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Full text of "Grain handling on the farm"

■ ^li^ ■ Agriculture 



Canada 
Publication 1713 E 



^ 



^ 




Grain handling 
on the farm 




Canada 



Digitized by tine Internet Archive 

in 2011 with funding from 

Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada - Agriculture et Agroalimentaire Canada 



http://www.archive.org/details/grainhandlingonfOOgebh 



A FEDERAL/PROVINCIAL PUBLICATION 




CANADA/SASKATCHEWAN 



GRAIN HANDLING ON THE FARM 

Paul D. Gebhardt, P. Eng. 
Agricultural Engineering Section 
Extension Service 
Saskatchewan Agriculture 
Regina, Saskatchewan 



PUBLICATION 1713/E, available from 
Communications Branch, Agriculture Canada, 
Ottawa K1A0C7 

^Minister of Supply and Services Canada 1988 
Cat. No. A53-1713/1988E ISBN: 0-662-16035-5 
Printed 1982 Revised 1988 4M-3:88 

figalement disponibie en frangais sous le litre 
Manutention du grain d la ferme. 



CONTENTS 

Introduction 3 

Planning 3 

What features you need 3 
Storage volume 3 
Location 3 
Future expansion 3 

Storage structures 3 

Materials 3 

Design 3 

Flat or hopper bottoms 4 

Grain storage foundations 5 

Grain handling equipment 5 

Grain augers 5 
Bucket elevators 8 
Gravity systems 8 
Pneumatic systems 8 
Belt conveyors 8 
U-trough augers 11 
Drag conveyors 11 

Pits and dumps 12 

Grain spreaders 12 

Bin unloading 12 

Safety 18 

Organizing a system 18 

System layouts 18 
Electrical equipment 22 

Electric motors and phase converters 22 
Electric controls 22 

Checklist in planning and building a 
grain system 22 

Appendix 23 



INTRODUCTION 

This publication will help farmers plan and select 
a grain handling system. 

If you would like more information about specific 
systems or help in planning the system, contact 
your provincial department of agriculture for the 
name and location of the agricultural engineer 
serving your region, or contact an agricultural 
engineering consultant. 

Contact suppliers for information on specific 
pieces of equipment and their applications. 

Standard system layouts and various component 
plans are available from provincial departments of 
agriculture. 

PLANNING 

Grain handling systems do not need to be costly 
and elaborate. In fact, often the only difference 
between a good system and a poor one lies in the 
planning. Remember that concrete is permanent 
and very costly to remove. A grain storage and 
handling system is a long-term investment that will 
give many years of efficient service if properly 
planned. 

What features you need 

Before forming any detailed plans, make a list of 
desired features. Inadequate capital may delay 
incorporation of some features, but proper plan- 
ning will let you complete the system later. 

The features on the list may include: 

— aeration equipment; 

— drying equipment; 

— dump-and-go pit; 

— bucket elevator; 

— automatic controls; 

— overhead hopper bins; 

— weigh scale 

Storage volume 

Determine how much storage you need; this may 
be space for one harvest plus a 20-50% carryover. 
Consider the number of different crop varieties and 
the grades you expect in each variety. A grower 
who has one or two varieties may use fewer, larger 
bins, while the grower who has several varieties 
must have many smaller bins. 

Location 

Locate the grain storage facilities for easy access 
from fields and the road. A well-drained site with 
a low water table is best. If necessary, mound the 
area. The site should be isolated from the house 
to keep noise and dust to a minimum and for 
safety, yet should remain visible for security. 



Build where electrical power is available. If your 
current or future plans include a dryer, check into 
the availability of three-phase power and possible 
access to natural gas. It may be more economical 
to set up the grain handling and storage facility 
where the utilities are available than to install 
utilities at another site. 

USE UNDERGROUND ELECTRICAL LINES NEAR 
THE STORAGE AND HANDLING FACILITY. 

To help prevent snow accumulation, build in a 
naturally sheltered area or include a shelterbelt in 
the plans. 

Future expansion 

Plan the system so it can be expanded. Increased 
storage space, drying or processing equipment will 
require additional land. 



STORAGE STRUCTURES 

Bins may be built from a variety of materials using 
many different designs (Figure 1). The base of a 
bin may be rectangular or circular with a flat or 
hopper bottom. 

