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MUtUnary of the Southern Presbyterian Church 
in tht C^ngo Independent Stat* 




Copyright, 1906 




The Baluba and Lulua people, in language and in race, belong to 
the great Bantu family, which, though having many different subdivi- 
sions, occupies, roughly speaking, all of Africa south of the fifth parallel 
of north latitude, the Hottentot-Bushmen in the extreme south being 
the only exception. These Bantu languages are radically diflFerent 
from the distinctly negro dialects of the peoples bordering them on 
the north. While the dififerent Bantu dialects have much in common 
so far as some of the general characteristics are concerned, yet there 
are many degrees of difference. Some -are perhaps as widely apart 
as the English and the Greek, while others are so near akin that the 
differences amount to nothing more than localisms or a brogue. 

This latter fact is true of the language spoken by the Baluba and 
the Lulua people, who together occupy a large area in Central Africa, 
extending, roughly speaking, from the junction of the Lulua and Kasai 
rivers in a general southeasterly direction into Garenganze, where the 
language is called Ciluba. They thus occupy the high and compara- 
tively healthy table-lands on the divide between the headwaters of 
the Kasai and the Congo on one side and the Zambezi on the other. 
Moreover, these peoples are remarkably docile, peaceable, industrious 
and eager for civilization, and are in many respects far superior to 
many African tribes. It has thus come about that the Baluba, espe- 
cially, are eagerly sought after as slaves, with the result that many 
thousands of them have been carried into captivity, often into foreign 

These facts, together with the wide area covered by these two peoples, 
have made their tongue the lingua franca, or "trade" language, of the 
greater part of the upper Kasai and Congo basin, thus enabling one 
understanding it to go almost everywhere over this vast region and 
be understood. It is gratifying to note that the Buluba-Lulua is very 
near of kin to the Lunda and Tongo which are spoken over a large 
area on the south. It would be useless to attempt to estimate the num- 
ber of people speaking with more or less divergency the language whose 



laws this book attempts to put into tangible shape. All this is par- 
ticularly fortunate in view of the fact that so many of the languages 
of Africa are confined to very narrow geographical limits. 

Since the establishment of the American Presbyterian Mission at 
Luebo, which place is located on the north bank of the Lulua river 
at its junction with the Luebo, several thousand Baluba and Lulua 
people have come there and settled — the Lulua from the immediate 
south and east, and the Baluba from the regions still farther to the 
east. Through these numerous immigrants Luebo has become a cos- 
mopolitan j^iace, with reflex influences going out in turn to the different 
tribes and villages represented there. 

While there are slight differences in some of the root words used by 
the Baluba and the Lulua and some differences in the tones or manner 
of pronunciation, the Baluba being smooth and rhythmic, the Lulua 
more harsh and guttural, yet these diversities are so slight that we feel 
warranted in grouping the language of these two peoples under the 
one name Buluba-Lulua. It must, however, be borne in mind thiat 
each of these tribes is still farther subdivided into clans or groups^ 
where there may and often does exist a still farther variation in the 
words. It is a curious fact that the very names Baluba and Lulua 
do not seem to have been originally used by the people in speaking 
of themselves; these names have been given them by outsiders. Among 
themselves they go by the clan names, such as Bakua Kaloshi, Bakua 
Chimanga, Bakua Temba, etc. 

In this book no effort has been made to separate the words of the 
two peoples, for they are so intimately intermingled that this would 
at present be hopeless, confusing and unprofitable. Nor has any effort 
been made to find all the possible words used among the different clans; 
only the commoner words used about Luebo are introduced. This 
opens up. a wide field for future study and investigation, and of course 
means th^t variations from the. words given. in this book will become 
more numerous as the distance from Luebo increases. It is easy to 
understand how. these almost infinite differentiations have sprung up. 
There is no tribal unity, no literature, the villages and clans are more 
or less. isolated from each other, with, the consequent jealousies. But 
we believe that as communication is established between the different 
clans, and especially as the written language which the missionaries 
are sending out becomes more widely circulated, a unifying process 
will set in. 

On the other hand, the language, especially as spoken in the region 
about Luebo and such other cosmopolitan centres, where the outside 
world is touched, is constantly growing — and, strange to say, becoming 


more unified — by the accession of new and foreign words. For about 
Luebc we not only have a commingling of other tribes, such as the 
Bakete, the Bakuba, the Zappo Zapps, etc., but the native quickly 
takes up words from the missionary, the white trader, the Government 
official, or the West Coast English-speaking carpenter. These over- 
sea foreigners, in passing through the Lower Congo region, pick up 
native words as used there and bring them farther into the interior. 
The Portuguese were the earliest European settlers on the coast about 
the mouth of the Congo river, and a goodly number of their words have 
found the way back into the interior languages; the name mputu, 
which means the country of the foreign white man, is a corruption 
of Portugal. Smce the native naturally lacks names for many articles 
in common use by the foreigner, it is not surprising that the foreign 
word is often introduced and the native is proud to use it. The word 
is nativized and thus takes its place in the language. I say nativized, 
for although these new words find their place in the language, yet 
there is a strong tendency to preserve the native grammatical con- 
structions, and, after all, the foreign words are comparatively few. 

My observation is that the language is spoken with greater gram- 
matical purity about Luebo to-day than it was some years ago. 

And just here it is interesting to note that although there is a re- 
markable richness of the language in some directions, there is a no 
less remarkable paucity of terms in other directions. For example, 
there is no word for the young of living creatures. The indefinite 
muana, childj is used for all alike. There is no sitigle word for brother 
or sister. The native recognizes only three distinct colors, red, white 
and black ; there is nothing for green, the most common color in the tropics. 
The verb dila is made to do service for cry, bawl, bleat, squeal, roar, 
croak, bray, tick (as watch). There are no pronouns indicating sex. 
There is no satisfactory word for love; the same word which the native 
uses for God's love he must also use to express his liking for salt or 
his preference for a certain kind of cloth. Sometimes one fairly cries 
out in agony for a word to express some of the strong English words 
like ought, duty, must, obligation, etc. And so the list might be easily 
Increased. Perhaps as our knowledge of the language grows, we 
may discover terms for some of these ideas. It is not surprising, there- 
fore, to find a great dearth of words to express religious thought. In 
some cases the missionaries have, by common consent, introduced a 
word, generally from the Greek or Hebrew. We have thought it safer 
and more satisfactory sometimes to introduce thus an entirely new 
word rather than try to use a native word which would inaccurately 
convey the idea intended. It is interesting here to recall that very 


many of the ecclesiastical words in the English language were brought 
in at the time of the introduction of Christianity into England. I 
have also taken the liberty, on my own responsibility, of introducing 
into the Vocabulary a few words for some common household articles 
for which the natives have no equivalent. Since English is the lan- 
guage of those for whom this book is chiefly intended, the introduced 
words are naturally taken from that language. 

At the request of my colleagues on the Mission, the preparation of 
this work was undertaken some months after my arrival in Africa in 
1897. My first intention was to prepare a small book to contain only 
the essentials of the language and the more common words, but as I 
went farther into the work I found that I could not be certain of the 
essentials without myself going quite into details. Having done this, 
it seemed a waste of labor not to record the result of the investigations 
in permanent form. It is now my purpose to prepare a short hand- 
book embodying only the essentials and intended for beginners in the 
language. The growth of the work as I have progressed, and the 
fact that it was the first of the kind ever undertaken in this dialect, 
combined with the many missionary duties, from which it was impossible 
on account of the smallness of our force for me to be released so that 
I could give my full time to the language study, have postponed the 
completion of this task much longer than I had anticipated. Often 
weeks at a time have intervened when it was impossible, either on 
account of illness or on account of other, more pressing missionary 
duties, to push the work on. Even after the greater part of the material 
had been gotten into tangible shape before my return to America, I 
have found the revising, correcting, copying and getting of the matter 
ready for the press a much greater undertaking than I had anticipated. 
For these reasons I ask the forbearance of my colleagues who have 
waited so patiently for the work to appear. I must also express my 
appreciation of the kindness shown by the Executive Committee of 
Foreign Missions of the Presbyterian Church, who have patiently 
allowed me to carry on this work, trusting only to my own word and 
to that of my colleagues that my time and energy and the Church's 
money were being rightly spent. 

I must express my obligation for helpful suggestions gotten here 
and there from works in other dialects of the Bantu family; especially 
might be mentioned those of Torrend, Bentley, Whitehead, Stapleton» 
Bishop Steere, Wilson, Pilkington, Nassau and Bleek. Declerq's 
Grammaire de la Langue des Bena Ltdua, though only a pamphlet, 
giving with more or less accuracy the merest outlines of the language, 
was exceedingly helpful in the early stages of the work. I have appre- 


dated Stapleton's frankness in admitting difficulties, and his breadth 
of view in dealing with the comparative language problems. I am 
indebted to Dr. D. W. C. Snyder for the manuscript of his work in 
the Bakete dialect. And I am under many obligations to my colleagues, 
especially Mr. and Mrs. Sheppard and Mr. Hawkins, for giving me a 
start in the early days. 

I have sometimes ventured to differ from the majority of Bantu 
grammars, but it has been done in order to secure greater simpUcity. 

And here I must not fail to mention the names of native lads who 
have helped me, generally most patiently, through the long weary 
discussions and investigations which they could not understand. Among 
these may be mentioned Kazadi, Kabata, Kamuidika and Kachunga. 
The latter spent over a year with me in America. Some of the girls 
were most helpful, especially Malendola. These were not all kept 
in constant employ, but were called on as needed, for I soon found it 
better to use several language-helpers than to rely on the judgment 
of only one. 

I most heartily express my personal gratitude and that of my col- 
leagues and the Society which I represent to the American Tract Society 
for so generously undertaking, partly at its own expense, the publication 
of this work. 

It is to be hoped that the book will prove helpful to Govern mefit 
officials, traders or travelers, but the motive which has inspired the 
writer through it all has been the belief that it would aid the missionary 
more quickly and more accurately to learn the language of this great 
people, hoping that in due time schools would be widely established 
and the Word of Life given to the people in a language which they 
could read and understand. 

Many perplexing problems have arisen as to spelling, as to con- 
struction, and as to the exact meaning of words, and the author is most 
painfully conscious of the many inaccuracies which farther study and 
investigation by himself or others will reveal in his work, which makes 
no claim to being exhaustive or perfect; yet he will feel abundantly 
compensated for all the labor it has taken if the book will aid in a wider 
dissemination of the gospel. To this end he prays that it may be 

I feel that I cannot pass this book into the hands of my fellow mis- 
sionaries without saying . a final word to them. The Government 
official or the trader or the traveler can get along and accomplish 
his work with only a superficial knowledge of the language. Not so 
with the missionary: he is to deliver the gospel message, and a deep 
and thorough acquaintance with the language which is his chief medium 


of communication should be his constant ambition, that the message 
may be delivered accurately and intelligibly. I have noticed that 
almost invariably the man who speaks the language with fluency is 
the man who commands attention and whose influence will be the 
most widely felt. May I utter a warning ? There is danger of reaching 
a point where we make no farther progress in the language. This 
should not be. Study and investigation on our part should never cease. 
This book is by no means accurate or exhaustive — ^it is only intended 
as a guide and a help to wider and deeper study of the language, which 
I hope and pray will be inspired by the thought of Him who commanded 
us to " preach the gospel to every creature." 

W. M. Morrison. 
Lbxington. Va., January, 1906. 




1. The Buluba-Lulua alphabet consists of 

thirty letters, each repre. 

senting a 

distinct sound. They are as follows 






as a in father 

malu, affairs. 


as a in hat 

kub&la, k) count. 


as a in fall 

buk&le, strength. 

' b 


as b in bone 

bantu, people. 


as ch in choose 

muclma, liver. 


as d in day 

bldia, bread. 


as e in they 

kuteka, to put. 


as e in met 

dlk€la, egg. 


as f in fat 

kuflka, to arrive. 


as g in king 

kubanga, to begin. 


no equivalent (§ 6) 

luhehelCf wind. 


as i in machine 

bibl, badly. 


asi in hit 

kuxiba, to kill. 


as i in pine 

ml, water. 


as j in French jeune. 

kujula, to pull up. 


as k in king 

kulua, to come. 


as 1 in long . 

lubllu, hurry. 



as m in man 

muntu, person. 


as n in not 

kunan^a, to love. 


as o in note 

dlboko, arm. 


as p in pay 

mpuku, rat. 

. say . 

as s in'sit 

kusaya, to cut up. 


as t in tone 

tulu, sleep. 


as u in rule 

lufu, death.. 


as u in but 

mnktkxi, woman. 


as V in vine 

kuvua, to wash. 


as w in water 

wewe, thou. 


as sh in shall 

kux&la, to remain. 


as y in yonder 

kuya, to go. 


as z in zone 

koiakala, to quake. 


Note i. It will be observed that the governing principle of the above 
alphabet is that it shall be phonetic, letting each sound in the language 
be represented by a distinct letter. The letters m and n in double- 
consonant constructions furnish an apparent exception, having each 
a sound difiFerent from that indicated above, but this will be treated 
later. §§ 13-15. 

According to the above principle, therefore, the letters a, &, and 11 
are not to be regarded as different sounds of the same letter, but as 
different, letters. The same is true of e and 6^ i and I and I, u and fl. 
In the Vocabulary, however, in order to avoid confusion, the words 
are arranged in the ordinary way, regardless of the order of the letters 
as above given. 

Note 2. In order to aid beginners in the pronunciation and to pre- 
vent confusion it has seemed almost necessary to introduce in this 
book the short sounds &, e, I, and tk, also the longer & and I. Perhaps 
later, after the language has become more fixed in its orthography, 
many of these diacritical markings can be omitted, especially in books 
intended entirely for native use. At the same time the learner must 
be warned that accurate pronunciation can only be gotten by carefully 
listening to the words as they are spoken by the natives. Cultivate, 
from the very beginning, the habit of careful listening. Having once 
caught the sound, the pronunciation will not generally be difficult. 

It will be observed that the diacritical marks, with the exception of 
&, are those us d in Webster's Dictionary. 

Note 3. Observe that the letters J, v and s are used mostly by the 
Baluba, while the Lulua people generally use x, f and s respectively. 
The sounds are so nearly alike that little confusion arises. In the 
Vocabulary, the spelling adopted has been determined as far as possible 
either by the dialect to which the word most probably belongs or by 
the form most commonly heard about Luebo. At the same time it 
must always be borne in mind that the native gives the sound peculiar 
to his own dialect. These differences in pronunciation are often due 
to the front teeth being filed or, in some cases, knocked out. 

Note 4. Sometimes, in order to show where contraction has taken 
place, the circumflex (*) is used over certain vowels, but, since it pro- 
duces no marked difference in sound, these letters are not introduced 
into the alphabet. 

Note 5. In spelling, the natives are taught to give to each vowel 
its exact sound, and to let each consonant be followed by the sound of 
e in they. Unfortunately, custom has made exceptions of m and b, 
which are pronounced as in English, but consistency would indicate 
that they should also fall in line with the other consonants. 



2« The -long vowels are a, e, i, I, o and u, with which may be classed 
the broad &. The short vowels are ft, S, I and fl. 

Rem. The vowels present no difficulties in pronunciation, but it 
is often hard to distinguish between a and I, between a and A, between 
o and (i, between I and the diphthong ai, between the long and short 
sounds of the same letter. Shall we write muci winyi or muci wanyt 
(my stick)? Shall it be mukaxi or mukikzi (woman)? kumtkna or 
kumona (to see) ? ml or mai (water) ? Only time and farther light 
can settle these questions definitely. 


S» The consonants b, d, f, k, 1, p, s, t, ▼ and s have the common 
English pronunciation and need no farther explanation. 

4* C is arbitrarily used to represent the single sound of ch in church, 
though it often has much the sound of ts in nuts. 

5* G is always found in combination with n, and has the peculiar 
sound of g in king. The g is thus never found alone and it seems im- 
possible for the native, even in spelling, to give g the simple hard sound 
of g in go — ^it always has the nasal preceding. 

Rem. The distinct hard sound of ^ as in go is heard, however, in some 
dialects, especially that of the Bakete. For example, the Baluba and 
Bena Lulua say ku-nans-a, like English sing-er, while the Bakete 
say ku-nan-ga, like English stronger (pronounced as stron-ger). 

6* H is arbitrarily used to represent a peculiar breathing sound 
which is not found in the English. It is near of kin to / and p, though 
clearly distinct from each. It is important to distinguish it from these 
two letters, since upon this depend certain laws of euphony which will 
be considered later. To produce this sound, as in the word luhehele, 
place the Ups as preparing to whistle, not protruding them too much, 
and being careful not to press the lower lip up against the teeth, then 
expel the breath, uttering the sound, allowing the lips to fall apart. 

?• J has the softer French sound of ; in jeune. 

8. M has always its usual English sound save in the double-con- 
sonant forms at the beginning of words. § 14 (b). 

9* N usually has the simple sharp nasal sound of n in not, save when 
it is combined with other consonants. § 15. 

10. W is used only in its force as a consonant; it is therefore not 
employed in diphthongs or other vowel combinations. The close re- 
lation of w to u is observed in certain euphonic changes. § 27. 

11» X is used arbitrarily to represent the single sound of sh. 


12* T is always a consonant ; it is therefore not employed in diphthongs 
or other vowel combinations. Its close relation to the vowel 1 is seen 
in certain euphonic changes. § 28. 

Double Consonants. 

13. Double consonants occur only when m and n are prefixed to 
other consonants. M. is found before b and p, n before c, d, f, gy J, 
k, s, t. ▼, X, y and s. 

14. In the pronunciation of the double consonants with m we must 

(a) When the double consonants come in the body of the\word, 
the division of the syllable occurs between the two consonants, and 
m consequently has its common sound. 

Wa-kum-pa, he has given to me. 

(6) When, however, the double consonants come at the beginning 
of the word a peculiar and unfamiliar sound is given to the combi- 
nation. In the pronunciation of mpqku, rat, for example, close the 
lips, let the initial sound pass out through the nose, then expel the 
breath, uttering puku. 

15. In the pronunciation of the double consonants with n we must 

(a) When n with another consonant comes at the beginning of a 
word a peculiar sound is given to the combination. Note the pro- 

• nunciation of nsubq, house. Throw the end of the tongue up against 
the roof of the mouth as in the pronunciation of n, allow the initial 
sound to pass out through the nose, then expel the breath, uttering 

Note. G in such cases has the sound of g in kingy not the hard sound 

Ngoma, drum; ngombe, ox. 

(b) When n, with another consonant, comes in the body of a word 
we have the two following sounds: . 

(i) When the n comes before c, d, t and y, the division of the syllable 
occurs between the two consonants, and n consequently has its common 

Wa-kun-da-ya, he promised me; wa-kun-ta«ma, he sent 
me; ku-mtkn-ya, to know. 

Rem. The pronunciation of ny is the same as the Spanish n in canon . 
Some Bantu grammarians write this sound combination with a Spanish 
character. Sometimes the y is very slightly sounded and this may 


account for the fact that in certain constructions it loses its signifi- 
cance, though not its sound, and is treated as if it were not present. 

§ 329 (^)- 

(2) When the n comes before f, g, J, k, s, v, x and s it has a peculiar 
ringing sound like ng in kingy things etc. In such cases there is a 
decided nasal tone just before the consonant, but be careful not to allow 
the end of the tongue to touch the roof of the mouth in attempting to 
pronounce the n. For division of the syllables in such cases, see § 21, 

Wakunva, he heard; wakunkuma, he flogged me; wakanxia, 
he left me. 

Note i. G in such cases carefully preserves the usual sound of g 
in king. 

Note 2. For n before b see § 32. 

Diphthongs and Vowel Combinations. 

16. There are several proper diphthongs in which both vowels are 
sounded with the same expulsion of the breath. The more, common 
are as follows: 

(a) Ua, pronounced as wa in wash.* 

Bualu, affair. 

(b) Ue, pronounced as u^z in persuade. 

Kuebi, at your house. 

(c) Ui, pronounced as ue in desuetude. 

Kuiba, to steal. 

(d) UI, pronounced as ui in quiet. 

Kolnyl, at my house. 

(e) Uo, pronounced as uo in quote. 

Baonso, entirety. 
Rem. Often the u is very slightly 'sounded, as in muoyo, life; but 
in order to preserve consistency the u is always written. 

(f) la, pronounced as ea in idea. 

Btdia, bread. 

* Some of these may not improperly be called semi-consonant diphthongs 
since w or y can be substituted for the u and the i respectively in many cases 
so far as the sound is concerned. For example bualu might be spelled bwalu. 
and would be so spelled in most Bantu grammars but since it seems expedient, 
for the sake of symmetry in concord, to preserve as far as possible the original 
form? of the language the regular u and i are retained m all such cases except 
when they begin a word and are followed by a vowel in the same syllable, or 
when they stand between two vowels. §§27. 28. 


(g) '«» pronounced very much as ea in create, 

Biebi, your (things), 
(h) II, pronounced something as ei in deity, 

Dilnyi, fat. 
{{) lo, pronounced as to in Ethiopia. 

Bionso, all {things), 
(j) lu, pronounced very much as eu in feud or ieu in adieu, " 

Diulu, the heavens. 

17. There are also the combinations au, al, ea, eu and el, which 
perhaps may as well be called diphthongs, otherwise a separate syllable 
would have to be made for the second vowel, thus causing confusion 
in the spelling. 

18. It will thus be noticed that all vowel combinations are treated 
as diphthongs and hence are regarded as one syllable. 

Bna-lu, kui-ba, kau-ku-lu-ke, kai-ku«lu«ke, nea-lue. 


19. The syllables are divided so as to represent in the most accu- 
rate manner the pronunciation rather than the etymology. 

30. Where there is not a double consonant to be considered, the 
syllable begins with a consonant and ends with a vowel or diphthong. 
Of course each diphthong with its consonant makes a syllable. See 

Ku-zi-ka-ma, to sit down\ mua-na, child. 

Rem. I. In some words the final vowel is very slightly sounded, but 
if the word is used emphatically or in construction, a vowel sound will 
generally be detected. It is, however, sometimes difficult to deter- 
mine just what sound it is. 

Rem. 2. The initial letter of some words is a vowel. 

Ebl, your eggs (makj^la understood); atanu, five eggs; onso, 
aU the eggs; udi, he is; aba, these people; itaba, answer (imper- 
ative mood); etc. 

31. When double consonants occur the division takes place between 
the consonants. 

M un-tu, person; wa-kum-pa, he has given me* mu-lun-da, 

Rem. I. When n comes before f, g, J, k, s. v, x and s [§ 15 (6) (2)], 
the division is made regularly between the two consonants, but it must 


be borne in mind that the n has only a slight nasal sound, especially 
in ng. In fact the pronunciation might best be preserved in some 
cases by making the division after the consonants as in the English 
word sing-eTy but confusion may perhaps best be avoided by holding 
to the rule above made. 

Blu-ke-len-ge, chief; wa-kun-va, he heard. 

Rem. 2. While there are good reasons for following most Bantu 
grammars in making the syllable begin with a double consonant 
(mu-ntu, wa-ku«mpa, etc.), yet we believe that simpHcity is gained 
by letting the division come between the consonant as above suggested. 


33. This is an important subject which meets us at every turn in 
this highly inflected language and should be studied with great care. 

Elison and Contraction of Vowels. 

33. A vowel is elided when it comes before its like in the same 
word, and a regularly elides before all other vowels in the same word. 

a+a becomes a; i+i becomes I; u+u becomes u; 
a+e becomes e; a+i becomes i; a + I becomes I; 
a+o becomes o; a+u becomes u. 

Hence ba+ana becomes bana, children; bi+lmpe becomes bimpe, 
good (bintu, thingSy understood); ku + umuka becomes kuinuka, to 
go out; ka+ele becomes kele, small knife; ba+lbi becomes bibi, 
thieves; ba+Inyi becomes blnyi, my (bantu, people^ understood); 
ba+onso becomes bonso, all (bantu, people^ understood); bad! 
ba+ula becomes bad! bula, they are buying. 

Rem. I. After the elision the remaining vowel generally has a long 
full sound. This is true to such an extent when a vowel is elided 
before its like (or the two are contracted into one) that the remaining 
vowel is often pronounced almost as a diaeresis. Generally this elision 
is not represented in writing, but sometimes, in order to preserve the 
form of the language and prevent confusion, the remaining vowel may 
be marked with a circumflex {^_). Thus ka+a becomes ka, ku+ 
umuxa becomes kdmuxa, cl+i becomes ct, a+a becomes &, etc. 

Rem. 2. Sometimes, in order to preserve the parts of the word dis- 
tinct, the a is not elided; in such cases it forms a diphthong (§ i8). 

Ka+ukuluke remains kaukuluke, that it rmuel, stick) may not fall- 

Rem. 3. In verbal inflection, involving combinations of several vowels- 


elision and contraction often take place; as, bia+ikftleye becomes 
bik&leye, if he becomes'^ neaense becomes nense, he wiU do. 

Rem. 4. In the inflection of some words a peculiar coalescence of a 
and i into e takes place. Hence ma+ isu becomes mesu, eye5\ ha+ ihl 
becomes hehi, near\ ba+tne becomes bene, they alone, 

24. In construction, between words in sentences, elisions are of 
comparatively rare occurrence. In such cases the elision is indicated 
by an apostrophe ('), but no elision is thus indicated unless the pro- 
nunciation is seriously affected, or unless the remaining form would 
otherwise appear unfamiliar. The following are the most common 
cases of elision in construction : 

{a) Sometimes the final vowel of a word is elided when the follow- 
ing word begins with a vowel; as, n'andi, with him, for ne andi; n'abo, 
with them, for ne abo; n'eci, with it, for ne eci. 

(6) In some cases the elision is made at the beginning of the second 
word; as, tatu'etn, our father, for tatu wetu; mamu'etu, our mother, 
for mamu wetu. 

(c) Sometimes two elisions occur, one at the end of the preceding 
and the other at the beginning of the following word; as, muan'andi, 
his child, for muana wandi. 

{d) Note the peculiar elision of a in the word ham'bldi, on the body, 
for ha miubidi 

Assimilation of Vowels. 

25» Note the assimilation of e to a under the influence of a, and 
of e to o under the influence of u; as, hanaha (§ 163, Note 2) from 
baneha; aha (§ 149) from eha; ama (§ 149) from ema; munomu 
from munemu; kunoku from kuneku. See § 34 (6). 

Rem. Sometimes we hear munemu and kuneku without the assimi- 

26. The principle of assimilation is also seen in certain verbal 
suffixes where i is found after a, i and u (with the corresponding short 
vowels), whereas e is found after e and o. See §§ 329 (a) {b). 

Rem. Some forms take u after u. § 334 (c). 

Change of U to W and I to Y. 

37. In inflection, when u comes between two other vowels or when 
it begins a word and is followed by a vowel in the same syllable it takes 
the consonant form w. See foot-note on § 16 (a). Hence kauena 
becomes kawena, it (mucl„ stick) is not; uakuya becomes wakuya, 
he has gone; uaua becomes wawa, that man (mulumi understood). 

38. In inflection, when i comes between two other vowels or when 
it begins a word and is followed by a vowel in the same syllable it takes 


the consonant form y. See foot-note on § i6 (a). Hence kalakadl 
becomes kayakadi, they (nsolo, fowls) were not; lakadl becomes 
yakadt, they (0SOIO, fowls) were. 

Euphonic Change of Consonants. 

29. Before 1 or under the influence of n, 1 becomes d; as, kalekeli 
becomes kulekedi, do not let hose; ndl nlonda becomes ndt ndonda, 
/ am following. 

Note. D and 1 are often used interchangeably in some words, due 
to differences in dialects. Hence we hear both daa and lua, come; 
cilulu and ctdadu, cloth, 

30. Before i, t becomes c, and s becomes x. Hence kukaati be- 
comes kukaaci, donH hold; kuasi becomes kuaxi, don*t build. 

31* When n comes before p or b it becomes m according to § 13. 
Thus, npansa becomes mpansa, cups; nbombo becomes mbombo, pi. 
of lubombo, ten thousand. 

33. When n comes before h the latter changes to p and the n con- 
sequently becomes m ({ 13); so nhemba becomes mpemba, a white 
earth; wakanha becomes wakumpa, he gave to me; ndl nhana be- 
comes ndl mpana, I am selling; wakunhidia becomes wakumpidia, 
he has refused me. 

Note. It is thus seen to be very important to distinguish clearly 
between f and h and p, and this is often exceedingly difficult to do. 
Before f, which always has a sharp distinct utterance, the n remains 
unchanged; as, wakunfundlla, he has written for me; wakunfila, 
he accompanied me, 

33. In inflections n, coming before a form which begins with a vowel, 
becomes ng. Hence n-ala becomes ngala, finger-nails; n-esu becomes 
ngesu, pots; wakun-ambila becomes wakungambila, he told me; 
ndl n-owa becomes ndt ngowa, / am washing myself; nen-ule be- 
comes nengule, I shall buy. 

Rem. I. In inflection of certain tenses where the tense sign begins 
with a vowel, long custom in leaving out the g in preparation of the 
native literature has induced the author to do so in this book, though 
it is incorrect in fact. Nakadi should be written ngakadi, I luas; 
nakadila should be ngakudila, / was crying; etc. 

Rem. 2. N coming before m or n in inflected forms is omitted. Hence 
ndi nmona becomes ndl mona, I am looking; ndl nnua becomes 
ndl nal^ 7 am drinking; ndl nnumona becomes ndl numona, I am 
looking at you, 

34. Sometimes certain consonants serve to separate two vowels. * 
(a) T is thus inserted in inflection between I and a following vowel; 


«o Bknnyl becomes nklyfnyt, / myself (§ io8); mMandl become^ 
mblyandi, her husband (§ 138, Rem. 3, Note); kayiyi ({ 159, Note 2). 

Rem. T is inserted between n and i in certain inflections, in fact 
it is doubtful if i is ever permitted to follow n directly. 

Kusuni becomes kusunyi, don*t carry water; kucinyl, dan*t be 
afraid; kusunyina, to carry water for one. See §§ 236 (a), Rem. 3, 
and 329 (rf). 

(b) N is thus used between u and e and between a and a in mnnemu, 
kanel(u and hanaha (§ 163, Note 2). 


35* As a general rule it may be said that the accent in simple words 
falls on the penult with also a secondary accent on the fourth syllable 
from the end in polysyllabic words. In inflected words the accent 
is on the initial syllable of the root; when more than two syllabled 
follow the accented syllable a secondary accent falls on the penult. 
But it must be constantly borne in mind that Buluba-Lulua words ore, 
for the most pant^ devoid of a strong accent on any yyllable. In this re- 
spect this language resembles the French. The smoothness of pronun- 
ciation and the lack of strong accent make it all the more difficult for 
EngUsh-speaking persons to refrain from giving too much accent to 
the words, since the English has such decided accent on all words of 
more than one syllable. Great care in listening and much practice in 
speaking furnish the only means by which to learn to pronounce with 
that smoothness and musical flow so characteristic of the natives in 
speaking their own language. 

CiMkuMku, greens; bakufAndilangftna, they have written to each 

Rem. Diphthongs, of course, are regarded as single syllables. 

KAAvLAjtocome; kAnvLW^, to drink; kAdia,/0 0a/; kfthla. ;$r<!; kubuiUi* 
k&Ba, to commingle. 



36* The inflection of nouns is made not by suffix terminations, as 
in the Indo-European system of languages, but by the use of prefixes. 
This is a remarkable characteristic of the Bantu languages and demands 
careful attention, for it is confusing to have to look at the end of the 
word for the root instead of at the beginning. But this subject will 
be treated more fully later (| 59). 


37. The only variation of the noun is that to express number, sin- 
gular and plural. Fortunately there is no complicated Case system as 
is found in many European languages. These case relations, much 
as is the situation in English, are shown by the position of the word in 
the sentence or by certain prepositional words. 

38. There is likewise no complicated Gender system, which is 
carried to such a perplexing extent in Latin, Greek, French and German. 
For farther discussion of the question of gender see § 56. 


39. In the Buluba-Lulua language there are two numbers, singular 
and plural. 

40. The variations for number are made by certain prefixes, and 
according to these prefixes the nouns divide themselves into eight 
classes. It is of the utmost importance to learn these perfectly, for the 
whole principle of concord depends upon them. 

These prefixes for the different classes are as follows: * 

Singular. Plural. 


























Each of these classes is now taken up in order. 
Class I. 

41. In this class mu- is prefixed to the stem for the singular and 
ba- for the plural. 

Singular. Plural. 

mu-ntu, a person ba-ntu, persons 

mu-lumt, a man ba-lumi, men 

mu-kelenge, a chief ba-kelenge, chiefs 

mu-lunda, jriertd ba-lunda, friends 

Rem. Observe the laws of euphony in such words as nm-ana, child, 
which has the plural bana; mu-ena, person^ which has the plural 
bena. { 23. 

* The arrangement of these classes is arbitrary, but since the singular of the 
first three classes has much in common, these are grouped together. The same 
is true of the plural of classes II III and IV. and also of V and VI. 

12 NOUNS. 

43. Under this class must also be placed some words which are 
defective in not having any singular prefix. The concord oi verbs, 
adjectives, etc., however, is regular throughout, just as if the singular 
prefix were present, save with the possessive adjective pronouns (§ 138). 
These words nearly always express some family relationship. The 
following is a list of the more common of these words: 

Singular. Plural. 

tatu, father batatu, fathers 

mama, mother bamamu, mothers 

baba, mother bababa, mothers 

nyoku, mother banyoku, mothers 

ny\n{a); mother ha,nyln{a.), mothers 

nyinka, grandparent banylnka, grandparents 

kaka, grandparent bakaku, grandparents 

mbl, husband bambi, husbands 

X*, father bax% fathers 

nfumu, chief banfumu, chiefs 

zakena, namesake baxakena, namesakes 

mans^ba, uncle bamans^ba, uncles 

songaluini, lad basongalumi, lads 

songakCkxi, lass basongaktkxi, lasses 

manktkxl, aunt bamanktkxi, aunts 

nyaii(a), friend banyan(a), friends 

bukonde, brother-in-law babukonde, brothers-in-law 

Note i. Some of these words are rarely found alone, but are joined 
with the possessive adjectives, the latter having the force of an enclitic. 
The words most commonly having this construction are tatu, mama, 
baba, nytn(a), nyinka, mbl, x*, xakena, mans^ba, manktixi, nyan(a). 
This subject will be treated more fully under § 138. 

Note 2. Under this head must also come the compound words x*- 
(with proper possessive enclitic) -muenu, father-in laWy and mbl- 
(with proper possessive enclitic and connecting consonant y) ^cina, 
brother-in-law y sister-in-law. See § 138, Rem. 3, and Note. 

In forming the plural only the first part of the compound word takes 
the plural prefix. Hence bax*- (with proper possessive enclitic) -mueiiu, 
f(Uhers-in-law, bambi- (with proper possessive enclitic and connecting 
Consonant y) -clna, brothers-in-law, sisters-in-law. 

Note 3. For father-in-law we also have tata-maenu, and for mother- 
in-law baba-muenu, with the plurals formed as under Note 2 above. 
There is also for mother-in-law the elided form ma*-muena, with 
plural bama*«maena. ■ 

NOUNS. 13 

Class II. 

43. In this class ma- is prefixed to the stem for the singular and 
mi- (nyi-) for the plural. 

Singular. Plural. 

mu-soko, village ml-soko, villages 

mu-ci, stick ml-ci, sticks 

mu-kuna, hill ml-kuna, hUls 

mn-bidi, the body ml-bidl, bodies 

Rem. The Bena-Lulua say nyi- [§ 34 (a), Rem.] for the pi. instead 
of mi-. The mi- is used in this book because it is simpler and because 
it is more extensively used about Luebo. Fortunately this little diflFer- 
ence in the dialects does not affect the concord. 

Class III. 

44. In this class n- is prefixed for the singular and n- for the plural. 
Note that this n is changed to m before b and p (§ 31). 

Singular. Plural. 

B-ffombe^ cow n-sombe, cows 

n-xlla, path n-xlla, paths 

D-soIo, fowl n-solo, fowls 

n-subu, house B-subu, houses 

n-yolca, snake n-yoka, snakes 

n-yunyu, bird n-yunyu, birds 

m-pnlni, rat m-pukn, rats 

Rem. The archaic sing, prefix of this class was mu, the same as 
class I, for we find this mu restored in the concord of adjectives, 
numerals and verbs. In like manner we conclude that the pi. prefix 
was originally mi, the same as class II. § 43. 

Class IV. 

45* In this class lu- is prefixed to the stem for the singular and n- for 
the plural. Note the euphonic changes of n before p and b (§ 31), and 
also before a stem beginning with a vowel (§ 33). Remember also 
that n before h becomes m, and the h becomes p (§ 32). 

Singular. Plural. 

lu-lcflsu, hoe n-kfisu, hoes 

lu-diml, tongue n-dlml, tongues 

lu-kombo, broom n-kombo, brooms 

lu-hansa, cup mpansa, cups 

lu-hemba, whiU earth m-pemba, white earth (quantity) 

lu-esu, pot ns-esu, pots 

14 NOUNS. 

Rem. The archaic pi. pre6x of this class was mi, the same as class 
II, for we find this mi restored in the concord of adjectives, numerals 
and verbs. § 43. 

We see this archaic pi. restored in the word laoso, hair, pi. mloso, 

Class V. 

46. In this class di- is prefixed for the singular and ma- for the plural. 

Singular. Plural. 

di-lcCisa, foot ma-kCisa, feet 

di-bokb, arm ma-boko, arms 

di-k£la, egg ma-k61a, eggs 

di-tuka, day ma-tuku, days 

47. Under this class must be placed a' small list of words which seem 
to have me instead of ma for the pi. The most probable explanation 
seems to be (§ 23, Rem. 4) that the original stem begins with an i 
which coalesces with the final a of the prefix and forms e. Of course 
the final i of the sing, prefix elides before the i of the stem. Hence 
di«isu becomes disu, eye, and ma-isu becomes mesu, eyes. The 
stem is seen in such forms as muitu, inio the forest; also in the 
diminutive form kisa (kaisa), a small eye, with its pi. tnisu, smaU 
eyes; etc. 

The more common words belonging to this list are the following: 

Singular. Plural. 

disu, eye mesu, eyes 

dlnu, tooth menu, teeth 

diku, hearth meku, hearths 

dina, name mena, names 

dlba, clock meba, clocks 

ditu, jorest metu, forests 

di, word me, words 

dlcl, day meet, days 

diha, hole mena, holes 

dixi, caterpillar mexi, caterpillars 

The word mexi, intelligence, is used only in the pi. 

Rem. a few words belonging to this list may drop the prefix di after 
the locative prepositions mu, in, ha, on, and ku, at. Hence we may 
have mu dItu or muitu, into the jorest; ku ditu or kuitu, at the forest; 
mu disu or muisu, into the eye, ha diku or heku, on the hearth (§ 23, 
Rem. 4). See § 423 (2) (a). 


Class VI. 

48. In this class bu-> is prefixed for the singular and ma- for the 

Singular. Plural. 

bu-dimi, field ma-diml, fields 

bu-lalu, bed ma-lalu, beds 

bu-alu, affair malu, affairs (§ 23) 

bu-ansa, medicine maiisa, medicines (§ 23) 

bu-icl, honey 
bu-lunda, friendship 
bu-ngi, plenty 

Class VII. 

49. In this class ci- is prefixed for the singular and bi- for the plural. 

Singular. Plural. 

ci-ntu, thing bi-ntu, things 

ci-lulu, cloth bi-lulu, clothes 

ci-nunu, one thousand bi-nunu, thousands 

Class VIII. 

60. In this class ka- is prefixed for the singular and tu- for the 
plural. This class is used almost exclusively in the formation of 
diminutives, indicating either smallness in size or in amount. Ka- and 
tu- are prefixed to the stem of the noun regardless of its class.* 

Singular. Plural. 

ka-ntu, small thing tu-ntu, small things^ from cinta, thing 

kana (§ 23), small child tu-ana, small children, from muana, child 
ka-subu, small house tu-subu, small houses, from nsubu, house 

kele (§ 23), small knife tu-ele, smjll knives, from muele, knife 

keho (§ 23), smiill amount of salt, from lueho, salt 

Rem. I. Sometimes the n (or m) in class III is not elided upon pre- 
fixing ka and tu. This is true especially of words beginning with ny. 

Ka-ny&ma, small animal, from nydma, the pi. is ta-nyiima; 
ka-nyunyu, small bird, from nyunyu, the pi. is tu-nyunyu; 
ka-nyoka, small snake, from nyoka, the pi. is tu-nyoka. 

Rem. 2. Some words used in the pi. to express bulk or quantity 
employ the corresponding diminutive pi. when a small quantity is 

* Properly speaking this is not a distinct class, since these diminutive prefixes 
are \ised only with the stems of nouns which belong to classes I to VII. But it 
is given a separate class because these forms are of frequent occurrence. 

1 6 NOUNS. 

meant. Hence we have tul, a lUUe water, from ml, water \ tuanva, 
a little cortij from manva, corn; tuluvn, a little palm-wine^ from maluvu, 
palm wine; tulnyi, a little oil, from minyi, oil; tutamba, a little greens, 
from matamba; etc. 

Rem. 3. Some words employ the diminutive prefixes without having 
the diminutive idea; as, kahumbu, elephant, tuhumbu, elephants; 
kabftlu, horse, tubftlu, horses; kahia, fire, tuhia, fires. 

51. A few words have the sing, in one class and the pi. in another. 

Luhia or dihia, a slap, has the pi. mahia, slaps. The word lute, 
spittle, has the pi. mate. 

53. Sometimes a word having the same root is found in different 
classes, due to the difference in dialects. Hence we find dtna and 
etna, a hole; lubanga and clbanga, chin; etc. 

53. Sometimes there is a difference of meaning when words having 
the same root are found in different classes; a^, citaku, bottom (of any 
vessel), ditaku, buttock. 

54. Some words belonging for the most part to class V and ex- 
pressing the idea of quantity or bulk take the pi. form where in English 
the sing, is used. 

MaluTU, palm-wine; mazi, blood; minyi, oU (from dilnyi, the fat 
of an animal); ml, water; mabele, milk (from dibele, breast); manva, 
shelled corn (from dianva, an ear of corn); makanya, tobacco; ma- 
tamba, greens; malobo, loose earth. 

Rem. Some other words not having the idea of quantity or bulk are 
regarded as pi.; as, ns&la, hunger; ngulu, strength, etc. It is often 
difficult to determine the class to which these nouns belong. 

55. To class I belong most names of persons or rational beings, 
to class III most animals; to class VI, the abstract ideas of quality; 
and to class VIII, the diminutives. But apart from this it does not 
seem profitable even to attempt to state the laws, if any, which govern 
the division of nouns among the several classes. Since this classifica- 
tion is thus more or less arbitrary, too much stress cannot be laid upon 
charging the memory with the class to which each noun belongs. A 
noun given a prefix other than that which belongs to it only makes 
nonsense. . Besides, as we shall see later, the whole system of agreement 
is determined by this noun prefix. 

Rem. I. It is interesting to note that the language of a people is 
indicated by prefixing bn (VI) to the root-name; as, Buluba, the lan- 
guage of the Baluba. 

Rem. 2. Most introduced foreign words are relegated to class III. 
Even though they may not always begin with n (or m), yet the agree- 


merit of adjectives, verbs, etc., is that of class III; as, mpena, pen; 
mpesa, piece of cloth; nglas, glass; sukulu, school; vinyo, wine; etc. 
' Note i. Sometimes the introduced foreign word has been given a 
native form and put into a class other than the third; as, dilesona 
lesson; dlhahl, papaw; etc. 

Note 2. Some foreign words are thrown into that class whose prefix 
approaches the initial sound of the word; as, cislkit (VII), from the 
English biscuit; dincese (V), from the English match; etc. 

Rem. 3. Not all nouns referring to persons belong to class I. We 
note such exceptions as muadi (II), wife; muloho (II), ambassador; 
cilembi (VII), fisherman; cihindi (VII), hunter; muxikankunde 
(II), maid; cibanji (VII), intermediary; cibuabu (VII), a twin; etc. 

56. As has already been said (§ 38), there is no Gender systeni. 
When it is desired to make distinction of sex it may be done in the 
following ways: 

(d) By using entirely different words; just as in English we say 
boy and girl, man and woman, horse and mare, hen and rooster, etc. 

Citlla, rooster y and cikukue, hen; mpumba, male goaty and dixina, 
female goat, 

(ft) When the word is what may be called common gender, i.e. either 
male or female, the distinction is made by using a qualifying word 
or phrase: mulumi or muliimi wa for maUy and muktkxi or muktkxi wa 
for female. 

Muana mulumi, a male child; muana in\i\i(ixit a female child, 
Muntu muktkxi, a female person; muntu mulumi, a male person, 
Muiumi wa mbuxi, a male goat; muktkxi wa mbuxl, a female goat. 

Rem. I. Note that elision of the w in wa often takes place; hence 
we may also have muluml'a mbuxl, mukuxl*a mbuxl [§ 87 {i)\ 

Rem. 2. It may^ not be put of place here to call attention to the phrase 
muan^a, the young of; as, muan'a mbuxl, a kid; muan^a mukoko, . 
a lamh% muan*a ngombe, a calf. See § 87 (t), and Rem. 

67- It is interesting to note that the pi. of such phrases as muan*a 
bute, first-born childy and muan*a mukala, last-born child, is generally 
formed by prefixing ba directly to the singular prefix; as, bamuan*a 
bute^ first-born children; bamuan'a mukala, last-born children. 


58. Coiicord is that principle of language by which certain words 
are regarded as depending upon r*^rtain other words, and this dependence 
is- shown by wearing the livery of the words to which they are regarded 
as subordinate. 

59. V/e have already (§ 36) noted the fact that in the Bantu system 


of languages the nouns are in6ected not by means of suffixes but by means 
of prefixes. And now the statement must be made that this principle 
holds good not only for nouns but also for verbs, adjectives, pronouns 
and other inflected forms. This use of prefixes instead of suffixes to 
express the various relations of number, case, tense, mood, etc., is at 
first most confusing to English-speaking persons, for it must con 
tinually be borne in mind that that the end of the word is the root and 
not the beginning. 

60. It is of the utmost importance to note that the prefix of the 
noun furnishes the basis of the concord for all words depending upon 
that noun. The verb takes as its prefix that of the noun which stands 
as its subject; the adjective takes as its prefix that of the noun modified; 
the pronoun takes the prefix of the noun for which it stands. This 
principle is called Alliterative Concord and is most important, for 
upon it depends the accurate speaking of the language. It may be 
said by way of encouragement to the beginner that though these numerous 
forms may seem at first to be endless and most confusing, yet the diffi- 
culty is more seeming than real, for after the principles of Concord as 
given below have been thoroughly mastered, the key to the language 
will be in hand, and it will be interesting to note the system and regu- 
larity which prevail. 

Perhaps the difference between the two language S3^tems can best 
be illustrated by a comparison with the Latin. 

Mensa mea, my table; mensae bona«, good tables; wires anxantf the 
men love; yiies &raaverunt, the men have loved. On the other hand 
in the Buluba-Lulua language we have muntvL m«hele, a poor person-, 
hanivi frahele, poor people; bautu Z^ahele hakujB,^ the poor people have 

Rem. I. Under pronouns we shall find that sometimes the prefix of 
the noun is employed as a suffix and sometimes as an infix. §§ ii6, 120. 

Rem. 2. We even find one preposition, -a, of, inflected as an adjective 
and taking the prefix of the noun preceding it; as, cllula cla mukttzi, 
the cloth of the woman. 

61, The three locative prepositional words, mu, in, ku, to, ha, <m, 
are of frequent occurrence and have some peculiarities which it is 
important to note. They may stand alone or be compounded with other 
words. They resemble the noun in that under certain circumstances 
they furnish the basis of the concord. They are also like prepositions 
in that they may govern a following word. The various uses and con- 
structions of these locative words will be taken up as occasion requires. 

Rem. The infinitive is often used as a noun, and its prefix ku- fur- 
nishes the concord. 


General Rules of Concord. 

62« The prefixes ba, lu, dl, bu, el, bi^ ka and tn are always pre- 
fixed without change to the governing word or to the verb; the re- 
maining prefixes, mu, mt, n and ma, are, under certain circumstances, 
subject to change, i.e., the m and n are dropped. Prefixes are, for 
convenience, said to be Primary or Secondary. 

I. Primary Prefixes. 

63. The Primary Prefixes are used before a word when that word 
takes all of the ordinary prefixes without change. 

Rem. It is important to note here that the archaic prefixes in class 
III (mu for singular and ml for pi.) are restored (§§ 44, Rem.); also 
the archaic pi. ml of class IV (§ 45, Rem.). 

64. We have, therefore, the primary prefixes as follows: 

Singular. Plural. 

lass I. 









" IV. 






** VI. 



'• VII. 



'* VIII. 



65* The primary prefixes are used as follows: 

(a) Before an ordinary qualifying adjective; as, mnntu mubl, a 
had person. 

(b) Before the ordinal numerals 2d to 6th; as, musambu'multann, 
the fifth hymn. 

(c) Before past participles when used either as adjectives or in the 
formation of certain auxiliary tenses; as, mnntu mnf ue, a dead person; . 
udl mufue, he is dead'. 

II. Secondary Prefixes. 

66. The Secondary Prefixes are used before a word when that word 
subjects some of the ordinary noun prefixes to change. These changes, 
as has been noted above (§ 62), occur with the prefixes mu, mi, n and 
ma, in which the. n and m are dropped. 

Rem. I. The archaic prefixes are here also restored as in case of 
the primary prefixes (§ 63, Rem.); of course only the vowel is retained. 


Rem. 2. The mu of classes I and II and the n of class III thus be-' 
come u or w, the u or w being determined according to the principle 
of euphony as mentioned in § 27. 

Rem. 3. The mi of class II and the n pi. of classes III and IV thus 
become i or y, the 1 or y being determined according to the principle 
of euphony as mentioned in § 28. 

Rem. 4. The m of the prefix ma of classes V and VI being dropped, 
the remaining a is subjected to the usual euphonic laws as mentioned 
in § 23. 

67* The secondary prefixes are thus found to be as follows: 

Singular. Plural. 


























68, The secondary prefixes are used as follows: 

(a) With the possessive adjective pronouns (§ 130). 
Nklisu yinyi, my hoes; makeia ebi, your eggs. 

(b) With the demonstrative adjective pronouns (§§ 149, 152, 156, 

Eu muntu, this person; wawa muntu, that person, 

(c) With verbs as 

(i) Pronominal prefixes (§ 113). 

MuaDa ndl ha mesa, the child is on the tabl^; wakuya, 
he has gone. 

(2) Pronominal infixes (§ 116). Exception will be noted later. 
Wakaixlha, he has killed them (dsoIo, fowls). 

(3) Pronominal suffixes (§ 120). Exceptions will be noted later. 
HakuhoDaf, where they fell (nsolo, fowls), 

(4) Relative pronouns (§§ 164, etc.). 

Muntu UDakumona, the person whom I saw. 


(d) With the disjunctive personal pronouns (§ 105, Rem. i). 
Tol yakafua, they have died (nsolo, fowls), 

(e) With certain cardinal numerals (§ 92, Rem. i). 
Mlsambu itanu, five hymns. 

(/) With the adjective onso, a//, entire. 

Mubldi wonso, the entire body; mak^la onso, all the eggs, 
(g) With the preposition -a, 0/ (§ 86). 

Nsolo wa Kasongo, the fowl of Kasongo; nsolo ya Kasongo, 

the fowls of Kasongo. 

(h) With the present participles (§ 244). 

Nsolo Idl ikuluka, the fowls are falling down, 
(i) With the interrogative word nga? how many? 

Mikanda Idl inga? how many books are there? 
(j) With the adjective word -o-umne (§ 96). 

69. It is important to bear in mind that the locative prepositions 
mu, ku and ha (§ 61) furnish the agreement in a number of instances. 
When thus used they are prefixed directly to the word and present no 
difficulty apart from the ordinary rules of euphony, which of course 
must be observed when the occasion arises. 


70. Like all the languages of the Bantu family the Buluba-Lulua 
is very poor in adjectives when compared with the Indo-European 
languages. Not only does one word represent wholly distinct adjectives 
in English, as impe, which means goodj handsome^ fine, etc., but many 
are altogether wanting. This lack is supplied in many ways which we 
shall consider later. 

Note. In this book only the root of the adjective is given; as, Impe, 
good; bi, bad; kise, small. 

71. Adjectives take the primary prefixes corresponding to the number, 
and class of the noun modified. 

72. The adjective follows the noun modified. 

Rem. I. Rarely may be heard nga, another^ kuabo, another^ also the 
demonstrative adjective pronouns and the possessive adjective pronoun 
preceding the noun. 

Rem. 2. Sometimes one or more words in a closely connected phrase 
may intervene between the adjective and the noun modified; as, bana 


ba ngulube banine, the large pigs; muan'a nktksa munlDe, the 
great toe. 

73. Examples of nouns with adjectives: 

Singular. Plural. 

Class I. muntu muhele, poor person bantu babele, poor people 
*' IL mucimule, long stick mlcl mile, long sticks 

* * III. nsolo muklse, small fowl nsolo miklse, small fowls 

** IV. lukfisu lunlne, large hoe nkOsu minliie, large hoes 

** V. dik«la dimpe, good egg makeia mimpe, good eggs 

(see note below) 
'* VI. bulalu bulhi, short bed malalu mihi, short beds 

(see note below) 
" VII. cllulu ciflke, blue cloth bilulu blflke, blue clothes 

'* VIII. kana kak&le, a strong child tuana tukale, strong chil- 
Note. In the forms mimpe and mibl the roots are impe and ihl 
respectively. For the elision of a see § 23. 

74. In the case of contracted or elided forms the adjective takes 
the regular unchanged prefix of that class and number. 

Mesu manine, large eyes; menu mak^le, strong teeth. See § 47. 

75. When the word modified is a pronoun, expressed or understood, 
referring to persons, the adjective takes mu of class I when the pro- 
noun is singular, and ba of class I when the pronoun is plural. 

Tudi banlne, we are large (tuetu, wey understood); ndt mubf, 
I am bad (meme, 7, understood); nud! bakale, you are strong (nuenn, 
yoUy understood). 

76. Two adjectives, hia-hia and nya-nya, double themselves, 
taking the prefix before each part. 

Ctfulu cihia-cihia, a new hat; bantu banya-banya, a jew peofte. 

77. Some adjectives take the secondary prefixes; they are as follows: 
(a) On so, all; as, nsolo yon so, aU the fowls. § 68 (/). 

(&) Possessive adjective pronouns; as, nsolo yandl, his fowls. § 68 (a)^ 

(c) Demonstrative adjective pronouns; as, nsolo yaya, those fowls, 
§ 68 (6). 

(i) Certain cardinal numerals; as, nsolo itanu, "five fowls. § 68 {e). 

{e) The peculiar form -o-umue, aJikey identical. Note here that the 
prefix is used both before the o and the umue; as, nsolo yoyumue, 
the fowls are alike. 

Note. The locatives (mu, ku, ha) are prefixed to -o-umue in the 
same way. See § 96 and Rems. 

78. The word tente, full^ is indeclinable; as, mulondo udi tente, 
the jar is full. 


79. Certain adjectives, when preceded either by a simple locative 
or by one of its compounded forms, may take the locative as prefix. 
The adjectives most commonly having this construction are impe, good^ 
bi, badf tuhu, empty, onso, ally le, long, Ihi, short, mue, one, -o-umue, 
the same, kuabo and nga, another, together with the possessive and 
demonstrative adjective pronouns. 

Mu mulondo mudi mutuhu, the jar is empty; kuenu kudi kule, 
your town is far away. 

Rem. The declinable preposition -a, of, also has this construction. 
See § 87 (e). 

80. The adjective ine, alone, only, by one's self, is always preceded 

by ne. 

Bantu babldl ne bene (§ 23, Rem. 4) bakuya, two people alone 
went; nsolo ne mulne, the fowl by itself; makeia ne mene, the eggs 
alone; muluml ne muine, the man by himself. 

81. Although the subject will be more fully treated under § 445, 
it seems necessary to state here that when any word is used as a com- 
plement after the verb to be, the verb is omitted and in its place is found 
an n-, which is prefixed directly to the complement word. The nega- 
tive in such cases is kan-. Observe carefully the usual euphonic 
changes with n. 

Eel clfulu ncinyl, this hat is mine; bilulu blandl mbimpe, his 
clothes are good; muhika eu ngrulnyi, this slave is mine; dina diaci 
Dctnyl? what is the name of the thing? 

82. Though the noun may be omitted, the adjective must agree with 
it understood. An adjective can never stand uninflected. 

Ndt nkCba mule (muci, stick, understood), / am looking for a long 
one; ntumina mimpe (makfila. eggs, understood), send me good ones. 

83. When two or more adjectives modify the same noun they are 
placed after the noun without any connecting word. With regard to 
the relative position of these modifying words the following rule holds 
good with more or less regularity, viz.. the possessive and demonstrative 
adjectives come next to the noun, then the simple adjective, and lastly 
the numerals. 

Ndi nk^ba bantu bale bakale, I am looking for tall strong men; 
mbua wakukuata nsolo winy! muklse, the dog has caught my small 
chicken; nsolo ylnyl mlklse Isfttu yakafua, my three small chickens 
have died. 

84. Owing to the paucity of simple adjectives some other construc- 
tions are employed to express the idea: 

(a) Sometimes we have the adjective phrase with -a and a noun. 
Muntu wa lungenyl, a wise man, i.e., a man of wisdom; ml a kahta, 


hot water, i.e., water of heat; clombe cla bululu, hitter manioc, i.e., 
manioc oj bitterness, 

{b) We may also sometimes find maena (pi. bena), inhabitant of, 
owner of, etc., followed by a noun, which noun comes to have a sort of 
adjective force. 

Muena biuma, a rich person, i.e., an owner oj riches; muena ngulu, 
a strong person, i.e., a person of strength; benamlkanda, school children, 
i.e., book people, 

(c) The phrase -dl ne, to have (lit. to be with), followed by the sub- 
stantive form of the adjective or some noun, is a very common method 
of expressing the adjective when used as predicate complement. 

Muntu udl ne lungenyi, the person is wise, i.e., has wisdom; mux^&te 
udl ne bujita, the box is heavy, i.e., has heaviness. 

(d) In a number of cases the adjective is contained in the verb as a 
predicate complement. 

Kutoka, to be white; knflka, to be black; kuteketa, to be weak; 
kukunza, to be red; kukMla, to be strong; kulula, to be bitter; etc. 

Rem. In such cases, when the simple qualifying adjective is needed, 
the past active participle is used. See § 85 (<i). 

(e) We may occasionally have a simple noun used in an adjective 
sense. Compare mulmnl and mukl^xl when used to denote difference 
of sex, as noted in § 56. 

Rem. Certain cardinal numerals are thus treated as substantive 
adjectives; as, bantu dlkumi, ten people; nsolo lukama, one hundred 

85* Participles have the adjective prefixes and are often, as in 
English, used as simple adjectives. This is especially true of the two 
past participles, one being active and the other passive. §§ ^49, 251. 

(a) The Active Past Participle is formed by changing the final a of 
the verb root to e. The resulting form is inflected by means of the 
ordinary primary prefixes. 

Muntu mufue, a d^ad person, from the verb root fna, to die. 

Rem. Under this head falls the large class of participles [§ 84 (</)] 
which have a simple adjective force; 2iS,to)s.e, white; n\Le, black; tekete, 
weak; kttle, strong; etc. Cilulu cltoke, white cloth. 

(b) The Passive Past Participle is the root of the verb. With this 
are used the primary prefixes. 

Cilulu clhanda (from handa, to tear), the torn cloth; muntu mut&ba 
(from tftba, to wound), the wounded person. 

Rem. .Note the differencfe between the participles derived from the 
transitive and the intransitive verbs. Both lukfisu luclbuke and 
lukfisu lucibula mean the broken hoe, but one means the hoe which 


has become broken of its own accord, the other means a hoe which some 
some one else has broken. § 341. 

Adjective Phrases. 

86. Adjective Phrases are introduced by the prepositional word 
-a, o/, /or. to, which agrees in prefix with the noun preceding it. It 
takes the secondary prefixes [§ 68 {g)]. This agreement shows that 
the phrase is regarded as an adjective. In English we say that the 
prepositions o/, /or, and /o govern the noun or pronoun following them; 
in Buluba-Lulua the preposition -a may be said not only to govern the 
succeeding word but also to modify the preceding word. It is, there- 
fore, regarded not only as an adjective particle but also as a preposi- 

87. This adjective phrase is used to express various relations, some 
of which are here mentioned: 

(a) The adjective phrase with -a is the common way of expressing 
the English possessive case, or the preposition of when it indicates pos- 

Bana ba mukaxi, the children of the woman; cifulu cia mukelenge, 
the hat of the chief; mici ya muana, the child's sticks; maboko a 
muana, the chUd^s arm; nsolo wa muluml, the man's jowl; nsolo ya 
balumi, the men's jowls; keho ka Kasongo, Kasongo's hit of sail; 
nkOsu ya mukfkxi, the woman's hoes 

Rem, I. If two or more nouns connected by the conjunction ne, and, 
are used implying joint possession of the same thing, the preposition 
-a is used only once, thus following the analogy of the English. 

Cifulu cla Kasongo ne Kabeya, Kasongo and Kaheya's hat. 

Rem. 2. If, however, separate possession is meant, or if the nouns are 
connected by Inyl, or, the preposition -a is used before each noun. 

Cifulu cla Kasongo ne cla Kabeya, the hat of Kasongo and that 
oj Kabeya; wakulua ne cifulu cia Kasongo Inyl cia Kabeya? did 
he come with the hat of Kasongo or with that oj Kaheyaf; lufu luabo ne 
lua.bana babo, their death and that of their children. 

(b) The adjective phrase, as has been seen in § 84 (a), is often used 
for a simple adjective. 

(c) The rioun making the concord of the -a may sometimes be omitted, 
being understood. § 82. 

Cia Kabata, Kabata's, with any noun in the sing, of class VII under- 

{d) The -a is often combined with the locative prepositions (mu, 
ku and ha), making a double prepositional form something like the 
English from among, from above, etc. 


Munyinyl wa mu ml, fsh, lit. meat from in the water; kanydma 
ka mu ditu, a small animal from the woods, lit. from in the woods; cllalu 
cla ha mesa, a table-cloth, lit. cloth for on the table. 

Rem. I. We also have the combined forms mua, kua and ha pre- 
ceding the name of the person; they then mean in or at the village of 
or house of. 

• Ta mua Malendolo, go to (the village) of Malendolo; udl kua muke- 
lenge, he is at {the house) of the chief; muana wa kua Nsusu, the 
child belongs to Nsusu^s village, lit. a child of at {the village) of Nsusu. 

Rem. 2. By putting the pre6xes of class 1 before kua we have mukua, 
meaning one from the village of. 

{e) When an adjective phrase with -a modifies a noun which is 
governed by one of the locative prepositions (mu, ku or ha), the -a 
sometimes takes the concord of the preposition rather than that of the 
noun. Hence we may have either ya mu nsubu mua mukelenge or 
ya mu nsubu wa mukelenge, go into the chiefs house. 

(/) The prepositional construction with -a is often used with the 
infinitive mood to express purpose; this is to be translated by to or 
for. § 239 (6). 

Lua ne bintu bla kudia, bring the things to eat; ndi nsua ml a 
kunua, / want some water to drink. 

Rem. Note that these infinitive phrases have an adjective sense; as, 
ml a kunua, which may be translated drinking-water. 

{g) The adjective phrase with -a is also used to express direction. 

Nxlla wa Kasenga, the path to Kasenga; we may also say nxila 
wa ku Kasenga. 

{h) The peculiar \phrase -a bende means of some one else, not one's 
own, another's. 

(i) Note that in the sing, of certain phrases the -a has the prefix 
elided; it is then represented by an apostrophe ('). 

Muan'a, the young of; muluml'a, the male of; muktkxi'a, the female 
f>i' § S6(&), Rems. i and 2. 

Rem. So far as the pronunciation is concerned, the phrase muan'a 
mbuxi, a kid, might be written muana mbuxi; but since the pi. is 
bana ba mbuxi, there would seem to be good reason for believing 
that the prepositional word ought to be written in the singular. 

Comparison of Adjectives. 

88. The adjective is not declined to express comparison as in English 
and in other European languages. In fact the Buluba-Lulua does 
not make any sharp distinction between the comparative and superlative 
degrees, for the same construction is used for both degrees. 


89, The verbs tamba and hfta, to surpass^ with the abstract sub- 
stantive derivative of the adjective having the prefix bu- of class VI 
(§ 354) » ^re used to express the idea of comparison. 

Muci udl utamba muntu buie, the tree is taller than the man, lit. 
the tree surpasses the man in height\ muktkxi udi uhita mulumi buk&le, 
the woman is stronger than the man; Kasongo udl utamba bakuabo 
bule, Kasongo is the tallest, lit. surpasses the others in height. 

90. Certain other comparative expressions may be treated here: 

(a) Sometimes the comparative idea is expressed by using with each 
noun adjectives having opposite meaning. 

Eu mud mulhl, wawa mule, this stick is shorter than that, lit. this 
stick is short, that one is long. 

(b) The English too, meaning excess of any quality, is also expressed 
by tamba or hita, to surpass. 

Mucl udl utamba bule, the stick is too long. 

(c) The English very, modifying an adjective, may be expressed in 
several ways: 

(i) By using be after the adjective; as, mucl mule be. a very long 

(2) By use of the verbs tamba and hlta with the abstract quality 
of the adjective, as explained under § 89; as, mucl adl utamba bule, 
the stick is very long. 

(3) By elongating the last syllable of the adjective. 

(4) By repeating one or more syllables of the adjective; as, toke to, 
very white; kunze kunzu, very red. 

{d) The English as ... as may be expressed by saying that the 
quality of one thing is like the quality of another thing. 

Kutoka (infinitive) kua mukandakudl bu kua mpemba, //^ paper 
ts as white as chalk, lit. the whiteness (or the to be white) of the paper 
is like that of chalk. 

(e) The English not so , . . as is perhaps best expressed by sa3ang 
that the quality as possessed by one thing is not the same as that pos- 
sessed by another thing. 

Muntu kena bule bua muci, a man is not tall like a tree, lit. is not 
the tallness of a tree. 

(/) The English less than may be rendered in two ways: 

(i) In much the same way as not so ... as [^ 90 (e)]; as, yeye 
kena bule buTnyt, he is less tall than T, lit. he ts.not my height. 

(2) By turning the sentence around and using the simple compara- 
tive form with tamba or hlta. § 88. 

(g) Instead of the abstract noun derivative in bu- following tamba 
or hlta we sometimes have the infinitive where such a form is possible. 



Ctlulu ect cidi cltamba cfkuabo kukunza, this cloth is more red 
than the other. 


91. The Cardinal Numerals, when they are used after nouns with 
the force of adjectives, are as follows: ♦ 

1. -mue(-mo). 

2. -bidi. 

3. -s&tu. 

4. -nl. 

5. -tanu. 

6. -sambombo. 

7. IHuanda mutekete (muakun- 

8. Muanda mukulu. [yl). 

9. Citema. 

10. DIkuml. 

11. *' ne -mue (-mo). 

12. ** *' -bidl. 

17. " ** muanda mutekete. 

18. '• ** '* mukulu. 

19. ** '* citema. 

20. Makuml abldi. 

21. ** ** ne-mue(*mo) 

22. Makuml abfdi ne -bldt. 


** ne-mue(-mo). 
muanda mutekete. 

'* mukulu.- 

40. ' 

SO. ' 





100. Lukama. 

loi. ** ne -mue (-mo), 
no. ** ** dikuml. 
200 Nkama ibfdi. 
201. ** ** ne-mue(-mo) 

300. *' isfttu. 
700. " muanda mutekete. 

1.000. Cinunu. 

1.001. Cinunu ne -mue (-mo). 

1,257. Cinunu ne nkama ibldi ne makumi 

atanu ne muanda mutekete. 
2,000. Blnunu bibidi. 
10,000. Lubombo. 
20,000. Mbombo ibldi. 
100,000. Clxikulu. 

93. The cardinal numerals i to 6 are inflected and follow the rules 
of ordinary adjectives. But the numerals 7 to 10 are regarded as 
substantives, and the same is true of 100, 1000, 10,000, 100,000, with 
all the multiples of 10, 100, 1000, 10,000 and 100,000. 

Rem. i. The inflected numerals i to 6 take the secondary prefixes. 

* Observe that a hyphen (-) is placed before the inflected forms. 


Rem. 2. Dtkiimi, ten, lukama, one hundred, clnunu, one thousand, 
lubombo, ten thousand, and cixikulu, one hundred thousand, are in- 
flected according to classes V, IV, VII, IV, VII, respectively. 

Rem. 3. In the numbers 7 and 8 the word muanda is a noun (class 
II) and is followed by the adjectives mutekete, weaker, and mukulu, 
older. Sometimes after muanda in 7 we hear muakunyi, younger, 
instead of mutekete. For 9 we have citema (class VII). 

Rem. 4. The numbers 11-16, 21-26, 31-36, etc., emplo)ring the 
six inflected forms, cause these to agree with the noun expressed or 

Rem. 5. For one we have both mue and mo. 

Examples of numerals: 

Muntu umue, one person; bantu babidl, tiuo people; mlci Is&tn, 
three sticks; nsolo Inl, four fowls; mak£Ia atanu, five eggs; malaln 
asambombo, six beds; bintu muanda mutekete, seven things; bantu 
dikumi, ten people; bantu dikumi ne umue, eleven people; bantu 
dikumi ne babidl, twelve people; makeia dikumi ne muanda mute- 
kete, seventeen eggs; make la makumi abldl, twenty eggs; bantu 
nkama Is&tu ne basambombo, three hundred and six people; bantu 
binunu blbldl ne nkama tnl ne makumi atanu ne bas&tu, two thou- 
sand four hundred and fifty-three people; bantu badi dikumi, there 
are ten people. 

93. Occasionally the substantive forms dikumi, lukama, etc., employ 
the adjective phrase with -a. 

Dikumi dia bantu, ten people, lit. ten of people, 

94. By doubling the cardinal numerals we have the distributive idea 
indicating how many each time, how many to each one^ etc. 

Ta utuale blsOka blbldl blbldl, go and bring two baskets each time; 
angati blsOka, muntu blbldl, muntu blbldl, bring the baskets, each 
person two. 

Rem. The idea of each may also be expressed under certain cir- 
cumstances by ku -bldl, ku -s&tu, etc. 

Ta wangate bistkka ku blbldl, ku blbldl, go and bring the baskets 
two each time. 

This very much resembles the phrase ku dituku ku dltnku, each 
day, daily. 

95. Substantives are made from the inflected numerals i to 6. 

{a) The substantives formed according to class VI express the idea 
of both, all three, all four^ etc., used in sense of totality, these forms 
also sometimes express the idea of two and two, three and three, etc. 

Bubldl buabo, both of them; bus&tu buabo, all three of them. 

(6) The substantives formed according to class VTI express the 


idea of how many times; as, ciakamue, once; ciakabldi, second time^ 
ciakas&tu, third time, etc. 

The plurals blakabldl, biakas&tu, etc., mean two times {twice), 
three times {thrice) ^ etc. 

Rem. I. There are also heard diakamue, once; kabldl, second time; 
kas&tn, third time. 

Rem. 2. Ciahamue, clamumue and dlacimue mean at the same, 
time, simultaneously. DIakamue is also used in this sense. 

96. One withy like, the same as, identical with, etc., are expressed 
by the form -o-umue. § 77 («). 

Di diodiiimue, the identical word. 

Rem. I. Sometimes the form seems to be -o-mue. 

Rem. 2. We have the locatives mu and ku and ha, combined with 
•o-umue (-o-mue). 

Hobamue, on the same place; kuokumue, at the same place; muc- 
in umue, into the same place. This latter word is often .used in an 
adverbial sense without any apparent reference to place. 

97. In abstract counting, one, two, three, etc., it is important to 
note that -mue, one, becomes omue (or umue), and all the other in. 
fleeted .forms up to six have an i prefixed to the stem. Hence we 
say omue, ibidt, Is&tu, Inl, etc. The other numerals remain unchanged 
in abstract counting. 

Ordinal Numerals. 

98. The Ordinal Numerals 2nd to 6th are inflected as regular ad- 
jectives, taking the primary prefixes, while the substantive forms from 
7th on have an adjective phrase with -a. The form for ist also has 
this last construction. 

Rem. I. In the forms 2nd to 6th the prefix is used with the abstract 
form Ibidi, Isfttu, etc. (§ 97), while the inflected forms in the forma- 
tion of nth to i6th, 21st to 26th, etc., remain uninflected just as in 
abstract counting. 

99. Examples of ordinal numerals: 

ist. -a kumudllu; as, musambu wa kumudllu, the first hymn, lit c) 

at the front. 
2nd. -Ibldi; as, musambu muibldi, the second hymn. 
3rd. -isfttu; as, musambu muis&tu, the third hymn. 
6th. -Isambombo; as, musambu muisambombo, the sixth hymn. 
7th. -a muanda mutekete; as, musambu wa muanda mutekete, 

the seventh hymn. 
xoth. -a dikumi; as, musambu wa dtkuml, the tenth hymn. 


iith. -a dlkumi ne omue; as, musambu wa dikumi ne omue, the 

eleventh hymn. 
1 2th. -a dikumi ne ibidi; as, musambu wa dikumt ne Ibidi, the 

twelfth hymn, 
20th. -a makumi abldi; as, musambu wa makumi abidi, the twentieth 


100. The word last is expressed by the phrase -a kunxtkidiiu; as, 
musambu wa kunxikldilu, the last hymn. 


101. For the sake of convenience and custom the Pronouns may be 
classified as Personal, Possessive, Demonstrative, Relative, Interroga- 
tive and Indefinite. 

102. As may be expected, the pronouns make free use of the prefixes 
in their reference to preceding nouns, whether these nouns be expressed 
or understood. 

Personal Pronouns. 

103. By Personal Pronouns we mean all those pronominal forms 
which stand for nouns, whether these nouns refer to rational beings 
or not. 

The personal pronouns may be divided into Disjunctive and Con- 
junctive, depending upon whether the pronoun does not or does form 
an integral part of the verb as prefix or suffix or infix. 

I. Disjunctive. 

104. The Disjunctive Personal Pronouns are those which are used 
alone and are not joined directly to the verb either as prefix or sufl5x 
or infix. These Disjunctive Pronouns may be still farther subdivided 
into Simple and Compound forms. 

A. Simple Forms. 

105. The Simple Disjunctive Personal Pronouns are determined by 
the class and number of the noun for which they stand and are as 
follows: * 

* There is no difficulty about the personal pronoun forms under class I. but 
it has been hard to determine the forms for the other classes This difficulty is 
due to the fact that the forms employed are more properly demonstratives 
which will be considered later. Sometimes we hear for the personal pronoun 
construction the forms as here given for classes II to VIII, and again we find 
those mentioned under § 156. We have put these forms as given above tmder 
the head of personal pronouns, because they seem to have not so much refer- 
ence to place as to time i.e.. to a previously mentioned object; at the same 
time it must be borne in mind that there is also a demonstrative idea. Some* 
times these forms are also used as adjectives. 


Singular. Plural. 

Class I. I St pers. meme, / tuetu, we 

** I. 2nd pers. wewe, thou nuenu, you 

** I. 3rd pers. yeye, he or she bobo, they 

" IL *' ** wou (wowo), U yol (yoyo), they 

** III. " *' wewe, U yol (yoyo), they 

IV. " " luolu (luoluo), i^ yol (yoyo), //wry 

•' V. '* ** dlodl (diodio), U wowo (6), they 

VI. *• " biiobu (buobuo), U wowo (6), they 

VII. " '< elocl (cloclo), i^ blob! (bloblo), //m;^ 

** VIII. " " koko, 1^ tuotu (tuotuo), //(«)f 

Rem. I. It will be noted that the majority of the forms are made by 
prefixing the ordinary secondary prefixes to the letter o, then doubling 
the resulting form. Generally the last o is only slightly sounded, but 
it is written in parenthesis above. 

Rem. 2. We often hear wowo for wewe, ttto for tuetu, nono for 
nuenu, yoyo for yeye, which seems to indicate that these may also 
originally have been formed with the o. 

Rem. 3. In the plural of classes V and VI are found a decided w 
sound before the o, which, if written full^, would be aoao, but this 
contracts into 6. 

Rem. 4. Since there is no distinction for gender, yeye means either 
he or she in class I. 

Rem. 5. It is also important to bear in mind that there are no in- 
definite forms like the English it and they which may refer to any noun 
other than persons. The pronoun must be of the same class and 
number as the noun for which it stands. 

Rem. 6. The objective cases me^ thee, him^ her, us, you, them, it, 
when they are used absolutely, are expressed by the same form as 
those given above for the subjective cases. 

Rem. 7. The possessive case, of me (my), of thee (thy), of him (his), 
etc., is expressed by the possessive pronoun forms. See § 128, etc. 

Rem. 8. The second person singular is always used when one person 
only is meant. This principle holds good throughout the pronoun. 

106. The simple disjunctive personal pronouns are used as follows: 

(a) Absolutely or for emphasis as subject or object, very much as 
^gfff ^«» etc., of the Latin, or sometimes as moi, toi, eux, etc., of the 
French. The verb must have its regular pronominal prefix for subject 
and the infix for object in addition to the disjunctive forms. 

Wewe udi udlma? have you been working? Udl udlma nganyl? 
Bleme, who hai been working? I (have), N iambi wakunsunslla 
meme^ God has saved me. 


(6) For emphasis after the possessive form. 
Bualu buebl wewe, your own affair, 

(c) With certain prepositions. 

(i) The locatives (mu, ku and ha) stand regularly before the dis- 
junctive personal pronoun forms in all classes save the first throughout 
and the singular of class III, in which latter cases the prepositional 
phrase is expressed by prefixing the preposition to the verb dl, to be^ 
to which has previously been attached the proper personal prefix or 
suffix. Consequently we must say not lua ku meme, but lua kundi. 
come to me; not lua ku tuetu, but lua kutudi, come to us, i.e., where 
we are; ya kudlye, go to him, i.e., where he is. This construction will 
be treated more fully later. § 321. 

But we say regularly ya ku wou, go to it (muct, stick); lala mu 
diodi, lie down in it (dioa, hole). 

Note. But the most common construction here is for the locatives 
to be suffixed to the verb rather than stand before the pronoun. § 320. 

Tekamu dtk^la, put the egg in it. 

(2) Bu, like, takes the regular unchanged disjunctive forms through- 

Wewe udl bu meme, you are like me, 

107. Ne, withf andy is peculiar in that it takes not the personal 
forms after it, but the possessive (§ 128). Note the elision. There- 
fore, we have as follows: 





ist pers. 

n*lnyl, with me 

n'etu, with us 


2nd pers. 

n'ebl, with you 

n'eou, with you 


3rd pers. 

n'andl, with him, her 

n'abo, with them 


II 14 

n*au, with it 

n'al. with them 


it <( 

n*andl, with it 

ii*al, with them 



B. Compound Forms. 

108. There are two Compound Disjunctive Pronouns. They are 
constructed upon the possessive pronoun forms by prefixing nkl- and 
bl- respectively. This seems to correspond to the myself, etc.. of 
English, and it gives in inflection the same construction as ne, with. 
See § 107. 

109. The forms with nki- mean alone^ by one's self, only, etc. In 
their inflection note that y is inserted for euphony [§ 34 (a)] between 
the two vowels. We thus have: 


Singular. Plural. 

Class I. ist pers. nklylnyif by myself nklyetu, by ourselves 

* ' I. 2nd pers. nklyebl, by yourself nklyenu, by yourselves 
** I. ** " nklyandi, by himself or nlaya.hOf by themselves 


** II. " " nklyvLVLy by itself nkiy&ij by themselves 
etc. etc. 

Rem. The forms nklylnyt, etc., always follow the noun or the pro- 
noun to which they -refer; or they may follow the verb if the noun or 
pronoun is not expressed. 

Wakaya ku musoko nganyt? Heme nklylnyi, who went to the 
town? I alone; netuye nklyetu, we shall go by ourselves; lua ne muot 
nkiyau, bring only the stick. 

110. The forms with bi- are difficult to translate into English. 
Their use seems to be to give a certain roundness or smoothness to a 
sentence which would otherwise appear short and curt; besides, a 
certain emphasis is obtained which can only be appreciated after some 
knowledge of the language has been acquired. Since the ordinary 
prefixes or infixes for subject and object must also be used, it is generally 
best not to attempt to translate the forms in bl-. 

Rem. I. These forms come after the verb. 

Rem. 2. Their inflexion is exactly the same as that for nklylnyi, 
etc. (§ 109). 

Nyaya btlnyl, / am going; wakumpa bllnyt ctfulu, he gave me 
a hat; wakuhona blau, it (muci, stick) has fallen; dia biebl, eat thou 
(imperative); tuye bletu, let us go. 

111. We may sometimes hear both of these compound disjunctive 
forms in the same sentence. 

Nyaya btlnyl nklylnyt, / am going by myself, 

II. Conjunctive. 

112. The Conjunctive Personal Pronouns are those which are 
inflected directly with the verb and form part and parcel of the Verb. 
These are by far the most common personal pronominal constructions 
for subject, direct object and indirect object. They may be divided 
into Pronominal Prefixes, Pronominal Infixes, and Pronominal Suffixes. 
These are now each taken up in turn. 

A. Pronominal Prefixes. 

113. The Pronominal Prefix always stands at the beginning of the 
finite parts of the verb,' agreeing in person, number and class with the 
subject, whether the subject be expressed or simply understood. Even 


the disjunctive personal pronouns cannot take the place of the pro- 
nominal prefixes. 

Rem. I. The question may be raised as to whether these prefixes 
are properly pronouns at all, since they are in fact not much more 
than the personal endings w, s, t, mus, lis, nt^ of the Latin. The word 
pronoun, however, furnishes a convenient term by which to designate 
them, so they are thus called throughout this grammar. It is one of 
the peculiarities of the Bantu system of languages that the verb as 
well as the adjective should be made to concord with the class of the 
noun which stands as its subject. 

Rem. 2. The future indicative is the only tense whose sign comes 
before rather than after the prefixes. § 293. 

Rem. 3. The secondary prefixes are also the pronominal prefixes. 
Of course the ist and 2nd persons, sing, and pi., furnish forms not 
found under the list of secondary prefixes, since these latter are all 3rd 

Rem. 4. Note the usual euphonic changes following n, u and 1. 
§§ 27, 28, 29, 31-33. 

114. The pronominal prefixes are as follows: 

Class I. I St pers. 
** I. 2nd pers. 

'* I. 3rd pers. 

« II. ** '» 

.< Ill i. a 

<< IV. ** ** 
(( Y^ tt ti 

** VT. ** ** 

*i VIII. ** ** 

Examples of pronominal prefixes: 

Ndl, / am; iidl, you are; nyaya, he is going; wakadi, he was, in 
which the u changes to w before the tense sign aka; cifulu ciaku- 
kuluka, the hat has jalleUy in which we have cl as pronominal prefix 
+ aku as tense sign + kuluka as stem; nsolo yakufua, the jowls have 
diedy in which we have y as pronominal prefix before the tense sign 
+ aku as tense sign + f ua as stem. 

Rem. I. The negative constructions, as will be seen later, furnish 
a few exceptions to the above pronominal prefixes. § 198. 

Rem. 2. It is important to note that a sing, second person is always 
treated as a sing, and not as a pi., as has become the custom in 
English, French and German. § 105, Rem. 8. 
























116. When the verb is preceded by a prepositional phrase having 
one of the locatives (mu, ku or ha), these latter furnish the concord 
of the verb In this case the subject is placed after the verb. 

Ha mesa hadt blntu, on the table are the things; mu nsubn mudi 
bantu, there are people in the house. 

Rem. I. Sometimes the prepositional phrase is understood; as, 
kamuena bantu, there are no people in (U). 

Rem. 2. Sometimes a simple locative adverb (§ 363, etc.) furnishes 
the concord; as, aha hadt atanu, here there are five (mak^la, eggs, 

6. Pronominal Infixes. 

116. The Pronominal Infix is always found immediately before the 
stem of the verb in inflection and is used in place of the noun as direct 
or indirect object. 

Rem. I. The noun and its corresponding infix are never both used at 
the same time; in this respect the pronominal infixes differ from the 
pronominal prefixes. §113. 

Rem. 2. Throughout the pi. the pronominal infixes are the same as 
the pronominal prefixes. In the sing., however, there .are a few varia- 
tions: 2nd pers. sing, class I gives ku, 3rd pers. sing, of the same class 
gives mu, and the sing, of class III is also mu. 

Rem. 3. Observe carefully the usual euphonic changes with n, u 
and I. §§ 27-29, 31-33- 

117« The pronominal infixes are as follows: 

Class I. 

«' I. 

" I. 






" VII. 

" VIII. 

Examples of pronominal infixes: 

Wakundexa mukanda, he showed me the hook^ in which we have 
w as pronominal prefix + aku as tense sign + n as pronominal infix 
used as indirect object + dexa as stem, from lexa, to show. § 29. 

Bakulxlha, they killed them (nsolo, fowlsy understood), in which we 
have b as pronominal prefix (for ba) + aku as tense sign + 1 as pro- 
nominal infix + xiha as stem. 



I St pers. 



2nd pers. 



3rd pers. 


















Jlsus wakutufulla, Jesus died for uSy in which We have w as pro- 
nominal prefix+aku as tense sign+tu as pronominal infix+fuila as 
stem, meaning to die for. 

118« We must note here a special infix -di- which has the same 
position and construction as the pronominal infix and is used when 
the verb is reflexive, i.e., when the object of the verb is also the subject. 
This is, therefore, to be translated by myself ^ yourself^ himself ^ etc. 
This construction with -dl- also has the idea of on one's own account^ 
of one's own accord, etc. 

Wakudtt&ha, he cut himself; wakudtsua, he loves himself, i.e., is 
proud; wakudtxtnda, he fell down {of his own accord), 

119. For full conjugation of verb with infixes, see { 127. 

C. Pronominal Suffixes. 

120. The Pronominal SuflSxes are always put at the end of the verb 
and they form an integral part of the verb inflection. They are never 
used for any other than third-person nouns and cannot be used if the 
noun for which they stand is also expressed. 

131. The secondary prefixes are also the pronominal suflSxes with 
the following exceptions: 

(i) The sing, of classes I and III has -eye, which is derived from 
the disjunctive personal pronoun. 

(2) The pi. of class I has bo, which is also from the disjunctive 
personal pronoun form. 

i;S2« In inflection note that the final a of the verb root is elided 
before the -eye; as, hakuhoneye, when he fell, for hakuhonaeye. 

Rem. In the case of a few verbs ending in I, the -eye becomes -ye; 
as, ya kudtye, go where he is. 

123. The pronominal suffixes are as follows: 

Singular. Plural. 

Class I. 3rd pers. -eye -bo 

-u (-wo) -1 (-yo) 

-eye -I (-yo) 

-In -1 (yo) 

-dt (-dto) -& (-n, -wo) 

-bu -A (-U, -wo) 

-ct (-cto) -bl (-bio) 

•ka -tu 

Rem. I. Perhaps for the sake of making the sound more round and 
full, we sometimes hear the forms ending in o as indicated in parentheses. 
We may in classes V and VI occasionally hear a u without the follow- 
ing o. 


3rd pers. 









Rem. 2. The pi. of classes V and VI give regularly the suffix a, but 
this, combining with the final a of the root, would give more correctly 
an ft, and it is thus written in composition; as, blahonft, if they fall 
(mak£la, eggs^ understood). 

Rem. 3. For full conjugation of verb with pronominal suffixes, see 

§ 127. 

124. The pronominal suffixes are used under the following cir- 
cumstances and should be carefully studied, for they present some 

(a) As subject in subordinate clauses when the regular position of 
the pronominal prefix at the beginning of the sentence is taken by 
a subordinating particle such as mu-, where (in which), ku-, where 
(at which), ha-, where (on which), ha-, when^ bl-, »/» or by a relative 
pronoun used as direct or indirect object. These particles will, how- 
ever, be treated more fully later under the head of Complex Sentences. 
§ 453, etc. 

Ciena mumanye kuakuyeye, / donH know where he has gone, in 
which we have ku, meaning where + aku the tense sign + y with a of 
stem elided + eye the pronominal suffix. 

Hakuflkabo ku musoko, bakuxikama, when they reached the 
village, they sat down, in which we have h, when, with final a elided 
-faku the tense sign + flka the stem + bo the pronominal suffix. 

Tudte btdia blakutuheye, let us eat the bread which he has given 

(b) As a direct object when the verb also has an indirect object pro- 
noun which is any other than a ist pers. sing, pronominal infix. When, 
however, the indirect object is ist pers. sing, pronominal infix, the 
direct object, if a pronoun, takes the pronominal infix form and comes 
just before the indirect pronominal infix. 

Wakukuhaci, he gave tt (ctfulu, hat) to you, in which we have 
w + aku + ku as pronominal infix 2nd pers. sing. -H ha the verb stem 
-H el the suffix used as object. 

WakubahabI, he gave them (blfulii, hats) to them, in which we have 
w + aku + ba as pronominal infix 3rd pers. pi. -I- ha as stem-Hbl as 
pronominal suffix used as object. 

Bakntuheye, they gave him to us,m which we have b(a)-|-aku-|-tu 
the pronominal infix -h h(a) the stem 4- eye the pronominal suffix as 
object. Wakuclmpa, he gave it (cifnln, hat) to me, in which we have 
w+aku-f-cl the pronominal infix used as direct object + m the pro- 
nominal infix used as indirect object + pa (§ 31). 

Rem. Even in the case of the ist pers. sing, pronominal infix as 
direct object, we may sometimes have for the direct object a suffix 


rather than an infix form. Hence we may also say wakumpaci, he 
gave it to me, 

(c) As an indirect object when there is also connected with the same 
verb a direct object pronoun which is 2nd pers. sing, or pi., or ist pers. 
pi., or 3rd pers. pi. of class I. When the direct object is a pronoun 
referring to any noun other than one belonging to class I, this direct 
object becomes the pronominal suffix and the indirect object becomes 
the pronominal infix. 

Wakukuheye, he gave you to him; wakubaheye, he gave them 
to him; wakukuhabo, he gave you to them; wakubababo, he gave 
them to them; waknmuhabi, he gave them (bifulu, hats) to him; wakn- 
bahabi, he gave them (btfulu, hats) to them. 

125» In the compound tenses, i.e., those tenses formed with an 
auxiliary and a participle, the pronominal suffix comes after the auxil- 
iary. Kuakadibo badlma, where they were working. 

186. When a noun is used as subject the pronominal suffix cannot 
also be used at the same time, but this subject noun comes after the 
verb just as the pronominal suffix would do, only the noun is not in- 
flected as a part of the verb. 

Hakuflka Kasongo ku musoko, wakuxtkama, when Kasongo 
reached the village he sat down. 

Relative Position of Pronominal Infixes and Suffixes. 

127. It is important to note the relative position of the pronominal 
infixes and suffixes. In order further to illustrate the principles of 
the preceding rules [§§ 116, 117, 120 to 124 (o)-(0]» the verb, ha, to 
give, is conjugated with the prefixes and suffixes. The 3rd pers. sing, 
of the Past Indefinite tense of the indicative mood is taken, in which 
w is the pronominal prefix and aku the tense sign. Of course the 
prefix and the tense sign do not affect the infixes and suffixes. Observing 
carefully the laws of euphony, we have then the following: 

(a) Conjugation of verb with pronominal infixes: 


I. ist pers. infix wakumpa, he gave to me, or he gave me (dir. obj.) ; 








*• you 
























" a. 












*t it 












(t « 












(C « 












« « 












it '* 












tt tt 







(6) Third pers. pi. as indirect object, the other persons as direct: 

wakubampa, he gave me to them\ 

wakukuhabo, he gave you to them; 

wakubahe^e, he gave him to them; 

wakubahaci, he gave it to them; 

wakutuhabo, he gave us to them; 

wakunuhabo, he gave you to them; 

wakubahabi, he gave them to them. 

(7) When both pronouns, direct and indirect objects, belong to 
classes II to VIII, we have a paradigm for the various direct objects 
as follows [§ 124 {c)]: 


he gave if (munylnyl, meat) 

'* • ** (nsolo, fowl) 

" ** " (lukftsu, hoe) 

'* " " (dlk«la, «^^) 

'• " *' (bulaiu, bed) 

" " * (clntu, thing) 

" '* " (kasolo, small jowl) " ** 

II. wakumuhau, 

III. wakumuheye, 

IV. wakuinuhalu, 
V, wakumuhadi, 

VI. wakumuhabu, 

VII. wakuinahact, 

VIII. wakumuhaka, 

to it{mhutk^dog); 


II. wakumuhat, he gave them (minylnyi, meats) to it (mbua, dog)\ 


V. wakumuhd., ** 
VII. wakumuhabl, " 
VIII. wakumuhatu, " 

(nsolo, jowls) 
(nkAsu, hoes) 
(makj^la, eggs) 
(malalu, beds) ** ** 

(blntu, things) " " 

(fcusolo, small jowls) '* *' 

Possessive Pronouns. 
I. Simple Forms. 

188. The Possessive Pronouns are nothing more than possessive 
adjectives and they refer to nouns of any class or person or number. 

We must carefully note that each possessive pronoun has a prefix 
and a suffix. The prefix is determined by the thing possessed, the 
suffix by the person or thing possessing. 

139. The letter -a- furnishes the basis for the formation of most 
of the possessive pronouns; to this are attached the necessary prefixes 
and suffixes. 

.130. The possessive adjective pronouns use the secondary prefix 
forms for prefixes, and with some exceptions, the pronominal suffix 


forms (§ 123) for suffixes. Of course we remember that the secondary 
prefix forms furnish the basis for the pronominal suffixes. 

Rem. I. In the pronominal suffix forms, note that -eye becomes 

Rem. 2. The ist and 2nd pers. sing, and pi. of class I furnish suffix 
forms not found in the pronominal suffixes (§ 120). 

131. Possessive pronouns generally follow the noun modified, i.e., 
the thing possessed, though they may sometimes precede it. 

132. Note that for his and her we have the same form (§ 105, 
Rem. 4); also note that the 2nd pers. sing, is always used if the sub- 
ject is sing. 


. Th( 

s root 


suffix form of the 

possessive pronouns are as 







ist pers. 

-Inyl, wy, mine. 

-etu, our^ ours. 



-ebl, thy, thine, 

-enu, your, yours; 



-andl, his, her, hers 

-abo, their, theirs; 


-au (-awo), its, 

-al (-ayo) their; 


-andl, '' 

(t It 



(( (( 


-adi (-adlo),*' 

-ft (-awo, -au), ** 


-abu, ** 

It tt 


-acl(-acio) ** 

-abl(-abio), '' 

'* VIII. 

-aka, ** 

-atu, * * 

Rem. I. We find here the same forms in o and a as were referred to 
in § 123, Rems. i and 2. The a of the pi. of classes V and VI would 
naturally be written ft on account of the contraction and to prevent 

Rem. 2. In 2nd pers. sing, we sometimes hear -ebe for -ebl. 

134. Examples of possessive adjective pronouns: 

muntii winyi, my person (my slave); 

bana band I, his or her children i 

macu Inyl (§ 23), my ears, 

nsolo WAndi, his 01 her fowl; 

naolo yandl, his or her fowls; ■.(■•-■ 

nsolo yabo, their fowls; 

bule buau, its (mud, stick) length; 

bunsi bual, their (mid, sticks) number; 

bunsi buft (buawo or buau), their (mftk^la, eggs) number, 

135. The English forms mine, his, hers, yours, etc., when used as 
predicate adjective complements after some form of the verb to be, 


are expressed by omitting the verb to be and putting in its place the 
letter n, which is prefixed directly to the possessive pronoun, the latter 
agreeing regularly with the noun modified. Observe the resulting 
euphony. { 445. 

Dikftla edl ndiandl, this egg is his; nsolo eu nsulnyl, this jowl 
is mine, 

136. Note an emphatic simple disjunctive personal pronoun after 
the possessive sometimes. § 106 (6). 

Bualu buebi wewe, your business. 

137. In some cases a personal pronoun is used in Buluba-Lukia 
where a possessive pronoun is employed in English. 

Bakumusuika biansa, they tied hts hands, Ut. they tied him hands, 

II. Contracted or Enclitic Forms, 

138. In the case of certain words belonging to class 1, generally 
expressing relationship (§ 42 and Notes), the possessive pronoun 
becomes simply enclitic, and the ordinary prefixes proper to that number 
and class are omitted from the possessive pronoun, and in some cases 
the final vowel of the noun is elided before the simple possessive forms, 
all of which begin with vowels. These elisions are indicated by an 
apostrophe ('): 

z'wlnyi becomes xMnyl, my father; 
z'wetu ** x*etUy our father; 

batatu betu ** batatu'etu, our fathers; 

bamamu babo *'*&ho, their mothers; 

zakena winyi ** iLtiken'lnyi, my namesake. 

Rem. I. Sometimes the regular unelided forms may be heard also; 
as, tatu wetu, baba winyi, bababa blnyl, etc. 

Rem. 2. Coming under this same rule, so far as the sing, is con- 
cerned, are also found some other words of class 1, generally expressing 
relationship, such as muana, child, mukftxl, wifCf mukulu, elder brother, 
muakunyi, younger brother, muena, owner. Hence we say muan' 
Inyi, my child; mukfkxrandi, hts wife; mukulu'ebi, your elder brother; 
muakunyl*etu, our younger brother; muen*aci, Us owner; but we 
cannot say in the pi. ban'etu, we must say bana betu, our children; 

Rem. 3. By suffixing the inseparable muenu and ciDa to the possessive 
enclitic forms of x* and mbl respectively, we have the word for father- 
in-law and brother-in-law; as, x'aodi-muenu, his father-in-law, \ 42, 
Note 2. 

Note. The letter y as a separating consonant comes between mbl 
and the enclitic; as, mblyandi-clna, his brother-in-law, § 34 (a). 


Rem. 4. The prepositional word -a, of, must come after the enclitic 
or after the compound word in the forms above given; as, x'andl wa 
Kasonso, the father of Kasongo; x'andl-muenu wa Kaspngo, Ka- 
songo^s father-ih-law. 

Rem. 5. Note that muana combined with the sing, possessives 
means my childy your chUdy etc., while muana combined with the pi. 
possessives means generally either (i) a brother or sister , or (2) one 
of the same trtbe or family, BIuaii*eta means, therefore, our (or my- 
fellow townsman, or our (or my), fellow tribesman, or our (or my) brother 
or sister. 

Note i. The noun referred to by the pi. possessive may be sing., as 
indicated in the example just given. 

Note 2. The only way to distinguish between brother and sister is 
by using the word muluml or mukftxi; as, muan'enu makftxl, your 
sister; maan'enu muluml, your brother. 

III. Formations with Locatives. 

139. When the possessive pronoun modifies a noun which is also 
governed by one of the prepositional words mu, ku or ha, the possessive 
pronoun takes generally the agreement of the preposition. § 79. 

Mu nsubu mulnyi, into my house; ku mp&la kuandl, before his 
face, in front of him; ha mitu hetu, on our heads. 

Rem. Occasionally we hear the ordinary agreement just as if the 
preposition were not present, but this is doubtless to be explained on 
the theoiy that the speaker has more thought of the person possessing 
or of the thing possessed than of the idea of place or direction. \ 

140. By prefixing mu and ku (rarely ha) to the stems of the posses) 
sive pronouns referring to nouns of class T, we have a peculiar and 
much used construction meaning at one's house, at one's village, at one's 
home, etc. Hence mulnyl and kulnyl mean respectively in and at 
my house or home; muandt and kuandl mean respectively in an,d at 
his house or home; etc. 

Rem. I. The sing, possessive forms generally refer to the individual 
house or home, while the pi. possessive forms refer to the village. It 
is also worthy of noting that the pi. possessive forms are used when the 
village is referred to whether the person be sing, or pi. Hence muetu 
may mean either our village or my village. 

141. The above locative words come to have the force of substan. 
tives and consequently govern the concord of the sentence. § 79. 

Kuenu kudi kunyl? where is your village or home? or where do 
you live ? 

Kuabo kudl kule, their town is far away, i.e., to their town is far away* 


Rem. I. These forms are used as nounal adjectives after muena. 
inhabitant oj. \ 84 (h). 

. Muena kuetu, one from our viilage; bena kuabo, people from their 

Rem. 2. Note also the substantive forms bulnyi, bnebi, etc., when 
preceded by ha, in which case there is the meaning of in a place by 
one's self. Cf. { 186. 
. Ta ha buebl, go in a place to yourself. 

142« To the forms kuloyl, kuebi, etc. ({ 140), are prefixed mu 
and ba of class I and we have a resulting noun which means one from 
my village, one from your village^ etc. Most often the possessive pro- 
nouns take the pi. form whether one i>erson or more than one is re- 
ferred to as possessing. Thus we have mukulnyl, my fellow townsman ; 
mukuenu, your fellow townsman; mukuabo, their fellow townsman. 
We note, however, that mukuetu is often used for my fellow townsman 
rather than mukulnyi. 

Rem. Observe the different ways of saying fellow tovmsmany each 
having i>erhaps slightly different phases of meaning: muaii*etu (§ 138, 
Rem. 5); muena kuetu (§ 141, Rem. i); mukuetu ({ 142). 

Demonstrative Pronouns. 

143. The Demonstrative Pronouns are those that have reference to 
the position of the object referred to. 

144. These demonstratives may be used either as simple adjectives 
modifying the noun expressed, or as simple pronouns standing for the 
noun understood, in both of which cases the inflection is the same and 
is determined by the prefix of the noun. 

145. The demonstrative adjectives generally precede the noun modi- 
fied, though they may sometimes follow it. § 72, Rem. i. 

146. Demonstratives, as we may expect, are always third person. 

147. There are four classes of these demonstrative pronouns: 

(fl) Those indicating objects near to the speaker, corresponding to 
English thiSj these. 

(b) Those indicating objects remote from the speaker, correspond- 
ing to English that, those. 

{c) Those indicating objects near the i>erson spoken to, having no 
exact equivalent in English. 

(d) Certain emphatic forms expressed in English by here it is, etc. 

148. In the foot-note under § 105 attention has already been called 
to the forms in -0-0, which undoubtedly have somewhat of a demon- 
strative force, the idea being that of something previously mentioned 
or not regarded as present either to the speaker or to the person spoken 



to. Hence these forms in -o-o may sometimes be used in a sort of 
demonstrative adjective sense, having, however, more reference to 
time.iha,ii to place. 

I. Demonstratives Indicating Near Objects. 

149. The Demonstrative Pronouns indicating near objects and 
expressed in English by this or these are formed by suffixing to the 
letters e- or a- the ordinary secondary prefixes; e- being used when 
the vowel of the prefix is u or i, a- when the vowel of the prefix is a. 

150. The demonstratives for near objects are, consequently, as 


Sin^lar. Plural. 

Class I. eu aba 





• » 























Rem. The pi. of classes V and VI is written ft in order to prevent 
mistaking the form which is really aa. 

151. Examples of demonstratives indicating near objects: 
Eu muntu or muntu eu, this person; aba bantu or bantu aba, these 
persons; edl dtk£la or dlk£la edl, this egg; ft mak^la or mak^la ft, 
these eggs; nsolo el nyloyl, these fowls are mine {% 135). 

II. Demonstratives Indicating Remote Objects, 

162. The Demonstrative Pronouns indicating remote objects and 
expressed in English by that or those or yonder are formed by prefixing 
the secondary prefixes to the letter a, then doubling the resulting form. 
Note the euphony of u and I. 

163. The demonstratives for remote objects are as follows: 





























Rem. The pi. of classes V and VI is written ft, the uncontracteil 
form would be aaa. Only the context can show the difference between 
these and the corresponding forms for the same classes in demonstratives 
for near objects. The pronunciation is the same. Cf. § 150, Rem. 

154« Examples of demonstratives indicating remote objects: 

Wawa muntu or muntu wawa, that person; baba bantu or bantu 
baba, those persons; yaya mid or mlcl yaya, those sticks; ft makftla 
or mak£la ft, those eggs. 

155. An increase of distance is indicated by lengthening of the 
final syllable, though this is not indicated in the written form. 

lil. Demonstratives Indicating Objects Near the Person Spoken to, 

156« It is rather difficult to determine the exact idea which is in 
the mind of the native when he uses this demonstrative. At the same 
time there is a quite clear reference either to some object near the person 
spoken to, or to some object which in some way concerns that person. 
It can scarcely be translated. 

157* These demonstratives are formed by sufi^xing to the letter a 
the secondary prefixes and are as follows: 


















ft (ati) 










158. Examples: 

Mud wfrbl au neuxihe ludimuenu, that stick of yours there will 
break the mirror; lua ne dfulu act, bring the hat {near you there), 

IV. Emphatic Demonstratives, 

169. The Emphatic Demonstratives which mean here he is, here 
it w, etc., are formed for the most part by doubling the secondary pre- 
fixes and then prefixing the demonstrative particle ka- to the resulting 

Note i. The sing, of classes I and III gives kayeu, while in the 
sing, of class II we find kawowo, a more euphonic form than kauu. 

Note 2. Observe the separating consonant y in the sing, of classes 
I and III, and also in the pi. of classes II, III and IV. { 34. In 
these pi. forms of classes II, III and IV we also hear kai (kali). 


Note 3. The pi. of classes V and VI give regularly k& (kaaa). Some 
say kawowo. 

160. The emphatic demonstratives are as follows: 









kaylyi (kal) 



(« *• 



CI ( ( 



k& (kawowo) 



«( (( 







Examples of Emphatic Demonstratives: ., 
. Muntu kayeu, here is the man; makila k&, here are the eggs; kabtbt, 
here they are (btfulu, hats^- understood). 

161. The emphatic demonstrative particle ka, which must be care- 
fully distinguished from the negative ka, is often used before nouns 
or other parts of speech to which special attention is called. In such 
cases one of the regular demonstrative adjectives is generally .placed 
after the noun. 

Ka dik£la edi, here is the egg; ka dikda diadia, there is the egg; 
ka meme eu, or simply ka meme, here I am; katuye, let us go [§ 237 

(«) (5)]- 

1G2* This ka may be used before the regular demonstrative forms 
other than those given under § 160. A favorite method of expression 
is to use the ka with the disjunctive personal pronoun forms (§§ 105 
and 148), and then follow this with one of the regular demonstratives; 
as, kadiodl edt, here it is here; kadiodi adi, there it is (near you); 
kadiodl diadta, yonder it >5— dikila, egg^ being understood in each 

Demonstratives with Locatives, 

163. When a demonstrative pronoun modifies a noun which is 
itself governed by one of the locative prepositions (mu, ku, ha), the 
demonstrative takes the agreement of the locative rather than that of 
the noun. Cf. § 79. 

Therefore we have for demonstratives indicating near objects emu, 
eku, aha ({ 25); for remote objects muamua, kuakua, haha; for 
objects near the person spoken to amu, aku, aha; for emphatic ob* 
jects kamumu, kakuku, kahaha. 

Mu nsubu emu, into this house; mu nsubu inuamua, into that 


house; ku musoko eku, at this village^ ba muz<^te aha, on this hox\ 
ha muxilte haha, on that box; ku muci aku, at that tree {near you). 

Note i. The above forms are made regularly according to the rules 
for the formation of each demonstrative. 

Note 2. We also have the doubled forms munemu, here inside, 
kuneku, here at, hanaha, here on, in which the letter u is inserted as a 
separating consonant. Instead of the forms muDemu and kuneku 
we most often hear munomu and kunoku. §§ 34 {b), 25. 

Note 3. The above locative forms with the demonstratives come 
to have the force of simple adverbs of place. Hence emu, eku and 
aha. in their proper constructions, may mean here; muamua, kuakua 
and haha may mean there; amu, aku and aha may mean there {near 
you); while kamumu, kakuku and kahaha may mean here or there 
according to circumstances. 

. Lua eku, come here; teka bintn aha, put the things here; ya kua- 
kua, go yonder; lul munemu, come inside here. 

Note 4. Owing to the demonstrative idea contained in the dis- 
junctive personal pronoun forms we may also have the adverbial words 
knokuo, muomuo and hoho. § 148. 

Relative Pronouns. 

164. There is no distinct Relative Pronoun for use as subject of 
the relative clause like the who, which or that of the English; we find 
instead only the ordinary personal pronominal prefixes (§ 114) agreeing 
in number and class with the antecedent. The relative clause always 
follows the antecedent. 

Muntu wakukuluka wakuya, the person who jeU has gone; naku- 
^ha mbua wakudia munyinyi wlnyl, / killed the dog which ate my 

165. When the relative pronoun is the object, direct or indirect, 
of the verb in the relative clause, the ordinary personal pronominal 
prefixes are used as relative pronoun. The relative pronoun in such 
cases, whether it be direct or indirect object, is always immediately 
at the beginning of the verb, pY^ceding all other pronominal prefixes 
and tense signs, and is inflected as a part of the verb. 

Rem. I. When, however, the subject of the relative clause is 3rd 
pers. sing, or pi., this subject is put after the verb, and if it be a pro- 
noun, it takes the pronominal suffix form. §§ 123, 124 {a). 

Rem 2 Remember that in compound tenses when the subject of the 
relative clause is 3rd pers., this subject, whether a pronoun or a noun, 
comes after the auxiliary. § 125. 


166. Examples of relatives as objects: 

Muntu unakumona makelela wakafua, the man whom I saw 
yesterday has died, in which the first u of unakumona is the relative 

-Muci uwakutuala mulhi, the stick which you brought is short. 

Cintu ciudi utuala ndnyi, the thing which you are carrying is mine. 

Bantu baudi umona badi baya ku IbanJ, the people whom you 
see are going to Ibanj. 

Muci wakutualeye wakukuluka, the stick which he brought has 
fallen. Tuakudta nsolo ttuakuxiha makelela, we have eaten tHe 
fowls which we killed yesterday. 

Bakudia nsolo yakuxlhabo makelela, they have eaten the fowls 
which they killed yesterday. 

Nakudia nsolo yakuxiha Kasongo, / ate the fowls which Kasongo 

Bakudia kanytkma katuakuxiha, they ate the smaU animal which 
we killed. Muntu unakuha cifulu wakuya, the person to whom I gave 
the hat has gone. 

Ndi musue cifulu cidiye uluata, / want the hat which he is wearing. 

167. The English possessive whose, together with the phrases of 
which, of whom, etc., must be expressed in various ways, since there 
is no distinctive possessive relative in the Buluba-Lulua language. 
Perhaps the most satisfactory construction is the adjectival use of the 
wordmuena (pi. bena), owner. \ 84 {b). 

Bikila muena nsolo udi mufue, call the person whose fowl has died. 

Rem. We sometimes hear an awkward expression on this plan*. 
bantu ba mbuxi yabo ei bakuya, the people whose goats these are 
have gone. 

168. When the relative pronoun in English is governed by a preposi-. 
tion, this generally takes one of three constructions upon being trans- 
lated into Buluba-Lulua: 

(a) When the antecedent is governed by one of the locative words 
(mu, ku, ha), the locative furnishes the relative and stands in place 
of it at the beginning of the verb; this is true only when the same loca- 
tive which governs the antecedent also governs the relative pronoun. 

Tumbele, tudl mu nsubu mOdi.ulala, the peanuts are in the house 
in which you are sleeping. 

Rem. Observe that when the locatives thus stand at the beginning of 
the verb the subject, when 3rd pers., takes the pronominal suffix forms. 
§ 123. Ndi nk£ba bintu bid! ha muxilte hadiye uxikama, / am 
looking for the things which are on the box on which he is sitting. 

(6) On the other hand, if the locative word governing the antecedent 


is different from that governing the relative word, or if there is no locative 
word used before the antecedent and there is one in the relative clause 
in English, then there is no locative word used at all in the relative 
clause, only the relative pronoun proper to the antecedent is found. 

Ndi nk£ba btntu bldl mu miix6te udiye uxtkama, / am looking 
for the things which are in the box on which he is sitting. 

Ctena mumone nsubu ndlye mnlale, / have not seen the house in 
which he slept. 

Lua nd muxSte wakadt mnkilxl mnxtkame, bring the box on which 
the woman has been sitting. 

(c) When the preposition with governs the relative pronoun in 
English, this idea is expressed in Buluba-Lulua by using the ordi- 
nary relative pronoun proper to the antecedent, with this followed 
in the same clause by ne and the possessive form as described in $ 107. . 

Muntu unakuya n'andt ku IbanJ wakafua, the person with whom 
I went to Ibanj has died. 

Kakndia nsolo yonso yakuliia n'al Kason^, I have eaten all 
the fowls which Kasongo brought, lit. which came with them Kasongo, 

169. Sometimes the antecedent is omitted, in which case we have 
the Indirect Question construction. Cf. $ 472. 

Wakudia blakumuhabo, he ate what they gave him (bint a, things^ 

Rem. Under this head may properly be placed the locatives prefixed 
directly to the verb without any antecedent and answering the question 
where? ^ i.e., in, at or on which place, but this is reserved for another 
section. § 321. 

170. For the compound relative words whoever, whosoever, what' 
ever, etc., meaning everyone who or everything which, we generally find 
onsb, all, every, followed by the relative clause. 

Wakukuma bonso bakulua ha buthi n'andi, he struck whoever 
came near him; ndt musue btntu bionso biwampa, / want whatever 
you will give me. 

171. The negative in relative clauses is formed on the same prin- 
ciple as the negative of the present subjunctive, except that some form 
of di (to be) instead of ik&ta (to be) is generally used with the negative 
auxiliary 1. Cf. §§ 305, 225. 

Cifulu ciudi kui mutuale nclnyi, the hat which you did not bring 
is mine. 

Muntu unakadi ct mumone wakafua, the person whom I did not 
see died. 

Tusuasua bintu blakadiye kai mutuale, we want the things which 
he did not bring. 


Wakalaa ne btntu bind! ct musue, he brought the things which I 
do not want, 

Ndt musue kutangila muntu udl kai mulue, / want to see the 
person who did not come, 

Ndl musue cifulu cidl kact clliie; / want the hat which did not 


178, The future tense in relative clauses is also generally formed 
on the plan of the subjunctive, there being something of a contingent 
idea. $ 306 (e). 

Funda blnta biwaya n'abl ka IbanJ, write down the things which 
you wUl take to Ibanj, 

Rem. The future negative in relative clauses is formed after the 
manner of the negative of the present subjunctive, except that di {to 
be) instead of Ikftla {to be) is used with the negative auxiliary I. § 171. 

Kufundl blntu bid! kut uya n'abl ku Luebo, don't write down the 
things which you will not take to Luebo, 

Interrogative Pronouns. 

173» Sonie Interrogative Pronouns are declinable, others are not 
In any case the interrogative word, whether used as subject or object 
or modifier, almost invariably comes last in the sentence. 

Rem. I. KI (5 176) comes after the word modified, whether that word 
comes at the end of the sentence or not. Munyl (§ 177) sometimes 
comes first in the sentence. The interrogative word when used as 
indirect object may come just after the verb followed by thte direct 
object (§ 468, Rem. i). 

Rem. 2, When the . interrogative word as subject comes last, the 
verb takes the same prefix which it would do were the interrogative at 
the beginning of the sentence. 

The more important of the interrogative words and phrases are now 
taken up. 

174. Nganyi? who? whom? The pi. is banganyi. This in- 
terrogative refers only to persons. 

Wakuya nganyi? who went? 

Wakuya ne nganyl ? whom has he gone with ? 

Bakumut&ha banganyi? who (pi.) struck him? 

Rem. I. This is the regular form used in asking a person his name. 

IMna dlebl nganyl 7 what is your name ? Ijt. your name is who ? 

Rem. 2. The possessive whose ? is expressed by -a nganyl ? or the 
pi. -a banganyl? 

Clf alu cia nganyl 7 whose hat ? 


175. Cinganyl? what? The pi. is blnganyl. 

These forms, having reference only ter inanimate things or irra- 
tional creatures, are used most frequently in asking such questions as 
what is it? what are they ? 

Bet ncinganyi ? what is this thing ? 

Ebi mblnganyl ? what are these things ? 

Udl utuala blnganyi ? what things are you carrying ? 

Rem. I. Cinyl (pi. blnyl) is often used instead of clnganyt, espe- 
cially in the Applied Form of the verb, to express what for ? why ? § 328. 

Nudi nusnila baalu boa Nsambt einyi? what do you wish God's 
palaver for ? 

Rem. 2. Sometimes we hear simply ct (pi. bl) for cinyt or cinganyi. 

Rem. 3. Cinganyl and its equivalents are used in asking the names 
of things. 

Dlna dlacl nclnganyl ? what is its name ? Cf. § 174, Rem. i. 

176. KI ? what ? what kind ? which ? 

This word is indeclinable and always follows a noun. It may not, 
therefore, necessarily come last in the sentence. 

Muntu Id ? what or which person ? or what kind of a person ? 

Ngangate blntu Id ? what kind of (or which) things shall I get ? 

Nsungule clfuln Id ? which hat shall I choose ? 

Clfulu Id olakukuluka, cikunse Inyl eitoke? what hat fell, the red 
one or the white one ? 

177. Munyl? blxi? what? what is the matter? 
These words are uninflected. 

Wakuamba munyl ? what did he say ? 
Aha munyl ? what is the matter here ? 

Rem. These are more properly adverbs having the meaning of haw? 
how much ? how many ? in what way ? etc. See { 420. 

178. Nga? how much? how many? 

This word is an interrogative adjective and takes the secondary 
prefixes. § 68 (i). 
Bantn banga? how many people? 
Mlcl Inga ? how many sticks ? 

179. The various interrogative words meaning where, when, whence, 
whither, why, etc., used in direct and indirect questions will be taken 
up later under adverbs and conjunctions. 

Indefinite Pronouns. 

180. Under the name Indefinite Pronouns are grouped certain 
classes of words which, by derivation or by use, have a likeness to pro- 


nouns. Most of them are used as adjectives or as adjective preposi- 
tional phrases or as simple substantives. 

I. Words of Number and Quantity. 

These are expressed in English by many, jew, all, boih, every, much, 
each one, nothing, plenty of, etc. 

181. -a bungl, ngia-ngi, ngi, many, mtich. 

The form ngi is inflected as an adjective; the same is true of ns^ia- 
ngl, but note in the latter case that the prefix of the noun comes before 
both ngia and ngi; the -a of the phrase -a bungl is the inflected preposi- 
tion meaning of. 

Ba bungl bakulua, many came (with bantu, understood). 

Adl a bungi, there are plenty (mak£la understood). 

Bangia-bangl bakafua, many {peopU) died. 

Bintu blngl, many things. 

183. Onso, all, entire, whole, every, each, any. 

This word is inflected as a simple adjective, taking secondary prefixes. 
§ 68 (J). 

Bonso bakuya, all (bantu) have gone-, yonso yakafua, they have 
all (nsolo) died. 

Rem. The substantive form of onso followed by the possessive ad- 
jective pronoun has the meaning of all of them, in which case the verb 
takes not the prefix of buonso, as might be expected, but the pretix 
corresponding to the noun or pronoun referred to by the possessive 

Buonso buabo bakuya, all of them (bantu) have gone-, buonso 
buetu netuye, all of us will go. 

Note i. Following this analogy we have the construction for both, 
all three, all four, etc., referred to under § 95 (a). 

Note 2. Onso is also used to express any, any one you choose, any- 
thing, whatever, whoever, used generally in pi. where in English a sing, 
is most commonly found. Cf. § 170. 

Ndl musue bintu blonso blwampa, / want whatever you will give 

183. Nya-nya (§ 76), few. 

The same idea may also be expressed by b&le, kise and Ihl. These 
words are all adjectives belonging to different dialects and in the sing, 
mean small or short. 

Nzambi neasungule banya-banya, God will choose a few (bantu 
understood); nendale ku IbanJ.matuku mihl, / shall stay at Ibanj a 
• few days. 


184* Hatuhu, M and dnana mean nothing, none, far nothing. 
These forms are indeclinable. 

Ndi hatuhu or ndl M or ndt cinana, I have nothing or none. 
Rem. The same words preceded by -a mean of no account, worthless-^ 
as, muntu wa hatuhu, a worthless person, 

II. Distributives, 

These are expressed in English by each, other ^ some, others, the one . . . 
the other, another, of one kind , , . of another kind, etc. 

185. Kuabo . . . kuabo and nga . . . nga, the one , . , the other, 
some . . . others. These words are inflected as simple adjectives. 

Atukuabo wakuya, mukuabo udl ux&la, one {person) has gone, the 
other is staying. 

Bakudla makftla makuabo, bakuha balunda babo makuabo, they 
ate some of the eggs, the others they give to their friends, 

Bangra bakuitabuza Jisus, banga bakumuhldia, some believed on 
Jesus, others rejected him. 

Rem. Kuabo and nga, when not used distributively, express the idea 
of another, others. 

Nak^la cikuabo, / have bought another (cifulu understood). 

186. The combination ha bu- means of its kind, of one kind , , , of 
another kind. 

The bu- is inflected with the possessive pronominal forms. 

Eu muct nha buau, eu nha buau, this stick is one kind, this one 
is another kind, i.e., a different kind. For nha, see { 445. 

Edi dik<^la nha buadt, diadia nha buadi, this egg is of one kind, 
fhat one is of another kind. 

Rem. This is apparently the same construction as that referred to 
under { 141, Rem. 2. 

187. For the construction of each when distribution is meant, see 
§ 94 and Rem. 

III. Miscellaneous, 

188. In English there are certain reciprocal pronominal words, such 
as each other, one another. These are expressed in Buluba-Lulua by a 
verbal suffix angana, which will be treated later. § 340. 

Bakusuangana, they love each other; bad! bafuanangana, they are 
like each other. 

189. The English they, one (French on), used as indefinite subject, 
is expressed bv means of the simple 3rd pers. pi. pronominal prefix 
of class I, having bantu understood. This is also a very common 
construction for expressing the English passive voice. § 202 (a). 

VERBS. 57 

Bad! bamba ne, ''Kasongo ulualua/' they say that Kasango is com- 

Bakuxlha mbuzl kudt Kasongo, the goat was killed by KasongOy lit. 
they killed the goat by Kasongo. 

Rem. In such expressions as he is the one, that is the one, etc., use 
the simple disjunctive personal pronouns. § 105. 

Preliminary Observations. 

The inflection of the Verb, though apparently difficult on account 
of the varying pronominal prefixes and other euphonic changes, is 
nevertheless essentially simple in itself, for it is remarkably regular, as 
may be seen after the principles have been once comprehended. 

190* The root, or simplest form, of the verb is found in the 2nd 
pers. sing, imperative mood. This root, with very few exceptions, ends 
in a. To this simple form are prefixed the various tense and mood 
signs, and the pronominal prefixes and infixes. To this root are added, 
as occasion demands, certain suffixes which indicate various modi- 
fications of the radical idea of the verb. To this simple form the pro- 
nominal suffixes are also attached. We have, then, such simple verb 
stems as dila, cry, ya, go, lua, come, xlkama, sit down. 

Rem. I. The final a suffers change which we shall see later. So we 
should say that the unchangeable stems in the verbs just given are 
dtl, y, la, xikam. 

Rem. 2. In the Vocabulary the root and not the infinitive is given. 

191. There are five moods: the Imperative to express command, the 
Infinitive to express the abstract notion of the verb root, the Indicative 
to express simple affirmation or denial, the Subjunctive to express certain 
conditional or contingent ideas, the Purportive to express end or pur- 

193. The participles are adjectives in construction, are used mostly 
in the formation of comix>und tenses, and agree in inflection with the 
noun or pronoun to which they refer. 

193. The simple tenses are those formed directly on the root of the 
verb, without the aid of any auxiliary verb; as, wakuha, he gave; 
bakuluangana, they fought. 

194. The compound tenses are those formed with a participle and an 
auxiliary verb. In this case it must be borne in mind that the auxiliary 
is the real verb, the added participle, which must always agree in number 
and class with its subject, being only a verbal adjective; as, wakadi 


mulale, he had been lying down; udi ufunda mukanda, he is writing 
the letter, 

195. The verb agrees by means of its personal pronominal prefixes 
(§ 114) in person, number and class with its subject. These prefixes 
are the same for all moods and tenses, save in certain negative forms. 
The usual laws of euphony in all cases need to be carefully observed. 

Negative Constructions. 

196. The negative forms are quite different in many cases from 
the aflteiative; to such an extent is this true that some Bantu gram- 
mars make this difference the basis for two conjugations. Owing to 
these differences the afl&rmative and the negative forms are given side 
by side in the paradigms. 

197. The common negative particle is ka-, which is always found 
prefixed at the beginning of the verb, preceding all other pronominal 
prefixes, infixes and tense signs. In compound tenses it is prefixed to 
the auxiliary. 

ExCEP. I. In class I, ist pers. sing, and 2nd pers. sing., the nega- 
tive is cl- and ku, respectively, instead of ka- and the regular prefixes. 

ExCEP. 2. In 3rd pers. sing, of classes I and III the pronominal 
prefix u- is omitted after the ka-; be careful to note the elisions that 

198. The negative pronominal prefixes are, therefore, as follows: 




i I. 

ist p. 



2nd p. 




ka- or k- 



kau- or kaw 

kal- or kay- 


ka- or k- 

(< it it 



(< tt it 













Rem. I. The forms k-, kaw- and kay- result from the laws of euphony 
when the regular prefix is followed by a vowel. §§ 23, 27, 28. 

Rem. 2. The final a is considered as elided before all forms beginning 
with a save in the pi. of classes V and VI, where it is written ft, whether 
the form begin with a or not. 

199.. In cases where the copulative predicate is omitted the negative 
is simply kan- prefixed directly to the noun or other part of speech. 
5 445, Rem. 5. • 

VERBS. 59 

Cintu eci kandik^ia, this thing is not an egg) clfulu aci kanclnyi, 
that hat is not mine. * 


200. Verbs in the Active Voice are the regular forms and present 
no peculiarities in inflection. Such verbs may, as occasion demands, 
be transitive or intransitive. 

201* By means of certain suffixes added to the verb root, a modifi- 
cation of meaning takes place corresponding to the Middle Voice idea 
of the Greek. This form is neither active in the sense of its subject 
performing an act, nor is it passive in the sense of its subject being the 
recipient of an act from anything external, but it is between the two. 
The verb in this case supposes that an internal agent exists, or that 
the condition came about naturally without any external agent.^ At 
the same time it expresses an active condition or state or result, which 
is attributed to the subject itself. This neuter or stative or middle 
voice form is obtained b> suffixing -uka to the verb root after dropping 
the final a. 

Wakuandamuka, he has turned around] mulondo wakucibuka, //^ 
jar has broken) mbuxt wakuh&tuka, the goat has gone out. 

Rem. I. These middle voice forms are treated as intransitives in the 

Rem. 2. There is nearly always a corresponding active transitive 
form having the suffix -una or -ula or ->ola; as, wakuandamuna nsubu, 
he has turned the house around) wakueibula mulondo, he has broken 
the jar) wakuh&tula mbuxi, he has driven out the goat. 

Rem. 3. The middle voice forms are inflected exactly as the active 

Rem. 4. Sometimes the suffixes -ika and -ma seem to be used in the 
middle voice sense; as, mucima winyl wakuhandika, my heart has 
split, i.e., / am very much frightened) nakusokoma, / hid myself. 

202. The Passive Voice may be expressed in several ways: 

(a) By the indefinitie 3rd pers. pi. active voice (§ i8g), thus avoid- 
ing the passive construction, which is used much less frequently than 
in English. When the agent is mentioned this is preceded by the 
prepositional word kudi, by. 

Bakuziha mbuxi, the goat has been killed, lit. they have killed the 

Bakuxiha mbuxi kudi Kasongo, the goat has been killed by Kasongo 

{b) By the various tenses of the verbs meaning to be used as auxil- 
iaries with the passive past participle. The participle then becomes 
only an adjective taking the ordinary primary prefixes. It will be 
noted that this construction conforms to the English passive. Cf, § 251, 

6o VERBS. 

Ndi mut&ha, / am {have been) struck. 

Nsolo Idi mlzlha, Uie chickens are killed. 

Kasongo ndi mut&ha kadi Kabata, Kasongo was struck by Kahata, 

Rem. It is very important to note here the difference between the 
primary and the secondary prefixes with the participle. As we shall 
see later ({{ 244 and 252), the secondary prefixes make the verb active. 
Hence udi mat&ha means he is struck, but udi ut&ha means he struck. 

{c) By use of the suffix -ibua added to the verb root. It is interest 
ing to note that, like the middle voice forms, this also has the regular 
active voice inflection throughout. Hence the word kut&hlbaa means 
to be struck. The form is active, but the meaning is passive. 

Udi at&hibua, he is being struck; udi mat&hlbue, he has been struck, 

Ulu wat&hlbua, he is always getting struck. 

Utadi nt&hlbua, you are about to be struck, 

Neat&hlbue, he wUl be struck. 

Z03. For the sake of comparison, note the three voices on the same 

Active: waknelbula mnel, he broke the stick. 

Middle: maei waknclbuka, the stick has broken. 

Passive: mnei wakuclbtboa, the stick has been broken. 

:304« These middle and passive voice forms will be treated again 
under Derivative Verbs. §§ 341-345. 

Auxiliary Verbs. 

205* The Auxiliary Verbs are those used to aid in the formation of 
certain tenses. The majority of these are somewhat irregular and 
defective. Some of the more important of them are now given. 

Rem. There are no auxiliaries corresponding to our have and had — 
these are expressed either by one of the forms to be given below or by 
the past tense signs. 

I. Dl, to be. 

206* The root of this word was perhaps originally la which under 
the influence of i has become d. 

Rem. a form having the root ena and taking the regular negative 
prefixes is used as the present tense negative of dt. 

207. This verb, which is found only in the past tense (affirmative 
and negative) and in the affirmative present, is used in the formation of 
the following tenses in the indicative mood: Present Progressive, 
Present Perfect Progressive, Past Progressive, Past Perfect Progressive. 

In addition to these it also furnishes through ena the negative of 
certain other tenses: Present Imminent, Second Present Actual, Present 

VERBS. 6l 

Repetitive, Past Repetitive, Future and Future Imminent. It also 
furnishes the auxiliary for formation of the Past Tense Subjunctive. 

Present Tense. 

Appirmatxvb. I Nbgativb. 

208. Formation: pro. prefiz+di. 209. Formation: neg. pro. prefix 

I +eiia. 

Past Tense. 

310. Formation: pro. prefiz+ 
aka the tense sign+di. 

311* Formation: neg. pro. prefix 
+ aka the tense sign+dl. 

II. Cidi, to be, 

212* Perhaps the original root was eila, but this has become eidl 
under the influence of I. 

Rem. a form having the root eena and taking the regular negative 
prefixes is used as the present negative of cldi. 

213* This verb, which is found only in the past tense (affirmative 
and negative) and in the affirmative present, is used in the formation 
of the First Present Actual tense, indicative mood. 

Rem. Sometimes the past tense of cldi is used as auxiliary, making 
much the same sense as the past progressive. 

Present Tense. 
Appirmativb. I Nbqativb. 

214* Formation: pro. prefix + 215* Formation: neg. pro. prefix 
eldl. * + eena. 

Past Tense. 
Appirmativb. Nbgativb. 

218. Formation: pro. prefix + 217* Formation: neg. pro. prefix 

aka the tense sign + cidl. + aka the tense sign + cldi. 

III. Tadl (or Kadi), to be about to. 

218* The stem of this verb was perhaps tala or tana. 

Reic. z. The Baluba say kadi and the Bena Lulua tadi — the latter 
is used in the paradigms. 

Reic. a. We find on this root only the present affirmative; the nega^ 
tive is expressed on the root ena. § 206, Rem. 

Appirmativb. I Nbgativb. 

219. Formation: pro. prefix + I 220* Formation: usetheneg.! 

tadi. I 


321. This auxiliary is used in the formation of the Present Immi- 
nent and the Future Imminent tenses, it is also used much as the verb 
dl, to he, when not employed as auxiliary. 

IV. TvL^tohe (habitual). 

332. This word is used only in the formation of the Present Habitual 
tense and has only the present tense, affirmative and negative. 

Present Tense. 

223* Formation: pro. prefix +tu. 

224. Formation: neg. pro. prefix 
+ tu. 

V. The Negative I, not to he. 

22Sm This form seems to be found only in the present negative and 
is used by the Baluba sometimes in place of the negative ena ({ 206, 
Rem.). It is specially used in formation of the negative in the Present 
Subjunctive in conditional sentences and in the negative of relative 

Present Tense. 

226. Formation: neg. pro. prefix +!. 

VI. Ik&la, to he, 

227. This verb is regular throughout and is used in some places 
where di is defective; especially is this true in the formation of the 
Present Subjunctive and the Future Indicative. 

Biwik&la muana wa Nzambt, Nsambt neakusungile, if you are a 
child of God, God will save you. 

Blwenza nunku, newik&le ne bualu, if you do thuSy you will he in 

228. The verb anaa followed by the infinitive means to have just 
done) the negative has the idea of not to have yet done. 

Wakuanza kulua, he has just come; kena muanze knlna, he has 
not yet come. 

VTI. Other Auxiliary Words and Constructions, 

229. Quite a list of verbs and verbal combinations are used in an 
auxiliary sense, followed most often by the infinitive mood or by the 

VERBS. 63 

purportive. These must be learned mostly from experience, as only 
the more important ones can be mentioned here. 
230. The English ca», be able, etc., may be expressed in several ways: 

(i) By the auxiliary di followed by mua and in&iitive. 

Ndl mua kum^ma mux^te, / can lift the box. 

(2) By the verb mona followed by mua and the infinitive. 
Ndi mona mua kumSma muxite, / can lift the box, 

(3) By the verb mtinya followed by mua and the infinitive. 
Ndi mumtlnye mua kum^ma mux^te, / can lift the box. 

Rem. There seems to be some 'difference between mona and mtlnya; 
the former has more the idea of physical, the latter of mental, ability. 

231* The English may, meaning permission, is expressed by the 
purportive mood. § 312 (6). 

232. For the English must and ought no satisfactory equivalents 
have yet been found in the Buluba-Lulua. The same can perhaps be 
said of most other Bantu languages. This seems very unfortunate, for 
these words are so forceful in English. It is also interesting to note 
that such equivalents are also wanting in the Hebrew. Wherever the 
word must occurs in the English translation of the Old Testament, it 
represents merely some idiomatic expression conveying that meaning. 
In Buluba-Lulua these ideas must be expressed by the simple tense forms. 
Perhaps the phrase bualu bukHle, followed by the Causative Form 
(§ 333> etc.) of the verb, will express the idea of must with some accuracy; 
in the same way we may use bualu butmbe or bimpe, followed by the 
infinitive, for ought, 

233. Note these words which are generally followed il construction 
by the infinitive: banga, begin to; dlanjlla, be first to; hansa, fail 
to; sua, want to; mona, finish (to). 

Rem. The word lua, go to, often expresses a future idea, just as in 
English we say / am going to do. The Second Present Actual is a 
favorite tense in this construction; as, ulualua kusungula bantu 
bandi^ he is going to choose out his people. 

Formation of Moods and Tenses with their Uses. 

It will prove helpful to study these moods and tenses, as they are 
explained, in connection with the paradigms. § 318. 

Further study and investigation will undoubtedly reveal additional 
tenses and verbal forms and combinations, but certainly the more 
common and useful are given below. 




I334. The simple Imperative forms have only the present tense, 
affirmative and negative, and their uses are the same as in English. 


235* Formation: 

(a) The 2nd pers. sing, is the 
simple stem of the verb. 

(b) The 2nd pers. pi. is formed 
by changing final a of the stem 

Z3S. Formation: 

(a) Second pers. sing, is formed 
by prefixing ku to the stem 
and changing final a to L 

Rem. I . When the verb stem 
ends in la, we have simple i 
resulting after the addition of 
1 of the negative imperative; 
hence kudll becomes kudl, 
don't eat. 

Rem. 2. When the verb stem 
ends in ua, we have left simply 
D, the I of the neg. being 
omitted; as, kulu, don't come, 
for kulul. 

Rem. 3. When the verb ends 
in na, y is inserted after the 
n upon addition of the neg. 1 
[§ 34 (a), Rem. ; as, kusunyl 
ml, don't carry water, for ku- 
sunl ; kuclnyl, don't be afraid, 
for kueinl. 

(b) Second pers. pi. neg. is 
formed thus: ka+nu + stem 
with final a changed to I. 

Rem. In the case of verbs 
ending in la, ua and na, see 
i 236 (fl), Rems. 1-3. 

!^7* Some peculiar imperative constructions must be noted: * 

(a) Ku is added to the stem sometimes for emphasis, especially in 

2nd pers. sing, affirmative 

Taku, go, be gone, or don't be afraid to go; ambaka, speak, 

(b) In many cases, especially atter verbs of motion, where in 

English the two verbs are imperative, the Buluba-Lulua puts 
one in the imperative and the other in the purportive mood. 

VERBS. 6$ 

Ta uxihe nsolo, go and kill the fowl. 

Lua undeze makila, come and show me the eggs, 

(c) The Hortative Imperative idea is expressed io several ways: 

(i) For ist pers. pi. we generally find a form made thus: ist pers. 
pro. prefix + root with final vowel changed to I. 

Tuyl, let us go^ tudlml, let us work, 

(2) There is also a common hortative following the analogy of 

i »37 (»). 
Lua tuye, come (sing.)» let us go; Im tuye, came (pl.)> ^ ^^ go, 

(3) We may have the simple ist pers. pi. purportive mood, which 

seems to correspond to the Latin amemus, let us lave; as, 
tuye, let us go, 

(4) The purportive mood is also used to express the hortative 

idea in 3rd pers. sing, and pi. 

Alue, let him came; balue, let them come. 

(5) In view of § 161 we may have the emphatic prefix ka with 

ist pers. pi. purportive mood; as, katuye, let us go, 

(6) We may also have the emphatic suffix ku corresponding to 

i 237 (a) i as, tuyaka, let us go, 

(d) There is also heard a weaker imperative form expressing a 

simple wish. This is found in 2nd pers. sing, and pi., and 
corresponds to these forms found in the present subjunctive. 
{ 306 (c), Rem. 2. 

Waya blebl bimpe, go well, good journey to you, 
Nnalala btenu bimpe, sleep well. 


238« The Infinitive is formed by prefixing ku to the stem. 

239. Remembering that the infinitive is the abstract idea of the verb 
and consequently in most cases is a noun, we find the most common 
uses of the infinitive to be as follows: 

(a) It may be used as subject of the sentence; as, kuamblla bantu 
baknabo bualu bna. Niambi kudi kuhlta kuxlkama 
dnana, to tell other people the palaver of God is better than to 
sit idle. 

66 VERBS. 

(b) It may be used as part of an adjective phrase [§ 87 (/)]; as^ 

bintu bia kudia, things to eat; mbuxl wa kfkla ulualua, a 
goat to buy is coming; luvu lua mbua kudlla, a trough for 
dogs to eat out of. 
Rem. I. Note the locative: forms corresponding somewhat to the 
forms mentioned in iSy{d) and Rem. 1. 
Ndi nk^ba kua kuteka hintu, I am looking jot d place to 
put the things^ I am looking where to put the things. 
Rem. 2. Also note mua with infinitive after constructions meaning 
to know how tOy to be able to, etc. § 230. 
Ciena mumflnye mua kusonga buatu, / don*t know 
how to make a boat. 

(c) It may be used adverbially to modify the predicate in expressing 

end or purpose; as, bakuya kuluangana nvita^ they have 
gone to fight. 

(d) It may be used as direct object; as, ndl musue kuya ku IbanJ, 

/ want to go to Ibanj. 
{e) It may be used as complement of the predicate modifying the 
subject. Cf. kuflta under § 239 (a). 

S40« It is important to note that the use of the infinitive in English 
does not always correspond to its use in the Buluba-Lulua. The 
different uses in the two languages must be learned by experience, re- 
membering that the infinitive is more common in English. As a general 
rule, which will cover the majority of cases, we may say that when the 
subject of the first verb is also the subject of the second, the infinitive 
is used for the latter; when, on the other hand, the subjects of the two 
verbs are different, the purportive mood is used with the latter. §§461, 

Ndl musue kuya, I want to go; bakuya kuluangana, they have gone 
to fight; ndl nkdba muntu aye ku Luebo, / am looking for a person 
to go to Luebo. 

Rem. There is also heard in this connection a peculiar construction 
in which the infinitive is used even when its subject is different from 
that of the leading verb. Sometimes the infinitive seems to take here 
the pronominal sufl5xes. 

Lua ne bia mulunda wlnyl kudla (or kudieye), bring something for 
my friend to eat. But the most common way of saying this is lua ne 
bia kudia mulunda winyl adie. 

241. The infinitive may take all the ordinary concomitants of the 
verb, such as direct object, indirect object, prepositional phrases, etc. 

VERBS. 67 


242. The Participles, which are used for the most part as verbal 
adjectives in the formation of compound tenses ({ 194), agree in number 
and class with the suDJect or word to which they refer; ' the present 
participle also agrees in person. 

Rem. Note that the participles take all the usual concomitants of 
the verb, such as direct object, indirect object, prepositional phrases, 

243. There are three participial forms: the Present Active, the P^st 
Active and the Past Passive. 

/. Present Participles, 

344. The Present Participles are formed by prefixing the ordinary 
pronominal prefixes of all classes, numbers and persons directly to the 
stem of the verb, but before the pronominal infix if one is used. 

345. The present participles are used in the formation of the follow- 
ing tenses, all in the indicative mood : Present Progressive, First Present 
Actual, Present Imminent, Present Progressive. 

Rem. Observe the use of the present participle as predicate adjective 
after other words than those meaning to be. 

Udl wenda uzobela, he walks limping. 

246. When n of ist pers. sing, is prefixed directly to the stem, it is 
necessary to note carefully the resulting euphony. Some examples are 
here given to refresh the memory: 

(a) When the stem begins with h, the n becomes m and the hap. 

Ndi mpa mukOxi lueho, I 4im giving the woman some salt (from 
the stem ha). 

(() When the stem begins with I, this letter becomes d. § 29. 
Ndi ndexa, I am showing (from the stem lexa). 

(c) When the stem begins with a vowel, the n becomes ng. § ^^. 
Ndi nsamba, I am speaking (from the stem amba). 

