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GRAMMAR AND DICTIONARY 



MALAY LANGUAGE. 



GRAMMAR AND DICTIONARY 



MALAY LANGUAG?:, 



A PRELIMINARY DISSERTATION, 



JOHN CEAWFUED, F.R.S. 

Author of "The History of the Indian Archipelago." 



IN TWO VOLUMES. 
VOL. I. 

DISSERTATION AND GRAMMAR. 



LONDON : 
SMITH, ELDER, AND CO., 65, CORNHILL. 

1852. 



LONDON : 
nRADBURY AND EVANS, PRINTERS, WHITBFTtlAR». 



THE BARON ALEXANDER VON HUMBOLDT 



Sib, 

I dedicate this "Work to you, on account of the 
high respect which, in common with tlie rest of the world, I 
entertain for yourself; and in testimony of my veneration for 
your distinguished brother, whose correspondence on the 
subject of my labours I hold in grateful recoUectiou. 

I am, with great esteem, 

Your faithful Servant, 

J. CRAWFURD. 



PREFACE. 



The Work which I now submit to the Public is the result of 
much labour, spread, with various interruptions, over a period 
of more than forty years, twelve of which were passed in 
countries of which the Malay is the vernacular or the popular 
language, and ten in the compilation of materials. 

It remains for me only to acknowledge my obligations to 
those who assisted me in the compilation of my book. ]My 
first and greatest are to my friend and predecessor in the 
same field of labour, the late William INIarsden, the judicious 
and learned author of the History of Sumatra, and of the 
Malay Grammar and Dictionary. A few months before his 
death, Mr. Marsden delivered to me a copy of his Dictionary, 
corrected with his own hand, and two valuable lists of words, 
with which he had been furnished by the Rev. j\Ir. Hutchins, 
of Penang, and by the Rev. Mr. Robinson, of Batavia and 
Bencoolen. These, aided by Javanese dictionaries compiled 
during a six years' sojourn in Java, and by recent reading, 
constitute, in fact, the chief materials from which the present 
work has l)een prepared. Without the previous labours of 



viii TREPACE. 

Mr. Marsdeiij my book certainly never would have been written, 
or even attempted. 

Next to Mr. Marsden, I am indebted to my friend Professor 
Horace Haymau Wilson, of Oxford, for it is to his unrivalled 
oriental learning, that I owe the Sanskrit etymologies of the 
dictionary, and whatever may be found of value, connected 
with the great recondite language of India, in the preliminaiy 
Dissertation. 

During the progress of my work, I have had the good fortune 
to enjoy the correspondence of my friend J. Robert Logan, of 
Singapore, the editor of the Journal of the Indian Archipelago, 
a work abounding in original and authentic communications. 
Our present rapid intercourse with India has enabled me, when 
at a loss, to refer to Mr. Logan ; and I have received from him 
elucidations of grammar, and additional words, accompanied 
by definitions. 

In passing the sheets of ray book through the press, I have 
been assisted by the supervision and correctioiis of an acute 
orientalist, who has made the Malayan and Polynesian language 
an object of special study, my friend Captain Thomas Bramber 
Gascoign. 

In the nomenclature of plants, my own imperfect know- 
ledge has been more than compensated by the science of 
my friends Robert Brown, George Bentham, and Nathaniel 
Wallich. In the department of zoology, ray chief obligations 
are to a highly esteemed friend, whose acquaintance I liad the 
happiness first to make in Java, more than forty years ago, 
Dr. Thomas Horsficld, one whose knowledge of every branch 
of the natural history of the Archipelago is well known to the 
public. 



The work which I have now brought to a close, with 
many imperfections, is more copious than any of its pre- 
decessors; and may, perhaps, be the foundation of a more 
complete superstructm-e, to be raised by those who come 
after me. 

Februwy, 1852. 



A DISSERTATION 



AFFINITIES OF THE MALAYAN LANGUAGES, &c. <fcc. 



A CERTAIN connexion, of more or less extent, is well ascertained 
to exist between most of the languages which prevail from 
widedif- Madagascar to Easter Island in the Pacific, and from 
M^a^ayan'' Formosa, on the coast of China, to New Zealand. It 
tougue. exists, then, over two hundred degrees of longitude 
and seventy of latitude, or over a fifth part of the surface of the 
earth. I propose inquiring into the nature and origin of this 
singular connexion — the most wide-spread in the history of rude 
languages; and in the course of the investigation hope to be 
enabled, to some extent, to trace the progress of society among 
nations and tribes substantially without records, and of whose 
history and social advancement nothing valuable can be known 
beyond what such evidence will yield. 

The vast region of which I have given the outline may be 
geographically described as consisting of the innumerable 
islands of the Indian Archipelago, from Sumatra to New Guinea 
— of the great group of the Philippines — of the islands of the 
North and South Pacific — and of Madagascar. It is in- 
habited by many different and distinct races of men, — as the 
Malayan, the brown Polynesian, the insular Negro of several 
varieties, and the African of Madagascar. Of these, the state 
of civilisation is so various, that some are abject savages, while 
others have made a respectable progress in the useful arts, and 
even attained some knowledge of letters. The whole region is 



ii DISSERTATION. 

insular, and, with the exception of the islands of New Zealand, 
monsoons, or trade winds, prevail through every part of it. To 
this, I have no doubt, is mainly to be attributed the wide dis- 
semination of language now the sul)ject of inquiry, and which, 
among rude nations, were impossible on a continent without 
periodical winds. 

The generally adopted explanation of this wide dissemination 
of language amounts to this, that the many existing tongues 

were originally one language, through time and dis- 
adopted taucc Split iuto many dialects, and that all the people 

speaking these supposed dialects are of one and the 
same race. But as this hypothesis could not well be main- 
tained in the face of an existing negro population, the negroes 
and theii- languages are specially excepted, on the eri'oneous 
supposition that no words of the common tongue exist in their 
languages. This hypothesis originated with the German 
naturalist, Forster, who accompanied Captain Cooke in his 
second voyage, and it has been adopted by many distinguished 
philologists, but especially by INIr. Marsden and Baron William 
Humboldt. It was, in a modified form, my own opinion, in a 
less mature state of my acquaintance with the subject ; but I 
am now satisfied that it is wholly groundless.* 

Some of the objections to this hypothesis, exclusive of the 
palpable one of the existence of Malayan words in all the negro 

languages, are obvious. It supposes, for example, that 

Refutation . ° ° ^ . ^ .\ ' . ^ ' 

of the language and race are identical, taking it, oi course, 

for granted, that men are born with peculiar languages 

as they are with peculiar complexions; and that both are 

equally unchangeable. Many well known events of authentic 

* " We likewise find a very remarkable similarity between several words of the 
fair tribe of islanders in the South Sea, and some of the Malays. But it would be 
highly inconclusive, from the similarity of a few words, to infer that these islanders 

were descended from the Malays " "I am, therefore, rather inclined to suppose 

that all these dialects preserve several words of a more ancient langiiage, which 
was more universal, and was gi'adually divided into many languages, now remark- 
ably different. The words, therefore, of the language of the South Sea isles, which 
are similar to others in the Malay tongue, prove clearly, in my opinion, that the 
South Sea isles were originally peopled from the Indian, or Asiatic Northern isles ; 
and that those lying more to the westward received their first inhabitants from 
the neighbourhood of New Guinea." — Ohsenatims. — Voyage round tlie World, by 
John Reynold Forster; London, 1778. 



DISSERTATION. iii 

history refute this notion. Thus, the half-dozen languages 
spoken in ancient Italy were all, in time, absorbed by one of 
them. The languages spoken in Britain twenty centuries ago 
have been nearly supplanted by a German tongue. Several 
millions of negroes in the New World, whose parent tongues 
were African, have exchanged them for English, Spanish, French, 
and Portuguese. For the languages spoken in ancient France 
and Spain, a language of Italian origin has been almost wholly 
substituted. Although language often affords valuable historical 
e^idence, it would only lead to error to consider it as invariably 
identical with race. 

It is quite certain, that within the proper Indian Archipelago, 
or islands extending from Sumatra to the western shores of New 
Guinea, and respecting which our information is most complete, 
no languages exist derived from a common stock, and standing 
to each other in the relation of sisterhood, as Italian, Spanish, 
and French, do to each other ; or as Gaelic does to Irish ; or 
Armorican to Welsh, or Scotch to English. The only dialects 
that exist are of the Malay and Javanese languages, but they 
consist of little more than differences in pronunciation, or the 
more or less frequent use of a few words. In the Polynesian 
islands alone, real dialects of a common tongue do exist; but here, 
as will be afterwards shown, the number of Avords common to 
such dialects, and to the languages of the Archipelago, is so 
trifling, that it refutes at once the notion of a common origin. 

Another insuperable argument against the theory of one 
original tongue is found in the nature of many of the words of 
the imagined derivative dialects. These abound in terms very 
widely diffused, indicating an advanced state of society ; as for 
example, an useful system of numeration, terms connected with 
agriculture, navigation, the useful arts, and even with letters. 
Tlie people that had such a language must necessarily have 
been in a tolerably advanced state of civilisation, in such a 
one for example as we find the principal nations of Sumatra, 
Java, and Celebes to be in, at the present day ; and many of the 
tribes which the theory supposes to be derived from it, not only 
did not maintain the civilisation of the parent nation, but have 
even fallen into the condition of mere savages ; a result 

b 2 



jv DISSERTATION. 

improbable and contrary to the usual history of society. If the 
imagined parent language had ever existed, we should be able 
to trace it to its locality, as we might the modern languages of 
the south of Europe to Latin, even had there been no history, 
or as we can assign a common origin to the Polynesian lan- 
guages from New Zealand to the Sandwich islands. The name 
of the language, and the name and locality of the advanced 
people who spoke it, might, among tribes acquainted with 
letters, be known ; but there is no indication of such language 
or people, and the conjectures of European scholars on these 
subjects will be shown to have no shadow of foundation. 

The tests applied, by the supporters of the theorj^ to prove 
the existence of a common original language, have consisted in 
Imagined ^" esscutial identity of a few words, and in a supposed 
comm^on'^ similarity of grammatical structure. To this last test, 
tongue. chiefly relied on by late German writers, I am not dis- 
posed to attach much weight, when applied to languages of 
remarkably simple structure, afl'ording necessarily few salient 
points for comparison ; and such is the case with all the insular 
languages. With respect to the test by identity of words, 
it is certain that the number, and the particular description of 
words, are alone entitled to any weight ; and that the existence 
of a small number of words in common, in the languages under 
examination, is no more a proof of their derivation from a 
common tongue than the existence of Latin words in English 
that our Teutonic tongue is a sister dialect of Italian, Spanish, 
and French ; or of Latin words in Irish that Irish is derived 
from Latin; or of Arabic words in Spanish that the Spanish 
language is of Arabian origin, and a sister dialect of Hebrew. 

It has been imagined by some writers that when the class of 
words expressing the first and simplest ideas of mankind are the 
same in two or more languages, such languages may be con- 
sidered as derived from the same stock. This certainly does 
not accord with my experience of the Malayan and Polynesian 
languages, into which, from the simplicity of their structure, I 
find that well-sounding foreign words very readily gain admission. 
Instead of words expressing simple ideas being excluded, I 
should, on the whole, owing to the familiar and frequent use of 



DISSERTATION. V 

the ideas which they express, consider them the most amenable 
to adoption of any class of words whatsoever. Accordingly, 
such words will be found, either to have supplanted native terms 
altogether, or to be used as familiar synonymes along with 
them. Thus, to give some examples in Malay; the most 
familiar words for the head, the shoulder, the face, a limb, a 
hair or pile, brother, house, elephant, the sun, the day, to 
speak, and to talk, are all Sanskrit. In Javanese we have from 
the same Sanskrit, the head, the shoulders, the throat, the 
hand, the face, father, brother, son, daughter, woman, house, 
buffalo, elephant, with synonymes from the hog and dog, the sun, 
the moon, the sea, and a mountain. In the language of Bali, 
the name for the sun in most familiar use is Sanskrit, and a word 
of the same language is the only one in use for the numeral ten. 
It is on the same principle that I account for the existence of a 
similar class of Malayan words in the Tagala of the Philippines, 
although the whole number of Malayan words does not exceed 
one fiftieth part of the language. Head, brain, hand, finger, 
elbow, hair, feather, child, sea, moon, rain, to speak, to die, to 
give, to love, are examples. In the Maori, or New Zealand, 
the words forehead, sky, gnat, stone, fruit, to drink, to die, are 
Malay or Javanese, yet of these two tongues there are not a hun- 
dred words in the whole language. As to the personal pronouns, 
which have often been referred to as evidence of a common 
tongue, in as far as concerns the language under examination, 
they are certainly the most interchangeable of all classes of 
words, and cannot possibly be received as evidence. Some of 
them, for example, are found in the Polynesian dialects, where, 
in a vocabulary of five thousand words, a hundred Malayan 
terms do not exist. The numerals must surely be considered 
as out of the category of early-invented words, for they imply a 
very considerable social advancement, and seem to be just the 
class of words most likely to be adopted by any savages of 
tolerable natural capacity. The Australians are not savages of 
such capacity, and although with the opportunity of borrowing 
the Malayan numerals, they have not done so, and, in their own 
languages, count only as far as " two." 

The words which appear to me most fit to test the unity of 



vi DISSERTATION. 

languages are those indispensable to their strncture, — which con- 
stitute, as it were, their framework, and without which 
comnTon they caunot be spoken or written. These are the 
prepositions which represent the cases of languages of 
complex structure, and the auxiliaries which represent times 
and moods. If a sentence can be constructed by words of the 
same origin, in two or more languages, such languages may 
safely be considered as sister tongues, — to be, in fact, dialects, 
or to have sprung from one stock. In applying this test, it 
is not necessary that the sentence so constructed should be 
grammatical, or that the parties speaking sister tongues should 
be intelligible to each other. The languages of the South of 
Europe can be written with words common to them all, derived 
from the Latin without the assistance of any of the foreign 
words which all of them contain. The common stock, therefore, 
from which they are derived is Latin, and they are sister 
tongues. English can be written with great ease with words 
entirely Anglo-Saxon, and without any French word, although 
French forms a sixth part of the whole body of its words, but no 
sentence can be constructed consisting of French words only. 
The parent stock of our language, therefore, is not French or 
Latin, but Anglo-Saxon. By this test the Irish and Gaelic are 
shown to be, virtually, the same language, and the Welsh and 
Armorican to be sister dialects- But it will not prove that the 
Welsh and Irish, although they contain many words in common, 
are the same language, and derived from the same source. 

Applying this test to the Malayan languages it will be found 
that a sentence of Malay can be constructed without the 
assistance of Javanese words, or of Javanese without the help of 
Malay words. Of course either of these two languages can be 
written or spoken without the least difficulty, without a word 
of Sanskrit or Arabic. The Malay and Javanese, then, although 
a large proportion of their words be in common, are distinct 
languages, and as to their Sanskrit and Arabic elements they 
are extrinsic and unessential. When the test is applied to the 
Polynesian languages we find an opposite result. A sentence 
in the Maori and Taliitian can be written in words common to 
both, and without tlic help of one word of the Malayan which 



DISSEETATION. vii 

they contain, just as a sentence of Welsh or Irish can be con- 
structed without the help of Latin, although of this language 
they contain, at least, as large a proportion of words as the 
Maori or Tahitian do of Malayan. The Maori and Tahitian 
are, therefore, essentially the same language, and their Malayan 
ingredient is extrinsic. 

In an inquiry into languages in order to show their affini- 
ties, it must be obvious that the examination of a limited 
number of words can lead to no certain or useful conclusion, and 
this is very satisfactorily shown by the vocabularies exhibited 
by such careful and indefatigable scholars as Mr. Marsden and 
Baron Humboldt. Mr. Marsden's English words amount to 
thirty-four ; and of these, as far as his collections admitted, he 
has given the synonymes in eighty Malayan and Polynesian 
languages ; and it is from this meagre vocabulary that my 
valued friend would prove the unity of the languages of all 
the brown-complexioned races from Sumatra to Easter Island, 
Ten words out of the thirty-four are numerals, three are adjec- 
tives, and all the rest are nouns, — every other part of speech 
being omitted. In the very first column of assumed native 
words, viz., the Malay, five of the synonymes are Sanskrit 
words, — a fact which touches on the history, but not on the 
unity, of the languages. Baron Humboldt's vocabulary of 
German words amounts to 134, and he has given their syno- 
nymes, as far as his materials allowed, in nine languages, or 
more strictly in six only, since four out of the number are 
Polynesian dialects. His words are all nouns, adjectives, or 
verbs, to the exclusion of every other part of speech. Favoured 
with ampler materials than were possessed by my predecessors 
in the inquiry, I have come to opposite conclusions. 

After as careful an examination as I have been able to make 
of the many languages involved in the present inquiry, and duly 
The Malay Considering the physical and geographical character of 
neselan^ ^hc widc field ovcr which they are spoken, with the 
nSfthe"'" social couditiou of its various inhabitants, I have come 
widespread to ^hc couclusion that the words which are common to 
^°'^'^^' so many tongues have been chiefly derived from the 
languages of the two most civilised and adventurous nations of 



viii DISSERTATION. 

the Archipelago, — the Malays and Javanese ; and, adopting this 
hypothesis, I shall proceed with the inquiry, beginning with a 
sketch of these two nations and their languages. For con- 
venience, and in order to avoid repetition, I use the word 
Malayan for whatever is common to these two people. 

According to the universal tradition of the Malays, Sumatra 

is the parent country of their nation. This greatest island 

of the Archipelago, after Borneo, contains an area of 

history of 128,500 square miles. Its geological formation is 

the Malays. ' . ^. . , ^, i • -r, i 

partly primitive and partly volcanic, it has some very 
high mountains and some extensive plains among its hill ranges. 
Among these plains is that of Manangkabau on the Equator, 
the very focus of the Malay nation. Next to Java, Sumatra is 
the most fertile of the great islands of the Archipelago, and 
therefore the most likely to be a cradle of early civilisation. 
The Malays at present possess nearly one half the whole area of 
the island, including its coasts on the east and west side. 

The earliest notice which Europeans received of the existence 
of the Malay nation, and it was a very meagre one, was given 
by Marco Polo on his return to Venice in 1295. It was not 
until 220 years later that they became really acquainted with 
them. A hundred and thirty years before the Malays were 
seen by the Venetian traveller, or in the year 1160, took place 
the only recorded migration of the Malays from Sumatra, that 
which formed the settlement of Singapore. We must not con- 
clude, from the comparative recentness of this event, or because 
the Malays, like the Hindus, have no history, that many earlier 
migrations had not taken place. When first actually seen by 
Europeans, they were traders and rovers over the Archipelago. 
They were the principal carriers of the clove and nutmeg from 
the most easterly to the most westerly ports of the Archipelago, 
— forming, in fact, the first link in that long and tedious chain 
of transport by which these much- valued commodities were, for 
nearly twenty centuries, conveyed to Greece and Rome. In 
the year 180 of Christ the clove and nutmeg were regular 
articles of import into the Roman Empire ; and it is highly 
probable that the trade was conducted then, in the same manner 
as when it was first observed by Europeans at its source. By 



DISSERTATION. ix 

this kind of circumstantial evidence, then, we carry Malayan 
history back for near seventeen centuries ; but as the Hindus 
were probably consumers of the clove and nutmeg long before 
Greeks and Romans, Malayan history, in all likelihood, goes a 
great deal farther back than this. 

In Sumatra, the Malays, from the cradle of the nation, the 
interior plain of Manangkabau, pushed their conquests, or settle- 
ments, to their present extensive limits. From Sumatra they 
emigrated and formed colonies in the Malay Peninsula and in 
Borneo ; the first probably, and the last certainly, occupied 
before them by rude tribes of the same race of men, who could 
offer no effectual resistance. In the remoter islands, or in those 
occupied by powerful and civilised nations, the Malays appear 
only as settlers, and not colonists, as Java, the principal islands 
of the Philippine Archipelago, Timur and the Moluccas. 

The peninsula sometimes called Tanah Malayu, or the land 
of the Malays, contains an area of above G0,000 square miles. 
The geological formation is primitive, rich in metalliferous ores, 
but generally poor in soil. "With the exception of a few dimi- 
nutive negro mountaineers, it is occupied either by Malays or 
by men of the same race ; for there exist in the interior several 
wild tribes, who, although not calHng themselves Malays, speak 
the Malay language, and have the same physical form as the 
Malays. Whether these wild people be the original inhabitants 
of the peninsula before the invasion of the Malays, and who 
have adopted the INIalay language, or Malays who rejected the 
Mahomedan religion, it is very difficult to say; but as their 
language contains many words that are not JNIalay, and as it is 
not likely that so extensive a country should be without any 
inhabitants when invaded by the Malays, except a few scattered 
negroes, the first supposition seems the more probable. Nearly 
the whole coast of Borneo is occupied by Malay colonies; but 
neither here, nor in the peninsula, can any one of the many 
states which occupy them, tell when, or how their forefathers 
first arrived. Some intelligent merchants of the state of Brunai, 
or Borneo Proper, informed me in 1825 that the present inha- 
bitants were, then, the twenty-ninth in descent from the original 
settlers from Manangkabau, and that when thev first settled 



X DISSERTATION. 

they had not been converted to the Mahomedan religion. 
Thirty generations, including the first settlers, would make 
about 900 years. This rough computation would fix the first 
and principal Malayan migration to Borneo to the reign of our 
Saxon king Athelstan. 

It is not to be supposed, however, that all who now go under 
the name of Malays in Borneo are of the original stock that 
migrated from Sumatra. The simple adoption of the Malay lan- 
guage would, it is evident, be quite sufficient to make men of the 
same race pass for Malays ; and where the Malays were dominant, 
this must have happened frequently. We find on the w est coast 
of Borneo, for example, tribes of the aboriginal inhabitants 
gradually losing their own tongues by the admission of much 
Malay, and finally adopting the latter; so that nothing 
remained to distinguish a tribe but its name. The reverse of 
this would necessarily be the case where the Malays were few 
in number, and mere settlers. They would gradually lose their 
own tongue, adopting that of the dominant race ; but at the 
same time communicating to the latter some portion of their 
language. 

The Malay tongue is now, and was, when Europeans first 
visited the Archipelago, the common language of intercourse 
The Malay bctwccn the uativc nations among themselves, and 
language, ^jetwccn thcsc and foreigners. It is in the Archipelago 
what French is in Western Europe, Italian in Eastern, Arabic 
in Western Asia, and Hindi in Hindustan. All nations who 
hold intercourse of business with strangers must understand it, 
and all strangers must acquire it. This is now the case, and 
seems for ages to have been so, in Sumatra, where other lan- 
guages, besides it, are vernacular, in Java, in Celebes, in the 
Moluccas, in Timur, and in the Philippine group. The enter- 
prising or roving character of the people whose native tongue 
it is, with its own softness of sound, simplicity of structure, 
and consequent facility of acquirement, have given it this 
preference over so many other languages. 

The most striking evidence of the currency of the Malay 
language will be found in the account of the first voyage 
round the world, as it is told in the faithful narrative of Piga- 



DISSERTATION. xi 

fetta. Magellan had with him a Sumatran slave, probably a 
Malay, but at all events speaking the Malay language. The first 
land made by the circumnavigators, after crossing the Pacific, was 
one of the Ladrone islands, and here no intercourse could be held 
with the natives, for the interpreter was not understood. Such 
was also the case at the outskirts of the Philippines ; but they 
had no sooner fairly entered this group than he was readily 
comprehended ; and henceforth the intercourse of the Spaniards 
with the inhabitants was conducted with facility. At Massana, 
a small island lying on the coast of Leyte, a boat came to the 
admiral's ship ; and, says Pigafetta, " a slave of the captain- 
general, a native of Sumatra, formerly called Taprobana, spoke 
to them, and was understood."* The petty chief of the island 
afterwards \dsited Magellan, and was readily communicated 
with through the Malay interpreter; "for," adds Pigafetta, 
" the kings understand more languages than their subjects," — 
an explanation, however, not quite accurate, for it ought to 
have been, that the chiefs, being the principal traders, found it 
necessary to acquire the language in which foreigners could be 
communicated with. At the island of Zebu^ near which 
INIagellan lost his life, the Sumatran slave betrayed the 
Spaniards and absconded; and henceforth Pigafetta himself 
was able to act as interpreter, — a striking proof of his own 
diligence, and the facility with which Malay may be acquired. 
He did so, not only in Borneo Proper, of which the language is 
Malay, but in Palawan, Mindanau and the Moluccas, where it 
is a foreign tongue, for everywhere some persons were found to 
understand it. 

Although jSIalayan ci\'iHsation, in all probability, sprang up in 
the interior parts of Sumatra, as Malay tradition alleges, still, as 
Malays ^^^ asscrtcd cradlc of the Malay nation is not above fifty 
a mTritim^ miles distant from the coasts, and communicates with 
people. them by frequent rivers, at all times navigable for the 
craft employed, the INIalays must be considered as essentially a 
maritime people ; and evidence of this will be found impressed 
on their language, of which a few examples may be given : — 

* Primo Viaggio intorno al globo terraqueo. Milano, 1 800. 



xii DISSERTATION. 

mudik and ilir are two verbs^ which mean respectively "to 
ascend" and "to descend a river," or "to go against" or "with 
the stream." The same words used as nouns mean '' the interior" 
and " the seaboard." Kuwala and muwara are two words which 
signify "the embouchure" or "mouth of a river," either at its 
disemboguement in the sea or its junction with another river. 
Anak-sungai means, literally, "child of the river;" tfiluk is 
"a bight," or "cove," and rantau "a reach;" but all these words 
signify also "the district of a country," or "a settlement." 
Sabrang is a preposition, meaning " across the water," and when 
used as a verb, " to cross the water." The Malay compass, pan- 
doman, is divided into sixteen points, with native names ; and 
these names, for the purpose of navigation, have been adopted 
by some other tribes, as the Bugis, although retaining their own 
for ordinary occasions. The monsoons, or periodical winds, are 
distinguished by the Malays, and among the tribes of the 
Archipelago by them only, by native terms, which literally 
signify, for the westerly, atas-angin, " above the wind," or " air," 
for it may mean either; and for the easterly, bawah-angin, 
" below the wind," or " air." For every part of a vessel and 
her equipment there is a specific native name ; and, considering 
the simple structure of Malayan shipping, the phraseology is 
copious. Terms for the diftereut modes of sailing are also 
numerous. 

In one of the many Malay narratives purporting to be true 
history, but always containing more fable than truth, called 
the " History of the King of Malacca," the reigning prince is 
described as sending a mission to claim the assistance of the 
Turks against the Portuguese. As I shall afterwards have 
occasion to refer to this mission, I shall at present only observe, 
that the size of the vessels which made this distant voyage of 
seventy-three days' duration would probably average from 
fifty to a hundred tons each. Our own shipping that made the 
circumnavigation of the globe seventy years later, under Drake, 
did not, it should not be forgotten, even equal this burthen. 
Of Drake's five ships, the largest, the " Admiral," was but of 
a hundred tons, and the rest of eighty, fifty, thirty, and the 
smallest of no more than fifteen tons burthen. 



DISSERTATION. xiii 

An examination of 4074. radical words of the Dictionary 
shows that the Malay language is composed of the following 

lingual elements : — Native Malay words, 2003 ; common 
the™i:uay° to tho Malay and Javanese, 1040 ; Sanskrit, 199 ; 

Talugu or Telinga, 23; Arabic, 160; Persian, 30; and 
Portuguese, 19; which, in a 1000 words, give the following 
proportions respectively : — Native, 491 ; Javanese, 255 ; Sans- 
krit, 49; Talugu, about 5^ ; Persian, about 7; and Portuguese, 
about 4|. Leaving the other elements for consideration until I 
come to treat of the Javanese language, I shall now describe 
only the Arabic and Persian. 

The Arabic element of the Malay, as stated in the grammar, 
may be said to be indefinite in its proportion. It was not 

introduced by conquest, but through commerce, settle- 
ment'ofthe meut, and religious conversion. The missionaries who 

converted the Malays and other islanders to the 
religion of Arabia, and hence introduced the language of that 
religion, were not genuine Arabians, but the mixed descendants 
of Arab and Persian traders, far more competent instruments 
by their intimate acquaintance with the manners and languages 
of the islanders. In the course of time Arabian and Persian 
traders appear to have settled at various ports of the western 
parts of the Archipelago, and never being accompanied by their 
famiUes, to have intermarried with the natives. It was the mixed 
race that sprang out of such unions which produced the apostles 
of Islam. The earliest conversion recorded was that of the 
Achinese, the nearest people of the Archipelago to the continent 
of Asia. This was in 1206 of our era. The Malays of Malacca 
were not converted until 1276; the inhabitants of the Moluccas 
not until 1465, the Javanese not until 1478, and the people of 
Celebes not until 1495, only the year before Vasco de Gama passed 
the Cape of Good Hope. These dates refer only to the conversion 
of the rulers of the country. Many of the people were, no doubt, 
converted before, and some remained to be converted long after. 
To this day there are a few mountaineers in Java still professing 
a kind of Hinduism. Between the first and last conversion, 
the long period of 289 years intervened. The conversion, in 
fact, was slow and gradual, and bore little resemblance to the 



xiy DISSEKTATION. 

rapid conversion, by tlie Arabs, of tlie nations of Western and 
Northern Asia. The earliest conversion of the islanders took 
place 574 years after the death of Mahomed, and long after the 
zeal of his followers had evaporated. The conquest of the 
Archipelago, however, even had it been attempted, under the 
most favourable auspices, was an enterprise too remote and 
difficult for the Arabs to have achieved, and the conversion was, 
in reality, brought about by the only feasible means by which it 
could have been accompUshed. 

It is probable that some Arabic words were introduced into 
Malay previous to the conversion. This may be inferred from 
our finding them, at pi'esent, in the Balinese, the language of 
the only unconverted civilised people of the Archipelago. The 
nature of the Arabic words admitted into Malay may be judged 
by a brief analysis. Taking 113 from the vocabularies appended 
to Sir Stamford Raffles's History of Java, 102 are found to be 
nouns, six to be adjectives, three to be verbs, and one only to 
be a particle. To suit the Malay ear, all of them are altered in 
pronunciation, and none of them are so essential to the language 
that it cannot be written or spoken with accuracy and propriety 
without their assistance. The proportion in which Arabic enters 
into some of the other principal languages of the Archipelago 
may be judged from the same vocabularies. The 112 in Malay 
is but seventy-six in Javanese ; seventy-two in Madurese; sixty- 
five in the Lampung; sixty-one in the Sunda; twenty-five in the 
Bugis, and twenty in the Bali. In a copious dictionary of the 
Tagala of the Philippines I can find only ten or twelve words. 
From the similarity of circumstances under which the Arabic 
has been introduced into these languages, and from their being 
often communicated from one tribe to another, it may be 
added that the words are, for the most part, the same. Every- 
where such words as have been naturalised have been so altered 
in pronunciation that an Arab would, in most cases, not be 
able to recognise them. Thus the word salxib, " cause," is in 
Malay, sabab, and in Javanese, sawab ; fakar, " to think," is in 
Malay and Javanese, pikir, and in Bugis, pikiri ; the word fal'uli, 
" to meddle," is in Malay and Javanese, paduli ; the word wakt, 
" time," is in Malay and Javanese, waktu, and in Bugis, wakatu ; 



DISSERTATION. xv 

sabtu, "Saturday/' or the sixth day, is in Malay and Javanese, 
saptu, and in Bugis, satang ; and abhs, " the devil," correctly 
pronounced by the Malays and Javanese, is written and pro- 
nounced by the Bugis, ibolisi. 

The Persian words introduced into Malay amount in all to no 
more than between fifty and sixty. Most of them are nouns 
Persian and and namcs of objccts, and a few of them have been 
^°""^''''- naturalised. I have no doubt but that they were 
introduced by settlers from the ports of the Persian Gulf; men 
who traded in religion as well as in merchandise. The few 
Portuguese words introduced represent objects and ideas new 
to the Malays before their intercoui'se with Europeans. As 
stated in another place the softness of a southern language 
contributed materially to their inti-oduction ; but it seems 
probable also that the number has been augmented by the 
Catholic converts who speak Portuguese, and who, by their 
condition of life, and intimate acquaintance with the language 
and people, mix more freely with the native inhabitants than 
Europeans ever do. 

Of the physical form of the people speaking the wide-spread 

Malay tongue, the following may be taken as a sketch. The 

average stature of the men is about 5 feet 3 inches, and 

Physical . 

form of the of the womcu three inches less. They are, in fact, as 
' compared to the Chinese, the Hindus, the inhabitants 
of Western Asia, and Europeans, a short race. The face is 
lozenge-shaped, the forehead flat, the cheek-bones high, the 
mouth large, the lips thin, the hair of the head black, coarse, 
lank, abundant, — that of all other parts of the body, beard 
included, very scanty : the skin is soft, tawny, darker than that 
of the Chinese, but fairer than that of any genuine Hindu, and 
never black ; the lower limbs are heavy, and the whole person 
squat and wanting in agility. With shades of difference, not 
to be fixed in words, this, with the exception of a few negroes, 
is a description which applies to all the inhabitants of Sumatra, 
the Peninsula, Java, Borneo, Celebes, the Moluccas, Timur, and 
the whole Philippine group. By any standard of beauty which 
can be taken, from the Ganges to the Pillars of Hercules, the 
Malayan must be pronounced as a homely race. Dryden, who 



xvi DISSERTATION. 

must be supposed a good and impartial judge, was certainly of 
this opinion, for he alludes, in his epistle to Sir Godfrey Webster, 
to the Embassadors from Bantam, who, in his time, had visited 
England, in the following couplet : — 

" Flat faces, such as would disgrace a screen, 
Such as in Bantam's embassy were seen." 

The Javanese language extends over the eastern and central 
parts of Java, an island of 40,000 square miles in extent, and 
by far the most fertile of the Archipelago, containing 
neseian- at present 10,000,000 of inhabitants. There may be 
said to be three Javanese languages, — the popular, the 
polite (which is a kind of factitious dialect of it), and an ancient 
tongue, found only in old books and ancient inscriptions. 

The modern and popular language, as well as the polite 
dialect, is written in a peculiar character, of which the substan- 
tive letters amount to twenty. All these are consonants. 

Alphabet. . *' ' 

except the letter a, which the Javanese count along 
with them as a substantive letter. These twenty characters are 
represented by the following Roman letters : — a, b, ch, d, 
d', g, j, k, 1, m, n, ng, n, p, r, s, t, t", w, y. Their powers are 
the same as those of native sounds of the Malay alphabet, and 
therefore it is unnecessary to describe them. 

The Javanese vowels are six in number, — viz., a, a, e, i, o, u, 
which correspond with the native Malay vowels. The vowel a, 
as already stated, is considered a substantive letter; but the 
rest as mere orthographic marks, as their Javanese name, San- 
dangan, which signifies "dress" or "clothing," implies. The 
mark for a is placed over the consonant ; that for i, over and to 
the right of it ; and that for u, under it ; while o has a double 
mark, part being before and part after the substantive letter. 
The marks for the other vowels are applied to the vowel a, as if 
it had been a consonant ; and according as these are used, it 
becomes a, e, i, o, or u. It is never used either alone or with 
the marks of the other vowels applied to it, except as an initial. 

As a vowel is inherent in every consonant, it follows that the 
Javanese substantive letters are, in reality, syllables. This 
produces the necessity of a contrivance to elide the terminal 



DISSEKTATION-. XvU 

inherent vowel. At the end of a word the elision is effected by a 
peculiar orthographic mark, but in the middle of one, by supple- 
mental substantive letters corresponding in number with their 
primitives, and the presence of which indicates that no vowel 
intervenes. Their name, pasangan, which means " fellows" or 
"companions," points at their character. Three of these 
supplemental characters are written in a line with their primi- 
tives, viz., a, p, and s, — the rest under them. All of them 
are more or less different in form from the primitive letters, 
except g, r, and ng, which undergo no change. When the 
liquids 1, w, and y, in a supplemental form follow a primitive 
character they coalesce with it, and r, when it coalesces with 
another consonant, has a peculiar character. It has a second 
when it ends a syllable preceded by a vowel, and a third which 
implies that the vowel a precedes it. A dot placed over a con- 
sonant represents the nasal ng ending a syllable. The use of 
double consonants, or rather of a repetition of the same con- 
sonant in another form, is very frequent in Javanese, for it 
seldom happens that a medial syllable begins with a vowel, and 
I think, in no case, except with a. The aspirate h has a peculiar 
character, and, like the vowels, is considered only an ortho- 
graphic mark. It always follows a vowel expressed or under- 
stood, and may be medial or final, but never begins a word or 
syllable. 

Besides the characters now named, there are others of occa- 
sional use. There are eight characters called great letters, viz., 
n, ch, k, t, s, p, ii, g, and b, and of these, k, t, and p have their 
secondary or supplemental characters. These are not used like 
European capitals, to begin sentences and proper names, but 
as a mark of respect in writing particular names and titles, — 
sometimes, however, capriciously, in substitution of the ordinary 
letters. There are also characters to represent the two syllables 
la and ra, which are of very frequent occurrence in Javanese. 
Finally, characters have been invented, consisting of modifi- 
cations of the native letters to represent five initial vowels for 
Arabic words, and four to represent peculiar Arabian consonants. 
These are, however, but rarely used, and are usually represented 
by the cognate letters of the native alphabet. 



xviii DISSERTATION. 

This orthographic system is rather complex, but for its own 
purpose perfect : it has a character for every sound in the 
language, and that character invariably expresses the same 
sound. It may be readily understood by supposing the vowel 
marks and supplemental consonants to be represented by Roman 
letters in small type, and placed in the position I have assigned 
to them. 

The Javanese letters are well formed, neat and distinct, not 
mere scratches like those of some other alphabets of the Archi- 
pelago. The alphabet is, indeed, in every respect the most 
perfect of any of those of the islands. It has, I think, all the 
appearance of an original character invented where it is now 
used. Although Hindu influence was far greater in Java than 
in any other part of the Archipelago, the Javanese has not 
adopted the aspirated consonants, nor, like some ruder alphabets, 
the metrical arrangement of the Dewanagri, and unless the 
mark for the aspirate, the dot representing the nasal ng, and 
the mark of elision, I do not believe that it has borrowed any- 
thing from the latter. 

The following is the native character. 

PRIMARY CONSONANTS, 
anchrk dt svlp 

njT^ wi 03) '2/1 (Kn^nxi am qjj "ui mn^nji 

d- j y n m g b t- ng 

/Uji fi/^ oivi fmri \ fin nm rrn op rci^ 

SECONDARY CONSONANTS, 
anchk dt sv 1 

p d' y j n m b t 

^' (JD (^\ (s) (}i\ c 0^ (y 

) TO 

ka 



VOWEL MARKS AS ANNEXED TO THE LETTER K. 

ki ke ku kA ko 

o 



m\ ^f>tm fHT]. 



DISSERTATION. lix 

ABBREVIATIONS OF CONSONANTS AND THE ASPIRATE, WITH K. 

kar kr kang kah 



m (jffj 



[m r>6n^ 



NIBIERAL CHARACTERS. 



rm rn ran (f(3)^ mn ru^ rinn o 



The phonetic character of the Javanese much resembles that 
of the Malay, but still there are considerable differences. The 
Phonetic accent, for the most part, as in Malay, is on the penul- 
twavT-"^^^^^^®' and, with few exceptions, no two consonants 
nese. comc togcthcr, unless one of them be a liquid or a nasal. 

In Javanese the inherent vowel a is pronounced as o when it ends 
a word, as is done in the Malay of the west coast of Sumatra. 
The Javanese, however, goes still further, for it gives the same 
sound to any preceding inherent vowels of the same word, 
provided, but not otherwise, that the terminal letter be also the 
inherent vowel. Thus the towns of Java, which the Malays pro- 
nounce Sala and Surabaya, are pronounced by the Javanese, 
Solo and Suroboyo, but Samarang is pronounced by a Javanese 
exactly as a Malay would do. The pronunciation of the Javanese 
is less soft than that of the jNIalay, and although the letters of 
the alphabet be identically the same, the recurrence of nasal 
sounds is much more frequent in it. To give an example, in 
the Malay Dictionary I find only fifteen words beginning with 
the nasal ng, and twenty with n, while in a Javanese manu- 
script dictionary there are 590 beginning with the first of these 
letters, and 335 with the last. Another difference affecting the 
pronunciation consists in there being in Javanese a larger 
proportion of words in which the liquids 1, r, w, and y, coalesce 
with other consonants than in Malay. 

The grammar of the Javanese is formed on the same principle 
-as that of the Malay, in so far as simplicity of structure, the 



XX DISSERTATION. 

expression of relation in nouus by prepositions and not by cases, 
^jjnesp, ^'^^ ^^® formation of the verb by the application of an- 
grammar. ^excd particlcs, are concerned. The noun is devoid of 
inflexions to express gender or number, and, with the exception 
of a possessive, also of case. A possessive or genitive, 
much like the English genitive in 's, is formed for the 
ordinary language by the affix ne, for the ceremonial by the 
affix ipun, and for the language of poetry by iia or ira. The fol- 
lowing are examples, observing that the particle ne, for euphony, 
becomes ing and ning, according to the final letter of the 
governed and the initial of the governing noun : — Putrane raja, 
"the king's son;" wohing kayu tal, "the fruit of the Tal 
palm;'' krising satriya, "the warrior's dagger;" rasaning 
uyah, " the taste of salt ; " gadahanipun handara, " the lord's 
property;" chakranipun Krisna, "the discus of Krishna;" 
polahipun tiyang, " a man's conduct ; " astaila Sita minda gan- 
dewa kalih, "the arms of Sita were as two bows;" ilang 
kamanusanira Sri Nalendra lir batara Wisnu, "the human 
form of the monarch disappeared as if he were the god Vishnu." 

With respect to gender, the order of nature is preserved, and 
sex never ascribed to what has none. When gender has to be 
expressed, adjectives implying it are used ; wadon and ostri, or 
"female," for the feminine, and lauang, driya, kakung, and jalar, 
for the masculine. But there are not, as in Malay, adjectives to 
distinguish gender in man and the lower animals. The noun 
is neither singular nor plural, but either. It is restricted to the 
singular by the numeral one, and made plural by an adjective 
signifying plurality. As in Malay, there is a kind of collective 
plural formed by reduplication; as from bopati, "a noble," 
bopati-bopati, "nobles." 

There are articles in Javanese, although of more limited 
application than in the modern European languages. 
The numeral sa, "one," inseparably prefixed is equi- 
valent to the EngHsh indefinite article a, or the French un, as 
sagriya, " a house." The definite article is represented by the 
relative pronoun, which, for the popular language, is kang or 
sing, and for the language of ceremony, ingkang. These stand 
before the noun, as in the following examples : — Kang murba, ' 



DISSEKTATION. xxi 

" the creator," literally, " he who is first ; " ingkang nawala, 
" the letter." The following is the commencement of a genuine 
letter in the pohte dialect, and affords two instances of the 
definite article : — Ingkang taklim kula rayi sampeyan pun 
tumanggung Samung Galing katur ingkang raka mas ngabai 
Wira Prana : " The respectful compliments of your servant, 
the younger brother, the tumanggung Samung Galing, submitted 
to the elder brother, Mas Ngabai Wira Prana." 

The adjective undergoes no change. In position, it follows 
the noun, and is not otherwise distinguished. A comparative 
degree, expressing increase, decrease, or equality, is 
formed by adverbs with prepositions. The adverbs are 
luwih, manah, maning, malih, " more," for the comparison by 
increase, and kurang, or kirang, in the ceremonial language, 
for the comparison by decrease ; the prepositions for both being, 
t&ka and sangking, " from." The comparison by equality has 
no adverb, and is expressed by the prepositions karo and kalih, 
"with," the first belonging to the popular, and the last to the 
ceremonial language. 

The Javanese personal pronouns are numerous ; there being 

not fewer than twenty of the first person, and twelve of the 

second. Some of them belong to the popular language, 

Pronoun. , ■ ^ -, i &&J 

some to the ceremonial, and some to the ancient. 
About four of each are common to the Malay and Javanese. 
The origin of some of them is ob\ious. Kawula, abbreviated kula, 
for example, means " slave or servant," as well as "I," or "we ; " 
sampeyan, a pronoun of the second person, means " the feet ; " 
and another pronoun, of the same person, jaugandika, is taken 
from the recondite language, and composed of two words, 
meaning " the feet," and " to command " or " order." Consi- 
dering the numerous pronouns of the first and second person, 
it is remarkable that the Javanese has none at all of the third. 
D"ewe, in the ordinary language, and piyambak in the polite, 
meaning " self," are, however, occasionally awkward substitutes 
for it. The adjective pronouns are only some of the personal 
pronouns used as adjectives by being placed after or annexed 
to the noun. The Javanese pronouns are without gender, 
number, or case. 



xxii DISSERTATION. 

The Javanese verb has no inflexions to express time, 
mood, or voice, or to distinguish transitive from intransitive 
verbs, or the verb from any other part of speech. All 
this, as in Malay, is effected by prefixes, affixes, and 
auxiliaries. A radical word is specially determined as a verb 
not, as in Malay, by the prefix ma, but by the prefixed particle 
a, which, for euphony, has one of the nasals, m, ng, or il fre- 
quently interposed or substituted for the initial of the radical ; 
the particular nasal used depending on the initial letter of the 
radical.* The following are examples: — From kadaton, "a 
palace," akadaton, " to dwell in a palace ; " from padu, " a dis- 
pute," apadu, ''to dispute;" from eling, "remembrance," ange- 
ling, " to remember ; " from emut, also '' remembrance," 
angemut, " to remember ; " from laga, " war," anglaga, " to 
war;" from raja, "prosperous," angraja, "to prosper;" from 
tulis, "painting, writing, or delineation," anulis, "to paint, 
to delineate, or write ; " from chakal, " catching," ailakal, 
"to catch." The initial prefix a is, however, frequently 
elided; and thus we have ngrasa, "to taste," from rasa, 
" taste ; " masrah, " to surrender," from srah, " surrender ; " 
malabu, "to enter," from labu, "within;" mangwetan, 
"to go eastward," from wetan, "the east;" mangulon, 
"to go west," from kulon, "the west;" manglor, "to go 
north," from lor, " the north ; " and mangidul, " to go south," 
from kidul, " the south." A casual observer is apt to fancy 
such words as these, which are only abbreviations, to correspond 
with the Malay verbs in ma. The difference is more perceptible 
when the radical words happen to be tlie same. From the 
pronoun of the first person, aku, for example, comes the Malay 
verb mangaku, which in Javanese is angaku, or abbreviated, 
ngaku, both meaning " to confess or admit ; " from stibrang, 
" across the water," comes the Malay verb manabrang, and the 

* The rule for the application of the nasals is very easy. Before radicals be- 
ginning with a vowel the nasal ng is used ; before radicals beginning with nasals 
no nasal is, of course, required, although a double nasal be used in writing. The 
labials p and w take m, the dentals d and t and the palatals d' and j take n ; the 
liquids 1, r, and y, take ng, the gutturals g and k also ng, and the palatal oh, with 
the sibilant n, or sometimes n. 



DISSERTATION. xxiii 

Javanese anabrangj or ii^brang, both signifying " to go across 
the water." 

But the simple radical alone is frequently used as a verb, 
without any prefix, and as such may be transitive or intransi- 
tive. Intransitives, either in this form or with the verbal prefix 
a, are made transitive by either of the three affixes ake, akan, 
or i ; the first belonging to the popular langvaage, the second to 
the ceremonial, and the last to either. When the affix i is 
applied to a radical, the nasal n is interposed, and when a 
radical ends in i, or in o, the first of these vowels is turned into 
e, and the last into o. Thus from the radical pad-ang, " clear,^' 
comes the verb amad-angi, " to make clear ; " from tiba, " to 
fall," anibani, " to cause to fall ; " from bachik, " good," in the 
popular language ambachiki, "to make good" or "to mend;" 
from sae, with the same meaning in the ceremonial language, 
saeni, " to make good " or " to mend ; " from mati, " to die," 
mateni, " to cause to die " or " to kill." The following are 
examples of the transitive verb, with the affixes ake and akan : 
— From kabat, " quick," angabatake, " to quicken or hasten ; " 
from panjang, " long," amanjangakan, " to lengthen ; " from 
balik, "to return," balikake, "to cause to return" or "to send 
back ; " from awak, " the body or person," angawakake, " to 
embody." When, however, either of these affixes follows a 
radical ending in a vowel, the consonant k is, for euphony, 
interposed, — as from pratela, "clear, obvious;" amratekakan, 
" to explain or illustrate ; " and from mirsa, " to see," amirsa- 
kakan, "to observe or note." 

A passive form is given to the Javanese verb in three several 
ways. It is given, as in Malay, by the prefixed inseparable 
particle di, of which the synonymes in the ceremonial language 
are dipun and den. Thus, from the radicals gawe and damal, 
" to make or do," come digawe and dipundamal, " to be made 
or done ; " from kon and ken, " to order or command," dikon 
and dipunken; from gabug and gitik, "to strike," digabug and 
digitik, " to be struck ; " from taleni, itself derived from tali, 
" a rope," and tangsuli, derived from the ceremonial word for 
a rope, ditaleni and dipuntangsuli, " to be tied or bound ; " from 
isin and wirang, " shame or aflFront," diisin and dipunwirang, " to 



XXIV DISSERTATION. 

be affronted." A passive form is also given to the verb, as in 
Malay, by the inseparable prefix ka, which belongs both to the 
popular and ceremonial language; as from suduk or anuduk, 
and gochok or aiigochok, " to stab," kasuduk and kagochuk, 
" to be stabbed," — the first belonging to the popular, and the 
last to the ceremonial language ; from chidra, " a fraud or 
cheat," kachidra, " to be defrauded or cheated ; " from anarita, 
itself derived from charita, " a narrative or tale," kacharita, " to 
be told or narrated ; " from pisah, pagat, and padot, " separate," 
kapisah, kapagat, and kapadot, " to be separated or divorced." 
When, with the passive in ka, the radical begins with a vowel, 
that of the particle is elided, and the initial of the radical 
is always o. Thus the radicals obor and obong, "to burn," 
give kobor and kobong, "to be burnt;" and ujar and uchap, 
" to say or speak," give kojar and kochap, " to be said or 
spoken." The third method of forming a passive consists in 
interposing, between the first letter of a radical and the rest 
of the word, the nasal n, preceded by the vowel i, making the 
syllable in. In this way are formed, for example, from charita, 
" a tale or narrative," chinarita, " to be told or narrated ; " 
from pundut, " to take," pinundut, " to be taken ; " from sapa, 
" who," sinapa, " to be inquired after ; " from rayah or angrayah, 
" to plunder," rinayah, " to be plundered ; " from panggih, " to 
find " or " to encounter," pinanggih, " to be found " or " to be 
encountered." In all these forms of a passive, the sense is the 
same ; and with the exception of that which belongs to the 
ceremonial language, they may be used indifferently. None of 
them require, as is frequently the case with the Malay passives, 
a preposition. Thus, wong dipateni wong, is " a man killed by 
a man ; " wong wadon dipiigat bojone, is " a woman divorced 
from her husband." 

With the exception of the imperative, the Javanese moods 
are represented by auxiliaries or conjunctions. A potential is 
formed by the verbs oleh and kana for the ordinary language, 
and kengiug, kantuk, pikantuk, and angsal for the ceremonial. 
All these words signify "can" or "may." An optative is 
formed by the adverb muga,— in the ceremonial dialect, mugi. 
A conjunctive is formed by the conjunction if, which is lamun 



DISSERTATION. xxv 

for the ordinary, and yen, which may be used either for the 
ordinary or ceremonial dialect. The verb in its simplest 
form, and without any auxiliary, is the indicative, and it has 
not, as the Malay has, an interrogative form. The Javanese 
imperative affords, with the exception of the Javanese genitive, 
the only example that I am aware of in the Malayan languages 
of an inflexion. By affixing the vowel a to radicals ending in 
this vowel, or in a consonant, we have an imperative ; as from 
gawa, " to bear or carry," gawaa, " bear or carry thou ; " from 
ana, "to be," anaa, "be thou;" from balang, "to throw or 
pitch," balanga, "throw or pitch thou." AVlien the terminal 
vowel of the radical is e or i, the consonant y is interposed 
between them and the vowel a, and when it is o or u, the 
interposed consonant is w; as from gawe, "to do," gaweya, 
"do thouj" from ganti, "to change," gantiya, "change thou;" 
from burn, " to pursue," buruwa, " pursue thou ; " from 
nganggo, " to clothe, wear, or use," nganggowa, " clothe, 
wear, or use thou." Sometimes, however, the imperative, 
instead of terminating in a, takes instead the vowel e; as from 
lungguh, " to sit," lunggiihe, " sit thou." Another form of 
the imperative terminates in the syllable an ; as from kon, or 
akon, " to order or command," konan, " order thou ; " and 
from " undang, " to call," undangan, " call thou." 

Time, in the Javanese language, as in the Malay, is expressed 
by adverbs. A preterite, in the ordinary language, is expressed 
by the word wus, or a little more respectfully by wis, or awis ; 
and in the ceremonial, by sampun ; all of which mean, literally, 
" done," "already some time past," and also "enough." Future 
time is expressed by verbs which, for the ordinary language, are, 
bakal and arap, and for the ceremonial, ajang, arsa, and bad'e; 
all of which mean, literally, " to will or desire." 

The manner of forming verbal or abstract nouns in Javanese 
is much like that in Malay. They are formed by the affix an, 
alone, or by this combined with the prefix ka, or by the prefix 
in p, or again by this combined with the affix an. The following 
ai-e examples : — From begal, "a robber" or " to rob," kabegalau, 
"robbery;" from bachik, "good," kabachikan, "goodness or 
virtue;" from cling and emut, "to remember," kaelingau 



xxTi DISSEKTATION. 

and kaemutan, "remembrance ;'' from rasa, "to taste/' kara- 
saan, "taste or feeling;" from duwur, "high," panduwur, 
"height;" from amuk, "to run a muck," pangamuk, "a 
muck ;" from buri, " behind," pamburi, " the rear ;" from 
ar&p, "before," pambarap, "the front," and also "first-born 
child ;" from gawa, " to bear or carry," panggawa, " a bearer or 
carrier," and also the title of the principal Javanese ministers 
of State ; from machan, " a tiger," pamachanan, " a tiger-house" 
or "place for keeping tigers;" from Sunda, "the Sunda people," 
Pasundan, "the country of the Sundas ;" from omah and griya, 
"a house," pomahan and pagriyana, "homestead or homestall;" 
from tilam, "to sleep," patilaman, "a sleeping-place;" from 
manusa, "a man," kamanusan, "mankind" or "human nature." 
When a radical ends with the vowel i, the a of the affix an is 
turned into e, and when in u into o ; as from bopati, "a noble of 
the first order," bopaten or kabopaten, " the class of nobles of 
the first order;" from grami, "trade," gramen, "merchandise;" 
from chalatu, " to speak," clialaton, " speech." A nasal is some- 
times interposed for euphony; as from sae, "good" in the 
ceremonial language, saenan, " goodness or virtue." In Malay, 
the vowel which follows the prefix in p is always a, but in 
Javanese it is generally a, sometimes a, and occasionally i ; as 
from gawe, "to do," pagaweyan, "employment;" from bagi, 
''to divide," pambagi, "division, portion, or share;" from 
tapung, "to join or unite," pitapung, "junction or union." 
With the initial prefix p, also, there are commutations of other 
consonants with nasals, and the consonant is frequently placed 
before its vowel ; as from jurit, " war," prajurit, " a warrior or 
soldier;" from kara, "to do," prakara, "an afi'air;" and from 
tand'a, "to mark" or "a mark," pratand-a, "a token or sign." 
Besides these modes of forming abstract nouns, thei'e is another 
almost peculiar to the Javanese, for there are but very few 
examples of it in Malay. This consists in doubling the first 
syllable of the radical, which, however, if it terminate in the 
vowels a or u, these are turned into ^ ; as from bakal, the name 
of a class of small officers, babakal, the class or order of such 
small officers ; from bm-u, " to pursue or chase," buburon, 
"beasts of the chase or game;" from sata, "a wild beast," 



DISSERTATION. xxvii 

sdsaton, " wild beasts collectively ; " from sare, " to sleep," 
s^sarean, " a sleeping place -," from rapen, " to sing/^ rarapen, 
"singing, poetry, song;'^ from gawa, "to carry," gagawayan, 
"a burden;" from reka, "to think," narekan, "thought." 
All these different forms of abstract nouns have substantially 
the same import, and occasionally, indeed, two or more of them 
can be applied to the same radical. In these abstract nouns, 
the sense, in general, follows closely that of the word from which 
they are derived ; but occasionally there is a very considerable 
departure from it, and the practice of the language alone deter- 
mines the exact meaning. 

The practice of reduplication is even more frequent in 
Javanese than in Malay. It expresses reciprocity, frequenta- 
Eedupiica- ti^encss, extension, plurality, and intensity, although, 
*'''°- sometimes, none of these qualities are found in its use. 

The following are some examples : — From tulung, " to assist," 
comes tulung-tinuluu, " to assist mutually," literally, " to 
assist and be assisted;" from bad-il, "to shoot or discharge a 
missile," bad-il-binad-il, " to shoot at one another," literally, " to 
shoot and be shot at ;" from duga, kera, and uda, " to think or 
consider," duga-duga, kera-kera, and uda-uda, "to ponder, to 
'meditate;" from surak, "to shout," surak-surak, "to shout on" 
or "go on shouting;" from long, "a fire-rocket," longlongan, 
"fire-works;" from riris, "small rain," riris-riris, "a continual 
drizzle;" from balik, "to return or go back," balik-balik, "to 
return again;" from bunga, "glad," bunga-bunga, "very 
glad;" from alit, "little," alit-alit, "very little;" from alon, 
" slowly," alon-alon, " very slowly, gently ; " from ulu, " the 
head," ulu-ulu, " chieftains." Frequently, the reduplicated word 
is not traceable to its primitive, or appears itself to be a primi- 
tive; as etok-etok and api-api, "to feign;" ara-ara, "an open 
plain;" kochar-kachir, "scattered about;" rojok-rajek, "crushed 
to pieces;" long-linongan, "mutual slaughter." 

As the ceremonial language of Java is the only one of its kind 
among the languages of the East, and consequently a subject of 
Ceremonial interest, I shall cndeavour to render some account of it. 
language, j^ jg Called by the Javanese krama or basa, both words 
in this case, meaning the "polite," in contradistinction to the 



xxviii DISSERTATION. 

"vulgar tongue" which they name ngoko, "vulgar or vernacular." 
The two first are e^adently the Sanskrit words, krama, " order," 
"progression," and bhasha, "language." The distinction in 
words between the two dialects does not extend throughout the 
whole language, but there is a considerable approach towards it, 
for it extends to all words in familiar use, nouns, verbs, adjectives, 
and pronouns, prepositions, auxiliaries, and in some cases even 
to the particles by which the verb is modified. In framing it, 
for it is most clearly a factitious language, the object seems to 
have been to avoid every word that had become, by frequent 
use, familiar ; to adopt such as had not done so ; to borrow from 
other languages, and, as if it were, to coin words for the purpose. 
Many of the words of the ceremonial language appear to be 
native and original, — some to be taken from the Malay or 
Sunda, — some from the Sanskrit, and a greater number still, to 
be adapted by changing the forms of words of the ordinary 
language. The polite or ceremonial language is that of the 
Court, or, more correctly, of courtiers, for the sovereign and 
members of his family address others in the vulgar tongue, 
while they themselves are addressed in the ceremonial. In 
epistolary writing the ceremonial dialect is always used, even 
by superiors to inferiors, unless the party addressed be of very 
inferior rank indeed. In books it is used indifferently with the 
ordinary language. All royal letters, edicts, and proclamations 
are in the vulgar tongue, that is, in the language of authority 
and command. The following are a few examples of words 
apparently native, and differing wholly in the vulgar and cere- 
monial languages : — 



VULGAR. 


CEREMONIAL. 


ENGLISH. 


Bauu. 


Toya. 


Water. 


Kali. 


Jjopeu. 


A river. 


Langa. 


Lisab. 


Oil. 


Wangi. 


Dabi. 


Night. 


Macban. 


Sirna. 


A tiger. 


Wadi. 


Ajrili. 


Fear. 


Kowc. 


Sampeyau. 


Tbou. 


Dcwc. 


Piyaubak. 


Self. 


Ui-ip. 


Gasaiig. 


Living, aliv 





DISSEETATION. 




VULGAR. 


CEREMONIAL. 


ENGLISH. 


Larang. 


Awis. 


Scarce, forbidden. 


Gawe. 


Damai. 


To do. 


Lunga. 


Kesa. 


Togo. 


JJwas, wus. 


Sampun. 


Past, done, was. 


Duwur. 


Ingil. 


High, above. 


Ngisor. 


Ngandap. 


Low, below. 


Jaroh. 


Labat. 


Within. 


Ora. 


Batan. 


No, not. 



The ceremonial language has borrowed a considerable number 
of words from the Malay, of which the following are examples : — 



VULGAR. 


CEREMONIAL. 


ENGLISH. 


Wadi. 


Pasir. 


Sand. 


Jariji. 


Jan. 


Finger. 


Gatah. 


Rah (from diirah). 


Blood. 


Blahag. 


Papan. 


A plank, a board. 


Gadang. 


Pisang. 


A banana. 


Lara. 


Sakit. 


Sick. 


Lagi. 


Manis. 


Sweet. 


Dawa. 


Paujang. 


Long. 


Rnlnr. 


Nakal 


Mischievous. 


Tandur. 


Tanam. 


To bury, or to plant. 


Chokot. 


Gigit. 


To bite. 


Damn. 


Tiyup. 


To blow. 


Nginap. 


Tutup. 


To shut, to close. 


Parid. 


Surud. 


To ebb. 


Eling. 


Engat. 


To remember. 


Jnnjung. 


Angkat. 


To lift. 



On the other hand, there are examples, although not so many, 
in which the Malay words belong to the vulgar tongue, as in 
the following instances : — 



VULGAR. 


CEREMONIAL. 


ENGLISH. 


Maiam. 


Dalu. 


Night. 


Pulu. 


Nuswa. 


An island. 


Umah (rumah). 


Griya. 


A house. 


Udan (ujan). 


Jawah. 


Rain. 


Pait. 


Gatar. 


Bitter. 


Tuwah. 


Sapuh. 


Old. 


Balik. 


Wangsul. 


To return. 



Many Sanskrit words are found in the ceremonial language, 
of which the following are a few examples : — 





DISSERTATION. 




VULGAR. 


CEREMONIAL. 


ENGLISH. 


Tangan. 


Asta. 


The hand. 


Langit. 


Akasa. 


The sky. 


S^r&nenge. 


Surya. 


The sun. 


Rambulan. 


Sasi, Chandra. 


The moon. 


Watu. 


Sela. 


A stone. 


Wangi. 


Latri, ratri. 


Night. 


Dalan. 


Margi. 


A road. 


Kabo. 


Mahesa. 


A buffalo. 


Tanak. 


Siti. 


Land. 


Prawan. 


Kana. 


A virgin. 


Puluh. 


Dasa. 


Ten. 


Ngimpi. 


Supftna. 


To dream. 


Proksa. 


Niti. 


To inqviire, to know. 



If, however, a Sanskrit word should have become familiar, it 
is rejected for another from the same language, or for a native 
one. Thus jagat, the "world,^' belongs to the vulgar tongue, 
but buwana, to the ceremonial ; manusa, " man," to the vulgar, 
and jalma, to the ceremonial ; and the Sanskrit desa, " a village," 
is rejected for the native, or perhaps Malay word, d-usun. 

But besides synonymes, distinct in form, the ceremonial 
language has other resources of wider application. It converts 
a word of the ordinary language to its own purpose, — by the per- 
mutation of vowels and consonants, sometimes by a combination 
of both these means, and sometimes by substituting a syllable 
terminating in a consonant, when the word in the vulgar 
language ends in a vowel. The following are examples when 
the sole or principal change is in the consonant : — 



VULGAR. 


CEREMONIAL. 


ENGLISH. 


Sawah. 


Sabin. 


Irrigated land. 


Karaton. 


Kadaton. 


A palace. 


B&ning. 


Waning. 


Limpid. 


Sendeyan. 


Lendeyan. 


Reclining. 


Awor. 


Amor. 


To mix. 


Banting. 


Wanting. 


To dash, to clash. 


Chachftp. 


Sasap. 


To suck. 


Kaya. 


Kadi. 


Like, as. 


Jaba. 


Jawi. 


Without. 



The most frequent, however, of the methods by which words 
of the common language are converted into the ceremonial, is 



DISSERTATION. xxxi 

the permutation of vowels, usually of the final vowel of a word, 
and sometimes of the medial, but never of the initial. For 
this purpose the low or broad vowels are exchanged for 
the high or sharp ones, in this order, u, o, a, a, e, i. The 
vowel u in this case belongs to the vulgar tongue, and then 
we have a scale of ascending respect according to the quality 
of the person addressed, ending in i as a climax. The verb 
to sit is an example, for it may be used in four different 
forms, lunguh, lungah, langah, and linggih. The following 
are examples : — 



VULGAR. 


CEREMONIAL. 


ENGLISH. 


Swarga. 


Swargi. 


Heaven. 


Puja. 


Fuji. 


Worship, praise. 


Agama. 


Agami. 


Religion. 


Pura. 


Puri. 


City, palace. 


Nagara. 


Nayari. 


City, country. 


Rawa. 


Rawi. 


A marsL 


Mula. 


Mila. 


Source, cau.se. 


Kut-a. 


Kifa. 


Fortress. 


Gon. 


Gen. 


Place. 


Jajar. 


Jejer. 


Row, rank. 


Muruh. 


Masah. 


Enemy. 


Rambugan. 


Rambagan. 


Discourse. 


Krama. 


Krami. 


The ceremonial language. 


Murah. 


Mirah. 


Cheap, liberal. 


Km-u. 


Kira. 


Lean, emaciated. 


Tampa. 


Tampi. 


To receive. 


Nganggo. 


Nganggi. 


To clothe, to wear, to use. 


Luput. 


L^pat. 


To eiT. 


D-okok. 


D-ekek. 


To lay, to place. 


Rubuh. 


Rabah. 


To fall down. 


Kurang. 


Kirang. 


Less. 


Amung. 


Aming. 


Only. 


D'udu, d'urung. 


D-ed-e, d'ereng. 


Not yet. 


Tabah. 


Tabeb. 


Far, cUstant. 



When a word of the vulgar tongue ends in a slender vowel, 
or that otherwise, it will not readily yield to this kind of forma- 
tion, another expedient is had recourse to. This consists in 
substituting for it a syllable ending in consonants which are 
always the nasal n and ng, the liquids 1 and r, or the sibilant, 
a consonant being also interposed for euphony between two 



DISSERTATION. 



vowels^ and occasionally, one consonant being substituted for 
another for the same object. The following are examples : — 



VULGAE. 


CEREMONIAL. 


ENGLISH. 


Mdricha. 


Mariyos. 


Pepper. 


Supata. 


Silpatos. 


A curse, an oath. 


Piinjalin. 


Panjatos. 


A rattan. 


Aji. 


Aos. 


Price, value. 


Carita. 


Chariyos. 


Tale, narrative. 


Pajftg. 


Piios. 


Rent, revenue. 


Rasa. 


Riios. 


Quicksilver. 


Rasa. 


Riios. 


Taste, feeling. 


Bras. 


Wos. 


Rice husked. 


saga. 


Sakul. 


Cooked rice. 


Wadi. 


Wados. 


Fear. 


Karana. 


Karantau. 


Cause, because. 


Sagara. 


Sagantan. 


The sea. 


Sore. 


Sontan. 


Evening. 


Apura. 


Apuntau. 


Pardon. 


Muwara. 


Miyantan. 


Embouchure of a river. 


Pakbuwan. 


Palabantan. 


Anchorage, harbour. 


Dina. 


Dintan. 


Day. 


Gapiira. 


Gapuntan. 


Door, gate. 


Priyayi. 


Priyantan. 


A chieftain. 


Pitaya. 


Pitajang. 


Belief, reliance. 


Labu. 


Labat. 


Deep. 


Ambu. 


Ambat. 


Smell, odour. 


Kandali. 


Kandangsul. 


A bridle. 


Ganti. 


Gantos. 


Change, shift. 


Prakara. 


Prakawis. 


Affair, matter. 


Waluku. 


Walajar. 


A plough. 


Gampang. 


Gampil. 


Eiisy, facile. 


Abang. 


Abrit. 


Red. 


Putih. 


Patah. 


White. 


Dadi. 


Dados. 


To become, to wax. 


Ganteni. 


Gautosi. 


To change. 


Nganti. 


Ngantos. 


To wait, to stay. 


Macha. 


Miios. 


To chant, to read. 


Angrasa. 


Anraos. 


To feel, to taste. 


Arti. 


Artos. 


To understand. 


Wilang. 


Wilis. 


To count, to reckon. 


Daudani. 


Dandosi. 


To prepare, to get ready. 


Kira. 


Kintan. 


To think, to suppose. 


Ana. 


Antan. 


To be. 


Ngajari. 


Ngiiosi. 


To reverence. 


Malayu. 


Maiajaug. 


To run awaj'. 


Guyu. 


Gujan. 


To laugh. 





DISSEKTATION. 


X 


VULGAP. 


CEREMONIAL. 


ENGLISH. 


Kana. 


Kenging. 


To can, to be able. 


Nangung. 


Nanggal. 


To support. 


Buwang. 


Buchal. 


To thi-ow away. 


Watara. 


AVatawis. 


To suppose. 


Sapa. 


Sin tan. 


-UTio? 


Pira. 


Pin tan. 


How many, or how much. 


Antara, 


Antawis. 


Between, among. 


Kaya. 


Kados. 


Like, as. 


Null. 


Nuntan. 


\Mien, immediately after. 



Sometimes the word in the polite dialect is an epithet^ and 
sometimes a translation^ true or fanciful^ of that in the vulgar 
language. Thus the sugar-cane^ in the vulgar tongue, is tabu, 
and in the ceremonial, rosan, which means the thing with joints, 
or "the cane." Tobacco, in the common language, is tambaku, 
but in the ceremonial, sata, "the cock." Bebek, in the 
common language, is the domestic duck, but in the cere- 
monial, kambangan, which means " the object that floats on the 
water." The areka palm, in the vulgar tongue, is jambe, but 
in the polite, wohan, "the fruit." Bawi and cheleng, are the 
hog, in the vulgar, but in the polite dialect, chamangan, and 
andapan, which mean "respectively," "the black object," and 
"the low object." Untu, is a tooth in a common mouth, but 
in the mouth of a king it is waja, " steel." Maripat, is an 
ordinary eye, but the eye of a king, when spoken of, is socha, or 
" a gem." The province of Baiiumas, means " golden water," 
and is Hterally translated into the ceremonial language, Toyajane. 
The island of Bally is, in the vulgar tongue, Bali, and from the 
resemblance in sound to the word balik, " to return," " back," 
" again," it is like it translated, Wangsul. It happens, some- 
times, that even the resemblance in sound of part of a word 
only will suffice. So kuwali, an "iron caldron," and kandali, 
"a bridle," are made in the ceremonial language, kuwangsul 
and kandangsul. 

For words of frequent recurrence there are often several 
synonymes in the ceremonial language, of which the folloAving 
are some examples : — 



iv 


DISSERTxVTION. 




VULGAU. 


CEREMONIAL. 


ENGLISH. 


Wichara. 


Winiios, michantan. 


Discourse. 


Warta. 


Warti, wartos. 


News. 


PArchaya. 


Pilrchados, partados, pitajang. 


Ti-ust, reliance. 


Ati. 


Nala, mauah, galih. 


The heart. 


Pai-entah. 


Dawuh, dawah, timbalan. 


An order or commani 


S&mbah. 


Wot-sari, wot-sakar, wot- 
Bantun. 


An obeisance. 


Sili-angan. 


Duka, banda. 


Anger, passion. 


Maripat. 


Netra, mariyos, socha. 


The eye. 


Dawa. 


Panjang, piios. 


Long. 


Lara. 


Sakit, garah. 


Sick. 


Turu. 


Tilam, kilam, sare. 


To sleep. 


Mangan. 


NAd-a, d-iiar. 


To eat. 


Malayu. 


MalajAng, inalajar. 


To flee, to nin away. 


Siji. 


Satunggal, satunggil. 


One. 


Mangkona. 


MAngkatan, mangketau. 


Thus. 


Kurang. 


Kirang, kawis. 


Less. 


Lama. 


Lanii, lawas, lambat. 


Long ago. 



Some of the pronouns are formed in a different manner from 
other words, by prefixing the inseparable particle pun : as from 
apa, punapa, ''what;" from iki and iku, puniki and pimiku, 
"this and that;" and from andi, "where, who, or which," 
pundi, abbreviated from punandi, " where, who, or which." 

Names of places or people are formed in the same way as 
ordinary words. The names of persons are not altered, except 
in the case of persons of fame in history or romance, as in the 
instance of Watugunung, an ancient Javanese king, whose 
name in the ceremonial language is Selaprawata, composed of 
two Sanskrit words equivalent to the two native ones in his 
ordinary appellation, and meaning "rock of the mountain." 
The following are examples of the names of places : — 



VULGAR. 


CEREMONIAL. 


ENGLISH. 


Jawa. 


Ja^\n. 


Java, Javanese. 

Name of a province of Jav; 


Rawa. 


Rawi. 


(the lake). 


Mataram. 


Matawuu, Matawis. 


Ditto. 


Pranaraga. 


Pranaragi. 


Ditto. 


Sarabaya. 


Surapi'inga, Siu-abangi. 


Ditto. 


GArsik. 


Grage. 


Ditto. 


Jipang. 


Majaranu. 


Ditto. 


Pafi. 


Santanan. 


Ditto. 


Pasuruhnn. 


Pasadahan. 


Ditto. 



VULGAR. 

Tagal. 

Samarang. 

Madura. 

Bali. 

China. 

Majapait. 

Sala. 

Malayu. 



DISSERTATION, 


xx; 


CEREMONIAL. 


ENGLISH. 


Tagil. 


Name of a pro\nnce in Java. 


Samamis. 


Ditto. 


MadunUn. 


The island of Madura. 


Wansiil. 


The i,sland of Bali. 


Chintan. 


China, Chinese. 


Majapaos. 


The ancient city of Majapalut. 


Surakarta. 


The city of Solo, in Java. 


Mdlaj&ng, malajar. 


Malay. 



There is, of course^ no record of the time or« the manner 
in which this singular language was introduced among, or 
framed by, the Javanese, but we may be tolerably sure that, 
with respect to the latter, it was gradual, and that in its present 
form it is the accumulation of many ages. It contains many 
Sanskrit words, and, therefore, it may be inferred that it 
received, at least, a large increase after the introduction of 
Hinduism. It contains even a few Arabic words, and, there- 
fore, it may be inferi'ed, also, that it went on increasing, even 
since the introduction of the Mahomedan religion. The existence 
of such a language implies, unquestionably, an ancient and a 
considerable civilization, as well as a thorough despotism. 
With respect to the inventors it may be safely conjectured that 
they were courtiers, very ambitious of civility and flattery. 

There exists in Java, as in Northern and Southern India, in 
Ceylon, in Birma, and Siam, an ancient recondite language, but 
Ancient ^^ ^^ ^o^, as in thosc countries, any longer the language 
language. ^^ ^^^^ ^^^ rcligiou, but a mere dead tongue. This 
language goes under the name of Kawi, a word which means 
"narrative," or "tale," and is not the specific name of any 
national tongue. Most probably it is a corruption of the 
Sanskrit kavya, " a naiTation." In Java there are found many 
ancient inscriptions, both on brass and stone, the great majority 
of which, on examination, are found to consist of various ancient 
modifications of the present written character. The consonants 
and vowel marks are essentially the same, in number, power, 
and form. They are only ruder in shape and less connected 
with one another. The ancient character is, at present, never 
used in Java, nor even in Bali, where the Kawi is still the 

d2 



xxxvi DISSERTATION. 

language of law and religion. Neither is the modern character 
ever found on any ancient inscription. Such^ too, is the case in 
Birma, with respect to the Pali or ancient character of the 
Buddhist nations. All inscriptions, even the most recent, are 
there written in Pali, and never in the modern character, even 
when the language is the ordinary Birmese. It is the character 
in which alone religious works are written, and such was pro- 
bably the case with the Javanese with their ancient character, 
before they changed their religion. All this leads to the 
supposition that the ancient character of Java was, in the 
time of Hinduism, confined to religious purposes, for all the 
inscriptions in it have more or less of a mythological character. 
The modern character, then, may be of great antiquity, although 
there be no positive evidence of it. It is certain, however, that 
it is written in Palembang and Bali, exactly as it is in Java, 
after a separation from this last, its parent country, of near 
four centuries. 

Some writers have supposed the Kawi to be a foreign tongue, 
introduced into Java at some unknown epoch, but there is no 
ground for this notion, as its general accordance with the 
ordinary language plainly shows. Independent of its being 
the language of inscriptions, it is, also, that of the most 
remarkable literary productions of the Javanese, among which, 
the most celebrated, is the Bratayuda, or " war of the descend- 
ants of Barat," a kind of abstract of the Hindu Mahabarat. I 
have carefully gone over the portion of this poem given by Sir 
Stamford Baffles in his " History of Java,'^ and which was 
furnished to him, with a translation in modern Javanese, by 
Natakusuma, Prince of Samanap, in Madura, one of the 
few Javanese who made any pretence of understanding the 
ancient character and language. I knew this amiable chief, 
and have gone over portions of this poem and some ancient 
inscriptions with him. In the text of the Bratayuda we have the 
name of the author and a date, an unique instance of authen- 
ticity in the literature of the Archipelago. The name of the 
author is Ampusadah, abbreviated Pusadah, but unluckily the 
date is not in figures, or numerals, or writing, but in the 
mystic words representing numerals, in which dates are most 



DISSERTATION. xxxvii 

usually stated. These admit of various interpretations. In 
fact they are meant as puzzles, and are often very successful 
ones. Some of Sir Stamford's interpreters gave him the year 
of Saka or Salivana, 1097, and others 708. Mine gave 1117, 
and I adopt it as the most probable, only because it is the 
most I'ecent. It corresponds with 1105 of our time, and the 
year in which Coeur de Lion was besieging Acre and combating 
the Saracens under Saladin. 

My own conjecture respecting the poem of the Bratayuda is, 
that it is a modernised version of a more ancient poem. The 
author tells us that he lived at the Court of Jayabaya, who 
reigned at Daa in the province of Kadiri, and that he composed 
his work at the desire of the king, who greatly admired the 
character of Salya, the leader of the Kurawa. If this was the 
case, it must be inferred that the author wrote in a language 
intelligible to the party for whose perusal the work was intended, 
or in other words, in the vernacular written language of the 
time. I have carefully examined seventy-five stanzas of the 
Bratayuda, and find them to contain 2087 words, — excluding 
proper names which are all Sanskrit. Of these, 1G53 belong 
to the present written language, and 134 are obsolete. As far 
as this trial goes, then, near 80 parts in 100, or four-fifths of 
the Kawi is modern Javanese. We find in the Kawi a genitive, 
or possessive case, as in Javanese, while its auxiliaries, its 
inseparable particles used in the formation of transitive, intran- 
sitive, and passive verbs, are generally the same as in the modern 
tongue. In the Bratayuda, I find the names of plants, of animals, 
of metals, of the winds, and of the seasons, to be the same as in 
Javanese, and to be usually native, and not foreign words. 

In the Kawi of the Bratayuda, as might fairly be expected in a 
poem drawn from a Sanskrit original, and on a Hindu subject, 
there is a much larger proportion of Sanskrit words than in 
modern Javanese. I submitted to my friend, Mr. Horace 
Wilson, fifteen lines of the Bratayuda, containing, excluding 
repetitions, 116 words: of these 46 were Sanskrit, making the 
proportion of this last nearly 40 in 100, which far exceeds that 
in the modern language. With the exception of three words 
all of them were nouns. 



xxxviii DISSERTATION. 

In the Kawi of the Bratayuda, Malay words are found, as in 
the modern Javanese, but the proportion is much smaller. Out 
of the 2087 words, already mentioned, I could find no more 
than 80. These are the same as are found in modern Javanese, 
although there are a few which have become obsolete in the latter, 
as takut, "fear;^' chahya, ''light;" and alun, "a wave or 
billow." Others in the Kawi come nearer to the Malay form 
than in the modern language; as dan, "and," which, in modern 
Javanese, is Ian; juga, "also," which is uga; and d-ad-a, "the 
breast," which is jaja. 

The Kawi abounds more in consonants than the modern 
language. Thus nusa, an "island," in modern Javanese, is 
nuswa, or nusya; in Kawi, d'ad'i, "to become," is d-ad-ya; 
kadaton, " a palace," is kadatyan ; raden, " a particular title," 
is radyan; manusa, "man," is manuswa, or manusya; and aja, 
" do not," is ajTiwa. 

It should be observed that many words found in the Kawi 
are sufficiently known to Javanese scholars, although rarely 
used in modern composition. Among these may be reckoned 
some personal pronouns, and some particles. Kawi, more- 
over, is written in Sanskrit metres and blank verse, but 
modern Javanese in a peculiar rhyming measure of its own. 
When, therefore, it is considered that the Kawi is no longer 
the language of law or religion, but merely a dead lan- 
guage, it is not difficult to understand how it comes to be 
so little understood, while, in decyphering inscriptions, the 
difficulty is enhanced by an obsolete character. Accord- 
ing to the date which I have preferred, the author of the 
Bratayuda wrote two hundred years before Chaucer. Had 
then Chaucer treated of Anglo-Saxon story and northern 
mythology, and especially had he written in some old form 
of black letter, he would, unquestionabty, have puzzled even 
English literati, with all their ingenuity and perseverance. 
But the poem of Pusadah is more remote from the present 
race of Javanese, in time and subject, than Chaucer is 
fi'om us. 

But the most satisfactory proof that Kawi is only an anti- 
quated Javanese is, that whole passages, now and then, occur 



DISSERTATION. xxxix 

easily intelligible to ordinary scholars. T shall give two short 
ones from the Bratayuda as examples : — 

Sang Krisna mantuki, ngiiiagii-a sang sumantri, 
Prapat ing giiya, ngusapi janira sang sumantri. 

'• Krisna retui-ned, followed by his chief councillor ; and ariiving at her 
dwelling, he wiped the feet of Pandupatni" (the mother of the Pandus). 

Na wuwusira, su Dewi Kunti, Krisna soho tangis 
Sang Inujaran iinijar, tan saba nrapa mahisi, 
Sakarapa batara, manggih ngwang waka-sannika 
Lingngii-a tar umantuk rinwaug sang Warawidura. 

" Such were the words of her, the exalted Dewikimti, and Krisna wept. He 
said, ' Grieve not, oh pi-incess ! I am the means through which the pleasure of 
the gods shall be carried into effect.' Thus saying, he bent his way to the palace 
of Warawidura." 

The principal foreign languages intermixed with Javanese are 
Sanskrit, Talugu, and Arabic. Having already described the 
Elements manner in which the last of these came to be intro- 
jlt'^anese duccd into the languages of the Archipelago, I have 
Sanskrit ^^^ ^^ make some observations on the two first. 
Sanskrit is found in Javanese in a much larger proportion than 
in any other language of the Archipelago, and to judge by this 
fact and the numerous relics of Hinduism which are still found 
in Java, this island must have been the chief seat of the Hindu 
religion in the Archipelago, and probably the chief point from 
which it was disseminated over the rest of the islands. 

From the comparative purity in which Sanskrit is found in 
Javanese, we must conclude that it was received at once from 
the parent stock, and not through a secondary channel, as 
Latin into English, or Sanskrit itself into the languages of the 
Buddhist nations, or Arabic, through Persian, into the lan- 
guages of Hindustan. Perhaps the most analogous case is the 
Latin found in the Welsh and Irish languages, although the 
Sanskrit is in greater amount, and more active in form in 
Javanese, than Latin in these tongues. This fact might lead, 
at first sight, to the supposition that the Sanskrit language was 
introduced by a people of whom it was the vernacular language, 
but for such an opinion there is assuredly no foundation. In 



xl DISSERTATION. 

the nearest parts of the continent of India to the Archipelago, 
and with which alone an intercourse with it is known to have 
existed, the Sanskrit is itself a foreign tongue, not to say that 
there is no record of a people of whom it was the vernacular 
language. 

When it is said that the Sanskrit in Javanese exists in con- 
siderable purity, the assertion must be taken with some latitude. 
The phonetic characters of the Sanskrit and Javanese are so 
different, and the Javanese alphabet so imperfect, in comparison 
with that in which Sanskrit is usually written, that some errors 
from these sources were inevitable. The result is, that we find 
permutations both of vowels and consonants, and sometimes 
mutilations of words, although the last very seldom. The 
following are a few examples : — For bhumi and bhuwana, " the 
earth," we have bumi and buwana; for jalanidhri, '^the sea," 
jalanidri; for megha, "si cloud," mega; for ghrana, "the nose," 
grana; for varsha, "rain," warsa; for agni, "fire," gani; for 
stri, "a woman," estri ; for siras, "the head," sira and sirsa; 
for gud-a, " sugar," gula ; for karpura, " camphor," kapur ; for 
tamra, or tamraka, "copper," tambaga; for karpasa, "cotton," 
kapas ; for tapas, " ascetic devotion," tapa ; for hara, " defeat," 
alah. 

Besides these orthographic errors, there are some also in 
sense : — Pratala, in Sanskrit, is "lower surface," but in Java- 
nese, "the earth:" warttika, in Sanskrit, "place of excellence," 
is in Javanese, "the earth :" the two words vana and adri mean 
" forest " and " mountain " in Sanskrit, but in Javanese are made 
one word, meaning " forest " only ; the two words jala and nidhi 
mean, in Sanskrit, " rain " and " abundance," and are written as 
one word in Javanese, jalanidi, meaning " rain ;" tirta, " holy 
place where Avaters join," is in Javanese, " water ;" andaka, 
"the blind," in Sanskrit, is in Javanese, "the ox," an epithet 
for it, however, also in the first ; gandeva, " the bow of Aijuna," 
is in Javanese, " any bow." There are, however, examples of 
more serious mistakes : — Yuvat, " a perpetual youth," is in 
Javanese, "a god or deity," in the form of juwata; avatara, "a 
descent," in Sanskrit, is in Javanese, "a great deity;" sastra, 
"any branch of knowledge," in Sanskrit, is in Javanese, "a 



DISSERTATION. xli 

letter of the alphabet ;" masa, "a month/' in Sanskrit^ is "time," 
in Javanese ; saukala, " computation," is in Javanese, " the era 
of Salivana;" krama is "order" in Sanskrit, and in Javanese, 
the name of the ceremonial language, and also " marriage ; " 
bhasm, " ashes," in Sanskrit, is basmi, " to consume by fire," in 
Javanese. Upon the whole, however, the sense is in general 
correctly rendered, and in the orthography we have no such 
wide departures from the original as we find, for example, in the 
languages of the South of Europe derived from the Latin. 
There are no examples of such violent permutations of letters 
or divisions as convert folium, " a leaf," into foglia, in Italian, 
feuille, in French, and hojo, in Spanish; ferrum, "iron," into 
ferro, fer, and hierro ; filius, " a son," into figlio, fils, and hijo ; 
or lac, " milk," into latta, lait, and leche. This would seem to 
show that the adopted Sanskrit words were committed at once to 
writing from one written language to another, and not from one 
oral language to another ; and no doubt this was the case, for 
the Sanskrit came originally through the Hindu priesthood. 

Proper names, as well as ordinary words, have been introduced 
into the Javanese from the Sanskrit. These are often com- 
pounded of two Sanskrit words, or of a Sanskrit and a native 
one, and consist of the names of mythological personages, the 
names of men, of titles, and names of places. I shall give a few 
examples. Such proper names abound in Java, but are also 
found in other parts of the western, but not the eastern, portion 
of the Archipelago. To the names of mythological personages 
it is not necessary to allude, as they embrace nearly all that are 
contained in the poems of the Mahabarat and Ramayana. For 
the names, or rathei', titles of persons, we have such as Truna- 
jaya, "the youth of victory," and Singanagara, "the lion of the 
kingdom." When one of the words of a compound is native, it 
is frequently taken from the Kawi, as Mangkubumi, " cherisher 
of the earth," in which the first member of the compound 
is Kawi, and the last Sanskrit. In the title Chakraningrat, 
the first word of the compound is the Sanskrit for a " discus 
or wheel," and the last is Kawi, " the world." The practice 
of using these names or titles is in full force at the present 
day in Java. 



xlii DISSERTATION. 

The names of places are of more interest to the autiqnaiy. 
The name of the island of Madura is from Madhura^ the present 
Muttura of Upper Hindustan^ so celebrated as a place of 
pilgrimage. Ayixgya, the name of the capital of one of the 
native princes of Java, is a corruption of Ayudhya, the name of 
the kingdom of the demigod Rama. This is the word which we 
write Oude. Indrakila is the name of an ancient kingdom of 
Java, and means " the bolt of Indra." Indramaya, the name 
of a place on the northern coast of Java, and in the country of 
the Sundas, means " the illusion of Indra." Indrapura, a place 
on the western coast of Sumatra, signifies " the city of Indra/' 
Talaga is the name of a district of Java in the country of the 
Sundas, and is a corruption of the Sanskrit taraga, " a pond," 
which it takes from a lake within it. Janggala, the name of an 
ancient kingdom of Java in the country of the Sundas, means 
''a thicket." Pranaraga, the name of a fine province in the 
eastern part of Java abounding in Hindu remains, and at the 
capital of which the poem of the Bratayuda was composed, 
means "the desire of life." Jayaraga, a district also in the 
eastern part of Java, is composed of two words meaning "victory" 
and " desire." Wirasaba, another district in the same part of 
that island, signifies in Sanskrit, "hall of heroes." Chandisewu is 
the name of a group of numerous Hindu temples in the central 
parts of Java. The last part of the word is " thousand," in 
Javanese, and the first in Sanskrit, a name of the consort 
of Siva, of whom there is an image in the principal temple. 
Singapura, the modern British settlement of Singapore, is com- 
posed of two Sanskrit words, " lion " and " city." Sukadana, in 
Borneo, a place once occupied by the Javanese, means in Sanskrit, 
"parrots' gift ;" and Indragiri, on the eastern coast of Sumatra, 
signifies in Sanskrit, " the mountain of Indra." Sanskrit names 
of places continue to be given by the present Javanese. Thus 
Kartasura, a native capital, founded in the seventeenth century, 
means "the work of gods or heroes." It was abandoned for 
the present capital of the Susunan of Java, fou)ided only in 
1712, and called Surakarta, being the same words reversed. 
Ayugya, already mentioned, was founded as late as 1756. 

Several of the highest mountains in Java have Sanskrit na.nes, 



DISSERTATION, xliii 

as Sumeru, the Hindu Olympus; Prawata, "the mountain;" 
Sundaru, " the beautiful ; " Arjuna, "the mountain of Arjuna;" 
and Brahama, " the mountain of Brahma/' or " of fire/' for it has 
an active volcano. Neither the Javanese, or any other nation of 
the Archipelago, have names for the larger islands, unless such 
as are derived from their principal inhabitants. Sumatra may 
be, however, an exception, and Sanskrit. Barbosa, whose narra- 
tive is dated in 1516, and who visited the island some years 
earlier, describes it with surprising correctness under this name 
just as we now write it, and it must be presumed that he received 
it from Arabian, Persian, or Indian merchants, for the word is 
hardly known to the natives of the country, and he informs us 
himself that the ancients called it Taprobana.* 

Some European scholars have attached much importance to 
the names of places, as afi'ording evidence of conquest and pos- 
session by distant nations, but certainly they are of little value 
for such a purpose, so far as Sanskrit is concerned, in the islands 
of the Archipelago, where priests could impose them, as well as 
conquerors, and where the natives of the country could do so as 
well as either of them, — which, indeed, the latter have actually 
done, almost in our own times. 

The time and manner in which the Hindu religion, and its 

inseparable attendant, the Sanskrit language, were introduced 

into the Archipelago, is a matter of, at least, grreat 

Introduc- . . mi i i •, , 

of Hindu- curiosity. The monsoons, there can be no doubt, had 
a large share in bringing about this revolution. Aided 
by these, the timid Hindus could early accomplish voyages 
which were impracticable, even in the jNIediterranean and 
Euxine, to their more intrepid and adventurous cotemporaries 
of Greece and Italy. We may be even tolerably sure, that, had 
monsoons, instead of westerly winds, prevailed in the Atlantic, 
America must have been discovered long before the time of 
Columbus. The trade which the Hindus would be enabled to 
carry on under their auspices, would lead, in time, to partial 
settlement, and of course to an acquaintance with the manners 
and languages of the country ; finally, to conversion to Hindu- 

* Liliro fli-Odoardo Barbosa. Ramusio, vol. 1 



xliv DISSERTATION. 

isnij and this to the introduction of the language and literature 
of the Hindus. The Hindus who effected all this^ I have no 
doubtj were the people of the Coromandel Coast^ and among 
these the most active, intelligent, and enterprising nation, the 
Talugus, called by the Javanese and Malays, Kling, and well 
known to Europeans under the names of Gentoos and Chuliahs. 
These are the only people of Hindustan who now carry on, or 
are known at any time to have carried on, a regular trade with 
the Eastern Islands. Barbosa described Malacca before its con- 
quest by Albuquerque in 1511.* This intelligent and authentic 
traveller says, " There are here many great merchants. Moors 
as well as Gentile strangers, but chiefly of the Chetis, who 
are of the Coromandel Coast, and have large ships which 
they call giunchi ; " and he afterwards adds : " The merchants 
of the Coromandel Coast, called Chetis, who dwell among them 
(the Malays), are for the most part corpulent, and go naked 
from the waist upwards." Tlie name given here as Chetis, 
there can be little doubt, is a misprint for Kling, or Chleng, as 
a Portuguese or Italian would write it. This is certainly the 
name that would be given to Barbosa on the spot, and the con- 
jecture is strengthened by the use, along with it, of the Malay 
word jung, our English junk, corrupted giunchi. The trade 
alluded to by Barbosa has been carried on for the period of 
near three centuries and a half, which have elapsed since he 
wrote, and most probably had gone on for many ages before. 
It was, in fact, the second stage of the tedious transit which 
brought the clove and nutmeg to Rome, the first being the 
home trade of the Malays and Javanese, which brought them 
from the eastern to the western parts of the Archipelago. 

Neither the Javanese, the Malays, or the Talugus have 
any record of the time or manner in Avhich this intercourse 
commenced, and mere circumstantial evidence, therefore, is all 
that is available to us on the subject. The Javanese, along with 
the Malays, were, when Europeans first visited the Archipelago, 
found conducting what may be called its internal carrying 
trade. They collected and conveyed the native products of 

* Libro <li O(l(xirdo Barbosa. Ramusio, vol. i., yi. 318. 



DTSSEKTATION. xlv 

the Archipelago to the emporia of the west, where they 
bartered them with the traders of Western Asia, for the 
manufactures and produce of the latter, without themselves ever 
going beyond the limits of their own seas. Barbosa enu- 
merates the commodities which were, at the time of his visit, 
brought to Malacca, then one of the principal emporia. They 
were camphor, aloes-wood, white sandal wood, benzoin or 
frankincense, black pepper, cubeb pepper, the clove and the 
nutmeg with its mace, honey, bees-wax, gold, tin, and slaves. 
He adds, that the native vessels went as far as the Moluccas 
and Timur in quest of these articles, and that in their outward 
and homeward voyage they touched at various intermediate 
islands for trade. Such, then, was the state of the internal 
trade of the Archipelago, before it was disturbed by European 
interference, and such, in charactei", it had probably been 
for many ages. It is remarkable that several of the native 
products of the Archipelago are known even to the natives 
themselves either chiefly or entirely by Sanskrit names : as 
for camphor, " kapur," a corruption of " karpura ; " for aloes, 
" gaaru," a corruption of " aguru ; " for the nutmeg, " pala," 
for jatipahla; and for the clove in Javanese "gomeda," for 
gomedha, literally " cow's marrow ; " for black pepper, " mari- 
cha.'' This would seem to prove that it was the trade of 
the Hindus that gave importance to these commodities, which, 
it may be added, are none of them held in much repute by 
the inhabitants of the countries that produce them. 

In the Javanese chronologies, never very reliable, and in 
the early part wholly fabulous, the introduction of Hinduism 
is referred to a king called "Aji Saka." These two words 
are Sanskrit, the first meaning king, and the last the era 
of Salivana, which is that which prevails in the south of 
Continental India. In fixing the commencement of this era, 
there is a discrepancy of one year between the Tamil and the 
Talugu reckoning, the first making it seventy-eight years 
after Christ and the last seventy-nine. It is the latter which 
prevails in the island of Bali, and even in Java, allowing for 
the error which has taken place since the year 1478 through 
the adoption of lunar for solar time. This fact, the only 



xlvi DISSERTATION. 

palpable one that can be adduced, would seem to determine 
the Hindu intercourse of the Archipelago to the Talugus. 
It leaves the commencement of the intercourse undetermined, 
and all that can be inferred from it, as to time, is that the 
Hindus carried on an intercourse with the Archipelago, after 
their adoption of the era of Salivana. 

In order", therefore, to be able to form even a reasonable con- 
jecture respecting the commencement of the intercourse between 
the Hindus and the Archipelago, we must have recourse to 
circumstantial evidence. Among the commodities which the 
Javanese and Malays brought to the emporia of the western 
part of the Archipelago to barter with the foreign traders, the 
only -two not liable to be confounded with the similar products 
of other parts of the East are the clove and the nutmeg. 
These, it is known, are not enumerated in the minute list of 
merchandise given in the Periplus of the Erythnean sea, thought 
to have been written in the sixty-third year of Christ, nor are 
they mentioned by Pliny, who wrote about the same time. 
Down, thei'efore, to the first century after Christ, the clove and 
nutmeg were unknown in Europe, and probably even in Hin- 
dustan. Little more than a hundred years later they are 
enumerated in the Digest of the Roman Laws. At this time, 
therefore, the Hindus, who formed the second link of the chain 
of communication, must have carried on an intercourse with the 
Archipelago, so that we can carry it back for a period of more 
than seventeen centuries. But it may have existed long prior 
to this ; for, besides the clove and nutmeg, the Archipelago 
produces several other commodities in demand in the markets 
of Hindustan, as sandal and aloes wood, frankincense, camphor, 
cubeb pepper, ivory, gold, and tin, the last an article in exten- 
sive use with the Hindus, and which they could hardly have 
obtained from any other quarter than the Archipelago. 

It may be objected to the hypothesis of the Trdugus being 
the people who introduced the Hindu religion and its language 
into the Archipelago, that if such had been the case, Sanskrit 
would have found its way into the Javanese and other native 
langiiages, along with the idiom of the Talugus, and not in the 
state of comparative purity in which we find it. But if it had 



DISSEETATIOX. xlvii 

come along, and intermixed with that language, such intermix- 
ture would have implied either conquest by the Talugus, or an 
extensive settlement of that people in some form or another ; 
and of this there is not a trace. It is not true, however, that 
no Talugu words are to be found in the Javanese and Malay, 
for there is a considerable number coextensive with the influence 
exercised by this people, — some pure Talugu, and others which 
are Sanskrit, that bear evidence of ha\'ing passed through that 
language. 

The Hindu religion and Sanskrit language were, in all pro- 
babilit}^, earliest introduced in the western part of Sumatra, the 
nearest part of the Archipelago to the continent of India. Java, 
however, became eventually the favourite abode of Hinduism, 
and its language the chief recipient of Sanskrit. Through the 
Javanese and Malays, Sanskrit appears to have been dissemi- 
nated over the rest of the Archipelago, and even to the Phihp- 
pine Islands. This is to be inferred, — from the greater number 
of Sanskrit words in Javanese and Malay, especially in the first 
of these, than in the other cultivated languages, — from their 
existing in greater purity in the Javanese and Malay, and from 
the errors of these two languages, both as to sense and ortho- 
gi-aphy, haWng been copied by all the other tongues. An 
approximation to the proportions of Sanskrit existing in some 
of the principal languages will show that the amount constantly 
diminishes as we recede from Java and Sumatra, until all 
vestiges of it disappear in the dialects of Polynesia. In the 
ordinary written language of Java, the proportion is about 110 
in lUOO ; in Malay 50 ; in the Sunda of Java 40 ; in the Bugis, 
the principal language of Celebes, 17 ; and in the Tagala, one 
of the principal languages of the Philippines, about one and a 
half. In the languages of Polynesia there are none at all. To 
prove the superior purity of the Sanskrit in Javanese and Malay, 
and the adoption of the errors of these by the other languages, I 
shall adduce a few examples : — Kut'a is "a walV^ or "a house,'' in 
Sanskrit, but in the Javanese, Malay, and every other language, 
including the Tagala and Bisaya of the Philippines, it means a 
" fortress." Sutra in Sanskrit is " a thread," but in Javanese, 
Malay, and in all the other languages of the Archipelago in 



xlviii DISSERTATION. 

which the word is found, it means " silk." Avatara in Sanskrit 
is " a descent/' or " coming down/' but in all the languages of 
the Ai'chipelago it signifies " a principal god/' or " deitj'." In 
Sanskrit laksa is " a hundred thousand/' and in all the lan- 
guages of the Archipelago it means " ten thousand." Tapas 
in Sanskrit, and in all the languages of the Archipelago, is 
"ascetic devotion;" but the latter drop the final s, and the 
word is, throughout, tapa. Guda is " sugar ; " ghura " a 
horse ; " tamraka " copper ; " and karpasa " cotton," in San- 
skrit ; but these words, in all the languages of the Archipelago 
in which they are found, are gula, kuda, tambaga, and kapas. 
The word wartta " news," or " intelligence," in Sanskrit, is in 
Javanese, warta ; in Malay, brita ; and in Tagala, balita. Sans- 
krit words are found in greatest purity in the Javanese, and next 
to it in the Malay, their corruption increasing as we recede from 
Java and Sumatra. The Sanskrit swarga, " heaven," is also 
swarga in Javanese ; in Malay, generally, surga ; and in Bugis, 
suruga. Naraka, " the infernal regions," in Sanskrit, is correctly 
written in Javanese and Malay ; but in the Bugis it is ranaka. 
Charitra, "a narration," in Sanskrit, is written correctly in Java- 
nese ; in Malay usually charita ; but in the Tagala of the Philip- 
pines, salita. In these corruptions of pronunciation, however, 
it must be remarked, that much must be attributed to diflFerence 
in the phonetic character of the different insular languages. 