Materials 

You can construct a bin of wood or metal or a com- 
bination of the two. A wood bin will require more 
maintenance and is neither as fire-resistant nor as 
rodent-proof as a metal structure. Insects may be 
more difficult to control due to the many cracks 
inherent in wood construction. 

Galvanized or precoated metal structures are 
virtually fireproof, rodent-proof and maintenance 
free. 

Design 

storages, whether wood or metal, may be of cylin- 
drical, straight-wall, slant-wall or arch designs. Of 
these, the metal cylindrical type is most common. 

Metal cylindrical bins (Figure 1) are easy to erect, 
available in many sizes and adaptable to mecha- 
nized unloading, aeration and drying systems. 
However, they must be securely anchored to pre- 
vent wind damage, must be filled and emptied 
from the center and erected correctly to prevent 
bin-wall failure. 

Farms that produce a large quantity of grain of the 
same grade and variety may use large flat struc- 
tures for grain storage (Figure 8). Properly planned, 
these may be equipped with mechanized loading- 
unloading and aeration and drying systems. When 
not used for grain storage, the structures may be 
used for machinery storage or other purposes. 

Arch-roof buildings can usually be filled without 
the need for braces to support their inward-sloping 




FIGURE 1 Types of grain storage structures 



sidewalls. However, the vertical endwalls need 
additional support. Slant- and straight-wall build- 
ings need additional support on all walls. Before 
using any of these types for grain storage, check 
with the manufacturer about bracing and maxi- 
mum grain depths. 

Flat or hopper bottoms 

Flat-bottom storages equipped with underfloor 
unloading and sweep augers are efficient and eco- 



nomical provided they are not filled or emptied 
frequently. Hopper-bottom bins are primarily used 
when bins must be filled and emptied frequently, 
such as holding bins in a dryer operation. 

Hoppers may be at or below grade or elevated. Do 
not consider below-grade hoppers if the water 
table is high or if surface drainage is poor. An 
elevated hopper will require a support structure, 
increasing cost significantly (Figure 2). Hoppers 
may be built of metal, wood, concrete or plastic. 



elevated 



ground-level 




FIGURE 2 Structures to hold hopper-bottom bins 



GRAIN STORAGE FOUNDATIONS 

A foundation transfers the weight of the building 
and its contents to the underlying soil, preferably 
without excessive heaving or settling. However, for 
grain storage structures, the foundation may 
include tubes or a hopper for handling systems 
and ducts for conditioning systems. Foundation 
plans that incorporate various duct and underfloor 
auger layouts are available from your regional agri- 
cultural engineer or suppliers. When erecting 
metal bins with eave heights greater than 6 m, or 
when soil conditions are questionable, a soil test 
is recommended. Figures 3 to 8 show types of 
foundations. 

Three types of foundations may be used for raised 
metal hopper-bottom bins that are supported by 
legs: slab, ring and pile. Because each best suits 
a specific application, consult an agricultural 
engineer before selecting one. 

GRAIN HANDLING EQUIPMENT 

Efficient equipment for moving grain in and out of 
storage is a necessity. You need enough capacity 
to keep up with the harvesting rate. A portable 
grain auger is usually sufficient for a "once in-once 
out" operation. However, if you move grain two or 
three times or handle large quantities, consider a 
bucket elevator. 

Grain augers 

A grain auger can operate at any angle from hori- 
zontal to vertical (Figure 9). Depending upon 
location and application, it can be powered by an 
internal combustion engine, an electric motor, or 
a tractor PTO. 

Consider the following: 

—As the elevation angle increases from 0° 
towards 90°, auger capacity decreases. 

—The power requirements increase with angle 
of elevation to 45", then decrease as the 
angle increases to 90°. 

—Auger capacity and power requirements 
increase with speed (to a certain level). 

—Intake exposure affects capacity. The 
normal exposure length is two to three 
times the auger diameter. 

— Length does not affect capacity. 

— Power requirements are proportional to 
auger length. Auger lengths are limited by 
the torque capacity of the auger shaft and 
coupling. 

