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J. a. LOEIMER, I.O.S., 

>1.1TI01L OFFICKB, SOVIH Wl^IBISTl.!!, 1901. 





/"harvard a 
i university i 
i library i 




ikitxtm Std^ii Samel 




PA TooHi ksh:£ 








TT is hoped that this Waziri Grammar and Vocabulary may 
A- ^ be of some assistance to officers who, after acquiring the 
Pashto of Peshawar, are brought into contact with the Waziris 
of the Bannu District or of Waziristan. The difference 
between the Waziri and Peshawar varieties of Pashto is 
hardly less than that which separates broad Scots from cock- 
ney English, and like it extends to grammar and idiom as 
well as to vocabulary.* A Pathan of the northern border 
lately arrived in the Waziri country, is far from understand-* 
ing all that he hears, and cannot always make himself under- 
stood by the ordinary villager. After a short time, he is able 
to converse freely with Waziris ; but he never acquires a 
perfect command of Waziri, in spite of its close relationship 
to his mother tongue. The difficulty to a British officer is of 
course much greater, even if he has a good knowledge of 
Peshawar Pashto ; and if he wishes to attain even a moderate 
degree of correctness in speaking Waziri, he must study it 
almost as he would a new language and abandon the idea 
that a few changes in pronunciation, or even in accidence, 
will make his Peshawar Pashto intelligible to the ordinary 
Waziri tribesman. There is no fixed formula, even in the 
comparatively simple matter of pronunciation, by which 
the one variety of the language can be mechanically con- 
verted into the other. The result of treating Waziri as a 

* Some of tbe commonest words in the Peshawar dialect have no counterpart in 
Waziri, e.g., by61, separate, of which the Waziri is gwashai ; prftnastel, to open, 
Waziri, khalos k^eL Even the adjective lo^, great, does not exist in Waziri proper 
and it is not nnderstood by the less civilised among the Waziris. 


modification, according to a few general rules,* of Peshawar 
Pashto would consequently be a jargon not spoken by any tribe. 
While the Waziri dialects differ, as a family, in a marked 
degree from the Peshawar and other dialects of Pashto, they 
also differ to a less extent among themselves. These variations, 
however, do not appreciably impede communication between 
Waziris of different tribes, and may be regarded as of little 
practical importance. In this Grammar and Vocabulary the 
dialect of the Mohmit Khel Waziris of the Middle Tochi has 
been taken as the standard ; but the book has been compiled 
from many sources, and Dauri, Mahsud, and other elements 
will, no doubt, be found in it. In fact, it would be impossible 
to distinguish and keep separate the different Waziri dialects,t 
which shade into each other imperceptibly and vary from 
tribe to tribe, and even from section to section. The dialect 
of families of the same clan which have been separated for" 
some generations is often not the same. Pronunciation varies 
almost from village to village, f and so great is the cojifusion 
that even the same man wiU sometimes pronounce the same 
word in different ways. Strange to say, the Mahsud and Wano 

* There are, however, a few general rules, bat they are of nncertain and irregular 
application ; e,g,, the b, m, n, k and w of Peshawar Pashto often become w, w, 1, kw and y 
in Waziri Pashto. Thus the Peshawar words b^ga, evening, m^ma, guest, nghar^,^re- 
place, kunda, widow, and nwar, sun, become in Waziri Pashto w^ga, wulma, Ig^am, 
kwunda and my^r or Im^r. The last word is an excellent illustration of the uncertainty 
attending these oonversions. The name Anwar becomes Almar. An n is frequently 
inserted after a vowel in Waziri, as maudat, for madad, help. Words beginning with a 
vowel in Peshawar Pashto often begin with y in Waziri Pashto ; thus, obe and y^bo» 
water » In this respect some varieties of Lowland Scottish furnish an analogy : eg,, the 
dialect of the Ettrick Shepherd in the " Noctes Ambrosianae," wbo calls an epic, a yepic, 
and the earth, yearth. As regards correspondence of vowels, see last footnote on this 

t Thus in the Bannu district alone there are at least Ihree ways of saying 
" I will not." A Hathi Ehel says " Dft kissa wa na wukan "; a Sperkai says '* Dft kissa 
wa na wukan dai "; and an TJmarzai says '' Dft kissa wa na wukai^i kruzh." 

X So in Bannu the word for a bullet is '' golai," and a Bannu Waziri will sometimes 
fail to recognise it if pronounced " g^lai " as in Toohi. To speak generally, the a and a 
of standard Pashto are represented for the most part by o and i respectively in the 
Waziri dialects. The o of standard Pashto and of the Mahsud dialect is frequently 
represented by o in the Darwesh Elhel dialects and by 4 in Danri. Again, h frequently 
occurs in Dauri where o is found in standard Pashto, in the Mahsud dialect and even 
in the dialects of the Darwesh Khel. There is, however, no consistent rule of trans- 


Darweah Khel varieties of Waziri Pashto, while resembling 
the others in grammar and vocabulary, differ considerably less 
from the Pashto of Peshawar in pronounciation. 

A few words are necessary to explain the phonetic system 
employed in this book. Waziri Pashto is seldom or never 
written, the correspondence of the people being carried on 
through letter- writers, chiefly mullahs, in Hindustani or exe- 
crable Persian. The Arabic character, which has only the 
means of expressing eight vowel sounds, viz.^ a, a, % 5, u, u, 
auy and ai, is entirely unsuited to be the vehicle of a tongue so 
rich in vowels as Waziri. The close connection, in the Arabic 
character, between the consonantal sounds f(? and y and 
certain of the long vowels and diphthongs is an additional 
disadvantage. Thus the Dauri word ytySy eggs, could only 
be expressed in Arabic characters by repeating the same 
symbol four times, yyyy, minute diacritical marks (one of 
which does not exist in Arabic itself) being added to indicate 
the variation of sound. The superiority of the Roman charac- 
ter as the literary medium of Waziri, or indeed of any dialect 
of Pashto, is so obvious as to require no further demons- 

The values of the characters which occur in the following 
Grammar and Vocabulary are as follow :— 
Vowels. — A == TI in but, cut. 
A = A in bar, far. 
E = E in water, barber. 
E = AY in day, say. 
S = AI in fair, hair. 
E = E in met, set. 
I = I in bit, sit. 
I = EE in feet, meet. 
O = O in note, rote. 
= EU in. French beurre. 
U = U in put. 
tr = U in crude. 
tJ = tJ in German siinde. 
AI = I in rice, mice. 
AU = OW in now, cow. 


The other douhle vowels are not true diphthongs : in AO, 
lA, 10, 01, etc., each vowel is pronounced separately in the 
ordinary way. The equivalents given in the above table are 
approximate only, and the true sounds must be learnt, in 
conversation, from Waziris. There are really two sounds of 
O, and the illustrations given of the sounds E and AI are 
not quite exact. The sound passes by an easy gradation 
into E, and JJ into I. 

Consonants. — The consonants, except so far as they call 
for remark and are mentioned below, are the same as in 
English. C and X are not required. The former when soft 
is represented by S and when hard by K; the latter is 
represented by KS. Q is not found, the place of QU being 
supplied by KW. 

OH is pronounced as in English, and is not underlined 
because it already exists in English as a double 
D is a soft dental 3) which does not occur in English, 
DZ is pronounced as spelt, and has been underlined and 
treated as a single letter for etymological reasons 
P is the ordinary D of the English language, only harder 
and more palatal. 
GH is a guttural sound, intermediate between G and R, 

which has no equivalent in English. 
KH is pronounced as CH in the Scottish words loch, 
]^ is a nasal pronounced like N in the Erench bon, ton, 
but less strongly. It is sometimes scarcely per- 

NBt is an indescribable nasal. 

R is a palatal R which does not exist in English. 
SH is pronounced as in English, and is not underlined 
because it already exists in English as a double 
T is a soft dental T not found in English. 


IS is pronounced as spelt, and has been underlined and 
treated as a single letter for etymological reasons 
T is the English T, but harder and more palatal. 
W and Y have the same consonantal sounds as in Eng- 
lish and are never used as vowels. In a number 
of words W is interchangeable with V. 
ZH is the sound represented in Erench by J, as in je, 

If the reader will take the trouble to master thoroughly 

the meaning of these symbols, he will be able to pronounce 

at once, with fair correctness, any word he finds in this book, 

a result which could not have been attained if the Arabic 

character had been employed. 

There is a variable, and sometimes marked, syllabic 
emphasis in the Waziri dialect; but no attempt has been 
made in the vocabulary to indicate the syllables on wliich this 
accent falls; partly to avoid complicating the system of 
notation, and partly because the correct emphasis can most 
conveniently be acquired in conversation. 

The writer regrets that he has not found it possible to 
deal with the derivation of words ; to point out, for example, 
that monA^itan, evening prayer, (Peshawar Pashto, mdz- 
Ichutan) has obviously, in spite of the want of resemblance, 
come from the Persian namdz'i'jchvftan ; to consider whether 
marakka^ a tribal council, is a corruption of the Arabic 
ma^raka, field of battle, hence council of war, or other council ; 
or to discuss the identity of &ay?r, a caravan, with ba^irf 
one of the Arabic words for a camel. Similarly ho has boon 
unable to enlarge on certain interesting indications,— such 
as the common use of the archaic compound preposition 
toa . . . ta^ the fuU inflection for gender and number of the 

* The prei>08ition wa • . . ta is unknown in modern Fesbawar Pasbto, bnt occars 
freely lu the Diwan of KbuBbal Eban, Khatak, who died in 1691 A.D., and in the 
works of Abdnr Bahman, bis yoaoger contemporary^ 


past participle in compound tenses, and the comparative 
fewness of words of foreign origin,* — which might be held to 
show that Waziri is a more pure and consistent form of the 
language, and less distantly removed from the speech of the 
original Pathans,t than the now standard dialect of Peshawar4 

The present book was begun in Tochi, but a great part 
of it has been written at a distance from the frontier. 
The writer hopes that this fact, added to the difficulty of 
compiling a first text-book in any new dialect, may be 
accepted as a sufficient excuse for the inaccuracies which will, 
no doubt, be discovered by those who may make, use of it in 
their daily dealings with Waziris. The differences of dialect 
prevailing among the Waziris themselves should be borne 
in mind in criticising apparent mistakes. 

An apology is due to the reader for the blimtness of a few 
of the expressions introduced into the vocabulary : the explana- 
tion is that they, like almost all the phrases which the book 
contains, were taken from the lips of living Waziris and are 

The writer is mainly indebted for the materials of this 
book to Maliks Khair Muhammad, Hathi Khel of Bannu, 
Gul Husen, Mohmit Khel of Tal, Nabbi Khan, Madda Khel 

* There are, however, a few remarkable adaptations of Urdu words, such as b^t^i, 
piece qf meat, led, horse»dunff, mantar, a charm, and wesh, jpoison. 

t It has been suggested that such forms as ko from the verb k^el rather show 
Waziri to be a worn-down and degenerate dialect. To refute this idea it is sufficient 
to refer to the language of Scotland, admittedly more primitive than modern English, 
but nevertheless having some words apocopated which are not apocopated in English, 
e.g., sma' for small, wa', for wall. Worn-down forms are, moreover, rare in Waziri. 

X Another point worthy of investigation is the relation of the Waziri, or any 
other Fashto dialect, to the langaages of Europe. The following resemblances to 
English may be noticed : arw^del^ to hear ; ^und, round '^ kat, small bed or cot ; kok, 
eake ; leke, like ; newai, new ; stbrai, star ; tandar, thunder-holt ; wivd, weaved or 
wove ; wula, willow. Compare also the suffix -s^, so, in ha^asl, etc. M^i mother, is 
pronounced exactly like the French mere, and kuna may be compared with the Latin 
cunnus. Although Waziri Pashto belongs to the same &mily as most of the languages 
of Europe, being an Indo-Iranian dialect, these resemblances are in some cases so close 
as to suggest the idea of their being accidental. DilEerence according to fixed rules 
would have been more noteworthy : possibly a formula might be discoverable by a 
competent philologist. 



of the Kazha, and to Sal Muhammad, brother of Malik £han 
Muhammad, Dawar, of Muhammad Khel. He also desires 
to express his acknowledgments to Tahsildar Ahmad Din and 
Naib-Tahsildar Muhammad Hayat Khan of the Tochi. 


MiBAM Shah, Tochi ; 
The Ut February 1902. 





Thb NOITH .•...•.. 

" • • • • 


Namber and Case •••....,, 2—2 

Masculine Deelensiong ••,•••••., 2—6 

(1) in a consonant •.....,. 2—8 

(2) in -ai , ^ 8—4 

(3)in.a • 4 

(4) in -ft and -an ^ 4 

(5) in -e . . 5 

{6)in-i 6 

(7) in -0 5 

(8) in -an • . , , 5 

Irregular Masculine Nouns •••••«• 6 

reminine Deelensions ••••••••. 6—7 

(1) in -a, -ft or -a^ • • • 6 

(2) in -ai . • • • * 6 

(3) in a consonant 6 

(4) in -^ or -o . • ' • • • . . • , 

(6) in -i 

(6) in -0 

(7) in -yrf . 
Irregnlar Feminine Noons • • •••••• 

Yooatiye Case ..••••... 8 

Numeral Case • • 8 

Special use of the Plnral • • • • .... 8 

Gender in relation to Size ••..•••• 8 

Masculine and Feminine Forms of the same word • . 8^9 

Significant Terminations •••••••• 9 

Thb Adjbctitb •••••..•. 9 — 14 

AdjeotiTes of Quality 9—11 

Irregular Adjeotiyes of Quality . . . . • • • 11 — 12 

Comparison • . • • . . • . • . • . 12 

Numeral^ Quantitative and Distributiye Adjectives • . . 12 — 14 
Demonstrative Adjectives • • • • . . . .14 


The Fbonoun 

Personal Pronoans • • • 
Reflexive Pronouns • . • 

DemonBtrative FronounB • 
Interrogative Pronouns • . . 
Relative Pronouns • • 
Indefinite Pronouns 

Thb Vbbb • • • • . 

Classifioation of Verbs • • • 

Moods and Tenses • • 

Auxiliary Verbs • • • . 

Simple Verbs . . • • 
Simple Intransitiye Verbs in -^del • 
Simple Trausitive Verbs in -el « 
Simple Transitive Verbs in -awel • 
Rules for the Conjugation of the Simpl 
Simple Verbs in "^del and -awel • 
Irregular Simple Verbs 
Infinitive • • • . . 

Fast Participle • • • 

Conditional • • • . 

Potential . . • • 

Passive Voioe • • • • 

Compound Verbs • 

Intransitive Nominal Compound Verbs 
Intransitiye Adjectival Compound Verbs 
Transitive Nominal Compound Verbs 
Transitive Adjectival Compound Verbs 

Substantive Verbs • • . • 

Particles ro, der and w^r . • . 

Impersonal Verbs .... 

Thb Adyebb . • • . • 

The Pbeposition . • • • 

The CoNj\7NCTioir 

The Intbbjbction . • . • 

e Verb 


APPENDIX I.— Parable of the Prodigal Son 
APPENDIX II.— Story of Waziri Life . 
APPENDIX III.— Some Leading Waziri Characteristics 






















AS few persons who have not already a working knowledge of 
ordinary Fashto are likely to undertake the study of the Waziri 
dialect^ the following sketch of Waziri grammar assumes some acquaint- 
anoe on the part of the reader with the general principles of Fashto gram- 
mar and is designed chiefly to indicate the points of differ^ioe between 
the Peshawar and Waziri dialects. The student is reconunended first to 
ran through the grammar and next to study carefully the vocabulary 
(which was originally written as a phrase book), referring back to the 
grammar for an explanation of all inflections^ etc., which he does not 
understand. He may then re-peruse the grammar more thoroughly and 
analyse the Waziri specimens given in the first and second appendices. 


Waziri nouns are of two genders, masculine and feminine. The 
names of males are masculine ; of females, feminine ; and of things, 
either masculine or feminine. Masculine nouns generally terminate in a 
consonant or in the diphthong ai (corresponding to' the Peshawari 
S), while the great majority of feminine nouns end in a, and a consider- 
able number in ai (corresponding to the Peshawari ai). Other less 
conmion terminations of masculine nouns are a, a, an^ an^ e, i and ; 
of feminine nouns, a consonant, a, an^ 6, h ^9 Of ^^^ j6* 

Number and Case. 

There are two numbers, singular and plural ; and two cases, nomi- 
native and oblique. The oblique case is that governed by a preposition 
or used to express the agent when the verb is active and employed in 
the past tense. The numbers and cases are marked by inflections; but 
it may be noted that in Waziri there is a strong tendency, especially in 



Bome''^ declensions, to abolisli the plural and sabstitute for it the singular 
used in a collective sense; thus a Wajciri Bays, £ mo tH melU^i 
khvarelai dai, the locusts hare, lit. the locust has, eaten up wy green 

MaBcolint Dtclenaiontk 
(1) Masculine nouns ending in a consonant. — In all of these the 

oblique singular is either the same as the nominative singular or 
formed from it, by adding an *gj, which appears to be discretionary 
and merely euphonic : thus, De plor vrSr, or, De plora vror, Aalf' 
brother. The cases of the plural are formed in one of three ways : first, 
by adding to the stem nothing for the nominative plural, and -S for 
the oblique plural ; second, by adding -en for the nominative plural, 
and -H)nS for the oblique plural ; third, by adding -ina for the nomina- 
tive plural, and "in€ or «0 for the oblique plural. The first of these 
va^ticB of the declension is general, including the names of human beings, 
animals and things; the second consists ehiefly of the names of 
human beings, but includes a few names of animals ; while the third i& 
eompoBed ehiefly of names of things with, however, a few names of 
animals and even of human beings. This first masculine declension may 
accordingly be divided into a general, an animate and an inanimate 
elass, each class being named according to the kind of noun which pre- 
ponderates, in it. It may be remarked here that in the oblique pluraJ of 
the inanimate class of this declension the terminations -in6 and -6 
appear to be almost interchangeable, but that with certain words one 
of them is preferred to the other. 

The following table illustrates the above remarks : — 






/ Mahsud, 





1 5 animal, 




dzanaware. . 

. thai^d, 





4 holy wan, 










III J deed, 





J horse. 










* See especially masculine declensions (4) and (6). . 

f Alto wose . 

X See reaiarks on eaphonio vowel changes on tlie nezt pagf. 


. A few words belonging to thin dedensioix are irregular and max 
almost be considered to form two additional claases^ the iiatnrQ of which 
will be apparent from the following examples :— 


NominatiTe Oblique 


jjT ( walnut^ 











All varieties of this declension are liable to certain euphonic vowel 
changes^ which do not appear to follow any fixed rule ; examples are :-— 

^^ > _ _^ 


























mangarina. <) 




larmanina. -^ l^rv/N^^ , 





Yishbon, camel-man, makes oblique singular ylshbpna, nominative 
plural yishbona, oblique plural yishbane, and ghobon^ coto^herd, meshbon, 
buffalQ'herd, and wazbdn, goat-herd, are similarly declined. Shpiin, 
shepherd, makes shpona, shpona, shpan^. 

The difiMilty of this declension is farther inofieaaed by the laet that 
the same word may, in some cases, be declined in more than one way ; 
thus los makes a plural losina besides that of los, already given^ 
dflanawar makes ^^andwaron as well as j^nawar, and wez, wzina as 
well as wze. 

Tbero is no test by whieh a ward belonging to tkia declcostonaaii 
be assigned to its proper class; the matter is one of usage and most bia 
studied as such. 

(2) MsMioaliiie noima ending in -ttb— This dedlsnsion iBdii4<)s both 

common and abstract noTinfl : the latter when used in a strictly abstract 
sense have no plural. There are two varieties of this declension. 
In the first, the oblique singular and the Qominative plural are both 
formed by substituting -j for the -ni of the nominative singular, 
and the oblique plural by substitutii^g -^yfi or by retaining -ai. In the 
second and less common variety the oblique singular is formed in the 
^me way, by substituting -i for the -|li of the noininative, but the 




nominative and oblique of the plural are formed by substituting' -ion and 
Aou6 respectively : examples are : — 



village^ kelai^ 

hratelety ohilai, 

foif^s brother, wo^shai. 





f fairy, 
II \ palate, 
C well, 






















kshelwolai, kshelwoli, 
p^rai, pferi, 

towlai, towli, 
klyai, kiyi, 

(for klyion), {for kiyione). 

No means can be prescribed of distinguishing which masculine nouns 
in -ai belong to the first, and which to the second class ; nor is it possi- 
ble to formulate any rule for selecting the inflection proper to any given 
word from the two inflections of the oblique plural of the first class, -yS 

and -ai* 

The words Rhudai^ God, and pai, milk, are indeclinable and invari- 
able, while shai, thing, makes shi, shaiyina, shaiy^. 

(8) Masculine nouns ending in -a are declined as follows :— 


dependent, hamsaya, hamsaya, hamsayagon, hamsayagone. 

Hindu converted paracha, paracha, paracbagon, parachagon^. 


The word mian, holy man, though ending in a semi-nasal, comes 
under this declension and forms mlan, miagon, miagon^. 

(4) Masculine nouns ending in -a and -au are inflected as in the follow- 
ing examples :— 



















gnna^ or gunain^. 





lauine or laue. 

It will be observed that in this declension also some uncertainty 
prevails as to the inflection of the oblique plural. Some words have a 
nominative plural identical with their nominative singular ; thus man- 
dau is used both for furnace and furnaces. The word badsha, Ung, 
makes its plural badshaon^ or badshayon. 


C5) Mascaline nouns ending in -e are of two kinds ; first, those gmm«* 
matically singulary and, second, those grammatioally plural. Examples 
oi each class are given below :•» 

ir«»nin<r Kominftttte Oblique Nomlnatlre Obliqaa 

M«mDms« tingtilEr. liDiraW* plunl. pUutH 

r Spike, ^nal^ashe, na^ashe, tnakhashina, nakhashin^. 

\ famiiy, kole^ kole, k&lina^ k^line or koU. 

*1 d^er, pse, pse, psina, psuifi or pse. 

^marriage, wode, wode, wadina, wftdin^orw&de. 

C curds f {wanting), {wanting), moste, maste. 

XdongA, (wanting), {wanting), hre, ^re. 

Various euphonio vowel changes will be noted among the above 
examples. The word bofil'^, eyelash, is invariable except in the oblique 
plural which is bojn>e, while woshe^ grass, is plural and invariable. Sofei 
•cold, has no plural* 

<6) Mascnline nouns ending in -i are divided into two classes corre- 
sponding to III and II of masculine declension i[l) ; some examples 
follow :— 







lAi • 







biyine or biye. 


\ camp, 

By a euphonic change skfi, embroidery, makes its plural skaina. 

In this declension, as in masculine declension (4), the nominative plural 
is ocoasionally the same as the nominative singular, e*^., kwundi, mirage 
or mirages. 

(7) Mascnline nouns ending in -o are invariable in the singular, 
and form the nominative and oblique plurals by the addition of -yon 
and -yon$ respectively. Such arei^- 

Meanimr KomlDatiTe Obliqae NomlnatiTe Oblique 

^* iiiigalar. eingakr. plartl. plaral. 

Mnhammadan . mullo, mullo, mulloyon, mulloyon^. 


friend, ashno, ashno, ftshnoyon, ^Imoyonj. 

(8) There are a few masculine nouns in -aij^ not included in the above 
declensions : some of them which are abstract, as dr^amwolan, arbitration, 
are invariable ; while the remainder may probably all be declined like 
dellaa, dwarf^palm, viz., dellan, dellan, dellina, dellm^. 

* Also ntlibas!^. I f Also ntikb%!>U[. 

WAKtBI dBiifillfAlt 

ItJ^egtllair Kai[iOalilI6 Kotl]l8.-*-The following masculme notuifi whiehare 
ir^^gt!dttf> or appear so in eonfieqnenoe of mark^ euphonic changes^ 
fihould be noted :— 











clsol or ^1^ 

d^oi or iii, 


dgftyfn^ or 

mter*$ 0on, 

, kbwaryfi, 













niyayme or 














toi, tm or iB, 

toi or tei, 

tiymsk or 

teyinl or 















zei| z^e or 




Fesbinine Declensions. 
(1) Feminine nonns endmg in -a or -a substitute -g for the -a or -a 

of the nominative in all the other cases, e.^. :— * 

iuiA.nin» KomiDative Oblique 

Meaning. singular. Btogulat. 

mouth, ^wula, ^wule, khwuK, 

ikB^goatj wza, wze, wze, 

theft, |^I&^ ^^, ^e, 

Similarly a few feminme nouns which end in -a^ as water-channel, 
^\^lan, "wfifi, wSe, w€i6. 

(i) l^emlmne nouns ending in -ai are invariable ; exaniples are : — 








woollen^ sharaiy 

gold coin, ashrafai^ 





sharai, sharai. 

ashrafai; ashrafai, ashrafai. 

(3) Feminine nouns ending in a consonant in the nominative singu- 
lar iBorm all the other cases by uddition of -6. Thus :— 

ibr<>.n«n^ 'Koriilnatite Oblique Norijitifttiye 

Meaning. ^gulai. angular. pluiaL 

hand-mill, m^chan^ mechaue, mechane, mecbane. 

needle, sten, stend^ steni, stene. 

flint, bakar, bakare^ bakard^ bakara 



<4) Feminine nouns ending in -0 ot -o in the nominative singular are 
iuTariable^ ^^•>— " 



KominatlTe ObHove 



1^ or 15, 

1^ or Vi, 


16 or lo, 


\6, or 16. 

The word ^bo or y(bo, water, is grammatically pluhkl, and the oblique 
case is eb^ or y^b^* 

(5) Feminine nt)un8 ending in A iti the nominative dngular form 
all the other cases by substituting -ai for -i. Many of ihem are 
abstract and have no plutal. Thus :-^ 

««»»i»«' singalaT. 

medicine, dori, 

purse, mioni, 

fvani, khwori, 

Nominative Oblique 




dorai^ dorai, dorai. 

mionai^ mional, mionai. 

khWorai. {io anting), {waniin(f). 

(fi) Feminine nouns ending in -o iu the nomiuative singular are 
invariable. A number of them are abstract and have no plural. 










shame, hayo, hayo, {wanting), 

etoth, khamto^ . khamto, khamto, 

plain, saro, saro, saro, 

(7) Feminine nouns ending in -yd are the same in all the cases. 

M^-«5«- NowinatiTe Oblique Nominatite 

meaning. angular. siuguCr. ptaral. 

gtitye, guty^, gutyfi, gutyg. 

nowye, nowye, nowyfi, nowye. 



Irregular Feminine Nouns.— The 

altogether irregular:— 

following feminine nouns are 








































Vocative Case. 

Most nouns have a vocative case, which in the singular of masculine 
nouns is usually formed hy adding -a and making such further euphonic 
changes of voWels as may be required : — 

e plora ! oh father ! from plor. 

e saraiya ! oh man ! from sarai. 

e zhenia I oh young man ! from ghenai. 

The difference of termination in the 2nd and Srd examples appears to 
be due to the different incidence of the syllabic accent. In the plural of 
masculine nouns and in both numbers of feminine nouns the vocative 
appears to be identical with the oblique^ e,g, 4 malikon^ I oh maliJts f, 
i tarbre ! oh cousins ! e shez6^ oh woman (or women) I 

Numeral Case. 

Many Waziri nouns possess what may be called a numeral case. It is 
used after a numeral adjective and is formed by adding the termination 
-a, and making any vowel changes which euphony may require* 
Examples :— 

Dwa sika {or sikfna) mi waheli di, I struck two- blows (from sik). 

Tso ghindiya {or ghindi) ghalla di shewy^ do ? How many sacks of 
grain have you obtained ? {from ghindm). 

Owa dzeya halolawd, to cut the throat of in seven places (from dzoi). 

Special use of the Plural. 

Names of solid substances and liquids are generally treated as gram- 
matical plurals, e.g,^ de mes£ g^la*!^ o, bullet of lead ; de banger^ kiza, a 
vessel of copper ; ret^ sar^ ^bo, terribly cold water ; pai she di, the milk 
is good* 

Oender in relation to Size. 

Connected words of different genders are frequently used to designate 
similar objects of different size. "Where this is the case the masculine 
form denotes an object of large or considerable size, the ordinary femi- 
nine one of small size, and the intensive feminine a very small object. 
Thus k^t {masc.) means a fortified house or group of houses, keta (fern.) 
a angle room of a house, or a house consisting of a single room. Margie 
{masc.) means a largish bird, margha {fern.) a smaller bird, and marghai 
{intens, fern.) a still smaller bird. 

Masculine and Feminine Forms of the same word. 

A masculine noun ending in a consonant may sometimes be converted 
into the corresponding feminine by the addition of an -a as in i^ty young 
le-huffaloy dzeta, young shc'buffalo. When the masculine ends in -ai 


the feminine may often be formed by Bubstituting -a or *ji for the 
•ai i thus jingai^ t/oung he'camel, jinga, young sAe^eamel ; laugerai> man 
reaper y laugery^, woman reaper: or occasionally by adding -yg to the 
masculine as, shoip^rai, male /airy, B\xov^TBiy6, female fairy. 

Significant Terminations. 

The tennination -kai or -gai generally has the force of a diminutive 
as in kelakai, small village {from kelai, village) ; tebergai, small axe 
(from teber, axe)\ and (Hakai, Utile man of short stature (from tit, of 
low stature) > In ghotskai, a bullock, the termination seems to have now 
no more diminutive force than the 'ock in the English word ; and the 
•gai of shahzodgai, princess {from shahzoda, prince), has perhaps a 
fcQiinine, rather than a diminutive, meaning. In kh^lagai, blockhead, 
the termination probably expresses contempt rather than small size. 
The termination -i|pai also has a diminutive sense, e,g., chirg, cock, 
chargirai, chicken ; kok, scone, kokirai, small scone. 

The terminations -tia or -tia and -tob mark absti*act nouns denoting 
conditions or qualities as bedortia^ wakefulness, narintob, courage. 

The termination -sht denotes either a verbal noun, as aryesht, 
wrangling, a state or condition, as tearbasht, high spirit, lit. being fat, 
or an abstract entity as molimesht, knowledge. The termination -in 
denotes a verbal noun only, as tarin, arrangement, lit. fying^ and prikrin, 
separation, lit. cutting, also landin, making short. Other verbal termina- 
tions are -ana5 -anna and -enna as in teorana, stalking, from ^rel^ to 
stalk, pashtanna, asking, from pushtel, to ask, and sotenna, keeping, 
from sotel, to keep. 

The termination -wolai corresponds to the English termination 
^ness, e.g., kaghwolai, crookedness. The termination -wolan^ which has 
also an abstract meaning, is perhaps a mere variant of the same termina- 
tion, e.g., dreamwolan, arbitration* 

Adjectives of Quality. 

The adjective of quality agrees with the substantive it qualifies in 
gender, number and case, and has consequently eight forms, which aie 
distinguished by inflections. 

(1) The majority of Waziri adjectives end in a consonant, and are 
declined like jawat, evident, below : — 

Masculine. Fbmikinb. 

Singular, Plural. Singular. Plural. 

Nominative . jawat, jawat, jawata, jawate. 

Oblique . . jawat, jawate, jawate, jawate. 


In some casaB an '-a may be ad^Bd in^ the Oblique Singular Mascu- 
line and is added in the Nominative Plural Masculine^ as in jim^ ravf :— • 

yim, yima, jrima^ yim6. 

yim or yima, yim^, yim^, jrim^. 

In a number of consonantal adjectives the final consonant is doubled 
before addition of a vocalic inflection ; this is especially the case with 
monosyllabic adjectives. Thus dak, full, cheg, highy ghwut, fat^ and 
chikhran, bleared^ make the feminine singulars, dakka, chegga, ghwutta 
and chl^renna, respectively. As in the last exainple, the doubling of 
the consonant is sometimes accompanied, in other than monosyllabic 
words, by a modification of the vowej[^iyl^ich precedes it. 

(2) The next commonest adjectival termination is-ai^ of«w]^'ch.;^ushai, 
separate, and astewai, single, below may be taken as examples :~ 

gwushai, gwushf, gwushye, gwushye. 

gwushi, gwushye, gwushy^, gwushye. 

astewai, astewi, astewy^ ftstewye. 

astewi, astewy^, istewy^, ftstewye. 

In some cases, however, while the inasculine is regular, the feminine 
ends in -ai and is invariable, e,g», l^wanai, mad :-— 

lewanai, lewani, lewanai, lewanai. 

lewani, lewanye or lewanai, lewanai. 

Gefdai, round, karai or kakarai, live4ong^ kortanai, down-country^ 
khandanai, bad, m^ranai, good, narai, lAin, portanai, up^ountrif, pradai, 
belonging to anothery shai, rights tartarai, stammering, wartai, roasted, 
zhc2^2^ yellowish, and zhwandai, living, belong to this exceptional class, 
but wartai has also a feminine singular warta. 

In a few instances the feminine may be obtained by adding -yfi to 
the masculine form : such is meranai, related through one's mother, which 
makes the feminine mferanaiye or mferanai. 

All participles of verbs ending in -ai are treated as adjectives and 
belong to the first, or regular, class, ^.^.*— 

Saar^eyinai, head-shaving ; sar^eyinyfi chore, razor* 
Ghwushtai {masc.) wanted ; ghwushty^ (fem.) 

(3) Adjectives in -a, of which there are a considerable number, are 
generally declined as follows like tera, sharjo :— 

tera, tfera, tfera, tfere. 

tfera, tfere, tfere, tfere. 

Sometimes, however, they are treated as invariable, e.g., pafira, irri- 
gated, de panra g^aname patai, afield of irrigated wheat. 



(4) She, good^ may be taken as an example of the deolension of adjectives 

in -e : it is declined thus >^ 

she, she, sha, she. 

she, she^ sh6, she. 

Sode, simple, and tyare, dark, are perhaps the only other adjectives of 

this class. 

(5) Adjectives in -8 are either invariable like wish€, quiescent, and wul£, 
melted, or are declined like the adjectives, pe, understanding, shw6, slip^ 
pery, and t6, spilt, of uncertain foim, examples of the use of' which 
will be found in the Vocabulary. * 

(6) Adjectives in -i mostly follow the declension of wuki, uncultivaied, 

below :— 

wuld, wuki, wuki, wakf. 

wukf, wnk^, wuki, wuke. 

Most of these adjectives are of foreign derivation. The adjective 
warboi, {land) situated near the village, makes its feminine warboya, and 
salu, correct, makes sahiya. 

(7) Adjectives in -0 are rare and appear to be invariable. 

The adjective p^jau, wiped, has for feminine p6jawa, pejaw& 
It may be noted here that considerable uncertainty and variety of 
usage previal in the declension of the Waziri adjective, and that it 
is rarely used in the oblique case of the plural of either gender. i 

Irregular Adjectives of Quality. 

The following adjectives of quality are irregular :— 


























































































, blind, 














• t 







































s^in or stona, 

























































































Adjeotives of quality have no special forms, as in English, to denote 
the camparative and superlative degrees ; positive, comparative and super- 
lative are all of one form, but the two latter degrees are marked by the 
insertion of words meaning, respectively, " than'' and "than all/' Thus 

«he, good, makes pa • • . na she, better than, lit., " good than '' 

and pa ghund na she, best, lit., ^^ good than all!* 

Numeral, Quantitative and Distributive Adjectives. 

The principal adjeotives of this class are the numerals, cardinal and 



The oardinal numerals are ;— 

1. yo {masc), yawa {/eht.) 

2. dwa {masc), dwe [fern.) 

3. dre. 

4. tealor, tealwor, or tsalw^r. 

5. pinze. 

6. shp^z]}. 

7. owa. 

8. wota or btan. 

9. nskor ihv pa wota. 

10. las. 

11. ywflas or ywolas. 

12. dwelas (^ dwolas. 

13. dy arias. 

14. tew^rlas. 

15. pmzalas. 

16. shporas. 

17. owalas. 

18. wotalas. 

19. nlnas. 
2a. shel. 

21. yowisht. 

22. dw^wisht. 

23. derwisht. 

24. tSal^wisht. 

25. pmzawisht. 

26. shpagbwisht. 

27. owawisht. 

28. wotawisht. 

29. nawisht or yo kam dfersh. 

30. d^rsh. 

31. yo dfersh or yo bondi d^rsh. 

32. dwad^rsh or dwa bondi d^sh. 
83. dr^dersh or dx€ bondi d^rsh, 

40. tsalw^sht^ etc. . 
50. pend^os^ etc. 
60. shplta, etc. 
70. avia or shp^talas^ etc. 
80. ati&^ etc. 

90. atialas. 

91. yo bondi atialas. 

92. dwa bondi atialas^ etc. 
100. sel. 

200. dwa sawa. 
800. dr6 sawa^ etc. 
1000. zer. 

Sbelj icorej is used in computing most largish numbers^ thus :— 

137^ dr^ kam owa shela (lit. three less than seven score). 
146j shpezb bondi owa shela (lit. six over seven score). 

The word l&k is used to express a large number but does not mean 
100,000 or any other exact number. 

To> one, and dwa, two, are declined as follows: — 

Singular. Plural. 

Masc. Fern. Masc, Fern, 





|- wanting 4 




Shell twenty, may be treated as a masculine noun with plural in -ina 
and S6l> a hundred, and zer, thousand, as masculine nouns with plurals 



in -gina. Sel lias also a plural, sawa, saw^. The other oardinalB are 

The ordinals are derived from the cardinals by adding the suffix 
•am for the masculine and -ama for the feminise, after elision of the 
final vowel if the cardinal ends in a vowel. Thus, pinze,^r<?, makes 
pinzam, pinzama, fifth ; and shp^gh? ^t^> makes shp^gham, shp^j^ama, 
Bixth. Yo, one^ is irregular, its ordinal being awwal, awwala, fiftt\ so 
is dr6, ihree^ which makes dream (-a), third \ also na^ of which the ordinal 
is nem, nemma, ninth. Dwa, twoy has for ordinal dwayam, dw^3ram 
and dwawam. The ordinals are used and declined in all respect« like 
adjectives of quality. 

The principal remaining adjectives of number and quantity are kS^ 
anyy hSjjg ... 11%^ not any^ d2^n$> several, some, or a fewy leg^ or ld|^ki, 
little in quantity , few, ^e, %omei which are indeclinable \ ^x, many, 
nim, half, hama^ every, and bar, each or every, which are d^lined like 
regular adjectives of quality ; and dwa-sara, both, of which the eom- 
ponent parts are separately but regularly declined. 

Demonstrative Adjectives. 

The principal adjectives of this class are dai^ da or dagrha, this, a, 
agha or hagha, that, and kim, such. They are also pronouns and their 
declension will be found under the Pronoun. When used as demonstrative 
adjectives they agree in gender, number and case with the noun they 
point out. 

Personal Pronouns. 

The personal pronouns are as follow : — 

First Person. 







mo or mi, 



Second Person. 






tus or tose. 


to or ii^' 

tus or tose. 


Third Person 






Singular. Plural. 




ag^a i^e. 




agte, ag^e, ^ 

yafii, egt, 

yagh6f ^ghe 

yaj^e, 6j^e, yaghe, 6gh^^ 

6 or y€, 

6 or ye, 

e or y^, e or ye. 

The use of the various forms of the oblique, where more than one exist, 
can be best explained by means of a few examples. The forms mo^ to 
and agha, agbS etc. are employed (1) to express the agent as, Mo 
yo zerk wuwTsht, I shot a chikore, (2) with prepositions generally as, 
Mo na gwushai shan, he separated from me, (3) to denote the possessive 
by combination with the preposition de or e, o/, as, De mo plor, m^ 
father^ E to sheza, your wife.* The forms mi, di and or yg are used 
(1) to denote the agent as, Zerk mi wuwisht, I shot a cMiore, (2) to 
markthepossessiveas, Plor mi mer shan, wi^yij^A^r died, (8) to indicate 
interest in or connection with, as, Khwasha mi do, it is pleasing to me, 
so far as 1 am concerned. The object of the action may be expressed 
by either form as. Mo waiyi, he beats me*, Di g^wori boli di, ^^ wants 
yov,, he is calling for you. 

There are also three invariable pronominal forms, ro for the 1st person, 
der for the 2nd, and wer for the 3rd, which may be combined with adjec- 
tives to express interest or connection as, Los! rocbeg shan, he imwedi^ 
ately rose to m^et me, or in my presence,^ or out of respect for me, or may 
be used with prepositions in their ordinary senses as, Das£ w^rta wu- 
wyaiya, tell him (or them) so ; Dushman robondi roji^ai, an enemy can:e 
upon me (or us). They may also be used instead of the personal pronouns 
proper in combination with the prepositions bondi, londi, pase, pferi, 
sara, ta, zene and zoWba, e.g., Werta wyaiya, tell him, 

Agha (which has also the aspirated form hagha and in the nomina- 
tive singular masculine an abbreviated form a) is the usual pronoun of 
the 3rd person : it is also used as a demonstrative adjective meaning 
that or the. The terminations of agha, used as a demonstrative adjective 
are sometimes curtailed as, Wag^ sari ta wyaiya, tell that man. 

Dag[ha, declined as below, is also used as the pronoun of the 3rd 

person : used as a demonstrative adjective it means this :— 

Masculine. ' Feminine. 

Singular. Plural. Singular, Plural. 

Nom. dagha, dagh, da, dagha, dagh, dagha. do vr da. daghe, d& or de, 
dai or de. or da. 

Obi. dagha, dagh. da, dag^a, dag^e daghe or dd, daghe or de. 
dai, de or de. or de. 

* The possessive CMse of tbe let personal pronoun, plural, is however in some Waziri 
dialects not •* de mizh " but *'damizh " or «* gmigh *', and this form baa tbe inflections of 
an adjective^ »,ff., damizba mor, our mother. 


When dagha is used in a pronominal sense the contracted forms are 
preferred ; the full form is the one principally used as a demonstrative 
adjective meaning this. 

When a^a and dagha occur in the same passage^ agha means tke 
fortner or (ke one further /rom me, dagha. tke latter or tie one nearer me. 

In strictness, a^a and da^a should perhaps be considered to be in 
all cases either demonstrative adjectives or demonstrative pronouns. If 
this view be taken there is no personal pronoun of the 8rd person at 
all in Waziri, except the oblique form or yS, the place of the nominative 
of the 3rd person being supplied by the termination of the verb. 

Beflezive Pronouns. 

The place of the reflexive pronoun, where it is the subject of the 
sentence, is taken by the adverbial phrase pa b^pula, lit. on hie own 
(account) ; in the objective the reflexive pronoun is expressed by jgon as, 
pa ^pula 4^n y6 mer kan, Ae himeelf killed himself ^ i.e., he committed 

Demonstrative Pronouns. 

These are a£ha and dag[ha, already dealt with under the Personal 

Interrogative Pronouns. 

These are ligok ? who? kim ? which ? * and jfie ? what ? The two 
former are singular and are declined as follows : — 

Norn. ^k? \Ma,c.^^^fem. 
Obi. cha? y 

Maic, Fern. 

Norn. kim? kuna? 

ObL kim ? kime ? 

Tse is indeclinable but generally plural. Kim is used, but rarely, in 
the plural, with the inflections of an ordinary adjective : tgok has no plural. 

" Whether of two ? '' ** which of two or more ? '^ are expressed by the 
compound kim y ? literally, ** which one ? *' 

Relative Pronouns. 

There are really no relative pronouns in Waziri, but the interrogative 
pronouns jfiok and kim followed by the demonstrative pronoun agha are 
used as substitutes, e»g.:^ 

T^ok [or che tgok) d&se zhagh^zhij. agha darw^ghzan dai, he who 
sa^s io i» a liar, lit. who Says so ? he is a liar. 

* Kim 18 properly an adjective. It cannot stand alone except when used as an Indefi« 
oite Pronoun-. 


Kim (or che kim) sarai das^ kor ko, ft badmash byeli^ a man who 
behaves so is -called a rnjffian, lit. wMcA man does such a thing ? he is 
called a ruffian^ 

The nondescript particle che is also used as a relative pronoun, e.g^^ 
Agha sarai che lor, the man who went, Agha bandi che mo wuniwaa, 
the prisoner whom I arrested^ Che is also used, instead of the demon- 
strative agha^ in combination with the interrogative pronoun to form *a 
relative,, e.g,^ Kim yo shai che ze dirta wushayan, the thing which I show 
' you, lit. which one thing that I show you. 

Indefinite FrononuB. 

These are yOy either, one; bel^ another, the other; ghnnd, all; 
ig'dk or hSlfSok, anybody ; har yo, har IfSok, each, every ; kim, any ; jfie, 
something, somewhat ; hat t^, everything ; bel tSfilk, someone else ; for 
examples of the use of these words the reader is referred to the Voca- 
bulary. In those of the foregoing which are compounds the component 
parts are separately declined ; Jjge is indeclinable and plural : yo and ^ok 
are declined like the numeral adjective and interrogative pronoun, respec- 
tively, having the same forms ; bel and har are each declined as a 
singular, and g[hand as a plural adjective. 

Classification of Verbs. 

The Waziri verbs may be divided into four classes (1) Auxiliary. 
(2) Simple. (3) Compound. (4) Substantive. 

Moods and Tenses. 

The following moods and tenses, except those marked with asterisks, 
are possessed by all Waziri verbs which are not defective :— 

Moods. Tbnsbs. 

Infinitive. ■ 

Participle. * Present. 

Do. Past. 

Indicative. Present. 

Do. Future. 

Do. Past Imperfect. 

Do. Past Indefinite. 

Do. Past Perfect. 

Do. Past Pluperfect. 



Moods. Tensbs. 


Conditional * Pregeut. 

Do. *Pafit. 

Potential. Present. 

Do. Past. 

The moods opposite which no tense is shown have only one tense, 
which is used with reference to all times. The present participle, where 
it exists, is rather a noun derived from the same root as the verb, than a 
mood of the verb. The conditional is of rare occurrence, and will be dealt 
with separately, as will also the potential, which is somewhat erratic in 
its formation. The remaining moods and tenses are in common use. 

Auxiliary Verbs. 

These are the eqiuvalents of to he and to become, and they are used 
independently in these senses, besides being employed as auxiliaries to 
form tenses and voices of other verbs. The first has only the present, 
future and past indefinite of the indicative; the subjunctive; and the 
conditional : the other parts, including the infinitive, are wanting. The 
second is less defective. 

The verb to be is conjugated as follows :— 

There is also an exceptional form, wi, of the 3rd person (singular and 
pliural) of this tense which has the force of (1) is, or arCy habitually/ ^ e.g*., 
hamesh dase wi, such is always the ease, (2) may he, e.g. y kechfere dase wi, 
should it ever be so. 

Indicative : Past Indefinite. 



(1) wan, 

(7) was. 


*(we) were. 

(2) w^, 

{thou) wert. 


(you) were. 

(8) wan, 

(he) teas. 


(they) were (masc). 


(she) was. 


(they) were (fern.). 


Indicative : 

: Present. 



(1) yan, 

(/) aiff,. 

yi, (2^^) are. 

W ye. 

{tho7i) art. 

yestai, (nou) are. 

(3) dai, 

(Jie) is. 

di, (t^^y) ^^*^. 


(she) is. 



The indicative future is formed from the past imperfect with the 
help of the particle wa : thuB^ Sabo wa ze woiata wan, I shall be there 
to-morrow* The subjunctive is identical in form with the indicative 
present. The conditional is wai for all persons; as> Ke ohere misb 
khappa wai, if ever we were to be vexed* 

The verb to become is conjugated as below :-7* 

Shwel, to become* 

Participlb: Past. 
Singular. Plural* 

ifasc* shewai shewi *) . 

> become. 




Indicative : Peesent. 




(I) shan. 

(I) become. 


(tde) become* 

ii) di6, 

(thou) becomeit. 


(you) become. 

(8) sh!. 

(he, the) becomes. 


(the^) become* 

Indicative: Future. 

(1) wa shan, (/) shall become* 

(2) wa sh^, (thou) wilt become* 
(3j wa shi, [hcy she) will become* 


wa shi^ {we) shall become* 
wa shai, [you) wiU become, 
wa shi {}hey) will become. 

Indicative : Past Imperfect. 
Singular* . Plural. 

(1) shwari or shwelaii (1) was be- 


(2) shw6 or shwel^ [thou) wast be- 

(3) shwan or 
fchan {masc. 
shwa {fern. 

. ) \ {fi^f *^^) ^as be- 
\'l I coming. 


shw! or shwell, \we) were become 


shwai or shwelai, {you) were becom- 

shwel (masc.) ") t±i \ , 

shwl^r L\P^f9) f*>^re become 

shwele (/?««.) j *^^' 

Indicative : Past Indefinite. 

Same in form as the past imperfect ; or the participle wu may be 
prefixed as wushwa, she became. 




Indicative: Past Perfect * 
This tense is eompounded of the past partidple of the verb itself, 
io become, with the present indioative, of the verb to 6e» 

. , V f shewai {maic.) 1 (/) iave 

^ ' X 6hevfj6 i/em.) ) ^ -^ become. 

#ii\f shewai (maec.) f_x (iAou) haet 


.e. (shewai {masc.) ^^^t \(he, ehe) 
^^^ \Aismji\fem.) jdo, (Am 


shewi {mace) \ - {we) have 

Bhewy6 {/em 

.) J^' 


shewi (««0 ) ^^ J^;;^ 
shewy^ i/em.) ^ ^^^^ 

shew! {masc) )^ {they) have 
shewy^ {fem,) ) ' 


^shewy^ {/em. 

Indicative : Past Pluperfect. 
This tense is componnded- of the past participle of the verb itself 
to become, with the past indefinite indicative^ of the verb to be. 

^') V^fiT/::]}-^^' (^ *a^ W., etc., etc. 

Imperative. * 

(2) sha, become thou, 

(3) wn da shi, let him or her become. 

(7) sfaai, become ye. 

(3) wa da Bhiflet them become. 


Same as present indicative with wu prefixed. 
(1) wushan, (/) may become, etc., etc. 

There is also another auxiliary verb, to become, existing only in the 
Present Indicative and the Imperative, which are as follows :— 

Indicative — 



(1) kezhan 

(2) k^^e 

(3) ke^i 



(2) k^gha 

The two verbs, to become, bear frequently in the 3rd persons singular 
and plural of their present tenses the meaning of usually does, generally 
happens, e.g., hara vrez vr6l6 dase shi? why does it happen so every day ? 
Hamesh ^ato k^a^i, he is perpetually malting mistakes. 

• The Past Perfect Indicative of this and all other Waziri verbs is frequently used, as 
in French, instead of the Past Indefinite Indicative, cf. Parin wa ^pul6 k^t6 ta ftatelai 
yaV» ^»®^ 3® *^^' mont^ \ ma chambre, Yesterday / vsewt upstairs to my room. 








Simple Verbs. 

The simple verbs are either verbs proper^ as par&iel^ to fun, gandel^ t9 
teWy or verbal iroots •compounded with a preposition, as ksh^mandel, 
(kshe-mandel), to massage^ pr^krel, (pre-krel)* to cut. 

Hie simple verbs axe divided into intransitive and transitive. 

Simple IntranBitive Verbs. 

The termination of the simple intransitive verbs is -£del| and these 
verbs are <3onjugated as tbr^el below :— 


daredel^ to stand, 

Pajiticiplb^ Past, 



f daredai or daredelai ' 


dare^ or daredeli 


C stood. 


<laredelye {fem.)y 


dar^delye {fern.), 


Indicative : Pbesbnt. 

Singular. ^ 

i(l) daran of ^re^n^ (7) stand. 

{I) dar^ or dar^e, {tkou) 


(3) dari or darezhi, {het she) 


dari or dare^i, {toe) stand. 
darai or dar^^hai, {jfou) stand. 

dari or dare^i^ {they) stand. 

Indicative : Future. 

(1) wa dar^zhan, (/) thdll stand. 

(2) wa dare^^e^ {thou) wilt stand, etc.> etc. 

Inibicative : Past Imperfect. 
Singular. Plural. 

'(t) dar^dan^ (i) was standing. 
(2) darede, {thou) toert standing. 

',(3) daredan \ 

{masc), I /, , V 

dareda or \ l*^**f^),. 

daredela [ ^'^^ «^««^*«^- 

{fem.)y ) 

dar&li^ {we) were^ standing. 

daredai, iyo^) were standing. 

daredel {masc.),'^ 

darede of dare- [ {thetf) were stand* 
Asi\6ifem.), j ina. 

* Pr6 is possibly a contraction of pdri. 

t Many intransitive verbs in 'cdel have Hn-ezQeptiooal past participle o€ transitive 
form in 'awelai either instead of, or in addition to, their vegnlar past participle in 
'Sdelai ; and n similar infinitive and imperative are not unknown. Thus *' de i^on^i sa^ai 
gnt^ blavsawelyd dV all the men have stumbled, from blavsedel, to stumble : ** de ga^weK 
2]^agh," the noise of dancing, from gadedel, to dance: "p^ri wu^wafawa/' cro«« oo«r* 
Jron y^wsf^ely to cross. See also i^\\^q 25* 


Inmoahvb: Past iNDaFiNim 

^(1) wudaar^dan, (i) shod. 

(2) wudared^y '{thou) stoodest. 

(3) wudared or vni {he) stood. 

daiedan {mase.)f 

wndar^ or wudarfidela, {she) sfood^ «tc., eftc. 

Indicative: Past Perfkct. 
(1) daTgai or dar^delai {masc.) ^ ^j^ ^^^^ ^^^^^^ 

(ft) dar^aj or dar^delai {masc.) 1 ^ (?A,t,)7,fl,^ ,^c,orf, 

(S) dar^dai or darMelai dai (w.) 1 (he) "% ^ ^^^^^^ 

4ar6delj6 do (fem.) J {she) / 

6ic., etc. 

Indicative : Past Plumefect. 

"'S;:"^'" i/ii]"«. . («»•) A.^< .«»^. 

(3) daredai ar daredelai {masc,)'^\Ya>i), {he) ^/^ / ^ 

daxedely^ ( fem,) J wa, («//^) J ^ * ^^ ' 

etc., etc. 


Singular. Plural. 

(2) wudare^a, stand ikon. 

(8) da wudareghi, let him or 

her stand. 

wudarezhai^ stand ye* 

da wudarezhi^ Itt them stand. 

* Tbronghotit this book tlie parfcicle wn, indicating pant time, is shewn as coalesoing 
with the ve]fb to which it is attached, and the particle wa, indicating future time, as 
retaining a separate existence. In tlie past tenses of transitive verbs^ however, the particle 
wu is liable to be separated from its verb by the interpolation of another word thus, 
agvin wnlid, "he saw, bat wn mi lid, J saw. In the above respects, the inoperative particle 
wn is treated in the same manner as the past particle of the. same form : so also the 
pRrticle wu which enters into the Composition of the subjunctive an^ sometimes (nlon^ 
with wa) of the future indicative. 



(1) daran (>f wudaran l/rV * j 
darezLan or wMdBi6^n J ^^^ ^^^ *^^*^- 

(2) dare <?f wudaj6 ") /., v 

dar^ali^ or wudar^zhl j t^H ««y««^ *<a«^. 

(?^) dari or wudari ") /. . v ^ 

dareati <»f wudar^shi ) <^' **") ""^^ *«»'"^- 

Simple Transitive Verbs. 

The simple transitive verbs have two conjugations : the infinitive 
t,ermination of those of the first class is -ej, of those of the second -awel. 
An example of the conjugation of each class is given below. 

(I) Infinitive. 
manel, (o mind. 

Participle : Past. 


{niasc. sing.) 
{/em. sing.) 
{maic. plur.) 
{/em, phir.) 

Indicative: Present. 


h minded. 



manan^ (!) 
mane, (fhi 
m«anT, {he^ 


m) mindest. 

» she) minds. 





{ice) mind, 
{you) mind, 
{they) mind* 

Indicative: Futubb. 

(1) wa manan> 

(2) wa man^^ 

(/) shall mind, 

{tfiou) shalt mind, etc., eto. 

Indicative : Past Imperfect. 

* manan or manelan {mase.sing.) \ (*» «'^ persons and 

maneia * {/em,. sing) \ ^^r'^^^p) I ^oas 

1 / ? \ > minding, thou 

manele {/em.plur,) J ^^^ 

* The gender and number of the vei;bsl form are determined in this and in the follow- 
ing tensns of the indicative by the object, not the subject, of the sentence. See page 26. 
In this tablo to save space tbe object is assumed to be a noun or a pronoun of the 3rd 
pcraon, bnt it may equally be a pronoun of the Ist or 2nd person, €.g,y wa ze mauclan, wu 
to lunnolS, minded met fninded thee. The verbal stem in these cases is the same nnd tha 
icrminalions arc as follow : Ist pennon Bingular 'Sn, plural-i ; 2nd person giugolar •(, 
ttlurul -ai. 



Indicative : Past Indbfinxtb. 

wumanan or wumanelan {masc. sing.) 
wnmanela (fern, sing.) 

wumanel {mascplur.) 

wumanel^ ( fern, plur.) 

(in all persons and 
numbers) 1 mind- 
ed, thou didst 
mindf etc. 

manelai dai 

manelye do 

maneli di 

manelye di 

Indicative : Past Pbrfbct. 

(masc. sing.) 
(/em. sing.) 
{mase. plur.) 
(fern, pint.) 

{in all persons and 
numbers) I have 
minded i thou hasi 
minded, etc. 

manelai wan 


manely^ wa 
maneli wi 
inanely^ we 

Past Plupbufbct, 

(masc. sing.) 
(fern, sing.) 
{mase. plur.) 
(fern, plur.) 

{in all persons and 
numbers) I had 
minded, thou hadst 
minded, etc. 

(2) wumana^ 


mind thou. 

(8) wu da mani, -f ^'^ *»'»' ^'^ 

I her, mind. 

wumanai^ mind ye. 

wu da mam. < • ■, 
' {^mtnd. 

Singular. Plural. 

(1) wumanan^ (7) may mind. wumani, {we) may mind. 

(2) wumane^ {thou) may st mind, wumanai, {^fou) may mind. 

(3) wumani^ {he, she) may mind. | wumani^ (they) may mind. 

(II) Infinitive. 
lagawel^ to strike. 

Participle: Past. 


{mase. sing.) 
{fern, sing) 
{mase. plur.) 
(fern, plur.) 


Indicative : Present. 

Singular. Plural. 

(1) lagawan, (i) strike. 

(2) lagawe, (thou) strikest. 

(3) lagawi, {he, she) strikes. 




(we) strike, 
{you) strike, 
(they) strike. 


Indicative : Futueb. ' 
(1) wa lagawa?, {I) shall itrike. 
(Si) wa lagawe, (thou) shalt striie. 

etc.j eto. 

Indicativb * : Past Imperfect. 
lagawan or lagawelaa {masc. sing.) \ 

lagawela if em. sing.) ( (*» «« Persons andnum^ 

, , / 7 N ^ *^^*) ^ «^«« striking, 

lagawel (wa5(?. i?^i^r.) I thou wast striking, etc. 

lagawele ( fem. plur.) ^ 

Indicative : Past Indefinite. 
wulagawan or wulagawelan {mase. sing.) -v ^ 
wulagawela {/em. sing.) I {^\<^ll peuom and num^ 

,1 / a 1 \ r ^^^^) I struck, thou 

wulagawele Kfem* plur,) 'J 

Indicative : Past Perfect. 

lagawelai dai {maso. sing) ^ ^ 

lagawelye^o {fern, sing.) H^^^^ll persons and num- 

lagawelye di {fem. plur.) J 

Indicative: Past Pluperfect. 
lagawelai wan (masc. sing) -n 

lagawely^wa* {fem. sing) HiYU persons and num- 

i.g.„e,,w, («»..,^.) j Si*^^^^*: 

lagawelye we [fem. plur) J ' 


(2) wulagawa, strike thou. (2) wulagawai, strike ye. 

(3) wu da lagawi, let him or her I (8) wu da lagawi, let them strike. 



(1) wulagawan^ may strike. 

(2) wulagawe^ mayst strike, etc., etc. 

Bales for the Conjugation of the Simple Verb. 

In the simple verbs of which the conjugation is regular, all the tenses 
may be formed from the infinitive ; but, for reasons which will appear 
when the irregular rimple verbs come under consideration, it is preferable 
to regard the infinitive, present indicative, past imperfect indicative 
past participle and past indefinite indicative as '^ principal parts,^^ inde- 
pendent of each other, and the present indicative and the past participle 

* See f ootnotOi page 23* 


as being the sources from which the remaining tenses of the verb are 

obtained. From the present indicative are formed :— 

(i) the future indicative, by merely piefixing wa (or wa wu) in 

all persons; 
(ii) the imperative, by substituting the termination -a for the 
termination -6 in the 2nd person singular, and without any 
alteration in the 2nd person plural, the prefix wu being 
generally added as well. The imperative, 8rd persons 
bingular and pluiul, is identical with the corresponding persons 
of the subjunctive, the particle da, however, being prefixed 
or interpolated ; 

(iii) the subjunctive, by simply prefixing the particle wu in all 


From the past participle, which is itself decUned as a regular adjective 
ending in ai, are formed the following tenses :— 

(i) The past perfect indicative, by composition with the present 

indicative of the auxiliary verb to be, 
(ii) The plui)erfect indicative, by composition with the past indefi- 
nite indicative of the auxiliary verb to be. 
It should be noted that the noun or pronoun which is the logical 
subject of the sentence stands in the nominative case with all parts of the 
intransitive verb and also with those tenses of the transitive verb which 
are formed from the present indicative ; but it stands in the oblique case 
with the past imperfect indicative, past indefinite indicative and those 
tenses of the transitive verb which are formed from the past participle. 
When the subject of the sentence is in the oblique case, the verb agrees in 
number and gender with the object. The explanation of course is that 
in Pashto, in these tenses, the logical object becomes the grammatical 
feubjcct, and that the past participle in consequence of its- adjectival 
nature is placed in agreement with the grammatical subject. Thus 
" Agiia nil wishtai dai ^' corresponds to the English " I have shot him^ ^' 
but means literally "he has been shot by me.'* 

The rules for the formation of the Conditional and Potential moodg 
of the Simple Verb are given separately on pages 82 to 34. They have 
little relation to the other parts of the verb. 

Simpk Verbs in -6dcl and *awel. 

Attention should be paid to the close relation which exists between 
intransitive verbs ending in -gdel* and transitive verbs of the same 

• Two verbs iu-edel,— uiehtedcl, to writ^t and woi'weilel, to Acar--bave a transitive 


root ending in -awel : verbs belonging to the one class Iiave generally, 
but not invariably^ a counterpart belonging to the other. 

According as the verb in -$del has (1) a passive, (2) an active, or 
(3) a subjective meaning, the corresponding verb in -awel v/ill be 
found to possess (1) an active, (2) a causative, or (3) an objective moan- 
ing, as will appear from the following illustrations : — 

(1) joredel, to he made : jorawel, to make. 
lagedel, to he struck : lagawel, to strike. 

(2) s?;erzedel, to go round : gerzawel, to make to go round. 
gha^edel, to speak : zhagbawel, to cause to speak. 

(3) (jaredel, to be afraid (oneself): darawel, to frighten {ati other), 
namedel, to be named {oneself): namawel^ to name {another). 
As remarked in the footnote on page 21, some verbs in -fidel have an 

alternative form in -awel, extending only to the infinitive, past parti- 
ciple and the tenses formed from the past participle, and this form 
though transitive in form and grammatical construction, is intransitive 
in meaning ; in a few cases such as arawel, to be overturned, anil 
trakawel, to sprout, this irregular form seems to have entirely sup- 
planted the form in -$del. 

From some Waziri adjectives, especially such as end in a consonant 
compound verbs in -fidel and -awel can be formed with corresponding 
intransitive and transitive meanings; as the method of formation is 
fairly regular, those verbs have generally been omitted from the Vocabu- 
lary, their existence being in some cases indicated by an example untler 
the adjective from which they are derived. When the adjective ends in 
SL consonant, there is generally no modification of the stem, e.g.^^ 

Adj. Intr. verb* Trans, verb. 

khwagli, khwashedcl, khwashawel, 

pleased t fo he pleased, to make 2>lectsed, 

(lib, dil)edel, dibawel, 

sunken, fo ^inkof it self ^ to make si?ik, 

but even this rule is not with':ut its exceptions, e^g.-^ 

mor, liiaredel, raarawel, 

satiated, to he sated^ to satiate, 

/^Vhen the adjective is one with a vowel termination, the formation of 

the compound verb generally takes place as iu one of the following 
inetances : — 

gwushai, ji^wushedel, gwushyawel, 

separate, to become separate^ to separate. 

rizhdai, rlzhdai sliwel rizhdyawel, 

accusfon/edy • to become acaislvhicd, • to accustom. 



Irrei^lar Simple Verbs. 

Below follows a list of the chief irregular simple verbs^ tranative 
and intransitive. Of each only the '^ principal parts ** specified at page 25 
above are given ; the remaining parts and persons are f onned from the 
principal parts and persons given in the table> according to the same 
rules which regulate the formation of the ordinary verb. Only a few of 
the irregular verbs have transitive or causative forms in -awel : these 
where they exist, are regulaarly conjugated, and their form is indicated 
in the following table :— 

MeaniDgr. loflaitive. 





Past Indefinite 

fo overturn, arawel, 

wovri or 






worawan or 

to overturn^ arawel, 

arawi or 




wu... arawan 







to take out, astel or 








io call, balel, 

Tx)li, bell 
or byeK, 




to lead l)etel 

b^zi or 

bot, bet 

betelai or 


away, or 


or biwan, 

biwelai, or 



io cracks chaudel, 







to cracks chawel, is regular. 


ito goy {wanting) 





to copulate. ghawel. 






^0 demand, y^wushtel, 



or ghwu^' 

• giwusht 
or wu... 

io dig, kandel. 




wukand or 

4-0 see, katel, 

kasi or 

kot or 






to do, "^kawel or , 

Id or kawi. 

kan or 


kerai or 

wu..,kan or 






4o sit down, kshenostel, 







* This verb has an exceptional form ko for the 8rd persons, singular and plural, 
fpresent indicative. Similarly its compounds rokf el, ddrkrel, w^rkrel, prekjel, Ho. 







Past Imper- 


Past Indefinite 

to mahe %it kshenawel^ U regular, 

to place, kshesshilel kshljghdi^ ksh^y^sh, ksh^yeshai^ ksh^...yesh 

or or 

ksheshwelj kshe. . .ylshan* 

to laughy ^andelj khondi^ "^^andel, khandelai^ *wu... khan- 

to ascendy ^atel khyd^hi khatan khatelai wu^ot 

or or or or or 

wu^atel^ wukhyeghi, wukhatan^ wukhatelai^ wukhet. 

to raise, ^^^hawel 

to eaty 


is regular. 

^warel^ khwuri, 

to possesSy larel^ 
to sendy l%z^e]. 


to see, 


to lie down, Imostelj 
to winnoWy lwastel> 



to read, Iwastel or Iw^Ii, 


tofind^ mindel, numi^ 

to die, mrel, vtirl, 

to roll upy ngheshtelj nghoriy 

to seize, niwel. 



to pasture, pewel, 

to recognise y peghendel, pegheni, 

^wurao^ khwarelai, wu...kliwiir 

or wu... 
loraDi larelai, {wanting). 

I^ahan, l^shelai^ wu...]o2baii 

wu . lozhan. 
lidan, lidelai^ wu...lid or 

teamlost^ Imost^ teamlost. 
1 wastan, 1 wastai, wu . . . 1 wast 

1 wastan , 1 wustai or wu . . . I wast or 
Iwastelai. wu... I wastan. 
mindaiof wu... mind or 
mindelai . wu . . , mindan . 
mredap, mer^ mer shnn. 

nghesht, ngheshtai wu... 

or nghesht. 


niwan, niwelai^ wu. . .niwan or 

pewan, p^welai^ wu. . .pewan. 
pe^endan^ p^ghen- wu...p^2li- 

delai^ endan or 



• See page 38. 






Past Indefinite 


Meaniqg. InflnltiTC. inVi^tr».« **^^** 

indlcatiTc. inditative. 

to give preshMel preshi or preehaii, preshewai, preshaiu 
wa^, or prekedel, prekezhi, 

to /all, prewatel, pr^uzT, prewataO| pr^watai, prewot. 

to let go, jireghdel, pr^ahdi, prey^sh, prey^^hai, pr6...yeBh. 

to worry, ^rghastel, {wanting), rghastelf rghastel. wu..,r^liaa- 


rghesbtan, rgheshtai, wu... 

to roll down, rjgheshtel, rgheri. 

to roll down, rgherawal. ii regular, 

to bring, rowastel, rowali, rowastan, 

rgbesht or 


ro wastelai, ro . . . west 

or ro... 


to burn, 

sezel or 

q6zi or 

sezan or 

sezelai or 








to clip. 


skoli or 



skwcst or 


to burn, 







to abuse, 






to tie. 





wu ..toran. 

• • 

to fun 







to go. 






to lie down 

y ^amlostel, 




; tsamlost. 

to drink, 




t&helai or 


to strike, 



waiyan or 

wahelai or 

wu... wai- 



yan or 

to spiny 







to go out, 






to weave, 



wevd or 


wevd or 

to say, weyel, wyaiyi, 

wivd, w^Ivd. 

wcyel, X we weyelai, wu. . .we or 
(?rwuwe. wu...w6ye].t 

* As this verb is impersoDai it occurs in the pliirul onlv. See pnge 38. 

f Present fsubjuucDive is lor shi, etc. ; impersttive tsa or lof sba, etc. ; past imperfect 
indieative, thin, tie, tan, (tin) ; tli^ tini, tlel, (tlele). 

i Plaral because the grammatical object implied is impersonal. See pages 26 and 38. 




to sfa^f 

lo ahooty 
to pnt on, 
to take, 
to jump, 
to make 
lo carry y 

to draw, 

to 8 koto y 

to guardy 




Past I in per* 


wezhnT, weghai; 

wislitel, Willi, 
wo^estel, wog^lundT, 
wokhestel, wokhli, 
wraitel,* warzl, 
warzawel, is regular. 




Past Indefiritc 

Indicative . 

a I), 

woghesi ai, wo^iesl . 
wokhestai, wo. . .[chest, 
wratelai, wiiwrat. 


wri or yosi, wraa, - wrelai, 

wukshel, wuko^i, wukTsh, 
wnshwel wushfiyi or wuslioyan 

or ushayel, ushaji, 
zgheshtel zghferi 
or zgherel. or zghori^ 

to welljipy zySziedel, zyi^y 
to place^ ghdel, zhdi, 

or wuebio, 

z gh esht 
or zgher^ 


wer or yaw- 

cr (/• yow- 

wukshdai, wukish. 
wushewai, wu . . .shoyan 

or wushio. 
zg^eshtai wu... 
or zgber- zgbesht or 
elai, wu...z^or. 

zyezhedelai, wuzewan. 
yeshai, yesh. 

or yesh, 

In the above table tbe present indicative is represented by tbe ord 
person singular ; tbe past imperfect indicative by the 3rd "person singular 
masculine for intransitive verbs, and by the form used with an object in 
the masculine singular for transitive verbs ; the past participle (which is 
declined in all respects as an adjective ending in -ai, see pa^e 26) by its 
nominative singular mascuhne; and the past indefinite indicative by 
the same forms as the past imperfect.} 

With regard to the past imperfect, it should be noted that the 
person or form which appears in this table is the only irregular one of 
the tense : the others, both in transitive and intransitive verbs, may be 
obtained from the infinitive by adding -a for the feminine singular, 
liolhiug for the masculine plural, and -S for the feminine plural, the 
-el of the infinitive being sometimes elided in the feminine forms, thus : 


Past iKnaFiNiTB Indicative. 
m. s. f. s. m. pi. f. pi. 

to ascend, khatel, wukhet, wukbatela, wukhatel, wnikhatele. 
to sit down,lish6nci stel, kshenost, kshenosta, kshenostel, kshenoste. 
to send, leaiel, wu...lo^aii, wii..lezhela, wu..l(3zhel, wu..l^ziele, 

to find, mindel, wu..mmd, wu..minda, wu,.mTndel, wu.,mind^, 

* There is alflo a form owratel. 

t i^imilarly compounds of wrel as rovrel, etc., except tliat they wants the pxtra forms 
J091 and yawer. Some irregular or rontractt'd forms occur in thebe oouipoumt9^ ao d^r'ep 
or d^rof for d^rwer, {he, etc.) took (to you). 

X In the case of the verb ghawel. feuuiuiuo forms nect-'ssarily replace masouliue foims. 



The infinitive may be used as a verbal noun ; and as such it is con- 
sidered to be masculine and plural, and forms its oblique case either by 
the addition of -6 or by the substitution of -6 for -el. The following are 
instances of the use of the infinitive as a noun. Boida di de ajizon^ ghaur 
krel, it is riff At to give thought to the helpless ; sharop l^el de mizh de 
Musulmon^ pa hakk ks]^^ she na di^ it is not well for its Muhammadans 
to drink wine. Da tip^k she wishtel ko, that rifle mates good shooting. 
As in the case of a noun,* a preposition may be followed either by the 
oblique or by the nominative case of the infinitive, e.g., De tre de lidele or 
lidel or lid£, depora ze tlelai wan, / had gone to see my uncle ; Drfmau, 
pa tlel ksb^ yan, 1 am starting, I am in {the act of) going* 

Fast Participle. 

It should be noted that;, besides the ordinary form, the past participle 
has in the nominative masculine, singular and plural, certain alternative 
forms ; e.g.j in mindel, to find, the ordinary masculine singular nomina- 
tive of the past participle is mindai or mindelai, while the alternative 
forms are minda and mindan. Instances of the use of these forms are • 
Dole hete shai minda na shi, nothing can he found here; Weryez do, 
na shi watan lidan, it is cloudy, the landscape is not visible. The 
alternative form of the plural is identical in appearance with the infini- 
tive, e,g,, Jang kshe sari wishtel shi, men are shot 4n battle. In the 
singular some verbs have also an alternative form which appears to be 
derived from the past indefinite indicative rather than from the infini- 
tive, e.g., Tsok das£ ko, agha woya shi, {fhe man) who behaves in such a 
way gets beaten. 


The only common conditional is an invariable verbal form V7ai> 
belonging to the verb to be, which is used with all persons and numbers, 
both independently as a present or future tense, and along with parti- 
ciples to form a compound past tense. Examples of its use follow ; — 
Ke paman na wai, nor wa e dzon na garawan, if it were not mangy it 

would not scratch itself. 
Ke agha rasedelai na wai, mizh wa wolata werta poti shewiwi, if he 

had not arrived we should have waited therefor him. 
It will be observed from these specimens that the present or future 
conditional is followed by the past imperfect indicative and the past 
conditional by the past pluperfect indicative. 

A less frequent form of the conditional is obtained by substituting 
-ai for the ordinary termination as, Ze che Banni ta na tlai, if I were not 

* See page 40. 


to go to Bannu ; To ke das^ khabara di na w6yelai, supposing yon did 
not say sack a thing. 

The conditional is not, however, in common use and its place is 
frequently supplied by the subjunctive with or without such words as 
chere, ever, etc., and of this many examples will be found in the 
Vocabulary similar to the following : — 

Ke chfere ze worata dfershan bya wa te tse wuke ? Jf I were to visit 
you there what would you do ? lit. If ever I visit you fiere, 
what will you do ? 


The potential like the conditional has only two tenses^ a present 
and a past. The present potential is expressed by a combination of 
the past participle with the preeent tenses of the verb to become 
(8hwel),as: — 

Ze tlelai shan, / can go. Te i wahelai she ? Can you ieat him ? 
Sarai sheza wahelai shi, the man can beat the woman • Sheza sarai 
wahelai shi, the woman can beat the man. A^a mizh wahelai shi, 
Ae can beat us. Mi^h a^a wahelai shi, we can beat him* 
These examples sufficiently illustrate the three rules for the f orm&« 
tion of the present potential, 1st that the past participle is used invari- 
ably in the masculine nominative singular, 2nd that the verb shwel 
agrees with the subject of the sentence in person and number, 3rd that 
the subject precedes the object in the sentence. 

The following are examples of the past potential which is formed 

from the past participle and the past tenses of the verb shweL It will 

be seen that in this tense also the form of the past participle is invariable 

and that in the case of intransitive verbs the verb shwel agrees with the 

subject of the sentence; in the case of tKiUfitive verbs however it 

* generally agrees with the object of the sentence : compare page 26 :— 

Parin ze tlelai shwelan (or shwan), nen ze nashan tlelai, I was able to 

go yesterday, to-day I cannct go. Paros-sazh mi^ agha sarai 

merawelai shag, sazh pa Gimbatai kshe . dai, sazh ze na e shaa 

merawelai, last year I could hill that man, this year he is at 

Gumalti, this year I cannct kill him. Pakhwo mi dfera marai 

^warelai shwa, 6s bimor yan, 6s ye na shan khwarelai, /orwi^r (y 

I could eat a great, deal of food, now I am ill and cannot. 

Wa^ti pa Mahsid pase mizh dfere chigoe krelai shwe, 6s y^ tipak 

der di, mizh chigha na shi pase krelai, long ago tee uere often able 

to pursue the Mahsuds, now they have many rifles' and we cannot 

pursue them. 

* There are ekceptionfl. such as the f olbwing, which seem impossible to taplain ;: 
Kifts^ mi na shwai kr^i, I could not utter words. 


The potential, except in the * piesent tense, is not. mudi used, and 
recourse is freely bad to eireumlocutory phrases containing words sueb 
as ^' power ^' etc., as r— 

Wast mi nishta ehe to sara barobari kari, 7 iave not tie pouer to, i.e;, 
eannot, enter into competition with you. 

Passive Voiee, 

The foregoing remarks relate to the active voice; the forma- 
tion of the passive from tbe active is a matter of no difficuHj 
as it has but two main tenses, a present indicative formed bj 
combining the past paiticiple with the present indicative of the 
verb to become and a past indefinite indicative similarly compounded 
from tbe past participle and the past indefinite indicative of the 
verb to become. From the present indicative passive a future indicative 
and a subjunctive passive can be formed in the same manner as those 
tenses are formed in the active voice by means of the particles wa^ (wn), 
and wn ,* similarly a past perfect and pluperfect indicative according to 
the ordinary rules. 

Indicativb : PBESE^r. 
Singular. Plural. 

(1) wahelai {masc.)')BhsLn, (I) am 
wahelye {/em.) j struck. 

(2) Do. sh^, {thou) art 


(8) Do. shi, {hCy she) 

is struct* 

waheli (masc^) ") shi, we are struch. 
wahelye ( fern) J 

do. shai; you are 


do* shi, they are 


Indicative : Futurb. 
(Te)wa wahelai she, ifhou) shatt be struct, etc. 

It will be noticed that this tense is identical in form with the present 
potential, and is liable to be mistaken for it. 

Indicative : Past Indefinite, 
Singular. Plural. 

(1) wahelai (^aac.)'^shwan, (i) was 
wahelye {fern.)] struck. 

Do, shwe, thou wert 


Do, shwan or ") {he, she) 

shap {masc.),> was 
shwa {/em.) ) struck. 

waheli {masc,)^B}rm, (we) were 
wahelye {/em.)) struck. 

Do. shwai, (you) 
were struck. 

Do. shwel {masc*) "> 
shwe {/em.) j 
{they) were 



*Ag will be wen below, even the present tense of the potential is not free from 
disadyantage, being to some extent ambiguous. 


Indicative : Past Perfect and Plitpeupect. 
(Ze) wahelai shewai yan, (7) have been struck*, Sheza wahelye 
shewve wa^ the woman had been sirvei, etc. 

CompoTind Verba. 

The compound verbs may be divided into intransitive and transitive^ 
and each of these classes again into nominal (formed from nouns) and 
adjectival (formed from adjectives)^ 

The following selected example^ will indicate suflSoiently how such 
verbs are conjugated : it is unnecessary to give at length the rules for 
the formation of each t^se» 

IntranBitive Nominal Compound Verba. 

From kbary^ ^ale^ 

kharsedelf U sell, be soldi be for sale. 

Past Participle. 

khars shewai (i». «.), kharsa shewye (f. *.) V ? » 
khars shewi {,)^ khars^ shewye (f^pl*) \ ^^ ' 


kharsezhi or khars * {m. «•)> ^h ^^n i^ sells, etc, 

wa ^arsezhi on khars {m. s.) wa shi^ etc., it will sell, etc, 

^ars^dan {m. s.), etc.^ it was selling^ 

khars shan (m. s.), khars^ shwe {/. jpl.), etc., it was sold ; they 

were sold, etc. 
khars shewai dai (m, «.) ^ etc., it has been sold j they have been 
khars shewi di («i. jt?/.) ) sold, etc. 
^VB shewai waa («•. *.) j ^^^ ^ .^ ^j^ ^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^ 
^arsa shewye wa (/»«.) J 

kharsezha or khars sha, etc., be thou sold, etc 


wukharsfizhi, etc., it may s^ll, etc. 

Intransitive Adjectival Compound ¥erb6. 

(a) bira shwel, to be delivered of a dead child or young one. In 
this form, with flhwel, the adjective preserves its separate 

* The second form has generally a freqaentative meaning, ts usuaH^ sold. 

D 2 


existeneei and is inflected exactly as an adjective combined with 
tbe verb to become, 
{b) from cheg, high^ raised. 

chegedel, io rise up. 

Past Participle. 

cb^ sbewai (m. 9.) ^ 

cbegga * 8bewy6 (f. s.) } *"**** ^^' 



ebegesban^ ^o., (I ) am rising up, etc, 

wa eheg sb^^ etc., (ihou) shalt rise up, efe. 

cbeg^la^ etc., {sAe} was rising up, used to rise up, etc. 

cbeg sban, etc., {he) rose up, etc. 

cbeg sbewai dai, etc., (he) has risen up, etc. 

cheg sbewi wi {m. pi.), etc., {fhey) had risen up, etc. 


cbeg^gbai or cbeg shai, etc., rise {ye) up, etc. 


wncbeg^sban, etc , (/ ) may rise up, etc. 

Transitive Nominal Componnd Verbs. 

From dazz, a shot. 

dazzawel, to fire at. 

Past Participle. 
dazzawelai {m> s.), fired at. 


dazzawe, etc., (thou) firest at, etc, 

wu dazzawi, etc., (he) mil fire at, etc. 

(sbeza mi) dazzawela, etc., (I) was firing (at the female), etc. 

(sari y^) wudazzawel, etc., he fired at (the fnen), etc. 

dazzawelai (mi) dai, etc., (/) have fired at (him), etc. 

(sbeza di) ^azzawelye wa, etc., (thou) hadst fired at (a female) . 

wu (ye) dazzawa,/r^ at (him). 

* See page 10. 



wu (ye) dazzawan (ke na ?) etc., may Ifift at {him or not ?), etc* 

Tranutive Adjectival Compound Verbs. 

From g84) mixed. 

gadawel, ^0 Mf^. 

Past Participlk. 
gad kerai (m. $.), mixed. 


(da migh) gadawi, etc, (toe) are mixing {it), etc. 

(ze) wa {€) gai^a^an, etc., (/) ikall mix {it), etc. 

(£boini sara) gadaweW, etc., (i) »as mixing {water with it), etc. 

(pai ye sara) ga4 krel, etc., {he) mixed {milk with it), etc. 

l[pai ye sara) gad keri di, etc., (he) has mixed {milk with it), etc, 

(ebo mi sara) ga^^^ kery^ w^, etc.^ (i ) had mixed {jwater with 
it), etc. 


gadawa or gad («». 8.) ka, etc., mix thou, etc. 


(ze) wu (ye) gada^an, etc., may I mix {it), €tc. 
The passive of the transitive nomimil compouBd verb is formed iii 
the same vvay as that of the transitive simple verb, e.g., Parin 26 wu 
dazzawelai shwan, / was fired at yesterday, but there is no proper passive 
of the traBsitive adjectival compound veib and its place is taken by 
the adjective from which the verb is derived >combin6d with the verb t0 
become, e.g., €o& «aia pai gad shwel, milk was mixed with the water. 

Substantive Verbs. 

These are two only:— 

shta, there it, or, there are. 

nishta, there is nut, or, there are not. 

Zamen di shta ke nishta, are thet^ sons of yours or not.*' i«., IUw€ 
you sons or not ? 

Farticles ro, dir and wlr« 

The pronominal particles ro, der and V7er "are used with verbs to indi. 
oate whether the person interested in^ or affected by, the action of the verb 
is the 1st, 2nd or 8rd respectively.* Their combinations with tie! and 

r * " 1 

^ Compare page 15. 


krel or kawel are of special importance^ and may be studied in the Voca- 
bulary« Other examples of their use are : — 

Rooheg sbatij he rose for me, i.e., /o meet me, or, ovi of respect for me ; 

De pataki na £bo d^wnbosa, take water for yourself out of the flask ; 

Flor ta wa w^dnman^ / will go to him, namely, to my father. 

Impersonal Verbs. 

A principle of general application is that verbs used in an im- 
personal sense must invariably be treated as of the 3rd person plural^^ 
and not as of the Srd person singular, as in English : this rule derives 
special importance from tbe fact that verbs of transitive form used with 
an intransitive meaning and transitive verbs used without an object t are 
considered to be impersonal in those tenses which require the logical 
subject to be in the oblique case4 Examples of impersonal verbs are : — 
Boida di che ... it m right and proper that ... lit. they are 

right and proper that ..• 
Wu mi zharel, by me it was wept, lit. 6y me they were wept, i.e., 

/ wept. 
Mizh worwedeli di che ... by us it has been heard that, ... lit. 
by us they have been heard that, ... i. e., we have heard that. 


The adverb calls for no remark : it is invariable in form and its 
comparison is conducted on the same principles as that of the adjective. 

An exception to the rule of invariability is the word Ahr, when used 
in the sense of ti^ry ; in this case it is inflected like an adjective in syin- 
pathy with the adjective which it qualifies, thus :«— 

pfer khwor rarai, a v^ry poor man, 
P^ra khwora sheza^ a vt-ry poor woman. 

The same holds of adjectives used as adverbs to qualify other adjec- 
tives, for example, Rette sar^ 6b6, intensely cold water. 

Adjectives, as in English, are occasionally used adverbially ; and in 
such cases they are inflected Sks adjectives to agree with the substantives 
or pronouns to which they refer, e.g, :— 

Jilkai tm^ wudareda, the girl stood firmly, lit. firm, 

■ — '■■ — ■■ - ■ ■ — 

* There is, however, a common impersonal construction for ordinary verbs with the 
feminine singnlar, 0.^. Das^ do, it u to; Mo wnpushta, 1 inquired. In this case there is 
prohably a word, perhaps ^abara, nnderstood ; if so, the above phrases stand for Das^ 
}di*ibara do, and Hagi^a ^abajra mo wnpushta. 

f Occasionally even when used with an object, as Plor y^ w^r manda krel, his father 
ran towards him ; Amonat di w^l^ U^natawel ? why did you misappropriate th§ dspo$it T 
This is a eariiras development. 

^ The reason no doubt being that the grammatical subject (see page 26) is an abstrac* 
tion and therefore impersonal. 


The prepositions de and 6 aie frequently prefixed to adverbs of place' 
without altering their meaning^ as wdrchane or e worchanei outside. 


The fHinpIe prepositions are few in number : they are !— 

*\>6, bS...iiaj b6, or bS la..»na, 

without, devoid of, except. 
bondi or pa...bondi, above, upon, 
t de or C, of. 

kara or de...kara> in the house of. 
kshS or pa...k8h0 in^ into. 
londi, de...londi^ or pa...londi> und^r. 

pa, on, upon, 

pa...iia^ than. 

pa80, de...pa80| or pa^.^pasS^ behind^ after. 

peri, pori or de... peril d0...pori> across. 

na^ de...na9 la...xia or tar.. .na, from, with 

relation to. 

sara^ de...8ara, or pa...8arai with, 
ta or wa...ta, to. 

^ ZO^ai with, in possession of. 
The single prepositions b6, de^ 6 and pa precede the word they govern : 

bondi^ kara, ksbSi londi> pasS^ peri or pori, na, sara, ta and zokbft fol- 
low it : while the remainder, consisting of two parts each, enclose it, e.^.— - 

de sari of tie man. 

sari nskf/rom the man. 

wa sari ta, to the man. 
A number of compound or secondary prepositions are formed -by 
combination of adverbs with the simple prepositions de or 6 and 
na. Such ai*e . • . na awwal, before ; de . • . makhamakh, in front 
of\ etc., etc. These compound prepositions are distinguishable from pre- 
positions proper chiefly by their incapacity to combine with the particles 
ro, dfer and wfer (see page 16). Thus, Pa mo pase and Ropase, behind me^ 

* Frequently compounded with the word it governs as^ fie-adaba> mitho^t politeness^ 

t There is also a form de . • • na^ or 6 ... na, e.^. Da bogh de to na dai ke de cba na 
dai ? is i^i garden yourst or whose is it f Da woe i mo na dai, thai horse is mine, Jn 
this form only the intonation distingnisbes the particle na from the negative particle of the 
same form. Occasionally the preposition de or 6 is suppressed altogether, as J u wore lauina, 
the harvesting of the maize, and in some of these case's there is an approximation to the 
English couaponnd word, as in mezzi tipak, match-lock. The omission of the prepositiolt' 
may also occur with pronouns, e.ff., mo dai, U is mine. 


both exist, but Pa mo ua vroudii before me, has no such oounterpart as 
'' Rovrondi/' 


The preposition may be used with either the nominative or the oblique 
case of the substantive to which it is attached. The preposition pa 
appears to be more frequently followed by a uomiuative than by an 
oblique ; but with most of the other prepositions the oblique is preferred. 
The personal pronouns invariably &tand in the oblique when accompanied 
by a preposition ; from this and from the analogy of Peshawar Pashto it 
may be inferred that the nse of the nominative with prepositions is a 
colloquialism which in Waziri has partially superseded the proper gram- 
matical construction. 

It may be noted that in Waziri pa S> on Aim, her^ etc., is contracted 
to pS| and that pa alone is sometimes used instead of pg. 

The word zenS (see Vocabulary) is an adverb rather than a preposi- 
tion, though it is capable of being used in certain prepositional construc- 




Both of these are invariable in form and are used as in English. 
Some of the principal interjectious are ^— 

(1) those of assent, 6 or h6^ t/es ! alla^ indeed ! 6 rahmata, 

exactly so ! 

(2) those of negation, na> no ! or, more politely, na rawo^ excuse 

me ! 
(8) those oE wonder or admiration, ballS (generally reduplicated 
balls ballS)^ extraordinary ! bechS (generally reduplicated 
bechfi bech6)> remarkable ! 

(4) those of approval, kshelai; good ! shabash or shobashfi, 

Iravo ! 

(5) those of sorrow, annoyance, weariness, etc., bai hai; alas ! 

what a pity ! heigho ! 

(6) those of disapproval, 6 tobai fie ! for shame ! 

(7) those without a definite meaning, the function of which is to 

attract attention or introduce other words, 6 or hg, oh ! 

ho ! yarra, / say. 

There are also various words used in driving or frightening animals^ 
or in ordering them to stand still, which are of the nature of interjections 
and will be found in the vocabulary j such are ash^ bo^ harra^ hoOf 

kattgj kwnrrg, sboS* 


Yila de Khudai wokhla, maiyina ; 
Ke de banda yila di^wi lora wa ghi na. 

Be I Ay kope in God, ok lover; 

If thy hope be in man {thy necessity) wM not depart (from thee)* 


A See AgSA. 

Abiya C^*/*) amble. Dk wos abiya kadam lari^ this horse has the 
ambling pace, i.e., can amble. Da wos sba abiya waiyi^ that 
horse ambles well* 

AcHAWBL {v, reg. tr.) (1) to throw, Kortis rowochawa^ throw me a 
^^ cartridge. (2) to cast. Tsinai y6 pa makh wocbawela, she 

WbCHAWBL ^^^i^^ her face. (3) to put. Yawa pakha ye khwule ta ftcha- 
welyc do, he has put a pinch of it in his mouth. Wos ta di 
jawji ichawelye do ? have you put the bridle on the horse ? 
(4) to move towards y bring in contact. Spi khwula rowo- 
chawela, the dog sniffed at, or tried to bite, me. (5) to 
deposit. Tei ^ara achawelye do, the river has deposited silt. 
(6) to throw in wrestling, put down. Rotea, cbe brid sara 
wuki, che sara wochawi; cbe kim yo yl bel wochawan, nor 
yagh zor pe ter dai, come, let us grapple and try to throw 
each other; the one that puts the other down, his strength is 
the greater. 

Adab {s. m^ (1) politeness. B^-adaba sarai dai, he is a man devoid 
of politmess. (2) kindness, moderation. Mizh der bad 
w^rsara wukrel, kho dft de migh sara adab wukan, we behaved 
very badly to him, nevertheless he treated us very consider^ 
ately. (3) seclusion of women. De dk kor adab dai, satar soti, 
seclusio9i prevails in this family, it observes the par da system. 
De sheze y^ dfer ret satar adab dai, his wife^s parda and 
seclusion are very strict. (4) women* s apartments. Wa aghc 

tr. = transitive ; v. =. verb. 

Konnd brackets indicate that the words they enclose are implied by the context, 
square .brackets that they are present but are nnnecessary. Square brackets afsc^ 
indicate the absent parts of defective Waziri verbs, etc 






bangle ta ma \¥^rtea ; wolata de sheze adabina d!^ do not go 
near that house ; the women^s apartments are there. 
Adam {s. m,) J dam. Ban! J(dam^ children 0/ Adam, mankind* Ban! 
Adam^ nawz au Shaiton^ d& dwa-sara dushman di^ Itist and 
the deviij these both are enemies of the human race, 

Adat {s. m.) custom, habit. DAse adat y^ dai^ such is his way. 

{adj.) accustomed. Zyai mi pa bad korlna adat shewai dai^ my 

son has become accustomed to {doing) evil deeds, 
{adj.) lonely, without relations, 
{adj.) insignificant. . Da kho yo adna sa^ai dai^ but he is a 

man 0/ no position, 
{adj. and pron.) See Grammar, pages 15 to 17. 
See HaosasiS. 
{s. m.) thorn. 

{adj./.) Aghzana wuna^ a thorn4ree. 

{adj,) (1) turned out, driven out. Ai kawa, turn him out. 
Ghwo mi aiye kerye di, / have driven out the cows* 
(2) dismissed. K^pul nikar di pa tee kissa ai kan ? why 
did you dismiss your servant ? 
AiB {s. ^.) defect, fault {physical or moral). Yo aib ye da dai 

che rind dai, bel aib ye da dai che bad-amali dai, one of his 
defects is that he is blind, another that he is badly behaved. 
AiBNOK {adj^ having defects^ faults (human being or animal). 
Aj {s. «»•) pilgrimage to Mecca. Tsalwer fijina mi keri di, I have 

made the pilgrimage four times, De aj vrez, the day imme^ 
diately preceding either Id. De aj pa vrez pa Mullo Elazhdar 
bondi nendora wa, there was a show at {the) Mullah Kazhdar 
{shrine) the day before the Id. 
Ajab {adj.) remarkable. Ajab peshkash, a remarkable present. 
Ajal {s* m.) predestined day of death. Shkorzan wuwe che zerka 
mi zeke wunav^ishta che ajal ye na wan^ the shikari said " I 
did not hit the chikor because its time had not come!' 
A Ji {*• "^O ^^^ ^^^ ^^* performed the pilgrimage to Mecca, a Haji, 

De &ji jom6 zar^une dl, A Haji wears green garments. 
Ajion Khudai be-darweghe na na ko, God makes no Hajis 
who are not liars, i.e. travellers tell strange tales. 
A JIB A {adv.) strangely. Ajiba e ^pul rang badal kerai wan, 

strangely did he disguise himself. 
Ajiz {adj.) helpless, poor, submissive. Boida di de ajizone |^ur 

kawel, it is right to attend to the grievances of the helpless. 
Ajiz! {s. f) (1) helplessness. (2) humble submission, Sarkor ta ajizi 
kawa, make humble submission to Government. 


Akal («. m.) (1) intelligence. Da earai akal d^ lari^ tiat man has 
mttch intelligence, {%) mind* De ghunde pa aklTna d& JcisBa 
kharopa do^ yo akal ye na mani; in the minds of all that idea 
is wronffj not one mind admits it, Be-akal or kam'-akalj 
stupid. Be-akli or kam-^kll^ (*•/•) stupidity, 

Akalmand {adj.) intelligent. 

Akbak {ctdj\) astounded, Akbak wudaredan, he stood amazed. 

Akbaba [adj. f.) Akraba sheza^ a scorpion^like woman, i.e. one whose 
husbands invariably die. [Allusion is to a belief that the 
female scorpion devours its mate.'\ 

Ami!£ {adv^ at last, in the end, Akh^r ye mazal (J^r wukan^ it 
ended in his walking a long way% 

A^iRAT («. m.) next world, world to come, Umar mi khwnshai ter kan, 
de akhirat depora mi h£fcs gafta wunakra^ / have wasted my 
life, I have made no provision for the life to come. Pa akhirat 
kshe khirfi wa di pa kor sh!^ in the world to come houris will 
be your portion, 

Akitiyor {s, m.) (1) power, authority, De mre akhtiyor, {or 6 zhwandi 
akhtiyor) di pa losdai, in your hand is the power of death (or 
of life), I.e. it is in your power to do {with me) as you please, 
(2) accord. Kudrati kor dai, pa khpul akhtiyor shewai dai, 
it is an accidental affair, it happened of its own accord. 

AOTiYOEMAND {adj.) (1) posscssing authority, (2) masterful. Lai Khan 
akhtiyormand sarai wan^ Lai Khan was a headstrong fellow. 

Akhwund {s, m,) (1) unworldly man, 'Parhfe i niwelai dai, akhwund 
shewai dai, he has adopted abstinence, he has become a good 
man, (2) man of a sacred caste tyr profession. AWbwundon 
dwa kisma di ; yo kho che pa ^pula akhwnnd wi, sabak y6 
dfer weyelai wi ; yo kho che plor nike ye mullo wi, au da 
haQ ke pa ^pula Iwustai na wi akhwundon ye byeli, 
Ahhwunds are of two kinds ; one, namely, that is an 
Akhwund of himself, that has studied much ; and one 
whose father and grandfather^ i,e. ancestors, were priests, 
and this latter, even if he has not studied himself, they call 
[him'\ an Akhwund, Pa akhwund bondi dzon dam ka, get 
yourself blown on {as a cure) by a holy man. 

Ala.m {s, m,) people, Dfer alam dai, there is a great crowd. 

Alla (s, m.) God. 

Alla {int.) indeedi really, 

Alek {adj.) (1) light, Ke drind bor na she vrelai, nor wa alek 
derkawan, if you cannot carry a heavy load I will give you 
a light one. (2) unreliable, Alek sarai dai, itibor ye nishta 
he is an unreliable man, there is no depending on him. 


AiiiCHA {»•/•) iifid of plum. 

Alih {<»dj,) learned. St^ alim sarai dai^ ke h a very learned man* 

Algap or{9.m^ 1 ^^^f^j^ ^^^. 
Algappa («./.) J ' 

Algho (^•/•) dissatisfaction, discontent. Fa watan ksh^ wa algho 

wushi^ there will be discontent thronghout the country. 
Alk {s. m.) throat. 

Almos {^. m.) lancet. Bag mi pa almoe wuwaiyan, / cut a vein with 

a lancet y i.e. had myself bled. 
Alwo (*«yO sweetmeats. 
Amay {adj.) stupid. Amak y^^ kj^wushai zhagh^zh^j you are a fool, 

you are talking nonsense^ 
Amal (s. i».) deed, conduct. De k^mat pa vrez nQs. amal pa char shij 

a virtuous life will avail on the day of the resurrection. 
Ambor {s. m.) store, heap^ De ghall^ ambor^ a store of grain. 
Amir {s, m^ commandant, general of a tribal force. De lashkar 

tsalweslitai amir y^ boli, the commander of a tribal army is 

called the Jmir. 
Amonat («. m.) trust, deposit. ~ Amonat y^ ^anat kan^ he committed a 

breach of trust. £hpnl xnol mi werzo^a amonat yeshai dai^ 

/ have placed my property with him as a deposit. 

Andai {s. m^ one end of a carriei-'s double sack. Yo andai mi dak 
dai^ che dwa sara dak shi bya i^indai mi dak shan, one 
end of my sack isfull, when ioth are full then my whole sack 
is filed. 

Andarfoya («./.) ladder. 

Andowona {s.f) water-melon. 

Andra {s.f) grindstone. Fa pradai andra na kbpula spinl^wara shs 
do, beUer is one^s own whetstone than another man*^ grindstone^ 
i,€. a poor thing but mine own, 

Angr^z {s. m.) Englishman. 

Ai^GR^i {adj\) English^ Angrezi pesh ro^^elai dai, tipak jorawi, an 
English smith, i«e. whv understands English work, has come, 
he repairs guns. 

AiNJ {s. m) -a^safoRtida. 

Anr^dbl (v. reg. intr^) to bray. 

Anr^zhai (*• m.) braying^ 

Ap (adj.) excused, remitted. Hawola rota apa do, forced labour, or 

contribution, is excused to me. 

Ap£d£L (v. reg. intr.) to cry, scream, bark. Trerai ohe Imoshom ap^shi 
bya wyaiyi che bazhawa w^ap^da, teok pa keli kshe wa mer 
shi, when the fox barks at night-fall they say " The fosc 
has cried, some one in the village will dieJ' 


ApIm {s. m.) opinm, 
APiMiffifeB {s. m.) opium-eater. 

Ara (*•/•) 9(^^* De ar^ ghwosbipa^ the teeth of the saw. 

Araba {adj\ /.) stammering. Arara sh^bba y6 do, he stammers in 

Arshamol (s. m,) hostage. 

Ari^a (*•/•) a medicine for diarrhoea. ITh ere are two kinds "tfera'' 
black, and " zyfera *' yellow."] 

Arjamai {s, m.) yawn. 

Arjam^del {v. reg. intr.) to yawn. 

Ar^an {adj.) skirting, following. Da sarak de ti pa g^wora arkban 
tielai dsi,*that road runs close along the bank of the river. 

Arq^yel {v. reg. tr.) shave. 

Armokd {s. m.) (1) sorrow, regret. Ke mer na wai^ nor w^rpase wa mi 
' damra armond na kan^ if he were not dead I would not grieve 
for him so much. (2) pity. Aimond, armond dai, it is a 
thousand pities. 

Arwoh • {s. m.) soul. Lmasbomak cbe sboreshi sbes^ ta wnwyai^tai che 
wazifa w^kaij de merye arwohina di^ when the bats flit 
about say to the women, " Give food to the poor, for these 
are the souls of the dead.^* 

ArySsht (s. m.) dispute, wrangling, insistence. Der ary^bt i rosara 
wukan^ he argued with me most persistently. 

Aryon (adj.) amazed, confused. 

Arz [sm.) petition, request. Arz mi wferta kerai dai, arz ye wu n' 

arwedan^ I made my request to him and he would not listen to it. 

ArzI (*•/•) written petition. 

Arzon {adj.) cheap. Arzon mi wokbest^ I bought it cheap. 

A^AKAI (*. m.) (1) yokc'peg, (2) rung of a ladder. (8) screu^ of native 
mandoline (ribob). (4) small tafUr. 
{adj.) broken, rough. Da watan arakai parakai dai« this is a 
broken country. 

AftAWEL {v. irr.) 

tr. (1) to turn over, put upside down, turn inside out. Ze 6 
worawan, kho arawelai na shap^ / keep turning it over, but 
I cannot^ turn it over, i.e. / am trying, but cannot turn it 
over* (2) to direct. Kaahe sterg^ vf6U r^arawe ? why do you 
turn crooked eyes to me ? i.e. why do you look at me askance ? 
De Gang pa lorl makh ma ara'wa^ do not turn in the direc-- 
tion of the Ganges. (3) to move. Tipak mi cba arawelai 
darawelai dai ? who has moved my gun ? (4) prove, consider 
proved. Mukaddama p6 wu i n'arawela^ he did not convict 
him in the case. 








intr, (1) to turn over. Shangerai mi wuelitai dai^ psha mi 
wushtye do, my ankle, rnyfoot, has turned over^ i.e. / have 
strained my anile, my foot, (2) to turn the comer of^ 
disappear behind. Che dazz mi wukan, agha 6 ghre na 
wuwesht, as I fired, he disappeared over the hill. (3) to go 
and ccme. Nabbi Khan kalla wa Datta Khel ta owari 
kalla r'owari Nabbi Khan is always going and coming at 
Datta Khel. (4) to be queer, outlandish. De Piro zhebba 
dfera wushtye do, Piro speaks a strange dialect. 
{s.f) need, want, request. De arai cheshtan. a man who has 
something to ask. Ner Bheze de ^pule arai depora de she 
sarai wa ziyoratlna ta drimi, men and women on account of 
their wants visit the shrines of saints, 
[adj.] at variance with, disputing. De sari sara ariya diwap, 

/ kad a difference with the man. 
{adj.f) in heat {she^buffalo). 

{s. m.) (1) descent, extraction. Asal mi she dai, / am of good 
family. (2) tribe. Asal di tee dai ? what is your tribe ? 
Te de asla teok y& ? whait are yoU by tribe ? 
{s. m. no pi.) (1) impression. De akhwund waz robondi hete 
asar na ko, the Akhumnd's sermon makes not the least 
impression on me. (2) sign. Gwnp wn^et, asar de rnani 
dai, the constellation Gwup has risen, it is a sign of {the 
approach of) autumn. 

AsBOB or Sabob {s. m.) things, belongings, luggage. 

As^ See Haghas]6 

Ash {int.) stand still ! {only to camels and donkeys). 

AsHiKMAN [adj») in love. 

AsuNO {s. m.) (1) friend. (2) acquaintance. (3) paramour. Ashnoyon 
dre di, yo ^o da dai che dfer y6 pizhane, yo kho da dai 
che ila kadar ^o peg^an^, dream kbo da dai che de sheze 
sara ashnoyi wi, de mere na petti kisse w^rsara ko, there 
are three kinds of " ashnas,^' one is he whom you know well, 
one is he whom you know slightly, and the third is the man 
who carries on with a married woman, without her husband 
knowing about it. 

Ashnoyi [s. f.) (1) friendship. (2) acquaintanceship. (3) liaison, 

Km&kYM {s.f) any gold coin. 

AsiL {adj.) (1) full-blood, thorough'hred . Wos mi asil Wazirai na 
dai, nim posanai dai, my horse is not a real Waziri, he is half 
up-country {i.e. Afghan). (2) genuine. Asil tipak j^woran, 
nakli na gfaworan, I want a genuine not a made-up rifle. 


- ■ • ■ I - 

AsL («^«) ^'^«'' Asia ^abara da do, tlie real fact is this. 

AsMON {s. m.) sky. Aemon gtarezhi {or tanezhi), br^hezhi^ the 
sky thu7iderSy lightens^ i.e. there is thunder, lightning. 

AsoN {ci>dj.) easy. 

AsoNAi (*. m.) rest. (1) De asoni wa^t dai, kheb waka, it is the 
time for rest^ sleep. (2) relief. De khwazhe asonai ye 
Bhewai dai, he has obtained relief from his pain. 