The influence of the Javanese over the other nations and 
languages of the Archipelago was probably not less than that 
Javanese ^^ ^^® Malays, but owing to the Javanese language 
history. ^Q^ being, like the Malay, the common medium of 
communication, the evidence of it is less complete. Yet in 
all the languages of the Archipelago, and even in the Polynesian 
tongue, many words exist which are common to both languages, 
and a few which are certainly Javanese without being Malay. 
At Palembang, at the eastern extremity of Sumatra, the Javanese 
established a colony in the beginning, according to their own 
account, of the fourteenth century, and here Javanese, in its 
own peculiar written character is still the language of the 
Court. On the rivers Indragiri and Jambi, and those of Dili 
and Asahan on the eastern coasts of the same island, they 



DISSERTATION. xlix 

had also settlements. Indragiri is Sanskrit, meaning the 
mountain of Indra, and Jambi takes its name from the 
Javanese word for the Areca palm. Here were discovered, 
a few years ago, the remains of Hindu temples, with genuine 
Hindu images. On the rivers of Dili and Asahan are the 
remains of two settlements still called Kut'a Jawa, signifying 
the Javanese castles or towns. 

The earliest notice we have, and it is on native authority, 
of the carrying trade of the Javanese is a.d. 1304, when this 
people is mentioned in the annals or chronologies of Ternate, 
one of the Moluccas, as trading with that island and settling 
in it. Subsequent settlements are stated to have been made 
in 1322, in 1358, in 1465, and in 1495 ; while, as late as 1537, 
the Javanese are stated by the Portuguese historians to have 
entered into a league with the traders of Celebes, for the 
purpose of overthrowing the monopoly of the spice trade which 
had been established by the Portuguese. Barbosa, before 
quoted, gives an account of the Javanese who traded with, 
or were settled at Malacca in the beginning of the fifteenth 
century, before the Portuguese conquest. He describes them 
as not only carrying on trade, but settling there with their 
families. His account of them is by no means so favourable 
as might be given of the Javanese of our times. According 
to him, they were ingenious and skilful in the arts, but 
perfidious, malicious, untruthful, and greatly addicted to run 
amuck, which he, or his transcribers or printers, write "amilos." 
They had, he says, no clothing from the waist upwards, and 
no covering to the head, but dressed their hair in a peculiar 
fashion. Barbosa, however, it should be recollected, must 
have seen them within thirty years after their conversion 
to the Mahomedan religion. The commodities which they 
imported from Java, he informs us, consisted of great 
quantities of rice; the cubeb pepper, now known to be an 
exclusive product of that island ; the dried flesh of oxen, 
deer, and hogs ; a certain yellow dye, which he calls cazuba, 
evidently kasumba, or safflower ; onions, garlick, common 
poultry, and such arms as spears, shields, swords of fine steel 
with highly wrought hilts. These are such articles as the 



1 DISSERTATION. 

native trade generally consists of at the present day, and the 
statement is a very faithful one.* 

After the account which has been given of the INTalay and 
Javanese languages, they may be compared with each other. 
Com arisen ^^ examination of the Malay, excluding its foreign 
of the Ma- elements, shows that out of 1000 words 285 are 

lay and ' 

Javanese, common to it and the Javanese, and a similar one of 
the Javanese that 240 out of 1000 are common to it and 
the Malay. Of the Malay, 715 parts, and of the Javanese 
7 GO appear to be native, and the probability is, in so far as the 
words are common to them, that these two languages, in the 
course of many ages, have been interchanging words, and not 
that both have received what is common to them from a third 
language, since no such language can be pointed out, or 
even rationally conjectured. 

Among the many words which differ wholly in the two 
languages are the prepositions, but particularly such of them 
as represent the relations expressed by cases in languages of 
complex structure, with the auxiliaries which express the 
tenses of the verb. In Malay the prepositions referred to 
are di, ka, pada, akan, "to," "at,'' ''in," "for," dangan 
"with," dari "from," ulih "by," dalam "in," luar "out," 
atas "above," bawah "below," dakat and ampir "near," 
ad*ap " before," balakang " behind." The corresponding ones 
in Javanese are ing "to," "at," "in," marang, d'atang, taka, 
"to," "for," sangking "from," barang "with," jaroh "in," 
jaba " out," duwur " above," ngisor " below," chalak and par^k 
" near," arap " before," buri " behind." In so far, then, as 
regards the prepositions representing the relations which are 
expressed by inflections in languages of complex structure, 
they differ, it will appear from this, in the two languages. 
Some of the other prepositions, however, are taken occasionally 
from foreign sources, but only as synonyraes. Thus the 
Sanskrit words sama and sarta are in Malay used for dangan 
"with," and antara "between," for the Malay salang and 
the Javanese lat. The Malay auxiliaries which express past 

• Libi-o di Odoardo Bavbosa. Raniusio, vol. I. 



DISSERTATION. 



time ai'e sudah, talali, abis, and lalu. The analogous word 
in Javanese is wus. Future time is expressed in Malay by 
the words man and andak, but in Javanese by arap and bade. 
Without the assistance of their own prepositions and auxiliaries, 
it is certain that these two languages could not be spoken 
or written, but they could be so with ease, without the 
assistance of any of the words that are common to them. When 
to this it is added that a great many of the most familiar 
and essential words of each language are peculiar to itself, we 
may safely come to the conclusion that although the Malay 
and Javanese languages have many words in common, they 
are nevertheless separate and distinct tongues. 

Of the Malay and Javanese words which have the same 
origin, the great majority agree, both in sound and sense, but 
there are a good many exceptions. In the following examples, 
the sound or orthography, or both, differ. 



ENGLISH. 


MAIAT. 


JAVANESE. 


A thorn or prickle. 


Duri. 


Ari, ri. 


Blood. 


Darah. 


Rah. 


Finger. 


Jari. 


Driji. 


Nose. 


Id'ung. 


Irung. 


Love, affection. 


Kasih. 


Asih. 


A song, a ditty. 


Gagawin. 


Kaklawin, 


A star. 


Bintang. 


Lintang. 


The sloth (lemur). 


Kongkang. 


Tukaug. 


Tlie shark. 


Ij'u, yu- 


Kluyu. 


Scabbard, sheath. 


Raugka. 


Wrougka. 


A saw. 


Gargaji. 


Gilraji. 


The fire-fly. 


Kunang. 


Onaiig. 


A spy. 


Solo. 


Cholo. 


A leaf. 


Dawiin. # 


Ron. 


Snare, gin. 


Rachik. 


Prachik. 


Quagmire. 


Lafiau. 


Luiiu. 


Flour, meal. 


Tapung. 


Galapung. 


Palm wine. 


Tuwak. 


Warak. 


Dewlap. 


Jumbil. 


Gombil. 


An axe. 


Ka,pRk 


Kampak. 


A rafter. 


Rasuk. 


Usuk. 


Buffalo. 


Karbau. 


Kabo. 


Joint, ai-ticulation. 


Ruwas. 


Ros. 


The elbow. 


Siku. 


Sikut. 


A fly. 


Lalat. 


Lalar. 


Betel pepper. 


Sirih. 


Suruh. 

e 2 





DISSERTATION. 


ENGLISH. 


MALAY. 


Rice in the husk. 


Pad-i. 


Rice husked. 


Bras. 


The uavel. 


Pusat. 


Left hand. 


Kiri, 


A species of dove. 


Takukur. 


Lime. 


Kapur. 


Lattice-work. 


Rawang. 


Ridge of a roof. 


Rabung. 


A rasp. 


Pai-oh. 


A species of rattle. 


Jalatang. 


Scarce, rare. 


Jarang. 


Dwai-fish. 


Kete. 


Sour, acid. 


Masim. 


Thin, liquid. 


Chayer. 


Fragrant. 


Samarabah. 


Short, cui-t. 


Pend-ak. 


Lean. 


Kurus. 


To couch as an animal. 


Tiirum. 


To bear, to carry. 


Bawa. 


To burn. 


Kobor. 


To crowd around. 


Krubung. 


To press, to squeeze. 


Prah. 


To nip, to pinch. 


Cluibit. 


To daub. 


Chalit. 


To quarrel, to brawl. 


Tangkai-. 


To hinder. 


Taguh. 


To lick. 


Jilat. 


To pluck up. 


Chabut. 


To eat. 


Makan. 


To howl. 


Rawung. 


To live. 


Idup. 



JAVANESE. 

Pari. 

Wos. 

Pusar. 

Kiriug. 

Darkuku. 

Kapu. 

Krawang. 

Uwung. 

Parud. 

Latang. 

Arang. 

Kate. 

Asam. 

Cewer. 

Marbah. 

Chand'ak. 

Kuru. 

Jarum. 

Gawa. 

Obor. 

Rubung. 

Paras. 

Juwit. 

Dulit. 

Tukar. 

Chaguh. 

Dilat. 

Jabud. 

Mangan. 

Bayung. 

Urip. 



In these examples the difference between the two languages, 
sometimes consists of no more than a permutation of letters, 
while, in other instances, the words of one language seem no 
more than abbreviations of those of the other. In the follow- 
ing examples, however, there is a greater difference. 



MALAY. 


ENGLISH. 


JAVANESE. 


ENGLISH. 


Bah. 


Inundation. 


Wah. 


Increase. 


Bangit. 


Quickly. 


BangAt. 


Very, exceedingly. 


Amb^n. 


A girdle, girth. 


AmbAn. 


To gird. 


Batas. 


Dyke of a watered field. 


Watits. 


A boundary. 


Candil. 


A word of abuse. 


Chrmtil. 


A young mouse. 


Supana. 


A flight of steps. 


Supana. 


A road. 


Ulam. 


Pot herbs. 


Ulam. 


Fish, kitchen (ScoUice) 





DISSERTATION. 


li 


MALAY. 


ENGLISH. 


JAVANESE. 


ENGLISH. 


Tamdn. 


A friend. 


Tamdn, 


True, faithful. 


Lilnga. 


The Sesame plant. 


Lauga. 


Oil. 


Dandanan. 


Paraphernalia. 


Dandanan. 


Preparations. 


Santun. 


Polite. 


Santun. 


A flower; an obeisance. 


Saudang. 


Belt, zone. 


Sandang. 


Dress, clothing. 


Suku. 


A fourth part. 


Suku. 


The leg. 


Awan. 


The firmament. 


Awan. 


Daylight. 


Silam. 


Evening. 


Silam. 


To immei'ge. 


Langan. 


The fore-arm. 


LilugAn. 


The upper ann. 


Pad-ang. 


A plain. 


Pad-ang. 


Clear, open. 


Pat.ang. 


Evening. 


Patang. 


Dark. 


Pustaka. 


Sorcery. 


Pustaka. 


A book, a wi-iting. 


Tdnd-as. 


To behead. 


Tand-as. 


The head. 


Lurut. 


To strip. 


Lorod. 


To deprive, to cashier. 


Idam. 


A longing desire. 


Idam. 


Pregnant. 


Nist-a. 


Opprobrious words. 


Nisfa. 


Pool-, lowly. 


Mewah. 


Plenty, abundance. 


Miwah. 


More. 


Ina. 


Mean, low. 


Ina. 


Blemished. 


Mangkat. 


Deceased. 


Mangkat. 


To depart. 


Laju. 


Swift. 


Laju. 


To pass. 


Dangar. 


To hear. 


Dangar. 


To understand. 


Tau. 


To know. 


Tau. 


Skilful. 


Chaiak. 


Likely. 


Chaiak. 


Near. 


Lakas. 


Quickly. 


Lakas. 


To begin. 


Jampi. 


To mutter charms. 


Jampi. 


A medicme, a charm. 



In such cases as these, the languages seem to have intermixed 
through oral communication, and not by writing. It is seklom 
that we can trace the words that are common to the two 
languages to their special source, but there are a few instances 
in which this may be done satisfactorily. In Malay, kabajikan 
" goodness " or 'Virtue," is correctly kabachikan, an abstract 
noun taken from the Javanese adjective bachik, "good/' larabisa, 
" love-sick," is from the Javanese word lara, " sick,'' and the San- 
skrit bisa " poison ; " larawirang is from two Javanese words, lara 
"sick" and wirang " shame," meaning " ashamed, abashed ; " lor- 
wetan, in Malay, " all around," is from lor, " the north," and 
wetan, " the east ; " sangagung is in Malay a royal epithet, 
from sang a relative pronoun, serving also as a definite article, 
and agung, " great," jointly meaning " he who is great," both 
words being Javanese ; parwara, " a waiting-maid," in Malay is 
from para, " all," and rara, " a maid or virgin," both words, also, 



liv DISSERTATION. 

Javanese ; panjurit, " a warrior/^ in Malay, is a corruption of 
the Javanese prajurit with the same meaning, and itself from 
jurit, " war ; " pagawe, in Malay, " a tool," is the same 
word in Javanese, meaning " work," and taken from the verb 
gawe, " to do " or *' work ; " juwita, " a princess," in Malay 
is the same word in Javanese, meaning " a woman ; " suri, 
" a queen," in Malay, is from sore, " a woman," in Javanese ; 
pangawa, " a chieftain," in Malay, is from pangawa, " a coun- 
cillor," itself from gawa, " to bear " or " carry," in Javanese ; 
pangawan, " a messenger," in Malay is from the same root in 
Javanese, as the last word;" paugalasan, "a messenger," in Malay 
is from alas, "■ a forest," in Javanese ; titah, " a royal command," 
in Malay is from titah, " to create," in Javanese ; karau, " the 
dry season," in Malay is from karo "second," and, also, the 
second season of the Javanese rural year; ganjaran, "a gift," in 
Malay is from the same word in Javanese, itself from ganjar, 
" to bestoAV ; " kaprabiian, " regalia," in Malay is from the 
same word in Javanese, meaning " royal property," itself from 
prabu, "a king;" kukus, "distillation,^' in Malay is from 
kukus, " vapour," or " steam," in Javanese ; kongkonan, " a 
messenger," in Malay is from the same word in Javanese, 
itself from kongkon, " to order," or " command." There are a 
few other words of which the origin is not so certain, but which 
are probably Javanese ; as pandoman, " the mariner^s compass," 
which may be a verbal noun from dom, " to subdivide," and 
sambahayang, " worship," or " adoration," which may be a 
compound of sambah " an obeisance " or " worship," and 
ywang, " a god." 

Besides Javanese words naturalised in Malay, there are 
others occasionally used, but well known to Malay scholars 
to be Javanese and not genuine Malay. These are chiefly 
found in writings taken from the Javanese. The following 
are examples: — jaksa, "a judge;" rangga, "the title of a class 
of ofKcers;" rama, "father;" ratu, "a king;" gusti, "lord,'' 
or " master ; " alas, " a forest ; " tapili, " a pettycoat ; " 
kampah, " the lower part of a man's dress ; " sakar, " a 
flower ; " and from it, makar, *' to flower," or " blossom ; " edan, 
" mad," or " fooHsh ; " anom, " young ; " gring, " sick ; " 



DISSERTATION. 



sinjang, " cloth ; " wetan, " the east ; " kulon^ " the west ; " 
lor, " the north ; " and kidul, " the south/' 

Malay words are not so easily traced in the Javanese, but 
the most artificial branch of the language, the ceremonial dialect, 
contains a good many which, as they are not found in any 
other department of the language, must have been taken from 
the Malay, in comparatively recent times. Examples of such 
words are pasir, " sand ; '^ guro for guruh, " thunder ; " ibu, 
"mother;^-' talingan for taliuga, "the ear;" lid'ah, "the 
tongue ; " jari, " a finger " or " toe ; " rah for darah, " blood ; " 
ubar for ubat, " medicine ; " saram for garam, " salt ; " tuli, 
" deaf; " lilin, " beeswax ; " puyuh, " a quail.'' 

In many cases, words which appeal', on a superficial view, origi- 
nal in both languages, are but synonymes for native words of each 
of them. The following are a few examples taken from Malay :— 



MALAY. 


JAVANESE. 


EIJGLISH. 


Arimau, machan. 


Machan. 


A tiger. 


Ani-ani, i-aySp. 


Rayap. 


A white ant (termes). 


Katam, kapitiiig. 


Kapiting. 


A crab. 


Agas, agih, iiamuk. 


Namuk. 


A gnat, a musquito. 


Pasan, kalabang. 


Kalabang. 


A centipede. 


Lipas, kachawa. 


Kachawa. 


A cockchafer. 


Bukit, gunung. 


Gunung. 


A mountain. 


Silnjata, gaman. 


Gainau. 


A weapon. 


Tukang, juru. 


Juru. 


An artificer. 


Buruug, maruk. 


Manuk. 


A bird, a fowl. 


Bunga, kambaug. 


Kambang. 


A flower. 


Inang, susu. 


Susu. 


The mamma;. 


Rama-rama, kupu. 


Kupu. 


A butterfly. 


Ubat, jampi. 


Jampi. 


A charm, medicine. 


Utan, alas. 


Alas. 


A forest. 


Nur, kalapa. 


Kalapa. 


A coronet. 


Sisir, garu. 


Garu. 


A comb, a rake. 


Balling, janggal. 


Janggar. 


Comb of a cock. 


Barang, band'a. 


Band-a. 


Goods, property. 


Lauclas, paron. 


Paron. 


An anvil. 


Racliim, upas. 


Upas. 


Poison. 


Basar, aguug. 


Agung. 


Great. 


Batul, banar. 


B^nar. 


Straight, right, just. 


Kalu, bisu. 


Bisu. 


Dumb. 


Babal, donga, bod'o. 


Bod-o. 


Stupid, doltish. 


BiJung, bolak, goroh. 


Goroh. 


False, lying. 


Merah, abang. 


Abang. 


Red. 


Jatuh, tiba. 


Tiba. 


To fall. 



DISSERTATION. 



The same practice is followed with Sanskrit words^ of which 
I shall give a few examples in illustration, from the Javanese : 



JAVANESE. 


SANSKRIT. 


ENGLISH. 


Cheleug, sukara. 


Sukara. 


The hog. 


Jarau, kucVa. 


Ghura. 


A horse. 


Kabo, maliisa. 


Mahisa. 


The buffalo. 


And-as, sirah. 


Sii-as. 


The head. 


Mauuk, paksi. 


paksi. 


A bird. 


Alas, wana. 


Wana. 


A forest. 


D-usun, desa. 


Desa. 


A village. 


Umah, griya. 


Griya. 


A house. 


Musuh, satru. 


Satru. 


An enemy. 


Sarangeuge, stirya. 


Surya. 


The sun. 


Wulan, cliandra, sasi. 


Chandra, sasi. 


The moon. 


Upas, bisa. 


Bisa. 


Poison. 



Among the words more or less common to the Malay and 

Javanese are the numerals. Both reckon as far as a thousand 

in native numbers, and for those above it, they have 

recourse to the Sanskrit. The usual native numerals 

are as follow, exclusive of those of the Javanese ceremonial 

dialect : — 



ENGLISH. 


MALAY. 


JAVANESE. 


One. 


Sa, sawatu, suwatu, satu. 


Sa, sawiji, siji. 


Two. 


Duwa. 


Loro, roro. 


Three. 


Tiga. 


Talu. 


Four. 


Ampat. 


Papat. 


Five. 


Lima. 


Lima. 


Six. 


Anam. 


Nauam. 


Seven. 


Tujuh. 


Pitu. 


Eight. 


Dalapan, dulapan. 


Wolu. 


Nine. 


Sdmbilan, salapan. 


Sanga. 


Ten. 


Puluh. 


Puluh. 


Eleven. 


Sablas. 


Suwalas. 


Twelve. 


Duwablas. 


Rolas. 


Thirteen. 


Tigablas. 


Talulas. 


Fourteen. 


Ampatblas. 


Patblas. 


Fifteen. 


Limablas. 


Limalas. 


Sixteen. 


Anamblas. 


Nambalas. 


Seventeen. 


Tujuhblas. 


Pitulas. 


Eighteen. 


Dcilapanblas. 


Wolulas. 


Nineteen. 


Sambilanblas. 


Saugalas. 


Twenty. 


Duwapuluh. 


Rongpuluh. 


Twenty-one. 


Duwapuluh-satu. 


Salikur. 


Hundred. 


Ratus. 


Atus. 


Thousand. 


Ribu. 


Ewu. 



DISSERTATION. Ivii 

The ordinal numbers are formed in Malay by prefixing to 
the cardinals the inseparable particle ka, and in Javanese by 
the same particle, or by the particle peng, as katalu or pengtalu, 
" third." Fractional numbers in Malay are formed by the 
inseparable prefix par, which in Javanese is pra. 

With the exception of the first five numerals and the 
decimal, the numerals of the ceremonial dialect of the Javanese 
are the same as those of the ordinary language. For one, the 
ceremonial numeral is " satunggal ; " for two, " kalih ; '^ for 
thi'ee, " tiga ; " for four, " sakawan ; " for five, " gangsal ; " 
and for ten, " dasa." 

The ]\Ialays, for numbers above a thousand, reckon by 
Sanskrit numerals up to a million, and the Javanese as far 
as tAvelve figures, or a billion. The latter only have the whole 
series of Sanskrit, or at least of Hindu numerals, which they 
make as follow : — one, " eka ; " two, " dwa ; " three, " tri ; " 
four, " chator ; " five, " pancha ; " six, " sad ; " seven, " sapta ; " 
eight, " asta ; " nine, " nawa ; " ten, " dasa ; " a hundred, 
" sata ; " a thousand, " sasra ; " ten thousand, " laksa ; " a 
hundred thousand, " kat"i ; " a million, " yuta ; " ten millions, 
" wĕindra ; " a hundred millions, " bara ; " ten thousand 
millions, " kirna ; " a billion, " wurda." 

With respect to the native numerals, it will be observed, 
that those representing the numbers one, four, five, six, ten; 
the adjunct expressing the numbers from eleven to nineteen ; 
a hundred and a thousand, are essentially the same in the 
two languages. The words for two, three, seven, eight, and 
nine diff'er wholly in the two languages. In reckoning the 
numbers between twenty and thirty, the Javanese has a 
peculiar nomenclature in which it is followed by the Sunda, 
the Madm-ese, the Bali, and occasionally by the Malay. 
Instead of saying, for example, rongpuluh-siji, "twenty- 
one," it has salikur, which may be rendered in English 
" one-and-a-score." It thus reckons up to twenty-nine. For 
twenty-four and twenty-five it frequently substitutes "salawe 
pra," and " salawe." For thirty-five it has " kawan sasor ; " 
for forty-five, " sekat sasor ; " for fifty " sekat ; " for fifty-five, 
" sawidak sasor ; " for sixty, " sawidak ; " for sixty-five. 



Iviii DISSERTATION. 

" pitu sasor ; " for seventy-five, " wolu sasor ; " and for eighty- 
five, " sanga sasor." For two hundred there is a specific 
number, " atak ; " and for " four hundred," another, mas. 

Hardly any of these numbers, Avhether Malay or Javanese, 
can be traced to any other words in either language, or to any 
other language of the Archipelago, or to any foreign tongue. 
The words, as far as is known, express the numbers they 
represent and nothing else. The number for '''five," lima, 
may be an exception ; for in the Bali and some other languages 
of the Archipelago, it means also "the hand," and, very 
probablj^, once did so also in the Malay and Javanese. The 
synonymes for "one" in Malay and Javanese are simply the 
numeral combined, in the case of the first, with batu or watu, 
" a stone " or " pebble ; " and in the last with siji or wiji, 
" a seed " or " corn ; " from the Sanskrit. The word prah, in 
the peculiar numeration of the Javanese, means " short of" or 
"^defective ; " so that salawe prah, or " twenty-four," is twenty- 
five short or defective. The other terms connected with this 
system I have not been able to discover. The few peculiar 
numerals of the ceremonial Javanese are, as might be expected, 
less obscure. The numeral "three" is taken from Malay, 
and "ten" from the Sanskrit. Sakawan, "four," and gangsal, 
" five," are probably Malay ; the first meaning " a band " or 
"troop," and the last "odd, not even." The numeral "two," 
kalih, is the Javanese preposition " with," and is used also 
as the copulative conjunction " and." The word tungal added 
to sa, the numeral " one," means in Javanese " sole, single." 

It is remarkable of the Sanskrit numerals introduced into 
Malay and Javanese that the higher numbers are misapplied. 
Thus laksa, which is " ten thousand," ought to be " a hundred 
thousand ; " and kat'i, in Sanskrit kot'i, which ought to be 
"ten millions," is only "a hundred thousand." Yuta, if taken 
from the Sanskrit word ayuta, although representing a million, 
ought to be ten thousand only, but taken from the less 
obvious source, niyuta, it is correct. I submitted the list of 
Sanskrit numerals in Javanese to my friend Professor Wilson, and 
although he cannot immediately identify some of the higher 
numbers, he is of opinion that the Avhole are of Hindu origin. 



DISSEKTATION. Ijx 

It Avould be curious and interesting to be able to determine 
the nation or tribe with which originated the numeral system 
which is so widely disseminated over the Indian and Polynesian 
islands; but the subject is difficult, as etymology aftbrds no clue 
to it. It is evident, however, that it did not originate with mere 
savages, for mere savages have never invented a consistent 
system of numeration reckoning up to a thousand. Upon the 
whole, I am disposed to fix upon the Malay nation as the 
inventors, since the system appears in their language in a form 
more simple, consistent, and uniform, than in any other. The 
only other people to whom, in my opinion, it would be reason- 
able to ascribe the invention, are the Javanese, and they appear 
to have the remains of a native system, partially superseded 
only by the more general and convenient one. At all events, 
whoever may have been the people that invented the Malayan 
numerals, we may be certain, from the obscurity of the terms 
in which it is expressed, that it is of very great antiquity. From 
the great variations of form in which it appears in the different 
languages in which it exists, we may also, I think, conclude 
that, in general, it w^as disseminated orally, and not communi- 
cated, even where writing existed, from one written tongue to 
another. This view is strengthened by attending to the very 
different manner in which the Sanskrit numerals are found in 
Javanese, for here the medium of introduction was unquestion- 
ably written language, and there is no dcAdation from the 
original, except the unavoidable one arising from the imperfec- 
tion of the insular alphabet. 

Besides INIalay, there are in Sumatra four other cultivated 
and written languages; — the Ache, or Achin; the Batak, or 
Languages ^atta ; thc Rajaug, or Rejang; and the Lampung. At 
of Sumatra, jgg^gt; fg^. unwrittcu lauguagcs are spoken in the groups 
of islands on the western coast, and several rude languages of 
scattered tribes on the main island. At the north-western end 
of the island, the nearest portion of the Archipelago to the 
country of the Hindus, the first language that occurs is that of 
the Achinese. This is written, like the Malay, in the Arabic 
character, although, no doubt, like the other cultivated languages 
of Sumatra, it had once a native alphabet. I have seen no 



Ix DISSERTATION. 

specimen of tlie Achinese, except the very short one of tliirty- 
six words in Mr. Marsden's Miscellaneous Works. "With the 
exception of four^ these are all to be found either in Malay or 
Javanese, although with altered forms. 

To the eastward of the Malays is the nation of the Bataks, 
who exhibit, probably, the only recorded example of a people 
Batak acquainted with letters that practise a modified canni- 
language. ijalism. The Batak alphabet consists of twenty-two 
substantive characters, but of only nineteen letters, for the 
aspirate has two characters, and the sibilant three. Among the 
substantive letters, also, are the three vowels a, i, and u. The con- 
sonants, therefore, are but sixteen in number, or, excluding the 
aspirate, fifteen. Every consonant is a syllable ending with the 
vowel a, which is understood, or inherent in, and follows it. 
The vowel marks are for e, i, and u, and these, when applied to a 
consonant, supersede and take the place of the inherent a. 
There is no mark for eliding the vowel a, so that the syllable 
or word shall end in a consonant. According to this scheme, 
every word or syllable must end in a vowel, or in the nasal ng, 
for with respect to it there is an orthographic mark which is 
equivalent to an elision. It is probable, however, that the 
alphabet, as exhibited in Mr. Marsden's Miscellaneous Works, 
is imperfect. The Batak is the only alphabet of the proper 
Archipelago that has substantive characters to represent any of 
the vowels, a excepted. The following is the Batak alphabet 
in the native character, and it will appear from it that there is 
no attempt at classification : — 

SUBSTANTIVE LETTERS. 



-c- <^ 






a 


h h n m t d 


w^ 


r77 ^77 ^3 J?<: -55^-^ 




j 8 S S g 1 

^^ -^ ^^ 'Z^ ^y^ < 




VOWEL MARKS AS APPLIED 




te ti to 




^ ^- ^^ 



DISSERTATIOX, l^^i 

The only specimens of the Batak language which I have seen 
are the short one given by Mr. Marsden, one in the INIalayan 
]\Iiscellanies, and a very brief one in Mr. Anderson's Mission to 
the East Coast of Sumatra. The specimen in the Malayan Miscel- 
lanies consists of fifty-four words, of the following elements : 
Malay, thi'ee words, Javanese five, common to the Malay and 
Javanese, twenty-five, Sanskrit one, and seemingly native, 
twenty, making the foreign words sixty-three out of one hun- 
dred, or reducing the native portion to one third of the whole. 
This is chiefly caused by the numerals, no fewer than sixteen in 
number. Omitting these, justly considered foreign, the remain- 
ing thirty-eight words give twenty native, and only eighteen 
foreign words. A larger specimen, more impartially taken, 
would assuredly show a still larger proportion of native words. 
]\Ir. Anderson's specimens are examples of two Batak dialects, 
for there appear to be several, consisting of about fifty words. 
In one of these dialects called the Kurau-kurau, there are nine 
words which are Malay only, four which are Javanese only, and 
fourteen Avhich are common to these two languages, so that 
near half the language appears to be original. In comparing 
the two dialects, not fewer that twenty of the words diflFer, so 
that, not improbably, what have been thought only dialects, will 
be found distinct languages.* 

Proceeding eastward, and passing the proper Malay, the next 
language that occurs is the Korinchi. It is, however, substan- 
^jjg tially Malay, and so considered. In the thirty-one words 

Korinchi. g^ygj^ jjy ]\/[ r. Marsden, I can discover but one that is 
not genuine Malay. The Korinchi is written in a peculiar 
alphabet, which most probably is the same in which the Malay 
itself was written before the introduction of the Arabian letters. 
It consists of twenty-nine characters. One of these represents 
the vowel a, one is a duplicate, three are aspirates, and four are 
characters for combinations of two consonants. The actual 
number of consonants, therefore, is but eighteen. With the 
exception of the palatals d" and t", which are not distinguished 
from the coi'responding dentals, they are the same, in power 
and number, as the letters of the Javanese alphabet, and 

* Mission to the East Coast of Sumatra, 1826. 



Ixii DISSERTATION. 

represent the native sounds of the Malay language. Each 
consonant, as usual, is a syllable ending in a. The only vowels 
which have marks, according to the representation given by 
Mr. INIarsden, are i and u ; the first consisting of a single dot to 
the right hand of the consonant, and the last, of one below it. 
There is no sign for eliding the inherent vowel. The following 
is the Korinchi alphabet : — 

SUBSTANTIVE LETTERS. 



n 


s 


j 


u 


k 


b 111 


h 


a 


M 


= 


w\ 


/W 


n 


T W 


\A 


+ 




y 


nd 




ng "g 


k 








W 


N^ 




/V/ a/a 


-xjnj- 






1 


g 


P 


J 


h 


h ch 


ns 


ncli 


N 


A 


V 


N 


V^ 


W >] 


-=^ 


cH 






hh 


mp 


nt 


r 










<A/ 


V 


LI 


AV 







n/ 



VOWEL AND ORTHOGRAPHIC MARKS APPLIED TO THE LETTER CH. 

chang clii chu ' chah 

% y\r ^ XI- 

The next language is that of the Rajangs or Rejangs, a 

people dwelling between the Malays and Lampungs, towards 

the south-eastern part of the island. This is also a 

The Re- 

jangian- Cultivated written tongue, of which the alphabet con- 
sists of thirty-two substantive letters. Ten of these, 
however, are various forms of the same consonants, two are 
representatives of double consonants, one the aspirate, and 
one the vowel a. Thus the actual number of distinct 
consonants is but eighteen. The vowels are, as usual, ortho- 
graphic marks, with the exception of a, and the understood 
and inherent vowel of the same sound. They represent e, i, 
and u, with the diphthongs ai and au. This alphabet has also 
an orthographic mark to signify an r, following the inherent 
vowel and ending a syllable, and two others to mark the nasals 
n and ng closing a syllable. It has, moreover, a character 



DISSERTATION. Ixiii 

for the aspirate following a vowel, and a mark for eliding the 
inherent vowel, which is in the form of a cipher. It takes the 
arrangement of the Hindu alphabet, as follows : — k, g, ng, — 
t, d, n, — p, b, m, — ch, j, il, — s, — r, 1, w, j. Thus we have a 
class of gutturals, of dentals, of labials, and of palatals ; the 
sibilant by itself, and the liquids following each other. The 
native alphabet is as follows : — 

SUBSTANTIVE LETTERS. 




y w li mb ng nd nj a 

W ,/^ A ^ // A /W />v ^ 

VOWEL AND ORTHOGRAPHIC MARKS APPLIED TO THE LETTER K. 

ke ki k kii kai kaxi kaiig kaii kah kar 

A ?^ A° /f^ A) ^? /^ ^ ^" >^* 

The only specimen of the Rejang language that I have seen 
is that contained in Mr. Marsden's Miscellaneous Works, 
consisting of thirty-five words, of which six are Malay, two 
Javanese, eleven common to these two languages, and the 
remaining sixteen apparently native. 

The Lampung is the last of the written and cultivated 
languages of Sumatra. It is that of the people who inhabit 
the eastern end of the island lying on the Straits of 
piingian- Suuda, and fronting the western extremity of Java. 
The substantive letters of the Lampung alphabet are 
twenty in number, among which are the vowel a, and the 
aspirate with a double letter. Like the other Sumatran 
alphabets, the vowel a is iuherent in every consonant, and the 
other vowels are expressed by orthographic marks, being i, o, u, 
and the diphthongs ai and au. It has also orthographic marks 

* The mark after the third character in this line is that which elides the 
inherent vowel, a. 



\xiv DISSERTATION. 

to express the aspirate after a vowel, and others for the nasals 
n and ng closing a syllable. It has the Hindu classification 
like the Rejang, thus .- — k, g, ng, — p, h, m, — t, d, n — ch, j, 
il, — y, a, 1, r, s, w, — h, gr. It will be noticed that the vowel a 
and the sibilant are here mixed up with the liquids. The 
native alphabet is as follows : — 



SUBSTANTIVE LETTERS. 




d 



VOWEL MARKS APPLIED TO THE LETTER K. 
ki ku ko 



OTHER ORTHOGRAPHIC MARKS APPLIED TO THE LETTER K. 
kali kai kar kau kang king kung kan 

-y^yy -7^/ -^ ^ ^ s^ ^ ^ 

We possess two lists of words of the Lampung, one in the 
appendix to Sir Stamford Raffles' History of Java, of 1730 
words, and another in the Tijdschrift van Nederland's India of 
1800. Both are valuable, and I take the last for analysis, as 
the most recent and somewhat the fullest. In 1000 words it 
contains 194- Malay, 84 Javanese, 277 common to these two 
languages, 41 Sanskrit, and 18 Arabic words. The remaining 
words, with the exception of a very small number which are 
traced to the Sunda, Madurese, and Bali, must be presumed 
to be native, and they amount to about two-thirds of the 
whole. 

The grammar of the Lampung appears to be nearly the 
same as that of the Malay or Javanese. The relations of the 
nouns are expressed by prepositions, except for the possessive 



DISSERTATION. 



Ixv 



case, which is formed, as in the Javanese, by the affix ne. Any 
radical is determined to a verbal sense by the prefix a, or by the 
nasals ng or n, as in Javanese, and a transitive verb is formed, 
as in Malay, by the affix kan. Abstract nouns are formed either 
by the prefixes in p, or tlie affix an, or by both conjointly. 

From the large proportion of native Vords in the Lumpung, 
and the quality of these words, I am disposed to come to the 
conclusion that it is an original and distinct language. With 
a single exception all the prepositions are peculiar. This is 
di, " at, to, of,^^ which, as it is solitary, is probably only an 
accidental coincidence. It seems, indeed, to be only an abbre- 
viation of the same preposition written at length, disapa. That 
the prepositions are peculiar will be seen by comparing them 
with those of the Malay, the language which is most mixed up 
with the Lampung. 



LAMPUNG. 


MALAY. 


ENGLISH. 


Di, disapa. 


Di, ka, pada. 


At, to, of. 


Ana. 


Dari. 


From. 


Gego. 


Dangan. 


With. 


Bahan. 


Bawah. 


Below. 


Unga. 


Atas. 


Above. 


Lala. 


Salang. 


Between. 


Para. 


Dakat. 


Near. 


Lorn. 


Dalarn. 


In, within. 



The auxiliaries which express time in the verb are also different 
in the Malay and Lampung. Thus a preterite is expressed in 
Malay by sudah and talah, but in Lampung by adu; and a 
future, in Malay, expressed by mau or andak, is expressed in 
Lampung by age. Even the adverbs and conjunctions are, 
Avith few exceptions, wholly different in the two languages. 
Thus, for the Malay tadi, " lately," we have jine in Lampung ; 
for sapurti, "as like," gagesina; for tarlalu, "very," lasu; for 
tiyada, "no," manuwat ; for sahaja, "only," sangun; for 
bangat, " quickly," galu ; for Ifikas, " speedily," ngalu ; for 
kamdiyan, " after," duri ; for lama, " long ago," muni ; for 
lambat, " tediously," ngeta ; for labih, " more," liu. 

The Lampung affords examples of native terms^ still exist- 
ing, that in other languages have been displaced by foreign 
ones. Thus, in Malay and Javanese, there is no word for honey 

/ 



hvi DISSERTATION. 

but the Sanskrit one, madu ; while, in Lampung, we have the 
native term, anchu. In nearly all the languages of the Archi- 
pelago, the name of the elephant is the Sanskrit, gajah ; while 
in the Lampung, we have the Mord liman, which the Javanese 
appear to have borrowed, as one of their many synonymes for 
this animal. The name by which the mango is known to the 
Malays is a half Sanskrit, and half Talugu word, but in the 
Lampung we have a native name, isam. The numerous per- 
sonal pronouns of the other languages of the Archipelago can 
seldom be traced to their parent source ; but, besides these, we 
have iu Lampung the uumistakeable original pronouns raham, 
" 1," and mate, " thou." 

The Sumatran alphabets demand a few general remarks. To 
all appearance, they are the original inventions of the nations 
that now use them, for the letters, with few exceptions, not 
only difler in form from each other, but also from those of all 
foreign alphabets. The form given to the letters in all of 
them is, no doubt, greatly influenced by the writing mate- 
rials, — slips of bamboo or palm leaf to write on, and an iron 
graver to write with. The letters are mere strokes, or 
scratches, more or less angular, and seldom rounded. Some 
writers have fancied that the Sumatran alphabets have been 
derived from the Hindus, but I hold this opinion to be ground- 
less. The evidence adduced for it is that, like the Hindu 
alphabets, they are written from left to right; that some of 
them have the Hindu classification, and that there is some 
resemblance in the orthographic marks. The direction in which 
the writing is executed is evidently of no value. The classifica- 
tion applies only to two out of the four ; and it is evident that 
this immaterial modification might have been introduced under 
Hindu influence, without supposing the letters to be Hindu, to 
which they assuredly bear not the remotest resemblance. 
Among the orthographic marks, that for the vowel u bears 
some resemblance to the Dewanagri sign in the Batak alphabet, 
— one which does not take the Hindu classification ; but in the 
Lampung, which does take it, that vowel is represented by a 
horizontal stroke under the consonant, and in the Korinchi 
and Rejang by a simple dot below it. The resemblance. 



DISSERTATION. Ixvii 

therefore, in one alphabet, of a single character, is most probably 
purely accidental. Had the Sumatran alphabets been derived 
from the Hindu, the classification would have been preserved in 
all of them ; and for writing Sanskrit or other Hindu words, 
most probably some of the peculiar letters of the Hindu alpha- 
bets would have been preserved, but there exist in all of them 
no letters that express any other than native sounds. The 
Sumatran alphabets, it may be added, afford no evidence of 
having passed from symbolic to phonetic writing. The names 
of the letters are in all of them derived from their sounds, 
while their forms assuredly bear no resemblance to any natural 
objects whatever. 

Of the unwritten languages of the groups of islands on the 

western coast of Sumatra we possess only the short lists of 

words collected Mr. Marsden and Sir Stamford Raffles. 

I'nwritten -,,, i . iit/r-m/ri-i- 

languages 1 talic them as tliev are given by Mr. Marsden in his 

of Sumatra. ./ o •/ 

Miscellaneous Works. The language of the Pogy or Pagi 
islands is represented by thirty-four words, of which one is Malay, 
four Javanese, eight common to these two languages, and the 
remaining twenty-one, apparently, original. The specimen 
given of the language of Nias consists of thirty-five words, 
of which two are Malay, five Javanese, eleven common to 
these two languages, leaving seventeen, apparently, original. 
One of the Javanese words is but the synonyme of a native 
term manuk, " a bird," for fofo. It has been before noticed 
that the most usual form of the numeral "one" in Malay 
combines it with the word batu, " a stone " or " pebble," and 
the most common in Javanese with the word seed or corn. 
In the Nias, the same word is combined seemingly with buwah, 
"fruit," but this word is also combined with the numeral " two ;" 
and so we have the words sambua and dumbna, "one fruit," 
and "two fruits." There are but thirty-one words of the 
language of Maros, an island near Nias, and of these, 
one is Malay, six are Javanese, and seventeen seem to 
be native. In all these languages, whether the words be taken 
from the Malay or Javanese, they are greatly corrupted. 
Thus, puluh, " ten," is puta or fulu ; ampat, " four," is aipat, 
and ulu " the head," is hugu. In the language of Nias occurs, 

2/ 



Ixviii DISSERTATION. 

for the first time, the letter f, for which there is neither 
sound nor character in any of the Avritten languages of the 
Archipelago. 

There are four languages in the immediate vicinity of the 
Javanese, which in substance and character are much allied 
to it ; the Sunda, the Madura, the Bali, and the 
allied to the Lombolv. The Sunda language is spoken over about 
one-third part of the island- of Java, extending from 
Cheribou across the island, down to its western extremity. 
The country is more mountainous than that inhabited by the 
Javanese and the people somewhat less advanced in civilisation, 
but possessing the same amiable and docile character as that 
nation. 

The Sunda language is at present written in the Javanese 
character, with the exception of two consonants, the dental d. 
The Sunda ^^^ ^^^^ palatal t*, which it wants. It has, however, 
language. ^^^ additional vowel with a sound like the German o in 
Konig, and to be found also in the Irish and Gaelic. It is 
of frequent occurrence in the Sunda, but there is no written 
character for it, its most usual representative being that which 
I have distinguished as a, although the inherent a is also 
occasionally converted into it in pronunciation. 

The Sundas would appear, at one time, to have had a peculiar 
written character of their own. This, however, is only inferred 
from the existence in their country of inscriptions on stone in 
an unknown character, bearing no resemblance to any alphal)et 
of the Archipelago, nor traceable to any foreign one. Two of 
these inscriptions are engraved in the Work of Sir Stamford 
Raffles, one taken from a stone in the province of Cherbon, 
and the other, from one at Pajajaran in the district of Bogor, 
a place that was the capital of a State of some local conse- 
quence in the eleventh and twelfth centuries. Both are rude 
in comparison with the inscriptions in the country of the 
Javanese ; and it may be added that in the land of the Sunda, 
there are few or none of those ancient monuments of Hinduism 
so abundant in that of the Javanese. 

The Sunda is of simple grammatical structure, like all 
the other tongues of the Archipelago. Gender, number, and 



DISSERTATION. 



Ixix 



relation are not distinguished by inflections, but by distinct 
words signifying these qualities. The adjectives which express 
the male gender are Javanese and Malay, — ^jaluk and lalaki ; 
and those which express the female, native, bikang and awewe. 
!N umber is restricted to the singular by the use of the numeral 
one ; and plurality expressed by numerals, or by such a word 
as " many," veya, or loba, which are native terms. Relation 
is expressed by prepositions which generally differ from those 
of the Malay and Javanese; but the prepositions of these 
languages are also occasionally used as synonymes, and when 
not essential, even substituted for them ; as, indeed, are also 
one or two Sanskrit prepositions. The following are the 
Sunda prepositions, taken from the Dutch, Malay, and Sunda 
Dictionary of De Wilde, which has the advantage of having 
the Sunda words both in Roman and native letters. The 
corresponding INIalay and Javanese pronouns are added for 
comparison. 



ENGLISH. 


SUNDA. 


MALAY. 


JAVANESE. 


At, on. 


in. 


Ti, di. 


Di. 


Ing. 


To, for. 




Elu, ka. 


Pada, ka, akaTi 


Marang. 


From. 




Ti. 


Dari. 


Sakiug. 


With. 




JOng. 


Dangan. 


Lau. 


In. 




Supi, roi, jaruli. 


Dalam. 


Jaroh. 


Above. 




Liiur. 


Atas. 


Luwur. 


Below. 




Ngaud-ap. 


Bawah. 


Ngandap. 


Withou 


t. 


Luwar. 


Luwar. 


Jaba. 



A genitive case expressing possession is formed in Sunda by 
the word boga, following the noun and corresponding to the 
ampufia or puna of the !Malay. 

The times and modes of verbs are formed by auxiliaries 
which are adverbs, and correspond in sense, although differing 
in form from the words used for the same purpose in the 
Malay and Javanese. The following are examples of these 
auxiliaries in the three languages : — 



ENGLISH. 


8DNDA. 


MALAY. 


JAVANESE. 


Preterite. 


Angges, ges. 


Sudah, talah. 


Wus. 


Future. 


Kud-u. 


Mau. 


Arap. 


May, can. 


Mimnn 


Bulih. 


Antuk. 



Ixx 



DISSERTATION. 



A radical word is defined as a verb by the inseparable prefix 
ma, and a transitive or causal verb is formed as in Malay by the 
affix kan. A passive verb is formed as in Malay and Javanese 
by the prefixed particle d'i, the consonant being a palatal. The 
prefixed particles bar and tar which are so frequent in Malay 
have no existence in Sunda ; nor is the affix i, used both in the 
Malay and Javanese to form a transitive verb, to be found. 

The adverbs and conjunctions of the Sunda difii"er from those 
of the Malay and Javanese, although particles are sometimes 
introduced from both languages as synonymes. The following 
are examples : — 



ENGLISH. 


SUNDA. 


MALAY. 


JAVANESE. 


Here. 


D-iyak. 


Sini. 


Kene. 


There. 


D-iuah. 


Sana, situ. 


Kono. 


Near. 


D-6kor, d-okat. 


Dakat, ampir. 


Parak. 


Far. 


Anggang. 


Jauh. 


Adoh. 


Before. 


Bareto. 


Daulu. 


Dingui. 


After. 


Tukaug. 


Ki\mdiyan. 


Buri. 


Across, oil the other side. 


Pontas. 


Sabrang. 


Sabrang. 


Now. 


Ayono. 


Sakarang. 


Saiki. 


Then, at that time. 


Arita. 


Tatkala, s. 


Sawag. 


Lately. 


Chikenc. 


Tadi. 


Wiiu. 


Long ago. 


Lila. 


Lama. 


Lawas. 


Slowly, tardily. 


Laun. 


Lambat. 


Alon. 


Quickly. 


Tereh. 


Lakas. 


Bangat. 


Much. 


Reya. 


Baiiak. 


Akeh. 


Very. 


Taing. 


Tailalu. 


Sangat. 


No, not. 


Onto, ta. 


Tiyada, tada, ta. 


Ova. 


Not yet. 


Tachan. 


Balum. 


Durung. 


Perhaps. 


Sugan. 


BarAngkali. 


Mawi. 


Only, merely. 


Nang. 


Siiaja. 


Amung. 


Also. 


Doi. 


Juga. 


Uga. 


But. 


Tatapi, s. 


Tatapi. 


Tatapi. 



The difference in the auxiliaries and particles seems to 
show clearly that the Sunda, although much intermixed with 
the Malay and Javanese, is in reality a distinct language from 
either of them. Without its native auxiliaries and particles 
a sentence of it could not be spoken or written ; its foreign 
ingredients, therefore, although numerous are extrinsic. 

An examination of the Sunda will show that in a thousand 
words, the difi'erent languages that enter into its composition 



DISSERTATION. 



Ixxi 



are in the following proportions : — Original, Sunda 400 ; 
Javanese 160; Malay 40 ; common to the Malay and Javanese 
330; Sanskrit 40; and Arabic 30. 

Often when words in Sunda seem to belong to it, in common 
with other of the languages of the western part of the Archi- 
pelago, the latter will be found to be no more than synonymes 
of native Sunda words. As this has been a source of much 
misconception, in enquiries into the affinities of the insular 
languages, I shall take this opportunity of giving some examples 
in detail, which I am enabled to do with the more confidence, 
because I draw my materials from the authentic vocabulary 
of Mr. De Wilde already referred to. The sources of the 
synonymes are indicated by the initial letters of the languages 
from whence they are derived. 



ENGLISH. 


SL-XDA. 


Foot. 


Dampal. 


Lip. 


Gambe. 


Child, offspring. 


Drok. 


Tnink, stem. 


Chatang. 


Coconut. 


KaliJtik. 


Gum, resin. 


Laot. 


Porcupine. 


Dongke. 


Goo.se. 


Suwan. 


Eclipse. 


Samagaa. 


Fire. 


Sonop. 


VUlage. 


Lambar. 


Rope, string. 


Rara. 


Coat, jerkiu. 


Kawai. 


Shame. 


Era. 


Brave. 


Tonong. 


Old. 


Kolot. 


Young. 


Ngora. 


True. 


Anut. 


Certain. 


Pimguh. 


Glad. 


Atoh. 


Pregnant. 


Ronoh. 


Unlucky. 


Langit. 


Drink (to). 


Ngaot. 


Eat. 


Tuwang, natup. 


Hang. 


Gantil. 


Come. 


Kadiiit. 


Follow. 


Ragan. 


Beat. 


Popoh. 



SYNONYMES. 
Suku, j. 

Buwir (bibir), m. 
Anak, m. j. 
Tungul, m. 
Kalapa, j. 
Gatah, m. 
Land'ak, m, j. 
Gangsa, s. 
Grahana, s. 
Api, m. j. 
Dukuh, j. 
TaU, m. j. 
Baju, m. 
Ising, j. 
Wani, j. m. 
Sdpuh, j. 
Anom, j. 
Tdman, j. 
Tantu, m. j. 
Suka, s. 
Bobot, j. 
Chalaka, m. 
Nginum, j. m. 
Daaar, j. 
Gautimg, m. j. 
D-atang, m. j. 
Milu, j. 
Gitik, j. 



SUNDA. 


SYNONYME 


E, kalam. 


Sare, j. 


Pao. 


Lali, j. 


Aprok. 


Panggih, j. 


Kawas. 


Kaya, j. 


Anggang. 


Jauh, m. 



Ixxii 

ENGLISH. 

Sleep. 
Forget. 
Meet, find. 
As, like. 
Far. 

Thus we see the Sunda, with native words of its own, yet 
borrowing indifferently from the Javanese, the Malay, and the 
Sanskrit. Sometimes it happens, however, that there is no 
native word, the most popular word as well as the synonyme 
being both foreign, as in the following instances : — 

ENGLISH. SUNDA. 

Head. Ulu, m.j. Mastika, j. 

Brain. Polo, j. Utak, m. j. 

Bee (black, gigantic). Kumbaiig, m. j. Bramara, j. 

Heart. Angan, j. Ati, m. j. 

East. Wetan, j. Timur, m. 

Flesh. Liiuk, j. Daging, m. j. 

Life. Nawa, m. j. Sukma, s. 

In such cases as these, we can only suppose the native 
words to have been thrust out of their places, and superseded 
by foreign ones. In some cases, this is quite certain to have 
happened. Thus sagara, "the sea" or "ocean," and jalma, 
" man," both of which are Sanskrit, are the only existing 
words in Sunda for these two familiar objects, Avhile the Malay 
and Javanese have both, native words and Sanskrit synonyraes, 
— the last, indeed, several. 

The Sunda has no formal ceremonial language like the 
Javanese, but it has many words of respect when inferiors 
address superiors, mostly borrowed from the Javanese. These 
chiefly relate to the personal pronouns, to tlie relations of 
kindred, and to the parts of the body. The literature of 
the Sundas is meagre and mostly taken from the Javanese. 

The island of Madura, divided from Java, at its western 
portion, by a strait of a couple of miles broad, widening to fifty 
LanKuage ^* ^^^ castcm extremity, has its own peculiar language. 
of Madura, rpj^g gQ^i ^f Madura is poor, compared with that of 
Java, but its inhabitants are peaceful, industrious, and nume- 



DISSERTATION, Ixxiil 

rous. For the last hundred years, the Madurese have been 
migrating to, and settling on the opposite shores of Java, 
depopulated by long wars, and in some districts they form the 
bulk of the present population, so that the Madurese is not 
confined to its parent island. 

The Madurese is written in the Javanese character, and 
there is no evidence that it ever had one of its own. Its 
grammatical structure is, as usual, simple : gender and number 
in the noun are signified by adjectives, and relation by 
prepositions. A radical word is determined to be a verb by 
the prefixed particle a, as in Javanese, and a transitive or 
causal verb is formed, as in Malay, by the affix kan. A passive 
form is given to the verb by the prefixed particle e, equivalent 
to the di of the Malay and Javanese. Past time is expressed 
by the adverb ala, abbreviated la, and future time by anda. 

The most essential of the particles are native, but among 
the Madurese words of this class, there is an unusual 
admixture of foreign words, Javanese, Malay, and even 
Sanskrit. 

There are two dialects of the Madurese, the Madura spoken 
in the western part of the island, and the Sumanap in the 
eastern. Although diflfering a good deal, they are essentially 
one and the same tongue, as is shown by a general agreement 
in their particles, and indeed, in the great mass of their words. 
In the work of Sir Stamford Raffles, there are vocabularies of 
both, each amounting to about 2000 words. Taking that of 
Sumauap for an example, 1000 words of it are found to be 
composed of the following lingual elements : — Madurese 250 
words; Javanese 170; Malay 145; common to the Malay 
and Javanese 360; Sanskrit 40; and Arabic 35. 

From this analysis, it will appear that a fourth part of the 
Madurese only, is original. The number of Javanese words in it 
is easily accounted for by the vicinity of Java, and the higher 
civilisation and consequently the power and influence of its 
inhabitants ; but omitting the exclusively Javanese words, 
it will be found that more than hah" the language is composed 
of Malay, or of words common to it and the Javanese. The 
proportion of words exclusively Malay is indeed remarkable. 



Ixxiv 



DISSERTATION. 



and such as does not exist in any other language, east of 
Sumatra. It is, for example, nearly four times as great as in 
the Sunda, although the locality of the last lie nearer to the 
primitive seat of the Malay nation. 

Considering that the phonetic character of the other insular 
languages mixed with the Madurese is essentially the same as 
its own, the corruptions, both in sound and sense, which their 
words undergo, wheu transferred to it are remarkable. The 
following are examples of corruptions in orthography : — 



MADURESE. 


MALAT. 


JAVANESE. 


ENGLISH. 


Ale. 


AcUk. 


Adik. 


Younger brother or sister. 


Od-i. 


Idup. 


Urip. 


Alive. 


Koli. 


Kulit. 


Kulit. 


Skin, husk, peel. 


Ramut. 


Rambut. 


Rambut. 


Hair of the human head. 


Mua, sans. 


Muka. 


Muka. 


The face. 


Tumbat. 


Tumit. 


— 


The heel. 


Tiiut. 


Liitut. 


— 


The knee. 


Roso. 


Rusuk. 


— 


A rib. 


Garagi. 


Jari. 


Dariji. 


Finger or toe. 


Ruba, sans. 


Rupa. 


Rupa. 


Appearance, aspect. 


Puja. 


— 


Uyah. 


Culinary salt. 


Koyi. 


Kunit. 


Kunir. 


Turmeric. 


Kokat. 


Kuku. 


Kuku. 


Nail, hoof, claw. 


Ganan. 


— 


Jangan. 


Pot-herbs. 


Migi, sans. 


Brji. 


Biji. 


Seed, grain, com. 


Elap. 


Silap. 


Silap. 


Error, mistake. 


Bandar. 


Banar. 


Banar. 


Right, correct, just. 


Dusan. 


Bosan. 


Bosfln. 


Disgusting, loathsome. 


Pobu. 


Bubuh. 


— 


To place, to lay down. 


Galo. 


Paluh. 


— 


Sweat, perspiration. 


Paga. 


Pagang. 


— 


To catch, to lay hold of. 


Gapa. 


— 


Tampa. 


To receive. 


Gabai. 


— 


Gawe. 


To do, to make. 



Errors in sense are less frequent, 
examples : — 



The following are a few 



MADURESE. 

Bahini. 

Changkam. 

Tangi. 

Burn. 

Tarka. 

Angkara, sans. 



ENGLISH. 

Woman. 
The chin. 
To awake. 
To flee. 
To doubt. 
Covetous. 



MALAY. JAVANESE. 

Bini. — 

Changkam. 

— Tangi. 
Burn. Buru. 

— Tarka. 
Angkara. — 



Wife. 

The mouth. 

To arise. 

To pursue. 

To suspect, to accuse. 

Presumptuous. 



DISSERTATION. 



Ixxv 



MADURESE. 

Elan, 
Jaga, sans. 
Eutar. 
Taro. 



ENGLISH. 

To vanish. 
To arise. 
Togo. 
To store. 



MALAY. JAVANESE. ENGLISH. 

Hang. — To be lost. 



Jaga. 

Antar. 

Taruh. 



Jaga. 



To wake, to watch. 
To send, to despatch. 
To place, or store. 



From the facts now stated, it may be fair to infer that the 
Malays must have migrated to, and settled in the island of 
Madura in considerable numbers, at some remote period, 
intermixing with the native inhabitants, and imparting to their 
speech a considerable portion of their own language. The 
errors in sound and sense would seem to show, that the 
admixture of nations which followed was that of one rude 
people with another, neither of them understanding, or at 
least not practising, the art of writing. 

The language of the small, but fertile, well cultivated and 
populous island of Bali, is one of the most improved of the 
Lan xa e Archipclago, according to the standard of Malayan 
of Bali. civilisation. Bali being divided from the greater island 
of Java only by a very narrow strait, its language naturally 
partakes largely of the character and substance of that of the 
latter. The Bali is written in the Javanese character, wanting 
only the palatal d* and t- of the latter. The form of the letters 
hardly differs, although the Balinese write on palm leaves 
with an iron style, and the Javanese, now for a long time, on 
paper with pen and ink, and that the two nations have been 
dissociated by difference of religion and by a lapse of time 
approaching to four centuries. 

The grammatical structure of the Bali is simple like that of 
all the other languages of the Archipelago. Number and 
gender are expressed by adjectives, relation by prepositions, 
time and mood by adverbs ; but in general the words which 
serve these different purposes are original, and differ both 
from the Malay and Javanese terms, as may be seen by the 
following examples : — 



ENGLISH. 


BALL 


MALAY. 


JAVANESE. 


Male. 


Muwani. 


Laki, jantan. 


Lanang. 


Female. 


Luh. 


Parampiian, batina. 


Wadon. 


Many. 


Liu. 


Banak. 


Akeh, kafah 



xvi 




DISSERTATION. 




ENGLISH, 


BALI. 


MAL.\Y. 


JAVANESE. 


At, iu, on. 


Di. 


Pada, di. 


lug. 


For, to. 


Rakal. 


Akan. 


Marang, d'ataug. 


From. 


UlL 


Dari. 


Saking. 


Past time. 


Oua, buda, Sudali, talah. 


Wus. 


Future time. 


Nak. 


Mau. 


Arap. 



Potential mood. Bakat. Bulih. Angsal. 

The Bali, like the Javanese, has a ceremonial dialect, 
borrowed in a good measure from the latter, but not identical 
with it throughout, for it borrows also from the popular 
language of Java. To a list of 310 words of the ordinary 
language of Bali furnished to me when I visited the island in 
1814, words of the ceremonial dialect are annexed amounting 
to 131; of which 42 are ordinary Javanese, 9 only ceremonial 
Javanese, 5 Malay, 14 common to the Malay and Javanese, 
and 16 Sanskrit; leaving 45, the origin of which I cannot 
ascertain, but which may be presumed to be native. It 
does not appear that any part of the ceremonial dialect of 
Bali is formed like that of Java, by change of termination 
or the substitution of slender for broad vowels. 

The Balinese have their sacred language, which is identical 
with the Kawi of Java, but instead of being obsolete as in 
that island, it is the current language of law and religion. 

The vocabulary of Bali annexed to Sir Stamford Raffles' 
History of Java consists of 2188 words, and gives on analysis, 
the following lingual elements in 1000 parts; native Bali 450 
parts; Javanese 120; Malay 70; common to the Malay and 
Javanese 280; Sanskrit 50; and Arabic 10. The appearance 
of a few words of the latter language is not difficult to account 
for. They amount in all to no more than 24, of which one 
half are the names of the months, which the Balinese, who have 
none of their own, appear to have adopted as a matter of conve- 
nience ; just as the natives of Madagascar have adopted the names 
of the Arabian days of the week, although, like the Balinese, 
rejecting the Mahomedan religion. The few remaining Arabic 
words have been introduced by the Malay and Javanese 
traders, who have for ages visited the island and settled on its 
coasts. The Bali may, I think, notwithstanding that half its 



DISSERTATION. hxvii 

words are foreign, be considered an original and distinct 
tongue. 

The fourth language to which I have alluded as having 
a strong affinity with the Javanese, is that of the fertile and 
populous island of Lombok, divided only from Bali by a 
narrow strait. As this language is the termination of the 
group of tongues, in an easterly direction, which begins with 
Sumatra, it would be interesting to have some account of it, 
but I have never seen even the smallest specimen. 

To the same class of languages with the Malay and Javanese, 
belong the many languages of Borneo, an island of about three 
Lanfniages tlmcs the extcut of Britain, but for the use and 
of Borneo, advauccmcnt of man by no means possessing qualities 
commensurate with its extent. It is one unbroken solid mass 
of land bisected by the equator, and with a coast outline 
unbroken by deep bays or inlets. So far as is known, the 
interior is a congeries of mountains rich in metalliferous wealth, 
covered, with rare exceptions, by a deep, rank, primeval forest, 
with a soil, generally, stubborn and unfertile. Certain it is, 
at all events, that no respectable civilisation such as has sprung 
up among the same race of men in all the other great islands, 
has ever arisen in Borneo ; and, it seems, therefore, reasonable to 
conclude that the soil and local formation are the main obstacles. 

The aboriginal inhabitants of Borneo are all, as before men- 
tioned, of the same race with the Malays and Javanese. They 
are divided into numerous distinct tribes, each, it is stated, 
speaking a separate language, and I have myself seen the 
names of, at least, sixty of these small nations. A few of 
them appear to be mere vagrant hunters without fixed 
habitation, but the majority have made an advancement in 
civilisation a good deal beyond this. These last practise a rude 
agriculture, cultivating rice, cotton, the banana, the batata, 
the coco and areka palms, with some farinaceous roots and 
potherbs, and domesticating the hog, the dog, and the common 
fowl, but not the ox, although a denizen of their forests. 
They, moreover, understand the art of making malleable iron, 
and fabricating it into tools and weapons. 

The native inhabitants of Borneo have no common name by 



Ixxviii -DISSERTATION. 

which to distinguish themselves from the people of other 
regions. The word Dayak, by which they have been known 
to Europeans, is Malay, and applied to the wild inhabitants 
of Sumatra, Celebes, or indeed to those of any other country, 
as well as to the savages of Borneo. Among themselves, each 
tribe is known by the principal river on the banks of which 
they principally dwell. 

The greater part of the coast of Borneo is rather dotted 
than peopled by Malay settlements ; according to the Malays 
themselves, the result of migrations from Sumatra dating as 
far back as thirty generations. A small portion of the eastern 
coast is occupied by settlements of the Bugis of Celebes, 
of more recent date. Thus, the aboriginal inhabitants are, in 
a great measure, locked up in the interior, and precluded from 
access to that commerce with strangers that might civilise 
them. The Malays and natives of Celebes, by their superior 
civilisation and power, domineer over the rude aborigines, 
without, however, being able to penetrate into the interior, 
or to dispossess them of their land. This sketch will make 
intelligible what it will be necessary to say respecting the 
native languages of Borneo. 

Of these langxiages I possess vocabularies of no more than 
nine ; seven of the north-western coast, on the authority of 
Sir James Brooke; one of the western coast collected by 
myself; and a far more valuable and extensive one than 
either of these, by Mr. Robert Burns, contained in the 
Journal of the Indian Archipelago. Fortunately the last is 
that of the most numerous, advanced, and powerful tribe in 
the island, the Kayan, whose possessions extend from the 
northern to the southern coast. It consists of 854 words. 
Mr. Burns had resided for six months among the Kayan, and 
acquired a competent knowledge of their language. Relying 
on the correctness of his ear, and judging by his vocabulary, 
for he has given no explanation of the orthography he adopted, 
the Kayan alphabet will consist of the vowels a, e, i, o, u ; of the 
diphthongs ai and oi ; and of the consonants b, d, dj, h, k, kn, 
1, ra, n, ng, n, p, r, s, t, v, w, y. The consonants, there fore> 
want the eh and j of the Malays and Javanese, but have 



DISSERTATION. Ixxix 

three letters ^liich these languages do not possess, v, dj^ and 
kn. What the sound of these double letters is, is not stated. 
The liquids, or letters -which coalesce with other consonants are 
1, r, and w. The aspirate, it would appear, may either precede 
or follow a vowel, and one example is given in which it 
evidently aspirates a consonant, the word " whin," employed in 
some of the compounded numerals. Thus, then, the Kay an 
alphabet seems to consist of five vowels, two diphthongs, and 
eighteen consonant sounds. 

No native tribe of Borneo has ever invented letters, as has 
been done by all the more advanced nations of the other great 
islands of the Archipelago ; nor have they adopted the written 
character of any other people. In 1S40 two highly intelligent 
and enterprising American missionaries penetrated a con- 
siderable way into the interior of the island from its western 
coast, and found on the banks of a river called the Sakapan, 
a tributary of the river of Pontiyanak, an inscription on stone 
in an unknown character. This stone, known to the neigh- 
bouring Malays under the name of Batu tulis, or " the stone 
with the writing," was the fragment of a rock on the 
perpendicular side of which was the inscription occupying 
two feet in depth and four in length. From the existence 
of this writing it might be suspected that the aborigines 
of Borneo were once in possession of a knowledge of letters ; 
but it is far more probable that the inscription was the 
work of strangers, and from its resemblance to the inscrip- 
tion discovered on the site of the present town of Singa- 
pore, I am disposed to conclude that these strangers were 
IMalays who, according to their own account, had settled 
in Borneo before their adoption of the Mahomedan religion, 
and when they must have been in possession of their native 
alphabet. 

Although the wild inhabitants of Borneo have no knowledge 
of letters, a practice obtains among them, which may be the 
first step towards writing. The following is the account of 
it given by the missionary to whose authority I have already 
referred. "The Dayaks, or some of them, at least, have a 
kind of symbolic mode of communication, exceedingly simple. 



Ixxx DISSERTATION. 

A Malay sitting in our boat first informed us of it, and 
appealed in confirmation of what lie said, to the Dayalvs 
sitting on the shore ; requesting them at the same time to 
furnish us with a specimen. They immediately took their 
knives, and cut out the forms of two sumpitan (blowpipe) arrows, 
one somewhat longer than the other. On both, notches 
were cut. These arrows are, if we have been correctly 
informed, sent round to the different villages of the same tribe 
to rouse them to war. The notches on the smaller arrow 
denote the number intended to make the attack ; and those on 
the larger, the number of men demanded of the different villages. 
They sometimes burn one end of the stick and paint the other 
red, denoting the intention to burn the village to be attacked, 
and destroy all the inhabitants. They also use rods for the 
same purpose, and also balls."* 

The specimen of the Kayan given by Mr. Burns, contains 
the following proportions of different languages in 1000 
words : — Malay 35 ; Javanese 6 ; common to the Malay and 
Javanese 83 ; and Sanskrit and Arabic, evidently through the 
Malay, 2 each. The proportion of foreign insular words is 
therefore no more than 110 parts in 1000 ; leaving 886 un- 
acounted for, and I conclude, original Kayan. In 167 
adjectives I can find only 22 that are Malay or Javanese ; in 
12 pronominals only 2 ; in 42 adverbs, and conjunctions only 2. 
Most of the numerals can be traced to the Malay or Javanese. 
The Kayans would seem to count only as far as ten, with its 
compounds up to 100, but not including this last number. 

For the satisfaction of the reader, I give the particles of the 
Kayan, adding the Malay or Javanese word which seems to 
have been borrowed. The prepositions are as follow : — Maniti, 
" from ; " bara, " at ; " mutang, " by" or " through ; " dain, 
" with ; " kalara, (Malay dalam) " in ; " habai, " out ; " naimo, 
"out of;" huson, "on, upon;" hida, "under;" tahang, 
"between;" jelang, "near;" lawat, (Javanese, liwat) "be- 
yond." The following are the adverbs : — Hini, (Malay, sini) 

* This account is taken from the Singapore Free Press, a journal which always 
contains much original and curious information, conducted by Mr. Robert Logim, 
a gentleman equally learned, assiduous, and enterjirising, and himself a principal 
contributor. 



DISSERTATION. Ixxxi 

" here ; " hiti, (Malay, situ) " there ; " hino, " where ; " ona, 
" before ; " balung, " behind ; " bahuson, " upward ; " bahida, 
" downward ; " hida, " below ; " huson, " above ; " hinopa, 
" whether ; " balung, " backward ; " manino, " whence ; " 
mahup, " now ; " dowini, " to-day ; " maringka, " lately ; " 
mahaupini, "just now;" arupa, "long since;" dao-dahalam, 
"yesterday;" jima, "to-morrow;" diyanpa, "not yet;" 
baia, " afterwards ; " hala-tesi, " sometimes ; " mahapa, " per- 
haps ; " mijat, " seldom ; " hiran, " when ; " kahom, " much ; " 
ok, "little ; " kori-liha, "how much ; " kori-aya, " how great ;" 
tami, "enough;" kahom, "abundantly; " udi, (budi, Sanskrit) 
"wisely;" ombak, "foolishly;" marong, "justly;" kiga, 
" quickly ; " dara, " slowly ; " jak, " badly ; " lan-lan, " truly ;" 
i, " yes ; " diyan, " no, not ; " diyandipa, " not at all ; " 
nonan, and kori, " how ; " nonan-nonan, "why;" non-pohuu, 
" wherefore ; " laan, " more ; " lalu-kahom, (lalu, Malay to 
pass) " most ; " sayu, " good ; " lalu-sayu, " better ; " sayu-lan, 
"best;" lalu-jak, "worst;" jaklan, "worst;" riia, "again." 
The conjunctions are the following : — panga, " and ; " jivang, 
" if; " koa, " both ; " lavin, " because ; " lavin-nu, " wherefore;" 
lavin-ite, " therefore ; " noti, " as ; " barangka, " although ; " 
yot, " also." Even the five words which are given as of 
foreign origin are doubtful. Thus halam, "in," from the 
Malay dalam, may be only an accidental coincidence of sound ; 
for the same word, meaning "deep," is given among the adjectives 
with its correct orthography. It may be suspected that some 
of the simpler particles have been omitted in Mr. Bui-ns' list 
of words. Thus, hida is " below " or " down," and bahida, 
" downwards ; " halam is " in," and pahalam, " into ; " and 
the probability is, that the first syllables in these words are 
prepositions equivalent to the di and ka of the Malay or the ing 
of the Javanese, meaning "in" or "at." 

From this examination of the language of tlie Kajan, 
the conclusion, I think, must be, that it is an original and 
distinct tongue, and that the words of Malay and Javanese 
foimd in it are extrinsic. These foreign words will always be 
found to be in proportion, in the aboriginal Bornean languages, 
to the degree of intercourse which subsists between the tribes 



Ixxxii DISSERTATION. 

that speak them and the Malays. This will appear from 
comparing the number of such words in the nine languages 
of which specimens have been furnished by Sir James Brooke. 
The number of foreign words, that is of INIalay and Javanese, 
in 100 words of the Kayan is 13; in the Suntah, 33; in 
the SaUj 34 ; in the Milauau, 41 ; in the Meri, 44 ; in the 
Biajuk, 44 ; in the Malo, 52 ; in the Sakaran, 86. The Kayans 
are a powerful tribe that has never been subjugated by the 
Malays, and the others, smaller tribes that have been either 
long tributary to them, or much intermixed with them. 

In some of the instances cited, it is only necessary to 
suppose the invasion of the Malay to be carried a few steps 
further, and the native tongue is swamped and Malay substi- 
tuted for it. The judicious missionaries whom I have already 
quoted, make the following statement on this subject : — " All 
the Dayaks of Sugalam have long since abandoned the 
cruel practice of cutting oflF heads, and are in some degree con- 
vinced of the evil of the practice. They have also lost their 
own language and speak nothing but Malay. The number of 
swine seen under their dwellings afforded similar demon- 
stration that they have little or any desire to become Mahom- 
edans. Their love for the flesh of those animals, as the 
young man who was with us (a Mahomedan Malay) remarked, 
is a great obstacle to their embracing Islamism, but, added he, 
' perhaps they would like your religion better.' " 

The passion for pork does not appear always to have saved 
the Dayaks from proselytising, for, on the same authority, we 
have the following account. — "Between two and three hours 
after quitting Sangau, Ave touched at a Dayak kampung, 
(village) called Pangaladi. The number of inhabitants is 
about 200, who, like the Dayaks of Sugalam, have lost their 
language, and speak nothing but Malay, and what is more, 
they have become the disciples of the prophet of Mecca. The 
very appearance of the village seems to indicate this. According 
to true Malay style, it is composed of scattered dwellings, 
surrounded by fruit trees, among which the banana predomi- 
nated. (The Dayaks dwell in one huge barn-like house rudely 
fortified.) The conduct and appearance of the inhabitants 



DTSSERTATIOX. Ixxxiii 

themselves indicate that the most marked change . has taken 
place. Some of them were engaged in their prayers when we 
arrived. They were as loud, and apparently as devout, as the 
Malays. Their conversion took place about six years ago.^' 

I find on looking over my notes, taken from the information 
of envoys from the Sultan of Borneo proper, Avho came to 
Singapore in 1S24, that this information is fully confirmed. 
Of the 40 wild tribes dwelling in the territory of Borneo 
proper or living on its borders, eight, they said, had adopted the 
INIahomedan religion and INIalay language, and parts of five 
other tribes had done the same. There is, in fact, going on 
in Borneo the same kind of process, on a small scale, which 
on a great one obliterated the languages of ancient Italy, 
Gaul, and Spain, and sTibstituted the language of the Roman 
conquerors. 

Comparing the native words of the different languages of 
Borneo with each other, that is, excluding the Malay and 
Javanese, there are few words in common, except among 
contiguous or friendly tribes. Thus all the languages have a 
native word for " woman," but they are the same only in two 
out of nine. For the adjective " good,'^ there are native 
words in five languages, and in all five they are different. 
For the verb " to go," there are native words in seven 
languages and not one of them agree. In the language of 
the Bi'ajuks of the southern coast, I can discover but one word 
which agrees with those of any one of the nine languages of the 
north-eastern coast, and that belongs to the language of the 
Kayans who extend across the island to near both coasts. 

The probability, then, is, that the languages of Borneo, like 
those of America, will be found to be distinct and original 
tongues ; and this view would seem to be confirmed by the 
personal observation of the missionai'ies. "They all," say they, 
" understood and conversed quite fluently in the Malay lan- 
guage. This man (a Dayak) confirmed what we before heard 
of the Babel-like diversity of languages among the people. 
Almost every separate tribe has its distinct language, under- 
stood only to a very limited extent by the nearest neighbouring 
tribes. The absence of books among them, and the existence 

a 2 



l.vvxiv DISSERTATION. 

of the most deadly feuds and animosities between the various 
tribes, presenting to mutual communication a barrier more im- 
passable than that of seas and mountains, are, probably, the 
principal cause of this diversity. Were you to meet Dayaks 
of such and such a place, could you hold communication with 
them by any common language ? we inquired of this man. 
How could I dare visit them? was his instant rei)ly; by such 
an act of temerity I should lose my head." 

The great island of Celebes may be considered the centre of a 
group of languages, which, although agreeing with those here- 
Languages toforc described, in simplicity of grammatical structure, 
of Celebes, ^jfl^gj-g ygjy widely from them in phonetic character, 
albeit spoken by the same race of men. The name Celebes is 
known only to Europeans, and has never been traced ; most pro- 
bably, however, it was imposed by the Portuguese, the first Euro- 
pean discoverers of the island. When the Malays have occasion to 
name it, they call it Tanah Bugis, or the land of the Bugis, that 
is, of its principal nation. Celebes is intersected by the 
Equator, leaving a small portion of it in the northern and the 
mass in the southern liemisphere. Its greatest length is about 
500 miles, but its greatest breadth does not exceed 100; and in 
some places it is hardly one-third of this width. Its shape is 
singular, consisting of a small nucleus, from which spread out 
four great arms, forming so many peninsulas, with three deep 
bays between them. Its geological formation, as far as 
known, is primitive, and the volcanic formation, extending 
from Sumatra to the Moluccas, does not include it. The 
south-western limb, or peninsula, lying between the bay of 
Boni and the strait which divides the island from Borneo, 
is the seat of its most civilised nations. This sketch of Celebes 
will show, that in physical geography it has great advantages 
over the neighbouring island of Borneo. In fertility of soil, 
however, it is far below Java and the small islands near 
it, and, perhaps, also below Sumatra; while even in this 
respect, it is probably superior both to Borneo and the Malay 
peninsula. 

Celebes may be considered the focus of an original and inde- 
pendent civilisation, which probably sprung up among the most 



DISSERTATION. hxxv 

advanced of the nations winch occupy it, called by them- 
selves Wu^i, and by the Malays, and after them by 

TheBngis, _, ^ ' . "^ ^ .,..,.. , "^ 

<ii- wugi, Europeans, Bngis. In material civilisation the Bueris 
are equal to the Malays, and although below the Java- 
nese in agricultural skill, are, at present, far above both in com- 
mercial enterprise, and, indeed, may be considered to be, in our 
times, the most active and energetic people of the Archipelago, 
acting the same part in the intercourse of its nations, which the 
Malays and Javanese did on the arrival of Europeans. They 
conduct the greater part of the carrying trade, are found as 
settlers at every convenient point, and, iu some places, have 
even formed independent colonies. All this, however, is matter 
of comparatively recent date. The first notice I find of this 
people is in the Annals of Ternate, one of the Moluccas, to 
which they repaired for the purpose of forming a settlement in 
A.D. 1358. Barbosa, who gives an account of the Javanese 
and other traders whom he met with at Malacca, before its con- 
quest by the Portuguese, never names the Bugis, which would 
not have been the case, had their trade been, to any degree, as 
conspicuous as it is in our times. 

At present, not only all the cultivated languages of Celebes, 
but several, also, of some of the neighbouring islands, are written 
in one alphabet, called the Wugi or Bugis, and most probably 
the invention of the people of the same name. This alphabet 
differs wholly in the form of its letters from every other alphabet 
of the Archipelago, and I have no doubt, also, from every 
foreign one. It consists of small segments of circles, generally 
running in a horizontal direction, and like the other alphabets 
of the Archipelago, written from left to right, the letters being 
unconnected. It has a neat appearance, and might be written 
as rapidly, at least, as Ave do arithmetical figures, which could 
hardly be said of any of the other alphabets of the islands, and 
especially of the most perfect of them, the Javanese. 

The Bugis alphabet is arranged according to the Hindu 
organic classification, and consists of twenty-three consonants 
and five vowels. It has been several times engraved in Euro- 
pean works, but I take it from the English, Bugis, and Malay 
vocabulary of Mr. Thomsen, a Dane by birth, but long an 



Ixxxvi DISSERTATION, 

English missionary at Singapore. Having had the pleasm-e of 
being acquainted with Mr. Thomsen, I can vouch for his exten- 
sive acquaintance with the oral and written Malay. The words 
in the Bugis part of his vocabulary are given in the native as 
well as in Roman letters. The Bugis consonants are as follow, 
kj g, ng, m, nk, — p, b, m, ng, mp, — t, d, n, nr, — ch, j, ii, nch ; 
a, r, \, ^y, s, h, y. Thus we have a class of gutturals, labials, 
and palatals, with two nasals to each. The last one of these 
nasals in each series are respectively named nkak, mpak, nrak, 
and nchak, in Mr. Thomsen's explanation, but to all appearance 
pronounced like the first nasal of each series. No explana- 
tion is given by Mr. Thomsen of these peculiar nasals, nor can 
I find that they are used in the vocabulary. The vowel a, the 
liquids r, 1, w, and y, with the sibilant and aspirate, are thrown 
into a miscellaneous class. 

The vowels are represented by orthographic marks, as in the 
other alphabets of the Archipelago. The mark for i is a dot over 
the consonant, and for u one under it. A perpendicular stroke, 
with a single barb to the right, and placed before the consonant, 
represents e, and a similar stroke after the consonant, the barb 
being to the left-hand, represents o. There is a peculiar vowel 
in the Bugis, not found in the Malay or Javanese, but which 
is apparently the same as that which I have described as existing 
in the Sunda, and which has the sound of the German o, and as 
such, it is represented in this work. But it may also have, in the 
Bugis, the sound, " on " and " ong,'' according to its position in a 
word, that is, be a syllable composed of this vowel ending in either 
of two nasals. The vowel a, as usual, is inherent in, and follows 
every consonant, unless another vowel mark is attached to it, 
and in this case it is superseded by the latter. It is itself a 
substantive letter, and standing alone is an initial. Witli the 
marks of the other vowels, in the same way in which these are 
applied to the consonants, it becomes one of these vowels as an 
initial. The vowel sounds of the Bugis, then, are a, e, i, o, u, o. 
It wants the a of the Malay and Javanese. The aspirate is 
found in w'riting only as an initial, and although existing in 
the language at the end of a word, it is left to be understood 
without any sign to express it. This, with the anomalous 



DISSERTATION, Ixxxvii 

vowel o, constitute the imperfections of the Bugis alphabet. It 
contains no sign for eliding the inherent vowel, nor, indeed, is 
sucli a sign required, since in the Bugis language no two con- 
sonants, nasals excepted, can follow each other without the inter- 
vention of a vowel. No word, indeed, can terminate except in a 
vowel, the nasal ng, or on, or the aspirate, the last understood, but 
not written, and represented in Arabic and Roman letters by k. 
The following is the Bugis alphabet in the native character : — 







SUBSTANTIVE LETTERS. 










g 


ng uk 


p h ui aip t d 11 in- 


ch 


j 


u 


uch 


T-^ 


-;^ 'V 


^:^ J^^ii>-^ ^ ^ ^:^ 

a r 1 w shy 
■•-O r=^ '^C '•«^ «a CO /TO 


'il 


-D 


cr 


,« 



VOWEL MARKS APPLIED TO THE LETTER K. 
ke ki ko ku oug 

The phonetic character of the Bugis distinguishes it re- 
markably from the Malay, the Javanese, and all the other 
languages of the western part of the Archipelago. This pecu- 
liarity, accompanied by much commutation of letters, and 
many elisions, is such that all foreign words introduced into the 
language are so greatly disfigured that it is often difficult to 
detect them. Thus, the following words of the western insular 
languages are altered in the Bugis : mawar, " a rose," becomes 
mawara; ratus, "hundred," ratu; laksa, " ten thousand," lasa ; 
rampas, " to plunder," rapai ; bintang, " a star," witoeng j 
bulan, " the moon," uloeng ; ribut, " a storm," riwuk ; and 
barsin, "to sneeze," barosin gong. In Arabic words, owing to 
the still wider difference in the pronunciation, the departure 
from the original is still greater. Thus, masjid, " a mosque," 
becomes masigi; salam, "salutation," solong; barkat, "a bless- 
ing," baraka ; kartas, " papei"," karotasa ; wakt, " time," wotoe ; 
and sabab, "cause," sabak. 

Besides the popular alphabet, an obsolete one is stated by 
Sir Stamford RafHes to exist in some ancient manuscripts, and 



Ixxxviii 



DISSEKTATION. 



he has given au engraving of it, without, however, the vowel 
points. It is as follows : k, g, ng ; p, b, m, t, d, ng, eh, j, n, y, 
r, 1, wa, s, a. This also follows the Hindu arrangement, but 
Avants four nasals of the current alphabet, and it has no aspirate. 
Including the vowel a it is composed of 17 letters only. The 
form of the letters is widely different from that of the alphabet 
in use. It is more complex, and has much the appearance of 
being the invention of a distinct nation from that which in- 
vented the modern alphabet. 

No grammar of the Bugis language has ever been published ; 
but it is known, Hke the other languages of the Archipelago, 
to be of simple structure, and without inflexions, — gender and 
number being formed by the help of adjectives, cases by 
prepositions, tenses by adverbs, and moods by auxiliary verbs ; 
the words employed in all these cases being different from 
those used in Malay and Javanese, nothing being like indeed, 
save the manner of using them. 

The following is a list of the most simple of the Bugis 
particles, as they are given in the vocabulary of Mr. Thomsen, 
and it will be seen that, although a few of them may be 
traced to the Malay, or even Sanskrit, the great mass are 
original : — 



BUGIS. 


MALAY. 


ENULISH. 


Kori. 


Akan, ka. 


To. 


Ri. 


Di pada. 


At, iu, on. 


Kuwiri, kuwaeroli. 


Dari, daripada. 


From, of. 


Ule. 


Dangau, ulih. 


With, by. 


Ilalong. 


Dalam. 


In, within. 


Saliwong. 


Luwar. 


Out, without. 


Yaso. 


Atas. 


Above. 


Yawa. 


Bawah. 


Below. 


Palawangong. 


SaUng, autara. 


Between. 


Losok. 


Trus. 


Through. 


Iliwong. 


Sabrang. 


Over, or across water 


Olok. 


Adap. 


Before, in front. 


Monri. 


Balakang. 


Behind. 


Madopek. 


Diikat. 


Near. 


Komaie. 


Sini. 


Here. 


Kotu. 


Sana, situ. 


There. 


Pega. 


Mana. 


Where. 


Madopek. 


Dakat. 


Near. 


Mabcla. 


.rauh. 


Far. 



BUGIS. 


DISSERTATION. 

MALAY. 


Ix 

ENGLISH. 


Riolok. 


Diad-ap. 


Before. 


Rimunri. 


Dibalakang. 


Behind. 


Mariasok. 


KiiatAs. 


Upward. 


Mariawa. 


Kabawah. 


Downward. 


Riaaok. 


Diatas. 


Above. 


Riawa. 


Dibawah. 


Below. 


Pego. 


Kamana. 


Whither. 


Kuwaria. 


Kasana. 


Thither. 


Mariolok. 


Kiiadap. 


Forward. 


Marimonri. 


Kabaiakang. 


Backward. 


Polepego. 


Darimana. 


\Vhence. 


Polekbaria. 


Darisini. 


Hence. 


Pegi-pegi. 


Barangkainana. 


Wherever. 


Matupa. 


Sakaraug. 


Now. 


lolo. 


Daulu. 


First, formerly. 


Idenre. 


Tadi. 


Lately. 


Maitana. 


Lama. 


Long ago. 


Bajapa. 


Esuk, besuk. 


To-morrow. 


Dekpa. 


Btllum. 


Not yet. 


Rimonripi. 


Kamdiyan. 


Hereafter. 


Marawanggong. 


Jarang. 


Seldom. 


Sitaitana. 


Sadiyakala, sanantiyasa. 


Always, ever. 


Maega. 


Bafiak. 


Much. 


Naiya. 


ApabUa. 


When. 


Riwijtu. 


Tatkala (sans.). 


Then. 


Singgi. 


Barapa. 


How much. 


Gonok. 


Chukup. 


Enough. 


Machai. 


Pand'ai (sans.). 


Wisely. 


Bongo. 


Bod-oh. 


Foolishly. 


Masitak. 


Lakas. 


Quickly. 


Mania, mauiai. 


Parliian. 


Slowly. 


Barakuamoni. 


Barangkali. 


Perhaps. 


Xakonako. 


Kalu-kalu. 


Possibly. 


Tonggong. 


Sungguh. 


Verily. 


Majopu. 


mtul, banar. 


Truly. 


lyo. 


lya. 


Yes. 


Dek. 


Tiyadak. 


No, not. 


Pekonagi. 


Bagaimana. 


How. 


Mago. 


Mangapa. 


^Vhy. 


Paimoug. 


Lagi. 


More. 


Oronge. 


Dan. 


And. 


Nako, narcko. 


Kalau. 


If. 


Nayakea. 


Tatapi. 


But. 


lyareka. 


Atawa (san.s.). 


Or. 


Sangadina. 


Malayinkan. 


Except. 


Padai. 


Sapurti. 


As, like. 


Mauna. 


Maski, 


Though. 


Mua, muto. 


Juga. 


Also. 



XC DISSERTATION. 

It will appear from these examples, that the Bugis particles 
are even more free from foreign admixture than the Malay, 
among which will be found several taken, wholly or in part, 
from the Sanskrit. 

The total number of words in the vocabulary which I have now 
under examination is 1824', and in 1000, the following are the 
proportions of the different languages : — Malay 54, Javanese 
8, common to these two languages IG 1, Sanskrit 18, Arabic 13, 
leaving 767 of native Bugis. In the whole vocabulary there 
are besides 7 words of Telinga, 3 of Persian, and 9 of Portu- 
guese. The proportion of foreign insular words, that is, of 
Malay and Javanese, is 226, or about one-fourth part of the 
language. Tliis number, although large, is not essential to the 
structure of the Bugis, whicli can be written without them as 
we can write English without the help of Norman-French. 

Many of the foreign insular words found in the Bugis are 
but synonymes of native terms, as the following examples will 
show : — 



ENGLISH. 


NATIVE BUUIS. 


MALAY SYNONYME. 


Wind. 


Lijma. 


Auging, (angin). 


East. 


Alao. 


Timorok, (timur). 


West. 


Urai. 


Barok, (barat). 


North. 


Manorang. 


Utara (sans.). 


South. 


Maniyang. 


Silatang, (salatan). 


Salver, tray. 


Kaporak. 


Dulang. 


Pail, bucket. 


Pasiiok. 


Timba. 


Alligator. 


Torisalok. 


Biiaya. 


White ant. 


Borebore. 


Ani-ani. 


To squint. 


Jerok. 


Juling. 


To compose, to write. 


Atui. 


Karini, (karang). 


To run. 


Madek. 


Lari. 


To scratch. 


Kakang. 


Garu. 



The great bulk of the foreign insular words found in the 
Bugis are nouns. Among the pronouns, 17 in number, there 
are none. In 254 adjectives in the vocabulary, excluding 
repetitions and those that arc of Sanskrit and Arabic origin, 
there are no more than 18; and among 300 verbs, all greatly 
disfigured, and a few perhaps doubtful, only 73. AVlicn all 
this, — tlie originality of the particles, and tlie peculiarity of 



DISSERTATION. xci 

Bugis prouuuciation, producing mutilation in most of the 
foreign words adopted, are considered, I think it will be safe 
to consider the Bugis an original language, or, at all events, 
one wholly distinct from the Malay and Javanese. The words 
of these which it contains are not essential, but extrinsic, 
and I have no doubt were introduced in the course of ages 
of commercial intercourse, and the settlement of Malays and 
Javanese in Celebes. 

The Bugis language has no ceremonial dialect like the 
Javanese. This would be incompatible with the i-ude equality 
and freedom which characterise the tribes of Celebes, but its 
absence must, also, be considered as implying a less ancient 
and advanced civilisation. Bugis literature, like that of the 
Malays and Javanese, consists chiefly of romances. Books 
appear to be sufficiently numerous. When in Celebes in 1814, 
I obtained above thirty volumes, most of which are now in the 
British Museum. 

Of the languages of Celebes, the next in impoi'tance to the 

Bugis is the Macassar. The people who speak this tongue 

inhabit the same peninsula. They call themselves and 

The Ala- 

cassar lau- their language Mangkasara, and hence the Makasar or 

guage. » & » ' 

Mangkasar of the Malays, from whom we have taken 
the name. The Macassar has the same phonetic character and 
is written in the same alphabet as the Bugis, although the 
letters be a little less copious. No vocabulary of this language 
has ever been published; and, perhaps, the fullest list of words 
of it is that which I collected myself when I visited Celebes 
in 1814, consisting of 250 words only. An analysis of this list 
gives the following results: — Malay 21 words, Javanese 10, 
common to the Malay and Javanese 62, Sanskrit 17, and 
Native 140. Of foreign insular words, therefore, it contains 
93, which make about 38 in 100, while 56 in 100, or better 
than half the language, is native. Of the 140 native words, 76, 
or about half, are common to the Macassar and Bugis, Most 
of these are nouns. Of 21 adjectives, 6 are the same as in the 
Bugis; of 6 verbs, 1 only is the same; of 6 particles, 2 are 
alike ; and of 6 pronouns, none are the same. The specimen 
of the language is too limited to enable us to come to a safe 



xcii DISSERTATION. 

conclusion, but I incline to the belief that the Bugis and 
Macassar are distinct languages, and not mere dialects of one 
tongue. 

Besides the two principal languages, the Bugis and Macassar, 
there are three other languages of Celebes written in 

Minor Ian- . ,, . . 

guages of the same character, or, at Jeast, occasionally written m 
it; the Mandar, the Manado, and the Gorongtalu. 
The Mandar is spoken by a people on that side of the south- 
western peninsula, which fronts Borneo. Of this and the 
other two languages, I possess only the scanty specimens 
given in the work of Sir Stamford Raffles, amounting to fewer 
than 50 words, including the numerals. Out of 46 words of 
the Mandar, 9 are native, 4 Bugis, 5 common to the Bugis 
and Macassar, 6 Malay, 6 Javanese, and 18 common to 
these two languages. An ampler specimen would, without 
doubt, give very different results, showing a much larger 
proportion of native words. 

The Manado and Gorongtalu are languages of the long and 
narrow northern peninsula which has the sea of Celebes on one 
side and the deep bay of Gorongtalu on the other. Of 46 
words, the Manado has 22 that are native, 2 that are Malay, 
7 that are Javanese, 14 that are common to these two lan- 
guages, and one that is Macassar, but no Bugis word. Of 
44 words of the Gorongtalu, 23 are native, 7 Malay, none 
exclusively Javanese, 14 common to the Malay and Javanese, 
but no Bugis or Macassar word. If the orthography of the 
specimens of the three languages is to be relied on, their 
phonetic character must differ essentially from that of the 
Bugis and Macassar, for several of their words are made to 
terminate in consonants that are neither nasals nor aspirates, 
which never happens in those languages. 

Besides the five cultivated languages which have been 
enumerated, there are in Celebes languages spoken by the 
wild tribes of the interior, called by the Bugis, Turaja, but of 
these nothing is known to Europeans. 

The island of Sumbawa, the third in a direct line east of 
Java, about three times the extent of Bali or Lombok, and 
divided by a deep bay into two peninsulas, has three Ian- 



DISSERTATION. xciii 

guages, the Sumbawa, the Bima, and the Tambora. The geo- 
Langua-es logical formation is eminently volcanic, and it was in 
ofsumbawa. ^j^-^ island that took place in 1815 the most tremen- 
dous volcanic eruption on record. On my way to Celebes in 
1814, 1 saw this volcano in activity, and the great eruption took 
place in the following year, when I was at Surabaya in Java, 
distant about 250 miles. We were there enveloped in darkness 
by the ashes from the volcano for three days. The natives of 
Sumbawa are little inferior in cultivation to the most improved 
nations of Celebes. 

In the appendix to Sir Stamford Raffles' History of Java, 
short examples are given of the three languages of Sumbawa. 
According to these, the Sumbawa contains 9 Malay words, 
1 Javanese, 21 common to these two languages, 5 Bugis, 3 
Macassar, 4 common to the Bugis and Macassar, and only 
1 native word out of 45. This would make it appear that the 
Sumbawa is a mere mixture of foreign tongues ; but I have no 
doubt but that this result is produced by the inadequacy of the 
specimen adduce! But 46 words of the Bima give a different 
result. Two only are Malay, 3 Javanese, 13 common to these 
two languages, and 2 Bugis, while 26 are native. But the most 
remarkable result is exhibited by the analysis of the Tambora 
language. Of 48 words, 2 only are Malay and Javanese, viz : — 
bulu, " a hair,'^ and makan, " to eat ; " and there is but one 
which is Bugis, the term for man or human being. All the 
rest, including 12 numerals, have every appearance of being 
original. It was in the country of the people speaking this 
language that the great volcanic eruption of 1815 took place, 
and natives of Sumbawa afterwards stated to me, that the greater 
part of the tribe was destroyed by it. If the orthography of the 
specimens of the languages of Sumbawa be correct, their pho- 
netic character must differ from that of the Bugis and Macassar, 
for several of the Mords are made to end in consonants which 
are neither aspirates nor nasals. 

The Sumbawa and Bima languages are written in the 
Bugis character, but there exists in this island a singular and 
curious obsolete alphabet worth noticing ; it is as follows : — 
a, ch, ph, n, s, r, t, th, b, 1, gh, j, p, d, w, m, oh, dh, bh, k, ng, 



xciv DISSERTATION. 

rk, dh, h, kh, b, z, y, d, f, g, ii. The Hindu classification is not 
observed ; indeed, there is no order, but, on tlie contrary, great 
disorder. We have here 32 characters, and omitting the vowel a 
and aspirate, 30 consonants, consisting of 7 labials, 4 dentals, 
4 palatals, 4 gutturals, 4 nasals, 6 liquids, and 2 sibilants. 
Among the characters, there are no fewer than 9 aspirated 
consonants, and there are two letters, f, and a z, unknown 
to any other alphabet of the Archipelago. Exclusive of the 
aspirated letter, there are three characters to represent the 
sound of b, two of which may be duplicates, which would re- 
duce the number of consonants to 28. The vowel points are not 
given ; but, judging by the presence of the vowel a as a sub- 
stantive letter, it is probable they were of the same nature as 
those of the other alphabets of the Archipelago. This alphabet 
is ascribed to the Bima nation, but on what ground I do not 
know, for the characters do not generally correspond with the 
simple sounds of the Bima language as exhibited in the speci- 
men given of it. It would rather seem to belong to a foreign 
tongue, or to some extinct language of the islands, differing in 
phonetic character from any of those now existing. 

The large island of Flores, the fifth in a line east from Java, 
due south of Celebes, and of volcanic formation, affords the 
first example of a race of men seemingly intermediate between 
the Malay and Papuan, or negro, but partaking far more of the 
physical form of the first than of the last. The complexion is a 
good deal darker than that of the Malay, the nose flatter, the 
mouth wider, and the lips thicker. The hair is not lank, as 
in the Malay, but buckles, without frizzling as in the Papuan. 
The stature is the same as that of the Malay, that is, short 
and squab. 

Flores, according to the statements made to me by Bugis 
traders, themselves settlers in the island, is inhabited by six 
different nations, speaking as many different languages ; the 
Ende, the INIangarai, the Kio, the Roka, the Konga, and the 
Galeteng, names derived from the principal places of their resi- 
dence. By the Bugis merchants just mentioned, who were well 
acquainted with two of their languages, the Ende, and the 
Maugarai, I was supplied with a list of 72 words of each. 



DISSERTATION. xcv 

Judging by these specimens the sounds of the languages of 
Flores consist of the following vowels : — a,, a, e, i, o, n, and the 
following consonants^ b^ ch, d, f, g, h, j, k, 1, m, n, p, r, s, t, \v. 
According to this, they want the d*, ii, t*, and y of the Malay 
and Javanese, but have the labial f, which these and the other 
written languages are without. The natives of Flores have no 
written character; indeed, after quitting Celebes, no native 
wiitten character is known to exist within the strict limits of 
the Archipelago. 

The Ende has the following integral parts in the 72 words to 
which I have alluded : — Native w^ords 42, Malay 2, Javanese 3, 
common to the Malay and Javanese 22, Sanskrit 2, and Bugis 1. 
The Mangarai gives the following proportions in the same num- 
ber: — Native 38, Malay 3, Javanese 6, common to these two 
languages 23, Sanskrit 1, and Bugis 2. According to this, 
more than half of both languages is native, but the specimens 
are far too small and imperfect, and larger and more complete 
ones would, I am satisfied, show that the native portion of the 
language is far greater than I represent it. The greater number 
of the words in the lists are nouns, always the class most 
amenable to the invasion of foreign terms. There are but 8 
adjectives, and 5 verbs, while there are 13 numerals, nearly all 
counted as Malay or Javanese. 

The large island of Timur, a word -nliich means the East, and 
which was probably imposed by the Jxfalays, to whose language 
Languages ^^ bclougs, bccausc tliis was the extreme limit of their 
of Tiraur. Q^dij^firy commcrcial voyages to the south-east, is about 
three times the extent of Jamaica. It lies behind the long 
chain of volcanic islands beginning with Java, reaches to the 
11° of south latitude, and its geological formation is said to be 
chiefly primitive. Its principal inhabitants are of the Malayan 
race, but it contains also Papuans or Negroes, and tribes of the 
intermediate race. 

In the Malayan Miscellanies, published under the auspices 
of Sir Stamford Raffles, at Bencoolen, in 1820, lists of two 
languages of Timur, and of the languages of the two small 
islands at its western end, Rotti and Savu, are given, amount- 
ing each to 95 words. The two languages of Timur are the 



xcvi DISSERTATION. 

Manatoto and the Timuri, the first spoken at the north-east 
end of the island, and the last used by many of the tribes as a 
common medium of intercourse. 

No alphabet has ever been invented in Timur; but judging 
by the specimens of its languages, the vowels ai'e the same as 
those of the Malay and Javanese, viz : — a, a, e, i, o, u, and its 
consonants, as follow — b, g, h, k, 1, m, n, ng, r, s, t, v, y. The 
following six consonants of the Malays and Javanese : — ch, d", 
j, TL, p, f and w are wanting, and consequently the number is but 
14, including v. The Rotti seems to have the same number of 
vowels as the Timurian languages, and its consonants are : — b, d, 
f, g, h, k, 1, m, n, ng, p, r, s, t, w, y. It wants, therefore, the 
Malay and Javanese sounds : — ch, d*, j, il, t', but has the labial f, 
for which, as before stated, no character exists in any written 
language of the Archipelago. The Savu vowels are the same 
as in the languages of Timur and the Rotti, and the consonants 
b, d, h, j, k, 1, m, p, r, s, t, w, so that it wants of the Malay 
and Javanese consonants the following 6 : — d', g, ng, n, t-, and y, 
and consequently has but 12. 