Ndi ngenza, I am making (from the stem enza). 
Ndi nglmAna, / am standing (from the stem Imlkna). 

(d) When the initial letter of the stem is b or p, the n becomes m. 

Ndi mb&la, I am counting (from stem b&Ia). 

68 VERBS. 

{e) When the stem begins with m or n, the n of the pronominal 
prefix is elided. { 33, Rem. a. 

Ndl mona, 7 am looking; ndl nna ml, I am drinking water, 

Z47* The same rules hold good for the use of n when it comes before 
the pronominal infixes. 

Ndl mumona, I am looking at him (for nmumona); ndl nmnona, 
I am looking at you (for nnumona); ndl mbamona, / am looking at 
them (for nbamona); ndl ngomona, / am looking at it (for numona, 
with a noun in the sing, of class II understood); ndl nslmona, / am 
looking at them (for nimona with a noun in the pi. of class II under- 

248. The above rules apply equally regularly in the future indicative 
and in the purportive mood, where we also have an n prefixed either 
immediately to the stem or to the pronominal infix if one is employed. 

II. Active Past Participles. 

240* The Active Past Participles are formed thus: primary ad- 
jective prefixes + stem with final vowel change to e. 

Hence we have mulue, from Imlua, to come; mndime, from kndlma, 
to work. Observe that the infinitive sign ku is elided. 

Rem. Note that the active past participles do not indicate the person 
of the subject; they all have the third person form. If the subject 
belongs to class I, ist pers. sing, or 2nd pers. sing., the participle takes 
mu; if the subject belongs to class I and is ist pers. pi. or and pers. 
pi., the participle takes ba. 

250. The active past participles are used in the formation of the 
Present Perfect Progressive and Past Perfect Progressive tenses of the 
indicative mood. 

Rem. It must be borne in mind that some verbs, though passive 
in meaning, are active in form. Cf. { 30a (c). 

III. Passive Past Participles. 

951 • The Passive Past Participles are formed thus: primary ad- 
jective prefixes + stem. 

Hence we have mut&ha, from kut&ha, to strike; muhanda, from 
kuhanda, to split. 

Rem. Note that the passive past participles, following the analogy 
of the active past participles, do not indicate the person of the subject- 
Apply the principles of { 249, Rem. p 

VERBS. 69 

252* The passive past participles are always transitive verbs used 
with some part of the verb $0 be to express the idea that the subject 
has been acted upon. The auxiliary may be present tense, but the 
participle is always past in significance, in fact nothing ^ore than the 
predicate adjective. 

Mud udt mnclbula, the stick is (has been) broken; bintn bldl 
bluvua kadi Kabata, the things have been washed by Kabata, 

253* It is very important to note here the difference between the 
two past participles, active and passive, when they are used as pure 
verbal adjectives. The active past participle is used when the verb is 
intransitive or middle voice in meaning; the passive past participle is 
used when the verb is transitive and an agent can be employed. {§ 85, 

Muntu mufae means a dead person, one who has died (intransitive). 

Muntu mut&ha means a wounded person, a person who has been 
struck by another (transitive). 

Muct muclbuke means a broken stick, from the intransitive or middle 
voice verb kuclbuka, which means to break of its oivn accord; on the 
other hand mucl muclbula means a broken stick, from the transitive 
verb kuclbula which means to break. 

254* There are two rarer partidpal forms, one used in the formation 
of the Present Habitual tense, indicative mood, the other in the forma- 
tion of the Future Imminent tense of the same mood. The letter a 
prefixed to the root is the sign of the Present Habitual tense form, while 
the Future Imminent form has as sign the letters aku. The first of 
these takes the ordinary pronominal prefixes corresponding to the 
person, number and class of the subject; the second form takes also 
the same prefixes save in class I, where u(w) is found throughout in the 
sing, and ba throughout in the pi. See {{ 268, 269, 296. 


255^ The names given to the tenses are more or less arbitrary — ^in 
fact some difficulty has been found in getting suitable names — but 
those have been adopted which, either from usage or from the ordinary 
meaning of the word, would convey some idea of the import of the 

Some tenses of the indicative mood are simple, others are compound. 

§§ i93» 194. 
T)xe uses of this mood are in general the same as in English. 

70 VERBS. 

Present Progressive. 

256. Formation: pres. tense of 
auxiliary dl followed by 
pres. participle. 

257» Formation: pres, neg. of 
auxiliary ena followed by 
pres. participle. 

258. The Present Progressive tense is used to indicate continuous 
or progressive action or being in present time, without any idea as to 
when the action began or when it will be completed. 

Udl udlla, he is crying; udi ulua, he is coming. 

Rem. I. There is also to be observed a strong tendency to throw 
the future back into this present tense form; in fact the negative of 
the future is always the negative of the present progressive tense. § 294. 

Rem. 2. Several other tenses which lack a regular negative seem to 
use the negative of the present progressive, such as the present imminent, 
the second present actual, the present repetitive and the future immi- 
nent. Perhaps, however, it would be more correct to say that these 
tenses form their negative with the auxiliary ena. 

Present Perfect Progressive. 


260. Formation: pres. neg. of 
auxiliary ena followed by 
active past participle. 

259. Formation: pres. tense of 
auxiliary di followed by 
active past participle. 

261* The Present Perfect Progressive denotes a finished or com- 
pleted action which has just been going on within the present time 

Ndl mudile, I have been crying (to-day, for example, but am not 
crying now), 

Udl mnlue, he has come (i.e.» he has been coming to-day^ hut is not 
coming now, for he has already arrived). 

First Present Actual. 

262* Formation: pres. tense of 
auxiliary idi followed by 
pres. participle. 

263. Formation : pres. tense neg. 
of auxiUary cidi followed 
bv pres. participle. § 212, 

264. The First Present Actual tense denotes that the action is 
actually in progress at the moment of the speaker's utterance. 
Rem. It is difficult to distinguish clearly between the rst pres. 



actual and the second pres. actual and the pres. progressive, for the 
latter, as has been seen, also indicates an action which is in progress 
at the moment of the speaker's utterance. The present progressive, 
however, may often indicate a state rather than an action at the moment. 
For example, udl udila may mean that / am tn the crying way cr state 
(as is the native custom upon the death of a friend), but perhaps not 
actually crying at this moment. On the other hand, ncldl ndila can 
only mean / am crying at thts momenL 
For use of second pres. actual see below. 

Second Present Actual. 

The neg. of pres. progressive 
is used as neg. of second 
present actual. 

/365* Formation, pronominal pre> 966i 
fix + stem + stem. 
Rem. Note that only the pure 
stem is r peated; as, ndom* 
balomba, / am begging (from 
the stem lomba). 

367. The Second Present Actual is used much as the first present 

Rem. I. The second present actual is used mostly with monosyllabic 
verb stems, though polysyllabic stems are sometimes found to take 
this tense also, as, ulualua, he is coming, from the root lua; ndiadia, 
/ am eating, from diaj utuatua, she is pounding, from tuaj ngen- 
denda, / am going, from stem enda (note ng and the elision of final 
a of stem before e). 

Rem. 2. Sometimes this second present actual has a future significa- 
tion, very much as in the English sentence / am going Uhmorr<fW\ 
for this the Baluba say nyaya makelela« 

Present Habitual.* 

368. Formation: pronominal pre- 
fix +tu, followed by a par- 
ticipial word formed as 
follows: pronominal prefix 
+ a the tense sign + stem. 

!S69. Formation : neg. pronominal 
prefix + tu, followed by a 
participial word formed as 
indicated under § 268. 

* Sometimes this Present Habitual tense idea is expressed by the use of a verb 
ya followed by the infinitive. To the word ya are prefixed directly the ordinary 
personal pronomina! prefixes, as.nya kunaa makanya. / smoke tobacco, ciya 
kunua makanya / don'tsmoke tobacco. 

72 VERBS. 

270* This tense is used to denote present habitual or customary 

Mtu nsalamba bidia, I cook food (that b my business or work). 
Citu nganua makanya, I donH smoke tobacco, i.e., it is not my custom. 

211* The letter g is inserted between n and a in first pers. sing. 

Past Indefinite. 
Apfirmativb. > Nboativb. 

272. Formation; pronominal pre I 973. Formation: neg. pronominal 
fiz+aku the tense sign+ prefix +aku the tense sign 

stem. \ + stem. 

274. The Past Indefinite is the common tense for indicating simple 
completed action in past time, without any special reference to near- 
ness or remoteness in the past. It seems to correspond very nearly 
to the Aorist of the Greek. It is to expressed in English according 
to circumstances, either by the simple past tense, such as he loved, 
he went, etc., or by the present perfect tense, he has loved, he has gone, 
etc. Only the connection can determine wuich English tense to use. 

Wakuya, he has gone, he went; wakudlla, she has cried, she cried, ' 

275. For the omission of the g in ist pers. sing, affirmative see 
} 33, Rem. i. 

Past Perfect. 

276* Formation : pronominal pre- 
fix +aka the tense sign 

277* Formation : neg. pronominal 
prefix +aka the tense sign 
+ stem. 

278« The Past Perfect tense is used to denote an action that was 
completed before some other action or event took place. This action 
or event need not always be expressed, but it is understood in the 
mind of the speaker. There is also the thought of the action being 
completed or done once for all, irrevocably. 

This tense is liable to be confused with the past indefinite. Perhaps 
an example will illustrate, in a general way, the difference: wakuya 
(past indefinite), he has gone, he went, without any thought of a con- 
comitant event; wakaya (past perfect), he had gone {before you came), 
or he has gone (and there ts no recalling him), 

279* For the omission of g in ist per. sing, affirmative see ) 33. 
Rem. I. 

VERBS. 73 

Past Progressive, 

980. Formation: past tense of 
auxiliary dl followed by 
present participle. 

981 • Formation: neg. past tense 
of auxiliary di followed by 
present participle. 

282« The Past Progressive tense denotes an action as having been 
going on in past time, as progressive, but is now completed and was 
completed before the time limit of the present was reached. WakadI 
udlla, he was crying. 

283. This tense is easily confounded with the present perfect pro- 
gressive. This latter tense, however, is used of completed action 
within the present time limit, whereas, as has been stated, the past 
progressive is used of completed action before the present time limit. 

WakadI udila, he was crying (e.g., yesterday) j udi mudlle, he 
has been crying (e.g., to-day) 


284* Formation: past tense of 
auxiliary dl followed by 
past active participle. 

Past Perfect Progressive. 

285. Formation: neg. past tense 
of dl followed by past 
active participle. 

286. The Past Perfect Progressive is used to indicate an action 
as going on before some other action in past time took place. See 

1 283. 

"WakadI mudlle, he had been crying. 

Present Repetitive. 

287. Formation: pronominal pre* 
fix + stem. 
Note. The form must be re- 
peated once or twice. 

288. No distinct neg. for this 
tense. Perhaps the neg. of 
the Present Progressive 
could be used, if ever 

289. The Present Repetitive tense expresses repeated action in 
present time or a succession of similar acts performed by different 
persons or things. 

Nsolo yinyl Ifua Ifua, my fowls die and die, i.e., they are dying one 
at a ttmc. 



Nkuna nkuna mamina^ kena am^na, / plant and plant the seeds, 
they do not sprout, i.e., / ant continually planting. 

Rem. This tense (with the form used only once) may perhaps also 
have the sense of a general or universal present. 

Past Repetitive, 

]S90. Formation : pronominal pre- 
fix + a the tense sign + 
Note. The form must be r e - 
peated once or twice. 

291. No distinct neg. for this 
tense. Perhaps the neg. 
of pres. perf. progressive 
could be used, if ever 

292, Th^ Past Repetitive is used to express repeated action in 
past time or a succession of similar acts performed in past time by 
different persons or things. 

Ngakuna ngakana mamlna, kena mam^^ne, / planted and planted 
the seeds, they have not sprouted, 

Mbuxl yandl yafua yafua, his goats died and died. 

Rem. This tense (with the form used only once) may perhaps also 
have the sense of a general or universal past. 

293« Formation: tense sign ne + pronominal 
prefix + stem with final a changed to e. 
Note i. This is the only case in which the 
tense sign comes before the pronominal 
Note 2. The pronominal prefix of 3rd pers. 
sing, of classes I and III is a instead of u. 
Note 3. Some seem to make the tense sign 
na (nga) throughout instead of ne. 



There is no dis- 
tinct future 
form for the 
neg. When 
needed, use 
neg. of pres. 

295. The Future Tense corresponds almost exactly to the future 
of the English, the only difiference being that the Buluba-Lulua does 
not use the future form so frequently, the present progressive being 
employed in its stead, or the infinitive moo after the verb kulua, 
to come, § 233, Rem. 



Future Imminent. 

No distinct neg. for this 
tense. The neg of pres. 
progressive can be used, if 

296. Formation: pres. tense of 297. 
auxiliary tadi followed by 
a participial form con- 
structed as follows: second- 
ary prefix +aku the tense 
sign -I- stem. 
Note i. The for n following the 
auxiliary is participial in its 
inflection and is so treated. 

Note 2. In class I note the pre- 
fix a(w) throughout in the 
sing, and b(a) throughout in 
the plural. 

298. The Future Imminent is used when an action is represented 
as liable to happe i or about to happen or is impending. 

There is some danger of confusing this tense with the present immi- 
nent, but the latter always means that which is just about to be done 
or to happen, within the present time limit, while the future imminent 
is more indefinite as to the time limit. Two examples will illustrate: 
ntadi nya, / am about to go (spoken by one who has been sitting near 
you just as he rises to go); lufu lutadi luakulua, death is impending 
(may come any time). 

Present Imminent. 

300. No distinct neg. form. Use 
neg. of pres. progressive. 

299. Formation: pres. tense of 
auxiliary tadl followed by 
pres. participle. 

301. The Present Imminent tense is used to indicate an action 
as just about to take place within the present time limit, and is to be 
expressed in English by about to or going to. § 298. 

302. For the use of kadi instead of tadl, see { 218, Rem. i. 


303. The Subjunctive mood is used in certain conditional or con- 
tingent clauses, though not in all conditional clauses. 

76 VERBS. 

Present Tense. 

305* Formation: regular affinna- 
tive pres. subjunctive of 
ikftla (§ 227), followed by 
present tense of auxiliary 
verb I (J 225), followed by 
past active participle. 

304. Formation r pronominal pre 
fix+a the tense sign 
+ stem. 
Note i. Because of the subor 
dinating particles bi- and 
ha- which are usually em- 
ployed with this tense, the 3rd 
pers. prefi es are seldom used. 
i 124(a). 
Note 2. For omission of sin ist 
pers. affirmative and negative, 
see § 33, Rem. i. 

306. The Present Subjunctive is used as follows: 

(a) In the protasis of present general conditional sentences, taking 
the subordinating conjunctive prefix bi-, if. { 459 (a). 

Blwikftla muana wa Niambi, kuena mutvi, if you are a chUd of 
God, you donH steal, or are not a thief, 

(b) In the protasis of future conditions, taking also the subordinating 
conjunctive prefix bi-, if. § 459 (p). 

Blwadlma bimpe, nenkuhe lukama lua mlbela, if you work welly 
I shall give you one hundred cowries. 

(c) In the various subordinate clauses introduced by the subordi- 
nating conjunctive prefix ha- (or hu-), meaning when^ after^ until, 
all having a more or less future or contingent idea. § 458 (a) (c). 

Hawalua nenkuhe lukama lua mlbela, when you come (after you 
come), I shall give you one hundred cowries. 

Rem. I. Sometimes the subordinating particle is omitted, but it 
may be understood; as, nendue ngondo walua, I shall come next 
month, i.e., when the moon comes. 

Rem. 2. Under this same head may be noticed the weak impera- 
tive forms referred to under § 237 {d); as, blwasua kumpa, wampa, 
if you wish to give me, give me (i.e., if you choose), 

(d) In certain contingent clauses expressing the idea of if you choose, 
where you choose, etc.; as, teka clntu hawateka, put the thing where 
you choose. 



Rem. Note that the Locative Prefixed form is used in such cases. 
i 321. 

(e) In relative clauses with a future or contingent idea; as, funda 
bintu biwaya n'abl ku IbanJ, write down the things which you will 
take to Ihanj, Cf. { 172. 

Past Tense, 

307. Formation: past tense of 
auxiliary dt followed by 
infinitive mood. 

308. Formation: past tense neg. 
of di followed by infinitive 

309. The Past Subjunctive is used in the apodosis of past or im- 
possible conditional sentences. { 459 (c). 

Bu wewe rnulne luklksa, Lasalus kakadl kufua, if you had come 
quickly, Lazarus would not have died, 

Bu nuenu badlme bimpe, nakadt kunuha lukama lua mibela, 
if you had worked well, I would have given you one hundred cowries. 

Rem. The same tense is sometimes used in neg. past tenses with 
munyl? why? { 420 (6), Rem. 2. 


Present Tense. 

311. Formation: neg. pronominal 
prefix + stem with final a 
changed to e. 

310. Formation: pronominal pre- 
fix + stem with final a 
changed to e. 
Note.. In 3rd sing, of classes I 
and III the u beco 1 es a. 

313. The Purportiye mood, which, as far as investigated, seems to 
have only one tense, is used quite extensively to express various rela- 
tions, the most common being that of end or purpose, which fact fur- 
nishes the name for the mood. The most common uses of this mood 
are as follows: 

{a) To express end or purpose, generally rendered into English by 
in order that, that, so that, to with the infinitive mood, lest, in order that 
not, etc. § 461 and Rem. 

Lua ne bldla, mulunda winyl adie, bring the bread that my friend 
may eat. 
Ndt nk£ba mantu aye ku IbanJ, I am looking for a man to go to 


78 VERBS. 

Ndi ntenga buteya, nkuate mpuku, / am making a trap in order 
thai I may catch some rats. 

Tula cikuku, kaclt&he bantu ku makflsa, pull up the root that it 
may not strike people on the feet. 

(6) In asking permission, or in inquiring as to ihe desirability of 
doing something. These ideas are most often expressed in English 
either by the future indicative or by may or shall and the in6nitive. 

Tub&le mlbela? shall we count the cowries? 
Nye 7 may I go? 

(c) In the expression of various imperative ideas, especially the 
hortative. § 237 (&) and (c) (3) (4). 


313« In addition to the above moods and tenses there are two pecu- 
liar negative tenses which it may be as well to group together. One 
of these we shall call the Munyl Negative, the other the C! Negative. 
The first of these is thus called because it is always found with munyl ? 
why {not)? The other is so called because ci is its tense sign. 

Rem. Just as we have found some tenses used only in the aflfirma- 
tive with no distinct negative, so here we find negatives with no dis- 
tinct aflfirmatives. 

The Munyi Negative. 

314. This tense form, which is found only in the negative, is made 
thus: neg. pronominal prefix + stem with final a changed to I. 

Note Verbs ending in la, ua and na have the same changes here 
as were indicated in the neg. imperative, § 236, Rems. 1-3. 

315. This form is used after munyl? why (not)? { 420 (ft). 
Munyl kuyl 7 why donH you go ? 

Munyl Vudimilwhy donH you work? 

The CI Negative. 

316. This tense form, which is found only in the negative, is made 
thus: neg. pronominal prefix +cl the tense sign + stem with final 
a changed to I. 

Note. Verbs ending in la, ua and na have the same changes here 
as were the neg. imperative. § 236, Rems 1-3. 

317. This tense is used as a sort of half command and half ques- 
tion, especially when it is used in 2nd and 3rd persons. In the ist 
pers. it has an affirmative significance, though a neg. form. 



Kuciblkldi Kasongo, call Kasongo, or why don't you call Kasongof 
or ij you have not called him^ do so. 
Katuciyi, let us go^ or why not go ? 


318. Below are given the various Mood and Tense forms, first of 
the Auxiliary verbs and later of the verb suina, to bite. These should 
be carefully studied and incessantly practised, for the success or failure 
of speaking the language depends upon the degree of accuracy with 
which the verbal inflections are used. 

A. Auxiliary Verbs. 

I. Di (neg. ena), to he. 
Present Tense — I aw, etc. 








I St p. 





2nd p 





3rd p. 



































( < 









Past Tense— 7 


was, etc. 









I St p. 





2nd p 

. wakadi 



3rd p. 

, wakadi 



































kak di 






II. Cidi (neg. cena)) to be. 
Present Tense — / am, etc. 








ist p 


















































Past Tense — / 

waSf etc. 








ist p. 





and p. 













































III. Tadi (or Kadi), to be about to. 
Present Tense — I am about to, etc. 





















For neg. use the root ena, 




the pres. neg. of di. 




§ 318, A I. 















IV Tu, to be (Habitual). 
Present Tense — I am, etc. 



Affirm A TiVB. 
SingxUar. Plural, 
p. ntu tutu 



utu nutu 




utu batu 
utu Itu 


utu itu 


lutu Itu 


ditu atu 


butu atu 


cttu bitu 


katu tutu 
























V. Negative I, noi to be. 
Present Tense — / am not, etc. 








ist p. ct 
2nd p. kut 
3rd p. kat 












B. Paradigm op Regular Verb Suma, to bite, 

I. Imperative Mood. 

Present Tense — Bite thou, etc. 


Singular. Plural. 

2nd p. suma snml 

Singular. Plural. 

kusuml kanusumi 

n. Infinitive Mood. 

Present Tense— r<? Wte. 




III. Participles 

(a) Active. 

Present Tense— 


Past Tense^Having bitten. 






I St p. nsuma 




2nd p. usuma 




3rd p. usuma 











































(6) Passive 



Past T^nsc—BiUen, 





p. musuma 



p. musuma 




< ( 



























IV. Indicatwe Mood. 

(a) Present Progressiv Tens - 

-/ am biting, eU 






ISt p. ndl 


tudi tusuma 

2nd p. udi 


nudi nusuma 

3rd p. udi 


bad! basuma 


** udi usuma 

idi isuma 


•' udi 


Idi Isuma 


" ludi lusuma 

Idi Isuma 


" didi disuma 

adi asuma 


" budi busuma 

adi asuma 


'" cidi cisuma 

bldi bisuma 


' ' kadi kasuma 

tudi tusuma 


(6) Present Perfect Progressive Tense — / have biUen, etc. 









ctena nsuma 

katuena tusuma 



kuena usuma 

kanuena nusuma 



kena usuma 

kabena basuma 


kawena usuma 

kayena Isuma 


k na usuma 

kayena isuma 


kaluena lusuma 

kayena isuma 


kadtena disuma 

kena asuma 


kabuena busuma 

kena asuma 


kaclena cisuma 

kablena bisuma 


kakena kasuma 

katuena tusuma 







ndi musume 

tudi basume 

2nd p. 

udi musume 

nudi basume 



udi musume 

badi basume 


udi musume 

idi misume 


udi musume 

idi misume 


ludi lusume 

idi misume 


didi disume 

adi masume 


budi busume 

adi masume 


cidi cisume 

bidi bisume 


kadi kasume 


tudi tusume 





Ciena musume 

katuena basume 



kuena musume 

kanuena basume 



kena musume 

kabena basume 


kawena musume 

kayena misume 


kena musume 

kayena misume 


kaluena lusume 

kayena misume 


kadle a disume 

kena masume 


kabuena busume 

kena masume 


kaciena cisume 

kabiena bisume 


kakena kasume 

katuena tusuma* 



(c) First Present Actual — / am now bUingy etc. 





1st p. 

ncidi nsiima 

tucldi tusuma 

and p. 

ucidt usuma 

nucidi nusuma 

3rd p. 

ucidl usuma 

bacldi basuma 


uctdi usuma 

IcidI isuma 


uctdt usuma 

IcidI isuma 


lucidl lusuma 

icidi isuma 


dicldi disuma 

acidi asuma 


bucldi busuma 

acidi asuma 


cicidi cisuma 

bicidi bisuma 


kacidl kasuma 


tucldi tusuma 




ist p. 

ctcena nsuma 

katucena tusuma 

2nd p. 

. kucena usuma 

kanucena nusuma 

3rd p. 

kacena usuma 

kabacena basuma 


kaucena usuma 

kaicena Isuma 


kacena usuma 

kalcena Isuma 


kalucena lusuma 

kaicena isuma 


kadlcena disuma 

kftcena asuma 


kabucena busuma 

kftcena asuma 


kacicena cisuma 

kabicena bisuma 


kakacena kasuma 

katucena tusuma 

(d) Second Present Actual — I am bUing, etc. 






ist p. 



2nd p. 



3rd p. 






Use neg. of Prese 
gressive. § 
IV (a). 











bu sum asuma 






§ 318 B 



(e) Present Habitual— 7 bite, etc. 







ntu nsasuma 

tutu tuasuma 



utu wasuma 

nutu nuasuma 



utu wasuma 

batu basuma 


utu wasuma 

Itu yasuma 


utu wasuma 

Itu yasuma 


lutu luasuma 

Itu yasuma 


ditu dlasuma 

atu asuma 


butu buasuma 

atu asuma 


cltu ciasuma 

bttu blasuma 


katu kasuma 


tutu tuasuma 





cltu ngasuma 

katutu tuasuma 



kutu wasuma 

kanutu nuasuma 



katu wasuma 

kabatu basuma 


kautu wasuma 

kaltu yasuma 


katu wasuma 

kaitu yasuma 


kalutu luasuma 

kaitu yasuma 


kaditu diasuma 

kAtu asuma 


kabutu buasuma 

k&tu asuma 


kabitu blasuma 


kakatu kasuma 

katutu tuasuma 

(/) Past Indefinite—/ bU, etc. 








ISt p. 








ku akusuma 











kayak usuma 

















buakusuma akusuma 

kabuakusuma kAkusuma 



bi akusuma 









(g) Past Perfect—/ had bitten, etc. 

Singular. Plural. 

I. ist p. nakasuma tuakasuma 
2nd p. wakasuma nuakasuma 
3rd p. wakasuma bakasmna 
II. *' wakasuma yakasuma 

III. ** wakasuma yakasuma 

IV. ** luakasuma yakasuma 
V. ** diakasuma akasuma 

VI. ** buakasuma akasuma 

VII. ** ciakasuma biakasuma 

VIII. '* kakasuma tuakasuma 

Singular. Plural. 

ciakasuma katuakasuma 
kuakasuma kanuakasuma 
kakasuma kabakasuma 
ka wakasuma kayakasuma 
kakasuma kayakasuma 

kaluakasuma kayakasuma 
kadiakasuma k&kasuma 
kabuakasuma kAkasuma 
kaclakasuma kabtakasuma 
kakakasuma katuakasuma 

{h) Past Progressive — I was biting, etc. 

ist p. nakadl nsuma 
2nd p. wakadi usuma 
3rd p. wakadi usuma 


wakadi usuma 


wakadi usuma 


luakadt lusuma 


diakadi disuma 


buakadi busuma 


clakadi cisuma 
kakadi kasuma 



ist p. 

clakadi nsuma 

2nd p. 

kuakadi usuma 

3rd p. 

kakadi usuma 


kawakadi usuma 


kakadi usuma 


kaluakadt lusuma 


kadiakadi disuma 


kabuakadi busuma 


kaclakadl cisuma 


kakakadi kasuma 

tuakadt tusuma 
nuakadi nusuma 
bakadi basuma 
yakadi Isuma 
yakadi isuma 
yakadi isuma 
akadi asuma 
akadi asuma 
btakadt bisuma 
tuakadi tusuma 

katuakadi tusuma 
kanu akadi nusuma 
kabakadi basuma 
kayakadi isuma 
kayakadi Isuma 
kayakadi Isuma 
k&kadi asuma 
kablakadi bisuma 
katuakadi tusuma 



(j) Past Perfect Progressive— 7 had been biting, etc. 





ist p. 

nakadi musume 

tuakadi basume 

2nd p. 

«rakadi musiune 

nuakadi basume 

3rd p. 

wakadi musume 

bakadi basume 


wakadi musume 

yakadl mlsume 


wakadi musume 

yakadl mlsume 


luakadi lusume 

yakadl mlsume 


diakadi disume 

akadl masume 


buakadi busume 

akadl masume 


ciakadl cisume 

biakadi blsume 


kakadt kasume 


tuakadi tusume 




ist p. 

ciakadl musume 

katuakadl basume . 

2nd p. 

kuakadi musume 

kanuakadl basume 

3rd p. 

kakadi musume 

kabakadl basume 


kawakadi musume 

kayakadl mlsume 


kakadi musume 

kayakadi mlsume 


kaiuakadi lusume 

kayakadl mlsume 


kadlakadi disume 

kftkadl masume 


kabuakadl busume 


kaciakadi cisume 

kabiakadi blsume 


kakakadi kasume 

katuakadl tusume 

(7) Present Repetitive — 7 keep biting and biting, etc. 






ist p. 

nsuma Qsuma 

tusuma tusuma 

2nd p. 

usuma usuma 

nusuma nusuma 


3rd p. 

usuma usuma 
usuma usuma 

basuma basuma 
isuma Isuma 

Use neg. of 
Present Pro- 


usuma usuma 

isuma isuma 


lusuma lusuma 
disuma disuma 

isuma isuma 
asuma asuma 

§ 318 B IV 


busuma busuma 

asuma asuma 


cisuma clsuma 

bisuma bisuma 


kasuma kasuma 

tusuma tusuma 



(k) Past Repetitive—/ kept biting and biting, etc. 


ngasuma ngasuma 

I. ist p. 
and p. 

3rd p. wasuma wasiima 
II. ** wasuma wasuma 

III. " wasiima wasnina 

IV. '* luasuma luasuma 
V. " dlasuma dlasuma 

VI. *' buasuma buasuma 
VII. '* clasuma clasuma 
VIII. '* kaauma kasuma 

tuasuma tuasuma 
nuasuma nuasuma 
basuma basuma 
yasuma yasiinia 
yasnma yasuma 
yasuma yasnma 
asiima asuma 
asuma asuma 
blasoma blasoma 
tuasuma tuasuma 


Use generally 
neg. of Pres. 
Perf. Pro- 
J 318 B IV 

(/) Future—/ shall bite, etc. 

I. ist p. nensume 
and p. neusume 
3rd p. neasume 
















Use neg. of 
Pres. Pro 
J 318 B IV 

(ffi) Future Imminent — / am about to bite. 



I. xst p. ntadi wakusuma 

and p. utadt wakusuma 

3rd p. utadi wakusuma 

n. *' utadl wakusuma 

III. " utadl wakusuma 

IV. " lutadi luakusuma 
V. " dltadi diakusuma 

VI. *' butadi buakusuma 
VII. " cttadi clakusuma 
VIII. ** katadl kakusums 

tutadi bakusuma 
nutadi bakusuma 
batadi bakusuma 
Itadl yakusuma 
Itadl yakusuma 
itadl yakusuma 
atadi akusuma 
atadi akusuma 
bitadi blakusuma 
tutadi tuakusnma 


Use neg. of 
Pres. Pro- 
{ 318 B IV 



(«) Present Imminent- 

-/ am just about to bite, 







ist p. 

tutadi tusuma 

2nd p. 

utadi usuma 

nutadi nusuma 


3rd p. 

utadi usuma 
utadi usuma 

batadi basuma 
Itadi isuma 

Use neg. of 
Pres. Pro- 
f 318 B IV 



utadi usuma 
lutadi lusuma 

itadi isuma 
Itadi isuma 


ditadi disuma 

atadi asuma 


butadi busuma 

atadi asuma 


bitadi bisuma 


katadi kasuma 

tutadi tusuma 

V. Subjunctive Mood. 
Present Tense— (//) / bite, 






ist p. 



2nd p. 



3rd p. 






























ZSt p. nsrikftla ct musume 
2nd p. wikftla kui musume 
3rd p. wikftla kai musume 
'* wikftla kawi musume 
" wikftla kai musume 
" lulk&la kalui lusume 
" dikftia kadi disume 
" bulkftia kabul busume 
" dk&la kaci cisume 
" kik&la kakai kasume 

tulkftla katui basume 
nuik&la kanui basume 
bik&la kabai basume 
yikftla kayi misume 
yikftla kayi misume 
yikftla kayi misume 
Ik&Ia kfti masume 
ik&la kfti masume 
blkftla kabi blsume 
tulkftla katui tusume 

♦ Though the Pres. Subjunctive forms are nearly always found with the sub- 
ordinating prefixes bl. if ha. when. etc.. with the consequent pronominal 
suffixes in all 3rd person forms, yet the pronominal prefixes are used in the 
paradigm. . Compare § 306 (c) Rems. x and a. 




Past Tense — / would have biitetty etc. 



I. ist p. nakadi kusuma 

2nd p. wakadi kusuma 

3rd p. wakadi kusuma 

II. '* wakadi kusuma 

III. '* wakadi kusuma 

IV. *' luakadi kusuma 
V. ** diakadi kusuma 

VI. '* buakadi kusuma 
VII. " ciakadi kusuma 
VIII. " kakadi kusuma 

tuakadi kusuma 
nuakadi kusuma 
bakadi kusuma 
yakadi kusuma 
yakadi kusuma 
yakadi kusuma 
akadi kusuma 
akadi kusuma 
biakadi kusuma 
tuakadi kusuma 

I. ist p. ciakadi kusuma 
2nd p. kuakadi kusuma 
3rd p. kakadi kusuma 
II. '* kawak'adi kusuma 

III. *' kakadi kusuma 

IV. ** kaluakadi kusuma 
V. " kadiakadi kusuma 

VI. " kabuakadi kusuma 
VIL " kaciakadi kusuma 
VIII. " kakakadi kusuma 

katuakadi kusuma 
kanuakadl kusuma 
kabakadi kusuma 
kayakadi kusuma 
kayakadi kusuma 
kayakadi kusuma 
kftkadi kusuma 
kftkadi kusuma 
kabiakadi kusuma 
katuakadi kusuma 

VI. Purportive Mood, 
Present Tense — Thai I may bite, etc. 








1st p. 





2nd p. 





3rd p. 











































The Peculiar 


(a) The Munyl Negative— 

Why don't I hitefy etc. 




ist p. 



2nd p. 



3rd p. 
























The CI 

1 Negative— P^Ay don't I hUef, etc. 




ist p. 



2nd p. 



3rd p. 

























319. The locatives, mu and ku and ha, when inflected with the 
verb, need careful study, for they are of frequent occurrence. The 
locatives may be either suffixed or prefixed directly to the verb. 

I. The Locatives Suffixed. 

330. The locatives are suffixed directly to verbs, affirmative and 
negative, when there is the idea of place expressed or understood in 
the sentence. In such cases the locative is to be translated by in it, 
in them, at it, at them, on it, on them, thither, within, wUhotU, hence, 
thence, hither, etc. 

RzM. I. The locative word to be employed depends upon the loca- 
tive expressed or understood in the course of the conversation. 


Rem. 2. In compound tenses the locatives are suffixed to the par- 
ticiple rather than to the auxiliary. 

Rem. 3. Observe that hu is preferred to ha as the suffixed form. 

Examples of locative suffixed: 

Ndimu, / am in {U); ndiku, I am at («<); ndlhu, I am on (U). 
Cifulu cidi ha mesa? cidihu, is the hat on the table? it is on (it). 
Wakuxikama mu nsubu? nakuxikamamu, did you sit in the house? 
I sat in (it). 

Wakayaku/^ has gone to it (thither). 

Lua ne cisflka, ngrelemu [§ 312 (a)] blntu, bring the basket in order 
that I may put the things in it. 

Kehaku, he is not here, or is not there. 

II. Locatives Prefixed. 

321. The locatives are prefixed to the finite parts of the verb, not 
to participles or infinitives. They are thus used in many kinds of 
subordinate clauses expressing place, especially in indirect questions 
and in relative clauses which in English are introduced by where, 
whither^ whence, whereon, wherein, etc., in which the antecedent with 
its governing locative is unexpressed, but understood. Cf. § 169, Rem. 

Ndi mflnya kuakukulukeye, / know where he fell. 

Kena mumflnye hanakuya, he does not know where I went. 

Undexe hakueitekeye, show me where he put it (cifulu, hat). 

Ciena mumftnye mudiye, / don*t know in what (e.g., house) he is. 

Wakumona hadi bakflzi badima? have you seen where the women 
are working ? 

Tumbele tuakadl muakulaleye, the peanuts were (ifi the house) in 
which he slept. 

Rem. I. Note the following use with ne, whether, if. 

Ya uk(ba ne mudi bixi, go and see if there are any insects in (it), 
lit. go and see whether therein are insects. 

Rem. 2. We have a somewhat similar construction with the infini- 
tive, but the locative in such cases preceded the -a, meaning to or for. 
Cf. § 239 (b), Rem. i. 

Ciena ne mua kutekela bintu bilnyi, / have no place in which to 
put my things. 

Rem. 3. In all cases where the locatives are used with the finite 
parts of the verb, the subject, if third person, is the pronominal suffijc. 
Cf. § 124 (a). 

Rem. 4. The locatives are prefixed to the auxiliary in compound 
tenses, not to the participle as in the case of the locative suffix. Cf* 
{ 320, Rem. 2. 


Rem. 5. It is of importance to distinguish when to use the locative 
suffixed and when the locative prefixed. As a general rule the former 
are translated by the simple phrases in it, in them, etc., whereas the 
latter are translated by where, whither, wherein, whereon, etc., in sub 
ordinate clauses with the antecedent omitted. 

Rem. 6. The locative word to be employed depends upon the loca- 
tive expressed or understood in the course of the conversation. 

Rem. 7. The above use of the locative prefixes in subordinate clauses 
is not to be confounded with the locatives prefixed in simple sentences 
(§ ii5)» or with the relative clause when locative and antecedent are 
expressed, though the principle is the same in all. 

Rem. 8. The locative prefixed construction is used in direct ques- 
tions with the verb di, to he. § 381. 

Wakuya kudi kunyi ? where has he gone? lit. he has gone to it is 

Rem. 9. As we have seen under § 106 (c) (i), the locatives do not 
stand immediately before the disjunctive personal pronouns of class I 
and the sing, of class III. In these cases we have the locative pre- 
fixed construction with some verb meaning to he. In fact we oftcfn find 
this construction not only with the pronoun, as above mentioned, but 
also with nouns, where in English the simple preposition with the 
pronoun or noun would be used; as, lua kundi, come to me, i.e., where 
I am; ya kudlye, go to him, i.e., where he is; ya kudi mamu'ebt, 
go to your mother, 


322. The Buluba-Lulua language is very rich in derived verbs 
and nouns, and these add much to the flexibility and precision of ex- 
pression. As a general rule, we may say that the agglutinative process 
is the principle on which the majority of such derivatives are made. 
Naturally such words occupy a large and an important place in the 

One would suppose that, having stated the general laws governing 
the formation and meaning of the various derivatives, only the root 
word need -be introduced in the Vocabulary, but often the derived 
form comes to have a special meaning which demands for it a place 
in the Vocabulary. On the other hand certain English words have 
as their equivalents some of the derived forms, and these must of 
necessity be introduced. But these derived forms have not been put 
into the Vocabulary except when necessity seemed to demand it, other- 
wise the number of words would be almost indefinitely large. 


I. Derivative Verbs. 

323. Nearly every simple verb root in the language may have one 
or more derivative forms which modify in various ways the root idea. 
This modification is made by means of certain suffixes, whereas, in 
English, such modifications are made by prefixes, for the most part. 
Thus, in English, we say make, remake, unmake; form, reform, trans- 
farm, conform; etc. In the Buluba-Lulua we have, for example, from 
the root sanga, io put together, some such derived forms as sangila, 
sangixa, sangakana, sangakanya, sangangana, sanguluka, etc. 

324. Of course not every verb root can have, as a fact, all the de- 
rived forms, for often the root meaning would preclude it. 

325. All of these derived f rms are, in every sense, verbs, and they 
take the usual pronominal prefixes, suffixes and infixes, and have all 
the usual verbal adjuncts. 

326. Sometimes we may find two or more suffixes at the same time, 
added to the same root, thus still farther modifying the meaning. 

327. Some verbs are simple roots, though they have apparently 
a derived form. On the other hand some verbs evidently have a de- 
rived form but have lost the derivative signification. 

Applied Forms, 

328. What is called the Applied Form of the verb is obtained by 
changing the final vowel of the root to ila or ela or ina or yina, in ac- 
cordance with certain rules which will be stated later. The resulting 
form expresses the idea of advantage or disadvantage to the person 
or thing affected; or it may in a' general way denote an action done 
to some object or done on behalf of • some object or because of some 
person or thing, and hence can generally be translated into English 
by to, for, against, etc. 

banda, to climb, gives bandlla, to climb for {one); * 

iba, to steal, gives iblla, to steal for (one); 

songa, to carve, gives songela, to carve for {one) ; 

tiuna, to send, gives tumina, to send to {one) ; 

suna, to fetch water, gives sunylna, to jetch water for {one). 

Rem. I. The Applied Form is often used where in English we find 
a prepositional phrase indicating instrument or purpose, and hence 
is sometimes to be translated by with or jor or other appropriate prepo- 
sitions. This same form has an extensive use in asking the question 
why? what for? etc. § 420. 

♦ Observe that the simple roots are translated as infinitives. 


Udl uylla ku IbanJ cinyl? why are you going to Ihanj? 
WakCldila makfila cInyl? jor what reason did you buy the eggs? 
Ndi nk#ba luvu lua mbua kudlla, / am looking jor a trough jor 
the dog to eat out oj. 

Rem. 2. Often these Applied Forms can scarcely be translated into 

Ylla (from ya, to go) ek]i, go around this way, 

329. The rules for the formation of the Applied Forms are as follows; 
{a) Ila is used when the last vowel of the root (not counting the 
changeable final a) is a, &j i, I, u, tk, or a monosyllabic stem like ya, 
to go, § 26. 

banda, to climb, gives bandlla, to climb jor; 
t&ha, to cutf gives t&hila, to cut jor; 
iba, to steal, gives Ibila, to steal for; 
ziha, to kill, gives zlhlla, to kill jor; 
sumba, to buy, gives siunbila, to buy for; 
ibtkka, to build, gives ibtkkila, to build jor; 
ya, to go, gives ylla, to go for. 
Note. Sometimes the roots in I give ela; hence we may from the 
root xiha have both xlhila and xlhela. 

(b) Ela is used when the last vowel of the root (not counting the 
changeable final a) is e, # or o. § 26. 

teka, to put, gives tekela, to put jor; 

kAba, to search for, gives k£bela, to search jor for; 

lomba, to beg, gives lombela, to beg jor. 

(c) Ina or ena is used when the last syllable of the verb has m or 
the double consonant ny. § 15 (5) (i), Rem. 

tmna, to send, gives tumlna, to send jor; 
abanya, to divide up, gives abanyina, to divide up jor; 
kema, to wonder, gives k£mena, to wonder for. 
Rem. The Applied Form of zima, to tell jalsehood, is ziminyina, 
to tell falsehood on. 

(d) Ylna or yena is used when the stem of the verb ends in na. 
§ 34 (fl)i Rem. 

suna, to bring water, gives sunyina, to bring water jor. 

(e) When the last syllable of the unchanged root is a diphthong, 
the second letter of the diphthong generally determines the suffix in 
accordance with the rules above given. 

hueka, to go down, gives huekela, to go down for; 
buika, to shut, gives buikila, to shut for. 


(/) When the final a is itself part of a diphthong, ua or ta, the form 
in lla is used. 

dia, io eat, gives dtla, to eat for; 
fua, to die, gives fulla, to die for 

330. It has been already noted (§ 326) that sometimes two or more 
suffixes may be added to the same root at the same time. Here it 
must be observed that certain irregularities occur when the Applied 
Forms are added to verbs already having the derivative suffixes -akana, 
-angana, -una and -ula. The other suffixes add ila, ela, etc., regu- 

(a) Verbs in -akana give -akena; hence endakana, to walk about, 
gives endakena, to walk about for. Cf. § 339. 

(b) Verbs in -angana give -ilangana, -elangana, -tnanffana, 
-enanffana, -yinanffana, -yenangana; in other words, an^ana is 
simply added to the regular Applied Forms. Hence t&hancana, to 
strike each other, gives t&hilangana, to strike each other for; henda, 
to offend, gives hendelangana, to offend each other for; abanya, to 
divide up, gives abanyinangana, to divide up among each other for. 

{c) Verbs in -una give -ulna. (341. 

andamuna, to turn over, gives andamuina, to turn over for, 
(d) Verbs in -nla give -ulla. § 341. 

cibula, to break, gives clbntla, to break for. 

331* Further observation may lead to the discovery of other methods 
of forming the Applied derivatives, but the great majority of verbs 
will be found to come under one or the other of the above rules. 

339* The Applied Forms are generally regarded as transitive, taking 
a direct and an indirect object, but sometimes we find only the indirect 
object. Note that the indirect object immediately follows the verb. 

Wakusunyina Malendola ml, she has brought water for Malen- 
dola. Wakatnfutla, he died for us. ^ 

Causative Forms. 

333. The Causative Form of the verb is obtained by changing the 
final vowel of the root to ixa, eza, nxa or yixa, in accordance with 
rules which will be given later. The resulting form is always a transi- 
tive verb which signifies making or causing a person or thing to do 
or be the thing implied in the original verb root. 

banda, to go up, gives bandlxa, to cause to go up, i.e., to raise; 
flka, to be black, gives flkixa. to cause to be black, i.e., to blacken. 


334. The rules for the formation of the Causative Forms are as 

(a) Ixa is used when the last vowel of the root (not counting the 
changeable 6nal a) is a, &, 1, I, u or fl. § 26. 

banda, to go up^ gives bandlxa, to cause to go up, to raise; 
t&ha, to cuty gives tfthlxa, to cause to cui^ 

flka, to be blacky gives flklxa, to cause to become black, to blacken; 
tuta, to come backy gives tucixa, to cause to come back (§ 30); 
ibtkka, to buildy gives Ibtkklxa, to cause to build. 

{b) Exa is used when the last vowel of the root (not counting the 
changeable final a) is e, A or o. {26. 

teka, to puty gives tekexa, to cause to put; 

kAba, to search fory gives kfibexa, to cause to look for; 

lomba, to begy gives lombexa, to cause to beg. 

(c) Uxa is generally used when the form to be made causative ends 
in ola. § 26, Rem. 

ula, to be fully gives uxa, to cause to be futty i.e., to fUl. 

{d) Yixa is used when the stem of the verb ends in na. Cf. § 34 (a). 

clna, to fear, gives clnyixa, to cause to feary i.e., to frighten. 

(e) When the last syllable of the unchanged root is a diphthong, the 
second letter of the diphthong generally determines the suffix in ac- 
cordance with the rules above given. 

hueka, to go downy gives hoekexa, to cause to go down; 

buika, to shuly gives buikixa, to cause to shut. 

(/) When the final a is itself part of a diphthong, ua or ia^ the form 
in Ixa is used. 

dia, to eaty gives dtxa, to cause to eat, i.e., to feed; 
hua, to be completedy gives hulxa, to complete. 

335* Just as other derivative forms are sometimes given the Applied 
Form, in the same way we fi d that other derivative forms may, as 
occasion demands, take the Causative Form. Here we must note a 
few peculiarities; 

(a) The Cusative Form is made 'Applied or Reciprocal by adding 
the regular Applied or Reciprocal suffixes. 
bandixa gives bandlxila; 
mflnylxa gives mflnyixangana 


{b) Verbs in -akapa (§ 339) change this to -akdxa or -akanya. 
tambakana, to go back and jorth, gives tambaktixa or tamba- 
kanya, to cause to go back and forth. 
Rem. The form in -aktkxa is Buluba, that in -akanya is Luiua. 
{c) Verbs in -uka give -uxa, those in -tkka give -Oxa, those in 
-adika give -adtxa. 

dim uka, to he informed^ gives dimuxa, to inform; 
tangalAka, to scatter (intr.), gives tangaitixa, to scatter (trans.); 
tangadlka, to^ scatter (intr.), gives tangadlxa, to scatter (trans.). 
{d) There are a number of other forms which have some peculiari- 
ties in the formation of the Causative or transitive construction. We 
have words in -ala (-ftla) having the Causative in -axa (-&xa); some 
words in -ela take Causative in -exa; some words take -ikixa; some 
take -Ika; some in -oboko have -oboxa; some in -akala give -akAxa. 
sangftia, to amende gives sang&xa, to cause to amend; 
buela, to go in^ gives buexa, to cause to go in; 
sela, to move sidewisCj gives sexa, to cause to move sidewise; 
fuana, to be alike, gives fuanylkixa, to cause to be alike [§ 34 (a), 

lala, to lie down, gives ladika, to cause to lie down; 
vuala, to put on one's clothes, gives vuadika, to clothe; 
xlkama, to sit down, gives xikika, to seat {one); 
nyongoboka, to be crooked, gives nyongoboxa, to cause to he 

zakala, to tremble, gives zakAxa, to cause to tremble. 

Rem. There are a few other peculiar forms, but the great majority 
of the verbs make the Causative in one or the other of the ways in- 
dicated above. 

336. It will be observed that the vowel assimilations for the Causa- 
tive Forms are almost the same as those for the Applied. Note, how- 
ever, that the forms with m and ny take Ixa or exa, depending upon 
the vowel of the root rather than upon the presence of m or ny. § 329 (c) . 

tuma, to send, gives turn! x a, to cause to send; 

abanya, to divide up, gives abanyixa, to cause to divide up. 

337. It is important to note that the Causative Form of the verb 
is extensively used to express the English idea of to help to do, to aid 
in doing, etc. In this case the person or thing helped comes imme- 
diately after the verb. 

Wakusunyixa Maiendola ml, she helped Malendola to carry the 


Ta wibAkixe Kasongo nsubu wandl, go and help Kasongo to build 
his house. 

Nakumudlmlxa, I helped him to work. 

Bakukombexa Buabu, they helped Buabu to sweep. 

338. The Applied Form of the Causative means to haze something 
done for or to get something done jor; as, from ensa, to do. We have 
enzeia, to do for^ and enzexa, to help to do, and enzexela, to cause 
to do for one, i.e., to have done or get done for one. 

Intensive Forms. 

339* The Intensive Form of the verb is formed by changing the 
final vowel of the root to -akana, which gives to the root the idea of 
intensity of action or movement, and can generally be translated by 
back and forth^ over and over again^ constantly, etc. Sometimes there 
is a thought of many doing the same thing, each independently. In 
many cases the intensive form cannot be translated into English. 

enda, to go, gives endakana, to go about from place to place; 
huyakana, to pant; 

tamba, to go by, gives tambakana, to go back and forth. 
Rem. I. Verbs in -ma have the Intensive suffix -enena. 

nema, to be heavy, gives nemenena, to be heavy. 
Rem. 2. For Applied Form of these verbs in -akana, see § 330 (a). 

Reciprocal Form. 

340* The Reciprocal Form, of the verb is obtained by changing 
the final vowel of the root to -angana, and it conveys the idea that 
the action of the original word is carried on mutually by two or more 
persons or things with reference to one another. 

s6ka, to laugh, gives s^kangana, to laugh at each other; 

tftha, to cut, gives t&hangana, to cut each other; 

mtknya, to know, gives mAnyangana, to know each other. 

Rem. I. Sometimes this suffix -angana is used to express custom 
or habit; as, mbua udl usumangana, the dog bites. 

Rem. 2. For Applied Form of these verbs in -angana, see § 330 (b). 

Active Transitive and Middle Voice Forms. 

341. As we have already seen under § 201, a Middle Voice form 
is obtained by displacing the final a of the root and suffixing -uka 
(sometimes -Ika or -ma). In many verbs having this Middle Voice 
form, there is also a corresponding Active Transitive Form which is 


obtaiaed by displacing the 6nal a of the root and suffixing -una or -ula. 
Hence we have 

Active Transitive. Middle Voice. 

andamuna, to turn over^ andamuka, to turn over; 

sftbuia, to put one across a stream^ sftbuka, to go across a stream; 

clbula, to break, cibuka, to break; 

tula, to pull out, tuka, to come out. 

Rem. I. A few middle voice forms in -ma have a corresponding transi- 
tive form in -ka; as, sokoma, to hide {one's self), gives sokoka, to 
hide (trans.). 

Rem. 2. For Applied Form of verbs in -una and -ula, see § 330 (c) 
and {d). 

342. It has been noted ({ 333) that many intransitive and middle 
voice verbs are made transitive by means of the Causative suffixes. 
It is sometimes difficult to determine whether some suffixes ought to 
be classed under Causative Forms or under the active transitive. 

343* A few verbs have a middle voice or intransitive form in -eka 
(-oka), without any corresponding transitive suffix. 

ona, to corrupt, gives oneka (onoka), to become corrupt; 
mooa, to see, gives mueneka, to become seen, i.e., to appear. 

Passive Voice Forms. 
344* As we have seen under § 202 (c), one method of expressing 
the Passive Voice is by means of the suffix -ibua, which has the regular 
active forms in conjugation. 

Expansive or Rev^sive Forms. 

345. The Expansive or Reversive Forms are obtained by displacing 
the final a of the root and suffixing -uiula or -ola or -olola. The 
resulting form expresses with more or less regularity the idea of ex- 
pansion, elongation, separation, opening, reversion, etc. Often the 
thought is expressed in English by the prefix un-. 

The above-mentioned suffixes, -ulula, -ola and -olola, are active 
transitive; there are also the corresponding middle voice or intransi- 
tive forms in -uluka, -oka and -oloka. Cf. § 341. 

Active Transitive. Middle Voice. 

sangulula, to scatter, sanguluka, to scatter; 

abulula, to separate^ abuluka, to separate; 

tfululula, to raise to life, fululuka, to arise from death; 

ololola, to unfold, ololoka, to unfold; 

gulula, to unfasten, suluka, to become unfastened; 
hikula, to redeem (from muhlka, a slave). 


Repetitive Forms. 

346. These forms are made by using the suffixes -ulula and -unona, 
the resulting form having the idea of repetition of the action. 
amba, to tell^ gives ambulula, to tell over and over; 
dima, to work, gives dimununa, to work over and over again. 

347. There are other verbal suffixes of more or less definite mean- 
ing, but it hardly seems profitable to introduce more of them here. 
The most common and important have been mentioned. 

348. We must note that some verbs are derived from nouns; as, 
hlkuia, to redeem^ from muhika, a slave; liuna, to cohabit with^ from 
mulumi, man; etc. 

II. Derivative Nouns. 

349. The more common Derivative Nouns are obtained from other 
nouns, or from adjectives, or from simple or derived verbs, or from 
certain prepositional forms. Each of these classes of derived nouns 
is now taken up. 

Nouns from Other Nouns. 

350* The prefix bu- (class VI), used with the root of a noun belong- 
ing to any other class, conveys the idea of abstract state or condition, 
and is generally to be translated into English by the suffix -ship or 

mukelenffe, chief j gives bukelenge, chief ship; 
muana, child, gives buana, childhood. 
Rem. It has already been noted that the language of a people is 
expressed in the same way. § 55, Rem. i. 

351. An ironical word can be made by using the prefixes of class 
VII and the suffix -ana. 

cilumlana, a big man, from mulumi, man; 
clktkxiana, a big woman, from muk&xi, woman. 

352. Words indicating worthlessness or iiicongruousness may be 
made by using the prefixes of class VII and doubling the root of the 
word. See § 356 (g). 

353* When the speaker does not care to bother with mentioning 
the name of the person or thing, or if he has forgotten the name, an 
indefinite reference may be made by suffixing -ana; as, mulumlana, 
a man whose name has been forgotten, or whose name you don't care to 
bother with mentioning; mukftxlana, a woman whose name, etc. 


Rem. The words muntlnyi (from muntu, person, or clntu, thing) 
and kampa da (class I) have the same meaning as maluinlana, etc. 

These words have an adjective force and may take the prefix of 
the class of the noun referred to. Hence we have, according to class, 
munttnyi, . antlnyl, clntlnyl, lunttnyl, etc.; also bakampanda, 
clkampanda, etc. 

Nouns from Adjectives and Numerals. 

354* The abstract idea of the adjective is expressed by prefixing 
bu- (class VI) to the root of the adjective. 

toke, white, gives botoke, whiteness; 
nine, large, gives bunlne, largeness. 

Rem. The same form is used with numerals to express entirety. 
§ 95 (^)* Butanu buabo bakuya, all five of them went. 

355* The expressions how often and how many times are made by 
prefixing eiaka- (sing.) and biaka- (pi.) to the numerals. { 95 (&). 

ciakabidi, second time; biakabidl, two times, twice. 

Rem. Note also diakamne, clahantue and dlacimae. { 95 (b), 
Rems. I and 2. 

Nouns from Verbs. 
356. We find several forms of noun derivatives from verbs: 
(a) The agent or performer of an act is expressed by changing the 
final a of the verb root to 1 and using the prefixes of class I. 
muibl, a thief, from iba, to steal; 
mutndi, a blacksmith, from tula, to forge; 
mnsnnffidi, a savior, from sungila, to save. 

Rem. In the same way the noun denoting the sufferer of the action, 
the noun denoting the one who causes the action, the noun denoting 
the one who acts for another, may be obtained from the Passive, the 
Causative and the Applied Forms of the verb respectively. The same 
is true of the other verbal derivatives. 

{b) The place where an action is usually performed is expressed 
by suffixing -llu (-elu) and prefixing cl- and bl- (class VII) to the 
root of the verb. Perhaps it would be better to say that the final a 
of the Applied Form is changed to u. 

eibandiln, a stairway, from ban da, to go up; 

cllamblln, a kitchen, from lamba, to cook; 

clxikidlln. destination, from xlka, to end. 


(c) The way or manner of doing is expre sed by using the prefixes 
of class VII and the Applied Fonn of the verb with final a changed 

elensedi, way of doing, from ensa, to do; 
ellambidt, way of cooking, from lamba, to cook. 

Kuena mumAnye cilambldl cikaabo 7 don*t you know another way 
of cooking f 

Rem. Sometimes we find the place and the manner forms used 
interchangeably; this is doubtless due to differences of dialects. 

{d) An abstract idea of the verb root may often be expressed by 
using the sing, prefix of class IV (lu-), with the final vowel of the root 
changed generally to u or o. 

luendu, a journey, from enda, to go, to walk; 

lulelu, poioer to give birth, from lela, to give hirih; 

luf q, death, from fua, to die. 
Rem. I. This derivative form in In- may often be used to express 
habit, ability, persistence or perseverance in an action; as, muntu 
wa lulombo, a begging person; muena lulombo, a beggar; mulumi 
eu udl ne luendo, this man has the power to walk much, or he does 
much going about. 

Rem. 2. From the verb sua, to love, we have not lasa, as might be 
expected, but lose, love. 

(e) We have a few noun derivatives from verbs put into class VI; 
as» budlml, field, from dima, to cultivate; bulalu, bed, from lata, ta 
He down. 

if) The bad or wrong or careless way of doing anything is expressed 
by the prefix bu- (class VI) and the suffix -&fl (-afl). 

baluat&fl, slovenliness, from luata, to wear; 

boel&fl, bad aim, from ela, to shoot, 
(g) The idea of worthlessness or incongruousness is expressed by 
the prefixes of class VII and the doubling of the root of the word. These 
derivatives can be made either from nouns or from verbs. See § 352. 

ellumlliiml, a worthless man, from mulumi, man; 

clsubusobu, a worthless house, from nsubu, house; 

elelele, a no-account knife, from kele, knife; 

elanana, a no-account child, from muana, child; 

eltokatoka, an albino, from toka, to be white; 

ellambalamba, bad cooking, from lamba, to cook; 

elakulakula. nonsense, gibberish, from akola, to talk; 

elendenda, vagrancy, from enda, to walk. 


(h) The past active participle of some verbs may be used as nouns. 
mahote (class I), a fool, from hota, to be foolish, 

(i) The infinitive of the verb is used as a noun to express the simple 
abstract idea of the verb root. In this case the infinitive sign kii« 
furnishes the prefix for the concord. 

Kndima kadi kutamba kuzlkama cinana, to work is better than 
to sit idle. 

Nouns from Locative Forms. 

357* From the forms kulnyl, kuetu, kuenu, etc., we have by 
using the prefixes of class 1 a group of nouns meaning my feUaw towns- 
man, etc. Cf. S 143. 

makuetu, our (or my) fellow toivnsman; 
baknabo, their fellow townsman. 

Rem. Much like this is mukua, one from the village of. { 87 (d). 
Rem. 2. 

358. From kunzl, doTvn at, we have diknnxi (V), a pillar, post. 

359. There is quite a number of words, gotten by the combination 
of the locative and an inseparable substantive form, which come to 
have in English the force of a noun, though retaining the prepositional 
form and construction. Some of the more common are the following: 

Munda, the inside, the abdomen; kuntaku, at the butt end; kun- 
kflcl, at the center; mundankulu, midnight; hanxl, floor, on the 
ground; haciacia, daybreak, at the dawning; kumanda, stefm, at 
the lower end; kukala, beach, at the edge. § 423 (2) (b). , 

960* Reference has already been made to nouns of foreign origin. 
See § 55, Rem 2, with Notes i and 2. 

361 • There are some other derived nouns, but it hardly seems 
profitable to mention more of them here, since the most conmion have 
been treated. 

Great caution must be exercised in presimiing from analogy that 
because certain nouns derived in a certain way have a certain fixed 
meaning, therefore other nouns formed in a similar way will have a 
similar meaning. This does not always follow. It seems highly 
probable that some lexicographers have gone too far in this respect 
and have brought words into the language which have no place there, 
because they are not used by the natives. The same caution must be 
observed in the case of the derived verbs. Let it be c ntinually borne 
in mind that as a general rule the native avoids the complicated derived 


form, both in nouns and in verbs, and usually throws his sentences 
into the simplest form both as regards the words and the constructions 


362. The Buluba-Lulua language is comparatively poor in regular 
adverbs. This lack is supplied for the most part by the use of nouns, 
prepositional phrases, locative formations and other idiomatic expres- 

In many cases the adverbial idea is contained in the verb; as, kusft- 
buka, to go over; kubtka, to stand up. 

Some of the more common English adverbs and adverbial phrases, 
with the Buluba-Lulua equivalents, are now given. Others can be 
gotten from the Vocabulary. 

I. Adverbs op Place. 

963. Here the locatives, mu and kn and ha, play a most important 
part. They are used separably or inseparably, in connection with 
nouns and adjectives and certain inseparable words to express these 
various place relations. The particular locative to be used is deter- 
mined by the context or the thought in the mind of the speaker. 

364. Above, up, upwards, on high, etc.: ktilu, mtkln, heulu. The 
stem in these forms is -ulu which is inseparable. Note henlu instead 
of haulu. 

Rem. Note the expression bika hanxi, get up, because ha means 
either down on or up from. 

365. Across, on the other side, etc.: dlxia, a noim belonging to dass V. 
Ta dtxta, go across. 

366. At the same place, at one place, together, etc.: mumue, knmae, 
hamue, from mue, one; kaba kamue (diminutive of muaba, place); 
muomiimne, kuokumue, hohamue, from -o-ainae(mue), § 9(^ 
Rem. 2. 

367. Before, in front, forward, etc.: ku mp&la, kumudlla (hi- 

Rem. Sometimes the noun forms dlambed I nd dlbedl are used in 
this sense. They belong to class V. 

368. Behind, in the rear, etc: ku nylma, haxlxe (inseparable). 

369. Down, downwards, etc: munxt, ku xi, hanxl, from the 
inseparable -nxl which in . ome diale ts means the ground, 

(a) Monxl means down tinder, down in, underneath, 
{h) Kunxl means down at or down near, 
(c) Hanxl means down on or simply down. 


870* ElsewherCf somewhere else, etc.: mukuabo, kukuabo, hakoabo; 
munffa/ kunga, hanga. These are from the adjectives kuabo and 
nga meaning another. 

371* Everywhere: kuonso, from the adjective onso, all. 

Note. Possibly maonso and honso may be used, but they are very 

372. Far, far away, etc.: mule, kale, hale, from the adjective le, 

(a) Blule means far inside. 

{b) K le means far away at (by far the most common of the three 

(c) Hale means far away on. 

373* Here, h ther, hence, et-^. : emu, eku, aha; munemo, kuneku, 
hanaha; also the emphatic emonstratives with ka; sometimes the 
Locative Suffixed construction. §§ 163, Note 3, 320. 

374. Hither and thither: this idea is perhaps best expressed by 
means of the Intensive For of the verb having the suffix -akana. 

S 339- 

375. In, inside, etc.: generally use the simple verb, or mu in 
Locative Suffixed construction (§ 320); as, buela, go in; buelamu, 
go in {it). 

376. Near: mulhl, kulht, hihl, ha bulhl. All these forms are 
made on the root of the adjective ihl, short. 

Rem. I. Sometimes we hear hehl instead of hihl. § 23, Rem. 4. 
Rem. 2. The prepositional phrase near to is expressed by hehi ne. 
Teka bintu hehi ne ngubu, put the things near to the house. 

377. Outside, out, etc.: this is best expressed in most cases by the 
verbal suffixes -ula and -uka (§§ 341, 345), or by mu in the Locative 
Suffixed construction. (§ 320.) 

Luhuka, go out) luhula bintu, put the things outside; umukamu, 
get out (of it). 

378. Somewhere: muntu, kuntu, hantu. 

Rem. I. It will be noted that these words are formed on the same 
stem as muntu, person, and cintu, thing. 

Rem. 2. In the case of a place which you have forgotten or do not 
care to mention, use the locatives with kampanda or ntlnyl. In 
these cases the preposition is inseparable. § 423 (2) (a). 

379* There, thence: muamua, kuakua, haha; muomuo, kuokuo, 
hoho; amu, aku, aha. § 163, Notes 3 and 4. 

Rem. The emphatic forms kamumu, kakuku and kahaha may 
mean either here or there. 

380. Under, underneath: munzi. Cf. § 369 {a). 


381, Where? whence? whither?-, kunyi? hanyl? (from the same 
root as cinyi, § 175, Rem. i). Blunyi 7 seems to be seldom used. 

These forms are sometimes used alone, coming at the end of a sen- 
tence, as is the usual custom with interrogative words, but the most 
common method is to have them precede it by the Locative Prefixed 
form of the verb dl. to he. The locative prefix is the same for the verb 
and for the interrogative word. § 321, Rem. 8. 

Wakuya kud kunyi? where did he go ? lit. he has gone to it is where? 

Udl uxikama hadi hanyi ? where are you sitting? 

Note i. We have mentioned above that munyi seems to be seldom 
used; for it we may have kunyi, even to the extent of having a different 
locative before the verb di. 

Udl obueia mudi kunyi? where are you going in? 

Note 2. For where in adverb clauses and in indirect questions we 
use the Locative Prefixed construction. See §} 321, 457, 472 (c). 

382* It is interesting to note that some of these adverb forms have 
a substantive use when they are followed by a noun in an adjective 
prepositional phrase. 

Ta munxi mua mesa, go under the table, i.e., go to the underneath 
the table. 

Ta Idklu kua nsubu, go to the top of the house, 

Ta dixia dia ml, go across the water, 

II. Adverbs of Time. 

383. Again: kabidi. § 95 (6), Rem. i. 

Rem. Kabidi seems to be used almost exclusively when there is no 
special reference as to the exact number of times. Cf. §§ 394, 395. 

384* AgOy long ago, etc.: kale, bangabanga, diambedi. 

Rem. Long ago, in the sense of not jar in the past, is expressed by 
musangu mule. 

Nakukubiklla mugangu mule, munyi kulu? / called you long ago, 
why did you not come? (Perhaps it was early in the morning and it is 
now noon.) 

385. Always, ceaselessly, constantly, ever, forever, etc.: matuku 
onso, ku dituku ku dituku, ku did ku did, cendelele, l&hal&ha, 
kaxidi, to. See Vocabulary under ceaselessly. 

(a) The phrases matuku onso and ku dituku ku dituku and ku 
did ku did mean a long time or a long succession of days, used espe- 
cially with reference to the present or the past. 

Wakadi ufuQda mikanda matuku onso, he was always writing 


(6) Cendelele and Ifthalftha are used with special reference to the 

Wakaya cendelele, he has gone forever^ i.e., for good. 

386. At the same time, at one time, simultaneously, etc.: clamumue, 
clahamue, dlakamoe, dlaclmue. § 95 (b). Rem. 2. 

387* Before, first: diambedi, dibedi, kumudllu (inseparable), ku 
mp&la, also the verb dlanjila (§ 233). 

388. Daily: ku dltuku ku dltuku, ku dtcl ku diet. 

389* Early (in the morning), soon: dioda, haclacia, lunkelu. 

Rem. Dinda is a noun belonging to class V; lunkelu belongs to class 
IV. Haciacia is gotten by doubling the root of the verb cla, to break 
day, and prefixing ha. 

390* Evening, afternoon: dllolo, a noun belonging to class V. 

391* Frequently: see { 394. 

392* Noon, midday: munda munya. 

393* Now, at once, immediately, instantly, etc.: katataka, mpln- 
deu, diodlono. 

394. Often, many times, frequently, etc.: use any word meaning 
times, s ch s misangu (II), bikondo (VII), mtsunsa (II), followed 
by -a bunffi. 

Nakumumona misangu ya bungl, I have seen him many times. 

Rem. The same idea may often be expressed by the Repetitive or 
Habitual tenses. 

395* Once, twice, thrice, etc. (numerical adverbs): clakamue, 
ciakabldl, etc.; dlakamue; kabldl, kasfttu, etc. Cf. § 95 (6), Rems. 
I and 2. 

396. Soon: see §§ 389 and 393. 

397* To-day: lelu. This very day is expressed by lelu eu. 

398. To-morrow, yesterday: malpba, makelela. 

Rem. I . Only the context can detemune whether to-morrow or yester- 
day is meant. 

Rem. 2. Day after to-morrow is expressed by malhi. 

399. To-night: butuku, bufuku. These words belong to class VI. 

400. When? dlba hanyl? diba kl? dltuku kl? ngondo kI7 
cldimu kl? 

Rem. I. There is no indefinite word for when; use one of the bove 
phrases according to sense, remembering that dlba and dltuku are 
nD ns belonging to class V, ngondo to class III and cldimu to class 

Rem. 2. For when in indirect questions, see § 472 (b). 


III. Adverbs op Degree and Quantity. 

401. As , , . as. See § 90 (d). 

402. How many? haw much? See § 411, Note i. 

403. More — Comparison of Adverbs. The comparative degree of 
the adverb as well as the superlative is expressed by the verbs tamba 
and hita, to excel, having thus the same construction as the comparison 
of adjectives (§88). 

Note the following examples as being the most common construc- 
tions for comparison of adverbs: 

Wakuntamba lubllu, he ran faster than I, lit. he excelled me in 

Kabata udl utamba Kasongo kunsua, Kahata loves me more than 

Muluml wakutamba mukftxl kuela muci, the man threw the stick 
farther than the woman. 

MukAxI udi utamba muluml kulamba bidia, the woman heats the 
man cooking. 

404. Much', the phrase ya bungi seems to be most commonly used 
in this connection. The adverb little^ when used in the same way, 
is perhaps best expressed by the word kaklse. 

Wakunsua ya bungI, kaklse, he loves me much, little. 

405. Too: see § 90 (6). 

406. Very: see § 90 W- 

IV. Adverbs of Manner. 

407. Backwards: cianyima. 

408. Certainly y truly , truthfully, etc.: bulllela, bulnabulna, buala- 
buala, buxua, bulkflxa. All of these words are nouns belonging to 
class VI. 

409. Gently, slowly, patiently, carefully, quietly, feebly, etc.: bite- 
kete, bitulu. ' 

410. Hastily, in a hurry, quickly, etc.: lubilu, lukflsa. These 
words belong to class IV. 

411. How? in what way? taunji? blxl? These words come last 
in the sentence, as might be expected. 

Udi uclbula luhanza munyl? how do you open the tin? 

Note i. Munyl and blxl are also used to modify adjectives or rather 
the substantive form of the adjective. There is also the adjective 
form nga. § 178. 

Nsolo webl udl bunlne munyl? how large is your fowl? 

Udl ne nsolo bungI munyl? how many fowls have you? 


Hlci inga? how many sticks? 

Note 2. For how? ia indirect questions, see § 47a {d). 

412. So; see Vocabulary. 

413. Thus, in this ivay, so: nnnku. Sometimes this word 18 pro- 
nounced nenku or nanku. 

V. Adverbs or Affirmation and Nboatiqn. 

414. No (negative answer to a question): naxa, bnala, nanyl, 

Rem. I. Sometimes one of these negative words is put for emphasis 
at the end of a sentence and after the ordinary neg^ative pronominal 

Katuakuhldla bnalu bua Nsambl, naxa, Vfe have not refused Gods 
palaver^ no. 

Rem. 2. When the question is in negative form, the Baluba and 
Bena Lulua affirm or deny the truth of the question rather than 
the fact asked for by the questioner. It is very important to note this 
difference in idiom between the English and the Buluba-Lulua, for, 
owing to this difference, confusion and misunderstanding are often 

Kuakuya tela 7 E, didn*t you go to-day? No, 

415. Not: generally use the negative pronominal prefixes inflected 
directly with the verb. { 198. 

Rem. I. The word not when standing before a single word such as 
a personal pronoun or a noun is expressed by ka; as, ka wewe, not 
you; ka tuetu, not we. 

Note. If, however, the copula is considered as being omitted we have 
the construction with kan-. § 199. 

Rem. 2. Naxa is sometimes heard in the sense of either , , , or 
if not . . . then. 

Usuasua clnyl? Naxa lueho, naxa cllulu, what do you want? (/ 
want) either salt or doth, i.e., if not salt, then cloth. 

416. Yes: e. 

Wakuya ka Kasensa? E, did you go to Kasenga? Yes. 
Rem. For negative question, see § 414, Rem. 2. 

VI. Formation of Adverbs from Adjectives. 

417. Adverbs are formed from adjectives by prefixing bi- to the 
stem of the adjective; as, bimpe, weU, from impe, good\ blbl, badly, 
from bl, had\ bitekete, slowly, from tekete, weak\ bikftle, strongly, 
from ki&le, strong. 


VII. Miscellaneous. 

418« Only, just, for nothing, etc.: hatuhn, bd, cinana. 

Tudl tusomba hb (or hatahu, cinana), we are just talking, 

419« Therefore, hence, consequently, so, wherefore, etc.: ka, bu- 
(bualu understood) with Applied Form of verb. 

Mulunda winyl ndl nbela, ka nakulua, or malunda winyl udi 
ubela, bunakuluila, my friend is sick, therefore I have come. 

420. Why? what for? etc.: clnyl? cinganyl? munyi? buaclnyl? 

(a) When the question is affirmative we find most commonly the 
Applied Forms of the verb followed by cinyl 7 or clnganyl 7 or bizl 7 

Udl ndidila clnyi 7 why are you crying ? 

XJdl nylla ku musoko cinyl 7 why are you going to the village ? 

Wakiidila mak^la blxi 7 why did you buy the eggs ? 

Rem. The Applied Forms of the verb are not generally used with 
boa cinyl 7 and bnalu kl 7 

Udi udila bua cinyl (or bualu Id) 7 why are you crying ? 

(6) When the question is negative we find most frequently mnnyl 7 
beginning the sentence, followed by the Munyl Negative. §§3I4»3T5. 

Rem. I. We may sometimes, however, hear in the negative the ordi- 
nary negative tenses of the Applied Form of the verb followed by cinyl, 

Kuakulutla cinyl 7 why did you not come ? 

Rem. 2. When the question is past tense negative we sometimes hear 
the munyl 7 with the past tense negative of the auxiliary dl, to he, fol- 
lowed by the infinitive mood (thus making the past subjunctive or an 
impossible condition). 

Hunyl kuakadi kCkla laRlsJilRl why did you not buy the eggs ? 

Note. Even in these past tense negative forms we generally hear 
the simple Munyl Negative tense. 

Hunyl kulu7 why didnH you come? 

(c) For why in indirect questions, see { 47a (e). 

421. Very, exactly, just, absolutely, etc.: mene. 

Ta ku musoko lelu mene, go to the village this very day. 



422« There are few pure prepositional words in the Buluba-Lulua 
language. Just as in the case of adverbs ({ 362), this lack is supplied 
by the use of noun forms and other constructions. 

Often the prepositional idea is contained in the verb; as, knsftbnka 
ml, to cross over the vfoter; naldkdila Kasonffo lueho, / bought the 
salt for Kasongo, The English, owing to its lack of complicated in- 
flections, is rich in prepositions, and it is of no small importance to 
know the corresponding equivalents of these in a language strikingly 
lacking in such forms. Often the idioms in the two languages are 
entirely different. 


423. We have often had occasion to refer to the locatives mu, ka 
and ha. Their construction and use in the sentence are so different, 
in some respects, from anything found in English that they demand 
special attention. Since many of these peculiarities have already been 
treated of under the different headings, as it became necessary, we 
shall now, in order to refresh the memory, gather up the most important 
of these uses and refer the reader to the section where fuller treatment 
will be found, at the same time mentioning such new constructions as 
need attention. 

(i) They often have the force of a noun ({ 61) in that they may furnish 
the concord for succeeding words. This concord is found in the follow- 
ing cases: 

(a) With the possessive pronoun forms. . {{ 139, 140. 

(6) With the several demonstrative forms. (163 and Notes. 

(c) With verbs as prefix — Locatives Prefixed. {{ 321, 115 and Rems. 
I and a, 124 (a), 441 (<0. 468, 472 (c). 

(d) With verbs as a suffix — Locatives Suffixed. { 320. 

(e) With certain adjectives. § 79. 

(/) With the preposition -a, of. % 87 ((f) and Rem., 87 («)• 

ig) With relative clauses. § 168 (a). 

(2) There is a considerable class of nouns in which the ordinary 
prefix is displaced by the locative words. 

{a) Some of these we have already noted in the case of such a form 
as ham 'bid! (for ha mubldl), on the body [{ 24 (J)]; slso in the forms 
kultu (for ku dltu), hekn (for ha dlkn), mnlsn (for nm dlsii), | 47, 


Here might also be mentioned muntu, kuntu, hantu, and the loca« 
tives with kampanda and ntlnyl. § 378 with Rems. i and 2. 

(b) In the words just mentioned the noun has its ordinary prefix 
which is only temporarily displaced by the locative, but there is a 
class of words which seem to have lost entirely the prefix and only the 
inseparable forms with the locatives are found. Some of these come 
to have an adverbial force and have been referred to under adverbs. 
The more common of these are the following (cf . { 359) : 

Munda, the inside; kunzl, munxi, hanxl (§ 369); kunxikidlln, 
a/ the end; munkflci, hanktkcl, kunkAcI, in or at the middle; milla, 
kAlu, heulu (§ 364); kumndiln (§ 367); kumanda, mumanda, ai 
or in the bottom; kukala, at the edge^ the beach; munkulu, in the cenier; 
haciacla, at the dawning; hax*lxe, at the rear; kunyl? and hanyl? 
(I 381); mnndankulu, at midnight; kuntaku, at the butt end, 

(3) To show that the substantive idea in these locative combinations 
-has been preserved we often have the adjective phrase with -a, of, 
following them, and that, too, in constructions where in English a 
simple preposition is used. Hence we do not say mnnxl mesa, but 
mnnxl mua mesa, under the table, lit. the underneath of the table; 
munkflci mua nsubu, in the center of the house; killa kua nsubn, 
on top of the house; etc. 

(4) Note the noun forms mukna and mnkueta. §{ 87 (d). Rem. a, 

424. We shall now consider the special meaning and uses of the 
three locatives. 

(i) As a simple preposition ma implies a stateaof rest in, or motion 
ifito or out of, a place which is enclosed. The following English prepo- 
sitions and prepositional phrases are usually expressed with more or 
less certainty by mu: »n, in among , among j amongst, in the midst of, 
inside of, within^ along (a path), into, out of, out from, outside of. 

Waknenda mu nxlla, he went along the path, 

Umuxa blntu mu nsubu, put the things out of the house, 

(2) As a simple preposition ku implies motion toward or from a 
place, or rest at a place. The following English prepositions and 
prepositional phrases are expressed with more or less certainty by ku: 
at, by {close to), for, in (at), in (a line), over, around, by (hold by), to, 
towards, unto, from, away from, for (price), against. 

Wakuhana nsolo ku cllulu, he sold the fowls for cloth, 
Wakukuata muana ku dlboko, he caught the child by the arm. 
Wakulna ku musoko, he came from the village, 
. Imftnf ku mulongo, stand in a line, 

(3) As a simple preposition ha implies rest on or upon, or motion 


towards or off from, a surface. The following English prepositions 
and prepositional phrases are expressed with more or less certainty 
by ha: on, upon, onto, over, down on, down upon, up from, off from. 

Bnlklla cllulu ha bintu, put a cloth over the things. 

Umuxa malouKa ha mesa, remove the plates from the table. 

Bixa bintu ha mux^te, lift up the things from the box. 

Rem. The time relations in and within are expressed by ha. 

Nendue ha matuku atanu, / shall return within five days, 

II. Other Prepositions. 

425. The preposition -a, of, so far from furnishing any concord 
for following words, is itself made to concord within the word preced- 
ing it, whether that word be a simple noun or a locative word or a loca- 
tive phrase. The uses of -a have been discussed under §§86 and 87, 
and it is dot necessary to repeat them here. 

4I36* The preposition ne is uninflected and expresses the idea of 
instrument or accompaniment, and is generally expressed in English 
by with or and. 

Udl ukosa mud ne muele, he is cutting the stick with a knife, 

Ta ne Kasonso, go with Kasongo. 

Rem. I. Recall the peculiar use of the possessive forms with ne 
instead of the personal pronouns. § 107. 

Rem. 2. A most conmion construction is the use of ne with one of 
the verbs meaning to be, by which the English to have (to possess) is 

Ndl ne nsolo, I have a fowl. 

Rem. 3. Note the peculiar phrase muan'abo ne, etc., meaning brother 
of, sister of, one of same kind, etc. Cf. § 138, Rem. 5. 

Rem. 4. It is often difficult to determine whether the ne is to be 
xegarded as a preposition {with) or a conjunction (and). Fortunately 
it does not make much difference, since the constructions are the same. 

4:27 • The word kudi, by, is used with the agent in the passive voice. 
§ 202 (a), 

428. The words bu and buina furnish no difficulties in inflection 
and have the meaning of like, similar to, etc. 

Cifulu eel cidl bu clacla, this hat is like that one. 
Rem. Note the combination bu -a. 

Hubidl wand! wakadi bu wa muntu, his body was like that of a 

429. Some of the more common remaining English prepositions 
and prepositional phrases have the following equivalents in the Buluba- 
Lulua language: 


(a) After ^ behind, in the rear of, etc. : ku nyima kua. 

(fi) Around: ku or ku nyima kua. 

Unyengele muoxl ku muci, wind the string around the stick. 

Udi ucimbakana ku nyima kua nsubu, he is going around the house, 

(c) Before, in front of, etc.: ku mp&la kua, kumndllu kua. 
Ta ku mpftia kua Kabuya, go before (in front of) Kabuya. 

(d) Beside, near to, by, etc.: ha bulhi ne, hehi ne. 

Mud udl ha buihi ne (hehi ne) nsubu, the stick is near the house, 
Lua ha buihl n'lnyl, come near to me. § 107. 

(e) Across, on the other side of: dixia dia, ku nyima kua, dia mua- 
mua dia (doubtless dixia understood). 

Musoko wandl udi dia muamua dia ml, his village is on the other 
side of the water. 

Musoko wandl udi dixia dia ml, his village is on the other side of 
the water. 

Mucl udl ku nyima kua lumbu, the tree is on the other side of the 

Rem. Note that the words dixia and nyima are nouns belonging to 
classes V and III, respectively. 

(J) On this side of: dia munemu dia, dixia dia munemu dia. 

Musoko udl dixia dia munemu dia ml, the village is on this side 
of the river (water). 

Mu<;l udi dia munemu dia lumbu, the tree is on this side of the fence. 

(g) Between, in the middle of, in the midst of, etc.: hankflci ha, 
munkflci mua. Cf. { 423 (2) {b). 

Nkuasa udi munkflci mua nsubu, the chair is in the middle of the 

Cifulu cldi hankflci ha mukanda ne mucl, the hat is hehveen the 
book and the stick. 

{h) On top of, over, over the top of, etc.: ha mutu ha. 

Ta ha mutu ha nsubu, go on top of the house. 

Rem. I. Over in sense of across is expressed by dixia dia. { 429 {e). 

Rem. 2. Over in such a sentence as throw it over the house is best 
expressed by the verbs tambixa or hlcixa followed by the phrase ha 
mutu ha, while go over or pass over the house is expressed by tamba 
or hita followed by the phrase ha mutu ha. 

Wakuhlcixa mucl ha mutu ha nsubu, he threw the stick over the 
house, i.e., caused it to pass the top of the house. 

Mud wakutamba ha mutu ha nsubu, the stick passed over the 

(*) Through: this idea is perhaps best expressed by using two verbs, 
one denoting the entering, the other the going out. 


Mutelenffe wakuknma mn mnkanda, wakuluhuka, the cartridge 
struck into the paper and went out, i.e., the cartridge went through the 

Wakubnela mu nsubn, wakatamba, he passed through the house. 

Note i. Sometimes the idea is expressed in the verb; as, sombola, 
to-pass through (as bullet); tabula, to punch through. 

Note 2. We may also have the verlfs tamba, tamblza, hita, hiclxa 
followed by mu and the noun; as, kutamblxa mu nsubu, to cause to 
pass through the house. 

(j) Up on inside of: heulu ha. { 364. 

Manva adl heulu ha nsubu, the corn is up on (a loft inside) of thU 


430* Just as we have found a paucity of pure adverbs and prepo- 
sitions in the Buluba-Lulua language, so we also find a scarcity of 
pure conjunctions. 

The Conjunctions may be divided into two general classes: (a) Co- 
drdinate and Correlative, and (6) Subordinate. 

I. Coordinate and Correlative Conjunctions. 

431. These connect words, phrases, clauses or sentences of the 
same order or rank in the sentence. 

432. Ne is the most conunon coordinate conjunction and means 

Rem. I. Ne is not expressed so often as the and of the English, espe- 
cially when two verbs follow each other in close succession. 
Wakuya, wakumuamblla, he went and told him. 
Rem. 2. Ne . . . ne expresses the correlative both , , , and, 
Ulftme bana bebl ne bad! aha ne badl kule, watch ever thy children^ 
both those who are here and those who are far away. 

433. Naxa . . . naxa (§ 415, Rem. 2) is apparently a negative 
word which expresses the English either . . . <7r, the idea seeming to 
heifnot.,. then. 

Naxa mlbela wampa, naxa mabue wampa, give me either cowries 
or beads. 

Rem. Neither . . . nor is perhaps best expressed by throwing both 
parts into the negative. 

Ciena musue luebo, clena musue mabue, 7 want neither saU nor 


434. The word f nyl means or and is generally used in asking ques- 

Udi nkfiba lueho, f nyl, udl ukdba ciluln 7 a/re you looking for saU 

or jor cloth ? 
Nealue kabldl Inyi 7 will he come hack again or {not) t 
Rem. This word Inyl is often used in simple interrogative sentences 

when there is no other interrogative word. See the example just given 


435. Tadi and kadi mean hut. They are, however, not used so 
frequently as the corresponding English equivalent; the sentences are 
simply placed in juxtaposition and the arrestive idea is expressed more 
by the tone of the voice and the. position of the sentences than by any 
particular word. 


436. Subordinate Conjunctions are those that join a subordinate or 
dependent clause to that on which it depends. Since these various 
subordinate clauses are treated more fully under Syntax, a full dis- 
cussion of the uses of these conjunctions is postponed for the present. 
Only a summary b made for the sake of reference. They may be 
divided as follows: 

(a) Those used in Noun Clauses: 

(i) Ne: ihat, whether, whether . . . or, { 455 (J) (2) and (3). 
(a) Indirect Questions used as noun clauses are introduced by 

I. Relative pronouns with antecedents omitted, meaning who, 

whom, what, which, etc. { 472 (a). 
II. Relative pronouns with antecedents dituku, diba, did, etc., 

omitted, meaning when. { 472 {h), 
UL The locatives prefixed, meaning where, whence, whither, 

I 47a (0. 

IV. Mua with infinitive, or mn- prefixed directly to verb, mean- 
ing how. § 472 (d). 
When the munyl? modifies an adjective, see { 472 (d) (2). 

V. CI- prefixed to affirmative verb and mu- to negative verb, 
meaning why, § 472 (e) (i) and (2). 

(b) Those used in Adverb Clauses: 

(i) Locatives prefixed to express place, such as where, whence, 
whither, etc. {( 321 and Rems., 457. 


(2) Ha- prefixed is used 

I. To express after, when, as soon as, etc. § 458 (a) (i) and '2). 
II. To express before, § 458 (b) and (5). 

III. To express tUl, until. { 458 (c). 

IV. To express whUe. { 458 (J) (2). 

(3) Ku mp&la and diambedi, before. { 458 (b) (2) and (3). 

(4) Bl- prefixed, if. §§ 459 (a) and (b), 460 (a) and (ft). 

(5) Bu separable, if. §§ 459 (c), 460 (c). 

(6) Mu- prefixed, a^, like. § 465. 

(7) Bua separable, because, for, since. § 466. 

(c) Subordinate clauses not introduced by conjunctions in Bu^uba- 
Lulua, but having a conjunction in English: 

(i) Before sometimes. { 458 (6) (4). 

(2) Until sometimes. § 458 (c) Rem. 

(3) All constructions expressing purpose and meaning that, in order 
that, so as to, lest, etc. § 461. 

(4) Constructions expressing result and meaning that. § 463. 

(5) Comparative constructions. § 464. 


437. This language is quite rich in Interjections. These, combined 
with many significant gestures, clicking in the throat, and other meth- 
ods more or less articulate, make the language and the speaker pic- 
turesque. One of the quickest ways of winning the heart of a native is 
to lay in a good supply of interjections and learn his methods of ges- 
ticulation. There are many onomatopoetic words and phrases, which 
the natives are particularly skilled in using, but it is hardly profita- 
ble to attempt to introduce them here. Sometimes these may have a 
substantive or an adjectival use. 

Some of the more common interjections are as follows: 

(a) Aka, kaka, kia and da express simple surprise. 

(b) D! expresses a scattering, as of people when they are frightened. 
{c) Eyo indicates assent or satisfaction. 

(d) Mame [§ 437 (e)], mamo, mamu wetu mamu, baba wetu baba 
and tatu wetu tatu are all expressions of pain or sudden unpleasant 
surprise. These words mean father and mother. 

{e) -E(ye) is pK)stpK)sitive and is used in calling or addressing a per- 
son at a distance. It may come after any part of speech and is gen- 
erally translated by the English O. 


(/) Elele expresses amusing surprise. 

(g) Muoyo, lifey is the ordinary salutation and means good mornings 
good evening^ good day, etc. 

Note i. The Baluba often say Ixaku or Inyixaku; then the person 
addressed responds, "Ndl mulnylxe.'* 

Note 2. The Bakftte say wlbika, the one responding says nibika. 

Note 3. The Bakuba say wlnung, the one responding says dlnung. 

(h) To implies very far, very long, etc. 


438. Necessarily many matters usually treated under Syntax have 
already been dealt with in considering the various parts of speech. 
These will not be repeated here except when necessary to complete 
the line of thought. 

Sentences may be classified as Simple, Compound and Complex. 


439. A Simple Sentence is one made up of one subject and one 
predicate, either one or both of which may be compKJund. 

Rem. I. The imperative mood makes a simple sentence, as far as 
its general construction is concerned, so it needs no special treatment 

Rem. 2. The direct interrogative makes also a simple sentence, but 
a fuller discussion of this is reserved for another place. §§ 468, 469. 

The Subject. 

440. The Subject is the governing word in the sentence, and owing 
to the principle of alliterative concord its influence is far-reaching 

441. The subject may be 

(a) A single noun. 

Muntu wakuya, the person has gone, 

(b) The simple pronominal prefix, or this in connection with a dis- 
junctive personal pronoun, an interrogative pronoun, or one of the 

Bakuya, they have gone; bobo bakuya, they have gone; eu udl 
ux&Ia, wawa wakuya, this (person) is staying, that one has gone, 
Udi umbikila nganyi ? who is calling me ? 

(c) An infinitive. 

Kuambila bantu bakuabo bualu bua Nzambi kudi kuhita kuxi« 
kama hatuhu, to tell other people God's palaver is better than to sit idle. 


(d) Locative words, phrases and clauses. 

Kuenu kadi bantu ba bunsl, at your town are plenty oj people, 

Mu musoko wetu muakadl nkazama, in our viUage there was a 
leopard (loc. phrase). 

Mu nsubn kamnena bantu, th$re are no people in the house (loc. 

Ku IbanJ kndl kulmpe, at Ibanj it is good (loc. phrase). 

Hadibo badlma hadl mazlnde a bungi, where they are working there 
is plenty of grass (loc. clause). 

Rem. The above phrases and clauses used as subject are perhaps 
not properly subjects, but they at least furnish the concord of the verb 
and are very much like the English expletive or temporary subject, 
there, which is the most natural translation of the above phrases and 
clauses, when the real subject is thrown after the verb. 

{e) An adjective or numeral with its noun understood. 

BasAtu bakulua, three (people) came; bakuabo bakuya, the others 
have gone, 

if) Compound, i.e., made up of different combinations of nouns and 

(i) Two or more nouns may thus be connected to form a compound 
subject. It seems rather difficult to fix any definite rule regarding the 
verb prefix in such cases, especially when the nouns belong to different 
classes. The prefix must, however, always be plural. The two follow- 
ing Remarks will be found to hold good in most cases: 

Rem. I. When the two nouns belong to class I the verb invariably 
takes the 3rd pers. pi. prefix of class I. 

Kasongo ne Ntumba bakuya, Kasongo and Ntumba have gone. 

Rem. a. When the nouns belong to any classes other than class I, 
or even class I joined with a noun of any other class, or still farther 
when the nouns belong to the same class, quite a safe rule is to use 
the pi. prefix bl- of class VII. 

Mnana ne mnkanda blakuhona, the child and the book have fallen, 

Mnkanda ne cifulu blakuhona, the book and the hat have fallen. 

Note. Occasionally, if two nouns thus compounded belong to the 
same class, they may take the pi. prefix of that class, but this seems 
rather rare, the prefix bl- being most common. 

Nsolo ne mbuxl yakufua, the fowl and the goat have died, 

(2) Two or more pronouns or nouns of different persons may form 
a compound subject. In this case the verb prefix is always pi., and it 
is ist pers. rather than 2nd or 3rd, and it is 2nd pers. rather than 3rd. 

Meme ne Kasongo tnyaya, Kasongo and I are going. 

M eme ne wewe tuyaya, you and I are going. 


Meme ne bobo tnyaya, they and I are going, 

Wewe ne yeye nnyaya, you and he are going, 

Meme ne mucl tuakuhona, the stick and I jeU, 

Wewe ne mncl nuakuhona, you and the stick fell. 

Rem. I. Another very common manner (perhaps the most common) 
of expressing the compound subject is to use the more important of 
the subjects with its regular verbal prefix, then after the verb put the 
other subject connected by the conjunction ne, and. 

Nakuya n*andl, he and I tvent, 

Naknhona ne mncl, / jell and the stick. 

Rem. a. We may also have the plural verb in such constructions, 
although the real subject is singular. 

Tuyaya ne Kasongo, Kasongo and I are going. The tnyaya pre- 
serves the plural idea. 

Rem. 3. The pronouns generally come in the order ist, and and 3rd 
pers. in compound subject construction. 

443. The subject may be modified by 

(a) An adjective, an adjective possessive pronoun, an adjective 
demonstrative pronoun, an inflected numeral. 

Rem. For two or more adjectives .modif3dng the same noun, see 


(h) An adjective phrase, with -a. (For full discussion of this sub- 
ject, see §§ 86, 87.) 

Rem. I. Note joint and separate possession. § 87 (a), Rems. i and a. 

Rem. 2. Note double prepositional forms. { 87 (<Q. 

Rem. 3. Note -a with the infinitive. § 87 (/). 

(c) A relative clause. §{ 164, etc. 

(d) A noun in apposition. 

Kueta, mnkelenge wa Kasenga, nlualiia, Kuata^ the chief of 
Kasenga, is coming, 

443. The subject may have three positions in the sentence, Natural, 
Inverted and Transposed. 

(a) In the Natural Position the subject, whether pronominal prefix 
or any other word used as subject, comes before the verb. This posi- 
tion is used in all simple and declarative sentences and needs no farther 

(b) In the Inverted Position the subject comes after the verb and 
the place of the pronominal prefix at the beginning of the verb is taken 
by a relative pronoun or some other subordinating prefix particles which 
will be mentioned below. 

Rem. I. The Inverted Position is only used when the subject is 
3rd pers. I ia6. 


Rem. 2. If the subject is a pronoun, the sufl^ form must be used. 
§ 1 20. 

Rem. 3. If the subject is a noun (or some word used as a noun), 
this comes after the verb, but the pronominal suffix cannot also be 
used at the same time § 120. 

Rem. 4. In CompK)und Tenses (§ 194), the subject, whether a noun 
or a pronominal suffix, comes after the auxiliary. Sometimes, how- 
ever, the subject, if a noun, may come after the participle, in which 
case the participle takes the same subordinating prefix as the auxiliary. 
§ 125. 

Kuakadibo badima, where they were working, 

Kuakadi bakftxl badima, where the women were working. 

Kuttt kuabuela dlba, where the sun sets. 

Rem. 5. The Inverted Position is used as follows: 

(i) In relative clauses when the relative pronoun is direct or in- 
direct object. § 165, Rem. i. 

Kabata wakuhana blntu blaktkleye, Kahata has sold the things 
which he bought. 

(2) In substantive clauses when these clauses are used as objects 
in indirect questions. In most of these cases the construction is that 
of a relative clause with antecedent omitted. Even in the substantive 
clauses when used as objects, if the subject of the clause is the relative 
pronoun, it takes the Natural Position, as would be expected. §§ 455 
{b) (i) and 472 (fl)-(c). 

Ciena mumtinye knaknya Kasongo, I don*t know where Kasongo 
has gone. 

Ciena mumftnye badi badila, I donH know who are crying. 

(3) In adverb clauses when these are introduced by the following 
subordinating prefix particles: 

I. Mu, ku and ha as Locatives Prefixed. { 32i. 

Nyaya kudiye, / am going where he is. 

II. Ha meaning after^ when, etc. { 458 (a). 

Hayabo, nenkuhe lukama lua mibela, when they go, I shall give 
you one hundred cowries. 

III. Bi meaning if. § 459. 

Biayabo, nenkuhe lukama lua mibela, if they go^ I shall give you 
one hundred cowries* 

(c) The Transposed Position is used only in direct questions in 
which an interrogative word is employed. In this case the verb takes 
the regular pronominal prefix as if the subject stood in its proper place. 


but the interrogative word which is used as subject is transposed to 
the end of the sentence. § 173 and Rem. 2. 

Wakumut&ha nganyi? who struck him ? 

Bakuya kOdila mukelenge nsolo banganyi ? who have gone to buy 
fowls for the chief? 

Note. Where there is no distinctly interrogative word, the Natural 
Order is used, only the tone of the voice indicating the interrogation. 

The Predicate. 

444. The Predicate, when expressed, is always a finite part of the 
verb and may be found in any simple or compound tense. The in- 
finitive or participle, standing alone, cannot constitute a complete predi- 

Rem. I. The predicate takes the pronominal prefixes proper to its 
subject, when the subject is in the Natural or Transposed Positions 
[§ 443 (^) and (c)]; when, however, the sentence h9,s its subject in 
the Inverted Position, the verb takes the pronominal suflfixes proper 
to the subject. In this last case it is necessary to note that the place 
of the pronominal prefix at the beginning of the verb is taken either 
by a relative pronoun used as direct or indirect object or by one of 
the subordinating prefix particles mu, ku, ha, ha {when, after y etc.), bl. 

Rem. 2. For agreement of predicate with compound subject, see 
§ 441 (J) and remainder of section. 
. Rem. 3. For agreement of predicate with buonso, aU of, when fol- 
lowed by the possessive adjective pronouns, see § 182, Rem. 

445. The predicate when used as simple copula is often omitted, 
but its place is taken by n(m) which is prefixed to the predicate noun, 
adjective, etc. § 81. 

Rem. I. Note the usual euphonic changes following n. §§ 29, 31, 

32, ZZ- 

Rem. 2. It is also to be noted, as might be expected, that w and y 
are restored to their original u and 1, since they no longer begin the 
word. §§ 27, 28. 

Rem. 3. An adjective following a noun which has this prefixed n 
retains the original prefix of the class unchanged. 

Rem. 4. This copula in n is not used when it would be followed 
by the locatives or any of the locative combinations. In that case 
the regular copulative verbs meaning to he^ such as dl, tadi, etc., must 
be used. 

Rem. 5. The negative simply prefixes the regular negative sign ka- 
to the n. §§ 197, 199. 


Examples of the predicate with n: 

Eel clfulu ncilnyl, clacia ncla Kabata, ^is hat is mine, that one 
is Kabata* s. 

Bllulu blandl mblmpe, his clothes are good* 

Muana eu ngulnyl, this child is mine, 

Nsolo el ngllnyl, these jowls are mine. 

Dl ^la Niambl ndungenyi lueta, dl dlA Sataaa ndnfn laetu, 
the word of God is our wisdom, the word of the devil is our death. 

Cifalu eel kancllnyl, this hat is not mine, 

Muntu eu kanguandl, this person is not his, 

446. The predicate may be compound, in which case the conjunc- 
tion is generally omitted. 

Bantu bakublka, bakuya, the people have gottmt up and haw ffme. 

447« The predicate may be modified by 

(a) A simple adverb. 

Ta lukftsa, go quickly, 
if) An infinitive or infinitive phrase. 

Bakuya koluansana, they have gone to fight, 
(c) A prepositional phrase. 

Badl baxikama ha mesa, they are sitting on the table, 

{d) An adverbial clause expressing the various relations of time, 
place, condition, etc. 

Hanallka ku musoko, nenknhe mibela, when I reach the 
village I shall give you the cowries. 

448. The position of the predicate modifiers is generally after the 

Rek. I. For emphasis, a prepositional phrase may sometimes come 
first in the sentence, and the adverb clause is regularly first. 

Mu nsubu mud! bantu, in the house there are people. 

Binuik&la bltabuxe bualu baa Nsambi, neanusimglle, if you 
accept God^s palaver, he will save you. 

Rkk. 2. Monyl ? why f, when used with negative questions, comes 
first. § 420 {h), 

449. The complements of the predicate may be 

(a) A predicate noun or pdjective or pronoun or prepositional phrase. 

Rex. The predicate with n is the most common oonstructian here. 



(6) A direct object which may be 
(i) A simple noun. 

Wakuziha nsolo, h^ killed the fowl. 

(2) A pronoun, which may be possessive, demonstrative, relative, 

interrogative or indefinite. 
Wakuziha winyl (nsolo, fowl), he killed mine. 
Ndl nsunsnla ciacia (cifnlu, hat), I choose that one. 
Tuakudia bintu blakutuheye, we have eaten the things which 

he gave us. 
Bakut&ha nsanyl ? whom have they killed f 
Bakftla bionso, they bought them all (blntu, things). 

(3) A pronominal infix. 

Niambi wakutufuka, God created us. 

(4) An infinitive. 

Nsnasua kujra ku mnkelense, I wish to go to the chief. 

(5) A simple adjective or numeral agreeing with the noun under- 

BakOla bis&tu, they bought three (bifulu, hats). 

(6) A subordinate clause, thus making a complex sentence. 
Wakundeza hakadi bana, he showed me where the children 


(7) A prepositional infinitive phrase. § 239 (5), Rem. i. 

Udi uk^iba kua kuteka bintu, he is looking where to pu^ (he 

(8) Compound, in which case we may have 

I. Two or more nouns connected by conjunctions. 

Nakumona muloml ne makAzl'andi, / saw the man and 
his wife. 

II. A noun and the pronominal infix used as objects. 

Nakumumona ne mukAzl'andl, / saw him and his wife. 

III. A pronoun and the pronominal infix used as objects. 
Nakukumona ne eu, I saw you and this (person). 
Niambi wakutufuka ne bobo, God created us and them. 

IV. Two pronouns. 

Nakumona eu ne wawa« 7 saw this one and that one (monta 
person, understood). 


(c) An indirect object which may be 
(i) A simple noun. 

Nakuha Kasongo clfuln, / gave Kasongo a hat. 

(2) A pronoun, which may be possessive, demonstrative, relative, 

interrogative or indefinite. 
Wakuamblka winyl (mbua, dog) manylnyl, he gave mine the 

Wakuamblka eu munyinyl, he gave this one the meat. 
Ea mbua wakaha Kasongo munylnyi, this is the dog to which 

Kasongo gave the meat. 
Waknha nganyl clfulu? to wham did you give the cloth f 

(3) A pronominal infix. 

Wakomuha clfulu, he gave him a hat. 

(4) Compound, in which case we may have 

I. Two or more nouns connected by conjunctions. 

Nakuha mulumi lueho ne mukfixPandl, / gave the man 
and his wife some salt. 
II. A noun and the pronominal infix used as indirect object. 
JUus wakutuha muoyo ne bana bandl bonso, Jesus has 
given us and all his children life. 

III. A pronoun and the pronominal infix used as indirect object. 
Wakumpa bintu ne eu, he gave me and this {person) the 


IV. Two demonstrative pronouns. 

Wakuha eu bintu ne wawa, he gave this (person) things 
and that one also, 
(d) An object with an objective (or factitive) predicate noun. 
Bakumuldlka Kabeya, they named him Kaheya. 
Bakuangata Kasongo mukelenge wabo, they made Kasongo 
their chiefs lit. have taken him as their chief. 
Rem. The idea of appointing to a certain ofl5ce is generally expressed 
by kuha, to give, followed by the abstract name of the office. 
Bakuha Kasongo bukelenge, they appointed Kasongo chief, 
{e) A double object. 

Wakulomba mukelenge lueho, he begged the chief for salt; 
wakumbanda bulbl, he accused me of stealing. 
(/) A direct and an indirect object. 

Nakuha Kasongo lueho, I gave Kasongo some salt. 


(g) An internal object (Cognate Accusative), i.e., an object which is 
of kindred significance to the verb and represents the idea 
already contained in the verb. 

Bakuxa maxa, they danced (a dance), 
Wakuonona biono, he snored {snores). 

450. The position of direct and indirect objects must be noted. 

(a) When the verb has only one direct object this regularly follows 
the verb, the only exception being the pronominal infix. 

Wakuxiha nsolo, he killed the fowl; wakumuxiha, he killed it 
(nsolo, jowl). 

Rem. I. In the passive voice construction' with the 3rd pers. pi. and 
kudl, the object, which is really the subject in English, may some- 
times for emphasis be placed first. 

Mbuxl bakuxiha kudl Kasongo, the goat was killed by Kasongo. 

Rem. 2. Sometimes, for emphasis, the object in ordinary construc- 
tions may come before the verb, but this is rare. Be cautious about 
putting an3rthing before the verb other than the subject or the word 
with which the predicate is to agree in prefix — the tendency of the 
language is strongly against it. 

{h) When a verb has a direct and an indirect object we must note 

(i) When both objects are nouns they follow the verb, the indirect 
object coming first. 

Nakuha Kasongo clfulu, / gave Kasongo a hat. 

Note. ITie same rule holds good when any pronominal word other 
than pronominal infix or suffix takes the place of either direct or in- 
direct object; as, nakuha eu clfulu, / gave this (man) a hat; nakuha 
Kabeya ciacia, I gave Kaheya that one (clfulu). 

(2) When the direct object is a noun or a demonstrative pronoun 
or a possessive pronoun or an interrogative pronoun, and the indirect 
object is a personal pronoun, then the direct object comes after the 
verb and the indirect object takes the pronominal infix form. 

Wakumuha clfulu, he gave him a hat. 
Wakumuha clacla, he gave him that one (clfulu). 

(3) When the indirect object is a noun or a demonstrative pronoun 
or a possessive pronoun or an interrogative pronoun, and the direct 
object is a personal pronoun, then the direct object takes the pronominal 
infix form: 

Wakuclha Kasongo, he gave it (clfulu) to Kasongo. 

(4) When both direct and indirect objects are personal pronouns, 
see § 127. 


451. The direct and indirect object may be modified by adjectives, 
etc., in the same manner as the subject. § 442 (a)-{d), 


453. The Compound Sentence is made up of two or more simple 
sentences which may or may not be connected by a conjunctive word. 
These simple sentences follow in every particular the principles already 
laid down for the Simple Sentence. {{ 439-451* 

The coordinate conjunction is most frequently omitted. { 433, Rem. i. 

Kacunga wakuya ku IbanJ, Kongola wakualuka kna Ndumba, 
Kacunga has gone to Ibanj and Kongola has returned from Ndumba*s. 


453. The Complex Sentence, being made up of an independent 
clause and one or more dependent clauses, may be best treated accord- 
ing to the character of the dependent clause, which may have the force 
of an Adjective or a Substantive or an Adverb. 

Rem. The same general rules for subject, predicate, objects, etc., 
which have been considered under the Simple Sentence also hold good 
for the subordinate clauses in complex sentences. 

A The Adjective Clause. 

454. The Adjective Clause is always introduced by the relative 
pronoun and always follows the noun or pronoun which it qualifies. 
For full treatment of the Adjective Clause, see {{ 164, etc. 

B. The Substantive Clause. 

455. The Substantive Clauses have the force of nouns in their 
relation to the verb of the independent clause. The Substantive 
Clause is. generally used as follows: 

(a) As subject of the verb in independent clause. 

Kasongo, ne uyaya ka IbanJ, ne udl ux&la munemu, mbaalu 
buandl, whether Kasongo goes to Ibanj or remains here is his affair 
(formbualu, see { 445). 

(6) As object of the verb in the independent clause. 

(i) The whole list of Indirect Questions can be thus used as objects. 
Of course the greater part of these are nothing more than relative 
clauses with antecedents omitted. 

Ciena mumfhnye kudiye, / don*t know where he is. 


(2) Here also may be placed the Direct Discourse constniJtion 
after the verbs of saying, thinking, etc., in which the verb of the in- 
dependent clause expressed or understood is connected with the follow- 
ing noun clause by the subordinating conjunction ne (sometimes se). 

There does not seem to be any distinctly Indirect Discourse con- 
struction, involving such a formidable array of sequence of tenses as 
we find in Indo-European languages. The exact words of the speaker 
are usually quoted, in which case the ne becomes really equivalent 
to thuSf saying, or some such expression usually employed before a direct 
quotation. Of course, when translating into English the usual that 
is generally employed, with the accompanying tense sequence. 

Muktkxl wakuamba ne, ** Ndl musue lacho,** ihe woman says that 
she wants some salt, lit. spake saying, *'/ want some salt." 

Wakamba ne, *' Ciena ndaa lelu,** he said that he would not come 

S&l wakukonka Jlsus ne, ** Udi musue ngense clnyl ? **, Saul asked 
Jesus what he wished him to do. 

Rem. I. Sometimes the verb of saying, thinking, etc., is not ex- 

Muoyo wandl wakunylngala ne, **Munyl clledi bllnyl muana? '*, 
Her heart was sad (and she said), " Why do I not hear a child f " 

REIT. 2. It is important to note the mood (purportive) in the follow- 
ing expressions where in English we have an infinitive construction : 

Ya wamblle bantu badime, go and tell the people to work, lit. that 
they may work. 

When the person delivers the above message he says, udi wamba 
ne badime, he says for them to work, i.e. let them work. 

Ya umuamblle ab&le mlbela, go and tell him to count the cowries. 

The person delivering this message will say. udi wamba ne abftle 

Ya umuamblle alue, go and tell him to come. 

(3) Note here the constructions for whether {if) and whether . . . or. 
The subordinating conjunction is ne and ne . . . ne. 

Ya umone bantu ne badl badlma, go and see whether the people 
are working. 

Mona ne mudl tulxl, see if there are any insects in it, 

Ciena mumiinye ne wakuya, / donH know whether he went {or 

Ciena mumiknye ne wakuya ne udiku, / donH know whether he 
went or stayed {is here). 


C. The Adverb Clause. 

456. The Adverb Clause qualifies the verb or an adverb or an ad- 
jective in an independent clause, and may express the various rela- 
tions of Place, Time, Condition, Purpose, Cause and Manner. 

Rem. I. Generally some subordinating word or particle connects 
the two clauses, and these give to the subject of the dependent clause 
the Inverted Position when the subject is 3rd pers. {§ 443 (6) and 

Rem. 2. Sometimes the dependent clause follows the independent 
clause, sometimes it precedes it. The English order in such cases is 
usually a safe guide. 

Adverb Clauses of Place. 

457* The Adverb Clauses of Place are expressed by means of the 
Prefixed Locative construction and are to be translated by where, 
whence f whither y etc. § 321. 

Udi ulala hakahoneye, he is lying where he fell. 

Rem. For where in indirect questions, see § 472 (c). 

Adverb Clauses of Time. 

458« It is found better to take the more common English time 
constructions and group them according to meanings, then give their 
equivalents in the Buluba-Lulua. 

(a) After, when, as soon as, aSy are expressed by prefixing ha- to 
the verb of the dependent clause. 

(i) In past constructions the indicative mood in some appropriate 
past tense is used. 

Hakablka Jlsus ku lufu, wakaya k(klu kua Tata*andi, after 
(when) Jesus had risen from the dead, he went up to his Father^ s. 

Hanakadl ndua ku masoko, tuakusangakana ne Kasongo ma 
nxlla, as I was coming from the village, Kasongo and I met in the path. 

(2) In future construction the present subjunctive is used in the 
subordinate clause, while the independent clause may have any tense 
expressing future idea, such as imperative, future or present progressive 
indicative, present purportive. 

Hawab&la mlbela, uye ku masoko, ajter (when, as soon as) you 
have counted the cowries, you may go to the village. 

(b) Before is expressed under various circumstances by ha- prefixed 
to the verb, by ka mp&la, by ku mp&la ku-, by dlambedi, by the 


simple negative, by ha- having the same force as has been mentioned 
under § 458 (a) (i) (2). 

(i) Ha- in connection with dlambedl is used mostly with past tenses 
in the indicative mood. 

Munyl kuangaci clkowela dlambedl, hawakulua? why did you 
not get your coat before you came? 

Hakuyeye ku musoko, wakuela clfufu ne Kabeya dlambedl, 
bejore he went to the village he had a consultation with Kaheya. 

Rem. Sometimes we hear hu- instead of ha-. 

(2) Ku mp&la, without a following ku- joined to the verb, has more 
the force of first. We have in this case nothing more than two simple 
sentences, but the order of the clauses is inverted, as will be seen from 
the following examples. This construction serves for any of the moods 
and tenses. 

The word dlambedl can be used in place of the phrase ku mp&la. 

Ku mp&la (or dlambedl), ub&le mibela, uye ku musoko, first 
count the cowries y then go to the village \ or before going to the vUlage, 
count the cowries. 

Ku mp&la (or dlambedl), wakuela clfufu ne Kabeya, wakuya 
ku musoko, first he had a consultation with Kabeya^ then he went to 
the village. 

Rem. Sometimes the sentence with ku mp&la or dlambedl is thrown 
into the negative, in which case the clauses are in the same order as 
when before is used. The Negative I (§ 225) followed by a participle 
is the most common construction here. 

Ku mp&la (or dlambedl) kal muye, wakub&la mibela, before he 
went he counted the cowries, i.e., first, he had not gone yet, he counted 
the cowries. 

Ku mp&la (or dlambedl) Kasongo kal muye ku musoko, wakuela 
clfufu ne Kabeya, before Kasongo went to the village he had a con- 
sultation with Kabeya. 

(3) Ku mp&la ku- and dlambedl ha- are used exactly as before 
in English and the clauses have the same order as in English. 

Rem. I. The ku- becomes a prefix to the verb, causing the subject 
to take the Inverted Position when it is 3rd pers. 

Rem. 2. In past tenses use the ordinary past tenses of the indicative 
mood in both clauses. 

Rem. 3. In future or present general constructions use the present 
subjunctive mood in the dependent clause and any present or future 
tense of the indicative, imperative or purportive moods in the inde- 
pendent clause. 

Rem. 4. Sometimes the ha- following dlambedl is omitted. 



Ka mp&la kawakuya (or dlambedi hawakuya), wakubftla mlbela, 

before you went, you counted the cowries. 

Ka mp&la (or dlambedi kul uya) kuwaya, nbftle mlbela, hejore 
you go, count the cowries, 

Ku mp&la kuayeye, ab&le mibela, before he goes, let him count the 

Ku mp&la kawaya, nenkuh* mibela, before you go, I shall give 
you the cowries. 

(4) The simple negative is used in the subordinate clause with no 
real subordinating word to express the idea of before. This construc- 
tion is nothing more than two simple sentences. Some form of the 
Negative I ({ 225) is most often found here, having with the following 
past participle a past idea, though the verb in the independent clause 
may be either past, present or future in its significance. 

Nakub&la mibela, ct muanse kulua, I counted the cowries before I 
came, j.e., I had not yet come. 

Kul muanie kuya, ub&le mibela, before you go count the cowries, 
i.e., you have not yet gone, count the cowries. 

Rem. Note also the neg. form with ku mp&la and dlambedi ha-, 
which is the most common construction. } 458 (6) (2), Rem. 

(5) We may also express before by transposing the clauses and using 
ha- with the same constructions as are employed for after, \ 458 (a) (i) 
and (2). 

Hawab&la mibela, aye ku musoko, after you have counted the 
coTvries go to the village, i.e., before you go to the village, count the cowries. 

(c) TiU, until, seem best expressed by ha- joined to the verb exactly 
as in the rendering of after, with this in turn followed by a verb 
expressing what is done after the preceding temporal clause. { 458 
(a) (I) and (2). 

Ta udime, hela ngoliga, alekele, go and work tiU the bell rings* 
i.e., go and work; when the bell rings, stop. 

Rem. The idea of till and until may often be expressed by two simple 
sentences; as, imfhna, nduadaa, wait until I come, i.e., wait, I am 

(d) For when we may have the following constructions: 
(i) In the sense of after, see { 458 (a) (i) and (2). 

(2) In the sense of while it is perhaps best expressed by ha- joined 
with any of the tenses of the indicative mood; as, Jlsus, hakadiye 
ka bulobo, kal maanse kaya ktklu, wakatuxlla di diandi, Jesus, 
while he was on the earth, before he ascended, left for us his word. 

(3) In indirect questions, see { 472 (6). 


Adverb Clauses of Condition. 

459. Conditional clauses are introduced by the subordinating 
particles bl- (inseparable) and bu (separable), if. 

Note the extensive use of the auxiliary Ik&la ( j 227) in these con- 
ditional constructions, owing to the usual auxiliaries being defective 
in the subjunctive mood. 

(a) Present General Conditions are formed by using in the prota- 
sis bi- with the present subjunctive, and in the apodosis the pres- 
ent progressive indicative or imperative or any other present con- 

Blwlk&la maana wa Xsambl, kaena mulvt, if you are a child of 
God, you are not a thief. 

Bltaik&la benie bimpe, bantu bakuabo badl batusue, if we do 
well, other people love us. 

(6) Future Conditions form the protasis by prefixing bl- to the 
present subjunctive^ while the apodosis employs the future indicative 
or any other future construction. 

Blwadlma blmpe, nenkuhe mlbela, if you work well, I shall give 
you some cowries. 

Bltuadlma blmpe, neatahe mlbela, if we work well, he will give 
us some cowries. 

Bladlmeye bimpe, nemahe mtbela, if he works well, I shall give 
him some cowries. 

Rem. Note the frequent use of the present subjunctive of Ik&la with 
the past active participle in the protasis. 

Bituik&la badlme blmpe, neatuhe mlbela, if we work well, he will 
give us some cowries. 

BIk&labo badlme blmpe, nembahe mlbela, if they work well, I shaU 
give them some cowries. 

(c) Past or Impossible Conditions form the protasis with bu followed 
by the past active participle agreeing with the subject, while the apod- 
osis takes the past subjunctive. 

Ba wewe mulue luktksa, Lazalus kakadi kufua, if you had come 
quickly y Lazarus would not have died. 

Ba bobo badlme blmpe, nakadi kubafuta, if they had worked well, 
I would have paid them. 

Rem. The subject always seems to be necessary before the participle 
in the protasis. 

460. When the protasis is negative and is to be translated by if not, 
unless, except, we have the following constructions for the three classes 


of conditions, the apodosis remaining unchanged, that is, the same 
as affirmative protasis: 

(a) For Present General Conditions we have present subjunctive 
affirmative of ik&la preceded by bi-, followed by the present tense of 
the Negative I. This may in turn be followed by the past active parti- 
ciple when it is required. This is the negative present subjunctive. 

S 305- 

Blwik&la kul rnnana wa Nsambl, udl nmana wa Satana, if you 

are not a child of God, you are a child of the devil. 

{b) For Future Conditions use the construction as indicated in { 305 
for the neg. present subjunctive. 

Biwlk&la kul madlme blmpe, elena nkuha mlbela, if you don*t 
work welly I shall not give you any cowries. 

Blk&labo kabai badlme blmpe, clena mbaha mlbela, if they don't 
work welly I shall not give them the cowries. 

Rem. We car also have here simply the present tense of the Nega- 
tive 1, followed by the past active participle with the forms of Ikftla 
omitted; the bl- in this case is also omitted. 

Kul mudime blmpe, clena nkuha mlbela, {if) you donH work weU^ 
I shall not give you the cowries. 

(c) In Past Conditions with neg. protasis, use bu followed always 
by the subject expressed, with this followed by the Negative I, and 
this in turn by the past active participle. 

Bu nuenu kanul badlme blbl, nakadl kunuha mlbela, if you had 
not worked hadlyy I would have given you the cowries. 

Adverb Clauses of Purpose. 

461 • These Dependent Clauses of Purpose are in English intro- 
. duced by thai, so that^ in order to^ in order that, to; in Buluba-Lulua 
they are expressed for the most part by the purportive mood without any 
subordinating conjunctive word. 

Ta udlmlne Kabata, alue blandl kunoku, go and work for Kabata, 
that he may come here. 

Lua ne bla kudla, mulunda winyl adle, bring something to eat, 
that my friend may eat. 

Muha ml, anue, give him some water that he may drink. 

Ndl nk£ba muntu, aye ku musoko, / am looking for a man to go 
to the village. 

Ndl mbatuma, baye kudlma, I am sending them to work, i.e., in order 
that they may work. 

Ya wambile bantu, badlme, go and tell the people to work. § 455 
(6) (2), Rem. 2. • 


Rem. The negative so that not, in order that not, lest, etc., is ex- 
pressed by the simple purportive negative. 

Sulka mukoko blkille, kautuke, tie the sheep tightly, lest ii get 

Tula eukuku, kaclt&he bantu ku makCksa, pull up the root in 
order that it may not strike people on the feet. 

Ndl ngela malobo mu dlna, ctlue kudixlndamu, / am putting dirt 
in the hole that I may not come and fall in it. 

462. The infinitive mood in several constructions expresses the 
purpose idea. 

(a) The infinitive in an adjective phrase is often thus used. { 239 (b), 

Muha ml a kunua, give him some water to drink. 

Lua ne clntu cia kuclbula n*ael luhansa, bring the thing for 
opening the box. 

Rem. It is important to distinguish here between the infinitive and 
the purportive mood constructions. In the former the adjective idea 
prevails, in the latter the purpose idea prevails to such an extent that 
a new clause is introduced. Hence muha ml a kunua means give 
him some drinking-water-, while muha ml, anue means give him some 
water that he may drink, 

{b) The infinitive as an adverb is used in the purpose sense. 

Bakuya kuluangana, they are going to fight. 

Rem. Here, too, it is necessary to distinguish between infinitive and 
purportive construction. { 240 and Rem. 

Adverb Clauses of Result, 

463. This construction, which in English furnishes a subordinate 
clause introduced by that following upon so in the independent clause, 
is perhaps best expressed in Buluba-Lulua by two independent clauses, 
and is consequently not a complex senfence. 

Wakuya to lubllu, wakudlxlnda, he ran so quickly that he fell 

Adverb Clauses of Degree or Comparison. 

464. In English these clauses are introduced by than, as . . , as, 
not so . . . as, etc., following upon a comparative adjective or adverb 
in the independent clause. In Buluba-Lulua we find here again the 
simple rather than the complex sentence construction. 

(a) For comparison of adjectives, see §§ 88, 89. 

(b) For comparison of adverbs, see § 403. 

(c) For the construction with as . . . as, see {{ 90 (d). 
{d) For the cpnstryctipn with not fP . , . as, see ^ 90 («), 


Adverb Clauses of Manner, 

465« In English these clauses are introduced by as, just as, like, 
while in Buluba-Lulua they are introduced by the inseparable prefix 
mu-, derived no doubt from monyl ? haw f , in answer to the question, 
HawshaUI doitf 

Enia mandl ngensa, do as I am doing, 

Nealue blandl muakuyeye, he will come again (in the same manner) 
as he went. 

Rem.. Very often we have nankn, thus, in the independent clause. 

Adverb Clauses of Cause, 

466. These clauses are introduced in English by because, for, since; 
in Bulub^-Lulua they are introduced by bna. This baa is for bu+a 
with boaio, palaver, understood; and it is separable, consequently the 
Natural Position prevails in the dependent clause. 

Wakuya ku IbanJ, bua mulunda wandl udl ubela, he has gone to 
Ibanj, because his friend is sick. 

Boa mulunda winyl udl ubeia, bunakuluila ku IbanJ, because my 
friend is sick, therefore I have come to Ibanj, See § 419. 


467. Interrogative sentences may, for convenience of treatment, be 
divided into Direct and Indirect. 

I. Direct Interrogative Sentences. 

468. These ask a direct question to which an answer is expected, 
and they follow the general construction of the Simple Sentence through- 
out, save that the interrogative word, when one is used, generally comes 
last in the sentence whether this interrogative word be subject, direct 
object, indirect object, adverb or prepositional phrase. For full treat- 
ment of direct interrogatives with interrogative pronouns, see {§ 173, 
etc.; for their treatment with interrogative adverbs, see §§ 381, 400, 
411, 420. 

Waknya nganyl ? who has gone f 

Bakutftha nganyl ? whom did they strike f 

Uyaya kudl knnyl ? where are you going f 

Bakulba elf uln ellnyl kudl nganyl ? who stole my hat f 

Ciakuhona cinyi ? what {thing) fell ? 

Rem. I. When the interrogative word is an indirect object it takes 


its place immediately after the verb, if the direct object is a noun or a 
demonstrative pronoun, Cf. { 450 (b) (i), Note. 

Udl akuaclla nganyl clfalu? for whom are you holding the hoi? 

Wakaha nganyl clacta? to whom has he given that one (clfulu) ? 

Rem. 2. When the subject of the interrogative sentence is expressed 
and is not the interrogative word, it takes its regular place at the begin- 
ning of the sentence. 

Kasongo wakuha nganyi clfulu 7 to wham did Kasongo give the 

Rem. 3. Munyl ? why? in negative sentences comes first. § 420 {h), 

469. In sentences where simple yes or no is expected there is generally 
no interrogative word. The interrogation in this case is indicated by 
raising the tone of the last vowel of the sentence. This corresponds 
to the English, but where the English makes the subject postpositive 
in such sentences, the Buluba-Lulua retains the subject in its normal 
place at the beginning of the sentence. 

Wakuya ? has he gone f 

Mbua wakadla munylnyl ? did the dog eat the meat f 

Rem. I. Often the word inyl, or not^ asks the question in such con- 
structions; as, wakuya Inyl? has he gone or not? § 434, Rem. 

Rem. 2. Note the peculiar idiom when the question is negative fonn. 
§ 414, Rem. 2. 

II. Indirect Interrogative Sentences. 

470* In Indirect Interrogative Sentences we have not the question 
but the answer to the direct question. 

471* These sentences are generally complex, and the subordinate 
clause has the equivalent of a substantive. { 455 (6) (i). 

47^3* The dependent clauses in such sentences are usually nothing 
more than relative clauses with the antecedents omitted. The more 
common English words introducing these indirect question clauses are 
who^ whom, what, which, when, where, whither, whence, how and 
why, depending upon the word used in the direct question. 

(a) Who, whom, to whom, what, which. 

Ciena mumftnye badl badlla, / don't know who are crying. 

Ciena momAnye wakut&habo, / donH know whom they struck, 

Ciena mumftnye wakuheye clfalu, / don*t know to whom he gave 
the hat. 

Ciena mumftnye cldlye mnCma, / donU know what he is lifting 
(clntu, thing, understood). 


Ciena miimAnye ciakuangateye, I donH know which one (cifulu) 

he got. 

Ndi ngenia muakuambeye, / am doing what he said. \ 177. 
. Rem. I. The possessive whose, which is expressed in the direct form 
by an adjective phrase with -a, usually takes in the indirect form the 
word muena, owner. { 84 (6). 

Ciena mamftnye muen'acl, / donH know whose it is, i.e., I don't 
know the owner of it. 

Rem. 2. When the interrogative word would be the subject of one 
of the verbs meaning to he, this latter is omitted in the indirect question 
construction, and the interrogative word is simply incorporated as a 
pronominal in6x. 

Wawa nganyl? eiena momumanye, who is that? I don't know 
who it is, lit. I don*t know him. 

Ciena muclmanye, I don't know what it is. 

Rem. 3. It will be noted in the above examples that when the direct 
question form has cinyl ? or clnganyl ?, then the indirect form is cl; 
when the direct form is nganyi ?, the indirect form is mn; when the 
direct form is mnnyi?, the indirect form is mu. {{ 174, 175, 177. 

{b) The construction used for expressing when is determined by the 
word used in the direct question. { 400. 

Ciena momtknye dialueye, I don't know when (dltuku, day, under- 
stood) he will come. 

Ciena momtknye (ngondo) walueye, I don't know when (what 
moon) he will come. 

(c) Where, whence, whither. Here the indirect question clause is 
introduced by the locatives mu, ku or ha, and assumes the form of 
the Locatives Pre6xed. j 321. 

Ndl momtknye kuakudixlndeye, I know where he jell, 

Ndl momtknye kuyayeye, / know where he is going. 

Ciena momfinye kolualoeye, I don't know whence he is coming, i.e., 
where he is coming from. 

{d) In rendering the word how we need to note the following con- 
structions (j 465): 

(i) When the direct question is asked with monyl? ({411) following 
the verb, the subordinate clause in the indirect question takes moa 
followed by the infinitive when the subject of the infinitive is also the 
subject of the independent clause [j 239 (6), Rem. 2Ji but the sub- 
ordinate clause takes mu- prefixed to the verb when the subject of the 
subordinate is different from that of the independent clause. Com- 
pare a somewhat similar construction under § 240. 


Ciena mumftnye mua kuclbula muzftte, / donH know how to open 
the box. 

Ciena mumAnye mudiye uclbula muzftto, / donH know how he 
opens the box, 

(2) When munyl? in the direct question modifies an adjectival 
substantive (§ 411, Note i) we have either one of two constructions: 

I. We may have the substantive form of the adjective followed 
immediately by the possessive pronoun, which refers back to the noun 
modified in the direct question. 

Ciena mumanye bunlne buau (muci, sticky understood), / don*t 
know how large it m, lit. / don^t knoiv the bigness of U. 

Ciena mumanye bungi buabo, / don't know how many there are 
(bantu, people, understood), lit. / don^t know the number of them, 

II. Or we may have the substantive form of the adjective furnish- 
ing its prefix to the verb, and the prefix of the noun modified in the 
direct question furnishing the pronominal suffix. 

Ciena mumftnye bunlne budiwo, / donH know how large it is (mucl, 
stick, understood). 

Ciena mumanye bungi buyayabo, I donH know how many (bantu, 
people, understood) are going. 

{e) In rendering the word why we note the following constructions: 

(i) When the direct question is asked in the affirmative by means 
of cinyi? or cinganyi? or bizi? and the Applied Forms of the verb, 
the subordinate clause in the indirect question takes ci- prefixed to 
the Applied Form, though sometimes the simple form of the verb is used. 

Udi udidila cinyi? ciena mumftnye cidiye udidlla (or cidiye 
udila), why is he crying ? I don't know why he is crying. 

Udi uyila ku musoko cinyi? ndi mumAnye cludi uya (or ciudi 
uyila), why are you going to the village ? I know why you are going. 

(2) When the direct question is asked with munyi ?, the subordinate 
clause takes mu- prefixed to the verb, with the pronominal suffix for 
subject if the subject is 3rd pers. § 120. 

Munyi kadimi bimpe? ciena mumflnye mudiye kai mudime 
bimpe, why does he not work well ? I donH know why he does not work 

(3) When the direct question is. asked with buala kl?, the sub- 
ordinate clause takes bu- prefixed to the verb. § 420. 

Kuena mumanye bunakuluila, you don*t know why I have come. 
(/) Whether . . . or. For this construction, see § 455 (b) (3). 




1. Figures immediately after the nouns, either in parentheses or 
separated by commas, show the class to which the nouns belong. 

2. Only the root forms of verbs and adjectives are given. 

3. The words in the Buluba-Lulua-English section are arranged 
according to the English alphabet, regardless of the diacritical marks. 

4. In the Buluba-Lulua-English section, when the word being de- 
fined is repeated, it is represented by using only the first letter of the 

5. A native word or letter in parentheses indicates another way of 
spelling or pronouncing. The form in parentheses may or may not 
be found in the Dictionary. 

6. The following abbreviations are used: 

act.f active. 

adj., adjective. 

adv.f adverb. 

B.L.-Eng., Buluba-Lulua-English 

section of Dictionary. 
Buk., dialect of the Bakete. 
card.y cardinal (numeral). 
cf., compare. 
coUoq., colloquial. 
conj.f conjunction. 
demon. y demonstrative. 
dim. or dimin., diminutive. 
Eng.f English. 
Eng.'B.L., English-Buluba-Lulua 

section of Dictionary. 
infin., infinitive. 
insep.y inseparable. 
interjec.f interjection. 
interrog.^ interrogative. 
intr.y intransitive. 
lit., literally. 
loc., locative. 
»., noun. 

neg.f negative. 
nph.f noun phrase. 
num., numeral. 
ord.y ordinal (numeral). 
part.y participle. 
pass., passive. 
pers., personal. 
ph., phrase. 
pi., plural. 
poss., possessive. 
p.p., past participle. 
prep., preposition. 
pro., pronoun. 
reflex., reflexive. 
rel.y relative. 
sing., singular. 
sub., subordinate. 
subj., subject. 
trans., transitive. 
v., verb. 

vi., intransitive verb. 
vph., verb phrase. 
vL, transitive verb. 



Abandon, v/.(leave), xia, lekela. 

(lefuse), hldia, benga. 
Abase, v/., see humiliate. 
Abate, vi.(sis water), uma, kama. 
(as stream in dry weather), hue- 
Abbreviate, vt.j ihlhlxa, kehexa, 

Abdomen, n., difu, 5; munda 

[insep. prep, word, § 423 (2) 

Abhor, vt.^ use the ph. di ne lu- 

kuna (4)- This expression is 

used of persons, 
(loathe food), tonda, tua. The 

person loathing becomes the 

object of the verb; as, bidia 

bidi blntonda, / loathe the 

Abhorrence, «.(toward persons), 

lukuna, 4. 
Abide, ^'.(dwell, live), Ik&la. 
Ability, ».(mental), lungenyi, 4; 

mexl, pi. of 5 ; lukanyl (Buk.) 

(physical), buk ale, 6; ngulu, or 

ngudu, pi. of 3; dikanda, 5. 
Able, be, w., mtknya or di or 

mona followed in each case 

by mua and infinitive. 
Abort, -z;. (miscarry), tula difu, 

tula muana, lela kabixe. 

Abound, w., use any verb meaning 
to he followed by -a bungi or 
ngia-nsi or ngri; as, nyOma 
ya bung! id! muitu, animals 
abound in the forest. 
About, adv., to do, use Future Im- 
minent tense of verb or amba 
followed by infinitive; as, 
ndi ngamba kuya, / am about 
to go. 

walk, endakana. 

/>rc/>. (concerning), bualu bua. 

(at, near, around), ku. 

Sometimes the idea if contained 
in the verb; as, ndi ngamba 
cifulu, / am talking about the 
Above, adv., use the insep. root 
-ulu with mu, ku or ha as 
prefixes, according to sense. 
We then have mtklu, ktklu and 

prep., use the ph. kttlu ha mutu 
Abridge, vt., kehexa, ihihixa, 

Abscess, «.(sore), mputa, 3. 

(boil, bubo), ciuxa, 7; disungru, 

Absent, be, vi., use the negative 
verb ena with Locatives Suf- 
fixed construction; as,'kena- 
ku, he is not present, i.e., is 
absent. § 320. 




Absolutely, oJv.(very), mene. 
(truly), buliiela, buinabuina, 
buxua, buikfixa, bualabuala. 
The word bualu(5) is under- 
stood in each case. 

Absolve, vL, see pasdon. 

Absorb, vt.(dry up), kamixa, 

Abstain from, vi., hidla, le- 
kela, benga. 
(as food), Jilu. 

Abxtndance, n., buni^i, 6. 

Abxtndant, adj., -a bungl, ngi, 

Abuse, v^ (speak evil of, ofifend), 
henda, tuka. 
(abuse each other, quarrel), 

tanda, tandangana. 
(treat or use badly), n7ansa,ona. 
(with a click of the throat), sodia. 
n., clhendo, 7; matandu, pi. of 
5 or 6; cinyangu, 7. 

Accede to, v., Itabuxa. 

Accept, vt., Itabuxa. 

Accident, n.(by slipping), buflnu, 

Accidentally, adv.^ there being no 
distinct word, the idea is ex- 
pressed in the verb. For the 
accidental firing of a gun, or 
the slipping of an arrow before 
aim is taken, or the cutting of 
a finger, or the slipping of 
something from the hand un- 
intentionally, use the verbs 
flnuka, flnukila, halamuka, 
sohoka, disohokela. 

Accompany, vL, flla, ya followed 
by ne, xlndikixa. 

Accomplish, v/., ensa, osa, klxa 

Accoucheuse, n., mulelexi; (act 
as), vt.y lelexa. 

Account, «.(afiFair), bualu, 6; 
muanda, 2. 
(dpbt), dibansa, 5. 
no, see worthless. 
(on account of), bualu baa, 

muanda wa. 
(to do on one's own account). 

Account (continued). 

use the reflexive form of verb 
with -di-. § iiS: 

Accuse falsely, vt., dingila, xlmln- 
ylna, dimbila, banda. 
(accuse one behind one's back), 

(accuse one of theft), banda 

Accustom to, vL, ibldlxa. 

Accustomed, be, vi,, ibidlla, lobo- 

Ache, v., sama, bela. Generally 
the part which aches is said 
to make sick the person; as, 
mutu udi unsama, my head 
aches. Often the person is 
spoken of as aching in the part 
aJQfected; as, ndl mbela mutu, 
I am sick as to my head, 
head-, mutu followed by the p.p. 

mubele or musame. 
(smart, burn), oxa, hlakana. 
(stomach), nyenga. 

Acm, be, v., dl ne baanjl, 6; 
sasa; aya. 

Acidity, n., buanjl, 6. 

Acknowledge, t;. (confess), soko- 
la, Bokolola, tonda, dlson- 

AcQXHESCE, v.(consent), Itabuxa. 

Acquire, v., angrata. 

ACQIHT, v/., binsixa. 

(be acquitted), vi,, blnga. 

Across, prep, or adv., dixla dia, 
ku nyima kua, dia muamua 
dia. The words dixia and 
nyima are nouns belonging to 
classes V and III, respectively, 
(go across water), vi., sabuka; 

7;/.(put across), sabula. 
(go across a path, etc.), vi,, 
sambuka; 7;/.(put across), 

Act, 7;. (do), ensa, osa, kIxa(Buk.). 

Action, have, v. (of bowels), nyina. 

Actually, adv.iyexy, exactly), 

Adapt, v., see fit. 



Add, ^/.(lengthen, widen), lunga- 

kaxa, lungakanya,. lunga, 

liinsanya, diundlza, landixa, 


a little more to conclude the 

trade, sekidila, tentekela. 
(pile one on top of the other), 

ambakAxa, ambakanya. 
up, sansixa. 
Adequate, be, vf'., fuanansana, 
akanansana, dleleka, vula, 
kumbana, dl -a biinKi» xika. 
Adhere, vf., l&m&ta, kaatakana. 
cause to, vt.^ l&mlka, kuata- 

klkxa, kuatakanya. 
(come apart after adhering), 

(pull apart things adhering), 
Adherent, n., mul&m&cl, i. 
Adieu, n., muoyo, 2. 

(to tell one adieu), vt., laya; ha 
or ela or ebexa with muoyo. 


Adjacent, be, vi., kuatakana, 

Adjust, ^/.(arrange), lonsolola. 
Admonish, v/. (reprove), b*la, 

samlna, nani^a, buluklla. 
(warn), dimuxa. 
Adolescence, n., bimsonsalumi, 

6; buhlankunde, 6. 
Adore, vt., nemekela, tendelela, 

tiimblxa, Inylxa, nemeka, 

menekela, meneka. 
Adorn, v/.(dress up), vuadika or 

luacika or luaclxa followed 

by bilenga. 
(be adorned), use the participles 

vuale and luate combined 

with the auxiliary di; as, ndi 

muvuale, / am dressed up. 

There may also be used the 

passive voice forms, see § 202 

Adornment, n., cllensa, 7. 
Adult, n., inantu(i) mukftle. 
Adulterer, n., inaeiia(i) 

dl(pl. of 5 or 6). 

Adulterous, adj., -a masandi, pi. 

of 5 or 6. 
Adultery, n., masandi, pi. of 5 
or 6. 
to commit, v., enda masandi, 
sanda. This is used of both 
Advance, w.(go), ya, enda. 
in, ku mp&la, diambedi, kumu- 

dilu [see § 423 (2) (b)l 
price, vL, bandixa muxinsa(2); 

vi., muxlnsa udi ubanda. 
(to be or do in advance), dian- 

wages, vt., bandixa difata(5). 
Adversary, n., muena(i) luku- 

Advice, n., lunirenyl, 4; mexl, pi. 
of 5; lukanyi(Buk.), 4. 
give, see advise. 
Advise, v/., amblla, ha with lun- 
senyi or mexl. 
(warn), dimuxa. 
Advocate, v/. (speak for), akulla, 
ambidila, lumbuluila. 
n., muakuidi, i; muambididi, 
i; mulumbuluidi, i. 
Affair, n., bualu, 6; muanda, 2. 
Affect, v^. (cause), use Causative 

Form of verb. 
Affection, n., dinanga, 5; disua, 
5. Use also the infinitives 
kunanga and kusua. 
(pity), lose, 4. 
Afflict, t;/., nyanga, tacixa, ona. 
Affliction, n.(disease), disama, 5; 
dibedi, 5; bubedl, 6. 
(misfortune), bualu or bualu 

(oppression), clnyangu, 7. 
Afire be, v*., hla. 
Afraid, be, v»., cina, di ne 
(as wild animal), b&xa. 
make, cinyixa. 
After, prep., ku nylma or kn 
nyima kua, haxixe. 
Note that after in such phrases 
as after death, etc., must be 



After (continued), 

expressed by ku mp&la or 
For after as sub. conj., see § 458(0) 

Afterbirth, n., nkiziabendi, 3. 