Assi {s. m.) September. 

AsTEL or [v. irr. tr.) (1) to take out, pull out, extract. Kim yo di 

Yastel. khwash dai, agha wubosa, take out, i.e. choose, the one that 
you like. (S) to lead out, conduct out. Mo jilab w^rsara 
wukan, pa darwoza mi wuastel, I saw them off, I took them 
out by the gate. (3) to produce one thing from another. 
Shez6 kuch zene asteli di, the women have made butter from 
it. (4) to hatch out. Chirga che kuranga shi yowy^ mashi, 
shelama yrez chargiri wabosi, when the hen stops laying she 
sits on the eggs, the twentieth day she brings out the chickens. 
(5) to show, exhibit (in special phrases). Toba y^ astelye 
do, he has shown penitence, i.e. has repented* 

AsTEWAi (adj.) (1) single. Aetewaikadam, a single pace, le. from one 
foot rising to the other coming down. Astewye sharai, a single 
blanket, i.e. having one thickness of cloth. (2) lonely, without 
family or relations* 

Asw:^LAi (s. m.) sigh. Wel^ di dase sor aswelai wukan ? why did you 
heave such a cold sigh ? 

Ata (*•/•) cubit. 

AtanS (s. m.) dance accompanied by singingtand clapping of hands. 

At {s, m.) shop, Pulonki wa fit ta ro^elai wan, / had come to 

so^and^o^s shop. 

AtJibakb (s, m.) kind of reel for winding thread on. 

Au (conj.) and. 

Audas or (s. m.) ceremonial ablution. Ke Iminz ke, awwal audas ka, 

AvDAS if you are going to pray, first perform the ablution. 

AvTifiwuN (adj^ (1) blooming, in first youth. Avt^wun zLenai, avte- 
wuna p^gila, afresh lad, maiden, (2) first. De owe vreze 
pferi f ai avtewun di, up to seven days it is ^^ first ^^ milk, 

AwoB or (f. m.) June. 


Awoz (s. m.) voice, 

Awwal (adj. and adv.) first, 
or AwAL 

AzAN (s.m.) (1) call to prayer. (2) crowing o/ cock. 


Aziz (*. m.) relative on/atAer*s side beyond decree offirtt cotisiu^ 
Aziz! . {S'X*) agnatic relatiomhip. Azizi mi do wersara^ ie jt a con-- 

neetion of mine on my fathen^s side. 
AzoB [s, m.) (1) agony, torture, pain, Dfer azob ma pe terawa^ zer 

ye halol ka^ do not hurt it muck, cut its throat quickly* 

(2) punishment in the world to come* 

AzoBi {adj.) suffering, in pain. Azobi yan na mran^ / am in great 
pain yet cannot die. 


Baba. {s. m.) (1) father, Mamozi Martei Khel ta ghund WazTr, 
Dawar^ Indion baba wyaiyi, all Waziris, Bauris and {even) 
Hindus call Mamozi, the Martsi Khel, ^^Father Mamozi.'' 
(2) any old man. £ baba ! well, old gentleman ! 

Bab^zai (s. m.) (1) fan. (2) -punhha. 

Bab^zhenna {s, f.) trembling, tremour. Tebba che sarai ^ezawi 
agha bab^enna do ; bab^zhenna de dor depora ban do^ de 
gbuss^ depora ban do^ when fever makes a man shake, that 
is trembling ; trembling is caused also by fear, and likewise 
by anger. 

Bad {adj.) (1) bad, evil, wicked. Bad^ eheze, immoral women. Pa 

bad korina rizbdai dai^ he is accustomed {to do) evil deeds. 
(2) fierce, resolute. Pa jaBg ksbe dhr bad dai^ pa shkor 
kshl hftn^ h^te ghai na pre^di^ he is a determined fighter 
and a determined hunter, he never lets anything go. 

Bad {s. m.) evil, offence, Dt ghund^ hsM na agha. parhez dai^ Ae 

abstains from all kinds of evil. Bad ma w^rta wyaiya^ do 
not speak evil of him. Bad y^ dii wukrel, he behaved very 
ill. Tsok nevi bad ko, agha sshi Is^bi, if anyone commits 
fresh offences, find out who he is. 

Bad-dzanawab (s. m.) pig, lit. evil-beast. 

Badal (adj.) (1) changed. Dzon ye badal kan, he disguised himself. 
Mab'k de nosti mela badala keiye do^ the headman has 
changed his sitting-place. (2) exchanged. Ti'pak Salo de 
Mubabbat Khan 8ara badal kan^ Salo exchanged rifies with 
Muhabbat Khan. WazTr de ashnoyi depora dastarina sara 
badlawT^ Waziris exchange turbans with each other as a mark 
of friendship. (8) wound round. Pa los bondi renje badale 
ka, wind rags round your hand, i.e. bind it up. (4) surrounded • 
Pa kila bondi kand ye badal kerai dai^ he has surrounded the 
fort with a ditck. Gbyezh mi pe badala kra^ I embraced him 


lit^ surrounded him with my breasts (5) behind, Mi^ 
S^undi na badal shwi^ we ffot behind the hillock. 
{8. m,) (1) something in exchange, Badal Ubo roka^ but gitfe 
me something in returner (2) revenge. Be meri badal j€ 
wo^est^ he took revenge for the murdered man, 

Bai)£d£L {v, reg, intr,) to become evil, fo be ojffended. Ke z^e di D& 
badegj^j no offence to yon. 

Bad! (*•/•) active feud, declared enmity, CHe pilhal eara waiyi, 
sara wezbnT^ ag^a bad! by^li ; che wa^ti bad! wi sajra^ lare 
wi^ by& neki wuko> ag^a mizli dusbmam bylli^ when at tie 
moment they are fighting and killing each other, tha6 it 
called a feud; when formerly then were feudsand murderr 
and then they make peace, that' we call enmity. 

BadIdou {adf,) having a feud, blood fe^. 

Badiyat («. m.) ill-feeling, hostility. Bieuliyat mi nishtaj fhere is no 
ill feeling on my part . 

Badkoi^ (s.f) immorality. Shpula dunyo pa badkori ksh^ ye ^»* 
ropa kra^ he wasted his substance in riotous living, 

Bad^wo {s, m,) ill'wisher, fi mo bad^wo ban dai^ 6 sarkor badUhw<» 
ban dai^ he is both an illwisher of mine and badly disposed 
towards Government,. 

Baomash (s» m,) bad character, ruffian, scoundrel, 


Baboma (*./.) iiffk wind, dust-storm^ Stera badoma roj^la^ a^re^iif 

dust'Storm. is coming up. 
Badon {s, m,) truce, De yawe myasbt^ badon sbewai dai^ a truce ha» 

been made for one month. 
Badok (»• m) (1) almond, (2) almond^tree, De badon6 watan dai^ it 

is an almond country,. 
Badragoa {s, /.) escort, guard, De tso kas£ badragga pa kor do ? whaf 

strength of guard is required ? 
Babrang (t. m^ cucumber, De Wazir^ ster ster badrang pa Razmak 

ksbe paido kezbi^ the big cucumbers of the Waziris are 

grown at Bazmak, 

Badri (s,rm,) August* 

BadbIzha {s,f^ stout rope made from dwarf-palm. 

Badsha (t. m,) (1) king. Badsba kor^ a palace. (2) great man. De 
badshayone kisse di, these are affairs for the great. 

Badw£ {s. f) swelling. Prawor badwe wuwoyan, the wound ha& 
swelled up, 



Bapal (a. m.) mut^ Ba^al dai^ na shi watan lidai^ U is misty , the 

eountry cannot be seen, 
BAppi (s./. pi.) trousers (only in certain phrases as bad4^ d^chegge 

ka che tond^ na shi^ pull up your trousers that they may not 

get wet). 
Bapy£ (*•/•) bribe. Badyl 4^ ^warelyfi di, he has taken, lit. eaten, 

many bribes, 
BApxiffiOR («. m.) bribetaker. 


Bada {s. /.) (1) rein. Wos ta mi bag^ wftrpreehw^, / gave my horse 
rein, lit. let go the reikis to my horse. (2) sinew, tendon 
behind heel or knee, Gadali^ che wa espafal ta tan^ w^ che 
baga mi pr6 na k^^ as Gadali was going to hospital he said 
'' Be sure you donH. cut the sinew.'* (3) canter. Wos mi x>a 
bag6 she drimi^ my horse has a good canter. 

Baghbai [s.f.) hole in the ground used as a mortar. Pa mzeka kshe 
kandgholai wuko^ spin^ware pa kshe shakh ko ; da baghrai 
hy€i\, they make a hole in the ground and fix {stones of a par '^ 
ticular kind) in it; that is called a '^ baghrai.'* 

Baghwon {s. m.) gardener. 

BAGfiWUN {s. m.) cheek. 

Bahir (s. m.) (1) caravan of camels, train of bullocks or other 

or Battir beasts of burden {any number from one upwards). Pa bahira 
tlelai dai, he has gone with a caravan {to trade, cut wood, etc.) 
(2) an honest livelihood^ trading. Yar Gul, Jalal Khel, ghla 
ko ke bayir ko ? Is Tar Gul, Jalal Khel, a raider or a trader ? 

Baia or {s. f.) price. Baia ye te^mra do ? what is the price of 
Baiya it ? 

Baiana {s.f.) earnest-money. De baiane da matlab dai che pa be! cha 
bondi khars na ke, the object (f eamest'inoney is this, that you 
should not sell {the thing) to anyone else, 

Baiya See Baia. 

Baiyahtkl {v. reg. tr.) {causative ^baiyedel q.v.) Khpul korye baiyawelai 

dai, he has sent, started, his own household off {on the migra-- 
tion) . 
Baiy£dbl {v. reg. intr.) (1) to f,ow. £b6 pa well kshe baiyeghi, the 
water is Rowing in the irrigation channel. (2) to run. I>e 
spi de khwule na lyare baiyedl, foam was running from the 
dog's mouth. (3) to creep, crawl. Mangarina pa mzeka 
baiyezhi, snakes creep on the ground. (4) to migrate (of 
a nomad tribe). Pa de myashte kshe ghund Wazir wa ghre 
ta baiyezhi, in this month all the Waziris migrate to the 


Baja (*./".) c^cloek. Dog pa teftlor baje rawon^zJii^ the post goes ai 
four o'clock. < 

BakI^ex (s./.) kind of tree. ^\l\^ Aj«*tf»<a<U 

Bakab {s. /.) ^t«^. De bakare na yor wubosa^ «^f f i^ fire from the Jlinf^ 

Bakabi {adj.) flint. Bakari tfpak^ flint4oei gum. 

Ba^iya {s.f.) stitch. P^re ba^yg lagawely6 d?j ias put in mun^ 

Ba^ba {s.f.) (I) share of anything, fi ma baUbra telmra sbi ? how 
much does my share come to? (2) share in distrihutiofi^ 
of profits. De kom bakhra pa tw^gh p^ri wi, the tribal distri^ 
Bution of profits is according to the distribution of Burdens. 
(3) rent in kind. Pa Tochi kshe watan pa driama ba^ra 
karelai shl^ in Tochi land is cultivated on a third share of 
the crop (as rent). (4) share of wordly goods, lot. Sha 
bakhra Kliudai rokeryg do^ God has given me a goodly portion. 

Bai^shsl {v. reg. tr.) (1) to give gratis, a& a present. D^ba^shelai 

mi dai, I give you it as a present. Tse di w^rwuba^sh ? 

what did you give him ? (2) forgive. Ouna roba^Bha^ 

forgive my sin. 

Ba^sh {s. m.) gift. Ba^sh rokerai shewai dai^ it has been given me 

Of as a gift. D& tipak y6 rota baUbshish rokerai dai^ he has 

Bakshish given me this gun as a present. 

Bamt {s. mJ) foitune, luck^ destiny. De cliabaU[^t she wT, he whose 

fate is propitious. 

Balad {adj.) (1) well-acquainted withy knowing well. Da sarai de* 
watan balad dai> that man is a competent guide. Pa khpula 
nikari balad sha^ make yourself acquainted with your duties. 
{%) experienced {in any line). She balad sarai dai» he is^ a 
thoroughly experienced man.r 

Baladi or {s.f.) acquaintance. Dte hakim baladi wuka^ get to know the 

Baladoibi Political Officer. 

Balawel {v. reg. tr,) {causative of baledel q. v.) to kindle^ light. 
Che yor balawi bedor sha che belchferta wu na lagi, when 
you kindle fire be careful that it does not catch i.e. spread, 

Baledel {v. reg. intr.) to burti^ be alight. Yor bal^i^ the fire is burn* 
ing. Tsirogh bal^zhi, the lamp is lighted. 

Balbi* {v. irr. tr.) (1) to summon. Ro wa ye bela^ calt him here. 
(2) to call, name. D& tee byeli ? whai do they call that T 
\j^. what is it called ? (8) to consider as good a*- D& jurm 
prekerai b^la^ consider the fine a^good aspaid^ 

o ^ Ih 1 '^ ^ » 2 


BALLi {int.) {expremng astoniikment) . Ball^^ ball£ ! da yor teangra bal 
shai^^ Good ffraeiom I how that fire has caught. 

Balo {s. /.) (1) mit/ortune, bane, curse. Tse balo wferta lasedely^ do, 
some evil has overtaken him. {See bod.) (2) matter. Nen tee 
balo do ? what is the matter to^ay ? (8) terrible thing. 
Da mzerai ^ngra balo dai^ what a terrible creature that lion 
is. (4) poison. Zannalik balo ^waiely^ wa ; zeke mer shan, 
Zarmalik was poisoned, lit. had eaten poison; that is 
why he died. (5) insects, vermin. JomI mi balo ^warelye 
df, insects have eaten my clothes. 

Balwa («•/•) (1) outbreai, riot, fis hsAwi pa watan ksbl werk^ sWe^ 
now'a-^ays there are no more disturbances in the country. 
(2) fight of any kind, violence. Fa Maizar kshe balwa 
wusbwa^ a fight took place at Haizar. Balwa ma rosara ka, 
do not quarrel with me. 

Bambal {s. m,) head, ear {of plant). De derg^, de juwor^ bambal slita, 
reeds and maize have heads, 
{adj.) in ear. Jnwor bambal di, the maize is in the ear. 

Bambab {s. m,) Gbwut bambar or sarkunatai bambar^ or brag bambar, 

hornet. Z^rakai bambar^ wasp. 
Banai {9.f.) blacksmith* s bellows. 

Band {s. m.) (1) dam. Wa w^la ta mi band achawelai dai^ I have 
thrown a dam across the water-course. (2) Joint of the body. 
Pa bar yo band bondi pSr nim shT, wound-money becomes half 
at every joint, i.e. customary compensation for wounds is 
divided by two for every joint passed^ beginning from the trunk 
of the body. (3) arrangement, settlement. Band ye w^rsara 
wutoran^ he came to an arrangement with him. Band rosara 
wo^a^ or wumsa, make a settlement with me. 
{adj^ shut. War band dai^ the gate is closed. 

Bandar {s. m^ path, track. De gbl^ bandarina pa Wat Ebwura bondi 
wnzi, the tracks used by the thieves come out at Wat Khwura. 

BiNDi {s. m.) prisoner. Zalm! SaidgT bandi niwelai dai^ Zalmai, tAe 
Saidgai, has caught a prisoner. 

BANDim {s. m.) gun, rifle. 

BANDimoNA (s.f)jail. 

Bakdobast {s. m.) arrangement of any kind. E mo tee bandobast ke ? 
what are you going to do for me ? 

Bangassa {«./.) sand'fly. De bangasse ster azob dai, great is the annoy - 
ance caused by sand-flies. 


Bangla {S'/*) European house, bunpalow^ 

Bangou («. ««.) copper, De bangorS kiza, a copper water-pot. 

Bangy6 (*•/•) (1) hemp-plant. Bangye pa Shoro keli6 dfer^ di, muck 

hemp grows at Kaniguram. (2) bhang, hemp-drug. Bangy^ j& 

teekawelye di^ they have smoked bhang. 

Bani See Adam. 

Banjobai [s, m,) follower, retainer. De Sshiboti^ a:rdalio!ii di, de mali- 

or kone banjori dl, English officers have orderlies, native head* 

Wanjoeai men have ^^banjoraisP (2) messenger, intermediary. De 

Pewanda Mullo banjoti pa Dawar^ kshe sbor^zhi^ the Mullah 

Powindah^s emissaries go about in Daur. 
Bannjtsai [s.m^ *) t? z- 

Baneeoel {v. reg. intr.) (1) to buzz. Gf^laidemechone (^undi banred^^ 

the bullets were humming like bees. {2) to make a peculiar 
sound. Wuz che mast wibyS baSrezhi^ «7A^i» the markhor 
is rutting he has a particular cry. 

Bae {adj») (1) upper. De keli pa bar lori, on the upper side of the 
village. Bar warshan^^ upper lip. Bara zoma^ upper Jaw^ 
Bar Dawar^ Upper Daur. (2) situated up-stream. Pa wela 
bondi te bar ye ke lar ye ? Are you up-stream or downstream 
on the water'^ourse ? 
{adv^ up, above. Bar wukhezhaj climb up. 

Baeai («. /.) victory. Pulonki barai wukra, pulonki larai wukra^ «c?« 
and-so was victorious and so-and-so was defeated. 

Baeakat {s. m.) prosperity, good health, favour with God and man. De 
to 6 plor barakat ze manan^ I admit that your father prospers 
in all his wa^ys. 

Baeakat! {adj^ (1) well-to-do, prosperous. (2) healthy, comfortable. 
Sirat y€ teorb dai^ ranziri pa ksh£ nishta^ barakati sarai daij 
his body is stout, there is no disease in him, he is blessed with 
good health. 

Baeamta . (*.y.) seizure of men, animals or property to enforce reparation 
for an offence. De Kobel Eifl^ Dalan Sahib sha baramta 
wukra, Mr. Donald made a successful baramta of the 
Kabul Khels. 

Baeawa {s. f.) doob, kind of good grass. Pa Tochi kshe barawa € w^W 

pag^wora shi^ pa bog^ kshe han shi^ in Tochi doob-grass 
grows on the banks of water-n^ourses, also in gardens. 


Babata^ {adv.) last nighty yeiterday evening. Barayan de sbpe da 
^abara mi arw^dely^ doj late last night I heard this news. 

Barband^ (adj,) naked {only used of human beings). 
Barm AND 


Barbast {s. m.) beltSj braces, etc. Pa barbast ksh^ Wazlr bazm^^ mie 
tlpak^ cbore, tlra ehorawl^ tie Waziris carry their powder' 
measures, pistol, kntfe and sword in belts. 

Bar^zar {s. m.) forenoon, from about 7 a.m. till noon, De bar^zar 
marai^ the morning meaL Sabo cbe Imonza wakht rawon sbe 
bar^zar ^ Sanzallai la wuras^zbl, to-morrow morning if 
you start at prayer^ime you will reach Sanzallai in the 
forenoon^ TsjikBihskTixATf early forenoon. Klak barezar, /a^^ 

Barg {s. m.) arms, weapons^ Bargina wa tozo^a gi-awina kshezhdan, 
/ will deposit the arms with you as pledges, 

Barsbklai (a. m.) lid, cover. Bar^elai de d^g pa khwula bondi 
kshezihda^ put the cover on the [mouth of] the cauldron. 

Barma {s.f) carpenters* drill and bow, native brace and bit. 

Barmand See Barband. 

Barobab (adj.) (1) opposite to, on a level with. Songa ye werta baro- 
bara kra, he levelled the spear at her. (2) equal. £ to 
barobar dai ke ^iyot dai ? is he equal to or greater than you ? 

Barobari («./.) (1) accuracy, success. Nen de shkor barobari na-wa^ tee 
^ot badly to-day. (2) equality, competition. Malik sara 
barobari ma ka^ do not put yov/rself on an equality with 
the headman. 


BareSirak {adv.) (1) on the top. F^ sandik ksbe mi bars^ran y^sbai dai 
I have put it in the box on the top {of the other things), 
(2) superficially. Fa tipak barseran lag^delai dai^ he hcts 
only been superficially hit by a rifie Le. been grazed by a 

Barwanb See Barband. 

Barw^za {s.f) a kind of grass ^ 

Bas {adv.) (1) enough. Bas kawa^ ^hut up I ^) well. Bas^ dit 

kor ta wuras^a^ well, she reached. home. 

Bast {s. mJ) woman^s marriage outfit, including jewellery. Wa 
j^pule lir ta dir she bast y^ werkan^ he gave his daughter a 
first-rate trousseau. 

Bashir {adj.) night'blind. 

Bat! {adj^ fallow, uncultivated for the time being. 


Baxbbrrai (*. m.) (1) spark, De yor bateerrai wnlag^d, a spark of fire fell 
on it. {%) atom. Yo bat§errai wa der na kan, / fvill not 
give you a particle. 

Bat [s. m.) baiing^ron, Nftna ke owarzi han, bat m- ^^ motawelai, 

the grain even though it jumps about cannot break the iron 
pot in which it is being parched, i.e. it is better to resign 
oneself to the inevitable. 

BIt£ (s. f. pi.) barley husked and boiled. Bat€ pa s^ferai saia 
khwarl| husked barley boiled is eaten along with ghi. 

Bat^r [s. m,) quail. 

Bayir See Bahir. 

Bazagor {expletivCy used in phrases such as the following) Pa £hudaid& 
bazagor wl^ che yo zhag^ wuka^ By God I adjure you, speak 
but one word. 

Bazica {9./.) powder-measure, hollow reed containing a measured charge 
for a gun. 

Bazor {s. m.) bazaar, town. Banni Bazor^ Bannu City. 

Bazhawa {s.f.) fox. 

B£ {p^^P') (1) without. Be mo na t^r^dai wa na Bh6, without me you 

will not be able to pass. (2) devoid of. Be-matlaba kissa^ a 
meaningless speech. See Grammar, page 39. , 

BECHfi (int.) {expressing admiration, surprise.) Bech^^ bech^! dft 
teangra wos dai> by Jove ! what a horse that is. 

B£dianai {adj.) foreign, outlandish. 

B^DiYA («./.) desert, jungle, the open. B^ya ta tlelai dai, he has gone out 
of doors (sc. to relieve nature). 

B JDOR {adj.) (1) alert, on the qui vite. Pa lyar^ kshig bedor iwk, keep 
your eyes about you as you go. (2) careful {see balawel). 

B£dortia {s.f.) watch and ward. De j^le shpa do, ze wa wferta bfdortia 
kan, it is a night for robbers, I will keep watch for them. 

B^GOR (s. m.) forced labour. De Khost Sardor ze wuniwan che begor 
wuka, the Governor of Khost seized me to make me do forced 
labour, lit. {saying) "Bo forced labour.** 

Bel {adj. and pron.) (1) the other. Pa bele lyar^ drima, go by 

the other road. (2) another. Bela lyfir ban shta ? is there 
another road ? (3) else. Bel ehferta, elsewhere. Bel took, 
anyone {or some one) else. (4]^ next. Bel kol, next year. 
(5) the one after. Bel sabo, the day after to-morrow. See 
Grammar, page 17. 

BfiL See BoL. 



B^Lal (^-/O itolen property recovered in Hich dreunutaneee ae to give 

4>r a elue io tie thief ^ 


BsLMANO (o^*.) fi(Xtf taitele4i. Belmang ^wand ji daij it hoe an inUptd 

BClmaz {adj.) who doee not pray ^ prof one, irreligione. 

or ^ 


Belshenna (<«/.) v>arpf threads which nm lenffthwise in the web. 

Ben («•/•) co-^ife. 

BiNASOPA (adv.) suddenly. BIn&sopa baleli sliewi yi, jom^ na rowr^ we 

were sent for suddenly and have not brought (a change of) 

B£noa {s.f)ransom'money. De Mahsld^ guzran pa bSnga p^ri dai, 
or the Mahsuds live by blaci^mail, i.e. by restoring for a ran' 

BfKGA. som property that they have raided. 

Benzai {s, m.) son of a co-wife. Ke y^g^^ shez^ l^pul benzai ta zar 

werkerai na wai, do nmri Isaid shewyl na wa^ if that woman 

had not given poison to the son of her eO'wife, she would not 

have been imprisoned for life* 
BIba {^'f) (1) bher^tree. (i&) bherfruit. 
Bvshkulla (s.f) (1) misfortune f trial. Beshkulle meshkulle ( {Saluta^ 

Hon meaning " I hope you have no troubles/*) (2) interrup* 

tion. Har wa^t beehkuUi pesh^^T^ zeke kor Uialos na 

shan^ interruptions are always occurring, that is why the 

wort has not been finished. 
B£tai (*•/•) piece of meat. 

Bi^TEL (t?. irr. tr.) take, take away, lead off {of human beings^ 

or animals and vehicles). Dzon sara wa to byaiyan^ I will 

BiWBL take you along with me. Wos mi g^6 b^telai daij robbers 

have taken away my horse. 
BiTlKAi (*./.) small piece of meat. 

BizELL («. f^ retaining wall {of a terr,aced field). Mamairos^a ksh^ 

b^zelll der^ di, there is much terrace'Cultivation, lit. there 

are many retaining walls, in Mamirogha. 
B^zg {adv.) on the nearer side. Knrum de Eazbe na b^ dai, 

Mazdak p^ri dai^ Krum is this side of Kazha and Mazdak 

beyond it. 

B£zHAi {s* m.) necklace. ^ 

BizH^DBL {v. reg. intr.) Wferbezbedel, to collect together. Stalk wbrbeah 
shewai dai, a croud has assembled. 



B£zhn;£del {v. reg. intr.) (1) to shiver. (2) to start. Qbrabo che 
roj^la bya wab^zhned, token the noise came he gave a start. 

B! («. m.) smell. She bi^ a pleasant smell. Ret or gafil' or sa^t 

c?r murdor bi^ a lad smell. 

B!da {^»f') advantage. 

BiKASH {adj.) that runs hy scent {dog^ etc.)* 


BiKiiA («./.) bucket of leather or iron. Bikra kiyi ta wochawa^ let the 

bucket down into the well. 
BiLKiTL {adv.) at all. 
BiMOB {adj.) ill, sick, diseased. 
BiMORi {9*f») illness J disease. 
BiwAiYiNAi See Bika&h. 

BiNGA (^v/O (1) property. D^a bingaii lari^ he has muck wealth. 

or (2) kotf fortified^group of houses. Pa Miuzar ksh^ nevje 

BiNGAi! bing^ iihti shewyiS di^ many new kots have been built at 

Maizar. (8) See b£nga. 
BiNOK {odj') putrid, offensive {carcase, clothes, etc.). 
BiBA SHWEii {v. intr.) to bring forth dead. Sheza y£ bira shwa^ his wife 

had a stillborn child. Wospa mi be-mmd£ bira shwa^ my 

mare produced a dead foal prematurely. 
BiBA {^-f) speed, quickness. Pa bira da ch&r wuka^ do that work 

BiRWAKDAi {s. m. used as adv.) quickly. Birwandai da kor Tnika^ do 

that work quickly. 
BiBHTABA {s.f) bedding. De Wazire bishtara lamsai wT, the bedding of 

the Waziris is felt. 
B!t {(idj.) sulky. WarbJz ye bit dai, his face, lit. snout, is sulky. 

BlfAi {s. m.) bush, plant. Arira Indion^ zokha wT^ pa Toehi kshe 

bitai ye nishta^ the Hindus keep arira, the plant itself is not 

found in the Tochi. 
BiTAKAi {s. m.) small bush, plant. 
BiwEL See B£tel. 

Biyiri («./.) scissors {for cutting hair of head). 
BiTON? {s. m.) foal. ") jj^^ ^.^^ « ^. ^^^^^^ ^^^^ j^y^j^ ^^ ^ dead foal. 
BnoKBA {9- f) filly. ) 
Kz {s. m.) bhoosa, chopped or broken straw, De biz^ keta or k^tkai^ 

a bhoosO'Stackj 
Blang {adj.) full-blown {flower) . GtJ lya ghita dai, Wang shewai 

na daj, the flower is still a bud, it has not opened. 





BLATsiDEL (v. Ttg. tnir.) (1) io caieA, trip. De pshe guta mi 

wublav86dela, tie toe of my foot caught. (2) stumble. 

Pa i\^i wublavs^dan^ zeke naskor shwan, / stumbled on a 

atone, that is why I fell on my face. 

{adj. /.) pregnant, with child or young {woman or female 

{int.) get out I go on I {only to horses). 

{s. m.) (1) wind. Ster bod dai^ a high wind is blowing. (2) 

it^amma^iony swelling. Bod y6 wol^estai dai^ it is swelled 

up {limb, etc.). (8) rheumatism. De zaf 6 sarai balo bod dai^ 

the curse of old men is rheumatism. 
BoDipi;RANO {s. m.) syphilis. 

BoGH {s. m.) garden. 

BoiDA. {adj.) Jit, right, proper. BoTda dasi di, che de mizh 

sinati worw^^ this is right, that you should listen to our 


BoL or B£l {s. m.) rumour. Pa bftzorkshd" dis^ bol ga^ shewai dai che 

Sarkor Mahsidl ta lam tari^ a rumour has started in the 

bazaar that Government is preparing an expedition against 

the Mahsuds. 
{adj.) of full age, mature {man or woman). 

{s.f.) excuse, pretence. Ke bon^ ke boni ^o dere di, ke 
m^rmoni k£ lyare kbo 4^ ^h 2f ^(^ii^9 excuses there is no 
end, but if you wish to he kind there are many ways. 

{prep.) (1) on, upon. Gbtin^i bondi nost dai^ he is sitting on 
the top of a hillock. (2) through, across. Lyar pa Dandi 
bondi do, the road lies across the Dande plain. (8) to, for, 
Zerai mi derbondi dai, che zyaidi shewai dai, I have good news 
for you, that a son has been born to you. Pa bar sari bondi 
kbpul watan Kashmir dai, to every man his own native 
country is Kashmir. (^)from, out of. Pa nari^zirina bondi 
shkor paimona jorezhi, different kinds of baskets are made 
out of thin strips of dwarf -palm leaf, (5) by means of, by the 
agency of. Pa tabib bondi dori wnka, have yourself treated 
by a physician, Der sharop ye robondi tsheli wi, zeke be- 
isha shwan, he made me^ drink much wine, lit. he drank 
much wine by means of me, therefore I became unconscious. 
See Grammar, page 39. 

{s. f.) offshoot of a village {temporary or permanent). Nakir 
de Ens^ajr na pa bonda tlelai dai, Nakir has gone from 
Anghar village to live in an outlying hamlet. 

{s. m.) call to prayers. De sabo bong ye kerai dai, he has cried 
the morning call to prayers. 






BonIb {s. m.) eyC'taiA. 

Bob {s. m.) load. Kharbor, donkey4oad. Deteo bore mol isa? Aow 

many loads stuff is there ? 

BoBQAi («. m^ small load, De wriki khaxgi borgai dai, it is the small 

load of a little donkey. 
BoRiwoL (*. m^ carrier, 

BoBAi {s. m.) (1) damp grain^ hhoosa, etc., mixed toith gur or other 
relish and given to a cow to make it stand still at milking^ 
(2) agreeable inducement. Pulonkai badmash hakim pa bon 
ri^dai kan, the officer of Government has tamed so-and-so, the 
badmash J by good treatment. . 

Bosh {s. m,) (1) escort. Pa bahira ksbe bosh roka^ give me an escort 
with my caravan. (2) bamioo, cane. 

BowAR {s. m,) (1) confidence f trust. Pade sari dferbowar mi dai^ I have 
much confidence in this man. (2) belief, fi mo bowar na dai 
che chferd da kor wushi, / do not believe that this thing will 
ever happen, 

BozAi {s, m,) (1) pole of bedrframe, Wizhd bozai^ the side^tick. Land 

bozai^ the cross-stick, (2) lintel, or side-post, of door-way, 

B&AG {adj.) (1) variegated^ partly of one colour partly of another. 
Brag wos, piebald, or skewbald, horse* (2) tinged with grey, 
Sar ye brag shan^ his head has gone partly grey. (8) spotted, 
marked, pockpitted. Makh ye brag dai zeke Brag y6 beli, 
his face is pockpitted so they call him ^^ Spotty.^* 

Brand {adj^ astonished, taken aback. 

Bri^sh {s. m.) twinge, shooting pain. 

Br^sh^bel {v. reg. intr.) (1) to pain, smart. (2) to flash, lighten, 
Asmon wubreshfidan, there was a flash of lightning. 

Br£sha <7r {^.f^ flash of lightning. 


Br^t {s. m^ moustache. 

Br^tawar [<td]^ moustachioed, with a great moustache. AkI Khon 
bretawar dai^ Aki Khan has long moustaches. 

Brid {s. m.) (1) boundary, frontier, E mo de weshki bnd dai, 
it is the boundary of my field. De Manzar Khele de 
Dawar^ brid ch^re kshe wi ? where does the boundary between 
the Manzar Khels and the Dauris lie ? £ Sarkor brid, the 
British frontier, (2) attack {lit. or fig,) MahsidI pa Idal 
Kh^Ie bondi brid wukan, the Mahsuds attacked the people 
of Idal Khel village. liGzh wa kalla pa kitoba brid ki ? 
when shall we attack the book ? i.e. set to work on it, (3) 
raid. De keli pa mol bondi neu brid shewai dai, a raid 
en village cattle took place to-day. 


BuBBUBAi («. m.) (1) wetter-fall. Pa Kh^ Algad kshe burburai shta, 
there i» a water-fall in the Khe Nullah. (2) whoop, war* 
whoop {executed with the lips and back of the hand). 

BusuLMON («. m.) See Musulmok. 

Busulmon! (#. m.) See MusulmonL 

But (#• m.) figure, image, picture. Qhand pa ksh^ baton likeli di^ 

it is all covered inside with pictures, 

BuTKAi {s.f) wrist. 

Butwol {adf.) having a figure or picture. Butwole ripai^ British 

Bya {adv.) (1) again. By& da kor wa wu na kan^ I will not do so 

again. (2) then, next. Awwal ksh^nostel^ bya khabare 
wi]krel£> first they sat down, then they began to talk, (3) 
then, at the same time. Indi che Busulmon shi bja paracha 
shi, when a Hindu becomes a Muhammadan he becomes 
thereby a ^^ paracha J* 

BzBKG {s, m) saint y holy man endowed with miraculous powers. 

Bebbgi {s.f.) claim to reverence, miraculous virtue. De bsdsha de spi 
gabar dai^ bzergi na lan> it is only the tomb of the Emperor^ s 
dog, it possesses no sacred virtue. 

B^A {odj,) broken through. Da diwol der bzha dai^ that wall 
is full of holes y all broken in, (2) torn. Dastor mi 
b^a shan m^y turban is torn, Bz^a kawel^ to tear (^r.). 
Bzha shwel, to tear of itself (t«^r.). 


Chab£dbl («?. reg, intr.) to limp {of man or animal) .^ 

Chassaknai (s. m.) sugar-cane press, 

CHAgHAR {adj.) one-eyed. 

Cha&h:£del {v. reg. intr) to chirp, twitter [of birds) . 

Chai {s. m,) tea. Chai p^ kh . ka^ make the tea, Chai tehe ? will 

you drink tea ? 
Chaj {s, m) winnowing-tray or basket. 
CHAKiMAm {s, m, and adj.) fiint-lock. 

Chaki or {s. m.) pen^knife. 

Chal {s. m,) (1) trick, dodge. Chai e rota kerai Asl, he has cheated 
me, ory is trying to cheat me, (2) tact, discretion. Fa chal 
sara, diplomatically, not by force. 


Chalawbl {v. reg. ^r.) to move the howeU. Ke jaij^keta di 
khwarelye wai, nor te wa ye chalawelai w£^ if you had taken 
jamalJceta you would have been moved. {Also causative of 
chal^del^ q. y.^ in its various meanings.) 

Chal£del {v. reg. intr.) (1) to move, go. Nen <J^r bod chal^f^ to-day 
a strong wind is blowing^ Relgadi chal^z}}!^ the railway 
train is in motion. (2) to pass current. Dre ripai we^ au 
dw6 kalp^ we^ au yawa chaleda na^ there were three rupees, 
and two were counterfeit and one would not pass current. 

(3) to go off {of a firearm). T'ipak chaleztii, there is firing. 

(4) to go and come, frequent. Pa Tit Narai kshe sarai 
chali^i, dor nishta^ at Tut Narai a man can go about, there 
is no danger. (5) to last, survive. De mo wos ^^r ranzir 
dai^ wn wa na chalesbi^ nier wa shi^ my horse is in a very bad 

way, he will not get better, he will die. 
Chali or {adj.) tricky. 


Chaman {adj.) strong, robust, Kippat chaman sand dai^ Kippat is 

hale man, 
Chamanda {s.f,) prosperity, success in life. Zeke chamand^ kao^ de 

Dalan pa makaniji kan^ / prosper by the favour of Mr. 

Chanb {s. m.) pan of a match-lock orjlint-lock. 

Chanba {s.f) wall, side, of a house. Stera chanra, long^^all, i.e. 

back or front. Lan()a chanra^ short-wall, i.e. either side. 

Kakash nishta^ ehafif 6 walwMe^ there is no roof and the 

walls have fallen down. 
Chanba {s. f) gram. 
Chanbawel {v, reg. tr.) to sift. Da s^anam pa parwezi chaii^awa^ sift 

that wheat in a sieve. 
Chanb^dbl {v. reg. intr.) to ring, sound {of cow'-iell, etc) 
Chapo («. m) (1) sudden raid, invasion. Sh^rindil Sardor pa KazLa 

bondi chapo wukan, the Governor Sherindil suddenly made an 

inroad into Kazha. (2) surprise by Government troops. 

Fauz e wakbta de Tol K^^le wa chapo ta tlelai dai; the 

troops started early to surprise the Tol Khels. 
Chappa {s. f) wave, billow. Ti chappe wukr^ the river surges. 

or ^APPA 

Char {s. f) (1) ^«?(?r*. Tsorb ye, char na ke, you are lazy , you do no 
work. (2) affair, thing. Pa shewy^ char kshe kshemonai 
ma ka, do not worry yourself about a thing that is past, 
£ de chare tse matlab dai ? what is the meaning of this ? 


« (S) me. Da sfaai mi pa ch&r dai, tAat thing is of use to me, 
i.e. I require that thing. Pa A6 shr bondi ch&r kan, / use, 
make me of, this thing. 

Chabchakua («./.) sparrow. 

Chabgh^bai (s./.) wash-house. 

Chab£ («. /. ph) small-shot. Tit sha, char^ wa dferwtJagi, stoop down 

or you will get peppered with the shot. 
CHABG!|tAi {s, m) chicken. Dreama myasht chargirai bol^ sIiT, chii^ 
or 8hT> azan ko, the third month the chicken grows up, becomes 

Chabgotai a cock, and begins to crow. 

CHABm^LA («. /.) ^ 

or >erest, eomb of cock, 

Chab^Ilai {s. m.) J 

Chabs {s. m.) charas, hemp'drug. 

Chabsi («. m) confirmed hemp^taker. 

Chaudel {v. irr. intr.) (I) to crack. Diwol cliandelai dai^ the wall ha9 
cracked. (2^) to break up, burst. G^ai wuchaudela, the bulled 
broke up, the shell burst.^ 

Chawbl {v. reg. tr.) to split, break up. Sirang wucKal^d, morcba ye 
wnchawela^ the mine went off and blew up the breast-work. 

Che {pron., adv. and eonj.) (1) when. Che ze wilor yan^ psha mi 

khwa^ezhij when I am standing up my foot hurts. (2) if. Dsl 
toti che mo pa panjra ksh6 isor kerai na wai, d& wa tlelai 
wan, if I had not put that parrot in a cage it would have 
fiown away. (3) that. Toki na mi k^t che de to tarbir delata 
rotan, / saw from the window that your cousin was coming- 
in this direction. (4) saying. Kota wtiw6 che " drima ^^, 
he spoke to me saying '* Go '^ (5) thinking, Songa ye- 
t^ra kra che sheza mi es mxa krai^ he sharpened his spear 
thinking ^^ suppose I were now to kill my wife. '* (6) Che 
hakk mi w^r na ke ! pray do not give away {fo others) that to 
which I am entitled I See Grammar, page 17. 

Cheg (^0 (1) high, Marghai pa chegga wuna kshe nosta do, the 
bird is sitting in a high tree. (^) tall. D^r cheg sarai; a 
very tall man. (8) risen. {See ChegAiel.) Ze wa cheg shan 
^pul plor ta wa w^rdnman, 1 will arise and go to my 
father. W^rcheg shan, raer ye kan, ^' so he up and killed 
him.'^ [This is the almost invariable phrase used in mentioning 
a murder.] (4) raised. Yish ^pul maghzai cheg kan, the 
camel raised its neck. Badde derchegge ka, pull up the 
legs of your trousers. 


{adv.) perfeetljff only in the phrase cheg jor dai, ke is per^ 
fectly well. 

Chegawel (r. reg. tt^ (1) [causative of cheg^del^ q. v.). (2) to open. 
Agha che wi^ bel sand j^wula na elii chegawelai, when he 
is present no one else can open his mouth, i.e. dares to 
speak. (3) W^Ia mi cliegga k^^ I dug a channel. 

Chso£del {v. reg. intr.) (1) to rise, arise. Cheg€zha or cheg sha^ 
stand up I Che ze ye wnlidan^ dai losi rocheg shan, when 
he saw me he immediately rose to his feet. (2) to rear on 
hindlegs. Wos chegezbi, the horse is rearing. 

Ch^la or Chola {s.f) (1) division of a village^ ward, muhalla. Pa 
da|^ keli kshe teo ch^le di ? how many divisions are there 
in this village ? De keli sari chela pa ch6Ia jurm prlkawT^ 
the village people pay fines W(vrd hy ward, i.e. distribute the 
fine among themselves according to wards. (2) lane, street, 
of a village. 

Ch£la («. /.) See Ts&ljl (2) . 

Ch^lai {s.f) part of Waziri tunic where the cloth is double. 

Chbnjai {s. m.) worm. 

Chenjan {adj.) (1) worm^aten, full of maggots. Da g^esha chenjenna 
do, this meat has gone bad. (2) long, tedious, almost too 
much so to be undertaken. ChenjaH kor dai, it is a weary 

Chenbai («. m.) disciple. De akhwund cheSrai, the aihwund's disciple. 

ChI;b£ {adv.) (1) where. Da ly&r cherf tlelye do ? where does that 
road lead ? (2) wherever. Ch^ kshfi "wai, ze wa ye munan, 
wherever he may be, I will find him. (3) ever (past or future). 
Pa kh wo chjbr6 dase shewi na di/ it has not ever happened so 
before. Ummind mi na dai che chere das^ wushi, / do not expect 
it will ever so happen, (4) Ke chSr^, if ever ait all, i.e» 
supposing. Ke ch^e dase wushi, te wa tee wuke ? Supposing 
it were to happen so, what would you do ? 

Cheshtait {s. m.) (1) owner. De yish cheshtan, the owner of the camel. 
De k^ cheshtan dai, wode y£ shta, he is a householder, he 
is married. De ^pol sar cheshtan dai, nor daulat y^ nishta,. 
he owns his own head, he has no other property. (2) posses^ 
sor, holder. De yim cheshtan, the man with the spade. 
(3) husband. De sheze cheshtan kim yo dai ? which is the 
woman's husband. (4) filled with, inspired by. De zidd 
cheshtan, a spiteful man. (5) De dw^ cheshtan, master 
of two, i.e. double-dealing. Zalmai, Saidgi, de dw^ cheshtan 
dai, de Sardor sara han she dai au Sahib sara han she dai. 


Zalmaif tie Saidgi, is a doublt^aeed man, he dands well witi 
tie Afghan Oovemor {of Khosi) and with the Political 
Ojfieer (of Toehi) also. 

Ch^tab (#. f».) March. 

ChIghsl .(v. reg. tr!) (1) to bite. (2) to pinch^ nip, (S) to sting. Dre 
ohlchel dij yo de ^wul^, bel de gnt^^ dr&m de lakai; there are 
three kinds of " chichel/' Jirst {to bite) with the mouth, second 
(to pinch) with the fingers, third {to sting) with the tail. 

Chiqha (s.f) (1) pursuit-party. De Boy^ de Land£ dtdg^a rawona 
shwa, the £oya and Zand pursuit-party has started. (2) 
pursuit of raiders. Chi^a £ Kha iaora p^ mig^ wukra^ we 
pursued as far as the Khaisor. (8) duty, or system, of pursuit* 
De ghun4 Amzon! yawa chigha do^ the Hamzoni villages are' 
all reckoned as one for the purpose of pursuit* 
, n Chikabai See ChIbai. / ^ 

ii Chikbb {s. m.) mud. Ck^ '/, < ', ♦• v 

{adj.) muddy, sticky. Muhammad Khel chiker watan dar> 
Muhammad Khel is a heavy clayey country. 
Chiqabai («. m.) rheum, substance which collects in comer of eye* 
Chii^bak {adj.) rheumy, having matter in corner of eye. Sarai chikhiaii 
dai^ sterga ye clukhremia do, the man is rheumy^eyed,^ 
his eye is tieumy. 

Chilai or TsiLAi {s. m.) bracelet. 

Chilam {s.m.) native tobacco-pipe, hookah. Clnlam tsekaw^ ke nasor 
wo^le ?. Bo you smoke or do you take snuff .^ 

China (*•/•) lime. Da diwol pa cluna mi waUharelai dai, I have lime*- 
washed this wall. Da pa cluna kor ohe wm6, that house buil^ 
with mortar which you see, . 

Chingash {s. m.) ") 

Chingasha {s. f)y^^^' 

Cjbinnaiji {s. f) spring, fountain. Sara eliiiman, a cold spring. De 
Sarkor ^azona hamesh zyegiT, de dunyo ohmne di, the trear 
sury of Government flows on for ever, it is the fountains of ther 

Chipbb {adj^ faded, withered {flowers, crops, trees, etc^ (2) sadfmelan" 
choly [person). 

Chibai or Chikabai {s. m.) crumbs of bread cooked in ghee. 
Chibg {s. m.) cock. Kiilangi chirg, big cock, fighting»cock, 
Chibga {s.f.) hen, fowl. 

Chod {s. m.) crack, cleft, fissure. De kamar pa ehod kshe gelai wuli, 
he is firing bullets at the crack in the cliff. 


Cho3& (ftdj.) smart, energetic Chogh sarai agt^a dai che to&lok tsftlak 
kor ko, an energetic man u one toko works fa9t, 

CiiOSfilA {s*f) chogha, Afghan robe like a dressing-gown. Kl^to 
Muhammadj Pir Ghulam, Shamaddi ta chogh^ w^kerye 
shewye di, choghas have been jpresented to £. Jf ., P. G., and S.. 

Choki See ChIkL 

Chola See Ch^ljl. 

Chop («. m,) print, marJt. Pa tiZ^a wttwisht^ pa ma^ j6 chop p£ 
wnkan^ he threw a stone at him and made a mark on his faee 
with it^ 


Chopa {s. /.). breadth of hand, as a measure. De Tochi wob che wi 
dy&rlas chope Vfi, Tochi ponies are generally about 13 hands. 

Chop! {adj) printed. Chopi ra^t^ printed cloth, print. 

Chore («. /.) knife. Stera chore, large knife. Kamma chore, small 
knife. De mle chore, kn\fe carried in the waist-belt. Ched^tona 
chore, clasp-knife, hunting-knife. Sar^eyinye chore, razor, 
lit. head'shaving knife. De chore zgor j6 wukao, he stabbed 
with a knife. Chore dfera khwarely^ shewy^ do, the knife 
is much worn down. 

Chut A 1 («.y*.) letter. Chutai mi likely^ do,. / have written a letter^ 


Di See Dagha. 

Dabbe («. f) leathern vessel for conveying oil, ghi, gunpowder, etc. 
Agha dabbe de tele 4akka do, that dabba is full qf oil. 

Dabdabba {sf) dignity, pomp. De hakim stera dabdabba do, great is 
the dignity of a ruler. 

Da BOB {s. m.) (1) dignity, awfulness. De hakim dabob dai, zeke ghle 
^ar^^hi^ there is the prestige of the ruler, for this reason 
robbers are afraid. (2) pomp, magnificence. D^r dabob sara 
de badsha laghkar roghaij. the royal arn$y arrived in great 

Dada {s. m.) term used in addressing father, elder brother or other 
senior man. 

Dagha {adj. and pron.) See Grammar, pages 14 to 16* 

Pagbas^ See Dab^. 

Dai See Dagha. 



Dai {atieveraiive f article uiei by »avu Wwfifu). B4 kor wuka 
dai I Da kor wa iia wuka^ dai I Tw m^t f^rtainly do so f 
I will certainly not do $q^ ^ 

Da!s («• m.) (1) cueioldj man devoid of marital jealousy. (2) miser. 
(8) any foor^jpirited man. Dais sarai f^g^ dai> che Ubpula 
sheza wirona wi wi^id j6 na ; au che mar^i Ba w^rkawl^ na 
tira ko^ w'agh ta li&n wyaiyT^^a man is ^^dais^^ whose wife is 
ill^condueted yet he does not put her to deaths and one who 
does not give food, i.e. entertain guests^ or show cowmye, 
he is called so too. 
{adj.) bad, objectionable. Dais watan. a beastly country. 

Dalai ifi. /.) heap. De tizb^ dalai^ heap of stones. (^) unthreshed 
corn lying on the thrsshing'fioor. Ghanam pa dalai prote di^ 
the wheat is lying at the threshing-floor^ 

Dallol {s. m.) broker, intermediary between buyer and seller. 

Dam {s. m.) (1) breathing upon. Akhwund pa mo bondi dam 

wukaoj the holy man breathed on me {as a cure). (2). any 
Sj^ell, incantation. Dam pe achawelsd dai^ he has cast an 
enchantment over him. 

Damawel {v. reg. tr.) to enchant, bewitch. Che ze ranzur wan a^wund 
hamesh damawelan^ when I was sick the holy man used to 
employ enchantments on me. 

Dambobax {s. m.) (1) place where the gossips of the village meet. 
(2) heap {of grcdn, manure, etc.) 

Damizh (pron.) See Grammar, page 15, foot-note. 

Damom («. «».) the Daman plain at the foot of the Deraj at frontier hills^ 

Damoma («. f.) European big drum. 

Damba See Dora. 

Dap {(^j*) closed, shut. War dap ka, shut the door. Khulpitai 

wferwochawa^ khwula ye dappa ka^ put in the stopper and 

close up the mouth of it. 

Darai {^'f) durree {used as Jloof'^cloth, tarpaulin, etcJ) 
Dab£d£L {v. reg. intr.) (1) to stand. Sikh wudara, stand straight. (2) 
stand still, halt. Wndara che wa to ta d^rwurasezhan^ wait 
till I Qome up with you. Wudara, ma ropase parezha^ stop 
there, donH keep funning after me. 

Dabitsa {s. f.) chimney-hole, hole for smoke to escape from room by, 

Dabiya {s. f) drum covered at one end only, tambourine. 

Dabmond {adj.) poor. 

{s. m.) medicine, in phrase dori darmond wuka^ put yourself 
under medical treatment. 

ifa ' - fT 

' -' 


Dabsa {s. /.) (1) door. Dam banda ka^ close tie 3oor. (2) pais, 

valley. De Tochi de darr6 hakim took dai ? wio is ruler of 

the Tocli Valley f 
Dabs {fi. m,) (1) mosque with Sack-'walf, or with back-tcall and side^ 

wallSf only. 1^) place of instruction, mosque^chooL Pa kim 

dam ksh^ di Iwusti di? in what mosque-^chool have you 

studied ? (8) teaching, education^ £ mo dars mullo kerai 

dai^ / was. taught by a mullah. 
Dabsatnok {adj.) terrible, formidable. Jasim darsatnok sarai dai, Jasim 

is a dangerous man., 
Darsi {adj.) engaged in education.^ Darsi mtillo, a teaching mullah. 

Dars! ustoz^ an educational teacher. 
Dabw^gb {s. m.) falsehood, lie. 6hun4 darw^j^ j€ wiyeR di, he has 

told nothing but lies. 
DABW^gi^AN (adj.) lying, false. Darweglizan sarai daij he is a liar. 

Darw^ghzapna kissa do^ it is a false account. 
Dabwoza (s.f.) gate, village-gate. 
Dabyob {s. m,) (1) river. (2) Samundar darjob^ ocean, open sea. (3) 

Kari daryob, '* kala pani/^ the Andamans. 

Dabd {s. m.) pain. Pa f^xmi ghwoshimt mi dard dai^ I have tooth-- 

ache in all my teeth.. 
Dai^dmand {adj.) sore J in pain (physical or ment^d). GhWoil^ mi dard- 

mand dai, my tooth hurts. Pa da kor bondi zre mi dardmand 

dai, my heart is sore over this affair. 
Das£ (adv.) (1) in this way, so. Dase wuka clie pa to bon£ itibor 

or wuki, so act that he may trust you. (2} to such a degree, so. 

DAggAsfi DasI kaoi-akal dai obe pa h^ binna po^sl^i^ he is so stupid 

that he understands absolutely nothiny. . 

Daskaba {s.f) metal gauntlet. 

Dast (s. m.) facal matter, stool. Dastina mi shi, / am suffering 
from diarrhosa. 

D ASTOB (s. m.) pagri, turban. De dastora walina sam ka an teika laka ka, 
straighten the folds of your pagri and tuck in the end of it. 

Daulat (s, m.) wealth, riches. 

Datjlatmawd (adj.) wealthy, rich. 

Dawab (s. m.) (1) Dauri. Dawar sterge pa ronje pa di€ gnU lapf,. fhe 
Dauns have three fingers^ -breadths of antimony round their 
eyes. De Daware nirMb dai, it is a custom of the Bauris. 
(2) Baur, the country of the Bauris. Dawar de Tochi Kobel 
dai, de watan zre dai, Ba^r is the Kabul of Tochi, it is the 
heart of the country. Bar Dawar she watan dai,, Upper Baur 
is a fine country. 






Dil£ or 

(«./.) request from God, Sha-dawo, blessing. Mo ta d^re she- 

dawo wukr6, he invoked many blessings on me, Bad-dawo, 

curse, Dafj^ ssjfi bad-da wo wokbeetyfi do, tAe man is labour^ 

ing under a curse, 

(prep,) See Orammar, page 39. 

{s. /,) metal or earthen pot. DigBi 6 l(j^ari na lir^ ka, take tie 

pot off the fireplace, 
(«./.) eight-annas. 
See DoLATA. 

{adv.) (1) here. Dele kshe heteok nislita, there is no one here. 
D61e na lor sha, go away from here. Yawa sap del^ bondi 
ze w&helai yan, a certain person struck me on this place, 
(2) hither, 
Dbnbnna (adv.) inside^ within, 

£ Dbnenna 

Dbfoba {prep.) {}) for y on behalf of . De cba depora dai? for whom 
is it ? P^ra imgora de mo depora wuka, make strong 
recommendation on my behalf. (2) on account of. De wuch- 
kolai depora i^alla girona shwa, grain has become dear on 
account of the droughty (3) for the purpose of E d^ depora 
roghai che gila wuki, he came for the purpose of committing 
theft. See Grammaty page 39, 
DbbQA {s.f,) kind of reed, Sra derga, ^^red^* reeds {which cattle 
cannot eat),. K^era derga, '^ brown ^' reeds {which cattle 
can eat), 
D£rkrbl {v. irr* tr.) {See Kbel) to give {to the person spoken to). T^emra 
ghworej emra wa d^rkawan, / will give you as much as you 
want, ^ 
Derma {s,f) (1) hollow reed {which cattle can eat), (2) barrel of 
or Debwa fire-^rnu 

Debmend (*. m^ (1) threshing-floor. Gh^bal pa dermend bondi shi, the 
treading out of grain is done on a threshing floor, (2) the 
contents of a threshing-floor, grain and chaff mixed, 
Dermend mi k^ta kerai dai^ Iwastai mi na dai, I have heaped 
up the mixed grain and chaff, I have not winnowed it, 

D&RTLBL {v. irr, intr.) (/S^^Tlel.) (1) to go (to the person spoken to). Es 
wa dfertean, / will be with you in a moment, (2) to be known 
{to the person spoken to), ■ Chal wa to ta dertei ke ne dertei ? 
Do you know the trick or not ? 
See Debma. 

{s. m.) friend, Dest ag^a dai pa tanga vrez ehe pa kor shi, 
he is a friend who stands, in good stead in the day of trouble. 


or Dost 





DizAKH («. m,) hell, Gunagot wa deza^ ta lor ahi, the sinner will 
depart into helL 

Bid (^, m.) sight, eye-sighi* Did ini khandanai shan, my sight has 

begun to fail. Pa did mi na Toghai: / did not see it. Pa 
did kshe khandanai yaii, / am short-sighted, 

[s, m,) in Imoz-digar, the late afternoon, 

{s. m,) furnace. (-) ?Vv:;> 

{s, m.) darbar, Lat Sahib pa Takal bondi ster dilbor kerai dai, 
the Lieutenant-Governor held a ^reai darbar at Miram 

DiLBORi {s. m) darbari, man entitled to a sedt in darbar^ 

Dil:6 See D£l£ 

Din (s, m,) the Muhammadan faith , religion. 

DiND {s. m.) noise, hubbub. Da dmd, teok ye ko ? ti?ho is making that 

noise ? Dind ma roka, donH disturb me* 
DiRA {s, f) broad leather strap with wooden handle^ ^^ tawseJ^* 

She^on dira pa los pa Imanzkhoia pase gerzi, the acolytes 

strap in hand go about looking for the worshippers. 
DiBANG {s. mJ) ten annas. Indi nandramai ripiai g^wushta, mo dirang 

w^rka^, the' Hindu wanted a Kabuli rupee, I gave him 10 


DiwoL («. «»v) wall {inner or cuter). Piwol wabel di zda di ke na di 
di zda ? do you know, or do you not know, how to build a wall ? 

Dizg [adj. irr.) rough. Pa chaki ksh^ yo watan dizh dai au yo watan 
y^ sh wl dai, one part of the pen^knife is rough and one part is 
smooth. Sarak pest dai, diz^ na dai, tAe road is easy, it is 
not rough. Ghinai mi dizh ski, my fiesh creeps, lit. the pored 
of my skin become rough. 

DoGH {s. m.) mark, spot. 

DoGtf {adj.) (1) marked. Pa ninye dog^f dai, he is markeJ with 
small-pox* (2) famous. Da dog^i tabar dai, that is a welU 
known family. 

DoGUL {s. m.) bird's nest. 

DoLATA [adv.) (1) her^. Dolata ^fere ^atte di, ther^ is much mud 

^rD^LATA iere. (2) hither. 

Dol£ See DiSl^. 

Dona {s. f.) lump, swelling. Dona khatelyl do, na ye pezhanan cbs 

tee dona do, a lump has made its appearance, but I do not 

know what it is. 
DoKA (**y*) fiding'^bitk^ Sakhta dona, severe bit. 
DoSba («•/•) fiov^r^ De ghaname donra, wheat-flour. • 



DoBA {adv.) (1) 90f to suck a decree. JLe ze dom porawand na wai 
or DImba nor dora sinati wa mi derta na kra, if I were not so heavily 

indebted I would not condescend to so much pleading with you. 

(2) so muohi such a quantity. Dora xna ^wura che bya pa 

ghre Idbatelai Da shS, do not eat so much that you will be 

unable to climb the hills after it. 

DoBA [*'/') j^^' Che rag mi wuwaiyan nor das^ dor6 j6 wukre leke 
pse che halol k^^ when I cut the vein it spouted {blood) like 
when you '^ halal '' a goat. 

DoBi {*•/-) (1) medicine for internal use. De tabib dori ze na kran 
she, the doctor^s medicine has not made me well, Dori-dar- 
mond^ medical treatment. . (2) medicine for external applica- 
tion. Da don pa d^n bondi wnmazha^^ rub this liniment 
on yourself. (3) £ chirge dori, spices. 

DoBi {s. m. pi.) gunpowder. De tferd dorai tipak dai, it is a gun 

for use with black powder. 
Do|tA (*• f') front-^tooth {of man), tusk {of animal). 
Doi^AWAB {adj.) long-toothed, tusked {man or animal}. 
Dost See Dfex. 

DowA {^'f') (1) claim. £ dagh pati dowa ze laran, / Ic^ ctaim to 
this field. (2) dispute, argument. Tse moml6 dowerosara 
k6 ? why quarrel with me ? 

Pbab. (#.«».) (1) name of a disease of the skin. (2) name of a plant 
by digging up which, wherever found, the disease is supposed 
to be cured. (3) beating of dVum. . 

Dbabawbl {v.,) (1) make a pattering movement. Zhenki pasS pshe 
or wudrabawa che wudar^^ybi, pretend to run after the child so 

Dbabel ^^^ ^^ ^^y j^ afraid. (2) beat, thump. Sarai mi she draba« 
welai dai, / ga/ve the fellow a good thrashing, Lamsai pa 
dindap wudraba, beat the felt with the mallet. {N.B.-^^The 
past participle of the form drabel is wanting,) 

Dbab^del {v. reg. intr.) to throb^ palpitate. Zre mi drabeg^ij ^y heart 
is beating violently. 

Dbabla {s.f) cake of cow-dung, 

Dbang {s. m.) mine. De molge jdrangina pa Kiyat kshe di, tAe 
Salt-mines are in Kohat. 

Dbazan («./.) wedge. 

Db^am {adj.^ third, one after next. Dr^ama vrez, tie day qfter 

Db:£am {s. m.) arbitrator. 

Db]^amwola]^ {s. m.) arbitration. Dr^amwolan mi keiai did^ / ariitra^ 


Drssta {adj.f.) whole/enHfe ; in the phrases dresta vrez, livelong dt^j 
etc. Dresta myasht pa keli kshi btmori "wo,, there was 
sickness in the village the tvhcle month through, 

[D&imblJ (v. intr. irr,) to go. DiimaD^ pa tlel kehe yan^ / am going, 
I am in the very act of setting off. Bodritm, comes. Yod 
mi rodrimi^ / remember. 

Dbind {adj. irr.) heavy {literally and figuratively). Pa mo bondi d& 
dfer drind kor dai, that is a very heavy fierce of work for me. 

Dbiza (*.y^.) stubble, standing straw. 

Bbizqob {adj.) reaped but not plouyAed up. Dn2g0r patai, a stubUt^ 

DuNYo (^./.) (1) property, ^alth. Dunyo de mo xa 4^i» 7^ 
wugaiela^ he won a great deal if property from me, i.e. did 
me out of.' Zbamidai mra dunyo Ian, he owns both ^*dead 
stock ^* {inanimate property) and live-stock.' (2) world. 
Da de kep pa ^washi ksh^ waQ^ pa ^on pa dunyo ^abar 
na wan^ he was in the delight of intowication, unconscious 
of himself and of the world. 

DusHHAN {s. m.) enemy {see Badij. fip^ ^^o '^^ dushman ta wuniwan, 
I aimed my rifle at my enemy. De ket pa gar dufilunan 
rowu^atelj ^he enemy got on to the top of our kot. De 
dushman wulma che roghai los y6 pa €bo na winzel, pa 
gk6ri j6 wnwinzely when one of the enemy came as a guest 
they did not wash his hand^ with water, they washed them 
with ghi. 

Dushman! {s.f.) enmity. 


DzANAWAB {s. m.) animal. 

or {a^\) stupid. Da der d^anawar darai dai, he is a very 
£|Z0NAWAB stupid man. 
QzANDZiB {s. m.) chain. 
DzANDZiBAi {s. f) small chain, curb-chain. 
]^Ai^> {s. m.) delay. Nen di well damra d^n^ kan / W^hy have you 

been so long, why are you so late, to-day ? 
JDZANOZA {s. f,) (1) bier. De mre 4sanoza gabar ta yowrela, they carried 

the dead man^s bier to th€ grave. (SJ) funeral. Pa ipanoza 

tleli di, they have gone to the buriaL 
DZAVT {adj.) even {number). De dgavt tok leba, the game of odds and . 

DzAWOB {s, m.) answer, reply. Dzawob ma roka, donH answer me back. 
^^AWoBQAB {adj.) ready with excuses. 


PzEL («. m.) (1) net (foi' catching quail, etc.) (2) spider's toed. 
(8) horse^lothing, jnl. 

pZENJ (iK^'O (1) «o«»^. Dgeni ^alk dfts^ wyaiyi, some jfeople say so. 
(2) «(>mtf •••• others. Pa dzen^ dgoi ksh^ wune gafil'6 di^ pa 
d2en6 djoi ksh^ trangafl^^ di^ in some places the trees are 
thick, in others they are sparse. See Orammar, page 14, 

Dji See Esoi. 

J^NpAi («./.) {1) fringe (o/pagri). (2) tassel. Pa b^i ksW dgindai 

vri, a necklace ha9 tassels. 
DziK («. «».) <^rfp, fiire, string. De mazerri dzTr, a strip of palm" 

leaf De sarindan dgir, fiddle^string. 

^iR\WBii {v. reg. tr.) to examine, search for with the eyes. Watan dzTr 
ka, look at the country carefully {as in searching for game) • 
Ma^ mi pa kor dai, djir yl ka, / want an oorial, look care 
fully for one. 

DzoJDEL {v. reg, intr.) to find room, he contained. Pa sandik kshe nore 
"or jome na dzoj^dli, no more clothes can ie put into the box. 

Dzoi {s. m. irr.) (1) place. Agta dzoi shw^ wan^ that place was slip' 
or pcry, !£ mo tomb! pa ya^^ Iwar dzi bond! lak dai^ my tent is 

Dz i pitched on that high place, Ke de yish ghundi mi owa 

dzeya balolk^ de Kbaibar nikari wa na wukan^ though you 
cut my throat in seven places like a camel's, I will not take 
service in the Khyler. Parz mi pa dzi krel, / have brought 
my duties to their pluee^ i.e. performed them. (2) appoint^ 
ment. Pa Levi ksb6 daoi ma rokawa^ don't give me an appoint- 
ment in the levies. (3) opportunity, suitable occasion. Es 
de mfermongai dzoi dai, now is the time for kindness. 

DzoLA {s. f.) ioad {of any pack-animal). 

DzoN {s. m.) self. Pa dzon na pfyezban, / do not understand about 
myself, i,e. / am altogether upset, do not know whether I am 
-standing on my head or my heels. Dzon pa cbilam na 
rizbdyawan^ / avoid accustoming myself to smoking. See 
Grammar, page 16. 

DzoNAWAB See DzahIwab. 

DzoNKADAN (». m.) lost agony, death-struggle. 

DzowBL {v. reg* tr.) to bring forth {a child), Dwa zamen ye dzoweli di, 
lir ye dzowelye do, she has brought forth two sons, a daughter. 

DzoYEDEL See DzoiSdel. 

iPzw^AND {adj.) hanging, suspended* 




(*. m.) (1) youth. Kshelai dzwon, a handsome youth, (2) a 

. man, so long as his heard is still black, (8) hrave man of any 

age. Mfinl she dzwon dai, Mani Khan is a fine old fellotb. 

{adj.) young. Wospa mi dzwona do, my mare is young, not old. 

DzwQNi {s. /.) (1) youth, youthfulness. Dzwoni she shai dai, youth 

is a grand thing. (2) early lifp. Pa dzwonai kshfi mer 

shan, he died young. 



Dab ABA 





• • • 

or Dog 

[s. /.) mallet. Mazerri pa <Jabalai takawT au lite warawT^ 
dwarf -palm fibre is beaten out and clods are broken up with 
a mallet. 

{s.f.) sand-grouse. 

{adj.) senseless. Dab-dib be-khnda pret dai, he is lying quite 
senseless and unconscious. 

{s. f.) cudgel, club. Shpun wa soye ta weyeli di che da 
samg^oki de to wT, au dabiza de mo wT, yawa vrez wa di 
Khudai roko, the shepherd said to the hare '^ That being the 
place you stay in, and this my club, one day God will grant 
you to me,'^ i.e. " If you always keep to the same place 
and I always carry this club, perhaps one day I, shall knock 
you over.'^ 

{s. tn.\ small box. De khally^ (Jablai, match-botc. 
{adj.) (1) hollow. Da wnna dacjda do, that tree is hollow. 
{%) swelled up. Sarai dad shewai dai, the manh body is 
distended. (8) open. De sandik sarp^sh che p^rta shi, sandik 
dad dai, when the lid of the box is raised, the box is open. 
(4) at a stand-still. Platafira dad da shwa, the regiment 
came td a stand-still. Tipak dad dai, the gun is on fulUcock. 
(6) loosely put together, not compressed. Bishtara dadda do. 
linga na do, the bedding is loosely, not tightly, rolled up. 

{s.f.) (1) side {of body). Pa dadda walwezfca, lie down on 
your side. '(2) side {of anything). Pa dadda wudara, stand 

{s. m.) share. Da i^tind mol pa dr^ daddi wuwesha, divide 

all this stuff into three portions, 
{adj. f. pi.) in the ear. Rebeshg ^s dade shewye di, the har^ 

ley is now in the ear. 

{s. m.) ground neither cultivated nor built on, clear space. Pa 
l^washi 4og^ wele pr6t ye ? why are you lying out in the 
open ? 


piK («. m.) daioif mail. 

or Boo • 

X>AK (adj.) (1) full, fiiled [literal or figurative). De chaiy^ mi 
^akka piyda tshelyfi do, / have drunk a full cup of tea. 
Sar y£ de dae6 khabar£ dak dai, hie head is full of Buck 
ideae. (2) Iciaded. Tipak 4ak dai, the gun is loaded. 

Dam («. m.) '^ (1) professional musician, person of minstrel caste. 
Damma (*. y.) J Ghilyom ^am nikar dai, Gulyomy the musician, is in 

Government service. (2) menial, inferior. Wazir wyaiyi 

che ghnnd Dawar dam di, the Waziris say that the Dauris 

are all dams. 
DambaKai [s. m) wasps^'uest. 
I>AHMA {s. f) short rest, sitting down to recover breath. Damma mi 

kerye do, / have rested. 
DAMMfi See £b6. 
pANp [s. m.) hackwater, pool in bed of river, natural pond, filai pa 

daudina ksW wi, the ducks are generally on the pools near 

the river. 

pANGAB {adj.) thin, emaciate. Mol ban dangar dai, the cattle, too, 
are out of condition^ Zyai mi der dangar dai, ragina ye 
shne shne wilor di, my son is very thin, Ms veins stand 
out quite blue. 

Dangawel {v. reg. tr.) to beat, sound, a drum. 

P ANGfiDO {s. f.} iooming, sound of a drum. 

Pabawbl {0. reg. tr.)' to make afraid, frighten. 

Pa&I^dbl [v. reg. intr.) to fear, be afraid. 

Dawal {s, m.) foppishness, dandyism. 

Dawalnok [adj.) dressy, pawalnok sarai 4^wb1 ko, a dressy man prac* 

Uses dandyism. 
Paz2 {s. m. and f) shot. Pazz mi wukan, I fired. 
Dazzai {adj.) (in composition)'shot. Shpezh-dazzye teponcha, six* 

chambered revolver. Owar^azzai (ipak, magazincrifie firing 

seven shots. 

pAZZAWBL [v. reg. tr.) to fire, shoot. E^g^a ehpa sara ^azzaweli di, they 

were blazing at each other all night long. 
Dekai . (s. m.) (1) stalk, sterru De bifaki ^kai potai dai, the stalk of 

the jplant has remained behind. (2) thin branch, twig. 

Sarai pa teonga wukh^i, marg^ai pa deki ksheni^ a man 

climbs on a branch, a bird settles on a twig. 
pELLA^r {s, m.) dwarf -palm (the plant). 
p:fioi)Al (s.f) porch, front verandah of native house. 



piiE (adv.) (1) very, D^ra zlUfa t^appa wa^ she teas very %ad and 

worn-out. (2) much. Gwushai <Jer ma 8hor62h§^ do not go 
aboid much aione^ 
{adj.) (1) much, pfera bmga mi jora kerye do,* 7 ^ajv^ acquired 
much projperty, (2) ««or^, greater. Badi wa lya ^fera showye 
wa, the feud would have grown still more hitter, (3) fine^ 
great. De eb£ zyesjheder dfera nendora do^ the welling-up 
of the water is a grand sight. 

DiB (^0 (1) suni, immersed* Fa £be ksh^ dib sbewai dai, he has 

dived into the water, (2) stooping or lying down behind any* 
thing, Dib sba che gelai d^rwunalagi, take cover so as 
not to be hit by a bullet. 

DiBAK {s. m,) hobbling by bothforeAegs. Wob shk^l ka, dibak kawa 
y6 ma, hobble by afore and a hind, not by both fore, 

piBi^DEL {v. reg, intr,) to plunge, dive, Dib^dai na sban, / cannot dive, 

DipAi {s. m,) hunchy projection on back, Didai ye watelai dai, he has 
a hunch sticking out, i.e. is a hunch-baek, 

DipAWAK {adj.) hunch'-backed. 
piLA (*•/•) bullrusL 

PlLAi {s. f) kind of grass, coarse weed, De Sanm Khfle pa mulk 
ksh^ dilai dera do, there is much dilai on the lands of Sanni 
Khel village, 

piNpAP {s, m,) mallet shaped like a dumb-bell and held by the middle, 
used for beating felt, etc. 

Ping A («./•) natural collection of rain-water, pond. 
piWAT {s. m.) stand or bracket for lanip. Tgirogh pa (}iwat ksheyesb^ 
he set the lamp on the wall'bracket. 

pop [s. m.) encouragement, pod mi dfer w^rkerai dai, / have given 

him much encouragement. 


PopAi {s-f) maizes-bread. 

PopGiE {adj.) encouraging. Podgira ^abara, a comforting word. 

Dog See Daggae. 

Dog See Dak. 

DoGHpoeHAi {s. m,) cotton flicker, instrument for ginning cotton. 

DoL or {s» m,) drum, Pol y£ \m^aiigai7a9> he beat the drum, 

' DOL 

pONpAi {s. m.) stem, stalk. Woshe ijondai kerai dai, the grass hoi 
made stalk, ue. grown high. 

pOE {s, m.) fear, anxiety, danger. Por pa i& lyaie kshe skiskke 
na ? is this road at all unsafe ? 



fi {prep) See Orammar, page 39, 

E or Hfi (tW.) (1) yes. (2) ok 1 

£BALor {adj) barey hare-footed. Yih\i ^Aii m^k dsixoAy do not go toith 
Y£bal bare feet. £bal ma ^a^ aghzi wa di pa psh^ shi^ do not go 
barefoot y thorns toill run into your feet. 

Bbo or {s. /. pi.) De de chinn< y^bo rett^ SBt6 di, ^A^ water of this 

Y<b6 spring is bitterly cold* IJangyi fto or narai ^bo, skallow 

water. Dammd dbo, stagnant water. TaiDaii!*^ ^bo, luke* 
warm water. Pakhd fto, boiled water wkick kas cooled 
again. Khwatawelyd ^bo <>r yeeh^dely^ ^bo, boiling water a 
Shn^ ^bo, tt^A^^f. £bd spai, ^^^^r. Eb6 mzeka, irrigated land. 
Pa yebo watel^ ^o f^a^A. Boli^ dai y6bd pa wushty^ dl^ 
ke is of full age, ke performs kis ablutions. 

£bba {?•/') (1) leasing of land for cultivation on tke security of 
tke crop. Mzeka pa 6bra, pa las ebre, wferkerye do, ke has 
given out tke land on lease for one harvest, for ten karvests. 
(2) crops. Pa de kol kshe ebra sha shewy^ do, tkere kas been 
a good karvest tkis year. 

£oRA {s, f) hind of porridge. Egra juwor di che pa katawakshe de 
. ^be, de shn^ ^be, sara pokfaa keri di, egra is maize tkat has 
been boiled in a pot witk water or wkey. 

"Elai {s.f.) duek. 

£man (fldj.) quietj inoffensive. Gharib sarai dai, hefe na wyaiyi^ 
eman dai, ke is a quiet man, ke says notking, ke is inoffensive. 

£mat {s. m.) kelp. 

Emra (adv.) tkat muck, ^emra minda che dolata t^ra shwa, ^mra wa 
wushi, so muck tim^ as kas passed kere, tkat muck will pasSj 
i.e. you will remain kere as much longer as tke time you kave 
already passed. 

£nai( («. w ) reward, prize. 

Enenna See Dbnbnna and Grammar, page 39. 

Erat See Ratat. 

fi^B {s.m.pL) dougk. De Sre de wokhshel6 depora kshenost, ke 

sat down to knead tke dough. 

Erman {s. /.) pincers. 

£s, Os, (adv.) Just now, now, presently, {past, present and future), fia 
Wis or mi agha wulidan ; es wolata nost dai ; es wa ze werta wuwyai- 
Yis yan, / saw him just ngw ; now ke is sitting tkere ; J will 

speak to kirn presently. 


£sAM (^. m.) magic, enchantment. £sam ye robondi wukan, ke cast a 

spell upon me. 
£sAMGAB {s, m.) magician, enchanter, 

£s]^DEL See Y^S^DEL. 

£jgHA («. /.} island. De €h6 pa manz k^he wncha ez^a do^ in tie 

midst of the water there is a dry island. 
EgHA or {s. f.) shoulder. Ezlja mi tipak dSra steiye kerye do> the gun 
Y£^A q,v. has tired my shoulder very much. 
£zHAi («. /.} woman^s necklace, necklet. 

M(V^^r^ k'-^/lc (•'*':'..', 

Faida or («. /.) gain, advantage, profit. t / ' * ^ ' (*^ 


FAKiEor {s.m^ [\) fakir, religious character or heggar. Dfer paki- 
FakIb ron gerzi,. many fakirs are on the move. (2) custodian of a 
grave or shrine. £ plor pa gabar pakir y^ kshenawelai dai^ 
he has appointed a custodian of his father's grave. 

Fasal or {s, m.) (1) harvest. De mangar she fasal dai^ de win damra 
Pasal she na dai, the autumn harvest is good, the summer harvest 
is not so good. (2) crops. Fasal lya "wilor dai, the crops 
are still standing, Fasal sir shan or zy^r shan or pakbezhi^ 
the crops are ripening. Yim fasal or shin fasal^ unripe 
crops, (3) six^monthly instalment. Pa teo fasalina wa 
por prekawe ? in how many half -yearly instalments will 
you pay the debt ? 

Fauz («. m^ troops, regular army. £ Sarkor fauz ye rowust, he 
brought Government troops. 

FauzI [fl'dj^ military, Fauzi Sabibon, British military officers^ 

FiRisHTA (s.m,) angel, 
or Pkista 

Gabar {s. m.) grave, tomb. 

Gap (f^dj.) (1) mixed^ mingled. Sbaude pa chaiye kshe gadde ka, 

mix the milk in the tea. {%) launched, afloat. Da largai wa 
wela ta gad ka cbe Muhammad Kh^l ta wurasi^ set that log 
floating in the water-course so that it may reach Muhammad 
KheL (See bol.) (3) joined. De hagha watan wa yawa 
sari ta lor w^rgad shan^ he went and associated himself with 
0- man of that coun/ry,. 



Gapawel (^^ir.) (1) to mix. (2) to launch., {i) to Join. 

Oap^del {v. reff. intr.) to dance. De gaijawel^, de nindor^ zhagh ye 
worw^dan, he heard the noise of dancing and amnsemenf, 
De uore gfaundi ze na shan gad^daij / cannot dance like the 

Gap^dbl {v* reg. intr,) {\) to mix, (2) to be launched, (8) to Join. 

Oapellai (*. m») maize or barley bread baked in thick cakes, 

Gipi or {s,f,) (\)cart. Egfewayegadi, bullock'Cart, (2) railway train., 

De Igadi teemra kireya wa ? what was the railway fare ? 

(s./,) pannikin for driniiny out qfy which is kept with the 

(«•!».) bundle J parcel. 
Gapolyai («. m^ belly. Pa gadoiji prot daij he is lying face downwards^ 
Gad-wap {adj^ confused, mixed up, Kor gad-wad shan^ the affair 

has become confused, Gadd£-wadde Hbabare ye wnkre^ he 

spoke incoherent words, (2) broken^ rough, Watan gad* 

wad dai, it is a broken country. 
Gapwolai {s «».) connection, social intercourse, Roeara liete gadwolai ye 

nislita^ he has nothing whatever to do with me. 
Gaggab (s. m.) ") (1) 9kin, hide {either freshly flayed or dried), (2) 



or ^ carcase {figurative)* To gl^tmdi dfere gaggarre mi 

Gaggabba {s. f,) J londi kerye di, / have laid low many carcases like 

you, i. e. tilled plenty of men Just^ as good as you. 
Gajaba («•/•) carrot. 
Galandobai {s, m,) red pepper. 

Galla (*./.) herd, drove {of horses, camels or donkeys). 
Ganda {s. f,) small section of a tribe, Khadim kom Sra Ganda byeli^ 

Khadim's branch is called the Red Clan, 
Ganp {s, m.) the part of a Waziri tunic on chest and shoulders where 

the cloth is double. 

GANpA [s. f,) (1) string of trousers, (2) knot, Ganda mi &cliawelye 
do, / have tied a knot, Mezzi ta mi ganda w^rkerye doy, 
I have put a knot on the string. 

Ganpel {v, reg, tr.) to sew. 

Gang {s. m.) dues payable by Hindus to Pathans under whose protec-^ 
tion they live. Fa d£ kol kshe mi Indi gang na rokao, this^ 
year my Hindu has not paid me his dues. 

Gang {s, «».) the river Ganges, the east. Sar pa korta lori ma 
lagawa an pshe kntab ta ma g^zawa ; zeke che Gang d& 
Indion^ dai au kutab an kibla de Mnsulmani pa hakk ksbe 
bzergi.larl, do not lay your head towards domi^eountry now 




riretck cut jfour leg$ t^ward9 the nwth^fof the. east belonp$ 
ia tie HindvAy and the north and the weet pouets miraculous 
virtue ih the Muhammadm religion, 

Ganje («./.) (1) head of spear. {%) spike ef stick* 

Oankafpa {s./.) pocket-pieking. Oankappa ma kawa^j'JCit no pockets. 

Gankappai {s. m.) pich-pocket.. 

Ganna {s.f,) sugar-cane- 

Ganb, {adj.) (1) thieky close. Gafir zangal^ dense jungle. Ganr 
wor, heavy rain. Niny6 <J^re gafijye pe wul^atelye di, the 
pimples have come out very thick on him. (2) bad^oppressiveu 
Gafi( bi, bad smell. 

GanIa {s.f.) (1) mortgage. Hulk mi pa gaiira wferkerai dai, / have 
given the land on mortgage^ (2) ornaments^ jetiiels. Da 
ganra de sheze do ke de neron^ ? is that women^s jewellery or 
men's ? 

Gak^ai («./*.) sugarcane or oil press. Pa Isori pa Irmez ksK^ gaJTE'ai 
di^ there are eane^presus at Isori and Urmuz. 

GAJS^^h {v. reg. tr.) (1) to count, enumerate. Mizh cheripai wugafEj-ely^ 
pira fihel \t^, when we counted the rupees there were exactly 
twenty. (2) consider. De to plor ze spek wugafii*elan^ zeke 
mi khidmat wu na kan^ your father held me (jf small account, 
so I performed no service. D& kor shewai gaflta^ regard the 
affair as at an end. 

Qappa- (s. f) joke. Gul Hus^n dere gappi ko, Gul Husen is an 
inveterate joker. 

Gauawbl {v. reg. tr.) (1) to scratch. Ke paman na wai, nor wa ye dzon 

na garawan^ if he had not itch, he would not scratch himself 

(2) to whittle. Largai y^ damra pa cliaki garawelai dai che 

h^ts potai na shan, he whittled the stick so much with his 

pen-knife that nothing at all was left. 

Gar^won (#. m.) chest-piece of coat. 

Garga {s.f) large log. 
Gabmi • (**y.) gonorrhoea, 
Ga|lai («. m.) water-jar. 

GA9.ANG {s. m.) (1) impassable place in the bed of a ravine. Garang 
aj^a wi che pa algad kshh kamar wi^ sarai p6 khatelai pe > 
kiz&lai na shi, a garang is where there is a precipice in the 
bed of a nulla and a man cannot go up or down. (2) ^e gul 
ghlta mi pre na kra, che zyfera gul shwa bi ye lor pa garan- 
gina^ I did not cut the bud, when it became a yellow flower its 
fragrance spread through all the country-side {figurative 


OiftD {$. mJ) (1) duit. ]S mo de pafi^w^ na gafd wnmAshai fcipe 
tie dust off my iioes. (2) melancholy, De z|*e na mi gard 
alw^delai dai^ the melancholy has slipped from my heart, 
i.e. I am happy again. 

GAfiiKAi [s. m,) small waitet'jar. 

Gatsl (t7. reg, tr^ (1) to win. Shart mo gatelai dai^ / have won the be€. 
(2) to avenge death of, D^ p^gharina rokeri di che khpul 
TTor di gatelai na dai^ he taunted fne much with not iavingr 
avenged my hrother^s murder. 

Gatta (9,f.) profit, gain. Pa da char kslie d^ gatta do^ there t# 
much profit in this business, 

Gawanda (s*/') one side of camePs toad. 

Gawat^ p («. m) neighbour, Gawandi mi dai^ his house is near mine*, 


Gawanp! (s. f.) neighbourhood* £ mo pa gawandi kshe esa^ taie up 
your abode near me, 

Gaz {s, m,) (1) measure of length, native yard^ Khamto mi gaz 

kerye do, I have measured the cloth, (2) ramrod, (3) clean * 
ing rod. De ehapi tipak gaz de pokawele depora dai^ de nari 
rafal gaz de dakawele depora dai, the rod of a Martini is for 
• cleaning, and the rod of a, muzzled oading rifle for loading 
with, [There are two measures of length called ^^ gaz " ; the 
eter gaz, length of which is from a man^s elbow to the tip of 
the middle finger, plus three fingers' -breadths, plus from the 
fij) of the middle finger bach to the wrist, and the wrikai gaz^ 
which is the distance from a man*s chin over the top of the 
head and round to the chin again, 

Gazak {s. m,) swelling. Gazak ye na kamezhi^ the swelling does not 

GfiBiNAiji See Gi^MNB. 

G:^pAl («. /.) sheaf, bunch, De tond^ gcdai, a sheaf of maize^traw^ 
De gulin6 gedai, a bouquet offiowers. 

Geppa {s, f) belly, stomach, De gedde de Hiwa^e na mer dai, he 
died of a pain in the stomach, of colic, Sharbat ye wutisb, 
ged^a ye pe gharekka shwa, he drank sherbet till his belly 
was distended like a mussuck. 

G^LAi {^•f) (1) bullet. (2) shell. Gelai pa lagawelye do, the bullet, 
or * or shell, has struck it. 


Gj^mnb (s. m,) (1) honey, (2) honey^eomb, De g^mne zfaowla, resin 
OT of honey, i.e. bees^-wax, 


— I 





{a. /,) knee. G^nda y€ pa bod klakka shwa, hU knee Am 
become stiff with rheumatism. Gencje wahelyfi di c>r pa 
gen4e nost dai^ he is sitting in a kneeling position* 

(*• /•) Sfoing round to eollect subscriptions, etc, De jurmon^ 
depora pa kom ksh^ gerda mi kery^ do^ I have gone round the 
tribe collecting the fine, 

GliBiSTON («. m.) graveyard. 

Gebzawel (t7. reg, tr.) (1) to turn round. M^chan wugerzawa^ turn 
the handmill. (2) to put round, make surround {See gerd). 

(3) to carry about with oneself, wear. Wazir stere stere 
mionaigerzawi^ SarkoT yi na shi dakawelai^ the Waziris carry 
about great big purses. Government cannot fill them. Wazir 
nua pa ghwora ksh^ gerzawij the Waziris wear tweezers 
hung round their necks. (4) to wave. Bimol ye gerzawan^ 
he was waving a handkerchief. (5) to vomit, Nen mi ^&r 
wugerzawel^ ^air dai^ she wa shan, / have been very sick 
to-day {but) it is all right, I shall get well. 

GekziSdel {v. reg. tr,) (1) to turn, go round. Zhandra gerzi^ the 
watermill turns. Sar mi gerzez^i^ I feel giddy, (2) to 
go about, wander around. K^r na k warchane ma gerza, do 
not wander about outside the house. (3) to follow about, 
changing direction. Bad-^zan&war yo lorai bel lorai pa sari 
pase na shi gerzawelai^ pa makh zgor ko^ a boar cannot dodge 
about from side to side after a man, it attacks straight, 

(4) to be after. Ghwo millya tera na do, ghwoye pas6 gerzi, 
my cow is not off heat yet, it is still after the bull, 

{adj,) round, circular, spherical. Gerda tigta, or gerdai tizha, 
a round stone. Gerdai lechai, prominent muscle, i.e. thigh 
or upper arm. Lfch6 ye gerd^ di, he has brawny fore-arms. 

{adv.) round, around, Lashkar pa keli geyd gerzawelai wap, 
he ranged, lit. put round, his army around the village. 
Kil^ na gerd diwol pe gerzawelai dai, he has built, Ut. put 
round, a wall round the fort, 

{s. m.) herd of cattle up to 40 or 50 head. 

{s. m.) jackal. De gidar wode, jackal* s wedding, i.e. day of 

mingled rain and shine, ^^foofs birthday, ^^ 
(«. m^ sack holding up to about one maund, leather bag. Pa 

gidi kshe jfealla soti, ]om6 han soti, they keep grain in 

leather-bags, also clothes. 
(«•/.) complaint, ^egilalare? what complaint have you to 

Gerd or 






OiLAHAND {adJJ) having cause for complaint. Fa to bondi gilainand yap^ 

^ / kave a complaint against you. 
OiMEA {adj\) profane J irreligious j who does not pray, 
GiNGB|tJ {s* fpl.) wheat or gram boiled^ cleaned ^ and ready for eating. 
OiNG|tAi («. m«) small bell, cowbell. 
QinSai See Gk>NAi. 

OiB0N{^ {adj.) (1) expensive, dear. Pa Ealkatt^ ksli^ nirkh kam daL 

GuRON or j^alla gironado, in Calcutta the rate is low, ie. one gets little 

^^^ for a rupee, and grain is dear. (2) heavy, unfavourable* 

NirUb giron dai^ the rate is heavy, i.e. things are dear. 

(S) precious, dear. Khpnl zyu pa mo d^ giron dai^ my son 

is very dear to me, (4) difficult. Giron diwol^ a difficult 

wall {to climb). 
GiTA (^'0 sullen. 

GoDAM {s. m.) supplies collected for troops or officers of Government. 
GoLAi See G^lai. 
GoNAi(?r {s,f) sack (hemjpen). 


Gram {odj) wrong ^ to blame. Gram na yan^ lam not at fault. 
Gbaw if. m.) pledge. 

Gbawa or (adj,) pledged, Che grawi sliwel* shi da bargina^ bya l^alosa 
Grawi doj when these arms are pledged, {the matter) is at an end. 

Gr£wlai {s. m.) phlegm in the throat. Ze che wutikh^dan grewkd mi 

pr^sha;^^ when I coughed the obstruction {in my throat) gave 

Gbbwy^ {s.f.) collarbone {of man or animal). 
Gr:£zai {s. m,) belching. 
Gron See Giron, 
Gbab^dbl {v. reg. intr.) to tremble. Los j6 grab^z^i^ ghnnd efrat y^ 

grab^z^, his hand trembles, he is trembling all over. 
G^tANG {s. m.) mucus. Mullo ye das^ pa makh wuwaiyan che graxig 

ylshke wnbahed^^ the mullah struct him so hard on the face 
^ that the water ran from his nose and eyes. 
G9.1CHAI {s. m.) small hole in the ground {as for planting a tree). 

Griehai cha kandelai dai ? who has dug this little hole ? 
GuDAR {s. ««.) river^rossing. Gudar agha byfli che pa and bondi ya 

b^ai wi^ ya pul wi, ya ^bo narai wi sarai pe khwar^dai shi^ it 

is called a crossing when there is a ferry-boat on the river^ or 

a bridge, or the water is so shallow that a man can cross. 
Gup {odj.) (1) lame. T^k pa dwe sar€ psW gucj wi wagh ta mlzh 

ehial wyaiyi, a man lame of both feet we call an entire 

* This appears to be the alternative form of the past participle {See Orammar, page 32), 
not the infinitive. 


cripple, (£) otherioiae maimed or diidbled, Gu^ Jamfl pa 
Io8 gu4 wacL^ the " Maimed General " was disabled of an 
arm. (3) having most of one foot tut off as a punishment for 
udultery. (4) docked, £ mo de tto^e tipai je gudd£ kr^, 
he docked my salary, 
{.s. m,) maiming^ severe wounding. Mre gud shta ? Dfer mre 
gad du Have you any cases of hilling or maiming {against 
them) ? Flenty^r 

6npAiCHi£Q (s. m.) hoopoe. 

GuL («. m.) (1) flower. De gtdfi ghita^ a bunch of flowers. (2) 

pattern. Fb gulina plstin pa tee ripai 8&i ? whaf does an 

embroidered postin cost? 
GuLOP {s. m.) (1) rose. (2) rose-bush. 

GuMON (s. m.) (1) suspicion. Pa yagh bondi de mo gmnon dai cte 
ghal dai, I suspect him of being the thief ^ {%) thought. 
Dase mi gumon na shi^ I do not think so. 

GuNA {s. m.) fault, sin, crime. Khpul gun& 6 manelai dai^ he has 

acknowledged his fault, confessed his crime. 
GuNAGOB (s.m.) (I) sinner. (2) guilty. Hakim pa mukaddama ksh^ 

ze gunagor kerai jo,n, the fudge has convicted me in the case. 

GuNDAi {s-f*) faction, party. Smisjha de (^undg yawa gundai do> 

or we are all on the same side. De Dawar^ stere gundai 

GuNDi Mallizod Tapplzod di, M. and T. are the two chief factions 

of the Dauris. 

GuNG {(idj,) dumb, unable to speak articulately. Dzanawar gwung 

or ii, abebba na lari, animals are dumi^ they cannot speak, lit^ 

GwuKG have no tongue. 

Gtjbat {s. m.) space between thumb and first finger^ ^ ^ 

GuBGUBBA {s. f), name of a plant that bears edible berries.. ^\v^t ■: ^ ^ .-. 

Gdbmat {s.. m.) blow with closed hand {thumb leading) .^ 

GuBMAT {s. m.) auger. 

Gubon See Gibon. 

GuTA (*. /.) (1) finger, toe. Kata gala, thumb. Masmoki guta, 
1st finger. E ma&z guta, middle-finger. Pa kamachi pori 
guta, 3rd finger. Kamacfai guta^; little finger. De pshe 
guta, i^o^, lit. finger of foot, {^finger-breadth, about one 
inch. Pa yawfi chope kshe tealwfer gute di, there are four 
^'fingers '^ in a " hand." 

6uty£ {s. f) ring. Da gutye naz^a de sre zarf do, that is a pure 
gold ring. Gutye ban w^r pa guta kai, and put a ring on 
his finger. 

o 3 


OuzlN («. «.) dUtoHian of eye or neck, paraljfM of legs, St. VUue* 
or dance, and other similar ailments. Sand gazan wahelai dai^ 

G^AN the man is contorted. 

OuzBAN («. m.) (1) livelihood^ subsistence. De Wasirj gazrfiB pa largi 
or pa mazerri dai^ Waziris live bg (dealing in^ wood and dwarfs 

GuzABA jpalm. Mahsid v^ ^ g^ara halola haroma wuki^ the Mah" 
suds will manage to live hy hook or by crook, lit. will subsist 
lawfully or unlawfully. (2) living together, modus vivendu 
Giizran w^rsara ka, ma wirta ^appa kezlja^ get along 
with him as best you can, do not lose your temper with him, 
(S) cohabitation. Guzran mi w^rsara kan, I lived with her 
as my wife. 

GwosH (*. m.) separation of people fighting. De gwosh depora ze e 
wuniwelan^ he engaged me to put an end to the fight. Gwosh 
mi pa manz ksh^ wukao^ / intervened between the combatants. 

GwuNG See Gung. 

Gwup (s. m.) name of a star that rises on the 25th of the month Wassa. 

OwusHAi {adj.) (1) alone, without companion. Pa das^ Iyar£ gwushai ma 
drlma^ do not travel alone by such a road as this. (2) separate, 
apart. De yrif[^6 na mi bakhia gwushy^ krela^ ze gwushai 
shwaDy / separated my share from {the shares of) my brothers y 
I became independent of them. (8) private, secret. Gwushye 
kissa mi do^ I ha^e something to say in private. 

GzAN See Gtjzan. 

GzHATZH {adj.) turning grey. Zhira ye gg^avaba do^ his beard is turn^ 
ing grey. 

Gzh£ (^0 that can be used in plough and on threshing-fioor (of 

bullock), trained, tame, domesticated. (2) quiet, subdued 

(of man). Wazir pa d6 wa gah^ wushi, che mol y^ wuwaiye, 

to make Waziris submissive you must harry their property, 

Gzh£ (adv.) Pa gabe mi w^ll kas^ ? why do you look askance at 
me ? 


Qhaddai (s. f.) gang, party of raiders, rollers or other armed men up to 
about 100 in number, ^addai che de eele kase na ter shi^ a 
lashkar byfli^ when a party exceeds 100 persons they call it 
a lashkar (not a ghaddai). 

Ghaib (adj.) (1) vanished. Ze ehe na wan^ sarai ghaib shan^ while 
1 was away, the man disappeared. (2) unseen, mysterious. I>e 
ghaib ilm dai^ pa ghaib ilm na poezhan^ that implies, lit. is, 
knowledge of the unseen and I know nothing of such knowledge* 


QlAiRA {adj\) conceited, Belf-BatUfied. Qzon ta S^aira k^a ma^ 

do not be conceited. 
QSAiBAT {s. m*) high spirit^ seme of honour. 
QlAL («. m.) thief J robber. Mahead ghunj ghle di^ all Mahtudi are 

QBalaba («. /.) prevalence. Fa Wazir^ ksh^ de juworai d^ra ghalaba 

nishta, gambling is not very prevalent among Waziris. 
(iSALAT {adj. and adv.) wrong, mistaken. Ghalat ma zhagh^zba^ do not 

tali wrong, Le. do not tell lies. 
(iSALATi (s.f.) mistake. Qhu^da de to |j|ba]ati do^ it is all your mis- 

take. Da kor pa ghalati mi kef^ daij / did it by mistake. 
Qsalb^l {s. i».) grain^sieve. 
Qmalljl {s. /.) grain, cereals. Pinza manna (^lla pa por rokeiy^ do, 

he has given me five maunds of grain on loan, i.e. has lent 

me, etc. De d£ watan j^aI16 4^e di^ this is a great grain- 

producing country. 
Ghalmai {s. m^ jewel in setting, stqne of ring. 
(iSAM (s. m,) (1) sorrow, anxiety. Te b^^ghamma yietk, be without 

anxiety, i.e. do not worry about this business. (2) attention. 

Hai^ bai I ke Sarkor na wai rogbelaij de to gham wa mi kerai 

wan. Confound it ! But for the British occupation I would 

have attended to you {mearting probably y "would have had 

you killed/^ but this depends on the context). 
Qhamjan (adj.) sad, grieved, depressed in spirits. 


Ghanam {s. m. pi.) wheat. 

Qh anambang {adj.) wheat-eoloured, i.e. of medium complexion, neither 
fair nor dark. 

GHAxyA {s.f.) cut branch of tree. Gbann^^ entanglement of cut brush- 
wood placed round a post. TWdTn* Cf< JKWVtu Vm'v%ti 

Qhaf£del {v. reg. intr.) to bark. 

Qh ab {s. m.) mountain, hill. £ ghre sarai, hill^man^ mountaineer. 
Sbuidar der cbeg ghar dai^ Shuidar is a very high mountain. 

Q^ilrjlz {s. m.) (1) business. De to de mo sara b6ts gharaz nishta, 
you have no business, nothing to do, with me. (2) motive, 
object. De khpnl gbaraz depora dase zbaghfabij he talis like 
that to suit his own purposes. 

Qhabbin {s.m.) (1) blunderbuss. (2) bell'^outhed pistol. 

QSAB^DEL {v. reg. intr.) (1) to roar (animal, etc.) (2) to thunder. 

or Asmon ^er^i^ it thunders. 


flflAEiB (adj.) quiet, inoffensive. Wos di gharib dai ? is your horse a 

quiet one ? ^ • v 


Ghabqhabba {s. /.) gallov9, gibbet. Ghargharr^ ta y£ wu^^awan 
he made Aim mount tie gallows, i.e. had him hanged. Tsal- 
w^r Uimion pa g^argharra ji krel^ he sent four murderers to 
the gallofoe. 

Ghaema (s.f.) (1) noon, middle of day. Pa g^arma wa d^iteaci^ / 
will come to you in the middle of the daf. (2) heat of the 
sun, glare. K&fi^a or kafi^aweU c^ ksfa fj^^jBama,, intense 
noonday heat, 

Ghabawbl (t;. reg, tr,) (1) to shake (the head in token of dissent or dis* 
approval). Baxomata, te ear ma gharawa^ B., do not shake 
your head. (2) to shift away, move. Sarkor har teangre 
hukm rota ko ze wa ghwora na zen6 giiarawan. whatever 
order Oovernment may give me I will not withdraw my neck 
from it,\A. will not try to evade it. (S) to pass the eyes 
over^ search with the eyes. Fa s^und ghre ksh^ sterge 
gharawi^ he is examining the whole hill. Mo sara sterge na 
shi gliayawelai> he cannot look me in the face. 

Q^AB^DEL {v. reg. intr.) to get out of way. De bad-dzan&war de ma^ 
na gharfzha^ get out of the way of a boar, lit. move away 
from in front of him. 

Gbaeekka [s. f) mussuck, water-skin. Knch pa gharekk^ pa masli- 
e\6 sara jorezbi> butter is made by squelching (milk in) 
mussucks. De dw£ gharekk6 U^wtd6 pa los kshS. niwelye di 
he holds in his hand the mouths of two mussucks, i.e* he is a 
man who arranges so that he will benefit whatever happens ; 
heads he wins, tails the other side loses. Gedda ye pa ebo 
gharekka kra^ he has drunk too much water, lit. he has dis- 
tended his stomach like a mussuck by drinking water. 

Ghabel (v. reg. tr.) to roll up. Lastini dferwuj^ara. Ghareli mi 
di. Boll up your sleeves. I have rolled them up. 

Ghaub (s. m.) attention, consideration, doing of justice. E mo g^aur 
che wuke, be sure you consider my case, see that I get justice. 

Ghawbl (v. irr. tr,) to copulate, have sexual connection with {used of 

Ghaz (s. m.) tamarisk. 

Qhazab (s. m.) anger. Pa ghazab shewai dai^ he got in a rage. 

Ghazawel (v. reg. tr.) to stretch, stretch out (body or limbs). Gbazawel 
dwa kisma di, yo che tsamli psh^ ^azawi, bel sarai che pa 
nosti sterai shi, nor losina wughazawi, stretching is of 
two kinds, one when (a man) lies down and stretches out his 
legs, the other when a man get» tired of sitting still and 
stretches his arms. 



GhIzi («. m.) (1) a Muhammadan who dies fighting for his faith, 
(2) a Muhammadan fanatic who attacks Europeans and other 

Ghazq («./*.) (1) fighting for the Muhammadan faith^ crescentade. 
"Dhri g^azo shewy^ di^ there have been many holy wftrs, 

(2) murderous attach by Muhammadan fanatic. 
QhazzyiS (s»f) snipe. 

Ghbarq {adj.) double, of two thicknesses, Koghaz ghbarg dai; the pa^er 
is folded double, ffl^barg kadam, double^pacCj i,e, from 
one foot rising to the same foot falling again. 

Ghbabgini («. m. pi,) twins. 

QS^BjLh {s. m.) treading out grain with cattle, threshing^ £s de gh^bal 
vrez^ di^ now are the days of threshing. 

Qfi^BON (tf . f».) cow'herd. De to ghobon mi pa maixa ksh^ lidelai wan, 
or che mol yfi p^wan, / saw your herdsman grazing cattle on 

Ghobon the, barren plain. 

GrfJAL {s. «».) cow'shedy cow-pen with a roof 

Ghelai {adj.) (1) not visible, hidden. Pa de alga^ ksh^ j^elai nost 
dai, he is sitting concealed, i.e. hiding, in this ravine. (2) 
disappeared. Ghelai shan, he vanished, could not be found. 

(3) silent, Ghelai nost dai, ^abare na ko, he sits silent, not 
speaking. Zhenkai ghelai ka, quiet the child, stop its crying, 
Ghelai sha I hold your tongue I (4) intimidated. Sarai mi 
ghelai kerai dai, I have shut the fellow up, intimidated him, 

Ghelai See Gholai« 

Gheb^del See (^ab£del. 

Ghebo {s^f.) roar. £ mzeri ghero^ the lion's roar. 

Ghebtsanai {s, m.) four footed hill game, Wuz, magb, lakashewai, da 

ghertsam di, bel nishta, the markhor, oorial and chinkara 

these are " ghertsani *', there is no other. 

Ghebai {s. m.) upper-arm. 

Gh^rawbl {v, reg. tr.) to smear, anoint. Wazir sar pa gl^ ori ghferawi 

^^ the Waziris anoint their heads with ghi. 


Ghbbel (v. reg, tr.) to spin, twist. Tor mi j^erelai dai, I have twisted 

a string. 
Ghebend (adj,) loose, slack. Da tong gherend dai^ that girth is loose, 
Ghebendawel {v. reg, tr.) to loosen, let out. 

Q^t^l See Qho?!. 


Qh^sha See Ghosha. 


QfiisHAi {s. m.) arrow. De f^fyikyi linda, bow for arrows. Da g^esbai 

clia wuwiBlit ? wAo shot Hat arrow ? 
QfffisHLAi («. nt^ itching of the lip. Q^fehlai mi wushap^ g^^ha wa 

Khudai roko, my lip itches {which is a sign that) Ood will 

give me meat, 
£[fl£sHT or {s. m.) millet. Qh6»lit 4^t i\, there ispUntj^ of millet. 

Qlftzg See Qfio^g. 

Qfi^^Ai {s. m.) comer {considered from exterior), angle of more than 

or 180^. Pa te^lw^ ^^i da keta do, that is a four-cornered 

GhSzhai house. 

Ghimbassa See Bangassa. 

GhInai (#. m.) pore of shin. 

Ghindai {s. m.) sack. G^indi de wazhghwnii^ na joreabi^ sacis are 

made of goafs hair. Tso ghindiya ghalla di shewy^ do ^ 

how many sacks of grain has your land produced ? De ghipdi 

sten^ paeiing^eedle. 
Qhinpa {s.f) button. 

Ghinoa {s.f) crushed gram or grain given to a colt or other y<>ung 

animal^ nihari. 
GnfTA \s.f) (1) bunch, handful. De wiab^ ghita^ bunch of garlic. 

De gule gliita, nosegay. {2) bud. Gul lya (^ita dai, the 

flower is still in the bud. 
Ghita {s.f) swoop. LaoiBi gbita wukra, Tserk y^ wonTwan, the hawk 

stooped and seized a chikore. 
Ghla (*•/*•) (1) theft, robbery, Ghla y^ wukra, he committed theft. 