—Auger capacity is reduced and power 
requirements increased as the grain mois- 
ture content increases. If the moisture con- 
tent increases from 14% to 25%, the 



auger's capacity is halved and the power 
requirement increased approximately two to 
three times. 



perforated floor 

./ 



g 



\ 



reinforced concrete 



"Tzr 



FIGURE 3 Foundation for circular storage without provisions 
for mechanized unloading, or for use with a completely 
perforated floor 



bin door 
manually operated gate 




reinforced 
concrete 



FIGURE 4 Concrete foundation for circular storage with a tube 
and well cast in place; the outlet of the underfloor auger must 
be high enough to provide clearance for the next method of 
conveyance. The manually operated gate should be opened only 
after grain flow to center well has stopped. 




reinforced 
concrete 



FIGURE 5 Concrete foundation for circular storage with a 
center-unloading inclined auger 



center-unloading 
underfloor auger 



i i 



partially 
perforated floor 



^ 



D. 



reinforced 
concrete 



FIGURE 6 Concrete foundation for circular storage with a 
partially perforated floor 






perforated floor 
auger tube 




FIGURE 7 Concrete foundation for circular storage with flush- 
floor aeration ducts, allowing for an unloading auger within 
one of the ducts; different duct layouts may be used to suit 
individual needs. 



—Grain damage increases with speed and 
with increased clearances between the 
flighting and auger tube. 

—Vertical auger applications are linnited to low 
lifts and low capacities. 

Figure 10 can be used to determine the length of 
auger needed to reach a storage bin. For exam- 
ple: To reach a 6 m high bin with a horizontal 
distance of 12.5 m, an auger length of 14 m will 
be required. The auger's angle of inclination will 
be less than 40°. 




FIGURE 8 Concrete foundation for rectangular storage with 
either flush-floor ducts or tubes and wells cast in place 







FIGURE 9 Auger applications 

A Portable auger 

B Horizontal overhead auger 

C Unloading auger in plenum of drying bin 

D Sweep auger 

E Unloading auger for hopper-bottom bin 

F Vertical auger 

G Drive-over dump auger 

H Unloading auger in bin foundation 



Table 1 gives typical capacity and power require- 
ments for grain augers. These are approximate; 
auger performance is affected by many factors, 
including grain type, grain moisture content, 
exposure length, and auger design. 



o> 




FIGURE 10 Grain augers — height, distance, length, angle 

TABLE 1 POWER REQUIREMENTS (W/m) AND MAXIMUM CAPACITIES (m3/h) 
FOR GRAIN AUGERS 



Auger 


rpm 








Auger angle 


; of inclinal 


ion 








dia. 




0° 


30 







45° 


60 





90 


o 


(mm) 


Cap. 


Power 


Cap. 


Power 


Cap. 


Power 


Cap. 


Power 


Cap. 


Power 




300 


30 


170 


30 


220 


25 


220 


20 


200 


10 


125 


150 


400 


40 


220 


35 


300 


30 


300 


30 


250 


15 


170 




600 


55 


330 


50 


450 


40 


450 


40 


400 


20 


250 




800 


60 


490 


60 


575 


45 


575 


45 


520 


25 


330 


180 


300 


65 


270 


54 


345 


46 


345 


39 


320 


22 


200 




400 


81 


345 


68 


440 


58 


440 


48 


415 


27 


270 




600 


102 


515 


88 


690 


75 


690 


61 


610 


37 


370 




700 


112 


610 


93 


785 


80 


785 


68 


760 


41 


440 




300 


80 


420 


65 


515 


55 


515 


45 


490 


30 


350 


200 


400 


100 


540 


80 


685 


70 


685 


55 


635 


40 


400 




500 


120 


660 


100 


860 


80 


860 


65 


800 


50 


600 




600 


130 


800 


120 


1030 


90 


1030 


75 


1000 


55 


650 




300 


170 


760 


130 


1000 


110 


1000 


80 


950 


60 


650 


250 


400 


200 


1000 


150 


1300 


130 


1300 


110 


1200 


75 


800 




200 


235 


855 


195 


1200 


160 


1200 


125 


1075 


80 


660 


300 


300 


305 


1275 


255 


1750 


220 


1750 


170 


1665 


110 


980 



NOTE: — The power requirements and capacities given are approximate and will vary with grain type and condition. 

— The power requirements are for electric motor drive. 

— Power train loss is not included. 



Bucket elevators 

Bucket elevators are the most energy efficient way 
to move grain vertically (Figure 11). Bucket size, 
shape and spacing vary; consult the manufacturer 
for applications and characteristics. 