The 95 words of the four languages which I have mentioned 
consist of 14 numerals, 10 adjectives, 7 verbs, and 2 particles. 
As data, therefore, to determine the affinities of these lan- 
guages, they are quite inadequate. The following, however, 
is an analysis of their component parts. The Manatoto 
contains 57 native words,- 4 Malay, 6 Javanese, 25 common 
to the Malay and Javanese, 2 Sanskrit, and 1 Bugis. The 
Timuri has 56 native words, 3 Malay, Javanese, 27 common 
to these two languages, 2 Sanskrit, and 1 Bugis. Tlic Rotti 
has 56 native, 3 Malay, 5 Javanese, 27 Malay or Javanese, 
2 Sanskrit, and 2 Bugis words. The Savu has 6() native, 
4 Malay, 4 Javanese, 20 Malay or Javanese, and 1 Bugis, 
but no Sanskrit word. From this examination it will appear, 
that near 60 parts out of 100 of the three first languages are 
native, and that of the language of Savu, an island lying at a 
considerable distance from Timur, near 70 parts are so. If 
the specimens had been more ample, with a just proportion 
of the diflferent classes of words, the native part of all these 
langruagres, I have not the least doubt, would be shown to be 



DISSERTATION. xcvii 

much larger than it here appears. I may add that another list 
of 70 words of the Timuri and Rotti furnished to me by my 
friend Mr. Owen Phillips, who in an official station resided 
in Timur, and was a good Malay scholar, gives similar results 
to those of the longer list of the Malayan Miscellanies. 

From Timur to New Guinea, there runs a long chain of 
islets, forming, as it were, a wall or barrier to the south-eastern 
portion of the Archipelago. In these islets the inhabitants are 
of the same race with the Malays, and speak many languages. 
By far the most ample and authentic account of them has 
been given by Mr. Winsor Earl, who, after a longer experience 
of the countries in which they are spoken than any other 
European, makes the following observations. — " In the south- 
eastern parts of the Indian Archipelago, where opportunities 
of social intercourse between the various petty tribes are of 
rare occurrence, every island, every detached group of villages, 
has its own peculiar dialect which is often unintelligible, even 
to the tribes in its immediate neighbourhood. In some of the 
larger islands, Timur, for example, these tribes are so nume- 
rous, and the country occupied by many of them so extensive, 
that it becomes impossible to form even an approximate 
estimate of their number."* 

Of one language, the prevailing one, among several languages of 

the island of Kisa, one of the Sarawati group in the chain of islets 

already mentioned, Mr. Earl has furnished a curious and 

betweenTxi- iustructivc vocabulary of 330 words. The Kisa is, of 

miir and . . , . i -« /r -r-i i > 

NewGiii- course, an unwritten tongue, but judgmg by Mr. Earls 
list, and confiding in his well-known acquaintance with 
the Malay language, that through which he obtained them, its 
vowels are the same as those of the Malay and Javanese, and 
its consonants as follows : — b, d, h, j, k, 1, m, n, n, p, r, s, t, v, 
w, y. It wants the ch, d-, ng, and t", of the Javanese alphabet, 
but has V, which neither the Javanese, or any other written 
language of the Archipelago possesses. The consonant sounds 
of the Kisa, therefore, are only 16, instead of the 20 of the 
Malay and Javanese. Some consonant's which it possesses 

* Journal of the Indian Archipelago, vol. ii. p. 695. 



xcviii DISSERTATION. 

are of rare use. Mr. Earl observes that the sibilant very 
seldom occiu's, and in fact, in his whole list of words it occurs 
only seven times. Besides this, the letter b is of still rarer 
occurrence than the sibilant, for in 330 words I can detect 
it once onh^, and that apparently in a foreign word, basa, 
"to wash," for the Malay basuh with the same meaning. 
This paucity of consonants has the effect of mutilating and 
disguising foi'eign words, so that their recognition is a matter 
of some difficulty and uncertainty. Commutations of conso- 
nants are besides frequent. B is changed to w, p to m, ng 
into n, and g, s, and t into a strong aspirate. Moreover, 
vowels are added, consonants elided, and occasionally, a word 
truncated by a whole syllable. As a general rule, a vowel 
is added at the end of every foreign word, and most native 
words end in a vowel, as in the Bugis, but to this rule there 
are exceptions, for besides ending, as in the latter language, in 
a vowel, an aspirate or the nasal ng, they are also found to 
terminate in the liquids 1 and r. Mr. Earl, used to the soft 
sounds of the Malay, was forcibly struck with the harsh ones 
of the Kisa. 

The following are the words of the western languages, which 
I am able to identify, and although they are not numerous, 
some even of these few may, perhaps, be doubtful. The letters 
annexed to them are the initials of the languages from which 
they are taken, c standing for those common to the Malay and 
Javanese. 



ENGLISH. 


KISA. 


WESTERN LANGUAGES. 


Arm, or hand. 


Liman. 


Lima, b. 


Bargain. 


Tawar. 


Tawar, m. 


Bay, cove. 


Holok. 


T.aluk, m. 


Bird, fowl. 


Manu. 


Manuk, j. 


Board, plank. 


Awahan. 


Papan, m. 


Buffalo. 


Arpau. 


Karbau, c. 


Buy. 


Wall. 


Bali, m. 


Cloth. 


Tapi. 


Tapili, j. (lower garment). 


Cloves. 


Jfinki. 


Changke, c. 


Dead. 


Maki. 


Mati, c. 


Dive. 


Haidmi. 


saidm, c. 


Dog. 


Ahua. 


Asu, j. 


Eat. 


Niian. 


Makan, c. 



DISSEKTATION. 



ENGLISH. 


EISA. 


WESTERN LANGUAGES. 


East. 


Kimur. 


Timur, m. 


Eye. 


Makan. 


Mata, c. 


Fruit. 


Womi. 


Buah, m., woh, j, 


Full. 


P;\noh. 


Panoh, s. 


Hard. 


Karah. 


Kras, c. 


Head. 


Ulu. 


Ulu, c. 


Heart. 


Akin 


Ati, c. 


Heavy. 


Warak. 


Brat, m., warat,j. 


Hibiscus tiliaceus. 


Warau. 


Bam, m., warn, j. 


Hog. 


Wawi. 


Bali, m., bawi, j. 


Hot. 


Manah. 


Panas, c. 


Island. 


Nohan. 


Nusa,j. 


Laud, earth. 


Noha. 


Nusa, j. (island). 


Lightaing. 


Litar-litar. 


Lintar, m. 


Man. 


Mahoni. 


Woroane, bugis. 


Mango.* 


Mampilan. 


Mampaiam, m. 


Moon. 


Woli. 


Wulan, c. 


Name. 


Onai'am. 


Aran, j. 


New. 


Wohru-wohru. 


Baharu, m. 


Night. 


Alam. 


Maiam, m. 


Nose. 


Tnini. 


Idung, m., irung, j. 


Pearl. 


Mutiara. 


Mutiara, sans. 


Pigeon. 


Marpati. 


Marpati, m. 


Plate (a). 


Plan. 


Pingan, c. 


Rain. 


Ohkon. 


Ujan, m., ud'an, j. 


Return. 


Waliali. 


Balik, c. 


Rib (a). 


Rusan. 


Rusuk, m. 


Run. 


Lari. 


Lari, m. 


Scratch (to). 


Haruka. 


Garu, c. 


Skin. 


HuUkin. 


Kulit, c. 


Spoon. 


Huriia. 


Sud-uk, c. 


Stone. 


Wahku. 


Batu, m., watu, j. 


Sugar-cane. 


Kahu. 


Tabu, c. 


Swim (to). 


Nani. 


Langi, j. 


Wash (to). 


Baha 


Basuh, m., wasuh, j. 


Water. 


Dira. 


Ayar, m. 


Wax (bees'). 


Lih. 


LilTn, m. 


West. 


Warak. 


Barat, m. 


Wind. 


Auge. 


Angin, c. 


Wrong. 


Hala. 


Salah, c. 


Yam. 


Uwi. 


Ubi, m., uwi, j. 



To these, however, must be added 22 numerals, to be sub- 
sequently considered, and of which, although most strangely 



* This word, evidently taken from the 
' the great fniit," through the Telinga. 



however, Sanskrit, maha-pala, 



h 2 



C DISSERTATION. 

disfigured, eight seem to be derived from the Javanese, and 
fourteen to be common to this language and Malay. This 
will make the component parts of the Kisa to consist of 15 
words of Malay, 15 of Javanese, 36 common to the INIalay and 
Javanese, 3 Sanskrit, and 3 Bugis, — in all G6 words, leaving 
264 of native or local words. Thus, only 20 in 100 are foreign 
words, leaving four-fifths of the language so far original. 

On comparing the vocabulary of the Kisa with the list of 
words of the two languages of Timur and those of Rotti and 
Savu, I find eleven whicli are common to the Kisa and to one 
or other of the four Timurian languages. They are as follow : — 



ENGIJSH, 


KISA. 


MANATOLO. 


TIMURI. 


ROTTI. 


SAVU. 


Mother. 


Ena. 


Ena. 


Ena. 


Ena. 


Ina. 


Tooth. 


Nihan. 


Nihi. 


Nehand. 


Nosi. 


Nuhsi. 


Leg. 


Ehin. 


Aen. 


Aen. 


— 


Hein. 


Blood. 


Raarn. 


Rahan. 


Rahan. 


— 


— 


Dream. 


Namarimi. 


— 


— 


— 


Namai 


Stand (to). 


Mamiriri. 


— 


Hamarilii. 


— 


— 


Sit (to). 


Naikoro. 


Natarai. 


— 


— 


— 


Sun. 


Lehri. 


Lairon. 


Lorok. 


Lailoh. 


Nairol 


Cloud. 


Kakan. 


_ 


_ 


— 


Kakas. 


Cold. 


Riu. 


Dadun. 


Maluin. 


— 


— 


Yellow. 


Miiara. 


Mawara. 


— 


Mamoloh. 


Moloh 



These few words, if they be really the same, which, in some 
cases, from the great variation in orthographj^, is very doubtful, 
form but a small part of the native or local portion of the Kisa, 
and prove only that a certain amount of intercourse has sub- 
sisted between the parties speaking the difi'erent languages. 

Among the words of the western languages in the Kisa, 
there are three which are mere synonymes of native words. 
The native word for the verb " to eat" seems to be nohon, and 
the synonyme naan, which is probably either the Malay makan 
or the Javanese mangan. Enimo is the native term for the 
earth or land, and its synonyme the Javanese word nusa, ''an 
island." Ria is the native name for " man," and its synonyme 
mohoni, which is most probably the Bugis word woroane. 

Including the words contained in a specimen of the Kisa 
given in connexion by Mr. Earl, I find nine particles, con- 
taining, however, unfortunately, no preposition. That the 



DISSERTATION. ci 

particles differ entirely from the same class of words in Malay 
and Javanese will appear from the following comparative 
statement : — 



ENGLISH. 


KISA. 


MALAY. 


JAVANESE. 


No. 


Kiiali. 


Tida. 


Ora. 


Not. 


Kiiun. 


Tida. 


Ora. 


Yes. 


Wahan. 


lya. 


Inggih. 


Veiy. 


Idmi. 


Tarlalu. 


Sangat. 


Yet. 


Mahun. 


Lagi. 


Tdksih. 


Here. 


Isni. 


Sini. 


Riki. 


Near. 


Nail ur an. 


D4kat. 


ChM-ak. 


Yesterday. 


Oiravi. 


Kalmarin. 


Wangi. 


Or. 


Kiiun. 


Atawa, sans. 


Utawa. 



The pronouns, some of which are often common to many 
languages of the Archipelago, and which extend even to the 
languages of the South Sea Islands, seem, in the Kisa, to be all 
different from the Malay and Javanese pronominals. This will 
be seen from the following enumeration of the Kisa pronouns : 
— " I," yahu ; " we," ika ; " our," iki-niki ; " thou," oho ; 
"their," eeneni; "he, she, it," inyi; "his, hers," aiuina; 
" this," en'ieni ; " that," even ; " what," inaao ; " which," eevi ; 
" who," inhohoi. The only words here that can be suspected 
to be of Malayan origin are the pronoun of the first person 
singular, and the demonstrative pronoun this ; but as the rest 
are so essentially different, the resemblance of yahu, " I," and 
enieni, " this," to the Malay aku and ini are probably 
accidental. 

When the wide difference between the phonetic character of 
the Kisa and the languages of the western part of the Archi- 
pelago, — the great corruption of the words of the last intro- 
duced into the first far exceeding that which takes place even 
in the languages of the South Sea Islands, or the Madagascar, 
— the comparatively small amount of the languages of the west 
in the Kisa, and the discrepancy in the most essential words 
are considered, the conclusion, I think, must be that the Kisa 
is an original and independent tongue, and the words in it 
common to the Malay and the Javanese merely extrinsic. 
Traffic and partial settlement are the media by which these 
foreign words seem to have been introduced into the Kisa. 



cii DISSERTATION. 

The nature of some of the words, indeed, would seem to testify- 
to this ; such as the terms for cloth, cloves, bees'-wax, sugar- 
cane, yam, hog, dog, buy, east, west, bay or cove, 

Mr. Earl has given a list of 37 words of five languages of the 
same part of the Arcliipelago, — three of them of Timur, one of 
the Keh islets, one of the island of Baba, and one of the Arroe 
islands. He imagines these sufficient for the ordinary purposes 
of comparison, and comes to the conclusion that all the lan- 
guages of the brown-complexioned or Malayan race of this 
portion of the Archipelago are but subdivisions of one common 
tongue. The fatal objection to such a theory, from such data, 
is that a brief list of this description must of necessity be 
delusive. Thus 15 out of the whole 37 words given by Mr. Earl 
are numerals, and all the rest are nouns, the names of natural 
objects. It would appear by these necessarily partial specimens 
that the great mass of all the languages examined was one and 
the same. Taking, for example, the only two specimens for which 
the words are complete, those of the Baba and Keh, the Malay, 
Javanese, and Bugis words in the first of these amount to 31, or 
about 83 in 100, and in the last to 27, or near 73 in 100. Instead 
of these proportions, Mr. Earl himself admits that not more 
than one-sixth part of the languages agree in their words; and 
we have seen in the satisfactory vocabulary of the Kisa, given by 
the same writer, that a fifth part of it only is composed of the 
languages of the west. But an agreement in a fifth or sixth 
part of the words of two or more languages, without reference 
to their character, would not, as we know from the experience 
of our own tongue, prove that such languages had a common 
origin. It would not be difficult to show, for example, from 
samples of the Javanese language of the same extent, numerals 
included, that, contrary to truth, it was derived from Sanskrit, 
and not an insular tongue at all. 

After entering the Molucca and Banda seas, we have many 

islands and numerous languages. The islands are small, 

volcanic, unproductive in corn, but fertile in fine spices. 

ouhc'^^'^^ The race of men is the Malayan, short, squat, and 

darker in complexion than the Malays or Javanese. 

When first discovered by Eiu'opeans, the inhabitants had made 



DISSERTATION. ciii 

considerable advance in civilisation ; but one niucli inferior to 
that of the Malays and Javanese. They had neither invented 
written language nor a;] opted any of the alphabets of the 
western nations of the Archipelago. 

Sir Stamford Raffles has furnished specimens of three of 
the languages of this furthest east portion of the Archipelago, 
but after excluding one Arabic word, they amount to no more 
than 48, of which 13 are numerals, 5 are adjectives, 3 are verbs, 
and all the rest, the names of natural objects. The languages 
are those of Ceram, correctly Serang, of Ternate, correctly 
Tarnati, and of Saparuwa, one of the Banda isles. The lan- 
guage of Ternate is remarkable for the small proportion of the 
western languages which even the brief and partial specimen 
given of it exhibits. They are, 3 Malay words, 2 Javanese, 
and 4 common to them, in all, only nine, or little more than 
one fifth part of the whole number. This arises from the 
unusual fact, that the Ternate, like the Tambora of Sumbawa, 
has preserved its own numerals, and not adopted tjiose current 
in the rest of the insular languages. 

The language of Ceram affords very different results, for 9 
of the words are Malay, 2 Javanese, 17 are common to these 
two languages, while 2 are Sanskrit, making in all, 30 words 
of the western tongues, or 62 words in 100. This arises from 
10 out of the 13 numerals being the usual current ones. The 
Saparuwa has 1 Malay, 4 Javanese, 17 common to these two 
languages, 1 Sanskrit, and 2 Bugis words, in all 25 foreign 
words, or a little more than half the whole number. The 
numerals, in this case also, are the current ones. 

With respect to the Spice islands, it must be observed, that, 
on their first discovery, the Malay language was very generally 
prevalent, at least at the seaports, being spoken by all persons 
carrying on trade with the strangers that frequented them. The 
list of words given by Pigafetta and purporting to be the language 
of the Moluccas, is in reality Malay, Avith the exception of 20 
words which probably belong to the language of the island of 
Tidor or Tidori, where he made his collection. 

The great group of the Philippines, although contiguous to 
the proper Indian Archipelago, and connected with it by native 



ciy DISSERTATION. 

navigation, differs materially in climate and in the manners 
Pi,-i „r.„o of its inhabitants. It extends over 15° of latitude, 

Pnilippine ' 

languages, ^mining from near 5° to 20° north of the equator; 
much of it, therefore, coming within the rough region of 
hurricanes, which no part of the Indian Archipelago does. The 
group consists of many islands, while two alone, Lnpon and 
Mindanao are of great, and eight of considerable size. The 
bulk of the inhabitants are of the same tawny-complexioned, 
lank-haired, short and squab race as the principal inhabitants 
of the western portion of the Indian Archipelago. 

The focus of the aboriginal civilisation of the Philippines, 
as might be expected, has been the main island of the group 
Lu9on,* estimated to have an area of more than 57,000 
square miles, and therefore to be not much short of twice the 
size of Ireland. This island abounds in fertile plains, moun- 
tains of great elevation securing a perennial supply of water ; 
lakes, rivers, and deep inlets of the sea ; and, therefore, has 
all the natural elements which promote an early civilisation. 
When the Philippines were first discovered by the Spaniards, 
in 1521, the most advanced of their inhabitants were greatly 
below the Malays and Javanese in civilisation, yet far in 
advance of the most improved of the South Sea islanders. 
They were clothed in cotton garments, acquainted with the 
useful and the precious metals, and their agriculture was as 
advanced as could be expected in the absence of any beast of 
draught or burthen, unless perhaps the buffalo in Luyon. 
The hog, the goat, the dog and the common fowl they had 
domesticated for food. The ox and the horse were wanting 
everywhere. To judge from language and monuments, the 
Hindu religion and civilisation had made but slender progress 
compai'ed to what they had done among the principal of the 
western nations of the Archipelago, and the Mahomedan 
hardly any at all. The Philippine islanders were a home- 
keeping people, destitute of the spirit of adventure. Their 

* Lu9on, a corruption of the Malay and Javanese word Iftsung, means a rice- 
mortar. The Spaniards are said to have asked the name of the island, and the 
natives, who certainly had none, thinking they meant a rice-mortar which was 
before the speakers at the time, answered accordingly. 



DISSERTATION. CT 

voyages extended no farther than Borneo, while the nations 
of the western portion of the Archipelago traded to their ports, 
and the Malay language was spoken on their coasts, as it was 
on those of all the western islands. 

In the Philippine islands there exist many separate nations 
or tribes speaking distinct languages, and unintelligible to each 
other. Most of the languages are wholly unknown to Euro- 
peans, but of the principal ones grammars and dictionaries have 
long existed, through the zeal and diligence of the Spanish 
ecclesiastics. In Lui^on alone there exist, exclusive of Negro 
tribes, six nations, speaking as many distinct tongues, a cer- 
tain proof that the island never could have been, for any length 
of time, most probably never at all, united under a single 
government, and a proof also of inferior civilisation. The 
principal languages of Lu^on are the Tagala, the Pampanga, 
the Pangasinan, and the Iloco, spoken at present by a popula- 
tion of 2,250,000 ; while the Bisaya has a wide cm-rency among 
the southern islands of the group : Leyte, Zebu, Negros, and 
Panay, containing 1,200,000 people. I am in possession 
of grammars and dictionaries of the first and last of these 
languages, and have perused a grammai' and dictionary of the 
Pampanga and a dictionary of the Iloco. With such assistance 
I propose to examine the character of the Philippine languages. 

The Tagala may be considered the principal language of the 
island of Lu9on. The native word is Tagalog, and is, as usual 
The Tagala ^^ ^^^^ cascs, the name both of the nation and language. 
language, rpj^^ peoplc who spcak tliis touguc inhabit the districts 
bordering on the great bay of ManiUa, on the western side of 
the island. The Tagala is a written language in a peculiar 
alphabet, and the following are its consonants in the order in 
which they are usually written : b, k, d, g, h, 1, m, n, ng, p, s, 
t, V, y. This makes 14, but as the same consonants represent, 
respectively, d and v, and p and f, the actual number of consonant 
sounds is 16. It wants the characters for ch, d', j, n, r, t*, w, of 
the Javanese alphabet, and all the sounds of these letters except 
r, represented by the ambiguous letter d, which is most probably 
a palatal. It has, however, the consonants v and f, sounds 
unknown to the Javanese and Malay, although I strongly suspect 



cvi DISSEETATION. 

that the character called by the Spanish Avriters v is really no 
other than the English w, which is not known in the Castilian 
alphabet, but which is found in all the languages of the western 
part of the Archipelago. In Malay and Javanese no native 
word, or syllable, begins with an aspirate, which occurs only 
after a vowel ; but, in the Tagala, h is frequently an initial, and 
is described by the Spanish grammarians as a very sharp 
aspirate. The actual number of the Tagala vowels in pronun- 
ciation is 5, — a, e, i, o, u. Three vowels are considered as sub- 
stantive letters, but used only as initials. The vowel a, as such, 
is represented by a distinct character ; but one character stands 
for e and i, and another for o or u. It is, indeed, doubtful 
whether e and o really exist at all. The vowel points are not 
applied to these substantive vowels as they are to the a of the 
Javanese and other western alphabets ; for the two additional 
substantive vowels are supposed to supply their place. There 
are but two vowel marks instead of five, as in Javanese, and 
these consist of a simple dot only. A dot over the consonant 
represents either e or i, and one under it either o or u. The 
vowel a is inherent in every consonant, and follows it, as in the 
western alphabets ; but there is no orthographic mark for eliding 
it. There is no character to represent an aspirate or the nasal 
ng following vowels. No liquid coalesces with a consonant, except 
1, and there is no contrivance to point out when this does, or does 
not. After every word are inserted two vertical sti'okes, thus 1 1 ; 
constituting the only mark of punctuation in the Tagala. 

The Spanish grammarian from whom I take this account of 
the Tagala alphabet observes, that it forms " a writing as easy 
to read as difficult to understand, because you must guess at 
the pronunciation and meaning."* He gives two examples of 
the difficulty. A word or syllable consisting of the consonants 
b and t, and which, the inherent a being understood, would 
make bata only in any of the languages of the west, may be 
read in Tagala also as batang, bantai, batar, batak, banta, batai, 
— in all seven different ways. Two letters 1, with a dot over 

* Compenclio de la Arte de la lengua Tagala, por el Padre Fr. Gaspard de San 
Augustin. — 1787. 



DISSEETATION. cvii 

each, and which should express lele or lili only, may also be 
read lilim, lilip, lilis, lilit, linin, lilik, and liglig, making eight 
different modes of pronunciation. But as the dot over the 
consonant equally represents e and i, the Spanish writer might 
have said, sixteen different ways. From these examples, it 
would appear that medial and final consonants, and the diph- 
thong ai at the end of a word, are often left to be understood, 
and that the actual pronunciation, and consequently the 
meaiiing, of a word is left to be gathered from the context ; so 
that the language must be well understood before it can be 
read at all. 

The Tagala alphabet, from this account of it, seems to be an 
orthographic system far more imperfect than the rudest of the 
alphabets of the western part of the Archipelago. These last 
were, no doubt, once equally rude; and that the Pliilippine 
islanders had not improved theirs must be considered as evi- 
dence of an inferior civilisation. The form of the Tagala letters 
differs from that of any of the western alphabets. It resembles 
them only in making the vowel a a substantive letter ; to «hich it 
adds, however, substantive characters representing, respectively, 
e and i, and o and u ; in expressing medial and final vowels by 
marks, instead of substantive letters, and in making the vowel 
a to be inherent in every consonant. Neither does it bear any 
resemblance, except in these respects, to the Hindu alphabets. 
It even wants their arrangements, although that prevails so 
frequently in the western alphabets of the Archipelago. The 
Tagala alphabet, then, has all the appearance of an original 
and local invention ; and, at all events, there is assuredly no 
evidence to show that it has been derived from a foreign 
source. 

The Tagala alphabet is still in use in a few parts of the island 
of Lufon, although the Spaniards (not, I think, without reason) 
discourage it, and have in a good measure substituted the 
Roman letters, which express with great precision every sound 
of the Philippine languages. The Tagala has been usually 
understood to be the only native writing of the Philippine 
islands. It is stated, however, that the Bisayas have letters 
peculiar to themselves of a different form ; but I have seen no 



cviii DISSERTATION. 

representation or description of them * The Tagala native 
characters are as follow : — 

CONSONANTS, 
b k (1, r g ng h 1 m n p, f 

vat y 

■V5 "n 00 

SUBSTANTIVE VOWELS AND VOWEL ftlARKS APPLIED TO THE 
LETTER K. 

a e i o u ke ki ko ku 

^ c;:^ 3 ^ « 

The phonetic character of the Tagala and Bisaya differs very 
widely from that of the Javanese, the Malay, and even of the 
Bugis and other languages of the west. It is, as mentioned in 
another place, a rule of Malay prosody, equally applicable to 
the other languages of the west, that no two consonants come 
together without the intervention of a vowel, unless one of 
them be a liquid or a nasal. No such rule exists in the Philip- 
pine languages, and the consequence is that many words are 
found in them which are never heard from the mouth of a 
Malay or Javanese. Thus, we have in Tagala, kaligkuik, " to 
tremble from cold," and ngalubakbak, " to decorticate ; " and 
in Bisaya, balutbut, " to detect ; " bugtau, " to be awakened by 
a noise ; " and sagagsak, " the sound of water falling from a 
height." These are such sounds as a Malay or Javanese could 
not pronounce without a painful effort. Another distinction in 
the pronunciation of the Philippine languages consists in the 
frequent occurrence of an aspirate, described by the Spanish 
■writers as a strong one, at the beginning of words and syllables, 
but never at their termination. This is exactly the reverse of 
what exists in the Malay and Javanese, in which no strong 
aspirate begins words or syllables, but very frequently ends 
them. In words adopted from the western languages, the 
Philippine tongues always omit the final aspirate, and often 

* Arte de la lengua Bisaya por Alonso De Mentrida Manilla. — 1818. 



DISSERTATION, cix 

prefix one which does not exist in the original. Another 
prosodial distinction consists in the rare occurrence of the 
letter g ending a word in the western languages, and the 
frequency of this guttural terminating words in the Philippine 
tongues. Even words borrowed from the former have their 
final letters commuted for this seemingly favourite sound of 
the Philippine islanders. Thus, lay ar, " a ship's sail,^^ or '"^to 
sail," becomes in theTagala, layag; and baning, "clear, limpid,'' 
is turned into banaag. 

Accent, in the Malay, the Javanese, and other languages 
of the west is a very simple and easy matter. In bisyllabic 
and trisyllabic words, it is, with very few exceptions, on the 
penultimate, and in polysyllabic words, without exception, 
there are two accents, one on the first and one on the penul- 
timate syllable. On the contrary, accent is a complex affair 
in the Philippine tongues, and stated by the Spanish gram- 
marians to be their greatest difficulty.* Some of these 
writers make the accents only twoj others run them up 
to seven, but more generally they reckon them at four. It 
is certain, however, that under accent, the Spanish writers 
include quantity, and perhaps even variations in the sounds of 
the vowels. The two following are examples of the accent 
as given by one of the Spanish writers from the Tagala. The 
word baga, with what they call the long penultimate, 
means, " a live coal," or " the lungs ; " and with the short 
penultimate, "chance," and "a boil," "an imposthume." 
The second and the third of these are native words, but the 
first and last Malay, being corruptions of bara and barah, 
having respectively the same meanings as in the Tagala. The 
word sala, with the long penultimate, means in Tagala, "to 
sin," and also, " to run " or " flow ; " and with the short one, 
" cane-wicker," and also " desirous " or " anxious." The word 
in its first sense only is jNIalay and Javanese, corrupted by 
the loss of the final aspirate which restored would make it 
correctly salah. 

The grammatical structure of the Philippine languages differs 

* Compendio de la Arte lengua Tagala, p. 148. Vocabolario de la lengiia Tagala, 
Preface. Diccionario de la lengua Bisaya, p. 1. 



ex DISSERTATION. 

very widely from that of the Malay and Javanese, as may be 
seen by a brief sketch of that of the Tagala. The noun is 
devoid of all inflexions. Relation is expressed by articles 
which vary with the case, and of these articles, there are two 
classes, one for proper names and one for appellatives. With 
proper names, that for the nominative is sa, for the genitive ni, 
and for the other oblique cases ka. With appellatives, the 
article for the nominative is ang, for the genitive nang, and for 
the other oblique cases sa. When, however, the proper name 
is accompanied by another proper name being itself the leading 
word, the articles become, for the nominative sina, for the 
genitive nina, and for the dative, accusative, and ablative, kana. 
The same article is used when speaking respectfully of the 
relations of consanguinity. A plural is formed, whether for 
proper names or appellatives, by placing before the noun the 
word manga, a particle expressly appropriated to this purpose. 
There are no means of expressing gender, except by the use of 
adjectives having the sense of sex. These are lalaki, which 
is Malay for the " masculine," and babayi, Avhich is a native 
word for the "feminine." 

The adjective, which in composition follows the noun, 
undergoes no change, except when it qualifies a plural noun, 
and then the first syllable of the root of which it is com- 
posed is doubled. A comparative degree is formed by the 
use of the word lalu, " more," which seems to be the Malay 
word lalu, '' to pass," or " pass." A superlative is expressed 
by the word lubha, " much," or " in excess ; " which may be a 
corruption of the Malay word labih, " more," or to a greater 
degree, and it is also expressed by the native word disapala, " in 
a large measure." 

The formation of the personal pronouns is singular. That 
of the first person in the nominative singular is aku, in tlie 
genitive, akin or ku ; and in the dative, accusative, and ablative, 
saakin. It has three plurals. Tayu is a general plural in the 
nominative, which has for its genitive atin and natin, and for 
the other oblique cases saatin. Kita is a dual, and has for its 
genitive kanita and ta, and for the other oblique cases sakanita. 
Kami is a plural which excludes the party addressed, and it has 



DISSERTATION. cxi 

for its genitive amin and namin, and for its other oblique 
cases samin. The pronoun of the second person singular is 
ikan, and it has for its genitive iyu and mu, and for its dative, 
accusative, and ablative, sayu. It has but one plural, which in 
the nominative is kayu, in the genitive ingu and ningu, and 
in the other oblique cases, saingu. The pronoun of the third 
person for all genders is siya, having for its genitive kaniya 
and niya, and for the other oblique cases sakaniya. Its plural 
is sila, Avith the genitive kanila, and the other oblique cases, 
sakanila. The second genitive of all the personal pronouns 
follows the verb, and the first goes before it. 

The possessive pronouns of the Tagala are but the genitive 
cases of the personal. There is but one demonstrative, itu," this,'^ 
or " that ; " it is the itu, " that," of the Malay, and probably the 
iku of the Javanese. The relative pronoun appears to be na, 
preceding words ending with a consonant, and ang with those 
in a vowel, but it requires that the antecedent should have the 
article. The interrogative pronoun is sino, its genitive kanino, 
and its other oblique cases sakanino. 

The Tagala verb is in itself sufficiently complex, and has been 
made to appear more so by the vain eflbrts of the Spanish 
grammarians to force it into a parallel with the Latin. With 
a very few exceptions there is no class of words specially and 
exclusively verbs. These are formed from roots, or radical 
words, by the application of particles. There are no means of 
distinguishing between the transitive and intransitive verb, as 
in Malay and Javanese. Frequentative verbs are formed by 
prefixing to the radical the prefix mapag. There is no distinc- 
tion of person or number expressed in the verb itself. Time is 
expressed by the application of inseparable particles. There is 
an active and a passive voice. The simple conjugations are three 
in number, but the compound ones numerous. The simple con- 
jugations are indicated by prefixed particles, which, for the first, is 
na, for the second nag, and for the third ungra or um. The fol- 
lowing is given as an example of the active voice of the simple 
conjugation in na : — The radical word is tulug, " sleep," which 
is probably a corruption of the Javanese word with the same 
meaning, turn. Present of the indicative, uatutulug ; imperfect 



Cxii DISSERTATION. 

preterite, natutulug-pa ; perfect preterite, natukig ; pluperfect, 
iiatutulug ; future, matulug ; imperative, niatulug. The opta- 
tive and subjunctive modes are formed by the auxiliary nava, 
which is desci'ibed as equivalent in meaning to the Latin 
utinam. The infinitive and also the verbal noun are paga- 
tululug, "to sleep,'' or "the act of sleeping." 

There are three modes of forming a passive for the first simple 
conjugation, or that in na, respectively with the particles, in, na, 
and y, and the following is given as an example with the second 
of these, which is that of most general application, the root 
being the same as that for the active voice, viz., tulug, "sleep;" 
present of the indicative, natutulugan, or katutulugan ; preterite, 
natulugan, or kinatulugan ; future, katutulugan ; impei'ative, 
katulugan ; infinitive, katulugan ; verbal noun, called a future 
participle, katutulugan, "the place where one will sleep." The 
optative is formed as in the active voice by the auxiliar}^ nava, 
and is katulugan nava. 

Of the conjugation in nag, the following is the example given 
in the grammar; the root being sila, "to eat fish or flesh," 
evidently a native word : — Active voice, present of the indicative, 
nagsisila ; preterite, nagsila ; pluperfect, nagapagsila ; future, 
magsisila; imperative, magsila; infinitive and verbal noun 
singular, pagsila ; verbal noun plural, angpagsisila. Passive 
voice, present of the indicative, pinagsisila; preterite, pinagsila; 
pluperfect, napagsila ; future, pagsisilin ; imperative, pagsilin ; 
and infinitive singular also pagsilin ; infinitive plural, pinangag- 
sila-nila. 

The root aral, " to teach," which seems a corruption of the 
Malay and Javanese word ajar, is given as an example of the 
conjugation in um or ung. Active voice, present of the indi- 
cative, ungmaaral ; preterite, ungmaral ; pluperfect, nakaaral ; 
future, umaral ; imperative, umaral ; infinitive and verbal noun, 
pagaral, "to teach" or "teaching, insti-uction;" second infinitive, 
the same as the future and imperative, umaral. A verbal noun, 
called in the grammar a participle, is formed by the present of 
the indicative with the article of appellatives, ang, prefixed; 
angmaraal, meaning " he who teaches," or " the teacher." 
Passive voice, present of the indicative, inaaralan; preterite. 



DISSERTATION. cxiii 

inaralan ; pluperfect, naaralau ; future, aaralan ; imperative, 
aralaii ; infinitive, aralan ; verbal noun, called a participle, aug- 
inaaralan. An optative is formed, as in the other conjugations, 
by the auxiliary nava. 

In the application of the inseparable particles to the root, 
there is much commutation of consonants, which there is no 
room in a sketch to describe. According to the Spanish writers, 
there is no substantive verb in the Tagala, or any known language 
of the Philippines ; but probably they mean only a substantive 
verb, employed as an auxiliary, as in the European languages. 

From this sketch of Tagala grammar, it will appear that there 
is very little in common between it and the grammars of the 
Malay and Javanese. In Tagala, the relations of the noun are 
expressed by a class of articles appropriated to the purpose ; and 
in the Malay, Javanese, and other languages of the West, by 
prepositions, as in the modern languages of Europe. In the 
Tagala, a plural is formed by a specific particle appropriated to 
this special purpose ; in Malay and Javanese, by ordinary 
adjectives expressing plurality. Gender is expressed, in Malaj^ 
by words expressing the sexes, of which there is one set for man, 
and a distinct one for the lower animals. In the Tagala there 
is but one set, equally applicable to both. 

The nearest approach of the Tagala grammar to the Malay 
and Javanese, in so far as the mere words are concerned, exists 
in the personal pronouns. The pronouns aku, ku, ikau (angkau), 
mu, kita, and kami, are to be found either in Malay or Java- 
nese, but with the exception of the genitives, or possessives, ku 
and mu, none of the oblique cases of the Tagala are to be found 
in those two languages. The Tagala dual pronoun, and pronoun 
of the first person plural excluding the person addressed, have 
no such meaning in Malay or Javanese in which they can be 
used as singulars or plurals, although, perhaps, most frequently 
as the latter. My notion is, that these pronouns have been 
borrowed by the Malays and Javanese from the languages of 
the Philippines, and added to their own long lists of pronouns 
of the first and second persons. The pronoun of the third 
person has not been borrowed by the Malays, and the Javanese 
have none at all, native or foreign. 



cxlv DISSERTATION. 

In the Tagala verb, there is hardly anything to remind us of 
the Malay or Javanese. We miss in it the forms of these two 
languages for marking the intransitive, the transitive, causal, 
and passive verb. Time is expressed, in Tagala, by insepa- 
rable particles ; in Malay and Javanese by auxiliaries which ai-e 
adverbs. In Malay and Javanese, mood is expressed by several 
different auxiliaries, and in Tagala also by the same means; 
there being, however, but one word, and that differing entirely 
from any of those used in the two western languages. 

It does not, then, appear, from a comparison of the phonetic 
character, and grammatical structure of the Tagala, with those of 
Malay and Javanese, that there is any ground for fancying 
them to be one and the same language, or languages sprung 
from a common parent, and only diversified by the effects of 
time and distance. An examination of the words which are 
common to them brings us to the same result. The Tagala 
Dictionary,* with its appendices, contains 16,812 words, among 
which I can detect no more than 412 that are foreign, belonging 
to the following languages: — Malay 113, Javanese 27, common 
to the Malay and Javanese 259, Sanskrit 33, Arabic 7, Per- 
sian 2, and Telinga 1. This makes little more than one thirty- 
eighth part of the language. The proportion of the insular 
languages of the West is, of course, still smaller, and no more 
than from 23 to 21 in every 1000. 

An examination of the Bisaya Dictionary gives similar 
results.f It contains, including two dialects of the island of 
Panay, called the Hiligueina, and Haraya, 10,295 words, with 
the following number of foreign ones : — Malay 60, Javanese 16, 
common to the Malay and Javanese 159, Sanskrit 11, and 
Arabic 6, making in all 252. The proportion of foreign insular 
words in it, therefore, is between 22 and 23 in 1000. The Pam- 
pango, however, the language of a people of Lu^on, and held 
to be the most ingenious and industrious of the island, seems to 
contain a much larger proportion of Malayan words than the 



* Vocabulario dc la lengua Tagala, por el P. Juan de Noceda. Reimprcso en 
Valadolid, 1832. 

t Dicciouario do la lengua Bisaya, por el P. Juan de Noceda. Manila, 1841. 



DISSERTATION. CXT 

Tagala or Bisaya, for in a Dictionary of G960 words, I find, in- 
cluding 21 that are Sanskrit, 410, which is equal to 63 in 1000.* 
But the foreign words in the Philippine languages are not 
only few in number, but for the most part corrupted in sound, 
and, very often, in sense also. The corruption in sound was 
inevitable in the transfer of words of languages having 6 vowels 
and 20 consonants, to those which have but 5 vowels, or, 
more correctly, only 3, and but 14 consonants. The absent 
Malay and Javanese vowel a is converted into a, and sometimes 
into u and i. The absent consonant ch, is turned into s, the 
consonant j into d ; n into n, and w into v. Besides these 
unavoidable commutations, there are several others, as 1 for r, 
very frequent, g for r, h for b, and s and t for d, while the final 
aspirate is always omitted. Over and above all this, consonants 
are added or elided, to suit a foreign word to native pronuncia- 
tion. The consequence is, that foreign words are frequently so 
altered or mutilated, that it is very difficult to trace them. 
Some examples, however, will best illustrate the nature of the 
changes which foreign words undergo, both as to sound and 
sense. The following are from the Tagala : — 



TAGALA. 


ENGLISH. 


ILiLAYAN. 


ENGLISH. 


Ampun. 


Protection, asylum. 


Ampun, c. 


Pardon, forgivenes.s. 


Anakan. 


A newly-farrowed pig. 


Anakan, c. 


Progeny. 


Atas. 


Dignity. 


Atas, m. 


Above, high. 


Bahu. 


To stink. 


Bau, m. 


Odoiu", smell. 


Banal. 


.Just, correct. 


Banar, c. 


Just, correct. 


Basa. 


To read. 


Bacha, c. 


To read. 


Bulu. 


Down of plants. 


Bulu, c. 


Hair, feather, down. 


Bululung. 


The shell of a crab. 


Balulang, c. 


Hide of an animal. 


Bunga. 


Fniit. 


Bunga, m. 


Flower. 


Kahiii. 


Tree, wood. 


Kayu, c. 


Tree, wood. 


Dalamati. 


Sadness, aflliction. 


Dalam ati, m. 


In the heart. 


Dahan. 


Quiet, repose. 


Tahan, c. 


To cease, to be still. 


Dalang. 


Rare, scarce. 


Jarang, c. 


Rare, scarce. 


Daliri. 


Finger. 


DarijiJ. 


Finger. 


Dampi. 


Medicated fomentation. 


Jampi, j. 


^ledicine. 


Ati. 


The middle. 


Ati, c. 


The heart. 


Laku. 


Merchandize. 


Laku, c. 


To go ; to pass ; to I 
current. 


Nipis. 


To make small. 


Nipi.s, c. 


Thin, tenuous. 



Bocabulario de Pampaugo, por el Fr. Diego Bergaiio. Manila, 1732. 



CXVl 



DISSERTATION. 



TAGALA. 

Uluhati. 
Galis. 
Usa. 
Usap. 

Pakahas. 

Bigus. 

Palai. 

Pantai. 

Salatan. 

Tali. 

Tangali. 

Tayubasi. 

Uli. 

Inum. 

Pagi. 

Salak. 



ENGLISH. 

The memoiy. 

The itch. 

A deer. 

To speak much with 

another. 
The riggiug of a vessel. 

Rice husked. 

Rice in the husk. 

A plain ; level, plain. 

The south-east wind. 

Binding, ligature. 

Mid-day, meridian. 

Iron spark. 

Last ; stern of a ship. 

To drink. 

The ray, or scate. 

To neigh, or low. 



MALAYAN. 

Ulu-ati, c. 
Garis, c. 
Rusa, m. 
Uchap, c. 

Pdkakas, m. 

Baras, c. 
Padi, m., pari, j. 
Pantai, m. 
Salatan, m. 
Tali, c. 
Tanah ari. 
Tai-basi. 
Buri, j. 
Minum, c. 
Pari, c. 
Salak, m. 



ENGLISH. 

Pit of the stomach.* 

To scratch. 

A species of deer. 

To speak, to pronounce. 

Implements, tools, furni- 
ture. 
Rice husked. 
Rice in the husk. 
The shore, the beach. 
The south. 
Rope, cord. 
Mid-day, meridian. 
Iron-rust, or scoriae. 
Behind, back, rear. 
To drink. 
The ray or scate. 
To bay or bark. 



Similar corruptions, both as to sense and sound, exist in the 
Bisaya, as will be seen by the following examples : — 



BISATA. 


ENGLISH. 


MALAYAN. 


ENGLISH. 


Bayar. 


To discharge as a debt. 


Bayar, m. 


To pay. 


Pilang. 


Wooden counters. 


Bilang, c. 


To count, to reckon. 


Bili. 


Price, value. 


Bali, m. 


To buy. 


Biiung. 


Mad. 


Boim, m. 


A lie ; false, untrue. 


Dila. 


The tongue. 


Lid-ah, c. 


The tongue. 


Dulubasa. 


An interpreter. 


Jurubahsa, c. s. 


An interpreter. 


Manuk. 


The domestic fowl. 


Manuk, j. 


Fowl, bird. 


Tasik. 


Cencentrated brine. 


Tasik, c. 


The sea. 


Utan. 


A garden of pot-herbs. 


Utan, m. 


A forest. 


Kalis. 


A dagger. 


Kdris, c. 


A dagger. 


Kulang. 


Defective, wanting. 


Kurang, c. 


Defective, wanting. 


Gusuk. 


A rib. 


Rusuk, m. 


A rib. 


Halin. 


To change. 


Salin, c. 


To change. 


Harang. 


To intercept. 


Ad'ang, c. 


To intercept. 


Hung. 


The nose. 


Idung,m.,irung,, 


. The nose. 


Inang. 


Mother. 


Inlng, m. 


Nurse. 


Lawa. 


A cobweb. 


Lawa-lawa, m. 


A spider. 


Bugas. 


Rice in the husk. 


Baras, m. 


Rice in the husk. 


Pasi. 


Husked rice. 


Padi, m., pari, j. 


Husked rice. 


Tagum. 


Indigo. 


Tarum, m.,tom, , 


. The indigo plaut. 


Tubu. 


To grow. 


Tumbuh, c. 


To grow, to vegetate. 


Bunga. 


Fruit. 


Bunga. 


Flower. 



Literally, head, or source of the heart or mind. 



DISSERTATION. cxvii 

The same corruptions extend to the Sanskrit words in Tagala 
and Bisaya as to Malay and Javanese, as the following examples 
will show. The sense and orthography of the Sanskrit is given 
in the second and third columns as they exist in jNIalay and 
Javanese : — 



TAUALA & BISAYA. 


ENGLISH. 


SANSKRIT. 


ENGLISH. 


Basa. 


To speak. 


Bahasa. 


Speech, language. 


Dusa. 


Pain. 


Dusa. 


Crime. 


Diista. 


To malign. 


Dnist-a. 


False, lying. 


Manik. 


Seed pearls. 


Manik. 


A gem. 


Mantala. 


An incantation. 


Mantra. 


A chaiTU. 


Punu. 


To fill. 


Panuh. 


Full, replete. 


Salita. 


A tale, a nai-rative. 


Charita. 


A tale, a nan-ative. 


Suka. 


Vinegar. 


Chuka. 


Vinegar. 


Sigha. 


To make haste. 


Sigra. 


Quickly. 


Gadia. 


An elephant. 


Gajah. 


An elephant. 


Laba. 


Multiplication ; usuiy. 


Laba. 


Profit. 


Maya. 


Land of dwarfs. 


Maya. 


Illusion. 


Naga. 


The figure-head of a ship. 


Naga. 


A fabulous snake. 


Sandana. 


Sandal wood. 


Chandana. Sandal wood. 


Kapala, 


First quality of wine. 


Kapala. 


The head; a chief; first 
quality. 



Arabic words are corrupted similarly. Thus, surat, " a writing 
or letter," is sulat ; and to Aakayat, " a story or tale," is given 
the meaning of " to cajole by fine words." 

The Sanskrit words, it may be here noticed, contain, inde- 
pendent of great probability, some internal evidence of having 
found their way into the languages of the Philippines through 
those of the western part of the Archipelago. They are the 
same that are found in these languages, their number only 
being less. They are used in the same sense as in the western 
languages, except when, like native words of these tongues, they 
are changed for a limited and local one. Thus, the numeral 
laksa, which, in the Hindu acceptation, ought to be 100,000, is 
in the Malay, Javanese, and all the other languages of the west, 
10,000 only, and this, too, is the case in all the Philippine lan- 
guages. The word kapala, in Sanskrit, means " the skull," but 
in all the western languages of the Archipelago, " the head ; '' 
and hence, figuratively, " head," " chief," " chieftain," and 
"first quality" of anything. In this last figurative sense only 



cxviii DISSERTATION. 

it is found in the Philippine languages. Sutra, in Sanskrit, is 
" thread ; " but in the western languages of the Archipelago, 
followed by the Philippine, it means " silk." Kut'a, in Sanskrit, 
means " a house," or " a wall ; " in Malay and Javanese, " a 
rampart," or " a fortification," and so it signifies in the Tagala 
and Bisaya. The word batara in the western languages of the 
Archipelago is a corruption of the Sanskrit avatara, " a descent," 
or " coming down," and frequently applied to the descents or 
incarnations of the god Vishnu by the Hindus. But the 
western nations of the Archipelago use it as a generic term for 
any of the principal gods of the Hindus, It was in this sense 
that the word was used, I have no doubt, when the Spaniards 
conquered the Philippines ; but the Spanish ecclesiastics have 
put their own construction on it in the corrupt form of bathala. 
In the Tagala Dictionaiy, published in 1832, the word is 
explained " the greatest god of the native idols ; " but the 
Bisaya of 1841 renders it, ''the infant Jesus," — a very strange 
application of a word which the heathens of Hindustan chiefly 
apply to the third person of their trinity. 

It is the same thing with the pronunciation as with the sense 
of Sanskrit words. They are admitted into the Philippine in 
the same form as in the languages of the western parts of the 
Archipelago, whenever the genius of Philippine pronunciation 
will allow of it. Thus^ in Sanskrit, taraga, " a cistern," and 
tamra, " copper," are converted, in Malay and Javanese, into 
talaga and tambaga ; and in this form they are found in the 
Philippine languages. 

The character and description of the words which are 
common to the Tagala and Bisaya, on the one side, and the 
Malay and Javanese on the other, deserve special notice. 
The greater number consist of nouns; being, for the most 
part, the names of natm-al objects, — adjectives, verbs, and of 
a few pronouns. There is hardly a particle among them, or 
any other word indispensable to the construction of a graui- 
mutical sentence. To satisfy the reader on this point, I shall 
give a short list of the particles in Bisaya, Malay, and Javanese. 
I select the Bisaya only because the reversed Dictionary of it 
is more copious and satisfactory than that of the Tagala : — 





DISSERTATION. 


cxi: 


ENGLISH. 


BISAYA. 


MALAY. 


JAVANESE. 


Towards. 


Nayun, dapit. 


Tuju, ala. 


Tuju. 


UntU. 


Tutub. 


lugga, sampai. 


Kosi, dumugi. 


From. 


Tutub-sa. 


Daripada. 


Sangking, saking. 


For. 


Sa, kai, agur. 


Akan. 


Ing. 


Without. 


Saiiala. 


Diluwar. 


Ingjaba. 


Within. 


Sului. 


Didalam. 


Ingjaro. 


Above. 


Siiibabau, labutpa, saitaas. Atas. 


Duwur. 


Near. 


Tabutug. " 


Dakat, damping. 


Parak. 


Far. 


Halayu. 


Jauh. 


Adoh. 


Now. 


Niau, karun. 


Sakarang. 


Saiki. 


Lately. 


Hapon, olaii. 


Tadi. 


Wiiu. 


Always. 


Gihapun. 


Nautiyasa. 


Lumintu. 


Quickly. 


Dali, namali, dagmit, 
dasig. 


Lakas, sigra ; sans. 


Galis, kabat. 


Seldom. 


Malaka, talagsa. 


Jarang, kad'ang-ka- 
d'ang. 


Kalakala. 


Thus. 


Salingsini, sabungsiui. 


Damakiyan. 


Mangkona. 


Slowly. 


Hinai-hinai. 


Parlahan. 


Alon-alon. 


Easily. 


Kahapus. 


Mudah. 


Gampang. 


Correctly. 


Igo. 


Bdtul. 


Banar. 


Also. 


Subungniau. 


Juga. 


Uga. 


A little. 


Diut. 


SaiUkit. 


Sakadik. 


Much. 


Maramu, dagaya. 


Baiiak. 


Akeh. 


More. 


Kapin, labi. 


Labih. 


Maning, luweh. 


Less. 


Kalus, kulus, kulang. 


Kurang. 


Kurang. 


Very. 


Labi. 


Sangat. 


Bangat. 


According to 


. SalLng, subung, ingun. 


Sapurti. 


Mangkana. 


Before. 


Siiuna, unahan. 


Ad-ap. 


Ad-ap. 


Behind. 


Sadasun, salikud. 


Balakang. 


Buri, pungkur. 


Only, but. 


Kundi. 


Silaja, tatapi ; sans. 


Amuug, nangiug. 


As. 


Siling, subung. 


Bagai. 


Kaya, kadi. 



The only words in this list that are Malay or Javanese are the 
adverbs "more" and "less," correctly labih and korang, both 
corrupted, and both occurring with native synonymes, not to 
say that the first of them is used a second time, in a modifica- 
tion of sense which is neither Malay nor Javanese. It may be 
concluded, then, that the Malay and Javanese particles, which 
often difi'er from each other, bear neither of them any more 
resemblance to those of the Tagala or Bisaya than they do to 
those of an African or American tongue. 

The languages of the Philippine Islands may be described, 
not as copious, but wordy. In the state of society in which the 
natives of the Philippines were formed, ideas are considered 



cxx DISSERTATION. 

more in concrete than in abstract, and by an importance 
being attached to trivial matters, a profusion springs up, 
which, in a more advanced state of society, are considered 
unworthy of retention, or which, if retained, would only be 
productive of perplexity and distraction. Thus, for the verb 
"to open," there are in the Bisaya 27 distinct words, one only 
of which is Malay. For tlie verb " to gather," or " collect," 
there are 42, of which one only is Malay. For the verb " to 
go," there are 33, without there being any Malay word among 
them. For the verb "to eat," there are 34 words, besides 6 
synonymes, and among them no Malayan word. For "rice," 
including varieties produced by cultivation, dressing, or cooking, 
60 names or synonymes. Among this number there are but 
three that are Malay, and one of them is the common word for 
"food." In Tagala there are 12 names for the coco-nut, 
including its different varieties, and conditions as to maturity 
and preparation for use. Of these, one only is Malayan, the 
word niug, which is obviously a corruption of ilur, — the Malay, 
but not the Javanese, name for the coco-palm. In the same 
language, there are 11 words to express the verb "to boil," and 
75 for the verb "to go." In this language also there are 17 
words to express the various actions of bearing or carrying, one 
of which only is Malayan, as "' to carry on the head," " to 
carry under the arm," " to carry between two," " to carry a 
child," &c. 

One more example of this verbosity will suffice. The Bisaya 
has, among its 40 words for the verb " to eat," the following : — 
" To eat generally," kaun and hungit ; " to eat with an appe- 
tite," bakayau and makumaku ; " to eat a little," havat ; " to 
eat greedily," diium ; " to eat all," samang ; " to eat by mor- 
sels," kiiibkiiib ; " to eat in the morning," aga ; " to eat at 
noon," udtu ; " to eat in order to drink," sumsum ; " to eat by 
sipping," pangus ; " to eat with another," salu ; " to eat raw 
things," hilap and kilau ; " to eat fruit," lagulum ; " to eat 
fish or flesh," lonlon ; " to eat the flesh of the hog," pahit and 
Virur ; " to eat the flesh of the dog," liiang ; " to eat the flesh 
of snakes," lamiii ; " to eat locusts," unas ; " to cat the flesh of 
fowls," bubur; "to eat carrion," katut and guiluk. 



DISSERTATION. oxxi 

I cannot discover in the Tagala or Bisaya any traces of a 
language of ceremony such as belongs eminently to the Javanese^ 
and in a less degree to the Bali and Sunda. But the most 
advanced of the nations of the Philippines have each of them a 
native literature; and in the grammar of Fr. Gaspar de San 
Augustin a sketch is given of the Tagala poetry. Its character 
is described as lyrical. In the measure there seems to be great 
variety, the number of syllables to a line, which is also a verse, 
running from five up to fourteen, and the stanzas being from 
three to seven lines or verses. But the most usual measure is 
a stanza of four lines, each of eight syllables. Some of the 
Tagala poetry is represented as dramatic ; but it, in fact, con- 
sists only of an alternate stanza or dialogue, and it is in this 
that long lines of twelve and fourteen syllables prevail. The 
Tagala poetry is rhyming, the rhymes being very peculiar. 
Every line must end in a vowel, or by a consonant immediately 
preceded by a vowel, and in either case it must be the same 
vowel throughout the whole stanza. Thus, in the first example 
given in the grammar, every line ends in i, in the second in a, 
and in the third in i, followed by a consonant, which may be 
any one of the alphabet, for in this instance we have, in the 
four lines of which the stanza consists, the four consonants, t, r, 
s, and p. The rules for the formation of these rhymes are laid 
down, and are rather complex. No translations of the examples 
are given in the grammar, and therefore it is impossible to 
judge of the merit of the poetry. All this, certainly, bears no 
resemblance to the measures either of Malay or Javanese 
poetiy. 

The great islands of Mindanao, Palawang, and the Suloo 
group of islets, forming the southern limits of the Philippine 
Minor Ian- Archipclago, coutaiu many nations and tribes speaking 
ulLThiiil)- many languages of which little is known, or, at least, 
P'"''^- has been published. Mr. Dalrymple * informs us that 
even in the little group of the Suloo islands, a great many 
different languages are spoken, and he gives a short specimen 
of 88 words of one of the most current of them. Omitting 

• Oriental Repei-tory, vol. i. p. 548. Loudon, 1808. 



cxxii DISSERTATION. 

25 of these words, which are the ordinary numerals, the including 
of which would vitiate the proportion of its elements, the num- 
ber is reduced to 63, of which about one half are Malay or 
Javanese, but in a very mutilated form, as dagha for darah 
" blood,'' tainga for talinga " the ear;" pu for pulu " an island," 
and u for ulu " the head." Of the rest several are evidently 
Bisaya, mucli altered, as the words for woman, breast, lips, 
water, and the adjective " great." Mr. Dalrymple, accustomed 
to the Malay, thought the Suloo, correctly Suluk, language 
harsh and disagreeable, and most probably it has the same 
euphonic character as the other languages of tlie Philippines. 
The Mahomedan religion has made much progress in Mindanao 
and the Suloo islands, as has the Malay language, the usual 
channel through which it has at all times been propagated 
over the islands of the Indian Archipelago. In the Suluk 
islands Malay is the common medium of communication 
between the natives and all strangers, and the adapted 
Arabic character in which it is written is the only one known 
to the inhabitants. 

Whether the principal languages of the Philippines be 
separate and distinct tongues or mere dialects of a common 
language is a question not easy to determine. Certainly, the 
phonetic character of the Tagala, the Bisaya, the Pampangan, 
and YIoco are, sound for sound, or letter for letter, the same. 
Between the grammatical structure of the three first (I have 
not examined that of the Yloco) there exists also an identity 
or a close parallel. In order to show to what an extent this 
is carried, I shall compare the grammar of the Bisaya with 
that of the Tagala. The cases of the Bisaya noun are formed 
like that of the Tagala by articles, and the articles, case for 
case, are the same. A distinction is also drawn in the Bisaya, 
as in the Tagala, between the declension of nouns proper and 
nouns appellative, and here, too, the articles are identical. The 
plural of the Bisaya noun is formed by an appropriate word, 
which is the same as for the Tagala. Gender in the Bisaya 
noun is expressed by two words signifying masculine and 
feminine, and they arc the same employed for this purpose in 
the Tat-ala. 



DISSEETATION. cxxiii 

The Bisaya pronouns are the same as those of the Tagala. 
For the pronouns of the first and second person, there is a 
singular, a dual, and two plurals, and these are declined in the 
same manner as in the Tagala. The pronoun of the third 
person, and also, the demonstrative pronouns are the same in 
Bisaya as in Tagala. I may remark, too, that for the pronouns 
of the first and second persons in both languages, there is but 
one of each, instead of the many synonymes of the Malay and 
Javanese. 

The Bisaya verb is formed on the same principle as the 
Tagala, and nearly by the same terms. As in the Tagala, 
there is no substantive verb, and with very few exceptions, 
no class of primitive words that are especially verbs. These 
are formed by the application of inseparable prefixes, chiefly 
from words that would in their simple form be nouns. Thus 
the word buhat, which is taken from the Malay, is in that 
language the verb " to do " or " to work ; " but in the Bisaya 
it is a noun meaning " act " or " work done." To make it 
a verb, it requires the inseparable prefix naga, and then, as 
nagabuhat, it means " to do," or '' to work." It may here be 
observed that all foreign words introduced into the Philippine 
languages are subjected to their own rules of grammar, and 
hence, it follows, that they are, as they exist in these tongues, 
frequently, only modifications of their primitive native meanings. 
Time and mood are in the Bisaya, as in the Tagala, expressed 
not by auxiliaries, but by inseparable particles, which are 
generally the same in both languages. The passive verb and 
the verbal noun are also formed by inseparable particles in the 
Bisaya as in the Tagala. 

Judging, then, by the identity of the phonetic character of 
the Bisaya and Tagala, and the close parallel which runs 
through their whole grammatical structure, we might be 
disposed to come, at once, to the conclusion, that they are 
mere dialects of a common tongue. This is, however, opposed 
by the stubborn fact that the great majority of their nouns, 
adjectives, and especially particles are wholly different. I shall 
exhibit a few of each of these classes of words as examples, 
beginning with the particles : — 



cxxiv 


DISSERTATION. 




ENGLISH. 


TAGALA. 


BISATA, 


Before. 


Bagu. 


Atubangan. 


Towards. 


Baku. 


Nayun, dapit. 


Instead of. 


Pasabali. 


Satungud. 


According to. 


Diyata. 


Saling, subung, ingun. 


Without. 


Vala. 


Saiiala. 


Whether. 


Siian. 


Hain. 


Hither. 


Ditu. 


Dini, dinhi. 


Above, up. 


Tiias. 


Ibabau, itiias. 


Near. 


Babau. 


Talutug, kuta. 


Far. 


Palak. 


Halagu. 


Whilst. 


Gunaguna. 


Saiiala-pa. 


Then. 


Niion, niiun. 


Sadtu. 


Late. 


Hapun. 


Oliiie, hapun. 


Thus. 


Gayun. 


Siling-sini, subang-sini. 


Slowly. 


Dahan. 


Hinai-hiuai. 


Also. 


Naman. 


Sabungman. 


Much. 


Dami. 


Maramu, dagaya. 


Little. 


Dahan, ikiii, ayu-ayu 


. Duit. 


Enough. 


Sukat. 


Ayau, sai-aug. 


Even. 


Pa. 


Pa. 


Perhaps. 


Lamang. 


Aikan, bala, naha. 


No. 


Di. 


Dili, indi. 


Only, but. 


Kundi. 


Di. 



The following are a few of the adjectives of both languages 



ENGLISH. TAGALA. 




BISATA. 


Beautiful. Dikit. 




Gayun, tahum. 


Soft. Lunya; luiiu, a bog, 


Mai. 


Luyat, lumu. 


Hard. Kaing, ganit. 




Miiaut, magahi. 


New. Bagu; baharu, Mai. 




Bagu. 


Old. Laouu. 




Tigulang, diian, lapat, uli- 
anun. 


Long. Vaivai, haba. 




Lalug. 


Sweet. Tamis; inanis, Mai. 




Tamis. 


Sour. Kalasiman. 




Aslum ; asam, Mai. 


Bitter. Pahit, Mai. 




Paet. 


Black. Itim; itam, Mai. 




Maitum. 


Green. HUau; ijau, Mai. 




Buhi, banas, kumpai, kmhau, 
hilau. 


Yellow. Mamar. 




Pinlau, dulau, dalag. 


Foolish. Langkas, ulul, baliii: 


; blilu, 


Biiang. 


Jav. 






Wise. Siyak-pantas ; pantas, 


, Mai. 


Uiialam. 


e few following nouns will serve as 


examples :— 





DISSERTATION. cxx^ 


ENGLISH. 


TAGALA. 


BISAYA. 


Land. 

Sea. 
Mountain. 


Lupa. 

Dagat ; laut, Mai. 

Bunduh. 


Duta, yuta. 

Dagat. 

Bukid ; bukit, Mai. 


River. 

Sky. 

Sun. 


Hug, bungbang. 
Langit, Mai. and Jav. 
Arau. 


Suba. 

Langit. 

Adlau. 


Moon. 


Buwan ; bulan, Mai. and Jav. 


Bulan. 


Star. 

Cloud. 

Rain. 

Thunder. 

Wind. 

Stone. 


Bitiiin; bintang, Mai. 

Alapaalap, ulap. 

Ulan; ujan, Mai. 

Kulug. 

Sugpo, hangin ; anin, Mai. 

Batu, Mai. and Jav. 


Bitiiun, bintang. 

Galum, dagum. 

Ulan ; ujan, Mai. 

Daguub, dalugdug ; glud'ug, Mai. 

Hangin (angin). 

Batu. 


Father. 
Mother. 
Head. 


Tatai, amai, amahan. 
Bayi, inda; ind'u, Mai. 
Ulu, Mai. and Jav. 


Lukup, pan ; bapa, Mai. 
Ilui, inaian, ranal 
Ulu. 


The foot. 
Breast. 


Uyun, piia; paah, the thigh, Mai. 
Dibadib, susu ; the mammae, 
Mai. and Jav. 


Batiis ; batis, leg, shin, Mai. 
Dughan. 


Belly. 
Bird, fowl. 


Kayuyu, tian. 
Ibun, mauuk, Jav. 


Busun, tian. 

Pispis, lamagam, manuk. 



The following are a few examples of verbs, or rather of the 
radical words from which in its different modifications the verb 
is formed : — 



ENGLISH. 


TAGALA. 


BISATA. 


To be able. 


Kaya. 


Sarang, kiiaku, kagahum. 


To ask. 


Ibig, luub, layak. 


Biiut, ibug, luyag. 


To know. 


Dunung. 


Magalam. 


To fetch. 


Kiiun, dala. 


Dala. 


To see. 


Kuita. 


Tanau, sulau, sulang, kiiila. 


To tell. 


Bala. 


Mapulung. 


To sleep. 


Tulug. 


Tulug ; tm-u, Jav. 


To shine. 


Dag'mlap. 


Sanag ; sinar, Mai. 


To beg. 


Angui, ava. 


Paki, luui, pangayu. 


To go out. 


Labas. 


Alin, giiikan. 



It will be seen from these examples that the words of the 
two languages are rarely the same ; and that, when they are so, 
a synonyme will be found in one of them, seemingly implying 
that the word which is alike has been borrowed, or still more 
frequently, that the similar word has been taken by both from 
the same foreign source, — the Malayan language. 



cxxvi DISSERTATION. 

The foreign words so introduced are entitled to some 
remarks. Sometimes they occur as mere synonymes, along with 
•native ones, while, in many instances, they are the onty words. 
In these last instances, they will be foimd to be general or 
generic terms borrowed by the Philippine languages in the 
want of native ones. Thus in the Tagala, there is no word for 
"rain" generally, except the Malay ujan, or the Javanese ud'an, 
corrupted ulan, while for the different varieties of it, there are 
five terms, viz : — Lavanga, " little rain ; " lavalava, " minute or 
misty rain, drizzle ; " anuta, " moderate, but lasting rain ; " 
lanrak, " rain in great drops ; " tikatik, " gentle continuous 
rain.'^ Both the Tagala and Bisaya are sufficiently copious 
in the names of species of trees, but neither of them possesses 
a generic term for " tree," except the Malay and Javanese 
one, kayu corrupted kahiii, and which in these two lan- 
guages generally means "wood," occasionally used also 
for "tree." In both the Tagala and Bisaya, there is no 
generic term for "leaf," except the Malay dawun, written 
dahun, although in the Tagala are enumerated twenty-one 
specific names for as many various sorts of leaves, such as 
rough leaf, acuminate leaf, fallen leaf, leaf of the banana, of 
three different species of palm, of the pandan, of a thistle, &c. 
For six of these kinds of leaves, indeed, there are as many 
synonymes besides. 

For "air" and "air in motion," or wind, the Malay and Java- 
nese have but one native generic word, although several foreign 
ones. The Malayan word is the only general tei-m in the two 
Philippine languages for both "air" and "wind," yet for "wind" 
the Tagala has eleven specific names descriptive of its force 
or direction. In the two Philippine languages, the only 
generic term for "stone," is the Malay and Javanese batu, 
but the Tagala has fifteen express words for diff'erent kinds 
of stone, without reckoning four taken from the Malay and 
Javanese. 

The absence, in the two leading Philippine languages of such 
generic terms as these now enumerated, indicates a rude state 
of society and language among the Philippine islanders previous 
to their intercourse with the more advanced nations of the 



DISSERTATION. cxxvii 

western part of the Indian Archipelago ; and points, at the 
same time, to the cause which gave rise to the introduction of 
a considerable class of Malay and Javanese words. As society 
advanced, generic terms became convenient or indispensable, 
and seem to have been adopted from the first obvious source 
that presented itself, instead of being invented. 

Notwithstanding the difficulty of accounting for the similarity 
of phonetic character and grammatical principle among the 
Philippine languages, not greater, however, than among the 
western languages of the Archipelago, and generally among 
those of Africa and America, and also among groups of Hindu 
languages, I am disposed, on the strong evidence of glossa- 
rial difference, to consider the languages of the Philippines, 
not as mere dialects of a common language, but as distinct and 
independent tongues. Considering them as such, there is, 
at the same time, ample internal evidence, of much intercourse 
among the more advanced nations, and this was naturally to be 
looked for, in countries pressed close together, and parted only 
by narrow seas, as early as navigation had made any tolerable 
advance. In the course of this intercourse, the less advanced 
tribes may have borrowed the grammatical forms of their 
languages, as unquestionably they did their writing, from one 
more advanced nation. Very probably the centrically situated 
Tagala was that nation. That the grammatical structure 
originated with one nation is at all events certain, from the 
identity of the articles used in forming the nouns and 
pronouns ; from the identity and peculiarity of the pronouns — 
from there being but one set of these for all the languages, 
and from the identity of the inseparable particles used in the 
formation of the verb, and which, taken by themselves, have 
no separate and distinct meaning. Not improbably, most of 
the languages were originally spoken without articles or 
inseparable pai'ticles, and with radical words only, as the Malay 
oral' language is, even now, for the most part, spoken ; and 
this view would seem to be coiToborated by a fact mentioned 
by the author of the Bisaya grammar, that in so far as the 
verb, the most complex part of the language, is concerned, the 
natives often omit the particles altogether, using only the 



cxxvlii DISSERTATION. 

radical words, and that they even consider this manner of expres- 
sion as graceful and elegant.* 

The Spanish writers on the languages of the Philippines 
inform us that the Tagala alphabet has been borrowed from 
that of the Malays. This is, however, the mere assertion of 
men who had not attended to the subject, or, in a word, who 
really knew nothing at all about it. The Malays, as already 
stated, have at present no native alphabet; and the Tagala 
alphabet is peculiar and bears little resemblance to any native 
written character of the nations of the western part of the 
Archipelago. These writers further assure us, Avithout showing 
any evidence for their belief, that all the Philippine languages 
are but dialects of a common tongue, which they tell us is the 
Malay, as the Ionic, the Attic, and Eolian, are dialects of 
Greek ; the Spanish, Portuguese, and French, dialects of 
Latin; and the Northern languages of Europe dialects of 
Gothic. All this is asserted of languages of which little more 
than a fortieth part is Malay, and which, in other respects, have 
hardly anything in common with the Malay .f 

But we have a similar, although not the same opinion from 
a different and far higher authority. The illustrious philo- 
sopher, linguist, and statesman, the late Baron William 
Humboldt, has, in his large work on the Kawi of Java, 
expressed the opinion that the Tagala of the Philippines is 
the most perfect living specimen of that Malayan tongue, 
which, with other writers, he fancies to have been the parent 
stock from which all the tongues of the brown race in the 
Eastern Archipelago, the Philippines, the islands of the Pacific, 
and even the language of Madagascar have sprung. I cannot 
help thinking that this hypothesis, maintained with much 
ingenuity, must have originated in this eminent scholar's 
practical unacquaintance with any one language of the many 
which came under his consideration, and that had he possessed 
the necessary knowledge, the mere running over the pages of 
any Philippine dictionary would have satisfied him of the error 

* Arte de la lengiia Bisaya, por Fr. Alonzo de Mentrida, p. 83. Manilla, 1818. 
+ Compendio de la lengiia Tagala, jior el padre Fra. Gaspar do San Avignstin. 
Prologo, p. 108. 



DISSERTATIOX. c.Txix 

of his theory. I conclude, then, by expressing my conviction, 
that as far as the evidence yielded by a comparison of the 
Tagala, Bisaya, and Pampanga languages with the Malay 
and Javanese goes, there is no more ground for believing 
that the Philippine and Malayan languages have a common 
origin, than for concluding that Spanish and Portuguese are 
Semitic languages, because they contain a few hundred words 
of Arabic, or that the Welsh and Irish are of Latin origin, 
because they contain a good many words of Latin ; or that 
Italian is of Gothic origin, because it contains a far greater 
number of words of Teutonic origin than any Philippine lan- 
guage does of Malay and Javanese. 

The only part of the continent of Asia, the Malay peninsula 

excepted, in which the Malays have settled, and to which their 

language has extended, is Kambodia, correctlv Karaboia, 

The Ian- , . , , \^ , \ ^ ^ '' 

giiage of which appears to be a Malayan word. In that country 
they seem to have established a little independent 
principality called Champa, well known both in Malay and 
Javanese story. Both the Malays of the peninsula and the 
Javanese appear to have carried on a commercial intercourse 
with Champa, and the same commerce still goes on be- 
tween Champa and the British settlement of Singapore. 
Of the time when, and the manner in which, the settlement 
or colony of Champa was established there is no record. The 
last king of Majapahit in Java, however, married a princess of 
Champa, and in his time, therefore, about the beginning of tlie 
fifteenth century, it must have been an established country, 
and its inhabitants still professing the Hindu or Budhist 
religion, since the princes of Java were as yet of a Hindu faith. 
It was from a merchant of this country trading with Singa- 
pore, that I received a short list of 81 words of the lan- 
guage of Champa. Out of this number 16 are the ordinary 
numerals, and therefore 65 only remain for a fair examination. 
Of these then, 20 are Malay, 3 Javanese, 23 Malay or Javanese, 
6 Sanskrit, and 14 of some unknown local language. Among 
these words, 44 are nouns, 9 are adjectives, 4 are pronouns, 
3 are auxiliaries, and 5 are particles. Of the nouns 5, — of tl;e 
adjectives 3, and of the pronouns 1, belong to the unascertained 

k 



cxxx DISSERTATION. 

lano-uage, ^vllile 2 of the auxiliaries and all the particles, also, 
belong to it. It seems not improbable, from this analj^sis, that 
an ampler and a fairer specimen of the Champa would show 
that it is fundamentally a local language mixed up with much 
Malayan. 

According to the specimen given to me, the Malay words in 
the Champa language are considerably altered in form, and 
in some cases mutilated, as will be seen by the following few 
examples : — 



ENGLISH. 


CHAMPA. 


MALAYAN. 


Sky. 


Langi. 


Langit, c. 


Sun. 


Nahari. 


Mataari, c. 


Water. 


Aya. 


Ayĕ,r, m. 


Fire. 


Apoi. 


Api, m. j. 


Elephant. 


Lamun. 


Liman, j. 


Gold. 


Mas. 


Anias, mas, c. 


Silver. 


Priak. 


Perak, m. 


Rice husked. 


Bra. 


Bras, m. 


Country or city. 


Nangrai. 


Nagri, s. 


I. 


Alun. 


Ulun, j. 


Three. 


Klau. 


Talu, j. 


Four. 


Pak. 


Ampat, c. 


Ten. 


Flu. 


Puluh, m. j. 


Eleven. 


Plu-sa. 


Sablas, ni. j. 


Twenty. 


Plu-plu. 


Duwa-puluh, c. 


Hundred. 


Ratu. 


Ratus, c. 


Thousand. 


Rilau. 


Ribu, c. 



Traces of a Malayan language are to be found in the 
language of the Nicobar islands in the bay of Bengal, between 

the latitude of 6° GO' and 9° 20' north, not more 
oftheNico-than 120 miles distant from the western end of 

Sumatra. The best accounts of the inhabitants of 
these islands and of their languages are given in the second 
and third volumes of the Asiatic Researches, by Mr. Hamilton 
and Mr. Montana, but especially by the last, who was for three 
months in communication with the natives, Mr. Fontana 
says of them that they are of a copper colour with small 
oblique eyes, the whites of which have a yellowish tinge, that 
their noses are flat, their mouths large, their lips thick ; that 
their persons are well-j)roportioncd l)nt short, that their hair 



DISSERTATION. exxxi 

is coarse and black, and that they have little or no beard. 
This description of them shows plainly enough that the inhabi- 
tants of the Nicobars are of the same race as the Malays and 
Javanese. 

Although these people are evidently of the Malayan race, — 
are so near to the parent country of the Malay nation, and are 
not infrequently in communication with the Archipelago, they 
are still in a very rude state of society, and unacquainted with 
any of the ordinary arts, their industry being confined to fishing, 
raising a few roots, fruits, and palms, and rearing the hog, the 
dog, and the common fowl. 

The language of the Nicobars has been supposed to be allied 
to those of the brown-complexioued people of the Archipelago, 
and Mr. Fontana says expressly that " its base is chiefly 
Malay ; " but for this notion, as will presently be seen, there is 
not the slightest foundation. Mr. Fontana has exhibited a list 
of 140 words of it, and Mr. Hamilton of 18. To judge by these, 
it has 6 vowels, a, a, e, i, o, and u. The vowels therefore 
correspond with those of the Malay and Javanese. The 
consonants seem to be the following : — b, ch, d, f, g, h, j, k, 1, 
m, n, ng, n, p, r, s, t, V, y, z, twenty in number. It has three, 
therefore, unknown to the written languages of the Archipelago. 
Besides this difference in the consonants, they are occasionally 
used in a manner unknown to the Malayan languages. Thus, 
words are made to terminate in such consonants as ch, j, and 
n, which never happens in any of the written languages of 
the Archipelago. Of the pronunciation, Mr. Hamilton says, 
"their own language has a sound quite different from most 
others, their words being pronounced with a kind of stop, or 
catch in the throat at every syllable." This would seem 
more to resemble the cluck ascribed to the pronunciation 
of the Hottentots than anything in rude languages that we 
know of. 

We should expect to find the language of the Nicobars 
abounding in Malayan words, from the proximity of the 
group to Sumatra, and from the apparent facility of the voyage 
between them, even to native navigation. The celebrated 
Darapier, with two other English seamen and three Malays, 



cxxxii DISSERTATION. 

performed the voyage in a Nicobar boat, which he describes as 
not bigger than a ''below bridge London wherry." Such, 
however, is not the case, judging by the specimens we possess. 
That of Mr. Fontana contains only three words, and two 
of them mucli mutilated ; they are ilinu, for nu, a " coconut," 
or rather a green or fresh coconut, for there is a native word, 
hoat, for the "ripe coconut;" koching for kuching, " a cat;" 
and para for perak, " silver." Even among the numerals, of 
which sixteen are given, not one is Malayan. Among the 
eighteen words given by Mr. Hamilton, one only is Malayan, 
ayam, " a fowl." As far then as can he inferred from these 
imperfect lists of words, the language of the Nicobar islands is 
a wholly distinct tongue from Malay, Javanese, or indeed, any 
other language of the brown-complexioned race of the Archi- 
pelago. In Mr. Fontana's list, it may he remarked, that there 
is found exactly the same number of Portuguese as of Malay 
words. 

On comparing the two lists of Nicobar words, there arises 
a suspicion that they are at least two dialects of the same 
tongue, and may, indeed, be two distinct languages. Mr. Ha- 
milton's specimen is of the language of the most nortliern 
island, the Carnicobar, and tliat of Mr. Fontana of that of 
the Great Nicobar by three degrees of latitude distant from 
it. Of fourteen English words for which the correspond- 
ing ones are given in the two lists, there are but two or three 
which seem to agree, and even of these, we can by no means 
be sure that they are identical. The fourteen words are as 
follow : — 



ENGLISH. 


CARNICOBAR. 


GREAT NICOBAR. 


Man. 


Kegouia. 


Eukoiii. 


Woman. 


Kekana. 




Child. 


Chu. 


Keiiu. 


Fowl. 


Hayam, m. 


Tofoak. 


Hog. 


Hoon. 


Not. 


Dog. 


Tamam. 


Ham. 


Fire. 


Tamia. 


Henu. 


Rain. 


Kuinra. 


Hanie. 


Ilouac. 


Allianum. 


Ni. 


To laiiKli. 


Ayelaur. 


Hetliai. 


To eat. 


Na. 


Hanino. 





DISSERTATION. 


exxxiii 


ENGLISH. 


CARNICOBAR. 


GREAT MICOBAU. 


To drink. 


Ok. 


Peum. 


To sleep. 


Lumlum. 


Etaja. 


To weep. 


Poing. 


Houm. 



Words of the Malayan languages are to be found in the lan- 
guage of the aboriginal inhabitants of Formosa, or Taiwan ; and 
Languao-e ^^ ^^^^ large islaud, about half as big as Ireland, 
of Formosa, gtretches as far north as the 25° of latitude, this is the 
extreme limit in a northerly direction to which they have 
reached. Mr. Klaproth, in his Asia Polyglotta, without, how- 
ever, indicating the authority from which he has derived them, 
has given 118 words of the language of Formosa, pointing 
out the languages from which a few of them are derived. 
Some of his derivations are obviously fanciful, and others palpa- 
bly erroneous. Excluding these, the following are his words of 
undoubted Malayan origin : — 



ENGLISH. 


FORMOSA. 


MALAYAN. 


Stoue. 


Wato. . 


Batu, m., watu, j. 


Eye. 


Mata. 


Mata, c. 


Hand. 


Lima. 


Lima, bal. 


Ear. 


Tangira. 


Talinga, c. 


Fruit. 


Waiia. 


Buwah, m., woh, j. 


Fire. 


Ap5i. 


Api, c. 


Man. 


Aulong. 


Orang, m. 


Son. 


Alak. 


Anak, c. 


Joy, pleasure. 


Eeia. 


Riya, m. 


Black. 


Audim. 


Itam, m. 


White. 


Paule. 


Putih, c. 


One. 


Sat, siiat. 


Satu, m. 


Two. 


Rauha. 


Duwa, m., roro, j. 


Three. 


Tauro. 


Talu, j. 


Four. 


Hipat. 


Ampat, m., pat, j. 


Five. 


Rima. 


Lima, c. 


Six. 


Nuum- 


Anam, c. 


Seven. 


Pitu. 


Pitu, j. 



We have here, then, 18 words of unquestionable Malayan 
origin. They include 7 numerals, and it is remarkable that these 
stop at the number 7, all numbers above it up to 1000 being 
reckoned in native terms, yet preserving, like the Malayan 
numerals, the decimal scale. Besides the Malayan, however. 



cxxxiv DISSERTATION. 

several words of the languages of the Philippines have been 
introduced into that of Formosa, which are indicated bv 
Mr. Klaproth; and, indeed, most, if not all, of the Malayan 
words are found in those tongues. Such being the case, 
and Formosa being within three degrees of the largest 
island of the Philippine group, with many islets between 
them, the great probability is, that the Malayan words have 
found their way into the language of Formosa through the 
languages of the Philippines, and not directly through Sumatra 
or Java. 

The aboriginal inhabitants of Formosa are short in sta- 
ture, of tawny complexions, and long lank hair. From this 
account of them they seem to belong to, or, at least, much to 
resemble, the brown-complexioned race of the Archipelago, of 
which the Malays are the type. Although inhabiting a great 
and fertile island, affording to all appearance a fair opportunity 
of development, it is certain they never made any progress in 
civilisation, and at present pent up in their mountain fastnesses, 
or living in servitude to the Chinese, who have within the last 
two centuries occupied the western coast of the island, they 
seem to live in a state of barbarism. 

I have next to offer some observations on the many languages 

of the islands of the Pacific, which are numerous and various. 

These islands extend from the east of New Guinea and 

of tire the Philippines, to within two thousand five hundred 

miles of the western coast of America, and from about 

the 22° of north to the 47° of south latitude. 

The languages spoken over this vast area are, probably, nearly 
as numerous as the islands themselves, but still there is one of 
very wide dissemination, which has no native name, but which, 
with some propriety, has been called by Europeans, on account 
of its predominance, the Polynesian. This language, with vai'i- 
ations of dialect, is spoken by the same race of men from the 
Fiji group west, to Easter island eastward, and from the 
Sandwich islands north, to the New Zealand islands south. 
The language and the race have been imagined to be essentially 
the same as the Malay, which is undoubtedly a great mistake. 
I shall endeavour to describe the Polynesian race from the 



DISSERTATION. cxxxv 

accounts of the most accurate and autbentic observers, and 
foremost among tbese is Cook, wbo saw tbe people in tbeir 
unsopbisticated state. He describes tbe inbabitants of the 
]\Iarquesas as the handsomest people of tbe Pacific, and for fine 
shape and regular features surpassing all other nations, the 
men being of the stature of five feet ten inches.* The great 
navigator found tbe people of the Sandwich islands less comely, 
and of the stature of five feet eight inches. Tbe French navi- 
gator, Du Perry, ascertained the average stature of the men of 
Tahiti to be from five feet eight to five feet nine inches (French). t 
The American navigator, Wilks, describes the inhabitants of 
the Samuan group, or Navigatoi-'s islands, as of the mean 
height of five feet ten inches, and of such forms that they would 
be considered fine men in any part of tbe world, j Tbe account 
given of the complexion of tbe whole race is, that it varies from 
a bright copper to tbe various shades of a nut-brown ; — of the 
features, that they are not prominent, but distinct, the nose 
being short and wide at the base, the mouth large with fine 
teeth, tbe lips full and well turned, the eyes black, large, and 
bright, tbe forehead narrow, but high, and tbe cheek-bones 
prominent. With respect to the hair of the head, it is abun- 
dant, black, and lank. The beard is always scanty. 

In so far as tbe Polynesian islanders are concerned, there is, 
making some allowance for variations arising from diff'erence of 
locality and long separation, quite enough of agreement in this 
account to show that the race is essentially tbe same throughout. 
To conclude, however, that tbe Polynesian and Malayan race 
are one and the same, seems to me a gratuitous assumption. 
The hair of the head is of tbe same texture, and there is the 
same paucity of beard ; and in the complexion, too, there is some 
similitude, but this is all. The Polynesian is rather above than 
below the European stature ; the Malay from three to four 
inches at least under it ; the Polynesian has distinct features ; 
tbe features of the Malay are flat and indistinct. The Poly- 
nesians are described by every observer as a handsome people, 

* Cook's Second Voyage, vol. i. 

+ Voyage de la Coquille. Paris, 1828. 

t Narrative of the United States Exploring Expedition. London. 



cxxxvi DISSERTATION. 

but no observer has ever tliouglit of describing the Mahiys as 
being so. I suspect that the whole hypothesis is grounded on 
the belief that the languages of the tAvo people are essentially 
the same^ and that identity of language is equivalent to identity 
of race. Of the two races the Malays are the most civilised, 
the best fed, and best clad, and inhabit, generally, either the 
same, or equally good climates, and ovight, therefore, to have 
been physically the finest race of the two, but the case is 
the reverse. The attempt, therefore, to bring these two dis- 
tinct races under the same category had better be dropped, 
for, as will be presently seen, even the evidence of language 
gives it no countenance. 

For a consideration of the Polynesian language, we are noAv 
in possession of some tolerably ample and authentic materials.* 
The vowel sounds of the Polynesian are the same throughout, 
viz. a, e, i, o, and u; but the consonants vary from 7 to 15. 
In the dialect of the Sandwich islands they are only 7, — h, k, 
1, m, n, p, v ; in the Marquesa 8, — f, h, k, 1, m, p, t, v ; in the 
Tahitian 10, — b, d, f, h, m, n, p, r, t, v; in the Navigator's 
island group 10, — f, g, 1, m, n, p, s, t, v, w ; in the New Zealand 
or Maori 9, — h, k, ra, n, ng, p, r, t, w. In the Tonga or 
Friendly island dialect we find 15, — b, ch, d, f, g, h, 1, m, u, ng, 
p, s, t, V, w; and in the Fiji we have also 15, — b, d, f, g, g, k, 
1, m, n, ng, p, r, s, t, v. The greatest nu^mber of consonants is 
to be found in the two most westerly dialects, those of the 
Friendly islands and Fijis, and the fewest in the dialect of the 
Sandwich group. 

The most copious of the alphabetic systems of the Polynesian, 
it will appear from this statement, want 5 consonants of the 
Malay and Javanese, and the poorest no fewer than 13 ; while 
in several of them there exist two letters, f and v, which have 
no existence in the Malayan languages. The absence of any 
considerable number of liquids is another distinctive peculiarity 
of the Polynesian. The Tahiti has only r, the Sandwich islands 

* A Gramniai- of the T.iliitiiiii dialect of the Polynesian langiuige. Tahiti, 1823. 
A Dictionary of the New Zealand language, and a concise Graiiiniar by Wni. 
Williams, B.A. Pailiia, 18-14. Vocahulairc Occanienne, par Boniface Mosblcch. 
Paris. 



D1S.SL:RTATI0X. cxxxvii 

only 1, the Marquesas none at all. The Maori and Tonga or 
Friendly island have r and w, and the Fiji only r. The Fiji 
and Tonga islands alone have a sibilant, never vranting in any 
Malayan tongue. The scarcity of liquids is probably com- 
pensated, not indeed by the variety, but by the frequent recur- 
rence of vowels. No two consonants can occur in the same 
syllable, and every syllable and every word must terminate in 
a vowel. The Fiji alone is a partial exception to this rule, for 
in it a liquid is found to coalesce with another consonant, and 
even two ordinary consonants to exist in the same syllable; 
the consequence of which is that it cannot be pronounced 
accurately by those speaking the other dialects. 

In the Polynesian the accent differs most materially from 
that of the Malayan languages, in which, as before mentioned, 
for bisyllabic and trisyllabic words, it is, with very few excep- 
tions, on the penultimate; while in polysyllabic words there 
are two accents, — one on the first, and one on the third 
syllable. In the Polynesian, the accent on bisyllabic and tri- 
syllabic words is also frequently on the penultimate ; but it 
may also be on the first syllable or on the last. In the Maori, 
the word mania, with the accent on the first syllable, means 
"a plain," and on the penultimate the adjective "slippery." 
The words tekatu, " ten," and paketu, " to cut off," have the 
accent on the last syllable, of which, in trisyllabic m ords, there 
is no example in any Malayan language. The accent on poly- 
syllabic words is, for the most part, as in the Malayan lan- 
guages, on the first syllable and penultimate, as in the word 
matakara, " a fish-hook ; " but in the Polynesian, a word may 
have three accents, as in papaahuahua, "the shoulder-blade," 
of which no example occurs in the Malayan languages. 

The grammatical structure of the Polynesian language 
resembles that of the Malay, in being very simple; but the 
simplicity is at the same time a very different one. The noun 
has a definite and an indefinite article ; but these apply, unlike 
the articles of the Philippine languages, to all the cases, without 
variation. Occasionally only, they are applied to the plural 
number. 

The relations of nouns are expressed by prepositions. A plural 



cxxxviii DISSERTATION. 

is formed by a specific appropriate particle placed before 
the nouu, and gender is designated by adjectives signifying 
masculine and feminine, — there being two for man and two for 
the lower animals, as in the Malay ; but the terms are wholly 
different from those employed in the latter language. Occa- 
sionally the distinctive gender is expressed by specific terms, 
which rarely happens in Malay. The Polynesian adjective 
undergoes no change in composition, and, like the Malay and 
Javanese, follows the noun. 

The formation of the personal pronouns is the most singular 
portion of Polynesian grammar. All the three personal pro- 
nouns have a singular and four plurals, viz., a dual, a plural, 
excluding the party addressed or spoken of, one including the 
party addressed or spoken of, and a general plural. Each pro- 
noun has three forms of a genitive case; the other oblique 
cases being, like nouns, formed by prepositions. There is 
nothing like this in Malay or Javanese, and, although it bears 
some resemblance to the Philippine pronouns, the difference 
between them is still very wide. It is remarkable, at the same 
time, that the three pronouns, in their nominative cases singular, 
only, however, are Malay or Javanese, viz., ahu (aku), koe 
(kowe), and i'a (iya). 

The Polynesian verbs are classed into transitives, intransitives, 
passives, and causals. The two first are the simple uncom- 
pounded words, and are only distinguished by the sense. The 
passives are formed by the affix " a " varying with the termination 
of the root according to the requirements of euphony ; and the 
causal, of which the root may be an intransitive verb or a noun, 
by an inseparable prefix. From this sketch it will be readily 
seen that there is nothing, as far as grammatical form is con- 
cerned, to indicate that the Malayan languages and Polynesian 
dialects are the same tongue, and derived from a common stock. 

The number of Malayan words found in the Polynesian, and 
from the existence of which a community of language, and 
hence of race, has been hastily inferred, is found on examina- 
tion to be very inconsiderable. The inquiry, however, I must 
premise, is not without some difficulty and uncertainty, caused 
by the difference of phonetic character between the Malayan 



DISSERTATION. cxxxlx 

languages and the Polynesian, to which is added the variation 
in the consonants of the dialects of the Polynesian among 
themselves. The dialect of the Sandwich islands wants no 
fewer than 13, that of the Marquesas 12, and that of New 
Zealand 11 consonants of the Malayan system, and for all 
these deficiencies substitutes have to be found in adopted 
Malayan words, while allowance has also to be made for the 
transmutation of native consonants. One rule is invariable, — 
that as no Polynesian word can end in a consonant, the final 
consonant of a Malay word ending in one must either be elided, 
or a vowel added to it. As the whole number of Malayan 
words in the Polynesian is not great, I shall give them, along 
with the original words and meanings, as I have been able to 
detect them in the Maori or New Zealand dictionary of Arch- 
deacon Williams. 



MAORI. 


ENGLISH. 


MALAYAN. 


EN(!LISU. 


Aha 


What. 


Apa, c. 


What. 


Ahi. 


Fire. 


Api, c. 


Fire. 


Ahu. 


My. 


Aku, c. 


I. 


Aka. 


A creeper. 


Akar, c. 


Root, scandent plant. 


Ahau. 


I. 


Aku, c. 


I. 


Aku. 


My. 


Aku, c. 


I or my. 


Amuri. 


Hereafter. 


Buri, j. 


Behind, after. 


Apiti. 


To join. 


Apit, s. 


Close, side by side. 


Ara. 


Road, path. 


Arah, m. 


Direction, course. 


Ariki. 


A chief, a priest. 


Ari.j. 


A king. 


Ate. 


The liver. 


Ati, c. 


The heart. 


Ato. 


Thatch. 


Atap, c. 


Thatch. 


Atua. 


God. 


Tiian, m. 


Lord, Master, God. 


Hara. 


Sin, crime. 


Salah, c. 


Sin, crime. 


Hari. 


To dance. 


Tari, m. 


To dance. 


Haru. 


To scrape. 


Garu, c. 


To scratch, to scrape 


Hauiini. 


Dew. 


Ambun, c. 


Dew. 


Hon. 


A feather. 


Bulu, c. 


A feather, or hair. 


Hua. 


Fruit. 


Buwah, c. 


Fruit. 


Hui-uhuru. 


Hair. 


Bulu, 0. 


Hair, or feather. 


la. 


He, she, it. 


lya, m. 


He, she, it. 


Ihu. 


The nose. 


Id'ung, c. 


The nose. 


Ika. 


Fish. 


Ikan, m. 


Fish. 


Inu. 


To drink. 


Inum, c. 


To di'iuk. 


Iwa. 


Nine. 


Sanga, j. 


Nine. 


KaL 


A tree. 


Ka3ru, c. 


Wood, timber, tree. 


Kapu. 


An adze. 


Kapak, c. 


An adze. 



cx\ 


DISSERTATION. 




MAORI. 


ENGLISH. 


MALAYAN. 


ENGLISH. 


Karau. 


A comb. 


Garu, c. 


To scratch ; a comb. 


Kari. 


To dig. 


Gali, m. 


To dig. 


Koe. 


Thou. 


Kowe, c. 


Thou. 


Kowatii. 


A stone. 


Watu, c. 


A stone. 


Kuku. 


A pigeon. 


Kukur, m. 


A pigeon. 


Kutu. 


A louse. 


Kutu, m. 


A louse. 


Maikuku. 


Finger or toe-nail. 


Kuku, c. 


Nail, or hoof 


Manawauui. 


Stout-hearted. 


Mauah, s., wani, c. 


Bold-hearted. 


Manu. 


Bird, fowl. 


Manuk, j. 


Bird, fowl. 


Mata. 


Point of a weapon. 


Mata, m. 


Blade of a weapon. 


Mata. 


Mesh of a net. 


Mata, m. 


Mesh of a net. 


Mata. 


The face. 


Mata, c. 


The eye. 


Mata. 


Raw, imripe. 


Matang, m. 


Raw, unripe. 


Mataku. 


Feai-. 


Takut, 0. 


Fear. 


Matamata. 


Source, spring. 


Mata, m. 


Source, spiing. 


Mate. 


To die. 


Mati, c. 


To die. 


Matua. 


Parent. 


Maratuwa, c. 


Parent in law. 


Muruwai. 


Mouth of a river. 


Muwara, m. 


Mouth of a river. 


Ngahuru. 


Ten. 


Puluh, c. 


Ten. 


Nongoro. 


To snore. 


Ngorok, c. 


To snore. 


Ono. 


Six. 


Anam, c. 


Six. 


Pai. 


Good. 


Sai.j. 


Good. 


Pauaku. 


A fern. 


Paku, m. 


A fern. 


Papa. 


A board, a plank. 


Papan, m. 


A board, a plank. 


Patu. 


To strike. 


Palu, c. 


To strike. 


Pua. 


A flower. 


Buah, m. 


Fruit. 


Puke. 


A hill. 


Bukit, m. 


A hill. 


Roe. 


The forehead. 


Rai, c. 


The forehead. 


Rami. 


To squeeze. 


Ram^s, c. 


To knead. 


Rangi. 


The sky. 


Langit, c. 


The sky. 


Rau. 


A leaf. 


Daun, c. 


A leaf 


Rau. 


Hundred. 


Ratus, c. 


Hundred. 


Rie. 


Two. 


Loro, j., duwa, m. 


Two. 


Rima. 


Five. 


Lima, c. 


Five. 


Ro. 


Within. 


Jaro, j. 


Within. 


Rua. 


Two. 


Duwa, m., loro, j. 


Two. 


Tahi. 


One. 


Sa, m. j. 


One. 


Tai. 


Salt water. 


Tasik, c. 


The sea. 


Tangi. 


To cry ; to sound. 


Tanis, c. 


To cry, to weep. 


Tanu. 


To bury. 


Tanam, c. 


To bury, to inhume. 


Tapu. 


Sacred. 


Tapa, s. 


Religious penance. 


Tapuai. 


A footstep. 


Tapak, c. 


Sole of the foot. 


Tariuga. 


The car. 


Talinga, c. 


The ear. 


Taro. 


The tan plant. 


Taias,j. 


Caladium esculentim 


Tau. 


A year. 


Tiiun, c. 


A year. 


Tom. 


Three. 


Tdlu, j. 


Three. 





DISSERTATION. 




cx 


MAORI. 


ENGLISH. 


MALAYAN. 


ENGLISH. 


Tunu. 


To roa.st. 


Tunu, c. 




To burn. 


Tupiu 


To shoot, to sprout. 


Tumbuh, m. 


tukuh, J 


. To shoot, to sprout. 


TurL 


Deaf. 


Tuli, in. 




Deaf. 


U. 


The breast of a female. 


Susu, c. 




The breast of a femnl 


Unu. 


To pull out. 


Unus, c. 




To pull out, to 111 
sheath. 


Uwi. 


A winter potatoe. 


Ubi, uwi, c. 




A yam. 


Waengga. 


Middle. 


Tangah, c. 




Middle. 


Wa. 


Four. 


Ampat, papat, pat, c. 


Four. 


Wai. 


Water. 


Aydr, m. 




Water. 


Watu. 


Pupil of the eye. 


Batu-mata. 




Leus of the eye. 


Wenua. 


Earth, soil. 


Baniia, m. 




Land, region. 


Witu. 


Seven. 


Pitu,j. 




Seven. 



The Avliole number of JNIalayau words in the Maori dialect of 
the Polynesian, as they are exhibited in the Williams' dictionary, 
amount only to 85, and even in these there is some repetition, 
and some words that are doubtful. Among them there are 
three which may possibly be Sanskrit. Reckoning all as 
Malayan, the number is but inconsiderable. The dictionary 
contains 5254 words, and therefore the Malayan words amount 
to little more than 16 in 1000. A very small fraction, there- 
fore, of languages supposed to be cognate, agrees in their words ; 
while, even in this fraction, there is much disagreement, both in 
sense and orthography. 

Mosblech's dictionary of tlie Marquesa and Sandwich island 
dialects contains a still smaller proportion of Malayan words. 
The number of distinct words in it which are JNIalay or Javanese 
is but 74, while the dictionary itself contains 6123 words, so 
that we have here little more than 12 words in 1000. 

Already, about the same number of English words have been 
introduced into those two dialects, through the English and 
American missionaries, and are inserted in Mosblech's dic- 
tionary. The havoc committed on the orthography of such 
words is, from wider difference in phonetic character, still 
greater than in Malayan, and, but for the meaning, could not 
be identified with their originals. Thus " sheep " becomes hipa, 
" shoe " hiii, " an ox " pifa, " rice " laiki, " powder " poora, 
" bread " palora and palao, but more frequently potato. When, 
however, the letters composing the English word are more 



cxlii DISSERTATION. 

consonant to native sound, the alterations are not so extravagant. 
Thus, "book" becomes puke, "school" kula, "pepper" pepe, 
"pot" pote, "hammer" hamare, "cloak" koloku, "hour" 
hora, " mammon " or " riches," mamona, " oil " aila, " enemy " 
enemi, " money " moni. Some of these words have been intro- 
duced from necessity, but others, which are only synonymes of 
native words, evidently from caprice and the passion for imita- 
tion, aided no doubt by the simple structure of the language, 
which allows the ready introduction of foreign terms, especially 
when they are agreeable to the ear. 

It deserves to be noticed, that although the majority of 
Malayan words found in the different dialects of the Polynesian 
are the same, there are a good many exceptions. The ]\raori 
contains 18, which I do not find in the Marquesa and Sandwich 
island, and these two dialects contain 12 not found in the 
Maori. The Marquesa and Sandwich island again differ in 
this respect among themselves, for the first has 6 words not 
found in the last, and this S not found in the Marquesa. 

