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(^r^mmar ant) €xtvmts. 







Of that Language are, bt/ an Original Method, 

ANl> 'iJIE 

fttbolar cnablcD to attain, toitfj dEaac anD JFaciUtu, 



k xl arced j xi) improved, 




I. O N HON: 





















ED , 



I) 1) D. 

L' KDirom; kd ai iokk, 


A Ki)nni()U(;() nrl M.nccr.wi ii 


N.B. The Articles of this TABLE marked f, arc cither added, or 
materially altered by the Editor. 


The Genius of the Italian Language, by J. J. Rousseau . . xi 
\ Directions for Beginners, shewing them how to u^c this copious 

Grammar, in the way of a small book of Rudiments . . xiii 
Extract from the Monthly Review, containing their account of the 

first Edition of Galignani's LECTunES, with Notes by the Editor xix 

T Advertise.ment by the Editor xxi 

LECTURE L — On the Letters, and their true pronunciation : where 
the imperfection of the Italian Orthography, in respect to the uncer- 
tain and difficult sounds of the letters E, 0,S,Z, is supplied by prac- 
tical Rules ; and also the sound of the most difficult Italian Sylla- 
bles is conveyed by the corresponding English sound . . 1 
*i Advertisement by the Editor .... ib. 

Rules on the sound of the Vowels E and O . . .3 

General Rule for those who know Latin . . . .4 

E open . . . . . ib. 

E close . . . . . . .5 

O open ........ ib. 

O close . . . • . • • . n 

Rules on the sound of the S ..... ib- 

Rules on the .sound of the Z ..... 7 

Short Observations on the sound of some other Letters and Syllables S 

ATablcof Italian Element a, yi\\\\ the most difficult Syllables exemplified 10 
LECTL'RE II.— On Nouns Substantive, tluir Variations, Gender, 

Number, &c. . . . . • . . 1'3 

Remarks on the Nouns ending in O, and 10, CA, and GA, CO, and 

GO, &c. IT 

LECTURE IIL— On Adjectives and Articles, with useful Tables, 
shewing the variations of all Nouns, and the mctliod of joining 

their Articles with sotiir Prepositions . . . IR 

Of .Vdjcctives ....... ib. 

Of the Articles conunonly called IJcfinitc . . . ib- 

A Table of the ArticlcB and their Variations, with short lU-murks 17 
A Table of the Variations of Substantive and Adjective Nouns, with 
their article, together witli some Prepositions . . .18 




Nouns of the Masculine Gender which require the Article IL. . 18 

Nouns of the Masculine Gender which require the Article LO . . 20 
Nouns of the Masculine Gender which require the Article LO with 
an Apostrophe . . . . . .22 

Nouns Masculine in the Singular, often made Feminine in the Plural ib. 
Nouns in the Feminine Gender which require the Article LA . 27 

Nouns of the Feminine Gender beginning with a Vowel . . 28 

1 Nouns which have the same termination in the Singular and in the 
Plural . . . . . . . .29 

General Observation on all the foregoing Declensions . . 31 

Exercises upon Articles and Nouns, both Substantive and Adjective, 

together with some Prepositions . . , .32 

LECTURE IV.~Further Remarks on the Use of the Articles, IL, 

LO, LA. . 33 

Exercises . . . . . . . . ib. 

Exercises . . . . . . . .34 

Exercises . . . . . . . - . . ib. 

LECTURE V. — On the proper Position of Adjective Nouns . 35 

Exercises . . . . . . , .30 

LECTURE VL— On the Indefinite, Numeral, and Partitive Articles ib. 
Orthography of the Indefinite Articles . . . .38 

Of the Numeral and Partitive Articles . . . . ib. 

Exercises . . . . . . . .40 

Exercises . . . . . . . ' . 41 

LECTURE VII. — On the Degrees of Comparison, and on Super- 
lative Nouns •••.... ib. 

Exercises on the Comparatives . . . . .43 

Of Superlative Nouns . . . . . . ib. 

Exercises on the Superlatives . . . . .44 

LECTURE VIII.— On Diminutive, Augmentative, and Collective 
Nouns . . . . . . . .45 

H Tables of their Terminations . . . . .46 

Exercises . . . . . , . .48 

LECTURE IX.— On the Numerical Nouns . . .49 

H Observations on Cardinal Numbers . . , . ib. 

If Observations on Ordinal Nouns . . . . .50 

More Observations on the above Nouns . . . .52 

Exercises on the above Rules . . . . .54 

LECTURE X. — On Pronouns in general ; and on the Personal or 
Primitive Pronouns in particular . . . .54 

T Advertisement by the Editor ..... ib. 