A bucket elevator is generally more expensive than 
an inclined auger and requires either a tower or 
a guy wire for support. The tower does not inter- 
fere with the placement of bins, other equipment 
or roadways but is more costly than a guy wire. 

A bucket elevator has a higher mechanical effi- 
ciency than an auger and needs less maintenance. 
Depending upon use, these factors may offset the 
higher initial cost. Normally, 1000-1400 t of grain 
must be handled in a year before the system be- 
comes economically practical. This limit will be 
lower if the system includes grain conditioning, 
cleaning or feed processing equipment. 

Table 2 gives typical power requirements for 
different bucket elevator heights and capacities. 

Use Figure 12 to determine the approximate spout 
lengths and the effective bucket elevator length 
required to maintain the desired downspout slope. 
For example: a holding bin 15 m from the leg with 
an overall height of 6 m and requiring a minimum 
downspout slope of 40°. From Figure 12, the effec- 
tive bucket elevator length should be 19 m and the 
spout length 20 m. 

Gravity systems 

With gravity flow, material moves unaided by 
mechanical or pneumatic means. Figures 13 and 
14 illustrate the recommended floor and spout 
slopes for gravity flow of several materials. 

Spout capacity is affected by spout size and slope 
and the number of turns or direction changes 
made. Table 3 gives spout sizes for different capa- 
cities. To obtain maximum spout life and capacity 
make spouts as straight as possible. 

Pneumatic systems 

A pneumatic system consists of a fan assembly, 
a feeding mechanism and piping, and may include 



head pulley 



carrying strand 



spaced 
sievator buckets 



loading chute 

i 



screw takeup 



FIGURE 11 Bucket elevator 




V^*— discharge chute 



steel casing 



return strand 
elevator belt 



boot 



boot pulley 



several cyclones. It moves the grain in an airstream 
within a pipe or tube. 

The system's advantages include dust-free oper- 
ation and grain movement that is not limited to 
straight lines. Its major disadvantages include low 
mechanical efficiency, high cost, greater wear and 
noise. 

Figure 15 illustrates the combination system com- 
monly used to unload bins. It employs negative 
pressure pickup and positive pressure discharge. 
Figure 16 shows a positive-pressure system 
primarily used to load bins. 

Belt conveyors 

Belt conveyors are endless belts revolving around 
two pulleys, as shown in Figure 17. They are effi- 



TABLE 2 TYPICAL POWER REQUIREMENTS (kW)i FOR BUCKET ELEVATORS 



Capacity 








Lift (m) 








(m3/h) 


12 


15 


18 


21 


24 


27 


30 


21 


1.1 


1.1 


1.5 


1.5 


2.2 


2.2 


2.2 


37 


1.5 


2.2 


2.2 


3.7 


3.7 


3.7 


3.7 


57 


2.2 


2.2 


3.7 


3.7 


3.7 


3.7 


3.7 


73 


2.2 


3.7 


3.7 


3.7 


5.6 


5.6 


5.6 


90 


3.7 


3.7 


5.6 


5.6 


5.6 


7.5 


7.5 


103 


3.7 


3.7 


5.6 


5.6 


7.5 


7.5 


7.5 


126 


5.6 


5.6 


7.5 


7.5 


11.2 


11.2 


11.2 



Based on manufacturer's recomnnendations 



8 



c 

0) 



> 



0) 
O 

n 

> 

o 

0) 



horizontal distance (m) 
15 




FIGURE 12 Effective bucket elevator lengthi and downspout 
angle. The downspout angle should not be less than 40°; the 
effective elevator length is f ronn distributor outlet to ground level. 