(2) stealth. Pa ghla te w^a lor sha^ approach him by stealth, 
Ghobon S(?tf Gh^bon. 

(Qholai {s. m.) hovse-^ent. !G mo pa keta ksh^ yos<, i da|^e kete 
or gholai mi roka, you live in my room, pay me the rent of 

Gh^lai that room. 

Ghor or {s. m.) (1) small hole, perforation. Pa tearman^ kshe gliworlna 
Ghwob wuka^ bore holes in the leather. (2) animates burrow. 

De mzheke ghorinaj rat^holes., {S) large hole, cave. Pa de 

ghre kshe yo ghor dai^ there is a cave in this mountain. 

(4) anus. 
^ORAT {adj.) wearied, annoyed. Hakim pa Tochi ksh^ d^r ghorat shi, 

a ruler in Tochi has much vexation. 
gfiORMA {s, f) warmth, heat {of the sun) . ^orma de myer wi, to de 

or yor wi, the heat of the sun is g^orma^ of fire to. 

Ghq& {s. m. pi.) grease, Wa joma ta mi ghor lagedeli di, grease has 

got on my clothes. 



SsoBAwsL See Ghjibawbl. 

(^0^ or («. ghiy clarified butter. De Wazirf sha marai vriah^ 
^£b! or giiori di, rice and ghi are the delicacies of the Waziris. 
Gh^b! Da kab pa ^ori ksh6 wuseza^y^y thatfiih in ghi. 

Ghosh See Ghwosh, 

Ghosha («•/.) flesh, meat. Ghlsha mi wak^wara^ / ate meat. 


SaosHT See Gh^sht. 

^osHAi («. m,) (1) ««»a// ^ bach Wos j^ ghoshi ksh^ pa lagatta 
wnwaiyan, the horse kicked him in the small of the back, 
(2) high pass between two hills^ 

(^OTSKAl {s. m,) full-grown bull, bullock. Che otaa ghwoshina y6 pira 
bIu^ ghotekai fihi ; agha na kiz skhandar dai^ when it gets all 
its 8 teeth it becomes a ghotskai ; next below that {in age) 
is a skhandar. 

Ghozh^ («• m,) ear. Gho^-teamtsikai^ ear^poon {an implement of 

QnozvL or toilet carried by Waziris). D& sari ta ghozh ma nisa^ do 

Ghe^ not give ear^ i.e. do not listen, to this man, 

Ghozhai See Gh^zhai. 

QSBAB^DEL {v. reg, intr.) to make a loud noise, roar, bellow. 

Ghbabo {s.f) noise, sound. Sterag^rabo roghky a loud noise was heard. 

Ghbangawa {s. f) creeper, parasitic plant on trees. 

Qhbap {s. m.) mouthful. Yo ghrap ^o mi tshely^ di^ / have drunk a 
mouthful of water. (2) gulp. P&. ghrapina chai ye wutishi 
he drank the tea by gulps. 

Qhbapawel {v. reg. trJ) to sup, drink. De cbirge zemne gbiap ka, 
sup up the chicken-broth. 

Ghbimbai {s. m.) whirlpool {as in a river). 

^bimbakai {s, m.) eddy {as in an irrigation-channel). 

Ghul {s. m.) (1) excrement {human) . {%) dung {of dogs and similar 

animals and of birds). Ghul khwarel. to lie shamelessly, c\ (; 'v< 
lit. to eat dirt. D& sari ta gbozh ma nisa, &s^ ghul Uiwuri, *}(sg^,f^ 
do not listen to this man, he is only deliberately telling lies. 

Ghun {s.m.) penis. 

GiUNDi {adv.) (1) like. De shez^ ghtmdi ma sbora^ do not weep like 
a woman. De l^wani spi ghimdi shan^ he became like a mad 
dog. (2) aAo^it, of similar quantity. De yawe teappare 
ghundi marai roka^ give me a bit of bread about the size of 
my hand. (S) somewhat, as it were, rather. Spin ghundi 
ghar dai, there is a whitish hill. Khalos ghundi sarai dai| 
he is rather a free and eaiy {sort of ) man. 


Ghunp {adj. andpron.) (1) round, circular, spAerical. Bofel ghiind dai, 
tie bottle is round. (2) all, tie whole* Q^und mi ^pul di, 
all are my friends. {See Grammar, page 17.) Pa ghnnd 
ghwoBhina mi daid dai, / have pain in all my teeth, Ghunda 
do to ghalati do, the mistake is all yours. At ye che 
mi wuk^t s^unc} pa ksh^ baton likeli di^ when I looked at his 
^ shop the whole of it inside was painted with figures. Bo- 
ghnndj all together. Mol j€ roghunj kan, he collected 
all the property. 

Qhunpai {s. m^ hill. 
Ghunp AKAi {s. «».) hillock. 

Ghxjnpobai {s. m.) (1) pellet, Pe s^un^or! linda^ pellet»bow, (2) 
artillery projeetUe, 

Ghuszavbl {v. reg. tr.) to throw down or away, cast. Wu & ghurzawa. 
throw it away. 

JJflUBz:fiDBL {v. reg. intr,) to fall, lefiung away or thrown down, 

Ghxjshaya {s.fpl') cow'dung {wet or dry), fi ghushay^ dalai^ heap of 
cow-^ng. De Dawar^ sheze ghuehaya pa diwola peri wutapT^ 
the Dauri women stick covMlung upon walls {to dry). 

Phtjssa {s. f) anger. Pa |^U8sa dai, he is angry. Ghussa ji rota 
wnkra^ he was angry with me. Ghuse^ wuniwan^ zeke marai 
j6 na wu^wara^ rage seized him, that is why he ate no food. 

Ghtjxs {adj.) cut, lacerated, hacked, Marai ye gliuteakaj cut its throat. 

Ghwabmaka {s. f.) heat-^pot. Pa mo bondi ^waxmsk6 shewy6 di, 
/ have got prickly heat. 

GHVABmKB {s. m.) greatgrandfather on either side. 
Ghvabnio {s. f.) great-grandmother on either side. 
GHWAB.WA8HA {s.f) lutton-hole, loop uscd as a lutton-holc. 
Ghwatb See Ghwoyb. 

0HWO (*•/•) COW. Piyawara gbwo. cow in milk. Dfem piyawara 
^wo, cow that gives much milk. Tandai nanga ghwoj cow 
that has freshly calved {called so up to the 8th or 10th day 
after calving). Zory6 nanga |^wo, cow that has calved some 
time hack. Nolaga or wucha ghwOt barren cow. 

Qhwor See Ghob. 

Ghworma See Ghobma. 

Ghwoba {s.f) (1) neck {of human being or animal). Pa gliwora ksh^ ye 
gerzawa^ wear it round your neck, (2) bank, edge {of river, 
etc.) De ti pa ^wora drima, ^^ ^y ^^c river-^ank. (3) accent. 
Pa ^wut^a gliwora saia w^yel, to speak with a broad accent. 


fiswo?A {g. f,) time or measure {in mtisic). Gtdyom dam pa hara 
S^wora dol wahdai slii ; de chigiie (j^wora ban p^shani^ de 
gerzawele ban p^sbani^ Gulifom, the musician, can beat the 
drum in every measure ; he knows the measure for pursuit and 
also the measure for retiring. 

Qhwosh (#. m,) tooth, De gbwosh |[hwu^ der dard kawi^ toothache is 
0^ very painful. De ghwosh tmbinai, tooth-pich. De arfi 

^^®^ l^osb, tooth of a saw. 

Ghwoshai {adj.) {in composition) -toothed. Sbpezb-^^woeibai s^andar^ 
a six-toothed bullochf Le. not quite full-grown, 

Ghvoyb («. m.) bullj bullocks 


QflwoYBMA {adj. f) in heat {cow)* 

QawuLiANz {s. f) udder {of goat, buffalo, mare, camel, cow, etc.) 

Ghwuba {s. f.) boasting. De malikai i^wura ma kawa^ do not brag of 
being a headman. !fi darw^h^ gbwura ma rota ka^ do not 
make false boasts to me. 

Ghwut {adj.) (1) thick, stout, ^wut Birat j6 dai^ he is a heavily 
built man. (2) influential, great. De kom |^wut earai 
dai^ he is the important man of the tribe. Gbwutta momla^ 
a serious matter. (S) plain, clear. Da j^wutta khabara do^ 
bajrteok pe po^sbij that is an obvious fact, anyone can under- 
stand it. (4) exact. Gbwut manz^ exact centrcOn^aiC i^ft^^X • ^acH«. 

Ghwtshtel {v. irr. tr.) (1) to wish, want. Tjs^mra ghwoie ? how L.IM 

much do you want? {Z) to ask for. Mo na b^te ma ^ |iV' 
gbworaj do not ask me for anything. (8) to send for. Sarai •• Vr^ 
mi dolata i^wusbtai dai^ / have sent for the man to come ML 

here. (4) to borrow. Tlpak mi pa suol ghwusbtai dai^ 
/ have borrowed the gun. 

Ghy^la {s*f.) jlocks and herds ; goats, sheep and cattle. De Kazb^ de 
Macba gby ela dera do^ the Machas of the Kazha have many 
jlocks and herds. 

Qhybzh {s. f) bosom, embrace. Ghyfezb rota nisa, open your arms to 
catch me, lit, hold your breast for me. Ghy^zh mi pe badala 
kra, I embraced him, lit. surrounded him with my bosom. 


Hadd {s. m.) boundary, border. 

Hap {s. m.) large bone {of man or animal). De pebe bad y6 na dai 
mot; the bone of his leg is not broken. 


Hapikai {s, m.) (1) bone. Deml£ hadikai^ baek'hone. (2) stoncj or seed, 
of fruit. De mandette ha4ikai^ mandatta'Stone, * 

Hassa See Asqa. 

HAgHAS]fi, {adv^ (1) in like manner^ in the same way, so, TssiSigre mi 

AsSAs£ che d^rta w£yeli di^ aghaag wuka^ as I have told you, so do. 

or Asi (2) as before. Sabak mi ly& baghase yim dai^ my lesson is 
still imperfectly learned as before. (S) at once* Bibobi cbe 
ksb^nost^ nor ye pa Bandar^ hagbaae Iob wulagawan^ loAen 
the mandolinist took his seat he immediately be^an to sing. 

Hai hai (int.) {expressing weariness, annoyance, etc.). Hai bai^mizli wa 
kalla Kagha ta w^bi ? heigho, when shall we ever reach 
Kazha ? 

Haibon [adj^ surprised, astonished. Cbe Kalkatta wuwini bairon wa 
8b6^ when you see Calcutta you will be astonished. 

Hajat («. m.) need, requirement, urgent matter. Sabib sara mi bajat 
dai^ / have pressing business with the British Officer. 

Hajatmakd {adj.) in need of, requiring. Kim bIu ta bajlitmand ye ? 
what thing do you require ? 

Hakim {s. m.) ruler, governor, authority. Political Officer. De bakim 
stera dabdabba do^ great is the dignity of a ruler. Agha 
earai bakim pa kor ksb^ d^ makhawriz dai^ that man has 
great infltience with the authorities. 

Hakk {s. m.) (1) right. Hakk mi dai^ it is my right. Cbe bakk mi 
wer na ke, see that you do not give my right away. (2) truth. 
De bakk kisea do^ it is a trtie story. Pa bakk sara wyaiya^ 
say truly. (8) respect, relation. £ mo pa bakk ksbe da 
bida lari, in regard to me, i.e. so far as I am concerned, this 
is advantageous. 

Hakka-pakka {adv.) assuredly, certainly. 

Hakkdobi {s.f.) merits, deserts. Hakkdori mi pa kom ksbe 4^ra do^ 
I am a most deserving man among my tribe. 

Halok {adj.) destroyed, ruined, done for. Mi^b balok sbwi^ ^^r balok 
sbewi yi^ we are in a bad way, in a very bad way. 

Haloki {s. f.) destruction. Haloki ro^elji do, de balokai vrez do, 
destruction is at hand, it is the day of ruin. 

Halol (adj.) (1) ceremonially clean, lawful by Muhammadan law. 
Da pa mizb balol dai, that is lawful for us. (2) clean. 
Tipak sbe balol ka cbe nfir sbi, clean the gun well that it may 
be bright. (3) with throat cut. Da pse balol ka, cut that 
goaVs throat. 

Haha {adj.) every. See Grammar, page 14, 


Hamagi {adj,) all, without missing one. Hamagi vrez^ mi tebba kesbif 
/ have fever every day, i.e. / have continuous fever, 

Haic^sh {adv.) every always. Te wu ham^sh l^alos^zb^ wa na^ y(7« crtV/ 
or _ not always escape. Ham^Bha de mo kara lotan^ he used 

Hamesha always to come to my house. 

Hami* {s. m.) foetus, Haml ji kerai dai, she is in the family way. 

Hamba {adv.) (1) that much. Cheze derta wyaiyau^ hamra roka^ what 
I tell youy that much give me. (2) the amount of about. Do 
yaw j ^ppa?^ hamia^ about as much as the palm of a man^s 

Hamsaya {s. m^ one under another^ s protection y dependent. Agha de mo 
or bamsaya dai, de agha malik ze yan, he is my dependent and 

Hamsoya / am his headman. Cbe dushman mi hamsaya shaa, pre mi 
yesb, when the enemy surrendered and ashed for quarter y lit, 
became my dependenty I spared his lifsy lit. let him go* 

Ha^ {(kdv^ (1) alsoy too. Da ban po^^T^ he also understands. (2) 
Both . . . and. De sbpe ban de vreze \i^riyboth by day and 
by night. (8) even. Pa yawa teki ban na po^zhT, he does 
not understand even in the least degree. 

Har {O'dj^ (I) each. Har yo ta wuwyaiya, say to each one. (3) 

every. De bar sari sara da tag! ko^ he practises deceit with 
everyone. Hara vrez bya rota wysiyiy every day he repeats 
it to me. See Grammar, page 14. 

H ABKALLA {adv.) at all times y at any time. Harkalla rosba I come always ! 
{Waziri welcome). 

Habom {adj') unlawful by Muhammadan law. Da barom kor dai, 
that is an unlawful act. Be la kbpttl^ sarai na^ cbe pe 
baroma do^ bel teok na w^rtei^ except the men of her own 
family y to whom she is unlawful, no one can go to see her, 

Harba {int,) get out ! {only to donkeys). 

Habtsangb^ {adv.) however y in whatever way, Har^ngr^. cbe te rotlai 

sbe^ nor rotea^ come as best you can. 
Hab jsb {pron.) everything, the 'whole. De mo bar tee cbe di, bagha de 

to di, everything that is mine is yours. Har tee y^ wu^warel, 

he ate the whole. See Grammar , page 17. 
Hassan *j Hassan Husen vrez^, the days of Hassan and Husen, i.e. 
HusEN J Ashura, Muharram. 
Hawo {s. f) (1) air. Hawo cbalezbT, the air is moving, i.e. there is 

a breeze. Hawo mi banda sbwa^ war lire ka, the air is 

stopped from mCy open the door. Margbai mi pa hawo kshe 

wisbtye do, / shot the bird in the air, i.e. on the wing. 

(2) climate. Hawo e bela do, it has a different climate. 


Hawola. («./.) (1) foreed labour. Dft de Khost watan na dai, pa mizB 
bondi hawola ma ka, thi% is not XAost, do not put forced 
labour on us. (2) forced contribution {with or without pay- 
ment). Yo de godam hawola do, bel de masfaakkat hawola 
do, one form of hawola is the compulsory furnishing of 
supplies, another is compulsory labour. (3) charge. Da 
bandi de cha pa hawola kan ? to whose charge shall I make 
the prisoner over ? 

Hayo {s. f) self-respect, sense of honour. De daj^ sari ijera hayo do,^ 
this is a very honourable man. 

Hazie {adj.) present. Te pa khpul tari^ bondi hazir sha, appear on 
whatever date you Hie, lit. on your own date. 

Hazm («. m.) digestion. Hazm j6 she dai, he has a good digestiott. 
HazmjSdbl (t;. reg. inir.) to be digested. 

H£ See £. 

H£oHisE:6 {adv.) ever. H^ch^re dase na shewy^ do, na wa wushf, neither 
has it ever happened so, nor will it ever so happen, 

H^TB {adj.) any. Hete kor mi wu na shan, / did not succeed tnr 
doing anything, lit. not any btisiness of mine came to pass. Pa 
hets dori na she kesbi, he does not get well by means of any 
medicine. See Orammar, page 14. 

H^JgoK {pron.) anyone, anybody. Heteok nishta, there is not anybody 
here. H6te5k mi nishta, / am alone in the world, lit. I have 
not anyone. Agha sarai h^teok na dai, that man is not 
anyone, i.e. is a mere nobody. 

HiNB^DBL {v. reg. intr.) to neigh. 

HisoB {s. m.) account, reckoning. Da teangra hisob dai ? what sort 
of calculation is that ? 

HoA {int.) get out I {to man, animal or thing.) Hoa! dolata tee ke ? 
what are you doing here ? clear out I 

HosH {s. m.) sense, consciousness. Be-hosba, unconscious. 

HuKM {s. m.) order, command. Tapa kerai hukm y^ rolSg^elai dai, kc 
has sent me a printed order. Hukm di pa dwi sare eterge 
mi manelai dai, your word is law, to hear is to obey, lit. dy 
both my eyes, I submit to your order. 

HusHYOE {adj.) intelligent, understanding. Te pa Ubpula hushyor y^^ 
ze tee wyaiyan ? you understand very well yourself, so what 
need I say ? 



Ida (^•/'O charm against bites or stings. Be mangare^ de laram^, de 
bambare ida mi do^ / Aave a charm against the bites of 
snakes and the stings of scorpions and wasps, De Micban 
Kh61^ Ida m^ranai do^ 4^^ id^ lari^ the charm of the Michan 
Khels is effectual, they have many {kinds of) charms, 

IjIba (*•/.) interest, Bipai pa ijare mi wferkery^ di, / have given 
money on interest. 

Ikrab [s, m.) agreement, contract, De to sara teerenga ikrar ye kerai 
dai ? what sort of agreement did he make with you ? 

Tla [adj^ little, slight. Ila kadar y€ p^zbanatL, / know him 
slightly^ lit. in a slight degree. 

Ilam {s. m^ (1) knowledge, D^r ilam lari, he is very learned. (2) 
branch of knowledge, science, Alim sarai dai^ bar ilamy^ 
w^yelai dai^ he is a learned man, he has studied every science, 
!fi najim pa ilam ksbe dase dai^ this holds in the science of 

Im or {adj\) {\) raw, wet, unbaked. Da ima losbi di, these are unburnt 

YiM vessels. Ima ^eshta^ unfired brick, (2) provisional, unfiti'- 

ished, Istiz&m de Tdcbi lya kho im gbundi dai, the adminis" 
tratton of Tochi is stilly as it were, provisional. 

Imok {s, m) faith, uprightness, truth* Imon ma pr^da, do not 
forsake good faith. Pa imon sara wyaiya, say truthfully. 
"BQ-vmon, faithless, false, Be-imona l^abara ma kawa, do 
not speak falsely, B^'imoni, treachery, falseness, {N,B.'^ 
The epithet b£-imon is deeply resented among Waziris and 
is not employed by them in the light way that b^-iman 
is by other tribes. The word should therefore be used with 

Imondor (adj.) true, righteous^ good. 

Inab {s, m.) (1) care, skill. Pa mar sara yor wulagawa, be careful in 
lighting fire. (2) tact, delicate handling. Inar w^rsara lara 
ebe ^appa na sbi, treat him with tact so that he may not be 

Indawa {s.f.) Hindu woman. 

Indi {s,m.) Hindu man. 

Indikai {s,m.) Hindu {disparaging diminutive), giwor IncUkai dai, 
bete na sbi krelai, he is a wretched little Hindu, he can 
do nothing. 

Indr5b («./.) husband* s sister. 




Inkor («. m.) denial, refusal. Maakdr dai, inkor ko, le is impracti- 
cable, he refuses, 

Insop {s, m.) justice, fair dealing.^ 

iNsori {adj.) just, fair. Insopi sand insop ko, a fair-minded man does 

IbI [s.f.) ashes. Ir6 s&f^ shewy^ dl, the ashes have grown cold. 

Ibdi («. m.) camp, encampment, De Sarkor wa Iidi ta wuias^daQy 
I reached the Oovemment camp. 

IsH for hosh q. v. in b^-isba, unconscious. 

IskIt (s. m.) funeral-alms. Isk&t pa janoza w^kawi^ isiat is given 
at a burial. 

Islam {s. m.) Islam, De Islom badsha pa Bum ksh^ dai, the Commander 

or IsLOU of the Faithful is in Turhey, 

IsoB {adj») (1) stopped, Isor y6 ka che lor na shi, stop him so that 
he may not go away, {%) blocked. Daritea isora do, the 
smoke-hole is blocked. (8) surrounded. Ze dushmaae Isor 
k;^Q, the enemy surrounded me. 

IsTiZAM (s,m.) arrangements for government, administration. 

IsTOZ or {s, m.) teacher, tutor, professor. Pa daglia istoz mi sabak wey- 

UsToz elai dai, / studied under that teacher. 

Itibob {s.m) (1) trusty confidence^ reliance. Wolata itibor pa cha ma 
kawa, do not trust anyone there. (2) promise of safety, safe* 
conduct. ItiboT mi wa zill^kharij ta w^kerai dai, pa itibor mi 
ghwushtai dai, / have given the outlaw a promise of safety^ 
I have sent for him on a safe-conduct. Be-itibor> dangerous, 
uncertain, Be-itibora kor dai, it is a risky game. 

Itibobi {adj.) trustworthy. Da malik mi ster itibori dai, / entirely trust 
that headman. 

Ittipok {s. m.) agreement, unanimity, unity, Gbunde sara ittifok 
y6 kerai dai, he has come to an agreement with them all, 
Dawar d^ ittifok lari, de g^unde yawa ^wula do, the 
Dauris are very united, they have all one mouth, i.e. say the 
same thing, 

Itwob {s, m.) Sunday. 

IzzAT {s. m.) (i) honour. Sheizzatye rokan, he treated me with great 
distinction. (2) interest, attraction. Pa dunyo ksh^ nevye 
hara char izzat lari be la marga Ba di&i,in this world every^ 
thing new that befalls is interesting except death. \Waziri 
saying], (3) absolute and full property. De izzat ^bo, de 
izzat Sandra ag^a di cbe de bel cha wak na wi pe ksbe, 
izzat water and an izzat mill are those over which no 
one else has any control, 

IzzATNOK {adj,) honoured, distinguished. 



Jagoabra («.y.) (1) quarrel, Hara vrez mo sara jaggarr^ ^o, he quarreh 
with me every day, (2) battle, fighting, Bar&sar pa wakht 
jaggarra shakba shewye wa^ the battle began in the forenoon. 

Jahil {adj ) ignorant J rude, uneducated. 

Jamaat («. m.) mosgue {strictly, a mosque having all/our walls and a 

Jamalk^ta (s.f) a kind ofpurge^ aperient, 

Jjluujl i^'f) place of assembly and reception belonging to a leading man 
of village, called '^ hujra " or " chaui *' on other parts of the 
frontier. De cba pa jamma matal w£ ? at whose hujra were 
you stopping ? De Wazir^ da nirkh dai che de kom kom pa 
sar yo jamaat^ yawa jamma wT^ the Waziri custom is thai 
there should he a separate mosgue and a separate hujra for 
each clan {in the' village). 

Jamma {adj.) collected, assembled. Gh\e saxa jamma kezhi^ the robbers 

are gathering together. 
Janat {s. m,) Paradise, bliss. Pa janat sW ! may you be in Heaven I 

{The stereotyped reply to the Waziri salutation ^'Khaira 

sara^^ q.v.) 
Jakg {s. m.) (1) fighting. De tire jang pa si^e ke ke pa t^r^? in 

fighting with the sword do you point or cut ? (;l) war. Wa 

jang ta watelai wan^ I had gone to the war. 
Jar {s. m.) wall, De kit jar, the outer wall of a fortified village. 

Jak {adj») devoted, Sar mol mi pa to jar shsL, may my life and . 

property be devoted for you, 
Jabawinai {s, m.) head-dress, veil. Zer y^ jarawinaipa sar rosam kaiji, 

quickly she adjusted her veil upon her head. 
Jab {s.m,) purge, strong laxative. 

Jarai (*./.) heavy continuous rain. Che yawa vrez yawa shpa wor 

war! a jarai by^li, when it rains a day and a night, 

that is called "jaraiJ* 
Jakimok {s. m.) groan, exclamation of pain, 

Jasis {s. m.) spy. De Sarkor jasis ye, you are a spy of Government. 

J A WAT {adj.) (1) plainly seen, manifest. Shuidar makhama^ jawmt 
dai, in front Shuidar is plainly seen. (2) known, 
apparent, obvious, T§o vreze pas wa dagha kissa jawata 
fihi ? after how many days will this matter become generally 
known ? ^habar^ ma kawa, ghal jawat dai, it is no use 




tailing, the thief is ferfectly well known, Jawat paryob 
dai^ t9ok p£ (j^alat^zbi na^ it is an obvious swindle, nobody 
will be talen in by it, J^wat sarai^ well-known man. 

ZiyrA {s.f.) (1) waterinp-bridle. («) tethering-bridle. (8) light bridh 
for riding a eolt on, 

Jia («• m,) jpocket. J6b ta wochawa che ^k ye wu na wini^ stick 

it in your pocket so that no one may see it. 

JisAir («•/•) marsh, j heel. 

(adj.) marshy, J^ban is^i isi, zeke ^o pa ksh^ wuz^we^ it is 
a marshy place, so water has welled up in it. 
J£lsiona («./.) Jail. 
Jif {s, m,) May. 

JijfBA {9./') crop 0/ a bird. 
JiLAB (s. m.) (1) leading-rein, 
out on a leading-rein. 

WoB pa jilab byaiya^ take the horse 
(2) seeing off, accompanying to point 

of departure. Nor mo wirsara jilab wukan^ welf, I went and 

saw him off, 
JiLGA or {s.f,) council of the tribe, jirga. De ghiinde Amazai de jilge 


J!ma or 


dzoi Dom61 pa ohawanai bondi dai, the place of holding the 

general councils of the Ahmadzais is near the Dom^l post, 

(*•/•) gi'^i* Warajilkai do, she is a little girl. 

{s, f) (1) Friday, (2) week, Jima pa jima yror wa di rotan, 

week by week your brother used to come to me. Pa yai^a 

jama ksh£ owa yrezi di, there are seven days in a week. 


) ' y./ y young camel. 


JTnjeb or (adj.) (1) withered. Gulina ihe de khworai na jinjer sbwel, 
JTmbeb the fiowers have withered for want of water. (2) dried-^p, 

shrivelled. Gi&ha y^ jmjera do, he has grown skinny^ lit^ 

his flesh has dried up. 
See JiLGA. 
{s, m.) stocking, De Wazir^ jirob de wuzhghwun^ di, Waziri 

stockings are of goat s^ hair, 
\s. f.) leavings, refuse, defiled food. IndT wyaiyi ohe marai 

mi ma jita ka, the Hindu asks us not to defile his food, 
[s, m,) metal drinking-cup, De kwu^fce jom dai ke de sarwel^ ? 

is it a pewter or a copper cup ? Pa wos ksbe jomi dai, ro ye 

wo^la, there is a cup on the horse, fetch it, 
{s.f,) clothes, garment, dress, Jome woghimAa,, dress yourself , 

SpT, che ^wula rowochawela, jome mi belmoz^ krele, wAen 

the dog nosed (d me he polluted my clothes, lit, made them unfit 

to pray in. 










{adj.) current, issued, in force. Hukm jorl dai> the order is out. 
Da kissa jorl do^ tAe story is current. 

(adj.) (1) madey constructed. Eor di jof shewai dai ke ne ? is your 
house built or not ? Sarak jor shan^ a road has been made. 
(2t) mended. Ke mot wi norbyajoryd ka, if it is broken, well, 
mend it again. (8) fabricated. De darweghe kissa ye jora 
kra, he fabricated a false story. (4) well, in good health. 
Jor ye ? are you well ? [ordinary salutation^ (5) better, 
recovered from illness. Dase na wi ohe byft jor na shf, 
may it not be that he does not get better again , i.e^ God for ^ 
bid that he should not recover. (6) agreed among eetves. 
Jor na shweli mi^^ we have not come to any agreement. 

(s.f) pair^ set. Tso jor^ jome di di? how many suits of 
clothes have you ? 

[s.f.) good understanding. W^rsara jora mi do, I am on good 
terms with him. 

JoBAWBL {v. reg. fr.) (1) to make. Pasod ma jo^-awia, do not make a dis- 
turbance. Pa hagha char kshe dera bingaii mi jorawela, I was 
making great gains in that business. (2) to mend. (3) to 
jpretend. Dzon hakim ^ordL-m, he pretends to he a person in 

JoB^DEL {v. reg. intr.) (1) to he made, manufactured, etc. {%) to be 
mended. (8) to pretend to he. Te hakim ma joregha^ do not you 
pose as an authority.. (4) to behave, enter into an arrange 
ment. Te dase ma jorezha, do not let yourself in for such 
a thing. (5) be fit for, worthy of. Pe pla(;afire de nikarai 
sara jor^zhi, he is fit for service in the infantry. De dagia 
- eara na jor^zhan che teok de to zyai rota wuwyaiyi^ I am not 
worthy that any one should call me your son. (6) to get 
better. De jorawelfi na dai, he is not likely to recover. 

JoBESHT («. m.) (1) agreement. De baiy£ joresht ji wnkan, they came to an 
agreement about the price. (2) reconciliation. Pakhwo bad 
mi wa wersara, is joresht shewai Aai, formerly I was at feud 
with him, now a reconciliation has taken place. (8) combina- 
tion. Joresht sara wukai, combine among yourselves, 
(4) building, edifice. Zar£ badshaone she joreshtina k4»ri d ^ 
the ancient kings raised noble huildings^ 

Jot, Jota See Dzii. 

Joz («. m.) ship. De kari daryob joz, an ocean-going ship. 

JuLLOB (s. m) purge, aperient., 
JuMA See JiM4. 

H % 



JuBM («. m.) \fine. Ster ster jonmna misb prfteri di^ we have paid 

JuBMONA («./.) J very heavy fines. 

Juwos {m. fl.) maize. De juworfi marai^ maize'bread. De juwor^ 

t^mnay maize'Seed. 
JuwoBAi («. m.) gambling. QihlA, zinft, juworai^ dr€ sara na-rawo di, 

M^^ adulter]/ and gambling j all three are wicked. 
JwoK {s. m) camel^encloeure without roof. Sarkon jwok Muhammad 

Kh^l^ pa kila bondi jor dai, a Government camel^nelo$ure 

ha$ been made at the Muhammad Xhelpost. 






Kab {s. m.) fish. Misb Dawar kabon d^ na Ubwuri^ rang ye 
bad lag^i, we Laurie are not great eatere of fieh, their 
appearance disgusts us. 

Kabai See Kabe. 

Kabab {s. m.) hauteur, pride, insolence. 

Kababjan {adj.) proud, conceited. Kabarjan sand kabar ]lo, a conceited 
man shows hauteur, 

{s. «tt.) 1 

(«. /.) ) 

{adj\) useful, capable. Kabil earai dai, he is an able man. 

{adj.) accepted, approved. Khabara di kabila do ke na ? do 
you approve of this or not ? Sheza kabila kery^ mi do^ 
1 have accepted the woman, i.e. have acknowledged her my wife 
in the usual formula. 

{s. f.) family. Dfera kabila mi do, / have a large family. 

{s. m.) flat £ultivMe land on the bank of a river, riverain land. 
Kachma de Gnrbuze (il ke de Bakka Kli£l£ ? do the kaches 
belong to the Gurbuz or Bakka Khels ? 

{s. «».) measurement, survey. Badawan Raghzai Makkar Lial 
pitwaii kacb kan^ Makhan Lal,p^wari, made a survey of the 
Badawan Raghzai. 

Kacha {adj') (1) not thoroughbred. Da wos kaoha dai, asil na dai^ 
that horse is not a thorough'bred. (2) untrustworthy, aban" 
doned. Kacba sari sara malg^ia ma kawa, do not associate 
with an evil man. 

Kaohak (*.«.) )„«;^. 
Kaoheba {s.f) ) 







Kaoh^ba, (*. /.) goaPg^hair sack for carrying food and other articles 
Kaohoba on a journey, 

or KATSO|tA 

Kachk^l («. m.) beggars' bowl. De kachk^I patr! xm wahel^ d^pas^ 
or tlan^ / would hammer the iron bands on a beggar's bowl 

Kaohkol and follow you, i,e, would become a beggar to avoid being 
separated from you. 

Kadam {s, m.) step, single pace, yard. Yo kadam mzeka Da larT^ he does 
not own one yard of land. De dagh dz^i Ba e mizh bangla ^ 
kadamado ? how many yards is our bungalow from this place ? 

Kadab {s. m^ (1) value. Sarai^ shai, che she wi agha kadar lari^ a 
man or thing which is good possesses value. (2) respect^ 
esteem. £ Bpin sari hama sarai kadar ko^ everyone esteems a 
straightforward man. 

Kadakmand {adj.) valuable 

Kappa {s. f.) (1) bundle. Talibond kad^e tarely^ di, wa sora watan 
ta drimij the students have tied up their bundles^ they are 
going to a cool country. (2) home, household, on the march. 
De Shadiakai kadde de Shawol na ro|^eIi di^ the encampments 
of the Shadiahais have come from Shawol. 

Kafan {s. m.) shroud, winding'^heet. 

Kafsha («. /.) woman! s embroidered shoe. 

Kaqh {s.m!) sound of a stringed instrument, twanging. 

Kai {s. f. pi.) vomiting. Kai rodrimi, / am going to be sick. Kai 

y£ wukrl^ he was sick* 

Kaid {s'. m.) imprisonment. De te kaid na wyaiyi? is this not 

called imprisonment ? 
Kaid! (*. «».) prisoner. 
Kail (s. «».) family. Ghuii4 kail mi werk shan, my whole family 

was wiped out. 

Kaiyai («. «».) the reed that pens are made of. 

Kaiza (*./.) snaffle. 

Kajowa [s. f) cameUpannier, kqf'awa. Satarmande s)iez6 pa kajowa 
ksW YTi, purda-women are carried in camel-panniers. 

Kaka (s. m.) term applied to father, uncle and elderly men generally. 
liBdk mesher wi w'ag^ ta kaka wyaiya^ whoever is an elder, tay 
'' kaka '' in speaking to him. 

K Ai: ASAi {f. f) skull. 
Kakaiqlai See K^A|tAi. 
Kakash Bee Kokash. 


KAKB|t (o^*.) (1) itained, d^Ud. Klia((e dfer^ di^ p^ kaker wa 
sh^j the mud ii deep^ you will be soiled wit A it, (2) seduced, 
disgraced. Sheza w^rsara kakera sbewy^ do^ the woman 
has lost her reputation through him, 

Kalam («• m.) pen. 

Kalamdon (s, m,) pen^ease. 

Kalang {s, m,) revenue, Wa Sarkor ta kalang pr^kawi^ thejf pay 

revenue to Oovernment. 
Kalang! («. m.) (1) revenue payer, {i) obedient servant, WapTrtahan, 

wa malik ta han^ mo waw< che de to kalangi yan^ / said 

both to the holy man and to the headman " I amyour obedient 


Kalla {adv,) (1) when ? D& wa kalla wnshi ? when will that come to 
^ pass ? (2) ever, Harkalla, whenever y at all times, Harkalla 
rotea, come at any time, Le. welcome! Harkalla... na^ never, 
Harkalla wa ze na manaai / will never admit it, 

Kalla Kalla [pdv^ sometimes ^ occasionally, 

Kalp [fld]^ (1) difficulty stiff, Kalpa ly&r do^ pa kalp ghar bondi 
tera do, it is a stiff road, it passes over a difficult hill, 
(2) counterfeit, base, Gvli, Achar Khelj kalpe ripai jorawi, 
Guli of Achar Khel manufactures false rupees, 

Kam (^y*) (^) little, small, Kam zjienkai^ small boy. Kamina 
Sheranny^, the village of Little Skeranni, Nir^ y^ kam 
shan, the rate has " decreased,'* {N, B, — This means tha6 less 
of the artiele is now obtainable for the same money, in other 
words that the price ofth^ article has risen,) (2) less, lesser^ 
younger, Kam z^i yd wa plor ta wuwe, the younger son said 
to his father, (3) bad, defective, Nazir mi kam dai^ che 
sbishe mi na wi Iwastai na sban, my sight is bad, I cannot 
read without spectacles, 

Kamachi See Guta. 

Kamak (s, m.) cliff, precipice, vertical bank, Kamar ta wukhgzha, 

climb up the cliff. 
Kamabband (s, m,) waist-belt, 
K aMKai {s, m) small, little, Kamkai zyai mi dai^ I have a little 8on\ 

Wos mi kamkai dai, my horse is small. 
Kamol («. w.) perfection, beauty, excellent quality^ Pa daj^ sari kah6 

da kamol rota lida eki, I can see this very good point in the 


Kand («. m,) (1) ditch. Pa kila bondi kand y6 badal kerai dai^ Ae 
has had a ditch dug round the fort, (2) reoeptaele in Jloor 
or wall, cupboard {for keeping grain and otAer things^. 


Kanda («• /,) ravine, deep valley, Ihud^ £ kand^ Wfitan dfd> it i$ 

difficult, broken eountry. 
Kandsl (t;. irr. tr,) to dig* Mzeka y6 wukanda^ he dug up the ground. 

Patai kanni^ jor ye ko^ he is digging hie field and putting 

it to rights. 

Kand^rai («. m,) cloth used for wrapping up food till wanted, and then 

as a table cloth. 
Kandqhqlai {s, m.) small hole dug in ground, ' 
Kanpak {s. m.) flock of sheep or goats up to 30 or 40 in number. 
Kanpqsab [s. m.) deserted and ruined house. Hakim Keli ksh^ kan4'' 

ghar 4^r di, there are many ruined houses in Hakim village. 

Kanpkai {s. m,) one-fourth of a round cahe of bread, quarter of a 

Kanoal («. m.) shield, buckler. 

Kanga]^ {s. m.) bracelet of which the ends do not meet round the wrist. 
Kangba {s.f.) small spire or pinnacle of mud set for ornament on top 

of house or tower. 

Kakba See Ghabma. 

KaSbaveaqsa («./.) crow, 

Kanbowa {s.f) (1) clog, patten. (2) hoof {of horse, mute, etc). 

KanbowalI See Ghabma. 

KlNty {s, m) law. Government code. Eanan di ^wash dai ke riw&j 

di Ubwash dai ? do you wish {to be dealt with under) law or 

{under) custom? 

KloigAi {s. /.) plait of hair. Kbpula eteza j6 pa k&o^ woniwela, 
he seized his wife by her plait. Bel molimeeht d& dai ; sheza 
che plgbla wi de yagh^ de sar kdoteai pa teet ke|y^ wi^ an ohe 
wode shi de yaj|h^ de isar kaoteai pa ma]^ ke^ye wi^ another 
distinction is this ; an unmarried woman wears her plaits 
behind and a married one in front. 

Kapi^a ('•/•) (1) bare sloping rocks, difficult place to cross. £ kapr^ 
watan dai^ it is a country of slanting rocks. {%) cloth, 
clothes. Kapri6 mi jo|:y6 kerye dij I have had clothes made. 

Ela {s. m.) rage, anger. K6r ye rota wukan; he was angry with 


Kaba {pfep.) in the house of ]>e ^i b^ga ^^rkara mi mioda^ 
I found the trace of the theft. La. a piece df the stolen pro- 
perty, at his place. See Grammar, pa9e 39. 
£abang {s. m.) ice. Karang wule shewai dai^ the ice has melted, 

. ..{adj.) frozen. Ebo karang^ Aw6, the umter beteme frozen^ 
Kabawel (v. reg. tr^ to disturb, excite, put out. 



KlEsisKi (*. /I fl.) (1) cotton. (2) cotton-plant, (8) cotton-'crop. 

K&rbMc£ mi karely^ di, ke cli^r6 sra na shwa nor wa ^ere 

k&rb^ske mi wushi, / have soion much cotton, unless there 

should be drought I shall have a heavy cotton-crop. 
Kabbo&ii {s. m) lizard. 
KABiiDBL (t;. reg. intr.) to he disturbed, excited, put out. Ma kar^z^a^ 

heep cool. 
Kaubl {v, reg. tr,) (1) to sow. Temna mi wukarela^ I sowed the seed. 

{Vj to plant. Wuna mi wukarela, I planted a tree. (8) to 

cultivate. £ mo patai pa baUbra karl^ he cultivates my field 

on payment of a share of the produce. 
Kar%]^i (*• ^0 *^^* cauldron for boiling milt, sweets or ghi, in large 

quantitiels. . 

KaeIiia {«./.) hind of thorn-^bush with red flowers. G^hhM\^ Ap^^iU 
KabkeSIa («. /.) 9m all thorny bush. Karkefita de bfere khel dai ^o iia 

gter^zbij the iarkenra is of the bher tribe but it never grows 

large. Zl^lhKuS ^^K'lnMliUViA 
KiafflONA («./.) workshop, factory. 

Kabob {o4J*) S^i^^f o^ **^*^« Karor kshena^ sit still. Karora Bhpa^ the 
silent night, i.e. after the hour when noises cease. 

KabobI («./.) quiet, peace. Pa watan karori do, there is peace through* 
out the country. 

Kabba {adj.) pure, unalloyed. Karra ripai do, it is a good rupee. 

Kabwani>a (*./.) cultivation, Earwanda pa ksW mi wukra, / cultivated 

in it. GbaxKJi watan karwanda do, the whole country %$ 

cultivated. Used as adj. Karwanda y^ ka, cultivate it. 
Kabwatai (*./*.) wooden well-bucket. 
KiBWON {s. «».) caravan. Pa w&heli k&rwona pse sel balo drimi, a 

hundred evils pursue the already plundered caravan, i.e. 

misfortunes never come singly. 
Kabtob {s. m.) neglect of work, playing truant. Nen de daftar na kajyob 

k&, 6 mizb sara shkor wuka, stay away from office to-day and 

go shooting with us. 
{adj.) neglecting work, idle. Nen ze di karyob kraa, kasab 

mi wxmakan, you have made me idl€ to-day, I have done no 

^ABAt {adj) whole, livC'^long. Karai shpa mi^ pa Tvp bondi nost wi 
<^ che cher6 |^le rosbi, all the night through we were sitting 

Kakabai ^^^ ^^ f^ 2'ip hill {hoping) that the robbers might come 

some time. 
Ka9 {s. m.) person. Tso kasa san di ? or Tso kasa di ? How many 

men are there ? 

WAZiRi vocabulary; 







(«, m.) (1) business, occupation. Tse kasab k^ ? wAat is your 
profession? (2) worl. Nen lasab mi wunaka^^ / did no 
fcori to-day* 

(«. m.) oath. L^ kasam yo shai dai, swearing and an oath are 
one and the same thing. Pa kasam zgorina ko^ che dazz 
kfaato sa kan^ he shoots on oath that he mil not miss his 
shot (said of a crack shot). 

(s, f».) intention. Pa kasd ji da kor kerai dai^ he has done this 

{s. m.) pupil of eye* 

(«• m,) watchman, caretaker of land, houses, etc., chaukidar. 
De pmza k^r£ yo kfishai yn, there isjienerally one watchman 
to five houses. Pesha di de lem kashai kra, you have set the 
eat to take care of the sheep^s tail [meat), i.e. quis custodiet 
ipsos eustodes ? 

KashIda [s.f^ embroidery with coloured thread. Khat yd pa kashidd 

dai^ his tunic is embroidered. 
KashiSUBJIK {s. m.) saddle-wallets, leather wallets in front of saddle 
one on each side, ^ 
{s. m.) ^famine, scarcity. Yakin mi shi che kati wa roshi^ 
(*• /•) J ^ think there will be a famine. 
('•/•) pack-saddle. 

(s. m.) man who writes out, binds and repairs books, copyist, 
book'binder. De Tochi kat^b Ahmad Mirom Sh& dai^ Ahmad 
of Miram Shah is the book-binder of the Tochi. 
Katsl (v. irr. tr.) to look at, see, glance, examine. Yish mi katelai na 
dai; I have not seen any camel. Bag mi wnkessa^ examine my 
pulse. Kessa^ che by a d&sd ch&r wtinakd^ look to it that you 
do not do so again. Ze wa to sara wukessan^ / will see to it 
with you, ie. / will have a reckoning with you. 

Kati See Kat. 

Kator (*. m.) (1) line, rank^ Spoyon kator wilor di, the men are 
drawn up in line. £ kator pa shi lori kisse tsok ko ? who is 
that talking on the right of the line ? (2) name of a game. 

Katobai [s. «*.) (1) metal saucer. (2) saucepan. 

Eaxs See Kach. 

Katsoba See Kach^ba. 

Katy£ (*. J^O absolute sale {as distinguished from mortgage). De kfttye 

mzeka^ land purchased outright. Mzeka pa i&tyi mi keiy£ 

do^ / have bought the land free from conditions and encum* 

K1ty£ (*•/•) October. 

Kat or 







Kat {s. m,) ordinary bed of He country, charpoy. 

Kata See Outa. 

ILatawa («. /.) earthenware %teu>pan, pot. Katavra di pakha do ke 

• ^ yfmado? is your pot, i,e, are tke contents of it, cocked or 

Katowa ^^^^^ 

Katkai (s. m.) stool {not used in Toehi except by blacksmiths). 
KATiYEL (v. reg. tr,) (1) to clip. Zhtra y^ kat^yely^ do, he has clipped 

his beard. (2) cut off altogether. Qhon^a shira yd wuka- 

t^yela^ he cut off all his beard. 

Katob («. m,) wife's son by a former husband. * 

Katowa See Katawa. 

Katt< {int) get out, away I {to bird^, fowls, etc) 

KaOkiO {s, m.) hubbub, hullabaloo. 

Kautaka [s.f.) pigeon. 

Kawel See K^el. 

Kazi or {s. m,) Kazi, judge of Muhammadan law. 

Kazhlbch See Kozh. 

KAgHWOLAi {s, m.) crookedness. De dagh diwola ka^wolai dai, there 
is a crookedness in this wall. 

Ke {conj.) (1) if, Ke de mo khabara na man^^ de Sarkor hukm kho 

xnana, if you do not mind what I say, at least you should 
respect the order of Government. (2) or. Da ^woye, ke tee 
g^wori ? do you want this, or what do you want ? Worwe 
ke na ? ^0 you hear or don't you ? i e. donH you hear ? 
Dase do ke na ? Is it so or is it not / i.e. it is so, *is it 
not ? 

[K^dbl] {v. irr. tr^ to be, exist, become, happen, etc. This verb has many 
meanings. Its general function is merely to convert nouns 
and adjectives into verbs by amalgamation with them. In 
the compound the noun or adjective determines the meaning 
and kedel merely gives the necessary verbal form* £bo dolata 
na minde klzlii^ water is not found here. Khora^t mi kea^i^ 
/ have itch, lit. itch happens to me. De die k^del^ na dai^ he 
is not likely to become well, i.e. recover. Mes pa teamteikai 
kshe wule kegj^i, the lead becomes molten, i.e. melts, in the 
ladle. De ma de plor de kor ^mra mazdiron marai ^wurl 
art zene poty^ kezhi* how many hired servants of my father^ s 
house eat bread, and of At there is left over, i.e. have more 
than they can eat. 

Kblai See Kbbai. 


Kblai (^. «!.) (1) village. Pa g^un^ Tochi ksh^ Idak ster kelai dai, 
bya Darpa Khelj in tie tohole of Tochi Idak is tie higgeet 
village, then Darpa Kiel, [^) people of village, fellow* 
villagers. Kelai mi de Toclii na khwa^welai dai, my village 
has crossed Tocii [in its marci to or from tie iills), Gbmi4 
kelai dase wa 1^ wuki, tie whole village will swear to it. 
[iV^.-B.— Keli kshe dai, ^* ie is in the village/' means 
according to the context, *' Tes, he is at home, he has 
not gone anywhere '^ or ^' No, he is at home, he has not come 
here'\ De keli generally means '' of the speaker^ s village,'^ as 
de keli sarai dai^ he is- our fellow^villager : it may also mean 
he is a '' village ^'^man, i.e. rude and uncivilised^ 

Kelakai {s, m,) small village, hamlet. 

K£mat {s, m.) value. 

EiSmat {s. m.) resurrection, last judgment. 

KiSmatnok (adj.) valuable. Da shai kemat lari^ k^matnok sliai dai^ that 
thing possesses value, it is a valuable thing. 

K£v {s, m.) (1) stimulant, intoxicant. Yo k^p ^o tamaki di che 

awwal pa kofE^i ye wore krel^ bya Ira w^rga(}da kra^ ^o y£ 
w^rwochawely^y one kind of stimulant is tobacco which first 
they have pounded small with a stone, then mixed ashes with 
it and added waiter. (2) intoxication. Pa kep ksh^ dai ma y^ 
zhag^awa^ he is in a state of intoxication, do not make him 
speak, i.e. do not speak to him» 

KiPiSOB [s, m.) one who indulges in stimulants. Kepkhor che kep wor 
pa roshi nor da zhagh wuko che khpul^ kabile ta lewe ^€, yo 
sabo motaw^y yo w^ga motaw£^ the taker of intoxicants 
when the time of his intoxication comes upon him cries '^ Mtxy 
you be a wolf to your own family and tear in pieces one 
of them every morning and one of them every night** 
[a curse). 

KiiR See Eob. 

K»BAi, ('• «»•) *«y- Ke krai wi d^rzo^ kulap p6 liri ka^ ifyouhme 

Kbai or the key open the padlock with it, 


Eebbch See Eteich. 

Kfii^KAi [s. m.) kind of reed which cattle eat, 
Kzn ('• ^ ) hedge of afield, 

Kbshsb {s. m.) (1) younger (son, etc.). (2) junior, of less importance 
in the tribe* 

K^ZgAi {s.f.) ammunition^poueh. De Sarkor de spoion6 dr£ k^teai w1. 
Government sepoys have three amn^m^ion''pou€k0s. 



Kfr ^ (^* M*) A^ eneloied or fortified village. Kelai kelakai^ cHe dfwol 
KoT p^ badal vn, w'a^^ ta k6X k^^kai wyaiyi, a village and a ham^ 

let, when surrounded by a watly are called a ** het *' and a 
'' Jtetkai ^* respectively. De Shod! Kh^l^ k^ina nishtay pa 
Uin£ kBh£ ji«i, the Shadi Khels hare no fixed villages, they 
live in tents. 
Kif A or {s.f.) (1) room, apartment in a building. Pa dft kor kshe te^mra 
KoTA k6t£ di ? how many rooms are there in that house ? (2) store-- 

room, barn. (S) stack. De biz ki^K, bhoosa-stack. 

{adj.) piled up. Dennend mi k^ta kerai dai^ / have heaped up 
the crops on the threshing floor. 

K^TKAI (1) diminutive of k4t q« ▼• (^) diminutive of k^a q. v- 
(S) place of meeting and reception, belonging to a leading man. 

De Nazarband k^tkai^ Nazarband's chauk. 

K£wAi or {s. m.) '\ small-pox. De k^vai nrnji na mre shwel, they died 

K^vi {^'ffl') J of smalUpox. 

K£gH See Kozh. 

Ki^DAi («./.) nomad's tent made of felt. E^zbdai dolata ^kri lake 

or 61, there is a large tribal encampment, " kirri/* here. 


Ki^DBLif (adj.f) betrothed. Da sbeza de pulonkl kezbdelye do, thai 

woman is so^and'So's fiancee. 

KiBLA ('•/•) (1) holy-placCy sanctuary. De |^le kibla Makm dai, - 
Makin is the Holy City of robbers. (2) west {towards which 
Musulmans pray). Mjhr de kibl^ pa maW Iw^^bi^ the sun 
sets in the west. 

KiCHi (s. m.) nomad. Tol Kbfl kicbion di pa kbui£ ksbe guzran ko, 
the Tol Khels are nomads, they live in tents. 

KiKABAi {s. m.) puppy-dog. 


fiiLA. i^.f.) post, fort Pa kila ksh^ denexma dft sand cb& roprej^diai 

dai ? who let that man inside the post ? 
KiLA (^-/O '^^^- Pa koghaz bondi kila mi likelyl do, 1 have drawn 

a line on the paper. 

K!ic {adj. and pron.) which ? what ? Kim yo dai ? which one is it ? 

De dag^e my&sht^ pa kim tarikb d^rta rotean ? On what 
daite of this month shall I come to you ? (2) the one whieh^ 
whatever. Kime k\sxA ba^r^ ghwor^, khallai p£ wochawa^ 
east lots for the shares you want, lit. whatever shares you 
want, cast lots for them. See Grammar, pages 14, 16 and IT. 


ElXAi (s.m.) toMth of throat. 

KlxiTOOAB («» m.) alcketnut, worker of wonders^ Sarkor kimiyogar dai, 
pa Tochi ksM bel kimiyogar nishta, Oovernment worii 
wonders, there m no other worker of wonders in Toehi. 

KiNA ('•/•) sj^ite, rancour. Mo saia kma ma shorawa, do not cherish, 
lit. carry about, malice against me, 

KiRAi {s. m.) lime, Kimi mi pet kerai daij / have covered up lime, 
i.e. have prepared lime for burning, 

KiKAKASH [adj,) spiteful, malevolent, 

K!S% {fldj') (1) 10' milSt \oB, left hand. (2) sinister, unfavour^ 
able. Pa ki0a Bterga mi kess^^ pa shai sterga mi na kess^, 
you regard me with disapproval, not with approval. 

KiKl {adf. irr,) deaf. KoHts, ii, na worwi, they are deaf, they do not 
hear. Fa razo j6 ^on kit!t kend dai^ he has made himself 
deaf purposely, i.e. he does not hear because he does not wish 
to hear, 

KxB {s. m.) rice and milh. 

Ki&AMAT {s. m.) miracle of a saint, miraculous power or intuition, De 
cha kiramat wT^ a wall dai^ he who has miraculous powers is 
a saint. 

KieIya or (*• f) hire, fare, rent, De suroi te^mra kirfyi wokhli ? what 

KiB^Yi do they charge for the use of the sarai ? 

KiBiCH {f, «».) (1) clod, lump of earth. Kirich lita yo shai dai, 
Of " kirich *' and " lita " are the same thing, (2) becoming 

Kbbecu clods, being broken up, digging, D^ra mzeka pa kirich mi 
wuw&hela, / have dug a lot of land, lit, / have struck 
much land into clods, 

KiSBAT {s, m.) belt with pouches for ammunition. 

KiSM {s, m.) kind, species. Tbo kisma di ? how many kinds are there f 

KiSMAT («. m.)fate, destiny. Kismat mi che she wai^ if only my luek 
were good. Kismat agha dai che pa teanda pori Iike]ai wij 
destiny is that which is written upon the forehead. 

KisSA («, f.) (1) story, account, narration. Vrondin^ kiss^^ history, lit. 
ancient tales. Nahakka kissa^ untrue account. (2) message, 
Kissa mi IS^elye do^ / have sent a message, (8) thing, 
^ffair^ consideration, Khpul nikar pa tee kissa di ai kan ? 
over what business did you dismiss your servant ? Pa 
de char kshe (}^re kisse di^ in this matter many considera* 
tions are involved. (4) word, speech, B^-isha shwan, kiss^ 
mi na shwai krai^ / became insensible and was not able to 


KiTOB («. m) boot. Kitob kalaml dai ke t&pi dai ? is the looh hand- 
wfiiien or printed f 

KiYisAi {$. m.) pod of plant. De m^fj kiyind dai ke d« maij^ ? is it 
apod of mot or of mai ? 

Klz [adj.) lower, under. Kla kela^, the lower village. Klz war- 

shandy the under lip. 

(adv.) down, below.- Te kiz lor sha^ go down below. Wos na 
kiz fiha, dismount. 

Klz A or [s.f,) water vessel, with or without a spout. 
KCzA ^ 

Kf z£d£L {v. reg. intr.) to go down, descend. 

Klak (adj.) (1) hard, stiff, strong. Klak largai, hard wood, or stiff 
stich. (2) in hard condition, not easily tired. Klak earai 
dai, pa gerzede ksh^ h&o, pa kor kshe h&n^ he is untiring 
both in active and in sedentary work, lit. he is a hard man 
both in going about and at business, 
(adv.) quickly. Wferta wuwyaiya che pa migh pas6 da klak 
roshi^ tell them to follow us quickly. 

KoBAL (s. m.) Kabul. 

KoBALAi [adj.) Kabuli. Kobalai ripai ta nandramai wyaiyi, a Kahuli 
rupee is called a nandrami. 

KoBi (». ni.) power, influence, control. Kobi mi na ras^^hi^ it is not 
in my power, lit. my power does not extend (so far). 

KoK (s.m.) cake of bread baked round a stone, scone. Marai che jja 

gerda tizha pa^a kerye wi, agta kok dai, bread baked on a 
round stone is " kok** 

KoKA (». /.) l(^'rge spider, tarantula. 

KoKASH (s. m.) roof 


KoKifliAi (s. m.) diminutive ofzoisi, q.v, 

KoL (s. m.) year. Dfer kola wushwel, many years have passed. Kol 

pa kol de bar -watan Paiwanda ro^, year by year come the 
Powindas from up-country, Le. Afghanistan. Bel kol, next 
year. Ya bel kol or dream kol, year after next. Sir kol, dryf 
year, drought, lit. red year. 

KoLAi (s. m.) (1) tool. De trakojSi' koli, carpenter's tools. (2>) orna- 
ment. Jewellery. De sbeze kolai, woman's ornament. 

KoLB (s. m.) family. De Wazire 4^ k&linaf ro^eli di, many Waziri 
families have arrived. De to de kole mesher took dai ? who 
is the head of your family? Pa kole roj^elai yan, / have 
come along with my family. 


KoiJGAB {s. m.) mechanic, menial of blacksmith caste, Koligar pesh wi, 
or ixLtkS^Bi <Jam yn, Koligars are llachsmiths, Kutanrais are 

KoBlGAB musicians. 

KoM («. f».) clan, tribe, section {of any size, large or small). 

KoSlAI («. m.) stone {solid, hot flat and thin). 

KoPAR (». m.) non-Muhammadan, ^' infidel." 

KoB {s. m.) (I) 9oort. Kor kawa, mapreatda, u>or^, do not leave off, 

(2) thing, affair. Da teangra kor dai ? tvhat sort of businesji 
is this ? (8) use, need. Pa kor mi dai, roka, / require it, give 
it me. 

KoE or {s. «».) (1) house, home. Kor di pa kim keli kshedai? in what 
Kka village is your home ? De to ntim de Sarkor pa kor ksh^ she 
worwidai slii, your name is heard favourably in the house of 
Qovernmerit, i.e. you have earned a good reputation with 
Government. (2) household, family. Wsk kor ta di khair 
dai? is it well with your family/ le.. I hope your family 
are well {conventional greeting). 

KoBiGAR See Koligab. 

KoBTA {adv. and adj.) (1) down, below. Te korta ksheiia., you sit 

or further down. . Korta porta ma kessa, do not. look up and 

KoETA dowuj i.e. do not stare about you. (2) down-country, eastward^. 

Sar pa korta lori ma lagawa, do not lie with your head to the 


KoBTANAi {adj-^ (1) lower. Pdrtanai kitob dferkawau ke. kortanai? 

or shall I give you the upper book or the lower one? (2) from 

KoBTANAi down-eountry. Kortasai sheza do, ke portanai do ? is she 

. a dowu'^ountry or an up-^ountry woman ? 

Kobt!s (*. »*.) cartridge. 

KosiBA {adj.f) adulterous. Kosira dieza, adulteress, 
KosHiSH (s. m.) effort, endeavour. Koshidi te dht kawa> try^ hard, 


K5t See K£t. 

KoTA See Ki^ta. 

KoTA (adj.) (1) adulterated, alloyed. Koto, xipai, base ecdn. (2) bad. 

Kota sarai, evil man. Ko(a sheea^ immoral woman. 
KoTESHT See Kwusht. 
Kozi See KazI. 

KozH, {adj.) bent, crooked. Ka^a, the Winding {Valley). ,Lyar 
KizH or ka^echa do, the road is crooked. De tipak gaz kozh shan, 
Kazhl£ch the cleaning^rod of the rifle has got bent. 

Kbai See Kebai. ^ ^ ^ ^ 

112 WiZIfil V0CABUL4BT 

KutB {s, m.) stirtupHroH. 

Ke^bosh {s. m,) stirrMfhleatAer. Dwa sara kr^oshina di wu^bda dx, land 
j6 ka, botk your sUrrup'UatAers are too long, shorten them* 

Knugg {particle) {nimilar to Dai, q.v.) 

JCbasha (<•/•) crow. De kr&||^£ standi hushyor cihai nidita^ there is 
nothing so clever as a crow. 

Kbel or {v. irr. tr.) (1) to do^ make. Tse di wukrel ? wh(d have yon 
Kawbl done ? Khpnl^bandobast wuka, make your own arrangements. 
(2) to acquire. Stera gecjda ye ^s kery£ do, he has grown very 
stout now, lit. now he has acquired a large belly. (3) to 
take a woman in marriage^ wed. De mo de tre zei de 
yagh Uior kery J do, my first cousin (on fathef^s side) has 
married that man^s sister. (4) to buy, purchase. Wop rota 
wuka, get me a horee. \h) {impersonal, of Nature). Sheba 
ye wukrela, it {sc. Nature) made a shower, i.e. there was a 
shower. (6) to swear by. See KueIn. 

K|top {s, m.) May. 

KsHA {adv.) below, generally in the form, e ksha, from below. 
£ ksha, de Kalkatt^ na rog^lan^ / have come from below, 
i.e. from down^eountry, from Calcutta. 

KsHALAWBL [v. rcg. tr.) to kiss. K^pul zyai y6 ikx kshalawan, he 
kissed his son much. 

KsHiS {prep) in, into, on, upon. See Grammar, page S9. 

EsHBL. See Wukshel. 

Kshelai {adj) (1) handsome, beautiful. Kshelai miona sarai dai, na 
cheg dai na tU dai, he is a well set-up man of medium heights 
neither tall nor short. Pegihla kshelye leke khira, a maiden 
beautiful as a houri. Pa ghunde jome kshe kshelye jome 
dl, haj^a rovrai, bring the finest garments, lit. among all the 
clothes the most beautiful dothes [that there) are, those bring^ 
Kshelai eabit, assuredly, certainly. Te, kshelai sabit, dase 
wuka, do so, certainly. Ze wyaiyan che, ksbelai sabit, ze wa 
sabo wa sahib ta wertsan, / tell you that 1 will assuredly go 
to the gentlemen to-morrow. 

{int) well 1 good I 

KsHELWOLAi {s. m.) bcauty. Kshelwoli kshe agha ziyot dai, that one 
surpasses in beauty. 

Ksh£mandbl {v. reg. tr) to massage, knead the muscles to remove fatigue. 
Ze sterai yan^ kshe mi manda, / am tired, massage me. 

KshAmon {adj.) remorseful, regretful. 


KsfiiMOKAi {s. m.) remorse, regret. Pa shewy^ ch&r ksh^ keh^monai 
ma ka, do not give way to remorse over a concluded affair, i.e. 
wAat is done cannot be undone* 

KsHiKAWBL (v. reg. tr.) (1) to make sit, or mate sit down, to seat. (2) to 
mate kneel. Yish ksh^nawa;, make the camel kneel, (.8) to 
appoint ovef^ Naib^taliMldor pa mi^ bondi Sarkor ksh^na- 
welai dai^ Government has appointed a nailhtahsildar over us. 

KsuiNosTEL {v. irr. intr.) (1) to sit, sit down. Legbki rosara ksh^na ohe 
maAghil shi^ sit down a little that we may enjoy ourselves, 
{Z) to succeed to, "SHjos Malik me|^ shan^ pa maliki bondi 
Kut&nrai kshenoet^ Malik Alias died and Kufanrai succeeded 
to the headmanship. 

Ksh£^del {v. irr. tr.) (1) to place, put, G^ori pa yor kshesbda che 
wule shi, put the ghi on the fire to melt it, (2) to set. 
Khwala di w^le palla yfehye do ? wita y6 ka^ why have you 
shut your mouth, lit. set your mouth closed ? open it. (3) to 
apply, stick. K]|at mi bz^a dai^ ren ja werta ksh^sbda^ my 
tunic is torn, patch it, lit. stick a rag to it. (4) to point, 
direct. Tep£ wferta ksh^shw^ they laid the guns on it. 

KucH { butter. 

KuDBAT {s. m.) almighty power of God, Nature. 

KuD&ATX ifldj.) natural, not artificial. Kudiati wuBa, self-sown free. 

KoLANQl See Chibg. 

KuLAP («. i».) padlock. 

KuLL {adj.) all, whole, entire, 
or KwuLL. 

KuLifA (^./.) {1) gut, bowel. Zhai de my&zk^ de kulm^ na jorezhi^ 

bowstrings are made of sheeps* gut. Pa sr^ kulm6 wishtelai 

dat^ he shot him in the red guts, i.e. lower abdomen, groin. 

(%) bowels {figurative). Kulm^ mi p£ swfei^ my bowels burn at 

it, i.e« I am filled with pity, compassion. (3) works, machinery. 

De tipak kulm^ rowushaya, show me the action of the r\fle. 

K"LOi* (*. w.) potter^ 

KxjLPAi (s. m.) (1) small box. (2) peg on pommel of saddle {to tie reins 
to). (3) socket. De sterge kulpai^ eye-socket. 

KuLPiKAi {s. m.) small box. De nasore kulpikai, snuff-box. 

KtJMAK {s. m.) help, assistance. Kmnak rosara ka, ten^ me a hand* 

Ktjna (*«/^) (1) bottom, backside. (2) lower end of anything, point 
where it meets the ground'ievel. De ghre lsxmA,foot of the 
mountain. De d^ kwnrsai de pshe kiza kuna mota do^ the 
lower end of the leg of this chair is broken (3) pudendum 


KunItai {s. m.) luttoeh F^ joiji ma kshAiB^ pa kanati ksh^na, do not 
sjuaij sit down eom/ortabtf, Kunatai wxdagawa^ tit down 

KimDA (%,f.)'\ stock of firearm. J)'ix dor! mi fipftk ta achaweli wi^ 
KuKDOQH ('• M*) J pft kundogh j6 wnw&helan^ Ijmt mueh powder in the 

gun and it struck me with the stock, i.e. / overloaded the 

gun and it kicked. 

KiTNDA4fflA («.y.) shelter made with tranches of trees, etc* 

KuNDZBL {s. f) a flant. De kun^M \A\ Ij^wogba di^ kundzel oil is 

KiTNpA See EwuKpA. 

KuNpALAi {s, m,) earthenware plate or vessel, for eating or drinking out 
of, or for mixing bread and relish in. 


KuK^iDBL {v. reg. intr.) to become a widow. Kun^a shewy^ sheza^ a 
widowed woman, widow. 

Kvsjfih, (^^ ^^j earthenware vessel, platter, for kneading fiour in or 

Ji.UNpoL eating out of, basin, bowl. Pa kwun^ol kshe jome rangawi, 

KwuNDOL ^^^ ^^^ clothes in a basin. 

Kunpt£zin {s. m.) widowhood. De agh^ de knndy^zindwa kola wateli di, 
der kan4yezin 6 kerai na dai^ two years of her widowhood 
have passedy she has not experienced long widowhood. 

KuNJ (<• «»•) corner regarded internally, angle qf less than 180°. Pa 
tealwfer kuBJa k^ta do^ it is a four-cornered room. 

KuNJBKA (*./.) smallest recognised piece of money. De yawe kxinjeke 
los j6 na raa, he is not worth one farthing, lit. his power 
does not extend to a farthing. 

KuPB (<• «*•) being a non^Muhammadan, '* infidelity '*. 

KuEAN {s. m.) (1) Kwran, Muhammadan bible. De Euran ear Alia 
Hamdo do^ che ze bya da kor wu na kan^ {By) the beginning 
of the Kuran {which) is *' God be praised,^' {I swear) that I 
will never do so again {form of oath), (2) oath on the Kuran. 
Kuranina y6 der wokrel^ he took many oaths on the Kuran. 

Kus£z (*. m.) karez, underground water^channel. 

KuBKAMAN {s. m.) turmcric. 


KuRSHA («./.) line, mark, streak, 


KxJBANGA See Chiroa. 


Ku^WAi (*r m.) ■) (1) fl» measure of capacity. Kuf wjd de jofsbH ^wferama 

or > bra^a do^ dr^ lapp^ 8hi| a iurwai is the fourth 'part 

KtJRWizA (*./r) J of a yozhai, it is equal to three single-hafidfuls. 

(2) wooden bowl for eating froia* 
KusiBA («./.) one pice, \ of an anna. 
KuTAB («. m.) North. Kutab stond, Pole Star.. 
EuTBiKAi See Kikarai. 
KutanIai {s. m.) menial. Zim y^ dase tek tor dai leke kutafi^ai, his sou 

is as dark-complexioned as a lowrelass i^at^^ 
KOZA See Kiza. 

KwuLBiT (*. m.) bultet'moutd^ 

KwuLL See Kull. 

KwuNDi {adv) perhaps, proBahfy. Wos pii led oa l:o> kwundi ranzir 

daij perhaps my horse is sici, he is constipated^ Kwundi 

sabo bya yoteaa, perhaps I shall com& again to-morrow. 
Kwundi {s» m.) mirage. Pa gborma ksh^ d^ kwundi rap^zhi^ in the 

heat of the day there quiver mqny mirages. 
KwuNpA (adj.f) widow. De Dawar^ k^nm4^ shez6 fear^ pa wartel 

wakht thmwi, Dauri widows pass the time,, Le. gain a live- 

lihoodj by spinning.. 
KwuNpoL 5^eKuNp£L» 
KwuBB^z {s. m) foamj froth {on a river, etc.) 


KwuBfflA («»J^.) a leguminous plant given to she^buffaloes'to increase 

their miilk. 
KwuBBi (int^ get otd, away I {to dogs\. 
KwuBSHA See Kubsha. 
KwuBsi {s.f.) chair, privilege of a chair. De kwursai laik dai, he 

deserves a chair. 

KwusHT {s. m.) constipation. Kwosht mi shi, I am suffering from con^ 
or stipation. 


KwuTfoijfpA {s.f) husi,shelL De zanrghezi kwuteli^ha^ the cone of 

the ehilghoza pine 
KwuyiLA {s. /.) bubble. 
KwuTT {s. m. pi.) pewter j^ zinc^ white metals 

j^ABAB {adj.) aware, informed. Khabar dai^ pa^wo mi ^abar kerai 
dai^ he knows^ I informed him before. Sheza Hiabara do, ih.e 
woman knows^ 

X 2 



CfiABABA. («./•) (1) word. Yawa ^babara pa ksh^ darw^glia na do, not 
one word in it is false, (2) tAintjf, affair. Bela kbabara do^ 
there is one more thing. Dft tee ^bara wa ? What was 
the matter ? 

Cbachan [pdj^ dirty, untidy, littered. Q^i kbachan dai« the place 
needs tidying up. 

Sb^ik See £^B. 

£baibS&wo {s. m.) well-wisher, loyal subject. 

£baibfal {s. m.) dust, sweepings. 

J^^/LiRYOT {s. m,) alms {of supererogation). 

£baji£A (s.f.) (1) date. (2) date-palm. 

£baiI (adj.) (1) alone. (2) without anything. Ze kb&li potai shwa?, 
/ was left alone, or, I lost everything I had. 

2JBALK {s. m.) (1) people, the public, De ghimd khalk zrma wuswel, 
the hearts of all the people burned. She sarai dai, de nor 
khalk shammar p£ shi^ he is a good man and other people's 
interests are served by him, (2) crowd, Worchane dfer 
khalk dai^ there is a great crowd outside, (S) race, nation. 
De tos^ khalk wode pa teeam kol ki ? a^ what age do people 
of your country marry f 

2JBALLAI {f. i».) (1) chip, shaving, Khalll malli^ refuse^ sweepings. 

(2) match, luei/er, De ^ally^ ^ablai, mateh-bos. (8) lots. 

iV *vY^ U Shallai p£ woehawa, cast lots for it, (4) ^ballad ^allai^ 

'^ stick by stick,^* i.e. separate. Da tir6 ^allai ^allai ka, 
lay these swords out separately^ 

£gALOS {(idj^ (1) released, allowed to go. Kaic^ khalos ka, let the 
prisoner go. (2) free, independent. Khalos ghimdi sarai 
dai, de cha hukm na mam, he is rather an independent man, 
he cares for nobody's orders, (8) discharged. Yawa tiz^a 
pa machoghna mi ^alosa kra, / let fly a stone from the sling. 
Pa ghre ksh^ dfer ster tipak ^alos shwel, there was very 
heavy firing in the hills, lit. very great, i.e. many, guns were 
discharged in the hills, (4) exhausted, used up, finished. 
6hun4 tew^rai de mo na ^alos shewai dai^ all my provisions 
are exhausted. Kor ^alos na shan^ the work is not finished, 
(5) opened, undone. War khalos ka, open the door, Bishtara 
^alosa ka, undo the bedding, (6) divorced or not engaged 
to be married. Khalosa sheza, a free woman. 

^a^LOsi [s. /.) release, deliverance. E mo pa khalosi kshe «Jfer koshish 
wuka^ use your best efforts for my release. 


£SAL0SMAND {s, ffi.) (1) devoted, sincere, K^alosmand nikar mi daij 
he is my devoted servant, Khalosmand dost, sincere friend . 
(2) disinterested i impartial, Che pa munsiffai ksfae taraf Da 
ko, agha ta khalosmand wyaiyT^ him they call disinterested 
ji^ho shews no partiality in arbitration. 

£j[ALOT {s. m,) (1) ihillatj presentation robe. Amir khalatina Odam, 
Pai Muhammad ta wferkawel che de mo rftyat yestai, the 
Amir used to give hhillats to Adam and Pai Muhammad 
saying ** Tau are my subjeets,^ i.e. as a proof of their being 
his subjects^ (2) commission received by intermediary from 
both parties on conclusion of a sale or marriage. She khalot 
mi ^warelai dai, I have received a handsome commission, 

^ALPAL {s. m,pL) sweepings^ rubbish, Bangi khalpal weri di^ the sweeper 
has carried away the sweepings. 

Khamiba (adj) leavened. Da marai ^amira na do, losi do, that bread 

is not leavened, it is hastily made bread, 
^AMTo {s,f.) country-made cloth, 
^ANAT {s, m^ betrayal cf trust, embezzlement. Amonat di wile Janata- 

wel ? why did you misappropriate the deposit ? 
J^InaWoda {f,f^ family of high position y illustrious line^ 
^ANDA (s.f,) laughter, Ehanda kawel, to laugh, 
J^IAKBANAi {adj\) iad, useless, valueless, of small account, Khandanai wobj 
or miserable jade, Misb dasi ^andani na yi che te mizh sara 

^ANDAKAi na win^, we are not of so little importance that you should 

refuse us an interview, ^handapai sheza, bad woman^ 
^BANDAWiNAi {adj^ pleasant, merry, cheerful {person) . 
^ANDEL {v, irr, tr.) Der mi pferi ^bandel, / laughed at Aim heartily, 

£fiANGBAi (s, m.) shuttle^ Pai Muhammad wa Odam ta d^wob wukd.^ 
che pa l^angri di wavdeli wi, a che pr^ na shd^, bya wu*- 
wyaiyi che de mo tira potyi shwa, Pai Muhamma§ answered 
Adam saying, ^' Whatever you have woven with the shuttle, see 
that you leave it not behind and say afterwards * my strength, 
lit. sword, remained behind,' '^ i.e. P, M, taunted A, saying 
" Do your worst now and do not excuse yourself qfterwards 
for failure by saying you did not bring all your resources to 
bear at the right time!^ 

£baKMB {s, m.) (1) cross-handled dagger sharpened on both edges. 
(2) bayonet. Pa fipak U^anjar ^r \LA,fix bayonets, 

£sapaS8A («•/.) night-mare, W%a ze khapass^ niwelai wan, last night 
a nightmare seized me, Khapassa pi sw&ra wa, a night" 
mare was [riding'] upon him. 


EgAPGON (adj.) grieved, sohy. Mizh ^apgon yi, ice are sad. 

£aA.PFA {^dj.) vexed, sad, sorry, offended. Khappa shewai kho na 
w&tai ? / Aope your feelings were not hurt. 

£aAPPAB («./.) (1) douhle-'handfuL De d^ chinn^ yfl)o rett6 sar^ di, 
yawa ^bappar teok yi na shi tsliai, the water of ihis spring is 
bitterly cold, no one can drink a double-handful of it. 
(2) sole of foot. 

KhafpabyU (#./.) (1) jpalm (^ hand. Pa ^apparyi drimi, goes on all 
fours, creeps. Zyai mi pa ^apparyi dai, my son is on all 
fours, i.e. is quite an infant, cannot walk yet. (2) hand^S' 

^RA (s f\ \donkey. Khre bor, donkey load. 

^arInp {s. m.) ^tutnp {of o lopped off branch, etc.) Pa kharand pori mi 
dastor sh&kh shan^ zeke bzj^a shao^ my pagri caught on a 
^tump and so£ot tom^ 

^|Abb!za {s.f.) common melon. 

i^AB]fiDEL {v. reg. intr.) to snore. Klire ghnDdi ma Uar^a^ ^eb 
d^rbondi tang ka., do not snore like a donkey {braying), make 
your sleep tight upon yourself , i.e. go sound asleep. 

^ABF («. m.) letter of alphabet. De muUo ghniidiAharfiiia likelai shi, 

he can form his letters like a mullah. 
KSABQABBA {s.f) ourry-comb. 
£jiAB£i]fiL (s. m.) clippers, shears {for shearing goats and sheep). 

^SABOP (adj.) (1) spoiled, wasted. Asbob mi^aropshan^ my things are 
spoiled. (2) bad. Kharop garai dai, he is a bad man. 

^ABOff Kharoti. Kharo^iya sheza^ a Kharoti woman, 
or ^BABOTi 

^ABS {ji. m.) ()) sale. (2) mmey for expenses. Bo2olchah£ts ^ars 
nidita^ / have no money for -expenses, ^ok de ^ptd kor 
•depora roshi^ w'ag^ ta Sarkor ^ard na w^kawfj he who comes 
on his own business is not give* his expenses by Government. 

^ABSAWSL {v. reg. tr^) to sell. 

2jBABs£d£L {v. reg. intr.) to be soid, be for sale. Gbanam de ripai teo 
8^ ^arsi^i? at how many seers to the rupee is wheat 
selling ? 

^ABSi {adj^ for sale. Ebara largi di^ this wood is for sale. 

£baba {s.f.) silt, deposit. Pa d^ kate bondi d^ra ^ara alw^elyg 

do^ a great deal of silt has been deposited on this riverside 





£iAB£L {v. reg* tr.) to plaster, wash* D& diw6l pa china wa ze 
or wukbaran^ I will lime'Wash that wall, 


Khasikai [s. m,) joints meat with the hone. 

£SASS (adj.) particular. Khass aj^ earai e mo dost daij that very 

man is my friend, 
{adv.) (1) ex4ictly. K^ass pa tnanz kshd ^nilageda^^ it struct 

ewacily in the centre. (2) invariably. K^fiss do largi vn, 

they are always made of wood. 
J^ASsi {adj.) gelty castrated. 
^AT {s. m.) tunic, tipper garment, coat. De Dawai€ tibat tfer wi^ de 

Wa2^6 ^at spin vn, Dduri tunics are black and JFaziri 

tunics white* 

^ATEL {v. irr. intr.) (1) to go up, ascend, rise, climbs Mfzb pa ghre 
or bondi ^ateli wi^ we had got on the top of the hill. Wataii 

WtjUatel zjim lari^ zeke n&wa pa d& diwola ksh £ ^ately^ do^ the 
ground is damp, so the moisture has risen in this wall. Sija 
y6 ^atelyS do^ his breath has gone up, i.e. he is out (f 
breath* {%) to be produced, manufactured. Tar^a t^ 
^xvozba tel dwa sara pa Tochi ksh^ na ^^^i, Induon 6 
^arsawfj neither bitter oil nor sweet oil ii produced in 
Tochi, the Hindus deal in both. (S) to come out, make its 
appearance. Spafi^eai p£ wu^atelai dai^ a guinea-worm ha^ 
made its appearance in him. Pol mi das£ ^atelai dai^ the 
omen for me has come out so. 

j^ATO {adj.) (1) missing, astray. K]bato lor^, you have gone wrong. 
(2) missed. Lyar di Ubato keiy^ do, you have missed the 
road. (3) wide, away from the mark. Wn mi k pel pa da 
\^ dr^ l^wina dr6 zgorina, au dwa khato shwel au yo pa wuna- 

" . lag^an, I fired three shots at those three wolves, and two 

^ missed and the third did not hit. 

^ATOi {s. f) mistake, error. £ mo ^atoi w do, tAe mistake is 
not mine. 

Kttatt {s. m>j (1) letter, eptstle. Da ster sarai dai, pa ^attina 
zhaghedo ko, he is a big man, he talks by letter, i.e. writes 
instead of receiving , or himself going to see, 'people with whom 
he has business, (2) deed, document. Likelai khatt, a 
written document, (3) handwriting. De dagh muUo teangra 
Uiatt dai ? what is the writing of^^ this mullah like ? 

J^ATTA {s, /.) nH'Ud, Khafcta dfera do, yisKon sliakh shewi di, the mud 
is very deep, the camels have stuck in it. 


£bawaedz!n («. m.) elag^ Lofihi de kbaward^in na jor^sbi^ vessels are 
made of clay. 

Sb^zona («. /.) (1) treasury. Bipai pa ]^azona ksh^ soti^ they keep the 
money in the treasury, (2) treasure. De Sarkor ^azona 
^h:9k do; Government has much treasure, i^. unlimited com* 
mand of money, 

Kififo or («. m.) (1) sleep. Pk ^A> w£wd dai^ he is sleeping [in sleep}. 

£h<>b De shp^ mi ]^^b na dai kerai^ zeke U6b'mi ^s zangawi, 

I did not sleep at all at night, so now I am nodding , lit. sleep 

is making me swing. (2) dream. Kliob mi wulid^ I saw a 


Xj|il or '\ jf\ "^ absolute extinction of a family. Yo sar ye dai, che 

£b^^I J V • /v I jgugj. gi^i ]^li^yi yg do, there is only himself , if he 

Sb^Iz or 1 /, ^ \ \ rftV« ^ia^ f« the end of his family. De T&hi 

£b£yiz J -^ hakim ^eiz k^^hi na, che yo tei bya bel rotej, 

the Political Officer, Tochi, can never be got rid 
of, when one goes another comes. 

£b£l (9. m) (1) tribe. Wu^i ^^ pa Khaisora ksh^ pandej^i, 

the Wudzi tribe inhabits Khaisora. (2) member of a tribe. 

Tori KM, Tori Sbela^ man, woman of the ToH tribe. 

(8) hind, species. !^en6 gulina yo j^d di, 4sen£ bel ^i^l 

-di, some ofihefiowers are of one kind and same of another. 

SlffL {s. m.) helmet, fis Wazur ^^lina pa gar na gbdl, JFaziris do 
^ not put helmets on their heads, i.e. wear helmets, now-a-days. 

£siLA {s. f.) sweat, perspiration. Ret ^el6 yan, / am (in) a terrible 
perspiration. Kbela mi shewy 6 do, / am perspiring, 

j^^LA (adj.) stupid, dense. Gbund Ban Ui^la dl, they are all stupid 

SB^lagai {s. m.) blockhead. Wazir, che pa Kalkatti ksh£ wi, agha 
kb^lagai lida shi, a JF^ziri, when he is in Calcutta, appears 
a fool. 

SB^LmoKA {s. f.) family. 

Jl^ia Of {s. m.) welfare, safety, well-being. Pk ^^ sara 1 you have 

£bair come with well-being, i.e. you are welcome {salutation cm 

arrival). D^rta ^idr dai ? is it well with you ? Wa k^r 

ta di Ubair dai ? is it well with your family ? {salutations 

on meeting). 

£be9 ^adj.) (1) brown, khaki-coloured. Da ^era kapra do, that ia 
khaki cloth. (2) ashen, grey, pale. Malgb yi l^ber shewai 
dsH, his face has grown pale. (S) dismal, melancholy. De 


Kalkatt^ gu2T&]i pa miih bondi dhr kher dai^ zeke che hawo 6 
bela do^ toe find eaistence^ in Calcutta very miserable^ because 
tie climate is different {from ours). (4) vexed, irritated. 
Taba di khera do^ ke ^era di na do '7 are your feelings 
annoyed or not ? 

£bebtoi {s. m^ fiood, lit. brown, i.e. muddy, river. Kbertoi royhaip 
there came a flood. 

£Bi|t* 1 / / ^ A C^) ^^^ floating in the air. Nen vrez kheyy^- 

Pbb or J • /' ' i pery^ do, to^ay the air is thick with dust. 

£bebt£- "^ . 1 (2) mental obfuscation. Khery6-pery^ I / 

PbbtIS J ^ •^•' ; hope your mind is clear and free of trouble {a 

customary salutation). 

ITti^sh (*• m.) (1) relation by blood or marriage. (2) friend. 
IC-H^sHA {s.f.) tooth {of comb, etc.) De gbnianze dht6 ^dsh^ di^ the 
or j^osHA comb has many teeth. 
£a£sHi {s.f) (1) distant relationship. Eli^sbi mi do w^rsara^ / am 

slightly connected with him. (2) friendship^ 
£SE8HTA {s. /.) bricL Ima ^eehta^ kutcha brick. PaUba ^esbta, 

pucca brick. 
J|^£sHAi^ '\ {s. m.) (1) pron^. (2) tooth (of comb). 
Sboshai r(^/.) (*** composition). {1) pronged. Dwa-kb^sby^ skii, 
or £boshai J a two-pronged pitchfork. (2) stemmed, branched. Dr6« 

^oshj^ wuna^ tree with three main limbs. 

or >8ee "SsM* 

Kgiiz {s. m.) menses. 

SfffizAWBL {v. reg. tr.) to shake, move. Zelzele pa ^^zawel sara d& 

nuksdn sbewai dai, that damage was done by a shock of earth- 


£££z£dbl {v. reg. intr.) (1) to shake, move. Mzeka pa kbpula wukb^- 
z6day the ground trembled^ lit. shook of itself , 

Kti^zhai {s. m.) spur, ridge, of a hill. 

£ai^AWBL -v {v. reg. tr.) (1) to raise, lift up. Drind dai, ^o kheztawa, 
or > it is heavy, but lift it up. (2) to send up, make go up. 

£bt£^&wel J Wodna pa baj^^ lyfire wuUi^id&awa^ bring the horses up 
by thai path. (8) to excite. Pa Sarkor bondi ^alk ^^awi, 
he works the people up against Government. 

£h2 (*• «»•) disposition, temper, character, Kh T y6 she dai, he is a 

pleasant tempered man. De ^alk ^bTyina bad' shewi di, 
the people's dispositions have become corrupted. De workiytf 
Ui khaslat ye dai, he has a childish character. 


KhiJ> («• **•) i^h(uili com cut green for fodder. Wos mi ^ovre khid 
khwarelai dai, wy horee kas been fed on very young khasiL 

Sqidicat («. m) service. De Sarkor ^hr khidmatina mi wukrel, / have 
performed many services for Oovernment, 

£b^i>hat! {adj) ready to render service. Kllidmati sarai^ useful man. 
y-H lLA {s.f) false or absurd claim. Khila ma roka^ do not try to 

take me in. 
iTTnLop {s. m.) falsehood, Elulop ma wyaiya^ do not speak falsely. 

^iifBRi («./.; 1^^^;; drinking vessel used at meals. 

Kh^n («. «».) murder. Dre ^inina y6 keri di, he Aas committed three 

£b^na (*•/•) ^^^^^ ^ khini steny*, tent-pole. £ Wazire ^in6 
k^dai byfli, the tents of the JFaziris are called kezhdais. 
KtiTwi {s. m) murderer. 

KhIpa^y^ (*•/•) ^«*^ m*«^ t« ^A^ air. Khipafitye ctegga ghwa, rfi«^ 
began to blow about. De Sarkor la6hkd;r das4 d^r roghai leke 
d&se ^Tpafiry^ wuH^^i, the army of Oovernment came as 
great in number as the dust when it rises. 

EiiRA («./.) houri, black-eyed maiden of Paradise. Pa fi^irat kshe 
kfairg wa di pa kor shij in the next world you will be pro- 
vided with houris, P^ghla kshelye leke ^ira^ a maiden 
beautiful as a houri. 

K-HIB.AI {s. m) (I) dirty filth. Dfer ^irai p^ pferi dai^ it is absolutely 
covered with dirt. (2) fouling. De (;!pak ^irai wubosa^ 
clean the gun out. 

Km RAN {adj) dirty. 

Ktitras [s. m.) greed. 

K-HiRAsyoK {adj.) greedy. 

TTTrTSHT [adj.) kneaded. Donra mi ^shta keryg do, I have kneaded the 

y^TT izH {s. m.) scab. PSyawor mi ^igt niwelai dai, my wound has 

formed a scab. 
Ehizhai (s. m.) large boulder. 
Ktt q (conj.\ (1) but. Zhagh mi wukan l^o ^zawob € na rokan, / 

shouted but he gave no answer. (2) however. Pa hagha na 

tyara pa keta kshe kho na do, it is not darker than that, 

however f inside the room. 

KaoB See^i^. 

KtioMBA (s.f) mushroom. 

y^ QR («./. irr.) sister, 
or Rhob 


^OBASSr (s, m,) itch. 

KTrosT (*. m.) request. Da khost dferta kan, I make this request of you, 

^ V l\ \ Khostwali native of Khost. 

j^OSTWOLA (s,f) J 

Ehosha See Eh:63HA. 

Kho8HAI See j^^shai* 

^ovRA {s.f) earth. Sha khovra do, it is good soil. {See also ^id.) 

^OZH {adj. irr,) sweet. Alwo ^wazba do> the haltoa is sweet. 

^ozHBiYAi {adj.) sweet-scented. 

Khpul {adj.) (1) own. Khpul mol mi dai, it is my own property. 
Khpul dzon ma w^g^na, do not destroy your ottm self. 
(2) trusty^ confidential. Khpul sari mi di, they are my trusted 
retainers. (3) related. Khpul di dai? is he your relation? 
(4) friendly. '^Tfeok y6 ? '' '' Khpul yan/^ " Who comes 
there ? '' " Friend,'' lit. '' Who are you ? '' ''I am a 
friend '' — the usual challenge and answer. 

{pron.) (1) Pa U^pula, of own accord, of self, voluntarily, etc. 
Mo tee werta wuweyel ? pa khpula ye dasfe wukrel, 
I said nothing to him, he did it of his own accord. Bel dazz 
ma pe kawa, pa khpula wa es mer shi, do not fire another shot, 
he will die of himself now. (2) self. Pa khpula ghund wol 
wuwyaiya, tell me yourself everything that happened. See 
Grammar, page 16. 

fTTTPULwi {s.f) relationship, connection. De to wersara teangra khpulwi 
do ? in what way are you related to him ? 

^BA See Khar. 

K^tb Ip (1) crack, flick, etc. Pa ibaehoghna mi Wirap wuwestan, 
/ made the sling crack, Ut. I drew a crack from the sling. 
Pa . kofiri mi she Kbrap wuw&t, I flung the stone hard 
and far, lit. / brought a good impulse to hear upon the stone. 

(2) instant, moment. Pa yawa khrap kshe, in one moment. 

(3) stroke of work. Nen mi wa pati ta she khrap wferkan, I 
did a good stroke of work on my field to-day. 

^SAi or {s*f) unweaned calf. Khsai pa bori na kam dai, a khsai 
^soTKAi is younger than a borai. 

SiSHAN {s. m.) hit of hread. Das^ shim sarai dai che peshfi ta han 
^shan na achaw!, he is such a miserly man that he will not 
even throw a hit of hread to the cat. ^ 

EgSHAN {s. m.) chewing the cud. Ghwo chemlora wi no]t khshan waiyf, 
a cow while it is standing chews the cud. 


[SHiNA («./.) u)%fe*% sister, 

£iUD {s, m.) self. Pft 8aj*ai b£-^udawan, ^s bya pa^udshaa^ 

that man teas beside himself, now he has come to himjself 

again. Be-^uda^ %nco7iseious. 
[adv^ of course. Ze dase wukan ke na wukan ? Khud ! Should 

I do 80 or not ? Of course you should. 
£jiUDAi («. «».) Qod. A^tiyor de yek yo K^udai dai^ 'power belongs to 

the one and only God. 

^ulpItai {s, m) stopper, cork. 

^guBir^A (s.f^ sister^ s daughter. 

KgUBz! {s. f.) saddle-bag. Shtuzai m^ jor^ df^ my saddle-bags are 
made. ^ 

SsuggKi (*. f^ (1) headache. (2) other pain, disorder. Nas j^nshki 
y6 do, he is suffering from diarrhoea, 
{adv.) accidentally. £ mo na da kor kfaushki shewai dai, 
it was by a slip I did so, lit. this thing proceeded from 
me accidentally. 

£butan {s. m.) late evening. De moz ^utaa Ba rekata di, there are 
nine prostrations in the evening prayer. 

KgUTBA (*. f.) exhortation by a Muhammadan priest [to the congrega- 
tion in a mosque, etc.) Dzen£ &khwund che de cha nikokh 
tari nor d& ^utba ban wjaiyi, some priests when they cele- 
brate any one's wedding also pronounce the hhutla. 

KlWAi or {s.f) wooden shovel for winnowing grain. Besba pa kbwai 

]^wait£ wulwana^ winnow the mixed chaff-and- grain with the shovel. 

Kttwan if, m.) tinder. Khwan de mazeni de dorai na jorezhi, tinder 
is made from dwarf -palm and gunpowder. 

SfiWAND [s. m.) (1) taste. Belmang yiwand, insipid taste. De marai 
der sbe ^wand dai, the bread tastes very good [generally 
meaning that the person's own appetite is good], (2) enjoys 
ment. Agha ^wand sara kor kawi, he works with gusto, 
Nen de chigh^ Hiwand na wan, there was no pleasure to-day 
in the pursuit of the thieves [generally meaning that it was 
unsuccessful or unexciting'}. 

K^ytWAB (*. m.) horses' manger. 

IT^WABOK {s. m.) food. Kwut^i^e de titsarai ^warok wi, husks are the 
food of pigs. 

SBWAetM («. m. irr.) sister's son. Dxi ^oreyina mi di^ / have three 
sister's sons. 


H^iWAB^DBL {v. reff. intr.) to.erosSjffo over. PSri wu^warawa, cross over 
Kelai wa nen pa dag^ toi bondi ^warez^i, the village will 
eross to the other side of this river to-day. 

£gWABEL (v, irr. tr.) (1) to eat. Tse ^bwur^ ? what are you eating ? (2) to 
taJce^ appropriate [commission, bribes, other people^ s property, 
etc). De ghniid^ mkaroni talabina agha khwuri^ he 
embezzles the salaries of all the employ^. (8) to bite, 
MaDgora ^warelai sarai i pen na daregbi^ ct man that has 
been bitten by a snake is cfraid {even) of a piece of rope 
{proverb). (4) to wear out. De de tipak ra^ina ^wareli df j 
the grooves of this rifle a/re worn out. Paffre mi pa ghre londi 
khwarelye shewy6 di^ my shoes {with walking) on the hills 
have become worn underneath. 

Ka^ASH {adj.) (1) pleased. Pa to bondi ^er ^wash dai, he is very 
pleased with you. (2) appeased. Da jamador pa paise 
khwash 'kA, propitiate this jamadar with a little money, i.e. 
btibe him. (8) happy. Mizh dolata der kbwash ji, we are 
very happy here. (4) accept ahle^ pleasing. Nevai bogh mi 
^wash dai^ the new garden pleases me, i.e. I like it. 
(5) chosen. Pa g^und^ kshe da wos mi ^wash kerai dai^ 
/ have chosen this horse from among the lot^ 

£bwasuImandi {s.f.) flattery. Khwashamandi ma kawa^ spina kfaabara 

ka^ do not flatter ^ speak the plain truth, lit. the white word. 
^(WASHi {s. f.) (1) happiness, merriment. De khpul^ malgeiai sara 

mi ^washi wukrela^ / made merry with my companions. 

(2) intoxication. De sbarop pa k^washi ksh^ wan^ he was 

in the intoxication of drtnk. 

Ka^ATAWBL {v. reg. tr.) (1) to boili !fibo wu^watawa, boil the water. 
{See also €bd.) (2) to dash out. Ma^rez6 wa di wukh- 
watawarij I will knock your brains out. 

^WAT^BEL {v. reg. intr.) (1) to boil. Ebo ^wates^i^ the water is 
boiling. (2) to show, come up. ^ira y^ khwatawelyl do, 
his beard has sprouted. (3) to laugh suppressedly, giggle. 

^^AZH See ^mJZH. 

£bwazh {adj) sore, hurt, wounded. 

^WAZH^DEL {v. reg. intr.) to be sore, painful. Stinai mi ^wa2h^;^i> 

/ have a sore throat. Qhand sirat mi ^was^eizbij ^y whole 

body aches. 

Kgwo («•/•) side, place beside. De keli pa ^wo ksh£ k^r mi dai^ 
my house is just outside the village. Pa khwo wudareshai 
stand aside. 


WOE {adj\) (1) poor, Kiwor dai^ h€te n^, lari^ Ae is a poor man, he 
has nothing, (2) miserable , helpless. P^r ^wor sari dij. 
kir ma w^ta ka^ the^ are wretched creatures, do not he angry 
with them. (3) safe from, free from, Nawz sIiaitoiL mi 
^wor larf, deliver me from {my own) lusts {and from the) 

^p?70SAKAi {s. m») poor wrefeh, starveling. She w^rsa^a wiika, da 
^worakai dai^ treat him kindly, he is a poor little creature, 

TTTTwrmti {s,f,) (1) effort, endeavour, hard work, Dferakhwori mi wukra^ 
/ worked very hard. (2) pain. Pa der ^won kshe mer 
shan^ he died in great agony, (S) distress, want. Pa watan^ 
d^ khwori roghlaj great scarcity came upon the country.. 
Gulina ebe de khworai na mre shwel^ thejlowers died for 
want of water. 

K^woBJKASH {adj\) hard-working, industrious. 

Ktiwoba (s. m. pd.) dough » 

gawoSHY^ {s.f.) mother of wife or of husband.- 

ir-HWQZHE-RgWANi>AWAB {s. m. pi.) sweetmcats.^ 

j^wsAB See Skhab. 

Kttwshina See ]^shina. 

£^wuLA {s.f.) (1) mouth, K^wnla j€ de marai dakka do^ zeke zhagEi n» 
shi krai, his mouth is full, therefore he cannot utter a word,. 
Ke pa khwtJa ban rota wuwyaiyi ze wa itibor wu na kaa 
though he should say so with his mouth I will not believe it.- 
Pam ka ebe wos to ta ^y^wnla na woebawT^ take care that the 
horse does not bite you. Naiyora mi pa khwnla do^ the fast 
is on my mouth, i»e.. I am keeping the fast, (2) face. Kbwula 
ye zyera sbewy^ do, his face has turned yellow, i.e. pale^ 
(3) mouth of a ravine, debouchment of one valley or nullah 

into another. 

IThwulgai [s. m^ (1) mouth, small mouth. K^wulgai ma ^^zawa^ 
dofCt move your little mouth, i.e. shut up I (2) spout. De kize- 
^wnlgai, spout of water^pot. 

T^TT WTisHAi {adj.) (1) empty. Kbwnsbai kor^ uninhabited house.. 
(2) lonely. Sbeza pa ^wushi raghzi rawona sbwa, the woman^ 
set off across the lonely plain, (3) senseless, absurd.. 
Khwushye kissa, nonsense. Khwusbai BSiTai,fooL 
{adv.) needlessly, uselessly. E mo waKbt di kbwusbai tfer 
k&n, you have wasted my time, lit. made it pass uselessly, 
Khwushai khappa sbwe, you vexed yourself unnecessarily. 


El[wusHOLf («./.) rejoicing. Mizh ^wusholi wiik; auKbwash shi, i^^ if« 

rejoice and be merry. 
EgwuTf£ testicles. 

ITttwttzh (*. «». i?^.) jofliw. De ghwosh de j^wuzhe na mi de slipe ^ob 
(?r na dai kerai^ / did not sleep all night on account of tooth' 

&WAm ache. 

{adj. irr.) Awt, injured, in pain. 
Kttwttzhmakt) (adj.) wounded, injured. Sarai khwuzhmand dai, Mahsid^ 

wahelai dai, the man is hurt, he has been attacked by 




LA...NA (prep*) See Grammar, page 39. 

LabaghebaI'n {adj.) wretched, miserable, in a bad state. Mizh pa wilayat 
or I tghe der labagheri shwi, we in the lock-up have fallen 

LAGfiEBAi- f into a bad plight. 
Ba^ebai. J 

Lad {s. m.) baggage-net. Pa sandikina pa ladina kshe wutranga, 

load these boxes in baggage-nets. 

Lagatta {s. f.) hick. De to wos ze dwe lagatte wahelai yan, your horse 
kicked me twice. 

Lagawel {v. reg. tr.) (1) to apply, bring in contact. Tsang mi lagawe- 
lai dai, '/ am leaning on my side. {2) to hit with. Tij^ mi 
wutreyela, pa nakhslia mi wtdagawek, I threw a stme and 
hit the mark with it. (8) to spend. Pa selgina ripai mi 
wulagawelye, I spent hundreds of rupees. 

Laq^del {v. reg. intr.) (1) to come in contact, hit, strike. Gr^lai pe 
wulageda, the bullet struck him. (2) to be hit. Pa gelai 
lagedelai, or lagawelai, dai, he has been struck by a bullet. (8) 
to be related. De to agha tee shi, tee di kge^i ? what 
is he of yours, what is his relationship with you ? 
(4) to come upon, befall. Stera wabo lagedely^ do, a severe 
epidemic of cholera has occurred. Pa da lyftr kshe ghle 
lagezhT, robbers turn up on that road. (5) to be in progress 
to have already begun. De juwore lau lagedelai dai, the 
reaping of the maize has begun. 

Laghab, {adj,) barren, bare. Laghar ghar> a barren hill. 



Lasb^ (^4/0 ^o^9^3 hoarse. Marai di ]a||^ di^ your throat is rough. 

LAOLAO^XgAi {s. m,) centre j^art of maize-head. 

Lahad («• t»0 rece»9 at the bottom of grave, towards the west, in which 
the body ie laid on its right side. 

Laik iMj) (1) worthy, deeervivg, De sazo Iftik dai, he deeerva 
punishment. (2) cafioble, clever. Dfer laik sa^ai dai^ he is a 
very capable man. 

LaikI ( s.f) fitness, worthiness. 

LIjai («• m.) machine for cleaning cotton. 

Lak (^0 (1) *^^ ^Pf erected. Tambiyon l&k shew! i!i,the tents have 

been pitched. Laka tigba^ standing stone, natural obelisk. 
(2) planted. Wuna laka ka, plant the tree. (S) tucked in, 
De dastora teika laka ka^ tuck in the end of your pagri. 
(4) caught, 'pkfaai rolak dai^ / have caught a cough. 

Lakai (*»^0 ^^il {ordinary word). Wazir wysiyi che wos aa msJ^ 
janat na rogheli di^ zeke lakai ye lem ehwaj the JTaziris say 
that the horse and the ram came from paradise and that 
therefore their '* lakai ^^ became a '* lem '' {more complimentary 
word for tail.) 

liAKAB|iA {s.f) pole, flagstaff {on a shrine, grave, fort^ etc.} 

lSIshb^^ t /') } ^**^*^^^' ^«^*^^* gazelle. 

Lak^bel {v. reg. intr.) to climb, ascend. £a agha ly&r tsok na slu lake* 

delai; no one can get to the top by thai path, 
Lala (*. m.) term of respect used in addressing or mentioning an 

elder brother, uncle or other senior man. 

Lal£del (t;. reg. intr) to hang down, drag on the ground. Perai lalezhi^ 
wu ye tara, the rope is trailing, tie it up. 

Lalin {s. m, used as an indecl. adj.) weeded. Shele mi lalin kerye di^ 
/ have weeded the rice. 

Lalha {adj. f) Lalma mzeka, unirrigated land, land depending on 

Lah See Lem. 

Lam («• ni.) war, military expedition. 

Lamawab {adj.) having a good tail. Da my^^ lamawara do, that 
sheep has a fine tail. 

Lamba {s.f) flame, flare. YoT]§LmheiT6, the fire flared up. 

Ij AMBiLWiRL {v. reg. tr) '^ to wash. Wos mi di lambawelai dai? have 
Lamb^del {v. reg. intr) J you washed my horse ? 

Lamb^ya {*./.) swimming, 
or Lamboya 


Lamb£zan {s, m,) swimmer, Lambezan dai, lambeya y{ wukra, he Ua 
swimmer, he swam. 

Lamsai («. m^ hawky bird of prey, 

Lamsai («. m.) thick felt. 

Landora See Nbndoba. 

Lanborch! Bee -NandorchI. 

Lanp (^'0 (1) short, Mazal nen land wan^ the stage to-day was a short 
one, Lan^a kissa dag^ do^ the long and the short of it is, 
lit. the short version is this. Saya j€ lauda do^ zeke pa ghre 
na shi khatai^ his breath is short, that is why he cannot climb 
hills, (2) lopj^ed, pollard. De Kand wule lan^^ ii, the 
willows on the Kand Mullah arfi pollards. (8) hewn down 
Da wuna pa teber landa ka^ cut that tree down with an axe. 
(4) docked, tail-less. Deposa rog^Iel dr^ lewlna^ dwa land wl 
e yawa lakai na wa^ there came down [upon us) three wolves 
two had their tails cut off and the {other) one was tail-less. 

Landikai {adj) short. Landikai fipak^ carbine. 

Landin {s, m,) shortening, abbreviation. Che ^a kissa k^, ke bada 

ke> landin y^ rowuka^ whether your speech be pleasant or 

unpleasant, {at least) let it be short. 

Lan^wolai {s, m.) shortness. 

Lang {s. m.) skirt, "Dhr Dawar che Iminz ko lang waiyT che ch^i*^ mi 
partig mardor wi, many Dauris put on skirts when they say 
their prayers {each one thinking) ^^ Lest perchance 7ny trousers 
be unclean,*' Le, fearing that they are unclean, 

Langar {s, m,) free kitchen for travellers, visitors, etc. kept by a religious 
or public character, Langar es na chaleztii^ band shan, the 
free kitchen is no longer going, it has been closed. 

Langea {s,f^ leg, shank. 

Lanqbawar {adj.) long-legged. Langrawar sarai dai^ langr^ ji wugbd6 
di; he is a long-legged man, his shanks are long. 

