aipoit) (or simply Amm), which corresponds to the 
English Christian name, and the plomneAt), the sur- 
name or family name. 

Surnames were first used in Ireland about the eleventh century ; 
until that time every Irish personal name was significant, and 
sometimes rendered more so by the application of some epithet. 
"In the early ages individuals received their names from epithets 
implying some personal peculiarity, such as colour of hair, com- 
plexion, size, figure, certain accidents of deformity, mental qualities, 
such as bravery, fierceness, Ac." Joyce's " Irish Names of Places." 

484. When the Christian name is used in address- 
ing a person, it is always in the vocative case, and 
preceded by the particle A, which causes aspiration, 

An itotn, A SeAgAin. Wait for me, John. 
T)IA t)uic, A SeuniAip. Good morning, James. 

485. When the Christian name is in the genitive 
case, it is aspirated, e.g. : 

teAbAp tilAipe. Mary's book. 
SgiAn Seoij\r-e. George's knife. 

486. Surnames when not preceded by a Christian 
name usually take the termination AC, which has 
the force of a patronymic (or father-name), and are 
declined ' like m^CAC (par. 57). They are usually 
preceded by the article except in the vocative case : 
An PAO^C, Power ; CAP All AH t)f\iAnAi , O'Brien's horse 


Two forms are admissible in the vocative case; 

facility of pronunciation is the best guide, e.g., SAO i 
leit, A t)f\iAn.Ai. Come here, O'Brien. A ttlic Hi 
, O'Leary. A Ttlic Hi Suitme, MacSweeney. 

487. Surnames occurring in Ireland to-day are of 
three classes: (1) Surnames of Gaelic origin. These 
in almost every instance have the prefix (UA) or 
true tor a male, and tli or Die for a female. 

(2) Surnames of old foreign origin. The majority of 
these have no prefix. (3) Surnames of late foreign 
origin. Only a few of these have acquired a distinct 
form, pronounced in an Irish way. 

588. When the surname is preceded by any ot the 
words (UA), true, tli, 11ic, the surname is in the 
genitive case, and is aspirated after tli or tlic, but 
not after or triAC: e.g., Se^g^n ITUc 'OottmAill, 
John McDonnell; niAipe tli CotiAiU, Mary O'Con- 
nell; *OiAfunuit> Con^ill, Dermot O'Connell; t16p^ 
tlic 'OorhnAiLi, Nora McDonnell. 

489. When the whole name is in the genitive case, 
the words after Ui (gen. of 6 or VI A) and ttlic (gen. 
of true) are aspirated ; tli and tlic do not change in 
genitive. le.Ab.Ap Scum^ir- Ui t)pum, James O'Brien's 
book; b<5 Tjpi^m ttlic "Ootiin^iLl, Brian McDonnell's 

490. tTUc and aspirate when they really mean 
"son" and "grandson" respectively. 


1T1,AC 'ftorhn.Ailt, Donal's son. 
ttlAC "OoriitiAitl, McDonnell. 
t)piAin, Brian's grandson. 
6 t)f\iAin, O'Brien. 

491. Some surnames take the article after ITUc au-d 
J1ic e.g.: 

TftAC An t)4ifvo, James Ward, 
ttic AH UICAI$, Nora McNulty. 


The Adjective. 

492. An adjective may be used either predicatively 
or attributively. An adjective is used predicatively 
when it is predicated of a noun by a verb, and in this 
case it is usually separated from the noun by the 
verb. " The way was long, the wind was cold.' 1 
''The day is fine." "He made the mantles green." 
"Long," "cold," " fine," and "green" are used pre- 
dicatively. An adjective is used attributively whenever 
it is not separated from the noun by the verb, and is 
not predicated of a noun by a verb : as, " The infirm 
old minstrel went wearily along." " He made the 
green mantles." The adjectives "infirm" "old," 
and "green" are here used attributively. 


493. In Irish almost every common adjective can 
be used both predicatively and attributively. There 
are, however, one or two exceptions : -opoc, bad, and 
oeA$, good, can never be used predicatively. If 
" bad" or "good" be used predicatively in the Eng- 
lish sentence, we must use olc, bad, or m^it, good, 
in Irish. Never say or write ip "oe^ e for " he is 
good," but ip ni^xit e, &c. 

The adjective lom-OA is always used predicatively 
with ip. In Munster 'm6 is used instead of iotm>ou 

t)o xt> An cplie peo. 
('Tis) many a rider (that) has gone this way. 


(a) The Position of the Adjective. 
494. As a general rule the adjective follows its noun 
in Irish: as, le^t)*\i\ mop, a big book; pe^p, m-Aic, a 
good man. 

Exceptions. (1) A numeral adjective, whether ordi- 
nal or cardinal, when it consists of one word, always 
precedes its noun : as cp.i DA, three cows ; -OA Cip.c, 
two hens. The intewogative, possessive, and most of 
the indefinite adjectives also precede their noun. 

(2) Monosyllabic adjectives are. frequently placed 
before the noun, but then the noun and adjective 
form a compound noun, and consequently the initial 
of the noun is aspirated, when possible. This is 

always the case with adjectives: T>e,A$, good; 
bad; fe^n, old; and frequently with nu-A-6, new; and 
pop, true. In this position the form of the adjectives 
never changes for number or case, but it is subject 
Lo the very same initial changes as if it were a noun. 

-f eA|\, ah old man ; peAn-frij\, old men. 

i, a brave man ; ^|AD-|\I, a high king. 

n, the old woman ; 
l<irh An cr-e^n-pfv the hand of the old man. 

(8) When a name consists of two words the adjec- 
tive frequently comes between them: as, "SliAD je-Al 
SCUA," "the bright Slieve Qua." 

(b) Agreement of the Adjective. 

When an adjective is used attributively and fol- 
lows its noun, it agrees with the noun in gender, 
number, and case : as, be^n rh&p, a big woman ; tn.dc 
An p|\ tfioip, the son of the big man ; tiA pp rhopA, 
the big men. 

For the aspiration and eclipsis of the adjective see 
par. 149. 

495. Since the adjective in English has no inflexion 
for gender, it is quite a common thing to have 
one adjective qualifying two or more nouns of dif- 
ferent genders. Sometimes in Irish we meet with 
one adjective qualifying two nouns of different genders 
or numbers ; in such cases the adjective follows the 


latter noun, and agrees with it alone. However, the 
more usual method is to use the adjective after each 
noun: as, 

JTeAfX TTIAlt AgUf bCAt1 ttlAlt. 

A good man and woman. 

(a) Position of the Adjective. 

496. An adjective used predicatively always fol- 
lows its noun, except when it is predicated by means 
of the verb 1S, in any of its forms, expressed or 

The men are good, C.A tiA pp 
The day is fine, "C& .AD 

If (he verb if he used in these sentences, notice the 
position of the adjective and the use of the pronoun. 
The men are good, 1f mMt r\A -pijv 1^*0. 
The day is fine, 1f bfteAj .ATI IA e. 

(I) Agreement of the Adjective. 
An adjective used predicatively never agrees with 
its noun in either gender, number, or case : in other 
words, the simple farm of the adjective is always nscd. 

Moreover, it is never aspirated nor eclipsed by the 

497. When the adjective comes immediately after 
the Past Tense or Conditional of if (i.e., bvi or bux>), 


its initial is generally aspirated, when possible; but 
in this case it is not the noun which causes aspira- 

t)A t>t\eA An IA 6. It was a fine day. 

498. Notice the difference in meaning between the 
following : 

Hmne p e DA fgeAriA genf A He made the sharp knives. 


He made the knives sharp. 
tlmne fe HA r^eAnA seupj 

UA AH ti<5 ttiop nub. The big cow is black. 

~CA Ar\ t>6 -CUD m6p. The black cow is big. 

C<A An oi-oee -ooyCA |rli6. The night is dark and wet. 

~CA AII oit>ce rliuC -oopCA. The wet night is dark. 

499. Adjectives denoting fulness or a part of any- 
thing are usually followed by -oe with the dative 
case : 

full of milk, tAti -oe t><Mnne. 

two barrels full of water, t>i DAjtAile tan T>' 


Position of the Words. 

500. A numeral adjective, whether ordinal or 
cardinal, when it consists of one word, goes before 
the noun. 

ceit^e C4P41U, four horses; f^ CAOipi$, six sheep. 

AH ceu-o ttuACAiLL, the first boy. 
The words for 40, 60, 80, 200, 300, &c., also pre- 
cede their nouns. 


501. A numeral adjective, except those just men- 
tioned, consisting of two or more words, takes its 
noun immediately after the first part of the numeral : 

ceitpe cApAill "oeuj, fourteen horses. 

O.A UAH "oeug, twelve lambs. 

TO-A fcum "oeug if cpi pCit), seventy-two cows. 

502. When we wish to express large numbers in 
Irish, we may either place the unit digit first, then 
the tens, next the hundreds, and so on ; or we may 
express them in the English order. Convenience for 
utterance and clearness of sense are the best guides 
in any particular case. 

The word A5US is generally used with the 
larger numbers C6AT), mile, etc., and 1S with the 
smaller ones. 

129 miles, CAT> (mile) -Aguf H.AOI mi 

79 horses, tix\oi gCAp^xill "0645 if cpi f.iciT>. 

5,635 men, cuig mile A u r fe Cevo f.eap ^j 

356 sheep, fe CAoipij "oeAg if -o^ icit> xxguf (-Am 

1,666 years, fe DUA-onA if cpi piti-o Aguf (A\\) 

Cexyo ^suf (Ap) mile. 
519 A.D., <\oif t)o ! n cije^ptiA 0015 Ce<vo 

52,000 of the Roman army, T><\ mile 
f.ici-0 mile -oe flu<\ 


More than 400 years, cuiUe(A-o) (bpeif) 

ceitpe CeAt) t>UA*Ain. 
About 80, cu-Aipim le (or timceAU le) ceitpe 

The word r l1 5 e i s often added to make it clear that 
miles not thousands is meant. Se mile fti$e, or re 
mile [-oe] ftige, six miles. 

503. The initials of the numerals undergo the very 
same changes with regard to aspiration and eclipsis 
as a noun would in the same position. 

8M. The article prefixes c to Aonmxvo, first, and to 
oCcrhA-o, eighth, whether the following noun be mas- 
culine or feminine : as, 

An c-oCcrh-AX) De^n, the eighth woman. 
Initial Changes produced by the Numerals. 
805. Aon, one ; T>A, two ; ceut), first ; and cjieAf , 
third, aspirate the initial of the following word : as, 
Aon E>6 AttiAin, one cow; -AH Cevro feAp, the first 

506. Aon, prefixes c to the letter p ; but has no 
effect on t> or c : Aon AJ\AI Aiti^in, one ass ; Aon top 
AttiAin, one foot ; Aon cpAgApc xxttiAin, one priest ; 
Aon cptAC AtfiAin, one rod ; Aon cfeAftAC xMtiAm, one 
hawk; t>A feAttAC, two hawks; Aon CAOD ArhAin, one 

507. Se^cc, seven; oCc, eight; TTAOI, nine; and 
oeit, ten ; and their compounds eolipse the initial 


of the following nonn and prefix n to vowels ; pe<\cc 
mbx\, seven cows ; -ceic n-ublji, ten apples. 

508. Up!, ceitpe, cuig and pe" have usually no effect 
on consonants (except ceti-o, 100, and mile, 1000); 
but tp.i, ceitp-e, pe, and TKAP~\ prefix h to vowels : as, 
cpi bA, three cows ; cpt li-Afv\iL, three asses ; pe" 
ti.ubtA, six apples ; 'p^ n ^p** h-Aic, in the second 
place; cp? ceux>, 300; ceitpe mile, 4000. 

Cpi, ceitpe, GUIS and pe (as well as re<\ec, oCc, &c.), 
cause eclipsis in the genitive plural : A be.Ati HA -ocpi 
m'oo. () woman of three coirs.' Uu\C ceicpe bpiinc 
four pound's icorth. 

The Number of the Noun after the Numerals. 

509. The noun after ^on is always in the singular, 
even in such numbers as 11, 21, 31, 41, &c. The other 
numerals (except -CM) may take the singular number 
when unity of idea is expressed : e.g., Aon ubai 
oeAj;, eleven apples; -Oe^ivnuvo pe A\\ ruv cp-i tnnLle 
'DiuxlAt). He forgot to strike the three blows. 

510. When a noun has two forms in the plural, a 
short form and a long one, the short form is preferred 
after the numerals : as 

n-xMp.e, nine times; not ru\oi n-tiAip.e<\nnc\. 

811. In Modern Irish the numerals pee, 20; TM 
, 40, &c., ceu-o, 100; mile, 1,000, are regarded 
as simple numeral adjectives which take the noun 
after them in the singular number. 


812. This peculiar construction 1ms n risen from the fact that thes 
numerals are really nount, And formerly governed the -nouns after 
them in the genitive plural. As the genitive plural of most Irish 
nouns has exactly the same form as the nominative singular, the 
singular form has come to be almost universally used in Modern Irish 
after these numerals. Formerly they would use ceu-o ban and p:ce 
CAOJIAC, but now we use ccuo be<vn and pice CAOJIA. 

513. The word ce^nn and its plural cum are often 
used with numerals ivhen the noun is not expressed in 
English: as, CA rfcetro (Ati'mo) leADap AJAC ? UA t)x5 
Ce^nn T)eu5 A5Am. How many books have you? 
I have twelve. 

CA ceAtin (or mime) ACA mr <\n ci$. 
There is one of them in the house. 

The Dual Number. 

514. "OS, " two," always takes the noun after it in 
the dual number (neither singular nor plural), which 
in every Irish noun has the same form as the dative 
singular. This does not at all imply that the noun 
after -OA is in the dative case. It is in the dative 
singular form, but it may be in any of the five cases, 
according to its use in the sentence. All the cases of 
the dual number are alike, but the form of the geni- 
tive plural is often used for the genitive dual : -OA 
bum, two cows; -OA $AtK\inn, two smiths; Uin 4 t>i 
Uim or Un A i)& Urn, the full of his two hands. 



515. The article which qualifies a noun in the dual 
number will always be in the singular form. 

516. The adjective which qualifies a noun in the 
dual number will be in the plural form, but really in 
the dual number; the pronouns belonging to the 
noun will be in the plural form ; and the verb may, 
but need not be ; because in these parts of speech the 
dual number and the plural number have the same 

517. The initial of an adjective* qualifying and 
agreeing with a noun in the dual number will be 
aspirated, no matter what the gender or case of the 
noun may be : as, 

6^ tt$ -oeus, twelve houses. 

An t><\ lA\m ft An A, the two white hands. 

Urn A -DA Uirii tie^s, the full of her two little hands. 

518. The t> of T>A is usually aspirated, except after 
words ending in t>, n, c, I, p (dentals), 'or after the 
possessive adjective A, her. 

A T)xX Coip tie-A^A, her two little feet. 

Except demonstrative, posfee'ssive, indefinite, and interrogative 


The Possessive Adjective. 

519. A possessive adjective can never be used with- 
out a noun: as, her father and his, A ri-AtAij\ Agup A 


520. The possessive adjectives always precede their 
nouns : as, mo rfiAtAip, my mother. 

521. The possessives mo, my; -oo, thy; and A, his, 
aspirate the initial of their nouns ; Aft, our ; tiup, your ; 
and A, their, cause eclipsis: as, A -OAri, his poem; -oo 
rhAtAip, thy mother; A -OAti, her poem ; A troAn, their 

522. If a noun begins with a vowel, mo, my, and 
oo, thy, become m' and -o' (c or t); A, his, has no 
effect ; A, her, prefixes ti ; and A, their, prefixes n ; A\\, 
our, and tiur\, your, also prefix n to vowels: as, 
A AtAir, his father; A ti-AtAip, her father; A n-AtAirt, 
their father; m'f:ex\i\, my husband; -o'eun, your bird; 
A\\ n-A\\Ar\ tAete.Arh.Ail, our daily bread; tiup n-At>rvAn, 
your song. 

523. The possessive adjectives, when compounded 
with prepositions (see par. 186), have the same 
influence over the initials of their nouns as they have 
in their uncompounded state : as, -com mAtAir., to my 
mother ; om tirv, from my country. 


524. When the portion of a thing which helongs to 
one or more persons is to be expressed by the posses- 
sive adjectives, the name of the thing is preceded by 
cuiT), with the possessive adjective before it. The 
name of the thing is in the genitive case genitive 
singular if quantity be implied, but genitive plural if 
number as, my bread, mo CUIT> A^in (lit. my share 
of bread) ; his wine, A cuit> ponA ; their horses, 

A 5CU1D 

This rule is not always followed ; for instance, we 
sometimes find m'pon, my wine ; but mo CUID p'on\ 
is more idiomatic. 

525. The word ctut> is never used in this way before 
the name of a single object. 

, my book; A scap^U, their horse. 
, his book; but A cuit) lexit>Af, his books. 
A t>6, her cow; A CUID b<5, her cows. 

526. The word cuit) is not used in such phrases as 
mo COJM, my feet; mo fuile, my eyes; A Cn-dm^, his 
bones, &c. 

527. When the emphatic suffix is used, some make 
it follow CUIT) ; others make it follow the noun : as, 
mo cuix>-fe A^AW or mo cuix> 



Personal Pronoun. 

628 The personal pronouns agree with the nouns 
for which they stand in gender, number and person : 

as, He is a big man. 1p tntfp An peAp 6. They are big 
men. 1p mop m\ pip IAT>. 

529. A personal pronoun which stands for a noun 
the gender of which is different from its sex, agrees 
in gender with the sex of the noun ; as, 1p mAit An 
CAilin i. She is a good girl. 1p olc An Comupp A e. 
He is a bad neighbour. 

530. In Irish we have no neuter pronoun corre- 
sponding to the English "it;" hence, in translating 
"it," we must determine the gender of the Irish 
noun (masculine or feminine) and then use pe (he) or 
f i (she) accordingly :* as, It is terrible weather. 1p 
CAillce An Aiinpp i. Is to-day Friday ? An i An 
Aome ACA A^Ainn ? X)ob i An ppinne i. It was the 
truth. UA An CApup AgAm, ni puit p6 cj^otn. I have 
the hammer, it is not heav}'. 

* The word Ate although feminine takes sometimes a masculine 
pronoun, as, 1p x>CAp AH AIC e. It is A nice place. 
Notice also 
i r e \ 
or Lmo fcAHAtiiAit,. mo tuAijnm, Ac. It is my opinion, &c., &o. 

If '') 


531. The pronoun cu, thou, is always used to trans- 
late the English "you" when only one person is 
referred to ; as, How are you ? Ciontu\p CA cu ? 
What a man you are ! tUc cu x\n 

532. The personal pronouns, whether nominative 
or accusative, always come after the verb; as, 
motAtin f6 Cu, he praises you. 

533. The disjunctive forms of the personal pro- 
nouns are used immediately after the verb 1S in any 
of its forms expressed or understood ; as, if e an jre^p 
tAiT)it\ 6. He is a strong man. An 6 A jritAip e? Was 
it he who found it ? tUc i -o' ing&An i ? Is she not 
your daughter? 

534. A personal pronoun which stands for a sen- 
tence, or part of a sentence, is third person singular, 
masculine gender. An put) <vout>.An\c me, ip ADeipim 
Apip. What I said, I repeat. 

535. The accusative personal pronoun usually 
comes last in the sentence or clause to which it 
belongs : as, "O'fAg p6 A|\ Ati AIC fin IATX He left them 
at that place. 1lu^f6 letp mite eile e. He brought it 
with him another mile. "O'fAgAf im tnxMt) e. I left it 
after me. 

Relative Pronoun. 

536. The relative particle follows its antecedent and 
precedes its verb : as, .an jre^p A cot)t6(iAf , the man 
who will sleep. 


837. The relative particle, whether expressed or 
understood, always causes aspiration : ap, AH 
fteAr- AS obAip, the man who will be at work. 

538. The relative when preceded by a preposition 
causes eclipsis (unless the verb be in the Past Tense). 
When the relative A signifies " all that " or " what " 
it causes eclipsis : as, AD AIC 1 n-A 6-puit pe", the place 
in which he is ; A bpuiL i mt)Aile-AtA-ClMt, all that 
is in Dublin. 

539. When the relative is governed by a preposi- 
tion and followed by a verb in the Past Tense, the 
relative combines with f\o (the old sign of the Past 
Tense), and does not eclipse : -AH AIC AJ\ tuic Ao-o, 
the place where (in which) Hugh fell. 

550. The eight verbs which do not admit of the 
compounds of j\o being used before them (see par. 
279) form an exception to the last rule : as, An cip 
i n-A oc<.\mi5 pe, the country into which he came. 

541. In English, when the relative or interrogative 
pronoun is governed by a preposition, tbe pronoun 
very often comes before the governing word : as, 
What are you speaking about ? The man that he gave 
the book to is here. In colloquial Irish it is a very 
common practice to separate the relative particle from 
the preposition which governs it ; but instead of using 
a simple preposition at the end of the sentence, as in 
English, we use a prepositional pronoun. Thus we 


can say .ATI peAp AS A t>pinl AH t>6, or more usually, AT. 
peAf. A tipjit, AM 156 Aige,* the inan who has the cow; 
An peAp Ap OiolAr- An CApAll Leif, or An p*An lep 
oiolAr- An CApAll, the man to whom I sold the horse. 

542. The forms t>Apl) or tMpAb, T)ApG, lepo, niApb, 
&c., are compounds of a preposition, relative particle; 
"po," the sign of the Past Tense,* and DA or two the 
Past Tense of if. 

OApt>= - oo + A-f-po + bA=to whom was. 

lep t> = le + A + po + bA = with or by whom was. 

as, beAtt -OAjvt* v\inm t)pi$iT>, a woman whose name 
was Brigid. 

543. As the accusative case of the relative particle 
has exactly the same form as the nominative, the 
context must determine, in those tenses in which the 
verb has no distinct termination for the relative, 
whether the relative particle is the subject or object 
of the verb ; An peAf\ A tiuAil SeA$An, may mean, The 
man whom John struck, or The man who struck John. 

Translation of the Genitive Case of the English 

544. The Irish relative has no inflection for case ; 
hence, in order to translate the English word " whose'' 

fi 50 B-puil An Bo Aiy;e is also used. 


when not an interrogative, we must use one of the 
prepositions (^5, -oo, i) + relative particle + posses- 
sive adjective (before the noun). 

The man whose son was sick. 

An peAjv < .AgA - JVAI& A tfiAC cinn. 
(i n-x.\) 

but. -ad, A^A, or '5A, i n-A are often shortened to A, 50, 
and 'HA ; hence the above sentence in colloquial Irish 
would be 

50 f JAAltt A 

The woman whose son is sick visited us yesterday. 

( 5 1 

f t>puil A triAc cinn 

'"" \ '5^ C 
I *c. ) ' 

An tie-An U 

545. To translate the English relative pronoun 
when governed by an active participle, we employ a 
somewhat similar construction ; as 

The hare that the hounds are pursuing. 

An Sippf 1 ^ S opuil nA SXVO.AIP A|\ A toj\5 (or AP A 

c<5ifi, or ^5 c6]\AigeA(ic Ai|\). 

The man whom I am striking. 


546. The relative A meaning all that, what, may 
itself be genitive ; as, cfMAti A jvAib Ann, a third of what 
were there. "t)eip beAiniACc 6m Cpoit>e Cum A 
mAipeAnn Ap t>Aiicnoic 6ipeAnn 615." " Bear a bless- 
ing from my heart to all those who live on the fair 
hills of Holy Ireland." 

