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Full text of "Grammar and dictionary of the Yakama language"



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SHEA'S 

LIBRARY OF AMERICAN LINGUISTICS. 

VI. 



,: \ 



GRAMMAR 



AND 



DICTIONARY 



OF THE 



YAKAMA LANGUAGE 



BY 



V 



REV. M IE . C LES . PANDOSY, 



OBLATE OF MARY IMMACULATE. 



TRANSLATED BY GEORGE GIBBS AND J. G. SHEA. 






n 








NEW YORK: 
CRAMOISY PRESS 
1862. 



(9 






;* 



Of 100 copies printed 
No. .// fi Sj* 

^JEdithr. 



PREFACE. 



The bands enumerated by Father Pandosy belong to the Sahaptin 
family of Mr. Hale. This family he divides into two branches, the 
Sahaptin proper or Xez Perces, and the Walla-Walla, in which latter 
he includes all the others. The country occupied by them extends 
from the Dalles of the Columbia to the Bitter-Root mountains, lying 
on both sides of the Columbia and upon the Kooskooskie and Sal- 
mon Forks of Lewis' and Snake River, between that of the Selish 
family on the north, and of the Snakes on the south. 

The Pshwanwappam bands, usually called Yakamas, inhabit the 
Yakama river, a stream heading in the Cascade Range and emptying 
into the Columbia above the junction of the Snake. The word 
signifies " the Stony Ground/' in allusion to the rocky character of 
their country. Roil-roil-pam is the Klikatat country, situated in 
the Cascade mountains north of the Columbia and west of the Ya- 
kamas. Its meaning is " the Mouse country," referring to a popular 
local legend. The name Walla-Walla is explained by Father Pan- 
dosy. The band so called occupy the country south of the Columbia 
and about the river of that name. The Tairtla, usually called Taigh, 
belong, as stated in the text, to the environs of. the Des Chutes river 
which drains* the eastern base of the Cascades, south of the Colum- 
bia, and the Palus, usually written Paloose, live between the Colum- 
bia and the Snake. All these bands are independent, and in fact, 
most of them are divided among several chiefs. 

The author of this grammar, Father M. C. Pandosy, was for a 
number of years resident among the Yakamas, and became perfectly 
acquainted with their language. In the destruction of the mission 
by fire, during the Indian war in Oregon and Washington Territory, 
the original of the grammar was lost, and the following translation 
made some time previously alone remained. A revision of the die- 



Vlll PREFACE. 

tionary, mucli more extensive than the accompanying, was destroyed 
at the same time. As the mission was then broken up and but 
little chance exists of any equally complete memorial of this language 
being prepared hereafter, these have been adopted as a most valuable 
contribution to our linguistics. 

Grammatical notices of the Sahaptin or Nez Perce language, which 
differs from the Walla- Walla perhaps as the Portuguese from the 
Spanish, were given by Mr. Hale in his Ethnology of the U. S. 
Exploring Expedition, and reviewed by Mr. Gallatin in the Trans- 
actions of the American Ethnological Society. 

Father Pandosy explains the value of the letters which he em- 
ploys, but it is necessary to observe that there is no true r in the 
language, and the letter when used represents the guttural sound of 
ch in the Scottish loch or German ich. G. G. 



r 



INDIAN GRAMMAR 



P'SHWAN-WA-PAM, WALA-WALA, TAIRTLA, ROIL- 
ROIL-PAM AND PALUS LANGUAGES. 



The grammar which I now present, and which I have written in the 
Pshwanwapam language, gives at the same time an account of the Wala- 
wala, Tairtla (Indians of the Des-Chutes river and its environs), Roilroil- 
pam and Palus, for theirs is a single language divided into so many dialects, 
while fundamentally it is the same, and a great majority of the words do not 
allow of a separation. I have written it in the Pshwanwapam in prefer- 
ence to either of the other dialects, because it is more familiar to me, clearer 
and easier than the rest. 

I take the liberty of making the remark, in passing, that many persons 
write the word Walla-Walla with four l's. I have even seen this orthography 
in books, but I find it entirely defective, because it alters the word in falsi- 
fying the pronunciation, and thus puts it out of the question to recognize 
the meaning. According to this orthography it should, it appears to me, 
be pronounced Wal-la-wal-la, and I have heard it thus pronounced, and so 
for a long time pronounced it myself, but when by a sufficiently long resid- 
ence among the Indians, I was able to stammer their language well enough 
to make myself understood, I asked the meaning of this word, and they re- 
plied " Atwanaki pa waniksha komanak tenmaman," " those Indians are 
called after the river." Thus the word Atwan, which among the Pshwan- 
wapams signifies river, is rendered by the Wala-Walas and the Palus by 
wana. Further the Indians of all this neighborhood form the diminutive 
by repeating the substantive; changing n into I, giving the voice a different 
tone, putting the lips out in speaking and keeping them suspended around 
the jaw. In this way we have the word Wana-wana, which by the change 
of n into I gives Wala-icala, which should be pronounced very short, 
Wala-u-ala and not Walla-walla. 

2 



10 YAKAMA GRAMMAR. 

Of the Letters. 

I have thought best before entering upon the subject to give a sketch of 
the letters which I have used in writing the Pshwanwapam language, that 
those who may chance to see this paper may, though distant enough from 
the Yakama country, in some sort hear the Indians themselves speak 

The Yakama language contains but sixteen letters, a, e, i, o, u, w, c, h, k, 
I, m, n, p, r, s, t. These letters have the same sounds as in European 
languages. Thus a, e, i, o, u are pronounced absolutely as a Frenchman 
would pronounce them, and as with us these vowels are capable of receiving 
a certain modification of sound by means of accents. The vowel u is met 
with very rarely, and excepting two or three words in which alone it occurs, 
the Indians pronounce it with difficulty. The consonants have the same 
sound as in French, and to simplify the orthography are pronounced after 
the new mode of spelling introduced into France some years since, conse- 
quently instead of saying ka, elle, eme, we spell simply ke, le, me. The 
vowel a is always mute in these cases. The letter h is always strongly 
aspirated. The r is always pronounced strong and guttural, or as it is in 
the German language, (a). 

Strictly, other consonants might be admitted into the Indian alphabet, 
but this does not appear necessary, and it would be contrary to the spirit of 
the age which seeks to reduce every thing to its most simple expression. It 
would even embarrass the orthography by uselessly overloading it. What 
necessity is there in fact for the letter q when we possess the k, for have not 
these two precisely the same sound [in French]. The same desire to sim- 
plify the spelling as much as possible has made me reject the y and the 
orthographic sign called trema (dialysis). Their retention is in fact useless 
since it is admitted as a principle that the letter i preceded or followed by 
a vowel or between two vowels is always pronounced as if it was a y or an 
i. I have also struck out the x, which with us has not always the same 
sound, since it is sometimes pronounced like gs, and sometimes like ks. As 
among the Indians of this neighborhood it would never represent the first 
sound, I prefer to use ks instead. It might be said indeed that by giving 
as a general rule in the Yakama language that x is always pronounced like 
ks, this letter might figure in their alphabet, but experience has convinced 
me that the establishment of a general rule is insufficient to overthrow a 
habit of pronunciation acquired in early education and strongly rooted. 
Suppose that some one wished to study the Pshwanwapam language — if he 
cast his eyes upon the word written ik-siks, would he not seize at first glance 
the true pronunciation, whereas, on the other hand if he found it written 
with an x, ixsix, would he not be naturally- led to pronounce it ig-sigs, a 
pronunciation which would be altogether incorrect. 

(a) The w is here used apparently as older French missionaries used the Greek character 8. As 
a consonant it answers to our w, as a vowel to oo. J. G. s. 



YAKAMA GRAMMAR. 11 

I employ ch in words which are pronounced like the Chinook tchako, for 
I do not see how the t placed before ch can give to it the pronunciation 
which is attributed to it. Besides, why invent a novel mode of orthography ? 
Is not the pronunciation to be represented by tch found elsewhere ? The 
English language abounds with it and yet not a single word is written thus. 
Why then introduce characters which, wfthout presenting anything new, 
have the defective advantage or rather the inconvenience of embarrassing 
the reader and writer by surplusage. It is much more simple to say that ch 
is pronounced always as in English words in which those letters are found. 
The same is the case with sh. 

Of the Parts of Speech. 

Like the dead languages, that of the Pshwanwapam contains but [eight] 
parts of speech, viz: the substantive, adjective [pronoun], verb, adverb, 
preposition, conjunction and interjection. The article there is wanting, but 
the substantives, adjectives and pronouns have the precious advantage of 
being declinable. It must be remarked that the substantives as well as the 
adjectives and participles have no gender. They vary neither in the mascu- 
line nor feminine. 



CHAPTER I. 
Of the Substantive. 

Two numbers are found in the substantives, the singular and plural, or as 
there is no article in the Indian language there are terminations or cases 
which remove all difficulty as to the sense of the words which we hear, 
since this sense is fixed by a terminal sign. These terminations or cases 
are six in each number as in Latin. The dative, accusative and ablative 
have a double sign, one simple the other compound. 

To decline a substantive, it is sufficient to add to the positive the termina- 
tion nem to have the nominative. It is however necessary to remark that 
the positive is itself a nominative, and that the sign nem is employed only 
in certain cases. Custom alone can make its proper use understood. To 
form the genitive, the termination nmi is added to the positive. For the 
simple dative the termination iow must be added, but if the substantive con- 
cludes with the vowel i in the positive, one is retrenched for the sake of 
euphony. The compound dative is formed by adding ioic to the genitive, 
preserving the rule of euphony and thus giving nmiow. The simple accusa- 
tive is made by adding the termination nan to the positive, while for the 
compound it must be added to the genitive. The Palus and Wala-walas 
form their terminal sign in na instead of nan whether simple or compound. 
The vocative is nothing but the positive preceded by the exclamation na. 



12 



YAKAMA GRAMMAR. 



\_Nah /] The ablative simple is formed by adding to the positive the ter- 
mination ei, but for the compound it is necessary, as in the other cases, to 
add it to the genitive. 

The general sign of the plural is ma, which is found in all the cases, so 
that to form the plural it is sufficient to add ma to the positive and we have 
the nominative. The genitive plural is formed by adding mi to the nomina- 
tive of the same number, which gives ma-mi. The dative is formed by ad- 
ding the sign miow to the nominative; the accusative by adding man; the 
vocative preserves the na of the singular taking the plural termination ma, 
and for the ablative the termination miei is added. 

Note. — In the plural the accusative only takes the compound termination. 
This is formed by adding to the sign of the plural the termination of the 
compound accusative, which gives ma-mi-nan. 

Examples. 
1st Simple termination, taking for the positive kussi, horse. 

SINGULAR. 



nom. 


kussi-nan 


the horse. 


gen. 


kussi-nmi 


of the horse. 


dat. 


kussi-ow 


to the horse. 


ace. 


kussi-nan 


the horse. 


voc. 


na kussi 


oh horse! 


abl. 


kussi-ei 

PLURAL. 


for the horse. 


nom. 


kussi-ma 


the horses. 


gen. 


kussi-ma-mi 


of the horses. 


dat. 


kussi-ma-miow 


to the horses. 


ace. 


kussi-ma-man 


the horses. 


voc. 


na-kussi-ma 


oh horses! 


abl. 


kussi-ma-miei 


for the horses 



2d. Compound termination, taking for the positive miawar, chief. 





SINGULAR. 




nom. 


miawar-nem 


the chief. 


gen. 


miawar-nmi 


of the chief. 


dat. 


miawar-nmi-iow 


to the chief. 


ace. 


miawar-nmi-nan 


the chief 


voc. 


na miawar 


oh chief! 


abl. 


miawar-nmi-ei 


for the chief. 



YAK AM A GRAMMAR. 



13 



gen. 
dat. 
ace. 
voc. 
abl. 



miawar-ma 

miawar-ma-mi 

miawar-ma-miow 

miawar-ma-man 

na miawar-ma 

miawar-ma-miei 



the chiefs, 
of the chiefs. 
to the chiefs, 
the chiefs, 
oh chiefs ! 
for the chiefs. 



Sometimes for euphony a syncope is made in the plural, and this syncope 
affects all the cases except the nominative and the vocative. 

Example. 



nom. 


kussi-ma 


the horses. 


gen. 


kussi-mi 


of the horses. 


dat. 


kussi-miow 


to the horses. 


ace. 


kussi-man 


the horses. 


voc. 


na kussi-ma 


oh horses I 


abl. 


kussi-miei 


for the horses. 



By the above example it will be seen that to form the syncope, it is suffi- 
cient in the genitive, dative, acusative and ablative, which are the only 
cases susceptible of being affected by it ; it is sufficient, I say, to retrench 
the essentially plural termination ma. After this it is easy to conclude that 
the sign mi indicates always a genitive ; that of iow a dative ; that of an an 
accusative, and that of ei an ablative. These few directions suffice to decline 
all the substantives. 

Every substantive is capable of being changed into a verbal adjective. 
Exceptions. — A large number of substantives. See hereafter. 



CHAPTER II. 



Of the Adjective. 

Substantives having no gender, as we have said, it follows that the ad- 
jectives have none, but they are declinable and possess the same cases as 
substantives. Like the latter, adjectives take the signs of simple and of 
double agreement, or the compound termination. 

Every verbal adjective, whether present or past participle, is double, for 
it either affirms or denies: 1st, that the substantive is put in action; 2d, the 
presence or existence of the substantive. 



14 YAKAMA GKAMMAE. 

1st. If we desire to affirm that the substantive is put in action, we ad- 
jectify it by adding to its positive the termination tla ; for example atawit, 
love ; adjective affirming action atawit-la, loving. If on the other hand we 
deny the action, we add to the positive the termination al, as atawial, un- 
loving. When the positive is terminated by the letter t, la only is added 
instead of tla, as seen in the above example. This letter is also dropped to 
form the negative. Sometimes to obtain the negative nal instead of al is 
added, principally in those words which terminate in m, for example tan- 
amwtwm, prayer ; tanamwtwmnal, not praying. In words ending in k or kt, 
and in some Wala-wala words ending in sha, the negative verbal adjective 
is formed by adding kal to the termination of the positive. 

2d. If we wish to affirm that a thing is present or exists, we add to the 
positive the termination ni or ie. Example: timat, [a] writing, timani, 
written ; twin, tail, twinie, having a tail. If on the contrary we deny pre- 
sence or existence, we add to the positive the sign nal or nwt. Example : 
timanal, unwritten ; twinwt, without a tail. But though this is the rule, it is 
necessary to remark that twinwt is not always used, but the n is replaced by 
I, as was mentioned in the beginning, making twilwt. For all other sub- 
stantives nwt is used, unless we wish to cast ridicule upon the word, in 
which case we should make use of Iwt. 

Adjectives properly so called, as well as those derived from verbs (both 
affirmative and negative), and also participles are declined in the same man- 
ner as substantives. 







Examples. 








1. Simple. 








SIKGULAR. 




nom. 


shir-nem 




the good. 


gen. 


shir-nmi 




of the good. 


dat. 


shir-iow 




to the good. 


ace. 


shir-nan 




the good. 


voc. 


na-shir 




oh good! 


all. 


shir-ei 


PLURAL. 


for the good. 


nom. 


shir-ma 




the good, $c 


gen. 


shir-ma-mi 






dat. 


shir-ma-miow 




ace. 


shir-ma-man 






voc. 


na shir-ma 






abl. 


shir-ma-mei 







YAKAMA GRAMMAR. 15 





2. Compound. 






SINGULAR, 




nom. 


chelwit 


the bad. 


gen. 


chelwit-nmi 


of the bad, Sfc. 


dat. 


chelwit nmiow 




ace. 


chelwit nminan 




voc. 


na chelwit 




abl. 


chelwit nmei 

PLURAL. 




nom. 


chelwit-ma 




gen. 


chelwit-mami 




dat. 


chelwit-mamiow 




ace. 


chelwit-maminan 




voc. 


na chelwit-ma 




abl. 


chelwit-mamiei 





Verbal Adjectives. 





Simple. 