Lappa (*•/•) measure of bulk, handfuh Dre lappe yo kurwai shi, 
three handfuls make ja kurwai. Ghbarga lappa, double-hand'^ 
ful, as much as both hands put together can hold. 

La a {adj^ lower. Lar Dawar^ Lower Daur. De keli pa lar lori 

on the lower side of the village. 

[adv^ below, downstream^ Amzoni lar di, Muhammad Kh£l 
bar di^ Hamzoni lies downstream and Muhammad Khel 
LiARAi («./•) defeat, getting the worst of it. 



Lakbl (v* fVf » tr.) (1) ^ ioi?^^ poHeu. Yo kadam mzeka na lariy le 
otom not one yard of land* Wa to ta arz laran^ / Aave some^ 
thing to ask of you. Tamador sarai tama larij a greed]/ man 
is possessed hj/ greedy lit. possesses greed. Da watan zy£m Ian, 
this is a moist country, lit. this country possesses damp* D& 
sarai Aht darw^gh lari^ that man is an inveterate liar, lit. 
possesses many lies. (2) to keep, obserte. Inar wfersara lara, 
trcoit him with tact, lit» observe tact {in your dealings) with 

La&oai (i. m.) (1) wo^i. (S) piece (f wood, stick, « 

{pl») Largii fkel, firewood, Largi kawel, to coiled, or deal in 

La]^ah {s. m.) scorpion. De laram ca ^n sote^ laram tak ivaiyT^ yon 
should lew are of the scorpion, the scorpion stings. 

La|lelai {adj^ defiled, stained, having lost its freshness^ 

La^hIn [s. m.) boweli entrail. LarmaniBa da di^ zre> yenna, se^ai, 
pashtawargai^ the following are entrails, the heart, liver, 
lungs and kidneys. 

LA^Ti («. /.) trembling fit, shivers. Sara lary^ mi shewye do, / had 
a cold trembling fit. 

LastiNai [s. m.) sleeve. 

Lashkak («. f».) (1) tribal or other army. (2) any collection of armed men 
larger than a ghaddai and smaller than a tor a. Lashkar 
rang shan, yo yo shan, the army broke up and dispersed. 

Lashta {«./.) {\) thin stick, walking-stick. {^) figure. Sha lashta do, 
he is a well-built mam 

Lashta («./.) earring. 

Lashtai («. m.) branch of a waier^course. 

Lat {s. m^ idle person. 

Lata&ka {*./.) portion corresponding to the hammer in a match-lock. 

Latawel {v. reg. tr) (1) to seek, search for. "Jlpak mi ivulatawan, 
na mi mindan, / looked for the gun but could not find it, 

(2) to strip off. De haghe wani patikai pa ^pnla lat^delai 
dai; ke cM latawelai dai ? has the bark of thai tree come off 
of itself, or did some one strip it off? 

Lat^dbl {v. reg. intr.) (1) to come off. See Latawel (2). (2) to disperse 
{assembly), etc. Marakka \nilateda> the council broke up. 

(3) to happen, come about. Daghe ^abar^ na \^a balwa 
wulatezhi, te pekr w^rta wuka, these words will lead to a riot 
pay attention to it, i«e. mark my words. 

WAziRi vocabulart; 181 

Lau {s. m,) reaping. Pa d^ pati kAA mi lau karai dai^ / Aace done 

the reaping in this field. Lauina gad di^ the reapings^ Le^ 
the reaping of all crops, have begun.. 

Lattkda See LoNDi&. 

Laund^bal (s. m^ relish, eaten with Bread, eomestible. De Wazir^ 
laimd^al gemne, i^ori^ shaude^ mo8te> bIid^ iyd^ z^mna vi^ 
the Waziri relishes are honey, g hi, milk, curds,' whey and broth. 

Laub£d£L {v..reg. intr.) to be pleased, satisfied. Khars w^tkap^ lam*6zl)i^ 
pay him his expenses to phase him*, 

Laubawel {v^ reg. tr,\ to deal kindly, graciously. KJ^udai pa mo 
wulaurawel^ God has b^en gracious to me. 

Lattz {s. m) promise^ Pa ^pul lauz tingyeea^ adhere firmly to your 
promise .r 

Lawanp {adj.) unmarried {of man).^ S&eza y^ nishtaj wode na lari,, 
lawand dai^ he has no wife, he is not married, he i^a bachelor. 

Lawang {s. m.) clove. Lawang pa jome mi pigh waheli di^ I have 
sprinkled the clothes with. clove. 

Lawab {s..m^ (1) heavy sticky bludgeon. (2) staff, walking-stick. 
Kutan wiiw6 che yawa vrez wa ze Birmal ta di!maD| che lawar 
mi pa loB ksbe wi^ che Sarkor pauz han ropase wi^ Kutan said 
'* One day I will go to Birmal with my staff in my hand and 
ihe army of Government behind me.** (8) stick for playing 
any game, bat, racquet. (4) De baghri lawar^ pestle 

Lata {adj,) (1) disengaged at leisure. £s l&y& yan^ to eara wman>^ 
now I am free to tee you. (2) empty. Bangla laya do, 
the bungalow is unoccupied. (3) bare, with' nothing on^ D& 
jilkai wa mor ta wyaiyi che \€ch6 mi chilai na l&y& fihw^, 
ehili rota wuka, that girl s/tys to her mother " my arms hare 
become bare of bracelets, i,e. / have no bracelets for my 
arms, buy me bracelets** (4) Pa laya rok^rai day, he gave it 
to me gratis, for nothing.. 

Li or Ld {s. f.) oath., Na-hakka \6 ye wukra,. he look a false oath. 

LfeA (*• /•) g ante, play. De izavt tok leb% tie game of odds and, 

lificHA C^-/.) fore-arm. LeebS ger^e ka, pett^ k3.,pull up, pull down 
your sleeves. See Gebd. 

LicHAi {js. m.) (1) upper'arm. See Gsbd. (2) door-post, ■' 

K 2 


LicHAir {ad/.) bleary. L&henna sterga, W^ory eye. 

Lid {s. nt.) dung of hone or donkey. 

LuB {adv) like, as {with or without che). Leke ze dferta wyaiyan, 
dksi litk, as I tell you, io do. Kshely^leke ^ira, beautiful 
like a houri. Leke che de mesheron^khabare che wij such as 
the words of elders usually are. 

Lbm or {s. m.) tail of horse or sheeja. De lem wozda,/a^ of sheep's 
Lam tail. See also Lakai. 

L^PXfloa {adj,) repentant, contrite. 

liBBA (*./.) mist. 

LisHA^r {s.f) (1) sting {of insect, animal). (2) beard {of barley, etc.) 

LlSvy£ {s.f) she-wolf 

LfwANAi {adj.) mad, insane. Llwanai spai, mad dog. 

LfiwANSHlK {adj) half -mad, peculiar. L^wanshik ag^a sarai dai che 
nim pa liud wi, nim b^^uda wi, that man is " lewanshik ^* 
who is half himself and half beside himself 

LiwAB {s. m) husbandU brother. 

L^WABZA {s.f) husband^s brother^ s daughter. 

L^WABZAi {s. m) husband^ s brother^ s son. 

L^WB («. m) he^wolf. 

Lezh or {adj. indecl.) few, little. Lezt kisse mi di, I have a few things 

IjBZHkI to say. Wakht lezh dai^ there is little time. Lesb kho roka^ 

give me a little all the same. Lez^ki wndara^ wait a little. 

L^ZHDAi {adj.) of burden. Jji^dsi^otsksi, pack-bullock. 

Lbzhel {v. irr. tr.) to send. Kissa mi wul^z^ela^ bya sarai mi wulozhan^ 
/ sent a message, then I sent a man^ 

LGlpl iSee Glpf . 


LiDBL {v. irr. tr,) to see. Makha na wlnan, I see no opportunity. Ze 
ye wulidan, he caught sight of me. Lida shwel, to appear, 
Ze spek werta wu lida shwan^ J appeared contemptible in his 
eyes. Da kor mo ta giron lida shi^ that business appears 
difficult to me. 

jAo {adj.) lonely, deserted, uninhabited. Lig watan dai^ it is au 

uninhabited tract. 
LiGAi {s. m.) vapour. De yor Ifgai^ smoke. De ebe ligai, steam. 

LiKA (e^f) li^^* Shkorzen pa lika drimi^ the sportsmen are moving 
in line. 

L!ka^ (*•/•) P^i^ i^ stomach. 



LiKEL (t?. reg. tr^ (1) to write. Chutai mi wferta likelye do, / iaf)e^ 
written Aim a note. Ze wa w^rta wulikan che das^ wuko^ 
/ will write to kirn to do so. (2) to delineate, draw. Buton 
pa diwola likeli di, there are pictures drawn on the wall. 

LlQiBitBA («./0 doud of duet. Sod li^erfa ko, the wind is raising the 

Lima (*./.) snare. D6 zerkon^ depom lim^ di, they are snares for 
catching chikore, Awwal Khon wuwe che Kafirirogha ksh^ 
watan de mo lima do, Awwal Khan said '' The land (/ own^ 
in Kanirogha is a snare to me** 

LiMD {adj, irr,) (1) wet. Ze limd ehwan, / am wet. DoiTra laumda 
ka^ damp thefiour, i.e. mia water with it. (2) false , untrue. 
Da laomd^ kiss^ ma ka, do not tell such tales. 

LiKBA («./.) ^)how. De gh^shyCy de ghundorL linda. how for shooting 
arrows^ pellets. (2) lever^ipf rifle). 

LiNBAt («./.) {\) fiddle-hew. (2) sinew at hack of knee. (8) trigger. 

LiR («./. irr.) daughter. Lif&a mi dre di, / have three daughters. 

LiRi {adv.) (l)/ar. Lya de plor na lir6 wan clie plor wulidan, he 
was still afar off when his father saw him. (2) hack. War 
\ixi ka, set the door hack, i.e. open it. (3) off. Kulap lir^ 
ka, take off the padlock. Losina wuwinza che khirai lir< 
shi, wash your hands so that the dirt may come off. 
{adj.) distant. £ Tochi na Dllai lir^ mulk dai, Delhi is a coun* 
try distant from Tochi. 

L!t (*. m.) loot, plunder. 

LiTA (*./•) clod of earth. 

LiTKAt {s>f) small lump [or heap) of earth.- 

Lmanz {*./•) single handful. 

Lhanza (s.f) kind of tree. CItWus •C^M^ 

LhanzS&or {s. m.) worshipper, one who says prayers*. 

Lhasa I {s. m.) grandson. 

Lhasai (i'f) granddaughter. 

Lmashom (*. m.) night-fall, evening prayer. De Im&shom pinza rek&ta 
di, there are five prostrations in the evening prayer. 


{s. m.) ") iat. Lmafsliomak de marghai pa laahkar na 

V tan che m^hek yan, dem^beke de laskar na 
'*/)) han i 


LHASHOM-HABSfiAi {s.J.) J J^g^n inkor kan che ze maryhai yan, the hat 
would not go with the army of the hirds saying ^^ I am a 
mouse,** and also ohjected to joining the arfny of the mice say 
ing *'I am a hird** 



"Lmatai {adj.) combed^ Zhtra mi Imatj^ do^ my heard u conibed. 
Lidis {s. m.) (1) Bun. (2) sunskine. See MtIb. 
Lh):boh1sht {s. m.) time about 8 A. M, 
LniiBQOTE («. m.) east. 

'Lifi^gHBL (r. r^^. fr.) ^(> eomb. Khpnla sbira pa zbmft&z wtdm^ta^ 

comb your beard wit A a comb* 
LvlNZ («. f». irr.) prayer. De Imanz^ wa^t dai, it is tie time for 

prayers. Ke Imihz k^ awwal avdaa wuka, if you are going 

to pray first perform the ablution. 

LicoNBii [s. m,) hem. 

or Lmobai 

Lmokey£ {adj.f.) Lmofiry^ sten, large sewing needle^ 

or Lmoby£ 

Lmonzai {s. m^ handle ofhandmill. 

Lmostel {v. irr. intr.) to lie down* Na molim^i che wewd dai ke 
aghast Imost dai^ it is impossible to know whether he is asle^ 
or only lying down. 
Lmoshom See Lmabhom. 

[Lmoz] Be-lmoz (adj.) (1) prayerless^ irreligious. Be-lmoz sarai dai, he 
is an irr-eligious man, (2) polluted. Jome mi be-lmoze 
skwif my garments were defiled. 

See lit. 
(s. f.) threads set for weaving, web. Londa mi yeshy^ do. 
Have started work on a web^ Louda WebaD^ I am weaving 
a web. ^ - 

(prep.) under, underneath, below. Mi^ de wune londi wa 
kskeni, we will Mt under the tree. Londi krel, to bring und€r, 
i.e. to get the tetter of, or appropriate. Dushman mi londi 
kan, / got the better of my enemy. E mo m^eka ye londi 
kerye do, he has usurped, encroached on, my land. Londi 
bondi, topsy-turvy. See Orammar, page 39. 

(s . m) sickle. hsLrmo, wol&gSLWsi, ply your sickles. 

(«. m.) (1) Mde, direction. Yo lorai bel loi^i ma kessa, do not 
look about you, lit. in one direction and in tmother. \%) wtny 
of reaching, means of obtaining^ De ripai loBaa werk dai, the 
means of earning money is lost. 

{s. m.) (1) hand. Los mi matdor di, my hands Are 4tn6lean.^ 
A^a shai pa los na roghaij that thing w&s nq^ 
obtained, lit* did not come to hand. Dil mzeka 4 mo ps^ 
los londi do^ that land is in my possession. Indi ust. 
da giiori di pa los rowrel ke pa por, did you get thi^ 
<lhi for cash from the Hindu or on credit? . Los pa Iob kor 








^ ^ff* (^) immediately. Che ze 6 wulidan, dai losi \ T 
n, immediately ih^ he saw ms he ro9e to his feet. ^^ ^^ 


wuslian^ the affair happened on the spur of tie moment. De 
l^pol kor pa w^doni mi los ^^^ulagawan^ or pferi kerai dai^ 
/ kave begun^ lit. hate set, or stretched out my hand, to mahe 
my house habitaile, (2) helping hand* Los rosara v^a^ lit. 
carry a hand toith me, i.e., lend a helping hand, or rather, 
mahe things easy for *me. (3) arm^ Los yi mot dai^ hie 
arm is broken. (4) means, power^ De yawe delai los mi na 
rasij I am not good for an eight-anna bit. 

LobI iftdj.) unleavened^ Losi marai^ unleavened breads 

{adv.) (1) suddenly. Losi tipak ^alos uIikd, suddenly a J V^A-^* 

OU% went ^"^ ^^'^ »»MSM^rl « n.'f.^l«t C^\\tx «PA A vn*il7/lAn A»^X 1^~7 \ VM,7f% 

aheg sbap 

LosuAl {s. m,) (1) vessel {of earthenware; wood, or metal). Kulolon 
loshi pa^awij potters bake vessels. (2) tool. De korigar 
loski, mechaniffs tools. 

LosTAi {s. m.) (1) handful. Yo lostai woshe, a handful of gmse. 
(2) handle. Teber lostai, axe-hcft. 

LoswAiYiNAi {adj\) touched by hand. Da marai loswaiyinyd sbewy^ do, 
the bread has beenfinger€d. 

LoTBAKD {adj.) reetless, convulsed, very irritable. Lotband dai, zeke 
p^ghrina ma wferkawa^ he is annoyed, so do not taunt him. 

LuKGAi {s.f.) blue Peshawar turban or sheet. 

LwANG {adj.) down-hill, sloping down. Sya de B&dsbai TL6t na de 
Mirom Sba p^ri Iwang dai, then from £. K. to M. S, ii is m 


LwAB {odj^ (1) high. Fa yagh I^var d^ bondi tomte mi Iftk dai, 
my tent is pitched On that eminence. (2) hard, harsh. De 
Wazir^ Iwara zbebba do, an de Banni^ pasta do, the 
JFaziri dialect is hard and that of the Bannuchis soft. 

LwISTSL {v. irr. tr) to winnow. R^sha pa khwad wtdwana, winnow the 
grain-and'chaff with a shovel. Dermend mi Iw&ttai na dai, / 
have not winnowed {the contents of) my threshing fioor. 

LwASTBL See Lwustbl. 

LwAZHA {9*f) hunger. Dfera Iwazha robondi alw^dely^ do, / am very 
hungry, lit. great hunger has fallen upon me. Ze de 
lwa^6 mraD, I am dying of hunger. 

LvfsHlL {v. reg. tr.) to mili. P^i mi Iweeheli di, / have drawn the 
milk. Gbwo mi ^wulweshela^ / milked the cow. 

LwisHT {s.f^ full span, from tip of thumb to tip of little finger. 


LwnsTiL («• iff. tr.) (1) fo read. Kitob Iw^n^ I am reading a book. 
or (2) to study. Fa kim dan Isaki di Iwusti d!^ in what school 
LwASTBL were you educated. . 

Lya {adv,) (1) yet J still. Lyft wferta wfyeli mi Da di^ I have not yet told 
him. (2) stillj even. Ba(U dera do au lya wa ban d^ra 
wuBhiy the feud is bitter and mil become still more bitter. 

LtIr {s. f.) roadj way, path. QhW lyar rota Diwely^ wa, the thieves 
had seized the road against me, i. e. were lying in wait /or me 
by the way I had to travel, Lyar w^rta 8it^a do, the path 
leads straight to it. (2) arrangement, policy. £s Sarkoi de 
Wazir^ sara nevy^ lyftr kery^ do. Government has now 
adopted a new policy with the JFaziris. 

LtXrwaiiInai {s. m.) highway^robber. 

LtabIE {s. f. pi) foam, slaver. De I^wani spi ghundi de yagh de khwul^ 
na lyar6 baiyede, he was slavering at the mouth like a mad dog. 


MACHOfiflNA (s./) sling. Machoghna mi w^iiang wabela, I made the 

sling crack. Yawa tizba mi pa macboghna khalosa kra, 

I shot a stone with the sling. 

Madat {s. m.) help, assistance. Mandat roka, help me. 


Map {adj.) excused, exempted, remitted. 

MaghbIr {adj.) proud, conceited. 

MAGfiz {s. m.) (1) brain. (2) kernel. 

Mashzai {s. m.) neck. Cbeg maghzai ye dai, he has a long neck. De 
mag&zi w^a^ sinew of neck. 

Mahbob {s. m.) recess on inner side of western wall of a mosque. 

Mahsa if. f.) passing of the wetted fingers over the head, neck, arms, 

etc., after performance of audas, q.v. 
MahsIl (s^ m) regulation payment, due, toll. De bazor mabsil, octroi. 

De cbntai mabsil, postage of a letter. 
Mainaka {s.f.) mynah. 
Maindon {s. m.) plain, maidan. 
Maiba (*./•) uncultivated and uninhabited plain, 
Maiyii^ {adj) in love. D& sbeza pa cba maiyina do^ that woman is in 

love with some one. Sabibon maiyin^i ke na? Do 

Englishmen fall in love or not ? 
Majab Set MuAJAB* / 


Makanpai {s, m,) neck* Makan^ai wa di mot kan, dere kisse ma rosara 
ka^ ni break your necky don't talk to me so much. 

Makanpawau {adj\) bull-necked, powerful, Sarkoi* makandawar dai^ de 
cha los na wferrasi^ Oovernment is potoer/ul, nobody can 
contend with it, lit. nobody's hand reaches it. 

Makar {s, m) deceit, 

Makarjan (adj.) deceitful, 

MaKs («. m,) (I) face, Khpnl ma^ ye pet kan, he hid his face. 
D£ khwo ta ma^ ma arawa^ do not turn your face in this 
direction, (2) presence. De mo pa makh kshe dase ma 
wyaiya, do not say so in my presence, (3) front, £ mo 
wulma che rotan ze ye wa ma^ ta wferritghlaiiy when 
my guest came 7 went to meet him. Da kor mi es pa makh 
kerai dai, I have set this work going, started it, lit. I have 
put it in front of me {as if to drive it), Ghun^6 ramme ghle 
pa makh krf, the robbers started driving off all the flocks, 
lit. put all the flocks in front of them. (4) things, gear, 
De kor makh, household stuff, furniture, 

MaQa (?*f^ (0 direction, De kari darycb pa ma^a teok na poez^i^ 
no one understands the direction, i.e. topography, of the 
ocean, (2) competition, comparison,* Sarkor sara makha 
nishta, there is no contending with Government. (8) oppor^ 
tunity, possibility. Makha na winan^ 1 see no possible way, 

MaKHAMAEB {adj, and adv.) (I) facing, opposite. Ma^amakh robondi 
or roghai. he came upon me from opposite, i.e. met me. (2) in 

MiQPA- the presence, without concealment, openly. Che makhamakh 

MAffl che tee wyaiy6, agha wyaiya ; pa tset ma wyaiya^ whatever 

you {can) say openly, that say ; say nothing behind the back, 

Makhavab {adj.) influential, popular, Ma^awriz dai de hakim zokha^ 
or de nor ^alk Bhammar pe shi^ he has influence with the 

Makhavbiz authorities {and) can obtain benefits for other people, 

Ma^lik {s, mj) people, 

Ma^bbz^ {s.f. pi.) brains, Dolata mal^ez^ ma gerzawa, do not potter 
about here, lit. do not carry your brains around here, 

Mahitorai {adj\) disgraceful, lit. blackfaced. Makhtorai sarai dai, 
lauz ye nishta^ he is a disgraceful fellow, his promise is 
worth nothing. 

MAKBTOBf {s.f,) disgrace. De mo ma^tori ye wukrela, he dis grace i 

Mal See Malgebai. 

MaIjAM {s, m,) ointment, Malam kshez^da, apply an ointment, 
MaIiANQ (*. m,) poor wandering fakir, religious beggar.. 


Maloerai («. f».) companion^ one accampanj^inff. Malgen mi wolata 

or Mal host di, my party are eitting over there. 
MaloIoitia {9./,) eompanionskip. Eaduik mti sara malgfertia ma ka^ 
do not keep company with a man of had character. 

Malik! («./.) (1) being a malik^ position of headman. (2) maliii, 

headman's allowance. 
Malmal {s, m.) muslin, 
Majcoi {s./.) momiaiy a mineral substance Hie resin, Mamol de 

Kat&rkhona pa teka kehe 4^rsk do ; murghon na y6 prezj^di 

au Wazir j6 ^wuri de dori pa i^iol, there is much momiai 

on the Katarkhana ridge ; the big birds will not leave it 

alone and the Waziris eat it, as a medicine. 
Man {s. m.) maund. Finza manna glialla pa por rokerye do^ he has 

given me 5 maunds of graint on loan. T|d manna di ? how 

many maunds are there ? 
Mana \s,f^ meaning^ sense, De d^ moml^ ^ mana do ? what is the 

meaning of this affair ? 
Mandat See Madat. ^ ^ 

Mandetta (*./.) kind of fruit and fruit-tree ^ mandetta, UViMt^S MW%6M4C4 

Manp {s, m.) (1) track, foot-mark, Mand wahelaa she ? can you track ? iWwl 
Pa mand pas^ drimi, they are following up the tracks. 

Manpa (*. /.) running, Plor ye wir man4a krel, his father ran, 
lit. made running, tankards him. Pa manda lor sha, run 
off with you. D^re mancje mi kery^ di^ / have run much, 
lit. made many runnings. 

Manpau {s. m.) furnace. De Dinore mandaa 4^ dXj the Dinars have 
many furnaces. 

Manp^yi {s.f.) mandi, market-place. 

Mangos {s, m.) large turban, exaggerated head'dress, De M&nki MuIIo 
pa shan mandoB & wakelai dai^ he has put on his head a big 
pagri like the Manki Mullahs, 

Mar£ ifidj) stopped^ prevented. Wudi pa wucha ze yS manj kran, 
he hindered me without rhyme or reason. 

M2j7£ {adv^ as it were, so to say, well. De mo da matlab dai eke 
mane da kissa wa wukan^ my meaning is that, well, I will 
do it. 

Mansl {v, reg, tr) to admit, acknowledge, recognise, regard as. Hukm 
na mani, he does not recognise the order, i.e. is not obedient, 
Shegerra ye manan^ 1 acknowledge his favowr^ i.e. am 
indebted to him. Neti j6 manan^ / acknowledge his kindness, 
i.e. am grateful to him. De to e plor pa barakat ze manan^ 


/ own your fatier u a prosperous mem, Ke ^pul gucft 
manelai na wai nor wa kaid shewai na wan^ ^ he had not 
confessed his crime he would not have been imprisoned. 

Mangab («. m.) November* Mangar fasal^ the autumn harvest. 

Mangassai See Bangassa, 

MangIib {s. m.) snake. De mangare da ^^r ghorina kessa^ look at all 
these snake-holes. 

Mangwla {s.f.) heavy bracelet with raised work. 

Mangwtjl («./.) claWi talon, naiL Mangwule mi wSrsara wulagawelye, 
/ had a quarrel with him, lit joined daws with Mm. 

Mani (*•/•) semen. 

Manjarai (s.f.) charpoy, bedstead {of a superior kind). 

Manjiza {s. f.) miracle. Manjiza bzerg jawata k|a» the saint worked, 

lit. displayed, a miracle. 
Mankor {adj) refusing, denying, recalcitrant, 


Makra (s. /.) (1) apple. (2) apple-tree. 

Manrbssa (s./.) present given to bride by her own family, {d Waziri 
or bride lives with her husband for two months then returns to 

Manretsa her parents^ house for one month ; the mafiressa is given on 
her final departure from her own family.) 

Mantar {s. m.) (1) verse of Kuran. (2) spell, charm. Pferion pa 
mantar bandawi, they stop {the action of) fairies by means 
of a charm. 

Mane («. i».) middle. De irdl pa manz kshe ^er kshelai bog^ dai^ 

there is a lovely garden in the middle of the eamp. Pa manz 

ksh^^ between. De dw^sard pa manz kfihe rota tee parkh na 

molimlzhi, no difference between the two is apparent to me. 

{adv^ in the middle. Manz wnla^ shoot at the centre. 

Manzgarai (*. m) mediator, 


Manzola {s.f.) bird^s nest. 

Mar (*. i«.) dower. 

-MiR Of {s. m) (1) string for leading camel. (2) stud in caimeVs nose to 

Mayor which leading-string is attached. 

Marai (*•/•) (1) tiroat regarded externally. Marai ji ghutsa ka, 
halol y^ ka, cut its throat, halal it. (2) windpipe, gullet, 
channel in neck. De ^anawar dw£ marai di, jawa € sia 
marai do, de marai do ; yawa ghwutta de sayl marai do^ 
an animal has two tubes in its neck^ one is the red tube, for 
food ; and one is large, for breath. 


Marakka {i>f) (1) tribal council^ assembly, meeting for deciding affairs 
of public interest, £ shp^ marakka wuki, toe will take 
counsel together over-nigkt. (2) ordinary consultation, dis- 

Marawwar {adj\) displeased, discontented, sulky. Malikon marawwar 
shwel, ghund lotel, tAe maliks were vexed and all of them 
went away, 

Mardor {adj^ (1) that has died a natural death and is consequently 
unfit for food in the Muhammad an religion, carrion. (2) 
otherwise defiling or defiled. Los mi mardor di^ my hands are 

Marg («. i».) death. 

Marsea {s.f) bird. S^margh margha pa Kaikup ghar kshe osT^ the 
{fabulous) griffin-bird inhabits the mountain of K. 

Marsh Ai {s.f) bird {any small kind). 

Marohalara {s. /.) pearl. 

Margse {s. m.) bird {any large kind), 


Maryai {s. m.)^slave. Sara pa Ad ghar kshe mreTna Wi; es mreitob 

Mary^ya {s.f) J na wateli di, formerly there were slaves in Anghar j 
• now they have passed out of the state of slavery. 

Marat («./.) (1) bread {of any kind of grain). Khamira marai, 
leavened bread, Losi marai. unleavened bread. Ghora 
marai^ pastry. (2) food of any sort, any meal. Marai mizh 
khwarely^ do, we have eaten our meal. De hfikim khars e 
mizh marai do, the expenses given us by government officers 
are our daily bread, Sabo marai, breakfast, morning meal* 
Wega mai^ij supper, evening meal, 

Mardakai {s, m.) bullet, 

Mar^dei, (r. reg, intr-) to be sated, satisfied. Nandorchi sarai pa 
nandora hech^re na m^zhi, a sight-seeing {or inquisitive^ 
man is never sated with sight-seeing, 

Mas See Mbs. 

Masala (*./.) legal question, De shariat masala, point of Muham^ 
madan law, 

Masin or {adj.) made of brass or copper, Masin loshi^ brazen or copper 
MiSHiN vessels. 

MaskIr {s, m.) discussion^. Nen mo sara maskir wuka, ohe sabo hySi 

gila k^ ze wa na wumanaa, discuss {the matter) with me to^* 

day, {then) to-morrow if you complain I will pay no attetim 



Maslat {s. m.) contnltation. Maslat saxa da kor waka^ do this work in 

Masmok {s, m,) native tooth-brush , Masmoki gnta^ tooth-brmh finger^ i.e. 
first finger of hand. 

Mashahib [adj.) famous^ celebrated, 

Mashakkat («. m,) labour, toil. Mashakkat ghund barbod shan^ all the 
hard work was wasted. 

MlsHAL {s. m,) any artificial light, lamp, electric light, etc. Mashal 
ghundi bal^zhi. it shines Hie a lamp. 

Mashel {v. reg. tr.) (1) to churn. Shez6 gharekk^ maehelye di, the 
or women have churned the leather skins {of milk). (2) to 

Mazhel hatch. Yowye sbelama vrez mashelye 8hv eggs are hatched 
on the twentieth day. (8) to wipe, rub. Kitob pa rimol 
wumasba^ wipe the book with a handkerchief. Pa losina 
sobin wumaz^a^ rub, i.e. wash, your hands with soap. Wos 
pa wosbe wumazba^ rub the horse down with grass. (4) to 
thresh. Ke shele mashelye wi nor poli zene wuka^ if the 
rice has been trodden out on the threshing-floor then make it 
into sheaves. 

Mashghil {adj.) engaged in conversation, happy, amused. Gbtind mizh 
mand wukhi^uri maghghil sbi^ let us all feast and be joyful. 

Mashghilo {s. f.) conversation, social enjoyment. Ghunde mashgbilo 
shiri krela^ they all began to be merry. 

Mashika («./.) beak of bird. 

Mashkanbai (*. m) coarse yellow kind of grass. 

Mashkaney^ (*•/•) ^^tfw bead. 

Mashmonbi («./.) ink-bottle. 

Mashom («. m) evening, night-fall. Mashom rawo dai, shima wukh- 
wura, {at) evening {it) is lawful, break the fast. 

Masht {s. m.) dancing, dance. 

Mast {adj.) (1) in a state of sensual excitement, rutting. (2) gay, spirit 
ted. M ast sarai w^agh ta wyaiyi che de tir^ pa akhtiyor gerzi^ 
him they call a gallant who makes his way by the sword. 

Masti («./0 *^^^^ ^ being mast q. v. 
MashOka {s. /.) lady-love, mistress. 

Matal {adj.) stopping, halted. De cha pa jamma matal we ? at whose 
guest-house did you stop ? ^o shpe matal w6 ? how many 
nights did you halt ? Mataledelai na shan^ I cannot stay. 
Matalawa ye ma^ do not detain him. 


MatIl {s. m.) proverb. He Wazir£ da yo matal dai che ^^nigby^ 
peaba de mzen sara Jang ko^ it ii a proverb of the Waziri^ 
that ^^a hungry eat will fight with a lion/' 

Matiaz:^ ( *. /. pi.) urine, 

Matlab («. m.) (1) intention. Matlab j6 de shkor dai^ B&kor wa wuki, 
his intention is to shoot, he will go shooting, (2) objects 
De hakim matlab d& dai che har eh^rta karori shi^ the object 
qf the ruler is that there should be peace everywhere, 

^-"^ HN ^" 1 (^^-^ -J self'seeitng, interested. 

Matraba {s./.) raiti* Matrab& ye pa mo na siyeta na wa^ his ranh wa9^ 
or not higher than mine. 


Matboka (s. f.) short-handled whip for riding. 

Mat ( s, m) very large water-Jar, Marina pa Baimi ksh^ jore^i ;. 
pa Tochi kshe na jor^zhi^ '^ miUs " are made in Bannu ; they 
are not made in Tochi, 

Matai (*. m,) large water-jar, Matai pa So Khfl, pa Idak^ pa Khiddi, 
pa Darpa Kh^l kshe jorezhi, " matais *' are made at S. K,^ 
L, K, and B. K. 

Matak {s, m) walnut. 

Matikai (s, m) d^culty. Myfer pa matikai ^atelai wan> the sun^ 
or Matai h^ scarcely risen, lit. had risen with difficulty, 

Matiz (adj,) eloping. Lit ye de cha sara matiza shwa, his daughter 
ran away with someone or another. 

M ATX AT (s, m.) shoulder-piece of native tunic. 


Mazab (s, m.) religion. Fa mazab kshe dase dai^ according to religion 
such is the case, 

Mazal («. m,) (1) distance, De Wargin mazal dfer dai, it is a tony' 
way to Urgun. (2) stage. £ Banni p^ri ^o mazal di ? how 
many marches is it to Bannu ? 

Mazbit {adj^ (1) powerful {man, animal). (2) strong, Sharop mazbit 
d[, the liquor is strong, 

Mazdak {s. m.) mosque* 

Mazebbai {s. m.) dwarfpalm. Fa largi mazerri guzran j6 dai, his 

livelihood is {gained) by {dealing in) firewood and dwarfs 


Mazshilo («. /.) i conversation, Nen mi wfemara ^htsk mazciiilo wukn^ 
1 had a long talk with him to-day. 


Mazza {s. /.) (1) taste J flavour. (2) pleasure , liking, £ Kalkatt^ 
tsangra mazza do ? t< Calcutta a nice place ? 

Mazh («, OT.) male of sheep ^ ram. {called, with reference to age, wrai 
up to 6 montis, wuchkil to 1 year, psli^rl to 8 years, darsh^rl 
to 3 years, and kharwarg a/ter 3 years.) Da sarkor mazh 
dai^ pa makh ksh6 drimi^ that is tie chief ram of the fioeh, he 
goes in front. De ghre mazh^ mountain^sheepy i.e. oorial. 

Mazhel See Mashel. 

Mazhwai («. m^ peg of any sort. De diwola, de k^^me^ de ghebal 
maz^wai^ peg in wall, tent-peg, peg on threshing floor. Do 
dre mazhwai dzoi dai^ there is room for three pegs. 

Ma^y£tin (s. m.) ant-hill. 

Mbch {s. m) fly. 

Mechai (*./.) honey-bee. 

M^CHAN (*./.) hand'mill. M&hane kshe jglialla wonti, they grind 
grain in hand-milts. 

Mechgsabinai {s. m.) chowry, fly^flap. 

Mbohiprong (9. m.) spider, lit. fiy^eopard, 

Mechkai See Matkai. 

MAn {adj') soft {cloth, etc.). 

M^m {s, »•) nail {iron). 

M£la {s, f,) {1) halt. Lashkarpand slian^melay^ wnkra^^A^ /o^^i^ar 
closed up and halted. Dre vreze mi wolata mela wukra, 
I halted there for 3 days. (2) halting-place , quarters. De 
jMfachi Kh^le de z^emi m^ Shh^talai do^ Sheratalai is the 
winter-quarters of the Machi Khels. (8) place. Malik 
khpula de nosti m^ pi^shye do^ the headman has given up 
his old sitting-place. 

MfiLAi {s. m.) pestle for crushing barley, Meli khass de tizie wT, 
barley-crushers are invariably made of stone, De meli 
ghmidi sar di wuch sha ! may your head be dried up Hie a 

M^LAWA {s.f) (1) vine, (2) grape. 

Mblkhai {s. m.) locust. £ mo til melkhi ^warelai dai^ the locust has 
devoured my green crops. 

Menai {s. m,) autumn. De men! wa^t agha mi^ byeli che juwore 
lauina ga^^i^ u>e call that autumn^time in which tie 
reaping of the maize begins. 


M^NDOB («. m.) Waziri dance. M^ndorina de Nendor^ pa Vrez wi^ pa 
Kam Yid han^ pa Ster baa ; ^alk ga4^i« tipakina khalos- 
awi| Waziri dances take place on the '^ Show Bay '' hoth at 
the Small and at the Great Id ; the people dance and fire off 

Menpa^ See MoNpAy. 

MiittA {?'/) step-mother. 

M^RANAi {adj.) on the mother^s side. Meranaiy^ t^rpra^ female cousin 

through mother. 
Mi:BMON {adj\) hind, gracious. Pa safai pa mo bondi d^r jn^mon dai, 

that man is very good to me, Khndai to mermonawi^ God 

make you kind {to me), 

MkRMONi (*./.) kindness, 
or MiiaMONQi 

Mer (^^0 (1) dead. Yish mi mer dai^ my camel is dead,, 
(2) inanimate. Mra dunyo^ dead stock. . 

Mer {s. m) (1) corpse. Yo mer, dfer mre pa Ijar kshe prote wi, a 
corpse, many corpses, were lying in the road. (2) death. Nen 
pa keli kshe yo mer, d6r mre shewi di, to-day a death^ many 
deaths, have taken place in the village. (8) blood-feud. 
Mre gu4 shta ? any deaths and woundings ? i.e. have you 
any llood-feuds ? De mr^ gudde chesktan dai, he is the 
owner of deaths and woundings, i.e. has blood-feuds, 

Merai {s. m.) (1) corpse^ dead man. Pa yagh ghundaki bondi yo 
merai shakh dai, a corpse is buried on the top of that hillock. 
(2) blood-feud. Pa mizt bondi der meri di^ there are many 
blood-feuds against us, 

MiiRANAi {adj^ good. Lyar ^o dase m^raim na do, the roq/d however is 
not so very good» De dagh Bari pa^tan d^r meranai dai, der pa 
pakhtan ksbe meranai dai, the cooking of this man is very 
good, he is very good est cooking. 

Mere {s. m.) (1) manly man. Mhre sarai dai, he is a brave feUov>, 
(2) husband. (3) bridegroom, 

Mermandai {s. m.) wrist. 

MfeRONA {s.f) manly conduct , gallantry. Sha m^rona ye wukra che 
khpiila merosha sheza ye mra kra, he behaved like a man in 
putting to death his unfaithful wife. 

MiiROSHA [odj.f.) adulterous {used of a woman who runs away with another 
man while her original husband is alive) . 

Mbry^stIn {js. m.) graveyard. Pa yagh mery^etin kshe gabrina der di, 
there are many graves iti that cemetery. 


Mbs or («. «.) lead. Mes p^st sbai wi, lead u a ^oft substance, lit. 
Mas lAin^, Da de meee gelai df^ lies^ are had bullets^ 

Mesh is. «».) 1 , ^ , 

Mesuba (*. m.) herdsman ofbnffatoe^^ 


MbsHeb. {adj\) (1) oWer, elder. (2) ^W^^^. Mesher zyai^ elder, or eldest^ 
son. (S) senior,, having precedence, elder, 
{s. m.) £ to de pshe mesher teok d^f ? who is the principal 
man of your tribal sectiofi ? Mesheron prezhdai che kiss^ 
wuko^ let the elders speak. 

Mbshbeona {s. /.) grant or assignment enjoyed by an elder to support his 
position. Pa Tochi ksli6 zare mesherone shta au nevye 
nishta^ ancient grants to elders exist in Tochi but there are 
no recent ones. 

Mesukekb [s. m) sort of reed. 

Meskai (adj.) smiling. Sarai meskai sEan, the man became smiling, Le. 

Mesk^dbl {v. reg. infr.) to smile. 

Met (s. m.) upper-arm. Weld towiz di pa met Wahelai dai ? tohy 

have you stuck an amulet on your arm ? 
M£t (*. ««.) a plant, mot. 

Mbtta {s. m.) (1) pillar. De kete metta, pillar {in middle) of room 
{supporting roof) . (2) stem, trunk, of tree. 

M£wa {s. f.) fruit. Mewa kism kism do, fruit is of various kinds. 

MifizA (*./.) (1) leather stocking. (2) English long boots. Pa fire 
or wukogha, m&e pa pshe ka, take off your shoes and put on 

MiZA your riding boots. 

Mbzzai {s. m.) (1) thread. Khat mi pa mezzi gandelai dai, / have 
sewn the tunic with thread. (2) string, cord. Pa mezzi yd 
wutara, tie it up with string. (3) slow-match. De mezzi 
tipak, match-lock gun. (4) wick. De teirogh mezzai,,/tf«y»- 

{adj.) (1) twisted. Rimol e mezzai kan, he twisted up the 
handkerchief (2) turned. De ribob mazhwi ye mezzi 
krel, he turned the screws of the mandoline. (3) wrenched. 
£ mo de los na khpul los yd mezzai kan, he wrested his own 
hand from mine. (4) strong, Mezzai sarai, a wiTfy man, 
M^ZHAi {s, m) ant. Sir mdzhai, red ant. Tor mezhai, black ant, 
MfAy {s, m,) Mian, man of a family descended from a hvly personage, 
De Tochi ster Mian Almar Mian dai, the great Mian of 
Tochi is Mian Anwar. 




MuNoibBL (r. reg. inir.) to mew. 

Mian! See Mion!. 

MiLAi (*./.) radisl, 

MiUBAB {fi.m) pulpit, Mimbar agha wi a^wund che UatM pe wyalyi; 
the pulpit is that upon which the priest {stands when he) 
pronounces the khutba. 

MiNA {f'f) love, affection. Fa j^pul woe bondi dka mina ko, he is 
very fond of his horse, Dest yfi dai^ mina w^rspa dfera do, 
he is hisfriendi he is much attached to him. 

MiKDA («•/*•} (1) respite. L'egbki mmda ^o roka cbe jurm pr^kan^ 
give me a little extension (f time that I may pay the fine, 
{%) interval^ allotted time. Fa da minda kshe wa da char 
wushi^ the business can. be finished within that period, 
(3) time.y generally, D^ra minda watelyiS do^ much time has 
elapsed, Be-minde^ out of {proper) time, .unseasonably. 

MiNDEL {v, irr. tr.) to find. Da ripai pa lyar ksh^ mi.mindelje do, 
I found this rupee on the road.. Moka mi lya mindelye na 
do, I have not yet found an opportunity, 

MiNOPEK {adj^ unreliable, Minopek sarai dai, pa khwole yawa wi^ pa 
zre yi£ bela wi ; ^ gli da kl^pnla wi ! he is an untrustworthy 
many one {thing) on his lips, a different {thing) in his heart; 
leave him to himself ! 

MiNOUA {e»f) minaret, 

Mion {s, m.) meanwhile. Fa dagha mion keh^ bel earai roghai, 

in the meanwhile another man arrived. 
MiOKA {adj.) medium, middle-sized {man, horse, etc.)^ 
MiONi {s*f) long purse, De Wazir^ de mionai na ripai na wiizi, pori 
or sha^e shi che Sarkor zen6 jurmone ghwon^ the money will 
MiANi not come cut of the Waziris* long purses, it sticks tight 

when Government demands fines of them, 
MiBAi {s. m.) one anna, 
MiBAi {s. m.) badragga fees, transit dues, payment levied from 

a strange caravan passing through tribal country on pretext 

of a/rr anting for its protection. 

MiBAGH {s, m.) pepper. Sir mixsuah, red pepper. Tor mirtich. Hack pepper, 
MiBGAi {s, m) epilepsy. Mirgi y6 niwelai dai, he is in a fit, 
MiKOS {s. m.) inheritance, Wa k^pul zei ta de miros na hete na di 
wferkeri, he has given nothing out of the inheritance to 
Ms own son, i.e. he has disinherited his son, De nuros mi 
mzeka do, it is my hereditary land. 
M-iBOSi {adj.) hereditary, inherited. 






{s, tn,) (1) extinction of all tie tnalei of a family, (Si) laf%ing 

of an inkeritane^ in default of any near male relative^ 

Mirot y« shan, mol y6 warie ta mirot sh|kn, no male of Ms 

family remained ati'o^ a^ liepropertji paned by default to 

a (distant) heir. 

MiSALi (*, f,) (1) prayer-carpet y apace in mosque occupied by a single 
worshipper, De Dili ster jamaat ksh^ 4wa zera gwnshy^ 
gwushye misale likely^ we, in the big mosque at Delhi there 
were 2fl00 separate places for worshippers marked out. 
(2) succession, Gidob Din Mullo mer dai,. zyai' ye pa mi8al» 
nost dai. Mullah Gulab Din is dead and his son has succeeded 
him, De Sadd^ Khon pa mis&l& bond! DSiiide keh^nost^ 
D. succeeded S^K. 

MiSfiiN See Masin. 

MisoL (s, m,) (1) resemhhtnce. De woff pa itA'Bf^ ^, it resembles a 
horse, (2) clue, direction, Misol y^ d& dai, che malik pa 
daee wakht kfapul pati ksh^ wi, this will be a guide {to you 
namely) f that ai sueh a time as this the headman is generally 
in his own field, 
(adv.): (1) only. Mitlak 6 to Da damra minda ghworan. 
/ only want you to give me so much time. (2) certainly, 
assuredly. Mutlak wa "y6 rowran, most certainly I will 

MuTLAKAN bring it. (3) altogether, absolutely, Mutlak inkori dai, 
mutlakan inkor y^ ko, he altogether denies it^ he denies it 
out and out,. 

MisoFSE See Musofib. 

MiTAi (*. m) (1) closed fist. Los mitai ka, clench your hand'. 

(2) hilt, De chord mitai, dagger-handle. (3) instalment. 

Pa yawa miti ye w^rka, pay it in one instalment.. 
MizA See M£za. 

MizH (pron.) See Ornmmar, pages^ 14 and 15^. 
Mla (s, f) small of back. De mle hadikai^ backbone. (2) waist. 

De mle \i]p&k, pistol, lit. waist-gun, (3) loins^, Ghund kelai 

mla tari, the whole village are girding up their loins^ i.e. 

getting ready for action. £s Tori Khel pa Mahsid pase tola; 

tari, the Tori Khels me preparing to attach the Mahsuds. 

Mlatakelai (s, m,) fighting-man, lit. loin-girt, Pk dd kom kshe ml&- 
tareli sari ^fer di, there are many fighting men in this tribe. 

MoGHSiTAN (s, m) night-fall, time of the last prayer. Moghsitan wole- 
slu cbe stori pa asmon kshd lida shi, it is the time of the lasf 
prayer when the stars become visible in the shy.. 

MoGEZE («. ^0 marrow., 




MoKA (*./.) opportunity. 

MoL («. m.) (1) property f lelongingi. Sar mol mi pa to jar shan, my 
head, i.e, life, and property are devoted /or you. (2) articlee 
in kind. Nim mol wol^a nim sakd^ ripai wo^la, take half 
in kind and half in cash. (3) cattle. D& de kdi de mol de 
p€wan6 dsoi dai, that is the place where the village cattle 

MoLDOK {adj^ wealthy. 

MoLGA («./.) 9alt. 

MoiJm (adj^ (1) known. Fata wa de ta molima na shwa, the clue did 
not become known to him, i.e. he could not find out anything 
about it. Mo ta molim na w6 che aj^a de mo ashno to mer 
daij I did not know [you] that it was by you my lover was 
killed. (2) seeming^ Shabara dase molima shwa^ such 
seemed to be the case. Banzir molun^i, he appears ill. 

MoLiMBSHT {s. m.) knowledge. De d6 ^abar£ molimesht sanka dai> it 
is easy to find out all about this matter. 

MoMiN {adj.) straightforward. Momin sarai dai, darwegh na wyaiyT^ 
he is an honest man, he does not tell lies. 

MoMLAj {s>f) (0 affair. D^ra ajiba momla do, it is a very strange 

MovLA business. Tse momladowadirosarado ? Kho rokawaj w/ia£ 

or claim have you against me ? no, you pay me. (2) claim. Da 

MowLA bar largai de mo dai^ pa da largi mi movla do^ mo sara niikh 

wulara, lya pa Shara lya pa Pashto, that upper stick is mine, 

I claim it, settle with me in the usual way^ either by 

Muhammadan law or by Pathan custom. 

•MoNDAy {s. m.) branch of a tree. ^ 



MonIai (*./.) tower. 

Mob {f> m,) seal. Ghunde morina lagaweli di, they have all set 
their seals to it.. 

MoR {s.f.irr.) mother, 'pp Gbun^aideMahsidedemor kor dw. Tip 
or Hill is the mothei^s house of the Mahsuds, i.e. their raiding 

Mi^a gangs are as much at home there as if it half belonged to them. 

TAoT ^lor^ parents. De khpul zaizod pazbaro mor plor she 
peyezbi, parents well understand the sorrows of their children, 
lit. the weeping of their offspring. 

Mo&CHA {s. /.) hreastwork, fortification^ sangar. Morclia ye wuniwela, 
they manned the parapet. , 



MoRGA («• y.) edge^ rim, Nora tikala pa^a do, morga ye yima do, 
the rest of the ehapatti is baiedj the cireumferenee is still 
doughy* De kamar de morg^ na pa teefc sha^ parte wa slie^ 
keep hack from the edge of the precipice^ you will fall over. 

Mob ipdj* »Vr.) satisfied^ sated. Damra mor yan che wa zeri ta zfe mi 
na shT^ lam so replete that I have not a mind even for a crumb, 

MosHjL (*./.) hammer of gun. 

MosT£ (s. m. pL) curds. Yo sarai shode sewai wan, moBte y6 p! 
kawBl^ a man was burned by {drinking hot) milk, {so the 
next time) he blew on curds {to cool them). (Waziri proverb.) 

Mot ifldj) (1) broken. Wega de Indiki kor ghl^ mot kerai daij 
thieves broke {into) the Hindu* s house last night. He- 
chfere de to hukm mi mot kerai na dai^ / have never broken 
your command. (2) finished. Rosba nen mota sliwa^ the 
Fast came to an end to-day. (8) forfeited. Zominti& 
mota shwa^ the security was confiscated. (4) torn in pieces. 
Mzarai wa di motawi, the lion will rend you. 

Mota (*•/•) breach. Mota mi wa diwola ta wferkery^ do, / have 

-y ^ made a hole in the wall. 
MoTABAB {adj.) respectable, influential. Motabar malik dai, he is a 

malik of position. 
MoTAWiNAi {adj) (1) breakable. Sliisha motawinai sliai dai, glass is a 

brittle thing, {t) breech-loading with drop'banl^ls {as a 

shot'^un or Webley revolver). 
MoTBABA See Matbaba. 
Mows {s. m.) a plant^of which the ashes are mixed with chewing 

tobacco. fcUh 

See MoMLA. 




[Moz] (*. m. in composition) prayer^ time of prayer. Mozp&hmi 
mozdigar^ moz^utan^ time of early afternoon, late after* 
noon, evening, prayer. 

Mb^itob {s. m) slavery. 

"M-ifEL ♦ {v. irr. intr.) to die. Plor ye che mredan nor wa khpul 

zei ta wassiyat nasihat 4 wukan, when the father was dying 

he gave directions and advice to his son, 

Muajab {s. m.) tribal allowance, subsidy. 

MuKABBAMA (*./.) (1) casc, civil dispute. (2) battle, fighting, Mukad« 

dama sara wnkra^ so they had it out. 

Mukbiba {s.f) graveyard. 


MuktIdI («. m.) one §cio prays imnrediatefy behind ike Mulla. MvMo 
ma|^ pa toet ^ea mukt&dionJ ta roworawij iAe Mullah 
iums round {and/aeeij tou>ardi the tnuktadis^ 

MrXH^^LiF {adj\) /ahe. Mukhalifa kissa do^ it is an untrue statement. 

MdEBlib {adj. and S. «.) sincere, devoted {person). Mukhlis mi dai, 
he is my true friend. 

MulakIt {f. m.) (1) visit. De ^pul d^et wa mttlatsLt ta tlelai wan, 
I had gone to visit my friend. (2) interview. Gwoslud 
mulftkat, private interview. 

MulImat {s. m. generally used as adj.) to blame, at fault, guilty. Mula- 
mat na yan^ / am not in the wrong. Mo mulamat kawi^ he 
blames me. Ke ch& mulamat d^rta wejeli wi, if any one 
has found fault with you. Hakim yo sarai mulamat kaa, 
the judge found one man guilty, convicted him. 

MiJLlhzA {s.f) considerate treatment, hind behaviour. 

MuiK {s. m.) (1) land, fields. Mulk mi pafira kersd dai^ / have 
watered my land. (&) country. Be Shoip^rai mulk clia 
Iideliu na dai, no one has seen the country of the fairies. 

MuLLO \f. m^ Muhammadan priest. Darsi mnllo^ mullah who oceu' 
pies himself in teaching. Ken ster wa^t de mnllo pa 
boDig roj^ai; to-day he came very early in the morning at 
the time qf the multah^S call to prayer t, 

MuNKiR*'iVtf Mankoe. 

MuKSiFFf {s, f.) arbitration. Jon! KhflS Bakka Khfle wa mnnsiffi ta 
ze botelai 'wan, the Jani Khels and the Bakka Khels 
carried me off to arbitrate. Dfer^ munsi&i mi kery£ di, 
/ have often acted aS arbitrator, lit. done many arbitrations. 

MuBAD {s. m.) intention, wish. £ mo da mniftd dai che de mo 
spoiesht wnke, what I mean is th fit you should recommend me. 

MiiBDA]9|0R {adj) profane, irreligious, lit. carrion-eating. 

MvEGiSE See Mabsse. 

MueId {s. m.) disciple, follower. De A^wund Sahib miiridon pa 
Tochi ksW d&r di, there are many followers of the Akhund 
of 8w4ti in Tochi. 

MosopiR («. m.) traveller. £ wora war^del kessa^ e musopir tlel kessa^ 
or travellers must proceed without minding weather, lit. behold 

MisopEE the raining of the rain, behold the going of the traveller. 

MtrsopiEi (*.y.) travel, travelling. 

JklusULHON («. «n.) Muhammadan. Aorangzeb Badska ret Bnsulmon 
or wan^ the Emperor Aurangzeb was ii bigoUd Muham- 

BusuLMON madan. 


MusuLMOKi {9, /,) MiAiammadanUm, Kibla .de Musulmoiud pa hakk 

or ksh^ bzergi lari, the west is sacred io Muhammadansf 

BusuLMONi lit. the west possesses sacredness in respect of Muham^ 

MuTLAK . See Mitlak, . 


Mtasai (s. mJ) mosquito. 

Myasht {s, f) (1) moon. Myasht tandar niwely^ do^ the moon is 

eclipsed. (2) month, De Tar^6 pa myasht, in the month 

of Felrnarjf. 
My^r {s. m) (1) sun, My^r khatelai dai, the sun has risen, 

(2) sunshine, My^r pa ghnnd watan rang shanj the sunlight 

was diffused over all the landscape. See LmI:r. 

Myezh {s,f,) sheep. [See Mazh. The technical names for females of 

the corresponding ages are wraiye, wuchkila^ pehferla^ dar- 

sh^la and kharwarga.) 

MzABAi {s. m) lion, tiger, Ke mzaxai robondi pesh wai mot wa ye 

or MzEBAi wan, if the lion, or tiger, had come upon me he would have 

torn me in pieces, E mzari gherOj the lion's roar. 

MzEKA {s*f) (1) land, Mzeka mi pa shariki wSrke^i do, I have 
given out the land to a cultivator. (2) ground. Mzeka 
wukanna, dig the ground, Wahelyfi mzeka, ground that 
has been dug, lit. smitten. 

MzEKAi See Mzakai. 

MzHAK or {s, m) . rat. Mzbak de gbor na rowot^ yish y^ pa psha 
MzHEK tniniwan, de ^warok depora pa ghor ye nennayest, the 
rat came out of his - hole, seized tie camel by th6 leg and 
dragged him into, the hole {to be used) for food. 

M^EKiEAi (9. m.) young rat, 

Na {adv. and conj.) no, not, neither . . , nor, Na to manan, na agha 

manao, I mind neither you nor him, Na, raWo, no, if you do 
not mind my saying so {polite form of denial) , 

Na (p^^P*) See Grammar, pages 12 and ^9^ 

Na^'d. {adj,)lready money fCash*^ Na^d hiBob, cash account. Nagli* 
or de ripai, hard cash* . 

Nakd . ' , 

Na-hakka {adj.) unjust, false {action, saying, oath, etc.). 
Naiyoba, {s.f.) Bamazan, the annual Muhammadan fast. 


NajIm («. m.) aitfologj/. Najim pa ilm ksh^, aeeordin^ to the science 

of aetrology. 
NajImi • («. «.) aitrologer* 
Nakd See Naqad. 

Kakli {adj) imitation, not genuine, NaUi tipak^ a r^e which 

reiemblei one of Hurqpean manufacture, but ii not. 

Nakriz («. m.) dye used for beard, hands and feet. Shez& dekshelwoli 

or depora pa log pa p8h6 nakrizi lagawi^ an sari depora de 

NakrIz! maBhakkat lagawT che los j6 tanU wi klak shi^ women dye 

their hands and feet for the sale of beauty and men for the 

iake of labour, in order that if their hands are soft they may 

become hard, 
Naqashb {s. m.) iron spiie. Na^ashTna ye sarkawel pa yor^ Khan 
or Muhammad wa yish ta wula^awel, h^ts paida na shwa, they 
NAO[iSH made iron sjnhes red-hot in the f re and applied them to Khan 

Muhammad^ s camel, but no good resulted. 

HikiES^iL {s.f.)joie^ NaHir^ ma ka^ do not jest. 

l^A^SHA {s.f) (1) mari, impression^ Pa mzeka de mand na^sha do, 
there is the mark of a foot-print on the ground. (2) marky 
object aimed at. Nakhsha mi wuwfshta^ / hit the mark, 
(3) map, (4) {in Tochi) Anglo-A/ghan frontier, Sarkor de 
earyad pakhsha de Amir sara y^shy^ do^ Government has 
^demarcated its frontier with the Amir, lit. has set down a 
boundary mark with the Amir. (S) token. 

Na-laik {adj,) useless, stupid y bad {only of human beings). 
Nambot {s. m.) white sugar {in slabs), 

Nahi^del {v.reg. intr,), to be named, called, Tsesam^zh^ ? what is your 
name ? Da pnlonkai namddelai dai^ he is called so-and-so. 

JSTana {^*f^ grain of maize or any Hnd of corn, Nane pa bat kshe 
nanlzhf^ the grains are parching in the iron pot. Nan6 zeke 
na nanezhi che shegga sara do^ the grains are not parching 
because the sand is cold. 

Nandiab (*./.) wife of mother^ s brother, 


Nandora See Nendora. 

Nakdorchi {adj^ sight-seeking, curiam, inquisitive, Wa nandorchi sari 
or ta pradai jang lum yid dai, to a sight-seeker tie fighting of 
Landorchi others is half a festival, i,e, the sight of other people fighting 
is almost as good as a holiday to a man who is fond of 
seeing sights. 


Nandbamai {9. /.) Kabuli rupee* Nandramai £s nima ripai shwa^ a 
Nandrami is nota equal to Tialf a {BriHsi) rupee, 

NlNi^DEL (t7. reff. intr,) to be parched. See nana. 

Nanq («. m.) help, countenance, backing. Gfaun^^ de mo nang kan^ 
tiey all took my part. Che pa Tal bondi jnrmona shi nor 
Wudzi Kh^l nang wersara ko^ leke pa chigha kshfe nang ko^ 
loien a fine is imposed on tie village of Tal the Wudzi Khels 
help it {to pay) y just as they help in the pursuit of raiders. 

Nanqa [adj. f.) bringing forth, delivered. Ghwo nanga shwa^ the 
cow calved. Tandai nanga ^wo^ newly calved cow. Zorye 
nanga j^wo^ cow that calved some time since. 

Nanqai (*. m.) cheek. 

Nar or (s. m.) man as distinguished from woman, male of any animal. 
Nee Ner sheze ghund tieli di^ men and women^ all have gone, 
{adj.) brave. Ner sarai dai^ he is a pluciy man. 

Narai {ad;.) (1) thin. Narai largai, thin stick. Narai kawel^ to 
plane down, cut down. (2) Narai wor, fine rain. (3) shal- 
low. Narai ebo^ shallow water. 

Naeai {s. m.) (1) ridge connecting two hills. (2) pass between two 
hills. Arkharawula Nari bondi de (^16 bandar t^ dai^ a 
thieves' track runs over the A., Pass. 

Naegissa {s.f) pomegranate bush. 

Narintob {s. m.) courage. 

Na-rost {adj.) slack, slow. Na-rost sarai pTra kor na ko^ a slack man 
does not do fiill work. 

Nak^del {v. reg. intr.) to bray. Katamir^ Bakhshi Khel, de ^re 
ghundi narezhiy K., B. K., brays like a donkey {in talking). 

Nas {s. m.) belly. Pa nas y6 songa wuwatela, the spear went through 

his belly. Nas khoshki^ diarrhoea. 

Nashtar (*. m,) fir, pine. 

Nasib {s. m.) fate, portion in life. Nasib mi she dai, I am a fortun- 

ate man, lit. have a good destiny* 
Nasihat {s. m.) counsel, advice. Yo nasihat de to na g^woran^ / wish 

you to give me a piece of advice. 
Naskor {adj.) fallen, lying face downwards. Naskdr pr^t dai, he is 

lying on his face. Naskor shan^ he fell forward {as a man 

who is shot or trips in walking). Naskor j€ ka^ throw him 

on his face. 

Naskora («./.) '^endeavouring to put a man down, struggle, wrestle. 
Naskorai {s. m.) J Da dwa tana walat^r shwel, naskorai ye sara krel, 
these two persons grappled and wrestled with each other. 


Nabob. ($, m. pL) 9nuff, De p^z£ nasor di^ de khwul^ kep dai^ de 
ohilam tam&k! di^ ^^^f i^ for the nose, ehetoing-mixture for 
the mouthy and tobacco for the jdj^e. 

Niv («. m.) joti*, matter. Pa p^yawor knhi nftv pet dai, n&r yi 
niwelai dai^ there is matter [concealed] in the wound, it has 
formed pus. 

Nlwl {f.f) damp, moisture, N&wa pa da diwola ksK^ ^atelj£ do^ 
the moisture has risen in this wall. 

Naws or («. m,) lust, passion. 
Nawz * 

Nazab {s, m,) votive offering, Nazar mi pa zijorat y&liai dai^ I laid 
an offering on the shrine. 

Naz^la [s.f) catarrh, mucus. Naz^ j& de pez£ na baiy^zlii^ he has 
a running from the nose. 

Nazir {s. m.) (1) sight. Nazir mi kam dai^ / have had sight. (2) 
aim. Nazir pe wuka^ aim at it. Nazir sam ka^ correct yo^ir 
aim. (3) evil eye. De nazir Da ^9X&^\, he is afraid of the 
evil eye. 

Nazibboz ( s. m^ person who has the evil eye. De cha ghn^ sterge wi ; 
de elia makh sir wi ; de cbft zamen lifita eke na wi ; de cha 
vridzje 8r6 wi^ ya wuzbai tez^ai wi — agiia nazirboz wij 
whoever has light-coloured, lit. green, eyes ; whoever has a 
ruddy, lit. red, complexion ; whoever has no sons or daughters / 
whoever has bright-coloured, lit. red, eyebrows, or is hungry 
{or) thirsty — he has the evil eye. 

Nazikdzoi {s. m.) bach-sight {of rifle.) 



Nazha {adj.) pure, unadulterated. Nazba shaude^ undiluted milh. D& 
gutye naz^a de sre zar^ do^ that is a pure gold ring. Pa 
naz^a spefirsi p^relai kat dai^ it is a bedstead strung with 
newar and nothing else, lit. with unmixed newar. 

Nfe. (adj.) good. Nek amal, meritorious actions. Nek sarai w^agh 
ta wyaiyi ehe bad na ko na ^wasbawi^ de bad na pare^bTj 
a good man is one who neither does evil nor. approves evil, 
{one who) flees from evil. 

N£k {s. m.) compensation paid to settle a blood-feud. Demerinekye 

wokfaest, badal y6 wokfaestai na shan^ he accepted compensa- 
tion for the murdered man, he was not able to take {p. life in) 


— - ■ ■ • '■-- — "•-' — — ■ * 

Nfei (*•/•) (1) iindneH. Ustoz mo sara sha ^woii kery^ do, 
zeke y£ n^ki manan^ the teacher toot great trouble with me, 
therefore I am grateful to him, {2) reconciliation termin^ 
ating a feud, peace. Bya n^ki shewy^ do, since then peace 
has been effected, 

N^KHO {adj,) favourable, well-disposed. De mizb SaUb n^Hio dai, 
the British officer is favourably inclined to us. 

Nella {i'f) large hollow reed. De chilam derwa e nella na shT, 
pipe stems are made from nella reeds. 

Nemma (s. f.) 9th day after death. De nemm6 marai, funeral feast 
on 9th day, 

Nbn {adv.) to-day. Nen sabo, to-day or to-morrow, i,e. some time soon. 

Ke sen sabo wanna Kbudai wukrel pa bog^ ksb^ gulma 
fihca wa sh!^ if God should send rain about this time the 
flowers in the garden will revive, lit. become green. 

Nbndiar See Nandiae. 

Nendoba, (^. f.) (1) sight, spectacle, amusement, De gadawel^ de nen- 
Nakdora, dore zbaj^ ye worw^dan^ he heard the noise of dancing and 
NiND0B4 merriment. Dslb^ nendora mi eb^r£ lidelye na wa, / had 

or never seen such a sight anywhere. (2) looking at, ewamina- 
Landoba tion. Wa sail ta tlelai dai, de watati nendora ko, he has 

gone to take a walk and have a look at the country. 
Nendbor («. f.) husband^s sister, 
Nenna, V 

Nbnkbna, / ^adv) inside, within. E nenna dai, he is inside, i.e. in the 
"P^Nenn ' r house. Dgan&war pa gbor ksh^ nenna werk shan, the 

Qf \ animal disappeared inside its burrow. 

£ Dbnbnna i 

Nenna wisTEL (t?. irr. tr., conjugated like astel), to bring in, take ifi, 

or put in, 

Ner See Nar. 
N£sH {s, m.) long tooth, fang. De mzari nesh de yish pa shan di, 

the fangs of a lion are like {the long teeth of) a camel. 
Newai [adj^ ^^u;. Newai hakim roghai, a new ruler has come. 
Nezd:^ or {adv.) near. Agha rogihai^ wa kor ta nezde shan, he came and 
Nezhd:^ drew near to the house. 
Nezhai {s, m.) sneeze, Nezhai mi wukan^ / sneezed. 
Ne^el {v, reg, intr,) to sneeze, Wu mi n^el^ / sneezed. 
Nginda (*./.) seam, 
KeiSHf DEli {v. reg. intr,) to limp. 




Nqb^n {s. m.) tokeaten bread. 

NsBARAi {9. m.) fire-place, DIgai de nghari na Iir6 ka, take the poi 
or off tie fire place, 

NssESHTEL {v, irr. tr) (1) to roll up, Lyft darai mi ngheBhty^ na do, 
£s wa y6 wunghoran. / have not yet rolled up the floor-elothy 
1 will roll it up presently, (2) to iwallow, Q[handa marai 
j€ pa yawa khshan wungheshtay he bolted the whole of the 
bread at one mouthful, 

Nqhobai [e, m.) pad placed under a water-pot when carried on the head, 

NihIyat [adv^ very, extremely, Kih&yat kharop sarai dai^ he is a very 
bad character, 

(«. m.) (1) nail of human hand or foot, (2) claw of animal. 

{s, «ff.) (1) servant, De malik nikar dai^ he is a servant of the 
main, (2) man in Government employ, Nikarone sara 
hfehfer^ sakhti na ko, he never deals harshly with men in 
Government service, 

NiKARA {s. f) claw, Pesha ma nisa^ pa nikar^ wa di ^wazh ko^ do 
not lay hold of the cat, it will hurt you with its claws, 

{s, f.) Government service, De platafir^ nikari mi kery^ do, 
/ have served in an infantry regiment, 

(s. m,) grandfather {on either side). 

{s. m,) marriage ceremony, Akhwund nikokh tari, the priest 

celebrates weddings, 
{s. m,) dyer. Pa kim nilgar di da ^pnle jom^ rangawely^ di ? 

by which dyer did you get these clothes of yours dyed ? 

[s, m.) navel, 

(adj,) (1) half, Nim ^ars ^0 roka^ allow me half my 
expenses, (2) mid. Nima vrez^ midday, Nima shpa^ mid* 

{s, f.) half chappatti, 

{adj.) mongrel f of mixed breed. See Asil. 

{s, m, pi.) small-shot. Ninaki dwa kisma di, yo de mes^ na di, 

yo de espane che de Dinore pa man^au kshe minda shT, small" 

shot is of two kinds, one of lead, and one of iron that is found 

in the furnaces of the Dinars, 
NiNAWOTY^ {s. f.) nanawati, formal visit to some one's house to beg 

forgiveness or a favour, {Sheep, and in extreme cases women^ 
. accompany the deputation.) Wa kor ta y€ pa ninawoty^ 

wferragb^lan, he went to his house with a nanawati. 










-^rr y 



NiNGEBAi {adj.) imperfect, ineomplete. Ningerai kor wushan, the work 

was not properly finished* 
NiNYf {s.f. pi.) pimpleSj eruption. K^vi ninyl, small-pox, De 

mnye do(^^ pock-mark. 
Nio («./. irr.) (1) grandmother. (2) old woman. 

NiOMAT {s.m.) (I) delicacy. Har kism mi niomat U^warelai dai^ / have 

eaten every sort of delicacy. (2) luxury. Pa ghnnde 

niomatme ksh^ de sterg^ nazir she niomat dai^ the best of all 

luxuries is {good) eyesights 
NiPAL («, m^ nipple of gun. 
NiRKH {s. m) (1) market-rate. NirUb £s kam dai, the rate is small, 

i.e. unfavourable i.q.^ things are dear, at present. [2) way. 

De har ch& pa char ksli^ ^pul nirkh j€ Asi, every one has 

his own way of doing a thing, (3) customs. De Pashtane 

nirkhj or de Paslito nirkh, Pathan custom. De Daware 

nir kh j Dauri custom, 

NisAi (*. m.) tweezers, 

NisHADiB {s. m.) a white powder used by goldsmiths. 

NiSHTA {v* irr. intr.) there is not. H^ts mi nishta, there is not 

anything of mine, i.e. / have nothing. Dor nishta^ there is 

no danger. 
NiSHT^DBL (v. reg. tr^ to wring* Ke jom^ di tonde wi nor wu i nishte- 

zba^ if your clothes are wet wring them. 

NiWEL (r. irr. tr.) (1) to seize, catch. Dwa g^le mi niweli di, / have 
arrested two thieves. Wos mi khalos shan, wu e nisa^ my horse 
has got loose, catch it. Shferi niwelai dai^ Ke has caught measles, 
lit. measles have caught him. Lyar rota dushman niwelye 
do^ the enemy have seized the road against me, i.e. are holding 
it against me. (2) to turn, hold, direct. Pitea wunisa^ hold 
out the skirt of your coat {to receive something). Chore pa 
andra wunisa, hold the knife to the grindstone, i.e. sharpen it. 
Ghozh rota wunisa^ give ear to me, Tipak mi dushman ta 
wuniwan^ I levelled my rifle at the enemy. (3) to contract, 
form, adopt. Parhez i niwelai dai, he has adopted abstinence, 
Pe^ awor ^izh^ nav, niwelai dai, the wound has formed a scab, 
developed pus. 

NiYAT {s. m.) intention. De shkor niyat mi dai, / mean to go shooting, 

NiYoz^DBL {v. reg. intr.) to gloat on, enjoy. Pa khpula dunyo ma 
niyozezha, do not dote on your wealth. 

NiYOZMAND {adj^ comfortable, living in idleness. Da zhenkai niyozmand 
ma rizhdyawa, kharop wa shi^ do not accustom the boy to too 
easy a life, he will be spoiled* 


















{t. m») Jlood. D& sarai ikai du leke de lan^^ pal^ niz^ ikai 
man is like the flood of Aort ravines, Le* Ae has nothing^ 
behind Aiin, he is a aelf'-made man, 

{&, i».) sharpener, whet'Stone* 

{s.f.) rough bed-cover, counterpane. 

(adj.) sudden. Noblbara momla wa, it was a sudden affair* 
[adv^ Nobibar ^azz shan, suddenly there was: a shot. 

(*• y*0 fi"^^ imposed by tribal or village authority for some dis- 
regard of tribal or village regulations, De tose nogha ze 
na manaBj / do not admit liability to your tribal fine. 

{s. m.) horse-shoe. 

{adj.) grafted. Titon mi nol kcri di, I have grafted the 
mulberries. Fa Tangi ksh^ nol titoo d^ di^ grafted mulberries^ 
are common in the Tangi, 

{adj.f) barren (woman or female animal) * 

{s. m.) (1) pig, brute. (2) brutal treatment See TeXt- 

(*. m.) shoer of horses. 

{s. m.) reputation, celebrity^ Nomis wa di bad fghl, your reputor 
tion will suffer. Nomis depora mi 4^^ ripa^ la^welje di, 
cbe num mi p6 wnsbi, / have spent mi^ch money for the sake 
of celebrity, that I may get a name thereby. 

(adj.) (1) more, remaining. Nor roka, give me more. Nora 
marai ye wu^wura, he ate up the rest of the food. (2) other, 
different. £s nor sari baa daghase wyaiyi, now other men toa 
are saying the same* Agha na di, nor <£, theee are not the 
ones (in question), they are different ones. 

(adv^ (1) at that time, by that time. Che mizli wnras^di, 
nor da awwal tlelai wan, when we arrived, by that time he 
had already gone. (2) well, anyhow. Nor^ ze wa dase 
wukan, well, I shall do so. 

(«. m) orange* 

(adj.) seated, sitting, 

(s. m.) sitting. Te lezhki nostai kawa, sit down for a little^ 

(s.f) reel, winder. 

(s.f) bride. Nowye pa wospa swara kerye do, tiey have pnt 

the bride on horseback {to take her to ih^ bridegroom**^ 

(adj.) (I) fragile. Slusha nozaka do, glass is fragile. (Z) 

delicate, tender, easily upset (person), Wazir nozak khalk 

di, pa musopirtia na itiml, the Waziris »re a delicate folk 

(so) they do not go travelling. 


NtJKSAK {9. m^ loiB, damage. De Madda Sh^i d^r niikslui shewai daJ^ 
or the if. Kb. have suffered nmeh lose. 


NuiHSA {9. /.) prescription. Tabib dori rota wulikel, bya niij^sa ye mi 
Talsa pasori ta yovra^ the physieum foroie tm^ the medicine 
for me, thin I toot his preseriptian to Talsa the druggist 
N()m (s.m.) (1) name. Tse num di dai? what is your name-? 

{%) fame. Bee NoMis. 
Nyoiyb (s. m. irr.) mother^ s brother. Nyoiye zyai, son ofmothen^s brother. 

NzHoa {s.f.irr.) (1) son^swife,daught€r'in4aw. {.fi) wife of grandson. 


00[SHEL See WoSiSHBL, 

Op AT {s. m,) disease. Opat pa nmlk pr^watai dai^ disease has fallen 
upon the country. 

Obbasbwula («. f) leg of trousers or drawers. 

Os See Wos, 

Os See £s. 

Ow]6l {adj^ stupid. 

OwKATBL See WrItbl. 

OzAKAi («. 7».) load for a man. De largi ozakai; a head-load of fire-wood. 

OzM^YBL {v. reg, tr,) to test, prove. Ozmfyelye ^abara do che tora 

WTishi Mabsld @e minda pSri gheli wi^ it is a matter of expe- * 
rience that when a tora takes place the Mahsuds keep quiet 
for some time afterwards. Ozmeyelai tjpak, a tried r^e. 

OzMYESHT {s. m.) trial y proof. Ozmy^sht wuka che teemra mazal kerai 
she, try how far you can walk. 


» V 

Pa iprep,) See Grammar, pages 12 and 39. 

Pajedel {v. reg. intr) to live, survive. ZamenyiS nai^ilegbJ^ his children 

do not survive. ^ 

Pa£ka («./.) machine for removing the husks of rice. 

Paorai (s. f) large turban {as of a mullah). 

Pai {s, m.) milk. She pai di or dai, it is good milk. 

Paida See Faipa. 


Faido (fidj') (1) produced. Juwor pa Tdclu ksh^ Ahr paido k^i, 
much maize ie produced in Tocki, (2) born. Migb che 
paido shewi yi de Kalkatti pa shan karUbonJ na di lidely^, 
never since we were bom have we seen worlsAops Hie {fhose in) 
Calcutta. (S) obtained. Da (iipak de ]dm j^oi na di paida 
kerai dai ? wAere did j/ou^get that r\fieftom ? 

Paitowai [f. i».) (1) sunny side of hill. (2) sunlight. Qzeii£ ^ch 
paitowai dai j^enj syora .dO| some places there is sunlight 
some places shade. 

Paiwanda See P^winda. 

Pakat {adv) only. Pakat yawa nandr&mai rlpai roka^ give me onfy one 
Kabuli rupee. 

Pakie See Fakie. 

Pakiza [adj.) (1) cleaned, clean. T^I^ pakiza ka, clean the gun. 
(2) winnowed. Pakiza keri mi lya na di^ / have not yet 
winnowed it {the grain), 

Paqa (*./.) (1) feather. Pa marghai mi zgor wukan pa^e mi 
walwawal6^ I fired at the bird and knocked out some feathers. 
{^) leaf {of tree). {2) pinch {of medicine etc.). De kwenii 
pa^a khwul^ ta wochawai put a pinch of quinine in your 

pASHAWEL {v. reg. tr.) to cook [food), bake {bread, bricks), etc. 

PA£fi£D£L {v. reg. intr.) to be cooked, baked. 

Pa£Bsa {s.f) lump of mud {used in building walls). Da diwol de 
khesht^ dai^ ke de lit^ dai^ ke de pakhs^ dai ? is that a brick, 
or a clod wall, or one of mud only ? 

Pak^sai {s. m.) hopping on one leg. Pakhsai wa to ta der^ ke na dertei ? 
can you hop or not, lit. does hopping come to you or not ? 

PAfflTAN {s. m^ cooking. 

Paisula {adj^ pleased, appeased, Ag^ earai rosara marawwar wap, 
or bya mo pakhnla kan^ that man was vexed with me, afterwards 

Paichuliya / mollified him. 

Pakhwo {adv.) (1) before. Pa^wo mi d^rta wuwfyel, / told you so 
before. (2) formerly, of old. Pa^wo de f^U 4fera j^alaba 
wa, informer times robbery used to be very prevalent: 

Pal {s. m.) (1) small ravine, nullah. (2) fringe of hair falling 

over forehead. De p^ghle pal wl^ de sterd shez^ na wi, 
maidens wear fringes, but not grown women. (8) millstone. 
De m&lian^ pos^ kiz^ pal| the upper, nether, stone of a 
handmill. Dwa-sara plina^ both millstones. 


Palai (*. m,) (1) pedestrian, man walking on foot. (%) footman, 

Pali teemra di^ swora tsemra di ? how many foot are there 

and how many horse ? 
[adj^ on foot. Palai roghlanj / came walking, 
Palasiq [adj^ straight. Palasi^ sirat j6 dai^ he has an upright figure, 
Palatai («. /.) attitude of sitting with crossed legs. Palatal wahelye 

do^ he is sitting with crossed legs, 
Palau (s, m) (1) side. Waj^ palau ta drima^ go to that side. 

Yawa palau ta wudar^zha, stand aside. (2) edge. De keli 

palau ta mi kor dai^ my house is at the edge of the village. 

(3) furthest outskirts. £1 palau mzeka, land situated far 

from the houses of the village. 
Palawon (s. i».) wrestler, prof essional strong man. 
PalawonI {s. f) wrestling. 

Pamt {(^dj\) (I) defiled, Jome mi palit< di, my clothes are ceremoni- 
ally unclean. (2) disagreeable. Paso^ polit earai dai, he is 

a quarrelsome, unpleasant fellow. 
PalIta {*./.) (1) wick {of lamp). (2) match {of gun). 
Palk (*. m.) sledge-hammer. 
Palla {adj.) shut. Kliwula di wel^ palla jishj^ do ? why have you 

shut, lit. set closed, your mouth ? 
Paloz {s. »».) (1) carpet {kept in all Waziri houses for seating visitor* 

upon; it is rolled up when they go away).. {%) coverlet 

{for furniture). 
Pam {s. m.) care. Pam wferta ka, take care of itj^ or, Beware o/ if, 

be careful. 
Paman {s. m.) scab, mange. Pa wze bondi paman I^atelai dai, the goat 

has got mange, lit. mange has come up upon the goat, 
{adj.) (I) scabby, losing hair. Ke paman na wai nor wa 6 ^^n 

na garawan, if it were not mangy it would not scratch itself. 

(2) itchy. Sirat mi paman dai, my body itches. 
PamakIa {s. f.) a bitter hill vegetable like a small cactus. &OKCe<D^K ^^^^C^<^iMi^ 
Panp {adj.) (1) sitting down. Ddata pand 8hai> sit down here. 

(2) residing. Ba^shi Khfl pa Eaz^a \c&h& panddabi, the 

B. Ks. dwell in Kazha. 
PaN9 {s. m.) steel {for striking fire from flint). 
Panpa {s. f.) bundle, head-load. De shaftal^ pan4a mi pa sar kerye ' 

do, I am carrying, lit. have put, a bundle of clover on my head. 
Panpai («./.) (I) calf of human 4eg. (2) leg of horse. 
Pani {adj.) transitory. DS dunyo pani do, this world is fleeting. 
Panja {s. f) claw. Lamsi charchaflf*a pa panje kshe wunlwela, the 

hawk caught the sparrow in its claw9% 


Faitjra (*. /.) cage. 

PAfflaA {adj.) watered, irrigated, Mulk mi pafita kan, 1 watered He 
land. De paff^a ghanam^ patai^ a field of wheat that has 
been irrigated. 

PiinA (<. /.) ihoe. £ mo de palSt^ na gapd wumazha^ wipe the duit 

or off my ihoes. PaiE^A pa pshj ka, wtikosha^ put on, take off, 

PifnRWA your shoes. 

Paa («. m.) wing, Marg^ii par waiyi^ the bird flaps its wings. 

Paea {s, f.) mercury. 

Pakacha {s. m^ ^ convert to Muhammadanism, Indi clie Busulmon shi 
or Pabocha > bya par&clia shi, when a Hindu becomes a Muham- 

Paeachgai {s. f,) J madan he gets the name ofparacha. 
Paeadoe {s. m) sentry y guard. Pa bangle bondi mi gerd paradoron wu- 

darawel^ Ifosted sentries round the bungalow. 
PaAawel {v, reg, tr.) (1) to make run. Wob ma parawa, do not gallop 

the horse. (2) to run races, compete, Sarkor sara teok para- 

welai na sbij no one can compete with Government, 
Pae^el {v, reg. intr.) (1) to run. (2) to flee. De da^^i ghunde kore 

na yfixkT^^kyfl^efrom all these things, 
Paeda (*./.) (1) curtain. De pard^ sbeza^ secluded female, lit. 

curtain^woman, (2) screening, helping. Pa de mukaddama 

kslie lez^ki mi parda wuka, screen me a little in this case, i.e. 

help me to succeed in my case. 
Paebc^z [s, m.) virtue, abstinence, temperance^ PaAez e niwelai dai, 

akhwmnd shewai dai^ he has adopted a virtuous life and 

become a religious character. 

Paeh^zgoe {adj.) virtuous, temperate. Zim di parhezgor sarai dai, de 
(^unde bad£ na parhez y6 dai^ your son-in-law is a virtuous 
man, he abstains from all hinds of evil. 

Paein {s. m.) yesterday. Bel parin^ day before yesterday. Ya bel 
parin^ three days ago, Parina r&s^ teak mi dai, pa h^te dori 
na she k^zbi^ I have had lumbago since yesterday, no medicine 
does it good. 

Paek^TAI {s. m.) step-son. 

Paess {s, m.) (1) difference. De danv^ghe de rishtiny^ b^te parl^ na 

pezhani^ he cannot distinguish, lit. does not understand any 

difference, between falsehood and truth, (2) distance, De 

Kalkatt^ na wa Tochi ta dfer parkb dai, it is a great distance 

from Calcutta to Tochi, 

Paesba {s.f) dew, Dfera parkba alw^dely^ do, a heavy dew has fallen* 

Paeos-sass {adv,) last year. See SAzg. 


Paktio {b. m.) trauaers. Gan^a mi partig ta achawely^ do^ I hai^e 
put a string to my tnyMers, De glirin^ de sheze che tpin 
partig wi^ agha peghla wi ;, che wode ^hl bya thr partig 
wuko; a foamanr of the iills when $he ftM white trousers «4 
unmarried ; when she is married she faies iQ darh'coloured 

PitBTO {adj.) falling ^ coming down, Riiirto wa fikib^, you will fall 
down, or over, 

Paew^shin {s, m,\ necklace, 

PAJttwizAi [s, m,) flour-sieve, 

Vakwi {s, m*) snahe-charmer, Ee ohferj agha parion na waT, nSr i 
daj^a mangarina na niwel, if they w^re not snake-eharmers 
they would not handle these snakes,- 

Pakyob {s. m,) deeit, Pulonki sari rosara paryob wukan^ ghalat yd 
krelan^ so-and-so deceived me, he led me astray. 

PaeyobI {adj,) deceitful, 

Pabyodel {v, reg„ tr,) to beat, whack, thrash,. 

Pabyopblai {adj.) beaten, bruised, contused^ 

Pabz {s. m,) duty. Da kor piia kawel robondi parz dai> ioflnish this 
work is a duty {ineumhent) upon me* 

Pabk {s, m^ snare, trap, Zerkd pa park ksh^ mi niwelyd di, I have 
caught chikore in a snare^ 

Pabk£del {v, reg, intr.) (1) to flash, glitter, 'fipakina pa tizh^ ksh^ 
park^zhi, rffies are glinting among the stones, {%) to be 
strained, Shangerai miwuparkedany my ankle was strained. 

Paj^ma£H {adj,) {l),prone, lying on face, (8) down, headlong,, Tsirogh 
or de diwat na perma^ roprdwot^i the lamp fell down off the 
Pbbmaib brackets 

Pabs^dbl {v. reg, intr.) (1) to swell, Psha ye parsddelyd^ or parsa- 
wely6, do, his foot is swollen^ (&) to be envious,^ grudge,. 
Che zemarai ^wurai^ ndr da woghai @ar^ 4^7 'ota pars^z^i, 
when I eat bread that hungry man envies me bitterly, 

Parshamai {s, m^ meal eaten before commencement of the day's fast in 

Pas {adv^ after. Pa& la dd na wa ze d& kor wnkan, I will' do it 

after this, 

Pasat (*•/.) noose, Ghwore na pasai wuko;^, get the noose off^your 
necky i.e. get your neck out of the noose. 

Pasal See Pasal^ 



PAsi or (prep.) (1) qfter, beiind. Agha pas^ gerzif ^^ toanders after 
Psi Am. Te ^^wxuihai pa mo pa0^ sterai ahw^, j^(?« Aave tired 

yourtelfto no purpose after me, i.e. in following me. (2) to 
memory of. Pa plor pas^ y£ sha shima wukra, he gave a fine 
funeral-feaet in mem^krfL of hie father. (8) for eake of. 
W2rpa8£ mi 4^x6 ripai^ushandely^j 1 lavished money on 
hie aeeountf ie. to get him hilled. See Grammar, page S9. 

Pasod (e. m.) disturbance, riot, mutiny. 
PasodI {adj.) quarrelsome, insubordinate, 
PasorI (#. m.) dealer in drugs, druggist, 
Pabtaha (adv.) bach, Pastana lorel^ they went baei. 
Pashakoi* {s. «.) rainy year, 


Pashm («. m,) nap of cloth. 

PashmI SHA|tAi (s. /.) cloth of which ehoghas are made, pashmina, 

pASHTANMA {s, f.) (I) qucstion, interrogation. Pashtanna mi wakra^ 
I inquired. (2) greeting, salutation. Ddra pashtanna mi 
w^rsara wiikra^ I greeted him warmly. [Common salutations 
are, Jor j6 ? are you well ? Tebba mebba ? any fever ? 
Gn<}^ ^and^ ? any maimings or blindings ? f^fe chegg^ ? 
high and low? Beehknll^ meshknlli? any misfortunes? 
fi^al^ mikbal^ ? any sore throats ? Kor ta di ^air dai ? is 
it well with your family ? As£ r&s^ ? how now ?\ 

Pashtawasgai [f. m^ kidney. 

Fashto (<. /.) (1) the Paskto language. (2) Pathan custom. 
(S) Pathan times. Pa Pashto ksbe da^se wa, it was thus in 
Pathan times. 

PXta {^.f) cluCi trace. De j^le pftta te wulagawa, you must yourself 
trace the thief. 

Patakai {s. m.)Jlash, water-bottle. Ke te tezbai w6 * de pataki na ^bo 
d&rwnbosa^ if you be thirsty tale water from theftask. 

Patako (^4;.) generous, impulsive. Patang sarai dai^ lira baa ko^ 
dimyo nuksonawT^ kfaalk ta marai wferkawi^ he is a generous 
man, he shows courage, spends his substance freely and 
giv(S feasts to people. 

PatabTI (*, m.) river-crossing. De psh^ patafiJ^ybf J. De bind patanr, 
ferry. B^-patanra, that cannot be crossed, untraversable. 

* Apparently the^fucare indioativ9 asedasa substitute for the preseut subjaacUre. 


Patai (*. tn.) field, 

l^ATASSA (t.y*.) pereusiioit'cap. 

Patikai («. m,) bark of tree. 

Patinai («» m.) bedding, set qf quilts, 

Pa^kaI («. m.) (1) tohite or dark-coloured thadar^ Fa^ikai pa ^^ii 
bondi t^ng ka^ ^^ threw its chadar round him, {%) sheet 
of any hind, tu^ Wvn 

F£ See Orammar^page 40^ 

P]£^ Fo£ {adj) understanding^ intelligent. P^ya sbeza^ intelligent 
or Vtl woman, No-p^, »<?^ understanding, stupid, ignorant. Vi 
j6 ka^ explain to him. Sheza p^ja ka, let the woman under*- 
stand. Ghnnd sari pi ka, maie all the men understand. 

ViiGR {s. m.) screw-nail, screws P^ch j6 wugejrzawan, he turned the 
screw. 7ipak bya p^ch ka^ screw the gun together again. 

PicHAWEL {s. m.) large ^ mat. P^hawel ster pizai dai^ de yawa 
pfohawel na kor jor^!^ a pechawel is a large mat^ a single 
pechawel makes a house. 

\ Peohekk£ (s./.pl.) (1) droppings qf goats, sheep and camels. (2) lots* 
I \ c^OK Pa de bondi pechekk£ wochawa, cast lots /or this* 

PicHiHAi {s. m.) slope upwards, ascent. L&ka Gbuncji na Badsha Ket p^ri 
p^chimai dai^ it is up-hill from L. G. to S. K. {t) steep 
place, bit of climbing. Wo8 pa pechimai na shi U^telai, 
a horse cannot get up the steep bit. 

PfcHWAB^ i^ heel-ropes. 
Pissi^ (*••/•) ^i^iden, virgin. 

PiSSOB {s. m) reproach^ taunt. D^r p^ g haripa {or p^ghrina) j6 roker! 
dl, he taunted me much. 

Pbi See Vi. 

Pi/AU {adj.) wiped, dusted. PaSre mi p^]aw£ ka^ dust my shoes. 

Pek (^0 i^^^' Pekon au p^zpr^kerl de Madd Akbar pa kom pa 

T5ri Khfii6 ksh^ 4^ ^ bald and noseless men are numerous 
in M. Ais tribe the T. K.'s. 

PISkai (*. m.) hair coming down on the forehead, fringe* 

Peke {s. m) (1) thought, ruction. Pekr mi pa ksh^ d^t Ivtikad, 
I pondered over it deeply. (2) conception. Dfia^ ^abara pa 
pekr kshfi na lodximi^ such a thing cannot be imagined. 
B^*pekr! {s. f.) negligence. Nikaron6 b^-^pekri wnkrrda^ zeke 
tipaldna zen£ yowrel^ the Government men were negligent^ 
so {the thieves) carried their muskets off^ 




FiSB {adj. irr.) (1) cooked, boiled. Fakh^ &^, boiled ttaier. (2) burnt 
Fakha ^eshta, burnt brick. (8) ripe, mature^ fulUgrotcn. 
Yrizji^ pakh6 di^ the rice is ripe. Per p£^ ^enkai <iai, wol 
na uflh&yi^ pira darw^ g h wyaiyi, he has an old head on young 
ihonlders, never gives away a secrei and can tell a lie as it 
ought to be told, Kt. is a very mature boy, does not show the 
{real) sfale of matters and tells a full lie. 

POMONA ('./.) large and deep basket. 

Fbnga (*./.) ^mall plot of soft and level land amengtht hills. Mazdak 
ksh^ sam^ pengi di^ t^ere are level pungas on M. 

Pbkgai {s.f) small penga^ q.v. Wyikye pengarai mi ^% I own, a 
or tiny punga. 


FiR See For. 

PkRAi {s. m.) fairy, demon. Fferioni tilWfelal dai, he is possessed hy 
fairies, i.e. crazed, excited. 

PIdrangai (9. m.) European, Feringhee. 

P^BBL {v. reg. tr.) to string {a bedstead^ chair or cradle). Ferelai, 
having a strung seat or bottom. Pa dpa^si p^relai ka^ dai, 
it is a neuHir^stru^g bed>. 

Pergai («* m.) acorn. 

PkRi<?r {adv. and prep.) (t) through, across. Pferi wuwatan, I passed 
Fori through or across. Fori k^^^i, crosses. 0t) upon, in, to. 
"Dhr klurai p^ p^ri dai^ there is much dirt upon it. Mianai 
pori ripai shakhe shw^, the money has stuck in the purse. 
De piyawanri yo sar pa zin pori tarelai shi bel e pa lakai pori 
tarelai shi, one end of the crupper is JlxeA to the Saddle and 
one to the tail. (3) close to. I^ keif x^a ^an^ p^ri, 
elose to the village. (4) at. Y)^ mi p^ri ^u^asidel, / 
laughed at him much. (5>) as fmr aS, up t<K Gwurgwushti 
pori lyar sha wa, the road was good till <?% (6) beyond, 
on the further side. Pa sind na pori dai, ke roporidai?M 
it on the further side or on this sidd of the Aver ? See 
Grammar, page S9. 

P'ersha {s.f) bare sloping rock. 

Feryod {s. m) groan, exclamation of pain. 

Per {adj.) worsted, defeated. Mtitifiiff(m6 pa ItaLukaddama keh^ 

zidd ro^ra wukan, zeke per shwan^ <the arbitrators showed 
prejudice against 9Jie, so I lost. 

Perai (*. m.) rope. 

Pi^Ai (•./•) generation. De Wazire i^o pfe^^i P^* Tocki kshi watelye 
cU ? how many generations of the Wawris have passed in 
Tochi, i.e. during how many generations ^ve the Waziris 
occupied Tochi ? 


^■laMivawaiMaif^p— »<^«piW«Hr'i*9«e«r«i9nai« 

PJj9Ai-KAT (*• ««•) ienei with back to it, 

pByiiAKH ^d^ Pabma^. 

Pbsh or («. w.) 9mith, mechanic, De tir^ pest, sword-maker, Angrezi 

Push pesh, smith who understands European work, 

PfsH (adv.) before^ in the way of (figuratively). Pa' mo l!K>ndi yo 

kor p^sh shewai dai, q pie^e of work h^ com^ in my way,^ 

i.e. has turned up. 

Pesha (s.f.) cat, 

P^SHA {s^/') shower of rain, P^sha ^$wji d&, there has been a shower ^^ 
• ofrain^ 

P^SHAK (s, m.) row of coins hung as. an ornament across a woman's fore- 

Pbshakol See Pashakol. 

P^SHANi {s,f) parting y division of hair ^ 

P]£sh£d£L (v. reg, intr) (1) to occur. Warid&tiixa dolata dfer p^sh^^l,. 
many crimes occur here, (2) rise, jump %p, S.eya d|B dqlo \m 
wuplsh^da, I put up a hare^ lit. a hare got up from me^ 

PfisHiN (s, m>) early afternoon, De moz peejtiin }as rek^tg. di, there are 
ien prostrations in the early afternoon prayer, 

P:fisHKASH (s, m,) offering f fribute, present by an ii^feriof to a superior. 

Peshtai {s,f) rib, Ghun^^ peshtai y^ Mahsld^ mot^ kf^, the Mahsuds 

broke all his ribs, , 

Visa (adj, irr.) (1) soft. Pasta stiirfti, 4» sqft blanket, Pe Khafcak^ 
zhebba pasta do, the dialect of the Kh.attais is soft, 
(2) smooth, fiat, Sarak Y^^ 4ai, dig)| t^ .dpi, tJie road is 
smooth y not rough, De posta ^^'tw kha lk di^ they are people 
of a fiat coimtry, i.e. they belong to the plaints not to the hills. 

PisTiKAi {s, m) skin, hide, P^stikai y^ wubo^, skin it, 

PifisiiN (s, m) postin, 

Pe7 {adj^ hidden, concealed, VQ\iOtO^^,heis lurking^ lit. sitting 

concealed, T^ pet sha^ becomeconcealed, ji.e. hide yourself, 
(2) shut, covered* Sterg^ pett^ ahw;^, his eyes became shut, 
i.e. he fell asleep, li^chi ^t%4ksk, cover your fore-armSy i.e. 
pull down your sleeves, Kmai mi pet kerai dai; / have 
covered lime, i.e. prepared it for buorning, K^a mi petta 
kra, / have covered a room, i.e. roofed it. 

Pets (^dj.) blunt. 

Piw^NA (9,f) grazing, pasturage. Da de'keli de mol de p^wane waiftan ^ 
dai, that is the grazing ground of the village catHe. 



PiwAND (*. m.) joining together Juncture. Prfwand y^ wo^estai dai, it 
has taken the joining, i.e. juncture hoe taken place, Tipak 
che pi^sU, byft korlgar p^wand ko, when a rjfie is broken 
\then'\ the mechanic repairs it. 

PiwANDA See PiwiKDii. 

.PisWBL (v. irr. tr.) to graze, pasture. Ze ^£bon yan, mol pyaiyan, 
lam a cowherd, I graze cattle. 

PiwANDAi /^•■•'•' J eJ- j: 

itt oWfc jPfVoiBrA [a^.) occupied, engaged. Sihib & l*el ko, pfiwo^ta dai, 

'- ■" the Sahii it writing at pretent, ie it btuf. 


PiYAWBL {v. reg. tr.) to mate to understand, explain to. 

PiYAWOE {s. m.) wound, 
or Pkawoe 

PiYiDiL Bee P5bdel. 

FiTBL {v. reg. tr^ to transfix, impale. Dft g h&h^ pa da si^ 
^wup^ya^ stick the meat on this spit. Sarai pa songa mi 
wup£yan^ I ran the man through with a spear. 

PiYBMDBL [v. reg. tr.) to measure grain. Keshan mi p^yendelye do, 
1 have measured the winnowed grain. 

• PlSzA {s. /.){!) nose. {^) projecting spur of a hill. Pa Tangai ksh^ 

pez6 4^r6 watdye di, in the Tangi many spurs run out (from 
the Kills). 

P£zib£k£9AI {adj^ mutilated as to the nose. P^zpr^kerai agha shi, che 
<le shez^ razo na Wi^ dai pa zor loB wochawi^ he loses his nose 
who, the woman not consenting, lays hands upon her by force. 

P£zwoND («. w.) nose-ring. 

Pi^BKDEL (v. irr. fr.) (1) to recognise,' know again. W61e to na 
p^zhenan ? Of course I know you, lit. why should I not know 
you?. (2) to know, he acquainted with. Spai di che wiip6- 
Shenl nor di na ^wuri^ au tarbir di che wupezheni na di 
preghdij a dog when he knows you will not bite you, while 
a eoutsin that knows you will not let you alone. (8) admits 
allow. £ to hakk kho p^zhenan, / admit your right. 

PiiWA ( s. f.) kind of insect. De jom^ de kitob^ bale piawa do, tie 
piawa is the ruin of clothes and books. 

PIcH {s. m.) dregs of charas, leaves from which tea has been made, 



PlKAi {s. m.) blowing with mouth, Yor ta mi pikai kerai dai^ / blew 
the fire. Fir dam kran, pikai rowukan^ the holy man 
breathed on me, he blew on me {as a cure). 

VlKlKkAi {e.f.) {!) bladder. (2) native flageolet. FikafSl'ai w&kel, ^0 
flay on the eamai. 

Rkawel {v. irr. tr.) {conjugated as kawel) to blow with mouth. Yor y6 
wupikawan^ he blew the fire {to mate it burn). Z^mna mi 
pikery^ do^ I have blown the soup {to make it cool). 

FiLHAL {adv.) now, af present. 

PiLOD {s. m.) Oriental steel. 

PIlob! {adj.) hard, strong. She pilodi sarai dai^ he is very hard {physi- 

cally), lit. he is a fine steely man. 
PlLWATEA {s./.) ear-ring worn in upper ear by women. 
PInda (*.yO heel. 

PiR { s. m.) (1) holy man. (2) religious teacher, father-confessor. 

PiBA {fldj^ (1) full. D^ dr6 vrez^ pira mazal dai^ kam na dai^ it is a 

full three days* journey, not less. (2) complete. Awwal da 

kor pira Iia, first finish that piece of work. 

{adv.) exactly. Pira las lipai di^.kamme na di^ ziyot^ na di^ 
fhere are exactly 10 rupees, not more nor less. 

P19 {s. m.) bhoosa, chopped straw. De gbanam< pir^ wheat-bhoosa. 

PiTBA (*. /.) skirt of coat in front. Ktea wnnisa, tee dferwooha- 

"wan^ hold out the skirt of your coat, I will throw you somC'* 


PiTSKA (*./•) lobe of the ear. 
PiyawaS^ {s.f) crupper-strap. 

PiYAWAEA or {adj. f.) giving milk, in milk. Dfera piyawary^ j^wo, a 
PiYAWAJayi cow that gives much milk. 
PiYAWABAi {adj.) strong, stalwart. lnrct>Jt 
PiYOLA {s.f.) drinking cup {of any material except metal). 
PiYOZ (*. «».) onion. 

RzAi {s. m.) (1) mat. (2) hut, shed, made of matting. Pizai bab^zai 
mazerri na jo^^zbi^ mats and fans are made of dwarf-palm. 

Pia (^- ««•) sprinkling. Dft bangla pizh waiya, sprinkle the bunga- 
low {to keep down the dust, or preparatory to sweeping). 
Lawang pa jom^ mi piZh waheli di^ I have sprinkled the 
garments with clove. 

Pla (*./•) 9inew. 

Plah [ji^j') broad, wide. Plan watan^ broad landscape. Plan sarai^ 
broad-shouldered man. 


Planbaa («. m.) step'/aiier. 

VhANwohAi {i. m.) breadth, 

PlatanIa (*.y*.) infantry regiment. De platafl^j ripojon di ke de 
rifial^? are they men of the infantry or of the cavalry? 

Ploe (*. m,) father. 

"PiMnAJfA.! (adj.) on father's side, through father (relatione, etc.). 

PoDA (^'f) ^^d of cattle larger than a OiviAE q. v, 

Po£ See P«. 

Po^DBL or (v. reg. infr ) to understand. Pa 64 po^^ ? do you ^nder^ 

P£t:£del stand that ? £ to saia wa yawa vrez p^ ahan, / will come to an 
understanding with you, i.e. will pay off old scores some day. 

PoK (adj.) (1) pure. Khudai pok ,daij God is pure. (2) (ceremo- 

nially) clean. Joma mi poka do^ Iminz kap, my clothes are 
clean, I will pray. (3) clean (in ordinary sense). Poka 
bangla^ a clean bungalow^ 

PokI («•/•) Tozor. 

Pok {(idj.) in kind. Por mi mm rok dai^ nim mi p5k dai^ my debt 

is half in cash and half in hind. 

Pol (s. m.) omen. Pol mi katelai dai^ / have taken the omens, lit. 

looked at the omen. 

PoLAi (s. m.) weaver. Polion pa Idak pa K^ddi kshe d^r di, weavers 

are numerous in I. and K. 
PoLAi (s. m) sheaf Sliele ma&hely^ di, polai zen^ wuka, the rice has 

had the grain removed, make sheaves of it (sc. the straw) . 
PoN (s. m.) red dye, rouge. Pen e pa i^^arsband^ wahelai dai, he has 

painted his lips red. 
Pon1,y4 (s»f) (1) leaf of tree. De wune ponrye teye shwe, the leaves 

of the tree have fallen. (2) leaf of book. 

Por or Per (s. m.) (1) loan. G^alla pa por rokery^ do, he has given 
me the grain on loan. {%) credit. Gfaori di pa los rowrel ke 
pa por ? have you broughi the ghe^e on payment of cash or on 
credit ? (3) debt. Por pa mo bondi dai, the debt is on me, 
(4) Mood-debt, feud. Levion de por ma dari^i, zejce pa ^6 
dazzina na ko, the lemes arc afraid <f the Hmd'feud, that ii 
why they never fire at robberB. (5) blood-money. 

PoRAWABAi (adj.) indebted. Ke ze de to dora porawarai na wai, nor 
dora sinati wa mi d^rta XLa kxa, .if I were ^ot so (much) in 
debt to you I would not plead so (humbly) with you. 

PoRi See VkRi. 

Porta (adv.) opposite of Korta q. v. 




PoRTANAi {adj.) opposite o/Kohtahai q. v. 


Pos {adv.) up, on the top, De Dili pa monrai pos wukhatan^ 

/ climbed the tower at Delhi. 
{adj») uppefy high lying, KharSti depos watan na rodrimi, the 
Kg. come from the country above, i.e. Afghanistan, 
PosANAi [fldj^ up^ountry, belonging to Afghanistan, 
PoTAi {adj\) (1) remaining behind. Pa ly&re ksh^ potai shewai dai, 

ht has remained, behind on the road, (2) left over, Yo 

wezliai regh zene potai na dai^ not an ear of it was leftj i.e. 

Pradai (adj.) belonging to some one else, strange. Pa pradi z^i {or zi) 

na khpula lir han sha do, one's own daughter, even, is better 

than another person^s son. 
Pbawarzhellai See Pyatfar^bllai. 
Prawor See P£yawor. 
Pr^r^del See Pr£sh£dil, 

Pr]^k£by£ {s, f) rupture of friendly relations, estrangement, E mo 
wbrsara pickery d do, / have dropped his acquaintanceship, 

Pr]^kbel {v, irr, tr,) (1) to cut, D& wuna pa vrQg^ ksfae preka, cut that 
tree down by the root. (2) to pay, pay up or off, Jurm tose 
wa kalla prek^wai ? idhen will you pay off the fine ? 