Of the Personal or Primitive Pronouns . . . .55 



RciiKirki on these Pioikhiiis . . . . . ."JG 

ExiTcises on the above Proiiomis . . . .59 

• PecuHar use of these Pronouns among the Italians . . (iO 

LECTURE Xl.—Clncludhig Lectures XI. and XII. of the Author.) 
On Conjunctive or Derivative Pronouns, callcil hy the Tuscan 
Grammarians Affissi ..... 

Most obvious Meanings of the foregoing Pronouns 

Position of the foregoing Pronouns 

E.xcrcises . . . . . 

Other important Remarks on the Conjunctive and Relative Pronoun 

Exercises ....... 

T LECTURE XIL— By the Editor. A Tabld, exhibiting the most 
important Significations, and a full and methodical displat/ of all 
the Grammatical Combinations of the [)ronominal Particles called 


•■ Advertisement ..... 

^ Preliminary Observations to illustrate the Use and Mechanism of 

the following Table ..... 

T A Methodical TABLE of the Conjunctive Pronouns explained 

exemplified, (!v:c. ..... 

LECTURE XIIL— On the Possessive Pronouns . 

Their TABLE 

Examples on the Conjunctive .... 

Examples on the Disjunctive .... 

Examples on the Relative .... 

Exercises ....... 

R<?niarks on the Possessive Pronouns 

Exercises ....... 

LECTURE XIV.— On the Demonstrative Pronouns 

Their TABLE 

Remarks upon them ..... 

Exercises ....... 

LECTURE XV. -On the Relative and Interrogative Pronouns 

Remarks on the Relative Pronouns 

Exercises ....... 

On the Relative Pronouns .... 

Of Interrogative Pronouns . . 

ExcrciKCS on the Interrogative Pronouns 

LECTI^RE XVI.— On the Imlefmite Pronouns 

Ren)arks on tluiC Pronouns .... 

Excrfist% ....... 















LECTURE XVII.— On the Auxiliary Verbs 

The Verb Ave're (to have) exemplified 

Remarks upon it . 

The Verb Essere (to be) exemplified 

Remarks upon it . . . . 

Exercises ..... 

LECTURE XVIII.—General Remarks on Verbs, with their Models 

for the three regular Conjugations 
Exercises on the above Rules 
Other interesting Observations on Verbs 
Models of the Three Regular Conjugations 
IT Advertisement by the Editor 
First Regular Conjugation in ARE 
Second Regular Conjugation in ERE 
Thu-d Regular Conjugation in IRE 
^ Striking Characteristic Moods or Forms in the 

the Italian Verbs 
IT I. Manner 
H II. Manner 
% III. Manner 
H IV. Manner 
t V. Manner 
H VL Manner 
t VII. Manner 

Conjugation of 














IT Observations on the above iS'*??;^?^ iT/anne/.s of conjugating the Verbs 161 

LECTURE XIX.— On the Passive and Reflective Verbs . .166 

A Model of a Passive Verb . . . . . ib. 

Remarks upon it . . . . . . .167 

A Model of a Reflective Verb . . . - .168 

LECTURE XX.— On the Impersonal Verbs and Participles . 172 

Conjugation of the Verb Essere, impersonally used . .173 

Exercises . . . . - . • • • 175 

If Of the Participles . . . • • • ib. 

Exercises on the Participles . . . • .177 

LECTURE XXI.— On Prepositions exemplified . . .178 

Exercises on the above Prepositions . . • .179 

LECTURE XXII.— On Adverbs, Conjunctions, Interjections, and 

Expletives exemplified . . . • • 

1 Remarks on the formation of Adverbs 
Exemplification of Adverbs under Seven princip'al Classes . 
I. Adverbs of Time . . . • • 




II. AJvprbs of Place . , 

III. AJverbs of Order 

IV. Z Adverbs of Quantity and Interrogation 

V. Adverbs of Quality 

VI. Adverbs of Affirmation, Negation, and Doubt 

VII. Adverbs of Comparison 
On Conjunctions exemplified 
A Caution bv the Editor 
On Interjections .... 
% On Expletives .... 
LECTURE XXIII.— On Syntax, Ortliograpliy, and 

Figures ..... 
*! Remarks on the Syntax 
5 Examples of the Ellipsis 
% Examples of the Pleonasm 
* Examples of the Syllepsis 
T E.xamples of the Enallage 
^ Examples of the Hyperbaton 
^ Government of the Parts of Speech 
? Concord, or right Inflection of the Parts of Speech 
APPEXUIX of Miscellaneous Practical Remarks 
^ On Orthography 
T Of Letters 
T Of Accents 
1 Of Diphthongs 
Of the Apostrophe 
^ Of Syllables and their Division 
Of Words .... 