The relative A in this sentence is genitive case being 
governed by Cum (see par. 603). 


The Yerb. 

547. As a general rule the verb precedes its nomi- 
native: as, CA pe, he is; tM .ATI v e<<x l v -arm,- the man 
was there. 

Exceptions. (1) When the subject is a relative or an 
interrogative pronoun the verb comes after its subject; 

An buACAill A ttuAiteAf me" . The boy who strikes me. 
CAV AK A AS AC? What have you? 

(2) In a relative sentence the nominative though 
not a relative pronoun may precede its verb ; but as 
the noun is usually far separated from the verb, a 


personal pronoun is used as a sort of temporary sub- 
ject, so that really the noun and its pronoun are 
nominative to the same verb : as, 

-An v eA P A t A '" A f eAfAtri AS An -oopAf tin Ail p 6 An 
cApAll. The man who is standing at the door 
struck the horse. 

Compare the similar use of the French pronoun OE ; or the English 
" He that shall persevere unto the end, he shall be saved." 

(3) The nominative often precedes its verb in 
poetry, and sometimes even in prose. 

RAC 50 pAifc o|\c ! Success to you ! 

548. Transitive verbs govern the accusative case ; 
and the usual order of words is, Verb, Subject, 
Object. When the subject or object is a relative or 
an interrogative pronoun it precedes the verb. 

T)o finne SeA$An An DAD pAin. John made that boat. 
T)o tiuAtl An tHMCAitl e. The boy struck him. 

For the conditions under which a verb is aspirated or eclipsed, see 
pars. 21(g) and 26(e). 

Use of the Subjunctive Mood. 

549. The most frequent use of the present sub- 
junctive is with the conjunction 50, expressing a 
wish. If the wish be negative use 1U\R (except 
with j\Ait>). 



5o ftpdifit) T)IA ojVAinn I 

50 -oc6i$ cu flan I 

fl-dp 16151-6 "OiA pn ! 

A^AC ! 
HA jvAib triAic A$AC I 

May God bless you ! 

God help us ! 

Safe home ! (may you go 

safely) ! 
May God not allow that ! 

God forbid ! 
Thank you ! 
No thanks to you ! 

550. The subjunctive is also used after II (3 50, 50 
or ACU 50, all meaning "until"; and after mtin^, 
"unless," but only when there is an element of 

p.Ati Annfo 50 ocASAt) A|\Tf . 
pti n\6. 

cu AH 

Stay here till I come again. 
Unless you believe me. 
Unless you give me the 

551. SUl A, SVlt pA, Stlt mA, Stlt "O&, all mean- 
ing " before," when used with reference to an event 
not considered as an actual occurrence, take the sub- 
junctive; as, 

Imcig teAU put A -ocASAit) At\ mAigifci^. Be off 
with you, before the master comes. 

552. The past subjunctive is found after "OxS or 
muriA to express a supposed condition. They may 
also take a conditional. In translating the English 
phrases "if he believed," "if he had believed " (im- 


plying that he did not believe), we use T>A with the 
past subjunctive ; but as this Tense is identical in 
form with the Imperfect Tense, it may be said that it 
is the Imperfect Tense which is employed in this 

If you were to see Donal on the following day 
you would pity him. 

"OorhnAll Af\ tn.Ait>in US AJ\ n-A t>^ttA 

te*.\c 6. 

If you were to give me that book. 
T)A ocagtA-fA "ooriifA ATI le.AD.\n pin. 
If it were true for him. "Oi mbA-o pop -66 6. 

All the particles given above can also be used 
with the past subjunctive in reference to past time. 

553. In the passive voice the present and past sub- 
junctive are identical in form with the Present and 
Imperfect Tenses (respectively) of the Indicative 

May it be worn out well. 5 SCAitceAf 50 mAit 6. 
May it never be worn out. tl^ CxMtce^p 50 -oeo 6 
If it were worn out. X)A CAitci 6. 

Relative Form of the Verb. 

554. The relative form of the verb is used after the 
relative particle A, when it is the subject of the verb; 
(but never after the negative relative n^C, which or 
who. ..not}. It has a distinct form in two, and only 


two, Tenses the Present and the Future. In these 
two Tenses it ends in Ap or eAp. In all the other 
Tenses the third person, singular is used after the 
relative pronoun. The verb is aspirated after the 
relative, expressed or understood ; but nAC eclipses. 

535. The inflection of the relative form in present 
tense is not used in the spoken Language of to-day 
(except irj proverbs). In Connaught the final p of the 
relative form is added to the form for the 3rd person 
singular; <?.</., ATI pe^v A tiUAileAnnp, the man who 
strikes ; An tniACAill A tutgeAnnp, the boy who under- 
stands. The literary form of the' relative in the 
future tense is retained in full vigour in Connaught ; 
e.g., An peAj\ A ftuAilpeAp, the man who will strike. In 
Munster the relative form has entirely disappeared in 
both the present and the future tenses (except in pro- 
verbs). The 3rd person singular form has taken its 
place ; e.g., AH peAp A ttUAjleAnn, the man who strikes. 

556. As the relative has no inflection for case, 
ambiguity sometimes arises: e.g., ".An p.6Ap A fcuAil 
SeA^An, may mean, either the man icho struck John, 
or, -the man whom John struck. The context usually 
solves the difficulty. The following construction is 
sometimes emplpyed in order -to obviate any am- 
biguity : 

An peAp A tiuAil SeA$Ati. The man who struck John. 
An peAf\5tip. tiuAil SeAgAn The man whom John 
e. struck. 

557. Cionnup, how; nuAip, when; and tnAp,, as, are 
followed by the relative form of the verb in the Pre- 
sent and Future, and the verb is aspirated ; but with 
cionnup A, CIA An CAOI, CIA An n6p, CIA A'n mot!), or any 


other such locutions, the eclipsing A or 1 (in which) is 
used before the verb. Before the Past Tense, of 
course, ^\|\ (<\-fpo) is used. Cionnup A bputt cu ? 
How are you ? 

IT)Af\ is also followed by the ordinary Present and 

558. SUt, " before," has two usages. It may be fol- 
lowed by the relative forms e.g., put tiocpx\p pe, put 
tAimg pe ; or else it may be followed by one of the 
particles A, tn.a, pd,- T>A, all of which eclipse. 

559. After these particles, the Subjunctive Mood is 
often used when the event is future and uncertain, or 
contains a mental element : as 

LeAc put. A t>p.eicf6 pe tti. . 
Be off (with you) before he sees you (i.e., so that 
he may not see you). 

It is not correct to eclipse after the word put, as 
put TDc^mig, although sometimes done. 

560. The relative form of the Present Tense is fre- 
quently used as a historic present, even when no 
relative occurs in the sentence : as 

6itAerhon -ooiti, Eremon revealed to them. 


The Verbal Noun and its Functions. 
561. "Is there an Infinitive in Irish?" We give 
here Father O'Leary's answer to his own question, 
" Certainly not." In Irish there is neither an infini- 
tive mood nor a present participle, both functions 
being discharged by the verbal noun. It follows 
from this statement that there is no such thing as a 
tign of the infinitive mood in Irish. 

1f mait liom f luDAl. I wish to walk. 

"OufcfVAr teif 5411 neACc. I told him not* to come. 

CA ot\mfA peiteArii. I have to wait. 

tlfop rhAit liom be-dti- I did not wish to salute 

nu$At> -06. him. 

tli tig te mAlA potAtti An empty bag cannot 


862. In the above examples, and in thousands of 
similar ones, the Irish verbal noun is an exact equivalent 
in sense of the English infinitive, sign and all. If any 
one of the prepositions t>o (or A), le or Cum, be used 
before the verbal nouns in the above examples, the 
result is utter nonsense. Now consider the following 
examples : 

tiom An D6tA t>o I wish to walk the road. 

liom jroc-Al T)O I wish to speak a word. 

* Not before the English infinitive is translated by 5^\n (a prep., 


T)ut>Aipc nVAtAipLiom 5An My father told me not to 

An CAPALL "oo -oioL. sell the horse. 

1f c6if t>uic An jreup -oo You ought to cut the grass. 

An pei-Dip LeAC An CAinc Can you understand the 
oo tuigpnc ? conversation ? 

Uom licip T>O I wish to write a letter. 


563. The preposition t>o in the above examples and 
ones like them between the noun and the verbal 
noun, is very often, in the spoken language, softened 
to A : and this A is not heard before or after a vowel : 

1f C6lp OI11C COtfUMfVle 'gtACAt). 

You ought to take advice. 

564. In any sentence of the first set of examples 
there is question of only one thing ; e.g., fiuftAt, 
CCACC, peiteArh, &c., but in each of the sentences of 
the second set there is a relation between two things : 
e.g., oCtAf and fiuGAl, JTOCAI and lAftAipc, &c., and to 
express this relationship a preposition is used between 
the two nouns. If the relation between the nouns be 
altered the preposition must also be altered, as 

CA b6tAp AgAm le pubAl, I have a road to walk. 
CA f OCAI AgAin Le lAbAipc, I have a word to say. 
CA CApAll A5Am Le -oioL, I have a horse for sale (to 

CA jreup AJAC Le bAinc, You have grass to cut. 


565. There is still another preposition which can be 
used between the nouns to express another alteration 
in meaning 

CA CC.AC Cum corhnuite I have a house to live in. 

Cum rnAf cui$- He has a horse to ride on. 

If in any one of these sentences the wrong preposi- 
tion be employed the proper meaning cannot be 

566. In translating the simple English infinitive of 
an intransitive verb, use the simple verbal noun in 
Irish: as, 

He told me to go to Cork. "OutiAipc f liorn -out 50 

An empty bag cannot 11 i tig le 
stand. fe.Af.Am. 

It is impossible to write Tli ?eiT>ip f5piot>At> 
without learning. f-ojlAim. 

I prefer to walk. 1f f.e^|\f\ liom fiuoAl. 

He cannot stand. tli tig teif fe^fArh. 

Tell him to sit down. Ab<Mj\ teif f uit)e fiof. 

Tell them to go away. AbAip Leo 


567. When the English intransitive infinitive ex- 
presses purpose (i.e., the gerundial infinitive), use the 
preposition le. 

He came to stay, CAinij; f & 

I have a word to say, UA pocAt AgAm le 

You are to wait, CA cu le 

I am to go, CAim te -out. 

568. When the English verb is transitive and in 
the simple infinitive (no purpose implied) use the 
preposition -DO or the softened form A. 

My father told me to buy T)uDAit\c m'AtAin tiom 

a horse. cApAlt T>O ceAnnAC. 

You ought to have cut t)A Coip t>tnc An peujv t>o 

the grass. riAinc. 

He told me not to shut "OuGAi^c p e tiom gAn An 

the door. -oofVAf T>O -ounA-6. 

Would you like to read An miAn teAC An 
this book ? f o -oo 

569. When the English infinitive is transitive, and 
also expresses purpose, use either CUtl or le before 
the noun which is the object of the English infinitive, 
and "OO before the verbal noun in Irish ; <iun takes 

the noun after it in the genitive ; le becomes leif 
before the article, and then causes eclipsis if the noun 
be singular. 

S6 Cum bpeit- 
"oo t.At>Aiivc A\\ 
t>eot>Ait> A5up x\j\ rhAf.t>- 

He will come to judge the 
living and the dead. 

He came to buy a horse. 
He went to strike the men. 
He went to strike the man. 

He said that to praise the 'OuOAi^c f6 fin leif An 

girl. SCAilin -oo 

He came to buy the horse. UAinig fe Cum .an 


fe Cun DA tif.eAf\ 



570. We can also express the above by means of 
the preposition -oo alone, but in this case we must 
put the verbal noun before the other noun. This 
latter will, of course, be now in the genitive case, 
because one noun governs another in the genitive 
case. This is the only governing power the verbal noun 
has in Irish. 

fe t>o CeAtitu\e 

He came to buy the horse. 

He went to strike the man. CUAI-O f e -DO t>uAiAt> An f ip. 

Did you come to strike An t)C.An5Aip -00 bu-AUvo 

John ? SeAgAin ? 

He came to make fun. UAinig p& T>O 

They came to make war. UAH^A-O^X t>o -oeunAm 


N.B. This latter method is not often used in the 
spoken language. 

571. When the English infinitive is passive, and 
also expresses purpose, use te. 

He is to be hanged. UA pe te cpo6A > 6, or te 

beit cfiocA. 

The milk is to be drunk. UA An bAinne te n-Ot (&c.). 

Cows are to be bought at UA bA te 

the fair. AonAC. 

The grass is to be cut. UA An peuf\ te 

The house is to be sold. UA An ceAC te -oiot. 

There is no one to be seen Hi pint T>uine A^ bit te 

on the road. peicpint A]\ An 

57?. When a personal pronoun is the object of the 
English infinitive and the latter does not express 
purpose, we translate as follows : 

,, (Hi ctfm'ouicme' t)o bUAtAt). 

You ought not to strike me. < 

(tli coij\ -Dine mo buAtA-6. 

(t)A miAn liom e*oo biiAtAt). 
1 wished to strike him. ] 

(DA miAn tiom A 


1f miAn Uom i -oo rhoUvo. 

I wish to praise her. 

jr miAM Itom A moUvo. 

It is not right to strike (Hi c6ip IA-O x>o 
them. (til c6ij\ A mbuAlA-6. 

T . . t i ,1 -, C\r 

It is a bad thing to wound 

I cannot understand it. tli 615 iiom A 

(its understanding). 

Could you tell me who it An peiDij\ lev\c A* mnf me 

was ? -com CIA 'i\6'e ? 

A desire to kill them came U<\mij; miAti A in*xf\t>tA 

upon me. 0|\mfA. 

In this sentence mAptirA is the genitive case (after 
the noun miAn of the verbal noun 

573. When the English infinitive governing a per- 
sonal pronoun expresses purpose, we translate as 
follows : 

Aimj; re t)Otn DVKAUVO. 
He came to strike me. { . 

{ CAitiig r e le in6 ~oo 5uAtAt). 

I went to strike them. -I CUAI-O m6 te II-IAI) -oo 
v GnjktAT!). 

* Whenever the object of the verbal noun is a phrase, it cannot be 
put in the genitive case, but the possessive adjective A is used before 
the verbal noun. 


They are coming to wound] 

I 1 

us. CA pxvo ^5 CCACC le pnn 

-oo 5011^-6. 

If we used the autonomous form in this last 
sentence we would get 

(tAtAp 45 C64CC T>A)\ 

They are coming to wound I nsonxvo. 

us. JUAtAp AS ceACC Le pnn 


674. The English present participle .is usually trans- 
lated by the verbal noun preceded by the preposition 
45. If the English present participle expresses 
"rest " (e.g., standing, sitting, lying, sleeping, &c.) the 
verbal noun must be preceded by the preposition i 
( = in) compounded with a suitable possessive adjec- 
tive ( 186). 

CA p.vo ^5 ce^ct. They are coming. 

t)i .\n bu^cAilt'n^ fe.\r^rh. The boy was standing. 
CJk ^n Oe^n HA feap<\rh. The woman is standing. 

575. The verbal noun in each of the above is dative 
case, governed by the preposition ^5. 

576. When the English present participle governs 
an objective case, the object if a noun will follow 
the verbal noun in Irish and will be in the genitive 

He is cutting the grass. UA p6 45 twine An fip. 
She was stretching out her V)i p 45 finest) A Uiime 


Are you reading the letter? t)puiL cu AS 


Who was beating the child? CIA E>i A$ OUAIA-O AH Leinb? 

577. If the object of the English present participle 
bo a personal pronoun we cannot translate as in the 
above sentences, because the pronouns have no geni- 
tive case ; hence instead of using the personal pronouns 
we must employ the possessive adjectives. Posses- 
sive adjectives must always precede the nouns 
which they qualify. 

He is striking me. "CA p6 'sAtn (or ASOHI) 

OUAIA-O (lit. he is at my 

Are you breaking it? t)puH cu 'A 

Are you breaking them? t)puil cu '5 A (ASA) 


He is praising us. UA fe s^v (AS A\\) molAt). 

Is he not burning them ? HAI 

They are not striking her. Hi puit fiAt> '54 (ASA) 


Note carefully the initial effects of the possessive 
adjectives on the verbal nouns after them. 


578. Preceded by AJ\, the Verbal Noun has the force 
of a Present Participle Passive, denoting a continued 
or habitual state : as, 

Hi jrtnl An C6AH5A fin AJ\ That language is not 
lAtiAipc Anoir. spoken now. 

CA An Cfuic Af\ cfoCA* AJ\ The harp is hanging on 
An 115615. the bough. 

Sseut Af\ teAn<\rhAinc. A continued story. 

In this idiom A^ neither aspirates nor eclipses. 

579. With iA|\, after (eclipsing), the Verbal Noun 
has the force of a Perfect Participle : as, 

Patrick having come into Ireland. 

But in this idiom IAJ\ is usually shortened to Ap: as, 
Af\ -oceACc, &c., the eclipsis being retained. In collo- 
quial language the Verbal Noun is commonly aspi- 
rated, not eclipsed, by AP in this usage. 

580. 5 An . is the word used to express negation 
with the Verbal Noun : as, SAM CCACC, not to coine. 

At)Ai|\ te t)fUAti 5An An sojvc t)o tf eAfeAt). 
Tell Brian not to plough the field. 

581. 5 .\n with the Verbal Noun has the force of the 
Passive Participle in English with un prefixed: as, 

Hlo Cui5 puinc olnA A^uf iAt) $An fniotti, 
My five pounds of wool, and they tmspun. 


582. The genitive of the Verbal Noun is often used 
where a relative or infinitive clause would be used in 
English: as, 

T1iot\ FASA-O peAp innipce 

There was not a man left to tell the tidings, 

CAiUn -oeAr cfui-oce HA mt>6, 
The pretty girl who milks the cows (lit. of the 
milking, &c.). 

583. The following examples will be studied with 
advantage. They are culled from Father O'Leary's 
fllion-CAinc : 

Someone is striking me. UAtAp 'Am t>AlA-6. 

I am being struck. CAITTI -corn &UALAT!). 

Someone is striking the tAtAj\ A$ buAlA-6 ATI 

dog. gA'OAIfV 

The dog is being struck. UA AH SA-OAJX -DA t)UAlA-6. 

Someone is breaking the CACA|\ AS DpipeA-b HA 

stones. gcloC. 

The stones are being Cd TIA CIOCA -DA mbpipeA*. 

Thsy used to kill people. t)ic! Ag mAf\oA-6 -OAome. 

People used to be killed. tMo-o DAome -OA mApbA-6. 

They used to buy horses. t)ici Ag ceAnnAC 

Horses used to be bought. l)iotf CApAiU -OA 



We (or they) will be dig- t3eit>pe^i\ 45 bAinc ptvd- 

ging potatoes. CAOI. 

Potatoes will be dug. t)ei ppACAOi T>A mb^inc. 

We shall have dug the t)6i-6 r>A PJVAC.AOI 

potatoes. ..\5Ainn. 

If they were breaking T)A mb6i-6p! ^5 

stones, they would not doc ni beit>pi 

be cold. 

If they are breaking stones 

they are not cold. tii 


58$. A definite noun is one limited by its nature or 
by some accompanying word to a definite individual 
or group. 

The following are definite nouns : 

(a) The name of a person or place (but not a class 

name like S-AjvmAc). 
(fc) A noun preceded by the definite article. 

(c) A noun preceded by a demonstrative adjective. 

(d) A noun preceded by gx\c (because it means each 

taken individually). 

(e) A noun followed by any other definite noun in 

the genitive case. 

Any noun not included in the above classes is an 
indefinite noun. 


585. Whenever a definite noun is the subject of 
a verb in English, and the verb ir is employed 
in translating into Irish, a personal pronoun must 
immediately precede the definite noun in Irish. 

John is the man. 1p 6 SeA$\n AI\ 


586. (a) When the verb "to be " in English is fol- 
lowed by a definite noun, use ir : as, 

I am John. 1r mire Se^Sn. 

It is the man. 1r 6 An pe^p 6. 

You are my brother. 1r cii mo 

James is the man. ip 6 Seum^r ATI 
It is the woman of the house. 1r i be<\n ^n cige i. 

Are you not my friend? H^C cu tno 

He is not my father. Hi h-6 pin 

All sentences of this class are called "Identifica- 
tion sentences." 

He, she and they in sentences of identity have 
usually the forc^ of demonstrative pronouns, and 
are translated by e pn, i fin, u^o r- vn - 

(6) When the verb " to be " in English is followed 
by an indefinite noun ir or CA may be used, 
but with very different meanings. Whenever 
wp use the verb if in such a sentence we convey 
the idea of " classification," or species : as, ir 


Aimrhi$e bo. A cow is an animal, &c. ; or we lay 
stress on what the person or thing is at the time being, 
without any thought that he has become what he, or 
it, is. For instance, a father, enumerating to a friend 
the various positions in life of his children, may say, 
1p ceAnmime Seunu\p, ip pAgApc SeAgAii, Agup ip 
peAp T)Li5e TttiCeAl : James is a merchant, John a 
priest, and Michael is a lawyer. He should not use 
CA in such a case, as he considers simply what each 
is at the time being. When CA is used we convey 
tne idea that the person or thing has become what he 
(or it) is, and that he (or it) was not always so. Sup- 
pose a father is telling what professions his sons have 
adopted, he should say, CA Sen map 'tiA CeAtinufoe, &c. 
In such constructions the verb CA must be followed 
by the preposition i or A, and a suitable possessive 

(c) The difference between c^ and ip is well ex- 
emplified by the two sentences if peAp e and CA pe 
'HA peAp, both meaning " He is a man." If we see 
a figure approach us in the dark, and after looking 
closely at it we discover it to be a man, our correct 
phraseology would then be, ip peAp 6. But when we 
say CA pe 'TIA f e^p we convey a very different idea. 
We mean that the person of whom we are speaking 
is no longer a boy, he has now Teached manhood. 
If anyone were speaking to you of a person 
as if he were a mere boy, and you wished to correct 
him, you should use the phrase CA pe 'PA 


(d) When the indefinite noun after the verb "to 
be " in English is qualified by an adjective, the verb 
if or CA may be used according to the idea we wish to 
convey. If we wish to express a " condition sentence " 
(i.e., one which has reference to the state or condition 
of the subject at the time in question), we use c<i ; 
otherwise we employ ip, e.g., 

He is a small man. CA pe 'n-A fe<Ap 

He is a useful man. "CA fe 'n& e<\f\ 

She was a good woman t)i f i 'n-a trmxioi rh^it. 

(e) When the verb ip is employed in such sentences 
there is a clioice of two consti-uctions. In the second 
construction (as given in the examples below), we 
emphasise the adjective, by making it the prominent 
idea of the sentence. The definite article must be 
used in the second construction. 

1f LA btie^S I T4- j 

[It is a fine day. 
1f bpe^g .ATI LA 6. \ 

1f oit)Ce . TA 

It is a cold night. 

1r b6 btreAS i fin. ) 

That is a fine cow, 
1f bpe-Aj; AT\ G<5 t fin. } 

fin ? 

J Isn't that a pretty island? 
Tl-aC -oexxr An c-oite^n e 


(/) When a simple adjective follows the verb " to 
be" in English, either if or c<* may be employed 

in translating, as, 

Honey is sweet, if rmtif mil or CA mit milip. 
He is strong, if Ui-oip e or CA f e 

587. The beginning of a sentence is naturally the 
place of greatest prominence, and is usually occupied 
in Irish by the verb. When, however, any idea other 
than that contained in the verb is to be emphasised, 
it is placed immediately after the verb if , and the 
rest of the sentence is thrown into the relative form. 