/I \\^ 





45° — grain 
60° — feed 




dry grain 



FIGURE 13 Floor slope required for gravity flow 



FIGURE 14 Spout slope required for gravity flow 



TABLE 3 


REQUIRED SPOUT SIZE 




Capacity 


Spout slope 


Minimum spout size 


25 - 50 m3/h 
50 - 70 m3/h 
70 - 90 m3/h 


40° 
40° 
40° 


150 mm dia. or 150 mm square 
200 mm dia. or 180 mm square 
250 mm dia. or 225 mm square 



gram 

and 
air 




graift and air 



FIGURE 15 Connbination pneumatic system that uses nega- 
tive pressure pickup and positive pressure discharge 



10 




9''3'" fan assembly 



air-lock injector 



FIGURE 16 Positive-pressure pneumatic system 



TABLE 4 BELT CONVEYOR CHARACTERISTICS WHEN MOVING GRAIN 







Capacity 




Typical power 


Width 


Belt speed 
(m/s) 


(m3/h for 1 


m/s belt 


speed) 


requirements 


(mm) 


20° Troughed 


30° 


Troughed 


(kW)i 


350 


2.0 


18.7 




- 


1.1 


400 


2.3 


28.1 




- 


1.2 


450 


2.3 


38.5 




50.2 


1.7 


500 


2.5 


49.3 




- 


2.0 


600 


3.0 


75.3 




105.9 


2.8 


750 


3.5 


126.0 




178.4 


4.3 


900 


4.0 


186.7 




262.0 


8.1 



'At maximum capacity for 20° troughed conveyor and at horizontal distance of 40 m, and allowing 600 W drive-train loss 



cient horizontal conveyors for grains, especially 
those that crack or damage easily. Belt conveyors 
are suited to straight-line runs and where inclina- 
tions are less than 20°. The initial cost is high but 
this may be offset by the low power requirement 
and low maintenance costs. 

Of the three types of belt conveyors shown in 
Figure 18, the troughed belt is most suitable for 
grain. The slider plate with side skirts has great- 
er friction and wear; this limits lengths to about 
30 m and belt speeds are lower than comparable 
troughed belts. The flat belt is not recommended 
for grain because grain's low angle of repose 
results in a very low capacity. Table 4 gives typical 
capacities. 

U-trough augers 

U-trough augers are primarily used to convey grain 
horizontally. Bearings suspend the auger slightly 



above the bottom of the U-trough and are located 
between auger sections. This reduces wear on the 
trough bottom and, compared to a horizontal tube 
auger, the power requirements. Table 5 gives 
typical capacity and power requirements. 

Drag conveyors 

Drag conveyors (Figure 19) consist of a series of 
paddles attached to an endless chain moving in 
a stationary trough. They are primarily used to 
move grain horizontally or up a slight incline. When 
inclined, the capacity is reduced, depending on the 
material being conveyed and the angle. 

Drag conveyors are less efficient than belt con- 
veyors and more efficient than horizontal augers. 
The major advantages are good cleaning charac- 
teristics and low grain damage. Typical capacity 
and power requirements are given in Table 6. 



11 



Figure 20 shows a variation of the drag conveyor 
in which the chain actually travels in a continuous 
loop. This system can move grain vertically and 
horizontally to load or unload bins. 

Table 7 gives a condensed comparison of grain 
conveyors. 

PITS AND DUMPS 

Figures 21 and 22 illustrate some of the pits and 
dumps commonly used. A below-ground pit may 
have water problems if the water table is high, if 
surface water does not flow away from its peri- 
meter, or from rain and snow accumulation. 



GRAIN SPREADERS 

Mechanical spreaders may be used when filling 
large-diameter bins to distribute and spread grain 
or other material. This is especially important when 
aerating or drying as it allows a more uniform air- 
flow through the grain mass; however, an increase 
in static pressure for the same depth will result. 
Some common grain spreaders are shown in 
Figure 23. 



/ 



load 



^ ^ 



top idlers head pulley 

O O 7?^ \ unload 



foot pulley 



return idler 




FIGURE 17 Belt conveyor 



flat belt 




troughed belt 




slider plate 




FIGURE 18 Types of belt conveyors 



TABLE 5 U-TROUGH POWER REQUIREMENTS (kW) 



Length 
(m) 



150 mm 



200 mm 



250 mm 



17 m3/h 

at 
200 rpm 



25 m3/h 


42 m3/h 


at 


at 


300 rpm 


200 rpm 


0.75 


0.75 


1.1 


1.1 


2.2 


1.5 


2.2 


2.2 


2.2 


3.7 


3.7 


3.7 


3.7 


5.6 



63 m3/h 


70 m3/h 


at 


at 


300 rpm 


200 rpm 


0.75 


1.1 


1.5 


1.5 


2.2 


2.2 


3.7 


3.7 


5.6 


5.6 


5.6 


7.5 


7.5 


7.5 



105 m3/h 

at 
300 rpm 



3 
7 

12 
17 
24 
30 
36 



0.75 

0.75 

1.1 

1.1 

1.5 

2.2 

2.2 



1.5 
2.2 
3.7 
5.6 
7.5 
11.2 
11.2 




FIGURE 19 Cross-section of typical drag conveyors 



BIN UNLOADING 

The type of storage structure and foundation will 
determine to what degree mechanized emptying 
can be used. Rectangular flat storage will require 
more labor than a flat circular structure. Hopper- 
bottom bins may be emptied completely by grav- 
ity flow, requiring minimal labor. 