SINGULAR. 




nom. 


sh-nweitla-nem 


the compassionate. 


gen. 


sh-nweitla-nmi 


of the, $c. 


dat. 


sh-nweitla-iow 




ace. 


sh-nweitla-nan 




voc. 


na sh-nweitla 




abl. 


sh-nweitla-iei 





PLURAL. 

nom. sh-nweitla-ma 

gen. sh-nweitla-mami 

dat. sh-nweitla-mamiow 

ace. sh-nweitla-ma-man 

voc. na-shnweitla-ma 

abl. sh-nweitla-mamiei 

Compound. 

SINGULAR. 

nom. sh-nweitla-nem 

gen. sh-nweitla-nmi 

dat. sh-nweitla-nmiow 

ace. sh-nweitla-nminan 

voc. na sh-nweitla 

abl. sh-nweitla-nmiei 



16 YAKAMA GRAMMAR. 





PLURAL 


nom. 


sh-nweitla-ma 


gen. 


sh-nweitla-mami 


dat. 


sh-nweitla-mamiow 


ace. 


sh-nweitla-maminan 


voc. 


na sh-nweitla-ma 


abl. 


sh-nweitla-mamiei 



The syncope which occurs sometimes in substantives is much more general 
with verbal adjectives. Thus, instead of saying in the acusative singular 
sh-nweitla-nan, sh-nweitla-nminan, we say sh-nweitlan, sh-nweitla-minan. In 
the plural by syncope we say in the genitive sh-nweitla-mi ; in the dative 
sh-nweitla-miow ; in the accusative sh-nweitla-man ; in the ablative sh- 
nweitla-miei. 



CHAPTER III. 
Of the Pronoun. 

The pronouns are very numerous and are declined, but their mode of de- 
clension is peculiar to them. 

§ 1. OF THE PERSONAL PRONOUN. 

1st. Personal pronoun 1st person, or the one who performs the action ex- 
pressed by the verb. 







SINGULAR. 




nom. 
gen. 


ink, nes or 
enmi 


nesh, 


sh 


of me. 


dat. 


enmiow 






to me. 


ace. 


inak 






me 


voc. 


{wanting) 








abl. 


enmiei 






for me 



PLURAL. 

nom. namak, nates, nanam, aates, namtk, we. 

gen. neemi of us. 

dat. neemiow to us. 

ace. nemanak us. 

abl. neemiei for us. 

2d person, that is to say the one spoken to. 



YAKAMA GRAMMAR. 



17 





SINGULAR. 




nom. 


imk, nam 


thou. 


gen. 


e"mink, mes or m6sh 


of thee. 


dat. 


e*miwk 


to thee. 


ace. 


imanak 


thee. 


abl. 


£miei or emikaiei 

PLURAL. 


for thee. 


nom. 


imak, pam, mates 


you. 


gen. 


(wanting) 


of you. 


dat. 


e'mamiwk 


to you. 


ace. 


immanak 


you. 


abl. 


emmiei 


for you. 



In all cases where the personal pronouns terminate in ak among the 
Pshwan-wapams, the Wala-walas and Palus drop the k, thus they say in 
the accusative singular of the first person ina, in the nominative plural 
nama, in the accusative of the same number namana. It is the same in the 
other persons, but it must be noticed that in the accusative plural of the 
second person, instead of saying imanak, they express themselves thus 
emimanak. 

3d person or the one spoken of. 

SINGULAR. 





Pshwanwapam. 


Wa 


la-Wala and Palui 


nom. 


Penk 


he 


Penk (some 


gen. 


pin-mink 


of him 


pinmin 


dat. 


pin-miwk 


to him 


pinmiow 


ace. 


pin-min 


him 


pinminnan 


abl. 


pin-mikai^i 


for him 


pinmiei 






PLURAL. 


nom. 


pmak 


they 


pma 


gen. 


p6-mink 


of them 


pamin 


dat. 


p6-miwk 


to them 


pamiwk 


ace. 


p6-minak 


them 


pamanak 


abl. 


p6-mikaiei 


for them 


pamikaiei 



The Indians of the Falls (Tair) instead of the termination ak, have in 
their pronouns, and even in their adverbs, that of ei. Thus they say, per- 
sonal pronoun, 1st person, accusative singular, inei ; nominative plural 
namei ; accusative nemanei ; pronoun of the 2d person, ace. sing, imanei ; 
nom. plur. imei ; ace. imanei or emimanei; pronoun of 3d person, nom. plur. 
p-mei; ace. pamanei. 

It will be seen by the above declensions that the personal pronouns are 
very numerous among the Indians, particularly in certain cases, as the 

3 



18 YAKAMA GRAMMAR. 

nominatives, but they cannot be employed indifferently, and the knowledge 
of their proper use is difficult to acquire. To aid in arriving the more 
easily at this knowledge, I have thought best to give the following table : 
1st. Pronoun personal in the nominative case. 





SINGULAR. 




1st person 


ink, nes, sh, 


/. 


2d person 


imk, nam, 


thou 


3d person 


penk, i, 

PLURAL. 


he. 


1st person 


namak, nates, nanam, namtk, tesh, 


we. 


2d person 


pam, imak, mates, amates, 


you. 


2d person 


p-mak, pa, pat, 


they. 






When the personal pronoun serves to designate the person who speaks, 
the pronoun in the nominative case is used, and is always placed before the 
verb if expressed by ink, nes. Example : I sing, ink nes wempsha; I speak, 
ink nes nattwnsha. The personal pronoun can be rendered by ink only, but 
ink, nes is more elegant and more in the Indian spirit, though it is a pleo- 
nasm banished from our European languages. The same pleonasm is found 
again in the other persons, as well singular as plural. If instead of ink 
nes we use sh only it is put at the end of the word, as nattwnshesh I speak, 
wempshesh I sing. Some bands do not aspirate the h in this last case and 
say simply nattwnshes, wempshes. In negative phrases nes is commonly used 
alone and placed immediately after the negative. Ex. : I know nothing 
about it chaw nes ashwkwasha, I will not sing chaw nSs wempta. In some 
cases, however, when it is wished to give more force to the reply, ink is 
used, but preceded by nes as chaw nes ink, it is not I. 

In phrases conveying interrogation or doubt nes alone is used, as mish 
nes winata, shall I go, kwak nes mish, perhaps I will go, perhaps not. In 
ironical expressions both are used, the verb of the action being placed be- 
tween the two. Ex. : wish nes winatarnei ink, shall I go ? a phrase corres- 
ponding to the French, l \ as tu le courage de penser que j'irai (pour toi) ?" 

When we wish to give force to an idea ink nes is used and expressed 
together, succeeded by the verb, which again is followed by the pronoun 
ink: Ink nes nattwnsha-ink, I myself speak. 

In the first person plural namak is employed, either alone or accompanied 
by nates or natesh, placed together or with several words between the two 
at will. Examples ; namak nates ania nit, we made the house ; namak nates 
wempta, we will sing. In negative phrases tes and nates are used indiffer- 
ently, which are joined to the negative. Example : we do not laugh, chaw 
tes tiasha or chaw nates tiasha. If it is wished to give more force namak is 
added. Nanam is employed only when two persons are spoken of, whilst 



YAK AM A GRAMMAR. 



19 



namtk expresses always a great number. Example : napinik nanam winata, 
we two will go ; aw namtk atsha, let us go. 

2d. Pronoun personal in the accusative case. 

SINGULAR. 

1st person inak nes, inak nam, 

2d person imanak mes, imanak nam, 

3d person penik i, konak i, 

PLURAL. 

1st person nemanak, 
Id perssn immanak, 

3d person pemanak komanak, 



me. 

thee. 

him. 



you. 
them. 



When the personal pronoun is in the accusative case inak can be used 
alone in the first person or nes added at will. Ex. : inak inatonosha or inak 
nes inatonosha, he chides me. 







§2 


THE 


POSSESSIVE PRONOUN. 

First Person. 

SINGULAR. 


nom. 


enmi. 






my, mine. 


gen. 


enmi, 






of my. 


dat. 


enmiow, 






to my> 


ace. 


enmin, 






my (in Wala-wala and Palus enmina.) 


voc. 


na enmi, 






oh my. 


abl. 


enmiei, enmi 


kaiei 


, by my. 










PLURAL. 


nom. 


enmima, 






my, mine. 



There is no other plural case, for as it is evident that the possessive is 
nothing but the personal pronoun, the accusative only changes. 

2d person, nom. emink, thy, thine, ace. emin or emian. There is no plural. 
3d person, is absolutely like the third person of the personal pronoun. 

Singular of the First Person Plural. 

Wala-Wala and Palus. 



nom. 


neemi, 


our, 


naami. 


gen. 


neemi, 


of our, 


naami. 


dat. 


nedmiow, 


to our, 


naamiow. 


ace. 


nee'min, 


our, 


naamina. 


voc. 


na neemi, 


oh our, 


na naami. 


abl. 


neemiei, 


by our, 


naamiei. 



There is no plural. 






20 



YAKAMA GRAMMAR. 



Singular of 2d Person Plural. 



nom. 


mammk, 


your, 


mamin . 


gen. 


a 


of your, 


«< 


dat. 


mamiwk, 


to your, 


mamiow. 


ace. 


mamin, 


your, 


mamina. 


voc. 


na mamink, 


oh your, 


na mamin 


abl. 


mami-kaiel, 


by your, 


mamiei. 



There is no plural. 



Singular of Zd Person Plural. 



nom. 


penink, 


their, 


pamin. 


gen. 


<< 


of their, 


it 


dat. 


pemiwk, 


to their, 


pamiow. 


ace. 


pe"min, 


their, 


paminai. 


voc. 


na pe'mink, 


oh their. 


na pamin 


abl. 


pgrnikaiei, 


by their. 


pamiei. 



Sometimes the possessive pronouns, my, thy, are rendered by their cor- 
responding personals, me, thee, when friendship or relationship is expressed. 
Thus, instead of saying enmi, rii, emink rii, my friend, thy friend, we say 
ink rei, im rei, me friend, thee friend, inkoten, in pitz, me son, me nephew, 
instead of enmi koten, enmi pitz. 

§ 3. INTERROGATIVE PRONOUN. 
SINGULAR. 



nom. 


shin, (some tribes say) shin, who, what which 


gen. 


shimin, " shinnmi, of whom. 


dat. 


shimiow, " shinnmiow, to whom. 


ace. 


shimian (comp. shiminan) shiminan, whom. 


voc. 




abl. 


shimiei, shinmiei, by whom. 




PLURAL. 


nom. 


shimen. The other cases are not used. 




CHAPTER IV. 




Of the Verb. 



The verbs have only certain tenses, viz : indicative imperfect or past 
pluperfect, future, conditional, imperative, infinitive, present and past par- 
ticiples, gerund. 



YAKAMA GRAMMAR. 



21 



CONJUGATION OF THE VERBS TO HAVE AND TO BE. 

1st. to have, (avoir.) 

Indicative Present. 

nesh wa or wash nesh, / have. 

mesh wa or wash mesh, thou hast. 

penk awa or pinmink awa, he has. 

nat^sh wa or wash natesh, we have. 

matesh wa or wash matesh, you have. 

pa wa or pemink awa, they have. 

In these verbs there is but one mode of expressing the past and the plu- 
perfect. 

Past and Pluperfect. 



cj-C. 



nesh wacha, 




I had or hav 


mesh wacha, 




thou hadst, I 


awacha, 




he had. 


natesh wacha, 




we had. 


matesh wacha, 




ye had. 


awacha, 


Future. 


they had. 


nesh ) 

Y wata 
mesh J 




I shall 1 
thou shalt ) 


awata, 




he shall have. 


natesh ~) 

y wata, 
matesh J 




we shall 1 
ye shall j 


p' awata, 




they shall have. 


The verb to have has no 


imperative. 

Conditional. 




nesh ) 

y watarnei, 
mesh j 




I should 
thou shouldst 


awatarnei, 




he should have. 


natesh } 

r-n V watarnei, 
matesh J 


• 


we should ~\ 
ye should > 


watarnei, 




they should j 




2d. to be. (Etre.) 




Indicative Present. 


ink n6sh wa, 




I am. 


imk nam wa, 




thou art. 


penk iwa, 




he is. 


namak natesh, nanam, namtk wa, 


we are. 


imak pam wa, 




you are. 


pmak pa wa, 




they are. 



have. 



have. 



have. 



22 



YAKAMA GRAMMAR. 



Past and Pluperfect. 


ink nesh wacha, 


/ was, have or had been, 


imk nam wacha, 


thou wast, §c. 


penk iwacha, 


he was. 


natesh wacha, nanam, namtk, namak, 


we were. 


mat6sh wacha, 


you were. 


p-mak pawacha, 


they were. 


Future. 




ink nesh wata, 


I will be. 


imk nam wata, 


thou wilt be. 


penk iwata, 


he will be. 


namak natesh, nanam, namtk, wata, 


we will be. 


imak.pam wato, 


you will be. 


pa wata, 


they will be. 


Imperative. 




awak, 


be thou. 


awatk, 


be ye, let them be. 


Conditional. 




ink nesh "\ 


I should be, Sfc. 


imk nam I waternei, 




penk i J 




namak natesh, nanam namtk ) 





Watarnei, 



I 2. Of the Active Verb. 

All the tenses of the active verb are formed from the infinitive, which al- 
ways terminates in sha or in ra. 

The indicative present preserves the infinitive termination sha or ra, but 
the first two persons of the singular and plural nevertheless may take a 
particular termination. These are even employed by preference when the 
phrase is affirmative or interrogative. In these cases the personal pronouns 
which precede the verbs are dropped, or rather are added to the termina- 
tion. These pronouns are es or 6sh for the first, am for the second person 
singular ; tesh for the first, and pam for the second person plural. When 
the pronouns are placed after the verb, in order to avoid the hiatus which 
would occur by approximating the final a and the initial e, a an elision is 
made by dropping the final vowel of the infinitive. There are a great num- 
ber of other finals, but as these are not common to all the words, I omit 
them here, as, in order to indicate them, it would be necessary to make a 
particular nomenclature of all these terminations and of the verbs to which 
they are adapted. 

The past is formed by changing the termination of the infinitive sha, ra 
into na. 



YAKAMA GRAMMAR. 



23 



The pluperfect is formed by adding the monosyllable na to the infinitive 
termination sha. 

The future is formed by changing the termination of the infinitive into ta. 

The conditional is made by substituting for the infinitive termiaation that 
of arna or tarnei. The Wala-walas, Roilroilpams and Palus instead of tarnei 
use tarna. 

The present participle is formed by changing the infinitive termination 
sha into tla for the affirmative, and nal for the negative ; the past participle 
by changing it to ie, nie, ni for the affirmative, and into nwt, nal for the ne- 
gative 

The gerund is obtained by changing sha into tesh or tes, or into nat, or 
still again anat if the last letter of the root is an i. 

The imperfect is only the past preceded by the preposition irwe later, 
scarcely. (Wala-wala arwe.) 

The pluperfect is sometimes rendered by the past, but the verb must then 
be preceded by the adverb miwi (Wala-wala mimi) a long time. 

The imperative is formed by changing the sha of the infinitive into the 
letter k for the singular and tk for the plural. 

CONJUGATION OF THE ACTIVE VERB. 



Infinitive, 


timasha, 


to write. 


Participles present, 


timatla, 


writing, fond of writing. 




timanal, 


not writing. 


Participles past, 


timani, 


written. 




timanal, 


unwritten. 


Gerund, 


timates ] 
timanat j 


for writing. 




Indicativ 


e Present. 


ink nes timasha, 




I write. 


imk nam timasha, 




thou writest. 


penk i timasha, 




he writes. 


namak nate"s, ) 

Y timasha, 
nanam, namtk, ) 


we write. 


imak pam timasha, 




you write. 


pa timasha, 




they write. 




Second form. 


timashe"s, 




I write or do I write. 


timashain, 




thou writest or dost thou write. 


i timasha, 




he writes or does he write. 


timashat^s, 




we write or do we write. 


timashapan, 




you write or do you write. 


pa timasha, 




they write or do they write. 



24 



YAK AM A GRAMMAR. 