For example, "We went to Derry yesterday," 
would be generally translated : CUAI-O finn 50 Doipe 
iiroe : but it may also take the following forms 
according to the word emphasised. 

We went to Derry yester- if finne t>o CUAI-O 50 
day. T)oif\e m-oe. 

We went to Derry yester- 1f 50 T)oif.e -DO CUAI* 
day. finn in"o6. 

We went to Derry yester- 1f itroe t>o Cu^it) finn 50 
day. "Ooife. 

588. The Verb 1S is then used. 

(1) To express Identity, e.g., 1f 6 Conn An 

(2) Classification, 1f f.i Conn. 
(B) Emphasis, 1f in-oe -oo 

pnn 50 



589. The predicate cf the sentence always follov/s 
1S: as, 

Dermot is a man, 1f pe^p X)i.AfuniiiT>. 

They are children, 1f pAipoi i<vo. 

John is a priest, 1f f\5-<\j\c 

Coal is black, 1f x>ut> 

A cow is an animal, 1p .Ainirhige bo. 

Turf is not coal, Hi giuvl m6in. 

Is it a man? An v e ^r 6 ? 

590. Sentences of Identification e.g., Conn is the 
king form an apparent exception. The fact is that 
in this sentence either the word "Conn" or "the 
king" may be the logical predicate. In English 
" king" is the grammatical predicate, but in Irish it is 
the grammatical subject, and "Conn" is the gramma- 
tical predicate. Hence the sentence will be, 1f e 
Conn An -pi. 

591. In such sentences, when two nouns or a pro- 
noun and noun are connected by the verb if, as a 
general rule, the more particular and individual of 
the two is made grammatical predicate in Irish. 
The converse usually holds in English. For instance, 
we say in English " I am the messenger," but in Irish 
if mire *\n ce^CcxMne (lit. "the messenger is I"). 
Likewise with the following : 

You are the man, if cu <MI pe<xp. 
He is the master, If e pin <\n m<\i$ifcip. 
^We are the boys, 1f pinne n*i 


592. Sentences like "It is Donal," " It is the mes- 
senger/' &c., are translated if 6 'OorhnAll 6, if e An 

e. Here "e "OorhnAU" and " 6 ATI ceAC- 
" are the grammatical predicates, and the second 
e in each case is the subject. 

It is the master, 1f e An mAiifcif\ e. 
He is the master, 1f 6 fin An mAigifcip. 
(The underlined words are the predicates.) 

593. In recent times we often find such sentences 
as "1f e An ttiAigifdf./' "1f e An peAp," &c., for "It 
is the master," " It is the man," in which the last e, 
the subject of the sentence, is omitted. 

Translation of the English Secondary Tenses. 
59S. The English Present Perfect Tense is trans- 
lated by means of the Present Tense of the verb CA, 
followed by T>' eif (or CAJ\ eif) and the verbal noun. 
When -o' 6if comes immediately before the verbal 
noun, the latter will be in the genitive case ; but 
when -o' eif is separated from the verbal noun by the 
object of the English verb, the verbal noun will be 
preceded by the preposition -oo, and will be dative case. 
He wrote, "Do fspioti f6. 

He has just written, UA f 6 t>' eif fg^iotifcA. 

He broke the window, t)o bf if f 6 An f-umneog. 

He has broken the window, CA f6 1>' eif nA f-umneoige 

He has just died, CA f e -o' 



595. The word "just" in these sentences is not 
translated into Irish, and the word after -o' 6if is in 
the genitive case. 

596. When the English verb is transitive there is 
another very neat method of translating the secondary 
tenses. As already stated, there is no verb 
"to have" in Irish: its place is supplied by the verb 
c^ and the preposition ^5. Thus, "I have a book" 
is, "CA leADAn -Ag^m. A similar construction may be 
used in translating the secondary tenses of an English 
transitive verb. The following sentences will illustrate 
the construction : 

I have written the letter, C4 AA imp 
I have struck him, C-A f 6 buxMlce .454. 

Have you done it yet? t)puit f6 TeuncA 
I have broken the stick, CA x\n mAi-oe bf\ifce 

597. The English Pluperfect and Future Perfect 

are translated in the same manner as the Present 

Perfect, except that the Past and Future Tenses re- 

spectively of UA must be used instead of the Present, 

as above. The following examples will illustrate the 

construction : 

He died, "pUAip f6 txaf . 

He had just died, t)i p6 t)' 6if t^ip T>' 

He had broken the chair, -oo 

^DeAT) t>' 6if cpiCe -oo Cup 
AJ\ mo Cuit) oibpe ful 
A mb6ip pei-6 (ultAtfi), 


The window has just been (~CAtA\\ r>' e"if 

broken by a stone, ( -oo t>f\ife.<y6 le cloiC. 

/t)i -An licip rspiotit-A AgAm. 
I had written the letter, t)ior T>' e"if HA ucpe -oo 

I shall have finished my 
work before you will be 

Prepositions after Yerbs. 

898. We give here a few verbs which require a 
preposition after them in Irish, although they require 
none in English : 

56iltim -oo, I obey. 

i -oo, 

te, I assist. 
1nnpm t>o, 

mo Cuit) oibpo Cjvi 
nuigte AgAm r uL 

oo, ) 

I tell. 

A|\, I persuade, prevail over. 

?A, I endeavour. 

Af, I ask (beseech). 

T>e, I ask (enquire). 

5eAlLAim -oo, I promise, 

-oo, I salute. 








I remember. 

I catch, I overtake. 

I prepare (gteup ot\c, get 


I allow, permit. 
I advise. 

I forgive, pardon. 
I answer. 
I help. 
I succeed (lit. It arises with 


I confirm, I corroborate. 
I can. 
I loose. 

I beg, I beseech. 


599. Many verbs require prepositions different from 
those required by their English equivalents. 

n AH, I speak of. 

te, I wait for. 

UnACcAim AH, I treat of. 

Ceitim AH, I conceal from. 

SgAHAitn te, I separate from. 

Cuinitn pop AH, I send for. 

n te, I speak to. 

te, I say to. 

te, say, said to (AH is used only 
in quotation). 



t)Airnm te (also -DO), 
t)eifum bUAit> Af, 




"O lot Aim A 
CxMtim te, 

I face (for) (a place). 

I make fun of, I mock. 

I tremble at. 

I belong to, I appertain to. 

I win a victory over. 

I am bothered with. 

I listen to. 

It seems to. 

I call for. 

I excel or surpass in. 

I pray for; also, I beseech. 

(gtH-o ojvAinn, pray for us.) 
look at (f euC opt-A, Look at 

them; peuC IAD, Examine 

or try them). 
I bid farewell to. 
I stick to. 
I take hold of... by: as, He 

caught me by the hand. 

Rug f Ap tAirh opm. 

Catch her by the hand, 

tDeip A]\ tAlttl U1|\f1. 

I sell to... for. He sold me 
a cow for 10. t)iot fe b<3 
Uorn A^ t>ei(i bpuncAift, 

I pay for. 

I throw at. 

I begin to (do something). 


The Negative Adverb Not. 

600. Young students experience great difficulty in 
translating the English negative adverb " not." We 
here give the various ways of translating "not." 
Not, with the Imperative mood, is translated by nA. 
Subjunctive nA*. 

,, Verbal Noun 5 An. 

, m (statement, nion or CAT\. 
Fast Tense } 

(question, MAP or nACAp. 
Indicative Mood 

All other (statement, ni or CA. 

I tenses (question, nAC, nA. 

"If... not " is translated by munA :* if the verb be 
in the past tense use 

All the above forms are used in principal sentences 
only. In dependent sentences " that... not " is always 
translated by ti.dC or nS, except in the past tense, in- 
dicative mood, when n<sp or r\A&Ap must be used. 

ni, aspirates; CA, eclipses. CA become^ t^n 
before if and ^uil : e.g., c^n m6 t It is not I. 

How to answer a question. Yes No. 

601. (a) In Irish there are no fixed words for ''Yes" 

or ' No." As a general rule in replying to questions, 

"Yes" or "No" is translated by using the same 

verb and tense as has been employed in the question. 

* Pronounced morru. 


The subject of the verb used in reply need not be 
expressed, except when it is contained in the verb end- 
ing. In English we frequently use a double reply, as 
" Yes, I will." " No, I was not," &c. In Irish we 
use only one reply. 

"Dpuit cu cinn? 

tlAit) f e Annj -> oin ? 

An t>jMC<* cu 
Hi $ACA or nT 

An ttpACA |*e An 


Are you sick? Yes. or I 


Was he there ? No. 
Did you see John ? No. 

Did he see the house? 

He did. 
cu ? Do you understand? Yes. 

An ociocp-Ait) cu ? TH 

Will you come? No, 1 
will not. 

. (6) When the question has been asked with any 
part of the verb if, expressed or understood, followed 
by a definite noun, the English subject must be used 
in the answer, as also must the verb, except when the 
answer is negative. 

An cu x\n j?eAf\? tli nvfe. Are you the man? No. 
H.AC e fin An pex\f ? 1r e. Is not he the man ? Yes, 
he is. 

Af t>'6 fin Se^n ? Tliop Was that John ? No, it 
t>'6. was not. 


Notice also the following : 


1f rnif e An ce^Cc^ipe. An cu ? 

I am the messenger. Are you '} 

Hi n-e fin Ay. fc\5-Ajvc. HAC e ? 

He is not our priest. Isn't he ? 

1f 6 An peA|\ 6. Hi h-6. 

It is the man. It is not. 

(c) Whenever the question is asked by any part of 
the verb if, followed by an indefinite predicate, the 
word "Yes" is usually translated by repeating the 
verb and the indefinite predicate, as 

tl-AC f. u-A|\ .An LA e ? 1f Isn't it a cold day ? Yes, 
f.uAf\. or It is. 

flAC mAit e? 1f m.Aic. Is it not good? Yes, or 

It is. 

An Aige ACA An c--Ai|\5eAT)? Is it he who has the 
1f ^156. money ? Yes. 

But in this case the answer may also be correctly 
given by using the neuter pronoun exvo. 1f e*vo (or 
for "yes;" ni n-eAt) for " 110." 

An nu\TMt) e fin? Hi Is that a dog? No. 

e ? 'SeA-6. Is he an Englishman ? 

e? 'Se^-o. Isn't it good ? It is. 


(d) When the question is asked with " who " or 
" what," the subject alone is used in the answer, and 
if the subject be a personal pronoun the emphatic 
form will be used, as 

CIA t\irme e pn ? Itlife. Who did that ? I did, 


The Preposition. 

602. As a general rule the simple prepositions 
govern a dative case, and precede the words which 
they govern : as, 

r-e 6 CojtCAig. He came from Cork. 

f e An c-utixM,l -oo'n He gave the apple to the 

Exceptions. (1) The preposition it>ir, " between," 
governs the accusative case: as, TOI|\ CofiCAig ^gup 
timnex\6, between Cork and Limerick. 

(2) 50 T>CI,* meaning "io" (motion), is followed by 
the nominative case. 
CuxM-o r& 50 -oci An ceA6. He went to the house. 

*5<> -oci is really a corrupted form of the old subjunctive mood of 
the verb cij;itn, I come; so that the noun after 50 -oci was formerly 
nominative case to the verb. 


(3) The preposition SAD, " without," governs the 
dative in the singular, but the accusative in the 
plural: as, 

C-& f e 5An C6ill. He is without sense. 

SATI A?. scAifvoe. Without our friends. 

603. The words cimCeAU, (around),* cpAftiA or 
C|teAftiA (across), coif (beside), PAT> (along), Cum + 
or 6n (towards), coifg (oiving to), t>AtA, TDAICA, and 
[lomtur^] ( a * to t or concerning), although really nouns, 
are used where prepositions are used in English. 
Being nouns, they are followed by the genitive case. 

"buAit f6 PAT) tiA f|\ome 6. He struck him along the 

An mD6i-6 cu Ag -out Cum Will you be going to 
An AonAi$ 1 mbAfVAC? (towards) the fair to- 

morrow ? 

"On pit f6 cimceALl T\A He ran around this place. 

n-Aice feo. 

*Oo CiiADAf cf AfnA An They went across the field 

uif\u eoptiA. of barley. 

For the so-called compornd prepositions see par. 608, <tc. 

604. The prepositions i (in) and te (with) become 
itif and Leif before the article : eg.. inp AH te.<^,\i in 

* The meanings given in parenthesis are the usual English equira- 
lents, not the real meaning of the twrdt. 
tThe m in this word is pronounced like n. 


the book ; teif An bpe^p, with the man. In Munster 6 
(from), -oe (off, from), -DO (to), 4156 (=^5, at, urith), and 
some others take f before the plural article 6 f n^\ 
>, from the men ; T>O fn<x bu.Ait>, to i/ie cows. 

605. The simple prepositions cause aspiration 
when the article is not used with them : as, Aj\ 
b-Af\i\ An Cnuic. On the top of the hill. |?A1|\ f 6 6 ex\p 
.an ci$e 6. He got it from the man of the house. 

Exceptions (1) The prepositions 45, at ; le, urith ; &?, 
out : 50, to, cause neither aspiration nor eclipsis ; 
as, 'Do tuic f6 te gott. He fell by Goll. CUAI-O fe 
50 t)Aile-AtA-CliAt. He went to Dublin. 

5^11, without, may aspirate or not. 

(2) The preposition i or A, in, causes eclipsis even 
without the article : as, t)i fe i sCopcxxig. He was in 

606. The simple prepositions, when followed by the 
article and a noun in the singular number, usually 
cause eclipsis: as, ap An mbApp, on the top; 6 'n 

from the man ; '^An mobile, at home. 

Exceptions. (1) The prepositions t)o,* to, and -oe, 
of, off, from, when followed by the article, usually cause 
aspiration, though in some places eclipsis takes place. 

50 or 50 -ori is usually used for "to" when motion to is implied 
(the Latin aoc. of motion). x>o is usually used for "to" when no 
motion is implied (the Latin dative). 


Aspiration is the more common practice: -DO 'ti 
to the man; -oe'n riinAoi, from the woman. They 
prefix c to r; as, Cug r^ "oo'n cfASApc e. He gave 
it to the priest. SA (=inp ATI) usually aspirates in 
Munster ; JTA bcrgA riidp, in the big box. 

(2) When gAn, without, is followed by the article it 
produces no change in the initial consonant follow- 
ing: as, SATJ An fion, without the wine; but if the 
following noun be masculine and begin with a vowel, 
or be feminine beginning with f, c is prefixed: as, 
5-dn An c-eun, without the bird ; gAn An cf oil, without 
the eye. 

In the Northern dialect aspiration takes place after 
the preposition and the article. 

607. When a simple preposition ending in a vowel 
comes before the possessive adjective A (his, her, or 
their), or the possessive AJ\, our, and t>up, your, the 
letter n is inserted before the possessive : as, te n-A 
tAirh, by his hand; cf6 n-A mDofAit), through their 
palms ; ie n-Aj\ gcui-o, with (or by) our portion ; le 
noun -ocoit, with your permission. 

Except the prepositions -oo and t>e, which become t>'. 

Whenever 50 or le comes before any other word 
beginning with a vowel the letter n is usually inserted : 
as, 6 rhAit)in 50 h-oi-oCe, from morning till night ; 50 
h-AtbATn, to Scotland; le n-eAglA, with fear. (See 
par. 29.) 


608. In Irish certain nouns preceded by prepositions 
have often the force of English prepositions. As 
nouns they are, of course, followed by a genitive 
case, unless a preposition comes between them and 
the following noun, when the dative case naturally 
follows. Such locutions are styled in most grammars 
" Compound Prepositions," and to account for their 
construction they give the rule " Compound Preposi- 
tions are followed by the genitive case." 

609. We give here a fairly full list of such phrases 
employed in Modern Irish. 

along with; on the side of. 
in the presence of. 

of comne, before; face to face. 

for the sake of, for the love of 

under the pretext of. 

along with, in company with. 

1 T>CeAtlCx3i, ' 

i QC-AOD, concerning ; with regard to. 

i 5ce.Ann, at the end of. 

re -oem, ) 

for, (in the sense of going Jor). 
1 gcoinne, } 

re -oem, towards. 

among, amongst. 



i 5C61|\, (, gcorhoip), 

At\ CUt, 

1 TITMAlt), 

c.Ap. eip, "o'eip, 

1 scomnib, i gcoinne, 

1 _ 

cun, } 


t>' ionnpxMt>e, 


te coif 



, ) 


op ciorm, 

te ti-Aip, 

i 5C.Ai6e.Arh, i fit, 

1 n-Ain-oeom, 


1 n-Aice, 



throughout (used of time). 

for want of. 

throughout (used of space) 

for, for the benefit of. 

behind, at the back of. 

after (used of place). 

after (used of time). 


concerning, about. 

to, towards. 


beside, by the side of (a sea, 
river, &c.) 

according to. 

over, above. 

beyond, in preference to. 

beside, by (he side of. 


in spite of. 

for, for the use of. 

610. Some of them are followed by Prepositions. 

le, near, beside. 

VJ;AP -DO, near. 

around (and touching). 
on account of. 
tnAf\ Aon le, along with, together with. 

1 n-emeACc le,) together with, at the same 

,j time as. 

611. Examples (1) Nouns. 

Do cuip r^ or cionn An He put it over the door. 

Conn AC i n-Aice An cobAin I saw them near the well. 

Do pit An SA'OAH 1 troiAi-6 The hound ran after the 

An cponnAig. fox. 

CIA bi i bpocAif\ SeumAif ? Who was along with 

Do ts f 6 -Dom An CApAll He gave me this horse for 

f o le h-A$xxi-o An the priest. 

A|\ Aif t)' 6if An I shall come back after 

the summer, 

tl! puil leigeAf AJ\ bit i There is no remedy against 

n-A$Ai-6 An t>Aif. death. 

Do cuAit) f6 PA -oem nA He went for the horses. 


Ap peA-6 An lAe. Throughout the day. 

Ap purt nA cipe. Throughout the country. 


T)o fv6ip An teAttAip peo. According to this book. 

CA f 6 le coif nA pAippse. He is beside the sea. 

"Do 6ip p6 An tub cim- He put the loop around 
CCAU AI\ mo CeAnn. my head. 

612. (2) Pronouns. 

Oinij; pe" im IOIAI*. He came after me. 

HA c6i 'nA n-oiAi-6 peo. Do not go after these. 
CIA oi 'nA p.oCAip? Who was along with him? 

6 pin Ap -oo fon. I shall do that for your 

CeAnnuiip e peo tern Did you buy this one for 


I was opposite them, 
op Af The lark is above us. 

t)lOf A|\ A n-A 

CA An 

An pAitt cu i n-^l|\ 

(i n-Aice Unn)? 
t)i pe i n-Aice tiom. 
fiAt) im 

n-Aice Were you near us? 

He was near me. 
They came against me. 

Translation of the Preposition " For." 
613. (a) When "for" means " to bring," "to fetch," 

use P.A 66m, A 5-comne, or A$ iAf\p AI-O, followed by a 

genitive case; or A$ CJMAII AJ\: as, 

Go for the horse. 61$ ^5 cjtiAlt AJ\ An 
He went for John. CUAI-O p6 pe t)6in 


(b) When "/or" means "to oblige," "to please," 
use -oo, followed by the dative case : as, 
Do that for him. T)eun fin t>6. 

Here is your book for you. 'Seo t>uic t>o 

Use T>O to translate "for" in the phrases "good 
for," "bad for," "better for," &c.: as, 

This is bad for you. 1f olc t>uic e feo. 

(c) When "for" means "for the use of," use te 
n-AgAi-6, followed by a genitive case, or -oo \vith 
I bought this for the Ce^nnui^eAf 6 fe te 

priest. n-AgAit) An cp^g^ipc 

(oo'n cf-AgApc). 
He gave me money for 05 f Aif\5eA-o -com le-o* 


(d) When "for" means " duration of time" use te, 
with the dative case, if the time be past, but 4j\ j?e.<v6 
or 50 ceAnn, with the genitive case, if the time be 
future. In either case past and future are to be 
understood, not with regard to present time, but to 
the time of the action described. 

(1) He had been there for t)i f ^nn le 

a year when I came. nuAin t-dinig 

(2) He stayed there for a TV f^n f 6 Ann 

year. (50 ce-Ann) 


In the first sentence the year is supposed to be completed at the 
time we are speaking about, and is, therefore, past with regard to the 
time we are describing. 

In the second sentence the time at which the action of staying (If 
we be allowed to use the word "action") took place at the very 
beginning of the year that he spent there. The year itself came after 
the time we are describing ; therefore it is future with regard to that 

It will be a great assistance to the student to remember that 
Aji f eA-6 or 30 ceAtiti are used when in the English sentence the fact 
is merely stat3d, as in sentence (2) ; and that te is used when a 
secondary tense ought to be used in the English sentence, as in sen- 
tence (1). 

(e) When "for" means "for the sake of," use A$ 
f on followed by a genitive case. 
He toiled for a little gold. dottu>i$ f6 AJ\ fon 

(/) When "for" is used in connection with "buy- 
ing" or "selling," use A|\ followed by a dative case. 
He bought it for a pound. Ce^nnuig pe -Af unc 6. 
I sold it for a shilling. "OiotAf -A|\ flitting 6. 

(g) "For" after the English verb "ask" is not 
translated in Irish. 

He asked me for a book. TV iApp f6 teAt!>At\ opm. 
Ask that man for it. 1.dpp -AJ\ -ATI t>j:e.Af\ foin e. 

(li) "For" after the word "desire'' (-ouit) is usually 
translated by i (=in): as, Desire for gold, -ouiL i n-6f 

Or, T)Ult Itlf At! 6fV. 


(i) The English phrase "only for" very often 
means "were it not for," "had it not been for," and 
is translated by triune mtn^t), followed by a nomina- 
Only for John the horse TTIupA mbe.A-6 Se^gxxn -oo 

would be dead now. oexvo An CApAll m^po 

614. Note the following Examples. 

I have a question far you. CA ceif c A^Am ope. 
To play jor (a wager). 
To send/o?\ 


A. cure for sickness. 

To wait for. 

For your life, don't tell. 

He faced for the river. 

They fought for (about) 

the Fiannship. 
Don't blame him /or it. 

I have great respect for 

This coat is too big for me. 

What shall we have for 
dinner? 4 

It is as good for you to do ~CA 
your best. 



^ cuif\ A 
blame on him). 


An COCA fo f6-mop 



615. Translation of the Preposition " Of." 

(a) Whenever "of" is equivalent to the English 
possessive case, translate it by the genitive case in 

The son of the man. TTI-AC -An pip. 

The house of the priest. CeAC .ATI 

There are cases in which the English "of," al- 
though not equivalent to the possessive case, is trans- 
lated hy the genitive in Irish. 

The man of the house. pe^p .an cie. 

A stone of meal. Clot mine. 

(&) Whenever "of" describes the material of which 
a thing is composed, or the contents of a body, use 
the genitive case. 

A ring of iron. Ainne lAjvAinn. 

A cup of milk. CupAn bAinne. 

A glass of water. glome uirge. 