Then it may be further observed that in the words common 
to all the dialects, these are not always used in the same sense, 
although the identity of the words themselves cannot be 
disputed. The literal meaning of the word mata in Malay is 
" the eye," and its figurative ones " the mesh of a net," " the 
blade of a weapon," and " a point of the compass." In Maori, 
it is " the face " or " visage," " the point of a spear," and " the 
mesh of a net." It preserves its original meaning, therefore, 
in this dialect, only in the last sense. In the Marquesa it has 
the following meanings : — " the eye," " the face " or " visage," 
" figure " or " form," " portrait," " manner." In Sandwich 
island, corrupted maka, it has nearly the same meanings as 
in the Marquesa, so that in these two dialects the literal sense 
in the original language is correctly preserved, while all the 
other meanings are wide deviations from it. In the Malay the 
word papan means " a board," " plank " or " slab," and " a 
table" or " tablet." In Maori, deprived, as in the other 
dialects, of its final consonant, it means " a plank " or " stone 
slab," and also " a field of battle." In the Marquesa it is " a 
plank" or "board," and also " plain " or "flat." Owing to 



DISSERTATION. 



cxli 



the changes produced iu the orthography of Malayan words 
naturalised in the Polynesian, it sometimes happens that a 
word of Malay or Javanese which has the same letters in the 
Polynesian may be very different, as well in sound as sense, in the 
former. Mata, " the eye," and mata, " raw " or " unripe," have 
exactly the same letters and sound in the Polynesian ; and in 
MosblecVs dictionary, they appear under the same word, but 
the last of them, in Malay and Javanese, is matang. Of the 
three dialects, the Malayan words are most corrupted, by 
alteration of consonants, by addition of vowels, or by truncation, 
in that of the Sandwich islands. 

As frequently happens in the languages of the western 
Archipelago and Philippines, the Malayan words in the Poly- 
nesian, thought to be the sole words, turn out, on examination, 
to be, often, no more than synonymes of native ones. The 
following are examples from the Maori : — 



ENGLISH. 


MALAYAN. 


MAORI. 


Fire. 


Api, C. 


Ahi, hatete, kanaka, kora, inaute, ngili 


Water. 


Ayar, m. 


Wai, mote, ngangge, honu. 


Fish. 


Ikan, in. 


Ika, ike. 


Stone. 


Watu, c. 


Kowatu, kamaka. 


Sea. 


Tasik. m. 


Tahi, moaua. 


To die. 


Mati. 


Mate, hemo. 



The Marquesa and Sandwich island dialects also furnish 
examples, as the following : — 



ENGLISH. 


MALAYAN. 


MARQUESA AND SANDWICH ISLAND. 


Hole, aperture. 


Lubang, c. 


Lua, ana, poko, pnta. 


Parent. 


Maratuwa. 


Matua, hoahanaii. 


Sky. 


Angin, langit, c. 


Ani, laugi, aki. 


To roast. 


Tunu, c. 


Tunu, tao. 


After, behind. 


Buri, j. 


Mnli, hope. 



Among the Malayan words in the Polynesian language, it 
may be very safely asserted that there is not one which is 
essential to the formation of a grammatical sentence. The 
particles used in the formation of the noun, and the inseparable 
particles employed in forming the verb, are wholly different 
from those used in the Malay or the Javanese, and among 



cxliv DISSERTATION. 

140 adverbs in the New Zealand grammar of Archdeacon 
Williams I can discover one only, muri, "behind/' which can 
be suspected to be Malayan, and even this is accompanied by a 
native synonyme. Muri is, no doubt, the same word as the 
Javanese buri with the same meaning. While the Polynesian 
particles disagi^ee with those of the Malayan, there is, althouglx 
with much variation of orthography, an essential agreement 
among those of the Polynesian dialects, and when this is 
considered, along with the identity of the great body of words 
of which these dialects consist, we can hardly be mistaken in 
concluding that they are essentially one and the same tongue, 
and mere dialects of a common language. Voyagers, indeed, 
agree that parties speaking the different dialects are able, with 
a little practice, to make themselves intelligible to each 
other, as, after a time, is the case with the Irish and Scotch 
highlanders, and, although with more difficulty, with the Welsh 
and Armoricans. Such, it may be safely asserted, never happens 
in relation to any two languages of the Malayan Archipelago. 
To eveiy native of the Archipelago, every language but his own 
is a foreign one, only to be acquired by long time and study. 

The following few examples will show the accord which 
exists between the Polynesian dialects, and their disagreement 
M-ith the Malayan : — 



ENfiLTSH. 


MAORI. 


TAIUTT. 


JtALAY. 


A, or an. 


He. 


E. 





The. 


Te. 


Te. 


_ 


Of. 


0, or a. 


No. 


Di. 


To. 


Ki. 


I. 


Ka, pada. 


By. 


I, or 0. 


I. 


Dari. 


Ma.sculiiie (man). 


Tane. 


Tane. 


Laki. 


Masculine (animal). 


Tourawi. 


Oni. 


Jan tan. 


Feminine (man). 


Wahini. 


Valiiui. 


Parampiinii. 


Feminine (animal). 


Uwa. 


Ufa. 


Batina. 


Verbal passive particle. 


la affix. 


Hia affix. 


Di and ka ])ref'i: 


Causal particle. 


Waka prefix. 


Taa prefix. 


Kiln and i affix. 



Of the languages of the Northern Pacific, the Sandwich 
island excepted, we possess only a few fragments, M. Gaimard 
has given a list of words of the language of the Caroline 



DISSERTATION. 



cxlv 



islands, or at least of a language of one island of the numerous 
Languages islets wLich coustitute this extensive group lying in 
Northern about the 5° of north latitude. The natives of the 
Carolines are represented to be of the Malayan race, 
although this is far from being certain. 

According to M. Gaimard's orthography, the vowels of the 
Caroline are the usual five, and the consonants d, f, g, h, k, 1, 
m, ng, n, p, r, s, t, v, w, y, and z, making 17. It wants the 
aspirate ; and the presence of the letters f, v, and z, shows that 
the language does not belong to the more cultivated tongues of 
the Malayan Archipelago, nor to the Polynesian. The voca- 
bulary given by INI. Gaimard consists of 411 words, among 
which, inclusive of numerals, I can detect no more than 8 
Avhich are ^Malayan. These are the following : — 



CAROLINE. 


ENGLISH. 


MALAYAN. 


ENGLISH. 


Ralu. 




Water. 


Rami, j. 


Water. 


Tali. 




A rope. 


TaU, c. 


A rope. 


Talinhe, 


talinliau. 


The ear. 


TaliBga, talingau, c. 


The ear. 


Mata-rae 




The east. 


Mata-ari, m. 


The suu. 


Pap. 




A board. 


Papan, m. 


A board. 


Mata. 




A sword. 


Mata, m. 


Weapon-blade. 


Tanhi. 




To weep. 


Tangis, c. 


To weep. 


Tati. 




The sea. 


Tasik, j. 


The sea. 



Including eight numerals, the total number of IMalayan 
words in M. Gaimard's vocabulary is but 16, so that the pro- 
portion is about 38 in 1000. This estimate is, however, as 
usual, vitiated by the too large proportion of numerals, which 
ought to refer to the whole body of the language, and not to a 
small fraction of it ; and it is certain, that the proportion, small 
as it is, cannot be near so large as it thus seems. 

The same writer has given a list of words of the language of 
Guham, one of the Ladrone or Marianne islands, situated in 
about the 15° of north latitude. The inhabitants of these 
islands are represented to be of the same race as those of the 
Philippine islands that are not Negroes, that is, of the Malayan. 
The vowels of the language of Guham are the usual five, and 
the consonants b, ch, d, f, g, h, j, k, 1, m, n, ng, n, p, s', t, w, 
making IS, so that, besides the Javanese and Malay consonants, 
it has f, and the sound which the French represent by ch, and 



cxlvi 



DISSERTATION. 



we ourselves by sh, — in fact^ the shin of the Arabic and Persian 
alphabets, which if truly represented is an anomaly among the 
east-insular languages. 

The language of Gubam contains, apparently, a much larger 
admixture of the Malayan tongue than that of the Caroline 
islands. In M. Gaimard's list, which amounts only to 163 
words, I find the following, exclusive of numerals : — 



GUHAM. 


ENGLISH. 


MALAYAN. 


ENGLISH. 


Tcosi. 


Tbe sea. 


Tasik, j. 


Tbe .sea. 


Labi. 


Man. 


Laki, c. 


Male bumnii being. 


Ulu. 


Head. 


Ulu, c. 


Head. 


Talaiih;i. 


Ear. 


Talinga, c. 


Tbe eai-. 


Pulu. 


Hair. 


Bulu, m., wulu, j. 


Hau-. 


Tolan. 


Bone. 


Tulang, m. 


Bone. 


Susu. 


Breast. 


Susu, c. 


Bosom. 


Nidjiii. 


Tbe coco-pahn. 


Nur, m., n\\, j. 


Tbe coco-palm. 


Tuba. 


Palm wine. 


Tuwak, c. 


Palm wine. 


Manug. 


Domestic fowl. 


Manuk, j. 


Bird, fowl. 


Na. 


Tbej^ 


Na, c. 


He, sbe, it, tbey. 



In the language of Gubam ten of the numerals are Malayan, 
so that the whole number in the 163 words is 21, which makes 
128 in every 1000, without a doubt, out of all proportion for 
the whole body of the language. 

All, I believe, that is known of the language of the Pelew islands 
is what is found in the account rendered by Mr. Keate of the 
wreck, on one of them, of the East Indiaman " Antelope,^' from 
the Journals of Captain Wilson, her commander.* The Pelew 
islands lie in about the 7° of north latitude, due east of the island 
of Mindanau, one of the Philippines, and not above 500 miles 
distant from it. No account is rendered by Keate of the physical 
form of the inhabitants, but from the portraits in his work, and 
from their being described as having long lank hair, they have been 
supposed to be of the Malayan race. The crew of the shipwrecked 
vessel resided about three months in one of tlie islands, and 
were hospitably received by the natives. One of the party, a 
native Christian, spoke Malay, and they found on the island 
tliree Malay mariners, the survivors of the crew of a prau 
trading between Mcnado in Celebes and Amboyna, driven by a 

* Account of the Pelew iBlands, from tbe Journals of Captain Henry Wilson, 
by George Keate, Esc]., F.H.S. I.nndon, 1788. 



DISSERTATION. cxlvii 

storm into the Pacific, and wrecked ou one of the Pelews. 
Captain Wilson brought to England the well-known Prince 
Lee Boo, and one of the Malays, and, no doubt, it was from 
them that Mr. Keate compiled the vocabulary of 658 words 
contained in his work. 

From that vocabulary it would appear that the vowels of the 
Pelew are six in number, corresponding to those of the Malay 
and Javanese, and that its consonants are b, d, g, j, k, 1, m, n, 
ng, p, r, s, t, th, w, y, making 16. It would seem to have the 
sound of th in English, an anomaly in oriental languages, 
except the Birmese. It wants an aspirate and the sounds ii 
and ch of the Malayan alphabets, and the f and z of the ruder 
languages of the Archipelago. To judge by the vocabulary, the 
Pelew has combinations of consonants unpronounceable by any 
native of the Malayan Archipelago, or by a Polynesian, or even 
by a Philippine islander, such as Iw, Ik, Is, rd, rs, and sn. Many 
words are monosyllables, and polysyllables are written as if each 
of their syllables were pronounced as distinct words. 

In the whole vocabulary of 658 words, I can discover no more 
than three which are ISIalayan, mati " to die," or " dead ; " 
kima, pronounced kim, " the gigantic cockle ; " and kau, a 
popular abbreviation of the Malay personal pronoun of the 
second person, angkau. Even the numerals are not the INIalayan. 
In fact, as far as it is known, the Pelew appears a distinct and 
peculiar tongue, which is remarkable enough, considering the 
comparatively short distance of the Pelew islands from the 
Phihppines, — their no great distance even from Borneo, and 
that shipwrecked Malayan mariners appear to be occasionally 
cast on their shores. 

There still remains one other language of the Northern 
Pacific of which M. Gaimard has furnished a vocabulary of 380 
words. This is the language of Oualam, in about the 5° of north 
latitude, and 163° of east longitude, inhabited by men said to be 
of the Malayan race. The voAvels of this language would appear 
to be the usual five, and its consonants b, ch, f, g, h, k, 1, m, 
n, ng, p, r, s, s', t, v, w, making 17. It seems to want the d, 
j, 11, and y, of the Malay and Javanese alphabet, and the z of 
some of the uncultivated languages of the Archipelago, The 
French sound of ch, or the English of sh, occurs here as well as 

I 2 



cxlviii 



DISSERTATION. 



in the Guham. Among the 38 words of the Oualara, I can 
find only the following 7 which are Malayan, exclusive of 10 
numerals : — 



OUALAM. 


ENGLISH. 


MALAYAN. 


ENGLISH. 


Mata, matas. 


The eye. 


Mata, c. 


The eye. 


Kulo. 


Skin. 


Kulit, c. 


The skin. 


Kasa. 


The sky. 


Akasa, (s). 


Ether, firmament. 


Mon, inoushe. 


Bird, fowl. 


Manuk, j. 


Bird, fowl. 


Nimeu. 


To drink. 


Minum, c. 


To drink. 


Mano. 


More. 


Maueh, j. 


More. 



Some even of these are evidently very doubtful. The copious 
consonants of this language, and the terminations of words in 
consonants, show plainly enough that it has no relation to the 
Polynesian. The proportion of Malayan words in it, numerals 
included, is but 47 to 1000, far beyond, however, I have no 
doubt, the real proportion in the whole language. It has 
certainly then little relation either to Malay or Javanese. 

Very clear traces of a Malayan tongue are found in the 

language of Madagascar, an island some three thousand miles 

distant from the nearest part of the Malayan Archi- 

Language 

ofMada- pelago, and only 240 miles from the eastern shore of 

gascar. . . . 

Africa. From this isolated fact, the value and impor- 
tance of which I am about to test, some writers have jumped to 
the conclusion that the language of Madagascar is of the same 
stock with Malay and Javanese, and hence, again, that the 
people who speak it are of the same race with the Malays. 
It can be shown, without much difficulty, that there is no 
shadow of foundation for so extravagant an hypothesis. 

Madagascar is said to have an area of 225,000 square miles, 
which would make it about thrice the size of Britain. One 
language only is spoken throughout, with trifling varieties of 
dialect. The inhabitants are of two classes, the Hova, the 
ruling nation, at present, and the Malagasi. Both are of 
African lineaments, but the Hova fairer than the Malagasi, 
with hair less woolly, and said in features to bear some remote 
resemblance to the Malays. The folloAving graphic account is 
given of the physical form of the ordinary Malagasi, by one who 
has observed tliem well : — ''The eyes are large, brilliant, and 
restless, ears large, nose short and flat, though not so much so as 



DISSERTATION. cxHx 

in the Negro ; lips moderately thick, height middling, and limbs 
well-proportioned ; lower jaws large, and mouth well garnished 
with teeth ; colour dark, hair jet black, thin and curly, occa- 
sionally inclining to woolly; beard very slight. The women 
are generally small and well-proportioned, usually plain, but 
some of them very handsome. They are about the size of the 
native women of India/'* 

The inhabitants of Madagascar have made considerable 
advances in civilisation, after the African standard. They 
understand the art of manufacturing malleable iron, of growing 
corn, and have domesticated some of the larger animals, using 
them for food and labour. How much of this civilisation is 
indigenous, or introduced by strangers, is a question which will 
be subsequently enquired into. One important invention, the 
art of writing, like all other Negroes, they never made. 

I shall attempt to give a brief sketch of the language of 
Madagascar, called by the natives Malagasi, from such 
materials as have been accessible to me.f The vowels of the 
Malagasi are only four in number, a, e, i and u ; and therefore 
they want two of the Malay and Javanese system, a and o. 
The consonants are 21, viz. b, d, f, g, h, k, 1, ra, n, ng, fi, p, r, 
s, t, V, z, dz, mb, mp, and ts. The English missionaries 
represent the first of the four double letters by j, stating, how- 
ever, that its sound is that of the letters which I have given. It 
is certain that the other three are peculiar consonants, and in 
a perfect native alphabet would have their appropriate cha- 
racters. The Malagasi consonants, as thus represented, want 
five of the Malay and Javanese system, and have six which do 
not belong to it. The only liquid which, in the Malagasi, 
coalesces with an ordinary consonant is r, and even this, only 
with the labials d and t. With this exception, no consonant 
can follow another in a word or syllable, without the interven- 
tion of a vowel, unless one of them be a nasal. Words and 



* Notice of the Betsimisarak, a tribe of Madagascar. — Journal of the Indian 
Archipelago, vol. iv. 

f A Dictionary of the Malagasy Language, English and Malagasi, and,Malagasi 
and English, by J. J. Freeman and D. Johns, London, 1835. Grammar of the 
Madagascar, from the notes of M. Chaplier, communicated by M. Lesson, Annales 
Man times. 



cl DISSERTATION. 

syllables frequently begin with an aspirate, but never terminate 
in one, a rule the reverse of that which obtains in Malay and 
Javanese. There is one peculiarity in the pronunciation of 
Malagasi words which deserves notice, that the final syllable of 
words ending in vowels, diphthongs, and nasals is usually 
dropped in utterance. From this account, it is certain that the 
phonetic character of the language is widely different from that 
of the languages of Sumatra, Java, Celebes, the PhiUppinc 
islands, and of the principal language of the islands of the 
Pacific. 

The grammatical structure of the Malagasi is simple, like 
that of the Malay and Javanese, but the simplicity is of a 
different character. There is one article, the definite. Rela- 
tion is expressed by prepositions; gender and number by 
adjectives. In these three cases the words employed in 
Malagasi and in Malay or Javanese are wholly different, with 
one exception, the adjective for masculine, which is the Malayan 
laki, corrupted lahi, but even this has a native synonyme. The 
adjective is not distinguished from the noun, the same word 
being used indifferently for either. The pronoun of the first 
person has a singular and a plural, with a distinct word in 
the singular to express a genitive case. The pronoun of the 
second person has also a singular and a plural, but no geni- 
tive for the singular. The pronoun of the third has no 
distinction of gender or number, but by modification of form 
represents a genitive. All the three differ in form from any 
of the numerous personal pronouns of the Malay and Javanese 
languages. 

All that is complex in Malagasi grammar belongs to the 
verb. The verb is formed from roots or radical words, of which 
450 are enumerated. From these no fewer than 13 different 
kinds of verbs are formed by prefixed inseparable particles, 
which, in so far as the present of the indicative is concerned, 
always begin with the letter m. A passive verb is formed by 
prefixing inseparably to the root the particles vua or tafa. 

The missionaries make the Malagasi verbs to have three 
moods, an indicative, an imperative, and an infinitive ; and 
three tenses, a present, consisting of the initial letter of the 
inseparable prefix in ni, a preterite of which it is n, aiul a future 



DISSERTATION. cli 

of which it is h. Then there are three participles, — a present, 
perfect, and future, and three diiFerent forms of verbal nouns. 
In applying the prefixed particle, having for its initial letter a 
nasal, certain euphonic rules are observed. Thus, for the present 
of the indicative, roots of which the initial letters are the labials 
p and V, commute these into m, and those of which it is h, k, s, 
t, and ts, commute them into n, while those of which it is a 
vowel, or the consonants b, d, g, m, n, and dz, retain their initials 
unchanged. A radical beginning with the aspirate has it some- 
times converted into g. An initial 1 is turned into d, z into dz, and 
t coalescing with r into d. These rules bear but a very remote 
likeness to the euphonic rules for the use of the verbal ma in Malay. 

In the dictionary of the missionaries an example is given of 
the different kinds of vei'bs, their moods, tenses, nouns, and par- 
ticiples. The example is the root sulu, " a substitute/' which is, 
probably, a corruption of the Javanese word sulur of the same 
meaning. As there are duplicates of some of the tenses of the 
indicative, and of some of those of the imperative, the changes 
which the root or radical word is made to undergo amount to no 
fewer than 170. 

Some of the forms of the verb are very cumbrous, for the 
roots or radicals are not monosyllables, but may extend 
even to five syllables, while the prefixed particles are from 
one to four syllables, the radicals, moreover, having in some 
varieties of the tenses of particular verbs, affixes of one or 
two syllables. Thus, from the root sulu, "a substitute," 
comes " hampifampanuliiana," a word of eight syllables. But 
if the root had been a word of five syllables, instead of, as 
in this instance, being a bisyllable, a word of eleven syllables 
would be created, which is more than twice the length of any 
Malayan compound. 

It is hardly necessary, after this statement, to say that the 
formation of the Malagasi and Malayan verbs is wholly diff'erent. 
The transitive is not distinguished in the Malagasi from the 
intransitive by affixes, as in Malay and Javanese. Indeed, in 
the Malagasi these kinds of verbs are not very clearly dis- 
tinguished from each other at all. In the Malagasi there are 
six diflferent ways of forming causal verbs, and in Malay and 
Javanese none, except what is implied in the transitive. In the 



clii 



DISSERTATION. 



Malagas!, there are^hree kinds of reciprocal verbs, but uoue 
of them bear the least resemblance to the Malayan reciprocal 
or frequentative verb. The passive verb in Malay and Javanese is 
usually formed by the inseparable prefixed monosyllabic particles 
di and k, and in Malagasi by the bisyllabic prefixes vua and 
tafa. The verbal noun in Malay is formed by the inseparable 
prefix pa, or the inseparable affix an, or both united. In 
Malagasi it is formed by an inseparable prefix, beginning in f, 
or in mp. I can see no likeness, then, throughout the verb, 
except in the accidental circumstance of the present of the 
indicative of the Malagasi verb having its prefixed particle begin- 
ning with the letter m, and that the Malay prefixed particle, 
which distinguishes a verb from another part of speech, has the 
same initial letter, which really amounts to nothing at all. 

The prepositions, the particles, and the auxiliaries of the 
Malagasi and the Malayan languages are all so totally difl'erent, 
that it would be superfluous to show it by examples. 

With respect to the number of Malayan words found in the 
language of Madagascar, they are really so few comparatively^, 
that, I shall give the whole of them, with their originals, in 
Malay and Javanese. They are as follow, so far as I have been 
able to detect them, by going repeatedly and carefully over the 
dictiouarv of Freeman and Johns : — 



MALAGASI. 


ENGLISH. 


MALAY. 


ENGLISH. 


JAVANESE. 


ENGLISH. 


Ala. 


Forest. 


Utan. 


Forest. 


Alas. 


Forest. 


Aluha. 


Front, fore- 


Aliian. 


Front, fore- 


Aluwau. 


Front, fore- 




part. 




part. 




part. 


Aluna. 


Wave, billow. 


Alun. 


Wave, billow. 


Alun. 


Wave, billow 


Ambi. 


Addition. 


Tambah. 


To add. 


Tambah. 


To add. 


Ainpi. 


Sufficient. 


Sampai. 


Sufficient. 


Sampe. 


Sufficient. 


Anaka. 


Child. 


Anak. 


Offspring. 


Anak. 


Offspring. 


Aiiauii. 


Such a one. 


Anun. 


Such a one. 


Anun. 


Such a one. 


Aiiarana. 


Name, title. 


_ 


_ 


Aran. 


Name, title. 


Aum-iaua. 


Behind. 


_ 





Buri. 


Behind. 


Arina. 


Charcoal. 


Arang. 


Charcoal. 


Arang. 


Charcoal. 


Arivu. 


Thousand. 


Ribu. 


Thousand. 


Riwu. 


Thousand. 


Asa. 


Work, labour. 


Yasa. 


Work, labour. 


Yasa. 


Work, labour 


Asa. 


Whetted. 


Asah. 


To whet. 


Asah. 


To whet. 


Ati. 


The liver. 


Ati. 


The heart, the 
liver. 


Ati. 


The heart, th 
liver. 


Ava. 


Down, lower. 


Bawah. 


Below, down. 


_ 





Aza. 


Do not. 


_ 


_ 


Aja. 


Do not. 


Baluna. 


Fling. 


Balang. 


To fling. 


Balang. 


To fling. 



DISSERTATION, 



cliii 



MALAGASI. 


ENGLISH. 


MALAY. 


ENGLISH. 


JAVANESE. 


ENGLISH. 


Be. 


Numerous. 


— 


— 


Kabeh, beh. 


All. 


Budu. 


Childish, aim- 
pie. 


Bod-0. 


Simple, silly. 


Bodo. 


Simple, silly. 


Beka. 


Leprosy. 


Baka. 


Leprosy. 


— 


— 


Dimi. 


Five. 


Lima. 


Five. 


Lima. 


Five. 


Dinta. 


A leech. 


Liutah. 


A leech. 


Lin tab. 


A leech. 


Efati-a. 


Four. 


Ampat. 


Four. 


Papat. 


Four. 


Enima. 


Six. 


Anaui. 


Six. 


Nam. 


Six. 


Faua. 


Hot, warm. 


Panas. 


Hot, warm. 


Panas. 


Hot, warm. 


Fati. 


A corpse. 


Mati. 


Death, dead. 


Pati. 


Death. 


Fidi. 


Choice. 


Pilih. 


Choice. 


Pilih. 


Choice. 


Firi. 


How many] 


— 


— 


Piro. 


How many. 


Fitu. 


Seven. 


— 


— 


Pitu. 


Seven. 


Fiiri. 


Anus. 


~ 


— 


Buri. 


Back-part, be- 
hind. 


Futsi. 


\\Tiite. 


Putih. 


White. 


Putih. 


White. 


Gaga. 


Astonished. 


— 


— 


Kaget, gaget. 


To startle. 


Goikia. 


A crow. 


Gagak. 


A crow. 


Gagak. 


A crow. 


Gana. 


Struck against. 


Kana. 


Hit, struck. 


Kana. 


Hit, struck. 


Hala. 


A scorpion. 


Kala. 


A scorpion. 


Kala. 


A scorpion. 


Hanta. 


Petition. 


Minta. 


To beg. 


Pinta. 


To beg. 


Hara. 


Mingled. 


Aru. 


To stir up. 


Aru. 


To stir up. 


Hazu. 


Tree, wood. 


Kayu. 


Tree, wood. 


Kayu. 


Tree, wood. 


Heri. 


A bramble. 


Duri. 


Thorn, prickle. 


Ari, ri. 


Thorn, prickle 


Herulieru. 


Wavering. 


Arubiru. 


Disorder. 


Ruara. 


Disorder. 


Huhu. 


Finger or toe- 


Kuku. 


Finger or toe- 


Kuku. 


Finger or toe- 




nail. 




nail. 




nail. 


Ila. 


Piece, part, 
side. 


Balah. 


Part, side. 


— 


— 


Ini. 


This; that. 


Ini. 


This. 


Iki. 


This. 


Iraka. 


A messenger. 


— 


_ 


Iraka. 


A messenger. 


Isa. 


One. 


Sa. 


One. 


Sa. 


One. 


Kisu. 


A knife. 


Pisau. 


A knife. 


Piso. 


A knife. 


Ku. 


My, me. 


Aku, ku. 


I, my, me. 


Aku. 


I, mj^, me. 


Kufia. 


A scull-cap. 


— 





Kopj-ak. 


A scull-cap. 


Kufo. 


To peel. 


Kupas. 


To peel. 


— 


— 


Kusuka. 


Rubbed. 


Gosok. 


To rub. 


Gosok. 


To rub. 


Lalii. 


Male. 


Laki. 


Male. 


Laki. 


Male. 


Lalana. 


Waj-, road. 


Jalan. 


Way, road. 


Dalan. 


Way, road. 


Laliti-a. 


A fly. 


Lalat. 


A fly. 


Lalar. 


A fly. 


Lain. 


Passed by. 


Lalu. 


To pass. 


_ 




Lauitra. 


The sky. 


Langit. 


The sky. 


Langit. 


The sky. 


Laune. 


A rice mortar. 


Lasung. 


A rice mortar. 


Lasimg. 


A rice mortar 


Lazai. 


Faded. 


Lasu. 


Languid. 


Lasu. 


Languid. 


Leda. 


The tongue. 


Lid-ah. 


The tongue. 


Lid-ah. 


The tongue. 


Lcmi. 


Softness. 


Lamah. 


Soft. 


Lamas. 


Soft. 


Lena. 


Moist, wet. 


— 


— 


Langas. 


Moist, wet. 


Leta. 


Walking 
slowly. 


Latch. 


Languid. 







cllv 




DISSERTATION. 






MALAGAS!. 


ENGLISH. 


MALAY. 


ENGLISH. 


JAVANESE. 


ENGLISH. 


Luaka. 


Hole, apertui'e. 


Lubang. 


Hole,aperture. 


— 


— 


Luka. 


Smitten, spear- 
ed. 
Modesty. 


Luka. 


A woimd. 


— 


— 


Malu. 


Malu. 


Shame, mo- 


_ 


— 








desty. 






Mami. 


Sweet. 


Manis. 


Sweet. 


Manis. 


Sweet. 


Manana. 


To have, to 

possess. 


— 


— 


Ana. 


To have, to 
possess. 


Manga. 


The mango. 


Mango. 


The mango. 


_ 


— 


Manifi. 


Thin, slender. 


Nipis. 


Thin, slender. 


Nipis. 


Thin, slender. 


Mauta. 


Raw, unripe. 


Mantah. 


Raw, unripe. 


Mantah. 


Raw, unripe. 


Masimasina. 


Saltish. 


Masin. 


Briny. 


Asin. 


Briny. 


Masim. 


Sour. 


Masam. 


Sour. 


Asam. 


Sour. 


Masinati. 


Having the 
heartburn. 


Masin ati. 


Briny heart. 


Asin ati. 


Briny heai-t. 


Mati. 


Dead. 


Mati. 


Dead. 


Mati. 


Dead. 


Misi. 


To contain. 


Isi. 


To contain. 


Isi. 


To contain. 


Masu. 


The eye. 


Mata. 


The eye. 


Mata. 


The eye. 


Mena. 


Red. 


Merah. 


Red. 


_ 


— 


Misi. 


Pretty. 


Bisai. 


Pretty. 


— 


— 


Mulutra. 


The lips. 


Mulut. 


The movith. 


— 


— 


Mura. 


Cheap, liberal. 


Murah. 


Cheap, liberal. 


Murah. 


Cheap, liberal 


Nana. 


Pus, matter. 


Nanah. 


Pus, matter. 


Nanah. 


Pus, matter. 


Nusi. 


An island. 








Nusa. 


An island. 


Olona. 


People. 


Orang. 


Men, people. 


— 


— 


Papai. 


Papaya fig. 


Papaya. 


Papaya fig. 


— 


— 


Rah. 


Blood. 


Darah. 


Blood. 


Rah. 


Blood. 


Ranu. 


Water. 








Ranu. 


Water. 


Kara. 


Foi-bidden. 


Larah. 


Forbidden. 


Lai-ah. 


Forbidden. 


Ravina. 


A leaf. 


Dawun. 


A leaf. 


Ron. 


A leaf. 


Rivutra. 


Gale, storm. 


Ribut. 


Gale, storm. 


_ 


_ 


Rura. 


Saliva. 


Ludah. 


Saliva. 


_ 


_ 


Ruru. 


Both. 


Duwa. 


Two. 


Loro. 


Two. 


Sakai. 


The capsicum. 


Chabai. 


The capsicum. 


Chabe. 


The capsicum. 


Salaka. 


Cloth worn 
round the 
loins. 


Chalana. 


Trowsers. 


Chalana. 


Trowsers. 


Sambutva. 


Caught, taken. 


Sambut. 


To take, to 
catch. 


Sambut. 


To take, to 
catch. 


Sampana. 


Branch, as of 
two roads. 


Simpang. 


To branch off. 


Simpang. 


To branch off. 


Sarak. 


Parted. 


Sarak. 


To part. 


Sarak. 


To part. 


Samna. 


Cover, lid. 


Sarung. 


Cover, case. 


Sai-ung. 


Cover, case. 


Sisi. 


Straitened. 


Sdsak. 


Straightened. 


Sasak. 


Straightened. 


Sisini. 


Side, flank. 


Sisih. 


Side, quarter. 


Sisih. 


One half. 


Sivi. 


Nine. 


— 


_ 


Sanga. 


Nine. 


Sula. 


Bald. 


Sulak. 


Bald. 


_ 





Sulu. 


A substitute. 





_ 


Sulur. 


A substitute. 


Snsuna. 


Fold, double. 


SuRun. 


Layer, stratum 


Susun, 


Layer, stratum 



DISSERTATION. 



MALAGASI. 


ENGLISH. 


MALAY. 


ENGLISH. 


JAVANESE. 


ENGLISH. 


Sntru. 


Spoon, ladle. 


Sud-uk. 


Spoon, ladle. 


Sum. 


Spoon, ladle. 


Takutra. 


Fear. 


Takut. 


Feai-. 


Takut. 


Fear. 


Tambatu. 


A mason. 


Tukang-batu. 


A mason. 


Tukang-watu. 


A mason. 


Tana. 


Tlie chame- 


Tanau. 


The chame- 


Tanu. 


The chame- 




leon. 




leon. 




leon. 


Tanala. 


Inhabitant of 
the woods. 


— 


— 


Tanah and 
alas. 


Woodland. 


Tanana. 


Town, village. 


Tanah. 


Land, country. 


Tanah. 


Land, country. 


Tanana. 


The hand. 


Tangan. 


The hand. 


Tangan. 


The hand. 


Tandruka. 


A horn. 


Tanduk. 


A horn. 


— 


— 


Tani. 


Earth, soil. 


Tanah. 


Earth, soil. 


Tanah. 


Earth, soil. 


Tauiin. 


To plnnt. 


Tandm. 


To plant. 


Tanam. 


To plant. 


Tanimbari. 


Rice laud. 


Tanam-padi. 


To plant rice. 


Tanam-pari. 


To plant rice. 


Tanjiina. 


Promontory. 


Tanjung. 


Promontory. 


— 


— 


Taulana. 


Bone. 


Tulang. 


Bone. 


— 


— 


Tauna. 


A year. 


Taiin. 


A year. 


Tawma. 


A year. 


Tarikia. 


Drawn along. 


Tarik. 


To draw, to 
drag. 


Tarik. 


To draw, to 
drag. 


Tamulu. 


The taru. 




— 


TalAs. 


Colocasia vera. 


Telina. 


Swallowed. 


Talan. 


To swallow. 


_ 





Tolu. 


Three. 


_ 


_ 


Talu. 


Three. 


Teimna. 


Warp, weft. 


Tanun. 


To weave. 


Tanun. 


To weave. 


Tiiaka. 


Ardent spiiits. 


Tuwak. 


Palm wine. 


Warak. 


Palm wine. 


Tukana. 


One, single. 


Tunggal. 


One, single. 


Tunggal. 


One, single. 


Tumbutauans 


. Spearing with 


Tumbah- 


Spear, hand. 


Tunbah, 


Spear, hand. 




the hand. 


tangan. 




tangan. 




Turi. 


To sleep. 


— 


— 


Turu. 


To sleep. 


Tutu. 


Pounding. 


Tutuk. 


To pound. 


Tutu. 


To pound. 


Uba. 


Changed. 


Ubah. 


To change. 


Owah. 


To change. 


Uvi. 


A yam. 


Ubi. 


A yam. 


Uwi. 


A yam. 


Ubiala. 


A wild yam. 


— 


— 


Uwi-alas. 


A vnld yam. 


Ulaka. 


To meander. 


Ulak. 


To whirl, to 
eddy. 


Ulak. 


To whirl, to 
eddy. 


Umpa. 


Reproach. 


Ompat. 


Calumny. 


— 


— 


Uruua. 


The nose. 


Id-ung. 


Tlie nose. 


Imng. 


The nose. 


Uzatra. 


Sinew, fibre. 


Urat. 


Sinew, fibre. 


^ 


— 


Valala. 


A locust. 


Baialang. 


A locust. 


Walang. 


A locust. 


Vali. 


Answered. 


Balik. 


Back, to re- 
turn. 


Walik. 


Back, to re- 
turn. 


Valu. 


Eight. 


_ 


— 


Wolu. 


Eight. 


Vano. 


A heron. 


Bango. 


A heron. 


Bango. 


A heron. 


Vau. 


Just now, 
newly. 


— 


— 


Wawu. 


Just above. 


Vari. 


Rice. 


Padi. 


Rice in the 
husk. 


Pari. 


Rice in the 
husk. 


Vata, vadra. 


Bos, chest. 


_ 


— 


Wadah. 


Vessel. 


Vatu. 


Stone, rock. 


Batu. 


Stone, rock. 


Watu. 


Stone, rock. 


Vatufu. 


A flint. 


Batu-api. 


A flint. 


Watu-api. 


A flint. 


Vatumati. 


Rotstone. 


Batu-mati. 


Dead-stone. 


Watumate. 


Dead-stone. 



clvi 




DISSERTATION. 






MALAGASI. 


ENGLISH. 


MALAY. 


ENGLISH. 


JAVANESE. 


ENGLISH. 


Vi. 


Iron. 


Basi. 


Iron. 


Vasi. 


Iron. 


Vidi. 


Bougbt. 


Bali. 


To buy. 


— 


_ 


Viuantu. 


Sou or daugb- 
ter-in-law. 


— 


— 


Manantu. 


Son or daugb- 
ter-iu-law. 


Vua. 


Seed. 


Buab. 


Fruit, seed. 


Wob. 


Fniit, seed. 


Viianiii. 


Tbe coconut. 


Nur. 


Coconut. 


Nu. 


Tbe coconut. 


Vudi. 


Posteriors, 
stern. 


Buritan. 


Stern. 


Buri. 


Bebind, back. 


Vulana. 


Moon, montb. 


Bulan. 


Moon, montb. 


Wulan. 


Moon, montli. 


Vulu. 


Hair. 


Bulu. 


Hair or fea- 
tber. 


Wulu. 


Hair, fcatber. 


Vulu. 


Name of a spe- 
cies of bam- 
boo. 


Bulub. 


A bamboo. 




" 


Vui. 


An alligator. 


Boya. 


An alligator. 


Boya. 


An alligator. 


Vulumasa. 


Eyelids. 


Bulumata. 


Eye-lasbes. 


Vulumata. 


Eye-lasbes. 


Volombatu. 


Moss on 
stones. 


Bulu-batu. 


Hair of stones. 


Wulu-watu. 


Hair of stones. 


Vulumbava. 


Moustacbes. 


Bulubbawah. 


Haii-s below. 


_ 





Vulumburuna Quills. 


Bulu-burung. 


Hair of birds. 


_ 


_ 








featbers. 






Vuuu. 


Killed. 


Bunuh. 


To kill. 








Viu'i. 


Foam, frotb. 


Bubi. 


Foam, frotb. 





_ 


Vul-umputsi. 


Nameofabird. 


Burung putib 


Wbite bird. 


_ 


— 


Vui-una. 


A bird, a fowl. 


Burung. 


A bird, a fowl. 


— 


— 


Vunm kabaka. A crow. 


Burung gaga. 


A crow. 





— 


Vurutina. 


Haxdng a ber- 


Burnt. 


Hernia. 


- 


- 


Vutu. 


nia. 
Penis. 


Butu. 


Penis. 


_ 


_ 


Vuvu. 


Fish-trap. 


Bubu. 


Fisb-trap. 


Bubu. 


A fisb-trap. 


Zaitra. 


Sewn. 


Jiiit. 


To sew. 


Jait. 


To sew. 


Zaiiaka. 


Offspring. 


Anak. 


Offspring. 


Anak. 


Offspring. 


Zatu. 


A bundred. 


Ratus. 


A bundred. 


Atus. 


A bundred. 



Exclusive of words of Malay and Javanese origin, there are lialf- 
a-dozen words of Sanskrit, which, most probfibly, found their way into 
the language of Madagascar along with them. They are the fol- 
lowing : — Fenu, " fnW," for panuh ; * sisa, t " remnant ; " tgara, 
"judged," for chara, J "judgment;" avaratra, " the north," for utara;§ 
alina, for laksa, || "ten thousand;" and hotsi, for kCit-i,!^ "a hundred 
thousand." 

The number of Arabic words introduced into the language of 
Madagascar is very trifling, for the inhabitants of this island. 



Sans, purna. 
§ Sans, utara. 



+ Sans, sasba. 
II Sans, laksba. 



X Sans, acbara. 
H Sans, kot'i. 



DISSERTATION. clvii 

although, by vicinity, exposed for ages to the influence of 
Arabian manners, language, and religion, have stoutly repelled 
them. I fiud, however, that the Malagasi has adopted the 
names of the Arabian days of the week, the word for " ardent 
spirits," and partially and occasionally adopting, as they do, 
the Arabian letters, of course, the word for " writing," surat, 
to which they also give the sense of " painting." 

From whatever source the Malagasi has taken foreign words, 
they will be found, for the most part, corrupted in orthography, 
and frequently in sense. It is necessary to point out the manner 
in which the corruptions in orthography are effected, especially 
in adopted Malayan words. The Malagasi has but 4 A^owels, 
and the Malay and Javanese 6. These two languages have 
5 consonants which are wanting to the Malagasi. It is neces- 
saiy, therefore, to find substitutes for the absent sounds, and 
hence a great deal of transmutation, and also of additions and 
elisions, for the sake of euphony. The vowel a, as well as a 
short a, are turned into e or i, and sometimes into u. The 
vowel o is always turned into u. To words beginning with a 
consonant, a vowel is often prefixed, and to those ending in one, 
a vowel is affixed. B is usually commuted into v, d occa- 
sionally into the aspirate, and g into k. The aspirate is always 
elided at the end of a word, and frequently prefixed to Malayan 
words beginning with a vowel. The consonant j is always 
turned into z, k into j or the aspirate, 1 into d, n into m, ng 
into n, p into f and also into the aspirate ; r sometimes into z. 
S is frequently elided, or turned into an aspirate. T is turned, 
occasionally, into the sound ts, while m and n are often inter- 
posed for INIalagasi euphony. The alteration of form which 
words undergo through these changes, is often such that the 
original word could not be guessed at, but for the sense. Of 
alterations in sense, a sufficient number of examples will be 
found in the list of words ; and on this subject it is to be 
observed, that all the Malayan words found in the Malagasi 
being considered as primitives, they are subjected to the usual 
rules of Malagasi grammar, and hence, as derivatives, have 
senses which they do not bear in their original languages. 

Arabic words, as might be expected, are, from wider diffe- 
rence in phonetic character, still more altered in orthography 



clviii DISSERTATION. 

than Malayan. Ahud, " first day/' or " Sunday," is converted 
into alahadi ; a9niu, "Monday," into alatsinaini ; yalasa, "Tues- 
day," into talata; araba, "Wednesday," into alarobia; xamis, 
" Thursday," into alakamisi ; jamat, " Friday," into zuma ; sabtu, 
"Saturday," into asabutsi; surat, "a writing," into suratra; 
ara^, " spirits," into laraka. 

A good many English, but especially French words, owing to 
the long existence of French settlements in the island, have 
been introduced into the language of Madagascar, and may be 
adduced in illustration of the changes to which all foreign 
words are subjected. These changes in French and English 
are exactly of the same nature with those which Malay and 
Javanese words have undergone. The following are a few 
examples : — Bas, " stockings," becomes ba ; sabre, " a sabre," 
sabatra ; bal, " a ball," bala ; gant, " a glove," ga ; fanal, " a 
lantern," fanala ; selle, " a saddle," lasela ; soupe, " soup," 
lasupa; table, "a table," latabatra; matelot, "a sailor," matilo; 
capitaine, kapitene. Soi, " silk," is converted into lasua, and 
used in the restricted sense of sewing silk. The English word 
"goose" is turned into gisi, "pepper" into periferi, "glass" 
into gilasi, which means " a tumbler ;" " button is metamor- 
phosed into bukutra, and draki-draki, " a drake," expresses " a 
duck." 

It will be seen by the list of words which I have given, that the 
total number of Malayan is no more than 168 ; of these, 28 are 
exclusively Malay, and 16 exclusively Javanese, the remainder be- 
longing indifferently to either language. The number might, no 
doubt, be considerably increased by the addition of derivative 
words, and of words in which Malayan is combined with native 
terms, but to do so would convey an unfair view of the proportion 
in Avliich the Malayan languages enter into the composition of 
the Madagascar. The actual number of primitive words in the 
dictionary of Freeman and Johns is 8310. The proportion of 
Malayan words, then, in the language of Madagasctir, is about 
20 in 1000 ; or they form about one fiftieth part only of the 
whole language. It is on this poor fraction that has been 
founded the theory of an unity of race and language between 
the people of Madagascar and the principal inhabitants of the 
islands of the Indian Archipelago, — of the Philippines and 



DISSERTATION. clix 

Polynesia. The proportion of Teutonic words in Italian or 
French, or of Norman French in English, very far exceeds that 
of the Malayan in the language of Madagascar ; but we do not, 
therefore, jump to the conclusion that the German and Italian 
races and languages are one and the same, or that the English 
people and their language are of Gallic origin. 

But, independent of the argument to be drawn from the 
paucity of Malayan words, it should be added, that many of 
them, as I have shown to be the case in the other languages 
containing Malay and Javanese, are mere synonymes of native 
terms. Thus, for " stone/^ there are, besides the Malayan, two 
native words ; for ''wave," or "billow," two ; for "hand," three ; 
for " fire," four ; for " the eye," five ; for the verb " to die," 
four ; for " to change," five ; for the adjective " raw," or 
" unripe," three ; for " cheap," two ; for " male," one. 

Independent of men of brown or copper complexion, and 
lank hair, who are the principal inhabitants of the Malayan 
Archipelago, the Philippines, and the islands of the 
Negro' "' Pacific, thcrc is another race, or races, widely diff'ering 
from them, yet inhabiting the same countries. These, 
from their resemblance to the Africans, have been called 
Negroes. The Malays apply to those best known to them, the 
people of New Guinea, the epithet of Puwa-puwa, or Papuwa, 
which, however, is only the adjective " frizzly," or " crisping," 
and is equally applied by them to any object partaking of this 
quality. 

Of the physical form and manners of the various tribes of 
these insular Negroes very little is known, and of their 
languages, we possess only the scraps picked up by voyagers 
unacquainted with them, and ignorant of any language that 
might be the medium of forming an acquaintance with them. 
We first encounter a Negro people to the west, at the Andaman 
islands, in the Bay of Bengal, of which it forms the sole but 
scanty population. The Negroes of the Andaman islands are 
of a sooty-black complexion, have short woolly hair, flat noses, 
thick lips, — are slender-limbed and pot-bellied, and their sta- 
ture is under five feet. They are so described in the Asiatic 
Researches, and by Colonel Syme, in his Mission to Ava ; and 
two individuals of the male sex, whom I saw at Prince of Wales 



clx DISSEKTATION. 

island, agreed well with this account of them. The Negroes of 
the Andamans are in the very lowest and most abject state of 
human society, without fixed dwellings, unclad, and unac- 
quainted with the meanest of the useful arts of life. In dispo- 
sition they are shy, unsocial, and mischievous. 

We next find a Negro race in the northern portion of the 
Malayan peninsula, within the territories of the INIalay princes 
of Queda, Perak, Pahang, and Triugauu, known to the Malays 
under the names of Samang and Bila. The complexion of these 
is black, or sooty, the hair woolly, the features approaching to 
the African, and the stature dwarfish. An adult Samang male, 
said to be of the mean height of his people, was measured by 
my friend General M'Innes, and found to be only 4 feet 9 inches 
high. Some of the Samang, or Bila, have fixed habitations, 
and practise a rude agriculture, but the majority lead an erratic 
life, gathering the rude products of the forest to exchange 
with the Malays for the necessaries of life, or subsisting by 
the chase. 

The great islands of Sumatra, Java, Borneo, and Celebes, are 
not known to contain any Negro race, nor is there any record 
or tradition of their ever having done so. A Negro race occurs 
next, proceeding eastward, in the island of Mores, but no 
account of it has been rendered. Of the great island of New 
Guinea, they form the whole native or aboriginal population, 
as they also do of the islets near its coasts. Even within New 
Guinea itself, there would seem to be more than one race. 
Mr. Madera, of the Dutch Navy, quoted by Mr. Earl in the 
Journal of the Indian Archipelago, describes two of them which 
he saw on the south-west coast. The complexion of one of 
them was black, but not intensely so, and it had a bluish tinge. 
The lips were pretty thick, and the nose somewhat flat. Tlie 
hair of the head was pitch-black, and frizzled, and the beard 
crisp, like the hair of the head. The stature was of the middle 
size, and the person by no means strong built. 

A hundred miles further north, on the same coast, 
Mr. Madera met another Negro race. The colour of the skin, in 
this case, was a deep brown. The hair of the head was frizzly, 
the mouth large, with white teeth, the lips thick, and the nose 
flabby and drooping. The stature was the mean height, but 



DISSERTATION. clxi 

many miglit be called large men. All accounts seem to agree 
that the Negroes of New Guinea are at least of the middle size 
of Europeans, and taller than the ]\Ialayan race; and all agree, 
also, to their bearing a considerable resemblance to, without, 
however, being identical with, the African Negro. Mr. Earl 
says : — " There is a stout able-bodied man now residing in 
Singapore, whose broad shoulders and curved shins often 
attract attention. He is supposed, by those unacquainted with 
his history, to be an African Negro, but he is a native of the 
interior of New Guinea. I can confirm this statement from 
my own recollection of the natives of New Guinea, whom I saw 
in Java in a state of slavery, and who, without enquiry into 
their history, were always considered as Africans." 

As Mr. Earl saw much more of the Negroes of New Guinea 
than any other Englishman, I shall transcribe his description 
of their physiognomy : — " The features of the Papuans have a 
decidedly Negro character; — broad flat noses, thick lips, 
receding foreheads and chins, and that turbid colour of what 
should be the white of the eye which gives a peculiarly sinister 
expression. Their complexion is usually a deep chocolate- 
colour, sometimes closely approaching to black, but certainly a 
few shades lighter than the deep black that is often met with 
among the Negro tribes of Africa." * 

But it is the texture of the hair of the head that forms the 
most characteristic distinction of the New Guinea Negro, 
differing greatly from that of the African, and seemingly, also, 
from that of the Andaman and Peninsular Negro. Mr. Earl 
has given the best description of it : — " The most striking 
peculiarity of the Oriental Negro consists in their frizzled, or 
woolly hair ; this, however, does not spread over the surface of 
the head, as is usual with the Negroes of Western Africa, but 
grows in small tufts, the hairs which form each tuft keeping 
separate from the rest, and twisting round each other, until, if 
allowed to grow, they form a spiral ringlet. iSIany of the 
tribes, especially those which occupy the interior parts of 
islands whose coasts are occupied by more civilised races, from 

* Journal of the Indian Archipelago, vol. iii. p. 684. 



clxii DISSERTATION. 

where cutting instruments can be obtained, keep the hair 
closely cropped. The tufts then assume the form of little 
knobs, about the size of a large pea, giving the head a very 
singular appearance, which has, not inaptly, been compared to 
that of an old worn-out shoe-brush. Others again, more espe- 
cially the natives of the south coast of New Guinea, and the 
islands of Torres Straits, are troubled with such an obstinate 
description of hair, yet admiring the ringlets as a head-dress, 
cut them oif and twist them into matted scull-caps, thus forming 
very compact wigs. But it is among the natives of the north 
coast of New Guinea, and of some of the adjacent islands of 
the Pacific, that the hair receives the greatest attention. These 
open out the ringlets by means of a bamboo comb, shaped like 
an eel-spear, with numerous prongs spreading out laterally, 
which operation produces an enormous bushy head of hair, 
which has procured them the name of 'mop-headed Indians.^ 
Of these fantastic heads, very good representations will be 
found in the Plates annexed to the Voyages of the late French 
Circumnavigators " 

The inhabitants of the islands of Waigyu, lying between New 
Guinea and Gilolo one of the ]\Ioluccas, are Negroes. They 
are described by M. Du Perry,* who represents them as having 
features more regular, an expression of countenance more 
agreeable, and complexions less black than the Negroes of 
New Ireland. Their persons are delicate and slender, and 
their stature short. The hair differed in texture among indi- 
viduals, some having it woolly, like the African Negro, some 
lank, like the European, and others, again, of a medium texture 
between the two. The highest facial angle was in tliis case 69°, 
and the lowest, from 63° to 64°. 

Mr. Freycinct has described the Negroes of Gebe, an island 
also between New Guinea and Gilolo, and not far from the 
latter.f With them, the nose is flat, the lips thick and pro- 
jecting, the complexion a dark olive, the eyes deep-seated, and, 
on an average, the facial angle 77°, but as high, in some 
instances, as 81°. It is certain that in Gebe, Waigyu, and some 

* Voyage de la Coquille. Paris, 1828. 
t Voyage autour du Moude. Paris, 1829, 



DISSERTATION. clxiii- 

parts also of the coast of New Guinea, the MaLayaii race has 
been iutermixed with the Negro. The effect is to hghteu the 
complexion, and to alter or obliterate the peculiar texture of 
the Negro hair. 

The Negroes of New Guinea are in various states of civilisation. 
Some of the rudest dwell in miserable huts, seeking a bar* sub- 
sistence by the chase, or the spontaneous productions of the 
forest. We may form some idea of the condition of these, from 
a circumstance stated in the narrative of Mr. Madera : — " In the 
afternoon of the same day," says he, " at the time of high water, 
three of the naturalists went in a boat, well armed, to the same 
spot, where they found the trees full of natives of both sexes, 
who sprung from branch to branch, with their weapons on their 
backs, like monkeys, making the same gestures, and screaming 
and laughing as in the morning, and no offers of presents could 
induce them to come down from the trees to renew the inter- 
course. This singular scene was witnessed by those on board 
by means of their telescopes.'^ 

Other Negro tribes living on the coasts have made some 
advance in civilisation. These dwell by whole tribes in huge 
barn-like houses raised on posts, like those of the wild in- 
habitants of Borneo, but ruder. They understand a rude agri- 
culture, and a rude navigation, and have domesticated the hog 
and the common fowl. Their voyages in pursuit of tortoise-shell 
and the holothurion, to exchange for necessaries, extend along 
their own coasts for some hundreds of miles, but they never 
extend them westward, nor eastward beyond the limits of the 
Archipelago. 

We next find Negroes in several islands of the Philippine 
Archipelago, especially of the principal island, Luyon, and in 
Negros, said to take its Spanish name from them. The descrip- 
tion given of them is, that in features they resemble the African, 
that the hair of the head is soft and woolly, that the complexion 
is dark, but less intensely black than that of the African Negro, 
and that they are of very short stature. The name given to 
them by the Spaniards, Negrito, or " Little Negroes,'' points at 
this last characteristic. A few of these Philippine Negroes have 
submitted to the Spanish rule, and undergone some degree of 



clxiv DISSERTATION. 

culture, but the majority lead an erratic and independent life 
in the fastnesses of the mountains, and live in enmity with the 
civilised races of the plains, and the conquerors. 

After entering the Southern Pacific, all tlie islands extending 
from New Guinea up to the Fejee group, appear to be inhabited 
by Negroes ; and here, too, they appear to differ, even among 
themselves, in physical form. M. Du Perry thus describes the 
inhabitants of New Ireland : — " The complexion is of a black, 
less deep than that of the African Negro. Their persons are 
more slender than athletic, and their stature does not, on 
an average, exceed 5 feet 8 inches. Their hair is woolly and 
frizzly, the beard scanty, and on other parts of the body, 
usually well provided among other races, there is very 
little." * 

Cook describes the inhabitants of Malicollo, one of the great 
Cyclades, as an " ape-like nation, the most ugly and ill-propor- 
tioned he had ever seen, and in every respect different from any 
that he and his companions had met with in the Pacific. Their 
complexion was very dark, the hair of the head short and curly, 
but not so soft and woolly as that of the African Negro. The 
beard was strong, bushy, and short ; the head long, the face 
flat, and the countenance " monkey-like." The stature was 
diminutive.* 

The same great authority describes the inhabitants of Tanna, 
one of the New Hebrides, as follows : — The hair of the head 
was crisp and curly, but growing to a tolerable length. The 
beard was strong and bushy, generally short. The stature was 
a middle height, and the person rather slender. The counte- 
nance was good and agreeable. Cook pronounces that there 
was no affinity between the people of Tanna and the Polyne- 
sians, nor between them and the people of Malicollo, except as 
regarded the texture of the hair. 

Cook gives the following description of the inhabitants 
of New Caledonia, a large island also belonging to the New 
Hebrides group. Their colour was dark, like that of the 
people of Tanna. Some of them had thick lips, flat noses, 
and full cheeks, and in some degree the features of the 

* Cook's Second Voyage. 



DISSERTATION. ckv 

African Negro. The hair was much frizzled, so that at first 
it appeared like that of an African, but it was, nevertheless, 
very diflFerent. The features he describes as better, and the 
expression more agreeable than those of the people of Tanna. 
They were, moreover, much stouter, and a few were found 
who measured 6 feet 4 inches high. 

Here, then, without reckoning other Negro races of the 
Pacific which are known to exist, we have, reckoning from the 
Andamans, twelve varieties generally so differing from each 
other in complexion, in features, and in strength and stature, 
that some are puny pigmies under 5 feet high, and others large 
and powerful men of near 6 feet. To place all these in one 
category would be preposterous, and contrary to truth and 
nature. And yet this is what has been attempted by tracing 
all of them to one stock, imagined to have emigrated to the 
islands from the continent of India, where no native Negro 
race now exists, or is known ever to have existed. 

I shall now endeavour, as far as very imperfect materials will 
admit, to give an analysis of some of the Negro languages, 
beginning from the west. 

In the Fourth Volume of the Asiatic Hesearches there is a list 
of 112 words of the language of the Andaman islanders. To 
judge by it, the vowels are a, a, e, i, o, u, and the consonants b, 
ch, d, f, g, h, j, k, 1, m, n, ng, p, r, s, t, v, w. The language 
would seem to be soft and full of vowels, and the diphthong ai 
is of frequent occurrence. With two exceptions, and which, 
therefore, may possibly be a misprint, every word terminates in 
a vowel, or an aspirate preceded by a vowel. In the whole list 
there is not one Malayan word, any more than there is in the 
languages of Australia, or America. 

The Samang and Bila of the Malay peninsula appear, from 
all accounts, to have several tongues. A specimen of the lan- 
guage of the Samang inhabiting the mountain of Jarai, in the 
territory of Queda, was furnished to me, in 1811, by the then 
minister of this principality, consisting of 173 words, very 
fairly selected for one so brief. It would appear from it, that 
both the vowels and the consonants, with the exception of the 
palatal d" and t*, are the same as in Malay and Javanese. 



clxvi 



DISSEETATION. 



Of the whole number of words 4i are Malayan, of which two 
only, manuk, "a bird" or "fowl," and badon for wadon, 
" a Avoman," are Javanese ; the rest being either Malay or 
common to the Malay and Javanese. One word only, gajah, 
" an elephant," no doubt taken from Malay, is Sanskrit. The 
proportion of Malayan words in the language of the Samang 
would, according to this, be about 254 to 1000; but this far 
exceeds, I am satisfied, the actual proportion for the whole lan- 
guage, owing to the list containing a disproportion of names of 
objects, and 10 numerals, which are, as usual, Malayan. 

The language of the Samang is not only a different one from 
the Malay, but has also the appearance of being an original and 
independent tongue. The following are a few of its particles, 
auxiliaries, and pronouns, with the corresponding ones in Malay ; 
and it will be seen by them, that the Samang has borrowed 
from the Malay in a single instance only : — 



EXGMSH. 


SAMANG. 


MALAY. 


Above. 


Keseng. 


Atas. 


Below. 


Kiyoni. 


Bawah. 


Before. 


Adip. 


Ad-4p. 


Whether. 


Pakchkek. 


Kamana. 


Where. 


Ekpiiak. 


Mana. 


Do not. 


Kiiehen. 


Jangaii. 


Here. 


EbAn. 


Siui. 


There. 


Tukun. 


Sana, situ. 


Was. 


Lawck, lim. 


Sudah, talah. 


Done, finished. 


Yak. 


Abis. 


I. 


Ye. 


Aku. 


Thou. 


Be. 


Angkau. 


\^'e. 


Yabuni. 


Kami. 


You. 


Buluk. 


Kamu. 


He. 


Tak. 


Diya. 


This. 


Tudeh. 


Ini. 


That. 


Tukun. 


Itu. 



We possess no specimens, that I am aware of, of the lan- 
guages of the Negroes of the Philippines. It would be very 
satisfactory to be able to compare them with that of the 
Samang, since both tribes are diminutive Negroes. Yet I will 
venture to predict, that, when samples of the Philippine Negro 
languages arc produced, they will be found wholly ditferent 
from the Samang. 



DISSERTATION. 



clxvii 



Proceeding eastward, the first specimens we have of Negro 
languages are those of New Guinea and its adjacent islets. The 
language of Gebe, one of the latter, seems to have six vowels, 
a, e, i, o, u, and the French u, the same sound, I suspect, 
which I have noticed as existing in the Sunda of Java, and 
the Bugis of Celebes. The consonants are 19 : b, ch, d, f, g, h, 
j, k, 1, m, ng, 11, p, r, s, s', t, v, z. Four letters of the Malayan 
system would appear to be wanting. But the Gebe has four 
sounds which no written language of the Archipelago possesses, 
f, s', V, and z. The second of these seem to be our sh, or the 
French ch, and if so, it is not a native sound of any languages of 
the brown-complexioned race, except of those of the inhabitants 
of Guham and the Carolines. 

Out of ISO words of the language of Gebe, given by 
M. Gaimard,* the numerals being included, there are 25 which 
are Malayan, and they are as follow, omitting the numerals : — 



ENGLISH. 


GEBE. 


MALAY. 


JAVANESE. 


Bees' -wax. 


Malam. 


— 


Malam. 


Silver. 


Salaka. 


— 


Salaka. 


Caudle. 


Liliu. 


Lilin. 


_ 


Beard. 


Janggut. 


Janggut. 


Jonggot. 


Salutation. 


Tabe. 


Tabek. 





Water. 


Ayer. 


Aydr. 


Er. 


Fiuger-ring. 


Aliali. 




Aliali. 


Iron. 


Besi. 


Baai. 


WasL 


Fire. 


Ap. 


Api. 


Api. 


Pomegranate, 


Dalima. 


Dalima. 


Dalima. 


Looi-y parrot. 


Lori. 


Nuri. 


Nuri. 


The sea. 


Tasi. 


Tasik. 


Tasik. 


Bird, fowl. 


Man!. 





Manuk. 


Feather. 


Plu. 


Bulu. 


Wulu. 


Banana. 


Pizaug. 


Pisangg. 


— 


Gunpowder. 


Uba-paisam. 


Ubat-pasaug. 


Ubat-pasang. 


To eat. 


Tanan. 


Makan. 


Mangan. 



M. Gairaard gives a specimen of the Negro language of the 
island of Waigyu, amounting to 253 words. In this there would 
seem to be only the vowels a, e, i, o, and u. The consonants 
are b, ch, d, f, g, h, k, 1, m, n, p, r, s, t, v, w, z. Out of the 
253 words, which include 14 numerals, the Malayan are as 
follow, omitting the numerals : — 

* Voyage de 1' Astrolabe de Dumout d'Urville. Paris, 1S33. 



il.wiii 




DISSERTATION. 




ENUUSH. 


NEGRO. 




MAT, AY. 


JAVANESE. 


Caudle. 


Malam. 







Malam. 


Buffalo. 


Kobo. 




Karbau. 


Kabu. 


Water-melou. 


Lobu. 




Labu. 


_ 


A uail. 


Paku. 




Paku. 


Paku. 


Bosom, bieasts. 


Susu. 




Susu. 


Susu. 


Bad. 


Tarada, trada. 


Trada-bayik. 


— 


Pajjua. 


Papua. 




Papua, puwa-puwa. 


Papua, puwa-puwa. 


Kice (husked). 


Jos. 




Bras. 


Wos. 


Day. 


Ari. 




Ari, s. 


— 


Onion. 


Bawa. 




Bawang. 


Bawang. 


A saw. 


Gargadi. 




Gargaji. 


Garaji. 


Sugar. 


Gula. 




Gula, s. 


Gula, s. 



This short list of words requires a few remarks, Labu is the 
Malay, not for a water-melon, but for a gourd. Trada is a 
corrupt pronunciation of tiyada, and in Malay is the negative 
" no/' or "not." Trada bayik, " not good," is, in vulgar Malay, 
the most frequent mode of expressing " bad," so that either the 
Negroes of Waigyu have taken half the word for the whole, or 
M. Gaimard has omitted the adjective. Ari, "a day," and gula, 
" sugar," are Sanskrit ; but the first evidently from the Malay, 
and the last, either from it or the Javanese. 

M. Gaimard furnishes a list of 290 words of the Negro lan- 
guage of Doree Harbour, in New Guinea, of Avhich 10 are 
numerals. Judging by the orthography of the words, the 
vowels of this language are a, e, i, o, u, and the consonants b, d, 
f, g, h, k, m, n, ng, s, s', t. It wants, therefore, the six follow- 
ing sounds of the language of Gebe, ch, 1, n, v, w, z, and no 
fewer than eight consonants of the Malayan system. Out of 
the whole number of words, 18 are Malayan, which, omitting 
the numerals, are as follow : — ■ 



ENULISH. 


NEGUU. 


MALAY. 


Many, much. 


Bania. 


Baiiak. 


Water. 


Uaer. 


Ayar. 


Sago. 


Sagu. 


Sagu. 


Loory parrot. 


Lori. 


Nuri. 


House. 


Rum. 


Rumah. 


Bosom, breasts. 


Susu. 


Susu. 


Milk. 


Uiicr-susu. 


Ayar-Busu. 


Dollar. 


Salaka. 


— 


Bird, r.'wl. 


Man. 




To eat. 


Kauaii. 


Makanan ( 



(food). 



Er. 

Sagu. 
Nuri. 
Umah. 
Susu. 

Salaka (sih 

Mauuk. 

MauLtau. 



DISSERTATION. 



clxix 



On the authority of M. Gaimard we have a specimen of the 
Negro language of Port Carteret, in New Ireland, amounting 
to 156 words. Judging by these, its vowel sounds are a, e, i, o, u, 
and its consonants b, d, g, h, k, 1, m, n, ng, il, p, r, s, s', t. 
Here we miss the f, v, w, and z, of some of the Negro languages 
of the Archipelago. Among the 153 words, numerals in- 
cluded, are 15 Malayan, which, omitting the numerals, are as 
follow : — 



ENGLISH. 


NEW IRELAND. 


JOALAY. 


JAVANESE. 


Yam. 


U. 


Ubi. 


Uwi. 


Handkerchief. 


Kaen. 


Kayin (cloth). 


— 


Ship. 


S'ampam. 


Sampan (canoe). 


Sampan (canoe). 


The eye. 


Mala. 


Mata. 


Mata. 


The ear. 


Plahingia. 


Taliuga. 


Talingan. 


Bird, fowl. 


Manuk. 


— 


Manuk. 


Bosom, bi-easts. 


Susu. 


Susu. 


Susu. 


To pamt. 


Tori. 


Tulis. 


Tulis. 



M. Gaimard furnishes a list of 230 words of the Negro 
language of Vanikora, the scene of the shipwreck of La Perouse. 
According to it, the vowels are a, e, i, o, u, and the consonants 
b, ch, d, f, g, h, j, k, 1, m, n, ng, p, r, t. It wants, therefore, the 
sibilants s and z, with the labials v and w, of some of the western 
Negro tongues. The 230 words contain, including the numerals, 
10 Malayan, or, excluding them, 7, Avhich are as follow : — 
niu forfiu, "the coconut palm;" namufornamu, "amusquito;" 
manga, "the mango;" mere for merah, "red;" uaer for ayar, 
" water ;" and mata, " the eye." The first three are Malay, and 
the four last common to it and the Javanese. 

Forster, in his Observations on Cook's Second Voyage, has 
supplied short specimens of the languages of the Negro inhabi- 
tants of Malicollo, Tanna, and New Caledonia. The Malicollo 
consists of no more than 33 words ; and, as far as can be judged 
by these, the vowels would seem to be a, e, i, o, u, and the con- 
sonants b, d, g, h, k, 1, m, n, ng, r, s, t, with a peculiar sound 
written ts, occurring at the beginning and end of words. The 
^lalicoUo, therefore, wants the f, s, v, w, and z, of some of the 
western Negro languages, but has a consonant which none of 
them possess. In the 33 words of tlie Malicollo there are three 



clxx DISSERTATION. 

words of Malayan^ talinga, "the ear;" mats for mati, " dead;" 
and maitang for mata, " the eye." 

Forster's list of the Tanna consists of 42 words, and to judge 
by them, the vowels are the five ordinary ones, and the conso- 
nants b, d, f, g, h, k, 1, m, n, p, r, s, t, v. Here, too, we miss 
the westei'n Negro sounds, w and z. The Tanna specimen 
contains G words of Malayan, viz. tenua for b^nuwa, " land ;" 
teriang for talinga, "the ear;" tasi for tasik, "the sea;" and 
tavai, seemingly, as in the Bugis wai, a corruption of ayar, 
" water ; " niu for nur, " the coconut palm ; " and paha for 
pahat, " a chisel," which Forster translates " hatchet." 

Forster's sample of the New Caledonian consists of 37 words, 
and as well as can be judged from so brief a sample, its vowels 
are the five ordinary ones, and its consonants b, d, f, g, h, k, 1, 
m, n, ng, il, p, r, t, v. It would seem to want the sibilant s, 
and the w and z of the Negro languages of New Guinea and its 
islets. The 37 words contain 4 that are Malayan, viz. nu for 
nur, " the coconut palm ;" galinga for talinga, " the ear ;" ove or 
tavai for ayar, " water ;" and uma for rumah or umah, " a house." 

The examples thus adduced at once invalidate an hypothesis 
of common acceptance, that no Malayan words are to be found 
in the languages of the Oriental Negroes, such as exist in the 
Philippine tongues, the Madagascar, and the Polynesian. la 
all the Negro languages of which I have seen specimens, the 
Andaman excepted, Malayan words exist, more or less corrupted, 
just as they are found in the languages of tbe brown-com- 
plexioned people of whatever variety. 

The Oriental Negroes, whether of the northern or southern 
hemisphere,— of the Indian Archipelago, or of the Pacific, have, in 
consequence of a certain general resemblance to each other, and 
also of an imagined common language, been supposed by some 
speculators to be everywhere one and the same race, sprung 
from one same stock. In so far as language is concerned, 
and judging from our present imperfect materials, there is, 
assuredly, no foundation for such an hypothesis. The following 
comparative vocabulary of seven languages will show that such 
is the case. 



DISSERTATION. clxxi 



S3 . 
III! i -3 ! .^ s . J I 2 I o I I 



^^ei^^'i^^ ^ is^^BB^:^^^ 



« ^' -3 -^ . -^ .^ ^11 J a 

I ^- 1 1 1 lis J ^" -^ a i I -? I -g .„■ 3 , d a . a ' ' ' ^ ^ 



2 a . -3 . a . -g g 

D ._• si . -a 3 ■ ■"■ -r ? "t: ^ -o . 

o g fl fcj a •: "S 3 — ■ o 3 s « _- ^ ^- d t2 

g--.-|-H.:2 l^^l I II fl 2 g| I ;.^- , ,111 



&:^^A>onS w tg^g w eg « ^ M p4 S o M eg J? w 



3 3 ^=s 3 g.- J M I 1 i-d| i I 3,* g . I I -a a . a 



I f |i I s o 3 1 1 :i^- J J I a I 3 s _s 1 ^ \ I I I 

?r 5" 3 '3 .S 'S "3 "^ ^ S iS^ 3 o S 2 :o li g .S Is 



^ s § I i i I -a I II -^' i ^ I M i s ,. II 11 I ^ I ^. I 



I §■ -3 I ^ .. :§ •? -3 -^ J . I I .^ . i =^ I ^ I I -• I 



-■ • • . • *3 i: 3 2^ 

3gi5gĕi^Si.^,ss§|§i3.*.M5si§i5'^5 



clxxii 



DISSERTATION. 



5 g I 



I I I g' I I I I I 



I I I 



^ <, 'Ji m 



■A I 






S ,/ ^- ^ 2 



-^ a 



I I I 



SOMWccSi^P^^t-^t^OcZMfef^tJPMUoQM 



si 



cs ,2 .S :3 aj o 

S M tf g \A W 



g 



s s 



I M I I I I 



• 3 . =8 d i 



" C^ t^ M 






I I 



05 .S) a .s s •a'-s i 3 1« a 



I -^ -3 .. I I 1 1 ;i ! i 1 1 i I M 1 I I I 

^ -a J a fl a M 

hj :< p W m o o 



■< E 



1^ 



rS n"i c! a> 



w w 



6 t 'i 



Ot^SfeEMMWS^HWe 



DISSERTATION. clxxiii 

The conclusion wliich must be drawn from this comparison 
of seven different Negro languages spread over 85° of longitude, 
and 26° of latitude, is, I think, inevitable. They are distinct 
tongues, and the few words which are common to some of them 
are, either only such as they have from the common source of the 
Malayan, or, in a few instances, which have been interchanged in 
consequence of a very close juxtaposition, as in the case of New 
Guinea and the islets on its coasts, or near to it. Language, 
then, no more than phj'sical form, gives countenance to the 
theory that all the Oriental Negroes are one and the same race, 
and sprung from a common stock, the source of which no man 
has ever ventui-ed to indicate. 

Into the Negro languages of the Pacific islands which are not 
remote from those occupied by the brown, lank-haired people, 
some portion of the language of the latter seems to have found 
admission, as have Malayan words. Cook, indeed, says that in 
Tanna two languages were spoken, one of them essentially the 
same as that of the Friendly islands, or, in other words, as the 
Polynesian. By his account, indeed, even the two races, as 
visitors or residents, would seem to have been found in this 
island. Forster's short list of three Negro languages contains 
at least one Mord which belongs to the Polynesian ; this is 
ariki, "a chief," or "a priest," pronounced so in the Tanna, 
and aligi in the New Caledonian. The first is identical in ortho- 
graphy, and both in meaning, with the New Zealand word. 

There is one broad and striking distinction between the 
phonetic character of the Negro languages and the Polynesian, 
which consists in the frequency of consonants in the first, and 
their infrequency in the last. On an average, the number of 
consonants in the Negro languages is double what it is in the 
Polynesian. But this is not all ; the Negro languages can 
terminate both syllables and words in consonants, and admit 
of their being combined with each other in a manner inad- 
missible in the Polynesian. One consequence may be noticed. 
Those speaking the Polynesian cannot pronounce the greater 
number of European words, and they have so disfigured those 
introduced into their language, that they are hardly recog- 
nisable. The Negroes, on the contrary, although far less 



clxxiv dissertation: 

intelligent, pronounce them without difficulty. Cook, describing 
the ugly Negroes of Malicollo, who expressed approbation by 
" hissing like geese," says : — " I observed that they could pro- 
nounce most of our words with great ease." 

But there is still another race in the neighbourhood of the 
Negroes whom I have just described, that is considered l)y 
Australian ^omc writcrs — I think erroneously — as, also, Oriental 
languages. Ncgrocs. Thcsc arc the Australians; and I allude to 
them here, chiefly for the purpose of illustration, and to show how 
the dissemination of the Malayan languages has, in their case, 
been arrested, although Australia is so near to the Archipelago. 
The whole continent of Australia appears to be occupied by one 
and the same race of men, with, perhaps, the trifling exception of 
Cape York, in Torres Straits, and its adjacent islands. These 
last are said to be inhabited by a somewhat superior race, which 
is thus described by Mr. Jukes, from the example of the inha- 
bitants of Erroob island: — "The men," says he, "were fine 
active fellows, rather above the middle height, of a dark brown 
or chocolate colour. They had, frequently, almost handsome 
faces, aquiline noses, rather broad about the nostrils, well- 
shaped heads, and many had a singular Jewish cast of features. 
The hair of the head was frizzled, and dressed into long ringlets; 
that of the body and limbs grew in small tufts, giving the skin 
a slightly woolly appearance."* It is pretty certain that these 
men, with " aquiline noses," and " a Jewish cast of counte- 
nance," cannot possibly be any variety of Negro, although 
separated from the Negroes of New Guinea only by Torres 
Straits at its narrowest part. This race seems to have made a 
step or two in civilisation beyond the other tribes of Australia. 
They have, what no other Australians possess, boats, and some 
acquaintance with navigation, and they seem to have naturalised 
the yam, the sugar-cane, the banana, and the coconut. 

Mr. Jukes has given vocabularies of six of the languages of 
Cape York and its islands. Tiiose of Erroob, or Darnley, and 
of Maer, or Murray island, amount to 545 words. To judge by 
these vocabularies, their vowels are the following: — a, a, e, i, o, u ; 

• Narrative of the Surveying Voyage of the Fly, by J. Bccte .Tukcs. London. 
1847. 



DISSERTATION. clxxv 

and their consonants, b, ch, d, Ii, k, 1, m, n, p, r, s, s', t, v, w, z. 
But, exclusive of these, there are, according to Mr. Jukes, four 
sounds represented by the Roman letters dh, dz, th, and j. Are 
not these, however, distinct consonants, which, in a perfect 
alphabet, would each have their appropriate characters ? If such 
be the case, the languages of Cape York and its neighbourhood 
have the wide range of 20 consonants. The letter f, so frequent 
in the Negro languages of the Archipelago, the Pacific, and in 
the Polynesian, would seem to be wanting. Consonants appear 
to follow each other withoiat the intervention of vowels, and to 
terminate syllables and words. 

I have looked carefully over the six vocabularies of Mr. Jukes, 
and can hardly say that I have detected in them more than one 
or two Malay words. Ama, for " mother,'' is no doubt a Malay 
word, consisting of the first vowel and first labial pronounced 
by the infants of every race of man, but may equally belong to 
any other language, and cannot, therefore, be called peculiarly 
Malayan. The word maruk is, most probably, a corruption of 
the Javanese manuk, " a bird" or "fowl." This was the name 
which the natives who came on board the surveying ship gave 
to our common poultry when pointed out to them ; and, as the 
domestic fowl is not reared ])y themselves, the probability is 
that they borrowed the word from the inhabitants of New 
Guinea, with whom they hold some intercourse. The name 
which they give to the coconut palm may possibly be a corrup- 
tion of two Malay words, buah-nur, meaning "the fruit of the 
coco-palm," or the nut distinguished from the tree. The word, 
in the language of Erroob and Massed, is bunari, and in another 
of the languages, wu, which may be a corruption of buah in 
Malay, or woh in Javanese, "fruit" or "the fruit." The 
names for the sugar-cane, the yam, and the banana, are not 
traceable to any INIalayan language, and seem to be native. 
Some words contained in the vocabularies are obviously Englisli, 
— s'ipo, "a ship;" napo, "a sword" or "a knife;" and tuli, tudi, 
or turi, for it seems thus variously written in the different 
languages for "iron," is probably the English word "tool." 
This will show how little intercourse could have existed with any 
Malayan people, for had such taken place, these words, instead 



clxxvi DISSERTATION. 

of being taken from an European language, would have been 
Malayan, as they are in some of the languages of New Guinea. 

Neither can I discover in the vocabularies of Mr. Jukes any 
words that are common to the Negro languages of the Archi- 
pelago or Pacific. Like other Australians, the inhabitants of Cape 
York and its islands have numerals only for "one" and "two," 
and can count only as far as 6 by combining them. The Negroes 
of the Archipelago and Pacific, who have adopted the Malayan 
system, count up to 1000, and even those who have not done 
so, as far as 10. 

There is no ground then, we may conclude, for believing, 
either from similarity of physical form or from language, that 
the people, of whom I am now treating, are Negroes, or belong 
to the same family of man with any Negroes of the Archipelago 
or of the Pacific, while their connection with the Malayan 
nations, even in the matter of language, is so small as hardly 
to be traceable. 

As to the great bulk of the inhabitants of Australia, they are 
assuredly neither Malays, Negroes, nor Polynesians, nor a mixture 
of any of these, but a very peculiar people distinct from all the 
other races of man. This is the opinion of those who have observed 
them best, and had no hypothesis to serve. " In colour," says 
Captain Stokes, "they are almost black ; in fact, for ordinary 
description, that word, unqualified by the adverb, serves tlie pur- 
pose best. The hair is almost always dark, sometimes straight, 
sometimes curled, but we never saw an instance of a Negro or 
woolly head among them. The eyebrows," it is added, " are over- 
hanging, the forehead retreating, the nose large, and the mouth 
wide. The beard is long enough to allow of its being champed 
when the wearer is excited by anger. The limbs are spare and 
light, and the feet and hands are small. The average stature 
of the males seems to be about five feet six inches, and of the 
females five inches less."* This would make the race three 
inches short of the European standard, but at least, two above 
that of the Malayan. 

Mr. Eyre's account of the physical form of the Australians 

* Discoveries in Australia, by J. Lort Stokes, Com. R.N. London, 134G. 



DISSERTATION. clxxvii 

is to the same effect as that of Captain Stokes. " The Ahorigines/' 
says he, " with whom Evxropeans come in contact, present a strik- 
ing similarity to each other in physical appearance and structure. 
Compared with other races scattered over the face of the globe, 
the New Hollander appears to stand alone."* 

As far as can be judged by the published vocabularies of the 
Australian languages there exists a considerable difference in 
their phonetic systems. In the excellent account of the 
natives of King George's Sound given by Mr. Scott Nind,t the 
vowels seem to be the following : — a, a, e, i, o, u, combining 
into several diphthongs, and the consonants b, ch, d, g, h, k, 1, 
m, n, ng, p, r, t, w, t-, making 15. Mr. Threlkcld in his 
grammar makes the vowels of the language of the Hunter's 
River natives, the same as those which Mr. Nind gives for the 
language of King George's Sound, but the consonants he 
makes the following 12 only : — b, d, k, 1, m, n, ng, p, r, t, w, y. 
There seems to be no sibilant in any Australian language, and 
generally, we miss in them the letters ch, f, j, n, s, v, so frequent 
in one or other of the Malayan, Polynesian, or Negro lan- 
guages. The consonants are strangely combined in the 
Australian languages, and in a manner unknown to the 
Malayan and Polynesian tongues, as td and dt, although it is 
probable that these combinations of Roman letters are, in 
reality, distinct consonants. J 

What the grammatical structure of the Negro languages 
of the Archipelago and Pacific may be is unknown, for no 
European has as yet rendered an account of an}'^ one of these 
tongues. Our information is better respecting the Australian 
languages. It appears that their grammar is complex. Nouns, 
adjectives, and pronoims, have inflexions to express relation, 
and verbs to express time and mood. The declinable parts 
of speech have a singular, a dual, and a plural. All this is 
a wide departure from the simplicity of structure which 
characterises the Malayan tongues of the Archipelago. In con- 
trast with the complexity of the grammar, but well according 

* Journal of Expeditious of Discovery into Central Australia, by Edward John 
Eyre. London, 1845. t Journal of tlie Geographical Society, vol. i. 

J Australian Grammar, by L. E. Threlkeld. Sydney, 1834. 



clxxYiii DISSERTATION. 

with the low state of civilisation among the Australians, is 
the absence of abstract or general terms of the most ordinary 
description. There is no word in any Australian language for 
tree, bird, or fish, but specific names in abundance.* 

The most commonly adopted theory respecting the origin of 
the Australian languages is, that, however numerous in appear- 
ance, they are all sprung from one common stock, and in fact, 
are mere dialects. Judging by the arguments produced in 
support of this hypothesis, it appears to me as untenable and 
baseless as that which makes all the languages of the Indian 
Archipelago and the Pacific one tongue. As in this last case, 
the hypothesis is chiefly built on the similarity of a very small 
number of words. Mr. Eyre gives a list of 15 words in nine 
languages. They consist of the personal pronouns, in their 
singular, dual, and plural numbers, of four numerals and the 
adjectives " many " and " few." In the pronoun of the first per- 
son singular, there is a resemblance in five languages, and that 
resemblance consists merely in the words beginning with the 
consonant ng : in the remaining five examples, there is not a 
shadow of likeness. In the pronoun of the second person singu- 
lar, the word is essentially the same in four instances ; while 
in four others, the only resemblance consists in the initial 
letter of all of them being n. In the ninth example there is 
no resemblance at all. In the pronouns of the third person 
singular — of the second, and of the third person plural, there 
are no two words alike out of the nine languages. In six cases 
out of the seven, the first personal pronoun of the dual 
is the same ; in the seventh, it is utterly unlike. In the third 
person of the dual, there is a resemblance in two languages, 
and a dissimilarity in four. In the numerals of the nine 
languages, I can see no similarity, such as would warrant a 
common origin. The adjectives "many" and " few " appear 
to me to be dissimilar in every one of the nine languages. 
Specimens such as these arc mere selections ; they afford 
evidence of a connexion between certain languages, but are no 
proof at all of a common tongue. 

Sir George Grey gives a list of 28 words, ten nouns, and 

* Eyre's Expeditions, vol. ii. 



DISSERTATION. clxxix 

eighteen verbs, to prove the identity of all the languages of 
Australia. Essential identity in several instances is satisfac- 
torily shown. Puyu and pUu, " smoke/' are very probably the 
same word, but it does not follow that poito should also be the 
same, because it happens to begin with the same consonant. 
Mil, mael, and mail, "the eye,'' are no doubt the same word; 
but it does not necessarily follow that mena should be 
considered also the same, because it agrees with them in one 
letter.* 

Colonel Mitchel confines a community of language to the 
south-western part of Australia, giving it as his opinion that 
no resemblance had been traced between the languages of 
this portion, and those of the northern coast. His theory 
is chiefly built on the similarity which has been found in 
eight words, in several languages, all of them names for 
pai'ts of the human body, while he admits that the names of 
all the great objects of external nature are different in the 
different tongues that he has examined. He gives a list of 
160 words in six languages of the south, but the examples do 
not bear out his assertion of similarity, even as regards the 
parts of the human body. Thus, the word for "the head," 
" the tongue," " the tooth," arc the same only in two languages ; 
and for " beard," only in four. For " the lips," there is no 
similarity in any of the languages; and, in the whole six lan- 
guages, there is an agreement only in the word for " the eye." 
This argument, indeed, derived from similarity of the names of 
parts of the animal body, is of no value as a proof of identity of 
language. In several of the languages of Sumatra and Java, 
for example, the names of these objects are in some cases 
taken from the Sanskrit ; a proof only that foreign words have 
supplanted native ones, since the rudest tongues cannot be 
supposed to have been destitute of them, even in the earliest 
epoch of language. 

The facts, then, brought forward in support of a common 
origin of the Australian languages, are wholly inadequate. The 
existence of a few nouns and verbs, out of languages which 

* Journals of Expeditions of Discovery in Nortb-West and Western Australia, 
by George Gi-ey, Esq. London, 1841. 



clxxx DISSERTATION. 

contaiu many tliousands, is, in truth, but making a selection. 
In all the languages, extending from Sumatra to Bali inclusive, 
there are to be found far more Sanskrit words, and more 
essential ones which are the same in all, than the similar words 
adduced in the Australian tongues, without any one fancying 
that the Malayan languages derive their origin from Sanskrit. 
The existence of a few scattered words, common to many of the 
Australian languages, is intelligible enough, without the supposi- 
tion of a common origin. The physical geography of the country, 
and the manners of its inhabitants, are, in my opinion, 
quite sufficient to account for the existence of a few isolated 
common words. Australia contains no impenetrable forests, 
nor impassable rivers, nor mountain chains. The people have no 
fixed habitations — no tillage, but are compelled to wander man}^ 
hundred miles in quest of food. What the narrow seas are to 
the Malays, the land is to the Australians. Moreover, although 
tribe be often at war with tribe, the savages of Australia do not 
seem to carry on the internecine warfare which characterises 
those of America : on the contrary, they are often allied, 
or confederated. In such cases, even of neighbouring tribes, 
"which of necessity they must be, the difference of language is 
so great that they are mutually unintelligible, and select 
and acquire a knowledge of one of their languages as a common 
medium of communication, just as the Malay is taken for such 
a purpose in the Indian Archipelago, and the Hindi in 
Hindustan. A good illustration of this proceeding is given by 
Mr. Eyre : — " It must be admitted," says he, " however, that 
where the languages spoken by two tribes appear to differ 
greatly, there is no key common to both, or by which a person, 
understanding one of them thoroughly, could, in the least 
degree, make out the other; although an intimate acquaintance 
with one dialect, and its construction, would, undoubtedly, tend 
to facilitate the learning of another. A strong illustration of this 
occurs at Mooruudi, where three dialects meet, varying so much 
from each other that no native of any one of the three tribes 
can understand a single word spoken by the other two, except 
he has learnt their languages as those of a foreign people." 
The tribes here alluded to bv Mr. Evre are the Aiawong, the 



DISSERTATION. clxxxi 

Boripar, and Yakumban. " These tribes/' he observes, " meet 
on the Murray, at Moorundi, and only communicate with each 
other by the intervention of the Aiawong language, which the 
south-eastern tribes are compelled to learn before they can 
communicate with each other, or with the natives of the Murray, 
at their common place of rendezvouz." * Here, then, we have, at 
least, one obvious means of spreading the words of a language. 
Adopted by one tribe, it is easy to conceive how the words of a 
distant language might be spread intermediately, until dispersed 
over a very wide surface, and come to be, ultimately, adopted 
by tribes, perhaps even ignorant of the existence of the tribe 
to whose language such words originally belonged. 

When it shall be ascertained that the particles of the Aus- 
tralian languages, or those words without the help of which a 
grammatical sentence cannot be formed, are essentially the 
same throughout, as in the case of the Polynesian, from the 
Sandwich islands to New Zealand, and from the Fijis to 
Easter islaud, then, but not until then, the Australian lan- 
guages may be considered as dialects sprung from a common 
source. I believe the attempt has never been made, and in the 
meanwhile we must be content with the eai'ly opinion enter- 
tained on the subject, — that the Australian tongues are not 
dialects, but many distinct languages. 

Sir George Grey, satisfied of the truth of his hypothesis of a 
common language for the entire continent of Australia, concludes 
from it a common origin of all that speak its supposed dialects, 
and on this observes, " This being admitted, two other questions 
arise : how were they disseminated over the continent ? and 
at what period, and from what quarter did they arrive on it ? " 
The unity of race in the case of the Australians is decided by 
unity of physical form, without any reference to language, and 
the question of local dissemination is not difificult to answer. The 
Australians were disseminated over their easily traversed conti- 
nent by the pressing necessity of seeking food to maintain life 
and continue their race, an object not attainable except by 
wandering over a very wide range. The second question will 
assuredly never be answered in the sense in which the author 

* Eyre, vol. ii. 



clxxxii DISSERTATION. 

expects a reply, that of the Australians being an emigration 
from some distant land. It is quite enough to say that there is 
no trace of such a people, or of such languages as theirs, in any 
other known part of the world, and that to fancy that the 
feeblest and rudest of mankind, whose skill does not extend 
to the hollowing of the trunk of a tree into a canoe to cross 
a river, should have been able, when, probably, even ruder than 
now, to have crossed broad seas, or any seas, in order to reach 
their present home, is hardly reasonable. 

I have carefully gone over the lists, of various length, of about 
thirty languages of all the discovered parts of Australia, in 
quest of Malayan words, but in none of them have I found a 
single word, or the trace or semblance of one. They might 
have been expected in the language of Raffles' Bay, not distant 
from the scene of the Tripang fisheries of the natives of Celebes ; 
but they are equally absent from this, as from the other lan- 
guages. Although the Tripang fishers occasionally see natives 
of Australia, they hold no intercourse with them; and, from 
what I know of the opinions and prejudices of the former, I am 
satisfied they would no more think of a social intercourse with 
them, than with the kangaroos or wild dogs of the same country. 

Having now rendered such a sketch of the languages in which 
Malay and Javanese words are found, as I have been able, I 
Migrations procBcd to ofler somc observations on the migrations or 
?Iyan ^'^" wauderiugs through which such words have come to be 
nations. disseminated. In this inquiry language must atl'oid the 
chief evidence ; but I shall also endeavour to draw assistance from 
the ascertained character of the various tribes concerned, and 
from the physical characteristics of the countries they occupy. 

It is to be supposed that any civilisation worth adopting by 
other nations must have begun and spread in the Indian Archi- 
pelago, as in other parts of the globe, from one or more given 
points, and as the Malay and Javanese languages are the only 
two that are mixed with the languages of distant tribes, I have 
placed the foci from which such civilisation emanated in the 
great islands of Sumatra and Java, the pi'incipal nations of 
which were far in advance of all tlicir neighbours when authen- 
tic information respecting tlic Archipelago was first obtained. 



DISSERTATION. 



clxx.\ui 



I proceed, therefore, with the inquiry on this assumption, 
endeavouring, at the same time, to show what the Malays and 
Javanese themselves derived from strangers. 

One of the first great steps in the progress of society is the 
domestication of the useful animals, for food or labour, and this 
great step has been immemorially taken by the Malays 
tioiTofuse- and Javanese, as attested by the native names which 
u ammai,.^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^ nearly all the domesticated animals. 
The following arc their names in the two languages : — 



Dog. 

Hog. 

Domestic fowl. 

Goat. 

Buffalo. 

Ox. 

Horse. 

Elephant. 

Duck. 

Goose. 

Cat. 



MALAY. 

Anjing. 

Babi. 

Ay am. 

Karubing, bebek. 

Karbau. 

Lambu, sapi. 

Kuda. 

Beram, gajah. 

Itik, bebek. 

Angsa. 

Kuehing. 



Asu. 

Cheleng, bawi. 
Pitik, ayam. 
Wadus. 
Kcibo, mahisa. 
Sapi, banting. 
Jaran, kuda. 
Gnjah. 
Bebek. 
Gangsa. 
Kuehing. 



I have arranged the animals in the order in which it is pro- 
bable they were respectively domesticated. With one exception, 
all the animals enumerated are natives of Sumatra or Java, and 
most, if not all of them, are still found in the wild state. The 
exception is the goose, which has a Sanskrit name, and being 
unknown in the wild state in all the Malayan countries, is, 
without question, of foreign introduction. The popular name 
for the elephant, everywhere, is the Sanskrit one, " gajah,^' but 
as the animal is a denizen of the forests of the Peninsula and 
Sumatra, the probability is that this has arisen from the Hindus 
having instructed the natives in the art of taming it, a supposi- 
tion corroborated by the fact, that all the gear and trappings of 
the elephant, with the name of the conductor, are also Sanskrit. 
Some of the names of the other animals above given, as will be 
presently seen, have been widely diffused over many languages. 

I may suppose the next material step in the advance of 
Cultivation socicty to be the raising of corn and fruits. The fol- 
of plants, lowing are a few of the words connected with this 
subject which have had a very wide difi'usion : — 



clxxxiv 



DISSERTATION. 



ENGLISH. 


MALAY. 


JAVANESE. 


Yam. 


ULi. 


Uwi. 


Taro. Colocasia vera. 


Kaladi. 


Talas. 


Sweet potato. 


Katela. 


Katela. 


Rice in the husk. 


Padi. 


Pari. 


Rice husked. 


Bras. 


Wos. 


Pulse. 


Kachang. 


Kachang. 


Maize. 


Jagung. 


Jagimg. 


Onion. 


Bawang. 


Brambang. 


Sesame. 


Bijin. 


Wijin, langa. 


Coconut. 


Nur, kalapa. 


Kalapa, nu. 


Ricinus. 


Jarak. 


Jarak. 


Banana. 


Pisang. 


Gadang. 


Jack-fruit. 


Nangka. 


Nangka. 


Duriau. 


Duren. 


Duren. 


Mango. 


Mangga. 


Palam. 


Manggostin. 


Manggusta. 


Manggis. 


Orange. 


Jaruk. 


Jaruk. 


Sugar-cane. 


T.lbu. 


Tabu. 


Areca palm. 


Piuaug. 


Suruh, jambe. 


Hoe. 


Changkul, pachul. 


Pachul. 


Plough. 


Tanggala, luku. 


Waluku. 


Yoke. 


Iga. 


Iga. 


Dry-field culture. 


Umah. 


Tdgal, umah. 


Water-field culture. 


Sawah. 


Sawah. 



All the words thus enumerated are native, and none of them 
foreign. We may conclude, therefore, that the considerable 
amount of agricultural advancement which their existence im- 
plies is indigenous, and owes little, if anything, to strangers. 

The art of smelting iron, and rendering it malleable, or con- 
verting it into steel, has been immemorially known to the Malays 
^^g^j. and Javanese. So has been also a knowledge of some of 
metals. ^|jg otlicr uscful, and of the two precioiis metals, with 
some alloys. The following are the names of the metals, and 
of the tools and implements employed in their manipulation : — 



ENGLISH. 


MALAY. 


JAVANESl 


Iron. 


Basi. 


wasi. 


Steel. 


Baja. 


Waja. 


Tin. 


Timah. 


Timah. 


Gold. 


Anias, mas. 


Amas, mas. 


Silver. 


Perak. 


Salaka. 





DISSERTATION. 




ENGLISH. 


MALAY. 


JAVANESE. 


Copper. 


Tambaga. 


Tambaga. 


Brass. 


Loyang, kuningan. 


Kuningan. 


Gold and copper alloy. 


Suwasa. 


Suwasa. 


Hammer. 


P3,mukul, palu. 


Papukul, palu. 


Anvil. 


Landas, paron. 


Paron. 


Nippei-s. 


Sapit. 


Supit. 


File. 


Kikir. 


Kikir. 


Bellows. 


Ambusau, ububan. 


Ububan. 


Blowpipe. 


Tropong. 


Tropong. 


Solder. 


Patri. 


Patri. 



clx.xxv 



With the exception of the name for copper, which is San- 
skrit, all the other words now given are native. Copper is evi- 
dently a foreign importation, for none exists, or rather none is 
worked within the Archipelago. Silver is also an imported 
article, and I am at a loss to understand how it comes to have a 
native name, both in Malay and Javanese, and these, too, very 
widely spread among remote languages. Iron, gold, and tin 
are abundant native products. 

Of the terras connected with the art of manufacturing cloth- 
Sanufectuies. ii^&j of house-buildiug, and of fishing, a numerous 
list might be produced, but the following will be sufficient : — 



ENGLISH. 


MALAY. 


JAVANESE. 


House. 


Rumah. 


Umah. 


Foundation. 


Babatur. 


Babatur. 


Walls. 


Dendoug, pagdr. 


Pagar. 


Roof. 


Bubungan. 


Bubungan. 


Thatch. 


Atap. 


Atap. 


Brick. 


Bata. 


Bata. 


Lime. 


Kapur. 


Kapur. 


Door. 


Piutu. 


Lawang, piutu. 


Bolt or lock. 


Kunchi. 


Kunchi. 


Lawn. 


Plataran. 


Plataran. 


Board, plank. 


Papan. 


Blabag. 


Tile. 


Ganting. 


Gand'eng. 


Fish. 


Ikan. 


Ulam. 


Net. 


Jala. 


Jala. 


Casting-net. 


Jaling. 


Jaring. 


Drag-net. 


Pukat. 


Krakad. 


Mesh of a net. 


Mata. 


Mata. 


Fish-hook. 


Kail. 


Panchiug. 


Cotton. 


Kapas. 


Kapas. 



clxx 





DISSEliTATION. 




KNGLISH. 


MALAY. 


JAVANESE. 


Silk. 


Sutra. 


Sutra. 


Spin. 


Antih, gantih. 


Autih. 


Thread. 


Bauang. 


Lawe, banaug. 


Weave. 


Tilnun. 


Tauun. 


Warp. 


Lungsen. 


Lungsen. 


Woof. 


Pakau. 


Pakan. 


Shuttle. 


Turak, balera. 


Tropong. 


Cloth. 


Kayin. 


Sinjaug. 


Needle. 


Janim. 


Dum. 


To sew. 


Jaib, jait. 


Andom, jait. 


To embroider. 


Sulam. 


Sulam. 


Saw. 


Gtirgaji. 


Garaji. 


Chisel. 


Paat,tatah. 


Tatah. 


Adze. 


Kapak. 


Wad'ung, pafel. 


Kuife. 


Pisau. 


Peso. 


Shears. 


Gunting. 


Guuting. 


Nail, spike. 


Paku. 


Paku. 


Earthen pot. 


Balauga, buyuug. 


Euyung, balauga. 


Iron pan. 


Kuwali. 


Kuwali. 


To carve or engrave. 


Ukir, sogeh. 


Ukir. 


Artificer. 


Tukang. 


Tukang. 



Among these forty words there are but three which are not 
uative^ and these are Sanskrit, viz. jahi, the generic name for 
" a net ; " kapas, " cotton ; " and sutra, " silk." I have no 
doubt but that silk was made known to the Indian islanders by 
the Hindus, for the silkworm and the white mulberry are not 
natives of the Archipelago, nor have they even as yet been 
introduced. That it was spread and made known, however, 
from one centre through most of the islands may be infen-ed 
from the etymology of the name. In Sanskrit it means 
" thread," and as in all likelihood the article was first introduced 
in this form, the islanders came to use it as a generic word to 
express silk in any form, raw or wrought. It is in this cor- 
rupted sense that the word is used in every language of the 
Archipelago in which it is found at all. Most probably cotton 
was also introduced by the Hindus, but this is not quite so 
certain, for the implements with which it is cleaned, spun, and 
wove, the process of spinning, weaving, and the cloth itself have 
all of them native and not Indian names, and in the Philippine 
languages, there is a native name for the plant, as well as the 
Sanskrit one. That it was, like silk, spread among most of the 



DISSERTATION. 



cl: 



island nations by one people is pretty certain, from the general 
prevalence of the Sanskrit word, and its existing everywhere 
in the same corrupt form. The Sanskrit word is karpasa, 
which is universally turned into kapas. All the words which I 
have enumerated have a very wide currency, and some of them 
have even reached Madagascar and the islands of the Pacific. 
I come next to a class of words of much importance in the 

present inquiry, — those connected with navigation. 

The following embrace the leading ones in INIalay 
and Javanese : — 



Navigation. 



ENGLISH. 


MALAY. 


JAVANESE. 


Boat, vessel. 


Prau. 


Prau, baita. 


Bow. 


Altian. 


Aluwan. 


Stem. 


Bui-itan. 


Buritau. 


Keel. 


Lunas. 


Liuias. 


Building slip. 


Galangan. 


— 


Oar. 


Dayuug. 


Dayung. 


Paddle. 


Kayuh. 


Kayuh. 


Ma.st. 


Tiyang. 


Tiyang. 


Sail. 


Layar. 


Layar. 


Helm. 


Kamud'i. 


Kamud-i. 


Balla.st. 


Tulak-bara. 


Tulak-bara. 


Aucbor. 


Sauh. 


Sawuh, jangkar 


To anchor. 


Labuh. 


Labuh. 


Plummet. 


Batu-duga. 


Watu-duga. 


Maguet. 


Batu-brani. 


Watu-waui. 


Mariner's comiiass. 


Padoman. 


Padoman. 


East. 


Timur. 


Wetan. 


West. 