Of the Increment of Words 
On the Contraction of Words 
How words are curtailed at the beginning 
How words may be curtailed at the end 
^ Of Compound Words 
T Of the Orthographical or Poetical Figures 
^ Synacrcsis, Kjnsynnlocphe, or Sifnevphonetit 
1 Diaeresis, or Dinlytu 
1 Dialoephc 
5 Synalocphe 
^ Systole 

5 Diastole, or Ectojit 
1 Prostheiis, or Prothetu 

their respective 






, ib. 










. 246 


. ib. 

. 247 


■ 248 


. ib. 

■ • 

. 250 

1 . 

. 251 

. ib. 


. 252 

. 253 

• • 

. 254 



f Aphaeresis . • . 

If Epenthesis 
If Syncope 

If Paragoge, or Proparalepsis 
If Apocope 
T Tmesis 
If Antithesis 
1 Poetical Antithesis 

If Prosaic Antithesis, or AFFINITIES OF 
^ Metathesis ... 

t Anadiplosis 

LECTURE XXIV. -Containing Sxjnoptical Tables of the Articles, 
Nouns, and Regular Verbs; also the conjugation of the Irregular 
Verbs, arranged in an Alphabetical List. The whole interspersed 
with useful Remarks 
^ Tables, shewing the formation of the Compound Articles from 
their Radicals . . . . • 

A Table of the Articles, with their Nouns 

Remarks on the foregoing Table of Articles and Nouns 

% Exceptive Rules to the above Remarks 

f A Table, shewing the Universal Terminations of the Simple 

Xenses of all Italian Verbs, both Regular or Irregular . . 262 

1 Observations upon the foregoing Table .... 263 

1 Directions how to use the following Table, containing a Display 
of the Primitive Tenses in the three Regular Conjugations, with 
their English Characteristics ..... 264 

The Table . . . . . . .265 

A Collection of Regular Verbs in ARE, conjugated like Parlare 266 
A Collection of Verbs in ERE, conjugated like Teme're in their 
Preterite and Participle ...... 2/0 

% A Collection of Verbs in IRE, conjugated like Fini'ee, in those 
persons which end in ISCO, ISCA, 8fc. ... 27l 

On the Irregular Verbs and their List, Alphabetically arranged . 274 
5 Advertisement by the Editor . . • . ib. 
General Observations on the Structure and Mechanism of the Ita- 
lian Irregular Verbs . . . , • . 276 
\ Directions, calculated to render the use of the following Alpha- 
betical List of Irregular Verbs easy to the meanest capacity . 280 
An Alphabetical List of the Irregular Verbs . . . 301 
The KEY to the EXERCISES 325 




" Cette lans;ue est douce, souore, harmonieiise et 

" accentucc plus qu'aucunc aulre. Elle est douce, parce 

" que les articulations y sont pen composces ; que la reu- 

•' centre des consonnes y est rare et sans 7'udesse, et qu'un 

" tres-grund nombre de sjjllabes n y ctant formees que de 

'' voyelles, les frequentes elisions oi rendent la prononciation 

" plus coulante : elle est sonore, parce que la plupart des 

" voyelles y sont eclatanles, qu^elle }i\i pas de diphtliongues 

" composees, qu^elle a pen on point de voyelles nasales, et 

" que les articulations rares et faciles distinguent mieux le. 