Ink nes timana, 
imk nam timana, 
penk i timana, 
namak nate"s timana, 
imak pam timana, 
pa timana, 

timanes, 
timanam, 
i timana, 
timanates, 
timanapam, 
pa timana, 



ink nes timashana, 

imk nam timashana, 

penk i timashana, 

namak nates, &c, timashana, 

imak pam timashana, 

pa timashana, 



timashanes, 
timashanam, 
i timashana, 
timashana t6s, 
timashana pam, 
pa timashana, 

ink n6s timata, 

imk nam timata, 

penk i timata, 

namak nates, &c, timata, 

imak pam timata, 

pa timata, 

timate"s, 

timatam, 

itimata, 

timatates, 



Past. 

I have written, 
thou hast written, 
he has written, 
we have written, 
ye have written, 
they have written. 

Second form. 

I have written or have I written. 
thou hast written or hast thou written, 
he has written or has he written. 
we have written or have we written, 
ye have written or have ye written, 
they have written or have they written. 

Pluperfect. 

I had written, 
thou hadst written, 
he had written, 
we had written, 
ye had written, 
they had written. 

Second form, 

had I written, 
hadst thou written, 
had he written, 
had we written, 
had ye written, 
had they written. 

Future, 

I shall or will write, 
thou shalt or wilt write, 
he shall or will write, 
we shall or will write, 
ye shall or will write, 
they shall or will write. 

Second form. 

shall I write ? 
wilt thou write ? 
will he write ? 
shall we write ? 



YAKAMA GRAMMAR. 25 

timatapam, will ye write? 

pa timata, will they write ? 

Conditional. 

ink nes timatarnei, / should or would write. 

imk nam timatarnei, thou shouldst or wouldst write. 

penk i timatarnei, he should or would write. 

namak nates, &c, timatarnei, we should or would write. 
imak pam timatarnei, ye should or would write. 

pa timatarnei, they should or would write. 

Second form. 
In this there is an irregularity which runs through all the verbs. 

timatarneines, should I write. 

timatarneinam, shouldst thou write. 

i timatarnei, should he write, 

timatarneinates, should we write. 

Imperative, 
sing, timak or amash timak, write, 

plur. timatk or amatesh timatk, write ye. 

I 3. The Passive Verb. 

The passive verb is only the present or past participle or the gerund, 
conjugated with the auxiliaries to have or to be according to the necessity 
of the case. 

Example. 
Indicative present. 
Timatla nesh wa, / am writing. 

" mesh wa, thou art writing. 

" awa, he is writing, 

" natesh, nanam, namtk wa, we are writing. 
" matesh wa, ye are writing. 

" pa wa, they are writing, 

Timani nesh wa, / am written. 

" nam wa, thou art written. 

" iwa, he is written, 

" natesh, nanam, namtk wa, we are written. 
" pam wa, ye are written. 

" pa wa, they are written. 

It is the same with all the tenses, but it must be remarked that in the 
passive there is no infinitive. 

4 



26 



YAKAMA GRAMMAR. 



§ IV. Of the Personal Verb. 

The personal verb is formed by putting before the active verb expressing 
the mode of being which it is intended to express, the dissyllable pina for 
the persons of the singular, and pima for those of the plural. Sometimes 
pine, pime are employed instead, when the verb to which the dissyllable is 
joined, commences with a vowel, but pina, pima may be used. 



pina tkrersha, 

pina tkrertla, 
pina tkrernal, 

pina tkrerni, 

pina tkrert6sh ) 
pina tkreranat ) 

ink nesh ~\ 

imk nam v pima tkrersha 

penk i ) 

namak-natesh, &c, 

imak pam 

p-mak-pa 

pina tkrershes, 
pina tkrersham, 
i pina tkrersha, 
pima tkrershates, 
pima tkrershapam, 
pima tkrershapat, 

ink nesh "^ 

imk nam v pina tkrerna 

penk i ) 

namak-natesh 

imak pam y pima tkrerna, 

p-mak pa 



Example. 

Infinitive. 

to love oneself. 
Participle present. 

loving oneself, 
not loving oneself. 
Participle past. 

to have loved oneself. 
Gerund. 

of loving oneself. 

Indicative Present. 

I love myself, 
thou lovest thyself, 
he loves himself, 
we love ourselves. 
pima tkrersha, ye love yourselves, 
they love themselves. 

Second form. 

I love myself, $c. 



Past. 



YAKAMA GRAMMAR. 27 

Second form. 
pina tkern^s, 
pina tkrernam, 
i pina tkrerna, 
pima tkrernat^s, 
pima tkernapam, 
pima tkrernapat, 
It is the same in all the other tenses. 

g V. Of the Reciprocal Verb. 

The active verb is also used to form the reciprocal verb, being preceded 
by the dissyllable papa. In the third person plural, however, where pa is 
found it is dropped, doubtless, for euphony. These verbs have no singular. 

Example. 

Indicative present. 

namak-nat^s, | to love one another. 

namtk, nanam ) ") 

imak pam \ papatkrersha, 



p-mak 






Past. 



namak-nate's ) 

namtk, nanam ) ~\ 

imak pam > papa tkrerna, 

p-mak ) 

These two tenses will suffice to aid in conjugating the others, since, as 
will be seen, it is enough to place papa between the pronouns and the verb 
and to conjugate the latter in the active voice. 

\ VI. Of Compound Verbs. . 

The compound verbs are very numerous, but the following are the cases 
of composition. 

1. If it is desired to express an action done or said far from the place 
where we are, and which in the idea implies motion, the compound is formed 
by adding msh to the ordinary terminations of the indicative. For the past 
the radical na is changed into ma. Ex. timasha, timashamsh ; timana, tima- 
ma. For the pluperfect shana is changed into shama ; for the future m is 
placed before the termination ta ; timata, timamta ; for the conditional m is 
placed before the sign tarnei ; timatarnei, timamtarnei ; for the imperative m 
is substituted for or placed before k, as timak, timam ; timatk timamtk. In 
this case the verb expresses motion from a distance towards the speaker, 
whether the person spoken of has himself moved or has caused the move- 



28 YAKAMA GRAMMAR. 

ment directly or indirectly. Ex. he has written to me, itimana, he has come 
to write itimama. 

2. If an action is to be expressed which require motion from the place 
where one is towards a distant one, the syllable ta is used between the root 
and the terminal sign, and the verb is conjugated according to the examples 
above given. Ex. he has gone to write, itimatana ; he will go to write, 
itimatata ; go write timatak. 

3. If the compound verb is preceded in French by the verb " finir," the 
verb which expresses the action is rendered by its substantive, which is fol- 
lowed by the Indian verb to finish, nakrisha. Example, I cease to write, 
timat nakriska, and the verb nakrisha alone is conjugated, as I will stop 
writing timat nakrites. 

4. If the compound verb is preceded in French by the verb " faire," this 
last is expressed by shapa or by tii, which is placed before the root, and the 
verb is conjugated in the usual manner as, I will set you to writing (Je te 
ferai ecrire) in a moment, kliks mesh shapa-timata. 

5. If we wish to express disdain, irony, &c, the syllable tra or kra is 
placed before the verb which indicates the idea to be conveyed. Example, 
he has written badly itratimana, he has written against his will, &c. 

6. To mark the frequent repetition of an act by the same person, a con- 
tinuity which excludes all other occupation, the termination simisa is added 
to the substantive which conveys the idea to be expressed, and simisa is 
conjugated as an active verb. Ex. he does nothing but write, he writes all 
the time, itimatat simisa ; he will do nothing but write, itimatat sirnita. 

7. If we desire to express an action, fugitive, momentary, or of short 
duration, the monosyllable we is used before the verb, and the latter is con- 
jugated according to the usual rule, as I will write for a moment, as we 
timata ; he has written a few words awtika iwetimana. 

8. To convey a longer duration, a long space of time, tama is placed be- 
fore the verb. Ex. I have waited long for you, lekwi mesh tamawaria ; I will 
wait a long time for you, lekwi m6s tamaioarita. Lektvi and tama are in fact 
a pleonasm, for lekwi itself signifies a long time. It can at pleasure be used 
or dropped. 

9. If an action is to be expressed which is done during the night, taw is 
made use of before the verb ; tawtimashes, I write in the night time, itaw 
timana, he wrote at night. 

Examples. 

I pina - shapa - taw - tra - hlik - tama warsha 
He himself makes night disagreeably tiresome long wait; he keeps one long 

waiting for him at night. Pina, personal ; shapa, make one do ; taw, some- 
thing happening at night ; tama, a thing indicating a length of time ; tra, some- 
thing disagreeable ; hlik, something tiresome ; wet, a thing of short duration. 
I pina pitlasha, he washes himself. 



YAKAMA GRAMMAR. 29 

I shapa winasha, he makes one go. 

I taw wempsha, he sings at night. 

I tra washasha, he goes disagreeably on horseback [cannot ride.) 

I we wempta, he will sing little {he will sing only a moment) ; hlik nam 
nattwanha, you speak tediously, [you are a tiresome talker) ; am, to do a thing 
for some one ; klakem am anim, make me a saddle. 



Syntax. 

The syntax in the Indian language is very simple, 

1st. The Government of the Substantive. 

The government of the substantive is indicated by the genitive, that is to 
say, every substantive governs the genitive. Ex. Peter's book (the book of 
Peter) Pierre-mni timas. The wooden house (the house of wood) elwkasnmi 
nit. As will be observed the governed is always placed before the substan- 
tive which governs it. 

If the governing substantive is itself governed by a verb, the substantive 
which it governs takes the compound termination, and is put in the same 
case as that which governs it. The compound terminal sign is only the 
union of the dative or accusative with the genitive. Example, I am going 
to the chief's house, miawarnmiow nitiow nes winasha; I am going to the 
governor's house, tamanwitlanmiow nitiow winashes ; I execute my father's 
orders, na totasanminan tamanwitnan nes twanasha. 

2d. Agreement of Verbs. 

Verbs agree with each other, that is to say, if the principal verb or the 
one which expresses the first idea is in the present, all the others will also 
be in the present ; if in the future, they all take the future sign ; if in the 
conditional, they will all be in the conditional tense. This is always to be 
understood of the verbs which relate to the principal verb. Ex. If I had 
gone there and had seen you, I would have engaged you to have accom- 
panied me (si j'y etais alle et que je te visse je t'aurai engage a m'accompa- 
gner) paish nes winatarnei ko mes kreinwtarnei, narawtarnei mes tuanatiowi- 
si je irai et je vcrrai engagerai te accompagne- 

nak. 
ment-moi. A literal translation. 

3d. Agreement of Prepositions. 

When a word is governed by a preposition or joined to one, all the sub- 
stantives which refer to it take the preposition in like manner. Ex. He is 
in my house, enmipa nitpa iwa (my in house, in he is.) He was hurt in 
mounting a skittish horse, wieichivtlaki kwsaiki isapneika (ombrageux par 
cheval, par il s'est blesse\) 



30 YAKAMA GRAMMAR. 

Kemark. 

In elevated style (for the Indians also have the common style and the 
elevated in their oratory), they keep the noun governed by the verb in the 
positive, as if indeclinable, and yet put in the accusative the adjectives and 
pronouns depending on the substantive governed by the verb. It is by 
virtue of this rule that they say : imanak patmaknanitarnei wanicht instead 
of patmaknanitarnei eminan wanichtan. In these cases, as will be observed 
in the Lord's Prayer, the possessive pronoun is replaced by the personal. 
Ex. nemanak nim tkwatat instead of nim neeminan tkwatatnan, &c. 






SPECIMENS OF THE YAKAMA LANGUAGE. 



Neemi Psht, Imk nam wamsh Roiemich-nik ; shir 

Our Father thou thou art high on the side (heaven) ; well 

(nam 'manak*) p'a t-maknani tarnei wanicht ; shir ewiana- 

thou they (indef) should respect the name ; well should 

witarnei ernink miawarwit ; shir nammanak pa twanenitarnei, 

arrive thy chieftainship ; well thee they (ind) should follow 

ichinak techarnpa, tenma, prwi, (amakwsrimmanak*) pa 

here earth (on), inhabitants (the), will, thou as thyself they 

twanenishamsh roiemipama tenma. Nemanak nim 

follow; high of the (heaven) inhabitants (the). Our (us) give us 

t-kwatak kwalissim maisr maisr. Nemanak laknanim chelwitit: 

food always to-morrow to-morrow. Our (us) forget sins: 

aateskwsri namak t-normaman laknanisha chelwitit anakwnkink 

us as we others forget sing have by which 

neemiow pa chelwitia. R-t-to anianim nemanak tenma ; 
us have offended. Strong make our (us) heart; 

t-kraw krial. Nemanak eikrenkem chelwit-knilf. 

(that it fall not.) Us snatch bad from the side (from evil.) 

Ekws lwa neemi temna. 

So it is our heart. 



* N&m manak. This is produced by the elision of na imanak ! thou! The employment of 
the exclamation na is an elegance, and at the same time shows both greater respect and stronger 
desire. 

t Amakwsrimmanak, elision between amakwsri and immanak. It is to be noted that kwsri, 
as, in the same manner, just as, requires to be preceded by a sign indicating the person who acts 
or, at least, is the soul of the action. Ex. Es kwsri ink, (I) as I ; amakwsri imk, (thou) as thou ; 
amakwsri penk, (he) as he; aateskwsri namak, (we) as we; apam kwsri imak, (you) as you; 
anakwsri pa, (they) as they. 



PEACE SONG COMPOSED BY FATHER PANDOSY. 
Air: Marseillaise. 



Amatesh imak klarma tenma 
Amatesh neman winanom 
Klap-re palei pam tranana 
Apamko nemanak nattwn 
Wrinania kreshem-witki 
Kopam ichi ikwak painta 

Aow kwelh aow suiaponan 
Chelwitpam alionemta temna 
Larstwei natesh wa Tenin Swiapoin 

Epapnatesh papanisha Tenin Swia- 
poin. 



Allez vous tous (les) Sauvages (les) 

Allez, nous, venez, rejoindre 

Quoique insenses vous soyez devenus 

Lorsque vous nous parole 

Avez rejete entetement par 

Eh bien ! vous maintenant devien- 

drez dociles 
C'est assez l'Americain 
Mauvais vous gager le coeur 
Un seul nous sommes Sauvages, 

Americains 
La main nous nous donnons Sau- 
vages, Americains. 



II, 



Aowpam immanak paniroieitki 
Inarawshamsh kwir klamtorni 
Amatesh. aweiertionem 
Temna kto ananenim 
Iaiama, Pitrma, Pimrma 

Tilama, Pwshama, nekama 

Aow klarma paanirweitamta 

Shir pam alionemta temna 

Lars twei tesh wata Tenin Swia- 
poin 

Epap, 6pap papainta Te*nin Swia- 
poin. 



Eh bien, vous, vous paix par 

Engage blanche tete 

Allez done courez vers lui 

Coeur vite allez lui porter : 

Ainds (les), oncles (les), paternels, 
oncles (maternels) 

Grand'pere, paternels, maternels, 
nos cadets 

Allons tous, venez, faire la paix 

Bon vous engagerez coeur 

Un seul nous serons Sauvages, Ami- 
cans 

La main nous donnerons, Sauvages, 
Americains. 



III. 



E, aow nam Colonel Wright, imk- 

sa, 
Temnan nam pa ishnania : 
Amako shirki nattwnki 



Oui, eh ! bien toi, Colonel Wright, 

toi seul, 
Coeur le toi a gagne" 
Lorsque toi bonne par parole par 



PEACE SONG. 



33 



Paanirweit nam pa swswnma. 

Aow ko natesh nwitkaki eki 

Twimpesnan a-tkwei-ika 

Kotesh emik-nink simka 

Ko imtwalrarniow krepta. 

Lars twei natesh wa Tenin Swia- 

poin. 
Epap natesh papanisha Swiapoin. 



IV. 



Anakopenk nam n'eemiow 
Imanak inichatama 
N'eemipa kopenk rairwit 
Wakrish kwalisim iwata ; 
Woptashie tranak nattwn 
Aowlak aowlakpeink k-toki 
Klarmamiow nam weinatki 
Paishtam Swiapomamiow 
Lars twei natesh wa Tenin Swiapoin 
Epap natesh papanisha Tenin Swia- 
poin. 