Afternoon, n., dilolo, 5; diba(5) 

Again, adv.y the general word is 
kabldi, lit. second time; but 
for special reference to the 
number of times, see § 95(6), 
Rem. I. 
The Present and Past Repetitive 
Tenses express the idea of 
again and again. 
(never again), neg. verb with 
cendelele or l&hal&ha or 
matuku onso or kaxidi. 

Against, prep., ku. 

Age, n. There is no distinct word 
for age. In asking the age of 
a person, use, according to 
circumstances, such expres- 
sions as bidlmu bldi bungl 
munyi? or ngondo idi bungi 
manyi? or matuku adi bungi 
of same, inulonKo(2) umue. 
old, bununu, 6; bukulukAxe, 
6; bukulumpe, 6; bukulu, 6; 
bukulukulu, 6. 

Aged, adj., nunu, kuluktkxe, kulU) 
kulukulu, -a kale. 
become, vi, kulukAxa, kulumpa. 

Aggravate, v/.(annoy), kuacixaor 
ufuixa with the word clxl(7) ; 
taclxa; flklxa munda; ken- 
gexa; lambakana; ho tela; 
(be aggravated), vi., kuata or 
ufua or unva followed by 
clxl(7); tata; dl ne munda 
muflke; di ne cixl(7). 

Ago, ctdv.f long, kale, banga- 
banffa, diambedl. 
(near, as compared with kale), 
musanKu(2) mule. 

Agony, «. (mental), kanylngan- 
yinga, 8. 

Agree, v. (be same or alike), aka- 
nangana, fuanangana, kele- 
mene, di with muomumue or 
(come to same conclusion), use 
such expressions as di(5) 
diakuakanangana dimue, 
di(5) diakuhunirakana, hun- 
guluxa di. 
(consent), itabuxa. 
(fit, match), vi.f akanangana, 
akana, dieleka; vt., akAxan- 
gana, fuanyikixa, kelemexa, 
Agreeable, be, v., to taste, xema- 
kana, di ne nse (pi. of 3 or 4). 
Agreement, «., cifufu, 7. 

make, hunga di(5). 
Ahead, adv., ku mp&la, kumu- 
of, ku mp&la kua, kumudllu 

(pass on ahead), v., hlta, tamba, 
Aid, vt., see help. 
Aim, v., dingila, l&ma, ludlklla, 
Idiklxa, elekexa. 
miss, hanga, ela hanxl. 
n., ^xxi, ndudl, 3. 
bad, buel&fl, 6. 
Air, «. (movement of air by fan- 
ning, wind), luhehele, 4. 
Ajar, be, vi., unsuluka. 

set, vt.y unsulula. 
Alarm, 2;^ (frighten), cinyixa, ban- 
dlxa or sakAxa followed by 
give, v., kobola(kubola), ela 

bila (pi. of clla), blnglla. 
(startle), tabuluxa; w., tabu- 
Alarum, »., clla, 7. . 

give, ela bila^ bingila, kubola. 
Albino, «., s^ka-muabl (pi. 8«ka- 

miabi, 2), cltokatoka, 7. 
Alert, be, vi., dimuka. 
Alike, be, vi., fuanangana, kele- 
mena, dieleka. 
(identical), muomume, o-umue. 
make, fuanyikixa, kelemexa. 



Alive, be, w., di ne inuoyo(2). 

All, adj.y onso. This word takes 

Secondary Prefixes. 

(all of them), baonso(6) followed 

by possessive pronoun. § 182, 


(all day long), dinda to ne 

(all night long), butuku to ne 

with lunkelu or dinda. 
(entire), xima. 

Allow, v/. (consent), Itabuxa. 

Allure, vt., Ibidlxa, teya, mtkn- 
ylxa or iyixa followed by 
bualu bubi. 

Allurement, «., buteyi, 6. 

Almanac, n., alamanaka(£ng.), 3. 
§ 55, Rem. 2. 

Almost, adv., use ph. kaba (dimin. 
of muaba, place)^ kab&le or 
kaba kaklse with the verb 
amba, to be about to; as, 
nakuamba kuhona kaba ka- 
b&le, / almost fell. 
The verb amba with infinitives 
alone often has this idea. 

Alone, adv. or adj.y ne -Ine, see 
§ 80; the indeclinable mene; 
compound pronominal form 
nklyinyi, etc., see § 109. 
(in a place alone), ha bu- joined 
with poss. pro. forms, see 
§ 141, Rem. 2. 
let, vt.y lekeia. 

Along, prep.y in the path, mu 
(go along with), vt.y fila. 
with, ne {conj.). 

Already, adv.y most often ex- 
pressed by past tense of the 

Also, adv., kabldl, ne {conj.). 

Alternate, v»., tompakana, xln- 
takana; vt.y tompaktkxa, 
tompakanya, xintakAxa. 

Altitude, w., bule, 6. 

Altogether, adv.y use the sub- 
stantive buonso, 6. 

Always, adv., see ceaselessly. 

Amaze, vt.y k^mexa. 

(be amazed), vi.y k«ma, bingila, 

ela blla (pi. of 7), tua clkft- 

Amazement, n., clk^ma, 7. 

cry of, clla, 7. 
Ambassador, n., niuena(i) niu« 

kenji(2); mulohO) 2. 
Amend, vi.y in health, sang&la, 

kAsaniubidl(2), sanguluka. 
America, n., Ameleka. 
American, n., muena(i) Ameleka. 
Amiability, »., kalolo, 8. 
Amiable, adj.y -a kaloio(8). 
Among, prep.y mu. 

(into midst of, in among), han- 

kflci ha, munkflci mua, mu 

bunlne(6) bua. 
Amount, «., full, buonso, 6. 

(be full amount), vi.y kumbana, 

vula; vt.y kumb&xa, vudixa. 
Amputate, vt.y kala, kosa. 
Amuse, vt.(ma,ke to laugh), sCkexa. 
(be amused), vi.y s£ka. 
(play with), s&blxa, s&ba ne, 

s&blla, nayixa, naya ne. 
Amusing, be, ^.(producing laugh- 
ter), sSkexa. 
AN-fiSTHETiZE, vt.y leula. 
Anathema, «., mulau, 2. 
Anathematize, vt.y ela malau(2). 
Ancestor, m. (grandparent), kaku, 

i; nyinka, i. 
Ancient, adj.y -a kale, kulu, nunu, 

kulukuxe, knlukulu. 
And, conj.y ne. 

both . . . and, ne . . . ne. 
Angel, ti., muanjeio(i), pi. ban- 

Jelo. From Greek. 
Anger, m., cixi, 7. 

vt.y see annoy. 
Angle, w. (corner of house), di- 

tumba, 5. 
Angry, be, vi.y dl ne cixl(7), cixi 

cidi cikuata, unva or ufua 

with cixi, di ne munda mu- 

make, vt., kuacixa cixi, ufuixa 

cixi, flkixa munda. 
Anguish, n., kanyinganyinga, 8, 



Animal, n., nyOma, 3. 

tame, cimuna, 7. 
Animosity, n., lukuna, 4. 
Ankle, n.(ankle bone), kahombo, 

8; dikoyabolo, 5. 
Anklet, n., lukanu, 4. 
Annoxtnce, V,, amba. 
Annoy, vt., kuaclxa or ufalxa with 
cizi(7), taclxa, flklxamunda, 
kengexa, lambakana, hotela, 
(be annoyed), kuata clxl(7), 
ufua or unva with clxl, tata, 
dl ne munda muflke, di ne 
(provoke anything to bite), k£ba 
Anoint, v., ela minyi (pi. of 5). 
Another, adj.j kuabo, nga. 
(of one kind ... of another 
kind), ha bu- ... ha bu-. 
§ 186. 
(one another, reciprocal), use 
verbal suffix -angana. § 340. 
Sometimes a ph. with the inde- 
clinable bende is used. 
Answer, v.(when called), Itaba. 
Ant, «. (driver), luhumbe, 4. 
(large black), dixindi, 5. 
(ms^ing large hill), cintunte, 7. 
(making low hill), lusua, 4. 
(small red), kangenene, 8. 
(white), masuasu, 2. 
(winged), mulonga, 2. 
The mulonga, cintunte and 
lusua are edible. 
Ant-eater, «. (scaly manis), nka- 

ka, 3. 
Antelope, n. There are many 
different species, the more 
common of which are ngu- 
lungu, 3; lusumbi, 4; kabu- 
luku, 8; cintumbindi, 7; 
ntundu, 3; muhala, 2. 
Ant-hill, «.(made by the bin- 
tunte), mutunda, 2. 
(small black), ditua, 5. 
Anticipate, v.(to do first), dian- 
Jila followed by infin., when 

Antipathy, n.(enmity), lukuna, 4. 

Anxiety, n., kanyinganyinsa, 8. 

Anxious, be, vi., handika or 
nyingala with mucima(2) as 

Any, adj., onso. Generally use pi. 
The word any is often not ex- 
pressed; as, muntu uyaya ku 
muBoko? is any person going 
to town. 

Anybody, n., bantu bonso. Some- 
times we find the sing. 

Anything, n., bintu bionso. Some- 
times we find the sing. 

Anywhere, adv., kuonso, honso, 
muonso. § 363. Locatives 
with onso. 
(anywhere you choose), this is 
generally expressed by the Pre- 
fixed Locative and Subjunctive 
Mood; as, teka cintu hawa- 
teka, put the thing anywhere 
{you choose). 

Apart, adv., use generally the Ex- 
pansive Form of the verb. 
8 345- 

Apologizz, v., there is no satisfac- 
tory word, try tokexa munda. 

Apology, «., lubombo(4), from 
bomba, to apologize. 

Apostle, n., muloho, 2; mutan- 
sadikl, I. 

Apparel, n. pi., bllulu (sing. 
cllulu); bilamba (sing, d- 
1am ba). 

Apparition, «., muklxi, 2; mu- 
xangi, 2. 

Appear, 7;}.(be seen), mueneka, 
(appear dififerent from reality), 
use ph. ku mesu; as, cllulu 
cidl clmpe ku mesu, lit. the 
cloth is good to the eyes, 
(as moon), b&la. 

Appease, vt.(as thirst), mftna or 
hulxa with mlota(nyota); 
talAxa or holexa with ha 
dlmlnu(5) or ha mumlnu(2). 



Appease {continued). 

(be appeased of hunger), dif u as 

subject of verb ukata. 
Appetite, n., ns&la, pi. of 3. 
have an, be hungry, di ne or uf ua 

or unva with ns&la, suma 

or sama with ns&la as subject 

and the person as object. 
Appoint, vt.{io an oflSce), ha or 

buexa ma or dlxa followed 

by the abstract name of the 

a day, amba dituku(5). 
Apportion to, v., abanya, aban- 

yina, abuluxa. 
Apprehend, v/.(catch), kuata, 

(know), m^nya. 
Approach, v., ya or lua or flka 

with ha buihi(6) or hehi. 
Approve, vt., itabuxa. 
April, n., ApiIa(Eng.). 
Arbitrate, v., lumbulula. 
Arbitrator, n., mulumbuludl, i. 
Arduous, adj., kttle, from v. kttia, 

to be arduous. 
Argue, v., ela or elangana or di 

ne with mp&ta (sing, luh&ta, 

(quarrel), tanda, tandangana. 
Argument, n., luh&ta, 4. 

settle an, vt., tuixa. 
Arise, v., from sitting position, 
bika, Juka. 
(ascend), banda. 
(as sun), banda, h&tuka, lu- 

from the dead, bika ku lafu(4), 

to the surface, tunduka. 
Arm, n.(of the body), diboko, 5. 
(left), diboko dia bakAxi (pi. 

of i). 
(of tree), ditamba, 5. 
(right), diboko dia baliuni (pi. 
of i). 
Army, n. pi., bena (sing, muena) 
nvita(3), masoladi (sing, dl- 
soladi, 5). 
Aroma, »., muhuya(2) muimpe. 

Around, prep., ku, ku nyima kua. 
go, cimbakana, nyunguluka, 
luila, yila. 

Arouse, v/.(as from sleep), bixa. 
Arrange, vt., longolola. 

(separate and arrange), t&hulula. 
Arrest, vt., kuata. 
Arrive, w., flka. 
Arrogance, n., cikama, 7; dika- 

makama, 5; din tan ta, 5. 
Arrogant, be, vi., ena ne bundu 
(6), di ne eikama(7), di ne 
dikamakama(5), di ne din- 
tanta(5), disua, ibidila. 
Arrow, n.(with iron point), mu- 
kite 2. 
(without iron point), lub&le, 4. 
(with blunt end for killing birds), 

nkoyi, 3. 
(poison used on arrows), lulen- 
KU, 4 
Artery, «., mujilu, 2. 
Artful, ai/;. (cunning), -a budi- 
mu(6); dimuke, from v. 
dlmnka, to he artful. 
Article, «. (thing), cintu, 7. 
As, a iv. and conj. 

as ... as, see § 9o(£f). 
a3 far as, to, ku. 
(like), see § 465. 
as soon as, see § 458 (a), 
not so ... as, see § 90 (c). 
Ascend, w.(go up), banda. 
Ashamed, be, v., di ne or nfua or 
unva with bundu(6) or bun- 
vu(6); bundu or bunvu as 
subject of the verb kuata with 
the person as the object, 
(be not ashamed), use neg. of 
above expression or ume (p.p. 
of uma, to he dry) mu mesu. 
make, vt., kuacixa or afnlxa 
with bundu or bunvu. 
Ashes, n., butue, 6. 
Aside, turn, vi., sesuka, ehuka 

Ask, v. (beg), lomba. 

(ask one to pay a debt), nana. 
(inquire about), ebexa, konka. 
permission, see PERMISSION. 



Asleep, be, vL, lala, lala tula (pi. 

or 8). 
Ass, n.y kab&lu, 8. 
Assemble, vi.f sangakana, tuta- 
kana, lua cisumbu(7), dl- 
sanga, diunguixa, kunga- 
kana, sambakana, dikunga; 
vt.^ sangixa, tutak&xa, tuta- 
kanya, kungixa, sangila, 
sanga, sangakanya, sanga* 
ktkxa, sambakanya, samba- 
Assembly, m. (crowd), cisiunbu, 7. 
Assent, «., nod, xukulamutu(2). 
give, V.J itabuxa followed by 
verbal noun in lu-. See per- 
Assert, v.^ amba. 
Assertion, »., dl, 5. 
Assist, vt., enzexa. This idea is 
most often expressed by the 
Causative Form of the verb. 
Assort, vL, t&hulula, sungulula 

(arrange), longolola. 
ASTONlS^i, vt.y tabuluxa, kimexa. 
(be astonished), vi.^ tabuluka, 
kCma, tua cikSina(7). 
Astonishment, »., clk<^ma, 7. 
Expressed by a grunt, 
cry of, clla, 7. 
Astray, adv., go, be lost, vi., 
(lead away, entice), vL, mtin- 
yixa or iyixa or ibldixa with 
the ph. buiau bubi. 
(show wrong path), vt., ham- 
At, prep.y ku. 

bottom of, hanxi ha. 

once, see now. 

the village or home of, kua, maa, 

ha. § 87 ((/), Rem. 
It most often happens that cU is 
expressed in the verb; as, 
mona, look at; ela mbuxi 
muci, throw a stick at the goat. 
Atone, T'/.(pay a debt for), fucila. 

(die for), fulla. 
Atonement, make for, vph., fucila 

Attempt, v., lablla, tela, Idlklxa, 
and fail, hanga. 
Attend, v/. (accompany), flla, 
(as slave his master), l&m&ta. 
(listen), unva, telexa macu 

(sing, dlcu, 5). 
(look after, tend), l^Una. 
Attendant, «., mul&m&ci, i; 
muana, i. 
(for the foreigner), mbol(Eng.), I. 
(slave), muhlka, i. 
Attention, pay, v., telexa. 
Attorney, «., muambldldl, i; 
muakuidi,i; mulumbululdl,!. 
Attractive, adj., -a kalolo(8). 
Attractiveness, «., kalolo, 8. 
Attune, vt., stkklla hamue, aktk- 

xa, suka. 
Aubergine, «., luJUu, 4. 
Audacious, be, vi., ena ne 
bundu(6), di ne with clka- 
ma(7) or dlkamakama(5) or 
diiitanta(5), dlsua, Ibldlla. 
Audacity, «., cikama, 7; dikama- 

kama, 5; dintanta, 5. 
August, «., Aguslte(Eng.). 
Aunt, «.(on the mother's side), an 
elder sister of the mother is 
inamu(i) mukulu, a younger 
sister of the mother ismamu(i) 
(on the father's side), tatu(i) 
muktkxl(i), niankaxi(i). 
Authority, «.(chiefship), buke- 

lenge, 6; bunfumu, 6. 
Await,, i;/., Indlla, knba. 
Awake, vt., blxa ku tulu (pi. 8), 
be, vi.y bika, tab&la, katamuka. 
(keep awake all night), lala 
Aware, be of, t;^(know), mtknya. 

make, dimuxa, mAnylxa. 
Away, be, vi., use neg. ena with 
Locative Suffixed construction. 

§ 320- 
far, kule. 
go, ya, urnuk^. 


-BARE. 151 

Awe, »., buowa, 6. 

Bake, t;/., oxa mu uYuma(Eng.). 

Axe, n. cisul, 7; cikenge, 7. 

As a fact the native never 

(battle-axe of Zappo Zapps), 


cilonda, 7. 

Bald head, n., dlb&la, 5. 

Bale, «., dikutu, 5. 

v.f kuta. 


out water, vt.j tua. 

Ball, n., clbul.uiige, 7; dibulunge, 

Babble, 2;., akula blakulakula 


[§3S6(^)].pl.of 7; labakana. 

(bullet), mutelenge, (2)wa lu- 

Baby, m., muana(i), or the dim. 


kana (8). 

make into a, vt.y bulunguxa. 

new-born, katoto, 8. 

of rubber, dlbulu, 5. 

Bachelor, «., mujike, 7. 

of twine, clkata, 7. 

Bachelorship, n.(state of being 

Bamboo, n. The midrib (mukuo- 

unmarried), bujike, 6. 

lo, 2) of the palm is sometimes 

Back, «., nylma, 3. 

thus improperly called. The 

come, vi.f aluka, alukila, hln- 

hard outside part of the mid- 

gana, tuta, tuclla, hlngu- 

rib is called lusele(4) or 


lubaie(4) or lubftxe(4). The 

(go back and forth), tambakana. 

last word is Buk. 

of knife, muongo, 2. 

(found in forest and used for 

send or bring, vt., aluklza, 

making fence), einkete, 7. 

hinglxa, tuciza. 

Banana, «., dlbote(5), used either 

Backbite, vi., songuela. 

, of the bunch or the single 

Backbiter, n., muena(i) bun- 


songe(6), niaena(i) muko- 

hand of, cisangi, 7. 

sa(2), musonKuedl(i). 

stalk of, clkuondekiionde, 7. 

Backbiting, »., bunsonge, 6; mu- 

Band, w.(crowd), cisumbu, 7. 

kosa, 2. 

(strip), luhola, 4. 

Backbone, n., muongo, 2. 

(stripe), muhola, 2. 

Backwards, adv., clanyima. 

Bank, «.(beach), muelelu(2) or 

fall, vi.y dlxlnda bualama (adv.) 

musala(2) or kukala or bu- 

(go backwards and forwards), vi.y 

elka(7) or kusula or kunfu- 

dilu or kusala followed by the 

Bacon, n., munyinyi(2) wa ngu- 

adjective phrase -a ml. See 


§ 423 (2) w. 

Bad, adj., bi. 

high, eibungubungu(7), mu- 

(go bad, become useless), vi.. 


onoka, nyanguka. 

of earth piled up, muklxl, 2. 

(make to go bad), vt., ona, 

sand-, lusenga, 4. 


Baptize, v., batiza (from Greek), 

(rot), vi., bola. 

mlamina ml. 

(smell bad), v., nunka muhu- 

* Barbarian, «., musenxi, i. This 

ya(2) mubl. 

is an imported word. 

Badge, »., cimonyinu, 7. 

Barber, m., mubeyi, i. 

Badly, adv., bibi. 

Bare, adj., -headed, ku mutu(2) 

Badness, »., bubl, 6. 


Bag, «., cibombo, 7; luhlya, 4. 

(to shave the head bare), vt., 

(large open scrip), ns&bo, 3. 




Bargain, n., muzinsa, 2. 

drive a, tua muzinsa. 
Bask, 7;.(as dog), buluka. 
(strip off), ubula. 
n., of a tree, clhusu, 7; ciBuba,7. 
Bakrel, n., of gun, mulonda, 2; 

muziba, 2. 
Bakren, i)erson or animal, n. 

nkumba, 3. 
Barter, v. (buy and sell), enda or 
endalula with inuzinsa(2). 
(buy), ula, suinba. 
(sell), hana. 
Base, n.(at the base of), kumanda, 
kunzl. See § 423 (2) (6). 
(bottom), citaku, 7. 
(bad), adj., bl. 
Bashful, be, vi., dl ne bundu(6). 
Bashfulness, n.f bundu, 6; bun- 

vu, 6. 
Basin, n., dilonsa, 5. 
Bask, t;., ota munya(2). 
Basket, n. (fish-trap), mukinda, 2. 
(for carrying fowls), mus&sa, 2. 
(large with top), dikumbu, 5. 
(long for carrying on head), 

cistkka, 7. 
(small with top), nkobo, 3. 
Bass, voice, nph., dl(5) dinlne. 
Bastard, nph.y muana(3) wa 

masandl (pi. of 5 or 6). 
BAT(rodent), n. (large), mudlma, 2. 
(small), kahulukusu, 8; kaku- 
luknku, 8. 
Bathe, vi., owa; vL, owexa. 
Batten, n., lubambalu, 4. These 
are tied crosswise on the rafters. 
Battle, «., nvita (nflta), 3. 
Battle-axe, «., cilonda, 7. Made 

by the Zappo Zapps. 
Bawl, v. (as cow), dlla. 
Be, vi., di, cidi, tadi (kadi), tu, 
Ik&la; also the negatives ena 
and 1 and eena. §§ 205, etc. 
Sometimes the verb to be is 
omitted, then we have n pre- 
fixed to predicate word. § 445 . 
Beach, n., muelelu(2) or musa- 
la(2) or kukala or kusula 
or kunfudllu or kusala or 

Beach {continued), 

bucika(6) followed by the ad- 
jective ph. -ami. § 423 (2)(6). 
on the, mpata, 3. 
Bead, n., dibue, 5. 
Each variety has a distinct name; 
as, kahaba(8), liimbidl(4), 
lafaote(4), kaluaci(8). 
Beak, n., mulnu, 2. 
Beam, n.(stick), muci, 2. 
Bean, «.(black-eyed pea), lu- 
kunde, 4. 
a large, clkundekunde, 7. 
Bear, v. (as cassava, potatoes, etc), 
(as tree), kuama. 
(bring forth, give birth), lela. 
(carry), tuala. 
Beard, n., muevu, 2; muedi, 2. 

a hair of, lusuki, 4; lunyonyl, 4. 
Beast, n., nyflma, 3. 
Beat, v.(strike), kuma, tuta. 
down, as grass, zindika. 
down, as loose dirt, beta. 
down the price, huekexa or 

tekexa with muxinsa(2). 
(drive away), Ita&ta. 
drum, imba. 
(excel), tamba, hita. 
fine, as powder, botexa. 
(heart), vph., kuma manda. 
in a mortar, tua. 
out, as dust from a mat, tutiila. 
out iron, forge, tula, fula. 
(overcome), use verb tamba or 
hIta followed by one of the 
nouns bukftle(6) or iigulu(3) 
or dikanda(5); clmuna. 
(punish), kengexa, nyanga, ona 
with fist, kuma or tuta or tua 

with cisu8u(7). 
with knuckle, tua lukonyi(4). 
with open hand, kuma with 

luhl(4) or dibi(5). 
up, as eggs, vundula. 
Beautiful, adj., Impe, akane, 

lengele, -ampQci (slang). 
Beautify, v/.(make good), len- 



BeautX) n.f bulmpe, 6; buakane, 

6; bulengele, 6; mpoci 

(slang), 3. 
Because, sub. conj., bua. See 

(on account of), baalu(6) bua, 

muanda(2) wa. 
Beckon, v., with hand, loba. 
Become, vi. This idea may be 

expressed in four ways: 
(i) With the verbs kudimuka, 

andamuka, lua. 

(2) Pres. Imminent tense of 
amba followed by infin.; ci- 
lalu cikadl ciamba kuflka, 
the cloth is becoming black. 

(3) Pres. or Past Progressive 
tense of the verb; as, udl 
utoka, he is becoming white. 

(4) Pres. Imminent tense of lua 
followed by adj.; as, ukadi 
ulua mubl, he is becoming bad. 

chief, etc., dia bukelense(6). 
Bed, »., bulalu, 6; clladilu, 7. 
Bee, n.(honey-), lubulubulu, 4; 
lunyeke, 4. 
(sweat-)) kambulnkidl, 8. 
(insect), ctxi, 7. 
Beef, nph., munylnyi(2) wa 
ngombe(3). ' 

Beer, n.(made from maize or mil- 
let), malua, pi. of 5; maluvu, 
pi. of 5. 
to brew, vt.y enga. 
Beeswax, n., dikaci, 5; dlhula, 5. 
Beetle, ;t.(goliath-), kababu, 8. 
(very large), ntambangoma, 3; 
dingonge, 5. 
Before, sub. conj., see § 458 (6). 
adv. {do before), anticipate, v., 

(go before), hita or tamba or ya 
followed by ku mp&la or ku- 
mudilu or dlambedi. 
prep. {in front of, ahead of), ku 
mp&la kua, kumudllu kua. 
Beforehand, adv., dlambedi. 
Beg, v., lomba. 

Beget, 2/. (male), Imlclxa; lelamay 
sometimes be used figuratively. 

Beggar, n., mulombi, i; mue- 

na(i) luloinbo(4). 
Beggary, n., lulombo, 4. 
Begin, v. (start at the beginning), 
tuadixa, banglla, angacUa 
to do, banga. 
Beguile, vt., dlmba, xlma, dlnga. 
Behead, vt., kosa mutu(2). 
Behind, adv.^ ku nylina(3), ha- 
prep., ku nylma kua. 
(the one behind), -a kunxlki- 
dllu, -a haxlxe. § 423 (2) {b). 
(be behind or last in doing), v., 
Behindhand, be, or do, v., xlxa 
followed by infin., when neces- 
Behold, i;.(]ook at), mona, tan* 
gila, xoxa 
(look steadfastly at without 
speaking), mona talala. 
Belch, v., blola, beula. 
Belief, «., use infin. of Itabuza. 
Believe, v., Itabuxa. 
Belittle, vt., kehexa. 
Bell, «.(largeEuropean, as church 
bell), ngonga(3). This word 
doubtless comes from the Low- 
er Congo, 
(native manufacture, made of 

iron), lumembo, 4. 
ring a, vt., ela, Imba. 
(small European with rattles), 

kadlbu, 8. 
(small, for wearing), ludlbu, 4. 
(wooden, tied around dogs in 
hunting), cldlbu, 7. 
Bellow, v., dlla. 

Bellows, n., mubanse, 2; mudua, 
blow, vt., Imba. 
Belly, »., dlfu, 5; munda [§ 42? 

(2) {b)l 
Belong to, v. This idea is gener- 
ally expressed by some one of 
the words meaning to be fol- 
lowed by the adjective ph. 
with -a. 



Below, adv. and prep., munxi or 

munxl mua. 
Belt, n., muk&ba, 2. 
Bemoan, vL, dila, Jinga. 
Bench, n., ditanda, 5. 
Bend, v/.(as a stick, wire, etc.), 
tonya, tonta, kobeka, konya, 
henguluxa, nyongoboxa. 
(fold), bunya. 
(stoop), In&ma. 
straight, olola, ludika. 
the edge of anything, benda- 

mixa; vi.j bendama. 
(be bent, crooked), vi., konyan- 
gala, tony&ma, kobama, 
henguluka, nyongroboka. 
n., dintonya, 5. 
Bendable, be, vi., xoboka, nyen- 

grabala, dl ne inuxobo(2). 
Beneath, adv. and prep., munxi or 

munxi mua. 
Benevolence, «., diha, 5. 
Benevolent, acj., -a diha(5). 

person, cihahl, 7. 
Bequeath, vi.y ha buhianyl(6). 
Beseech, 7;/. (plead with), sengela, 

BEsroE, prep.f ku, kunxi kua, ha 
buihi ha (ne), hehi ne. 
con;. (also), ne, kabidi. 
Bestow, vL, ha, ambika(Buk.). 
Bet, vph., dia luhiku(4). 
n.f luhiku, 4. 
gain a, binga. 
loose a, hila, luhiku as subject 

of the V. kuata. 
(put up anything for a bet), vt., 


Betray, v.j a secret, sokolola. 
(accuse behind the back), son- 

Betrothed, be, v.(the man), 

(the woman), use passive of 

Better, be, vt. (comparative degree 

of good), tamba or hita with 


Better, be ( ontinuec). 

(convalescent), sang&la, kAsa 

mubidi(2), sanguluka. 
Between, prep.^ use mu, ku or 

ha with the insep. -nkdei. 

Bewail, vt., dila, Jinga. 
Beware, i;.(be warned), dimuka. 
Bewilder, vt., tuhakfixa, tuha- 

kanya, buandakAxa, buan- 

dakanya; vi., tuhakana, 

(be lost in way), hambuka. 
Bewitch, vt., Iowa. 
Beyond, adv., ku nyima(3); mua- 

mua or kuakua or haha, de- 
pending upon the sense. 
prep., ku nyima kua. 
be, vi., tamba, hita. 
Bible, nph., mukanda(2) wa 

Bicker, v., tanda, tandangana. 
Bid, v.(command), amba, ambila. 
Big, adj., nine. 
Bill, n.(beak), muinu, 2. 
Billow, n., divuala, 5. 
Bind, i;/.(tie), suika, xika, Inya. 
(wrap around), Jinga, Jingila, 

Tunga, vungila, nyengela. 
Bird, «., nyunyu, 3. 
Birth, to give, v., lela. 
cause to give, act as midwife, 

vt., lelexa. 
power to give, ^., bulrdi, 6; 

lulelu, 4. 
Birthright, nph., bintu bia 

muan'a bute(6). 
Biscuit, «., cisikit(Eng.), 7. § 55, 

Rem. 2, Note 2. 
Bishop, n., the ph. mul&n]i(i) wa 

bantu ba Nsambi. 
Bit, n.(small piece cut off), cituha, 

(small piece split off), cih^su, 7. 
A small quantity is generally ex- 
pressed by the diminutive pre- 
fixes of class VIII. 
Bitch, nph., muktkxi'a mbua(3). 
Bite, vt., suma. 
excite to, k£ba luoxi(4). 



Bite (continued). 
off with front teeth, to gnaw, 

(a biting animal), dl ne luoxi. 

Bitter, be, vi.y lula. Often the 
substantive form bululu(6) is 
used; as, ciombi cidi buiuiu, 
the a ioc is bitter. 

Bitterness, n., bululu, 6. 

Black, a.;., flke (p.p. of flka, to 
be black). 

Blacken, vt., flkixa. 

Black-eyed pea, »., lukunde, 4. 

Blackness, n., buflke, 6. Some- 
times the infin. kuflka, to be 
blacky is used in comparative 
constructions. § 90 (g). 

Blacksmith, n., mutudi, i ; nsen- 
da, 3; mufudi, i. 
shop, cttudilu, 7. 

Bladder, n., cinyu, 7. 

Blade, n., of grass, dixinde, 5; 
dtbexi, 5; dUnyi, 5. 
of knife, muele, 2. 
back of, muongo, 2. 
(shoulder-), clklyaklya, 7; dl- 
keha, 5. 

Blame, vt., falsely, banda. 

Blank, adj. (empty), cinana (inde- 
clinable), tuhu. 

Blanket, n., mbulankete(Eng.),3. 

Blaspheme, vph.^ tela dtna dia 

Blaze, nph., ludimi(4) lua ka- 

Bleach, v/., tokexa. 

Bleat, v., dila. 

Bleed, w*.(nose), miluluba (pi. of 
2) idl ituka. 
vt,f smnika. 

(small gourd used for bleeding or 
cupping), lusumu, 4. 

Bless, 7;^.(make happy), sankixa; 
vi.y sanka. 
(praise, as God), tendelela, tum- 
blxa, Inyixa. 

Blind, be or become, vi., fofa, 
xib&la mesu. 
(white spot in pupil), lusongo, 4. 

Blindness, n., bufofo, 6. 

Blister, n.(made by fire, hot 

water, etc.), dibuba, 5. 
Blood, n., maxi, pi. of 5 or 6. 
from (the nose), miluluba, pi. 
of 2. 
Bloom, Blossom, n., cilongo, 7; 
clsu, 7. 
V.J Tunguluka, baluluka. 
Blot out, vt.y Jlmlxa, Jima. 
Blow, n., mukumu, 2 ; mututu, 2. 
away by wind, v/., hehula; v«., 

bellows, vt.y imba with mudua(2) 

or mubanse (2). 
breath, vt., ela inuhuya(2). 
down, as tree, vt.y ximbuia; vi., 


fire, vt.y temexa, huxa, huhixa. 

(hit with fist), vt.y kuma or tuta 

or tua with ci8usu(7) or dl- 


(hit with knuckles), vt.y tua lu- 

(hit with open hand), vt.y kuma 
or tuta with dlhi(5) or luhi(4). 
horn, whistle, vt.y ela. 
meat, as by flies, v., ela ciku- 

nose, hemba with lusole(4) or 

tumina pi. of 8). 
out, extinguish, vt.y JIma. 
(pant), v.y huyakana. 
violently, as storm, v.y huha. 
Blue, adj.y flke (black), flkuluke. 
These words are p.p. of flka 
and flkuluka. 
Blunder^ v.y tuhakana. 
Boar, n., ng^ulube, 3. 

(male), mulumii(i) wa nfpilu- 
Board, «., diblya, 5. 

(piece of board for bottom of 
basket), cib&sa, 7. 
Boast, v. {he proud), disua. 
Boat, n.(canoe), buatu, 6. 

(steamer), dikumbl(5) dia ml; 
maxua, pi. of 5 or 6. 
Body, n.y mubidi, 2. 

(corpse), cit&lu, 7; muxangi 
(Buk.), 2. 



Bogie, n., mukixi, 2; muxan- 

gl(Buk.), 2. 
Boil, n., ciuxa, 7; disungu, 5. 
(sore), mputa, 3. 
(very small), luhusu, 4. 
vf.(as water), s&ba, blla. 
vt,f tumpa, 8&bula. 
(render oil or evaporate for salt), 
Bold, orf/., see brave. 
Boldness, n., see bravery. 
Bondage, n., buhlka, 6. 
Bonds, n., lukanu, 4. 

put in, vph., ela mu lukanu. 
Bone, n., mufufa, 2; mufuba, 2; 
mukuha, 2. 
of fish, dieba, 5. PI. meba. 
Book, n., mukanda, 2. 

leaf of, dilnyl, 5; dlbexi, 5. 
Boot, n.(shoe), cisabatu, 7. 
Border, n., of path, field, cloth, 
etc., muelelu, 2; musala, 2; 
bucika, 6; also the Locative 
words kusula, kunfudllu, 
kusala. § 423 (2) (6). 
(dividing line), mukalu, 2. 
vi.j tuangana. 
Bore, vph., tubula dlsoso(5). 
Borer, n.(an insect), mbumbu, 3. 
Born, be, v»., use any auxiliary 
verb meaning to be followed by 
pass, past part, of lela. 
first-, muan'a bute(6). 
last, muan'a mukala(2). 
new-born child, katoto, 8. 
(still-bom child), kana(8) ka- 

(be born again, metempsycho- 
sis), vi.f sanguka, tanda, 
Borrow, v/.(with the idea of return- 
ing the exact article), hanza. 
(with the idea of not returning 
the exact article borrowed, but 
its equivalent in kind), somba. 
Bosom, «., ciadi, 7. 
Both, conj.(hoth. . . . and), ne 
. . . ne. 
n.(in sense of all two), bu- 
bldl, 6. § 95 (a). 

Bother, v/. (annoy), tacixa, 1am- 
bakana, hotela, lobola. 
(be bothered), vi., humba, tata. 
(interrupt), vt., humbixa, kose- 
xa, humbakdxa. 
Bottle, n., mulondo, 2. 
Bottom, ».(base), cltaku, 7; also 
the Locative words kumanda, 
(bottom on the inside), hanxl ha. 
Bough, n., ditamba, 5. 
Bounce, vi. lundumuka. 
Bound, v».(jump), tuhika. 
(rebound), lundumuka. 
«.(limit), see boundary. 
Boundary, ».(edge of field, path, 
etc.), muelelu, 2; musala, 2; 
bucika, 6; also the Locative 
words kusula, kunfudllu, ku- 
sala, kukala. 
line, mukalu, 2. 
Bow, n.(rain-), muasankongolo, 2. 
(-string), mul^mu, 2. 
(to put on bowstring), l#ma 

(weapon), buta, 6. 
See KNOT. 

v., in&ma, inyika mutu(2). 
Bowels, «. (intestine), dlla, 5. 
action of, v., nylna. 
(peristaltic movement with noise), 

v.f nyenga. 
running off of, vph.y huya or ela 
or uha with munda. 
Bowl, n., dllonga, 5. 
Bowstring, w., mul^mu, 2. 

put on, vLy lema. 
Box, w., mux^te, 2. 
Boy, w., muana(i) muluml(i). 
(lad), songalumi, i; muhian- 

kunde, 2. 
(the foreigner's personal attend- 
ant), mboi(Eng.), i. This 
term is also applied to a female 
Boyhood, n., bunsongalumi, 6; 

buhiankunde, 6. 
Bracelet, n., lukanu, 4. 
Braces, n. (suspenders), mikAba 
(pi. of 2) yamlh&nu (pi. of 2). 



Brag, v., disua. 

Braid, z;/. (plait), luka clhia(7). 
Brain, n., buongo, 6. 
Branch, w., of a tree, ditamba, 5. 
i^*.(as a stream or path), handu- 
luka, abuluka, t&huluka. 
Brand, «.(sign), clmonylnu, 7; 
cllexilu, 7. 
(fire-), clmunyi, 7. 
Brass, «., there is no distinct word, 
use ciaina(7) clkanse or lu- 
kanu(4) lutoke. 
rod, used in some places as cur- 
rency, mutaku, 2. 
Brave, adj.^ -a dikima(5), -a 
bukltu(6), -a inuciina(2) mu- 
be, vi.y teka diklma(5). 
Bravery, n., dikima, 5 ; bukitu, 6; 

inuciina(2) muklile. 
Bray, v., dila. 

Bread, n., bldla, pi. of 7; nxima, 
pi. of 3 or 4. 
(European bread made from 
wheat flour), bldla blamajnpa 
(this word from Lower Congo). 
Breadth, «., the Locatives mu or 
ku followed by buihl(6) or 
buklse(6); ntaiita(3) maihi; 
bunlne is used often when 
there is no comparison between 
length and breadth. 
Break, v/., cibula; vi.y cibuka. 
(as day), butuku(6) as subj. of 

verb cia. 
(as dish), vi.^ fua, handika; vt.y 

(as fire-wood), v/., caba. 
(as friendship), xlha with bu- 

luiida(6) or bunyana(6). 
down, be exhausted, v»., hanga; 

vt.y hangixa. 
in, as thief, vt.y handa. 
loose, vi., tuka; vt.^ tula. 
wind, ela inuxa(2). 
Breakfast, «., bldla (pi. of 7) bla 

Breast, «. (chest), cladl, 7. 

(heart, conscience), muoyo, 2; 
mudma, 2. 

Breast {continued), 

(teat), dlbele, 5. 
Breath, n., muhuya, 2. 
blow the, ela muhuya. 
draw the, eyela or koka or huCa 
with muhuya. 
Breathe, v»., eyela. 

(pant), huyakana, eyakana. . 
Breeches, n., muh&nu, 2; mu- 
klya, 2. The pi. is generally 
used in each case. 
Breed, vt.^ Imlclxa. 
Brew, vt.y enga. 
Bribe, vt., futa. 

n., dlfutu, 5. 
Brick, n., kaxola, 8. 
Bride, n., mubftklbul, i. From 

pass, b&klbua, to he married. 
Bridegroom, n., mub&kl, i. This 
word is generally followed by 
the ph. wa muk&xl. 
Bridge, n., dlamba, 7; cllanda, 7; 

dlsfike, 5. 
Briefly, adv. {to speak briefly), us^ 

neg. of lunguluka. 
Brigand, »., munyengl, i. 
Bright, ac'j. (smart), -a hingen- 
yl(4); -a mexl (pi. of 5); -a 
lukanyl(Buk.), 4. 
be, vi.{io glisten, shine), enge- 
lela, balakana. 
Brighten, v/.(make to shine), 
balakAxa, engelexa. 
(whiten), tokexa. 
Brightness, n. (intelligence), lun- 
genyl, 4; mexl, pi. of 5; 
lukaiiyl(Buk.), 4. 
(of color), butoke, 6. 
(of moon), dlkenka, 5. 
(of sun), munya, 2. 
Brim, n., mubangu, 2; mulemu 

(mulomio), 2; muxuku, 2. 
Bring, vt.^ lua ne. 

about, to cause, use Causative 

Form of verb, 
(accompany, conduct), flla. 
back, aluklta, tuclxa, hlnglxa. 
(carry), tuala. 

forth, lela( woman), kuama(tree), 
lka(cassava, potatoes, etc.). 



Bring (continued). 

out, umuxa, h&tala, luhula. 

to mind, Tulula, Tuluxa. 

to, resuscitate, sanguluxa, tuyi- 

xa, fulula. 
up, rear, dlxa, kftlexa. 
water, suna. 
Brink, n.(cliff), clbungubungu, 7* 

(beach), muelelu(2) wa ml. 
Broad, a<f;.(large), nine. 
Broaden, 2;/., dlundlxa, lundlxa. 
Brood, z;.(as hen), ladlla. 

over, bungama. 
Brook, n., musulu, 2. 
Broom, n., lukombo, 4. 
Broth, n., musoxl, 2; mukele- 

kele, 2; n8upu(Eng.), 3- 
Brother, «., there is no general 
name for brother save the in- 
definite ph. muan'etu mulumi, 
etc. § 138, Rem. 5, Note 2. 
(elder), mukulu, i, 
(younger), muakunyl, i. 
The words mukulu and mua- 
kunyl are generally followed 
by the poss. pro. as enclitic. 
§ 138, Rem. 2. 
Brother-in-law, «. (brother or 
sister of wife), bukonde, i. 
(brother or sister of husband), 
mbI-(poss. pro.)-cina. §§ 138, 
R m. 3 and Note; 42, Note 2. 
Bro>v, «. (forehead), mp&la, 3. 
eye-, dlklkl, 5. 

knit the, vph.^ nyenga or fudlka 
with mp&la(3). 
Brown, adj.y kunze, kunzublle, 
kunzuluke. These words are 
p.p. from the verbs kunza, 
kunzublla and kunzuluka. 
Brush, «. (broom), lukombo, 4. 
-wood, cisala, 7. 
V. (sweep), komba. 
(as clothes), kuhula. 
Brushwood, «., cisala, 7. 
Brutal, adj.y -a lukuna, 4; -a 

dnyangru, 7. 
Brutality, n., lukuna, 4; cln- 
yangu, 7. 

Brute, «.(animal), nyAma, 3. 
(person), muena(i) with luku- 
na(4) or clnyangu(7). 
Bubble, n., lututu, 4; lukende, 4. 
Bubo, n., cluxa, 7. 
Bud, n.y lutonga, 4; musele, 2. 
vi., m#na, samplla, toloka, 
Buffalo, «., mbowo, 3. 
Bug, w.(generic), clxl, 7. 
Bugle, n., mpungl, 3. 
Build, vt.y Ibftka, asa (see under 

asa in B.L.-Eng.). 
Building, ». (house), nsubu, 3. 
BuLL,n.,muluml(i) wangombe(3) 
Bullet, »., lutende, 4; mute- 
lenge, 2; mutelenge(2) wa 
Bunch, «.(of bananas), dlbote, 5. 
(of plantains), dlkuonde, 5. 
(hand of bananks or plantains), * 

clsangi, 7. 
(of palm nuts), clngftji, 7. 
(of things tied together), clsum- 
bu, 7. 
Bundle, ».(bale), dlkutu, 5. 
(of grass or other material tied 

up), clsumbu, 7. 
(roll), muTungu, 2. 
(small), mubombo, 2. 
Burden, «., see load. 
Burn, vt.y oxa, hlxa; vi., hia. 
(roast), oxa. 

(scorch, as food), vt., xldlxa, 
lunguxa; vi., xila, lungula. 
(set on fire), oxa. 
(singe), vt.y babula; vi.y babuka. 
(smart), oxa, hlakana, susuma. 
Burnt offering, w., see sacrifice. 
Burrow, v., Imba, umbula. 
Burst, vt.y handlxa, taylxa(to« 
ylxa); vi., handlka, taylka 
(crack, as nuts), vt.y bfila, bula, 
bosa, totobula, taya (toya). 
Bury, vt.y Jlka. 

Bush, «. (forest), dltu, 5. PI. 
(copse on plain), clhuka, 7. 



Bushman, n., musenxl, i. An 
imported word. 

Business, ^.(occupation), mudl- 
mu, 2. 
(affair), bualu, 6; muandai 2. 

Busy, be, v., di ne mudimu(2). 

But, conj., tadl, kadi. These 
words are not used as fre- 
quently as the English equiva- 

Butt end, n., cltaku, 7; also the 
loc. word kuntaku, § 423 (2) 

Butter, nph,, mlnyi (pi. of 5) a 
ngonibe(3), manteke (pi. of 

Butterfly, «., dblyibiyi, 7. 
Buttock, n.,dltenKe, 5; dltaku,5. 
Button, n., mbote, 3. 

-hole, di8u(5) dia mbote. 
Buy, vi.f ula, sumba. 

(buy and sell, trade), enda or 
endulula with inuxliiga(2). 
By, prep. (near to), ku, kunxl, ha 
bulhi(6) ne, hehi, kulhl. 

(agent), kudi. 

Cachle, vph.f tuta or ela with 

Case, n., mus&sa, 2. 
(pen), elkumbi, 7. 
CALABiiTY, nph.y biialu(6) with the 

adjectives bubi or bukille. 
Calf, »., muan'a ngombe(3). 

of leg, dlfu(5) dlamukolo(2). 
Call, v., biklla. 
(by beckoning with hand), loba. 
one's name behind one's back, 

to fight, kobola. 
tomind, vf'., vuluka; i;^.,vulula, 

(to name), Idlka, Inylka. 
Calling, ^.(occupation), mudlmu, 

Calm, se, vi,, hola, talala, dl with 
hola or talala as advs. 

Calmly, adv., hola, talala! 
Calumniate, v., songuela, banda. 
Calumniator, w., muena(i) with 

bunsonge(6) or mukosa(2). 
Calumny, n., bunsonge, 6; mu* 

kosa, 2 
Camel, »., kamelo(£ng.), 8. 
Camwood, n., kakula, 8. 
Can, n., luhansa, 4. 

v.(be able), see § 230. 
Cancel, z;/.(blot out),Jlmlxa, Jlma. 
Candle, n., kahla, 8; kadllu, 8; 

mulnda(muendu), 2. This 

last word is perhaps from the 

Lower Congo. 
Cane, n., sugar-, muenge, 2; cl- 

lengelenge, 7. 
walking, cibangu, 7. 
Cannibal, n., mudlanganyi, i. 
Cannon, n., ditende, 5. 
Canoe, «., buatu, 6. 
Canvas, «.(for wrapping around 

bales), dlkutu, 5. 
Caoutchouc, «., ndunda, 3. 
Cap, «.(for head), elf ula, 7. 
(percussion), lufataci, 4. 
Capable, be, vi.(he able), m&nya 

or dl or mona followed by mua 

and infin., see § 230. 
Capital, «.(very large village), 

clmenga, 7; clhunda, 7. 
Capsize, vi., Iclklla; vi., Iclklxa. 
Captain, »., kapiten(from French 

or Eng.). 
Captious, be, v., tontolola. 
Capture, vt., kuata. 
Caravan nph., batuadl(i) ba 

blntu(7) mu nxila(3). 
Carcass, w.(dead body of person), 

clt&lu, 7; niaxangi(Buk.)) 2. 
(skeleton), use pi. of words for 

bone, mlfuba, mikuha, ml- 

Cardinal points, n. The natives 

have no names for these. For 

brevity and convenience in 

teaching, the following nativ- 

ized Eng. words are suggested: 
North, n., Nttta, 3. 
South, n., Sauta, 3. 



Cardinal points (cotuinued) , 
East, n., Islta, 3. 
West, »., Weslta* 3. 
For East we may also have the 
ph. Imtu Imaluhuka dlba or 
Imtii kuah&tuka dlba. 
For West we may also have the 
ph. kutu kuabuela dlba or 
kutu dlba dlabuela. 
Care, ^.(affair, concern), baala, 6; 
muanda, 2. 
(attend), Iftma. 

for, vt,. nanga* sua ha luse (4). 
Carefully, adv.. bttekete, bla- 

kane, bimbe, bltulu. 
Careless, be, vi., cimba, cimba- 

kana, humbakana. 
Carelessly, adv., blkftle, lubilu, 

luktksa, bibl. 
Caress, vt,, hotela, hunbakana, 

Carnal, adj,, -a muciina(2) mubi. 
knowledge, n., masandl, pi. of 5 
or 6. 
Carpenter, nph., muena(i) ma- 
blya (pi. of dlblya, 5). 
The term kaplta(8) is used for, 
the West Coast men. The 
word is from the Portuguese, 
meaning headman. 
Carriage, n., sugeest some such 
ph. as cintu(7) clkoka kudl 
tub&lu (pi. of kab&lu, 8). 
Carrier, nph., mutuadi(i) wa 

Carry, vt.^ tuala, mfima, angata, 
ya ne, lua ne. 
across a stream, etc., sabula. 
water, suna. 
Cartridge, n., mutelenge, 2. 
(ball),mutelenge wa lutende(4). 
(loaded with shot), mutelenge 
wa tundimba (pi. of 8). 
Carve, vt.{as meat), seya, saya. 

(as wood), songa. 
Carver, «.(of wood, etc.), mu- 

songi, I. 
Case, n.(affair), bualu, 6; muan- 
da, 2. 
(box), mux£te, 2. 

Case {continued), 
(sheath for knife), cibubu, 7; 
luhaha, 4; clmanga, 7. 
Cassava, n., clombe, 7. 

(leaves of, used as greens), ma- 

tamba (pi. of 5), kalexl(8). 
to soak the, vt,, Ina, sablka. 
the unsoaked, clombe cla mpete 
(pi. of 4). , 
Cast, v^. (about, scatter), tanga- 
Ilixa, tangadlxa; vi., tanga- 
llika, tangadlka. 
away, as useless, Imflxa, sum- 

bula, nyflka. 
leaves, hohoka. 

out, vt.y h&tula, luhula, mnuxa, 
tambuIa(Buk.); Vf., h&tuka, 
luhuka, iimnka, tambuka 
(throw), ela. 
Castrate, vt.y tangala, haknla. 
Cat, n.(wild-), mb&lab&la, 3. 
(domestic), kamblxl, 8; mpua 
(Eng.), 3. 
Cataract, »., clblla, 7. 
Catch, v/., kuata. 

(by throwing hands down on), 

disease, the person catching the 
disease is the obj. of the verb 
kuata, while the disease is the 
(in hands, as ball), akldlla. 
(to snare), teya. 
(with hook, as fish), loha. 
Catechism, n^A.,mukanda (2) wa 

Catechumen, n., miuena(i) dllon-i 

Caterpillar, «.(edible), dlxl, 5. 
PI. is mexl. 
(not edible), clxl, 7. 
Cause, n., bualu, 6; muanda, 9. 
vt.j use the Causative Form of 

(for what cause ?), see WHY? 
without, cinana, hatuhn. 
Caution, vL, dlmuxa. 
Cautious, be, w'., dlmuka. 



Cave, n., lubingra, 4; lubuo, 4. 

in, tH., bumbuka. 
Cavil, v., tontolola. 
Cease, vi., from, lekela. 

raining, tangadikaortangalAka 
with nvula as subj. 
Ceaselessly, adv. This idea may, 
according to sense, be ex- 
pressed in several ways: 
(i) By the adv. to. 

(2) By one of th^ Repetitive 
tenses. §§ 287-292. 

(3) By tile Pres. Habitual tense. 

(4) By the verb in -akana. § 339. 

(5) By the verbal suffix in lu-. 
§ 356 (d), Rem. i. 

(6) By the phs. matuku (pi. of 5) 
onso, ku dituku ku dituku, 
ku dlci(5) ku dlci. 

(7) In sense of forever^ by l&ha- 
l&ha, cendelele, kaxidl. 

Celestial, adj., -a diulu(5). 

Cbmetery, »., use pi. of lukita(4) 
or clduaya(7). 

Censure, vt,, dlula, nyoka. 

Centipede, n., lumlnylmlnyi, 4. 

Centre, n., mu bunlne(6); also 
the insep. loc. words munk&ci, 
kunktkci, hankAci, munkulu. 
§ 423 (2) (b). 

Certain, see certainly. 

Certainly, adv., use the substan- 
tive forms bulilela, buxua, 
bualabuala, buinabuina, bui- 

Certainty, n., bulilela, 6; buxua, 
6; bualabuala, 6; buina- 
buina, 6; bulkftxa, 6. 

Certify, v., amba. 

Chaff, n.(o{ com, rice, etc.), 
clsote, 7. 

Chagrin, »., bundu, 6; bunvu, 6. 
(cause one chagrin), vt. ufulxa 

have, v., ufua or unva with 

Chain, »., lukanu, 4. 
vt.y ela mu lukanu. 

Chair, »., nkuasa, 3. 

Chalk, »., luhemba, 4. 

Chamber, n., nsubu, 3. 

See ROOM. 
Chameleon, n., lungonyonyl, 4. 
Change, v/. (alternate), xlntakftxa* 
tompakanya, tompakAxa, 
xlntakanya; in., tompakana, 
(act of metempsychosis), lengu- 

luka, sansruka, tanda. 
(become different, be trans- 
formed), vi., kudlmuka, an- 
(exchange, trade), xlntaktlxa, 
xlnta, xlntakana, xlntakan- 
ya, hlngakanya, hingakana, 
sombakfixa, hlngakftxa. 
mind, vt., kudlmuna or anda- 
muna with muclma(2) or 
(turn around or over), vt,, kudl- 
muna, andamuna; v«., kudl- 
muka, andamuka. 
Character, n., see kind. 
Charcoal, n., dlkala. 
Charge, vHask a price), lomba. 

deny a, vUa. 
Chariot, »., see carriage. 
Charity, «.(pity), luse, 4. 
In expression "faith, hope, char- 
ity," it is perhaps best to use 
infin. kunanga, kusua, etc. 
(generosity), dlha, 5. 
Charm, «., see medicine. 
Chase, vt., away, Ih&ta. 

out, luhula, imiuxa, h&tula, 

(hunt with dogs), ta. 
Chaste, adj.{giood), Impe, akane, 
be, vi,, ena ne masandl (pi. of 5 
or 6). 
Chasten, vt., see chastise. 
Chastise, vt., kuma, tuta, ken- 

Chastisement, n., dlkengexa, 5. 
Chatter, v.(speak rapidly), laba- 

Chattering, n., clakulakula 

1 62 


Cheap, adj, ph., -a iiiuxlnKa(2) 

Cheapen, v/.(bring down price), 
tekexa or huekexa with mu- 
Cheat, v.(steal), Iba. 
Check, v/.(stop), lekexa. 
Cheek, n., ditama, 5. 
Cheer, v/. (console), samba, kft- 
lexa mueiina(2), bomba. 
(give alarum), ela bila (pi. of 

eila, 7), blnglla. 
(make glad), sanklxa. 
Cheese, «., cisl(Eng.), 7- § 55» 

Rem. 2, Note 2. 
Chest, n.(box), muxfite, 2. 

(of body), ciadi, 7. 
Chew, v/., botexa. 

(as bones or dried corn), bele- 

(with unpleasant noise), tan- 
Chicken, »., nsolo, 3. 
Chief, n., mukelengre, i; tatu, i; 

nfiunu, I. 
Chiefship, n., bakelenge, 6; bun- 

fumu, 6. 
Child, n., muana, i. 

(about three or four years old), 

citendi, 7. 
(be with), dl ne with difu(5) or 

diml(5), Imlta. 
(be with by, beget), imiclxa. 
(first-bom), muan'a bute(6) . 
(last bom), muan'a mukala(2) 

or muan'a lukala(4). 
(new-bom), katoto, 8. 
own, muana mulela. 
(still-bom, foetus), kana (dimin. 
of muana) kabtxe. 
Child-bearing, n., lulelu, 4; bu- 

ledi, 6. 
Childhood, n., buana, 6. 
Childless woman, n., nkumba, 3. 
Chilliness, «., dtelele, 7; claxi- 

ma, 7; maxlka, pi. of 5 or 6. 
Chilly, adj., see cold. 
Chin, »., eibanga, 7; lubanga, 4. 
Chip, n., clta&tu, 7. 
CmROGRAFHY, w., cifundldi, 7. 

Choir, »., kuIa(Eng.), 3. 

Choke, vph.{yf ith food), kuata ha 

withmumlnu(2) or diminu(5). 
(throttle), vt., flekela nxlnsu(3). 
Choose, vt., snngula. 
Chop, v/.(as wood), kosa, kali^ 

t&ha, kuota. 
into small pieces, to hash, sasa. 
».(food), bldia, pi. of 7; bia 

Chorus, n.^ koluB(Eng,), 3. 
Christ, n., Kalistu (Kallsitu). 
Christian, nph., muntu(i) wa 

Christianity, nph., bualu(6) bua 

Christhas day, nph,, dltiika(5) 

dla Santa Kllis. 
Church, «.(building), nsubu(3) 

wa Nzambi. 
members of the, bantu ba Nsam- 
Cicatrice, n., cibangu, 7. 
Circle, n., eijengu, 7; clfundu, 

7; citanga, 7. 
go around in a, v., nyunguluka. 
Circular, adj., -a cijengu(7); -a 

cifundu(7); -a citanga(7). 
Circumcise, vi., tengula. 
be circumcised, use passive fonns 

of tengula. § 202. 
CiRCXTMSTANCE, n,, bualu, 6; 

muanda, 2. 
Citizen, n., muena, i. 
fellow, muan'etu, etc; mnena 

kuetu, etc.; mukuetu, i, etc. 
City, n., musoko, 2; ditnnga, 5. 
(large collection of villages), 

cimenga, 7; cihnnda, 7. 
Civil, adj., -a kalolo(8). 
CiviLrrY, n., kalolo, 8. 
Clan, n., see tribe. 
Clap, n.(of thunder), dikubakuba, 

V.J the hands, tuta or kuma with 

the hand crosswise in expression 

of regret, tuta cibubu(7). 
Clapping, n., of the hands, lukftzl, 

4; cibubu, 7. 



Clasp, ?;/. (embrace), uhukila. 

(catch in the hands), akidlla. 

hands, kuatangana ku bianza 
(pi. of 7). 
Class, n., catechumen, dilongexa 

(group), disanza,5; cisumbu, 7. 
See KIND. 
Claw, n., luz&la, 4; luz&dl, 4; 

luala, 4. 
Clay, n.(xor making pots), dlbum- 
ba, 5; dima, 5 (the pi. is 
white, used for whitewashing, 
iuhemba, 4. 
Clean, cuij.y toke (p.p. of toka, to 
be clean); impe; pass. p.p. of 
verbs UTua, sukala (Lower 
Congo), kuhula. 
person, -a mankenda (pi. of 5 

or 6). 
v.(to whiten), tokexa. 
(to rub or brush), kuhula. 
(to wash), uTua, sukula. 
Cleanliness, n.(oi person), man- 
kenda, pi. of 5 or 6. 
Cleanness, w.( whiteness), butoke, 

Cleanse, v/.(as clothes, etc.), uvua, 
sukula (Lower Congo), 
(give a bath), owexa. 
Clear, vt.j a field, sola. 
away, umuxa. 
away, as sweeping, boya. 
vi.j away as mist or cloud, tanga- 

lAka, sanguluka. 
a<f;. (transparent), toke (p.p. of 
toka, to be white). 
Cleave, vi. (stick together), i&m&- 
ta, kuatakana. 
v/.(split), handa. 
Clench, vph.^ the fist, tonya minu 

(pi. of 2). . 
Clever, arf;., -a lungenyi(4), -a 
mexi (pi. of 5). 
The phrases di ne muhongo(2) 
and dl ne buloxi(6) have the 
secondary meaning of clever^ 
ingenious^ etc. 

Cleverness, «., lungenyi, 4; 
mexi, pi. of 5 ; lukanyl(Buk.), 
4; muhongo(2) and buloxi(6) 
also have a secondary meaning 
corresponding to cleverness, 
dexterity y etc. 

Click, vi.{?j& gun), aba. 

(in the throat to indicate anger), 

Cliff, «.(a great depression formed 
by landslide), lubuyl, 4; cibu- 
yubuyu, 7. 
(near to water), cibungubungu, 

Climb, vi., a tree or hill, ban da. 

(as vine), lamba. 
Clock, n., diba, 5. PI. is meba. 
This word is used because the 
clock indicates the position of 
the sun. 
(o'clock), for divisions of the day 
and night, see day. 
Clod, «., dibu, 5. 
Close, vt (as box, book), buikila. 
(as bracelet), bangika. 
(as door), inxila, xiblka. 
(as eyes), bulka ku mesu. 
(as path, so no one can pass), 

nyanga, ona. 
(near to), see by. 
(stand or be close together), vi. 

ImQnangana, kuatakana. 
See together. 
Closeness, «. (nearness), buihl, 6. 
Cloth, n., cilulu, 7; cllamba, 7, 
There are different names for 
the various kinds of European 
cloth; as, cimaza(7), dllesa(5), 
kakangala(8), kandolo(8), 
mungulumungu(2), ndunga 
(3), kandangama(8). 
(native cloth made from the 
palm), didlba, 5; cinsanki, 7; 
mpualala, 3. 
(small piece of cloth worn in 
front and behind), lubondla, 4. 
Clothe, vt.y luacika, luacixa, 

Clothes, n., bllulu, bllamba 
Both pi. of 7. 

1 64 


Cloud, n., dituta, 5; dlbuba, 5. 
(not heavy), dululu, 7. 

Cloudy, be, vt. (threaten rain), 

Cloven foot, n., mukono(2) mu- 

Coagulate, vi.y kuatakana. 

Coal, n., dikala, 5. 
oil, petroleum, inpltolo(£ng.), 3. 

Coast, «., inuelelu(2) or musa- 
la(2) or bucika(6) or the loca- 
tive words kukala, kusula, 
kunfudila, kusala, all fol- 
lowed by the adj. ph. -a ml. 

Coat, n., clkowela, 7; kasaku, 8; 
cinkutu, 7. 
v.{as paint), whitewash, laba. 

Coax, z;/., sengela, sengelela. 

Cob, n., clkumbuxi, 7; clkiunbu- 
kumbu, 7. 

Cobweb, n., buntate, 0; buta- 
tande, 6; bukuondo, 6. 

Cock, ». (rooster), citlla, 7. 

(first cock to crow in the morn- 
ing), citlla clbedl. 
vt.f gun, baDgula. 

CocKCROWiNG, «/>A.(dawn), hadl 
hasama nsolo, ha bitlla. 

Cockroach, n., luhenzu, 4. 

Cocoa, «. koko(£ng.), 3. 

Coerce, v/., use Causative Form of 

Coffee, n., kafl(Eng.), 3 or 8. 

Cohabit, v., luma, lala ne, lu- 
mlxa, tentemexa. 

Coil, v/., vunglla, Jinglla, Jinga, 
vunga, nyengela. 

Coin, n., mpalata, 3. 

Cola, nut, «., diku, 5. These are 
eaten with the palm wine. 

Cold, adj.^ -a maxika (pi. of 5 or 
6), -a citelele(7), -a cla- 
be or feel, vph.^ maxika as sub- 
ject of v. kuata with person as 
object, or the person as subject 
of V. unva with maxika as 
(be not warmed ),v«.,*talala, hole. 
make, vL, talfixa, liolexa. 

Cold {continued), 

n.(a cough), lukosolo, 4. 

(catarrh in nose), cimpumpu, 7. 

Coldness, n., maxika, pi. of 5 or 6; 

citelele (citalele), 7; cia- 

xima, 7. 

Collect, vt., tutakanya, tuta- 

kilza, sanglxa, sambakanya, 

sambakfixa, sangakanya, 

sangakAxa, kungixa, sangi- 

la, sanga. 

Collide, v., kumangana, tutan- 

Color, n., mubidi, 2. 

There are only three definite 
words expressing color, viz., 
toke(white), flke(black), 

kan*e(red). These are really 
past participles derived from 
the verbs toka, flka, kunza, 
respectively. From the three 
words above mentioned are 
derived words which express 
the intermediate colors as fol- 

(blue, green), flkuluke. 

(brown, yellow), kunsubile, kun- 

(gi'^y)) tokoloke. 

Sometimes blue and green are 
represented by flke, yellow and 
brown by kunze. 

(spotted), di ne matoba(pl. of 5) 
or dl ne mab&xi (pi. of 5). 

(striped), di nemlhola (pi. of 2). 
Comb, n., clsaku, 7; cisamuinu, 7. 

of fowl, mualala, 2. 

of honey, dikacl, 5; dihula, 5. 

vl.j samuna. 
Combine, vi.y sangixa, sangakan- 
ya, sangaktixa, sangila, san- 
ga, tutakanya, tutakdxa, 
sambakanya, sambakAxa; 
vi., sangakana, sambakana, 
Come, v.y lua. 

after, follow, londa. 

around to other side, luila. 

(arrive at), flka. 



Come (continued). 

back, aluka, aluklla, hingana, 

tuta, taclla, andamuka. 
down, tuluka, Ika. 
from, lua with proper locative, 

in, into, buela. 
into view, mueneka, mueka. 
off, as skin, l&muka, huluka. 
out, as blade out of handle, kuka. 
out of, luhaka, umuka, h&tuka. 
out of place, tuka. 
over, as water, sabuka. 
past, hita, tamba. 
slowly, stealthily, onguela. 
to consciousness, fululuka. 
together, sangakana, tutakana, 

laa clsumbu(7), dianguixa, 

disanga, sambakana, kunga- 

kana, dikunga. 
to mind, vuluka. 
with, accompany, flla. 
Comfort, ^/.(console), samba, 

bomba, klilexamucinia(2). 
(when crying), kosexa or huixa 

with inuadl(2). 
Command, v., amba, amblla, tu- 

mlna dl (5). 
not, prohibit, kanda. 
n.y see commandment. 
Commandment, n., dl, 5. PL isme. 
(negative), makandu, 2. 
(positive), makenjl, 2. 
Commence, v., again, tuadixa, 

to do, banga. 
Commend, vt., Inyixa. 
Commingle, vt.^ baelakana. 
Commit, v. (do), enza, osa, klxa 

adultery, enda masandl (pi. of 

5 or 6), sanda. 
rap)e, kuata mukaxi(i) ku bu- 

suicide, dixiha, dlowa(by hang- 
Common, adj.(be of little account), 

-a cToana, -a hatubu, -a b£. 
have things in, vph.^ sanglxa 


Commotion, «. (disturbance), diyo- 

yo, 5- 

Communion, w.(Lord's Supper), 
bidia (pi. of 7) bla Nzambl. 
wine, ml a Nzambi. 
Companion, n., mulunda, i ; nya- 
11(a), i; miuan'etu, etc., §138, 
Rem. 5. 
Companionship, n., bulunda, 6; 

bunyana, 6. 
Company, «.(crowd), dsumbu, 7. 
Compare, vi., idikixa, elekexa. 
Compassion, n., luse, 4. 

feel, v.f ufua, or unva with luse. 
have for, ha luse, samba. 
Compel, v., use Causative Form of 

Compensate, vt.y futa. 
Compensation, n., dlfutu, 5. 
Competent, be, v.(able), m&nyaor 
dl or mona followed by mua 
and infin. § 230. 
Complain, v., about, tontolola. 
of before another, songuela. 
Complaint, «.(have against one), 
bualu, 6, muanda, 2. Ndl 
n'ebi bualu, / have a com- 
plaint against you. 
Complete, be, w. (exact number), 
ula, xlka. Clnunu with dule 
or clxlke, an exact thousand, 
vt.f mAna, m&nyixa, xlkixa, 

hluxa; vi.y hua, xlka. 
(full quantity or measure, be), 
vi.y kumbana, Tula; vt., kum- 
b&xa, vudixa. 
adj., xila, kanda. 
Compliment, vt., Inyixa. 
Compliments, «., muoyo, 2. 
give, v., ha or ela or cbexa with 
Comprehend, v. (hear), unya. 

(known), mftnya. 
Compress, vt., kama, mata. 

(press down), bambila, nyeme- 
nena, xindika. 
Conceal, vt.y sokoka; vi.y soko* 

Concede, v.. Itabuxa. 
Conceit, ». (pride), disanka, 5. 



Conceited, be, vi. (proud), disua. 

Conceive, v., imlta with difu(5) 
or diiiii(5). This latter word 
seems to be used only of 
cause to, imicixa. 
(think), ela or elangana fol- 
lowed by Iungeiiyl(4) or mexl 
(pi. of 5) or muclma(2). 

Concern, n.(matter), bualu, 6; 
muanda, 2. 

Concerning, prep.y bualu(6) bua. 

Conciliate, vt., sung^a. 

Conclude, v. (come to same con- 
clusion after consultation), 
di(5) dlakuakanangana di- 
mue, hunguluxa di, akftxa 
(finish), mUna, manyixa, xl- 

klxa, huixa. 
(resolve), amba. 

Concourse, n. (crowd), cisumbu, 7. 

Concubine, «. (general term for 
wife), mukdxi, i. 
(first concubine taken), cilon- 
de(7) maadl(2). 

Condemn, v/., hlxa. 

(be condemned, convicted), vi.y 

(not to praise), vt., diula, nyoka. 

Condemnation, «.(doom), mulau, 

Condition, «., suggest infin. kul- 

Conduct, vt.y flla, xindikixa, ya 
De, lombola. 
n., cilele, 7; clenzedi, 7; clbl- 
lu, 7. 

Conductor, «. (leader), mulom- 
bodi, i; mudianjldl, i. 

Confer, i'.(give an oflSce to), ha 
or dlxa followed by abstract 
name of ofl5ce. 
together, ela clfufu(7). 

Conference, ^.(private), cifufu, 

Confess, v., itabuxa, sokola, ton- 
da, dlsonguela. 

Confidence, have in, v/., teke- 

Confluence, n.,di8aiigu, 5. Gen- 
erally used in pi. 

Conform to, v.(be like), fuanan- 
gana, akanangana, dieleka. 

Confound, 7;/.,buandaktixa,buaii- 
dakanya, tuhakilxa, tuha- 
kanya; vi.y tahakana, buan- 

Confuse, v/., buandakAxa, buan- 
dakanya, tuhakfixa, tuha- 
kanya; vi., tuhakana, buan- 
(miss path), hambuka. 
(put in disorder), tangadixa, 
tangalAxa, muanga, muan- 
galOxa; vi.y tangadika, tan- 
galAka, muangaltlka. 

Confusion,* w.(noise), dlyoyo, 5. 
be in, vi., tangadika, tangalftka, 

put in, vt., tangadixa, tanga- 
IQxa, muangalAxa. 

Congeal, v., kuatakana. 

Congo Independent State Gov- 
ernment, with all oflBcials, «., 
Bula Matadi (Lower Congo). 

Congratulate, vt., sekelela. 

Congregate, vi., sangakana, tu- 
takana, lua cisumbu(7), di- 
sanga, dlunguixa. kunga- 
kana, sambakana, dikunga. 

Congregation, «.(crowd), cisum- 
bu, 7. 

Conjure, ^/.(bewitch) lowa. 
(divine), buka, tern pa, tempexa. 
(do sleight-of-hand trick), enza 

Conjurer, «., see sorcerer. 

Conquer, vt., hita or tamba fol- 
lowed by bukttle(6) or ngu- 
lu(3); cimuna. 

Conscience, n., mucima, 2; muo- 
yo, 2. 

Conscious, of v., mUnya, unva, 

Consecrate, vt., see sanctify. 

Consent, v., itabuxa. 
See permission. 



Consequence, n., of no, kakuena 
baala(6); -a cinana; -a 

Consequently, adv., see there- 


Consider, v., ~ela or elangana fol- 
lowed by lun8renyi(4) or 
mcxl(5) or muclma(2) or 
. (reckon), amba. 
Consistent, adj, ph., -a dl(5) 

Console, i*/., samba, kftlexa mu- 
clina(2), bomba. 
(when crying), kosexa or hulxa 
with muadi(2). 
Conspicuous, be, v».(be seen), 

mueka, mueneka. 
Conspiracy, »., clfufu(7) clbl. 
Conspire, v., ela clfufu(7) clbi. 
Constantly, adv,, see ceaseless- 
Constipation, n., clnyenga, 7. 
(be constipated), v., nyenga with 
munda as subj., di ne cin- 
Constrain, ?;/. (hinder), humblza, 
humbak&xa, kosexa; vi., 
(cause to do), use Causative Form 
of verb. 
Construct, v/. (build), ibikka, asa 
(see note in B.L.-Eng.). 
(make), enza, osa, klxa. 
Consult, vi., for advice, konka, 
medicine man, tempa, tempexa, 

buka, nua clala(7). 
together secretly, ela clfufu(7). 
Consultation, «., secret, clfufu, 7. 
Consume, v/., oxa. 

(be consumed by fire), hla. 
(be finished), xika, hua. 
(spend, eat up), dia. 
Contagious, be, vi,, tampakana, 

ambuluklla, sambuluklla. 
Contain, vi., dl ne. 
Content, be, vLy sanka, muci- 
ma(2) udl with mutalale or 

Content, be {continued). 
The last two words are p.p. of 
talala and hola. 
Contention, «.(dispute), luh&ta, 

have a, dl ne or ela or elangana 
with mp&ta (pi.). 
Contentment, n., dlsanka, 5. 
Contiguous, be, vt., tuangana, 

Continually, adv,, see cease- 
Continue, v.(reside), Ik&la. 
(persevere), use neg. of lekela or 
hanga, or Pres. Habitual 
Contract, «.(a secret agreement), 
clfufu, 7. 
make a, v.', hunga dl(i;). 
a written, mukanda, 2. 
(shorten), vU, llilhlxa, kehexa. 
(as a bug when touched), vi. 
Control, v/.(as mother a child), 
buluklla, samlna, b£la, nan* 
Controversy, «., luh&ta, 4. 
engage in a, v.^ dl ne or ela or 
elangana followed by mp&ta 


settle a, v., tulxa. 
Convalesce, vi., sang&la, kiksa 

niubidl(2), santpiluka. 
Converge, vi., sambakana, sanga- 

kana, sangila. 
Conversation, n., muaku, 2. 

hold a, v., somba. 
Converse, vi., somba. 
Convert, vt., kudlmuna, anda- 
(be converted in religious sense), 
kudimuka muntu(i) wa 
n., muntu wa Nsambl. 
Convict, vt., hlxa. 

(be convicted), vi., hlla. 
Convince, vt., itabuxixa. 
Convulse, vt.(to have a fit), ha- 
luka, fua with cls£ke(7) ot 
tungulungu (pi. of 8). 



Convulsion, n.(fit), cis«ke, 7; 

tungulungu, pi. of 8; nkoyl, 

3. The latter word is u^ 

only of children. 
Cook, v., lamba, Ihlka. 
(be haJf cooked), tnya. 
(boil, stew), tumpa. 
(dry by fiie, as meat), Injika, 

(try), kansa. 
(roast in a pot, as com, peanuts, 

etc.), kanga. 

i roast in fire), oxa. 
with seasoning, such as salt, pep- 
per, oil, etc.), lungra. 
n., kukii(Eng.), inulambi(i), 

house, kitchen, clkuku(£ng.), 7. 

Cool, see cold. 

Coolness, »., see coldness. 

Copper, i»., ciania(7) ctknnse. 
Sometimes clombo(7) seems 
to be used for copper, but this 
latter word may mean either 
copper or iron made into 
crosses. Note that clama 
means either iron or copper, 
the distinction being made with 
the adjectives flke and knnse, 

Copse, n., cihuka, 7. 

Copulate, v., luma, Imnlza, ten- 
temeza, lala ne. 

Copy, »., cldiklxilu, 7; clmon- 
jfnUf 7; cilexilu, 7; cldlki- 
xu, 7^ luedl, 4; luelekexl, 4; 
luldl, 4. 
v., Idlklxa, elekexa. 

Cord, »., muoxi, 2; muxiiiKa, 2. 

Cork, ».(stopper of bottle), clxl- 
blku, 7; clbuiku, 7; dbul- 
kllu, 7. 

Corn, ». (maize), dianva, 5; di- 
t&la, 5. Generally usea in pi. 
to express quantity. Dianva 
and dit&la mean one ear of 
cob of, clkumbuxl, 7; ellnmi- 

bukmnbu, 7. 
shuck of, cihusu, 7. 

Corn (continued), 
silk of, beard, manyanTudl, 2. 
•talk of, cikolakola, 7; lubala- 

bala, 4; musengeleke, 2. 
tassel of, luseba, 4. 
Corner, n., of house, ditumba, 5. 
Cornet, n., mpansi, 3. 
Corpse, n., cit&lu, 7; muxangi 

(Buk.), 2. 
Corpxtlent, grow, vi., dinnda, 

Correct, adj., Impe, akane, len- 
gele, o-umue, muomumue 
i;.(rebuke), b^la, nanga. 
(scold), samina, bulukila. 
Correctly, a^v.( truly), bnUlela, 
biilnabuina,bualabaala, bui- 
ktkxa, buxua. These words 
are really adjectives with 
bualu(6) understood, 
(rightly), blmpe, blakane. 
Correctness, n., see truth. 
Correspond to, vi., fuana, fuan- 
angana, akana, akanangana 
dleleka, dl with bu or bulna. 
(write to each other), fundllan-' 
gana mikanda (pi. of 2). 
Corrode, i;.(rust), knata dime- 

Corrosion, n.(rustK dlmoma, 5. 
Corrupt, adj.(haa^, bl. 
(be rotten), vUf bola. 
(make rotten), v/., bolexa. 
(make to go bad), v^., ona, 
nyanga; vi,, onoka, nyan- 
(spoil, as a child), vt,, Ibldlxa 
bualu(6) bubl. 
Corruption, n. (badness), bubl, 6. 
Cost, n.(price), muxlnga, 2. 
Costive, be, v., dl ne clnyenga(7), 

nyenga mnnda. 
CosnvENESs, »., see constipation. 
Costly, adj,, -a muxlnga (2) mu« 

Cotton, n., buanda, 6. 
Couch, n,, bulalu, 6. 
Cough, n., lukosolo, 4. 
v., kosola. 



Could, v., see able. Use the 
proper past tense. 

Council, n., cilumbu, 7. 

(hold a council or court), v., 
Imnbulttla, zainbala(Buk.). 

Councilor, ».(attomey, one speak- 
ing for another at court), 
muambidldi, i; muaknidl, i; 
muluinbuluidl, i. 

Counsel, vL, ambila, ha with Inn- 
genyi(4) or mexi(5) or lu- 
(warn), dlmuxa. 
n., lungenyl, 4; mezi, pi. of 5; 
lukanyi, 4. 

Count, v., b&la. 

Countenance, «., see features. 

Countless, adj., use neg. of mOnya 
or mona or ena with mua 
kub&la, to count. 

Country, «. The country of a 
certain clan or tribe is gener- 
ally expressed by giving the 
simple name of the people. 
We may also have the indefi- 
nite misoko (towns), 
(down<x>untry), kuinanda. §423 

(2) (J). 

of the foreigner, mputu, 3. This 

word is a corruption of the 

name Portugal. 
Countryman, n., rnnena, i ; mu- 

kua, i; inuan'eta,etc.; mae- 

na kuetu, etc. ; muknetu, etc. 

§§ 138, Rem. 5; 141, Rem. i; 

142; 87 (d), Rem. 2. 
Couple, n.(all two), bubidi, 6. 
Courage, »., dlklma, 5; bukitu, 

6; inaclina(2) mukille. 
have, v., teka dlkima or bukitu 

or maclma mukille. 
Courageous, adj., see brace. 
Court, n., of justice, cUumbo, 7. 
(enclosure), use mu with lu- 

hangu(4) or cihaiigu(7) or 

(talk palaver at court), v., lum- 

bulula, zambala(Buk.). 
(yard, open space in village), lu- 

bansa, 4; bula, 6, 

Court (continued). 
v.(woo), endela. 

Courteous, adj.f -a kalolo, 8. 

Courtesy, n., kalolo, 8. 

Cousin, n. Generally expressed 
by the indefinite muan'etn, 
etc. § 138, Rem. 5. 

Covenant, n., see agreement. 

Cover, vt., bulklla. 
a house, flnga, knma. 
(be covered with, as clothes with 

dirt), vi.f t&hakana. 
»., clbnlkllu, 7; cibuiku, 7; 
cixlbiku, 7. 

Covet, vph.f use muoyo(2) or mu- 
clma(2) as subject of] v sa- 
mina or kuinlna, ela ma- 
clma. Hence we say nakuela 
cifulu ciandi maclma, / 
coveted his hat. 

Covetous, adj.^ -a macima(2). 

Cow, »., nKombe(3) maktkxi, ma- 
ktkzl'a ngombe. 

Coward, n., maeaa(i) baowa(6), 
muena maclma(2) matekete. 

Cowardice, n., baowa, 6; maci- 
ma(2) matekete. 

Cower, v.(as animal), b&za, di ne 
mb&zib&zl (pi. of 3 or 4). 

Cowry, n., mabela, 2; la]i&xl(Buk. 
and Bukuba), 4. 

Crab, n., nkala, 3; lukala, 4. 

Crack, n., matanta, 2. 
v/., handa mataiita(2); vi.^ 
handlka mutanta, faa ma- 
(as nuts), b^la, bula, bosa, toto- 
bala, taya(toya). 

Craft, n. (occupation), madlma, 2. 

Craftiness, n. (meanness), lakl- 
na, 4. 
(sharpness), badlmu, 6. 

Crafty, adj., -a badima(6), dl- 
make (p.p. of dlmaka, to he 
(mean), -a lakina(4). 

Cram, t;/. (together), bambila, nye- 
menena, zindlka, kamata. 

Crane, n.(bird), nyanyu(3) ^» 



Crawfish, n., cisasankala, 7; 

cisasa, 7. 
(shrimp), luziza, 4; luxoza, 4. 
Crawl, vi.(gia caterpillar, lizard), 

landala, lundamana. 
(as child), kalaba, jeka. 
(as snake), enda ujongoloka 

(from V. jongoloka). 
Craziness, n., buhale, 6; butom- 

boke, 6; bubuluke, 6. 
Crazy, be, vi.f buluka, hala, tom- 

oJ;., buluke, hale, tomboke. 

These are p.p. of the above 

Crease, n., mufudi, 2. 
Create, v/., fuka. 
Credit, v. (let one have something 

as a debt), ha dibaiiia(5). 

Hence we have nakuha Ka- 

songo dibansa dilnyi dla 

cinanu da mlbela, / credited 

Kasongo for 1,000 cowrieSf lit. 

/ gave him my debt far 1,000 

Credulity, n., luitabuxu, 4. 
Credulous, cidj., -a liiitabiixu(4). 
Creek, n., musalu, 2. 
Creep, vi.(as child), kalaba, jeka. 
(as vine), lamba. 
stealthily, bombelela, tobela. 
Creeper, n. (generic), muozi, 2. 

There are many species, but 

the most useful is the lukodi(4), 

which is extensively employed 

in making houses, fences, mats, 

nets, baskets, etc. 
Creeping thing, n., qIxI, 7. 
Crevice, n., mutanta, 2. 
Cricket, n., clmpul , 7; cinson- 

kela, 7. 
(edible), muenie, 2; muntuntu, 

Crimson, adj., kunse (pp. of 

kunza, to be crimson). 
Cringe, vi.y with fear, as animal, 

b&xa, di ne mb&xlbftzi(3). 
Crippled, be, v*.(Iimp), sobela. 
Croak, v».(as frog), dila. 
Crocodile. «., ngandu, 3. 

Crook, n.(bend), dintonya, 5. 
Crooked, be, vi., konyangala, 
tonyttma, nyongoboka, hen- 
guluka, kobama. 
Crop, n.{oi bird), dibodlo, 5. 
Cross, n.(like that on which Christ 
was crucified), maci(2) mucia- 
iron or copper made into, ciom- 

bo, 7. 
(be fretful), vi.f nylngabala. 
(as one path or stick crossing an- 
other), vi.y clamakana; vt,, 
a stream, vi., sabuka; vt., sa- 
Crossing, n.(ford or ferry), clsabn, 

7; dllobo, 5 ; cisabakilu, 7. 
Crouch, vi., Inttma, butama, 

Crow, v.(as cock), sama. 
Crowd, n., cisiunba, 7; dlsanga, 
5; bungl, 6. 
together, vi,y baelekana; vt., 
buexakana, buelakttxa. 
Crown, n., of head, lubombo, 4. 
Crucify, vph., xlha ha macl(2) 

Cruel, adj., -a liikiiiu(4), -a 
(be cruel toward one) vt,, nyan- 
ga, ona. 
Cruelty, n.,luklna,4; clnyaiigU)7. 
Crumb, n., cisunsukila, 7; lako- 

toto, 4; kavuku, 8. 
Crumble, vt,f sunsala. . 
Crunch, vt., beleketa. 
Crush, v/. (grind between stones), 
(by beating), kuma, tuta. 
(by rubbing), vlnga, sunsala. 
in mortar, tua. 
(squeeze), kama. 
to powder, botexa. 
Crust, n., lukototo, 4; cilttmu- 

Ittmu, 7. 
Cry, v., dila. 

(console or stop from crying), 
kosexa or halxa with mua- 




Cry {continued). 

(exclamation used in calling to 

fight), v.y kobola. 
(exclamation of surprise, or joy 
by a number of people), v., 
bingila, ela bila (pi. of 7). 
for, dlla, Jinga. 
«.( weeping), muadl, 2. 
(alarum), clla, 7. 
Crying, n., muadl, 2. 
Culpable, be, vi.^ hlla. 
Cultivate, v., dlma, ihila. 
Cunning, adj,, -a budlma(6), dl- 
muke (p.p* of dlmuka, to he 
Cunningness, n., badlnm, 6. 
Cup, n., luhansa, 4. 

ito bleed), vt,f sumika. 
small gourd for cupping), n., 
lusamu, 4. 
Curb, v^(heal), ondaha (used in 
reference to the person heal- 
ing), holexa, talOxa, umixa. 
The last three words have refer- 
ence to the medicine perform- 
ing the cure, 
fbe cured), v».,talala, hola, uma. 
(to give a present of something to 
eat to a person wounded, the 
rift to be given by the person 
inflicting the wound), lunga. 
Curse, v<.(doom), ela miilaa(2). 
(offend), henda, tnka. 
»., clhendo, 7. 
(doom), mulau, 2. 
Curve, i;<.(bend), tony a, tonta, 
kobeka, konya, hengulnxa, 
nyongoboxa; vi,, konyon- 
gala, tonyfima, nyongoboka, 
kobama, henguluka. 
»., dlntonya, 5. 
Custom, »., clbllu, 7; cllele, 7; 

clensedi, 7. 
CUT, vt.f kosa, t&ba, kata. 

(as vine for rubber), tftba, benda. 
away, as trash in field, sengrnla. 
away, as large timber for field, 

f carve), songa. 
castrate), tungula, liakula. 

Cut (continued). 
(chop), kuota. 
down, as grass or tree, t&ha, 

xumbula, uhula. 
finger nails, bengula ni&dl. 
fire-wood, handa, t&ha, kuota. 
grass with hoe, dlma, Ihlla. 
open, split, handa. 
(slice), benga. 
teeth, mtaa with dlna(5) as 

up, as an animal killed, seya, 

up by the roots, jula. 
up into small pieces, to hash. 

(wound), t&ha mputa(3). 
».(wound), mputa, 3. 


Daily, adv., ku dltukn(5) ku dl- 

tuku, ku dlcl(5) ku did. 
Daintiness, n., mankenda, pi. of 

5 or 6. 
Dainty, (u/;., -a mankenda (pi. of 

5 or 6). 
Damage, v/., ona, nyanga. 
Damn, v., ela mulaa(2). 
Damnation, n., mulau, 2. 
Damp, adj.^ -a cltelele(7), -a cla- 

be, vi., talalaj hola, bombama. 
(be wet), vi,, bola, toha. 
Dampen, vl.^ talftxa, holexa, to- 

hexa, bolexa, bombeka. 
Dampness, »., cltelele, 7; cla- 

xlma, 7. 
Damsel, n., see maid. 
Dance, n., maxa, pi. of 5 or 6. 

v., xa, xa maxa. 
Danger, »., bualu, 6; miuiiida, 2. 
Dan L"^, v»., lembelela. < 
Daring, be, see brave. ^ 
Dark, o^;. (color), like (p.p. from 

flka, to he dark). 
(as in closed room, or darkness 

or night), mldlma, pi. of 2; 

muflta, 2. 



Dark (continued). 

(become dark), see becoice. 
(make dark, darken), vLy flkiza. 
Darken, vL, flklxa. 
Darkness, ».(as night), midlma) 
pi. of 2; mnflta, a. 
(color), buflke, 6. 
Dash, n.(West Coast English for 
gift, or the extra amount which 
must always be given in trade), 
matablz» (pi. of 5 or 6), n e- 
kidldi(3), ntentekedl(3). 
give a, v.f sekidila, tentekela. 
Date, n. This idea must gener- 
ally be expressed by reference 
to the moon (ngondo or muen- 
xi), or to one of the seasons 
(muxlhu, mayowa, nyula). 
Daub, v., m^ta, bna. 

(be daubed over with, as clothes 
with mud), tfthakana. 
Daughter, n., miiana(i) mukfl- 
(one's own daughter), muana 
Dawn, »., haciacia (adv.). S 423, 

(») (*). 

(cockcrowing), hadl hasama 

little after, dlnda, 5; lunkeln, 4. 
v., batiikii(6) or bafuku(6) with 
the V. cia. 
Day, n., dltuku, 5; difakn, 5; 
dlcl (pi. meci), 5. 
(all day long), dinda(5) to ne 

(day after to-morrow), adv., 

(day by day), ku dltuku ku dl- 

tuk , ku ici ku dlcl. 
(daytime), munya, 2. 
For days of the week, see week. 
Daybreak, n., haciacia. § 423 

(2) (b), 
Dayugbt, »., munya, 2. 
Daytime, »., munya, 2. 
Dazzle, vpk.^ tuila mu mesu. 
Dead, adj., fue (p.p. of fna, to 

Deaf, adj,, -a mahaha (pi of 5). 
If one ear only is deaf use the 
sing., dl.ialia. 
person, muena(i) mahaha. 

Deafness, n. If person is deaf in 
one ear use dihaha(5), if in 
both ears use the pi. mahaha. 

Deal, v., in, trade, enda muxin- 
fl:a(2) ne; as, utu wenda 
muxinga ne ndundu, he deals 
in rubber. 
(large amount), -a bunfl:i(6), ngi, 

Dear, a^f;. (costly,) -a mnxingaia) 
make, v/., bandixa muzi ga. 

Dearth, n., bunyabunya, 6; bu« 
b&le, 6; buklse, 6. 

Death, »., lufu, 4. 
put, to zlha. 

(to be very near death, about to 
die), v., use lufu as subject of 
V. tonda with the person as 

Debase vt., kehexa. 

Debate, n.( dispute)^ luhftta, 4. 
v.f ela or elagana or di ne with 
luhftta. PI. mpftta is generally 

Debris, n., see trash. 

Debt, n., dibania, 5. 

ask for the payment of, v., nana. 
be in. The debtor is said to 
possess or get (di ne or angata) 
the debt of the creditor — ^just 
opposite of the English; as, 
ndi ne dibania dia Kasongo 
dla cinunu cia mibela, / am 
in debt to Kasongo for 1,000 
Sometimes the verb knata is used 
with dibania as subj. and the 
person who is in debt as the 
incur a, v., enia dibania. 

Decay, w., bola. 

Deceit, n., ludimi, 4. 

Deceive, v., xima, dinga, dimba. 

December, »., Di8emba(Eng.). 



Decide, v.Qudge), lumbulula. 
after consultation, dl(5) dlakua- 
kanangana d^mue, hunfni* 
laza or aktkxa with dl(5). 
on, sungula. 

i resolve), amba. 
settle a dispute), tuixa; kosa or 
kala vnih nsambu (pi. of 3 
or 4). 
Declare, v., amba. 
Decline, v^. (refuse to give), Imlna. 
(as price), vi., teketa. 
(refuse), hldla, benga. 
Decompose, v. bola. 
Decorate, vL, lengeza. 
Decoration, ».(omament), ci- 

lenga, 7. 
Decorous, adj., -a kalolo(8). 
Decorum, n., kalolo, 8. 
Decrease, v^(as price), hnekeza 
or tekeza with inuxlnKa(2). 
(as swelling), vi , fuba, hohftla. 
(as wages), v/., hnekexa dlfu- 

(as water abating), uma, kama. 
(in quantity or size), vi,, keha, 

nyana; vt., keheza, nyan- 

Decree, »., dl, 5; mukenji, 2. 
v., amba followed by di(5) or 

Deed, n.(affair), bualn, 6; muan- 

da, 2. 
Deep, adj., le. 
Deepen, vL, leheza. 
Deepness, n., bale, 6. 
Defame, v/., songuela, banda. 
Defeat, vt., hlta or tamba fol- 
lowed by bukftle(6) or ngu- 

lu(3), clmuna. 
Defend, vt., sungidila, sunslla, 

Defender, »., mustmsldl, i. 
Deference, »., kalolo, 8. 
Deferential, adj., -a kalolo, 8. 
Deficient, be, v».(be not enough}, 

x&la- ena ne. 
Defile, v/. (blacken), flkixa. 
(make to go bad), ona, nyanga. 

Define, v., amba. Sometimes 

bualu baa follows amba. 
Deformed, adj., in back, hiunp- 
backed, kobame (p.p. of ko- 
bama), dltonte(p.p. of dl- 
tonta), -a dikoko(5). 
in legs, -a kaneke(8), -a nje- 
ku(3), -a clbombo(7). 
Deformity, «., in back, dikoko, 5. 

in legs, kaneke, 8; njeka, 3. 
Defraud, v/., iba. 
Degrade, vt., kehexa. 

(discharge), fttla. 
Delay, vt., humbixa, lekeza. 
(remain behind), xftla, humba. 
(stop), vi., lekela. 
Deliberate, v., ela or elangana 
followed by mexi(5) or lun- 
genyi (4) or muclma(2). 
(hold conference), ela with ci- 
fafu(7) or clfa(7). 
Deliberation, n., cifafu, 7; clfu, 

Delicate, adj,(not strong), ena ne 

followed by bukille(6) or 

Delight, vt., sankixa; vi., sanka. 
Delirious, be, T;.(talk in delirium), 

akula biakalakula(pl. of 7). 

§ 356 ig)' 
Deliver, v. (act as midwife), le- 
a child, lela. 

from slavery, redeem, hikala. 
message, amblla, amba with 

di(5) or mukenji(2). 
(save), sungUa, sungldlla, han- 
Deliverance, n., luhandu, 4. 
Deliverer, n., musungidl, i. 
Demand, v. (ask for), lomba. 

(to question), ebexa, konka. 
Demented, adj., bnluke, tom- 
boke, hale. These are p.p. of 
baluka, tomboka and hala, 
respectively, meaning to be 
Dementia, n., buhale, 6; batom* 
boke, 6; bubulake, 6. 



Demolish, vt., sasula, cibula, 

handakanya, tangadixa, tan- 

galttxa, xlha. 
a village, nyanga, ona, hanla. 
Pemon, ff.(£iblical sense), mul&- 

m&ci(i) wa Satana. 
(devil), Satana, i. 
(spirit, ghost), muklxi, 2; mu- 

xangi, 2. 
(witch), maena(i) muhonKo(2), 

muena buloxl(6),inuenaiiiu- 


Den, »., buina, 6. Pi. is mena. 

Denounce, v/., diula, nyoka. 

Dense, be, v.(as forest), zltakana. 

Deny, v., hidla, benga. 
a charge, Vila. 
(refuse to give), Imlna. 
(renounce), hldla, nyoka, ben- 
ga, dlula. 

Depart, v., ya, umuka, blka. 

Depose, vt.^ umuxa, fttla. 

Depress, v/. (lower), huekexa. 
(be depressed with sorrow), bun- 
gama, nyingala muclnia(2). 

Depth, «., bule, 6. 

Derange, t;/. (disarrange), tanga- 
dlxa, buandakanya, baanda- 
kfixa, tangalfixa, tuhakAxa, 
tuhakanya, muanga, muan- 
galAxa, buexakana, sanga- 
kAxa, sangakanya; vt.(be 
disarranged), buandakana, 
tangadlka, tangalAka, tuha- 
kana, muangalflka, buela- 
kana, sangakana. 

Deranged, a^;. (mentally), buluke, 
tomboke, haie. These words 
are p.p. of buluka, tomboka 
and hala, respectively, mean- 
ing to he deranged. 

Deride, vty s£ka. 

Derision, «., kas^ku, 8. 

Descend, z;t.(as sun in the heavens) 
(come down from tree), etc. 

tuluka, ika. 
(fall), bona, kuluka, m&ta. 
(go down-stream), hueka. 

Descendant, »., muana, i. See 

Descent, «., line of, generation, 
cilongo, 7. 
place of, clhuekelo, 7. 
Describe, vU^ amba. Sometimes 

bualu bua follows amba. 
Desecrate, v/., ona, nyanga. 
Desert, v/., xla, lekela. 

(move to another place, scatter), 

(uninhabited place), nph., mu 
muaba(2) kamuena bantu. 
Deserted village, »., dlkolo, 5; 

cikulu, 7. 
Deserve, v».(be right or best to 
do), bualu(6) bulmpe or 
blmpe(adv.) followed by infin. ; 
as, bualu buimpe kumukuma, 
it is right to whip him, i.e., 
he deserves a whipping. 
(be fit or proper), fuana. 
Desire, v., sua, nanga, Inylxa. 
«., changeable, cisuasua, 7. 

^ §356 (^). 

Desist, v., lekela. 

Desolate, v/., haula. 

Despise, v/., use the ph. dl ne 

lukuna(4); neg. of sua, nanga 

and Inyixa. 
See loathe. 
Despite, n., lukuna, 4. 
Despoil, vt., haula. 
Despond, vi., bungama, nyln- 

gala niucima(2). 
Despondent, be, w., see despond. 
Despot, »., muena(i) clnyan- 

Despotic, adj., -a clnyangu(7). 
Destination, n.(end), cizlkK 

dllu, 7. 
Destine, v/.(choose), sungula. 
DESTrrXTTE, a</7.(poor),hele, landa. 
(be destitute of), use neg. enane. 
Destitution, «.(poverty), buh«le, 

6; bulanda, 6. 
Destroy, vt., xlha, dbula. 
house, sasula. 
(pillage), haula. 
village, nyanga, ona. 



Detain, vt.^ lekez^i) humblza, 
humbakfixa, kosexa. 
(be detained), vi.^ humba. 

Detect, v^.(feel, become conscious 
of), unva, ufua. 

Detter, vt.f humblxa, lekexa, 
kosexa, humbakAxa. 

Deteriorate, vi., nyanguka, ono- 

Determine, v., see decide. 

Detest, vL, use the ph. dl ne 
lukuna(4); also neg. of sua 
and nanga and Inyixa. 


Detestation, n., lukuna, 4. 
Detour, make a, v., sesa, sesuka. 
Devastate, v/., see destroy. 
Develop, t/f*.(grow), kftla, lunba, 

dlunda, leha. 
Devil, «., see demon. 
Devotion, n. (affection), disua, 5; 

dlnanga, 5. 
(pity), lose, 4. 
Devour, v/., dla. 
Dew, n., mume, 2; dime, 5. 
Dexterity, «., see cleverness. 
Dialect, n., muaku, 2; ciakuilu, 

7; ludlml, 4; muakuilu, 2. 

The different dialects may be 

represented by prefixing bu 

to the name of the people. 

§ 55, Rem. I. 
DiARRHCEA, n., to have, huya 

munda, ela munda, uha 

Die, vi.y fua. 

(be about to die), tonda with 

lufu as subj. and the person 

as obj. 
for, as substitute, fulla. 
Differ, v. (dispute), ela or dl ne 

or elangana followed bymp&- 

ta(p]. of 4). 
(be unlike), use neg. of fuanan- 

sana and fuana and kele- 

mena and dieleka; also neg v. 

with muomumue or o- mnne. 
Difference, ^.(argument), lu- 

hftta, 4. 
settle a, vt., tuixa. 

Different, be, v*., see differ. 
way of doing, w., cienKedi(7) 
Differently, adv,, use the deriva- 
tive noun forms as described 
under § 356 (c) followed by the 
adj. cikuabo, other; as, enza 
ciensedl cikuabo, do U dif- 
Difficult, adj., kaie(p.p. of kftla, 

. tohediffkuU). 
Difficulty, ^.(palaver), bualu, 6; 

muanda, 2. 
Diffidence, »., bundu, 6; bunvu, 

Diffident, be, v»., ufua or unva 
or dl ne followed by bundu(6) 
or bunvu(6). 
Dig, v., a hole, Imba, umbula. 
(to hoe), dima, Ihikt. 
up, as tree, Jula. 
Dilatory, be, vi., xixamuka. 
Diligent, adj., use some such ph. as 
-amuclma(2) waniudiniu(2); 
or the neg. v. with bufuba(6) 
or bukata(6). 
Dimension, ^.(length), bule, 6; 
ntanta(3) mule. 
(width), bulhi, 6; buklse, 6; 

ntanta(3) mulhl. 
(size), bunlne, 6. 
take, measure, vt., Idlklxa, ele- 
Dibonish, vi.y see decrease. 
Dimtnutive, adj. The diminutive 
idea is generally expressed by 
means of the prefix ka(pl. tu). 
There are, of course, the adjs. 
kise, b&le, nya-nya. 
Dinner, nph., bidiafpl. of 7) bia 
munda mun7a(2), bidla bla 
Dip, v. (immerse), Ina. 
in, tua. 

up, tunta, t&ha. 
Direct, v.(show), lexa. 
(tell, command), ambila. 
the way, lombola. 
a<^;.(strai^t), lul&me(p.p. of 
lul&ma, to be straight), « 



Direction, n.(coinmand), dl, 5; 
mukenjly 2. 
towards, prep,f kn. 
Directly, a(fv.(soon), katataka, 
dlodlono, mpinden. 
suh, can j, (as soon as), ha used as 
prefix to verb in sub. clause. 

Dirt, n. (earth), malobo, pi. of 6. 
(excrement), ttlfi, pi. of 8. See 

note under B.L.-Eng. 
(loose sand), dlfukenya, 5; 

nsenga, pi. of lasenga(4); 

nsele, pi. of la8ele(4). 
on the body, manyanu, pi. cf 5 

or 6; mbindu, pi. of 3 or 4. 
(trash), cilu, 7; clsonso, 7. 

The pi. of these words gener- 
ally used. 
Dirtiness, n., buflke, 6; bubi, 6. 

(untidiness), bukoya, 6. 
Dirty, adj. (as clothes), flke, bi. 
(in person), -a manyana(pl. of 

( or 6), -a mbiiidu(pl. of 3 or 

(untidy), -a bakoya(6). 

Disagree, 7/.(have dispute), di ne 
or ela or elansana with 
mpftta(pl. of luh&ta). 

Disagreement, n., luhftta, 4. 
settle a, vt.^ tulxa, kosansambu. 

Disappear, vi., jlmlna. 

Disappointed, be, v., in doing, 
humbixa, humba. 

Disapproval, n., mukandn, 2; 
buhidla, 6; cibenga, 7. 

Disapprove, v/., hidla, bensa, 
(with a click of the throat), 

Disarrange, vt.^ tangadixa, tu- 
hakttxa, tuhakanya, tanga- 
Itlxa, buelaktkxa, buexakana, 
sansakttxa, sangakanya, 
muansa, muansalttxa; vi.(he 
disarranged), tansadlka, tan- 
saltlka, buelakana, sanga- 
kana, tuhakana, mnauga- 

Disaster, npk,, bualn(6) bubl 

(or bukille). 
Discard, vt., hidla, benga. 
Discharge, vt., employee, nmuxa, 

(unload), h&tula, umaxa. 
a, perhaps venereal, n., misele, 

pi. of 2. 
Disciple, »., mnloho, 2; mutan- 

gadlki, i; muiyidi, i. 
Discipline, v/.(punish), kiima, 

tuta, nyanga, kengexa, ona. 
(rebuke), b^la, samina, bnlu- 

klla, nanga. 
(teach), amblla, lonKexa(Buk. 

or Lower Congo), iylxa^ mikn- 

yixa, labuklxa(Buk.). 
Disclose, ^/.(unhide), sokolola, 

Disconcerted, be, vi., tuhakana, 

Discontented, be, v».(g;rumble), 

Discontinue, v., lekela. 
Discordant, be, v.(as musical in- 
strument out of tune), silkuka. 
Discourage, vt,, nemexa or han- 

Klxa with muclma(2); v».(be 

discouraged), mnclma as subj. 

of V. nema. 
Discourse, n. Perhaps the most 

satisfactory word is the infin. 

kuamba used as a noun. Ba- 

alu(6) and muaiida(2) and 

di(5) may be used, according 

to sense. 
Discover, vph,, dianjila kumona. 
(detect), become conscious of, 

ufua, nnva. 
Discretion, n., langenyi, 4; mexl, 

pi. of 5 or 6; ]nkanyl(Buk.), 

(4). . 
Discussion, ^.(dispute), luh&ta, 4. 
have a, v., ela or elangana or 

di ne with lahftta(4). The 

pi. of luh&ta is generally used. 
Disease, n., dlbedl, 5; disama, 5; 

bnbedl, 6. 
Disenchant, vi,, hoiiffola(?). 



Disentangle, vt., sulula, kutu- 
lula, Jlngulula, yangulula. 

Disgrace, vt.y kuaclxa or ufulza 
with buiidu(6), kehexa. 
n.f bundu, 6; bunvu, 6. 

Disgust, n. (hatred), lukuna, 4. 

Disgusted, be, w., with food, to 
loathe, tonda, tua. 

Dish, n., dllonga, 5. This word 
is perhaps from Lower Congo. 

Dishearten, v/., nemexa or han- 
gixa with inucliiia(2) ; t^*.(be 
disheartened), muclma as 
subj. of nema. 

Dishonest, adj., -a muclma(2). 
be, v., Iba, dl ne followed by 
bulvl(6) or buibl(6) or bl- 
ania(pl. of 7) bile. 
person, n., mulvl, i; mulbl, i. 

Dishonesty, «., bulvl, 6; bulbl, 

Dishonor, v/., kehexa; also neg. 
of tumblxa or nemeka. 

Dislike, vL, see despise. 

Dislocated, be, vi., luhuka, hft- 

Dismay, vt., clnylxa; vi.(he dis- 
mayed), dna. 

Dismiss, v/., from employ, fttla, 

Disobedience, n., clbengu, 7; 
buhldla, 6; clcu, 7. 
(stubbornness), clxlku, 7. 

Disobedient, adj.y -a clbeiisu(7), 
-a clcu(7), -a buhldla(6). 
be, v., use neg. of tumblxa or 
nemeka or tumlklla or unva 
or Itabuxa mu dl or ensa mu- 
foUowed by proper tense and 
person of amba. 
(stubborn), -a clxlku(7). 

Disobey, v., hldla or benga fol- 
lowed by dl(5); neg. of unva 
or nemeka or tumblxa or 
tumlklla or Itabuxa mu dl or 
ensa mu- followed by proper 
for-n of amba. 
(dishonor), kehexa. 

Disorder, «., to put in or be in, 
see derange. 

Disown, t;/., nyoka, dlula. 

(refuse), hldla, benga. 
Disperse, vt.y tangadlxa, tanga- 

lAxa, muanga, muangalttxa; 

vi.j tangadlka, muangalAka, 

Displease, vLy kuaclxa or ufulxa 

with clxl(7), flklxamunda. 
Disposition, «.(heart), muclma, 2. 
Disputation, n., luh&ta. 4. 
Dispute, v., dl ne or ela or elan- 

gana with mpftta(pl. of lu- 

settle a, tulxa, kosa nsambu(3) 
n., luhftta, 4. 
Disreputable, adj.f bl. 
Disrespect, n., dlkamakama, 5; 

clkama, 7; dlntanta, 5. 
Disrespectful, adj.y -a dlkama- 

kama(5), -a clkama(7), -a 

be to, vi.y kehexa; also neg. of 

tumblxa or nemeka. 
Dissatisfied, be, v».(grumble), 

Dissect, v/.(cut up an anmial 

killed), seya,saya. 
Dissent, v. (refuse), hldla, benga. 

n., nod, v., kuhamutu(2). 
Dissimilar, be, vi., use neg. of 

fuanangana or kelemena; 

also neg. with muomumue or 

o-umue or muan'abo ne. 
Dissipation, n. (drunkenness), bu- 

buluke(6) or buhale(6) or 

butomboke(6) followed by 

maluYu(pl. of 5). 
Dissolve, vi.y flngaluka, engu- 

Dissuade, v/. (interrupt), humblxa, 

Distance, «., long, bule, 6. 
short, bulhl, 6. 
(long or short), ntanta, 3. 
Distant, adj.^ see remote. 
Distasteful, be, vi.{as unsea- 
soned food), talala, hola. 
Distend, vL, tuntumuxa, tanta- 

mlxa, uxa; v/., tantamlka, 

tuntumuka, ula. 



DISTINCTLY) adv., bimpe, blakane. 

Distinguished, adj., see famous. 

Distort, v. {as face), kama ku 
inesu(pl. of 5). 

Distress, n.(mental), kanyingan- 
yinga, 8. 

Distribute, vt., abanya. 

among each other, abanyan- 

to, abanylna. 

District, «., see country. 

Distrust, v., use neg. of tekemena. 

Disturb, v/. (interrupt one in do- 
ing), humblxa. 
(make trouble), teka followed by 
diyoyo(5) or mutftyo(2). 

Disturbance, ». (trouble), diyoyo, 
5; mutftyo, 2. 

Ditch, n., mutubu, 2; nkoka, 3; 
muexl, 2. 

Dive, vi., dina. 

Diverge, vi., abuluka, handu- 
luka, tfthuluka. 

Divers, adj,{rDa.ny)f -a bungl(6), 
ngl, ngla-ngl. 
(be different), vi., use neg. of 
fuana or fuanangana or die- 
leka; also neg. v. with muo- 
mumue or o-umue. 

Di\'ERSE, BE, vi., see differ. 

Divide, vt., among, abanya, aban- 
yina, abuluxa. 
among each other, abanyangana. 
into parts, assort, t&hulula, sun- 

(separate), vt., handulula, abu- 
luxa; vi., handuluka, abu- 
(dividing line between two fields), 
mukalu, 2. 

Divination, w.(the fetish with 
which it is done), lubuku, 4. 

Divine, v., buka, tempa, tempexa, 
Duaciala(7), depending on the 
form of enchantment or divina- 
tion employed. 
adj.{oi God), -a Nzambl. 

Diviner, n., muena(i) lubuku(4), 
mutempexl(i), mpaka(i) 

manga(pl. of 6), muhttkl(i) 

Diviner {continued). 

wa manga, muena(i) cla- 
Division, n., of anything cut ofif, 
cltuha, 7. 
of anything split, clh^su, 7. 
(partition in house), cldldl, 7. 
(side), lus^ke, 4. 
Divorce, vt., xiha dibaka(5). 
(be divorced), vi., dibAka as 
subj. of V. fua. 
Divulge, v., sl secret, sokolola, 

Dizziness, n., kantetu, 8; kan- 
yungunyungu, 8; dlnyungu, 
5; lunyungu, 4. 
Dizzy, be, v., di ne followed by 
kantetu(8) or kanyungun- 
yungu(8) or dlnyungu(5) or 
Do, vt., ensa, osa, klxa. 

(be done, completed, no more), 

vi., xlka, mAna, hua. 
(complete), vt., xlklxa, mAnyl- 

xa, hulxa. 
in advance, dlanjlla. 
The above verbs meaning do are 
never used in the sense of the 
English auxiliary do. 
Docile, be, vi., tumlka, tumi- 

klla, dl ne kalolo(8). 
Docility, n., kalolo, 8. 
Doctor, n., muhOkl(i) wamanga, 
mpaka(i) manga. 
(diviner), muena(i) lubuku(4), 
mutempexl(i), muena cia- 
la(7), muena buanga(6). 
(witch doctor), muena cihaha(7) 
Doctrine, n., bualu, 6; muanda, 

Dodge, v., ehela. 
Dog, «., mbua, 3. 
Domestic, adj., animal, -a ku 

bula(6), -a ku lubanza(4). 
Dominion, «., see country. 
(kingship), bukelenge, 6; bun- 
fumu, 6. 
Donkey, n., kabftlu, 8. 
Doom, vt., ela mulau(2). 
n., mulau, 2. 



Door, «., clbl, 7. 

-post, cilua, 7; clxlkl, 7. These 
words may also mean the posts 
in the wall, 
(space just in front of door), ku 

mbelu(3), ha mbelu. 
-way, muxuku(2) wa mbelu, 
mbelu(3), clbuedelu(7). 
Doorway, «., see under door. 
Dor, »., dltoba, 5; dlb&xl, 5. 
Double, v/.(fold back), clbulula. 
(all two, two and two), «., 
bubldl, 6. 
Double-minded, be, vi.^ dl ne 

micima Ibidl. 
Doubt, v., use some neg. form with 
bulilela(6) or buxua(6) or 
bualabuala(6) or bulnabulna 
(6) or bulkfixa(6). 
Doubtful, ai;., see doubt. 
Dove, »., nkudimba, 3. 
Down, adv., use the proper locative 
with the inseparable -manda 
or -nxl. § 423 (2) (&)• 
at, kunxi kua. 
in, munxi mua. 
on, hanxi ha. 
-stream or -hill or -country, ku- 

Often the idea is expressed in the 
Downward, see down. 
Dowry, ».(sum paid by groom to 
parents of bride), luselu, 4; 
bintu bla buku(6). 
to pay the, v/., sela, flla. 
Doze, v., bung^t tulu(pl. of 8). 
Drag, vL, hulumuna, koka, huta. 
Draw,i;/., hulu-nuna, koka, huta. 
breath, eyela, huta, koka. 
near to, vi.y see approach. 
out, vt.y tula, hulula. 
out, stretch, koka, huta. 
picture, idiklxa or elekexa fol- 
lowed by the infin. kufunda, 
to write-, as, wakuldlkixa ku- 
funda miintu, he drew a pic- 
ture of a person. 
uo, as bug when touched or as 
clothes when washed, fulama. 

Draw {continued). 
water, from spring or stream, 

water, urinate, sukula. 
Dread, w., buowa, 6. 

v.y clna. 
Dream, v., l&ta with mutu(2) or 
ciiata(7) or dilu(5). 
«., mutu, 2; cimta, 7; dllu, 5. 
Dregs, n., blnyindanylnda, bixi- 

kixikl. These are pi. of 7. 
Dress, vi., luata, vuala; vt., vua- 
dlka, luacika, luacixa. 
(be dressed up, adorned), luata 
or vuala with bllenga(pl. of 

w., clkowela, 7; kasaku, 8; 
clnkutu, 7. 
Drink, v., nua. 

give to, v/., nulxa. 
Drip, vL, m&ta 
Drive, v/., away, Ih&ta. 
a bargian, tua iiiuxlnKa(2). 
in, buexa. 

in, as a nail, kumlna, hohela. 
out, h&tula, umuxa, luhula, 
Ih&ta, tambula(Buk.). 
Driver ant, «., luhumbe, 4. 
Drop, n., dlmpompo, 5 ; dim&ta, 5. 
v. (drip), m&ta. 
(fall), hona, kuluka. 
Dropsy, «., of the feet, buzevu, 6. 
This word seems to come from 
nsevu, elephant. 
Drought, «., lumu(from uma, to 
he dry)y 4; munanga(from 
nanga, to he dry), 2. 
(dry season), muxlhu, 2. 
Drove, «., clsumbu, 7. 
Drown, vph., fua mu ml. 
Drowsy, be, v., bunga tulu(pl. of 

Drum, «.(made with hide), ngoma, 
(hollowed piece of wood), clon- 
do, 7; lunkunvu, 4; lu- 
membo, 4. 
, beat a, vt., Imba, nmba. 
I of ear, nyongo'a dlcu(5). 



Drunk, be, v.y kola or kuaclka or 
tomboka or buluka or hola 
followed bv maluvu; or 
maluYU as subj. of v. kuata 
with the person as obj. 
make, i//., hadlxa with maluvu 
as subj.; the v. ziha is also 
used in the same way. 
Drunkenness, «., bubuluke(6) or 
buhale(6) or butombok:(6) 
followed by maluvu. 
Dry, vt.f umixa, Inyika, nanga 
(nana), kamiza; Vf.(be dry), 
uma, kama. 
season, n., muxlhu, 2. 
(shrivel up, wither), vi,y fuba; 

vt.y fublxa. 
(wipe), kuhula. 
Dryness, ». (drought), lumu(from 
uma, to he dry), 4; munanga 
(from nanga, to dry), 2. 
(thirst), miota, pi. of 2. The 
common Lulua form is nyota. 
§ 43, Rem. 
Duck, «., mpatu, 3. From Portu- 
Due, «.(wage), difutu, 5. 
Dull, be, v.(as knife), fua menu 
(pi. of dlnu), tuh&la, cihftla. 
(as point), ena ne lusongo(4) 

(stupid), hote(p.p. of hota, to be 
duU), xibftle(p.p. of xlb&la, to 
he dull). 
make, vt., xiha menu, tuhttxa, 
Dumb person, n., kamama, 8. 
Dun, vt., nana. 
Dunce, n., muhote, i; muxl- 

b&le, I. 
Dung, «., ttlfl, pi. of 8. See under 

Dunghill, «., dlala, 5. 
Dust, «., luhuxi, 4. 

v., kuhula, tutula. 
Dutiful, be, vi., tumlklla. 
Ditty, n.(tax), mulambu, 2. 
pav. vt., lambula. 
(obligation). Thus far it has 
been impossible to find any 

Duty (continued), 

word expressing the idea of 
obligation or duty. // is right 
or ii is hest to do may be ex- 
pressed by bualu buimpe cr 
blmpe followed by infin.; as, 
bualu buimpe kuya, %t %s right 
to go, i.e., ii is a duty to go. 

Dwarf, n., muntu(i) muxunguke, 
muntu wa cltulia(7), cihki- 
dl(7), njeku(3), kaneke(8). 
to be a, vi.y xunguka. 
(a small people said to live in 
the forests), kay^ke, 8. See 
note under pygmy. 

Dwarfish, adj., -a njeku(3), -a 
cihindi(7), -a cltuba(7), xun« 
guke(p.p. of xunguka, to he 

Dwell, vi., see live. 

Each, adj., onso. 

(distribution), see §94 and Rem. 
other, reciprocal, use Reciprocal 

Form of v. § 340. 
one, totality, «., buonso(6) with 
poss. pro. § 182, Rem. 
Ear, n., dicu, 5; dltu, 5. 
drum of, nyongo'a dlcu. 
of maize, dianva, 5; dltftla, 5. 
Early, adv., in the morning, dln- 
da(5), lunkelu(4), haclacla 
Earn, vph., angata dlfutu(5). 
Earnest, n.(token), clmonylnu, 7. 
Earnestly, adv. (well), blmpe. 

(strongly), blkftle. 
Earnings, n., difutu, 5. 
Earring, n., kakanu(8) ka ku 

Earth, «. (world), bulobo, 6. The 
pi. malobo is generally used to 
mean loose earth or dirt. 
for making pots, dlbumba, 5; 

dlma(p1. mema), .<. 
white, used for whitewashing, 
luhemba, 4. 



Earthquake, n., use bulobo(6) as 
subj. of taka or cika. These 
verbs mean to quake. 
Earthworm, n., munyenya, 2. 
Ease, be at, vi,{io rest), Ikixa, 
zikama, eya. 
v., pain, talAza, holexa. 
Easily, adv.f bltekete. 
East, nph., kutu kualuhuka or 
kutu kuahfttuka followed by 
dlba(5), the sun. For con- 
venience is also suggested 
l8lta(Eng.), 3- 
Easy, adi.{not hard), tekete(p.p. of 

teketa, to be easy). 
Eat, v., dia. 

give to, vt.f dlza. 
Eavesdrop, ^/.(to spy), tentekela. 
Eavesdropper, n.(spy), mutente- 
kedl, i; maena(i) lu8oko(4). 
Eavesdropping, n., lusoko, 4. 
Echo, vph., use di(5) as subj. of 

idlkiza or elekexa. 
Edge, n., of field, water, etc., 
inuele]n(2); musala(2); bu- 
cika(6); and the locative 
words kukala, kusula, ku- 
sala, kiinf udilu. § 423 (2) (5) . 
(bend edge of knife), vt., benda- 

mlxa; vi., bendama. 
(bordering on cloth), liiliola, 4. 
of knife, ku menu(pl. of dlnu). 
(put an edge on), nuona. 
to have an, be sharp, tua. 
Edible, adj., -a kudla. 
Edifice, n., nsubu, 3. 
Educate, vt., lylxa, mdnyixa, 
amblla, lubuklxa(Buk.)) lon- 
gexa(Buk. or Lower Congo). 
Effect, v., see do. 

n., bualu, 4; muanda, 2. 
Effervesce, v., sftba. 
Effort, «., make an, see try. 

(make effort and fail), v., hanga. 
Effrontery, n., dikamakama, 5; 

clkama, 7; dintanta, 5. 
Egg, n., dlk«la, 5; di(pl. mai, 5). 
inside of, white or yolk, mulun- 

ga, 2. 
lay, vt,, ela. 

Egg (continued). 

shell of, cihusu, 7; cliubu, 7. 

white of, milembulembu, pi. of 

yolk of, bukulukulu, 6. 
EGGPtANT, n.f lujilu, 4. 
Egotistical, be, vi., disua. 
Eight, card, num., muanda mu- 

Either . . . or, conj., naxa . . . 

Eject, v/., h&tula, luhula, umuxa. 

Elapse, v., use cldiinu(season) or 
dituku(day) with v. lua; or 
ngondo(moon) with v. bftla; 
also the verbs leha and nenga. 

Elastic, be, m., nyengabala. 

Elbow, n., lukongeba, 6. 

Elder, n. (ecclesiastical), mukuln, 

i; mukulumpe, i-; tatu, i. 

brother or sister, mukulu, i. 

This word is followed by the 

poss. enclitic. § 138, Rem. 2. 

Elect, ^.(appoint to office), ha or 
buexa or dtxa followed by ab- 
stract name of office, 
(choose), sungula. 

Electric fish, »., nylxl, 3; 

Elegance, n., bulmpe, 6; bulen- 
gele, 6; buakane, 6. 

Elegant, adj., Impe, lengeie, 

Elephant, n., kahumbu, 8; nze- 

v«, 3- 

Elephantiasis, «.(of foot), bu- 
levu, 6. This word is from 
nzevu, elephant. 

Elevate, vt., blxa, bandlxa, jula. 

Else, a^;'. (other), kuabo, nga. 
(somewhere else), adv., use loca- 
tives inseparaby with kuabo 
or nga. 

Elsewhere, adv., use locatives in- 
separably with kuabo or nga. 

Emaciate, vt., nyanyixa. 

(be emaciated), vi., nyana, di ne 
or uma with cionda(7) or 

Emaciation, n., cionda, 7; cln- 
yanu, 7. 



E&IANCIPATE) vLy hikula. 
Emblem, n.f cimonylnu, 7. 
Embrace, vL, uhuklla, akldlla. 
Embryo, n., disu, 5; muoyo, 2. 
Emerge, ^/.(appear), mueiieka, 
(come out), luhuka, umuka, 
Emigrate, vt. (scatter), muangaia. 
Eminence, n.(hill), mukuna, 2. 

(importance), bunlne, 6. 
Eminent, adj.^ nine, tambe(p.p. of 

tumba, to be eminent). 
Emit, v.^ an odor, nunka. 
Employ, v/., see engage. 
Employment, w. (occupation). This 
idea is generally expressed in 
one of three ways: (i) noun 
derivative of class I. § 356 (a) ; 
(2) muena followed by the 
proper noun, § 84 {b)\ (3) 
Pres. Habitual tense of verb, 
to seek, k^ba mudiniu(2). 
(work), »., mudlmu, 2. 
Empty, adj., tuhu, cinana. The 
latter word is indeclinable. 
The locatives are often used be- 
fore the noun; as, ha mesa 
hadl hatuhu, the table is 
empty; mu mulondo mudl 
mutuhu, the jar is empty. 
vt.{pouT out), humuna, iclklxa, 
umuxa, luhula. 
Emulate, vt., Idlkixa, eiekeza. 

(do as another), see § 465. 
Enchant, v/., Iowa. 

(divine), buka, tempa, tempexa, 
nua clala(7), depending on 
the form of enchantment em- 
Encircle, vt., jlnga, jlngila, 
nyengela, vunga, vunglla, 
vi.(go around), nyunguluka, 
cimbakana. Generally use 
.ph. ku nylma with these 
Enclose, vt., see encircle. 

Enclosure, n. (fence), luhangu, 4; 

clhangu, 7; lumbu, 4. 
. (yard, enclosed space, court), 
lubansa, 4;- bula, 6. By 
using the locative mu with the 
words luhangu and clhangu 
and lumbu we have other 
forms for yard, enclosure, 
court, fold, etc. 

(pen), clkumbi, 7. 
Encourage, vt., killexa mu- 

End, vi., be on, stand, Imikna. 

bring to, finish, vt.y mttna, mtln- 
ylxa, xlklxa, bulxa. 

come to, be finished, v*.-, xlka. 

come to, stop, lekela. 

come to the, vi.^ xiklla. 

put on, stand up on, vt., Imikn- 

at the hind, the locative words 
kunxikldllu, haxixe. 

butt, »., citaku, 7; also the loc. 
word kuntaku. 

(destination), «., clxlkldllu, 7. 

front, ku mp&Ia, ku mutu. 

lower, kumanda(loc.). 

of stick, string, etc., the preposi- 
tional words kusula, kunfu- 
dllu, kusala. 

(point of needle, etc.), lusongo, 

Endeavor, v., see try. 

(endeavor and fail), hanga. 
Endlessly, adv., see ceaselessly. 
Endow, v/. (bequeath), ha buhlan- 

(give), ha, amblka(Buk.). 
Enema, n., bukanda, 6. 

give a, v., ela bukanda. 
Enemy, n., mueDa(i) lukuna(4). 

Udl ne Kasongo lukuna, he 

is an enemy of Kasongo. 
Energetic, see diligent. 
Energy, ».(strength), ngulu, pi. of 

3; makanda, pi. of 5; bu- 

k&le, 6. 
Enfeeble, vt., tekexa. 
Engage, v. (be engaged, betrothed). 

When speaking of the man use 



Engage {continued), 

the active forms of banga, 

when of the woman use the 

passive forms of same verb, 
in fight with, iuangana. 
(hire), ha mudimu(2), buexa ku 

Englishman, »., inuena(i) Inge- 

lexi. Generally used of all 

who speak English. 
Enigma, n. (puzzle), dljimbu, 5; 

dialu, 5. 
Enlarge, v/., dlundiza, lundixa. 
Enmity, n., lukuna, 4. 
Enormous, adj.^ nine. 
Enough, be, vt.(adequate), fuan- 

angana, akanangana, die- 

leka, vula, kumbana, dl -a 

bungi(6), xlka. 
(be satisfied with food), v.,ukuta. 
Enquire, v., see inquire. 
Enrage, vt.y kuaclxa or ufulxa 

with cixl(7), flklxa munda, 

(be enraged), v/., kuata or ufua 

with cixi, flka munda. 
Enrich, vt., luixa bubanji(6). 
Enslave, vt.y ha or buexa mu 

followed by buhlka(6), luixa 

with muhlka(i) or buhlka. 
Ensnare, vL, teya. 
Entangle, vt,^ in speech, tuha- 

kdxa, tuhakanya; v*.(be en- 
tangled), tuhakana. 
in net, jlngila, jinga; vi.(^ 

entangled), dijtnga. 
Enter, vt., buela. 
Entice, vt.y m&nyixa or lylxa or 

ibidixa with bualu(6) bubl. 
by leaving something to tempt, 

to trap, teya. 
by lying to, dinga, xima, dlmba. 
Enticement, »., buteyi, 6. 
Entire, adj.y on so, xima. 
Entirety, »., buonso, 6; buxlma, 

Entrail, »., dila, 5. 
Entrance, «., muxuku(2) wa 

mbelu(3), mbelu(3), cibue- 


Entrap, vt.y teya. 

Entreat, vt.y sengela, sengelela. 

Entrust with, vph.y xia mu bian- 

Ba(pl. of 7). 
Entwine, vt.y Jtnglla, vunglla, 

jinga, vunga. 
Enumerate, vt.y bftla. 
Envious, o-ij. (jealous), -a mu- 

Envy, n., mukau, 2. 
Epileptic fit, n., cisike, 7; tungu- 

lungu, pi. of 8. 
Epistle, »., mukanda, 2. 
Equal, adj.y length, size, number, 

etc., mue(mo), o-umue; also 

the indeclinable words bu, 

bulna, muomumue. 
be, vi.y fuanangana, fuana, 

make, vt.y fuanyikixa, kele- 

Eradicate, vt.y jimlxa, Jima. 
Erase, vt.y Jlmixa, jima. 
Erect, z;/.(build), ibtika, asa. 
be, vi.y imttna, Jaiama. 
(cause to stand erect), imAn- 

yika, jadika. 
Err, v.y ensa or osa or klxa with 

the adv. bibi. 
Escape, v., from captivity, from a 

fight, from danger, handuka. 
from trap or when tied, tuka. 
(run away), nyema, ongoloka. 
(slip loose, as animal when caught 

with the hands), flnuka. 
Escort, vt.y flia. 
on the way a short distance, then 

return, vt.y xindikixa. 
Espoused, be, v. When speaking 

of the man use the act. forms 

of banga, when of the woman 

use the pass, forms of same 

Esteem, t;/.(do honor to), nemeka, 

nemekela, tumbixa, meneka, 

(to love), sua, nanga, Inyixa. 
Eternal, adj.y -a cendeiele, -a 

l&hal&ha, -a kaxidt. 
Eternally, adv.y see ceaselessly 

1 84 


Eternity, n. (forever), inatiikii(pl. 
of 5) onso, l&hal&ha, cende- 
lele, kaxldi. The last three 
words are advs. 

Eunuch, >f.(one castrated), ma- 
tungula, I. 

Evacuate, v.(go out from), lu- 
huka, umuka, h&tuka. 
the bowels, nylna. 

Evangelist, n., mutanKadlkl (col- 
loq.), I. 

Evaporate, w., kama, uma. 
for salt, vt., ensa. 

Even, be, vi,, fuanangana, alca- 
na, akanangana, langakana, 
hungakana, hunga, kele- 
mena, dieleka, lamakana; 
vt.f make, akflxangana, lan- 
gakflxa, ludlkila, hunga- 
kjlxa, fuanylkixa, kelemexa, 
elekexa, akflxa. 
(be parallel), vi., lul&ma; vt., 
make, ludlka. 

Evening, »., dilQlo, 5; dlba(5) as 
subj. of V. uhuka. 

Ever, adv,, see ceaselessly. 

Everlasting, oJ;., -a cendelele, 
-a l&hal&ha, -a kaxldi. 

Every, oJ;., onso. Generally use 


(every one of them, totality), »., 

buon8o(6) with poss. pro. 
(each, distributive), see § 94 and 

-body, bantu bonso. 
-thing, blntn blonso. 
-where, use the locatives insep. 
with onso. 
Everybody, n., bantu bonso. 
Everything, n., blntu blonso. 
Everywhere, adv,j use locatives 

insep. with onso. 
Evil, n., bualu(6) bubl, muan- 
da(2) mubl, bubl(6). Often 
we hear simply mabl and mlbi, 
indicating that the pi. of bualu 
and muanda are generally used 
instead of the sing. 
adj., bi. 

Exact, be, vi., akanangana, die- 
leka, kumbana, vula; v/., 
make, akflxa, akikxangana, 
kumb&xa, vudlxa, elekexa. 
(exact number), vi., ula, xika; 
also the adj. forms xlla and 
kanda. Cinunu with ciule 
or cixlke, an exact thousand. 
Note that ciule and dxike 
are p.p. 

Exactly, adv.{tTu\y), use the fol- 
lowing nouns as adverbs: bu- 
lUela, bualabuala, bulklkxa, 
buxua, buinabuina. 
(very), mene. 

Exactness, n., see truth. 

Exaggerate, vt., dlundlxa or lun- 
dlxa with bualu(6). 

Exalt, T;/.(eztol), tumbixa, In- 

ExAiciNE, vt.f by handling, ienga, 
by looking at, mona, xoxa, tan- 

by measuring, Idikixa, elekexa. 
by questioning, konka, ebexa. 
by tasting, lablla. 

Example, n.(fable), muanv, 2; 
luxlminyinyu, 4; lusumul- 
nu, 4. 
(illustration), cifuanylklxa, 7. 
(sample, specimen, copy), clmon- 
yinu, 7; cldikixllu, 7; cUe- 

Exasperate, see annoy. 

Excavate, vt., Imba, umbula. 

Exceed, vt., tamba, hlta. 
(be left over), vi., x&la. 
(be more than enough), v»., 

Exceedingly, adv., see veky. 

Excel, vt., tamba, hlta. 

Excellence, n., buimpe, 6; bu- 
lengele, 6; buakane, 6. 

Excellent, adj. (good), Impe, len- 
gele, akane. 

Except, sub. conj., neg. condition 
equivalent of if not, unless, use 
neg. of usual conditional forms 
as indicated under § 460. 



Except {continued), 
, prep. Perhaps best expressed by 
a vph. with x&la; as, bantu 
bonso bakuya, umae adl 
muz&le, <iU the people have 
gone except one. 
vt,, xla. 
Excess, be, in v., tamba or hlta 

with bunsl(6). 
Excessively, see very. 
Exchange, v/., zintaktkxa, xlnta, 
xlntakana, xintakanya, hln- 
gakanya, hlngakflxa, hlnga- 
kana, sombakflxa. 
Excite, i;/. (frighten), clnylxa; vi, 
(be excited), handlka mucl- 
ma(2), clna, lakala, kanka. 
(provoke animal to bite), k^&ba 
Exclaim, v., in surprise, k«ma, tua 
(tell), amba. 
Exclamation, »., clk«ma, 7. 
make an, v., tua clkCma. 
See Interjections in Grammar, 

Exclude, vt,, hldla, benga, umn- 

xa, h&tula, fflla. 
(except), xia. 
ExcOBiMUNiCATE, vt,, luhula, umu- 

xa, h&tula. 
Excrement, »., tafl(tulnvl), pi. 

of 8. See B.L.-Eng. 

hard, as result of constipation, 

«., mpaka, 3. 
discharge, vt., nylna. 
Excuse, vt., see pardon. 
Exhaust, i;/.(spend), tangadlxa, 

tansalfixa, muansalflxa, 

nyanga, ona, dla. 
(be exhausted, spent), vi,, tan- 

gadlka, nyanguka, muanga- 

Iflka, hua, xika, tangalflka, 

(weaken), vt,, tekexa, susula; 

Vf.(be weak), teketa, hanga, 

Exhaustion, n,, butekete, 6; 

dihangu, 5. 
Exhibit, v, (show),lexa. 

Exhort, v. (tell), amblla. 
Exhortation, «., di, 5. PL is 

Exist, see be. 
Existence, n,, suggest infin. kul- 

Exorcise, vt,, hongola( ?). 
Expand, vi,, tuntumuka, ula, 
tantamlka; vt,, tuntumuxa, 
uxa, tantamlxa. 
Expect, v^.(look for), tekemena, 

Expectorate, v., tulla or ela with 
lute(4). Note that the pi. of 
lute is mate. §51. 
Expectoration, n., lute, 4. The 

pi. is mate, see § 51. 
Expedite, vt,, endexa. 
Expel, vt., umuxa, ftbla, h&tula, 

Expend, v. (pay), futa. 

recklessly, vt., tangadlxa, tan- 
ona, dla; vi.{hc expended), 
tangadlka, muangalflka hua, 
xika, tangalflka, onoka, 
Expense, n.(price), muxlnga, 2. 

(pay), »., dlfutu, 5. 
Expensive, adj,, -a muxlnga(2) 
make, vt., bandlxa muxlnga. 
Experience, to have, v.(to know), 
(be accustomed to), v., Ibldlla, 
Expert, adj,, -a lungenyi(4), -a 

mexi(pl. of 5 or 6). 
Expire, ^.(breathe out), ela mu- 
(die), fua. 

(of time), V,, leha, nenga; as, 

haleha eltuha, nendue, when 

a short time has expired, I 

shall come. 

Explain, v., amba. 

to, vt,, amblla, iyixa, longexa, 

mtknylxa, lubukixa. 
(show), lexa. 



Explode, vi., Jlknka, taylka, 
xlbuka; vt,^ Jlkula, taylxa, 

Expose, vi.(be visible), appear, 
mueneka, iniieka. 
(open), vt.y bulula. 
(show), vt.j lexa. 
Extend, ^/.(as hand), olola. 
(reach down to), vt., tua ku. 
(reach to), vi.y flka. 
Extended, a<i;.(long), le. 
Extension, extent, ^.(distance, 
dimension), bale, 6; banlne, 
6; bulhl, 6; iitanta(3) mule, 
ntaiita(3) muihl. 
Exterior, »., ha nylma(3), ku 

External, adj,, -a ha nylina(3), 

-a ku nylma. 
ExTiNGXnsH, vt.y Jima. 
Extol, t;/., tumblxa, Inyixa. 
Extra, adv.y see very. 

(extra amount added to close 

trade), n. nsekididi, 3; ma- 

tabixa, pi. of 5 or 6; ntente- 


Extract, v/., tula. 

Extraordinary, adj., -a kuk^ma* 

(great), nine. 
Extravagantly, spend, vt.y nyan- 
ga, tangadixa, tangalfixa, 
muangalAxa, dla, ona. 
Extremely, see very. 
Extricate, v^. (disentangle), Jin- 
gulula, Yungulula. 
(loosen) sulula, kutula. 
Exult, v.{hc happy), sanka. 
Eye, n.y disu, 5. PI. is mesu. 
(a disease of, in which pupil 
becomes white with consequent 
blindness), lusongo, 4. 
-brow, diklki, 5. 
-lash, lulavl, 4; iukofla, 4. 
-lid, cllavinyi, 7; cilabuidl, 7. 
of needle, disu, 5. 
open, vt.j bulula, handa, tab&Ia. 
pupil of, lumiknyl, 4. 
shut, vt.y bulka. 

Fable, n., luxlmlnylnyu, 4; lusn* 
mulnu, 4; muanu,^2. 

tell a, vt.y ela with any one of the 
above words as obj. 
Fabricate, v.^ dlnga, xtma, dlxn- 

Face, n. There is no word for the 
face as such. The word for 
forehead, cheek, eyes, etc., 
must be used according to 
sense. The word mp&la(3), 
forehead, is often used in general 
sense for face, 
(before one's face), ku mp&la, 

ku mesu(pl. of 5). 
v.y each other, tanglxangana 
Facing, be, v., each other, tangl- 

xangana (mp&la, 3). 

Fact, n. (affair), bualu, 6; muan- 

da, 2. 

(truth), bulilela, bulkftxa, bu- 

xua, bualabuala, buina- 

bulna. All these are pi. of 6. 

Factory, «., tradings nsubu(3) wa 

Fade, i;^., tutuka, tanduka. 
Fag, vt.y hanga. 
Fail, f. (attempt and fail), banga. 

to do, humblxa, bumba. 
Fain, '^.(to wish), sua, nanga, 

Faint, v. (swoon), fua with cls«- 
ke(7) or tungulungu(pl. of 8) 
or clfuldixe(7). 
from dizziness, see dizzy. 
from hunger, fua n8&la(pl. of 3 
or 4), ns&la as subj. of v. 
xiha with the person as obj. 
be, ^/^.(weak), teketa. 
be, f»'.( weary), hanga, susuka. 
sound, n. (whispering), dinun- 
ganyi, 5. 
Faintness, n. (dizziness), lunyun- 
gu, 4; kantetu, 8; kanyun- 
gunyungu, 8; dinyungu, 5. 
(as in smothering), cifuidixe, 7. 
(tiredness), dibangu, 5. 