(c) When "of" comes after a numeral, or a noun 
expressing a part of a whole, use t>e with the dative ; 
but if the word after " of" in English be a personal 
pronoun, use one of the compounds of 45 with the 
personal pronouns. 
The first day of the week. An Ceu-o LA -oe'n 


One of our hounds. Ce^nn T>' A? 

Many of the nobles. TTIopxin -oe n 

One of us was there. t)i -oume 


Some of them. Cum ACA. 

One of these (persons). "Ouine ACA fo. 
XX leAt is used for "half of it" or " half of them." 

(d) When "of follows "which," use -oe with 
iiouns, and AJ; with pronouns. 

Which of the men? CIA (CIACA) -oe TIA peAt\AiE>? 

Which of us? CIA 

(e) When " of" means " about " use citnCiotl or pi. 

They were talking of the t)ioT>Ap AS CAIHU cimcioll 


(/) " Of" after the English verb "ask/' "inquire,' 
is translated by -oe. 

Ask that of John. piApj\ui$ fin -oe SeAjAn. 

(g] When "of" expresses "the means" or' instru- 
ment " use te or -oe. 

He died of old age. 

He died of hunger. puAip f e t>x$p teif An octvAf . 

He died of a seven days' "puAip r 6 Wf " e 

sickness. f eACc UA. 

(h) Both of us. Smn 

Both of you. Sib AjvAon. 

Both of them. SIAT) AIVAOH, IAX> 


616. Further Examples. 

He is ignorant of Irish. UA fe AinttpofAC tnf 

The like of him. 
Such a thing as this. 
Don't be afraid of me. 
A friend of mine. 
A friend of yours. 
A horse of mine. 
A horse of Brian's. 
I have no doubt of it. 
A man of great strength. 
Oisin of mighty strength 
and vigour. 

A teitei-o (his like), 
-A teiceix) f eo -oe JUTO. 
HA bio-o eAj;tAOi\c i\6rhAm. 
CAJVA -corn. 



Oipn t)A tpeun 

(t)A is the past tense of if in the previous sentence.) 
I think much of it. CA 


Classification of the Uses of the Prepositions. 
617. A5, AT. 

1. To denote possession (a) with cd. 

<5 rji^n AgAtn. I have a knife. 

A Aitne AAtn -A An I know that man. 


(6) With other verbs : 

CoimeA-o f 6 AH fgiAn Aige He kept the knife for him- 

t)' f AS f6 ACA iAt> He left them to them. 

2. It is used in a partitive sense, of them, &c 

-Aon Dume ACA. Anyone of them. 

,Aci Aon ACA. Each one of them. 

3. With verbal nouns to translate the English 
present participle : 

(a) active UA f6 ^5 bttAlAO -an 

He is beating the boy. 

(&) passive UA AH buACAitt AJA ('$A) 

The boy is being beaten. 

4. With verbal nouns followed by DO, meaning 
" while." 

AS -out -0610. While they were going. 

5. To express the agent or cause with passive verbs. 

CA An 6toc SA(ASA) cosAti The stone is being raised 
45 SeAmur-. by Jarneo. 

The English preposition at when used with as 
semblies, e.g. market, fair, school, &c. t IB usually 
translated by AI\. 


618. Att, ON, UPON. 

1. Literal use : Ap -An mbojvo, on the table. 

2. In adverbial phrases : 

(a) TIME. 

Ap bAU, just now, by and by. A? peA-6, daring. 
IA -Af LA, day by day. AJ\ mAroin, in the morning. 

AJ\ uAif\iti, by times. AJ\ An lAtAip, immediately. 

(6) PLACE. 

AF bit, in existence, at all. AJ\ eca, behind. 

AJA le^f , ^ A|\ rgoiL, in school. 

AI\ pAi^fSe, > at sea. AJ\ put), throughout, 

Af mui|\, / -Afi nexirii, in heaven. 

A|\ Uip, on the ground. Ap bo^-o, on board. 
-Af ci, on the point of. 

, in length. 

Ap f Ait),* lengthwise. Af An -ooitAf , by (through) 

the door. 

!Af PA-O (rAi"o)> three feet long. 
At\ teiteAt), ,, wide. 

i.- i 
A|\ Aoif\t)e, high. 

A|\ t)oiriine, ., deep. 

(c) CAUSE. 
AF An ^.-6ftAtt fom, for that AP teAtct\om, under op- 

reason, therefore. pression. 

Af fon, for the sake of. Ap coil, according to the 
50, for foar that. will of. 

* AJ\ A FAIO, literally on its length, 


AP 61 gin, hardly, by com- Aft CO&A, at the choice of. 


Ap Cop Ap bit, on any con- Ap t>eilt>, in the form of. 

dition. Ap fiutiAl, in progress. 

Ap An rntf-o, in the manner. Ap A lAigeAt), at least. 

Ap AgAit), forward. Ap Aif , back. 

, face to face. Ap scut, backwards. 

te^t, side by side. ap. cjtAf n^, breadthwise. 

), ablaze. Ap pan, ") 

in tiie power of. ^p f e^t^&n,) 

fteAs^n, little <A|\ meifse, drunk. 

by little. ^l\ f OT>A|\, trotting. 

on credit. AJ\ i-Afx\(ic, on loan. 

3. In numbers : 

>, 28. 

, 23rd, 

4. (a) Before the verbal noun, which it eclipses or 

aspirates to form the past participle active. 
Ap ourixvo ^n T>of\Aip *o6it> Having shut the door, 
o' imtigeAOAp. they went away. 

(b) With the possessive adjective A and verbal 
noun to form perfect participle passive. 

Aj\ n-A Cup 1 n-eAgAfi AJ, Edited by. 

Aj\ n-A Cup AtriAC Ag ConnpA-6 HA ^AeTiilge, Pub 
lished by the Gaelic League. 


5. Emotions felt by a person : 

Care, sorrow, &c. CA imnt-oe, b|\6n 

Thirst, hunger, need, sick- UA CAJVC, ocf\Af, 
ness. tinneAf oj\tn. 

Fear. CA eAgtA, ^AicCiop opm. 

Joy. CA lucgAifv, ojun. 

6. In phrases : 

UioTbtACAt) AJ\, favour (con- CA t>AoAl 
f erred) ow. danger. 

Cion, ge^n ^p, aifection Cturhne Af, remembrance 
/or. o/. 

ColAr, pof, Aitne A|\, 

Knowledge of, acquaint- 

ance with. 
5fuiin ^t\, horror of, or "pAt A^, hatred of. 

disgust with. piC Af, debt due from. 

~CA Ani|AAf A5i\tn Aip, I 

suspect him. 
Curh-Acc Af, power over. 
\, victory over. 

there is 


A|\, I complaint 
i against. 

>f, power over, 
capacity for. 

|?U\CA Ap, claim upon. 

on6it\ AH, honour (given) X)' 

tO. t)' 

A^A o - 
^, - gation 

, J 07Z. 

In the above phrases the agent is expressed by Ag 
where possible, CA sttJto, seAn, eolo>r, cuirhne, &c., 

AgAtTI Of\C. 


7. Aft is used after various classes of verbs. 

(a) Verbs of motion upon or against (striking, 

inflicting, &c.). 

pi An AJ\. I punish. 

AH (te). I throw at. 

CAf\tA Aft. 

CAfA-6 An 6Af\ opm. I met the man. 

"Do $AD f 6 T>e 6toCAit> oftA. He threw stones at them. 
(6) After the verb t>emitn. 



t)eipim -oiol Ap. 
Deipim* PA r\-veApA A 

t)eif\itn 5f 4t) Ap. 
t)ei|\im miniu$Ai6 Ajt. 
(c) After the Yerb 
Aft ..... Ap. 

I call (name), (ap before 
person), induce, persuade, 
compel a person (to do 

I attempt (something or to 
do something). 

I requite, repay (a person). 

I cause, make (a person do 

I love (fall in love with), &c. 

I explain. 


t)eipim t)feiteAtfinAf Ap, 
buAi-6 A\\ . 

I catch, seize (a person) by 

(the hand, &c.). 
I overtake, I catch. 
I judge, pass judgment on. 
I conquer. 

may be used in this sense. 

After verbs of Praying, Beseeching, Appeal- 
ing to. 

At\. I ask, entreat (a person). 

p. I pray for (sometimes I 

pray to}; but generally 
Sin-Dim 6um T)6 AJ\ f on &c. 
I pray to God for. 
Aft. I beseech. 

() After verbs of Speaking about, Thinking of, 
Treating of, Writing of, &c. 

l,At>fvAim Ap, I speak of. SmuAimm AJV, I think of. 

Af\, I treat of. Sgp' ^ 101 A t A > I write of, 
\, I remember. or about. 

(/) Verbs of looking at : 

A\ or T)eAACAim <i. I look at. 

(g) Verbs of threatening, complaining, offending, 
displeasing, &c. 

t)A5f Aim Af\. I threaten. 

5oillim A|\. I am troublesome to. 

toCc At. I find fault with. 

Qi) Verbs of concealing, neglecting, hindering, for- 
bidding, refusing, &c. 

Ceitim AJ\. I conceal from. 

Coif\meAf5Aim Af. I hinder or forbid. 

FAiU,iim A|\. I neglect. 


(i) Verbs of protecting, guarding, guaranteeing 

cu f.em AP An Take care of yourself from 

fin. that car. 

oo tAm Ap An Take care! That stone 
fin. will hurt your hand. 

8. (a) Cuipim is used with verbal nouns and adverbial 
phrases beginning with Ap : 

I put in a tremble. 
I put on one's guard. 
Cuipim AP feAcpAn. I set astray. 

Cuipim Ap CAip-oe. I put off, delay, postpone. 

Cuipim AP gcuL. I put aside. 

neimnit). I reduce to nothing, I 

(b) Also with many nouns : 

ceifc Ap. I question. 

Cuipim comAoin Ap. I do a kindness to. 


cpAinn Ap (cAp). I cast lots for. 

Cuipim cum A Ap. I arrange. 

Cuipim gAipm (pof) Ap. I send for. 
Cuipim lAtti AP. I set about. 

I apply a remedy to. 

I lay a snare for. 
moiU Ap. I delay. 

Cmpim coipmeAfg Ap. I hinder. 

Cuipim impitie Ap. I beseech. 

9. 5nim is use d 

flict... on.' 1 

tjnim t>A5Af\ Ap. 
jnim buAit>neA > 6 AJ\. 
jjnim CAfAoit) Af. 
jnim eu5c6ift A$. 
5 mm f.eAU Af.. 

5nitn topeite.Ariin.Ar 

many nouns meaning "I in- 

I threaten. 

I trouble. 

I complain of. 

I wrong. 

I act treacherously to- 

I exercise authority over, 
I restrain. 

I judge, pass judgment 

I watch. 



1. Literal use : out of, from, &c. 

CuAit) f 6 Af ATI cig. He went out of the house. 

t)uL Af AM mbeAtAi-6. To depart from life. 

2. With various other verbs : 

Af co-olAt). I arouse from sleep. 

I dispossess. 
I hang from. 
I utter (a shriek, &c.). 
I let off. 
I erase from. 
To fall asunder. 
To pull asunder. 

Af . 

lei 51 in Af. 
Sgpiof Aim Af. 
Uuicim Af A C6ite. 

Af A ce"ile. 


3. To express origin, cause; ground of proof; confi- 

dence, trust in : 

Af 5<\C Aif\-o. From every quarter. 

SoC.Af\ -oo t>Atnc Af. Derive benefit from. 

An JMC A\>. The reason why. 

xXf fo f uAf . Henceforth. 

1f -pottuf Af . It is evident from, 

loncuigte .Af. Inferable from. 

1TIuini5in Af. Confidence in. 

4. After verbs, of boasting or taking pride in : 

*\f. I boast of. 

xjp. Glorying in. 

"L\nrhAf\ Af pem. Full of himself. 

620. Cun (cum), TOWARDS. 

1. Cum is used alter Yerbs of motion: 

CAit) fe Com ^n cige. He went to wards the house. 
Cup Cum j?xMpt\5e. To put to sea. 

2. Before Yerbal noun to express purpose : 

UJkini5 fe Cum ^n CApxMll He came to sell the horse. 
oo -OioU 


8. In Phrases, as : 

Cum cf\iCe. To bring to pass. 

I take for myself. 

Cup Cum t>Aif. To put to death. 

Leig Cum bAip. Let die. 

gleufCA Cum oit>j\e. Prepared for work, 

Cum 50. In order that. 

5uitmn Cum. I pray to. 

"Out Cum t)ti$eAt>. To go to law. 

621. t>e, FROM, OUT OP. 

1. Literal use : 

t)Aimm T>e. I take from. 

6if\i$im t>e. I arise from. 

Cuicim -oe. I fall from. 

SsAOilim -oe. I loose from (anything). 

2. Partitive use: 

"Ofxong t)e nA t)Aoim1i. Some of the people. 

"Ouine -oe n^ peA^ Aitt. One of the men. 

. One of the O'Mahoney's. 

Often before the relative it is equivalent to a 
superlative relative : 

t)euf\jMt> SAC nit) "o* -i I will give everything I 



If 6 An peAf if Aoitvoe t>' 

He is the tallest man 1 

ever saw. 

Ili mAit leir nit) T)' A -ecus- He does not like anything 
Aif T>6. you gave him. 

8. In the following phrases: 

t>e D|M$, because 
o' eAglA 50, lest 
o' Aoif , of age 
oe fiop, perpetually 
oe ofuitn, owing to 
o' 6if , after 
oe -oeoin, willingly 
oe full le, in expectation 

o' Aif jte, for certain 
oe jtiAt, usually 
oe $niorii, in effect 
oe m' iul,to my knowledge 
t>e -oit, 1 for lack of, 
o' eAfbAi-o, \ want of 
o' Airiroeom, unwillingly, 

in spite of 
oe tAoio, concerning 

4. After following verbs, &o. : 


lioncA -oe (le). 
LAH T>e. 

gnitn c-dSAipc -ce. 
xif Ait) TDC. 
... -oe ..., 

I ask (enquire) of. 

I adhere to. 

Filled with. 

Full of. 

1 mention. 

I make use of. 

I make ... out of (from) 

I let slip. 

5. To translate "with," &c., in phrases like x>e 
\vilh a leap, at a bound. 

T30, TO, FOR. 

1. Literal use : 

(a) After adjectives (generally with ir) : 
cinnce x>o, certain for (a person), 

coif T)O, right for (a person). 

oo, necessary for. 

oo, good for. 

better for. 

(/>) After nouns: 

(out) i focAf T)O, for the advantage of. 

(if) beAtA -66, (is) his life. 

60, (is) his father. 

(c) After verbs: 

-Aitnim T)o, I command. Cinnim T>O, I appoint for. 

t)fonnAitn x>o (A\\) I pre- CottiAiftijim -oo, I advise. 

sent to. 

T)e6nui5im -oo, I vouch- "OiuLc-Aim -oo, I renounce, 
safe to. 

oo, I announce "pOgnAim T>O, I am of use 
to. to. 

oo, I answer. 5 eA ^ A1rn " > ^ promise, 

obey or leigim t)o, I allow, let. 

' do homage to. 1nnpn -oo, I tell. 

V-/XAI I *J^X.\I I4M1II \J\J) f 

oo, I order. ^_ . t \\ show 

5-AthMm > oocoj\Mt:>, I trample. Coiglim "oo, I spare. 

2. To express the agent : 

After the verbal noun, preceded by Ap, AS, &c. : 
Af\ -oceACc Antif o -o6it>. On their arrival here. 

With the participle of necessity, participles in 

ion, &c. : 
11! molcA -ouic 6. He must not be praised 

by you. 
1f 6 fin ip itroe'AticA -ouic. That's what you ought to 


8. For its use in connection with the verbal noun see 
pars. 563. 568, 570. 



1. Literal use : as, 

UA f 6 PA 'n mbop-o. It is under the table. 

2. FA is used in forming the multiplicatives : 

A cpi pe -66, twice three. 

A -06 pe CeAtAip, four times two. 
8 In adverbial phrases: 

pA CorhAijt, (keeping) for. p4 leit, separately. 

PA -oeo, at last. PA 6eif\eA I 6, at last. 

PA feAC, individually, PA mAf . just so (as), 


824. 5AT1, WITHOUT. 

1. Literal use : 

5^n pinginn im p6cA. Without a penny in my 


2. To express not before the verbal noun : 

5411 cej.Cc. Tell him not to come. 

825. 50, WITH. 

1. This preposition used only in a few phrases: 
generally before leit, a half. 
1Tlile 50 teit. A mile and a half. 

50 teit. A yard and a half. 

628. 50, TO, TOWARDS. 

1. Literal use : motion, as 

go t,tnmne.&6. To or towards Limerick. 

2. In Phrases : 

6 Aij\ 50 ti-UAijt. From hour to hour. 

ti6m 50 66ite. . From evening to evening. 

rhxM-oin 50 ti-oi-oCe. From morning till night. 


627. 1 (in, x\nti), IN, INTO (Eclipsing 
1. Of time : 

1nf An cSAriijtAt). In Summer. 

2. Of motion to a plaoe : 

1 n-6ij\mn t>o Patrick having come into 

3. Of rest at a place : 

UA f e 1 nTJoip e. He is in Derry. 

4. In following phrases : 

i.n-AomfeACCte, along with. i ti-AAi-6, against. 
1 ntnAit), after. 1 gce^nn, at end of. 

1 gcomne, against. i scorhAif, in front of. 

i tifoc-Aijt, in company with. 1 meArs, among. 
>t>cim(iioU, about. 

5. After words expressing esteem, respect, liking, &e., 

for something : 

1 n-6|\. Desire for gold. 

6. Used predicatively after UA : 

UAim im' pe^f\ tAi-oif ^noif. I am a strong man now. 

7. In existence, extant : 

1f topers An Aimp|\ ACA It's fine weather we're 
Ann. having 

Hi crtin "i>utc "out AtnAC ~] An Aimpifi fu-Ap ACA Ann 

You ought not to go out considering the cold 
weather we have now. 

8. Used after c4 to express "to be able." 

Hi tMonn Ann p6m iompOt>. He cannot turn. 

9. After cuip , teif , -out, in phrases like : 

Cuif\im i gctnrhne t>o. I remind. 
t)ul i f OCAP t>o. To benefit. 

628. t01tt, BETWEEN, AMONG. 
1. Literal use : 
nOf i-oip n^ HorhAnCxvi5, a custom among the 

difference between them. 

2. rom...A5US, BOTH... AND. 

roif fAit)t>if Aguf t>o6c, both rich and poor. 
iT)if Atx\i|\ Aguf rhAc, both father and son. 

up uAnAit>, both sheep and lambs. 
if mnAit), both men and women. 

629. te, WITH. 

1. Literal use, with : 

with the steward. 


2. With if to denote possession: 

1p tiompA e. It is my own. It belongs to me. 

Cu\ teif 1A-0 ? Yv ho owns them ? 

3. With ip and adjectives to denote "in the opinion of: ' 

1f pu tiom e. I think it worth my while. 

"Do b' pAT)A teif. He thought it long. 

4. To denote instrument or means: 

t)fiir-e.<vt> An ftnnneog te The window was broken 

ctoic. by a stone. 

bAf teif An oc|\Af. He died of hunger, 

te ceim-o e. He was burned with fire. 

5. After verbs or expressions of motion: 

Airu\6 teip, Out (he went). 

SiAp tir> ! Stand back ! 

*O' imtig fi teiti, She departed. 

6. With verbs of touching; behaviour towards; say- 
ing to ; listening to ; selling to ; paying to ; 
waiting for : 

6ir-t t,iotn, Listen to me. 

t)v\mitn te, I touch. 

te, I speak to. 

.Ati t>6 teif , I sold the eow to him. 

tiom, Do not wait for me. 


7. After words expressing comparison with, likeness 
to, severance from, union with, peace with, 
war with, expectation of, 

O re Com Apr) liom. He is as tall as I. 

~CA re cofriiAil leac. He is like you. 

*Oo rs-An fe leo. He separated from them. 

8. With verbal noun to express purpose, intention 

(see pars. 567, 569). 

9. In following phrases : 

le ti-A&Ai-o, for (use of), le coir, near, beside. 

te ti-uCc, with a view to. lAin'i le, near. 

te tv-Air, beside. map Aon le, along with 

le r-AtiAit), downward. c-aoii le, beside. 

630. mATl, LIKE TO, AS. 

1. Literal use : as, like to. 

n\A\\ rm, thus ^E U T mA V T' n *^' an< i so on - 

"Oo $lxvc r^ m^p C6ile i. He took her for a spouse. 
PA tru\t\ A-OUOAII\C re, (according) as he said. 

2. Before relative particle A, it is equivalent to as, 

how, where, &c. 

-AH x\ic wxxp A f-xMtt r 6 > tne place where he was. 

3. For an idiomatic use of mAp, see par. 358. 

631. 0, PROM, SINCE. 

1. Since (of time) : as, 

6 tuj% from the beginning. 6 f om, ago. 
Conjunction : as, 

T1AC bjTACAf pUD AJ\ bit, tAn^Af AbAlle Af\ij\ 

Since I saw nothing I came home again. 

2. Of place, motion from: 

61 [\irni, from Erin. 

8. In a modal sense : 

6-0 C|voi-6e, with all thy heart. 

boCc 6 (i) fpiopAVO, poor in spirit. 

4. After words expressing severance from, distance 
from, going away from, turning from, taking 
from, exclusion from, cleansing, defending, 
protecting, healing, alleviating. 

632. OS, OVER. 

Used only in a few phrases as : 

6f cionn, above, over. bun 6f cionn, upside down. 

6f ipol, silently, secretly. 6p AJVO loudly. 


633. noittl, BEFORE. 

1. Of time: 

X)ei6 ti6iirut> fioitfi (Cun) Ten minutes to three. 

A cj\i. 
Hoime r-eo. Before this, heretofore, 

Roime pin. Previously. 

2. Of fleeing before, from; coming in front of; lying 

before one (= awaiting) ; putting betore one 
(= proposing to oneself): 

Cibe" ctnpeAf poirhe 6 peo Whoever proposes to do 

oo -oeunArh. this. 

t)i An 5it\fApAt> AS jut poitii The hare was running 

DA cotuMti. from the hounds. 

3. After expressions of fear, dislike, welcome, &c. : 

V\A bio-6 eAglA ope t\6mpA. Do not be afraid of them. 
|A6ttiAC (pCrhAib) ! Welcome ! 

1. Of motion (place and time) : 
teim p6 tAf Ati mt)Alt<\. He leaped over the wall. 
An tt>i peo At> tonAinn. Last month. 

2. Figuratively: "in preference to," "beyond." 
UAJ\ mAj\ t>i f 6 -Deic Compared with what it was 
mbtiA-bnA piceAt) 6 fom. 80 years ago. 

-66. Beyond what was lawful 
for him. 


3. In following phrases : 

out cAf\, transgress. ceACc tAp, refer to, treat of 

CAJ\ 6if, after. tAp Aif, back. 

CeAnn 50, notwith- 


1. Physically, through : 

Up6 n-A VAriiAifc. Through his hands. 

2. Figuratively, " owing to " : 

Unit) fin. Owing to that. 

N.B. In the spoken language cpi-o is generally 
used instead of cp e or 

636. 13111, ABOUT, AROUND. 

1. Time : um t\\Atr\6i\A, in the evening. 

2. Place : um An ci$, around the house. 

B. About : of putting or having clothing on. 

T)o Cui^eAT)AiA umpA A They put on their clothes. 