Na reli rasloie chawaloks ! 

Emipenk tesh lesetasa, 

Neenuci ka nam wata 

Papaiwm-mitpama timash 

Shirnam n£manak naknwimta 

Amakwsri nam naknwitha 

Klarmaman swiapomaman 

Emik nink tesh kliawita 

Lars twei natesh wa Tenin Swia- 
poin. 

Epap natesh papanisha T6nin Swia- 
poin. 



La paix tu nous a fait entendre a 

hos oreilles. 
Eh ! bien et nous, vrai par oui par 

(par un oui veritable) 
Le fusil avons pose a terre, 
Et nous de ton cote seulement 
Et a ton ennemi tirerons. 
Un seul nous sommes Sauvages et 

Americains 
La main nous nous donnons Sau> 

vages, Americains. 

Celui qui toi a nous 
Toi est venu amener 
Dans nous ce jour 
Vivant toujours sera 
Ailee devions parole 
Dans le vide vite par 
A tous les toi vol par 
Paraitras aux Americans 
Un seul nous sommes, &c. 



V. 



colorie, etoile drapeau ! 

Dans toi nous nous placons (nous 

nous mettons sur les rangs). 
Pour nous aussi tu seras 
Ralliement (de) signe. 
Bien, toi, nous viendras garder 
De la meme maniere que tu gardes 

tous les Americains. 
De ton cote" nous serons tue"s. 

Un seul nous sommes, &c. 



Allons done vous tous Sauvages, venez vous joindre a nous ; quoique par 
votre entetement a rejeter nos paroles, vous ayez fait une faute, du moins 
en ce moment soyez dociles a notre invitation. C'est assez avoir un mau- 
vais cceur contre les Americains. Maintenant Sauvages et Americains nous 
ne sommes plus qu'un seul, Sauvages et Americains nous nous donnons la 
main. 



34 PEACE SONG. 

II. 

Allons done vous tous que la Tete Blance engage, allons done, courez vers 
lui, allez vite lui porter voire coeur, vous tous nos freres aines, nos oncles 
(paternels, maternels) nos grands peres (paternels, maternels) et vous nos 
freres cadets, venez tous faire la paix, venez donner votre cceur. Sauvages 
et Americans nous ne serons plus qu'un seul coeur, nous nous donnerons 
la main, 

III. 

Oui, e'est toi et toi seul, Colonel Wright, qui as gagne nos coeurs lorsque 

par ta douce parole, que tu as fait entendre a nos oreilles, tu nous a engage" 

a la paix ; e'est en toute verite que disant oui a ta proposition, nous avons 

depose nos armes a terre pour ne les reprendre et n'en faire usage que sous 

tes ordres et contre tes ennemis. Maintenant Sauvages et Americains, nous 

ne sommes plus qu'un seul cceur, Sauvages et Americains nous nous don- 

nons la main. 

IV. 

Le jour qui ta conduit au milieu de nous vivra toujours dans notre coeur; 
6 ma parole prends tes ailes et d'un vol rapide va raisonner aux oreilles de 
tous les Americains : maintenant Sauvages et Americains, nous ne sommes 

plus qu'un seul coeur, &c. 

V. 

drapeau colore et etoile" (drapeau Americain) nous nous plains sous 
ta protection, pour nous aussi tu seras un signe de ralliement ; tu etendras 
sur nous aussi tes soins bienveillans comme tu les etends sur tous les Ame- 
ricains, et comme eux nous mourons pour ta defense. Maintenant Sauvages 
et Americains nous ne sommes plus qu'un seul coeur, &c. 



DICTIONARY 



DICTIONARY. 



ADD 

Abandon, w-re-sha, p. wre-na, 
/. w-re-ta, imp a-w-renk c. w-re-tar- 
nei. 

Abdomen, na-w-at. 

Abhor, to, shi-wa-sha, shana, 
shata, shak, tarnei ; shiwet-no-sha, 
shana, ta, nak, tarnei. 

Able, wap-sor. 

Abominable, che-lw-it-nenk, 
mel-la-nenk. 

Abortion, n-mw-it ; to have an 
abortion, n-nrw-i-sha, na, ta, k, tar* 
nei. 

Above, roemi. Gen. che-nik, 
ace. and dat. ch6n ; from above, roemi- 
pama. 

Abstain, to, chaw-a-kw-sha, 
shana, akwta, akwk, akwtarnei. 

Abundance, lar-wit ; in abund* 
ance, ma-aw. 

Abundant, lar, pa-la-lei. 

Abyss, krar. 

Accept, to, w-nep-sha, w-ne- 
pa, w-nep-ta, w-nepk, tarnei. 

Accompany, to, twa-na-sha, 
nana, nata, nak, tarnei. 

Accustom, to, one's self, shir- 
tra-na-sha, na, ta, k, tarnei; shir- 
w-sha-ik-sha, a, ta, om, tarnei. 

Acorn, wo-wa-chi. 

Act, an, kwt-kwt. 

Act, to, a-kw-sha. 

Actually, ma-ke\ 

Add, to, {give over and above,) 
shar-sha, na, ta, kuk, tarnei. 



AMU 

Adder, pi--w-she\ 

Adroit, wap-sor, 

Adversary, i-lam-twr. 

Affection, a-ta-wit. 

Affectionate, a-ta-witla. 

Affirm, to, e-a-kw-sha. 

After, e-rw-e-sra. 

Afternoon, pa-kwk-an-mai-e'* 
rw-e. 

Afterwards, a-na-cha-re. 

Again, a-na-cha-re. 

Age, pwi, an-nw-im. 

Agreeable, skir. 

Ah. ! alala, atei. 

Alarm, an, ti-tar-shi^-tla. 

Aliment, t-kwa-tat. 

Alone, ksa added to personal pron> 
ink-sa, / alone; im*ksa, thou alone. 

All, klar. 

Along, to run, kat-nem-akw-sha, 
shana, t, k, tarnei. 

Also, kws-re\ 

Although, kla-pre, n-chi-ke\ 

Always, kwa-lis-sim. 

Amass, to, na-ki-m-sha, wia, ta, 
k, tarnei. 

Among, pa, at the end of the 
word. 

Amount. That amounts to nothing, 
aw-ti-ka, at-shi-na. 

Amputate, to, sar-kle-sha, ka, 
ta, kom, tarnei. 

Amuse, to, one's self, an-we-i- 
sha, shana, ta, k, tarnei ; lep-swis- 



AUE 



38 



BEA 



sa, wia, wita, wik, tarnei ; skre- 
Wisha, wia, wita, ik, tarnei. 

Ancestors, n-chi-n-chi-ma. 

Ancient, mi-ma. 

And, w-i-na. 

Anger, li-wa-tit, chi-la-kwit. 

Animal, ka-ki-a. 

Announce, to, ta-mwn-sha, 
shana, ta, nenk, tarnei ; ta-lw-ak-sa, 
aska, askta, aisk, tarnei. 

Annoy, to, a-na-nwi-a-kw-sha, 
ia, ta, k, tarnei. 

Ant, sklw-ei-sa. 

Antlers, i-w-kas. 

Anus, skras. 

Appetite, a-na-wit. 

Applaud, to, e-a-kw-sha. 

Apprehensive, wie-chw-tla, 
skaw-tla. 

Approach., to, wi-na-no-sha, na, 
ta, k, tarnei. 

Arid, ri-a-o. 

Arm, {weapon,) tw-im-pas. 

Arm, {limb,) epap. 

Armor, {cuirass) krem-na-was. 

Arrive, to, wi-a-na-wi-sha, a, ta, 
m, tarnei. 

Arrow, ka-i-a-so. 

Artery, a-kw-sha-kws. 

As, a-na-kws. 

Ashamed, pi-na-klw-i-a-tla ; to 
be ashamed, pi-na-klw-i-a-sha, na, ta, 
k, tarnei. 

Aspen, ni-ni. 

Ass, an, i-a-mash-kwssi. 

Assassin, pa-pin-she, sa-ta-wi. 

Attach, to, wa-la-kric-sha, ka, 
ta, kom, tarnei ; enkast-sha, ka, ta, 
kom, tarnei; to become attached to, 
pina-wala-kric-sha, pina-en-kast- 
sha. 

Attachment, wa-la«kric-ka- 
was, enkast-ka-was. 

Auditor, am-si-a-rw-a-tla. 



Augment, to, lar-tra-na-sha, na, 
ta, k, tarnei. Mai is sometimes put 
before lar. 

Aunt, parar. 

Autumn, ti-am. 

Avarice, tw-at-sa-re-wit. 

Avaricious, tw-at-sa-re. 

Avow, ta-ma-peisk-sha, a, ta, 
om, tarnei. 

Avowal, ta-ma-peishkt. 

Awake, to, tar-shik-sha, a, ta, k, 
tarnei. 

Awl, sti. 

Axe, kro-is-kan, wat-sok. 



B. 



Babbler, a, na-twn-tla, es-senw- 
i-tla. 

Back, the, kop-kop, si-wi. 

Bad, che-lw-it, chaw-ow, mel-la. 

Bag, tatash. 

Bagatelle, a, pa-twn. 

Bait, ta-kwk-twk-tesh. 

Bake, to, ta-mak-sha, a, ta, &c. 

Ball, ta-nins, i-el-pas, i-la-pat. 

Bank of a river, a-lei. 

Baptize, to, pe-tla-sha, na, ta, 
tk, tarnei. 

Baptism, pe-tlat, 

Barge, n-chi-wasses, pot. 

Bark, psa. 

Barrel, ta-mo-lish. 

Barrier, kra-lar. 

Basket, ta-ta-she. 

Bathe, to, wi-na-n£-sha, na, ta, 
k, tarnei. 

Be, to, wa, wat-sha, wata, tarnei ; 
/ am, ink-nesh-wa. 

Beads, ke-pet. 

Beak, nws-no. 

Bear, {she) a, tw-i-tash, a-na-wi, 
i-a-ka. 



BLA 



39 



BRA 



Bear, to, {bring forth), irisha, 
iria, irita, irik, tarnei. 

Beard, shw-o. 

Bearded, shw-o-ie. 

Beat, to, ti-wi-sha, a, ta, k, 
tarnei ; to get beat, pina-shapa-ti- 
wa-sha. 

Beautiful, shir. 
Beaver, i-ra, winsh-pwsh. 
Because, kwn-kin. 
Bed, pe-no-pa-ma. 
Bedbug, ti-wa-li. 
Bee, wi-twi-nat. 

Before, wa-twi, sra ; [adv. of 
time) wa-twi, Ace. and Dat. wa-twi- 
chen. 
Beginning, w-it. 
Beggar, i-er-ti-tla. 
Behind, a-nak, Gen. a-nak-che- 
nik, Ace. and Dat. anak-chen, 

Believe, prw-i-sha, na, ta, k, 
tarnei. 

Bell, wi-na-cha-tla ; kwa-lal- 
kwa-lal. 

Belly, na-wet, nwt. 
Below, mi-ti, ra-lok, Gen. ra- 
lok-che-nik. 

Belt, wa-la-kri-ka-was, wa-la- 
chw-iks. 

Bench, a-y-ka-was. 
Benign, 1-rat-tem-na. 
Besides, a-na-cha-re\ 
Bet, to, a-1-o-sha, na, ta, k, tar- 
nei. 

Better, ma-i-shir. 
Beyond, kw-nink. 
Bile, ma-resh. 

Bind, to, wa-la-krik-sha, en- 
kastk-sha. 

Birds, the, ka-ki-a-ma. 
Biscuit, sa-plil. 
Bite, to, chem-sha, shana, ta, k, 
tarnei. 
Black, sh-mwk. 



Blacken, to, sh-mwk-a-kw-sha, 
ia, ta, k, tarnei. 

Bladder, e-ws-pa-ma. 

Blame, to, ne-te-no-sha, na, ta, 
k, tarnei. 

Blanket, wt-pas, sha-tei ; ivhite 
blanket, p-la-she, pi-et. 

Blind, wam-nam-sha, shi-shi- 
ws. 

Blood, ti-ni-wi-ne, e"-lwk ; to 
stain with blood, ti-ni-woin-sha, a, 
ta, k, tarnei. Blood stained, ti-ni^ 
woin-ie. 

Blossom, to, wa-pok-sha ; na- 
ti-sha. 

Blow, to, sa-pw-lik-sha, a, ta, 
om, tarnei. 
Blue, 16-met. 

Boat, n-chi-wasses, pot. 

Body, wa-o-nok-shes. 

Boil, to, (act.) tw-a-sha-sha, na, 
ta, k, tarnei; (neut.) e-nrw-lat-sha, 
na, ta, tk, tarnei. 

Bole, twk-sai, twk-sai. 

Bond, na-kwn, m-na-kwn, 

Bone, pip-she. 

Bonnet, takmal. 

Book, ti-mash. 

Booty, w-sha-nikt. 

Born, to be, wa-krish-tra-na-sha, 
wat-sha, shana, ta. 

Bosom, ni. 

Boucan, to, meat, pai-na-te-sha, 
shana, ta, k, tarnei. 

Bow, tw-impas. 

Bowel, large, ark-pash ; small, 
pi-pi. 

Box, a, wa-kram. 

Boy, a-sw-an, tar-nwt-shwnt. 

Bracelet, a-lel. 

Branch, large, pa-tish ; small, 
kra-ta-lil. 

Brave, wie-chw-nal ; as-kaw- 
nal : le-kok-nal. 



BY 



40 



CED 



Bread, sa-plil ; camash bread, a- 
la-is. 

Break, to, r-klak-wi-na-sha, na, 
ta, k, tarnei: to break a horse, wa- 
sha-twi-sha, a, ta, k, tarnei. 

Breast, ni ; the breasts, ne-krot. 

Breath, li-a-shw-it. 

Breathe, to, i-a-sha; a-ash^na, 
ta, nik, tarnei. 

Bridle, sa-pat-sam-pa-was. 

Brigand, sa-ta-wi, kwa-ali, chi- 
a-w-ow. 

Brilliant, lor. 

Bring, to, na-na-shamsh, ma, 
mta, m, tarnei. 

Broth, tw-a-ert. 

Brother, elder, pi-ap, i-a-ia, na- 
i-a-ias ; younger {named by the elder), 
srop ; {by the sister), patsht ; {by 
both), ne-ka ; kwk-son, in-kaks. 

Brother-in-law, mi-ow. 

Brown, lam-t-lam-t. 

Bud, e-kw-alm, tril-rit. 

Build, to, nit-ani-sha, a, ta, k, 
tarnei. 

Burn, to, ehv-sha, na, ta, kom, 
tarnei. 

Burning, 6-lw-tla. 

Burthen, shap-she. 

Business, ta-kwn. 

Bustard, ha-kak. 

Busy, to be, ta-kwn-i-sha, ta- 
kwn-ia, ita, ik, tarnei, 

Butter, i-a-pash. 

Butterfly, wa-lor-wa-lar. 

Button, par-pa-was. 

Button, to, par-kr-p-sha, na, ta, 
wm, tarnei. 

Buy, to, ta-mi-a-sha, shana, ta- 
miata, tamiak, tarnei. 

By, ki, pa. 



C. 



Cabin, nit. 

Cache, a, nit-she. 

Cache, to, sha-pa-1-kw-ik-sha, 
shana, ta, k, tarnei. 

Calm, pesht. 

Calumniator, in-mo-tla. 

Calumny, in-mot. 

Calvary, Calvaire. 

Camp, wa-w-twk-pa-ma ; winter 
camp, a-no-tash ; spring camp, sha- 
tesh; to break up the camp, w-sha- 
na-sha, na, ta, k, tarnei ; from the 
plain on the bank of the river, ws-ta- 
mik-sha ; on the banks up the river, 
ws-tw-nik-sha ; on the banks of the 
river off in the plain, ws-pi-wk-sha. 

Candle, la-ker-ri-ta-was. 

Canoe, w-as-ses. 

Canoe pole, e-i-ash. 

Capable, rt-to, wap-sor. 

Capsule, sra-o-kas. 

Carbine, krat-ka-ti, tw-im-pas. 

Carcass, pip-she. 