Fair, ati;. (handsome), impe,akane, 
lengele, -a mpocl (slang), 
(honest), Impe, akane, lengele, 

-a kalolo(8). 
of skin. A native of light color is 
said to be mukunz6(red), the 
European is mutoke( white). 
Fairness, w. (honesty), kalolo, 8; 
buimpe, 6; buakane, 6; 
buleng^ele, 6. 
(color), butoke, 6. 
Faith, n. Perhaps best to use the 
infin. kuitabuxa, to believe. 
(have faith in one), vt., teke- 
Faithful, arf/. (diligent). Use some 
such ph. as -a muctma(2) 
wa iiiudimu(2); the neg. v. 
with bufuba(6) or bukata(6). 
Faithfulness, w., kalolo, 8. 
Fall, v., bona, kuluka, xlmbuka, 
xinda(the Reflexive form, dl- 
xinda, is generally used of per- 
sons tripping and falling). 
(as rain), loka, m&ta. 
backwards, dixinda bualama. 
by accident, flnuka. 
in, cave in, bumbuka. 
in price, hueka, teketa. 
out, see quarrel. 
over, topple, tbkoka. 
overboard, bona mu ml. 
(sink, as river), bueka. 
to pieces, tangalikka, tanga* 
Falls, «. (cataract), cibila, 7. 

From bila, to boil. 

False, be, 2;., xima, dinga, dimba. 

Falsehood, «., dlxima, 5; didin- 

ga, 5. PI. maximl and ma- 


tell a, v.y xima, dinga, dimba 

(tell falsehood on one), vt., use 
the Applied Form ximinyina, 
dingila, dimbila. 
Falsely, accuse, v/., banda. 
Falter, vi.^ bumbakana, tata- 
kana, di ne micima Ibidi, 
nema with mucima as subj. 

Fame, «.(report), lumu, 4. 

(to have fame or be famous), v., 

Familiar, be, v. (accustom to), 
ibidlla, lobokela. 

Familiarize with, vf., ibldixa. 

Family, w., see tribe. 

Famine, n., ciole, 7; lukota, 4. 

Famish, v.y fua ns&la(pl. of 3 or 
4), ns&la as subj. of xlba with 
the person as obj. 

Famous, adj., nine, tumbe(p.p. 
of tumba, to be famous). 

Fan, v., uba(as one's self), heba. 
(blow away, as chaff), vt., be- 
bula, buxa, bublxa. 

Fancy, T;.(think, imagine), amba; 
as, wakuamba ne "Ncintu 
cia kudla,** he fancied that it 
was something to eat. 
(wish), v.f sua, nanga, Inyixa. 

Fang, n., dinu, 5; luz&di, 4; 
luz&la, 4; luala, 4. 

Far, adv., use the locatives insep- 
arably with le, giving mule, 
kule and hale. Also the 
forms kuakua, muamua, 
baba', § 163, Note 3; we may 
also have kuntu kule, muntu 
mule and bantu bale, § 423 
(2) (a), 
(as far as), ku. 

(be far apart), vi., di with the 
locatives inseparably connected 
with le. 
-famed, adj., see famous. 
(how far?), bule(6) withmunyi? 
or bixi? 

Farewell, see adieu. 

Far-famed, adj., see famous. 

Farm, n., budimi, 6; cibidi(Buk.), 

Farther, adv., use compai-ative 
construction with tamba or 
bita; as, mulumi wakutamba 
mukikxi kuela mucl, the man 
threw the stick farther than the 

Fashion, «. (custom), cilele 7; 
cibilu, 7; cienzedl 7. 



Fashion (cotUinued). 
in this, thus, adv,, niinku(nenku, 
Fast, aJv.(quickly), use the noun 
fonns lubllu(4) and lukfl- 
(tightly), blkftle. 
v., Jila bidla(pl. of 7). 
Fasten, vt.{as axe, hoe, etc., in 
handle), banglza. 
box, lid, cover, etc., bangika. 
(lock), ela or xlblka followed by 

(nail), kumlna or hohela fol- 
lowed by muloiida(2). 
(strengthen), kiUexa. 
(tie), sulka. 
Fat, n., of an animal, dilnyl, 5; 
the pi. mlnyl is used after the 
fat has been rendered; or to 
represent a quantity of fat. 
(oil), mlnylCpl. of dUnyl, 5). 
grow, vi.f diunda, lunda. 
Father, n., tatu, i ; nylsu, i ; x'« 
The last two words always 
have the poss. pro. enclitic. 
§§ 138; 42, Note I. 
Father-in-law, n., tatu-nmenu, 
§42, Note 3; x^-(poss. pro. as 
enclitic) -muenu. $§ 42, Note 
2; 138. 
The husband may also call his 
father-in-law iimku(i), not so 
the wife. 
Fathom, n., of cloth, lubandu, 4. 
(two fathoms, half a piece of eight 
yards), dlfunka, 5. 
Fatigue, v/., hanglxa, tekexa. 
(be fatigued), vi,, hanga, te- 

fi., butekete, 6; dlhangu, 5. 
Fatten, vi.y dlundlxa, lundlxa. 
Fault, n.^ bualu, 6; muanda, 2. 
Favor, n. (mercy), luse, 4. 
show to, v., ha luse. 
(have favor with one), dt ne 
dlkftsa(5) kndl (muntu) ; as, 
ndl ne dlkflsa kudl make- 
lenge, I have favor with the 

Fear, n., baowa, 6. 

(of animals), mb&xlb&xi, pi. of 

3 or 4. 
v., clna. 

(of animals), v., bftxa. 
Fearfxtl, be, v., clna, dl ne 

(as animals), v., b&xa, di ne 

Fearless, see brave. 
Feast, n., bldla, pi. of 7. 
marriage, bldla bla dlbanil- 

Feather, n., lus&Ia, 4. 
Features, n. No distinct word, 

use mp&la(3), the forehead. 

See FACE. 
February, n., febluale(£ng.). 
Fecund, be, v. (have power to bear 

young), dl ne followed by 

lalela(4) or dlmlnu(5) or 

buledl(6). , 

Fecundate, i//.(cause to conceive) 

FECTTNDiry, n., lulelu, 4; dlmlnn, 

5; buledl, 6. 
Federation, n., bnlunda, 6; bun- 

yana, 6. 
Fee, n., dlfntu, 5. 
Feeble, adj., tekete(p.p. of teke- 

ta, to be feeble). 
Feebleness, n., butekete, 6. 
Feed, vt,, dlxa. 

Feel, v., after, to grope, bubuta. 
(be conscious of), unva, ufua. 

Clakadl mnnve kabua8a(8) 

kansuma, I did not feel the 

jigger biting me, 
(touch), v., lamblla, lamba, 

Feign, v., xlmlxa, dinglxa, dim* 

Fell, vt., xumbula, uhula. 
Fellow, fi.(person), muntu, i. 
citizen, one of same tribe or 

family, muan*etu, etc.;muena 

kuetu, etc.; mukuetu, etc. 

§§ 138, Rem. 5; 141, Rem. i; 




Fellowship^ n.(friendship), bu- 

lunda, 6; bunyana, 6. 
break off, vt., xlha. 
form with one another, kuatan- 

sana followed by bulunda or 

Female, n., mukflxl, i. 

adj.y kflxl, mukjixl wa or mu- 

Feminine, adj., -a bakthxi(pl. of 

Fence, n., lumbu, 4; luhangu, 4; 

cihangu, 7. 
Ferment, t;. (effervesce), s&ba. 
Fern, n., clxllnxtlu, 7; Inlelelele, 

Ferocious, adj.y -a clxl(7). 

(as a biting animal), -a laoxl(4). 
Ferocity, n.(anger), clxl, 7. 

(the biting of an animal), luoxt, 

Ferry, n., clsabu, 7; dllobo, 5; 

clsabukllu, 7. 
across, v/., sabula; vi.(go 

across), sabuka. 
Fertile, adj. {as soil), impe, len- 

gele, akane, kftle, -a luiya(4). 
(producing young), v., di ne 

followed by dtmlna(5) or 

lulelu(4) or buledl(6). 
Fetch, vt.^ lua ne. 

back, aluklxa, hlngftxa, hin- 

glxa, tuclxa. 
(carry), tuala. 
water from stream, suna. 
Fetid, be, vph., nunka muhu- 

ya(2) mubl. 
Fetidness, n., kahambu, 8; ma- 

huya(2) mubl. 
Fetish, n., see medicine. 
Fetter, vt., ela mu lukanu(4). 
Fetters, n., lukanu, 4. 
Fever, n., kahla, 8. 
have, vph., use mubldl(2) as 

subject of dl with kahla as 

predicate noun. 
Few, adj., nya-nya, b&le, kise, 

Fewness, n., bunyabunya, 6; 

bub&le, 6; buklse, 6. 

Fibre, »., of palm leaves, used for 
making cloth, luhiku, 4; 
munyanga, 2. 

Fickle, be, vi., humbakana, nema 
with mucima(2) as subj., 
tatakana, di ne miclma 

Fidgety, be, vi., sasakata. 

Field, n., budiml, 6; clbldl(Buk.), 


clear a, vt.y sola, sengula. 

old deserted, n., lububa, 4. 

(open place, plain), »., mpata, 3. 
Fierce, oJ;. (angry), -a clxl(7). 

(as a biting animal), -a lu 0x1(4). 
Fierceness, ».(anger), clxl, 7. 

(as of a biting animal), Inoxl, 4. 
Fifth, ard. num., Itanu. § 99. 
Fight, n., nvlta(nflta), 3. 

v., luangana nvlta. 

(call to fight , v.y kobola. 
File, v/., to a point, songa. 

n.(row), mulongo, 2. 
Fill, vt., uxa, knmb&xa, vudixa; 
Vf.(be full), ula, vula, knm- 

up, as a hole, xlblklla. 
Filth, see dirt. 

Filthiness, «. (untidiness about 
ones' person or house), bu- 
koya, 6. 
Filthy, see dirty. 
Fin, n., on back, mualala, 2. 

(tail fin), clhehe, 7. 
Find, vt., mona, tangila, xoxa. 

(be found, appear), vi., mue- 
neka, mueka. 

(find and pick up), vt., angula. 

(meet up with), sangana. 

something hidden, vt., sokolola. 
Fine, «., dlfutu, 5. 

adj.{gpod), Impe, akane, len- 

(sharp, as point), tue(p.p. of tua, 
to be sharp). 

(small), kIse, b&le, nya-nya. 

(be powdered), vi., beta. 
Finery, n., bilenga, pi. of 7. 
Finger, n., munu, 2. 

(additional or sixth), kanene, 8. 



Finger {continued). 
little, kantengenene, 8. 
(thumb), ciala, 7. 
Finger-ring, n., kakana(8) ka ku 

Finish, f/., mfina, mdnylxa, xl- 
klxa, huixa; v«.(be finished), 
hua, xlka, mana. 
(cease), v., lekela. 
Fire, n., kahia, 8; kadilu, 8. 
a gun, vt.f ela cliigoma(7). 
(be fired or burnt), v*., hia. 
-brand, torch, w., cimunyl, 7. 
extinguish, vt,^ Jlma. 
(flame), n., ludinii(4) lua kahia. 
(make, to burn), vt.^ temexa, 

hixa; (by blowing), huxa. 
(make with sticks by friction), v., 

vlnga kahia. 
miss, not go off, v.y funga. 
-place, n., dlku, 5. PI. is meku. 
set on, bum, z//., oxa. 
stir the, vt.^ son sola. 
-wood, «., lukunyi, 4. Gener- 
ally use pi. 
Firebrand, n., cimunyl, 7. 
Firefly, «., kamunyimunyi, 8; 

kankenyenkenye, 8. 
Fireplace, n., dlku, 5. PI. is 

Fire-wood, w., lukunyi, 4. Gen- 
erally use pi. 
break up, vt.^ caba. 
cut, vt.y kuota. 
Firm, ^^/.(hard), klile(p.p. of k&la, 
to he firm). 
(be steady), vi.y kanana, kan- 
damana, xindama. Jama, 
k&ia; vt.y kanfixa, kanda- 
mixa, Jamixa, k&lexa. 
Firmament, «., dlulu, 5. 
Firmly, adv., biklile. 
Firmness, «., bukille, 6. 
First, adj., in place or time, -a 
kumiidllu, -a ku mp&la(3), 
bedi, -a diambedi(5), -a ku 
(be or do first in time), v., dian- 

Jila followed by infin. 
(be, to excel), vi.y tamba, hita. 

First {continued). 

-born, n., muan*a bute(6); (of 

twins), clbuabu, 7. 
adv.y kumudilu, ku mp&la(3), 
ku mutu(2). 
Fish, n., munylnyl(2) wa mu ml. 
electric, nyixi, 3. 
(fisherman), cilembi, 7. 
-hook, ndoho, 3. 
-trap, mukinda, 2. 
net, bukuondo, 6. 
v.y with hook, loha. 
Fisherman, «., cilembi, 7. 
Fish-hook, «., ndoho, 3. 
Fish-trap, «., mukinda, 2. 
Fist, «., cisusu, 7; disundu, 5. 
clench the, vt.y tony a mlnu. 
strike with, vt.y tua or kuma or 
tuta followed by cisusu or 
Fit, V*. (agree), akana, akanan- 
gana, dieleka, fuanangana, 
kelemena; v«.(make to), akft- 
xangana, akikxa, elekexa, 
fuanyikixa, kelemexa. 
flrf;. (proper, good), impe,akane, 

w.(spasm), cis^ke, 7, tungu- 

lungu, pi. of 8; nkoyi, 3. 
be unconscious from, v.y fua with 

any one of the above words, 
to have a, v.y haluka followed 
by one of the above words. 
Five, card, num.y tanu. Takes 
Secondary Prefixes. In ab- 
stract counting use i tanu. §97. 
Fix, v. (appoint, as a day), amba. 
(after being broken or disar- 
ranged), vt.y enza bimpe, lon- 
golola, akfixa. 
(fixed firmly), see immovable. 
Flag, n., nfuele, 3; dibandala, 5. 
Flame, n., ludimi(4) lua kahia(8). 
Flap, v/.(as bird in flying), haha* 
about, vi.y dikuha. 
in the wind, vi.y hehuka. 
Flash, w., of lightning, see light- 
v.{as lightning), henya, kenya. 



Flat, be, vi., batama, butama, 

Flatten, vL, batamixa, butamixa, 

landaktixa, bacika. 
Flavor, «.(good smell), muhu- 
ya(2) muimpe, n8uiiga(3). 
(good taste), nse(3), kutua(in- 
fia.) kuimpe. 
Flaw, «.(crack), mutanta, 2. 
Flea, n., mukenya, 2. 
Flee, vi., nyema, cimuka. 
Flesh, w., munylnyi, 2. 
(fat), dllnyl, 5. 
(lean), ngulunge, 3. 
Flexibility, n.,muxobo(muJobo), 

Flexible, be, vi., xoboka, nyen- 

gabala, di ne muxobo(2). 
Flight, put to, vL, Ih&ta, nye- 
mexa, cimuna. 
take, as bird in act of flying, v., 
buka, tuhuka. 
Flint, «., dibue, 5. 
Flint-lock, gun, nph., ciiigoma(7) 

cia mutengu(2). 
Float, vi., lelema, lelemuka. 
P^LOCK, »., clsumba, 7. 
Flog, vL, kuma, tuta, kengexa. 
Flood, be, a, v., use ml as subj. of 

Yulangana or tuntumuka. 
Floor, n., use generally the prepo- 
sitional form hanxi ha; as, 
hanxi ha nsubu, the floor of 
the house. 
Flour, n., bakula, 6. 
Flow, vi., down, hueka. 

into each other, as two streams 
meeting, sambakana, sangi- 
la, tuangana. 
Flower, n., cllongo, 7; clsu, 7. 
of palm, musik^l^ke, 2. 
vi., vunguluka, baluluka. 
Flute, n., luxiba, 4. 
Fly, v. (rise in flight), buka, tu- 
(flap the wings in flight), hahala. 
«., clxi, 7. 
horse-, cibanda, 7. 
(which blows meat), lujljl, 4. 
Foam, n., lututu, 4; lukende, 4. 

Foe, «., muena(i) lukuna(4). 
Foetus, »., immature, kana(dimia 

of muana) kabixe. 
Fog, n., dibungi, 5. 
Fold, vt., bunya. 
arms, divunga. 
back, cibulula. 
(embrace), uhukila. 
legs, in sitting position, ditonya, 

divunga, konya(as women), 
(roll up), vunga, vungila; (by 

bending), tonya, konya. 
up, kuta, i.e., to wrap up. 
n., see enclosure. 
Folk, n., baiitu(pl. of muntu, i.) 
Folk-lore, n., muanu, 2; lusu- 

muinu, 4; luximinyinyu, 4. 
Follow, vt., londa, ya ku nyl- 
(as attendant), l&m&ta. 
Follower, w. (attendant), mul&- 

m&ci, I. 
Folly, n. (acting foolishly), bu- 
cimbe, 6; bucimbakane, 6; 
buhumbakane, 6. 
(stupidity), buhote, 6; buxib&le, 


Fondle, vt., hotela, lambakana, 

Food, n., bidla, pi. of 7; nxlma, 
pi. of 3 or 4; bia kudia. 

Fool, n., muhale, i ; mubuluke^ i ; 
mutomboke, i. These words 
are noun derivatives from the 
verbs hala, buluka and tom- 
boka, which mean to he crazy, 
(one acting foolishly), muelmbe, 
I ; mucimbakane, i ; muhum- 
bakane, i. These words are 
derived from the verbs cimba, 
cimbakana and humbakana, 
meaning to act foolishly. 
(a stupid person), muhote, i; 
muxib&le, i. These words 
are from the verbs hota and 
xtb&le, to he stupid. 
vt., cimbixa, humbixa. 

Foolish, adj.(craizy), hale, buluke, 
tomboke. These words are 



Foolish {continued), 

p.p. from the verbs hala and 
buluka and tomboka, to he 

(of one acting foolishly), clmbe, 
clmbakane, humbakane. 

These words are p.p. of the 
verbs clmba, cimbakana, 
humbakana, to act foolishly. 

(stupid), bote, xib&le. These 
words are p.p. of beta and 
zlb&la, to he stupid. 
Foolishly, to act, v., cimba, cim- 
bakana, humbakana. 
Foolishness, «. (acting foolishly), 
buctmbe, 6; bucimbakane, 6; 
buhumbakane, 6. 

(dementia), butomboke, 6; bu- 
bal e, 6; bubuluke, 6. 

(stupidity), bubote, 6; baxl- 
b&le, 6. 
Foot, n., dikflsa, 5. 

cloven, iniikono(2) muhandlke. 

(hoof), mukono, 2. 

(paw), dikama, 5. 

sole of, munda mua dlkAsa. 
FoOTPRiNT,n.,cldiacllu, 7; dlktksa, 

5; dikama, 5; mukono, 2. 
For, prep.(do for), use Applied 
Form of verb. 

-ever, see ceaselessly. 

(price in trading), ku; as, 
waktila cllulu ku lukama 
lua mlbela, I hought the clpth 
for 100 cowries. 

(purpose), generally use the infin. 
preceded by -a; as, blntu bla 
kudla, things for eating. § 
239 (6). 

(space of time), simply state 
length of time without any 
prepositional word; as, naku- 
lalamu matuku abldl, I staid 
there for two days. 

this reason, therefore, ka. 

(too . . . for), use the verbal 
construction with tamba or 
hita; as, muz^te udl un tam- 
ba bujitu, the hox is too heavy 

For (continued). 
(what for? why?), use Applied 
Form of verb followed by 
the interrogatives clnyl, etc 
suh. conj., see because. 
Forbear, v., lekela. 
Forbid, vt.y hldla, benga, kanda. 
(taboo), Jidlka, Jlla. 
(thing forbidden), n., cljlla, 7. 
Forbidden thing, n., cljlla, 7. 
Force, ft.(strength), bukftle, 6; 
ngulu, pi. of 3; dlkanda, 5. 
(by force), ku bukHle. 
v.(compel), use Causative Form 
of verb. 
Ford, n., dllobo, 5; clsabn, 7; 
clsabukllu, 7. 
v., sabuka. 
Forefather, n., kaku, i; nyln- 

k(a), i; muena(i) kale. 
Forehead, n., mp&la, 3. 
Foreign, adj.^ -a kule, -a cl« 
8amba(7) clkuabo. 
country of the white Inan, «., 
mputu, 3. See note under 
mputu in B.L.-£ng. 
Foreigner, n., muena(i) kule, 
muena cl8ambu(7) clkuabo, 
muena mputu(3). 
Foreleg, n., diboko, 5. 
Foremost, adj.^ bedl, -a kumu- 
dllu, -a ku n]p&la(3), "^ ku 
mutu(2), -a dlambedi(5). 
(be foremost in doing), v., dlan- 
Forenoon, n. There is no special 
word for the entire forenoon, 
use some such ph. as dlnda(5) 
to ne ku munda munya(2). 
about middle of, mlsasa, pi. of 2. 
Foreordain, vph.y sungula dlam- 

Foreskin, «., musundu, 2; mu- 

SO80, 2; bukutu, 6. 
Forest, »., dltw, «:. PI. ismetu. 
(coDse on a olain), dbnka, 7. 
Foretell, vph.^ amba dlambedl 
bua]u(6) kabul buania(e)ku- 



Forever, adv,^ see ceaselessly. 
Forewarn, vi.^ dimuxa. 
Forfeit, v. (pay), futa. 

(lose in gambling). The person 

losing is the obj. of the v. t&ha. 
Forge, vL, tula,fula. 
Forget, v. Use any one of the 

following constructions: 
(i) ]IIuoyo(2) as subj. of the v. 

hua with the person forgetting 

as the obj. 

(2) Use the verb hua with the 
person forgetting as subj. and 
maoyo following the verb. 

(3) Use bulla(6) or kafule- 
meiie(8) as subj. of the v. 
kuata with the person forget- 
ting as the obj. 

(4) Use V. hanga, especially 
when forgetting a person is 

Forgetful, adj,y -a c!hua(7) 
maoyo(2), -a balla(6), -a 
kafalemene(8). The last 
word is Buk. 
Forgetfulness, n.y clhua(7)miio- 
yo(2); builu, 6; kafnle- 
meiie(Buk.), 8. 
Forgive, see pardon. 
Fork, n.(for table), nkalafa, 3. 
of river, path, dlsangu, 5. PI. is 

generally used, 
of stick or tree, clhanda, 7; 

mpandakanya, 3. 
(forked stick), maci(2) wa cl- 
handa, muci wa mpanda- 
Form, n. (shape), mubidl, 2. 
v/. (create), fuka. 
(cut or carve), songa. 
(forge), tula, fula. 
friendship with one another, 
kuatangana followed by bu- 
landa(6) or bun7aiia(6). 
(make), enia, osa, klxa. 
pots, fumba, flmba(fuimba). 
Fornication, n., masandl, pi. of 
5 or 6. 
commit, v., enda masandl, 

Fornicator, n., maena(i) ma- 
sandl(pl. of 5 or 6). 

Forsake, vL^ (leave), xia, lekela. 
(refuse), hldia, benga. 

Forth, adv. This is generally ex- 
pressed in the verb root; as, 
luhuka and umaka and h&- 
taka, to go forth from. 
(go back and forth), vi,, tamba- 

Forthwith, adv,, katataka, die- 
dlono, mpindeu. 

Fortitude, n.,dlkima, 5; bukitu, 

Fortunate, be, v., dl ne followed 
by dlkasa(5) dimpe or mu- 
abl(2) or dle8e(5) or mubi- 
di(2) mulmpe. 

Fortune, n., bad, dlktksa(5) dlbl, 
miibidi(2) mubl. 
good, dikjisa dimpe, miiabl(2), 

dle8e(5), mubidl mulmpe. 
(wealth), blntu, pi. of 7; bluma, 
pi. of 7; luhetu, 4. 

Forward, adv., ku mp&la(3), ku* 
mudilu, ku mutu(2). 
(be forward or first in doing), v. 
dlanjila followed by infin. 

Forwards, adv., see forward. 
(go backwards and forwards), v., 

Foul, see dirty, bad, rotten. 

Foulness, «.(of person), bukoya, 
6; manyanu, pi. of 5 or 6; 
mblndu, pi. of 3 or 4. 

Fountain, ». (spring), mpokolo» 3. 

Four, card, num., nl. Takes Sec- 
ondary Prefixes. In abstract 
counting use inf. § 97. 

Fourth, ord. num,, Inl. § 99, 

Fowl, «., nsolo, 3. 
(cock), citlla, 7. 
guinea-, dikangala, 5. 
(hen), clkukue, 7. 

Fracture, v/., cibula; w.(be frac- 
tured), clbuka. 

Fragile, adj.y tekete(p.p. of te- 
keta, to be fragile.) 

Fragment, w., of anything broken 
or cut off, cltuha, 7. 



Fragment (continued). 

of anything split, cih^su, 7. 

Fragrance, »., muliuya(2) mu- 
impe, nsuiiKa(3). 

Fragrant, adj., -a muhuya(2) 
muimpe, -a nsunga(3). 

Frail, adj.^ tekete(p.p. of teketa, 
to be frail). 

Franc, w., nfuIanka(French), 3. 

Fraud, «.(a lie), dixima, 5; di- 
dinga, 5. PI. of these words 
generally used, which is ma- 
ximi and madlngi. 

Fraudulent person, «.(liar), 
inuena(i) ludimi(4), muxi- 
ml(i), mudiiigi(i), muena fol- 
lowed by maxlmi(pl. of 5) or 
madingi(pl. of 5) or inafl(pl. 
of 5). The sing, of maximl 
and madlngi is dixima and 
didinga, respectively, 
(thief), muibi, i; muivl, i; 
muena mucima(2). 

Free, v/. (acquit), binglxa. 

(let loose), lekela, kuhola, su- 
lula, kutula; vi.(get free), 
tuka, suluka, kuhoka(ko- 
-man, w., muntu(i) wa bende, 
muana(i) mulela, muntu 
(redeem from slavery), vt., hl- 

adj.{ioT nothing), -a hatuhu, 
-a cinana. 

Free-born person, «., muana(i) 
muiela, muntu(i) mudixi- 
kamine, muntu wa bende. 

Freedom, n., budixikamine, 6. 
to give, see free. 

Freeman, n., muana(i) mulela, 
m u n t u( i) mudixikamine, 
muntu wa bende. 

Frequently, adv. Use pi. of 
musangu(2) or cikondo(7) or 
musunsu(2) followed by any 
word meaning many. This 
idea may sometimes be ex- 
pressed by the Repetitive or 
Habitual tenses of the verb. 

Fresh, adj. (as palm wine, not 
strong), tekete(p.p. of teketa, 
to be fresh). 
become, vi., blxika. 
(green or uncooked), bixe. 
(new), bla-hia. 
Fret, v., nyingabala* 
Fretful, be, vi.y nyingabala. 
Friction, make fire by, v., ylnga 

Friday, w., dituku(5) dltann. 
Friend, n., mulunda, i ; nyan(a), 

Friendship, n., bulunda, 6; bun* 
yana, 6. 
break, vt., xlha. 
form, vt., kuatangana. 
Fright, n., buowa, 6. 

(as of frightened animals), mb&- 
xib&xi, pi. of 3 or 4. 
Frighten, vt., cinyixa, bandixa 
mucima(2), zakikxa mucima; 
vi.{he frightened), handika 
mucima, cina, zakala, kan- 
ka, buowa as subj. of kuata 
with the person as obj. 
(be timid, as wild animal), vi., 
b&xa, di ne mb&xib&xi(pl. of 

3 or 4)- 
(startle), vt., tabuluxa; w., 
Frivolous, adj., -a tus«ku(pl. of 
(be always laughing for nothing), 
Frog, «. (large), mbondo, 3. 

(small), ludimba, 4. 
From, prep., ku. 

(from ... to, until), ku . . . to 
ne ku, ku . . . ne ku, or 
sometimes simple ne connect- 
ing the two parts. 
Front, «., end, ku mutu(2), ku 
in, ku mp&la, kumudilu, ku 

(in front of), ku mp&la kua, 
kumudilu kua, ku mutu kua. 
leg, diboko, 5. 
Froth, n., lututu, 4; lukende, 4. 



Frown, v,, nyenga or fudika with 

Fructify, v. (cause to conceive), 

Fruit, «., dimoma, 5. This word 
is not applied to bananas, 
plantains, or pineapples; it 
has reference only to such 
fruits as grow on trees or 
bear, vL, kuama. 
Some of the more common fruits 

are as follows: 
banana, dibote, 5. 
lime, dilala, 5. 
mango, nsafu, 3. See note under 

papaw, dlhahl, 5. 
pineapple, kangajiiigajl, 8; dl- 

kaka, 5; cikakakaka, 7. 
plantain, dikuonde, 5. 
small yellow fruit growing on the 
plains, dixonde, 5. 
Fruitful, be, vf (female), dl ne 
with lulelu(4) or diminu(5) or 
Fruttfulness, w. (power to bear 
young), lulelu, 4; diminu, 5; 
buledl, 6. 
Frustrate, vi., humbixa, kosexa, 
ela makosa(2). 
(be frustrated), vi., humba. 
Fry, vt., kanga. 
Frying-pan, »., clvuadl, 7; luesu, 

4; nylngu, 3. 
Fuel, »., lukunyl, 4. Generally 

use pi. 
Fugitive, »., munyemi, i. 
Fulfil, v/., xikixa; vi.(he ful- 
filled), xika. 
Full, be, vi.^ ula, vula. 
(after eating), vi., ukuta. 
-grown, vi.y kS,la. 
measure or quantity, w., kum- 
bana, vula; 2;^(make full 
measure), kumb&xa, vudixa. 
moon, vpk.y ngondo(3) followed 
by the v. lua clb&la(7); 
ngondo may also be subj. of 

Full, be {continued) . 
adj. Use the indeclinable tente 
(from tentama, to be fulf); as, 
mulondu udi ml tente, the 
jar is full of water. 
Fun, w. (laughter), kas^ku, 8. 
have with, to play with, vt.y s&ba 
ne, 8&bila, naya ne, s&bixa, 
nayixa, s^kexa. 
(joke), »., cltedt, 7. PL gener- 
ally used, 
(make fun of), vt., s^ka. 
(to joke), v., ela bltedi, hunga. 
Funny, be, -z;. (producing laughter), 

Furious, be, v»*.(angry), di ne or 
nfua or unva with cixi(7); 
or cixi as subj. of kuata with 
the person as obj. 
Furnace, n.(for smelting iron ore), 

clkutu, 7. 
Fury, w.(anger), ctxl, 7. 
Fuss, »., diyoyo, 5; mutSiyo, 2. 
Future, nph., use matuku(pl. of 
5) followed by -a ku mp&la(3) 
or -a kumudilu. The words 
ng:ondo(moon) and cidimu 
(season) may . be substituted, 
according to sense, for matuku. 
The future idea in the verb is 
expressed by future tense. 


Gabble, v., akula blakulakula(pl. 

of 7), labakana. 
Gain, v., a bet or cause at court, 
by trading, vph.y endulula mu- 

xing:a(2) muimpe. 
at gambling, v., taha. The per- 
son losing is the obJ. of the v. 
Gale, «.(wind), luhehele, 4. 
a strong, clhuhu, 7. 
blow a, v.y huha. 
Gall, n., nyongangandu, 3; ka« 

bululu, 8. 
Gamble, v. (gain at), t&faa. The 
person losing is the obj. of the 



Gamble {coniintiecl), 

(lose at), V. The person losing 
is the obj. of the V. t&ha; as, 
bakunt&ha bintu bUnyt, / 
fiave lost my things. 
(tossing flat seeds or other ob- 
jects), v., ela nzobo(pL of 
luzobo, 4, which is one of the 
pieces tossed). 
See BET. 
Game, n., dls&ba, 5; dlnaya, 5. 
Gape, v., ela niuau(2). 

»., muau, 2. 
Garbage, n., bilii(7), bison8o(7). 
Garden, n.(field), budlml, 6; 
ctbldl(Buk.), 7. 
(small patch in swamp in dry 

season), clsenze, 7. 
(small patch near house), ci- 
bunda, 7. 
Garment, 9i.,cllalu, 7; cllamba,7. 
Gash, n., mputa, 3. 

v.y t&ha. 
Gate, «., clbt, 7. 

Gather, v/.(as com, fruit), huola, 
(as leaves of the matamba), aka. 
(as millet), nowa. 
together, vt., tutakanya, tata- 
kAxa, sangrlxa, sangakanya, 
sangakflxa, sambakanya, 
sambakflxa, kunglxa, san- 
glla, sanga; vi.y tutakana, 
sangakana, sambakana,kuii- 
gakana, disanga, dlungulxa. 
up, as tra^, boya. 
Gaze, v., fixedly, mona or tangila 
or xoxa followed by talala 
Gender, see § 56. 
Generate, v. (beget), tmtctxa. 

(give birth), lela. 
Generation, «.(line of descent), 

cilongo, 7. 
Generosity, w., diha, 5. 
Generous, adj., -a dlha(5). 

person, «., cihahl, 7. 
Genius, ». (knowledge), langensi, 
4; mext, pi. of 5. or 6; lu- 
kanyl, 4. 

Gh:ntile, nph.^ miiiitii(i) kal 

Gentle, be, vt., hola, talala, -a 

kaloIo(8), -a latulu(4). 
Gentleness, n., lutnlu, 4. 

(attractiveness), kalolo, 8. 
Gently, adv,^ bitekete, bimpe, 

Germ, »., in seed, dlsn, 5; muoyo, 

Germinate, v.(sprout), m«na. 
Get, v., accustomed to, w., Ibidlla. 
angry, w., dl ne clxl(7). 
anything done for another, use 

Applied Form of Causative, 
away, to escape, w., tuka, ongo- 

loka, handuka. 
(become), see become. 
(bring), vt,, lua ne. 
down, T/t., tuluka, Ika. 
drunk, v., kuaclxa maluTii. 
dry, vi.y uma. 
fat, vi,y diunda, Imida, 
hot, vi.y lua kahla. 
in, into, vi., buela. 
loose, untied, w., tnka, suluka, 

mad (crazy), vi., buluka, hala, 

out, vi.y luhuka, mnuka, b&- 

out of the way, w., sesuka, 

ehuka, nmuka. 
palm wine, v.y ema. 
(take up), vt.y angata, ambula, 

up, vi.y bika, Juka. 
up a tree, to climb, v.y banda. 
water from spring or stream, vt,, 

well, convalesce, v»., sang&la, 

kflsa inubldl(2), sanguluka. 
worse, v.y nemenena, nema. 
Ghost, n., see spirit. 
Gibberish, «., clakulakula, 7. 

Giddiness, «., dinyungu, 5; kan- 
tetu, 8; lunyungu, 4; kan« 



GroDY, BE, v^/t. (dizzy), di ne fol- 
lowed by dliiyungu(5) or 
kantetu(8) or lunyungu(4) or 
Gift, »., clha, 7; also the infin. 
kuha. Jisus nkuha kua 
Mzambi kuakutuheye, Jesus 
is the gift of God which he 
has given to us. 
(extra amount given to conclude 
trade), matabixa, pi. of 5 or 6; 
nsekididl, 3; ntentekedi, 3. 
Giggle, vph.y dl ne ka8«ku(8). 

PL generally used. 
Giggling, n., kasdku, 8. PL gen- 
erally used. 
Gird, v., up the loin, ela mukl- 
(wrap around), Jingila, Jinga, 
nyengela, vunga, vungila. 
Girdle, n., mukftba, 2. 
Girl, n., muana(i) mukaxi(i). 
(lass), muxikankunde, 2; son- 
Bakttxi, I. 
Girlhood, n., buxikankunde, 6; 

bunsongakflxi, 6. 
Give, v., ha, ambika(Buk.). 
a name, v.y idlka, inylka. 
birth to, v.y lela. 
(hand to, pass to), hetexa, 

light, z/.,ditemena,teinena, toka. 
permission, see permission. 
suck to, vt.y amutxa. 
to drink, 2;/., nulxa. 
to eat, vt.y dtxa. 
up, hanga, lekela. 
Gizzard, n., dinkldinglla, 5; 

dintumbu, 5. 
Glad, be, vi.y sanka. 
Gladden, vt,y sankixa. 
Gladness, n., disanka, 5. 
Glance, v.y oflf, tuya, sesuka, 

Glass, n. (looking-), ludlmuenu, 4; 
lumuenu, 4. 
(tumbler), ngIas(Eng.), 3. 
Gleam, 2;. (glisten), engelela, bala- 
(shine), dltemena, temena. 

Glisten, 2;., engelela, balakana. 
Glitter, v., enselela, balakana. 
Globe, »., clbulunge, 7; dibu- 

lunge, 5. 
Gloominess, n.(darkness), mldi- 

ma, pi. of 2; muflta, 2. 
Glorify, vt.^ tumblxa, meneka, 
menekela, nemeka, neme« 
kela, tendelela. 
Glorious, arf;., nine, tunibe(p.p. 

of tumba, to he glorious). 
Glory, ^.(greatness), bunlne, 6. 
Glow, v., ditemena, temena. 
Glutton, ?t^/t.,muena(i) followed 
by Iumpuku8u(4) or clhu- 
sa(7) or mudiu(2). 
Gluttonous, adj.y -a lumpn- 
kusa(4), -a, clhasu(7), -a 
Gluttony, n., lumpukusu, 4; 

cihusu, 7; mudlu, 2. 
Gnash, v.y diangana menu. 
Gnat, n., kixl, 8. Dimin. of ctxi. 
Gnaw, v., kunya. 
Go, v.y ya, enda. 

about, ffom place to place, vi.y 

across a river, vi.y sabuka. 
across a path, vi.y sambuka. 
after, to follow, vt.y londa, ya ku 

nyima(3) kua. 
ahead of, vt.y ya with ku mp&- 
la(3) kua or kumudtlu kua, 
hlta, tamba. 
around, vi.y cimbakana, nyun- 

away, vi.y umuka, ya. 
back, to return, vi.y aluka, 
alukila, hingana, hingila, 
tuta, tucila, andamuka, 
back and forth, vi.y tambakana. 
backwards, vi.y ya cianyima. 
bad, vi.y bola, onoka, nyan« 

down, vi.y hueka, huekela, 

first, vi.y dianjila kuya. 
in, into, vi.y buela. 
let, vt.y lekela. 



Go {continued). 

mad, vi.j buluka, hala, tom- 

off accidentally, as gun, vi., 
flnukila, sohoka, disoho- 

on a journey, vi., ya ku luen- 

out, vi.^ luhuka, h&tuka, umu- 
ka, tambuka. 

out, as fire, vi.^ JIma. 

past one, vt., taita, tamba. 

up, vi.^ banda. 

with, to accompany, vt., flla. 
Goat, w., mbuxi, 3. 

(half-grown), lutumbatumba, 4. 

he, mpumbu, 3. 

she, dixina, 5. Has borne young. 
Gq-betvveen, «., in marriage, 

cibanjl, 7. 
God, »., Nzambi, i. While this is 
not the word native to the 
Baluba and Bena Lulua, yet 
it is very extensively used and 
has been adopted for use in 
the literature and preaching. 
It comes from the Lower 

No worship is paid to God, 

though there is everywhere 

a distinct idea and a name 

for the Supreme Being, who 

at least creates if he does 

not afterwards direct affairs 

by his providence. For the 

Supreme Being the Bena 

Lulua use Nfldi Mukulu, the 

Baluba use Nfldi Mukulu or 

Muloho or Muloho Muowe- 


Gold, nph.^ lukanu(4) lukunze. 

Goliath-beetle, «., kababu, 8. 

Good, adj., impe, lengcle, akane. 

(attractive), -a kalolo(8). 

keep, as salt preserving meat, 
vt.y lengexa. 

make, beautify, vt., lengexa. 

(taste good), v., xemakana. 
Good-bye, see adieu. 

Goodness, n.y buimpe, 6; bulen- 
gele, 6; buakane, 6. 
(attractiveness), kalolo, 8. 
Goods, n.y bintu, pi. of 7; biuma, 

pi. of 7; luhetu, 4. 
Gospel, nph.y bualu(6) bua 

Gourd, «., dried, ciloa, 7; cibu- 
lubulu, 7. 
green, clloaloa, 7. 
(split crosswise), clhulu, 7; ci- 

tonga, 7; cihundu, 7. 
(split lengthwise), lub&lu (for 
water), 4; cib&Iu (for bread), 

neck of, cikolokolo, 7. 

Govern, v. {as chief his people). 
Perhaps best expressed by the 
ph. muke]enge(i) wa, chief 
of; as, Lukengu udi muke- 
lenge wa Bakuba, Lukengu 
governs the Bakuba, i.e., is 
their chief. 
(as mother her child), buluklla, 
samina, bila, nanga. 

Government, w., bukelenge, 6; 
bunfumu, 6. 

Governor, w., mukelenge, i; 
nfumu, I. 

Grab, vt., bakula. 

Grace, n.(mercy), luse, 4. 

Gracious, adj., -a luse(4). 
be to, vph., ha luse. 

Grain, w., of corn, ditete, 5; mu- 
tonda, 2; ditungu, 5. 
of sand, kasoka, 8; kasenga, S; 
kasele, 8. These words are 
dimin. of lusoka and lusenga 
and lusele, respectively. 
See SEED. 

Grandchild, «., muikilu, i. 

Grandfather, w., kaku(i) mu- 
lumi(i), nylnk(a)(i) mulu- 

Grandmother, w., kaku(i) mu- 
ktixl(i), nylnka(a)(i) mu- 

Grandparent, «., kaku, i; nyin- 
k(a), I. 



Grant, v/.(give), ha, ambika. 
permission, see permission. 
Grapes, nph,, mamoma(sing. di- 
moma, 5) a kuenza n'& fol- 
lowed by vinyo or maluvu a 
Grape-vine, nph.y muoxi(2) wa 
mamoma a kuenza n*ft fol- 
lowed by vinyo or maluvu a 
Grasp, vt., kuata, angata, flekela. 
Grass, »., dlxlnde, 5. 
tall, as on plain, clsuku, 7; bicici 

(Buk.), pi. of 7. 
(used in covering houses), luan- 
yi, 4; cisoso, 7; lusono, 4. 
PI. generally used, 
(very tall and coarse), disele, 5. 
Grasshopper, n., luh&su, 4. 
Grateful, adj.y -a cinemu(7). 
be to, v.f sekelela, ha muoyo(2), 

See note under thank. 
Gratefulness, «., cinemu, 7. 
Gratis, n.y hatuhu, cinana. These 

are really adverbial words. 
Gratitude, »., cinemu, 7. From 

V. nemeka. 
Gratuitously, adv., cinana, ha- 
Grave, »., lukita, 4; ciduaya, 7. 
Graveyard, see cemetery. 
Gravy, »., musoxi, 2; mukele- 

kele, 2. 
Gray, d^i;.(color), tokoloke(^.p. of 
tokoloka, to be gray). There 
is no distinct name, 
hair, n., lungufu, 4; luvi, 4. 
Graze, v. (eat grass), dla ma- 

xinde(pl. of 5). 
Grease, »., see fat. 

V.J laba mlnyi(pl. of 5). 
Great, ai;. (famous), nine, tnm- 
be(p.p. of tumba, to be great). 
(large\ nine. 
make, vt.^ tumbixa. 
Greatness, »., bunlne, 6. 
Greediness, n., lumpukusu, 4; 
cihusu, 7; mudlu, 2. 

Greedy, adj.^ -a lumpukusu(4), -a 

cihusu(7), -a mudlu(2). 
Green, a<f;. (color) , flke(p.p. of flka, 
to be green), ilku]uke(p.p. of 
ilkuiuka, to be green). 
(new), hia-hia. 
(not ripe), bixe. 
(unripe, be), vi., bixika. 
Greens, «. (leaves of cassava), ma- 
tamba, pi. of 5; kalexi, 8. 
Other varieties: citekuteku, 7; 
mulengalenga, 2; mutete, 2; 
nsampu, 3. 
Greet, see salute. 
Gree ing, see salutation. 
Grief, w., clxi, 7; kanylngan- 

yinga, 8. 
Grieve, v., dlla, ufua or unva 
followed by cixi(7), muoyo(2) 
or mucima(2) as subj. of 
nylngala, cixi as subj. of 
kuata and the person as obj., 
di ne with cixl or kanylngan- 
for, inga. 
Grin, v., tua mimuemne(pl. of 2). 

n.f mumuemue, 2. 
Grind, v. {as corn between two 
stones), hela. 
fine, vt.y botexa. 
(grit the teeth), diangana or 
zekexa with menn(pl. of 5). 
(sharpen), nuona. 
Grindstone, n., dibue(5) dla ku- 

Grip, vt., kuata. 
Gripe, v., nyenga with mnnda as 

Grit, v., the teeth, diangana or 

zekex with menn(pl. of 5). 
Groan, v., huma, tuamuk£ma(2). 

n.(as of pain), muk^ma, 2. 
Grope, vi., bubuta. 
Ground, «.(loose dirt), malobo, 
pi. of bulobo(6). 
on the, the loc. word hanxl. 
(world), bnlobo, 6. 
Group, »., cisumbu, 7; dlsanga,' 



Grove, n. (copse on a plain), 

cihuka, 7. 
Grow, v., kttle, landa. 
(grow large), v., diunda. 
(grow tall), v.f leha. 
(grow thin), v., nyana. 
Growl, v.(as a dog), ela ma- 
kanda(pl. of 5), kanga. 
(grumble), v., tontolola, tonto- 

n., dlkanda, 5. 
Grown, be, vi.^ kttla. 

person, n., muntu(i) mukttle. 
Grub, n.(a worm), dikubu, 5; 
lu]iose(found in the palm), 4. 
Both kinds are eaten, 
up, vi., Jula. 
Gruel, n., mus&bu, 2. 
Grumble, v., tontolola, tonto- 
(mutter in low tone), nungana. 
(with a click of the throat), 
Grunt, v. (expressing surprise), 
kftma, taa eik£ma(7). 
(groan in pain), huma, tna 

n.(of astonishment), eikftma, 7. 
(of pain), mnkima, 2. 
Guarantee, «.(pawn), cleya, 7. 

to leave as, vt.y eyeka. 
Guard, v/.(watch), l&ma. 
be on one's, vi.y dimaka. 
put on one's, vt,, dimuxa. 
n., mul&mi, i. 
Guess, v., clnka. 
Guest, n., mueDyi, i. 
Guide, v., lombola. 

n., niulombodi(i) wa nxlla, 
Guilt, n., bualu(6) bubl, muan- 
da(2) mubl, bubl(6). We 
often hear simply the pi. of 
the adjectives mabl and mibi. 
Guiltless, (wf;.(good), Impe, len- 
sele, akane. 
(be acquitted), vt., binga. 
declare, v/., bingixa. 
Guilty, be condemned as, vi., htla. 
declare, zrf., hixa. 

Guinea-fowl, »., dtkangala, 5. 
Gully, n., mutubu, 2; nkoka, 3; 

muexi, 2. 
Gun, »., ctngoma, 7; bnta, 6. 

This last word originally 

meant bow. 
cannon, n., dttende, 5. 
cap gun, n.y ctngoma cia lufa- 

flint-lock, n., etngoma cia mu- 

pistol, n., kahambala, 8. 
rifle, ff ., cingoma cia lutende(4). 
shotgun, n., cingoma cia tun- 

dlniba(pl. of 8). 

barrel, n., mulonda, 2; maxlba, 

bullet, n., lutende, 4; mute- 

lenge(2) wa lutende. 
cap, n.f lufatacl, 4. 
cartridge, n., mutelenge(2) wa 

flint, n., dlbue, 5. 
hammer, n., dikdsa, 5. 
muzzle, n.j maxuku, 2. 
nipple, n., disu, 5. 
powder, n., kahla, 8; dlfuanda, 

5- ^ 
ramrod, n., nfukite, 3. 
shell, n., mutelenge(2) wa tun- 

dimbaCpl. of 8). 
shot, n., kandimba, 8. 
trigger, ft., mulemu, 2. 
wadding, »., dihusa, 5; clnyu- 

ka, 7. 

aim, v., dingila, l&ma, ludikila, 

click (when cocked), vi., aba. 
cock, vt,f bangnla. 
fire, vt., ela cingoma. 
go off accidentally, vi., sohoka, 

disohokela, flnukila. 
hit, vt.y lonza, kuma. 
load, vL, soma. 
miss aim, v., ela eingoma 

hanxl, hanga. 
miss fire, not go off, W., funga. 



Gunpowder, «., kahia, 8; di- 

fuanda, 5. 
Gut, n., dila, 5. 

Habit, n., cllele, 7; ctenzedi, 7; 
cibllu, 7. 
bad, use any of the above words 
with the adj. bl. For habitual 
action use ' Pres. Habitual 
Habitually, see ceaselessly. 
Habituate, vL, tbidixa. 

(be habituated), vi., ibidila, 


Haggard, be, 9t'., nyana, dl ne or 

uma followed by cionda(7) or 


Haggardness, n., cionda, 7; cin- 

yanu, 7. 
Hail, v/.(call), blkila. 
from, vi., fiima. 
(greet), see salute. 
-stone, w., dibue(5) dia nvula(3). 
Hair, ». (beard or hair on head of 
person), lusuki, 4; lunyonyi, 


gray, »., luvi, 4; lungufn, 4. 

(on body of person or animal), 
luoso, 4. Note that pi. is 
mloso(2). § 45, Rem. 
Half, n. There is no word ex- 
pressing this idea exactly. If 
anything is cut into two parts, 
whether they be equal or not, 
each part is called cituha(7); 
if the thing is split, each piece 
is called cih£su(7). 

(cut half in two), v., kosa or kala 
followed by hanktkci or kun- 

-way, the loc. words hanktkci 
and kunkfkci. 
Hallow, v/.(to honor), tumbixa, 
. nemeka, nemekela, meneka, 
menekela, tendelela. 
Halt, v. (be lame), l£ma. 

(limp), zobela, tebuka. 

Halt {continued). 
(stand), Imtkna. 
(stop), lekela. 
Hammer, n., lukonko, 4. 
of gun, diktksa, 5. 
T;.(drive a nail), kumlna, hohela. 
(forge), v., tula, fula. 
Hammock, »., buanda, 6. 
Hand, «., cianza, 7. 

in the, ku minu(pl. of 2). 
left, clanza cla baktixi, cianza 
cla luboko(4), cianza cia 
(left-handed person), mnena(i) 
with ciboko(7) or lamo8a(4). 
of banana or plantain, cisangri, 7. 
palm of, munda mua cianza. 
right, cianza cia with balumt or 

bukftle or bidia. 
(sleight-of-hand trick), dljimbu, 

5; dialu, 5. 
(to pass to), vL, hetexa, he tela. 
(writing), »., cifundidi, 7. 
Handful, n., difuka, 5. 
Handle, «., of knife or hoe, cil&bi, 
7; cikuacilu, 7; mnl&bi, 2. 
of cup, mnkolokolo, 2. 
(fasten handle in axe, hoe, etc.), 

vt., bangixa. 
V. (examine), lenga, lamba, lam- 
Handsome, adj., impe, akane, 

lengele, -anipoGi(slang). 
Handsomeness, »., buimpe, 6; 
buakane, 6; bulengele, 6; 
mpoci(slang), 3. 
Hang, v., a person, owa. 
down, vi., lembelela. 
one's self, diowa. 
up, vt., kudika. 
Happen, vi., lua. 
Happiness, n., disanka, 5. 
Happy, be, vi., sanka, generally 
with muoyo(2) or mucima(2) 
as subj. 
make, vt., sankixa with muoyo 
or mucima as obj. 
Hard, adj., to the touch, kaie(p.p. 
of kfila, to he hard). 
make, vt., kftlexa. 



Harden, vt.j kttlexa. 

(accustom to), vt., tbidixa; v».(be 
accustomed to), Ibidlla, lobo- 

Hardness, n., bukttle, 6. 

Harlot, nph.j muktkxi(i) wa ma- 
sand i (pi. of 5 or 6). 

Harm, n. (danger, trouble, palaver), 
bnalu, 6; muanda, 2. 
vt.f enzela bibi. 

Harmless, adj. This idea may 
generally be expressed by the 
sentence ena mua kuenza 
cintu, (it) can do nothing. 

Harmonium, n., cisanji, 7. 

Harmonize, v/.(put in tune), sOka. 
.(put out of harmony or tune), 

vt., stikula. 
(tune instruments to each other), 
sflklla or aktixa with hamue. 
(sing, in harmony), aktkxame(pl. 

of 5) hamue. 
(be out of harmony or tune), vf, 

Harmony, see harmonize. 

Harp, w., clsanJi, 7. This is made 
by fastening small pieces of 
iron of dififerent lengths amd 
sizes to a hollow piece of wood. 

Harvest, «.(time). There seems 
to be no word expressing the 
idea of harvest time. Use 
some explanatory ph., such as 
cidlmu(7) cia, season of, or 
nsondo(3) wa, month of; as, 
cidlmu cla kukuola manva 
clakulua, the corn harvest 
time has come. There being 
no general word for harvest it 
is necessary to mention the 
name of the thing harvested. 
vt.{2J& com), huola, kuola. 
(as millet, rice), nowa. 
(as peas), aka. 

Hash, vt.{a& meat), zaz -. 

Haste, n., lubllu, 4; luktksa, 4. 
See note under lubilu. 

Hasten, vi.j generally use the spe- 
cific verb with lubilu or 

Hasten (continued). 

(hurry up, make to do in a hurry). 

vt.y endexa or enzexa followea 

by lubilu or luktksa. 

Hat, «., cifulu, 7. 

Hatch, v/., totobula, taya(toya). 

Hatchet, «., kasui, 8. Dimin. of 

Hate, v.y kina, dl ne lukuna(4), 
neg. of sua or nanga or 
(loathe, as bread), vt.^ tonda. 
Hateful, adj.y toward, -a lu- 

Hatred, n., lukuna, 4. 
Haughtiness, n., disanka, 5. 
Haughty, be, vi.y disua, sanka. 
Have, v. (possess). Use one of the 
verbs meaning to he followed 
by ne. 
not, ena ne. 
to, must, see must. 
For have or had as auxiliary in 
formation of compound tenses 
see § 205, Rem. 
To have something done for one, 
use Applied Form of the 
Causative. § 335 (a). 
Hawk, n., nkumbikumbi, 3. 
He, pers. pro. 

(i) Simple Disjunctive form, 
yeye. § 105. 

(2) Compound Disjunctive form, 
blandl. .§§ 108, no. 

(3) Conjunctive forms used as 
(a) Pro. prefix. §§113,114. 
(h) Pro. suflSx. §§ 120, 123. 

Head, n., mutu, 2. Some say 
-ache, »., mutu followed by 

mubele or musame. 
bald, n., dib&la, 5. 
crown of, lubombo, 4. 
-long, mutu munxl. 
of millet, muehu, 2. 
of stream, mutu, 2. 
Headache, nph., mutu(2) followed 

by mubele or musame. 
Headlong, adv., use ph. mutu(2) 



Headman, »., kahita, 8. From 

Heal, v., see cure. 

Health, n. There is no definite 
word. For good health use 
such expressions as bukftle(6) 
or n8:ulu(3) or inubidl(2) 
mukftle. For had health use 
disama(5) or dlbedi(5) or 
bubedi(6) orinubidi(2) mute- 

Healthy, adj.y -a bukftle(6), -a 
nsu]u(3), -a mubidi(2) mu- 

Heap, n.(a large pile), muxiki, 2. 
(a small pile, such as can be held 

in two hands), difuka, 5. 
up, pile one on top of the other, 
vt.y tentektkxa, tenteka, ten- 
tekanya, ambakanya, amba- 
k&xa; v*.(be ona on top of the 
other), tentaxna, ambakana. 

Hear, v., unva, ufua. Note that 
the obj. of this verb is di(5), 
word^ ciona, sound of rain, etc., 
and not a person; as, nakun- 
Ta dl diandi, I heard him, lit., 
his word. We may also use 
the form nakunvamuaknam- 
beye, / heard him, lit., what he 
each other, understand, unvan- 

listen to, vt.y telexai 

Hearken, v., see heed. 

Hearsay, n., lumu, 4. 

Heart, n., dl, 5. PI. is me. 
lose, v., clna. 

take, v., kftlexa, with muoyo(2) 
or muctma(2). In the figura- 
tive sens2 of heart, muclma(2) 
and muoyo(2) are often used 
interchangeably. See these 
two wordfe in B.L.-Eng. 

Hearth, »., diku, 5. PI. ismeku. 

Heartless, see merciless. 

He\rtlessvess, «., luklnn, 4; 
cinyanqru, 7. 

Heat, »., of fire, kahla, 8. 
of sun, munya, 2. 

Heat {continued). 

(warmth of body or fire or air), 

luiya, 4; ciyuya, 7. 
vt.i hixa; z;i.(be heated), hia. 
over again, as food, vt., bab&xa; 
7/2*. (be heated again), bab&la. 

Heaven, nph., musoko(2) wa 
(firmament), diulu, 5. 

Heavenly, adj.{pi the firmament), 
-a diu]u(5). 

Heaviness, n., bujitu, 6. 

Heavy, be, v., di bujitu(6), dl ne 
bujitu, nema, nemenena. 

Heed, i;.(obey), tumikila, enza 
mu- followed by proper tense 
and person of amba, itabuxa 
mu di(5), unva, ufua. 
take, be warned, vi., dlmnka. 

Heedless, see obstinate. 

Heedlessness, see obstinacy. 

Heel, n.*, dkankanyl, 7; ciken- 
klbu, 7. 

He goat, n., mpumbu, 3. 

Height, »., bule, 6. 

Heir, n., muhianyl, i. 

(be heir to, inherit), v., hlana. 

Hell, n., Dgena, 3. From Greek 

Helmet, »., cifulu, 7. 

Help, v. This idea is generally 
expressed by the, Causative 
Form of the verb. In a gen- 
eral sense we may use the 
Causative Form ensexa. Ya 
umudimixe, go and help him 
to work', wakumueuBexa, he 
helped him to do it. 

Hemp, Indian, n., dlamba, 5. 
Smoked by the natives. 

Hen, «., cikukue, 7. 

Hence, adv.(irom here), emu, eku, 
aha, munemu, kuneku, ha* 
naha. § 163, Note 3. Use 
also the Locative Suffixed con- 
struction. § 320. 
(therefore), ka, bu- with Applied 
Form of verb. § 419. 

Henceforth, see hereafter. 



Her, pers, and poss. pro. 

(i) As pers. pro. see him, remem- 
bering that there is no dififer- 
ence in the rendering of her 
and him. § 105, Rem. a. 

(2) As poss. pro., andi. §§ 132, 

Herald, n. (messenger), muena(i) 

mukenjl(2), maloho(2). 
Herd, n., cisumbu, 7. 
Herdsman, n., mulftml, i. 
Here, adv. Use the proper Loca- 
tive with demonstrative sign e, 
denoting near objects, thus 
giving emu, eku, aha. § 163, 
Note 3. Note also the doubled 
forms munemu(munomu), 
kuneku(knnoku), hanaha. 
§ 163, Note 2. 
(from here, hence), use the Loca- 
tive Forms as indicated above; 
as, wakuluhnka munemu, he 
has gone otU from here. 
(here and there, hithei^ and 
thither), use Intensive Form 
of verb, 
(here it is, etc.), use the particle 

ka-. § 159. 
Sometimes the Locative Suffixed 
construction furnishes the 
idiom; as, udihu, he is here. 
Hereafter, <idv. ph., matukn(p1. 
of 5) followed by -a ku 
mp&la(3) or -a kumudllu. 
The words Dgondo, moon, or 
eldlmu, season, may be sub- 
stituted, according to sense for 
Heritage, n., buhianyl, 6; blntu 

bia bnhlanyi. 
Hers, poss. pro., see his. § 132. 
Herself, pers. pro., see himself. 
The forms for herself and him- 
self are identical. § 105, Rem . 

Hesitate, v. (vacillate), lemba- 
kana, humbakaDa, nema 
with muclma(2) as subj., ta- 
takana dt ne micima ibidi. 

HicxX)UGH, n., einsukuDsnku, 7. 
Hide, vt., sokoka. 

one's self, vi., sokoma. 

n.(skin), ctaiba, 7. 
High, adj., le. 

on, adv., killu, millu, henlu. 

§ 4»3 (2) (»)• 
voice, n., dt(5) dtklse. 

High priest, nph., mukulenge(i) 
wa bambl(pl. of i) ba bua- 
lu(6) buaNzambl. 
Highway, n., Dxila(3) munlne, 
robber, n., munyengl, i. 
Highwayman, n., munyengt, i. 
Hill, n., mukuna, 2. 

ant-, mutunda(made by the 
btntunte), 2 ; dttna(small 
black in the forests), 5. 
down-, kumanda. § 423 (2) {h). 
Him, pers. pro. 

(i) As direct or indirect otj. use 
the pro. infix mu. §§ 116, 
117. Note the use of pronomi- 
nal suffixes (§ 123), under cer- 
tain circumstances, as direct or 
indirect obj. § 124 {h) (c). 
(2) For use with prepositions, see 
§§ 106 {c) and 107. 
Himself, pers. pro. 

(i) Compound Disjunctive form, 
nklyandl. §§ 108, 109. 

(2) When reflexive, use the re- 
flexive prefix of the verb, -dl-. 
Note that this construction may 
be used either as subj. or obj. 

§ 118. 

(3) See B.L.-Eng. under ine. 
Hind leg, «., lower part of, mu- 

kolo, 2. 
upper part of, cibelu, 7. 
part, citaku, 7; nylma, 3. 
Hinder, vt., humbixa, humba- 
ktkxa, lekexa, kosexa; vi.Q^e 
hindered), humba. 
Hindermost, adj., -a ku nyiina(3). 
•a kiinxlkidiln,«a haxixe. 
be the, v., xixa. 
Hindrance, n., mukosa, a. 



Hip, n.f lukundu, 4; cikundu- 

kundu, 7. 
Hippopotamus, »., nsuvu, 3. 
Hire, v., see engage. 
His, poss. pro,, andl. When used 

as predicate adj., see § 135. 
Hit, vt.y kuma, tuta. 

(in shooting), lonsa, kuma. 
with arrow, asa. 

with fist, kuma or tuta or tua 
with ctsn8u(7) or dtsundu(5). 
withknuckl s, tua lukonyl(4). 
with open hand, kuma with 
dlhtCs) or luhi(4). 
Hither, adv., see here. Use some- 
times the Locative Suffixed 
construction, § 320. 
(hither and thither), use Inten- 
sive Form of verb. 
Hoarse, be, v. use dl(5) as subj. 

of v. xtb&la or h&ta. 
Hobgoblin, n., muklxi, 2; mu- 

xanst(Buk.), 2. 
Hoe, n., lukAsu, 4. 

handle of, mul&bt, 2; cikua- 

ctlu, 7; cil&bl, 7. 
v., d ma, ihlla. 
put handle in, v., bangrixa. 
Hog, n., ngnilube, 3. 
Hoist, v/., bandixa, btxa. 
Hold, v/., kuata. 

out hand, olola elansa(3). 
Hole, n., in the ground, dlna(pl. 
mena), 5; cina, 7. 
key-, dlsu(5) dia nsftht(3). 
make a. to dig, imba, umbula. 
of rat, buina, 6. P . is mena. 
(pierce through), v/., tubula di- 

through something, n., disoso, 5; 
dikela, 5. 
Holiness, n., buimpe, 6; bua- 

kane, 6; bulengele, 6. 
Hollow, «.(in tree), mulundu, 2. 
(low ground), cibanda, 7; lu- 
hongo, 4. 
Holy, adj.(gpod), Impe, akane, 
Spirit, see SPmiT. 

Homage, pay to, vL, see honor. 
Home, n.(house), nsubu, 3. 

at, mu nsubu, ku nsubu, mu or 
ku used inseparably with the 
poss. pro., § 140. 
Honest, adj,(gqod), impe, akane, 
lengeie, -akatolo(8). 
(one not stealing), use neg. of 
Pres. Habitual tense of v. Iba, 
or ena ne with buibl(6) or 
bulvl(6) or blanBa(pl. of 7) 
Honesty, ». (goodness or fairness), 
kalolo, 8; buimpe, 6; bua- 
kane, 6; bnlengele, 6. 
Honey, «., bnlci(butki), 6. 

-comb, dihula, 5; dikaci, 5. 
Honey-bee, n., lubulubulu, 4; 

lunyeke, 4. 
Honeycomb, «., dikaci, 5; dihula, 

Honor, vt.y nemeka, nemekela, 
meneka, menekela, tum- 
btxa, tendelela. 
Honorable, <k/;. (great), nine. 
(honored), tumbe(p.p. of tumba, 
to be honorable). 
Hoof, n., mukono, 3. 
Hook, n., fish-, ndofao, 3. 
wooden, lukobo, 4. 
fish with, vt., loha. 
Hop, v., tuhika. 
(as flea), tuloka. 
(as frog), Boloka. 
Hope, v. (look for, expect), teke- 
mena, elamuoyo(2). 
n., the infin. kutekemena is 
Horn, n., lusensu, 4. 

(for blowing), mpungt, 3. 
Horrify, vt., cinylxa, handixa 
mucima(2), zaktixa mucima. 
(be horrified), vi., cina handika 
or lakala followed by muci- 
Horror, n., buowa, 6. 
Horse, n., kabftlu, 8. From 

Horse-fly, n., cibanda, 7. 



Host, ».(crowd), cisumbu, 7. 

(great number), »., bungi, 6. 
Hostage, nph,, muntu(i) wa 
lukole(4). PI. is bantu ba 
nkole. A person of same vil- 
lage or family as the debtor 
who is held for the debt. 
Hostile, adj., -a lukunaU). 
Hostility, »., lukuna, 4. 
Hot, adj., -a kahia(8). 
be, vi., hia, lua kahia. 
make, vt., hixa. 
Hour, see time. 
House, »., nsubu, 3. 
batten, lubambalu, 4. These are 
tied crosswise on top of the 
door, clbl, 7. 

door-post, cilua, 7; cixikl, 7. 
doorway, muxuku(2) wa mbe-. 
lu(3), mbelu(3), cibuedelu 

-fly(insect), lujljl, 4. 
grass for covering, luanyl, 4; 

bisoso, pi. of Gisoso(7); lu- 

sono, 4. 
palm leaves for covering, malaia, 

pi. of dllala(5). 
partition, cididi, 7. 
post in the wall, cilua, 7; cixiki, 

post to support veranda, dl- 

kunxl, 5. 
rafter, lusokolo, 4; dihilu, 5. 
ridge-pole, mutandala, 2; mu- 

tamba, 2. 
roof, clmtinu, 7. 
side, wall, clmtknu, 7. 
space in front of door, ku 

to cover a, vt., flnga, kuma. 
top of roof, musonsa, 2. 
to tie the battens, vt., bambala. 
Household, see tribe. 
Hover, z;.(as hawk), lembelela. 
How, interrog. adv., munyi 7 bixi 7 
mua( indirect question), 
(i) For the expression, in what 

way?, see § 411. 
(2) As modifying adjectives of 

How {continued), 

quantity or quality, see § 411, 
Note I. 

(3) For use in indirect questions, 
see § 472 {d). 

(4) How many is sometimes ex- 
pressed by the interrogative 
adj. nga, which takes Second- 
ary Prefixes. 

Hubbub, «., diyoyo, 5; mutiiyo, 2. 
Hug, vt., uhukila, akidila. 
Hull, «. (shell), cihusu, 7; cl- 
Kubu, 7. 
v/.(aspcanjts), b61a, bula, bosa, 

totobula, taya(toya). 
(as peas, by beating), xuhula, 
Humane, adj., -a kaloIo(8), -a 
luse(4), inipe, akane, len- 
Humanity, n., buntu, 6. 

(kindness), luse, 4; kalolo, 8. 

Humble, be, vi., use neg. of dlsua, 

ena ne with dikamakama(5) 

or cikama(7) or dintaiita(5), 

dl ne or ufua or unva with 

bundu(6), di ne with muci- 

ma(2) mutekete or kaloio(8). 

make, vt., tekexa, kehexa. 

Humid be, vi., talala, hola, dl ne 

with cltelele(7) or ciaxlma(7). 

Humidity, n., cltelele, 7; claxl- 

ma, 7. 
Humiliate, vt., kehexa, tekexa, 
kuaclxa or ufulxa with bun- 
. du(6). 

(be humiliated), vi., ufua or 
unva with bundu. 
Humility, »., bundu, 6; bunvu, 6; 

kalolo, 8. 
Humor, n., bad, clxl, 7. 
be in good, vi., sanka. 
(joke), »., citedl, 7. 
Humpbacked, adj., -a dlkoko(5), 

dltonte, kobame. 
Hundred, n., lukama, 4. 
Hundred thousand, n., clxlkllu, 

Hunger, n., ns&la, pi. of 3 or 4. 



Hungry, be^ v., use nsaia(pl. f 3 
or 4) as subj. of suma or sama 
with the person as obj., di ne 

Hunt, v., for, k6ba, keja, teta. 
with dogs, ta. 

Hunter, w., cilembi, 7; cihinda, 

Hunting, »., bute from ta, to 
hunt), 6. 
net, muxinsa(2) wa bute. 
Hurricane, n., cihuhu, 7. 
Hurriedly, adv., use the noun 

forms iubilu and lukusa. 
Hurry, v., generally use specific 
verb with lubiiu or lukAsa. 
be in a, restless, vi., sasakata. 
up, make to do in a hurry, vt., 
endexa or ensexa with lubiiu 
or lukAsa. 
n., lubiiu, 4; lukQsa, 4. 
Hurt, v. (ache), sama. 

(bum, smart), suma, oxa, su- 

suma, hiakana. 
(as stomach), nyenga. 
Husband, n., muiumi, i; mbl(pl. 
bambi), i. For mbl, see § 42, 
Note I. 
Hush, vt., huxa or talflxa or 
hoi xa or x kixa or kosexa 
with muaku(2) or mutftyo(2) 
or dIyoyo(5). 
(stop talking), lekela followed by 
muaku(2) or mutftyo(2) ^^ 
the infin. kuakula; hoa. 
Husk, «., cihusu, 7; cizubu, 7. 
v.(as com), uvula. 
(as peas by beating), xuhula, 
Hymn, n., musambu, 2. 
Hypocrisy, »., see lie. 
Hypocrite, »., see liar. 

I, pers. pro, 

(i) Simple Disjunctive Form, 

meme. § 105. 
(2) Pro. prefix, n(m). §§ 113, 
. 114. 

I {continued). 

(3) CompoundDisjunctiveFonn, 
bilnyl, etc. §§ 108, no. 

Identical, aaj., o-umue, muomu- 
(very), mene. Teye mene, the 
identicaliyery) one. See same. 

Identity, »., buobumue, 6. 

Idiocy, n., buhale, 6; bubuluke, 6; 
butomboke, 6. 

Idiom, n., ciakuilu, 7. 

Idiot, see pool. 

Idle person, »., mufuba, i. This 
word seems to be used only a a 
noun, not as an adj. 
aJj. ph., -a bufuba(6), -a bu- 

Idleness, n., bufuba, 6; bukata, 6. 

Idol, n. There are no idols stric tly 
speaking, only charn.s, which 
are supposed to exert a good 
influence in behalf of the owner, 
and sometimes an evil in- 
influence o 1 an enemy. If it is 
carved to represent a person 
it is called luhiiisu(4); if 
made of anything else, it is 
called buansa(6). No special 
worship, apart from certain in- 
to these charms, 
make an, vt., hfika, songs. 
maker of, w., mptkka(i) nanga, 
musonsi(i) wa mpingru, mu- 
hCiki(i) wa manga. 

If, sub. conj., hv, bl-. For full dis- 
cussion of Conditional sen- 
tences, s e §§459, 460. 

Ignite, vt., oxa. 

by friction with sticks, vt., vfnga 

Ignoramus, »., muhote, i ; muxi- 
b&le, I. 

Ignorance, «. (stupidity), buhote, 
6; buxib&le, 6. 

Ignorant, adj., hote(p.p. of hota, 
to be ignorant), xib&le(p.p of 
xib&la, to be ignorant). 
(not to know), v., use neg. of 



Ill, be, v., see sick. 
treatment, clhendo, 7; ma- 

tandu, pi. of 5 or 6; ctn- 

jangu, 7. 
(wish ill to), 7;., ela mulau(3). 
Illegal, something forbidden, n., 

cijila, 7. This word generally 

has a superstitious idea. 
Illegitimate c ild, n., inuana(:) 

wa ina8andi(pl. of 5 or 6). 
Illness, see sickness. 
Ill-treat, see abuse. 
Illustrate, ^/.(compare), Idl- 

klxa, elekexa. 
(show), lexa. 
Illustration, n. (example), cl- 

fuanytkixa, 7. 
(sample, copy, mark), cimon- 

yinu, 7; cidlkixilu, 7; cile- 

xilu, 7. 
(story, fable), luxlmtnytnyu, 4; 

muanu, 2; lusumutnu, 4. 
Illustrious, see famous. 
Image, »., see idol. 

(likeness), clfuanyt, 7; cifuan- 

yikixa, 7. 
(reflexion, photograph), mundl- 

dimbi, 2; mudlngldi, 2. 
Imagination, ^.(thought), lun- 

geayi, 4; mexi, pi. of 5 or 6; 

lukanyi, 4. 
Imagine, v.( fancy), amba. Wa- 

kuamba ne cinfii cia kndia, 

he imagined that U was some- 
thing to eat. 
Imbibe, v., nua. 
Imitate, v., tdlkixa, elekexa. 

(do as another), see § 465. 
Immature child, ».(fGetus), kana 

(dimin. of muana) kablxe. 
Immediately, adv.^ katataka, 

mpindeu, diodiono. 
Immense, adj., nine. 
Immerse, vt., Ina, Inyixa. 
Imminent, adj. This idea is gener- 
ally expressed by the Future 

Imminent tense of the verb. 
Immodest, be, v. (indecent), di 

ume(p.p. of u Jia, to be dryj mu 

Immodest, be (continued). 

disu(5), di ne batuatafl(6), 

ena ne bundu(6). 
(saucy), ena ne bundu(6), di ne 

with cikama(7) or dikama- 

kama(5) or dintanta(5), dt- 

8ua, tbidiJa. 
Immodesty, ^., cikama, 7; dika- 

makama, 5; dintanta, 5. 
(slovenliness in dress), bulua- 

tafl, 6. 
iBiMORAL, adj.{ha,d)j bl. 

(adulterous), -a masandi(pl. of 

5 or 6). 
Immorality, n.(adultery),masandl, 

pi. of 5 or 6. 
Immortal, adj., -a matuku onso, 

•a i&halftha, -a cendelele, -a 
. kaxidi. 

be, vi., use neg. of fua, to die. 
Immovable, be, v., ki&la, xindama, 

kandamana. Jama, kanana. 
Impair, vt., ona, nyanga; vi.(be 

impaired), onoka, nyanguka. 
Impatience, »., disasakata, 5. 
Impatient, be, w*. (restless), saia- 

Impede, i;^.(cause to fail, to miss), 

humbixa, lekexa, kosexa. 
Impediment, n., in speech, stutter- 
ing, cikukumlna, 7; dlkaku- 

mina, 5. 
have, to stutter, v., kukumina. 
Impend, v., use generally Future 

Imminent tense of the verb 

Impenitent, adj., -a mucima(2) 

Imperfect, be, vi., use neg. of 

forms under perfect. 
Impertinence, »., dintanta, 5; 

eikama, 7; dikamakama, 5. 
Impertinent, be, vi., disua, ibi- 

dila, ena ne bandu(6), di ne 

with dlntanta(5) or dikama- 

kama(5) or cikama(7). 
Implement, n., clama, cinta(7) 

cia kuenza n'aci. 
See note under machine. 
Implore, v., sengela, sengelela. 



Impolite, be, vi.j ena ne kalolo 8), 
dl ne with dikamakama(5) or 
cikama(7) or dintaiita(.5). 

Impoliteness, n.,cikama,7; dlka- 
makama, 5; dintanta, 5. 

Importance, n., bualu(6) bunlne, 
inuanda(2) munlne. 

Important, ai//., nine, tumbe (p.p. 
of tumba, to be important). 

Importunate, adj,y in begging, -a 
See persevere. 

Impossible, be, v., use neg. of con- 
structions mentioned under 

Impotent, adj., tekete(p.p. of 

teketa, to be impotent). 
Impoverish, vt., helexa, luixa with 
buhele(6) or bulanda(6), xixa 
mu with buhele or bulanda. 
Impregnate, v/. (cause concep- 
tion), tmlcixa. 
Imprison, vph., buexa mu nsubu 

wa maxlka. 
Improve, v., in health, ironvalesce, 
sans&la, kftsa mubidt(2), 
Impudence, n., dintanta, 5; ci- 

kama, 7; dikamakama, 5. 
Impudent, be, see saucy. 
Impure, «<//. (adulterous), -a ma- 
sandl(pl. of 5 or 6) . 
(bad), bi. 
Impurity, n.(adultery), masandi, 
pi. of 5 or 6. 
(badness), bnbl. 
(trash), cllu, 7; cisonso, 7 
In, prep.f mu. 

front, ku mp&la(3), kumudllu. 
order that, use Purportive Mood 
without any subordinating 
word. § 461. 
the hand, ku mlnu(pl. of 2). 
the midst of, see midst. 
the same place, hamue, hoha- 

In some cases the in is contained 
in the verb root. 
Inadequate, vi.j use neg. of forms 
under enough. 

Inattentive, be, vi., hungakana, 

humbakana, neg. of unva or 

be toward, vt., humbakfixa, 

Incantation, do before fetish or 

charm, v., tendelela, sekelela. 
Incapable, be, vi., use neg. of 

form under capable. 
Incessantly, see ceaselessly. 
Incite, v., generally use Causative 

Form of verb, 
dog to bite, k£ba luoxl(4). 
Incline, vi., intkma, sendama; vt., 

sendeka, sendemexa, tnyika. 
against, vi., eyema; vt., eye* 

mexa, eyeka. 
Inclose, vt., see encircle. 
Incoherently, speak, v., akula 

biakulakula(pl. of 7). 
Incompetent, be, v., use neg. of 

forms under § 230. 
Incomplete, be, vi.{not finished), 

use neg. of mtkna or xika or 

Incorrect, adj., use neg. v. with 

impe or o-umue or muomu- 

Increase, i;^(enlarge), diundixa, 

lundixa; vi., dlunda, lunda. 
in number or quantity, vi., vula; 

vt.f vudixa. 
(lengthen), vt.^ lungaktlxa, lun- 

gakanya, lehexa, innga; vi., 

Inngakana, leha. 
price, vt., kttlexa or bandixa with 

muxinga(2); vi., muxinga 

as subj. of kftla or banda. 
Incur, v., a debt, enza dibanza(5). 
Indecency, see immodesty. 
Indecent, see immodest. 
Indeed, a^?;. (truly), bulilela, bu- 

xua, buiktkxa, bualabuala, 

buinabuina. These are really 

nouns of class VI. 
(very, absolutely), mene. 
Indian corn, «., see corn. 
Indian hemp, n., dlamba, 5. 

Smoked by the natives with 

injurious effect. 



India-rubber, n., ndundu, 3. 
ball of, dlbulu, 5. 
(fruit of rubber vine), lubulu, 4. 
Indicate, v. (show to), lexa, tan- 

gldixa, muenexa. 
(point with finger), funkuna. 
Indifferent, be, v»., see inatten- 
Indignant, see angry. 
Indignation, »., elxl, 7. 
Indistinctly, adv.^ to see, use neg. 

of V. mona followed by bimpe. 
to hear, use neg. of v. unva or 

ufua followed by bimpe. 
to speak, use neg. of v. akuia 

followed by bimpe; also akuia 

with cidimi(7) or cil&fl(7). 
Indolence, n., bufuba, 6; bu- 

kata, 6. 
Indolent, adj.^ -a bufuba(6), -a 

person, »., mufuba, i. 
Induce, v/. (cause to assent), tta- 

from doing, liumbixa. 
Industrious, see diligent. 
Industry, ». (occupation), mudi- 

mu, 2. 
Infancy, n., baana, 6. 
Infant, see child. 
Inferior, adj. {pi no consequence), 

-a cinana, -a hatuliu, -a b£. 
Infinite, be, v., use the verbs 

tamba or liita with the proper 

adj. or V. 
Infirm, adj., tekete(p.p. of teketa, 

to he infirm). 
Infirmity, n. (weakness), buteket , 

Inflate, vt.^ tantamixa. tuntu- 

muxa, uxa; vi.^ one's self, 

tantajnika, tuntumuka, ula. 
Inlfexible, be, vi.y kayabaia, 

tantamana, tandabala. 
Influence, vt.y itabuxixa. 
(greatness), n.^ bun In e, 6. 
(have influence with one), vph.y 

di ne dikflsa(5) kudi mun- 

(strength), n., buki&ie, 6. 

Influential, adj., nine. 

(famous), tumbe(p.p. of tumba, 

to be influential). 
Inform, v/.(teach), iyixa, mtln- 

yixa, longexa, tftyila, iubu- 

(tell to), ambila. 
(warn), dimuxa. 
Information, w.(news), lumu, 4. 

(word), di, 5. PI. is me. 
Ingenious, see clever. 
Ingeniousness, see ingenuity. 
Ingenuity, n., iungenyi, 4; mexi, 

pi. of 5 or 6; iukanyi, 4. 

]IIahongo(2) and buloxi(6) 

come to have a secondary 

meaning corresponding lo in- 
Ingratitude, »., dikamakama, 5; 

cikama, 7; din tan ta, 5. 
Inhabit, v., ik&la mu. 
Inhabitant, w., of, use maena(i) 

or mukua(i) followed by 

name of the place. §§ 84 (6), 

357, Rem. 
Inhale, ^.(drawing in the breath), 

kokaor liuta withmuhuya(2), 

Inherit, vt., hiana. 
Inheritance, n., buhianyi^ 6; 

bintu bia buliianyi. 
Inhuman, adj.{cT\xei)y -a cinyan- 

gu(7), -a lukina(4). 
Inhumanity, n., cinyangu, 7; 

iukinu, 4. 
Inio-tity, see guilt. 
Injur", ^/.(accuse falsely), banda. 
(do wrong to one), enzela bibl. 
(make to go bad), ona, nyanga. 
Injustice, «. (dishonesty), buivi, 6; 

bulbl, 6. 
(wrong), bnbt, 6; baalu(6) 

bubi; muanda(2) mubi. 
Ink, nph. ml a mikanda(pl. of 2) 
Innocent, be, v.(be acquitted), 

pronounce, vt.y bingixa. 
Innumerable, adj.y use neg. of 

mtknya or mona or ena with 

mua kub&ia, to count. 



Inquire, vt.j ebexa, konka. 
Inquisitive, be. v., dl ne with 
iuebexixa(4) or lukonkono 

Inquisitiveness, »., luebexlxa, 4; 

lukonkono, 4. 
Insane, adj.y buluke, hale, tom- 

boke. These are p.p. of bu- 

Inka, hala and tomboka 

respectively, meaning to be 

Insanity, n., butomboke, 6; bu- 

haie, 6; bubuluke, 6. 
Insect, »., clxl, 7. 
Insensibility, ».(from fall or blow 

or smothering), clfuidlxe, 7; 

clhuka, 7. 
(from fit or spasm), cIsSke, 7; 

tunsulungu, pi. of 8; nkoyt, 


Insensible, be, v. (from fall or blow 
or smothering), fna with ci- 
fuldixe(7) or cihuka(7). 
(from fit or spasm), fua wi h 
cis£ke(7) or tungulungu(pl. 
of 8) or nkoyi(3). 
(not to feel), neg. of unva or 

(not to know), neg. of m&nya. 

Insert, vt., buexa ma. 

Inside, adv. Use generally mu 
and Locative Suffixed con- 
struction; as, buelamu, go 
inside. § 320. 
o , prep, ph.y mu, munda mua. 
n., munda. § 423 (2) (6). 

Insipid, be, vi.(be without salt or 
other seasoning), talala, 

Insolence, n., dlntanta, 5; ci- 
kama, 7; dikamakama, 5. 

Insolent, see impertinent. 

Inspect, vt.Qook at), mona, tan- 
gila, xoxa. 

R^STANTLY, see immediately. 

Instigate, vt., generally use Causa- 
tive Form of verb. 

Instruct, vt., lylxa, mtknyixa, 
longexa, ambila, lubukixa. 
(show), lexa. 

Instructor, «., muiyixi, i; mu- 
mCinylxi, i; muambldl, i; 
muambi, t. 

Instrument, n. Some of the dif- 
ferent kinds of musical instru- 
ments are: cisanji, 7; lun- 
zenze, 4; lunkombe, 4; 
ngoma, 3; ciondo, 7; luxlba, 
4; lunkunvu, 4; madimba, 
pi. of 5 ; , lumembo, 4; ludibu, 
4; musakCici, 2; diktksa, 5; 
musul, 2. 
play on, vL, imba. 
play on by blowing, vt.j ela. 
See machine. 

Insubordinate, adj.y -a cica(7), 
-a clxlku(7), -a buhidla(6), 
-a cibengu(7). 

Insubordination, «., ctcu, 7; 
cixiku, 7; buhldia, 6; ct- 
bengu, 7. 

Insufficient, be, v., use neg. 
of forms mentioned under 

Insult, vt., henda, tuka. 
n.f cihendo, 7. 

Intact, adj.{v/ho\e)y onso, xlma. 

Integrity, n.( goodness), kalolo, 8; 
bufmpe, 6; buakane, 6; 
buiengele, 6. 

Intellect, n., lungenyl, 4; mexl, 
pi. of 5 or 6; lukanyi(Buk.), 4. 

Intellectual, adj.j -a lungen- 
yl(4), -a mexi(pl. of 5 or 6), 
-a lukanyi(4). 

Intelligence, ^.(intellect), lun- 
genyl, 4; mexi, pi. of 5 or 6; 
lukanyl(Buk.), 4. 

Intelligent, adj, -a lungenyi(4), 
-a mexi(pl. of 5 or 6), -a 

Intend, v., amba followed by infin. 

Intently, look, v., talala with any 
verb meaning to see. 

Inter, v/.(bury), Jika. 

Intercede, vt.y for, akuila, am- 
bidlla, lumbululla. 

Intercessor, «., muakuldi. i; 
muambldidi, i; mulumbu- 
luldi, I. 



Intercourse, have with one an- 
other in travelling, v., endan- 
have sexual with, vL, luma, 
lumlxa, tentemexa, lala ne. 
Interdict, v/.(as food, etc.), Jila. 
(the interdicted thing), n., ctjtla, 

See note under Jldtka. 

Interest, n. (business), bualu, 6; 
muanda, 3. 
on something borrowed, kasom- 
beln, 8; matabtxa, pi. of 5 
or 6; nsekidldt, 3; ntente- 
k- M, 3. 
pay, v., tentekela. 

Interfere with, vL, humblxa, 
in one's business or friendship 
with another, ela mukosa(2), 
kosexa, dt ne iiiucaudl(2). 

Interference, f»., mukosa, 2; 
mucaudi, 2. 

Interior, n,, munda. § 423 (2) 

Inter&iarry, v., b&kangana. 

Intermediary, n,, in marriage, 
cibanji, 7. 

Intermingle, v/., sangixa, sanga- 
kAxa, sangakanya, samba- 
kanya, sambaktixa, tuta- 
ktkxa, tutakanya, sala, sala- 
kana, baelaktkxa, buexa- 
kaaa; vi,^ sanga, sangakana, 
sambakana, tutakana, bue- 

Internal, adj., -a munda. § 423 
(2) {b). 

Interpret, t;/. (translate), kudl- 
muna or andamuna with 

Interrogate, vLj ebexa, konka. 

Interrupt, v/., humbixa, hum- 

baktlxa, lekexa, kosexa. 

(be interrupted), v»., humba. 

Interruption, n., mukosa, 2. 

Intervene, v. (come between), lua 
with the locative words han- 
kflol or kunkflcl or munkCici. 

Intervene (continued), 
in quarrel, sunga. 
See elapse. 
Intestine, n., dila, 5. 
Intimidate, vLy ctnylxa. 
Into, prep., mu. 

See IN. 
Intoxicate, vt., hadixa. 

(be intoxicated), see drunk. 
Intoxication, «., buhale(6 or 
bubuluke(6) or butomboke(6) 
followed by maluvu. 
Intractable, be, vi., use neg. of 
tumika or tumtkila, di ne 
with ctcu(7) or ctbengu(7) 
or buhldia(6) or clxiku(7). 
Inveigle, vt.y teya. 
Invent, vL, fuka, dianjilakuenza. 
Invert, v/., andamuna, kudimuna, 

Invisibility, n., the state of, 
ns&mu, pi. of 4. 
See invulnerable. 
Invisible, be, vt., neg. of mueneka 
or mueka. 
(a medicine or charm which is 
said to make one invisible), 
n., buanga bua ns&mu(pl. of 

(to become invisible in battle), 

v., sftma. 
See invulnerable. 
Invoke, 7;/.(call), blkila. 

(implore), sengela, sengelela. 
(worship), tendelela, tumblxa, 
Invulnerability, n., ntutxa, pi. 

of 4. 
Invulnerable, be, tulxa. May 
come from tuya, to glance off. 
(a charm to make one invulner- 
able), n., buanga bua ntul* 
xa(pl. of 4). 
See invisible. 
Inward, adv. Generally use Loca- 
tive Sufl&x construction with 
mu. § 320. 
adj. (interna}), -a munda. 
Iron, n., ciama(7) ciflke. 
clothes, vt.f hela. 



Iron {continued), 

(laundry), n., mpelu, 3. 

ore, kabanda, 8. 

(when made into crosses), »., 

clombo(7) ciflke. 
See note under copper. 
Irreverence, ft., cikama, 7; 
dikamakama, 5; din tan ta, 5. 
Irreverent, adj.^ -a cikama(7), 
-a dikamakania(5), -a din- 
Irritable, be, v.y di ne or unva or 
ufua with cixi(7), nyinga- 
bala, cixi as subj. of kuata 
with the person as obj. 
Irritate, vt.^ kuacixa or ufuixa 
with cixi(7), tacixa or flkixa 
with munda, hotela, lobola. 
Is, see BE. 

Island, n., cisang^a, 7. 
Issue, v., a decree, amba lollowed 
by di(5) or mukenji(2). 
(come forth), vi., luliula, umu- 

ka, h&tuka. 
n.(offspring), muana, i. 
It, pers. pro. The agreement is 
always made with the class of 
the noun to which the pronoun 
(i) Simple Disjunctive Forms. 

(2) Compound Disjunctive 

Forms. §| 108, no. 
C3) Conjunctive Forms: 

(a) As prefixes. §§ 113, 114. 
lb) As infixes. §| 116, 117. 
{c) As suflSxes. §§ 120, 123, 
12^ {h){c). _ - 

(4) The use with prepositions. 
§§ 106 (c), 107. 
Itch, vi.y sasakana, salala. 
Itinerate, vi., endakana. 
Its, poss. pro. Use the sing, forms 
of classes II-VIII, as indicated 
under § 133. 
When used as predicate adj., see 

Itself, pers. pro. 

(i) Compound Disjunctive Form. 
J§ loiS, log. Agreement is 

Itself {continued), 

made with the class of the 
noun to which the pronoun 

(2) When reflexive, use the re- 
flexive prefix of verb, -di-. 
§ 118. Note that this con- 
struction may be used either 
as subj. or obj. 

(3) See B.L.-Eng. under ine. 
Ivory, n., mubanga, 2. 


Jabber, v.. akula biakulakula(pl. 

of 7)- 
Jackal, n., mubuabu, 2. 
Jail, »., nsubu(3) ^a maxika. 
Jailor, n., mukelenge(i) or mu- 

l&mi(i) with wa nsubu(3) ^^ 

Jam, »., Jam(Eng.). 
January, «., Januale(Erig.). 
Jar, ».(for water), mulondo, 2. 
Jaw, «., lower, lubanga, 4. 
Jealous, adj.y -a mukau(2). 
Jealousy, n., mnkau, 2. 
Jest, see joke. 
Jesus, n., Jisus. 
Jew, w., Muyuda, i. Perhaps a'so 

Jigger, n., kabuasa, 8; dile- 

bcIe(Buk.), 5. 
Join, v.(as rivers, paths, etc.), san- 

sakana, sambakana, sanglla. 
(become one of a party), buele- 

kana, buela. 
(be next to), kuatakana, tuan- 

(cause to come together), vt.^ 

sangaktkxa, sangakanya, 

bambaktkxa, bambakanya, 

sambakAxa, sambakanya, 

kuatakanya, kuataktixa, 

tuangOxa, tuanganya. 
to, lengthen, add one to another, 

vt.j lungakanya, lungaktkxa, 

lunga, lehexa. 
Joint, »., dinungu, 5. 



Joke, v/.(play on one), s&blxa, 
(pretend not to know), v., hunga. 
with, ela bltedl(p]. of 7), cim- 

bixa, humbixa. 
«., citedl, 7. PI. generally used. 
Journey, n., luendu, 4. 

go on a, vph.^ ya ku luendu. 
Joy, n., disanka, 5. 
Joyful, see happy. 
Judge, n., mulumbuludi, i. 

v.y lumbulula, kosa nsainbu(3). 
JUDGSiENT, n.(damnation), mulau, 
* pronounce, vt.^ lumbulula, kosa 
(trial), cllumbu, 7. 
(wisdom), lungenyl, 4; mexi, 
pi. of 5 or 6; lukanyl, 4. 
Jug, ».(jar), mulondo, 2. 

(pitcher), mpica(Eng.), 3. 
Juice, »., ml, pi. of 5 or 6. 
July, »., Jull(Eng.). 
JusiP, v.y tuhlka. 
(as flea), tuloka. 
(as frog), soloka. 
»., cldi, 7. 
Junction, »., of paths or rivers, 
dlsangu, 5. PI. generally 
June, »., Junyl(Eng.). 
Junior, see younger. 
Just, adv. {to have just done), use 
the verb anza and infin. § 228, 
adj.^ see honest. 
as conj. mu- (insep.) with the 

verb. § 465. 
See §§ 4i8» 421. 
Justice, »., see honesty. 
Justified, be, v«.(be acquitted), 

Justify, vt.y binglxa. 


Keep, v., awake, tab&la, lala 

doing, use Pres. Habitual tense, 
(feed), vt., dixa. 

Keep {continued). 
for, tekela. 

from, abstain, hidia, benga, Jlla. 
(look after for), muenena. 
silence, lekela muaku(2), hua. 
(watch flocks, etc.), vt.^ l&ma. 
Keeper, n., mulftml, i; mutan- 
gldl, i; mumonyl, i; mu- 
muenenyl, i. 
Keepsake, «., cimonyinu, 7. 
Kernel, «.(germ of the kernel), 

muoyo, 2; dlsu, 5. 
Kettle, «., civuadi, 7; luesu, 4; 

nketel(Eng.), 3. 
Key, n., muan*a ns&hi(3), luvun- 

Keyhole, n., disu(5) dians&hl(3). 
Kick, v., tua with dik<ksa(5) or 
M., musfiba, 2. 
Kid, n., muan*ambuxi(3), lutum- 

Kidney, n., kamoma, 8. 
Kill, v/., xlha. 

by hanging, owa. 
Kind, »., of same, this idea may be 
expressed in several ways: 
(i) By the verbs fuanangana, 
kelemena, fuana, dleleka. 

(2) By the words bu or buina. 

(3) By the words muomumue or 

(4) By the ph. muan*abo ne. 

of different, use neg. with above 

(of one kind ... of another 
kind), ha bu- ... ha bu-. 
(what kind of a ?), kl7 § 176. 
a(2y. (gentle), -a kalolo(8). 
(good), Impe, -a lu8e(4), len- 
gele, akane. 
Kindle, vt., temexa; v«., tema. 
Kindness, «.(love, mercy), luse, 4. 

(attractiveness), kalolo, 8. 
Kindred, w., use some such ex- 
pression as bana betu, etc. 
§ 138, Rem. 5. 
King, n., mukelenge, i; nfumu, 



Kingdom, n. (country), misoko, pi. 

Knuckle, w., dlnungu(5) dia 

of 2. 


(kingly power), bukelenge, 6; 

(knuckles exposed to strike with), 

bunfumu, 6. 

n.j lukonyi, 4. 

Kingship, n., bukelenge, 6; bun- 

strike with the, vt.y tua lukonyi. 

fumu, 6. 

Kola nut, n,, dlku, 5. 

Kiss, v.^ tuangana mixuku(pl. of 

Kitchen, »., clkuku, 7. From 


Eng. through the Lower 


Labor, v. It is doubtful if there 

Kitten, ». (young of domestic cat), 

is a single word having refer- 

ence to all forms of labor or 

mpus(3). The last word is 

work, though the expressions 

from Eng. 

dima, kuata or enza or osa 

(young of wildcat), muan*a mb&- 

with mudlmu(2) are so used 


about Luebo. They are, ow- 

Knee, «., clnu, 7. 

ever, more than likely cor- 

Kneel, v., tua blnu(pl. of 7) 

ruptions. It is best to specify 


the kind of labor; as, dlma. 

Knife, »., muele, 2. 

to work with a hoe) Ibfika, to 

back of, muongo, 2. 

build) etc. 

blade of, muele, 2. 

w., mudimu, 2. See remarks 

for table or pocket, use the dimin. 



be in, v., Pres. tense of lela. 

handle of, cllibi, 7; mul&bl, 2; 

Laborer, »., muena(i) mu- 

cikuacllu, 7. 

dimu(2). See remarks under 

sheath for, clbubu, 7; luhaha, 4; 


clmanga, 7. 

Lack, v., x&la, ena ne. 

Knit, v., the brows, nyenga or 

, Lad, »., songaluml, i; muhlan- 

fudika with mpaia(3). 

kunde, 2. 

Knock, v/.(beat), kuma, tuta. 

Ladder, w., cibandilu, 7. 

out, as a t x)th, ehula, huola. 

Lag, vi., xixamuka. 

(tap), kuokola, kumina, ku- 

Lake, w., dixlba, 5. 


Lamb, »., muan*a mukoko(2). 

Knot, «., bow-, nflnina, 3; nflnu, 3. 

, Lame, be, vL, l<^ma. 

hard, dIJIta, 5. 

(limp), vi.y zobela, tebuka. 

of wood, dihu, 5; dlhondo, 5. 

person, one unable to walk, w.. 

v., sulka. 

muena(i) with njeku(3) or 

untie a, vL, sulula. 

kaneke(8) or cibombo(7), 

untie a bow-knot, v/., flnuna. 

muntu muiema. 

Know, v., mtinya. 

walk, vi., enda followed by the 

(hear, understand, feel), unva. 

pres. part, of zobela or te- 



(not know, fail to recognize a 

Lament, v. (cry), dila. 

person), hanga. 

Lamentation, «., muadi, 2. 

(not know the way, be lost). 

Lamp, tr.. mulnda(muendu), 2. 


Perhaps from Lower Congo. 

Knowledge, n., lungenyl, 4; 

Lance, «., difuma, 5; kabendi, 8. 

mexl, pL of 5 or 6; lukanyi, 4. 

v., asa. 



Land, n. (earth), bulobo, 6. 
(region), see country. 
V}., lua followed by kukala kua 
ml or ku mpata(3). 
Landing, ».(feiTy), dilobo, 5; 

clsabukllu, 7; clsabu, 7. 
Language, see dialect. 
Lap, v. (as dog), ICkka. 

njfh.f ha blbelu(pl. of cibelu, i). 
Lard, n., mafuta, pi. of 5 or 6; 
iiilnyl(pl. of 5) a ii8ulube(3). 
Large, adj., nine. 
Largeness, »., bunlne, 6. 
Lascivious, a(2;. (adulterous), -a 
ma8andi(pl. of 5 or 6). 
be, vph.(man), sua bakftxl; 
(woman), sua baluml. 
Lasciviousness, n.(adultery), ma- 

sandi, pi. of 5 or 6. 
Lash, v^.(to whip), koma, tuta. 
eye-, »., lulavl, 4; lukofla, 4. 
Lass, n., muxika kunde, 2; son- 

gakAxI, I. 
Last, adj.y -a kunxikldllu, -a ku 
nylma(3), -a haxlxe. 
(be last to do, etc.), v., xixa. 
bom child, »., muan*a muka- 
Latch, n., ns&hl, 3; luobo, 4. 

v., bangika. 
Late, be or do last, v., xixa. 
Laugh, v.y sika. 
Laughable, be, .^.(producing 

laughter), g^&kexa. 
Laughter, n., kas^ku, 8. PI. 
generally used, 
produce, vt., s4^kexa. 
Law, n.(custom), cllele, 7; clen- 
sedl, 7; clbilu, 7. 
(make a prohibition), vt., ela 

(prohibition), n.\ mukandu, 2. 
(something prohibited), »., ci- 
Jila, 7. 
Lawful, be, v. (not tabooed), use 
neg. V. ena with cljlla(7). 
(right), adj., Impe, akane, len- 
Lawyer, »., mulumbululdl, i; 
isuakuldl, i; muambldidi, i. 

Lay, vt.f blame on falsely, banda. 
crosswise, vt., clamakdxa. 
down, vi., ladika, tokola. 
egg, vt., ela with dik£la(5) or 

head on pillow, vt., sama. 
hold of, vt., kuata. 
one thing on top of another, to 

pile, vt., tenteka, tentekanya, 

tentekikxa, ambakanya, am- 

over, to cover, vt,, bulkila. 
waste, vt., haula. 
Lazily, adv., fue, nyorganyonga, 

do, v., xlxamuka. 
Laziness, n., bufuba, 6; bnkata, 6. 
Lazy, adj., -a bufuba(6), -a bu- 

person, n., mufuba, i. 
Lead, vt., a tune, tuma. 

astray, entice, Ibidlxa or mfln- 

ylxa or lylxa with bualu(6) 

(go before), ya with ku mp&la(3) 

or kumudilu, dlanjila. 
(show the way), lombola. 
(show wrong path), hambuxa. 
Leader, ff.(guiae), mulombodl, i; 

mudlanjidi, i. 
of tune, mutuml, i. 
Lead-pencil, n., mucl(2) wa 

mukanda(2). Suggest also 

mpencila(Eng.), 3. 
Leaf, n., of book or tree, dllnyi, 5 ; 

dibexi, 5. 
of cassava, matamba, pi. of 5; 

kalexl, 8. The pi. of first 

word is generally used, and the 

sing, of second word is most 

commonly found, 
of palm, dilala, 5. 
put forth, v., samplla, tempela. 
shed, v., hohoka. 
Leak, n. (crack), mutanta, 2. 
(hole), disoso, 5; dlkela, 5. 
spring a, v., tubuka with dikela 

or disoso or mutanta. 
Lean, be, vi., nyana, di ne or 

uma fgllowed by cionda(7) or 




Lean, be (continued). 
meat, n., ngulunge, 3. 
on, against, vt., eyeka, eyemexa; 

vi.j eyema. 
over, be not perpendicular, vi.j 
sendama, intlma; vt., sen- 
deka, sendemexa. 
Leanness, n., clonda, 7; cin- 

yanu, 7. 
Leap, v., tuhika. 
Learn, v., lya, lylla. 

(be accustomed to), v., ibldila, 
I-.EARNED, adj.y -a luiigenyi(4), -a 
mexl(pl. of 5 or 6), -a lu- 
Learner, w., mulyidi, i. 
Learning, n., lungenyl, 4; mexl, 
pi. of 5 or 6; lukanyi(Buk.), 

Leather, «., cis£ba, 7. 
Leave, vL, behind, xla. 

(bequeath), ha buhlanyl(6). 
(go), vi.j ya, amuka. 
off, vi.f lekela. 

(permission), «., see permission. 
Leaven, »., yl8lta(Eng.). 
Lecherous, at/y.( adulterous), -a 
masandl(pl. of 5 or 6). 
be, v.(man), sua bak&xi; (wo- 
man), sua baluml. 
Lecherousness, ».(adultery), ma- 

sandi, pi. of 5 or 6. 
Leech, «., musundu, 2. 
Left, be, v., x&la. 

hand, n., clanza(7) cia followed 
by baktixi or luboko or mun- 
-handed person, »., muena(i) 
with clboko(7) or ]umosa(4). 
Left-handed p( rson, ».,muena(i) 
with ciboko(7) or Iamosa(4). 
Leg, n.f calf of, difu(5) dia mu- 
front, arm, dlboko, 5. 
hind, lower part, mukolo, 2. 
hind, upper part, clbelu, 7. 
of table or chair, dikunxi, 5. 
Legacy, n., butalanji, 6; bintu 
blabuhianyi. ^ 

Legend, »., luximlnylnyl, 4; lu- 

sumuinu, 4; muanu, 2. 
Lend, 2;/. (with idea of returning 
the exact article), hanzixa. 
(with idea of no returning the 
exact article but its value in 
kind), sombexa. 
Length, »., bule, 6; mu bule; 

iitaiita(3) mule. 
Lengthen, vt.y lungakAxa, lun- 

gakanya, lehexa, lunga. 
Leopard, n., nkaxama, 3. 
Leper, n., muena(i) cinduinbl(7). 

See remark under leprosy. 
Leprosy, n. Leprosy is not known, 
but cindumbl(2) seems to be a 
contagious venereal disease 
breaking out on face and 
arms, and is perhaps the best 
word at hand for leprosy. 
Less, grow, vi.j keha. 

make, vt., kehexa, Ihlhixa. 
than, see § 90 (/). 
Lessen, vt., kehexa, ihltalxa. 
Lesson, «., dilesona(Eng.), 5. 
Lest, sub. conj., use neg. of Pur- 

portive Mood. § 461, kem. 
Let, v., alone, lekela. 

down, vt., huekexa, tulula, 

(give permission), see permis- 
(Hortative Imperative), see § 237 

vt.y loose, lekela, kutaola, sulula, 

out, see LEND. 
Lethargy, «., bufuba, 6; bukata, 

Letter, w., mukanda, 2. 

of alphabet, dll«ta(Eng.), 5. 
Level, be, vi.j hunga, hunga- 
kana, Jalama, kelemena. 
(be even), vi., akanangana, 

(be flat), vt.y landakana^ ba- 

tama, butama, langakana. 
(flatten), 7;/., landaktixa, baeika, 
butamixa, batamixa, langa* 



L£V£L, BE (continued). 

make, vt., hungakCkxa, Jadlka, 
kelemexa, ludlklla. 
Levity, n., kas^ku, 8. PI. is gen- 
erally used. 
Lewd, (^//.(adulterous), -a ma- 
sandi(pl. of 5 or 6). 
be, i;.(man), sua bakAxl: 
(woman), su^ baluml. 
Lewdness, ».( adultery), masandi, 

pi. of 5 or 6. 
Liar, »., muxlml, i; mudlngl, i; 
muena(i) followed by ludi- 
mi(4) or maxiiiil(sing. is 
dixima, 5) or madingiCsing. 
is dldinga, 5) or mafl(pl. of 5). 
Liberal, adj., -a dlha(5). 

person, n., clhahl, 7. 
Liberality, »., diha, 5. 
LiBERAiE, 7;^. (let loose), lekela. 
(set free from slavery), hlkula. 
(untie), kuhola, sulula, kutula. 
Liberty, n , budlxlkamlne, 6. 
to give, vL, lekela, hlkula, 
kuhola, sulula. 
Licentious, o^/;. (adulterous), -a 
ma8andi(pl. of 5 or 6). 
be, t/.(man), sua bakflxi; 
(woman), sua balumi. 
Licentiousness, ».(adultery), ma- 
sandi, pi. of 5 or 6. 
Lick, v., ittka. 
n.(a blow), mukumu, 2; mu- 
tutu, 2. 
Lid, »., cibuikilu, 7; clbuikn, 7; 
cixlbiku, 7. 
of eye, cilavinyu, 7; cllabuidl, 7. 
Lie, n.y dixlina(pl. maximl), 5; 
didlnga(pl. madlngi), 5; ma- 
hl, pi. of 5. PI. of these words 
most frequently used, 
tell a, v.y xlma, dinga, dimba 

tell on one, v/., use Applied Form 
of above verbs, giving ximin- 
yina, dinglla and dlmbila. 
tell to one, vt., xlma, dinga, 

across, vi., clamakana. 

Lie {continued). 
(cause to lie down), ladlka. 
down, vi.y lala. 
in wait for, v/., alamina. 
on top of, vi.f tentama, amba- 

with in sexual intercourse, vt., 

luma, lumlxa, tentemexa, 

lala ne. 
Life, n., muoyo, 2. 

(cause one to come to life), vt,, 

(come to life or sensibility), vi., 

See resuscitate. 
Lift, vt. blxa, m6ma, angata, 

Jula, takula, ambula, ban- 

dixa, kakula. 
(help one to lift a load to the 

head or shoulders), vt., ambu- 

Light, vt., a fire, temexa; vi.ifyt 

lighted), tema. 
become, at dawn, vph., cla with 

butuku(6) as subj. 
be, from moon or fire, vi., toka, 

kenka, kenena. 
give, v., temena, ditemena, 

(in color), adj., toke(p.p. of 

toka, to he light). 
in weight, be, vi., huh&la, 

hehela. The p.p. huh&le 

and hehele are used as simple 

(lamp, candle), »., mu nda 

(Lower Congo), 2. 
(natives of light color), adj., 

of fire or moon, n., dikenka, 5. 
of sun, n., munya, 2. 
Lighten, v/.(in weight), hehexa, 

(as lightning), vi., henya, kenya. 
Lightning, n., mukenyl(2) or 

muhenyl(2) or muele(2) fol- 
lowed by wa nvula(3). 
If the lightning strikes it is called 

nkuba(3) or nza 1(3), which 

is supposed to be some kind 



Lightning (continued). 

of animal or bird which attacks 
the person or thing, 
the flashing of, v., henya, kenya. 
Like, vi.j sua, nanga, Inylxa. 
(as, adv. and sub. conj.)^ mu- 

insep. with the verb. § 465. 
be, vi.y fuana, di with muomu- 
mue or o-umue or bu or 
buina or muan'abo ne. 
make, v/., fuanylklxa, kele- 
mexa, elekexa. 
Liken, v^ (compare), Idiklxa, ele- 
Likeness, n., clfuanyi, 7; cifuan- 
yiklxa, 7. 
(photograph), mundidlmbi, 2; 

mudlngidi, 2. 
(sameness), buobumue, 6. 
Likewise, adv., nunku(nenku, 

Limb, n.( branch), ditamba, 5. 
Lime, n. (fruit), dilala, 5. From 

Lower Congo. 
Limit, n. (border), kukala, mue- 
lelu(2), musala(2), buci- 
ka(6), kusula, kunfudllu, 
kusala. For the Loc. words, 
see § 423 (2) (6). 
(destination), clxikidllu, 7. 
(dividing line), mukalu, 2. 
Limp, v.j sobela, tebuka, enda 
with the present participles of 
sobela and tebuka. 
Line, n.(cord), muoxl, 2; mu- 
xinga, 2. 
be in a, v., di mu mulongo(2). 
dividing, n., muk lu, 2. 
(mark on ground, paper, etc.), 

n., mufunda, 2. 
of descent, n., ciloogo, 7. 
put in a, v., teka mu mulongo, 

put in a straight, vt.j ludika. 
(row), n., mulongo, 2. 
stand in a, v., ImAna mu mu- 
Lion, n., ntambue, 3. 
Lip, w., muxuku, 2; mulemu (mu- 
lomo), 2. 

Lip {continued). 

move without speaking, v.y dlan- 
gana mukana(2). 
Listen, v., telexa or teya with 
macu(pl. of 5). 
understand, hear), v., unva, 
Listless, be, vi.^ hungakana, 
humbakana, neg. of unva or 
be toward, vt., humbak&xa, 
Little, adj., kise, b&le, nya-nya. 
This idea is often expressed by 
the dimin. prefixes (ka and tu) 
of class VIII. In expressing 
a small quantity of, or small 
amount of, the pi. is generally 
us d. § 50, Rem. 2. 
become, w., keha. 
make, vt.j kehexa. 
too, see § 90 {h). 
Littleness, n., buklse, 6; bu- 

b&le, 6; bunyabunya, 6. 
Live, v., ik&la, xlkama, lala. In 
inquiring where one lives, it is 
generally best to use the forms 
kuetu, kuenu, etc.; as, kuenu 
liv ? kunyl? where do you 
kudi § 140. 
(be alive), vph., dl ne muoyo(2). 
Liver, n., mucima, 9. 
LizzARD, n.y musodi, 2. 
Load, n. It is necessary to be 
specific: mvL\^ieybox\ clsCkka, 
basket, etc. Occasionally bu- 
Jltu(6) is used, 
boat, etc., v., teka or buexa with 

a gun, vt.y soma. 
Loaf, n., mutanda, 2; muima, 2. 
Loan, v., see lend. 
Loathe, v,{as food), tonda, tua. 
"The person loathing becomes 
obj. of the verb; as, bid la bidi 
blntcnda, / locUhe the bread. 
Lock, n., nsfthl(Portuguese), 3; 
mama, i. 
v., xlblka or ela followed by 



Locust, n., mukumbl, 2. 

LoQUA lODS, adj., -a lutilyltft- 

L FT, »., cisasa, 7. 


Log, »., mucl, 2. 

Loquaciousness, w., Iqtttyltilyl, 4. 

Loins, gird up, v., ela mukl7a(2). 

Loquacity, »., lutftyitttyi, 4. 

Long, adj., le. 

Lord, n., mukelenge, i; nfumo. 

ago, aiii;., kale, bangabanga, 



Lore, n., folk-, muana, 2; Insa- 

all day, nph., dinda(5) to ne 

muinu, 4; luximlnylnyu, 4. 


Lose, vt., Jimixa; (b lost), vi., 

•all night, nph., butuku(6) to ne 



a bet, luhiku(4) as subj; of 

become, vi., leha, nenga. 

kuata with the person as obj.. 

for, to covet, v., muoyo(2) or 


mucima(2) as subj. of samina 

at gambling, the person losing is 
the secondary j. of* the v. 

or kumina, ela muclma, 


t&ha; as, bakuntftha bintu 

how?, use as may be best suited 

bilnyl, / have lost my things. 

to sense, the words cldlmu, 

in trading, vt., ona nyanga; 
v».(be lost), onoka, nyan- 

season, ngindo, moon, dlt il u, 

day, followed by bungimunyi? 


or the adj. word nga? 

Lost, be, vi.{not able to find), see 

(t^ long time), v., lunguluka. 


time, n., musangu(2) mule, 

(not know the way), vi., ham- 

matuku(pl. of 5) male, also 


the adv. to. 

Loud, adj. kftle. 

Look, v., about from side to side, 

speak, v., taylka, akula, bikille. 


Louse, n., nkusu, 3. 

after, to care for, l&ma. 

Love, vt., sua. nanga, Inyixa. 

after for, muenena. 

n., use above infinitives. 

(appear), see seem. 

(affection), dinanga, 5 ; disua, 5. 

at, mona, tangila, xoxa. 

(pity), luse, 4. 

fixedly, tangila or mona with 

Lovely, adj., Impe, akane, len- 



for, to expect, tekemena. 

Low, adj., Ibi, -a ci:uha(7). 

for, to seek, k«ba, keja, teta. 

(bass voice), nph., di(5) dlnlne. 

like, to resemble, fuana. 

(be short), vi., xunguka. 

out, to be cautious, dlmuka. 

speak, vi., nungana. 

out for, to lie in wait, alamlna. 

Lower, vt., huekexa. 

(XX)KING-GLASS, »., ludimuenu, 4; 

end, locative word kumanda. 

lumuenii, 4. 

§423 (2) (6). 

Loom, »., mbungu, 3. 

part of hind leg, n., mukolo, 2 

shuttle of, mundongo, 2. 

price or voice, vt., tekexa, bue- 

Loos ', get, vi.y tuka, flnuka, 


kuhoka(kohoka), suluka. 

(to threaten rain), v., flnda. 

let, vt.y lekela, kuhola, sulula, 

Luck, w., bad, dlka8a(5) dlbi, 


mubidl(2) mubl. 

make, not taut, vt., tekexa. 

good, diese, 5, muabi, 2; 

(not be taut), vi., teketa 

dlk<ksa(5) dlmpe; mubidi(2) 

Loosen, vL, see loose. 


Loot, vt., haula. 

Lucky, see fortunate. 



Ludicrous, be v.(producing 

laughter), s4&kexa. 
Lukewarm, adj., -a clyaya(7), -a 

LUi EWARM ESS, »., clyuya, 7; 

luiya, 4. 
Lump, n., of earth dlbu, 5. 
of salt, etc., dibulu, 5. 
(swollen place), dlbuba, 5. 
Lunacy, n., bubuluke, 6; buhale, 

6; butomboke, 6. 
Lunatic, n., mubuluke, i; mu- 

hale, i; mutomboke, i. These 

words are derived from the 

verbs buluka, bala, tomboka, 

to be crazy. 
Lung, n., clsulusulu, 7. 
Lure, v/. (teach to do evil), mtko- 

ylx > or iylxa or Ibldlxa with 

bualu(6) bubl. 
(tempt), teya. 
Lust, n. (adultery), masandl (pi. 

of 5 or 6). 
Lustful, ae^;. (adulterous), -a ma- 

8andl(pl. of 5 or 6). 
be, vph. (man), sua bakAxi; 

(woman), sua baluml. 

Machine, n., clama, 7. This 
general name is applied to all 
tools, implements, and ma- 
chines made of iron. Natu- 
rally there are few native 
names for such imported 
articles. We may also use 
the indefinite ph. cintu cla 
kuensa n'acl. 

Mad, arf;., see angry, crazy. 

Madness, ».(anger), clxl, 7. 
(dementia), bubale, 6, bubu- 
luke, 6; butomboke, 6 

Maggot, n., clkusu. 

Magic, ».(sleight of hand), dl- 
Jlmbu, 5; dlalu, 5. 

Magician, n., muena(i) followed 
by dialu(5) or dijlmbu(5). 

Magnify, v/., balulula, vundixa. 
(honor), tumbixa, nemeka, ne- 

mekela, meneka, menekela, 

Magnitude, n., bunlne, 6. 
Maid, Maiden, fi. (young), muxi- 

kankunde, 2; songakflxi, i. 
(unmarried woman), mujlke, 

Maidenhood, n., buxlkankunde, 

6; bunsongakflxi, 6. 
Maize, n., see corn. 
Make, vt., ensa, osa, kIxa(Buk.). 
(appoint to office), ha mu or 

buexa mu followed by ab- 
stract name of office, 
ashamed, ufulxa bundu(6). 
aware, dimuxa, miknylxa. 
basket, mat, etc., luka. 
bed, longolola. 
(build), ibdka, asa (see note 

under asa in B.L.-Eng.). 
(carve), songa. 
(cause to do or be), use Causative 

Form of verb, 
cloth, weave, kuma didiba(5). 
(compel), generally use Causative 

Form of verb, 
(create), fuka. 
disturbance, noise, teka with 

diyoyo(5) or mutilyi(2). 
fire, temexa. 
friendship, kuatangana bu- 

fun of, s^^ka. 
hole, imba with dina(5) or 

like, fuanyikixa, kelemexa. 
medicine, charm, hftka buan- 

out of, with, use ne with the 

proper verb; s. wakuluka 

cifulu ne mp^^ku, he made the 

hat with strings from the palm 

pottery, fumba, flmba. 
string, JInga muxinga(a). 
water, urinate, sukula, sukunya. 
Malady, m., dlsama, 5; bubedl, 6; 

dibedi, 5. 



Male, n., mulumi, i. 

adj., lumi, mulumi wa, mu- 

Malefactor, »., muena(i) lu- 

Malice, n., lukuna, 4. 
Malicious, adj., -a lukuna(4). 
Malt, vt., enga. 
Maltreat, vi., see abuse. 
Maltreatment, n., clhendo, 7; 

matandu, pi. of 5 or 6; cin- 

janffu, 7. 
Mammon, n., use pi. of cliima(7) 

or cintu(7); lnhetu(4). 
Max, n.(generic), muntu, i. 
(male), mulumi, i. 
young, songalumi, i; muhian- 

kunde, i. 
(one who owns or belongs to a 

certain class or is from a cer- 

tin own), muena, i; mu- 

kua, I. §§ 84 {b); 87 (rf). 

Rem. 2. 
(a big man, generally used 

ironically), cilumiana, 7. §351. 
Manage, 2;/.(as child), buluklla, 

gamina, b4&ia, nanga. 
Mango, n., nsafu, 3. This v.ord 

has come from the Ix)wer 

Congo and is there applied to 

a fruit not the mango. 
Ma>^hood, n., bulumi, 6. 
(humanity), buntu, 6. 
(young manhood), bunsonga^ 

lumi 6; buhiankunde, 6. 
Manioc, »., see cassava. 
Manis, w. (scaly ant-eater), nkaka, 

Mankind, n., banta(pl. of muntu, 

Manner, ». (habit), cibilu, 7; 

cienzedi, 7; cilele, 7. 
(t us, in this manner), adv., 

nunku(nan u, nenk ). 
(customary action), use Pres. 

Habitual tense. 
Mansion, n., nsubu, 3. 
Manure, n. (excrement), tftfl 

(tuinvi), pi. of 8. See note 

under tCkfl i B.L.-Eng. 

Many, adj., -a bunKi(6); ngi; ngia 

ohw, bungi munyi? or bungi 

bixi? or -nga with Secondary 

too, hita or tamba with bungi. 
Mar, vt.y ona, nya ga; vi., 

on oka, nyanguka. 
March, n., luendu, 4. 
go on a ya ku luendu. 
(the month), Malasa(from Eng.). 
Margin, n., muelelu, 2; musala. 

2; mubangru, 2; bucika, 6; 

also the locative words ku- 

kala, kusula, kunfudilu, ku- 

Mark, n. (dividing line), mukalu, 

(made by anything dragged), 

dkoka, 7. 
(scar) cibangu, 7. 
(sign), cimonylnu, 7 
(tracng on the ground or else- 
where), mufunda, 2. 
(track of foot, paw, hoof), 

cidi cilu, 7; dikflsa, 5; dl- 

ka '*a, 5; mukono, 2. 
(tribal, tattoo), lus&lu, 4. 
(to make the tattoo marks), 

v., funda, tftha. 
Market, n., cis&lu, 7. 
attend a, v., sakula. 
Marriage, n., dibAka, 5. 
(dowry given by groom to parents 

of the bride), luselu, 4; bintu 

bia buku(6). 
(to pay the marriage dowry), v., 

feast, bidla b'a dibanzixa(5). 
intermediary in, clbanji, 7. 
give in, bftklxa. 
arrow, n.y bvongo, 6. 
Marry, v., bCkka. This word is 

used only of the man. When 

the woman is referred to, use 

the passive forms, or the verb 

banza, or the ph. ya ku 




Marry (continued). 

(bring the bride to the home of 

the grooTi), vt.^ banzlxa. 
(be brought to the home of the 

groom), vi.j banza. 
(give in marriage), vt , bukixa. 
Marsh, n., blt&hikidi, blntampi, 
bit&hi, blntoci. All are pi. 
of 7. 
(a place which is dry in the dry 
season), clsese, 7. 
Marvel, v. kima. 
Marvelous, adj., -a kukima. 
Masculine, adj.y -a baliimi(pl. 
of I). 

Mash, v/. (crush between the 
hands), kama. 
(down flat), bacika, batamlxa, 

butamlxa, landakCkxa. 
(grind between stones), bela. 
in mortar, tua. 
(rubbing with hands), vlnga. 
Mask, n., muadi(Buk.), 2; mu- 

klxi, 2. 
Mason, n., nfuena(i) taxola(pl. 

of 8); kaplta, 8. 
Master, n.. mukelenge, 2; nfu- 
mu, i; tatu, i. 
v/. (overcome), hlta or tamba 
with bukftle(6) or ngulu(3) 
Masticate, v., botexa. 

(as bones or dried corn), bele- 

(with unpleasant noise), tan- 
Mat, «,(made of papyrus), data, 
7; clkanga, 7. 
(made by the Bakuba from the 
palm), clxaxi, 7. 
Match, w.(lucifer), muci(2) wa 
kahla(8); dincesc(from Eng. 
match), 5. 
(of same kind), this idea may be 
expressed in several ways: 
(i) By the words bu and bul- 

^2) By the words muomumue 

and o-umue. 
(3) By the ph. muan'abo ne. 
vi,, fuanangana, akana, aka- 

Match (continued). 

nangana, kelemena, fuana, 
vt., fuanylkixa, kelemexa, akA- 
xa, elekexa. 
Matchet, «., muele, 2. 
Mate, ».(fr end\ mulunda, i; 
nyana, i. 
(of same kind), expressed in 
several ways: 
(i) By the verbs fuanangana, 
kelemena, fuana. 

(2) By thew ords bu and 

(3) By the words muomumue 
and o-umue. 

(4) By the ph. muan'abo ne. 
Material, ». (thing), cintu, 7. 
Matrimony, n., dibfika, 5. 
Matter, «. (affair), bualu, 6; 

muanda, 2. 

no, kakuena bualo. 

(pus), tuflna, pi, of 8. 

(what is the matter?), clnyi? 
bualu kI7 clnganyl? 
Mature, be, vi., killa. 
May, v.y see permission. 

(month), lllaya(Eng.). 
Maybe, adv., ne. 
Me, pers. pro. 

(i) Simple Disjunctive, meme. 

§ 105- 

(2) As direct and indirect obj. 
use pronominal infix n(m). 

(3) With prepositions, see §§ 106 
(c), 107. 

Meal, «.( flour of corn or cassava), 

bukula, 6. 
(food), bidia(pl. of 7); bla 

Mean, v. (intend), amba followed 

by infin. 
be, vi., kina. 
adj., -a lukinu(4); -a cln- 

(of low birth), -a cinana, -a 

(stingy), -a buimlnyi(6); -a 




Meander, vi., endakana. 
Meanness, n., luklnu, 4; cln- 
yangu, 7. 
(stinginess), buimlnyl, 6; citu, 

7- ; 

Means, n.( riches), luhetu, 4; and 
the pi. forms from class VII, 
biuma and bintu. 
(by means of), ne. 
Measles, n., kantembele, 8. 
Measure, w.(rule or other imple- 
ment for measuring), cidlki- 
xllu, 7; lueiekexl, 4; cldl- 
klxu, 7; luldi, 4; luedi, 4. 
vt.y idikixa, elekexa. 
(be full measure), vi., kumbana, 
Meat, n., munyinyl, 2. 
fat, dllnyl, 5. 
lean, ngulunge, 3. 
Mediate, 1;/. (separate when fight- 
ing), sunga. 
(deliver, save), sunglla, bandl- 
xa, sungidila. 
Mediator, n., musungidi, 1 ma- 

handixl, i. 
Medicine, »., buaoga, 6. In the 
native mind this is only a 
charm or fetish, into which 
some supernatural spiritual 
power has been put by the 
maker. If the object is carved 
it is called luhlngu, 4. 
(charm before which divination is 

done), lubuku, 4. 
destroy the power or influence of, 

vt.j talCkxa or xlha. 
do incantations before, vL, ten- 

make, vL, hilka, songa(if wood), 
maker of, mpAka(i) manga; 
muhaki(i) wa manga; mu- 
songi(i) wa mpingu. 
See divine, bewitch, doctor. 
Meditate, v., see think. 
Meek, be, vi., tumlkila, dl ne 

Meekness, n., kalolo, 8. 
Meet, it. (assemble), tutakana, 
kungakana, sangakana. 

Meet {continued), 

sambakana, disanga, diun- 
go to, to welcome, akldlla, 

uhuklla, akana. 
(meet and pass), sembakena, 

(persons, paths, rivers, etc.), 
sambakana, sangakana, san- 
up with, sangana. 
Meeting, ».(crowd), clsumbu, 7. 
(of rivers or ways), dlsangu, 5. 
Generally use pi. 
Melancholy, »., cixl, 7; kanyin- 
ganylnga, 8. 
adj.t di ne cixl or kanyingan- 
yinga; muoyo(2) or mu- 
clma(2) as subj. of verb 
nylngala; clxi as subj. of 
kuata and person as obj.; 
ufua or unva with cixl. 
Melt, vi., enguiuka, flngaluka; 
Member, »., of thp body, name the 
specific part, 
of the church, muntu(i) wa 

(one of a party or company), 
muena, i. 
Memory, n., muoyo, i. 
call to, vi.f vuluka; vt, vnlnla, 
Menace, vt.y funyina. 
Mend, v/., tuanganya, tuangflxa, 
(patch), Iftmika, bamba, tenta- 
k&xa, bambakanya, bamba- 
kCkxa, tenteka. 
Menses, n., kaceci, 8; ku mb&la 
(perhaps 3). MukAxi udi ku 
mb&la, the woman is at her 
menstrual period. 
Menstruate, v., mtina(mona) 

Mention, 1;., amba. 
Merchant, »., ngenda(i) wa 
muxinga(2)^ muena(i) ci- 
Merciful, adj.^ -a Iu8e(4). 
be to, v.y ha luse; samba. 



Merciless, adj.y ena ne luse(4); 
-a luklnu(4); -a cinyan- 

Mercy, »., luse, 4. 

give to, v., ha luse; samba. 
Merit, v. (be fit), fuana. 

(be right or best to do), see 


Merry, be, vi., sanka. 

Message, w., dl, 5; mukenji, 2. 
deliver a, v.j amba or ambila 
with di or mukenJl. 

Messenger, n., muena(i) mu- 
kenjl(2); muloho, 2. 

Metal, ». (generic), clama, 7. 
See COPPER, IRON, etc. 

Metempsychosis, «.(the thing into 
which a person is changed by 
metempsychosis or transmi- 
gration), cilengulengu, 7. 
(the act of thus changing), v., 
lenguluka, sanguka, tanda. 

Meteor, n., niutoto(2) mutuke 
(act. p.p. from v. tuka). 

Method, »., see manner. 

Metropolis, n., clmenga, 7; ci- 
hunda, 7. 

Midday, nph.y diba(5) dia han- 
kftci, munda munya(2), diba 

Middle w., see centre. 

Middleman, w.(in arranging mar- 
riage), clbanjl, 7. 

Midnight, n., mundankulu. § 423 
(2) (b). 

Midrib, n., mukuolo, 2; ]ub&- 
xe(Buk.), 4. 
(hard outside part of midrib 
of the dlbue palm), lusele, 
(hard outside part of midrib of 
the dlkadi or dlbondo), lu- 
b&le, 4. 

Midst, »., see centre. 

Midwife, n., mulelexi, i. 
(to act as for), v/., lelexa. 

Might, «.(strength), buk&le, 6, 
ugulu, pi. of 3 or 4; dlkanda, 

Mighty, adj., see great. 

Migrate, v. (scatter, move to an- 
other place), muangaia. 

Mildew, «., see mould. 

Milk, »., mabele, pi. of dibele, 
v.y kama(/0 squeeze). 

Mill, »., see Machine. 

MiLLEPED, «.(long black worm 
found in forest), dinyongeie, 

Millet, w., mponda, pi. of 3 or 4. 

head of, muehu, 2. 
Mimic, vL^ idikixa, elekexa. 
Mince, vt.(cut into small pieces), 

Mind, n. (intellect), lungenyi, 4; 

lukanyi(Buk.), 4; mexl, pi. 

of 5- 

(the will), muclma, 2; muoyo, 2. 

call to, vt.f Yulula, Tuluxa; vi., 

change the, vt.j kudlmuna or 
andamuna with mucima or 

(nevermind), kakuenabualu(6). 

(obey), unva, tumikila, tumika, 
enza mu- followed by proper 
form of amba (§ 465), ufoa. 

(watch, tend), l&ma. 
Mine, poss. pro., Inyl. See § 135. 
Mingle, vt.(mix)j sanglxa, sanga- 
ktixa, sangakanya, samba- 
kanya, sambakAxa, tuta- 
kfixa, tutakanya, sala, sala* 
kana, buelakfixa, buexa- 
kana; vi., sanga, sangakana, 
sambakana, tutakana, bue- 

(stir around), vundula. 

(stir up together), buandulula, 
buandakilxa, vuandulula, so- 
Minister, «., see missionary, 

PREACHER, evangelist, SERV- 

to, vi.y l&mjkta. 
Minute, n.(short time), cltuha, 7. 

adj.f kise, b&le, nya-uya. 
Miracle, nph.j bualu(6) bua ku- 



Miraculous, adj., -a kuk4^ma. 

Mire, n., see mud. 
up, v.f Jama. 

Mirror, n., ludlmueou, 4; lu- 
muenu, 4. 

Mirth, n., kas<^ku, 8. PI. gener- 
ally used. 

Miscarry, v., tula with iiiuana(i) 
or difu(5); lela kabixe(8). 

Misfortune, n., baalu(6) with 
bubl or bukttle. 
(bad luck), dikttsaCs) <llbi; mu- 
bldi(2) mubl. 

Misguide, vL^ hambuxa. 

Mishap, n.(bad luck), dlkasa(5) 
dlbl; mubidf(2) mubi. 

Mislead, t;/., hambuxa. 

Miss, v., aim, hanga, ela cln- 
8oma(7) hanxl. 
(fail), hanga. 
fire, not go off, funga. 
(in looking for something), muo- 

yo(2) with the verb hua. 
(omit, not do as intended), hum- 

Missionary, nph.y mukelenge(i) 
wa Nzambl; muambl(i) wa 
bualu(6) bua Nsambl. 

Mist, n.(fog), dlbungi, 5. 

Mistake, make, v. (take wrong 
path), hambuka. 
in counting, etc , tuhakana, 

Mistress, n.(female chief), muke- 
lenge(i) mukaxi(i). 
(slave in speaking of mistress), 
mamu(i), baba(i). 

Mix, vt.f sangixa, sangakAxa, 
sangakanya, sambakanya, 
sambakftxa, tutakOxa, tuta- 
kanya, tuhakanya, tuha- 
kAxa, sala, salakana, buela- 
kftxa, bnexakana; vi.^ sanga, 
sangakana, sambakana, tu- 
takana, buelakana, buanda- 
kana, tuhakana, vuanduluka. 
(stir around), vundula. 
(stir up together), buandulula, 
buandaktixa, soha, vuandu- 

Moan, v.j huma, tuamuk£ma(2). 

n.y mukima, 2. 
Mock, v/.(mimic), Idikfxa, ele- 

Mode, n.(custom), cllele, 7; cien- 

sedi, 7; cibllu, 7. 
in this, thus, adv., nunku(nan- 

ku, nenku). 
Model, n., cimonyinu, 7; cidikl- 

xllu, 7; luedi, 4; luidi, 4; 

cidlklxu, 7. 
Modest, be, vph., dl ne or ufua 

or unva with bundu(6); ena 

ne dlkama(5); ena ne cl- 

kama(7) ; ena ne dintanta(5); 

dl ne kalolo(8); dl ne mu- 

cima(2) mutekete; also neg. 

of dlsua. 
Modesty, n., bnnvu, 6; bundu, 6; 

kalolo, 8. 
Moist, arf;., see damp. 
Moisten, vt., see dampen. 
Moisture, n., cltelele, 7; claxlma, 

Moment, »., cltuha, 7. 
Monday, nph , dltuku(5) dla 
mp&tukllu(ornduhukllu) wa 
Money, ».(coin), mpalata, 3. 
Monkey, n. There is no generic 
name, some of the different 
species are: nklma(nclma), 
3; nsoko, 3; nflndu, 3; 
mb<^le, 3; ntombolo, 3. 
Month, ».(moon), ngondo, 3; 

muenxl, 2. 
Moon, n., ngondo, 3; muenxl, 2. 
(the appearing of the new moon), 

be full, v., lua clb&lu(7), ten- 

shining of the, v., toka, kenena, 

waning of, v., nyana. 
waxing of, v.y dlunda. 
The size of the moon in waxing 
and waning; is shown by com- 
parinfij with the fingers; as, 
ngondo udl bu minu Is&tu, ihe 
moon is the size of three fingers. 



Moonlight, n., dikenka, 5. 
Mope, z/.(due to sickness), bun- 

gama, humpama. 
Morbid, be, vi.^ bungama, oyin- 
galaor sama with muclma(2). 
More, o^;. (other), kuabo, nga. 
a4v. To express Comparative 
Degree of adjectives or ad- 
verbs, use verbs tamba and 
hita. § 89. 
Morning, n.(about sunrise), dinda, 
5; lunkelu, 4. 
(about 9 a.m.), mlsasa(pl. of 2). 
(at daybreak), haciacia. § 423 

(.^) (*)• . 

(cockcrowing), ha bitlla, hadl 
hasama nsolo(3). 

(to break day, the coming of the 

morning), vph., butuku(6) as 

subj. of V. cla. 
Mortal, be, v»., use Pres. Habitual 

tense or Second Pres. Actual 

of fua, to die. 
Mortar, n.(for pounding in), clnu, 

(mud), blt&hikldi, bintampi, 

blntocl, blt&hl. All are pi. 

of 7. 
mix, vt.y soha. 
Mortified, be, v»., di n« or ufua 

or unva with person as subj. 

and bundu(6) as obj.; bundu 

as subj. of kuata and the 

person as obj. 
Mortify, i/. (cause shame), ufulxa 

or kuaclxa with bundu(6). 
Mosquito, n., kamue, 8; kamem- 

bele, 8. 
Most, adv. To express Superla- 
tive Degree, use the verbs 

tamba and hIta. § 89. 
Moth, »., clblylblyl, 7. 
Mother, n., mamu, i; baba, i; 

nyoku, i; nylii(a). For 

nyln(a) see § 138. 
(mother who has recently given 

birth), muvlele, i; muadl- 

kdxi, I. 
Mother-in-law. tr..inuku(i), used 

only by husband; baba- 

Mother-in-law {continued), 

inuenu(i) andnia'-muenu(i), 
see § 42, Note 3. 
Mould, n., butu, 6; lutu, 4. 
2;., kuata with butu or lutu. 
Mount, v., banda. 
Mountain, n., mukuna, 2. 

(peak), dilunda, 5. 
Mourn, v., dila. 

for, Jinga. 
Mourning, n., muadi, 2. 
Mouse, «. (generic), mpuku, 3. 
Some of the more common 
varieties are: cibaka]a(7), 
ngongo(3), dltambue(5), 

nkose(3), clbende(7), mu- 
hole of, bulna(6), pi. is mena. 
Moustache, nph.^ iiiuedl(2) or 
muevu(2) with the ph. wa ha 
muxuku (2). 
Mouth, n., mukana, 2. 

of river, lusongo, 4. 
Move, v., back and forth, vi.^ 
lemba, lembelela, dlkuha. 
cut of the way, vi.^ ehuka(ahu- 
ka), sesuka, umuka; vt.^ 
(shake), v/., taklxa, clkfxa, 
kuha, nyunglxa, saxa, nyun- 
ga, senga, salakanya; vi.^ 
taka, nyunga, sala, clka, 
sidewise, vi., senrena, sela; vt.^ 

semexa, sexa (seja). 
slowly, xlxamuka. 
stealthily, onguela, tcbela, 

to another place, scatter, m., 
Much, adj.j -a buiigl(6), ng', 
how? bungi muoyi? bungi 
blxl? nga? For the last 
word, see § 78. , 

too, the verbs hIta or tamba 
with bungi. 
Mucus, «.(from eye), luhota 4, 
luhoca, 4 



Mucus (continued). 

(from the nose), tuminu, pi. of 

8; lusole, 4. 
blow from the nose, v.j hemba. 

Mud, n.y blt&hl, bit&hlkidi, bln- 
toci, bintampl. All pi. of 7. 

Muddy, be, vi.{as water stirred up 
with mud), vuanduluka; vt., 

Mug, n., lutaanza, 4. 

Multiply, v. (by generations), le- 

Multitude, n., cisumbu, 8; 
bungi, 6. 

Murder, vt., xlha. 

Murderer, n., muxlhlangan- 
yl(i), muxlhl(i). 

Murmur, v.^ uungana, tontolola, 
tontom na. 
n.(whisper), dinunganyi, 5. 

Muse, t;., ela or elangana with 
iiiucima(2) or inexi(5) or 
lukanyl(4) or lungenyl(4). 

Mush, n., mus&bu, 2 

Mushroom, n., buowa, 6. 

Music, n.(tune' or hymn), mu- 
sambu, 2. 

Musical instruments, see instru- 

Must, v. No satisfactory word 
has been found to express the 
idea must or necessary or ne- 
cessity. The unsatisfactory 
bualu(6) buk&le with the 
Causative Form of the verb is 
the best that can be suggested. 

Mute, n., a, kamama, 8. 

be, especially when righ ly ac- 
cused, hua. 

Mutter, v., nungana, tontolola, 

Muzzle, n., of gun, muxuKu, 2. 

My, poss. pro.y Inyl. § 133. 

Myself, psrs. pro. 

(i) Compound Disjunctive Form, 
nkljinyl, etc. §§ 108, 109. 

(2) When reflexive use reflexive 
prefix of verb, -dl-. Note that 
this is subj. or obj. § 118. 

(3) See B.L.-Eng., under ine. 

Mysterious, adj.^ -a musokoko 
(musoko). 2. The neg. form 
of mauya t^o know, may some- 
times be used in this sense. 

Mystery, ».(secret), musokoko 
(musoko), 2. 


Nail, n., mulonda, 2; lusonso, 4. 
(brass chair nail, tack), lufiima, 

of finger, luz&la, 4; lus&di, 4; 

luala, 4. 
drive a, vt., kumlna, hohela. 
Naked, be., vi., di bataka(6). 
Nakedness, n., butaka, 6. 
Name, n., dlna(5), pi. is mena; 
cibikidllu, 7. 
call by, vt., biklla. 
call one's name behind the back, 

vt.j tela. 
give a, vt., Inyika, Idlka. 
-sake, n., xakeoa, i. 
what is its name? dlna dlacl 

what is your name? dlna diebl 
Namesake, «., xakena, i. Gener- 
ally followed by poss. pro. 
enclitic. § 42, Note i. 
Nap, z;.(nod), bunga tulu(pl. of 8). 

n., use kalu, the sing, o: tulu. 
Napkin, n. (serviette), citamba- 
la(7) cia ha mesa, dit a- 
ya(5) dia muxuku(2). 
Narrate, v., amba. 

a fable or story, ela with 
muana(2) or lu8umuinu(4) 
or luxlmlnylnyu(4). 
Narrative, n., bualu, 6; muanda, 

Narrow, adj.y kise, b&le, nya- 
be, vi.f bulukana(?). 
Narrowness, «., buklse, 6; bu- 
bble, 6; bunyabunya, 6. 
Nasty, adj,, bl. 
Nation, »., see tribe. 



Native, «. There is no distinct 
word to distinguish the native 
from the foreigner. Occa- 
sionally we hear bena Kasai, 
meaning the native people in 
the Kasai regions as distinct 
from the foreigners, 
(one from, or one of), muena, i ; 
mukua, 7. §§ 84 (6), 87 (d). 
Rem. 2. 