Various foundations are illustrated in Figures 3 to 
8. An auger tube and well cast in the foundation 
combined with an underfloor auger and sweep 
auger will reduce labor when emptying bins. 



12 



TABLE 6 CAPACITY AND POWER REQUIREMENTS FOR A TYPICAL DRAG 
CONVEYOR WHEN MOVING GRAIN 



Size 




Capacity (m^/h) 




Power 


requirements (W/m) 


(nnnri) 


at 30 m/min 


at 38 m/min 


at 45 m/min 


at 30 m/min 


at 38 m/min 


at 45 m/mIn 


150 
230 
300 
360 


23 
46 
78 

104 


28 
58 
97 

130 


34 

69 

117 

156 


52 
105 
180 
238 


65 
132 
225 

300 


78 
160 
268 
360 



TABLE 7 COMPARISON OF CONVEYORS 





Relative 


Relative 


Relative 






Type 


capacity^ 


power requirements^ 


grain 


Advantages 


Disadvantages 




Vertical Horizontal 


Vertical Horizontal 


damage 






Auger 


1 1 


1 1 


23 


Portable 
Wide range 
available 
Low cost 


Medium to heavy 

wear 

Limited to low 

angles of elevation 

Single sections 

limited in length 


U-trough 


2 


0.5 


2 


Cost 
Reduced 
maintenance 
(compared to 
horizontal auger) 
Components 
easily 
accessible 


Not self-cleaning 
Limited to low 
angle of elevation 


Drag 












conveyor 


2.5 


0.37 


1 


May be self- 
cleaning 
Used for long 
distances 


Wear factor 
Cost 


Belt 












elevator 


3.7 


0.25 





Low power 

requirement 

Used for long 

distances 

Low maintenance 

Self-cleaning 


Cost 

Limited to very low 

angles of elevation 


Bucket 












elevator 


2.4 


0.4 


13 


Low maintenance 
Low power 
requirement 
High capacity for 
vertical lift 


Limited speed 
range 

Needs support 
High cost 


Pneumatic 


0.2 


4 


23 


Self-cleaning 
Flexible 


High power 
requirement 
High cost 



' For equal lengths and power 

^ For equal lengths and capacities 

^ Damage depends on wear and design 



13 




FIGURE 20 One type of drag conveyor 



flexible hopper 




' \ 




concrete hopper 



tractor or truck tire plus canvas 



portable auger set into below-ground hopper 





FIGURE 21 Types of pits or receiving dumps for grain augers 



14 



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elevators 




concrete grate 



bucket elevator- 



"Trvw,,i-|"^T\ 



7 






concrete 



auger to carry grain 
to bucket elevator 



fill 



Elevated pit with horizontal auger to bucket elevator 



Concrete pad equipped with cross auger in shallow pit 




control gate 
grate 




bucket elevator 



boot pit 



concrete apron 



sump 



Leg with swinging hopper 



Gravity dump pit — limited to areas with low water table 



bucket elevator 




concrete 










Auger pit 



FIGURE 22 Types of pits or receiving dumps for bucket elevators 



• bucket elevator 






.boot pit 



<' ' 1 , ' . i ,r I'.V' 



sump 



16 





electrically operated tilting-pan type, 5-11 m bins 



electrically operated, 5-11 m bins 





gravity spreader, up to 7 m bins 



gravity spreader, up to 18 m bins 



FIGURE 23 Common types of grain spreaders 



17 




standard 




deluxe 



FIGURE 24 Sweep augers 

Several sweep auger designs are available (Figure 
24). The standard type is usually moved from bin 
to bin. The deluxe unit remains in one bin and is 
only engaged (manually from outside of the bin) 
after gravity flow stops. A single motor drives the 
underfloor auger and the deluxe sweep while two 
motors are required for the standard version. 