Carnage, n-chi-pi-at-nat ; n-chi- 
pi-kli-a-wit. 

Carp, rwn. 

Carry, carry away, to, na-na-sha, 
na, ta, k, tarnei ; to carry on the 
back, shap-sha, a, ta, k, tarnei ; any 
one on the back, ka-lak-sha, a, ta, k, 
tarnei. 

Cascades, kop. 

Cask, ta-mw-litsh. 

Cat, pish-pish, pwsh 

Catechise, to, sap-sw-kwa-sha, 
na, ta, nem, tarnei. 

Catechism, sap-sw-kwat. 

Caterpillar, se-i-se-i. 

Cease, to, for a moment, tra-w- 
ser-sa, na, ta, k, tarnei ; for ever, 
w-ser-sa, na, ta, k, tarnei. 

Cedar, nan-k. 



coc 



41 



COR 



Cellar, r-nem-ni. 

Cemetery, i-aw-a-ta-sha, 1-cka- 
cha. 

Centre, pa-kwk, pa-ckw. 

Certain, nw-it-ka, kw-i-am. 

Chain, to, wa-la-krik-ska, a, ta, 
koni, tarnei. 

Chair, a-i-ka-was, a-ik-pa-ma, a- 
i-kws. 

Chapel, ta-la-pw-ska-pa-ma-nit. 

Charcoal, la-pw-ik, la-kro-ske. 

Charitable, sh-nw-ei-tla. 

Chaste, wa-ta-twi-al. 

Chat, io, na-twn-ska, na, ta, k, 
tarnei ; es-se-nw-is-sa, ia, ita, k, 
tarnei. 

Cheek, te-pesk. 

Cherish, to, a-ta-wi-ska, a, ta, 
k, tarnei ; a-tem-na-sha, na, ta, k, 
tarnei ; at-ker-ska, na, ta, ker, tar- 
nei. 

Cherry, te-mesk. 

Chief, a, nri-a-war, mi-or. 

Child, a, a-sw-an ; pi. mi-a-nask- 
ma ; little child, pw-a-ske. 

Childbed, i-ri-te. 

Chimney, wi-la-ta-was, e-lwks- 
pa-ma. * 

Chin, te-nen. 

Chisel, raps-raps-tli. 

Christian, pe-tla-mi. 

Church, tana-mw-twmpamanit. 

Cicatrix, pa-i-w-it. 

Clean, ki-ak, kw-ir. 

Clear, kra ir. 

Climb, to, a mountain, pa-na-ti- 
ska, a, ta, k, tarnei; a tree, at-ke- 
ni-ska, a, ta, k, tarnei. 

Close, to, kra-la-r^-sha, ia, ta, 
ik, tarnei. 

Cloud, skw-a-task. 

Coal, live, la-kra-wksh. 

Coat, tat-pas. 

Cock, Le-coq. 

6 



Cold, kre-set, ke-pes. 

Cold, a, k-krw-it ; ta-no-rat, to 
have a cold, k-krwi-ska, a. ta, n, tar- 
nei. 

Colt, kra-ik-k-ws-si. 

Comb, tw-em-pas. 

Combat, pa-ti-wit, pi-at-nat, pi- 
kli-a-wit. 

Combat, to, pi-at-na-ska, na, ta, 
k, tarnei ; pi-kli-a-wi-ska, a, ta, k, 
tarnei. 

Come, to, wi-na-skansk, ma, mta, 
m, tarnei. 

Command, to, ta-ma-nwi-ska, 
a, ta, k, tarnei. 

Commencement, w-it. 

Compassionate, to, sk-nw-ei- 
ska, a, ta, k, tarnei. 

Compassionate, adj. sk-nw-ei- 
tla. 

Conduct, to, a-nit-skata-ska, na, 
ta, k, tarnei. 

Confess, to, pi-na-ta-ma-peik- 
ska, na, ta, k, tarnei. 

Conquer, 1-rat a-ni-ska, a, ta, k, 
tarnei. 

Construct, to, a-ni-ska, a, ta, k, 
tarnei. 

Consult, to, sap-ni-ska, ia, ta, k, 
tarnei. 

Contented, kwa-tla-ni. 

Contradict, to, ta-na-war-ska, 
na, ta, k, tarnei. 

Contrition, tem-na-n-mi, nar- 
tit. 

Converse, to, na-twn-ska, na, 
ta, k, tarnei ; es-se-nw-is-sa, ia, ita, 
k, tarnei. 

Cook, to, a-ti-ska, a, ta, k, tar- 
nei ; under the ashes, w-ska-nak-ska, 
a, ta, k, tarnei. 

Cooked, a-ti-she. 

Copper, ma-ral-n-mi. 

Cord, ta-rwr. 



CUT 



42 



DOG 



Corpse, 1-cha-cha, at-na-ni. 

Corrupt, to, si-sw-sa, na, ta, k, 
tarnei. 

Cotton, sil. 

Cough, k-krwt. 

Cough, to, ke-krwi-sha, a, ta, k, 
tarnei. 

Counsel, tw-im-wt ; 

Counsel, to, tw-mi-w-sha, na, 
ta, k, tarnei ; sha-pa-prw-i-sha, ia, 
ta, k, tarnei. 

Count, to, ti-ta-ma-sha, na, ta, 
k, tarnei. 

Country, tet-sham. 

Courage, r-to-tem-na. 

Courageous, n-chi-tem-na, wi- 
6-chw-nal. 

Course, paw-la-wert. 

Cover, war-kw-aw-ka-was. 

Cover, to, ka-mai-a-kw-sha, ia, 
ta, k, tarnei ; shapa-she-mik-sha, a, 
ta, k, tarnei. 

COW, mws-mw-sin, a-i-et-wks. 

Cowardly, wi-e-chw-tla, a- 
skaw-tla. 

Crab, kas-ti-la. 

Creator, a-ni-tla. 

Crime, che-lwi-tit, mella-wit. 

Cross, wa-wt-sa-ke, wa-ta-pli-e. 

Cross, to, i-a-ro-ik-sha, a, ta, k, 
tarnei. 

CrOW, a, ro-ro. 

Crown, wa-la-loks. 

Cruel, sa-ta-wi, chei-lw-it, mella. 

Crupper, tw-in-pa-ma. 

Cultivate, ta-ma-nik-sha, a, ta, 
k, tarnei. 

Curious, si-ak-tw-i-tla. 

Curious, to be, si-ak-tw-i-sha, a, 
ta, k, tarnei. 

Custom, tra-nat. 

Cut, to, sar-klek-sha, ka, ta, 
kom, tarnei ; to cut wood, sar-kl-cha. 



D. 



Dagger, ra-pils-mi. 

Dance, to, wa-sha-sha, na, ta, k, 
tarnei. 

Dart, ta-no. 

Dart, to, p-ti-a-sha, na, ta, k, 
tarnei. 

Daughter-in-law, p-nash. 

Day, ra-ir. 

Deaf, to-lak-met-si-w. 

Dear, a-taw. 

Death, at-nat, kli-a-wit. 

Decamp, to, w-sha-na-sha, na, 
ta, k, tarnei. 

Delirium, pa-lei- wit. 

Delude, to, [in order to take) tam- 
klw-er-wi-sha, a, ta, &c. 

Demon, che-lw-it-wap-sor, mel- 
la-wap-sor. 

Descend, to, a-ik-sha, ka, ta, k, 
tarnei. 

Desert, to, wi-na-nin-sha, a, ta, 
k, tarnei. 

Design, without, a-w-ti-ka, a- 
chi-na, kw-la-li. 

Desire, to, lwk-lw-krwa-sha, na, 
ta,*k, tarnei. 

Die, to, at-na-sha, na, t, k, tar- 
nei ; dying, shi-wet, i-a-noai, at-na- 
ta-ta. 

Difficult, o-i. 

Dig, to, re-nem-sha, na, ta, k, 
tarnei. 

Dirty, che-mak. 

Disband, to, pa-pa-wi-a-pa-sha, 
na, ta, nk, tarnei. 

Disdain, to, che'-i-sha, na, ta, k, 
tarnei. 

Dish, ti-kai. 

Disobey, kre*shem-sha, na, ta, 
k, tarnei. 

Do, akw-sha, anisha. 

Dog, kwssi-kwssi. 



EGG 



43 



EYE 



Dollar, ta-la. 

Door, wes-pas. 

Drag, one's self, sa-pro-na-ti-sha, 
a, ta, k, tarnei. 

Draw, to, kre-up-sha, na, ta, nk, 
tarnei. 

Dress, to, (a skin) pae-la-me- 
rek-sha, a, ta, k, tarnei. 

Dress, to, [one's se//) tat-pas-issa, 
ia, ita, ik, tarnei. 

Dressed, tat-pas-ie. 

Drink, to, che-sha, na, ta, k, 
tarnei. 

Drive, to, before one, i-w-sha, na, 
ta, k ; awi-wk, tarnei. 

Drown, to, i-a-o-wei-kla-mei- 
sha, ka, ta, k, tarnei. 

Drowsy, to grow, pe-nw-a-ta- 
sha, na, ta, k, tarnei. 

Drum, kwi-kwi-las. 

Drunkard, pa-lei-tlalom-ki, ta- 
war-ki, tor-ki. 

Dry, ri-a-o. 

Dry, to, la-ri-a-wi-sha, a, ta, k, 
tarnei. 

Duck, rat-rat, wish-twk. 

Dull, a-i-a-iash. 

Dung, pe-shet. 

During, pa, at the end of the 
word; a-na-ko. 



E. 



Ear, met-si-w. 

Earth, tet-sham. 

Easy, tser, chaw-e-tok. 

Eat, to, t-kwa-ta-sha, na, ta, k, 
tarnei ; to eat on the road, la-se-la- 
si-sa, a, ta, k, tarnei ; to eat before 
starting, w6-m6-tep-sa, a, ta, k, 
tarnei ; to eat at the camp, trask-sa, 
ka, ta, k, tarnei. 

Egg. sw-si-lo, ta-mam. 



Eight, pa-ra-tw-mat, wi-me-tat. 

Eighty, pa-ra-tw-ma-tep-tit. 

Elder, [tree), m-ia-pa-shw. 

Elder, the elder, wat-wima, ia-ia- 
ma ; elder brother, pi-ap ; elder sister, 
pat. 

Embark, to, wa-sha-sha, na, ta, 
k, tarnei. 

Employ, to, sha-pa-kwt-kw-sha, 
ia, ta, k, tarnei. 

Empty, ta-ler. 

Empty, to, ta-ler-a-kw-sha. 

Encamp, wa-w-twk-sha, a, ta, 
k, tarnei. 

Enclosure, kra-lar. 

End {of a thing), la-krit. 

Enemy, tw-al-ra. 

Engraving, ti-mash. 

Enlighten, to, la-krai-ri-sha, a, 
ta, k, tarnei. 

Ennui, a-na-nwi-wit. 

Enough, aw-kwel. 

Enter, to, a-sha, shana, a-shta, 
a-shen, tarnei. 

Entire, na-men, na-mel. 

Envy, pi-na-kai-wa-wit. 

Envy, to, pi-na-kai-wa-sha, na, 
ta, k, tarnei. 

Equal, kwal-re, kws-re, kwks- 
sim. 

Esteem, to, a-shir-sha. 

Everywhere, kler-pein. 

Evil, ch^-lw-i-tit, mel-la-wit. 

Exchange, to, tre-ta-mi-a sha, 
na, ta, k, tarnei. 

Excrement, p6-shet. 

Expect, to, pa-pa-wa-krict-sha, 
(zcait.) 

Expire, to, at-na-sha, na, ta, k, 
tarnei. 

Extend, to, aws-nik-sha, a, ta, 
k, tarnei. 

Eye, a-ches, pi. at-ches. 

Eye-brow, sle-mo-pop. 



FIF 



44 



FOA 



F. 



Fable, wa-tish, wa.-ti-task-nmi- 
tamo ; to tell fables, wa-ti-sha, a, ta, 
k, tarnei. 

Face, t6-pesh. 

Faint, to, with hunger, a-na-we- 
ik-sha, ka, ta, k, tarnei; [otherwise), 
la-wei-at-na-sha, na, ta, k,"tarnei. 

Fall, t-kra-w-krit. 

Fall, to, t-kra-w-kri-sha, a, ta, 
k, tarnei ; tre-tam-che-nwi-sha, a, 
ta, k, tarnei ; to fall as grain does, 
trap-sa-wi-sa, a, ta, k, tarnei. 

False, tshesk, tsheskwit, tshent- 
la. 

Far, very far, w-i-et. 

Fast, a, t-kwa-tesh. 

Fast, to, chaw-t-kwa-ta-sha, na, 
ta, k, tarnei. 

Fat, chrao. 

Father, p-sheut, p-shut. 

Father-in-law, p-shes. 

Fault, che-lw-i-tit. 

Fear, wie-chw-it ; skaw-it ; le- 
kok-wit. 

Fear, to, wi-e-chw-sha, na, ta, 
n-k, tarnei ; as-kaw-ssa, na, ta, n- 
mk, tarnei ; le-kok-sha, na, nmk, 
tarnei. 

Feather, wap-tas. 

Feeble, lk-kap, sha-law. 

Feign, to, chesk-sha, a, ta, k, 
tarnei. 

Fell, to, warckl-cha, ka, ta, kom, 
tarnei. 

Female, a-i-et-wk. 

Fence, kra-lar. 
Fever, la-rw-ir. 
Fever and ague, chw-ei-tla. 
Field, ta-ma-ni-che. 
Fifteen, pw-tempt [ten) w-i-na 
[and) pa-rat {five). 



Fifty, pa-rap-tit. 

Fight, to, [quarrel), pa-pa-ti- 
wa-sha ; (in battle), pi-at-na-sha, 
na, ta, k, tarnei ; pi-kli-a-wi-sha, a, 
ta, k, tarnei. 

File, a, sa-pat-sam-ka-was. 

Fill, to, ke-kwm-a-kw-sha, ia, 
ta, k, tarnei. 

Find, to, i-er-sha, na, ta, n-k, 
tarnei. 

Finder, a, i-er-tla. 

Finger, e-pap. 

Finish, to, na-kri-sha, na, ta, k, 
tarnei. 

Fire, e-lwks ; to set on fire, tansk- 
sha, ka, ta, an, tarnei. 

First, wa-twi ; rw-she, at the end 
of the pers. pron. 

Fish, t-kwi-na-tit, nw-sor. 

Fish, to, (with a net), kwi-kwi- 
sha, a, ta, k, tarnei ; (with a line), 
ner-ti-sha, a, ta, k, tarnei. 

Fishing pole, ti-rai. 

Fish hook, kri-a-chi. 

Five, pa-rat ; five persons, par- 
na-o. 

Flag, cha-wa-i-lok. 

Flame, i-la-wi-a-ta. 

Flask, 6-nen. » 

Flat, ti-kai. 

Flea, ash-nam. 

Flee, to, wi-na-nin-sha. 

Flesh, ne-kw-et. 

Flour, sa-plil-twt-ni. 

Flow, to, wa-na-sha, na,' ta, k, 
tarnei. 

Flower, na-tit. 

Flower, to, na-ti-sha, a, ta, k, 
tarnei. 

Flute, pi-w-ten. 

Fly, mwr-li. 

Fly, to, away, wo-i-na-sha, na, 
ta, k, tarnei. 

Foal, to, ri-ska, a, ta, k, tarnei. 



FUL 



45 



GRA 



Follow, to, twa-na-sha, na, ta, 
k, tarnei. 

Foolish, pa-lei ; to talk foolishly , 
pa-lei-sha. 

Foot, w-ra ; on foot, wi-na-ni, 
w-ra-kilk. 

FooJ-print, wa-tik-she. 

For, ka-o ; for me, n-mi-ei ; n- 
mi-ka-iei ; for thee, e-mi-ka-iei ; for 
him, pen-mi-ka-iei ; for us, ne-e-mi- 
ka-iei ; for you, e-ma-mi-ka-iei ; 
for them, pe-mi-ka-iei. 

Force, r-t-tw-it, kol-tep-wit. 

Forehead, shw-a. 

Forget, to, lak-sha, na, ta, k, 
tarnei. 