Barat. 


Kulon. 


North. 


Utara. 


Lor. 


South. 


Salatan. 


Kidul. 


River. 


Sungai. 


Kali. 


Mouth of a river. 


Muara, kwala. 


Muwara. 


Ascend the stream. 


Mudik. 


— 


Descend the stream. 


Ilir. 


— 


Anchorage, harbour. 


Labuhau. 


Labuhan. 


The interior. 


Ulu. 


Ulu. 


Sea. 


Lant. 


Lant, sagara. 


Sea-board. 


Pasisir. 


Pasisir. 


Tide. 


Arus. 


Arus. 


Flood. 


Pasang. 


Pasang, purbaiii 


Ebb. 


Surud. 


Surud. 


Beach, strand. 


Pantai, tai.i-laut. 


Pingirlaut. 


Reef of rocks. 


Tukun, gusoug. 


Karaag. 



cl> 



IxxxviH 


DISSERTATION. 




ENGLISH. 


MALAY. 


JAVANESE. 


Sandbank. 


Bating. 


Banchar. 


Promontory. 


Tanjung. 


— 


Mouutain. 


Bukit. 


Guuung. 


Bay, cove. 


Taluk. 


— 


Strait, gut. 


Salat. 





Islet, island. 


Pulau, iiulo. 


Nusa, pulo. 


Star. 


Bintang. 


Lintang. 


Pilot. 


Jurumud'i. 


Jurumud-i. 


Storm. 


Ribut. 


Praliara. 


Commander. 


Juragan. 


Juragan. 


Ship. 


Kapal. 


Kapal. 



With the exception of the last word, which is Telinga, 
aud the name of a foreign object — of the term for "north" 
in Malay, and a synonyme for "the sea" in Javanese, all 
the rest are native, and most of them have been very widely 
spread. 

The following is a list of the leading commercial terms, in 
which I include the staple articles of foreign trade, such 
as the foreign trade appears to have been, before the 
arrival of Europeans. 



ENGLISH. 


MALAY. 


JAVANESE. 


Buy. 


Bali. 


Tuku. 


Sell. 


Juwal, 


Adol. 


Barter. 


Tukar. 


Ojol. 


Bargain, higgle. 


Tawar. 


Tawar. 


Contract. 


Janji. 


Janji. 


Pay, salary. 


Gaji. 


Gaji. 


Wages. 


Upah. 


Upah. 


Hire, rent. 


Sewa. 


Sewa. 


Debt. 


Utang. 


Utang. 


To dun. 


Tagih. 


Tagih. 


Price, value. 


Arga. 


Raga, aji. 


Dear. 


Mahal. 


Larang. 


Cheap. 


Murah. 


Murah. 


To appraise. 


Nilai. 


Ngauang. 


To count. 


Bilang. 


Wilang. 


Sample. 


Tilladan, chonto. 


Chonto, tulada. 


Merchant. 


Dagang, juragan. 


Dagang, biibakul. 


Trade. 


Padagangan. 


Grauii. 


To trade. 


Barniaga. 


Ambakul. 


Merchandise. 


Dagangan, band a. 


Dagangan, band 'a. 


To freight. 


Tumpang. 


Tumpang. 





DISSERTATION. 




ENGLISH. 


MALAY. 


JAVANESE. 


To load. 


Muvi'at. 


Momot. 


Emporium. 


Bandar. 


Bandar. 


Duty, impost. 


Chuke, beya. 


Beya, chuke. 


Capital, stock. 


Piuigkal, modal. 


Pawitan. 


Interest. 


Bunga-mas. 


Anakan. 


Money. 


Wang, uwangg. 


Wangg, yatra. 


Pledge, mortgage. 


Gad-ai. 


Gad-e. 


Cash. 


Wang-timai. 


Wang-kanchang. 


Small coin. 


Pitis, pichis. 


Pichis. 


Profit. 


Untung, bat'i, laba. 


Untung, bat-i. 


Loss. 


Rugi. 


Tuna. 


Market. 


Pakan, pasar. 


Pakan, pasar. 


Shop. 


Kadai, barung. 


Warung. 


Indigo. 


Nila. 


Nila. 


Lac. 


Ambalu, malau. 


Ambalo, balo. 


Sapauwood. 


Sapang. 


Silehang. 


Cloves. 


Cangkeh. 


Changkeh. 


Nutmeg. 


Pala. 


Pala. 


Black pepper. 


Lada. 


Mariclia. 


Sago. 


Sagu. 


Sagu. 


Tobacco. 


Tambaku. 


Tambako, sata. 


Opium. 


Apyun. 


Ai^yun. 


Bees'-wax. 


Lilm. 


Malam. 


Camphor. 


Kapur. 


Kapur. 


Benzoin. 


Kauiiiiau. 


Miliian. 


Aloes-wood. 


Kalambak, gahni. 


Kalambak, gahru. 


Sugar. 


Gula. 


Gula, kara. 


Diamond. 


Intrin. 


Intan. 


Pearl. 


Mutyara. 


Mutyara. 


Tortoiseshell. 


Sisik-panu. 


Sisik-pana. 


Quicksilver. 


Rasa. 


Rasa. 



clxxxix 



There seems to be, in this class of words, more agreement 
throughovit the languages of the Archipelago than in any other, 
owing, no doubt, to their bearing directly on the question of 
intercommunication, and also from a considerable number of 
terms having been taken from foreign sources. Many words, 
indeed, point directly at the influence of the foreign trade. 
Thus, the literal meaning of the word dagang, is " stranger," 
and its figurative only " a merchant." Juragan, another word 
for " merchant," is, literally, " the master of a trading boat." 
Price (and profit in Malay,) capital, ship, and emporium, are 
all Indian words. The foreign words are, for the most part, 



cxc DISSERTATION. 

Sanskrit, pointing to the early commercial intercourse which 
took place with the Hindus. Sometimes the Sanskrit word is 
the sole term, but more frequently it is accompanied by a native 
synonyme. In the first of these cases, it may, generally, be 
fair to infer that the object is either exotic, or that it has been 
made known to the natives of the Archipelago by strangers. To 
this class may be referred indigo, sugar, quicksilver, and the 
pearl. When a foreign word is in general use over the Archi- 
pelago, it will always be found uniformly in the same sense, 
and generally in the same orthographj^, however much these 
may deviate from those of the original word. Thus, gud-a is 
" sugar " in Sanskrit, but in every language of the Archipelago 
the palatal d- is converted into the liquid 1, and the word 
becomes gula. The Javanese have another word for " sugar," 
— kara, which is obviously an abbreviation of sarkara, in Sans- 
krit, the original of all our European names for this commodity. 
The natives of the islands, then, were most likely instructed in 
the manufacture, or at least, in the use of sugar by the Hindus. 
But the Hindus did not introduce the plant, which is known Ijy 
a native name — tabu — of far wider currency than that of the 
manufactured article. 

There are several other examples of the same nature. The 
Sanskrit name of the nutmeg is "jatiphala." The last half of 
the word only is taken by the Indian islanders, and this, too, 
deprived of its aspirate, and so the commercial and popular name 
of this aromatic becomes pala, of which the literal meaning in 
Sanskrit is "fruit." It has, however, a native name, gologa, 
but the habitat of the nutmeg tree being very limited, this name 
is also local, and has been superseded by the foreign. It is 
singular, however, that the only name given by the natives of 
the Moluccas to the clove is a Sanskrit one, as the clove is as 
limited in its habitat as the nutmeg. This name is gomedi, 
an obvious corruption of the Sanskrit name gomedhi, which 
means, literally, " cow's marrow." For general use, however, 
the Malay or Javanese word chtlngkeh has superseded it. In 
explanation of these anomalies, however, it is to be observed that 
the inhabitants of the Spice islands set no value as condiments, 
on their own spices, so greatly prized, at all times, by strangers. 



DISSERTATION. cxci 

The names given to camphor and to aloes wood are other 
examples. They are both corruptions of Sanskrit. The first, 
in the original langnage, is karpura, but is universally adopted 
as kapur ; and the second ought to be aguru, but is invariably 
gahru. Rasa, in Sanskrit, means "fluid," and is also a name 
for quicksilver. In all the languages of the Archipelago it is 
the name for quicksilver, and its literal meaning is unknown. 
I owe these instructive etymologies to the learning of my accom- 
plished friend. Professor Wilson, of Oxford. 

There are two foreign words in the foregoing list of compa- 
ratively modern inti'oduction, — those for opium and tobacco. 
The name of the first of these is a slight corruption of the 
Arabic. The Portuguese traveller, Barboso, enumerates it under 
the corruption of amfiam, as one of the staple articles of the 
trade of Malacca some yeai's before the conquest of this place 
by the Portuguese in 1511. He describes the parties trading 
in it as the Mahomedan and Hindu merchants of the eastern 
and western coasts of India, and, most probably, the article 
itself was the produce of central India. I may here observe 
that the Arabs have contributed little or nothing to the material 
civilisation of the Indian islanders. I am not aware that they 
introduced a single ixseful plant, animal, or art. Coff'ee, for 
example, may be considered a commodity peculiarly their own ; 
but they never attempted to naturalise the plant, which was 
done by a Dutch Governor-General in 1690, nearly five 
centuries after the Arabs had planted their religion in the 
Archipelago. 

The annals of Java state that tobacco was first introduced 
into that island in 1601 ; and it is most probable that it found 
its way there from Malacca, or some other establishment of the 
Portuguese. No European traveller in the Archipelago, prior 
to the beginning of the seventeenth century, takes notice of its 
existence. Had Barboso found it at Malacca, he would most 
probably have named it in his list, which contains articles of 
much less importance. Taking these facts, with its universal 
name, tambaku, or tamaku, in all the languages of the Archi- 
pelago, there can be no doubt of the plant being an exotic, and 
consequently American. Yet it might have been for ever 



DISSERTATION. 



unknown to the Indian islands bad its propagation depended 
on Malays or Americans. 

Of words connected with the art of war, the following 



' are a few of the most prominent :- 


- 


ENGLISH. 


MALAY. 


JAVANESE. 


AVar. 


Prang. 


Prang, yuda, jurit. 


Euemy. 


Musuh, satru. 


Musuh, satru. 


Army. 


Bala, balat§,ntra. 


Bala, wadya. 


Expedition. 


Angkatan. 


— 


Militaiy order. 


Buris. 


Baris. 


To patrole. 


Langlang. 


Langlang. 


Invasion. 


Langgar. 


Langgar. 


Attack, assault. 


Sarang. 


Sarang. 


Charge. 


Amuk. 


Amuk. 


Warrior. 


Panjurit. 


Prajurit. 


Chieftain. 


Pilngulu, pauglima. 


Tindih. 


Commander-in-chief. 


Panglima-prang. 


Seuapati. 


Standard. 


Tunggid. 


Tunggul. 


Drum. 


Gandrang. 


Kandrang. 


Fortress. 


Kut-a. 


Kut-a. 


Rampart. 


Benteng. 


Biting. 


Bastion, tower. 


Malawati. 


Balawarti. 


Breastwork. 


Kubu. 





Caltrop. 


Suda, sungga, borang. 


Borang. 


Moat. 


Parit. 


Parit, lercn. 


Field of battle. 


Galauggang. 


Tagal-yuda. 


Watch, guard. 


Kawal. 


Kamit. 


Scout. 


Mata-mata, sxilu. 


Talik. 


Outpost. 


Mata-jalan. 





Arms, weapons. 


Silnjata. 


SAnjata. 


Club, mace. 


Chokmar, gada. 


Pautung, gada. 


Sling. 


Aliali, bandriug. 


Bandring. 


Blowpipe. 


Stimpitan. 


— 


Bow. 


Panah. 


Panah, gandewa. 


Arrow. 


Anak-panah. 


Anak-panah. 


Spear, lance. 


Tumbak. 


Tumbak. 


Dagger. 


Karis, kris. 


Duwung, kdris. 


Sword. 


Pad-ang. 


Pad-ang. 


Shield, buckler. 


Tameng, prisai, paris. 


Tameug, paris. 


Helmet. 


Katopong. 


Topong. 


Coat of mail. 


Baju-rantai. 


Klambe-karek. 


Missila 


Bad-il. 


Bad-il. 


Discharge, fire. 


Tembak. 


Tembak. 


Fire-arms. 


Bad-il. 


Bftd-il. 


Cannon. 


Marmm. 


Mariyaui. 


Swivel gun. 


Rantaka. 


Rautaka. 





D1SSERTATT0\T. 




ENGLISH. 


MALAY. 


JAVANESK. 


Matchlock. 


Estinggarda, tinggar. 


Satinggai-. 


Firelock. 


SAnapan. 


Sanapau. 


Blundei'bus.s. 


Pamurus. 


Pamui-us. 


Nitre. 


Sdndawa. 


Sandawa. 


Sulphur. 


Balirang. 


Walirang. 


Gunpowder. 


Ubat-b!id-il. 


Sandawa, obat. 


Saddle. 


Paiaua. 


Kakambil. 


Bridle. 


Kaug. 


Kand-ali. 


Stirruj). 


Sangawadi. 


Sangawadi. 


War-boat. 


Prau-prang, 


Prau-prang. 


Bulwark. 


Apilan. 


— 


Cruise. 


Payar. 


— 


Pirate, corsair. 


Parompah. 


Bajag. 


Plundei', booty. 


Jarahan, rayaliau. 


Rayahan, rampa.9an. 


Captive. 


Tawan, boycjiig. 


Boyong, tawan. 



This vocabulary, the greater number of the words of whicli 
liave been adopted by all the more advanced tribes of the 
Archipelago, indicates the state of the art of war among the 
two leading nations, especially befoi'e the introduction of fire- 
arras. The greater number of the words are indigenous, but a 
few, not material in so far as concerns the ancient art, are 
foreign. Yuda, "war;" satru, "an enemy;" kut'a, "a 
fortress;" senapati, "a commander-in-chief;" gandewa, "a 
bow," (in the original the bow of Arjuna) are Sanskrit : 
prisai, "a shield," is Talugu; and palana, "a saddle," Persian. 
In so far as weapons are concerned, we may conclude from the 
enumeration of them given, that the Indian islanders were, 
before their acquaintance with fire-arms, whicli has by no 
means improved their position in relation to the civilised 
nations of Europe, at least as well-armed as the Gauls and 
Germans of Cresar, without, howevei', possessing the same 
courage or skill in the use of arms. 

A knowledge of fire-arms seems to have reached them, no 
doubt through their commercial connexion witb Arabia and 
India, sooner than could have been expected. The Portuguese 
found thera in full possession of fire-arms, in the beginning of the 
sixteenth century. Malacca was defended against Albuquerque 
in 1511 by cannon, and even by some description or another 
of portable fire-arms, and in 1521, Pigafetta saw the walls of 
the town of Borneo mounted by fifty-six pieces of brass and six 



cxeiv DISSERTATION. 

of iron ordnance. Marco Polo, wlio passed through a part of 
the Archipelago at the close of the thirteenth century, 
makes no mention Avhatever of gunpowder or cannon, and 
therefore, that the knowledge of fire-arras was communicated, 
intermediately, from Europe is not to be questioned. 

The generic name for any kind of fire-arms in Malay and 
Javanese is taken from the native word for a missile " bad'il ; " 
but the word mari'am, tliat generally applied to cannon or 
large ordnance, evidently, although unconsciously, from the 
Portuguese name of "the holy Virgin," The name for the 
matchlock is taken from the Portuguese espingarda, and that 
of the firelock from the Dutch snaphaan. The origin, 
therefore, of these two kinds of arms is obvious, and if the 
Indian islanders had, before they knew them, any other kind 
of portable fire-arms, they must have been hand-cannon only. 
The name for gunpowder in the Malay language is ubat-bad'il, 
which literally means " missile charm," or " missile medicine." 
In some of the other languages, the first half of the word oidy 
is used, and in others the name is taken from the most 
remarkable of its ingredients, nitre. The main ingredients of 
gunpowder, nitre and sulphur, may be consideretl as native 
products of several countries of the Archipelago, and are 
uniformly known throughout by the same native names. 
Tim." and ^^ tlic Avords relating to time or kalcndar, the 
kakiuiar. following arc the principal : — • 



ENGLISH. 


MALAY. 


JAVANESE. 


Time. 


Kala, masa, bila. kiitika. 


Wayah, mangsa. 


Age, life. 


Usiya, yuswa. 


Yoswa. 


Era. 


Kala, Chandra. 


Sangkala, chandra. 


Yore. 


Diiulu-kala, purhakala. 


Purwakala. 


Sun. 


Mata-ari, surya. 


Sarangenge, surya 


Moon, month. 


Bulan. 


Wulan, sasi, tanggal. 


Day. 


Ari. 


Diua. 


Night. 


Malam. 


Wangi. 


Morning. 


Pagi. 


Esuk. 


Year. 


Tiiun. 


Tamm, warsa. 


Season. 


Kutika, masa, muRim. 


Mangsa, ungsum. 


Date. 


Masa, tarix. 


Tanggal, titimangsa. 



It will appear from this list that specific time is, generally, 



dissertation: cxcv 

expressed by native words, with or without foreign syno- 
nymes, but that time in the abstract is almost always 
expressed by foreign words only. The foreign words are 
either Sanskrit or Arabic, but chiefly the first. These are 
usually corrupted in sense, orthography, or both. Thus 
the word masa or mangsa, to express time and also date, is 
in Sanskrit masa, " month ; " bila, " time " in Malay, is in 
Sanskrit vela ; katika or kutika, " time," is in Sanskrit kartika, 
the name of a particular month ; titimangsa, " date " in 
Javanese, is taken from tithi, " a lunar day," and masa, " a 
month," in Sanskrit : the word variously written usiya, usya, 
yuswa, and yoswa, " age," is the Sanskrit ayus, or ayusha, with 
the same meaning. In Arabic words, the greatest amount of 
orthographic corruption, owing to its being written in the native 
alphabet, is found in the Javanese. The word written ungsum, 
" season," is the Arabic musim, and the same which we 
ourselves have converted into " monsoon." 

It may be observed, that for the word " day " the only 
existing terms, both in Malay and Javanese, are Sanskrit, 
while for " night " the popular words are native. The name 
for " the sun " is in Malay mata-ari, literally " eye of day," and 
the metaphor has proved so generally acceptable, that it will be 
found in at least thirty languages. In a few instances it is bor- 
rowed entire, but more generally, it is partly or Avholly translated 
in the adopted language. Thus, in the Suuda, we have mata- 
poek, and panan-poek ; in the Bugis, matacisuk ; and in the 
Malagasi, masandro : all of them mean literally " eye of day." 
I cannot doubt but that in all the languages in which this 
metaphor prevails, a specific name must have originally existed, 
displaced by this pet trope. Many of the languages still 
preserve such words, as the Javanese and all the languages of 
the Philippines of which we possess examples. It is not 
reasonable, indeed, to fancy that men should wait for a 
metaphor to name the most conspicuous object of external 
nature. The sun is, indeed, one of the objects most amenable 
to synonyraes. The Javanese, besides the native, have five 
Sanskrit names for it ; and the Maori or New Zealand dialect 
of the Polynesian has four names all seemingly native. 



cxcvi DISSERTATION. 

The Malay and Javanese numerals liave already been 
described, and I shall afterwards have occasion to recur to them 
Letters and ^^ cndeavouring to trace the influence of the Malayan 
literature. ^^ |.jjg other languages. The following is a list of 
the principal words connected with letters, literature, and 
delineation : — 



Write. 

To read. 

Letter. 

Vowel-mark. 

Numeral, cipher. 

Compose. 

AVriting. 

Epistle. 

Simile. 

Alphabet. 

School. 

Paper (foreign). 

Paper (Javanese). 

Palm leaf. 

A leaf. 

Writing style. 

Pen. 

Ink. 

Stoiy, tale. 

Learned man. 

Paint, to delineate. 

Painting, delineation. 

Portrait, picture. 



MALAY. 

Tulis. 
Bacha. 
Aksara, s. 
Sanjata. 
Angka, s. 
Karang. 
Tulisan, surat. 
Layang, surat. 
Upama, s. 
Alif ba, a. 
Langgar. 
Kai-tas, a. 

Lontar. 
Raping, 
.ff^alam-tulis. 
.fialam, a. 
Dawat, a. 
Charita, s. 
Pand'ita, s. 
Tulis. 
Tulisan. 
(J.iiabar. 



JAVANESE. 

Nulis. 

Macha, wacha. 

Aksara, s. 

Sandangau. 

Angka, s. 

Anggit. 

Tulisan, s.istra, surat. 

Layang, surat, nuwak 

Upama, s. 

Anacharaka. 

Langgar. 

Kiirtas, a. 

Daluwang. 

Rontal, s. 

Kabet. 

Lading-uulis, 

Kalam, a. 

Mangsi. 

Cliaritra, s. 

Pand-ita, s. ; wikau. 

Nulls. 

Tulisan. 

Gambar, yanyang. 



Several of the w ords of this class are, as might be expected, 
taken from the Sanskrit, as aksara, " a letter ; " angka, " a 
numeral ; " nuwala, " an epistle " in Javanese ; and sastra, 
" a writing " in the same language, although in the original 
language this means " a branch of knowledge," or " standard 
•writing on it." Some words also are taken from the Arabic, 
and one of these, surat, ''a writing," has been spread from 
Madagascar to the Philippines inclusive. "To write," however, 
is expressed by a native word, and it is the same which 
expresses " to paint or delineate." 



DISSERTATION. cxcvii 

Mythological, mythical, astrological, and uecromautic terms 

Mythology, form a numerous class, of which I give a few of the 
most remarkable : — 



ENGLISH. 


MALAY. 


JAVANESE. 


A god, a deity. 


Dewa, s. : dewata, s. 


Yvvang, dewa, s. ; dewata, s. 


A goddess. 


Dewi, 8. 


Dewi, s. 


A gi-eat god. 


Bafara. 


Bat'ara, ywang. 


Vishnu (1). 


Bat-ara guru. 


Ywang guiii, bat'ara guru. 


Vishnu (2). 


Bisnu, s. 


Wisuu, s. 


Durga. 


Durga, s. 


Durga, s. 


Vai-una. 


Bai-una, s. 


Wai-una, s. 


Yama. 


Bat-ara yama. 


Ywang yama. 


Buddha. 


Buda, s. 


Buda, s. 


Bramin. 


Bramaua, s. 


Bramana, s. 


Spiiitual guide. 


Ajar, gvu-u, s. 


Ajar, gum, s. 


God. 


Tuhan, alhih, a. 


Gusti, allah, a. 


Worship. 


Sambahayaug, sambah 


Sambahayang, sambah. 


Praise, adoration. 


Fuji, s. ; puja, s. 


Puji, s. ; puja, s. 


Sacrifice. 


Sambaleh. 


Sambaleh. 


Ascetic devotion. 


Tapa, s. 


Tapa, 8. 


Heaven. 


Swarga, s. 


Swarga, s. 


Hell. 


Naraka, s. ,: patala, s. 


Naraka, s. ; patala, s. 


The soul. 


Nawa. 


Nawa, sukma. 


Torments, 


Sangsara, s. 


Sangsara, s. 


Extinction. 


— 


Nirbana, s. 


Religion. 


Agama, s. 


Agama, s. 


Fast. 


Puwasa. 


Puwasa. 


Idol. 


Bi-ahala. 


Racha, brahala. 


Hindu cU-agon. 


Naga, s. 


Naga, s. 


Hindu harpy. 


Raksasa, s. 


Raksasa, s. 


Goblin, spectre. 


Antu, s. ; buta, s. 


Antu, s. ; buta, s. ; drubiksa. 


Astrology. 


Panchalima, s. 


Panchalima, s. 


Astrologer. 


Satrawan, s. 


Sastrawan, s. 


Nativ-ity, horoscope. 


Pustaka. 


Pustaka. 


Divination. 


Tanung, t.T,lah, tarka. 


Tiiuung, bad-e. 


Diviner. 


Jiu-u-tanuug. 


Juru-bad'e. 


Sorcery, 


Tambol. 


Bragum. 


Sorceress. 


Paleset. 


— 


Magic. 


Tilik. 


Tilik. 


Charm, spell. 


Guna, ubat, mantra, s. 


Jampi, manti-a, .s. 


Foi-tune, chance. 


Uutungg. 


Bagja, untung. 


Juggle. 


Sulap. 


Sulap. 



Most of the theological words of this list are Sanskrit, and 
afford proof sufficient, if any were needed, of the former 



cxcviii DISSEETATION. 

prevalence of the Hindu religion among the jNIalays and 
Javanese. Many of them are more or less corrupted in 
orthography, owing to the defective pronunciation and de- 
fective alphabets of the Archipelago. Some, also, are altered 
or varied in sense. Tapas, " ascetic devotion/' is deprived of 
its last consonant and becomes tapa. Avatai', " a descent," 
is converted into bat'ara ; and instead of implying the descent 
or incarnation of a deity, is used as an appellative for any of 
the principal Hindu deities. Combined with guru, also 
Sanskrit, it is the most current name of the chief god of the 
Hindus, worshipped by the Indian islanders, supposed to have 
been Vishnu, or the preserving power. It may be translated 
" the spiritual guide god," or, perhaps, literally " the god of 
the spiritual guides," that is, of the Bramins. Agama in 
Sanskrit is " authority for religious doctrine : " in Malay and 
Javanese, it is religion itself, and is at present applied both to 
the Mahomedan and the Christian religions. With nearly the 
same orthography, and in the same sense, Sanskrit words, as 
far as they extend, are used throughout the Archipelago, and 
even as far as the Philippines. 

Some of the theological words which I have adduced, 
however, are native, and I fancy, specially Javanese. Ywang 
is a Javanese word used in the same sense as bat'ara, that is, 
as an appellative for any of the chief gods of the Hindu 
Pantheon. Usually, the obsolete relative pronoun sang which 
has the sense, in this case, of a definite article, is placed before 
it. Thus, sangywang guru is the same as bat'ara guru. 
Combining it with another word, the Javanese even use it for 
"the deity;" as, sangy wang-sukma, " the god of souls," and 
sangywang-widi, " the most high god." It is, probably, the 
same word also, which forms the last part of a word in 
extensive use, sambahayang, "worship or adoration." If so, 
the first part is sumbah, " obeisance, reverence," and the 
literal meaning of the whole woidd be " reverence of the gods," 
or " of god." 

Besides the mythological and mythical words contained in the 
list, there arc many others of considerable currency, of which 
Java seems the parent country. The Javanese have peopled 



DISSERTATION. cxcix 

the air, the woods, and rivers witli various classes of spirits, 
their belief in which, probably, constituted their sole religion 
before the arrival of the Bramins. They, indeed, believe in 
them still, as our own, no very remote ancestors, did in fairies 
and witches, after the admission of a second foreign religion. 
These are the prayang, " fleeting ghosts ; '' the barkasahan, the 
kdbukamale, and the wewe, "evil spirits;" and the damit, and 
dadung-awu, "tutelary spirits." To these, they add the Jin 
of the Arabs, and the banaspati of the Hindus, and indeed, for 
that matter, consider all the Hindu gods of their former belief, 
not as imaginary beings, but as real demons, so that their 
demonology is as liberal as was the pantheism of the Greeks 
and Romans. 

The terms relating to the games, the music, and the 
Games. theatrical exhibitions of the Malays and Javanese 
have been widely disseminated, and deserve to be enume- 
rated : — 



ENGLISH. 


MALAY. 


JAVANESE. 


Play, sport. 


Mayiu. 


Dolan. 


Gamble. 


Jud-i. 


Botoh, judi. 


Wager. 


Taruh. 


Toh. 


Stake. 


Tamhau. 


Tohtohan. 


Foot-ball. 


Sepak-i-aga. 


Sepak-raga. 


Paper-kite. 


Layangan. 


Layangan. 


Draughts. 


Chuke, juke. 


Chuke. 


Chess. 


Chat.nr, s. 


Chatur, s. 


Che.ss-boartl. 


Papau-chatur. 


Apit-apitan. 


Chess-man. 


Buwah-chatur. 


Isi-chatur. 


PawTi. 


Bidak. 


Bidak. 


Bishop. 


Gajah, s. 


Gajah, s. 


Knight. 


Kuda, s. 


Kuda, s. 


Castle. 


Prau, ter. t. 


Prau. 


Queen. 


Mantri, s. 


Mantri, s. 


King. 


Raja, s. 


Ratu. 


Check. 


Sah. 


Sah. 


Check-mate. 


Mat. 


Mat. 


Playing cai'ds. 


Kiya, lintrik, batuwi. 


Patmvi. 


Dice. 


D-ad-u, po. 


D-ad-u, po. 


Sing. 


Nani. 


Tambang. 


Song. 


Gui-mdam, gagalaug. 


Uran-urau, gui-itau. 


Musician, singer. 


Baduwan, uiyaga. 


Joged. 


Tune, air. 


Lagu, s. ; ragam, tel. 


Tambang, lagu, .-j. 


Music. 


Buiii. 


Uni. 



cc DISSEKTATION. 

ENGLISH. MALAY. JAVANESE. 

Strike a stiiuged iiistruuieut. Patek. Clialampuug. 

Sound a wind iustruuieut. Siiliug. Suling. 

Gong. Gang. Guiig. 

Staccata. Gambaug. Gambaug. 

Flute. Baugsi, sardaiu, suliug. Suling. 

Flute-player. Kalau. — 

Lute. Kachapi. Kachapi. 

Violin. llAbab, biola, pur. Rabab, biola, por. 

Band of musical instriuucuts. (Janialan. Gamalau. 

Buffoon. Bad'ud, banol. Bad'ud, bauol. 

Actor. D'alang. D-alang. 

Scenic puppet. Wayang. Wayang. 

Dance. Tarek. Baksa. 

Public dancer. Joged. Joged. 

Cock-fighting. Sabung. Sabung. 

Artificial spur. Taji. Taji. 

Cock-pit. Galanggaug, kangkong. — 

The games of the Indian islanders, like those of all people of 
warm climates, are chiefly sedentary. They are, for the most 
part, known by native terms, and it may therefore he inferred 
that they are their own. The game of chess is an exception. This 
is snpposed to have been invented by the Hindus, and by them 
made known to the Indian islanders, but this opinion is not 
supported by its terms in the Malayan languages. Had it 
been received directly from the Hindus, such terms, as in other 
cases, would have been wholly Sanskrit. This is not the case, 
for some of them are Persian, some native, and one belongs to 
the Telinga, while those that are Sanskrit are but words long 
naturalised in other departments of the native languages. It 
seems probable that the Malays, Avho alone are familiar with 
the game, learned it, in comparatively modern times, from the 
Mahomedans of the Coromandel coast, v/ho themselves received 
it, directly or indirectly, from the Persians. The musical 
terms both in Malay and Javanese, as well as those connected 
with their drama, are, with one or two immaterial exceptions, 
native, and it may therefore be inferred that their music and 
drama are original and not borrowed. Java has been, apparently'', 
the chief source of both music and drama, the subjects of the 
latter only being drawn from Hindu mythology or legend. 



DISSERTATION. 



Laws. The following are a few of the most important of tlu 
terms conuected with law and justice : — 



ENULlSn. 

Pi-oclamation, rescript. 

Law. 

Judge. 

Cause, suit. 

Witness. 

Oath. 

Ordeal. 

Ordeal by water. 

Ordeal by a boiling fluid. 

Ordeal by molten tin. 

Prison. 

Prisoner. 

Crime. 

Convict. 

Fine, mulct. 

Fetters. 

Scourge. 

Mutilation. 

Executioner. 

Retaliation. 

Expiation of blood. 

Security, bail. 

Contract. 

Heritage. 

Marriage. 

Divorce. 

Pardon. 



Und'an-und'aug. 

A'auun, a. 

Hakim, a. 

Bachara, s. 

Saksi, s. 

Sumpah. 

Sumpah. 

Sumpah-ai)i. 

CLalor. 

Calup-timah. 

Panjara, kurung. 

Tawanan. 

Salah, dosa, s. 

Sakitan. 

D-and-a, s. 

Rantai. 

Chamti. 

Kudung. 

Partaud-a, palabaya. 

Balas, bila. 

Tapung-bumi. 

Akiian, tangguugau. 

Janji. 



Kawin, per. ; nikah, a. 
Chflrai, sarak. 
Ampun. 



Und'ang-und'ang. 

Udanagara, s. 

Jaksa. 

Cbara, s. 

Saksi, s. 

Silpata. 

Sapata, pasanggiri, 

Supata-salam. 



Kunjara, pasakitan. 
Royongan. 
Salah, dosa, s. 
Sakitan. 
D'and'a, s. 
Balanggu, ranto. 
Chamati. 
Katok, tugal. 
Jagabila. 
Bila, walas. 

Tanggung. 

Samayam, janji. 

Pusaka. 

Krama, kawin, per. 

Pagat. 

Ampun, aksama. 



Several of the words of this list are Sanskrit, as " suit/^ 
^' mulct/' " witness ; " but the majority are native. The 
tribes converted to Mahoraedanism make large use of Arabic 
words, but as the origin of these is obvious, and as they are 
not necessary to the present enquiry, I have omitted the greater 
number of them. 

Connected with the question of government and adminis- 
meut °" tration, the following are a few of the most remarkable 
terms : — 



i 


DISSERTATION, 




ENGLISH. 


MALAY. 


JAVANESE. 


Chieftain, eldci-. 


Datuk. 


Datuk. 


King. 


Raja, s. 


Ratu, raja, s. ; prabu, s. 


Queen. 


Piii'maisuri, s. 


Radenayu, prameswari, (^. 


Prince. 


Tangku, putra, s. 


Pangeran, satriya, s. 


Princess. 


Putri, s. 


Putri, s. 


Counsellor. 


Mautri, s. 


Panggawa, bopati, s. 


Ministei". 


]\Iangkubuuii. 


Patih. 


Treasurer. 


Bilndaliara. 


Wadaua-gadong. 


Admiral. 


Laksiimana, s. 


— 


Village. 


D'usun. 


D-usuu. 


Hamlet. 


Dukuh. 


Dukuh. 


City, capital. 


Nagri, s. ; kut'a, s. 


Nagri, nagara, praja, kuti 


Town. 


NAgri, s. 


Nagri, nagara. 


Country. 


Desa, s. 


Desa. 


Province. 


Jajahan. 


Manchanagara. 


Throne. 


Patrana, singahasana. 


Dadampar, singasana. 


Diadem. 


Makut'a, s. 


Topong, makuta. 


Regalia. 


Kaprabiiau. 


Kaprabon. 


Palace. 


Astana, per. 


Kilraton. 


People. 


Bala, s. 


Bala, s. 


Nobles. 


Ordug-kaya, parbaya. 


Prayayi, nayaka, a. 


Title. 


Galar. 


Paparab. 


Rank. 


Pangkat. 


Pankat. 


Slave. 


Amba, beta, saya. 


Kawula. 


Freeman. 


Miirdeka. 


Mardeka. 



At least twenty of the words in this list are Sanskrit, yet 
generally they are only synonymes, and do not seem to imply 
that Hinduism had exercised much influence on Malayan 
government. Sanskrit, in this case, enriched the native lan- 
guages, or perhaps, only added to the number of their words, but 
nothing beyond this can be inferred. The Javanese, indeed, may 
be said to have rioted in the number of words of this class 
which it has borrowed from it. For example, it has besides the 
native name for king, which is the popular one, six Sanskrit 
ones. As usual, the Sanskrit words frequently undergo altera- 
tions in orthography and sense. Khatriya in Sanskrit is " a 
man of the second '' or "military order ;" in Javanese it becomes 
satriya, and means " a prince." Mautri, in Sanskrit, is " a coun- 



Javaucsc the title of a jictty officer, and in Malay, 



cillor ; 

most frequently, the highest order of nobility. Putrn and putri 

in Sanskrit arc " son" and ''daughter," but in Malay "prince" 

\ 



DISSERTATION. coiii 

and "princess." The greater number of the words in the list, 
whether native or foreign, are of wide currency throughout the 
Archipehago. 

With the help of the details now given respecting the two 

leading languages, I shall endeavour to trace the influence which 

the Malays and Javanese seem to have exercised on the 

Malay and ..,..„, 

Javanese civilisation 01 the other races or tribes to whom their 

influence. 

languages have extended. Among all the more mi- 
proved nations of the western part of the Archipelago that 
influence has been so great that we are only embarrassed by the 
amount of the evidence, — so large has been the infusion of 
Malay and Javanese into their languages. These include the 
four principal nations of Sumatra, with the Sundas, the Madurese, 
and the Balinese. Each of the two chief languages has 
exercised most influence in its own vicinity, but throughout, 
traces are to be found of the influence of both. It would be 
easy to give examples in every class of words and in several 
languages, but to do so would only lead to prolixity and 
repetition. It is enough to say, that, with few exceptions, 
there is an essential identity in many words throughout all the 
languages in question. I shall content myself, therefore, with 
giving as examples, the names of the domesticated animals, 
the cultivated plants, and the metals in the two languages, for 
which I have the most full and authentic materials, and which 
happen also to be the same which lie directly between the Malays 
and Javanese, — the Lampung of Sumatra and the Sunda of Java. 



ENGLISH. 


SUNDA. 


LAMPUNG. 


Dog. 


Aiijing, m. 


Kuyu. 


Hog. 


Badul. 


Baboi, 0. 


Domestic fowl. 


Manuk, j. 


Manuk, j. 


Goat. 


Embe, m. 


Kambing, m. 


Buffalo. 


Munding. 


Kdbau, c. 


Ox. 


Sapi, j. 


SapiJ. 


Horse. 


Kuda, s. 


Jaran, j. 


Elephaut. 


Gajah, s. 


Gajali, s. 


Duck. 


Marik. 


Kiti, m. 


Goose. 


Suwaan, angsa, s. 


Angsa, s. 


Cat. 


Uching, c. 


Kuchinp, c. 


Yam. 


Uwi, c. 


Ubi, c. ' 


Rice in the husk. 


Pai-i, c. 


Pari, c. 





IMSSERTATION. 




ENGLISH. 


SUNDA. 


LAMPUNO. 


Rice husked. 


Beas, c. 


Bias, c. 


Maize. 


Jagung, c. 


Jagung, c. 


Onion. 


Bawang, c. 


Jakul. 


Ricinus. 


Kaliki. 


Jarak, c. 


Banana. 


Chau. 


Puntih. 


Jack-fruit. 


Nangka, c. 


Lamasa. 


Durian. 


Kadu. 


Darian, c. 


Mango. 


Mangga, m. 


Isam. 


Mangcstiu. 


Manggu. 


Maugis, c. 


Orange. 


Jaruk, j. 


Limau, m. 


Sugar-cane. 


Tibu, c. 


Tabu, c. 


Coco-palm. 


Kalapa, j. 


Kalapa, j. 


Areca-pahn. 


Jambe, j. 


Ugiiu. 


Cotton. 


Kapas, s. 


Kapas, s. 


Indigo plant. 


Tarum, c. 


Talum, c. 


Iron. 


Basi, c. 


Basi, c. 


Steel. 


Waja, c. 


Waja. 


Tin. 


Timah, c. 


Tamia, c. 


Gold. 


Amas, mas. 


Amas, mas. 


Silver. 


Perak, m. 


Salaga,j. 


Copper. 


Tamaga, tambaga. 


Dolong. 


Brass. 


Kouingau, c. 


Kuningau, c. 



Ill the Sunda, all the names of the domesticated animals, 
except two, are the same as in Malay and Javanese; in the 
Lampung all are the same except one. The names of all the 
cultivated plants in the Sunda are the same as in Malay or 
Javanese, three excepted ; in the Lampung they are the same, 
also with three exceptions. The names of the metals are the 
same in both languages with one exception only. These 
exceptions, indeed, are not easily accounted for. It may he 
noticed, however, that the hog and buflFalo are natives of the 
Sunda forests, and may have been domesticated by the people 
themselves. The name given to the durian in Sunda is that 
for a gourd in Malay and Javanese, and that for the ricinus 
or Palma Christi is sometimes given in Malay to the papaya fig. 

The Malays introduced into Borneo the civilisation which 
Influence of ^^^y posscsscd in Sumatra, when they migrated 
liyanna- f^'O^^i that islaud aud communicated a portion of 
people""/''" it to the aboriginal inhabitants. Yet, language shows 
iiornoo. |.j^,^^ ^jj^ latter must have held intercourse, both with 
Malays and Javanese, piior to the reputed era of INIalay 



DISSERTATION. ccv 

settlement in the island. We possess a tolerably abundant 
specimen only of one language of the aborigines of Borneo, that 
of the Kayan, already described, and this, although essentiall}' 
a different language from both, contains several words of Malay 
and Javanese, bearing on the present enquiry, of which the 
following are examples : — 



ENGLISH. 


KAYAN. 


MALAYAN. 


Dog. 


Asa. 


Asu, j. 


Hog. 


Bavoi. 


Babi, m. ; bawi, j. 


Goat. 


Kading. 


Kambing, ni. 


Common fowl. 


Ayam. 


Ayam, c. 


Rice in the husk. 


Pari. 


Padi, m. ; pari, j. 


Rice husked. 


Bahas. 


Baras, m. ; wos, j. 


Yam. 


Uvi. 


Ubi, m. ; uwi, j. 


Coconut. 


Noh. 


Nur, m. ; nu, j. 


Sugar-cane, 


Tuvo. 


Tabu, c. 


Gold. 


Ma. 


Mas, c. 


Iron. 


Titi. 


Basi, m. ; wasi, j. 


Tin. 


Samah. 


Timah, c. 


House. 


Omah. 


Rumah, m. ; umali, j. 


Wall. 


Diuding. 


D-end'eng, c. 


Thatch. 


Ato. 


Atap, c. 


One. 


Ji. 


Sa,c. 


Two. 


Duo. 


Duwa, m. 


Three. 


Tulo. 


Talu, j. 


Four. 


Pat. 


Ampat, m. ; pat, j. 


Five. 


Lima. 


Lima, c. 


Six. 


Anam. 


Anam, m. ; nam, j. 


Seven. 


Tusyu. 


Tuju, m. 


Eight. 


Saya. 


Dillapan, m. ; wolu, j. 


Nme. 


Pitaii. 


Sambilan, m. ; sanga, j. 


Ten. 


Pulo. 


Piiluh, m., j. 


Eleven. 


Pulo-ji. 


Sablas, m. ; sawalas, j. 



The Malayan words introduced into the Kay an, it will be 
observed, are all corrupted, more or less, in pronunciation, and 
some of tliera greatly so, as might be expected from mere oral 
communication. The Kayans have only domesticated the 
smaller animals for food, and they are the same which have 
been domesticated by the South Sea islanders. Neither they, 
nor any other of the aboriginal tribes of Borneo, have domes- 
ticated the larger animals for labour, although for several 
centuries they have had the example of the Malays before 



ccvi DISSEETATION. 

tliem, and that the ox certainly, and the buffalo probably, are 
natives of Borneo. Even the smaller animals, to judge by their 
names, must have been introduced by the Malays or Javanese. 
Tlie Kayans cultivate yams, rice, some pot-herbs, sugar-cane 
and tobacco, by a very rude husbandry, using neither plough, 
harrow, nor irrigation. All the articles mentioned thus are of 
Malay or Javanese introduction, judging by their names. The 
art of smelting iron and rendering it malleable is practised by 
the Kayans, and from it they frame their own rude tools and 
weapons. They also cultivate cotton, and weave from it a 
coarse cloth. Both arts, it would appear by the names, have 
been imparted by the Malayan nations. The Kayan numerals 
would appear to extend only to 10 and its combinations. They 
present a very anomalous character, but are essentially 
Malayan. Three of them seem to be native, two Malay, one 
Javanese, and four are common to these languages. 

The more advanced nations of Celebes appear to have gained 
a considerable portion of their civilisation through their inter- 
innueiice of course with the Malays and Javanese. I possess no 
liyan n'a- vocabulary of sufficient extent, except for the language 
people"*'' of the Bugis, the principal nation of the island, and my 
Celebes, jnfercnces must be drawn from a comparison of its 
words with those of the Malay and Javanese. 

The animals domesticated by the Bugis and other principal 
nations of Celebes are the same as those subjugated by the 
Malays and Javanese, and are the following : — 



ENGLISH. 


BUGIS. 


MALAYAN. 


Dog. 


Asu. 


Asu, j. 


Hog. 


Bawi. 


Babi, bawi, c. 


Domestic fowl. 


Manuk. 


Manuk, j. 


Goat. 


Bembek. 


Bebek, ni. 


Buffalo. 


Teduug. 


Karbau, c. 


Ox. 


Sapi. 


Sapi, j. 


Horse. 


Afiarang. 


Kuda, s. ; jaran, j 


Duck. 


Itik. 


Itik, m. 


Goose. 


Banak. 


Baiiak, c. 


Cat. 


Meau. 


Kuchiug, c. 



With the exception of the buffalo, probably a native, and 
locally domesticated, and the cat, called after its well-known 



DISSERTATION. ccvii 

cry, all the rest of the auimals named in this list have either 
Malay or Javanese names, and, most likely, were made known 
to the people of Celebes by the Malays and Javanese. The 
horse is found in Celebes wild ; become so, most likely, from 
the domestic state. The Bugis name is, I have no doubt, a 
corruption of the Javanese one. In the language of Macas- 
sar, the name comes still nearer, for it is jarang, and the 
horse is also called in that tongue tcdung-jawa or the " buffalo 
of Java." 

The following is a list of the esculent grains and roots 
cultivated by the Bugis, their principal implements of agricul- 
ture, and of the chief descriptions of cultivation : — 



ENGLISH. 


BUGIS. 


MALAYAN. 


Yam. 


Lame. 


Ubi, uwi, c. 


Rice. 


Boras. 


Baras, wos, c. 


Pulse. 


Buwe. 


Kacliang, c. 


Maize. 


BariJlch. 


Jagung, c. 


Garlic. 


Lasuna. 


Lilsung, c. 


Onion. 


Lasuna-cliijlak. 


Bawang, c. 


Coconut. 


Kaluku. 


Kalapa, j. 


Banana. 


Oti. 


Pisaug, m. ; gadang, 


Jack-fruit. 


Pauasa. 


Nangka, c. 


Bread-fruit. 


Bangka. 


Sukon, c. 


Mango. 


Pau. 


Pauk, c. 


Mangostin. 


Mangisi. 


Manis, j. 


Orange. 


Lemo. 


Limau. 


Sugar-cane. 


Tiibu. 


Tabu. 


Hoc. 


Bingkung. 


Pachul, cliankul, c. 


Plough. 


Rakala. 


Tanggala. 


Dry arable. 


Koko, darok. 


Umali, tagal, ladan; 


Irrigated arable. 


Pamariang, galung. 


Sawah. 



So far as the list goes, the plants cultivated by the Bugis, 
before the supposed arrival of tlie Malays and Javanese, 
consisted only of the yam, maize, pulse, the banana, the bread 
and Jack-fruit ; for all else, they would seem to have been 
indebted to these people. Even maize must be struck out, if 
it be, as generally alleged, an American plant, a matter, 
however, rather doubtful, seeing that in the Bugis and all the 
other languages of the Archipelago its names are native, 
bearing no reference either to Europe or America. The 



ccviii DISSERTATION. 

name for the i)lougli^ altliougli much disfigured, appears to be 
]\Talay. 

To what extent the natives of Celebes are indebted to those 
of the western part of the Archipelago for the metals and the 
principal tools employed in their manipulation may be judged 
by the following comparative list of them : — 



ENGLISH. 


BUGIS. 


MALAYAN. 


Iron. 


Bosi. 


Basi, m. ; wasi, j. 


steel. 


Biiebiie. 


Baja, c. 


Gold. 


Ulawon. 


Mas, c. 


Tin. 


Tumora. 


Tiniah, c. 


Silver. 


Salaka. 


Salaka, j. 


Copper. 


Tambaga. 


Tambaga, s. 


Quicksilver. 


Uwai-salaka. 


Rasa, s. 


Hammer. 


Palu-palu. 


Palu, c. 


Anvil. 


Langi-asong. 


Landasan, m. 


Tongs. 


Sipi. 


Sapit, c. 


Vice. 


Kakatoa. 


Kakatuwa. 



It appears from this list that, gold excepted, which is a native 
product of Celebes, all the metals, together with the tools 
employed in their manij)ulation, are either Malay or Javanese. 
The name for quicksilver is composed of the Bugis word for 
"water," and the Javanese one for "silver," and literally means 
" silver water," or fluid silver. 

Of Bugis words relating to the important questions of naviga- 
tion and commerce, I can give for comparison bnt a very 
imperfect list, as the vocabulary of Mr. Thomsen is very defective 
regarding them: — 



ENGLISH. 


nUGTS. 


MALAYAN. 


Boat, vessel. 


Bis'ian. 


Prau, c. 


Rudder. 


Guling. 


Kamud-i, c. 


Anchor. 


Rangrang. 


Sauh, m. ; jangkar, j. 


Ship. 


Kapala. 


Kapal, Tel. 


Sea. 


Tasik. 


Tasik, j. 


Promontory. 


Tangong. 


Tanjung, ni. 


Island. 


Libukong. 


Pulau, m. ; niisa, j. 


Shore. 


Wiri-tasik. 


Pantai, m. 


East. 


Alao, timuri. 


TJmur, m. ; wotan. j. 


West. 


TTrai, barata. 


Barat, m. ; kulon, j. 


North. 


^\'ara, utaiM, 


Utara, s. 





DISSERTATION. 




ENGLISH. 


BUGIS, 


MALAYAN. 


South. 


Maniyang, salatang. 


Saiatan, m. ; kidi 


Buy. 


Uli. 


Bali, m. 


Sell. 


Balui. 


Juwal, m. 


Bargain, higgle. 


Tawariwi. 


Tawar, c. 


Count, reckon. 


Bilang. 


Bilang, c. 


Barter. 


Sapo, selewi. 


Tukar, m. 


Money. 


Uwang. 


Wang, uwang, c. 


Black pepper. 


Maricha. 


MAricha, s. 


Clove. 


Changke. 


C^ngkeh, c. 


Nutmeg. 


Pala. 


Pala, B. 


Sugar. 


Gula. 


Gula, s. 


Indigo. 


Nila. 


Nila, s. 


Magnet. 


Bosi-warani. 


Bdsi-brani, c. 



Among these words, it will be seen that the great majority are 
Malay or Javanese, and that those which are Sanskrit, judging 
by their form, must have been introduced along with them. 
For the cardinal points of the compass, it will be observed that 
there are two sets of names, a native and a Malay, the last 
most usually superseding the first for the practical purpose of 
navigation. 

Of words connected with the useful and homely arts, the 
following is a comparative list :— 



ENGLISH. 


BUGIS. 


MALAYAN. 


House. 


Bolah. 


Rumah, m. 


Wall. 


Tembok. 


Tembok, j. 


Thatch. 


Atok. 


Atap, c. 


Brick. 


Bata. 


Bata. 


Tile. 


Chipek. 


Ganting, m. ; g 


Lime. 


Powale. 


Kapur, c. 


Nail, spike. 


Paku. 


Paku, c. 


Door. 


Tanggok. 


Pintu, c. 


Bolt. 


Gonching. 


Kunchi, c. 


Board, plank. 


Papon. 


Papan, m. 


Cotton. 


Kapasa. 


Kapas, s. 


Silk. 


Sabek. 


Sutra, s. 


Spin. 


Pitoi. 


Antih, c. 


Thread. 


Wanang. 


Banang, m. 


Weave. 


Tonungi. 


Tauun, c. 


Shuttle. 


Taropong. 


Tropong, j. 


Cloth. 


Lipa. 


Kayin, m. ; sin 


Sew. 


Jai. 


Jaib, jait, c. 


Chisel. 


Paak. 


Paat, m, 



ginding, j. 





DISSERTATION. 


ENGLISH. 


BUGIS. 


MALAYAN. 


Saw. 


Garege. 


Gilrgaji, m. ; garaji, 


Adze. 


Uwase. 


Kapak, c. 


Knife. 


Peso. 


Pisau, in. ; piso, j. 


Shears. 


Gonchiug. 


Ounting, c. 


Earthen pot. 


Loak. 


Balanga, m. 


Iron pan. 


Pamutu. 


Kwali, c. 


File. 


Kikiri. 


Kikir, c. 



Nearly all the words in this list expressing any considerable 
advancement in the common arts, it will be seen, are borrowed 
from the Malayan languages. The Bugis word for silk seems 
to be a slight corruption of the Malay and Javanese word 
sabuk, " a girdle or waistband " usually made of silk ; and tliat 
for the verb " to spin,^^ is a corruption of the Malay word 
pintal, " to braid or twine." 

The Bugis vocabulary affords very inadequate materials for a 
comparative list of words relating to the art of war. The follow- 
ing, however, are a few examples : — 



ENGLISH. 


BUGIS. 


MALAYAN. 


War. 


Musuh. 


Musuh, c. 


Spear, lance. 


Bosi. 


Bilsi, c. 


Javeline. 


Pamuluk. 


Lambing, c. 


Dagger. 


Tapik. 


Kris, c. 


Hanger. 


Klewong. 


Klewong. 


Sword. 


Piidang. 


Padang. 


Shield. 


Lengu. 


Prisai, m. 


Bow. 


Panah, 


Panah, c. 


Saddle. 


Lapi. 


Sela, po. 


Bridle. 


Galang. 


Kang, m. ; kandali, 


Reins. 


Tuluk. 


Tali-kang. 


Whip. 


Bahuk. 


Chamti. 


Fire-arms. 


Balilik. 


Bad-il, c. 


Cannon. 


Mariang. 


Mariam, c. 


Matchlock. 


Jiipong. 


Satinggar, Port. 


Musket. 


Sanapaiig. 


Sanapan. 


Gunpowder. 


Ubak. 


Ubat-bad-il, c. 


Fortress. 


Kota. 


Kufa, s. 


Nitre. 


Sunrawa. 


Silndawa, c. 


Sulphur. 


Cholok. 


Balirang, c. 


Watch, guard. 


Kami. 


Kamit, j. 



With the exception of the names for javelin, dagger, hanger, 
shield, and sulphur, all the rest of these words arc, obviously, 



DISSERTATION. ccxi 

borrowed from the Malay or Javanese, The word for war 
means, in these two languages, '' enemy," and that for spear or 
lance, "iron." The word for hanger, or cntlass, is considered 
by the Malays, who have adopted it, to be Bugis. The name 
for the matchlock is probably taken from the Malay Japun, or 
Japan, the Japanese having served as soldiers in the Archipelago 
on the first arrival of Europeans, and, probably, having borne 
this class of missiles. 

Of words relating to time and kalendar the following are 
examples : — 



ENGLISH. 


BUGIS. 


MALAYAN. 


Time. 


Watue. 


WaJHu. 


Season. 


Taoeng. 


Masa, s. 


Day. 


Osok. 


Ari, dina, s. 


Night. 


wani. 


AVaugi, j. 


Morning. 


Elek. 


Esuk, j. ; pagi. m. 


Suu. 


Mata-osok. 


Mata-ari, ni. 


Moon, moutli. 


Ulong. 


Bulau, in. ; wulau, j. 


Year. 


Tiiung. 


Tawun, c. 



With the exception of the Javanese, none of the languages of 
the Archipelago have a word to express the idea of time in the 
aljstract, and have borrowed words for this purpose both from 
the Sanskrit and Arabic. None of those of the former seem to 
have reached Celebes, and the Bugis have borrowed a word 
from the latter through the Malay. This is the harsh combina- 
tion of consonants wa^'t, which no native of the Archipelago can 
pronounce. The Malays turn it into waktu, and the Bugis have 
converted this again into watiie. The few words relating to 
time, besides this, are all, except the word for day, and, perhaps, 
for morning, Malay or Javanese. 

The Bugis numerals, with their Malayan synonymes, are as 
follow : — 



ENGLISH. 


BUGIS. 


MALAYAN. 


One. 


Scdi. 


Sa, C. 


Two. 


Duwa. 


Duwa, ni. 


Three. 


Tolu. 


Talu, j. 


Four. 


Cipak. 


Ampat, m, ; pat, j. 


Five. 


Lima. 


Lima, c. 


Six. 


Onong. 


AnSm, m. ; nftm, j. 





DISSEKTATION. 




ENGLISH. 


BUGIS. 


MALAYAN. 


Seven. 


Pitu. 


Pitu, j. 


Eight. 


Aruwa. 


Walu, j. 


Nine. 


Asera. 


Sanga, j. 


Ten. 


Sopulo. 


Puluh. 


Eleven. 


Sopulo-sedi, 


Sablas, c. 


Hundred. 


Siratu. 


Eatu8. 


Tiiousand. 


SisiJbu. 


Pabu. 


Ten thousand. 


Silasa. 




Hundred thousand. 


Sakoti. 


Kat-i. 



The Bugis numerals are essentially the Malayan, although 
much corrupted. The first numeral seems to be native; and, 
probably, "eight" and " nine" are so also; two are Javanese, viz. 
" three" and " seven," and the rest are common to the Malay and 
Javanese. "Tens," "hundreds," and "thousands" belong to the 
genuine Malayan system, aiid " ten thousand," and " a hundred 
thousand" are Sanskrit, introduced, as their sense and ortho- 
graphy proclaim, through the Malay or Javanese. To all these 
is prefixed, not the Bugis, but the Malayan numeral " one," in 
a corrupt form, and as if it had been part of the word. 

The following are a few mythological terms : — 



Religion. 

Worship. 

Adoration. 

Fast. 

Ascetic devotion. 

Heaven. 

Infernal regions. 

Lord, god. 

Godhead. 

A god, a deity. 

Idol. 

Vishnu. 

Spiritual guide. 

Spectre, goblin. 

Soul. 



BUGIS. 


MALAYAN. 


Agama. 


Agama, s. 


Sompa. 


Sumpah, m. 


Sompajang. 


Sambahayang, 


Puwasa. 


Puwasa, c. 


Tapa. 


Tapa, s. 


Suruga. 


Swarga, s. 


Kanaka. 


Naraka, s. 


Puaug. 


Tuan, m. 


Puauge. 


Tuwanan, m. 


Dewata. 


Dewata, s. 


Barahala. 


Brahala, m. 


Batara-guru. 


Batara-guru. 


Guru. 


Guru, s. 


Autu. 


Antu, c. 


Nawa. 


Nawa. 



Not one of these words is native. They are all Malayan, Java- 
nese, — or Sanskrit, through the two insular languages. INIost of 
them are corrupted in orthography and made to adapt tliem- 
sclvcs to Bugis pronunciation. One is used in a sense which doc^ 



DISSERTATION. ccxiii 

not belong to it in the language from which it is derived. This 
is sumpah, turned into sompa, which, instead of meaning "to 
worship," means " to swear or take an oath," or " to imprecate." 
The following are a very few terms relating to law and 
government : — 



ENGLISH. 


BUGIS. 


MALAYAN. 


King. 


A rung. 


Raja, s. 


Crown. 


Makota. 


Makut-a, s. 


City. 


Parasaugang. 


Nagi-i, nagara, s. 


Country. 


Tana. 


Tanah, c. 


Kingdom. 


Arajang. 


Karajiian, s. 


Province. 


Palilik. 


Jajahan, m. 


Slave. 


Ata. 


Amba, m. ; ka^vula, j. 


Edict. 


Undang. 


Und'ang-und'ang, c. 


Command. 


Pareuta. 


Preutah, c. 


Prison. 


Tarungku. 


Trungku, j. 


Oath. 


Sompa. 


Sumpah, m. 


Witness. 


Sabi. 


Saksi, g. 


Retaliation. 


Balasa. 


BaMs, c. 


Contract. 


Janji. 


Janji, c. 



The great majority of these words is Malayan or Sanskrit, 
through the Malay or Javanese. 

The terms relating to letters and literature in the Bugis arc 
either Malayan or Arabic. " To write " is ukirong, which i.«<, 
most probably, the Malay and Javanese ukir, "to carve." " To 
read" is bacha, the Malayan word. The Arabic words are so 
disfigured that it is difficult to recognise them without the 
translation. Kartas, "paper," for example, is converted into 
karatosa ; and kalam, " a pen," into kala. 

With respect to the Malay and Javanese words found in the 
Bugis, and, indeed, as far as I have been able to ascertain, in 
the other written languages of Celebes, it may be observed, that 
the corruptions which they undergo arise less from the careless- 
ness of oral transmission than from diflference of pronunciation, 
and the imperfection of the Bugis alphabet for the expression of 
foreign sounds. The existence of these Malay and Javanese 
words shows that the people speaking the Malayan languages 
have exercised a considerable influence in promoting the civilis;;- 
tion of the principal inhabitants of Celebes. To judge by the 



ccj\v DISSERTATION. 

unusually large proportiou of Javanese words existing in the 
Celebesian languages, the inhabitants of Java must have been 
specially active. The intercourse which existed between Java 
and Celebes seems to have lasted down to a late period, for in the 
beginning of the seventeenth century Ave find a powerful prince 
of Java sending a public mission to the king of Macassar, the 
Macassar nation being at the time the dominant one in Celebes. 
Yet, however great may have been the advantage conferred 
on the people of Celebes by Malay and Javanese intercourse, I 
have no doubt but that an independent native civilisation pre- 
ceded it, the amount of which may be inferred from what is 
purely native in the nomenclature of the arts, and from the 
existence of an indigenous and independent native writing. 

The specimens we possess of the unwritten languages of the 
eastern portion of the Archipelago are too brief and imperfect to 
Influence enable us to pursue our present examination to any 
"iyaniS-" Satisfactory results. By far the most accurate and 
tribesTf the Complete vocabulary of any of these tongues is that 
Ti:iX- given by Mr. Earl of the language of Kisa, before 
peiago. referred to. I shall proceed, therefore, to examine it. 
The animals domesticated by the inhabitants of Kisa are the 
following, with their Malay or Javanese synonyraes : — 



ENGLISH. 


KISA. 


MALAYAN. 


Dog. 


Ahua. 


Asu, j. 


Hog. 


Wawi. 


Babi, m. ; bawi, j. 


Domestic fowl. 


Manu. 


Manuk, j. 


Goat. 


Jahuwi. 


Kambing, m. ; wadus, j, 


Buffalo. 


Arpau. 


Kilrbau, m. ; kdbu, j. 


Cat. 


Pusi. 


Kucbiug, c. 



All these names are Malay or Javanese, except that of the 
goat and cat. The last sounds very like English, and the first 
may be a corruption of Jawa, or Jawi, Javanese. The vocabulary 
adds the " sheep," under the name of pipi. Although known 
to the natives, it is not likely to be naturalised so near to the 
Equator. The name may be a corruption of the Dutch word 
"schaap," or the English word "sheep," and, iiulced, it greatly 
resembles the Polynesian version of the latter, which turns it 
into hipi. 



DISSERTATION. ccxv 

'riie cultivated plants of Kisa Ibrm a considerable list, as 
follow : — 



ENULISII. 


KI6A. 


MALAYAN. 


Yam. 


Uwi. 


Ubi, m. ; uwi, j. 


Batata. 


Hami. 


Katela, c. 


Rice. 


Aluaeri-ihir. 


Padi, m. ; paii, j. 


Jlillet. 


Nekemi. 


_ 


Maize. 


Kalieka. 


Jagung, c. 


Pulse. 


Laururu. 


Kachang. 


Sago palm. 


Pihir. 


Sagu. 


Coconut palm. 


Rohori. 


Nur, m. 


Banaua. 


Muhu. 


Pisang, m.; gfld'angj. 


Jack-fruit. 


Uru-malai. 


Naugka, c. 


Orange. 


Sapu. 


Jaruk, 0. 


Water melon. 


Sepu. 


Samangka, c. 


Mango, 


Mampilan. 


Mampailam, m. 


Papaya. 


Mumalai. 


Kaliki, papaya. 


Guava. 


Mahami. 


Jambu-biji, c. 


Tamarind. 


Aumuli. 


Asdm, m. ; kamal, j. 


Sugar-cane. 


Kahu. 


Tabu. 


Areca palm. 


Poor. 


Pinaug, m. ; saduh, j. 


Bread-fi-uit. 


Ui-u. 


Sukun, c. 


Paper mulberry. 


Warau. 


Baru, m. ; warn, j. 



Among these plants there are traced to the Malay or Java- 
nese the yam, the coco-nut, the mango, the Jack-fruit, the 
papaya, the sugar-caue, and the paper-mulberry, perhaps, cor- 
rectly, the jjaritium tiliaceum. The Jack-fruit, and the papaya 
or papaw fig, are unquestionable, for their names are compounds, 
meaning, respectively, the Malay bread-fruit, and the Malay 
banana. 

The metals known to the inhabitants of Kisa ai'c the follow- 
ing, with their Malay or Javanese synonymes : — 



ENGLISH. 


KlSA. 


MALAYAN. 


Iron. 


Wonokon. 


Bdsi, c. 


Gold. 


Mahe. 


Maa, c. 


Tim 


Kimiru. 


Timah, c. 


Copper. 


Piruh. 


Tdmbaga. 



The names for gold and tin are certainly corruptions of the 
Malayan w^ords. Pirah, the name for copper, is nearly the 
Malay perak, " silver^'^ a metal which is not found in the 
vocabularv. I can make nothing of '^ iron," unless it should turn 



ccxvi DISSERTATION, 

out to be a corruption of tosan, which is the name of this metal 
iu the polite language of Java. 

Relating to the mechanic arts, including tools and weapons, 
we have the following words in the vocabulary : — 



ENGLISH. 


KISA. 


MALAYAN. 


House. 


Rome. 


Rumah, m. ; umah, j. 


Door. 


Aika. 


Pintu, c. 


Thatch. 


Kanari. 


Atap, 0. 


Board, plank. 


Awahan. 


Papan, m. 


Knife. 


Kuri. 


Pisau, m. ; piso, j. 


Adze. 


Behi. 


Kapak, c. 


Chisel. 


Wakeki. 


Piiat, m. 


Spoon. 


Hurua. 


Sud'uk, c. 


Spear. 


Kaii-i. 


Tumbak, c. 


Sword. 


Rahai. 


Pfid-ang, c. 


Thread. 


Awaki. 


Bauang, m. ; lawe, j. 


Cloth. 


Tapi. 


Kayin, m. ; sinjang, j. 


Porcelain dish. 


Pian. 


Piring, c. 



The words for house, plank, spoon or ladle, and porcelain 
vessel, are Malayan, and tapi, " cloth,^^ may be taken from 
tapih, the name of a particular kind of cloth in Malay, which 
itself is taken from the Telinga, or it may be from tapih in 
Javanese, the name of the principal portion of female attire. 

Of words relating to navigation and trade we have the 
following : — 



ENGLISH. 


KISA. 


MALAYAN. 


Boat. 


Oomakan. 


Pi-au, c. 


River. 


Ou-a-lapi. 


Sungai, m. ; kali, j. 


Mountain. 


Wohor. 


Glinting, j. ; bukit. 


Promontory. 


Loron. 


Tanjung, c. 


Bay, cove. 


Holok. 


Taluk, m. 


Island. 


Nohan. 


Nusa,j. 


Sea. 


Kahc. 


Tasik, j. 


East. 


Kiniur. 


Timur, m. 


West. 


Wai-ak. 


Rarat, rn. 


North. 


Rahe. 


Utara, s. ; lor, j. 


South. 


Karan. 


Salatan, m. ; kidul, 


Wind. 


Ane. 


Angin, c. 


Bees'-wax. 


Lili. 


Lilin, m. 


TortoiscyhoU. 


Kairni. 


Sisik-pinu. 


Pearl. 


Mutyara. 


Mutyara, s. 


Cloves. 


Jdnkc. 


ChAngkeh, c. 


Buy. 


W&li. 


Baii, m. 


Sell. 


Niiolo. 


Juwal, m. 



DISSERTATION. cc.wii 

The influence of the Malayan languages, as might be 
looked for, is more marked in this class of words than in 
others. Out of eighteen words probably ten are Malay or 
Javanese. The word for " island " is not improbably the 
Javanese nusa. It seems to be the same word which again 
appears as nosa for " the world." Kaha, for " the sea/' is the 
Javanese tasik, the t and s according to the usage of the Kisa 
being turned into k, and h, and the final k, properly an 
aspirate, being elided. Three of the cardinal points of the 
compass are corrupted Malay, but " the north," which in Malay 
is taken from the Sanskrit, is supplied by the word rahe, 
which may be a corruption of the Javanese lor. 

Of words relating to time, I find in the Kisa vocabulary, 
only the following : — 



ENGLISH. 


KISA. 


MALAYAN, 


Day. 


Lerit. 


Ari, s. j dina, s. 


Night. 


Alam. 


Malam, m. 


Yesterday. 


Oiravi. 


Kalmarin, m. ; wangi, j. 


Sun. 


Leri. 


Mata-ari, m. ; saraugenge, j. 


Moon, month. 


WolL 


Bulan, m. ; wulan, j. 


Year. 


Aninit. 


Taun, c. 



The word for " night " is clearly Malay, and that for 
" moon," although greatly corrupted, is no doubt either Malay 
or Javanese. Unless aninit be some unaccountable corruption 
of taun, the rest are native. As in the other languages of the 
Archipelago, cultivated or uncultivated, the Javanese excepted, 
there is no word to express time in the abstract. 

The people of Kisa count as far as 1000, and the following 
are their numerals : — 



ENGLISH. 


KISA. 


MALAYAN. 


One. 


Ita, ida. 


Sa, c. 


Two. 


Ror. 


Roro, j. 


Three. 


Kai. 


Talu, j. 


Four. 


Ahka. 


Ampat, pat, c. 


Five. 


Lima. 


Lima, c. 


Six. 


Nam. 


Anam, nam, c. 


Seven. 


Iko. 


Pitu, j. 


Eight. 


Ah. 


Wolu, j. 


Nine. 


Hi. 


Sanga, j. 


Ten. 


waii. 


Puluh. 



cexviii 


DISSERTATION. 


ENGLISH. 


KISA. 


MALAYAN. 


Eleven. 


Ita-waii-ita. 


Sablas, sawalas, c 


Twenty. 


Waroh. 


Rongpuluh, j. 


Tweuty-oue. 


Waroh-ita. 


Rongpnluh-siji, j. 


Thirty!! 


Walikal. 


Talupuluh. 


Hundred. 


Raho. 


Ratus, e. 


Thousand. 


R'iun. 


Ribu, riwu, c. 



Before each of the digits is placed inseparably the particle 
wo, or for euphony in some cases wa. This is probably an 
abbreviation of woni, " fruit/' itself apparently a corruption of 
the Javanese woh, Avhich means the same thing. If so, it will 
be equivalent to watu, " stone/' or biji, "seed/' usually appended 
to the first numeral, respectively, in Malay and Javanese. The 
Kisa numerals, although much corrupted and some of them 
not traceable, are yet essentially the usual Malayan. 

The Malayan words in the Kisa, it may generally be 
noticed, are far more corrupted than in any other language in 
which they are found, — more so even than in the Polynesian 
with its dearth of consonants, or the Madagascar the tongue of 
a very distinct race of men. From the examination now made of 
the Kisa, it may be concluded that the rude inhabitants of this 
island have received some, but not a large portion of Malayan 
civilisation. The seeds of that civilisation may be said to have 
been sown under unfavourable circumstances and in an un- 
grateful soil. 

The vocabularies of the languages of Timur and its adjacent 
Influence of the is^cts afFord but scauty materials for the present 
ttesel the enquiry. I select the general language of Timur 
Timur'and'the ^s an cxamplc, usiug the other three for illustra- 
adjacent islands. ^-^^^^ rpj^^ ^^^^^^ ^f ^j^g domcsticatcd auimals in the 

Tirauri are as follow : — 



ENGLISH. 

Dog. 

Hog. 

Domestic fowl. 

Goat. 

Buffiilo. 

Horse. 

Cat. 



TIMUIU. 

Asu. 

Fahi. 

Mann. 

Behc. 

Karau. 

Kuda. 

I'avah. 



MALAYAN. 

Asu, j. 

Babi, m. ; bawi, j. 

Manuk, j. 

Bcbck, m. 

Karbau, c. 

Kuda, 8. 

KucliinL'. 



DISSERTATION. ccxix 

The first five words are Malay or Javanese, and the sixth 
Sanskrit through one of these two languages. In the 
Manatoto, or language of the eastern end of Timur, and in that 
of the island of Savu, the name for the dog is the same as in 
the Timuri, but in that of the island of Rotti it is busa, probably 
however only a corruption of the Javanese asu. The name of 
the hog is the same in the four languages, varied only by the 
conversion of b or w into f, or into the aspirate. The name of 
the common fowl is the same in all the four languages, and 
is Javanese, with the loss of the final k which is a soft 
aspirate. That for the horse is Sanskrit, according to the 
Malayan pronunciation, in the two languages of Timur ; but in 
the Rotti it is dalan, which in Javanese means " road " or 
"journey," and in the Savu it is jekasai, of which I cannot 
guess the etymology. In both the languages of Timur, the 
buffalo is designated by a corruption of the Malayan name, but 
in the Rotti it is kapal, which is the name of the horse in the 
polite language of the Javanese, who in olden times used this 
apparently unsuitable animal for riding. In the Savu, the 
name for the buffalo is bajaitutu, apparently a compounded 
word, but of which the elements are not to be found in the 
vocabulary. I may take this opportunity of mentioning that 
neither in Timur, nor any other island east of Borneo, does the 
ox appear to have been known to the native inhabitants, 
although abounding, both in the wild and domestic state, in all 
the countries of the western part of the Archipelago. In the 
Timuri the cat is called bavah, and in the Manatoto mamamon, 
but in the Rotti and Savu the name, as in the Kisa, is an 
imitation of the cry of the animal. None of these words are 
Malay or Javanese. 

Of the names of plants the vocabulary contains none except 
that of rice, with and without the husk. In the Timuri, they are 
respectively hari and fohos, from the Malayan pad-i or pari, 
and baras or wos. In the Savu, we have for " rice in the husk," 
aril, which is probably only a corruption of pari, and for 
"husked" or " clean rice" manis, which in Malay and Javanese 
is the adjective " sweet." In the Manatoto wc have for " husked 
T'ice," bubaras, which is nearly the Malay word : but for " rice in 



ccxx DISSERTATION. 

the husk'' it is humala, which seems to be the Mahay word umah, 
"upland rice culture," with an euphonic syHable added. 

The metals known to the inhabitants of Timur are iron, gold, 
silver, copper, and tin ; and in the Timuri they are thus named : — 



ENGLISH. 


TIMURI. 


MALAYAN. 


Iron. 


Basi. 


Basi, C. 


Gold. 


Murak. 


Mas, c. 


Silver. 


Murak-mutin. 


Perak, m. ; sdlaka, j. 


Tin. 


Makadacli. 


Timah, c. 


Copper. 


Tumbaga. 


Tambaga, s. 



The INIalayan word for iron prevails in all the languages, 
except the Manatoto, in which it is called munum, a word the 
etymology of which I have no clue to. The name for gold is 
different in all the four languages, and does not appear to come 
from any foreign source. In the Manatoto it is lahan, in 
the Rotti liloh, and in the Savu noni. Silver, in the four 
languages, is called by the same name as gold, with the 
epithet " white " annexed, being a different word in each lan- 
guage. Gold, indeed, is a generic term, and has the epithet 
" red " annexed when it is to be distinguished from silver. We 
find something very like this in the Irish and Gaelic, in which 
silver, to distinguisli it from copper, is called " white silver," 
and copper, to distinguish it from silver, "red silver," the 
generic coming from the Latin argentum. Copper has the usual 
Sanskrit name in the Timuri, passing through the Malayan, 
as in all the languages of the west ; but in the Manatoto it is 
berak, essentially the same word as the Kisa, and in the Savu 
it is neti. Copper is found in Timur, in the native state, and 
being so, it would, of course, be the first metal used by the early 
inhabitants, and consequently get a native name. The foreign 
or commercial one, in two of the languages, has, probably, only 
displaced a native name. Gold is also a native product of 
Timur, and hence, probably, the variety of native names which 
it receives, to the exclusion of a foreign one. But for tin there 
are also four different names :— in the Manatoto, kamumon, in 
the Timuri, makadadi, in ihe Rotti, engga, and in the Savu, 
tenopas, which is by no means so easy to account for, as none 
of them are, as in the other languages of the Archipelago, 



DISSERTATION". ccxxi 

Malayan, and as this metal is certainly not a native product 
of Timur or its islets. 

Of words relating to the mechanic arts, navigation, trade, 
war, and time, which I throw together, I find in the Timuri 
vocabulary only the following few : — 



ENGLISH. 


TIMURI. 


iMALAYAN. 


House. 


Umah. 


Rumah, m. ; umah, j. 


Cleaver. 


Taha. 


Parang, m. 


Dagger. 


Kris. 


Kris, c. 


Sea. 


Lur. 


Laut, c. 


River. 


Motah. 


Sungai, m. ; kali, j. 


Wind. 


Anin. 


Angin, c. 


Mountain. 


Tariiik. 


Bukit, m.; gunung, j. 


Boat. 


Roho. 


Prau, c. 


Sun. 


Loroh. 


Mata-ari, m. ; sardngenge, j. 


Moon. 


Tulan. 


Bulan, m. ; wulan, j. 


Star. 


Tetoeng. 


Bintang, m. ; lintang, j. 



In this list of eleven words seven are probably Malayan : — 
house, dagger, sea, boat, wind, moon, and star, nearly all 
greatly corrupted, as in the examples of lur, for laut, '^the sea;" 
roho, for prau, or prahu, as it is sometimes written, " a boat ; " 
and tetoeng, for bintang, " a star." For the word cleaver, or 
chopper, there seems to be a diflferent name in all the foui- lan- 
guages, although, not improbably, the taha of the Timuri may 
be the pahat of the Malay, " a chisel/' For sea, we find the 
same word in the two languages of the main island, but in those 
of the two small islands it is the Javanese tasik, deprived of its 
final consonant. The name for river in the two languages of 
Timur is the same, but in the Rotti it is ofah, and in the Savu, 
banan ; all, probably, native words. The name for the sun is 
essentially the same in the four languages, with trifling varia- 
tions of orthography, and all native. The name for moon, or 
month, is the Malayan, with much mutilation. 

The numerals of the four languages are as follow : — 



ENGLISH. 


MANATOTO. 


TIMURI. 


ROTTI. 


SAVU. 


MALAYAN. 


One. 


Xehi. 


Aida. 


Aisa. 


Aisa. 


Sa. 


Two. 


Eriia. 


Rua. 


Diia. 


Nua. 


Duwa, m.; 1 


Three. 


Etalu. 


Tolo. 


Talu. 


Tanu. 


Talu, j. 


Fovu-. 


EhJiat. 


Haat. 


Hiia. 


Hah. 


Ampat, m. ; 


Five. 


Lema. 


Lema. 


Lema. 


Lema. 


Lima, c. 



loro, 



pat, j. 



ccxxii 




DISSERTATION. 






ENGLISH. 


MANATOTO. 


TIMUItl. 


UOTTI. 


SAVU. 


MALAYAN. 


Six. 


Niien. 


Niien. 


Niien. 


Niien. 


Auam, m.; nam J, 


Seven. 


Hetu. 


Hetu. 


Tetu. 


Hetu. 


Pitu, j. 


Eight. 


Walu. 


Walu. 


Talu. 


Panu. 


Wolu, j. 


Nine. 


Sioh. 


S-ioh. 


Sioh. 


Sioh. 


Sanga. 


Ten. 


Nulu. 


Nulu. 


Hulu. 


Bo. 


Puluh. 


Hundred. 


Atus. 


Atus. 


Natun. 


Natun. 


Ratus. 



These are, with much corruption, essentially the ordinary 
Malayan numerical system, and taken chiefly, as will be seen, 
from the Javanese form of the numbers. Casting the eye over 
the series in the diff'erent languages, we may see the nature of 
the changes which each tongue makes the original numerals to 
undergo, in conformity to the genius of its own pronunciation. 
The numeral " four," for example, ampat in Malay, and pat in 
Javanese, has, in all the four languages, the p converted into 
the aspirate ; in two of them it preserves its final t, and in two 
others it loses it, becoming no more than a simple aspirated 
breathing, with little resemblance to either of the original words. 
The numeral " seven," pitu, is another example, where the p is 
turned into an aspirate in three of the languages, and preserved 
in the fourth. 

Although I have no doubt a certain measure of indigenous 
civilisation must have originated in Timur as in Celebes, 
independent of communication with strangers, still I think it 
must be inferred, from the names of the domesticated animals, of 
iron and of the numerals, that much of such improvement as 
the natives have made must be ascribed to their intercourse 
with the Malays and Javanese. The natives of the interior of 
the island, who have little means of partaking of that inter- 
course, continue to the present day in a very rude and bar- 
barous state. With respect to Malayan intercourse, one 
remai-kable fact deserves notice, that neither the Malays nor 
Javanese seem ever to have communicated their own knowledge 
of letters to the inhabitants of Timur, or to any other remote 
nation of the Archipelago. This would seem to show that they 
never conquered, or colonised in sufficient numbers to have 
power or influence sufficient to do so. The Javanese nearer 
home had done so, having communicated their letters to Bali, 
Tjomboc, Madura, and Palcmbang, in Sumatra. 



DISSERTATION. ccxxiii 

Two languages of the island of Flores, the Ende and Mangarai, 
Influence of ^^ ^hich I havc before referred, afford a few materials 
^d Jala';' for the present enquiry. The names of the domesti- 
"riifes^of"'*' cated animals of Flores as they appear in these two 
Fiores. languages are as follows : — 

ENGLISH. ENDE. MANGARAI. MALAYAN. 

Dog. Lakoh. Achu. Asu, j. 

Hog. Wawi. La. Babi, c. 

Common fowl. Manu. Manu. Manuk, j. 

Goat. Rongo. Bembe. Bebek, m. 

Buffalo. Kamba. Kabab. Karbau, c; kabo, j. 

Five out of the eight names in this Hst are Malayan. The 
name for the dog in Eade, for the hog in Mangarai, and for 
the goat in Ende, appear to be native words. The goat and 
hog are probably natives of the island, and may have been 
domesticated by the inhabitants previous to their intercourse 
with the nations of the west ; but a native name for the dog, 
not likely to be indigenous, is not easily accounted for. 

The four following plants are found in the list of words : — 



ENGLISH. 


ENDE. 


MANGARAI. 


MALAYAN. 


Rice in the husk. 


Pare. 


Dia. 


Pad'i, m. ; pasi, j. 


Banana. 


Mukii. 


Muku. 


Pisang, m.; gadang, j. 


Sugar-cane. 


Tau. 


Tau. 


Tabu, c. 


Cotton. 


Reru. 


Kampa. 


Kapas, s. 



Out of six different names here given, three are of Malayan 
origin, — that of rice in the Ende, of the sugar-cane in both 
languages, and of cotton in the Mangarai. The native name 
for rice in the Mangarai is not improbably a generic name for 
corn or grain ; but that for cotton in the Ende may possibly 
imply that this plant is a native production of the island. It is 
certain that the land and climate of Flores are favourable to its 
growth, and that a considerable quantity of a good quality has 
long been exported from it to Celebes. The Banana, it will be 
observed, has a native name; and, indeed, this will be found to 
be the case in nearly all the languages of the Archipelago, 
cultivated or uncultivated, probably because it is everywhere a 
native product, and must have been among the first, as it is 
among the most easy and obvious plants to cultivate for food. 



ccxxiv DISSERTATION. 

The metals kuowu to the inhabitants of Flores are the 
following : — 



ENGLISH. 


ENDE. 


MANGARAI. 


MALAYAN. 


Irou. 


Suah. 


Basi. 


Basi, e. 


Gold. 


Wea. 


Mas. 


Mas, e. 


Silver. 


Wea-bura. 


Mas-bahok. 


Perak, m. ; salaka, j. 


Tin. 


Ambrali. 


Ambrah. 


Timah, c. 


Copper. 


Parmata. 


Romba. 


Tambaga, s. 



The names for iron and gold in the Mangarai are entirely 
Malayan, and the name for tin, which is not known to be a 
product of Flores, is most probably the wide-spread word timah 
corrupted. Gold is, most probably, a native product, and in 
the Ende has a native name, superseded by the Malayan or 
commercial name in the Mangarai. Silver, as in the languages 
of Timur, has the same name as gold, with the epithet " white.^' 
Copper, certainly a foreign metal, seems yet to have a native 
name in both languages. That in the Ende, however, means in 
Malay " a jewel," — a strange name for the metal certainly, if 
this be its true etymology. 

Relating to the mechanic arts, I find only the three following 
words, which I give with their Malayan synonymes : — 



ENGLISH. 


ENDE. 


MANGAUAI. 


MALAYAN. 


Silk. 


Sutra. 


Sutra. 


Sutra, s. 


Weave. 


Sanda. 


Dada. 


Tanun, c. 


Cloth. 


Luka. 


Lipa. 


Kay in, m. ; sinjang, j. 



The name for silk is the usual Sanskrit one, through the 
Malayan. Lipa, " cloth," in the Mangarai is Bugis ; and the 
other words appear to be native. 

The terms, directly or indirectly connected with navigation, 
trade, and time, which the list of words contains, are the 
following : — 



ENGLISH. 


ENDE. 


MANGARAI. 


MALAYAN. 


Sea. 


Ora-masi. 


Wae-tasik. 


Tasik, j. 


River. 


Nanga. 


Nanga. 


Sungai, m. ; kali, j. 


Mountain. 


Kcli. 


Ldngko. 


Bukit, m. ; gunung. 


Island. 


Niisa. 


Nusa. 


Nusa, j. 


Boat. 


Rajo. 


Wangka. 


Wangkang. c. 



ENGLISH. 


ENDE. 


MANGARAI. 


MALAYAN. 


Pepper. 


Sa. 


Chabe. 


Chabe, c. 


Salt. 


Sfe. 


Chie. 


Garam, m. ; uyah, j. 


Sun. 


Lara. 


Lasa. 


Mata-ari, m. 


Moon, month. 


Bura. 


Busa. 


Bulan, c. 


Buy. 


Ambata. 


GarwelL 


Ball 



The name for the sea in Eude is partly native and partly 
Malayan, and means literally " salt water." The Mangarai 
name has the same elements ; the last word, however, being the 
Javanese tasik, " the sea," used here, apparently, as an adjec- 
tive. The word for island is good Javanese, and is found in 
many languages. The name for boat, or vessel, in the Man- 
garai, is the Malay and Javanese word wangkang, that usually 
given to the large trading vessels of the Chinese, and which 
we translate "junk." In the Ende it is a native terra. Chabe 
is, in Malay and Javanese, a generic name for " pepper." The 
terms for month, in both languages, are Malayan, greatly cor- 
rupted. The rest seem to be all native words. 

The numerals in the two languages are as follow : — 



ENGLISH. 


ENDE. 


MANGARAI. 


One. 


Asa. 


Sa. 


*Fwo. 


Riia. 


Sua. 


Three. 


Talu. 


Talu. 


Four. 


Wutu. 


Pa. 


Five. 


Lema. 


Lema. 


Six. 


Lema-sa. 


Ana. 


Seven. 


Lema-i-ua. 


Petu. 


Eight. 


Rua-butu. 


Alo. 


Nme. 


Tara-asa. 


Sioh. 


Ten. 


Bum, bulu. 


Puluh. 


Twenty. 


Bulu-riia. 


Sua-puluh. 


Hundred. 


Nasu. 


Ratu. 


Thousand. 


Rewu. 


Rewu. 



Duwa, m. 

talu, j. 

Ampat, m. ; pat, j. 

Lima, c. 

Anam, m. ; nam, j. 

Pitu, j. 

Wolu, j. 

Sanga^ j. 

Puluh, c. 

Duwa-puluh, m; 

Ratus, c. 

Ribu, m. ; riwu, j. 



These are the ordinary Malayan numerals, with fewer cor- 
ruptions than is usual in the remote and unwritten languages. 
The greater "number of them would seem to have been taken 
directly from the Javanese. They are most correctly given in 
the Mangarai, and the Ende contains some anomalies worth 
notice. Instead of the usual numbers for " six " and " seven," 

9 



DISSEETATION. 



the terms are " five and one," and " five and two." The 
numeral " four " is a native word, and " eight " is expressed, not 
by its ordinary name, but by " two fours." " Nine," too, is ex- 
pressed by a native word, followed by the Malayan numeral 
" one," as if it had formed part of a local system of numeration. 
Probably all these forms refer to some native system ante- 
cedent to the adoption of the decimal system of the Malays and 
Javanese. 

As far, then, as we can pronounce from our scanty materials, 
Malayan civilisation has exercised a considerable influence on 
the condition of the principal tribes of Flores. The Malays and 
Javanese probably taught them the use of malleable iron, — tin, 
and copper, with their alloys, — probably introduced also, the 
domesticated animals which they possess, and certainly imparted 
to them a simple and convenient system of numeration. 

I refer to some of the unwritten languages of the central and 
eastern parts of the Archipelago, of which our vocabularies are 
Influence of ^^^ ^°° brief for an enlarged enquirj^, only for the pur- 
Mtions'or" poss o^ showing some striking peculiarities in their 
numerical system. These are the Tambora, a lan- 
guage of Sambawa, the Sumbawa another, and the 
Tarnati and Sirang, the languages of Ternate and Ceram, two 
of the Spice islands. The niuuerals in these are as follow, 
taken from the Appendix to Sir Stamford Rafiles' History of 
Java : — 



Bome other 
unwritten 
languages. 



ENGLISH. 


TAMBORA. 


SAMBAWA. 


TAUNATI. 


SIRANG. 


One. 


Seena. 


Satu. 


Rimoi. 


Takura. 


Two. 


Kaliie. 


Dua. 


Rimo-didi. 


Dua, m. 


Three. 


Nih. 


Tiga. 


Riiangi. 


Tohi, j. 


Four. 


Kude-in. 


Ampat. 


Raha. 


Pat, j. 


Five. 


Kutcl-in. 


Lima. 


Roma-toha. 


Lim, c. 


Six. 


Bata-in. 


Anam. 


Rara. 


Onan, c. 


Seven. 


Kumba. 


Tuju. 


Tomdi. 


Titura, j. 


Eight. 


Koueho. 


Dillapan. 


Tofkangi. 


Dalapante. 


Nino. 


Lali. 


Sambilau. 


Siyu. 


Sambilauto. 


Ton. 


Sarone. 


Pulu. 


Yagi. 


Putusa. 


Twenty. 


Sisarouc. 


Dua-pulu, 


Yagi-romdidi. 


, Diia-puhi. 


Hundred. 


Simari. 


Atus. 


Rata. 


Utun. 


Thousand. 


— 


_ 


Ribu. 


Rihune. 



It will be here seen, that the Tambora numerals, formed like 



DISSERTATION. ccxxvii 

tlie Malayan, on the decimal scale, and belonging to the lan- 
guage of a people of the Malayan race, are yet, in every word, 
totally different from the current Malayan numerals. The 
numerals of the Sumbawa, a language of the same island as the 
Tambora, are, on the contrary, wholly Malayan, or rather 
Malay, to the exclusion of Javanese, with the single exception 
of "hundred," which takes the form of the latter language. 
It is the only example of this, that I am aware of, and would 
seem to imply a powerful settlement of pure Malays in the part 
of the island in which the Sumbawa is spoken. 

The Tarnati numeral system, formed like the Tambora and 
the Malayan, on the decimal scale, differs from both, up to a 
hundred, when it adopts the usual Malayan numerals. The 
only exception is the numeral " nine," siyu, which may possibly 
be the Javanese sanga. 

In the language of Tambora, then, we find, in the very centre 
of the Archipelago, a system of numerals wholly different from 
the Malayan ; and, again, towards its eastern limits, in the 
Tarnati, another nearly so. This striking fact ought alone, 
to be sufficient to overthrow the hypothesis of all the languages 
from Madagascar to Easter island being essentially one tongue, 
and in support of which a supposed universality of the numerals 
has been adduced as a principal argument. The numerals of 
Ternate and Tambora have never extended beyond the spots 
where they originated ; but it is easy to conceive that had the 
localities of the people of Tambora and Ternate been exchanged 
for those of the Malays and Javanese, that is, if they had been 
planted in great and fertile islands where there was room for 
development, instead of small or barren ones, in Avhich their 
energies were cramped, we might have seen their numerals 
widely disseminated instead of the Malayan. 

I proceed with the enquiry, as it regards the Philippine lan- 
influenceofthe S^^g^^^ ^^^ whicli tlic dictionaries of the three prin- 
^IhosTof^the"' c^P^l languages, the Tagala, the Pampanga, and 
Philippines. Bisaya, afford ample materials. In the first and 
last the names of the domesticated animals are as follow : — 



ff2 



ccxxviii 


DISS 


ERTATION. 


KNGTJSH. 


TAGALA. 


BISATA. 


Dog. 


Asu, ay am. 


Iru, ay am. 


Hog. 


Bablii. 


Babui. 


Domestic fowl. 


Manuk. 


Manuk. 


Goat. 


Kambing. 


Kaudiug. 


Buffalo. 


Karabau. 


Karabau. 


Elephant. 


Gadia. 


Gadya, gar 


Duck. 


Itik. 


Itik. 


Cat. 


Pusa. 


Kuriug. 



MALAYAN. 
Asu, j. 

Babi, m. ; bawi, j 
Manuk, j. 
Kambing, i 
Karbau, m 
Gajali, s. 
Itik, m. 
Kuchiug, c 



kabu, j. 



Among these words there can scarcely be said to be any that 
are not either Malayan, or that have not come through the 
Malayan ; nor can I find that any of them have native syno- 
nymes. Some of them exist in the wild state in the Philippines, 
and these have all native names. Thus, in the Tagala, the wild 
hog is called pagil, the wild fowl labuyu, the wild duck 
papan, and the wild cat lampung. The dog has a syno- 
nyme, but that also is Malay, meaning "^ a fowl," perhaps 
in the sense of " the cock," or " leader." The ox, and horse, 
now abounding in the Philippines, have no names in the Philip- 
pine languages, except the Spanish, and it may be safely con- 
cluded were unknown before the arrival of Europeans. Even 
the buffalo seems to have been unknown to the inhabitants of 
the large island of Zebu ; for Pigafetta says " they had only 
dogs, cats, hogs, and domestic fowls, which they used for food." 
It is singular, that while the Malays seem to have introduced 
the buffalo, they should not also have introduced the ox abound- 
ing, like it, in their own country. The elephant is known only 
by name, for it is not a native of the Philippines, nor has it 
been introduced. 

The following are the names of the staple cultivated plants of 
the Philippines, with their Malayan synonymes : — 



ENGLISH. 


TAGALA. 


BISAYA. 


MALAYAN. 


Yam. 


Ubi. 


Ubi. 


Ubi, c. 


Batata. 


Kamoti. 


Gabi. 


Katcla, c. 


Rice in the husk. 


Palai, palasi. 


Pasi. 


Pad'i, m. ; pari, j. 


Onion. 


Bavang. 


— 


Bawang, c. 


Sesame. 


Lunga. 


Linga. 


Langa, c. 


Coconut. 


N-iug. 


Niug. 


Nur, m. ; nu, j. 


Banana. 


Bisku, sabi. 


Saguing. 


Pisang, m.; gddang, j. 





DISSERTATION. 


co.xxi; 


ENGLISH. 


XAGALA. 


BISAVA. 


MALAYAN. 


Ricinus. 


Tangan-taugau. 


— 


Jarak, c. 


Jack-fruit. 


Nangka. 


— 


Nangka, c. 


Bread-fi-uit. 


Antipulu, tipulu. 


— 


Sukun, c. 


Maugo. 


Maugga. 


— 


Mangga, m. 


Orange. 


Dalandan, kahil. 


— 


Jaruk, c. ; limau, m. 


Sugar-caue. 


Tubu. 


Tubu. 


Tabu. 


Indigo plant. 


Tayum. 


Tayung. 


Tarum, m. ; torn, j. 


Areca palm. 


Bouga. 


Bonga. 


Pinang, m. ; sui'uh. 



Nine of the names here given are Malayan ; but in a Flora 
of the Philippines I find about a dozen other cultivated plants 
of less importance bearing also Malayan names.* The most 
important plant in the list I have given is rice. The generic 
name for it, when husked or clean, is Malayan, but its many 
varieties, and its different conditions in the progress of prepara- 
tion for food, are for the most part known by native names. 
Maize is known only by its Spanish name, and is expressly said, 
by the author of the Philippine Flora, above referred to, to have 
been introduced from America. The banana, as usual, bears 
only native names. This is a plant of much importance in the 
Philippines, for from two species of it are manufactured cloth 
and cordage, so that, besides yielding food, it stands to them in 
the relation of hemp and flax to temperate climates. The coco- 
nut, the mango, the sugar-cane, and indigo plant have Malayan 
names only, and the batata and orange only native ones. The 
name given to the areca palm is a little remarkable, bunga. 
This is the Malay word for " flower,^' but seems to have been 
misinterpreted botli in the Tagala and Bisaya, in which it means 
" fruit." The areca palm or nut may, therefore, be interpreted 
" the fruit." In the polite dialect of Java, we have a name for 
the areca having the same source, — wohan, or "the fruit," in 
reference to its high estimation. All the species of pulses, of 
which several are named in the Philippine Flora, are called by 
native names, except the Abrus precatorius, or counting-bean, 
which has its Malayan name, saga. Pigafetta states the 
grains cultivated in Zebu to have been rice, millet, panick, and 



Flora de Filipiuas, por el P. T. Manuel Blanco. Manilla, 1837. 



DISSERTATION. 



barley (?), and the fruits^ figs (banana?), the orange, the lemon, 
sugar-cane, the coconut, and cucumbers. 

The metals, with the implements used in their manipulation, 
are the following : — 



ENGLISH. 


TAGALA. 


BISAYA. 


MALAYAN. 


Iron. 


Balakal. 


Salsalon. 


Basi, c. 


Steel. 


Patalim. 


Acera, sp. 


Baja, c. 


Gold. 


Balituk. 


Bulavan. 


Ma.s, c. 


Silver. 


Pilak. 


Pilak. 


Perak, m. 


Copper. 


Tumbaga. 


Tumbaga. 


Tambaga, s. 


Tin. 


Timga. 


Tinga. 


Timah, c. 


Hammer. 


Pinalatak, satuk. 


Palu. 


Palu, c. 


Anvil. 


Palihan. 


Landasan. 


Landasan, m. 


Nippers, tongs. 


Sipit. 


Kimpit. 


Sapit, 0. 


Solder. 


Bitang. 


Pauli. 


Patri, c. 



From this it will appear that the Philippine islanders are not 
indebted to the Malays or Javanese for their knowledge of iron 
or gold; but that these nations made them acquainted with 
silver, copper, and tin, and probably conveyed to them some 
instruction in the working of metals. 

The following are a few of the terms relating to the ordinary 
mechanic arts : — 



ENGLISH. 


TAGALA. 


BISAYA. 


MALAYAN. 


House. 


Bahai, dalam. 


Bahai. 


Balai, m. ; dalam, j. 


Eoof. 


Bobong, bobongan. Atap. 


Bubungan, c. 


Thatch. 


Dayani. 


Iranian. 


Atap. 


Tile. 


— 


Tisa. 


Gauting, m. ; gand-ing, j. 


Lime. 


Apog, pirali. 


Apog. 


Apu, j. ; kapui", m. 


Door. 


Pintu. 


Pintu, takup. 


Pintu, c. 


Bolt. 


Butlig, kulu. 


Kulungu. 


Kunchi, c. 


Board, plank. 


Papan. 


Tape. 


Papan, m. 


Fish. 


Isda. 


Esda. 


Ikan, m. 


Fishing net. 


Bikat, lambat. 


Laya. 


Pukat, m. 


Fish-hook. 


Kavil, taga. 


Kavil, bauit. 


Kiiil, m. 


Harpoon, trident 


. Salapaug. 


Sagangat. 


Sarampaug, c. 


Cotton. 


Bulak, kapas. 


Bulak. 


Kapas, s. 


Silk. 


Husi, sutla. 


Sukla, sutla. 


Sutra, s. 


Spin. 


Sulir. 


Ulang, pamuruug. Antih. 


Thread. 


Gnyun. 


Ulang. 


Banaug, c. ; lawe, j. 


Weave. 


Habi. 


Habol. 


Tanun, c. 


Woof. 


HiliR. 


Hilig. 


Pakdn, c. 







DISSERTATION. 


ccxxxi 


liNGUSH. 


TAGALA. 


BISAYA. 


MALAYAN. 


Shuttle. 


Bulus. 


Sik-ian, busali. 


Turak, balera, m. ; tro- 
pong, j. 


Cloth. 


Lumput. 


Lumput. 


Kayin, m. ; sinjang, j. 


Needle. 


Sikavan. 


Dagum. 


Jarum, m. ; dom, j. 


Sew. 


Tahi. 


Tahi. 


Jaib, jahit, c. 


Embroider. 


Sulam. 


Sulam. 


Sulam, c. 


Turn on a lathe. 


— 


Larik. 


Larek, m. 


Chisel. 


Pait. 


— 


Piiat, m. 


Saw. 


Lagari. 


Lagari, gabas. 


Gargaji, grigaji, c. 


Adze. 


Palakul. 


Sidu, galung. 


Kapak. 


Knife. 


Golok, pisau 


Pisau. 


Golok, m. ; pisau, c. 


Shears. 


Guntiug. 


Guuting. 


Guuting, 0. 


Nail, spike. 


Paku. 


Laudang. 


Paku, 0. 


Rice mortar. 


Lusung. 


— 


Lasung, c. 


Artisan. 


— 


Pandai. 


Pand-e, a. 



Many of the terms connected with tliis class of words, as will 
be seen, are Malayan ; but being frequently accompanied by 
native synouymes, they ought generally to be considered, per- 
haps rather as indicating the influence exercised by the Malay 
and Javanese languages than as evidence of the introduction of 
the arts to which they relate. Cotton, it will be noticed, has a 
native name, both in the Tagala and Bisaya, and the usual 
Sanskrit one as a synonyme only in the first of these. The 
probability, then, is that cotton is an indigenous product of the 
Philippines, and not imported by strangers. Silk has the usual 
Sanskrit name, and one also which seems native, but cannot 
well be so, as it does not appear that either the silkworm or 
mulberry are known to the Philippines. One striking fact is 
noticeable in the list of words, — that all the terms relating to 
the manufacture of textile fabrics are native, and not foreign ; 
the thread, weaving, shuttle, Avoof, cloth, and the raw materials. 
It will, perhaps, be safe from this to conclude that the fabrica- 
tion of clothing from cotton, and the fibrous bark of the banana 
or musa, is a native art. That such an art should spring up 
among a people so rude as the natives of the Philippine islands 
may be owing to the cheap and abundant raw materials yielded 
on the spot by the cotton-plant and banana. Native terms, 
however, generally cease, or are no longer exclusive, after the 
completion of the fabric ; and we have Malayan terms for such 



ccxxxii DISSERTATION. 

words ns " needle," " sew," " embroider." In the class of 
words relating to what may be considered, among a rude people, 
as the highest effort of mechanic skill, the fabrication of cutting 
instruments and tools, all the terms, the name of the adze only 
excepted, are Malayan. If such objects were first made known 
to the inhabitants of the Philippine islands by the Malays and 
Javanese, it is certain they must have been in a comparatively 
rude state before, and that those who made them known were 
in a much more advanced condition. 