PriSkrin («. m^ separation, £ vror na mi pr^kria sishta, ga4 ji sara, 
I am r^ot separated from my brother ^ we have a joint estab^ 

Pr^sh^dbl {v^ irr. intr.) to breaks give way. Pepd pa lo8 keh^ 
or ropreyesh, the rope parted in my hand, Dwa sara peri 

Pr:6k:6dbl pr&hewi di, both ropes have given way, Ke pecliwaf^ pre- 
shewy^ na wai, nor wos mi taslitedelai na wan, if the heel 
ropes had not broken my horse would not have got loose. 

Pr^t or {adj.) (1) fallen {person or thing), (iJ) lying {person or thing) . 

PriSwatel {v, irr. intr.) (1) to fall, Dfera wovrar prewatelyl do, w«cA 
snow has fallen. (2) to fall (mt^ to happen. Daee bedikuUa 
pr^wately6 do, such a misforturte has occurred* 

fui^VEL {v-, irr, tr,) (1) to let go. Pre mi g]ida, let me ^go. i^) to 
let in, Kamr^ ta ropre^^da, let him into the room. (3) to 
leave off. Da kbt ^ wele ninge|?ai ptr^ehai dai ? why have 
you left that piece of work unfinished? {4) to leave, leave 
behind^ Pa. kor ksh6 mi prey^sh, I have left it at home. 
Preshmye mami, leamnus qf^fpod. 


PbIsta See Fibibhta. 

^Pbonq («. m.) leopard. Prong de ghwftye makandai mi y€ mot kerai 
daij a leopard [ i^ ] kai broken tie neck of a bullock of mine* 

PnoKA («• /*.) iiravD [of wheat, rice, etc.) Prora rfgha do ; ohe pa 
gh^bal ksh^ mota bU by& biz Bhi, prora i$ whole-straw ; when 
it ii broken up on the threshing-fioor it becomes ckopped-etraw. 

Pkot See VRifT. 

P|UIK («. m.) \ I'r . .^^ 

P^SKAWBL (r. reg. tr,) to makejlash, glitter, [Causative ot Pabk£dbl.) 

Pbablai [s, m.) spring, Psarlai roghai. spring has come, 

PsE [s, m.) animal, deer [general word including goat, sheep, mar- 

khor, oorial and chinkara), 
Psi See Pas<. 

PsHA [^'f) (1) foot. Pa ^1^ ])6h^ ma drima, do not go with bare 

feet, (2) leg, £ vrondi psha^ or de makh peha, fore-leg. 

£ wmst^ psha or de teet psha, hind-leg. (3) section of a tribe, 

Kom mi MAdda Kh^l dai^ psha mi Nazar Khfl dai^ my tribe 

is M, jr., my section N, K, 

PsHiuoN [adj,) penitent, repentant. 

Fsh£monai [s.f.) penitence, repentance. 

Pol [s. m.) bridge. ^ 

PuLONKAi [adj.) so-and-so. Da pulonkai dai^ palonkai nfim^i^ that is 

so-and-so, his name is so-and-so. 

Push See Pbsh. * 

PusHTiL [v, reg, tr.) to ask. Mo wupushta, I inquired. 

Pyasa (*•/*•) comb, the side of the honey-comb which contains no honey * 

Ptawab^ellai [adj.) wounded. Ret pyawarz^ellai dai^ he is very 

or badly wounded. 



Raba^ («. m.) worry, trouble. Pa misb bondi der rabar dai^ it is a 

great bother to us, 
Babaiqlawbl (v. reg. tr.) to plague, annoy, Dfer di labarawelai ya^, you 

have worried me greatly. 
Bayal [s, m,) Narai rafal^ a muesle-loading rifle. 
BrAO [s, m,) (1) vein [of body)* Bag wahel, to bleed [a person)^ 

(8) pulse. Bag mi wnkessa^ feel my pulse, (3) vein {of 

mineral), lode* De sr6 zar6 rag, a vein of gold* 


Basszai (s. m.) stony plain. 

BahhIta {int.) £ r&hmaia ! exactly so ! that is right / 

Bash (*. «»•) groove {o/r\fie). 

BaShdob {adj.) grooved. Ba^dor tipat^j rj/le. 

Basel (s. m.) stand/or Kuran. 

BaSBT {s. m.) cloth of all hinds. 

Bamma {s. f.)Jloei of sheep, larger than a Eanpak q. v. 

Bang {s. m.) (1) colour. Da g hund rasgina she dl. these are all good 
colours. (2) complexion. Sir rang, ruddy complexion. 
(8) appearance. Bang y^ badal shewai dai, ^s ranzir moli- 
m^z]}i, his appearance has changed and now he looks ill. 
(4) pattern J style. 3om6 pa dagh rang d& jorawi, let him 
maie the clothes after this pattern. [S) measure, time. 
Damoma kalla pa yo rang gbai^^i^ kalla pa bel rang, 
the drum beats now in one time, now in another. 

Bakoawbl {v. reg. tr.) to colour, dye. Pa kwundola kehe jome rangawi, 

they dye clothes in a basin. 

Bangbadi {s.f.) disgrace, getting a bad name. Mi^ che kaidshi, bya 
de to rangbadi do, if we are imprisoned, it is a disgrace to 
you. [A favourite but not very comprehensible argument of 
1$ Waziri prisoners addressing the court. "l 

BakIo or {^•f) light. Diw^ bal£ di, sha rafito ko, the lamps are 

Bbkbo lighted, they give a good light. 

Banz {s. m.) disease. Narai ranz, consumption, phthisis, lit. the 

thin, i.e. wasting, disease. 
Banzawbl {v. reg. tr.) to annoy. Ma mi ranzawa wu wa di waiyan^ do 
V not annoy me {or) I will strike you. 

Banzib (adj.) sick, ill, diseased. 
K ANZiBTi 2 {s. f.) sickness, illness, disease. De jorawele ranzirfc]& na do, it 

is not a disease from which one recovers, lit. not a recovering 

Bapawbl (t^. reg. tr.) to wink. Sterge rapaw!^ he winks his eyes. De 

flterge pa rapawel ksh^, in the twinkling of an eye. 
Baf£del {v. reg. intr.) to quiver. Kwundi r&p^u mirages shimmer. . 
Basawbl {v. reg. tr.) (1) to make to arrive. Chutaiw^riamiwarafawelBi 

I took the note to him) lit. made it reach him. (2) ac- 

company as far as. Wa sarak ta wa to wurafawan, / will 

see you on your way as far as the cart-road. 

Bab^ {adv.) {\) up to the present time continuously, £bela kolar&se 
ranzir yan, / have been ill from lasi year continuously until 
now. (2J till, until. ^ kemat rase wa dag^a wf, bela wa 
nik wij it will be so till the end of the world and not otherwise. 



Ba8Bd£l (t;. teg, intr^ (1) to reach, arrive at. De ras^de pa wa^t, a( 
the time of arrival, (^) to overtake, come up with. Pase wu 
na ras^aa^ I did not overtake (them), (3) to extend to, 
Kobi mi na ras^i^ ^j/ power does not extend so/ar. 

Bash («. m.) cream {of milk). 

Rat See Rayat. 

Ravdbl (v. reg, tr.) to suck the ireast. Yo tairftvdelai dai, zekeye wod^ 
na Bhi^ they have sucked the same breast, i.e. are foster 
brother and sister, therefore their marriage cannot he allowed,. 

Rawa (*•/•) ointment. 

RawbKi {v. reg. tr.) to feed at the breast. Zyai y£ pakbpnla lawelai dai, 
she has suckled her child herself 

Rawo {adv*) right, lawful for Muhammadans, Denusbpa mazab kshe 
kabon de ^warel6 depora rawo dl, fish are lawful to eat 
in our religion. Kim kor lawo wi, agha ka^ do the thif^ 
that is right. See na ; also juworai* 

Bawon {adj.) in motion^ started. Bahir rawon shan^ the caravan 
(s. m.) subject, people. De Sarkor rayat kulang pi^kawi^ the- 
subjects of Qovernmentpay revenue. 

Bat or 




{s. m.) (1) consent, willingness* Mazammal sara de Said WaK 
de sheze razo na wan^ zeka sheza y^ mra na kra^ Said Wali^& 
wife did not consent to (the overtures of) Muzzammal therefore^ 
he [8. W.) did not put her to death. (2) deliberate intent 
tion. Pa razoye 43on kiSlr kerai dai, he has made himself 
deaf intentionally, i.e. does not hear because he does not wish 
to hear, 
[v, reg. tr.) to reap. Bebesbe mi^yii rebdely^ di, ghanam potye 
di, we have reaped the barley, the wheat still remains.. 
Bebbsh^, { barley. OrbesW myasht, February^ 




B]£bez See R^buz. 
B^BOR or {s. m,) messenger, go-between. 

Bi^BUZ or {s.f) broom {for sweeping). Mzeka pa rebez pakiza ksi, clean 
B^BEZ up the ground with a broom. 

B]£g (s. m.) earth containing a large proportion of sand, light soil^ 

Da reg watan dai^ (his is a sandy country. 


lev- (n 

f ^ 

Il^gH or {adj.) (1) healthy, strong, Vror mi t6^ dai, my brother is very 
RoGH «7^//. De Birat ro g h dai, ^^ is strong of body, Rogh da w6 I 
way yoi* be well ! [The regular rejply to the salutation 
" Harkalla rosha/'] (2) undamaged, safe, R^gt ramit de 
mukaddam£ na watelai dai^ he has come safe and sound out 
of the battle. (3) good sort. R^g^ sarai dai^ he is one of the 
right sort^ (4) whole^ entire. R^gha shpa^ the whole night 

R^SSA {^'f) reconciliation, j^eaee. De dw^ Barai manz kshd mi regha 
or Rqgha wakra^ / made peace between two men. 

Rekat {s. m.) prostration {in prayer). 

Renda {s. f) joiner's plane. 

Renja {s. f) (1) rag, piece of cloth. (2) patch. Renja wferta ksh^da, 

put a patch on it. 
RbnIo See RakIo. 

R£sHA^ {s.f) winnowed grain. Tips' t^ Is reehan shwa, my unwin* 

or R£sH/i nowed grain has now been winnowed. 

RisHKA («./.) a kind of fodder resembling lucerne. 

Ret {adj.) (1) strict, close. Ret Musulmon, a strict Muhammadan, loJr 

De de sliezi ret satar adab dai, the seclusion of these women rv...:j. ^i 
is close. (2) bad. Refe kor ma kawa^ do not do an evil action. 
Ret bi^ a had emell. (3) perverted. Khalk yi ret keri dl 
he has perverted the people. (4) rough j dijffieuH or unplea- 
sant to deal with. Yarra, da ret khalk dl^ I say, these are 
a rough lot. 
{adv.) awfully, terribly, etc. Ret ranzir dai, he is very ill 
indeed. £)bQ ret6 8ar6 di, the water is horribly cold. 

BizGOE {s. m.) means of subsistence. T§6 rlzgor ke ? how do you earn 
your living ? 

RfzgATAi {adj^ who is keeping the fast. Rezbatai earai ma gboratawa 

do not worry a man who is fasting. 
RggASTEL {v. irr. intr.) to fight, bite each other. Spai pa khwula sara 

rghastel wnkrel, the dogs worried each other [with their 


R^ebawel {v. reg. tr.), to make roll. See RgfiESHTEiM 

R^ESHTBL {v. irr. intr.) to roll, roll down. Tizl^a pambpula rgteshtye do, 

ke cha rgherawelye do? did the stone roll down of itself 

or did some one roll it ? 
RiBOB . {s. «».) Oriental mandoline. 
RiBOBi {s. m.) mandolinist. 
Riffl (*. m.) soul. De bar cha H^pul ^pul rikhina wT, every one 

has a soul of h^s own. 

V r. 



BlxoL {s. m.) handkerchief. 

BlNA^ ('•/•) ^^^ (f<^ boring leather), Binaa de ^famiyor pa los 

kshe wi^ the awl is (Jauui) in the hand of the leather- 

BlNB {adj, irr.) bright^ brilliant, shining, De tipak derwa rafi|ti 

do^ the gun^arrel is bright. 

BiPAi («./•) Tup^^* 15© npai feS sfera spaiS^n di ? hoto many eeere of 
newar go to the rupee? Zar£ or pakh^ ripai, British 
coinage. Butwol£ ripai, British coinage, litt coins toith a 
picture on them. Spm£ spin^ ripai, bright shining money, 

BiSALA (*./.) (1) cavalry regiment, (2) cavalry, 

BisHTlKA {adv.) truthfully. Ham6sh riBhtina zhaghezhL he always 

or RisHTiYA speaks the truth. Bishtiyft wjaiya, tell the truth. 

BishtIkai {adj\) (1) true. Rishtinyi kiasa do, it is a true story, 
(2) truthful. Bishtinai sarai dai, he is a truthful man. 

RXwAi {s. m) custom^ body of customs. De mizli da de plar^ riwaj 
dai^ that is the custom of our fathers. 

Bl^DAi. (adj.) (1) accustomed to^ habituated to. Wos mi es pa swarB 
nglldai dai, my horse is now accustomed to being ridden^ 
Zyai mi pa bad korma ri^dai shewai dai, my son has got 
into the habit of behaving ill, (2) tame^ trained. Da 
mzaiai j6 iisbdai kan, he has tamed this lion, 

BI^BTAWBL {v. reg. tr.) to accustom. Dzon pa dai ze na rizbdyawan, 
I avoid accustoming myself to this. 

Bod or Bod («. m.) (1) large stream smaller than a river. (4) tke 

Toehi Valley. 
[Bodrimel] {v. irr, intr,) to come, Bodnma, come here. Pa pekr ksh^ 

na rodrimi, it cannot be imagined, lit. does not come into the 

imagination, Kai rodrimi^ / feel sick, lit. vomiting isi 

coming to me. 

Bogs See R]|Sqh« 

BogSA See BiofiA. 

BoKBBL {v. irr. tr.) (1) to give, grant {to the speaker). Tse wa 
rokawe ? what will you give me ? Nim khars wa na ko ro, 
he will not grant me half my expenses. Hukm y^ rokerai 
dai, he has given me an order. (£) to cause {to the speaker), 
jyht nukson ye rokerai dai, zeke na y^ prez^daa, he has 
caused me great loss, therefore I will not let him off. 

BoNJE {s.,) antimony {applied to the eyes). 

BoTA («•/•) barley-bread. 

BosTiN {adj.) coming back. Wolata na rostin shwan, / turned back^ 
lit. became coming back, from there. See SxiN. 


RoTLBL (r. irr, in$r.) {\) io come. D&rta ro^Q ? siall J come to you ? 
Dferraglilan I coming I lit. / have come to gou ! Wolata wer- 
r&ghlafi. byft delata roghlan. / went^ lit. came to him, there, 
then I came here. Ze pa bondi werraghlan. / came upon 
him, (2) to know, he able to do (of the •peaher) . Da kor mi 
rotefi^ / can do that toori, lit. U comes to me. Pashto sha ro^^ 
I know Puehto toell. {Conjugated like tlel.) 

BowASTKL {v. irr. tr.) to bring {a person, vehiclCy etc, viz. an olffect 
thai moves on legs or wheels or which fiows, as water.) £bo 
pa welan ksb^ mi lownsty^ di, I have brought the water 
along the channel. 

RowBBL (f7. irr. tr.) (1) to bring {inanimaie objects). T^pak rovra 
or cbe ze j6 \vuke6saQy bring the r\fle that I may look at it, 

RovBBL (£) to give birth to. Mer biyoA y£ rower> it brought 
forth a deadfoaL (Conjugated like wrel.) 

Rozi (*./.) daily bread. Kozi wa ^udai rokawi, God will give 
us daily bread. 

Rozi {adj) pleased, satisfied, contented. Pa to she rozi na yan^ / am 
not very well pleased with you, Dai pa da bondi rozi waa che 
^pula ge^da pa har^ mara krai^ he was glad to, lit. of 
this that he should, fill his belly with anything he could get. 

R£zHA or {s.f.) Bamazan, the Muhammadan fast. Roz^a wunisa, keep 

Ro^A the fast, lit. seize the fast. R^a nen mota shwa^ the fast 
ceased, lit. broke up, to-day. 

■ * 

JFIano ' (adj^ (1) spread. Da bishtara khalosa ka^ ranga y^ ka, 

open the bedding and spread it out. (2) cast over, Tsinai 
pa 4^n bondi y^ rang kan^ she cast her veil over herself, 
(3) separated, De t^pA^ koli ^ang ka^ separate the compo- 
nent parts of the rifle, i,e. take the r\fle to 'pieces. (4) de^ 
stroyed. De Sh&ranny£ }s6%mBk ^ng sliwelj the kots of 
Sheranni were destroyed. 

^akgai (adj.) shallow, Toi rangai dai^ the river is shallow. 

Rapawel {v. reg„ tr^ to move about. 3om.6 awwal pa ^o ksh£ wui:apawa> 

bya pa ti^^ legliki wutapawa^ first move the clothes about, i.e. 
rinse them, in water, then beat them a little on the stones., 

JJaf^del (v. reg. intr) (1) to dart, move (as a fish in water). (2) ta 

stagger. Pa tlel ksh^ T^^pezbi^ ^^ lurches in walking. 


l^BOHA («•/•) trot. D& wos ska reoha waiyt. Hat kerte troU well. 

9^2 («• m*) adhesive paste. 

J(lSJ> [adj. iff,) blind. 7ap find^ stone-blind. T&pa randa sheza, an 
altogethef blind woman. 


SIat (I. m.) mom««^. Yo sftat wor wuka, wait a moment. Che ze y^ 
wnlidan pa yagh sftat pashtanna ^ rosara wnkrela^ A^ greeted 
nte the very infant that he saw me. Dbr saatica ma t&iikwai 
do not waste much time, lit. do not pass many moments. 

SabI! {adv.) in the morning. Sab&i rotea, come in the morning. 

Sabak {s. m.) (1) lesson. Pa dagha istoz mi sabak weyelai dai, 
I have studied under this teacher, litl by means of this teacher 
I have said my lessons. (2) day of the week. Awal Sabak, 
Saturday. Dwayam Sabak, Sunday. Dream Sabak, Monday. 
Tsaloram Sabak^ Tuesday. Pinzam Sabak, Wednesday. 
Shp^^am Sabak, Thursday. 

Sabas [s. m.) patience. Sabar lara, have patience. 

Sababnok (adj.) patient. De sabamok sari Kliudai mal dai, Ood is 
on the side of \ the companion of thcfiotient man. 

SabIt (*. m.) proof. Sabit nishta, there is no proof. 

Sabit (adj^ proved, demonstrated. Dowa sabita sbwa, the claim has 
been proved. 

Sabo (*. m^ (1) morning. Es sabo shan, it is now morning. (2) 
morning prayer. De sabo tealwir rekata dl, there are four 
prostrations in the morning prayer. (8) morrow, next day. 
Che sabo shi, wol^ wa molima shi, when to-morrow conies {the 
matter) will become known, i.e. we shall know by to-morrow, 
Sabo ze w^rraghlan, I came to him the neat day. 

Sabob See Asbob. 

Sabot {s.^m.) second storey of a house, upper flat. 

Sadaka {s. /.) alms given to obtain a favour of God, votive alms. 
Zamen mi na shi, zeke sadaka mi wukra, no children are born 
to me, therefore I have given alms. 

Sah! {adj.) correct. Tawa Sahara pa ksh^ sahlya na do, not one 

word of it is accurate. 
Saidgai {s. m.) mam of the semi-sacred tribe of'Saidgis or Liiile 

Saiyids. Zaimisd Saidgai dai, Oauharl y£ pe wuniwan^ Z. is 

a 5., they arrested Gauhari through him. 

w • •-> r 


Sail («. m.) (1) eovejf. De mar|^at flter sail, d large flight of birds. 

(2) walk. Sail ta wel^ na wiiz«£ ? it Ay do you not go out for 

a walk ? 
Saimasss («. m.) fahuloyxA bird, griffin, 

Saiyid (*. m.) Saiyidy reputed descendant of the Propiet. Saiyid^ 
mizb zeke na shi kerai^ che by& y£ paryodai na shi, we cannot 
marry Saiyid women because we should not be able to beat 
them after marriage [put of respect for their ancestor the 

Sajoda {s. f) prostration, 'R6 la El^adai na bel cli& ta sajoda ma ka^ 
do not prostrate yourself to any one but God. 

Sakka {ad;\) full, own, Sakka vrfer mi dai, he is my full brother, i.e. 
we have the same father and mother both, 

Sakowa {s.f) karez, underground channel for water, 

Sas^ {adj.) liberal, open-handed, De jan&t darre eakhion ]is6 kawi, 

or the generous open the doors of paradise. 


Saq^tob {s, m,) generosity. Shlmwolai ma ka^ 8a]^tob ka,, practise not 

or meanness, practise generosity. 


Saqowati See Sas^. 

Sasbt {adj.) (1) heavy, Sa^t wor war^an^ a heavy rein was fall- 
ing. (2) strong, SaHit bi^ a strong smell. (8) swift. 
SaKbt wos^ a fleet horse. (4) thick, intense, Tjara wa ^^ra " 
sakhta, there was dense darkness, Sa kh t sore dai^ the cold 
is intense. (5) sharp. De dagha tipak sa^t awoz dai^ this 
rifle has a sharp report. (6) bitter, Marg sakht shai dai^ 
death is a bitter thing. (7) severe. Sakht hakim^ a stem 

SaSSA {s. f) (1) sternness, severity. Alizi bondi sa^ti ma kawa^ do 
not be hard on Alizai. (2) speed. Wos mi sa^ti ko^ my 
horse is very fast. 

Salom {s. m.) salaam, greeting. Salom y£ de, oriya na rowochawaa, 
he saiaamed to me from some distance off, lit. threw me a 
salaam from afar, Wferta y^ 4^r salom wuw^, he greeted 
him effusively, lit. said many salaams to him, 

Sam {^dj.) (1) straight, Sama lyar do^ it is a straight road. 

Tiia sama ka^ straighten the sword. (2) level. Sam watan^ 
fiat country. (S) straightforward, Sam sa^ai^ a straight man. 

¥ 2 


Sambol {adf.) (1) coUeeted. Atbob sambol ka^ get your Hinff$ together. 
(2) restrained, Kbpul wos sambol ka che nor wos pa lagatta 
wn na waiyi^ control your horn io thai it may not kick the 
others, (8) careful , eelfreetrained.. Sambol sarai dai^ he 
is a well-behaved man. 

I^AMBOLBSHT («. Iff.) de/cnce, protection. Qfaaddai che \yfeiTaghla keli de 
khpul mol sambolesht she wokan^ when the raiding gang 
arrived the villagers made a good defence of their property. 

Sam £dbl {v. reg. intr.) to snuffle. Samuel ma kawa^ do not snuffle. 

Samoholai («. m.) where a hare lies, form. 

Samsa {s,f,) ladle. 

SAMsiKB {s. f) large lizard. Sams^e mi lida^ che de biza gawanda pa 
ear wa^ 6 tit wa sar ta ^u^y^shawela^ che da wa bya ze 
^wxLian^ / saw a big lizard thai had half a camel-load of 
bhoosa on its head and carried it to the top of a mulberry 
tree, intending to eat it by^and'bye. 


Samand {adj.) dun-coloured. Samand wos^ a dun horse. 

Sana {adj') pious. Sana sarai dai^ din mazab ko, he is apious man, 
he attends to {matters of) faith and religion. 

Sandaba {s. f) song. D^r^ sandare y€ wuw^yel^^ he sang, lit. said, 
many songs. 

Sandik {s. m.) box. 

Sandikai {s. m.) small box. 

Sankita {s.f) arsenic. 

Sanb {adj.) drawn into the nose, snuffed up. Nasor safir ka^ take 
the snuff. 

Sanb {S'f) hemp. De safSI'^ perai> a hemp rope. 

Sakzblla {s, f) forehead. Sanzella wnlagawa^ prostrate yourself y lit. 
press your forehead {to the ground). 

Safawbl {v. reg. tr.) to winnOw by throwing in the air. R^h€ mi 
wusapawelyfij / have winnowed the grain. 

Sapfab (s. m.) shed, shelter. 

Sapfa^ See Tbaffaii. 

Sae {s. m.) (I) head. Dastor pa sar ka, put your pagri on your 

head. Sar mi gerz^zhi, my head goes round,\.e. I feel giddy. 
£ to pa ma^ ksh^ mizh sar pr^kawi, we will die for youy 
lit. will cut off our heads before you. (2) top. De ghre 
pa sarina^ on the mountain summits. De mofirai pa sar 
bondi de mzhe shkar lak di, rams* horns are fixed upon the 
top of the tower. (3) beginning. De Kuran sar Alia hamdo 


do^ ^' Mlai hamdu '' is the leginning of the Kuran. De 
sara or £ sara, hefotey formerly . Pa mo na de sara nikar 
dai^ he has been in Oovernment employment since before me, 
£ sara das^ bandobast wan^ formerly such teas ike arrange^ 
ment (4) end, point, tip. De lar^ sar^ the end of the 
slick. (5) separate individual or community, self De kom 
kom pa sar bondi gwnshai gwnshai jnrm dai^ there is a 
distinct fine upon each separate tribe, Yo sar ye dai^ che 
mef sbi by& h^teok nishta, there is only himself, when he 
dies there is no one (left), 
Saka [prep,) See Grammar, page 39, 

Sabdarai (s, m,) threshold (of door), 

Sarinda^ (s. f) three-stringed fiddle, Sarindan ye wutrangawela^ he 
played the fiddle, 

Sarkawel [v. irr. tr.) {conjugated as kawel) to make red-hot. Nakhashf 
mi Barker! di^ I have made the skewers red'hof. 

Sarkor {s.m,)(l) Government, (2) natural chief or leader, Sarkor 
sarai dai^ he is a born leader of men, Sarkor mB.zj[^, principal 
ram in afloci, 

SarkunItai {adj.) red-t ailed, SarkunStai bambur^ hornet. 

S ARSB^YiNAi {adj,) for shaving the head. Sarkhfeyinye cbore, razor, lit. 
head-shaving knife. 

Sarlata {adj^ aimless, Sarlaya shor^zbi, he wanders about aimlessly. 

SARMAcni {s. f».) wooden or metal pin with which antimony is applied 
to the eyc'lids. 

Sarpak {adj.) on the top, superficial. Sarpaka g£Iai lagedely^ do^ the 
bullet grazed, lit. struct superficially. Sarpak lau^ super- 
ficial reaping, i.e. taking the ears and leaving the straw 

SarpCsh {s. m.) lid. 


Sarra («.y*«) manure. 

Sarbota (*./.) alms given at the end of Bamazan. Sarsoya de Kam 

A^tar pa wrez bondi w^rkawi, they give sarsoya on the day 

of the Little Id. 
Sartor {adj.) bare-headed. 
Sarwai {s. «.) hole {of any kind). 
SarwIkla (*./.) copper. 
Sa&yad {s. f».) frontier, border. 


' ■ ■ ~ ^-^^^^— ^— — 

Saezorai {adj.) refraeioiy, ohiti^ate, 

SarzorI (*.y.) olsiinacy, wifftUnesi. 

Sarai («• i«.) (1) fnan. She Barai/ a ^ood man^ saint. {%) fellow. 
£ Ba^aiya I ^^ y^^ / (3) man'» height. Da t&lo pa sari na 
gbawar dai^ thai tank is deeper than the height of a man. 

Sa|iak («. fv.) regular made roady eart-road, 

Bl^o (*./.) plain, level country, 

SlT («. m.) (1)' invitation, De wnlmastij^ B&t mi w^rta ke^ dai^ 

I have invited him to enjoy my hospitality, (2) refusal 

out of politeness, Satina sara ko, they are {both) refusing 

from politeness, Wolma^ marai U^wura, 8&t ma ka^ eai^ 

my guest, do not he shy^ lit. decline* 

Satar (#. m.) seclusion {of women), Satar soti^ they observe seclusion. 

Satarhanda {adj,f) iept in seclusion, secluded. 

Sate (*./*.) verandah f covered porch. 

Satel {v, reg, tr.) {I) to lap, Spai pa ^ebba satel ko, the dog laps 
with its tongue, (2) to sup, De Wazir^ %ra pa gute 
sately^ shi^ Waziri porridge is supped with the finger, 

Satido («'/*•) purchasing, business, trade, Dera aaudomikerye do^ 
I have bought a large number of things. 

Saudogar {s, m.) merchant, dealer. 
Saudo! {adj.) flighty, peculiar (person), 

Sauka {adj.) easy, simple. Sauka ch&r, easy affair. Sauka lyar^ easy 

Sawob {s. m) reward in the world to come, religious merit, 

Sata {s. f) (1) breath, Sftya y6 lan^a do^ his breath is short, 

Sftya mi khately^ do, I am out of breath, (2) spari of life. 

Mer dai, s&ya pa ksh^ nishta, he is dead there is no life %% 

Sazo (^•yO punishment, 
Sazs («. m. used also as adj.) present year. Sazb-kol warandai kol 

na dai^ the present is not a rainy year. Pftroe-fia^^ Ictst year. 

T& paros-aagbj year before last. 
S A^ {s. f) fmHsie oorial. 
S ASilyAi (adf.) of this year, sf the present year. 
Sfl {s.f) ink. 

Sekra {s. /.) pith. De maserri sekra^ pith of the dwarf -pains {eaten 
by Waziris), 

_ « • 

Sbl {s. m. and adj.) hundred. Vtk selgina ripai mi l^ars shw^ 

my rupees were spent by hundreds, i.6. I spent hwsdreds % 


Sih {s. m,) head of lance, iron tip of stick,^ 

S^LGAi («. m.) last breath of life. . S^Igaiye wukra, nishta, mef dsi, 

he has breathed hie last, he is no more, he is dead. 
SJ:r («. m) seer. 

SkEA (*.y.) mulberry-bird. 
Sbekai («. m) chicken-pox. 
Sbrkawel {v. irr, tr) [conjugated as kawel) to sup, drink by sips. £gT& 

mi serkery^ do^ 1 have supped the porridge. Chai mi serkerai 

daiy 1 have sipped the tea. 
Sbst (^'0 (1) loose. Da tor di seat tarelai dai, you have tied that 

string loosely. {I) slack, lazy. D^r sest saraji dai^ he is a 

very lazy man. 
Sesta [s. f) want of energy, slackness, laziness. Sesta ma kawa^ 

pull yourself together. - 
Set {^dj,) swept off, or down, Stera \rabo roghla, ^alk y£ set ko, 

a violent epidemic of cholera has broken out, lit. come, and is 

sweeping off the people. Pa Wona kshe dfer Maheid set 

shwel [in the fight) at Wana many Mahsuds were laid low. 
S^TA. i^'f) \head of maize, S^te remote ka che wu ^ chichan^ 
Se^ai {s, m,) J break me off some maize-heads that I may chew, lit. 

bite^ them. 
Setta (*./.) (1) trunk of tree, (2) stump of tree. 
S^TA {^'f^ hare. De watan sfya de watan spai mm, it is the dog of 
or the country that catches the hare of the country [Waziri 

Soya proverb). 

SAya («•/*•*) earnest money, 

S£zel (v, irr, tr,) (1) to burn, Indi che mer shi byft sezi^ when 
or a Hindu dies [then'] they burn him. (2) to broil. Piyoz pa 

Swel S^ori ksh.^ wuseza^ broil the onions in ghee, (3) scald, 

Sezhai (s. m.) lungs, 
SicHA {adj,) (1) unalloyed, unadulterated. Sicba sra zar^ pure gold 

Sicha cliaiy unadulterated tea. (2) thorough , out and out, 

Sicha Busulmon, a true Muhammadan. 

SId {s, m,) (1) profit, gain. Sid ^ir dai pa kshe, there is much profit 

in it. (2) interest {on money) . Pa Shariat ksh^ sid rawo na dai, 
according to Muhammadan law {to take) interest is not right. 

SiJLGAi {s. m.) one of the constellations. 

Sic {s. m.) blow with tie cUnphed fist {little finger leading,) Yo 

sik, dwa sikai wMa mi wuw&h^l^ I hip him one, two, blows. 

SlQ (^^f*) straight »,Si3^ wndaxa, stand straight. Sikh robondi 
Bo^aip he came straight up to met . Sikha ly&c do^ it is a 
straight road. Slialk sara si^ na dai^ the people are not 


9traight among tienuelvei, i.e. are diiunited. Kbpul dush- 

man j6 pa d^j ohor^ wnwaiyao, Ae slew lie enemy witk 

etraigkt knives^ i.e. with blowe of a knife keld straigkt, i.e. 

stabbed kim to deatk. 
SlEB (^* ^0 (1) 'i'^^^ skewer, spike. (2) eleaning-road. (S) ramrod. 
SiLAi («. fl».) ^ftw^/tf kead^rope, tetker. 
SiLAWXL (f • r^^. tr.) to wear away. Chofe 4^nk silawelj^ do, M^ i(«e//? 

is mnek worn. 
SlLHA (^•/•) peace after war, restoration of peace. 
SiM (s. m.) eye {of a needle). Df sten^ sim, needle^eye. DeDande 

pa maindon ksh^ de stexi^ pa sun €bd na mind^ k^zbi^ on ike 

Dande Plain not a needle's eye^/ull of water is {to be) found. 
SiNA (*./.) breast. 
SiNAT {s. m.) circumcision. Kbpnl zyai ji sinat kerai dai, ke kas kad 

kis son circumcised. 
SiNATi {s. f) request, petition. Mizb sinat! lari, wekave sometking to 
or SInatI ask. Wa ^pul malik ta sinati wuka, make tke request to 

your own malik. 
SInd {s. m.) large river. B^ la Kurram^ de Bind na, nor Wazir 

gindina na "pei^Ati, except tke Kurram tke Waziris know no 

[ptker^ great rivers. 
SiNDOV {s. m.) anvil. 
SiNp {s. m.) dry ginger. 
Sipo! See SpoI. 
SippAT (#• m.) praise. TShx mi sippat w^rta kerai dai, I kave praised 

kim kigkly. Tdht mi sippatina wukrel^ 1 uttered many 

Sla {adj.irr.) (1) red. 8re ZBXy red precious-metal, i.e. gold. (2) 

bay. Sir wos, bay korse. (3) dry. Sir kol, dry year, i.e. 

drougkt. (4) dried up. Pasal sir shewai dai> tke karvest is 

parcked up. 
SfaA {st /•) cry, skout, scream. Sii6 ye der^ wukr^, ke cried out 

SlRA ('•/*•) redness. Awwal che my^r sira wuwiihela, miz^ pa lyar 

rawon shwi^ we started on tke way at dawn, lit. wken first 

tke sun skot out its redness, 
SiBANG {s. m^ (1) tunnel, boring. Pa f^xi k^h^ sirangina waheli 

tkey kave made tunnels tkrougk tke kills. {V) blast, 

Sirang wurzawel, to fire a blast, spring amine. 
SlaAT (t. i».) (1) constitution, body. Sirat y^ tanderest dai, ke kam 4$ 

kealtky constitution. (2) figure. Palasiyi sirat j6 dai, Ae 
kas an erect carriage^ 


SiBiN («. m.) iiris, Hnd of tree. 

S!tbIt {aif) (1) tight. Bor mi pa ^re sTtbit tarelai dai, I have made 

the load fast upon the donkey. (2) huddled-up, i.e. suliy. Sitbit 

ma ksh^na, wnzbaj^^gba) do not sit and iuli, say something. 
SiYOL (s, m,) rival. Siyol mi dai pa bar kor ksh^, he is my rival in 

SiTOiJ {s.f.) rivalry. Mo saraBiyoIi ki, he keeps up a rivalry with me. 
SiTON (s. m.) fiUy rasp. Pa siyon i ka, put it to the file, Le.file it. 
Siyon AWEL {v. reg. tr.) to file down or away. 
SsAKBAi (adj.) dari'brown. Skafitai wos, brown horse. 
Skashtel {v. irr. tr.) (1) to cut cloth with a knife or scissors. (2) to get 

to the bottom of. Af^ sarai kiss^ skafiti^ that man treats 

subjects in a masterly way. 
Skat {s. m.) money distributed at a funeral. Ster ster sk&tina yd 

wnkfel^ they distributed large sums in funeral alms. 
Skazai {s. m.) stitch. 
Sxil {s. m.) embroidery {with coloured thread). Pa Wasit skfi mi 

kerai dai, I have embroidered, lit. made embroidery on, the 

tunic. P^r skaina mi keri di, I have embroidered {it) 

thickly, lit. made many embroideries. 
Ssil See SkjtI. 

SkeIoab {s. m.) '^embroiderer. Dira sk^igara do^ she is a very {skilful) 
SkeIoaba («./.) J embroiderer. 

Skenbai {s. m.) earring. 

Sk^yi (s. f.) pitch-fori. Dwapkbi^sby^, tealw^r-^^sby^, skA, a twc 

^^ pronged, four-prongedj pitch-fork . 


SKof% {(^dj.) dark-complexioned. 

Skob {s. m.) piece of charcoal. PI. skora, charcoal. 

Skwbstbl (t;. to clip, shear {an animal). Da wza wuskola^ 

shear that goat. 

SsBANDAB {s. m.) young bullock which has got 4 to 6 teeth, 


Sqab {s. m.) father'in-law. 


SSBBBONA {s.f.)father^n'law's family, relations by marriage. 

Snai {s. m.) woollen thread, worked. 

SoBB {s. m. pi.) kind of vegetable eaten with bread. 

SoBlV {s. m.) soap. Fa losina BobiA wumazba, rub soap on your 

hands f i.e. wash your hands with soap, Lostna pa iobia 

wuwissca; wash your hands with soap. 



SoDB (adj*) iimple, plain. Sode. a|^& w! ohe. 2idd {Muryob pa kshe 
na w!j ^tf »> a Hmple*minded man, in whm ii no rancour nor 

Sool i^dj.) keptf f reserved. Shai mi she soga kant^ / kave lept the 
thing earrfulljf. 

SofiH^T (9. m) present, gift. 

SoK (*. «.) April. 

Sola (*•/•) 0) watchman's platform fixed in a tree or on poles, 
(2) loft, space between ceiling and roof 

SoLii (*. fn) red cloth of a common quality, inferior to alwon. 

SoNGA {S'f) pihe. De los eonga^ spear, lit. hand-pike. De swora 
80Dga, lance, lit. horseman^s pike. ' 

Sop {adj) (1) clean. Mzeka Bopa do, the ground is clean, 

(2) purged of evil, reformed. Wazirgai che wilayat ta shan 
nor Bop shan, after W. was put in the loch-up he became a 
reformed character. 

So^t (adj. irr) (1) cool, cold. Sor watan dai, it is a cool, or cold, 

country, D& saia tebba do, garm dori wo^bla, this is a cold 
ague, take heating medicine. (2) slaci, lazy. Sor sarai, 
an easy-going man. (3) recovered. Tebb^ ze mwdai yan, 
goy y6 na yan or k^n, / have got fever, I have not yet 
recovered from it. 

SoM ('• ^0 c^^d. Ke sore di shi p^stin wojjiunda, if you feel cold 
put on the postin. De Bore wakht dai, it is the season for 
cold. Sore wahelai y&n, zeke gbund drat mi khwazfaezhL 
/ have caught cold, lit. cold has struck me, that is why my 
whole body is uncomfortable. 

SosKAi {s. m.) drop {offiuid). 

SoTBL {v. reg. tr,) (1) io keep for self. Ze na i^woran, te wusota, 
I do not want {it), keep it for yourself. • (2) to keep. De 
tose Uialk dofite pa sandikina ksh^ soti ke pa kandiha kshe 
Boti ? do your people keep fiour in boxes- or in wall-cup^ 
boards ? (3) io cherish. She y6 Bota, cherish him well. 
(4) io defend. Qzon de jaasoD^ na wusota, protect yourself 
from, i.e. beware of, spies. 

SoTBNNA (*./.) cherishing. De zhenki Botenna mi wukra, / cherished 
the boy. 

SoTiNKAi (s. m. and adj) (1) keeper. E mo de ^os sotinkai dai, he Jl^eeps 
my horse. (2) one who keeps and' dp^s not lose,prospefimM: 
D& Baudogar sotinkai sapd dai, bida y6 bIJ, nukson y£ na ^\i\^ 
that merchant is a prosperous man, he gains and never loses. 

SozAK {f. m.) gonorrhea* 


6pii («. m.) dog. Tojl spoi^ eoursing dog^ grey-hound, Bikash spaii 
dog ikat Tun$ hf %cen%. Lot! spftU Wntiri toaieh-dog, 

BpaI^sai («. m,) (1) cotton twist or tape, newar, Spalitsai de k&rb^skj 

or na jorfzhi, newar is made of cotton, (2) guinea-worm, 

SfbSbsai Spafi^sai p£ wuUbatelai dai^ a guinea-worm has come out, lit. 

risenf on him, De Wa^re pa watan ksh^ de spaC^si bimor! 

bilkul nishta^ the disease of guinea-worm does not exist 

at all in the Waziri country, 
Spa^a. (*./.) louse. 
Spjbk {^dj,) (1) light. Spek bor^ a light load. (2) insignificant* 

De to plor ze epek wngafitelan^ your father counted me, i.e. 

treated me as, insignificant. 
Sp^khbz {s, m,) (1) bladder. (2) groin, 


SpiiiANAi {s. m.) seed of sponda. De sp^lanai ligai ka, ke wagbm 
d^rbondi rogbelai wi, che jorsh^, maie smoke ofsfelanai, ie. 
burn it J if a sjoell be come upon you, so that you may recover, 

Spblhai (s.f) ai-plant, 

SpBNlsAt See Spanbsai. 

Sp^ba {^dj,) (1) useless, inefficient. Spfera safui, a man good for 
nothing, (2) dull-coloured and barren. Sp^ra ghar^ a sad" 
coloured hill without verdure. (3) only, absolute. Sp^ra 
b^wasti doy it is (a case of) absolute helplessness. Waoha 
sp^ra dagha ^abaia doj the fact is Just this. 

Sri^BKAi {s,f) ajwain. , 

SpfK {(xdj,) (1) white. Spin zar^ white precious-metal, i.e. silver, 
(2) bright. Pa spina vreZy by bright day, i.e. in broad 
daylight. (3) sincere. Spin Ba^ai^ man in whom is no guile. 

SpIka («./.) (1) 4-annaMt. (2) muscle of calf. Che ' chigha pas^ 
gad4a shwa de ghle spin^ wutesh^^ when the pursuit party 
turned out after {them) the muscles of the thieves^ legs ran up, 
ije. the thieves got cramp in their legs. 

SpIitai (*. m,) ring^worm, 

SpInsbab:^ {sf. pi.) dross of iron. 

SpIkq^aba {s,f,) hone, whet-stone. 

SpIntia^ {s. m,) whiteness, etc. See Spin. Bangla spintia hsi, the 
SpIkwolai house is white, 

SpIh^bai («. m.) greybeard, old man, elder, ^ 



SPOl or (#. m.) (1) ^pojii native ioldier, lety or policeman, Nen 
Sipol flpoyon^ tira .keryj do^ He men have foughi well io-iay, 

(2) [in Toehi) pro/eisional bully, bravo, 

Sfonda (*./.) a plant. 

Sfob See Swon. 

Spora ('•/•) plough, Nen mi spora tarelyj do^ jewji wa wnVan, 

to-day I have harnessed the plough, and will do some ploughing, 
Spobel {v, reg, tr,) to commit, entrust. Pa Khudai mi spoielai j6, 

I have committed you to Ood, \j^, farewell I 
Sporesht (s, m.) recommendation {for a favour or appointment), 

Sra (^•/O drought, dry season, 

SbabInIai {s, m,) mongoose, 

Sbapp {s, m) tree {somewhat resembling spruce fir), 

SRlisH {s, m,) glue. Pa sr^sh 6 sh&Ub kerai dai^ he has fixed it with 

Sb£shan (a^O sticky, adhesive, SrSshenna ^atta^ heavy clay, 

Sbisha («./.) bug. 

Stanny^-StIqh {adj.) recumbent, lying on back, 

Stbk (*•/•) n^^dle, Lmofitye sten, sewing needle . {3 or 4 inches 
long), De ^indi sten^ packing needle {6 or 7 inches long). 

Stbny]6 (*•/•) pole^ De ^nfi steny^, tent-pole. 

Stbb {adj.) (1) great, large, Sterjoz, a great ship, (2) eldest, elder. 
Ster zyai, eldest, or elder, son, (8) great, important. Pa 
Wazir^ ksh^ ster sarai Man! dai^ M'ani Khan is the greatest 
man among the Waziris, (4) early, Ster wa^t^ early hour, 
i.e. aboui 3 or 4 a.m. 

Stbboa {s.f) eye, Shai, kifita, sterga, right, left, eye. L^chenna sterga 
bleary eye, Chi^renna sterga^ rheumy eye. De sterg£ 
kulpai; socket of the eye, Sterg£ y^ ^\\A ^-9^% his eyes 
became covered, i.e. he fell asleep, Zangona^ or titye^ sterga^ 
knee-eye or low-down eye, i.e. knee-cap. Pa d w^-sar^ sterg^ mi 
hukm manelai dai, / have accepted the order on both my eyes, 
i.e. / bow submissively to the order, Kazjbe stergfe w3£ 
r'&rawe, why do you turn crooked eyes towards me, i.e. why do 
you look at me askance ? Pa tit^ sterge mo ma kessa, do not 
look at me with a down-turned eye, i.e. do not regard me con* 
temptuously. Mo sara eterg^ na slu i^afawelai, he cannot 
make his eyes meet mine, cannot look me in the face, Sterga 
y£ rapeghi; his eye winks. 







(adj.) tiredy exhausted, 

(*./.) trouble, pains, Dfera di eterye wukra, ze de to pa steryi 
^appa shwan^ you have taken great painsy I am very sorry 
for the trouble you have taken. 

{adj, irr,) going bach. Robtin^ coming back. Agha sand mi 
rostin kan^ I brought that man back. Sari mi Btona krel, / 
sent the men back. 

{s. m.) inside of throat. Stimd mi ^wazb^zhi^ I have a sore^ 

{s.f.) spiritual guide, De Ghazlami piron de mizb stona do^ 
the Firs of Ghazlamai are our spiritual guides. 

Stonaoai (^4;.) belonging to the class of spiritual guides. 

Stobai {s. m.) (1) star. De kutab storai, pole-star. (^) mushroom. 

Suh£l (s, m) the South. 

SuoL (s. m) (1) humble request, petition. Suol ma rota ka^ do not 
beg anything of me, (2) loan. 'Jlpak mi pa suol ghwqshtai 
dai^ 1 have sent for the gun on loan, i.e. have borrowed it. 

SuBHAL {s. m.) spear-grass, 

SuBOD ( s, m.) tune, air {instrumental music), 

SuBODi {s. m.) player on an instrument, musician. Ke surodi sha 
sandara na wfyelai, nor wa damra khalk w^b^ shewai na 
^ wan, */ the player on the instrument were not singing a good 
song, so many people would not have collected together, 

SoBOi {s. m.) sarai. 

SwABA {s*f) a specified woman given in compensation or payment. 

SwABLAi («. m.) riding, horsemanship, 

SwBL See SizEL. 

SwBL {v. irr, intr,) to burn, be on fire, burn up. Kor mi wusio, 
my house was burnt down. Also figuratively, Zre j6 
p£ wnsio, his heart burned on him, i.e. he was moved with 
pity for him. Kulm^ mi pi sw^zi, my bowels burn for him, 
i.e. / am moved with compassion for him. 

Swob or {adj.) mounted, riding on. Ehapessa p^ swftra wa, a night- 
Spob mare was on the top of him, i.e. he had a nightmare. 

{s. m) (1) any horseman, rider. (2) sowar, trooper, cavalry- 
man {declined similarly to the irr* adj. See Grammar.) 

Syqba («./.) shade. 

Stobai {s. m) the shady side of the hill. 

^^'^ - 



ShIbIsh {int) bravo/ {either sincerely or ironically), Sh&b&sh, she ajiba 
or kor di wukan, well done I a nice mess you have made of it. 

SnoBASHi Sh&b&sh d& wi, well done I lit. may it he bravo ! 
Shaolan (adj) sandy. 

ShIhId (#. m,) (1) Mukammadan martyr. (2) any Mukammadan who 
meets with a violent and undeserved death. 

Shahwat {s. m.) lust, sensuality. ^ 

ShahwatI {adj.) lustful, sensual. 


Shai {(idj) right {as opposed to left). Pa shi lo8 ksh£ zor dte dai 
there is much strength in the right hand, 

Shai {s. m) thing. De d^ shi tse matlab dai ? what is the meaning of 
this thing ? Der shaiyina mi pa char di^ L require many things. 
Gulom Khon tee shai dai ? whoit thing is G. K. ? i.e.^ / care 
not a straw for G. K. 

Shaib {s. m.) poet. De Slma Kh^Ta* Marftm sh&ir dai^ if. of 8. K. is 
a poet. 

Shaiton (*. m.) (1) Satan, devil. Ghund^alk shaitonondi, the people 
are all devils. (2) rage, anger. D&r shaiton niteelai dai^ 
he is in a violent passion. 

Shajaba («./.) genealogical tree. De ghunde Wazirfi yawa ahajara do, 
all the Waeiris have one genealogy, i.e. a common descent. 

Shakaea {s.f) small brown sugar.' Tarari shakara^ small white sugar. 

Shakk {s. m.) doubt. Shakk mi shi, / feel doubtful {about it). 
B6-shakk i&s6 wa wi, no doubt it must be so. 

Shake {adf\) (1) buried. Dolata yo me^ai eihaUb dai, a corpse is 
buried here. (2) sunk. Chiker dai, sliakh wa sh^, there is 
mud, you will sink in it. (8) stuck. Pa sr6sh ye sh&Ub kend 
dai, he has made it fast with glue. (4) caught, stuck. De 
Wazir pa ^wosh ksh^ gh^sha gha^a shwa, nor Waziz Ynxw6, 
zeke mi pa Daw^F Hog^ kan, che g^^sha sha na wa pakfaa 
ke^'ye, a piece of meat stuck in the tooth of a Waziri ; the 
Waziri said, '^For this reason I impose a fine upon the Dauris, 
that they did not cook the meat well" {Incident related of the 
Waziri occupation of Tandi Killa.) (5) reached. Til pa wi^i 
shft^ dai, the young earn has eome iwto ear. (6) engaged. 



Bar£?ar pa wa^t jagga^ta sh&^a shewy^ wa^ battle was 
joined in tie Jorenoon. (7) t]^ent. Dere ripai pa d& n6kai 
ksh^ fihftUbe shw^^ much money was spent in {effecting) this 

ShIqI- ('./•) tussle f rough-and-tumble fight. 


ShaQ^del {v. reg, intr.) See Shasb. Also means, to be entangled. Zhebba 
y6 sh&^ezhi^ his tongue gets entangled, i.e. he stammers in 

SHAitlQA («./.) kind of millet. 

Shamiyoe {s. m.) python, huge snake. 

Shammab if. m.) (1) service, good offices. De Sarkor shammar pa mo 
bond! wa wnshi, / can perform certain services for Govern- 
ment, lit. service of Government can come about through me. 
De gliun4 klialk shammar ko^ he does good turns for 
everybody. {Vj use. De shammar shai^ ^useful thing. B^ 
shammara shaij useless thing. 

Shambita {s.f) kind of vegetable. 

Shamzai {s.f) back {of body). 

Shan (^* ^0 ^^^^^^j resemblance, only in such phrases, as Pa shftn^ or 
or sh&n ta, like. W^agh sh&n ta sarai dai^ he is a man like that, 

Shon i.e. that sort of man. De de pa shan w6I^ kor na k^ ? why 

do you not work like him ? Fa kim shon ? Da shon. ^ow ? 
In this manner. 

SHAKDfcL {v. reg. tr) to spend. Dfer^ ripai mi p^ wushandely^, / spent 
much money on it. De yagh sari na zeke 4^r^2han che 
mo pas^ d^re ripai shandi^ 1 am qfraid of that man because 
he spends much money after me, i.e., to get me killed. 

Shanp (^4/0 ^^^^^> uncultivated. 

Shangebai {s. m) ankle. Shangerai mi wushtai dai^ / have strained my 
ankle, lit. it has turned over. 

Shab («. m.) city, town. 

Shaba See Shabiat. 

Shabbat (s. m.) sherbet, eau sucrSe. 

Shabiat {s. m.) the code of Muhammadan law. 


Shabik {s. m.) cultivator {who is paid by a share of produce), tenant. 

Mzeka wa sharik ta mi wirkerye do^ 1 have given out the 

land to a cultivator. 
Shabiki {s.f) cultivation {on payment ef a shaire cfthe produce), tenancy. 


Shabm {s, m.) (1) iente of Aanaur, Paahtona |^an4 sharm lari^ all 
PatianM have a senee of honour. (2) sense of propriety ^ 
modesty, De sharm sarai, modest man. (3) compensation 
{for an insult). AzUmir Wazir, ohe Sarkor mer kan byft 
Dawarj wuwj ohe de mikb sharm roka^ token Oovemment 
put to death the Watiri Azdlmir, the Dauris said " Pay us 
compensation " (sc. for the insult you have caused us by 
executing him in our presence). 

Shasunok {adf.) having a strong sense of propriety, modest, shy. 

Shabop { alcoholic liquor, spirits, wine. D^rsharopy^robondi 
tsheli wi; he made me drink a lot of spirits, lit. he kad caused 
to he drunk muck spirits by means of me. 

SuABT {s. m.) (1) condition. De mmdi de wdrkawel^ da shart dai^ 
che . . • .J ike condition of granting time is tkis, tkat .... 
(2) bet, wager. De yaw^ ripai shart mi kerai dai^ / kave 
bet a rupee, lit. made a bet of one rupee. 

Shabai {s.m.) (1) coarse woollen cloth, home-ytun. Pashmi sharai^ 
pashmina* (2) Waziri jacket of woollen clotk» 

Shaudb See Shodb. 
ShaugIb {adj.) nigkt-blind. 


Shau^ba (*./.) rain-storm. De watan shaugir^ shewye di, tkere kave been 
storms with rain over the country. Shaugira 6 mwely^ do, 
it keeps on raining, lit. it has taken on a rain-storm. 

Shauk {s. m.) liking, fondness. De shkor 4^t shauk y^ dai^ he is very 
fond of shooting. 

Shaukadab {s. m.) Shabkadar, tie Night of Power. 

Shauki ifldj') devoted to, fond of {a thing or pursuit). 

Shautolai {s. m.) peach. 

Shawtala {s.f.) clover. 

Shazoda {s. m) prince. 

Shazodqai (*./.) queen, princess. 

She {adj.) (1) good. She sa^ai^ saint, Hi. good man. She^an- 

d&ni^ good and bad. Sha Ubwori woka^ work really hard, 
lit. make good exertion. Rosara j6 dhi she wukrel^ he treated 
me very well, lit. he did very good with me. (2) well, 
restored to health. Ss de she kedel^ dai^ ^ow he is likely to 
get well. De tabib dorai ze na k|^Q she^ the physician's 
medicine did not make me well. 


Shi^ba («. /.) shower. Wor pa sWb^ pa pesh^ -waredan, it ramed 
heavily hy fiU and 9tartSy lit. the rain was raining by 
showers and plumps, 

Sh]£bla (*.y.) centipede {large kind). 

Shegebra (s.f.) (1) goody advantage. Lauz di dai che de mo shegerra 
wa wuke ? do you promise to do what you can for nie ? lit, 
is it your promise that you will bring about my advantage ? 
i^) favour. Shegerrra y^ manan^ / own his favour y i.e. / am 
conscious of the favour he has done me, I am grateful to 

Shsgga {s.f) (1) sand. (2) shingly bed of a nullah, e.g. Bobi Shegga. 
SnAm (s. m.) acolyte, votary of a shrine, disciple of a celebrated 

Shel (*. m) stair (built of stones or earth). 

Shbl [s. m.) a score, twenty. ^T§6 shela wz6 tere shewy^ di? how 
many score goats have gone past ? 

ShISl [adj. irr.) (1) uncultivated. Shala mzeka^ uncultivated land. 
(2) useless. Sh^l sarai^ useless man. 

Sh^l£ (s.f pi.) rice. St6 shele, red rice (inferior hind). Spine 
sh6\e, white rice (superior kind) ^ 

Sh^lgae (s. m.) rice-field. 

Shekgsabai (s. m.) man whose hair is beginning to turn grey, man of 
40 to 50, middle-aged. 

Shenzy^ (s.f) boil. Dona khatelye do, na j& p^zhenan che shenzy€ do 
ke tee dona do, a lump has risen, I cannot distinguish 
whether it is a boil or what kind of lump it is. 

Shbpoiya (*• y.) shufa, right of pre-emption. Shepoiya de mo do, the 
right of pre-emption belongs to me. 

(adj^ subject to shufa. Shepoiya mzeka do, the land is subject 
to pre-emption rights. 

Sh^ba (^^f) o. salt or alkali in the ground. De sher^ mzeka, bitter 

SniiEA (9'f) curse, malediction. Darpa Sifl de Zalmi de Saidgi de 
or Shoba shfere na ^aiezhi che de mizh kelai wa toi yosi, the people of 
Darpa Khel are afraid of the curse of Zalmai, the Saidgi, 
thinking ^^ Lest perchance the river should wash away our 

ShJ:eai (s. m.) measles. Shferi ydniwelai dai, he has caught measles,\iU 
measles have caught him. 




iSHiaiAWEL {v» reff, tr.) to teaie. Dft spai ma sh^rawa^ do not tease that 

Sh£shn£del {v, teg. intr.) to neigh. 

Shewa (*./•) sAeesham tree, 

Sh^yikd {e. m.) wall-piece, l&ng gun. Makin ksli^ ster dieyiftd da^ 
there is a hig wall-^eee in Makin. 

Shsza {^./O (1) fooman, Dd Wazirf shezS mazbile di, the Waziri 
»omen are strong. Kltaropa dlie^a. bad iooinan^ i^. prostitute. 
(2) femaie {of animal) . ( 5^ Ur Jf 

SHE^aAi {s. m.) hedge-hog. Shez^gai wyaiy^ che de mo pa wiesham 
ha pasta z^ya ! Vke hedge-hog says ^^ Vh ^ 'Son, sqfter tha'^ 
sUh '^ ie, parents are blind to the defeats of their children*. 

Shial (adj.) (1) paralysed. Pa loana^ pa pshe shi&I dai, he is para-- 
lysed in his arms, in his legs. (2) altogether crippled, ^^ok 
pa dw^-sar^ pshi gud wi, w'agt ta miz^ shial wyaiyT, who- 
ever is lame of both his feet, him we call a complete cripple. 

Shik {s. m^ highway-rohhery. De sliik mol iroka, give me the pro- 
perty that was taken in the highwcty^oliefy. Be Lora pa 
nari bondi Akt shikSna sliewi di^ miiny highwai^-tohberies have 
been committed on the Lora Pass. 

Shil {s. m.) constipation. * 

Shim i^d;'.) mean, miserly, stingy. 

8hima {s. /.) (1) meal eaten after the day's fast in Samazan, 
supper. (2) funeral feast on third day, or first Friday, 
after a death. Pa plor pase ye sha shiiBa wiy^ra^ he gave a 
handsome funeral-feast on the occasion of his father's death, 

Shimat {s. m.) calumny^ baci'-biting, slander. Khalk der shimat ko, 
zeke mi awwal to ta weyeli di eke h&hfere de mo shimat 
wu na fnane, people are , greatly given to bach-biting, Ht. do 
much bach-biting, I have told you so at fhe very first, in 
order that you %ay never belike calumniiss against me. 
{Favourite remark of Waziri when he escpects appearances, 
and probably facts, to be against him.) 

Shimatgar {adj) calumnious, slanderous {person). 

or ' • 


SHiMJ^feft {adj.) man who eats heavily after the day^sfast. Zalmai 
shimkhfer dai, Z, is a heavy supper-eater in Ramazan. 

Shimwolai {s. m.) miserliness. Shimwolai ma ka^ sakhitob ka^ do not 
be a miser, be liberal. 

Shin {adj. irr.) (1) green, Shne wulie, green trees, Shne ebo^ green 
water, i.e. whey, (2) blue, Nen shin dai, ke weryez do ? 


is it blue (sky) to-day or are there cloMis f (8) grey. Shui 
wos, a grey hor^. (4i) Shft© §t»iPg6, ligU-colov>red eyee^ 
viz. blue, green or grey, 

Shin-milai (m.) | (^^. j ^^^^^ ^^ j 
Shna-nilai (/.) j^ -^ ' ^ , ^ 

Shirak {«. w.) i(jt?^(?r g't^f/^ {of bedding). 

Shiri - (*./.) beginning. Pa kitoba bondi es ml shiri terye do, / have 

begun the book, lit. made a beginning on the booh. Pa shirai 

kshe pam fea, be careful in the beginning. 
Shisha («. /.) (1) glass. (2) bottle, phial (of glass).. (8) dstisW, pt. 

spectacles. (4) looking-glass, mirror. Wgrki phietc pr^kawi, 

^alk gtojatawi, if^^ *«ta// boysjash pieces of looking-glass 

and annoy people. 
Shkalwo {s. f) indistinct noise {as of something moving). Shirai wo yg 

mi pa gh^:di bondi roghla. the vag»e sound of it reached my 

Shkanel {v. irr. tr.) to abuse, vituperate. Dfer sbbinel 6 wukrel, he 

gave vent to much abuse. 
Shkak {s. m.) horn {of an animal). De sbkar6 maftlab wi, 'de Akor 

bel matlab na wi, the object is [of\ the fii^rns {/^ tn^phies),,, 

them is no other object in shooting. 
Shkautatai {s.f.) tortoise^ 
SHK^ii (*. m) hobbling iy a hind and a fore-leg. 
ShkinIe {s. m.) porcupine. 
Shkob* {s.m.) (1) sporty shooting. Pfer shkorina mi w.ukfel^ I did a 

great deal of shooting. (2) game. De watan .shkor dfer dai, 

game abounds in the couniry. 
Shkora {adj.) visiblcy apparent. Monrai dvkoi-a ehwa, the tower ha9 

come in sight. 
Shkorzan {s. m) sportsman, hunter. De sbkorzene &dat dai, it is the 

habit of men out shooting. 
Shkor {s. m.) basket of dwarf palm for hoiSing br^ad. 
Shna-sra {s. f) rainbow, lit. green-red. Pa asmon ksh6 shna-sra do, 

there is a rainbow in the sky. 
Sho {s. f.) back. Pa sho mi gfcwufcta pa»4a rowyft, / brought 

a huge bundle on my baek. 
Shobash^ See ShaBash. 

Shodb {s. m. pi.) milk. Da sbaude na^ dJ, this miik is unadul- 

or terated. Vri^ wyaiyi che de mo pa shode pai na teka spina 

Shaube zeya f tie raven says ^f Oh my son, more dazzling white than 

any milk I ^' i.e. parents are Mirkd to the defects of their 


o 2 


Shodkai {8, m,) monkey. Pa Agrk keh6 shodki pa ramma shorezhi, in 

Agra the monkeys roam about in flocks. 
SHof {int.) get out I [only wed to cattle). 

Sho£ {adj.) (1) smooth. Shisha shoya do, glass is smooth. {%) slip- 
or pcry. Shw^ ^oi dai, it is a slippery place. 

Sho^del (i;. reg. intr.) to slip. Psha mi zeke wushw^da che a|^a dzoi 
shwi wan, my foot slipped because the place was slippery. 

Sho^kdok {adj.) slippery. 

Shoqaii {s. m.) one of the paces of a horse, quick walk. "Wos mi 
she shogam ko, my horse steps out well* 

Shogbrd {s. m.) (1) disciple. De Mullo sliogerd, a follower of the 
Mulla. (2) pupil^ apprentice. Che ustoz ye m^ranai wi, 
ehogerdon y6 waiyi pradi uiulkira, when the teacher is good, 
the pupils over-run f lit. smite, strange countries. 

Shoi {s. m. irr.) cloth {of any kind). 

SHOIPkBAI {s. w.) 1 ^ . 

SHOIPiRAIYi (#./.)/ •^' 

Shoista {adj.) handsome. Stoista dzwon, a good-looking young man. 

Shol (*. m,) shawl {for throwing over head). . Kashmiri shol di 

khwash dai ke Kobali ? do you prefer a Kashmiri or a Kabuli 
shawl ? 

Sholang (arf/.) (1) detained^ under arrest. Nen pa wilayat kshe 
shiolaBg dai, to-day he is in custody in the lock-up. (2) 
betrothed {woman only). Pa pulonki sholanga do, sAe is 
betrothed to so-and-so. 

Shon See Sham. 

Shoe {s. m.) (1) noise. Har wakht shor wi, there is always a noise 

going on. (2) unrest, disturbance. Pa watan kshe shor dai, 
there is {political) disquiet in the country. 

Shoeatfbl {v. reg. tr.) (1) to carry about. Hamesh tipak pa los shorawi, 
he always carries a gun with him, (2) to wear. Nisai pa 
ghwora ksh6 shorawi, he wears a pair of tweezers round his 
neck* (3) to cherish. Mo sara kina ma shorawa,. do not 
cherish malice against me. Also causative of shoredel q. v. 

Shori^dbl {v. reg. intr.) (1) to go about, wander. Ze dhr pase wnshor- 
^dan, na mi mindan, / went about a great deal looking for 
him, lit. after him, but did not find him, (^) fiit. Lmash* 
omak pos shorezlii, the bat above flits about. 


Shpa {^•/') night. Diesta shpa^ livelong nighL Nima shpa, mid- 
night. Karora ehpa^ Ment night, i.e. that part of night 
when all noises cease, De g^l6 shpa^ . a regular night 
for thieves, lit. thieves^ "night. De bakim zre pa tjara shpa 
kshe dai, the ruler's heart is in the dark night, i.e. is darkened 
noith indignation or anger, Shpe vreze, night and day. She 
sarai dai^ shp^ yrez£ K^udai yodawT^ he is a good many he 
calls on Ood^s name night and day, 

Shpan&hai {s. f) kind of bird, said to lure shepherds away from 
or their Jlocks iy seeming easy to be caught, 


Shp^l {s, m,) thorn-fence, Shp§lina de ghann^ na jor^zhe, thorn^ 

fences are made of cut bushes, 
Shp^lai {s, m,) whistling, Shp^lai ma waiya, do not whistle, 
Shp^ta {s,f,) tool used in making sandals, 
Shp^zhmai («. m,) (1) moon, (2) moon4ight, 

Shpun (s, m,) shepherd. De shpane kissa do, it is a story of shepherds. 
Shrang^dbl {v. reg, intr,) to jingle, 
Shbak (s, m.) sound of a blow, smack, etc, 

Shbak^del {v. reg, intr,) to resound, give the sound of Shbak q, v. 
Shbapawel {v. reg. tr.) (1) to wound, gash. (2) to eat hastily or noisily. 

Ma]^ ye zer zer wushrapawela, he gobbled the food in a 

hurry. {N,B» — Many Waziris affect to consider this word 

Shta (v. irr, intr.) is, there is, there exists, there is founds Dzoi 

shta ke na ? is there room or not ? Shta^ there is. Dase yo 
. sarai shta, such a man exists. Shkor pa de watan kshe shta, 

game is found in this country. See Grammar, page 37. 
Shuba i^'f) suspicion. 
Shtj&hla {s.f) brightness. De Im^r d^ra shughla do, the sun is very 

bright, lit. great is the radiance of the sun. 
Shukar {s, m.) thanks to God, gratitude to the Divine Power, Shukar 

wukozha^ be humbly thankful, lit. bring out, produce, gratitude 

to God. 
Shukabona {s,f,) thank-offering, dues, etc, given as a tribute of respect 

to a holy man. Bade Fakir pa Tochi kshS shukarona 

woHiestaj Baddi, the fakir, used to levy his dues in Tochi. 

Da mzeka pa shukarona y€ werkerye do, he has given this 

land as a grant to a holy man. 
Shum1!!B {s. m,) counting, calculation. Hete shumer y^ nishta^ there is 

no reckoning of them, i.e. they are countless. B^-shum^ra 

^ht i^y they are innumerable. 



SHWAWiJt (f . *99i.) wild olive tree. Dft pori thwawan win^ ? ^^ you see 
that wild olive over tiere ? 

Shwawanqai (*• «.) ««a/^ »f W <?Kt?^. 

Shw:^ See ShoA. 

Bhwbl (v. trr . init^j See Grammar^ pages 19^20. (1) io become. Mer 
shaO) he became dead, i.e. i2»tf^. Spin^irai shewai dai^ he 
has become an old man. {t) to gel. Aghzi wa di pa pshe 
shi, thorns will get into yofir/eet. (8) to be. De to agha tee 
shi ? what {relation) is he of you ? Ke sore di shi, if it is 
told to you, i.e. if you are cold. ' (4) to happen. Hamesh 
dase'shi che te pit^pala tlai na she, it always {so) happens 
that you are unable to go yourself Pa shwel ksh6 dase 
wuka^ do so at the time of its happening^ (5) to be able. 
Ze agha wftlielai Ba shsku, I cannot beat him. A|^a sari mo 
wahelai na shwel^ / was not able to beat those men. See 
Grammar, pages 33'^4. 


Ta {p^ep.) See Grammar, page 39. 

Taba («•/*•) (1) disposition, character. Taba y6 sha do, he is good" 
natured. (2) feelings. Ke taba kho di ^era na t^, but only 
if your feelings are not annoyed, i.e. only if it does not vex 

Tabai {^*f) (1) thin flat stone, used for bating on. (2) block of salt. 

Tabasbbiiai {adj.) vexed, irritated. Wastnok y€ ke tabakbend ? are you 
in good spirits or out of temper ? 

Tabel {v. reg. tr) to poultice with hot salt. 

Tabiat {s.m) disposition. Tabiat y^^angra dai? what sort of dis- 
position has he, lit. is his? 

Tabib {s. m.) physician. Pa tabib bond! dor! wuka, get yourself 
treated by the doctor, lit. do medical treatment by means of 
ihe doctor. 

tABi:6DziN {s. m.) sudorific treatment, inhaling of steam. 

TashaR {s.m.) stout cloth material used by fTaziris for counterpanes, 
for tying up bundles and as waterproof against rain. 

Taghma (*./.) medal. 

TAggBAWBL {v. reg. ir.) to tickle. 

Taqsw {S. fn.) banner, standards Pa gbund lasbkar ksh^ kim saral ret 
wi tagbw werzo^a "wi, the standard is carried by the most 
daring man in the whole tribal army, lit. in the whole 
tribal army whatever man is {most) desperate, (he banner i^ 
with him. 






















{aJj\) wjorried, nnhappy. Da sarai 4^r taghyir dai^ ta^^irawa 
y4 me,, that man is very mack worried, dp not bother him, 

(«. m) (1) teat {of woman or animal), Zhenkai che zhori na, 

mor pa khpiJa tai na wferkawi, when the child is not crying^ 

the mother does not give it the breast of her own accord. 

(%) Ti {pl>)i fo&man^s breast, 
(adj.) reqdjf, prepared, 
{s, m,) erown, diadem', 
{s, m,) invocation, the exclamation "All&to ^kfear*' {Ood is 

most great), med in cutting an animal's tJ^roat to kill it fox 

{s, «?.) fate,, destiny, Pa t^]c4ir kfiW das^ wa?;, it was so in 

fate, i,%,fate would have it so^ 
{s.f) sitting immoveable^ Fia^kir t^kiyfi wal^ely^ do, the fakir 

has taken a fixed attitude* 
(s.f) l0rge stone, roei, 
{s, m,) trouble, difficulty, 
{s. m.) dispute, aitercation. Taikror ma rosara ka^ do not 

wrangle with me. 
{ad^,) strong, energetic, mgorous, 

(s, /.) (1) energy, vigour, A|^a pa chig^a ksh^ dfera takr^yi 
wukra, he shewed great energy in the purs^itj, (2) insistence. 
Dera takr^yi mo w^saia \imkra, che da kor ma kawa, / 
insisted strongly with him th^it he should not do this thing. 

(s.f) piety, Takwa y^ Diwely^ do, he hqs t{iken {tq) piety. 

[s, m.) throne. * 

[s, f) •(!) wooden plank, (2) wooden bc^rd, ^y means of which 
{instead of a slate) writing is taught. (3) alphabet, which is 
taught by means of a board. T^^ta mi iwastye do, I have 
learned the alphabet, 

{s,f) (1) sole {of foot). (2) sole {of shoe). 

{s, m) salary, wages. 

{s, m) yard, court-yard {of a house). 

{v, reg. tr.) to weigh, 

{s, m,) numda {under saddle), 

{s.f) scale {of a balance), 

{s, m.) student (ec. of theology), lit. seeker {after knowledge). 

{a^,) fried, Gh^eh^ taliya )^, fry the meat. 

{s,f) scale {of a weighing machine). 

{s, m,) tank. 


TlroK {i. m.) divorce, Sbez^ ta mi talok i^i^^rkerai dai^ I hare given 
{my) wife a divorce. De dr^ tizb^ talok mi ftchawelai dai^ 
/ have ratified the divorce by casting the 3 stones, lit. / have 
east the divorce of the 3 stones. 

TIloka {adf. f) divorced. Da sheza taloka do^ l&loka mi kery^ do^ 
this woman is a divorcee, I have divorced her. 

TaloshI {i*f) search. De dagli sh! mi dfera t&loshi .wiikra^ mlndan mi 
na^ I have made great search for this thing, {but) could not 
find it. 

Tam {(^d/.) (1) stopped, stopping, at a standstill. Te pa t^ zen£ tarn 

bIiw^? why did yon desist from it? lit. for what did you 
stop from it ? £ mo pa bangla tam wan^ he was staying, lit. 
stopping^ at my house. De watan ghle tam shwel^ the 
thieves of the country have come to a standstill, i.e. theft 
has been cheeked in the country. (2) blocked. Shawol Joni 
Khel^ Bakka Khele tam kerai dai^ the /. Ks. and B. Ks. 
have closed Shawal, (3) established. Hakk mi Sarkor pa 
kdr ksh^ tam ka,, bel ta cbe w^r na k6^ da mi arz dai, 
establish my right with Oovernment, lit. in the house of 
Oovernmentf do not give it away to someone else, that is what 
I ask. 

Tama {s. f) greed, corruptness. Tama lar!^ tamador sarai dai^ he 
possesses greed, he is a corrupt man. 

Taicabok {adj.) greedy, corrupt. 

TamakI {s. m. pi) tobacco. 


Tamak|l (flrf;.) lukewarm. Tamafi^^ ^^> tamaWa %ra, lukewarm 
water, porridge. 

Tamba (*. f.) (1) door. Sbeza pa tSmba wuwata, the woman went <yid 
at the door, Tftmba lir^ ka, open the door, Tamba peri ka, 
shut the door. (2) lock-plate {of rifle) . 

Tambal {s. m.) tambourine. 

Tamb^dbl {v. reg. intr.) to stumble and recover onesel/T 

TambioV {s.m.) tent. Tftmbiyon lak shewi di, the tents have been 
ToMBi pitched. 

Tamom {adj.) finished, exhausted. Kitob tamom shan, the book is 
finished. Bangy^ tamom^ Aw6, the bhang is all done. 

Tan («. w.) person. Tbo tana di ? or ^6 tana sari di ? ffow many 

people, how many men, are there ? 

Tix (#. m) web, or length, of cloth. 




Tanda («. /.) (1) thirst. Tancla pa mo roghelye do, tiirsi has come 
upon me, (2) dryness^ drought. Pa watan (Jera tanda do^ a 
great drought is upon the land. (3) unquenchalle desire. 
To wa lldel ta mi d^ra tanda *do^ / have an ardent desire to 
see jfou. 
See Nanga. 

{s. m.) (1) thunderbolt. Tandar pa Achar Khel prewot^ a 
thunderbolt /ell in Achar Khel. (2) eclipse. MySslit tandar 
niwelj^ do, the moon is eclipsed^ lit. an eclipse has seieed 
the moon, 

Tandebest (adj.) strong, healthy, sound in wind and limb. 

Tandiab («. /.) wife of paternal uncle. 

Tandobai (tfrf/O well-watered. Tandojbai watan, a well-watered country. 

TXn^dbl (t?. reg. intr^ to thunder. Asmon tSn^i, it, lit. the shy, 

Tang [f^dj^ (1) narrow. Tanga ly§r, narrow path, (2) tight. 
Tange jome, light clothes. (3) A%fficult, troublous. Dest 
agha dai pa ^nga vrez che pa kor shi, he is a {true) friend 
who is of use in the day of trouble (4) desperate, hard- 
pressed. Agha pa khpula tang'shan^ he became desperate of 
his own accord, i.e. without any particular reason. 

TangI <?f (s.f.) distress, trouble. Pa yagh sari bondi dfera tangsa do, 





that man %s in great distress, lit. great trouble is upon 
that man, ■ - 

{adj.) (1) not in hard condition. Tankai sarai dai, loslna ye 
tanki di, he is a flabby man, his hands are soft. (2) young, 
tender, ^anam tank! di, the wheat is just above ground, 
{s.f.) pay, salary, 
{s. m.) oven. 
Tji^on A {s.f.) blister. 

{adj.) blistered. Vshi mi tail^oka shewye di, my feet are 
Tanzebbai {s. m.) grey partridge. 

Tafaos {s. m.) asking questions, inquiry. De g^l^ wa tapSos wukan, ke 
ch^r^ p6 wup^yedan, I will inquire about the thieves, per- 
haps I may discover something, lit. / will maie enquiry about 
the thieves, if {only) I were ever to understand {about them)- 
{v. reg. tr.) (1) to throw something against another so that it 
sticks, to slap against, Shez^ gihushaya pa diwola p^ri 
ymiA^l, the women stick the cow dung on the wall {to dry), 
(2) to close, shut up. Che kitob wutapan h^n, sabak pa yod 
mi Todrimi, even when I shut the book, I can remember the 
lesson, lit. the lesson comes to my recollection. 



Tarab! Bet Shaka^a. 

'Tahbal [s. m.) latffe wooden platter {for kneading dovgh in^ or to hold 
bread and rice for a large company), 

Tarb!r (*. m.) fint'consin {on fathei^e itde) . De mo ^alor tarbrina wi, 

I had four first'Cousim [paternal), 
TariSdel (<\ reg, intr.) to tremble, quiver^ I40S mi .tar^i, my hand 

Tar]£zhmai {s, m.) moonteea night, 
TarIka («./.) particular form of religion {distinguishing a sect), De 

Mullo Manki na mi tarika do^ my form of religion is from tie 

Manhi MMa, i.e. / belong to his sect, 
TariSB {s, m.) date, day of month, fa plnzalasata tarikh hazir slia^ be 

present on the 15th, 
Tarkwtjnai {adj) affected with black rust, G^anam tarkwuQi di, the 

wheat is blighted, 
TARfflAZ {s,f) pleat in* a Waziri coat. 
Tarkh^Mtasht {s,f) February, 
Tarla {s,f.) daughter offMefs breather ^ cousm. 
Tarnowai {s,f) aqueduct, % 
Tars {s, m^fear^ nervousness. 
Tars^dbl (v. reg, intr,) to be afraid, nervoms. 
TarsIirai («. m) head stall, ' 
Tarsinda {adj) alarmed, Shalk tarsinda shan, dor y^ wirgad dai kor 

pa kor, the people are alarmed, fear has entered every one of 

their houses, 
Tartarai {adj.) stammering. Palonkai sarai tartarai dai, tartarai zhebba 

j6 do, so'and'So is a stammerer, he has a stammering tongue, 
Tarwa {s. m, pi.) cheese, 
Tarbl {v, irr. tr.) (1) to tie, Klak ji wutara, tie it tight, (2) knit^ 

celebrate {marriage), Niko^ y6 tarelai dai, he has celebrated 

the wedding, (3) to arrange, fix, prepare. Zewa tee bando- 

bast 'Wutaran, I will arrange some settlement, 
Tarin {s,m^ {\) settlement,. arrmgement, Pe movl6 tariji mi kerai dai, 

1 have settled the affair, (2) midriff, diaphragm, 
Tasb:6 {s,f,pL) beads, rosary, religious chaplet, 
Tas&)EL {v, reg, intr.) to crackle, Kaiyoi;i pa yor ksh^ tasezluy the reedM 

crackle in the fire, v • . 

Tasheii {^,irr, intr.) (1) to run away, escape, B^t^M wutesh, & 

karor shorezti, JB. escaped, now he is going about quietly, 

i.e. without doing any work, comfortably, (2) to run, gallop, 

"W08 mi she tasbtx, my horse gallops ^ell. 


TiSHBZ («./.) adze. 

Taswir («. m,) jnctttre, photograph, E to tasvrir wa ze jor tan, litoill 
take your photograjfA, lit. make j^our picture. 

Tatik («. w.) enqviry, investigation. 

Taudwolai {s, m.) kotness, heat. 

Taupik {s, m.) means. De cha taufik wi, agha wa wferkawi, whoever 
has the means will pay% 

Taukaij [aij^ rechlessy rash, Taukali sarai dai, pa sar tarelai na dai, sar 
prekawi, he is a reckless man^ he does not regard his own life^ 
he is ready to throw it away^ lit. he is not tied to his life, he 
cuts off his head. De Maizar jang ttokali kor wan, the 
'attack at Maizar was a rash act, 

Tawakktjl (s. m.) reliance, Tawakkul mi pa Kliudai dai,bya pa to dai, 
I rely first on God, then on you. 

Tb {pron,) See Grammar, page 14. 

T^ See Ti. 

T:fiB {s, m.) {adhesive) paste. 

Tebba {s.f,) fever. Tebbe ze niwelai yan, / have taken fever, lit. 
fever has taken me, Tebba robondi ro^^la, / have got fever, 
lit. fever has come on me, Ghela tebba and mra tebba, 
suppressed low fever, lit. '^ concealed *^ and ^^ dead ^^ fever, 
Wariza tebba, fever that returns every second day. Dr^azna 
tebba, /l?i?^f that returns every third day. 

Tebbb. (*. m,) axe. Teber lostai, axe*haft. 

Tbbeeai {s.m,) bit {of horse). 

Tbbbrgai {s. m,) small axe, 

T^BiN {s, m.) ceremonial ablution with earth in the absence of water, 

T^MANA {s.f,) (1) girdle, iron plate for taking on, (2) gong {for 
striking hours, etc). 

T£i See Toi. 

Tek See Tor. 

Tbka (««y*.) (1) sheath {of knife or Sword). (2) ridge, or spur, of hill. 

T£l {s. m. pi,) oil. Tar kha tel de sharsfaarme di, khwozha de 

kundzele di, bitter oil is from mustard and sweet from 

T:6l {s, m.) (1) weight, Sre zar pa tel khars^i, gold is sold hy 

weight, (2) charge {of a gun) , De de tipak teo tel dai, tsemra 
dori wuli, dr^ tenge, mirai bondi dr6 tenge, ke nandramai 
ripai ? what is the charge of this gun, how much powder does it 
take, {the weight of) 3 four^nna bits, or of 13 annas, or a 
of a Kabuli rupee ? 


TUlh («./.) Jola. Ted t^la khars^I ? {at) how fnany tolas {to the 
rupee) does it sell ? 

T^MNA («. y*.) eeei. Dfera t^mna nen mi karely6 do^ 1 have sown 
or TSmna much seed to-day. 

TfpA (*•/•) 9^^} piece of artillery. W^rta t6p6 kshefiliw^j they 
laid the guns on it. 

TipoHi {adj.) marksman. T^hi earai dai^ he is an excellent shot. 

TipSBONA {s.f.) (1) battery of artillery. (2) artillery {in general). 

TipoNCHA {s. f.) pistol, revolver. Motawinye shp^zb-dazzy6 teponcha, 
a drop'barrel six-chambered revolver, 


TipoNi {adj.) stormy^ violent. T^poni €bb warezfei, it is raining 
heavily, lit. stormy water is raining. 

TISr (^4/) i\) P^^^^<1 through. Pa shin tfer dai, he has had measles, 

lit. passed through measles. (2) gone off heat. Ghwo mi 
tfera do, my cow is off heat. (8) excelling. Yo pa bel sara 
ter dai, each surpasses the other. 


Ti&RA {s. f.) sharp edge. Pa te^tai wahelai dai, pa t^re na dai 
i^ahelai, he struck with the back {of the weapon) not with the 

TiiKA {adj.) sharp, having a ground edge. Teber mi tera dai, my 
axe is sharp. 

TknAi {s. m.) spleen. T^rai mi dai, I have a {diseased) spleen, 
or ToRAi 

TiiEAWBL {v. reg. tr.) to make pass by, over, down, or through. Pa yor ye 
tfer ka, pass it through the fire. Wakht as^ terawi, he passes 
the time anyhow, i.e. he is simply wasting his time. Pa 
stini h^te Ba terawi, he cannot swallow, lit. he does not pass 
anything down the inside of his throat. 

T)br£o£L {v. reg. intr.) {\) to pass {in all senses), go. See Thn and 
TijRAWBL. (2) to pass current. Dr^ ripai w<, yawa kalpa 
wa au dw^ tfer^d^ na, there were three rupees, two were 
counterfeit and {the other) one would not pass current. (3) to 

TlbRPiR {s. m.) first cousin, viz. Ploranai tferpir, son of father^ s sister, 
or ToRPiR and M^ranai tferpir, son of mother's brother or of mother's 

T^RPRA {s.f) first'cousin, viz. Ploran?.iy^ t^rpra, daughter of father^ s 
or sister and Mferanaiy^ terpra, daughter of mother^s brother or 

ToRPBA of mother's sister. 







or Toh 

{adj,) (1) empty, Sandik tesh dai, the box is empty. (2) mere. 
Da tesh^ khabar^ di, these are mere words. (3) empty- 
handed, without anything. Tesh rog^lan^ hets saudo mi wu 
na kra, I have come without anything, 1 have made no pur- 

{s. m.)flanky hollow above the hip (in man or anima'). 

TiTENNAi (s. m.) chip, shaving^ 


T]fiY£DEL {v. reg. intr.) (1) to run over, be spilt. Shaude t^^yezbi, ebo 

or wferwochawa, the milk is running over {in boiling), pour 

ToYfoEL some water into it. (2) to fail off, be shed. De wnn^ pofii-y^ 

t^yezbi, the leaves of the trees are falling. 

(adj.) thirsty. Tezhai dai, tee ye tsheli na di, he is thirsty, he 

has drunk nothing. 
(«?. reg. Ir.) to plane, cut down (wood, etc.). 
(adj.) (1) spilt, made to fall (of a fluid). Sei mi teya kra, / 
spilt, or poured away, the ink. Wuzhgye mi te kr^, / spat, lit. 
1 made fall saliva, (2) dropping, falling. Jome mi zare 
shewy^ di, to^ shewy^ di, my clothes are old, they hav€ begun 
to dtop away, i.e. are falling to pieces, are ragged, 
(s,f.) (1) nose-bag of horse. (2) feed of horse, Tibra de 
Sarkor pa zimma do, Government will be responsible for the 
feed (of your horses), Ht. the hornets feed is the responsibility 
of Government, 
(s, m,) patch, piece added by way of repairs (especially to sole 
of sandal or shoe). 
TiKAWEL (v. irr. tr,) {conjugated as kawel) to spit. Ma tikawa, do not 
spit. Wazir de adab depora de pezi londi tikawi, the 
Waziris out of politeness spit underneath the floor-mat, i.e. 
when they wish to be polite they pull up the floor-mat before 
they spit. 

(s. m.) itch. 

(s, m.) green corn. Sazh-kol pashekol dai, til she shewai dai, 
the present year is a wet year, the green corn has done well. 

(s.f) gold lace or embroidery. 

TiLLADOR (adj.) embroidered with gold. Tillidora lungai, gold- 
embroidered lungi. 

TiMAN {s. m.) the general body of the tribe Kull majAlik timan 
boll, the mass of the people are called the timan, (This 
seems to be a Baluchi word introduced into Waziristan by 
British officials.) 






TiR («. m,) {l)ji>ole,8ji)ar, Hin tree-truni cut and harked^ (2) %maU 

rafter of roof. 

TiRA (*•/•) (1) Bword, Tira y^ pa lo« ksh^ wa, he had a sword in 
his hand. Pa-tir^ {used as adjJ) wounded. Sarai pa-tire dai^ 
the man is wounded. (2) courage. Dira tira j€ do, he is full 
nf pluek. P^ tira y£^ wnkrel, he disjdayed great 
gallantry. (S) exploit, Madda KhSe wuwe, ghaiidgj che 
d& kerye tira pa teka ksh^ wusotai che werka na shi^ nora 
Sarkor sara bad makai^ all the Madda KheU {after Mai^ar) 
said ^ Keep that exploit we- have performed in the sheath 
that it may not he lost, do Government no more harm/^ i.e. 
they thought the on^ fight enough and that they might te^ 
on their laurels. 

TiRZAN {adj.) hrave^ gaUant. 

TiRZANTOB {s. m.) bravery, gallantry. 

Tit («. m.) (1) mulberry. (2) mulberry fr^e, 

TiYASHB (*./.) plough-share. 

TiZHA {s. f.) stone. Ti^a mi wntreyela, Ifiung a stone. 

TizHGAi («.y.) small stone ^ pebble. 

T£S[iRG («. w.) armpit. 

Tlel . {v. irr. intr.) (1) to gc. CKretse? where are you going ?" 
Da lyar chfere tlelye do? Where does that road lead f lit. 
where' has it gone ? (2) to go away. Tsa, char out I (3) to^ 
be lost. Ke sar mi loip Bhi h&n, even if I should lose my life. 

To {s.m) i^) heat i glare. Pa Kalkatte kahe dfer to dai, the heat 

is great in Calcutta. (2) heat of fire. 

ToBA («./.) repentance. Toba y6 astelye do, he has repented, lit* 

produced penitence. 
(e»^.) for shame I fie I Es €-toba sh^wai dai, now he denies 

it utterly^ lit. now he has become ^* oh fie I *^ i.e. says h^ 

would never think of such a thing. 
ToBAGOR {adj.) penitent, sorry. 
ToD {adj.) warm, hot. 

To£ See Ti. 

Toi, {s.m.irr,) (1) river. Nen yo sarai tei werai dai, to-day the 

Toi or river has carried away a man. (2) flood. Toi robondi 
T^i rogliai, a flood came4own on me. 

ToJi See Spai. 
ToK {s. m.) odd number. 

ToK {s. m.) recess in wall, shelf, cupboard. 

* See second foot-Dote> page 68* 

WAZIRI ^OOimhkRY. ^ 80? 

ToK (*. m,) kind, variety. 


ToKAi («. m,) window. Toki na mi ket, / saw it from the window. 

ToKAT («. m.) power J ability^ strength. 

To^iiR («. m.) itch, 

To^ib:^i>el (t?. reg. intr,) to itch. 

Tola («. /.) lot^ fate. De Chitral de Badsha sHa tola do^ Sarkor 
she wferta kessi^ the lot of the Mehtar of Chitral is for- 
tunate^ Government regards him with favour, 

ToLAi {s. m.) palate, 


ToMAT {s. ^.] accusation, smpicion, 
ToMBi See Tambi. 

ToND \ttdj,) damp, wet, Toiid Azoij damp place, ^onie'ks.^^re, wet 

ToNG {s, m,) saddle^girtfi, 

ToPA {«./.) gmg, set, gathering, De Amin K^an topa, 1. £,'s band. 
Tor {adj.)ilach. Tek^-tor, veryblaclc,jetMaclc, 

TosA (*• j/*.) tribal army ledger than a lashkar, 
ToBiGAi {s. m,) moth. ' . 

ToRKAi {s. m,) smoiinesSj soot, De daritee torkai^ soot of a chimney. 

De tepe torkai, fouling of a gun. 
ToaPiR See TJjrpir. 
ToBPRA See TJirpra. 

ToRTAMAN \s, m,) a plant, of which the ashes are used in making chew* 

TTos^ (pron.) See Grammar, page 14, 

TosMA (s.f) strap. Tosma tinga ka., tighten the strap. 

ToTENNAi See T:&cennai. 

ToTBNKAi {s. m,) small chip or shaving, 
, ToTi {s. m,) parrot, 

Towiz {s. m.) (1) amulet, charm. (2) percussion-cap holder. Djb 
tepai towiz de ^manze shan ta wi, a towiz for percus- 
sion-caps resembles a camb, 

TowLAi See Tolai. 

ToyfoBL See V^riimi^, 

Tbak^ DEL {v. reg. intr.) to sprout.^ shoot. Woshe trakaweli na di, or 

trakedeli na di, or trask na ko, th^ grass is not springing 


Trakone {s. m.) carpenter^ joiner, 

Trangane {adj.) (1) tiin, sparse* Til trangaCl' dai, the green corn crop 

is thin, (2) shallow. Sind trangafil' hsAyizhh ^^^ river rttns 


Trangawel (v, reg, tr) to play a stringed instruments 

Trang^do {s.f) sound of a stringed instrument, ** 

Trangel (v. reg. tr,) tie, fasten [load on an animal), 

Trapawel [v, reg, tr,) to make run, gallop, Wos wutrapawa^ gallop your 

Trap^del («. reg, intr.) to run, gallop^ go fast, 

Trat (s, m) horseman*s whip. De kobali traf dw^ dre zbebbe wi, a 
Kabuli riding-whip ha^ two or three tails, Swor wa ttpul 
woB ta waw6 che trSt Bhe wan ke matroka ? De w^rta wnwe 
che nolat ke pa dwa sara toka, the rider said to his horse 
•* Bo you prefer the ^trat* {kind of whip) or the ^matroka' 
{also a whip)?^' It replied '^' If fiou must treat me badly ^ 
{then let it be indifferently) wit^ both kinds'^ 

Trata .(«,/•) bag, sack, De Nazar Din pa kor kshe trat« ^ere wilor^ di de 
ghall^. many sacks of grain are standing in N, D,^s house, 

Tre {s, m,) (1) paternal uncle, father's brother, (2) any senior, or 

elder, man, 

TrJirai {s, m.) fox, 


Tr^y^ (^•/.) (1) ^pout {of house-roof), (2) shoot {of water-mill). 
(8) block {of breech-loading r\fle), 

TriSyel {v, reg, tr,) to throw, cast, Dzon mi ebo ta wutrejtin, I cast 
myself into the water, 

Triq; {adj, irr.) (1) bitter, Kweml ter]^ di, quinine is bitter, 
(2) severe, Tri^ sarai dai, he is a stern man, 

TriSSai {s, m,) (1) gallf bile, (2) anger, bad-temper, Yieh, ke d& 
g^wut,dai, tribal na lari ; zeke sarai y6 pa maiyora byaiyi, 
the camel, even if it is very big, is not- ill-tempered ; that is 
why a man can lead it by a nose-string, 

Triv {adj. irr,) (1) sour, M^wa che pakha na wi terwa vri, fruit when 
it is not ripe is sour, (2) sharp-tasting, Molga terwa do» 
salt has a piquant taste, (3) smart-looking, Triv sarai 
dai, belmang na dai, he is a smart-looking man, not insipid 
{in appearance), (4) wrinkled, frowning. Wuchwelai ye 
rota triv kan, he wrinkled his brow at me, i.e. frowned 
Tsanda ye rota terwa kTB,,.he wrinkled his forehead at me* 
i.e. frowned. 


TjtoR ' («./. irr.) aunt, father's or mother^ 8 sister. 

TBOBM^ftAi {s, m) annfs husband {on either side). 

TsHEL {v. irr, tr,) to drink. Dfer sharbat y^ wutish, he drank much 

eau sucfie. De chaiyfi mi 4&kka piyola tsliely^ do, I have 

drunk a full cup of tea. 
TuMBEL (r. rep. tr.) to stick. Gulina pa dastor kslie tnmbeli dl, he has 

stuck flowers in his pagri. 
Tw^SH (9. m) tribal distribution of profits, losses, duties, etc. 

Tyarb {adj.) dark. Tyare watan^ dark place. Tyftra shpa, dark 

Tyabe (*./.) (1) darkness. Tyare wa ^fera sakhta, there was very in- 

tense darkness: (2) concealment, mystery. Pa da kisea kshe 

tyare ma jo^wa, do not create a mystery in this affair, i.e. 

speak the plain truth. 


TsIk {s. m.) rheumatism in the back, lumbago. 

TBAK£DBL«(t;. reg. intr,) to drip, leak. Keta mi teakezbi, {the roof of) 
my room leaks. 

T^ALOK [adj) active, energetic. Fa tiel kshe haii te&lok dai, pa kasab 
ksb^ ban, he is equally active in his movements and in his 
profession, lit. he is active in going also and in business also. 

TJBALwisHTAi {s. m.) Tsalwlsbtai de keli nikar dai, ebo weshi ; de wele 
de kandele depora ban tiDga ko, cbe damra damra sari roteai, 
ke cb^r^ teok ro na ghai %he na yawa yawa ripai wukozhi ^ 
lasbkar ban jamma kawi, amir ye boll, a chalweshti is a 
village servant, he divides the water {for irrigation) ; he 
also arranges for digging water channels by tribal labour and 
recovers a rupee from those who do not come ; besides this he 
.collects the tribal army and {jin that ea*e) is called an 

TteALWBSHTAMA {s.f) commcmofative fcast on the 40th day after death. 

TsAMLAWBL {v. rcg. tr.) to make lie down. A j^a earai pa zor mi tsamla- 

wan, / made that man lie down by force, i.e. 1 threw 

^AMLOSTEL {v. irr. intr.) to lie down. 

^AM^iKAi {s,f) spoon, ladle. Mes pa teamtgikai kshe wul^ k^zhl, the 

or Samsikai lead melts in the ladle. 

T^AMYOB {s. m.) worker in leather. 

TsANBAKYifi {s.f.) temple {0/ head). 


'JsANpA {s,f,) forehead {of man or animal), 

or Tanpa 

^ANp {«• m,) ihaking, Kj^mto teftn4 wadya^ %haJce the cloth, 

TsAirpEL {v. reg. tr.) to shake, 

TsANG {s. m.) side. Pa teang pr^t iaij he is lying on his side. T§SLng 
mi lagawelai dai^ / have applied my side, i.e. am leaning on 
my side. O^lai mi pa teang walag^da^ the bullet struct at 
my side, or beside me, i.e. missed me by very little. Keli 
pa ^ang p^ri mi kor dai^ my house is at the side, i.e. near 
the edge of, the village. Pa teang wudai^a, stand aside. 

TgANGAL («./.) elbofo, 

T^ANGRA {adj.) what sort of ? ^Jsasgra sarai yf ? what sort bfman are 
or you? 


TsANGBA {adv^ (1) hou) ? .Tsangra y^ ? how are^ you ? Tsangra wyaiye ? 
_ /- or how, i.e. what, do you say ? (2) as. Tsangr^ mi ehe dSrta 

^5a^qfe ^ TsANGEf w^yeli di, haglias^ wuka^ as I have told you, so do. 

• TjaANNrf («.y.) long hair, flowing^ lochs. De Wazir^ de Bar-Daware 

tganny^ shtaj the Waztris and Upper-Dauris wear their hair 

TsAPLAi {s.f) sandal, chapli. ^aplai wahel^ to tent-peg. {Instead 

of a tent'peg the Wazirisuse a sandal set on en A far a mark.) 

De teaplai maindon y^ T^ukan^ he ran a couree at the sandal. 
Tbappa See Chappa. 

^APPA|i {s. f) (1) the open hand, including the fingers. ^) blow with 

or open hand, slap, cuff. Pa teappar mi wahelai dai^ / struct 

Sappab him with my open hand, i.e. slapped him. De yaw^ teappar^ 

hamra loka^ give me a piece about the size of a hand {bread 

etc.). (3) i of achapatti, 
^ABBASHT {s. m.) high spirit {synonymous in Tochi with blackening the 

eyelids, committing thefts and burglaries, and indulging in 

disreputable amusements), 
TsABBWoLAi {s. m.) fatucss. 
TsABEL (t?. reg. intr.) to graze. 
TsABK]£i4i («./.) being on the look-out. Tjark^ni mi wferta wukra^ / kept 

a look-out for them. 
TsABSS (*• ^0 {}) spinning-wheel. 'Rar^ waiiel, to spin with a 

wheel. (2) wheel {of any kind) . 

TsABS&A {s.f^ spinning-wheel. 

I^ABMA {adv^ near, close. £ mo sara tearma roteai^ come along {keep- 
ing) close to me. Ro i tearma dai, he is near to me with refer-^ 
ence to it, i.e. he is at the nearer end of it. 

ifkirlRt Vd JABtTt ARt. ii I 

^ABMAN («./.) (1) skin {of men and animals). (8) leather. 

TsARTSiBAi («./.) bath-room. 

'^ABWANDA («. /.) grazing. Tsarwanda shta, karwonda nishia^ there i§ 

grazing, tut no cultivation. 
^ABMiNAi (s, m.) spring-time. 
TsATTAR (s. m.) umbrella. • 
'ftATA {s. /.) sack. Tso teat^ ghalla di shewy^ do, h^w many sacks 

grain have you obtained {from your land) ? 
T^AjAi {s. m.) sheaf {of wheat, barley, etc., as distinguished from^'6]a\, 

sheaf of rice). ' ' ' 

TsAfELAi {adj.) unlucky, ill-starred. T^telai woe, a horse that bringi 

bad luck. 
T^AUKAi {s./.) parapet, breast-worh. 
TsB {adj.,pron, and imt^ what. Kom di tee dai ? what is your 

tribe ? T^e khabara do ? what is the matter ? Wa tee ta ? 

what for? i.e. why? See Grammar, pages 14 and 16* 
'fc^AM {adj.) " how many-eth ? ' * Nen de myasht^ g^am dai ? what 

day of the month is to-day, lit. to-day is the ^^ how-many-eth ^' 

of the month ? 
'ftEKAWBL {v. rey. tr.) to smoke {pipe, cheroot, etc.). Chilam teekaw^? 

will you smoke xb hukka ? 
'RfiiA («./.) (1) the coldest days of winter, mid-winter. Ret^ teel^ di^ 

kor na warcliaii^ ma gerza, {these) xxrCftle. bitte^ cold day^ 

of winter,, do not go about outside the"" house, '^ora teela, 

December, lit. the black cold. Spina teela, January, lit. the 

white cold. (2) {or Ch£la) attitude of religious abstraction. 

Fakir pa te^la nost dai, teela shewai dai^ ^alwat j6 dai, the 

fakir is sitting in the attitude of abstraction, he has giveu 

himself up to abstraction, he is. in seclusion. 
^ELLAI {s. m,) cairn of stones. Spink i ^\hi,''Spinchilla/* the cairn 

on Spinkai. : 
J^jSmea {adv.) (1) how much? Ts^mra di j« char dai ? how mueh do 
or you need? (2) so much as. T^mra gtwor<^, ^mra wa der- 

T^oMRA kawan, so much as you want, that much will I give you. 
TskR {s. m.) resemblance in the phrase pa ts^r, like. * Agta pa teer, 

lite him. 
TsJiRA {s. f^ figure. Pa dagh. taswir ksW de sarai teere lidd ski, 

figures of men can be seen in this picture. 
^ERBNGA &ee 'Rangra. ' 
TsET {s. m.) back. De cha pa teet. zhagliMo ma ka, do not 

talk behind any one's back, i.e. do not backbite. Pa teefc 

wugerz^dan, Ae turned back. De bangM pa teet, behind the 




'OifTAl («• M.) (1) hammer. (2) baetf blnnt side {of knife or $word), 

Tb^takai {i. m.) core in$ide head of maize. 

Tbeyda (*./.) nooi under overhanging rocks, eave. 

Tbika (*. /.) (1) end, tail (of pagri), (2) point [of sword). 

(8) summit, top {of hill). 
TsiKAit {adj\) slightly bearded, having some beard on the chin but none 

on the cheeks, 
Tbilai See ChIlat. 
TsiNAi {s, m,) (1) red chadar, TBinai de sap sir patkai wi^ a tsinai is a 

man's red chadar, (2) tacman^s head-cloth. 
TsiRKKA {s.f.) (1) crofon {o/ head), crest {of animal). (2) top [of hill ^ 

tree, house, etc.). 
TsiREL See Sibel. 
Tbibo&h (s. m.) chiragh, small native lamp. Tsirogh pa dmat kshezl^da^ 

set the lamp on the bracket. 
Tbib [adj.) (1) contained inside. Te pa wz^en teir sba^ get inside a 

skin, i.e. put a raw hide on yourself {to cure fever, etc.). Pa 

wun^ teir sliii,get inside the trees, i.e. hide yourself among the 

trees. (2) fitting outside. Pa XlpA khanjar teir ka^ fix 

bayonets, lit. attach the bayonets on the rifles. 
Tso or Tbo {adv.) how many ? Da pa ted ripai ^^ for how many rupees 

is that {obtainable)? i.e. at what price can it be bought? 
T]^K [pfon^ (1) who ? Tsok y^ ? who are you ? De asla took ye ? who 

are you by origin ? i.e. of what tribe are you ? (2) any» 

one, whoever. Tsok dfis^ wyaiyi^ agha lewanai dai^ whoever 

says so is mad. Chft sara das^ ma ka^ do not do so with any^ 

one. See Grammar, pages 16 and 17. 
TsoMBA See Ts^mba. • 
TsoNGA {s.f) branch {of a tree)^ 
Tsop See Chop. 
Tboeana {s.f) stalking [game), out^manosnvring {enemy). Di shkor* 

zan de sazh^ pa teorana ksh^ xneranai dai^ this shikari is good 

at stalking oorial, 
TsoBB [adj^ irr.) {\) fat, stout. Tsorhms^, a fat ram. {i) fertile 

TWba mzeka^ rich land. {3) idle. Tsorby^^kor na ke, 

you are idle, you do no work. 
TsoBEL [v. reg. tr.) to stalk. Nen dhr gkwxxh ma^ mi tgoielai dai^ to-day 

1 stalked a very large oorial. ^ 

T^oBWAi {s, m.) bullock. 

T^OSHA {s.f) spinning-weight {by twirling which thread is made)\ 
De Wazir^ tearl^ teosha doj the spinning-wheel of the 
Waziris is the tsosha. 


TfeRAKAi, {s.m.) (1) picque^ {of stationary force), Pos yo sarai terekai 
TsKEKAi nost d&iy a man is sitting high up as a picquet, (2) scout 
orTsBBK (<?/ moving force), ^reki mi makh kshd der tleli di, my 
scouts have gone a long way ahead. 

T^WALAi (s, m.) burglars^ Jemmy, lever bent near one end for house- 
breaking purposes. 

TswJatAi («. w.) provisions, food. Lashkar zo^a tew^rai na wan^ ^^^ 
army had no provisions with it. 


Tabar {s. m.) i^) family. Tabar mi pa Shawol kshe potai dai, my 
family has remained behind in S. (^) wife. T^bar mi 
ranzir dai^ my wife is ill. 

Tag (adj.) artful, deceitful. 

Tag! (*«y.) deceit, trickery. De bar sari 8ara da tagi ko, this fellow 
tries to take in every one he meets, lit. this one practises 
deceit with every man. 

Tak U. m.) (1) blow* Mazbwai tak waiya, hammer in the peg, lit. 

strike the peg blows. (2) stitig. Laram tak waiyi, the scorpion 
stings. (8) sticking on, fixing on. W^letowiz di pa met tak 
w&helai dai ? why have you stuck an amulet on your arm ? 