Fork, pa-kro-ka-was. 

Formerly, mi-wi, mi-mi. 

Fornicate, to, wa-ta-twi-sha, a, 
ta k, tarnei. 

Fornication, wa-ta-tw-it. 

Fornicator, wa-ta-twi-tla. 

Fortune, ta-nw-et. 

Forty, pi-nep-tit. 

Fountain, nwm. 

Four, pi-nept ; speaking of per- 
sons, pi-na-po. 

FOX, red, lwt-sa ; grey, te-li-pa. 

Freeze, to, (geler), sh6-sha-sha, 
na, ta, k, tarnei ; (glacer), ta-ka- 
ok-sha, a, ta, k, tarnei. 

Fresh, petl-ro. 

Friday, par-na-mi-pa, pa-ra-ti- 
pa. 

Friend, rai, shisk-twa. 

Frighten, to, sha-pa-wi-ei-chw- 
sha, sha-pa-skaw-ssa ; to be frighten- 
ed at, pi-na-wi-ei-chw-sha. 

Frog, a-lw-krat-a-lw-krat. 

Froth, pw-shem. 

Fruit, ta-ma-nikt. 

Full, ke-mim, ke-kwn. 



G. 



Gain, i-she. 

Gain, to, i-ska, i-shna, i-skta, 
ishtk, tarnei. 

Game, ka-kia ; to hunt game, 
mis-tei-wa-sha. 

Game, «, a-nw-aet ; skre-wit ; 
lep-swit. 

Game bag, kla-kam. 

Gape, to, ta-or-sha, na, ta, k, 
tarnei. 

Garden, ta-ma-wit-she. 

Gather, to, fruit, te-ma-ni-sha, 
ia, ta, k, tarnei. 

Gay, kwa-tla-ni, ti-a-ni. 

Gently, tlw-ei. 

Gift, ni-she, ni-tw-it. 

Girl, pte-wiks ; unmarred, te-mai. 

Girth, na-wat-pa-ma. 

Give, to, a-ni-sha, a, ta, k, tar- 
nei ; ni-tw-i-sha, a, ta, k, tarnei. 

Glass, a, pi-na-kre-nw-ta-was- 
mni twk-sai, klas. 

Glass, kre-nw-ta-was. 

Glove, lw-kwm. 

Gnat, wa-wa. 

Go, to, wi-na-sha, nana, ta, k, 
tarnei ; aw-namtk-atsha, let us go ; 
to go for one, wi-na-no-sha, na, ta, 
k, tarnei ; wiana-wi-no-sha, shana, 
ta, ik, tarnei ; wa-ses-ki ; to go at 
large, pi-wt-sha, skana, ta ; to go 
out, at-sha, a, ta, k, tarnei ; to go in 
a canoe, wa-ses-ki ; w-ska-na-tesha, 
shana, ta, ik, tarnei. 

Goblet, che-ta-ta-was ; twk-sai- 
kwk-sai. 

Gold, ta-la. 

Good, shir. 

Goose, wa-nep-tas. 

Gooseberry, r6-nen. 

Grace, roe-mi-pa-ma-ni-she. 



HAR 



4G 



HOE, 



Grain, ta-ma-nikt. 

Grandfather, ti-la. 

Grandmother, katla. 

Grant, a-ni-sha, ania, anita, 
anik, tarnei. 

Grass, was-ko, sek-sek. 

Gratis, a-w-ti-ka, at-shi-na. 

Gray, la-met, kash-kash, pa-pre. 

Grease, i-a-pash. 

Great, n-chi. 

Greedy, kr-nep-ne. 

Green, 16-met. 

Grind, to, twt-sha, na, ta, k, 
tarnei. 

Grow, to, ta-war-sha, na, ta, k, 
tarnei. 

Grumbler, tlik. 

Guide, wi-a-twei. 

Guide, to, tw-a-na-sha, na, ta, 
k, tarnei. 

Gum, ish-re. 

Gummy, ish-rei. 

Gun, tw-im-pas. 



H. 



Ha, a-tei. 

Habit, tra-nat, w-sha-i-kwit. 
Hail, kw-i-kw-i. 
Hail, to, kw-i-kw-i-sha, a, ta, k, 
tarnei. 

Hair, lao-lao. 
Hand, e-pap. 
Handkerchief, tkwei-wei-wish, 

tws-mors. 

Handle, of a basket, pot, §c, 
waneptas. 

Hang, to, chaw-kre-sha, ka, ta, 
k, tarnei ; to hang one's self, pina 
before the verb. 

Happiness, shir-w-it. 
Harangue, to, na-te-no-sha, na, 
ta, k, tarnei. 



Hard, klw-ei. 

Hare, wi-la-lik. 

Hasten, to, ke-to-as-kw-sha, ia, 
ta, k, tarnei. 

Hat, (man's) tak-mal ; (woman's) 
sa-ri-li. 

Hatch, to, ra-ta-tw-a; na-ta-ik- 
ta, k, tarnei. 

Hate, to, shi-wet-no-sha, che-i- 
sha. 

Have, to, a-wa-wat-sha, wata, 
wak, tarnei ; / have, nesh-wa or 
wash-nesk. 

Hawk, kria. 

Hay, shw-is. 

He, pe-nk ; pi. p-mak. 

Head, klam-tor, tel-pi. 

Headstrong, kre-shem-tla. 

Hear, to, met-si-a-rw-a-sha, na, 
ta, k, tarnei. 

Heart, tem-na. 

Heat, e-i-chw. 

Heaven, roe-mi-pa-ma-tit-sham. 

Heavenly, roe-im-pa-ma. 

Heavy, ko. 

Hell, mi-ti-chen, en-per. 

Hemp, ta-rws. 

Hen, le-kok. 

Henceforth, chi-ne-nink. 

Herd, ta-no. 

Here, it-chi-na, ace. and dat. it- 
chen. 

Hide, kla-mei-ik-sha, a, ta, k, 
tarnei. 

High, roemi. 

Hill, pwsh-tei. 

Hind, iapnit. 

His, pen-mink. 

Hogshead, ta-mw-litsch. 

Hole, t-krw-ait. 

Homicide, sa-ta-wi, pa-pinsh. 

Horn, en-nen. 

Horrible, che-lw-it. 



IN S 



JUG 



Horse, kwssi ; race horse, sha- 
pa-la-wer-pa-ma. 

Horseman, wa-ska-tla. 

House, nit ; at the house of, pa at 
the end of the word or n-mi-pa. 

How, mish-nin, mani. 

HOW much, how many, melt. 

Humid, i-a-kle-pit. 

Hummingbird, r-mem-sa. 

Humpbacked, ma-kar-ne. 

Hundred, pw-tap-tit. 

Hunger, a-na-wit. 

Hungry, to be, a-na-wi-ska, a, 
ta, k, tarnei. 

Hunt, to, w-sa-la-tis-sa, ia, ta, 
k, tarnei. 

Husband, am. 

Hypocrite, chesk-tla. 



I. 



I, nk, nes, nesh. 
Ice, tor, ta-ka-ok. 
Idea, prw-i. 

If, pa-ish. 

Ignorant, pa-lei ; to be ignorant, 
chaw-a-skw-kwa-ska, na, ta, k, tar- 
nei 

Imbecile, pa-lei, a-i-a-iask. 

Importune, to, a-na-nwi-a-kw- 
sha, ia, ta, k, tarnei. 

Impossible, taw-na-wa-tesk. 

Impure, wa-ta-tw-i-tla. 

In, pa at the end of the word. 

Inclose, to, kra-la-re-sha, ia, ta, 
ik, tarnei. 

Incorrigible, kr6-shem-tla. 

Indian, ten, na-ti-tait. 

Infirm, pa-i-w-ie\ 

Inhabitant, ten, na-ti-tait. 

Insolent, ta-ma-kal. 

Instant, sat-i-kws. 



Instruct, to, sap-sw-kwa-sha, 
na, ta, k, tarnei. 

Insult, to, w-re-tem-ska, na, ta, 
nk, tarnei ; wa-w-kr-ska, ka. 

Insulting, w-re-tem-tla. 

Intelligent, wap-sor. 

Interpret, to, ta-ma-sw-ik-sha, 
a, ta, k, tarnei. 

Interpreter, ta-ma-sw-ik-tla. 

Interrogate, to, sap-ni-ska, a, 
ta, k, tarnei. 

Intestine, an, ark-pask. 

Intimidate, to, ska-pa-wi-e- 
ckw-sha, na, ta, nemk, tarnei. 

Intoxicate, to, ska-pa-pa-lei- 
ska, na, ta, k, tarnei. 

Intrepid, wi-e-ckw-nal, as-kaw- 
nal. 

Inundate, to, i-a-o-wei-na-ska, 
na, ta, k, tarnei. 

Inundation, i-a-o-wei-nat. 

Invincible, kwa-la-le. 

Invisible, ckaw-tei-kre-nw-task. 

Iron, sti, ra-ra-i-wk. 

Irritate, to, ska-pa-li-wa-ti-ska, 
a, ta, k, tarnei ; to become irritated, 
is-ser-sa, na, ta, nk, tarnei. 

Island, e-ma, ma-wi. 



Jaw, em. 

Jay, ai-ai. 

Jealous, pa-ler-tla. 

Joy, kwa-tlat. 

Judge, to, na-te-no-ska, na, ta, 
k, tarnei. 

Judgment, na-te-not. 

Juggle, to, lar-pi-ska, a, ta, k, 
tarnei. 

Juggler, tw-a-ti. 



LAU 

K. 

Keep, to, nak-no-i-sha, a, ta, k, 
tarnei. 

Kernel, tem-la-tem-la. 

Kettle, twk-sai. 

Key, wa-rel-pa-was. 

Kick, to, pa-ta-na-wi-na-sha, na, 
ta, k, tarnei. 

Kill, to, pi-at-na-sha, na, ta, k, 
tarnei ; pi-kli-a-wi-sha, ia, ta, k, 
tarnei. 

Kindle, to, e-bvk-sha, shana, ta, 
k, tarnei. 

King, mi-a-war ; mi-or. 

Kiss, por-sa. 

Kneel, to, op-te-na-ik-sha, aika, 
aikta, ik, tarnei. 

Knife, ra-pils-mi, krwt-krwt-li. 

Knot, to, wa-la-krik-ska, en- 
kast-sha. 

Know, to, a-shw-kwa-sha, na, 
ta, k, tarnei ; shw-kwa-ni-sha ; 
teksha, skana, ta, om ; te-ka-ni-sha, 
ia, ta, k, tarnei. 



Lace, to, ta-mas-ks-sha, ka, ta, 
am, tarnei. 

Ladder, wa-ti-ka-tla. 

Lake, wa-tam. 
* Lame, kar-ni. 

Lamprey, a-swm, ka-sw-ias. 

Land, to, a-lei-sha, shana, ta, 
ak, tarnei. 

Language, na-twn, es-se-aw-it. 

Large, n-cki. 

Lark, rol-rol. 

Last, la-kre-sa-tla, a-nak. 

Laugh, to, ti-a-sha, na, ta, k, 
tarnei ; we do not laugh, chaw-tes-ti- 
a-sha ; to laugh at, sa-pe-lem-sa, na, 
ta, k, tarnei. 



48 LIT 

Law, ta-ma-nw-it. 

Lazy, e-tok-tla. 

Lead, to, na-na-sha, na, ta, k, 
tarnei ; to lead a horse, ti-men-ta-ti- 
sha, n, ta, k, tarnei. 

Leaf, apr-apr. 

Lean, kra-io. 

Leap, t-lwp. 

Leap, to, tlwp-ska, na, ta, k, 
tarnei. 

Learned, wap-sor. 

Leather, e-par. 

Leave, to, w-re"-sha, na, ta, k, 
tarnei ; wia-nok-sha. 

Leech, 1-kop-sha. 

Leg, w-ra. 

Lend, to, w-emp-shi-sha, a, ta, 
k, tarnei. 

Lengthen, to, at-shar-to-sha, 
skana, ta, newk, tarnei. 

Less, ma-i-ka-i-wa, mai-me-la. 

Letter, ti-mash. 

Liar, ckesk-tla. 

Lick, to, me-lai-me-lai-nra, na, 
ta, k, tarnei. 

Lie, to, chesk-sha, na, ta, k, tar- 
nei. 

Lie, to, down, pi-na-o-re-sha, na, 
ta, nk, tarnei ; mam-rw-i-sha, na, 
ta, k, tarnei. 

Life, wa-krish-wit. 

Light, adj. por. 

Light, «, la-ka ir-ri-ta-was, ra-ir. 

Light, to, a pipe, wa-lok-ska, 
skana, ta, k, tarnei. 

Like, kws-re". 

Linen, ta-rws-mi. 

Lip, em. 

Listen, to, met-si-a-rw-a-sha, na, 
ta, k, tarnei ; a-in-sha, na, ta, k, 
tarnei. 

Little, ik-siks, wap-tai, ik-kes, 
i-kat-i-kat. 



MAT 



49 



MUR 



Little, a, ik-kes, me-la. 

Liver, ma-kresh. 

Living, wa-krisk. 

Load, to, skapa-skap-ska, a, ta, 
k, tarnei ; a load, skap-ske. 

Loan, w-emp-skit. 

Lodge, nit. 

Long, kat-nam. 

Lose, w-re-ska, na, ta, k, tarnei. 

Louse, (of head,) a-pen ; (of 
body,) pa-w-Iwk. 

Love, a-ta-wit. 

Love, to, at-ker-ska, na, ta, ker, 
tarnei ; tem-na-ska, nana, ta, nak, 
tarnei. Speaking of little children 
and animals they say, nem-no-ska ; 
aimer des yeux, at-skes-wi-ska, "wia, 
ta, ik, tarnei ; to have an affection 
for, a-ta-wiska, ata-wia, ita, ik, tar- 
nei. 

LOW, miti ; low people, o-lim-ten ; 
s-lim-na-ti-ta-it, o-lini-pas-ton. 

Lung, skw-skop. 



M. 



Mad, pa-lei. 

Magpie, ai-ai. 

Maize, stwrs-wa-kwl. 

Man, winsk, ten, na-ti-tait; men, 
ten-ma, na-ti-tait-ma, winskma. 

Mane, to-ta-nik. 

Manner, tra-nat. 

Many, lar, lir, r-lak, pa-la-lei. 

Mare, ai-et-ws-kws-s6. 

Mark, ti-mash. 

Mark, to, ti-ma-ska, na, ta, k, 
tarnei. 

Marrow, ta-po. 

Master, kw-tli. 

Mat, skw-as, ont-ko, klim. 

Matches, tw-nis. 
7 



Me, ink, in. 

Meadow, (on the mountains) tak ; 
(in the plains) e-i-par. 

Measure, to, ti-ta-ma-ska, na, 
ta, k, tarnei. 

Medal, wei-wisk. 

Medecine, plar; (Indian Jug- 
glery) ta-o-ti-nwk. 

Medecineman, tw-a-ti. 

Meet, to, ws-ta-mi-a-ska, na, ta, 
k, tarnei. 

Middle, pa-kwk, pa-ckw. 

Milk, ne-krot. 

Milk, to, ska-pa-wa-na-ska, na, 
ta, k, tarnei. 

Mingle, to, ei-tw-a-ska, na, ta, 
k, tarnei. 

Mint, a-skw-ra-skw-ra. 

Miserable, cki-a-wo, sk-nw-ei, 
i-a-o. 

Miss, to, a blow, wop-tai-ska, a, 
ta, k, tarnei. 

Mist, ti-na-iks, pas-tsat. 

Moment, sa-ti-kws. 

Month, al-ra-ir. 

Moon, al-rair. 

Morning, skw-i-pa. 

Mother, p-cka. 

Mother-in-law, p-nask. 

Mould, si-sw. 

Mouldy, to grow, si-swn-ra, a, 
ta, k, tarnei. 

Mount, a horse, wa-ska-ska, na, 
ta, k, tarnei. 

Mountain, pe-tra-nok. 

Mouse, la-kas. 

Mouth, em; of a river, pa-skin- 
ki-ot. 

Much, lar. lir, r-lak, pa-la-lei. 