Nature of, n.(custom, habit), 
cilele, 7; dense 1, 7; cl- 
bUu, 7. 

Naughty, aJ/.(bad), bl. 

Nausea, nph.. muendi(2) ku 

Nauseate, vL, endexa ku muo- 

Nauseous, be, vph.y usemuoyo(2) 
as subject of the verb enda, 
with the person as object; or 
di ne muendi(2) ku muoyo; 
or ku inuo^^o kudi kuenda. 

Navel, n., muofo, 2; mututu, 2. 

Near, adv. Use the locatives (mu, 
ku and ha) with the stem ihl, 
short, thus giving muihl, kul- 
hi, hehi(hihl), § 79. 
We may also have the forms ha 
bulhi(6), ku, kunxi, ha 
buihi ne. 
(be near together), vi., kuata- 
kaiia, tuangana, di ne kaba 
(dimin. of muaba) kamue. 

• to, hehl ne. 

Nearly, adv., see almost. 

Nearness, »., buihi, 6. 

Neat, adj., -a niankenda(pl. of 
5 or 6). 

Neatness, n., mankenda, pi. of 
5 or 6. 

Necessary, see must. 

Necessity, see must. 

Neck, n., nxingu, 3. 
of gourd, cikolokolo, 7. 

Need, i/.(lack), x&la, neg. of en a 
n.(poverty), buhele, 6; bulanda, 

be in, poor, adj., hele, landa. 

Needle, n., kaxingl, 8. 

eye of, dlsu(5) dla kaxingl. 
EEDY, adj., hele, landa. 

Negative. Methods for forma- 
tion of, see §§ 196, etc. 

Neglect, v. (leave), lekela or xia 
with cinana or hatuhu. 
(disown), hidia, benga, nyoka, 

Neglectful, adj., see disobe- 

Neglectfulness, fi., see disobe- 

Negligence, n., see disobedience. 

Negligent, adj., see disobedient. 

Neighbor, fi.(of same tribe or 
village), mukuetu(i), muena 
kuetu, muan'etu. See §§ 
142; 141, Rem. i; 138, Rem. 5. 

Neither . . . nor, correlative 
conj,, see § 433, Rem. 

Nephew, n., muana(i) wa muan- 
(child of a man's older or younger 

sister), muihu, i. 
(child of a younger brother or 
sister), muana wa muakun- 


(child of an older brother or 
sister), muana wa mukulu(i). 

Some say that the last two 
phrases, muana wa mua- 
kunyi and muana wa mu- 
kulu, can be used by the man 
and the woman in speaking of 
the children of older or younger 
brothers or sisters, while 
others claim that muihi is the 
only proper term for the man 
to use in speaking of a sister's 
children, whether she be older 
or younger. 
Nervous, be, vt. (restless), sasa- 

Nest, »., of birds, rats, etc., disua, 5 

of fowl, cisua, 7. 

of wasps, nsaho, 3; dibui, 5. 
Net, n., bukuondo, 6; mu- 
xinsa(2) wa bute(6); mu- 
xinga(2) wa ndadika(3). 



Never, adv.{ne\er again), use neg. 

of verb with cendeleleor l&ha- 

l&ha or kaxldi or matuku 

mind, kakuena bualu(6). 
New, adj.y hla-hia. § 76. 

(green, not ripe), blxe. 
New-born babe, »., katoto, 8. 
News, n.(fame, report), lumu, 4. 
(word,) dl(s). 
(spread), vt.y endexa lumu; vi.j 

endakana with lumu as subj. 
Next, adj., time, kabidl(adv.), 

musansu(2) mukuabo, cl- 

kondo(7) clkuabo. 
month, ngrondo walua. § 306 

(c). Rem. I. 
(next after), -a ku iiyima(3). 
(be next to each other), vi., 

kuatakana, tuangrana, di 

kaba (dim. of muaba) kamue. 
Niece, n. Use exactly the same 

constructions as for nephew, 

the diflFerence in sex is not 

Night, »., butuku, 6; bufuku, 6. 
(all night long), butuku to ne 

with lunkelu(4) or dinda(5). 
at, butuku, bufuku. 
last, butuku or bufuku with the 

ph. bua lelu. 
mid-, mundankulu. § 423 (2) 

the approaching of, vph., butuku 

or bufuku as subj. of the verb 

the disappearance of, daybreak, 

vpk.y butuku or bufuku as 

subj. of the verb cla. 
Nine, card, num., citema, 7. 
Nipple, »., of breast, lusongo(4) 

or mutu(2) followed by the 

adj. ph. -a dlbele. 
of gun, dlsu. 5. PI. mesu. 
No, aiv.(neg. answer to a question), 

uaxa, buala, nanyl, bl(Buk.). 
ai;.(not any, none), use neg. v ; 

as, mu nsubu kamuena ml, 

there is no water in the house. 
Sec §469. 

Noble, aJy.(good), impe, lengele, 
(famous), nine, tumbe(p.p. from 
Nobleman, n.(chief), mukelenge, 
i; nfumu, i; muntu)i) 
Nobody, «., use neg. of the verb. 

See no. 
Nod, v., assent, xukula mutu(2). 
dissent, kuha mutu. 
(in sleeping), bungatulu(pl of 8) 
Noise, n., of crying, muadl, 2. 
(low murmuring), dinunganyl, 

5. Generally use pi. 
of human voices, dlyoyo, 5; 

mutftyo, 2; muaku, 2. 
of wind or rain, clona, 7. 
(report of gun, etc.), mukuma, 2. 
Noisy, adj., -a dlyoyo(5); -a 

mutftyo(2); -a muaku(2). 
None, adj. or pro., use neg. verb. 

See NO. 
Nonsense, n. (gibberish), claku- 

lakula, 7. § 356 {g). 
Noon, nph., munda munya(2), 
diba(5), dia hankticl, dlba 
Noose, n., dlsoko, 5. Used in 

catching rats. 
Nor, see neither. 
North, n., nftta(Eng.). 
Nose, n., dllu(pl. melu), 5; dlulu, 

blow the, v., hemba. 
Nostrils, n., muxuku(2) followed 
by the ph. wa dlulu(5) or wa 
Not, adv. For formation of neg., 
see §§ 196, etc. 
any, see NO. 
See § 415 and Rems. 
Notch, n., dlhoko, 5. 
Note, «.(letter), mukanda, 2. 
Nothing, n. Use neg. of the verb; 
as, mu nsubu kamuena 
cintu, there is nothing in the 
for, cinana, hatuhu. 
See no. 



Notice, v. (see), tangUa, xoxa 

Nourish, v^.(feed), dlxa. 

(bring up), k&Iexa. 
Nourishment, ». (bread), bidia, pi. 
of 7; nxima, 3. 
(food), bia kudia. 
November, «., Novemba(Eng.). 
Now, adv.^ katataka, mpindeu, 

Nude, be, v., di butaka(6). 
Nudity, »., butaka, 6. 
Number, v.(count), b&Ia. 
n., a great, bungi, 6. 
the same, bun8:i(6) bumue. 
Numerals, see §§91, etc. 
Numerous, adj., -a bunsi(6), ngi, 

Nurse, ^/.(attend), l&ma. 
(suckle), amuixa. 
n, mul&mi, I. 
Nut, n. There is no generic name. 
See peanut, palm nut, cola 
nut, etc. 


Oar, n., mubambu, 2; cihu, 7. 
pull an, vt.^ ita, uba. 
(stick used in pushing a boat), 
musangu, 2. 

Oath, »., take an, v., clha. The 
reflexive diciha is most com- 
monly used. 

Obedience, «., kalolo, 8. 

Obedient, adj., -a kalolo(8). 
be, v., tiimlka. 

be to, T//., tumikila; enza mu- 
foUowed by proper tense and 
person of amba, to tell; ita- 
buxa mu dl; ufua-; unva. 
Note that the obj. of this last 
verb is dl(5), not the person 

Obeisance, «., do before one, vt., 
meneka, menekcia, nemeka, 
nemekela, tendelela. 

Obey, v/., tumikila: tumika; 
enza mu- followed by proper 

Obey (continued). 

tense and person of amba, to 
tell; itabuxa mu di; afua; 
unva. Note that the obj. 
of this last word is di(5), not 
the person obeyed. 

Object, ». (cause, reason), buaiu, 
6; muanda, 2. 
(thing), cintu, 7. 
I/, (forbid), hidia, benga. 

Obligation, «., see duty. 

Oblige, v^ (cause to do) use Causa- 
tive Form of verb. 

Obscene, adj., see immodest. 

Observe, v., see look, obey. 

Obstinacy, «., cieu, 7; cibengu, 
7; buhidia, 6; cixiku, 7. 

Obstinant, adj.y -a cicn(7); -a 
cibengu(7); -a buhidla(6); 
-a cixiku(7). 
be, v.f use neg. of tumikila, 
tumika, ufua, unva, itabuxa 
mu di, enza mu- followed by 
proper tense and person of 
amba, to tell. 

Occupation, »., see employment. 

Occur, v., lua. 

Ocean, nph.y ml(pl. of 5) manlne. 

O'clock, see time. 

OCRA, »., cingombo, 7. (Perhaps 
this may be origin of Eng. 
"gumbo soup.") 

October, »., Okotoba(Eng.). 

Odor, ».(good or bad), muhuya, 2; 

dihembu, 5 ; nsunga, 3 ; muen- 

yi, 2. 

bad, mukuhu, 2; lusu, 4; mu- 

huya(2) mubi; kahambu, 8. 

detect the, to smell, v., unva, 

emit an, good or bad, v., nunka. 
smell in order to detect the, v., 

Of, prep., -a. This prep, is used 
in adj. phrases to indicate pos- 
session or quality, and takes 
the Secondary Prefixes. § 425. 

Off, adv The adverbial idea is 
most often expressed in the 
root of the verb; as, l&muka 



Off {continued), 

come off, as of something ad- 
hering; nyema, run off, flee, 
prep. Generally use the loca- 
tives ka or ha; as» umaxe 
malonga ha mesa, take the 
plates off the table. 
Offend, vt,, henda, taka 

(with a click of the throat), sodia. 
Offer, v.(give), ha, amblka. 
(hold out to, hand to), heteza, 
Offering, ».(gifi:), clha, 7; also 
the infin. kuha, to give, 
make as a due or tribute, v/., 
Office, n. The name of the office 
is made by prefixing bu-(6) to 
the root of the title; as, muke- 
lenge, bakelenge, chiefship, 
appoint to, v., see appoint. 
Offspring, n., muana, i. 
Often, adv., see frequently. 
Oil, n., minyl, pi. of danyl(5), fat, 
coal, petroleum, mpitoIo(Eng.). 
from kernel of palm nut, mu- 

xinda, 2. 
palm, mlnyi a iigaji(iig&xl). 
purified palm, lumbidl, 4. 
render, vt., enga. 
Ointment, n., mlnyi, pi. of 

dUnyI(5), fat. 
Old, adj.f kulu, kulukulu, -a 
(as old person), nunu, kulu- 
kaxe(p.p. from kuIukAxa), 
-a bukulumpe(6), -a buku- 
lukaxe(6) ; kulumpe(p.p. 

from kulumpa). 
age, »., bukulu, 6; bukulukulu, 
6; bunanu, 6; bukulukftxe, 
6; bukulumpe, 6. 
(be or become an old person), v*., 

kulukftxa, kulumpa, lata. 
times, adv., kale, bangabanga, 
Older, adj., -a ku mp&la(3). 
brother or sister, n., mukulu, i. 
Generally followed by poss. 
pro. § 138, Rem. 2. 

Older (continued), 

of twins, n., cibuaba, 7. 
Oldest child, n., mukulu, z; 

muan'a bute(6). 
Omit, v. (leave), lekela, xia. 
(miss or fail to do), hombixa. 
(overlook), hua muoyo(2)y 
Omnipresent, be, vph., dl kuonso. 
Omniscient, be, vph,, mftnya 

mala onso. 
On, prep., ha. 

top of, ha muta(2) ha. 
(up on high), heulu. 
Once, €idv., at, katataka, mpin- 
deu, dlodiono. 
(long ago), kale, bangabanga, 

(one time), mu8anffa(2) nmue, 
mu8an8a(2) umue, cikon- 
do(7) cimue, ciakamue(7), 
One, adj., numeral, mue(mo). 
For abstract counting use 
omue. Mue takes Secondary 
Prefixes. §§ 92, Rem. i; 97. 
any, onso. 
(at one time, at the same time), 

dlacimae(5), ciahamue(7). 
(distributive), the one . . . the 
other, kuabo . . . kuabo, 
nga . . . nga. 
(one another), use Reciprocal 

Form of v. in -angana. 
As indefinite pronominal subj. 

of verb, see § 189. 
As indefinite pro., see §§ 189, 
Rem.; 105. 
Onion, n., nsahola, 3. 
Only, adv., ne ine, or the Com- 
pound Pronoun forms nkl- 
ylnyl, etc. § 109. 
See § 418. 
Open, v/.(as bracelet, etc.), ban- 
(as door), unsulula. 
(as eyes), handa, bulula; vi,, 

(as flower), balulula; vi., balu- 



Open {continued), 
(as mouth), bulula. 
(as tin can or box), xibula, 

(as wings), olola, bulala; w., 

ololoka, buluka. 
out, as piece of cloth, vungu- 
lula; vi.f vunguluka. 
Opener, nph.(as can-opener), 
cintu(7) cia kuxibula n'aci 
mpansa(pl. of 4). 
Oppose, vph.y ela mukosa(2). 

(forbid), hidia, bengra. 
Opposite, adj.j side, n., dixia, 5. 
(be facing each other), v., tangrl- 
xangrana mp&la(3). 
Opposition, «. (interference), mu- 

kosa, 2. 
Oppress, v/., nyanga, taclxa, ona. 
Oppression, n., clnyangu, 7. 
Oppressive, adj., person, -a cin- 

Or, canj.f see either. 

(whether . . . or), ne . . . ne. 
(in asking questions), Inyi. 


Ordain, v., see sanctify. 

Ordeal, n. The person against 
whom a real or imaginary 
wrong has been done by an 
unknown person goes to a 
medicine man(inuena(i) bu- 
ang:a(6) or muena lubuku(4) 
to inquire (tempa or buka). 
The accused, in order to prove 
his innocence or guilt, is made 
to submit to certain ordeals or 
tests. One accused of witch- 
craft is made to drink a poison- 
ous concoction called cl- 
haha(7). One accused of 
theft or other small crime has 
a small piece of iron (clala, 7) 
thrust into his eye. Some- 
times the accused is made to 
put his hands and arms into 
boiling water. 

Order, ;;. (command), di, 5; mu- 
kenji, 2. 
(neg. command), mukandu, 2. 

Order {continued), 

V. (command), amba, ambila, 

tumina di. 
(command not), kanda. 
put in, arrange, longrolola. 
put out of, disarrange, v/., tanga- 
dlxa, tuhaktixa, tuhakanya, 
tangral&xa, buexakana, san- 
SakAxa, sangakanya, muan- 
sa, muangalAxa, buela- 
kftxa; vi.^ tangadika, tanga- 
Iftka, buelakana, sangakana, 
tuhakana, muangralAka. 

Ordinal numerals, see §§ 98, etc. 

Ordinance, n., see commandment. 

Ore, n.y iron, kabanda, 8. 

Organ, ». (musical instrument), 
cisanji, 7. 

Ornament, «. (articles for wear- 
ing), cilensa, 7. 

Orphan, nph.^ muan'a nxi(3). 

Orphanhood, «., nxl, 3. 

Oscillate, vi., lembelela, dl- 
kuha, hehuka. 

Other, adj.^ kuabo, ngra. 

(distributive), the one . . . the 
other, kuabo . . . kuabo, 
nga . . . nga. 
each, use Reciprocal Form of v. 

in -angrana. 
(of another one), -a bende. 

Otherwise, adv.^ see different- 

Ought, v. Thns far no satisfac- 
tory word h^j been found. 
Suggest bualu(6) buimpe or 
bimpe(adv.) followed by infin. 

Our, poss. pro., etu. § 133. 

Ours, poss. pro., etu. § 135. 

Ourselves, pers. pro. 

(i) Compound Disjunctive form, 

nklyetu, etc. §§ 108, 109. 
(2) When reflexive, use reflexive 
prefix of v., -dl-. Note that 
this form may be used either 
as subj. or obj. § 1 18. 

Out, adv. This idea is generally 
expressed in the verb, even 
though a prep, may be re- 
quired at the same time; as. 



Out {continued) 

luhuka, go otU; tula, pull 

oui; Simak, blifw OtU, etc. §377. 

(be out, exhausted), vi., hua, 

(be out of, have not), v., ena 

(get out of the way), v»., ehuka, 

ainuka mu nxila(3). 
prep. {out of), mu. 
Outside, nph., ha iiyima(3); k" 

nylma. See § 377. 
Oven, «., uvum(Eng.). 
Over, prep.{ahovt), ha mutu(2) 
(across), dixia(5) dia. 
adv. As an adv. this idea is 
oftenest expressed in the verb; 
as, kudlmuna, turn over; x&la, 
be left over; sabuka, go over; 
hiclxa, throw over; etc. 
(do over and over), v., use the 

Repetitive tenses, 
(overhead), use proper locative 
with the insep. -ulu, giving 
mCklu, kCklu, heulu. 
OVERABDUND, vi.y sambuka, tam- 

ba or hita with bunffi(6). 
Overboard, adv., fall, vph., bona 

mu ml. 
OVERGOME, vt., cimuna, tamba or 
hlta with bukiile(6) or ngu- 

Overflow, v».,(run over as water 

in jar), humuka, iclklla. 
Overhead, adv., ha mutu(2); 

proper locative with the insep. 

-ulu, giving mCklu, kAlu, 

^Overlook, v. (oversee), tanglla, 

mona, xoxa, ^&ma. , 

(not to see), use neg. of any of 

the above verbs, 
(omit, miss), hanga, hua muo- 

Oversee, vt., tangrila, mona, 

xoxa, l&ma. 
Overseer, n., mul&mi, i; mu- 

tantrfdi, i; mumonyi, i. 
Overt AKfc, vt., beta. 

Overthrow, ^/.(conquer), hlta or 
tamba with bukftle(6) or 
iisulu(3), cimuna. 
(throw down, as house), xlm- 

Overturn, vt., tokola. 

Owe, v. Use the forms dl ne 
dlbanKa(5) dia, angata dl- 
banza, dibanza as subj. of 
kuata and the person as obj. 
Hence we say ndi ne di- 
banza diandi dia lukama 
lua mibela, / owe him 100 
cowries; nakuangata dibanza 
diandl dia lukama lua mi- 
bela, / have taken his debt for 
100 cowries, i.e., / owe him, 
etc.; dibanza diakunkuata, 
/ owe a debt, lit., a debt has 
caught me. 

Owl, »., cihungrulu, 7. 

Own, v.(possess), use any of the 

verbs meaning to be (di, cldi, 

tadi, ik&la, etc.) followed by 

ne. § 426, Rem. 2. 

up, confess, sokolola, sokola, 

tonda, disonsuela. 
The emphatic use of own after 
poss. pro. may best be ex- 
pressed by the Simple Dis- 
junctive Pers. Pro. following 
the noun; as, bualu buebi 
we we, your own affair. § 106 


Owner, «., of, nfumu(i) wa, 
mukeleng:e(i) wa, muena(i). 


Ox, n., ngombe, 3. 

Oyster, n., cinyAmankole, 7. 

Pace, n., at rapid, lubilu, 4; 
lukftsa, 4. These words -are 
nouns in form but have the 
force of adverbs. 

at slow, bitekete(adv.). 

v.f to and fro, tambakana. 



Pacify, vt., a child when crying, 
kosexa or ahuixa with mua- 


(make quiet), holexa, tal&xa. 
(separate people who are fight- 
ing), sunga. 
Pack, ».(bale), dikutu, 5. 

(bundle), mubombo, 2; cisum- 
• bu, 7. 

(roll), muvungu, 2. 
vt.j down, as dirt, beta, xindlka, 
kuma, tua. 
Package, «., see pack. 
Pad, «.(for head in carrying load), 

nkata, 3. 
Paddle, ».(oar), mubambu, 2; 
cihu, 7. 
v.(to row), ita, uha. 
Padlock, »., ns&hl, 3. 
Page, »., dlbexi, 5; dUnyi, 5. 
Pain, n., disama, 5; dibedl, 5; 
bubedi, 6. 
i;.(ache), sama, bela. 
(smart), oxa, hiakana, susuma. 
Palatable, be, v. (be pleasant to 

taste), xemakana. 
Palaver, n., bualu, 6; muanda, 2, 
no, kakuena bualu. 
settle a, to judge, v., lumbulula 
with bualu or clluinbu(7). 
Palm, »., of hand, munda mua 
tree. There are several varieties, 
such as dlbue(5), dlkadl(5), 
dlbondo(5), dlku(5), dl- 
flower of, mus£k£l£ke, 2. 
leaf of, dilala, 5. 
(fiber of leaf, used in making 
cloth), luhiku, 4; munyan- 
Ka, 2. 
midrib of mukuolo, 2; lub&xe 

(Buk.), 4. 
(hard outside part of midrib of 

the dibue palm), lusele, 4. 
(hard outside part of midrib of 
the dikadi and dlbondo 
palms), lub&le, 4. 
(pith of the midrib), dbubu, 7. 
nut, lunsfljl(lunsaxl), 4. 

Palm (continued). 

(bunch of nuts), clngrAJl(cin- 

Kfixi), 7. 
(kernel of nut after outside oily 
skin has been taken off), musa, 
oil, mlnyi(pl. of 5) a ngttji 

(the rendered oil), lumbldi, 4. 
(oil of the kernels), muxlnda, 2. 
wine, maluvu, malua. These 

words are pi. of 5 or 6, 
(man who climbs the tree for 

wine), mueml, i. 
(the rope with which he climbs), 

luku(Buk.), 4. 
(chisel for making incision), 

munyonga, 2. 
(to make incision), v., ema. 
Palsy, n.y lukanku, 4; lusakalu, 4. 
Pan, n.f dilongra, 5. 

frying-, civuadi, 7; luesu, 4; 
nylnsu, 3. 
Pang, n. (mental), kanylngan- 
ylngra, 8. 
(pain), disama, 5; dibedl, 5; 
bubedi, 6. 
Pant, v.^ huyakana, eyakana. 
Pants, ». (pantaloons), muh&nu, 2; 
muklya, 2. PI. generally used, 
put on, v., ela. 
Papaw, «., dihahl, 5. This is cor- 
ruption of papaw. 
Paper, n., mukanda, 2. 
Papyrus, «.(with which mats are 
made), lutuhu, 4; lumuDyu, 


Parable, »., see fable. 

Parallel, be, vi., lulAma. 
make, vt., ludika. 

Paralytic, w., see paralyzed. 

Paralyzed person, n.(one unable 
to walk), muena(i) iijeku(3), 
muena kaneke(8). 

Parch, v., kangra. 

Pardon, v. There is no satisfac- 
tory word. We would suggest 
tokela or tokexila or tokexa 
followed by munda or mu- 
clma(2); also Jimlxa malu 



Pardon (cofUinued). 

mabi. Tokela seems to have 
reference to pardoning one who 
has done the wrong, while 
tokexa, has more reference to 
the person wronged ceasing 
from the anger in his heart. 

Pare, vL, nails, bengula. 

Parent, n. There is no distinct 
word, use the words for 


Parrot, »., nkusu, 3. 
Parsimonious, adj., -a cltu(7); 
-a buiminyl(6); -a die- 
ma(7); -a cianza(7) cikftle. 
Parsimony, «., citu, 7; bulmlnyi, 
6; cUema, 7; clansa(7) cl- 
Part, v., among, abanya, aban- 
yina, abuluxa. 
(as hair), handa, henga. 
(separate, divide), v/., abuluxa, 
handulula, sungulula, t&hu- 
lula; vi.y abuluka, handu- 
luka, t&huluka. 
those fighting, sungra. 
(some of), use the adjs. kuabo 

and nga. 
«.(of anything cut oflF), cltuha, 7. 
(of anything split), clhisu, 7. 
(side), lus«ke, 4. 
hind, citaku, 7; nylma, 3. 
Partition, »., of house, cidldi, 7. 
Partridge, »., kalumbu, 8. 
Party, «. (company, crowd), cl- 
siimbu, 7. 
(of the party of), muena(i) 
followed by the distinguishing 
noun. § 84 (b). 
Pass, v., by, on by, when going in 
the same direction, tamba, 
hita, dika. 
by, elapse, see elapse. 
(go around one in order to pass), 

sesuka, ehuka. 
(going in different directions), 

sembakena, kumankana. 
in, buela. 

let, hicixa, tambixa, diklxa. 
on, go, ya, enda. 

Pass (carUinued). 

out, luhuka, umuka, h&tuka. 
over, as river, sabaka. 
Passage, «.(fording), dilobo, 5; 

clsabu, 7; cisabukilu, 7. 
Passion, ». (anger), clxl, 7. 

get into, v.f di ne or ufua or 
unva with clxi; also clxi as 
subj. of V. kuata with the 
person as obj. 
throw into, vL, kuacixa or 
ufuixa with clxi. 
Past, go, vt., hlta, tamba. 
Paste, vL, together, l&m&cixa. 
Patch,!/., l&mlka, bamba, bamba- 
kanya, bambaktixa, tente- 
ktixa, tenteka. 
(small plat of garden near house) 

n., cibunda, 7. 
(small place in swamp planted in 
dry season), n., clsense, 7. 
Path, »., nxlla(iijila), 3. 
Patience, n., lutulu, 4. 
Patient, adj., -a lutulu(4). 
Patiently, adv., bitulu, bitekete. 
Patriarch, n., kaku, i. 
Pattern, n., cidikixllu, 7; luedi, 
4; luldi, 4; luelekexi, 4; 
cidlklxu, 7. 
Paw, n., dikama, 5. 
Pawn, v. (leave in), eyeka. 
(take out of), redeem, hikula. 
n., cleya, 7. 
Pay, vt., futa. 
attention, telexa. 
dowry, sela. 

homage to, tumblxa, nemekela, * 
nemeka, meneka, menekela, 
interest, tentekela with kasom- 
belu(8) or matabixa(pl. of 5 
or 6) or nsekididi(3) or nten- 
over to, flia. 
taxes to, lambula. 
n., difutu, 5. 
Payment, «., difutu, 5. 
Pea, »., black-eyed, lukunde, 4. 
Peace, be at, v., talala, hola, dt 
with talala or hola. 



Peaceful, be, vi., talala, hola, dl 

wi|h talala or hola. 
Peacefully, adv., talala, hola. 
Peacemaker, »., musungri, i. 
Peak, n., of mountain, dllunda, 5. 
Peanut, n., kambele, 8. 
Pebble, »., lusoka, 4. 
Peck, v. (as fowl), sokola, tua 

Peel, vt., ubula. 

n., cihusu, 7; cisubu, 7. 
Peer about, v., kensakana. 
Peevish, be, w'., nylnsabala. 
Pen, ». (enclosure), clkumbl, 7. 
(for writing), suggest mpena 

(Eng.), 3; muci(2) wa ml a 

Penalty, «.(fine), difutu, 5. 
Pencil, n. The name mpenct- 

la(Eng.) is suggested, 
lead-, mucl(2) wa mukanda. 
slate-, mucl wa with dibue(5) or 

Penetrate, v. (pierce), tubula. 

(go in), baela. 
Penis, n., lubola, 4. 
Penitence, ». (shame), bundu, 6; 

bunva, 6. 
(sorrow), dxl, 7; kanylnsan- 

ylngra, 8. 
Penitent, be, v., muoyo(2) or 

iiiucima(2) as subj. of the 

verbs nyingala or sama; 

ufua or unva with cixi(7) or 

bundu(6); dl ne muclma 

Pensive, be, vi., bungrama. 
Penury, n., buhele, 6; bulanda, 

People, »., bantu(pl. of muntu, i.) 
(people of), bena(pl. of muena, 

i), bakua(pl. of mukua, i). 

§§ 84 («, 87 ((0, Rem. 2. 
Pepper, »., lulungu, 4. 
Peradventure, adv.y ne. 
Perceive, v.(feel), unva, ufua. 
(know), mftnya. 
(see), mona, xoxa, tangrila. 
Perch, v., Ikila. 
Percussion cap, n., lufataci, 4. 

Perfect, be, v».(be completed), 
hua, xlka; vt., mttna, mAn- 
ylxa, xikixa, hulxa. 
(exact number), vi., ula, xlka; 
also the adj. forms xlla and 
a^;.(good), Impe, lengele, 

(whole, complete), onso, xima. 
I Perforate, v/., tubula. 
^ Perforation, n., dlsoso, 5; dl- 
kela, 5. 

Perform, i;.(do), ensa, osa, 
on an instrument, Imba. 

Perfume, »., mananaxi, pi. of 5 
or 6. Doubtless an imported 

Perhaps, adv., ne. 

Perish, vi., fua. 

Permission, n. The idea of grant- 
ing permission is perhaps best 
expressed by the v. Itabuxa 
with the verbal noun in lu- 
as obj.; as, wakultabuxa 
luendu lulnyl, he gave me 
permission to go. Asking per- 
mission may be expressed by 
the v. lomba with a verbal 
noun in lu- as obj. ; as naku- 
lomba luendu, / asked per- 
mission to go. Sometimes this 
idea is expressed by the Pur- 
portive Mood and is then gen- 
erally to be translated by may 
[§312 (P)]' Often the Causa- 
tive Form of the v. will express 
the idea; as, wakumpicixa, 
he let me {gave me permission 
to) pass. Refusing per- 

mission is expressed by the v. 

Permit, v., Itabuxa. See per- 
(not tabooed, permitted), neg: of 
V. with cijlla(7). 

Perpendicular, be, v»., lulAma, 
Jalama, ImAna; vt., make, 
ludika, Jadlka, Jalamlxa, 



Perpetually, adv., see cease- 

Perplex, vt (confuse), buanda- 
kAxa, buandakanya, tuha- 
kfixa, tuhakanya; vi., buan- 
dakana, buhakana. 

Persecute, vt.^ nyanga, ona, 
tacixa, kengexa, enzela bibl. 

Persecution, n., clnyangru, 7. 

Persevere, v., use neg. of lekela 
or of hangra or the Pres. 
Habitual tense. 
See also §356 (rf). Rem. i. 

Persistent, be, vj*., see perse- 

Person, »., muntu, i. 

(person of or belonging to a cer- 
tain party), muena, i; mu- 
kua, I. 

Perspiration, «., cisululu, 7; 
luanga, 4. 

Perspire, v.^ tuka or h&tuka with 
clsululu(7) or luanga(4). 

Persuade, ^.(induce to do), Ita- 
(induce from doing), humblxa, 

(implore by caressing), sengela, 

Pestle, »., muinxi, 2; musau, 2. 

Petroleum, »., mpltolo(Eng.). 

Petulant, be, vi.^ nyingrabala. 

Phlegm, w., dikodl, 5. Generally 
use pi. 

Photograph, »., mundidlmbi, 2; 

mudingridi, 2; cifuanyi, 7. 

The indefinite mukanda(2) is 

perhaps most often used. . 

take a, v., kuata mu mukanda. 

Physician, ». (medicine maker), 
mpaka(i) mangaCpl. of buan- 
sa, 6); muhaki(i) wa 

Pick, v/. (choose), sungula. 

(gather, as maize, fruit, etc.), 

huola, kuola. 
(gather up, as trash), boya. 
oflF. as feathers, tukula, tula. 
out, as something imbedded, 
tubula, tundula. 

Pick (continuecC) . 

up, ambula, m£ma, angata. 

up in the way, find, angula. 

up, as fowls in eating, zokola. 
Picture, ». (likeness), cifuanyi, 

(photograph), mundidlmbi, 2 ; 

mudlngidi, 2; mukanda, 2. 
take a, v/., kuata mu mukanda. 
draw a, v., idlkixa kufunda. 
Piece, »., of anything cut oflF, 
cituha, 7. 
of anything split, cihisu, 7. 
of cloth, mpesa, 3. From 

of cloth, less than a fathom, 

cltambala, 7. 
(one fourth of a piece of cloth, 

one fathom), lubandu, 4. 
(one half of a piece of cloth), 

difunka, 5. 
come to, vi.f tuka, tulakana. 
cut in pieces, vt.^ kosa bituha(pl. 
of 7). Kosa muci bltuha 
bis&tu, cui the stick in three 
(cut into small pieces, to hash), 

iU.y zaza. 
(take to pieces), vt.^ tula, tula- 

(tear to pieces), vt.^ tuanyan- 
Sana, tuanyakanya, handa- 
Pierce, vt.y tubula; vi.^ tubuka. 
Pig, «., muan'a ngulube(3). 
Pigeon, »., nkudimba, 3; mpu- 

tu(3) nyunyu(3). 
Pile, v. and «., see heap. 
Pilgrim, n., muendakanyi, i. 
Pill, n., kamoma, 8. 
Pillage, v^., haula. 
Pillar, »., dlkunxl, 5. 
Pillow, »., musamu, 2. 
lay head on, v., sama. 
Pimple, »., luhusu, 4. 
Pin, »., kaxing:l(8) ka kab^a- 

Pinch, v., tua or i^sa with Iuk&- 
di(4) or luK&la(4) or luala^4). 



Pine, v., bungama, nyingala 
inucima(2), unva or ufua 
with clxl(7). 
(cry), dlla. 
Pineapple, n., kangrajingruji, 8; 

cikakakaka, 7; dikaka, 5. 
Pinnacle, »., mutu, 2. 
Pipe, »., muxiba, 2. 
bowl of, nsuku, 3. 
gourd used as, cihuba, 7; ciloa, 

Pistol, «., kahambala, 8. 
Pit, ».(hoIe), dina(5), pi. is mena; 

cina, 7. 
for trapping animals, dijimba, 

sharpened stick in, disongo, 5. 
Pitch, n.(used in mending pots), 
kamonyi, 8. 
V. (throw), ela. 
Pitcher, ».(jug), luhanza, 4; 

mplca(Eng.), 3- 
Pith, »., of palm ribs, cibubu, 7. 
Pitiless, adj., see merciless. 
Pity, »., luse, 4. 
v.y ha luse, samba. 
feel, v.y ufua or unva with luse. 
Place, n., muaba, 2; mb&di, 3; 
mb&du, 3. 
at, in or on the same, adv., 
kumue, mumue, hamue, 
kaba kamue. § 79. 
fire-, n., dlKU, 5. PL is meku. 
v., see PUT. 
Placenta, w., nkixiabendi, 3. 
Plain, «. (treeless space), mpata, 

Plait, vL, luka. 

«., eihia, 7. 
Plan, v. (intend), amba followed 
by infin. 
in private conference, v., ela 

interrupt one's, v., humbixa, 
ela mukosa(2). 
Plane, vt., kuona, langa. 
Plank, »., diWya, 5. 
Plant, v. (transplant), tentula, 
(as corn, etc.), v/., kuna. 

Plantain, m. (bunch or single fruit), 
dikuonde, 5. 
hand of, cisangi, 7. 
stalk of, cikuondekuonde, 7. 
Plantation, «., see farm. 
Planter, «., mukunyi, i. 
Plaster, 2;.(daub), m^ta, bua. 
Plate, »., dilongra, 5. Perhaps 

from Lower Congo. 
Plateau, w. (treeless plain), mpa- 
ta, 3. 
Play, v., s&ba, naya. 

on an instrument, v., imba. 
with, amuse, sdkexa, s&bixa, 

s&ba ne, naya ne, nayixa. 
».(game), dis&ba, 5; dinaya, 5. 
Plead, v., for, akulla, lumbuluila, 
with, implore, sengrela, senge- 
Pleasant, be, w., to the taste, 
xemakana, di ne nse(pl. of 3 
or 4). 
Please, v/.(make happy), sanklxa. 
(be pleased), vi. sanka. 
(implore, in sense of "please 
do"), sengela, sengelela. 
Pleasure, »,, disanka, 5. 
Pledge, see pawn. 
Plentiful, adj., -a bungl(6), 

ngia-ngi, ngi. 
Plenty, «., bungl, 6. 

of, abundant, adj., -a bungi, 
ngla-ngi, ngi. 
Pliability, Pliableness, n., mu- 

xobo(mujobo), 2. 
Pliable, be, vi., xoboka, nyenga- 

bala, di ne muxobo(2). 
Pliant, see pliable. 
Plot, «., cifufu, 7. 

v., ela cifufu. 
Plough, v., imba is suggested. 
Pluck, v. (as feathers), tukula, 
(as fruit or com), huola, kuola. 
Plunder, vL, a village, haula. 
Plunge, v».(dive), dlna. 
Pock mark, see scar. 
Pocket, «., cibombo, 7; luhlya, 



Point, v., at, funkuna. 
at the, or end, the insep. locative 
words kusala, kusula, kun- 
fudllu. §423(2)W. 
of needle, etc., »., lusongo, 4. 
out to one, cause to see, vL, tan- 

grldixa, muenexa, lexa. 
sharpen to a, v/., songa. 
Poison, vt., lunga. 
n., mulangru, 2. 

(given to witches), »., clhaha, 7. 
(on arrows), lulengu, 4. 
Poke, vL, the fire, sonsola. 
Pole, n.(stick), mud, 2. 

ridge-, mutandala, 2; mutam- 
ba, 2. 
Polite, adj., -a kaloIo(8). 
Politeness, n., kalolo, 8. 
Pollute, v/., ona, nyanga. 
Pompous, be, v., dlsua, dllexa, 

Pond, »., dixlba, 5. 
Ponder, v., ela or elangana fol- 
lowed by lungenyi(4) or 
mexi(pl. of 5 or 6) or lu- 
Poor, adj., hele, landa. 

become as of land, w., atuka. 
Pop, v.(as corn parching), tudika, 

Population, see people. 
Porch, ». (veranda), cltadllu, 7; 
mbalanta(doubtlessfrom Eng. 
veranda), 3. 
Porcupine, «., nkSse, 3. 

quill of, muanga, 2; muso- 
mono, 2. 
Porridge, »., mpoIuJ(Eng.), 3. 
Porter, nph., matuadi(i) wa 

Portion, n.(inheritance), bahl- 
anyl, 6. 
(piece of an3rthing cut off), 

cituha, 7. 
(piece of anything split), cihSsu, 

(side), lus£ke, 4. 
Portuguese, ».( native from the 
Portuguese territory on the 
West Coast), clmb&di, 7. 

Position, n. (place), muaba, 2; 

mb&dl, 3; mb&du, 3. 
Possess, see save. 
Possessions, «., biiita(pl. of 7), 

biama(pl. of 7), lul&eta(4). 
Possessor, see owner. 
Possible, be, v., use dl or mona or 
mftnya followed by mua and 
infin. § 230. 
Possibly, o<f v. (perhaps), ne. 
Post J «.(for holding up veranda), 
dikunxl, 5. 
(for wall or door), cUua, 7; 

cixikl, 7. 
(stick), muci, 2. 
Posterior, adj., -a ku nytma(3). 
Posterity, n., bana, pi. of muana. 
Postpone, v., humblxa. 
Pot, n., clvuadl, 7; luesu, 4; 
nylngu, 3. 
a small, kasamba, 8. 
make a, vL, flmba, fumba. 
water-, mulondo, 2. 
Potato, n.(sweet), cUunga, 7; 

cinsenga, 7. 
Potter, »., muflmbi(mufuimbl), 

i; mufumbl, i. 
Pottery, make, vL, fumba, flmba 

Pouch, »., of monkey or crop of 

fowl, dlbodio, 5. 
Pounce, v., upon, tuhlklla, uhu* 

Pound, v/. (crush between stones), 
(beat), kuma, tutsi. 
down, as loose dirt, beta. 
in a mortar, tua. 
into powder, botexa; W.(be 
powdered), beta. 
Pour, vt., homuna, Iclkixa. 
Pout, v., bungama. 
Poverty, n., buhele, 6, bulanda, 

Powder, n.(an3rthing fine), mu- 
senga, 2. 
gun-, kahia, 8; difuanda, 5. 
vL, botexa; w'.(be powdered), 



Power, ». (strength), bukftle, 6; 

ngulu, pi. of 3. 
have, be able, v., see able. 
Powerful, adj., kttle. 
Practice, ». (custom), cilele, 7; 

clbllu, 7; clensedi, 7. 
(customary action), use Pres. 

Habitual tense. 
Praise, v.(honor), tumbixa, ten- 

delela, meneka, menekela, 

nemeka, nemekela, Inylxa. 
(not to praise, condemn), v/., 

dlula, nyoka. 
Prattle, v., akula biakula- 

kula [§ 356 (g)]y labakana. 
Pray, v. (act of prayer), tendelela 

is perhaps best word, 
(ask for), lomba. 
Prayer, »., mutendelelu, 2. 
Preach, vph., amba bualu(6) bua 

Preacher, nph., muambi(i) wa 

Nzambi, muambi wa bua- 

lu(6) bua Pfzambl. 
Precaution, «., budimu, 6. 

take, v.y dfmuka. 
Precede, v.^ ya with ku mp&la(3) 

or kumudllu, dianjila. 
Precipice, »., see cliff. 
Precious, adj., -a muxinsa(2) 

make, vL, bandlxa or klllexa 

with muxlnga. 
Predestinate, vph., sungrula di- 

Predict, vph., amba diambedi 

bualu kabul buansa(e) kulua. 
Prefer, v^.(choose), sunguia. 

(like), sua, nanga, Inylxa. 
Pregnant, be, vi., di ne with 

dlfu(5) or dlmi(s). 
(be pregnant by, cause to be), 

vt., imieixa. 
(to conceive), v., imita difu. 
Prematurely, bring forth, see 


Prepare, 2;/.(make), enza, osa, 
(arrange), longolola. 
(be prepared), vi., hua, xlka. 

Preposition. For treatment of, 

see §§ 422, etc. 
Presence, «.( before the face of), 
ku mesu kua, ku mp&Ia kua. 
Present, be, vi., use generally dl 
with Locative Suffixed con- 
struction. § 320. 
(give), vt., ha, ambika. 
n. (extra amount added to con- 
clude trade), matabixa, pi. of 
5 or 6; nsekldidi, 3; nten- 
tekedl, 3. 
(gift),ciha, 7; also the infin.kuha. 
Presently, aQV.(aX once), kata- 

taka, mpindeu, dlodlono. 
Preserve, v.{sls salt), lengexa. 

(guard), l&ma. 
Press, vL, down, buekexa. 
in hands, to squeeze, kama. 
in hands, to throttle, flekela. 
(push against), s£klla, semexa, 

together into smaller space, bam- 
bila, nyemenena, xindlka, 
Pretend, to v., dinglxa or ximixa 
or dimbixa followed by infin.; 
as, udl udlngixa kulala, he 
ts pretending to sleep. 
Pretty, adj., impe, lengele, 

akane, -a mpocl(s]ang.) 
Prevail, see overcome. 
Prevent, v. (forbid), hidla, benga. 
(interrupt, hinder), humbixa, 
humbakftxa, kosexa. Nvula 
wakutuhumblxa mua kuya, 
the ainr prevented us from going. 
Previously, do, v., dianjila fol- 
lowed by infin. 
Price, n., muxinga, 2. 

beat down the vt., buekexa or 
tekexa or tentulula with 
of cheap, adj., -a muxinga mute- 

of dear, adj., -a muxinga mu- 

raise the, vt., bandixa or kftlexa 

with muxinga. 
talk the, vt., tua muxinga. 



Pride, »., dlsanka, 5. 

Priest, «.(in Biblical sense), sug- 
gest muainbl(i) wa NEambi or 
muambl wa buaiu(6) bua 
high, iiiukelense(i) wa bambi 
ba Nzambl, mukelengre wa 
bambi ba bualu bua Nzambi. 

Prince, n.(son of king), muana(i) 
followed by wa mukelense(i) 
or wa nfuinu(i). 
(chief), mukelenge, nfumu. 

Print, v. (write), funda. 

foot-, n., diklsa, 5; cidlacilu, 
7; dikama, 5; mukono, 2. 

Prison, nph.y nsubu(3) wa ma- 

Prisoner, nph., muntu(i) wa mu 
n8ubu(3) wa maxlka. 

Probably, adv., ne. 

Proboscis, n., muilu, 2. 

Procedure, n., cienzedi, 7. 

Proceed, v., see go. 

Procession, n., mulongo, 2. 

Proclaim, v., amba. 

Proclamation, n., dl, 5; mu- 
kenji, 2. 
issue a, ^., amba followed by di 

or mukenjl. 
(prohibitive command), «., mu- 
kandu, 2. 

Procrastinate, t;., humba, xlxa- 

Prodigal, nph.{one spending reck- 
lessly his substance), mutan- 
saiaxi(i) or matangadixl(i) 
or manyang:i(i) followed by 
wa bintu. 

Prodigally, spend, vL, nyanga, 
tangadixa, tangalftxa, muan- 
galfixa, dia, ona. These may 
all be followed by bintu as obj. 

Produce, 7;.(bear), tela, kuama, 
(make), enza, osa, klxa. 

Productive, adj., soil, impe, 
akane, kSle, -a luiya(4). 
(have power to bear young), vph., 
di ne followed by luleiu(4) or 
diminu(5) or buledi(6). 

Propane, adj., bi. 

vt.y ona, nyang^a. 
Profess, v.(accept), Itabuxa. 
(pretend), dinglxa or dimblxa 

or xlmixa followed by infin. 
Profession, ^.(calling), mudlmu, 

(make profession of faith), vph.^ 

itabuxa (bualu bua Nzambi). 
Profit, v.(make by trading), endu- 

iula muxinga(2) muimpe. 
Progenitor, n., kaku, i; nyln- 

k(a). I. 
Progeny, n.,bana, pl.of muana(i). 
Progress, v. (go), ya, enda. 
Prohibit, ^.(forbid), hidia, benga, 

(prevent), bumblxa, bumba- 

(prohibited thing), n., cijila, 7. 
(taboo), v/., Jidika, Jila. 
Prohibition, n.(law), mukandu, 2. 
Prolific, be, v.(have power to 

bear young), di ne followed by 

lulelu(4) or dlminu(5) or 

Prolong, v., lunguluka. 
Prominent, arf;. (important), nine, 

tumbe(p.p. of tumba, U) be 

Promise, v., laya. 

n., mulayi, 2. 
Pronounce, v., badly, akula 

cidiml(7) or akula cll&fl(7). 
innocent, vL, bingixa, hixa. 
judgment, v., lumbulula, kosa 

Proof, ».(sign), cimonyinu, 7. 
Prop, n., dikunxi, 5; cihanda, 7; 

cikuacixi, 7. 
Propagate, v., lelangana. 
Proper, adj. (good), impe, akane, 

be, to fit, v., akana, akanangana, 

fuanangana, kelemena, die* 

Property, see goods. 
Prophesy, vph., amba diambedt 

bualu kabul buanza(e) ka« 




Prophet, »., suggest ph. muam- 
bi(i) wa malu kai manza(e) 
Proprietor, «., see owner. 
Prostitute, «. (adulterer), mu- 
ena(i) inasandi(pl. of 5 or 6); 
muki:ixi(i) wa masandi. 
Protect, v. (guard), I&ma. 
Protract, 2;. (as one speaking a 

long time), lunguluka. 
Protrude, v., h&tuka, tuka. 
Proud, be, v., disua, dilexa, 

sanka, alakana. 
Proverb, see fable. 
Provide, v., for, dfza, kUlexa. 
Provoke, v^(anger), kuacixa or 
ufuixa with cUi(7), tacixa, 
flkixa munda. 
(be provoked), vi.j tata, kuata 
cixi, ufua or unva or dl ne 
with cixi, di ne munda mu- 
dog or other animal to bite, v., 
k«ba luoxi(4). 
Prudence, «. (craftiness), budimu, 
(wisdom), lunecnyi, 4; lukanyi 
4; mexi, pi. of 5 or 6. 
Prudent, adj., -a lung:enyi(4), 
-a iukanyi(4), -a mexl(pl. of 
5 or 6), -a budimu(6), dimu- 
ke(p.p. of dimuka, to be pru- 
Publish, v. (tell), amba. 
Pull, vt., huiumuna, koka, 
an oar, to row, ita, uha. 
apart, as anything sticking, 

down, as a house, sasula. 
off, as clothes, kuhola, vula. 
off, as fruit, huola, kuoia. 
out, tula, hulula, uhula. 
to pieces, tulakanya. 
up, xomuna, Jula. 
Pulsate, v. (as heart), kuma 

Pulverize, vt., botexa. 
Pumpkin, »., dioxi(dioji), 5; 
kabanga, 8. 

Punch, v., at, tua. 

(make a hole through), vt.^ 
tubula; vi., tubuka. 
Punish, vt., kuma, kengexa, tuta, 

nyanga, ona. 
Punishment, n., dikengexa, 5. 
Pup, n.y kabua(dimin. of mbua, 3), 

Pupil, «., of eye, lumAnyl, 4. 
(scholar), muiyidi, I ; muena(i) 
mikanda(pl. of 2). 
Purchase, v/., ula, sumba. 
Pure, fl^/.(good), impe, akane, 
(be, vi.y chaste), ena ne ma- 

sandi(pl. of 5 oi- 6). 
(transparent), toke(p.p. of toka, 
to be pure). 
Purge, v/.(as medicine), uhixa 
(make good), lengexa. 
(wash), uvua, sukula(Lower 

(whiten), tokexa. 
Purify, see purge. 
Purity, n., buimpe, 6; buakane, 

6; bulengele, 6; butoke, 6. 
Purple, adj., kunze, kunzubile, 
kunzuluke. These are p.p. 
from the verbs kunza and 
kunzubila and kunzuluka, 
Purpose, ^.(intend), amba with 
interrupt one's, vt., humbixa, ela 

Sometimes the simple Purportive 
Mood is the construction to be 
used. §461. 
ff.(cause), bualu, 6; muanda, 2. 
for what ? see why. 
Pursue, v. (drive away), ihftta. 

(follow), londa. 
Pus, w., tuflna, pi. of 8. 

(in comer of eye), luhoca, 4, 
luhota, 4. 
Push, vt., semexa, sSkila, sexa. 
down, to press down, huekexa, 
xindikixa, bambila, nyeme- 
nena, kamata. 



Push {continued). 

over, to upset, tokola(tonkola). 
Put, vt.f teka. 

across a river, v/, sabula. 

back, vt.f alulza. 

by, to lay by, v/., teka, tekela, 

down, to lay down, vt.y ladlka, 

down, to let down, vt.^ tulula, 
teka or tula followed by 

fire to, vt.y oza. 

forth leaves, to bud, vi,y samplla 

in, vt.y buexa. 

in a line, vt.y lonira» teka mu 

in mind, to remind, vt.y vulula, 

in order, vt.y lonffolola. 

off clothes, vt.y Tula, kuhola. 

off, to postpone, vt.y humblxa. 

on a patch, vt.y bamba. 

on clothes, vt.y luata, vuala. 

on cover, vt.y bulkila. 

one on top of the other, vt.y ten- 

on top, vt.y ten teka, amblka, 

out, vt.y luhula, umuxa, hft- 

out, as hand, vt.y olola. 

out, to distinguish, vt.y Jima. 

to death, vt.y xlha. 

to flight, vt.y ih&ta. 

together, vt.y teka hamue, san- 
fflxa, tutakflxa, bambakan- 
ya, bambaktkxa, kunglxa, 
sanga, sambakanya, samba- 
kflxa, sangakanya, sanga- 
kflxa, tutakanya, sangila. 

together, to join, vt.y kuataktkxa, 
tuangaxa, tuaoganya, kua- 

under, vt.y buexa or teka fol- 
lowed by munxi mua. 

up, as price, vt.y bandixa or 
klllexa with niuxinga(2). 

up on, vt.y teka ha..hayika. 

up, to build, vt.y asa, Ibflka. 

Putrefy, vt.y bolexa; v»., bola. 

Putrid, be, w., bola. 

Puzzle, n., dljlmbu, 5; dlalu, 5. 
vt.y hanglzangana. 

Pygmy, n., kay«ke, 8. The ta- 
y£ke are said to live in the 
dense forests and are regarded 
with superstititious awe. They 
are doubtless only creatures of 
the imagination. 

Quake, vi.y lakala, kanka, clka- 
kana, clka, taka. 

(as earthquake), vi.y use ba- 

lobo(6) as subj. of taka or 

Qualified, be, vi.^ dl ne ormona 

or mflnya followed by mua 

and infin. § 230. 
Quality, «., see kind. 
Quantity, n., great, bungl, 6. 
(what quantity ?), bungl followed 

by munyl? or bizl?, also nga 

(I 178). 
Quarrel, n.(dispute), luh&ta, 4. 
(row), n.y dlyoyo, 5; mutftyo, 2. ■ 
v.(to dispute), ela or elangana 
or dl ne with mp&ta(pl. of 
(to fight), v., luangana. 
Quarrelsome, adj.y -a dlyoyo(5), 

-amutilyo(2), -aniuaku(2). 
Queen, n., mukelenge(i) mu- 

Quell, v/. (conquer), tamba or 
hlta with bukille(6) or ngu- 
lu(pl. of 3 or 4). 
(to quiet), vt.y talflxa or holexa 
or huxa or kosexa or xlklxa 
followed by dlyoyo(5) or 
mutayo(2) or muaku(2) or 
Quench, T;/.(as fire), Jlma. 

(as thirst), mtkna or hulxa with 
nilota(nyota), talfixa or ho- 
lexa with ha dlinlnu(5) or ha 



Question, v/.(ask about), ebexa, 
n. (dispute), luh&ta, 4. 

Quickly, Quickness, adv. and «., 
lubilu(4)> lukfisa(4). 

Quiet, vt.y talfixa or holexa or 
huza or koseza or zikixa 
with diyoyo(5) or mutllyo(2) 
or inuaku(2). • 

be, vi.j talala, hola, di followed 
by the adverbial words talala 
or hola. 
(be not able to speak when ac- 
cused), vi.y hua. 
(stop noise), v., lekela followed 
by diyoyo(5) or niutttyo(2) or 
muaku(2) or the infin. of 

Quietly, adv., talala, hola, bite- 

Quill, n., of porcupine, muansa, 
2; musomono, 2. 

Quit, v. (leave off), lekela. 

Quite, see very. 

Quiver, vi.y lakala, kanka. 

Rabble, nph.^ bantu ba cinana. 
Race, «., see tribe. 

run a, vph.^ Idikixa or elekexa 

with Iubilii(4), lit., compare 

the speed. 
Radiate, vi.^ abuluka. 
Rafter, n., dihilu, 5; lusokolo;4. 
Rag, n.(small piece of cloth), 

cihSsu, 7; citambala, 7. 
(small piece of cloth worn in front 

and behind), lubondla, 4. 
(worn-out cloth), cilulii(7) cisu- 

Rage, w., clxl, 7. 
v.(be angry), dl ne or ufua or 

unva with cixl, cixl as subj. 

of V. kuata with the person as 

Ragged, be, vi., susuka. 
Railway train, nph.^ dikumbi(5) 

dia bulobo(6). 

Railway {continued). 

(track), nxlla(3) wa dikumL! 
dia bulobo. 
Rain, w., nvula, 3. 
v.f loka, m&ta. 
-bow, n., muazankoiiffolo, 2. 
(cease raining), v., use nvula rs 
subj. of V. tangadlka or tan - 
continued, n., mudlnibl(niu- 

dumbi), 2; muvumbi, 2. 
(to threaten), v., flnda. 
Rainbow, »., muazankongolo, 2. 
Rainy season, «., nvula, pi. of 3; 

mayowa, pi. of 5 or 6. 
Raise, vL, blxa, bandixa, bungu- 
luxa, takula, kakula, am- 
bula, Jula. 
the voice, bandixa or ambuluxa 
or ambulula or killexa with 

to life, fululula. 
Ram, n.(male of sheep), clmpanga, 

v.(as a gun), soma. 

Ramble, vi.^ endakana. 

Ramrod, n., nfuk«te, 3. 

Rank, «.(of high, chiefship), bu- 
kelenge, 6; bunfumu, 6. 
(row), 9f., mulongo, 2. 

Ransom, z'/.(redeem), hlkula. 

Rape, commit, vph.^ kuata mu- 
kflxi(i) ku bukaie(6). 

Rapidity, «., lubllu(4), Iuk1&sa(4), 
ka1ubilubi(8). This last word 
has also the idea of careless- 

Rapidly, adv., lubllu, lukflsa. 
These are really nouns of 
class IV. 

Rapids, w. (falls), clbila, 7. 

Rascal, n., muntu(i) mubl. 

Rascality, n., bubl, 6. 

Rat, n., mpuku, 3. The dimin. is 
For varieties of, see mouse. 
-hole, buina, 6. PI. is mena. 
-trap, n., buteyi, 6; luklnda, 4. 

Rather, had, t;. (prefer), sungula. 

Rat-hole, »., see under rat. 



Rattle, «. (gourd with seeds in- 
side), diktksa, 5; musul, 2; 
musaktkcl, 2. 
(for dogs in hunting), cidibu, 7. 
v.y imba. 
Rat-trap, «., see under rat. 
Ravage, v/. (plunder), haula. 
Ravish, v., see rape. 
Raw, adj.f blxe. 
Razor, n., dihl, 5; nteula, 3. 
Reach, v. (arrive at), flka. 
out, as hand, olola. 
to, to extend to, tua ku. 
to, as with hand, beta. 
to, to hand something to one, v/., 
hetela, hetexa. 
Read, z'., b&la, luida(Eng.). 
Ready, be, vi.(be finished), muna, 

hua, xlka. 
Real, ai;.(true), lilela, IkOxa, -a 
buxua(6), -a bulllela(6), -a 
buioabulna(6), -a bulktkxa 
(6), -a bualabuala(6). 
Sometimes the postpositive mene 
is used. 
Reality, n., bulllela, 6; buxua, 6; 
buinabuina, 6; bualabuala, 
6; buiktixa, 6. 
Really, arfv. (truly), use the noun 
forms bulilela, buxua, buina- 
buina, bualabuala, buikflza. 
Sometimes the adv. mene is 
Reap, v^. (gather com), huola, 
(gather millet), nowa. 
(gather peas), aka. 
See harvest. 
Rear, n., at the, ku nyima(3), 
be in the, be last, vi., xlxa. 
part of, kumanda, ku citaku(7), 

kuntaku. See § 423 (2) (b). 
vLj dixa, kftlexa. 
Reason, n. (cause), buala, 6; 
muanda, 2. 
for this, therefore, adv.^ ka. 
for what ?, see why. 
(intelligence), lunnrenyl, 4; mexl, 
pi. of 5 or 6; lukauyl, 4. 

Reason (continued). 

(think), v.y ela or elangrana \^'ith 
lungenyi or mexl or lukanyl. 
Rebel, against, vL, hidla, benga. 
Rebound, vi., lundumuka. 

(jump), tuhlka. 
Rebuke, v/., beia, samina, bulu- 

klla, nanga. 
Recall, v/. (cause to return), luixa, 
alukixa, hinglxa, tucixa, 
(remember), vi., vuluka. 
Receive, ^/.(accept), Itabuxa. 

(get), angata. 
Rbckless, adj.{wi\d)y bale, bu- 
luke, tomboke. These are 
p.p. from hala and buluka 
and tomboka respectively, 
meaning to be reckless. 
Recklessly, spend, vt., nyanga, 
tangradlxa, tangaldxa, muan- 
galfiza,dla,ona. These words 
are generally followed bybintu. 
Recklessness, n., bubal e, 6; 
bubuluke, 6; butomboke, 6. 
Reckon, v.(count), b&la. 

(suppose), amba. 
Recline, vi., lala. 
Recognize, vt.{know), mflnya. 

(not to recognize), hanga. 
Recollect, ^.(recall to mind), 

Recommence, v., tuadixa, anga- 

clla kabldi. 
Recompense, vt., futa. 

n., dlfutu, 5. 
Reconcile, vt., tokexa munda, 
alukixa bulunda(6). 
(pacify people who are fighting), 
vt., sunga. 
Reconciler, w., musungl, i. 
Reconnoiter, v., tentekela. 
Recover, v. (after a fainting spell), 
(get better), v., sang&la, ktksa 
niubidi(2), sangaluka. 
Red, adj., kunze(p.p. of v. kunia, 

to be red). 
Redeem, T;/.(free from slavery or re- 
deem things in pawn), hikula. 



Redeemer, n., musungrldl, i; 
muhlkudi, i. 

Redemption, n., price of, buhlo 
kudl, 6. 

Redness, n., bukunze, 6. Some- 
times the infin. kukunza, to be 
red, is used in Comparative 

Reduce, see decrease. 

Reed, ». (papyrus, used in making 
mats), lutuhu, 4; lumungu, 

(used in making fence), clnkSte, 

Reel, vt*. (stagger), lenduka, ten- 

kakana, nyungakana, takan- 

Refine, v/., lengexa. 
Reflect, vt.{as mirror), monexa. 
(think), ela or elangana with 

lungenyl(4) or mexl(pl. of 5 

or 6) or lukaiiyl(4). 
Reflection, n.(as in mirror), 

mundidimbi, 2; mndingldl, 

(likeness), clfuanyi, 7; cifuao- 

yikixa, 7. 
(thought), lungenyi, 4; mexl, 

pi. of 5 or 6; lukanyl, 4. 
Refractoriness, w., cixlku, 7; 

cicu, 7; buhidia, 6; cl- 

bengu, 7. 
Refractory, orf;., -a cixiku(7), -a 

clcu(7), -a buhidla(6), -a 

Refrain from, v., lekela. 
Refresh, v/., k&lexa. 
Refuge, take, v., nyema, ongo- 

Refugee, w., munyemi, i. 
Refusal, »., mukanda, 2; buhi- 
dia, 6; cibengru, 7. 
Refuse, v., hidia, benga. 
to give, vL, imina, h&la. 
to let do, vL, kanda. 
(trash, rubbish), «., bilii, bi- 

sonso.. These are pi. of 7. 
Regard, v. (honor), tumbixa, 

nemeka, nemekela, meneka, 


Regard {continued). 

(look at), mona, xoxa, tahgila. 
(reckon), amba. 
Regards, n.(compliments), muo- 
yo, 2. 
give, vt.f ela or ha or ebexa 
with muoyo. 
Regenerate, vt.f fuka or lela 

wdth kabidl. 
Region, see country. 
Regret, «., cixi, 7. 

v.y di ne kanyinganyinsa(8), di 
ne or unva or ufua with 
cixi(7), muoyo(2) or mu- 
cima(2) as subj. of nyingala 
or sama, cixi as subj. of kuata 
with person as obj. 
Regulation, see law. 
Reign, vph., di niukelenge(i). 

over, see govern. 
Reject, t//., hidia, benga. 
Rejoice, vi.f sanka. 
Relate, v. (as a fable or story), 
(tell), amba. 
Relative, «., use some such ex- 
pression as muan'etu, etc. 
§ 138, Rem. 5. 
Relax, v/., bulula, lekelela. 
Release, v/., lekela. 
Reliable, adj., -a di(5) dimue. 
Relieve, v. (carry for), tuadila. 
(help), enzexa. Use Causative 

Form of v. 
of pain, talflxa, holexa. 
of, take off from, tentulula. 
Religion, tt. The Gospel is called 

bua]u(6) bua Nzambl. 
Rely on, vt., tekeinena(?). 
Remain, v., x&la, ikftla. 

over, x&la. 
Remainder, nph.^ cintu(7) ci- 

Remarkable, adj., -a kuk^ma. 

(great), nine. 
Remedy, n. (medicine), bnanga, 6. 
Remember, vi., vuluka. 

cause to, to remind, vt., vulula, 

(recognize), mtknya. 



Remind, v/., vulula, vuluxa. 
Reminder, n.(mark), elmonylmif 


Remorse, »., kanyinsanyinffa, 8; 
cUl, 7. 

Remote, adj.(in distance), use the 
proper locative inseparably 
with le. Most often kale is 
correct. We may also have 
the forms kuakua, muamua, 
haha. § 163, Note 3. 
(in time), kale, bangabansa, 

Remove, v., a covering, bulula. 
from one place to another, to 

scatter, vi.y muanffala. 
(take away), vt.y umuxa. 

Remunerate, v/., futa. 

Remuneration, n., dlfiitu, 5. 

Rend, z;/., handa, tuanya; vL* 
handlka, tuanylka. 

Render, v. (give), ha, amblka. 
oil, en^a. 

Renounce, t;/., hidla, benga, 
nyoka, diula. 

Renowned, adj.f nine, tiimbe(p.p. 
of tumba, to be renowned). 

Rent, n.(hole), disoso, 5; dikela, 

(the pay for use of an article), w., 
matabixa, pi. of' 5 or 6; nse- 
kldldl, 3; ntentekedl, 3. 

Repair, vL, longolola. 

Repeat, i;. (begin again), tuadlxa, 
bangila, angacila kabidl; 
the Pres. or Past Repetitive 
tenses; the verbal suffixes 
-ulula and -ununa. § 346. 

Repent, v.(change one's mind), 
kndlmuna or andamnna with 
mucinia(2) or muoyo(2). 
(feel sorry), see sorry. 

Repentance, n.(shame), bundu, 
6; bunvu, 6. 
(sorrow), clxi, 7; kanylngan- 
yinga, 8. 

Reply, v. (answer when called), 
to question, amba. 

Report, n.(fame), lumu, 4. 
(noise of crying), »., muadl, 2. 
(noise of gun), it., mukuma, 2. 
(noise of human voice), «., dl- 
yoyo, 5; mntttyo, 2; muaku, 
(noise of wind or other distant 

sound), n.f elono, 7. 
v.(tell about), amba. 
(tell to), amblla. 
Repose, v. (lie down), lala. 
(rest), v., iklxa, eya. 
n. (sleep), tuln, pi. of 8. 
Represent, v.(act for), generally 
use Applied Form of v. 
to, tell to, vt.y amblla. 
Representation, ». (likeness), cl- 
fuanyl, 7. 
(picture), mnndldlmbl, 2; mu- 
dlngldl, 2. 
Reproach, vt., b£la, nanga, sa- 
mina, bulnkila. 
n.(shame), bnndu, 6; bunvu, 6. 
Reproduce, v.(by generations), le- 

Reprove, vt.y b£la, nanga, samlna, 

Reptile, »., be specific. Use 

words for snakey lizsardy etc. 
Repudiate, vt.y hldia, benga. 
Repugnant, adj.y bl. 
Repulse, v/. (defeat), tamba or 
hlta with bukttle(6) or ngu- 

Repulsive, adj. {bad) y bl. 
Request, v/.(beg), lomba. 
Rescue, vt.y sunglla, handixa, 

sungidlla; vi.y handuka. 
Resemblance, ». (likeness), cl- 

fuanyl, 7; cifuanylklxa, 7. 
Resemble, vi.y fuanangana, kele- 

(be like), fuana, fuanangana, 

kelemena, dl with muomu- 

mue or o-mue or bu or buina. 
Reside, vi.y Ik&la, xlkama, lala. 
Residence, n.(housc), nsubu, 3. 
Resin, n., kamonyi, 8. 
Resist, v.(fight), luangana. 
(refuse), hidla, benga. 



Resolute, be, see persevere. 
Resolve, see coNCLtJDE. 
Respect, v/.(honor), tumbixa, ne- 
meka, nemekela, meneka, 
Respects, »., muoyo, 2. 
give to, v.y ha or ela or ebexa 

with muoyo. 
give to for another, v/., hela 

to a chief, vt., sekelela, mene- 
kela, meneka, nemeka, ne- 
Respire, v., eyela. 

rapidly, to pant, v.^ huyakana. 
Respond, v., to a question, amba. 

when called, v., itaba. 
Responsibility, n., bualu, 6; 

muanda, 2. 
Responsible, be, vph.y di bua- 
lu(6) bua, di muanda(2) wa. 
Rest, vi.y ikixa, eya, xikama. 
(be rested), vi.y kankamtkna. 
«. (remainder), clntu(7) clx&le. 
Restless, be, vi.y sasakata. 
Restlessness, »., disasakata, 5. 
Restore, t'/. (return to), alukixa, 
hlnglxa, hlngflxa, tucixa. 
to health, to cure, vt.y ondaha, 
when used of the person cur- 
ing; umlxa or talAxa or 
holexa, when used of the 
Restrain, i//. (correct, as a child), 
bSla, buluklla, samina, nan- 

(forbid), hldla, benga, kanda. 
(hold), kuata. 

(interrupt, hinder), humblxa, 

lekexa, kosexa, humbakflxa. 

Result, n., bualu, 6; muanda, 2. 

Resurrect, vt.y bixa ku lufu(4), 

Resuscitate, vt.y sanguluxa, fu- 
lulula, tuyixa (i.e., cause 
sickness to glance off), 
(be resuscitated), vi.y sanguluka, 
sangftla, tuya, fululuka, 
ktksa mubldi(2). 
Retainer, n., mul&mftci, i. 

Retard, vt.y humblxa, lekexa. 
Reticent, be, hua. 
Retinue, n., baUm&cl, pi. of i. 
Retire, vi.{go back), hingila, 

hingana, aluka, alukila, 

tuta, tucila. 
Retreat, vi.y clmuka. 

(run away), vi., ya or nyema 

with lubllu. 
Retribution, n., lukuna, 4. 

(punishment), dikengexa, 5. 
Return, vi.y aluka, alukila, 

andamuka, tuta, tuella, hin- 

glla, hingana, hinguluka; 

vt.y alukixa, andamuxa, tu- 
cixa, hingixa, bingtkxa. 
Reveal, vt.y a secret or something 

hidden, sokolola; sokola, 

ton da. 
(uncover), bulula. 
Revenge, w. (enmity), lukuna, 4. 
Revengeful, adj.y -a lukuna(4). 
Revere, vt.y tumbixa, nemeka, 

nemekela, meneka, mene- 
kela, tendelela. 
Reverence, vt.y see revere. 

n.y kalolo, 8. 
Reverent, adj.y -a ka]olo(8). 
Reverse, v/.(turn over or around), 

andamuna, kudimuna, cln- 

Revile, vt.y henda, tanda, tan- 

dixa, tuka. 
Revive, vt.y one fainting, etc., 

fululula, sanguluxa, tuyixa; 

vi.y fululuka, sanguluka, 

sang&la, tuya, kflsa mu- 

Revolt, vt.y from, hldia, benga. 
Revolve, vi.y einguluka. 
Reward, w., difutu, 5. 

v.y futa. 
Rib, n.y lubale, 4; lubafu, 4. 
(bone of fish), dleba, 5. PI. is 

Rice, w., luoso, 4. Perhaps from 

Rich, adj.y banji, -a biuma(pl. 

of 7), -a bintu(pl. of 7), -a 




Rich (continued). 

soil, lengele, impe, akane, kttle, 
-a lulya(4). 
Riches, n.(goods), bubanjl, 6; 
biuma, pi. of 7; blntu, pi. of 
7; luhetu, 4. 
Richness, n,, bubanjl, 6. 
Riddle, n., dijimbu, 5; dialu, 5. 
Ride, vph., in hammock, enda mu 
on horse, enda mubande ha 
Ridge, n.(hill), mukuna, 2. 

>pole, mutandala, 2; mutamba, 

of house, musongro, 2. 
Ridge-pole, n., mutandala, 2; 

mutamba, 2. 
Ridicule, vL, s«ka. 
Ridiculous, be, ^.(producing 

laughter), sSkexa. 
Rifle, »., cingoma(7) cia lu- 

Right, n., bulmpe, 6; buakane, 6; 
bulengele, 6. 
all, vph.y kakuena bua1u(6). 
be, to fit, vi.y akanangana, 

(good), adj., impe, akane, len- 

hand, nph., cianza(7) ela with 

baluml or bukllle or bidia. 
(it is right to do), bualu bulmpe 

or bimpe followed by infin. 
not, vph., use neg. with impe or 

akane or lengele. 
adv.f blmpe, biakane, bilengele. 
Righteous, adj.(g(ood), impe, 

akane, lengele. 
Righteousness, ». (goodness), 
buimpe, buakane, 6; bur 
lengele, 6. 
Rightly, adv., bimpe, biakane, 

Rigid, be, vj. (inflexible), tanta- 
mana, tandabala, kayabala. 
Rim, n.y muelelu, 2; mubangu, 2; 

muzuku, 2; mulemu, 2. 
Rind, n., clhusu, 7; clzubu, 

Ring, ».(circle), cljingu, 7; 
clfundu, 7; citanga, 7. 
for finger or ear, kakanu, 8. 
v/.(as church bell), ela. 
(if a musical instrument), Imba. 
Riot, «., dlyoyo, 5. 
Rip, vt.y handa, tuanya. 
Ripe, adj., hle(p.p. of hia, to be 

Rise, v>.(ascend), banda. 

(as dough), vi.f tuntumuka, 

(as price), vi.y banda, kttla. 
(as sun), vi.y banda, h ft tula, 

from a sitting posture, vi., bika, 

from the dead, vi., bika ku 

lufu(4), fululuka. 
sun-, about, n., dinda, 5; lun- 
kelu, 4. 
RrvER, n.y musulu, 2. 

up-, nph.y ku mutu(2). 
ROAD; n.y nxila, 3. 
Roam, vi.y endakana. 
Roar, vi.{as cataract), blla. 
(as lion), dila. 
9f.(as of animal), muadl, 2. 
(as of wind or falls), clono, 7. 
See note under onona. 
Roast, v/., in fire, oxa. 
in pot, as peanuts, kanga. 
on a spit, nanga(nana), Inylka 
Rob, i;/. (pillage), haula. 
(steal), Iba. 

(take by force), nyenga. 
Robber, n.(on highway), mun- 
yengi, i. 
(thief), mulvl, i; muibi, i; 
muena(i) muclma(2). 
Robbery, n., buibi, 6; bulvi, 6; 

bunyengi, 6. 
Robust, adj.y kttle(p.p. of kttla, 

to be robust). 
Rock, »., dibue, 5. 

about, as canoe, vi., tankakana; 
vt.y tankakfixa. 
Rod, «. (brass, used as money), 
mutaku, 2. 



Rod {continued). 

Round {continued). 

ram-, nfukSte, 3. 

(go round about), v., cimba- 

(switch), mulangala, 2; mu- 

kana, nyunsruluka. 

xoxo, 2; munyasu, 2; kan- 

(go round anything in the way), 

yanzu, 8. 

v.y sesuka. 

Rogue, «., muibi, i; inulvl, i; 

(spherical), adj., -a clbulunge 

muena(i) muciina(2). 

(7), -a dlbulunge(5); (be). 

Roguish, adi.^ -a niuGima(2), -a 

vi., bulunga; (make), v/.. 

buibl(6)', -a bulvi(6), -a 


blanza(pl. of 7) bile. 

Rouse, i'/.(as from sleep), blxa. 

RoGursHNESS, ft.,bulbi, 6; buivl, 6. 

Rout, vt.y ihftta, cimuna. 

Roll, «., muvungu, 2. 

Route, «., nxlla, 3. 

along, away, down, vi.^ bungu- 

Row, n.(line), mulongo, 2. 


be in a, m., dl mu mulongo. 

(as a boat), vi., tankakana; 

put in a, vt.y longa, teka mu 

vt.^ tankakflxa. 


(bale), n., dikutu, 5. 

stand in a, vi.^ imflna mu mu- 

(bundle), «., mubombo, 2; cl- 


siimbu, 7. 

vt.y a boat, ita, uha. 

into a string, vt.^ Jlnga, JingUa. 

(quarrel), «., dlyoyo, 5; mu- 

of twine or string, w., cikata, 7. 

tftyo, 2. 

up, vt.y vunga, nyengela, kuta. 

Rub, v/. (grind between stones), 



Roof, n., cimtknu, 7. 

off, kuhula, hulula. 

put on, vt., flnga, kuma. 

on, laba. 

top of, n., musongo, 2. 

out, Jlma, Jimixa. 

Room, ».(in house), use nsubii(3) 

(scrape), kuona, heya. 

with part, of v. handulula, to 

the hand over, lamba, laba, 

split open] as, nsubu udi 


muhandulula nsubu Is&tu, 

up, as dried tobacco in the hands, 

the house has three rooms. 

vinga, sunsula. 

(place), muaba, 2; mb&di 

Rubber, n., ndundu, 3. 

(Buk.), 3; mbftdu, 3. 

ball of, ff., dibulu, 5. 

Rooster, n., cltila, 7. 

(fruit of rubber vine), »., lu- 

Root, »., muxl, 2. 

bulu, 4. 

(exposed so that the foot can 

to cut the vines for, vt., benda. 

strike it), n., clkuku, 7. 


v.(as pig), funkuna. 

Rubbish, n.(trash), bilu, bisonso. 

Rope, »., muoxi, 2; muxinsa, 2; 

Both pi. of 7. 

mukudi, 2. 

place for throwing, «., diala, 5. 

Rot, V*., bola. 

Rule, n.(authority), bukelenge, 6; 

Rotate, vi.y clnsuluka. 

bunfumu, 6. 

Rotten, be, vi., bola. 

(custom), cllele, 7; cienzedl, 7; 

Rough, be, v. (as surface), tftha. 

clbllu, 7. 

Roughly, a^/v. (handle or carry). 

(law), dl, 5; mukenjl, 2; mu- 


kandu(negative), 2. 

(to speak), v., buluka dl(5). 

(measure), w., luelekexi, 4; 

Round, aJ;. (circular), -a cljen- 

cidlklxilu, 7; luedl, 4; luidi. 

jpu(7), -a cifundu(7), -a 

4; ddiklxu, 7. 


v.(be chief), dl mukelenge(i). 



Rule (continued). 

over, v.y see govern. 
Ruler, n., mukelenge, i; nfumu, 
(for measuring), »., luelekexl, 4; 
eidikixilu, 7; eldiklxu, 7; 
lued), 4; luldl, 4. 
Rumor, n., lumu, 4. 
Run, v., ya or nyema with lubilu. 
against, dltuta, dianda. 
a race, idikiza or elekexa with 

(as water), v.y hueka. 
away, ya or nyema with lubilu, 

off at the bowels, v.y uha or ela 

or huya with munda. 
over, as water in vessel, Iclklla. 
rapidly, nyamuka. 
Runt, n., njeku, 3; dhlndl, 7; 
cituha, 7. 
be a, vi.y zunguka. 
Runty, adj.y -a njeku(3), -a 
clhlndl(7), -a cltuha(7), 
xunsuke(p.p. of xunsnika, to 
be runty). 
Rust, n., dimoma, 5. 
v.y kuata dimoma. 
Rusty, be, v., kuata dlmoma(5). 
Rut, »., (in ground), nkoka, 3; 
muezl, 2; mutubu, 2. 

Sabbath, n., Lumln8ni(LubliiKu), 

4. From Portuguese. 
Sack, ft., clbombo, 7; luhlya, 4. 

T/.(piIlage), haula. 
Sacred, adj. ph.y -a bualu(6) 
(interdicted), -a cijlla(7). 
Sacrifice, v/.(kilJ), xlha. 

(offering as a due or tribute), vt.y 

to, vt.y xlhela. 
Sad, be, v.y di ne kanylngan- 
ylnsa(8), dl ne or ufua or 
unva with elxl(7), muoyo(2) 
or muclma(2) as subj. of 

nylnsrala, dxl as subj. of 
kuata and the person as obj. 

Sadden, vt.y ufulxa or kuaclxa 
with clxl(7). 

Sadness, »., kanylnganylngra, 8; 
dxl, 7. 

Safe, be, vi.(he escaped from 
danger), handuka. 

Safety, »., luhandu, 4. 

Sagacious, adj. dlmuke(p.p. of 
dlmuka, to be sagacious), -a 

Sagacity, »., budlmu, 6. 

Sail ho, interjec.y selo. 

Sake, n. (cause), bualu, 6; muan- 
da, 2. 

Salad, »., nsalata, 3. Doubt- 
less from Portuguese through 
Lower Congo. 

Salary, n., dlfutu, 5. 

Sale, ».(market), ds&lu, 7. 

Saliva, »., lute, 4. PI. is mate. §51. 

Salt, ft., lueho, 4; mukele, 2; 
ns&la(Bukuba), 3. 
coarse in sacks, lueho lua 

iisoka(sing. lusoka, lump). 
(native salt made from a kind of 
grass), lueho lua mbanda. 
This is not sodium chloride. 

Saltless, be, vi.y hola, talala. 

Salutation, w., muoyo, 2. 

give, v.y ela or ha or ebexa 

followed by muoyo. 
give to a chief, vt.y sekelela, 
menekela, nemekela, me- 
neka, nemeka. 
Among the Baluba the first per- 
son speaking says Inylxaku 
(sing.) or Inylxl(pl.), the per- 
son responding says ndl muln- 
ylxe. These forms are from 
the verb Inylxa, to adore. 
Among the Bena Lulua both 

persons say muoyo. 
Among the Bakfite the first p)er- 
son speaking says wlblka, the 
one responding says diblka. 
Among the Bakuba the first 
person says wlnung, the one 
responding says dinung. 



Salutation (cotiHnued). 

Sometimes the Baluba are heard 
to say Ixaku(sing.) and 
Ixl(pl.), as if from a verb Ixa. 

Salute, vt.^ ela or ha or ebexa, 
followed by muoyo(2). 

a chief, vt., sekelela, meneka, 
menekela, nemeka, neme- 

(go out to meet and embrace), v/., 
Salvation, «., luhandu, 4. 

(life), muoyo, 2. 
Same, adj.{pi same kind). Ex- 
pressed in several ways: 

(i) By the verbs fuanangana, 
kelemena, fuana, dleleka. 

(2) By the words bu or bulna. 

(3) By the adj. o-umu6 or the 
?.dv. muomumue. 

(4) By the ph. muan*abo ne. 
(at, in, or on the same place), 

adv., kumue, mumue, hamue, 
kaba(dimin. of muaba) ka- 
length, size, number, adj.^ mue 

make the, v/., fuanylkixa, kele- 

mexa, elekexa. 
(the very same), adv.y mene. 
Sameness, n. (likeness), cifuanyl, 

7; buobumue, 6. 
Sample, ft., clmonylnu, 7; cile- 

xUu, 7; cldlkixilu, 7. 
Sanctification, ». (cleanness), bu- 
toke, 6. 
(goodness), buimpe, 6; buakane, 
6; bulengele, 6. 
Sanctify, v/. (interdict), Jlla. 
(make clean), tokexa. 
(make good), lengexa. 
(set apart), tekela.- 
Sand, n.y grain of, kasoka(dimin. 
oflusoka), 8; kasensa(dimin. 
of lusenga), 8; ka8ele(dimin. 
of lusele), 8. 
loose, difukenya, 5; pi. of 
lusenga(4) and lusele(4). 
Sand-bank, n., lusenga, 4; lu- 
sele, 4. 

Santa Claus, n., Santa Kltts. 
Satan, n., Satana. 

(demon or devil), mul&mftcl(i) 

wa Satana. 
Satchel, n. (scrip), nsftho, 3. 
Satiate, be satiated, v»., dlfu(5) 

as subj. of ukuta. 
Satisfied, be., v., after eating, 

dlfu(5) as subj. of ukuta. 
(content), adj., -a muclnia(2) 

with the participial words mu- 

talale or muhole. 
with, v.f Itabuxa. 
Satisfy, vt.y with food, ukucixa. 
with water when thirsty, talfixa, 

or holexa with ha dlmlnu(5) 

or ha mumlnu(2), ml&na or 

hulxa with miota(nyota). 
Saturday, n. dituku(5.) dlsam- 

Saucer, n., dUonga, 5. 
Sauciness, n., clkama, 7; dlka- 

makama, 5; dlntanta, 5. 
Saucy, be, v., ena ne bundu(6), 

dl ne with cikama(7) or di- 

kaniakama(5) or dintanta(5), 

dlsua, Ibldila. 
Save, v/., sunglla, handlxa, sun- 

gldlla; (be saved), handa, 

up, v/., l&mlna, teka. 
Savior, ft., musungldl, i; mu- 

handlxl, i. 
Savor, v>., of, tua. 

n., use infin. kutua as noun. 
See taste. 
Savory, be, vi.y xemakana, dl ne 

with nse(3) or kutua ku- 

Saw, n., cikuaka, 7. 

v/., crosswise, kosa, kala. 
lengthwise, handa. 
Sawyer, »., niuena(i) with ma- 

blya(pl. of 5) or blkuaka(pl. 

of 7). 
Say, v., amba, taya(Buk.). 

to, amblla. 
Saying, n. (proverb), muanu, 2; 

lusumulnu, 4; luxlminyin- 

yu, 4. 



Scab, n., cUtkmuM&mu, 7. 
tear off a., vt., l&muna; (come 

off), vi., l&muka. 
Scabbard, n., luhaba, 4; cf- 

manga, 7; clbubu, 7. 
Scald, vt.^ hlxa(?) mumi a kahla; 

v}*.(be scalded), hla(?) mu ml 

a kahla. 
Scale, n., of fish, dlbamba, 5. 
(scrape off), v/., hulula, kuhula; 

vi.y huluka, kuhuka. 
Scar, »., clbangu, 7. 
Scarce, adj.j kise, b&le, nya-nya. 
Scarcity, n., buklse, 6; bubftle, 

6; bunyabunya, 6. 
Scare, z;^., clnyixa; vt. (be scared), 

(be much scared), vi., mucima(2) 

with the verbs handlka or 

lakala; v/., handlxa, or 

lakflxa with inuciina(2) as 

Scarlet, adj.y kunxe(p.p. of kun- 

za, to he scarlet). 
Scatter, v/., tangalAxa, tanga- 

dlxa, muanga, muangaltkxa; 

vi.y tangalflka, muangalflka, 

tangadlka, muangala. 
(as a coatagious disease), vi.y 

sambulukila, tampakana, 

(as clouds after a rain), vi.y 

Scent, ».(bad smell), mahuya(2) 

mubi, mukuhu(2), kaham- 

bu(8), lu8u(4). 
(detect the odor), v., unTa, 

emit a, v., nanka. 
(odor, good or bad), n., muhuya, 

2; dihenibu(pl. generally 

used)» 5; nsunga, 3; muen- 

yl, 2. 
(perfume), n., mananaxl, pi. of 

5 or 6. 
v.(to smell), ounkila. 
Scholar, »., niuena(i) mikanda 

School, »., mu mlkandafpl. of 2); 

suggest also suku1u(Eng.). 

Scissors, n., luxola, 4. The 
dimin. pL, tuxola, is generally 
Scoff, at, v/., s«ka. 
Scold, vt.y b£la, nanga, samina, 

Scorch, 7;/.(as food), xldixa, lun- 
guxa,babula; vi.{\x. scorched), 
xila; lungula, babuka. 
Scorn, i;/.(deny), hidia, benga. 
show, by clicking with the 
tongue, vt.y sodla. 
Scorpion, n., kaminyi(kamlnyl- 

minyi), 8. 
Scour, ^//.(scrape), kuona, heya. 

(scrape off), vt.y kuhula, hulula. 
Scourge, ^//.(beat), kuma, tuta. 
Scowl, v., nyenga or fudlka with 

Scrape, vt.y kuona, heya. 
off, vt.y kuhula, hulula. 
Scratch, v. (as fowls), kala. 
(in case of itching), kulnya. 
make a, vt.y flta. 
out, to erase, Jlma, Jlmlxa. 
with nails or claws, v., tua or 
asa with luK&di(4) or lu- 
zftla(4) or luala(4). PI. of 
these words generally used. 
n.y mufunda, 2. 
Scream, v. (to cry loud), taylk.a. 

(in terror), v.y handalala. 
Screw, n.y mulonda, 2; lusonso, 

vt.y around, Jekexa, nyenga. 
Scribe, n., mufundi, i. 
Scrip, n.(bag), luhlya, 4; €l- 
bombo, 7. 
(large open), ns&ho, 3. 
Scriptures, nph.y mukanda(2) 

wa Nzambl. 
Scrotum, n., cibudl, 7. 
Scrub, v/. (scrape), kuona heya. 

(scrape off), kuhula, hulula. 
Scum, «.(froth), lututu, 4; lu- 

kende, 4. 
Sea, ». (ocean), ml manlne. 

(lake), dlxiba, 5. 
Seal, «.(mark), clmonyinu, 7. 
Search for, vt.y kfiba, keja, teta. 



Season, w., cldimu, 7. 

Seer, see prophet. 

dry, muxlhu, 2. 

Seize, vt., kuata, flekela. 

rainy, mayowa, pi. of 5 or 6; 

(embrace), uhuklla. 

nvula(pl. generally used), 3. 

(pounce upon), tuhlkila, uhu- 

There is no divis on of the 


seasons into spring, summer, 

(snatch, grab), bakula. 

autumn and winter. See sum- 

things by force, nyenga. 

mer, WINTER. 

Select, v/.(choose), sungula. 

v., luoga. 

Self, when emphatic use: 

Seat, ff.(chair), nkuasa, 3. 

(i) The compound disjunctive 

(made with palm ribs), ditanda, 5. 

pro. forms nklylnyl, etc. 
§ 109. 

vL, xlkika. 

take a, vi., xlkama. 

(2) The adjective ph. ne Ine. 

Second, ord. num., ibidl. § 99. 


Secret, n., musokoko(musoko), 2. 

When reflexive use the reflexive 

keep a, vt., sokoka. 

prefix -dl-. § 118. 

tell a, v/., sokolola. 

Selfish, be, v. (conceited), disua. 

Secretary, fi., mufundl, i. 

(stingy), -a cltu(7), -a bulmln- 

Secrete, vt., sokoka; v».(one's 

yl(6), -a clanKa(7) clkille, -a 

self), sokoma. 


Section, w., see part, country. 

toward one, vt., Imlna, h&la. 

Security, w., for debt, cleya, 7. 

Selfishness, «. (stinginess), cltu. 

give, vt., eyeka. 

7; buimlnyl, 6; clanxa(7) 

(safety), n., luhandu, 4. 

clkille; cllema, 7. 

Sediment, n., see dregs. 

Sell, vt., hana, leka. 

Seduce, v/. (entice), mflnylxa or 

(buy and sell, trade), enda or 

iylxa or Ibidixa with bua- 

endululu followed by mu- 

Iu(6) bubl. 


(to commit adultery with one), 

to one, udixa. 

v., enda n'andl masandl(p]. 

Semen, «., bana, pi. of muana(i); 
biluml, pi. of cnumi(7). 

of 5 or 6). 

See, vt., mona, tansila, xoxa 

Send, vt., tuma. 

(Joxa). (know), mtknya. 

away, to dismiss, vt., ffila, 

Seed, ».(for planting), dimlnu, 5; 


buhu, 6. 

back, vt., aluklxa, hinstkxa, 

germ of, dlsu, 5; muoyo, 2. 

hlngrlxa, tucixa. 

of corn, ditete, 5; mutonda, 2; 

to, tumlna. 

dltungru, 5. 

Senior, ».(elder brother or sister), 

(offspring), «., muana, i. 

mukulu, I. 

of millei, ditete, 5. 

of twins, clbuabu, 7. 

of pumpkin, lutete, 4. 

(oldest child), muan'a bute(6). 

Seek, vt., k«ba, keja, teta. 

Sense, n.(wisdom), lungenyl, 4; 

Seem, t/^'. (appear), mueka, mue- 

mexl, pi. of 5 or 6; lukanyl, 4. 


Senseless, be, m. (unconscious), 

(seem what :t is not), use the ph. 

fua followed by any word 

ku mesu; as, cilulu cidi 

meaning spasm or iU or faint- 

clmpe ku mesu, the cloth 


seems good, i.e., to the eye. 

(stupid), adj., hote, xlb&le. 

Seen, be, v/. (appear), mueneka. 

These are p.p. from hota and 


xlb&la, to be stupid. 



Sensible, oi/. (smart), -a lunsen- 
yl(4); -a mexl(pl. of 5 or 6), 
-a lukan7t(4). 
Sentinel, sentry, »., sentedi, i. 
From Eng. or French, 
(watchman, keeper), mul&mi, i; 
mutanffidi, i; mamonjl, i. 
Separate, i;l. (divide among), 
abaaya, abanylna, abuluza. 
into parts, v/., t&hulala, abu- 
luza, handulula, sungrulala; 
vi., t&hulaka, handaluka, 
mediate in quarrel, v^., sungra. 
Separately, adv,{one at a time), 

mue ne mue. 
Septe&iber, n., Sepetemba(Eng.). 
Sepulchre, n., lukita, 4; ci- 

duaya, 7. 
Series, »., malonso, 2. 
Serious matter, n., bualu(6) or 
muanda(2) followed by adj. 
Sermon, n. Perhaps the most sat- 
isfactory word is the infin. 
kuamba used as a noun. 
Serpenf, n., nyoka, 3. 
Servant, n., muana, i. 

(laborer), muena (i)mudlmu(2). 
(slave), muhika, i; muntu, i. 
Serve, v/. (attend, as slave his 
master), l&m&ta. 
(work for), enzela or cniexa or 
kuaclla followed by mudl- 
Service, M.(work), mudlmu, 2. 
Serviette, n., see napkin. 
Set, vt.y teka, xlkika. 
against, vt., eyeka. 
apart, aside, v/., teka, tekela, 

(as th3 sun), vi.^ buela. 
down, vt.y xlkika. 
fire to, v/., oxa. 
free, vL, hlkula, lekela, ku- 

bola, sulula, kutula. 
in line, vL, tonga, 
in order, vt., ionsolola. 
out, to depart, vi.^ ya, nmuka, 

oEr {continued), 
out, to plant, vUy tentula, 

table, vt.y longolola. The 

Lower Congo word sala is 

generally used, 
trap, vt.j teya ndende(3). 
up, to erect, vt.y ima.iyika. 
Settle, i/. (become calm), dl hola, 

dl talala, hola, talala. 
debt, to pay, vt., fata. 
dispute, v., tulxa. 
down, as sediment, vt., hueka, 

butama, batama. 
palaver, vt.^ lumbalula, kosa 

nsambu(3), xambula(Buk.). 
Sevzn, ciri, num. J muanda(i) 

Sever, t;/.(cut), kosa, kala. 
Several, adj.{many), -a bangl(6), 

ngl, ngrla-ngi. 
(others), kuabo, nga. 
(some, distributive), kuabo . . . 

kuabo, nga . . . nga. 
Severe, a^;.(strong), kllle. 
Sew, v., tungra, tuma, fuma, 

on patch, vt.y l&mlka, bamba. 
Sexual intercourse, have with, 

vt.y lama, lamlxa, tente« 

mexa, lala ne. 
Shade, n.(coolness), cltelele(clta- 

lele), 7. 
(shadow), n., mudlngldl, 2; 

mandldlmbl, 2. 
Shake, vt,y taklxa, nyunglxa, 

saxa, clklxa, salakanya, 

kuha, lakflxa, kanklxa, tu- 

tala, nyukala, nyunga, 

senga; vi.y taka, nyunga, 

gala, clka, sakala, kanka, 

(as in the wind), vi.y hehaka; 

vt.y hehula 
hands with one another, kuatan- 

gana ku blanza. 
one's self, dlnyangixa. 
(vibrate), vi. lemba, lembelela, 

up, vt.y bukankonya. 



Shall, v., use simple future tense 
of verb. 
See MUST. 
Shallow, adj,, ihl. 
Shame, n., bunda, 6; bunva, 6. 
cause, vLj kuaciza or ufuixa 

with bundu. 
have, v., di ne or ufua or unva 
with bundu; bundu as subj. 
of kuata and. the person as 
have no, to be immodest, v., 
ena ne bundu, uma mu 
Shameful matter, n., bualu(6) bua 

Shameless, see immodest. 
Shamelessness, see immodesty. 
Shape, n. and v., see form.. 
Share, v. (divide among each 
other), abanyangana. 
(divide into shares), vt., abanya, 
Sharp, adj.y -a budimu(6), di- 
muke(p.p. of dimuka^ to be 
edge or point, tue(p.p. of tua, 
to be sharp); to be, v., di ne 
menu(pl. of 5). 
Sharpen, vt.{hy beating, as black- 
smith), stkklxa. 
(by grinding), nuona. 
to a point, v/., songa. 
Sharpness, »., menu, pi. of 5; 
ntendu, 3. 
(cunning), budimu, 6. 
Shave, v/., beya. 

off all hair on head, vt.^ kungula 

(scrape off), heya, kuona, ku- 
hula, hulula. 
She, pers. pro., see he. There is 
no distinction between he and 
she. § 105, Rem. 4. 
Sheaf, m., clsumbu, 7. 
Shear, vt., kosa, kala. 
Shears, «., luxola, 4. The dimin. 

pi., tuxola, is generally used. 
Sheath, n., cibubu, 7; luhaha, 4; 
clmansa, 7. 

Shed, n., citanda, 7. 

hair, feathers, tears, vi., hfttukaj 

leaves, vi.y hohoka. 
Sheep, n.^ mukoko, 2. 

(ram), clmpanga, 7. 
Sheet, n., of bed, nxitl(Eng.), 3. 

of paper, n., dibezi, 5; dilnyl, 

She goat, n., dlxina, 5. 
Shell, ». (cartridge loaded with 
shot), mutelense(2) wa tun- 
dlmba(pl. of 8). 
(cowry), mubela, 2; lubftzl 

(Buk. and Bukuba), 4. 
of egg or seed or nut or terrapin, 

clhusu, 7; clzubu, 7. 
of snail, nyonso, 3. 
vt.{as corn), kombola, tunguia. 
(as peanuts), bosa, totobula, 

b£la, bula, taya(toya). 
(as peas by beating), xuhula, 
Shelter, z;/.(cover), buikila. 
ff.(thrown up hastily on the 
road), clsambusambu, 7. 
Shepherd, n., mul&nii(i) wa 

Shield, n., ngabu, 3. 
Shin, n., muongo(2) wa muko- 

Shine, v. (as fire, light, sun), toka, 
temena, dltemena. 
(as stars, moon), kenena, toka, 

(glitter, glisten, gleam), engelela, 

sun-, n.j munya, 2. 
Ship, ^.(propelled by oars), buatu, 
(steamer), dikumbi(5) dia ml. 
Shirt, n., clkowela, 7; clnku- 
tu(Lower Congo), 7; nsu- 
mixa(from French), 3. 
Shiver, v.^ kanka, zakala. 
Shock, vt., with fear, grief, etc., 
handlxa or zaktkxa with 
mucima(2); vi.(he shocked), 
handika or zakala with mu- 
cima as subj. 



Shoe, n., clsabatu, 7; clkono, 7. 

Clsabatu is from Portuguese 

and clkono is now seldom 


Shoot, vt., one with arrow, asa. 

one with gun, vt.^ kuma, lonza. 

(to bud, to sprout), v»., mSna, 

sampUa, tempela. 
with arrow or gun, ela. 
n. (sprout), lutonira, 4. 
Shop, n., blacksmith, cltudlla, 7. 
Shore, n.(beach), mue]ela(2) or 
musala(2) or buclka(6) or 
kukala or kusala or kunfu- 
dllu or kusala followed by -a 
on the, n., mpata, 3. 
Short, adj., ihi. 

be or become, vi., ihlha. 
(be not enough), vL, use ena 
-a bunsl(6); neg. of kam- 
bana or vula. 
time, »., matuka(pl. of 5) mlhl, 
musansa(2) mulhl, cUu- 
Shorten, vL, ihihlxa. 

(make smaller), vt., keheza. 
Shortness, n., bulhl, 6. 
Shot, »., for shot-gun, kandlmba, 
-gun, clngoma(7) ^^^ tundimba. 
Should, v. To express the idea 
of recommendation, use im- 
perative mood or one of its 
equivalent constructions. 
In Future Conditions use the 
constructions indicated in 

§ 459 W- 
Shoulder, »., diaha, 5; dlklya, 5. 
-blade, clklyaklya, 7; dlkeha, 5. 
Shoctt, v., by a crowd in expression 
of surprise or joy, btngila, ela 
blla(pl. of 7). 
Shove, v/., see push. 
Show, v/., lexa, tansldlxa, mue- 
by pointing, v., funkuna. 
off one's self, v., dllexa. 
one's self, appear, vi., mueneka, 

Show {continued). 
the eye by pulling down the lower 

lid, intended as insult, v.y 

tonkena or ondela with mu 

the way, v/., lombola. 
Shrewd, adj.^ dlmuke(p.p. of dl- 

muka, to be shrewd), -a bu- 

Shriek, v., taylka, handalala. 
Shrimp, »., luxixa, 4; luxoza, 

Shrink, i;.(become smaller), fuata, 
ihi ha, keha 
(as from fear), v., dikuonya. 
Shrivel up, vi., fuata, fuba. 
Shrug the shoulders, v., sftka with 

malclya or malia. 
Shuck, n., cihusu, 7; cizubu, 7. 
v/.(as corn), uvula. 
(as peas by beating), xuhuia, 
Shudder, v., handika or sakala 

with muciina(2). 
Shut, v., door, inxila, zibilca. 
eyes, buika. 
in or out, nxidila(?). 
with lid, as box or book, bulkila. 
Shuttle, »., mundonga, 2. 
Shy, see timid. 
Shyness, see timidity. 
Sick, be, 7;}.(ill), sama, bela. 
make, nauseate, vt., endexa ku 

(nauseous, be), v., use muoyo(2) 
as subj. of enda with the person 
as obj., or di ne inuendi(2) ku 
muoyo, or ku muoyo kadi 
kuenda. Note that two con- 
structions may be used when 
parts of the body are men- 
tioned; as, mutu udi unsama, 
or ndi nsama mutu, my head 
is sick. 
Sicken, t;/.( nauseate), endexa ka 

Sickness, n., disama, 5; bubedl, 
6; dibedi, 5. 
at stomach, nausea, n., muen- 
di(2) ku muoyo(2). 



Side, n., lusdke, 4. 

(be side by side), v»., tuansana, 

imAnangana, kuatakana. 
of body, just above hip, »., 

lub#se, 4. 
of house, »., cimilna, 7. 
of path, field, etc., n., muele- 
la(2), inasala(2) bacika(6), 
(put side by side), v/., ImAn- 
ylka hamue, taanstlxa,taan- 
sanya, kuatakOxa. 
SroEWAYS, go, v., enda with the 
pres. part, of semena or sela. 
Sidle, vL, semena, sela. 
Sieve, n., munyungu, 2; kascn- 

sulu, 8. 
Sift, z;/., senga, nyanga. 
Sifter, n.(sieve), munyunsa, 2; 

kasengulYi, 8. 
SiFTiNGS, »., of corn, nsdke, pi. of 
4; bikahakaha, pi. of 7. 
of manioc, mlxl, pi. of 2. 
Sigh, vi., hum una. 
Sight, come into, vi., mueka, 

Sign, n.(mark), clmonyinu, 7. 
Silence, «., see silently. 

keep, vt., lekela with mutftyo(2) 

or muaku(2) or the infin. kua- 

kula; vi.j hua. 

Silent, be, v., talala, hola, dl 

with the advs. hola or talala. 

(not speak when accused), vi., 

(stop noise), v/., lekela with 
mutftyo(2) or muaku(2) or 
the infin. kuakula. 
Silently, adv., hola, talala. 
Silk, n., of corn, munyanvudi, 2. 
Silly, see foolish. 
Silver, nph., lukanu(4) lutoke. 
Similar, adj. (of same kind). This 
may be expressed in several 
(i) By the verbs fuanani^ana, 

kelemena, fuana, dieleka. 
(2) By the words bu or bulna. 
is) By the wordsmuomumueor 

Similar (continued). 

(4) By the ph. muan*abo ne. 
make, vt., fuanyikixa, kele- 

mexa, elekexa. 
length, size, number, adj., mue 

Similarity, n., clfuanyi, 7; buo- 
bumue, 6. 

Similarly, adv., nunku(nanku, 

Similitude, n., clfuanyi, 7; buo- 
bumue, 6. 

Simple, see foolish. 

Simpleton, n., muhote, i; muxl- 
b&le, I. 

Simultaneously, adv., dlacimue, 
5; ciahamue, 7; clamumue, 
7; diakamue, 5. Note these 
nouns used as adverbs. § 95 
{b) and Rems. 

Sin, n., bualu(6) bubi, muanda(2) 
mubl, bubl(6). We often 
hear simply the pi. of the ad- 
jectives mabl and mibi. 
v., enza blbl. 

Since, adv. and sub, conj.Qye- 
cause), see § 466. 
(long ago), adv., kale, bansa- 
banga, dlambedl. 

Sinful, adj., bi. 

Sinfulness, »., bubl, 6. 

Sing, v., imba. 

in harmony, vL, akflxa me 

Singe, vi., babuka; vt., babula. 

Single, adj. (one), mue(mo). This 
takes Secondary Prefixes. 

Sink, vi., dlna, hueka. 

(as sediment), vi., batama, 

vt., inylxa, ina. 

Sinner, n., muntu(i) mubl, 
muena(i) malu mabl. 

Sister, n. There is no speci6c 
word, use the indefinite muan*- 
etu mukflxl, etc. § 138, Rem. 

eider, n., mukulu. i. 
younger, n., muakunyl, i. 
The words mukulu and mua- 



Sister (continued). 

kunyi are generally followed 
by poss. pro. enclitic. § 138, 
Rem. 2. 
Sister-in-law, ». (sister of hus- 
band), mbI-(poss. pro.)-cina. 
§§ 138, Rem. 3; 42, Note 2. 
(sister of wife), bukonde, i. 
(wife of brother), inaktlxi(i) wa 
Sit, vi., xikama. 

(as hen on eggs), ladlla. 

on the haunches, lonsama, 

tailor fashion, vangala. * 
Site, n., of deserted village, dlkolo, 

5; dkulu, 7. 
Situation, n.(place), muaba, 2; 

mb&di, 3; mb&du, 3. 
Six, c<ird. num., sambombo. Takes 
Secondary Prefixes. In ab- 
stract counting use Isambom- 
bo. 5 97. 
Sixth, ard. num.y isambombo. 
Size, n. (largeness), bunlne, 6. 
(smallness), buklse, 6; bub&le, 
6; bunyabunya, 6. 
Skeleton, »., use pi. of words 

meaning bone. 
Skilful, flrf;. (clever, ingenious), -a 
mahonso(2), -a baloxl(6), 
-a langenyl(4), -a mexl(pl. 
of 5 or 6), -a lukanyl(4). 
(crafty), dlmuke(p.p. of dl- 
muka, to be skilftd)^ -a bu- 
Skilfulness, «. (cleverness), lan- 
genyl, 4; mexl, pi. of 5 or 6; 
lukanyl, 4; muhongo, 2; 
baloxi(maloxi), 6. 
(craftiness), budimu, 6. 
Skill, »., see skilfulness. 
Skim, t;/., engula. 
Skin, n., of animals, cls^ba, 7. 
of persons, dikoba, 5. 
(peel), n., clhusu, 7; clzubu, 7. 
vt.^ ubula. 

Diseases of : (an eruption on arms, 
legs and buttocks), luhusu, 4; 
(an eruption mostly on face. 

Skin {continued), 

perhaps venereal), clndumbi, 

7; (white hands), nkenyu, pi. 

of 4; (whitish spots on neck, 

arms and chest), lubiki(4), 

Skull, n., kabalabala(8) ka 

inatu(2). / 
Sky, «., diulu, 5. 
Slack, adj.^ tekete(p.p. of teketa, 

to be slack). 
Slacken, vt.^ tekexa. 
Slackness, n., butekete, 6. 
Slake, vt., see quench. 
Slander, vt.^ songuela, banda. 
n.y bunsonse, 6; mukosa, 2. 
Slanderer, n., muena(i) with 

ban8onse(6) or mako8a(2), 

Slant, T;/.(lean against), eyeka, 

eyemexa; vi., eyema. 
(not perpendicular), vt., sen- 

deka, sendemexa; vi., sen- 

Slap, n., dihl, 5; luhl, 4. 
vt., tua or kuma or tuta with 

dihl or luhi. 
Slate, n., dlbue, 5; dltadt(from 

Lower Congo), 5. 
-pencil), »., muci(2) wa with 

dlbue or dltadi. Suggest also 

Slaughter, vt., xlha. 
Slave, »., mahlka, i. The slave 

is generally called maana(i) 

or muntu(i) by his master. 
Slavery, n., buhlka, 6. 
Slay, vt., xlha. 
Sleek, be, vi., senena, teketa ku 

bianza, di ne with basena(6) 

or buselu(6) or baflnu(6). 
Sleekness, n., busenu, 6; buselu, 

6; buflnu, 6. 
Sleep, w., tulu, pi. of 8. 
v., lata tulu. 
(dose), v., bunfca tulu. 
Sleepless, be, v., lala cltabftla(7). 
Sleepy, adj. Use tulu(pl. of 8) 

as subj. of kuata with person 

as obj. 



Sleeve, n., dlboko(5) dia with 

cikowela(7) or cinkuta(7). 
Sleight of hand, n., dijlmbu, 5; 

dialu, 5. 
do, vi.f enza dljimbu. 
Slender, a^7.(tall and slim), -a 

lu8eleseie(4), -a insake- 

Slenderness, n., luselesele, 4; 

lusekeseke, 4. 
Slice, n., lubensu, 4. 
vi., benga, handa. 
Slide, vi.^ hulumuka, selemuka. 
Slim, ai;.(tall and slim), -a luse- 

lesele(4), -a lasekeseke(4). 
Slimness, n., luselesele, 4; luse- 
keseke, 4. 
Slip, vi.y selemuka, hulumuka. 
away anything secretly, v/., on- 

by accident, vi., halamuka, 

».(an accident by slipping), 

buflnu, 6. 
Slipperiness, n., buselu, 6; bu- 

finu, 6; busenu, 6. 
Slippery, adj., -a buselu(6), -a 

buflnu(6), -a busenu(6). 
Slope, vi., sendama. 
Sloth, n., bufuba, 6; bukata, 6. 
Slothful, adj., -a bufuba(6), -a 

Slovenliness, »., bukoya, 6; bu- 

luatafl, 6. 
Slovenly, adj., -a bukoya(6), -a 

Slow, be or do slowly, v., enza 

with the adverbs fue fue and 

nsonyangonya, xlxamuka. 
(lazy person), »., mufuba, r. 
Slowly, adv., fue, nsonyan- 

be or do, v., onguela, xlxamuka. 
(carefully), adv., bltekete, bl- 

Slowness, »., butekete, 6. 

(laziness), bufuba, 6; bukata, 6. 
Sluggard, »., mufuba, i. 
Sluggishly, adv., fue, ngonyan- 


Sluggishness, «.(Iaziness), bu- 
fuba, 6; bukata, 6. 
Slumber, v. and «., see sleep. 
Sly, adj., dlmuke(p.p. of dimuka, 

io be sly), -a budlmu(6). 
Slyly, move, vi., onguela, tobela, 

Slyness, n.(cunningness), budlmu, 

Smack, T;.(as lips), kumanganya 
^'/., tua or tuta or kuma with 

dlhl(5) or']uhl(4). 
n., dlhl, 5; luhi, 4. 
Small, adj., kise, b&le, nya-nya. 
This idea is often expressed by 
the dimin. prefixes of class 
VIII. A small quantity is 
generally expressed by the 
dimin. pi. 
become, I't., keha. 
make, vL, kehexa. 
too, see § 90 (6). 
Smallness, ».. buklse, 6; bub&le 

6; bunyabunya, 6 
Smallpox, tt., mbalanga, 3. 
Smart, adj., -a lungenyl(4), -a 
mcxi(pl. of 5 or 6\ -a lukan- 
yl(4), -a ludlml(4) with the 
adjs. luhehele or luhuh&le. 
v., oxa, hiakana, susuma. 
Smartness, n., lungenyl, 4; mexl, 
pi. of 5 or 6; lukanyi, 4; lu- 
dlml(4) with the adjs. luhe- 
hele or luhuh&le. 
Smash, vt., xlha. 
Smear, vt.(8LS oil on body), laba. 
(be smeared over with, as clothes 
with mild), v., t&hakana. 
Smell, ».(goodor bad), muhuya, 2; 
dlhembu, 5; nsunga, 3; 
muenyl, 2. 
bad, mukuhu, 2; lusu, 4; mu- 
huya mubl; kahambu, 8. 
emit a, good or bad, v., nun- 

v., unva, ufua. 

(in order to detect the odor), v. 



Smelt, v^., omba. This word 
doubtless has reference only to 
the blowing of the bellows. 
SsfiLE, v.^ tua mimuemueCpI. of 2). 

n.y mtunaemae, 2. 
Smite, v/.(kill), xlha. 

(make a wound), v/., t&ha. 
(strike), vi.^ kuma, tuta, tua. 
Smith, n., mutudl, i; mufudi, i; 

nsenda, 3. 
Smithy, n., cltudllu, 7. 
Smoke, n., muinxl, 2. 

v.(as burning wood), fuima 

tobacco, hemp, vt., nua. 
Smooth, be, vi.^ senena, teketa 
ku bianza, di ne with bu- 
8enu(6) or buselu(6) or bu- 
out, as folds, vt.y olola. 
over, as a mud wall, vi.y xun- 

over, to level down, vt.^ langa- 
kftxa, langa; vi., langakana. 
(smoothing iron), »., mpelu, 3. 
Smoothness, n., busenu, 6; bu- 

flnu, 6; buselu, 6. 
Smother, vt.{as clothes over the 
head), Jlka clfuldixe(7); 
7^'.(be smothered), dl ne cl- 
Smuggle, vt.^ away, ongolola. 
Snag, w.(a stick or root causing one 

to trip up), clkuku, 7. 
Snail, »., dllandi, 5. 

shell of, »., nyongo, 3. 
Snake, n., n^oka, 3. Kinds of: 
muma, 2; ntoka, 3; cianga, 
7; ditula, tj, ludiabula, 4. 
Snap, v., the finger, tuta clxon- 
du(7). Done to express re- 
Snare, n., buteyl, 6; luklnda, 4. 
v.f teya. 

set a, V.J teya ndende(3). 
Snarl, v.^ kanga. 

(as dog), v.y ela makanda(pl. of 

n., dlkanda, 5. 
Snatch, vt.^ bakula. 

Sneak stealthily, vt., tobela, on- 

suela, bombelela. 
Sneeze, »., nyaci, 3. 

v.y ela nyael, kacUa. 
Snigger, n., kasdku, 8. 

v.f dl ne kas^ku. 
Snore, v., onona blono(pl. of 7). 
»., ciono, 7. PI. generally used. 
Snout, n., of pig, cibondo, 7. 
Snuff, 7;/.(as tobacco), koka, huta. 
So, adv. {in thi£ way, thus), nunka 
(nanku, nenku). 
(not so . . . as), see § 90 («). 
that, so as to, see § 461. 
(therefore), ka, bu- insep. with 

Applied Form of verb, 
(very). This is expressed in 

several ways: 
(i) By the post positive word be. 

(2) By the verbs tamba and hlta 
followed by the abstract qual- 
ity of the adj. 

(3) By elongating the last sylla- 
ble of the adj. 

(4) By repeating a syllable or 
syllables of the adj.; as, toke 
to, kunze kunzu. 

Soak, v/., bombeka, tohexa. 
(as cassava), vt., Ina, zablka. 
(be wet or soaked), vt., bola, 
toha, bombama, talala, hola. 
Soap, »., nsabanga, 3. From 

Soar, vf.(as bird), lembelela. 
Sober, be, vph.y ena ne maluvu 

mu mesu. 
Society, w.(company), cisumbu, 7. 
Sock, n., eimenyi, 7. 
Soft, be, 7^*.(as dough), hoteta. 
The p.p., hotete, is used as 
simple a(lj. 
(as something rotten), vi.y bu- 

(sleek), vi.y teketa ku blanza, 
senena, di ne busenu(6). 
Soften, vt.y tekexa. 
Softly, adv., bltekete, hola, ta- 
lala, bltulu. 
move, vi.y onguela, tobcia, 



Softness, w., butekete, 6. 
(sleekness), busena, 6. 

Soil, vL, flkixa. 

(soiled), flrf/., bl, flke(p.p. of 

flka, to be soiled), 
n.j balobo, 6. 

Sojourn, vi.^ Ik&la, lala, xikama. 

Solace, vL^ samba, bomba, kll- 
lexa muciina(2). 

Soldier, n., maena(i) nvita(3); 
disoladi(froin Portuguese), 5. 

Sole, n., of foot, munda mua 
(one only), use the compound 
disjunctive pers. pro. nkl- 
ylnyi, etc.; also ne with the 
adj. Ine. 

Solemn, be, v.y bungama, nyin- 
sala muclina(2). 

Solicitous, be, v.y nylngala mu- 

Solicitude, n,, kanyinganylnga, 

Solid, be, vi.{Bim), kanana, kan- 
damana, xindama. Jama. 
(hard), adj.y kftle(p.p. of k&la, 
to be solid). 

Solidify, vi., kuatakana. 

Solidness, n.y bukllle, 6. 

Solitary, adj., use the compound 
disjunctive pers. pro. nklylnyl, 
etc.; also ne with the adj. ine. 

Some, adj., one, muntu, i. 

one else or something else, adj., 

kuabo, ngSL. 
(some . . . others), kuabo . . . 

kuabo, nga . . . nga. 
Often this word is left unex- 
pressed; as, lua ne ml, bring 
some water. 

Somebody, n., muntu, i. 

Something, »., cintu, 7. 

Somewhere, a/f v. (anywhere). By 
using the locatives inseparably 
with ntu and onso we have 
kuntu, muntu, hantu, and 
kuonso, muonso, honso. 
else, adv. By using the locatives 
inseparably with kuabo and 
nga we have kukuabo, mu- 

Somewhere {continued). 

kuabo, hakuabo, and kunga, 
munga, hanga. 
Son, n., muana(i) muluml(i). 

real, muana mulela. 
Song, n., musambu, 2. 
Soon, adv.{dc& soon as), see § 458 (a) 
(early in the morning), dinda/ 

lunkelu, haciacia. 
(immediately), katataka, mpln- 
deu, diodiono. 
Soot, n., mlxila, pi. of 2; mifila, 

pi. of 2. 
Soothe, v/. (comfort), samba, bom- 
ba, kftlexa muclma(2). 
one crying, vt., kosexa or huixa 
with muadi(2). 
Sorcerer, »., muena(i) with 
muhongo(2) or muloxl(2) 
or buloxl(6) or ]ubuku(4) 
or clala(7), mutempexl(i), 
mpAka(i) manga, muhtlki(i) 
wa manga. 
Sorcery, n., buloxl, 6; muhongo, 

2; muloxi, 2. 
Sore, «., mputa, 3. 
Sorrow, n., cixl, 7; kanylngan- 
ylnga, 8. 
for, to grieve for, vt., Jlnga. 
(pity), n., luse, 4. 
Sorrowful, see sad. 
Sorry, be, vi., dl ne kanyingan- 
yinga(8), dl ne or ufua or 
unva with cixi(7), muoyo(2) 
or muclma as subj. of nyln- 
gala, cixi as subj. zi kuata 
and the person as obj., mu- 
clma or muoyo as subj. of 
for, to pity, vt., ha luse(4). 
Sort, vt., t&hulula, sungulula. 

».(kind), see kind. 
Soul, n., muclma, 2; muoyo, 2. 
Sound, v., an alarm, kubola, ela 
blla(pl. of 7), blngila. 
a trumpet, vt., ela. 
low, whisper, n., dtnunganyl, 5. 

PI. is generally used, 
of crying, n., muadl, 2. 
of human voice, generally in rase 



Sound (continued). 

of quarreling or making a 
noise, n., diyoyo, 5; mutftyo, 
2; muaku, 2. 
of musical instrument, n., di(pl. 

me), 5. 
of wind or rain or distant noise, 

n., ciono, 7. 
(report of gun), n., mujcuma, 2. 
the depth of water, v., saunde 
Sour, n., nsapuCEng.), 3. 

(gravy), musoxi, ,2; mukele- 
kele, 2. 
Sour, be, vi., dl ne baanjl(6), 

sasa, aya. 
Source, n.(cause), bualu, 6; mu- 
anda, 2. 
of stream, mutu, 2; mpokolo, 3. 
Sourness, n., buanji, 6. 
South, w., 8auta(Eng.), 3. 
Souvenir, n.^ cimonyinu, 7. 
Sow, vt.{as millet), miamlna. 
(plant, as com), vL, kuna. 
n.y mukOxI'a nsalube(3). 
Sower, n.,-miimiamlnyl, i; mu- 

kanyij i. 
Space, n. (place), muaba, 2; mb&- 

dl, 3; mb&du, 3. 
Spade, n., lukAsa, 4. 
Spank, vt.y tua or tata or kuma 

with dlbl(5) or luhl(4). 
Spark, n., lasase, 4; lutolokela, 

.Sparkle, vt*. (glisten), engelela, 

Spasm, n., cisftke, 7; tungulungu, 

pi. of 8; Dkoyi(used only of 

children), 3. 
be unconscious from, vi., fua with 

any of the above words, 
to have, v., baluka with any of 

the above words. 
Speak, v., akula, amba, tftya 

against, vi.^ songuela. 
badly, v., akula with cidiml(7) 

or cll&fl(7). 
(converse together), v., somba. 
louder, vt.^ bandlxa or kHleza 

Speak {continued). 

or ambulula or ambuluza 

with dl(5). 
rapidly, v., labakana, dl ne 

roughly or loudly, v., buluka 

softly, to whisper, vi., nungana. 
to, vt.y amblia. 
Spear, n., dlfuma, 5; kabendl, 8. 

vLy asa. 
Species, see kind. 
SPEaMEN, n., cimonyinu, 7; clle- 

xllu, 7; cidiklxllu, 7. 
Speck, n., dltoba, 5; dib&xl, 5. 
Speckled, be, v»., dl ne with the 
pi. of ditoba(5> or dib&xl 


Spectacles, i»., muenu(2) is sug- 

Spectre, n.(spirit), muklxi, 2. 

SPEECH,n. (language, dialect), mua- 
ku, 2; clakuilu, 7; mua- 
kullu, 2. 
(word), dl, 5. PI. is me. 

Speechless, be, vi., when ac- 
cused, hua. 

Spell, 1;., 8ohela(Eng.). 

Spend, vt., carelessly, nyanga, tan- 
gadixa, tangalAxa, muanga- 
lAxa, dia cinana, on a. 
(be spent or exhausted), v»., 
nyanguka, tangadika, hua, 
xlka, tangalAka, muanga- 
lAka, onoka. 

Spendthrift, n., mutangaltlxi(i) 
or mutangadlxl(i) or mun- 
yangl(i) followed by -a bin- 

Spew, v., luka. 

Sphere, n., cibulunge, 7; dibu- 
lunge, 5. Cf. V. bulunga. 

Spherical, adj., -a clbulunge(7), 
-a dibulunge(5). 
be, vi.y Lulunga. 

Spider, n., ntande, 3. 

web of, n., buntate, 6; buta- 
tande, 6; bukuondo, 6. 

Spill, vt., icikixa; vi., icikila, 



Spin, vL(as spider), luka. 

around, vt., clnsulula; vi., cln- 
Spine, n., of body, muongo, 2. 
Spirit, w.(Holy Spirit), nyuina, 3. 
From Greek, 
(life, soul), muoyo, 2; mucima, 

of the dead, muklxi, 2; muzan- 
gl(Buk.), 2. 
Spit, t;., tuila or ela with lute. 

For lute see § 51. 
Spite, n., lukuna, 4. 
Spittle, »., lute, 4. PI. is mate 

of class V. § 51. 
Splinter, w., kacl(dimin. of muci), 

Split, vL, handa; vi., handlka, 
(burst), vL, handlxa, taylxa. 
Spoil, z;/.(as a child), ibidlxa or 
mtlnylxa or lylxa with bua- 
lu(6) bubl. 
(become worthless), vi., onoka, 
nyanguka; v/., on a, nyanga. 
(pillage), vt.y haula. 
(rot), vi.y bola; vt., boleza. 
Spool, w., cinu, 7. 
Spoon, n.^ nkutu, 3. 
Sport, v., make of, sCka. 
(play), v.f s&ba, naya. 
Spot, n., ditoba, 5; dib&zl, 5. 
Spotless, be, v., ena ne with pi. 
of dltoba(5) or dlb&zi(5). 
(white), adj.f toke(p.p. of toka, 
to be spotless). 
Spotted, be, v., dl ne with pi. of 

ditoba(5) or dib&zt(5). 
Spout, «., of teapot, etc., muxuku, 

Spread, v. (as contagious disease), 
tampakana, sambuluklla, 
(as news), vi., endakana; vt., 

(as wings), vt., olola. 
on, as butter, oil, etc., vt., laba. 
out, to expand, vi., tuntumuka, 
tantamika; vt., tuntumuxa, 

Spread {continued^ 

out, to open out, vt,^ vxaigQ\vL\9,; 

vi., Tungruluka. 
over, to cover, vt., bulkila. 
Spring, v., a leak, tubuka with 
dikela(5) or disoso(5) or 
(fountaiii), n., mpokolo, 3. 
of trap, n., ndende, 3. 
Sprinkle, v., miamina, sanxlla. 
Sprout, n., lutonga, 4; musele, 2. 
vi., mftna, sampila, toloka, 
Spur, n., of cock, lukela, 4. 
Spurn, vt., hldia, benga. 
Spy, v., tentekela. 

n., muena(i) lusoko(4), mu- 
Spying, n., lasoko, 4. 
Squall, z^'.(as child), handalala, 
n.(strong wind), cibuhu, 7. 
Squander, vt., nyanga, tanga- 
dlxa, tangalAxa, muanga- 
lAxa, ona, dia cinana. 
Squat, vi., on haunches, zonsama, 

Squeal, vt'.(as pig), dila. 
Squeeze, vt., in hands, kama. 
in order to hurt, vt., flekela. 
together, down, vt., bamblla, 
nyemenena, xlndlka, ka- 
mat a. 
Squirm, vi., nyenga, Jeka. 

(wriggle), vi., sala, salakana, 
Jongoloka, lundamana. 
Stab, vt., tua, tftba. 
Stability, n., buk&le, 6. 
Stable, be, vi., kanana, kanda- 

mana, killa. 
Staff, n., clbangu, 7. 

walk with, vi., zindamlna, en- 
dela ku clbangu. 
Stagger, vi., lenduka, tenka- 
kana, nyungakana, takan- 
Stairs, n., clbandilu, 7. 
Stake, n., mucI, 2. 

(pointed and fastened in a pit 
trap),.n., dlsongo, 5. 



Stalk, n., of banana or plantain, 
cfkuondekaonde, 7. 
of corn, clkolakola, 7; lubala- 
bala, 4; musengeleke, i. 
Stammer, vi.^ kakuinina. 
Stammerer, n., maena(i) with 
clkukamlna(7) or dikuku- 
Stammering, n., cikokumiha, 7; 

dikakumlna, 5. 
Stamp, v., heavily with foot, tua 

ma84ba(2) banxl. 
Stamping, n.(a kick), musdba, 

Stand, vi.^ imfina; vt.^ Imttnyika. 
close together, vi., imftnangana. 
erect, vi., jalama. 
in line, vi.^ Imflna mu mulon- 


Steady or firm, v/., kftla. Jama, 
kanana, kandamana, xin- 
up, to rise up, vi.f Juka, bika. 
Star, n., mutoto, 2. 
Starch, n., sltaci(£ng.). 
Stare, v., at, tanglla or zoxa or 

mona with adv. talala. 
Start, v.(begin over), taadlxa, 
angacila kabidi, banga, ban- 
(from fright), vi., tabuluka. 
out, to depart, vi., umuka, 7a, 
Startle, vt., tabuluxa; 7^*.(be 

startled), tabuluka. 
Starvation, ». (famine), ciole, 7; 
lukota, 4. 
(hunger), nsftia, pi. of 3. 
Starved, be, vi., fua n8&ia(3), 
nsftia as subj. of xiha and the 
pers. as obj. 
State, n., see country. 

(condition), suggest infin. kul- 

(Congo Free State government 
and officers), Bala Matadl. 
From Lower Congo, 
(declare), v., amba. 
to, vt., amblla. 
Statement, »., di(pl. me), 5. 

Stay, vi., behind, to remain, x&la. 
(reside), w., Ikftla, xikama, lala. 
(stop), vt., kosexa, humbixa. 

Stead, n. Such expressions as in 
one's stead are generally ex- 
pressed by the Applied Form 
of the verb. 

Steadfast, aJ;., kille(p.p. of killa). 
be, vi., kftla, kanana, kanda- 
mana, xindama, Jama. 

Steadfastly, behold, v., use adv. 
talala with any verb meaning 
to behold. 

Steady, adj., kaie(p.p. of kftla). 
be, vi., kftla, kanana, kanda- 
mana, xindama, Jama, 
make, vt., killexa, Jamixa, ka- 
ntkxa, kandamixa. 

Steal, vt., iba. 

Stealthily, move, vi., onguela, 
tobela, bombelela. 

Steam, n., Iai7a(4) or ciyuya with 

Steamboat, n., see steamer. 

Steamer, n., dlkambl(5) dla ml, 
maxua(pl. of 5 or 6). Dl- 
kumbl and maxua are im- 
ported words. 

Stem, n., of banana or plantain, 
clkuondekuonde, 7. 
of pipe, maxiba, 2. 
(stalk of corn), clkolakola, 7; 
labalabala,4; mu8engeleke,2. 

Stench, n., muhaya(2) mubl, ka- 
hambu(8), mukuhu(2), lasu 


emit a, vi., nanka followed by 
any of the above words. 
Step, v., down, tuluka, Ika. 
on, v., dlata mu dlktt8a(5). 
(stairs), clbandllu, 7. 
take a, v., dlata. 
over, v., sambuka. 
Sterile p)erson or animal, 9>., 
nkumba, 3. Refers only to 
Stern, n., citaku, 7; ku n7lma(3) 
and the locative words ku- 
manda,kuntaku. iA^3(^)(py 
adj., -a muclma(2) muk&le. 



Stew, v.y tumpa, s&bula. 
Stick, n., mucl, 2. 

for leading a dog, n., luobo, 4. 
in, vL, asa, tua, xlmika. 
(in animal pit), n., disonso, 5. 
in, as mud, vL, kandamana, 
Jama, kanana; vt.y kanda- 
mlxa, Jamlxa, kanAxa. 
out, vi., h&taka, tuka. 
through, as needle through 
cloth, vi.f sompoka; vL, som- 
through, to punch hole through, 

vt.y tubula. 
to, to adhere, v/., I&m&ta, kua- 
takana; v/., PAmlka, l&in&- 
clxa, kaatakAxa, kaata- 
together, z;^'., Iftm&tansana, kua- 

takana, Iftmakana. 
walking-, n., clbangu, 7. 
Stiff, be, w. (inflexible), tanta- 
mana, tandabala, kayabala. 
Stifle, vt.y Jika clfuldlxe(7). 
(be stifled), v., di ne clful- 
Still, be, vi.y hola, talala, di with 
hola or talala. 
make to be, to quiet, vt.y talflxa, 
holexa, kosexa or xiklxa 
followed by dlyoyo(5) or mu- 
tllyo(2) or maaka(2). 
(stop noise), v.y lekela with dl- 
yoyo or matilyo or muaku or 
the infin. kuakula. 
Still-born child, »., kana(8) ka- 

Stimulate, v<.(strengthen), kft- 

Sting, vt.y suma. 

Stinginess, n., eltu, 7; bulminyl, 
6; cilema, 7; cianza(7) cl- 
Stingy, adj.y -a cita(7), -a bul- 
tninyi(6), -a cilema(7), -a 
clanKa(7) clkftle. 
toward, vt.y imlna, h&la. 
Stink, n., muhuya(2) mubl, mu- 
kaha(2), lasa(4), kaham- 

Stink (continued). 

v., Dunka followed by any of the 
above words. 
Stir, vt.(as mud in water), yuan- 
dulula, baandulula, buanda- ' 
kAxa, soha. 
fire, vt.y sonsoia. 
pot, vt.y vundula. 
together, to mix, vt.y sangixa, 
sangakAxa, sangakanya, 
sambakanya, sambakAxa, 
tutaktixa, tutakanya, sala, 
salakanya, saxa. 
Stockade, see enclosure. 
Stocking, «., cimenyl, 7. 
Stocks, n., muomba, 2; clkunyl, 

Stomach, »., difu, 5; the locative 

word munda. 
Stone, «., dlbue, 5. 

for grinding corn, millet, etc., «., 
mpelu, 3. This is held in the 
hail-, n.y dlbue dia iivula(3). 
Stool, n., nkuasa, 3. 

go to, v.y nyina. 
Stoop, vi.y InAma. 

(squat), vi.y sonsama, susa- 


Stop, v. (abstain from, to cease), 


(come to end, as path), vi.y zlklla. 

one from doing, vt., kosexa, 

humblxa, lekexa. 
(stay), vi.y Ik&la, xlkama, la- 
(wait), to stand, vi.y Imflna. 
Stopper, n., cixlblku, 7; elbulku, 

7; clbulkllu, 7. 
Store, »., -room, nelto(Eng.), 3; 
nsabu(3) wa blntu. 
away, vt.y teka, l&mlna. 
Storm, n., dhuho, 7. 
Story, n.(fable), muanu, 2; lusu- 
mulnu, 4; laxlmlnyinyu, 4. 
tell a, v.y ela. 
Stout, adj.y nine. 

grow, vi.y diunda, fund a. 
Stoutness, »., bonlne, 6. 
Stove, n.. uviim(Eng.), 3. 



Straight, be, vi.^ lul&ma, ololo- 
ka; vLf olola(ololola), ludl- 
klla, lul&miza, ladlka. 

stand up, make perpendicular, 
vi,f Jadtka; vi., Jalama. 
Straighten, vt.y iai&mlza, lu- 
(bend straight, as wire), v^., 

(put in line), vL, ludika. 
(stand up straight, make per- 
pendicular), vLf Jadika. 
Strain, vi.(as in travail), tanta- 

Strange, oJ/. (foreign, one from 
a distance), -a kule. 
(new), hia-hia. 
(wonderful), -a kakema. 
Stranger, ^.(visitor), muenyl, i. 
Strangle, v/. (throttle), flekela 
(be strangled, have something in 
the throat), v., kuata with ha 
miimina(2) or ha dlinina(5). 
Strap, n., mukQba, 2. 
Straw, »., use any of the words for 

grass, according to sense. 
Stray, v., about, endakana. 

(get lost), vi.y hambuka. 
Streaai, n.y musulu, 2. 

down-, the locative word ku- 

manda. § 423 (2) (6). 
up-, the ph. ku matu(2). 
Street, n., nxlla, 3. 
Strength, n., buk&le, 6; dikan- 
da(pl. generally used), 5; 
nguia(nsuda), pi. of 3 or 4. 
Strengthen, vt., kftlexa. 

(make steady), vt., kantkxa. 
Stretch, vt., koka, kUlexa, huta, 
one's self, v., dinana, diolola. 
out, as hand, vL, olola; vi.y 

out, to unfold, vt.y vungulula. 
Strew, vt., tangaltkxa, tanga- 
dixa, muanga, muangaltkxa. 
Strike, vL, kuma, tuta. 

against, as foot in walking, vL, 
kuma dlkusa(5). 

Strike {continued). 
so as to cut, vt.j t&ha. 
with fist, vt.y kuma or tua or 

tuta with cisasa(7) or dlsan- 

with knuckles, vt., tua lukon- 


with open hand, v/.,.kama with 

luhl(4) or dihi(5).' 
n., mukumu, 2; mututu, 2. 
String, n., mouxi(creeper), 2; 

maxlnga, 2. 
Strip, n.(band, bordering), luhola, 

of cloth, n., mulensa, 2; ci- 

tambala, 7. 
off, as bark, vt.y ubula. 
off, as clothes, vt.^ kahola^ vula. 
Stripe, n., muhola, 2. 
Striped, be, vi., dl mihola(pl. of 

Strive, v., and fail, hanga. 

by measuring or lifting, vt.y 

idlkixa, elekexa, lablla, teta. 
Stroll, vi., endakana. 
Strong, adj., kllle(p.p. of kftla, 

to he strong), di ne with 

bakftle(6) or nsalu(pl. of 3). 
(be steady), vi., kanana, kanda- 

mana, xlndama. Jama. 
Strongly, adv., bikftle. 
Strut, v.(to show off), dllexa. 
Stubborn, adj., -a clcu(7), -a 

cixlka(7), -a buhidia(6), -a 

Stubbornness, n., cicu, 7; clxiku, 

7; bqhidia, 6; cibensu, 7. 
Student, «., muiyldi, i; mue- 

na(i) mikanda(pl. of 2). 
Study, v. (learn), lya, lylla. 
Stuff, vi.. Any a. 

».(goods), biiima(sing. ciuma), 

7; bintu(sing. cintu), 7; 

(rubbish), n., bilu(sing. clln), 7; 

bisonso(sing. cisonso), 7. 
Stuffiness, »., clfuidixe, 7. 
Stumble, v. (strike foot against), 

kuma diktlsa(5). 



Stump, »., cihidlkldi, 7. 

v., the foot, kuma diktl8a(5). 
Stunned, be, vi., fua with cifui- 

dlxe(7) or cihuka(7). 
'Stunt, v/., humbaktlxa. 

(be stunted), vt., xunguka, 
xauka; also the adj. forms -a 
nJekuCa), -a cihindi(7), -a 
Stupefy, v/.(as drink), malavu as 
subj. of kuata with the person 
as obj. Sometimes the verb 
xiha is used, 
(as medicine), vt., leula. 
(be stupefied, stunned), v»., fua 
with clhuka(7) or cifal- 
(be stupefied, as from drink), 
vi.j kuacika maluvu. 
Stupid, see foolish. 
Stupidity, see folly. 
Stutter, vi., kukumlna. 
Stutterer, »., muena(i) with 
clkakamina(7) or dlkuka- 
Stuttering, «., clkukumlna, 7; 

dikukumina, 5. 
Sty, ».(pen), clkumbl, 7. 
Style, w. (custom), cilele, 7; cien- 
ledl, 7; clbilu, 7. 
See KIND. 
Subdue, vt.y hlta or tamba with 
bakftle(6) or ngulu(pl. of 3), 
Subject, v^. (conquer), tamba or 
hita with bukftle(6) or 
ngalu(pl. of 3), cimuna. 
(matter), n., bualu, 6; muanda, 

of a chief, n., muana, i; mu- 
hlka, I. 
Subjection, ». (slavery), buhlka, 6. 

bring into, see subjugate. 
Subjugate, vt., hita or tamba with 
bakille(6) or ngulu(pl. of 3), 
Submit, w.(be subjugated), te- 

Subside, vi., uma, kama, hue- 

Subsist, v.(be, live), ik&la. 

on, to eat, vt.^ dia. 
Substance, n. (goods), biuma(sing. 
ciuma), 7; bintu(sing. clntu), 
7; luhetu, 4. 
Substitute, 1;/. (exchange one for 
another), xintakdxa, xinta, 
xintakana, xintakanya. 
Sometimes the idea may be ex- 
pressed by the Applied Form 
of the verb. 
Subtle, adj.^ dimuke(p.p. of 
dimuka, to he subtle), -a 
Subtlety, n., budimu, 6. 
Subtract, v/.(take away), umuxa, 

Succeed, v., to chiefship, dia 

Succor, v/.(to help), use eniexa 
or Causative Form of any verb, 
(to save), vt.y sungUai ban* 

dixa, sungldlla. 
n., luhandu, 4. 
Succumb, z;i., teketa, hanga. 
Such, adj. Use the proper de- 
monstrative adj.; as, ciena 
musue cllulu eci, / do not 
want such cloth ^ i.e., this cloth. 
(in such a way), adv., nunku 

(nanku, nenku). 
(like, such as), the indeclinable 
words bu and buina. 
Suck, v. (as child or young of 
animals), amua. 
(as pip)e, etc.), vt., huta, koka. 
give to, vt.f amnlxa. 
Suckle, vt.^ amulxa. 
Suddenly, adv.y luktlsa, lubllu. 
Suffer, vi.(be punished), kenga. 
(be sick), vi., sama, bela. 
cause to, vt., kengexa. 
Suffering, ».(mental), kanyin- 
ganyinga, 8. 
(punishment), ft., dikengexa, 

(sickness), n., dlsama, 5; bu* 
bedi, 6; dibedi, 5. 



Suffice, vi., fuanansana, akan- 
angana, dieleka, vula, kum- 
bana, di -a bungl(6), xika. 

Sufficient, be, see suffice. 

Suffocate, vt.^ Jlka clfaidixe(7). 
(be suffocated), vi.y fua or di ne 
with cifuidixe. 

Suffocation, «., cifuidixe, 7. 

Sugar, »., nsugidl(pl. generally 
used), 3. From Portuguese, 
-cane, muenge, 2; cllengelele, 7. 

Suicide, commit, v.^ dixllia. 
by hanging, v., diowa. 

Suit, vi.^ akana, akanangana, 
dieleka, fuanangana. kele- 
mena; vt.y akAxangana, ele- 
kexa, fuanyikixa, kelemexa. 

Suitable, be, vi.f akana, akanan- 
gana,. dieleka, fuanangana, 
(proper, good), adv., impe, 
akane, lengele. 

Sulk, vi., sunuka, bungama. 

Sulky, be, vi., sunuka, bungama. 

Sullen, be, vi.y sunuka, bun- 

Summer, nph., cidlmu(7) cla 
Since the rainy season is also the 
warm season we may say 
nvula(3) or mayowa(pL of 
5 or 6). 

Summersault, turn a, vi.^ hlluka. 

Summit, n., mutu, 2. 

Summon, v/., blklla. 

Sun, n., diba, 5. PL is meba. 
-rise, »., dinda, 5; lunkelu, 4. 
-set, vph.y dlba(5) dikadi di- 

-shine, n., munya, 2. 

Sunday, n., Lumlngu(IiUbingu), 
4. From Portuguese. 

Sunrise, n.(about), dinda, 5; 
lunkelu, 4. 

Sunset, vpk., diba(5) dikadi di- 

Sunshine, n., munya, 2. 

Sup, v.(to drir.k), nua. 

Superintend, vt., tangila, mona, 
xoxa, l&ma. 

Superior, be, v. (better), tamba or 
hita with buimpe(6). 

Supper, nph., bidia bia with bu- 
tuku(6) or diloIo(5). 
Lord's, bidia bia Nzambi. 

Supple, be, vi., xoboka, nyenga- 
bala, di nemuxobo(mujobo). 

Suppleness, n., muxobo(mujobo), 

Supplicate, v^. (implore), sengela, 
(pray to God), vt., tendelela. 