Taka (*./.) something which falls from the sky, meteorite. 

fAKALLA (tfrf/.) impermeable (soil). T^Sikallsk mzeka^ a close soil. 

Takawel (v. reg. tr.) (1) to hammer, strike. Mazbwai wutakawa^ knock 
in the peg. (2) to beat. £hpul zyai ye takawelai dai^ he 
has given his son a thrashing.. 

Tanpa See TsLni^A. 

^ANpAigL (s. m.) ruined, deserted, house. 

Tanga («.y.) ^i-anna piece. 


Tap See Rind. 

Tap (s. m.) Government revenue. 

Tap {s. ^')\ print.. Dq ta,]^e Kutslu, a printed Kuron. X^p kerai 

Tapa (s. /.) J bukm ye roMzbelai dai, he has sent mejyprinted order ^ 

Tapakai {s. m.) ball (especially for playing games).. 

Tapdoe {ctdj) • printed. 

Tapisai (f. m.) head of a reed or bulrush. 

Tatosai \js. m.) seed-pod of certain plants.r . . 











(«./.) contract. Mish Wazir yi, pa teka migb t§e peyeglji? we 
are Wazirisj what do toe understand about a contract ? 

(«. «.) (1) np€ck^ dot. Yo spin (ekai dferta jawai dai ke na? ft 
a white spot visible to you or not? (i) moment. Pa yawa 
teki wa dferehan^ / uill come to you in a moment, (8) letter 
(in writing), De takht^ ghund teki, all the letters of tKe 
alphabet. (4) native door hinge, 

{adj,) staying, stopping. De kim Sahib sara teko ylstai ? toith 
which gentleman are you staying ? Talib pa fiansi kshe 
t^ko dai, the student is staying ai Bannu. 

{s,f,) woman* s head-cloth. 

(*•/•) (1) *^^# {carried by mullas and talibs), (^) any upright 

See Ta-NGa. 

See T^p. 

{s,f,) (1) hulla, (2) percussio^^ap. (8) something paid i^ 
advance to mark the conclusion of a bargainy earnest-money. 

{s. m.) jewel, worn on side of nose. 

(s, f,) (1) disc, (2) round cake of bread, ohapatti, bread [in 
general), Tikale di khwarelye di k« wugbai yd? have y<m 
eaten bread or are you hungry ? 

(v, reg, tr^ (1) to gnaw, make holes in. De mo jom^ mzhak 
tikelye di, rats have nibbled holes in my clothes, (2) to in-- 
jure (internally), F she mi ^ nemia tikelye di »2y /<?e^ ar^ 
hurt {internally). Wps ma paxawa psh^ yd wa wu^ikely^ 
shi, do not gallop the horse, his feet will be damaged {inter" 

{s, m,) piece, Dwa tiki shi, it comes in two, apart. 

{s, m,) cough, Tikhai rolak dai, I have a cough [sticking to me]^ 
XiEiAL^ {s, m, pL) huskiness of the throat. Tikhale mikbale ? any 

rough throats ? (Waziri salutation). 
TiSii^DEL [v. reg, intr.) to cough. 
TiNBiNAi See Ghosh. 

fiNG {^dj,) (1) stiff, frm, hard, Ghori ting shewi di, wnld ye ka, 

the ghi is stiff, melt it, Mzeka deia tinga do, the ground is, 
very hard, (2) hard, penurious. Ting sarai dai leke tizhaj^ 
cha ta h^te na werkawi, he is a man as hMrd ai a stone, he 
gives nothing to anybody. (8) tight, fast, Largai ting ka^ 
make the stick fast. . (4) restrained, Wos ting ka, hold in 
your horse. (5) determined, resolute, adhering to. Pa ^pul 
niyat bondi d^r ting dai, he is very dogg^A ifj^ his inientiatk. 
Pa ^pula khabara ting yosa, ^tick to what you have said,, . 




TiNGA («.y.) comptdsory labour ^ forced tribal labour. 

'pNG^DBL {v, reg. intr,) (1) to become ting, q. v. (2) to stand fifm 
offainst, resist. Mizh ta na shi (ing^dai, h^ cannot stand 
against us, 

T^NGORA {s./,) recommendation. £ mo depora dfera fi^gora wuka, be 
sure to- put in a good word for me, lit. make much 
recommendation for me. 

TiP> 'Kpa {s. m.) heap. De sarre t^p, manure-heap. De woshe tip 
or T^p heap of grms. 

TiPA (*•/•) « womfin, not specified, given in compensation or payment. 
jykri sware tipd mi wlrkery^ di, I have given many toomen, 
specified and unspecified, in payment. 

TIpak {s. m.) firearm, gun, musket, ryfo. Mezzi ^ifsk, match4och 
Bakar^ Xv^ioky flint-lock^ Kuniz fip^k, breech-loader. Ara- 
winai fipak^ Snider^ lit. turning-over r^le. \Chapai tipak or 
■goraiz tipak^ Martini-Henry. Owa-dazzai ^Ipak, or las- 
dazzai tipak^ Lee-Metford, Ml^ tipak, pistol, \\%. waist-gun* 
Latidikai tipa>k, carbine. 

TiPAKAi [s. ni.) clump. Be wun^ tfpakai, clump of trees. 

Tit (fldj.) (1) low, short. Wos mi tit dai, my horse does not stand 

high, (2) low-lying. Tit watan dai, g^awara do, it is 
low-lying land, it is a depression. (3) stooping. Tit sha, 
stoop down. See also sterga. 

TiT^K^i (^* ^O ^hort man. De Chitral Sadsha titakai dai, the Mehtar 
of Chitral is of low stature, 

TiTi {s. m.) pony. Amir t^pHbon^ pa tition bondi wri, the Amir's 

(mountain) batteries are carried on ponies. 

TiTSABAi (s. m.) pig, swine, lit. low-head. 

TiT^y^ i^f') wooden dish or bowl, of (varying size, from which to eat 
or drink. 

ToKA {s.f.) joke, jest. 

ToKAND {adj^ about to go, starting. MohibbuUah tokand dai, de 
Wazir^ sara wa drimi, M, is on the point of starting, he will 
go with the Waziris. 

ToKMAR {s. m.) joker, jester. 

ToKWAR (s. m.) large basket. 

ToKWARAi [s.f.) small basket. Yiye pa tokwarai ksh^ wyi,' eggs are car- 

ried in small baskets. 


ToL^DEL (r. reg. iHtr,) to collect together, assemble. 

T0N9 («. m. ])l.) maite-straw. De (on^^ g^4^j ^ bundle of maize- 

ToF {s,/.) leap, jump. T*ojp vfAe\, to Jitmp, 

ToT-^i ('• «»•) fii^^^ {pf l^f^d, cloth, etc). 


UlCAB («• m.) (1) life, life-time. De sari umar zer t^rez^i^ a man^s 
life passes quietly, (2) time (in general). Umar dir shewai 
dai che ze dolata roghlaPj «V is a long time since I came here. 

Uuui {(^dj.) illiterate, unable to read or write. 

UuHtND {s. m.) {\)"hepe. Laoz j6 nishta^ ummind kho lara^ he has given 
no promise, but you may entertain every hope, lit. have hope ! 
(2) expectation. Ummind mi na dai che chiie d&s^ shi, / do 
not expect that it will ever happen so. 

Umkikaid^ transported for life. 

Ueiya See Wueiya. 

UsHATEL {v. irr. tr.) to show, display. Tipak ro ush&ya^ show me the 

or rifle. Awwal mi dferta ushftyelai \van^ / showed it to you. 
WusHWRL before. 

UsToz See Istoz. 


UzB («. m.) excuse. Uzr ma rota ka^ make no excuses to me. 


y£sH {s. m.) (1) division {fiy tribal custom). De Gir de Kazhe mm 
or W£sH Y^sh dai^ the distribution between Ger and Kazha is half 
and half. (2) share. £ mo v^sh damra dai^ my share is 
this much. 

VivD See WiwD. 

y loSHTA {s. f.) (1) viashta, a Dauri unit of square measure, De Idar 
EM16 vioshta Aw6 bondi dfersh lt6 do^ de So Kh€l6 ^wfer- 
wisht StS^ the I. K. viashta is 32 cubits {square) and the 
8. K, ^^ viashta '^ f ^ 24. (2) viashta-^measure. Mzeka pa 
vioshta mi wahely^ do^ I have measured, surveyed, the land, 
lit. have struck it with the viashta -measure. 

Vital {adj.) cheerful, merry {man, etc.). 

Vlima (t./*.) somewhat severe bit, ordinarily used by Waziris. 


VratIna («./.) (1) wife, i^) fiancfe. 

Yk£qb &ee Ybosh. 

Ve^r, («. jw.irr.) hrother. Sakka vrer, full brother. De plora vrer, 

Vror or half 'brother {same father). De mora vrfer, half -brother 

Wror (*a«»e mother). Drf sara wrifira mi, aW W;y three brothers. 

VrJ;ra See WrSira. 

Vr]^shak See Wr^sham. 

Vr&hmIn See Wr^shmin. 

Vrbz (*./•) ^^Jf' Nima vrez, mid-day, noon. Shp^ vrez^.. by night 

or Wrez and day. Pa da vrez^ ksh^, in these days, now-a-days. 
Dr^ama vrez, the day after the day after to-morrow. Pa spina 
vrez, by broad day4ight, lit. by white day. Yawa wrez wa 
dasS wnshi, it will happen so some day. 

Vr!dzy4 {s.f) eye-brow. 

VrIn («. tn.) thigh. 

VRlggifi {s.f. pi.) rice, coded or nncooied, but with the husk removed. 

Vroqh {s. m.) raven, 
or Yr£ss 

Vror See Vr^r, 

Vrorai {s. m.) a shelter for cattle in the hills. 

Vrust^ See Wrust^. 

Vrondi {adv.) (1) before. Da earai pa mo na dfer e vrondi nikar dai, 

that man has been mttch longer in the service of Government 

than I, lit* that man is a public servant of much before me. 

(2) in front. E vrondi peha, fore-leg. 
VbondInai {adj.) former, ancient.. Pa viondini wa^t ksh^, in ancient 

times. Yrondiny^ kiss^, history^ lit. ancient stories. 
Vyia. {adj.) forgotten. Ktabara mi vyJra wa, / had forgotten the 

matter. Num di mi vyfer shan, I have forgotten your name. 
VyiRAWBL {v. reg. tr.) to makeforget.^ Vyferawa mi ma, do not make me 

• . «.. ^. d « 


Wa...Ta {prep.) See Grammar, page 89. 

"Wabo {s.f.) cholera. 

Wahbl {v. irr, tr.) to beat, strike. Pa sar y^ waiya, hit him on the 
or head. Pori wfihej, to push, shove, jostle. Awwal cha p^ri 

Wabl wahelaidai, who shoved first 'i i.e. who began this jostling? 

[The miscellaneous uses of wahel, of which the following are 
examples, are exceedingly numerous^ Wabely^ mzeka, land 
that has been dug. Ly&r waiyinai, highwayman, lit. road" 


striker, Sarai guzan w&helai dai^ tie man is affected with 
paralysis, Lang wahel, to put on, toear, a skirt {instead of 
trousers). Maii4 wahel> tofolloM> up tracks. 'I^aplai wahel^ 
to tent'peg at the, sandal, Pon y£ pa warsbaii4e wahelai dai^ 
he has daubed red dye on his lips, Tebbe ze wahelai yan^ / am 
attacked with fever. Fakir Ukiya wahelj^ do, the fakir 
has struck the attitude of religious abstraction. Pa vioshta 
wahel^ to measure in viashtas, Sh^'i^to ^nd waiya^ shake, 
fap, the cloth {to free it of dust), Pizh wahel, to sprinkle 
{with water, scent, etc). Rag wahel, to bleed, perform 
phlebotomy, T^p wahel, to Jump, leap, Diwol wahel, to 
build a wall, De Stere WazTre mol ye wdelai dai, they 
have raided the cattle of tie Darwesh Khels. 
WiiNGARRAi {s. m,) measurer of land, surveyor, 

Waja (*«yO Tco^on* Tpe waje na ye wuwahele? for what reason did 
he strike you ? 

Wak {s, m,) (1) woman^s power over her own person, right to bestow 

herself in marriage, (2) power, authority {in general), 

Tsok ghwut malik wi de agha wak dey yn, whoever is an 

important malik las great power, 
Wakab {s, m,) religious grant, Khpula ghunda mzeka y6 wakab ker- 

ye do, he, has given away the whole of his Imd as a grant for 

religious purposes, 
Waril {s, m,) (1) executor. (2) governor, ruler. De Haizh de darre 

wakil tedk ahan ? who has been made ruler of out valley ? 
Wakiyo {s, m.) something that happens, accident, Wakiyo p6 bondi 

yoghelye d^, something ias befallen iim, 
WaEE|t {s. m.) time. Marai wi^t, meal-time, i.e. breakfast time {9 

to to A,M,) or supper-time {about 0F,M,), according tothecon^ 

text. Ster wakkty very early in the morning, lit. great time. 

E wakhta, early, long ago, long since. Pfe la^gi pa mazerri 

wakht tferawi, they pass the time on wood and dwarf palm, i.e. 

they subsist by dealing in wood and dwarf palm, 
Wakhti {adv,) before, formerly, long ago, 
WAmriNAi {adj.) old, ancient, Wafej^tinai peyawor, an old wound, 

Wakhtinai sarai, man of ancient days,, 
Wal (*. m,) fold, or twrn, of pagri. Ite dastora walma aam ka> 

straighten the folds of yo^r pagri. (2) course, or row, of 

stones or bricks in building. 
"Walai {«./.) earring. 
WALAiiiE {adj,) ai grips, grappling. Walatfer shwd, they closed with 

each other. 



Wali («. m,) Saint. Wazir waB w^agh sari ta wyaiyi che kirSmat 
or lari, the Waziria call that man a saint who possesses mira- 

Wali cidons power. 

Walwawel (r. regi. tr.) to tnalcefall or dropj bring down. Pa marghai 

mi zgor wukan, pa^e mi walwawele, 1 fired at the bird and 

made feathers fall, i.e. knocked out some of its feathers. 

Walwjedel (v. reg. intr.) (1) to fall, drop. Dfeia parkha alwMely^ do, 

or a heavy dew has fallen, ^walai p<imotaksbe zen^ alwedele^i 

Alw:^del dai, dropped from them in the hole, i.e, the burglars 

f-x dropped their jemmy at the hole they had made in the wall. 

' > i (2) to lie down, recline. Pa dadda walw^zha, lie down on 

your side. (8) come over, upon. Dera Iwazha robondi 

alwMely^ do, great hunger has come upon 7ne. 

Wam {s.,m.) awe-inspiring appearance or character, De yagi. sag 

wam ret dai, that man inspires great dread. 
Wandiar {s.f) brother's wife. 

Wanjorai See Banjorai. 

Wapador {adj.) faithful, loyal. 

Wapo {s.f) faithfulness, loyalty. Dfera &ha wapo rosam kery^ do, he 

has behaved with great fidelity towards me. Be-wapo, trea* 

cierouSx unfaithful. 
Wapor (*. m.) business, dealings. De yagh Indi eara wapor mi dai, 

/ deal with that Hindu. 
Wapori {s. m.) man with whom one deals. Agha de mo wapori dai, he 

is my tradesman. 
War {s. m.) (1) doorway. (2) door. 
Warai {s, m,) eamel'Salita, 6hund asbob pa wari k&he wutai^^^eV ujs 

all the things in the camel* sal it &. 
Warandai {adj.) rainy. Warandai kol, rainy year. 
Warbiz (s. 0^ (1) nose, muzzle,, snout {of any animal). {%) ^^ snout ^^ 

'^proboscis ** {of man) ^ Warbiz di werk sh.a, take away that 

proboscis of yours, i.e. da not bother me, lit. may your snout 

disappear. Wel6 wa mo ta hamesh warbiz niwelai lar^? 

why do you keep hanging on to mel lit. why do you keep 

your snout perpetually turned in my direction ? 
Warb3i {adj^ nearest to the village {land). Pa Mirom Shfi, kshe de 

N6kar Malik warboya mzeka d^ra do, in Mir am Shah 

Nekar, the Malik, owns much land near to the village 

Warchaitj^ {adv^ out, outside, out of doors {generally eomUned mitK 
or de ar e): PI^ry^*d« worckane ro wuwotj, A»>/tfM^jp ^^/^^ 

WoRCHAN]^ out {of the home). ,. ,- 


Warjobl {v. teg. intr) to rain. Worwar^i, it is raining, lit. it rains 

Warawbl (r- reg, tr.) to make to rain. T^poni €bo y6 wtiwarawely^, it 

tained violenilf, lit. {Nature) made it rain stormilg. 
Warqhawai («. m) palm of hand. 
Wakqhimai («. m,) hid, 

Waris {s, m) heir [other than a father, brother, or lineal descendant), 
Wabq (^* ^0 h^o>d [of toater-eonrse). War^ de lashti sar wi^ a 

ioarhh is the take-off of an irrigation channel, 

Waru^k [s, f».) nape of neci, Warm^gb wa di mot kan^ ma ropase 
^, Pll break your neck for you, donH follow me, Daw^gar 
Malik ret warm^ kerai dai, D,^ the malik, has developed a 
shockingly fat neck. 

Warsak [s, m.) (1) ridge or spur of a hill, where it merges in the plain. 

or (2) nose [of horse or camel). (8) pagri tied under chin or so 

Wersek as to conceal face. San Tt^arsak tarelai dai^ the man has 

muffled up his face. 
Warshanp [s, m.) lip. Vob, kiz, warshan^^ upper, lower, lip. 
Wartai [adj.) roasted. Da ^(ehi wartai ka, roast the meat. 
Wartbl [v, irr, tr.) to spin. De kwtmd^ shez^ guzran de tearkb pa 

wartel wi, the livelihood of widow-women is [iy] spinning 

with the spinning wheel. Tor mi de span^sai wartelai dai^ 

/ have spun a cotton thread. 

Warai [s.f.) wool. 

Warawel [v. reg, tr,) to make small, pound. Lit^ pa dabalai warawi^ 
clods are broken up with mallets, lit. they break up, etc. 

Warikenkai {adj.) very small, tiny. Zyai mi warik^nkai dai^ my son is 
a very small child. 

Was or [s. m.) (1) power. Damra was mi nislitaj I have not the, lit. 
Wast so much, power. B£-wasti, powerlessness. Spera b^-wasti 

do, it is (a case of) absolute inability. (2) accord, choice. 

Fa i^pTil was wolata tlinkai na yan^ I will not go there of my 

own accord. 
Washai [s. m.) loose bracelet of woman. 
Wasila [s.f,) helper, patron, lit. means [of getting on). B6 de to na 

bela wasilami nishta, except you I have no one to help me on. 
Wasla [s*f) arms, weapons. 
Wash A [s. f) black hair-dye. 
Wassa (*./.) July. 
WassIyat [s. m) dying instructions, will. De Wazln^ wassfyat* ssiibftni 

wi, a will among the Waziris is oral. 



Wast See Was. 

Wastgik {ad]?j having power, B^-wasa yao, wastgir na yan, 1 am 

helpless y I have no power. 
Wastnok {adj,) cheerful, in good spirits. Wastnok y^ ke taba^eyai ? 

are you cheerful or depressed ? 
Waswas («. m^ (1) suspicion, apprehension, Waswas ma kawa, do not 
or he apprehensive. (2) danger. H^te waswas nishta^ there m 

WiswAS nothing to he afraid of. 
Waswasi {adj.) suspicious. Waswasi sarai^ suspicious man. 


Wasyok («, m,) April. 

Watan {s. m.) (1) country. Watan mi dai, it is my country, i.e. my 
native land. Lir^ watan ta lor, he went away to a distant 
country. (2) countryside^ landscape. Pa khwushi watan ksh^ 
gwushai ma gerza^ do not wander alone in uninhabited 
country. Weryez do, na shi watan lldan, it is cloudy, the 
landscape is not visible. (8) ground, soil. Dolata watan 
zySm lari, here the ground contains, lit. possesses, moisture. 
(4) place, part. Plor di pa g^lai pa kim watan lag^delai dai ? 
in what part of his body wa^ your father hit by the bullet ? 
De d^ khamto yo watan tond dai^ bel watan ye wuch dai^ one 
part of this cloth is wet, another part of it is dry. 

Watel {v. irr. intr.) (1) to go out, get out. De khpul kor na wuwot, 
he went cut of his house. "WuzsLlget out ! (2) to go forth. 
Zyai mi wa jangta watelai dai^ my son has gone forth to the 
battle. (8) to pass, elapse. De Wazire too pferai pa Toehi 
ksli6 wately^ di ? how many generations of the Waziris have 
passed in the Tochi? Der^ vreze wately^ di, many days 
have passed. 

Watea {adj.) ripe, ready for cutting {crops). Pasal watra shan^ the 
harvest is ripe. 

Wavdbl {v. irr. tr.) to weave. Sharai mi pa khangri wavdely(? do, 
I have woven woollen cloth wit% the shuttle. 

Wavdbnai {s. m.) band that holds a sheaf together. 

Wawana {'S.f.)ufoof, weft, threads that run crosswise in the web. - 

Waz {s. m.) exhortation. De akhwimd waz robondi hete asar na ko, 

the holy man^s sermon makes not the least impression on me, 

Waz {s. m») fathom, distance from one hand to the other when the 

arms are fully extended. Der wazza perai, many fathoms 
of rope. 

Wazan {^ time, measure {in music). Depulpnki surodi wazansha 

dai^ the measure of such'and-such a musician is good. 


k-uia(a\^ Wazae (*. m.) (1) toinff {0/ bird), Jin {0/ fisi). (2) arm {uppef ani 
'rtfalc l(f^er together) of man. (8) boards eover\{of book). 

Wazbon («. m.) goat-herd. 

Waz!fa («./.) (1) small piece of bread given to a talib in charity. 
[%) piety. Wazifa yi niwely^ do, he has taken to piety. 

WazIe {s. m,) ^ JTaziri. Ster Wazir, the Great Waziris, i.e. the 

WazIra {s. f)j Darweih Khels as distinguished from the Mahiuds. 

WazIrai {adj,) Waziri. 

Wazhm {s. m,) spell, enchantment. 

Wazhmdob [adj.) mad, frantic, furions, 

W^DON [adj.) (1) well-off, rich. WedoQ sarai^ well-to-do man. 

(2) cultivated. W^dona mzeka, cultivated land. 
W^DONi {s.f.) comfort, habitableness. De khpul kor pa ^edoni es mi 

loB p^ peri kerai dai, / have now set ahont making my house 

W£ga (s. m.) (1) yesterday evening, (2) evening. Neni w^ga, this 

evening. Sebo w^ga, to-morrow evening. Parin wega, yei- 

terday evening. 

W^Ei {s. m.) root. Wuna mi de we^a wukshelyfi do, lakawan ye, 
or B^lffl / have taken the tree up by the roots, I am going to plant iU 

Da wuna pa w^kh ksh6 pr^ka, cut that tree down by the roots. 
W^LA^' [s.f.) main water-bourse, irrigation-channel [larger than a 
. ' or W:fiLA lashtai). 

W£l:6 [adv^ (1) wTty ? "Wele khappa ye? why are you sad? Kesse? 

wele na kessan, do you see ? of course I see, lit. whyshouldnH 

Isee? (2) how? what? Wele? bya rota wyaiyB,, how do 

you mean ? repeat it to me again. 

WiiRANAi [s. m.) tusk. Pa werani wa di khwaz^i ko, it will hurt you 
with its tusks. 

Wbriare [s. m.) (1) nephew, brother^ son. (2) son oft&vhit q. v. 

Werk [adj.) (1) lost. Ripai mi werka do, I have lost a rupee. De 
khpul watan na werk, lost from his own country, i.e. an exile. 
Werk mulk, lod land, i.e. land uncultivated or making no 
return to cultivation. ('2) vanished. E mo de nazir na 
werk shap, it disappeared from my sight. {^) dissipated. 
Khpnl mol y6 werk kan, he squandered his property. 

WfeRKRBL [v. reg. tr) (1) to give [to anyone but the person speaking or 
the person spoken to) . Tse di werkrel ? uohat- did you give 
[him, her or them)? (2) to make, cause. Mota mi diwola ta, / have made a hole in the wall. Cha ta aak» 
son ma werka, do not came da^nnage to anyone.. 


WiiRMAN (*./.) (1) {owfi) wife. £ mo werman, my wife. (2) mistresi 

of the house. 
Wbbimbx See WijtsAK. 
WiiRTANG {adv,) with a flip, crack. Machoghna mi wMiDg wsihek^ 1 

made the 9ling crack, 
WJjRTLBL (t?. irr, intr,) {conjugated liketlel), (1) to go to {someone other 

than the speaker or person spoken to) . Be la khpule sarai na 

bel took na wfertei, except near friends no one visits [Jiim^ her 

or them). (2) to go (generally). Wertea, pa Khudai mi 

sporelai ji, go, I have committed yoa to God*s keeping. 
Weryez {s. f.) cloud. Nen ster6 weryeze di, there are heavy clouds 

to-day. Nen shin dai ke weryez do ? w it blue {sky) to-day or 

is it eloud ? 
Web {odj^ getting the lest of it, successful. Wer sban, he came off 

WJiRAN {s.f.) hedge {generally of cut bushes). Wfeyan pe gerzawelye 

* do, he has put a hedge round it. 
Wesh {s. m. pL) poison, venom {of wasp, snake, etc.). De bambare 

wesh ret di, the poison of wasps is very strong. 
W^SHA {s.f) large beam, rafter. 
Weshkai {s. m.) field. De dere weshkai cheshtan dai, he is the owner of 

many fields. 
WisHTE \s. m.) hair. Yo weshte mi astelai dai, / have pulled out a hair. 

Weshte ye ere di, he has reddish hair. 
W^WD {adj.) asleep, sleeping. Pa ^ob wewd dai, he is asleep [with 
ofVEVD sleep']. 
Weyel Xv. irr. tr.) to say. Mo werta wawe .... 7 said to him 

Pa dagha istoz mi sabak weyelsii dai, / said my 

lessons, i.e. studied, under that teacher. 
Wez or {s. m.) he-goat. The following terms are used for he-goats of 
Wuz different ages :' — warghimai {under 6 mo.), teferl (6' mo. to 

1 yr.), pehferl {in second year), darshJrl {in third year), khar- 

warg {over three years). (2) male markhor. 
VfizjLi, {s.m.) shin {of leg). De dwe sare wizye hadiki mot di, 
WizAi or both his shin-bones are broken. 


W]EZOR {adj) feeling repugnance for, dissociated, having nothing to do 
with. Ze de yagh ne wezor yan au aglia i mo na wezor 
dai; prekerye mi do, he is repugnant to me and I to him ; 
I have nothing to do with him. E sarkor e bade na wezor 
yan, na wa ye kan, / am dissociated from hostilities to Gov- 
ernment^ I will not take part in them. 


WiffiA (^•/•) sineia^ tendon {especially ike tendo JcAillis). De 

maghzi w^sbft^ sinew of tie neek. 
Wi^Ai {s. m,) ear {of earn). Til pa wisl^ sk&l^ dai^ tie young corn 
or has eome into ear. 

W£^D {s. m.) mane {of animal). 

WizgLBL {v. irr. tr.) (1) to Hit, slay. Wii^i, or 8sra w^ghnT, Uey 

kill each other at sight, they are at daggers drawn. (2) to 

extinguish {fire) . Da yor waw^shoA; p^ out the fire. 
WiLAYAT {s. m.) loei-up, cells. Pa wilSy&t ksh^ ze ji kshenawan^ he 

was going to put me in the loei-up. 
WiiiOft {(*dj.) standing {especially in a waiting manner). Wilor dai, 

mizb ta wilor daij he is standing, he is waiting for us. De 

ghalle ^^r^ trSt^ wilor^ di^ many sacks of grain are standing. 

Bagina y^ shne shne wilor di^ his veins are standing out 

quite blue. 
Win A [9./.) blood. Pa d^ ^oi d^re wine dl, there is much blood at 

this place. 
WiNDA^ («. m.) entire, ungelt animal. 
WiNZA (*./.) woman^s servant, handmaid. 
WiNZEL {v, reg. tr.) to wash. 

WiB («. m.) lamentation of women for the dead, '^ keening J ^ 

WiRON {adj) bad, ill-behaved. Wiron z]}enkai^ bad hoy. Wirona 

jilkai^ bad girl. 
Wi?Ai {s.m^^mmer, the hot weather. De wiri mela di cherewi? 

where is your hot-weather abode ? 

Wis See fis. 

WiswAS iS^e Waswas. 

WiswASi S^^Waswasi. 

Wish (^^0 awake. Wish dai^ he is awake* Ke a^^a vevd wi ma e 
wishawa^ if he is asleep don^t waken him. 

WisH^ {adj.) resting, taking things easily. Wishe sha^ rest yourself. 
Nen mizli ^hr wishe shewi yi^ we have taken things very 
easily to-day. 

WiSHTANDAi {adj.) crack shot. Wishtandai sarai dai^ ham^sh pa wratel 
kshe marghe wuli^ he is a dead shot, he always kills the bird 
as it rises. 

WisHTEL {v. irr. tr.) (1) to hit. Pa tizha ye wula, hit it with a 
stone. (2) to shoot. Ke zerka mi pa mzeka widity^ na wai 
nor wratyfi wa wa, if I had not shot the chikore on the 
ground it would have got up. Marg^ai pa hawo Vgh^ mi 
wishtye do^ / shot the bird on the wing, litt In the air. 


Wit {adj.) open (mouth). Shwula wita ka, z^ebba rowako^ba, 

open your mouth and put out your tongue. 
WizAi See W£zai. 
WizHA («./.) (1) garlic. De wizhe ^ita, bunch of garlic. (2) kind 

of gran. 

Wi^Ai See W]^mai. 

WiagD ((w/f . irr.) (1) ^0^^. Wuzbda ghira^ long heard. Lyar ^era 
wTizhda do, i^Ae way is very long. (2) ^a^^> high. Wi^hd 
sarai, a tall man. Wuiie wuzhdd di^ the trees are high. 

WoDB {s, m.) marriage f wedding. Nevai wode i kerai dai, he has 
contracted a new marriage. £ kor cbesbtan dai, wode e sbta, 
he is a house-holder, he is married. De gidar wode, 
^^jackaVs wedding,^ i.e., day of alternate rain and shine. 

WoGjpsTBL {v. irr. tr.) to put on {the body), dress. Jom6 wogtunda, jow^ 

on your clothes. Wzhen wog^unda, put on a raw hide {to 

cure fever, etc.). 
WoiNA {s.f) mirror, looking-glass. Woina d^rzokha shta ehe pa ksb^ 

makh wukessan ? have you a mirror that I may take a look at 

my face in it ? 

WoKHESTEL {v. irr. tr.) {\)to take {in many senses). TKra pa los kshe 
wokhla, take your sword in your hand. Pewand ye woHiestai 
dai, it has taken a join, i.e. it has become joined together. 
Bod ye wokhestai dai, it has taken wind, i.e. it is swelled 
up. (£) to buy, purchase. De juwore nirkb bya she sbewai 
dai, es wokfala, the rate for maize has become favourable 
again, i.e. has fallen, buy now. 

WarasHAi {s. m.) brother-in-law {wife's brother or sister's husband). 

WoKHSHEL {v. reg. tr.) to knead. Yo ster tarbal mi de ^re de woj^shele 
or depora pa chfir dai, I require a big platter to knead the 

O^SHEL dough in. 

WoL {s. m.) (1) matter, state of affairs. Wol rota wuwyaiya, tell 
me how things stand. (2) news. Tse wol di rovrai dai ? well 
what news have you brought ? 

WoLANG [s. m.) pomegranate. 

WoLATA, {adv.) (1) there. Wolata dai, he is there. (2) there, thither. 

WoRATA Worata drima, go thither. 


WoL^ {adv.) (1) then. Cbe dzoi ta wuraeezhe wol6 wa wol derta 
molim sbi, when you reach the place then {and then only) 
will the state of matters become known to you. (^^) there, 
thither. WolJ drima, go thither. 


WoS^BL (r. reg. tr.) to ffini. DoS|>a pa mfohan mi wofijelyl do, / have 

ground tkejlour in the handbill. 
WoLMB See Wblva. 
Woe {e. «.) (1) time. Tbo wora tlelai j6 ? kow mang times did you 

go ? (2) turn. ^Jsst de chft dai ? wAm* ^wrn $« »^ / (S) «w>f if- 

ing. Yo aftat wor uruka, uiait a moment. 
Woe («. «.) fai«. Wor gafi|' dai, the rain, is heavy, lit. thici. 
WoEAEB («• »«•) ^^'^ {of body). Pa woraU^ pr^t dai, he is lying on his 

side. WoraMi mi lagawelai dai, 1 have apjslied my side, 

i.e, am leaning on my side. 
WoEAT {adj») widei loose. £bat mi woiat dai, my coat is loose. 
WoEATA See Wqlata, 
er WoEATA 
WoEBBL {fi.m) hair above a woman* s forehead. Nen jang pa tor worbel 

dai, to-day the fighting is about black front'hair, i.e. 

^^ chetehez la femm^!* 
WoECHAN* See Waechan*. 

WoEW^DBL {v. reg, tr.) (1) to hear. Worw< ? do you hear ? Konra di, 

or na worwi, they are deaf, they do not hear. (2) to listen to. 

Aew£d£L £ mo arz y^ wn n'arw^dan, he did not listen to my petition. 

Woe [fidy irr.) small. Wore wore worki 6 mo wa ma^ ta rogfelel, 

some very small boys met me. Molga wapa ka, mahe the 

salt small, ie. pound it uj). Pa 4on pa tlz^a wo|^ ka, found 

that medicine with a stone* 

WoBKAi {s.m.) boy. 

Wos («. m.) horse. [The common colours are ;^8ir {bay), tor (blaei), 

or Os brag {shewbald), ekafirai {brown), samaud (dun), diin 

{grey), shiu-mlai, chestnut, spin {tphite). 
WosH {s, m.) thong of sandal. 
WosHB {s. m. pi) grass. De woshe tip, stack of grass. Woshe 

dondia kerai dai, the grass has grown high, lit. has made 

WosPA («./.) mare. 

W09TAWBL (», reg. tr.) to send {a person). Sarai mi wostawan, I sent a man. 
WovEA («./.) snow. 
WozAi See WfeAi. 

WozDA {s. f) fat. De lam wozda, tail-fat. De ata^^ wozda, body- fat. 
WftAi (*./) gum {of jaw). 
Wrashkai («. m) sword-belt {native pattern). 

Weatawbl (f?. reg. tr) to rjoast. 




WrXtel (if. irr. infr.) {1) to jump. Wospa mi pa lashti bondi wuwrata, 
or my mare jumped the wdter-conrse. (2) to get ^p, fiy away. 
OwRA^BL !fi mo pa makh ksh6 zerka waWr&ta^ a ekiiore rose in front 
of me* 

WrU 8ee Wro. 

WrS See^iko. 

WBisRA. (s.f.) (l) nieee, brother's daughter, (2) daughter of tarbir, 

or VrJjra q. v. 

We]6sham (*/«».) silk, 


Wr^shmIn [fldj) of silky silken. 

Wrez See Vrez. 

Wre^a (s.f.)jlea. 


Wro (*•/•) wedding party or procession, 


Wro (a^t7.) (1) slowly. Wro wro drima, go q^uite slowly. (2) gently^ 
or Wfii softly. Wre wr^ zhaghezha. «/i^a^ gently. 

Wror iS^d Vr&. 

Wrost (arff. irr.) (1) rotten, old, De k^tS kakash wrost dai, tie roof 
of the room is rotten. (2) effete , useless. WrOst sarai, «?(?f ^- 
ot<^ man. 


Wrotiz («. ^.) friend of hridejjroom joining in the wedding procession » 

Wrust]6 or {adv.) (1) after. Da sarai pa mo na der 6 vruste nikar dai, 
Vrdst£ this man is a public-servant of much after me, i.e. he entered 
the service long after I did, is much junior to me in service, 
(2) behind* £ wniste psha^ hind leg. 

Wrbl {v. irr. tr.) (1) to carry. De mre dzanoza gabar ta yowrela, 
{they) carried the bier of the dead man to the grave. (2) to 
carry off. De mi^ bat^r lamsi yawer, a hawk carried off our 
quail. (3) to carry away. Migb daresb^ ^^ de mizh kelai 
toi yosi, we are afraid the river will carry away our village. 

Wrikai {adj.) small, little. De yawa wriki sari wrUcai kor wan, there 
was a little man and he had a little house, Kt. there was a 
' small hous^ of a small man. 


WtOH (^^'0 (1) d^Jf* Wuch watan dai^ hawo hsn wucha do^ xnzeka 

f hftn wucha doj it ia a 4ry country, both atmosphere and soil 

\)^Kt\'tK f'i;.(x'v»»a «• are dry, {t) dried up* fibo wucW ehwe. the tpater hag 

{} I L \ dried up, (S) barren, Sheza j6 wucha do sseke zinbacha 

'.^ ' ^ y^ na shi, his wife is barren there/ore he has no off-spring. 

{adv,) (1) arbitrarily, capriciously, Wuch pa wucha ze e 
mani kran^ he prevented me without any good reason* Wuch 
pa wucha de mo nukson yi kerai dai^ he has injured me 
without a shadow of a pretext, (2) just^ precisely. Wuch 
wulag^dan^ it exactly hit it, Wucha sjp^ra de Sarkor da 
hukm dai^ the order of Oovernment is simply this. 

WucHKOLAi {s,f) drought, De wuchkolai depora ghalla gircna shwa, 
grain has become dear on account of the dry season. 

WuOHOBAi {adj.) waterless, Wuchobai mulk^ waterless country, 

WucHW^LAi {s, m,) forehead, brow. Wuchw^lai ye rota triv kan^ he 
frowned at me, lit. wrinkled his forehead at me. 

WuoHWOLAi {s. m,) (1) dryness, (2) thirst. 

WuKi {adj.) deserted, empty. Wuki mulk^ uncultivated and unin^ 
habited country. 

WuKSHEL (v. irr. tr.) (1) to draw out, pull out. Vrifil'e tire wukshe, do 

or KsHBL e wuwahela, (her) brothers drew their swords and smete 
her. De kiyi na ebo rowukozha, draw water from the well, 
Chilam Tokogha^ take a pull at the pipe. (2) p%kt out. Zhebba 
rowukosb^'^i'M^ out, i.e. show, your tongue, (3) tahe off, pull 
off. P&firw^ wukozha, tahe off your shoes, (4) show, feel 
(an emotion). Awwal toba wukozha, by a shukar wukozha^ 
first show penitence, then thanhfulness {to God). 

WuffiABBL See £j[ABBL. 

WugBATBL See ^atbl. 

Wtjla (*•/•) willow tree. De Kand wul^ lande di, the willows on the 
Kand are pollarded. 

Wtjla {s.f) shoulder- joint. Wula mi wukhatelye do, my shoulder 
has gone out of joint. 

Wul£ (fl^'.) melting, melted, fispana wule do, the iron has melted. 
Karang wule shewai dai, the ice has melted. Ghori ting 
shewi Ai, pa yor ye kshezhda che wule shI, the ghi has become 
hard, put it on the fire that it may melt. 

WuLMA or {s, m, irr.) guest, £ mo wulma che rotan ze ye wa maldb ta 

WoLMA wferraghlaUj as my guest was coming I met him, E mo 
wulmone che tlel nor mo jilab w^rsara wukan, pa darwoza 
mi wu&stel, when my guests were. going away I saw them off 
and took them out at the gate, De dushman wulma che 
rog^ai, los ye pa ebo na winzel, pa g^eri y^ winzel, when 


a gneH came from the enemy (i.e., when one of the enemy 
came as a/ffnest), they washed his hands not with water 
but with ghee. 

WuLMASTiA (s.f) hospitality. De wulmastie sat mi wfertakerai dai, 
I have invited him to enhy my hospitality^ lit. I have made 
him an invitation of hospitality, 

Wuly:^ {s, f) root {of plants tree, grass), 

WuNA {s»f) .(1) free, Kudrati wtma, self-sown tree, Karelye wuna, 
artificially planted tr4e. Da wuna pa teber landa ka, cut 
down, lit. make short, that tree with the axe. (2) stature, 
figure, Chegga wuna ji do, his is a tall figtwe. 

WuRiYA [ad], and adv,) far off y far, De wuriya na lida shi, it is visible 
or Ubiya from a long way off, 

WuRZAWBL {v. reg. tr,) (1) to make jump. (2) to put up, {See Wratel.) 

WusTiANi {s,f) (1) end, termination, De ti es wustiani do, de kitob 
es wustiani do, the flood is at an end, we have reached the 
end of the hook, lit. now is the end oftheflood, of the book, 
(2) Pa wustiani, after, behind^, Lashkar pa wustiani ze 
rotlan, 7070* coming behind, \,e, following, the army, . 

WtjSHWBL See Ushavel. 

"Wuz See Wbz. 

Wtjzat. («. m,) short span,, distance from tip of thumb to tip of first 
finger when separated as widely as possible, 

WuzGAR {ddj,) unoccupied, at leisure, 

Wu^Ai {adjj) hungry, 

Wu^GY^ {s.f) saliva, spittle. Wu^gye mi tikr^, / spat [spittle]* 

WuzHaawuN^ {s.f, pi,) goats^-hair {made into ropes, sacking, etc), 

Wy^ra {9'f) fear, alarm, anxiety. 

WyJsrawbl {v.reg, tr,) to frighten, make afraid, 

"WYiiRinBL {v. reg, intr,) to fear, be afraid, 

WzA (*•/•) (1) she-goat, (2) female markhor. The various ages 
{See Wez) of the female are : — wargb,imza, tsferla, pshferla, 
darsherla and kharwarga. 

WzBN (*•/•) kiln, Kulolon pa wzen kshe ima loshi pakhawi, the 
potters fire the unburnt vessels in a kiln, 

"WzHBN {s*f) hide, skin {of sheep or goat), especially in its raw state. 

{Waziris consider wrapping up in a freshly flayed skin to be 
a sovereign remedy for internal injuries and disease of the 
vhest). Pa wzhen tsTr sha, get into a fresh hide (so. as a 
-f^re for your disease.) 



Ya (conj.) or, Yft . . . yft, eitier , . . or. 

{adv,) next after or be/ore. Y& bel sabo^ tie dug after 
day after to-morrow. Yft paroB-easb^ the year before last, 

Yakin (e. m.) tolerMe certainty, reatonable expectation. Yakin mi 
did ohe dft kox wa wuslu^ I feel pretty mre that this loill 
come about. {To strengthen the expression hakk nft-hakk is 
need :— -Yakin mi dai che d& kor wa hakk na-hakk wushi; 
I think that this will most oBsuredly^ lit» right or wTOfigt i^ 

Yaeona («./.) friendship. Kacha sa^ sara y$rosa ma ka^ have^ lit. 
make, no friendship with a man of bad character. 

Yarra {int.) indeed, I say, etc. Yaxra^ dft ret ^alk <^^ indeed they 
are a rongh lot cf people, Yavra^ nen Kbo reta nendora wa, 
de ripai de karkhon^j, / say, it was a twnarkable sight 
to-day, the mint I mean. Yarra, dd kor wa na washi^ look 
here, that will never come to pass. 

Yasir {(idj.) poverty-stricken, having nothing in the worfd* 

YlsTEti See AsTbL. 


r' ^')\ orphan, child both of whose parents are dead. 

\S,/,) J ' ^ 

Y^BAL See £bal. 

Y£b6 See &6. 

Yififii {adj.) (1) hostile to Government, rebellions, Y^lif parari yo 
or shai dai, an enemy of Government^ and a fugitive {from 

YoSHi British territory) are one and the same thing. {&) trans- 

border, transfrontier, belonging to Independent territory. 

YjlaaisTAN {f. m.) Taghistap^ Independent Territory, 
or * 


Yek {adj,) only, sole {combined with yo). Yek yo KIuida4> i^^^ on^ 

and only God. 

Yenna («./.) liver. 

YiatABAL {s. m.) hearth {only in a figurative sense for, the purpose of 
tribal calculations). De yerabal hiaob di. dai ke de kom? 
do you reckon {shares of fine^ etc.) by hearths, i.e. separate 
houses, or by sections ? 


Yi5s4dbl, (v. feg. intt) (1) to live, dwell. Mohmlt Khfl pa tem^ 

Yos^BBL ^'SixxQ kdh^ d^ ySsI^ i% which valley do the Mohmii Khels 

or mostly live, (2) to remain, sticks Fa ^pul lauz tmg yosa^ 

^sIEdel stand firm to your promise. 

YisHKA {s./,) tear. Y^shke^nheajiMytear&Jlowed. 


Y^SHi^DEL {v. reg. intr.) to boiL Yesh&lelyfi ebo, boiling water, lit* 
water that has boiled* 

YfepANA (*./.) iron, 


Yevy£ (*•/•) (1) plough. (2) pair of plough'Oxen* (3) jploughing, 


Ye^ if'^-YlUaehbear. 
Ybzha («. /.) J 

Yezha («./.) barsatij canker of the skinlbhich causes the hair to fall 

Yij^sjL (s.f) shoulder. Pa yez^a mi ghwu^^ta panda rovra, / brought 
or a big bundle on my shoulder. Yezb6 palau sara wugerzawelye, 

£zHA. q. V. they made shoulders and sides go round, i.Q. they embraced one 

Yezhk^TAI {9, m,) bear-cub. 

YiD {0. m.) (1) the Id {either qf the two}. {The Kara Yid or little 

Id is on the day after the month liamzaH ewpifes; the Ster 
Yid or Great Id is 2 lunar months and 10 days later) (2) 
any festivity, day of rejoicing. Wa nandofcbt eari ta pradai 
jang nim yid dai, to a ihanr fond of seeifi^g sights a fight 
among other people is half {as good as) afestii^aL 

YiLA {^'f) (1) short-coming, voluntary failure in duty {oftm in a 
mrcaHic sense). Pa balw^ VfSki <5ha yila wu na krela, in the 
fracas no one was guilty of short'ComingjLe. no one held^ach, 
every one joined in the fight to the best of his ability. Sarkor 
bondi cli& yila kery^ na do^ de cha wast na rais^ghi^ no one has 
voluntarily failed in attaching Government, only their 
strength does not extend thereto, i.e. they Would all be glad 
to attack Government only they are not strong efiough. (2) 
hope. De Mahside d& yila elita kwundi da patsala wusbi, 
the Mahsuds hope that possibly this settlement may. be brought 

YiM («. m.) spade. Pa yim da mzeka mi kirich kery6 do, / have 

dug this ground with a ipade. 
{adj.) See Im. 


YiMBORAK {adj.) ble99edf auspicious. YlmhoTsksk wrez do, it is a happy 

or day. Yimborak dft w!^ may it be blessed (to you), i.e. / eon* 

IifBOBAK gratulate you on this, 

YImbobakI {s, f.) wishing good Inch, congratulations, Mizb yimboraki 

or dirkawT^ we wish you luck {of this), i.e. we congratulate you 

Imbo&akI on this. 

YlNA^ or {s. m) white ant, 


Yis See fis. 

YiSH {s, m,) senses, consciousness, Bj& d&i kim waU^t che pa yish 

shaa, nor 6 wuw^yel^ then he, when he came to his senses, 

[well he} said, 

YisH {s, m.) 1 7 

YiSHA («./.) )^«»«^'- 

YiSHBMA {adj.f.) in heat {she-camel). 

^YisHKA See YiJshka, 

YiYA See Yowta. ♦ 

Yo {adj. and pron,) {I) one, Yo jo, separated into units, Lashkar 

rang shan^ yo yo shan^ the tribal army broke up and dispersed, 
(2) a, a certain, De yawa saii dwa zamen wi^ a certain man 
had two sons. See Grammar, pages 13 and 17. 

YoD {s, m.) memory, recollection^ Pa yod mi rodrimi che . . . ^ 

it comes to my recollection that , , ., i.e. / remember that .... 
(a^*.) (1) remembered, recollected. D5 chSr mi w^rta yoda 
keryl do, / have reminded him of that thing ^ lit. / have 
made that thing remembered to him. (2) mentioned, praised 
{God), She sarai dai, har wa^t K^udai yodawi, he is a 
good man, he is always {engaged in) praising God, 

Yosfll See Y^afll. 

YoMiSTAN See Ybshistan. 

YoR {s, m.) (1) fire. Yor ta mi pikai kerai dai. I have blown the fire. 

(2) light. Parin mi yor derpr, / brcfught vou a light y ester- ,. 
day. Nc\ ^ ''» '' • ^-'' -• •■ ^^'. '''•^-.^ '*; ^f" * '^^-..^^ 

YoR (*•/•) sister4n4aw {husband*s sister, or husband's brother*9 


Yor {s\ m.) paramour. 

Yos^DEL See Y#.8£dbl. 

YoTY^ {s,f.) Pa yoty^ ksh^nostel, to sit on the hunhers, to squat, 

Yowya, {s. /.) egg. Dferfi jovfji mi rowery^ di, / have brought a qt$an^ 
or tity of eggs, De yawe yiy6 te^mra baia do ? what is the price 

YiYA of a single egg ? 

Yozhai {s. m.) a measure of capacity, Yozhai dw^las lapp^ di, ayozhai 
is twelve lappas {handfuls). 




Zahid (tf^f .) ^^fiffiom, ascetic. 

Zahir (adj,) sady degraded. Nen Kippat Malik mi der zahir kan, to 

day I jput Kippat, the Malik, in low spirits, I made him 

look a fool. 

Zaip {adj.) worn-out, exhausted. Dfera zaifa khappa wa, she was 
very worn-out and sad. 

Zaizod {s. m.) offspring, progeny, De khpul zaizod pa zharo mor plor 
she -pijeAi, parents best understand the weeping of their own 

Zakot {s. m,) obligatory alms, the charity prescribed by Muhammadan 

ZaQa («./.) forc'Sight [of firearm). 

Zaqta {s.f) burr {which clings to clothes). 

Zal^del {v. reg, intr) to glitter, flash. 

Zamana {s. f) period of the world, time, age. Zamana kharopa do, 
^'alk wiron shewai dai, the age is evil, the people have become 

Zamen-linba { children {of both sexes), family. See Zyai and 

Zanbacha {s. f.) offspring, progeny. Sheza y^ wucha do zeke zanbacha 
y^ na shi, his wife is barren that is why no children are born 
to him. 

Zandai {s.f^ running^noose. Zandai werwochawa, put a noose on Aim, 
i.e. hang him. 

Zanp {s. m.) long time^ delay. Der di zand kerai dai, you have taken 
a very long time {over it) . See Dzand. 

Zanp {adv.) long ago, formerly. Zand pa Tochi ksh(5 lyar. na wa 
ghl^ banda kery^ wa, in former times there was no route 
through Tochi, it was barred by robbers. 

Zanp AN {adj.) former ^ ancient. Zandan riwaj dase wan, such was the 
old custom. 

Zang X*' ^0 '^'^^- TipaJ^ zang shewai dai, the gun has iecome rustx 
i.e. rusty. 

Zangal {s. m.) (1) jungle, scrub. (2) wood,foresh 


Zangawbl {v. reff, fr,) to make swing or oscillate, rock, Khob mi na dai 
keraij ^s mi zeke zangawij I have not had any sleep, that is 
why it is rocking me now, i.e. making me nod. 

Zang£del {v. reg. intr») to swing, oscillate. 

Zano^ya («./.) child's cradle {suspended by ropes). Zftngoya zang^zbb 
or the cradle swings. 


Zangona-Steega {s.f.) knee-cap, VAnknee-eye. 

Zangoya See Zang4ya. 

ZAfBQji^ZAi {s. m.) chilghoza, edible pine-nut. 


Zas { {\) predons-metal. 8re zBir, red preciotiS'metal, i.e, 

gold. Spin zar^ white precious-metalf i.e. silver. De sre 
zar^ TSkg, vein of gold. (2) money. Da w^shkai mi pa zar 
wo^estai dai^ ^pul mi dai, I bought this field for a price, it 
is m>y own. Dr^ zera ripai ghwut zar di^ 3,000 rupees are 
a large sum of money. 

Zar {s. m,) poison. 

Zabar {s. m.) damage, injury. 

Zargab {s. m.) goldsmith. Bipoi by& w^r mi wre wa dre zargeron ta 
au dwa ronda wi au de yawa sterg^ na w^^ then I took the 
rupees to three goldsmiths, and two (of them) were blind and 
one, i.e. the third, had no eyes. 

Zabs^K {fldj. irr.) green. Zarghin shwel^ to become green {of trees), i.e. 
to put forth leaves. De aji jom^ zarghun^ di^ the garments of 
a Mecca pilgrim are green. 

Zarghunjdel {v. reg. intr.) to become green. Ke nen gabo warina 
Khudai wukrel pa bog^ ksh^ gulina wa zarghun^zhij ifto' 
day or to-morrow, i.e. about this time, God should make 
rains, i.e. send rain, the flowers, i.e. plants, in the garden 
will become green. 

Zarkatil {s. m.) deadly poison. 

Zarra (^*/-) atom, particle. Yawa zarra wa Ahr na kan^ I will not 
give you the least little bit. 

Zavrawel {v. reg. tr.) to upset, agitate, excite, distress. 

Zavr^del {v. irr. intr.) to be upset, agitated, excited, distressed. 
yfiM pa de pas^ zavr^z^^ ? why are you excited about Aim ? 
Zyai y^ badmosh dai, zeke plor zavr^sbi, his son is a bad 
character, therefore the father is distressed. 

Zawa {s.f) pMi matter. 

Zawol {s. m.) early afternoon, 1 to 2 p.m. 

Zavt See Es^^vtv 


Zawt (adj.) harnt by h^art. Sabak zawt ka^ leum {your) lesson by 

Zda {adj) learnt, known how. Zda ye kawa^ learn it* Diwol w&hel 

di zda di ke ne ? do you know how to build a wall or not f 

Zb {jpron^ See Grammar, page 14. 

Zekb {conj.)/br this reason, for that reason, therefore. 

ZelwIne {s,f,) fetter, leg^iron. 

Zelzela {s, f) earthquake. Zelzel£ de kh^zawel sara mi de deodai 
diwol roprewot, with the shaking of the earthquake the wall 
of my entrance-porch fell down. 

Z£mna {s, f) broth, soup. De chirg^ zemna serka^ sup the chicken^hroth. 

Zen^ {adv. and prep.) from, or of, him, her, it, or them. Ghle pa 
yawa kanda kshe rozen^ pet shwel, the robbers disappeared 
from me, i.e. from my sight, in a ravine. Yo wizhai regh 
zen6 potai na dai, not one ear of it is left undamaged. Ke 
sheW mashelye wi nor poll zene wuka, if the rice has been 
threshed make sheaves of it, i.e. of the straw. De g^e tewalai 
pa mota ksbe zen^ alwedelai dai^ the thieves jemmy has 
dropped from them, i .e. has been dropped by them, at the 
breach in the wall. 

Zeny£ («./.) chin. 

Zenza {s f.) centipede {small kind). 

Zer {adv.) quicklyyfast Zer ro^^ come at once. 

Zeeax (*. m.) good news. Zerai mi dferbondi dai, / have good news for 
you, lit. upon you. ^li airyotina ye wukrel che de bari zerai 
p6 wushao^ he gave alms when the good news of the victory 
reached Aim, lit. became upon him. 

Zerk {s. m.) 1 .iJT..^. 
Zekka {s.f J^^^^^^^' 

Zerai {s. m.) (1) kernel offruit^stone, seed of cotton, melon ^ etc. (2) 
small thing, particle. Damta mor yan che wa. zeri ta zre mi 
na shi^ lam so satiated that I am not inclined for the least 
particle {more), lit, have not the heart far a particle. 

Zerai {s. m.) jaundice. ^v. 

ZkRAKAi {a^.) Zferakai bambar^ j6 ^wapelai dai^ a yellow was^as 
stung him,. 

Z^TA or {s. f) violence, loudness^ Pa z£(a z6\a zbaxel^ to weep 

ZoTA violently. Dfer pa zota zbag^ wukan^ {he) shouted in a very 

loud voice, lit. very much with loudness. 

Zgor {s. m.) (1) stroke, blow. De yagh zyai pa d^r zgoiina mi wSihe* 
lai d2k,Ibeat his son with many blows. (2^) shot {offire^a/rm). 
Wu mi krel pa da dr^ lewina dr^ zgorina^ aa dwa ^ato 


shwel au yo wu na lag^dan^ I fired three %hoU at thote three 
wolvei, and two {of them) missed and one, i.e. tke third, did 

not at. 

ZoHAMEL {v. teg. tr,) to bear patiently^ to endure. 

Zqsabai («./.) watching over, De juworf zghayai ko, he is taking care 
of the maize* Bakka Khfil wyaiyi de Shawol zgharai pa 
misb nia ka, the B. Ks. say " Do not mate us watch 

ZoflBEA («./.) chain^mail, armour. 

ZflflBSHTBL {v. irr. tr.) to keepy preserve, guard {a field, etc., ly means 
or of watchmen, etc^. 


ZiDD («. i».) s^te, rancour. 

ZiDDi («4/0 ^pi^^f^h malicious. 

ZiKAB. {s. m.) remembering, praising {God). De shp^ vreze zikar ko^ 
Khudai yodawi^ night and day ^e calls on the name of God 
and praises him. 

ZiLL^SSABiJ {s. m.) proclaimed outlaw from British territory. 

ZiH (*. ««•) (1) son-in-law, daughter's husband. (2) granddaughter's 

husband. (3) bridegroom. 

ZiMMA {s. /.) responsibility. Da char de cha pa zimma do ? who is 
responsible for this piece of work ? lit. on whose responsibility 
is this work ? * 

ZiMMAWbR (flrf;.) responsible. De yagh z^enk! ze zimmawor yan, ehe de 
to sara nikar wT, / will be answerable for that lad s beha- 
viour so long as he is serving with you, lit. / am responsible 
for that lad while he may be servant with you. 

ZiN {s. m.) saddle. 

ZiNA (*•/•) adultery. 

ZiNAi or {adj.) adulterous. 


ZiNAT {s. m.) adornment. Shez^ de kshelw^oli de zinat depora pa los 

pa pshd nakrizi lagawi, women put dye on their hands and feet 

for the sake of beauty and adornment. 
Zi>AK {adj.) smart, sharp, quick {man) ; clever, as in remembering faces. 
ZisHT {s. m.) bad terms, mutual dislike. De mo to eara zisht ha shT, 

1 do not wish to quarrel with you, lit. let there not come 

about bad terms of me with you. 
{adj.) hateful, repulsive, offensive. Da sarai d&r mi zisht dai, 

da sheza mi dira zishta do^ / find that man, that woman, 

very objectionable. 
ZxTON {s. m.) loss, damage, injury, harm. 
ZiYONXOB (*. m.) injurer, doer of harm. 



Z1Y0BA.T («. m,) (1) pilgrimage. Ziyorat wrez, day of pilgrimage, i.e. 
of visiting local shrines , Thursday. De ziyorat pa wrez 
ner sheze de khpule arai depora de she sarai wa ziyoratma ta 
drimi, on Thursday men and taom'en go to the shrines of the 
saints for {the sake of obtaining) their requests, (2) shrine, 
Nazar mi pa ziyorat yeshai dai, / have placed an offering 
on the shrine, 

ZiYOT {fidj) greater, Motraba y6 pa mo na ziyota na wa, his rank 
was not greater than mine, lit. than me. 

ZiYOTAi («. m,) oppression, tyranny, Heteok pa bel bondi ziyotai na shl 
krelai, no one can tyrannize over another, lit. make oppression 
upon the other, 

ZoxHA {prep,) in the possession of in the ho^ise of, with, Ke krai wi 
dferzokha kulap pe lire ka, if you have the key about you 
open the padlock with it, Arira Indione zokha wi, pa 
Tochi ksh^ bitai ye nishta, arira is found in Hindu shops, 
lit. is with the Hindus, the plant does not grow in Tochi, 
See Grammar^ page 39, 

ZoLAN {adj,) festering, Prawor mi zolan dai, my wound is festering, 

ZoMA {s,f.) jaw, Bara zoma, upper jaw, Kiza zoma, lower jaw, 

ZoMiN {s, m) surety {who gives security), 

ZoM,iNTiA {s,f,) security {given by a surety), . Zomintia ye mota shwa. 
his security was forfeited, 

ZoWsni {s.f,) crane, 

ZoR or ZoR {s, m,) (1) force, strength {physical), Yaglnj pa eonga ksh^ 
dhr zor wukari,^^^ pressed hard on the spear, (2) power 
{over men), D^r zor lari, he has much power {but this is 
ambiguous and may also mean- ^^ he has great physical 
strength '^). "(8) compulsion. Pa khpul wast wolata tlinkai 
. na yan, pa zor driman, / am not going there of my own 
accord, I am going on compulsion, 

ZoRAWAR {adj) {physically) strong, 

ZoRi (*•/•) beseeching, entreaty, Sioati zori y^ wukra, he begged 

hard, lit. he made request and entreaty, 

ZoE {adj, irr,) old, Zor sarai, old man, Jome mi zare shewye dl, 

my clothes have become old, ,See ripai. 
ZoRYfi See Nanga. 

ZoT (#. m,) tribe, caste, Zot di tee dai ? what are you by birth ? 

ZoTA Seeli^Tk, 
ZowA , {s, /.) cliff in ramne over which water falls in wet weather, {dry) 

waterfall, • 


Z^B («. m.) (1) AearL (2) ieart {figurative). Zre mi p^ wasio, 

de ghund ^s^lk zpna wuswel, iwjr ieart dkmed, the hearts 
of all the people burned, !.e. felt pity. (8) inclination. 
Zre mi na shij / am not indined. (4) memory. Pa zre di 
dai? do j/ou remember f lit. it it in four memory? Wferta 
mi pa SEre ke^ dai^ I have reminded him, fit. put it into his 

ZfBBADi {a.f.) ill^feeliny, hostility. De mo de to eara che srebadi na 
wushij let there not be ill-feeling between me and you. 

ZubInI (adj. 8f adv.) oral. Zubftni 6 rota wuw^yel^ he told me verbally, 

ZuLH {s. m.) oppression, tyranny. 

Zyai {s. m. irr.) son. Zamen mi dr£ di^ / have three sons. 

Zya^ {s.f. pi.) abuse. Zyar^ mi w&rta wukf^^ / used bad language 
to him. 

Zxhi (s, m.) dampness, moisture. Mzeka 2ydm lari, the ground is 
moist, lit. possesses moisture. 

Zxk^ {adj.) (1) yellow* ^^y^ g^^ a yellow fiower. (2) pale. Ma^ 
y^ zy€r shan^ his face turned pale. (8) made of brass. Zyfera 
kuza^ a brass water-pot. (4) disgraced. PuloiJi^ai pa marakka 
kshe mi zye^ kaQ| / made sO'^nd'So look foolish at the 
{s. m^ brass. 

Zy^^^del {v. irr. intr.) to well up, spring. De ^bo zyrfzh^del dfera 
nendora do^ the welling-up of the water is a fine sight. 
De Sarkor Uiazona ham^sh zy^z^ij de dunyo chimi^ di^ the 
treaswry of Oovernment is always running, it is the fountain 
of the world. J6baa ^A dai^ zeke ^bo pa kshe i^mzew^^ it 
is a marshy place, that is why water springs up in it, lit. has 
sprung up in it. 

Zha3£L (1) noise. De dol ahagh. noi^e of a drum. (2) sound, shout, 
speech. Wakiyo p^ bondi rogbely^ do, zeke ^baj^ na shi kerai, 
something has, i.e. must have, happened to him, that is why 
he cannot cry out. Che do wferroghla de zhagh wnkan '^ pa 
Khudai da bazagor w^> yo ^gh wuka,'' when she came up 
to him she called out '' I adjure you by God, speak but one 
word/^ (S) reputation, report. De meri zhagh pa to bondi 
waa, che. ripai di rokre bya mo wokhesty the reputation of 
having committed the murder was on you, when you paid me 
then I took it upon myself 


Z^AgSAViL {v. feg. tr,) to make speaky i.6. io speak to first ^ fo draw into 
conversation. Pn k^p ksh^ dai^ ma e zhaghawa^ he is 
intoxicated^ Ht. in intomeation, do not address Aim. 

ZHAgs^DEL {v. reg, intr,) (1) io sound* Damoma kalla pa 70 rang 
zhagli6zhij kalla pa bel rang^ the big drum sounds now in one 
measure, now in another. (2) to speak, talk, converse. 
Bishtmai sand dai, hamegli rishtiBa zhaghezhi. he is a truth' 
/nl man, he always speaks the truth. Zeke rosara ^s na 
zhagh^zhi. that is the reason wh^ he will not speak to me now. 
Sara ^^^^l, they are converging together. 

Zhaqh^do {s. f.) talk, conversation. D& ster sarai dai^ pa khattina 
Aagh^o ko^ he is a great man, he {pnl^) converses ly letter, 
i.e. he does not condescend to verbal messages or personal 

ZHAGflmAMA («./.) camel-bell. 

Zha&h^a&harai {s. m.) (1) small hail. {^) hail-^torm of small hail. 

Zhai {9.f.) bowstring. Zhai de my%zh6 de kulml Vfi, boW'Strings 
are {usually) 0/ sheep's gut. 

Zhai {s. m.) mussuck, skin for carrying water. De ^i wa cheshtan 
ta wuwyaiya che da d^oi pi^ waiyi^ tell the man with the 
mussuck to sprinkle this place. 

Zhalai {s.f) hail {of the large kind which destroys crops). 

Zhalia^BABA {s.f) (1) small hail. (2) hail'Storm of small hail. 

J^ANDABGABAi {s. m,) miller. > 

Zhanj)ba {s.f) mill. Cha ndra gerzi^ the mill is going \round ]• 

Zhabel {v. reg. intr.) to weep, cry. Da kam ^enkai ^^ri, khwash 
or j6 ka^ the small boy is crying, soothe him, lit. make him 

Zhobel pleased. Zhora ma^ weep not. De shez^ ghmidi agha 
wugharel^ he wept like a woman. 

Zhabo or {s.f) weeping. 

Zhaundai See Zhwandai. 

Zhawab {adj.) deep^ Da talo pa sap oa shawar dai^ that tank is deeper 
than a man's height. 

Zhawaba {s.f) hollow {in hill), depression {in ground). 

Zhawaby^ (*./.) horse-leech. 

Zhdel {v. irr. tr.) to place, set^ {rarely used however except in composi- 
tion as in Ksni^DEL^ to place in, i.e. put, Pb^zhdel^ to 
set loose, i.e. let go, etc.). 

Zhebba {s. f.) (1) tongue. Zhebba ye sha^e^i, his tongue gets 

" entangled, i.e. he shammers in speaking. ArSra ^ebba y^ do, 

he has a stammering tongue. (2) tail, lash {of a whip). De 

Kobali trat dwe dre sbjBbbe wi, a Kalidi riding-whip has two 


or three taih. (8) language, dialect. De. Wazire Iwara 
^bba^ the roughs lit. highy dialect of the JFaziris. De 
Banniteai pasta ^ebba^ the soft dialect of the Bannnchis, 

Zhebghabond {adj,) loosest ongned, i.e. talkative. 

Zheqa («. m.) yoke {wooden y of plough),, 

Zhrkai («. m.) winter, cold weather or season, 

Zhbnai {s. m.) youthj young man, Eshelai shemd^ a handsome youtL 
fi l^enia ! Ho, you I (to attract attention of a youngish man of 
about the same age as the speaker) . 

Zhenkai («. m,) boy, lad. £ shenkaiya I . Ho, you I {to attract attention 
of a lad younger than the speaker), 

Zh 6wel {v. reg. tr,) to chew, masticate, 

Zhsbal {s, m,) gravelly ground. Pa .^g^al kslie wos ma parawa^ 

or Zhazh do not gallop the horse on the gravel. 

Zhiba («•/•) beard, 

Zhibawab (adj.) having a large or long beard, heavily bearded. 

Zhmans {^'f) comb. De zbAianz^ d^r ^oehi di^ a comb has many 
teeth. Khpnla j^ira pa ^manz wxdmezha^ comb your beard 
with the comb. 

Zhobel See Zhabel. 

Zhowla {s.f) resin {of tree). De gemne aghowla, bees^-waxy lit. honey- 

Zhwandai {adj.) (1) alive. De to wror mer wan an As bya Rwanda! 
or ehewai dai, thy brother was dead and is alive again, (2) 

Zhaundai live, Zbaundai dtmyo, Uve-stcck, flocks and kerds^ lit. 
live property, 

Zhwandin {s, m,) life, life-time, Che zhwandin wi, migh wa byS sara 
mulakat wuki, if we are spared, lit. if there be life, we shall 
meet again, De mo de plor pa zhwandona ksh^ da kor 
sbewai dai, that happened in my father's life-time, 

Zhwanpai {s. m.) yoke-peg. 

Kitob tamom shan, 
Talib lor shan : 
Pa keta y6 gerzedan, 
Pa lambe shwan. 

The book was finished. 

The student departed ; 

I passed by his {empty) room, 

1 was consumed {with sorrow). 



Alw^del See Walw^dbl. 

Atkal {9. m.) thought, reflection. Sarai, atkal wukal consider {what 
you are doing) man ! i.e., have a care, 

AvAi [adj.) which is next, nearest. Pa ave Kkwo, or pa avi lorf, 

this side, on the nearer side. 


Babab {ad;.) (1) unshorn, Jlufy, long-haired. Da mol che lya skwestai 

na dai babar dai^ the animals that have not yet Been shorn 

. , are msilly. (2) soft, friable. Babare ti^^, crumbling stones. 

Bk^n^BVLT {i. m.)%iocmdk t5^^ :-f " P ^ : :;{S ^ 

BATmANAi (s. m.) iron^dross. De batkhani' ghandi timit nodular liinW^ 
stone, kankar. 

B^ffl 5^ W]6ffi, (2) /o(?^ ; i<?^^(?»*. De g^re pa .bc^i kshc, at the 
foot of the hill. 

BiNA («./.) reality^ truth. Bina da wa, i^A^ /uc/ was. Dagha bin a 
do> bela nishta, da ^abara rishtiny^ do, this is the truth, 
there is no other {true version), this statement is true. 

Blavz {adj.) close together, adjoining. Platafite blavze rogile, the 

or Blawz regiments came on without intervals. Da keli blawz di sara, 
yo bel sara zhagh worwi, these villages are close together* 
a man can talk from one to the other, lit the one hears 
tailing with the other. 


Chaman {s. m.) space cleared of stones. Spin chaman ml jor kan de 
dermend deporm. / cleared a Ugh' -coloured space for a 



DimPADAK (adj.) continually driven from one place or refuge to another, 
Sti^irod M darj^adar Bhaa^ 8. is kept perpetually >» th 
move {by his enemies). 

piB {s. m.) Dur, member of a menial tribe among tie Mahsuds wlo 

manufacture sacking and, felt. Diron kamoya di^ the Dart 
are menials. 

E • , ■ ■ 

£ndai {adj.) nearer^ hither. Pa findy^.khwo or pa endi \Sn, on tli^ 
sidct on the nearer side* 


Oabdan {s. m.) skirt of a hill, where the hillside meets the plain, or the 
steeper dope of the iili begins. . 

Qhwut See Vocabulary. . (4) all. Be Shahir pa darre kslie ghwut 
Sliaman Klhel di/ei» the Shahur tdldey' they are all Shaman 
Khels. (5) exact. Ghwut da'Doanz k^h^ wida, strike 
exactly in the centre, 


H/iQBitLS^.SeeFoca&ulary. i^) only, l]^a molimj^i che wewd dai ke 
agbase Imost dsd,Jt is not apparent whether he is aeleep or 
only lying down, 

Jamjola («./.) affianced bride, fiancSe^ Jamjolado^ pa. dagha de cha 
•ghagt dai, she is engaged, someone has a claim on her. 


Kamoya {adj.) meniaf, of low origin. See Df r. , 
Kats^ See Kach, 

* -v t , - » 

AJ^bftKiiiA W yo6A^iAti> S4& 

KLAfc (adv.) iSee f^ocdiiildf^i (2)' - hirer^. ^ dir klak iiii 

. ^wazh^i/ / iave a SfliUing headache. ' 
'k.Xr^iflik het^Lvprki. • 

SfiWAiTB i$^> Votah'utaTg. (8) fedinp of hhaltH. M^ leB^ roBara do^ 
]^wand mi nishta^ Z have low fever, I am not feeling well. 


Lakpawar {adj^ evil, wicked, unscruptdoiis, ^le landawar dase k^ 

thieves and scoundrels behave so. 
Lbbai {s, m.) stomach. 

M , . 

MASfiPAMASB See Makhamakh. 

Man:^a See Vocabulary . Zer ka^ pa manda da wol roTfa, loot sharp, 

. bring th€ news qnicUf. 
Mabgandai {a^\) dying, moribnnd, 

MA|tAi See Vocabulary. . (3) Khwag^ia ikxarai, pancreas, ^sweetbreads 
Matai See Ma^Ikai. Pii mati di sandik wo mi Uiest^ / lifted the box 

with difficulty. * 

MIiroK See Mak. 
MlzsHlLiDBL {v. reg. intr.) to play. Wolata- obe ch^n^ S&hibon 

mazahilez^, the place where the English officers play games. 
MisHT {adj.) settled, established. Dwa-sara keli tangzan sara mishta 

di^ the two villages have camped down adjoining each other. 

NoLAT See Vocabulary. K^i waahai de ghre nplat y€, ea^i na y^^ you 
are a stupid brute from the hills, i.e. savage, not a. human 

Faloai {s.f) small ravine. 

Fabopai {s.f.) measure of capacity. Faropai d^ahu isfe^yS ^19^ ^ ^ 

paropai is twelve singls'iandfuls. 
PisAi See Vocabulary. Vhn aba^^ wukan^ there came an echo, lit. 

a fairy shouted. 


P&i (a4f .) cut off, Psha i i^wutta pr^ do^ tie wkcie of kis foot it 

PRfe|tXv See Vocabulary. (2) distance. B&mra pr^kfin dai leke pai£4 

pa Bta, it is about as far ae the end of tke parade-ground. 


Bbt {adv.) See Vocabulary. (2) hard. Thi lawar ji wnwahelan ret, 
he etruci me hard three timee with a stick. 


Sab ^ See Vocabulary. Le^bki sar lagawan^ / will rest, lit. lay down 
my head, for a little. Pa ^pul sar da keri di| he did it 
himself, i.e. in person. 

SoTA See 'S£ta. 

Spanoor {s. m.) prayinff-mantis. Spangarfna mol wesh^i set y^ ko, the 
mantises are hilling the cattle and destroying them. 

Spska («•/.) contemptuous treatment, insrult. P& sapii de mo ham- 
B&ya waoi mo sara ye speka kra, that man was my dependent 
he has {nevertheless) insulted me. 

Spoiffisz See Sp£shez. 

Shbnna {s. f.) rump. 


Tanga {s. f.) very narrow defile or pass. 
Takgai {s, m.) narrow valley. 

Tangabai {s. m.) very narrow valley or moderately narrow defile or 
pass intermediate between a tanga and a tangai. 

TaNGZAN {adj.) contiguous, absolutely touching. Tangzan sara noBt di . 
g]ian4^ they are all sitting crowded together. See Grammar, page 39. Tar bo^ na kam dal^ not so far as 
the garden. Tar bogh na legbki she dai^ a little further 
than the garden. 

Tbk {adv.) absolutely {of colour) . See Tor and under Shodb. 

TiRiYOLAi {adj.) brave, bold. 

Toixfiai {(idj.) coming into ear. Juwor toti|^e dl, the maize is just 

coming into ear. 



TsL^R («. i».) reservoir i tank. 


Wak fi^ Vocabulary. (8) deputed potcerg. Pa Badar ksfa^ Dar- 
wesh^ Bannit^ ta wak w^kerai wan^ Mafasid^ Badsfaa Khftn ta 
w^rkerai waa^ a^ Badar BannucAi. was the flenipotentiarf 
of the Darweth Khels and Badshah Khan of the MaAsuds. 

Walw£dkl See Vocabulary. (4) to descend. Ze pa da shel kiz wslwi" 
shan ? «^a/2 / ^(> down these stairs ? 

WiBONA {s. /*) bad terms, ill-feeling, De mo w^rsaia wirona do, 

7 am on had terms with him. 
WocHAWBL See Achawel, 

WoM («. m.) stretch of arable land, Especially in a valley or on bank 

of a stream. 
WoBAM {s. m.) doorfastentr, loost prop. 
WucHKOL {adj) afflicted with drought. Shudai di wuchkol ka, God 

visit you^ with drought {imprecation). 


Zobt£ {adv.) before, formerly, some time ago or since. Zorye mi 
wteta w^yeli di^ poe kerai mi dai she, / told him before, I 
made him thoroughly understand. Zofy£ d^ wa, 6s das6 na 
do^ a|^ wa^t na daA, formerly it was so, now it is not so, 
times are changed. 

ZsAZs See Zhqsal. 

{ U7. ) 



A, yo. . 

Abandon^ to, pr^zhdeL . 8^ ^alos. 

Abdomen, ge^dsb, nas. See kulmak 

Ability, kobi> tofeat, was. 

Able, kabil, laik. 

, to be. See shwel, rotlel, also 

Grammar, p. 33, 

Ablution (ceremonial), audaSk 

— : (ceremonial, with earth), 


About, {1) hamra, g^undi. {%) korta 
porta. 5^^ lorai* (3) gefd. 

Above, bondi, porta, pps. 
Absolute. See sp^ra. 
Abstinence, parhez. ' 
Abstraction. iS^dteela. ' 
Absurd, ^wushai. 
Abuse, zyare. See shkanel. 
— , to, shkaneL 
Accent, ghwora. 
Accept, io. See kabil, 
— -able, khwash. 
Accident, ba.lo, wakiyo. 
Accidental, kudrati. See akhtiyor. 
Accidentally, khushki. 
Accompany, to. See rasawel. 

• Accord, own, aUitiyor, was. See 

Account, (1) hisob. (2) kissa. 

■ of, on, depojav . 
Accuracy, barobari. 
Accusation, tohmatv 
Accustom, to, ifehdyawel. 
Accustomed, adat, rizhdaiv 
Ache, ^wuzh. • 

Acknowledge, to, maHel, p^ghendel. 
Acolyte, sh€^. 
Acorn, pergai. 

Acquaintance, (1) baladi, baladgfri. 
{i) ashno; - ' 

- .•^shi^, ^shupyl. 

Acquainted, balad. S^ee p^endel. 
Acquire, to, kreJ, wokfaestel. ' 

Across^ bondi, pferi. 
Act, char, kissa, kor, Ubabara.- 

Active, te&lok. 

Address, to, ghiEtg^awel. 
Adhere, to, lagedel. See ting. 
Adhesive, sreshan', sreshnok, 
Administi^tion^ istizftm. 
Admit, to, manel, p^^ndel. 
Adopt, to, niwel. 
Adornment, zinat. 
Adulterated, kota. 
Adulteress. See kosira, mferosha. 
Adulterous, zinai, zinakor. * 

• The f oUowing is an index, not a tocabnlary, and the words to which reference is 
given should be turned up in the Waziri Vocabulary. Used as a dictionary the index will 
be found misleiidmg. VHien a word required is not found in the index, other closely related 
words from the same root should be examiued ; if they afford no assistanceja synonym should 
be tried. Abstract and scientific words will usually be sought in vain, the ideas wbich they 
represent being foreign to the Waadri language. 



Adultery, zina. 

Advantage, bida, faida, paida, sheg- 
erra. See Bhammar. 

Advice, naahat. 

Adze^ tashez. 

Afar^ lir6, wuriy&. 

Affair, char, kissa, kor, khabara, 

Affeotj to. See wahel. 

Affection, mina. See giron. 

Afloat, ga4* 

Afraid, ta be, <}aredel, tarsedel, 
wyfer^del. See tarsinda. 

'f to mak&, darawel, tarsawel,' 


After, pas, pase, wruste. See bel, 

— — next, dream. 

Afternoon (early), zawol, peshin. 

(late), Imozdigar. 

Again, bya. 

Age, (1) umar. (2) zamana. 
— : — ^ of, bolij^. See ebo. 
Agency of, by, bondi. 
Agitate, zavrav^el. 
Agitated. See zavredel. 
Ago. See waUbt, zan4, zorye. 
-^goi^y* azob, ^wori. 

, last, dzonkadan. 
Agreed, jor. See ittifok. 
Agreement, ikrar, ittifok, joresht. 
Aid^ emat, kumak^ madat, nang. 
Aim, (1) nazir. (2) matlab, murad. 
— •less, sarl&ya* 
Air, (1) bod, hawo. (2) surod. 
JJU/oin, sp^rkai. 
jttf spelmai. 
Alarm, dor, tars, wyfera. 
Alarmed, tarsinda. 
Alchemist, kimiyogar. 
Alert, bedor, wish. 
Alight, to be, baledel. 
Alive, sh^^^ndai. 

AU, hama, hamagi, ghund> kull. 
— -, at, bilkul, mitlak. 
Allow, to, manel, p^zh^ndel. 
Allowance (headman's), maliki. 

(tribal), mu&jab. 

Alloyed, ko(a. 
Almond, badon. 

-tree, badon. 

Alms, (funeral), isk&t, sk&t. 

, (of supererogation), Idbairyot. 

— , (votive), sadaka. 

•X f (atendof Bamazan)^sarBoya. 

-, (obligatory), zakot. 

'iiieme, ' (J) g^hti, khali. (2) 

Alphabet, takhta* 

Also, han. 

Altercation, • aryesht, jaggarra, 
momla, takror. 

Altogether, mitlak, mutlak, mut- 

Always, ham^sh, hamesha, har- 
kalla, barwakht. 

Amazed, akbak, aryon, brand. 

Ambling, abiya. 

Ammunition-pouch, keteai. 

Among. See ksh^, teir. 

Amount of, hamra. 

Amulet, towiz. 

Amused, mashghiK 

Amusement, leba, nendora. 

Ancestors, plor nike. 

Ancient, vrondinai, wa^tinai, zan- 

And, au. 

Andamans, the, kari daryob. 

Angel, firishta, prista. 

Anger, ghazab, ^ussa, kar,tri]^ai.' 
See shaiton. 

Angry. See ghussa. 
Animal, ^^anawar, pse. 
Ankle, shangerai. 
Anna, mirai. 



Anna, (quarter-) kusTra. 

Annoy, to, rabarawel, ranzawel.' 

See taba. 
Annoyed, i^orat, lotband, H^er. 
Annoyance, azob. 
Anoint, to, gliferawel. 
Another, bel. 
Answer, ^ss^^ob. 
Answerable, zimmawor. 
Ant (black), me^ai. 

-. (white), yinan. 

hill, mad^^tin. 

Antimony, ronje. 

AnttSj ghor* 

Anvil, sindon. 

Anxiety, ^or, jj^aro, tars, wyera. 

Any, hetiS, tee. 

body, heteok, 

— -how, nor. 
•— •one, heteok, teok. 
Apart, gwushai. See tikai. 

— -ment, k^ta. . 
Aperient, jar, jullob. 
(kind of), jamalketa. 

Apparent, jawat. 

Appear, to. ,See lidel, molim, shkora. 

Appearance, rang. 

, to make, khatel. 

Appeased, Id^wash, pakhula. 
Appetite. See khwand. 
Apple, mafira. 

•tree, maii!^a. 

Apply, to, kshe^del, lagawel. 
Appoint, to^ kshenawel. 
Appointment, dzoi. 
Apprehension, tars, waswas. 
Apprentice, shogerd. 
Approach, to, ras^del, rotlel. See 

Appropriate, to, Ubwarel. See londi. 
Approve, to. See kabilf ^wash. 
April, Sok. 
Aqueduct, tamowai. 

Arbitrarily. See wuch. 
Arbitrate, to. See Arbitration. 
Arbitration, dr^mwolan, munsiffi. 
Arbitrator, dream. See munsiffi. * 
Argue, to. See ary^sht. 
Argument, dowa. 
Arise, to, chegedeL See cheg. 
Arm, los, wazar. 

(fore-), l^cha. 

■ . ■ (upper-), gherai. le^hai, met. 

— -pit, tkharg. 
Armour (chain-), zghera. 
Arms, barg, wasla. 

Army (disciplined), fauz, lashkar. 

■ (tribal), lashkar, tora. 

Around, gerd. 

Arrange, to, tarel. 

— — -nient, band, bandobast, 
lyar, tarfn. 

Arrest. See sholang. 

— , to, niwel. 

Arrive, to, rasedel. 

, to make, rasawel. 

Arrow, ^eshai. 

Arsenic, sankiya. 

Artful, tag. 

Artillery, tepkhona. 

As, leke, teangra, teangre. 

— before, haghase. 
Ascend, to, khatel, lak^del. 
Ascent, pechimai. 
Ascetic, zahid. 

Ashen, kher. 
Ashes, ira. 

Aside. See dadda, khwo, palau, 

Ask, to, pushtel. See pashtanna. 

for, to, ghwushtel. 

Askance. See gzhe, sterga. 
Asleep, wewd. 
Assafcetida, anj. 

Assemble, to, toledel, wferbeghedel. 
See jamma. 



Aflsembly^ to&rakka. 

' — f plme of, jamma, k^lcai. 

A88iiBtanc6| Smaiti kuxnak, ma3Kt| 
• aang. 

Assuredly, hakka-pakk^ ksheki 
sablti mitlak. See jrakin. 

Astonished, aryon, brand, hairon. 

Astounded, akbak. . 

Astray, Idhato. See paryob, 

A.strologer, najimi. 

Astrology, najim. 

At, ksh^, pi^, pferi. 

Atom, bateerrai, zarra, iier^i. 

Attached. (l)i?tf^teif. [2,) SeeminA. 

Attack, brid. 

i to. See wahel. 

Attend to, to. See ghanif katel. 
Attention, ghaur. 
Attraction, izzat. 

Auger, gurmat« 

August, Bdidrf. 

Aunt (by blood) j tror, 

" (by mjB.rruge)jinandiar^ tandiftr* 

Auspicious, yunborak. 

Authority, (1) a^tiyor> wak. (t) 
hakim. . ^ 

— — — in, al^ti^omaaid^ 

Autumn, menai. See fas^*. 

Avenge, to, gatel. 

Awake, bedor, wuih. 

Aware, Ubabar* - - - 

Awe. See warn. . . 

Awfully. See re^. 

Awfulness, dabob, want. 

Awl, rman. 

Axe, teber. 

, small, tebergai. 

-haft, teberlostai; 


Bachelor, lawand. 

Back, (1) pastana, rostin, stin. (2) 

, (1) sho, shamzai. (2) tset. 

(8) ^tai. 

(small of), g^oshai, mla. 

biting, shimat. 

bone. See hadikai. 

-ing, nang. 

sight, nazirdzoi, nazirk^t. 

-water, dand. 

Bad, bad, kalp, kam, kota, ^anda- 
nai, ^arop, nalaik, ret, wiron. 

Badly-behaved, bad-amali. See aib. 
Bag, trata. 

, leq,ther, gi^ai. 

Baggage, asbob. 

— — — -net, lad. 

Bake^ to^ {4ntr.) pa]^edel. 

— , {ir,) paWiawel. 

Baking-irofk, bat. 

' ' -plate (iron), teghana* 

' -stone^ tabai. * 

Bald, pek. 

Ball, tapakai*. 

Bamboo, bosh. 

Band, ghaddai. topa. 

Bane, balo. 

Bank, ghwora. 

, vertical, kamar. 

Banner, taghw: 
Bannuchi, Banni^. 
Bare, (1)* barband^ liya. (2) S^e 
sp^ra, laghar. 

-heEuled, sartor. . , 

^footed, 6baL 

Bark, patikai. 

, to, apedel, ^ipeddi. 

Barley, rebeshe. 

(husked an<J boiled), bat^.* 



Barley-bread, rota. 

Barn, ke(». 

Barrel (of firearm), der^ia. 

Barren (female), n^dagar, wueha. 

(land), bftti, iai^ftt, ehan^. 

f • 

Barsatij y^a. 

Base, (1) kalp, koj^. (2) kota. 
Basin, kund^l. 
Ba^^et, g^ona, akkor. 
— — ^ — G^g®)i tokwar. 
— ^— (small), tokwarai. 

Bat, (1) Iml^shoinak, Imfishoin- 
marghai, (i) lawa^f. 

Bathroon;!, ^arteibai. 

Battery, t^p^ona. 

Battle, jaggarra, jangjt muka4- 

Bay (colour), sir. 
Bayonet, ^anjar. 
Bazaar, bazor. 

Be, to. See [kedel], shta, shwel. 
Bead, glass, mashkafi|y^. 
Beads of rosary, tasb^. 
Beak, m&shSka. 
Beam, wesha. 

Bear, yfizi? 

oab, yfi^k^tai* 

, to, (I) wrel. (2) zghameL 

(8) rowrel, dzowel. 

Beard, (1) ghir^* (2) llshan. 
Bearded, slightly, teikar. 

, heavily, z^irawar. 

'Beat, to, drabei, paryodel, takawel, 

(drum), to, dangawel. 

Beauty, kamol, kshelwolai. 

Beautiful, kshelai. 

Become, to, [k^del], sliweL 

Bed (common), jcaf. 

(superior), manjama* 
(of ravine, etc.), shegga. 
-cover, n^b^i. 

Bed-time, moi^sitan. 
Bedding, bishtara, patmai. 
Bee, mechai. 

Bees'-wax. See g^mne, jkowla. 
Befall, to, lag^del. 
Before (in time), de sara, 6 sara, 
pa^wo, vroncd, zoTye. . 

— -— (of place) ma^amakh, p^slb 

Beg, to. See suol, zori« 
Beggar, fa^r, joa)aJxg. 
Beggar's bowl, kachkel. 
Begin, to. See los, sluri. 
Beginning, sar, shiri. 
Begun, to have. See lagedel. 
Behalf of, on, depora. 
Behave, to, jor&lel. 

badly, to, bad k^^l. See 
adab. . 

Behaviour, kind, muleiza. 

Behind, pase, pa teet, wruste. See 
badal, wustiani. 

Belching, grezai. 

BeUef, (1) bowar, itibor. (2) um- 

mihd, yakm. 
Bell, (earned), zhaghzhagha. 

, small, gingrai. 

Bellow, to, ghrab^deL 

Bellows, bauai. 

Belly, gadolyai, ge4(ja, nae, 

Belonging to, pa kor. {See under 

Belongings, asbobj mol. See makb. 
Below, Idz, kp^, ktj^j ki^i londi. 

Belt, (waists), kamarband, wol- 
' mastanai. 

■■, (sword-) J wrashkai. 

■ ' and pouches, kisbat. 

Belts, barbast. 
Bench, p^rai-kat* 
Bent, kazbl^h, kozb* 
Beseeching, zori. 
Beside. See khwo, teang. 



Berade-self, be-^uda. 
Bet; shart. 

Betrayal of trusty khanat. 
Betrothed (woman); ke^delye^ 
^ sholanga. 
Better^ jop 

of, to get the, londi krel, 

vrex ehwel. 
Between. See manz. 
Beware. See pam» soteh 
Bewitoh, to^ damawel. 
Beyond, pferi. 
BhaKgy bangye. 
JBA^-fmit, bira. 

-tree, bka. 

Bhoora., biz, pir. 
Bier, 4sanoza. 
Bile, tnkhai. 
Billow, chappa. 
Bird, margha. 
, large, marghe. 

-, small, marghai. 

Birth, by. See a8al,'Zot. 

-} to give, 4^wel, rowrel. See 

nanga. • 

Bit (riding-), dona, teberai, vlina. 

Bitch, spai. 

Bite, to, chiehel, ^warel, rghastel. 

See hhwula. 
Bitter, (1) tri^b, shera. (2) sakht. 

Black, tor. 

mail, bSnga. 

^ -smith, pesh, koligar. 

Bladder, pikafii'ai, speUbez. 

Blame, to. See gram, mulamat. 

Blast, sfrang:. 

Blaze, to. (1)^^^ lamba. {%) daz- 

Bleary, lecfaan* 

Bleed, to. See rag« 

Blessed, yimborak. 

Blessing. See dawo. 

Blight. See tarkwunai. 

Blind, rind. 

by night, b&shir, shaugir. 

Bliss, janat. 

Blister, tall^'oka. 

Blistered, tafi^oka. 

Block (of Mkrtini), ti-ey^. 

— -, to. See isor, tarn. 

— — -head, ^^agai. 

Blood, wina. 

— - -feud, badi, mer, merai, por. 

— -money, por. 
Blooming, avtewun, kshelai. 
Blow, gurmat, sik, tak, zgor. 
f to (intr.)y chal^el. 

-, to {tr,)y pikawel. See pikai. 

Blowing, pikai. 
Bludgeon, lawar. 
Blue, shin. 

Blunderbuss, gharbin. 
Blunt, pete. 
Board, takbta. 

(of book), wazar. 

Boast, to. See ghwura. 
Body, sirat. 

— (dead-), mer, merai. 
Boil, shenzye. 

, to, (intr) ^watldel, yeehd- 

del; {tr.) khwataweL 

Boiled, pekh. 

Boiled water, pa^e ebo. 

Boiling water, khwatawelye ebo, 
y6sh6dely€ ebo. 

Bolt (food), to, ni^eshtel, Bhrap- 

Bone, hadikai. 

^ large, had. 

Book, kitob. 

binder, kateb. 

Booming, (jAug^do. 

Boot (long, riding), meza. 

Border, brid, hadd. 

Boring, sirang. 

Born, paido. 



Borrow, See ghwushteL 

BoBom, ^y^zh. 

Both| dwa-sara. 

Both ... and^ h&aliaD. 

Bother^ raba;'. 

, to. See i^orat, taj^yir, 

Bottle^ shisfaa. 
Boulder^ khi^ai. 
Boundary, brid, hadd. 
Bouquet. See ge4ai. 
BoW| linda. 

, (fiddle-), lindai. 

— -string; ^ai. 
Bowel, kulma, larmln. 
Bower, kunda^a. 
Bowl, kundel, tity^. 
-, beggar's, kachkel. 
', wooden, kurwai. 
Box, kulpai, sandik. 

^ small, dablai, kulpikai, san- 

Boy, workai, gh^nkai. 
Brace and bit, barma. 
BrsUielet, chilai, kangar, mangwla, 

Braces, barbast. 
Brag, to. See ghwura. 
Brain, ma|^z. 
Brains, makhreze. 
Branch of tree, teonga, mendap. 

* y thin^ dekai. 
f cut, ghanna. 

- of water-course, lashtai. 

Brass. See zyer* 

Brave, ner, tlrzan. See mere. 

Bravery, m^rona, tira, ttrzantob. 

Bravo, (1) shab&sh. (2) spoi. 

Brawny, gerd. 

Bray, to, anrMel, naredel. 

Braying; afil'^^ai. 

Brazen, masin. 

Breach, mota. 

Breach of trust, ^anat. See under 

Bread, m»:ai. See tikala^ 

', wheaten, nghan. 

-, (barley-), rota. 

-, bit of, ^sha]L. 

baked on stone, kok« 

do. small, kokirai. 

y daily, rozi. 5^* marai. 

Breadth, planwolai. 

Break, to {intr)^ prekedel, pr^sh£« 
del. See mot. 

— , to (^r.). See mot. 
into, to. See mot. 
— up, to \ifitu)y (1) ohaudeK 
(2) latedeL See yo. 

up, to (tr.)y chawel, wara- 


up land, to. ^S^^ kirich. 

Breakable, motawinai, nozak 

Break&st. See bar^zar marai, sabo 



■■ (in Ramazan), parsha* 


Breast, sina. See tai. 

— — -work, moroha, teaukai. 

Breath, saya. 

Breathe last, to. See selgai. 

Breathing-space, damma. 

upon, dam. 

Breechloading, kuniz. See mota- 
winai, tipak. 

Breeze, bod. See hawo. 
Bribe, ba4ye. 

•: , to. See khwash. 

taker, badyekhfer. 

Brick, kheshta. 
Bride, nowyfi. 

groom, me^, zim. 

Bridge, pul. 

Bridle, jawji. 

Bright, rifS^j spin. See shug^Ia. 

— — -ness, shug^Ia, 



Brilliant^ tiSt, spin. 

Bringi tOj rowi^el^ rowrel. 

■ forth, lo, d^wdj rowrel. 

See nanga. 

forth dead^ to, Ibira shwel. 

in^ tO| nenaaw^etel. 

Brittle^ motawmai^ nozak. 

Broad, (1) £^wut, plan, (i) See 
under i^wora. 

— — -shouldered, plan. 

Broil, to, B^zel. 

Broken (1) mot. (2) See arakai, 

, broken in, broken through, 

' bd^. 

Broker, dallol. 
Broom, r^bez. 
Broths z^mna. 
Brother, vrSr. 

-in-law, wokhshaij lewar. 
Brow, wuchwelai. 

Brown, l^er, skafErai. 
Bruised, hJiwazhy paryodelai. 
Brushwood entanglement^ ghanne. 
Bubble, kwutila. 
Bucket, iron or leather^ bikra. 
— — , wooden, karwatai. 
Buckler, kangal. 
Bud, ghita. , 
Buffalo, mesh. 

i , young, dzft. 

■ ■ -herd, meshbon. 

Bug, srisha. 

Build, to, jorawel. See jor, wahel. 

Building, joresht. 

Bull, g^woye. 

-necked, makan^awat. 

Bullet, g^lai, mardakai. 

mould, twttltit. 

Bullock, ghotskaif teorwai. 
— — , young, s^bandar. 
Bullrush, 49a. 
Bunch, g^4&i| ghitaL . 
Bundle, ga4Iai, kad(}a, pfeoi^feu 
Bungalow, bangla. 
Burden, bor. 
— — — , of, l^s^dai. , 

Bum, to {intr,), bal^del, sweU 

, (tr.), sezel. , 
Burnt (brick, etc.), p£^. 
Burr, za^ta. 
Burrow, gl^o r. 
Burst, to (in^r.), chatidel. 

, to {tr.)f chaweL 
Bury, to. See ahakh. 
Bush, bitai. 

, small, bitakai. 

Business, (1) gharaz, kissa, kor, 
momla. (2) kasab. (S) saudo, 

-^ , pressing, h&jat. 

Busy, p^wo^ta. 
But, ^0. 
Butter, kuch. 
Buttock, kunatai. 
Button, ghinda, 

hole, ghwiarwasha. 

Buy, to, krel, woj^estel. See 

Buzz, to, bafiredel. 

Cf^, panjra. 

Cairn, feellai. . 

Cake (of cowdung), drabla. 


__ € 

Calculation, hisob, shumfer. 

Calf, s^andar. 

, unweaned, Sisai. 



Cal£ of leg, pasi^. 

, muscle of, spina. 

Call, to, balel. 

to prayer, azan, bcn&g' 

Called, to be> nam^del. 
Calumnious, shimatgar, shimatnok. 
Calumny, shimat. 
Calved, nanga. 
Camel, yish. 

young, jingai. 

-bell, ghagi^agiba* 

-load, half, gawanda. 

-pannier, kajowa. 
■ -stnngi mar« 
Camp, irdi^ 

Camping-ground, mela. 
Cane, bosh. 
Canker, ySz^a. 
Canter. See baga. 
Cap, (percussion-), paiia^a, tepai. 
Capable, kabil, laik. 
Capriciously. See wuoH. 

Caravan, bahir, karwon. 
Carcase. 5«* gaggar. 

Care, i^ar, p&m. See atkal. 

of, to take, sotel, zgheshtel. 

-ful, bedor, sambol. ifee inar, 

^ taker, kashai. 

Carpenter, trakofi^. 

Carpet, paloz. 

— , (prayer-), misala. 

Carriage of bodj, sirat. 

Carrier, boriwol. , 

Carrion, mardor. 

Carrot, gajara. 

Carry, to, wrel. • . _ 

about, to, gerzawel, shorawel. 

away, to, wrel. 

— ofiE, tp, wrel. 

Cart, gad!. 

-road, sarak. 

Cartridge, kortis. 

Case, mukaddama. 

Cash, naghd. nakd. 

, for. See los. 

Cast, to, aehawel, ghurzawelr 
treyel. .See mag. — 

— » — ,, ghurz^del. 

Caste, asal, zot. . 

Castrated, Ub^ssi. . ^ ■ '' 

Cat, pesha. 

Catarrh, nazela. ' 

Catch, to, niwel; See Isk, sha^. 

(foot), to, blavsedel. 

Cattle, mol. 

shelter, vrorai. 

Cauldron, kar^rai. 

Cause, to, Eokrel, werkrel, etc* 

Cavalry, risala. " 

-man, spor^ ewor. 

Cave, ghor. teevda. 

Celebrate, to, tarel. See iiikokh. 

Celebrated, doghi, mashahir, molim. 

Celebrity, nomis, mimi. 

Cells, wilayiat. 

Centipede, large, shebla. 

: — small, zenza. 

Centre, manz. 

Cereals^ g^alla. 

Certain, a^ yo. 

Certainly, b^-shakk, hakka-pakka, 
kshelai sabit, mitlak^ ^ - - - 

Certainty, yakin. 

ChadaTy patkai. 

^ red, @nai. 

Chain, dzan^ir. 

——-, small, dzahdzfrai. 

— -mail> z|^era. 

Chair, kwursi. 

Chalweshti, tsalwlshtai. 

Change, to, badal krel. . 

Channel, (irrigation-), welan; 

— = — T-, (subterranean water-), 



Ckapattii ti^ala. 

^ (quarter-), kanbu. 

Chaplet, tasb^. 
Ciapli, ^plai. 
Character, ^ii taba. 

, bad, badmftsh. 

Ckaraij chars. 
Charcoal. See ekSr. 
Charge, (1) hawola. (2) brid. (8) 
tel. (4) kir^ya. 

Charity, zakot. See wazifa. 
Charm, ida, mantar, towiz. 
Ckarpof, kat, inanjarai. 
Ciatik, k^tkau 
CAaukidar, kasbai. 
Cheap, arson. 
Cheat, to. See chal, i^SLgl. 
Check, to. See tarn. 
Cheek, baghwun. nangai. 
Cheerful, ^audawmai, viy&l| 

Cheese, tarwa. 

Cherish, to, (1) sotel. (2) shora- 

weL See under kina. 
Cberishing, sotenna. 
Chestnut (colour), shin-nilai. 
Chest-piece o£ coat, gsoewon. 
Chew, to, zhewel. 
Chewing the cud, khshan. 
Chicken, cbar^iral. 

-pox, serkai. 

Chief, sarkor. 
Chihore^ zerk. 
Child, workai. 

, with, blorba. 
Childish. See under kbi. 

Children, zaizod, zftinen*liii^a, 

Chilghoza^ zafiti^^zai. 

Chimney -hole, daritea. 

Chin, zeny6. 

CMnkafa, lakashewai. See j^ertea- 

Chip, ^allai, tetennai. 

, small| totenkai. 

Chirp, to, chagb^del. 

Ckogiay chogha* 

Choice, akhtiyor, was. 

Cholera, wabo. 

Choose, to. See astel, ^wash. 

Chowrify meohgharinai. 

Circular, gerd.. ghun4- 

Circumcision, sinat. 

I Circumference, morga. 

City^ bazor, shar. 

Claim, dowa. See momla. 

, absurd or false, l^ila. 

Clan, kom, psha. 

Claw, mangwul, nik, nikara, panja. 

Clay, ^awar^^in. 

Clayey (soil), chiker. 

Clear, ghwut, jawat. 

Clean, halol, pakTza, pok, sop. 

— out, to. See under khirai. 

Cleaning-rod, ^h . 

Cleft, chod. ^;:, 

Clench, to. See mitai. 

Clever, hushyor, laik, zirak. 

Cliff, kamar. See zowa. 

Climate, hawo. 

Climb, to, ^atel, lakedel. 

Clip, to, (1) kateyel. (2) skwestel* 

Clippers, Ubar^eL 

Clod, kiridi, lita. 

— — , small, litakai. 

Clog, kafif owa. 

Close,{l) blavz,gant. (2) ret. (3) 
takalla. (4) p^ri. ' See tearma. 

, to, tapel. See band, dap, 

isor, tam. 

with, to. See walat^r. 

Cloth, kapra, ra|^t, shoi. 

, common red, solaL 

, homespun, khamto. 

, piece of, renja. 


-, woollen, sharai. 

JULARY. 267 

ing, do4gIr. 

id; hukm. 

$ion, khalot. 

, to, (1) krel. (2) sporel. 

ion, mal, malgerai. 

-less, gwushai. 

-ship, malg^rtia, 

Yy malg^rtia. 

$on, makha. 

bn. See kulma, zre. 

ation, nek, sharm. 

, woman given as, 


to, parawel. 

it, balad. 

ion^ barobari, makha. 

t, gila. See gilamand. 

, pTra. 

on, rang. 

Dn, zor. 

i, ghelai, pet. 

, kabarjan, ghaira, majh- 

, shart. 

, in hard, klak. 

, in soft, tankai. 


out, to, astel. 

ne, etc., kwutelikha. 

0, manel. 

J, bowar, itibor. . 
al, khpul. 
to. See mot, 
aryon, gad-wad, 
ate, to. See yimborak. 
itions, yimboraki. 
. See kheshi. 

1, gadwolai, khpulwi. 
sexual. See ghaweL 

ess, hosh, yish. 


0, ganrel. See ghaur. 

as good as, to, balel. 



Considerate. See mul^iza. 
Considerately. See adab. 
Consideration, {^aur, kissa. 
Constipation, shil, kwnsht. See 

also under kwundi. 
Constitution! sirat. 
Construct, to, joyawel. See jor. 
Consultation, marakka* maslat. 
'Contact, to come into, lag&lel. 

, to bring into, lagawel. 

Contained, to be, djo^el. See teir. 
Contend, to. See barobari, makha, 

par^del, also under makandawar. 

Contented, ^wash, rozf. 
Contorted. See guzftn. 
Contract, ikrfir, t^ka. 

— ;, to, ntweL 

Contribution, compulsory, hawala. 

Contrite, kshemon, lep^or, pshe- 

Control, kobi. See sambol. 

Contused, paryodelai, Miwa^. 

Conversation, mashg^ilo, mazshilo, 
zha^edo. 5etf masb^il, gbaj^a- 

Converse, to, ^aj^edd. 
Convert to Mubammadanism, 

Convict, to. See arawel, gunagor, 

Cook, to> paWiawel. 
Cooked, pe^. 

, to be, pa^edel. 

Cookery, pa^tan. 

Cool, sor. 

— — , to keep. See under karedel. 

Copper, bangor, sarwela. 

— , of, masin. 

Copulate with, to, ^awel. 
Copyist, kateb. 
Cord, mezzai. 
Cork, khulpitai. 
Com, ghalla. 

Com, unthreshed, dalai. 

, green, til. 

Corner, ghezhai^ kunj. 
Corpse, mer, merai. 
Correct, sahi. 
Corrupt, tamador. See tarns. 

-ness, tama. 