Mud, me-kl-kl ; to make a mud 
vail, ta-iiui-klak-ska, me-kl-kl-cki. 

Muddy, mc-kl-kl-ie. 

Mule, i-a-mask-kws-si. 

Murder, pi-at-nat, pi-kli-a-wit. 



NOT 



50 



ORP 



Murderer, pa-pinsh, pi-at-na- 
tla, pi-kli-a-wi-tla. 
Music, w-em-pash. 
Muzzle, nws-no. 
My, n-mi, en-mi. 



K 



Nail, {ongle) a-sa, (clou) wa-kr- 
pa-was. 

Naked, aw-nam-ke, ro-yam-ro- 
yam. 

Name, wa-nitsh, -wa-ni-kw-it, 

Name, to, wa-nik-sha, a, ta, k, 
tarnei. 

Named, to be, pina before the verb. 

Near, tsi-wes, sa. Gen. sa-ke- 
nik. Dat. sa-i-a-o. Sa governs the 
dative except in sa-en-mi-o, near me. 

Neck, ta-nw-et. 

Needle, ckaw-a-epi. 

Negro, sh-mwk-ten. 

Neigh, to, i-nem-ra, ma, ta, k, 
tarnei. 

Nephew, pitr, pimr. 

Nerve, w-it-ses. 

Net, hand net, koi-kw ; long net, 
t-k-ni. 

Never, cliaw-mwn. 

New, ckem-te. 

News, ta-mo, ta-lw-askt. 

Niece, pitr, pimr, pa-i-a. 

Night, t-sat ; by night, taw, be- 
fore the verb, I write by night, taw-ti- 
ma-shes. 

Nine, se-meskt. 

Ninety, se-mesk-tep-tit. 

No, chaw, we-twn. 

No, (adj.), ckaw-nars, ckaw-shin. 

Nocturnal, t-sat-pa-ma. 

Noon, pa-kwk-an. 

Nose, nws-no. 

Not at all, chaw-me-nan. 



Nothing, ckaw-twn ; that amount 
■o nothing, a-w-ti-ka, at-shi-na. 

Now, i-cki-i-kwak, chi-kwk. 

Number, to, ti-ta-ma-sha, na, 
ta, k, tarnei. 

Numerous, lar, lir, pa-la-lei, 
re-lak. 

Nurse, to, (suckle), ska-pa-lw- 
lwk-sha, ka, ta, lwk, tarnei. 

Nut, kw-kwsh. 



O. 



Oak, sw-nips. 

Oar, kro-i-a. 

Object, ta-kwn, sho-a-chin. 

Obscure, ta-ham. 

Obstinate, to be, kre-shem-sha, 
na, ta, k, tarnei. 

Occupy, kwt-kw-sha, ia, ta, k, 
tarnei ; ra-nei-sha. 

Odor, ti-wat. 

Of, n-mi. 

Oh, a-tei. 

Oil, wo-litsht. 

Oil, to, wo-lit-shi-sha, a, ta, k, 
tarnei. 

Old, for things, mi-ma ; for males. 
rw-sat, rw-sa-nat ; for females, tle- 
ma-ma ; to grow old, rw-sa-twi-ssa, 
a, ta, k, tarnei. 

One, nars, lars, sra. 

Onion, shak. 

Open, to, n. (as flowers,) wa-pok- 
sha ; as an egg, wa^prk-sha ; act. a- 
sha-relp-sha, a, ta, k, tarnei. 

Order, in order to, kwn-kin ; or 
by the gerundive in tesh ; in order to 
go to heaven, roemitscken winatesh. 

Order, an, ta-ma-nw-it. 

Order, to, ta-ma-nwi-ska, a, ta, 
k, tarnei. 

Orphan, a-na-tat. 



PEB 



51 



PLE 



Osier, te-tar-she. 

Other, te-ner. 

Our, ne-emi, na-ami. 

Outside Of, am-cke-nik, ace. and 
dat. am-chen. 

Oven, ta-ma-ka-was. 

Over and above, cka-aw-ka. 

Overflow, to, i-a-o-wei-na-ska. 

Owl, ka-ka-tla, a-mask, mi-ma- 
no. 

Ox, mws-mus, mws-mws-in. 



Paddle, kro-i-a. 

Pain, pa-i-w-it. 

Paint, to smear one's self with 
paint, pi-na-tra-o-i-ska, na, ta, nak, 
tarnei. 

Paint, to, tra-wi-a-ska, na, ta, k, 
tarnei ; to paint one's self, pina be- 
fore the verb. 

Palisade, em-ma. 

Pantaloons, sw-la-tas, ni-atsh. 

Papa, te-ta, to-ta. 

Paper, ti-mash. 

Paradise, rce-mi-pa-ma-tet- 
sliam. 

Park, kra-lar. 

Partridge, karno. 

Passage of a river, i-a-ro-ikt, i- 
a-ro-ik-tesh. 

Pasture, to, spa-ta-sa, na, ta, k, 
tarnei. 

Path, i-chet. 

Paunch, ark-pash. 

Paw, w-ra. 

Pay, i-w-sha, i-wsk-na, i-wsk-ta, 
i-wshk, tarnei. 

Pea, le-pois. 

Pear, clii-cha-i-a, cki-cka. 

Pearl, ke-pet. 

Pebble, p-shw-a. 



Pectoral, ni-pa-ma. 

Peel, to, mi-wk-ska, ka, ta, k> 
tarnei. 

Pensive, prw-i-tla. 

People, ten-ma, na-ti-tait-ma. 

Perch, e-lw-kas. 

Perhaps, kwa-mish, mish-kwak, 
kwak. 

Perish, to, at-na-sha, klia-wi- 
ska. 

Persevere, twa-na-sha-kwa-lis- 
sim. 

Persist, kre-skem-ska. 

Person, ska-kwn, sko-a-skin. 

Pervert, cke-lw-it-ska-pa-tra- 
na-ska, na, ta, k, tarnei. 

Pheasant, pti. 

Physician, tok-ter, plar-i-tla. 

Pickpocket, pa-rw-i-tlam. 

Picture, ti-mask. 

Pigeon, me-tal-lo. 

Pimple, sw-swms. 

Pin, ka-pws. 

Pine, ta-pask 

Pipe, wa-pai, cka-la-met. 

Pipe stem, pat-sa-kas. 

Pistol, ikat-i-kat-tw-im-pas, kai- 
wa-tw-im-pas. 

Pity, to, sknw-ei-ska, eia, eita, 
nem, tarnei. 

Place, n-ma-kwn. 

Plait, to, wa-pa-ska, na, ta, k, 
tarnei. 

Plant, to, ta-ma-nik-ska, a, ta. 
k, tarnei. 

Plate, ti-kai. 

Play, to, a-nw-ei-sha, skre-wi- 
ska, lep-swi-sa, a, ta, k, tarnei ; with 
the hand, pa-li-o-ska, na, ta, k, tar- 
nei ; icith cards, tam-klak-ska, a, ta, 
om, tarnei; to the last penny, ta-ma- 
klar-sha, na, ta, k, tarnei. 

Pledge, a-li-o-ske 



PUR 



52 



REM 



Pledge, to, a-li-o-sha, na, ta, k, 
tarnei. 

Plough, to, skwa-sha-tet-sham. 

Plumage, wap-tas. 

Plume, pa-ta-she. 

Plunder, to, pa-rw-i-sha, na, ta, 
k, tarnei. 

Pocket, psa-tes-pas, ta-twsj to 
put in one's pocket, psa-ta-sa, na, ta, 
k, tarnei. 

Pond, wa-tan. 

Poor, sh-nwei, i-a-o. 

Pot, twk-sai. 

Pound, to, twt-sha, na, ta, ak, 
tarnei. 

Pour, out, to, i-ar-ta-sha, na, ta, 
k, tarnei. 

Powder, la-tor-tor,, pors-pors. 

Powerful, r-t-to, kol-tep. 

Praise, shir-shw-it. 

Pray, to, ta-na-mw-twm-sha, na, 
ta, k, tarnei ; ta-la-pw-shak-sha, a, 
ta, k, tarnei. 

Prayer, ta-na-mw-twmt, ta-la- 
pw-sha. 

Precept, ta-ma-nw-it. 

Pregnant, i-ak. 

Present, a, ni-she, ni-frw-it. 

Preserve, to, nak-no-i-sha, a, 
ta, k, tarnei. 

Pretty, shir. 

Price, prize, i-w-she. 

Priest,sh-mwk-tat-pas, le pretre. 

Proud, to grow proud, pi-na- 
chel-ska, na, ta, k, tarnei. 

Provision, a-pi-she. 

Purchase, ta-mi-a-she. 

Pure, wa-ta-twi-al, kw-ir-tem- 
na. 

Pursue, tw-a-na-sha, na, ta, k, 
tarnei. 



Q. 



Quarrel, to, pa-pa-w-re-tem- 
sha, na, ta, k, tarnei. 
Quick, ke-to, cho. 
Quiver, tw-shes. 



R. 



Rain, tor-tor, sra-wit-it. 

Rain, to, tor-tor-sha, na, ta, k, 
tarnei ; sra-wi-ti-sha. 

Rainbow, i-la-pa-sra. 

Rampart, emma. 

Rapid, r-to. 

Rarely, pa-lis-ram. 

Raspberry, a-tw-na-tw-na. 

Rat, la-kas. 

Rather, mai-ke-to. 

Rattlesnake, war-pw-she. 

Rave, to, pa-lei-sha, na, ta, , 
tarnei. 

Raw, ra-pil. 

Reappear, pa-i-sha, pa-ish-na, 
pa-ish-ta, nmk, tarnei. 

Rear, anak. 

Receive, to, w-nep-sha, a, ta, k, 
tarnei. 

Recognize, to, shw-kwa-ni-sha. 

Red, {rouge), lw-cha, (roux), ma- 
resh. 

Reed, wa-pai. 

Regard, to, kre-nw-sha, na, ta, 
nk, tarnei ; a-tok-sha, shana, ta, 
am, tarnei. 

Reject, to, w-re-sha, a, ta, k, 
tarnei. 

Rejoin, to, pat-kw-ma-ska, na, 
ta, k, tarnei. 

Relate, to, ta-mwn-ska. ta-lw- 
ak-sa. 

Relation, pen-min-ten. 

Remedy, plar, taw-ti-nwk. 

Remember, to, a-tem-na-nar- 



ROT 



53 



SEE 



ska, na, ta, k, tarnei ; per-ska, na, 
ta, mk, tarnei. 

Render, to, pie-tor-ska, na, ta, 
mk, tarnei. 

Repast, a, t-kwa-tat. 
Repeat, to, sa-pw-in-ska, ka, ta, 
k, tarnei. 

Repent, to, nar-ti-ska-tem-na- 
pa. 

Reprehend, to, ti-a-nep-ska, 
pa, ta, k, tarnei. 

Respect, to, te-mak-sha, ka, ta, 
om, tarnei. 

Retire, to, ei-keunk-ska, a, ta, 
om, tarnei. 

Return, to, e-tor-ska, na, ta, 
nmk, tarnei ; tor-skamsk, tornma ; 
tornemta, tornink, tarnei. 
Rib, ropt. 
Rich, ta-nw-eit-ie. 
Riches, ta-nw-eit. 
Rifle, krat-kati, tw-im-pas. 
Right, t-sw-ei, t-kwik ; right 
side, nw-it-ke-nik. Ace. and dot. 
nw-it-kan. 

Ring, a, so-prol-kas. 
Ripe, ra-wie, a-ti-ska. 
Rise, to, tw-ti-ska, a, ta, k, tar- 
nei ; trak-skik-ska, a, ta, k, tarnei ; 
to rise again, wa-krisk-wi-ska, a, ta, 
k, tarnei. 
River, at-wan. 
Road, i-cket. 

Roast, to, ta-wa-ska, na, ta, k, 
tarnei. 

Robe {of furs,) ske-mor ; an In- 
dian woman's robe, tap-ski. 
Robust, r-to, kol-tep. 
Rock, p-skwa. 

Root, inet-sei ; an eatable root, 
a-na-she. 

Rose, tam-she-shw-n-mi-na-tit. 
Rot, to, si-sw-sa, na, ta, k, tar- 
nei. 



Route, i-cket. 

Rudder, w-skemtk. 

Rugged, krar. 

Run, to, wer-ti-ska, a, ta, k, tar- 
nei ; to run to any one for interest, 
wer-ti-o-ska ; to run a race, ska-pa- 
la-wer-ti-ska ; to run away, wi-na- 
nin-ska, a, ta, k, tarnei. 

Runner, wer-ti-tla. 



s. 



Sack, ta-task, le sac. 

Saddle, kla-kam. 

Saddle, to, kla-kam-i-ska, a, ta, 
om, tarnei. 

Salmon, large, t-kwi-nat, nw- 
sor; small, ka-lor, e-sa; white, me- 
tw-la. 

Salt, sol. 

Salt, adj. so-lie. 

Salt, to, so-li-sa, a, ta, k, tarnei. 

Same, kws-re. 

Sand, ne-nw. 

Saturday, p-tar-nins-pa, o-i- 
lars-pa, sa-sa-pa-lw-i-tio. 

Savior, wa-krisk-a-ni-tla. 

Saw, sar-kl-ka-was. 

Saw, to, sar-klek-ska, a, ta, om, 
tarnei. 

Scabbard, tw-skes. 

Scalp, to-ta-nik. 

Scarcely, ik-siks, wap-tai, m6- 
la. 

Scold, na-te-no-ska, na, ta, k, 
tarnei. 

Scratch, to, ws-kram-ska, na, ta, 
k, tarnei ; pina-ei-a-ska. 

Sea, at-at-skes. 

Season, to, a-i-tw-a-ska, na, ta, 
k, tarnei. 

See, to, a-ki-6-nw-ska, na, ta, k, 
tarnei; a-tok-ska, a, ta, om, tarnei. 



SID 



54 



SLO 



Seek, to, a-wi-sha, a, ta, k, tar- 
nei. 

Self, kws-re ; ne-nik at the end ; 
himself, pen-ne-nik ; ourselves, na- 
mak-ne-nik. 

Sell, to, ta-mi-a-sha, na, ta, k, 
tarnei ; {neuter), pina before the verb. 

Send, to, me-ta-sha, na, ta, k, 
tarnei ; to send or go for, m-pa-ta- 
sha, na, ta, k, tarnei ; to send back, 
e-to-ra-ta-sha, na, ta, k, tarnei. 

Separate, to, wi-a-pa-sha, na, 
ta, nk, tarnei. 

Set, to, the sun is setting, a-na- 
sha, na, ta ; a-nas-kik-sha, a, ta ; to 
set out, wi-na-sha, na, ta, k, tarnei. 

Seven, tws-ras, wi-nept. 

Seventy, tws-ras-tep-tit, wi- 
nept-it. 

Several, lar-ma. 

Sew, to, wi-ser-sa, na, ta, k, tar- 
nei. 

Shade, kresh. 

Shame, pi-na-klw-i-at. 

Sharpen, to, sha-pa-tsam-sha, 
amka, ta, aink, tarnei. 

She, peuk, pi. pe-mak. 

Sheep, wa-o. 

Shelter, wa-w-twk-pa-ma, wa- 
w-twk-tesk. 

Ship, shep. 

Shirt, tat-pas, ta-rws-nmi. 

Shiver, to, chw-ei-sha, na, ta, 
nem, tarnei ; i-o-i-a-shak. 

Shoe, 1-kram. 

Shot, small, ka-kia-pa-ma. 

Shoulder, krem-kas. 

Shut, to, krap-a-kw-sha, ia, ta, 
k, tarnei ; to shut a door, w-esp-sa, 
a, ta, ak or a-sik, tarnei. 

Sick, pa-iw-i-tla. 

Sickness, pa-iw; long, ta-ma- 
wa-tat. 

Side on this side, che-nik. 



Sign, ti-mat. 

Silence ! cho-tra-nak ! w-sir ! 
w-sr ! 

Silver, ta-la. 

Sin, che-lw-it-it, mel-la-wit. 

Sin, to, mel-la-wi-sha, a, ta, k, 
tarnei ; che-lwi-ti-sha. 