Support, v/. (strengthen), kftlexa. 

Suppose, t;. (imagine), amba. 

Surely, c^v.y bulilela, buxua, 
buiktixa, bualabuala, buina- 
buina. These words are really 

Surety, »., cieya, 7. 
leave as, v/., eyeka. 

Surfeited, be, v., ukuta. 

Surpass, vt., tamba, liita. 

Surprise, vt.y k^mexa. 

exclaim in, vi.y k#ma, tua %i- 

(startle), 1;/., tabuluxa. 

Surrender, vi., Iianga, teketa. 

Surround, vLy nyungulula, cim- 
bakana, nyengela. 
(wrap around), vt.y Jinga, Jin- 
gila, vunga, vungila« 

Suspend, v».(hang down), lembe- 

Suspenders, n., mikjlba(pl. of 2) 
ya mili&nu(pl. of 2). 

Swallow, v., mina. 
n.(a bird), kandindl, 8. 

Swamp, see marsh. 

Swarm, n., cisumbu, 7. . 

Sway, w.(as cloth swinging in the 
wind), lembelela, hehuka, 

Swear, v. (take an oath), clha. 
The reflexive, diciha, is gener- 
ally used. From the Congo 
State officials is also derived 
the expression (uma munu(2) 
mftlu, put the finger up. 
at, vt.y henda, tuka. 
(take God's name in vain), v. 



Swear {continued). 

tela dina(5) dia Nzambi. 
Malicious swearing is un- 

Sweat, w., luanga, 4; clsululu, 

v.y h&tuka or tuka with luanga 

or clsululu as subj. 
Sweat-bee, w., kambulnkidl, 8. 
Sweep, vt., komba. 
Sweet, adj., -a dimeme(5), -a 

nse(pl. of 3 or 4). 
(be pleasant to the taste), vi., 

potato, »., cilunga, 7; cinsenga, 

Sweetness, «., dimeme, 5; nee, 

pi. of 3 or 4. 
Swell, 2/t*. (expand), tuntumuka, 

tantamika, ula; vt.y tuntu- 

muxa, tantamixa, uxa. 
(decrease of swelling), vi.y fuba, 

Swelling, «., disungu, 5. 
Swiftly, adv., lubilu, lukilsa. 
Swiftness, »., lubilu, 4; lukiisa, 

4; kalubilubl, 8. 
Swim, v.{aj& fish), enda mu ml. 
(as person), v., ombela, owe- 

Swine, «., ngulube, 3. 
Swing, vi.(sway as in wind), lem- 

belela, dikuha, hehuka. 
Switch, »., maxoxo, 2; munyasu, 

2; mulangala, 2; kanyanzu, 

vt., kuma, tuta. 
Swollen, be, vt.(as some part of 

body), ula. 
Swoon, vi., fua followed by cl- 

8dke(7) or tungulunsu(pl. of 

8) or cifuidixe(7). 
Sword, nph., inuele(2) wa nvl- 

Syllable, «., dlsi]abeI(Eng.), 5, 
Symbol, »., cimonyinu, 7. 
Sympathize, v., with, ha luse(4). 
Sympathy, w., luse, 4. 

Table, n., mesa(from Portuguese). 

Regarded as pi. of 5. 
clear the, vt., umuxa bintu ha 

leg of, »., dikunxl, 5. 
set the, vt., longolola bintu ha 

mesa, sala( Lower Congo). 
Taboo, vt., Jidlka, Jila. 

(one not eating with others), «., 

mueDa(i) mb&la(3). 
(tabooed things), w., cljlla, 7. 
Tack, ». (brass chair nail), lufuma, 

Tail, «., of animal or reptile, 

mukila, 2. 
of bird, fowl, etc., mulundu, 2. 
of fish, cihehe, 7. 
Taint, vt., bolexa; z;/.(be tainted), 

Take, v., aim, dingila, l&ma, 

ludikila, Idikixa, elekexa. 
a seat, vu, xikama. 
away, vi., umuxa. 
back, vt.y alukixa, andamuxa, 

tucixa, hingixa, hlngAxa. 
by, vt., kuata ku. 
care of, to look after, vt., l&ma. 
(carry), v/., tuala. 
down, vt., tulula, tula. 
from by force, vt., nyenga. 
heed, to be warned, vi., dimuka. 
heed, to listen, v., unva, ufua. 
hold of, vt., kuata. 
in, into, v/., buexa. 
oath, v., clha. 
off, vt.f umuxa. 
off, as anything sticking, v/., 

off, as clothes, vt., vula, kohola. 
off from, vt.y tentulula. 
out, vt., umuxa, h&tula, luhula. 
out, as jigger, vL, tubula, lu- 
photograph, v/., kuata mu mu- 

pity, v/., ha lu8e(4). 
to, vph., ya ne kudi (Locative 

Prefixed, § 321). 



Take (continued). 
to pieces, vt.y tulakanya. 
up, vt., ang^ata, m^ina, ambula, 

up by roots, vL^ Jula, xomuna. 
up something found, vL, angula. 
Tale, »., muanu, 2; lusumuina, 
4; luxlmlnylnyu, 4. 
tell a, vt.y ela. 
Talk, v., akula. 
about, z/., amba. 
against behind one's back, i;/., 

angrily, v., tanda, tandangana. 
a trade, vt.y taa mazliiga(2). 
behind one's back, vf.y tela. 
briefly, v., kosexa lublla. 
in one's sleep, v., Ifttakana. 
long time, v., lunguluka. 
louder, v/., bandlxa or killexa 
or ambuluxa or ambulula 
with dl(5). 
loudly or roughly, v., baluka 

lowly, to whisper, vi.y nungana. 
rapidly, vi., labakana, dl nc 

to, vt.f ambila. 

together, to converse, v»., somba. 
Talkative, adj., -a lut&ylt&yl, 4. 
Talkativeness, »., lutttyltftyl, 4. 
Talking, »., muaku, 2; mutilyo, 2. 
Tall, adj., le. 
become, w., leha. 
(slender), adj.^ -a Ia8ele8ele(4), 
-a lasekeseke(4). 
Tallness, w., bale, 6. 

(tallness and thinness), lusele- 
sele, 4; lusekeseke(4). 
Talon, »., luz&di, 4; luz&la, 4; 

luala, 4. 
Tame animal, w., cimuna, 7. 
Tangle, v/., Jtnsakflxa; vi.y 

Tantalize, vi.^ kuaclxa or ufuixa 
with clxl(7), flklxa munda, 
lobola, tacixa. 
Tap, z/. (knock), kuokola, ku- 
muna, kumina. 
palm for wine, v/., ema. 

Tape, »., mukflba, 2. 

line, n., cldlklxilu, 7; cidiklxa, 
7; luedi, 4; luldl, 4; luele- 
kexl, 4. 
Tarry, w'., x&la. 

for, to wait for, 7;/., Indlla, kuba. 
Task, n., mudlmu, 2. 
Tassel, n., of corn, luzeba, 4. 
Taste, 1;., lablla. 

be pleasant to the, vi.f xema- 
kana; also the adj. forms -a 
iise(pl. of 3 or 4) and -a 
kutua kuimpe. 
(have the taste of), v., tua. 
Clntu eel cldl cltue bu 
lueho, ihis thing tastes like salt, 
lose for, grow tired of, v., tonda, 

n., use infin. kutua. Eel clntu 
cldl kutua kuimpe, this thing 
has a good taste. 
Tasteless, be, T;/.(be without 

seasoning), talala, hola. 
Tasty, be, z;.(be pleasant to the 
taste, as something sweet), 
xemakana; also the adj. 
forms -a nse(pl. of 3 or 4) 
and -a kutua kuimpe. 
Tattoo, »., lus&lu, 4. 
vt.y t&ha nsftlu(pl.). 
with burnt rubber, v/., tua.. 
Taunt, vt.^ s6ka. 
Taut, be, vi., tantamana, tanta- 

Tax, n., mulambu, 2. 
pay a, vt.^ lambula. 
Tea, w., iitl(Eng.), 3. 
Teach, ut., lylxa, mtknylxa, lon- 
Kexa, ambila, tftylla, lubu- 
a child bad manners, vt.^ Ibldlxa 

bualu(6) bubl. 
(show), vt.y lexa. 
Teacher, n., mulylxl, i; mu- 
mflnylxl, i; muambldl, i; 
muambl, i. 
Tear, t;/., handa, tuanya; vi., 
handlka, tuauylka. 
a hole in, as cloth by a stick, 
vt.f tubula. 



Tear (continued). 

down, as house, vt., sasula. 
off, as anything adhering, v/., 

off, as meat from bone, vt.y tula. 
off one's loin cloth, vL, dlula. 
up by roots, vt.y tula, Jala. 
to pieces, vt.j tuanyansana, 

tuanyakanya, handakanya. 
w.(from the eye), clnsonxi, 7. 
shed, v.y h&tuka or tuka with 

clnsonxi as subj. 
Tease, vt.^ taelxa, lobola, kua- 

dxa or ufulxa with clxl(7), 

flklxa munda. 
(joke), vi.y hunga. 
(play joke on), vL, s&blxa, 

(provoke an animal to bite), v/., 

kdba laoxl(4). 
Teat, «., dlbele, 5. 
Tell, v.y amba, tllya(Buk.). 
about, v.y amba. 
adieu, vt.y laya. 
a lie, v.y xlma, dlnga, dlmba 

a lie on one, vt.y xlmlnylna, 

dlnglla, dlmblla. 
a secret, vt., sokololo muso- 

a story, fable, etc., vLy ela with 

niaanu(2) or luximlnyln- 

yu(4) or la8amalnu(4). 
each other, v.y ambllangana. 
on, vt.y songuela. 
to, vt.y amblla. 
Temperate, be, vph.(not given to 

strong drink), use neg. Pres. 

Habitual tense of nua, io 

drinky with maluvu as obj. 
Tempest, see tornado. 
Temple, n., nsuba(3) wa Nzambl. 
Tempt, vt.{Xo try, to test), teta or 

baela with munda. 
(entice), vt.y mtlnyixa or lylxa 

or Ibldlxa with buala(6) 

with desire to entrap, vt.y teya. 
Ten, card, num.y dlkuml, 5. 
Tend, v/.(look after), l&ma. 

Tent, npk.y n8ubu(3) wa cllu- 

Ten thousand, n., lubombo, 4. 
Tepid, be, vt.y dl ne with lulya(4) 

or ciyuya(7). 
Tepidness, »., lulya, 4; clyuya, 7. 
Terminate, v/. (finish), mflna, 

mflnylxa, hulxa, xlklxa. 
Termination, «. (destination), cl- 

xlkldllu, 7. 
Terminus, n., clxlkldilu, 7. 
Termite, «. (white ant), mueuasu, 

Terrapin, »., nkadu(nkuyu), 3. 
Terrify, vt.y clnylxa, sakAxa or 

handlxa with muclma(2); 

z;}.(be terrified), clna, kanka, 

handlka or lakala with mu« 

Terror, »., buowa, 6. 
Terrorize, vt.y see terrify. 
Test, vt.y lablla. 

(make trial, as of one's faith), 

vt.y teta or buela with knunda. 
(try by measuring or lifting), vt.y 

Idlklxa, elekexa, teta, la- 
(with view to entrap, vt., teya. 
«. (ordeal), see ordeal. 
Testament, »., New, clfufu(7) 

Old, clfufu clkulu. 
(will), n.y makanda(2) wa bu- 

Testicle, w., musa, 2; muh^sa, 2. 
Testify, v., amba. 
Than, conj.y use the verbs tamba 

or hita as indicated in § 464. 
Thank, vt. The natives have 

little or no idea of thanking. 

The words ha muoyo(2) and 

sekelela and Inylxa are used 

in this way about Luebo. 
Thankful, adj.y -a elnemu(7). 

From v. nemeka. 
be to, vt.y ha maoyo(2), seke- 
lela, Inylxa. 
See note under thank. 
Thankfulness, n., clnemu, 7. 

From V. nemeka. 



That, demon, and rel. pro.^ sub. 
(i) As demon, pro., see §§ 152, 


(2) As rel. pro., see § 164. 

(3) As sub. conj., see §§ 463; 
461, and Rem.; 455 (6) (2). 

Thatch, v/., flngra, kuma. 

Thaw, v., engruluka, flngraluka. 

Thee, pers. pro.y see you. 

Theft, ff.(thievishness), bulbl, 6; 
bulYl, 6. 

Their, poss. pro,^ use the pi. forms 
of third pers. as indicated 
under § 133. 

Theirs, poss, pro., see § 135. 

Them, pers. pro. 

(i) As direct or indirect obj., 
use pronominal infixes. §§ 116, 
117. Note the use of pro- 
nominal suffixes (§123), under 
certain circumstances, as direct 
or indirect obj. § 124 {b) (c). 
(2) For use with prep., see §§ 
106 (c), 107. 

Themselves, pers. pro. 

(i) Compound Disjunctive 
Forms. The agreement is 
made with the class of the 
noun to which the pro. refers. 
§§ 108, 109. 

(2) When reflexive, use the re- 
flexive prefix of verb -dl-. 
Note that this construction 
may be used either as subj. 
or obj. § I r8. 

(3) See BX.-Eng. under Ine. 
Then, am/v. (therefore), ka, bu- 

insep. with Applied Forms of v. 

Thence, adv.^ use the Locative 
Suffixed construction. § 320. 
We may also have the usual ad- 
verbs meaning there: kuakua, 
muamua, haha; aku, amu, 
aha; kuokuo, muomuo, hoho. 
§ 163, Notes 3 and 4. 

There, adv., kuakua, muamua, 
haha; aku, amu, aha; kuo- 
kuo, muomuo, hoho. §§163, 
Notes 3 and 4. 

There {continued). 

When used in place of the subj. 

before the v., see § 441 (rf). 

Therefore, adv., ka, bu- insep. 

with Applied JForm of v. § 419. 
These, see this. 
They, pers. pro. Agreement is 

always made with the class of 

the noun to which the pro. 

(i) Simple Disjunctive Forms. 


(2) Compound Disjunctive 
Forms. §§ 108, no. 

(3) Conjunctive Forms used as 
(a) Pronominal Prefix. §§113, 

{b) Pronominal Suffix. §§ 120, 
Thick, a^;.(large), nine. 
(be dense), vi.^ xltakana. 
be, not flow well, vi.^ kuata- 
Thicket^ n., clhuka, 7. 
Thickness, n., bunlne, 6. 
Thief, n., mulbl, i; mulvi, i; 

muena(i) muclma(2). 
Thievish, adj.^ -a mucima(2), -a 
buibl(6), -a buivi(6), -a 
blaiiia(pl. of 7) bile. 
Thievishness, n., bulbl, 6; bulvl, 

Thigh, ».(upper leg), cibelu, 7. 
Thin, be, vt.(lean), nyana, dl ne 
or uma followed by clonda(7) 
or clnyanu(7). 
(not thick), adj., kise, b&Ia, 

(slender), adj., -a luselesele(4), 
-a luseke8eke(4). 
Thine, see yours. 
Thing, n., cintu, 7. 
Think, v., ela or elangana fol- 
lowed by mucima(2) or lun- 
Kenyl(4) or mexi(pl. of 5 or 
6) or lukanyl(4). 
(imagine), v., amba. 
Thinness, n. (leanness), clonda, 7; 
clnyanu, 7. 



Thinness (continued). 

(littleness, not thick), w., buklse, 

6; bub&le, 6; bunyabunya, 

(tallness and thinness), n., luse- 

lesele, 4; lusekeseke, 4. 
Third, ord. num.y Is&tu. § 99. 
Thirst, n., mlota(nyota), pi. of 2. 
quench, vt.y mtkna or hulxa with 

miota, taltkza or holeza with 

ha dlmlnu(5) or ha mumlnu 

Thirsty, be, vi^^ dl ne mlota(nyo- 

ta), mIota as subj. of kuata 

with the pers. as obj. 
This, demon, pro., see §§ 149, 150. 
Thither, adv., generally use the 

Locative Suffixed construc- 
tion. § 320. 
We have also the usual adverbs 

meaning there : kuakua, maa- 

mua, haha; aka, amu, aha; 

kuokuo, muomuo, hoho. § 

163, Notes 3 and 4. 
Thorn, n., dieba, 5. PI. ismeba. 
Thoroughly, adv.(we\\), blmpe. 
Those, see that. 
Thou, see you. 
Thoughtless, be, vi., hala, tom- 

boka, buluka, clmba, clmba- 

kana, humbakana. 
adj.y hale, tomboke, buluke. 
Thoughtlessness, n., buhale, 6; 

bubuluke, 6; butomboke, 6. 
Thousand, »., clnuna, 7. 
Thrash, vt., out, as beans, tua. 

(beat), vt., kiima, tuta. 
Thread, «., buanda, 6. 
Threaten, v., funylna. 

(be about to), v., amba with 

infin. of following verb, 
rain, v., flnda. 
Three, card, num., s&tu with Sec- 
ondary Prefixes. In abstract 

counting use Is&tn. § 97. 
Threshold, n., mbelu, 3. 
Thrice, adv.y blakas&tu, pi. of 7; 

ml8anffu(p1. of 2) is&tu; 

blkondo(Dl. of 7) bls&tu; 

]nl8iuisa(pl. of 2) is&to. 

Thrice (continued). 

(third time). Use sing, of above 

forms with the ordinal numeral. 

Throat, n., mumlnu, 2; dimlnu, 

5- ^ 
Throb, v., kuma. 
Throne, nph., nkuasa(3) wa 

Throng, n., cisumbu, 7; bungri, 

Throttle, v/., flekela iixinsu(3). 
Through, prep., mu. § 429 (i) 

and Notes. 
Throughout, adv., to. 
Throw, vt., ela. 

away as useless, vt., im&xa, 

sumbula, nytkka. 
back and forth, vt., sambulu- 

down, as house, vt., ximbula. 
in wrestling, vt., flna, xlnda. 
Thrust, vt., at, tua. 
out, vt., umuxa, h&tula. 
(push), vt., semexa, s^kila, 

Thumb, n., clala, 7. 
Thunder, n., clap of, dlkuba- 

kuba, 5. 
rolling, n., mukungula, 2. 
v., use nYula(rain) as subj. of 

kungula; or nvula as subj. 

of kuma with dlkubakuba as 

Thxtrsday, n., dltuku(5) dlnl. 

See WEEK. 
Thus, adv., nunku(nanku, nen« 

Thwart, v., ela muko8a(2), 

kosexa, humbixa; vi.(he 

thwarted), humba. 
Thy, poss. pro., see your. 
Thyself, see yourself. 
Tick, ».(on dog), lukuha, 4. 

v.(as watch), dlla. 
Tickle, v., afunya. 
Tidiness, n., mankenda, pi. of 5 

or 6. 
Tidy, adj., -a mankenda(p1. of 5 

or 6). 
. make, vt., longa, longolola. 



Tie, vt.f suika, zlka, Inya. 

down on top of, as battens, vt.y 

Tight, be, vt'.(taut), tantamana, 

Tighten, i;/.(strengthen), killeza. 
(make taut), vL, tantamlza, 

Tightly, adv., bikille. 
Till, conj., see until. 

2/. (cultivate), dima, Ihlla. 
Time, n., at same, dladmue, 5; 

clahamue, 7; ciamumue, 7; 

dlakamue, 5. These are 

really nouns used as adverbs. 

§ 95 (b) and Rems. 
(be time for), vph.y use dlba(5) 

as subj. of kumbana. 
day-, n.y munya, 2. 
long, inu8ansu(2) mule, ma- 

tuku male, nsondo ya bungl, 

(long time ago), adv., kale, 

bangabangra, dlambedl(5). 
next, musangu mukuabo. 
night-, n., butuku, 6. 
(old times), adv., kale, banga- 

banga, dlambedi(5). 
plenty of, be, vph., dlba(5) 

(repetition, as once, twice, thrice, 

etc.), see §S 394, 395- We 

may also nave the words 

clkondo(7), mu8an8ru(2) and 

mu8unsu(2) followed by ord. 

Time of day: 

(dawn), haclacia, butuku or 

bufuku as subj. of v. cla. 
(sunrise), dinda, 5; lunkelu, 4. 
(about 9 a.m.), mlsasa, pi. of 2. 
(noon), munda munya, diba 

hanklkcl, dIba as subj. of v. 

(afternoon), dllolo, 5; dlba as 

subj. of V. uhuka. 
(about sunset), vph., dlba dl- 

kadl dlbuela. 
(midnight), mundankulu, a loc. 


Time (continued). 

(what hour? what o'clock?), 
dlba dldl hanyl? dlba kl? 
Timid, be, v., ufua or unva or 
dl ne with bundu(6). 
(as wild animal), v., b&xa, dl ne 

mb&xlb&xl(pl. of 3 or 4). 
(be frightened), vt., dl ne 
buowa(6), cina. 
Timidity, »., bundu, 6; bunvu, 6. 
(as of animals), »., mb&xlb&xl, 

pi. of 3 or 4. 
(fright), »., buowa, 6. 
Tin, ».(iron), dama, 7. 
can, n., luhanxa, 4. 
opener, nph., clntu cla kuxl- 
bula n*acl mpansa. 
Tire, vt., hanglxa, tekexa, 8U- 
8Ula; vi.(be tired), hangra, 
Busuka, teketa. 
(be tired of, to loathe), vt., 
tonda, tua. The thing of 
which one is tired is the subj., 
the person is the obj. 
Tiredness, n., butekete, 6; dl- 

hanKu(dlliunsl) 5. 
Titter, v., dl ne kas«ku(8). PI. 

of kas^ku generally used. 
To, prep.f use the locatives mu, ku 
or ha, according to sense. Ku 
is the most common, 
(i) When home of or village of 
is meant, use mua or kua or 
ha. § 87 {d). Rem. 

(2) Sometimes the to is expressed 
in the verb; as, tulakanya, 
take to pieces. 

(3) As sign of the infin. ku is 
used, but it is always written 
as part of the verb. 

(4) For clauses expressing pur- 
pose, see § 461. 

(5) From . . . to(till), ku . , . 
' to ne ku, ku . . . ne ku; 

sometimes we have simple ne 
connecting the two parts. 

(6) Often the Locative Prefixed 
construction is used especially 
with dl and other verbs mean- 
ing to be; as, ya kudl Ka- 



To (continued), 

songOy go to Kasongo. §321 
and Rem. 9. 

Toad, n., clula, 7; cilua, 7. 

Toast, T//.(as bread), nanga, In- 

Tobacco, n., makanya, pi. of 5; 
nfuanka, 3. 

To-day, adv., lelu. 

(this very day), lelu eu. 

Toe, n., muan'a nktlBa(pl. of 4), 
munu(2) wa dlkAsa(5). 
great, n., muan'a nktisa munlne, 
munu munlne wa diktisa, 
ciana(7) cla nktksa. 

Together, adv. This idea is gen- 
erally expressed in the verb; 
as, sanKlza, gather together; 
kuatakana, he close together \ 
etc. There may, however, be 
the more distinctly adv. forms, 
mumue, kumue, hamue; 
muomumue, kuokumue, ho- 
hamue; kaba kamue. 

Toil, see labor. 

Token, «., cimonylnu, 7. 

Tomato, n., matamata. From 
Portuguese. Same form is 
used for sing, and pi. Per- 
haps may be regarded as pi. 
of 5, for we sometimes hear 
the sing, ditamata. 

Tomb, n.(grave), lukita, 4; cl- 
duaya, 7. 

To-morrow, adv.y makelela, ma- 
day after, adv.^ maihi. 

Tone, «., bass, low, dl(5) dinlne. 
high, di(5) diklse. 

Tongs, ».(a split stick used by 
blacksmiths), mpandu, 3. 

Tongue, »., ludiml, 4. 

To-night, flrfv.(the night following 
to-day), butuku, 6; bufuku, 6. 

Too, o</v.(also), kabldl. 

(excess), use verbs tamba and 

Tool, n., ciama, 7; clntu(7) cia 
kuenia n*aci. 
See note under machine. 

Tooth, n., dinu, 5. PI. is menu. 
-ache, nph.f dlsama(5) dia dInu. 
cut, as a young child, vi.y m£na. 
grit the, v.y dlangana or sekexa 

with menii. 
knock out, vt.y ehula, tauola. 
Top, n., mutu, 2. 

of head, n., lubombo, 4. 
of house, n., musonga, 2. 
(pile one on top of the other), v/., 
tentektixa, tenteka, tente- 
kanya, ambakanya, amba- 
ktlxa; vi.y tentama, amba- 
Torch, n., clmunyl, 7. 
Torment, vt.y taclxa, flklxa 
munda, ufuixa or kuaclxa 
with clxl(7). 
(punish), vt.y kengexa. 
Torn, be, vi.y handlka, tuanylka. 
Tornado, n., cihuhu, 7. 

blow as a, vi.y hutaa. 
Tortoise, »., nkudu(nkuvu), 3. 
Torture, vt.y kengexa, nyanga, 

Total, adj.y onso, xlma. 
Totality, n., buonso, 6; buxima, 
(the totality of them, all of them), 
use buonso followed by poss. 
pro.; as, buonso buabo ba- 
kuya, all of them {people) have 
gone. § 182, Rem. 
Totter, vi.y tenkakana, nyunga- 

kana, lenduka, takankana. 
Touch, v/.(feel), lamba, lenga, 
together, vi.y kuatakana, I&- 
m&ta, tuangana. 
Tough, adj. (as meat), ki&le ku 
menu(pl. of dInu). 
be, vi.y nyengabala. 
Tour, n., luendu, 4. 
Towards, prep.y ku. 
Towel, «., cltambala, 7; dl- 

tuaya(from Portuguese), 5. 
Town, n., musoko, 2; ditunga, 5. 
(large collection of villages), «., 
clmenga, 7; clhunda, 7. 
Trace, see track. 



Track, vt., londa with maktksa 
(sing, diktksa) or maka- 
ma(sing. dikama) or mlkon- 
no(sing. mukono). 

(any marking or tracing on the 
ground), n.f mufunda, 2. 

(footprint), »., cidlacilu, 7; di- 
ktksa, 5; dikama, 5; mu- 
kono, 2. 

of snake, tr., clkoka, 7. 

of railway, nph., nzlla(3) wa 
dikumbl (5)dia bulobo(6). 
Tractable, be, v., tumlkila, 

adj., -a kalolo(8). 
Tractableness, n., kalolo, 8. 
Trade, ^//.(exchange), xintaklkxa, 
xlnta, xintakana, xlntakan- 
ya, flngakana, flngakanya, 
hlnsaktkxa, sombak1kxa(witb 
view of returning exact arti- 

(go about buying and selling), v., 
enda or endulula with mu- 

(price), n., muxinga, 2. 

talk a, vt.f tua muxingra. 

to close a trade by breaking a 
stick), vt., kosa clci(7). 
Trader, n., nsenda(i) wa mu- 
xln8:a(2), muena(i) clsum- 
Traduce, vt., songruela, banda. 
Trail, vt.(io drag), koka, huta> 

(to track), v., londa with ma- 
k1ksa(sing. diklksa) or ma- 
kama(sing. dikama) or mi- 
kono(sing. mukono). 

(track), n., cidlacilu, 7; diktksa, 
5; dikama, 5; mukono, 2; 
clkoka, 7. 
Train, n.(line), mulongo, 2. 

railway, n., dikumbl(5) dia 

v/.(teach), iyixa, mtknylxa, lon- 
srexa, ambila, Ibidixa. 
Traitor, n., musongruedl, i. 

be to, v.y songueia, banda. 

Tramp, v., dlata. 

heavily, v., tua mus£ba(2). 
on, v., diata mu dlktk8a(5). 
n.( vagabond), muena(i) cien- 
denda(7). § 356 (g). 

Trample, vt., upon, dlata mu 

Tranquil, be, vt., talala, hola, 
di with hola or talala. 

Transfigure, vt., kudlmuna, 
andamuna; vi., kudlmuka, 

Transform, vt., kudimuna, anda- 
muna; vi., kudimuka, anda- 

Transgress, v., enia bUbi. 

Transgression, n.(sin), bualu(6) 
bubl, muanda(2) mubt, 
bubl(6). We often hear sim- 
ply the pi. of the adjectives 
mabi and mibl. 

Transgressor, nph., muntu(i) 
mubi, muena(i) malu(pl. of 
6) mabi. 

Translate, vt., andamuna or 
kudimuna with muaku(2). 

Transmigration, see metempsy- 

Transparent, adj., toke(p.p. of 
toka, to be transparent). 

Transpire, vi., lua. 

Transplant, vt., ten tula, xlmika. 

Transport, v/. (carry), tuala. 

Trap, n., buteyi, 6; lukinda, 4. 
for fish, n., mukinda, 2. 
(pit for animals), n., dljlmba, 

set a, vt., teya nd«nde(3). 
trigger of, n., ndende, 3. 
Trash, n., bllu, bisonso. Both 

are pi. of 7. 
Travail, v., to strain in, tanta- 

Travel, vi., enda, endakana. 
Traveller, n., muena(i) luenda 

(4), muendakanyi(i). 
Treacherous, be toward, vt^ 

songuela, banda. 
Tread, v., dlata. 

on, vt., dlata mu diktksa(5). 



Tread (continued). 

(tramp heavily), v., tua mu- 
Treasurer, n., mul&ml(i) wa 
with mpalata(3) or bintu(pl. 


Treat, v<.(conduct toward one), 
disease, vi., ondaha. 
ill-, see ABUSE. 

Treatment, «., ill, cihendo, 7; 
cinyangu, 7; matandu, 7, 
pi. of 5 or 6. 

Treaty, »., cifufu, 7. 
make a, vt., ela. 

Tree, «., muci, 2. 

Tremble, i/t., sakala, kanka, 
(quake, as earth), vi., taka, 

Trench, n., mutubu, 2. 

Trial, «., cilumbu, 7. 

make a, to attempt, v., see try. 

Tribe, n. The tribe or c/an or 
nation may be expressed by 
cl8amba(7), cloto(7), mul- 
lu(2); the family can be ex- 
pressed by such phrases as -a 
muzuku(2) wa mbe]u(3) and 
-a mu dlfu(5). The indefinite 
iiiiuan*etu, etc. (§ 138, Rem. 
5), though generally meaning 
brother or sister ^ may also mean 
one of the same tribe or clan 
or family. The people of the 
different tribes or clans are 
generally expressed by giving 
the simple name of the people; 
as, Bak^te, Baluba, Bakuba. 
But sometimes we have the 
qualifying words bena(sing. 
muena) or bakua(sing. mu- 
kua); as, Bena Lulua, 
Bakua Mbuya. §§ 84 (b); 
87 (rf), Rem. 2. 

Tribulation, «., bualu(6) with 
bubl or bukftle. 

Tribute, n., mulambu, 2. 
pay to, vt., lambula. 

Trick, v^.(conjure), Iowa. 

Trick (continued), 

(deceive), vt.y zima, dlnga, 

ft. (sleight of hand), dijimbu, 5; 
dialu, 5. 
Trickle, vi., down, m&ta. 
Trifle, v. (not to do one's work 

well), lenga, leni^akana. 
Trifling person, w., mufuba, i. 
adj.j -a bufuba(6), -a buka- 
Trigger, n., of gun, mulemu, 2. 

of trap, n.f ndende, 3. 
Trip, go on a, vi.y ya ku luen- 
(stumble), v., kuma dikAsa(5). 
». (journey), luendu, 4. 
Trouble, v/.(annoy), taclxa, flk- 
ixa munda, kuaciza or ufu- 
ixa with clxi(7). 
(disturbance), «., dlyoyo, 5. 
make, vt., teka dlyoyo. 
(misfortune), «., bualu(6) with 
bubi or bukftle. 
Trough, «., for feeding dogs or 

beating corn, etc., luvu, 4. 
Trousers, n., muh&Qu, 2; mu- 
klya, 2. The pi. of these 
words generally used. 
True, adj.y lllela, ikflxa, -a 
buxua(6), -a bulllela(6), -a 
buinabuina(6), -a bulktk- 
za(6), -a bualabuala(6). 
Sometimes the word mene is 
used postpositive. 
Truly, adv., bulilela, buina- 
bulna, buxua, bulktixa, bua- 
labuala, and sometimes the 
word mene. 
Trumpet, «., mpunKi, 3. 
Trunk, n.(box), mux^te, 2. 
of elephant, »., muilu, 2. 
of human body, «., mubldl, 2. 
Trust, vt., itabuxa, tekemena(?). 
Trustworthy, arf;/.(truthful), -a 

di(5) dimue. 
Truth, n., bulilela, buik&xa, 
buxua, bualabuala, bulna- 
bulna. These words all be- 
long to class VI. 



Truthful, adj., -a dl(5) dlmue. 
Truthfully, see truly. 
Try, v.f a law case, lumbulula. 
by measuring or lifting, vt.j Idi- 

klxa, elekexa, lablla, teta. 
(to attempt and fail), vi., han- 

(to taste), vt., lablla. 
(to test one), vt., teta or buela 
with munda. 
Tube, ». (barrel of gun), mulonda, 


(pipe stem), muxiba, 2. 
Tuck up, v/.(gird up the loin), ela 

Tuesday, n., dltaku(5) dibidl. 
Tuft, »., of hair, clsuba, 7. 
Tumbler, n. (glass), nglas(£ng.) 

Tumult, w., dlyoyo, 5. 

make a, v/., teka dlyoyo. 
Tune, n., musambu, 2, 

be out of, vt.f sAkuka; vt.{put 

out of), stikula. 
instruments to each other, at- 
tune, vLf. stkklla hamue, akti- 

put in, vLf sAka. 
Turn, v., aside, susuka, ehuka. 
back, to return, vi., aluklla, 

aluka, andamuka, tuta, tu- 

clla, htngila, hlngana, hln- 

handle or anything in a circle, 

vt.f nyungixa, nyunguluxa. 
inside out, vL, andamuna, kudl- 

into, to enter, vi.y buela. 
into, to become, vt., andamuka, 

kudimuka, lua; vt., kudi- 

muna, andamuna. 
loose, vt.f lekela. 
oflF, to discharge, vt., umuxa, 

one's back on, v., ela nylma(3). 
out, to drive out, vt., h&tula, 

luhula, umuxa. 
over, vt., andamuna, kudimuna. 
over, to upset, vt., tokola; vi., 


Turn (continued), 

(revolve), vi., clnguluka; vt., 

round, vi., kudimuka, anda- 
muka; vt., kudimuna. anda- 
round and round, vt., nyungu- 

lula; .vi., nyunguluka. 
summersault, vi., hlluka. 
(twist), vt., nyenga, Jekexa. 
Turtle, »., nkudu(nkuyu), 3. 
Tusk, »., of ivory, mubansa> 2. 
Twice, adv., biakabidl(pl. of 7), 
ml8ansu(pl. of 2) ibidl, bl- 
kondo(7) bibldi, mi8unsa(2) 
Ibldl. §§ 394, 395- 
(second time), use sing, of above 
expressions with ord. num. 
Twig, n., cis&kl, 7. 
Twin, n., muana(i) wa maha- 
sa(pl. of 5). 
the older, n., cibuabu, 7. 
the younger, n., nkanku, i. 
Twine, vi., around, Jingra, JlnsUa, 
ball of, n., cikata, 7. 
(string), n., muxlnga, 2. 
Twist, v., nyenga. 

(as string), v/., JIngra, jinfflla. 
off, vt., nyengabaxa. 
(wriggle), vi., nyenga, Jeka. 
Two, card, num., bid! with Second- 
ary Prefixes. In abstract 
counting use ibidl. § 97. 
Type, ». (printing), dil^ta, 5. From 

Eng. word letter. 
Tyrannical, adj., -a cinyangu, 7. 
Tyrannize over, vt., nyanga, ona. 
Tyranny, »., cinyangu, 7. 
Tyrant, n., muena(i) cinyan- 

Udder, n., dibele, 5. 

Ugliness, n., bubi, 6; nkunyi 

(slang), 3. 
Ugly, adj., bi, -a nkunyi(3). This 

last word is slang. 



Ulcer, »., cluxa, 7; mputa, 3. 
(large swelling), dlsung^u, 5. 
Umbrella, »., dikumbl, 5. 
Unable, be, v., use neg. of forms 

indicated under § 230. 
Unaware, be, v., use neg. of 

mtinya, to know. 
Unbelief, n., buhidia, 6. 
Unbeliever, n., muena(i) bu- 

Unbend, v/.(bend straight), olo- 

la(ololola); vi., ololoka. 
Unbending, be, vLy kayabala, 

tantamana, tandabala. 
Unbind, vt.^ kutulula, Jingrulula, 

(unroll), vt.j vungrulula. 
Unbolt, vt.^ haula. 
Uncertain, be, v». (vacillate), lem- 

bakana, humbakana, nema 

with mucima as subj., tata- 

kana, dl ne mlclma ibidi. 


Unchaste, adj., -a ma8andi(pl. 

of 5 or 6). 
Unchastity, »., masandi, pi. of 

5 or 6. 
Uncircumcised, be, v., di ne with 

musundu(2) or muso8o(2) or 

bukutu(6); also neg. of v. 

tengula with pass, forms. 
Uncivilized person, »., musenxi, 

I. This is an imported word. 
Uncle, n. (maternal), mans^ba, i. 

PL is bamansdba. 
(paternal), tatu(i) mukulu (if 

older tiian the father); tatu 

muakunyl (if younger than the 

Unclean, adj. {us clothes), bl, 

flke(p.p. of flka, to he uip- 

in person, -a manyanu(pl. of 

5 or 6), -a inbindu(pl. of 3 ol 

(unchaste), -a ina8andl(pl. of 5 

or 6). 
(untidy), -a bukoya(6). 
Uncleanness, n., buflke, 6; bubl, 


Uncleanness {continued). 
on person, many an u, pi. of 5 pr 

6; mblndu, pi. of 3 or 4. 
(unchastity), masandi, pi. of 5 

or 6. 
(untidiness), bukoya, 6. 
Unconscious, see insensible. 
Unconsciousness, see insensi- 
Uncontrollable, be, v., use neg. 

of tumika or tumlklla. 
Uncooked, adj., blxe. 

be, vi., bixika. 
Uncover, v/., bulula. 
Under, prep., munxi. This is 

rjnerally followed by mua. 
423 (3)- 
Underneath, see UNDEit. 
Undersized, adj., -a cituha(7), 
xunsuke(p.p. of xunguka, to 
be, undersized). 
(dwarfed person), »., njeku, 3; 
kaneke, 8; cihlndl, 7. 
Understand, v., each other, un- 
(hear), unva, ufua. 
(know), mflnya. 
Understanding, w. (knowledge), 
lungenyl, 4; mext, pi. of 5 
or 6; lukanyl, 4. 
Undertone, »., dinunganyi, 5. 
PI. generally used, 
speak in, v., nungana. 
Undo, vt., a knot, sulula, Jingu- 
lula, flnuna. 
(as stitching), vt., kutula, kutu- 
(take to pieces), vt., tula, tula- 

(unfasten, as bolt), vt., haula. 
Undone, come, vi., kutuka, su- 

luka, flnuka. 
Undress, vt., vula, kuhoIa(lio- 

Uneasy, be, w. (restless), sasa- 

Unequal, be, vi., use neg. of fuan- 
angana or fuana; also ena 
followed by bu or buina or 
muomumue or o-umue. 



Uneven, be, vi. (rough to touch), 

(unequal), use neg. of fuanan- 

sana or fuana; also ena fol- 
lowed by bu or bulna or 

muomumue or o-umue. 
Unfasten, vL, a bolt, haula. 
a knot, vL, sulula, jlnsulula, 

(as wristlet or latch), v/., ban- 

(open, as box), v/., xibula. 
(be unfastened), vi., suluka, 

Jinguluka, flnuka, hauka, 

bansuka, zibuka. 
Unfinished, be, vi., use neg. of 

hua or xlka or mflna. 
Unfold, vL(sls cloth), vungulula; 

vi.f vungruluka. 
(as flower), vt,, balulula; vi.y 

(as wings), vL, olola(ololola) ; 

vi.f ololoka. 
Unfortunate, be, vi.y use neg. of 

forms under fortunate. 
Unfriendliness, n., lukuna, 4; 

lukina, 4. 
Unfriendly, adj., -a lukiuia(4), 

-a lukinu(4). 
Unfruitful person or animal, «., 

nkumba, 3. Used only of 

Ungrateful, adj., -a clkama(7), 

-a dlkamakama(5), -a din- 
tan ta(5). 
Ungratefulness, »., clkama, 7; 

dlkamakama, 5; din tan ta, 5. 
Unhappiness, n., kanylnganyin- 

8ra, 8. 
Unhappy, be, vi., use neg. of sanka 

with muoyo(2) or mucima(2) 

as subj.; also di ne kanyin- 

Unhide, vL, sokolola, sokola. 
Unholiness, n., bubl, 6. 
Unholy, <Kf/.(bad), bl; also neg. 

V. with akane or impe or len- 

Unimportant, adj., -a cinana, -a 

hatuhu, -a b«. 

Uninhabited place, nph., ma 
muaba(2) kamuena bantu. 

Unintentionally, see acciden- 

Unison, sing in, vL, aktixa me 

Unit, n.(one), omue. 

Unite, i^'.(as rivers), sambakana, 
sangakana, ganglia; vL^ 
sangakAxa, sangakanya, 
sangixa, sambaktkxa, samba- 
kanya, sanga. 
(join, to become one of a party), 

v., buela, buelakana. 
(put against), vt., tuangttxa, 
tuanganya, kuataktixa, kua- 
takanya; vi., tuangana, 

Unity, n. (sameness), buobumue, 

Unjust, o<f;.(bad), bi; neg. v. with 
impe or akane or lengele. 
(be dishonest), v., iba, di ne 
followed by buivl(6) or bui- 
bi(6) or bianBa(pI. of 7) 

Unkind, adj., bi; neg. v. with impe 
or akane or lengele; -a lu* 
kuna(4), -a lukinu(4), «• 
to, vt.f nyanga, ona. 

Unkindness, n., lukuna, 4; In* 
kinu, 4; cinyangu, 7. 

Unknown, adj., -a mu8okoko(2); 
also neg. of mtknya, to know. 

Unlatch, vi., bangula; w.(come 
unlatched), banguka. 

Unlawful, make, v/.(taboo), Ji- 
dika cijila(7). 
thing, n., cijlla, 7. 

Unless, sub. conj.(ii not), use neg. 
of usual conditional form as 
indicated in §§ 459, 460. 

Unlike, be, vi., use neg. of fuana 
or fuanangana or kelemena 
or dieleka; ena followed by 
bu or buina or muomumue or 
o-umue or muan*abo ne. 

Unload, vt., h&tula, umuza. 

Unlock, vt., xibula. 



Unloose, vL, sulula, kutula, 

a bolt, vL, haula. 
(set free), vL, lekela, kuhola, 

Unlucky, adj., use neg. of forms 

under fortunate. 
Unmanageable, be, v»., use neg. 

of tumlkaor tumikila; also di 

ne with cicu(7) or clbengu(7) 

or buhidla(6) or cizlku(7). 
Unmarried person, n., mujike, i. 
Unmerciful, aJ;., -alakinu(4),-a 

cinyangu(7), also the neg. ph. 

ena ne lu8e(4). 
Unmercifulness, n., lukinu, 4; 

cinyansu, 7. 
Unmindful, be, vi., hanKaka- 

na, humbakana, clmbakana, 

Unmovable, see immovable. 
Unpalatable, be, vi.y use neg. of 

xemakana, also ena followed 

by nse(3) or kutua kulmpe. 
Unproductive, be, vj.(as land), 

Unravel, vt., kutula, kutulula, 

jingulula; vi., kutuka, Jingu- 

Unreliable, adj., -a niaxlnii(sing. 

dixtma), -a mafl(pl. of 5), -a 

mad IngI (sing, didlnga). 
Unreliableness, «., dixlma(pl. 

generally maximl), 5; didln- 

8ra(pl. generally madlngi), 5; 

mafl, pi. of 5 or 6. 
Unrighteous, adj., bi. 
Unrighteousness, n., bubl, 6. 
Unripe, adj., bixe. 

be, vi., bixika. 
Unroll, vt., vungulula, Jlngn- 

lula; vi., vunguluka, Jlngu- 

Unruly, be, vi., use neg. of tnmlka 

or tumikila; also dl ne with 

clcu(7) or cibengu(7) or 

bulildla(6) or clxlku(7). 
Unsavory, be, vi., use neg. of 

xemakana; also ena followed 

by nse(3) or kutua kulmpe. 

Unseasoned, be, vi., hola, talala; 
also neg. of lunga. 

Unselfish, arf;. (generous), -a 
person, n., clhahl, 7. 

Unselfishness, ^.(generosity), 
dlha, 5. 

Unspotted, be, vi., ena ne with 
matoba^sing. dltoba), 5; or 
mab&xl(sing. dlb&xl, 5). 
(white), adj., toke(p.p. of toka, 
to be unspotted). 

Unstable, be, vi., takankana, 
nyungakana, tenkakana. 

Unsteady, be, vi., see unstable. 

Unsuitable, be, vi., use neg. of 
akanangana or fuanangana. 

Untangle, vt., Jlngulula, kutula, 
kutulula; i;«.(become un- 
tangled), Jlnguluka, kutuka. 

Untidiness, »., bukoya, 6. 

Untidy, adj., -a bukoya(6). 

Untie, vt., sulula, kutula. 
a bow knot, vt., flnuna. 
(set free), vt., kuhola(kohola), 

(become untied), vi., suluka, 
kutuka, flnuka, kulioka(ko* 

Until, sub. conj., see § 458 (c). 
prep., ku. 

(from . . . until), ku . . . to 
ne ku, ku . . . ne ku, some- 
times simple ne connecting the 
two parts. 

Unto, prep., see to. 

Untrue, be, vi., ena with the adj. 
forms lUela, Ikflxa, -a bu- 
xna(6), -a bulilela(6), -a 
bulnabulna(6), -a bulk A- 
xa(6), -a bualabuala(6). 

Untruth, n., dlxima, 5; dldinga, 
5; mafl, pi. of 5. The pi. of 
dixlma and dldinga is maximl 
and madlngi. 
tell an, v., xlma, dlnga, dlm- 

UNTRUTHFUL,<K/;.,-a maximl (sing. 
dixlma, 5), -a madlngi (sing. 
dldinga, 5), -a mafl(pl. of 5). 



Untruthfulness, n., see un- 
Unwell, be, vi,, sama, bela. 
•Unwholesome, adj., bl. 
Unwilling, be, vi.y benga, hidia; 

also neg. of Itabuxa. 
Unwind, ?;/., Jingulula,vungulula; 

. JInguluka, vunguluka. 
Unwrap, vL, Jlngulula, yungu- 
lula; vi,f JInguluka, vungu- 
Up, adv.{on high), ktklu, mlilu, 
heulu. § 364. 
to, prep,, ku. 
See up-stream, up-river. 
Upon, prep., ha, heulu. 
Upper part of hind leg, n., cibelu, 


Upright, be, vi., imikna, Jalama, 
(good), adj., Impe, lengele, 

make, vt., Imtknyika, Jadlka, 
Jalamlxa, ludika. 

Uprightness, w. (goodness), buim- 
pe, 6; buakane, 6; bulen- 
gele, 6. 

Up-river, prep, ph., ku mutu(2). 

Uproar, w., diyoyo, 5. 

Upset, v/., tokola; vi., tokoka. 

Up-stream, prep, ph., kumutu(2). 

Upwards, adv., ktklu, mtiln. 

Urge on, vt., endexa, enzexa. 
The Causative Form of any 
verb may be used accord- 
ing to the connection. 

Urinate, vi., sukula, sukunya. 

Urine, n., inenya(inenyu), pi. of 
5 or 6. 

Us, pers. pro. 

(i) Simple Disjunctive, tuetu. 


(2) As direct or indirect obj., 
use pronominal infix tu. 
§§ii6, 117. 

(3) With prepositions, see §§ 106 
(c), 107. 

Usage, n., cilele, 7; cieniedi, 7; 
cibilu, 7. 

Use, vt., kuata. 
of no, adj. ph., -a hatuhu, -a 
Used to, vt., ibidila, lobokela. 

up, be no more, vi., xika, hua. 
Useless, adj., -a hatuhu, -a 
cinana, -a b£. 
become, vi., nyanguka, onokc. 
Utter, v., amba, akula. 

Vacant, see empty. 

Vacate, •z;.(go out), umuka, lu- 

huka, h&tuka. 
Vacillate, v., lembakana, hum- 

bakana, di ne micima Ibldl, 

nemawith mucinia(2) as subj. , 

Vagabond, w., muena(i) cien- 

denda(7). § 35^ ig)- 
be a, vph.y enda ciendenda. 
Vagabondage, «., ciendenda, 7. 

§ 35^ (^)- 
Vagina, n., cisuna(7), 7; mun- 

fl(?), 2. 
Vagrancy, n., ciendenda, 7. § 356 

Vagrant, see vagabond. 

Vain, be, v. (proud), disua, -di 

lexa, sanka, alakana. 
take name in, vi., tela. 
(try in vain), v., hanga. 
Vale, n., luhongo, 4; mu ci- 

Valiant, see brave. 
Valley, n., luhongo, 4; mu cl- 

Valor, n., dikima, 5; bukitu, 6; 

mucinia(2) muk&le. 
Valuable, adj., -a niuxinga(2) 

Value, w. (price), muxinga, 2. 
Vanish, vi., ximlna. 
Vanity, «., disanka, 5. 
Vanquish, vt., hita or tamba 

followed by buk&le(6) or 

ngulu(3), cimuna. 
Variegated, be, v., di with 

matoba(pl. of 5) or mab&- 

xi(pl. of 5). 



Variety, see kind. 

Vary, v., use neg. of fuana or 
fuanangana or kelemena or 
dieleka; also neg. v. with 
muomumue or o-uinue. 

Vast, arf^.(large), nine. 

number, many, -a bun8:i(6), 
ngl, ngla-ngl. 

Vastness, ». (largeness), bunlne, 6. 
in number, bungi, 6. 

Vaunt, t;., disua, sanka, alakana. 

Vegetable, tr., mudioko(2) may 
perhaps be used as general term. 

Vein, n., mujilu(muxilu), 2. 

Velocity, »., lubilu, 4; luklksa, 4. 

Venerate, vt., nemeka, neme- 
kela, meneka menekela, 
tumblza, tendelela. 

Vengeance, »., lukuna, 4. 

Venom, n., for poisoned arrows, 
lulengu, 4. 

Veracity, n., bulilela, bulkfixa, 
buxua, bualabuala, bulna- 
buina. These words all be- 
long to class VI. 

Veranda, «., citadllu, 7; mba- 
lanta, 3. 
(long pole resting on the support- 
ing posts), n., mutandala, 2; 
mutamba, 2. 
post supporting the, »., dikunxl, 

Verily, adv,, bulilela, buina- 
bulna, bulklkxa, buxua, 
bualabuala. These are really 
nouns belonging to class VI. 
Very, adv.{the very one), mene. 
As modifying adjectives there are 
several methods of expres- 
(i) The word be postpositive. 
§ 90(c). 

(2) The verbs tamba and hita 
followed by the abstract 
quality of the adj. § 90 (c). 

(3) By elongating the last 
syllable of the adj. 

(4) By repeating a syllable of 
the adj.; as, toke to, 
kunze kuniu. 

Vessel, «.(pot), clvuadl, 7; luesu, 
4; nyingu, 3; kasamba, 8. 
(ship), n.j dikumbi(5) dia ml. 

Vest, n., nkuldtu, 3. 

Vex, vLf kuacixa or ufuixa with 
cixi(7), tacixa, flkixa mun- 
da; vi.(be vexed), tata, 
kuata or ufua or unva or 
di ne with clxl, dt ne munda 

Vexation, »., cixi, 7. 

expression of, by clicking the 
throat, V.J sodla. 

Vibrate, vi.^ lembelela, dikuha, 

Vice, ».(bad habit), cllele(7) or 
clbilu(7) or cienzedi(7) fol- 
lowed by adj. clbl. 
(sin), n,y bualu(6) bubi, muan- 
da(2) mubi, bubi(6). 

Vicious, adj.{haid), bl. 

be, as animal, vph., di ne 

(wild, reckless), hale, buluke, 
tomboke. These are p.p. of 
hala and buluka and tom- 
boka^ to be vicious, 

ViciouSNESS, n.(as animal), luoxi, 

(badness), bubi, 6. 
(madness), buhale, 6; bubu- 

luke, 6; bu tomboke, 6. 
Victorious, be, over, vi., tamba or 

hita with bukftle(6) or 

Victuals, w., bldla, pi. of 7; bia 

View, v.(look, see), mona, tan- 

gila, xoxa. 
come into, vi.y mueneka, mueka. 
pass out of, vi.f Jimina. 
Vigilant, adj.y dimuke(p.p. of 

dimuka, to be vigilant). 
Vigorous, adj., kaie(p.p. of kftla, 

to be vigorous) y di ne with 

bukftle(6) or ngulu(3). 
Vigorously, adv., bikftle. 
Vigor, n., bukille, 6; ngulu, pi. 

of 3 or 4. 
Vile, adj.y bi. 



ViLENESS, n., bubl, 6. 
Vilify, vt., songuela, banda. 
ViLLAG£,n., mu8oko, 2; ditunga,5. 
large collection of, metropolis, 

n., cimenga, 7; clhiinda, 7. 
Villain, n., mantu(i) mubi, 

muena(i) lukinu(4). 
Vindicate, v/., bingixa; w.(be 

vindicated), binga. 
Vine, n., muoxi, 2. 

grape-, nph.^ muoxl wa ma- 

moma a kuenia ii*ft followed 

by yinyo or maluvu a mputu. 
Vinegar, »., nvliilke(Eng.), 3. 
Vineyard, nph.f budtmi(6) bua 

mioxl ya followed by maluvu 

a mputu or vlnyo. 
Violence, n., bukille, 6; ngulu, 

pi. of 3 or 4. 
(dementia), n., buhale, 6; bu- 

buluke, 6; butomboke, 6. 
do to, to rape, vL, kuata mu- 

k«xl ku bukille. 
take by, vt.^ nyenga. 
Violent, adj. (demented), hale, 

buluke, tomboke. These 

words are p.p. of- hala and 

buluka and tomboka, to be 

violerUf crazy. 
(strong), k&le(p.p. of kilia, to 

be violent). 
Violently, adv., ku buki&le(6), 

Virgin, ». No word for virgin as 

(girl), lass, muxikankunde, 2; 

songaktixl, i. 
(unmarried person), mujlke, i. 
Virginity, ff.(girlhood), buxikan- 

kunde, 6; bunsongaktkxi, 6. 
(state of being unmarried), »., 

bujike, 6. 
Virtue, n.(goodness), bulmpe, 6; 

buakane, 6; bulengele, 6. 
Virtuous, adj., Impe, akane, 

(be chaste), vi.y ena ne ma- 

sandi(pl. of 5 or 6). 
Visage, n., mp&la, 3; mesu, pi. 

of dlsu, eye. 

Viscera, n., mala, pi. of dila, 

Viscid, be, vi., kuatakana. 
Visible, become, vi., mueneka, 

Vision, «.(dream), mutu, 2; d- 
lilta, 7; dilu, 5. 
have a, vt., li&ta. 
Visit, 7/.(go visiting), enda buen- 
n., buenyt, 6. 
Visitor, »., muenyl, i. 
Vocation, n., mudimu, 2. 
Voice, n., dl, 5. PI. me. 
bass, di dinlne. 
high, di dlklse. 
lower the, vt., tek xa or hue- 

kexa with di. 
raise the, vt., ambuluxa or 
bandixa or ambulnla or 
kftlexa with di. 
Void, see empty. 
Vomit, v., luka. 
Vow, v., clha. The reflexive dl- 

clha is generally used. 
Voyage, n., luendu, 4. 


Wadding, n., for gun, dihusa, 5; 

cinyuka, 7. 
Wag, vt., Jixa(xixa). 
Wage, v., war, luangana nyita(3). 

«.(pay), difutu, 5. 
Wager, n., luhiku, 4. 

v., dia luhiku. 

put up anything as a, vt., hikila. 
Wages, n., difutu, 5. 

advance, vt., bandixa difutu. 

decrease, vt., huekexa difutu. 
Wagon, see carrlage. 
Wail, v., dila. 

n., muadi, 2. 
Waist, n., cimono, 7; cituka, 7. 
Waistcoat, n., nkul£tu, 3. 
Wait, v., for, await, indila, kuba. 

on, attend, vt. l&ma. 

(stand), vi., imtkna. 

(stop), v.y lekela. 
Wake, vt., bixa ku tulu(pl. of 8), 



Wakeful, be, vph.^ lala clta- 

Wakefulness, n., citab&la, 7. 
Walk, vt.^ enda. 

about, vi.f endakana. 

lame, vt., enda followed by pres. 

part, of zobela or tebuka. 
slowly, vi.f onguela, xixamuka. 
with a staff, vi.y enda ku ci- 
bangu(7), xindamina. 
Walking-stick, »., clbangu, 7. 
Wall, ». (fence), lumbu, 4; lu- 
hangu, 4; cihangu, 7. 
of house, n.y cimtknu, 7. 
Wallow, vi., bunguluka. 
Wander, vi.y about, endakana. 
in mind, talk in delirium, v., 
akula biakulakula(pl. of 7). 
Wanderer, n., muendakanyl, i. 
(vagabond), muena(i) cien- 
Wane, vi.{a^ moon), nyana. 
(when the moon is almost ready 
to disappear), vi.y nyingala. 
Want, vU, sua, nanga, Inylxa. 
(desire), n., cisuasua, 7. Udi 
ne bisuasua, he has (many) 
in, poor, adj.y hele, landa. 
(lack), vi.y x&la, ena ne. 
(need), n., buhele, 6; bulanda 
War, n., nyita, 3. 

v.y luangana nvlta. 
Warm, be, vi.y hla, dl with lui- 
ya(4) or clyuya(7). 
one*s self in sun or by fire, v., 
ota with munya(2) or ka- 
over again, as food, v/., bab&xa; 

vi.y bab&la. 
vt.y hixa. 
Warmth, w., of body or water or 
air, lulya, 4; etyuya, 7. 
of the sun, w., munya, 2. 
of fire, n.y kahia, 8. 
Warn, vt.y dimuxa; v».(be warn- 
ed), dimuka. 
Warning, w., budimu, 6. 
Warrior, see soldier. 

Wary, adj.y dimuke(p.p. of di- 
muka, to be wary). 
Wash, vt.y uvua, sukula(Lower 

(bathe), vi.y owa; vt.y owexa. 
Wasp, ». (making nests of mud), 

ntotonyi, 3; (the nest of), 

(making nests of wood paste), «., 

ditetembue, 5; dingulunge, 

5; (the nest of), nsaho, 3. 
Waste, vt.{Qs goods), tangalOxa, 

tangadixa, nyanga, ona, 

muangaliixa, dia cinana. 
away, grow thin, vi.y nyana, di 

ne with cIonda(7) or cin- 

go to, vi.y onoka(oneka), nyan- 

lay, vt.y haula. 
n. (trash), bilu, bisonso. Both 

pi. of 7. 
Watch, v. (as thief for chance to 

steal), tentekela. 
(look after), vt.y l&ma, tangila, 

mona, xoxa. 
out, be warned, vi.y dimuka. 
n.(time piece), dlba(pl. meba), 

Watchman, »., mul&mi, i; mu- 
tangldi, i; mumonyi, i; 
mumuenenyl, i. 
(sentry), w., sentedl, i. From 
French or Eng. 
Water, «., ml(mal), pi. of 5 or 6. 
cold, nph.y ml matalale. 
fetch, vi.y suna. 
hot, nph.y ml a kahla(8). 
make, to urinate, v., sukula, 

-pot, n.y mulondo, 2. 
small amount of, n., tul(tuai), 
tulna. Both pi.* of 8. See 
under ml. 
Waterfall, »., cibila, 7. 
Water-pot, »., mulondo, 2. 
Wave, «., divuala, 5. 

to and fro, vt.y nyunglxa, kuha. 
(vibrate), vi., lembelela, dlkuha, 



Wax, ». (honeycomb), dikaci, 5; 

dlhula, 5. 
of ear, n., tufl(pl. of 8) tua 

nyongo'a dicu(5). 
vi.{as moon), diunda, lunda. 
Way, »., iixlla(njila), 3. 

(custom), »., cllele, 7; clen- 

sedl, 7; cibilu, 7. 
door-, n., muxuku(2) wambelu, 

mbelu(3), cibuedelu(7). 
get out of the, vi.f sesuka, 

umuka, ehuka(ahuka). 
half-, locative words hanktkcl, 

high-, n., nzlla munlne, mu- 

in this, thus, adv.^ nunku(nanku, 

lead the, vi., ya with ku mpft- 

la(3) or kumudtlu, dianjlla. 
not know the, be lost, vi., ham- 

show the, vt.f lombo^a. 
the way to, nzlla wa ka. 
Wayfarer, »., muendakanyl, i. 
We, pers. pro. 

(i) Simple Disjunctive, tuetu. 

§ 105- 

(2) Compound Disjunctive, ble- 
tu. §§ 108, no. 

(3) Pro. prefix, tu. §§ 113, 114. 
Weak, adj.^ tekete(p.p. of teketa, 

to be weak), 
(weary, be), vi.f hanga, susuka. 
Weaken, vL, tekexa, hangixa. 
Weakness, «., butekete, 6; dl- 

hangu, 5. 
Wealth, n., bubanji, 6; biuma 

(sing, ciuma), 7; bliitu(sing. 

cintu), 7; luhetu, 4. 
Wealthy, o^f;., banji, -a biuma(pl. 

of 7), -a bliitu(pl. of 7), -a 

Wean, vL, kandixa or lekexa or 

kanyina or jidlka followed by 

muana(i) mabele(pl. of 5). 
Wear, v/., luata, vuala. 

out, as clothes, vt.y susula, ona, 


Wear {continued). 

out, to make tired, vt.y hanglxa. 
See worn. 
Weariness, w., dlhangu, 5; bu- 
tekete, 6. 
Weary, be, vi.y hanga, susuka, 
of, v.y tonda, tua. The thing 
making weary is the subj., the 
person is the obj. 
Weather, n. No satisfactory 

word has been found. 
Weave, vt.y kuma didlba(5). 
Web, n., of spider, buntate, 6; 
butatande, 6; bukuondo, 6. 
Wed, vt.y bAka. See marry. 
Wedding, n., dibtkka, 5. 

feast, »., bidia bla dlbanil- 


Wedlock, n., dlbtika, 5. 
Wednesday, »., dltuku(5) dis&tu. 

See WEEK. 
Weed, n.(wild grass), dlxlnde, 5. 
(trash), n., bilu, bisoidbo. Gen- 
erally use pi. 
v.(cut out with hoe)j Ihlla. 
Week, n. There is to succession 
of days corresponding to the 
term week. In the vicinity of 
Luebo and other places where 
Sunday is known we have the 
Sunday, n., Liumingu(LiUbiiigu), 

4. From Portuguese. 
Monday, nph., dltuku(5) dia 
mp&tukllu(nduhukilu) wa 
Tuesday, nph., dituku dibidi. 
Wednesday, nph.y dituku dls&tu. 
Thursday, nph.y dituku dlnl. 
Friday, nph.y dituku ditanu. 
Saturday, nph.y dituku dlsam- 
Weep, vi.y dila. 
for, vt.y JInga. 
Weeping, «., muadi, 2. 
Weevil, w., lubumbu, 4. 
Weigh, vt.y Idlkixa or elekex» 
with bujltu(6). 



Weight, w. (heaviness), bujitu, 6. 
Weighty, adj., -a bujitu(6). 

be, vi., nema, nemenena. 
Welcxdme, vL, akadila, uhukila, 

Weld, vt., bambakanya, bamba- 

Well, adv., bimpe, biakane, bi- 

adj., kaie(p.p. of kftla, to be 
well), -a bukaie(6). 

become, to convalesce, vi., san- 
g^la, sanguluka, ktisa mu- 

(be cured), vi., talala, hola, uma. 

w.(spring), mpokolo, 3. 
West, nph., kutu diba(5) dia- 
buela, kutu kuabuela diba. 
For convenience is also sug- 
gested wesita(Eng.), 3- 
Wet, be, vi., talala, hola, toha, 
bola, bombama; the adj. phs. 
-a citelele(7) and -a cia- 

make, vt., talCixa, tohexa, bo- 
lexa, bombeka. 
WETNESS,w.,citelele, 7; ciaxima,7. 
What, interrog. pro., cinganyl? 
cinyi? ci? munyi? blxl? 
bualu(6) kl? The first three 
words are noun forms belong- 
ing to class VII, munyi ?^and 
bixi? are indeclinable. 

for? why? § 420. 

is its name? dina(5) diaci 
ncinganyi? See § 1 75, Rem. 3. 

is the matter? munyi? bixi? 
cinyi? cinganyl? bualu kl? 

is your name? dlna dlebi 
nganyi? § 174, Rem. i. 

kind? kl postpositive. § 176. 

For use in Indirect Questions, see 
§ 472 (a). 

For use as Relative Pro. with 
antecedent omitted, see § 169. 

It is to be noted that the inter- 
rogative words are nearly 
always at the end of the sen- 

inter jec, kia!(cia!). 


Whatever, whatsoever, pro., the 
adj. onso with prefix of the 
noun indicated. 

Wheat, n. This grain is unknown 
in Central Africa. It might 
not be far wrong to use the 
word mponda(millet), which 
is grown and harvested in much 
the same way as wheat. 

Wheel, n., dikalu, 5 . This is used 
of the stern wheel of the 
. steamer and is from the 

When, interrog. adv. There is no 
definite word. Use dituku 
kl? what day? ngondo kl? 
what moon ? cldimu kl ? what 
season? diba kl? (or diba 
hanyi?), what o'clock ? 
sub. conj., ha- insep. with v. 
For use in Indirect Questions, see 

§ 472 (&). 
Whence, interrog. adv., kunyi? 
For use as sub. conj., see 

§ 472(0. 
Where, interrog. adv., kunyi? 

hanyi ? 
For use as sub. conj., see § 472(c). 
Wherefore, adv., ka, bu- insep. 

with Applied Form of v. See 


Wherein, adv. {in which), see § 168 
(o) (6). 

Wherever, Wheresoever, adv., 
use locatives insep. with adj. 
root onso. 

Wherewith, adv. {wiih. which), see 
§ 168 {c). 

Whet, vt., nuona. 

Whether, conj., ne. 

(whether . . . or), ne . . . ne. 

Which, interrog. pro. and rel. pro. 
(i) As interrog., use kl? follow- 
ing the noun. § 176. 

(2) For use in Indirect Questions, 
see § 472 (a). 

(3) As rel. pro., see § 164, etc. 

(4) As rel. pro. with preposi- 
tions, see § 168 {a)-{c). 



Whichever, Whichsoever, pro.^ 
the adj. onso with prefix of the 
noun indicated. 
While, sub. conj.y ha- insep. with 
V. 1458(d)(2). 
n., long, inatuku(pl. of 5) male, 
ngondo(pl. of 3) ya bungi(6), 
masangu(2) mule, to (adv.). 
short, matuku mihl, musangu 
mulhl, cltuha(7). 
Whine, vi., dila. 

Weup, n., muxoxo, 2; munyasu, 
2; kanyanzu, 8. 
vt.f kuma, tuta. 
Whirlpool, w., dlnyangu(5) dia 

Whirlwind, n.^ nvunde, 3; cin- 
funde, 7. 
(tornado), cihubu, 7. 
Whiskers, n., muevu, 2; muedu, 
hair of the, w., lusukl, 4; lun- 
yonyi, 4. 
Whisper, vi.^ nungana. 

n., dlnunganyi, 5. 
Whistle, «., luxlba, 4; clxlba, 7. 
v., through the mouth, ela 
through the hands, ela with 
clhoto(7) or clbobo(7). 
Whistling, «.(of the mouth), 
muosa, 2. 
(through the hands), »., clhoto, 
7; clbobo, 7. 
White, adj., toke(p.p. of toka, 
to he white). 
of egg, n., mllembulembu, pi. 

of 2. 
very, toke with the adv. words 
kubo or ze ze or to. 
Whiteness, w., butoke, 6. Some- 
times the inifin. kutoka is used 
in Comparative constructions. 
Whitewash, «.(a white earth), 
luhemba, 4. PI. is generally 
vt.y laba mpemba. 
Whither, interrog. adv., knnyi? 
For use as sub. conj., see § 472(c). 

Whitish, adj., tokoloke(p.p. of 

tokoloka, to be whitish). 
Who, interrog. and rel. pro. 
(i) As interrog. pro. use: 

(fl) Nganyi ? (pi. banganyi 7) 

See § 174. 
(b) KI following the noun. 
§ 176. 

(2) As rel. pro., see § 164, etc. 

(3) As rel. pro. with antecedent 
omitted in Indirect Questions, 
see § 472 (fl). 

Whoever, pro., the adj. onso with 

prefix of the noun indicated. 
Whole, adj., onso, xima. 

n., buonso, 6; buxlma, 6. 
Whom, interrog. and rel. pro, 

(i) As interrog. use 

(a) Nganyi ? (pi. banganyi ?) 
See § 174. 

(b) KI following the noun. 

(2) As rel. pro., see § 164, etc. 

(3) As rel. pro. with antecedent 
omitted in Indirect Questions, 
see 472 (a). 

(4) As rel. pro. governed by prep- 
ositions, see § 168 {a)-{c). 

Whore, n., muena(i) masandl(pl. 
of 5 or 6), mukikxl(i) wa 
Whoredom, «., masandi, pi. of 5 

• or 6. 
Whoremonger, n., muena(i) ma- 
sandi (pi. of 5 or 6). 
Whose, interrog. and rel. pro. 
(i) As interrog. pro., use -a 
nganyi ?(pl. -a banganyi?). 

(2) As rel. pro., see § 167. 

(3) As rel. pro. with antecedent 
omitted in Indirect Questions, 
see § 472 (a), Rem. i. 

Whosoever, see vfoever. 

Why, adv. For different construc- 
tions, see § 420. 
For use in Indirect Question 
constructions, see § 472 (e). 

Wick, «., mukudl, 2. 

Wicked, adj., bl. 

Wickedness, «., bubi, 6. 



Wide, adj.{laxge)y nine. 
Widen, vL, diundixa, iundixa. 
Widow, »., makaxi(i) wa lufuila 


Widower, »., maiami(i) wa lu- 

Widowhood, Widowerhood, w., 
lufuila, 4. 

Width, n., mu or ku followed by 
builii(6) or buklse(6), ntan- 
ta(3) muihi, bunlne(6) iscrften 
used when there is no com- 
parison between length and 

Wife, n., mukikxi, i. 

the first, »., muadi, 2; mutu(2) 

wa lubanza(4). 
the second, »., cilonde(7) 

Wiggle, vi.,, sala, salakana. 

Wild, o</;. (reckless, crazy), hale, 

buluke, tomboke. These are 

p.p. of the verbs hala, buluka 

and tomboka, to be wild. 

(as animals), -a muitu(2), -a 

mpata(3), -a cisuku(7). 
be, timid, vi., b&xa, di ne mb&- 
xib&xi(pl. of 3 or 4). 

Wildcat, n., mb&lab&la, 3. 

WiLDNESS, «.(craziness), buhale, 
6; bubuluke,6; butoniboke,6. 
(fright), buowa, 6. 
(timidity, as of animals), mb&xi- 
b&xi, pi. of 3 or 4. 

Wile, ».(trap), buteyi, 6. 

Wilful, a<f;. (stubborn), -a cicu(7), 
-a cixiku(7), -a buliidia(6), 
-a cibengu(7). 

Wilfulness, «., clcu, 7; cixiku, 
7; buhidia, 6; cibengu, 7. 

Wiliness, n., budimu, 6; luklnu, 

Will, v., as sign of future tense, 
see § 295. 
n.(mind), muoyo, 2; mucima, 2. 
(testament), mukanda(2) wa 

(wish not, to reject), v/., hidia, 
Willing, be, v. (agree to), itabuxa. 

Wilt, vi.y fuba; vt., fubixa. 

Wily, adj.y dimuke(p.p. of di- 
muka, to be wily)y -a budi- 
mu(6), -a lukinu(4). 

Win, v., a bet or at lawsuit, binga. 
at gambling, v., tftha. The per- 
son losing is the obj. of the 
verb; as, nakut&ha Kasongo 
blntu biandi, / won Kasongo' s 
(conquer), vt.y hita or tamba 
with buk&le(6) or ngala(pl. 

of 3). 
Wind, n., lubehele, 4. 
break, vt., ela muxa(2). 
(hurricane), »., cihuhu, 7. 
whirl-, w., nvunde, 3; cin- 

funde, 7. 
7;/.(wrap around), Jinga, Jin- 
gila, vunga, vungila, nyen- 
Window, »., dikela, 5. 
Wine, »., for the communion, ml a 
imjxjrted, vlnyo(from Portu- 
guese), maluvu a mputu. 
palm, from, the millet or com, 
ma]uvu, pi. of 5 or 6; malua, 
pi. of 5 or 6. 
Wing, n., dlhahu, 5 ; luhambn, 4* 
Wink, v., hodla. 

at, v., bunga disu(5). 
Winnow, f/., hehula, huxa, hn- 

Winter, «., cidimu(7) cia ma- 

xika, maxlhu(2). 
Wipe, vt., off, kuhula, hulula. 

out, vt. Jima, Jimixa. 
Wire, «., lukanu, 4. 

large brass, cut into short pieces 

and used as currency, «., 

mutaku, ^. 

small, n.y kala, 8. PI. is tuala 

Wisdom, w., lungenyl, 4; mexi, 

pi. of 5 or 6; lukanyl, 4. 
Wise, adj.y -a lungenyi(4), -a 
mexi(pl. of 5 or 6), -a lu- 
(cunning), dimuke(p.p. of di- 
muka, to be wise). 



Wish, vL, sua, nanga, Inyixa. 
an ill, n.f mulau, 2. 
ill to, vi., ela mulau. 
n., cisuasua, 7. Generally with 
idea of uncertainty as to what 
one does want. 
Witch, n., muena(i) with mu- 
hongo(2) or bnloxi(6) or 
(bewitch), v/., Iowa. 
bring from under influence of, 

vL, hongola. 
-craft, n., muhongo, 2; buloxly 

6; muloxi, 2. 
doctor, one who prepares the 
poison test, n., muena(i) 
Witchcraft, n., mubongo, 2; 

buloxi, 6; muloxi, 2. 
With, prep.^ ne. Sometimes the 
idea is expressed in the verb; 
as, flla, go wilh; etc. 
(be with child), v., dl ne with 
dtfu(5) or diml(5). 
Withdraw, vi.{go out), umiika> 

h&tuka, luhuka. 
Wither, vi., fuba; vL^ fubixa. 
Withhold, v/. (restrain), humblxai 

lekexa, kosexa. 
Within, prep. Use mu when the 
noun which it governs is ex- 
pressed; use the Locative Suf- 
fixed construction with mu 
when the noun is not ex- 
pressed. § 320. 
Without, prep. Use mu when the 
noun which it governs is ex- 
pressed; use the Locative Suf- 
fixed construction with mu 
when the noun is not ex- 
pressed. § 320. 
Without in sense of not being or 
not doing is best expressed by 
the simple neg. of the verb. 
be, vi.y ena ne. 
Withstand, vph.^ ela mukosa(2). 

(forbid), vt., hidla, benga. 
Witness, «.(one knowing), mu- 
miknyi, i. 

Witness (continued). 

(one seeing), »., mutangidi, i; 

mumonyl, i. 
to bear false, v., xlma, dinga, 

to bear false witness against, vt., 
xlminyina, dingila, dimblla, 
(to see), vt.f mona,tangila, xoxa. 
Wizard, see witch. 
Woe, w., mulau, 2. 
Woman, n., mukOxi, i. 

(a large woman, generally used 
ironically), n., cikflxiana, 7. 

(a woman recently confined), »., 

muviele, i; muadikflxi, i. . 
(a woman who has borne chil- 
dren), n.y muledi, i. 
a young, n., muxikankunde, 2; 

songakikxi, i. 
childless, barren, n., nkumba, 3. 
Womanhood, n., bukAxi, 6. 
young, n.f buxikankunde, 6; 
bunsongankAxi, 6. 
Womb, n., difu, 5; dimi, 5; cile- 
lelu(?), 7; cibutuilu(7), 7. 
(the inside), munda. § 423 (2) 
Wonder, v. (expressed by grunt- 
ing), k£ma, tua cik£ma(7). 
n.j bualu(6) bua kukftma. 
Wonderful, adj., -a kuk^ma. 
Woo, vt.y endela. 
Wood, «. (copse), cihuka, 7. 
fire-, lukunyl, 4. PL generally 

(forest), ditu, 5. PI. metu. 
(stick), muci, 2. 
Wooden, adj.^ -amuci(2). 
Wool, n., mioso ya mukoko(2). 
Sing, of mioso is luoso; see 
§ 45, Rem. 
Word, «., dl, 5. PI. is me. 
Work, see labor. 

for, to serve, vt.f kuacila or 
ens ela or enzexa with mu- 
(not to work well, to trifle), vi., 
lenga, xlxamuka. 



Workman, n., muena(i) mudi- 

World, n. There seems to be 
no distinct word. Bulobo(6) 
means more properly the land 
as distinguished from the 
water, though it seems to be 
the best word to use in the 
sense of world, 
(figurative, in sense of people), 
n.j inisoko(pl. of 2) yonso. 
Worm, «., clxl, 7. 

(caterpillar), dixl, 5; clxl, 7. 

PI. of dlxl is mexl. 
earth-, munyenga, 2. 
grub, dlkubu, 5; luhose, 4. 

Both kinds are eaten, 
intestinal, musanda, 2. 
large green, nyoka*a bundu. 
This is edible. 
Worn out, be, v.(as clothes), 
susuka, onoka, nyanguka. 
(tired), vi.^ hanga. 
Worry, see annoy. 
Worse, get, v. (in health), nema or 
nemenena with disama, sick- 
ness ^ as subj. 
Worship, vt., tendelela. 

(extol), vt.f tumblxa, Inylxa. 
Worth, ». (price), muxlnga, 2. 
Worthiness, w.(goodness), bu- 
Impe, 6; buakane, 6; bulen- 
gele, 6. 
Worthless, a(f;. (cheap), -a mu- 
xlnga(2) mutekete, -a cl- 
nana, -a hatuhu, -a b6. 
(lazy), -a bukata(6), -a bu- 

person, ».(lazy), mufuba, i. 
to become,, v*., nyanguka, 

See § 356 (g). 
Worthlessness, «. (laziness), bu- 
fuba, 6; bukata, 6. 
(of no value), cinana, hatuhu. 
These are indeclinable. 
Worthy, a<i;.(good), Impe, akane, 

Would, auxiliary v. 

(i) In ^ Direct Discourse con- 

WouLD {continued), 

structions use the exact words 
of speaker. § 455 {b) (2) 

(2) In Past Conditions, see §§ 
459 {c), 460 (c). 

(3) As past tense neg. of will use 
the past tense of hidla or 
benga; as, wakuhldia kuya, 
he would not go. 

Wound, vt., t&ha mputa(3). 

n.y mputa, 3. 
Wounded, adj.y tftha(p.p. passive 

of t&ha, to wound). 
Wrangle, ». (dispute), luh&ta, 4. 
(row), »., diyoyo, 5; mut&yo, 2. 
v., tandangana, ela or elan- 
gana or dl ne followed by 
mp&ta(sing. luh&ta). 
Wrangling, n., luh&ta, 4; di- 
yoyo, 5; mutS,yo, 2; ma- 
tandu, pi. of 5 or 6. 
Wrap, vt.y Jinga, Jlngila, vunga, 
vunglla, nyengela. 
up in, vt.f kuta mu. 
Wrapper, w. (canvas of bales), 

dlkutu, 5. 
Wrath, »., clxl, 7. 
Wreck, vt., a village, haula. 

(tear down a house), v/., sasula. 

Wrestle, v., luangana bibu- 

Ia(sing. clbula 7), flnan- 


(throw in wrestling), vt.y flna, 


Wrestling, «., clbula, 7. PI. 

generally used. 
Wretch, w.(bad person), mun« 

tu(i) mubl. 
Wriggle vi.^ sala, salakana. 
(as caterpillar), lundamana. 
(as snake), vi.y Jongoloka. 
(as worm), vi.^ vunguluka. 
(twist), fi., nyenga, Jeka. 
Wring, v/.(as wet clothes), nyenga, 

off, vt.j nyengab&xa. 
Wrinkle, w., mufudl, 2. 
Wrist, w., kansanke, 8. 
Wristlet, w., lukanu, 4. 
iWrite, vt.y funda. Sometimes 
t&ha has this meaning. 



Writer, n., mufundi, i. 
Writing, n,, manner of, cifundidi, 

Wrong, n., bubi, 6; bnalu(6) 

bubi; muanda(2) mubi. 
be in the, vi.^ hila. 
do, vt.j enza blbl. 
do to one, v/., enzela bibi. 
judge to be in the, v/., hixa. 
arf;.(not right), use neg. with 

impe, akane, lengele. 
adv., blbi. 
Wrongly, adv., bibi. 

Xylophone, n., madimba, pi. of 5. 

Yam, »., wild, cisambn, 7; ci- 
mftna, 7. 

Yard, n., lubansa, 4; bula, 6; 
also mu with one of the words 
meaning fencCy iuhansu(4), 
cihangu(7), lumbu(4). 

Yawn, v., ela muaa(2). 
n., muau, 2. 

Ye, pers. pro., see you. 

Year, n. There is no term for the 
complete circle of the year. 
Cidimu(2) means season, ei- 
ther wet or dry. Of course, 
by doubling this we have the 
See season. 

Yearly, adv., ku cidiinn(7) ku 
cldimu, lit., season by season. 

Yearn, for v/., inuoyo(2) or mu- 
cima(2) as subj. of samina or 
kumina, ela mucima. 

Yeast, w., yisita(Eng.). 

Yell, vi., bandalala. 

Yellow, adj., kunzuluke, kunzu- 
bile, kunze. These are p.p. 
of kunzuluka, kunzubila, 
kunza, to be yellow. 

Yes, adv., e. 
See §469. 
Yesterday, adv., makelela, ma- 

Yet, not yet to have done, v., use 
neg. of anza followed by infin. 
Yield, v. (as potatoes, cassava, 
etc.), ika. 
(as trees), vt., kuama. 
(surrender), vi., hanga, teketa. 
Yolk, it., bukulukulu, 6. 
Yonder, adv., kuakua, muamua, 
haha; aku, amu, aha; kuo- 
kuo, muomuo, hoho. § 163, 
Notes 3 and 4. 
You, pers. pro, 
(i) Singular: 

(a) As Simple Disjunctive, 
wewe. § 105. 

(b) Pronominal prefix as subj., 
uorw. §§113,114. 

(c) Pronominal infix as direct 
or indirect obj., ku. §§ 1 16, 

(d) With prepositions, see §§ 
106 (c), 107. 

(e) As Compound Disjunctive, 
biebi. §§108,110. 

(2) Plural: 

(a) As Simple Disjunctive, 
nuenu. § 105. 

(b) Pronominal prefix as subj.* 
nu. § 114. 

(c) Pronominal infix as direct 
or indirect obj., nu. §§ 1 16, 

(d) With prepositions, see §§ 
106 (c), 107. 

(e) As Compound Disjunctive, 
bienn. §§ 108, no. 

Young, man, n., songaluml, i; 
muhiankunde, 2. 
of living creature, n., muana, i. 
woman, n., songaktkxi, i; mu- 
xikankunde, 2. 
Younger, adj., -a ku nylina(3). 
brother or sister, n., muakunyl, . 

of twins, n., nkankn, i. 



Youngest child, n., muan*a mu- 

Your, poss. pro, 

(i) Singular, ebl. § 133. 
(2) Plural, enu. § 133. 
Yours, foss, pro., sing, and pi. 

See § 135. 
Yourself, pers. pro, 

(i) Compound Disjunctive 
form, nklyebi. §§ 108, 109. 

(2) When reflexive use the re- 
flexive prefix of the v., -dl-. 
Note that this construction 
may be used as subj. or obj. 

(3) See B.L.-Eng. under Ine. 
Yourselves, pers. pro. 

(i) Compound Disjunctive form, 
nklyenu. §§ 108, 109. 

(2) When reflexive use the re- 
flexive prefix of the v., -di-. 
Note that this construction may 

Yourselves {continued). 

be used either as subj. or obj. 
(3) See B.L.-Eng. under ine. 
Youth, «. (young man), songa- 
lumi, I, muhiankunde, 2. 
(young manhood), «., bunsonga- 
lumi, 6; bubiankunde, 6. 
YOUTHHOOD, n., bunsongalumi, 6; 
bubiankunde, 6. 

Zealously, adv., bik&le. 
Zenith, n., hanktkci ha diulu(5). 
Zero, n., cinana, hatuhu. These 

are indeclinable. 
Zigzag, w.(be crooked), nyon- 

goboka, henguluka, kon- 

yangala; v/., make, nyongo- 

boza, henguluxa. 



-a, ffrep., of. This is the gen^ 
eral construction for expressing 
the English Possessive Case. 

§ 87 (<»)• 

When foUowed by the infin. it 
expresses the idea of purpose 
and may be translated by to 
^for. |87(/). 

This prepostttonal word has the 
construction of an adj. and 
takes the Secondary Prefixes. 

Aba, w., to click (gun). 

Abanya, v/., to distribute or divide 

up or share among, apportion, 

part or separate among. 
Abanyansana, v/., to distribute or 

divide into shares among each 

Abanyina, vt.y to distribute or part 

or apportion to, divide up or 

separate into shares for. 
Abo, poss. pro.y their, theirs. This 

refers only to nouns of doss I. 

§§133.135- ^ . , 

muan'abo ne, mate, match, 01 

same kind or sort or quality or 

character or species or variety, 

like or similar. 

ena muan'abo, to be unlike, 


Abuluka, vi.y to separate (as crowd), 

part, divide, branch into dif- 

Abuluka (Continued). 

ferent directions, diverge, ra- 

Abuluxa, vt.f to separate, divide, 
part, apportion, cause to 
branch into two parts. 

Afunya, vt.y to tickle. 

Agusite, n.(Eng.), August (the 

Aha, adv.y here (on), yonder, there, 
hence, hither, thither, thence. 
§ 163, Note 3. 

Aka, vt., to gather the leaves of 
the cassava or other plants, 
also peas; hence to harvest 
(peas), reap. 

Akana, w., to agree, match, corre- 
spond to, be adapted to, be 
suitable, be even, to fit, to 
suit, be proper; go to meet 
and welcome. 

Akanangana, v., to agree together, 
fit or match or conform to each 
other, correspond to, be enough 
or adequate or sufficient, suf- 
fice, suit, be suitable, be even 
or level or exact, be adapted 
to, be proper or right. 
di diakuakanangana dimue, to 
conclude agree, decide, deter- 
The neg. of this word means to 

be insufficient, unsuitable. 
See note undivt emanagana. 



AJcane, adj.(p.p. of akana, to be 
fit, etc.), beautiful, pretty, 
lovely, fine, good, pure, chaste, 
guiltless, virtuous, elegant, ex- 
cellent, worthy, fair or hand- 
some, fair or just or honest, 
correct, fit, suitable, right, 
kind, humane, noble, holy, 
perfect, righteous, upright, 
lawful, rich or fertile or pro- 
ductive (soil). 

WUh neg. verb: unjust, unkind, 
unholy, wrong, not right. 
Akidila, vt., to catch or clasp in the 
hands or arms, go to meet and 
hug or embrace; hence, to 
welcome, salute, greet. 
Aku, adv., there (at), thence, 
thither, yonder. § 1 63, Note 3. 
Akuila, v/., to intercede for, advo- 
cate for, speak for, plead for. 
Akula, v., to speak, talk, utter. 

a. biakulakula, to talk nonsense 
or incoherently, talk in delir- 
ium, wander in mind, babble, 
gabble, jabber, prattle. 

a. with cidimi(7) or cll&fl(7), 
to pronounce or speak badly 
or indistinctly. 

lekela kuakula, stop talking, be 
silent, hush, be quiet, keep 
silence, be still. 

neg. with bimpe, to speak in- 

Note: akula means to speak or 
talk, while amba means to 
tell, tell about, narrate. 
Akaxa, vt., to make to agree, make 
to fit, make to match, make 
equal or even or exact, fix, 
mend, harmonize or tune or 
attune, adapt to. 

a. me, to resolve, conclude, de- 
cide, determine. 

a. me hamue, to sing in har- 
mony or unison. 
Akikxangana, vt., to make to agree 
to each other, match each other, 
fit each other, make even or ex- 
apt, make to suit, adapt to. 

Alakana, vi., to be proud, haughty, 
vain; vaunt one's self. 

Alamanaka, 3, n.(£ng.), almanac. 

Alamina, vt., to expect, look for, 
lie in wait for. 

Aluixa, vt., to recall (cause to re- 
turn), put back. 

Aluka, vi., to come back, turn 
back, go back, retire, return. 

Alukila, vi., to come back, turn 
back, return, go back, retire. 

Alukixa, vt., to send back, bring 
back, return, fetch or take 
back, recall, restore. 
a. bulunda(6), to atone, recon- 

Amba, v. When followed by the 
in fin. this word means to be 
about to, become, get, intend, 
mean, plan, purpose, reckon, 
suppose, regard, resolve, con- 
clude, decide, determine, 
threaten. Hence we have udi 
wamba kuya, he is about to 
go; cilulu cikadi ciamba 
kuflka, the cloth is getting or 
becoming black. 
a with in fin. and kaba kab&le, 
nearly, almost. 

Amba, v., to speak, tell, state, say, 
command or order, bid, de- 
dare, announce, certify, ex- 
, claim, explain, think in sense of 
fancy or imagine, appoint or 
fix a day, talk about, tell about, 
narrate, testify, define, de- 
scribe, proclaim, publish, re- 
late, reply (to a question), 
report, respond, utter, assert, 
a. bualu(6) bua Nsambi, to 

a. diambedi bualu kabni 
buanza kulua, to foretell, 
prophesy, predict. 
a. with di or mukenji, to deliver 
a message, issue a proclama- 
tion or decree. 
enza followed by mu- insep. 
with proper form of a., to 



Amba {Continued). 

obey, mind, be obedient, heed, 
hearken, observe. § 465. 
• neg. and mu- insep. with proper 
form of a., to disobey, be dis- 
obedient, be heedless, be ob- 
stinate, be stubborn, be negli- 
gent, be neglectful. 
The in fin. kuamba is sometimes 
used for sermon, discourse. 

Ambakana, v»., to lie on top, be 
piled or heaped on top. 

Ambakanya, vt., see ambakikza. 

Ambakikza, vt.y to add one on top 
of the other, lay or put or pile 
or heap one on top of the 

Ambidila vt., to intercede for, 
plead for, speak for. 

Ambika, vt.(Buk.), to give, endow, 
bestow, grant, offer, present 
with, render to. 
a. ha, to put on, place on. 

Ambila, vt.y to advise, command, 
order, bid, counsel, deliver a 
message to, direct, discipline, 
teach, train, tell to, instruct, 
explain to, educate, exhort, 
inform, report to, represent to, 
say to, speak to, talk to, state 

Ambilansana, v., to tell each other. 

Ambula, vt., to pick up, get, lift 
up, raise up, take up. 

Ambuluixa, vt., to help to lift. 

Ambulukila, vi.y to scatter or 
spread (as contagious dis- 

Ambulula, vt., to raise. 

a. di(5), to raise the voice, talk 
or speak louder 

Ambuluxa, vt.y see ambulula. 

Ameleka, n., America. 
muena A., an American. 

Amu, adv.f there (in), thence, 
thither, yonder. § 163, Note 3. 

Amua, v., to suck (as child). 

Amulxa, vt., to suckle, give suck 
to, to nurse. 

Andamuka, vi., to change, be 

Andamuka (Continued). 

changed, turn over or around, 
be turned, be transformed, or 
transfigured, get or become 
(different), come back, be con- 
verted, be changed in mind, 
return, go back, turn back, 
turn into (become). 

Andamuna, vt., to change, turn 
over or around or inside out, 
convert, invert, reverse, trans- 
form, transfigure, turn into. 
a. muaku(2), to translate, in- 
a. with m.ucini&(2) ormuoyo(2), 
to change one's mind, repent. 

Andamuxa, vt., to take back, re- 

Andi, poss. pro., yd pers. sing, of 
classes I and III, his, her or 
hers, its. §§ 133, 135. 

Angacila, v., to begin again, start 
over, repeat, recommence. 
This word is usually foUowed 
by the adv. kabidl. 

Angata, vt., to get, lift up, take, 
pick up, grasp, receive, ac- 
quire, apprehend. 
a. dibanKa(5) dia muntu(2), to 
be in debt to a person, to owe. 
a. difutu, to earn. 

Angula, vt., to find by accident and 
pick up, take up. 

Anza, V. This verb is always fol- 
lowed by the in fin. and means 
in the a^rmitive to have just 
done; the neg. means not yet 
to have done. § 228. 
amba bualu kabui buansa(e) 
kulua, to foretell, predict, 
prophesy. Doubtless the p.p. 
form buanze would be better 
here, also in the following ex- 
muambl wa malu kai mansa(e) 
kulua,, a prophet, seer. 

Apila, n.(Eng.), April. 

Asa, vt., to hit or shoot one (as with 
an arrow), stick into, lance, 



Asa {Continued). 

a. with lus&di or lus&la or 
luala, to pinch, scratch. 

Asa, vt.y to build, construct, erect, 
make (as house). This word 
means primarily only the driv- 
ing of the sticks into the ground^ 
hut it seems to have the second- 
ary and general meanings given 

Atuka, vi.y to become poor (as 
land), be unproductive. 

Aya, vi.y to be sour, be acid. 

Baba, i, n., mother, mistress. 
baba-muenu, n., mother-in-law 
(used either by husband or 
wife). PI. is bababa-mnenu. 
§ 42, Note 3. 

Bab&la, vt., to be warmed or 
heated over again (as food). 

Baba-muenn, i, n., mother-in-law 
(used either by husband or 
wife). PI. is bababa-muenu. 
§ 42, Note 3. 

Bab&xa, vt., to warm or heat over 
again (as food). 

Babuka, vt.y to be singed or burnt 
or scorched. 

Babula, v/., to singe, burn, scorch. 

Bacika, vt., to mash down flat, 
flatten down, level down. 

Bakula, vt.^ to seize, grab, snatch. 

B&la, vt.y to count, enumerate, 
number, read, reckon. This 
word also has a figurative 
sense to elapse, pass by, in- 
ena or neg. oj miknya and mona 
followed by mua knb&la, 
countless, innumerable. 
ngondo(3) wakub&la, the moon 
has come, has appeared. 

Balakana, vi., to be bright, glisten, 
glitter, shine, gleam, sparkle. 

Balakaxa, vt., to brighten, make to 
glisten or shine. 

B&le, adj.y !ew, small, little, 
minute, diminutive, fine, 
scarce, thin, narrow. 
See kise. 

Baluluka, vi.y to open out, unfold; 
hence to bloom, flower. 

Balulnla, vt., to magnify (as mi- 
croscQpe), lit., to open out, 

Bamba, vt., to mend, patch, sew 
on or put on a patch; lit., to 
put on top. 

Bambakanya, vt., to join together, 
put together, mend, patch, 

Bambakikxa, vt., see bambakanya. 

Bambala, vt., to tie down on top 
of (as battens on the rafters). 

Bambila, vt., to compress, press or 
push or shove or squeeze down 
upon, cram down together. 

Banda, vt., to accuse falsely, blame 
or lay blame on falsely, injure, 
slander, defame, traduce, be 
traitor to, be treacherous 
toward, vilify, bear false wit- 
ness against, calumniate. 
Wakum banda buibi, he ac- 
cused me (falsely) of stealing. 

Banda, v., to ascend, climb, go up, 
rise, arise, mount. 

Bandixa, vt., to hoist, lift up, raise 
up, elevate. 
b. di(5), to talk or speak louder, 

raise the voice. 
b. difutu(5), to advance wages. 
b. muxinga(2), to advance the 
price, make the price dear, 
increase or put up the price, 
make costly or expensive or 

Banga, v., to commence or start cr 
begin to do; hence to be be- 
trothed to or engaged to or 
espoused to. In betrothal the 
active forms of this verb refer 
to the man, the passive to the 
Bangabanga, adv., long ago, in old 
times, once upon a time, re- 



Bangabanga {Continued) . 

mote or distant times, long 

since, long time ago. 

See kale. 
Bangika, vL^ to close or fasten or 

latch (as bracelet, lid, etc.). 
Bangila, v., to begin at, begin here 

or there, commence at, begin 

to repeat at, start at. 
Bangiza, vt.y to fasten axe, hoe, 

etc., in the handle. 
Bangaka, vi., to come unfastened 

or unlatched. 
Bangula, vt.y to cock a gun, open 

a bracelet, unlatch, unfasten. 
Banji, adj., rich, wealthy. 
Banza, vi., to be married, be 

brought to home of the groom. 

This word is used only by the 

Banzixa, vt., to marry (the rites at 

the home of the groom). 

See dibansixa. 
Batama, vi.y to be flat or level, 

crouch, settle or sink down (as 

Batamixa, vt., to flatten, make 

flat, level down, mash down 

Batiza, vt., to baptize. Introduced 

from Greek. 
B&xa, vi.f to fear, cringe, cower, 

be frightened or afraid or 

fearful or timid or shy or wild. 

Generally used of animals. 
Be, adv. {postpositive), exceedingly, 

very, extra, extremely, exces- 
sively, quite, so. 
Be, adv. See cinana. 

-a b., worthless, inferior, com- 
mon, unimportant, useless. 
Bedl, adj., first, foremost. 

citlla cibedi, first cock to crow 

in the morning. 
Bela, v.y to ache, hurt, pain, suffer, 

be sick or ill or unwell. 
inutu(2) mubele, headache. 
See sama. 
Beia, vt., to warn, admonish, re- 
prove, control, correct, man- 

Bftla {Continued). 

age, discipline, rebuke, scold, 
reproach, restrain, govern. 

Beia, vt., to crack (as nuts), burst, 
shell, hull. 

Beleketa, vt., to chew or masticate 
or crunch with back teeth. 

Benda, vt., to cut the vines for 
rubber, make rubber. 

Bendama, vi., to have the edge of a 
knife bent or made dull. 

Bendamixa, vt., to bend the edge 
of a knife, hoe, etc. 

Bende. An indeclinable nounal 
word, apparently pi. of class I. 
It is always used in such ex- 
pressions as muntu wa bende, 
cintu cia bende, etc., mean- 
ing the person or thing of 
some one else, not one's own, 
of some other one, another's. 
muntu wa b., a freeman, free- 
bom person. 

Benga, vt., to abandon, abstain 
from, decline, discard, deny, 
disapprove of, disobey, rebel 
against, revolt, forbid, forsake, 
renounce, scorn, spurn, ex- 
clude, keep from, neglect, 
disown, dissent, object, pro- 
hibit, refuse, reject, repudiate, 
resist, restrain, be unwilling, 
will not, oppose, withstand, 
prevent. The past tense, with 
following in fin., means would 

Benga, vt., to cut in slices, slice. 

Bengula, vt., to cut or pare (the 
finger nails). 

Beta, vt., to pack down, beat down, 
pound down (as loose earth 
with a stick). 

Beula, v., to belch. 

Beya, vt., to shave. 

Bl, adj., bad, dirty, foul, unclean, 
soiled, filthy, immoral, impure, 
disreputable, nasty, naughty, 
base, vicious, corrupt, wicked, 
evil, unkind, unjust, profane, 
repulsive, repugnant, sinful, 



Bl {Continued). 

vile, ugly, unholy, unrighteous, 

muntu mubl, sinner, trans- 
gressor, rascal, villain. The 
plurals mabl and mlbl, with pi. 
of bualu and muanda under- 
stood, mean guilt, sin, iniquity, 
evil, transgression. 

B1-, insep. verbal prefix with force 
of sub. conj., if; with neg. the 
meaning is if not, unless, ex- 
cept. §§ 459» 460. 

Bl, neg. adv.{B\ik.)y no. 

Bl- (followed insep. by poss. pro.), 
Compound Disjunctive pers. 
pro. See § no. 

Blakane, adv., well, correctly, dis- 
tinctly, carefully, right, rightly. 
See blmpe. 

Blbl, adv., badly, carelessly, rough- 
ly, wrongly, wrong. 
enza or osa or klxa with b., to 
err, sin, transgress, do wrong. 
enzela, b., to injure, harm, do 
wrong to. 

Blclcl, pi. of 7, «.(Buk.), tall grass. 

Bldl, adj., two. Takes Secondary 

Bidla, pi. of 7, »., bread, food, 
*'chop," feast, meal, nourish- 
ment, victuals. This word 
generally refers only to bread, 
but it may also have a wider 
significance, as above indi- 
b. bla with butuku or dilolo, 

b. bla dlbanzlxa, marriage or 

wedding feast. 
b. bla dlnda, breakfast. 
b. bla mampa, light bread 

(made from wheat flour). 
b. bla with munda munya or 

hankucl, dinner. 
b. bla Nzambl, communion. 

Lord's Supper. 
clanza cla. b., right hand. 

Blka, vi., to get up, arise, rise, stand 
up, depart, start out, set out. 

Blka (Continued). 

b. ku lufu, to arise or rise from 

the dead. 
b. ku tulu, to arise or awake 
from sleep. 

Blkftle, adv., firmly, strongly, fast, 
tightly, vigorously, violently, 
zealously, carelessly, loud 

Blklla, vt., to call, name, hale, in- 
voke, summon. 

Blla, vi., to boil (as water), roar 
(as cataract). 

Bllengele, adv., well, correctly, dis- 
tinctly, carefully, right, rightly. 
See blmpe. 

Blmpe, adv., carefully, gently, cor- 
rectly, earhestly, well, thor- 
oughly, right, rightly, dis- 
tinctly (to speak). 
h.' followed by in fin., ought, be 
under obligation to do, be 
right to, be duty to do, de- 
serve, merit. 

Blnga, vi., to be acquitted, be de- 
clared guiltless or innocent, be 
justified, be vindicated, gain 
or win a bet. 

Blnglla, v., to cry out in amaze- 
ment or astonishment, give 
alarum, shout, cheer, sound an 

Blnglxa, vt., to acquit, let go 
free, declare guiltless, justify, 
pronounce innocent, vindi- 

Blntampl, pi. of 7, n., marsh, mud, 
Inortar, mire, swamp. 

Blntocl, pi. of 7, n., mud, marsh, 
mire, swamp, mortar. 

Blola, v., to belch. 

Blt&hl, pi. of 7, n., mud, marsh, 
swamp, mortar, mire. 

Blt&hlkldl, pi. of 7, «., mud, 
marsh, swamp, mortar, mire. 

Bltekete, adv., carefully, gently, at 
slow pace, quietly, slowly, 
softly, patiently. 

Bltulu, adv., carefully, gently, 
patiently, slowly, softly. 



Blxa, vt., to lift up, raise up, ele- 
vate, hoist, rouse up, arouse. 
b. ku lufu, to resurrect (from the 

b. ku tulu, to awake, awaken, 

Blxe, adj., green, raw, unripe, new, 
fresh (as uncooked meat), un- 
lela kabixe, to miscarry, give 
birth to immature or still-born 
child or foetus, abort. 
Note the word bixika. 

Bixl? interrog adv., how? what? 
what is the matter? for what 
cause or reason or purpose? 
why? §§ 177, 420, 411. 
bule b.7 how far ? how long? 
bungi b.7 how many? how 

Bixika, vi., to be green or unripe or 
fresh or uncooked. 

Bobo, pers. pro., yd pi. of class I, 
they. § 105. 

Bola, vi.j to rot, go bad, decay, 
decompose, be corrupt, be 
rotten, be foul or spoiled or 
tainted or putrid, putrefy, be 
damp or wet or moist or 

Bolexa, v/., to putrefy, taint, cor- 
rupt, spoil, cause to rot or 
decay, dampen, wet, moisten. 

Bomba, z^., to comfort, to caress, 
fondle, apologize, console, 
cheer up, soothe, solace. This 
word is used when one has 
accidentally struck another and 
wishes to comfort him so he will 
not fight. 

Bombama, vi., to be wet or damp 
or moist or soaked. 

Bombeka, vt.y to wet, dampen, 
moisten, soak. 

Bombelela, vi., to creep or move 
stealthily or slowly or softly, 

Bosa, vt., to crack (as nuts), burst, 
shell, hull. 

Bota, vi.y to be fine or powdered. 

Botexa, vt.y to powder, pulverize, 
grind or pound or crush or 
beat fine; hence to chew, mas- 

Boya, vt.j to cake up or gather up 
in the hand and put in an- 
other place (as trash), clear 

Bu, prep.y like to, such as, equal 
to, of same or similar kind or 
sort or quality or character or 
species or variety; hence used 
in expressing such ideas as 
mate, match. 
dl b., to correspond to, resemble, 

ena b., to be unlike or uneven or 
different or dissimilar or un- 
equal, differ. 

Bu, sub. conj.y if; in neg. construc- 
tions it has the meaning of if 
not, unless, except. §§ 459 (c), 
460 (c). 

Bu-, insep. subordinating particle 
used with Applied Form of verb, 
therefore, consequently, hence, 
for this reason, so, then, where- 
fore, why. Bualur6) is doubt- 
less understood. §§472 (e)(3), 

Bua, sub. conj., because, since, for. 
Doubtless bualu(6) is under- 
stood. § 466. 

Bua, vt.j to daub, plaster. 

Buakane, 6, n., goodness, excel- 
lence, purity, holiness, ele- 
gance, handsomeness, beauty, 
fairness (in color or in honor), 
honesty, integrity, justice, 
righteousness, sanctification, 
uprightness, virtue, worthi- 
ness, right. 

Buala, neg., adv. no. 

Bualabuala, 6, n. (Buk.), see buli- 

Bualama, adv., backwards. Used 
only in sense 0) fall backwards. 

Bualu, 6, »., affair, business, care, 
concern, responsibility, case 
(law), cause, purj)ose, reason, 



Bualu (Continued). 

matter, object, effect, result, 
sake, subject, circumstance, 
source, fault, palaver, danger, 
harm, difficulty, deed, doctrine, 
fact, account, narrative, dis- 

-a b. bukftle, sacred, holy, 

b. bua or bua, because of, on 
account of, concerning. 

b. bua kukfima, miracle, wonder. 

b. bua Nzambi, Christianity, the 
Gospel, the Christian religion. 

b. bubi, guilt, sin, iniquity, 
transgression, injustice, wrong, 
vice, trouble, tribulation, mis- 
fortune, disaster, affliction, 
calamity, evil. 

b. bulmpe followed by infin.y 
ought to, be under obligation 
to do, it is right to do, duty to 
do, deserve, merit. 

b. bukftle, a serious matter. 

b. buk&le with Causative Form 
of verb, must, have to, had to, 
be necessary, be a necessity. 

b. bunlne, importance. 

b. W? what is the matter ? what 
is the palaver? why? what 

dl b. bua, to be responsible for. 

dl ne muntu b., to have a com- 
plaint against one. 

kakuena b., it is no matter, no 
palaver, never mind, no con- 
sequence, all right. 

lumbulula b., to settle a palaver, 
to judge. 

muambl wa b. bua Nzambi, 
priest, preacher, minister, mis- 

muena inalu(pl.) mabl, sinner, 

mukelenge wa bambi ba b. bua 

Nzambi, high-priest. 
mAnylxa or lylxa or ibldlxa with 
b. bubl, to entice, lead astray, 
lure, allure, tempt, seduce. 
Buana, 6, n., childhood, infancy. 

Buanda, 6, n., thread, cotton; 
hence hammock. 

Buandakana, vi.y to be confused or 
perplexed or bewildered or 
confounded or disconcerted, be 
mixed up, be deranged, be in 

Buandakanya, vt., see buanda* 

Buandakaxa, vt., to confuse, per- 
plex, bewilder, confotind, mix, 
stir together, mingle up to- 
gether, derange, put in dis- 

Buandulula, vt., to stir together, 
mingle, mix up together. 

Buanga, 6, n., medicine, remedy, 
charm, fetish, idol or image in- 
tended as a charm. 
b. bua mulungu, poison. 
b. bua ns&mu, a charm for 

making one invisible. 
b. bua ntulxa, a charm for 

making one invulnerable. 
mpQka manga(pl.) or mubtkkl 
wa manga, a doctor, medicine 
man, diviner, physician, sor- 
cerer, conjurer, charm • or 
fetish or idol or medicine 
xiha or talQxa with b., to destroy 
the power of a medicine or 
charm or fetish. 

Buanjl, 6, n., acidity, sourness. 
dl ne b., to be acid or sour. 

Buatu, 6, n., boat, canoe, ship. 

Bub&le, 6, »., littleness, scarcity, 
dearth, fewness, smallness, 
small size, thinness, narrow- 
See buklse 

Bubanjl, 6, n., riches, wealth, 
lulxa b., to enrich. 

Bubedl, 6, n., sickness, illness, 
malady, disease, affliction, 
pain, bad health, pang, sufifer- 
See disama. 

Bubl, 6, n., badness, corruption. 



Bubi (continued) 

evil, impurity, guilt, sin, viae, 
iniquity, transgression, wicked- 
ness, injustice, wrong, sinful- 
ness, vileness, ugliness, un- 
cleanness, dirtiness, unholiness, 
urrighteousness, viciousness, 

Bubidi, 6, n.{derived from num. 
Ibidi, two), both, a couple, two 
and two, double, all too. 

§ 95 (»)• 

Bubuluke, 6, ra., craziness, insanity, 
dementia, madness, lunacy, 
idiocy, viciousness, violence, 
wildness, foolishness. 
b. maluvu, drunkenness, intoxi- 
cation, dissipation. 

Bubuta, v.y to feel after, grope 
(as one blind). 

Buclka, 6, 1 edge, border, limit, 
margin, boundary, side, bank 
or beach or shore or coast. 

Bucimbakane, 6, n., see bucimbe. 

Bucimbe, 6, »., stupidity, folly, 
foolishness, acting foolishly. 

Budlml, 6, n.y farm, Seld, garden, 
b. bua mioxl ya followed by 
maluvu a mputu or vinyo,, vineyard. 

Budimu, 6, ra., craftiness, cunning- 
ness, slyness, prudence, warn- 
ing, shrewdness, sharpness, 
wiliness, sagacity, subtlety, 
skill, skilfulness, precaution. 
-a b., crafty, cunning, prudent, 
shrewd, sharp, sagacious, sly, 
subtle, wily, artful, skilful. 

Budlxikamine, 6, »., liberty, free- 
dom, the state of being free. 

Buela, vi.f to enter, pass in, pene- 
trate, unite with, join, come 
or go or get in or into. 
b. munda, to test, try, tempt, 

make trial of. 
diba dikadl dlbuela, the sun 

is about to set, be sunset. 
kutu kuabuela diba or kutu 
diba diabuela, west. 

Buel&fl, 6, ra., bad aim (gun). 
Buelakana, vi., to be mixed, be 
intermingled, be mingled, in- 
termingle, commingle, mingle, 
be joined together (of same 
party), unite with, join, crowd 
together, be disarranged, be 
out of order, be in disorder, be 
BuelakQxa, vt., to mix up, min- 
gle, put out of order, crowd 
together, intermingle, disar- 
Buenyi, 6, n., a visit. . 

enda b., to visit, go visiting. 
Buexa, v/., to drive in, put in, 
place in, take in. 

b. ku mudlmu, to hire, engage, 
give work, employ. 

b. mu, to load (as boat), insert. 

b. mu buhika, to enslave. 

b. munxl mua, to put or place 

b. mu nsubu wa maxika, to 

b. mu followed by name of officey 
to appoint or give an office to, 
make, elect, confer office on. 
Bakumubuexa mu buke- 
lenge, they made him chief. 
Buexakana, vt.y to mix up, mingle, 
intermingle, crowd together, 
derange, put out of order, put 
in disorder, disarrange. 
Buflke, 6, n.f blackness, unclean- 
ness, dirtiness, darkness 
Buflnu, 6, «., slipperiness, sleek- 
ness, smoothness, a slip by 

-a b., slippery, sleek, smooth. 
Bufofo, 6, n.y bHndness. 
Bufuba, 6, n.f idleness, laziness, 
indolence, sluggishness, slow- 
ness, lethargy, sloth, worth- 

-a b., idle, lazy, indolent, trifling, 
slothful, worthless. 

ena ne b., to be diligent or indus- 
trious or energetic or faithful. 



Bufuku, 6, n., night, at night, by 
night, to-night, night-time. 
See butuku. 

Buhale, 6, n., craziness, insanity, 
dementia, madness, lunacy, 
idiocy, viciousness, violence, 
wildness, foolishness. 
b. maluvu, drunkenness, intoxi- 
cation, dissipation. 

Bubele, 6, n., poverty, destitution, 
need, want, penury. 
lulxa or xixa with mu b., to 

Buhlankunde, 6, n., youth, young 
manhood, boyhood, youth- 
hood, adolescence. 

Buhianyi, 6, n., inheritance, legacy, 
portion, heritage. 
ha b., to bequeath, endow, leave 

(for heir). 
mukanda wa b., will, testament. 
Sometimes the ph. blntu bia 
buhianyi is used with same 
meaning as buhianyi ahne. 

Buhidla, 6, n., insubordination, 
disobedience, disapproval, re- 
fusal, obstinacy, stubbornness, 
refractoriness, wilfulness, un- 
belief, negligence, neglectful- 
-a b., insubordinate, disobedient, 
obstinate, stubborn, refrac- 
tory, unmanageable, unruly, 
intractable, wilful, negligent, 
muena b., unbeliever. 

Buhika, 6, n., slavery, bondage, 
ha or buexa mu or luixa followed 
by b., to enslave. 

Buhikudi, 6, n., the goods with 
which one is redeemed, re- 
demption price. 

Buhote, 6, »., stupidity, ignorance, 
folly, foolishness. 

Buhu, 6, n.y seed (for planting). 

Buhumbakane, 6, n., stupidity, 
foolishness, folly, acting fool- 

Buibi, 6, »., theft, thievishness, 

Buibi (continued). 

roguishness, robbery, dishon- 
esty, injustice. 
di ne b., to be thievish or 
roguish or dishonest or unjust. 
ena ne b., to be honest or just. 
Buici, 6, n.y honey. Sometimes 

spelled buiki. 
Buihi, 6, n., nearness, short dis- 
tance, closeness, sharpness, di- 
mension or extent or extension 
(in breadth). 
ha b. ha (or ne), beside, near to, 

close to. 
mu (or ku), b. breadth, width. 
Buika, vt.y to dose or shut (the 

Buikila, vt.f to cover, close or shut 
(as lid of box or book), lay 
something over, shelter by 
covering, put cover on, spread 
BuikQxa, 6, n., see bulilela. 
Buila, 6, n., forgetfulness. 
-a b., forgetful. 
b. as suhj. o) kuata, to forget. 
Buiminyi, 6., n, stinginess, parsi- 
mony, selfishness, meanness as 
result of stinginess. 
-a b., stingy, selfish, parsimo- 
nious, mean. 
Buimpe, 6, n., goodness, excel- 
lence, purity, holiness, elegance, 
handsomeness, beauty, fair- 
ness (in color or in honor), 
honesty, integrity, justice, 
righteousness, sanctification, 
uprightness, virtue, worthi- 
ness, right. 
Buina, prep.f like to, such as, equal 
to, of same or similar kind or 
sort or quality or character or 
species or variety; hence used 
in expressing such ideas as 
mate, match. 
di b., to correspond to, resemble, 

ena b., to be unlike or uneven 
or different or dissimilar or 
unequal, differ. 



Buina, 6, «., hole of rat or mouse, 

den. FL is mena. 
Buinabulna, 6, n., see bulilela. 
Buivl, 6, n., theft, thievishness, 
roguishness, robbery, dishon- 
esty, injustice. 
dl ne b., to be roguish Or thievish 

or dishonest or unjust. 
ena ne b., to be honest or just. 
Bujlke, 6, «., the unmarried state, 
bachelorship, maidenhood, vir- 
Bujitu, 6, ra., heaviness, weight; 
sometimes used for load, bur- 
-a b., heavy, weighty. 
Idlkixa or elekexa wilh b., to 
Buka, v.f to consult a medicine 
man, divine, enchant, conjure. 
Buka, vi., to fly, take flight or rise 

in flight (as bird). 
BAka, vt.y to marry, wed. This 
word is used only by the man. 
See note under marry. 
Buk&le, 6, n., strength, ability, 
energy, firmness, force, hard- 
ness, influence, might, power, 
vigor, stability, solidness, so- 
lidity, violence, health. 
-a b., healthy, strong, vigorous, 

cianza cia b., right hand. 
ena ne b., to be delicate, be not 

hita or tamba with b., to con- 
quer, beat, defeat, overcome, 
overthrow, excel, win, master, 
prevail, be victorious, quell, 
repulse, subdue, subject, sub- 
jugate, vanquish. 
kuata mukjlxl ku b., to commit 

rape, ravish, do violence to. 
ku b., by force, violently. 
Bukanda^ 6, n., enema. A small 
gour d is used for this pur- 
ela b., to give an enema. 
Biikansana, v., to intermarry. 
Bukankanya. vt., to shake up. 

Bukata, 6, «., idleness, laziness, 
indolence, sluggishness, slow- 
ness, lethargy, sloth, worthless- 
-a b., idle, lazy, indolent, trifling, 

slothful, worthless. 
ena ne b., to be diligent or in- 
dustrious or energetic or faith- 

Bukelenge, 6. »., kingship, chief- 
ship, high rank, kingdom, 
government, dominion, rule, 
dia b., to become chief, succeed 

to chiefship. 
dtxa b., to elect or appoint to 
chiefship, confer chiefship on. 

Buklse, 6, »., littleness, smallness, 
scarcity, dearth, fewness, thin- 
ness, narrowness, small size. 
mu {or ku) b., breadth, width. 

Bukltu, 6, w., bravery, courage, 
fortitude, boldness, valor. 
See dlkima. 

Btlklxa, vt.f to give in marriage, 
marry one to. 

Bukonde, i, n., brother-in-law, 
sister-in-law. This word al- 
ways means the brother or 
sister of the wife^ never the 
brother or sister of husband, 
PL is babukonde. 

Bukoya, 6, n., dirtiness, filthihess, 
untidiness, unclean ness, foul- 
ness, slovenliness. 
-a b., dirty, filthy, untidy, un- 
clean, foul, slovenly. 

Buku, 6, »., the state or condition 
of being a mother-in-law or ' 
blntu bia b., dowry given at 
marriage by husband to pa- 
rents of bride. 

Bukula, 6, »., flour, meal. 

Bukulu, 6, n., old age. 

Bukulukulu, 6, n., yolk of an 

Bukulukulu, 6, n.y old age. 
BukulukQxe, 6, n,, old age. 
-a b., old, aneient. 



Bukulumpe, 6., n, old age. 
-a b., old, ancient. 

Bukunze, 6, n., redness. 

Bukuondo, 6, n., net for catching 
^h or animals, cobweb. 

Bukutu, 6, n.y foreskin. 

dl ne b., to be uncircumcised. 

Bukaxl, 6, »., womanhood. 

Bula, 6, «., yard, enclosure, court, 
fold, stockade. 
nyama wa ku b, domestic 

Bula, vL, to crack (as nuts), burst, 
shell, hull. 

Bulalu, 6, n., bed, couch. 

Bula Mutadi, n. (Lower Congo), 
the Congo Independent State 
and all government officials. 

Bulanda, 6, »., poverty, need, want, 
penury, destitution. 
luixa or xixa mu wUh b., to 

Bule, 6, n., length, deepness, depth, 
hcijht, altitude, tallness, dis- 
tance (long), dimension or ex- 
tent or extension in length or 
height or depth. 
b. bumue, equal or even length. 
b. munyl ? how far? 

Buledl, 6, «., the power or capacity 
to give birth to or bear young, 
child-bearing, fruitfulness, fe- 
dl ne b., to be fruitful or fertile 
or prolific or fecund or pro- 
ductive (as male or female in 
producing young). 

Bulengele, 6, n., goodness, excel- 
lence, purity, holiness, elegance, 
handsomeness, beauty, fair- 
ness (in c6lor or in honor), 
honesty, integrity, justice, 
righteousness, sanctification, 
uprightness, virtue, worthiness, 

Bulllela, 6, n., truth, fact, cer- 
tainty, correctness, exactness, 
reality, veradty. 
-a b., real, true. 
This word has an adv^bicU use 

BuIUela (continued). 

of certainly, correctly, indeed, 
absolutely, truly, truthfully, 
exactly, really, surely, verily. 

With neg. verbs we have the mean- 
ing to be in doubt, be doubtful 
or uncertain or untrue. 
Bulobo, 6, n., earth, land, ground, 
soil, world. 

b. budl with butaka or bucika, 
ph. used jor earthquake. 

dikumbi dia b., railway train. 

nxila wa dikumbi dla b., rail- 
way track. 

The pi. is generally used to ex- 
press loose earth or dirt - 
ground. This word has rr. e 
properly the meaning o) land 
a5 distinguished from water. 
Buloxi, 6, n.f witchcraft, sorcery. 
This word has a secondary 
meaning of cleverness, ingen- 
iousness, dexterity, ingenuity, 
skill, skilfulness. 

dl ne b., clever, ingenious, 

muena b., witch, wizard, demon, 
devil, conjurer, sorcerer. 

Sometimes this word is pro- 
nounced muloxi(2). 
Buluatafl, 6, n., slovenliness or 
immodesty or shamelessness or 
indecency in the wearing of 
one's clothes. § 356 (^). 

-a b., slovenly or mdecent or 
immodest or shameless or 
obscene in the wearing of one's 
Buluka, vi., to bark (as dog). 

b. dl(5), to speak or talk loudly 
or roughly. 
Buluka, vi.y to get or become or go 
or be crazy or deranged or 
insane, be demented, be foolish, 
be mad, be wild, be reckless, 
be vicious, be violent, be 

b. maluvu, to be drunk or in- 
Bulukana(?), vi., to be narrow. 



Buluke, adj.{p.p. of buluka, to be 
crazy), crazy, deranged, de- 
mented, foolish, mad, in- 
sane, wild, reckless, thought- 
less, vicious, violent. 

Buluklla, 'z;/., to scold; hence second- 
arily to govern, control, re- 
buke, admonish, discipline, 
correct, manage, reprove, re- 
proach, restrain. 
This word is sometimes pro- 
nounced kubulukila. 

Bulula, vt., to open, expose to 
view, relax, remove cover, un- 
cover, reveal. 

Bululu, 6, «., bitterness. 
dl b., to be bitter. 

Bulumi, 6, n., manhood. 

Bulunda, 6, »., friendship, fellow- 
ship, companionship, federa- 
aluklxa b., to reconcile. 
kuatangana b., to form a friend- 
ship with one another. 
xiha b., to break off friendship. 

Bulunga, vi., to be round or 

Bulunguxa, vt.y to make into a 
ball, make round. 

Bumbuka, vi., to cave in, fall in. 

Bundu, 6, n., shame, bashfulness, 
timidity, shyness, diflfidence, 
modesty, humility, chagrin, re- 
pentance, penitence, reproach, 
bualu bua b., a shameful matter. 
di ne or unva or ufua with b. 
05 ohj.y or b. as suhj. of kuata, 
to be ashamed, be bashful, 
be diffident, be modest, be 
humble, be mortified, be 
humiliated, be abased, have 
chagrin, be penitent, be shy, 
qe timid. 
ena ne b., to be immodest, be 
shameless, be impertinent, be 
saucy, be impudent, be in- 
decent, be obscene, be arro- 
gant, be audacious. 
ufulxa or kuaclxa with b., to 

Bundu {continued). 

disgrace, mortify, chagrin, hu- 
miliate, cause shame, abase' 
Bufumu, 6, »., chiefship, king- 
ship, high rank, kingdom, 
government, dominion, rule, 

See bukelenge. 
Bunga, vt.iwith tulu, sleep, as 
obj.), to doze, nod, nap, be 

b. disu, to wink at. 
Bungama, vi., to mope, despond, 
be depressed, be despondent, 
brood over, pine, pout, be 
sulky, be sullen, sulk, be 
morbid, be solemn, be pen- 
Bungi, 6, n.ijrom adj. ngl, many), 
abundance, a great deal, mul- 
titude, throng, great number, 
plenty, host, crowd, great 
quantity, vastness in number. 

-a b., much, numerous, many, 
abundant, plentiful, divers, 
enough, plenty of, several, 
vast number. 

b. bumue, the saine or even or 
equal number. 

b. munyl? (or blxl?), how 
many? how much? what 
quantity ? 

dl -a b., to abound, suffice, be 
enough, be sufficient, be ade- 

ena -a b., to be insufficient, be 
short of. 

tamba or hita with b., to be in 
excess, over- abound, be too 
much, be too many. 
Bunguluka, vi.f to roll along or 

over, wallow. 
Bunlne, 6, n., largeness, magnitude, 
great size, vastness, greatness, 
stoutness, breadth, width, 
thickness, dimension or ex- 
tension or extent in breadth, 
influence, importance, glory. 

b. bumue, even or equal or the 
same size. 



Bunlne (continued). 
mu b.) in among, in the middle, 
in the midst, in the center. 

Bunsongakiixl, 6, n., girlhood, 
maidenhood, virginity, young 

Bunsongaluml, 6, n., young man- 
hood, youth, boyhood, youth- 
hood, adolescence. 

Bunsonge, 6, ra., slander, back- 
biting, calumny. From son- 
guela, to slander. 
muena b., slanderer, backbiter, 

Buntate, 6., n., cobweb. 

Buntu, 6, ra., humanity (human 
nature), manhood. 

Bununu, 6, n., old age. 

Bunvu, 6, »., shame, bashfulness, 
timidity, shyness, diffidence, 
modesty, humility, chagrin, re- 
pentence, penitence, reproach, 
See bundu. 

Bunya, v/., to bend, fold. 

Bunyabunya, 6, n.()rom nya-nya, 
small), smallness, littleness, 
thinness, small size, fewness, 
scarcity, dearth. 
See buklse. 

Bunyana, 6, w., friendship, fellow- 
ship, companionship, federa- 
kuatangana b., to form a friend- 
ship with one another. 
xlba b., to break off friendship. 

Bunyengi, 6, n., robbery. 

Buobumue, 6, n., sameness, simi- 
larity, identity, likeness, unity, 
similitude. § 96. 

Buongo, 6, n.y brains, marrow. 

Buonso, 6, w., totality, entirety, full 
amount, altogether, the whole 
of, all of or every one of or 
each one of them (followed by 
poss. pro. § 182, Rem.) 

Buowa, 6, n.y awe, dread, fear, 
fright, horror, terror, wildness, 
shyness, timidity. Hence 
secondarily cowardice. 

Bouwa (continued), 

b. CLS sub. of kuata with person 
as obj.y to be frightened, be 
scared, be timid, be shy, 
afraid, be fearful. 
muena b., a coward. 

Buowa, 6, n.y mushroom. 

Buselu, 6, n.y sleekness, slipped- 
ness, smoothness. 
-a b., sleek, slippery, smooth. 

Busenu, 6, n.(jrom senena, to be 

sleek), sleekness, smoothness, 

slipperiness, softness to touch. 

-a b., sleek, slippery, smooth, 


Buta, 6, n.y bow (for shooting 
arrows). This word is some- 
times used for gun. 

Butaka, 6, n., nakedness, nudity. 
dl b., to be naked or nude. 

Butama, vi.y to crouch, be flat, 
settle or sink or level down. 

Butamixa, vt.y to flatten, make flat, 
level down, mash down level. 

Butatande, 6, n., cobweb. 

Bute, 6, n.y used with muan*a 

to mean' first-bom or oldest 

child, senior. PI. is bamuan'a 


bintu bia muan*a b., birthright. 

Bute, 6, n.(from ta, to hunt), 
hunting (of animals). 
muxlnga wa b., a hunting net, 
net for catching animals. 

Butekete, 6, n., weakness, exhaus- 
tion, feebleness, fatigue, in- 
firmity, weariness, tiredness, 
slowness, slackness, softness. 

Buteyi, 6, w., trap or snare for 
catching animals; secondarily 
wile, allurement, enticement. 

Butoke, 6, n.y whiteness, bright- 
ness, fairness, purity, clean- 
ness, sanctification. 

Butomboke, 6, n.y craziness, in- 
sanity, dementia, madness, 
lunacy, idiocy, viciousness, 
violence, wildness, foolishness. 
b. maluvu, drunkenness, intoxi- 
cation, dissipation. 



Butu, 6, n., mould, mildew. 

kuata b., to mould, mildew. 
Butue, 6, n.y ashes. 
Butuku, 6, n.y night, at night, by 
night, to-night, night-time. 
bldia bla b., supper. 
b. bua lelu, last night. 
b. to ne wUh lunkelu or dlnda, 

all night long. 
b. as st3)j. of cla, to break day, 
be dawn, become light, the 
coming of the morning, the 
going of the night. 
b. as subj. of 11a, the coming 
of the night. 
Buxlb&le, 6, n.y stupidity, folly, 

foolishness, ignorance. 
Buxlkankunde, 6, »., maidenhood, 
girlhood, virginity, young 
Buxlma, 6, ra., totality, entirety, 

the whole. 
Buxua, 6, n.y see bulUela. 
Buyuka, vi.j to be soft (as some- 
thing rotten). 
Busevu, 6, n.y at, swelling in feet 
and legs, dropsy, elephantiasis. 
This word is derived from 
nsevu, elephant. 


Caba, vt.y to break up firewood. 

Cendelele, adv.y always, cease- 
lessly, constantly, continually, 
endlessly, eternity, ever, for- 
ever, perpetually, eternally, in- 
cessantly, habitually. 
-a c, immortal, eternal, ever- 
with neg. v., never again. 

Cly interrog, pro. y see cinyi? §175, 
Rem. 2. 

Cla, vi.y used with butuku as subj. 
to mean the disappearing of 
the night at dawn, break day, 
dawn, become light, the com- 
ing of the morning. 

Cladl, 7, n.y chest, bosom, breast. 

Clahamue, 7, n., used as adv.y at 
one time, at the same time, 
simultaneously. § 95 (6), 
Rem. 2. 

Clakabldl, 7, n.y second time. 

§ 95 W. 
blakabldl(/>/.), twice. 
Clakamue, 7, n. used as adv.y once, 

one time. §95 {b). 
Clakas&tu, 7, n., third time. 

blaka8&tu(/>/.), thrice. 

Clakullu, 7, n.y language, idiom, 
dialect, speech. 

Clakulakula, 7, n., chattering, 
gibberish, nonsense. §356(^). 
akula blakulakula, to talk in 
delirium or incoherently, wan- 
der in mind, babble, gabble, 
jabber, prattle. 

Clala, 7, n.y a small piece of iron 
put in the eye as test of guilt, 
muena c., diviner, doctor, sor- 
nua c, to consult or divine by 
this ordeal, enchant. 

Clala, 7, n.y thumb. 

Clama, 7, »., a general term 
applied to any kind of metallic 
substance; also a general 
name for any kind of machine 
or mill or tool or implement 
or instrument. 
c. clflke, iron. 
c. clkunze, copper, brass. 
See note under cx)PPER. 

Clamakana, vi.y to cross (as one 
path another), lie across. 

ClamakCkxa, vt.y to put or lay 
one thing across another, 

Clamumue, 7, n., used as adv.y at 
at one time, at same time, 
simultaneously. § 95 (6), 
Rem. 2. 

Clana, 7, n.y used in ph. c. cla 
nkCksa, great toe. 

Clanga, 7, n., a species of snake. 

Clanylma, adv.y backwards. 



Clansa, 7, n., hand. 

-a c. clkille, selfish, stingy, 

c. cla with bakaxl or luboko or 

munylnyl, left hand. 
c. cia with balumi or bldia or 

bukftle, right hand. 
c. cikftle, selfishness, stinginess, 

dl ne bianza bile, to be dis- 
honest, be unjust, be thievish, 

be roguish. 
ena ne blansa bile, to be honest, 

be just. 
Ciata, 7, »., mat made of papyrus. 
Ciaxima, 7, n., chilliness, coldness, 

coolness, dampness, moisture, 

wetness, humidity. 
di ne c., to be chilly, be cold, 

be cool, be damp, be moist, 

be wet, be humid. 
Cibakala, 7, n., a small rodent. 
Cib&lu, 7, w., a gourd split length- 
wise and used for holding the 

cooked bread. 
ngondo wakulua c., to be full 

Cibanda, 7, »., valley, vale, hollow. 
Cibanda, 7, »., large horse-fly. 
Cibandilu, 7, n., ladder, stairway, 

Cibansa, 7, »., chin, lower jaw. 
Cibangu, 7, n., walking-stick, cane, 

endela ku c, to walk with a 

Cibangu, 7, n., scar, mark left 

from sore, pock-mark, cica- 
Clbanji, 7, w., intermediary or 

middleman or go-between in 

arranging a marriage. 
Clb&sa, 7, »., a piece of board put 

under a long basket to support 

Cibelu, 7, «., upper leg (from hip 

to knee), upper part of hind 

leg of animal, thigh. 
ha blbelu, lap. 
Cibende, 7, n., a small rodent. 

Cibengu, 7, n., insubordination, 
disobedience, disapproval, re- 
fusal, obstinacy, stubbornness, 
refractoriness, wilfulness, neg- 
ligence, neglectfulness, heed- 
-a c, insubordinate, disobe- 
dient, obstinant, stubborn, re- 
fractory, unmanageable, un- 
ruly, intractable, wilful, negli- 
gent, neglectful, heedless. 

Clbi, 7, «., door, gate. 

Cibidi, 7, n.{th€ Bakite say kibidi), 
farm, field, garden, planta- 
See budlmi. 

Ciblkidilu, 7, »., the name of 

Clbila, 7, n.ifrom blla, to boil), 
cataract, falls, rapids,* water- 

CibllO) 7, n., custom, habit, manner 
or method of doing, mode, 
nature of, conduct, law, fashion, 
way, practice, regulation, rule, 
style, usage. 
c. clbi, vice, bad habit. 

Ciblylblyl, 7, «., butterfly, moth. 

Cibobo, 7, n.y whistling through the 
ela c., to whistle through the 

Clboko, 7, «., left-handedness. 
muena c., a left-banded person. 

Cibombo, 7, n.y bag, pocket, sack, 

Cibombo, 7, n., lameness in the 
legs of children, deformed 

Cibondo, 7, n., snout. 

Cibuabu, 7, n., the older or first- 
bom of twins. 

Cibubu, 7, n., scabbard, sheath, 
case for knife. 

Cibubu, 7, n.y pith of palm rib. 

Cibubu, 7, n.y clapping of the hands 
crosswise to express regret. 

Cibudi, 7, n.y scrotum. 

Clbuedelu, 7, »., entrance, door- 



Clbulkllu, 7, n.y a cover, lid, cork 
or stopper. 

Clbuiku, 7, n.y see clbulkllu. 

Cibuka, vi.y to be broken, de- 
molished, destroyed, fractured, 
to explode. 

Cibula, vL, to break, break up or 
open, demolish, destroy, frac- 
ture, open (a tin). 

Ctbula, 7, «., wrestling. PI. 
generally used, 
luangana bibula, to wrestle. 

Clbulubulu, 7, n.y a dried gourd. 

Clbulula, vt., to double back, fold 

Cibulunge, 7, n.(Jrom bulunga, to 
be round), ball, globe, sphere. 
-a c, round, spherical. 

Cibunda, 7, «., garden or small 
patch about the house in 
which vegetables are planted. 
This is the proper word for 
garden as generally used by 
Europeans and not budiml or 

CibungubunflTU, 7, n., high bank or 
cliff or precipice near to stream, 

Cibutuilu, 7, w., womb(?). 

Cibuyubuyu, 7, »., high cliff or 
precipice due to landslide. 

Cicl, 7, n., used in ph. kosa del, 
to close a trade by breaking a 

Clcu, 7, n.y insubordination, dis- 
obedience, obstinacy, heed- 
lessness, refractoriness, stub- 
bornness, wilfulness, neglect- 
fulness, negligence. 
-a c, disobedient, obstinant, 
heedless, refractory, stubborn, 
unmanageable, unruly, intract- 
able, wilful, insubordinate, 
neglectful, negligent. 

Cldl, vi.y to be, exist. See § 212. 
c. ne, to have, own, possess. 

Cldl, 7, n.y a jump (with both feet 

Cidlacila, 7, «., footprint, track, 
trace, trail, mark, made by foot. 

Cidibu, 7, »,. a wooden rattle tied 
around the dog's body in 

Cldldl, 7, «., division or partition 
in house. 

CidlkixUa, 7, n.y example, sample, 
specimen, copy, model, pat- 
tern, illustration; hence a rule 
or ruler or measure or tape 
line, i.e., something to go by 
in doing. 

CIdiklxu, 7, n.y pattern, copy, 
model; measure, rule, ruler, 
tape line. 

Cldimt, 7, n.y used as ohj. of akula 
meaning to speak or pronounce 

Cidlmu, 7, «., season (rainy or dry). 
Two such seasons make a 
c. cia maxlka, winter, cool 

c. cia munya, summer, warm 

c. kl 7 when ? wh^t season ? 
ku c. ku c, yearly, season by 

Clduaya, 7, «., grave, sepulcher, 
tomb. Use pi. for graveyard, 

Ciendenda, 7, »., vagabondage, 
vagrancy. § 356 (g). 
enda c, to be a vagabond or 

vagrant or tramp. 
muena c, vagabond, vagrant, 
tramp, wanderer. 

Clenzedl, 7, n., custom, habit, 
manner or method of doing, 
mode, nature of, conduct, way, 
law, fashion, practice, regula- 
tion, rule, style, usage, pro- 
c. cibi, vice, bad habit. 
c. cikuabo, a different way 
of doing, differently, other- 

Cieya, 7, n., guarantee, pawn, 
pledge, Security, surety. See 
V. eya. 

Cifu, 7, n.y see dfufu. 



Clfuanyi, 7, n., likeness, image, 
reflection as in mirror, picture, 
photograph, representation, re- 
semblance, sameness, simi- 
larity, similitude. 

Clfuanyiklxa, 7, n., likeness, im- 
age, resemblance, reflection as 
in mirror, example, illustra- 

Cifufu, 7, »., a secret consultation 
or conference, plot, agreement, 
covenant, contract, treaty, de- 
c. clbl, conspiracy. 
c. cihiacihia, New Testament. 
c. cikulu. Old Testament. 
ela c, to hold a consultation or 
conference or deliberation, 
plan secretly, plot. 
This word may also he spelled 

Clfuidixe, 7, »., faintness, insensi- 
bility, unconsciousness, stufl5- 
di ne c, vi.f to smother, be 

stifled, be suffocated. 
fua c, vi.y to faint, swoon, be 
stunned, be stupefied, be in- 
sensible, be unconscious. 
Jika c, vt.f to smother, stifle, 

Though the words cisike and 
tungrulunsu and cifuidixe 
are used interchangeably some- 
times^ yet the general difference 
seems to he that the two first- 
named words have the idea oj 
convulsion or fit, while the last 
word means faintness or un- 

Clfulu, 7, n., hat, cap, helmet. 

Clfundidi, 7, w., writing, manner 
of writing, hand, chirography. 

Cifundu, 7, n.y circle, ring. 
-a c, circular, round. 

Clha, 7, «., gift, offering, present. 

CIha, vi.y to take an oath, swear, 
vow. Done hy striking the 
hand on the ground. The re- 
flexive dlclha is often used. 

Clhaha, 7, n., the poison cup or 
ordeal or test given to witches 
or wizards. 
muena c, witch doctor. 

Cihahl, 7, n., a generous or liberal 
or unselfish or benevolent per- 

Cih&la, vi., to be dull (as knife). 

Clhanda, 7, n., fork of stick. 
mucl wa c, a forked stick. 

Clhangu, 7, »., fence, wall. 

With mu this word means en- 
closure, yard, fold, court, 
stockade. See enclosure. 

Cih&tu, 7, w., chip. 

Cihehe, 7, n.,. tail fin of fish. 

Cihendo, 7, n., abuse, curse, insult, 
maltreatment, ill treatment. 

Cihfisu, 7, n., any small piece or 
division or part or fragment or 
portion or section or bit split 
Contrast with cltuha. 

Cihia, 7, »., anything braided or 

Cihidikidi, 7, n., stump of tree. 

Cihlnda, 7, »., hunter (with gun). 

Cihindi, 7, n.f a dwarf, under- 
sized person, runt. 
-a c, runty, dwarfish, under- 
sized, stunted. 

Cihoto, 7, n.f whistling through the 
ela c, to whistle through the 

Clhu, 7., «., oar, paddle. 

Clhua, 7, n., combined with the 
word muoyo to mean forget- 
-a c. muoyo, forgetful. 

Clhuba, 7, «., gourd used as pipe. 

Cihuekelu, 7, n., place of descent. 

Cihuhu, 7, n.j hurricane, tornado, 
squall, storm, tempest, whirl- 
wind, strong wind, gale. 

Cihuka, 7, »., copse, small bush 
or forest on a plane, grove, 
thicket, small wood. 

Cihuka, 7, n., unconsciousness, in- 



Clhuka {continued). 

fua c, to be unconscious, be 
insensible, be stunned, be 

Cihulu, 7, w., gourd cut crosswise. 

Cihunda, 7, n., large town or village, 
capital, city, metropolis, 

Cihundu, 7, n.f gourd cut crosswise. 

Clhunsulu, 7, n.f owl. 

Clhusu, 7, n.f bark, husk, shuck, 
huU, peel, rihd, shell of egg or 
seed or nut or terrapin, skin 
of fruit. 

Clhusu, 7, »., greediness, gluttony. 
-a c, gluttonous, greedy. 
muena c, a glutton. 

ClhAxa, vL, to dull (as knife), 
make dull. 

Cljenffu, 7, n., circle, ring, 
-a c, circular, round. 

Cijlla, 7, n.f anything forbidden or 
tabooed or interdicted or 
illegal or prohibited or against 
the law or against the regula- 
tion or unlawful. 
-a c, holy, sacred. 
ena c, to hs lawful, be right, 
be permitted. 

Cika, w., to move, shake, quake, 

Clkataakaha, 7, »., siftings (of 

Clkakakaka, 7, n., pineapple. 