4. Cause: uime fin, therefore. 


637. R. Parse each word in t"ie following sentence : 

(Prep. Grade, 1900). 

-oeip An irreg. trans, verb, indie, mood, pre- 
sent tense, analytic form of the verb . 
oeipirn (verbal noun, jv&o). 

eumAp A proper noun, first declen., genitive 
' SeumAif, 3rd pers. sing., masc. gen., 
nom. case, being subject of At>eif\. 

gup A t conjunction used before the past 
tense : compounded of 50 and po. 

['t>] The dependent form, past tense, of the 
verb if. 

Leip A prepositional pronoun (or a pronomi- 
nal preposition), 3rd pers. sing., maso. 
gender. Compounded of te and p 6. 

pCm An indeclinable noun, added to teif for 
the sake of emphasis. 

An The definite article, nom. sing, masc., 
qualifying the noun c^p-Alt. 

AP-AU, A com. noun, first declen., genitive 
CApAiU, 3rd pers. sing., masc. gend. 
and nom. case, being the subject of 
the suppressed verb ['&]. 


DO A particle used as a sign of the past 
tense, causing aspiration ; but here it 
has also the force of a relative. 

Ci An irreg. intrans. verb, indie, mood 

past tense, analytic form of the verl 
c^im (verbal noun, oeit). 

A prepositional pronoun, 3rd sing., 
masc. gender, compounded of 45 
and e. 

B. Parse the following sentence : T)o Cur.i pi 
mortA Af\ oeA|\5-lAM'0 i n-T)ion ctge tiA fcoi 
tae DCAlc-Aine. (Junior Grade, 1900). 

t)o A particle used as the sign of the past 
tense, causing aspiration. 

uif\ A reg. trans, verb, indie, mood, past 
tense, analytic form of the verb cui^im 
(verbal noun, cup). 

pi A personal pronoun, 3rd pers. sing., 

fern, gend., conjunctive form, nomi- 
native case, being the subject of the 
verb Cuip. 

pot) A com. noun, first declen., gen. f6iT> 
3rd pers. sing., masc. gender, accusa- 
tive case, being the object of the verb 

m<5n.A A common noun, third declension, nom. 
tndn, 3rd pers. sing., fern, gender, 
and genitive case, governed by the 
noun f 6t>. 

.Ap A preposition, governing the dative 

A compound verbal noun, genitive 
oe-Ans-tAfCA, 3rd pers. sing., dative 
case, governed by the preposition Af . 

t A preposition, governing the dative 

case, and causing eclipsis. 

ofon A com. noun, first declens., gen. t>in, 
3rd pers. sing. masc. gender and dative 
case, governed by preposition 1. 

(N.B. This word may also be 

second declension). 

ct$e An irreg. com. noun, nom. ceac, 3rd 
pers. sing., masc. gend., genitive case, 
governed by the noun -Dion. 

HA The definite article, genitive sing, femi- 
nine, qualifying j^coite. 

fcoite A common noun, second declension, 
nom. f coit, 3rd pers. sing., fern. gend. 
and genitive case, governed by the 
noun cije. 


A com. noun, second declension, gen, 
nidi-one, 3rd pers. sing., fern. gend. 
and dative case, governed by the pre- 
position Ap (understood). 

tx*e-be,AtCAine A compound proper noun, nom. Ul 
be.Atc.Aine, 3rd pers. sing., masc. 
gend. and genitive case, governed by 
the noun 

C. Parse : Oim AS -out Cum An .AonAig (Junior, '98). 

C4im An irreg. intrans. verb, indie, mood, 
present tense, 1st pers. sing., syn- 
thetic form, of C.A (verbal noun, tteit). 

.AS A prep , governing the dative case. 

out A verbal noun, 3rd pers. sing., dative 
case, governed by the preposition 45. 

Cum A noun (dative case, governed by t>o 
understood) used as a preposition, 
governing the genitive case. 

An The definite article, gen. sing, maso , 
qualifying the noun Aon^ig. 

A common noun, first declen., nom. 
.AonAC, 3rd pers. sing., masc. gender, 
and genitive case governed by cum. 


D. Parse : Tli cOi|\ t>uic 6 T>O t>uAtAt>. 

HI A negative adverb, causing aspiration, 
modifying the suppressed verb if. 

[if] The assertive verb, present tense, ab 
solute form. 

c6i|\ A common adjective, positive degree, 
comparative c6\i&, qualifying the 
phrase 6 t>o ftuAUvo. 

6uic A prep, pronoun, 2nd pers. sing, com- 
pound of -DO and cu. 

3 A personal pronoun, 3rd pers. sing., 

nom. case, disjunctive form, being 
the subject of the suppressed verb if. 

oo A preposition, causing aspiration, and 
governing the dative case. 

BuAlA-6. A verbal noun, genitive buAitce, 3rd 
pers. sing., dative case, governed by 
the preposition t>o. 

N.B. 6 -oo tkiAlA-o is the subject of the sentence. 

E. Parse : t^mig f 6 te 

An irreg. intrans. verb, indie, mood, 
past tense, 3rd pers. sing, of the verb 
cij;itn (verbal noun, 

j'6 A pers. pron, 3rd pers. sing., masc. gen., 
conjunctive form, nom. case, being 
the subject of 411115. 

le A preposition governing the dative 

A common noun, first declens. gen. 

CAPAIU, 3rd pers. sing., masc. gend. 

and dative case governed by le. 
The softened form of the preposition 

oo, which causes aspiration, and 

governs the dative case. 
A verbal noun, genitive ce^nnuigte, 

3rd pors. sing., dative sase, governed 

by the preposition A. 


U...A5Atn, I HAVE. 

638. As already stated there is no verb " to hare " 
in Irish. Its place is supplied by the verb C-A followed 
by the preposition Ag. The direct object of the verb 
"to have" in English becomes the subject of the verb 
CA in Irish : as, I have a book. C4 le^t)^ -A^m . 
The literal translation of the Irish phrase is " a book 
is at me." 

This translation appears peculiar at first sight, but it is a mode oi 
expression to be found in other languages. Most students are 



familiar with the Latin phrase " Est mihi pater." I have a father 
(.it. there is a father to me) ; and the French phrase Ce livre cst d 
moi. 1 own this book (lit. This book is to me). 

We give here a few sentences to exemplify the 
idiom : 

He has the book. UA AH teAttAp 

tli f.uit r 

An ftpuil mo peAnn AJ;AC ? 
t)i An t<3 AS An 

til JVAlG An 

I have not it. 

Have you my pen ? 

The woman had the cow. 

The man had not the 

Will you have a knife to- 
morrow ? 

He would not have the dog. 

We used to have ten 


1 tnbAjvAc ? 

til t)1A"6 An 

t)o t>iot) 

A5 An 

is Horn, I OWN. 

639. As the verb " have" is translated by c and 
the preposition AS, so in a similar manner the 
verb "own" is translated by the verb 1S and the 
preposition 16. Not only is the verb " to own," but 
also all expressions conveying the idea of ownership, 
such as : The book belongs to me : the book is mine, 
&c. ; are translated by the same idiom. 
I own the book. 

The book is mine. } 1r liom An 

The book belongs to me. 


The horse was John's. \ 

The horse belonged to 

j hn I DA te SeA$An An 

John owned the horse. J 

Notice the position of the words. In translating 
the verb "have" the verb CA is separated from the 
preposition AS by the noun or pronoun ; but in the 
case of "own" the verb ip and the preposition te 
come together. (See par. 589, <fec.) 

I have the book. CA An leAtAp 

I own the book. If tiom ATI 

In translating such a phrase as " I have only two 
cows,'' the noun generally comes after the preposi- 
tion AS : so that this is an exception to what has been 
said above. 
I have only two cows. Hi uil AgAtn AC T>A fttnn. 


640. There is no verb or phrase in Irish which can 
cover the various shades of meaning of the English 
verb " to know." First, we have the very commonly 
used word peA-OAp (or ^eA-OAip me), I know; but this 
verb is used only after negative or interrogative 
particles, and has only a few forms. Again, we have 
the verb Aitmgun, / know; but this verb can only be 
used in the sense of recognising. Finally we have the 
three very commonly used phrases, CA eoUxp 


CA Aicne A^rAm, and CA A friop A^A, all meaning 
"I know;" but these three expressions have three 
different meanings which must be carefully distin- 

Whenever the English verb " know " means " to 
know by heart," or "to knmv the character of a person" 
" to know by ttvdy," &o., use the phrase CA 

Whenever "knoiv" means "to recognise," "to know 
by appearance" " to ATICM/; by sight" &c., use the phrase 
CA Aicne A5...Aj\. This phrase is usually restricted 
to persons. 

When "know" means "to know by mere informa- 
tion" "to happen to know" as in such a sentence aa 
" Do you know did John come in yet?" use the phrase 
CA A p:of Ag, e.g. t)puil A fnof AJAC An 

H 1fC6AC 

As a rule young students experience great difficulty 
in selecting the phrases to be used in a given case. 
This difficulty arises entirely from not striving to 
grasp the real meaning of the English verb. For 
those who have already learned French it may be 
useful to stata that as a general rule CA eolAp AgAm 
corresponds toje sais and CA Aitne AgAm to je connais 

CA Aitne AgAtn AIJ\ ACc ni puit eolAf A5Atn Aijt. 
Je le connais maisje ne le sais pas. I know him by 
eight but I do not know his character. "Do you know 


that man going down the road ?'* Here the verb 
" know " simply means recognise, therefore the Irish 
is : ttpuil Aitne A$AC Ap An ttpeAp pom ACA AS T>ul plop 
An botAp.? If you say to a fellow- student " Do you 
know your lessons to-day ?'' You mean " Do you know 
them by rote?" or "Have you studied them?'* 
Hence the Irish would be : " t)puit eotap AJAC Ap. 
QO CedCcAnnAiG int)iti ?" 

Notice also the following translations of the verb 

ip nu\ic ip eoL "oom, 'Tis well I know. 

ip p iopx.\c (pex.\fx.\c) -oom, I know. 

II f UT> ACA A\\ I say what I know. 


651. "Hike" and "I prefer" are translated by the 
expressions 1p mAit (<Ml, AIC) tiom and 1p peA|\|\ liotn 
(it is good with me ; and, it is better with me). 

I like milk. 1p mAit tiom bAinne. 

He prefers milk to wine. 1f r- eA PP ^ el r b^inne TIA 

Does the man like meat? /An mAit leip An 

peoit ? 

Did you like that ? xty &*& te< * c 6 pn ? 

I liked it. tXa mAit liom 6. 

We did not like the water. THop rhAit linn An c-uipge. 

642. If we change the preposition " le *' in the 
above sentences, for the preposition "t>o," we get 


another idiom. "It is really good for," "It is of 
benefit to." 1f tn^vit t>om e. It is good for me ; 
(whether I like it or not). 

He does not like milk but it is good for him. 
Hi mAit leif bAinne AC if tn^it -66 e. 

N.B. In these and like idiomatic expressions the 
preposition "le" conveys the person's own ideas and 
feelings, whether these are in accordance with fact or 
not. 1f piu liom -out 50 h-Alb-Ain. I think it is 
worth my while to go to Scotland (whether it is really 
the case or not). 1p m<5p liom ^n tu^C fom. I think 
that a great price. 1f fUApAC tiom 6 fin. I think 
that trifling (another person may not). 

The word " think " in such phrases is not trans- 
lated into Irish. 

1f piu t>uic t)ul 50 ri-Att)Ain. It is really worth 
your while to go to Scotland (whether you think so or 

C15 Uom, I CAN, I AM ABLE. 
643. Although there is a regular verb 
meaning I can, I am able, it is not always used. 
The two other expressions often used to translate 
the English verb "Jean," are ci$ liom and if f.eiT)ij\ 


The following examples will illustrate the uses of 
the verbs. 

Present Tense. 

tnj: tiom* or ) 

> I can, or am able. 

llOtn,T ) 

peut)-Ann cu, 05 leAC or 

f Thou canst or art able. 
if jrei-oi]\ le-AC. 

&c., &c. 


Hi f?eut)Aim,ni tig Uorn; or) 

tl cannot, I am not able. 
ni peiT)i|\ Uorn. ) 


An T>CIJ; leAC "? or) 

} Can you ? or are you able ? 


Negative Interrogative. 

\A t)ci5 teif? or] Can he not? or is he not 

rxMi pei-Dip leif ? j able ? . 

Past Tense. 

tiom, or] 

' 1 could, or was able. 
DO t> reiT)in liom. 


T)' f?euT)4inn, ttgeAX) liotn. I used to be able. 

- Literally : It comes with me f It is possible with me. 




oocpMt) Uom. I shall be able. 

I would be able. 

tli trei-oip teif, (He thinks) he cannot. 

tli peit>if\ -66, He cannot (It is absolutely 

impossible for him). 

644. The verb " must," when it means necessity or 
duty, is usually translated by the phrase ni puu\ij\ or 
CAitpt). This latter is really the third person singu- 
lar, future tense of c-Aicim ; but the present and other 
tenses are also frequently used. It may also be very 
neatly rendered by the phrase, ip eige-An -oo (lit, 
it is necessary for). 

tli jruUAtp -Com, c-Aitpt) n\&, or) 

hi must, 
if eige-An -com. 

tli puUkif Tjuic, CAiep-6 cu, or 

-outc. Y< 

tli fut&if -66, CAitp* f6, or) 


&o., &c. 

The English phrase "have to M usually means 
" must" and is translated like the above : as, / have 
to go home now. C.Aitp-6 m6 T)uL ^ fc^iie 


The English verb "must," expressing duty or 
necessity, has no past tense of its own. The English 
past tense of it would be " had to :" as, "I had to go 
away then" The Irish translation is as follows : 

Tlion ti'frutAip -born, C<Mt m6, or T 

had to. 

oo t)'6isex\n -com. 

{***? rft nrl 


&c., &c. 

The English verb " must " may alto express a 
supposition; as in the phrase " You must be tired." 
The simplest translation of this is "Hi putAip 50 
trpuil ctnppe Ofic," or, "Hi jrutAip ti6 CA cuipfe ope." 
The phrase " if cof ^rhAil 50," meaning " It is pro- 
bable that," may also be used : as, 1p copAriiAil 50 

The English phrase " must have " always expresses 
supposition, and is best translated by the above 
phrase followed by a verb in the past tense, as, " You 
must have been hungry," Hi uUiip 50 PAID ocpx\f ope. 
He must have gone out, Hi putdip 50 troe.ACAi-6 fe 

ni pulAift 5p 6uAr6 (or 50 ti-oeASAi-o) f4 AtnAd, is used in Munstel 


645. I esteem is translated by the phrase C4 
. Literally, " / have esteem on. 


I esteem John. 

Did you esteem him ? TlAib me-Af A^A^ AI\\ ? 

He says that he greatly t)eit\ re 5 
esteems you. mo\\ 


646. Although there is aregularverb, eu^,die, in Irish 
it is not often used ; the phrase jeittim bAf , / find 
death, is usually employed now. The following 
examples will illustrate the construction : 
The old man died y ester- u.Aip ^ 

day. itroe. 

We all die. ^eititnix) uiLe 

I shall die. 5e6t>xvo bAf. 

They have just died. UAI-O CAJ\ ei 

You must die. Caitpt) cu bxif -o'^ 


647. There is no verb " owe " in Irish, Its place is 
supplied by saying " There is a debt on a person. 
~CA p^C* ojAtn. / owe. 

W T henever the amount of the debt is expressed the 
word |?MC is usually omitted and the sum substituted. 
He owes a pound. O punc -dip. 

You owe a shilling. O fsillmg ope. 

* The plural of this word, P.ACA, is very frequently used ia this 


When the person to whom the money is due is 
mentioned, the construction is a little more difficult : 
as, I owe you a pound as, UA punc A$AC ofun, i.e., 
You have (the claim of) a pound on me the words in 

brackets being always omitted. 

He owes me a crown. UA copdin A$Am Aift. 

Here is the man to whom Seo 6 An peAf A (50) 
you owe the money. Opuit An 



648. The verb " meet" is usually translated by the 
phrase "there is turned on," e.g., " / meet a man " is 
translated by saying "A man is turned on me." 
peAf\ opm (liom or t>om) ; but the phrase 
(or tAplA) peAfi oj\m is also used. I met 
the woman, T>O cAf At) An t>eAn opm (tiom or t>om). 

They met two men on the "Do CAf A-O beipc p eA|\ O|ttA 

road. Ap An mt>OtAf. 

I met John. t)uAil SeA$An utnAm. 

Physical Sensations. 

649. All physical sensations, such as hanger, thirst^ 
weariness, pain, &c., are translated into Irish by say- 
ing that ''hunger, thirst, &c., is on a person;" as, I 


am hungry. "C& ocpAf opm. Literally, hunger is on 
me. He is thirsty. UA cApc Aip. Literally, thirst is 
on him. 

The same idiom is used for emotions, such as 
pride, joy, sorrow, shame, &c. The following ex- 
amples will illustrate the construction : 
t)pwil ocpAf ope ? Are you hungry ? 

Hi puil ocpAr- opm Atioir-. I am not hungry now. 
t)i Ati-CApc opAinn itroe. 1 We were very thirsty 
t)i AHA CApc opAinn itroe. ) yesterday. 
t)puii riAipe optA ? Are they ashamed ? 

t)i tiAipe AH cf AogAil uippi. She was very much 


t)eit> bpd-o tn6p Aip. He will be very proud. 

HAit cuipfe ope ? Were you tired ? 

m t>iot> eA^UA ope. Don't be afraid. 

CA AHA Co-olA-6 opm. I am very sleepy. 

CA fLA$-OAn ope. You have a cold. 

Whenever there is a simple adjective in Irish cor- 
responding to the English adjective of mental or 
2)hysical sensation, we have a choice of two construc- 
tions, as : 

I am cold. 
You are sick. 

I was weary. 

C4 cu cinn 
(or bpeoice) 

or c^ tiA<ic* opm. 
CA cinneAf ope. 

W cuipfe opm. 

* Distinguish between ^LAJDATI a cold (a disease) and -pu^cc, 
the cold, coldness (of the weather) and the adjective fu,\p, cold. 


"CA me cinn and cA ninne^f opm have not quite the 
same meaning, O m6 cmn means I feel sick ; but 
TCA citine-Ap opm means / am in some sickness, such as 
fever, &.Q. 


650. The English phrase " I cannot help that," is 
translated by saying / have no help on that, tli fuil 
ne^pc A^Am AIJA fin. The word teije^f, "cure," may 
be used instead of neapc. 

When " cannot help " is followed by a present parti- 

ciple in English, use Hi /V<^ im \ SAn w f t h vei'- 
(pei-ojp UomJ 

bal noun : as, / cannot help laughing, Hi JT :eA ' OAim 



651. There are two expressions which translate the 
English word "alone" in such sentences as lam 
alone, He is alone, &c., i.e., Oim im AOIIAP, or U^tm 
liotn p6m (I am in my oneship, or I am by (with) 
myself). He is alone. UA f6 HA AonAft or UA f6 teif 
f6m. She was alone. t)i fi 'nA n-AonAtx, or t)i fi 
t6id pem. We shall be alone. t)eimvo 'tiA|\ n-Aon^. 
or beimit) Unn p6m. 


652. The English word "ask" has two distinct 
meanings according as it means "beseech" or "in- 
quire.'' In Irish there are two distinct verbs, viz., 


I ask (for a favour), and pA^ui^im, I ask 
(for information). Before translating the word " ask " 
we must always determine what is its real meaning, 
and then use iApj\ or piAffuiig accordingly. 

Ask your friend for money. IA^ AipgeA-o 


Ask God for those graces. IA^ Ap T!)IA TIA 

fO1H A tAtiA1f\C -OU1C. 

Ask him what o'clock it is. popping -oe CAT) A 0105 e. 

He asked us who was that X)' u\i\ui$ f6 -oinn cuv'p 

at the door. t>'e pn AS An -oopAf . 

They asked me a question. T)'f iApt\ui$eA-OAi\ 

653. I DO NOT CAKE. 

I do not care. 1f cum A tiom. 

It is no affair of mine. 1f cum A -com. 

Is it not equal to you? tlAc cumA -6uic? 

It is no affair of yours. 1f CUITIA t)uic. 

You don't care. 1f cumA teAC. 

He does not care. 1f CUTTIA teif. 

It is no affair of his. 1p CUTTIA t)6. 

We did not care. t>A cumA tmn. 
It was no affair of ours. t)A cumA -oumn. 

They did not care. t)A cumA leo. 

(See what has been said about the prepositions te 
and x>o in the Idiom "I prefer," par. 642.) 



655. " I ought" is translated by the phrase if 
(or ce-Apt) -OOTTI. You ought, if coi|\ t>uic, i 
OU1C. .We ought to go home, 1f c6ip *iJinn -out 
A tiAite. We ought to have gone home, t)A C6i|\ 
Ouinn -out A tMite. As the word " aught " has no in- 
flection for the past tense in English, it is necessary 
to use the past infinitive in English to express past 
time. But as the Irish expression, if coip, has a past 
tense (t)A C6if\) the simple verbal noun is always used 
in Irish in such expressions. 

Ought you not have gone to HA^ C6ip t>uic t>til 50 
Derry with them ? T)oij\e teo ? 

He ought not have gone Tliop etfijv -66 imce^cc. 

English Dependent Phrases translated by the 
Verbal Noun. 

655. Instead of the usual construction, consisting 
of a verb in a finite tense followed by its subject (a 
noun or a pronoun), we very frequently meet in Irish 
with the following construction. The English finite 
verb is translated by the Irish verbal noun, and the 
English subject is placed before the verbal noun. If 
the subject be a noun it is in the nominative form, 
but if a pronoun in the disjunctive form. 


The following examples will exemplify the idiom: 
"Do t)'{?e<\i\t\ tiom 6 "oo 

I'd prefer that he should be 
there rather than my- 

Is it not better for us that 
these should not be in 
the boat. 

I saw John when he was 

coming home. 
I knew him when I was a 


Deit Ann nA mife. 

fo *oo t>eit mp An mbAt). 

e AS ceACc A 

t)l Altne AgAtTJ Alfl AgUf 

m6 mi 

The clock struck just as f)o 
he was coming in. 4 

An ctog 


Idiomatic Expressions. 


Cuip Opmp.A 6. 

Cuipimpe opcpA 6. 
Cmp umAC (ope). 
Cuip AH CApc 50 mop 


x\1p 6 

A cuip opm -j ni 

fe fpeic 


Cuipe^f pCttiAtn 
CA cup pop (cp^cc or 

iomp^-6) ^p An 5005^-6. 
Cuip pe culAi-6 

Cuip pe 'r\A tuige opm. 
Cuip i gc^p gup 


Cuip ^p bun. 
Cuip (t>Airt) p 

cup 'p 


Say it was I did it. 

1 say it was you did it. 

Dress yourself. 
Aip. Thirst annoyed him 

ope I'll make you stop. 

(A) Make him do it. 

Don't interfere with me 
and I will not interfere 
with you. 

Hetrackedhim (her, them). 

He addressed me. 

I resolved to do it. 
There is talk about the 

He got a suit of clothes 


He convinced me of it. 
Suppose me to be a soldier. 


He settled down in Cork. 

He is debating in lus mind. 


UA pe CAtK\pcA. 
CA pe" tui Ailce pttAp. 
CA pe CUJCA (cAttAp 
oo'n loCc pAn. 