Since, a-na-ko ; since when, mo- 
ma. 

Sing, to, w-emp-sha, a, ta, k, 
tarnei. 

Sister, {elder,) pat; younger, la- 
i-mwt, {named by brother,) at-se; [by 
sister) si-pe ; familiarly, ni-a. 

Sister-in-law, p-nok. 

Sit, to, ai-ik-sha, a, ta, aik, tar- 
nei. 

Six, p-tar-nins, o-i-lars. 

Sixteen, pw-tempt-wi-na-p-tar- 
nins. 

Sixty, p-tar-nins-p-tit, o-i-lars- 
p-tit. 

Skin, e-par. 

Skin, to, skw-a-sha, shana, ta, k, 
tarnei. 

Skull, at-se-ra-se-ras, pal-ka. 

Skunk, ti-sai. 

Slander, to, in-mo-sha, na, ta, 
k, tarnei. 

Slave, a-shw-a-ni-a. 

Sleep, pe-no ; to go to sleep, pi- 
na-sha-pa-pe-no-sha ; to put to sleep, 
sha-pa-pe-no-sha. 

Sleep, to, pe-no-sha, na, ta, nk, 
tarnei ; mam-rw-i-sha, a, ta, nk ; 
mam-w-sha, na, ta, nik, tarnei ; to 
oversleep one's self in the morning, 
taw-kwm-sha, ma, ta, nik, tarnei ; 
to sleep sound, me-kwet-pe-no-sha. 

Sleeper, one who goes to bed 
early, pe-no-i-e - ; who rises late, taw- 
kwn-tla. 

Sleeve, kwa-ta-wi-as. 

Sloth, e-tok-wit. 



SPI 



55 



STO 



Slothful, e-tok-tla. 

Slow, ai-a-i-ash. 

Smell, to, act. nwk-ski-ska, a, 
ta, k, tarnei ; neut. ti-wa-sha. 

Smoke, la-teil-ke, la-ten-ke. 

Smoke, to, ta-wa-ri-sha, a, ta, 
k, tarnei ; to-re-ska. 

Snail, ras-lo. 

Snake, p-w-ske. 

Snore, to, tap-nor-sha, na, ta, k, 
tarnei. 

Snow, pw-i. 

Snow, to, pw-i-sha, na, ta, k, 
tarnei. 

Snowshoe, e-no. 

Soap, sa-pa-ir-a-was, sa-pa-i- 
rws. 

Soften, tla-war-aniska. 

Softly, tlw-ei. 

Soil, tet-skam. 

Some, some one, nars. 

Son, isht, 

Son-in-law, p-skes. 

Song, wem-pash. 

Soon, ke-to. 

Soul, ka-skw-it. 

Sound, to, (sonner), wa-tik-ska, 
a, ta, kom, tarnei. 

Soup, la soup, la kamine. 

Sour, plar ; to be sour; skrw-lw- 
lam-sha, skana, ta, k, tarnei. 

Sourness, skrw-lw-tat. 

Sow, to, (plant), ta-ma-nik-ska, 
a, ta, om, tarnei. 

Spade, wa-po-i-kws-ta-tla, wa- 
ta-ta-was, wa-po-i-ka-was. 

Speak, to, na-twn-ska, na, ta, k, 
tarnei ; esse-nwi-ssa, a, ta, k, tar- 
nei. 

Spell, to cast a, wa-tei-i-ska, a, 
ta, k, tarnei. 

Spider, w-ral-ra-li. 

Spirit, wap-sor. 



Spit, to, ka-klik-ska, skana, ta, 
ink, tarnei. 

Spite, in spite of, kla-pre, n-cki- 
ke. 

Spittle, ka-kli-as. 

Split, a, wa-cker-ni. 

Split, to, wa-cker-ska, na, ta, 
nak, tarnei. 

Spoon, so-ras. 

Spot, cke-mak 

Spring, wa-wa-rwm, wo-rwm. 

Sprinkle, to, i-a-ri-ka-ska-ska, 
na, ta, k, tarnei. 

Sprout, ta-war-ska, na, ta, k, 
tarnei. 

Spur, trap -ta-na- was. 

Squirrel, ni-se's ; ground squirrel, 
le-mi-a. 

Stag, i-a-mask. 

Stallion, ta-la-ie\ 

Stammer, to, em-ke-ka-wi-ska, 
a, ta, k, tarnei. 

Stammerer, em-k-kwa. 

Stand, to, up, tw-ti-ska, tra- 
ckik-ska, ka, ta, k, tarnei. 

Star, ras-lo. 

Stark, klw-ei. 

Stay, to, at, tra-na-ska, w-ska- 
ik-ska. 

Steal, to, pa-rw-i-ska, a, ta, k, 
tarnei. 

Steel, sti ; a- steel to strike fire, 
tw-nis. 

Steer, to, a canoe, w-skemtk-ska, 
a, ta, k, tarnei. 

Stick, tw-kask. 

Stilts, wi-na-ta-was. 

Stink, to, i-la-ti-warska, na, ta, 
k, tarnei. 

Stinking, si-sw. 

Stirrup, tw-na-kri-ka-was. 

Stocking, w-ski-aks. 

Stomach, na-wat, nwt. 

Stone, p-skw-a. 



SWI 



56 



THO 



Story, ta-mo, ta-lw-askt. 

Stop, to, act. ei-krunk-ska, ska- 
na, ta, om, tarnei ; neut. for a mo- 
ment, tra-w-ser-sa, na, ta, k, tarnei ; 
forever, w-ser-sa, na, ta, k, tarnei. 

Stove, i-lat-shra-was. 

Stranger, te-ner, ski-wa-nisk. 

Strangle, to, ckaw-kre-ska, na, 
ta, k, tarnei. 

Straw, shw-ist. 

Strength, r-t-tw-it, kol-tep-wit. 

Strike, to, ti-wi-ska, a, ta, k, 
tarnei. 

Striped, tam-kla-ke, tam-a-kla- . 
ke. 

Strong, r-t-to, kol-tep. 

Stubborn, kre-skem. 

Such, sha-kwn, sko-a-skin. 

Suffer, to, pa-i-w-wi-ska, a, ta, 
k, tarnei. 

Sugar, skw-ker. 

Summer, re-mam, ska-tem. 

Sun, an. 

Sunrise, an-asha, an-atra. 

Sunset, an-asht. 

Sup, to, t-kwa-ta-ska, na, ta, k, 
tarnei. 

Supple, tla-war. 

Surely, nw-it-ka, kw-i-ain. 

Swallow, to, ne-krwn-sha, na, 
ta, kn, tarnei. 

Sweat, lat-tlat. 

Sweat, to, lat-tla-sha, na, ta, k, 
tarnei. 

Sweating lodge, ro-i-aksh ; to 
take a sweat, ro-i-akska, a, ta, k, 
tarnei. 

Sweet, tsi. 

Swell, to, tet-sha, na, ta, k, tar- 
nei ; pw-la-ska, na, ta, k, tarnei. 

Swim, to, sk*mw-ei-ska, ka, ta, 
k, tarnei. 



T. 

Table, ta-tla-elw-kas. 

Tail, tw-in, ras-ros; having a 
tail, twin-ie. 

Take, to take away, w-nep-ska 
a, ta, k, tarnei. 

Tallow, i-a-pask. 

Tame, to, 1-rat-a-niska. 

Taste, to, am-si-la-wi-sha. 

Tattoo, to, pina-tra-wi-a-ska, na, 
ta, k, tarnei ; tattooed, tra-wi-a-ni. 

Tea, le tke. 

Teach, to, sap-sw-kwa-sha, na, 
ta, k, tarnei. 

Tear, il-pwl. 

Tear, to, [pluck away,) tsa-rolk- 
ska, a, ta, om, tarnei. 

Ten, pw-tempt. 

Tent, nit, sil-kaws. 

That one, (celui, celle,) ana- 
pewk, pi. a-na-kw-mak, a-na-pe- 
mak. 

The, nem at the end of the word. 

Their, pe-mink. 

Then, k-pailk, ana-ckare. 

There, i-kw-nak, kw-nak. 

Therefore, kwn-kin. 

They, pe-mak. 

Thick, te-nw-pa-kam. 

Thief, pa-rw-i-tlam. 

Thing, ta-kwn, to-a-skin. 

Think, to think one's self, pi-na- 
pri-na-ska, na, ta, k, tarnei 

Thirst, cke-tat. 

Thirsty, to be, cke-taska, na, 
ta, k, tarnei. 

Thirteen, pw-tempt-wi-na-me"- 
tat. 

Thirty, me-tap-tit. 

This, icki, iwk. 

Thorn, tam-kwi-kwi. 

Thou, imk, nam. 



TRI 



57 



VIS 



Thought, prwi-prwi, prw-it. 

Thousand, pw-tap»pw-tap=-tit. 

Thread, wis-ra-was, wis-rws. 

Three, me-tat ; three persons, me- 
tao. 

Throat, em ; nekrwash. 

Throw, to, w-re-sha, na, ta, 
rink, tarnei. 

Thunder, i-nwn-tla. 

Thus, kws. 

Thy, e-mi-nik. 

Ticklish, tess. 

Timid, wi-e'-chw-tla, skawvtla, 
le-kok-tla. 

Tinder, lw^-krwm. 

Tired, to grow, a-na-nw-"*vi-a- 
kw-sha, ia, ta, k, tarnei, pina-tkoe- 
sa-wi-sha. 

Tired, tkoei-sa-wie. 

Tiresome, a-na-nwi-tla. 

Toad, a-lw-krat. 

Tobacco, ta-war, tor. 

To-day, wi-task, make\ 

Together, ko-i-sim, lars-pa- 
sim ; you and I together, na-pi-nik ; 
you and he together, e-mi-ik. 

To-morrOW, maisr ; day after 
to-morrow, sra-mairs, mairs-pama- 
pa. 

Tongue, me-le-she. 

Tooth, 6-tet. 

Tortoise, a-la-shik. 

Trace, wa-tiksh. 

Trap, twk-ske ; twksh. 

Travel, to, wi-a-nin-sha, na, ta, 
k, tarnei. 

Traverse, «> i-a-ro-ikt, i-a-ro- 
ik-tesk. 

Tree, pe-tein ; large tree, ark- 
sha. 

Trembling, wi-6-chw-ni. 

Trifle, to, with one, make him lose 
a project, ti-pald-isha, shana, ta, k, 
tarnei. 

8 



True, nw-it-ka, kw-i-am. 
Tunic, she-inor. 
Twenty, nep^tit. 
Twice, na-pam. 
Twist, to, te-ke-ni-sha, a, ta, k, 
tarnei. 



U. 



Ugly, chaw-shir. 

Umbrella, tor-tor-pa-ma. 

Uncle, pitr, pimr. 

Unconquered, wa-sha-nal. 

Under, ra-lok, gen. che-nik, ace. 
and dat. chen. From beneath, ra- 
lok-pa-ma ; ra-lok-tli-ma. 

Understand, to, i-ik-sha, a, ta, 
nem, tarnei. 

Understockings, w-shi-aks. 

Ungrateful, tem-na-nwt. 

Unhandy, chaw-wap-sor. 

Unreflecting, cha-w-prw-ini. 

U*p, upright, tw-ti£, tw-tik, tra- 
chik. 

Upon, pa at the end of the word. 

Urine, ews. 

Useless, a-w^ti-ka, at-shi-na. 



Vain, chel-chel. 

Vase, twk-sai. 

Vast, n-chi. 

Vein, a-kwei-sa-kwsh. 

Vermilion, pi-lw-et, sa-pe-in- 
ches. 

Very, n-nenk at the end of the 
word. 

Vile, chi-a-w-o. 

Violet, lw-cha. 

Virgin, te-mai. 

Visible, kre"-nw-ni. 



WES 



58 



wou 



Vomit, to, chip-shi-sha, a, ta, k, 
tarnei. 



W. 



Wadding, ta-kwn-te-tesh. 

"Wadhook, {ramrod screw,) sko- 
la-pa-was. 

Waistcoat, wa-krel-pi. 

Wait for, to, wa-krict-sha, ka, 
ta, kom, tarnei ; i-a-rwa-sha, na, ta, 
k, tarnei ; e'-mw-iak-sha, a, ta, k, 
tarnei ; e-mw-iak-sha, a, ta, k, tar- 
nei ; to wait a long while, ta-ma-w-a- 
re-sha, shana, ta, k, tarnei. 

W"alk, to take a, wi-a-nin-sha, 
na, ta, k, tarnei. 

Want, wei-a-wit. 

War, pi-at-nat, pi-kli-a-wit. 

Warm, la-rw-ir. 

Warm, to, one's self, la-se'-moi- 
sa, ia, ta, k, tarnei. 

Wash, to, a-sha-pa-ir-sha, na, 
ta, nink, tarnei ; the face, she-men- 
ta-sha, na, ta, k, tarnei ; the hands, 
wa-bi-a-sha, na, ta, k, tarnei. 

Wasp, wi-twi-nat. 

Watcher, kro-lem. 

Water, t-tshes, t-shws ; to make 
water, e-ws-pi-sha, a, ta, k, tarnei. 

Wave, a-mw-i. 

We, na-mak, na-ma ; we two, na- 
man. 

Weak, shw-krat-ni, sha-law, lk- 
kap. 

Wearisomeness, a-na-nwi- 

wit. 

Weary, tkoei-sa-wie ; to be weary 
of, a-na-nw-wi-sha, a, ta, k, tarnei. 

Weep, nar-ti-sha, a, ta, k tar- 
nei. 

Weeping, nar-ti-e. 

West, ws-la-se-ikt. 



Wet, to, i-akl-pi-sha, a, ta, k, 
tarnei. 

What, twn, mish. 
Wheat, a-i-ta-lo. 
When, mwn ; since when, mo-ma. 
Whence, me"-nik. 
Where, mam, me'-nan. 
Which, a-na-pe-uk. 
Whip, wa-ta-na-was. 
Whip, to, wa-ta-sha, na, ta, k, 
tarnei. 

Who ? shin ? who is there ? shin- 
iwa-kw-nak. 
Whortleberry, wi-w-no, a-tit. 
Why, tei, tw-iei, tw-iao. 
Wife, a-sham. 
Wig, to-ta-nik. 

Wind, w-kri, w-li ; to be windy, 
w-kri-sha, w-li-sha, a, ta, k, tarnei; 
to break wind, tit-sha, na, ta, k, tar- 
nei. 

Window, kre-nw-ta-was. 
Winter, anem. 

Winter, to, a-nw-e-mi-sha, a, ta, 
k, tarnei. 

With is rendered by ik or in at the 
end of the word. - 

Wolf, large, la-la-wish, ra-lish ; 
small, spi-li-e. 

Woman, a-i-et, ti-la-ki. 
Wood, e-lw-kas ; to cut wood, 
sar-kl-cha, ka, ta, kom, tarnei. 
Wood, wooden, e-lw-kasn-mi. 
Woody, e-lw-kas-ie. 
Wool, la-o-la-o. 
Word, na-twn, es-s6-nw-it, te- 
lat ; one word, sre-t^-lat. 
Work, kwt-kwt. 
Work, to, kwt-kwt-sha, ia, ta, k, 
tarnei. 
Wormwood, pesh-ro. 
Wound with a gun, to, a-tor-na- 
sha, na, ta, k, tarnei; with a knife, 
p-ti-a-sha, na, ta, k, tarnei ; with a 



WRI 

stick, §c, sap-ne-ik-sha, a, ta, ik, 
tarnei ; wound one's self is rendered 
by pi-na before the verb, pi-na-tor- 
na-sha, &c. 

Wound, a, a-tor-nat, p-ti-at, 
sap-ne-ikt, pa-i-wit. 

Write, to, ti-ma-sha, na, ta, k, 
tarnei. 



59 YOU 

Y. 

Yard, te-tar-she. 

Year, pwi, an-w-im, an-w-ikt, 
an-w-isht. 

Yellow, ma-resh, par. 

Yes, e. 

Yesterday, kla-wit, wa-tim ; 
day before yesterday, sra-kla-wit, w- 
a-tim-pama. 

You, i-mak, pam, mates. 



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