The following are some of the terms which relate to navi- 
gation : — 



ENGLISH. 


TAG A LA. 


BISAYA. 


MALAYAN. 


Boat, vessel. 


Susayan, parau. 


Sagabal, parau. 


Prau, c. 


Ship. 


Darung. 


Sakayan. 


Kapal, tai. 


Canoe. 


— 


Sampan. 


Sampan, m. 


Prow. 


Duang. 


Dulung. 


Aliian, m. 


Stern, poop. 


Huli. 


Uling. 


Buri, buritan, c. 


Oar. 


Gayuug. 


Gaud, bugsai. 


Dayung, c. 


Sail. 


Layag. 


Layag. 


Layar, c. 


Helm. 


Uguil. 


Kaling. 


Kamud-i. 


Ballast. 


Tolabahala. 


Batu-batu. 


Tolakbara, c. 


Anchor. 


Savu. 


Sinipit. 


Sauh, c. 


To sound. 


Duga. 


Tungkad. 


Duga, c. 


Sound, plummet. 


Panduga. 


Pagtimgkad. 


Pfvnduga, c. 


Magnet. 


Batubalani. 


Batubalani. 


Batu-brani, c. 


East. 


Silangan. 


Sidlangan. 


Tinur, m. ; wetan, j, 


West. 


Kalanui-an. 


Tonod, lonod, sa- 
lam. 


■ Salam, c. 


North. 


Hilaga. 


Amijan. 


Utara, s. ; lor, j. 


South-east. 


Salatan. 


Salatan. 


Salatam, m. (south.) 


River. 


Hog. 


Suba. 


Simgai, m. ; kali, j. 


Sea. 


Dagut. 


Dagut. 


Laut, c. ; tasik, j. 


Ocean. 


Laut. 


— 


Laut, c. 


Beach, strand. 


Baibaiu. 


Pangpang, biyad. 


Pantai, m. 


Tide. 


Alagovak. 


Huuas, tiiub. 


Ams, m. 


Promontory. 


— 


Bakulur. 


Tanjung, m. 


Mountain. 


Bimduk. 


Bukid. 


Bukit, m. 


Strait. 


Kitir. 





Salat, m. 


Island, islet. 


Pulo. 


Puro. 


Pulau, pulo, c. 


Source of a river. 


Hulu. 





Ulu. 


Star, 


Bitoeng. 


Biliiun. 


Biutang, m. 


Pilot. 


Malim, a. 


Pilote, sp. 


Jurumudi, c. 


Master, commander. 


Arakura. 


__ 


Jui'agim, c. 


Wind. 


Hangin. 


Hangin. 


Angin. 


" Storm. 


Bagyu. 


Unus, baguia. 


Bayu, 6. 



DISSERTATION, ccxxxiii 

Of this class of words, no more can be said than that it 
exhibits some admixture of Malayan words with native 
ones, from which a considerable intercourse of the parties 
concerned is necessarily to be inferred. The terms relat- 
ing to navigation, as they are given by the Spanish lexico- 
graphers, are certainly less copious than those of the Malays, 
and by no means infer that the inhabitants of the Philippines 
were, like the latter, a maritime people. There is, for example, 
a strange defect in the nomenclature of the winds. I can find 
no more than three cardinal points of the compass with native 
names. The Tagala has one Malay name, but it is misinter- 
preted "the south-east," — a point which has in Malay the 
specific terra tangara. It is correct in the Bisaya, as "■ the south." 

I find the following words relating to commerce : — 



ENGLISH. 


TAGALA. 


BISAYA. 


MALAYAN. 


Buy. 


Bill. 





Bali, bli, m. 


Sell. 


Bill. 





Juwal, m. ; adol, j. 


Bargain. 


Tavar. 


— 


Tawar, c. (to chaffer.) 


Contx-act. 


Usup. 


Tipan. 


Janji, c. 


Hire, wages. 


Upa. 


Tipan. 


Upah, c. 


Debt. 


Utang. 


Utang. 


Utang, c. 


Itinerant trader. 


Banyaga. 


— 


Bai-nigaya, s. (to trade.) 


Price, value. 


Halaga. 


BiU. 


Arga, s. 


Cheap. 


Mura. 


— 


Miu-ah, c. 


Dear. 


Mahal. 


Mahal. 


Miial, m. 


Count, reckon. 


Bilang, ulat. 


Bilang, bana. 


Bilang, c. ; ulang, m. (to 
iterate.) 


Merchandise. 


Dagangan, laku. 


BaUguinan. 


Dagangan, c. 


Pledge, mortgage. 


. Garai. 


SaUli. 


Gad'ai, c. 


Interest. 


Angkit. 


Pulus, agur. 


Bunga-mas, m. 


Money. 


Salapi. 


Pilak. 


Salaka, j. ; perak, m. 


Small coin. 


Pitis. 


— 


Pichis, pitis, c. 


Profit. 


Laba, paruli. 


Pulus. 


Laba, s. ; parulihan, m. 


Indigo. 


Tayum. 


— 


Tariun, m. ; tom, j. 


Lac. 


— 


Olod-olod. 


Ambalu, c. 


Sapan-wood. 


Sapang. 


— 


Sapang, m. ; sachang, j. 


Sandal-wood. 


Sandana. 


Sandana. 


Chandana, s. 


Clove. 


— 


Sangki. 


Cangkeh, c. 


Black pepper. 


Lara. 


Piminta, sp. 


Lada, m. 


Tobacco. 


Tabaku. 


Tabaku. 


Tambaku, c. 


Pearl. 


Mutya. 


Mutya. 


Mutya, mutyara, s. 


Bale, parcel. 


— 


Bimgkus. 


Bungkus, c. 



As might be looked for in this department, the proportion of 



ccxxxiv DISSERTATION. 

Malayan words is greater than in any other. The Philippine 
languages are themselves here very poor, and have not even 
borrowed very correctly from the Malayan, either as to sense or 
orthography. Thus, in the Tagala, the Malay verb bali, abbre- 
viated bli, " to buy,'' is either " to buy," or " to sell," in short, 
to trade or traffic. In the Bisaya it means " price," or " value." 
In this last language I can find no words for the verbs "to buy" 
or " to sell," generally, yet for the first of these there are thirteen 
verbs, two of them with synonymes, expressing modifications of 
buying, as " to buy for sale," " to buy wholesale," '' to buy in re- 
tail," " to buy corn," " to buy gold by barter," " to buy in part- 
nership," "to buy slaves," "earthenware," "bells," and such 
like. In Malay the verb " to pay " is bayar, which is written 
bayad in Bisaya, and in that language is the noun " payment." 
It appears, however, again, with a better orthography in the 
derivative bayaran, which ought to be " payment," but is in- 
terpreted " place of payment." The Sanskrit word laba is cor- 
rectly rendered " profit " in the Tagala, but in the Bisaya it 
means " usury." Among the names of articles of trade we have 
from the Malayan languages, or the Sanskrit through them, 
sapan-wood, sandal-wood, indigo, clove, pepper, pearl. The 
Sanskrit name for sugar, gula, for gud-a, known to all the 
cultivated tongues of the Archipelago, does not seem to have 
reached the Philippine languages. The inference from this is, 
that the western nations did not introduce the commodity into 
the Philippine islands, which were, probably, content with the 
crude product obtained by boiling the sap of palms. 

The Tagala and Bisaya dictionaries afford but few examples 
of words relating to the art of war : — 



ENGLISU. 


TAGALA. 


BISAYA. 




MALAYAN. 


Enemy. 


Musu. 


Baluk. 




Musuh, C. 


Hostility. 





Kiiuiivai 




Kalai, m. 


Flag, banner. 


Linibun. 


Bandila, 


sp. 


Tunggal, c; band'era,por 


Drum. 


Patung. 


Ginibal. 




Gaud'aug, c. 


Fortress. 


Kuta. 


Kuta. 




Kut-a, s. 


Arms. 


Saudata. 







Sanjata, c. 


Sling. 


Paniaka. 


Labiug. 




Ali-ali, m. ; baudriug, j. 


Bow. 


Pana. 


Paua. 




Pauah, c. 


Lance, spear. 


Gayang. 


Bankau, 


budiak. 


Tumbak, c. 







DISSERTATION. 


CC.T.XXV 


ENGLISH. 


TAG A LA. 


BISATA. 


MALAYAN. 


Dagger. 


Iva. 


— 


Kris, 0. ; duwung, j. 


Sword. 


Kalis. 


Kalis. 


Kris, c. (dagger.) 


Shield. 


Panangga, palisai. Kalasag. 


Panangga, prisai. 


Fire-arms. 


Baril. 


Bulak, bukad. 


Bad-il, c. 


Sulphur. 


Sanyava. 


Azufre, sp. 


Sandawa, c. (nitre.) 


Gunpowder. 


Ubat, malilang. 


Malilan, polvora, sp. 


Baliraug, c. (sulphur) ; 
ubat, m. 


Corsair. 


Lanlang, musu. 


Mangayau. 


Langlang, j. ; musuh, c. 


Captive. 


Biliag. 


Bihag. 


Tawan, boyong, c. 



In this short list it ^yill be seen, that the rudest weapons have 
native names, and the more improved Malayan ones. Some odd 
mistakes have been made in applying the latter. The well- 
known Malay kris, in a far worse orthography than even in an 
English dictionary, represents " a sword,^' in both the Philip- 
pine languages. The Malayan name for nitre, sandawa, appears 
in the Tagala in the corrupt form of sanyava, and is erroneously 
given for "sulphur," while the Malayan name of the last, 
balirang, or walirang, is corrupted into malilang and malilan, 
and applied to "gunpowder.'^ Pigafetta makes no mention of 
fire-arms as being known in the Philippine islands when first 
discovered by Europeans. In the action with the natives of 
the little island of Matan, near Zebu, in which Magellan lost 
his life, the enemy was even destitute of iron, for their weapons 
consisted only of bucklers, bows, and arrows, with spears of 
sharpened bambu, charred to harden their points. One of the 
words for corsair or pirate in the Tagala, langlang, is Javanese, 
and means "to patrole," or " go about seeking after;" the other 
is Javanese or Malay, and in these languages is a common term 
for "an enemy." 

The few following words relate to time : — 



ENGLISH. 


TAGALA. 


BISAYA. 


MALAYAN. 


Time. 


Panahon, masa. 


Panig, tuig. 


Kala, B. ; masa, s. ; wayah, j. 


Sun. 


Arau. 


Adlau. 


Mata-ari, m. ; sarangenge, j. 


Moon, mouth. 


Buvan. 


Bulan. 


Bulan, m. ; wulan, j. 


Day. 


Arau, bayan. 


Adlau. 


Ari, 8. ; dina, s. 


Night. 


Gabi. 


Gabi. 


Malam, m. ; wangi, j. 


Morning. 


Omaga, biias. 


Biias. 


Pagi, m. ; esuk, j. 


Yeai-. 


Tiiun. 


Tauu, tiiig, duguu. 


Taun, c. 


Dry season. 


Tagarau. 


— 


Kamarau, ni. 



Out of twelve distinct words three only are Malayan, all 



ccxxxvi DISSERTATION. 

referring to a rude kalendar. There is no word for era in the 
Tagala or Bisaya^ and, indeed, the high probability is, that the 
Philippine islanders never had one. The Javanese, at least, 
were in possession of one, but do not seem to have communi- 
cated it to them. 

The cardinal numbers of the Tagala and Bisaya are as 
follow : — 



ENGTJRH. 


TAGALA. 


BISAYA. 


MALAYAN. 


One. 


Isa. 


Isa, isai'a. 


Sa, c. 


Two. 


Dalava. 


Duha. 


Duwa, loro, c. 


Three. 


Tatlu. 


Tulu. 


Talu, j. 


Four. 


Apat. 


Upat. 


Ampat, pat, c. 


Five. 


Lima. 


Lima. 


Lima, c. 


Six. 


Anim. 


Anum, unum. 


Anam, nam, c. 


Seven. 


Pitu. 


Pitu. 


Pitu, j. 


Eight. 


Valu. 


Vaki. 


Wolu, j. 


Nine. 


Siyam. 


Siam. 


Sanga, j. 


Ten. 


Pulu. 


Pulu. 


Pukih, c. 


Hundred. 


Diian. 


Gatus. 


Ratus, m. ; atus, j. 


Thousand. 


Libu. 


Livu. 


Ribu, m. ; ewii, j. 


Ten thousand. 


Laksa. 


Laksa. 


Laksa, s. 



Hundred thousand. Yuta. Yuta. Yiita, s. 

In forming the compounded numerals from these elementary 
ones, a good deal of permutation is practised. Thus in the 
Tagala, " ten" is not isa-pulu, but sang-puvu, and "twenty," 
not dalava-pulu, but daluvang-puvu. The ordinal numbers are 
formed by prefixing to the cardinals the inseparable particle 
ika, which is, in reality, the Malayan ka. The Philippine 
numerals are essentially the Malayan. The number " hundred " 
in the Tagala seems the only exception, and it may be the 
relic of a native system superseded by the Malayan. The 
variation in the orthography of the numerals between the two 
Philippine languages, having the same phonetic character, and 
written with the same letters, indicates that the Malayan 
system of reckoning must have been communicated orally, and 
not through writing. The numbers above a thousand are, as 
usual, taken from the Sanskrit, and the universal error of taking 
a hundred thousand for ten thousand is copied. The Pliilippine 
islanders, however, add an error of their own, making the term 



BISSERTATION. ccxxxvii 

which ought to represent a " million/' to represent a " hundred 
thousand," and throwing out altogether the real name of the 
latter, kiit'i. From the presence of tliese Sanskrit numerals in 
the Philippine languages, we might be disposed, at first sight, 
to infer that the whole numeral system was not introduced until 
after the intercourse of the Malays and Javanese with the 
Hindus had been established, but it is more likely that the 
Sanskrit numerals were superadded in the course of the 
continued intercourse of the Malays and Javanese with the 
Philippines. 

I can find only the very few following words on the subject 
of letters or literature : — 



ENGLISH. 

Write. 

Read. 

Delineate. 

Paper. 

Tale, story. 

Language. 



TAGALA. 

Sulat. 

Basa. 

Hibu. 

Kalatas. 

Salita. 

Basa. 



BISAYA. 

Liluk, sulat. 
Basa. 
Pinta, sp. 
Kalatas. 



MALAYAN. 

Tulis, 0. ; surat, a. 
Bacha, m. ; niacha, j. 
Tulis, c. 
Kai-tas, a. 
Charita, s. 



One of these words only is Malayan. Two of them are San- 
skrit, tlarough the Malayan, and two are Arabic through the 
same channel. There is nothing in any one of the words to 
indicate that the Philippine written characters are of foreign 
origin. 

The following are some of the words to be found in the 
dictionaries relating to mythology and superstitions : — 



ENGLISH. 

A god, a deity. 
Idol, image. 
To adore. 
Adoration. 
A fast. 
Heaven. 

Destiny, fortune. 
Charm, spell. 
Astrologer. 
To divine. 
Diviner. 



TAGALA. 

Divata, yaua. 

Anitu. 

Samba. 

Pagsamba. 

Piiasa. 

Untung. 
Mantala. 

Baku, hula. 
Sirhi. 



BISAYA. 

Divata. 

Anitu. 

Simba. 

Pagsimba. 

Piiasa. 

Tampangan. 

Untung. 

Pala, bitiiun. 
Gatuk, patuk, tugma. 



MALAYAN. 

Dewata, s. ; ywang, j. 
Brahala, m. ; racha. j. 
Sambah, c. 
Pars&mbah, c. 
Puwasa, c. 
Swarga, s. 
Untung, c. 
Mantra, s. 
Sastrawan, s. 
Tanung, tarka, c. 
Sastrawan, s. 



ccxxxviii 


DISSERTATION. 




ENGLISH. 


TAGALA. 


BISATA. 


MALAYAN. 


Sorcery. 


Balituk. 


Lilihian. 


Tanibol, m. 


Sorcerer. 


Gavai. 


— 


Paleset, m. 


To euchaut. 


Kulam, bunsul. 





Ubati, m. 


Spectre. 


Bibit, tigbalang. 


Saraiian, landung, 
halun. 


Antii, c. 



All the words here relating to religion are either Malayan, or 
Sanskrit through the Malayan, and all those relating to local 
superstitions are native. There is just evidence enough, hut no 
more, to show that the Hindu religion had reached the Philip- 
pine islands without superseding the national superstition. The 
course by which it reached is sufficiently indicated by the ad- 
mixture of Malayan mythological with Sanskrit terms, as well 
as by the form and sense of the latter. Of the last kind of 
evidence one example will suffice. The Sanskrit avatara, " a 
descent," is pronounced by the Malays and Javanese batara, 
and used as an appellative for the principal Hindu gods. The 
Philippine pronunciation is batala, the same as the Malayan, 
with the exchange of one liquid for another, and the sense is 
" a god." Pigafetta describes the god M^orshipped by the in- 
habitants of Zebu when first seen by the Spaniards. It was 
made of wood, hollow within, painted all over, with open arms 
and legs, the feet turned upwards, and having in the mouth 
four tusks, like those of a wild boar. At the persuasion of 
Magellan, the king and people of Zebu were baptised, and the 
great navigator gave into their charge an image of the infant 
Christ, which, it is said, was found safe fifty years after, on the 
return of the Spaniards, and it still exists in a convent in Zebu. 
The natives called this image batala, that is, " the god," and it 
is the name by which it goes to the present day.* Tiie native 
images were most probably intended to represent the Batara- 
guru of the Javanese and Malays ; and my friend. Professor 
Wilson, informs me, that the Hindu god intended was no doubt 
Vishnu. The king and people of Zebu destroyed their temples 
and images at the persuasion of Magellan and his companions, 
a certain proof that the religion to which they were dedicated 
had but a very slender hold on their imaginations or affections. 

* Diccionario de longua Bisaya, por Alonzo do Mentrida. Vox Butala. 1841. 



DISSEKTATION. 



The follomng are a few words connected with the adrainis- 
tratioQ of justice : — 



EXGLISn. 

Crime. 

'Witness. 

Oath. 

Law. 

Prison. 

Alguazil. 

Judge. 

Mulct. 

Contract. 

Heritage. 

MaiTiage. 

Pardon. 



Dusa, sala. 

Saksi. 

Sumpa. 



Hukum. 
Lavan, silut. 
Atang. 

Mana, bubut. 
Kasal (casar, sp.) 
Tavad, tavar. 



BISAYA. 

Sala. 

Saksi. 

Sumpa. 

Sugu. 

Bilanggu. 

Bilanggau. 

Hukum. 

Silut. 

Tipau. 

Uma. 

Asava, bana. 

Patariad. 



Dusa, s. ; salah, c. 
Saksi, s. 
Sumpah, m. 
Und'ang, c. 
Balanggu, m. 
Mata-mata, m. 
HakTm, a. 
D'and'a, s. 
Janji, c. 
Pusaka, c. 
Kawin, pei\ ; nika/(, 
Ampun, c. 



Of this class of words four are Malay, two Sanskrit, and one 
Arabic, and they are all that can be found, in the two diction- 
aries. One of the Malay words is singular for the senses given 
to it. Bfdanggu in Malay means " chains," or " fetters," but in 
the Bisaya it signifies " a prison," while a derivative from it is 
rendered " an alguazil." 

Connected with government or administration, I find only 
the following seven words in the dictionaries : — 



ENGLISH. 


TAGALA. 


BISATAN. 


MALAYAN. 


Chieftain, 


elder. 


Puun, abun. 


Datu, guiniAu. 


Datuk, m. ; poun, m. 


King. 




Hari. 


Haii. 


Hai-i, s. 


Minister. 




— 


Subugiiau. 


Patih, s. 


Crown. 




Basung-basung. 


Purung-puruug. 


Makut-a, s. 


Counsel. 




Atul, pati. 


Laigai. 


Bachara, s. 


Village. 




Bayan. 


Banua, langsur. 


Banuwa, m. (region.) 


Slave. 




Alipin. 


Ulipun. 


Amba, m. ; kawula, j. 



Four of these words only are Malayan or Sanskrit. The 
Malay word poun, " a tree," here used for " a chieftain," in 
its original language also means *' stem," " stock," or " source,^' 
as well as " a tree." One of the words used for counsel or 
advice in the Tagala is most probably the Sanskrit word patih, 
" a minister," or " councillor." 

In reference to the examination of the Philippine languages 
now made, when it is considered that not more than 26 words 



ccxl DISSERTATION. 

in 1000 of the whole body of the Tagala and Bisaya are 
Malayan, including Sanskrit and Arabic under this head, the 
number of them referring to the arts and knowledge introduced 
by the Malays and Javanese must be thought a large pro- 
portion. 

I have now to enquire into the nature of the Malayan 
intercourse with the inhabitants of the islands of the Pacific 
Influence of ^P^^^^i^S the Polynesian language. The total number 
and jata-^ of Malayan words in the Polynesian, it will be recol- 
inhlut^ts lected, is little more than 80, the numerals included, 
uiandsof which of themsclves make near a sixth part of 
the Pacific. ^^^^ number. When Europeans first authentically 
examined the South Sea islands, they found the only domes- 
ticated animals known to the inhabitants to be the dog, the 
hog, and the common fowl, which have the following names in 
the different dialects : — 







SANDWICH 




ENGLISH. 


MARQUESAS. 


ISLANDS. TONGA. 


NEW ZEALAND. MALATAlf. 


Dog. 


Nuhe, peto. 


Ilio. Guli. 


Kuri, kireke. Anjing, m. ; asu, j. 


Hog. 


Puaka. 


Puiia. Buaka» 


— Babi, c. 


Commou 


Moa. 


Moa. Moa. 


— Ayam, manuk, c. 


fowl. 









These were found to be very unequally distributed. The 
Society and Sandwich islands had all the three. The INIar- 
quesas had only the hog and common fowl, and Easter island 
only the last. New Zealand had only the dog. The breed or 
race of all the animals was uniformly the same throughout all 
the islands. Forster, in his " Observations on Cook^s Second 
Voyage,^^ describes the hog and dog. "The hogs,^' says he, 
" are of the breed which we call Cliinese, having a short body, 
short legs, belly hanging down almost to the ground, the ears 
erect, and very few thin hairs on the body." Of the dog, he 
says, " The dogs of the South Sea isles are a singular race ; 
they most resemble the common cur, but have a prodigious large 
head, remarkably little eyes, prick ears, long hair, and a short 
bushy tail. They are exceedingly stupid, and seldom or never 
bark, only growl now and then, have the sense of smelling in a 



DISSERTATIOX. ccxli 

very low degree, and are lazy beyond measure. They are kept 
by the natives for the sake of the flesh, of which they are very 
fond, preferring it to pork/' 

Not one of the Polynesian names, above given, are either 
Malay or Javanese, although Malayan names extend east- 
ward as far as the Philippine islands and the entrance of 
Torres Straits. The Polynesian name of the common fowl 
might be supposed a corruption of the wide-spread Javanese 
word manuk, "a fowl,'' or "bird;" but this cannot be 
the case, for that word appears in the Polynesian with its 
genuine meaning and in a correct orthography, bating the 
indispensable elision of the final consonant. Some writers 
have fancied, from the resemblance of the Polynesian name for 
the hog to the Spanish puerea, that the hog was introduced 
by the early Spanish voyagers. If that were the case, the 
Spaniards must have introduced everywhere the same variety of 
the auimal, — one, moreover, with which they themselves were 
unacquainted at the time; or the natives must have disse- 
minated this same variety over a vast space which they are not 
ascertained to frequent, and this, too, within the comparatively 
recent time since the Spaniards first navigated the Pacific. 
The same objection holds for the dog, with the additional one 
that none of its several names are traceable to any possible 
name of any European language. The common fowl has the 
same name in all the dialects of the Polynesian; but neither 
can that be traced to any Asiatic or European tongue. 

If any strangers introduced the domestic animals of the 
South Sea islands, the Chinese appear to me the most likely to 
have done so. The races of both the hog and dog, but espe- 
cially of the first, very much resemble those of China. The 
sluggishness and stupidity of the Polynesian dog may be 
accounted for by the want of tuition incident to an animal kept 
only for the shambles. Chinese junks driven out of their course 
by a tempest might reach some of the islands of the Northern 
Pacific without making a voyage of any extraordinary length, 
and the diflFerent animals might in time be spread, as the 
Polynesians themselves undoubtedly have been, from island to 
island. Certainly none of the domesticated animals of the 



ccxlii 



DISSERTATION. 



Pacific islands are, in any of them, in the wild state; yet in 
remote times they may have so existed, as the sheep, the horse, 
and the camel must have done in Europe and Asia, although 
no longer existing iia that condition in any known country. 

The following were the cultivated plants of the Pacific 
islands when first observed by Eui'opeans, with their names in 
several dialects of the Polynesian, and synonymes in Malayan : — 









SANDWICH 








ENGLISH. 


MARQtJESA. 


TAHITI. 


ISLANDS. 


TONGA. 


JIAORL 


MALAYAN. 


Tiiro. 


Taro. 


Taro. 


Kalo. 


Talo. 


Taro. 


Talas, j. 


Batata. 


Kumiia, umaa 


. Kumara. 


Mala, lala. 


Gumala. 


Kumara. 


Katela, j. 


Yam. 


— 


Eui. 


Palau. 


Ufi. 


Uwi. 


Ubi, uwi, c. 


Banana. 


Meia, meika. 


Meia. 


Meia, meika. 


Fuji, hopa. 


_ 


Pisaug, m. 


Bread-fruit. 


Mei. 


Vavo. 


Ulu. 


Me, rna- 
miie. 




Sukun, tam- 
bol, c. 


Coco-palm. 


Elii. 


Ehi. 


Niu. 


Niu. 


— 


Nur, m.; iiu. j 


Sugar-cane. 


To. 


To. 


Ko. 


Tau. 


~ 


Tabu, c. 


Turmeruk. 


Ena. 


Ena. 


Eka. 


Enga. 


— 


Kuiiit, c. 


Citron. 


Tiporo. 


— 


Tiporo. 


Moli. 


— 


Jaruk, c. 



All the plants here enumerated are cultivated in the Malayan 
Archipelago, and most probably are indigenous there. The taro, 
the bread of the South Sea islands, is the Arum esculentum, 
the Caladium esculentum, and the Colocasia vera of botanists, — 
the kaladi of the Malays, and the talas of the Javanese. The 
last-named word, in accordance with Polynesian pronunciation, 
would be most probably pronounced talo, or taro. As far as 
the name is to be held evidence, the plant is an exotic, brought 
directly or indirectly from Java. In the Society islands, there 
are cultivated two aroid plants nearly allied, although distinct 
species. Of the first, which is the true Arum esculentum, 
sixteen, and of the second, six varieties are cultivated. In 
the same islands another aroid plant, Dracontium polyphyllum, , 
grows wild, and is occasionally used as food. This information 
is taken from the manuscript notes of Solander, the companion 
of Cook ; and I owe it to the zeal and learning of Mr. Bennet, 
of the British Museum, and the friendship of the greatest of 
living botanists, Robert Brown. 

The batata, or sweet potato, the Convolvulus batatas of 
botanists, and the kumara, or kumala, of the Polynesian Ian- 



DISSERTATION. 



ccxH 



guage, may possibly be the same as the katala of the Javanese ; 
but this is evidently far too uncertain an etymology to be relied 
on. The yam, or Dioscorea, the coconut palm, and the sugar- 
cane, are, I think, unquestionably Malayan, and, with the taro, 
are probably the only cultivated plants that are, certainly so. The 
banana, of which, according to Forster, there are 28 varieties 
cultivated in the Society islands ; and the bread-fruit, of which, 
according to the same authority, five varieties are in culture, 
seem to be indigenous, judging b}'^ their names. So seems also 
to be the citron family. 

The Malayan numerals are co-extensive with the Polynesian 
language, and are as follow in several of its dialects : — 







SANDWICH 








ENGLISH. 


MARQUESA. 


ISLANDS. 


FIJI. 


TONGA. 


MAORL 


One. 


Tahi. 


KahL 


Dua. 


Taha. 


Tahi. 


Two. 


Ua. 


Lua. 


Rua. 


Uii. 


Riia. 


Three. 


Toru, tu. 


Kolu. 


Tulu. 


Kulu. 


Toru. 


Four. 


Ha, aha. 


Ha, aha. 


Va. 


Fa. 


Wa. 


Five. 


Fima. 


Lima. 


Lima. 


Nina. 


Rima. 


Six. 


One. 


Ono. 


Ono. 


Ono. 


Omo. 


Seven. 


Hitu. 


Hiku. 


Pitu. 


Fitu. 


Witu. 


Eight. 


Vau. 


Valu. 


Walu. 


Valu. 


Waru. 


Nine. 


Iva. 


Iva. 


Tiva. 


Hiva. 


Iwa. 


Ten. 


Onohiiu. 


Umi. 


Tini. 


Ulu. 


Tekau. 


Hundred. 


Uata. 


Uata. 


Nanrjian. 


Ail. 


Raie. 


Thousand. 


Mano. 


Mano. 


Nandolu. 


Afe. 


Mano. 



In reckoning the numerals between 10 and 20, the 
Malay adjunct bias, or Avalas, is not known to the Polynesians. 
They say, instead, " ten and one," and " ten and two," for 
example, for " eleven " and " twelve." In the same manner, 
they count up to 100, which, in fact, from 20 upwards, is the 
Malayan system. It appears to me that there are relics of 
a native system of numeration which preceded the Malayan. In 
all the dialects, the Malayan numerals, as far as 9 inclusive, 
are certain enough ; but in the five dialects I have quoted, the 
Tonga or Friendly island dialect alone, affords evidence of the 
Malayan system throughout. For '' hundred," the Tonga and 
]\Iaori only have the Malayan numeral. For " thousand," there 
is not one of the five that has the Malayan word. But, inde- 
pendent of this, several of the Malayan numerals have one or 



cexliv DISSERTATION. 

two synonymes which are not INIalayan. In the Maori, there is, 
for the usual numeral tahi, "one/' the synonyme ngatauri. In the 
same dialect, there are for " two," besides the Malayan numeral, 
two synon3''mes, rie and ricnga. For " three," there is one syno- 
nyme, matengi. For " ten," there is one, nghuru, which may, 
however, be a corruption of the Malayan puluh; but tekau, 
which I have given in the list, cannot be so. In the Marquesa, 
we have, besides the usual compound word " four tens," for 
" forty," the specific one, toha. In the Sandwich island, we have, 
for the same numeral, three synonymes, lako, kjiau, and kanaha. 
What is still more remarkable, we have in the same dialect a 
specific numei-al for the high number " four hundred thousand," 
lehu. 

Besides what is to be inferred from the words which I have 
already enumerated, the only knowledge which the Malayan 
nations could have conveyed to the islanders of the Pacific is 
implied in the few following words : — 



ENGLISH. 


POLYNESIAN. 


MALAYAN. 


Thatch. 


Ato. 


Atap. 


Plauk, board. 


Papa. 


Papan. 


Comb. 


Karan. 


Garu. 


Point of a weapon. 


Mata. 


Mata. 


Mesh of a net. 


Mata. 


Mata. 


Adze. 


Kapu. 


Kapak. 


Year. 


Tau. 


Taim. 



There are two mythological terms in the Polynesian, and, I 
think, no more, that can be suspected of having a Malayan 
origin. These are atiia, " a god," and tapu, " sacred." The 
first may, and indeed, most probably is, the Malay tuan, 
"master" or " lord," and also the popular word for "the deity." 
The second, the well-known word taboo, may be the Sanskrit 
word tapas or tapa, "ascetic devotion," — a rite of mighty 
efficacy, according to the Hindus, and also to the Malays and 
Javanese. This is, however, by no means so probable. 
. The analysis now given reduces the advantages which the 
islanders of the Pacific have derived from Malayan inter- 
course to a very small matter. The Malayan nations, most 
probably, introduced into the Pacific islands the taro, the yam, 



DISSERTATION. ccxlv 

the coconut, and the sugar-cane; and they instructed the 
natives in a more convenient system of numeration than that 
which they had before used. This is probably the sura of what 
they accomplished. They introduced no useful domestic 
animal; they introduced neither corn, nor pulse, nor cotton. 
They did not instruct the natives in the fabrication of iron, or 
the use of any metal, nor instruct them in the working of any 
textile fabric. They taught them neither law, nor religion, nor 
letters. 

There remain two difficult questions for solution, respecting 
which rational conjectures only can be offered : — How did the 
Conjectures Malayan languages, and those that spoke them, find 
the^ii^tro? their way to the far isles of the Pacific, inhabited by 
theM'Sayanthe Polynesian race, the nearest of them 2500, and 
into tSr^ the most remote 6500 miles, distant from the nearest 
Polynesian, p^-j^^ q£ ^^iq Archipclago ? — and how comes one race, 
speaking one tongue, to occupy, exclusively, most of the islands 
scattered over the vast tract of ocean which lies, in one direction, 
between the Sandwich islands and New Zealand, and in another, 
between the Fijis and Easter island ? I shall attempt to solve 
these questions in the order in which I have stated them. 

It has already been seen that the Malayan nations, or two 
leading tribes of Sumatra and Java, have for ages been pushing 
their enterprises, whether commercial or predatory, to the Phi- 
lippine islands, to the Moluccas, to New Guinea, and even to 
the northern shores of Australia. We find them, therefore, on the 
extreme eastern confines of the Archipelago, from which they 
might find their way into the Northern Pacific through the 
Philippines, or into the Southern between New Guinea and 
Australia; or into either of them through the Molucca islands. 
They, most probably, did find their way into the Pacific by 
these three several routes; but, in so far as concerns the 
Polynesian race, the probability, under all circumstances, is 
that they entered the Pacific by the southern route. 

The course of the winds is a most material element in this 
enquiry. Periodical winds or monsoons prevail to the north of 
the equator, blowing, during the winter solstice, from the 
north-east, and during the summer solstice from the south- 



ccxl'vi DISSERTATION. 

west, and extending from the Equator to the Tropic of Cancer, 
and from the continent of Africa to the Japan islands. Periodical 
winds also prevail to the south of the Equator; but blowing 
from south-east and north-west. These last are more limited 
than the first, blowing no further south of the Equator than the 
tenth or twelfth degree of latitude, and in longitude usiially 
from the southern extremity of Madagascar to the northern 
shores of Australia. The south-east monsoon is but a continua- 
tion of the south-east trade Avind, which, at its height, blows 
sometimes for two degrees north of the Equator, while the north- 
west occasionally penetrates a considerable way to the south 
of it. 

Such are the winds that prevail within the Archipelago. In 
the Pacific the north-east trade wind prevails to the north of 
the Equator, and the south-east to the south of it; but in a 
broad zone, of from seven to eight degrees on each side of tlie 
Equator, the winds are variable, and blow even more frequently 
from the west than from the east.* 

By the help of the monsoons the Malayan nations at present 
traverse the Indian Archipelago, from Sumatra to New Guinea, 
and the Philippines. They were found doing so when first seen 
by European nations, and there can be little doubt but that 
they had been pursuing the same enterprises for many ages 
before. Even now the praus of Celebes pass yearly through 
Torres Straits in pursuit of the Tripang fishery, on the coast of 
Australia. 

That the Malayan nations effected a certain amount of settle- 
ment in the islands of the Pacific is sufficiently attested by the 
admixture of their languages, which is found in almost every 
tongue of these islands, while its alien character is proved by 
the corruptions which the words have everywhere undergone. 
The extent to which the intermixture of Malayan has been 
carried, is, indeed, nowhere very large in the remoter languages, 
yet in the Polynesian, at least, it is such, as could not have 
taken place without some amount of settlement, and inter- 

* Thib account of the winds is taken from the introduction to the directory of 
the great hydrographer, James Horsburgh, F.R.S. 



DISSERTATION. ccxlvii 

mixture of race. Who, then, were the parties that effected this 
indispensable settlement? The most likely, I think, are the 
rovers, who at present for plunder always, and sometimes for 
settlement, range over the whole bounds of the Archipelago. 
The most formidable of these rovers, in our times, are a people 
called Lanuns, natives of the gj'eat island of Mindanau, but the 
Malays were the sole pirates on the first arrival of Europeans, 
and continue to be more or less so, down to the present day. 
I shall describe a Lanun pirate prau, according to the authentic 
account given by the most competent judges ; and the vessels 
employed by the INIalays in early times, and before they were 
checked by European power, were still more formidable. A 
Lanun war prau is usually of 56 feet in length, with a breadth 
of 18 feet of beam, and a hold 6 feet deep. She is fortified 
by a strong bulwark, has a double row of oars, or is a bireme of 
18 oars to a side. She has two tripod masts of bamboo cane, 
with a light and manageable sail of matting on each. The 
crew consists of about 100 men, the rowers being slaves. The 
combatants are armed with krises, spears, swords, shields, and 
fire-arms, and the vessel carries some cannon. The bucaniers 
sail in fleets of from half-a-dozen to twenty, thirty, or even more, 
and a few women accompany the men in most of the vessels. 
The plundering cruises of these fleets often last for two and 
three years. 

Now, such a fleet as now mentioned, when at the south- 
eastern extremity of the Archipelago, might be tempted, in 
search of adventure and plunder, to pass through Torres Straits, 
and enter the Pacific. There, a continuous chain of islands ex- 
tends from New Guinea eastward, over 80 degrees of longitude. 
The north-western monsoon, adverse to its returning to the 
Archipelago, would push this fleet a considerable way into the 
Pacific, until it encountered the variable winds and light airs 
along the Equator. After a voyage by one-third part shorter 
than that at present often performed by the rovers of the 
Archipelago, the adventurers would meet, for the first time, the 
Polynesian race and language at the Friendly island group, and 
if the fleet consisted of but ten sail, its thousand well-armed men 
would be sufficient to insure it from destruction by the rude 



ccxlvlii DISSERTATION. 

inhabitants. If not enough for conquest, sucli a force would be 
sufficient, at least, to insure a compromise. Settling in these 
islands, their small numbers would soon be absorbed by the 
mass of the population, and their nationality be lost ; but it is 
not unnatural to suppose that the small portion of their lan- 
guage which we find in the Polynesian would be communicated 
to the native tongue. 

It may, indeed, be objected that the strangers communicated 
to the Polynesians neither the arts nor letters of which they 
may themselves be supposed to have been in possession ; but 
the answer is obvious. Pirates carry neither smelters of metals 
nor weavers in their fleets, and as to the knowledge of letters, 
that is proved to be a matter of great difficulty with a rude 
people, by the fact, that the Malays and Javanese had never suc- 
ceeded in imparting it to the inhabitants of Timur, the Moluccas, 
or Borneo, so much nearer to them. Something of agriculture, 
however, they did communicate. The tops of the sugar-cane 
will vegetate after being long kept, and the coconut lives and 
grows in a boat as well as in the earth. These would readily be 
propagated, and they were accordingly introduced. If there were 
any domestic animals in the fleet, they would be consumed for food 
in a long voyage, and could not, therefore, have been introduced. 

The opinion I have now offered on the probable manner in 
which the Malayan languages were communicated to those of 
the South Sea islands, but especially to the Polynesian, is cer- 
tainly mere theory, which it would be well, if possible, to 
support by facts. This, to some extent, might be done were 
Ave in possession of vocabularies of the dialects and languages of 
the Pacific, even as complete as those of Williams and Mosblech 
for the Maori, the Marquesa, and Sandwich island. In this 
case, we should most probably find the number of Malayan words 
decreasing, and their corruptions increasing, in each language, 
or dialect, as we proceeded eastward, or receded from Sumatra 
and Java, the parent sources of supply, just as we find to be the 
case with Sanski'it and Arabic, as we go more eastward in the 
Archipelago, or recede further from India and Arabia. The 
fullest and most authentic vocabulary of a Polynesian dialect 
next to those I have just named, is that of Mariner. Mariner 



DISSERTATION. 



ccxlix 



was shipwrecked wlien a boy on one of the Friendly islands, 
and having lived many years among the natives, had acquired a 
thorough practical acquaintance with their language, the 
Tonga. His narrative was compiled by Dr. Martin, and to it 
is appended a vocabulary, very judiciously prepared by the 
same party, from the oral communications of the voyager.* 

I shall attempt to draw some evidence in favour of the hypo- 
thesis which I have suggested from Mariner's vocabulary. This 
consists of about 1823 words, yet contains 97 which are un- 
questionably Malayan. Now, if the Tonga vocabulary were as 
copious as that of Williams for the Maori or New Zealand, and 
had throughout the same proportion of Malayan words as it 
now possesses, the number of these would amount to about 280, 
whereas the Maori dictionary contains only 86. If the same 
inference were drawn from the dictionary of the Marquesa and 
Sandwich islands dialect, the Malayan words would rise to 
325, but the actual number in Mosblech's vocabulary is no 
more than 74. 

Some of the Malayan words in the brief vocabulary of the 
Tonga are not to be found in the more copious ones of the 
Maori, Marquesa, and Sandwich island, and as a few of this 
class are significant, I shall give a short list of them : — 



TONGA. 


ENGLISH. 


MALAYAN. 


ENGLISH. 


Aim. 


Soot. 


Abu, c. 


Ashes. 


Au. 


A cloud. 


Awan, c. 


A cloud. 


Biku. 


Crooked. 


Bangkok, c. 


Crooked. 


Chi. 


Little. 


Chi, m. 


Little. 


Habau. 


Fog. 


Kabut, ni. 


Fog. 


Igu. 


Tail. 


Ikur, m. 


Tail. 


Kii. 


I. 


Ku, c. 


I. 


Faiia. 


The bow. 


Panah, c. 


The bow. 


Fili. 


To select. 


Pilih, c. 


To select. 


Gche. 


DifFereut. 


Seje,j. 


Diff'erent. 


Kikila, kilakila. 


Dazzling, flaring. 


Kilat, c. 


Flash, gleam. 


Lahi. 


Many. 


Labih, c. 


More. 


Laugo. 


A house-fly. 


Langau, m. 


A bluebottle fly. 


Loiio. 


A hole. 


Lubang, c. 


A hole. 


Mala. 


Ill luck. 


Malang, m. 


Across; ill-luck. 



* Account of the Tonga Islands, from the Communications of Mr. "William 
Mariner, by John Martin, M.D. London, 1818. 



ccl 



DISSERTATION. 



Thin, sleuder. 


Nipi.'?, c. 


Thin, slender. 


To pitch, to throw. 


Tolak, c. 


To shove, to push 


Bald. 


Sulak, m. 


Bald. 


A ladder. 


Tangga, c. 


A ladder. 


To prune. 


Tutuh, c. 


To prune. 


Head. 


Ulu, c. 


Head. 


The brain. 


Otak, c. 


The brain. 



TONGA 

Manifi. 

Tolo. 

Tula. 

Tunggs 

Tutu. 

Ulu. 

Uto. 



These words, although still retaining the decided character of 
the Polynesian, will be found, generally, more correct in ortho- 
graphy than the IVIalayan words in the other dialects, or nearer 
to their originals. This, however, it must be allowed, may be 
as much due to the more copious consonant sounds of the 
Tonga, as to the words themselves having been more directly 
adopted from their original sources. Tasik, for example, is 
"the sea" in Javanese, and in the Tonga it is tasi, or as near 
to the true orthography as the Polynesian pronunciation would 
admit of. In the Marquesa and Maori, it is reduced to tai, and 
in the Sandwich island to kai. " Rain " is in Malay, ujan, and in 
Javanese, ud-an, with a palatal d. In the Tonga, the letters 
d- and j do not exist, and ch being substituted for them, the 
word becomes ucha, losing, as usual, its final consonant. None 
of the three letters just named exist at all in the Marquesa and 
Sandwich island dialects, and the word, in them, is reduced 
to iia. There is one word in the list above given which deserves 
special notice. This is fana, for panah, "the bow," which I 
find in no other Polynesian dialect. This was, until supplanted 
by fire-arms, the principal missile weapon of the Malays and 
Javanese, and its use, from the nature of the raw materials, 
would, of course, be easily continued in their new locality, when, 
in the absence of the metals, no means existed of doing so with 
cutting weapons. I strongly suspect, also, that the Tonga tao, 
" a spear," is the Malay and Javanese tumbak. The k, of course, 
would be elided, and the two medial consonants following each 
other could not be pronounced. 

I think, then, that it may be conjectured that the route by 
which the Malayan languages and the nations that spoke them 
found their way to the Polynesian islands, was, most probably, 
that by Torres Straits, — that the Friendly islands were among the 



DISSERTATION. ccli 

first places touched at by the adventurers ; and that, not im- 
probably, from about this quarter the Malayan languages were 
disseminated over all the Polynesian dialects, step by step. 

At what era, then, could such an event have happened ? The 
question can only be answered, generally, that it must have 
happened at a remote one in the history of man. In every 
dialect of the Polynesian, however remote, Malayan words are 
found to exist, and generally they are the same, and with the 
same meanings, even when those meanings vary from those in the 
Malayan languages. The infusion of Malayan, then, presenting, 
as it does, so much uniformity, must be inferred to have taken 
place while the Polynesian race was in its original hive, and 
before it had migrated and settled in the far-spread localities in 
which we now find it. That period must have been a remote 
one, for there has been time for the formation of many dialects 
differing so much from each other, although all the tribes be 
nearly in the same state of society, and the majority living in 
the same climates and under the same circumstances, that it 
requires some practice to enable the several parties to under- 
stand one another. 

But I have now to attempt a solution of the second question 

propounded, — How it has come to pass that tribes of the same 

race, speaking essentially the same language, possessinsr 

Dissemina- %, , ■, , . ? 

«on of the generally the same arts, and nearly m all respects, m the 
race and sauic couditiou of society, are found inhabiting islands 

language. /• i 

so remote from each other that some of them are close 
to the Equator, some of them near both Tropics, some distant 
from others by 70° of latitude, and some by 70° of longitude. 
There is certainly nothing similar to this, on so great a scale, 
among rude nations in any other part of the world. Throughout 
the continent of America, a state of things the very opposite 
prevails. The race is there, indeed, substantially the same ; but, 
instead of one language, we find innumerable tongues, which 
are rarely even dialects. From similarity of physical geography, 
■we might reasonably expect the same state of things in the 
Malayan Archipelago as in Polynesia, but the reverse is as- 
suredly the case. The leading race in the Archipelago is one and 
the same, but the languages are many, although with more or 



cclii DISSERTATION. 

less intermixture of some priucipal ones throughout. Iii Borneo 
there are at least 4-0 languages ; in Celebes and its islands at 
least 10; in Floi-es G; in Sumbawa 3; in Sumatra and its 
islands not fewer than 10 ; and even in civilised Java, with its 
islands, 3. The same thing holds in the Philippine islands; and 
in Lufon alone, the principal of them, we find 6. As it is in 
Europe and on the continent of Asia, languages are, within the 
Archipelago, numerous in the inverse proportion of civilisation, 
and this arising from causes too obvious to require explanation. 

In order to account for the vast dissemination of one language 
in the Pacific, we must either suppose that one island, or at most 
one group of islands only, was originally peopled ; or that, if other 
islands were so, their first inhabitants must have been extermi- 
nated by the invading Polynesian race now occupying them ; 
or that, amalgamating with the conquerors, their languages 
were wholly superseded by the language of the latter. Certain 
it is, at all events, that no trace of any other people, or any 
other language, has been discovered in the islands occupied by 
the Polynesians. Take, for example, the islands of New Zealand. 
Their computed area of 8,600 square miles is occupied through- 
out by one and the same race, and speaking the same tongue, 
with very trifling variations of dialect, although divided into 
innumerable, and generally, hostile communities. Islands of 
the same extent, situated within the Indian Archipelago, with a 
population eqvially low in the scale of civilisation, would have at 
least twenty distinct tongues. 

As the Polynesian race and language, then, cannot be traced 
to any foreign source, and as the supposition of the same lan- 
guage, in the same state of advancement, having spontaneously 
sprung up at many isolated and remote points is both unnatural 
and absurd, it follows that the germ of the race, with its lan- 
guage, must have been first confined to a narrow locaHty, from 
which, as civilisation and power advanced, it spread, in the 
course of ages, far and wide. To determine the primitive seat 
would be desirable, were it possible. One thing is certain, that 
the tribe, before migrations emanated from it, must have ob- 
tained a considerable amount of civilisation, for without it there 
would have been no power to migrate. In fact, before any 



DISSERTATION. ccliii 

migration took place, the Polynesians must have attained nearly 
that measure of civilisation which they were found to possess 
when first seen by Europeans. This is, indeed, satisfactorily 
proved by a general uniformity of social condition, even among 
the most distant tribes of the race, in places between which 
there exists now no intercourse, or even knowledge of each 
other's existence. 

Were there any considerable tract of fertile land, much 
superior to all around it for the development of an early civilisa- 
tion, we should naturally fix upon that as the primitive locality 
of the Polynesian nation. But, although there be several situa- 
tions greatly superior for such a purpose to others, there is none 
that can be said to be pre-eminently suited. We can fix, then, 
only on the most probable, and I think that the Friendly 
islands, which are of sufficient extent and fertility to have pro- 
duced the degree of civilisation which the Polynesians had 
attained, not unlikely to have been the primitive seat of the 
nation. In tracing the course of migration, and attempting to 
determine the cradle of the Polynesian nation, the Malayan 
element of its language is an important consideration. It 
is found coextensive with the people and language, — greatest 
in amount as we come neai'er to the Malayan Archipelago, and 
diminishing as we recede from it, the body of the words being, 
however, generally the same, and employed in the same sense. 
May it not hence be inferred, that the Malayan languages were 
intermixed with the Polynesian tongue before any migrations had 
taken place ; and may not the amount of civilisation, however 
inconsiderable, which the Polynesians received from the Malayan 
nations, have been the cause which first stimulated the migra- 
tions ? The Friendly islands lie towards the western end of that 
long and continuous chain of islets by which the first migrations 
from the Malayan Archipelago must have proceeded eastward. 
It by no means follows, however, that all future swarms were 
thrown out from these islands, as the original hive. On the 
contrary, they would, naturally, take place everywliere after- 
wards, from the localities most convenient for them. From the 
Friendly islands, the Polynesian nation and its language would, 
in the first instance, move eastward, along the chain of islands 



ccliv DISSERTATION. 

lying between the 10° and 15° of south latitude, over 50° of 
longitude, and, eventually, to distant localities more difficult of 
access. Many ages would be required to complete the migra- 
tions to the extent of dispersion in which the Polynesian nation 
was found when first observed bj^ Europeans. 

The main cause of the wide dissemination of one race and 
language, in the case of the Polynesians, is the insularity of the 
whole region which they occupy, and this region's consisting of 
many islets, without one large fertile and central one standing in 
the manner of a continent in relation to the rest. Had the latter 
condition existed within the tropics, the probability is that the 
mass of the population would have been confined to it, — would 
have become rural, fixed to the soil, and attaining a higher 
civilisation, and having abundant room at home, little migration 
would have taken place from it. As it is, the Polynesians, by 
their position, are fishermen and mariners. When first seen by 
Europeans, they had large and stout boats, understood the use 
of the oar and the sail, and employed both with dexterity. The 
pacific sea which surrounds their islets encouraged their mari- 
time enterprise. Instead of being, like the forests, marshes, 
and mountains of a continent or great island, a barrier to com- 
munication, it was a highway which favoured intercourse and 
migration. 

We have authentic evidence of the long voyages which the 
South Sea islanders are capable of performing in boats, some 
of which are capable of accommodating 150 persons. The 
inhabitants of the Friendly, Fiji, and Navigator groups carry 
on an intercourse, although the voyages they perform must often 
extend to not less than 500 miles; while in going and return- 
ing almost every variety of wind must be encountered. The 
larger islands have often conquered some of the smaller, and 
this at distances such as we could hardly look for in such a state 
of society. Captain Beechy picked up at sea a boat belonging 
to Chain island, a coral islet 300 miles to the east of Tahiti, 
aiid subject to it. In her voyage to the latter place, she had 
been driven to Barrow island, 600 miles out of her course, by 
two successive gales from the west. She had sailed from Chain 
island along Avith two other boats for the same destination. 



DISSERTATION. cclv 

and these probably foundered in the gales. The crew and pas- 
sengers of the tempest-driven vessel^ when picked up at sea, 
consisted of twenty men, fifteen women, and ten children, 
or forty-five persons, — a little colony in itself, which might 
have settled a desert island, had it found a suitable one. It 
had been provisioned for a three weeks' voyage.* 

There are, however, three localities occupied by the Poly- 
nesian race so remote from the great central chain occupied by 
it that it is not so easy to show how it could have reached 
them ; yet that it did so is a matter of certainty, for we find it 
there. These are Easter island, the Sandwich group, and New 
Zealand. Easter island is distant from the Society group by 
40° of longitude and 8° of latitude. There lie between them, 
however, for a considerable distance a number of islets, forming 
so many stepping-stones in the passage; but for 900 miles 
there seems nothing but a blank ocean. Nothing, therefore, 
but the accident of a tempest-driven boat, or boats from a more 
favoured locality, could have peopled this remote and barren 
island with the Polynesian race, as is actually the case ; for 
there it is Avith its language, containing its usual admixture of 
Malayan. But our specimens of the dialect of Easter island are 
far too brief to afford an opportunity of comparing it with the 
other dialects of the Polynesian, Avith the view of determining 
from which island or group the migration took place. 

The Society group lies in about the 22° of north latitude, 
and seems to be the only islands of the Northern Pacific 
occupied by the Polynesian race. The portion of the great 
southern chain of islands nearest to this group is the Marquesas, 
distant about 1800 miles, and next to the Marquesas the Navi- 
gator islands, 400 miles farther. In a voyage from the Mar- 
quesas, a succession of south-easterly, and from the Navigator 
islands of south-westerly winds, would be necessary to convey 
the adventurers to the Sandwich islands, — the last-named of 
these having the advantage of some small islands lying in the 
way, for resting-places. Both would have light airs, calms, and 
variable winds for about 15° or 16° of latitude about the 
Equator. I am disposed to think it was from the INIarquesas 
• Voyage to the Pacific in 1825-26-27-28, by Captain Beechy, R.N. London, 1831. 



cclvi BISSERTATIOX. 

that the migration actually took place. The course of the 
winds would probably be more favourable, and the actual 
distance shorter ; but besides this, the dialect of the Marquesas 
approaches nearer to that of the Sandwich islands than that of 
the Navigator islands. In making a comparison between the dif- 
ferent dialects of the Polynesian, their phonetic character, their 
grammar, and their words generally being the same, Ave are 
necessarily restricted to mere differences of pronunciation, or 
the possession of more or less of the Malayan element. The 
dialect of the Navigator islands has the four following letters, 
f, g, s, t, which are wholly wanting in the dialect of the Sand- 
wich islands; but the latter has all the consonants of the 
Marquesa, except f and t, which exist in every dialect of the 
Southern Pacific. The Sandwich island, indeed, may be 
virtually said to have these also, for it uses all the Marquesa 
words in which they are found, converting the f into an aspirate, 
and the t into k, — a practice in both cases peculiar to itself. 
Indeed, the Sandwich island, in its partiality for the guttural k, 
goes farther than this, for it sometimes substitutes it for the 
nasal n. With respect to Malayan words, they are, with few 
exceptions, the same in number and sense in the INIarquesa and 
Sandwich island; being rather more numerous, and the pro- 
nunciation somewhat better preserved in the first than in the 
last. On the contrary, the Malayan words in the dialect of the 
Friendly islands, as far as our information will enable us to 
judge, are far more numerous, and much nearer to the originals, 
than either in the Marquesa or Sandwich island dialects. 

The greatest difficulty is in attempting to account for the 
peopling of New Zealand with the Polynesian race, situated, 
as it is, in a temperate climate, in the region of variable winds 
and storms, and moreover, at so great a distance. The nearest 
point of the tropical chain of islands which I suppose to have 
been the cradle of the Polynesian race to New Zealand, is the 
island of La Sola, belonging to the Friendly group, in about 
the 21° of south latitude, and the 18t° of east longitude. The 
nearest part of New Zealand to it is in about 31° south latitude, 
and 170° of east longitude; so that between the chain of 
tropical islands and the isles of New Zealand there lie 13° of 



DTSSERTATIOX. cclvii 

latitude and 14° of longitude. The distance cannot be less 
here than 800 miles. From Roxburgh and Rorotonga, two of 
a group lying south-west of the Society islands, the distance is 
about 1600 miles, and from Tahiti it is not less than 2000. 
Yet, I suspect it Avas from the Society islands, notwithstanding 
their greater distance, that the migration took place. 

Here, as elsewhere, it must have been the course of the 
winds and currents that brought the rude navigation of the 
Polynesians to a fortunate issue. The Polynesians assuredly 
would never, voluntarily, have undertaken a voyage to an 
unknown, unheard-of, and remote country. The craft that 
had the good fortune to reach the shores of New Zealand 
must have been driven off theii' own shores by gales 
from the east and north, and unable to return to them, 
have pursued their voyage with a fair wind, endeavouring to 
gain the first land. We know enough of the course of the 
winds in the latitudes in question, to be satisfied that such 
adventures as would people New Zealand with the Polynesian 
race might occur in the course of ages. We have, for example, 
an authentic account of the course of the winds at Pitcairn 
island in the 20° of south latitude, in consequence of its 
being occupied by the singular colony sprung from the 
union of the mutineers of the Bounty with a few Tahitian 
women. There are here no regular trade winds. During the 
Austral summer, or from October to April, the prevailing winds 
are from east-south-east to north. In the opposite season, the 
prevailing ones are from south-w^est to east-south-east ; Pit- 
cairn island is, no doubt, east of the direct course from the 
Society islands to New Zealand, but its latitude intersects that 
course, and it is unlikely that different winds should prevail at 
comparatively so short a distance. 

According to Captain Fitzroy, the variable winds south of the 
trade winds pursue a regular course in the Pacific. First come 
north-west winds and rain, and these are followed by violent 
gales from the south-west. The wind then blows moderately 
from the south-east, and this is followed by moderate winds 
from the north and north-east.* It is evident from this 

* Xarrative of the Surveying Voyage of the Adventure and Beagle, by Captain 
Fitzrov. R.N. , 



cclvlii DISSERTATION. 

account, that the winds blow favourably sufficiently often 
through the year, to carry a canoe from Tahiti to New Zealand. 
Such a canoe Avould be driven out of her course by a gale or 
succession of gales from the west and north-west — would 
eventually be caught by the trade winds, and in the Austral 
summer brought, in due course, to the shores of New Zealand. 
It is certain that nothing less than a coincidence of fortunate 
circumstances, such as might, howcA^ei', occur in the course of 
many ages, could bring such an adventure to a fortunate 
termination. The voyage must have taken place in the sum- 
mer, for one of the winter gales of the southern Pacific would 
inevitably swamp the stoutest Tahitian canoe that ever was 
built. That such a lucky accident, however, did really take 
place is certain enough, for otherwise we should not find as we 
do, the Polynesian race and language planted in New Zealand, 
to which it was assuredly not conveyed by any miracle. The 
arrival of a single canoe, like the tempest-driven one of Chain 
island, picked up by Captain Beechy, would be quite sufficient, 
in a few ages, to people New Zealand with such a population as 
it was found to have on its discovery. The probability is, that 
the tempest-driven adventurers found the country without 
inhabitants, as no vestige of any other race than the Polynesian 
has been found in it. The tradition of the New Zealanders is 
that, " before the arrival of the present inhabitants, there were 
no men in the land, and it was covered with forest." 

I will suppose, then, that New Zealand was peopled from 
Tahiti, or some other of the Society islands. In such a case, 
the settlers brought with them the manners, the languages, the 
domestic animals and the cultivated plants of their original 
country, as far as circumstances would allow of their doing so. 
The inhabitants of New Zealand, when first seen, were cannibals, 
and some of them are so still. The inhabitants of the Society 
islands were certainly not so on their discovery, and this is the 
greatest discrepancy which exists between the Polynesians of the 
two groups of islands. But at the period of migration, the people 
of the Society islands may have been cannibals also, and only 
relinquished the practice from possessing in the hog, the dog, 
and the common fowl, a better and ampler supply of animal 



DISSERTATION. . ccHx 

food than any other of the people of the South Sea islands. 
The people of the Marquesas occasionally practised canni- 
balisiUj but they had only the hog. The inhabitants of New 
Zealand may have continued cannibalism from the paucity of 
animals, for they had no domesticated animal but the dog, 
according to tradition, introduced by their immigrant ancestors. 
Captain Cook, indeed, early expressed an opinion that the scarcity 
of animal food with them, for even the dogs were few in number, 
provoked cannibalism, and seemed to be a principal cause of it. 

The Polynesians that peopled New Zealand brought with them, 
then, only the dog out of the three domesticated animals of the 
Society islands. The probable reason is, I think, obvious ; it 
was the animal most likely to be in their canoe, or if there were 
others, the one most likely from its hardiness and docility 
to have been spared and to have survived a long and perilous 
voyage. The dog of New Zealand is of the same peculiar race 
as that of the Society islands, only smaller, which may be the 
effect of climate, and the necessary want of a genial diet. The 
presence of the dog in New Zealand is a strong argument in 
favour of the migration having taken place from the Society, 
and not from any of the other groups of the central chain, for 
this animal was not found to exist in the Marquesa or the 
Friendly islands. 

Of the eight or nine cultivated plants of the Tropical islands, 
the Polynesian adventurers brought to New Zealand only 
three, the batata, the taro, and the yam, and this for very 
sufficient reasons ; — they are the only ones which could be pre- 
served in a long voyage, and the only ones also that would grow 
in the new climate in which they settled. The names of the 
three plants are exactly according to the Tahitian pronunciation, 
and not conformable to that of the more westerly islands. In so 
far as the taro is concerned, it is remarkable that the natives of 
New Zealand have a tradition that their ancestors brought it 
with them on their first arrival. A recent and intelligent 
traveller in New Zealand mentions it, in these terms : " Of the 
aroidese, the natives cultivate the Caladium esculentmn, which 
they call taro. According to their tales, it is not an indigenous 
plant, but their ancestors brought it with them at their first 

s-2 



cclx DISSERTATION. 

immigration." * By another of their traditions, the batata was 
subsequently introduced by other adventurers, although not 
from the country of the ancestors of the present race. Traditions 
on such subjects are among the very few that are of any value 
with a rude people, as they fix them to a positive fact, without 
giving room to the exercise of their childish imagination. The 
yam or Dioscorea, more the native of a warm than a temperate 
climate, was probably never much cultivated in New Zealand. 
Solander mentions it among the cultivated plants in his time, 
but I find that the natives have now transferred the name, moi, 
to a variety of the common potatoe, and Archdeacon Williams, 
in his dictionary, defines it " a winter potatoe." 

With respect to dialect, that of New Zealand bears a nearer 
resemblance to the Tahitian than to any other that has come 
under my notice. The Tahitian, as before stated, has the 
following consonants, b, d, f, h, m, n, p, r, t, v, but of these, 
b, d, f, V, are wanting in the New Zealand, The discrepancy, 
however, is only apparent. The b and v of the Tahitian are in 
the New Zealand commuted into the consonant w, of the same 
organic class, if indeed all three be not one and the same sound 
for which different European writers have given different symbols. 
D is a letter of a very anomalous character in both dialects. In 
the Tahitian grammar, it is said to be sometimes pronounced as 
if it were an r, while, with respect to the letter r, it is said in the 
New Zealand grammar, that it is sometimes pronounced as if it 
were a d, and examples of both sounds are given in the English 
words "rope" and "den." The letter f, in the Tahitian, is 
sometimes converted into an aspirate, and always so in the 
New Zealand. The letters g, 1, and the sibilant, found in most 
of the western dialects of the Polynesian, are wanting both in 
the Tahitian and New Zealand. In so far, then, as the pronun- 
ciation of consonants is concerned, and there is no difference in 
the vowels or accent, the two dialects are substantially the same. 
Having no sufficient vocabulary of the Tahitian, I am unable to 
produce any evidence of the unity of the two dialects derived 
from agreement in the number and sense of tlie Malayan words 
which they respectively contain, but the New Zealand, at least, 

* Dieffonbacb's Travels in New Zealaud, vol. i. 4'2f'. 



DISSERTATION. 



ccIj 



contains far fewer, and these in a more corrupt form than the 
dialect of the Friendly islands. 

The preservation of the dog, the taro, the batata, and the 
yam, by the New Zealand immigrants would seem to argue 
more forethought than we might be disposed to ascribe to the 
Polynesians, but there is no knowing to what an extent the 
wits even of a rude, and generally, careless people may not be 
whetted by pressing necessity. Still the fact of having been 
able to preserve such things in a long voyage may suggest 
another explanation — that the actual difficulties of the voyage 
itself may not have been quite so great as we may imagine 
them to have been. 

The islands of the Northern Pacific, the Sandwich group 
excepted, are, generally, in a much ruder state of society than 
those of the Southern, and seem to have profited only in a very 
small degree by their intercourse with the Malayan nations. 
The accounts we have of their languages, however, are very 
imperfect, and hardly admit of our coming to any positive 
conclusions. On the authority of M. Gaimard, we have a list 
of 411 words of the language of the Caroline islands, lying 
between the. equator and the 10° of latitude, already refeiTcd to. 
I cannot find among these any Malayan word implying the 
communication of any kind of useful knowledge, except the 
numerals, which are the following : — 



rupted 



ENGLISH. 


CAROLINE. 


One. 


Tot. 


Two. 


Ru. 


Three. 


Tai, loi. 


Four. 


Tan. 


Five. 


Lim, nim, lib. 


Six. 


Hoi. 


Seven. 


Fiz, fuz. 


Eight. 


Wal, wan. 


Nine. 


Tihu. 


Ten. 


Seg, sik, sig. 


Hundred. 


Siapugu. 


Thousand. 


Senres, zele. 


ese are 


generally the Mai 


d. The numbers " one,'' ' 



MAL.WAN. 
Sa, C. 

Duwa, m. ; loro, ro, j. 
Taiu, j. 
Ampat, m. 
Lima, c. 
Anam, m. : 
Pitu,j. 
Wolu, j. 
Sanga, j. 
Puluh, c. 
Ratus, m. ; 
Ribu, m. : 



; pat,j. 

nam, j. 



; atus, j. 
ewu, j. 



ten," " hundred," and 



cclxii 



DISSEETATION. 



" thousand," are exceptions, and give the impression that the 
Caroline islanders may have had a decimal system of numbersi 
of their own, in a good measure siiperseded by the Malayan. 

In the language of Guham, one of the Ladrone or Marianne 
islands, although more Malayan words are to be found than in 
the Caroline, I can detect no more than three, the numerals 
excepted, which imply the communication of any thing useful 
by the Malayan nations. These are the common fowl, which 
has the Javanese name in a corrupt form, received most pro- 
bably from the Philippines, the name of the coco-palm and of 
its intoxicating sap. In truth, on their first discovery by 
Magellan, the inhabitants of the Marianne islands were in a 
very rude state, going nearly naked, — without acquaintance with 
iron, and pointing their darts with fish-bones. Pigafetta says 
they were "poor, — adroit, and above all, thieves," for which 
reason, he adds, " we called these islands ' the isles of thieves ' " 
— isole de ladroni. It remained for the Spaniards to introduce 
the ox, the horse, the goat, and even the ass. A portion of all 
of these animals have run wild. The natives of Guliam call the 
dog which they now possess, galaga, which is an abbreviation 
of two words of the Guham language, meaning " foreign 
animal." The cat, they call keto, a corruption of the Spanish 
word gato.* 

The following; arc the Guliam numerals : — 



ENGLISH. 

One. 

Two. 

Three. 

Four. 

Five. 

Six. 

Seveu. 

Eight. 

Nine. 

Ten. 

Hundred. 

Thousand. 



MALAYAN. 



Asaha. 

Agiia. 

Tulu. 

Tad-fad. 

Lima. 

Guriun. 

Fiti. 

Giialu. 

Siglia. 

Mauud. 

Gatus. 

S'alan. 



pat, j. 



Sa, c. 

Duwa, m. 

TaluJ. 

Ampat, m 

Lima, c. 

Andm, m. ; nam, j. 

Pitu, j. 

Wolu, j. 

Sauga, j. 

Puluh, c. 

Ratus, m. ; atus, j. 

Ribu, m. ; ewu, j. 



We have here the Malayan numerals much corrupted, yet far 



* Frcyc'inct. Voyage autour (I\i Monde. 



DISSERTATION, 



cclxili 



less so than in the Caroline tongue. The exceptions are the 
numbers "ten" and "thousand." The last means also "road 
or way/' and is the Malay word jalan, or the Javanese dalan, 
having the last-named meaning. 

The 658 words of the language of the Pelew or Pilu islands 
do not contain one word relating to any instruction which their 
inhabitants could have received, directly or indirectly, from the 
Malayan nations. According to AVilson's account, the only 
domesticated animals found on the islands were a few cats, 
which he supposes to have been floated ashore on the drift of 
some wrecked prau. The domestic fowl, however, was found 
wild in the woods, and fond of frequenting the neighbourhood 
of the villages. Their eggs only were used as food by the 
natives, and it seems probable that this also had been originally 
floated ashore from some wrecked vessel. The following are 
the Pelew numerals : — 



ENGLISH. 


PELEW. 


One. 


Tong. 


Two. 


Oru. 


Three. 


Othiii. 


Four. 


Oiing. 


Five. 


Ain. 


Sis. 


Malong. 


Seven. 


Oweth. 


Eight. 


Tai. 


Nine. 


Eteu. 


Ten. 


Makoth. 


Twenty. 


Olo-yuk. 


Thirty. 


Ok-a-thai. 


Forty. 


Ok-a-\vaugh. 


Fifty. 


Ok-im. 


Sixty. 


Ok-goUan. 


Seventy. 


Ok-a-weth. 


Eighty. 


Ok-tai. 


Ninety. 


Ok-a-tiu. 


Hundred. 


Mak-a-dart. 



Sa. 

Duwa, m ; loro, j. 

Talu. 

Ampat, m. ; papat, j. 

Lima, c. 

Anam, m. ; nam, j. 

Tujuh, m. ; pitu, j. 

Dalapan, m. ; wolu, j. 

Sambilan, m. ; sanga, j. 

Puluh, 0. 

Duwa-puluh, m. ; rongpuluh, j. 

Tiga-puluh, m. ; talung-puluh, j. 

Ampat-puluh, m. ; pat-puluh, j. 

Lima-puluh, m. ; limang-puhih, j. 

Anam-puluh, m. ; udm-puluh, j. 

Tujuh-puluh, m. ; pitung-puluh, j. 

Dalapan-puluh, m. ; wolung-puluh, j. 

Sambilan-puhih, m. ; sangang-puluh, j. 

Ratus, m. ; atus, j. 



With the exception of the numeral " two," which may, but is 
not likely to be Malayan, there is not a word among these that 
can be traced to the Malay or Javanese. The numeral system 
seems to be indigenous, and the Avhole of the Pelew language is 



cclxiv DISSERTATION. 

au example of what the ruder languages would be without au 
admixture of the INIalayan tongues. The absence of ^Nlalaj^an 
words is the more remailcable, since the Pelew islands are at no 
remote distance from Mindanau, one of the Philippines^ and in 
the same latitudes with the Carolines, which have an admixture 
of Malayan. On the Pelew islands there were found by Wilson 
and his crew three shipwrecked Malays, who had made them- 
selves acquainted with the language of the country; and it is 
not unlikelj'^, from their situation, that such an event as the 
wreck of a prau may have been of not unfrequent occurrence. 
The fact of such persons being found would seem to prove that 
a few helpless mariners drifted on the coasts of a strange shore 
from wrecked Malay or Javanese praus, would not be sufficient 
to produce the admixture of Malayan Avhich we find in many 
of the insular languages. It is probable, however, that it is the 
smallness and the barrenness of the Pelew islets that has prin- 
cipally precluded the introduction of Malaj^an words. 

The language of Madagascar is the last which I have to 
Influence of examiuc, and I shall follow the same course of enquiry 
andjara-^ that I havc pursucd with those of the Eastern islands. 

nese on the mi i • t • t f -\r i 

inhabitants Thc domcsticatcd annuals oi Madagascar are tiie 
car. following, witli their Malayan synonymes : — 



ENGLISH. 


MALAGASI. 




MALAYAN. 


Dog. 


Ambiia, kivaki, 


alikia. 


Anjing, m. ; asu, j. 


Hog. 


Kisua. 




Babi, m. ; cheleng, j. 


Domestic fowl. 


Akuku. 




Ayam, m. ; pitik, j. 


Goat. 


Usi. 




Kambing, m. ; wadus, j. 


Ox. 


Vositra. 




Lilmbu, c. ; sapi, c. 


Cat. 


Saka. 




Kucliing, c. 



Not one of the names of these animals, it will be seen, is 
Malayan, and, so far as the evidence of language is good, it 
follows that none of them could have been introduced by the 
Malaj^an nations. The elephant is unknown to the inhabitants 
of ISIadagascar. The hog is found in the wild state, and is 
then called by a different name from the domestic, viz. lamba. 
The cat, or at least a species of cat, also exists wild, and is then 
called kari. The buffalo has probably been made known to the 
natives in recent times, for it has no specific name, going under 



DISSERTATION. 



cclxv 



the generic one of umbi, or " cattle/' The goose goes under the 
name of vuruinbi, which means " cattle bird/' the first part of 
the word being the Malay burung, " a bird/' or " fowl." The 
name given to the horse is siiali, which is a corruption of the 
French " cheval." 

The following are the principal cultivated plants of Mada- 
gascar : — 



ENGLISH. 


MALAGASI. 


MALAYAN. 


Yam. 


Uv-i. 


Ubi, m. ; uwi, j. 


Rice. 


Vari. 


Padi, m. ; pari, j. 


Maize. 


Katsaka. 


Jagimg, c. 


Onion. 


Tungulu. 


Bawang, c. ; brambang, j, 


Coco-palm. 


Biianiu. 


Nur, m. ; uu, j. 


Banana. 


Akuudni. 


Pisang, m. ; gatVang, j. 


Mango. 


Mangga. 


Mangga, m. 


Citron, orange. 


Viiasari. 


JAruk, c. 


Capsicum. 


Sakai. 


Chabai, c. 



Among these plants, four, in all probability, were introduced 
by the Malayan settlers, — rice, the yam, the coconut, and 
capsicum. All these could be preserved during any length of 
voyage, — rice in the husk, indeed, for a century ; and this is the 
only form in which it has a Malayan name in the Malagasi. 
The mango is doubtful, since its Malay and European name are 
the same. The coconut is composed of two Malay words, 
buwah, " fruit/' and nur, " the coco-palm," or of their Javanese 
equivalents woh and iiu. This is exactly the form in which the 
coconut would be named by a Malay or Javanese, only in a 
more coiTect orthography. The yam is rather doubtful. It 
may have been introduced by the immigrants, or these may 
have only instructed the natives in its cultivation, for a species 
or two of Dlscorea are probably indigenous in Madagascar. 
Accordingly, the wald yam is distinguished from the cultivated 
by the epithet ala, which, it is singular, is the Javanese word 
alas, " wild," or " forest," curtailed of its terminal consonant, as 
usual. The word uviala is otherwise, exactly that which w^ould 
be used by a Javanese. Maize seems, as far as can be seen, 
to have a native name; at all events, one that is not Malayan. 
The sugar-cane was not introduced by the Malayan immigrants 



cclxvi DISSEETATION. 

into Madagascar. Even now, I can find no name for it. Sugar 
itself, a foreign importation of course, is called saramani, which 
means " sweet salt.^' What is singular is, that the elements of 
this compound word are themselves not unlikely Malayan, for 
saram is a name for " salt" in Javanese, and garam in Malay, 
and manis is "sweet" in both languages. The elision of the 
final consonant of each Avord is agreeable to the genius of 
Malagasi pronunciation, as already stated. The name of the 
citron, or orange, is also a compound word : viia is the buwah 
of the Malays, and the woh of the Javanese, "fruit;" and sari, 
in Javanese, is "a flower," and, figurative!}^, anything distin- 
guished for beauty. The word, as it stands in the Malagasi, 
is capable, with this etymology, of being literally translated 
" beautiful fruit. " In the Malagasi itself, sari is defined 
" examined or looked into." Not one of the tools or imple- 
ments, or terms connected Avith the culture of plants, in the 
Malagasi, are of Malayan origin. The agriculture of that 
island is, even at the present day, in the rudest state, for the 
plough, the harrow, and the labour of cattle in tillage, are 
unknown. 

The following are the names of the metals known to the 
inhabitants of Madagascar, with their Malayan synonymes : — 



ENGLISH. 


MALAUASt. 


MALAYAN. 


Iron. 


Vi. 


Basi, m. ; wasi, j. 


Steel. 


Isi. 


Baja, m. ; waja, j . 


Gold. 


Vula-meua. 


Anias, mas, c. 


Tin. 


Vi-futsi. 


Timali, c. 


Silver. 


Vula-futsi. 


Perak, m. ; salaka, j. 


Copper. 


Varaliiua-mena. 


Tanibaga, s. 


Brass. 


Varaliiiia. 


Kuningau, c. ; loyaiig, 



The name for iron is very probably Malayan ; but as the origi- 
nal word is a bisyllable, and is reduced in the Malagasi to a bald 
monosyllabic, we cannot be altogether sure of this. Eliding 
the sibilant, which is likely, the Malagasi certainly contains the 
elements of the Malayan word. The name for steel is, no 
doubt, a corruption of the French " acier.^' Tin means "white 
iron." Vula-mcna and vula-futsi, the names given to gold and 
silver, signify "j'cd money" and " white money," the epithets 



DISSERTATION. 



cclxvii 



being corruptions of the Malay words merali, " red/' and putih, 
" white." I conjecture that the Avord vula^ translated " money," 
is probably the original name for gold, which may easily have 
become known to the natives of jNIadagascar through the oppo- 
site coast of Africa. Brass and copper are known by the same 
name, which seems to be native, and the last is distinguished 
by the epithet " red," the same Malay word that is applied to 
gold. Not one of the names of the tools and implements con- 
nected with the working of the metals is of Malayan origin. In 
tracing the influence of the Malayan nations in Madagascar, 
all that can be made out from this class of words is, that it is 
probable that the Malays or Javanese made the natives first 
acquainted with the use of iron, — no inconsiderable boon. 

Some of the words or terms connected with the domestic arts 
of the natives of Madagascar are as follow : — 



ENGLISH. 


MALAGASI. 


House. 


Trauu. 


Wall. 


Manda. 


Lime. 


Sukai. 


Fish. 


Hazadranu. 


Net. 


Haratu. 


Hand-net. 


Vuvu. 


Fish-hook. 


Fintana. 


Cotton. 


Landa, landi. 


Silk. 


Landa, landi. 


To spin. 


Hamuli. 


Thread. 


Taretra. 


Web. 


Tenuna. 


Sewing. 


Zaitra. 


Embroidery. 


Zaitra. 


Saw or file. 


Tsufa. 


Chisel. 


Tandraka. 


Axe. 


Antsibe, famaki, 


Knife. 


Antsi, kiso. 


Shears. 


Heti. 


Pot. 


Vilani. 


Goblet. 


Kapuaka. 



MALAYAN. 

Rumah, m. ; umali, j. 

D'end'eng, o. ; pag^i-, c. 

Kapur, m. ; apu, j. 

Ikan, m. ; ulam, j. 

Jala, s. 

Bubu, 0. 

Kail, m.; panching, j. 

Kapa.?, s. 

Sutra, s. 

Antih, c. ; gantih, c. 

Bdnang, c. ; lawe, j. 

Tanun, c. 

Jait, c. 

Jait, c. ; sulam, c. 

Gargaji, e. 

Paat, c. 

Kapak, m. ; kampak, j. 

Pisau, m. ; piso, j. 

Gunting, c. 

Balanga, m. ; kud'ung, j. 

Kandi, c. 



In this list of twenty-one words, there are three only that are 
Malayan. Vuvu, " a hand-net," is, in Malay and Javanese, the 
name of a particular kind of fish-trap, but the word is evidently 
the same. The word tenuna in Malagasi means " a web," and 



cclxviii 



DISSERTATION. 



also, both the " warp" and " woof." In the jNIalayan languages, 
tanun, evidently the same word, means " to weave." The word 
jait or jaib, in Malay and Javanese, is " to sew," and also 
" stitching" or " sewing." The INIalay sound of j, which is the 
same with our own, not existing in the ]Malagasi, is supplied 
by z, and with the frequent affix ra, the Malayan word is converted 
into zaitra, and signifies " sewing," and also " embroidering." 
The name for silk and cotton is the same, but the last has the 
word hazu, " wood," or " tree," affixed to it, which is itself a 
corruption of the JNIalayan word kayu, having the same meaning. 
The translation is " tree-silk." Landa, the name for " silk," is 
probably that of the produce of a Avild silk-worm, a native of 
the island ; for such, in fact, is known to exist. The name for 
fish is a compounded word, which signifies "water-game." The 
last member of the word is a Javanese term for " water." One 
of the names for a knife is obviously a corruption of the 
Malayan piso. 

Of words connected with navigation, an important class in 
this enquiry, the following are the principal : — 

MALAYAN. 

Prau, c. ; bahita, j. 

Aliian, c. 

Bui-i, c. 

Dayiing, c. 

Timur, m. ; wetan, j. 

Barat, m. ; kulou, j. 

Utiira, s. ; lor. j. 

Salatan, m. ; kidul, j. 

Taiiah, c. 

Rami, j. 

Sungai, m. ; kali, j. 

Ranu-iuasin, j. 

Alun, c. 

Pantai, m. ; pasisir, j. 

Tangjung, m. 

Bukit, m. ; guuuug, c. 

Nusa, j. 

Laiigit, c. 

Biutaug, m. ; lintang, j. 

Ribut, m. 



ENGLISH. 


MALAGASI. 


Boat, vessel. 


Lakana, sambu. 


Bow. 


Aluha. 


Stem. 


Oudi. 


Oar. 


Fiviii. 


East. 


Adsinana. 


West. 


Andrefana. 


North. 


Avaratra. 


South. 


Atsimu. 


Land. 


Tani. 


Water. 


Ranu. 


River. 


Uni. 


Sea. 


Ranumasina. 


Wave, billow. 


Aluna. 


Beach, strand. 


Muruna, dranumasin. 


rroniontory. 


Tanjuna. 


Mountain, hill. 


Tcndnim-buhitra. 


Island. 


Nusi. 


Sky. 


Lanitri, habakabaka. 


Star. 


Kitaua. 


Stonn, gale. 


Rivatra. 



Among these twenty words, one-half arc Malayan, 



an un- 



DISSERTATION. cclxix 

usually large proportion for the Malagas!, aud referable, I have 
no doubt, to the well-known maritime habits of the immigrants. 
The wide-spread word prau, " a boat or vessel,'^ does not occur, 
but we have the "bow" and "stern" of a vessel. The car- 
dinal points of the compass are native; but we find Malayan 
words, without synonymes, for land, water, sea, wave, headland, 
island, and storm. The Malagasi vocabulary of nautical terms, 
compared with the INIalayan, it should be noticed, is very poor, 
and certainly does not show the habits of the natives of 
Madagascar to have been maritime, but the reverse. 

Still greater is the poverty of the Malagasi in mercantile 
phraseology. The following are the few terms which I have 
been able to cull : — 



To buy. 
Trade, sale. 
Wages, salary. 
Debt. 

Price, value. 
To couut. 
Tax, impost. 
Money. 
Interest. 
Market. 
Indigo. 
Tobacco. 



MALAGASI. 

Vidi. 

Vanitra, jarikia. 

Karama. 

Trusa. 

Tumbaua. 

Isa. 

Hetra. 

Bula, vula. 

Zanabula. 

Iseni. 

Aikai. 

Paraki. 



MALAYAN. 

Bali, bli, m. 

Padagangan, in. 

Gaji, npah, c. 

Utang, 0. 

Arga, s. ; aji, j. 

Itung, bilaug, c. 

Cliukai, beya, c. 

Uwang, wang, c. 

Bunga-mas, m.; kambang-wang, j. 

Pakan, c. 

Tarum, m. ; torn, j. ; nila, s. 

Tambaku, c. 



The first word in this list, " to buy," is, most probably, the 
Malay verb, bali, or bli ; and the second, " sale,'' or " trade," 
the Javanese warung, " a daily market," and also " a shop," or 
" stall," having the frequent affix ra, and, according to the rules 
of jNIalagasi euphony, the final nasal turned into t. In the 
language of Madagascar, there are no names for the peculiar 
products of Malayan commerce ; its spices, scented woods, and 
gums, its dyes, pearls, tortoiseshell, and diamonds. Indigo 
bears, not a IVIalay, or Javanese, or Sanskrit name, but a native 
one. The only spice which seems known by a Malayan name is 
the capsicum, which is, probably, a corruption of chabai. The 
name for black pepper, viiaperiferi, which means literally 



cclxx 



DISSEETATION. 



" pepper fruit/' is half Malay, half English. All this tends to 
prove, what indeed for other sufficient reasons is certain 
enough, that it was not through a commercial intercourse that 
the Malagasi received its supply of Malayan words. 

Some of the leading words relating to the art of war are as 
follow : — 



ENGLISH. 


MALAGASI. 


MALAYAN. 


War. 


Tafikia. 


Prang, c. 


Fight, combat. 


Adi. 


Adu, c. 


Enemy. 


Rafi, undini. 


Musuh, c. ; satru, s. 


Warrior. 


Miaramila. 


Ulubalaug, m. ; prajurit, j. 


Chieftain. 


Lull an i. 


Pangulu, m. ; tatindih, lurah, j. 


Standard, flag. 


Saina. 


Tunggul, c. 


Drum. 


Amjiunga. 


Gaudraug, kandrang, c. 


Fortress. 


Manda. 


Kut'a, s. 


Club, mace. 


Langilangi. 


Pantuug, j.; chokmar,m. ; gada.s. 


Sliug. 


Antsamutadi. 


Bandi-ing, c. 


Bow. 


Fanajaua, taipikia. 


Panah, c. 


Arrow. 


Zanatripikia. 


Anak-panah, c. 


Spear, lance. 


Lefuna. 


Tumbak, c. 


Hand-siDearing. 


Tumbutanana. 


Tumbak tangan, c. 


Buckler, shield. 


Ampinggia. 


Tameug, c. 


Cannon. 


Tafundra. 


Mariam, c. 


Gunpowder. 


Vanja. 


Ubat-bad-il, 0. 


Musket. 


Basi. 


Sanapan, c. 


Nitre. 


Naitra. 


Sandawa, c. 


Sulphur. 


Sulifara. 


Bftlirang, m. ; walirang, j. 


Booty. 


Babu. 


Rampasan, c. ; jarahau, c. 


Captive. 


Babliina. 


Tawan, boyong, c. 



There is little in this class of words to connect the Malayan 
languages with the Malagasi. Adi, " fight or combat,^' may 
be the adu of the Malay and Javanese, which has exactly 
the same sense. The first half of the first name given for " the 
bow," is Malayan; but I can find no interpretation of the 
last half in the dictionary. The first half of the compound 
which expresses " the arrow," is also Malayan ; and the whole 
word means literally, the same as that in Malay and Javanese, 
" child or off'spring of the bow." The word tumbutanana is 
explained in the Malagasi dictionary, " the art of spearing with 
the weapon in the hand, in opposition to that of throwing or 
casting it." It is, most probably, composed of the Malayan 



DISSERTATION. 



cclxxi 



words, tumbak, " a spear," and tangan, " the hand." The 
sword and the well-known dagger of the IVIalayan nations, are 
wanting bj' their original names ; the first being called sabra, 
from the French " sabre," and the second only known by the 
epithet of " dwarf spear." The names for cannon, fire-arms, 
and gunpowder, seem to be native words, of the etymology of 
which no explanation is given, but which, without a doubt, must 
have been imposed in comparatively modern times. 

Malagasi words relating to time and kalendar are as follow : — 



ENGLISH. 

Time. 

Particular time, period. 

Age, period of life. 

Yore, of old. 

Heavens. 

Sun. 

Moon. 

Stai-. 

Day. 

Night, darkness. 

Morning. 

Evening. 

Year. 

Month. 

Week. 

Season. 

Date, epoch. 



MALAGASI. 

Andro, tauna. 

Fetra, fataana. 

Andro, tauna. 

Ela. 

Lanitra, kabakabaka. 

Masu-andru. 

Yulaua. 

Kin tana. 

Andru. 

Alina. 

Maraina. 

Hariva. 

Hariutauua. 

Yulana. 

Harinaiidro. 

Tciuna. 

Andru, fetra. 



MALAYAN. 

Wayah, j. ; masa, s. ; kala, s. 

Kutika, s. ; bila, s. 

Yuswa, s. 

Daulukala, p^ristawa, m. 

Langit, c. ; akasa, s. 

Mata-ari, m. 

Bulan, m. ; wulan, j. 

Biutang, m. ; lintang, j. 

Ari, s. ; dina, s. 

MaMm, m. ; wangi, j. 

Pagi, m. ; esuk, j. 

Patang, m. ; sore, j. 

Tawun, e. 

Bulan, m. : wulan, j. 

Sa-domiuggo, c. 

JIasa, s. 

Saka, kutika, warsa, s. 



There are in this list three INIalayan words, those for 
"moon" or "month," for "the heavens," and for "year," 
but the two last accompanied by native synonymes. The 
words which express the more general and larger terms, 
" month," and " year," are Malayan, while the shorter periods 
of "day," "night," " morning," and " evening," are represented 
by native words. The Malayan word tawun, "a year," is 
applied also in Malagasi to " time " and " season," and to 
express its meaning in the original languages is combined, 
euphonically, with the word heri, which signifies " restricted " or 
" special." Not one of the Sanskrit words, so frequent in this 
class in INIalay and Javanese, is to be found in the Malagasi. 
The days of the week are taken from Arabic, and as might be 



cclxxii DISSERTATION, 

expected, appear in a much more corrupt form than any Malay 
words. Thus, aAad, the first day of the week, is pronounced with 
the Arabian article as alahadi ; and yalasa, " Tuesday," becomes 
talata. But the natives of Madagascar have one advantage 
over the Malayan nations in their kalendar. They divide the 
year into twelve months with a name to each. Of these names 
six are specific words, and the other six named from the ordinal 
numerals. 

The following are a few of the words which relate to the 
religion or superstitions of the natives of Madagascar : — 



ENGLISH. 


MALAGASI. 


MALAYAN. 


A god, a deity. 


Zanahari. 


Dewa, s. ; dewata, juwata, s. 


Idol. 


Sampi, udi, audriinanitra. 


Brahala, ni. ; radia, j. 


Spectre, goblin. 


Matuatua, ambiriia. 


Antu, c. 


Divination. 


Sikidi. 


Tanuug. c. 


Sorcery. 


Udi. 


Tambul, m. ; bi'agum, j. 


Prediction. 


Vinani. 


Tarka, c. 



Zanahari, " a god," means, also, '' a deceased king," and its 
component parts, zana, may be the Malayan anak, " oflfspring," 
and hari, in Sanskrit an epithet of Vishnu, and also, " a lion," 
but in Javanese, " a king." Sampi means " an oath " and " a 
spell," as well as " an idol," and may be the jNIalayan sumpali, 
which means " an oath " or " a spell."" Udi is, at once, '' an 
idol," " a charm," and " a medicine," and may be a corruption 
of the Malay word ubat, which has the two last meanings. 
Andrimanitra is a compounded word, of which the first 
member means " a post " or " pillar," a native word. The 
second means " sweet," and is the corruption of the Malayan 
manis, the entire word, literally rendered, being "sweet post 
or pillar." Notwithstanding this rather commonplace inter- 
pretation, it means, in the Malagasi, " a god," " an idol," 
" a king," and " a charm." There is no word in Malagasi for 
religion, — for a temple, or for a place of future reward or future 
punishment, although the Christian missionaries have endea- 
voured with pious zeal to create them. The fact is, that the 
natives of Madagascar have adhered, with wonderful tenacity, 
to their own very grovelling, ])ut sanguinary, superstitions. 



DISSERTATIOI^. 



cclxxiii 



There is no e\ideuce in their language that they ever adopted, 
even the most trifling portion of Hinduism from the Makyan 
nations or any other people, and they have strenuously resisted 
the admission, either of the Mahoraedan or Christian religions. 

There is no trace of the Malayan languages in the terms 
•which relate to the national sports and amusements of the 
natives of Madagascar, nor to their administration of justice, 
and, of course, none to literature. 

The few following are some of the words which relate to 
government and administration : — 



ENGLISH. 


MALAGASI. 


MALAYAN. 


King, sovereign. 


Andriamanitia. 


Raja, s. ; ratu, j. 


Chieftain. 


Luhaui. 


Paugulu, m. ; lurah, titindih, j. 


A noble. 


Andiiana. 


Pcirbaya, m. ; priyayi, j. 


Title. 


Aranana. 


Aran, j. 


People. 


Olana. 


Orang, m. 


Slave. 


Andevu. 


Amba, m. ; kawula, j. 


Judge. 


Andriambaventi. 


Jaksa, j. 


Minister, deputy. 


Sulu. 


Sulu, j. 


Ambassador, mes-senger. 


Iraka. 


Charaka, j. 


Counsel. 


Auitra. 


Bachara, s. 


Village. 


Vuhitra. 


D-usun, c. ; desa, s. 


Town. 


Vuhitra. 


Nagri, nagara, kut'a, s. 


Palace. 


Lapa. 


Karaton, j. 


Nation, tribe. 


Tirenena. 


Snku, pincher, m. ; bangsa, s. 



There are here four words which are probably Malayan. 
Iraka is, very likely, a corruption of the Javanese charaka, " a 
messenger " or " envoy." The Malagasi word for " people " is 
evidently the Malay or^ng, "man" or "men," and also, 
" people." The Malagasi word for " title " is very probably a 
corruption of the Javanese aran, " a name " or " a title." Sulu, 
both in sense and form, is strictly Javanese. The Malagasi name 
given to the king or sovereign is compounded of two Avords, of 
Avhich the epithet implied in the last is the Malayan word, manis, 
which seems to be an honorary one of much the same import as 
mas, or " golden," in INIalay and Javanese. The literal meaning 
of the compound is " sweet noble." In this class of words, 
then, the influence of the Malayan languages is perceptible, but 
not considerable. 



ccl.x 



DISSERTATION. 



Among the classes of words, which «ould deserve attention in 
an enqniry of this nature, are the names of places and tribes, 
but Ave have no sufficient materials. The words Malayu, 
Malay, and Jawa, Java, or Javanese, are not to be found. 
Among the names of places along the coast-line of Madagascar, 
I observe the Javanese word nusa applied to an island, and vatu 
or batu, " stone or rock," to others. The practice of applying 
these words is frequent over the Malayan Archipelago, as 
Nusa-kambang, " floating island," on the south coast of Java, 
Nusalaut, " sea isle," in the Molucca seas, and Batubara, 
"embers rock," in the Straits of Malacca, with Batu-mama, 
"mother-rock," in Sumatra. 

The Malagasi numerals with their equivalents in the Malayan 
languages are as follows : — 



One. 

Two. 

Three. 

Four. 

Five. 

Six. 

Seven. 

Eight. 

Nine. 

Ten. 

Eleven. 

Twelve. 

Twenty. 

Hundred. 

Thousand. 

Ten thousand. 

Hundred thousand. 



MALAGASI. 

Trai. 

Rua. 

Telu. 

Efatra. 

Dimi. 

Enina. 

Fitu. 

Volu. 

Sivi. 

Fulu. 

Iraiki-ambinifulu. 

Ru-ambinifulu. 

Rua-fulu. 

Zatu. 

Arivu. 

Alina. 

Ketsi. 



nSni, 



MALAYAN. 

Sa, c. 

Duwa, m. ; loro, ro, j. 

Taiu, j. 

Pat, j. 

Lima, c. 

AnAm, m. 

Pitu, j. 

Wolu, j. 

Sanga, j. 

Puluh, c. 

Sawalas, j. 

Rolas, j. 

Rongpulah, j. 

Ratus, m. ; atus, j. 

Ribu, m. ; ewu, j. 

Laksa, s. 

KiU-i, s. 



The Malagasi ordinal numbers are formed by the prefix faha 
before the cardinals, which is equivalent to, or a corruption of, 
the Malay and Javanese ka. Here, then, we have the Malayan 
numerals at their western limit, after extending, reckoning 
from Easter island, over 200° of longitude. The numerals in the 
Malagasi have a wider range, and although much corrupted, 
are, owing to greater compass of consonants, in a more per- 
fect form than in tl»e Polynesian. The only numeral that is 



DISSERTATION. cclxxv 

a native word is " one/' but this is also the case with several 
other rude languages. In other respects the system is 
tolerably perfect, with the exception that the Malagasi has 
rejected the affix bias or walas, which with the units represent 
the numbers between ten and twenty in the Malayan system. 
It clumsily uses in its stead a copulative conjunction and an 
article, saying, for example, " ten and the one,'' " ten and the 
two," for the sablas, "eleven," and duablas, "twelve," of the 
Malay. A similar practice is followed with the odd numbers 
between even tens from 20 to 100. Most of the numerals, it will 
be seen, belong to the Javanese and not to the IMalay form of 
them. The two highest numbers, notwithstanding the discre- 
pancy of orthography, I have ventured to mark as Sanskrit. They 
certainly correspond in sense with the ^Malayan numerals, includ- 
ing even the mistake made by the Malayan nations in adopting 
the first of them. Aliua seems to be formed from laksa, chiefly 
by substituting a nasal for the sequent ks, a sound which a native 
of Madagascar could not pronounce. The turning of kat'i into 
hetsi is more obvious. Here the guttural is converted into an 
aspirate, as is frequently done with other Malay words, as kala, 
" a scorpion," for example, into hala ; and then, the INTadagascar 
consonant ts is substituted for the palatal t of the Malayan, a 
letter which is not found in the IMalagasi. 

What benefit, then, it may be asked, did the natives of Ma- 
dagascar derive from their communication with the jNIalayan 
nations ? I think a good deal must be inferred from the examina- 
tion now made. They certainly derived more advantage from 
the connexion than the Polynesian tribes from the same inter- 
course. The Malayan nations, probably, instructed them in the 
knowledge of making malleable iron. There is every appearance 
of their having introduced into the island the cultivation of rice 
and of the coconut. They either introduced or taught the culture 
of the yam. It is not improbable but that it was they who in- 
troduced the arts of weaving and sewing. But the Malayan 
nations introduced no domesticated animal, and taught the 
natives of jNIadagascar neither letters, law, or religion. If it be 
true that the Hovas, or ruling race of the island, are the mixed 
descendants of the jNIalayan immigrants, another benefit must 



cclxxvi DISSERTATION. 

be added. In person, intellect, and civilisation, tlie Hovas are 
represented to be much superior to the other inhabitants of 
Madagascar, and it follows that the Malaj'an blood must, to 
some extent, have improved the native race. 

It remains only to attempt some explanation of the manner 
in which the Malayan languages, and consequently, the tribes 
that spoke them, found their way to the far, and to them, 
unknown, island of Madagascar. I must make the same 
assumption here that I did in attempting to account for the 
dissemination of the Malayan languages over the islands of the 
Pacific. It was assuredl)^ neither commerce, religion, nor con- 
quest that engaged the Malayan nations in the enterprise, for 
they have never been known to go beyond their own shoi^es in 
pursuit of such objects. 

Madagascar is about 3000 miles distant from the nearest part 
of the Malayan Archipelago. Monsoons, or periodical winds, 
blow between them to the south of the equator ; viz., the south- 
east and north-west monsoons ; the first in the Austral winter 
from April to October, which is the dry and fair season of the 
year, and the last in the Austral summer, from October to April, 
which is the rainy and boisterous season. The south-eastern mon- 
soon, with which we are chiefly concerned in this enquiry, is, 
in fact, only a continiiation of the trade wind that blows in the 
same direction with it, to the south of the equator. A native 
vessel, or a fleet of native vessels, sailing from the southern part 
of Sumatra or from Java, must, of course, sail with this 
monsoon in order to have the least chance of reachiug 
Madagascar. Undertaking the voyage, however, such vessel or 
fleet would have a fair wind all the way, and the sailiug distance 
from the Straits of Sunda would be 3300 miles. Making only 
at the rate of 100 miles a day, a vessel or a fleet of praus would 
reach the eastern shore of Madagascar in 33 days. 

But it may be asked how Malays or Javanese, who never 
quit the waters of their own Archipelago, could come to con- 
template such an enterprise. I suppose the adventurers to have 
been composed of one of those strong fleets of rovers that, in all 
known times, have ranged the seas of the Archipelago, and which 
do so, from one extremity to the other, even at the present day. I 



DISSERTATION. cclxxvii 

suppose them while either in quest of booty or adventure, to be 
driven into the south-east monsoon or the trade -wind by a 
tempest. Unable to regain the shores of the Archipelago, they 
would, from necessity, and after some struggle, put before the 
wind, and make for the first land. That land would be Mada- 
gascar, for there is no other. In civilisation, the adventurers 
would be superior to the natives; their numbers would be too few 
for conquest, but their power, from superior civilisation, might 
be adequate to secure a compromise. They would settle — amal- 
gamate with the inhabitants, and convey some instruction to 
them, along with a portion of their languages. It is not 
necessary to limit such an enterprise to the single adventure of 
one nation, for in a course of ages there may have occurred 
several accidents of the same description. One, however, might 
have sufficed, for the roving fleets of the Archipelago, like our 
own bucaneers, have crews of several nations, among whom 
several languages would be spoken, but the most general the 
Malay and Javanese. 

A fleet that had been more than a month at sea, going, it 
knew not where, is not likely to have saved any domesticated 
animals, even supposing it originally to have had such, and conse- 
quently, we find no domestic animal with a Malayan name in 
Madagascar. It is not only possible, however, but highly 
probable, that from its stock of provisions, it would save a 
few grains of rice, a few coconuts, and a few capsicums, perhaps 
even some yams and mango-seed, and all these in the Malagasi 
language bear, as already mentioned, Malayan names, and 
these only. 