TDO -opium leip. 
p6 TToeAp(A) 

T)'A Ceile. 

put) Af t)O 
Hi -CSAnVA-o p6 put) opm. 
tlAC rnAit nAC rcoeApnAip 

p6m 6 ! 
tl AC triAit 11 A T)6<\nAiin cu 

f 6in put) Ap T>O rhAtAip ? 

IIUAlp tU156AT)Ap A fCAtDAp 

oo *6mip (pinnip) An 


T)6An Aipe (t)o) 
oot) jn<5 pein. 
T)eAn -oo gn6 pern. 
Atpe T)OT) 


He is played out. 

He is addicted to that vice. 

Turn your back to him. 
I noticed the light. 

He has been given up 

for dead. 
He gave in. 
He has given in. 
It is hard to reconcile, 

truth and falsehood. 
He is highly educated. 

your mother. 
He would not o&%e me. 
How well you didn't do it 

yourself ! 
Why don't you obey your 

mother yourself ? 
When they understood 

hoiv well you had done 

the trick. 

Mind your own business. 


nA bA t>o Cut) Milk the cows. 

An troe.Apn.Aip An -oonup Did you shut the door ? 

oo -ounA-6 ? 
UA p6 AS -o6AnAm op,Amn. He is coming towards us. 

Conup (cionnur) -o' imtij How did he get on ? 

What became of him ? 


(What happened to him ? 

CuiceAtin |\UT> mAfl When something like this 
peo Am AC. happens. 

CAT) imteoCAp onm ? ] ^ T , . 

} What will become of me ? 
eipeoCAp -oom ?)j 

T)ob' e An CPA-O -oume T>O The first person he met 

t>UAiL uime HA SCA^AH was SeAgAn UAC. 

1p e f UT> -oob' peA|\p teip What he wished most to 

peipcinctlAiiASApAtiAij; see was the banishment 

50 te"in T>'A n-oibipc Ap of the whole of the 

6ip,mn.. English from Ireland. 

1p e P.UT) T)o tug Anoip Cum What brought me to talk 

CAince VCAC m6 11 A me with you now is the fact 

t>eic i 5CfuiAt)-(iAp. that I am in difficulty. 

1p e f UT> -oo finne (t)em) What the man did was to 

An peAf 11 A CAiteAm leo. throw at them. 


tlA i 

If 6 put) A-oeipeA-o 
emne tIA gup rh^it 

What James did then was 

to make him a present 

of it. 
What everyone used to say 

was that it was a greaf 

blessing for him. 


1f m6p te 
1f m6p le 

Hiop tfiop le jure 6. 



Hi mOp Linn 

tli m6|\ tiom "66 6. 

tli mop nAC (HA 50) tipuit 

fe o^AticA. 
tli m6p r\A 50 mbett) fe 


x>om, &c. 


cii ! 
-oe) 50 

It is important. 

It is a thing to be proud 

of, or boast about. 
It was not of muck 

I must return. 
I must take my departure. 
We have no objection to 

your doing so. 
I don't grudge it to him. 
It is almost done. 

It will be nearly finished. 

Wlnj shouldn't I, &c. ? lit., 
how is it too much for 

How grand you have got ! 

It is not likely that I shall 


Lioin e. 
optn e. 

1f beAj; An 




t>eAj; nA 

i-mcit) T>6 t>eic 

IIA|\ tin i 


emne i 

I consider it too small. 

I don't like it at all. 

I have no great opinion 

of him. 
It's no great harm. He 

is not to be pitied. 
You are not of much use. 
'Tis little you know. 
It is nearly time for him 

to be going. 
It was nearly time -for him 

to be going. 
It is a trifle. 
There is liardly a person 

in Ireland who could 



An eipeoiAni (pe) linn ? 
t)I re AS eipge puAp. 
tTlAic An AIC 50 fVAt>Air ! 

tTlAlt niAp CAftA. 

11iof\ lAt>Ai^ fe piu AOM 

pOCAt ArilAlfl. 
^n lU nA tl-AtlAlA T)O 

Shall we succeed ? 
It was getting cold. 
Well said ! or Well done ! 
It has happened luckily. 
He did not speak a single 

Without even taking 

Even our own people. 


CA p6 Ag DuL 

CA pe A$ T)uL i n-oLcAp. 

-\XbAip. 6 ! 

Hi cuirhm Liom A Leiceit). 

tAp,LA ATI LeAbAp. AgAtn 


CApegeALLLebeit poLLArh) 
CA pe poLtAtii nA6 rndp. ] 

til pint T)UL UAlt) AgAC. 

CA An peAp. pAn A^ T)uL i 

mbeo opin. 
CA p6 i pioCc bAip. 
CA pe Le h-utc bAip. 
1p iniLLce(AC) An pgeAL e. 
1p CAiLLce An LA e Le pLiCe. 

(Leog) -oom pem Let)' 

CAT) e An Cum ACA AgACpA 

An Cui-o ip Lu$At)e t)A UAip 

pA mt>liAt>Ain. 
Copp IIA ti-eA5c6t\A. 
te copp -oiottiAOtnip. 

C4 pmuc Ten 

1p Le^rh An gn6 t>uic e. 

He is getting better. 
He is getting worse. 
Hear ! hear ! Bravo ! 
I don't remember the like 

of it. 
As I liappen to have the 

book now. 

It is almost empty. 

You cannot avoid it. 
That man's conduct cuts 
me to the quick. 

He is at the point of death. 

It is a terrible affair. 
It is a terribly wet day. 
A very unlikely story. 
Don't annoy me with your 

What right (call) have 

you to it ? 
At least twice a year. 

The essence of wrong. 

Through downright lazi- 

He is partly right. 

'Tis an absurd thing for 
you to do. 


CAT) 'HA tAot) n4 ce.Ati- 
nuigeAnn cu bpojjA t>uic 
DO beit 

CA p6 Ap n<3p CUITIA Uom. 

Ce CA Ap AP -oci ? 

CA p6 Ap t)o Ci. 


me . 

1f 'OUAt AtA|t -DO. 

t)i mo tujVAp 1 n- 
CA teigeAnn cu A le^p. 

t)eT6 PAH 'TIA m^piA ] 'HA 

$UC Ap A gClU AH "OA lA 
'p All p. AIT) A belt) SplAtl 

p.\ ppeip. 

CA pe bev\5Ati puAp. 
UA pe poinnc bot>Ap. 
CA p6 gAn beit Ap pognArh, 
Tli puit An c-ubAll po 

Aibit) i 5ceAf,c. 
tli cuppATbe gAipi-oe e. 
"Do $Aipp.A, mupA mbeAt) 

nAC cuip $>e e. 

Why don't you buy boots 
for yourself ? Because 
I have not the money. 

He is indifferent. 

Who is intending us harm ? 

He is bent on attacking 

you. He intends to 

harm you. 

Others besides myselfi 
He had permission to go. 
He has it from his father. 
My journey was in vain. 
You need not. 
A fool's errand ; a wild 

goose chase. 
That will be a reproach 

and a blot on their 

fame the longest day the 

sun will be in the sky. 
It is a little cold. 
He is somewhat deaf. 
He is a little unwell. 
This apple is not quite 


It is nothing to laugh at. 
You would laugh only 

that it is not a matter 

to laugh at. 


Hi cupfAitie CAince e. It is nothing to talk about. 

CAjifVAing cu$Acnut)ei5inc Find something else 10 
eile mA|\ curvrAi'oe make fun about. 

CAt>e An gn6 ACA A^AC T>e? What do you want it for ? 

Do bAineAt) IAJ\PACC t)e He was slightly startled. 

geic Af . 

tli fruit Aon A|\ AS "opeim There's no use trying to 

leif An mbAllA. get up on the wall. 

Hi pAitt Aon rhAiceAf 'HA In vain did he cry (talk, 

5l<5p. speak). 

Hi moi'oe gup fspiolj fe Perliaps he did not write 

An ucif . the letter. 

^AftAim lem' Aif pn -oo I propose to do that. 

*ioc ( e ) l am thank f ul to y u ^ br > 

> 10 Aip. j ^^ you /or it. 
buit>eACAr Le ^c I 


t)eit> cu -oeAnAC (t)6it)eA- You will be late for the 

nA6) Ag An cpAen. train. 

cu T)eAnAC AJ\ rsoit. You will be late for school. 

i cuit) ACA A jVAt) 50 Some of them were saying 

HAIO t>ei|\ce (be^tA) AJ\ that the rascal was 

An mbiceAttinAC. caught. 

i^eoCAit) A cpoit>e A|\ It will break Dermot's 

"OiApmui-o. heart. 


gAipc PIAT> Ap 
ITIunAb ope ACA An CAinc 

tuig AH CAinc 50 leip Ap 
An triACAlons A bi 
imcigce Ap SADD. 

Hiop imcij optA ACC An 
put) A bi cuillce ACA. 

Ceip opAinn ceACc 

UJl fe A5 T)eAnArh 
Ap A CAinc. 

CA fe Ap An opeAp if 

fAlt)D|Ve fA ttlUttlAin. 

1p T)6(!;A gup T>6iC teo. 
CA fe biiAitce ifceAC im 


toifgeAt) iAT)'nA mbeAtATo 
CAD At)6Anf.AT) Cop Ap bit 

t)i bjveif itidp -\ A 


t)i cop6m f6'n bpunc ACA 


t)i SAC mle t)ume Ag 

They burst out laughing. 

What talk you have \ If 
it isn't you have the 

The whole conversation 
turned on the misfor- 
tune which had befallen 

They only got what they 
had deserved. 

We failed to overtake 

He is mimicking his man- 
ner of talking. 

He is the richest man in 

Probably they imagine. 

I am firmly convinced. 

They wore burnt alive. 

What will I do at all with 
him ? 

They were getting a great 
deal more than their 

They were getting five 
shillings in the pound. 

Everyone was sympathis- 
ing with her. 



CoriinAOif T)O SeA$<\n An 

ce bA fine ACA. 
I)A t>6iC leAC Aip gup ieif 

.<\n AIC. 



Com triAit A5r T)A mbA nA 
exxgcoip A]\ bit Ann. 

I f uic. 
Ce'p A mAC tu ? 
tli ttiAitpeAtv pumn -ouic. 
CA G'fMOf -ouic ? 
A rS^At pem fS 6 ^ L 5 


CufA pe n-oeA|\ fom. 
UA n6 nAC e 

Hi CAipe -Com pem. 

The eldest of them was 

the same age as John. 
You (one) would imagine 
by him that he owned 
the place. 
There wasn't a trace of 

him there. 
Just as if it were not 


He asked what was the 
cause of the merriment. 
Whose son are you ? 
You will meet your match. 
How did you know ? 
Everyone is most inter- 
ested in his own affairs. 
You are the cause of that. 
I have a different matter 

to look after. 

I am no exception; i.e., I 
am the same as the 


The Autonomous Form of the Irish Yerb, 

It is sometimes necessary or convenient to express 
an action without mentioning the subject, either 
because the latter is too general or not of sufficient im- 
portance to be mentioned, or because there is some 
other reason for suppressing it. Most languages have 
felt this necessity, and various means have been adopted 
to supply it. The use of the passive voice, or of 
reflexive verbs, or of circumlocutions, is the method 
generally adopted in other languages. In Irish there 
is a special form of the verb for this purpose. As it 
has no subject expressed it is sometimes called the 
Indefinite form of the verb : as it forms a complete 
sentence in itself it is also called the Autonomous or 
Independent form. 

An English verb cannot stand without its subject. 
For example, "walks," "walked," etc., express nothing. 
The English verbs cannot alone make complete 
sense. The Autonomous form of Irish verbs can 
stand alone. The word " tJuAilceAp " is a complete 
sentence. It means that " the action of striking takes 
place." The Autonomous form stands without a 
subject; in fact it cannot be united to a subject, 
because the moment we express a subject the ordinary 
3rd person singular form of the particular tense and 
mood must be substituted. thiAttcedft ATI bop-o. 
Someone (they, people, we, etc.) strikes the table; but 
bu.Aile.Arm An peAj\ (f6, fiAt), HA t>AOine, etc.) AM 

We shall tahe the sentence : thiAilceAp -an 
le ctoiC o IAIITI UAIT&S. The word ''buAilceAp" of itself 
conveys a complete statement, viz., that the action of 


striking takes place. The information given by the 
single word " bu Alice A\\" is restricted to the action. 
There are circumstances surrounding that action of 
which we may wish to give information ; e.g. " What 
is the object of the action ?" " xXti ^A-OA^." " What 
is the instrument used?" "1e cloiC." " Where did 
the stone come from ?" " (5 lAitfi CAit>5." We may 
thus fill in any number of circumstances we please, 
and fit them in their places by means of the proper 
prepositions, but these circumstances do not change 
the nature of the fundamental word " tniAit.ce.Ap." 

It may be objected that the word " biiAilceAf\ " in the 
last sentence is passive voice, present tense, and means 
"is struck," and that "AH 5At>Ap " is the subject 
of the verb. Granted for a moment that it is 
passive voice. Now since " DuAiteAnn tuune eigin e," 
somebody strikes him, is active voice, as all admit, and 
by supposition "btiAilceAp e," somebody strikes him, or, 
he is struck, is passive, then comes the difficulty, what 
voice is ''CACAJ\ tniAilce," somebody is stmrk? Surely 
it is the passive of "buAilceAp" ; and if so " buAilceAf " 
itself cannot be passive, though it may be rendered 
by a passive in English. If we are to be guided 
merely by the English equivalent, then "buAileAiin" in 
the above phrase is as much a passive voice as 
" bUAilceAn," because it can be correctly translated 
into English by a passive verb : viz., He is struck. 

When we come to consider this form in intransitive 
verbs, our position becomes much stronger in favour 
of the Autonomous verb. Let us consider the follow- 
ing sentence : SIUO.AIC.AP AH An tnbOt-Ap nuAip bionn 


An bflcAp cifiim, AC nu<\ip tnonn An 
fiut>AlcAf\ Ap An gctAi-Oe. People icalk on the road 
when it is dry, but when the road is wet they walk on 
the path. Where is the nominative case of the so 
called passive verb here ? Evidently there is none 
The verb stands alone and conveys complete sense. 
If we wish to express the nominative, the Autonomous 
form of the verb cannot be used. In the above 
sentence we might correctly say: SiufttAnn re (r IA1 
finn, r\A -OAome, etc.), but not fiuti.Atc.Ap 6 (IAT>, finn, 
nA -oAoine, etc.) 

Probably classical scholars will draw analogies from 
Latin and quote such instances as, Concurritur ad 
muros. Vcntum est ad Vestae. Sic itur ad astra. 
Deinde venitur ad portam ; where we have intransitive 
verbs in an undoubtedly passive construction, and 
therefore, by analogy, the true signification of 
fmrjAlcAf in the above sentence is "It is walked," and 
it is simply an example of the impersonal passive con- 
struction. Now, if conclusions of any worth are to be 
drawn from analogies, the analogies themselves must 
be complete. The classical form corresponding to the 
Irish t)iceAp A$ f luGAt Aft An nibtitAp nuAip tMonn An 
b6t<\p cipitn, etc., or CAC^P Ag fiutiAl A\\ An lYibotAp 
Anoir- is wanting, and therefore the analogy is in- 
complete and deductions from it are of little value. 

One of the strongest arguments we have in favour 
of the Autonomous verb is the fact that; the verb 
"to be" in Irish possesses every one of the forms 
possessed by transitive and intransitive verbs. The 
analogy with Latin again fails here. C,\CAJ\ ^ 


Somebody is coming. t)en!>pAf\ AS ptutiAl, Somebody 
will be walking. t1uAi}\ rhotui An C-ACAC 50 pAtitAp 
45 ceAn^Aitc A Cop, When the giant perceived that they 
were binding his legs. 

The Irish Autonomous form cannot be literally 
translated into English, because no exact counterpart 
exists in English, hence the usual method of trans- 
lating this form U to use the English passive voice, 
but the Irish verb is not therefore passive. To give 
an instance of the incapability of the English language 
to express literally the force of the Autonomous verb, 
notice the English translation of the subjoined 
example of the continued use of the Autonomous verb 
in an Irish sentence. 

" Aic AnA-AepeAG if eAt> AH AIC fin : nuAi 
AH cpeo pAin 1 n-Am niAij\t> tiA 
coip-oe^Cc T)'A T>AiiAm 7 pot]\om 
Ag fit ) poctvom eite mAp fjei 

t5uAilpit>e -j 

This passage cannot be literally translated : the 
following will give a fair idea of its meaning : " That 
place is frequented by fairies : when one is walking 
near it in the dead stillness of the night, footsteps 
are heard and loud noises, as if people were running 
and fleeing, and then other noises are heard as if 
people were overtaking (those who were running 
away), and were striking and being struck, and as if 
they were being broken in pieces, and then are heard 
noises as if they were in hot rout and pursuit." 


The Autonomous form of the verb has a passive 
voice of its own formed by the addition of the verbal 
adjective (or past participle) of the verb to the Auto- 
nomous forms of the verb to be ; e.g., UAAP Du^ilce, 

This form of the Irish verb has a full conjugation 
through all the moods and tenses, active and passive 
voices ; but has only one form for each tense. All 
verbs in Irish, with the single exception of the asser- 
tive verb if, have this form of conjugation. 1p can 
have no Autonomous form, because iphas no meaning 
by itself. It is as meaningless as the sign of equality 
(=) until the terms are placed one on each side of it. 

To sum up then, the Irish Autonomous form is not 
passive, for 

(1) All verbs (except ir-), transitive and intransi- 
tive, even the verb CA, have this form of conjugation. 

(2) This form has a complete passive voice of its 

(3) The disjunctive forms of the personal pronouns 
are always used with it ; e.g., tniAilce^p 6. 

(4) Very frequently w 7 hen a personal pronoun is 
the object of the Autonomous form of the verb, it is 
placed last in the sentence or clause to which it 
belongs, thus giving a very close analogy with the 
construction of the active verb, already explained in 
par. 535. 1l;o,v CMn OAtn...5Uf feolAt) i^ce^C fAti 
5coill feo me... It was not long until I was driven into 
this wood. T)o leige^pA-t) 6 II-A gcpe'.AdcAio i<vo. They 
were healed of their wounds. 

(5) Lastly, ar,;l the strongest point of all, in the 


minds of native Irish speakers, without exception, the 
word btiAHceAp in such sentences as " buAilceAjt AM 
SXVOAH " is active, and gA'bAp is its object. Surely 
those Irish speakers are the best judges of the true 
shape of their own thoughts. 

We will now give a synopsis of the various forms 
of the Autonomous verb, beginning with the verb CA. 

The Verb UA. 



r is, are. 

Hi ^uilceAp.t 

is not, are not. 

biceA|\ (biteAf\). 

does be, do be. 

til biC6<\f\. 

does not be, do not be. 

biteAf (GiteAp). 


was, were. 

til f AtCAf. 


was not, were not. 



used to be. 

be.W toei ^f 

, be,-6- 


will be. 

beip(-oe), beit)pi(te) 


would be. 






ttlA CAC<\f\ 



is, are. 

IDA biceAp 





does be, do be. 


o^ mbeipi 


were, would be. 

50 ttAbtAf\ ! 


be (for once}. 

50 mbiceA|\ ! 


\ be (generallij). 

t)ei|tim 50 b^tiil 

,ceAfi, I say that someone, etc., is. 

T)ei|vnrj tiA fuiU 

;eA|\, ,, is not. 

pf or 





beipAj\ A 5 
beipi Ag fi 



mbeipf A 

An Intransitive Verb. 

walks, walk, 
is (are) walking, 
does (do) be walking, 

was (were) walking, 
used to walk, 
used to be walking, 
will walk. 
I will be walking, 
would walk, 
would be walking. 
(Let) walk. 


(Let). 3 be walking. 
(If). ^ is (are) walking. 


would be walking, 
were walking. 

A Transitive Verb. 

A noun is placed after the active forms iu order to show the cas 

n ctAji. 
^ AS buAlA-6 

Someone strikes the table. 
. Someone is striking the 


AH ctAf -OA (A) tniAlA-6. The table is being struck. 
tAp ton Aitce. Someone is struck. 

pe l>UAUv6, Someone is being struck. 

buAlA-6 An ClAip. Someone usually strikes 

the table. 
"Do buAiteAt) An cL<if\. Someone struck the table. 


t)iteAf 45 buAtAt) An tlAip 

t)i An clAt\ t)A ($4) bUAlA-6 

t)UAllci All ClA|\. 


t)ici biiAitce. 
t)uAiLpAp (bU 


tDu^.Lp! (l)UAilj:it)e) An 


t)eip AS t)UAlAt> An CtAifu 


An ctAfi. 


1TI A bUAllCCAf An 

ITlA biceAp AS buAlAt) An 

inbiiAiLpi An 

Someone was striking the 


The table was being struck. 
Someone was struck. 
Someone was being struck. 
Someone used to strike 

the table. 

Someone used to be strik- 
ing the table. 

Someone used to be struck. 
Someone will strike the 

Someone will be striking 

the table. 

Someone will be struck. 
Someone would strike the 

Someone would be striking 

the table. 

Someone would be struck. 
Let someone strike the 

Let someone be striking 

Tae table. 

If someone strikes the table. 
If someone does be striking 

the table. 

If someone were to strike 
the table. 


DA mbeipi ^5 bu.AtA-6 An If someone were to be 

CUij\. striking the table. 

Before leaving this important subject it may not be 
uninteresting to see what some Irish grammarians 
have thought of the Autonomous form. 

O'Donovan in his Irish Grammar (p. 183) wrote as 
follows : 

" The passive voice has no synthetic form to denote 
persons or numbers ; the personal pronouns, therefore, 
must be always expressed, and placed after the verb ; 
and, by a strange peculiarity of the language, they 
are always ' in the accusative form.' 

"For this reason some Irish scholars have con- 
sidered the passive Irish verb to be a form of the 
active verb, expressing the action in an indefinite 
manner ; as, t)UAitceAji me, i.e., some person or persons, 
thing or things, strikes or strike me ; DuAilexX* 6, some 
person or thing (not specified) struck him. But it is 
more convenient in a practical grammar to call this 
fo : m by the name passive, as in other languages, 
and to assume that tu, 6, i, and nvo, which follow it, 
are ancient forms of the nominative case." 

Molloy says in his Grammar, page 62 : 

" Verbs have a third form which may be properly 
called deponent ; as t>UAiU;e,Af\ me, / am ( Usually ) 
beaten ; tnu\ilce<\j\ u, thou art (usually) beaten ; 
t>iu\ilte<\p e", he is (usually) beaten. The agent of 
this form of the verb is never known ; but although 
verbs of this form always govern the objective case, 
like active verbs, still they must be rendered in English 


by the passive ; as, {mAite^T!) IAT>, they were beaten. 
Here MT> is quite passive to the action ; for it suffers 
the action which is performed by some unknown 

Again at page 99, he says : 

"But there is another form of the verb which always 
governs an objective case ; and although it must be 
translated into the passive voice in English, still it is 
a deponent, and not a passive, form in Irish ; as, 
t>Uc\ilceA|\ me\ etc. The grammarians who maintain 
that this form of the verb takes a nominative case 
clearly show that fchey did not speak the language ; 
for no Irish- speaking person would say tniAilceAp re, 
fi, fiAt). It is equally ridiculous to say that 6, i, ixvo, 
are nominatives in Irish, although they be found so 
in Scotch Gaelic." 

Further on, at page 143, he states again that 
" deponent verbs govern an objective case." 