Cotton, karbesk^. 
■ -flicker, dogiidogliai> 

— -machine, lajai, 
— — -plant, karb&ke. 
Cough, tikhai. 

, to, tikhedd. 
Council, tribal, jilga, marakka. 
Counsel, marakka, nainhafc. 
Count, to, gantel. 

ing, shum^r. 

■ -less, b6»shumfera. 
Countenance, (1) ^wtda, makb. 

(2) nang. 
Counterfeit, kalp. 
Counterpane, nkhai, tag^r. 
Country, (1) mulk, watan. (2) 

Courage, mferona, narintob, tira, 

Course, (1) wal. (2) See under 

, of, ^ud. See wel6. 

Court -yard, talai. 

Cousin, tarbir, terpir, nyoiye zyai 
(w.);tarla, tferpra, nyoiye lir (/.)- 

Cover, barg^elai. 
— , to. See pet*. 

, to take. See dib. 

^ of book, wazar. 

let, paloz» 

Covered, pet. 
Covey, sail. 
Cow, ghwo. 

-bell, gingrai. 

-dung, ghushaya. 

-herd, ghebon. 

-shed, ^ejal. 



•~n'T- Ti 1 11. 

Co-wife, ben. 

Crack, (1) khr&p, (2) chod. 

^^, to {intT.)y chaudeL 

Crackle, to, tasedel. 

Cradle, zang^ya. 

Cramp. See spina. 

Crane, zofirye. 

Cream, rash. 

Creature, poor. See khworakai. 

Credit, por. 

Creep, to, baiyedel. See khapparye. 

, to (flesh). See dizh. 

Creeper (plant), gtrangawa. 
Crescentade, gtazo. 
Crest, teirekka. 

of bird, charkhela. 

Crime, guna. 

Cripple!, shiil. 

Crooked, kozh. 

' ■ ness, bazbwolai. 

Crop of bird, jijii-a. 

Crops, ebra, fasal. 

Cross, to, ^waredel. See peri. 

Crossed legs. See palatai. 

Crossing, (river-), patafit. 

Crow, kanravragta, krag^. 

i to. See azati. 

Crowd, alam, khalk. 
Crown, taj. 

of head, tSii'ekka. 

Crumbs and ghee, chirai. 
Crupper, piyawafiri. 
Cry, sTra. 

Cry, to, (1) ap6ieL (2) zharel. 
— out, to. See lahaglt. 
Cub, (bear-), ySa^kltai. 
Cubit, ata. 
Cuckold, dais. 
Cucumber, badrang. 
Cudgel, dabiza, lawar. 
CufF, teappar. 

Cultivate, to, karel. See kar wanda. 

Cultivated, karwanda, wedon. 

Cultivation, (1) karwanda. (2) 

Cultivator, sharlk. 

Cup, piyola, 

' ' , metal, jom. 

■ -board, kand, tok. 

Curb-chain, ^^ndzirai. 

Curds, moste. 

Curious, nandorchi. 

Current, gad, jori. See teredel. 

Curry-comb, ^arkharra. 

Curse, (1) sh^ra. See dawo. (2) 

Curtain, parda. 

Custodian (of grave or shrine), fakir. 
Custody. See sholang. 
Custom, adat, nirUb, riwaj. 

Cut, to, prekrel, skashtel. See 

'down, to. See garawel, land' 

narai, t^sbel. 

— — off, to, kateyel. 

• ■ throat, to. See halol. 

Dagger, chore, ^anjar. 

Dam, band. 

Damage, nuksan, zarar, ziyon. 

^, to. See tikel, 

Damp, nawa. 


Damp, limd, tond. 

-ness, zySm. 

Dance, atanr, masht. 

, Waziri, mendor. 

, to, gadedel. 




DaDdjrism, dawal. 
Danger, 4ot» waswas. 
Dangerous, be-itibor, darsatnok, 
Darbar, dilbor. 
Darb'ari, dilbori. 
Dare-devil, mast. 
Dark, tyare. 

-coloured, skanrai, 

^ -complexioned, fikoifr. 

-ness, tyare. 

Dart, to rap^del. 

Dash out, to, (jff.), ^watawel. 

Date, (1) tarikh. (2) ^jira. 

• -palm, khajTra. 

Daub, to, wukharel. See wahel. 
Daughter, lir.. 

-, (grand-), Imasai. 

ill-law, nzhor. 

Daur, Dawar. 

Dauri, Dawar. 

Datok, dak. 

Dawn. See sTra. 

Day, (1) vrez. (2) tarlkh. 

. -light. See vrez, spin. 

• and night, shpe vreze. 

-, next, sabo. 
of death, ajal. 

of judgment, kemat. 

preceding Id, de aj vrez. 

Dead, mer, mardor. 

body, merai. 

man, merai. 

Deal, to. See wapor. 

in, to, krel. See under largai. 

kindly, to, laurawel. 

Dealer, saudogar. 
Dealings, wapor. 
Dear, giron. 
Death, marg, mer, 

struggle, dzonkadan. 

Debouchment, khwula. 
Debt; por. 

Deceit, chal, makar, paryob, tagi. 

f ul, makarjan, paryobi, tag. 

Deceive, to. See khila, paryob. 
Decline, to. See sat. 
Deed, (1) amal. (2) khatt. 
Deep, sh^'War. 
Deer, pse. 

Default of male heirs. See mirot. 
Defeat, larai. 
Defeated, per. 
Defect, aib. 

Defective, aibnok, kam. 
Defence, sambolesht. See sotel. 
Defiled; be-lmoz,. kaker, larelai, 
mardor, palit. 

(food), jita. 

Defiling, mardor. 

Degraded, zahir. 

Degree, to such a, dase, dora. 

Dejected, ^amjan, ghamnok. 

Delay, dzand, Zand. 

Delicacy, niomat. See under g^ori. 

Delicate, nozak, tankai. 

Delineate, to, likel. 

Deliverance, khalosi. 

Delivered, (1) khalos. {2) nanga. 

Demon, pferai. 

Demonstrated, sabit. 

Denial, inker. 

Dense, (1) gaiir. (2) ^ela. 

Deny, to. See mankor, toba. 

Dependent, hamsaya. 

Deposit, (1) khara. (2) amonat. 

to, achawel. 

Depressed, ghamjan, ^amnok. 
Depression, zhawara. 
Deputation, ninawotye. 
Descend, kizedel, walwedel. 

Descent, ( I ) Iwang. (2 ) asal • See 

Desert, bediya. 

Deserted, wuki. 

Deserts, hakkdori. 



Deserving, laik. See hakkdori. 
Desire^ tanda. 
Desist^ to. See tarn. 
Desperate, (1) tang. (^) bad, ting 
Destiny, bakht, kismat, nasib, 
takdir, tola. 

Destroy, to. See rang. 
Destroyed, halok. 
Destmetion, haloki. 
Detain, to. See matal. 
Detained, sholang. 
Determined) bad, tmg. 
Devil) shaiton. 
Devilry, masti. 
Devoid of, b€. 

Devoted, (1) ^alosmand, mukhlis. 
(2) shauki. 

DeW) parkfaa. 

Diadem, taj. 

Dialect) zhebba. See^nder arawel. 

Diarrhoea. See dast, khushki. 

Die, to, mrel. 

— for, to. See sar. 

Difference, (1) parkh. See moli- 
mesht. ^(2) See ariya. 

Different, nor. 

DiflScult) giron, kalp, ret, tang. 

Difficulty, matai) matikai, takllf. 

Diffused, rang. See under myfer. 

Dig) tO) kandel) chegawel. See 
kirich, wabel. 

Digestion, hazm. 

^Dignity, dabdabba, dabob. 

Diplomatically. See chal) inar. 

Direct, to, ksbe^del, niwel. 

Direction, (1) lorai, makha* (2) 

Dirt, khirai. See ghul. 
Dirty, khachan, khiran. 
Disabled) gud, shial. 

Disagreeable, palit. 

Disappear, to. See ghaib, ghelai, 

Disappear behind) to. See arawel. 

DisC) tikala. 

Discharge) to, (1) ai krel. (2) 
chalawel. See khalos. 

Disciple, cheill'ai, miirid, shekh, 

Discontent, algho, gila. 

Discontented, ^appa, marawwai*. 

Discretion. See chal, inar. 

Discuss. See maskir. 

Discussion, marakka. 

Disease, bimori, opat, ranz, ranzirtia. 

, venereal, (1) bodip^Tang. 

(2) garmi, sozak. 

Diseased, bimor, ranzir. 

Disengaged, laya. 

Disgrace, rangbadi, maUitori. 

Disgraced, kaker, makhtoi-ai, zyer. 

Disguise, to, rang badal krel. Se^ 
under ajiba. 

Dish, titye. 

Disinherit, to. See miros. 

Disinterested, khalosmand. 

Dislike) zisht. 

Dismal, kher. 

Dismiss, tO) ai krel. 

Dismount) to. See kiz. 

Disorder, khushki. 

Disperse, to, latedel, yo yo ghwel. 

Display, to^ ushayel. 

Displeased, khappa) marawwar. 

Disposition, khi, taba) tabiat. 

Dispute, ary^sht) dowa, mukadda- 
ma, takror. See ariya. 

Disquiet, shor. 
Dissatisfaction, al gh o^ gila. 
Dissipate, to. See werk. 
Dissociated. See wezor. 
Distance, mazal, parkh, prekrin. 
Distant) lire, wuriya. 
Distend, to. See g^arekka. 
Distended, dad. 
Distinction) moliraesht. • 




Distinguish/ to. See parkh. 

Distinguished, izzatnok. 

Distortion. See guzan. 

Distress^ khwori, tangi. 

— — , to, zavrawel. 

Distressed^ to be^ zavredel. 

Distribution, tribal, bakhra, twe ghy 

Disturb, to, karawel. See dind. 

Disturbance, pasod, shor. 

Disturbed, to be^ karedet. 

Disunited. See sikh. 

Ditch, kand. 

Dive, to, 4ibedel. 

Division, tribal, v&h. 

of village, chela. 

Divorce, talok. 

Divorced, taloka. See khalos. 

Divorcee, See taloka. 

Do, to, krel. 

Doctor, tabib. 

Docked, land. 

Document, khatt. 

Dodge, chal. 

Dog, spai. 

Domesticated, gshe. 

Done, tamom. 

— for, halok. 
Donkey, khar. 

-load, khar-bov- 

Boob, barawa. 

Door, darra, t&mba^ ^ar. 

^hinge, tekai. 

■ -post, bozai, lechai. 

-way, war. 

Dofc, tekai. 

Dote, to, niyoz^del. 

Double, g^barg. 

part of tunic, gand. 

■ -dealing. See under chesh- 

Doubt, shakk, 

' -ful. See shakk. 

Dough, fefc. 

Dower, mar. 

Down, kiz, korta, papnakh. 

' -country, korta, kortanai. 
r- -hill, Iwang. 

■ ' -stream, lar. 

Drag, to {intr.) Iftledel j (f r.) See 

Draw, draw out, to, wukshel. 

, to, likel. 

Dread. See warn. 
Dream, ^eb. 
Dregs, pich. 
Dress, joma. 

— , to. See joma, wog^estel. . 
Dressy, ^walnok. 

Dried up, jinjer, sir. 
Drill and bow, barma. 
Drink, to, ghrapawel, tshel. 
Drip, to, tsakedel. 
Drive off, to. See makh. 

— out, to, ai krel. 
Drop, soskai. 

-barrels. See motawinai. 
-, to, walw^del. • 

', to make, walwawel. 

Droppings, pechekkl. 

Dross (of iron), bat^anai, spin- 

Drought, sra, sir kol, tanda^ wuch- 
kolai. See wuchkol. 

Drove, galla. 

Druggist, pasori. 

Drum, dol. 

, big, damoma. 

Dry, sir, wuch. 

up, to. See wuch. 

— -ness, tanda, wuchwolai. 
Duck, elai. 

Dues paid to a holy man, shukarona. 

— payable by Hindus, gang. 

, (transit-), mirai. 

Dull-coloiu*ed and barren, spbra. 



Dumb, gung. 

Dun^ samand. 

DuDg, g^ul, led, pechekke. 

Durree, iaroi. 

Dust, gard, ^aa^jal, kber-per, 
^erye-perye, ^pan^ye, 

— — , to. See pejau. 

storm, bidoma. See ^par 

Duty, (1) mahsil. (2) parz* 

Dwarf-palm, (jielW, mazerrai. 

Dwell, to, yesedel. See pan^. 

Dwelling, k5r, k^t. 

■ fortified, binga, k6^ 

Dye, for hands, etc., nakriz. 

for hair, wasma. 

, red, pon. 

, to, rangawoL 

Dyer, nilgar. 


Each^ har. 

■ ■ one, har yo. 
Ear, ghozh. 
— — of com, w^iai, bambal. 

-, in the, bambal, dade, toti^^. 

Early, ster. * See barezar, wa^t. 
. morning, Imonza-wakht. 

Earnest-money, baiana, seya, tepa. 
Earring, lashta, pllwatra, skenrai, 

Earth, ^ovra. 
■ -quake, zelzela. 
East, g&ng, Imer^ote, korta. 
Easy, ason, sauka. 
Eat, to, ^bwarel. 

hastily, to, shrapawel. 

Eclipse, tandar/ 
Eddy, gtnmbakai. 

Edge, ghwora^ morga, palau. See 

(cutting-), tera. 

Edifice, joresht. 

Educated. See Iwustel. 

Education, dars. 

Educational. See darsL 

Eel^ kabe. 

Effectual, mlranai. See under Ida. 

Effete, wrost. 

Effort, koshish, khwori, sterye. 

Egg, yowya. 
Eight^anna piece, d^lai. 
Either, ya. 

Elapse, to, wateL 

Elbow, teangal. 

Elder, mesher, ster. 

Eldest, mesher, st^. 

Elope, to. See matiz. 

Elsewhere, belchbrta. 

Emaciated, dangar. 

Embezzle, to, khwarel. 

— -ment, khanat. 

Embrace, 5^^ gfey^gh, yezha. 

Embroider, to. See skei. 

Embroidered. See gul. 

Embroiderer, skieigar. 

Embroidery, kashida, skei. 

■ , gold, tilla. 

Emissary, banjorai. 

Empty, 4ad, Kbwushai, laya, tesh, 

-^— -handed, tesh. 

Encampment, irdi. See kadda^ 

Enchant, to, damawel. 

-ment, dam, esam, waaim. 

Enchanter, esamgar. 

Enclosure, (camel-), jwok. 

Encouragement, dod. 



Encouraging, dodgir. 
Encroach, See londi. 
End^ sar, teika, wustiam. See kuna. 
' of family, khei> 

, in the, a^^r. 

— — , to come to an. See khalos, 

mot, tamom. 
Endeavour, koshish, khwori, sterye. 
Endure, to^ zghamel. 
Enemy, dushman. 
Energetic, eho|^^ takra, tealok. 
Energy, takreyi. 
Engage, to. See shakh. 
Engaged, pewokhta. 
English, Angrezi. 

-man, Angrez. 

Enjoy, to, niyozedel. 

ment, khwand. 

, social, mash|^ilo. 

Enmity, badi, dushmani. 
Enough, has. 

Enquiry, pashtanna, tapaos, tatik. 
Entangled. See shakhedel. 
Enter, to, nennawatel. 

■ into (an arrangement), to, 


Entire, (1) dresta, regh. (2) windan. 

Entrail, larmin. 

Entreaty, zori. 

Entrust, to, sporel. 

Enumerate, to, gafirel. 

Envy, to. See parsedel. 

Epilepsy, mirgai. 

Epistle, ^att. 

Equal, barobar. 

Equality, barobari. 

Erect, to. See lak. 

Error, ^lalati, khatoi. 

Eruption, mnye. 

Escape, to, tashel. 

Escort, badragga, bosh. 

Establish, to. Seetsun. 

Esteem, kadar. 

Estrangement, pr^kerye. 

European, Ferangai. 

Evade, to. See gharawel. 

Even, han, lya. 

' number, dzavt. 

Evening, mashom, wega. 

, late, khutan. 

— ^ -prayer, Imashom. 

> (yesterday-), wega, baia- 


Ever, (1) cbfere, h6chere. (2) 

hamesh. ham^sba. 
Every, hama, hamagi, bar. 

-thing, hartee. 

Evil, bad, 

, bad, kacha, kota, landawar, 


-eye, nazir. See nazirboz. 

Exactly, khass, pira. See ghwut. 

Examination, nendora. • 

Examine, to, katel, dzirawel. See 

Excel, to See ter. 

Excellence, kamol. 

Exchange. See badal. 

: , to, badlawel, badal krol. 

Excite, to, karawel, khezhawel, 

Excited, to be, kar^del, zavredel. 

, sensually, mast. 

Excitement, -sensual, masti. 

Exclamation of pain, jarimor. 

Excrement, ghul. 

Excuse, bona, uzr. 

Excused, ap, maf. 

Excuses, ready with, dzawobgar. 

Executor, wakil. 

Exempted. See Excused. 

Exhausted, (1) sterai, zaif. (2) 
khalos, tamom. 

Exhibit, (1) ushayel. (2) astel. 

Exhortation, khutbaj waz* 

Exile. See under work. 

Exist, to. See shta. 




Expectation^ yakin. 

Expedition, military or punitive, 

Expenses. See khars- 
Expensive, giron. 
Experienced, balad. 
Explain^ to. See peyawel. 
Exploit, tira. 
Extend, to, rasedel. 
Exterminated, to be. See kbei. 
Extension. See minda. 

Extinction of a family, khei. 

' of ^lales of a family, 


Extinguish, wizhlel. 

Extract, to, astel. 

Extraction, asal. 

Extremely, dfer, nihayat. 

Eye, sterga. 

of needle, sim. 

, evil, nazir. See nazirboz. 

-lash, bonre. 


Fabricate, to, jorawel. See jor. 
Face, khwula, makh. 

downwards. See gadolyai, par- 

Facing, makhamakh. 
Faction, gundai. 
Factory, karkhona. 
Faded, chiper. 
FsBces, dast. 
Failure, yila. 
Fair, insopi. 

ness, in sop. 

Fairy, pferai, shoiperai, - 
Faith, imon. 

-^— , Muhammadan, din, 
, good, imon. 

-ful, wapador. 

fulness, wapo. 

less, be-imon. 

Fakir^ fakir. 

. , wandering, malang. 

Fall, to, ghurzedel, prewatel, teye- 
del, walwedel. See parte, 

, to make, walwawel. 

asleep, to. See pet. 

Fallen, naskor, pret. 

Fallow, bati. 

False, (1) be-Tmon, darweghzan. 
(2) darweghzan, mukhalif, 
n&hakka, limd. 

-ly. See khilop. 

-ness, be-imoni. 

-hood, darw^gh. khilop. 

Fame, nomis, num. 
Family, asal, kabila, kail, khelkhona, 
kole, kor, tabar, zamen-lifita. 

, noble, khanawoda. 
Famine, kat. 

Famous, doghi, mashahir. 
Fan, babezai. 

Fanatic, Muhammadan, ghazi. 
Fang, nesh. 

Far, far ofE, lire, wuriya. 
Fare, kireya. 
Farewell. See sporel. 
Farthing, kunjeka. 
Fast, (1) shakh, ting. (%) zer. See 

, Muhammadan, naiyora> 


Fasting, re^hatai. 
Fat, tsorb, 


-ness, tearbwolai. 

Fate, baklit, kism^at, nasib, takdir^ 
tola. • 



Father^ plor^ (bftba^ dada^ kaka) . 

»in-lawj s^ar. 

Fathom, waz. 

Fault, aibi gunft, See grftnij 

Fatdty, aibnok. 

Favour, shegerra. 

with God ,aiid man, bara- 


Favourably inclined, n^^o. 

Fear, dor, tars, wyfera. 

— , to, daredel, tarsedel, wyferedel. 

Feast, funeral, shima. 

Feather, pakha. 

February, Tar^e Myasht, Orbeshe 

Feed of horse, tibra. 
Feel, to, wukehel. 
Feeling, ill, badly at, wirona. 
Feelings, taba. 
Fellow, sarai. 

-villagers, kelai. 

Felt, thick, lamBai. 
Female, sheza. 
Fence of thorns, shpel. 
Ferry, See patanr. 
Fertile, teorb. 
Fester, to. See zolan. 
Festival, yid. 
Festivity, yid. 
Fetter, zelwane. 
Feud, badi, por. 
Fever, tebba. 
Few, legh, leghki. 

Fiancee, jamjola, 
sholanga, vratina. 

Fibre, dzir. 

l^iddle, sarindan, 

bow, lindai. 

Fidelity, wapo. 

Pie, toba. 

Fi^ld, patai, weshkai. 

Fields, mulk. 


Fierce, bad. 

Fight, balwa, jang. 

Fighting, jaggarra, jang, mukad- 

. ■ -man, mlata^elai. 

Figure, (1) but, teera. (2) lashta, 

sirat, wuna* 
File, fiiyon. 

i to, siyonawel. See siyon. 

Fill, to, &<? dak. 

Filled with. See cheshtan. 

Filly, biyonra. 

Filth, khirai'. 

Find, to, mindel 

out, to. See molim, molimesht, 


room, to, dgoedel. 

Fine, jurm, jurmona, nogha. 

, (I) dfer, kshelai. (2) narai. 

Finger, guta. 

■ -breadth, guta. 

Fin gered, loswaiy inai. 

Finish, to. See khalos, mot, pira, 

Fir, nashtar, srapp. 

Fire, yor. 

^ to, chalawel. See dazz, khalos. 

at, to, dazzawel. 

, to be on, baledel, swel, 

'- -arm, tipak, bandikh. 

«^— -place, l^arai. 

wood. See largai. 

Firing. See chalawel. 
Firm, klak, ting. 

First, (1) awwal, {I) avtewun, 

youth, in, avtewun. 

Fissure, chod. 

Fist, mitJu. 

Fit, (1) boida. (2) laik. 

— , to be, joredel. 

— -ness, laiki. 

Fix, to, tarel. See tak, tsir. 
Flabby, tankai. 



Flageolet, pikSnrai. 
Flagstaff^ lakarra. 
Flame^ lamba. 
Flank^ teshai. 
Flap, to. See waheh 
Flare^ to. See lilmba. 
Flash, to, br&hedel, parkedel, 

, to makoi prekaweh 

Flask, patakai. 

Flat, (1) pest, sam. (2) belmang. 

— — , upper, sabot. 

Flattery, ^wasbamandi. 

Flavour, khwand, mazza. 

Flea, wresba. 

Flee, to, parade], tashel. 

Fleet, sakbt. 

Fleeting, pani. 
Flesh, ghesha. 
Flick, ^rap. 
Flight, sail. 

Flighty, saudoi. 

Fling, to, achawel, g^nrzawel. treyel. 

Flint, bakar. 

■ -lock, bakari, cbakhmakh. See 

Flit, to, sboredel. See under arwoh. 

Flock, kandek, nunma. 

Flocks and herds, ^yelsi. 

Flood, toi, ttertoi, niz. 

Flour, dofira. 

Flow, to, kttyedel 

Flower, g^. 

Flung, to be, giinrz&lel. 

Fly, medi. 

—--flap, mech^^nnai. 

— away, to, wrateL 

Foal, biyo». 

Foam, kwurbez, Iyaf^« 

Fodder, green, \hul 

VoBtoB, bamL 

Fold, waL 

Folded^ 8<fe j^barg- 

Follow, to. See wustiani, man4, 

: — about, to. See gera^del. 

Follower, banjorai, miirid. 
Following closely, ar^an. 
Fond, shauki. See shauk, mina. 

-ness, shauk. 

Food, khwarok, ma|ai, tgw^nd. 
Fool, ^wushai sarai, khi61agai. 
Foolish^ khwushai, ^la, amak^ 

See zyfey. 
Foot, (1) psha. {%) kuna, wekh. 

, on, palai. 

-man, palai. 

-print, man4* 

Fop. See dawalnok. 

Foppishness, dawal. 
I For, depora. See bondi. 

Force, zor. 

, in, jori. 

Ford. See patafir. 

Fore^arm, lecha. 

head, sanzella, 




leg. See psha. 

-noon, barezar. 
-sight, zakha. 

Foreign, bedianaL 
Forest, zangal. 
For&it^ to. See mot. 
Forget, to. See vyfer. 
, to make, vy&rawel. 

Forgive, to, bal^shel. 
Form of hare, Ktmg^olai. 

, to, niwel. 

Former, vrondinai, zan^n. 

Formerly, de sara, e eara, pakhwo, 

wakbti, zan4, zorye. 
Formidable, darsatnok. 
Fort, kila, 

Fr^ificatioD, mSreha. 
Fr/rtune, bakbt> ^^e. See Fate. 
VffiiiiAsr, See r&vdel. 



Foster, to, sotel. 

Fouling, Hiirai, torkai. 

Found, to be. See mindel, shta. 

Fountain, chinnan. 

Fours, on all. See khappary^. 

Fowl, chirga. 

Fox, bazhawa, trferai. 

Fragile, motawinai, nozak. 

Frantic, waghmdor. 

Free, ^alos, laya. 

Fresh, avtewun. 

Friday, jima. 

' Fried, taliya. 

Friend, ashno, dest, khesh, khpul. 

ship, ashnoyi, kheshi, ya- 


Frighten, to, darawel, wyerawel. 

Fringe (1) dzTndai, (2) pal, p^kai. 

Frog, chingash. 

From, na, See bondi. 

Front, makh. See vrondi. 

Frontier, brid, nak^sha, saryad. 

Frown, to. See triv, wuchwelai. 

Froth, kwurbez. 

Frozen, karang. 

Fruit, mewa. 

Fry, to. See taliya. 

Fuel. See largai. 

Full, (1) dak. (a) pira. (3) sakka. 

(4) See cheshtan . 
^— • -blood, asil. 

■ -blown, blang. 
■ ■ -cock, on, dad. 

— — -grown, pekh. 
Funeral, dzanoza. 

■ -alms, skat, 
-feast, shima. 

See nemma. 

Furious, wazhmdor. 
Furnace, dikon, mandau. 
Furniture. See makh. 


Gaiety, tnasti. 

Gain, bida, faida, gatta, sid. 
Gall, tri^ai. 
Gullant. See Brave. 
Gallantry. See Bravery. 
Gallop, to {intr.) paredel/ tashel, 
trap^del ; {tr.) parawe], trapawel. 
Gallows, ghargharra. 
Gambling, juworai. 
Game, (1) leba. (2) shkor. 
Gang, ghaddai, topa. 
Ganges, Gang. 
Garden, bogh. 
Gardener, bflghwon. 
Garlic, wizha. 
Garment, joma. 
— — , upper, khat. 
Gash, to, shrapawel. 

Gate, darwoza. 

Gather together, to. See jamma. 

Gauntlet, daskara. 

G^y, mast. 

Gazelle, lakashewai. 

Gear. • See makh. 

Gelt, khassi. 

Generation, pferai, 

, female organ of, kuna. 

, male organ of, ghiin. 

Generosity, sakhitob, sakhowat. 
Generous, sakhi, sakhowati, patang. 
Gentle, eman. 
Gently, wro. 
Genuine, asil. 

', not, naklT. 
Get, to, krel. See paido, shwel. 

along with, to. See guzran. 

better, to. See joredel. 

out, to, watel. 




Get out I See bo, harra, hoa, katte, 
kwiirre, shoe^. 

out of way, to, gharedel. 

up, to, wratel. 

Ghaziy ghazi. 

(^he€^ ghori. 

Gibbet, ghargharra. 

Giddy. See sar. 

Gift, ba^sh, bakhshish, soghat. 

See laya. 
Giggle, to, khwatfedel. 
Gin, (cotton-), lajai. 
Ginger, sind. 
Gird loins, to. See mla. 
Girdle, te^ana. 
Girl, jilkai. 
Girth of saddle, tong. 
Give, to, bakhshel, rokrel, dirkrel, 

■ way, to, preshedel, prekedel. 
Glad, (1) khwash. (-2) rozi. 
Glance, to, katel. 
Glare of sun, gharma. 
Glass, shisha. 

Glitter, to, parkedel, zaledel. 
— — , to make, prekawel. 
Gloat, to, niyozedel. 
Glue, sresh. 
Gnaw, to, tikel. 

Go, to, chaledel, [drimel], teredel, 
tlel, rotlel, d^rtlel, wertlel. 

— and come, to, arawel, chaledel. 

— about, to, gerzddel, shoredel. 

— away, to, tlel. 

— -between, rebor. 

— down, to, kizedel, walwedel. 

— foi-th, to, watel. 

— off (firearm), to, chaledel. 

— out, to, watel. 

— over, to, khwaredel. 

— round, to, gerzedel. 

— up, to, khatel. 

— up, to make, khegtawel. 

Goat, wez. 

-herd, wazbon. 

Goat^s-hair, wuzhg^wune. 
Gobble, to, shrapawel. 
God, Alia. Khudai. 
Gold, sre-zar. 

■ coin, ashrafai, 

-smith, zargar. 

Gone bad, chenjan. 
Gong, t^ghana. 
Gonorrhoea, garmi, sozak. 
Good, shegerra. 

, imondor, karra, mferanai, n^k, 

regt, she. 
— -health, barakat. 

■ -looking, kshelai, ghoista. 
•natured. S^e taba. 

Gossips' meeting-place, damborai. 

Government, Sarkor. See istizam. 

Governor, hakim, wakil, 

Grace, minda. 

Gracious, mormon. See laurawel. 

Graft, to. See nol. 

Grain, (1) g^alla. (2) nana. 

— , winnowed, reshap. 

— and chaff, dermend. 

sieve, ghalbel. 

Granii chanra. 

, boiled and cleaned, gingere. 

Grand, der. 

-daughter, Imasai. 

father, nike. 

y (great-), ghwarnike. 

-mother, nio. 

., (great-) ^warnio. 

-son, Imasai. 

Grant. See mesherona. 

, religious, wakab. 

to holy man, shukarona. 

Grape, melawa. 

Grapple, to. See brid nnder acha- 

wel, naskora, walater. 
Grass, woshe. 



Orass^ coarse, dilai, mashka^St^^ 
-, (doob*)y barawa. 
•y (spear*), surmal. 

Gbuteful. See manel^ n^ki, she- 

Gratis. See l&ya. 

Gratitude to Go4> shukar, 

Grave> ^bar. 

■ -yard, gferiston, mery^stin, 


Gravel, ^gkkh 

Graze, to, {tr,), pewel, {intr.), tearel. 

Grazing, p6wana, fearwanda. 

Great, dfer, gtwut, eter. 
Greater, <Jer, ziyot, pa . . . ter. 
See undeif achawel. 

Grease, ghor. 
Greed, khiras, tama. 
Greedy, ^irasnok, tamador. 

Green, sbin, zar^in. See zargtu- 

Greeting, pasbtanna, salom. 
Grey, ^er, shin. 
., partly, brag. 
-, turning, g^av^. 
Greyhound, toji spai. 
Grieve, to. See armond. 
Grieved, ghamjan, ghaninok, kbap- 

gon, khappa. 

Grind, to, wonrel. 

Grindstone, todra. 

Grips. See walat^r. 

Groan, jarimor, peryod. 

Groin, spekhez. See kuTma. 

Groove, ra^. 

Grooved, rakhdor. 

Ground, mzeka, watan. 

■ . ■, bare, daggar. 

Grouse, (sand), 4^bara. 

Grow, to. See paido. 

high, to. See dondai. 

Grudge, to. See parsedel. 

Gaard, (1) badragga, bosh. (2) 

, to, sotel, zg^eshtel. See 


Guest, wulma. 

Guide, (1) See balad. (2) misol. 

, spiritual, stona. 

Guilty. See gunagor, mul&mat. 

Guinea- worm, spafli-sai. 

Gullet, sra marai. 

Gulp, gbrip. 

Gum, wrai. 

Gun, t^P^'k, bandikh. 

(artillery), tepa. 

, large-sized, sheyind. 

powder, dori. 

Gusto, khwand> 

Gut, kulma. 


Habit, adat. See righdai. 
Habituated. See rizhdai. 
Hack, to. See ghuts, shrapawel. 
Haft, lostai. 
Hail, small, ^a^^a^rai, ghali- 


, large,' ghalai. 

-storm, zhagnzha gha raij ^alia* 


Hair, weshte. 

above a woman's forehead, 


y long, teannye, 

-dye, black, wasma. 

Hajiy ajT. 

Hale, chaman. 

Half, mm. 

" -brother. See vrfer. 




Half-mad, lewanshik. 
Halt^ mela. 

, to, daredel. See matal. 

Halting-place, mela. 
Hamlet^ kelakai. 
— — , outlying, bon^a. 
Hammer J teetai. 

■ of gun, latakka, mosha. 

. , to, takawel. See tak. I 

Hand, los. 

(4 inches), chopa. 

•, open, tsappar, sappar. 
-breadth, chopa, ^appary^. 

— -fuJ, ghita. lappa, lostai. 

-ful, (single-), Imanz. 

-ful, (double-), khappar. 

— -kerchief, rimol. 

■ -maid, winza. 

■ -mill, m^chan. 

writing, Hiatt, 

written. See kitob . 

Handle, lostai, mitai. 

■ of mill, Imonzai. 
Handling, delicate, inar. 
Handsome, kshelai, shoista. 

Hang, to. (1) See dzwferand, laledel. 
(2) See ghargharra, zandai. 

■ down, to, Ial6del. 
Happen, to, lat^del, pr^watel, 

Happiness, ^waslu. 
Happy, (I) ^wash, mashghil. 

(•Z) yimborak. 
Hard, (1) klak, pilodi, ret, ting. (2) 


i pressed, tang. 

— — -working, ^worikash. 

Hare, seya. 

Harm, ziyon. 

Harry, to, wahel. See under g^^. 

Harsh, Iwar. 

Harvest, fasal. See ebra. 

Hatch, to, astel, mashel. 

Hateful, w^zor, zisht. 
Hauteur, kabar. 
Have, to, larel. 

to do with, to. 5^<? gadwolai, 


Head, sar. 

of plant, bambal. 

— of maize, seta, 
of spear/ ganje, sfl. 
of water-course, warkh. 
-ache, ^ushki. 

-cloth, woman's, tginai, tekrai. 
-dress, jarawinai. 
- do., exaggerated, mangos, 
-long, parmakhi 

— -man, malik. 
rope, single, silai. 

— -ship, headman's allowance, 

— •stall, tarsbrai. 
-strong, a^tiyormand. 

Health, in good, ]or. 

Healthy, regh, tanderest, barakati. 

Heap, ambor, dalai, damborai, tip. 

Heaped up (crops, etc.), keta. 

Hear, to, worwedel. 

Heart, zre» 

, by. See zawt* 

Hearth, yferabal. 

fleat, taudwolai, to. 

■ of sun, gharma, ghorraa. 

of mid- day, intense. See 


, in, arya, ghwoyemaj ylshema. 

See under thr, 
— , prickly. See ghwarmaka. 
-spot, ghwarmaka 

Heaven, (1) asmon. (2) janat. 
Heavy, drind, sakht. 

■ (clay), sreshenr, sr^shnok, 

■ (rain), ganr. 

■ (soil), chiker. 

Hedge, wferan, kerr. 



Hedgehog, she^gai. 
Heel, pinda. 

■ -ropes, pechware 
Heigho> hai ha!. 
Heir, distant, waris. 
Hell, dezakh. 
Helmet, Hiel. 
Help, emat, kumak, madat^ nang. 

, to. See parda. 

— — -er, wasila. 

less, ajiz, khwor, be-wassa. 

— — ness, ajizi, be-wasti, khwori. 
Hem, ImoSrai. 
Hemp-drug, bangye, chars. 

fibre, safir. 

plant, bangye. 

-taker, charsi. 

Hen, ehirga. 

Herd, galla, geviar, poda. 

Herdsman of cattle, ghebon. 

of buffaloes, meshbon. 

■' of goats, wazbon. 

Here, dele, dolata. 
Hereditary, mlrosi. See miros. 
Hew down, to. See land. 
Hide, to. See ghelai, pet. 
Hide, gaggar, pgstikai, tearman. 
— , raw, wzhen. 
High, cheg, Iwar, wighd. 

-lying, pos. 

Highway-man, lyarwaiyinai. S^e 

m- -robbery, shik. 

Hill, ghar, ghundai. 

-man. See ghar. 

Hillock, ghundakai. 
Hilt, mitai. 
Hind. See wruste. 

• -leg. See psha. 

H inder, to. See mane, 

Hindu, Indi, Iiidikai ; Indawa. 

Hinge of door, tekai. 

Hire, kireya. 

History. See kissa. 

Hit, to, lag^el, wabel, wishteL. 

, to be, lagedel. 

with, to, lagawel. 

Hoarse, laghe. 

Hobbling by fore-legs, dibak. 

— • by fore and hind leg, 


Hold, to, (1) niwel, sotel. (2) See 

against, to, niwel. 

in, to. See sambol, ting. 

Holdi'^, } ctesbtan. 

Hole, ghor, mota, sarwai. 

— — in ground, grichai, kandgho- 

Holes, full of, b^a. 

Hollow, ^awara. 

, (Jad. 

Holy man, akhwund, pir. 

place, Muhammadan, kibla. 

Home, kor. 

, nomad, kadda. 

, at. See kelai. 

-spun, sharai. 

Hone, spinkhwara. 

Honest, imondor, momin, sam, 

Honey, gemne. 

-comb, gemne, pyasa. 

Honour, (1) izzat. (2) ghaimt^ 
hayo, sharm. 

Honourable. See hayo. 

Honoured, izzatnok. 

Hoof, kanrowa. 

Hookak, chilam. 

Hoopoe, gu^aichirg. 

Hop, to. See pakhsai. 

Hope, ummind, yila. 

Hopping, pakhhsai. 

Horn, shkar. 



Hornet. See bambar. 
Ift)rribly. See ret. 
Horse, wos. 
-clothing, dzel. 

-leech, ghawarye. 

-man, swor, spor. 

-manger, khwar, 

-manship, swarlai. 

-shoe, nol. 

Hospitality, wulmastia. 
. Hostage, arghamoL 

Hostile to Government, y^ gh i. 

Hostility, badi, badiyat, zrebadi. 

Hot, tod. 

— -ness, taudwolai. 

■ -weather, wirai. 

Houri, khira. 

House, kor. 

y European, bangla. 


, rained or deserted, kand- 

of, in the, kara, 
-hold, kor. 

House-hold, nomad, ka^da. 

■ -rent, gholai. 
How? teangra? teangre? wele ?, 

■ -ever, harteangre, kho, 

• much ? teemra ? 

many ? too ? 

Hubbub, kaukiu. 
Huddled up, sitbit, 
^'^j^dy jamma, ketkai. 
Hullabaloo, kaukiu. 
Hunch, didai. 

- ■ -back. See didai. 
" -backed, didawar. 

Hunger, Iwazha. 
Hungry, wuzhai. See Iwazha. 
Hunter, shkorzan. 
Hurt, khwazh, khwuzhmand. 

, to, {intr^ khwazhedel ; {tr) 

khwazhawel. Se^ dard, tikel. 
feelings, to. See ^appa. 

Husband, cheshtan, mere. 
Husk, kwut^likha* 
Huskiness, fcikhale. 
Hut, pizai, sappar. 


Ice, karang. 
Id, Yid. 

Idle, karyob, sest, teorb. See lat. 
If, che, ke. 
Ignorant, jahil, nope, 
111, bimor, ranzir. 

^behaved, bad-amali. See undtr 


— -conducted, wiron. See under 

feeling, badiat, zrebadi . 

ness, bunori, ranzirtia. 

starred, teatelai. 

— -wisher, bad^wo. 
Illiterate, ummu 

Image, but, taswir, tefera* 

Imagine, to. Seepekr. 

Imitation, nakli. 

Immediately, losi. 

Immersed, dib. 

Immoral, bad, kota, wiron. 

Immorality, badkori. 

Impale, to, peyel. 

Impartial, insopi, khalosmand. 

Imperfect, ningerai. See im. 

Impermeable (soil), takalla. 

Impolite, b^-adaba. See adab. 

Important, gtwut, ster. 

Impression, (1) nakhsha. (2) asar^ 

Imprisonment, kaid. 



Impulsive^ patang. 

In, kshe, pferi. 

Inanimate^ mer. 

Incantation^ dam. 

Incite, to, ^ezhawel. 

Inclination, zre. 

Inclined. See zre. 

Incoherent, gad-wad. 

Incomplete, ningerai. 

Indebted, (1) porawarai. (2) See 

Indeed, alia, yarra. 

Independent, gwushai, khalos. 

Inducement, borai. 

Industrious, khworikash. 

Inefficient, sp^ra, wrost. . 

Infant. See khapparyd. 

Infantry, platanra. 

Inferior, social, dam, kamoya. 

Infidel, kopar. 

Infidelity, kupr. 

Inflammation, bod, gazak. 

Influence, kobi, zor. 

Influential, gtwut, makhawar, 

Informed, khabar. 
Inhalation of steam, tabiedzin. 
Inheritance, miros. 
Inherited, mirosi. 
Injure, to. S^e tikel. 
Injured, khwuzhmand. 
Injury, nuksan, zarar, ziyon. 
Ink, sei. 

-bottle, masbmonri. 

Innumerable, be-shumfera. 
Inoffensive, eman, g^arib. 

Inquire, to, pushtel. Bee patih- 

Inquiry, tapaos. 
Inquisitive, nandorehi. 
Inroad, chapo. 
Insane, lewanai. 
Insect, balo, plawa. 

Inside, nenna. See teir. 
Insignificant, spek, adna. ^ 

Insipid, belmang. 
Insist, to. See aryfisht, takreyi. 
Insolence, be'adabi, kabar. 
Inspired by. See cheshtan. 
Instalment, mitai. 
Instant, khrap, saat, tekai. 
Insubordinate, pasodi. 
Intelligence, akal. 

Intelligent, akalmand, hu^hyor, pe. 

Intensely, sakht. 

Intention, kasd, matlab, murad, 

Intentionally. See kasd, razo 

Intercouree, sexual. See ghawel. 

, social, gadwolai. 

Interest, (1) izzat. (2) ijara, sid. 

Interested, matlabashno. 

Interesting. See izzat. 

Intermediary, dallol. 

Interruption, beshkuUa. 

Interval, minda. 

Intervene, to. See gwosb. 

Interview, mulakat. 

Intimidate, to, daravvel See 


Intoxicant, kep. 

Intoxicants, taker of, kepkhor. 

■Intoxication, kep, khw«T.h;hi. 

intrigue, ashnoyi. 

Introduce, nennayestel. 

Invariably, khass. See under melai. 

Invasion, chapo. 

Investigation, tapaos, tatik. 

Invisible, ghaib, ghelai. 

Invocation, takbir. 

'Ipso facto, bya. 

'Iron, yespana. 

dross, bat^anai, spinkhare. 

Irreligious, belmaz, gimra, murda- 

Irrigated, paiTra. See ebo. 



Ilrrigation-channfeL welan. 

Irritable, lotband. 

Irritated, taba^erai. See kher. 

Islaniy Islam. 

Island, dz^a. 

Issued, jori. 

Itch, khora^t, ti^or, tokhir. 

' , to, tokhiredel. 

Itching of lip, gheshlai. 

Itchy, pamati. 



Jackal, gidar. 

Jacket. See sharai. * 

Jail, bandikhona, jelkhona. 

Jar, (water-), garai. 

^ (large water-), matai. 

y (extra large water-), mat. 

Jaundice, z^rai. 

Jaw, zoma. 

Jemmy, tewalai^ 

Jest. See Joke. 

Jester. See Joker. 

Jet, dora. 

— -black. See tor. 

Jewel of ring, ghalmai. 

for nose, tik. 

Jewellery, ganfa, kolai. 

Jheel^ jeban. 

Jhooly dgel. 

Jingle, shrangedel. 

*firgay jilga, marakka. 

Join, to, {intr,) ga4edel; {tr.) 

battle, to. See shakh. 

Joii^er, trakonr. 

Joining together, pewand. 

Joint, band, 

■ of shoulder, wula* 

of meat, !khaslkai. 

Joke, gappa, nakhra, tbka. 
Joker, tokmar. See gappav 
Jostle, to. See wahel. 
Joyful, ^wash, mashghil. 
Judge, hakim. 

' — , Muhammadan, kazu 

Judgment, day of, kemat. 
July, Wassa. 
Jump, top. 

, to, wratel. See wahel. 

, to make, wurzaweL 

■ up, to, peshedel. 
Juncture, pewand. 
June, Awor. 
Jungle, zangal. 
Junior, kesher. 

Just {adj.), insopT. 

(adv*). See sp^ra, wuch. 

■ now, es. 

Justice, insop. See gbaur. 

Kabul, Kobel. 
Kabuli, Kobalai. 
' rupee, nandramai. 

Kajawa, kajowa. 


KareZy kurez, sakowa. 
Kazi, kazi. 

Keep, to, larel, sotel, zgheshtel. See 




Keeper^ sotmkai. 
Kernel, mag^z, zerai. 
Key, kerai. 
Khakiy kher. 
Kharoti, KharotT. 
Kkasil, khid. 
Khillat, khalot. 
Khostwal, KhoBtwoL 
Khud, kanda. 
Kick, lagatta. 

, to. See lagatta. 

Kid, wargtimai. 
Kidney^ pashtawargai. 
Kiln, wzen. 
Kind^ kiem, khel, 

, in, pok. See mol. 

• , mennon, she See muleiza. 

-ness, adab, mermoni, ndki. 

Kindle, to, balawel. 
King, badsha. 
Kirri, See kezhdai. 

Kiss, to, kshalawel. 

Kitchen, free, langar. 

Knead, to, wokhshel. See khisht. 

Knee, gen^a. 

-cap. See sterga. 

Kneel, to. 5^^ g^nda. 

— ; — y to make, kshenawel. 

Knife, chore. 

■ (clasp-, hunting-), cheshtona 

Knock, knock in, to, takawel. 

— * out, to, khwatawel. 

Knot, ganda. 

Know, to, peghendel. See khabar^ 
molim, zda, rotlel, dertlel etc. 

Knowing, balad. 
Knowledge, ilam, molimesht. 
Known, jawat, molim. 
Korany Kuran. 
Kot, ket, binga. 
Kulla, tepai. 


Labour, mashakkat. 
— , forced, begor, hawola. 
Lace (gold-), tilla. 
Lacerate, See ghute. 
Lad, zhenkai. 
Ladder, andarpoya. 

-rung aLai. 

Ladle, samsa, samsikai. 

Lady-love, mashuka* 

Lame, gud. 

Lamentation for the dead^ wir. 

Lamp, tsirogh, mashal. 

' -bracket, diwat. 
Lance, songa. 
Lancet, almos. 
Land, mulk, mzeka, watan. 

•, native, watan. 

Land, riverain, kach. 

scape, watan. 

Lane, chela. 

Language, zhebba. 

— — , bad, zyare. 

Lap, to, satel. 

Lapse of inheritance^ mirot. 

Large, ghwut, ster. 

Lash, zhebba. 

Last, at, a^^r. 

, to, chaledel, paedel. 

night, wega, barayan. 

•— year, paros-sagh. 
Late. See dzand, barezar. 

Laugh, to, khandel, Uiwatedel. 
See khanda. 

Launch, to. See gad, gadedel. 

Law, kanun. 



Law^ Muhammadan^ shara^ shariat. 

-ful for Muhammadans, halol, 


Laxative, jar^ jullob. 

Lay, to, teamlawel, kshezhdel. 

Lay low, to. See set. 

Laziness, sesta. 

Lazy, sest, sor, teorb. 

Lead astray, to. See paryob. 

■ out, to, astel. 

ofP, to, betel, biwel. 

Lead, mes. 

Leader, sarkor. 

Leaf, pakha, pofirye. 

Leak, to, teakedel 

Lean, to. See teang, worakjb. 

Leap, top. 

, to, wratel. See wahel. 

Learn, to. See zda. 

by heart, to. See zawt. 

Learned, alim 

Lease. See ebrS. 

Leather, t§arman. 

, worker in, teamyor. 

Leave, leave off, leave behind, to, 

Leavened, khamira. 

Leavings, jita. See prezhdel. 

Leech, zhawary^. 

Lee-Metford, See tipak. 

Left, binr. 

over, potai. 

Leg, langra, pandai, psha, 

-iron, zelwane. 

of trousers, orbakhwula. 

Legs crossed. See palatai. 

Leisure. See laya, wuzgar. 
Lend hand, to. See kumak, los. 
Length of cloth, tan. 
Leopard, prong. 
Less, lesser, kam. 
Lesson, sabak. 
Let in, to, prezljdel. 

Let go, to, prezhdel. See khalos. 
— out, to, gherendawel. 
Letter, chutai, khatt. 

of alphabet, khaxf, tekat. 

Level, barobar, sam. See saro. 

Lever of rifle, linda. 

Liaison, ashnoyi. 

Liar. See darweghzan. 

Liberal, sakhiy sakhowati. 

Lid, barg^^elai, sarpesh. 

Lie, darw^gh'. See ghalat, ghu?^ 

Lie down, to, walwedel, Imostel, 


, to make, teamlawel. 
Lieutenant-Governor, Lat-Sahib. 
Life, umar, zhwandin. See saya^ 
— — , early, dgwoni. 

-time, umar, zhwandm- 

Lift up, to, ^ezhawel. 
Light, (1) raiiro. (2) yoR 

, artificial, mashal. 

, alek, spek. 

— — -coloured. See shin. 

, to, balawel. 

Lightning, flash of, bresha, prek.- 

See bi^shedel. 
Like, leke, ^undi. See shan, teer- 

, to. See khwash. 

Liking, mazza, shauk. 

Lime, china, kinaL 

Limp, to, chabedel, ngishedeL 

Line, kator, kursha, lika. 

Liniment, dori. 

Lintel, bozai» 

Lion, mzarai. 

Lip, warshand. 

Liquor, sharop. 

Listen to, to, worwedel. See ^ozh» 

Littered, khachan. 

Little. (1) kam, kamkai, wrikai. 

(2) ila, lezi, lezhiki. 
Live, to, (1) yesedel. See pand. 

(2) chaledel, paedel. 



Live-stock. See dunyo. 
— -lihood, guzran, rezgor, rozi. 
See wakht. 

rlong, dresta^ karai. 

Liver, yenna. 

Living. See Livelihood. 

Lizard, karborai, E^ms^re, 

Load, bor, ozakai, pan^A'^ 

, snaall, borgai. 

of animal, dzola. 

Loaded (fire-arm), dak. 

Loan, por. See suoU 

Lobe, piteba. 

Lock-plate, tamba. 

-np^ wilay&t, 

Locfes, tsannye. 

Locust, melkbai-^ 

Lodcj rag. 

Loft, sola. 

Log, garga. 

Loins, mla. 

Lonely, (1) aste^vai, adewai. (2) 
khwushaij lig. 

Long, wi^d. S^e zand. 

ago, wakhti, zand. See wakht. 

r -legged, langrawar. 

-toothed, dorawar. 

Look, look at, to, katel, dziraweL 

in face, to. See gharaweL 

out, tearkeni. 

Looking at, nendora. 

-glass, woina, shisha. 

Loop for button, ghwarwasha. 

Loose, dad, gterend, sest, worat. 

Loosen, to, gherendawel. 

Loot, lit. 

Lopped, land. 

Lose, to. See ^ali, per, tlel, werk. 

Los&, nuksan, ziyon. 

Lost, werkr 

Lot, bakhra, tola, etc. See Fate. 

Lots, khallai. 

Loud. See zeta. 

-ness, zeta. 

Louse, spagha. 
Love, mina. 

, in, ashikman, maiyin. 

, to fall in, nxaiyinedel. 

Low, tit. 

class, kutaiirai. 

lying, tit. 

Lower, kiz, kortanai, lar. 

Loyal, wapador. See khairkhwo> 

Loyalty, impn, wapo. 

Lucerne^ reshka. 

Lucifer, khallai. 

Luck, bakht, kismat, etc. See Fate. 

Lukewarm, tamanr. 

Lumbago, teak. 

Lump, dona. 

'• of mud, pa^sa. 

-^ of earth, kirich, lita. 

, small, litkai. 

Lungs, sezhai. 
Lurch, to, rapedel. 
• Lurk, to. See pet. 
Lust, naws, shahwat. 
Lustful, shahwati, shahwatnok. 

Luxury, niomat. 
Lying, darw^ gh zan. 

, pret. 

on back, stannye-stigh. 

on face, naskor, parmakh. 

Machinery, kulme. 

Mad, lewanai, wagimdor. ' 


Mad, (half-), lewanshik. 
Made, to be. joredel. 



Magazine rifle. 4$^^ dazzai. 
Maggotty, ohenjaa. 
Magic; esam. 
Magician, esamgar. 
Magnifioence, dabob. 
Maidan, maindon. 
Maiden^ peghla-. 
Mail; dak. 

, (chain-), z ghe ra. 

Maimed, gud. 
Maiming, case of, gud. 
Maize, juwor. 

bread, dodai, gadellfei. 

-head, seta 

■ -straw, ^ond. 

Make, to, krel, jorawel. See 
lagawel, wferkrel. 

■ to,, to. Stftf bondi. 
Male, nar. 
Malediction, shera. 
Malevolent, kinakash, ziddT. 
Malice, kina. 

Malicious. See Malevolent. 

Mallet, dabalai, din dap. 
Man, sarai, nar, dgwon. 
, fighting, mlatarelai. 

y old, spin^irai. 

— > to. See under inorcha. 
Mandi, mand6yi. 
Mandoline, ribob. 
> -screw, arakai. 

Mandolinist, ribobi. 
Mane, wezhd. 
Mange, paman» 
Manger, khwar# 
Mangy, paman. 
Manifest, jawat. 
Mankind, bani Adam. 
Manly. See mfere, mferona. 
Manner, shan. 

, in like, ha gh ase. 
Manners. See Custom. 


Manoeuvring. See teorana. 

Manufkctured, to be, joredel, 

Manure, sarra. 

Map, nakhsha. 

March> mazaj. 

March, Chetar. , 

Mare, wospa. 

Mark, chop, dogh, fcursha, na]^- 

Mark out, to, likel. See under 

Marked, brag, doghl. 

Market-place, mandeyi. 

-rate, nir^, 

MarkhoTy wez. See ghertsanai. 

Marksman, tepchi, wishtandai. 

Marriage, nikokh, wode. 

Marrow, moghze. 

Marry, to, krel; 

Marsh, jeban. 

Marshy, jebao. 

Martini-Henry. See tipak« 

Martyr, Muhammadan, shahid. 

Massage, to, kshemandel. 

Massive, ghwat. See gerd. 

Masterful, akhtiyormand. 

Masticate, to, zhewel. 

Mat, pizai. 

, large, pechawel. 

Match, (1) khallai. (2) mezzai, 

-box. See dablai. 

-lock. See tipak, mezzai. 

Mature, bbligh, p^kh. See 6h6. 

Matter, (1) ^abara, wol, etc. See 
Affair. (2) balo. (3) nav, zawa. 

, urgent, hajat. 

Maundy man.« 
May, Krop, Jet. 
Meal, marai. 
Mean, dais, shim. 

Mean, to. See matlab, miirad, 



Meaning, mana. 

Means^ los, taufik, was. See lorai. 

■■ of, by. See bondi. 
Meanwhile, mion. 
Measles, sh^rai. 
Measure, in music, g^wora, rang, 


of capacity, paropai^ yoghai. 
of landj vioshta. 
-, to, peyendel, wahel. See 

gaz^ kach, vioshta. 
-ment, kach. 

Measurer, waingarrai. 
Meat^ ghosha. 

' , piece of, betai, 
, small piece of, betikai. 

' with bone, ^asikai. 

Mechanic, koligar, pesh. 
Medal, taghma. 

Mediator, manzgarai, manzghwo- 

Medicine, dori. 

Medicine for diarrhoea, arira. 

Medium, miona. 

■ -complexion, g^anamrang. 
Meet, to. See ma^, makhamakh. 
Meeting, marakka, mulakat. 
Melancholy, gard. 

, chiper, kher. 

Melon, common, kharbiza. 

, (water-), andowona. 

Melt, to. See wale 
Memory, yod, zre. 

■, of, in, to, pase. 
Mend, to, jorawel. See jor. 
Mended, to be, joredel. 
Menial, dam, koligar, kutafirai. 
Menses, ^ez. 
Merchant, sandogar,' 
Mercury, para. 
Mere, tesh. 
Merely, mitlak. 
Merit, (1) hakkdorl. (2) sawob. 

Meritorious, nek. 

Merriment, khwashi, nendora. 

Merry, khandawinaij viyal. See 

, to make. See ^washi. 

Message, kissa. 

Messenger, banjorai, r^bor. 

Metal, precious, zar. 

, white, kwut^. 

Meteorite, taka. 

Mew, to, mangedeK 

Mian, Mian. 

Mid, nim. 

— 'day, nima vrez. 
-night, nTma shpa. 
-winter, tsela. 

Middle, manz. 

• -aged, shengharai. 

of day, gharma. 

— — ^ -sized, miona. 
Migrate, to, baiyedel. 
Military, fauzi. 
Milk, pai, shode. 

and rice, kir. 

> in, "1 


, to, Iweshel. 

Mill, (hand-), mechan. 

-stone, pal. 

(Water-), ghandra. 

Miller, ghandargarai. 
Millet, ghesht. 
Minaret, minora. 
Mind, akal. 

Mine (1) drang. (2) sirang. 
Mingle. See gad, gadawel. 
Minstrel by caste, dam. 
Miracle, manjiza, kiramat. 

worker, bzerg. 

Miraculous power, kiramat. 
Mirage, kwundi. 
Mirror, shisha, woTna. 
Misappropriate. See khanat. 




Miser^ dais. 

-liness^ shimwolai. 

■ Ay, dais, shim, ting. 

Miserable^ ^abagherait lagherai- 
bagherai. khandanai^ kber, khwor. 

Misfortune, balo, beshknlla. 

Miss, to. See khato. 

Missing, khato. 

Mist, badal, lera. 

Mistake, ghalatiy ^atoi. 

Mistaken, ghalat. 

Mistress, (1) w^rman. (2) mashuka. 

Mix, to, {ifitr.) gadedel ; (fr.) 

gada^el. See gad. 
Mixed up, gad-wad. 
Moderation, adab. 
Modest, shannnok. 
Modesty, sharm. 
Modus vivendi, guzran. 
Moist, limd, tond. See zyfim. 
Moisture, nawa, zyfim. 
Mollify, to. See khwash^ pakhula. 
Moment^ khrap, saat, tekai. 
Momiai, mamci. 
Monday, Dream Sabak. 
Money, naghd. zar. 
Mongoose, srabinrai. 
Mongrel, nimcha. 
Monkey, shodkai. 
Month, myasht. 
Moon, myasht, shpezhmai. 
More, der, nor. 

Morning, bar^zar, sabo. See sabai. 
-meal, barezar marai. 

prayer, sabo. 

Morrow, sabo. 

Mortar, baghrai. 

Mortgage, gaSi'a. 

Mosque, dars, jamaat, mazdak. 

school, dars. 

Mosquito, myasai. 
Moth, torigai. 
Mother, mor. 

Mother, through, m^ranai. 
— ^— -in-law, Wbwoshye. 
Motion. See chal6del, rawon. 
Motive, gharaz. 
Mould, (bullet-), kwulbit. 
Mountain, ghar. 
Mountaineer. See gliar. 
Moustache, bret. 
Moustachioed, br^tawar. 
Mouth, khwula, khwulgai. 

-fill, ^rap. 

Move, to, (intr.) chaledel, khezedel, 

rapedel; {tr.) arawel, g^arawel, 


— : — about, to, rapawel. 

bowels, to, chalawel. 

Much, dfer. 

Mucus, grang, nazela. 

Mud, chiker, khatta. 

, lump of, pa^isa. 
Muddy, chiker 
Muffle, to. See warsak. 
Muhalla, chela. 
Muhammadan, Musulmon. 

law, shara, shariat. 

Muhammadanism, Musulmoni. 
Muharram* See Hassan. 
Mulberry, tit. 
Mule, kachar. 
Muilahy muUo. 
Murder, ^in. 
Murderer, khini. 
Mushroom, khomba. storai. 
Musician, surodi. 
Musician by caste, dam. 
Musket, tipak. 
Muslin, malmal. 
Mussuck, gharekka, zfaai. 
Mutilated, pezprekerai. 
Mutiny, pasod. 
Muzzle, warbiz. 
Mynak, mainaka. 
Mysterious, g^aib. 




Nail, (finger-), nik, maiigfwul. 
— , iron, mekh. 

-, (screw-), pecli. 

Naked, barband. 

Name, num. See namedel, 

, bad, rangbadi. 

, good, nomis. 

-, to, balel. 

Named, to be, namedel 

Nanawatiy ninawotye. 

Nap, pashm. 

Nape of neck, warmez^t. 

Narration, kissa 

Narrow, tang. 

Native land, watan. 

Natural, kudrati. 

Nature, kudrat. 

Navel, nim. 

Near, nezde, tsarma, 

Nearer, avai, bezh, endai. 

Neck, g^wora, raagbzai, makandai, 

Necklace, parweshin. 

■, man's, bezhai. 
, woman's, ezbai. 
Need, ari, hajafc. 

, to. See hajatmand, kor. 

■ -lessly, khwushai. 

Needle, sten. 

, (packing-). See. ^^indai, sten. 

', (sewing-), See sten. ■ 
— , (large sewing-), <S(f 6^ Imonr- 

Neglect of work, karyob. 
Negligence, be-pekri. 
Neigh, to, hiiiredel, sheshnedel. 
Neighbour, gawand. 

hood, gawandi. 

Neither- . . • . nor, na ^ • • • , na. 

Nephew, weriare, khwaryei, lowar- 

Nervous, to be, tarsedel. 

-ness, tars, waswas. 

Nest, bird's, dogul, manzola. 

, wasps', dambakai. 

Nefc, dzel. 
Never, harUall* na. 
New, newai. 
Newaty spanrsai. 
News, wol. 

, good, zerai. 

Next, bel. See bya, ya. 

day, sabo, 

year, bel kol. 

Nibble, to, tikel. 

Nice. See mazza. 

Niece, vr^ra, ^urdzha, lewarza. 

Night, shpa. 

and day, shpe vrez^. 

-blind, bashir, shaugir. 

-fall, Imasham, mashom^ 


— , last, wega, barayan, 

-mare, khapassa. See under 


— , mooilless, tarezhmai. 
-, moonlight, shpezhmai. 

Nip, to, chichel. 
Nipple of gun, nipal. 
No, na. 

Nod, to. See zangawel. 
Noise, dind, shor, zhagh, 

-, indistinct, shkalwo. 

, loud, gh rabo. 

, to make a loud, ghrabedel. 

Nomad, kichL 
Non-Muhammadan, kopar. 
Non-Muhammadanism, kupr. 



Nonsense. See under khwushai. 

Nook, teevda. 

Noon, gb arma, nima vrez. 

Noose, pasai, zandai. 

North, Kutab. 

Nose, (1) peza, warbiz. (2) warsak. 

— -bag, tibra. 

-gay. See ghita. 

■ -jewel, tik. 

Nose-ring, pezwond. 
Not, na. 
Nothing, hete na. 
Nothing, for. See laya. 
November, Mangar. 
Now, es, pilhal. 
Nowadays. See vrez. 
Nullah J algad, pal. 
Numdahy talgai. 


Oath, kasam, le. 

— on Kuran, Kuran. 

, to put on, lebeghnawel. 

Obelisk. See lak. 

Obfuscation, mental, kherye-perye. 

Object, gharaz, matlab. 

Observe, to, (1) katel, nendora krel, 

dzirawel. (2) larel. 

Obstinacy, sarzori. 
Obstinate, sarzorai. 
Obtain, to. See los, paido. 
Obvious, ghwut, jawat. 
Occasion, dzoi. 
Occasionally, kalla kalla. 
Occupation, kasab. 
Occupied, pewokhta. 

Occur, to, lagedel, peshedel, pre- 

Ocean, samundar daryob. 

— -going. See joz. 

O'clock, baja. 

October, Katye. 

Octroi. See mahsil. 

Odd number, tok. 

Off, lir6, zene. 

Offence, bad, waridat. 

Offended, khappa, marawwar. See 

Offensive, (1) binok. (2) zisht. 

Offering, nazar, peshkash. 

Officer, hakim, sahib. 
Offices, good, shammar. 
Offspring, zanbacha, zaizod. 
Oh, (1) e. (%) alia. 
Oil, tel. 

Ointment, malam, rawa. 
Old, zor, zandan, wakhtinai, wrost. 
, of, pakhwo. 

man, spinzhirai. 

woman, nio. 

Older, mesher. 

Olive, wild, shwawan. 

Omen, pol. 

On, bondi, pa. 

One eyed, chaghar. 

Once, at, ^s, haghase, zer. 

Onion, piyoz. 

Only, haghase, mitlak, pakat, yek. 

Oorial, magb, sazha. See ghertsanai. 

Open, dad, khalos. lire. 

, bediya. 

Open, to. See ktalos. 

' mouth, to. See cheg, wit. 

Openly, makhamakh. 

Opium, apim. 

Opium-eater, apimkh^r. 

Opportunity, dzoi, makha, moka. 

Opposite, barobar, makhamakh. 

Oppression, ziyotai, zulm. 

Or, ke, ya. 



Oral, zubani. 
Orange, norenj. 
Order, hukm. 
Ornament, kolai, gafita. 
Orphan, yatim. 
Oscillate, to, zangedel. 
Other, bel, nor. 
Otter, ^be spai. 
Out, warchane. 
■ of. See bondi. 

-of-doors, bediya. 

-break, balwa. 

Outfit, woman's marriage, bast. 

landish, bedianai. See under 


law, zille^ari j. 

-side> warchane. 

-skirts, palau. 

Oven, tanor. 
Overtake, to, rasedeL 
Own, khpul, sakka. 

-, to, (1) larel. See cheshtan. 

(2) manel. 
Owner, cheshtan. 


Pace, kadam. See abiya, shogam. 
Pack (animal), lezhdai. 
Packing-needle. See g^Tndai. 
Pack-saddle, kata. 
Pad, nghorai. 
Padlock, kulap. 

Pain, azob, br^sh, dard, khushki, 
khwori, Wbwuzh. See khwazh- 

•—• - in stomach likan. 

, in, azobi, dardmand. 

, to, breshedel. 

Painful, to be, khwazhedel. 

Pains, steryd. 

Pair, jora. 

of plough cattle, yevye. 

Palate, tolai. 

Pale, ^er, zyer. 

Palm, (dwarf-), mazerrai, dellaa. 

~, (date-), khajira. 

of hand, warghawai, khap« 


Palpitate, to, drabddel, rapedel. 
Pannier (camel-), kajowa. 
Paradise, janat. 
Paralysed, shial. 
Paralysis. See guzan. 

Paramour, ashno, yor. 

Parapet, morcha, teaukai. 

Parasitic creeper, ghrangawa> 

Parcel, gadlai. 

Parch, to See naned«L 

Parched, sir. 

Parent s> mor pi or. 

Parrot, toti. 

Part, watan. 

Partiality. See kb^losmand. 

Particle, batserrai, zarra, zefai. 

Particular, khass. 

Parting of hair, peshani. 

Partridge, grey, tanzerrai. 

Party, (1) See malgerai. {%) gun- 

of raiders or robbers, ghaddai. 

(wedding*), wro. 

Pashmina, pashmi sharai. 

Pass, darra, ghoshai, narai. 

. , to, tferedel, watel. 

— , to make, tferawel. 

— current, to, chaledeL 

through, to. See tfer. 

Paste, teb, rez. 

Pastry. See marai. 
Pathan, Pashtin. 



Pathan custom, ianguage or timeS; 

Pan of gun, chafir. 
Pay, tankha, talab. 

, to, pr^krel, werkrel. 

Peace, karori, neki, re^^a, silha. 

Peach, shautolai. 

Pearl, mar^alara. 

Pebble, tizhgai. 

Peculiar, lewanshik, saudoi. 

Pedestrian, palai. 

Peg, mazhwai. 

, (saddle-), ktJpai. 

-, (yoke-), zhwandai. 

Pellet, ghundorai. 
Pen, kalam. 

-case, kalamdon* 

knife, chaki. 

Penis, ghiin. 

Penitence, kshemonai, pshemonai, 

Penitent, kshemon, psheraon, 

Penurious, dais, shim, tiDg. 
People, alam, ^alk, ma^lik, rayat, 

Pepper, mirach. 

, red, galandorai. 

Percussion-cap, patakha, tepai. 
__ holder, towiz. 

Perfection, kamol. 

Perforation, g^or. 

Perform, to. See dzoi. 

Period, minda, wa^t, zamana. 

Perhaps, kwundi. 

Person, kas, tan. 

Perspiration, khela. 

Pervert, to. See ret. 

Pestle, wooden. See lawar. 

— , stone, melai. 

Petition, arz, sinati, suol. 

, written, arzi. 

Pewter, kwutt. 

Phial, shisha. 

Phlegm, grewlai. 

Photograph, taswir. 

Phthisis, narai ranz. 

Physician, tabib. 

Pice, kusira. 

Pick-pocket, gankappai. 

Picquet, terakai. 

Picture, but, taswir. 

Piebald, brag. 

Piece, tikai, totai. 

Pieces, take to. See rang. 

Piety, takwa, wazifa. 

Pig, bad-dzanawar, nolat, fitsarai. 

Pigeon, kautara. 

Pike, songa. 

Pile up, to. See keta. 

Pilgrimage, ziyorat. 

to Mecca, aj. 

Pillar, metta. 

Pimj)les, ninye 

Pin (antimony-), sarmache. 

Pincers, ferman. 

Pinch, pakha. 

Pinch, to, chTchel. 

Pine, nashtar 

-nut, edible, zanrghezai. 

Pinnacle, kangra. 

Pious, Sana. 

Piquant, triv. 

Pistol, teponcha. See mla. 

, bell-mouthed, gharbin. 

Pitch, to. See lak. 

— — -fork, skeyi. 

Pith, sekra. 

Pity, 'J) armond. (2) See kulma, zro. 

Place, dzoi, mela, watan. 

. , for worshipper, misala. 

, Muhammadan holy, kibla, 

— , to, ksheghdel. 
Plague, to, rabarawel. 
Plain, maindon, saro. 



Plain, empty, maira. 

y stony, raghzai. 

, jawat, ^wTit, sode. 

Plait of hair, kaoteai. 

Plane, renda. 

, to, tezhel. See narai. 

Plank, takhta. 

Plant, bitai. 

y small, bifakai. 

, small thorny, karkefira. 

, to, karel. &ee lak. 

Plaster, ^arel. 

Plate, kundalai. 

Platform, sola. 

Platter, kundel, tarbal. 

Play, leba. See mazshiledel. 

an instrument, to, trangawel. 

Player on instrument, surodi. 

on mandoline, ribobi. 

Pleasant, (1) khandawinai, viyal. 
(2) she. 

Please, to. See khwash. 

Pleased, khwash, rozi, pakhula. 

y to be, lauredel. 

Pleasing, ^wash. 

Pleasure, khwand, mazza. 

Pleat, tarkhaz. 

Pledge, graw. 

, to, graw kshezhdel. '" 

Pledged, grawa, grawi. 

Plough, spora, yevye. 

share, tiyashe. 

Pluck, tira, etc. See Bravery. 

Plucky, nar, etc. See Brave. 

Plum, alicha. 

Plunder, lit. 

Plunge, to, dibedel. 

Ply, to, lagawel. See under lor. 

Pocket, jeb. 

picking, gankappa. 

Pock-mark. See ninye. 
-pitted, brag. 

Pod, kiyasai. 
Poet, shair. 
Point, Bar, tsika. 

' , good, kamol. 

Point, to, kshezhdel. 

Poison, (1) bale, zar, zarkatil. (2) 

Pole, lakarra, stenye, tir. 

of tent, steny^. 

— ^— of bed-frame, bozai. 

Pole Star, Eutab Storai. 

Policy, lyar. 

Politeness, adab. 

Pollard, land. 

Polluted, be-lmoz, etc. See Defiled. 

Pomegranate, nargissa, wolang. 

Pomp, dabdabba, dabob. 

Pond, dand, dinga. 
Ponder, to. See pekr. 
Pony, titi. 
Pool, dinga, dand. 

Poor, ajiz, darmond, ^wor, yasir, 

spirited, dais. 

Popular, makhawar. 

Porch, sate, deodai. 
Porcupine, shkiiire. 
Pore, ghinai. 
Porridge, egra. 
Portion, bakhra, nasib. 

Pose as, to, joredel. 
Position, of, motabar. 
Possess, to, larel. 
Possession. See los. 
Possessor, cheshtan. 

Possibility, ma^a, ummiiid. 
Post, fortified, kila. 

Postage. See mahsil. 
P 08 tin J pestin. 
Pot, degai, katawa. 

Potter, kulol. 

about, to. Sec makbreze. 



Pr>uch, (ammunition-), keteai. 
Pouches and belt^ kisbat. 
Poultice, to, tabel. 
Pound, to, warawel. See wor. 
Poverty-stricken, yasir. 
Powder, (gun-), dori. 

-measure, bazma. 

Power, akhtiyor, kobi, los, tokat, 

wak, was, zor. See wastgir. 

, almighty of God, kudrat. 

, miraculous, kiramat. 
-f ul, makandawar, mazbit, 


less. See Helpless. 

-ness, be-wasti. 

Powinda, Pewinda. 
Praise, sippat. 

God, to. See yod, zikar. 

Prayer, Iminz. 

, morning, sabo. 

, evening, Imashom. 

at night, last, moghsitan. 

-carpet, misala. 

less, be-lmoz« 

Precious, giron. 

Precipice, kamar. See garang. 
Precisely. See wuoh. 
Pre-emption, shepoiya. 
Pregnant, blorba. /S^^ haml. 
Prematurely, be-minde. 
Prepare, to. See mla, taiyor. 

Prescription, nukhsa. 

Presence, ma^. 

Present, bakhsh, bakshish, pesh- 
kash, soghat. 

— to bride, manressa. 

, hazir. 

Presentation robe, khalot. 

Presently, es. 

Preserve, to, sotel, zgheshtel. See 

Press, sugar-cane, chaghannai, 

Press, to. See zor. 

Prestige. See dabob. 

Pretence, bona. 

Pretend, to. See jorawel. 

— ^— to be, to, joredeL 

Prevalence, gh alaba. 

Prevalent. See ghalaba. 

Prevent, to. See mane. 

Prey, bird of, lamsai. 

Price, baia. 

Pride, kabar. 

Priest, Muhammadan, mullo. 

Prince, shazodti. 

Princess, shazodgai. 

Principal, sarkor. See mesher. 

Print, chop, tap. 

Printed, chop!, tapdor. See tap. 

Prisoner, bandi, kaidi. 

Private, gwushai. 

Prize, enam. 

Probably, kwundi. 

Proboscis, warblz. 

Procession, wedding, wro. 

Produce, to, astel. See paido. 

Produced, to be, khatel. 

Profane, belmaz, gimra, murda- 

Profession, kasab. 

Professor, istoz. 

Profit, faida, gatta, sid. See sham- 
mar, shegerra. 

Progeny, zaizod, zanbacha. 

Progress, to be in. See lagedel. 

Projectile, gh undorai. 

Prominent. /Sd^ gerd. 

Promise, lauz. 

Prone, parmakh. 

Prong, kheshai. 

Proof, sabit, ozmyesht. 

Proper, boida. 

Property, dunyo, mol, biiiga. 

, full and absolute. See 




Propitiate, to. See khwash, pa kh ula* 

Propriety, sharm. 

Prosperity, barakat, chamanda. 

Prosperous, barakati, sotinkai. 

Prostitute. See sheza. 

Prostration, reka);, sajoda. See san- 

Protect, to, sotely zgheshtel. 

Protection, sambolesht. 

Proud, kabarjan, maghrir. 

Prove, to. See arawel, ozmeyel, 

Proved, sabit. 

Proverb, matal. 

Provision, gatta. See under akhirat. 

Provisional, im. 

Provisions, tewferai. 

Public, ^alk. 

Pudendum muliebre, kuna. 

Pfiggree, dastor. 

Pulpit, mimbar. 

Pull, to. See wukshel. 

— - up, to. See cheg. 

off, to, wukshel, 
— out, to, astel, wukshel. 
Pulse, rag. 
Piinga, penga. 
, small, pengai, pengarai. 

Punishment, sazo. 

Punishment, future, azob» 

Punkah, babezai. 

Pupil, shogerd. 

of eye, kassai. 

Puppy, kikarai. 

Purchase, to, krel, wo^estel. 

, absolute, katye. 

Purchasing, saudo. 

Pure, karra, pok, nasba, sicha. 

Purge, jar, jullob. 

Purpose, gharazp etc. See Intention. 

■ of, for the, depora. 

Purse, mioni. 

Pursue, to. See chigha. 

Pursuit, pursuit-party, pursuit of 
raiders, chigba. 

Pus, nav, zawa. 

Push, to. See wahel. 

Put, to, achawel, kshe^hdel. 

— in, to, nennawestel. 

on clothes, to, woghestel. See 


out, to, (1) wukshel. (2) kara- 

wel. (3) we^lel. 
— , out, to be, karedel. 

round, to, gerzawel. 

up, to, wurzawel. See peshedel. 

upside down, to, arawel. 

Putrid, binok. 


Quail, bater. 

Quantity, such a, dora. 

Quarrel, jaggarra. See dowa, mang- 
wul, momla, zisht. 

Quarrelsome, pasodi. 

Quarter, ask for. See hamsaya. 

Quarters, mela. 

Queen, shazodgai. 

Queer. See arawel. 

Question, pashtanna^ 

Question, legal, masala. 

, to, pushtel. See tap&os. 

Quick of mind, zirak. 

Quickly, zer, birwandai, klak. See 

Quickness, bira. 

Quiet, karori. 

, (1) karor. (2) eman, gghe, 















Refractory^ sarzorai. 

Refusal^ inkor. 

Refuse^ jTta. See k^allai. 

, to. See inkor, mankor, eat. 

Regard. See hakk. 

— ^— as, to, balel, gafirel, manel. 

Regiment, cavalry, risala. 

— — — , infantry, pla^affa. 

Regret, armond, kshemonai, pshe" 

ful, pshemon, kshemon. 

Rein, baga. 

, leading, jilab. , 

Rejoicing, kbwusholi. See Yid. 

Related, to be. See lagedel. 

Relation, (1) khesh, khpul. (^) See 

Relations by marriage, skherona. 

Relationship, azlzi^ kheshi, khpulwi. 

Relative. See Relation. 

Release, khalosl. 

' , to. See khalos. 

Reliance, itibor, tawakkul. 

Relief, asonai. 

Religion, mazab. See tarika. 

, Muhammadan^ din. 

Religious, Sana, zahid. 

Relish, laundebal. 

Rely, to. See itibor, tawakkul. 

Remain^ to, yes^del. 

, over, to. See potai. 

Remaining, nor. 

Remarkable, ajab. 

Bemember, to. See yod, zre. 

• God, to. See zikar. 

Remind, to. See yod, zre. 

Remitted, ap^ maf . 

Remorse, kshemonai, pshemonai. 

■ -ful, kshemon, lepkhor, 

Rend, to. See mot. 

Rent, kireya. 

— , (house-); gholai. 

Rent in kind, bakhra. 

Repair, to. See jor, pewand. 

Repent, to. See toba. 

Re{)entance, toba, kshemonai, pshe- 

Repentant, kshemon, pshemon, 

Reply, dzawob. 

Reproach, peghor. 

Repugnance. See wezor. 

Repugnant. See wezor. 

Repulsive, zisht. 

Reputation, nomis. 

Request, arz, ari, khost, sinati, suol. 

'- of God, da wo. 

Require, to. See char, kor, hajat- 

Requirement, hajat. 

Resemblance, misol. 

Resemble, to. See misol, fc^han. 

Resin, g^owla. 

Reside, to, yesedel. See pand. 

Resist, to, ting^del. 

Resolute, bad, ting. 

Resound, to, shrak6del. ^ 

Respect, (1) kadar. (2) See hakk. 

Bespectable, motabar. 

Respite, minda. 

Responsible. See zimma, zimma- 

Responsibility, zimma. 

Rest, asonai. 

, short, damma. 

, to. See damma, sar, wish^. 

— — , at, karor. 

Restless, lotband. 

Restrain, to. See ting, sambol. 

Resurrection, kemat. 

Retainer, banjorai. 

Return, in, badal. 

Revenge, badal. 

Revenue, Government, tap, kalang. 

payer, kalangi. 



Reverence> claim to, bzergi. 

See dazzai. 
(2) sawob. 

Revolver, teponcha. 
Reward, (1) enam. 
Rheum, chikharair 
Rheumatism, bod. 
Rheumy, chikhran. 
Rib, peshtai. 
Rice, shele, vnghe. 
— — -field, shelgar. 

^husker, paeka. 

and milk, kir. 

Rich, daulatmand, teorb, wedon. 
Riches, daulat, dunyo, mol. 
Rider, swor, gpor. 

Ridge, teka, narai, ^ezhai, warsak. 
Riding, swarlai. 

Rifle, bandiHb, fclpak. See ra^dor. 
Rights hakk. 

, (1) shai. (2) boida, rawo. 

Righteous, imondor. 
Rim, morga. 
Ring, gutye. 

, to, chanredel. 

, (nose-), pezwond. 

-worm, spinai. 

Riot, balwa, pasod. 
Ripe, pekh, sir, watra, zyer. 
Ripen, tOr See fasaL 
Rise, to, khatel. See cheg^ cheg- 
edel, peshedel, wrateL 

Risky, b^-itibor. 
Rival, siyoL 
Rivalry, siyoli. 
River, toi^ daryob, sind. 

crossing, pataSf*, gudar. 

Riverain land, kach. 
Road, lyar, saraik. 
Roar, ghero. 

, to, gharedelj ghrabedel. 

Roast, to, wratawel. See warta'» 
Robber^ ghal. 

Robbery, ghla, 

, hi^way, shik. 

Robe, presentation, khalot. 
Robust, chaman, ghwutj tanderest. 
Rock, kapra, persha, takka* 

, to, zangaweL 

Rod, (cleaning-), gaz.. 

Roll, to, [intr.) rgheshtel; {tr) 

up, to, gharelj ngheshtel. 

Hoof, kokash. 

, to. See pet> 

Room, keta. 

, small, ketkai. 

Root, wekh, wulye. 
Rope, badrizta, perai. 
Rosary, tasbe. 
Rose, rose-bush, gulop^ 
Rotten, wrost. 
Rouge, pon. 

Rough, (1) digh, (2) i-et. (8) gad- 

Round, gerd, ghund. 

. about, gerd. 

Kow, wal. 
Rub, to, mashel. 
Rubbish, khalpal. 
Rude, jahil. See kelai. 
Ruddy, sir. See under rang. 
Ruffian, badmash. 

Ruin, (1) haloki. (2) kandghar, 

Ruined, halok. 

Ruler, hakim, wakil. 

Rumour, bol. 

Run, to, paredel, tashel. See raanda, 
• baiyedel. 

, to, make, parawel. 

■■ away, to, ta.sheL 

away with, to. See matiz. 

— into, to. See under febal. 

over, to, teyedel. 

race, to, parawel. 



Bun through, to^ peyel. 
Bunning, mancla. 
Bupee, npai. 

Bupetf Kabuli, nandramai. 

Rust; (1) zang. (2) See tarkwunai. 

Rusty. See zaog. 


Sack^ ghindai; tra(a. See andai^ 

— , leather^ g^4&^^ kachfera. 
Sacred, by caste or profession^ 
akhwund, miaa, pir. 

Sad; chiper^ ghamjan, ghamnok^ 
khappa, khapgon^ zahir. 

Saddle, zin. 

bag, khurzT. 

• , (pack-), kata. 

' 'V^Sf kulpai, 

■'■ -wallets, kash^urjin. 

Safe, regh. 

-' — -conduct, itibor. 

Safety, khfer. 

— — , promise of, itibor. 

Saint, bzerg, she sarai, walL 

Saiyid, Saiyid. 

Sake of, for, pase. 

Salaam, salom. 

Salary, talab, tankha. 

Sale, khars> 

, absolute, katyl, 

, for, kharsi. 

Salita, warai. 

Saliva, wuzhgye. 

Salt, molga. 

Salutation, pashtanna, salom. 

Same, agha. 

Sanctuary, kibla. 

Sand, shegga. 

■ -fly, bangassa. 

— — -grouse, 4abara. ^ 

Sandal, teaplai. 

Sandy, reg, shaglan. 

Sarai, suroi. 

Sarnai, pikafirax. 

Satan, Shaiton. 

Sated, mor. 

, to be, maredel. 

Satisfied, moi*; rozi. 

— — , to be, laur^deL 

Saturday, Awal Sabak. 

Saucepan, katorai. 

Saucer, gadiwa, katorai. 

Saw, ara. 

Say, to, weyel, s^aghedel. 

Scaby (1) Hiizh. {£) paman. 

Scabby, paman. 

Scald, to, sezel. 

Scale, talla. 

Scarcity, kat, ^wori. 

Scent, working by, bikash, biwai- 

Science, ilam. 

Scissors, biyeti. 

Scone, kok, kokirai. 

Score, shel. 

Scorpion, laram. 

Scoundrel, badmash. 

Scout, terakai. 

Scratch; to, garawel. 

Sci^eam, sira. 

, to, ap^del. 

Screen, to. See parda. 

Screw, pech. 

together, to. See pech. 

Scrub, zangal. 

Seal, mor. 

Seam, nglnda. 

Search, taloshi. 

for, to, latawel. See d^irawel. 



8eat> to^ ksh^nawel. 

Seated^ nost. 

Secluded^ satarmanda. See parda. 

Seclusion of women, adab^ satar. 

Secret, gwushai, pet. 

Sect. See tarika. 

Section, tribal, ganda, kom^ psha. 

Security, zomintia. 

Seduced^ kaker. 

See, to, katel, lidel. 

— off, to. See jilab. 
Seed, temna, tekhm, zerai. 

of fruit, hadikai. 

Seek, to, latawel. 

Seem, to. See molim. 

Seer^ sfer. 

Seize, to, niwel. 

Seizure, baramta. 

Self, dzon, khud, ear. See khpul. 

-respect, hayo, 

— -restrained, sambol. 
■ -satisfied, ghaira. 

— — -seeking, matlab-ashno. 

— -sown, kudrati. 

Sell, to, (ir.) kharsawel; {intr.) 

Semen, man!. 

Send, to, ISghel, wostawel. 

for, to, gbwushtel. 

off, to, baiyawel, rawon krel. 

— up, to, khezhawel. 
Senior, mesher. 
Sense, mana. 

-less, (1) be-^uda, dabdib, (2) 


Senses, hosh, yish. 

^ in. See k^ud. 

Sensual, sbahwati, shahwatnok. 
Sensuality, shahwat. 
Sentry, parador. 
Separate, gwushai. 

, to. See khallai, rang, sar. 

Separation, piekrin. 

Separation, of combatants, gwosh. 

Sepoy f spol. 

September, Assi. 

Serious, i^wut. 

Sermon, waz. 

Servant, nikar. 

', (maid-), winza. 

, pbedient, kalangL 

Service, (1) khidmat, sliammar» 
{it) nikari. 

Set, joraj Lopa« 

Set, to, kshezhdel. 

— going, \o. See makh. 

— on fire, to, balawel. 

— to ^ork, to. See brid. 

— up, to. See lak. 

Settlement, band, bandobast, tann. 

Severe, sakht, trikh. 

Severity, sakht i. 

Sew, to, gandel. 

Shade, syora. 

Shake, to, {infr.) khezedel, taredel j 
itr,) ^ezawel, gharawel. See 
teand, wahel. 

Shallow, narai, rangai, trangafir* 

Shank, langra. 

Share, ba^ra, da^dai, vesh. 

Sharp, (1) tfera. (2) triv. (3) 

salAt. (4) zirak. 

Sharpener, nizai. 

Shave, to, arkheyel. 

Shaving, khallai, tetennai. 

, small, totenkai. 

Shawl, shol. 

Sheaf, gedai, polai, teatai. 

Shear, to, skwestel. 

Shears, kharkhel. 

. Sheath, teka. 

Shed, pizai, sappar. 

Shed, to be, teyedel. 
Sheet, patkai, lungai. 

, (winding-), kafan. 

Sheep, myfizh. 



SAeeskam, shewa. 

Shelf, tok. 

Shell; kwutelikha. 

(artillery), gelai, j^undorai. 

Shelter, kunda^a, sappar. 

(cattle-), vrorai. 

Shepherd, shpun. 
Sherbet, sharbat. 
Shield, kangal. 

Shift, to, (1) arawel darawel. (2) 

Shin, wezai. 

Shining, rinr, spin. 

Ship, joz. 

Shiver, to, bezhnedel. 

Shivers, babezbenna, larye. 

Shock. See Kbezawel. 

Shoe, pafira. 

, (horse-), nol. 

, woman's embroidered, kafsha. 

Shoer of horses, nolband. 

Shoot, (mill-), treye. 

of pain, bresh. 

, to, dazzawel, wishtel. • 

up, to, trakedel. 

Shooting, shkbr. 

Shop, at. 

Short, land, tankai, tit, t^takai. See 

-coming, yila. 

-ncss, landwolai. 

. -sighted. See did. 

Shortening, landin. 

Shot, dazz, ?gor. See dazzai. 

' } good, tepchi, wishtandai. 

, small, ninaki. 

Shoulder, ezha, yezha. 
'joint, wula. 

-piece of native coat, 

Shout, sira, zhagh. 
Shove, to. See wahel. 

Shovel, winnowing, kb^^^ 

Show, to, (tr,) astel, ushayel, 
wukshel; (intr.) ^watedel. 

Shower, pesha, sheha. 

Shrine, ziyorat. 

Shrivelled, jinjer. 

Shroud, kafan. 

Shut, band, dap, palla. See pet* 

— , to, tapel. See pet. 

Shuttle, ^angrai. 
Shy, sharmnok. 
Sic^ bimor, ranzir. 

to be, gerzawel. See kai, 

Sickle, lor. 

Sickness, ranzirtia. 

Side, da^da, khwo, lorai, palau, 
teang, worakh. 

— — of house, chaiira. 

J shady, syorai. 

, sunny, paitowai. 

Sieve, ghalbel, parwezai. 

Sift, to, chaiira wel. 

Sigh, aswelai. 

Sign, asar. 

Sight, (1) did, nazir. (2) nendora. 

, (back-), nazirket. 

rr-i (fore-), zakha. 
— of, to catdbi, katel, Izdel. 
-seeing, nandordii. 

Silent, ghelaij karor. 
Silk, wresham. 
Silken, wr&hmin. 
Silt, Ubara. 
Silver, spin-zar. 

Simple, (1) . sode. (2) -gh wuib, ja^wat, 

Simply, wueha spfeia. 
Sin, guna. 

Since. See wal^t, zory^. 

Sincere, khalosmand, mu^Iis, sgiiu 



Sinew, bagti, pla, wezha. 

behind knee, lindai. 

Sin^, to. See sandara. 

Single, astewai. 

Sink, to. See dib, skakb- 

Sinner, gunagor. 

Sip, to, serkawel. 

Sir is, sirin. 

Sister, khor. 

■ -in-law, indror, kbshina, 

nendroT, wandiar, yor. 

Sit, to, kshenostel. See palatai, 

•— square, comfortably, to. See 

— down, to, kshenostel. See 
nostai, pand. 

^ to make, kshenawel. 
Sitting, nost. 
— — — , nostai. 
Skewbald, brag* 
Skewer, sikh. 
Skill, inar. 

Skin, gaggar, pestikai, tearmanj 

— — - (water-), zbai, gbarekka. 
Skirt, lang. 

of coat, pitea. 

, to, ar^an tleL, 

Skull, kakarai. 

Sky, asmon. 

Slack, gberend, na-rost, sest, sor. 

Slackness, sesta. 

Slander, shimat. 

Slanderous, shimatgar, shimatnok. 

Slap, ^ppar. 

Slave, maryai. 

Slaver, lyare. 

Slavery, mrcitob. 

Sledge-hammer, palk. 

Sleep, ]^eb. 

, to. See kheb. 

Sleeping, wewd. 

Sleeve, lastinai. See lecha. 
Slight, ila, lezh, lezhki. ■ 
8!ing, machoghna. 
Slip, by a, khushki, 

, to, sho^deK 

Slippery, sho^, shoendek. 
Slope, downward, Iwang. 

, upward, pechlmai. 

Slow, na-rost, sest. 

-match, mezzaL 
Slowly, wro. 
Smack, shrak. 

Small, kam, kamkai, wor, wrikai. 
— , very, warikenkai. 

of back, mla. 

— — -pox, kewai, kevi ninye. 

■ shot,, chare, ninaki. 
Smart, chogh, zirak, triv. 

to, breshedel, khwaghedeh 

Smear, to, gherawel. 
Smell, bi. 

Smile, to, meskedel. 
Smith, pesh. 
Smoke. See ligai. 

:-, to, teekawel. 

Smooth, pest, shoe. 
Snaffle, kaiza. 
Snake, mangfer. 

-charmer, parwi. 

, largCj shamiyor. 

Snare, lima, park. 

Sneeze, nez^a^* 

- to, neahel. 
Snider. See tipak. 
Sniff, to. See achaweL 
Snipe, ghazzy^. 
Snore, to, khar^del. 
Snout, warbiz. 
Snow, wovra. 
Snuff, naflor. 

up, to. See saiSr. 

Snuffle, to, samedel. 

See meskai. 



So, (1\ dase, haghas^. (2) bya. 

(3) dora 
So-and-so, pulonkai. • 
Soap, sobin. 
SocUet. See sterga. 
Soft, b&bar, mein, pfet, tankai. 
Softly, wio. 
Soil, kbovra, watan. 

, light, rgg. 

Soiled, kaker. 
Sole, tala^ kbappa^. 

y yek. 

Sold, to be, khars^del. 
Soldier, British, go ra. 

, native, spoi. 

Some, dzene. 

Some . . . others, dzene . . . dzen6. 

Sometimes, kalla-kalla. 

Son, zyai. 

, (grand ), Imasai. 

' . -in-law, zim. 

■ ■ of co-wife, benzai. 

-, (step-), parketai, ka^or. 

Sono", sandara. 

Soon, zer, nen sabo. 

Soct, torkai. 

Sore, khwazh, dardmand. 

to be, khwazhedel. 

Sorrow, armond, gham. 
Sorry, khappa, khapgon, tobagor. 
Sort. See teangra, ghundi. 
Soul, arwoh, rikh. 
Sound, zhagh. 

— ^^ — , to, chafiredel, ^a^g^del, 

— , loud, ghrabo. 
— — of drum, dangedo. 

of stringed instrument, kagh. 

— — , regh, tanderest. 

— - sleep. See under kharedel. 

^ ■ ■ drum, to, dangawel. 

Soup, zemna. 
Sour, triv. 

South, Suh^l. 

Sow, to, karel. 

Sowar y swor, gpor. 

Space, dzoi. 

, dear, chaman, daggax. 

, between thumb and first 

finger, gurat. 

Spade, yim. 

Span, long, Iw&ht. 

, short, wuzai. 

Spar, tir. 

Spark, bateerrai. 

Sparrow, charchafil'a. 

Sparse, tranganr. 

Speak, to, zha^edel. See zhagh. 

evil, to, bad, w^yel. 

Spear, songa. 

■ -head, ganje. 

-grass, surmal. 

Species, kism, khel. 
Speck, tekai. 
Spectacle, nendora. 
Spectacles, shishe. 
Speech, kissa, zhagh. 
Speed, bira, sakbti. 

Spell, esam, dam, mantar, wazhm. 

Spend, to, lagawel, shandel. See 

Spherical, gerd, gh und. 

Spices. See dori. 

Spider, mechiprong. 

Spider's web, dzal. 

Spike, sikh, nakhashe. 

— — on stick, ganje. 

Spilt, ti. 

, to be, teyedel. 

Spin, to, gherel, wartel. 

Spine. See hadikai. 

Spinning-weight, tsosha. 

-wheel, tsarkh, tearkha. 

Spirit, high, ghairat, tearbasht. 

Spirited, mast. 

Spirits, sharop. 



Spirits^ high^ masti. 

— — , low. See cbiper, zahir. 

Spit, sikh. 

, to, tikawel. See ti. 

Spite, kina, zidd. 

Spit^ul, kinakash, ziddi. 

Spittle, wuzhgy^. 

Spleen, tferai. 

Split, to, {intr) chaudel \ {tr.) chawel. 

Spoiled, kharop. 

Spontaneously* See khpul. 

Spoon, teamteikai. 

Sport, shkor. 

Sportsman, shkorzan. 

Spot, do^, tekai. 

Spotted, brag. 

Spout, (J) dora. (2) khwulgai, triye. 

Spread, to. See rang. 

Spring, (1) psarlai, tearmlnai. (2) 

Spring, to, zyezhedel. 

Sprinkle, to. See pizh. 

Sprout, to, khwatedel, trakedel. 

Spur, ]^ezhai, peza, teka, "warsak. 

— of the moment, on the. See 

Spy, jasis. 

Squander, to. See werk. 

Squat, to. See yotye. 

Squelch, to. See under gharekka. 

Stab, to. See sikli^ 

Stack^ keta. See under biz. 

, small, ketkai. 

Staff, lawar, tendai, 

Stage^ mazal. 

Stagger, to, rapedel. 

Stagnant (water), (]amm£ (6b6). 

Stained^ kaker, larelai. 

Stair, shel. 

Stalk, dekai, don4ai. 

, tOjteorel. See teorana. 

Stalwart, piyawarai. 

Stammer, to. See fthakbedel. 

Stammering, arara, tartarai. 
Stand for Kuran, rakhl. 

, to, daredel. See yesedel, 


firm, tb, ting^del. 

still, to, daredel. See dacj. 

up, to. See chegedel. 

well with, to. See under 


Standard, taghw. 

Standing crops. See fasal. 

Standstill. See dad, tam. 

Star, storai. 

Start, to, (1) bezhn^del. (2) See 
makh, rawon. 

Starveling, khworakai. 

Starving, wughai. 

State, (1) wol. (2) dabob. 

Stature, lashta, wuna. 

Stay, to. See matal, tam, teko. 

Stealth, ghla. 

Steam. See ligai* 

Steep. See pechimai. 

Steel, (1) pilod. (2) pand. 

Stem, dekai, dondai, metta. 

Step, kadam. 

— -fatber, pl^indar. 
mother, mera. . 

— -son, kator, parket^ai. 
Stern, sakht, tiikh. 
Sternness, sakbti. 
Stewpan, ka^awa. 
Stick, largai, lashta. 
— , heavy, la war, 

, to, (1) ksh^zhdel, tapel, 

tumbel. See tak, shakh. (2) 
peyel. (3) yesedel. 

Sticky, chiker, sreshan, sreshnok. 

Stiff, kalp, klak, ting. 

Still, karor. 

, lya. 

Stimulant, k^p. 

Stimulants, taker of, k^p^or. 



StiDg^ lesha^. 

— , to, chiohel. 8$€ t^k, 
Stingy, dais, ghim, ting. 
Stirrup-iron, kr^b. • 

-leather, krebosh. 

Stitch, bal^iya, skazai. 
Stock, dunyo. 

, live. See under ghwandai. 

of fire-arm, kunda, kgndogh. 

Stocking, jirob. 

(leather*), meza. 

Stolen property recovered, bflgha. 
Stomach, geddbi, lerai. 
Stone, tizha, kofirai. 
, small, tizhgai. 

(baking-), tabai. 

, larrge, takka. 

of fruit, hadikai. 

set in ring, ghalmai. 

Stool, (1) k&tkai. i^A) dast. 

Stoop, to. See tit, dib, ghita. 

Stop, to. See isor, matal, mane, tarn, 

— — crying, to. See ghelai. 

■ figlit, to. See gwosh. 

Stopper, ^ulpitai. 

Stopped, tam. 

Stopping, tam. 

Store, ambor. 

-room, kfeta. 

Storey, second, sabot. 

Storm (rain-), shaugira. 

Stormy, teponi. 

Story, kisaa. 

Stout, ghwut. 

Straight, sam, sikh, palasi^. 

Straighten, to. See sam. 

Straightforward, momin, sam, spin. 

Strain, to. See arawel. 

Strained, to be, parkedel. 

Strange, pradai. See arawel. 

Strangely, ajiba. 

Strap, tosma, dira. 
Straw, prora. 

-, (maize-), tond. 

broken, chopped, biz, pj*. 
standing, driza. 
Streak, kursha. * 

Stream, rod, toi. 
Street, chela. 
Strength, tokati zor. 
Stretch self, to. See ghazawel. 
Strict, ret. See under adab. 
Strike, to, lagedel, t»fc»wel, wahel. 
String, (1) mezzai. (2) ^gir. 
' (bow-), ahai. 

■ (camel-), mar. 

i to, pferel. 

Strip of leaf, ^ir. 

off, to, latawel. 

Stroke, zgor. 

— of work. See ^rap. 

Strong, regh, takra, mazbit, sakht, 
klak, zorawar, mezzai, tanderest, 
chanmn, piyawarai, pilodi. 

man, palawon. 

Struck, to be, lagedel. 
Struggle, naskora, sha^a-sholanga. 
Strung, pferelai. 
Stubble, drissa. 

, drizgor. 

Stud in camel's nose, mar. 
Student, talib. 

Study, to, Iwustel. See sabak. 
Stuff, makh. 

Stumble, blavs^del^tambedel. 
Stump, setta, ^arand. 

Stupid, na-laik, nope, be-akal, kam- 
akal, ^ela, owel, dzanawar, amak. 

Stupidity, be-akli, kam-akli. 

Style, rang. 

Subdued,, g^e. 

Subject, rayat. 

, loyal, khair^'WO. 



Submission^ ajizi. 

Submissive, ajiz, gzbe. 

Submissively. See sterga. 

Subscription. See gerda. 

Subsidy, muajab. 

Subsist, to. See wakht. 

Subsistence, guzran, lezgor. 

Succeed to, to. See kshenostel, 

Success, baroban. 

■ in life, chamanda. 

Succession, misala. 

Suck breast, to, ravdel. 

Suckle, to, rawel. 

Sudden, noblbar. 

Suddenly, benasopa, losi, nobibar. 

Suffering, azobi. 

Sugar, nambot, sbakara. 

-cane, ganna. 

Sulk, to. See sitbit. 

Sulky, marawwar, bit, .sitbit. 

Sullen, gita. 

Sum. See zar. 

Summer, wirai. 

■■ -harvest. Bee fasal. 

Summit, sar, teika, teirekka. 

Summon, to, balel. 

Sun, Imer, myfer. 

— -light, myfer, paitowai. 

shine, Imfer, myfer. 

Sunday, Itwor, Dwayam Sabnk. 

Sunk, dib. 

Sunny side, j)aitowai. 

Sup, to, ghrapawelj sate], serkawel. 

Superficial, sarpak. 

Superficially, bars^ran. 

Supper, w^ga marai. 

in Ramzan, shima. 

Supposing. See ch6r^. 
Supplies, godam. 

Surety, zomin. 

Surge, to. See chappa. 

Surpass, to. See ter. 

Surprise, chapo. 

Surprised. See Astonished. 

Surrender, to. &e hamaaya. 

Surround, to, badal krel. See isor. 

Survey, kach. 

— , to. See vioshta. 

Surveyor, waingarrai. 

Survive, to, paedel, chaledel. 

Suspended, dzwferand. 

Suspicion, gumon, tohmat, shuba, 

wasu as. 
Suspicious, waswasi. 
Swallow, to, ngheshtel. See t«ra- 

wel, shrapawel. 

Swear by, to, krel. 

— , to make, lebezhnawel. 

Sweat, khela. 

Sweep off, to. See set. 

Sweepings, khallai, khalpal, khair- 

Sweet, khozh. 

smelling, khozhbiyai. 

' -meats, alwo, ^wogh^^ 


Swell, to, parsedel. 

Swelling, badwe, gazak, dona. 

SwijEt, saHbt. 

Swimmer, lambezan. 

Swimming, lambeya. 

Swine, titsarai. 

Swing, to, [intr) zangedel; [tr.) 

Swollen, dad. 

Swoop, ghita. 

Sword, tira. 

■ -belt, wrashkaL 

" -maker. S'^^ pesh. 

Syphilis, bodipferang. 




Tablecloth, kanderai. 

Taot^ inar^ chal. 

Tail, (1) lakai, lem. (2) teika, 

less, laD<J. 

Tailed, well, lamawar. 
Take, to, kbwarel, wokbestel. 
■■ away, to, betel, biwel. 

care of, to. See zgharai. 

in, to, (1) nennayestel. (2) 

See paryob, tagi> khila. 

— off, to, wukshel. 

— oub> to, astel. 
to pieces, to. See rang. 

Taken aback, brand. 

Talk, mashghilo. mazshilo, zhagh^* 

— , to, zhaghedel. 
Talkative, zhebgharond. 
Uall, cheg, wizhd. 
Talon. See Ciaw. 
Tamarisk, ghaz. 
Tambourine, dariya, tambal. 
Tame, gzhe, rizhdai. 
Tank, talo, teler. 
Tape, (cotton-), spafirsai. 
Tarantula, koka. 
Tassel, dzindai. 
Taste, khwand, mazza. 

less, belmang. 
Taunt, p^gbor. 
Tea, cbai. 

Teacher, (1) istoz. (2) pir. 
'leaching, dars. 
Tear, y&hka. 

•, to, (intr.) bzha shwel ; (^r.) 
bzha krel. 

— in pieces, to. See mot. 

Tease, to, sherawel. 

Teat, tai. 
Tedious, cheuj&n. 
Temper, khi, taba. 
— — — , bad, tribal. 
Temperance, parhez. 
Temperate, parhezgor. 
Temple of head, teafi^akye. 
Tenancy, shariki. 
Tenknt, sharik. 
Ten-annas, dirang. 
Tender, nozak, pest, tankai. 
Tendon, baga, wezha. 
Ten o^clock a.m., Imerchasht. 
Tent, khina, tambi. 
— — , nomad^s, kez^dai. 

— ' — V^nf ^0- ^^^ teaplai, wahel. 

-pole, steny^. See under 


Termination, wustiani. 
Terms. See jora. 
— -, bad, wirona, zisht. 
Terrible, darsatnok. 

thing, balo. 

Terribly. See ret. 
Test, to, ozmeyel. 
Testicles, khwutte. 
Tether, silai. 

That, (1) agha. dagha. . (St) che. 
See Grammar, 

Thankful. See shukar. 
Thank- off eringSj shukarona. 
Thanks to God, shukar. 
That much, emra, hamra. 

time, by, at, nor. 

Theft, ^la. 

Then, bya, wol^. 

There, wolata. 

Therefore, zeke. 

Thick, j^wut, gafii*^ saj^t. 




Thief, glial. 

Thigh, vrin. 

Thin, (1) narai. (2) dangar. (8) 

Thing, shai, kissa, khabara, char, 

Things, asbob, makh. 
Third, dream. 
Thirst, tanda, wuchwolai. 
Thirsty, tezhai. 
Thither, wolata. 
Thong, wosh. 
Thorn, aghzai. 