But I shall endeavour to show the possibility of such a voyage 
as I have imagined, by quoting the example of a similar one, 
asserted by the Malays to have been actually performed by them. 
The narrative of this supposed adventure is given in some detail 
in a book called "The History of the Raja of Malacca." This 
raja was Mahmud, from whom Albuquerque took Malacca, in 
1511. The Portuguese Commander, Segueira, had, in 1509, 
attacked Malacca unsuccessfully, and it was in the time 
between this and the conquest that the sovereign of Malacca 
is said to have sent an embassy to Constantinople, to claim 



cclxxvlii DISSERTATION. 

the assistance of the Turks. The chief ambassador was the 
hero of Malay story, the Laksimana, or High Admiral. The 
fleet with which he sailed consisted of 42 praus, of various sizes, 
manned by 1600 mariners, and having as passengers the retinue 
and followers of the ambassadors, consisting of 300. Thus, ou 
an average, each prau had a crew of about 40 men; and, 
passengers included, accommodated about 45 persons, a number 
which I believe is about the average of the crews and captives 
of a modern Malay or Lanun piratical fleet. The two fastest 
sailers of this squadron reached Achin, at the western end of 
Sumatra, in five days, and the rest of the fleet in seven. The 
distance is about 454 miles, and therefore the fastest sailing 
was at the rate of 90 miles a day, and the average of the fleet 65. 
The course was through the Straits of Malacca, in which not 
monsoons but variable winds and calms prevail, and therefore 
the oar was, most probably, occasionally plied. 

After tarrying twelve days at Achin, the fleet sailed westward, 
and in ten days made the Maldive islands, called in Sanskrit 
Maladwipa, and by the Malays Pulo-dewa, a half Malay, half 
Sanskrit word, meaning " isles of the gods." Without touching 
at these, it sailed on, and after two lunar months, or fifty-six 
days^ voyage, reached Jeddah, on the Arabian Gulf. The dis- 
tance from Achin to the Maldive islands is about 1456 miles; 
and therefore, the rate of sailing in this part of the voyage was 
145 miles a day, not an exaggerated one at the height of the 
monsoon, and consequently, with a fair and strong wind. The 
voyage from the Maldive islands to Jeddah, in the Arabian Gulf, 
is about 1426 miles ; but the rate of sailing is here i-educed to 
25^ miles a day, the wind not being equally favourable, and, in 
the northern part of the Red Sea, most probably adverse. The 
whole sailing voyage of 33;56 miles, then, occupied 73 days, the 
average progress being above 45 miles a day. The fleet must 
have been well provisioned for so long a voyage, and is expressly 
stated to have been so in the narrative. 

It is, however, to be remembered, that the Malays were, 
at the time of the supposed voyage, no longer the same 
people they must have been when I suppose them to have 
achieved their adventure to Madagascar. Thev must have 



DISSEKTATION. cclxxix 

been improved by the three centuries of intercourse which 
they had held with the Arabs, who must even have shown 
them the way to the Red Sea, for the purpose of the pilgrimage 
to Mecca, — probably, even instructed them in the use of the 
mariner's compass. On the other hand, the voyage to the south 
of the equator, or that to Madagascar, is more direct and with 
more favourable winds than that to the north of it. The first 
of these voyages is performed with the north-east, — the last 
with the south-east monsoon, and trade wind. The return 
voyage, to the north of the equator, would be as easy as the 
outward, because the south-west monsoon prevails over the same 
tract as the north-east. Not so the return voyage to the south 
of the equator, for not a westerly monsoon but the adverse 
trade wind prevails over the principal part of it. The Malayan 
emigrants once in ]Madagascar, must remain tbere, for return 
would be impossible. 

A tradition of the Hova, the superior tiibe of Madagascar, 
and the supposed descendants of the original !Malayan immi- 
grants, respecting their origin, is worth notice. I give it on 
the authority of a communication from the learned Society of 
the Mauritius, kindly furnished to me through the Colonial 
Office. The Hovas say that their ancestors reached the island, 
" by a long and devious sea journey." This could, of course, 
refer only to a voyage from the eastward ; and as there is no 
country between, it could, necessarily, refer only to a voyage 
from the Malay islands. A voyage from the coast of Africa, 
across the comparatively narrow channel which divides it from 
Madagascar, would have been neither a long nor a devious 
sea journey. The word Hova may possibly be Malayan. In 
JNIalay, the word ubah, or in Javanese owah, means " change," 
" shift," " alteration." Now, to all Malayan words adopted 
by the ISIalagasi, and beginning with a vowel, it prefixes an 
aspirate; and it invariably cuts off one at the end of a word. 
By this process, the Javanese word Owah, and the Malagasi 
Hova, would be almost the same. But whether, after all, the 
word be Malayan, or have any application to the ruling tribe of 
jNIadagascar, is very doubtful. It may, however, be conjectured 
that the word, if JNIalayan, may refer to the change produced 



cclxxx DISSERTATION. 

by the arrival of the strangers, or, in short, to a Malagasi 
"revolution/^ 

The Hovas know neither the name of the people from whom 
their ancestors sprang, nor the place these ancestors came 
from, nor the time when they arrived in Madagascar. A ray 
of light may, however, be thrown on this subject. As the 
foreign insular languages mixed with the Malagasi are exclu- 
sively Malay and Javanese, the principal emigrants must have 
been Malays or Javanese, and consequently must have come from 
Sumatra or Java, or both. They must have left these islands 
during the south-east monsoon, and, therefore, some time from 
April to October. They were not a rude and savage people 
when they migrated, or they would not have constructed boats 
capable of conveying them to Madagascar; and they were 
already acquainted with the culture of rice and the coco-palm, 
or they would not have carried them along with them. They 
were probably acquainted with the process of making malleable 
iron, and of manufacturing textile fabrics. In fine, they must 
have been tolerably civilised, or they would not have imposed 
any portion of their languages on men as civilised as them- 
selves, and far more numerous. 

Among the Malayan words in the Malagasi, there are about 
half-a-dozen Sanskrit ones which are of common use in the 
Malagasi, and in the same senses in which they are used in the 
Malayan languages. It can scarcely be doubted but that these 
words were introduced along with the Malay and Javanese, and 
if this be allowed, it follows that the Malayan migration took 
place subsequent to the intercourse of the Hindus with the 
Eastern islands, and even after their settlement in Java and 
Sumatra. As the migration to Madagascar, then, took place 
after the Malayan nations had attained a considerable measure 
of civilisation, and subsequent to their intercourse with the 
Hindus, it may, after all, not be quite so remote as we fancy ; 
or the civilisation of the Malayan islands, and the intercourse 
with the Hindus, which contributed to it, are themselves of 
greater antiquity than is commonly believed. 

There is one important class of words connected with the 
migrations, navigation, and influence of the Malayan nations to 



DISSERTATION. cclxxxi 

which I have as yet hardly adverted — names of places and 
. , nations, and I shall here offer some observations on 

Argument ' 

fusion^f the it- "^^^6 great majority of the names of places and 
fangu!ag°es pcoplc beloiig to local idioms, but here and there at 
of'piacer''^ salient points^ Malayan names, chiefly connected with 
""'' "'^''°"^' navigation, are to be found. In the western parts of 
the Ai-chipelago, indeed, they are very frequent, and need not 
be dwelt on, but they extend, also, to the most remote eastern 
parts, and may even be traced to the Philippines, 

The following Malayan words, forming the first members of 
the compounded words by which the names of places are so 
frequently expressed, it appears to me certain, were imposed by 
the Malays or Javanese ; pulo, " isle,^' " island,^-" " islet ; " 
tanjung, " headland or promontory ;'^ batu and karang, "rock 3" 
muwara and kwala, "embouchure of a river j^-* tsiluk, "a bay 
or cove ; " gunung, " a mountain ; " labuhan, " a harbour ^' 
or "anchorage;" kampung, "a quarter/' and, although Sans- 
krit, kut*a, "a fort or castle.'^ Of these we have a good 
many examples. In the island of Bali, Karang-asam is the 
name of a state, and signifies " the rock of the tamarind 
tree." Among the Molucca islands we have Pulo-babi, " hog 
island;" Pulo-ubi, " yam island;" Pulo-nila, " blue island ; " 
nusa-laut, "sea island;" Pulo-lata, "the creeping islets," 
applied to a chain of rocky islands, and tanjung-kroh, "muddy 
point." In the island of Lombok, we have Labuhan-aji, 
which in Javanese means " king's anchorage," or " royal 
harbour." Gunung-api, " a volcano," literally " fire-moun- 
tain," occurs frequently in the most easterly parts of the 
Archipelago. 

Independent of these compounded names, we have specific 
ones derived from the Malayan languages. Lombok, which 
gives its European name to the island, signifies, in Javanese, 
the " capsicum pepper ; " Alas, the name of a place in the island 
of Sambawa, signifies, in the same language, "a forest." 
Timur, the name of the large island bearing it, means, in Malay, 
"the east." Dili, the name of a district of the same island, is 
also that of a Malay state on the north-eastern coast of Sumatra ; 
and Kupang, the name of another, signifies, in Malay, a kind of 



cclxxxii DISSERTATION. 

ornamental mat made of palm leaf. Mataram, the name of a 
province in Java, we find transferred to that of a place in the 
island of Lombok. The particular settlements of the Javanese 
are indicated on the north-eastern coast of Sumatra at the 
rivers of Dili and Asahan by the name Kut'a-jawa, or the 
" Javanese castles," at the first of which, according to tradition, 
a colony of 5,000 persons estabbshed itself. To this people, 
too, must be ascribed the Sanskrit names of places beyond 
Java, as Indragiri, " the hill of Indra," in Sumatra, Sukadana, 
literally "parrots' gift," and Kut'i, the "little fortress," in 
Borneo. With the exception of a few traces in the Philippines 
and Madagascar, no Malay or Javanese names of places are 
to be found beyond the limits of the Archipelago. We seek for 
them in vain in the islands of the Pacific ; and I have already 
alluded to the few traces of them in Madagascar. 

I shall conclude this enquiry with a recapitulation of the 
results which, I think, are fairly deducible from it. There is, 
RecapitMiA- then, no foundation for the prevalent notion, that, 
tion. negroes excepted, all the descriptions of men from 

Madagascar to the utmost eastern limit of the Pacific, and from 
Formosa to New Zealand, are one and the same race. On the 
contrary, they amount to several. Nor is there any foundation 
for the received opinion that all the Oriental Negroes are, 
throughout, the same race; for they amount to still more 
varieties than the men of brown complexion. 

Neither is there any ground whatever for the hypothesis that 
all the races of brov/n complexion speak essentially the same 
language, diversified by long time and separation into many 
dialects. Had this theory been true, the supposed parent tougue 
must have sprung up at a particular point, which the authors of 
the theory ought to be obliged to point out. Or it must have 
spontaneously sprung up at the same time at a hundred diff'erent 
and separate points, which would be a miracle in the liistory of 
language. Before its dissemination on the first supposition, 
and when it was created on the second, such a language must 
already have been, to a certain degree, a cultivated language; 
for many of the woi'ds of the supposed tongue imply no ordinary 
amount of civilisation, and are very widely spread. 



DISSERTATION. cclxxxiii 

The theory which I have adopted and endeaA'oured to demon- 
strate supposes the Malay and Javanese nations to have been 
the instruments of diffusing language, because they inhabit 
those localities in which, on account of their extent and fertility, 
ci\ilisation is most likely to have earliest sprung up and 
attained the greatest maturity, — because we know them to have 
been, at all times, the most civilised, powerful, and enterprising 
people of the countries concerned, — because, historically, we can 
trace some of their enterprises and settlements from Sumatra 
to the Moluccas and the Philippines, — and, finally, because we 
find words of their languages, and hardly of any others, in 
nearly every tongue from Madagascar to Easter island, and 
from Formosa to New Zealand. 

The assumption made in favour of the jNIalay and Javanese 
nations is entirely consonant to the history of the diffusion of 
languages in other parts of the world. The diflFusion in every 
case has been effected, not by rude or weak nations, but by 
civilised, powerful, and enterprising ones. The ancient Greeks, 
by commerce and settlement, intermixed their language with 
all the languages of ancient Italy. The language of the Latin 
nation was disseminated over Italy, Spain, and France. A 
German people spread their language over the best parts of 
Britain. Another Teutonic people, who had adopted the lan- 
guage of France, infused a large portion of it into the Latin 
tongue of the preceding conquerors of that country. The 
people, whoever they may have been, of whom the Sanskrit 
was the vernacular tongue, contrived, through the instru- 
mentality of religion, literature, trade, settlement, and in some 
situations, probably also of conquest, to intermix their tongue, 
in more or less quantity, Avitli all the languages of Hindustan, 
and of many of the countries around it, extending even to some 
of the remotest of the Indian islands. The Arabs infused more 
or less of their language into most of the idioms which extend 
from Spain to the Philippine islands. The Arabs and the Per- 
sians, although neither of them ever eflFected permanent con- 
quests in Hindustan, have had their languages indirectly infused 
into every idiom of that country, as well as into most of those of 
the Malayan islands, although here, too, they made no conquests. 



cclxxxiv DISSERTATION. 

It may be objected to the explanation which I offer^ that uot 
one, but two languages are assumed to have been instrumental 
in diffusing the words which are common to so many tongues. 
The objection, however, falls to the ground, if the facts adduced 
prove that such has actually been the case. The history of 
language, however, affords several well-known examples of a 
similar proceeding. The Lntin, with its Greek element, super- 
seded the current rude languages of Southern Europe. French, 
with its Teutonic as well as its Latin element, was engrafted 
on the language of the Anglo-Saxons of Britain ; and Persian, 
with its Arabic element, on the languages of Hindustan. Even 
in the INIalayan languages, along with the Sanskrit there came 
some Talugu, and along with Arabic some Persian. 

In the intermixing of foreign languages with local idioms, it 
is evident that it matters little whether it has been brought 
about by commerce, by settlement, by religion, by conquest, 
or by a combination of two or more of these, if the cause has 
been sufficient to produce the effect. If the cause has been 
feeble the diffusion of language will be small in amount, and 
if powerful it may amount, not to intermixture alone, but 
even to a total supersession of the native idiom. Of all 
this, the Malay and Javanese languages afford examples on an 
obscure field, which are parallel to those which the Asiatic 
and European languages exhibit on conspicuous ones. The 
Malays have occupied the finest parts of Sumatra and their 
language prevails over all they occupy. The Javanese lan- 
guage prevails over all the finest parts of Java. This may 
be compared to the diffusion of the Latin tongue over Italy, 
Erance, and Spain. The Malay and Javanese languages are 
intermixed with all the languages of the more civilised nations 
of the Philippine islands, and this may be compared in degree 
•with the mixture of Arabic in the Spanish and Portuguese 
languages, — of the Gothic tongues in the languages of the 
South of Europe, and of French in Engbsh. Conquest, 
indeed, has been the cause in the last cases, and commerce 
and settlement in the first case, but this matters little when the 
effect is similar. The Malay and Javanese langiiages are found 
intermixed in the Polynesian and language of Madagascar, and 



DISSERTATION. cclxxxv 

I imagine this may not inaptl}' be compared to the infusion of 
Latin which we find in the Irish^ the Welsh, and Armorican. 

That the Malayan words, fancifully imagined to afford 
evidence of a kind of universal language, proceeded from Sumatra 
and Java is demonstrated by the fact of their being found to 
diminish in amount as we recede, either by distance or other 
difficulty of communication, from those islands, and by their 
increasing as we approach them. I may give the proportions in 
1000 words for some of the principal languages in proof. In 
the language of Madura, separated from Java only by a narrow 
Strait, it is 675 ; in the language of the Lampungs of Sumatra, 
conterminous with the Malays, it is 455 ; in the Bali, it is 470 ; 
in the Bugis of Celebes, it is 326 ; in the Kayan of Borneo, 114 ; 
in the Kisa, the language of an island between Timur and New 
Guinea, it is 56 ; in the Tagala of the Philippines, it is 24; in 
the Madagascar, 20, and in the Sandwich island dialect of the 
Polynesian, 16. 

In corroboration of this argument, I may state that the 
Sanskrit and Arabic languages follow a similar proportion, in 
those insular languages in which they exist. Of the first Java, 
and of the last Sumatra were the chief seats. In 1000 
words the Javanese itself contains about 110 words of 
Sanskrit; the Malay about 50; the Bugis 17; the Tagala of 
the Phihppines fewer than 3; the Madagascar contains about 
half-a-dozen words in the whole dictionary, and the great pro- 
bability is, that the Polynesian contains none at all. Of Arabic, 
the Malay contains about 52 words in 1000 ; the Madura about 
35, and the Bugis about 13. In the whole Tagala dictionary, 
I can find only 12 words, and in the Polynesian language, there 
is not one at all. 

Instead of considering all the languages within the wide 
bounds described as mere dialects of one tongue, the results of 
my own enquiry confirm me in concluding that they are in- 
numerable. Within the Archipelago and the Philippines, all 
the languages differ in their elementary parts and in the 
majority of their words, so as to make it impossible to avoid 
coming to the conclusion that they are distinct and inde- 
pendent tongues. Within those limits, there are what may be 



cclxxxvi DISSERTATION. 

termed provincial differences arising chiefly from pronuncia- 
tion, but hardl}' a dialect in the sense in which we apply it to 
Scotch and English, to Welsh and Armorican, or to Irish and 
Gaelic. The languages of the Archipelago might, indeed, be 
classed in groups, according to their phonetic character and 
grammatical structure, but this would, by no means, make even 
all the languages of one group, the same tongue, as long as their 
elementary words and the body of each language are known to 
be different. 

As far as my enquiry goes, the languages of the Negro races 
differ among themselves as much as those of the brown-com- 
plexioned ; — to appearance, indeed, even more, since no common 
languages to any material degree connect them as is the case 
with the languages of the brown-complexioned races. Within 
the field of our enquiry there is just one example, and it is a 
remarkable one, of a wide-spread language split into true 
dialects. This is the Polynesian. Its dialects agree in phonetic 
character, in grammatical structure, in elementary words, and 
in the great majority of all their words ; — in short, the unity 
of language is in this case unquestionable. 

As to the manner in which the Malayan languages have been 
diffused, I presume to think that the nearest analogy to it will 
be found in the diffusion of Greek over the ancient vernacular 
languages of Italy and Asia Minor. The locality of the people 
with whom the Greek language originated bears no incon- 
siderable resemblance, in its leading features, to that of the 
Malayan nations. The early Greeks were as notorious for 
roving and piracy as the Malays themselves ; like the INIalayan 
nations, too, they were a rude people when they disseminated 
their language, and the history of the dissemination is almost 
as obscure. The Greek language, indeed, Avas not so far spread 
as the Malayan tongues, but this, assuredly, was not owing to 
inferior enterprise, but to obstacles insurmountable by a rude 
people ; for, instead of being favoured by pei'iodical winds and 
tranquil seas, after quitting the Mediterranean, the Greeks had 
to encounter the variable storms and winds of the Euxine on 
one side, and of the Ocean on the other, while to the north and 
south, instead of a continuity of islands, they were hemmed in 



DISSERTATION. cclxxxvii 

by continents inhabited by fierce and warlike barbarians, inac- 
cessible to themselves and their language. This comparison 
must be restricted to the languages of the Indian and Philippine 
Archipelagos ; for the presence of Malayan words in the lan- 
guages of the islands of the Pacific and in that of Madagascar, 
it must be admitted, appears more to resemble that of certain 
plants conveyed to distant shores, by winds, currents, or 
accident, than the ordinary migrations of man in other parts of 
the world. 

The languages have been diffused over a portion of the 
eartVs sui-face, more extensive than there is any example of 
in the history of rude nations, — than, indeed, owing to the 
peculiarity of their position, there could possibly have been. 
But it may be asked how they came not to be still more 
widely diftused. The answer is obvious. The cause which 
mainly led to their diffusion, — the peculiar physical geography 
of the country, ceased, and all the obstacles increased. I shall 
briefly point out how these operated at different quarters. 

Distance, want of enterprise for the purpose, and the pre- 
sence of nations far more civilised and powerful than IMalays 
and Javanese, have been obstacles quite sufficient to prevent 
the Malayan languages from making the slightest impression in 
the country of the Hindus. On the contrary, the Hindu lan- 
guages and civilisation made a considerable impression on the 
Malayan people and their languages. 

Similar causes, to a greater or less extent, have arrested the 
progress of the Malayan languages in all the countries from 
Hindustan to China inclusive. But here there is an additional 
cause in operation. The languages of these countries are 
generally monosyllabic, and the Malayan polysyllabic. They 
refuse to amalgamate or intermix, of which we have some 
striking proofs. The Chinese have been settled in great 
numbers throughout the Archipelago for many centuries, and 
intermarried with the native inhabitants; yet thei-e are cer- 
tainly not a dozen words of any Chinese language in Malay, 
Javanese, or any other native tongue of the Archipelago. Far 
more Portuguese words have been naturalised in them, although 
the Portuguese have not been one half the time in the country, 



cclxxxviii DISSERTATION. 

and never in any considerable number. It cannot, at tlie same 
time, be said that the Malayan nations have borrowed nothing 
from the Chinese, for they have imitated some of their customs 
and arts, and adopted their more precise system of weights and 
monies. But to express what they have borrowed, with few 
exceptions, they use their own polysyllabic language. The 
Malayan languages, indeed, are found intermixed with the 
native tongue of the inhabitants of Formosa ; but here they met, 
not with a monosyllabic, but a polysyllabic tongue. 

The Siamese are another example to the same effect. They 
are conterminous with the Malays, and for many centuries 
have ruled over the four Malay principalities nearest to them ; 
and many Malays are settled within the proper Siamese terri- 
tory. With all this, there is little admixture of languages. 
The Siamese have not adopted half-a-dozen words of Malay, 
and the Malays no Siamese words at all. On the frontier a 
mixed race has sprung up, known to the Malays by the appel- 
lation of Samsam, and this race speaks a jargon of the two 
tongues, which has made no progress on either side. 

At the southern neighbourhood of the Archipelago we find, 
on the continent of Australia, a total exclusion of the Malayan 
languages, throughout its many tongues, arising from another 
cause, — in my opinion, the incapacity of the very feeble and 
very barbarous race which occupies the whole continent. The 
whole of the tribes of the Polynesian race have adopted Malayan 
words into their dialects, and all the Negro races whose lan- 
guages have been examined have done the same thing ; but the 
Australians, who are much nearer to the source of supply than 
most of them, have not adopted a single word. This looks 
more like the incapacity of the lower animals to acquire lan- 
guage than anything else. The Malayan languages planted in 
Australia are like the seed of a plant of the Equator sown in 
the soil and climate of Nova Zembla, where they would not 
even vegetate. 

No Malayan words have ever been traced to the languages 
of America, nor are they ever likely to be. The opposite pho- 
netic character, and grammatical structure of the American 
languages, would of themselves be sufficient to exclude Malayan 



DISSERTATION. cclxxxix 

or Polynesian words. But there exist still more insurmount- 
able obstacles in the gap of above 2000 miles, without resting- 
places, which divides the nearest of the isles of the Pacific from 
America, and in the baffling winds which prevail for 400 miles 
along the shore of that continent. Even, however, had the 
distance been less, and the winds more propitious, we have 
not, at the nearest point of the Pacific islands to the western 
shore of America, the comparatively vigorous and enterprising 
populations of the Society, Navigators^, and Friendly groups ; but, 
instead, the poor, unenterprising inhabitants of small and barren 
Easter island, wholly unequal to the enterprises which have been 
achieved by the Polynesians of larger and moi*e fertile islands. 
Even supposing any people of the Pacific, however, to have 
effected a landing on the continent of America, it must be 
with the certainty of encountering a hostile population, and 
consequently of being either absoi'bed or destroyed. 



POSTSCRIPT. 



In addition to the evidence given at page 47 of the influence 
exercised by the Javanese and their language over the other 
tribes and languages of the Archipelago and adjacent countries, 
I give that which is recorded in Joao de Barros,the most authentic 
and intelligent of all the Portuguese historians of India.* He 
describes Malacca, the principal emporium of the Archipelago 
at the time of its capture by Albuquerque, in 1511, as having 
been founded by a Javanese prince driven from Singapore by 
the Siamese. He further states, that when it was taken, the 
majority of its inhabitants consisted of Javanese, although the 
ruling tribe was Malay. The Javanese inhabitants appear to 
have dwelt in separate quarters of the town, and are desci'ibed 
as being under the government of their own native chiefs, two 
in number, — one of whom is said to have had ten thousand 

* Da Asia de Joao de Barros. Lisboa. 1777. 



ccxc DISSERTATION. 

persons under Lira. It was this last personage, a man of 80, 
that, Avith his son-in-law and grandson, was put to death by 
Albuquerque, apparently on suspicion, and as a measure of 
precaution. The historian describes the execution as the first 
act of justice, according to the Portuguese laws, carried into 
effect in the city ! 

In further proof of the enterprise of the Javanese when 
Europeans first became familiar with the Archipelago, may be 
mentioned, on the same authority, the expedition which, in 
January, 1513, or the third year of the Portuguese occupation 
of ]\Ialacca, a Javanese prince of Japara undertook against the 
city. According to De Barros, it consisted of a fleet conveying 
12,000 men, with much artillery; for, says the historian, "the 
Javanese are skilled in tlie art of founding, and in all manner 
of work in iron, besides what they receive from the continent 
of India." This armada was, of course, easily defeated and 
dispersed by a Portuguese squadron. I have already alluded 
to the share which the Javanese had in the spice trade on the 
first appearance of Europeans in the waters of the Archipelago. 
The testimony of De Barros on this point is very explicit. 
" Finally," says he, " when we first entered India, the two 
nations, the Javanese and Malays, carried on the whole trade 
in spices and other eastern produce, — bringing them to the 
celebrated emporium and fair of Malacca, which is now in our 
Dossession." To this I may add, that the first information given 
to the Portuguese of the arrival of the companions of Magellan 
was by the Javanese trading to the Spice islands. Portuguese 
ships from Malacca, some going to the Spice islands, and some 
returning, met at Gresik, in the island of Java. " Here," says 
De Barros, " they found a Javanese vessel, which had also been 
to Banda for a cargo of spices, the crew of which informed 
tliem that they had met white people hke ourselves, lately 
arrived in the country, and that they had given to them, the 
Javanese, a letter of safe conduct in case they sliould encounter 
others of their party. Antonio de Brito, having seen the letter, 
found it to be in the Castilian language, given by Castilians in 
the name of the king of Castile, as pompous, and as abounding 
in words, as is usual with this people in their writing, dealing 



DISSERTATION. ccxci 

chiefly in matters of such sort as they are fond of dilating on. 
And as, before Antonio de Brito had left continental India, he 
had learnt that Fernao de Magalhaes (of whom we shall after- 
wards speak) had gone to Castile with the intention of coming 
to these parts, it was agreed that the Portuguese ships should 
sail in company, in case of accident.'^ 

At page ISO, I have stated that I had not discovered a single 
word of any INIalayan tongue in any Australian language which 
I had examined, — not even in that of the natives of Raffles' 
bay, not distant from the scene of the tripang fishery of the 
natives of Celebes, where they might have been expected. 
Mr. Macgillivray, however, the naturalist of the surveying 
voyage of the Rattlesnake, has since shown me a manuscript 
vocabulary of the language of the Australian tribe inhabiting 
the Cobourg peninsula, on which was the abandoned British 
settlement of Port Essington, and in it I have been able to 
detect four or five words of corrupt Malay; and Mr. Macgillivray, 
who made the collection, states that it also contains a few words 
of the Macassar language of Celebes, evidently introduced 
through intercourse with the tripang fishers. Through the 
settlers of Port Essington, also, the Australian language of 
Cobourg peninsula has received a small number of English 
words. 



A GRAMMAR 



THE MALAY LANGUAGE. 



ORTHOGRAPHY. 



While the other cultivated languages of the Indian Archi- 
pelago are written in their respective native characters, the 
Malay is always written in the Arabic alphabet, to the twenty- 
eight letters of which, by the simple contrivance of increasing 
the number of diacritical points of cognate letters, it adds six, 
expressing sounds unknown to the Arabian language. In this 
manner, the whole number of substantive letters in the Malay 
alphabet amounts to thirty -four. Three of these only are vowels, 
all long. The short vowels, also three in number, are represented 
by orthographic marks, called by the Malays sanjata, and by 
the Javanese sandangan ; the first word meaning armour, and 
the last clothing, terms which imply that they are considered 
mere adjuncts, and not substantive letters. 

The Arabian alphabet, imperfect for the Arabic itself, is very 
ill adapted to the Malay, a language, the genius of the pro- 
nunciation of M'hich is very remote from that of the Arabic. 
No fewer than twelve of the Arabic consonants are, either not 
pronounced at all by the Malays, or but very awkwardly, and 
are, in fact, changed for cognate letters of their own system. 
The letters g and k are not distinguished in ordinary writing. 
With rare exceptions, the marks which represent the short 
vowels are altogether omitted, and left to be understood by the 
reader. The characters which represent the long vowels, i and 
u, represent also, in some positions, the consonants y and w. 



2 A GRAMMAR OP THE MALAY LANGUAGE. 

The vowels e and i are not distinguished from each other, nor 
are o and u. An initial e or i, whether long or short, is expressed 
arbitrarily by the combination of the two long vowels, a and i, 
which ought strictly to make a diphthong ; and an initial, o or 
u, is expressed in like manner, by the letters a and u. Indeed, 
the initial vowels e, i, o, and u, are frequently represented by 
the single vowel a. 

The Arabic alphabet, then, for the purpose of expressing the 
sounds of the Malay language, may be described as little better 
than an imperfect short-hand. The following examples will 
suffice to show its defects. The word galuk, a coconut shell, is 
written glk. Suka, glad, although often written suk, is also 
written sk only, both the long and the short vowel being here 
left to be understood. The word nianuntut, to claim a debt, is 
written mntt ; all the three vowels being omitted. Antang, a 
stamper, anting, to hang or drop, and untung, fortune, are all 
written in the same way, or as antng. Antuk, to nod, and 
antak, to beat time with the foot, are both written antk, a com- 
bination of letters which might be pronounced in ten different 
ways ; and, indeed, as k and g are not distinguished in ordinary 
writing, in as many as twenty. 

The native sounds of the Malay can be expressed with ease and 
precision by Roman letters, and with a few trilling modifications, 
so as to furnish one unvarying character for every sound. In 
framing a system on this principle, I have taken as a guide the 
Javanese alphabet, which, letter for letter, corresponds with the 
sounds of the Malay, and in which every letter is pronounced, 
and has, whatever its position, the same unvarying sound. It 
was only necessary to furnish a corresponding Roman character 
for each of these, and this has been done. 

Native Consonants. — The following twenty letters represent 
the native consonants of the INIalay language, in the order of 
the Roman alphabet, — b, ch, d, d*, g, h, j, k, 1, m, n, ng, n, p, 
r, s, t, t-, w, y. The letters b, j, k, 1, m, n, p, r, s, w, and y, 
correspond with the sounds of the same consonants in English ; 
ch is the Italian c before e and i, the ch of the English, Spanish, 
and Portuguese systems, and the sound which the Dutch, with a 
much nearer approach to accuracy, represent by tj. There is a 



ORTHOGKAPHY. 3 

distinct character for it in all the insular alphabets. It never 
ends a word or syllable. The first d in the Malay alphabet is a 
dental, and corresponds with the Arabic dental of the same class. 
In English pronunciation, it is found only when d is followed by 
r, and coalesces with it. The second d*, distinguished by a dot, 
is a palatal, sometimes called a cerebral, and corresponds with 
the European letter. It occurs but seldom in Malay, compared 
with the dental, and, in ordinary writing, is not distinguished 
from it. The Javanese is the only alphabet of the Archipelago 
that has a distinct character for it. G has the same sound as 
in the English alphabet, before a, o, and u, and never that of 
j, as it generally has with us, before e and i. Ng expresses a 
sound for which there exists a distinct letter in all the Hindu 
and insular alphabets. It is the ng of European pronuncia- 
tion, and nearly the final n 'of the French. N is the sound 
which the letter n takes in English, when followed by the 
vowels io, as in the word union. I have borrowed it from the 
Spanish alphabet. In Malay, it is found as an initial, often as 
a medial, but never as a final. The first t, in Malaj^, is a 
dental, and, like the dental d, occurs in our pronunciation only 
when it immediately precedes and coalesces with the semi-vowel 
r. The second t', distinguished by a dot, is a palatal of rare 
occurrence. Among the native alphabets a distinct character 
for it is found only in the Javanese. Like the palatal d', it 
is inserted in the Malayo-Arabic alphabet, but in ordinary 
writing it is not distinguished from the dental. It occurs in 
the beginning and middle of words, but never ends them. The 
letter h represents the simple aspirate. It never aspirates a 
consonant, as in the Hindu alphabets, and is found only after 
a vowel. As in Spanish and Italian, in so far as pronunciation 
is concerned, it never begins a native word or syllable. In 
the Malayo-Arabic alphabet, it is written or omitted, at the 
caprice of the writer, but is never pronounced except after a 
vowel. 

Classed organically, the native consonants of the Malay 
alphabet are as follow : — labials, b, p, m, w ; dentals, d, t ; 
palatals, ch, d*, j, t* ; gutturals, g, k ; nasals, m, n, ng, n ; and 
liquids 1, r, w, y, n. The only sibilant is s. Of the Malay 



4 A GRAMMAR OF THE MALAY LANGUAGE. 

liquids or semi-vowels, namely, 1, r, w, ii, and y, the two first 
occur frequently, coalescing with a consonant, but the rest 
rarely. The only letter of the native portion of the Malay 
alphabet that is not invariably pronounced in the same way is k, 
as will afterwards be noticed. 

Native Vowels. — The Malay vowels are six in number ; a, a, 
6, i, o, and u. Their pronunciation is so easy, and, with the 
exception of the second, so much like that of the same letters 
in the languages of Southern Europe, especially in the Spanish 
and Italian, that it is not necessary to describe it. The vowel 
which I have distinguished thus, a, is neither a short or long 
a, but a distinct and. peculiar sound, which has a separate 
character to represent it in the Javanese alphabet. It is the 
sound which is so frequent in English, and usually represented 
by u, as in the word hubbub. It occurs, not unfrequently, as 
an initial, and very often as a medial, but it never ends a word 
or syllable. The vowels e and i, having in the Malayan alpha- 
bet but one letter to represent them when long, and none at 
all when short, are apt to be confounded in pronunciation. 
The same is the case with regard to o and u. The distinction, 
indeed, can only be made with certainty, when a word is 
common to the Malay and Javanese, as, in the latter, there are 
separate and distinct characters for all the vowels. Among some 
of the Malay tribes the vowel u, it may be remarked, is often 
turned into a, as saparti, for sapurti, which is obviously a cor- 
ruption, since it is practised with foreign words to the destruction 
of their etymology ; as in the Sanskrit words putra and putri, a 
prince and princess, which are pronounced patra and patri. 
The Malay diphthongs are two in number, ai and au, but 
neither in the Malay, or any native alphabet, are they repre- 
sented by distinct characters. They are, with few exceptions, 
found only as finals and medials. For the diphthong ai, the 
vowel e is often substituted ; as, for pakai, to invest or clothe, 
pake ; and for pand'ai, skilful, pand-e. 

Peadiar Arabic Consonants. — To the native consonants are to 
be added those which the Malay has borrowed from the Arabic, 
and which are found only in words taken from that language. 
These are by no means so easily, or so conveniently, represented 



OKTHOGEAPHY. 5 

by Roman letters as the native sounds ; for they are not only 
very peculiar, but very alien to the genius, both of the European 
and insular languages. Following the order of the Roman 
alphabet, they are represented by the ibllowing characters : — 
f, g, h, k, 11, V, s, s, s', 5, t, x, z, s. 

F is a letter found in a few of the rude languages of the 
Archipelago, but in no written one as representing a native 
sound. The Malays often in writing, and always in speaking, 
turn it into a p, just as the Arabs follow the opjiosite course, 
and turn a p into an f. The sound which is represented by an 
Italic g comes nearest to our Northumbrian r, but the Malays 
make no attempt at its true pronunciation, converting it into au 
ordinary g, or even into k. The Italic h is the common aspirate 
of the European languages, but the Malays hardly pronounce 
it at the beginning of words where it chiefly occurs. The 
Italic k represents the strong guttural of the Arabic language^ 
which occurs in the Arabian words for coffee and alkoran, viz., 
/rawah and Hran ; but the Malays make no attempt at its genuine 
pronunciation, substituting that of au ordinary k for it. The 
two letters marked 11 and 1' have sounds approaching that of the 
double 11 of the French, and the soft 1 of the Italian language, 
but, perhaps, still more nearly resembling that of the double 11 of 
Welsh and Irish. The Arabs, no doubt, make a distinction 
between the pronunciation of these two letters, but neither 
Europeans nor Malays can do so ; and the latter usually pro- 
nounce them as an ordinary 1. They are the same letters that 
the Persians convert into sibilants, and pronounce as z. The 
three sibilauts marked as s, s', and 9, are all pronounced by the 
Malays like the ordinary s of the European languages, which is 
the same as the native Malay sibilant. The sound of the second 
is the sh of our own orthography, the ch of the French, and the 
sell of the German and Dutch. The letter marked as an Italic 
/ is pronounced by the Malays like their own dental t. The 
letter x is taken from the old Spanish orthography, in which 
it represented the true Arabic sound. It is the strong harsh 
guttural, so frequent in the Celtic languages, as in the word 
loch, a lake, and the ch of the German and Dutch alphabets. 
The Malays pronounce it as a common k. There are two letters 



6 A GRAMMAR OF THE MALAY LANGUAGE. 

in the Arabic alphabet having the sound of our z ; one of these 
is given in the Roman, and the other in the Italic character. 
Whatever the Arabs may do, the Malays make no distinction 
between them, but pronounce them both with facility, and like 
the z of the European languages. In so far as pronunciation is 
concerned, nearly all these letters might be dispensed with; 
but a correct etymology renders their preservation indis- 
pensable. 

Arabian Vowels. — There are but three long vowel characters 
in the Arabic alphabet, as already stated; one, equivalent to 
the a of the native portion of the Malayan alphabet; another 
representing either e or i ; and a third, either o or u. The short 
vowel marks are, also, three in number, but they represent 
sounds nearly equivalent to the vowels which I have written 
thus : a, ĕ or 1, and or u. Besides all these, there is in the 
Arabic alphabet a peculiar and anomalous character which the 
Arabs consider a substantive letter or consonant, but which is, 
in reality, a true vowel. It may take the sound of any one of 
five vowels, but most generally has that of a. I have represented 
it by an italic a. Although always written in correct Malay 
composition, the Malays make no attempt at its genuine sound, 
but pronounce it like any of their own ordinary vowels which it 
may happen to resemble. 

Malayo-Arabic Letters. — The whole Malay alphabet repre- 
sented by Roman letters, will be as follows : — a, a, a, a, b, ch, 
d, d", e, e, f, g, g, h, h, i, i, j, k, k, 1, 11, V, m, n, ng, ii, o, p, r, s, s, 
s', 9, t, t-, t, u, u, w, X, y, z, z. In this manner we have forty- 
four characters ; but even in the Malayo-Arabic alphabet, the 
short vowel marks included, there are no fewer than thirty- 
seven, yet without any approach to precision. It is the necessity 
of adding so many characters, to represent Arabic letters which, 
although written, are not pronounced, or but very imperfectly 
so, that encumbers the system. The portion which represents 
native sounds, and which embraces the great bulk of the words 
of the language, is simple and easy. 

The following, in its usual order, is the Arabic alphabet with 
its supplementary characters as written by the Malays : — 



PEONUNCIATION. 7 

LETTERS OF THE ARABIC ALPHABET, 
ab t 9 j h xcl srzss' 

] ,_^ a^ lL^ XL r t ^ 6 J J u^ (Ji 

3 11 t V a g { Jc k Imn 

w aud o and u h y cousouant and e and i 

5 o ^ a ts 

SUPPLEMENTAL LETTERS REPRESENTING MALAY SOUNDS, 
ch d' ng p g n 

The marks which represent the short vowels are, a stroke 
above the consouautj resembling an acute accent, for a; one 
below it, of the same form, for ĕ or i ; and one above and a 
little before it, resembling a small comma, for 6 or u, named by 
the Malays, respectively, baris diatas, baris dibawah, and baris 
diad-ap, or the stroke above, below, and before the letter. 

PRONUNCIATION. 

In the Javanese and other native alphabets of the Archipelago, 
there exist no characters to distinguish long and short vowels ; 
and, practically, the distinction may be said to be unknown to 
the Malays. Vowels are long or short according to their posi- 
tion. An accented vowel is a long, and an unaccented a 
short one. There are a good many monosyllabic words in the 
language, and a good many words of two syllables are made 
so by abbreviation, or, at least, are frequently in that form, 
especially in the oral language. Thus, araas, gold, becomes 
mas; ambun, dew, bun; aram, to brood, ram; uwang, money, 
wang; iyu, a shark, yu; karis, a dagger, kris; bari, to 
give, bri ; bjllah, to split, blah ; bali, to buy, bli. The great 
majority of radical words, however, are bisyllables : a few 
consist of three syllables, and a still smaller number of four. 
Compound words extend, although very rai'ely, even to five 



8 A GRAMMAR OP THE MALAY LANGUAGE. 

syllables. In the great bulk of radical words, the accent 
is on the penultimate. Even adopted foreign words have 
the accent thrown back to it from the last syllable. The 
following are examples of the few words which have the 
accent, not on the penultimate, but the last syllable : — basar, 
great ; basa, because ; batul, straight, just ; adu, sleep ; 
daram, to sound like thunder ; darn, to roar like the sea ; 
sarang, to assault ; sarah, to deliver up ; pater, a thunderclap ; 
kara, an ape. Compound words preserve the accents of their 
radicals. Thus, taking one of the above examples, adu, to 
sleep, if the transitive particle be affixed, the accent is on the 
penultimate, adukan, to put to sleep ; but if it be the intran- 
sitive prefix, making baradu, the accent is, as with the radical, 
on the last syllable. By this rule, the accent may be thrown 
back to the ante-penultimate. Thus, from the radical dapat, 
to find, which has the accent on the penultimate, comes the 
word pandapatan, a finding or discovery, which has the accent on 
the ante-penultimate. The words maiian, frankincense, and nani, 
seng, have both the accent on the first syllable, but a transitive 
verb, formed from the first by tlie affix i, making msmani, to 
fumigate with frankincense, has the accent on the first syllable, 
as in its radical ; while an intransitive verb, formed from the 
second by the prefix ma, has it, as in the word from which it 
is derived, on the penultimate. In compounds formed from 
monosyllabic radicals, the accent, with a prefixed particle, is 
on the last syllable, and with an affixed, on the penultimate ; 
as from tra, stamp, impression ; tartra, stamped ; and trakan, to 
stamp ; and from gu, a yoke ; sagu, one yoke, a pair, a couple. 
Compound terms and epithets have two accents, as in the 
words of which they are composed, as miitii-ari, the sun ; 
tuwankCi, my lord; saarusn^ilah, justly; mdta-ayar, a fountain. 
It is to be observed as a general rule in Malay, that every 
letter is to be sounded according to the power assigned to it, 
or that no letter is mute or elided. The letter k, in a few 
situations, is the sole exception. By most of the Malay tribes, 
but not by all, it is not sounded when it ends a word, or at 
most, only as a weak aspirate. Thus, elok, beautiful, is pro- 
nounced elo; and amuk, a muck, amu. Even as a medial letter, 



PARTS OF SPEECH. 9 

the k is elided by some tribes aiming at softness of pronuncia- 
tion. Thus^ the compounded words amukan, a muck, and kaelo- 
kan, beauty, formed out of the two last-named radical words, 
Avill be pronounced as French words are, having the circumflex 
accent. In a few words of foreign origin the k as a medial is 
also elided, as will be noticed under the head of Prosody. 

It is a rule of Malay orthography, or rather prosody, that no 
consonant can follow another without the intervention of a 
vowel, unless one of them be a liquid or a nasal. The exceptions 
are a few words of foreign origin. 

But it should be noticed that there exists in pronunciation, 
and even in writing, much latitude in the use, both of vowels 
and consonants. Thus, when the accent is not on the syllable 
it belongs to, the vowel, a, is often pronounced as if it were a, 
while e and i on one hand, and o and u on the other, are never 
very clearly distinguished from each other. With respect to the 
consonants, it not unfrequently happens that those of the same 
organic class are used indifferently for one another, as b and p ; 
b and w ; k and g ; j and y ; and r and d and 1. Then, the 
vowels a and a in the first syllable of a word are, indifferently, 
retained or elided when the final letter of such syllable consists 
of the liquids 1 or r ; so that ball, and bli, to buy, bari, and 
bri, to give, are used indifferently. To an European, the pro- 
nunciation of Malay is attended with no difficulty. It has no 
harsh consonants to which his organs are unused, and it abounds 
in vowels and liquids. 

PARTS OF SPEECH. 

The distinction between the pai'ts of speech is not well marked 
in Malay, as it generally is in European languages. The pro- 
nouns, the prepositions, some classes of adjectives and adverbs, 
and nouns expressing the names of material objects, are suflS- 
ciently well defined, but the same radical word will often stand 
for noun, adjective, or verb, according to its position in a sen- 
tence. The body of the language, in fact, consists of a great 
many radical words, by the application of certain inseparable 
particles to which, a word is determined as noun, adjective, or 
verb. The English reader, who has so many examples of this 



10 . A GllAMMAR OF THE MALAY LANGUAGE. 

in his own language, will be at no loss to understand tlie nature 
of this procedure. Buni is not only the noun sound, or noise, 
but the verb to sound, or emit a noise ; jalan is the act of 
walking, as well as to walk ; and tidor is sleep, as well as to 
sleep. Some of these radical words have become obsolete, 
being, for the most part, superseded by tlieir compounds, as 
anti, to stop, to rest ; for which we have baranti, to stop, baran- 
tikan, to stop, to arrest, tarauti, stopped, arrested, and paran- 
ti'an, a resting place ; dabar, palpitation, for which we have 
bardabar, to palpitate ; and kalahi, fight, contest, for which 
we have barkalahi, to fight. It may at once be stated, that 
in Malay there are no inflexions to express gender, number, 
relation, person, time, or mood. These are represented by 
adjectives, prepositions, auxiliaries, or even adverbs. 



NOUN. 

Gender. — Gender, in the noun, is defined by adjectives express- 
ing the sex. These are, for man, laki, or laki-laki, male ; and for 
woman, piirampiian, and sometimes the Sanskrit estri, female. 
For the lower animals, the adjective jantan is male, and batina, 
female. There are no specific words to distinguish the sexes, for 
familiar objects, as in the European languages. Thus, there 
are no terms for boy and girl, for horse and mare, for bull and 
cow. The same word answers for both, and the adjective is 
necessary to distinguish the sexes. Orang-laki is a man, and 
orang-parampiian a woman, that is, a male or a female human 
being. Anak is child, and anak-laki, and anak parampiian, 
son, and daughter; budak is either lad or girl, and the adjective 
is necessary to distinguish them. It is the same with chuchu, a 
grand-child, and nenek, a grand-parent. Without the adjective, 
anak-mud*a is either nephew or niece, and panganten a bride 
or bridegroom. It is the same in the case of the lower aijimals. 
Kuda is horse, hlmbu, kine ; anjing, dog ; ayam, fowl ; and to 
distinguish the genders, and make horse and mare, bull and 
cow, dog and bitch, cock and hen, the adjectives jantan and 
batina are necessary. The following passage from a Malay 
romance is an example: — Maka kata bfiganda, siapa mjinga- 



NOUN. 11- 

rang buiiga ini; tarlalu indah sakali karangan iiii; uenek san- 
d-irikah m&ngarang diya. Maka sambah orang-tuwah; cliuchu 
pateli, tuwanku, mangarang diya. Maka kata baganda, laki- 
lakikah, atawa parampiiankah. Maka sambah orang-tuwah, 
parampiian, tuwauku. This is a literal translation : — Who 
arranged these flowers ? their arrangement is most admirable ; 
did you yourself arrange them ? The old man, bowing, 
answered, The grand-child of my lord^s slave arranged them. 
Male or female ? said the prince. Female, said the old 
man. 

Number. — A word is restricted to the singular number by 
prefixing to it inseparably the particle sa, which is the numeral 
one, in its simplest form, as, sa'orang, a man, or person ; sap&t'i, 
a box, or chest ; sapulau, an island. Plurality is expressed by an 
adjective having this sense, as baiiak, many, sagala, and saka- 
lian, all ; and the numerals ; but it is often left to be gathered 
from the context. A kind of plural is occasionally formed by 
reduplication. The practice of repeating the word is frequent 
in Malay, and usually implies continuation or extension, which 
will include this kind of plural. It is, however, of very limited 
use, and seems rather of the nature of a collective noun than of 
a general plural. Raja-raja, princes, mantri-mantri, council- 
lors, and anak-d"ara-d*ara, virgins, are examples. 

In the enumeration of certain objects, the Malay has a pecu- 
liar idiom, which, as far as I know, does not exist in any other 
language of the Archipelago. It is of the same nature as the 
word " head," as we use it in the tale of cattle ; or " sail," in the 
enumeration of ships ; but in Malay it extends to many familiar 
objects. Alai, of which the original meaning has not been ascer- 
tained, is applied to such tenuous objects as leaves, grasses, 
hairs, and feathers ; batang, meaning stem or trunk, to trees, logs, 
spars, spears, and javelins ; bantak, of which the meaning has not 
been ascertained, to such objects as rings; bidang, which means 
spreading or spacious, to mats, carpets, thatch, sails, skins, and 
hides ; biji, seed, to corn, seeds, stones, pebbles, gems, eggs, the 
eyes of animals, lamps, and' candlesticks ; bilah, which means a 
pale or stake, to cutting instruments, as knives, daggers, and 
swox'ds ; butir, a grain, to pepper, beads, cushions, pillows, and, 



l-l A GKAMMAR OF THE MALAY LANGUAGE. 

strangely euougli, to brooks and rivers ; buwah, fruit, to fruit, 
loaves, cakes, mountains, countries, lakes, boats and ships, 
houses, palaces and temples ; ekor, tail, to beasts, birds, fishes, 
and reptiles ; kayu, which means wood, to any object rolled 
up, as a piece of cloth ; keping, a sheet, to any foliacious object, 
as a sheet of paper ; orang, man or person, to human beings ; 
puchuk, which means literally top, to cannon and small-arms, 
to candles and torches, and to letters or epistles ; rawan, which 
is literally gristle or cartilage, to all descriptions of cordage. 
Some of these terms, it will be seen, are exceedingly whimsical ; 
but strangers pay but little attention to such niceties, using the 
noun without them. Two or three examples of their application 
may be given. There was a certain merchant in a certaia 
country, is in Malay, Ada saorang saudagar kapada sabu- 
wah nagri ; literally, there was one man, a merchant, in 
one fruit of a country. There was not a blade of grass on 
the mountain, is in Malay, Pada gunung itu, romput saalaipun 
tiyada. The prince's ring Avhich he had on his ring-finger, 
is, Chiuchia baganda sabantak yang di jari manis. Fifty 
pieces of cannon and five hundred swords, is, Bad'il limapuluh 
puchuk, dan pad-ang lima ratus bilah. 

There is another peculiar idiom which must be noticed, and 
is best described by examples. Instead of saying that the king 
and queen eat from the same dish, the example, which I take 
from a Malay romance, is, Sangnata laki estri, santap saidangan, 
which is, literally, the kings, male and female, ate from the 
same dish. Raden Inn bartidor tiga barsudara, means, simply, 
Raden Inu and his two brothers slept; but, literally, the 
Radens Inu, three being brothers, slept. Raja Indra balas 
atina, lalu bartangis-tangisan khampat barputra itu, is, literally, 
as far as it can be rendered into English, Raja Indra pitied 
and wept, the four being princes. This refers to what had 
passed before, and really means, The king and queen, their 
daughter, and son in law. Raja Indra, (the principal personage 
of the story), all four pitied and wept. 

Relation. — Relation, except in tlie case of the genitive, is 
expressed by prepositions. The radical ones are as follow : — 
di, ka, pada, dari, dalam, luwar, dangan, atas, bawah, ad'&p. 



NOUN. 13 

balakang, balik, susor, sisi, ampir, dakat, ak&n, arah, tuju, 
sabrang, ulih, bagai, d'atang, kaliling, salang, sablah, sampai, 
antara, sama, and sarta. Di, ka, pada^ and dari^ are frequently 
combined with several of the other prepositions, or with each 
other, and form the compound prepositions, didalam, diluwar, 
diatas, dibawah, dibfilakang, dibalik, disusor, disisi, disabrang, 
dikaliling, disablah, diantara, kapada, kadalam, kaluwar, kaatas, 
kabawah, kaad-ap, kabalakang, kabalik, kasusor, kasisi, kaampir, 
katuju, kasabrang, padadalam, pCidaluwar, padaatas, padab^- 
lakang, padabalik, padasisi, padasabrang, padakaliling, pada- 
antara, daripada, daridalam, dariluwar, dariatas, daribalakang, 
daribalik, darisabrang, dariantara. The iises of the most im- 
portant of the prepositions will be explained by examples, and 
the rest will be found in the dictionary. 

Di may be rendered by the English prepositions, on, at, in, 
and sometimes by, of, and from. Mananti di pintu; to wait at 
the gate; chinchin baganda, sabantak yang di jari manis; a 
ring which the prince had on his ring-finger; d'ud-uk di nagri 
Tringanu ; dwelling in the country of Tringganu — 

Gumuruhlah bahana balaiia barjalan, 
Sapurti buui ribut di utan. 

The shouts of his army marchiug 

Were as the sound of a storm in a forest. 

Maka iya manjadi raja di rimba ; he became king of, or in, the 
forest. Maka raja niambri kurniya di puwan yang kamasan ; 
the king bestowed largesses from, or at, the golden pawn box. 
Adapun yang di partuwan manurah yang di paramba d'atang 
ini. Tatkala amba kambali mangad'ap dull yang di partuwan 
raja Malaka, apalah sambah yang di paramba kabawah duli 
yang di partuwan. The words partuwan and paramba in these 
two sentences are abstract nouns, derived, the first from tuwan, 
lord, master, or owner, and the last from amba, slave or ser- 
vant. They are correlative terms which, literally, mean mastery 
and servitude. With the relative pronoun and preposition 
they signify, he who is in mastery, and, he who is in servitude ; 
and, freely rendered, sovereign and subject. The first of the 
sentences above given may, therefore, be literally translated ; He 



14 A GRAMMAR OF THE MALAY LANGUAGE. 

who is in authority has commanded him wlio is in servitude 
to come hither. The second sentence may be rendered, Wlien 
the slave goes back before the dust (of the feet) of him who is 
in the lordship, the king of Malacca, what shall be the repre- 
sentation of him who is in slavery before the feet of him who is 
in lordship ? The phrase, yang di partuwan, it should be noticed, 
is the most respectful manner of mentioning a sovereign ruler. 
Partuwan and pararaba liave the same meanings as partuwanan 
and parambaan, the shorter form of the abstract noun being, to 
all appearance, preferred for ordinary use. 

Ka is always inseparably prefixed to the noun it governs, 
and is equivalent to the English preposition, to, noting motion 
towards ; and frequently also, to the Latin preposition ad. 
Maka iya sajud kapalana sampai kabumi; they bowed their 
heads to the ground. Mamandang kakanan dankakiri ; looking 
to the right and to the left. Maka iya turun lalu kagunung; 
he descended and went on to the mountain. Masing-masing 
karabali katampatila ; every one returned to his place. 

Pada is used in the various senses of the English preposi- 
tions, at, on, in, according to, for, Avith, and may be frequently 
rendered by the Latin preposition apud. P&da kutika yang 
bayik j at a lucky time. Pada suwatu malam ; on a certain 
night. Iya d'ud'uk pada parmadani ; he sits on a carpet. Pada 
bachara amba ; in my opinion or judgment. Ada smvatu pfir- 
mayinan yang talah aku barulih pada pulau Langkawi ; I 
possess a toy (or curiosity) which I found in the island of 
Langkawi. Jangan orang tidor pada trang bulan ; let people not 
sleep in the beams of the moon. Barang salali babal amba, 
jangan tuwan-amba ambil pada ati; let my lord not take to 
heart the errors and ignorance of his servant. Lalu iya mambri 
anugraha akan sagala raja-raja dan mantri sakaliau, masing- 
masing pada pangkatna ; he proceeded to make gifts to all the 
princes and councillors, each one according to his rank. Tulus 
rasa-ati amba pada tuwan ; my sincerity of heart towards my 
lord. Kau parbuwat pada saorang sapuluh payung ; cause thou 
to be made for each man ten umbrellas. Kami sakaliau lapar, 
mari kita tukar apa pada mu ; we are all hungry, come, let us 
barter somewhat with you. 



NOUN. lo 

D^ri may be rendered in English^ from, by, and of. Dari 
banuwa Kling, lain iya pargi kapulau Jawa; from the country 
of Telingana he went to the island of Java. Satalah iya d-atang, 
maka iya masuk dari pintu maling; when he came he entered 
by the wicket (literally, thieves' gate). Parbuwatan indah-inda 
dari mas dan perak ; rare workmanship of gold and silver. 

Dalam may be rendered, in, and also, relating to, about, con- 
cerning. Dalam banuwa China tarlalu banak orangiia ; in the 
country of China there are many inhabitants. Maka disuruh 
ulih raja tabas jalan itu; maka dalam sapuluh ari sudahlah ; 
it was commanded by the king to cut a road (through a forest), 
and in ten days it was completed. Sasat dalam orang yang 
banak, bewildered in the crowd. Sapuluh dalam saratus; 
ten in a hundred. Barkaliii dalam arta ; to quarrel about 
property. 

Luwar means, out, not in, but is more frequently used in 
composition with other prepositions than by itself. 

Dangan is explained by the English pi-eposition, with, or the 
Latin cum, and sometimes by our preposition, by. Maka iya 
barjalan dangan baringin, manchari saganap balik tirai dan 
saganap gata; he walked on with anxious desire, seeking 
behind every curtain, and searching every couch. ]\Iaka estrina, 
itupun, pargilah dangan £imba, sahayana, parampuan dan laki- 
laki ; his wife went away with her servants and slaves, women 
and men. Maka mangkubumi manjarau diya dangan sagala 
orang yaug ada sartaiia ; the minister feasted him and all the 
people that were with him. Kalu pararapiian itu manjadikan 
anak dangan lakiiia ; in case that woman should give birth to a 
child by her husband. 

Atas is rendered by the English prepositions, above, on, 
upon, about, concerning, in, and for, but its compounds are in 
more general use. Mangkubumi ada atas mantri yang banak ; 
the first minister is above all the councillors. Atas angin ; 
above the wind, meaning windward. Atas gunung; on the 
mountain. Kamatianila atas mu ; his death is upon you, mean- 
ing, you are answerable to see that he be put to death. Bar- 
katalah banar, sapaya rahmat allah ada atas mu; speak trul}^ 
that the mercy of God may be upon you. Atas jalan ini ; in 



]('. A GRAMMAR OF THE MALAY LANGUAGE. 

tliis matter or affair. Atas ampat parkara; under four heads or 
titles, but, literally, over four titles. 

Akau, a very frequent preposition, has the senses of, to, for, 
about or concerning, and of with. Bayiklah aku parsambahkan 
itu akan raja ; I had better present it to the king. Salama angkau 
mamagang parbandaaran ini, talah sanipurna kabaktian mu 
aktin daku; so long as you have held the treasury, your duty 
to me has been perfect. Sapaya ada juga kurniya akan daku ; 
so that for me, also, there shall be favour. Akan ttlladan uluba- 
lang yang bafiak ini, adapuu akan sakarang, angkau, ku jadi- 
kan mantri basar akan galar mangkubumi ; for an example to 
the warriors, I will make you a great councillor, with the title 
of mangkubumi (nurser of the land). Jika damakiyan, apa 
bachara tuwanamba akan pakarjaau ini ; if so, what is my lord^s 
advice about this matter ? Dull yang dipartuwan sangat marka 
akan kami, dan marka akan sagala mantri ; the king is wroth 
with us and with all the councillors. 

Dakat means near, or nigh, but is sometimes found in the 
sense of, among or with. Dakat rumah ; nigh the house. Dakat 
tapi laut ; near the sea-side. Hang nama tuwan dakat orang ; 
ray lord's name will be lost among men, literally, near men. 

Tuju is the English, towards, in a direction to place, but in 
writing most frequently appears in the compounded form of 
infmuju, which is strictly a neuter verb, meaning to be near. 
Maka masing-masing barlayarlah manuju nagri Samandrana- 
gara; each one (every one) sailed towards the country of 
Samandranagara. 

Ulih is equivalent to the English prepositions, by, through, 
by means of. Kataiii ulih m\x; be it understood by you. 
Dicharitakan ulih orang yang ampuna charita ini; it is related 
by the author of this story. Maka ulih raja dibrifia akiin orang 
tuwah itu, mas dan perak ; by the king, there were given to the 
old man gold and silver. Tiyada akein jadi ulihila ; it will not 
come to pass through them. 

Bagai is used in the senses of our prepositions, for, to, and 
by. Bagai abar&t sagala raja-raja ; for an example to all princes. 
Sagala puji bagai allah ; all praise be to God. Lalu titah bagai 
raja; it was commanded by the king. 



NOLTN. 17 

Antara and the two next pronouns are from the Sanscrit, and 
but synonymes of native ones. Antara is the synonyme of 
salang, and is translated by, between or betwixt, among or 
amongst, and in. Antara tanah Jawa dan pulau Bali, ada 
suwatu salat, between Java and the island of Bali, there is a 
strait of the sea. Yang labih elok antara parampuan, the most 
beautiful among women. Antara manusiya tiyada b^rbandingan, 
incomparable among men. Antara sapuluh ari, in ten days^ 
time. 

Sama is the synonyme of dangan, and is rendered by, with 
and for. Maka sakalianiia santaplah, raja sama raja, dan mantri 
sama mantri ; they eat, pi'ince with prince and chieftain with 
chieftain. Bayiklah ku buwangkan diya, karana nawa sama nawa 
/mkumiia; it is just that I should make away with her, for 'life 
for life^ is the law. 

Sarta is another synonyme of dangan, with. Maka mang- 
kubumi manjamu diya, dangan sagala orang yang ada sartaiia; 
the minister feasted him, with all who were with him. 

The derivative prepositions are in more general use than the 
primitives, and have nearly the same significations. They are 
formed like our own prepositions of the same nature as, — into, 
without, within, &c. 

Didalam may be literally translated, — at in. It has the 
meanings of in, within, and into. Dagangan yang tiyada tarbli 
didalam nagri ; merchandise not bought in that country. Aku 
bartamu saorang laki-laki didalam maligai ; I encountered 
a man within the palace. Sarahkan, keraiia, raja itu didalam 
tangan ambamu ; deliver, I beseech thee, that king into the 
hands of thy servant. 

Diatas is, — above, over, on, or upon. Maka iya d'ud'ukkan 
orang dagang itu diatas sagala ulubalangna ; he placed the 
stranger above all his warriors. Maka pambrian itu dibri 
diatas talam mas ; the gift was presented on a golden salver. 
Maka itupun, kayu-kayiian abis mati, dan romput saalai tiyada 
diatas gunung itu; thereupon, the trees perished, and on the 
mountain there remained not a blade of grass. 

Dibawah is, literallj' — at below. It is equivalent to below, 
beneath, and under. Dibawah angin ; below the wdud, meaning 



18 A GRAMMAR OF THE MALAY LANGUAGE. 

to leeward, Dibawah rumali ; under the house. D'ud'uklah 
iya dibawah dull yaiig dipurtuwan ; lie sat under the feet of 
the king. Naraka ada dibawah bunii ; the infernal regions are 
under the earth. 

Kabawah has nearly the same sense as dibawah, but fre- 
quently implies motion towards. Lain iya pargi mfmrimbah 
kabawah duli maharaja; he advanced and made his obeisance 
under the feet of the monarch. 

Kadalam may be rendered, both literally and freely, by the 
English preposition, — into, although the position of its compo- 
nent parts be reversed. Tatkala aku masuk kadalam nagri raja 
itu ; when I entered into the country of that king. Masukkan 
prau kadalam sungai ; cause the boat to enter into the river .'^ 

Kapada, meaning, literally, — to at, is a preposition of frequent 
occurrence. It is equivalent to, — to implying an action towards. 
Maka kata raja kapada estriha; the king said to his spouse. 
Daripada Singapura, iya barlayar kapada Makasar ; from Singa- 
pore he sailed to Macassar. Suwatupun tiyada kapada amba- 
tuwan; literally, there is not one thing to your servant, means 
your servant is possessed of nothing. Iya raahambah, sfiraya 
ampir kapada raja; he bowed, and, at the same time, went near 
to the king. Katakan ulili mu kapada aku ; tell me is, literally, 
be it told by you to me. Aku bukan-bukan patut manaruh itu 
kapadana; I am by no means worthy to present it to him. 

Kaatas, literally, — to on, may be rendered by, — on or upon. 
Maka putri malompat kaatas gata; the princess leapt upon a 
sofa. Baganda malompat kaatas kudana ; his highness leapt on 
his horse. 

Daripada, which may be literally translated — from at, has the 
various senses of, — from, of, about, concei'ning; and, occa- 
sionally, of — with. In Malay, it is the particle of comparison equi- 
valent to our adverb, than. Putri itu tiyada dapat dipandang 
nata, daripada parasna; the princess could not be distinctly 
beheld from (on account of) her beauty. Daripada utan, iya 
tarbit kapad-ang ; from the forest, he issued to the plain. Maka 
adalah iya driripada orang babal aniyaya ; he is of the ignorant 
and oppressive. Parbuwataniia ada daripada kayu d*an basi; 
its workmanship was of wood and iron. Dipiirbuwat siiekor 



NOUN. 19 

naga makutaiia dariprida parmata, dan mataiia daripuda kamala ; 
there was fabricated a dragon, its crown of precious stones and 
its eyes of fine diamonds. Maka kata tuwan putri, abang satu- 
sabagai daripada beta; the princess said, my elder brother 
(husband) is one and the same with me his servant. Kamdiyan 
daripada itu; after that is, literally, after of, or from that. 
Daripada hal itu ; respecting that affair, is, literally, of or from 
that affair. Maka diliat ulih baganda parfisiia tuwan putri tar- 
labih pula daripada daulu ; the prince saw the princess far more 
beautiful than before is, literally, the princess was seen by the 
prince, far more beautiful of, or from before. Tarlabih pula 
daripada parbuwatan yang daalu; far exceeding the former 
workmanship, is, literally, far exceeding the workmanship of, 
or from the workmanship Avhich was before. The particle is 
certainly, in these cases, a preposition, and not, as in our lan- 
guage, an adverb. 

Daridalam is, literally, — from in, and is correctly rendered, — 
from within. Putri Langkawi kaluwar daridalam parmata itu ; 
the princess of Langkawi issued from within the gem (an en- 
chanted one). 

Dariatas is — from on, or from above. Maka baganda turun 
dariatas gatana, barjalan pada kalambu; the prince, descend- 
ing from his couch, went to the cui'tains. 

Sampai, a verb, which means to reach or arrive at, is also 
used as a preposition, but has ka or kapada following it. It is 
the English until. Sudah iya tm-un dai'i puchuk gunung 
sampai kakakina, he descended from the summit of the moun- 
tain to its foot. 

A genitive or possessive case is formed when two nouns or 
a noun and pronoun are in juxtaposition. In such case the 
last word is in the genitive. Charita raja-raja, mantri dan ulu- 
balang, a tale or narrative of kings, ministers, and warriors ; 
tuwan-rumah, the owner of the house ; juragan prau, the 
master of the vessel; sinar mataari, the beams of the sun; 
trang-bulan, the light of the moon; tanah Jaw a, the land of 
Java ; pulau Langkawi, the island of Langkawi ; tuwan amba, 
the master of the slave ; amba tuwan, the slave of the master ; 
tuwanku, master of me, that is, my lord ; ambamu, the slave 

c2 



20 A GRAMMAR OP THE MALAY LANGUAGE. 

of you ; matafia, or mata diya^ the eyes of him or of her. 
Ampulla, owner or proprietor, in the abridged form of puiia 
annexed to a noun puts it in the genitive. In this case, how- 
ever, actual possession is signified; orang China-puiia band-a, 
the property of a Chinese ; raja puna wang, the king's money. 
This form is frequent in the oral language, but rarely occurs 
in writing. Sometimes the pronoun na affixed to a noun 
makes a genitive, which then has the semblance of an in- 
flexion like our final 's : gamuruh sapurti buniila tagar, 
rattled like the sound of thunder. Putri mandangarlah 
titahiia baganda, the princess heard the commands of the king. 
There is the appearance of tautology in the use of the pronoun 
in these cases, but it is notwithstanding frequent. 

The objective case, generally, requires no preposition, but 
one is occasionally added when the form of the verb is not 
distinctly marked as transitive. Karana iya tau mamrentah 
akan nagri, is, literally, for he understands how to govern to a 
country. If the verb had the distinct transitive form of 
mamrentahkan, the preposition would have been inadmissible. 
JRaja tfirlalu amat kasih aksln diya, is, literally, the king exceed- 
ingly loved to him ; but with the transitive verb kasihkiin, the 
translation is ; the king exceedingly loved him. Buwang pada 
or^ng itu, is, literally, expel to that person; but buwangkan 
orang itu, expel that person. Both forms ai-e allowable. 



ADJECTIVE. 

The adjective, by its form, is not distinguishable from the 
noun, for the same word is often either, according to position. 
It is its place following the noun which marks the word as ex- 
pressing quality. Putih kayin, would be, the whiteness of cloth, 
but kayin putih, is white cloth ; inerah bibir, is the redness of tlie 
lips, but bibir merah, is red lips ; buwas arimau, is the ferocity 
of a tiger, but arimau buwas, is a fierce tiger. The following 
description of a Malay beauty, from one of the many romances 
of the language, shows the position of the adjective: — Pingangna 
ramping, warnana kuning sapurti mas tslrupam, bibirila merah 
tuwah, gigifia itam silpurti sayap kumbang ; sagala sikapfia. 



ADJECTIVE. 21 

chantik, molek ; her waist was slim, her complexion yellow 
like burnished gold ; her lips dark red, her teeth black as the 
wing of the gigantic bee ; her whole form delicate and graceful. 
Comparison. — The comparison of adjectives is formed by the 
assistance of adverbs and particles. The adverb which forms 
the comparison by increase, is labih, more ; and that by 
decrease, korang, less. The particles are the prepositions 
dari and daripada. With these a comparative degree is formed ; 
but there are no means of forming a superlative, except by a 
circumlocution. Bayik, is good ; and labih bayik or bayik 
daripada, better ; but best can only be expressed by such 
phrases as labih bayik sakali, which may be rendered, more 
good far ; or by labih bayik daripada samuwaila, more 
good than all of them ; or labih bayik dari layin, more good 
than the rest. Kachil, is little, and korang kachil, or korang 
daripada, less ; but least is only to be expressed by a circum- 
locution, similar to that of the comparison by increase. 
Dalam tanah Jawa, gunung Rababu ada labih tinggi daripada 
gungung Marapi, tatapi gunung yang labih tanggi ditri samuwa 
gunung tanah itu, gunung Sumeru ; the mountain Rababu, 
in the land of Java, is higher than the mountain Marapi, but 
the highest mountain of that country is Sumeru. The particle 
ttlr prefixed to a radical makes merely an intensitive adverb, and 
expresses no comparison. Tarlaluh dukalah yang dipfirtuwan ; 
exceedingly grieved was the king. Nagri ini tarbailak ujau ; in 
this country there has been an exceeding quantity of rain. 

Tidak disangka, Dura bai'dusta ; 
Daripa,da budiua tarkur^ug iiata. 

He did not imagine Dura to be feigning, 
Owing to bis want of understanding. 

Literally, " owing to an understanding vei-y much Avanting in 
clearness.^' Mantri itipun, kalah ulih ulubalang, maka iya lalu 
tarmalu ; the minister was defeated by the warrior and became 
exceedingly ashamed. 



2-Z A GRAMMAR OF THE MALAY LANGUAGE. 



NUMERALS. 

Cardinal numbers. — The wide spread Malay numerals formed 
on the decimal system, like nearly all others, are simple, 
uniform, and easy. The nine digits are sa, asa, satu, and 
suwatu, one ; duwa, two ; tiga, three ; ampat, four ; lima, five ; 
anam, six; tujuh, seven; dalapan, and among some tribes, 
s^lapan, eight ; sambilan, nine. Puluh, is ten, or the decimal. 
By affixing to the digits the particle bias, we get the numbers 
between ten and twenty, as sablas, eleven ; sambilanblas, nine- 
teen. The even decimals from ten to ninety are formed by 
placing the digits before ten, as sapuluh, ten, or one ten ; and 
sambilan puluh, ninety, or nine tens. By adding to these last, 
the digits, we get the odd numbers between twenty and a 
hundred, as duwapulu satu, twenty-one ; sambilanpuluh sam- 
bilan, ninety-nine. Ratus is hundred, and prefixing to it 
the digits, as in the case of tens, the even numbers from 
one hundred to nine hundred are obtained ; as saratus, one 
hundred; sambilan ratus, nine hundred. The intermediate 
numbers are formed by simply affixing the lower ones above 
mentioned ; as saratus sablas, one hundred and eleven ; saratus 
duwapuluh satu, a hundred and twenty-one ; saratus sambilan- 
puluh sambilan, a hundred and ninety-nine ; sambilan ratus 
sambilanpuluh sambilan, nine hundred and ninety-nine. Ribu 
is thousand, and prefixing to it the digits, as in the case of 
tens and hundreds, we have the number of thousands, as saribu, 
one thousand; and sambilan ribu, nine thousand. The purely 
Malay numerals end with a thoixsand, and the higher numbers, 
— ten thousand, hundred thousand, and a million, respectively, 
laksa, kat'i, and juta or yuta, are borrowed from the Sanskrit. 

The numbers between twenty and thirty are sometimes 
reckoned in a manner resembling that by which the numbers 
from ten to twenty are formed, the affix particle being likur 
instead of bias. Thus, instead of saying, according to tlie 
regular scale, duwa puluh satu, twenty-one ; and duwa puluh 
sambilan, twenty-nine ; the Malays will often say, salikur and 
sambilan-likur. Other idiomatic expressions connected with 



NUMERALS. 23 

the system of numeratioa may be mentioned. When the 
Malays have to name a number between even tens, hundreds, 
and thousands, instead of following the regular scale, they will 
name the whole number, saying one or more less than it. 
Thus, instead of limapuluh sambilan, for forty-ni-ie, the phrase 
will be koraug asa limapuluh, or one less fifty. There is 
another idiom, of frequent occurrence. When tlie word tangah 
meaning, middle and half, precedes a numeral, the number 
intended to be expressed is that which lies half way between 
the unit, ten, hundred, or thousand named, and that which 
is immediately under it. Thus, tangah duwa is one and a 
half; tangah tiga, two and a half; tangali tigapuluh, twenty- 
five ; tanga duwa ratus, a hundred and fifty. Certain objects 
of commerce are counted by the score as with ourselves. The 
word, borrowed from the language of the Telingas, is kod'i or 
kori, twenty or a score; which the English have corrupted 
into "corge." 

The cardinal numbers in Malay are certainly nouns and not 
adjectives. Their position before the noun shows this to be the 
case. In that situation they seem, like any other noun, to 
put the word that follows them into the possessive. If this be 
so, the literal translation, for example, of sapuluh orang, ten 
men ; or duwa puluh ari, twenty days ; will be ten of men, and 
twenty of days. 

Ordinal Numbers. — The ordinal numbers are formed by pre- 
fixing to the cardinal the inseparable particle ka, as kaduwa, the 
second ; katiga, the third ; kaampat, the fourth ; and kalima, 
the fifth. The native ordinal for one is kasa, but the Sanskrit 
one, partama, is far more frequent. Before the ordinal number 
the relative pronoun yang is very generally placed, as parkara 
yang kalima, section fifth ; which is literally, section which is 
the fifth. 

Fractional Numbers. — Fractions are formed by prefixing to the 
cardinal numbers the particle par, as partiga, a third ; parampat, 
a fourth ; parlima, a fifth. The cardinal numerals prefixed to 
such numbers give the number of fractions, as sapartiga, one 
third ; duwapartiga, two thirds ; saparampat, one fourth ; tiga 
parampat, three fourths. The most familiar fraction, however. 



24 A GRAMMAR OF THE MALAY LANGUAGE. 

one half, is expressed by the word tangah, wliich literally 
means middle. 

By prefixing to the ordinal numbers the numeral sa, 
numerals are formed, of which we have an example in our 
own language in the word " both/' as sakaduwa, the two, or 
both; sakatiga, the three ; sakapuluh, the ten. 

Multiplicatives are formed by adding gand'a, a multiple ; 
lapis, a fold; or kali, time, to the numeral; as duwa gand-a, 
double, or twofold; tiga lapis, triple, or threefold; sakali, 
once ; sapuluh kali, ten times, or tenfold. 



PRONOUNS. 

The Malay language has an extraordinary number of 
pronouns of the first and second persons, but few of the 
third. Those of the first person amount to sixteen, viz. : — 
aku, ku, daku, kita, kami, senda, araba, saya, beta, patek, 
den, ulun, guwa, kula, manira, and ingsun. This multiplicity 
can, to some extent, be accounted for. Ku is but an abbreviation 
of aku, and daku but an euphonic change of it ; kita and kami 
are generally plurals ; amba, saya, beta, and patek, all mean 
slave or servant ; and are used by inferiors addressing superiors, 
or politely by equals ; ulun and kula, the last meaning slave, 
and both taken from the Javanese, are used only by the Malays 
of Pataui ; and manira and ingsun are Javanese, found only 
in Malay books when their story is from the legends of Java. 
When superiors are addressed, the phrase amba-tuwan, literally, 
lord^s slave, is very usual. 

The pronouns of the second person amount to ten, and are 
as follow: — angkau, ang, kau, dikau kamu, mu, lu, mika, 
kowe, and pakanira. Ang, and kau, however, are probably 
only abbreviations of angkau, the first being the initial, and 
the second the last syllable of that word, while dikau is but an 
euphonic variation of it. Mu is but an abbreviation of kamu, 
and kowe and pakanira are Javanese, the last found onlj'^ in 
books. Aug is used only in some of the northern states of the 
Malay peninsula. Lu is supposed to be taken from some 
Chinese dialect, and is never used in writing. These pronouns 



PRONOUNS. 25 

are used only in addressing inferiors, or by them in addressing 
each other. When superiors are addressed, tuwan, master ; 
tuwanku, my niaster, or my lord ; amba-tuwan, slave of the 
lord, are substituted for them. 

The pronouns of the third person are iya, diya, iiia, fia, and 
marika, which last has usually annexed to it the demonstra- 
tive itu, that. Iya and diya are but euphonic variations of the 
same pronoun, and iia is but a contraction of ina, although in 
far more general use. In its abbreviated form, whether used 
as a nominative, or an oblique case, na is always an inseparable 
affix. 

With exceptions to be presently named, the pronouns, like 
the nouns, are devoid of number, of gender, and of case. Even 
the adjectives which distinguish sex in the noun cannot be 
applied to them, and their gender is only to be discovered by 
the context. A possessive case is formed by placing the pro- 
noun immediately after the noun, the former being then in the 
genitive. As Avith the noun too, a possessive case is confined to the 
oral language when formed by puiia, the abbreviation of ampuna, 
owner. The most frequent form of the possessive of the first 
person is ku, of the second mu, and of the third iia, all annexed 
inseparably to the noun, and therefore giving the appearance 
of an inflexion. The relations of pronouns are expressed, like 
those of nouns, by prepositions, and their objective cases 
marked by the presence of a transitive verb. The pronoun 
iiia and its abbreviation ila, are seldom used as nominatives, 
and when the latter is so, it follows and is annexed to the verb. 

The pronouns aS'ord the only distinction in number which 
exists in Malay, except the sort of plurals formed, as already 
mentioned, by reduplication. The pronouns of the first person, 
kita and kami, although used in the singular by persons of high 
rank in addressing inferiors, are plurals. Marika is a plural of 
the third person, confined to persons, and not often used as a 
nominative. 

The following examples will show the uses of the personal pro- 
nouns : — Apa bachara tuwan akan m^lawan machan ini, batapa 
pri kita malawan diya ? what advice do you give about con- 
tending with this tiger ; in what manner shall we contend against 



J>(i A GRAMMAR OF THE MALAY LANGUAGE. 

him? Maka titah buganda mangapa pula, maka fingkau parlaan- 
parlaan, dan layin sakali suwara rau, ku dilngar; the king said, 
why thus so slow, and your voice, which I now hear, wholly 
different ? Maka titah tuwan putri, ditartawakan orang kita ; 
inilah kita manangis ; the princess said, I have been laughed 
at by my attendants ; for this, it is, that I weep. Maka 
sagala dayang-dayang itu barkata, duli yang dipartuwan sangat 
raarka akan kami ; all the hand-maids said, the king is surely 
wroth with us. Maka kata parmaisuri kapada tuwan putri, 
mari juga kita makan barsama-sama; the queen said to the 
princess, come let us eat together. Karana aku, lamalah 
sudah mamrentahkan maligai ini ; for I (the king) have long 
ruled over this palace. Ku parbuwat suwatu manarat ; I 
will build a minaret. Talah sampurna kabaktianmu akiin daku ; 
your duty to me has been perfect. Maka kau parbuwat 
pula pada saorang, sapuluh payung; kau aturkan diya di'atas 
kot'a ini, maka kau suruh palu builni-bunian baramai-ramai ; 
make thou for each man, ten umbrellas and arrange them on 
the fortress, and order the instruments of music to strike up 
merrily. Kami sakalian lapar, mari kami tukar apa pada mu ; 
we are all hungry, come, we will exchange somewhat with 
you. Maka kata parmaisuri kapada estri mangkubumi, salama 
ilang putri Kandi, tiyada sakali-kali kamu d-atfing kapada 
kami; the queen said to the wife of the minister, ever since 
the princess Kandi disappeared, you have never once come to 
me. Disabrang sungai itu ada duwah buwah kuwalam dan 
didalamna barbagai-bagai ikan; on the opposite side of the 
river was a reservoir, and in it, all manner of fish. Mangawal 
sagala marikaitu yang bfirjalan ; watch over all those who 
are marching. 

Barkcatalah marika sama saud'iri, 

Talah satiawan siti Barbari. , 

They said among themselves, 

Entirely faithful is the princess of Barbary. 

Maka dipagang tanganna dibubukjinna pada mukafia, saraya 
katana ; literally, his hand was taken hold of, it was placed by 
him on his face while he spoke ; but freely, he took his hand, 
placed it on his face, and said. 



PEONOUNS. 27 

To the personal pronouns, is to be added d-iri, self or own, 
with its euphonic variations kand'iri and sand-iri. As in 
English, this pronoun is commonly used with the strictly- 
personal ones, and may precede or follow them. Aku-d'iii or 
d-iri-ku, is myself; angkau d'iri, or d-irimu, is thyself; and 
diya sandiri, or diya kand'iri, himself, or herself. When the 
word stands by itself, it is used for the personal pronouns of 
the first or third persons. 

Relative Pronouns. — The relative pronouns are yang and nen, 
but the last is rarely used except in poetry, Orang yang sudah 
mangamuk ; the man that ran a-muck. Paramplian yang baaru 
d'atang; the woman that has just arrived. Pusaka yang turun 
pada beta dari nenek-moyang ; the heirloom which I inherit from 
my forefathers. Prau parompak yjing mfirusakkan dusun itu ; 
the pirate vessel that plundered the village. 

Sakalian mantri yang Mandm-aka, 
Ulili Dura ditangkap balaka. 

Literally, All the nobles that were of Manduraka, 
By Dura, were seized all. 

Bala Bohs4n tarkdjut, gdmpar, 
Amuk nen d'atang, sarta mimbakar. 

The army of Bohsan started, and were confused 

At the charge which came upon them, and at the conflagi-atioa. 

Jikalan dibanarkan mamanda mantri, — 
Beta nen andak barlayar s4nd-iri. 

If it meet the ministers' approbation, 
It is I myself who desire to sail. 

The Malay relative may be often rendered in English by 
our definite article. Lain bartikam tarlalu ramai, yang rayat 
sama rayat, yang mantri sama mantri, yang panggawa sama 
panggawa ; they stabbed merrily, the private with the private, 
the noble with noble, the chieftain with the chieftain. 

Satu bala ramai kasukiian ; 
Yang satu bala, sukar kasakitan. 

One army was merry, rejoicing; 
The other troubled, afflicted. 



2S A GRAiArMAll OF THE MALAY LANGUAGE. 

Occasionally, the relative prououu may be rendered in English 
by the word "some." Ada yfing d*ud"uk, ada ya-ug bard'iri; 
some sat and some stood, but literally, there were who sat, 
there were who stood. 

Possessive Pronouns. — There is no distinct class of possessive 
pronouns in Malay, their functions being performed by the pos- 
sessive case of the personal pronouns, or perhaps, more correctly, 
by affixing the personal pronouns inseparably, and usually in 
their abbreviated forms, to the noun, when they may be con- 
sidered, either as nouns or personal pronouns, in the genitive. 
Thus tuwanku may be rendered, either lord of me, or my lord; 
and Tirtaiia, the property of him, or of her, or his, or her property. 

Demonstrative Pronouns. — The demonstrative pronouns are 
ini, this; and itu, and sometimes nun, that. They commonly 
follow the noun or pronoun, but may also be occasionally placed 
before it, as, parfimpiian ini, or ini parampiian, this woman ; 
laki itu or itu laki, that man. The demonstrative pronouns, espe- 
cially itu, are much used, and often, where they would appear to 
us, redundant. In some cases however, they seem to be equiva- 
lent to our definite article, or to the Latin ille, turned into an 
article as it was by all the northern nations that conquered 
and occupied the southern provinces of the Roman Empire. 
The following passage affords several examples : — Amba tarkajut 
daripfida tidor amba itu ; lain bangun ; maka amba ingat akan 
mimpi amba itu; make Timba suruh ambil sampan; maka amba 
pun turunlah pada pulau Langkawi itu, dangan sagala anak prau 
amba juga : /iata barapa sangat amba barlayar, dan bardayung, 
maka sampailah fimba kapulau Lrmgkawi itu ; maka fvmba nayik 
kaatas marchu pulaan itu. This freely rendered is simply. Your 
servant started from his sleep, and remembering his dream, 
ordered the boat with all his mariners to land on the island of 
Langkawi ; after much sailing and rowing, your servant reached 
the island, and ascended its highest pinnacle. But, literally it is. 
Your servant started from the sleep of your servant, and arose ; 
your servant remembered the dream of your servant, and your 
servant ordered the boat with all his mariners, and landed on 
the island Langkawi : after much sailing and rowing, your ser- 
vant arrived at the island Langkawi, and your servant ascended 



VERB. 29 

the summit of the island. In conversation and in poetry, itu 
is often abbre\dated tu ; budak tu tinggalkun kapada beta ; 
leave that lad with me. 

Interrogative Pronouns. — The Malay interrogative pronouns are 
apa, and its derivatives, batapa, mangapa, with mana wliich is ap- 
plied to things or persons, but most commonly to things ; siyapa, 
with its contraction sapa, applied to persons ; and barapa, how 
much, or how many, to persons or things. These pronouns 
may precede or follow the noun, but generally precede it. Apa 
banatang itu; what animal is that? Apa nama gunung itu; 
what is the name of that mountain ? Apa guna ; what is the use ? 
apa (or sapa) orang itu ; what persons are these ? siyapa itu ; who 
is that ? mana tfimpat ; what place ? 

Miscellaneous Pronouns. — Miscellaneous pronouns are nu- 
merous. The most remarkable are as follow : — Tiyap, tiyap- 
tiyap, masing, masing-masing, sasatu, sasuwatu, each, every 
one ; sakaduwa, both ; tiyap orang, sasaorang, saorang, each 
person; barang and apa, some; layin, other; barang-suwatu, 
any one ; barang-saorang, any person ; barang-apa and sabarang, 
any thing ; sagala, skalian and sapala-pala, all ; apa-apa, mana, 
barangmana, apabarang and yangmana, whatever; barang- 
siyapa, whoever. The word barang, literally, thing ; is equiva- 
lent in composition to the English inseparable particle, ever ; sa 
is the abbreviated numeral one. 



VEEB. 
Some radical words, without any change in their form, 
are transitive, and some intransitive verbs, while others are 
equally both; but radicals, generally, are made transitive, 
intransitive, or passive verbs and verbal nouns, by the applica- 
tion of certain inseparable prefixes and suffixes, or by the union 
of both these. With the exception of some pronouns, nouns 
representing material objects, the prepositions which stand for 
the cases of languages of complex structure, and a few con- 
junctions and adverbs, any part of speech may, by the 
application of the inseparable particles thus alluded to, be 
converted into a verb. Thus the nouns ati, the heart ; tuwan. 



aU A GRAMMAR OF THE MALAY LANGUAGE. 

master ; prang, war ; the adjectives, bayik, good ; batul, 
straight; putih, white; the pronouns aku, I, and d'iri, self; 
the prepositions ad-ap, before ; balakang, behind ; ampir, near ; 
and the adverbs Ifdias and sigra, quickly, are all convertible into 
verbs by the application of the inseparable particles. Of simple 
verbs, the majority are intransitive, but may be made transitive 
or causal by the application of a particle. 

Intransitive Verb. — A radical, to whatever part of speech it 
belongs, becomes an intransitive or neuter verb by the appli- 
cation of the prefix bar; or in some instances, for euphonj^, 
par. As from estri, a woman or wife, barestri, to be wived ; 
from kuda, a horse, barkuda, to have a liorse, or to be on 
horseback ; from prang, war, barprang, to war ; from buwah, 
fruit, btirbuwah, to bear fruit ; from putih, white, barputih, 
to be white ; from suka, glad, barsuka, to be glad ; from isi, 
full, barisi, to be full; from d'iri, self, bardiri, to stand; from 
ampir, near, barampir, to be near ; from sarta, with, barsarta, to 
be with ; from sigra, quickly, barsigra, to make haste. 

Baugkit bard'iri muda bangsawan, 
L^mah, lambut, malu-maliian. 

She rose, — stood up, — young, noble, 
Mild, gentle, full of modesty. 

Satangah barkatopong lentang-pukang, 
Suka tartawa, sakalian orting. 

Some helmeted lay helter-skelter, 
Rejoicmg, laughter-making, one and all. 

Nampak ulubalang b/irbagai-bagai, 
Ada-yang barjanggut, ada yang barmisai. 

There were seen the warriors in various guise, 
Some were bearded, some were moustachioed. 

That par has the same signification with bar is evident by an 
example : — Jika tuwanku tiyada man paramba lagi, bir amba 
mati didalam laut ini, which is freely. If my lord desires no 
longer to be served, let me perish in this sea ; but literally. 
If my lord does not will any longer to have a slave, let the slave 
die in this sea. 



VERB. 31 

Transitive Verb. — A transitive or a causal verb is formed from a 
radical, aud also from the neuter verb in bar, by the suffixes kan 
and i, both of which have, generally, although not invariably, the 
same sense : the first, however,is in most general use. Thus, from • 
buiii, noise, comes bunikan, to make a noise ; from bungkus, a 
wrapper, bungkuskan, to wrap or envelope ; from putih, white, 
putihkjin, to whiten ; from bayik, good, bayikan or bayiki, to 
make good, or to mend ; from panjang, long, panjangkan, to 
lengthen ; from diya, he or she, diyakan, to make his or hers's ; 
from jatuh, to fall, jatuhkan, to cause to fall, or to throw down; 
from jalan, to walk, jalankan, to cause to walk ; from diyam, to 
be silent, diyamkan, to silence ; from siirta, with, sartakan, to 
accompany; from lakas, quickly, lakaskan, to quicken; from 
mula, beginning, mulaii, to begin or commence; from tangis, 
lamentation, tangisi, to lament or mourn for; from nama, 
name, namiii, to name or mention ; from batul, straight, batuli, 
to straighten ; from aku, I, akiii, to avow, or to attest ; from 
lalu, to go or pass, lalui, to go on or to pass through. The 
two affixes are not unfrequently applied to the same radical, but 
there are cases in which the compounds have different meanings. 
Thus jalankan is to cause to walk, but jalani is, to travel over. 

The transitive particles are equally appHed to the compound 
neuter verbs formed by the prefixes bar and par as to radicals. 
Maka butapun masuklah kadalam guwa itu, dan Sri Panji 
pulang kaparsingagahaii barantikan lalahiia ; the demon went 
into the cave, and Sri Panji returned to his encampment, to 
rest himself; literally, to stop his fatigue. Jampana yang bartah- 
kan ratna dan mutyara; a litter studded with gems and pearls. 
Barang-siyapa tiyada kuwasa manunggiii d'iriua, maka sabagai- 
mana iya kuwasa manunggiii yang layin ; he who cannot Avatch 
himself, how should he be able to watch others ? 

Passive Verb. — A. passive sense is given to a neuter or active 
verb, whether they be simple, or formed by the assistance of 
transitive or intransitive particles, by the prefixed particle di, and 
sometimes by the prefixes tar and ka. When the passive form, 
with di, is followed by a noun or pronoun, a preposition, usually 
tJih, by, through or with, is either expressed or undei'stood. 
Laksana gambar baaru ditulis ; like a picture fresh painted. In 



32 A GRAMMAR OF THE MALAY LANGUAGE. 

this sentence, I suppose ulih orang, by men or people, to be un- 
derstood. Payuug dikarang mutyara, an umbrella studded with 
pearls. Here, ulih, with, is understood before mutyara, pearls. 

Mukaua manis kapilu-piliian, 
S^purti bulan disapu awan. 

Her countenance was sweet and compassionate, 
Like the moon swept by the clouds. 

Did'ud'ukkdu dikanan anakda putri, 
Sapurti bulan dangan matiiari. 

The princess was placed at his right hand. 
Like the moon seated by the sun. 

Siyang malam, iyapun d'ud'uk barmayin dangan anakan itulah ; 
jika mandi, dibawana mandi; jika makan dibawaua makan; 
jika tidor dibawana tidor ; day and night she amused herself 
with that image : if she bathed, it was brought by her to the 
bath j if she ate, it was brought by her to the table ; if she 
slept, it was brought by her to her couch. Ulih is here, through- 
out, understood between the verb dibawa, and the affixed pro- 
noun iia, her. Tillah sudah raamakai, maka patih-pun d'atang, 
dititahkan sanguata, manambut kfdana Arya Marta; when he 
had dressed, the first minister was ordered by the king to receive 
the wanderer Arya Miirta. Maka mantri, lain iya pada tampat 
barprang itu, diliatiia bangkai dalang tarantar sapurti, orang 
tidor mulutiia manis, sapurti orang tarsanum, tanganna lagi 
mjimagang prisai, tarlalu manis lakuiia ; the minister went to 
the field of battle, and there, was seen by him the actor, lying 
stretched out like one asleep, his mouth as one smiling, his 
hand still grasping his shield ; gentle was his appearance. 
Jikalau orang barbaugsa, andaklah dipanjarakan ; jikalan amba 
orfmg andak dibunoh ; if he be a man of rank, he should be 
imprisoned; if a slave, he shovdd be put to death. Barapa 
gunung yaugtinggi-tinggi diuayiki, dan barapa pad-ang yang 
luwas-luwas dijalani, dan barapa rimba yang luwas dan samak 
dimasukiila, tiyada juga bartamu dangan sandarana; many 
mountains that were very high were ascended, and many broad 
plains were traversed, and many wide forests and underwoods 
were penetrated, but he found not his brother. lYirlalu mardu 



VERB. 33 

suwaraiia, sapurti buhih parinchi ditiyup angin; sweet was her 
voice, like the plaintive musical bamboo blown on by the wind. 
But the preposition is more frequently expressed than 
left to be understood, as in the following examples : — Maka 
sigralah disapu, ulih Indra Laksana, ayar mataila tuwan putri 
itu ; quickly were wiped away, by Indra Laksana, the tears of 
the princess. Maka kata parmaisuri kaindraan, silakan kakanda, 
di])arsilakan ulih baganda ; the princess of the firmament said, 
welcome, my elder sister, you are invited by his highness. 
Maka kata parmaisuri, tiyada arus orang yang disambut ulih 
orang layin, barjalan daulu, malayinkan yang maiiambut mam- 
bawa jalan ; the queen said, it is not fitting that those who are 
received by others should walk first, but those who receive 
should lead the way. Maka dilambai akan duwa buwah bahitra 
itu dangan chamara putih, make disaut ulih raja Indra dangiin 
chamara kuning. This is, literally, — it was waved by the two 
ships with a white cow tail, and Raja Indra replied with a yellow 
one. Bahawa inilah pakarjiian kami dititahkan tuhan sarwah 
sakal'ian ; lo ! this is our afl:air, commanded by the Lord of all. 
The prefix tar is the same particle which is employed to give 
an adjective or adverb an intensitive sense. Prefixed to a 
radical word it gives it a passive signification, although, perhaps, 
the compound approaches more nearly to the past participle of 
European languages. The following examples will suffice to 
point out its use : — Bahasa Malayu Jahor yang tarpakai pada 
masa ini ; the Malay language of Jehor which is used at this 
time. Tarantilah parkataan didalam astana ; the conversa- 
tion ceased in the palace. Tarsabut pula kaampat pfirdana; 
literally, then it was said again by the four ministers. Talah 
dili'at ulih patih, putri Kana Ratna Parsada pangsan, tiyada 
sadar akan d'irina, tarautar sapurti bangkai rupaiia, maka balas 
patih malVat diya, tubuhna kurus, jika tiyada kulit, nischaya 
charailah tulangfia; when the princess Kana Ratna Parsada 
was seen by the minister, in a swoon and senseless, stretched 
out like a corpse, he pitied to see her, — her body lean; — but for 
the skin, the bones would part asunder. Suwatu ini tiyada 
tarbachara ulih patih ; this thing has not been said by your 
servant. Itulah yang tiyada tarbachara ulih aku ; tliat is. 



34 A GRAMMAIl OF THE MALAY LANGUAGE. 

what was not said by me. Beta tfirpukul ulib tuwan ; I have 
been beaten by my master. Kut-a iiagri Langkadura itu 
tard*end*eng sapurti awan merah rupafia; the fortress of the 
city of Langlvadura was walled, looking like a red clond. 

The particle tfir cannot, however, be applied to all radicals as 
may be done with di, but with those to which it is applicable, it, 
usually, forms compounds which are fixed words of the lan- 
guage, and not mere grammatical forms. Their sense too, not 
unfrequently, varies widely from that of the radicals. Thus 
from antar, to send or dispatch, comes not only tarantar, sent, 
dispatched, but also prostrate, laid on the ground ; from d'iri, 
self, tard-iri, erect, standing up ; and from d-ad'a, the breast, 
tard'ad-a, bare-breasted. In a few instances, compounds formed 
with tar, have by custom come to be used as intransitive verbs, 
in a great measure superseding their radicals, as tarchilngang, 
to be surprised, for changang; tarsiulum, to smile, for saiium ; 
and tarkiijut, to startle, for kujut. 

The prefix ka is much less used than di and tar, but 
more especially, than the first of these, which is, by far, the 
most frequent form of passive. In Javanese, it is a frequent 
passive particle, and from this language, it may have been 
borrowed. It is even used in Malay as a passive verb, along 
with the affix an, although, as will be presently seen, this last 
form more usually makes a verbal noun. Kadangaranlah ka- 
pada band-aara buni riyuh itu, disangkana orang manchuri ; the 
noise and merriment were heard by the first minister, and he 
imagined it to be persons committing a robbery. 

There is still another mode of forming a passive in occasional 
use, which consists in employing the verb kana, to be hit or 
struck, as an auxiliary : as kana luka, to be wounded ; kana 
seksa, to be punished; kana d'and'a, to be fined, which may be 
rendered, to suflFcr a wound or a punishment, or to undergo a fine. 

The verbal prefix ma, to which, for euphony, is added one or 
other of the nasals ra, n, ng, or n, is of very frequent use. It 
may be described as the sign which distinguishes a verl) from 
other parts of speech, in some measure like our own particle, to. 
The compound formed with it may be either an intransitive or 
transitive verb, according as the radical is the one or the other. 
A transitive determined sense is given to it, in the same manner 



VERB. 35 

as to a radical, by the aflSxed particles kan and i. Jadi is t(j 
become, aud mfmjadi has exactly the same meaning ; but manja- 
dikiln means to produce, or to cause to be. Bri is to give, and 
mambri has the same signification. In this case, the radical having 
an active sense, the transitive particle is unnecessary. Except, 
indeed, for the purpose of distinguishing the verb from other 
parts of speech, the particle ma may be said to contribute more 
to the sound than the sense. To make this distinction is its 
proper use. Layin is the adjective different or distinct, malayin 
is to be different ; and malayinkun, to make different, or to dis- 
tinguish. Bayik is good, and mfimbayiki or mambayikkan, to 
make good, to mend, or to rectify. 

The rule for the application to the I'adical of the different forms 
of the particle ma, is simple and purely euphonic. Applied to 
radicals of which the initial letters are the nasals m, n, ng, and ii, 
or to the liquids 1 and r, no change is made, as from mati, to die, 
mamatikan, to cause to die, or to kill; from nawung, shade or 
shelter, manawung, to be shaded or sheltered, and manawungkan 
or manawungi, to shade or shelter; from iiata, clear, distinct, 
manata, to be clear or distinct, and mailatakan, to make clear, 
to explain ; from lambat, slow, tardy, mulambat, to be slow, to 
delay, and malambatkrm, to prolong, to procrastinate; from 
rata, even, niarata, to be even, and msiratakan, to make even. 

Before radicals of which the initial letter is a vowel, or as to some 
words of foreign origin, an aspirate, the nasal ng is interposed 
between the radical and particle, as from alun, a wave or billow, 
mangalun, to rise in waves or billows; from idup, alive, raangidup, 
to live or be alive; from ubat, a charm, mangubati, to charm. 

When the initial of the radical is the labial b, there is usually 
placed between it and the prefix the nasal m, as from buni, 
sound, raambuiii, to emit a sound, and mambunikfin, to make a 
sound or noise; from badil, a missile, mambad'il, to emit a 
missile, and mambad'ilkan, to shoot at with a missile ; from 
bacha, reading or chanting, mambacha, to read or chant. 
Occasionally, however, the initial letter may be elided, for 
mamad-il and mamacha are equally correct with mambad'il and 
mambacha, and the one or other is chosen, as happens best to 
suit the euphony of the sentence in which they are used. 

d2 



36 A GRAMMAK OF THE MALAY LANGUAGE, 

When the initial of the radical is the labial p, the nasal m is 
almost always substitnted for it, as from pangku, the lap, mam- 
mangku, to take on the lap ; from pachul, a hoe, mamachul, to 
hoe; from pad'a, even or equal, mamad-a, to be even or equal, 
and mamadakan, to make even or to equalise; from praug, 
war or fight, mamrang, to war or fight. 