Clkakana, vi., to shake, move, 
quake, tremble. 

Cikama, 7, n., shamelessness, 
effrontery, immodesty, imperti- 
nence, sauciness, arrogance, 
impudence, indecency, ingrati- 
tude, ungratefulness, audacity, 
impoliteness, disrespect, irrev- 
-a c, arrogant, saucy, immodest, 
shameless, impertinent, dis- 
respectful, impudent, indecent, 
ungrateful, audacious, impo- 
lite, irreverent. 
ena c, to be modest, be humble. 

Clkampanda, 7, n., a thing the 
name of which you have for- 

Cikampanda {continued). 
I gotten or do not know or do not 

care to trouble with mention- 
ing. § 353» Rem. 
Cikanga, 7, ra., mat made of 

Clkankanyi, 7, n., heel. 
Clkata, 7, n.f ball or roll of twine 

or string. 
Ciki&ma, 7, n.f exclamation of 
surprise or astonishment or 
amazement expressed by grunt- 
tua c, to exclaim in surprise, 
wonder, be amazed, be aston- 
Cikenge, 7, n., axe. 
Clkenklbu, 7, »., heel. 
Cikixa, vt.f to move, shake, cause 

to quake. 

Clklyaklya, 7, w., shoulder-blade. 

Clkoka, 7, n.f mark or trail or 

track or trace of something 

which has been dragged. 

Cikolakola, 7, n., stalk or stem of 

corn. . 
Clkolokolo, 7, n.f neck of gourd. 
Clkondo, 7, n.f time. 
bikondo blbldi, twice. 
bikondo bls&tu, thrice. 
bikondo bla bungi, frequently, 

often, many times. 
c. clkuabo, next time. 
c. cimue, once, one time. 
See musangu. 
Cikono, 7, n.f shoe. This word is 
now nearly obsolete as meaning 
shoe. See mukono. 
Cikowela, 7, w., coat, dress, shirt. 

dlboko dia c, sleeve. 
Cikuacilu, 7, n., place for holding; 

hence handle. 
Clkuacixi, 7, n.f a prop. 
Clkuaka, 7, ra., a saw. 

muena bikuaka, sawyer. 
Cikuku, 7, n. {from Eng. cook), 

kitchen, cook-house. 
Cikuku, 7, n.f an exposed root or 

snag causing one to stumble. 
Cikukue, 7., w., hen. 



Clkukumlna, 7, n.y stuttering, 
stammering, impediment in 
muena c, a stutterer, stammerer. 

Clkulu, 7, n., site of deserted vil- 

Cikumbl, 7, n., pen, enclosure, sty, 

Cikumbukumbu, 7, n., cob. 

Cikumbuzl, 7, n., cob. 

Cikundekunde, 7, n., a large native 

Clkundukundu, 7, n., hip. 

Cikunyl, 7, n., stocks. 

Cikuondekuonde, 7, n., stalk or 
stem of plantain or banana. 

Cikusu, 7, »., maggot. 

ela bikusu, to blow (meat). 

Clkutu, 7, »., furnace for smelting 
iron ore. 

ClkQxlana, 7, n., a large woman. 
Generally used in irony. §351. 

Clla, 7, »., cry of amazement or 
astonishment, alarum, shout of 
crowd, cheer. 
ela blla, to cheer, shout, give 
cry of alarum. 

Cll&bi, 7, n., handle. 

Cllabuidi, 7, n., eyelid. 

Ciladilu, 7, n., bed. 

Cil&fl, 7, n., M^ei oj ohj. of akula 
meaning to speak ^ pronounce 
indistinctly. J'/tw word may 
perhaps also mean the doing 
of anything badly or incon- 
gruously. § 356 {g). 

Cilamba, 7, n., cloth, garment. 
bllamba(^/.) , clothes, apparel. 

Cilamba, 7, n., bridge made of logs. 

Cilanda, 7, n., bridge tnade of 

Cilftta, 7, «., dream, vision. 

Iftta c, to dream, have a vision. 

Cilavlnyi, 7, »., eyelid. 

Cilele, 7, n., custom, habit, law, 
manner, mode, nature of, con- 
duct, fashion, way, method, 
practice, regulation, rule, style, 
c. cibi, vice, bad habit. 

Cilelelu, 7, n., womb(?). Perhaps 

€ilema, 7, n., stinginess, parsi- 
mony, selfishness, 
-a c., stingy, parsimonious, 

Cilembl, 7, n.y fisherman, hunter 

(by trapping or with bow and 

Cilenga, 7, n., adornment, finery, 

ornament, decoration. 
luata or yuala with bilenga, to 

wear ornaments, be adorned, 

be dressed up. 
Cilengelenge, ^j n., sugar-cane. 
CUengulengu, 7, n., the thing into 

which a person is changed by 

transmigration or metempsy- 
Cilexilu, 7, »., example, sample, 

specimen, illustration, brand, 

CUoa, 7, »., dried gourd, often used 

as pipe. 
Coloaloa, 7, n., a green gourd. 
Cilonda, 7, n., large battle-axe 

made by Zappo Zapps. 
Cilonde, 7, n.(always jolUrwed by 

muadi, first wife), the second 

wife of polygamist, concubine. 
Cilongo, 7, n.y bloom, blossom, 

Cilongo, 7, »., generation, line of 

descent to. 
Cilu, 7, n.(pl. generally used)j dirt, 

trash, filth, d€bris, impurity, 

refuse, rubbish, stuff, waste, 

Cilua, 7, n., post in wall of house, 

Cilua, 7, w., toad. 
Cilulu, 7, «., cloth, garment. 
c. cisusuke, a worn-out piece of 

cloth, rag. 
bilulu(^/.), clothes, apparel. 
Sometimes pronounced cidudu. 
Cilumbu, 7, «., council, court, 

trial, judgment. 
lumbulula c, to settle a palaver 

at court. 



Cllumi, 7, n.f semen. PI. generally 

Cilumiana, 7, «., a large man. 
Generally used in irony. § 35 1. 

Ciiamuiamu, 7, »., crust, scab. 

Cilunga, 7, »., sweet potato. 

CImanga, 7, n.j scabbard, sheath, 
case for knife. 

Clmaza, 7, n., a strong European 

Cimba, vi.f to be stupid, be foolish, 
be silly, be simple, be thought- 
less, be careless, be unmindful, 
act foolishly. 

Clmb&di, 7, n., a native from the 
Portuguese territory on West 

CImbakana, vi.y to go around, go 
round about, encircle, sur- 
round. There is a secondary 
meaning of to be stupid, bie 
foolish, act stupidly or foolish- 
ly, be silly, be simple, be un- 
mindful, be thoughtless, be 

Cimbakane, adj. {p. p. of clmba- 
kana), foolish, stupid, silly, 
simple, thoughtless, careless. 

Clmbe, adj.(p. p. of cimba), foolish, 
stupid, silly, simple, careless, 

Cimbixa, vL, to fool, joke with. 

Cim^na, 7, »., yam (wild). 

Cimenga, 7, »., large village or 
town, city, capital, metropolis. 

Cimenyl, 7, w., sock, stocking. 

Cimono, 7, »., the waist. 

Cimonytnu, 7, n.{from mona, to 
see), token, example, sample, 
earnest, specimen, copy, mark, 
model, brand, sign, illustra- 
tion, keepsake, proof, remin- 
• der, seal, souvenir, symbol, 
badge, emblem. 

Cimpanga, 7, n., ram, male of 

Cimpulu, 7, n., cricket. 

Cimpumpu, 7, »., cold (catarrh). 

Cimuka, vi.y to retreat, to flee. 

Cimuna, 7, »., a tame animal. 

Cimuna, vt., to rout, put to flight, 
defeat, overcome, vanquish, 
beat, conquer, subdue. 

Cimunu, 7, »., roof or wall or side 
of house. 

Cimunyi, 7, »., firebrand, torch. 

CIna, vi.y to be afraid, dread, be ex- 
cited, fear, be frightened, be ter- 
rified, be fearful, be horrified, 
be scared, be timid, be shy, be 
terrorized, be dismayed. 

Cina, 7, n.y hole in the ground, 

Cina, insep. indecUnahle word used 
with mbl and poss. pro. to 
mean brother-in-law. § 42, 
Note 2. 

CInana, indeclinable wordy empty, 
blank, vacant, void, worthless- 
ness, without cause, for noth- 
ing, greatest, gratuitously, zero. 
-a c, of no account, worthless, 
common, of no consequence, 
inferior, mean (of birth), un- 
important, of no use, useless. 

Cindumbi, 7, n., a skin disease, 
muena c, a leper. 
See note under leprosy. 

Clnemu, 7, n.(Jrom nemeka), 
gratitude, thankfulness, grate- 
-a c, grateful, thankful. 

Cinfunde, 7, »., whirlwind. 

Cinganyi, interrog. pro., what? 
what is the matter? what for? 
why? for what reason? for 
what cause? for what pur- 
pose?. § 175. 

Clngoma, 7, n., gun. 
c. cia lutende, rifle. 
c. cia mutengu, flint-lock gun. 
c. cia tundimba, shotgun. 
ela c, to fire or shoot a gun. 
ela c. hanxl, to miss aim. 
kuma or lonza with c, to shoot 
one with a gun. 

Cingombo, 7, »., ocra. Note that 
this is doubtless root of Eng. 
gumbo soup. 



CingtkJI, 7, n.f bunch of palm nuts. 

Clnguluka, vi., to turn around, 
revolve, rotate, whirl, spin 
around, be inverted, be turned 

Clngulula, vt.j to invert, turn 
around, reverse, whirl around, 
spin around. 

CInka, v.f to guess. 

Cink<^te, 7, n., a kind of bamboo 
or reed found in the forest and 
used for making fence. 

Cinkutu, 7, n. (Lower Congo), 
coat, djress, shirt. 
diboko dia c, sleeve. 

CInsanki, 7, n., native cloth made 
from the fibre of palm leaves. 
The cinsanki means several 
single pieces of the didlba 
sewed together. 

Clnsenga, 7, »., sweet potato. 

Cinsonkela, 7, »., cricket. 

Cinsonxi, 7, »., a tear (from the 
c. as subj. of h&tuka or tuka, to 
shed a tear. 

Cinsukunsuku, 7, w., hiccoUgh. 

Cintlnyl, 7, »., a thing the name of 
which you have forgotten or 
do not know or do not care 
to trouble with mentioning. 
§ 353, Rem. 

Cintu, 7, n., thing, something, 
object, article, material, 
-a bintu, rich, wealthy. 
bliitu(p/.), goods, stuff, riches, 
possessions, wealth, property, 
substance, means, mammon. 
blntu bia buhianyi, inheritance, 

bintu bia buku, dowry. 
bintu bionso, everything. 
c. cia kuenza n'aci, tool, im- 
plement, machine, instrument. 

Cintumblndi, 7, n., a kind of ante- 

Cintunte, 7, n., an ant making 
large hills. These are edible. 

Cinu, 7, «., knee. 

tua binu hanxi, to kneel. 

CInu, 7, n., mortar (in which com, 
cassava roots, etc., are beaten). 

Cinu, 7, »., spool. 

Cinunu, 7, n., thousand. 

Cinyangu, 7, n.{from nyanga, to 
abuse), abuse, cruelty, tyranny, 
brutality, despotism, inhuman- 
ity, affliction, oppression, ill- 
treatment, mailtreatment, mean- 
ness, heartleasness, merciless 
ness, pitilessness, unkindness, 
unmercifulness, persecution, 
-a c, cruel, mean, merciless, in- 
human, pitiless, heartless, op- 
pressive, despotic, tjrrannical, 
unkind, unmerciful, brutal. 
muena c, tyrant, brute, despot. 

Cinyanu, 7, n., emaciation, thin- 
ness, leanness, haggardness. 
di ne or uma followed by c, to 
be emaciated, be lean, be thin, 
be haggard, waste away. 

Cinyenga, 7, n., constipation, cos- 
dl ne c, to be constipated, be 

Cinyl, interrog. pro.^ what? what 
is the matter? what for? 
why? for what reason? for 
what cause? for what pur- 
pose? § 175, Rem. I. 

Cinyindanyinda, 7, n.(pl. gener- 
ally used) J dregs, sediment. 

Cinyixa, vt., make afraid, frighten, 
terrify, alarm, excite, horrify, 
intimidate, scare, terrorize, 

Cinyu, 7, »., bladder. 

Cinyuka, 7, n., wadding for gun. 

CinyAmankole, 7, w., oyster. 

dole, 7, »., famine, starvation. 

Ciombe, 7, »., cassava root, manioc. 
c. cia mpete, dried but unsoaked 
cassava root. 

Ciombo, 7, «., copper or iron made 
into crosses. 
See note under copper. 

Cionda, 7, »., emaciation, leanness, 
thinness, haggardness. 
di ne or uma followed by c, to 



Cionda {continued). 

be emaciated, be lean, be thin, 
be haggard, waste away. 

Clondo, 7, n., a drum made by 
hollowing out a log. 

Clono, 7, n., a snore, sound or 
noise or roar or report of wind 
or rain or falls. 

Cioto, 7, n., clan, tribe, nation, 

Cisabatu, 7, n.(Jrom Portuguese), 
shoe, boot. 

Clsabu, 7, n., ford, ferry, crossing, 
passage, place where landing 
is made for ferry. 

Clsabukllu, 7, »., ford, ferry, 
passage of a stream, crossing, 
place where landing is made 
at a ferry. 

Cis&ki, 7, n.f twig. 

CIsaku, 7, n,y comb (for hair). 

Cisala, 7, n., brushwood, brush. 

Cls&iu, 7, w., market, sale. 

Cisamba, 7, n., clan, nation, tribe, 
-a c. c;ikuabo, foreign, of another 

muena c. clkuabo, a foreigner 

CIsambu, 7, w., yam (wild). 

Clsambusambu, 7, n., a shelter 
thrown up hastily. 

Cisamuinu, 7, »., comb (for hair). 

CIsanga, 7, n., island. 

CIsangI, 7, »., bunch or hand of 

bananas or plantains. 
Cisanji, 7, »., harp, organ, harmo- 
nium, a musical instrument. 
The common native instru- 
ment bearing this name is 
made by fastening small pieces 
of iron of different lengths to a 
piece of wood which has been 
hollowed out. 
Cisasa, 7, n., loft. 
Cisasa, 7, »., crawfish. 
CIsasankala, 7, n., crawfish. 
Cis<^ha, 7, n., skin, hide, leather. 

Cls^ke, 7, «., convulsion, fit, 
epileptic fit, spasm, insensi- 
bility or unconsciousness from 
fit or convulsion. 
fua or haluka with c, to faint, 
have a fit <w convulsion or 
spasm, be unconscious or. 
insensible from fit or con- 
vulsion, swoon. 
See note under cifuidlxe. 
Cisenze, 7, »., a garden or patch 
made in the swamp or marsh 
in dry season. 
CisI, 7, ».(Eng.), cheese. 
Cislkit, 7, n.(Eng.), biscuit. 
Cisonso, 7, n.{pl. generally used), 
dirt, trash, filth, impurity, 
refuse, debris, rubbish, stuff, 
waste, garbage, weeds. 
CIsoso, 7, n.{pl. generally used)^ tall 
grass used in covering houses. 
Cisote, 7, »., chaff. 
Clsu, 7, w., blossom, bloom, flower. 
CIsua, 7, »., nest of fowl. 
Cisuasua, 7, »., want, wish, desire. 
There is generally the idea of 
being uncertain as to what 
one really wants. § 356 {g). 
Cisuba, 7, n., tuft of hair. 
Cisui, 7, n., axe. 

ka8ul(</iwj».), hatchet. 
Cisaka, 7, n., a long basket. 
Cisuku, 7, »., tall grass. 

-a c, wild (as animal). 
CIsululu, 7, »., sweat, perspiration. 
h&tuka or tuka 'Z£;ii//t c, to sweat, 
CIsulusulu, 7, n., lung. 
Cisumba, 7, »., trading (buying 
and selling). 
muena c., trader, merchant. 
CIsumbu, 7, «., crowd, assembly, 
concourse, congregation, band, 
bunch, sheaf, bundle, pack, 
package, roll, company, class, 
group, drove, flock, herd, 
host, meeting, multitude, 
swarm, throng, party, society. 
lua c., to assemble, come to- 
gether, congregate. 



Cisuna, 7, n., vagina(?). 
CIsunsukila, 7, n., crumb. 
CIsusu, 7, n.f fist. 

kuma or tua or tuta wi/^ c, to 

strike or hit a blow with fist. 

Citab&la, 7, n., wakefulness. 

lala c, not to sleep well, keep 

awake, be sleepless, be wakeful. 

CItadilu, 7, »., porch, veranda. 

Citaku, 7, n., base, bottom, butt 

end, rear end, hind part, stern. 

CIt&lu, 7, n., corpse, dead body of 

person, carcass. 
Citambala, 7, n., a small piece or 
strip of cloth less than a 
fathom, towel, rag. 
c. cia ha mesa, napkin, serviette. 
CItanda, 7, n., an open shed. 
Cltandl, 7, n., a child about three 

or four years old. 
Citanga, 7, n., a circle or ring (as 

CItedl, 7, ».(^/. generally used)y 
joke, jest, humor, fun. 
ela bitedi, to joke, have fv.n 
with, jest with. 
CItekuteku, 7, n., a kind of greens. 
Cltelele, 7, n., chilliness, coldness, 
coolness, shade, dampness, 
moisture, wetness, humidity. 
di ne c., to be chilly, be cold, be 
cool, be damp, be moist, be 
wet, be humid. 
Some say citalele. 
CUema, 7, n., used as card, num.y 

Citlla, 7, n., cock, rooster, male of 
c. eibedi, first cock to crow in the 

ha bitlla, at cockcrowmg, early 
Citokatoka, 7, n., albino. § 365 (gS . 
Citonga, 7, »., gourd cut crosswise. 
Citu, 7, n.y stinginess, parsimony, 
selfishness, meanness as- result 
-a c., stingy, parsimonious, 

selfish, mean. 
Some say citue. 

Citudilu, 7, n., blacksmith shop, 

Cituha, 7, n., a bit or small piece 
or division or part or fragment 
or portion or section cut off, 
a short time, minute, moment, 
short while, before long, 
•a c., low, short, runty, stunted. 
kosa bituha, to cut into pieces. 
' muntu wa c., a^ dwarf, under- 
sized person, runt. 
Contrast with elhfisu. 
Cltuka, 7, n., the waist. 
Clula, 7, n., toad. 
Clululu, 7, n., cloud (not dark or 

Clui. a, 7, n.(pl. generally used)y 
;^cods, fortune, wealth, stuff, 
possessions, property, means, 
riches, substance, mammon. 
-a biuma, rich, wealthy. 
Ciuxa, 7, «., abscess, boil, ulcer, 

Civundi, 7, n., pot, kettle, vessel, 

CixaxI, 7, n., mat made by the 

Clxl, 7, «., anger, wrath, indigna- 
tion, bad humor, vexation, 
passion, fierceness, ferocity, 
rage, fury, madness, grief, 
melancholy, sadness, sorrow, 
penitence, regret, remorse. 
di ne e. or nnva c. or ufua c. or 
kuaeika c. or c. as subj. of 
kuata, to be angry, be mad, 
be aggravated, be indignant, 
be irritable, be ferocious, be 
fierce, be raging, be furious, 
be vexed, be worried, be an- 
noyed, be provoked, be in a 
passion, be sad, be melan- . 
choly, be sorry, be sorrowful, 
regret, repent, pine. 
kuacixa or ufuixa with c., to 
make angry or mad or indig- 
nant, displease, enrage, anger, 
annoy, exasperate, aggravate, 
worry, provoke, throw into a 
passion, irritate, tease, tanta- 



Cixl {cofUinued). 

lize, torment, trouble, vex, 

Ctxi, 7, »., insect, bee, fly, bug, 
caterpillar, worm, creeping thing. 
}Li^i{dimin.)y gnat. 

Clxiba, 7, w., whistle, flute. 

Clxibiku, 7, »., anything used to 
stop up or shut up, cork, cover, 
lid, stopper. 

CixikI, 7, »., door-post, post in wall 
of house. 

Clxlkidllu, 7, n., destination, end, 
limit, termination, terminus. 

ClxIklxikI, 7, »., dregs, sediment. 
P/. generally used. 

Cixiku, 7, n., disobedience, insub- 
ordination, stubbornness, ob- 
stinacy, heedlessness, refrac- 
toriness, wilfulness, negligence, 
-a c, disobedient, insubordinate, 
stubborn, obstinate, heedless, 
refractory, unmanagable, un- 
ruly, intractable, wiBul, negli- 
gent, neglectful. 

Cixiluxilu, 7, n., fern. 

Clxondu, 7, »., snapping of the 
tuta c., to snap the finger. 

Clyuya, 7, «., warmth, heat, tepid- 
ness, lukewarmness. 
c. cla ml, steam. 
dl ne c, to be warm, be tepid, 
be lukewarm. 

Cizubu, 7, »., bark, shuck, hull, 
husk, peel, skin, rind, shell of 
egg or nut or seed or terrapin. 

I>1» 5> n.(pl. is me), word, direc- 
tion, message, command, 
order, ordinance, command- 
ment, exhortation, informa- 
tion, news, proclamation, dis- 
course, statement, assertion, 
sound of music, speech voice, 
echo (with the verbs elekexa or 

Di (continued). 

-a d. dimue, reliable, trust- 
worthy, truthful, consistent. 

amba d., to deliver a message, 
issue a proclamation or decree. 

ambuluxa or ambulula or ban- 
dlxa or k&lexa with d., to 
raise the voice, talk louder. 

d. diklse, high tone or voice. 

d. dinlne, low tone, bass voice. 

d. as subj. of h&ta or xlb&la, to 
be hoarse. 

hunga d., to make an agreement 
or covenant or contract. 

tekexa or huekexa w^iih d., to 
lower the voice. 

tumina muntu d., to send a 
person a message. 
Di, inter jec.y see § 437 (h). 
!>*> 5» n.(pl. is me), heart. 
Di, vi.y to be, exist. - 

d. ne, to have, possess, own, 

d. ne with bundu or bunvu, to 
be ashamed, be bashful, be 
mortified, etc. 

d. ne cixi, to be angry, be mad, 

d. ne with dlfu or dimi, to be with 

d. ne luoxi, to be vicious (as dog) . 

d. ne muoyo, to be alive, be 

d. with mua and in fin., to be 
able, can, be capable, be possi- 
ble, be qualified, be compe- 
tent, have power to. 

d. with Locatives Suffixed , to 
be alive, be present. § 320. 
The neg. is ena. 
Di> 5, n.(pl. is mai), egg. 

ela d., to lay an egg. 

The dimin. is kai. 
Dia, vt., to eat, consume, devour, 
subsist on. 

-a kudia, edible. 

bia kudia, food, victuals, nour- 
ishment, meal. 

d. bukelenge, to become chief, 
succeed to chiefship. 



Dla (continued). 

d. cinana, to squander, to ex- 
haust, to spend, to waste. 
d. luhiku, to bet, wager. 
d. maxinde, to graze. 
Diacimue, 5, n., used as adv.^ at one 
time, at the same time, simulta- 
neously. § 95 (ft), Rem. 2. 
Diaha, 5, n., shoulder. 
Diakamue, 5, n., used as adv.j 
once, one time, at the same 
time, simultaneously. § 95 
(6), Rem. I, 
Diala, 5, n., place for throwing 

rubbish, dunghill. 
Dialu, 5, «., magic, riddle, puzzle, 
enigma, sleight-of-hand trick. 
muena d., magician. 
Diamba, 5, n., Indian hemp. This 
is snAoked by the natives with 
injurious effect. 
Diambedl, 5, n., used as adv.^ long 
ago, before, in advance, first, 
foremost, beforehand, in old 
times, once upon a time, re- 
mote or distant times, long 
since, long time ago. 
amba d. bualu kabui buanze 
kulua, to foretell, prophesy, 
Bungula d., to foreordain, pre- 
Dianda, z;., to run against. 
DIangana, v.(withmenUf teeth), to 
grit or grind or gnash the teeth. 
d. mukana, to move the lips 
without speaking. 
DianJIla, v., to be or do or go in 
advance or before, anticipate, 
come or do first or previously, 
be forward or foremost in 
doing, lead the way, precede. 
d. kuenza, to invent. 
d. kumona, to discover. 
This word is jollowed by in fin. 
May also be spelled dianxila. 
Dianva, 5, «., an ear of Indian corn 
or maize. The pi. is used to 
express quantity either oj ears 
or shelled corn. 

DIata, v., to step, tread, tramp. 
d. mu diktksa, to step on, tread 
on, tramp on, trample on. 
Diba, 5, n.{pl. is meba), sun; has 
secondary meaning oj clock, 
d. dla hanktkci or A. as subj. of 

Jalama, noon, midday. 
d. dicidiku, there is plenty of 

d. with kl? 0r hanyl? what 
time ? what o'clock ? when? 
what hour ? 
d. as subj. oj uhuka, afternoon, 

d. as subj. oj kumbana, to be 
time for. 
Dib&la, 5, n., bald head. 
Dibamba, 5, n., scale of fish. 
Dibandala, 5, n., flag. 
Dibansa, 5, n., debt, account. 
d. as subj. oj kuata, to owe a 
debt, /»/., a debt has caught one. 
di ne or angata with d. dia, to 

be in debt to, owe. 
ensa d., to incur a debt. 
f ueila d., to make atonement for. 
ha d., to credit. 
Dibanzixa, 5, ft., the act of bring- 
ing the bride to the home of 
the bridegroom. 
bldia bia d., marriage or wedding 
Dib&xi, 5, fi., spot, speck, dot. 
di ne mabftxi, to be spotted, be 

speckled, be variegated. 
ena ne mab&xl, to be spotless, 
be unspotted. 
Dibedi, 5, «., sickness, disease, 
malady, illness, pain, affliction, 
bad health, pang, suffering. 
See disama. 
DIbele, 5, n., breast, udder, teat. 
mutu wa d. or lusongo lua d., 

nipple of breast. 
Note that the pi. means milk as 
well as breasts. 
Dlbexi, 5, «., leaf of tree or book, 
page, sheet of paper, blade of 



DIbika, v.(Buk., 1st pers. sing.), 
used in greeting and salutation. 


Diblya, 5, n., board, plank. 

muena mablya, carpenter, saw- 
Dibodio, 5, n.y pouch of animal, 

crop of fowl. 
Diboko, 5, n., arm of person, 
fore leg or front leg of quad- 
d. dia baktkxi, left arm. 
d. dIa balumi, right arm. 
d. dia with clkowela or cio- 
kutu, sleeve. 
Dibondo, 5, »., a kind of palm. 
Dibotc, 5, »., banana, either whole 

bunch or single fruit. 
DIbu, 5, n., lump, clod. 
Dibuba, 5, n., blister or lump made 

by fire or hot water. 
Dibuba, 5, n.j cloud. 
Dibue, 5, «., stone, rock, flint, 
bead, slate. 
d. dIa kunuona, grindstone. 
d. dIa nvula, hailstone. 
m-jcl wa d., slate-pencil. 
Dibue, 5, n , the most common 

species of oil palm. 
Dibui, 5, »., wasp-nest (made of 

Dibaka, 5, marriage, matrimony, 
wedding, wedlock. 
d. as subj, of f ua, to be divorced, 

lit., the marriage is dead. 
ziha d., to divorce, to break the 

ya ku d., to marry (used only of 
the woman). 
Dibulu, 5, »., ball (of rubber), 

lump (of salt, earth, etc.). 
Dibulunge, 5, n., ball, globe, 
-a d., round, spherical. 
From bulunga, to be round. 
Dibumba, 5, »., clay or earth for 

making pots. 
Dibungi, 5, n., fog, mist. 
Did, 5, n.(pl' is meci), day. 
See dituka. 

Dicu, 5, »., ear. 

nyongo'a d., drum of ear. 
telexa macu, to attend, listen, 
be attentive. 
Didiba, 5, «., native doth made . 
from the fibre of palm leaves. 
kuma d., to weave. 
Didinga, 5, n.{pl. is madingi), lie, 
falsehood, untruth, hypocri- 
sy, untruthfulness, unrelia- 
-a madlngi, unreliable, untruth- 
muena madingi, liar, hypocrite, 
fraudulent person. 
Dieba, 5, ft., thorn, bone of fish 

(generally the rib). 
Dieleka, vi., to agree, match, con- 
form to, correspond to, be 
adapted to, be suitable, be 
alike, be even, be proper, be 
similar, be same kind, or 
species or variety, fit, suit, be 
enough or adequate or suffi- 
cient, suffice, be exact. 
neg. means to be unlike, differ, 
be different, be divers, be 
diverse, vary, be insufficient or 
Diese, 5, «., fortune, good luck. 
di ne d., fortunate, lucky. 
ena ne d., Unfortunate, unlucky. 
Difu, 5, «., abdomen, stomach, 
belly, perhaps womb. 
-a mu d., the family of. 
d. dia mukolo, calf of le^. 
di ne d., to be with child, be 

imita d., to conceive. 
tuia, d., to abort, miscarry. 
Difuanda, 5, n., gunoowder. 
Difuka, 5, n., handful, a small 
pile or heap (such as can be 
held in the two hands). 
Difukenya, 5, n., loose sand, dirt 
Difuku, 5, n.y day. 

See dituku. 
Difuma, 5, »., spear, lance. 
Dif unka, 5, n., two fathoms of cloth 
(4 yds.), one half of a piece. 



Difutu, 5, n., pay, salary, pay- 
ment, remuneration, reward, 
compensation, earnings, wage, 
wages, anything due, bribe, fee, 
fine, penalty, expense. 
angata d., to earn. 
bandixa d., to advance wages. 
huekexa d., to decrease wa^es. 

Diha, 5, «., benevolence, chanty, 
liberality, generosity, unselfish- 
-a d., liberal, generous, un- 
selfish, benevolent. 
d. dia luse, alms. 

Dihaha, 5, w., deafness. // person 
is deaf in one ear use sing., 
if in both ears use pi. 
-a mahaha, deaf. 

Dihahl, 5, «., papaw. From Eng. 

Dihahu, 5, n., wing. 

Dihanda, 5, n., a kind of palm. 

Dihangu, 5, w., exhaustion, fatigue, 
weakness, tiredness, weariness, 
Sometimes spelled dihungi. 

Dihasa, 5, n., used in ph. muana 
wa mahasa, to mean twin. 

Dihembu, 5, n.{pl. is generally 
used), smell, odor, scent. May 
be good or bad odor. 

Dihl, 5, n., a blow with open hand, 
slap, smack. 
tua or kuma or tuta with d., to 
stri e or hit with open hand, 
slap, smack, spank. 

Dihl, 5, w., razor. 

Dihilu, 5, «., rafter. 

Dihoko, 5, »., notch. 

Dihondo, 5, w., knot of stick. 

Dihu, 5, «., knot of stick. 

Dihula, 5, n., honeycomb, bees- 
wax, wax. 

Dihusa, 5, n., wadding for gun. 

Dilnyi, 5, «., leaf of tree or book, 
page, sheet of paper, blade of 

Dilnyi, 5, n., fat or grease of animal, 
laba minyi, to grease. 
mlnyi a ngombe, butter. 

Dilnyi (continued). 

The sing, is used to express 
either a small quantity of fat 
or the unrendered fat, whereas 
the pi. expresses the idea either 
of a large quantity of fat or 
the rendered oil or grease. 

Dijimba, 5, n., pit for catching 

Dijimbu, 5, n., magic, riddle, puz- 
zle, enigma, sleight-of-hand 
muena d., magician. 
May be spelled diximbn. 

Dijinga, vt., to be entangled, i.e., 
to entangle one's self. 

Dijita, 5, n., knot of string (gener- 
ally a hard knot). 

Dika, vi.y to pass or go by or ahead 

Dikaei, 5, «., honeycomb, beeswax, 

Dikadi, 5, ft., a kind of palm. 

Dikaka, 5, n., pineapple. 

Dikala, 5, «., charcoal, coal of fire. 

Dikalu, 5, n.{from Portuguese), 
wheel. Generally used of the 
stem -wheel of steamers. 

Dikama, 5, n., paw or foot of 
animal, such as dog, cat, etc.; 
track or trace or trail or print 
of the paw; footprint. 
londa makama, to track, trace, 

Dikamakama, 5, n., impoliteness, 
shamelessness, effrontery, im- 
modesty, impertinence, sauci- 
ness, arrogance, impudence, in- 
decency, ingratitude, ungrate- 
fulness, audacity, disrespect, 
-a d., arrogant, saucy, immodest, 
shameless, impertinent, disre- 
spectful, impudent, indecent, 
ungrateful, audacious, impolite, 
ena d., to be modest, be humble. 

Dikanda, 5, «., strength, energy 
force, might, ability. 
PI. generally used. 



Dikanda, 5, »., a snarl, growl. 
ela makanda, to growl, snarl. 
PL generally used. 

Dlkangala, 5, n., guinea-fowl. 

Dikeha, 5, n., shoulder-blade. 

Dlkela, 5, n., a hole through some- 
thing, a leak, rent, perfora- 
tion; hence a window. 
tubuka d., to spring a leak. 

Dik«la, 5, »., egg. 
ela d., to lay an egg. 

DIkengexa, 5, n., punishment, chas- 
tisement, suffering, retribution. 

Dikenka, 5, n., light or brightness 
of fire or moon, moonlight. 
From V. kenka. 

DIkiki, 5, M., eyebrow. 

Dikima, 5, «., bravery, courage, 
fortitude, boldness, valor. 
dine or teka with d. to be brave, 
be fearless, be courageous, be 
daring, be bold, be valiant. 

DIkixa, vLf to let pass by. 

Dlklya, 5 n., shoulder. 

DIkoba, 5, n.y skin of human body. 

Dikodi, 5, »., phlegm. PL gener- 
ally used. 

Dikoko, 5, n., deformity in the 
back, humpback. 

Dikolo, 5, n., site of deserted 

DIkoyabolo, 5, n., ankle bone. 

Dlku, 5, n.y cola nut (eaten with 
palm wine). 

Dlku, 5, n.{pl. meku), fireplace, 

Dlku, 5, n., a kind of palm. 

Dikubakuba, 5, »., clap of thunder. 
nvuia as subj. of kuma and d. 
as obj.y to thunder (clap). 

Dikubu, 5, n.y a kind of grub worm 

Dikuha, vi., to flap about (as cloth 
in the wind), swing, sway, 
vibrate, wave to and fro, 

Dikukumina, 5, n., stuttering, 
stammering, impediment in 
muena d., stammerer, stutterer. 

Dikumbi, 5, ft, umbrella. 
d. dia bulobo, railway train. 
d. dla ml, steamer, steamboat, 

vessel, ship. 
nxlla wa dikumbi dia bulobo, 
railway track. 
Dikumbu, 5, n., large basket with 

top made by Zappo Zapps. 
Dlkuml, n.y used as card, num., 

Dikunga, vi.y to assemble, come 

together, congregate. 
Dikunxl, 5, n.y leg of table or chair, 
pillar, posts for support of 
Dlkuonde, 5 n., plantain (whole 

bunch or single fruit). 

Dikuonya, vLy to shrink as in fear. 

Diktksa, 5, »., foot, hammer of 

gun, trail or trace or mark 

made by foot, footprint. 

d. dibl, bad fortune, bad luck, 

misfortune, mishap. 
d. dimpe, fortune, good luck. 
dl ne d. dibi, to be unfortunate, 

be unlucky. 
di ne d. dimpe, to be fortunate, 

be lucky. 
di ne d. kudi muntu, to have 
favor or influence with a 
kuma d., to stumble, trip, stump 

the foot. 
londa maktksa, to track, trace, 

munda mua d., sole of foot. 
munu munlne wa d., great toe. 
munu wa d., toe. 
tua d., to kick. 
DlkAsa, 5, n.y a rattle used as 

musical instrument. 
Dikutu, 5, n.{from kuta, to bale), 
bale, iDundle, large package or 
pack or roll, the canvas or 
wrapper around a bale. 
Dlla, v.y to cry, grieve, wail, weep, 
lament, mourn, pine for, be- 
wail, bemoan, bawl, bellow, 
bleat, croak, whine, roar (lion), 
bray, squeal, tick (watch). 



Dila, 5, »., intestine, entrail, gut; 
the pi. means bowels, viscera. 

DUala, 5, »., lime (fruit). From 
Lower Congo. 

DUala, 5, n., leaf of palm (dlkadi 
and dibondo). These are 
sewed together and used for 
covering houses. 

Dllandi, 5, »., snail. 

Dllebele, 5, ».(Buk.), jigger. 

DUesa, 5, »., a kind of European 

Dilesona, 5, n.(Eng.), lesson. 

Dll«ta, 5, «.(Eng.), letter of alpha- 
bet, type. 

Dilexa, v., to show ofiF one's self, be 
pompous, be proud, be haugh- 
ty, hi vainj strut. 

Dilobo, 5, n., ford, ferry, passage 
or crossing of stream, place 
where landing is made at a 

Dilolo, 5, »., afternoon, evening. 
bidia bia d., supper. 
dinda to ne d., all day long. 

Dilonga, 5, n.{perhaps from Lower 
Congo) y dish, plate, pan, basin, 
bowl, saucer. 

Dllongexa, 5, «., catechumen class. 
muena d., catechumen. 
mukanda wa d., catechism. 

Dilu, 5, n,{pl. ts melu), nose. 
muxuku wa d., nostril. 

Dilu, 5, «., dream, vision. 

iftta d., to dream, have a 

Dlliinda, 5, n., mountain peak. 

Dlma, 5, n.{pl. is mema), clay 
or earth used in making 

Dima, v.f to hoe, cultivate, dig or 
cut up grass with hoe, work, 
labor, toil, till. 
See note under labor. 

Dim&ta, 5, «., drop of water. 

Dlmba, v^(Buk.), to tell a lie or 
falsehood or untruth, be false, 
deceive, beguile, trick, bear 
false witness, fabricate, entice 
by lying. 

Dimbila, i;/.(Buk.), to tell a false- 
hood or lie on one, bear false 
witness against, accuse falsely. 

Dimbixa, i;.(Buk.), to feign, pre- 
tend, profess. 

Dime, 5, n., dew. 

DImeme, 5, n., sweetness to taste. 
-a d., sweet. 

Dimi, 5, n.{pl. f'5memi), womb(?). 

Perhaps same meaning as dif a. 

di ne d., to be with child, be 

imita d., to conceive. 

Diminu, 5, w., seed; hence second- 
ary tneaning of fruitfulncss, 
dl ne d., to be fertile, be pro- 
ductive (as male or female in 
producing young), be fruitful, 
be prolific, be fecund. 
This word generally has the idea 
of seed for planting: 

Diminu, 5, n., throat. 

kuata ha d., to choke (as food), 

taiaxa or holexa with ha d., to 
satisfy or slake or appease or 
quench thirst. 

DImoma, 5, n., fruit. 
mamoma a kuenza n'& followed 
by vinyo or maluvu a mputu, 
This word is used only with ref- 
erence to such fruits as grow on 
trees or shrubs, it can therefore 
not be applied to bananas or 
plantains or pineapples. 

Dimoma, 5, n., rust, corrosion. 
kuata d., to rust, be rusty, cor- 

DImpompo, 5, »., drop of water. 

Dimuka, vi.^ to be on one's guard, 
be wary, be warned, be cau- 
tioned, beware, take heed, take 
precaution, be prudent, be cun- 
ning, be wily, be sagacious, be 
sharp, be shrewd, be skilful, be 
sly, be subtle, be vigilant, 
watch out, look out, be wise, 
be on the alert, be artful. 



Dimuke, adj. {p. p. from dimuka), 
crafty, cunning, sly, wily, wary, 
prudent, sagacious, sharp, 
shrewd, skilful, subtle, vigilant, 
wise, artful, cautious. 

DImuxa, vt.y to caution, warn, put 
on one's guard, inform, ad- 
monish, counsel, make aware, 

Dina, vi., to dive, sink, plunge 
down in. 

Dina, 5, n.{pl. is mena), hole in the 
ground, pit. 

Dina, 5, n.(pl. is mena), name. 
d. diacl ncinganyi ? what is its 

d. diebi nganyi ? what is your 

Dtnana, v., to stretch one's self. 

Dinanga, 5, n., affection, love, de- 

Dinaya, 5, n., game, play. 

Dincese, 5, n., match. This word 
is coUoq, from Eng. match. 
§ 55, Rem. 2, Note 2. 

Dinda, 5, n., early in the morning, 
about sunrise, little after dawn, 
soon in the morning. 
bidia bia d., breakfast. 
butuku to ne d.. all night long. 
d. to ne dilolo, all day long. 
d. to ne ku munda munya, 

Dinga, vt.y to tell a lie or falsehood 
or untruth, be false, deceive, 
beguile, trick, bear false wit- 
ness, fabricate, entice by lying. 

Dingila, vt.y to tell a lie or false- 
hood on one, bear false witness 
against, accuse falsely. 

Dingila, z/., to aim (gun). 

Dinsixa, v., to feign, pretend, pro- 

Dingonge, 5, n., a large beetle. 

Dingulunge, 5, n., a wasp. 

Dinkidingila, 5, n., gizzard. 
Sometimes pronounced dinku- 

Dintanta, 5, n., impertinence, im- 
politeness, sauciness, impu- 

Dlntanta {continued). 

dence, immodesty, shameless- 
ness, indecency, ingratitude, 
ungratefulness, disrespect, ar- 
rogance, effrontery, audacity, 

-a d., immodest, shameless, im- 
pertinent, saucy, impudent, 
impolite, indecent, ungrateful, 
disrespectful, arrogant, auda- 
cious, irreverent. 

ena ne d., to be modest, be 
Dintonya, 5, «., bend, crook, 

Dintumbu, 5, »., gizzard. 
Dinu, 5, n.{pl. menu), tooth. 

diangana or zekexa with menu, 
to grit or grind the teeth. 

dl ne menu, to be sharp (as 

disama dia d., toothache. 

fua menu, to be dull. 

ku menu, the sharp edge of a 

xiha menu, to make dull. 
DInung, z;.(Bukuba, istpers. sing.), 
used in greeting or salutation. 


Dinunganyl, 5, n.{pl. generally 

used), whisper, undertone, a 

low noise, murmur, faint 

Dlnungu, 5, n., joint. 

d. dia munu, knuckle. 
Dinyongele, 5, n., milleped (long 

black worm found in forests). 
Dinyungixa, v., reflex., to shake 

one's self. 
Dinyungu, 5, n., dizziness, faint- 

ness, giddiness. 
di ne d., to be dizzy, be faint, be 

d. dia ml, whirlpool. 
Diodiono, adv., at once, directly, 

immediately, instantly, before 

long, now, presently, soon, 

Dtoiola, V. reflex., to stretch one's 




Dioto, 5, n., a skin disease which 
appears as whitish patches on 
the neck, arms and chest. 

Diowa, v., reflex.y to hang one's self, 
to commit suicide by hanging. 

Dioxl, 5, n., pumpkin. 
May be spelled dioji. 

Dis&ba, 5, n., game, play. 

Disama, 5, n., sickness, disease, 
malady, illness, pain, affliction, 
bad health, pang, suffering. 
d. dia dlnu, toothache. 

Disanga, vi.y to assemble, come 
together, congregate, meet to- 
gether, gather together. 

Disansu, 5. n.(pl. generally used), 
fork or meeting place of rivers 
or paths, junction, confluence. 

Disanka, 5, n., pride, haughtiness, 
conceit, vanity; we have also 
another class of meanings such 
as contentment, happiness, joy, 
pleasure, gladness. 

Disanza, 5, n., class, group, crowd, 

DIsasakata, 5, n., impatience 

Dis^ke, 5, n., bridge made of 

Disete, 5, n., a tall coarse grass. 

Disemba, n.(Eng.), December. 

DisUabel, 5, n.(Eng.), syllable. 

Dlsohokela, vi.j the accidental or 
unintentional discharging of a 
gun or springing of a trap. 
Sometimes pronounced disuhu- 

Disoka, 5, »., noose for catchinjr 

Disotadi, 5, n.(Jrom Portuguese), 
masoladl(/>/.)» army. 

Dlsongo, 5, n., sharpened stick or 
stake fastened in pit to impale 

Disonguela, v., to confess, own up, 
acknowledge one's guilt. 

Dlsoso, 5, w., hole punched through 
something, a leak, rent, per- 

Disoso {continued), 

tubaka d., to spring a leak, 
tubula d., to bore a hole, pierce 
Disu, 5, n.{pl. mesu), eye of body 
or of needle, germ or embryo 
of seed, nipple of gun. 
d. dia mbote, buttonhole. 
d. dia ns&hl, keyhole. 
di ku mesu, to look, appear, seem 
to be before one's face; aSy 
cilulu cidi cimpe ku mesu, 
the cloth appears to be good. 
ku mesu kua, in the presence of. 
mesu (/>/.)» visage. 
tonkena or ondela with mu d., 
to show white of the eye as 
uma mu d., to be immodest, be 
shameless, be indecent, be 
Disua, vi.f to boast, brag, be 
haughty, be proud, be con- 
ceited, be impertinent, be im- 
pudent, be insolent, be immod- 
est, be shameless, be saucy, be 
selfish, be vain, vaunt one's 
self, be arrogant, be auda- 
cious, be egotistical, be pomp- 
neg. means to be humble, be 
DIsua, 5, n., love, affection, devo- 
Disua, 5, n., nest of birds, rats etc. 
DIsundu, 5, n., fist. 

kuma or tua or tuta with d., to 
strike or hit a blow with fist. 
DIsungu, 5, n., abscess, boil, 

swelling, ulcer. 
Ditadi, 5, ». (Lower Congo), slate. 

muci wa d., slate-pencil. 
Ditaku, 5, n., buttock. 
DIt&la, 5, »., an ear of Indian com 
or maize. The pi. is used to 
express quantity either of ears 
or shelled com. 
Ditama, 5, »., cheek. 
Ditamba, 5, ft., arm of tree, branch, 
bough, limb. 



Ditambae, 5, n., a small rodent. 
Ditanda, 5, n., bench or seat made 

of palm ribs. 
Ditemena, m.y to give forth light, 

gleam, shine, glow. 
Ditende, 5, n., cannon. 
DItenge, 5, n., buttock. 
Ditete, 5, n., grain of corn or 

millet or salt, seed. 
Ditetembue, 5, «., wasp. 
leiitoba, 5, n., spot, speck, dot. 
dl He matoba, to be spotted, be 

speckled, be variegated. 
ena ne matoba, to be spotless, 
be unspotted. 
DUonte, adj.{p.p. of tonta, to 
bend), to be deformed or bent, 
be humpbacked. 
DItonya, v., to fold or bend (as one's 

legs in sitting man -fashion). 
Ditu, 5, n,{pl. metu), bush, forest, 
wood or woods. 
nyOma wa multu (§ 47, Rem.), 
wild animal. 
Ditu, 5, n., ear. 

See dicu. 
DItua, 5, n., small black ant-hill. 
Dituaya, 5, n.(Jrom Portuguese), 

Dituku, 5, n., day. 
-amatuka onso, immortal, ever- 
d. dia Santa Kl&s, Christmas 

d. kl ? when ? what day ? 
matuku followed by a ku mp&la 
or a kumudilu, hereafter, 
henceforth, future. 
matuku bungl munyi? what 

age? how old? how long? 
matuku male, long time, long 

matuku mihl, short time, short 

matuku onso or ku d. ku d., 
always, ceaselessly, constantly, 
continually, endlessly, eternity, 
eternally, ever, forever, in- 
cessantly, perpetually, daily, 
day by day, habitually. 

Dituku (cofUinued). 
matuku onso with neg. v., never 

For days of the week see Eng.- 
B.L, under week. 

Ditula, 5, n., a species of snake. 

Dltumba, 5, n., corner of house, 

Ditunga, 5, n., village, town, city. 
See musoko. 

Dltungu, 5, n., grain of com, seed. 

Dltuta, V. reflex.y to run against. 

Dltutu, 5, n., cloud. 

Diula, vt.y to condemn, denounce, 
censure, not to praise, re- 
nounce, deny, disown, neglect. 

Diula, v., to tear off one's loin 

DIulu, 5, n., sky, firmament, 
-a d., celestial, heavenly. 
hankjici ha d., zenith. 

DIulu, 5, n., nose. 
muxuku wa d., nostril. 

Diunda, vi.^ to grow, grow large or 
stout, get fat or corpulent, 
increase in size, develop, wax 

Diundlxa, v/., to add to, broaden, 
widen, enlarge, fatten, in- 
crease, exaggerate. 

Dlungulxa, vi.y to assemble, come 
together, congregate, meet to- 
gether, gather together. 

DIvuala, 5, n., wave (water), billow. 

DIvunga, v. reflex., to fold or bend 
one's arms or legs. 

Dtxa, vt., to feed, nourish, keep, 
rear, give to eat, bring up. 
This word when followed by the 
abstract name oj the office has 
the idea oj elect, appoint to 
oflfice, confer ofl&ce on, make. 

DIxi, 5. n.{pl, mexi), caterpillar, 
worm. These are edible. 

DixIa, 5, n., generally used as prep, 
across, opposite side of, over. 
// is generally preferable to add 
the ph, dIa muamua. 

Dixiba, 5, n., lake, pond, inland sea. 



Dlxlha, V, reflex.f to commit 

Dixlkamlna, vi.^ to sit alone. The 
p.p, means free, not a slave; 
aSf muntu mudixikamine, a 
freeman, free-bom person. 

Dlzima, 5, n.{pL is maxlmi), lie, 
falsehood, untruth, fraud, hy- 
pocrisy, untruthfulness, umre- 
-a mazlml, unreliable, untruth- 
maena maziml, liar, hypocrite, 
fraudulent person. 

Dixina, 5, n., she-goat. One 
which has borne young. 

Dixinda, vi.^ to fall down (as per- 
son tripping the foot). 

Dlxinde, 5, n., stalk or blade of 
grass (the common short va- 
riety), weed. 
dla maxinde, to graze. 

Dlxindl, 5, n., large black ant. 
They move in a line two or 
three yards in length. 

Dixonde, 5, n., small yellow fruit 
growing on the plain. 

Diyoyo, 5, »., trouble, tumult, dis- 
turbance, noise, report, quar- 
rel, row, wrangle, wrangling, 
sound of noise, uproar, commo- 
tion, fuss, hubbub, riot. 
-a d., noisy, quarrelsome. 
kosexa or xikixa wUh d., to 

quell, hush, quiet, still. 
lekela d., to stop the noise, be 

quiet, be still. 
teka d., to disturb, make trouble 
or palaver, raise a tumult. 

E, adv.y yes. 

Ebexa, vt.^ to ask a question, con- 
sult, enquire, examine, inter- 
rogate, question, demand (ask 
a question). 
e. muoyo, to give compliments 
or regards or salutation or 
greeting or respects, salute. 

Ebexa {continued). 

greet, hail, say adieu or fare- 
well or good-bye. 
Ebi, poss. pro.y your, yours, thy, 

thine. §§ 133, 135. 
Ehela, v., to dodge. 
Ehaka, vi., to get or move out of 
the way, turn aside or out of 
the path in order to pass or to 
permit another to pass, glance 

Some say ahuka. 
Ehula, vt.y to pull out, knock out 
(as tooth). 

Some say ahula. 
Eku, adv., here, hence, hither. 

§ 163, Note 3. 
Ela, vt.y to cast, throw, pitch, blow 
(any wind instrument). 

e. bila, to cheer, shout, cry oi 

e. bitedi, to joke, have fun with, 
jest with. 

e. bukanda, to give an enema, 

e. cifufu, to plot or plan secretly, 
have secret consulation ot 
deliberation or conference. 

e. cingoma, to fire or shoot a 

e. cingoma hanzl, to miss aim 

e. dik«la, to lay an egg. 

e. luhftta, to argue, disagree, 
have a controversy or discus- 
sion or contention, differ in 
view, dispute, quarrel, wrangle, 

e. with lungenyi or mexi or 
lukanyi or muclma, to think, 
conceive, muse, consider, de- 
liberate, meditate, reason, re- 
flect, ponder. 

e. with luxlminylnyu or lusu- 
muinu or muanu, to tell or 
narrate a fable or story or 

e. makanda, to growl or snarl 
(as dog). 

e. mate (or the sing, lute), to 
spit, expectorate. 



Ela (continued). 

e. minyi, to anoint. 

e. muau, to yawn, gape. 

e. mucima, to covet, long for, 
yearn for, think about. 

e. wUh muh&nu or muklya, to 
put on pants or trousers. 

e. muhuya, to blow the breath, 

e. mukandu, to make a pro- 
hibitive law. 

e. mak<^te, to shoot an arrow. 

e. muklya, to gird up the loins, 
tuck up the cloth. 

e. mukosa, to interfere in one's 
business, oppose, withstand. 

e. mukuekue, to cackle. 

e. mulau, to curse, doom, damn, 
wish ill to, anathematize. 

e. mu lukanu, to fetter, chain, 
put in chains. 

e. manda, to run off at the bowels, 
have diarrhoea. 

e. muosa, to whistle. 

e. muoyo, to expect, look for, 
hope for, give respects or com- 
pliments or salutation or greet- 
ing, salute, greet, hail, say 
adieu or farewell or good-bye. 

e. muxa, to break wind. 

e. ngonga, to ring a bell. 

e. ns&hi, to lock. 

e. nxobo, to gamble by tossing 
seeds or other objects. 

e. nyaci, to sneeze. 

e. nyima, to turn one's back on 
Elangana, v.{derived from ela). 

e. luh&ta (or pi. mp&ta), to 
argue, disagree, have a con- 
troversy or mscussion, differ in 
view, dispute, quarrel, wran- 
gle, debate. 

e. with lungenyi or mexl or 
lukanyi or mucima, to think 
about, consider, deliberate, 
conceive, meditate, reason, re- 
flect, muse, ponder. 
Elekexa, vt.y to try, test, attempt, 
strive, make an effort or trial. 

Elekexa (continued). 

endeavor, compare, illustrate, 
liken, make even or exact or 
the same or similar or like or 
alike, make to fit or suit, adapt 
to, match, take aim, aim (gun), 
measure, take dimension, copy, 
emulate, imitate, mimic, mock, 

dl(5), as subj. of e., to echo. 

e. bujitu, to weigh. 

e. kafunda muntu, to draw a 
picture of a person. 

e. lubilu, to run a race. 
Elele, interjec.f see § 437 (/). 
Ema, vt.j to cut incision in palm 
tree so that the sap can flow 
out, tap, get wine. 
Emu, adv.f here (inside), hence, 

hither. § 163, Note 3. 
Ena, vi.f not to be. This word is 
the common neg. of di and 
other verbs meaning to be. 
§ 206, Rem. 

Only a few of the more com- 
mon expressions with ena are 
here given: 

e. mua kub&la, to be countless, 
be innumerable. 

e. mua followed by in fin. y to be 
impossible, be unable, be in- 
competent, be incapable. 

e. mua kuenza clntu, to be 

e. ne, not to have, be out of, 
lack, be destitute of, be with- 
out, be wanting, need, be de- 
ficient, be inadequate, be in- 

e. with buk&le or ngulu, to be 
delicate, be not strong. 

e. ne Tvith matoba or mab&xi, 
to be spotless. 

e. with Locatives Suffixed^ to be 
absent, be away. § 320; 
Enda, vi., to advance, go, pass on, 
proceed, progress, travel. 

e. buenyi, to visit, go visiting. 

e. clendenda, to be a tramp or 
vagabond or vagrant. 



Enda (continued), 

e. masandl, to commit adultery 

or fornication. 
e. mubande ha kab&lu, to ride 

on horse. 
e. mu buanda, to ride in a 

e. mu ml, to swim (as fish). 
e. muxlnga, to barter, buy and 

sell, trade, deal in. 
e. n*andl masandl, to seduce 

e. ne mukolomo, to hop on 

one foot, go with one knee 

e. usemena, to go sidewise. 
e. wUh the pres. part, of sobela 

or tebuka, to walk lame, limp. 
muoyo as subj. of e. with the 

pers, as obj. (or ku muoyo 

kudl kuenda), to be nauseous, 

be sick at stomach. 
Endakana, vi.t to walk about, 

wander about, go about from 

place to place, roam, stray 

about, stroll, travel about, 

itinerate, meander, ramble. 
e. with lumu as subj., to spread 

Endangana, v., to have inter- 
course one with another as in 

trading, etc. 
Endela, vt,, to court, woo, long 

e. ku clbangu, to walk with a 

Endexa, vt., to hurry up, hasten, 

expedite, urge on, make to go. 

// the idea of haste is implied 

use also the words lublla or 

e. ku muoyo, to nauseate, sicken, 

make sick at the stomach. 
e. lumu, to spread news. 
Endulula, v/., when followed by 

muxlngra this word means to 

go about buying and selling, 

trade, barter. 
e. muxinga mulmpe, to gain by 

trading, profit. 

Enga, vt,y to brew, boil or render 

oil, evaporate (for salt). 
e. malua, to malt. 
Engelela, vi.f to be bright, glisten, 

glitter, shine, gleam, sparkle. 
Engelexa, vt.y to brighten, make to 

glisten or shine. 
Engula, vt.f to skim off. 
Enguluka, vi.y to dissolve, melt, 

Enu, poss. pro., your(^/.), yours 

iP^')' §8 i33» 135- 
Ensa, vt.f to do, make, form, 
shape, construct, act, per- 
form, effect, prepare, produce, 
accomplish, commit. 

dlanjlla kuensa, to invent. 

e. blbl, to err, do wrong, trans- 
gress, sin. 

e. bimpe, to fix. 

e. dlbansa, to incur a debt. 

e. dljlmbu, to do sleight of hand 
trick, conjure. 

ena mua kuensa cintu, to be 

e. mudimu, to work, labor, toil. 

e. with mu- followed insep. by 
proper form of amba, to obey, 
mind, observe, heed, hearken 
to, be obedient to, § 465. 

neg. of e. with mu- followed insep, 
by proper form of amba, to 
disobey, be disobedient, be 
heedless, be obstinant, be neg- 
lectful, be negligent. 
Ensela, vt., to do for, treat (well 
Of ill). 

e. blbl, to injure, harm, perse- 
cute, do wrong to. 

e. mudimu, to serve, work for. 
Ensexa, vt., to help to do, assist, 
aid, reUeve, succor, urge on, 
hurry or hasten one in doing. 
// the idea of haste is understood 
use also the words lubllu or 
e. mudimu, to serve, work for. 
Note that the idea of helping is 
generally expressed by the Cat^ 
sative Form of the verb. 



Etu, poss. pro.y our, ours. §§ 133, 


Eya, vi.y to rest, be at ease, repose. 

Eyakana, vi.y to breathe rapidly, 

Eyeka, vt., to leave in pawn, pawn, 
pledge, to leave as guarantee 
or pledge or security or surety. 

Eyeka, vt.^ to lean something 
against, to incline or slant 
against, to set against. 

Eyela, vi., to breathe, inhale, re- 
spire, draw the breath. 

Eyema, vi.y to lean against, incline 
against, slant against. 
Sometimes pronounced eyama. 

Eyemexa, vt.j to lean against, in- 
cline against, slant against. 
Sometimes pronounced eyamexa. 

Eyo, interjec., see § 437 (c). 

Febluale, «.(Eng.), February. 

Fiekela, vL, to squeeze, press. 
f. nxlngu, to choke, throttle, 

Fika, vi.t to arrive, come to, ex- 
tend to, reach. 
f. ha buihi, to draw near to, 

Fika, vi., to be or become black or 
blue or dark or green or soiled 
or dirty. 

Fike, adj. (p. p. of fika, to be black), 
black, blue, green, unclean, 
dirty, soiled, filthy. 

Fiklxa, vt., to blacken, darken, de- 
file, soil. 
f. munda, to annoy, aggravate, 
displease, anger, worry, en- 
rage, exasperate, irritate, pro- 
voke, tease, tantalize, torment, 
trouble, vex. 

Flkuluka, w., to become green or 
blue or any color approaching 

Flkuluke, adj.{p.p, of flkuluka), 
green, blue, any color ap- 
proaching black. 

Fila, vt.j to accompany, go along 
with, attend, bring one on the 
way, come with, conduct, 

Flla, vt.f to pay over to. 

Fimba, vL, to make or form or 
shape (as pots, jars, pottery). 
Sometimes pronounced f uimba. 

Flna, vt., to throw down in wrest- 

Flnangana, v., to wrestle. 

Flnda, vi.f to be cloudy, threaten 
rain, lower. 

Flnga, vt.y to cover a house, put 
on roof, thatch. 

Fingaluka, vi.^ to dissolve, melt, 

Finuka, vi.f to fall or slip acci- 
dentally or unintentionally, 
escape (as animal when held 
with the hands), come untied, 
slip loose, come undone or un- 

Finuklla, vi., the accidental or un- 
intentional discharge of a gun, 
go oflf accidentally. 

Flnuna, vt.y to untie or undo (as a 
bow knot), unfasten, unloose. 

Finya, vt., to stuff. 

Fita, vt.y to scratch, make a 

Fofa, vi.y to he or become blind. 

Fua, vi.y to die, perish, expire, be 
broken, be unconscious, be 
insensible, be senseless. 
f. with clfuldlxe or cihuka, to 
be insensible, be unconscious, 
faint, swoon, be stunned, be 
stupefied, smother. 
f. with cls^ke or tungulungu or 
nkoyi, to have convulsion or 
spasm or fit, convulse, faint, 
be insensible or unconscious 
from convulsion, etc. The 
word nkoyl is used only of 
t. menu, to be dull (as knife). 
f. mu ml, to drown. 
f. mutanta, to be cracked. 



Fua (continued), 
t. ns&la, to be starved, be fam- 
ished, be faint from hunger. 
f. with dlbftka as subj,, to be 
divorced, lit,, the marriage is 
pres. habitual tense or second 
pres. actual of f., to be mortal. 
neg, of above tenses^ to be im- 

Fuana, vi., to be like, correspond 
to, be the same, be of same 
kind or sort or quality or 
character or species or variety, 
be similar, be a mate or 
match, resemble, be equal, 
look like, deserve, merit. 
^' o) '•> to differ, vary, be un- 
like, be different, be unequal, 
be uneven, be divers, be di- 

Fuanangana, vi.^ to agree, be the 
same, be alike, conform to, 
correspond to, be suitable, be 
adapted to, suit, fit, be mates, 
match, resemble, be similar, be 
equsd, be even, be proper, be 
right, be the same kind or 
sort or quality or character or 
species or variety, be enough 
or adequate or su^cient, suffice. 

, neg. of f., to differ, vary, be un- 
like, be dissimilar, be (Ufferent, 
be divers or diverse, be un- 
equal, be uneven, be unsuit- 
able, be inadequate or insuffi- 
Note that t. has chiefly the idea 
of likeness or similarity, while 
akanangana has preferably 
the idea of fitness or adapta- 
bility. The same holds good 
with reference to fuana and 

Fuanyikixa, vt.y to make sdike or 
even or equal or like or the 
same or similar, make to agree 
or to fit Of to suit, match, 
adapt to. 

Fuata, vi.f to shrink, shrivel up. 

Fuba, 7;i., to dry up, wither, wilt, 
shrivel up, decrease or dimin- 
ish or reduce in size (as swell- 

Fublxa, v/., to wither, wilt, dry up. 

Fuella, vt.y to atone for, pay for. 
f. dlbansa, to make atonement 

Fudlka, v., used wUh mp&la, 
meaning to frown, scowl, knit 
the brows. 

Fae, adj.{p.p. of faa, to die), dead. 

Fae, adv.f slowly, sluggishly, lazily. 
This word is generally re- 

Falla, vt.y to die for as substitute, 

Fuima, vi,,usedwithxavAniAj mean- 
ing to smokeas( burning wood). 

Fuka, vt,, to create, form, make, 
shape, invent. 
f. kabldl, to regenerate. 

Fala, vt.y to forge, form or shape 
or make by hammering iron, 
beat out iron. 

FAla, vt,f to degrade, discharge, 
depose, exclude, expel, turn off 
or dismiss from employ, send 
away, subtract. 
Some say fula. 

Fulama, vi.y to contract, draw up 
(as cloth when washed). 

Falaluka, vi.^ to rise or arise (as 
from the dead), come to (after 
fainting, etc.), be resuscitated or 
revived after unconsciousness. 

Fululula, vt,y to resurrect, raise to 
life, bring to, revive or resus 
citate (after fainting). 

Fumia, vi., to come from, hail from. 

Fuma, vt., to sew. 

Fumba, vt.y to make or form or 
shape (as pots, jars, pottery). 

Funda, vt., to write, print, mark. 
Iblklxa kuf unda muntu, to draw 
a picture of a person. 

Fundllangana, v., to correspond 
with or write to one another. 

Funga, v., to miss fire (gun), not 
go off. 



Funkuna, vL^ to point at with 
finger, indicate, show, root 
(as pig). 

Funylna, v/., to threaten, menace. 

Futa, vt.y to pay, remunerate, re- 
ward, recompense, compen- 
sate, pay a forfeit, settle a 
debt, bribe, expend. 

Ha-, insep, sub, conj,, after, when, 
as soon as, as, while, directly, 
tiU, until. § 458- 
Ha, loc. prep.f on, down on, off 
from, upon. § 424 (3). 

ha bu- (joined insep, with poss. 
pro., § 186), of its kind, by 
one's self, alone, of one kind 
... of another kind. 

ha mutu ha, on top of, above, 
over, overhead. 

Compare with mu, kn, mua, kua. 
Ha, v/., to give, grant, ofifer, be- 
stow, present with, render to. 

h. buhianyl, to bequeath, endow, 
leave for heir. 

h. lungenyi or mexl, to advise, 

h. luse, to pity, to take pity on, 
to show mercy or favor or 
compassion to, be gracious to, 
be sorry for, sympathize with, 
care for. 

h. mudimu, to hire, engage, em- 
ploy, give work. 

h. muoyo, to give compliments 
or regards or respects or salu- 
tation or greeting, greet, salute, 
hail, thank, be thankful to, 
be grateful to, say farewell or 
adieu or good-bye. 

h. followed by name of office, to 
appoint, give an office to, make, 
confer office on, elect, enslave; 
as, bakuinuha bukelenge, 
they made him chief. 

The in fin. kuha means gift, 
offering, present. 

Haciacla, adv.{from v. cla), very 
early in the morning, at dawn, 
daybreak, soon. 

Hadlxa, vt,, to make drunk, intoxi- 
cate. Maluvu is understood. 

Haha, adv., there, far away, far, 
yonder, remote, distant,Wience, 
thither, beyond. § 163, Note 3. 

Hahala, v., to flap (as bird its 
wings in flying). 

Hakaabo, adv., elsewhere, some- 
where else. § 370. 

Hakula, vt., to cut, castrate. 

Hala, vi., to get or become or fp or 
be crazy or deranged or insane, 
be demented, be foolish, be 
mad, be wild, be reckless, be 
vicious, be violent, be thought- 
h. maluvu, to be drunk or in- 

H&la, vt., to refuse to give to, be 
selfish or stingy toward. 

Halumuka, vi., to slip accidentally 
or unintentionally. 

Hale, adv., see kule. § 372. 

Hale, adj.{p.p. of hala, to be 
crazy), crazy, deranged, de- 
mented, foolish, mad, in- 
sane, wild, reckless, thought- 
less, vicious, violent. 

Haluka, vi., to have a convulsion or 
fit or spasm, convulse. 

Hambuka, W., to be lost, not know 
the way, go astray, stray, be 
confused Of bewildered or make 
a mistake about the path. 

Hambuxa, vl., to lead astray, mis- 
guide, mislead. 

Hamue, adv.{li& insep. with mue, 
one), in or on Of at the same 
place, one place. § 79. 

Hana, vt., to sell, barter. 

Hanaha, adv., here (on), hence, 
hither. § 163, Note 2. 

Handa, vL, to split, cut open, 
cleave, part (as hair), open (as 
eyes), tear, rend, saw length- 
wise, rip, slice, break into (as 
thief into house). 



Handa {continued). 

h. mutanta, to crack (as bottle, 

Handa, vi., to come to life or con- 
sciousness, be saved. 

Handakanya, vt., to split up, cut 
up, tear to pieces, demolish 
(as house). 

Handalala, vi., to scream (as one 
in terror), squall, yell, shriek. 

Handlka, vi., to be broken, be rent 
or torn, split, burst. 
h. mueima, to be excited, be 
frightened, be terrified, be 
horrified, be terrorized, be 
scared, be shocked, be anxious, 
h. mutanta, to be cracked. 
mukonomuhandlke, cloven foot. 

Handlxa, vt., to split, burst. 
h. muclma, to frighten, horrify, 
alarm, scare, shock, terrify, 

Handlxa, vt., to deliver, defend, res- 
cue, save, succor, mediate in be- 
half of, cause to come to life or 
to consciousness after sickness. 

Handuka, vi.y to escape (as from 
captivity or from danger), get 
away, be safe, be saved, be 

Handuluka, vi.y to branch out, 
separate, divide, part, diverge. 

Handulula, v/., to cause to branch 
into parts, divide, separate, 

Hanga, adv., elsewhere, somewhere 
else. § 370. 

Hanga, v., to attempt or make an 
efiFort or try or endeavor or 
strive and then fail, break 
down, be exhausted, be weak, 
be fatigued, be tired, be faint, 
be weary, be worn out, fag, 
miss aim (gun), forget a per- 
son, make a mistake in count- 
ing, omit, overlook, not recog- 
nize or know a person^ give up, 
succumb, yield, surrender, try 
in vain. 

Hanga {continued). 

neg. oj h., not to give up, perse- 
vere, be persistent, be importu- 
nate, be resolute, continue. 

Hanglxa, vt., to make tired, fatigue, 
break down, tire, weaken, wear 
h. muclma, to dishearten, dis- 

Hanglxangana, vt.^ to puzzle (with 
enigmas) . 

HankAcl, loc. adv. or prep., among, 
in among, the middle, between, 
half-way, center, midst. § 423 

(2) (6). 
dlba dla h., noon, midday. 
h. ha dlulu, the zenith. 
kosa or kala followed by h., to 

cut half in two. 
When used as a prep, it is followed 

by ha. § 423 (3). 
Hantu, loc. adv., see kuntu. 
Hanxl, loc. adv., down on the 

ground, downward. § 423 (2) 

h. ha, at the bottom of, down on ; 
sometimes has the sense of floor 
(w bottom. §423(3)- 

Hanyl, loc. interrog. adv., where? 
whither ? whence ? § 381. 
dlba hanyl? what time? what 
hour? when? what o'clock? 

Hansa, vt., to borrow (with the in- 
tention of returning the exact 
Contrast with somba. 

Hanslxa, vt., to lend or loan or let 
out (with the idea of returning 
exact article). 

H&ta, vi., used with dl(5) as subj. 
meaning to be hoarse. 

Hatuhu, indeclinable word, free, 
for nothing, gratuitously, with- 
out cause, worthlessness, zero, 
-a h., inferior, of no account, 
worthless, conmion, of no con- 
sequence, mean of birth, uh- 
important, of no use, useless. 
This word is derived from the 
adj. tuhu, empty, blank. 



H&tuka, vi.y to get out, go or come 
forth or out, pass out, protrude, 
stick out, emerge, issue, rise or 
arise (as sun), be dislocated, 
vacate, withdraw, evacuate, 
shed (as tear, feather, hair). 
h. wiih clsululu or luanga, to 

perspire, sweat. 
kutu dlba dlah&tuka or kutu 
kuah&tuka dlba, east, i.e., 
where the sun rises. 

H&tula, vt.y to cast out, drive out, 
turn out, eject, chase out, put 
out, expel, bring out, exclude, 
thrust out, take out, unload, 
discharge, excommunicate. 

Hauka, vi., to become unfastened. 

Haula, vt.y to lay waste, wreck, 
desolate, destroy, loot, pillage, 
plunder, despoil, devastate, 
ravage, rob, sack, spoil, un- 
bolt, undo, unfasten. 

Haxlxe, loc. adv. {made up of loc. 
and V. xlxa, to be last), after, 
behind, at the rear, 
-a h., the one behind, the one 
last, hindermost. 

Haylka, vt.y to put on, place on. 

Heha, v., to fan. 

Hehela, vi.y to become light in 

Hehele, adj. {p. p. of hehela), light 
in weight. 
-a ludlml luhehele, smart, one 

who answers quickly. 
ludlml luhehele, smartness. 

Hehexa, vt.y to lighten in weight. 

Hehl, loc. adv. and prep, (combina- 
tion of ha and adj. Ihl, short), 
near to, close to, beside, by. 

o S 7?- 

Somettmes pronounced hlhl. 

Hehuka, vi.y to flap about or be 
blown about in the wind, 
sway, swing, vibrate, wave to 
and fro, shake about, oscil- 

Hehula, vt.y to blow away, winnow, 
fan, shake about by wind. 

Hela, vt.y to crush or grind or mash 
or pound or rub between two 
stones, iron (clothes). 

Hele, adj.y poor, needy, destitute, 
in need or want. 

Helexa, vt.y to impoverish. 

Hemba, v., to blow the nose, 

Henda, vt.y to abuse, curse, insult, 
offend, revile, swear at, mal- 
treat, ill-treat. 

Henga, vt.y to part (as the hair). 

Henguluka, vi.y to be crooked, be 
bent, be curved, be zigzag. 

Henguluxa, vt.y to bend, curve, 
make zgzag. 

Henya, vi.y to lighten, flash Used 
only of lightning. 

Heta, vt.y to overtake, come up 
with, reach to. 

Hetela, vt., to hand to, pass to, 
offer to one (as the hand), give 
or reach something to one. 

Hetexa, see hetela. 

Heulu, he. adv. {formed with ha 
and the insep. ulu), above, 
over, on high, upon, up over- 
head, up. § 364. 

Heya, vt.y to scrape, scour, scrub, 
rub, shave off. 

Hla, vi.y to be burnt, be consumed, 
be fired, be wanned, be hot, be 
heated, be afire, be scalded( ?). 

Hla, vi.y to be ripe. 

Hla-hla, adj.y new, fresh, green, 
strange. § 76. 

Hlakana, vi.y to burn, smart, ache, 
hurt, pain. 

Hlana, vt.y to inherit, be heir to. 

Hlclxa, vt.y to permit one to pass, 
to throw over or through or past 

Hldla,?;^, to abandon, abstain from, 
decline, discard, deny, dis- 
approve of, disobey, rebel 
against, revolt, forbid, forsake, 
renounce, scorn, spurn, ex- 
clude, keep from, neglect, dis- 
own, dissent, object, prohibit, 
refuse, reject, repudiate, resist, 
restrain, be unwilling, will not, 
oppose, withstand, prevent. 



Hldla (continued). 

The past tense, with following 
infin.y means would not. 

Hie, adj. (p. p. of hia, to be ripe), ripe. 

Hlklla, vt., to put up anything, as 
a bet or wager. 

Hlkula, vt., to redeem or deliver 
from slavery, liberate, set at 
liberty, free, give freedom, 
ransom, emancipate, take out 
of pawn. 

Hlla, v., to be guilty, be convicted, 
be in the wrong, be culpable, 
be condemned, lose a bet. 

Hlluka, vi., to turn a summersault. 

Hlngakana, vt., to change, ex- 
change, trade. 

Hlngakanya, vt., to change, ex- 
change, trade. 

Hingak^lxa, 74., see hlngakanya. 

Hingana, vi., to go or come back, 
turn back, return, retire. 

Hinglla, vi., to return, go or come 
back, retire, turn back. 

Hlngixa, vt., to bring back, send 
back, fetch or take back, re- 
turn, recall, restore. 

Hlniniluka, vi., to come or go 
back, turn back, return. 

Hlngaxa, vt., see hinglxa. 

Hlta, v., to pass on ahead of or by, 
go on before, come or go past, 
be beyond, be first, go over or 
through or by, surpass, exceed. 
h. bulmpe, to be better, be su- 
h. with bukftle or ngulu, to beat, 
excel, conquer, win, defeat, 
overcome, master, overthrow, 
prevail, quell, repulse, subdue, 
subject, subjugate, vanquish, 
be victorious. 
In Comparative construction, 
there is often the idea of very, 
too, excessively, exceedingly, 
extremely, farther, too much 
for, more, most, quite, so. 
In the Comparative Degree with 
this verb we have the construc- 
tion for the Eng. than. § 89. 

Hlta (continued). 

When used with proper adj. or 
verb this word expresses the 
idea of infinite. 

Hixa, vt., to condemn, convict, 
judge or pronounce guilty, 
judge to be in the wrong. 

Hlxa, vt., to heat, warm, make hot, 
bum, scald( ?). 

Hodla, vi., to wink. 

Hohamue, loc. adv., in or on the 
same place, together. § 96, 
Rem. 2. 

Hohela, vt,, to drive a nail, fasten 
with a nail, hammer. 

Hoho, loc. adv., there, thence, 
thither, yonder. § 1 63, Note 4 . 
Some say hoha. 

Hohoka, vt., to cast or shed (as 

Hola, adv., calmly, quietly, peace- 
fully, silently, in silence, 
dl h., to be peaceful, be at peace, 
be quiet, be settled, be calm, 
be silent, be still, be tran- 

Hola, vi., to be calm, be at peace, 
be peaceful, be gentle, be 
quiet, be settled, be silent, be 
still, be tranquil, be cold, be 
chilly, be cool, be damp, be 
moist, be wet, be soaked, be 
humid, be insipid, be saltless, 
be tasteless, be unseasoned, be 
distasteful, be cured, be healed, 
be well. 
-a muclma muhole, content, 

Holexa, vt., to pacify, make quiet, 
quiet,, quell, hush, still, make 
cold, cool, dampen or wet or 
moisten, quench or slake or 
satisfy or appease thirst, cure 
or heal or restore to health, re- 
lieve or ease pain. 

Hona, vi., to fall, drop down, 
h. mu ml, to fall overboard. 



Hongola, vL, this ward seems to 
mean to disenchant, exorcise, 
bring from under influence of 
witch or wizard. 

Honso, he. adv, {made up of ha 
arid adj, onso, all), anywhere, 
everywhere, somewhere, where 
soever. § 371, Rem. 

Hota, vi.f to be foolish, be stupid, 
be ignorant, be dull, be sense- 
less, be silly, be simple. 

Sote, adj. (p. p. of hota, to be 
stupid), stupid, foolish, igno- 
rant, dull, senseless, silly, 

Hotela, vLj to annoy or anger by 
caressing or fondling, exasper- 
ate, irritate, aggravate, bother. 
Doubtless rubbing or caressing 
is the original meaning. 

Hoteta, vi.y to be soft (as dough). 

Hotete, adj,{p.p. of hoteta, to be 
soft), soft (as dough). 

Hua, vi.y to be silent, keep silence, 
be mute, be quiet, hush, be 
reticent, be speechless. The 
idea is distinctly that of being 
speechless in the face of proved 

Hua, vi.y to be completed, be 
finished, be ready, be prepared, 
be perfect or perfected, be 
consumed or done or out (not 
any more), be exhausted, be 
spent, be expended, be used 
h. muoyo or muoyo as subj, of 
h., to forget, overlook, miss, 
neg. of h., to be incomplete, be 

Hueka, vi.^ to go down or run 
down (as stream), descend, flow 
down, sink, settle (as sedi- 
ment), fall (as price). 

Huekela, vi.y to go down (as water 
sinking), abate, subside. 

Huekexa, vt., to let down, lower 
price or voice, depress, press 
down, shove or push down. 

Huekexa (continued). 

h. dlfutu, to decrease or reduce 

h. muxinga, to beat down the 
price, cheapen, decrease or 
reduce or lower the price. 

Huha, vi.y to blow (as wind or tor- 
nado or tempest or gale). 

Huh&la, vi., to become light in 
weight, decrease or diminish 
or reduce (as swelling). 

Huh&le, adj.ip.p. of huhftla), 
light in weight. 
-a ludimi luhuh&le, smart. 
ludlml luhuh&le, smartness. 

Huh&xa, vt.j to lighten in weight. 

Huhixa, vt., to blow the fire, win- 
now, fan. 

Hulxa, vt.y to complete, finish, ter- 
minate, conclude, have done, 
perfect, bring to an end. 
h. miota, to quench or satisfy or 

slake or appease thirst. 
h. muadl, to comfort, console, 
soothe, cause to stop crying. 

HIkka, vt., to make a charm or 
medicine or fetish or idol or 
image (to be used as fetish). 

Huluka, vi.f to scale off, come off. 

Hulula, vt., to scrape off, scale 
off, pull off, draw off, scour 
off, scrub off, rub off, shave off, 
wipe off. 

Hulumuka, vi.y to slide, slip. 

Hulumuna, vt.y to drag, draw, 
stretch, pull, trail. 

Huma, vi.y to groan or grunt in 
pain, moan. 

Humba, vi., to fail to do, be de- 
tained, be interrupted, be dis- 
appointed, be hindered, be 
frustrated, be thwarted, be 
bothered, be constrained, de- 
lay, procrastinate. Uuendu 
luakuhumba, the going has 
been interrupted. 

Humbakana, vi.y to be stupid, be 
listless, be foolish, be inatten- 
tive, be indifferent, act fool- 
ishly or stupidly, hesitate. 



Humbakana {continued). 

vacillate, be fickle, be uncer- 
tain about, falter, be thought- 
less, be careless, be umninaiul. 

Humbakane, adj. {p. p. of humba- 
kana), stupid, foolish, list- 
less, inattentive, indifferent, 
thoughtless, careless, unmind- 

Humbak^lxa, vt., to interfere with, 
interrupt, bother, stunt in 
growth, prevent, prohibit, re- 
strain, constrain, hinder, de- 
tain, deter, be listless or in- 
attentive or indifferent toward. 

Humblxa, v.y to be disappointed, 
fail to do as anticipated or 
arranged, to disturb or inter- 
rupt one's plan or purpose, 
bother, hinder, delay, prevent, 
prohibit, interfere with, de- 
tain, miss, omit, persuade or 
induce from doing, frustrate, 
postpone, put off, restrain, 
stop or stay one from doing, 
deter, dissuade, retard, impede, 
withhold, thwart, constrain, 
fool, or joke with. 

Humpama, vi.f to mope. 

Humuka, vi.^ to spill, run over, 
overflow (as water in jar). 

Humuna, vLj to pour out, empty; 
hence to sigh, i.e., pour out the 

Hunga, vt.f to jest with, joke, tease, 
have fun with. 

Hunga, vi.y to be even, be level. 
h. di(5), to make an agreement 
or covenant or contract. 

Hungakana, vi.y to be even, be 
level, agree after consultation. 
Cf. kungakana. 

Hungakana, vi.j to be listless, be 
inattentive, be indifferent, be 

Fungakfixa, v/., to make even or 
h. dl(5), to agree. Cf. kunga- 

Hungak<lxa, v/., to be inattentive 

or listless or indifferent toward. 
Hunguluxa, vt.y to conclude, de- 
cide, determine, agree, resolve. 
The word dl(5) is generally 

understood as ohj. 
Huola, vt.y to gather or pull or pick 

or pluck (as com, fruit, etc.), 

harvest, reap, pull out or 

knock out (as tooth). 
Huta, vt.y to draw, drag, stretch, 

trail, pull; hence to snuff (as 

tobacco), suck up. 
h. muhuya, to draw the breath, 

Huxa, vt.y to blow the fire, winnow, 

May he spelled huja. 
Huxa, vt.{Causative of hua, to be 

silent), to hush up, cause to be 

silent, quiet, quell. 
Huya, vi.y used in the ph. h. mun- 

da meaning to run off at the 

bowels, have diarrhoea. 
Huyakana, vi.y to pant, breathe 

or respire quickly, blow the 

breath quickly. 

I, v.y neg. auxiliaryy not to be. 
See § 225. 

Iba, vt.y to steal, cheat, defraud, 
rob, be dishoonest, be unjust. 
neg. of 1, to be honest, be just. 

Ibldi, card, and ord. num., two, 
second. §§ 97, 99. 

Ibldlla, vi.y Xohe or get or become 
assustomed to, be experienced, 
be familiar with, be habituated, 
be hardened to, be used to, 
leam by experience. 

Ibidlla, vi.y to be impertinent, be 
saucy, be impudent, be inso- 
lent, be immodest or shameless 
(saucy), be spoiled, be arro- 
gant, be audacious. 

Ibldlxa, vt.y to habituate, accustom, 
train, familiarize, harden to. 



Ibldixa {continued). 

i. bualu bubl, to lead astray, 
entice, allure, tempt, corrupt, 
lure, seduce, spoil, teach bad 

lb Aka, vLf to build, construct, erect, 
make a house. 

Iclklla, vi., to capsize, overflow, 
run over, spill out. 

Iclklxa, v/., to pour out, capsize, 
empty, spill out. 

Idika, vL, to name, call, give a 

Idlklxa, v/., to try, test, attempt, 
strive, make an efifort or trial, 
endeavor, compare, illustrate, 
liken, take aim, aim (gun), 
measure, take dimension, emu- 
late, copy, imitate, mimic, 
mock, examine. 
dl(5) as subj. of 1., to echo. 
i. bujitu, to weigh. 
1. kuf unda muntu, to draw pic- 
ture of a person. 
i. lubllu, to run a race. 

Ih&ta, vt.y to drive away, chase 
away, put to flight, beat away, 
pursue, rout. 

Ihl, adj.y short, low, shallow. 
matuku mihl, a few days, a 

short time. 
i. combined insep. with the loca- 
atives, gives muihl, kuihl, 
hehl(hlhl), near, close to. 
§ 376. 

Ihlha, vi., to be short, shrink in 

Ihlhlxa, vt.y to shorten, abbreviate, 
contract, lessen, make less, 

Ihlka, vt.f to cook. 

Ihlla, vt.j to hoe, cultivate, till, cut 
out or dig out weeds (from 
corn or other crops). 

Ika, vi., to bear, bring forth, 3rield, 
produce. Used only of cas- 
sava, potatoes, peanuts, and 
other ground products. 
Contrast with kuama. 

Ika, vUf to come down or descend 
(from a tree), step down, get 

Ik&la, vi., to be, exist, abide, dwell, 

Uve, remain, reside, continue, 

sojourn, stay or stop at, subsist. 

i. mu, to inhabit. 

The infin. kuik&la is suggested 

for state, condition, existence. 

Ikila, vi,, to perch. 

Ikixa, vi., to rest, be at ease, repose. 

Iklkxa, adj., true, real. 
ena 1., to be untrue. 

Ila, vi., used with butuku as subj., 
meaning to grow dark, the 
night is coming. 

Imftxa, vt., to cast or throw away 
as useless. 

Imba, vt., to beat a drum, play or 
perform on any musical instru- 
ment, sing a song. 
1. with mudua or mubanse, to 
blow bellows. 

Imba, vt., to dig, excavate, make a 
hole in the ground, plow, bur- 

Imlelxa, vt., to cause to conceive, 
cause to be with child, beget, 
generate, impregnate, cause to 
be pregnant, fructify, breed, 

Imina, vt., to decline or refuse to 
give something to one, deny 
one something, be selfish or 
stingy toward. 

Imita, v., to conceive, be with child, 
be pregnant. 
This word is generally foUowed by 
dlfu or diml. 

Impe, adj., beautiful, pretty, lovely, 
fine, good, pure, chaste, guilt- 
less, virtuous, elegant, excel- 
lent, worthy, fair or handsome, 
fair or just or honest, correct, 
fit, suitable, right, kind, hu- 
mane, noble, holy, perfect, 
righteous, upright, lawful, rich 
or fertile or productive (soil). 
with neg. verb: unjust, unkind, 
unholy, wrong, not right. 



ImOna, vi,, to stand erect or up- 
right, be perpendicular, wait, 
halt, stop, be on end, stand on 
L mu malonso, to stand in line 
or row. 

Imflnangana, vi,, to be side by 
side, be or stand close together. 

ImOnylka, v/., to make to stand 
erect or upright, stand on end, 
set up, make perpendicular. 
L hamue, to put side by side. 

Ina, v/.. to put the cassava root to 
soak prior to drying, immerse, 
dip or sink in water. 

Indlla, vt., to wait for, tarry for, 

Ine, adj.ialways preceded by ne), 
alone, sole, solitary, by one's 
self, only, self. § 80. 

Ingelexi, n., used in ph, muena I. 
meamn^ Englishman. Usedoj 
all English-speaking people. 

Inl, card, and ord. num., four, 
fourth. §§ 97, 99. 

Jntkma, vi., to stoop, bow down, 
crouch, incline, lean, bend. 

Inxlla, vt., to close or shut the door. 

Inya, vt., to tie, bend. 

Inyi? interrog.y adv. or conj,, or. 
§ 434. 1 1 sometimes has the 
jorce of or not. 

Inyl pass, pro., my, mine. §§ 133, 


Inyika, vt., to name, give a name 
to, call. 

Inyika, vt., to cause to incline. 

_ 1. mutu, to bow the head. 

Inyika, vt., to dry (as meat before 
a fire on a spit), cook, roast, 

Inylxa, vt., to sink in, immerse. 

Inylxa, vt., to love, prefer, want, 
wish, desire, fancy, fain, Uke. 
Sometimes there is a secondary 
meaning to praise, adore, 
glorify, bless, compliment, 
commend, esteem, be grateful 
to, exalt, extol, worship, invoke, 
be thankful to, thank. 

Inylxa (conUnued). 
i^g' of '•> to despise, hate, detest, 

Note the imperative forms inyi- 
xaku(^n^.) and Inyixl(^/.), 
used only in salutation. 

Inylxaku, v.(sing. imperative from 
Inylxa, to esteem), used in sal- 
utation or greeting, also in ex- 
pressing adieu or farewell or 
good-bye. §237 (a). 5«« salu- 

Inyixl, v.(pl. imperative from 
Inylxa, to esteem), used in 
salutation or greeting, also in 
expressing adieu or farewell or 

Isambombo, card, and ord. num., 
six, sixth. §§ 97, 99. 

Is&tu, card, and ord. num., three, 

tlurd- §S 97, 99- 

Islta, n.(£ng.), east. Regarded as 
belonging to class III. 

Ita, vt., to row, paddle, pull an oar. 

Itaba, v., to answer or reply or 
respond when called. 

Itabuxa, vt., to accept, agree to, 
acquiesce, accede to, approve, 
believe, concede to, consent, 
receive, be satisfied with, be 
willing, make profession of; 
confess, profess. 
1. mu dl(5), to obey, be obedient 
to, heed, hearken, observe the 
word of. 
neg. of 1., to disobey, be dis- 
obedient, be heedless, be ob- 
stinant, be stubborn, be neg- 
lectful, be negligent, be un- 
The infin. is used as noun to 
express the idea of faith, be- 
lief, trust. 
May also be speUed Itablja. 

Itabuxlxa, vt., to convince, per- 
suade, induce, influence. 

Itanu, card, and ord. num., five, 

. fifth. §§ 97, 99. 

Ixa, v., see salutation. 

Ixaku, v., see Ixa and salutation. 



lya, vi.y to learn, study. 

lyila, v., see iya, 

lyixa, vL, to teach, educate, ex- 
plain to, inform, instruct, 
train, discipline. 
i. bualu bubi, to lead astray, 
entice, lure, allure, tempt, 
seduce, spoil. 


Jadlka, vf., to stand up erect or 
upright, make perpendicular, 
make level, straighten (make 
to stand straight). 

Jalama, vi.y to stand erect or up- 
right, be perpendicular, be 
level, stand up straight; used 
with diba as subj. meaning to 
be noon, be midday. 

Jalamixa, vt.y to make perpen- 
dicular or upright. 

Jam, n.(Eng.), jam. Regarded as 
class III. 

Jama, vi.y to be immovable, be 
steady or steadfast, be fixed, 
be firm or solid, stand firm or 
steady, be strong, be mired up, 
bs fast stuck in (as mud). 

Jamlxa, vt.y to stick fast in, make 
steady or firm. 

JaniMtle, n.(Eng.), January. Re- 
garded as class III. 

Jeka, vi.y to crawl (as child), 
creep; the primary meaning of 
this word is to twist, squirm, 

Jekexa, vt.y to twist, to screw, to 
turn around. 

Jidlka, vt.y used with cijila mean- 
ing to forbid the use of, taboo, 
interdict, prohibit, make un- 
lawful, wean. 
Note that Jlla has reference to a 
person abstaining from or 
tabooing something, while Ji- 
dlka has reference to a person 
who thus tabooes something 

Jndlka (continued). 

for some one else. In both 
words there is a superstitious 
May also be spelled xldlka. 

Jlka, vt.y to bury, inter. 

J. clfuidlxe, to smother, stifle, 

Jlkuka, vi.y to explode, blow out 
(as stopper from bottle). 

Jlkula, vt.y to cause to explode. 

Jila, vt.y to abstain from, fast, keep 
from, sanctify, ordain, conse- 
crate, interdict, forbid, taboo, 
See note under Jldika. 
May also be spelled xlla. 

Jima, vt.y to blow out, extinguish, put 
out, quench, erase, eradicate, 
rub out, blot out, cancel, scratch 
out, wipe out, go out (as fire). 

Jlmlna, vi.y to be lost, disappear, 

vanish, pass out of view. 

Sometimes pronounced xlmina. 

Jimlxa, vt.y to erase, eradicate, blot 
out, lose, cancel, rub out, 
scratch out, wipe out. 
J. mala mabl, to forgive, pardon, 

absolve, excuse. 
Sometimes pronounced xlmlxa. 

Jinga, vt.y to grieve for, sorrow for, 
bemoan, bewail, mourn for, 
weep for, cry for. 

Jinga, vt.y see JlngUa. 

Jingakana, vi.y to be tangled. 

Jlngaklkxa, vt.y to tangle. 

JlngUa, vt.y to encircle, surround, 
enclose, inclose, entangle, en- 
twine, bind up, wrap around, 
gird up, coil, roll into a string, 
twist, twine around, wind 

Jlnguluka, vi.y to become un- 
tangled, be unfastened, be un- 
wrapped, be unraveled, unroll, 

Jlngulula, vt.y to disentangle, ex- 
tricate, unbind, undo, un- 
fasten, unroll, unravel, un- 
tangle, unwind, unwrap. 



Jlsus, I, n.f Jesus. 
Jixa, vL, to wag (tail). 

May also be spelled zixa. 
Jongoloka, vi., to squiim, wriggle, 

crawl (as snake). 
Juka, vi., to ^t up from sitting 

position, nse, arise, stand up. 
See bika. 
Juia, vt.y to lift up, raise up, take 

up, elevate, cut up or dig up 

or tear up or pull up or grub 

up by the roots. 
Jull, n.(Eng.), July. Class III. 
Junyl, ».(£ng.), June. Class III. 

Ka, demonstrative particle^ here it is, 
there it is. Generally insep, 

Ka, adv.y therefore, consequently, 
for this reason, hence, so, then, 
wherefore. § 419. 

Kaba, 8, n.{dimin. of muaba, 
place), used with v. amba and 
any adj. meaning small to 
express the idea of almost, 

Kababu, 8, ft., goUath-beetle. 

Kabalabala, 8, n., used in the ph. 
k. ka mutu, ^uU. 

Kabftlu, 8. n.(from Portuguese), 
horse, ass, donkey. 

Kabanda, 8, n., iron ore. 

Kabansa, 8, «., pumpkin. 

Kabendl, 8, n., spear, lance. 

Kabldi, adv.y again, next time, 
also, beside. Really means 
second time. §95 (i), Rem. i. 

Kabuasa, 8, n., jigger. 
kaxlnsi ka k., pin. 

Kabuluku, 8, n., a species of ante- 

Kabululu, 8, n., gall. 

Kacecl, 8, n., menses. 
mana(mona) k., to menstruate, 
be at the menstrual period. 

Kaclla, v., to sneeze. 

Kadi, conj,y but. 

Kadi, vi.f to be, be about to. 
An auxiliary used in the 
formation of Future Imminent 
and Present Imminent tenses, 
§§ 218, etc. 
k. ne, to have, own, possess. 
Sometimes pronounced tadl. 
Kadlbu, 8, n., small European bell 

with rattles. 
Kadllu, 8, ft., fire. 

See kahla. 
Kafl, ft.(Eng.), coffee. Class III 

or VIII. 
Kafulemene, 8, n.(Buk.), foiget- 
-a k., forgetful. 

k. as subj. of kuata with pers. 
as obj.f to forget. 
Kahaha, 8, ft., a blue bead. 
Kahambala, 8, ft., pistol. 
Kahambn, 8, ft., bad smell or 
odor or scent, stench, stink, 
nunka k., to emit a stench, stink. 
Kahla, 8, ft., fire, heat or warmth 
of fire, fever, candle, gun- 
-a k., hot. 
ml a k., hot water. 
mubldl udi k., to have fever, 
mucl wa k., a match (lucifer). 
Ota k., to warm one's self by the 

vinsa k., to make fire by friction, 
ignite by friction. 
Kahlta, 8, ft., headman, a West 
Coast carpenter or mason. 
The word comes through the 
Lower Congo from Portuguese, 
Kahombo, 8, ft., ankle bone. 
Kahuluknsu, 8, ft., a small bat. 
Kahumbn, 8, ft., elephant. 
Kakansala, 8, ft., a Jdnd of Euro- 
pean cloth. 
Kakanu, 8, n.{dimin. o/lukanu). 
k. ka ku dlcu, earring. 
k. ka ku munu, finger-ring. 
Kakn, i, ft., grandparent, ancestor, 
progenitor, forefather, patri- 



Kaku {continued), 

k. mukfixl, grandmother. 
k. muluml, grandfather. 
Kakula, 8, »., a stick of camwood. 
Kakula, vL^ to raise up, lift up. 
Kakuluku, 8, »., a small bat. 
Kala, vl.f cut ofif, chop ofif, ampu- 
tate, saw off, sever, shear 
See kosa. 
Kala, v., to scratch (as fowl). 
Kala, 8, n.{pL is tuala), a small 

Killa, vi.y to be strong, be well, be 
vigorous, be arduous, be full- 
grown, be mature, be firm, be 
steady, be stable, be solid, 
develop, grow. 
k. with muxlnsa as subj., to in- 
crease (as price), rise. 
Kalaba, vi., to crawl or creep (as 

Kftle, adj.ip.p. of killa, to be 
strong, etc.), strong, well, 
vigorous, arduous, firm, 
steady, stable, solid, hard, 
immovable, fixed, steadfast, 
powerful, robust, tough (as 
meat), violent, severe, serious 
(matter), fertile or rich or 
productive (soil), loud (voice). 
-a bualu buk&le, sacred, holy. 
-a miubidi muk&le, healthy. 
-a mucima muk&le, brave, fear- 
less, of strong heart, coura- 
geous, daring, bold, valiant, 
stern, impenitent. 
-a muxlnga mukllle, dear, 
costly, expensive, precious, 
mubidi mukille, good health. 
muntu mukille, an adult, grown 
Kale, adv.f long ago, long time ago, 
in old times, remote or distant 
times, long since, once upon a 
-a kale, old, ancient, aged. 
bena k., forefathers. 
Sometimes we hear kalekale. 

Kftlexa, vt., to strengthen, make 
strong or steady or firm or 
hard, fasten, harden, stretch, 
tighten, nourish, bring up, 
rear, provide for, support, re- 
fresh, stimulate. 
k. di, to raise the voice, speak or 

talk louder. 
k. mucima, to console, com- 
fort, solace, cheer, encourage, 
soothe, strengthen one's heart. 
k. muxlnga, to increase price, 
make dear or expensive or 
precious, put up the price. 

Kalexl, 8, »., leaves of the cassava 
beaten and used as greens. 

Kalolo, 8, n., goodness, amiability, 
kindness, attractiveness, obe- 
dience, fairness, justice, hon- 
esty, integrity, faithfulness, 
gentleness, humanity, humil- 
ity, modesty, reverence, trac- 
tableness, meekness, docility, 
deference, civility, decorum, 
politeness, courtesy, 
-a k., good, amiable, kind, 
attractive, obedient, fair, just, 
honest, faithful, gentle, hu- 
mane, humble, modest, rever- 
ent, tractable, meek, docile, 
deferential, decorous, cour- 
teous, polite, civil. 

Kalu, 8, n.(sing. of tulu, sleep), a 

Kaluaci, 8, n., a kind of bead. 

Kalubllubi, 8, n., rapidity, swift- 
ness. Generally with the idea 
of carelessness. 
dl ne k., to do or talk rapidly. 

Kalumbu, 8, n., partridge. 

Kamia, vt.y to squeeze or compress 
or mash or crush or press be- 
tween the hands; hence to 

Kama, vi.., to abate, evaporate, dry 
up, decrease, diminish, sub- 

Kama, v.^ used in the ph. k. ku 
mesu, meaning to distort the 



Kamama, 8, n., a dumb person, a 

Kamata, vt,, to press or push or 
shove down, squeeze together, 
compress, cram. tl^K* , 

Kambele, 8, n., peanut. 

Kambixl, 8, n., cat. 
muaii*a k., Idtten. 

Kambulnkidl, 8, n., small sweat- 

Kamelo, 8, n.(£ng.), camel. 

Kamembele, 8, n., mosquito. 

Kaminyl, 8, »., scorpion.* 
Sometimes pronounced kamiiijri- 

Kamlxa, vt., to absorb, dry. 

Kamoma, 8, n.y kidney. 

Kamoma, 8, n., pill. 

Kamonyl, 8, »., pitch, resin. Used 
in mending pots. 

Kampanda, i, n., a person whose 
name you have forgotten or 
do not know or do not care to 
bother with mentioning. § 353, 

Kamue, 8, n., mosquito. 

Kamiunyiinunyl, 8, n., firefly. 

Kanana, taj., to be immovable or 
fast stuck in, be steadfast, be 
stable, be fixed, be strong, 
stand steady or firm or solid. 

Kanda, v/., to refuse permission, 
forbid, prohibit, restrain, com- 
mand or order not to do, dis- 

Kanda, used as adj. with numerals 
expressing the idea of exact, 
perfect, complete. 

Kandamana, vi., to be immovable 
or fast stuck in, be steadfast, 
be stable, be fixed, be strong, 
stand steady or firm or solid. 

Kandamixa, vt.^ to make steady or 
firm, stick fast in. 

Kandangama, 8, n., a kind of 
European cloth. 

Kandlmba, 8, n., shot used in shell 
of shotgun. 
clngoma cia ^undlmba, shot- 

Kandimba (continued). 
mutelenge wa tundimba, a shell 
for shotgun. 

Kandlndl, 8, n., swallow. 

Kandixa, vt., to wean (child). 

Kandolo, 8, n., a kind of European 

Kaneke, 8, n., a lame or deformed 
or dwarfed or paralyzed or 
undersized person, a paralytic. 
Muena generally precedes this 

Kanene, 8, n., the additional or 
sixth finger. 

Kanga, v/., to roast or parch as 
corn, etc*.; fry. 

Kanga, vi., to growl or snarl (as 

Kangam<lna, vi,, to be rested. 

Kangenene, 8, n., a small red ant 
(troublesome about the house). 

Kangajlngajl, 8, n., pineapple. 
May be spelled kangfixingfixl. 

Kanka, vi., to shake, quake, 
tremble, quiver, shiver, be 
excited, be frightened, be terri- 

Kankenyenkenye, 8, n., firefly. 

Kankixa, vt., to shake, cause to 
tremble or quake. 

Kansanke, 8, n., wrist. 

Kantembele, 8, n., measles. 

Kantengenene, 8, n., the little 
' finger. 

Kantetu, 8, n., dizziness, giddiness, 
dl ne k., to be dizzy, be faint, be 

KanOxa, vt.^ to make steady or 
firm, strengthen, stick fast in. 
Causative of kanana. 

Kanyanzu, 8, »., switch, rod, whip. 

Kanyina, vt.f to wean (child). 

Kanyinganyinga, 8, «., grief, sor- 
row, sadness, melancholy, 
pang, penitence, regret, re- 
pentance, unhappiness, anxi- 
ety, solicitude, distress, re- 
morse, mental agony or suffer- 
ing or anguish. 



Kanyinganyinga (continued), 
dl ne k., to grieve, be melan- 
choly, be sad, be sorrowful, be 
sorry, be unhappy, regret, 
Kanyungunyangu, 8, n., dizzi- 
ness, giddiness, faintness. 
di ne k., to be dizzy, be giddy, 
be faint. 
KapHen, n.{from French or Eng- 
lish), captain of steamer or 
.Perhaps should be spelled kahl- 
Kasamba, 8, n., a small pot or 

Kas^ku, 8, n.{pl. generally used), 
laughter, levity, mirth, de- 
rision, fun, giggling, snigger. 
-a tus^ku, frivolous. 
dl ne tus^ku, to giggle, snigger, 
Kasengulu, 8, n., sieve, sifter. 
Kasombelu, 8, n., interest (on 
something borrowed). 
tentekela k., to pay interest. 
Katamuka, vi.y to be awake, be 

up, be arisen from sleep. 
Katamuxa, vL, to awaken, wake, 

awake from sleep. 

Katataka, adv,, at once, directly, 

immediately, instantly, before 

. long, now, presently, soon, 


Katoto, 8, »., a new-born babe, 

infant, child. 
Kavuku, 8, n., crumb. 
Kaxldl, adv.y always, ceaselessly, 
constantly, continually, end- 
lessly, eternity, ever, forever, 
perpetually, eternally, inces- 
santly, habitually. 
-a k., immortal, eternal, ever- 
with neg. v., never again. 
Kaxlngl, 8, n., needle. 
k. ka kabuasa, pin. 
Kaxola, 8, n., brick. 
muena tuxola, mason. 

Kayabala, vi.y to be stiff, be rigid, 
be inflexible, be unbending. 

Kay6ke, 8, »., dwarf, pygmy. 
See note under pygmy. 

Kazaku, 8, n., coat, dress. 

Kiba, vt.y to hunt for, look for, 
search for, seek. 
k. luoxi, to annoy or tease or 
provoke or incite an animal to 
bite; as, udl uk6ba mbua 
luoxi, he is provoking the dog 
to bite. 
eha, vi,y to decrease or diminish 
or reduce in size or quantity, 
become smaller or less, shrink 

Kehexa, vt.y to shorten, contract, 
abridge, abbreviate, decrease, 
diminish, reduce, cause to be- 
come smaller or less, lessen, be- 
little, abase, degrade, disgrace, 
debase, dishonor, disobey, be 
disrespectful, humble, humili- 

Keja, vt.y to hunt for, look for, 
search for, seek. 

Kelemena, i'^.(Buk.), to agree, be 
alike, be the same, be even, be 
equal, be same kind or quality 
or character or species or 
variety, suit, be adapted to, 
be suitable, be level, be similar, 
be proper, be mate for, match, 
neg. of k., to be unlike, be dis- 
similar, differ, vary. 

Kelemexa, v/.(Buk.), to make even 
or alike, make to fit or suit, 
make level, match, make the 
same or similar or equal or 
like, adapt to, make to agree. 

K^ma, v.y to exclaim in surprise, 
marvel, wonder, be amazed or 
astonished. Generally ex- 
pressed by grunting. 
-a kukfima, miraculous, remark- 
able, extraordinary, wonderful, 
strange, marvelous. 
bualu bua kuk^ma, miracle, 



K^mexa, v/., to astonish, amaze, 

Kenena, vi., to shine brightly or 
give light (as moon when full). 

Kenga, vi., to suffer (as under 

Kensexa, vL, to punish, flog, beat, 
cause to suffer, chastise, chas- 
ten, discipline, persecute, 
annoy, exasperate, irritate, 

Kentorment, torture, afflict, aggra- 

Kenka, vi., to shine or give light 
(as moon). 

Kenya, vi.^ to lighten, flash. 
Spoken only of lightning. 

Kensakana, v., to look about from 
side to side, peer. 

KI 7 inierrog. word^ what ? what kind 

or sort or quality or character ? 

which ? who ? whom ? See §176. 

bualu kl ? why? what for? 

diba kI7 when? what o'clock? 

what hour ? what time ? 
Perhaps may also he spelled kai. 

Kia, inter jec.y what! 
Some say cla. 

Kina, vt.^ to hate, be mean to. 

KIse, adj.y small, little, minute, 
diminutive, fine, thin, narrow, 
scarce, few. 
dl(5) dlklse, high voice or tone. 

Klxa, vt.(Buk.)y to do, make, ac- 
complish, act, commit, effect, 
form, shape, perform, prepare, 
produce, construct. 
See ensa. 

Kobama, vi.j to be crooked, be 
bent, be curved. 

Kobame, adj.(p.p. of kobama, de- 
formed, bent, humpbacked. 

Kobeka, vt.y to bend, curve. 

Kobola, V.J to raise a shout or cry 
of alarm, call to fight by slap- 
ping the hand rapidly over the 
mouth while uttering the cry. 

Koka, vt., to draw, drag, stretch, 
pull, trail, suck up, snuff (as 

Koka {continued), 
k. muhuya, to inhale, draw the 

cintu cikoka kudi tub&lu, sug- 
gested ph. for carriage, wagon, 
Koko, n.(Eng.), cocoa. 
Kola, v.y used with maluva to mean 

to be drunk, be intoxicated. 
Kolus, n.(Eng.), chorus. Regarded 

as class III. 
Komba, vt.y to sweep, brush. 
Kombola, vt., to shell (com). 
Konka, vt.y to ask a question, in- 
quire, examine by questioning, 
interrogate, question, consult, 
demand in sense of asking a 
May also be spelled kaonka. 
Kenya, vt.y to bend, curve, fold. 
Konyansala, vi.y to be crooked, 
be bent, be curved, be zigzag. 
Kosa, vt.y to cut off, chop off, saw 
off, shear off, sever, amputate. 
k. bituha, to cut into pieces. 
k. cici, to close a trade by break- 
ing a stick. 
k. hanktkci, to cut half in two. 
k. mutu, to behead. 
k. nsambu, to settle or decide a 
dispute, pronounce judgment, 
judge between. 
May also be spelled knosa. 
Kosexa, vt.y to stop or stay one 
from doing, deter, detain, 
hinder, impede, interfere with, 
prevent, restrain, withhold, 
thwart, frustrate, interrupt, 
bother, persuade from doing, 
k. with diyoyo or muti&yo or 
muaka or nvita, to quiet, 
quell, hush up, still. 
k. lubila, to talk or do quickly. 
k. muadi, to comfort, console, 
cause to cease crying, pacify, 
Kosola, vi.y to cough. 
Ku, loc. prep.y at, to, unto, direc- 
tion towards, as far as, near to. 



Ku {continue!). 

close to, up to, towards, by, 
beside, around, against, about, 
for (price), from, oflF from. 

§ 424 (2)- 
k. minu, in the hand. 
k . . . to ne k., or k . . . ne 

k., from ... to or till or 
Compare with mu and ha. 

Kua, loc, used as adv., to or as or 
unto the house or village of. 
§ 87 (g) Rem. 

Kuabo, adj., another, some one or 
something else, more, other, a 
part (some), several. 
k . . . k., the one . . . the other, 
some . . . others, several . . . 
k. wUh locatives prefixed insep., 
elsewhere, somewhere else. 

Kuaclka, vi., to be caught. 
k. maluvu, to be or get drunk, 
be intoxicated, be stupefied 
from drink. 

Kuaclla, vt., to hold for. 

k. mudimu, to work for, serve. 

Kuacixa, vt., to help one to hold. 
k. bunda, to make ashamed, 
disgrace, humiliate, mortify, 
cause shame, abase. 
k. cixl, to make angry or indig- 
nant or mad, annoy, displease, 
anger, enrage, exasperate, irri- 
tate, throw into passion, pro- 
voke, worry, tease, sadden, 
tantalize, torment, trouble, 
vex, aggravate. 

Kuakua, loc. adv., far away, far, 
yonder, beyond, remote, dis- 
tant, there, thence, thither. 
§ 163, Note 3. 

Kuama, vt., to bear or yield or 
bring forth or produce fruit. 
Used only of trees or shrubs or 
Contrast with Ika. 

Kuata, vt., to hold, take hold of, 
lay hold of, catch, capture, 

Kuata {continued). 

arrest, grip, restrain, seize, 
grasp, apprehend, use. 

buowa as subj. and pers. as obj. 
of k., to be frightened, be 
scared, be afraid, be timid. 

dlbansa as subj. oj k. and pers, 
as obj., to be in debt, owe. 

k. bulunda, to make friendship 

k. clxl, to be angry, be enraged, 
indignant, be mad, be aggra- 
vated, be raging, be furious, 
be grieved, be melancholy, be 
sad, be sorrowful, be vexed, 
be sorry, be in a passion, be 
provoked, be worried, be an- 
noyed, regret, repent. . 

k. dlmoma, to rust, be rusty, 

k. ha muminu, to choke (as 
food), strangle. 

k. ku, to take by (as the hand). 

k. mudimu, to work, labor, toil. 

k. mu mukanda, to take a pho- 
tograph or picture. 

k. mukflxi ku buk&le, to com- 
mit rape, ravish, do violence 

k. with bundu as subj. and per- 
son as obj., to be ashamed, be 

k. with tulu as subj. and person 
as obj., to be sleepy. 

kafulemene or builu as subj. cf 
k. wUh person as obj., to ior- 

luhlka as subj. oj k. and person 
as obj., to lose a bet. 

maluvu as subj. oj k. and person 
as obj., to be drunk or intoxi- 
cated, make cfrunk, stupefy. 

maxika as subj. of k. and person 
as obj., to be cold, be chilly. 

miota as subj. of k. with person 
as obj., to be thirsty. 
Kuatakana, vi., to adhere, stick 
together, cleave together, be 
close together, be next to, be 
contiguous, be adjacent, touch 



Kuatakana (continued). . 

each other, join, be near to- 
gether, be side by side, con- 
geal, be viscid, coagulate, 
unite, be thick, solidify (as 

Kuatakanya, vt.y see kuatakflxa. 

KaatakCkxa, vL, to put or place 
side by side, unite, join on to, 
stick together, cause to adhere. 

Kaatansana, v., to catch or hold 
each other. 
k. with bulunda or bunyana, to 
form a friendship with one 
k. ku blansa, to clasp each othet 
by the hands, shake hands. 

Kuba, vt.. to wait for, tarry for, 

Kubola, v., see kobola. 

Kudl, prep.y used with agent in 
passive voice constructions 
meaning by. § 202 (a). 

Kudlka, vt.j to hang up. 

Kudlmuka, vi.j to become (differ- 
ent), be changed, be trans- 
figured, be turned over or 
around, be transformed, be 
converted, get (become), turn 
into, turn around. 

Kudimana, vt.y to change, turn 
over or around, convert, invert, 
reverse, transform, transfig- 
ure, turn into. 
k. muaka, to translate, interpret. 
k. with muclma or muoyo, to 
change one's mind, repent. 

Kuetu, loc. adv., at our home or 
village. § 140. 
k. kudi kunyl? where do we 

muena k., our or my. fellow 
citizen or countryman or 
neighbor. § 141, Rem. i. 

Kuha, vt.f to shake, move, wave' 
back and forth. 
k. mutu, to nod dissent. 

Kuhoka, vi., to get free or loose, 
get untied. 
May be spelled kohoka. 

Kubola, vt., to let loose, set free, 
loosen, liberate, give freedom 
or liberty, pull off (as clothes), 
strip off, undress, untie, take 
off, unloose, put off. 
May be spelled kohola. 

Kuhuka, vi., to scale off. 

Kubula, vt., to scale off, shave off, 
wipe off, dust off, clean off by 
rubbing or brushing or scrap- 
ing or scouring or scrubbing, 
dry (with towel). 

Kula, «.(Eng.), choir. 

Kulhl, loc. adv. and prep, {made up 
oj ku and Ihl, short), near to, 
close to, by. § 376. 

Kulnya, v., to scratch (in case of 

Kuka, vi., to come out of handle 
(as hoe or knife). 

Kukala, loc. adv. or prep, {made up 
0} ka and the insep. kala), at 
or on the border, edge, bound- 
ary, beach or shore or bank or 
coast, limit, margin, side. 
§ 423 (2) (&). 
lua k. kua ml, to land, come to 

Kukampanda, loc. adv. {made up 
oj ku and kam panda), to or 
at a place the name of which 
you have forgotten or do not 
know or do not care to mention. 
§ 423 (2) {h). 
Mu or ha may be substituted jor 
ku, according to sense. 

Kuku, ».(Eng.), cook. Regarded 
as belonging to class I. 

Kukuabo, adv., elsewhere, some- 
where else. § 370. 

Kukumina, vi., to stutter, stammer, 
have impediment in speech. 

Kule, loc. adv. {made up of ku and 
adj. le, long), far, far away, 
distant, remote. § 372. 
-a kule, foreign, strange. 
muena k., a foreigner, stranger. 

KCIlu, loc. adv. {made up oj ku and 
the insep. ulu), up, overhead. 



Ktilu (continued). 

OQ high, above, upwards, over. 
§ 423 (2) (6). 
Kulu, adj., old, ancient, aged. 

muanda mukulu, eight. 
Kuluka, vi., to fall, drop down, 

Kuluklxa, v., see kulukjkxa. 
Kulukulu, adj.y old, ancient, aged. 
Kulukjkxa, vi., to be or become old 

or ancient or aged. 
Kulukaxe, adj.{p.p. o/kulukjkxa), 
old, ancient, aged. Generally 
used only of persons. 
Kulumpa, vi.^ to be old, be aged. 
Generally applied only to per- 
Kalampe, adj.(p.p. 0/ kulumpa, to 
be old), old. Generally used 
only of persons. 
Kama, vt.y to beat, pound, strike, 
thrash, chastise, chasten, whip, 
discipline or punish, scourge, 
flog, hit, knock, lash, switch, 
pack down, crush down. 
k. cingoma, to shoot one with a 

k. dldlba, to weave or make 

native cloth. 
k. dikilsa, to stumble, stump the 

foot, trip. 
k. luktkxi, to clap the hands. 
k. munda, to beat (heart), pul- 
sate, throb. 
k. with clsusu or dlsundu, to hit 
or beat or strike with the fist. 
k. with luhi or dlhi, to slap, 
spank, smack, beat or strike 
with open hand. 
nvula as subj. of k. with dlku- 
bakuba as ohj.^ to thunder. 
Kama, vt.y to cover a house, put 

roof on, thatch. 
Kumanda, loc, adv. or prep, {made 
up of ku and the insep. manda) , 
at the base, bottom, down, 
down-stream, down-country. 
§ 423 (2) (&). 
k. kua, at the base of, at the rear 
end or lower end of, the stern. 

Kumangana, v., to collide, strike 
each other. 
k. mukanu, to smack the lips. 
Kumankana, t/., to meet or pass 

in the way. 
Kumbana, vi.y to be full amount or 
quantity or measure, be enough 
or adequate or sufficient, suf- 
fice, be filled, be complete, 
be exact. 
dlba as subj. of k., to be time for, 

time has* arrived for. 
neg. of k., to be insufficient, be 
inadequate, be short of. 
KumhSLxvLfVt.y to make full amount, 
make full or complete measure, 
make exact, fill. 
Kumlna, vt.y Used with muoyo or 
muclma as subj. meaning to 
covet, long for, yearn for. 
Kumina, vt.y to drive in (as nail), 
fasten with a nail, hammer, 
knock on, tap on. 
Kumudllu, loc. adv. or prep, {made 
up of ku and the insep. mu- 
dllu), in advance, ahead, be- 
fore, first, foremost, forward, 
forwards, in front, after (in 
time). § 423 (2) (6). 
k. kua, in advance of, ahead of, 

before, in front of. 
matuku a k., the future (days in 

front), henceforth, hereafter. 
ya k., to go in front, lead the 
way, precede. 
Kumue, loc. adv. {made up of ku 
and mue, one), at the same 
place, at one place, together. 


Kumuna, vt.y to knock on, tap on. 

Kuna, vt.y to sew, plant (corn). 

Kuneku, loc. adv., here, hither, 
hence. § 163, Note 2. 
Sometimes pronounced kunOku. 

Kunfudllu, loc. adv. or prep, {madfi 
up of ku and the insep. nfu- 
dllu), at the end of, the point 
of, at the limit of, at the 
boundary, at the border, at 
the edge or margin, at the 



Kunfudllu (continued), 

banl^ or beach or coast or 
shore. § 423 (2) (6). 

Kunga, he. adv. {made up of ku 
and the adj. nga, other), else- 
where, somewhere else. § 370. 

Kungakana^vi., to assemble, come 
together, gather together, con- 
gregate, meet together. Cf. 

Kungixa, vt., to collect, put to- 
gether, gather together, assem- 
ble. Cf. hungakiixa. 

Kungula, vL, to shave the head 
bare. Mutu is obj. 

Kunguia, vi., used with nvula as 
suhj, meaning to thunder. 

KunkAcl, loc. adv. or prep. {made 
up of ku and the insep. nkAci), 
between, half-way, in the 
midst, in the middle, at the 
center. § 423 (2) (6). 
kosa or kala followed by k., to 
cut half in two. 

Kunoku, see kvinek.i. 

Kuntaku, loc, adv. used as n.{made 
up of ku nd the insep. ntaku 
which is jrom the root of cl- 
taku, bottom), butt end, rear 
end, stern. § 432 (2) (6). 

Kuntlnyl, loc. adv., see kukam- 
mu and ha may be substituted for 
ku, according to sense. 

Kuntu, loc. adv. {made up of ku 
and the insep. ntu), some- 
where; as, kuntu kunyaya 
kudi kule, the place where I 
am going is far. § 423 (2) (b). 
k. kule, far. 
mu and ha may be substituted for 

ku, according to sense. 
Note that the ntu of k. is the 
same root as muntu (person) 
and cintu(thing). 

Kunxi, loc. adv. or prep. {made up 

of ku and the insep. nxi), at 

the base, by, near to, beside, 

close to,down ward. §423(2)(6). 

k. kua, at the base 01, down at 

Kunxikldllu, loc. adv.^ or prep, 
{made up of ku and the insep. 
nxikldilu, the root of the word 
meaning end or terminus), at 
the hind end. § 423 (2) (6). 
-a k., the last one, the one be- 
hind, hindermost. 

Kunya, v/., to gnaw, bite oflF with 
the front teeth. 

Kunyl 7 loc. interrog. adv. {made 
up of ku and nyl, the same 
root as cinyl), where? whith- 
er? whence? §§423 (2) (6). 

Kunsa, vi., to be or become red or 
yellow or brown or crimson or 
scarlet or purple. 

Kunse, adj,{p.p. of kunza, to be 

red, etc.), red, yellow, brown, 

purple, crimson, scarlet; used 

• also of the natives who are 

light colored. 

Kunsublla, vi., to he or become 
reddish or yellow or brown or 

reddish, yellow, brown, purple. 

Kunsuluka, vi., see kunsublla. 

Kunzuluke, adj.{p.p. of kunsu- 
luka), see kunsubile. 

Kuokola, vt., to knock on, tap on. 

Kuokuo, loc. adv.y there, thence, 
thither, yonder. § 163, Note 4. 

Kuola, vt., to pick or pull or pluck 
ripe fruit or corn, gather, har- 
vest, reap. 

Kuona, vt., to scrape, scrub, scour, 
rub, shave ofif, plane (boards). 

Kuonso, loc. adv. {made up of ku 
and the adj. on so, all), any- 
where, everywhere, somewhere, 
wheresoever. § 79. 
dl k., to be omnipresent. 

Kuota, vt.y to chop or cut (as fire- 

KCksa, v.f used with mubidl as obj,, 
meaning to amend, be better, 
convalesce, get or become 
better or well, improve in 
health, recover, be resuscitated 
or revived. 



Kusala, loc. adv. or prep. (made up 
oj ku and insep. sala), at the 
end of, the point of, limit of, 
at the boundary of, at the 
border, at the edge, at the 
margin, at the bank or beach 
or shore or coast. § 423 (2) (b) . 

Kusula, loc. adv. or prep. (made up 
oj ku and the insep. sula). 
see kusala. 

Kuta, vt.y to wrap up or roll up or 
fold up into a bale or bundle, 

Kutuka, vi.j to come undone or 
untied, be untangled, be un- 

Kutula, vt.y to loosen, untie, ex- 
tricate, set free, liberate, let 
loose, give liberty or freedom, 
undo, unloose, unravel, un- 

Kutulula, vt.y to disentangle, un- 
bind, undo, unravel, untangle. 

Laba, vt., to rub on, rub hand over, 
smear on, spread on, coat with. 
1. minyl, to grease. 
1. mpemba, to whitewash. 

Labakana, vi.y to speak or talk 
rapidly, chatter, babble, gab- 
ble, prattle. 

Lablla, v/., to try, test, taste, ex- 
amine, attempt, strive, en- 
deavor, make effort or trial. 

Ladika, vt.y to lay down, put down, 
cause to lie down. 

f%adlla, vi.y to sit (as hen on eggs), 

L&hal&ha, adv., always, ceaselessly, 
constantly, continually, end- 
lessly, eternity, ever, forever, 
perpetually, eternally, inces- 
santly, habitually. 
-a I., immortal, eternal, ever- 
with neg. v., never again. 

Lala, vi.y to lie down, recline, re- 
pose, slumber, live, sojourn, 
stay or stop at, be old. 
1. cltabS^la, to keep awake, not 
to sleep well, be sleepless, be 
1. ne, to cohabit with, lie with, 
copulate, have sexual inter- 
course with. 
I. tulu, to be asleep, sleep, 

L&ma, v.y to attend to, tend, wait 
on, look after, care for, guard, 
keep, preserve, mind, nurse, 
overlook, oversee, protect, 
watch after, take care of, 
superintend, aim (gun), take 

La,md>cixa, vt.y to paste or stick 

Ii&makana, vi.y to Stick together. 

Li&makana, vi.y to be even or level. 

L&m&ta, vi.y to adhere, stick to, 
touch together, attend, cleave 
to, follow after (as attendant), 
minister to, serve. 

Ld^mfttang^ana, v.y to stick together. 

L&mba, vi.y to climb (as vine), 

Lamba, vt., to cook. 

Liamba, vt., to handle, examine by 
handling, rub hand on, feel, 

Lambakana, vt., to annoy, anger, 
vex, exasperate, irritate, ag- 
gravate, bother. The word 
really means to rub or caress 
or fondle. 

Lambila, vt.y to touch, feel, handle. 

Lambula, vt.y to pay tax or tribute 
or duty to, to give an offering 
or sacrifice to a superior. 

Ld^mlka, vt.y to cause to adhere or 
stick together; hence to patch 
or mend or sew on a patch. 

Ld,mina, vt.y to save up, put away, 
lay by, store away, set away. 

LS^muka, vi., to come off or apart 
(as tilings adhering). 



L&muna, vt.j to pull apart or off, 

tear ofiF, take off. 
Landa, adj., poor, destitute, needy, 

in need or want. 
Landakana, vi.j to be flat or level. 
Landaktkxa, vt.y to flatten, mash 

down level, level down. 
Landala, vi.y to crawl (as cater- 
Langa, vt., to make smooth, 

LAngakana, vi.y to be smoothed or 

even or level. 
Langaktlxa, vi., to smooth over, 

make even or level. 
Lftta, vt.y to dream, have a vision. 

Generally followed by mutu or 

cll&ta or dllu. 
lii&takana, vi.y to talk in one's 

Laya, vt., to tell one adieu or fare- 
well or good-bye. 
Laya, vt.y to promise. 
Le, adj.y long, tall, high, deep, 

1. with the locatives prefixed 

insep.y far, far apart, far away. 


Leha, vi.y to grow, develop, in- 
crease, become long or tall, 
expire or elapse or intervene 
(as duration of time). Ha- 
leha cituha, nendue, when a 
short time has expired, I shall 

Lehexa, vt.y to lengthen, add to, 
deepen, increase, join to. 

Leka, vt.y to sell. 

Lekela, vt.y to stop, cease, desist, 
discontinue, leave off, halt, 
wait, delay, give up (stop), quit, 
refrain from, abandon, ab- 
stain from, desert, neglect, 
fDrsake, omit, set free, unloose, 
give freedom, turn loose, 
loosen, let loose, let go or 
alone, liberate, release, come 
to end, finish i^leave off), for- 
1. followed by muaku or mutftyo 

Lekela {continued), 

or kuakula, to keep silence, 
stop talking, hush, be quiet or 
silent, be still. 
neg. ofy not to give up, perse- 
vere, be persistent, be importu- 
nate, be resolute, continue. 

Lekelcla, vt.y to relax, let go. 

Lekexa, vt.y to check, delay, stop 
one from doing, detain, deter, 
retard, hinder, impede, inter- 
rupt, restrain, withhold, wean. 

Leia, vt.y to give birth to, bear, 
bring forth, produce, deliver 
(as child), beget or generate 
1. kabidi, to regenerate. 
1. kabixe, to miscarry, give birth 
to foetus or immature ch Id, 
muana mulela, a freeman, free- 
born, an own child or son or 
Any verb meaning to be followed 
by p.p. passive of 1. means to 
be born. 

Lelangana, vi., to multiply by 
generations, propagate, repro- 

Lelema, vi.y to float. 

Lelemuka, vi.y to float. 

Lelexa, vt.y to act as midwife or 
accoucheuse for, deliver, cause 
to give birth. 

Lelu, adv.y to-day. 

butuku bua 1., last night. 

L£ma, vt.y to put string on bow, 
put on bowstring. 

Lema, viy to be lame, be halt. 
muntu mul6ma, a lame person. 

Lemba, vi.y to shake or move back 
and forth. 

Lcmbakana, vi.y to be always 
laughing for nothing, be frivo- 
lous, be uncertain about, hesi- 
tate, vacillate. 

Lombelela, vi., to hang down, 
dangle, suspend, sway, swing, 
vibrate, move to and fro, 



Lembelela (coniinued). 

oscillate, soar or hover over 
(as bird). 

Lenduka, vi.y to stagger, totter, reel. 

Lenga, v/., to handle, examine by 
handling, feel, touch, rub 
hand on. 

Lenga, vi., not to do one's work 
well, trifle. 

Lengakana, vi., see lenga (to 

liongele, adj.^ beautiful, pretty, 
lovely, fine, good, pure, chaste, 
guiltless, virtuous, elegant, ex- 
cellent, worthy, fair or hand- 
some, fair or just or honest, 
correct, fit, suitable, right, kind, 
humane, noble, holy, perfect, 
righteous, upright, lawful, rich 
or fertile or productive (soil). 
with neg. verb: unjust, unkind, 
unholy, wrong, not right. 

Ijengexa, vt., to make good, pre- 
serve goad (as meat with salt), 
sanctify, ordain, consecrate, 
purge, purify, refine, adorn, 

Lengaluka, vi.y to change into 
something else, the act of 
transmigration or metempsy- 
chosis, be born again. The 
same word is used of the re- 
versible pictures in the magic 

Leula, vt.y to stupefy (as medicine), 

Lexa, vt.j to show to, exhibit, 
direct, expose to view, instruct, 
explain to, point out to, illus- 
trate, indicate to, teach by 

Lilela, adj., true, real. 
ena 1., to be untrue. 

Loba, v/., to beckon to or call by 
motioning with the hand. 

Lobokela, vi.y to be accustomed to, 
be experienced or familiar 
with, be habituated, be hard- 
ened to, be used to, learn by 

Lobola, vi.y to annoy, exasperate, 
irritate, tantalize, tease, aggra- 
vate, bother. 

Loha, vt.y to catch fish with hook, 
fish with hook. 

LiOka, vi.y to rain, fall as rain. 

LiOmba, vt.y to ask for, beg for, pray 
for, request, demand, ask the 
1. followed by a verbal noun in 
lu- means to ask leave or per- 
mission to do. 

Lombola, vt.y to guide, lead the 
way for, conduct, direct, show 
the way to. 

Lionda, vt.y to follow, pursue, come 
or go after. 
1. with makfksa or makama or 
mikono, to track, trace, tra'l. 

Longa, vt., to put or set or place in 
line, make tidy. 

Longexa, v/.(Buk. or Lower 
Congo), to teach, educate, ex- 
plain to, instruct, d scipline, 
inform, train. 

LiOngolola, vt.y to arrange, adjust, 
assort^ fix or mend, put or 
place or set in order, prepare, 
repair, make tidy, make up 
bed, set the table. 

Lionza, vt., to hit or shoot (as with 
bullet fired from a gun). 

LiOwa, vt.y to bewitch, conjure, 
enchant, trick, charm. 

Liua, vi.y to come, become, get 

(become), happen, transpire, 

come to pass, occur, impend, 

turn into, be converted. 

1. clsumbu, to assemble, come 

together, congregate. 
1. ne, to bring, come with, carry, 

fetch, get. 
1. ha buihi, to come near, ap- 
proach, draw near. 
1. kahia, to become or get hot. 
1. followed by kukala kua ml or 
ku mpata, to land, go to the 
1. wUh cidimu or dituku, to 
elapse, pass by, intervene. 



Lua {continued). 

1. with hankficl or kunkCkcl or 

munkCkcl, to intervene, come 

1. joUowed by proper locative^ to 

come from. 
Sometimes the word is pronounced 

dua or vua. 
Luacika, vi,{jrom Ipata), to dress, 

1. bllenga, to adorn, dress up. 
Luaclza, vt.{jrom luata),to clothe, 

1. bllensa, to adorn, dress up. 
Liuala, 4, »., finger-nail, claw, 

talon, fang. 
tua or asa with 1., to scratch, 

Luanda, 4, n., sweat, perspiration. 
, hd,tuka or tuka with 1. as subj.j 

to sweat, to perspire. 
Luangana, v., to fight, quarrel, 

resist, wage war, engage in 

war. Generally followed by 

1. bibula, to wrestle. 
Liuanyl, 4, n., tall grass (used in 

covering houses). 
Luata, vt.y to dress, wear, put on 

1. bilenga, to be adorned, be 

dressed up. 
Lubaf u, 4, n., rib of body. 
Lubalabala, 4, n., stalk of corn. 
Lubale, 4, »., rib of body. 
Lub&le, 4, n., hard outside part of 

the midrib of the dikadi and 

dibondo pabns, arrow without 

iron point. 
Lub&lu, 4, n., a small gourd cut 

lengthwise and used for dip- 
ping water. 
Lubambalu, 4, w., the batten tied 

crosswise on the rafters in 

house building. 
Lubandu, 4, »., a fathom of cloth 

(one fourth of a piece). 
Lubanga, 4, w., chin, lower jaw. 
Lubanza, 4, n., yard, court, fold, 

stockadci enclosure. 

Lubansa .{continued). 
mutu wa 1., the first wife. 
nyOma wa mu 1., domestic 


LubAxe, 4, ».(Buk.), midrib of 

Lubengu, 4, n., slice. 

Lubftse, 4, «., side of the body. 

Lublkl, 4, n., a skin disease which 
appears as whitish patches on 
the neck, arms and chest. 

Lubilu, 4, n.y generally used as adv., 
quickly, hurriedly, rapidly, 
suddenly, swiftly, with quick- 
ness or rapidity, at rapid pace, 
in haste, in hurry, fast, with 
expedition, carelessly. As a 
noun it means haste, swiftness, 
velocity, rapidity, quickness. 
endexa or ensexa wUh 1., to 

expedite, hurry up, hasten. 
Idiklxa or elekexa with 1., to 

run a race. 
ya or nyema wUh 1., to run away, 

When the subject is pi., sometimes 
1. is made pi. also; as, bakuya 
mbllu, they ran away. 

Lubinga, 4, »., cave(?). 

Luboko, 4, n., used in ph. ciansa 
cla 1. meaning left hand. 

Lubola, 4, n., penis. 

Lubombo, 4, n., crown or top of 

Lubombo, 4, n., ten thousand. 

Labombo, 4, n.{from v, bomba), 

Lubondia, 4, n., small piece of 
cloth worn in front and behind, 
a rag. 

Lububa, 4, n., an old deserted field. 

Lubue, 4, »., a cave. 

Lubuklxa, T'/.(Buk.), to teach, in- 
struct, educate, inform, explain 
to, discipline. 

Lubuku, 4, »., a fetish or charm 
with which divination is done, 
muena 1., diviner, doctor, sor- 
cerer, conjurer. 



Lubula, 4, n., fruit of the rubber 

Liubulabula, 4, n., honey-bee. 

Lubumbu, 4, n., weevil. 

Labuyl, 4, »., high cliflF or preci- 
pice made by landslide. 

Ludlabula, 4, »., a species of snake. 

Ladlbu, 4, n., small bell with 

Ladika, v/., to make even or paral- 
lel or perpendicular or up- 
right or straight, straighten, 
put in straight line. 
Note that vi. is lul&ma. 

Ladiklla, vt.y to make level or even 
or straight, aim (gun), take 

Ladimba, 4, n., a small frog.- 

Ludlmt, 4, n., tongue, dialect, 
language, flame of fire, blaze. 
There is also a figurative 
sense of deceit. 
muena I., liar, hypocrite, fraudu- 
lent person. 

Ladimuenu, 4, n., mirror, looking- 

Luebexixa, 4, n., inquisitiveness. 
dl ne 1., be inquisitive. 

Laedi, 4, n., rule, measure, ruler, 
tape line, pattern, model, copy. 

Lueho, 4, n., salt. 
1. lua mbanda, native salt made 

from kind of grass. 
1. lua nsoka, coarse salt. 

Luelekexl, 4, n., rale, ruler, meas- 
ure, tap: line, pattern, model, 

Luendu, 4, n., journey, march, 
tour, trip, voyage, expedition. 
muena 1., a traveler. 
ya ku I., to go on a journey or 
march or trip. 

Luesu, 4, n., pot, frying-pan, 
vessel, kettle. 

liufatacl, 4, »., percussion cap. 
cinKoma eta 1., a cap gun. 

Liufu, 4, n.y death. 

blxa ku 1., to resurrect, bring to 

Liufulla, 4, »., widowhood, widow- 

Liufuma, 4, n., brass tack, brass 
chair nail. 

Liuhaha, 4, n., scabbard, sheath, 
case for knife. 

Luhambu, 4., n., wing. 

Luhandu, 4, »., deliverance, salva- 
tion, succor, safety, security. 

Luhangu, 4, »., fence, wall. 
mu 1., yard, enclosure, fold, court, 


Luhansa, 4, n., cup, mug, can, 

LiUh&su, 4, n., grasshopper. 

Liuh&ta, 4, »., argument, dispute, 
controversy, difference, ques- 
tion, debate, disagreement, 
quarrel, wrangle, wrangling, 
discussion, disputation, con- 
ela or elangana or dt ne with 
1., to argue, dispute, have a 
controversy or discussion or 
contention, disagree, differ in 
view, quarrel, wrangle, debate. 
The pi, is generally used in all 
these cases. 

Luh&xl, 4, n.(Buk. and Bukuba), 
cowry shell. 

Luhehele, 4, »., wind, gale, move- 
ment of air by fanning. 

Luh^ku, 4, n., fibre of palm used in 
making cloth. 

Liuhemba, 4, »., a white clay or 

earth, chalk, whitewash. 

laba mpemba, to whitewash. 

Luhensu, 4, »., cockroach. 

Luhete, 4, n., dried but unsoaked 
cassava root. 

Luhetu, 4, n.f goods, fortune, 
possessions, property, riches, 
stuff, substance, we^th, means, 
-a 1., rich, wealthy. 

Liuht, 4, n.{pl. is maht, cf. dihi), 
a blow with open hand, a slap, 
a smack. 
tua or kuma or tuta with 1., to 



Luhl {continued), 

strike or hit with open hand, 
slap, smack, spank. 

Luhlka, 4, n., a bet. 
dla 1., to bet, wager. 
1. as suhj. of kuata and the person 
as obj., to lose a bet. 

Liuhlnsu, 4, n., fetish, medicine, 
charm, idol or image made in 
the form of a person. The lu- 
hlnffu is generally carved out 
of wood. 

Luhlya, 4, n., bag, pocket, sack, 

Luhoca, 4, n.y mucus or pus in 
corner of the eye. 

Liuhola, 4, n., strip or border or 
edge or band sewed around the 
margin of a piece of cloth. 

Lahongo, 4, n., valley, vale, hollow. 

Liuhose, 4, n., a species of grub 
worm (edible). 

Liuhota, see luhoca. 

Luhote, 4, n., sl kind of bead. 

Luhuka, vi.f to get out, pass out, 
go forth, come out, vacate, 
withdraw, evacuate, emerge, 
issue, rise or arise (sun), be 
kuta kaaluhuka diba or kutu 
diba dialuhuka, where the 
sun rises, east. 

Luhula, vt.y to cast out, drive out, 
turn out, eject, chase out, put 
out, take out, bring out, expel, 

Luhambe, 4, n., driver ant. 

LiUhusu, 4, »., small boil or pimple, 
a kind of eruption appearing 
mostly on legs and arms. 

Luhuxl, 4, n.j dust in the air. 

Luida, i^.^Eng.), to read. 

Liuidi, 4, w., rule, ruler, measurer, 
tape line, pattern, model, copy. 

Lulla, v.^from lua, to come), to 
come around on this side or 
this way, come for; aj, naku- 
lulla bintu blwakundaya, I 
have come for the things which 
you promised me. 

Luitabuxu, 4, n., credulity. 

-a 1., credulous. 
Luixa, vt.y to cause to become. 
I. bubanjl, to enrich. 
1. buhele, to impoverish. 
1. with buhlka or muhtka, to 
Lttlya, 4, »., warmth, heat, luke- 
warmness, tepidness. 
-a I., rich or productive or tertile 

dl ne 1., to be warm, be luke- 
warm, be tepid. 
1. lua ml, steam. 
Sometimes pronounced luya. 
Lujljl, 4, w., fly which blows meat, 

Lujilu, 4, «., eggplant, aubergine. 
Luka, vt,y to braid, plait, spin 
(as spider), make (baskets, 
mats, strings, etc.). 
Laka, v., to spew, vomit. 
Ltlka, vt.f to Uck, lap with tongue. 
Lukama, 4, n., one hundred. 
Lukanku, 4, n., palsy. 
Lukanu, 4, n., anklet, wristlet, 
bracelet, chain, fetters, bonds, 
elamu 1., to put in chains, chain, 

1. lukunze, gold. 
1. lutoke, brass, silver. 
Lukanyl, 4, w.(Buk.), intellect, 
intelligence, sense, cleverness, 
knowledge, learning, ingenuity, 
dexterity, smartness, bright- 
ness, mind, ability, discretion, 
genius, imagination, judgment, 
prudence, reason, reflection, 
skill, skilfulness, understand- 
ing, wisdom, advice, counsel. 
See lungenyi. 
Lukela, 4, «., spur of fowl. 
Lukende, 4, n.y bubble, froth, 

foam, scum. 
Luklnda, 4, «., trap, snare. 
Lukinu, 4, »., craftiness, wiliness, 
meanness, cruelty, inhumanity, 
heartlessness, unmercifulness, 
unkindness, unfriendliness. 