-fence, shpel. 
Thorny (tree), aghzatia (wuna). 
Thorough, sicha. 

bred, asil. 

, not, kacha. 

Thought, atkal, pekr. 

Thrashing, fif^e? drabawel, paryodel, 

Thread, mezzai. 

, woollen, snai. 

Thresh, to, mashel. 

Threshing, ghebal. 

-floor, dermSnd. 

Threshold, sardarai. 

Throat, alk, marai, stinai. 

Throb, to, drabedel. 

Throne, takht. 

Through, p^ri. See bondi. 

Throw, to, achawel, ghurzawel, 
treyel, teamlawel. See naskor. 

Thrown down, to be, ghurzedel. 
Thumb, kata gu^a. 
Thump, to, drabawel. 
Thunder, to, gharedeh tan^del. 
— bolt, tandar. 

Thursday, Shpez^am Sabak, Ziyo- 

rat Wrez. 
Tickle, to, ta^^rawel. 
Tie, to, tarel. See ganda. 
Tiger, mzarai. 

Tight, tang, ting. 

y not, dad, sest. 

Till, ptri, rafc:e. 

Time, wakht, minda, zamana, umar. 

See saat, wor. 
in music, wazan, g^wora, 

rang. • 

-, long, Zand. 

-— ,atai.y, ] ^^rkalla. 
Times, at all, J 

Time at the present, ^s, pilhal. 

, at the same, bya. 

Tinder, khwan. 

Tiny, warlkSnkai. 

Tip, sar, sel. 

Tired, sterai. 

To, ta, wa...ta, p6ri. 

Tobacco, tamala. 

pipc^ native, chilam. 

To-day, nen. 

Toe, guta. 

Toil, khwori, mashakkat. 

Toluy tela. 

Toll, mah^il. 

Tomb, gabar. 

T^onguC; zhebba. 

, to hold. See ghelai. 

Tonsils, kimai. 

Too, ban. 

Tool, kolai, loshai. 

Tooth, ghwosb. 

, (front-), dora. 

— , long, nesh. 

- of comb, Whesha, kh^shai. 

- of saw, ghwosh. 

- - ache. See gh wosh. 

— brush, native, masmok. 
-pick. See ghwosh. 

Toothed, ^^woshai. 
Top, sar, telka, teirekka. 

, on the, sarpak, barsferan. 

Topography, makha. 
Topsy-turvy, londi-bondi. 



Tom, bzha. 

Tortoise^ shkautafcai. 

Torture, &zob. 

Tooohed by hand, loswaiyinai. 

Tower, moC^ai. 

Town, bftzor, sh&r. 

Trace, pata. 

, to. See sahi. 5^^ Track. 

Track. (J) man^. (2) bandar. 

, to. See mand. 
Trade, saudo. See bahir. 
Tradesman. See waporL 
Trading, bahir. 
Trail, to, laledel. 
Train of animals, bahir. 

, (railway-), gadf. 

, to. See riz^dai. 

Trained, gzke. 
Transborder, y^ghi. 
Transfix, to, peyel. 
Transfrontier, yeghi. 
Transit-dues, mirai. 
Transitory, panL 
Trap, park. 
Travel, musopiri. 
Traveller, musopir. 
Treacherous, be-wapo. 
Treachery, be-imoni. 
Treading out grain, ghebal. 
Treasure, khazona. 
Treasury, ^azona. 
Treatment, considerate, muleiza* 

■ , medical, dori-darmond. 
Tree, wuna. 
, genealogical, shajara. 

Tremble, to, grabedel, khezedel, 

Trembling, babezhenna. 

' -fit, larye. 

Tremour, babezhenna. 

Trial, (I) ozmyesht. (2) beshkuUa. 

Tribe, khel, koin, timan, psha, 
ganda, asal, zot. 

Tribute, peshkash. 

Trick, chal. 

Trickery, tagi. 

Tricky, chali, chalnok, tag 

Tri&ger, lindai. 

Trip, to, blavs^deL 

Trooper, swor, spor. 

Troops, fauz. 

Trot, recha. 

Trouble, rabar, tangi, tangsa, taklif,. 

Troublous, tang. 

Trousers, partig, badd^. 

Trousers' string, ganda. 

Trousseau, bast. 

Truant. See karyob* 

Truce, badon. 

True, rishtinai, imondor, mu^Iis. 

Truly. See hakk. 

Trunk, setta. metta. 

Trust, (1) bowar, itibor. (2)amanat. 

^ to. See itibor. 

Trusted, khpul. 

Trustworthy, itibori. 

Trusty, khpul> 

Truth, hakk, imon. See bina, rishtina 

, plain. See under kfawasha* 


— -ful, rishtinai. 

•fully, rishtina, rishtiya. See 


Try, to, (1) ozmeyeh {%) See 

Tuck in, to. See lak, 

Tuesday, T^aloram Sabak. 

Tune, surod. 

Tunic, khat. > • - 

, double part of, chelai. 

Tunnel, sirang. 

Turban, ordinary, dastor. 

, large, paandos, pagrai. 

'■ , Peshawari, lungai. 
Turmeric, kurkaman. 



Turn, (1) wal. (^ wor. 

, good, shammar. 

, to, (inir.) gerzedd, mali 

arawel ; {tr,) gerzawel, niwel. See 

— corner, to. See arawel. 
—— inside out, to, arawel. 
— — out, to, ai kawei. 

over, to, arawel. 

round, to, (intr.) gerzedel. {tr.) 


up, to, lagedel. See pesh. 

Tusk, dora, wferanai. 

Tusked, dorawar. 

Tussle, nasfcora, shakha-sholanga. 

Tutor, istoz. 
Twanging, kagh. 
Tweezers, nlsai. 
Twig, dekai. 
Twinge, bresli. 
Twinkling. See rapawel. 
Twins, j^bargini. 
Twist, (cotton-), spafitsai. 

, to, (1) gherel. (2) See 


Twitter, to, chagij^del. 
Two, in. See tikai. 
Tyrannise. See ziyotai. 
Tyranny, ziyotai, zulm. 


Udder, ^.wulianz. 
Umbrella, teattar. 
Unadulterated, na^a, sicha. 
Unalloyed, sicha, karm. 
Unanimity, ittifok. 
Unbaked, unbumt, im. 
Uncertain, be-itibor. 
Uncivilised, See kelai. "* 
Uncle, tre, nyoiye. 
Unclean, palit, mardor. 
Unconscious, be-khuda, be-isha, 


• * 

Uncultivated, bati, work, shel. See 

Undamaged, regh. 
Under, loiidi, kiz. 
Underneath, londi. 
Understand, to, poedel. Seehushjor. 
Understanding, pe. 

-, jora. 

Undiluted, nazha. 

Undo, to. See khalos. 
Undoubtedly, hakka-pakka. 
Uneducated, jahil, ummi. 

Unfaithful, be-wapo. 

Unfinished^ im. 

Unfired, im. 

Unfit for food, mardor. 

Ungelt, windan. 

Unhappy, khappa, khapgon, chiper, 
ta ghy ir. 

Uninhabited, khwughai. Seewnkl, 

Unirrigated, lalma. 

Unit. See yo. 

Unity, ittifok. 

Unjust, nahakka. 

Unlawful for Muhammadans, 

Unleavened, losi. 

Unlucky, teatelai. 

Unmarried, lawand. 

Unmixed, nazha. 

Unnecersary, Uhwushai. 

Unnecessanly, J 

Unoccupied, laya^ wuzgar. 

Unpleasant, ret. 

Unreliable, alek,b6-itibor, minopek. 

Unrest, shor. 



Unripe, yim, shin. See fasal. 

Unsafe. See <Jor. 

Unseasonably. See minda. 

Unseen, ghaib, ghelai. 

Untidy, khachan. 

Until, pSri, ras^. 

Untiring, klak. 

Untrue, darw^glizan. mnkh&lif^ 

Untrustworthy, kacha. See Unreli- 

Unworldly. See &khwund. 

Up, pos, porta. 

— and down, korta porta. 

— to, pferi. 

— -country, posanai, porta, porta- 

— -hill, pfechimai. 

Upon, bondi, peri. 
Upper, bar, pos, portanai. 

"arm, lechai, met. 

Upright, palasikh. 

■ -ness, imon. 

Upset, to, (1) arawel. (2) zavrawel. 

, to be, zayr6del. 

Upstream, bar. 

Urine, matiaze. 

Use, shammar. See char, kor. 

— , to. See char* 

ful, kabil, khidmati. See 


less, be-ghammara, khandanai, 

wrost, spfera, shel. 
Used up, khalos. 
Usurp, to. See londi. 


Valley, darra, kanda, tangai. 

Valuable, kadarmand, kematnok. 

Value, kadar, kemat. 

Valueless, be-shammara, khandanai. 

Vanish, to. See j^elai, ghaib, 

Vapour, ligai. 

Variegated, brag. 

Veil, jarawinai. 

Vein, rag. 

Venom, wesh. 

Verandah, sate, deodai. 

Verbally. See zubani. 

Verse of Kuran, mantar. 

Very, der, khass, nihaj^at. See 

Vessel, loshai. 

•, earthenware, kundel.. 

-, leather, dabbe. 

•, small drinking, ^Tmbra. 

-, (water-), kiza. 

Vex, to. See taba, zye. 

Vexation. See ghorat. 

Vexed, kbappa, tabakherai. See 

Victory, barai. 

Vigorous, chog^, takra, tealok. 

Vigour, takreyl. 

Village, kelai. 

-, fortified, enclosed, fixed. 


-, small, kelakai, k^tkai. 
-, offshoot of, boD(la. 
• -gate, darwoza. 

Villagers (fellow-), kelai. 

Vine, melawa. 

Violence, (1) balwa, zor. (2) zeta. 

Violently. See ze^a. 

Virgin, peghla. 

Virtue, (1) parhez, (2) bzergi, 



Yirtuou8> parhezg;or. See parhez. 
Visible, shkora. 
— — , to be, lida shwel. 
Vision, Ubeb. # 

Visit, mulak&t. 
, to, wfertlel. 

Vituperate, to, shkanel. 
Voice, awoz, zhagh. 
Voluntarily. See khpul, was. 
Vomit, to, gerzawel. 
Vomiting, kai. 
Votary, sh^kb. 


Wageir, sh^jrt. 
Wages, talab, tan^ft. 
Waist, m]&. 

— — -belt, kamarband, wolmas- 

Wait, to. See wiloy, wor. 
Waken, to. See wish. 
Walk, sail. 

, quick, of horse, shog&m. 

Walking-stick, lashta, la war. 
Wall, diwol, jar. 

of house, chafl^a. 

' piece, gheyind. 

, (retaining-), bezell. 
Wallets, (saddle-), kash^urjin. 
Walnut, matak. 
Wander, to, shoredel, gerzedel. 
Want, ari, khwori. 

" 9 to, ghwushtel. 

War, jang, lam. 

> Muhammadan 


-whoop, burbuyai. 


Ward of village, chela. 

Warm, tod. 

Warmth, g^orma. 

Warp, belshenna. 

Wash, to, {intr.) lambedel ; [tr,) 
winzel, lambawel. See &a'6, 
sobin, mashel, kharel. 

' -house, charch^bai. 

Wasp, z^rakai bambar. 

Wasps*-nest, dambakai. 

Waste, to. See l^arop, tferawel. 

Watch over, to. See zgh&rai. 

and ward, b^dortia. 

, on the, b^dor. 

-man, k&shai. 

Water, ebo. 

— -channel, subterranean, s&ko- 
wa, kur^z. 

■ -course, w^laa. 

-, small, lashtai. 

-fall, burbu^ai. See zowa. 
-jar, garai. 

, small, garlkai. 

, large, matai. 

-, very large, mat. 

less, wuchobai. 

-melon, andowona. 

skin, gfaarekka, gh^i* 

vessel, kiza, kuza. 

Watered, pafi^a. 

■ (well-), tandobai. 

Wave, chappa. 

, to, gerzawel. 

Wax, (bees^-). See zhowla. 

Way, (1) ly^, mazal, eee under 
akh^r. (2) adat, nir^. (3) See 

, in a bad, halok. 

— , in the same, haghase. 

, in this, dase. 

-, in whatever, harteangr^. 
-, possible, makha. 

Waziri, Wazir. 




Waziri, Wazind. 

Wear^ to, gerzawel^ shorawel. See 

away, out, to, Bilawel. See 

Wealth, dunyo, daulat, binga. 
Wealthy, daulatmand, moldor. 
Weapons, barg, wasla. 
Wearied, ghorat. 
Weary, chenjan. 
Weather, cold, sbemai. 

■, hot, wirai. 
Weave, to, wavdel. 
Weaver, polai. 

Web, (1) londa, tin. (2) dzel. 
Wedding, wode. 

-party, procession, wro. 

Wddge, drazan. 
Wednesday, Finzam Sabak. 
Weed, 4ilai. 

, to. See lalin. 

Week, jima. 
Weep, to, ziarel. 
Weeping, gharo. 
Weft, wawana. 
Weigh, to, talel. 
Weight, tel. 

Welcome, harkalla rosha ! 
Welfare, kh^r. 
Well, kiyai. 

, jo^, reii, she. See khjfer, 


• i ba», bya, kshelai, nor. 

' -behaved, sambol. 

-being, feh^r. 

-disposed, ne^o. 

-to-do, well-off, barakati, 

— up, to, zye^^el. 
-wisher, khairkhwo. 

West, Kibla. 

Wet, (1) limd, tond. See zyfim- (2) 

What? tee? kim? 

ever, kim. 

— sort of ? teangra? teerenga ? 

W^t, £^anam. 

— -, boiled, cleaned, gingere. 

' ■ -bread, nghan. 

— — -coloured, ghanamrang. 

Wheel, tearkh. 

When, che, kim wakht. 

When ? kalla. 

Where ? chere ? 

Wherever, chire. 

Whetstone, nizai, spin^wara. 

Whey, shne ebo. 

Which, che. See Grammar. 

Which ? kim ? 

Which one ? kim yo ? 

Whip, matroka, trat. 

Whirlpool, ghyimbai. 

Whistle, to. See shpelai. 

Whistling, shpelai. 

White, spin, 

metal, kwutt. 

— — -ness, spintia, spinwolai, apin- 

Whittle, to, garawel. 

Who ? ®>k ? 

Whoever, took. 

Whole, ghund^ reg^, dresta, karai, 

WTioop, burbuyai^ 

Why ? wele' ? See tse. 

Wick, palita, mezzai. 

Wicked, bad, harom, na-rawo. 

Wide, plan, worat. 

Widow. See kund^del. 

, to become, kundedel. 

■ -hood^ kundyeziu. 

Widowed, kunda shewye. See 

Wife, she^a, tabar^ w^rman, vratina. 

Wilfulness, sarzori. . 

Will, wasslyat. 



Willingness, razo. 
Willow, wula. 
Win, to, gateL 
Wind, bod. See badomft, 
-, round, to, badal krel. 
-pipe^ spina maroi. 
Winder, novrai. 
Winding, kozh. 

-sheet, kafan.- 

Window, tokai. 
Wine, sharop. 
Wing, par, wazar. 
— — , on the. See bawo. 
Wink, to, rapawel- See sterga. 
Winnow, sapawel, Iwastel. 
Winnowed, paklza, 
Winnowing-shovel, ^wai, ^waiyd. 

■ -tray or basket, chaj. 

Winter, zhemai. See teela. 
Wipe, to, mashel. See pejau. 
Wiry, mezzai. 
Wish, to, ghwushtel. 
■ muri 

Withdraw, to, astel, ^arawel. 
Withered, chTper, jinjer. 
Within, nenna^ 
Without, be. 
' Wolf. 16we. 
Woman, shezar 

■ , old, nio. 
Women's apartment, adab. 
Wonders, worker of, kimiyogarr 
Wood, (1) largai. (2) zangaL 
Woof, wawanar 
Wool, warai. 
Word, kissa, ^abara^ 

for, good, tingora. 

Work, char, kasab, kor, 
— — -, hard, ^wori, mashakkat. 
. up, to, khezhawel. 
Worker of wonders, kimiyogar. 

Works, kulm€. 
Workshop, karkhona. 
World, dunyo. 
Worm, chenjai. 

, (guinea-), spafirsai. 

■ -eaten, chenjan. 

Worn-out^ zaif, wrost. 

Worried, taghyir> 

Worry, rabar. 

— , to, rabarawel, rghastel. 

Worst of it, to get. See larai, per. 

Worsted, snai; 

Worshipper, Imonz^or. 

Worthiness, laiki. 

Worthy, Iftik. 

■ , to be, jor^el. 
Wound, pejrawor, prawor. 
— , to, shrapawel, 

■ -money, por. 

Wounded, ^wazh, khwuzhmand, 
pa-tire, pyawarzhellai. 

Wounding severely, case of, gud. 

Wrangle, to. See takror. 

Wrangling, arySsht. 

Wrench, to. See mezzai. 

Wrest, to. See mezzai. 

Wrestle, naskora. See achawel, 

Wrestler, palawon. 

Wrestling, palawoBi. 

Wretched, labagherai, lagherai- 
bagherai. See khworakai. 

Wring, to, nisht^del. 

Wrist, mermandai, butkai. 

Write, ta, likel. 

Writing, ^tt. 

Written by hand. See kitob. 

Wrong, (1) khato, |^alat. (2) 
na-rawo, ^arop \,See -under 
akal). (3) gram, mulamat. 

Wrongly, s^alat. 





YarJ> kad&m» 

, nativOt ga«. 

, (court-), talai. 

Yawn^ arjamai. 

, to, arjaxn^eU 

Year, kol. 
— , this, easb* 

, last, parossasb. 
before last, y& paros-sasb* 

, next, bel kol. 
after next, }& bel kol, dr&m 


-, wetj pashakol. See under til. 

Yellow, zylf. 

Yes, 6. 

Yesterday, parin. 

— ^-»— evi^ning, vrigh, barayan. 

Yet, lyk 

Yoke, zh^i^. 

■ -peg} sliwan^ai* 
Young, kam, ^won. 

, with, blorba. 

Younger, Vam, kesher. 

Youth, (1) ^enai. (2) dgwo», 

— -fulness, ^gwonL 


Zino, kwutt. 




Absolutely (of colour), tek% 
Adjoining, blavz. 
Affianced, jamjoln. 
All, ^wut. 


Bloekade^ bandesht. 
Bottom, b^U(, k;una, 
Brate, nolat. 


Close together, blavz. 
Consider, to. See atk&L 
Contiguoucf, tangzan* 


Defile, tanga, tangarai. 
Diaphragm, tann. 
Dying, margandai. 


fSobo* See pind. 
Established, misht. 


Fact, bina. 
Fluffy, b&bar. 


Game. See m&zshil^el. 


Health. See ^wand. 


Insult, speka. 


Land, arable, wom. 


Mantis, spangor. 
Menial, kamoya. 
Midriff, tajln. 
Moribund, margandai. 




Pancreas, khwazha ma^ai. 
PasB^ tanga, tangarai. 
Person^ in. See ear. 
Plenipotentiary. See wak. 
Prop, wo^^am. 


Rump; shenna. 


Savage^ nolat. 
Settled^ misht. 
Severely, klak. 
Skirt of hill^ gardan. 
Sweetbread^ ^wagba marai. 


Touching, tangzan. 
Token, naUbsha. 

Unscrupulons, landawar. 
Unshorn, babar. 


Tricked, landawar. 
Woolly, babar. 



Parable of the Prodigal Son done into Waziri Paahto with interlinear 

literal English translation. 

De yawa sari dwa zamen wi. Kam z^i j6 wa plor ta vmw4y 
Of one man two sons tcere. Tomtger ion his to futier \_to'\ satiny 

che, '** E plora, mo ta ag^a ba^raroka^ ehe pa dagli mol 
i^kat, ^' Ok father y me to that share give, which in this property 

kshe im do/' Agha ^pul che tee dunyo wa, agha y^ wferta 
[ e'li ] mine is," H^ own that what wealth was, that he ta^them 
wnw^shela. Dfer^ wrez^ na w^ tfer^ ehewy^, che kam zei y^ 
divided. Many days not were past become, when^ younger son his 

ghund mol ro^nnd kan^ au uriya watan ta rawon slian^ 
all jsroperty collected made, and distant country to departing became, 

au wolata ^pula dunyo pa badkori kshe ye i^aropa ]q*a. Au 
and there own wealth in eviUdoing [ *« ] he spoilt made. And 

ehe ghun4 khpul mol ye werk kan, nor^ pa watan 4^Fa khwori 
when all own property he lost made, well, on cotsntry great scarcity 

kog^la^ au agha pa kbpula d^r tangp shan^ au de hagha_ watan 
came, and he himself very distressed became, and of that country 

wa yawa sari ta lor, \'^ferga4 8han« Yag^ san wa ^pula mzeka ta 
to a man \to'] went, joined became. That man to own land \to'\ 

wulozhan, che, ** Da tit«arT wupyaiya,'' au dai pa da bondi rozi wan 
sent, saying, " These swine pasture,^' and he on that [on] satisfied was 

che ^pula gedda de pergai p^ kwutfili^e bondi mara krai, 

that own belly of acorns on hushs [ o» ] satiated should make, 

che de titsarai khwarok wan ; wfl^ cha tee wfer na feel. Bya 

which of swine food was ; but anybody anything him not gave. Then 
dai, kim wakht che pa yish shan, nor, e wuw^yel, che, " De mo de 
he, what time that in senses became, well, he said, that," Of me of 

plor de kor te^mra mazdiron marai fehwuri, au zene 
father of house how^many hired-servants food eat, aiid from ih6m 

potye kezhf, au ze de Iwa^^ itirati: Zfe wa cfaeg shaa, khpul 
over remains, and I of hunger die. I will risen ' become, own 


plor ta wa w^rdrtmaa, w^rta wyaiyai^ .wa> che^ '^ £ plora, de 
father to will go, io him Bay toill, that, *' OA fathety of 

Khudai ha^ guBagor yai^^ au de to bfti^ gtmagor y&n^ au ze das^ 
Qoi also sinner am, and of thee also sinner am, and I thus 

kahtl4 na jr^ che de to zyai rota wuwyaiyi. Pa 
worthy not am that of thee son to me they should-say. Among 

Upal^ nikaron^ ksh^ mi d^rsara nikar ka^ che pa ripai nikaron 
own servants {among) me with^thee servant make, that on pay servants 

di/' Nor agha cheg shan^ wa plor ta ro^^ai ; w^ld agha lyft 
are/^ Well he risen became, to father \t6\ eame ; hut he still 

de plor na lir^ wan che plor wulidan, au zre ye 

from father [from] far was when father saw, and heart his 

p^ wnsio. Plor y^ wer manda krelj pa ghydzh kshS 
upon-him bnrned* Father his to him running made, in bosom [in] 

wnnlwan, au kshal y^ kan. Z^i j6 whrta, vnxw4., che '^ C plora, 
tooi, and kissed him made. Son his to him said, that ^' Oh father , 

ze de Khudai gunagor yan^ au de to pa nazir ksh^ han gunagor 
/ of Ood sinner am, and of thee in sight [in] also sinner 

yauj au ze dagha eara na jor^^ban ch^ tsok de to zyai rota 
am, and I this with not am-fit that anyone of thee son to me 

wuwyaiyi/' W^K byfi plor y^ wa khpul^ nikaron^ ta wuwe, 
should'Say/* But then father his to own servants [to] said, 

che, '^ Pa ghund^ jom^ ksh^ kshely^ jom^ di^ hagha rovraij 
that, " Among all clothes [among] beautiful clothes are, those bring f 

wa de ta wSrwoghundai ; au guty^ han w^r pa guta kai, au panre 
and him to put-on ; and ring also to-him on finger put, and shoes 

wfer pa psh6 kai. Bodrimaij che ghund m^ marai wukhwurij mashghil 
to'him on feet put. Come, that all we food mayeat, merry 

8hi ; che dSl zyai de mo mer waa^ au bya zhwandai sban ; 
may'be ; for this son of me dead was, and again alive has-'beeome ; 

dlL werk wan rozene, ^8 mi mindan/' Au ghunj^ mashghilo 
he lost was from-me, now I have found.** And all merriment 

shiri krela. 

commencement made. 

D& ster zyai ji pa mzeka ksh6 wa^. Che agha rog^^ 
That elder son his in land [in] was. When he eame. 



wa kor ta nezd^ shaiij de gadawel^ de nindor^ zhagh. ji 
to home [ ^e? ] near became, of dancing of amttsement noise he 

Worwedan. Yagha yo nikar rowugtwushtanj che, ^* Da tee di ? '* 
heards He a servant summoned, saying ^^^ This what is ?^* 

Ya^a nikar wferta wuwe che, '' De to wror roghelai dai^ au de 
That servant to-him said that, ^^ Of thee brother come is, and of 

to plor wolmastia kerye do ] zeke 6 kery€ do, che dai r^gh. 
thee father hospitality made has j therefore he made has, that he safe 

ramlt rogliai/^ Agha ^appa shan, wa kor ta nennena na 
sound has come,** He vexed became, to house [to^ inside not 

wertan. Plor y^ de worchand rownwot, au sinati ye wirta 
was-going* Father his outside came^forlh, and request he to him 

wukra, Yaj^a wa plor ta dzawob werkan, cHe, '* Wukessa, d&mra 
made. He to father \to'\ reply gave^ that, ^' Look, so^many 

kolina de to ^idmat kan, au hech^re mi de to liukm mot 
years of thee service I-do, and ever I of thee command broken 

kerai na dai, au liech^re to wa mo ta yo war^imai ban 
made not have, and ever thou to me [to"] one kid even 

ro na kan^ che ze de khpul^ melgerai sara khwashi p£ 
to-me not gavest, that I with own companions [with'] rejoicing on^it 

wukan ; w^le dagta zyai che de to rogtai, che de to dunyo . 
might make; but this son when of thee has come, that of thee wealth 

pa kharop^ sheze bondi werka kerye do, to pa da ksbe \l^i^ 
on loose women [on] wasted made has, thou in this [in]^ even 

wa dagb zei ta wolmastia w^rkra/' De w^rta wuw^yel, che, 

to this son [to] hospitality hast-given!' He to him said, that, 

^'fi zoya, te ham^sb de mo sara ye, an de mo bar tee 
'' Oh son, thou always with me [with] art, and of me every what 

cbe di, bagba de to dl; boida dagha di cbe miz];i da 
that is, that of thee is; proper this is that we this 

kfawusboli wuki, au khwasb slu, zeke cbe da de 

happiness should make, and happy should'be, because that this of 

to wror mer wan, au ^s bya gbwandai shewai dai ; werk 
thee brother dead was, and now again living become isj lost 

shewai wan, au mindelai shewai dai. 
become was, and found become is. 

* NoTB— t.e. in spite of this. 




Story of Waziri Life. 

(1) Ze, Sahib tlelai wan ; Joni 061^ Bakka Kl^^le wa munsiffi ta 
botelai wan ; de de mukaddam^ w6 pa nor bondi. (2) By& yo sarai mo ta 
wttzjiaghgdan cbe '^ Yawa eari dol^ bondi w&helai wan^ pa ^nda wahelai 
wan/' (3) By& de d^ na pashf anna wukra cbe " Cha wabelai ye ? '' (4) De 
wuwe cbe " Khpul^ sheze wahelai yan/' (5) Mo wuwe cbe '^ T§e waje na 
y6 wuwabel6 ? " (6) Da wuw6 cbe :— 

Das£ wiLwahelan cbe de mo tsalor tarbrina wi ; bya bagba 
khor mo ta ye rokra; byft mo d6 sara guzran kan. (7) Bya 
yawa ebpa ze de ^ob na b^dor sbwan^ sheza patamba wuwata. (8) Bya 
mo ta sbakk pre wot cbe da sheza pa cha maiyina do. (9) Bya mi tira 
rowo^esta, werpase rawon sbwan. (10) Bya cbe da wa^, wor wan, au tyare 
wa d^ra sakhta. (11) Bya rawona shwa, de keli na wuwata^ pa khwushi 
ragbzi rawona sbwa. (12) Akh^r j€ mazal dhr wukan. ( 1 S) Bya pa yawa 
dzoi cbe dai sarai nost dai, wos e tarelai dai. (14) Bya do w^rraghla wagh 
sari ta. (15) Cbe werraghlela w^rta wuwe '* Ke marai ttwure, d^rta * 

rowerye mi do.'' (16) De wuw6 cbe " Lob mi maidor di, pa wos kehe j 

]om dai, rowokhla cbe los wuwinzan, marai wukhwuran/' (17) Dora wu 
na ebwa, yebo rovre wa dagh ta. (1 8) De d6 mere cbe wan rawon shan, 
an dai nost dai : yagba pori wu j6 woyan pa tira, cbe sar ye wughwiarzedan. 
(19) Cbe de yebo rovr^, dai mer wan. (20) De sheze mfere yagh 4z6i na 
uriya shewai wan cbe '^ Da sheza wa mo wnwini.'' (21) Che do w^rroghla 
d6 zhagh wukan, " Pa Khudai da bazagor we, yo zhagb wuka/' (2^2) 
De zhag^ na kan cbe da sheza wa mi mer ko, cbe zha gh wukan. (23) 
Bya cbe do, da merai sheze pa wos wutoran ; wos e rawon kan ; pa 
k^pula makha lor shan *, au mere kor pa lori rawon shan j au do pase 
rawona sbwa. (24) Dora dai rasawelai na wan, cbe do wuras^da wa kor 
ta. (25) Bas, da kor ta wuras^da, dfera zaifa khappa wa. (26) Sabo 
dai rawon shan, mfere y^, cbe ze pashtanna wukan cbe yb sarai pa 
khwushi raghzi kshe mer dai, cbe da cha mer dai, au took dai. (27) Da 
wugerzedan, de meri pata wa de ta molima na sbwa. (28) Dai rogbai wa 
kor ta bya. (29) Songa ye t^ra kra cbe sheza mi ^s mra krai. (30) Yawa 
sbpa de werta wuwe cbe '* Tamaki roka/' (81) De wuw^ cbe *' Pa keta 
ksbe tyare do.'' (32) De w^rta wuwe cbe " Te che wa W^wushi ragl^zi 
ta tie, wor ban war^daof pa bagba na tyare pa keta kshe kho na do/' 
(38) D6 wuw^ cbe " Mo ta molim na wd, che agha de mo ashno to mer 
dai." (34) Dora wu na shwela, agha de m^re tira wo^esta ; mere war 




Literal Translation of the foregoing by sentences. 

(t) I had goney Sahib s the Jani Khels and Bakka^Khth had taken 
me away to arbitrate ; they had caeea against other (tribes). (2) Thefi 
a man spoke to me saying ^ " A person struck me here^ struck me on the 
forehead^ (3) Then I asked him saying, " Who struck yon ^^ (4) lie 
said, " My own wife struck me** (5) I said, *' For what reason did she 
strike you ?** (6) He said : — 

/ was struck in this way, that I had four cousins ; well, they gave 
me their sister (in marriage); so 1 lived with her. (7) Well, one night 
I awoke from sleep and my wife was going out by the door* (8) Then 
a suspicion entered my mind '* Ihe woman is in love with somebody" 
(9) So I took a sword and followed her, (10) Well, when this happened 
there was rain, and it was intensely dark. (11) So the woman started, 
went f of th from the village and began to cross a lonely stony plain, (18) 
In the end she went a long way. (13) Then at a certain place that there 
is, (behold I) a man is sitting, and his horse is tied up, (14) So she came 
up to that man* (15) When she came up to him she said, " If you will 
eat bread, I have brought you (some) /^ (16) He said, *^ My hands are 
unclean, there is a cup on the horse, bring it that I may wash my havds 
and eat bread'* (17)* Immediately she went to fetch water for him. 
(18) t S^^ husband, who was (there), approached and (behold I) the man 
is (still) seated; (the husband) so smote him with the sword that his 
head fell off, (19) When she (the woman) brought the water he (the 
man) was dead. (80) The woman's husband had withdrawn from that 
place thinking, *' The woman will see me/* (81) When she (the woman) 
came up (to the place) sheX cried out, ^^ I adjure you by Ood, speak but 
once,** (22) He (the husband) did not speak thinking, *' The woman 
will kill me if 1 speak,** (23)^ After this the woman tied the corpse 
upon the horse ; she started the horse off ; it went away in a direction of 
its own ; and the husband departed towards home ; and she set off behind 
him, (24)\\ Hardly had he arrived when she reached home (also). 
(85) Enough, she reached home ; very worn out and sad was she, (86) 


* lit. "this mach had not happened when she fetched.' 

t The trABSition from the IsC to the 3rd person was prohahly a^ slip on the part of 
the narrator. 

:|: She is addressing the murderer of her lover whom she hopes to identify by his 

§ lit. " then that is." 

y lit. " this much he had not atrired when." 


wuniwan^ songa j6 w^rta barobara kftt^ wu 6 w&bela, do pj w^rroghla 
wu y6 w&hela pa songa^ pa nas kshi. (85) Che de d^ pa nas songa 
wuwatela^ jajj^^ pa songa keh^ 4^r zor wtikan« lira w^r wuras^dela^ pa 
tSfanda e wu ^ woyan. (d6) De zbaj^ wukan dl wa vriff^a ta ohe '^ Tarbjr6, 
rosbai^ mer ji krap/' (37) Dai wtero|^1el^ do j6 pa songa kshtf mwel3r£ 
wa. (88) yrifi)*^ tii^ wuksb^, do i wuw&hela, mra j6 kra. (89) De 
dtf de mire na pashtanna wnkra ohe '' Demi^b kbor tee waj^ na mra 
•bwa ? '* (40) De wirta wuw^el obe *' Pa yawa ^wuslu raghzi ksbi mo 
de sap sara lidely^ wa^ ^u sarai mi mer ka^, au rota molim na sban cbe 
tBok wan/' 


Next day he^ her Ausband, went (out) thinking within himself, *' I will 
inquire Baying ^^ There is a dead man on the lonely stony plain ; who killed 
him and who is he ? * '' (27) He went about ^ (but) the due of the dead 
man did not become known to him. (H^) He came home again. (29) He 
sharpened his spear saying to himself, *' Perhaps I might now put my 
wife to deathy (30) One flight he said to her, *' Give me the tobacco.^* 
(31) She said, '* It is dark in the house.'* (32) He said to her, " When 
you were going to the lonely plain it was rainiifg besides ; at any rate 
it is not darker inside the house than that (was).*' (33) She said, ''I 
knew thee not that it was thou who didst kill that lover of mine.'' (34)* 
As she spoke she seized her husband's sword ; the husband took up his 
position at the door, levelled his spear at her (and) struck at her with it ; 
she came at him (and) he smote her with the spear in the belly. (35) When 
the spear pa^ed through her belly shcf forced her way up the spear; 
(her) sword reached him, she struck him on the forehead. (36) He cried 
out to her brothers, " Cousins, come, she has done for me" (37) They 
arrived, (and there) she was, stuck upon the spear, (38) (Her) brothers 
drew their swords, they smote her, they slew her. (39) They questioned 
her husband saying ^ *' For what reason has our sister been put to death ? *' 
(40) He said to them, *' I had seen her with a man in a lonely stony plain, 
and I killed the man and have not found out who he was*" 

* lit. 'f tbig much bad not happened wbeu. 
t lit. " eierted great force on the spear 



Some Leading Waziri Oharaoteristios; 

This essay on Was^iri characteristics refers primarily to the Waziris 
of Tochi,but much of it applies without qualification to the other inhabit- 
ants of Waziristan^ including the Mahsuds. While however the 
Mahsud is, so to speak, more of a Waziri than the Waziri proper, the 
Dauri of Tochi is considerably less of one, and a few separate remarks 
have accordingly been added on the subject of the Dauris. The Waziris 
of Bannu are rapidly ceasing to be Waziris : ease and plenty have con- 
verted some of them into respectable and law-abiding subjects, while 
contact with Bannuchi civilisation and the neighbourhood of a demoralising^ 
city have, it is to be feared, sapped at the same time the best qualities of 
nearly all. The Waziris of Kurram, especially the Kabul Khels, in many- 
points resemble their northern neighbours the Zaimushts, Afridis and 
others rather than the various branches of their own tribe, and they witL 
the Waziris of Bannu muat be understood to be excluded from the scope 
of the following remarks. 

The present character of the Waziris must not be regarded as fixed^ 
It is in part the product of circumstances and surroundings which, witk 
the British occupation of part of Waziristan, have already begun to 
undergo transformation. The actual state of Waziri civilisation is 
remarkably backward, extraordinarily so indeed when the proximity of the 
tribe to the Derajat and their old established intercourse with that region 
are considered. Muhammadanism,, too, has done less for them than for 
most of its votaries, and probably the most unsparing critics and savage 
detractors of the Waziri will be found among his co-religionists. The 
Waziri name is execrated, as no other is elsewhere, by neighbouring 
^uhammadan tribes j and Muhammadans from a settled district often 
regard Waziris as utter barbarians and seem inclined to deny their title 
to be considered as belonging to the faith. A travelled Khostwal, who 
had visited Mecca and was robbed by Waziris on his way home within a 
few miles of the Khost border, gave it as his opinion that the robbers of 
the Hedjaz were gentlemen in comparison with those of Waziristan. A 
learned Syrian of Damascus, whom hard fate had brought to the Tochi, 
was heard to compare them in one breath to dogs, lions, fleas and several 
other objectionable animals. This Syrian had the further misfortune to 
be associated with the well-known Eippat Khan, in deciding a jirga case, 
and was by no means favourably impressed with the leading Malik of 



the Mohmit Khela^ who evidently figured in his imagination less as a 
human being than as a ghoul or monster out of the Arabian Nights 
*^ He has/^ exclaimed the Haji in Arabic, '^ the lips of a camel, the brain 
of an elephant and teeth like bits of stone ; ^' and words failed him 
to describe the noisiness, obstinacy and utter unreasonableness of his 
Waziri colleague. 

But although it is diificult to make any impression on the Wazari, he 
is not entirely proof against ameliorating influences when they can be 
brought to bear upon him in a concentrated form during some length of 
time. A Waziri who has been in Government service for a few years, 
especially if he has come in personal contact with British officers, is 
many steps removed from the ordinary tribal savage. The following 
incident will serve as an illustration. In the spring of 1893 a British 
officer went shooting from the Saidgi post with several orderlies, one or 
two of whom were Waziris in Government service. A Waziri shepherd, 
who was grazing his flock near the path along which the party passed, 
remarked to the orderlies in a low voice, * ' Why do you not shoot, the 
European and takihis rifle? I will show you a road by which you can 
escape.'^ A little further on the party sat down and the shepherd, 
evidently thinking that his plan was about to be put in action, came and 
squatted down beside them. The result of his suggestion must have been 
surprising to himself, for hardly was he seated when a Yusufzai orderly 
went up to him, disarmed him of his knife, slapped his face and dragged 
him about on the ground by the hair of his head; when the Yusufzai 
finally let him go he continued, in the height of his indignation, to 
throw stones at the man till he was out of range. The Waziris of the 
officer^s party joined in the laugh against the shepherd and admitted that 
he deserved his punishment, but they did so half-heartedly and as if con- 
ferring a favour. Here were three stages of development admirably 
personified: first, the primitive Waziri who sees in every stranger an 
opportunity for murder and robbery ; second, the slightly civilised Waziri 
who sets his face against such practices, but has not entirely lost sym- 
pathy with them ; and lastly, the Pathan, a British subject of the third 
or fourth generation, who is hardly more capable than an Englishman of 
entering into a Waziri's feelings on the subject of unprovoked sixid 
wanton crime. It is to be hoped that, by this occurrence the sl^epherd 
himself was considerably enlightened, and that the sentiments of his 
grandchildren, should he have any, will in consequence resemble those 
of the Yusufzai orderly rather than those of their own progenitor. It 
would be unfair to the present generation of Waziris, however, not to 
admit that many of them are more advanced than the orderlies who 
rejected, though they did not resent, the shepherd's villainous suggestion, 
and it should be added that a few are as civilised as almost any common 


Pathans^ though these fayourable speoimens^ unfortunately^ occur mostly 
among the degenerate Waziris of Bannu. 

To understand what the Waziri is to-day we must consider what 
his country was till lately and what it must^ to a great extent^ for ever 
remain. The correspondence between the man and his country is in the 
case of Waziristan too striking to be ignored and too obvious to be 
denied. Waziristan is in the first place poor and barren^ in the second 
pastoral, in the third rugged and difficult of access^ and in the fourth 
almost devoid of running water. 

The poverty of the country and the effort required to gain a sub- 
sistence in it have made the Waziris a hardy and enduring race. Their 
physique is uncommonly good^ and though on the average short of 
stature^ extremely tall and large m6n are to be found amongst them* 
They are generally deep-chested and compact of build^ with a powerful 
muscular development participated in by the whole body and not con- 
fined to the lower limbs as with some hill-tribes of the Himalayas. As 
mountaineers the Waziris would probably hold their own with any other 
Fathan tribe of the North-Western Frontier. The dependence of their 
hard physical condition upon their way of life i/ proved by the change 
which they undergo when well fed and deprived of strong exercise in the 
open air. Confined in jail they rapidly become stouter, younger in 
appearance and fairer in complexion ; but when first released they are 
short of breath and easily tired by exertion. Handsome fa^es of a hard 
type are not uncommon among the Waziris, and if they wear their hair 
long this is a peculiarit}^ to which it is possible for the stranger's eye 
to become accustomed. Unfortunately, however, such is the squalor of 
their clothes and persons, proverbial even among Faihans, that no European 
can find pleasure in contemplating them except at a respectful distance. 
While the poverty of the country has undoubtedly made the Waziri 
a fine human animal, it seems doubtful whether, as some author- 
ities would persuade us, it is also responsible for his being an inveterate 
robber and thief. There are poor countries in the world where life and the 
rights of property are thoroughly respected, poverty notwithstanding ; 
such are Norway in Europe^ and in Asia, parts of the Kohatand Peshawar 
Districts which lie on the same frontier as Waziristan. 

The effects of a pastoral life are much less open to dispute than the 
effects of poverty. Some of the Waziri tribes have practically no cultiv- 
able land at all ; and a few of them, such as the Tol Ehels who are all 
either herdsmen or rcbbers, actually live in tents the whole year round and 
though they return to the same haunts season after season, have no fixed 
village or abode anywhere. Extremes of climate and the necessity for 
the flocks and herds to follow the pasture to the high uplands in summer 
and to the lower grazing-grounds in the cold weather have perpetuated 


Domadio habiiiB among many sections^ with consequent restlessnew, 
improyideuoe and incapacity for sustained exertion. The facilities offered 
for commission of crime by membership of a community which frequently 
changes its location and sometimes has settlements simultaneously iu 
places two or three days^ journey apart are so obvious that they need only 
be mentioned. 

It is^ however^ the rugged and impassable nature of the country and 
ifcs geographical position^ rather than its barrenness or pastoral character^ 
which have most profoundly influenced the Waziri in his relations both 
with his fellow-tribesmen and with his neighbours. Except in a few of the 
highest hills^ which are well- wooded^ the country is a mass of rock and 
stones bearing a poor growth of grass and thinly sprinkled with dark 
evergreen bushes ; progress in every direction, except on devious paths 
known to the natives, is obstructed by precipices or by toilsome stony 
ascents ; and knowledge of the topography, a mere labyrinth of intricate 
ranges and valleys, comes only as the result of long acquaintance. 
Except in a few favoured spots and on the roads constructed by Govern* 
ment a horse cannot cover half a mile at a pace faster than a trot with- 
out danger of lameness.* The consequences, both bad and good, of such 
natural surroundings are easy to trace. Broken ground and tortuous 
ravines, by making crime easy and precaution against attack difficult, have 
fostered violence among the people and developed in them an extraordinary 
faculty of prudence and alertness. The inaccessibility of one place from 
another^ together with the slendemess of even the pastoral resources, 
promotes dispersion of population ; and communities and individuals who 
live isolated from one another in time, if hardly in distance, have become, 
in consequence of their isolation, independent, self-reliant and democratic 
in sentiment. Through the inaccessibility of his own country to low- 
landers, combined with the proximity of open and fertile tracts inhabited 
by races of inferior stamina, the Waziii has developed into a confirmed 
raider; and the passage through his country of routes connecting 
Afghanistan with India has made him, by frequent opportunity, a heredi- 
tary highwayman as well. It is this contact, under geographical condi- 
tions favourable to himself, with races of deficient energy and aggres* 
siveness that has endowed the Waziri with the insufferable swagger and 
blustering arrogance which principally endear him to strangers. Given the 
above data with their immediate. consequences, it is not hard to realise 
why the Waziri, cut off from civilisation and progress, has remained 
a neglected barbarian, loathed by his neighbours and despising them* \ 

. ■ ' ■ . ■■ . . ■ . ■ ■ . ■ . ■ . n il .1 

* What, by the way, is the celebrated " Waiiri " horte hardly found at all* now at 
lea»t, in Wasirietan P An experienced cavalry officer of the Frontier Force assures the 
writer that no each aDimal ever existed, and that the so-called " Waziris" were merely the 
produce of Balach mares owned in Waziristan and iu the Bannu District. 


■ ■■■■.. ■ ■ ^ 

The scarcity of water in WaziiUtan is not without its effect npon 
the inhabitants^ but that effect is naturally one cbseryable in the manners 
rather than in the minds and morals of the pfople. The writer cannot 
remember that during a two years' sojourn in Tochi he ever surpri^^d a 
Waziri washing: his body, except in the formal and by no means cleans* 
ing manner^ which religion dictates as a preliminary to prayer. Once 
only.he came upon Waziris washing their clothes, and that in a pool so 
secluded that it almost seemed as if the tnen felt themselres to be trans- 
' gressors against the best traditions o£ their country and peoplci. In 
extenuation of this Wassiri failing it can only be pleaded that large 
stretches of Waziristan are almost destitute of running water, and that the 
scanty springs cannot, of course, be contaminated by bathing or washing 
clothes; besides which^ the idea of ablution is not kept present to the 
mind by the sight of water as it is in a country where water abounds. 
Perhaps the most remarkable fact in connection with the universal and 
absolute want of cleanliness among V\ aziris is that it seems to have no 
prejudicial etfect upon their constitution ; and it would be difficult to 
maintain in Waziristan, in argument with living proofs of the contrary, 
the modern European doctrine that cleanliness is a necessary condition of 
' health. Probably no Waziris, except those who live on the banks of the 
Kurram, know how to swim, and certain it is that many of the tribe have 
never seen u oollet.tion of water large enough to drown a man, except 
during the floods which accompany storms in the hilla and subside 
immediately after. 

Enough has been said to show how the character of the Waziri may 
be in part explained by the influence of his surroundings ; but it must be 
added that he also possesses qualities which cannot be connected in any 
direct way with the climate or physical conformation of Waziris^tan. 
These features of his character may be regarded either as inherent, or as 
having their origin in some earlier home of tl.e race, though unlike many 
other frontier tribes (as we may remark in passing] the Waziris have no 
traditions, of a. home-land older than that they now inhabit. Such 
unaccountable qualities are the Waziri's light-heartedness and sense of 
humour, his hot temper and his dogged pursuit of revenge, and th^ are 
the more r^narkable as being inconsistent respectively with his doU 
materialism, his calculating wile and his fickleness in most schemes and 

Sodally the Waziri is a good companion, being easy-tempered> f end of 
conversation and a close observer of human character, with a quick eye 
for the comio element whenever it presenljs itstlf and a ready laugh. 
In fact the laugh is so ready that from a large party of Waziris in good 
temper it is never long absent, and the merest trifle is enough to excite ao. 
outburst. On one occasion a Waziri who appeared with a claim before^ 


— ' - ■■ - ^«,l,«_LW_M_l. -I L^^l-^ LI- _t.l.l l__L-«_l ■!■_ ■ l_l_^ . \ K^^fc-l 

the Political Officer in the Tochi, after stating that he Was a Razoni by 
caste^ gravely added in a moment of mental aberration that his father 
had been a Bazoni too : the whole assembly were instantly convulsed with 
inerriment at this — especially in the East — so snperfluotis rcfmark, and their 
amusement was redoubled when the Razoni^ on being questioned by the 
Political Officer before he had time to recover his composure, failed to recol- 
liect the name of his own grandfather and stood overwhelmed with the 
deepest shame and confusion. An equal perception of the lighter side of 
things was shown by a Mahsud lad at Jandola during the Mahsud block- 
ade, who happened to pass the Commissioner taking an evening stroll. 
Instead of salaaming, and without slackening his pace or removing his 
musket from his shoulder, he slapped himself several times on that part of 
his anatomy which might be supposed to be sufPeriug most from the scarcity 
of food in the hills ; this was a salutation, a delicate compliment to the 
power of the Commissioner as head of the blockade and a pithy comment 
on the political situation all in one, and it was accompanied by a look of 
the most portentous gravity which made the performance irresistibly comic. 
An elderly Waziri frequently possesses a penetrating and genial humour 
which lends great charm to his descriptions of men and events, and it is 
often a treat to hear a grey-bearded reprobate rehearse, with keen enjoy- 
ment of every detail, some incident which he has witnessed, a well-arranged 
ambuscade or assassination for instance, or the progress of negotia- 
tions between two parties each of them trying to out-do the otlier 
in duplicity. It would be a mistake, however^ to imagine that an 
engaging manner or a pleasant address is common among Waziris. On 
the contrary their manners are summary, not to say bi-utal, and a 
frequent mode among them of attracting the attention of a man who 
does not hear when he is first addressed is to throw a small stone at or 
towards him. Still Waziris are capable of a very insinuating address 
upon occasion, and it is sometimes difficult to treat with proper severity the 
old man who caresses an imaginary beard upon your chin, assuring you 
at the same time with plausible logic that this unpleasantness between 
friends is the result of a misunderstanding or the work of mischief- 
makers; and scarcely a less effort may be required to punish the hand- 
some^ upstanding youth who, after flinging his turban in yonr' lap, 
collapses at your feet with locks almost touching the ground, skilfully 
admitting only part of his fault but praying for complete forgive- 
ness. These extreme forms of self-abasement, it should be added, are 
reserved for great occasions; and the speed with which the performer 
recovers bis equanimity after the exhibition, especially if his request has 
been granted, is almost startling. 

Of the hot'headness of the Waziri, the attack on troops at Maizar in 
1897 was an example on tbe large scale: the afihir was certainly 



uihpremeditated by the great majority of those who took part in it, 
and even the ringleaders^ had they stopped to weigh the probable 
confiequences to the Madda Khel tribe of their advertising in such 
a fashion their personal grievances^ would hardly have ventured to 
commence the fray. Other instances of Waziri rashness will come under* 
notice when we reach the subject of Waziri dances, and the writer 
recollects a case m point when, in December 1 898, a Mahsud and a Darwesh 
Khel jirga fell foul of each other at Bannu City. The cause was 
a trifling dispute between a Mahsud boy and a Darwesh Khel Malik of 
no importance, yet in less than a minute from the receipt of provocation 
respectable Darwesh Khel headmen were rushing to and fro like lunatics 
hurling stones and brickbats, and a general riot was not averted with- 
out difficulty and the use of a little force. Having seen a number of 
frays of this kind, the writer is convinced that the "Waziri, from the 
moment a blow is struck on either side, '' sees red,'' loses all thought of 
consequences and ceases to be accountable for his actions. The following 
little story, extracted from the Tochi Political Diary of the 8th March 
1899, will shew how insanely a Waziri can act upon sudden provocation. 

'^ Oarare, Malikshahi, owed money to Ret, Wruke Jani Khel, and 
some time ago Ret seized a pistol belong to Garare and kept it as a pledge 
for repayment of the debt. One day in the middle of February, while Ret 
was out, Garare visited his house and took away the pistol. Ret on 
learning what had happened armed himself, and went in pursuit of Garare. 
The Wruke chiyha turned out, and so did that of the village of Alias, 
Tori Khel, but before they came up Ret had stabbed Garare and Garare 
had shot Ret with the pistol. Both died almost on the spot.^' 

Closely connected with the hot-headedness of the Waziri, and perhaps 
its hidden spring, is his absurd vanity which finds contempt or ridicule 
impossible to bear, and resents with violence the slightest insult, or 
indeed any act whatever intended by the doer to place the object of it 
in an undignified or unfavourable light. Often hardly distinguishable 
from the Waziri's vanity is his ** sharm '^ or " shame '' (Cluaere, false 
shame), a highly commendable virtue on the possession of which 
the Waziri, like other Pathans, prides himself; while the non-Pathan 
portion of the human race are unable so much as to uiiderstand 
in' what this quality consists. Sometimes ** sharm '^ approaches self- 
respect, at other times it resembles modesty, occasionally it might 
be identified with shyness, and how and again perhaps it means nothing 
more nor less than conventional etiquette. If a Pathan in a social matter 
behaves either better or worse than another man would have done in the 


sanie circumstances and is asked the reason, he is sure to ascribe his singu- 
larity id the ** sharm '^ animating him, to which ordinary human clay is a 
»tirapger. Thus ^' shai m ^* forbids a Waziri to mention his fathef s name. 


' • 1 : J. 

and in this respect it goes further than the '' sharm *' of other Pathans 
who do not fail to rally him on this peculiar custom^ forgetting or not 
aware that some of their own kinds of '^ sharm '' are no less absui'd in the 
eyes of the outer world. One more instance of Waziri '^ sharm *' will 
suffice. The son of a Tochi Malik deserted from the Levies taking with 
him the horse supplied by his father for the Governmeiit dervioe. The 
Political' Officer suggested to the Malik that he should recover the horse 
at home and send a servant back with it as his nominee to fill the vacancy 
in the Levies. The Malik entirely concurred as to the suitableness of the 
arrangement, but requested that the Political Officer would formally 
order him to carry it out, otherwise, he said, his " sharm ^' would prevent 
him from doing so. What possible feeling was present to the man's 
mind, and how the word '^ sharm *^ should in this case be translated, are 
questions left for the reader to determine. 

In the Waziri, at least, '^ sharm '^ is no bar to shameless greed, and 
the venality and inordinate love, of money which possess ahnost every 
individual are in themselves a strong guarantee against the Waziri 
tribe becoming a politically uncontrollable body. A conmiunity each 
9iember of which prefers his separate interests to the general weal 
can never be formidable, apart even from the question of material 
resources, to a strong government with large powers of punishment 
and reward. But politics do not come within the range of this essay, 
and to explain the character of the Waziri no more need be said 
than that , a poor man in many another country would refuse a 
considerable sum of money, which he scrupled to accept, with less 
reluctance than a well-to-do Waziri would experience in declining 
a single rupee. Aliyae, a leading Malik of the Tori Khels, since dead, 
was in 1899 presented with an embroidered sheepskin coat as a reward 
for good service to Government, and with the acquisitive faculty (as ever) 
on the alert, he glanced roimd the room for something not his own in which 
to carry it away. The first suitable object he spied was a cotton shawl 
belonging to a clerk o{ the Political Officer's establishment, and annexing 
this he packed ^^po9tin in it, slung it over his shoulder and proceeded 
to leave the room. The owner approached to remonstrate, but Aliyas 
only raised an elbow to jostle him in the face and continued on his way 
without even looking round. This was an act of grasping meanness, but 
regard being had to the character of the actor, it is probable that a sen«e 
of grim humour may have mingled with it. 

The obstinacy and unreasonableness of the Waziri who has a point 
of his own to gain are among the most salient features of his character^ 
but these qualities from their nature are difficult to exemplify by an 
anecdote. A Waziri jirga who have made up their minds to resist th9 
intentions of Government or of a Government officer, are, perhaps, one ol 


the most dificalt bodies to moye, and one of the most impraetioable, io 
the whole range of terrestrial politics. While thmr ingenious heads teem 
with arguments in favour of their own riew, to which their public men 
sre capable of giving clear and logical expression^ they feign so success* 
fully not to perceive the force of the arguments on the other side that 
the officer who presents them is^ if inexperienced^ apt to be* shaken^ 
4)uite nnneoe88»rily^ as to the rei^sonabjeness of his own demands. The 
feeling that there is^ after all^ little or no difference between black and 
white is familiar to everyone who has been obliged in the course of duty 
to spend days at a time in discussing controversial subjects with Waziri 
jirgas. Frequently^ however^ this obstinacy defeats its own purpose, 
and a tribe biing down punishment upon their head.^, or an individual 
involves himself in fine^ imprisonment and other troubles, by a contuma- 
cious refusal to yield on what was^ so far as any Waziri was conoemed^ a 
mere side-issae* 

Another characteristic of Waziris^ among the first to attract the 
notice of the stranger and among the last to linger in the memory of 
one who has known them^ is the extravagant manner in which they 
exiistgerate benefits conferred or services rendered by themselvef^ and the 
frequency with which they recur to them. It is related that a Waziri 
and a Bannuchi were friends^ and that once, in an evil day for the 
Bannucht, the Waziri presented him with a rafter for repairing the 
roof of his house. From that time forward the Waziri, who used like 
many of his tribe to attend regularly the Bannu Friday fair, began to 
visit the house of the Bannuchi every week, and quickly turning the 
conversation to the subject of the rafter he would praise its goodness an<i 
dilate on the trouble he had taken to cut it and bring it from the hills. 
In the course of a few weeks he rendered the obligation so intolerable 
to the Bannuchi that the latter snatched the rafter out of his roof, 
bringing the roof down, flung it at the Waziri's feet and requested him to 
remove both the wood and his own presence at once and for ever. 

The high animal spirits which the Waziri undoubl edly possesses 
may be studied to advantage in the public dances held at certain 
fixed places in Waziristan upon the Id. The ceremony takes place on a 
smooth piece of ground, in the middle of which is planted a post to mark 
the centre of the movement. Bound the post revolves to stirring music 
a dense crowd composed, it may be, of several hundred men dressed in 
holiday attire and nearly all armed with knife, pistol, sword or gun. The 
mass turns with the left sides of the performers towards the centre of the 
danoe so as to give freer play to their sword-arms. Close to the pivot 
pass the old and elderly men, walking sedately ; outside them circle the 
youths and the men in their prime, wild with excitement, waving tlidr 
weapons and describing mad antics; while round the margin of the 




wheels cJEireer the mounted men of the tribe with brandished lances^ 
displaying their horseman ship. The agility and enthuBiaem of the 
younger dancers is a sight never to be forgotten : as the music quickens 
some of them seem now and then to spring nearly their own height into 
the air, while others advance by a most graceful movement with a sword 
in each hand, raising the one and lowering the other alternately in time 
with the stBp of the dance. Unfortunately these dances are extremely 
dangerous on account of the high tension and loaded fire-arms of the 
performers. They generally verge from the very outset on the bloodshed 
with which they not infrequently end. So in 1897 a levy sepoy whc 
was taking part ia the Tappi dance slipped and fell^ and his musket, 
discharging itself accidentally, killed one of the other dancers. The crowd 
precipitated themselves on the unfortunate sepoy and would^ but for the 
intervention of a levy jemadar and some men of the Ist Punjab Cavalry, 
have stretched him out and cut his throat then and there according to 
tribal custom, for by Waziri ^' nirkh'^ a life must be paid for with a life: 
even if the firi^ be taken by accident. As it was, the cavalry party who 
rescued the man had to retire fightinsr and a barber belonging to the 
regiment fell into the hands of the Waziris and was killed by them. 
1'he writer was witness of a somewhat similar occurrence on the 22nd of 
April 1899 at a spot between the Khiddar Khel village of Ziarat and 
the Madda Ehel village of Sheranni. ^ The tribes are at deadly 
enmity, and the boundary between these two particular villages is dis- 
puted ; notwithstanding this it is the custom to hold the rival dances 
within sight, and a very short distance, of one another. On the- occasion 
in question the Khiddar Khels, perhaps three hundred strong, were 
seized by a sudden s^pirit of mischief and leaving their customary 
dancing- place rushed in a body to a piece of flat ground considerably nearer 
the Madda Khel border and began dancing defiantly there. Directly 
the*Madda-^hels, of whom there were about six hundred, saw what had 
happened, they broke off their dance and began to advance threateningly 
to^Aards the Khiddar Khels. Two Madda Khel Maliks were sent to 
turn their fellow tribesmen back, but failed and returned trying to 
minimise their failure to the Political Ofiicer by saying that only a 
friendly joint dance was intended. A violent collision seemed inevit* 
able ; but by one of those unaccountable freaks to which the Waziri 
temperament is liable the two hostile crowds merged in one and danced . 
together peaceably for half an hour. Jn fact the dcmce hiid broken up 
and the tribes were separating in perfect amity when a sudden volley 
was heard, confusion reigned for one moment, and the next the Khiddar 
Khels were to be seen rushing to the cover of their village, while the' 
Madda Khels took up the best positions they could find in the neighbour- 
ing ravines. Then began on both sides a brisk fusillade, whioh lasted for 


about quarter of an hour, till some holy men came forth from their 
houses carrying Kurans on their heads and passing between the combat- 
ants put an end to the fight. Several men were wounded, but only one 
mortally ; and some Khiddar Khel camels, which the Madda Khels had 
with great presence of mind raided during the brief continuance of the 
fightj were returned the next day. 

Of the recklessness of the Waziri we have had several examples, and 
his animal vigour few will deny ; but the question remains whether he 
possesses real courage, a quaUty that some authorities are disinclined to 
concede in his favour. It may be admitted at once that be has not that 
self-sacrifioing courage which, to speak generally, seems almost a preroga- 
tive of the white man, though it is not inherent even in all European 
nations. The Waziri will not expose himself to danger in a quarrel 
egccept in so far as he considers the quarrel his own ; and even in hostili- 
ties waged on his own behalf he shuns danger as far as possible, making 
it his main object to fight safely and to overcome the enemy by taking 
him at a complete disadvantage. This, however, is probably not due to 
fear, or if partly to fear, yet not eo much to that feeling as to a sense that 
by giving the enemy an opportunity of killing or defeating him he is 
playing the enemy^s game. The Waziri fears dishonour as much or more 
than death, and seeing no shame in flight or treachery he resorts to both, 
precisely in order to avoid what he considers the real disgrace of being 
openly worsted. In fact the Waziris in this matter present a remarkable 
parallel to the Navarrese irregulars who fought for Don Carlos in Spain 
thirty years ago, of whom Thieblin wrote* :—" This running away 
does not appear to them as anything objectionable. You cannot 
make them understand that it is a flight ; in their eyes it is simply an 
escape by means of which they get the beet of their enemy ; * for the 
enemy^s evident intention was to slaughter a number of us,' would 
argue the Navarrese, ' and through our escape he got snubbed/ This 
view seems to be implied in their very language, for the process of 
withdrawing from the enemy^s fire is described neither as kwr (to fly) 
nor as correr (to run), but as escajoarse (to escapfe, a verb neuter)." 
Spain may furnish yet another analogy to Waziristan one day. Now 
that the Waziris, especially the Mahstd tribe, are well armed with 
modem rifles, it is not improbable, should another military expedition 
against them be found necessary, that they would fight and that their 
tactics would very cl6sely resemble those of the Spanish guerillas in the 
Peninsular War, described by De S^gur, the aide-de-camp of Napoleon, 
in these words :—'' Like the Turks, whose defects and qualities they 
possess, these people can only defend themselves steadily from behind 

• •< 

Spuin and the Spaniards,*' Voiuine II, pp. 1 43 4 . 


TVftlls; they do not hold their ground in the open, feeling no shame 
in turning their backs, scattering themselves and running to hide 
in their mountains. However, as they have nogr eat attachment for 
their miserable habitations, and live upon very little, if they take flight 
and find refuge in their rocks, they do not lose hope and abandon their 
cause, but they go there to multiply the warfare, to transform it into a 
succession of struggles on the enemy's flank and rear, which are all 
traps^ surprises and assassinations/^ A Waziri brought to bay, however 
will fight desperately : this seems to prove that he has no real want of 
physical courage, and it is a fact to be carefully borne in mind by anyone 
who may have to approach a wounded "Waziri after a skirmish. The 
wiiter has seen a "Waziri raider, powerless to escape and almost disabled 
who might Ivave surrendered by throwing up his hands^ shoot instead at 
his punuers as they came up ; when they had almost reached him, he 
made a second attempt to fire, but his strength failed and the rifle 
dropped from his grasp ; he then drew his knife and with nerxeless 
hands tried to force it into his own breast. Evidently this man dis- 
dained either to be killed by the enemy or to fall into their hands alive.* 

We pass now from a review of Waziri character in the abstract to 
examine a few of those institutions and customs in which the character 
of the people most eloquently declares itself. 

It will have been observed that in the foregoing remarks fanaticism 
has not been attributed to the Waziri, and there are excellent reasons for 
thinking that he is not infected with that distemper to any great degree. 
His religion is of an unemotional and materialistic cast, and he does not 
even comply with all the ordinary formalities of the Mubammadan faith 
for, though lie is fairly assiduous in his prayers and ablutions, he is not 
infrequently uncircumcised. Mullahs seem to exercise but Kttle ascen- 
dancy over him ; and those who, like the Mullah Powindah and the 
Mullah Amzullah, have some influence derive it rather from their position 
in politics than from their religious reputation. That the Mahsuds in 
1898 not only slew Namdar, the Sheikh of the Bittannis, but also 
inflicted on him the further indignity of cutting off his head is enough 
to show how cheap Waziris hold sacred men when if suits their conve- 
nience. Some power, however, seems to be permitted to leading 
Mullahs for the purpose of doing justice upon criminals whose victims 
are destitute of natural protectors. Thus it happened that, when the 
Mullah Powindah was returning with a lashiar from the Gararai 
country about the beginning of 1899, his assistance was invoked at 
Maidan by a Mahsud widow who complained that her brother-in-law 

• More lately Lieutenant Hennessy has been killed bjr a wounded Waziri (1900), and 
CapUttt Down by a Waziri at bay (1902). 


one AslikATy wished to marry her a^nfit her will, and had slain her two 
sons because she persisted in refusing him ; the Mullah is said thereupon 
to have destroyed with fiie several houses belon^ng to Ashkar, but two 
of his folio wine were burned to^ death in executing his orders. Again, 
to be a fanatical Muhammadan demands a certain amount of sympathy 
and intercourse with co-religionists, whereas the Waziri, as already 
shown^ is the b^ie noir of his Muhammadan neighbours. For these 
reasons it seems at the present moment inoonceivable that Waziris 
should ever undertake a holy war, pure and simple ; and should they 
at any future time combine for such a purpose, it will probably be 
found that in reality either the hope of plunder or dislike of foreign 
intruders drew them to the standard of Islam, and that religion was 
nothing more than the rallying-cry. The Waziris have the same respect 
as ordinary Muhammadans for shrines and the graves of rept^ed saints, 
and make prayers uid offerings thereat for protection and benefits which 
they hope to receive. Their other superstitions also appear to be simple 
and harmless, and though they admit the existence of fairies, genres and 
other supernatural beings they never allow their belief in suoh creatures 
to interfere with the practical affairs of life. 

By no means secondary to the influence of religion upon any Waziri 
community is the influence exerted on it by the women. The relations 
of the sexes form in Waziristan a subject to which the attention of the 
Political Officer is frequently directed, for out of those relations spring 
many of the crimes and disturbances which trouble the country. The 
Waziri woman spends the greater part of her life in the open air and on 
hill-side, and performs almost as much of the hard physical work of the 
household as her husband, to whom she is often little if at all inferior 
in brute strength. This mode of life seems to engender a presence of 
mind, a fertility of resource and a wilfulness, which added to a rough 
but not unattractive appearance and to a distinctly immoral tendency, — 
too frequently exemplified in practice for its existence to admit of 
doubt, — make up a personality that readily becomes a dangerous focus 
of jealousies and dissensions. -The frailty of the Waziri woman may 
be due to the freedom of her movements as a shepherd's wife in a 
thinly populated country or it may be attributed to the fact that 
she has no voice in the selection of her husband ; but be the explanation 
of her misconduct what it may, there can be no doubt as to its fatal 
results. It would probably be no exaggeration to say that hardly 
a week passes in Waziristan in which blood is not shed on account 
of a woman, nor ever a month without a murder of which some moun* 
tain Helen is the direct or the indiiect cause. A story told by Madd 
Akbar, chief malik of the Tori Khels, forms the second appendix of 
this book ; if not true it is probably founded on fact, and it admirably 


illustrates some of the most strikiDg characteristics of the Waziri woman. 
If, however, wives in Waziristan are apt to be untrue and unscrupuloPB, 
husbands on their part are vigilant, suspicious and prone to jealousy 
in an extraordinary degree. Their vengeance is deadly and does not 
always wait for proof. The ordinary punishment of adultery is to put 
to death the woman and to cut off half the right foot of the man; 
or if the guilty parties are taken in the act^ no objection can be raised 
a<$cording to custom if both are slain (together. The number of men 
who have been relieved of a foot, by a neat slanting cut from the front 
of the ankle backwards and .downwards to the heel, is astonishing ; 
and in former days permanent pain and lameness was a common result. 
Now however these mutilated limbs provide young British surgeons 
in frontier posts with excellent opportunities of practising PirigofPs 
operation, and many are rendered more or lees serviceable aj^ain by 
European science. The unskilfulness and haste of the Waziri operators^ 
a foot-cutting incident not infrequently cost the adulterer his life. 
In one Tochi case the friends of the aggrieved party suddenly invaded 
the co-respondent's house, where they found him lying on a bed and 
immediately surrounded him. The man was observed by some visitors 
seated in the court-yard to struggle and howl like one possessed, but 
none of them could see what took place or imagined it to be anything 
worfee than friendly horseplay ; not till two minutes later, when the 
strangers vanished as suddenly as they had appeared, did the visitors 
discover that their unlucky host had in the interim been deprived of 
a foot. The victim of this retaliation sank rapidly and died in a few 
hours. Two extracts from the Tochi Political Diary, an official but by 
no means prosaic record, will serve to illustrate the readiness with 
which in Waziristan deadly feuds arise out of the misbehaviour of 
women : — 

'* Before the British occupation of Daur, Mir Khan, Shogi Tori Khel, 
was suspected of btirg in love with the wife of Bori, the nephew of 
. Zakam, Shogi. The woman's husband compelled her to poison her lover 
under threat of being herself put to death if she did not. On the 4th of 
March, in revenge for the death of Mir Khan, his father Idak, assisted 
by Ahmad Gul, son of Kboni, Shogi Malik, slew Bori at Dakai Khwula 
in Khaisor.— (Sa March, 1899.)... On the 26th March Khoni, one of the 
chief Shogi Maliks, was assassinated at his village. He had just 
returned to his home from doing good service along with other Tori 
Khel Maliks at Datta Khel in connection with the Madda Khel 
settlement. He is said to have been decoyed by Guli, ^hogi, to his 
house and there treacherously shot with a pistol. This murder was in 
retaliation for the recent death of Bori, a cousin of Guli, at the hands of 
Khoni's son and another.-^ (5 i«^ March, 1899,) 


^' About five months ago Gul Muhammad, Abdullai Mahsud^ who was 
liviDg with the Tori Khels in Sham, enticed away Slama, wife of 
Khanijan, Maddi Khel Tori Khe), and concealed her at Makin in the 
house of Abdullanir^ Akhnnd, After a month the Tori Khels traced 
her and she was brought back to her husband. Kbanijan went to Madd 
Akbar, Feroz Khan and Ghulam, Tori Khel Maliks. Oul Muhammad 
was sent for, and it was arranged that he should pay Rs. ibO to Khani- 
jan, Bs. 100 to Idam, Slama's brother, Hs. 80 to Ding, cousin of Khani'^ 
jan, and Bs. 10 to Nezam Din, Tori Khel Malik, and be given possession 
of the woman. Gul Muhammad paid the money to Madd Akbar and 
Khanijan divorced Slama, and Gul Muhammad would have started for 
home with her> but it was late and he stopped for the niglit at 1 dam's 
village. Pasal^ a cousin of Khanijan, protested against the settlement, 
and said that the woman was an adulteress and should be put to death 
i^cording to Waziri custom. On this Khanijan wished to give back the 
money he had taken from Gul Muhammad and cancel the arrangement^ but 
the latter would not accept it and went away leaving the woman among 
the Tori Khels. The money was collected from the Tori Khels to whom 
it had been given and Gul Muhammad was sent for again. He arrived 
with a Mahsud jirga^ one of whom was Gulbadin^ Kikarai Mahsud. As 
Oul Muhammad still refused to take back his money it was paid to Ghil- 
badin, less something which is supposed to have been embezzled by Madd 
Akbar. Six or seven days later Pasal shot Slama dead. Gul Muham- 
mad is now trying to kill Pasal, and Pasal is looking for Gul Muhammad/' 

Another quotation from the Diary may be given to show the position 
of women in regard to tribal feuds, and how they are raided and counter- 
raided very much in the same way as sheep or goats — 

" About the 13th of November three girls were carried ofiE from Saroba 
in Khaisor. One of them, a daughter of Takhar Khan, has come back ; 
the other two, daughters of Shekha and Haji Khan, Dirdonis, are still 
missing. The affair is one entirely of the unprotected area. I'he raiders 
are supposed to have been headed by Shpezhmai and Trezhmai, Jalal 

Khel, Mahsuds. — (8ht November, 1698.) About the 15th of December 

1898 a gathering of about twenty-five Dirdoni Mohmit Khels, headed by 
Pila, Landak and Momit Khan, went to the Jalal Khel country and laid 
an ambush at the water-spring near the village of Malik Karim Khan. 
In the morning when the village-women came to fetch water from the 
spring the Dirdonis captured the wives of Ghaibadin and Mita Khan, 
brother of Aki Khan, Jalal Khel, and retraced their steps with the women 
towards their own country. On receiving the news the Jalal Khels 
turned out a pursuit party and pursued them as far as Iti Ziarat in Khaisora 
where a fight took place. The Jalal Khels returned unsuccessful, losin^^ 


MansaJam killed and Kashai wounded. The Dirdonis suffered no loss.?— 

(3Ut December, 1659.) The raid by the Dirdoni Mohmit Khels on the 

Jalal Khel Mahsuds was not unprovoked. The history of the case 

appears to be that one or more of the rifles seized by the Naib Tahsildar of 
Miram Shah in May... belonged to the Jalal Khel Mahsuds, and the 
Jalal Khels laid the blame of the loss upon the Dirdonis and attempted to 
recoup themselves by the raid on the Dirdonis, reported (in the diary 
of the) 21st November 1898. A few days before this raid the Jalal Khels 

had already given provocation to the Dirdonis by an attack on them 

in which a Dirdoni, Miraboz, was wounded, fatally as it turned out. The 
Dirdonis have now exchaoged the Jalal Khel women captured by them 
for their own women and the death of Mansalam has been set off against 

that of Miraboz.'' 

Waziri wives are said sometimes to accompany their husbands to the 
battle-field, and women were alleged to have been seen taking an active 
part in the attack on troops at Maizar in 1 897. Fortunately not all the 
cases which bring Waziri women to notice are of such a sombre cast as 
the examples given above might lead one to suppose. The Political Officer 
in the Tochi had in 1898 to decide a case between a married couple in 
which the husband alleged that his wife had deserted him, and the wife 
that her husband had failed to respect a promise, made by him at the time 
of their marriage, that she should be allowed to choose the joint place of 
residence. The matter was referred to arbitrators, who settled that the 
household should pass the six summer months in the hills at a place selected 
by the wife and the other six at a place in the Tochi Valley approved 
by the husband. John Stuart Mill could hardly have criticised this 
decision as indicating an undue subjection of women. 

We now approach the blood-feud, perhaps the most characteristic of 
Waziri institutions, though possessed equally by other Pathans, and the 
one which exhibits the Waziri in his real and darkest colours. The blood- 
feud endures not only because it is an ancient and well- established article 
in the code of frontier honour, nor only because social infamy and ostracism 
would attend the man who should attempt to evade its requirements, 
though these reasons are no doubt powerful factors in its continuance. 
To pardon the murderer of a near relative would be in the eyes of the 
Waziris of to-day ^w^hat failure to accept a challenge to a duel was in 
the eyes of our own great-grandfathers. But there is a cause deeper 
than these. The blood-feud flourishes among Pathan tribes, and par 
exeellence among Waziris, on account of its thorough congeniality to the 
temperament of the people. It is founded in their sensitive vanity, to 
which the repayment of an insult in a striking and public manner is an 
absolute necessity, and it is perpetuated by the Waziri principle that one 
man must never allow another perm^iieijitly, to get the better of him. 


Tfiat it has gone further and that revenge is regarded as a etccted Anty or 
a moral obligation cannot with truth be alleged ; for there is no donbt 
that it is prosecuted on absolutely personal, and not on unselfish grounds. 
The conduct of the blood-feud gives full exercise to those faculties of 
intrigue, strategem and dissimulation in which the Waziri excels^ and its 
consequences excite no compunction in his cmel and callous breast. Its 
only drawback in his estimation is that it brings his own life into danger ; 
and the anxiety suffered by a man who has several blood-enemies, for- 
ever spying upon his movements and waiting for an opportunity to 
attack him vrithout risk to themselves^ is often excruciating and may 
eontinue for years, being without remedy except bis own death or the 
death of them all. The hunted look of the wretched badidor once seen 
can never be forgotten. Even in perfect safety his eyes through force 
of habit rove restlessly frcm object to object as if seeking a concealed 
enemy^ and his mind wanders from the subject of conversation, probably 
to the dangerous places he must pass in returning home, or to schemes 
for throwing the pursuer off the track by a variation of route or an 
unexpected time of departure. The writer remembers an interview with 
one of these men, Zarkail, Khu&hali Tori Khel of the Tbchi, whicfh 
took place under the walls of the village of Barro Khel. Though close 
to the door of his house, surrounded by his friends and protected by the 
presence of the Political Officer, this miserable being not only insisted 
on keeping the breech of his rifle open ready to load and fire in case of a 
sudden attack, but in order to be able to reload more qnickly beheld loose 
cartridges clutched between the fingers of his left hand, and so continued 
throughout the interview, on the conclusion of which he precipitately 
retreated into his house. The mistake of supposing that every Waziri 
feud is a blood-feud must be guarded agaiust. Properly speaking a 
blood-feud can only arise out of a death,* and it follows that in a chain 
of murders the first is usually brought about l>y an ordinary quarrd. 
Every injury, however, is liable to beget a blood-feud ; t first, from the 
tendency of the parties to make in turn more and more severe reprisals 
on each other, and secondly, from the fact that deatk is oft^n the easiest 
and sometimes the only possible form of retaliation — thus a husband 

* III VTiiziri custom it is '< murder " to kiU a msn even aecid«ntally ; but Moidentftl 
«* murders " can be, nnd generally are, compotm<ied. 

t Bere is a case from the Tochi Folitieal Diary of the 8th June 18dd in which a 
itnavitt ry wrong led at one step to a bloud-feud : ** About the end of May, Kastiraly 
KushaU Tori Khel Mnlik, was murdered by Khaiifrni, the notorioutf bad character of tbtft 
gectioD, .who is wanted for the theft of two l<;vy muskeg's from the I dak port... ...It 

appears that KhRngul saspected Knstirai of having givrn information Hcainst him in tbia 
case nnd of h'tvinc? caused the arrest of his brother. In this appeared the irony of fate ; 
for not only did Eastirai not give the original it^fdrmsition, but with others of the tribe he 
at flrit tried to screen Khangul.'* 


may find it impracticable to overpower his wife's pa ramdur in order td 
cut off his foot, while to shoot him in the back on a lonely road may be 
a eomparatively simple matter. The following may be taken as as 
instance of a feud arising out of a very trivial matter : for all ti>e writer 
knows it may/ since he left Tochi, have developed into a blood-fdud. 
A Waziri having been bitten by another Waziri's dog sent the owner an 
ultimatum demanding that the dog should be surrendered in order to be 
put to death by having its throat cut. The other Waziri, probably regard- 
ing the dog not only as his property but also as his " hamsaya/' that is to 
say as a dependent whom he was bound in honour to protect, refused ;the 
result was ** b<idi/' Any one who knows the country will perceive an 
inimitably Waziri touch in this story, first in the serious way the matter 
was handled 1)y both parties and again in the sort of attempt made by 
the plantiff to create a quafci-tribal custom in regard to dogs, rendering 
them re&pon^ble for their actions even with their lives. According to 
theory «ny feud, even a blood-feud, may be settled otherwise than 
by retaliation in kind : the injured person or his relations, if he has 
been killed, may accept compensation in property or money according to a 
fixed scale established by ancient usage, or he may altogether remit the 
*' por,^' that is, the obligation to make good the injury. Tlie last 
mentioned course is seldom, if ever, adopted ; but the former is commonly 
in vogue and leads to some, according to European ideas, extraordinary 
situations. Thus if an adulterer is not killed on the spot, bnt is murdered 
subsequently in cold blood, his relations have a valid claim against the 
injured husband for the excess in pecuniary value of a man's life over a 
married woman's honour, a considerable sum. A settlement otherwise 
than by successful retaliation is never to be relied on in cases where death 
has been Cciused intentionally. When money compensation is accepted fot 
a life it is generally with the design of lulling the mut derer's relatives 
into a false security and of inducing them to abate their precautions in 
order that one of them may be the more easily murdered in return. The 
strange thing is that a Waziri, marked down for vengeance in a death 
cafM^, should ever delude himself into the belief that he has made his life 
safe by means of a money'pajnnent ; the frequency of instances in which 
claimants take a man's money first and murder him afterwards show 
trust in such circumstances to be the merest folly. A Waziri of good 
principles is supposed always to spurn the offer of money compensation 
for the murder of a relative, and a Madda Khel of the Kasha, the case of 
whose father's murder had been taken up authoritatively and was about 
to be settled on the basis of customary compensation, respectfully but in 
a voice trembling with emotion^ assured the Political Officer that he would 
rather consent to instant death than give his word of honour to abide 
by such a settlement. 1'he most hopeless kind of blood-feud is one that 


originates in a murder, the perpetrator of which is not certainly known. 
Thus, if B kills A and A's relatives thereafter succeed in killing B^ the 
blood-feud is in theory at an end^ and in practice sometimes but not 
always ceases. But if A is found dead and his relatives kill B on mere 
suspicion of his being the murderer, B's relatives, if they do not admit the 
suspicion to be correct, are then entitled to kill one of the relatives of A 
on account of the murder of B^ which is in their view unjust. Again the 
relatives of A^ adhering to their original opinion; can kill another of B's 
party to make the account balance, and so the sanguinary game continues 
from generation to generation. Such a case cannot be stopped at all 
ei cept by the extinction of near male relatives on one side or the other or 
by the intervention of Government or by a coalition of tribal authorities 
which latter is rare in the case of a private feud. As murderers 
take great pains to conceal their identity^ many of the blood-feuds in 
Wuziristan are of this interminable nature. It is needless to comment 
at length on the vitality of the Waziri vendetta^ for it is amply illustrated 
in two or three of the following examples taken as usual from the Tochi 
Political Diary. In one case it will be seen that the feud was revived 
by a fresh murder after it had lain dormant for forty years. These 
extracts from the Diary also bring into prominence the facts that neither 
high position in the tribe, employment under Government, death of the 
original disputants, nor even a formal settlement or reconciliation are any 
safe-guard in Waziristan against the avenger of blood : — 

^' It is reported that Pash and Chal, sons of Landun, Khushali Tori 
Khel, and Nasar and Bohtan, his nephews, have severely wounded 
SaduUa Khan, nephew of Kippat Khan, leading Mohmit Khel MaUk, 
with swords at Bazmak (unprotected area). The reason is said to be 
that eight or nine years ago at Bazmak, Sadulla attacked Landun 
(since dead) with a sword, maiming him for life. Landun was at the 
time in a Mohmit Khel village on a friendly mission from his tribe. — 
{7tA September, 1898.) 

^' On the 19th January a stranger arrived at the village of Chiton in 
Hamzoni and introduced himself to Gulzar and Shahzar, sons of Said 
Shah, Malikshahi Mahsud, residing in the village, as a relative who had 
come to enquire after the welfare of the family. After evening prayers 
at the mosque the stranger went with Shahzar to a water-channel near by 
where he stabbed him in the chest and then disappeared. Shahzar only 
lived long enough to describe what had happened. The stranger is 
supposed to have been a Mahsud of the family with l^hom the deoeased^s 
father had the feud that was the cause of his settling in Daur.''^ — {S3rd 
January y 1699,) 

• This was a peculiarly tragic case. The father of the murdered man had removed from 
the Mahsad coantry forty years hefore and was himself dead ; his wife was a Dauri woman 


** On the 10th September Mihr Dad^ Macha of Tanda China., was 
murdered on the Kuk Narai in Kazha. His brother WaU Dad accuses 
certain Ismel Khels. Wali Dad killed an Ismel Khel some years agot 
and though he lately paid up part of the blood-money under the orders 
of the Political Officer, and had promised to pay the rest, the Ismel 
Khels were apparently unwillingly to forego their revenge.— (;8i#^ Sep^ 
tember, 18^8.) 

''It is reported that about the 24th or 25th of February Mirdad, 
Ghazm Khan, Asal Din> Takhti Khel Bakka Khels, and another man of 
the same tribe visited the Wruke Jani Khels of Senr (unprotected area) 
in connectioh with a dispute about land in Shawal. ^Asal Din and 
Mirdad, are deadly enemies. Ghazm Khan is a friend of Mirdad and the 
fourth member of the party was a friend of Asal Din. In the evening, 
as they were going to a mosque, Asal Din suddenly shot at Mirdad from 
behind with a pistol but missed him. On this Ohazm Khan fell upon 
Asal. Din^s companion and stabbed him in three places, himself receiving 
a bullet wound in the left hand from his adversary's pistol. The Jani 
Khels separated the combatants, and it is not thought that any of the 
latter will die of their wounds. It is believed that the whole expedition 
to Senr was planned by Asal Din with the object of obtaining an oppor- 
tunity to kill his enemy. — {28th Fehruar^y 1899*) 

'* It is reported that Umr Khan, Marsanzai Mahsud, has been murdered 
in his native country on account of a blood-feud. He had been living 
for some years at Idar Khel in Lower Daur and had married and 
acquired land there, but was recently persuaded to go through a formal 
reconciliation with his enemies and revisit the Marsanzai country. He 
had gone this time to collect Rs. 200, the remaining price of land sold by 
him : he had already collected Bs. 400 on a former visit to his home.-— 
{2Ut November y 1893.) 

" On the evening of the 11th Awwalai of I sore in Lower Daur was shot 
from behind while saying his prayers in one of the village mosques and 
died on the spot. The other worshippers raised hue and cry at once, but 
the murderer was not found. Awwalai is supposed to have been killed 
by some relative of an Abdullai Mahsud, who was murdered about six 
years ago and whose death was attributed to him. The supposition is 
strengthened by the fact that a strange Mahsud^ who had been hanging 
about the village for some days, has not been seen since the murder, and 
that the murderer, whoever he was, left his pistol at the place he fired f rom> 
which is the customary sign of successful revenge and the feud being 
ended thereby.— {14th May^ 1898.) 

«nd his children^ including the victim, were to all intents and purposes Dauris not Mahsuds* 
The stranger was well received by the family, who probably knew nothing of the fend. 
Shahzar expired naming the sum to be distributed in alms at his own funoral. 



*' Before Government occupied the Tochi the late Husen, Bobalai, 
a famous Tori Khel raider of the Eetu^ killed one Mihrwan and looted a 
mare and two breech-loading rifles belonging to him. Mihrwati was 
nephew of Badde, a fakir of considerable repute in the Ketu and in part 
of the Tochi. Badde bribed Nafadar, Shahmiri Tori Khel, to kill Muhabat, 
Bon of Hueen, in retaliation, which he did. On or about the 3rd 
of November, Nafadar, who had placed himself under the protection of 
Payao, Hassan Khel Malik, was stabbed dead by Mir Akbar Khan^ 
Hassan Khel, at the instigation of Makhmad^ brother of Mubabbat and 
son of Husen.— (7M November ^ 1S98.) .... Some events are reported 
from the Ketu the meaning of which is not yet apparent. It is said that 
about the 27th of December 1898 Yar Muhammad, Fatti Khel Hassan 
Khel, was shot dead by Gulak, Saifali, at the instigation of Payaa, 
Hassan Khel Malik, whose hamBoya Gulak was. This is the Payao who 
is accused of having caused the death of his fellow Malik, Zarmalik, by 
poison. It is added that about the 8th January 1889 Gnlak abducted 
the sister of the late Zarmalik and brought her to the village of Niazai, 
relative of the late Husen, Bobalai Tori Khel, further down the Ketu. — 
[l^ih January y 1899.) .... The murder of Yar Muhammad is said to 
have been instigated by Payao, Hassan Khel Malik, in retaliation for the 
murder of Nafadar, Yar Muhammad being a relative of the assassin of 
Nafadar. The sister of Zarmalik appears to have been given by Payao 
in marriage to Gulak as a reward for his share in the transaction. — 
{83rd January, 1899,) 

^* On the afternoon of the 7th December Muzammil Khan, nephew of 
Sadda Khan, Madda Khel, and Levy Jamadar of the Maizar post, was 
shot dead at Sheranni by Saidwali, whose surrender was demanded by 
Government in connection with the Maizar outrage. The motive is 
believed to have been revenge for the seduction by Muzammil Khan of 
SaidwaU's wife some time before the Maizar outrage. — [7th. December, 
1898.) . . After the murder of Muzammil Khan Saidwali took refuge in 
the adjoining Khiddar Khel village of Ziarat. As it was expected that 
he would remain there the night, the Militaiy authorities at the request of 
the Political OflScer sent troops to Ziarat before daylight the next 
morning to arrest him, but before their arrival the Khiddar Khels had 
made over Saidwali to the relations of Muzammil, and the latter had 
killed him.—- (iSM December, 1898.) On the 27th of January Nasarka, 
Khizar Khel of Sheranni was shot dead in the hills to the north of 
the Tochi. His family had an old feud with Sadda Khan's relations. 
Mamat and Zarim, nephews of Sadda Khan, are said to have damaged 
Nasarka's crops last year and Dande, brother of Sadda Khan, to have 
paid compensation to Nasarka. When Muzammil Khan, brother of 
Mamat, was shot by Saidwali, Dande Khan accused Nasarka of having 
Conspired with Saidwali to do it; and Nasarka is now believed to have 



been killed by Mamat as a further set-ofP against the death of Muzammil 
Khan.^— (Sa lelmary, 1899.) " 

It should not be hastily concluded from the above examples that the 
Waziris are wantonly barbarous^ and it is with some hesitation that the 
writer has gone so far in an earlier paragraph as to call them cruel. 
Torture is unheard of among them, and men to be killed are promptly 
and efficiently despatched. Mutilation of the dead is probably never 
committed except by individuals under the inflaence of fanaticism or of 
some violent passion. t But while the Waziri does not revel in. causing 
pain^ he shows the utmost indifference and want of consideration in 
inflicting it. He holds all human life chenp and will kill a child or a 
woman with as little compunction as he would a man, and a near rebitive 
almost us readily as he would a stranger. The following are instances 
of Waziri inhumanity taken from the Tochi Political Diary :— 

" On the 8th of June Sarwar Khan, Nazr Khel, shot and killed his 
his uncle Abdulla at Zeri, above Wucha Bibi, but in British territory. — 
(14tA June, 1898,) .... A quadruple murder is reported to 
have occurred at Sanzalai in Kazha on the night of the 19th — £Oth 
January 1899. The victims were Sarwar Khan end Gulai Khan, Nazr 
Khels, brothers, their mother Khari, and Nadona, the wife of Sarwar 
Khan, Sarwar Khan is said to have been killed in revenge for the 
murder of Abdulla . . • . , Gulai as a set-off against a Tani of 
Bibi named Midagai, who was killed by Sarwar Khan and Abdulla 
before they quarrelled, Khari because she was the sister of Nazrdin who 
murdered a niece of Gulreb, Nazr Khel Malik, and !Nadona because 
Abdulla once abducted the wife of the brother of Khadim, Malik of 
Pashai. Even if the above accoxmt is true, it is probable that the 
* pors ^ were not arranged as above until after the family had been des- 
troyed by the particular enemies of Sarwar Khan. — {8^A February^ 

'* On the night of the 24th— S 5th January 1899 Juma Khan, son 

of Shahzaman, KhojiKhel Madda Khel, a child of eight years old, whose 

father is dead and whose mother has remarried, was killed in his own 

house at Sarkili, Maizar. The murder seems to have been committed 
with swords, but there is as yet no clue to the murderers. — (5i5^ January, 

• Sadda Khan, the uncle of Muzammil Khan, was until June 1897 the head of the 
Madda Khels and perhaps the most important Waziri Malik in Tochi, but this did not 
exempt his family from the dangers of a common-place feud. As a matter of fact 
Saidwali's wife was not seduced by Muzammil Khan and Saidwali consistently refused to 
put her to death. The matter was one of criminal assault only, and according to Wa/iii 
custom Muzammil Khan's nose should have been cut off. Saidwali being unable to enforce 
the proper penalty, was obliged to go further and shoot Muzammil instead. 

f Nor do they kill prisoners of war, and in this they compare favourably with the 
ancient Greeks. See Mahaffy's '* Survey of Qreek Civilisation," pages 151 and 157. 


1899,) . . The murder of Jama Kban . . is now stated to have 
been committed by his cousin, Mir Salam, and the motive to have 
been succession to the boy's property.— (6^A February ^ 1899.) 

'^ About the 18th of May a gang of Jalal Khel Mahsuds headed by 
Machi Khel murdered Zarif^ a Tori Khel of the Ketu. It is said that 
Machi Khel shot him in broad daylight as he was climbing a tree and 
declared the murder a set-ofE against the death of his brother Bade Mir, 
who was killed by men of Zarif s section some years ago.*' 

In concluding this sketch of the life and character of the Waziris it 
only remains to touch on their favourite and most honoured occupation, 
one that is dying hard and will not soon go out of fashion among them^ 
to wit the art of robbery whether by skill or violence. The expertness 
of the Waziris in possessing themselves of each other's moveables and of 
the moveable property of strangers is a never-ending marvel to those who 
have to do with them. As thieves, especially by night, they are probably 
unsurpassed ; and as raiders working over a wide and difficult country 
they display incredible generalship and foresight. They usually fell upon 
their victims unexpectedly in a prepared place where no interruption is to 
be anticipated and to which neither notice nor help can be quickly 
attracted, and again in their retreat they often manage to secure such a 
start of their pursuers as not to be overtaken, unless encumbered with 
cattle, even by a pursuit party of their fellow-countrymen. When 
retarded by stolen animals they will divide into several parties, each 
driving a share of the booty in a difEerent direction : the pursuers are, as 
a rule, unable to follow up more than one or two of these parties 
simultaneously and the others thus escape unpursued. The retreat of 
each party is protected by some of the best men in the gang, who hold 
every point of vantage against the chigha while the cattle or sheep and 
goats are being hurried away behind them ; in favourable ground, or if 
the chigha is badly armed, it is not infrequently repulsed altogether. It 
is difficult to know whether to admire the thief or the raider most. 
Gulbaz, Khushali Tori Khel, since hanged for a similar but leps success- 
ful attempt at Saidgi in which he mortally wounded a sepoy, was a fine 
example of the first. One dark rainy night he entered the Miram Shah 
post by climbing over the wall between two sentries ; he spent a con- 
siderable time inside the enclosure and deliberately investigated its contents 
though from time to time accosted by inmates ; finally he decamped 
towards morning with a rifle selected from the tent next the guard- 
tent. As raiders, a party of Mahsuds who visited the Afghan province 
of Khost deserve an honourable mention; after seizing their plunder 
in a hostile country some 40 miles from their own border they brought 
it safely home across the whole breadth of Tochi, without opposition 
or detection, passing at night with a herd of 200 raided cattle almost 




under the walls of the principal Government post in the valley.* The 
success of the Waziris as robbers is due largely to their excellent arrange- 
ments for obtaining information, both of opportunities for doing a stroke 
of business and of the best and safest means of utilising them. This fact 
should not detract from their exploits, not at least in the eyes of English- 
men, whose failures all the world over may often be traced to their 
inability to obtain prompt and correct news of what goes on at even a 
short distance from them. It is a curious thing that men between whom 
there is no mutual confidence, but sometimes on the contrary reatfbn for 
deep distrust, will engage together in a raid and temporarily place their 
lives in each other's hands : witness the following extract from the 
Tochi Political Diary which, though it refers to Kabul Khels^ is typical of 
all Waziris : — 

" It is reported that a short time ago, Sarwari, Malik of Biland Khel, 
was found dead in the hills. It is stated that two days before this he 
was decoyed away from his village by Gulmal, Niazai and Masaid^ 
Miamais, cousins of Bahmat Shah, who invited him to join them in 
raiding the Thalwals. These men are supposed to have obtained pos- 
session of Sarwari's rifle while out with him and to have shot him with it, 
but they do not admit the murder. — (10th January^ 1899,)'^ 

The absence, at times at least, of honour from among Waziri thieves 
is illustrated in another passage from the Diary of the same date : — 

" The death of Gulabagh, Gangi Khel Malik, is reported from the 
Dana (unprotected area). It is stated that with the connivance of 
a Kharoti and the help of Abdur Rahman Khel Mahsuds, Gulabagh 
some time ago raided flocks belonging to Kharotis. When the Kharoti 
accomplice came to demand his share of the loot, Gulabagh told him that 
he must bring the owners of the flocks with him to pay the ransom 
money and he would then receive his share. This made the Kharoti 
suspect that Qnlabagh intended in the end to cheat him, and under the 
pretext of bringing the owners he brought two Kharotis with him on 
his next visit to Gulabagh. The three Kharotis set upon Gulabagh and 
stabbed him to death with knives at his tower, which is situated in 
a lonely place.'' 

As the materials collected for this sketch do not happen to include a 
description of a successful raid, the reader must be satisfied with the account, 
from the raiders' point of view, of one which ended in a fiasco : — 

" In revenge for the raid committed on Mohmit BLhel flocks near 
Idak on the night of the 5th August 1898 a counter-raid 

* Since the above was written the Mahsuds have thrown all their previous achieve- 
ments into the shade by the surprise of the Kashmir Ear Militia Post in August and the 
cutting up of R Survey militHry escort ou the Khwuzhma in November 1901, both without 
loss to themselves 


on the Jalal Kbol Malisuds was attempted by Oulamad Kban^ son of 
Kippat Khan, with 18 fellow-tribesmen. Starting from Bazmak they 
spent the first night near Musakki in Khaisor and the next in the hills 
adjoining the Jalal Khel country. The following day the Mohmit Khels 
succeeded in seizing a number of Jalal Khel cattle and drove them off. 
The Jalal Khels pursued, and there was heavy firing on both sides. One 
Jalal Khel was seen to fall as if shot. Abdullais and other Mahsuds^ 
near whose encampments the Mohmit Khels bad to pass on their way 
home, turned out and joined the Jalal Khels. The road was diflScult 
and there was bright moonlight, which was unfavourable to the raiders. 
Finally, the ammunition of the Mohmit Khels running short they had to 
abandon the cattle, and returned to Razmak with only one bullock which 
had been taken and sent off before the other cattle.'^ 

No account of the inhabitants of Waziristan would be complete with- 
out at least a passing reference to the Dauris, who possess and cultivate 
the greater part of the bed of the Tochi Valley. They are a homogene- 
ous tribe of considerable size, and though surrounded on all four sides by 
a Waziri population they bear little resemblance to \Taziris. Their pur- 
suits are even more exclusively agricultural than those of the Waziris are 
pastoral; they do not change their place of abode ; and their lives are easy, 
not to say luxurious, in comparison with those of their hill-neighbours. 
Their position is a peculiar one, for they thrive on a rich sedimentary 
soil, copiously irrigated, in the midst of a country where cultivable 
land of any kind is scarce and water in general hardly to be obtained. 
But they pay a heavy tax in health and well-being for the possession of 
their fertile acres. Fevers and other malarial diseases are bred in the 
wet sodden lands of Daur lying, as for the most part they do, at the 
bottom of a deep depression, exposed to the direct rays of a burning sun ; 
and the effects of these ailments may be clearly traced in the drawn or 
bloated features and the shrunken or swollen limbs of nearly every 
Dauri who has passed middle life. It is probably to the struggle against 
climate that the prevalence of intemperate habits among Dauris is duej 
but, whatever the reason, the percentage of Dauris who habitually take 
charas, bhang and similar intoxicating drugs to excess is phenomenal. 
Climate and intemperance together must have largely contributed to 
make the Dauii what he is ; to the one may be attributed his indolence 
and apathy, to the other his want of mental balance, his paroxysms of 
frenzied excitement and bis unnatural vices. Of the last nothing can be 
said here except that their universality and their recognition by tribal 
custom suggest the idea that they date from pre-Muhammadan ages and 
that they may be, so to speak, more than a purely fortuitous relaxation of 
ordinary human morality. Their monstrous power can be sufficiently 
indicated by the remark that a certain legendary Dauri is reputed 


almost a hero because, in order to gain the favour of an admired Gany- 
mede, he cut the throat of his own mother instead of sacrificing the usual 
sheep prescribed by custom. The proneness of the Dauri, in spite of his 
usual passivity, to outbursts of wild and sometimes unprovoked fury is 
closely connected, beyond a doubt, with his generally morbid and 
depraved tone of mind and body. In 1899 a levy sowar struck a village 
Hindu at the Id festival at Hakim Khel in Lower Daur, and was there- 
upon hotly pursued by the whole assembly who in the heat of the 
moment regarded the blow as an insult to themselves. He escaped 
with his life though chased by one mounted Dauri armed with a lance 
for several miles, up to the very gates of the Idak post. It is note- 
worthy that by the time Idak was reached the Dauri pursuer's excite- 
ment had so far evaporated that he allowed himself to be arrested with- 
out resistance and seemed at a loss to explain his own conduct. The 
Dauri is not without a tincture of religion ; he enjoys listening to the 
disputations of Mullahs and himself frequently becomes a student of 
theology. From this it follows that his homicidal mania not uncom- 
monly runs in a fanatical channel, and it is a significant fact that, of the 
rather numerous fanatical outrages which have occurred in Tochi since its 
occupation in 1895, hardly any have been committed by Waziris and 
nearly all by Dauris. The Dauri, certainly no less dirty in person and 
habits, is probably more unscrupulous and more indiscriminate in his 
revenge than the Waziri ; and the writer remembers a case in which a 
Dauri of Banda, wishing to poison a private enemy, unfeelingly caused 
arsenic to be placed in a drinking vessel at a place of public resort with 
the result that one man died and eight became dangerously ill, most if 
not all of whom had no connection with the quarrel. Having said thus 
much of the Dauri^s worst qualities, it behoves us to give him credit for 
the virtues which he does possess. He is of a milder and less truculent 
disposition than the Waziri, more docile and amenable to civilisation ; 
and the steady attendance at a primary school opened some two years 
ago in Lower Daur shows that he is not insensible to the benefits of 
education. The best type of Dauri is quiet, intelligent and law-abiding, 
and there is room for hope that this type will gain ground now 
that Daur has been opened up by the British occupation. There 
are some interesting men among the Dauris; and, though as a tribe 
they are by no means reputed courageous, examples of undoubted 
courage are to be met with among them, but chiefly in Upper Daur 
where there is a strong infusion of Waziri blood. The professional 
bullies or *' spois ^^ who used in pre-British times to be kept by Dauri 
leading men and even villages for the purpose of fighting their quarrels 
were oftenest perhaps broken Waziris who had drifted down from the 
hills in search of a livelihood, but among them were also many genuine 



Dauris. Though indolent in other matters the Dauri-is an indefatigable 
cultivator ; the whole of his land, with a few exceptions in Lower Daur, 
is dug by spade to a great depth instead of being ploughed and is care- 
fully manured, but a Peshawar zamindar will condemn Dauri cultivation 
as slovenly in the matter of weeding and in some other respects. Perhaps 
as a consequence of his heavy field labour the Dauri enjoys a great reputa- 
tion as a treucherman, and it is related of a certain Malik of Tappi (who 
shall be nameless), that he once on a mere invitation to partake, 
devoured without assistance the meal which had been prepared for three 
persons by a Native official of Government and two orderlies. 

The Waziri despises the Dauri and ajBPects to believe that all Dauris 
are sprung from one of the menial castes; but the fact remains that 
though villages may have occasionally been destroyed or temporarily 
wrested away, no Waziri combination, however far-reaching and numer- 
ous, ever succeeded in retaining possession of a part of Daur for any 
length of time. The greatest struggle between Waziri s and Dauris was 
waged on the extreme western boundary of Upper Daur where it was 
the object of the Waziris during more than one generation to seize 
Ghazlamai and Pai Khel and so obtain command of the whole water- 
supply of the Mlakh Dauri villages. About the middle of the nineteenth 
century a vast Waziri coalition was formed with this object, embracing 
even the Ahmadzais of Bannu, and it achieved a temporary success. 
Ghazlamai, a village of Pirs, and Pai Khel, a Dauri village proper, were 
occupied by the Waziris, who held the latter for rather more than a year, 
by means of a contingent to which each Waziri section contributed a 
fixed quota of men. The Dauris finally consented to negotiate and 
appointed a place in Lower Daur for the meeting of their elders with the 
Waziri jirga. When, however, the latter arrived at the conference they 
were made prisoners and informed that their lives would be forfeited 
unless Pai Khel were evacuated instantly. Compliance with the Dauri 
demand was inevitable and the unparalleled exertions of the Waziris 
during the previous two years were thus rendered fruitless. The explana- 
tion of the non-success of the Waziris in their assaults upon the less 
warlike and much smaller Dauri tribe is to be sought in the patience, 
tenacity and comparative unity of the latter, and also in their central and 
compact position. Tribal warfare is a waiting game, and while the besieg- 
ing Waziris were drawn often from great distances and maintained 
co-operation with the greatest difl5culty owing to jealousies among them- 
selves, the interruption of their ordinary pursuits and their impatience of 
the summer heat in Daur, tbe Dauris lived quietly in their own villages 
cultivating their crops so far as they couid,- repelling assaults in force 
from the cover of their walls and towers, ever ready to lend support to 
neighbouring villages when threatened and equally on the alert to take 


advantage of a momentary want of vigilance on the part of the enemy. 
It is hardly wonderful that in these circumstances the fickle and dis« 
united Waziri tribes should have failed 'to effect a permanent lodgement 
in Daur. With the advent of the British power the ancient struggle 
ended and the waving green corn-fields and leafy mulberry groves of the 
best parts of Tochi will not now cease to own the Dauri for their lord 
unless the Waziri can succeed in ousting him by purchase and mortgage 
as in some villages^ strange to say^ he appears able and disposed to do. 

If the reader closes these pages having gained a distinct impression 
of the race,, free-born and murderous, hot-headed and light-hearted, self- 
respecting but vain, which peoples the hills of W^aziristan, and of the 
gross Satyr-like spadesmen whose abode is in the main valley, then the 
present slight sketch has been penned to some purpose. Furthermore, 
if the reader quits the subject with relief, his feelings will only resem- 
ble those with which the writer relinquished political charge of the 
Tochi after a two years' residence there, and the cause will probably be 
the same,— involuntary abhorrence of human types which deviate in 
such an extreme degree from what Europeans are accustomed to consider 
the humau standard. 


G. I, C. P. 0..-!Jo. 892 F. D.-22-6.19O2.-400.- [J. Maruro,]