Safety 

Grain storage facilities have a number of poten- 
tial hazards regardless of how well designed and 
built. 

These hazards include suffocation in grain, con- 
tact with conveying and electrical equipment, and 
respiratory problems from dust, molds and 
pesticides. 

The following safety measures will help prevent 
accidents: 

—Never enter a bin to clear bridged grain 
when the unloading system is running. Use 
a pole to break the bridge while remaining 
outside. 

— Never allow people in the bin while 
emptying or filling it. 

— Keep visitors and other nonessential per- 
sonnel away from the facility while it is in 
operation. 

— Keep all shields in place including those 
over conveyor intakes and drives. 

—Use approved electrical equipment and 
installation methods. 

—Use suitable personnel protective equip- 
ment (PPE) when called for. This may 
include hearing protectors, dust masks, 
chemical-cartridge respirators or other PPE 
identified on pesticide containers. 



ORGANIZING A SYSTEM 

Once you have selected the site, determined the 
quantity of grains to be handled and stored, and 
evaluated present facilities and possible future 
expansion, plan the system on paper. Use the 
following guidelines to determine the size and 
layout: 

— Keep movement of portable equipment to 
a minimum. 

— Handling equipment capacity should 
exceed the expected harvest rate. 



wrong way 




, ^ 50 m^ir 



right way 



. ^ 45 nn^/h 






^ 



3 t 




3 



45 m^/h 



FIGURE 25 Conveyor selection 



50 m^/h 



—Wet grain greatly reduces the capacity of 
grain augers but has little effect on a bucket 
elevator. 

—Size the conveying equipment with future 
expansion in mind. 

—Consider grain conditioning requirements. 

— Plan so that the storage capacity may be 
expanded without requiring major modifica- 
tions or creating obsolescence. 

— Match conveying equipment. To avoid 
bottlenecks, each piece of equipment 
in the flow path should have up to 10% 
more capacity than the preceding piece 
(Figure 25). 

—Allow sufficient room to maneuver grain 
trucks (see Appendix, Figure A3), including 
pup trailers. 

System layouts 

The system layouts (Figures 26 and 27) show how 
a system can be planned with future expansion in 
mind. Remember these are only ideas; the system 
suitable for your operation will likely be different. 
Various system layouts are available from equip- 
ment suppliers, consulting engineers and provin- 
cial departments of agriculture. 



18 






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ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT 

Electric motors and phase converters 

Three-phase electric motors are more efficient 
and more economical than single-phase motors 
(Table 8). However, three-phase power may not be 
available at the grain handling and storage facility. 

Phase converters allow three-phase motors to be 
operated on single-phase lines. Two types are 
available: static and rotary. 

The static converter is primarily used for one- or 
two-motor systems. The converter is balanced or 
matched to the load to be operated. Additional 
motors cannot be added to the system after the 
converter has been balanced. 

The rotary converter is used with systems that use 
several motors or where a different number of 
motors may operate at any given time. It is more 
expensive initially than the static type. 

Consult the power or utility company before 
buying a system. 




FIGURE 28 Sequencing 



Electric controls 

BIN LEVEL SWITCHES Bin level switches may 
be used for a variety of purposes, such as indica- 
tors when bins are full or empty or as controlling 
devices to start or stop conveyers. 

SEQUENCING AND TIME DELAYS When sever- 
al successive conveyors are used to move grain, 
they must be started and stopped in a given order. 



The inclined auger (1) in Figure 28 should be 
started first, then the horizontal conveyor (2) and 
finally the underfloor auger (3). At shutdown, the 
sequence reverses. 

This procedure prevents an accumulation of grain 
at transfer points during startup and shutdown. In 
addition, on shutdown it lets the conveyors empty, 
permitting easier startup. 

Time-delay circuits may be necessary to allow suf- 
ficient time for one piece of equipment to reach 
operating speed before other equipment is started. 

CHECKLIST IN PLANNING AND 
BUILDING A GRAIN SYSTEM 

Take plenty of time and seek competent help in 
planning your system. Consult your local agricul- 
tural engineers, equipment and building suppliers 
and other farmers who have established a grain 
handling system. 