Thus we plainly see that O'Donovan and Molloy 
bear out the fact that the noun or pronoun after the 
Autonomous form of the verb is in the accusative 
case, though the former' says it is more convenient to 
assume that it is in the nominative case ! 


Appendix I. 


ADftAn, a song. 
Ax>ApcAp, a halter. 
A-65AJ1, a cause. 


ArriA-OAn, a fool. 

AITIA^C, a sight. 

Aiii]u\|', doubt. 

AoibneAp, delight. 

AoilCAc, manure. 

Aol, lime. 

AjtAn, bread. 

AtvoAn, hillock. 

Aftm, an army : pi. Atftm, AfimA. 

AC, swelling or tumour. 

ACAf , gladness. 

bA-o, boat. 

bAtt>An, dummy, (stammerer). 

bA|tp, top. 

bAp. death. 

be^Ati, a little. 

biA-6, food ; gen. bi-6. 

bio|\An, a pin. 

biceAtiitiAc, rascal. 

blAp, taste. 

borm, sole, foundation. 

bocAji, road ; noin. pi. boicfe. 

bjiA-oAn, a salmon. 

bjiox), joy, pride. 

bjiotnAC, foal or colt. 

bjion, sorrow. 

btiAC, brink; pi. b|iA&A. 

bui-oeACAf, thanks. 

bun, bottom. 

cAipeAl,,* ft stone fortress. 
CAlA-6, harbour. 

CAjtbA-o, chariot. 

CAfin, heap. 

CApAn, path. 

CApu|i, hammer. 

CAC, cat. 

ceAnn, head or end. 

ceot, music ; pi. ceoLCA. 

ceii'otongA'Ojt breakfast. 

cineAL, kind or sort. 

cLeAtiinAf , marriage alliance 

clemeAt, clerk 

clog, bell, clock. 

C05A-6, war ; pi. COSCA 

cop An, cup. 

cjiei-oeAm, faith, religion. 
cuAn, bay or haven ; pi. cuAr 
cubAn, foam, 
cut, back of the head. 

DAot, beetle. 
oeijiCA-o, end. 
T>iAOAt, devil. 
Dinneu|i, dinner. 
t)ocA]t, harm. 
ooiceAlL, grudge, reserve. 
t>oriiAn, earth, world. 
ootiAr misfortune. 
vopAp, door ; pi. coijtr*. 
iouA-6, difficulty. 
x>uccAf, inherited instinct. 


i, Spring. 
ei-oeAti, ivy. 
eolAp, knowledge. 
eut)AC, cloth, clothes. 

This word also means a child's spinning " top. " 

In spoken language bjieicpCAfCA, i., is used for " breakfast." 


pi AC, raven ; pi. peic or peij. 
pocAl, a word; pi. pocAil or 


pojriiAfi, Autumn, 
ponn, tone or air. 

top ; pi. mutlAi je. 

Aom, a saint, 
neapc, strength. 
ocpAp, hunger. 
671, gold. 

, beagle. 

jjAnn-oAl, guilder". 
jAppun, a young boy. 
jeAtTiAp, green corn. 
jeAppcAC, young bird, 
5tAp, lock. 
Slop, voice, 
job, beaK (of a bird). 
SpeAtin, hi 
SUAL, coal. 

lApAmi, iron. 
(p)ioLAn, eagle. 
ionA-0, place. 
ipLeAn, hollow. 

LAOJ, cal1 - 

Uif , middle. 

teAOA|t, a book ; pi. 


, booklet, 


teun, misfortune, 
li'on, a net ; pi UoncA. 
ton, provision, 
tojij, a track. 

TTIA-OA* or TnA'opA, a dog; pi. 


, mockery, ridicule. 
mAOji, a steward. 
mA|tc, steer or beeve. 
me AC, failure. 
milleAT?, blame. 
mionnAn, kid. 
mop An, mnch, many. 

a pagan. 
p Apett, paper. 
piobAn, windpipe or aeok. 
pope, tune or air. 
pftetiCAti, crow. 

fiAti, track ; gen. 
pox), road. 
tun, secret. 

J-AC, a sack. 

. a priest. 
f AJAp, kind or sort. 
fAlAnn, salt. 
fAmpA-6, summer. 
fAOJAl, life, world. 
f Aop, craftsman, artisan. 
f AocAp, exertion, work. 
fCAOAC, hawk. 
yeo-o, a precious thing, 

pi. peot>A. 
rseut, news : pi. p 

pgeulcA, stories. 
ftADfiA-6, cham; pi. plA 
fop, wisp. 

$gl kind or sort 

ppiopA-o, a spirit. 
1^0 op, a spur. 
fpopc, sport. 
fcop, treasure store. 
, repose. 


CAmAlt, a short space of time. 
CAoipeAd, a captain, a leader, 
ce, \LlAC, hearth. 
cpopjAn, furniture, 
cup, beginning 


Appendix II. 

A list of feminine nouna ending in a broad consonant, belonging 
to the Second Declension. 




GEM. MitAtraa. 

VAipce a horn 

a doll 


bAptiAije tow 

beice bee 

bemne a mountain peak 

be^juMJe a heifer 

bUitceorbUtAise buttermilk 
boipc palm (of the hand) 

bfteice judgment 

btteise a lie 

bjujitj-.e word of honour 

bfio5e ft shoe 

biunjne palace, fort 

bit>ne ft troop 








an aid woman 
a trade 
a comb 
a harp 
ctoinne^or clAtnne children 

c6ine (pi. ciAtiCA) 








cuiteoi se 

a stone 

an car 


a wound 

a heifer 


a branch 

a spear 







a fly 






fuiti 11005 




a vat 
a form 
a thorn 
a drink 
bad weather 
face, visage 

a weasel 

time, occasion 




a feast 


a root 


a lark 



a little fork 





XG A LAI 50 


3f u 5 

5^'5 e 


S'5 e 



5 ei 1T'Se \ 



-rioitrAiTro I 








5P UA 5 










Varo'S 6 

match (light) 


U&jcce, LACAI^S 

mud, mire 
a stone flag 



half, side 








tn 'up 

mei r 






61 n re AC 




r peAl 

pe"i r ce 



poi 5 e 

r5 e.ce 


f ominne 
rpl^. ice 

fool (f.) 


musical pipe 

order, regulation 





hawthorn bush 


corn el i ness 






fine weather 


spark, thunderbolt- 








Appendix III. 


(a) All personal nouns ending in otjt, uip, 
(6) AD abstract nouns ending in AC. 

(c) Verbal nouns in Acr, Ail, and Aihd'ii. 

(d) The following list : 


Af-.-c ACC A cecr^) 





Atpcte, AipeAjtA 

repayment, restitution 




AT) At 











folk, people 












a (cooking) spit 

bic (bioc) 











butter milk 



tent, cot 


brio JA 

palace, mansion 










C Aft A1H 

CAOflA CAt>r<A6 






CA fS A 







love, desire, affectin" 




etc, in. (ciot) 





ft trick 

ctiAtiiAin, m. 

c li Am n * 













compact, covenant 






torture, destruction 








ctiAticA (or cttAtrice) 




part, shara 



account, meeting 









make or shape 

T)i.\t mtiit) 









T>pu>Tn, m. 


a back 




tax, tribute 


escape, elopement 







501 n 
5t iA-6 

5 L 







5t A 







cause, reason 
a grave, tomb 

service, use 
flesh, meat 
a tooth 


a sudden attack 


ransom, redemption 

act, deed 
a piece 
a voice 

a desire, request 
land, country 
hurling (a gamo) 
report, notice 

a grave 
beer, ale 
a fort 

an herb 

defeat, rout 





















6 5 A 

a young person 












admission, openii 




tlCACC, W. 





a form 







an equal, like 

f5 At 







a space of time 













a curb 
a swim 


rs A 




a layer 




, T uc 








a drove 


co LA 

purpose, project 
a will 


a strand 



flock, drove 



guide, troop 



fipht, quarrel 













Appendix IY. 


The letters in brackets give the termination of the genitive singular. 

06 or A&A, gen. AbAtm, a river ; 

pi. Aibne or AiBneAda. 
AoncA(-ti>), license, permission. 
A|uv(-n),Isle of Arran; pL 

The Arran Isles. 
(-TI), kidney. 

(-ATI), m., philosopher 
[An), 7/1., debtor, 
c), The Nore. 
Mi), a sign, mark. 
, twenty. 


beoip (beopAc), beer. jAt>A(-n), m., a smith ; pi. jAibne 

'j|tAA(t>;, m,, the upper part of st 1 ^ 111 <5T< AT1A c). hatred. 

the breast, 5AlA(-n), a shoulder ; pL 

bpeiieArh(An), m,, a judge, 5Ailne, guAilleACA. 

bpo(- r ), a quern, handmill pL ton ^. n ^ a naU (of the finger) ; 

pi. mgne. 
tACA(-n), a duck 
IAIH (IAJIAC), a mare. 
tAnAriiA(-n), a married couple. 
ATMIAC), a flame. 
ACJIAC), a level plain. 

CAO|iA(6), a sheep ; pi. CAOIJIIJ;. 

CAfiA(x>), a friend ; pi. 
CACAitt(-tttAc), a city, fortress. 
cACAOifi(-fteAc), a chair. 
ceAjvo6A(-n), ft forge, smithy. 
ceAcjtAtriA(-n), a quarter. 
ct<Mr(-rAc), a furrow. 
coifm(-f]ieAc), a feast. 
coriiupfA(-n), neighbour ; pi. 

m., a cheek; pi. 


-n), the shin ; pL Unpgne. 
mAinirci^'-CfieAc), a monastery. 
meATimA(-tiX the mind. 

^ Christmas. 

ottArii(-An), a doctor, professor. 
peAfij*A(-n), a person. 
uAAit (fiiArtAc), a rule. 

-n), a choice ; pi. JIO^HACA 

coriilA(-6), a gate, door. 
. compA(-n), a coffer, cupboard, m'le(-A-o), a soldier, warrior. 

coffin. TiAihA(-T)), an enemy ; pi. nAirr 

cop6in(-nAd), a crown. 
c}t<iin(-nA6), a sow. 
co, gen. con, a hound ; pi. 

coin, cotiA, hounds. 
cuit(-Ac), a corru'. 
cuipie(-Anrv), a pulse, vein. 
T)AiteArii(-An), a cup-bearer. t'5 AineAeA - 

oAip(-A6), an oak. T A1 ^ (f AlA<:: ). a beam. 

oeApnA(-n), palm of the hand. fe,Mi5A(-n^a cormorant. 

x)Ue(-Ann), flood, deluge; pi. fCAil (rcAtAc), a stallion. 

MnACA CAt(-Ac), a wedge, 

(-n), science, learning. t&l&m, gen. cAtmAn Jand. 

), disagreement, dis 


CAfcu (compound of cu), an eel 
eipi|t(-f peAc), an oyster. 
eocAi-p (eoc^iAC), a key. 

(CeAtTi|(Ac i Tara. 
ceAti5A(-n or -6), tongue ; pi. 


ceojiA(-n), boundary, limit. 
uille(-Atin), an elbow. 

eopnA(-n) [or gen. same as noun.], lcA(-n), a beard, 
barley. nrA(-n), door- jamb. 












snatch, take* 



bear, c:irry 




bit 51 ATI 











throw, open, consume 

















watch, guard 







c rs 










stL- : K>^t, 


Cop AID 


corr>Arii, cof-Ainc 





put, send 









shut (M. move towards) 




OUIJ^ACC, -ou r5 AO 





eite^tri, eitita^A'o 


rise, rvriaa 





find, get 


Y An 



To take a thing not offered is " bAin ;" but when offered, " 



I'Af grow fAf 

v eAt> whistle 

JTBAJI pour out, shower 

fete see 

r eu 6 behold, look 

p.Apjmi J aek, enquire 

fosluim learn 

foitl suit, fit 

poifi help, succoor p6ijittm 

FjieAf-oAit attend, serve pji CA^OA 


announce, proclaim 

5 Aft take, go jAfcAil 

5Ai|i call, shout S^'t 1 " 1 

jeAtt promise jjeAllAihAin 

^6itn bellow, low jeiinneAcor's^imeA-o 

^LAO-Q call 

jLuAtp journey, go 

501 1 weep jol 

S ui* pray gui-oe 

i.Ajit ti7. ask, entreat 

imtieAf contend, wrestla 

imtij go away itnteACi 

innir tell innpnc 

iomcAij< carry . lOmcAp 

lompui't turn totiipo'O 

(oc pay <oc 

lonAt wash icnlAC 

lOTinpui^ approach lonnr'in] 

it eat ire 

tcij knock down leAjAtt 

t,eAf follow VATiATTl< 

leij let, allow teijeAn 

tinj leap Ling 

UrniAHl strip, pull off lomAiju 

Ltns lie (down) twije 

mAin live, exist |L n ..,,, 

mAic forgive niAiteAiV 

meAr think meAf 










ce,t 5 

eui jilt 115 









play (an instrument) 


destroy, erase 








teach, instruct 




search for, pursue 

forsaken, abandon 


earn, deserve 
alight, descend 



r etc 








Appendix YI. 


DAC, stop, hinder, meddle. 
bAin, snatch, take. 
DAIC, drown, 
bete, bawl 
bog. soften. 

bits, milk, 
bjtip, break, 
bttuij, bruise. 
buAtL, beat. 
buAi-6, give success. 

Drunk, meaning intoxicated, is not olcA, but 

etf g 


CAiU, lose. 

CAom, lament. 

CAIC, waste, spend, eat or cast. 

CAtn, bend, make crooked. 

can, sing. 

CAOC, blind. 

CAf , twist, turn, wind, wry. 

ce-\p, think 

ceA-o, allow, leave, permit 

ceil, hide, conceal. 

cmn, resolve. 

ciojt, comb. 

cl/AOix), defeat. 

ctAon, bend, crook. 

CO T5> stoP' h m( ler- 

C^AIC, shake. 

cj'.oc , hang. 

cnei-o, believe, trust. 

epic, tremble, quake. 

cjiom, bend stoop,. 

cjtorn A]t, set about. 

cum, form, shape. 

cuijt, put, semi. 

cui|t A-n bun, establish. 

cuijt CADI AIJI, mend. 

L, return, come back 

I can. 

, wet, moisten, drench. 
L, suit, fit. 
pSip, help, !f;lieve, succour. 
pogtutm, learn. 

jiif, shoot, call. 
jeAtl, promise. 

5 CAt1|1, CUt 

56111, obey, submit. 

gtAC, take, reserve, 

glAn, cleanse. 

gtAoxi, call. 

jluAif, journey, travei, go. 

joitj, steal 

5011, weep, lament. 

join, wound. 

5f\AiF, sign, mark. 

jut*, pray. 

lAfiji, aak, seek, request, be 


foe, pay, atone, 
ic, eat 

OAOJI, condemn, blame. 
oeAjitt, ascertain, assure. 
oeAjic, look, observe, remark. 

lAf, light, kindle, blaze. 
IcAj, throw down. 
ICAII, follow, pursue. 

01115, press, stuff, push, 
x>iot, sell. 
0615, burn, consume. 
ooi]tc, spill, shed. 

Lets, read, 
teig, grant, suffer, permit. 
'v,eim, leap, 
tins, leap, bounce, start. 
tion, fill, surfeit, cram. 

T>fvuit>, shut. move. 
T>UAI, plait, fold. 

toifs, singe, scorch, burn, 
tub, bend, crook. 

oun, close 

ti 5 , lie. 

6ipc, listen. 

mAi|t, last, exist, remain. 

^Aip, watch, guard. 

mAftfc, kill, murder. 

pAifS, squeeze, crush. 
PAD, stay, wait, stop. 

mAiu, forgive. 
mAot, wet, steep. 
mcAll, deceive, defraud. 

iv\t\ grow. 
veAt), whistle. 

meAf , estimate, think. 

^ eAtt, deceive, cheat 
peAnn, flay, strip. 

meAC, fade, wither, 
mill, spoil, destroy. 

yCA|i, pour out, shower, 
peuc, behold, look. 

mot, praise, 
mum, teach, instruct. 



ni j, wash. 

oil, nurse, cherish. 
0171, suit, fit. 
6t, drink. 

pteAfs, crack. 
p6 5 , kiss. 

pott, pierce, penetrate, 
ptie-ab, spring, leap. 

peic, sell. 
pet>b, tear, burst. 
Hf. run, flee, 
potim, diviiij. 
1* UA '5. pursue, rout 

f Air, thrust, stab. 
fAOit, rit, reflect, think. 
fAojt, deliver. 
fjAOit, loose, let go. 
rsui|i, cease, deaia*. 
fCAf, stand. 
r>, blow. 

reot, teach, drive, sail, 
feinn, play (music). 

separate, divide. 

, write. 

sweep, scrape, destroy, 
fit, drop, let fall, sink, 
fin, stretch, extend, 
ftnei-o, beckon, wink, 
ftuig, swallow. 
fnAtn, swim, float 
f-CAT>, stop. 
fCAT) "oe, dentil* 
foi-6, sit. 

CAIJIJ;, offer. 
CACC, choke, 
ceit. flee. 
coj, choose, select. 
CO5, take up, lift. 

, plough, till. 

forsake, abandon, 

, fight, quarrel.- 
cui5, understand, 
cuitt, earn, deserve. 
cute, fail. 

^JAIJI, entreat (avenge). 
Aictn, recognize. 

bAjAip, threaten. 

c^rS* 1 ! 1 . slaughter. 
ceATi 5 Ait, bind. 
051 1, tickle, 
coigit, spare. 
cor>Ait, sleep. 
copMti, defend, 
ctiiimt, rub. 

i, banish. 

Appendix Y1I. 

eicit, fly. 

, serve. 

in, answer. 

Ait, attend, 
A 'l-, open, 
n, proclaim. 
g, suffer. 

, relieve. 

innif, tell, 
ingit, graze, 
imiji, play. 
tomcAiji, carry. 
io-obAtn, offer. 


lAbAiji, speak. 
lornAifi, strip, bare. 

peACAin, a 

comAiL, consume, eat 
COCA: I, root. 
CAiifiAins, draw, 
ctonoil, gather. 
cocjiAif, wind, 
cumlins, descend. 

Appendix YIII. 


Broad Terminations. 

8INQ. PL0. 

f-AttiAOtf (-Amuif). 
[root] -AIT* 

-AT). -AITtif, -At>AO1p. 

Present Tense. 

-Aim. -AITIAOIT), -AmU1T>. 

-Aifi. -Ann fib. 

-Ann. -Ait). 


-Ainn. -AmAoif (-Amuip). 

-CA. -AT) fib. 

-ATI. -A1T)1f (-AT>AO1f). 


-Af. -AtnAjt. 

-Alf. -AbAJI. 

[no ending] -ATA|I. 


pAT>. -pAmAoiT) (-pArnvnx>) 

Blender Terminations. 


j f-imif (-eAmuif). 

2. [root] -1-6. 

3. -6AT). 

-pA1](. -pA1T) fib 

-pAIT). -pA1X. 


-pAinn -pAmAOif (-pAnmif ). 

-pA. -pAT) fib. 

-fA -pAITiif (-pAX>A01f). 

Present Tense. 

1. -im. -imix> (-imi-o). 

2. -i)i. -CAnn fib. 

3. -eAnn. -i-o. 


1. -inn. -imif (-itnip). 

2. -CCA. -CAT) fib. 

3. -CA-6. -i-oif. 


1. -CAf. -eAOlA|l, 

2. -if. -e AbAji. 

3. [no ending] -eATA-p. 


1. -pCA-o. -pi mix) (-pimi-o). 

2. -piji. -piT> fib. 

3. -piT). -pit). 


1. -pmn. -pimi'f (-pimip). 

2. -pCA. -pCAT) fib. 

3. -pCAT). -plXJl'f. 


Appendix IX. 


We give only those forms which have not already been given in the 
body of the Grammar. 

Dependent Present: -\\&b ; (as in jujuxb, that it is, oAjtAb, to 
which or tchoni it is ; munAb, if it is not). 

Obsolete Dependent Present: -ATJ ; (as in gotiA-o, that it is, TMHA-O, 
to which or whom it is}. This form occurs frequently in early 
modern writers. A remnant of it is found in the word 510-6 or 
JIT*, thouijh it is. 

Past: JM. 

The form pA of the past though frequently found in early modern 
writers is now obsolete. 

Dependent Past: -]i t>A (sometimes written -ji t>o), as in 511 jt b,\, 
that it was ; OAJI t>A, to ichom or which it was ; tnunaji t>,\, ij it 
was not; AJV BA, icas it? nioji t>A, it icas not. 

The full form of the Dependent Past, though sometimes found in 
early modern writers is now contracted to -jt&' before vowels, and to 
-ji bef'.re consonants. 

Subjunctive : 'OAniA-6 (-OA mbA-6), if it were ; jetriA-o (56 inbAT>), 
though it were. 


1. bnnip, biorn. 

2. bt. bi-6, bi-oi-6. 

3. biox> bix)if. 

Present Tense. 


1. ACAim ACAtnAOfo. fuil/im puiiin 

2. ACA01 ACACA01. pUlLe (-If) fUllci. 

3. ACA ACAI-0. flt |?UlllX. 

Habitual Present. 

1. bim bimm. 

2. bif bici. 
.3. bi(f>) bit). 

Past Tense. 

1. fcAT)A|* bAmAJI. flAbAf |1At)AtTIA|1 

2. tAX)Air t)A6A|t. t At)Ai r v A6AftA i u 

3. fcl fti'OAtt v&itte \\Ab&-OA^. 


Future Tense. 

1. biAX> biAmAon), biAm. 

2. biAip biAi.\oi. 

3. bidi'o, biA buM-o. 

Relative: biAr. 

Conditional Secondary Future. 

1. toeinn beimip. 

2. t>eiceA biAX> fi5. 

3. biAX>, beic beix>ij\ 

Subjunctive Mood. 
Present Tense. 

1. flADAt) JtAbmAOIt), 

2. fAt>A1ft 

3. f1Alt>e 



The following is a table showing the various endings of the regular 
verbs in Early Modern Irish. It is not intended that these forms 
should be learned by the student ; they are given merely for 
reference : 

Broad Terminations. * 

Slender Terminations. 















-1-6. ' 



Present Tense. 











Imperfect Imperfect. 

1. -Ainn. -AmAOip. 1. -inn. -(i)mij, 

2. -CA. -CAOI. 2. -CCA. -ci. 

3. -A-6. -(A>OAoir. 3. -eA'o. -(i)-oif. 

Past. Past. 

2. -A1f. -AbAJI. 2. -If. -CAbAJl. 

3. (no ending) -At>A|i. 3. (no ending). -eAT>A]t. 

Future. Future. 

1. -pAT). -pAHl (A01X>) 1. -pCAXX -pCAHl (pimvo). 

2. -pAiji. -PAOI. 2. -pip. -pi. 

3. -pAI'O. -pAIXk 3. -p1X>. -pit). 

Conditional. Conditional. 

1. -pAinn. -pATOAOip. 1. -pinn. -pitnip. 

2. -pA. -pA01. 2. -pCA. -pi. 

8. -pAX> -pAX>A01f. 3. -pCAX). -p1X>tp. 

Irregular Verbs. 

It is principally in the future tense that the inflexions of the irregu- 
lar verbs in Early Modern Usage differ from the forms now generally 

Future Tense. 

1. (no termination) Atn (-ITIAOIX>). 