Luktnn {continued), 

-a 1., crafty, wily, mean, cruel, 
inhuman, merciless, pitiless, 
heartless, unfriendly, unkind, 
muena 1., a villain. 

Luklta, 4,».,grave, sepulchre,tomb. 
The pi. means cemetery, grave- 

liukobo, 4, n., a wooden hook used 
in hanging up baskets. 

Liukodt, 4, »., a creeper -used ex- 
tensively in making houses, 
fences, mats, nets, baskets, etc. 

Lakofla, 4, n., eyelash. 

Lukole, 4, n., the act of taking a 
person as a hostage. 
munta wa 1., a hostage. A per- 
son of same village or family as 
the debtor, held for the debt. 

Lakombo, 4, n., broom, brush. 

Lukongeba, 4, n., elbow. 

Lttkonko, 4, n., hammer. 

Lukonkono, 4, n.{from konka, to 
ask), inquisitiveness. 
dl ne 1., inquisitive. 

Lukonyi, 4, w., knuckles exposed 
to strike with. 
taa 1., to strike or hit with 

Lukosolo, 4, n., a cough. 

Lukota, 4, n.y famine, starvation. 

Lukototo, 4, n.j crumb, crust. 

Laku, 4, w.(Buk.), the loop or rope 
with which to climb the palm 
for the wine. 

Lukuha, 4, w., tick (on dog). 

Lukuna, 4, w., enmity, hatred, 
malice, revenge, unfriendliness, 
unkindness, vengeance, bru- 
tality, retribution, despite, ani- 
mosity, disgust, abhorrence, 
detestation, hostihty, spite. 
-a 1., hateful, malicious, hostile, 
revengeful, unfriendly, unkind, 
dl ne 1., to abhor, despise, detest, 

hate, dislike. 
This word is used only with 
reference to persons. 

Lukunde, 4, n., a small bean, black- 
eyed pea. 

Lukundu, 4, n., hip. 

Liukunyi, 4, n., stick of firewood, 
fuel. PI. generally used. 

Lukflsa, 4, n.y generally used as 
adv.y see labllu. 

LukCksu, 4, n.y hoe, spade. 

LukAxt, 4, n.y clapping of the hands* 
tuta or kuma with 1., to clap the 

Lula, vi.y to be bitter. 

Liul&ma, vi.y to be even or parallel 
or straight or perpendicular or 
upright. The vt. form is 

Lul&me, adj.{from lul&ma), 
straight, direct. 

Lul&mlza, vt., to make straight, 

Lalavi, 4, n.y eyelash. 

Lulelelele, 4, n.y fern. 

Lulelu, 4, n.y the power or capac- 
ity to give birth to or bear 
young, fruitfulness, fecundity- 
di ne 1., to be fruitful or fertile or 
prolific or fecund or produc- 
tive (as male or female in pro- 
ducing young). 

Lulengu, 4, n., the poison put on 
arrows, venom. 

Lulombo, 4, n.y beggary. 
muena 1., a beggar. 

Lulunffu, 4, n.y pepper. 

Liuna, vt.y to cohabit with, copu- 
late, lie with, have sexual in, 
tercourse with. Used only of 

Lumbldl, 4, n.y palm oil rendered 
or purified; also a kind of 

Liunbu, 4, n.(pl. is ngumbu), fence, 
mu I., yard, fold, court, stockade, 


Lumbuluila, vt.y to be advocate 
for, intercede for, plead for. 



Lumbulula, vt., to judge or settle 
or decide a trouble or palaver, 
arbitrate, hold a court or 
council, pronounce judgment, 

Liumembo, 4, n., a native bell made 
of iron, a drum made of wood. 

Luminsu, 4, n.{from Portuguese), 
Sunday, Sabbath. The pi, is 
generally mbinga. 
ditaku dta mp&tuklla {or nda- 

hukilu) wa L., Monday. 
Sometimes pronounced Lubinsu. 

Lumlnylminyi, 4, ft., centip>ede. 

Liumixa, vt., see luma. 

Liumosa, 4, n., left-handedness. 
muena 1., a left-handed person. 

Lumpukusu, 4, n., greediness, 
-a 1., greedy, gluttonous. 
maena 1., a glutton. 

Luma, 4, n., fame, report, news, 
rumor, hearsay, information. 
endexa 1., to spread news. 
1. as subj. of endakana, the news 

Luma, 4, n.{jrom uma, to be dry), 
drought, dryness. 

Lumuenu, see ludlmuenu. 

Lumtknyl, 4, n., pupil of eye. 

Lumunyu, 4, »., papyrus or reed 
(used in making mats). 

Lunda, vi., to grow, develop, get 
stout or corpulent cr fat, in- 
crease in size, wax (m«K)n). 

Lundamana, vi., to squirm, wrig- 
gle, crawl (as caterpillar). 

Lundlxa, v/., to add to, enlarge, in- 
crease, exaggerate, broaden, 
widen, fatten. 

Lundumuka, vt ., to bounce, bound, 
rebound, spring. 

Lunsa, vt.y the act of giving a 
present of something to eat to 
one accidentally wounded by 
the person who inflicted the 
wound, in order to cure the 

Lunga, vt.y to poison. 

Lunsa, vt.y to season, cook with 
neg. of 1., to be unseasoned. 

Lunsa, vt.y to lengthen, add to, 
join to, increase. 

Lunsakana, vt.y to increase in 

Lungakanya, vt.y see lungakfiza. 

Lungakflxa, vt.yto add to, lengthen, 
increase, join on to. 

Lunganya, vt.y see lungakAxa. 

Lunsenyl, 4, n., intellect, intelli- 
gence, sense, cleverness, knowl- 
edge, learning, ingenuity, 
dexterity, smartness, bright- 
ness, mind, ability, discretion, 
genius, imagination, judgment, 
prudence, reason, reflection, 
skill, skilfulness, understand- 
ing, wisdom, advice, counsel. 
di ne 1., to be smart, be wise, be 
learned, be intelligent, be in- 
tellectual, be bright, be sensi- 
ble, be skilful, be expert, be 
clever, be ingenious, be pru- 
ela or elangana with 1., to think, 
deliberate, consider, meditate, 
conceive, reason, reflect, muse, 
ha 1., to advise, counsel, give 

Lungonyonyl, 4, n., chameleon. 

Lunsufu, 4, n.y white or gray hair. 

Lunstljl, 4, n.y palm nut. 
minyi a nsAJi, palm oil. 

Lungula, vi.y to be burnt or 

Lunffuluka, vi.y to prolong, pro- 
tract, talk a long time. 

Lunguxa, vt., to bum or scorch (as 

Lunkelu, 4, n., used as adv.y soon, 
early in the morning, about 
sunrise, little after dawn. 
butuku to ne 1., all night long. 
See dinda. 

Lunkombe, 4, »., a musical instru- 
ment of one string. 



Lunkanvu, 4, n.j a drum made by 
hollowing out a log. 

Liunyeke, 4, «., honey-bee. 

Lunyonyl, 4t^n.f a hair of bead or 

Lunyungru, 4, n., dizziness, giddi- 
ness, faintness. 
dl ne 1., to be dizzy, be giddy, 
be faint. 

Lunsense, 4, n., musical instru- 
ment of three strings. 

Liuobo, 4, n., a stick to which a dog 
is tied for leading, a latch. 

Luoso, 4, n., a hair on the body of 
person or animal, wool. PL is 
mioso. § 45, Rem. 

liuoso, 4, »., rice. Perhaps from 

liuoxl, 4, n., fierceness, ferocity, 
-a 1., vicious, ferocious, fierce, 

kftba 1., to provoke or excite or 
incite or tease an anmial to 

Lius&la, 4, n., feather. 

Lius&lu, 4, n., tribal or tattoo mark. 
t&ha, 1., to tattoo, make tattoo 

liUsase, 4, n., spark. 

liUse, 4, n., affection, compassion, 

sorrow for, favor, mercy, love, 

grace, kindness, pity, devotion, 


•a 1., merciful, compassionate, 

humane, gracious. 
dlha dia 1., alms. 
ena ne 1., to be merciless, be 
pitiless, be heartless, be un- 
ha 1., to pity, show mercy or com- 
passion or favor to, take pity 
on, be gracious to, be sorry for, 
S3rmpathize with, care for. 
unva or ufua wiih 1., to feel pity 
or compassion. 

Liusftke, 4, n., side, division, part, 
portion, section. 

Lusekeseke, 4, n., slenderness, 
slimness, tallness, thinness. 

Liusekeseke {continued). 

There is always the idea of 
tallness and slenderness at the 
same time. 
-a 1., slender, slim, tall, thin. 

Lusele, 4, n., hard outside part of 
the midrib of the dlbue palm. 

Lusele, 4, n., sand-bank. The pi. 
is generally used for loose sand 
or dirt. The dimin. kasele 
means a grain of sand. 

Luselesele, see lusekeseke. 

Luselu, 4, n.ijrom sela, to pay the 
dowry), dowry given at mar- 
riage- by the groom to parents 
of the bride. 

Liusensa, 4, n., sand bank. The 
pi, is generally used for loose 
sand or dirt. The dimin. 
kasenga means a grain of 

Luseuffu, 4, n.y horn of animd. 

Lusoka, 4, n.y pebble. The dimin. 
kasoka means a grain of sand. 

Lusoko, 4, «., evesdropping, spy- 
muena 1., evesdropper, spy. 

Liusokolo, 4, n.y rafter of house. 

Lusole, 4, n.y mucus from nose. 
PI. generally used, 
hemba 1., to blow the nose. 

Lusouffo, 4, n.y point, end, mouth 
of river. 
ena ne 1. lutue, to have a dull 

1. lua dibele, nipple of the breast. 

Luflongo, 4, n.y a disease of the 
eye in which the pupil becomes 
white, resulting in blindness. 

Lusono, 4, n.y a grass used in cover- 
ing houses. 

Lusonso, 4, n.y nail, screw. 

Lusu, 4, n.y bad odor or smell or 
scent, stench, stink. 
nunka 1., to stink, emit a stench. 

Lusua, 4, n.y a winged ant used as 

Lusuki, 4, n.y a hair of beard or 



Lusumbi, 4, n., a species of ante- 

Lusomu, 4, n.y a small gourd used 
in bleeding or cupping. 

Lusomuinu, 4, «., fable, parable, 
folk-lore, legend, story, saying, 
proverb, tale, illustration, ex- 
ela 1.) to tell or narrate a fable, 
parable, etc. 

Lutttyltilyi, 4, «., talkativeness, 
loquacity, loquaciousness. 
-a 1., talkative, loquacious. 

Lute, 4, «.(^/. is mate, § 51), 
spittle, saliva, expectoration. 
ela or tuila with 1., to spit, ex- 

Lutende, 4, »., ball, bullet. 
cingoma cia 1., rifle. 
mutelenge wa 1., cartridge (with 

Lutete, 4, n., seed of pumpkin, etc. 

liutolokela, 4, n., spark. 

Liutonga, 4, n., bud, sprout, shoot. 

Lutu, 4, «., mould, mildew. 
kuata 1., to mould, mildew. 

Iiutuhu, 4, n.y papyrus or reed used 
in making mats. 

Iiutulu, 4, n.y patience, gentleness. 
-a 1., patient, gentle. 

Iiutmnbatainba, 4, n., a half- 
grown goat, a kid. May be 
male or female. 

Lututu, 4, «., bubble, froth, foam, 

LuTi, 4, »., gray or white hair. 

Luvu, 4, »., trough in which dogs 
are fed or corn beaten. 

Luvungula, 4^ «., key. 

Luxiba, 4, »., whistle, flute. 

Iiuximlnyinyu, 4, »., fable, para- 
ble, folk-lore, legend, story, 
saying, proverb, tale, illustra- 
tion, example. 
ela 1., to tell or narrate a fable, 

parable, etc. 
This word seems to be derived 
from ximinyina, to lie to. 

Luxixa, 4, »., a small crawfish, 

Luxobo, 4, «., small seed or other 

object used for tossing in 

Luxola, 4, »., scissors, shears. The 

pl. is generally ditnin, form 

Luxoxa, 4, n., a small crawfish, 

Luz&di, 4, n.y finger nail, claw, 

tallon, fang. 
tua or asa with 1., to pinch or 

Luzakalu, 4, n., palsy. 
Luz&la, see luz&dl. 
Luz6ba, 4, n.y tassel of corn. 

Mabele, pl. of 5, n.(pl. of dibele, 
breast), milk. 
Jldika or kandixa or lekexa or 
kanyina followed by muana 
m., to wean. 

Madlmba, pl. of 5, n., a musical 
instrument made by fastening 
gourds of different sizes to flat 
sticks, and played by beating 
on the sticks, xylophone. 

Madingi, pl. of 5, n., see didlnga. 

Ma'fi, pl. of 5 or 6, »., a lie, falsehood, 
untruth, fraud, hypocrisy, un- 
reliableness, untrufhfulness. 
-a m., unreliable, unthithful. 
muena m., a liar, fraudulent 
person, hypocrite. 

Mafuta, pl. of 5 or 6, »., lard. 

Maihl, adv.y day after to-morrow. 

Makanya, pl. of 5, n., tobacco. 

Makelela, adv., to-morrow, yester- 
i Malaba, adv., to-morrow, yester- 

Malasa, n.(£ng.), March (the 
' Malua, pl. of 5 or 6, w., beer made 
from brewing corn or millet 
or cassava; sometimes used for 
palm wine. Rarely the sing. 
bualua is heard. 



MaluYU, pi. of 5 or 6, «., palm wine. 
May also he used far the beer 
made from corriy etc. 

budlmi bua mloxi ya follt/wed by 
maluYU a mputu, vineyard. 

ena ne m. mu mesu, to be sober. 

hola or tomboka or buluka or 
kola or kuaclka followed by 
m., or m. as subj. of kuata wilh 
person as obj.y to be drunk, 
be intoxicated. 

m. a mputu, wine (imported). 

mamoma a kuenza n*& m. a 
mputu, grapes. 

muoxi wa mamoma a kuenza 
n'A followed by vlnyo or 
maluvu a mputu, grape-vine. 

m. as subj. of hadixa and the 
person as obj.y to intoxicate, 
make drunk. 
Mam pa, pi. of 5 or 6, n., European 
bread made from wheat flour. 
Mamu, I, n.y mother, mistress; 
lock of door. 

m. ' mukulu, aunt (older than 

m. muakunyi, aunt (younger 
than mother). 
Ma'-muenu, i, n.{pl. is bama- 
muenu), mother-in-law. § 42, 
Note 3. 

May be used by husband or wife. 
Mananaxi, pi. of 5 or 6, n., per- 
fume, scent. Doubtless an im- 
ported word. 
Mankenda, pi. of 5 or 6, n., tidiness, 
cleanliness, neatness, dainti- 

-a m., clean, neat, tidy, dainty. 

Some say makenda. 
Mankfixl, i, n.{pl. is bamanktkxl), 

aunt (on father's side). 
Mansftba, i, n.{pl. is bamans^ba), 

uncle (maternal). 
Manteke, pi. of 5, n., butter. An 

imported word. 
Manyanu, pi. of 5 or 6, n., dirt or 
filth or uncleanness or foulness 
of person. 

-a m., dirty, filthy, unclean, foul. 

Masandl, pi. of 5 or 6, «., adultery, 
fornication, impurity, licen- 
tiousness, carnal knowledge, 
whoredom, lust, lasciviousness, 
lewdness, unchastity, unclean- 
ness, immorality. Refers either 
to mule or female. 

-a m., adulterous, immoral, 
licentious, impure, lustful, 
lewd, unchaste, unclean, las- 

ena ne m., to be pure, chaste, 
virtuous. « 

enda m., to commit adultery or 

enda n'andl m., to seduce one. 

muana wa m., bastard, illegiti- 
mate child. 

muena m., fornicator, adulterer, 
harlot, prostitute, whore, 

mukfixi wa m., harlot, whore. 
M&ta, vi.y to fall or descend (as 

rain), drop, drip, trickle. 
Matabixa, pi. of 5 or 6, n., the 
extra amount given to con- 
clude trade, gift, present, in- 
terest, rent, ** dash." 

tentekela m., to pay interest. 
Matamata, pi. of 5, n., tomato. 
From Portuguese. The same 
form is generally used for sing, 
and pl.y but sometimes in sing, 
we hear ditamata. 
Matamba, pi. of 5, «., leaves of the 
manioc or cassava beaten and 
used as greens. 
Matandu, pi. of 5 ' or 6, n.(from 
tanda, to abuse), abuse, mal- 
treatment, ill treatment, 
Maxa, pi. of 5 or 6, «., a dance, 

xa m., to dance. 
Maxi, pi. of 5 or 6, n., blood. 

tuka m., to bleed. 
Maxika, pi. of 5 or 6, n., coldness^ 
chilliness, coolness. 

-am., cold, chilly, cool. 



Maxika (continued). 

buexa mu nsubu wa m., to im- 
cidimu cla m., winter, cool 

m. as subj. of kuata and person 
as obj.y or unva m., to be cold 
or chilly, feel cold. 
mukelenge or mul&ml with wa 

nsubu wa m., jailor. 
muntu wa nsubu wa m., pris- 
nsubu wa m., jail, prison. 
Maximi, pi. of 5, n., see dixima. 
Maxua, pi. of 5 or 6, «., steamer, 
steamboat. An introduced 
Maya, «.(Eng.), May (the month). 
Mayowa, pi. of 5 or 6, «., rainy 
or warm season, summer. 
South of the equator this ex- 
tends from September to May. 
Sometimes is heard the sing. 
Mb&di, 3, w.(Buk.), place, posi- 
tion, situation, room, space. 
See muaba. 
Blb&du, see mb&di. 
Blb&la, 3, »., menses. This word 
is also sometimes used with 
reference to those who, on 
account of some superstition, 
will not eat with others. 
mukfixi udi kum., the woman is 
having her menses, i.e., is at 
the menstrual period. 
Mb&lab&la, 3, n., wildcat, bush 
muan'a m., kitten. 
Mbanda, n.{douhtless class IV, hav- 
ing sing, lubanda), used in ph. 
lueho lua m., the native salt 
made from a kind of grass. 
It is not sodium chloride. 
Mbalanga, 3, n., smallpox. 
Mbalanta, 3, n.Qrom Eng. ve- 
randa) y veranda, porch. 
Mb&xib&xi, pi. of 3 or 4, «., fright, 
fear, timidity, shyness, wild- 

Mh&xlb&xl {continued). 

ne?3. Generally used only oj 

di ne m., to be fearful, be timid, 

be shy, be frightened, be 

afraid, be wild, fear, cringe. 
Mbdle, 3, n.y a species of monkey. 
Mbelu, 3, n.f threshold, entrance, 

-a muxuku wa m., of same 

ku or ha with m., the space just 

in front of the door of house. 
Mbl, I, n.{pl. is bambi), husband. 

This word is always jcllowed 

insep. by the proper poss. pro., 

having the separating consonant 

y. § 42, Note I. 
Mbl-clna, i, n.{pl. is bambl-clna), 

brother-in-law or sister-in-law. 

Always means the brother or 

sister oj the husband only. 

This word always has the poss. 

pro. inserted between mbl and 

clna, with y as a separating 

consonant. §§42, Note 2; 138, 

Rem. 3, and Note. 
Contrast with bukonde and se^ 

Mblndu, pi. of 3 or 4, «., diri «• 

filth or uncleanness or foulneca 

on the person. 
-am., dirty, filthy, unclean, foul. 
Mboi, I, n.(Eng.), attendant of 

foreigner, "boy." May be 

male or female. 
Mbondo, 3, n., a large frog. 
Mbote, 3, n.f button. 

dlsu dia m., buttonhole. 
Mbowo, 3, n., buffalo. 
Mbua, 3, «., dog. 
muktkxi*a m., bitch. 
dimin. kabua, pup. 
Mbulankete, 3, n.(£ng.), blanket. 
Mbumbu, 3, «., borer (insect). 
Mbungu, 3, n., loom. 
Mbuxl, 3, n., goat (male or female). 

muan'a m., kid. 
M£ma, v/., to lift up, pick up, take 

up, get. 



Meme, Simple Disjunctive pers. pro. 
I, me. § 105. 

Mftna, vi.j to bud, sprout, germi- 
nate, shoot, cut teeth (as young 

Mene, aiv. {derived from adj. root 
ine, alone), alone, very, actual, 
just, exactly, indeed, absolute- 
ly, identical, really, real, very 
same, true, truly. This word 
is always postpositive. 

Meneka, v/., to glorify, adore, do 
obeisance to, honor, praise, 
pay homage to, esteem, hallow, 
magnify, regard, respect, re- 
vere, reverence, venerate, give 
salutation or respects or greet- 
ing to a chief, salute or greet a 

Menekela, vt.y see meneka. 

Menya, pi. of 5 or 6, »., urine. 
Sometimes pronounced menyu. 

Mesa, pi. of 5, n., table. From 
longolola blntu ha m., to set 

the table. 
umuxa bintu ha m., to clear the 

Bfftta, vt., to daub, plaster. 

Mexl, pi. of 5, w., intellect, intelli- 
gence, sense, cleverness, knowl- 
edge, learning, ingenuity, dex- 
terity, smartness, brightness, 
mind, ability, discretion, 
genius, imagination, judgment, 
prudence, reason, reflection, 
skill, skilfulness, understand- 
ing, wisdom, advice, counsel. 
di ne m., to be smart, be wise, 
be learned, be intelligent, be 
intellectual, be bright, be sen- 
sible, be skilful, be expert, be 
clever, be ingenious, be pru- 
ela or elangana with m., to 
think, deliberate, consider, 
meditate, conceive, reason, re- 
flect, muse, ponder. 
ha m., to advise, counsel, give 

MI, pi. of 5 or 6, «., water; juice 
of cane, fruit, etc. 
hona mu m., to fall overboard. 
luiya or ciyuya with -a m. 

m. a kahia, hot water. 
m. a mikanda, ink. 
m. a Nzambi, communion wine. 
m. manlne, ocean, sea. 
m. matalale, cold water. 
muci wa m. a mikanda, pen 

munyinyi wa mu m, fish. 
Note that the dimin. is tiil(tuai) 

or tulma. 
Perhaps it is best to spell this 
word mai. 
Mlamina, v., to sprinkle, sow (as 
m. ml, to baptize. 
Midima, pi. of 2, n., darkness, 
gloominess. Has no reference 
to color hut only to lack of light. 
Pronounced as if written mi- 
Miflla, pi. of 2, n., soot. 
Mlluluba, pi. of 2, n.f blood or 

bleeding from the nose. 
Mina, v., to swallow. 
MInyi, pi. of 5, n.{sing. is dllnyl, 
fat), oil, ointment. 
ela m., to anoint. 
m. a ngombe, butter. 
m. a ngtiji, palm oil. 
m. a ngulube, lard. 
Miota, pi. of 2, «., thirst. 

dl ne m.f or m. as subj. of kuata 
with pers. as obj.y to be thirsty. 
mfina^hulxaTf'i/Am., to quench 
or satisfy or slake or appease 
The common Lulua form is 
nyota. § 43, Rem. 
Misasa, pi. of 2, n., middle of 
forenoon or morning (about 
nine o'clock). 
Misele, pi. of 2, n., a discharge 

(perhaps venereal). 
Mixl, pi. of 2, n., siftings of manioc. 
Mixlla, pi. of 2, n., soot. 



Mona, vt.^ to see, behold, look at, 
observe, notice, regard, view, 
witness, examine by looking 
at, find, inspect, overlook, 
oversee, superintend, perceive, 
watch after. 

dianjlla kumona, to discover. 

m. kaceci, to menstruate. 

m. talala, to look at or behold 
steadfastly, gaze at, stare 

m. followed by mua and in fin,, 
to be able, can, have power, 
be possible, be competent, be 
capable, be qualified. 

neg. of m. followed by mua and 
in fin. J to be unable, be im- 
possible, be incompetent, be 

neg. of m. with bimpe, to see 

neg. of m. with mua knbftla, to 
be innumerable, be countless. 

This word may perhaps be spelled 
mtkna or mana. 
Monexa, vt.y to cause to see, to 
reflect (as mirror). 

Contrast with muenexa. 
Mpaka, 3, n., hard excrement as 

result of constipation. 
Mpftla, 3, n.j brow, forehead, 
sometimes used in sense of face 
or features or countenance or 

ku m., in advance, ahead, before, 
at front end of, before one's 
face, in presence of, first, fore- 
most, forward, forwards, in 
front, in front of, after (in 

matuku a ku m., hereafter, 
henceforth, the future (days in 

nyenga or fundika with m., to 
frown, knit the brow, scowl. 

tanglxangana m., to face each 

ya ku m!, to go in front, lead the 
way, precede. 

Mpalata, 3, n., coin, money. 
mul&mi wa m., treasurer. 

MpandakaDya, 3, n., fork (of 
mucl wa m., a forked stick. 

Mpandu, 3, n.(Jrom handa, to 
split), tongs. This is a split 
stick and used by blacksmiths. 

Mpata, 3, n.y a plain, a treeless 
plateau, beach or shore, 
-a m., wild (as animal). 
lua ku m., to land, come to 

Mpatu, 3, n.{from Portuguese), 

Mpfttukilu, 3, n.(Jrom hfttuka, to 
go out), used in the ph. dltaku 
dla m. wa liuminsu meaning 

Mpelu, 3, n., stone for grinding 
grain (the one held in the 
hands), smoothing iron. 

Mpena, 3, n.(Eng.), pen (writing'. 

Mpencila, 3, «.(Eng.), pencil. 

Mpesa, 3, n.{from French), a piece 
of cloth eight yards long. 

Mpete, 3, n., used in ph. clombe 
cla mpete meaning the dried 
but unsoaked cassava root. 

Mpica, 3, n.(Eng.), pitcher, jug. 

Mpindeu, adv.y at once, imme- 
diately, directly, instantly, be- 
fore long, now, at once, pres- 
ently, soon,*forthwith. 
' Mpitolo, 3, n.(Jrom Eng. petro- 
leum), petroleum, coal oil. 

Mpoci, 3, n., a slang expression 
meaning beauty, handsome- 
-a m., beautiful, handsome, 

Mpokolo, 3, n.f spring, fountain, 
source of stream, well (though 
wells are unknown). 

MpoluJ, 3, «.(Eng.), porridge. 

Mponda, pi. of 3 or 4, «., millet. 
See note under wheat. 

Mpualala, 3, n., native cloth made 
from fibre of palm leaves. 



Mptkka, I, n.(pl. is bamptkka), 
doctor, medicine man, chann 
or fetish or idol maker, physi- 
cian, diviner, sorcerer, con- 
jurer. Note thai the word 
m&nga, generally follows mptk- 
This word is derived from hfika, 
to make medicine. 

Mpuku, ^jH.f a generic word mean- 
tng rat or mouse. 

Mpumbu, 3, n.f he goat. 

Mpungi, 3, n., trumpet, bugle, 
cornet, horn. 

Mpus, 3, n.(Jrom Eng. puss), do- 
mestic cat. 
muan'a m., kitten. 

Mputa, 3, n., sore, ulcer, cut, gash, 
wound, boil, abscess. 
tftha m., to wound. 

Mputu, 3, n.y the unknown foreign 
country of the white man. 
Perhaps this word is derived 
from a corruption of the 
name Portugal, for the Portu- 
guese were the earliest white 
settlers near the mouth of the 
Congo River. Hence the word 
might begin with a capital 
maluvu a m., imported wine. 
m. nyunyu, pigeon (tame). 
muena m., a foreigner. 

Mtt-, insep. verb prefix used as 
sub. conj.y as, just as, like. 

Mu, loc. prep.f in, into, inside, 
inside of, inward, among, 
through, within, out of, with- 
out. § 424 (i). 
mu nxlla, along the path. 
Contrast with ku and ha. 

Mua, loc. word used as adv.y to or 
at or unto the house or village 
of. § 87 (<f), Rem. 

Mua, adv.j used in indirect question 
constructions y followed by in fin., 
meaning how. § 472 {d). 

Muaba, 2, n., place, situation, 
position, room, space. 
di ne kaba (dimin.) kamue, to 
be near together, be next to 
each other, be in the same 
mu m. kamuena bantu, an un- 
inhabited place, desert. 
The cimin. kaba is used with the 
adjs. kab&le and kaklse 
meaning almost, nearly. 
Muabi, 2, n., good luck, fortune. 
di ne m., to be fortunate, be 

ena ne m., to be unfortunate, be 
Muadl, 2, n., the first wife married. 
cllonde, m., the first concubine, 
i.e., the second wife taken. 
Muadl, 2, n.f crying, wail, mourn- 
ing, weeping, lamentation, 
noise or sound of crying, roar 
(as lion), 
kosexa or hulxa ?£;}//( m., to com- 
fort, console, cheer up, cause 
to cease crying, pacify, soothe. 
Muadl, 2, n.(Buk.), large orna- 
mented mask used in dancing. 
Muadiktixl, i, n., mother of new- 
bom babe. 
Muaku, 2, n.f language, dialect, 
conversation, speech, talking, 
noise or report of human 
voices, sound of noise. 
-a m., noisy, quarrelsome. 
andamuna or kudlmuna with 

m., to translate, interpret. 
kosexa or xiklxa with m., to 

hush, quiet, quell, still. 

lekela m., to keep silence, stop 

talking, hush, be quiet, be 

silent, be still. 

Muakuldl, i, «., advocate, attorney, 

intercessor, lawyer, councillor. 

Muakullu, 2, n., language, dialect, 

speech, manner of speaking. 
Muakunyl, i, n., younger brother 
or sister, junior. 
mamu m., aunt (maternal aunt 
younger than the mother). 



Muakunyl {continued). 

muana wa m., nephew or niece 
or child of a younger brother 
or sister. 

muandam., seven. 

tatu m., uncle (paternal and 
younger than the father). 

This word, when meaning brother 

or sister, is usually followed by 

the poss. pro. enclitic. § 138, 

Rem. 2. 

Mualala, 2, n., comb of cock, back 

fin of fish. 
Muambi, i, «., teacher, instructor. 

m. wa bualu bua Nzambi, 
priest, minister, preacher, mis- 

m. wa malu kai manse kulua, 
prophet, seer. 

mukelenge wa bambi ba bualu 
bua Nzambi, high priest. 
Muambldi, i, n., teacher, instruc- 
Muambldidi, i, n., advocate, attor- 
ney, lawyer, intercessor, coun- 
Muamua, loc. adv. far, far away, 
beyond, remote, distant, there, 
thence, thither, yonder. There 
is always the idea of in or into. 
§ 163, Note 3. 

dlxia dia muamua, across, on 
the other side of. 
Muana, i, n., child, infant, off- 
spring, descendant, baby, the 
young of, seed, issue, servant, 
slave, subject, attendant, min- 

ena muan*abo ne, to be unlike, 
be dissimilar. 

muan*abo ne, mate, match, of 
same kind or sort or quality or 
character or species or variety, 
of like or similar kind. 

l^a.nsi(dimin.) kabixe, foetus, im- 
mature child, still-bom child. 

muan'a bute, first-bom child, 
eldest, senior. 

muan*a with mbftlabftla or 
mpus or kambixl, kitten. 

Muana (continued). 

muan'a mbuxl, kid. 

muan*a mukala, last-bom of 
youngest child. 

muan'a mukoko, lamb. 

muana muktixl, girl, daughter, 
female child. 

m. mulela, an own son or 
daughter or child, free/ an, 
free-born person. 

m. muluml, boy, son, male child. 

muan'a ngombe, calf. 

muan'a ngulube, pig. 

muan'a nktksa, toe. 

muan'a nkflsa munlne, great 

muan'a nsfthl, key. 

muan'a nxl, orphan. 

m. wa masandl, bastard, illegiti- 
mate child. 

m. wamuan'etu (§ 138, Rem. 5^, 
nephew, niece. 

m. wa muakunyl, child of a 
younger brother or sister, 
niece, nephew. 

m. wa with mukelenge or 
nfumu, prince. 

m. wa mukulu, child of an 
. elder brother or sister, niece, 

tula m., to abort, miscarry. 

The pi. has sense of posterity, 
progeny; also semen. 

The possessive enclitic forms 
muan'etu, etc., mean brother, 
sister, cousin, fellow citizen, 
neighbor, of same family or 
clan or tribe, relative, com- 
panion; the pi. bana betu, 
etc., means kindred, relatives, 
etc. § 138, Rem. 5. 

For the ph. muan'a see § 87 (i) 
and Rem. 
Muanda, 2, n., affair, business, care, 
concem, responsibility, case 
(law), cause, purpose, reason, 
matter, object, effect, result, 
sake, subject, circumstance, 
source, fault, palaver, danger, 
harm, diflficulty, doctrine, fact. 



Bfuanda {continued). 

account, narrative, discourse, 
m. mutekete(inuakunyi), seven. 
m. mukulu, eight. 
See bualu. 

Muanga, 2, »., quill of porcupine. 

Muanga, v/., to scatter, strew, dis- 
perse, put in confusion or dis- 
order, disarrange, derange, put 
out oJF order, confuse, exhaust 

Muangala, vi.j to scatter, migrate, 
move, remove, abandon or 
desert old village and move to 

Muansaltlka, vi., to be scattered 
or confused or deranged or 
disarranged, be in confusion or 
disorder, be out of order, be 
exhausted or spent or expended 

Muangalfixa, vt.y to scatter, strew, 
disperse, confuse, put in con- 
fusion or disorder, derange, 
disarrange, put out of order, 
exhaust or spend or expend 
recklessly, waste or squander. 

Muanjelo, i, n.(Jrom Greek), 

Bfuanu, 2, n., fable, parable, folk- 
lore, legend, story, saying, 
proverb, tale, illustration, ex- 
ela m., to tell or narrate a fable, 

Muau, 2, n., a yawn, gape. 
ela m., to yawn, gape. 

Muazankongolo, 2, n., rainbow. 

Mubambu, 2, »., oar, paddle. 

Itlubanga, 2, n., tusk of ivory. 

Mubangu, 2, n., brim, edge (of 
cup, plate, boat, etc.), margin, 
bank, rim. 

Mubanze, 2, n., bellows. 

Mubela, 2, «., cowry shell. 

Mubeyl, i, n., barber. 

Mubldi, 2, »., body, form, shape, 
-a m., mukille, healthy. 

Mubidi {continue:^). 

di ne m. mubl, to be unfortunate, 

be unlucky. 
di ne m. muimpe, to be fortunate, 

be lucky. 
ktksa m., to amend, grow better, 
convalesce, improve ii.' health, 
recover or revive, become well, 
be resuscitated. 
m. mubl, bad luck, misfortune, 

bad fortune, mishap. 
m. muimpe, good luck, fortune. 
m. mukHle, good health. 
m. mutekete, bad health. 
Mubombo, 2, n.j small bundle, 

pack, package, roll. 
Mubuabu, 2, n., jackal. 
Mubtkki, I, »., bridgeroom. This 
word is generally joUowed by 
ph. wa mukfixi. 
Mubfikibui, i, n.()rom the passive 
form btlkibua, to be married, 
from bfika, to marry), bride. 
This word is generally followed 
by ph. kudi mulumi. 
Mubuluke, i, n.{from buluka), 

lunatic, idiot, fool. 
Macaudi, 2, n., interference in 
another's business. 
dl ne m., to interfere with. 
Muci, 2, n., stick, tree, stake, log, 
post, beam, wood. 
-a m., wooden. 
^&ci(dimin.), splinter. 
m. muciamakane, cross (made 
by naiUng or fastening two 
sticks across each other). 
m. wa with cihanda or mpanda- 

kanya, a forked stick. 
m. wa with dibue or ditadi, 

m. wa kahia, match (lucifer). 
m. wa ml a mlkanda, pen 

m. wa mukanda, lead pencil. 
Mucima, 2, «., liver; used figu- 
ratively to mean heart, disposi- 
tion, soul, mind, will, spirit, 



Muclma {continued). 

-am., dishonest, covetous, fraud- 
ulei^t, roguish, thievish. 

-a m. mukttle, brave, fearless, 
courageous, daring, bold, val- 
iant, of strong heart, stern, im- 

-a m. with mutalale or muhole, 
content, satisfied. 

-a m. mutekete, humble, mod- 
est, penitent. 

-a m. wa mudlmu, diligent, in- 
dustrious, energetic, faithful. 

ela m., or tn. as subj. of samina 
or kumina, to covet, long for, 
yearn for. 

ela or elangana with m., to 
think, deliberate, muse, pon- 
der, consider, think about, 

handlka or lakala with m., to 
be frightened, be shocked, 
shudder, be anxious, be ex- 
cited, be terrified, be horrified, 
be terrorized. 

handixa or laktkxa with m., to 
frighten, horrify, alarm, scare, 
shock, terrify, terrorize. 

killexa m., to comfort, console, 
cheer up, encourage, soothe, 
take heart. 

kudimuna or andamuna with 
m., to change one's mind, re- 

m. mubl, carnal mind. 

m. mukille, bravery, courage, 

muena m., thief, rogue, robber. 

muena m. mutekete, coward. 

m. as subj. of nyingala or sama, 
to be grieved, be sorrowful, be 
melancholy, be sorry, be sad, 
be solicitous, be solemn, be 
penitent, be anxious, be mor- 
bid, regret, pine, repent. 

nema with m. as suhj.^ or di ne 
micimi ibidl, to hesitate, be 
uncertain about, falter, be 
fickle, vacillate, be double- 

Mucimbakane, i, n., a fool, one 

acting foolishly. 
Mucimbe, i, n., ^eemadmbakaDe. 
Mudianganyl, i, n., a cannibal. 
Mudianjidl, i, n., guide, conduct- 
tor, leader. 
Mudlma, 2, »., a large bat. 
Mudlmbl, 2, n., a continued rain. 

May he spelled mudumbi. 
Mudlmu, 2, n., work, occupation, 
vocation, calling, craft, busi- 
ness, profession, employment, 
service, task, labor, industry, 
-a muclma wa m., diligent, in- 
dustrious, energetic, faithful. 
dl ne m., to be busy. 
ha or buexa ku with m., to hire 

give work, engage, employ. 
k£ba m., to seek employment. 
kuaclla or eniela or enzexa 

with m., to work for, serve. 
kuata or enia or osa with m., 

to work, labor, toil. 
muena m., workman, laborer, 
Mudlnga, 2, n., used in ph. nyun- 
yu wa m., meaning a crane 
Mudlngl, I, n., liar, hypocrite, 

fraudulent person. 
Mudlngldl, 2, n., shadow, shade, 
likeness, picture, representa- 
tion, photograph, image (re- 
Mudloko, 2, n., any kind of vege- 
table or field product, such as 
corn, millet, rice, peas, Dota- 
toes, manioc, etc. 
Mudlu, 2, «., greediness, gluttony. 
-am., greedy, gluttonous. 
muena m., a glutton. 
Mudua, 2, «., bellows. 

Imba m., to blow bellows. 
Mue, declinable cardinal num. 
taking Secondary PrefixeSy one, 
single. § 92. 
m. ne m., separately, one at a 

• time. 
When modifying bunlne or bule 



Mue {continued). 

or bungly it means equal or 
same or even. 
Sometimes pronounced mo. 
Muedi, 2, »., beard, whiskers. 

m. wa ha muxuku, mustache. 
Muehu, 2, n., head of millet. 
Mueka, vi.y see mueneka. 
Muele, 2, n.j knife, blade of knife, 
kele(<f*/»t».), pocket knife, table 

m. wa nvita, sword. 
m. wa nvula, flash of lightning. 
Muelelu, 2, »., edge, limit, margin, 
boundary, border, rim, side, 
beach, shore, bank, brink, 
Mueml, I, n.y one who makes the 

palm wine. 
Muena, i, n.{this word always pre- 
cedes the noun or some wo d 
used CLS a noun and comes to 
have an adjective force [§84 
{b)\ person, citizen of, native 
of, countryman or inhabitant 
of, member of, of the nation 
or tribe or clan of, of the party 
of, people of, owner of, pos- 
sessor of, proprietor of. 
bena kale, forefathers. 
m. buowa, coward. 
m. dilongexa, a catechumen. 
m. kuetu, etc., neighbor, fellow 
citizen, fellow countryman. 
§ 141, Rem. I. 
m. mablya, carpenter, sawyer. 
m. mikanda, pupil, scholar. 
m. mudimu, workman, laborer. 
m. tuxola, a brick mason. 
Muendakanyl, i, n.y a wanderer, 

wayfarer, pilgrim, traveler. 
Muendl, 2, n., used with the ph. m. 
ku muoyo meaning nausea, 
sickness at stomach. 
di ne m. ku muoyo, to be 
nauseous, be sick at stomach. 
Mueneka, vi.^ to appear, come into 
view or sight, emerge from 
hidden or secluded place, be 

Mueneka {continued). 

exposed to view, be visible, 
be found, be conspicuous, be — ' 
seen, seem, show one^s self. 
neg. of m., to be invisible. 

Muenena, vt., to l^k after for, 
keep for. / 

Muenexa, vt., to shjbw to, point out 
to, indicate to: 

Muenge, 2, n., sugar-cane. 

Muenu, 2, n., suggested word for 

Muenxi, 2, »., moon'^ month. 
See ngondo. 

Muenyl, i, »., gu^t, visitor, 

Muenyl, 2, n., smell, scenL odor. 

Muenie, 2, n., cricket (edih^le). 

Muetu, loc. adv., in our village or 
town. § 140. 

Muevu, 2, «., beard, whiskers. 
m. wa ha muxuku, mustache. 

Muexl, 2, «., ditch, rut, gulley. 

Muflmbl, I, n., a potter. 

May also be spelled mufulmbl. 

Muflta, 2, »., darkness, gloomi- 

Mufuba, 2, n.y bone. 

ialfuha.{pl.), carcass, skeleton. 

Mufuba, I, n.y an idle or trifling 
or slow or worthless or sluggish 
or lazy or indolent person, 
sluggard. This word is used 
as noun, not as adj. 

Mufudl, I, n.{from fula), black- 

Mufudl, 2, «., wrinkle, crease. 

Mufufa. 2, n.y bone. 

mlfufa(/>/.), carcass, skeleton. 

Mufumbl, I, n.y a potter. 

Mufunda, 2, n., a line or mark or 
scratch or trace or track made 
on the ground or on paper. 

Mu fundi, I, n., scribe, writer, secre- 

Muhala, 2, n., a species of antelope. 

Muhale, i, »., a fool, idiot, lunatic* 

Muhandlxl, i, »., savior, mediator. 



Muhftnu, 2, n., trousers, pants, 
pantaloons, breeches. PL 
generally used. 
ela m., to put on trousers. 
mikftba ya m., suspenders, 
Muhenyl, 2, »., see mukenyl. 
Muh^sa, 2, n., testicle. 
Muhiankunde, 2, n., young man, 

youth, boy, lad. 
Muhlanyl, i, n.{jrom hlana), heir. 
Muhlka, I, n., slave, servant, sub- 
ject; attendant. 
lulxa m., to enslave. 
muhikudi, I, n.{from hikula), re- 
Muhola, 2, n., stripe, band. 

dl mihola, to be striped. 
Muhongo, 2, n.y witchcraft, sor- 
cery. There is also a second- 
ary meaning oj cleverness, in- 
geniousness, dexterity, inge- 
nuity, skill, skilfulness. 
dl ne m., clever, ingenious, skil- 
muena m., witch, demon, devil, 
sorcerer, conjurer, wizard. 
Muhote, I, n., a fool, stupid per- 
son, idiot, ignoramus, simple- 
ton, dunce. Cf. hota. 
MuhCkl, I , n., doctor, medicine man, 
maker of medicines or charms 
or fetishes, diviner, physician, 
sorcerer, conjurer. This word 
is followed by -a mangra. 
Muhumbakane, i, n., a fool, one 

acting foclishly. 
Muhuya, 2, n., breath, smell or 
scent or odor (good or bad). 
-a m. mulmpe, fragrant. 
ela m., to blow the breath, ex- 
huta m., to draw the breath. 
m. xnabl, bad smell or odor, 

stench, stink, fetidness. 
m. muimpe, good odor or smell, 
flavor, fragrance, aroma. 
MuibI, I, n.(from Iba), thief, rogue, 
robber, dishonest or fraudulent 

Mulhi, loc. adv. or prep.{made up 
of mu and ihl, short), near 
(in). § 79- 

Mulhikl, I, n.f cook. 

Mulhu, I, »., nephew, niece. Re- 
fers only to child of a man*s 
older or younger sister. 
See note under nephew. 

Mulkilu, I, n.y grandchild. 

Mulla, 2, n.y proboscis, trunk. 

Muilu, 2, n.y clan, tribe, nation, 

Mulma, 2, n.y loaf of bread. 

Muinda, 2, n.{doubtless from Lower 
Congo), candle, lamp, light. 
May be spelled muendu. 

Mttlnu, 2, n.y beak, bill. 
tua m., to peck. 

Muinxi, 2, n., pestle. 

Mulnxl, 2y n.y smoke. 

fulma m., to smoke (as burning 

Multu, he. word made up of mu 

and the root of ditu, forest, 

meaning in the forest. § 47, 

Rem. , 

-a m., wild (as animal). 

Muivi, I, n.y thief, rogue, robber, 
dishonest or fraudulent person, 

Mulyidl, I, n.{from lylla), pupil 
scholar, student, disciple, 

muiyixi, i, «., teacher, instructor, 

Mujike, I, n.y unmarried or single 
person, maid, virgin, bachelor. 

Mujllu, 2, n.y artery, vein. 
May be spelled xnuxllu. 

Mukala, 2, n.y used in the ph» 
xnuan'a m. meaning last Vom 
or youngest child. 

Mukalu, 2, n.y dividing line or 
boundary line between two 
fields, border, mark, limit. 

Makana, 2, n.y mouth. . 

diangana m., to move one's lips 

without speaking. 
kumansana m., to smack the 



Mukanda, 2, n., book, letter, note, 
epistle, contract, photograph, 
picture, paper. Doubtless from 
Lower Congo. 

kuata mu m., to take a photo- 
graph or picture. 

ml a mlkanda, ink. 

muci wa ml a mlkanda, pen 

mucl warn., lead-pencil. 

muena mlkanda, pupil, scholar, 

m. wa buhlanyl, will, testament. 

m. wa dllongexa, catechism. 

mu mlkanda, to school. 
Mukandu, 2, »., a neg. command or 
commandment or ordinance or 
proclamation or regulation or 
law or rule, disapproval, re- 
fusal, prohibition. This word 
is jrom v. kanda. 

ela m., to issue or make a neg. 
command, etc. 
Mukau, 2, n.y envy, jealousy. 

-a m., jealous, envious. 
Mukele, 2, n., salt. 
Mukelekele, 2, n., gravy, broth, 

Mukelenge, i, n., chief, lord, king, 
master, nobleman, governor, 
prince, ruler. 

dl m., to reign, rule, be chief. 

dl m. wa, to reign over, rule 
over, govern. Lukengu udl 
m. wa Bakuba, Lukengu 
reigns over the Bakuba. 

muana wa m., prince. 

m. wa, owner, possessor, pro- 

m. muktixl, queen, mistress, 
female chief. 

m. wa bambl ba bualu bua 
Nzambi, high priest. 

m. wa nsubu wa maxlka, 

m. wa Nzambi, missionary, min- 
JHukfima, 2, n., a groan, moan, 
grunt of pain. 

tua m., to groan, moan, grunt. 

Mukenji, 2, »., message, command- 
ment, order, ordinance, direc- 
tion, command, proclamation. 
amba m., to deliver a message, 
issue a decree or proclamation. 
muena m., messenger, herald, 

Mukenya, 2, n., flea. 

Mukenyl, 2, n., flash of lightning. 
The ph. wa nvula generally 
follows this word. 

Mukete, 2, «., arrow with iron 

Muklla, 2, n., tail of animal or 

Muklnda, 2, n., fish-trap made in 
shape of basket. 

Muklxl, 2, n., bank of earth piled 

Muklxl, 2, »., bogie, spectre, ghost 
or spirit of the dead, appari- 
tion, hobgoblin, demon, devil, 
large ornamented mask used 
in dancing. 

Muklya, 2, n., a mode of wearing 
the cloth by drawing it up be- 
tween the legs; hence trousers, 
pants, pantaloons, breeches. 
ela m., to gird up the loins, tuck 
up loin cloth, put on pants. 

Mukoko, 2, n., sheep. 
muan*a m., lamb. 

Mukolo, 2, «., lower part of leg 
from knee down, lower part of 
hind leg of animals. 
dlfu dla m., calf of leg. 
muongo wa m., shin. 

Mukolokolo, 2, n., handle of cup. 

Mukono, 2, «., hoof, mark or print 
or trace or trail or track of 
hoof, footprint. 
londa mlkona, to track, trace, 

m. muhandlke, cloven foot. 

Mukosa, 2, «., hindrance, inter- 
ruption, interference, opposi- 
tion, slander, backbiting, cal- 
ela m., to interfere with the 
business or friendship of two 



Mukosa (continued). 

persons, oppose, thwart, with- 
stand, frustrate. 
muena m., backbiter, calumnia- 
tor, slanderer. 

Muku, I, n.y father-in-law, mother- 
in-law. Used only by the hus- 
bandy never by the wife. 

Mukua, I, n.(derived from the loc. 
word kua and always precedes 
the noun or some word used <is 
a noun and comes to have an 
adj. force), one from a certain 
village, one from a certain 
tribe or nation or clan, people 
of, inhabitant of, countryman 
of, man or woman of, native 
of, person of. Compare with 
muena. § 87 (J), Rem. 2. 

Mukuabo, loc. adv. (made up of mu 
and adj. kuabo), elsewhere, 
somewhere else. § 370. 

Muktkba, 2, H., belt, girdle, strap, 
mlktkba ya mih&nu, suspenders, 

Mukudl, 2, »., rope, wick. 

Mukuekue, 2, n., cackling. 
tuta or ela with m., to cackle. 

Mukuetu, I, n., our or my neighbor 
or fellow countr3mian or fellow 
citizen. § 142. 

Mukuha, 2, n., bone. 

iiilkuha(^/.), carcass, skeleton. 

Mukuhu, 2, n., bad odor or smell 
or scent, stench, stink. 
nunka m., to emit a stench, 

JHukulu, I, w., elder <>r oldest brother 
or sister, a senior, an elder. 
When meaning elder brother 
or sister the word is generally 
combined insep. with the poss. 
pro. enclitic. § 138, Rem. 2. 
muana wa m., nephew, niece. 

Mukuliunpe, i, n., elder, an old 

Mukuma, 2, «., report or noise or 
sound of gun. 

Mukumbl, 2, n., locust. 

Mukumu, 2, n., a blow, a strike, 

a lick. 
Mukuna, 2, n., hill, mountain, 

ridge, eminence. 
Mukungrula, 2, n.ijrom knnsula), 

rolling thunder. 
Mukunyi, i, n., planter, sower. 
Mukuolo, 2, n.y midrib of palm, 

Mukflxl, I, n., woman, wife, con- 
-a bakflxl, feminine. 
clania cia bakftxl, left hand. 
mukelenge mukfixl, mistress, 

queen, female chief. 
m. wa lufnlla, a widow. 
m. wa masandi, harlot, whore, 

m. wa muan'etu, sister-in-law 

(wife of brother). 
tattt m., aunt (on father's side). 
This word sometimes follows the 
noun with the force of an adj. 
meaning femaie. The same 
idea may often be expressed by 
the ph. mukAxl'a preceding 
the noun. Hence we have 

[§ S6 (*)]: 

muana m., girl, daughter. 

inukfixl*a mbua, bitch. 

inukfixi*a mbuxi, a she goat. 

muktlxl'a ngombe, cow. 

muktkxi'a ngulube, sow. 
Muktkxlana, i, n., a woman whose 

name you have forgotten or 

do not care to trouble with 

mentioning. § 353. 
Mul&bi, 2, «., handle of hoe, etc. 
Mul&m&cl, I, n., attendant, ad- 
herent, retainer, follower. 
bal&m&cl(^/.), retinue. 
m. wa Satana, devil or demon 

(in Biblical sense). 
Mulambl, i, n., cook. 
Mulambu, 2, «., tax, tribute, duty. 
Mulftmi, I, n.f watchman, guard, 

keeper, shepherd, herdsman, 

overseer, sentry, sentinel, 

m. wa bantu baNzambl, bishop. 



Blul&mi {continued). 

m. wa with mpalata or bintu, 

m. wa nsubu wa maxlka, jailor. 

Mulanda, 2, n.y a species of rodent. 

Mulangala, 2, n., switch, rod. 

Mulau, 2, «., doom, woe, curse, 
damnation, judgment, ill wish, 
condemnation, anathema. 
ela m., to doom, curse, wish ill 
to, damn, anathematize. 

Mulayl, 2, n., promise. 

Mule, loc. adv. (made up o/mu and 
adj le, long), see kule. 

Muledi, I, n.(Jrom lela), a woman 
who has borne children. 

Mulelexi, i, n., midwife, accou- 

Mulembulembu, 2, n., white of an 
egg. PI. generally used. 

Mulemu, 2, n. (sometimes pro- 
nounced mulomo), lip, brim, 
rim, edge (of cup, etc.), spout 
(of kettle). 
See muxuku. 

Mulemu, 2, »., trigger of gun. 

Mulemu, 2, n., bowstring. 

Mulenga, 2, n., a strip of cloth. 

Mulengalenga, 2, n., a kind of 

Muloho, 2, n., messenger, herald, 
apostle, disciple, ambassador. 
m. muowexananglla, God. 
See note under God. 

Mulombl, I, »., beggar. 

Mulombodl, i, n., guide, leader, 

Mulonda, 2, n., barrel of gun, 

Mulonda, 2, n., nail, screw. 

Mulondo, 2, n.j water-pot, jar, 
bottle, jug. 

Mulonga, 2, n., winged ant (edi- 

Mulongo, 2, n.y row, file, rank, 
line, train, procession, series. 
-a m. umue, of same age. 
dl mu m., to be in line. 
Imfina mu m., to stand in line. 
teka mu m., to put in line. 

Muloxl, 2, n., see note under 

Mtllu, loc. adv. (made up ofmu and 
the insep. ulu), up, overhead, 
on high, above, over, upwards. 
§ 423 (2) (b). 

Mulumbuludi, i, n.y a judge, arbi- 

Mulumbululdl, i, n., attorney, law- 
yer, advocate, intercessor,coun- 

Mulumi, I, «., man, husband, the 
male of. 
-a baluml, masculine. 
cianza cia balumi, right hand. 
muanam., boy, son. 
m. wa lufuila, a widower. 
m. wa ngombe^ bull. 
m. wa ngulube, boar. 
This word sometimes follows the 
noun with the force of an adj. 
meaning male. The same idea 
may he expressed by the 
phrases muluml*a and mu- 
lumi wa preceding the noun. 
§ S6 (ft). 

Mulumlana, i, n., a man whose 
name you have forgotten or 
do not care to bother with 
mentioning. §353. 

Mulunda, i, w., friend, companion, 

Mulundu, 2, n.y hollow in tree. 

Mulundu, 2, n.y tail of bird. 

Mulunga, 2, n.y the inside of an 
egg (white or yolk). 

Mulungu, 2, n.y poison. Generally 
preceded by the ph. buanga 

Muma, 2, n.y a species of snake. 

Mumanda, loc. adv. or prep. (made 
up of mu and the insep. man- 
da), down in a bottom (val- 
ley). § 423 (2) (b). 

Mume, 2, n.y dew. 

Mumlamlnyl, i, n.y sower. 

Mumlnu, 2, n., throat. 

kuata ha m., to choke (as food), 

taldxa or holexa with ha m,, 



Mamlna (^continued). 

to satisfy or slake or quench or 
appease thirst. 
Mumonyi, i, n., watchman, senti- 
nel, sentry, keeper, overseer, 
Momue, loc. adv. {made up of ma 
and mue, one), in same place, 
in one place, together. \ 79. 
Mumuemue, 2, n., smile, grin. 

tua mimuemue, to smile, grin. 
Mmnuenenyi, i, n., watchman, 

MtunOiiyi, i, n., witness, one 

Mmnflnyixl, i, n., instructor, 

MOna, vt., to finish, bring to end, 
complete, terminate, perfect, 
conclude, be done, be ready. 
m. kacecl, to menstruate. 
m. miota, to quench or satisfy or 

slake or appease thirst. 
neg. of m., to be incomplete, be 

May he spelled mana. 
Munanga, 2, n., drought, dryness. 
Munda, U>c. word{made up of mu 
and the insep. nda), abdomen, 
belly, the inside of, the interior, 
stomach, womb. §423(2) (6) . 
-a m., internal, inward. 
flka m., or dl ne m. muflke, to 
be annoyed, be vexed, be wor- 
ried, be aggravated, be en- 
raged, be provoked. 
flkixa m., to annoy, vex, worry, 
aggravate, anger, enrage, exas- 
perate, displease, irritate, pro- 
voke, tease, tantalize, torment, 
huya or ela or uha with m., to 
run off at bowels, have diar- 
kuma m., to beat (heart), pul- 
m. mua clanza, palm of hand. 
m. mua dlkfisa, sole of foot. 
m. munya, midday, noon. 

MuDda {continued). 

m. as subj. of nyenga, to be con- 
tokexa m., to apolog^ize. 
Some seem to say mundu for 
inside, etc., and munda for 
abdomen, tfelly, etc. 

Mundankulu, loc. adv., midnight. 
Made up of munda and the 
insep. nkulu. § 423 (2) (6). 

Mundldlmbl, 2, n., shadow, shade, 
photograph, likeness, picture, 
representation, image (reflec- 

Mundongo, 2, n., shuttle of loom. 

Munemu, loc. adv., in here, herein, 
hence, hither. § 163, Note 2. 
Sometimes pronounced muno- 

Munfl, 2, n., vagina(7). 

Munga, loc. adv. (made up of mu 
and adj. nga), e&ewhere, 
somewhere else. § 370. 

Mungulumungu, 2, n., a kind of 
European cloth. 

Munkflci, he. adv. or prep. {made 
up of mu and the insep. 
nktkci), among, in the midst, 
in amorg, in the middle, be- 
tween, in the center. § 423 

(2) (i). 

Munkulu, loc. adv. {made up of mu 
and the insep. nkulu), midst, 
middle. This word has much 
the same use and construction as 
munktkci. §423(2) (6). Com^ 
pare mundankulu. 

Munomu, he. adv., see munemu. 

Muntlnyl, i, n., a person whose 
name you have forgotten or do 
not know or do not care to 
trouble with mentioning. §353, 

Muntu, I, «., person, somebody, 
man (generic) ; sometimes used 
also as slave or person, 
bantu (/>/.), people, population, 

mankind, folk. 
bantu ba Niambl, the church 
(members of). 



Miintu (continued). 

bantu bonso, everybody. 

m. kal Muyuda, a Gentile. 

m. mubl, sinner, transgressor, 
villain, rascal. 

m. mudlxikamine, a freeman, 
free-born person. 

m. muk&le, an adult, grown 

m. muldma, a lame person. 

m. wa bende, freeman, free- 
born person. 

m. wa cituha, dwarf, deformed 

m. wa mu nsubu wa maxika, a 

m. wa Nzambi, Christian, mem- 
ber of church. 
Muntu, loc. adv., see kuntu. 
Muntuntu, 2, n., cricket (edible). 
Munu, 2, n., finger. 

dlnungtt dia m., knuckle. 

ku minu, in the hand. 

m. munlne wa dikAsa, great 

m. wa dikftsa, toe. 

tony a minu, to clench the fist. 

This word is used in indicating 
the size of the moon. See 


Munxi, loc. adv. or prep. (made up 
of mu and the insep, nxi),. 
below, beneath, under, under- 
neath, down under, downward, 
to or on the bottom of. § 423 

(2) (&). 

m. mua, down in. 
mutu m., headlong. 
Munya, 2, «., daylight, daytime, 

light of sun, sunshine, heat or 

warmth or brightness of sun. 
cidimu cia m., summer, warm 

dlnda to ne ku munda m., from 

early morning till noon, all 

the forenoon. 
munda m., noon, midday. 
Ota m., to bask, warm one's self 

in the sunshine. 

Munya, v., to be able, can, know, 
comprehend, have experience, 
perceive, be conscious of, be 
aware of, recognize or remem- 
ber a person, understand, 
apprehend, see. 
m. maltt onso, to be omniscient. 
neg. of m.y to be ignorant, be 
unaware, be insensible or un- 
conscious of, be unknown, be 
m. mua followed by infin.y be 
able to do, can do, know how 
to do, be capable or competent 
of doing, be qualified for, be 
neg. of m. followed by mua and 
infin., to be impossible, be 
unable, be incompetent, be 
neg. of m. followed by mua 
kttb&la, to be innumerable or 
Perhaps this word can also be 
spelled manya. 
Munyanga, 2, n., fibre of the palm 

leaves used in weaving cloth. 
Munyangl, i, «., spendthrift, prodi- 
gal. Generally followed by wa 
Munyanvudi, 2, n., the silk of com. 
Munyasu, 2, «., switch, rod, whip. 
Munyeml, i, «., fugitive, refugee. 
Munyenga, 2, «., earthworm. 
Munyengi, i, «., highway robber, 

highwayman, brigand. 
Munyi? interrog. adv., how? 
what? what is the matter? 
for what cause or reason or 
purpose? why not? § 177. 
buie m.? how far? how long? 
bungl m.? how many? how 
Munyinyi, 2, «., meat, flesh. 
clanza cia m., left hand. 
m. wa mu ml, fish. 
m. wa n gem be, beef. 
m. wa ngulube, bacon. 



MAnylxa, vi.f to finish, complete, 
terminate, bring to end, per- 
fect, conclude, be done. 
Perhaps this word can also he 
spelled manytxa. 

MAnyixa, vt., to teach, instruct, 
inform, educate, explain to, 
discipline, make aware of, 
m. buala babl, to lead astray, 
entice, lure, allure, tempt, 
seduce, spoil. 
Perhaps this word can also he 
spelled manyixa. 

Munyonira, 2, n.(Buk.), chisel 
with which the palm is tapped 
for wine. 

MunyunKu, 2, n., sieve, sifter. 

Mttofo, 2, n.y navel. 

Mttomba, 2, n., stocks. 

Muomunitte, loc. adv., in the same 
place, together. § 96, Rem 2. 
di m., to be equal, be like or 
alike or identical, be the same 
as, be correct, be of same or 
similar sort or kind or quality 
or character or species or 
variety, be mate or match, re- 
semble, agree. 
ena m., to differ, vary, be differ- 
ent or unlike or unequal or 
uneven, be diverse. 
Compare with hohamue. 

Muomuo, loc. adv.y there (in), 
thence, thither, yonder. § 163, 
Note 4. 

Maongo, 2, n., back of knife blade, 
backbone or spine of body. 
m. wa mukolo, shin. 

Mttonso, loc. adv. {made up of mu 
and adj. onso, all), everywhere, 
anywhere, somewhere, where- 
soever. § 371, Rem. 
Compare with kuonso and hon- 

Muosa, 2, n.f whistling (with the 
ela m., to whistle. 

Muoxl, 2, n., string, vine or creeper 
used for tying, cord, line, rope. 

Maoyo, 2, n., life, kernel, or germ or 
embryo of seed, salvation, salu- 
tation or compliments or greet- 
ing or respects or regards, used 
in figurative sense to express 
heart or breast or conscience or 
memory or mind or will or 
soul or spirit. 

dl ne m., to be alive, be living. 

ela m., to hope. 

endexa ka m., to nauseate, make 
sick at stomach, sicken. 

ha dr ela with m., to thank, be 
grateful or thankful to. 

ha or ela or ebexa with m., to 
give compliments or respects 
or regards or salutation or 
greeting, salute, greet, hail, say 
adieu or farewell or good-bye. 

hela m., to give respects for 

hua m., or m. wakohna, to for- 
get, miss, overlook, omit. 

kftlexa m., take heart. 

kudimuna or andamuna with 
m., to change one's mind, re- 

muendi ka m., nausea, sickness 
at stomach. 

m. as subj. of enda with the per 
son as ohj.y or di ne muendi 
kum., or ku m. kudi kuenda, 
to be nauseous, be sick at 

m. as subj. of nyingala or sama, 
to be grieved, be melancholy, 
be sad, sorrowful, be sorry, be 
penitent, regret, repent. 

samlna or kumina with m., to 
covet, long after, yearn for. 
Musa, 2, w., hard part of palm nut 
after the oily skin has been 
taken ofif, testicle. 
Mtts&bu, 2, n.y mush, gruel. This 
word is doubtless from s&ba, to 
Mttsakftci, 2, n.y a musical instru- 
ment made by putting seeds 
into a gourd, a rattle. 



Musala, 2, «., edge, border, limit, 
margin, boundary, side of, bank 
or beach or shore or coast. 
Musambu, 2, n., hymn, song, tune, 

Musamu, 2, n., pillow. 
Musanda, 2, n., intestinal worm.. 
Musangu, 2, n., time. 
misangu ibidi, twice. 
mlsangtt Is&tu, thrice. 
misangu ya bungl, often, fer- 

m. mnibidl, second time. 
m. muihl, short time, short while. 
m. mukuabo, next time. 
m. mule, long time, long time 

ago, long while. 
m. umue, once, one time. 
Musangu, 2, n., long stick with 

which boat is pushed along. 
Mus&sa, 2, n., basket or cage in 

which fowls are carried. 
Musau, 2, n.j pestle. 
Museba, 2, n.y a kick, stamping. 
tua m., to kick. 

tua m. hanxl, to stamp or tramp 
or tread heavily. 
Musekei^ke, 2, n., flower of the 

Musele, 2, n., bud, sprout. 
Musenga, 2, «., powder (anything 

Musengeleke, 2 n., stalk of corn. 
Musenxl, i, n., a bushman, bar- 
barian, uncivilized person. 
This is an imported word, 
Musesu, 2, n.y highway. 
Musodl, 2, n.y lizard. 
Musoko, 2, n.y village, town, city. 
misoko yonso, the world (figu- 

m. wa Nzambl, heaven. 
The pi. of this word may be used 
to express the idea of country, 
land, region, section, district, 
dominion, kingdom. 
Musokoko, 2, n.y secret, mystery. 
-a m., mysterious, unknown. 
Sometimes pronounced musoko. 

Musomono, 2, n., quill of porcu- 
Musonga, 2, »., top or ridge of 

Musongi, I, n.y a carver (of wood). 
m. wa mpingu, a maker of 
charms, fetishes, etc. 
Musonguedl, i, w., traitor, back- 
biter, slanderer. 
Musoso, 2, n,, foreskin. 

dl ne m., to be uncircumcised. 
Musoxl, 2, n.y gravy, soup, broth. 
Musuasu, 2, n.y white ant, termite. 
Musul, 2, n.y a rattle (used as 

musical instrument). 
Musulu, 2, n.y river, brook, creek, 

Musundu, 2, n.y see musoso. 
Musundu, 2, n.y leech. 
Musungi, I, n.y peacemaker, recon- 
Musungidi, I, n.y defender, de- 
liverer, mediator, savior, re- 
Musunsa, 2, n., time. 
misunsa ibidi, twice. 
misunsa is&tu, thrice. 
misunsa ya bungl, often, fre- 
m. mulbldi, second time. 
m. umue, once, one time. 
See musangu. 
Mutaku, 2, n.y brass rod, wire cut 
into short pieces and used as 
Mutamba, 2, «., ridge-pole of house, 
long pole supporting veranda. 
Mutanda, 2, n., loaf of bread. 
Mutandala, 2, n., ridge-pole of 
house, long pole supporting 
Mutangadikl, i, »., name appHed 
colloquially to the native 
Christian evangelist; may per- 
haps also be used for apostle, 
disciple, minister. 
Mutangadlxl, i, n.y spendthrift, 
prodigal. Generally followed 
by wa blntu. 
MutangalAxl, see mutangadlxl. 



Mutang^ldl, i, n., watchman, sen- 
try, sentinel, keeper, overseer, 
Mutanta, 2, n., crack, crevice, 
flaw, leak. 
tubuka m., to spring a leak. 
Mtttliyo, 2, n.(Jrom tftya), talking, 
hubbub, disturbance, noise, 
fuss, palaver, wrangle, wrang- 
ling, row, sound of noise, quar- 
rel, trouble. 
•am., noisy, quarrelsome. 
kosexa or zikixa with m., to 

quell, quiet, still, hush. 
lekela m., to be silent, stop talkr 
ing, hush, be quiet, keep 
silence, be still. 
tekam., to disturb, make trouble, 
or palaver. 
Mntelenge, 2, n., loaded cartridge 
or shell for gun. 
m. wa lutende, a loaded car- 
tridge for rifle, a bullet, ball. 
m. wa tundimba, loaded shell 
for shotgun. 
Mutempexi, i, «., diviner, doctor, 

sorcerer, conjurer. 
Mutendelelu, 2, n., prayer (as to 

Mtttengu, 2, n., used in the ph. 
clngoina cla, m. a flint-lock 
Mutentekedl, i, «., eavesdropper, 

Mutete, 2, n., a kind of greens. 
Mtttomboke, i, n., a fool, idiot, 

Mutonda, 2, n., grain of corn, seed. 
Mutoto, 2, n., star. 

m. mutuke, meteor. 

Mtttu, 2, «., head, source of stream, 

summit, top, pinnacle, dream, 


-a ktt m., the first, the foremost. 

ha in. ha, on top of, over the top 

of, above, overhead. 
kabalabala ka m., skull. 
ku m., first, forward, forwards, 
at the head of, at the front of, 
at the front part of, at upper 

Mutu {continued). 

"end or front end, up-river, up- 
ku m. kututau, bareheaded. 
Iftta m., to dream, have a vision. 
m. with mubele or musame, 

m. munxl, headlong. 
m. wa dibele, nipple of breast. 
m. wa iubansa, first wife taken. 

Mutuadl, I, n.y a carrier, por- 
ter. Generally jollowed by wa 
batuadl, caravan. 

Mutubu, 2, «., ditch, rut, trench, 

Mutudi, I, n., blacksmith. 

Matumi, I, n.y leader of a tune. 

Mtttunda, 2, n., ant-hill made by 
the bintunte. 

Mtttungula, i, n.(Jrom tungula), a 

Mututu, 2, n.y a blow, a kick. 

Mututu, 2, n.y navel. 

Muviele, i, «., mother of new-born 

Muvumbi, 2, n.y a continued rain. 

Muvungu, 2, «., a roll or bundle or 
pack or package made by roll- 
ing up. 

Muxa, 2, n.y wind from bowels. 
ela m., to break wind. 

MuxangI, 2, «.(Buk.), corpse, dead 
body of person, spirit or ghost 
of the dead, apparition, hob- 
goblin, bogie, demon, devil. 

Muxete, 2, n., box, trunk, chest, 

Muxl, 2, n.y root. 

Muxiba, 2, n.y barrel of gun, stem 
of pipe, tube. 

Mttxib&le, I, n.y a fool, idiot, ig- 
noramus, simpleton, dunce. 

Muxlhi, I, n.y murderer. 

Muxltaianganyl, i, n., murderer. 

Muxltau, 2, n.y the dry season 
(lasting, south of the equator, 
from May to September), 
winter, drought. 



Muxikankunde, 2, n.y lass, maid, 
maiden, damsel, young wo- 
man, virgin, girl. 
Bfuxlkl, 2, n., pile or heap of earth. 
Muximi, !,«., liar, hypocrite, fraud- 
ulent person. 
Muxinda, 2, n., oil from the kernel 

of palm nut. 
MuxinKa, 2, »., price, value, worth, 
bargain, cost, expense, trade. 

•a m. muk&le, costly, dear, ex- 
pensive, precious, valuable. 

-a m. mutekete, cheap, worth- 
less, of little account. 

bandlxa or kUlexa with m., to 
put up the price, make costly 
or precious or dear or expen- 

enda m., to trade, buy and sell, 
barter, deal in. 

endulula m. muimpe, to gain 
by trading, profit. 

huekexa or tekexa or tentulula, 
wUh m., to beat down or lower 
or reduce or decrease the price. 

ngenda wain., trader, merchant. 
tua nu, to drive a bargain, talk 
a trade* 
Muxinfi^a^ 2, «., string, cord, line, 
rope, twine. 

m. wa bute, net for catching 
animals, a hunting net. 

m. wa ndadika, net for catching 
fish (it lies in the water, hence 
the name ndadika from lala, 
to lie). 

Sometimes pronounced mujinga. 

Bfuxobo, 2, w., pliability, pliable- 

ness, flexibility, suppleness. 

-a m., pUable, pliant, bendable, 
flexible, supple. 

May he spelled mujobo. 
Muxoxo, 2, n.y switch, rod, whip. 
JHuxuku, 2, n.y lip, edge of cup or 
plate, brim, rim, spout of 

-am. wambelu, of the family of. 

dituaya dia m., napkin, servi- 

m. wa cingoma, muzzle of gun. 

Muxuku (conlinued). 
m. wa diulu, nostril. 
m. wa mbelu, entrance, door- 
tuangana m., to kiss. 
Muyuda, i, n.y a Jew. Perhaps 
also Mujuda(i). 


Nana, vLy to dun, ask one to pay a 

Nanga, v/., to cook or roast by 
drying before a fire on a spit, 
Some say nana. 

Nanga, vt.y see sua. 

Nanga, vLy to admonish, rebuke, 
correct, discipline, reprove, re- 
proach, scold, restrain, govern, 
control, manage. 

Nanyi, neg. adv.y no. 

Nata, 3, n.y north(Eng.). 

Naxa, neg. adv.y used as follows: 
(i) As neg. answer to question; 
aSy neuye kumusoko? Naxa, 
are you going to the village? 

(2) Occasionally to strengthen a 
neg. sentence; aSy ciena nya 
naxa, I am not going, no. 

(3) To express the idea of 
either ... or. § 433. 

Nay a, vi.y to play, sport. 

n. ne, to play with, have fun with, 

Nayixa, vt.y to play with, have fun 

with, jest or joke with, amuse, 

Ncito, 3, w.(Eng.), store. 
Ndadika, 3, n7{jrom lala, to lie), 

used in ph. muxinga wa n. 

meaning a kind of net left in 

the water to catch fish. 
Ndende, 3, «., trigger or spring of 

trap or snare. 
teya n., to set a trap or snare. 
Ndoho, 3, n.y fish-hook. 
Some say luloho. 



Ndudi, 3, n.f good aim (gun). 

Nduhttkilu, 3, n.(Jrom luhuka, to 
go out), used in ph. ditnku 
dia n. wa LuminKU, meaning 

Ndnndu, 3, n.y india-rubber, caout- 
chouc, croquet ball. 

Ndunga, 3, n., a kind of European 

Ne, conj.j and, also, beside, along 
with, with, by means of. There 
is ojten a prepositional idea. 
In Direct Discourse construc- 
tions ne has the force of thai. 

§ 4S5 (ft) (2). 
di ne, to have, own, possess, con- 
hehi ne, near to. 
ku . . . to ne ku, from ... to 

or till or until. 
ne . . . ne, both . . . and, 

whether ... or. 
See § 426, Rem. 3. 

Nema, vi.y to be heavy or weighty, 
grow or get worse in health 
(with dlsama as suhj.). 
n. with mucima as suhj., to hesi- 
tate, be uncertain about, falter, 
be fickle, vacillate. 

Nemeka, vt., to honor, adore> 
praise, esteem, hallow, pay 
homage to, magnify, do obei- 
sance to, regard, respect, re- 
vere, reverence, venerate, glo- 
rify* give salutation or re- 
spects or greeting to a chief, 
salute or greet a superior. 
neg. of n., to disobey, be dis- 
obedient to, dishonor, be dis- 
respectful to. 

Nemekela, vt.^ see nemeka. 

Nemenena, vi,, see nema. 

Nemexa, vt., used with mucima as 
obj, meaning to discourage, 

Nenga, vi.y to elapse, intervene, 
expire, become long. 

Nfldl mukulu, n., God. See note 
under God. Class I. 

Nfindu, 3, n., a species of black 

Nflnina, 3, n., a bow knot. Com- 
pare with finuka. 

Nflnu, 3, n.y see nflnina. 

Nfuanka, 3', n.y tobacco. 

Nfuele, 3, n.y flag. 

Nfukete, 3, n., ramrod. 

Nfttlanka, 3, ».(French), franc. 

Nfumu, I, n., chief, king, lord, 
master, nobleman, governor, 
prince, ruler. 
muana wa n., prince. 
n. wa, owner, possessor, pro- 
See mukelenge. 

Nga, adj.y another, other, else, more, 
some one or something else, 
several, part (some). 
n. . . . n., the one . . . the 
other, some . . . others, sever- 
al .. . several. 
n. with locatives prefixed, else- 
where, somewhere else. § 370. 

Nga ? interrog. adj. {with Secondary 
Prefixes, § 178), how many? 
how much ? what quantity ? 

Ngabu, 3, n.y shield. 

Ng&ia, 3, n.(Bukuba), salt. 

Ngandu, 3, n., crocodile. 

Nganyi? interrog. pro,, who? 
-a n.? whose ? 

dlna diebi n.? what is your 

Ngena, 3, »., hell. From Greek 

Ngenda, i, n.(Jrom enda), used in 
ph. n. wa muxing^a meaning 
trader, merchant. 

Ngl, adj.y many, a great deal of, 
much, abundant, divers, nu- 
merous, plentiful, plenty of, 
several, vast number of. 

Ngia-ngi, adj.y see ngi. 

Nglas, 3, «.(Eng.), glass, tumbler. . 

Ngoma, 3, n.y drum made with 

Ngombe, 3, w., ox, cow. 
muana wa n., calf. 



Nffombe (continued). 
munyinyi wa n., beef. 
n. mukjixi or mukAxi'a n., cow. 
n. mulumi or mulumi'a n., bull. 
Ngondo, 3, n., moon, month. 
n. bungi munyi ? what age ? 

how old? how long? 
n. kl ? when ? what month ? 
n. ya bungi, long time, long 

n. as subj, of lua clb&lu or 

tentama, to be full moon. 
n. as subj. of b&la, the coming or 

appearing of the new moon. 
n. walua, next month. § 306 (c) , 
Rem. I. 
Ngonga, 3, »., large European bell. 
Ngongo, 3, n.y a small rodent. 
Ngula, pi. of 3 or 4, »., strength, 
might, force, energy, ability, 
power, vigor, violence, health. 
-a n., healthy, strong, vigorous. 
ena ne n., to be delicate, be not 

hita or tamba vnlh n., to qon- 
quer, be victorious, beat, de- 
feat, excel, win, prevail, re- 
pulse, subjugate, subject, van- 
quish, master, overthrow, over- 
come, quell, subdue. 
Sometimes pronounced ngudu. 
Ngulube, 3, »., hog, swine, wild 
boar. - 
miuw'a n., pig. 
mlayl a n., lard. 
mnkftxi'a n., sow. 
mulumi'a n., boar. 
munyinyi wa n., bacon. 
Ngulunge, 3, »., lean meat. 
Ngulungn, 3, n., a species of ante- 
Nguvu, 3, n., hippopotamus. 
NI, card, num., four. Takes Sec- 
ondary Prefixes. 
Nine, adj., large, inmiense, big, 
great, enormous, vast, mighty, 
broad, wide, thick, stout, 
famous, distinguished, far- 
famed, glorious, honorable, 
illustrious, important, noble, 

Nine {continued). 

influential, extraordinary, re- 
markable, renowned, eminent, 
di(5) dinlne, low, bass voice or 

ml manlne, sea, ocean. 

NJeku, 3, w., dwarfed or under- 
sized or deformed person, lame 
or paralyzed person, runt, 
paralytic. Muena generally 
precedes this word. 
-a n., runty, dwarfish, under- 
sized, stunted. 

Nkaka, 3, n., manis, scaly ant- 

Nkala, 3, n., crab. Some say 

Nkalafa, 3, n., table fork. 

Nkanktt, i, »., the younger or 
junior of twins. 

Nkata, 3, »., pad for the head in 
carrying load. 

Nkaxama, 3, »., leopard. 

Nkenyu, pi. of 4, «., a skin disease 
in which the pigment of the 
hands becomes white. 

Nkftse, 3, n., porcupine. 

Nketel, 3, ».(Eng.), kettle. 

Nkima, 3, »., the conunon gray- 
greenish monkey. 
Sometimes pronounced ncima. 

Nkixiabendi, 3, »., after birth, pla- 
centa. Perhaps should he 
spelled nkixl'a bende. 

Nkl(y)-, compound disjunctive pers. 
pro. {joined insep. with poss. 
pro.)y alone, by one's self, only, 
sole, solitary. See §§ 108, 109. 

Nkobo, 3, »., small basket with top. 

Nkoka, 3, «., ditch, rut, gully. 

Nkose, 3, »., a small rodent. 

Nkoyi, 3, w., arrow with blunt 
wooden point for killing birds 
or small game. 

Nkoyi, 3, »., fit, spasm, convulsion 
or unconsciousness or insensi- 
bility caused by fit. This 
word is used only of children. 



Nkoyi {continued). 

fua or haluka with m., to have 

a fit ^ spasm or convulsion. 
Nkuasa, 3, n., chair, seat, stool. 

n. wa bttkelenge, throne. 
Nkttba, 3, n.f flash of lightning. 

See note under lightning. 
Nkudimba, 3, n.j dove, pigeon. 
Nkudu, 3, n., terrapin, tortoise, 

turtle. Sometimes spelled 

Nkuietu, 3, w., vest, waistcoat. 
Nkumba, 3, »., a barren or sterile 

or childless woman or female of 

animal, perhaps also unfruitful 

Nkumbikumbi, 3, n., hawk. 
Nkunyi, 3, w., ugliness. This is a 

slang word. 
-a n., ugly. 
NkAsa, 3, n.y used for dikftsa(foot) 

in the ph. muan'a n., toe. 
clana cia n. or muan'a n. 

munlne, great toe. 
Nkusu, 3, «., louse (in the head). 
Nkusu, 3, »., parrot. 
Nkutu, 3, n.j spoon. 
Novemba, w.(Eng.), November. 
Nowa, vt.y to gather or harvest or 

reap the ripe millet. 
Nsabanga, 3, n.(Jrom Portuguese), 

Ns&fu, 3, «., mango. This word 

has been introduced from the 

Lower Congo and is there ap- 
plied to a native fruit which is 

not found in the upper Kasai 

Ns&hi, 3, n.{from Portuguese), lock, 

padlock. Often used for the 

key and the latch. 
dlsu dia n., keyhole. 
muan'a n., key. 
xlbika or ela with n., to lock, 

fasten with a lock. 
Nsatao, 3, n.y wasp nest made of 

Wood paste. 
Ns&ho, 3, w., satchel, large open 

bag, scrip. 
Nsahola, 3, «., onion. 

Ns&la, pi. of 3 or 4> «., hunger, 
appetite, starvation. 
dl ne or ufua or unva Tjuith n., 
or suma or sama with n. as 
suhj. and the pers. as obj.^ to be 
hungry, have an appetite. 
fua n., or n. as suhj. of xlha and 
the pers. as obj.y to be faint from 
hunger, be famished, be 
May be spelled nz&la. 

Nsalata, 3, n., salad. From Portu- 

Nsambn, pi. of 3 or 4, »., used in 
phrases kala n. and kosa n. 
meaning to settle or decide a 
dispute or disagreemen|:, judge, 
pronoimce judgment. 

Nsampu, 3, n., leaves of the pea 
vine used as greens. 

Ns&mu,. pi. of 4, w., the state of 
buanga bua n., medicine or 
charm for making one in- 

Nse, pi. of 3 or 4, w., sweetness, 
flavor, good taste (food). 
-a n., sweet, pleasant or agree- 
able to taste, tasty, savory. 
ena ne n., to be unsavory, be 

Nseke, pi. of 4, »., sif tings of com. 

Nsekididi, 3, »., el^ra amount 
given to conclude trade, gift, 
present, "dash," interest, rent. 
tentekela n., to pay interest. 

Nsenda, 3, n., blacksmith. 

Nsoko, 3, »., a brownish-gray 

Nsolo, 3, »., fowl, chicken. May 
be spelled nsolo. 
had! hasoma n., cockcrowing, 
early morning. 

Nsubu, 3, n.y house, home, resi- 
dence, mansion, edifice, build- 
ing, room, chamber. 
buexa mu n. wa mazika, to 

mukelenge or mul&mi with wa 
n. wa maxika, jailor. 



Nsnbu (contintied). 

mnnttt wa ma n. wa maxika, a 

mtt or ku with n., at home. 
n. wa bintu, store, factory. 
n. wa cllttltt, tent. 
n. wa maxlka, jail, prison. 
n. with p.p. passive of handu- 
Inla, room, chamber; as, 
nsubu ual muhandulula 
nsnbu is&tu, the house has 
three rooms. 

Nsugidi, 3, n.(Jrom Portuguese), 

Nsuku, 3, n.y howl of pipe. 

Nsumixa, 3, r^-(Jrom French), shirt- 

Nsunga, 3, n,, odor, smell, flavor, 
fragrance, scent. This word 
seem:: generally to have the idea 
of good smell. 
-a n., fragrant. 

Nsupu, 3, «.(Eng.), soup, broth. 

Ntambangoma, 3, n., a large beetle. 

Ntambue, 3, n., lion. 

Ntande, 3, n., spider. 

Ntanta, 3, w., measure or dimen- 
sion, extension, extent, length, 
distance. May be long or 
n. muihl, breadth, width. 
n. mule, length. 

Ntendu, 3, w., sharpness (as of 

Ntentekedi, 3, n., see nsekididi. 

Nteula, 3, w., razor. 

Nti, 3, «.(Eng.), tea. 

Ntoka, 3, »., a species of poisonous 

Ntombolo, 3, »., a species of 

Ntotonji, 3, »., a species of wasp 
(making nests of mud). 

Ntuixa, pi. of 4, n.{from tuixa), 
the state of being invulner- 
able, invulnerability. 

Ntundu, 3, n., a species of ante- 

Nua, v., to drink, imbibe, smoke. 
n. ciala, to consult or divine or 

Nua (continued), 

enchant by putting a small 
piece of iron into the eye. 
neg. habitual tense of n. followed 
by maluTU, to be temperate. 
Muenu, pers. pro., you{pl.), § 105. 
Nuixa, vt., to give to drink. 
Nungana, vi.y to whisper, grumble, 
murmur, mutter, speak or talk 
in undertone. 
Nunka, v»., to smell, give forth or 
emit smell or odor or scent. 
n. with muhuya mubi or ka- 
hambu or mukuhu or lusu, 
to emit bad smell, be fetid, 
stink, smell bad. 
Nunkila, v., to smell or scent In 

order to detect odor. 
Nunku, adv., thus, in this manner 
or way or fashion or method, 
likewise, similarly, so, in such 
a way. 
Also pronounced nenkn or 
Nunu, adj., old, aged, ancient. 
Generally refers only to persons* 
Nuona, vt., to grind, sharpen, whet, 
put an edge on. 
dibue dia. kunuona, grindstone. 
Nvinike, 3, «.(Eng.), vinegar. 
Nvlta, 3, «., fight, battle, war. 
bena n., army. 

elangana n., to fight, wage war. 
niiiena n., soldier, warrior. 
kosexa or xikixa with n., to quell 

or quiet or stop a fight. 
May be spelled nflta. 
Nvula, 3, w., rain. The pi. means 
the rainy season, summer. 
dibue dia n., hailstone. 
mukenyi or muhenyi or muele 
followed by wa n., a flash of 
n. as subj. of kuma with diku- 

bakuba as obj., to thunder. 
n. as subj. of tangadika or tan- 
galdka, to cease raining, clear 
Nvunde, 3, »., whirlwind. 



Nxl, «., orphanhood. 

muan'a n., orphan. PI. is bana 
ba nxi. 

Nxidila(?), v/., to shut out or shut 
in. Perhaps from nxlla, road. 

Nxila, 3, n.y path, way, road, route, 
street. May be spelled njila. 
mu n., along the path. 
n. munlne, a highway. 
n. wa dikmnbl dia bnlobo, rail- 
way track. 
n. wa ku, way to. 

Nxima, pi. of 3 or 4, n., bread, food, 
See bidia. 

Nxlngu, 3, «., neck. 

flekela n., to choke, throttle, 
strangle by squeezing. 

Nxlti, 3, w.(Eng.), sheet. 

Nyacl, 3, «., a sneeze. 
ela n., to sneeze. 

Nyamuka, i/i.y to run rapidly. 

Nyana, vi.y to be emaciated, 
thin, grow thin, waste away, 
be haggard or lean, decrease, 
diminish, reduce, wane (moon). 

Nyan(a), i, «., friend, companion, 
mate. The final a is elided 
when the poss. pro. enclitic 
forms are added. § 138. 

Nyanga, vt.f see ona. 

Nyanguka, vi., see on oka. 

Nya-nya, adj., small, little, mi- 
nute, diminutive, thin, narrow, 
few,, scarce, fine. § 76. 
See kise. 

Nyanyixa, v/., to emaciate, abbre- 
viate, abridge, reduce, dimin- 
ish, decrease. 

Nyema, vi.y to flee, run away, 
escape, take refuge, retreat, 

Nyemenena, vt.y to compress, press 
or push or shove or squeeze 
down on, cram together. 

Nyemexa, vt., to put to flight. 

Nyenga, vi. or vt., to twist, screw, 
turn around, squirm, wriggle, 
wring, the aching or griping or 
hurting of the stomach or 

Nyensa (continued). 

bowels, be constipated or cos- 
n. mp&la, to frown, knit the 
brows, scowl. 

Nyensa, vt., to rob, take or seize 
by force. 

Nyengabala, vi., to be pliant, be 
bendable, be flexible, be sup- 
ple, be pUable, be tough or 

Nyengab&xa, vt,, to wring off or 
twist off. 

Nyengela, vt., to encircle, surround, 
bind up, wrap up, roll up, 
wind around, twine around, 
coil, gird up, enclose, inclose. 

Nyima, 3, n., back, hind part. 
-a with ha n. (w ku n., external, 
hindermost, the last one, next 
one behind, y unger or junior. 
ela n., to turn one's back on one. 
ha or ku with n., at the ex- 
terior, at the outside, at the 
posterior, at the rear, at the 
ku n., across, after, around, be- 
hind, beyond, outside. 
ya ku n., to go after, follow. 

Nyina, vt., to evacuate the bowels, 
go to stool, have an action. 

Nylii(a), I, n., mother. The final 
a is elided when the poss. pro. 
enclitic is added. § 138. 

Nylngabala, vi., to fret, be fretful, 
be peevish, be cross, be irri- 
table, be petulant. 

Nylngala, vi., used with muoyo or 
mucima as suhj., to be grieved, 
be sorry, be penitent, be de- 
pressed, despond, be despond- 
ent, be morbid, be melancholy, 
be sad, be sorrowful, pine, 
regret, repent, be solemn or 
solicitous or anxious,^ used also 
of the waning moon about to 

Nylngu, 3, n., pot, frying-pan, 



Nylnk(a), i, »., grandparent, an- 
cestor, progenitor, forefather. 
The final a is elided when the 

f^ss. pro. enclitic is added. 

n. mukAxl, grandmother. 
n. mulumi, grandfather. 
Nylsu, I, «., father. This word 
always has poss. pro. enclitic. 


Nyixl, 3, »., electric fish. 

Nyoka, vt.^ to renounce, denounce, 
censure, disown, neglect, con- 
demn, deny, not to praise. 

Nyoka, 3, »., snake, serpent. 
nyoka'a bundu, a large green 
worm (edible). 

Nyoku, I, »., mother. 

Nyongangandu, 3, n., gall. 

Nyonsanyonga, adv., slowly, slug- 
gishly, lazily. 

Nyongo, 3, n., shell of snail. 
nyongo'a dicu, drum of ear. 
tUfl tua nyongo'a dicu, wax of 

Nyongoboka, vi., to be crooked or 
bent or curved or zigzag. 

Nyongoboxa, v/., to bend, curve, 
make zigzag. 

Nytkka, v/., to cast or throw away 
as useless. 

Nyuknla, vt., to shake. 

Nyuma, n., Holy Spirit, Holy 
Ghost. From Greek nvevfua. 

Nyjima, 3, »., animal, beast, brute. 
n. wa ku bula, domestic animal. 
n. wa multu, wild animal. 

Nyunga, vi. or vt.y to shake, move, 
move back and forth, sift. 

Nynngakana, w., to stagger, reel, 
totter,be unstable,be unsteady. 

Nynngixa, v/., to shake, move or 
wave back and forth, turn (as 

Nyunguluka, vi.^ to go around, go 
around in a circle, inclose, en- 
close, encircle, go round about, 
turn round and round. This 
word is generally followed by 
ph. ku nyima. 

Nyungulttla, vt.y to encircle, sur- 
round, enclose, inclose, turn 
round and round. 
Nyunguluxa, i//., to turn (as 

Nyunyu, 3, »., bird. 

mputtt n., tame pigeon. 

n. wa mudinga, crane. 
Nzaji, 3, n.f flash of lightning. See 

note under lightning. 
Nzambi, i, n., God. See note 
under God. 

amba bualu bua N., to preach. 

-a N., divine. 

bantn ba N., the church (mem- 
bers of). 

bldla bla N., communion. Lord's 

bualu bua N., Christianity, the 
Gospel, the Christian religion. 

ml a N., communion wine. 

muambl wa bualu bua N., 
priest, preacher, minister, mis- 

mukanda wa N., Bible, Scrip- 

mukeienge wa bambl ba bualu 
bua N., high priest. 

muntu wa N., Christian, mem- 
ber of church, convert. 

musoko wa n., -heaven. 
Nzevu, 3, n., elephant. 

Okotoba, ».(Eng.), October (the 

Olola, v/., to bend straight, straight- 
en, stretch out or extend or 
hold out or reach out or put 
out (as hand), open out, 
spread out, smooth out, un- 
bend, unfold. 
Also spelled ololola. 

Ololoka, vi., to open out, unfold or 
unbend itselif, stretch out, be 
straight or straightened. 

Omba, v/., to smelt. Doubtless has 
reference only to the blowing 
of the bellows. 



Ombela, vt., to swim (as person). 
Ona, vt.j to cause to go bad, spoil, 
waste, wear out, injure, mar, 
defile, profane, damage, de- 
• mt)lish, impair, destroy, pol- 
lute, desecrate, devastate, dis- 
cipline, punish, afflict, be cruel 
to, ill-treat, torture, oppress, 
persecute, be unkind to, abuse, 
tyrannize over, corrupt, close 
(the path), spend or exhaust or 
expend recklessly or prodi- 
gally or extravagantly, squan- 
der, lose (in trading). 
Ondaha, v/., to cure, heal, restore 
to health, treat (disease). 
Used only of persons^ not of the 
Ondela, v.j see tonkena. 
Ongoloka, w., to escape, run away 
(generally with idea of secret- 
ly), take refuge, get away. 
Ongolola, vt., sUp away a thing 

secretly, smuggle away. 
Onguela, vi., to do anything 
stealthily or slyly or slowly or 
softly, sneak. 
Onoka, vi.y to go bad, spoil, be- 
come useless or worthless, be 
corrupt, deteriorate, go to 
waste, be worn out, be im- 
paired, be marred, be ex- 
hausted or spent or expended 
carelessly, be lost in trading. 
Sometimes this word is pronounced 
Onona, v., to snore. The noun 
biono(^/.) is generally used as 
ohj. There is a secondary 
meaning of to roar (as falls, 
Onso, adj. (taking Secondary Pre- 
fhces)j all, any, each, entire, 
every, intact, whole, total, 
perfect, any one, whichever, 
whichsoever, whoever, what- 
bantu bonso, everybody, any 

Onso (continued). 

blntu bionso, everything, any- 

o. combined insep. with, mu and 
ku and ha, everywhere, any- 
where, wheresoever. § 371. 
Osa, vt., to do, accomplish, act, 
commit, effect, form, shape, 
make, perform, prepare, pro- 
duce, construct. 

See enza. 
Ota, V. When used with mun- 
ya(2) as ohj. it means to bask 
or warm one's self in the sun- 
shine. When used with 
kahia(8) as ohj., it means to 
warm one's self by the fire. 
O-umue, adj., alike, the same, 
identical, correct, like, of same 
or similar kind or sort or char- 
acter or quality or species or 
variety, mate, match, equal. 

§ 77 W> 96. 
di 0., to resemble, agree. 
ena 0., to be dissimilar, be un- 
like, be incorrect, be unequal, 
be uneven, differ, vary. 
Sometimes it seems to he spe'led 
Owa, v/., to hang a person, kill by 

Owa, v., to bathe, wash one's self. 
Can he used only with refer- 
ence to the hody. 
Owela, vi., to swim. 
Owexa, vt.y to bathe or wash one, 

Oxa, v., to ache, smart, bum, pain, 
hurt, roast, set on fire, con- 
sume, ignite. 
o. mil uTiun, to bake. 


S&ba, vi.y to play, sport, boil or 
ferment or effervesce, 
s. ne, to amuse, play with, have 
fun with. 
S&bila, vt.y to play with, amuse, 
have fun with. 



S&bixa, vt.y to amuse, play with, 
joke, jest with, have fun with, 

Sabnka, w., to go across (water), 
come or go over, cross, ferry 
one's self across, ford, pass 

Sabula, v/., to put or carry or ferry 
one across a stream. 

S&bula, vt.y to boil, stew. 

Sakula, vL, to attend a market, go 

Sala, v/. (Lower Congo), this v. has 
the equivalent of enza, to do. 
It is sometimes used by those 
who have been in the Lower 
Congo. For lack of a better 
word it is often used for set the 

Sala, vt. or vi., to mix, mingle, 
intermingle, move, stir, shake, 
wriggle, wiggle, squirm. 

Salakana, vt, or vi., to mix, min 
gle, intermingle, move, shake, 
wriggle, wiggle, squirm. 

Salakanya, vt., to ^ake, move, 

Salala, vi., to itch. 

Sama, v., to lay the head down on 
a pillow. 

Sama, v., to be sick, be ill, be 

unwell, ache, hurt, pain, suffer. 

s. with mucima or muoyo, to 

be sorry, be penitent, repent, 


s. wtth ns&la as subj. and the 

person as obj., to be hungry, 

have an appetite. 

mutu musame, headache. 

Generally the part affected is said 

to make sick the person; asj 

mutu udi unsama, my head 

aches. Bui the person is often 

spoken of as being sick in the 

part affected; aSy ndi nsama 

mutu, I am sick as to my head. 

Sama, vi.y to crow. 

hadl hasama nsolo, cockcrow- 
ing, dawn, early morning. 

S&ma, vi.y to become invisible (as 
warrior in battle). 

Samba, vt.y to cheer, console, com- 
fort, show mercy to, be merci- 
ful to, pity, sooflie, solace. 

Sambakana, vi.y to assemble, come 
together, congregate, combine, 
gather together, flow together 
(as streams), join, meet, con- 
verge, unite, mingle, inter- 
• mingle, be mixed. 

Sambakanya, vt.y to assemble, 
collect, combine, gather to- 
gether, put to'gether, mix to- 
gether, mingle, intermingle, 
cause to join, unite, stir to- 

SambakAza, vt.y see sambakanya. 

Sambombo, card, num., six. Takes 
Secondary Prefixes. 

SambHka, vi.y to go or step across 
or over (as log, path, etc.), 
exceed, overabound. 

Sambula, vt.y to put or take any- 
thing across or .over (as over 
a log or path). 

Sambulukila, vi., to scatter or 
spread (as contagious dis- 

Sambuluxangana, vt,y to throw 
back and forth. 

Samina, vt., to scold, reprove, re- 
proach, rebuke, admonish, 
correct, control, discipline, 
manage, govern, restrain. 

Samina, vt.y with muoyo or muci- 
ma a^ subj. this word means to 
covet, long for, yearn for. 

Sampila, vi.y to bud, sprout, shoot 
out leaves or new branches, 
put out leaves. 

Samuna, vt.y to comb the hair. 

Sanda, vt.y to commit fornication 
or adultery with. 

Sanga, vt. and vi.y to assemble, 
collect, put together, gather 
together, mingle, mix together, 
intermingle, combme, unite. 

Sangakana, vt.y to assemble, come 
together, congregate, combine, 



Songakana (continued). 

gather together, join, meet, 
converge, unite, mingle, inter- 
mingle, be mixed, be disar- 
ranged, be in disorder, be de- 
ranged, be out of order. 

Sangakanya, vt., to assemble, col- 
lect, combine, gather together, 
put together, mix, mingle, in- 
termingle, cause to join, unite, 
stir together, disarrange, put 
in disorder, derange, put out 
of order. 

SangakAza, vL, see sangakanya. 

Sang&la, vi., to amend, be better, 
convalesce, get well, improve 
in health, recover, be resusci- 
tated or revived. 

Sangana, vL, to meet up with, find. 

Sangila, vt. or vt.y to put together, 
combine, assemble, collect, 
gather together, flow or meet 
together, converge, unite. 

Sangixa, vt.y collect, combine, as- 
semble, add up, gather to- 
gether, mix together, unite, 
have in common, put together, 
intermingle, mingle, stir to- 

Sanguka, vi.y to change into some- 
thing else, the act of transmi- 
gration or metempsychosis, be 
born again. The same word is 
used of the reverstble pic- 
tures in the magic lantern, 

Sanguluka, vi.^ to scatter (as 
clouds after a rain), hence to 
clear up, to amend, get well or 
better, convalesce, improve in 
health, recover, be resusci- 
tated or revived. 

Sanguluxa, vt., to resuscitate, re- 
vive, bring to, i.e., to scatter 
the sickness. 

Sanka, vi., to be happy, be blessed, 
be glad, be joyful, be content, 
be in good humor, be pleased, 
be delighted, be merry, exult, 
rejoice; there is a secondary 
meaning of to be proud, be 

Sanka {continued), 

haughty, be vain, be pompous, 
vaunt one's self. 
The neg. means to be unhappy, 

Generally used wUh mncima or 
muoyo as subj. 

Sankixa, vt., to bless, make happy 
or joyful, cheer, gladden, 
please, delight. 
Generally used with muoyo or 
micima as sub'j, 

Santa Klfts, n., Santa Claus. 

Sanxila, v., to sprinkle. 

Sasa, vi.f to be sour, be acid. 

Sasakana, vi., to itch. 

Sasakata, vi., to be impatient, be 
in a hurry, be restless, be im- 
easy, be nervous, be fidgety. 

Sasula, vt., to demolish (as a 
house), tear down, pull down, 
destroy, wreck.* 

Satana, i, n., Satan, devil, demon. 
Introduced from Hebrew, 
mul&m&ci wa satana, demon or 
devil (in Biblical sense). 

S&tu, card, num., three. Takes 
Secondary Prefixes. 

Saunde, £ng., a word used on the 
steamers meaning to sound. 

Sante, n.(£ng.), south. Regarded 
as belonging to class III. 

Saxa, vt., to shake, move, stir. 

Saya, vt., see seya. 

Seja, see sexa. 

S£ka, vi. or vt., to laugh or laugh 
at, be amused at, deride, make 
fun or sport of, scoff at, taunt. 

S$ka-muabi, n.(the last part only 
is inflected according to class 
II), albino. 

Sekelela, vt., to give salutation or 
respects or greeting to a chief, 
salute or greet a chief, con- 
gratulate, hallow, do incanta- 
tions, be grateful to, be thank- 
ful to, thank. 

SSkexa, vt., to amuse, make to 
laugh, have fun with, provoke 
laughter, be rediculous or 



S#kexa {continued), 

ludicrous or laughable or funny 
or amusing. 

Sekldlla, vL, to add something 
extra to conclude the trade, 

Si^kila, vt.f to push, shove, press or 
thrust against. 

Sela, vi.j to move along sidewise, 

Sela, vt.f to pay the dowry for a 
wife — given to parents of bride 
by the groom. 

Selemuka, vi.y to slip, slide. 

Selo, inter jec.(Eng.)y sail ho! 

Sembakena, vt.j to meet and pass 
on the way. 

Semena, vi.j to move along side- 
wise, sidle. 

Semexa, vt., to make to move along 
sidewi '»c, push or shove against, 
press ( r thrust against. 

Sendama, m.j to lean, incline or 
slant or slope out of the per- 

Sendeka, vt.y to cause to incline, 
lean, slant. 

Sendemexa, vt.y see sendeka. 

Senena, vi.y to be sleek, be smooth, 
be soft. 

Senga, vt.y to shake, move, sift (as 

Sengela, vt.y to implore, beseech, 
persuade, plead with, invoke, 
supplicate, coax, entreat, 
"please do." There is usually 
implied the idea of caressing. 

Sengelela, vt.y see sengela. 

Sengula, vt., to cut away brush, 
clear a field. 

Sentedi, i, «.(Eng. or French), 
sentry, sentinel, watchman. 

Sepetemba, n. (Eng.), September. 

Sesa, vi.y to make a detour. 
See sesuka. 

Sesnka, vi.y to make a detour, turn 
out of the way or aside in 
order to pass or to permit 
another to pass, go round an 

Sesuka (continued). 

object in the way, move or 
get out of the way, glance oflF. 

Sexa, vt.{Causaiive o) sela), to 
push or press or thrust against, 
shove. The idea is that of 
sideiyise. Sometimes spelled 

Seya, vt.y to carve or cut up meat, 

Sitacl, n.(Eng.), starch. Regarded 
as belonging to class III. 

Sodia, v.y to click the throat in order 
to express anger or disapproval, 
abuse or insult one in this way, 
grumble, offend, show scorn or 

Sotaa, vt.y to stir up together, mix, 

Sotaela, v. (Eng.), to spell. 

Sotaoka, vi.y the accidental or unin- 
tentional firing off of a gun or 
springing of a trap. 
Sometimes spelled suhuka. 

Sokoka, vt.y to conceal, hide, se- 
s. musokoko, to keep a secret. 

Sokola, vt.y to confess, own up, 
unhide, reveal, acknowledge, 
disclose, divulge. 

Sokolola, vt.y to betray or reveal or 
tell a secret, (fivulge, find 
something hidden, confess, own 
up, acknowledge, unhide, dis- 

Sokoma, vt.y to conceal or hide or 
secrete one's self, be concealed, 
be hidden. 

Sola, vt.y to clear off a field, cut 
away large trees. 

Soloka, vi.y to hop or jump (as 

Soma, vt.y to load or ram a gun. 

Somba, vt.y to borrow with inten- 
tion of returning equivalent in 
value or kind. Contrast with 

Somba, v.y to converse together, 
have conversation, speak of 
talk together. 



Sombakikxa, vt., to exchange, 
change, trade. 

Sombexa, vt.^ to lend, loan, let out. 
The tdea is that of not returmng 
the same article but the same in 

Sompoka, vi,, to stick through (as 
needle through cloth). 

Sompola, vt.j to pass through (as 

Songa, v/., to carve (as wood), cut, 
file the teeth, form or shape or 
make by cutting or carving, 
sharpen to a point. 

Songrakikxi, i, n., girl, maiden, lass, 
maid, young woman, damsel, 

Songalumi, i, n., boy, lad, youth, 
young man. 

Songfuela, vt,, to accuse one before 
another, betray, complain of 
to another, backbite, defame, 
slander, tell on, traduce, be 
traitor to, be treacherous 
toward, vilify, talk or speak 
against one, calumniate. 

Sonsola, vt,, to stir up or poke the 

Sua, vt., to love, desire, esteem, 
fancy, care for, fain, like, 
prefer, want, wish. 
8. bakikxi, to be lascivious, be 
lecherous, be lewd, be licen- 
tious, be lustful. Used of men. 
8. baluml, to be lascivious, be 
lecherous, be lewd, be licen- 
tious, be lustful. Used of 
neg. of 8., to despise, detest, hate. 
The infin, kusua is used as noun 
to express affection, love. 

Suanga, t^/., to hull, husk, shuck. 

Sulka, vt.y to tie, bind, fasten, tie 
a knot. 

Stkka, vt.f to shrug the shoulders. 

Sikka, vt.y to put an instrument in 
tune, harmonize, attune. 

SOklla, vt.y to harmonize (as two 
instruments), tune instruments 
to each other, attune. 

Stkkixa, vt.y to sharpen by hammer- 
ing (as blacksmith). 
Some say sekexa. 

Stkkuka, vi.y to be out of tune or 
harmony, not to harmonize, be 

Sikkula, vt., to put out of tune or 
harmony, cause not to har- 

Sukula, v/. (Lower Congo), to wash, 
cleanse, purge, purify, clean 
with water. 

Sukula, vi.j to urinate, make 

Sukulu, ».(Eng.), school. Re- 
garded as belonging to class III. 

Sukunya, vi.y to urinate, make 

Suluka, vi.y to get or become free 
or loose or untied or undone or 

Sulula, vt.y to loosen, set free, let 
go, liberate, disentangle, ex- 
tricate, let loose, give freedom 
or liberty, untie a knot, unbind, 
undo, unfasten, unloose. 

Suma, vt.y to bite, sting, hurt (as in 
8. with ns&la as subj. and the 
person as obj.y to be hungry, 
have an appetite. 

Sumba, vt.y to buy, purchase, bar- 

Sumbula, vt.y to cast or throw away 
as useless. 

Sumlka, vt.y to bleed a person by 
cupping, cup. 

Suna, vt.y to bring or carry or fetch 
or draw water from a spring 
or stream. 

Sunga, vt.y to separate or part those 
in a quarrel, pacify, reconcile, 
conciliate, mediate, intervene. 

Sungidlla, vt.y to defend, deliver, 
mediate in behalf of, save, 
rescue, succor. 

Sun^lla, vt.y to defend, save, de- 
liver, mediate in behalf of, 
rescue, succor. 











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Tamba, v., to pass on ahead of or 
by, go on before, come or go 
past, be beyond, be first, go 
over or through or by, surpass, 
t. buimpe, to be better, be su- 
t. with bukftle or ngnilu, to beat, 
excel, conquer, win, defeat, 
overcome, master, overthrow, 
prevail, quell, repulse, subdue, 
subject, subjugate, vanquish, 
be victorious. 
In Comparative constructions 
there is often the idea of very, 
too, excessively, exceedingly, 
extremely, farther, too much 
for, more, most, quite, so. 
In the Comparative Degree with 
this verb we have the construc- 
tion for the Eng. than. § 89. 
When used with proper adj. or 
verb this word expresses the idea 
of infinite. 

Tambakana, vi., to go back and 
forth, go backwards and for- 
wards, pace to and fro. 

Tamblxa, v/., to throw over or past 
or through, let one pass by. 

Tambuka, vi., to go out, come out. 
From Buk. 

Tambula, v/., to cast out or drive 
out or throw out or chase out. 
From Buk. 

Tampakana, vi.y to spread, scatter. 

Tanda, v/., to abuse, argue with, 
quarrel with, fall out with, 
maltreat, ill-treat, revile, talk 
angrily, bicker. 

Tanda, vi.^ to change into some- 
thing else, the act of transmi- 
gration or metempsychosis, be 
born again. The same word is 
used of the reversible pictures 
in the magic lantern. 

Tandabala, vi.y to be stiff, be in- 
flexible, be unbending, be 

Tandangana, v.y to abuse each 
other, argue, quarrel, wrangle, 

Tandansana (continued). 

fall out with each other, mal- 
treat each other, ill-treat each 
other, talk angrily, bicker. 

Tandlxa, vt.y to revile. 

Tanduka, vi.y to fade (in color). 

Tanfunya, v., to make an ui.stemly 
noise with the mouth \^hile 
chewing or masticating food. 

Tangadlka, vi.y to scatter, clear 
away as mist, be deranged or 
disarranged, be in disorder or 
confusion, be out of order, be 
confused, disperse, be cast 
about, fall to pieces, he ex- 
hausted or spent or expended. 

Tangadlxa, vt.y to scatter, strew, 
demolish, derange, d.sarrange, 
put in disorder or confusion, 
disperse, put out of order, cast 
about, confuse, exhaust or 
spend or expend recklessly or 
prodigally or extravagantly, 
waste or squander. 

TangalAka, vi., see tangadika. 

Tangal&xa, vt.y see tangadlxa. 

Tangldixa, vt.y to cause to see, 
show to, indicate to, point out 

Tangiia, vt.y to see, behold, look 
at, observe, notice, regard, 
view, witness, examine by 
looking at, find, inspect, over- 
look, oversee, superintend, 
perceive, watch after. 
t. talala, to look at steadfastly, 
gaze at, stare at. 

Tangixangana, vt.y used with 
mp&ia meaning to face each 
other, be opposite. 

Tankakana, vi.y to rock or roll (as 

Tankak&xa, vt.y to rock or roll (a 

Tantamana, vi.y to be stiff, be in- 
flexible, be unbending, be 
rigid, be taut or tight, strain as 
in travail. 

Tantamika, vi.y to swell, distend, 
expand, spread out, rise as 


Tantamika (cofUinued). 

dough, be taut or tight, in- 
flate one's self. 

Tantamlxa, vt., to inflate, expand, 
swell, spread out, distend, 

Tanu, card, num., five. Takes Sec- 
ondary Prefixes. 

Tata, vi.j to be worried, be an- 
noyed, be troubled, be pro- 
voked, be bothered, be ag- 
gravated, be vexed, be perse- 

Tatakana, vi., to hesitate about, 
be uncertain, falter, be fickle, 

Tata, I, n., father, used as title of 
respect in addressing chief or 
master or elder. 
t. muakunyi, uncle (paternal and 

younger than the father). 
t. mukulu, uncle (paternal and 

older than the •father). 
t. mukilxi, aunt (on father's 

Tatu-muenu, i, n.{pl. ts batatu- 
muenu), father-in-law. Thts 
word ts used both by the hus- 
band and the wife. § 42, Note 3. 

T&ya, v.(Buk.), tell, speak, say. 

Taya, vt., to crack, burst, shell or 
hull out, hatch (as fowl). 
Some seem to say toya. 

Tayika, w., to burst, split, explode, 
pop, scream or squall or shriek 
in terror. 

Tayixa, vt., to burst, split, explode. 

Tebuka, vi., to halt, limp, be lame. 
enda utebuka, to walk lame. 

Teka, vt., to put, place, set down, 
set away, put by or lay by, save 
up, store away. 
t. with dlkima or bukitu, to be 
brave, be fearless, be daring, be 
courageous, be bold, be vali- 
t. with diyoyo or mutS.yo, to 
disturb, make trouble or dis- 
turbance or tumult. 
t. mu mulonso, to put in line. 

Tekela, vt., to pi 
for, set apart 

Tekemena, vt., t 

trust, have f 

have confide 

neg. of t., to d: 

The tnfin. ma 

noun hope. 

Teketa, vi., to 
hausted, be 
be feeble, l 
be fatigued 
potent, be 1 
mit, give up 
t. ku bianz: 
smooth or i 

Tekete, aij,, w 
frail, infirn 
slack (not 
palm wine' 
-a mucima 
modest, pe 
muanda mu 
mubldi mut 
tekete ku 
sleek or sc 

Tekexa, vt., 1 
haust, enf 
loose, loc 
price or v 
t. muxings 
bring do 
lower the 

Tela, vt., to c; 
one's bac 
talk abo 
ally folia 

Tela, vt., to i 

Teiexa, vt., 
attend t 

Tema, w., to 

Temena, iH. 
gleam, j 

Temexa, vt.. 
the fire 



Tempa, v.y to consult a medicine 
man, divine, enchant, conjure. 

Tempela, vi.y to send out or shoot 
out leaves, bud, sprout. 

Tempexa, v., to consult a medicine 
man, divine, enchant, conjure. 

Tendeiela, vt.y to bless or praise or 
glorify (God), perform incan- 
tations before a charm or 
fetish or medicine, do obeisance 
before, adore, pray to, honor, 
hallow, pay homage to, in- 
voke, worship, extol, magnify, 
' revere, reverence, suppUcate, 
venerate. This word has spe- 
cial reference to incantations 
done before a charm. 

Tensula, vt., to circumcise. 

di mutengula {p.p. passtve), to 

be circumcised. 
ena mutengula (p.p. passive) ^ 
to be uncircumcised. 

Tenkakana, vi., to stagger, reel, 
totter, be unsteady, be un- 

Tentama, vt.^ to lie on top, be piled 
up or heaped up on top, be 
full (moon). 

Tente, indeclinable adj.y full. § 78. 
This is derived from the verb 
. Tenteka, vt., to lay or put or place 
on top of, pile or heap one 
on top of the other, mend or 
patch (as clothes). 

Tentekanya, vt,, to pile or heap 
or lay up one on top of the 

Tentekela, vt.y to give or add an 
extra amount to conclude the 
trade, "dash." 
t. kasombelu, to pay interest. 

Tentekela, v.y to eavesdrop, spy, 
reconnoitre, watch (as thief for 
a chance to steal). 

TentekAxa, vt., to pile or heap or 
lay or place one on top of the 
other, mend or patch (as 

Tentemexa, vt.^ to cohabit with, 
copulate, lie with, have sexual 
intercourse with. 

Tentula, vt., to transplant, set out 
or plant out. 

Tentulula, 7;/., to take off from, 
relieve of. 
t. muxinga, to lower the price, 
i.e., to drop off the fingers in 
counting down the price. 

Teta, vt.y to attempt, strive, try, 
test, make an effort or tri^, 
t. munda, to tempt or test or 
make trial of one (as of Abra- 
ham's faith). 
Some say tenta. 

Teta, vt.y to look for, search for, 
seek, hunt for. 

Teya, vt.y to ensnare, entrap, trap, 
entice by leaving some&ing to 
test, lure, allure, catch in trap 
or snare, snare, tempt, in- 
t. ndende, to set a trap or snare. 

Teya, vt.y to listen. Generally with 
macu, ears, understood. 

To, adv.y this word expresses the 
idea of a long distance or a 
long time or continuity through- 
out, ceaselessly, constancy, 
continually, eternally, ever, 
forever, incessantly, perpet- 
diba to ne dilolo, all day long. 
dinda to ne ku munda munya, 
from early morning till noon, 
all the forenoon. 
ku . . . to ne ku, from ... to 

or till or until. 
butuku to ne with lunkelu or 
dinda, all night long. 

Tobela, vt.y to creep or move or 
sneak stealthily or slyly or 

Toha, vi.y to be damp, be wet, be 
moist, be soaked. 

Tohexa, vt.y to dampen, wet, 
moisten, soak. 


Toka, vi.f to be or become white, 
be light in color or light from 
moon or fire, shine, give light, 
be pure, be spotless, be un- 

Toke, adj.{p.p, of toka), white, 
transparent, clean, fair (skin), 
light, spotless, unspotted, pure 

Tokela, v/., to excuse, pardon, for- 
give, absolve. 
See note under pardon. 

Tokexa, vt., to whiten, clean, 
bleach, sanctify, ordain, con- 
secrate, purge, purify. 
t. wUh mucima or munda, to 
apologize, reconcile, atone for, 
pardon, forgive, absolve, ex- 
See note under pardon. 

Tokexila, vt., to forgive, pardon, 
excuse, absolve. Generally 
followed by mucima or munda. 
See note under pardon. 

Tokoka, vi.y to fall over, upset, 
turn over. 

Tokola, v/., to upset, turn over, lay 
down, overturn, push or shove 
over, put <?r place down. Some 
say tonkolo. 

Tokoloka, v*., to be whitish or 

Tokoloke, adj. {p. p. from toko- 
loka), whitish, gray. 

Toloka, vi.y to sprout, bud. 

Tomboka, vi.y see buluka. 

Tomboke, adj.{p.p. of tomboka), 
see buluke. 

Tompakana, vi.y to change, alter- 

Tompakanya, vt.y to change, alter- 

TompakCkxa, vt.y see tompakanya. 

Tonda, v., abhor, despise, detest, 
dislike, loathe, hate, to lose 
taste for, be tired of, be weary 
of, be disgusted with. Note 
that the person loathing or 
hating becomes the obj. of the 
V. rather than the subp) asy 

Tonda {continuei 
bidia bid! b 

the bread. 

Tonda, v., to ( 

Tonda, v., used 
oj subj. with 
meaning to 
be near to 'i 
be the same 
be weary of, 

Tonkena, v.y use 
disu meanin,\ 
of the eye 
lower lid ar 

Tonta, vt.y to b( 

Tontolola, v.y t 
grumble, gr« i 
ter, cavil, b : 
contented, ] i 

Tontomona, v. 
mur, growl, 

Tonya, vt.y to b 
t. minu, to cl 

Tonyiuna, vi.y 
bent or cur 

Totobula, vt.y i 

Toy a, vt.y see ts i 

Tu, vi.y to be. 

Tua, vt.y to bail : 

Tua, vt.y to hit 
strike, thr i 
crush or n i 
in or sticl 
down, thr; i 
with burnt : 
t. binu ham . 
t. cik£ma, tc : 
by gruntin , 
amazed, w : 
t. with cisi 
strike or Y. 
t. with dih 

smack, sp; i 
t. with diki I 

t. lukonyi, 

Tua {continued), 

t. wUh luaftdi or lus&la or luala, 

to pinch, scratch. 
t. mlmuemue, to grin, smile. 
t. muinu, to peck (as fowl). 
t. muk^ma, to grunt or groan or 

moan in pain. 
t. mas£ba hanxi, to stamp, 

tramp or tread heavily. 
t. muxinga, to drive a bargain, 
talk a trade. 

Tua, w., to be sharp, have an edge. 

Tua, v., to lose taste for, be tired 
of, be weary of, be disgusted 
with, loathe. See note under 
tomda, to abhor, etc. 

Tua, v., to taste, have the taste of, 

savor of. The infin, kutua 

is used as a noun meaning 

taste, savor. 

-a kutua kuimpe, tasty, savory, 

of good taste. 
ena ne kutua kulmpe, unsavory, 

Tua, vi., to extend to, reach to; aSy 
cilulu ciandi cidi citua ku 
maktisa, his cloth reaches 
down to his feet. 

Tuadila, vt., to carry for, relieve of. 

Tuadixa, vi.y to begin again, com- 
mence again, recommence, re- 
peat, start over. 

Tuala, vt., to bear, carry, fetch, 
transport, bring, take. 

Tuansana, vi.y to border on or 
touch each other, be next to, 
join, unite, flow together as two 
streams, be near together, be 
side by side, be adjacent, be 
t. mlxuku, to kiss. 

Tuansanya, vt.y see tuansrAxa. 

Tuangtixa, vt.y to put or place side 
by side, unite, join on to, mend 
(as cloth). 

Tuanya, vt.y to tear, rend, rip. 

Tuanyakanya, vt.y to tear to pieces. 

Tuanyangana, vt.y see tuanya- 

Tuanylka, vi.y to be torn, be rent. 

Tubuka, vi.y to have a hole pierced 
through or punched through. 
t. with disoso or dikela or mu- 
tanta, to spring a leak. 

Tubula, vt.y to pierce, penetrate, 

pimch through or tear through, 

stick hole through, perforate, 

pick out (as jigger). 

t. disoso, to bore a hole, pierce. 

Tucila, vi.ijrom tuta, to come 
back), to come back, turn back, 
return, go back, retire. 

Tucixa, vt.(jrom tuta, to come 
back), to bring back, send back, 
return, fetch or take back, 
recall, restore. 

Tudika, vi.y to pop (as com in 

Tue, adj. {p. p. of tua, to be sharp), 
sharp, fine (point). 

Tuetu, pers. pro,y we. § 105. 

TAfl, pi. of 8, «., excrement, dirt, 
filth, dung, manure. 
t. tua nyonso'a dieu, wax of 

This word is sometimes pro- 
nounced tuinvi. There are 
dimin. forms in sing, kufl and 

Tufina, pi. of 8, n., pus, matter. 

Tuhakana, vi.y to be bewildered or 
confused or confounded or dis- 
concerted, be entangled in 
speech, be in disorder, be de- 
ranged or disarranged, be out 
of order, blunder, make a mis- 
take, be perplexed, be mixed 

Tuhakanya, vt.y see tuhakikxa. 

Tuhakfixa, vt.y to confuse, be- 
wilder, perplex, confound, mix 
up, entangle' in speech, de- 
range, put in disorder, dis- 
arrange, put out of order. 

Tuhftla, vi.y to be dull (as knife). 

Tuhika, vi.y to hop, jump, leap, 
bound, rebound, spring. 

Tuhikila, vt,y to pounce upon, 


Tuhu, adj., blank, empty, vacant, 
The locatives may be prefixed 
insep, to this word-, as, mu 
mulondo mudi mutuhu, the 
bottle is empty. § 79. 
Tahuka, v»., to take flight or rise 

in fiUght (as bird), fly. 
Tnh&xa, vt., to dull, make dull. 

From tuhftla. 
Tulla, v.{from tua), used in ph. t. 
mu mesa, to dazzle. 
t. lute, to spit, expectorate. 
Taiza^ vt,, to have a dispute or 
argument or disagreement 
semed or decided. 
Taiza, vt., to be invulnerable. 
This word seems to be Causa- 
tive of tuya, to glance off. 
Tuka, vi., to come out of its place, 
get free or loose, escape (out 
of trap or when tied), come to 
pieces, shed (as tears, feathers, 
hairs), stick out, protrude, be 
broken (as string). 
mutoto mutuke, meteor. 
t. with eisululu or luanga, to 

perspire, sweat. 
t. maxl, to bleed. 
Tuka, vt.y to abuse, curse, insult, 
offend, maltreat, ill-treat, re- 
vile, swear at. 
Tukula, vt., to pick off or pluck off 

(as feathers). 

Tula, vt., to draw out, pull out or 

up, extract, take to pieces, 

undo, break off as string, pick 

off or pluck off as feathers, 

tear off. 

Tula, vt., to forcr^, beat out iron, 

shape or make by hammering. 

Tula, vt., used with difu or muana 

meaning to abort, miscarry. 
Tula, vt., to let down or put down 
or take down (as basket from 
the head). 
Tulakana, vi., to come to pieces. 
Tulakanya, vt., to take to pieces, 
undo, pull to pieces. 

Tuloka, vt., to i 

Tulu, pi. of 8, 
bunsat., todos 

lala t., to be ai 


t. as subj, of k 

obj., to be si 1 

The dimin. stni 

Tuluka, vi., tc 

down, desce: 

Tulula, vt., to ta 

put down. 
Tuma, vt., to lej 
Tuma, vt., to se 1 
Tuma, vt., to se 1 
Tumba, vi., to 
fame, be di: I 
famed, be ! 
be honorab : 
important, ' 
mighty, be 
be eminent 
Tumbe, adj.{p : 
mous, d I 
famed, glo 
able, illusti 1 
fluential, 1 
nowned, ei 
Tumblxa, vt.y 
bless, glor 1 
pay homa} 
respect, re ; 
erate, mal 
neg. of t., t( : 
dient to, 
Tumika, vi., 
able, min 
neg. of t., 
lectful, b 
able, be 1 
Tumikila, v 
be docile ' 



Tumikila {continued): 

be faithful to, heed, hearken to, 
observe the word of, obey, 
mind, be meek or tractable 
neg. of t., to disobey, be diso- 
bedient or obstinant toward, be 
neglectful or negUgent of, be 
unruly or untractable or un- 
manageable toward, be heed- 
less to. 
Tumina, vt., to send to. 

t- <**(5)> to send word to, com- 
mand, order. 
Tuminu, pi. of 8, n., mucus from 

the nose. 
Tampa, vt.y to boil, stew. 
Tunduka, vi., to rise to the surface, 

Tunduia, vL, to pick out as jigger. 
Tunsa, vt.y to sew. 
Tunsula, vt.y to castrate, cut. 
Tungfula, vt., to shell com. 
Tungrulungu, pi. of 8, n., convul- 
sion, fit, epileptic fit, spasm, 
unconsciousness or insensi- 
bility due to convulsion, etc. 
fua or haluka wUh t., to faint, 
have a fit or convulsion or 
spasm, swoon, be unconscious 
or insensible. 
See note under cifuidixe. 
Tunta, vt., to dip up water. 
TuQtiimuka, vi., to swell, distend, 
expand, inflate one's self, 
spread out, rise (as dough). 
t. with ml as subj., to be a flood. 
Tuntumuxa, vt., to distend, ex- 
pand, swell, inflate, spread 
out, tighten (cause to swell), 
swell, loosen (so as not to be 
Tuta, vt., to beat, chastize, thrash, 
chasten, whip, scourge, flog, 
hit, pound, knock, lash with 
switch, switch, punish, dis- 
cipline, strike, crush down. 
t.. cibubu, to clap the hands 
crosswise (in regret). 

Tuta {continued). 

t. cixondu, to snap the finger (in 

t. luktlxi, to clap the hands. 
t. with dlhi or luhi, to slap, 
smack, spank. 

Tuta, vi.y to come back, turn back, 
return, go back, retire. 

Tuta, v., used with mukuekue 
meaning to cackle. 

Tutakana, vi., to assemble, come 
together, congregate, com- 
bine, gather together, meet, be 
mixed together, mingle, inter- 

Tutakanya, vt,, see tutakikxa. 

Tutaktkxa, vt., to collect, put to- 
gether, combine, assemble, 
gather together, mix together, 
mingle, intermingle, stir to- 

Tutangana, v., to collide, strike 
each other. 

Tutuka, vi., to fade. 

Tutula, vt., to beat out (as dust 
from mat), dust, shake out. 

Tuya, vi., to be half cooked. 

Tuya, vi,, to glance off, recover or 
be resuscitated or be revived 
(with name of sickness as 

Tuyixa, vt,, to cause to glance off; 
hence, in case of sickness to 
resuscitate, revive, bring to. 

Ubula, vt,, to peel off, bark, strip 
off, skim. 

Udixa, vt.ijrom ula, to buy), to 
sell to. 

Ufua, v., to hear, listen, attend 
(pay attention), feel, perceive, 
be conscious of, detect (odor 
or smell), understand, dis- 
cover, comprehend, heed, take 
heed, obey, mind, observe the 
word of, be obedient, hearken 



Umuxa, vLy to drive out, cast out, 
send away, eject, put out, 
empty, chase out, clear out or 
away, unload, discharge cargo, 
exclude, move away, bring out, 
remove, subtract, thrust out, 
turn out, take away, depose, 
discharge or turn off from ser- 
vice, expel, dimiss from employ, 

Unva, v.y see ufua. 

Unvangana, v., to understand or 
hear each other. 

Unsuluka, vi., to be ajar or open. 

Unsalula, vt.y to open a door, put 

Uvua, vt., to wash, cleanse, purify, 
purge, clean. 

Uvula, v/., to husk or shuck (as 

Uvum, 3, n.(Eng.), oven, stove. 
oxa mu u., to bake. 

Uxa, vt.{from ula, to be full), to 
fiU, inflate, cause to expand 
or swell or distend. 

Vangala, vi,, to sit tailor-fashion. 
Vila, v., to deny a charge. 
Tiaga, vt.y to crunch or rub up in 

the hands, make fire by friction, 

mash between the hands. 
Vlnyo, 3, n.Qrom Portuguese), im- 
ported wine. 
budimi bua mioxi ya vinyo, 

mamoma a kuensa n*A v., 

muoxl wa mamoma a kuensa 

n»A v., grape-vine. 
Tuadlka, vt.{from vuala), to dress, 

clothe, adorn. 
Vuala, vt.y to dress one's self, wear, 

put on clothes, 
v. bllensa, to be adorned, be 

dressed up. 
Tuanduluka, v*., to be mixed or 

mingled or stirred together, be 


Yuandulula, z//., to mix together, 
stir together, mingle together, 

Tudlxa, vt,y to make full amount, 
make full or complete measure, 
make exact, fill up, increase. 

Tula, vi.y to be full amount or 
quantity or measure, be com- 
plete, be enough or adequate 
or sufficient or exact, suffice, be 
filled, increase in number or 
neg. of v., to be insufficient, be 
inadequate, be short of. 

Tula, v/., to take oflf clothes, un- 
dress, to strip off or pull off 
or put off clothes. 

Vulangana, vi.^ to be a flood. MI 
is used as subj. 

Vuluka, vi.y to remember, call to 
mind or memory, come to 
mind, recall, recollect. 

Tulula, vt.y to call to one's mind, re- 
mind, bring to one's memory, 
cause to remember, put in 
mi id of. 

VuluxA, vt.y see vulula. 

Vundixa, vt.^ to magnify (as mi- 

Vundula, v/., to stir or beat or mix 
up together. 

Vunsa, vt.y to fold, bind up, wrap 
around, coil, roll up, wind 
around, gird, surround, en- 
circle, enclose, entwine. 

Vungila, vL, see vunga. 

Vunguluka, vi.^ to open out, 
spread out, unfold, unroll, un- 
wind, unwrap, wriggle, bloom, 

Vungulula, vt.y to open out, unfoH, 
spread out, stretch out, unbind, 
unroll, unwrap, unwind, dis- 
entangle, extricate. 


Weslta, 3, «.(Eng.), west. 
Wewe, pers. pro.y thou, you {pi.) 



Xiklka, vt.(Jrom xikama, to sit 
down), to cause to sit down, 
set down, seat. 

Xlkila, vi., to come to end of (as 
path), stop. 

Xikixa, vLy to finish, complete, 
terminate, bring to end, per- 
fect, conclude, fulfill, have 
X. with dlyoyo or mutftyo or 
muaku or nvita, to quiet, 
hush, quell, still. 

Xila, adj.y used with num, to ex- 
press exact or perfect or com- 
plete number; as, clnunu 
cixila, an exact thousand. 

Xila, vi., to be burnt or scorched. 

Xima, adj.j all, entire, intact, whole, 
perfect, total. 

Xima, vt.y to tell a falsehood or 
untruth, lie, deceive, entice, 
beguile, trick, bear false wit- 
ness, fabricate, be false. 

Ximbuka, vt.^ to fall down (as 

Ximbula, vi.j to throw down in 
sense of push over, overthrow, 
blow down. 

Ximika, vt.^ to transplant, plant, 
set out, set into. 

Ximinyina, z//., to tell a falsehood 
or lie on, accuse falsely, bear 
false witness against. 

Ximixa, v., to feign, pretend, pro- 

Xinda, v., to throw down one in 
wrestling. When used with the 
reflexive sigfty the word has 
rejerence to a person tripping 
up and falling. 
dixinda bualam , to fall back- 

Xindama, vi., to be fixed, stand 
firm or immovable or steady, 
be steadfast, be solid. 

Xindamina, vi.y to walk with a 
staff, i.e., to steady one's self. 

Xindika, v/., to fix firmly in, to 
make firm or immovable, pack 
or be^t down, press or push or 

Xindika (continued). 

shove down, compress, squeeze 
or cram down. 

Xindikixa, v/., to accompany or 
conduct or attend or escort one 
a short distance on the path 
in order to bid farewell. 

Xinta, vt.y to change, exchange, 
trade, substitute one for an- 

Xintakana, vt., to exchange, trade, 
alternate, change, substitute 
one for another. 

Xintakanya, vt.y see xintakana. 

Xintaktkxa, vt.y see xintakana. 

Xitakaha, ^i., to be dense or 
thick (as forest). 

Xixa, vi.y to be last or behind or 
behindhand in doing, be the 
hindermost, be late, be in the 

Xixa, vt.y used in phrases mu bu- 
hele and mu bulanda, mean- 
ing to impoverish. 

Xixamuka, vi.ijrom xixa, to be 
last), to be slow, do or move 
slowly or sluggishly, walk or 
work lazily, be dilatory, lag, 

X*-muenu, i, n.{pl. is bax'- 
muenu), father-in-law. The 
poss. pro. enclitic is used after 
the x». §§ 42, Note 2, 138. 

Xoboka, vi.y to be bendable, be 
pliant, be pliable, be flexible, 
be supple. 

Xomuna, vt., to pull up, take up. 

Xoxa, vt.y to see, view, witness, 
behold, examine by looking, 
find, look at, inspect, observe, 
notice, regard, overlook, over- 
see, superintend, watch after, 
X. talala, to look at steadfastly, 
gaze at, stare at. 

Xuhula, vt.y to hull or husk or 
shuck (as peas by beating). 

Xukula, vt.y to nod a3sentf 



Bikila Kasonso, Call Kasongo, 

Kasonso udLkudi kunyi? Where is Kasongo? 

Lua kunoko, Come here. 

Ta ubikile batuadi ba bintu, Go and call the carriers {of the things), 

Ndi musue kuya ku IbanJ lelu, / want to go to Ibanj to-day, 

Ndi nkSba bantu makmni abidi baye n'Inyi, / am looking for 
twenty people to go with me, 

Buonso buetu tudlku, We are all here, 

Imtknl mu mulongo, Stand in a line, 

Kabuya, wakuangata bintu bla kndia mu nxila? Kabuya^ did you 
get the things for eating on the road ? 

E, nakuangata btdia ne mlnyl a ngulnbe ne mlnyi a ngombe 
ne luhanza lua munyinyi ne Ineho, Yes, I have gotten some bread and 
some lard and some butter and a tin of meat and some salt, 

Liua ne cifulu cllnyi ne eikowela ne bisab&ta. Bring my hat and 
coat and shoes, 

Tuye lubilu, Let us go in a hurry. 

Nakuhanga, ndi musue kubuela mu buanda, / ha?ve become tired, 
I want to get in the hammock. 

Tuakuflka mu dltu dinlne, We have arrived in the big forest. 

Monl mpumba, itu yasuma bantu, See the driver ants, they bite. 

Ditu diakuxftla ku nylmaj tudi ha mpata katataka, The forest 
remains behind, we are now on the plain, 

Musulu udi ha buihi, tusuasua ml a kunua, A stream is near, we 
want some water to drink. 

Nakukftla kabidl, nengende hanxt, I am strong again, I will walk 
(on the ground), 

£u musoko kl? What village is this ? 


rvXi/VL^xi'MV^ si,j\jijr.\^±orjO. 



Bantu ba bungi bakalua kudi Jlsus, bakalua kdnva bualu buakam- 
beye. Jisus wakamba lusumuinu ne: Muntu mulumi wakadiku. 
Wakadi ne bana balumi babdi. Muana muakunyi wakulua kudi ta- 
tu'andi wakuamba ne, "Ntahaluila biuma biebi." Tatu'abo wakuba- 
tS.haluila biuma biandi. Muana muakunyi wakuangata bintu biandi 
bionso, wakuya n'abi kule ku musoko mukuabo. 

Hakufikeye ku musoko, wakuenza biandi malu mabi, wakutangaltlxa 
bintu biandi hatuhu. Hakuhua bintu biandi bionso, dole ciakulua 
ku musoko; muana muakunyi kakadi ne da ktila bia kudia. Wakaya 
biandi kudi muena musoko, wakuangata mukanda wa mudimu. Muena 
musoko wakumutuma ne, "Ya ku budimi buinyi, udixe ngulube yin^d 
bia kudia." Wakaya, wakadi ne ns&la ya bungi, kuakadi muntu 
wakumuha bia kudia; wakubanga kudia bihusu bia nkonde, biakadi 
ngulube idia. Wakuelangana mexi ne, "Bahika ba tatu'inyi badi ne 
bintu bia bungi bia kudia, aha ndi nfuila ns&la cin3ri? nembike, nenye 
kudi tatu'm)ri, nentonde bualu ne, 'Tatu'inyi, nakuenzela Nzambi 
malu mabi ne wewe kabidi. Ndi muntu mubi, dena muan'ebi. Ndi 
nkfiba mukanda wa mudimu bu bahika bebi bakuabo.*" Yeye wakue- 
langana mexi nunku. Wakabika, wakalua kudi tatu'andi. Hakadiye 
mulue mu nxila kuakua, tatu'andi wakumumona, wakumusua, makuen- 
da luktisa, wakumusangana mu nxila, wakumuakidila. 

Muana wakuambila tatu'andi ne, "Tatu'injri, nakuenzela Nzamb 
malu mabi ne wewe kabidi, dena muntu muimpe bu muan'ebi kabidi.*' 
Tatu'andi wakubikila muntu wandi ne, "Ya wangate bilulu bimpe, 
imiuhe, aluate; wele kakana ku munu, umubuexe bisabita. Ya 
umu^dhele kana ka ngombe, tudie, muoyo wetu wakusanka. Muan'inyi 
wakadi mufue, udi ne muoyo kabidi; wakadi mujimine, wakumueneka 


Kale muntu mubXxi wakadiku. Wakadi uluata bilulu bimpe. 
Muntu muhele wakadaku, da diandi Lazalusa. Lazalusa wakidi 
ulala ku mbelu kua muntu mubS-xia, wakadi ulomba muntu mubaxi 
nkototo ya kudia. Lazalusa wakadi ne mputa hani'bidi handi honso; 
mbua yakalua kultika. 



wakuya ku musoko mukuabo, wakuya kubiika mukiixi. Hakadiye 
ulua butuku ne muktixi'andi, mixikankunde dikumi yakuya mu nxila, 
yakuya kumuakidila. Mixikankunde itanu yakadi ne mexi, mikuabo 
itanu ydkadi mihote. Yakadi ne mexi yakaya ne minyi a bungi a kueia 
mu mpanza ya kahia. Yakadi mihote yakaya ne minyi manyamanya. 
Buonso buai yakuya mu nxila. Hakuxikamai kukala kua nxila to, 
tulu tuakubueia mu mesu, yakulala tulu. Mundankulu bakuela bila 
ne, " Mubdki wa muktixi ulualua, tuyi kumuakidila." 

Mixikankunde yakadi ne mexi yakubika, yakuamba kuya kumua- 
kidila. Mixikankunde mihote yakubika, yakuk^ma ne, ''Minyi etu 
akuhua.'' Yakaya kudi mikuabo yakadi ne mexi ne, "Nutuhe bietu 
minyi, etii akuhua/' Yakadi ne mexi yakuamba ne, "Naxa, katua- 
kunuluila ne minyi, yi bienu kdla minyi kudi bantu bakuabo." Hakayai 
kdla minyi, mubtiki wa muktixi wakulua. Wakubuela mu nsubu 
wandl ne bantu bonso bakadi n'andi, ne mixikankunde yakadi ne 
mexi. Yeye wakunxila cibi. 

Hakalua mixikankunde mihote, yakusangana dbi cinxila. Yakuela 
di ne, "Mukelenge, unsulula cibi." Yeye wakuamba ne, "Naxa, 
iena munumiinye." 



Compound predicate, 446. 
Comp)ound sentence, 452. 
Comp)ound subject, 441 (/) (i) and