It is easier and cheaper to do it properly the first 
time than to correct mistakes later. 

Select a well-drained site with a low water table. 

Get a soil test to be sure the soil will support heavy 
storage buildings and their contents. 

Avoid locations where overhead power lines or 
trees will interfere with facilities. 

Allow ample space for future expansion. 

Locate the facility at least 45-60 m from the farm 
home to reduce effects of noise and dust. 

Choose a site that can be seen from the farm 
home. 

Provide good road access to the facility. 

Contact the local electrical utility about electrical 
considerations. 

Allow clearance for vehicles and movement of all 
handling equipment. 

Consider snow accumulation. 

Select conveying and conditioning equipment 
carefully, so that they have sufficient capacity and 
are coordinated. 

PLAN BEFORE YOU BUILD OR BUY. 



22 




60 70 80 

grain volume (m^/m depth) 



90 



100 



110 



120 



FIGURE A1 Bin capacity, not including area above eaves. 
Example: a 6 m diameter filled to a depth of 3 m will have a grain 
volume of 3 X 28.3 = 84.9 m^ 



TABLE A1 ELECTRIC MOTOR AND GASOLINE ENGINE EQUIVALENCE 



Gasoline 

engine size 

(kW) 



0.4 



0.5 



0.75 



1.1 



1.5 



2.2 



3.0 



3.7 



6.0 



Equivalent 

electric 

nnotor size 

(kW) 



0.2 



0.25 



0.4 



0.5 



0.75 



1.1 



1.5 



2.25 3.5 



TABLE A2 FACTORS THAT AFFECT GRAIN BREAKAGE 



Handling 
technique 



Variable 



Corn 



Soybeans 



Wheat 



Drop 


Drop height 




Orifice size 




Impact surface 




Spout end 


Thrower 


Belt speed 




Thrower distance 


Bucket 


Belt speed 


elevator 


Boot feeding 




Bucket loading 




Bucket style 




Grain moisture 




Grain temperature 



yes 
yes 
yes 
yes 

yes 
yes 

no 
yes 
yes 
no 
yes 
yes 



yes 


no 


yes 


no 


yes 


no 


yes 


no 


yes 


no 


no 


no 


no 


no 


no 


no 


no 


no 


no 


no 


yes 


yes 


yes 


yes 



23 





round bin (to eave) 




square or rectangular 
bin (to eave) 

V =1 wh 




unrestrained grain pile 




cone hopper 
V = 1/3 nr^h 



Note: n = 3.14 




square or 
rectangular 
hopper 



1/3 whi 



FIGURE A2 Volumes 



Barley, buckwheat: 
100 kg/ha = 1.86bu/ac 
100 kg = 4.59 bu 

Corn, flax, rye: 

100 kg/ha = 1.59bu/ac 

100 kg = 3.94 bu 

Oats: 

100 kg/ha = 2.6bu/ac 

100 kg = 6.49 bu 

Rapeseed, mustard: 
100 kg/ha = 1.78bu/ac 
100 kg = 4.41 bu 



Wheat, peas, beans, clover: 
1 00 kg/ha = 1 .49 bu/ac 
100 kg = 3.67 bu 

Approximate average bulk densities 

Wheat, peas, beans, clover 770 kg/m^ 

Rye 730 kg/m^ 

Corn 700 kg/m^ 

Flaxseed 650 kg/m^ 

Rapeseed, mustard seed 640 kg/m^ 

Barley 620 kg/m^ 

Buckwheat 610 kg/m^ 

Oats 470 kg/m3 

Sunflower seed 290 kg/m^ 



24 



/// 



HMD 




,-\10 m 



14.5 m 



single-unit truck 




Converting the metric units 
this publication into imperial 


n 
measures 


Length! 


millimetres (mm) 
metres (m) 


X0.04 = 
X3.38 = 


inches 
feet 


Volume 


cubic metres (m^) 
cubic metres 


X 35.32 = 
X1.31 = 


cubic feet 
cubic yards 


Mass 


kilograms (kg) 


X 2.21 = 


pounds 


Speed 


metres/second 
(m/s) 


X 2.24 = 


miles per hour 


Power 


kilowats (kW) 


X 1.34 = 


horsepower 



FIGURE A3 Minimum practical turning radii. These dimen- 
sions suit both A and B trains. 



25