2. A1|1 CAO1. 

3. A AIX>. 

The following verbs took no inflexion in the 3rd person singular 
of the present time. The forms in brackets are the dependent 
forms : 

"Oo-bei|t (cAt>Aif\), x>et|i (AbAtjO, x>o-3eib (pAjAift, pAJtJAnn), x>o- 
jni, x>o-ci (pAic), (ctuin), cij, ceix>. 

The following had no inflexion in ttfe 1st person singular past 
tense i 

At)DA|tc, lx>ut>A}tc), AtconnAc (PACA) CAHAS, CUAIA, jiArAg. 


The numbers refer to the paragraphs. 

A, roc. part, 21d. 

An, interrog. part., 26e. 

A, poss. adj., 522. 

AnAU, 438. 

A, rel., 26e, 233, &c., 546, 554. 

An Am, 104. 

&, part., 169. 

An-cuix>, 198. 

A, prep., 605(1'). 

AmaeAp, 441. 

Ab, 3;!9, 

AIITDIU, 434. 

At)A, 119. 

AniA-ji, 441. 

AbAijt, 35c, 355. 

Aniof, 436. 

AbftAim, 357* 

Ann, 39, 604, 627. 

At)f, 436. 

AnnpA, 166. 

-AC, 467a. 

Anocc, 434. 

ACC 50, 550. 

Anoift, 441. 

At>einim, 'J57. 

Anonn, 438. 

AiocuAfo, 441. 

AntiAr*, 436. 

At>ut>Ai t ir:, 359. 

AOibmn, 356, 144 

A 5> 191, 2i7, 617. 

AOit>neA|', 131. 

.VJA, 544. 

Aome, 447. 

AJAi-6, 86, 89. 

AOUI tie, 64. 

A 5 om, 191. 

AOinneAC, 64, 241. 

A 5 u r , 154, fi28(2). 

AOtti-oe, 166. 

AICVO, 88. 

Aon, numer., 172, 505, 509. 

Aijce, 86. 

Aon, indef. adj., 197, 200. 

Aitne, 10, 43d. 

AonAc, 58. 

Aiji-oe, 166. 

AonA|i, 177. 

Aif.t>eocA-o, 297. 

AonriiA-6, 173, 504. 

Ain^eAt, 65. 

AH, poss. adj., 14, 26fl, 522. 

Atnm, 43(4), 104. 

Aft, pivn., 267. 

AIT;, 14, 84, 530(ote). 

A|t, interrog., 278. 

AlbA, 129, 473(2). 

Ajt ; prep., 219, 578, 618. 

Altiinn, 356, 144. 

AH, verb, 423. 

Am, 104. 

Ati bir, 197. 

AITI (Aim), prefix. 455. 

A f VCAT., 613d. 

Am, AriiAc, 433. 

Afro, 166. 

Am AC, 433. 

Att"OAn 42d. 

-AriiAil, 467c. 

Atcouij, 297, 315d. 

AtriAin, 172. 

AfieiH, 4?4. 

AmA-pAc, 434. 

Am, 69 

Ariic<?.c 43^. 

Atir, 423. 

Attune, 433. 

Af, 225, 919. 

Amuij, 433. 

A'f, 154 

An, intens part., 161. 

ACAifi, 43(3), 132. 

An, def. art., 39, 40, 470, <frc. 

Accim, 390- 


t)A(bo), 132. 

buAtlceAji, 251. 

bA (verb), 158, 334, 338, 340, 341. 

buAlA-6, .89. 

bAt>6ifi, 42c, 100. 

buiT)eAn 35a, 85, 

bAile, 113. 

buin (bo), 132. 

bAttij, 293. 

buji, 26a, 522. 

bAti, 165. 

bAf, 14. 

CA, 2Gc, 278. 

bAf, 14. 

CA, 202. 

beAc, 79. 


beAi;, 166. 

CAOAIJI, 35o. 

beA 5 An, 198, 241. 

CAC, 241. 

beAlAc, 58. 

CA-O, 243. 

beAn, 132. 
beAf, 326. 

CAT) cuige, 4^5. 

bCACA, 131. 

CAT) pAt, 435. 

beit, F CA|t, 326. 

CAi-oe, 243. 

bei-op, 327. 

CAilin, 43e, 111. 

beim, 87. 

CAiLL, 3!6c. 

beiti, 342, 618(7c). 

CAilleAC, 77. 

bei^ini, 347, 6:8(76) 

CAin, 105, 131. 

beipc, ;77, 481. 

CAijiioe, 121. 

beit, 327, 330. 

CAit, 316c. 

beiteAti, 326. 

CAH, 600. 

beiti, 327. 

CA01, 114. 

beitce, 284. 

CAOITI, 3156. 

beo, 148. 

CAO|I, 66. 

biAT>, 64. 

CAOJ1A, 125. 

bio r , 322. 

CA P AlL, 37, 69. 

biteAfi, 19, 322, 329. 

CA|t, v78. 

biteAf, 324 

CAJI, 600. 

bici, 323. 

CAjlA, 12 J. 

bUitce, 86. 

CA ri .A. 5> 35a. 

blACAC, 86. 

CAf>oin, 433. 

bo, 132. 

CAtAin, 433, 435. 

botAji, 65. 

CAtAip, 35a. 

bjiAOti, 199. 

CACAOIfl, 115. 

b)iAt, 163. 

CAtAOIJI, 126. 

btiAtAi|i, 132. 

ce, 243, 435. 

bpeAJ, 166. 

CCACCA^, 242. 

t>fiiAn, 64 

C6ATJ, 11. 

bpeiteAfh, 426, 131. 

ceA-o, 14, 67, 175, 511 

bplAHAC, 486. 

ceA-o (first), 167, 505. 

bjiiAtAti, 8tf. 131. 

ceAtin, 2006, 513. 

b no-o, 649. 

ceAnnAC, 293. 

bpuAC, 56, 66. 

ceAnnuij, 293. 

bptn-oeAn, 35o, 85. 

ceAp, 67. 

bjiuij, 31c6. 

CBAJIC, 4 'a, 78. 

buACAiU, 43(3), 105. 

ceA|ic, 64, 654. - 

buAix,, 43(4). 

ceAtAiti, 171. 

buAiL, 261, &c. 

ceAtfiAtt, 177, 48 L 


ceile, 246. 

ceim, 87. 

ceictie, 508. 

ceo, 132. 
/' ceocA(ceo), 132. 

ceo^OAnA (ceo), 132, 

ceol, 8, 67. 

ceu-o, 167, 505. 

Ceu-oAoin, 447. 

cetiftt), 243. 
CIA, 202, 243, 215. 
ciAc(ceo), 13:'. 
CIA mewo, 202. 
ctbe, 237. 
cfm, 389. 
cinn, 513. 
CIOCA, 243, 435. 
cionnup, 435, 557. 
cit, 104. 
ciuriiAip, 88. 

clAji, 68. 
cleAp, 104. 
cliArhAm, 105. 
cotcti-oip, 88. 
cloinne, 86. 
clop, 398. 
en Am (cnAim) 9f?. 
cneAp, 64, 66. 
cnoc, G3. 

COT) Alt, H5c. 

C05A-U, 67. ' 
coigil, 302, &c. 
cc! 5 ilc, 313. 
coiLeAc, 59. 
coilL, 89, 131. 
coimli'on, 32 (note), 
coin, 119. 
coiji, 14, H5, 654 
coip 5 , 3166. 
coipce, 14. 
com, 154. 
comnuijce, 5l!5. 
comjiA, 131. 
comuppAin, 119. 
conA-o, 435. 
connAC, 392. 
ConnAccA, 130. 
connAic, 39.'. 

conntiA-6, 105. 
con up, 435. 
cojiom, 131. 
cop, 76. 

tupAiTi, 315c. 

COCA, 110. 

cue, l:\2. 
cpei-o, 316c. 
cpei-oeAnA (cfte), 132. 

cjteu-o, 243. 
c r iA.6 (cpe), 132. 
C|iiop, 98. 
cjioi-oe, 114. 
cjionAC, 131. 
CUAC, 131. 

CUATJCAp, 411. 

cuAi-6, 411. 
cuAtA, 398. 

CUAtACAp, 398. 

CUATI, 67. 

cui-o, 105, 198, 241, 524, &c 

cuij, 508. 

cui S eAti, 177, 481. 

'cuile, 242. 

cumne, 113. 

cuiji, 3166. 

cutnim, 618(8). 

cuip, 87. 

cutple, 124. 

cum, 223, 620. 

cun, 603. 

T)A, numeral, 514, &Q, 
o-i (-OO+A), 544. 
OA, coiij., 2C J6 , 552. 
OA, 467d 

"OA6AC, 8t. 

OAibce, 86. 
o At lie, 43d. 

OAlA, 603. 

o,\lcA, C03. 

T)A01, 114. 

OAoine, 114. 
OAJI, 424. 
OAft, 278. 

tKAflA, 508. 

DAjib, 542. 
"OAji-OAOin, 447. 

177, 481. 


t>AC, 104. 

ouAif, 87. 

T)e (-OIA), 132. 

oubAitc, 359. 

oe, 163, 227, 606(1), 621. 

obA r tA r , 359, 

OeACA1|t, 145. 

ouine, 1 14. 

oeACAp, 411. 

out, 415. 

OCAJ, 493, 494(2> 

^utcA, 415 

OCAJAr, 411. 

oun, 67, 315o, 

xxJAti, 316e. 

oeAjibpACAifi, 132, 

6, 211, 535. 

oetribfiAiri, 132. 

6AC, 70. 

oeiftopufi, 13.'. 

eACjtA'O, 70. 

oeAttc, 387. 

CATO, 213. 

oeAntiAr, 279, 381. 

eA-ocpotnAf, 462. 

x>eic, 507. 

CAg, 646. 

oeil, 87. 


oem, 381. 

CAjlA, 649. 

oeicneADAji, 177. 

CAH, 61. 

oeifiim, 337. 

CATllAIC, 70. 

oeipceAftc, 442. 

CApnA, 114. 

oeoc, 86. 

eijeAr, 65. 

oeoji, 66, 200. 

- y- \ 1QT 

oeun, 377. 

eiLe, 197. 

OIA (God), 132. 

einin, 32, note. 

O.A (day}, 448. 

einne, 64, 24 i. 

oiAf, 177, 481. 

eijte, 127, 473(4). 

oibeAjicA, 314. 

eo, 233. 

loibiji, 315c. 

eoptiA, 131. 

0156, 86. 

euoAC, 58. 

oileAf, 141. 

eun, 61. 

oijieAc, 139, 

oUoi, 114. 

PA, 190, 228, 623. 

06, numeral, 14. 171. 

FACA, 279, 392. 

oo, pass, adj., 182, 521. 
oo, prefix, '267, 455. 

FACCA, 376. 
FAccAti, 370. 

t>o, before past tense, 276. 

FACCAf, 392. 

oo, prep. 188, 220, 60o(l), 6.'2. 

FA-O, 6v3. 

oobAiji, 427. 

FAT) A, 166. 

o'FobAiti, 427. 

FA 5 , 316/. 

oob e, 336. 

FAS, 31 /, 368. 

0615, 315b. 

FA^FA'O, a ^' 

ootjmin, 199o, 

FAIC, 388. 

ooU, 415. 

FAijci, 371. 

OothnAc, 447. 

FAti, 14, 316ft 

oopnAti, !99o. 

FAOI, 100, 228, 623. 


FAf, 290, 31Go. 

ootAin, 198. 

FCAC, 387. 

OpAOl, 114. 

F6ACA, 392. 

ojtoc, 493, 494(2). 

FBA-O, 316/. 

ofttjim, 43'4), lul. 

FeAX)Aim, 428. 

"OUATJAp, 419. 

FCAX)AmA|A, 425. 


1, 425. 

peA'OfiATnAn, 425. 
peAfi, 62, 69. 
peAtt, 14, 62. 

peAflAtTlAtl, 147 

pe^fi, 11, 166. 
pete, 38C. 
pete, 66. 
pet CCA rii, 131. 
petcfeAnA, 396. 
pets, 60. 
peile, 106. 
petti, 20(J. 
petp, 87. 
peipctnc, 396. 
pete, Site. 
peott, 99. 
piAc, <;6. 
pee, 175, 511. 
piceAt>, 16S. 
pion, 14, 97. 
pott, 161. 
pipiti, 32 (note). 
ptii, 433, 642. 

plAlCCAtTIAlt, 356. 

pocAl, 66. 
poclotft, 43^4). 
yotft, 259. 
poijitctn, 259. 

r o r , 14. 
p-peurii, 83. 

IT"3. 13 ^- 
Fr ,5^e, 132. 
vr tt, 372. 
VUACC, 94. 

fTtlAJAIJI, 301. 

87, 90. 
puAt^, 279. 
j-'UAfiCAf, 372. 
put-oe, 166. 
pilceA|i, 321. 
putAtfi, 644. 
puiur, 16rt. 

SA, 132. 
SA, 544. 

5 Ab, 318/, 364. 
5 AbA, 12*., 290. 
rAt>pA-o, 367. 

5 AC, 201 

SAC AOTI, 242. 
5 AC|te, 201. 
SAC utle, 241. 
5 Aece ( 5 A). 132. 
5 An, 580, 606(2), 624. 
5Afi, 166. 

gCAtlOfO, 115. 

ge, 132. 

5 eAl, 132. 

jeAntiA, 132. 

jeAnii, 14 1, 166. 

jeitum, 37- '. ' 

5 eic, 43(4). 

jeobA'o, 365. 

5eo&AT), 373. 

5 e 5 , SO. 

5tbe, 235. 

5ix>eA-6, 452. 

51 le, 106. 

StoppA, 166. 

SlAf, 165. 

5 le, 161. 

gLuAip, 87. 

5tiim, 379. 

gntoifi, 105. 

jniop, 379. 

5 no, 10, 114. 

30, conj., '2(ie, 2>5, 549 

50, prep., 39, 625. 

50 ceAtiti, 013<f. 

50 x>e rr\A]\, 435. 

join, 3155. 

5ftAn-oA, 5|(iitroe, 10. IfiO. 

jfAtnin, JV<9. 

Stiettn, 43(4), 102, 200. 

5|tiAn, 81. 

5 utl, 316&. 

5ti, 278. 

gut, 104. 

1,89, 186,226,604, 627 
\,pron., 211. 
i, noun. UA, 132. 
iA|t, prep., 579. 
lAf, 440. 


tAfiiAfi, 442 

teAn. 3ICc. 

1-01 tt, ^29, C02(l), 628. 

teAnb, 9, 64. 

i mbAtiAC, 434. 

teAtiAtTitiA, 290. 

imeApcA, 314. 

tCAfA, 105. 

in, pronoun, 238. 

teAf, 421. 

in, prep., 39, 535,627. 

teAfmuij, 438. 

in (ion) prefix, 286. 

teij, 3i6d. 

1nx>e, 434. 

te'5, 315a. 

in-peicpeanA, 396. 

tetm, 87. 

i iroiAi-6, 449. 

teme, 113. 

innif, 35c. 

te|i, 278. 

ioniA-0, 198. 

tejib, 542. 

lorr.AftcA, 198. 

tiA, 1G6. 

lonroA, 16H, 493. 

tit, 75. 

lomtufA, 603. 

tion, 67. 

ionA, 15^'. 

l/iciti, 88 

ion-riiotCA, 285. 

to (tA), 132. 

lonriiutn, 166. 

toe, 15. 

ionnup, 452. 

ton 5 , 10, 82. 

lOfAT), 417. 

tuAn, 447. 

ip, conj., 170. 

tuc, 87. 

ip, verb, 156, 333, 584. 

tucc, 115. 

ipot, Hi. 

tuJA, 160, 166. 

ifceAc, 433, 436. 

tuib, 87. 

ircij, 433, 436. 

ice, 416. 

tTlA, 21 g. 

iut>, pronoun, 238. 

ITIAC, 64, 69, 487, etc 

tnACtiA-6, 70. 

U, 132. 

TT1A-OA-6, 65. 

tAbAi t t, 35c, 315c. 

mAiT>iTi, 35tt. 

tACA, 123. 

niAi-om, 104. 

tAece (tA), 132. 

m At tin, 82 (note). 

tAeceAncA (tA) 132. 

tTlAiitc, 447. 

tAisin, 130. 

mAtpeA-o, 452. 

tAipcij, 438. 

niAit, 143, 16. 

tAlfCBAf, 441. 

niAiteAr, 42d. 

tAlfCIAjl, 41L 

mAtA, 14, 110. 

tAiirce, 86. 

mAtUcx, 94. 

tAn, 1^8. 

IDAOfl, 55. 

tAOC|1A-6, 70. 

THAU, 21^, 453, 557. 

tAfAitt, 35a. 

-iriAti 4676. 

tAfCAtt, 438. 

mAjACAC, 57. 

tApcoift, 441. 

THAflCUl JCACC, 565. 

tAfCUAIT), 441. 

niAnsA-o, 9, 65. 

tAtAC, 86. 

m.\tAi|i, 132. 

te, 89, 154, 187, 221, 613d, 629. 

meACAn, Cl>. 

tCAbA-6, 10.1. 

meAp, 14. 

teAbAji, 18, 69. 

meAfA, 166. 

teAC, 88. 

mi, 132. 

UA 5 , 316d. 

mile, 113, 175, 176, 511. 


mitif, 144. 
mill, 315a. 
mnnc, 166. 
mini j, 315e. 
mioncA, 166. 
mionnA (mi), 132. 
miorA (mi), 132. 
mir-oe, 163. 
mi r e, 205. 

TYIT1A, 132. 

mo, 179, 521. 
mo, 166. 
moi-oe, 163. 
mom, 103, 131. 
mot, 31na. 
molA-6, 289. 

mop, 137, 166. 
mofiAti, 198. 

mu-OA, 433. 
mtnt>, 270. 
mutUe, 113. 
mui t ur, 115. 
mult-Ac, 58. 
munA, 26e, 550. 
munA-ji, 278. 
tnufi, 67. 

nA, 14. 40/. 

nA, 14, 156. 
nA 50, 452. 
tiAC, conj., 26e. 
nAc, rel. pron., 235. 
nACA|i, 278(6). 
nAtriA, 119. 

T1A01, 507. 

HA, 278(6). 5\9. 

-ne, 184. 

neAC, 64. 

tieAm-, prefix, 455. 

neAftt, 4, 198, G50. 

neArA, 166. 

tieim-, 455. 

nenii-jeAnAmtAcc, 462. 

neut, 07. 

ni, 2Ip. 

ni, noun., 87, &G. 

me, 4(47. &C. 

ni-6, 114, 157, 158 
tiiop, 278. 
nior, 157, 158. 
tioc, 234. 
no 50, 550. 
nA-6, 491(2). 
nAm, 557. 

O, pronoun, 238. 
6, noun, 132, 4;>7, &c. 
6, prep., 189, 222. 
obAiji, 35a, 88. 
occ, 507. 
6 t>eA r , 441. 
e, 434. 

O1|tGA"O, 198. 

OIUCCAU, 442. 
61, 316a. 

Ot^AIIT), H5d, 

olc, 166. 


6|ilAC, 58. 
6 r , 632. 

orsAii, 298 (note), 
6 tuAi-6, 441. 

TDA-otiAi^, 115. 

'pe i 69. 
peAiin, 66. 
peAfirA, 120. 
pi jinn, 3">o. 
pinjinn, 35a, 199. 

1, 329. 
}iAt>cAr, 325. . 

flAJAT), 412. 

fiAiiAj, 420. 
pAngAr, 420. 
jiAit), 279, 325. 
|iAi-6ce, 3o3. 
tteAiiiAtt, 141. 

tieub, 259. 
iAccAin, 421. 


JtlACrAtlAr, 421. 

fiiAti, 64. 
jitjim, 420. 

pinne, 381. 
71105, 161. 
Hi 05 A, 132. 
jut, 2^0, 316o. 
jio, 279. 
t t6, 161. 
ttoctAin, 421. 
poim, 224, 633 
tioimir, 224. 
tioinnc. 199. 

SA(c)rAnA, 130, 473(2). 
" M, 56. 

rAin, 238, 
rAU, 438. 
rAti, 238. 

pitt, 161. 

SACAfin, 447. 
rAOi, 114. 
re, pronoun, 210. 
re, numeral, 508. 
-re, 184. 
react. 507. 
reAccA-p, 177, 481. 
re Am ji 65, 152. 

r^An,' 494(2). 
reAn, 14. 
reAr, 31 fie. 

n, 205. 

ji, 177, 481. 
reo, lio, 238. 
peo-o, 66. 
r eol, 67. . 
rsAoil, 3156. 

rseattA, 86. 
rseuLui-oe, 42c. 
rsiAti, 86. 

a, 2fiO. 

r5if, 3166. 
p, 210. 
PA, 166. 
pAti, 441. 
p-oe, px.i, 239. 
pn, adj., 14, 195 
pn, pronoun, 238 
pn, 14. 
pne, p"i, 239. 

L, 35c, 290. 

i, 65. 
/AH) 66. 
>: 132. 

rmuAin, 3156. 

rnArii, 316a. 
ro, adj., 19". 
ro, pron., 238. 
ro, prefix. 286, 45j 
rocAiji, 145. 
rom, 195. 
roifi, 441. 
rpet 1 , 89. 
rtiAi-o, 87. 

n, 420. 
rfioipm, 42 J. 
rfoti, 131. 
rtiuc, 104. 

rAr, 436. 

rut), 23LS. 
r uil, 49(1), 90. 
pa, 14, 5-5 L, 558. 
r t, 14, 49(1), 90. 

CA 5 Aim, 400. 
rAin, 103. 
tAinij, 270, :; 

CAlATVl, 131, 

tAll, 438. 
TAnAg, 402. 


tAn^AT, 403. cr-e, 39, 231, 604, 035. 

CAJI, verb, 399. tue^r, 505. 

cA r , prep., 230, 634. cpeApio, 603. 

cAttlA, 426, cueife, 166. 

CACAjt, 320. Cjieig, 316<2. 

ce, 148, 166. cretin, 166. 

ce, 237. ctnujt, 177, 481. 

ceAc, 132. tfioij, 76 (note). 

ceAcc, 406. Cf.otn, 162 462. 

ceAjAim, 400. ctiuAill, 88. 

CeamAip, 128. cu, 531. 

ceAf, 440, 441. . CUAI-O, 440, 441. 

ceig, 408. cuAifceAj\c, 442, 

ceils, 316'L ttj^f, 436. 

ceine, 113, 131. cu 5 , 279. 

ceitiis. 4 9 ci|t. 89. 

ceo, 148, 166. cui r5 e, 166. 

CIAJI, 440, 441. cuilleA-6, 198. 

ci-oeACC, 406. cufA, 205. 

ci 5 , 132. 

cijeApiA. 112. UA, 132. 

cim, 390. tiAi|i, 87. 

cimceAll, 603 u.VUc, 58. 

cmneAf, 649. uAfAl, 35b, 14L 

ciox)Acc, 406. b, 88. 

cip, 89. tibAU, C6. 

cifiim, 166. u-o, 19G. 

ciottniA, 166. tii, 132, 489. 

cior, 436. ti'le, 197, 201. 

ct5|iA-o, 351. winge, 114. 

cobAp, 68. UUi-6, 130 

coil, 92. tn, 232, (536 

coifi, 440, 441. uji, 161. 

coij*5, 603. T u r 166 - 

cwn&, 603. U P A. 166. 

AJI ti-A cu|t i c 


35 ;i6 u^up 37 s^Aix) rhofi