Radicals having for their initials the dental d and the palatal 
or cerebral d* have interposed, between them and the pi-efixed 
particle, the nasal n, as from diyam, silent, mandiyam, to be 
silent, and mandiyamkan, to silence; from dupa, incense, 
mandupa, to fumigate with incense; from d-arat, dry land, 
mand-arat, to land or come ashore ; from d-and'a, a fine or mulct, 
mand-anda, to be fined, and mand-and-akan, to fine or to mulct. 
With a few radicals, however, the initial letter may be either 
retained or elided. Thus, mand'angar or raanangar, to hear 
from, d'angar, to hear or hearing, may be used indifferently. 

The dental t and the palatal t- as initials of radicals are always 
elided, and the nasal n substituted for them, as from tubs, 
delineation or writing, manulis, to delineate or write ; from tapi, 
border, manapi, to border ; from trang, light, bright, luminous, 
manarangkan, to enlighten, to illuminate, and also, to make clear. 

When the initials of a radical are the palatals ch or j, the 
nasal n is most usually interposed between the radical and 
the prefixed particle ; but with both lettei's, and especially with 
the first of them, the nasal n may be substituted for n, 
and in this case, the initial of the radical is elided. Thus, 
from chakar, a claw, we have manchakar or manakar, to claw ; 
from changkul, a hoe, manchangkul or mailangkul, to hoe; 
from janji, a promise, manjanji, to promise ; from jalan, a way, 
manjalan, to walk ; from jalma, a metamorphosis, manjTdma or 
maiialma, to undergo a metamorphosis. 

A radical having for its initial the guttural letter g, retains 
it in the compound, having, as with the vowels, the nasal ng 
placed between it and the prefix, as from garam, salt, manga- 
rami, to salt or pickle ; from ganap, complete, mangganapi, to 
complete ; from gunting, shears, m^nggunting, to shear ; from 
g^ris, a score or scratch, manggaris, to score or scratch. 

Radicals beginning with the guttural k have this letter elided 



VERB. 37 

and the nasal ng substituted, as from kapala, the head, manga- 
pala, to head, to lead, to guide ; from korang, less, manggorang, 
to lessen, to become less, and mangorankan, to lessen or make 
less ; from kambang, a flower, mangambang, to flower or bloom. 

Radicals with the sibilant for initial have it invariably- 
commuted for the soft nasal n, as from sapit, pincers or tongs, 
nifinapit, to hold with pincers or tongs; from sarta, with, 
mauarta, to accompany ; from sasal, repentance, mailasal, to 
repent ; from sakit, sick or pained, mafiakit, to be sick or to be 
pained, and manakitkan or mafiakiti, to inflict pain, or to punish; 
from suka, glad, mailuka, to be glad, and manukakan, to gladden. 

From the account thus rendered, it will appear that the 
principle assumed is that in all cases the first syllable of the 
compounded word shall invariably end either in a liquid or a 
nasal. With respect to the application of the particle ma to 
radicals borrowed from the Arabic, and of which the initial 
letters are peculiar to that language, no observation is necessary, 
since they follow the rule of native letters of analogous sound. 
Thus, fi'om cmal, work, comes mangamal, to work ; from Mwal, 
a vow, manggawal, to vow. 

Kauialiiau suwamiila, iya mAmbalaskan, 
M3,lapaskan suwamiua daripada kasakitau. 

The affront offered to her husbaud she revenged ; 

She reheved him from his distress. 

Sakalian panglima m^ndakati, 
Barprang daugan suugguh-ati. 

All the chieftains drew near. 
To fight with true hearts. 

Masing-masing m&rasakiln atuia, 
Andak barjasa kapada tuwaniia. 

All in their hearts (" feeling their hearts," literally,) 
Desired to be in their duty to their lord. 

Mand'angdr warta ydng amat pisti, 
Sangat m&nangis kaduwana siti. 

Having heard the news which was most certain, 
The two princesses wept exceedingly. 

Sadang lagi kita ada di banuwa Ba//dad, pada tatkala itu, 



38 A Gl{A:^iMAU OF THE T.IALAV LANGUAGE. 

raja Bagdad markakan sagala dayung-davung, maka putri 
Bagdad itu tarsafium, lain barkata, apa grangan mulaiia itu, ya 
raja; maka tatkala raja mfvnangar sviwara putri mangapa itu, 
raaka ilang marahiia; while we Avere still in tlie country of 
Bagdad, it happened that the king was wroth with his female 
attendants ; then the princess of Bagdad, smiling, said to him, 
what, oh king, may be the cause of your anger? and on 
hearing her voice thus asking, his anger vanished. 

Abstract Norms. — Abstract nouns are formed by applying to 
a radical the affix an, alone, by the prefix pa, alone, or by these 
two prefixes or the prefix ka along with the affix an. The 
affix an and the prefix ka are unchangeable, but the prefix pa 
is subject to several euphonic variations which it is necessary to 
describe. These are similar to such as the particle ma under- 
goes, but they take a wider latitude in elision, permutation and 
interposition. The particle in composition is found in the 
different forms of pa, pan, pang, paii, and par, and the rule for 
applying them is entirely euphonic. 

With radicals of which the initials are nasals, the prefix in p 
undergoes no change. Compounds of this class are almost 
wholly confined to radicals in m. The following are examples: 
— from maling, to rob at night, comes pamaling, a night 
robber ; from mabuk, drunk, paraabuk, a drunkard ; from 
minum, to drink, paminum, a drinker. 

With radicals having the liquid r, generally no change takes 
place in the prefix, as from rasa, to feel, to taste, parasa, feeling, 
or taste ; from rapat, close, parapat, closeness, and a neighboui'- 
hood ; from rindu, to languish, parindu, languishment; from 
rakat, to stick, to adhere, paraksU, cement. Sometimes, 
however, the letter ng is interposed between the radical and 
prefix without making any change in the sense. Thus, parasa, 
feeling or taste, is also found as pangrasa. In radicals with an 
initial 1, the prefix may appear in three different forms without 
any alteration in the sense. It may undergo no change, or it 
may have either the letter ng, or r, interposed. Thus, from 
lari, to flee, come ptllari, a fugitive, and palarian, flight ; from 
layar, a sail, palayaran, sailing, navigation ; from liat, to see, 
punggliat, sight, vision, and panggliatan, sight, view, ken ; 



VEKB. 59 

from labuh, to anchor, parlabuhaa or palabuliau, anchorage; 
from lambat, tardy, parlambatau, tardiness. In these cases, 
custom and the ear are the only guides, and, indeed, two forms, 
at least, may often be used indifferently. 

Radicals having vowels for their initials, have the letters ng 
or r interposed between them and the prefix, and not nn- 
frequently, either of them indifferently. Thus, from abis, done, 
finished, comes paugabisan, and parabisan, end, termination ; 
from amba, a servant, paramba and parambjian, service or 
servitude; from ebor, to comfort, pangebor, a comforter or 
consoler, and pangeboran, comfort, consolation ; from ikut, to 
follow, paugikutj a follower; from ompat, to slander, pfingom- 
pat, a slanderer; from ubung, to join, pangubungan, joining, 
junction; from ulu, the head, pangulu, a headman; from atur, 
to arrange, paraturan, arrangement ; from simbus, to blow, 
parambusan, bellows. 

Radicals having the labial b for initial, have the nasal m, or 
the liquid r interposed, and occasionally, the initial of the 
radical is elided. From begal, to rob on the highway, comes 
psimbegal, a highway robber, and pambegalan, highway rob- 
bery; from bnwat, to do, pambuwatan and parbuwatan, act, 
deed ; from bachara, to consult, parbacharaan, pambticharaan, 
and pabacharaan, consultation. 

When the initial letter of the radical is p, the nasal m is 
substituted for it, or the initial particle is applied to it without 
alteration, as from padara, to extinguish, pamadam, an extin- 
guisher; from pukul, to beat, pamukul, a hammer; from palu, 
to beat, pamalu, a mace or club ; from pilih, to choose, pami- 
lihan, choice, selection ; from patah, to break, papatah, a bit, a 
fragment ; from prang, war, paprangan, combat, battle. 

Radicals with the initials d dental, or d' palatal, have the 
particle applied to them, either without change, or with the 
nasal n interposed, while occasionally, the initial is elided. Thus, 
from dagang, to trade, comes padagang, a trader; from 
daya, a trick, or cheat, padaya, a trickster, or a cheat; from 
duga, to guess, or conjecture, panduga, a guess, or conjecture ; 
from duwa, two, panduwa, a fellow, or match ; from dapat, to 
find, pandapatan, acquisition ; from dust'a, false, p;\ndust"a, a 



40 A GKAMMAU OF THE MALAY LANGUAGE. 

liar ; from cVarat, dry land, paiid'arat, a hawser ; from d'ang&r, 
to hear, pand'angar, and panangar, the facult}^ of hearing. 

The dental and palatal t when initials of a radical, have 
the nasal n substituted for them, or the liquid r is interposed, or 
the particle remains unchanged. Tlius, from tabur, to sow, 
comes panabur, a sower ; from takut, fear, or to fear, pjinakut, 
a coward, and panakutan, cowardice ; from tari, to dance, 
panari, a dancer; from tuwan, lord or master, partuwan and 
partuwanan, rule, dominion ; from tapa, ascetic devotion, par- 
tapa, an ascetic or hermit ; from taruh, to deposit, pataruhau, 
a deposit ; from tingi, high, patiiigi, or partingi, the title of an 
officer ; from tidor, to sleep, partidoran, a sleeping place ; from 
tiingah, half, partungahan, middle, midst ; from tiga, three, 
partiga, a third ; from tikam, to stab, partikaman, a stabber, 
— that is, a warrior. 

When the palatals ch and j are initials, the nasal n or the 
liquid r is interposed, and ch admits occasionally of being turned 
into the nasal fi, without being preceded by n or r. Thus, from 
chahari, to seek, comes panchaharian, livelihood, maintenance, or 
tlie thing sought ; from charai, to separate, pancharaian, separa- 
tion; from churi, to steal, panchuri, a thief, and panchurian, theft; 
from cliuchuh, to prick or pierce, pauchuchuh, a bodkin ; from 
chukur, to shave, pauchukur or pailukur, a razor; from chuba, 
to try, panchuba, a trier, or tempter, and panchubiian or par- 
chubaan, trial or temptation ; from chintn, to be anxious, 
parchintaau, anxiety; fromjabat, to touch, panjabat, the toucli; 
from jaib, to sew, panjaib, a sewer or a tailor; from juwal, to 
sell, paujuwal, a seller or vender; from jalau, a road or way, 
purjalanan, course, progress, and journey ; from jamu, to 
entertain, parjamu, a host, and paijamiiau, an entertainment ; 
from janji, to promise, parjauji'an, a promise, a bargain, a 
contract. 

When the guttural g is the initial of a radical, it is usually 
retained in the compound, having the nasal ng or the liquid r 
interposed between it and the prefix. Occasionally, however, the 
prefix is applied to the letter without the nasal. The following 
are examples of these different modes of formation : — From 
gali, to dig or excavate, comes panggali, an exca\'ator or a 



VEK13. 4L 

miuer, aud also, a digging-tool or spade ; from gagah, to force, 
panggagalian, foi'ce, violence ; from garu, to scrape, panggaru, a 
scraper, or a rake; from gjvrtak, to goad, panggarta, a goad; 
from galang, a bracelet, panggalangan, and pargalangan, tlie 
wrist ; from guna, use, pargunaan, worth, utility ; from ganti, 
to cliange, paragautian, change. 

Wheu tlie guttural k is the initial of a radical, either no 
change is made in applying the particle, or the letter r is 
interposed, or the nasal ug is substituted for the initial. Thus, 
from kayin, cloth, comes pakayin, clothes, dress, raiment; 
from karja, to do, to act, to work, pfdcarjaan, deed, act, work ; 
from kirim, to send, or dispatch, pakiriman, a messenger; from 
kata, to speak, parkataan, speech, discourse ; from kasih, to 
love, parkasih, love, affection ; from krah, to call together, pan- 
grah, a calling together ; from kuwasa, able, powerful, pangu- 
wasa, power; from kanal, to know, panganal, acquaintance, 
knowledge, and also, an acquaintance, or the person known. 

Wheu the radical has the sibilant for its initial, either no 
change is made in applying the particle, or r is interposed, or, 
more frequently, the initial is elided and the nasal n substituted 
for it; as, from suruh, to order, pasuruh and pailuruh, a 
messenger or emissary ; from sundal, a harlot, pasundalan, 
harlotry; from sakit, sick, panakit, sickness; from sapu, to 
sweep, pailapu, a sweeper; from sulam, to embroider, panulam, 
an embroiderer; from salin, to shift, parsalinan, a sliift, or 
change ; from sambah, to bow, or make an obeisance, parsam- 
bahan, an obeisance and an offering. 

It should be observed that the prefix par, used in the forma- 
tion of abstract nouns, is a different particle from tliat of the 
same sound used as a verbal particle, the latter being identical 
in use with the particle bar; the only difference being the 
substitution for euphony of one labial for another. The liquid 
in the first case is introduced for mere euphony, and in the 
last it is an essential part of the particle. 

The effect of these different ways of forming the abstract 
noun, seems generally to be the same, as to the sense, and 
the ear, to be chiefly consulted in the preference given to 
one of them over another. There is, however, one exception. 



■kl A GRAMMAU OF THE MALAY J.ANGUAGE. 

With the particles in p alone, the uouu often expresses 
the agent or instrument, and when it is combined with the 
suffix an, the object. Thus, from bawa, to carr^', we have 
pambawa, a carrier, and pambawaan, carriage, or transport; 
from bunuh, to kill, pambunuh, a killer, or murderer, and 
pambunuhan, murder, or slaughter; from jamu, to feast, par- 
janiu, a host, and parjamlian, a feast ; from buwat, to do, 
pambuwat, actor, and parabuwatan, action or deed. 

Maniakai pfid'aug pai-buwatau S'am ; 
Ulufia bartatah pudi, nilam. 

Wearing a sword, the workmanship of Sliani ; 
Its hilt studded with seed -gems, aud sapphires. 

Pauuh, sasak, Iwxlai paugad-apan, 
.Mana yaug jawuh tiyada barsampataii. 

Full and crowded was the hall of audience ; 
Those who were far found no means of entering. 

Esti'i Mansur mangS,mp!ls k.lnd'iri 
Pamanangis mamluk kaduwaila putri. 

The wife of Mansur tossed herself about. 

And the mourner embi-aced both the princesses. 

Maka titah Sri Panji, kakanda sakalian, barantilah daulu par- 
buwat pursingahan^karanaaku andak barnanti disini daulu, maka 
parsingahau diparbuwat oranglah ; Sri Panji commanded and 
said, my brethren, let us halt here for a time, to form an 
encampment, for here I mean to wait awhile; and the en- 
campment was made by the people. Maka arta itu dibahagaiiia 
tiga bahagai, dan sabahagai diparbuwatkauna pakcan laki-laki 
dan pakean p^rampiian, tarlalu inda-iuda; the property was 
divided by him into three shares, and a share was made by 
him into male and female attire, very admirable. 

The meanings of the absti'act nouns, the manner of forn)iug 
which has now been described, generally flow naturally from 
the radicals, from which they are derived, and in every case are 
traceable to them. Occasionally, however, they have specific and 
restricted meanings, only to be ascertained by a knowledge of 
the language or by considting a dictionary. Such compounds 
cannot be formed at pleasure, but arc, in fact, established 



VERB. 4.;} 

words of the language^ like the similar compounds of European 
tongues, made with the help of prepositions or adverhs, forma- 
tions unknown to the Malay. This will be seen by some of the 
examples already given, but I shall add a few more. From 
burUj which means, to pursue and to cliace, come pamburu and 
parburu, a hunter, and pamburiian, and purburiian, the chace, 
and game ; from asap, smoke, parasapan^ a censer ; from ingga, 
imtil, as far as, paringgahan, a frontier ; from suruh, to order, or 
to bid, suruhan, pasuruh and pusuruhan, a messenger or emissary. 
With the suffix an, or with it and either the prefix bur or ka, 
are formed participles or adjectives, although the first and last 
formations are more usually employed as abstract nouns. 
This, however, is agreeable to that characteristic of the Malay 
language by which the same word, whether primitive or com- 
pound, is used for more than one part of speech. Adanda 
jangan barlambatan; my sister, do not be procrastinating. 

Bangkit bard-iri, mud'a bangsawau, — 
Ldinah, lambut, malu-maliian. 

She arose, stood up,— 
Young, noble, modest. 

Utama jiwa mas tampawan ; perfection of the soul, beaten 
gold (terms of endearment). 

Diatds kuda iya bdrkandaran, — 
Pdrmai, mud'a, baugsawan. 

She on a horse, riding, — 
Beautiful, young, noble. 

Maka raja tarsaiium tiyada barputusan ; the king smiled 
uninterrupted. 

Arapkau ampun yang kalimpahan, 
Arapkan tuwanku balas dan kasihan. 

Trusting to the forgiveness, which is overflowing ; 
Trusting to the pity and affection of my lord. 

Tarsadu, t3,risak-isahk3,n, 
Ingga tiyada buni kad-angaran. 

Sobbing and sobbing on. 

Until no other sound was audible. 



4.4 A GRAMMAR OF THE MALAY LANGUAGE. 

Angkau, andakku suruli maugampar parmadani yang ka- 
masan ; thee I mean to command to spread the golden 
carpet ; literally, the carpet which is golden. Maka Ifibu 
dulipun barangkat kiiudara, siyang clmwacha mjinjadi kalam, 
tiyada apa kali'atau lagi; malayinkan kilat sanjata juga yang 
kaliatan ; the dust rose to the sky, bright day became dark ; 
save the flash of weapons nothing was visible. 

Saruui uafiri, siiut-siiutan ; 
Nubat dipalu, m3,ri3,m dipasaug. 

The fifes and trumpets were responsive ; 

Tlie drums were beaten, tlie cannon were discharged. 

Ulubalaug pahalawan barlompatan, 
. Saparti arimau lapas tangkapan. 

The warriors and champions were seen 
Leaping like tigers escaped from a snare. 

Frequentative Verb. — A verb takes a frequentative sense, by 
the simple repetition of the radical, or if a compound in the 
same way, omitting the prefixed particle in the second member 
of the word, as mangusir-usir, to go on pursuing; barbujuk- 
bujuk, to go on coaxing ; mangamuk-amuk, to go on charging 
furiously. KaduAva barad'ik bartangis-tangis ; the two brothers 
wept on. lya pargi barlari-lari, dan barlompat-lompat ; literally, 
they went on running-running and leaping-leaping. Sagala 
dayung-dayung tartawa-tawa; all the waiting-maids went on 
laughing. Maka sagala raja-rnja dan mantri ulubalaug, masing- 
masing nayik kaatas lanchang, dan pilang, barlomba-lombaan, 
barlangar-langgaran, dan sambur-samburan, tarlalu ramai ; the 
j^rinces, ministers, and warriors, embarked in their boats and 
pinnaces, striving with each other, rushing against each other, 
and dashing the water against each other, very merrily. 

Reciprocal Verb. — By reduplication also, a reciprocal as well as 
a frequentative sense is given to the verb, and in this case, the 
prefixed particle is usually added to, or preserved in the second 
member of the word, as pukal mamukal, to strike frequently 
and reciprocally ; amuk-mangganmk, to charge frequently and 
reciprocally; tatah-manatah, to slash frequently and recipro- 
cally. Maka raja kaampat itu barkasili-kasihan dangau sfvgala 



VERB. 45 

saudarafia, utus-mangutus, pargi d-atang, tiyada barputusan ; 
the four kings were in mutual friendship as brothers, send- 
ing and receiving embassies — going and coming without inter- 
mission. 

Mood. — There are no means of distinguishing an indicative 
mood in Malay. The verb, either in its simple or compounded 
form is understood to do so when without an auxiliary. A poten- 
tial mood is expressed by the verbs bulih and dapat used as auxi- 
liaries, and which, literally translated, mean, to can, or be 
able, and to get or find, but Avhich have the English sense of 
can and may. Bulih saya pargi katanah Jawa ; I can or may 
go to the country of Java. Bulih iya mangabiskan pakarjaan 
itu; he may, or can, complete that business. Maka putri itu 
tiyada dapat dipandang daripfida sangat elokiia; the princess 
could not be distinctly beheld on account of her excessive 
beauty. 

Katakan, jangan takut dan ngari, 
Sapaya kita bulih dangari. 

Speak, fear not, and be not alarmed, 
So tliat we may hear. 

A conditional is obtained by the use of the adverb grangan, 
sometimes written grang, probably the primitive word, although 
less frequently used. The word is restricted to this particular 
purpose, and its primitive meaning has not been determined. 
Bagaimana, grangan, aku malarangkan diya; how may, or 
can I prevent him? Make iya kera didalam atina, mana 
grangan gondek bfiganda yang labih dikasihiia ; he thought to 
himself, which of his highnesses concubines might be most 
beloved by him. Bagaimana grangan mimpi yang dipartuwan ; 
what may have been the dream of the king ? Kamana lagi aku 
grangan lari, karana pad-angna talah tarunus; where further 
can I flee, for his sword has been unsheathed ? 

Didalam atina siyapakah grang] 
Pai-dsna elok bukan kapalang. 

In his heart he said, who may she be ? 
Her beauty is of uo ordinary kind. 



40 A OUAMMAR OF TITR MALAY LANOUAGK. 

Sambil bartaua marika sakalian, 

Mana grang balatantra yaug damikiyan. 

At the same time asking all the people, 
Whence could come such an army ? 

Adakah suka grangan kakanda, 
Dikdnalkan lagi, atawa tiyada. 

Would mj' elder brother be pleased to be known. 
Or would he not,? 

Jiku ada grang au, paduka adanda, baraiiak ; if it should be 
that her highness, the younger sister (the queen), should bear a 
child. Siyapa grangan, mamadamkan tanglung itu ; who may 
have extinguished that lamp ? 

An optative mood is expressed by the verb andak, to will or 
desire, but meaning also, must and ought. Andak aku pfira- 
biskan pakarjaan itu, sapaya aku barulih santosa ; I must complete 
that labour, so that I may find rest, Kita andak bargurau dangan 
anak-d'ara itu ; we intend to toy with the virgins. Andaklah 
yang dipartuwan manĕiguhkau ati paduka ad'unda; your majesty 
should assure the heart of her highness the younger sister (the 
queen). Bailak pula yang ditinggal andak mati dfingau artaila; 
many there were who remained behind, desiring to die along 
with their worldly goods. Andaklah laki-laki mamakai bau- 
baiian yiing amat arum ; a husband should use perfumes of 
exquisite odour. 

A conjunctive mood is simply indicated by the presence of 
a conjunction before the verb. Jika ada grangan, parmaisuri 
baranak, jikalau disambuilikan ulih patek, alangkah bayikna ; 
if the queen should bring forth a child, and if it should be 
hidden by your servant, would it be well ? 

A precatory mood expressing hope or desire, and equivalent 
to our word may, applied in this sense, is obtained by the use of 
the adverbs keraila, apalah,muga-muga, or samuga-muga, and ba~ 
rang. The first of these words literally rendered, means, thought, 
or opinion of him, her, or it ; the second is the interrogative pro- 
noun with the expletive lah, and the last the noun barfing, thing, 
or in composition equivalent to the English particle, ever. How, 
therefore, such words come to express the mood of a verb it is 



VERB. ^T 

not easy to understand. Jikalau, kerana^ kakanda biirmoun- 
kan, tiga ari lagi adauda barjalan; if it might be that the 
elder brother give leave, in three days more the younger 
sister would go on her travels. Jikalau idup, keraila, putri, 
maukah lagi kakanda barestri ; if it may be, that the princess 
lives, would my elder brother still wed her? Jadilah kerana 
padaku sapurti parkataan mu itu; may it happen to me accord- 
ing to your word. Jikalau dapat kerana sapurti y^ng dikata 
ulih tuwan-amba ; if it should happen according to what is 
said by my lord. Ya tuhauku anugrahi, keraiia, ambarau, 
tatkala masnk kadalam nagri raja itu ; oh lord, mayst thou be 
bountiful to thy servant when he enters the country of that king. 
Sarahkan, kerana, raja itu didalam tangan ambamu ; mayest thou 
deliver that king into the hands of thy servant. Dibrikan Allah 
taala, kerana ; may God grant. Maka titah sangnata pada sagala 
ajar-ajar, kamu liat apalah didalam satrawun kamu; the king 
commanded and said to the soothsayers, may ye look into your 
horoscopes ; — that is, I pray you look into your horoscopes. 
Charitakan apalah sapaya kita d'angar; may it be that you 
narrate so that I may hear ;— that is to say, I beseech you to 
narrate, that I may hear. Maka kata tuwan putri nanilah 
apalah, kitu dangar ; may you sing, said the princess, that I 
may listen; — that is, prithee sing, that I may listen. Ya tu- 
hanku, karjakan apalah kerana ati ambamu barmulyakan yang 
patut diparmulyakun ; oh lord, mayest thou cause the heart of 
thy servant to extol him who is worthy to be extolled. Ya 
tuwanku tangkap apalah akau patek, kijaug duwa ekor itu; 
oh, my lord, mayest thou catch for me these two deer. Muga- 
muga and samuga-uiuga convey a similar sense. Maka 
Langlang Buwana turunlah diiri kayangan kalarangan itu 
kataiia, e Gunungsari, balum lagi sampai bilanganmu akan 
mati, samuga-muga iduplah pulah sapurti sadiyakala dangan 
kadayanmu ; jangan lagi marabahaya; Langlang Buwana 
descended from the sky, and going to the coffin said, O, 
Gunungsari, your appointed hour has not yet come ; may you 
live again in health, as before, with all your kindred ; be un- 
fortunate no more. Samuga-mugalah daugan tulung sagala dewa- 
dewa; may it come about by the aid of all the gods. E ! wong 



IS A GI.'A.^lMAli OF THE J\[ALAY LANGUAGE. 

Galuh, muga-muga aiigkau gagali^ braiii jayengsatru ! ! man 
of Galuh, may you be powerful aud courageous, victorious over 
your enemies. Barang has also the sense of " may," express- 
ing desire. Bnrang ditambah tuhan pangkatna; may God 
increase his rank j literally, may the rank of him be increased 
by God. Barang disampaikan Allah surat ini kapada saAobtit 
beta; may God cause this letter to reach my friend. Barang 
diampuni patek kerana; may your servant be forgiven. 

An imperative mood is expressed simply by the personal 
pronoun following, instead of preceding the verb as it usually 
does in the other moods, as pargi kamu, go thou, and mari 
tuwan, come, sir. Sometimes the pronoun of the second 
person in this mood, has the preposition ulih, b}', before it, 
when the verb must be considered passive, although it wants 
that form. Plehrahkan nlih kamu akfui putri bongsu itu; 
cherish thou the younger princess ; but literallj^ be cherished 
by you to the younger princess. 

Tenses. — Time is often left to be inferred from the context, 
and, indeed, is expressed only when it is indispensable to the 
sense that it should be specified. The tenses, when they must 
be specified, are formed by auxiliaries which are either verbs or 
adverbs. The verb, either in its simple or compounded form, 
expresses present time, when no other is specified or implied, as 
beta barjalan, I walk ; kamu tidor, you sleep ; diya makan, he 
eats. When it becomes necessary to state present time, sucli 
adverbs as sakarang, now, and baharu-ini, just now, or the verb 
ada, to be, are employed. Sudah barjalan-kaki tarlalu jauh, 
sakarang beta baranti ; having travelled far on foot, I now rest. 
Maka titah baganda baharu-ini puwas rasa-atiku, ulih mati 
siputri itu ; the king commanded and said, now my heart is 
satisfied by the death of that princess. 

A preterite or past time -is expressed by the auxiliaries, 
sudah, tillah, abis, and lalu placed before the verb. Sudah 
means, past, done, spent, and also the adverb, enough. 

Satalah siyang sudah kataiian, 
Durapun kaluwar lalu bdrjalau. 

When daylight appeared, 

Dura went forth aud proceeded on her journey. 



Sakutika barwayang, a^-ampun barkukuk duwa tiga kali ; aripuu 
siyaiiglah, maka wayang puu sudah, inaka d-alangpun pargi 
inandi; talali sudah mandi, lain pulang kabalai tumanggung; 
Avhile the drama was actiug, the cock crew twice or thrice ; 
the drama ended^. and the actor went to bathe ; having batlied, 
lie returned to the hall of the Tumanggung. Sapurti bunga 
srigad'ing yang sudah tarlayu ; like a srigading flower which 
has withered. Satalah sudah iya barkera damikiyau itu, maka 
iyapun kauibali tiyada jadi pargi kaputri itu ; when she had 
thus pondered, she returned, and did not go to the princess. 

Talah means, ago, past. Maka did*augar Chandra biduwan, 
itupun chuchor ayar-matana, tarkanang suwamiiia yang talali 
mati ; it was heard by Chandra, the public singer, and thereupon 
she wept, remembering her husband who was dead. Dangan 
parmaisuri itu, talah barapa lamaiia dan sudah tiyada aku 
baranak ; with the queen it has been a long time, and I have 
had no children. Maka ayanda baganda talah ilaug ; and his 
royal father died, — that is, literally, was lost. Karana nagri 
ini, talah disarahkan ulih baganda kapada tuwan-amba; for 
this kingdom has been made over by his highness to my lord. 
In the following example, however, a kind of future time seems 
to be expressed by talah. Esuk ari, talah kita pargi malihat 
diya; to-morrow I shall have gone to see it. 

Abis means, ended, finished. Maka Sri Panji tiyadalah 
tarbachara lagi malihat kalakiian itu, karana rasa atifia akan 
sagala paraputri abis tartangkap itu, lain ditikamna pula; Sri 
Panji seeing this state of things, said no more, because of 
what he felt for the princesses thus taken captive, and he 
began again to stab. Maka sagala parkataan sangnata itu, 
abis didangar ulih raja kaduwa itu ; all the words of the 
monarch were heard by the two princes. Maka sagala parka- 
taan itu abis dicharitakan pada baganda itu ; all these words 
were related to his highness. ^Taka sagala kapal itu abis 
masuk kalabnhan Sumandranagara ; all the ships entered the 
harbour of Sumandranagara. Sagala dayang-dayang dan parwara 
abis barlarian ; all the waiting-maids and hand-maids ran away. 

Lalu means, to go, or pass, and gone, past. Maka dibalas 
pula, ulih Misa Tandr.aman, kana lambungan Rata Pnrbaya, 



5U A GRAMMAR OF THE MALAY LANGUAGE. 

laluh jatuh ddriat^s gajahna, lalu mati; IMisa Tandraman 
retaliated, and king Purbaya hit in the flank, fell from his 
elephant and died. INIaka mantri itu kalah, ulih ulnbalang, 
lalu main; the councillor defeated by the warrior was ashamed. 
Two of these auxiliaries are often combined, when they consti- 
tute a perfect preterite. Adapun taman itu yang patek barbuAvat 
akan parsambah itu, talah sudah patek barbuwat ; the garden 
which your servant was making for an offering, your servant 
has made. Satiilah sudah abis ditilikna, maka ditulisna ; 
when they had spied, they wrote down. 

Future time is expressed by the verbs man, literally, to will, 
and andak, to desire or intend, and sometimes by the preposition 
ak&n. Aku mau pargi kadesa; I will go to the countiy. lya 
mau barlayar esuk ; he will sail to-morrow. Aku andak bli 
timah dan sisik-panu, akan tukar dangan mas urai; I will buy 
tin and tortoiseshell to exchange for gold-dust. Maka tatkala 
tuwanku masuk kapada paduka ad-anda, maka mau iya turun 
d^riatas patranana; when my lord goes in to her highness, your 
younger sister (the queen), she will descend from her chair of 
state. Maka kata p&rmaisuri pada ad-andana, santaplah, tuwanku, 
barsama-sama kita, maka iya tiyada mau ; the queen said to her 
younger sister, eat, my mistress, along Avith me, but she would 
not. Jikalau ada kurniya tuwanku, patek akan mamreksakan 
diya; by my lord's grace, his servant will enquire into it. 
Maka kata sagala dayang-dayang, marilah kita bartaruh ; siyapa 
alah, ambil subangna. Satalah itu, maka kata anak d'ara- 
d-ara itu, putri Nila Kandi akan manang; the hand-maids 
said among themselves, come let us wager, whoever loses, let 
her ear-rings be taken ; and the maidens said, the princess Nila 
K&ndi will win. Tiyada akan lama tuwanku disini ; my mistress 
will not be long here. Maka kata iya, wahe ! ayanda kamana 
aku akan pargi ; she said alas ! father, whither shall I go ? 

An interrogative sense is given by the inseparable suffix 
kah, applied either to the verb itself, or to any other woi'd 
in the same sentence with it. Lihatlah ^mbakah alah ulihna, 
atawah iyalah alah ulili amba ; see, whether am I conquered by 
him, or he conquered by me. 



VERB. 51 

Saorftng p^rampiian mud'a bastai-i, 
Adakah kakdnda mau barestri ? 

A woman, young, well bred ; 
Will my elder brother wed her ? 

Siyapakah m&mbawa aku kamari ; who brought me hither ? 
Maka kata iya, antukah^ atawa manusiyakah yang barsuwara 
didalam prut ikan ; are you goblin or man that speak in the 
belly of that fish ? 

The suffix lah, tab, and pun, are applied mostly to the verb, 
but also to other parts of speech. These are chiefly expletives, . 
for they cannot generally be considered, in any way, to contri- 
bute directly to the sense. The affix lah, however, seems to be, 
occasionally, an exception, for it may be found turning a noun or 
adjective into an intransitive verb, as in the following example : — 
Maka ari pun malamlah, maka bulanpun tranglah ; day became 
night, and the moon shone bright, is the sense intended to be con- 
veyed, but the words ai'e simply, '' and day, night, moon bright.^' 
I have no doubt that their chief purpose is to satisfy the ear, 
an object to which the Malay language so often sacrifices. 
Adalah kapada suwatu ari d-atanglah orang mambli bras ; it 
happened on a certain day that a man came to buy rice. 
Satalah malam suduhlah ari, maka barlayarlah angkatan; 
when the day broke the expedition set sail; literally, when 
night was day the expedition sailed. 

Satdlah patang sudahlah ari, 
Pntri bdrmoun, lain kdmbali. 

When night became day, the princess, 
Taking leave, returned. 

Barapa lamaiia, maka Raden Inu basarlah; after a time, 
Raden Inu grew up. In all these examples, the sense is 
equally perfect without, as with the particle. Tah is used in 
the same manner as lah, but less frequently. Pun is used 
also in the same manner, but seems sometimes to admit of the 
sense of, too, or, also ; and when united to the demonstrative 
pronoun itu, it makes an adverb with the sense of, thereupon. 

Present Participle. — The adverbs saraya, at the same time, 



52 A GRAMMAR OF THE MALAY LANGUAGE. 

sridangjSadaug-lagijSartaand salaiig, whilst, placed before the verb, 
give it a sense wliicli, in English, may be rendered by a present 
participle. Jja. maiiamba sfiraya mangampir bagaiida ; he bowed 
approaching the king. Tatkala itu, rajapun sadang samayam, 
diad'ap ulili sagala raja-raja; at that time the king was sitting 
on his throne, all the princes being before him. Maka dlbuka 
pintu gad'bng itu, maka didapatina tuwan putri sad-ang-lagi 
nianangis ; the door of the prison was opened, and the princess 
was found by him, still weeping. Ada yang manunggang 
karbau, sarta mamuwatkan artana, dan bakal-bakalanna ; some 
rode buffaloes, loading their goods and provisions (along with 
them). Maka patek pun malu pula, sadang iya parampiian, lagi 
satiya dangan tuwaniia; your servant was ashamed that she 
being but a woman, yet was so faithful to her mistress. 

The various inseparable particles of the verb, whether to 
distinguish it from other parts of speech, to give it an active, 
causal or transitive sense, or to form a verbal noun, belong 
mostlj^ to the written language, and are but sparingly nsed in 
the oral. We can fancy, indeed, a period in the history of 
the Malay in which they may not have been used at all, the 
simple radicals being found snfficient for all the ideas of a rude 
people and an unwritten tongue. Tlie most frequently em- 
ployed of these inseparable particles, it will be observed, begin 
all with labials, viz., b, m, and p, the easiest and earliest 
pronounced consonants of all languages. These, united by a 
vowel to a liquid, or to a nasal, form the principal verbal pre- 
fixes. They have, by themselves, no meaning, nor can they 
be traced to any other words. The principal particle which 
gives a passive sense to the verb, is in sound identical with 
the preposition di, at, in, or on ; but in sense there appears no 
affinity between them, nor is it likely that the one can have 
been derived from the other. The prefix ka is identical in 
sound with the preposition of the same name, but does not 
seem to have any connexion with it. The affix an has by 
itself no meaning, and is not traceable to any other word. All 
we can say of it is that it is composed of the simplest vowel 
and most frequent nasal of the Malay language, and that it 
also exists in the Javanese with the same use. The transitive 



VERB. 53 

affix kan may be the preposition akau abbreviated, and in this 
form annexed inseparably to the verb. To express a transi- 
tive sense, indeed, the preposition can often be substituted 
for the inseparable particle, and is occasionally superadded 
without apparent necessity. Karana iya tau mamrentahkan 
nagri, and karana iya tau raamrentah akan nagri ; for he under- 
stands governing a country, are equally correct. Tatkala raja 
manangar chakap Laksamana itu, maka bfigandapun sigra 
mananggalkan pakkean dari tubohna, lain dianugrahkan akan 
Laksamana ; when the king heard the proposal of the Laksa- 
mana, he stripped his garments from off his person and 
presented them to him. The prefix tar is, as already men- 
tioned, the same particle in sound, that gives intensity to 
an adjective or adverb, and there seems some remote affinity 
between the two uses to which it is put, but, in either sense, the 
particle is not traceable to any other word of the language. 

Respecting these verbal particles, it may be added that bar, 
ma, par, and tar are peculiar to the Malay language, while di, 
ka, pa, and an, are common to the Malay and Javanese, and 
used for the same purposes. The transitive affix kan is found 
in Javanese, only in the factitious language of ceremony, and 
the preposition akan does not exist in it at all. Not im- 
probably, therefore, the Javanese borrowed this affix from the 
Malays. The transitive affix i, far less frequent than kan in Malay, 
is the ordinary transitive particle of the Javanese popular lan- 
guage. In Malay, found chiefly in the written language, it 
seems not unlikely to have been borrowed from the Javanese. 

Finally, it must be observed respecting the verb, that 
although the transitive and intransitive particles, and the 
auxiliaries which express time and mood are frequently written, 
and always when indispensable to the sense, yet they are also 
frequently omitted, and the reader left to gather the modifica- 
tion of meaning from the mere context. It has been well 
observed that the most perfect forms of language give the 
understanding no more than mere hints, and this remark 
applies eminently to the Malay. The following short passage 
will serve as an example : — Maka ari pun malamlah, maka 
bulan pun tranglah, masuk siuarna kadalam maligai itu, sapurti 



54 A GKAMMAK OF THE MALAY J.ANGIJAGJ-:. 

clialiya orang bayik parfis, tatkala ij^a tarsanum. This, so 
as to make sense of it is, — night came on, and the moon was 
bright ; her beams entered the palace, like the expression of a 
beautiful woman when she smiles ; but the words are all 
radicals, and there is not a single auxiliary to mark time or mood. 
The noun malam and the adjective trang, bright, are made 
to serve the place of verbs. Yet with all this absence of con- 
catenation, tbe mere hints are sufficient, and the sense by no 
means difficult to make out. 



The Malay adverbs are, some of them, primitive words, as 
sakarang, now; daulu, formerly; juga, likewise; sini, here, and 
Sana and situ, there; tiyada, no; bukan, not at all ; balum, not yet; 
but a great number, also, are compounded of other parts of speech. 
In conformity with the versatile genius of the language, some are 
merely other parts of speech of which the adverbial character is 
only discovered by their position following the verb. Thus bayik, 
good, becomes, well ; banak many, much ; baharu, new, newly ; 
atas, above, aloft ; and bawah below, the adverb underneath. 
Adverbs are, sometimes, formed by mere repetition of another part 
of speech; thus, from gupuh, to be in haste, gupuh-gupuh, hastily, 
hurriedly ; and from tiba, to fall, tiba-tiba, unawares, un- 
expectedly. The compounded adverbs consist of two or more 
other parts of speech. In this manner we have, from a 
pronoun and a noun, apakala, bilamana, and manakala, when, 
literally, at what time. With a preposition and a primitive 
dverb are formed such words as kasini, hither, literally, to 
here, and kasana or kasitu, thither, literally, to there. With 
the abbreviated numeral sa, one, united to a noun or adjective, 
we have a considerable number of adverbs, as from orang, 
man or person, saorang, alone, literally, one man or person ; 
from kali, time, sakali, once, literally, one time ; from sung- 
guh, true, sasungguh, truly ; from banar, right, sabtiuiir, 
rightly. To the adverbs thus formed with the numeral 
sa, is often aflfixed the pronoun iia, without any percep- 
tible change in the meaning, although in this case, there is 



generally some reference to an antecedent. Saoranna, alone, 
in this instance, is literally, one man alone of it. By a re- 
duplication of the main word joined to the numeral sa, we 
get adverbs of various meanings. Thus, saorang-orangna, is 
individually, or man by man ; and from ari, a day, and taun, 
a year, we have saari, or saari-ari, daih^, and sataun, or sat'tiun- 
taun, yearly. By prefixing to a noun the adjective pronoun 
tiyap, evei'v, we obtain tiyap-ari, daily, or every day ; tiyup- 
taun, yearly, or every year ; and tiyap-bulan, monthly, or every 
month. With the preposition bagai, to, which, however, is also 
the conjunction, as, joined to the demonstrative pronouns, ini, 
this, and itu, that, we have the adverbs bagaiini, and bagai-itu, 
thus, and so. A considerable number of adverbs, afiording 
another instance of the versatility of the Malay language, is 
formed by the intransitive verb with the inseparable prefix bar ; 
as from raula, beginning, barmula, at first, which ought to 
mean to begin, or to commence ; and from puluh, ten ; ratus, 
hundred ; and ribu, thousand ; barpuluh, by tens ; baratus, by 
hundreds; and baribu, by thousands; from ganti, to change, 
barganti-ganti, successively; and from turut, to follow, bar- 
turut-turut, consecutively. In all these cases, the compounded 
words are strictly verbs, used adverbially. Even with the verbal 
afifix an, or with it and the prefix bar, adverbs are, occasionally, 
formed, as from mudah, easy, mudah-mudahan, easily, readily; and 
from sama, with, bi'irsama-satniian, together. The compounded 
adverbs thus described are fixed and accepted words of the 
language, and new ones cannot be arbitrarily formed. Adverbs, 
or at least, adverbial expressions, can be formed at pleasure, by 
the use of the preposition dangan, as dangan siyang, by day-light ; 
dangau baringin, longingly; dangan- tiyada, without, not possess- 
ing ; dangan sampura, perfectly ; dangau sapurtina, suitably. 

The few following examples will show how the adverbs are 
used : — Jangan buta itu, jikalau dewa di kayangan, sakalipun 
tiyada dapat mangalahkan tunggal itu; not only not this 
goblin ; not all the gods of the empyrean could overcome this 
banner. Maka dichyum dipaluhna kataiia, utama jiwa, kakanda 
samugalah dangan tulung sagala dewa-dewa, tuwan bartamu 
dangan kakanda, jika tiyada, antahkĕin bartamu, antahkan tiyada, 



56 A GKAMMAll Of THE MALAY LANGUAGE. 

karauH kakiinda andak dibunoh ulili Misa Tanduraman; he kissed 
and embraced lier, sayiug, O ray soul^ bfipl}', by tlie aid of the 
gods, you may agaiu meet your elder brother, perhaps meet him 
and perhaps uot, for ]\Iisa Tanduraman desires that your 
brother sliould be shmi, Bahawa, sasuuggidiiia, sakalian ini 
dai-ipada ahdi dan barkambali iya kapadaila ; trulj', all is from 
god, and all returns to him. Jika paduka kakanda grangan 
maliat rupa tuwanku ini, nischaya lupalali, grangan makan dan 
minum, dan tidor ; malayinkan chahaya tuwanku padaatina; 
itu, dan dipandang-pandang pada matana; if his highness should 
see but the sight of my mistress, assuredly he would forget to 
eat, to drink, and to sleep ; her light alone would enter his heart 
and be visible to his eyes. Maka uritaiia, baganda barestrikan 
putri Bongsu, kunuu, maka iya parbuwat sabuwah nagri bar- 
nama Prabajaya, maka baganda ditinggalkan akan estrina, 
kunun, di nagri itu, maka iya pulang mangad-ap ayanda bonda 
baganda ; the story goes that the prince, after having wedded the 
princess Bongsu, built by supernatural skill a city called Pra- 
bajaya, and there leaving his wife, he returned into the presence 
of their highnesses his father and mother. 

Rayatna b.lrkat-i, tiyada barbilaug ; 

Nagriua ramai tiyada kajialang. 

His subjects were by hundreds of thcnisauds; — countless; 

His kingdom without measure. 

CONJUNCTIONS. 
The principal Malay conjunctions are dan, and; atawa, or; 
tatapi, abbreviated tapi, but; jika, jikalau, kalau, or kalu, if; 
mlilayinkan, except ; sapaya, in order that ; and sapurti, as. 
Dan is evidently the Javanese word of the same sound, but 
more generally in that language written lau. Supaya and 
sapurti are equally Javanese as Malay. Atawa and tatapi are 
Sanskrit, The remaining conjunctions are exclusively native. 
Malayinkan is literally a causal verb of which the radical 
word is layin, other, or different, and the word literally ren- 
dered means, to make different. How so clumsy a word came 
to be converted into a conjunction, it is hard to say. "With the 
conjunctions, ought, I think, to be included a particle of 



KEDUFLlCATIOiS\ 57 

constant occurrence iu prose writing, although seldom in 
poetry, and not at all in conversation. This is maka, used 
to join sentences and members of sentences, but not words. 
In Malay it has no meaning that can be rendered by an English 
equivalent. I suppose the word to be the same, although not 
used in the same way, as the Javanese mongka or mangka, 
meaning, and, also. Perhaps the nearest English translation 
of maka would be, and, or now, used as a connective. The 
use of the conjunctions is simple and easy, and abundant 
examples of their application have already been given. 



REDUPLICATION. 

The practice of reduplication is so frequent in Malay, that it 
requires to be separately considered. In some cases it consists 
in a simple repetition of the whole word, as mata-mata, a scout. 
When however, to a radical, there is annexed an inseparable 
prefix, this is usually omitted iu the second member of 
the reduplication, as barlari-lari, to run on; bartm-ut-turut, 
consecutively. But when, as before stated, the Avord is a verb 
having a recipi'ocal sense, the particle is annexed to the second 
member of the redupUcated word and not to the first, as bunoh- 
mambunoh, to slaughter frequently and mutually ; tatak- 
mantak, to slash frequently and mutually ; tikam-manikam, to 
stab frequently and mutually. Sometimes, the reduplicated word 
is a primitive of which the etymology cannot be traced, as antar- 
antar, a rammer ; manggi-manggi, the name of a species of man- 
grove ; adap-adap, rice presented at a marriage ceremony ; rama- 
rama, a butterfly. More frequently the etymology can be traced, 
although the derivation is often whimsical. Thus, from mata, 
the eye, seems to come mata-mata, a scout or constable ; from 
anak, young, or progeny, kanank-kanak, a child, and anak- 
anakan, a puppet ; from apit, to press, apit-apitan, a press, and 
also a chess-board ; from kuda, a horse, kuda-kuda, a bench, and 
also a wooden frame; from ular, a snake, ular-ular, a brook or 
rivulet ; from kera, to think, kera-kera, conjecture or notion ; 
from api, fire, api-api, a firefly, and also a species of mangrove 
used for fuel. Adverbs are frequently formed by the reduplication 



58 A GKA.MMAU OF THE MALAY LANGUAGE. 

of other words, as from kiinung, sudden, kimuiig-kuiuing, sud- 
denly ; from asing, separate, asing-asing, and probably masing- 
masing, separately ; from siifii, solitary, suni-suni, alone ; from 
diy^m, to be silent, diyam-diyam, silently ; from cb\iri, to 
steal, cliuri-cliuri, stealthily, clandestinely ; from malu, modesty, 
malu-maliian, modestly ; from minta, to beg, miuta-rainta, a 
beggar or mendicant. 

Often the reduplication of an adjective makes only an inten- 
sitive, as basar-basar, very great; manis-manis, very sweet; 
tuwah-tuwali, very old; tinggi-tinggi, very high; luwas-luwas, 
very spacious. The mere love of alliteration, has, no doubt, 
contributed to multiply these reduplicatives, as it probably has, 
the adoption of other words of the same character, although 
not coming strictly under this head. Thus we have two words 
for, to glitter or dazzle, united as one in gilang-gamilang, 
effulgent. So laki, a male human being, or a man, is most 
generally Avritten and pronounced laki-laki, while its stubborn 
correlative parampiian, a woman, is incapable of reduplication. 

A few reduplicatives are occasionally abbreviated. Thus, for 
laba-laba, a spider, we have lalaba ; for langit-langit, a canopy, 
lalangit ; for laki-laki, a man, hilaki ; for layang-layang, a 
swallow, lalayang; for lomba-lomba, a porpoise, laloniba; for 
jawi-jawi, a fig-tree, jajawi; for pundi-pundi, a scrip, papundi ; 
and for puwah-puwah, frizzly, papuwah. 



SYNTAX. 

The simple structure of the Malay requires few rules of 
syntax, and most of them have been already given. The words 
in a sentence follow each other in the natural order of ideas, 
and seldom admit of transposition. They would otherwise 
form a mere jumble, from which it would be impossible to 
extract a meaning. 

The nominative may either precede or follow the verb, 
but in the oral language generally precedes it, except in the 
imperative when it commonly follows it. When the sense 
is interrogative, this is determined by the presence of an 
interrogative pronoun or by the affix kah already described. 



SYNTAX. 59 

The object follows the verb or the preposition which governs it. 
The last of two sequent nouns, or a personal pronoun following 
a noun is in the genitive or possessive case. By this rule is 
explained a number of compounded words, as tukang-basi, a 
blacksmith, and tukang-mas, a goldsmith, which literally rendered 
are, artificer of iron and artificer of gold. By it, too, is explained 
the presence of the cardinal numbers before the noun, and before 
tens, hundreds, and thousands in the compounded numerals. 
Tiga orang, three men, tiga-puluh, thirty, are literally, three of 
men, and three of tens. The adjective is placed after the 
noun or pronoun which it qualifies. Words expressing multi- 
tude or quantity may precede the noun when they are, in fact, 
nouns governing a genitive case ; or may follow it when they are 
adjectives agreeing with it. Thus for much rice, and for all 
men, we can either say, baiiak bras, and samuwa orang, or bras 
baiiak, and orang samuwa, the literal senses, in the first case, 
being much of rice, and all of men. The demonstrative 
pronouns may precede or follow the noun, but usually follow 
it. The interrogative pronouns precede the noun. The rela- 
tive follows the antecedent. 

The loose and unconnected structure of the Malay language 
admits of very little inversion, and consequently, of very little 
variety. A sentence to be intelligible must be short, and in 
prose composition a certain class of words is employed, of 
which the only apparent use, for they do not aid the sense, 
is like that of European punctuation, to mark paragraphs, 
sentences, and clauses of sentences. To render them, literally, by 
English synonymes is I believe impossible. They are as follow; — 
maka, already described — and, now; adapun, moreover, besides; 
arkian, so, then ; bahawa, lo ! barmula, to begin ; sabarmula, 
at first ; ^ati, pronounced luita, to, until, even ; s'ahidaan, 
witness, evidence; alkasah, in a word. The four first are 
native words. Barmula and sabarmula are Sanskrit with 
Malay prefixes. Hati and alkasah are Arabic, and s'ahidaan, 
apparently Arabic with a Malay affix. To these may, perhaps, 
be added a phrase of very frequent occurrence, tarsabutlah 
parkataan, it is said, but literally, the word or saying is pro- 
nounced. It is the combination of a Malay with a Sanskrit 



r.O A GlJAMMAll OF THE MALAY LANGUAGE. 

term. These words are not used in conversation, because the 
intonations of the voice supply their places, and in metre they 
are rendered unnecessary by lines, couplets, and rhyme. 
From the presence of this class of words, so many of 
them foreign, and from the well-known fact that verse, in 
all languages, historically precedes pi'ose, it may be suspected 
that Malayan prose composition is of comparatively modern 
origin. In Javanese, where, with the exception of epistolary 
writing and legal instruments, no prose exists, or, in other 
words, where all literature is in verse, the class of words now 
described is not found. Independent of the words thus 
mentioned, the copulative conjunction dan, and, is of very 
frequent occurrence, as in this example. Orang itu manambah 
barahla yang dipartuwamia, daripada kacha,dan tulang,dan tam- 
baga, dan timah, dan gad'ing, dan batu, dan mas, dan perak ; 
this people bows to the images which they worship, — images 
of glass, and of bone, and of copper, and of tin, and of ivory, 
and of gold, and of silver. In the course of a single page the 
particle maka alone, is pretty sure to occur some fifteen or 
twenty times. This, with the general absence of vigorous 
thought, necessarily gives to Malay prose a very monotonous 
and trivial character. 

Malay verse, on account of the stanzas and rhymes, admits 
of moi'e transposition than prose. 

Tdlah t^rbungkar sudablah sauh, 
Layar dipasaug, bad'il gamuruh. 

Wben the anchor was weighed. 

Sail was made and the cannon roared. 

Maskipun tidak, ayahna barpasS,n, 
Sapatutua, iya, beta plchrahkan. 

Although her father gave me no injunction, 
I will cherish lier suitably. 

In the first example, the nominative and auxiliary are made, 
contrary to the usual order, to follow the verb. In the second, 
the objective precedes both nominative and verb. In both 
instances the transposition is, evidently, made for the sake 
of very indifferent rhymes. 



PROSODY. 61 



PROSODY. 



The Malay language is remarkable for its softness of pro- 
nunciation. Vowels and liquids occur frequently, and as a 
general rule, no consonant coalesces with any other than a 
liquid. It is, moreover, as before mentioned, a rule of Malayan 
prosody, that no consonant can follow another without the 
intervention of a vowel, unless one of them be a liquid or a 
nasal. The only exceptions are the transitive particle kan, and 
a few foreign words, as preksa, to enquire ; saksi, a witness ; 
bakti, an obeisance, or a gift ; seksa, punishment ; pfdcsi, a bird ; 
tatkala, when, at the time that ; sabda, a command ; and asta, 
the hand ; which are all Sanskrit ; bakcha, a scrip, which is 
Telinga; and paksa, force, which is Javanese. Even in some 
of these the letter which makes the exception is usually elided 
in pronunciation, so that preksa becomes presa, and seksa 
sesa, the vowel being pronounced long as in French words 
written with a circumflex accent when the Latin sibilant is 
omitted. In softness, the Malay, indeed, even excels the Italian 
itself, to which, in this respect, it has been compared. The 
combination, for example, of an ordinary consonant with a sibilant 
not uufrequent in Italian, is inadmissable in Malay. Even a 
nasal cannot, in Malay, be made to coalesce with the sibilant. 

There exists in Malay no native words for prose, for poetry, 
or for rhyme. The word by which poetry is distinguished is the 
Arabic, s'aar, pronounced sajiir by the Malays. Malay verse 
consists, some of rhyming couplets, and some of quatrains, in 
which the alternate lines rhyme. Attempts have been made 
to discover in it the measures of Greek and Latin prosody, and 
this too, along with rhyme, but in a language so simple in its 
structure, it was hardly reasonable to look for them. A dis- 
tinction into long and short syllables, and of feet formed from 
them, is certainly altogether unknown to the Malays. The 
ear alone seems to be consulted in the construction of jNIalay 
metre, and contrary to what might have been looked for, and 



62 A GEAMMAR OF THE MALAY LANGUAGE. 

judging by the results, it has proved a very fallacious guide. 
The number of syllables in the lines is so variable, that in the 
same poem they will run, without regularity or correspondence, 
to from eight to twelve. The rhymes are singularly imperfect, 
and this is the more remarkable, since euphony is so fastidiously 
attended to in the construction of words and sentences. One 
only wonders how any people can consider as rhymes at all, 
such terminations as the Malays accept for them. Now and 
then, indeed, we have very just ones in the European accepta- 
tion, but they are only exceptions. A rhyme is considered 
good if the terminal letters be the same in the corresponding 
lines, without any reference to the sounds which precede it. 
Tartawa is a rhyme for saya ; bahasa, for muka ; jalan, for 
poun; bardabar, for gumatar; and d'iri and psirgi, for ati. 
Sometimes one nasal is considered a rhyme for another, and thus 
bandan and pandang are considered rhymes. Frequently the 
same rhyme runs without variation through several consecutive 
lines. The effect of all this, on the European ear, is, certainly, 
anything but harmonious. 

The only thing like regularity that I have been able to 
discover in Malay metre, consists in the necessity of there 
being, always, four accented syllables in each line. The follow- 
ing, with the accented syllables marked, is an example of the 
couplet, unusually regular both as to rhyme and number of 
syllables : — 

Atina Siingiit barsiiyu-sayu, 
Sapiirti dflngung barpuput bayu. 

Her heart w<as sad — sad, 

As a murmuring sound wafted by the wiiul. 

Tlie following is an example of the quatrain : — - 

Jfka tiyada kSrua biilan, 
Masakan bintang timur tingi, 
Jika tiyada kdrna tiiwan, 
Masakan dbang d-dtaug mari. 

But for the moon would the eastern star be high, 
But for you would I come hither. 

The eastern star is supposed to be attracted by the moon, 
and the lover, in like manner, by his mistress. Each line here 



MISCELLANEOUS REMAEKS. 63 

consists of nine syllables. Here is another specimen of the 
quatrain : — 

K^lu tiiwau jdlau diiulu, 
Chdrikiln sdya dtiwuu kambdja, 
Kfllu tiiwan mdti diiulu, 
Ndntikan Silya dipintu swtirga. 

If you go first, seek for me a leaf of the kamboja tree ; 
If you die first, wait for me at the gate of paradise. 

The kamboja {Plumeria obtusa) is planted in burial grounds, 
and is the cypress or yew of the Indian islanders. 



MISCELLANEOUS REilARKS. 

Some characteristics of the Malay, not yet noticed, require 
attention. It admits of the combination of two words to the 
formation of a compound. Some of the words thus formed are 
composed of native elements, some of Sanskrit, and some of both 
conjoined. Of the native compounds, the following are examples : 
— manis-mulut, eloquent, — literally, sweet-mouthed ; mulut- 
panjang, babbling, — literally, long-mouthed ; mabuk-ombak, sea- 
sick, — literally, wave-drunk ; lentang-bujur, diagonal, literally, 
long-athwart ; bulat-bujur,oval, — literally, round-long ; mata-ari, 
the sun, — literally, eye of day ; sad"ap-ati, contentment, — 
literally, gratification of heart ; ibu-tangan, the thumb, — lite- 
rally, mother of the hand; mata-kaki, the ankle, — literally, 
eye of the foot; mata-jalan, outpost, — literally, eye of the 
road ; mata-ayar, a spring, — literally, eye of water ; arang 
di muka, affront, — literally, charcoal on the face ; anak- 
kunchi, a key, — literally, child of the lock ; anak-prau, a 
mariner, — literally, child of the boat; batu-brani, the mag- 
net, — literally, potent stone; buwah-pinggang, the kidneys, 
— literally, fruit of the loins ; tampurung-lutut, the knee-pan, 
— literally, coconut-shell of the knee ; ibu-jari, the thumb, — 
literally, mother of the fingers ; anak-dayung, a rower, — literally, 
child of the oar; karatan-ati, malice, — literally, rust of the heart; 
ati-kachil, grudge, — literally, little heart; ati-basar, presump- 
tion, — literally, big heart ; ati-putih, sincerity, — literally, white 
heart. Of compounds from Sanskrit, we have such as dina-ari. 



64 A GRAMMAR OF THE MALAY LANGUAGE. 

break of day, the dawn; sukacliita, joy; silrbanika, various:, 
sundry ; dukachita, grief; maliamulya, most exalted ; ti'isula, a 
trident. Of words of mixed elements, we have mangkubumi, 
the title of a councillor, — literall}^ nursing the earth ; muka- 
papan, impudent, — literally, face of board ; ulubangsa, family, 
■ — literally, source or fountain of race ; mahabasar, most great ; 
mahatingi, most high; piinuh-sasak, crammed full; and triu- 
jung, a trident, from the Sanskrit numeral three, and the Malay 
ujung, point. 

In Malay, the figurative meanings of words flow naturally 
and obviously from the literal, and are so rarely remote from 
them that they are easily traced. In this respect, it often 
runs parallel to our own language. The following are a few 
examples : — Kapala is the head, and also a chief or headman ; 
idu is the native name for the head, kapala being Sanskrit ; and 
it is, also, upper part or upper end ; pusat is the navel, and also 
the middle; talinga is the ear or auditory organ,'aud also the 
handle of a vessel ; d'ad'a is the breast, and also the heart or 
conscience ; layar is a sail, barlayar to sail, and laj^aran sailing ; 
malu is shame, and also modesty; ati is the heart, and also the 
disposition; mui'am is gloomy, dark, and also sullen; tajam is 
sharp, and also mentally acute ; panas is warm, and also ardent ; 
masam is sour, and also crabbed ; manis is sweet, and also mild 
or gentle ; lambut is soft, and also efPeminate; lid'ah-panjang 
is long-tongued, and also babbling ; antuk is to nod or decline 
the head, and also to be drowsy ; korang-ati is almost literally 
the English word, spiritless ; mangugu is to ruminate, and also 
to muse ; and buwang is to throw, to fling, to throw away, to 
lose, to reject, and to expel, just as the word " to tlirow," in 
English, has all these meanings. 

In a few cases, the connection between the figurative and 
literal meaning of words, although, as to etymology, certain 
enough, is not quite so obvious as in the examples now given. 
Thus, from amat, very, exceedingly, comes the transitive verb 
amati, to gaze or look curiously at ; from lalu, to pass, the 
transitive verb laliii, to pass over or traverse, as also to i*esist or 
oppose ; from lalu also, the adverb tarlalu, surpassingly ; from 
patah, to break, sapatah, a bit, and also a word or part of 



MISCELLANEOUS REMARKS. Go 

speech ; from laut, the sea, malauti, to navigate ; from siku, the 
elbow, sikukan, to pinion, an operation which consists in binding 
the elbows to the arms by the sides ; from labuh, to drop or let 
dowu,barlabuh,to anchor, and labuhan,an anchorage; from jabat, 
to touch, jabatan, the touch, and also, an office or public trust ; 
from kirim, to send, kiriman, a gift, and also a charge or thing 
entrusted ; from buni, sound or noise, buni-bunian, music ; from 
ban, smell, bau-baiian, perfumes, odours ; from ingga, until, as 
far as, taringga, bounded, limited, and paringgaan, boundary, 
frontier; from alus, fine, subtle, alusi, a transitive verb, 
meaning to scan or scrutinise ; from pukul, to beat, pamukul, 
a hammer ; from d'iri, self, bard'iri, to stand erect, d'irikan 
and mandirikan, to erect or cause to stand, and tnrd-iri, erect, 
standing. 

In general, Malay words do not admit of abbreviation. 
Indeed, in a language of which the majority of primitive words 
do not exceed two syllables, there is neither room nor call for 
it. In a few instances, however, it is practised, especially in 
the oral language. Thus, for ampadal, the gizzard, we have 
often padal ; for amas, gold, mas ; for ambalau, lac, balau and 
malau ; for arin|j,an, light, not heavy, ringan ; for arimau, a 
tiger, rimau ; for ama, mother, ma ; for ayun-ayunan, a cradle, 
yun-yunan ; for ampalam, a mango, palam ; for ambachang, 
the fetid mango, bachang; for ampuna, to own, puna; for 
ambun, dew, bun; for aram, to brood or hatch, ram; for uwang, 
money, wang ; for uwa, uncle, wa ; for iyu, a shark, yu ; for igu, 
a yoke, gu, and for tiyada, no, tada and ta. 

A singular kind of variety is found in some words apparently 
synonyraes, and which, I think, cannot be attributed to their 
being derived from different dialects, or to variations of ortho- 
graphy. The iguana lizard is, with equal correctness, bewak 
and biyawak; top or sixmmit is pochak, puchak, puchuk, mar- 
chuk and kamuchak; tumult is aru-ara, aru-biru, and uru-ara; 
a ladle is send'uk, sund'uk, chid'uk, and chund-uk; to gush 
or spout, is lanchur, panchur, panchar, chuchur, manchar and 
sambur ; to tear or rend is charek, chabek, and subek ; to rub 
is gosok, gesek, and gonoh ; to swarm or crowd round is 
krubung, krumun, and rumung; to tread or tramp is pijak. 



66 A GRAMMAR OF THE MALAY LANGUAGE. 

jijak, injak, and irik; to water or irrigate is dirus, jurus, and 
irus ; to fall or tumble is rdbali, ribah, and rubah ; thin or 
tenuous is nipis, tipis, mipis, and mimpis, and the negative 
adverb no is tiyadak, tiyada, tida, tada, and ta. Abbreviation 
will account for some of these cases, and the commutation of 
consonants for others ; but the majority cannot be so explained, 
and perhaps we may conclude that the latitude and mutability 
which belong to Malay etymology characterise also, to some 
degree, its pronunciation. 

The great advantage of the Malay, as a language of general 
use, consists in the easiness of its pronunciation, and its freedom 
from inflexions. It resembles, in this respect, one of the 
ancient and complex languages of Europe or Asia, broken 
down to a modern one by being stripped of inflexions. There is 
assuredly, however, no evideuce to show that such a process 
ever took place with it ; and certainly there is no known 
language of complex structure to which, as a parent, it can be 
traced. From this simple character of the language, a com- 
petent knowledge of it, for the ordinary afi'airs of life, is readily 
acquired by strangers. It is this facility of acquisition, aided 
by the enterprising, or perhaps the roving character of the 
nation of which it is the vernacular tongue, that has given 
it so wide a currency, and made it the common medium of 
intercoui'se, for many centuries, from Sumatra to the Philip- 
pines, and from the peninsula to Java and Timur. We may 
be tolerably sure that a language of complex structure and 
difficult pronunciation would never have acquired so wide a 
diff'usion. 

The defects of tbe Malay are those which are incident to the 
language of a people whose ideas are circumscribed, and whose 
advancement in social improvement, although not inconsider- 
able, falls far short of that of the principal nations of continental 
Asia, But, besides this cause for poverty of language, there is 
another cogent one. The race that speaks the Malay has never 
exhibited any original power of vigorous thought, such as has 
been displayed by nations, even in a ruder state of society. Yet 
it would not, I think, be easy to demonstrate, that for the 
development and maturing of a vigorous civilisation, the 



MISCELLANEOUS REMARKS. 67 

Indian islands, in so far as fertility, natural productions, and 
facility of intercommunication are concerned, are inferior to 
the islands and shores of the Mediterranean, had they been 
occupied by a race of equal intellectual endowment with the 
inhabitants of the latter. 

The Malay is very deficient in abstract words ; and the usual 
train of ideas of the people who speak it does not lead them to 
make a frequent use, even of the few they possess. With respect 
to material objects, indeed, there is a kind of abstraction or 
generalisation practised, which results more from the poverty 
than the fullness of the language. A number of objects are 
classed under one head, the name of the class being taken from 
the most conspicuous or familiar individual belonging to it, which 
becomes, in fact, the type of the family. This, in a rude way, 
resembles the process pursued by European naturalists in the 
classification of objects. Many examples of this occur. The 
word ubi is a yam or dioscorea, but under it, with epithets to 
characterise them, are classed several species of dioscorea, a 
solanum, a convolvulus, an ocymum, and, in a word, any tuberous 
esculent root. Lada, a generic name for pepper, seemingly de- 
rived from the common black pepper, is applied, with distinctive 
epithets, to many plants used as food having an aromatic and 
biting quality. Jaruk is a generic term for the citron family ; and 
the word, with an epithet for each, is equally applied to the citron, 
the orange, the lemon, the shaddock, and the lime. Arimau, or 
rimau, is the royal tiger, but applied, with an epithet, to all the 
feline animals of a large size. The Malay name for a rat is 
tikus, but it is equally so for a mouse, for there are no separate 
popular names to distinguish these familiar objects, except the 
epithets large and small. Ular is the sole name for a snake or 
serpent, but under this generic term are included probably 
fifty species, each with its epithet or trivial name. Simgai is a 
river, but applies equally to a brook or a streamlet ; and I am 
not aware that any river in any Malay country has a specific 
name. Rivers go by the name of the chief countries they pass 
by or through, as Sungai-Siyak, the river of Slack ; Suugai- 
Indragiri, the river of Indragiri. Thus one river may have 
many names. Batu, a stone, is at once a stone, a rock, a pebble, 



68 A GRAMMAR OP' THE MALAY LANGUAGE. 

or a gem. For gold, for silver, for tin, for iron, we have native 
names; but there is no word in Malay for metal or mineral. 
The names bestowed on metals introduced to the knowledge of 
the islanders by strangers show the principle on which such 
names are given. Tambaga, a word of Sanskrit origin, is 
copper, and tambaga-puti is zinc ; tiraah is tin, and timah-itam 
is lead; the first-mentioned word meaning, literally, "white 
copper," and the last " black tin." The word bulu expresses 
alike hair, feather, quill, or down. The word piiun, a tree, is 
equally a shrub or any large plant. For herbs or smaller plants 
the only words to describe them, as a class, are romput, grass, 
and dawun, a leaf. There is but one word, kulit, to express 
skin, pelt, leather, husk, shell, rind, bark ; and but one word, 
buwah, for fruit, berry, apple, and nut. Tliere is no word for 
corn, except biji, seed, and that is Sanskrit. In the names of 
particular colours the Malay is even copious; but the generic 
word colour, warna, is Sanskrit, and there is no native one. 
For show or external appearance the only word is rupa, and it 
is Sanskrit. In a higher class of abstractions most of the words 
are taken from the Sanskrit and a few from the Arabic, as from 
the first, manah, the mind ; budi, the understanding ; chita 
and rasa, perception ; kala, masa, kutika, bila, time ; usya and 
dewasa, age, life; baliya, puberty; chandra, date ; maya, illu- 
sion ; loka, region, place ; bala, the people ; and manusya, 
mankind. 

We may contrast with the poverty now described, the copious- 
ness, — even the redundancy, which prevails when ideas are 
described in concrete. Although there be no specific distinct 
terms for the generic words tree and herb, the parts of a tree or 
plant are given with competent minuteness, as urat, a root 
fibre; akar, the root; pardu, the crown of a tree; taugkai, 
stalk or haulm ; batang and tunggal, stock or trunk ; chabang, 
a branch ; daan and taruk, a twig ; tukul, tunas, and gagang, a 
shoot or sprout; dawun, a leaf; bunga and kam])ang, a flower 
or ])lossom ; kutub and kinchub, a flower-bud ; buwah, fruit. 
Most of these words are often used in a figurative sense through- 
out the language. As to specific plants, independent of those 
that are classed, as already described, the Malay vocabulary is 



MlSCELLAiSEoUS REMARKS. 69 

very copious. Other departmeuts of tlie language are equally 
so, after the same fashion. Thus, although the same generic 
word, which expresses sound, namely, buiii, means also music 
and purport or contents of a writing, the words for modifications 
of sound are as numerous as in English. Gagar and gampar 
are to clamour; ingar is to brawl; darang is to tinkle or clink; 
gamaratak is to clash or clatter ; gamantam is to make the 
noise of footsteps ; gamarchek is to make the sound of plumping 
in water; gamuruh is to peal; gampita and daram are, to sound 
like thunder or to rattle ; surak and tumpik, are to shout ; arib is, 
to scream ; makeh, to shriek ; saru to bawl ; rawung, to howl ; 
salak, to bark or bay ; tanguh, to roar as a tiger ; daru, to roar 
as the sea; tariyak, to roar or vociferate; dilrung, to buzz or 
sound heavy and low ; saring, to hum as a bee ; kuku, kluru, 
and karuwiyak, to crow ; miyung, to mew as a cat ; dangkur, to 
snore ; dring and grung, to growl ; truk, to sound as in tearing 
or rending. The river, the favourite and familiar locality of the 
Malay nation, affords room for a curious variety of expression. 
Kuwala and muwara are the mouth or embouchure, and ulu is 
the source ; ilir is to move with the stream or descend a river, 
and mud-ik is to go against the stream or ascend it ; taluk is a 
cove or bight, and rantau is a reach ; tabing is a river-bank, 
and taling is a shelving river-bank or sea-shore; sabrang is to 
cross the water ; lubuk is a deep pool in a river, and chagar is a 
rapid. The words ilir and mud-ik, to ascend and descend the 
stream, are used for the seaboard and the interior of a country. 
In consequence of the residence of the Malays being always on 
the banks of rivers, the words rantau, a reach, and taluk, a cove, 
mean also a district or subdivision of a country ; and anak- 
sungai, literally, offspring of the river, has the same meaning. 
The verb bawa means to bear or carry ; but besides this ge- 
neric term, the Malay has a particular word describing the 
manner in which the act of carrying is performed, as pikul and 
angkut, to carry on the back; kapit, to carry under the arm; 
dukung and jalang, to carry over the hip; tatang, to carry on 
the palms of the hands ; kandung, to carry over the waist ; 
usung, to carry between two, or move with the help of a pole ; 
gendong, to carry by a sling. 



70 A GRAMMAR OF THE MALAY LANGUAGE. 

The Malay possesses oue of the advantages of our own 
tongue, — that of not being confined to one language for its 
words. On the contrary, it has three main sources to draw 
upon, — the native, the Sanskrit, and the Arabic ; and they are 
availed of, and sometimes, I imagine, abused, for a foreign 
synonyme is often, tautologically, added to a native one or to 
another foreign word. Thus, for the verb to think or cogitate, 
we have two native words, sangka and kera; two Sanskrit ones, 
chita and rasa ; and one Arabic, fakar, corrupted pikir. Of 
such synonymes, two or three will frequently follow each other, 
by way of giving strength to the expression, while, in truth, 
they only dilute it. 



IDIOMS. 

The Malay has not, like the Javanese, a distinct ceremonial 
language. There are, however, five words said to be especially 
appropriated to royal personages, — viz., anda, santap, adu, titah, 
and sabda. Anda is an inseparable honorary affix, and may 
perhaps be translated illustrious or distinguished. Thus, ayah 
is father ; mama, mother ; and anak, son or daughter, which, 
when applied to royal personages, become ayahanda, mamanda, 
and anakanda, — the latter sometimes abbreviated anakda. 
Santiip is to eat, substituted for the ordinary word makan ; adu 
is to sleep, for tidor ; and titah and sabda, to command, for 
suruh. The chief distinction in relation to the condition of 
parties consists in the use of the personal pronouns. Persons 
of high rank, in addressing inferiors, use the plural pronoun of 
the first person, and the ordinary one of the second person; 
but in addressing equals or superiors, the pronouns of the first 
person made use of are those equivalent to slave or servant, 
as beta, saya, or amba, or the phrase amba-tuwan, my lord^s 
servant. To the party addressed, such party being an equal or 
superior, the pronouns of the second person are never used; 
but in lieu of them, tuwan, master, or tuwan-amba, master of 
the servant, or slave. The terms of relationship are also fre- 
quently substituted for the pronouns, as ad-ik, younger brother 
or sister; abang, elder brother; and kaka, elder brother or 



IDIOMS. 71 

sister ; ayah and ayahanda, father ; ma or mamauda, mother ; 
and uwakj uncle. D*iri, self, is also used politely for the 
pronoun of the second person, and d'iri-amba, the servant 
or slave's self, for that of the first. 

In naming most natural objects, it is the practice of the 
Malay language to place before them the name of the class to 
which they belong, — a matter, indeed, indispensable in the 
great majority of cases, as the specific term forms but part of a 
compound word along with another, being either an epithet, or 
a noun in the possessive case governed by it. Thus, for example, 
Gunung-brama, the name of a mountain in Java, means moun- 
tain of Brama, or of fire ; Pulau-tinggi, the name of an island 
between the peninsida and Borneo, high island ; kayu-jati, the 
teak-tree, or the genuine wood; and ular-tud*ung, the hooded 
snake. On this principle, all stones and gems have the word batu, 
a stone, prefixed to them ; hills and mountains, the words bukit 
or gunung ; rivers, sungai ; islets, pulau ; large countries, 
tanah, laud, and the greatest, banuwa, or region; headlands, 
tanjung; trees, poun, pokok, or kayu ; herbs, dawan, — litei'ally, 
leaf; flowers, bunga; fruits, buwah ; birds, ayam, burung, or 
manuk ; fishes, ikan ; and snakes, ular. It is in a similar way 
that are formed most of the designations of persons exercising 
crafts and professions. Before the word describing the object 
on which the skill of the party is exercised is placed tukang, juru, 
and sometimes pand'ai, which may be rendered, artist, artisan, 
or master. In this manner tukang-bata, literally, artist of brick, 
is a bricklayer; juru-taman, artist of the garden, is a gardener; 
tukang-basi, artificer of iron, a blacksmith ; pand-ai-mas, artificer 
of gold, a goldsmith; juru-tulis, a master of writing, a scribe. 
The idioms connected with number and gender have been 
already mentioned. Upon the whole, it may be said of the 
Malay that it neither abounds in idioms or figurative language ; 
but that, on the contrary, its genius is plain, simple, and literal. 
The few tropes which it uses are parcel of the language long 
established, and which, from familiarity, are unnoticed as such 
by the parties using them. 



72 A GRAMMAR OF THE MALAY LANGUAGE. 



HISTOEY OF THE LANGUAGE. 

The Malays have no records of the history of their language, 
— no ancient inscriptions, — no ancient manuscripts. The 
written language seems, for some centuries, to have undergone 
little change. A few words only, chiefly to be found in their 
collections of customary law, have become obsolete, and most 
probably were never popular. This is the only discoverable 
change, except, of course, the introduction of a portion of 
Sanskrit and Talugu, at a remote and unascertained epoch, and 
of Arabic, Persian, and Portuguese, in comparatively recent 
and known times. Even the oral language differs less than 
might have been expected, considering the wide dispersion and 
long separation of many members of the Malay nation. It is 
not here, as with the Irish and Scots Highlanders, on one side, 
or with the Welsh and Armoricans on another, who, although 
respectively speakiug essentially the same languages, cannot, 
without some time and study, understand one another. The 
Malays of Sumatra, of the peninsula, of the Moluccas, of 
Timur, and of Borneo, understand each other with little 
effort. 

The Malays, as already said, have neither ancient manuscripts 
nor ancient inscriptions. The earliest example of Malay that we 
possess is the vocabulary of Pigafetta, collected in the Philippines, 
Borneo, and the Moluccas, in the year 1521, during the first 
voyage round the world. Out of its 344 words, 270 can, notwith- 
standing the writer^s imperfect knowledge of the language, and 
grievous errors of orthography, transcription, or printing, be 
readily ascertained to be the same language which is spoken at 
the present day, with its due admixture, as now, of Sanskrit, 
Arabic, Persian, and Talugu.* This stationary character of 
the language is, of course, owing to the small progress which 

* Sc^nibahayaug, worsliip, or adoration, is written, zambaheau; jurutulia, a 
scribe, chiritoen ; saudagar, a mercliant, landagari ; baear, great, bassal ; kurus, 
lean, golos; and arimau, a tiger, luiman. 



HISTORY UF THE LANGUAGE. 73 

the people who speak it have made in civilisation^ in a period 
exceeding three centuries. Dr. Johnson, in the celebrated 
preface to his Dictionary, observes, that " the language most 
likely to continue long without alteration would be that of a 
nation raised a little, and but a little, above barbarity, secluded 
from strangers, and totally employed in procuring the con- 
veniences of life; either without books, or like some of the 
Mahometan nations, with very few.'' This description cer- 
tainly, in a great degree, apphes to the Malay. 

That great changes, however, have taken place in the Malay 
language, in the course of many ages, is certain. A time, with- 
out doubt, was when it contained no extra-insular languages ; 
and now it contains a considerable body of these. I have run 
over the Dictionary, and find in it 516 words of Sanskrit, 750 
of Arabic, 95 of Persian, 40 of Talugu or Telinga, and 37 of 
Portuguese. The Sanskrit words, although less numerous than 
the Arabic, are more essential and more thoroughly incorpo- 
rated with the language. We find, for example, among them 
and in every-day use, such words as kapala, the head ; bahu, the 
shoulder; muka, the face; jangga, the throat; kuda, ahorse; 
madu, honey; saudara, brother; kata, to speak; lata, to crawl; 
panuh, full ; sfirta, with ; and sama, equal or same. The pro- 
nunciation of Sanskrit being also more congenial to native 
organs than that of Arabic, the words borrowed from it, 
although their introduction be of greater antiquity, are less mu- 
tilated than those adopted from the latter. There is hardly any 
sound expressed by the Dewanagri alphabet that a Malay cannot 
pronounce, while of the Arabic, there are no fewer than four- 
teen which he can only ape at pronouncing. Sanskrit words, 
however, are far from being introduced in a perfect form, either 
as to sound or sense. Thus, tamraka, copper, in Sanskrit, is in 
Malay tambaga; karpasa, cotton, kapas; and Janardana, a 
name of the god Krishna, Danfirdana. Gopal, a cowherd, is 
variously pronounced gabala, garabala, gambala, kabala, and 
has the different senses of a tender of cattle, its proper sense, a 
charioteer, and an elephant-driver. Sutra, in Sanskrit, is thread, 
but in Malay silk; and kapala, the scalp, in Sanskrit, is in 
Malav, the head. Of the time when, or the manner in which, 



74 A GRAMMAR OF THE MALAY LANGUAGE. 

Sanskrit was introduced into their language, the Malays are 
wholly ignorant. The fact, indeed, of its existence at all, as an 
element of their tongue, is only known to a few of them, 
through Europeans. Some remarks on the subject will be 
found in the Dissertation. 

The Arabic words used in the Avritten language are such as I 
have before described them ; but, in fact, any number may be 
introduced at the will or caprice of the writer, with the cer- 
tainty, however, that most of them will not be understood by 
the general reader, — and often, indeed, not even by the writer 
himself. The same thing is well known to be done in Persian 
and Turkish, as Sir William Jones long ago observed, — and, 
indeed, was done by ourselves with Latin, some three centuries 
ago. But the actual number of Arabic words incorporated in 
the Malay, and in popular use, is very trifling, and probably 
does not exceed forty or fifty. No composition, whether prose 
or verse, if of any length, exists without some admixture ot 
Arabic, in which, however, the INIalay only resembles the Persian 
and Turkish languages. 

The Persian words most probably found their way into Malay 
along with the Arabic, and this necessarily leads to the belief 
that some, at least, of the adventurers, who, themselves or their 
descendants, propagated the Mahomedan religion in the islands, 
came from the shores of the Persian gulf, a locality where both 
the Arabic and Persian languages are spoken. At all events, they 
are of considerable standing, for I find them in the vocabulary 
of Pigafetta. A few of them are of popular use, as kawin, 
marriage, and piilita, a lamp ; but none of them are essential. 
Of Telinga or Talugu words, which are most frequently com- 
mercial terms, traces are also to be found in Pigafetta's collec- 
tion. The Portuguese words admitted into Malay mostly 
express new ideas, and the softness of the language has allowed 
of their ready adoption ; for it may be remarked that the sounds 
of the southern languages of Europe approach far more nearly 
to those of Malay than those of any of the three Asiatic ones 
found in it. The first introduction of Portuguese words is 
readily determined to the beginning of the sixteenth century. 
The number of them which has been naturalised has probably 



DlALEGTSc 75 

arisen^ more from the number of Catholic converts which the 
Portuguese made, than from their own short-lived supremacy. 



The dialects of the oral Malay, — for there are none of the 
written language, although considerable difference in the skill 
with which it is composed, — consist in little more than the use 
of different personal pronouns by different parties, — of a few 
words by some tribes unknown to, or obsolete with others, — in an 
occasional admixture of words of neighbouring languages ; but, 
above all, in variations of pronunciation. Saya, for the pronoun 
of the first person, is current among the northern Malays of the 
western coast of the Malay peninsula. Kula is confined to the 
state of Patani, and guwa belongs to the Malay of Java. Ang, 
for the pronoun of the second person, is only heard among the 
Malays of Queda and Perak, and lu is chiefly confined to Java. 
The Malay of Menangkabau, the assumed parent country of the 
Malay nation, would seem to differ most in its words from the 
language of the other tribes. In a short vocabulary of it, pub- 
lished in 1820, in the Malayan Miscellanies, under the auspices 
of Sir Stamford Raffles, I find at least forty words not known 
to any other dialect that has come under my notice. The 
Malays of Menangkabau, and those of the western coast of 
Sumatra, pronounce the terminal and unaccented vowel of a 
word as o, which all other Malays, except those of Ptumbo, in 
the interior of the peninsula, who trace their origin direct to 
Menangkabau, pronounce as a. Some tribes, particularly those 
of the peninsula, always elide the letter k at the end of a word, 
and in the middle of one also, if it be followed by a consonant, 
not being a liquid or a nasal, while others give it always its full 
pronunciation. The Malays of Perak and Queda, in the penin- 
sula, and those of Menangkabau, give the letter r the sound of 
a guttural, as the Northumbrian peasantry do with us. The 
Malays of the state of Borneo often change the a of the other 
tribes into a, as basar into basar ; and those of the eastern coast 
of Sumatra add an n to words ending in i, as inin for ini, this. 



76 A GRAMMAR OF THE MALAY LANGUAGE. 

and sinin for sini, here. None of these varisvtions are important, 
and yet they have a material effect on the pronunciation until 
the ear becomes accustomed to them. The Malay spoken in 
Batavia is that which is most mixed up with words of neigh- 
bouring languages, having admitted many of Javanese, and 
especially of Sunda, the language of the aboriginal inhabitants 
of the country. It may be considered the most impure Malay, 
whereas the least so, pi'obably because the least amenable to 
foreign admixture, is the Malay of the peninsula, especially that 
spoken in Queda and Perak, — there existing here no foreign 
tongue to corrupt it. The Malay of Amboyna, written in Roman 
letters, has, under the care of the Dutch, it is said, received a 
large share of culture. 



LITERATURE. 

Malay literature, besides the pantuns or riddles already 
mentioned, consists of romances in prose and in verse, called 
by the Sanskrit name of charitra, or the Arabic one of /iakayat, 
meaning narrative, tale, or storj-. They differ from each other 
only in the mere metre and rhjnues of those in verse. In 
force, originality, and ingenuity, these compositions are far 
below the similar productions of the Arabians, the Persians, or 
even of the Hindus. The Dutch grainmarian Werndly, the 
father of Malayan philology, in his most judicious Grammar, 
has a list of some seventy such works, and the catalogue might 
easily be increased. Their subjects are taken, some from native, 
some from Javanese, and some from Arabian story, with usually, 
an admixture of Hindu fable. None of them are genuine 
translations from foreign languages, for it may safely be asserted 
that the Malays do not possess knowledge, diligence or fidelity 
equal to the accomplishment of a faithful translation ; indeed, 
they do not even aim at it. The story and machinery are often 
borrowed from foreign sources ; but this is all that can be safely 
said. Whenever real events are treated of, they are sure to be 
transmuted into extravagant and incredible fictions. There is 
no date to any Malay work, and there is no known Malay 



LITER ATUKR. 77 

author. All Malay literature, down to the present day, 
resembles, in this respect, the ancient anonymous ballads of 
European nations. It would seem as if no Malay possessing a 
knowledge of letters had ever written much better than another, 
that no man had ever arisen in the nation whose literary capa- 
city Avas worth distinguishing among the herd of professional 
scribes, — and that literature was, in fact, but a mechanical 
art, which any tolerably-instructed manipulist might practise. 
At the end of a work, we sometimes find the name of a writer 
and a date ; but they turn out, on examination, to be only 
those of the transcriber, and of the day and year in which 
he achieved the task of transcription. The principal value of 
Malay literature consists in its being a faithful expression of 
the mind, manners, and social condition of the people among 
whom it fiuds acceptance. With the exception of religious 
books, its sole purpose is amusement, and it seldom or ever, 
even aims at instruction. In the beginning of a certain tale, 
taken from the Javanese, and which abounds in Javanese 
and Hindu fictions, the reader is discreetly cautioned not to 
believe them, as they are "most exceedingly lying," in the 
original, "amat sakali dust'a,^' but to "remember God and 
the Prophet." 

It is not the general characteristic of Malay composition to 
be figurative; but tropes and similes are, notwithstanding, of 
frequent occm'rence. Such metaphorical expressions are not 
the creations of the writer's imagination, and suited to the 
occasion. They are, on the contrary, set forms, which, with 
little difference, are repeated in the same work, and copied 
from one work into another. Even the fable itself bears a near 
resemblance in all Malay romances ; and therefore, when we 
have read one romance, we may be said, in a good measure, to 
have read all. 

With the exception of the stanzas and rhj'^me, Malay metre 
does not essentially differ from prose, either as to subject or 
treatment ; and there is no language, a very few words excepted, 
appropriated to poetry. Verse has, however, one advantage 
over prose, — the absence in it of those perpetually recurring 
connective particles which the loose texture of Malay renders 



78 A GRAMMAR OF THE MALAY LANGUAGE. 

necessary in prose, and which lines and rhymes enable poetry 
to dispense with. 

The following are examples of the similes so frequent in 
Malay, both prose and verse : — Maka masing-masing pun nayik 
kaatas kudana, lain barjalan, diiringkan sagala paraputra, 
dan kadayan sakali'an biiriring-iringan sapurti bunga kambang 
sataman; eacli mounted his horse, and they proceeded, princes 
and dependents following in a train, like one flower-garden. 
Singa Marjaya pun baramboran ayarmataiia tiyada dapat dita- 
hanifia lagi, sapurti mutiyara yang putus dari karangiia ; dama- 
kiyan rupana; Singa Marjaya, no longer able to restrain them, 
shed tears, like pearls dropped from their string, — such was his 
appearance. Maka Sri Panji masuk prang saraya tarjun dari- 
atas kudaiia mangamuk sapurti singa yang tiyada mambilang- 
kan lawanna ; Sri Panji entered the battle, and leaping from 
his horse, charged like a lion that counts not its enemies. 
Tarlalu mardu suwaraiia sapurti buluh parindii ditiyup angin, 
tatkala diuaari; her voice was melodious as the Eolian bamboo 
blown upon by the wind at early dawn. Maka iyapun barjalanlah, 
kaduwaila, saraya mangunuskan krisila, sarta dilambaikan bar- 
iiala-nala kamukaiia, — sikapna tiyada barlawan^ sapurti Sang 
Diirma Dewa tatkala turun dari kayangan, damakiyan rupana ; 
they both walked forth, drawing their krisses and brandishing 
them before them, flaming, — their forms unrivalled, like the 
God Indra when descending from the heavens. INIisa Tandu- 
ramanpun tarlalulah niarahna sapurti ular barbalut-balut lakuna, 
ulih didapatkan Adipati samuwaiia itu ; Misa Tanduramau was 
furious as a coiled snake, when he found that the Adipati had 
discovered all. Tunggal, panji-pauji barkibaranlah, ditiyup 
angin, sapurti bunga lalang rupaiia, dan orang, gajah, kuda 
dan pad-ati ssipurti ombak mangalun; flags and banners 
waved, blown by the wind, like the flowers of the lalang 
grass, and men, elephants, horses, and chariots, rolled on 
like the waves of the sea. Maka tubuhna barpaluhkan, maka 
sinar tanglung, diyan dan palita sapurti ban bunga mawar 
tatkala panuh dangan Timbun yang kana sinar mata-ari pagi- 
pagi ; her person perspired, and by the rays from the lamps 
and the hanging lamps, and the tapers, emitted a perfume 



LITERATURE. 79 

like that of a rose full of dew, when struck by the rays of the 
morning sun. INIaka d'atanglah pada tiga ari palayaran, kalia- 
tanlah kapal itu sapurti bunga tabor rupaiia didalara bajanah ; 
after three days^ sail, their ships came in sight, appearing like 
scattered flowers in a vase. Maka tirai diwangga, itupun 
disuruh dibukakan, maka barsrilah rupa tuwan putri parmaisuri 
Indra, laksana bulan purnama didalam awan, barjantra pada 
antara tampatiia, dan bintangpun panuh mamagari diya; the 
silken curtains, by command, were drawn, and the wicket being 
thrown open, the princess of Indra shone like the full moon 
among the clouds wheeling in her place, with innumerable 
stars forming a fence around her. 

Maka ulubalangpun bSrlompatan, 
Sapurti arimau lapas tangkapan. 
The warriors bounded, 
Like a tiger escaping from a snare. 

Maka bagandapun tarlalulah sukachita, 

Sapurti kajatuhan bulan pada rasafia. 

The king rejoiced exceedingly ; 

He felt as if the moon had dropped dovni to him. 

Kita ini ada saumpama biinang putih, barang yang andak 
diwarnakan, ulih raja Malaka, itu jadilah, akau kitapun dama- 
kiyanlah ; we are like a white thread which the king of Malacca 
desires to dye, — so are we. Adapnn nagi-i Achih dangan nagri 
Malaka itu, saumpama suwata parmata duwa chahayaiia; the 
kingdom of Achin and the kingdom of Malacca are like one gem 
of two waters. Maka kut'a kali'atanlah dari jaiih, tard"anarlah 
tS,mpekna, sapurti kapas sudah tarbusor, dan sarpurti perak 
yang sudah tarupam ; the fortress was seen at a distance, — the 
shouts from it, like the noise of cotton under the bow, or of 
silver in the act of burnishing. Talah ganap bulanila, maka 
parmaisuripun baranaklah laki-laki, tarlalu bayik parasna 
sapurti anak-anakan kanchana, putih-kuning sapurti mas tam- 
pawan ; when her months were full, the queen brought forth a 
son, beautiful as a golden image, bright yellow like beaten gold. 
Sagala bunga-bungaan barkambanganlah sapurti barsambahkan 
bauna pada Radeu Galuh; all the flowers expanded their 



80 A GRAMMAR OF THE MALAY LANGUAGE. 

blossoms, as if to present their sweets as an offering to the 
princess of Galuh. Maka Raden Inupun barjalanlah dangan 
kris pendek mas, uluna manikam ijau, bibirna merah mudah, 
gigina itam, sapurti sayap kumbang; tlie prince Ina walked 
forth with his short golden kris, its hilt of green gems, — his 
lips of a pale red, his teeth black as the wing of the gigantic 
bee. Maka Maharana Langkawipun kluwar sapurti bulan par- 
nama pada ampatblas ari bulan, tatkala iya tfirbiyat dari tinggi 
laut itu ; Maharana Langkawi came forth, like the full moon in 
its fourteenth day, as it issues from the deep. 

Malay romance aljounds in the marvellous. It has the extra- 
vagance of the Arabian Nights Entertainments, without their 
ingenuity, fancy, or human interest. It abounds in enchant- 
ments, spells, supernatural gifts, maledictions, and transforma- 
tions, mostly borrowed from the mythic legends of the Hindus, 
or the local legends of Java. The main topics are love, war, 
feasting, and drinking. The following is a brief example of the 
style of composition. A princess expelled from her fathei-'s 
house wanders in a forest in quest of a forbidden lover : — Maka 
tuwan putri bongsu itu manangis tarlalu sangat, maka lain iya 
barjalan dangan lapar daagaiia. Maka aripun malaralah, maka 
tuwan putri, baranti tidorlah di tanah, dangan latch lasuhna, 
barbantalkan langanna. Maka sagala banatang didalara utan 
itupun, tarlalulah kasihan mamandangkan /<alna tuwan putri 
itu. Maka tatkala tuwan putri itu baradu, maka stkgala bana- 
tangpunbarkawal, dan bintang di langit bartaboraulah mauuluh 
akan baradu itu. Maka ambunpun gugurlah sapurti ayar-mata 
orang manangis maliatkan tuwan putri ita. The princess wept 
excessively, and, hungry and thirst}^, pursued her journe3^ Night 
came on ; she halted, and, fatigued and exhausted, she slept on 
the bare earth, making her arm her pillow. The beasts of the 
forest pitied her condition, and as she slept they guai'ded her. 
The stars of heaven, too, scattered themselves about, as if to 
make torches for her, and the dew dropped down like human 
tears at seeing her plight. 

Every great feast in a Malay romance is represented as 
ending in a drinking bout; and the following is a bteral trans- 
lation of one of these: — "The nobles, the warriors, and tlie elders 



LITERATURE. 81 

all drank, pledging each other jovially. The minstrels, with 
sweet voices, sang and played, and those who were love-stricken 
rose and danced, shouting, clapping their hands, and rejoicing 
their hearts. All who partook of the wine became exceedingly 
intoxicated. Some danced furiously, — some were in such a 
condition as not to be able to recognise wives or children, wliile 
others, unable to return to their homes, slept on the spot where 
they had eat and drank.^^ This statement, it should be added, 
is taken from a story which refers to events which were cotem- 
porary with the arrival of the Portuguese in the waters of tlie 
Archipelago, in the beginning of the sixteenth century, or 
above two hundred years after the conversion of the Malays 
of Malacca, to whom the narrative relates, to the Mahomedan 
religion. 

Pleonasm, or more justly tautology, is a frequent figure in 
Malay composition. Generally, the object is to strengthen, 
while, in reality, it weakens the sense. In verse, it is frequently 
practised merely to complete a metre or secure a rhyme ; and 
it seems often used in ignorance, or for an useless display of 
acquaintance with foreign or infrequent words. When words 
are employed in this way, they often form a compound. Mteh- 
lasuh is composed of two words, both meaning weary; rindu- 
dandam of two words, meaning equally, longing, pining for; 
champur-bawur of two words, meaning alike, mingled. Pri is 
the native word for state or condition, and /ml the Arabic, 
making the compound pri-Aal. Asal and parmulaan are, the 
first an Arabic, and the last a Sanskrit word, both meaning 
beginning, although we frequently find them combined, as 
a«al-parmulaan. Amba-saya is composed of two native words 
for slave, and marga-satwa of two Sanskrit ones, for wild 
beast ; but in these two last examples the compound words, it 
should be noticed, form a kind of plural. Tipu-daya is composed 
of two words, equally meaning trick or stratagem, and chita- 
rasa of two Sanskrit ones, equally importing, thought ; tarlalu- 
amat is composed of two native adverbs, meaning very, 
exceedingly; and buni-bahana is composed of a native and a 
Sanskrit word, synonymes for sound or noise. Sarta-dangan 
and sama-dangan are prepositions, meaning with, or along with. 



82 A GllAMMAli OF THE MALAY LANGUAGE. 

of which the first word, in both cases, is Sanskrit, and the last 
native, with the same meanings. The Sanskrit word sarwa, all, 
is almost invariably accompanied by sakalian, also from the 
Sanskrit, although the sense be the same. In the third line of 
the following stanza, buni and suwara are, the first a native, and 
the second a Sanskrit synonyme for sound, and in the fourth 
the tliree last words are synonymcs for wisdom or discretion ; 
the first of them Arabic, and the two last Sanskrit. 



Dura mdmitik kachapiua sigra, 
Sambil bargurandam abarat maugambara, 
Maiiis m^rdu buiii-suwara, 
Mangilangkan ahal, budi, bachara. 

Dura touched her lyre, 

Singing the pilgrim's song; 

Sweet and melodious was the sound, 

Banishing discretion. 



The pantun is, even among the islanders of the Arcliipelago, 
peculiar to the Malays. It is a quatrain stanza, in which the 
alternate lines rhyme, or in which all the lines rhyme together. 
The two first lines contain an assertion or proposition, while 
the two last purport to be an appUcation of it. It is, in 
fact, an enigma or riddle in four lines ; but the application 
must not be obvious. On the contrary, a certain obscurity 
is the soul of the pantun. It is a puzzle in sense, not a 
play on words, meant to try the wit and ingenuity of the party 
that is challenged to unravel it. Pantuns are frequently intro- 
duced into prose romances as embellishments, and on such 
occasions, it is not unusual to find the persons to whom they 
are represented as being read, unable to unriddle them, and 
calling for an explanation from the astute propounder of the 
mystery. Some of them, indeed, are so enigmatical that they 
might serve as oracles coming from the priestess of the Pythian 
Apollo. No doubt they may be more intelligible to a native, 
from superior knowledge of language and manners ; but to 
an European the majority of them seem but senseless and 
pointless parcels of mere words. The following are a few more 



LITERATURE. 83 

examples, in addition to those already given under the head of 
Prosody : — 

Nobiit barbuiii diniiari, — 
Nobat raja ludragiri ; 
S'arbat ini bukan xTali,, 
Akdn ubat ati biralii. 

The war drum annouuces the dawn,— 
The war drum of the kiug of ludragiri ; 
This wiue is not iutox-icating, 
But a remedy for the love-sick heart. 

This is put into the mouth of a handmaid presenting a cup 
of strong drink to a king and queen. 

Parmatu nila dangan baiduri, 
Dikarang anak-d'ara-d'ara, 
Sapurti bulan dangAu matiiari, 
Tuwan diadap pilrwara. 

The sapphire with the opal, arranged by the virgins, 

As the sun with the moon, 

So is my lord and mistress, 

With their handmaids before them. 

This is also given to a handmaid singing before a king and 
queen. Some of the pantuns are obvious and easy enough as 
to mere words ; but the sense, if there be any, is too occult ioi- 
an European to discover, as in the two following examples : — 

Poun turi diatas bukit, — 
Tampat manjanmr buwah pala, — 
Arap ati abang bukan sadikit, 
Sabaiiak rambut diatas kapala. 

The turi tree (Agati grandiflora) on a hill, — 

A place to dry the nutmeg, — 

My heart is full of hope. 

As there are hairs on the head. 

Kalu tuwan mudik ka-Jambi, 

Ambilkiin saya buwah dalima ; 

Jika tuwan kasihkan kami, 

Bawakan saya pargi barsama. 

If you ascend the river to Jambi, 

Bring me a pomegranate ; 

If you love me. 

Take me along with you. 

The following, loug ago given by Mr. Marsdcn in his History 



84. A GRAMMAR OF THE MALAY LANGUAGE. 

of Sumatra, is amoug the few pantuus that are sufficiently 
intelligible to an European : — 

Apa guna pasang palita 
Jika tiyada dangan sumbuna 
Apa guua banuaym inata. 
Kalu tiyada dilngau sungima. 

What is the use of lightiug a hiuip 

If it be without a wick '! 

What is tlie use of playing witli the eyes 

If vou bo not in earnest ? 



END OF VOL. L