"■ son des syllabes, qui en devient plus net et plus plein. A 

" regard de Vharmoniey qui depend du nombre et de la pro- 

" sodie autant que des sons, Vavantage de la langue Italienne 

" est numifcste sur ce point : car il faut remarquer que ce 

" qui rend une langue Itarmonieuse, et v^rilablement pit- 

" toresque, depend 7noins de la force reelle de ses termes, que 

" de la distance qu'il y a du doux aufort entre les sons qu'elle 

" emploie, et du choix quon en pent faire pour les tableaux 

" quon a a prindre.^^* 


• Those vvlio ;ire dcsiroui lo see the above judicious observations oii the deli- 
cacy :i!'d h:irniony of tlic Italian lonmie fully deiiion>lriite(l and exemiililu'd, arc 
refcrre<l to llie 7'rf(«f/<e on Itiiliaii proiitniciulioii, prefixed lo ih'- Insi istjc loii 
GiocoNiio, publiiihed by liie Kditor, in 17'J3. At the same time he most inpe- 
iiuously declurt-s, that the above KtrikinR p;is>n^c waM tlien unknown lo bin), 
however similar its conti-ntH may appear t(j liic fcillowiiig exiraet fi'om p. Ix.wi. 
fif the ^anle Tmilusr. — " I'erhaps without rhylhfue there eatniot be melody, 
" tluTe Ciinnot he liarmony in speech. The Chine-e have foiiiid il by means of 
" lonri i the (irreks and I.,atins obtained it princi|inlly by means of rhi/thme ; 
" and the Italians by the natural facility of the articulations, ni\d the just 
" mixture of vowels and eonsorianiB ; by avoiding nasality ami aspiration ; but 
" still n)ori: by that woiirlerful vaneli/ of iimni.i, of wlii( h we have ahead) 
• ' treated." -Eduor 

h 9 


Shacing- them how to use this Copious Grammar, in 
the icai) of a small Book of Rudiments. 

In my lonp; practice of Teacher of Languages, for a space 
of upwards ol" twenty years, 1 have observed that those who 
undertake to study a modern language, may be with propriety 
(h>iinguishod into two very ditVerent classes. 

The first, and far tnore numerous, is that of those who, 
despising all the ininiiruv of grammar, care for nothing else 
thnu a stnatteriu"- of the lauffuafje, consistiuij in a fluent 
reading olsome of the most common books, and the acqui- 
sition of some familiar phrases, to be understood in con- 
versing on the most common subjects in life. 

The other less numerous class consists of those who are 
never satisfied in their philological researches : they wish to 
enter into the real spirit and genius of a language; they 
thirst after the solution of all its grammatical difficulties; 
thev are eager to know all its resources, and to view, as it 
were, all the naked beauties of the language they study. 

For this second class no grammar can prove too copious, 
and it is for them that I have chiefly written the long addi- 
tions I have made to this volume. 

i'licre arc many voluminous Italian grammars ; but none, 
to my knowledge, are swoln with grammatical subjects, all 
taken, like these, from the purest source of those gramma- 
riaii'i, who are universally acknowledged as the Lawgivers 
of the Tuscan Literary Republic. (See farther on, my 
AF)\ KUTISb:MMNT, at p. xxi.) 

1 should, however, deserve blame, if the utility of this 
volume did not extend to the improvement of the most nu- 
merous class of students : and 1 should have certainly de- 
feated the views of the Proprietors, and disappointed the 
PuMic at large. Let therelbre begituu'rs, and those who 
lo:ill)e ^rainniatiral siihjerfs, attend to the following 1)1- 
RIK TION^, and they will find this work as nselul as any 
small book ofrudimrtils, and much more acceptable, as they 

b 3 


may fully rely on the accuracy of its contents, save only a 
few typographical errors. 

Those pages of this Grammar, the contents of which are 
most indispensably necessary to beginners, are here enu- 
merated in the same order as they ought to be read and 
studied, to attain that superficial knowledge of the Italian 
language they wish. 

P. 2. 
Here the pupil will find the Italian ALPHABET, with 
the proper PRONUNCIATION of each letter. After 
having learnt to read it well, neglecting all the rules upon 
the E, o, s, and z, let him go to 

p. 8, 
where; having read those short Observations on the use and 
pronunciation of some letters, let him continue to read at 

pp. 10 and 11, 
the Table of the Italian Elements, and having learnt the 
right pronunciation of all the Italian words therein given, 
he will find no difficulty in reading. 

P. 12 to 15. 
There is nothing to neglect in these pages, containing most 
necessary rules for the formation of the gender of adjectives, 
and of the ^jfural for all nouns. — Let the pupil correct rule 
No. 19, p. 13, according to Note"^, at p. 258. 

P. 16. 

I would recommend to the pupil to pay attention to the dis- 
play of declensions of articles and nouns joined to some pre- 
positions, as given from p. 16 to SI ; but if he does not like 
declensions, let him learn them by practice, and let him only 
examine this page, where the most important rules on the 
use of the article are given ; and then, 

P- 17, 
with its Notes, containing the table of articles, with further 

P. 22. 
He must then fix in his memory the list of irregular nouns 
given in this page. 

P. 32. 
Let him try then these Exercises, to acquire practice of the 
rules he has read concerning articles or nouns, their gender 
and number. 


\\ 23.7, '>j6, i237, 239. 
Ill doing those Exercises, lethiiu make use of the Sj/noplical 
'iiibUs conctM'iiing- articles, nouns, nnd pro/ioiois given in these 
pages; particuhirly as their contents are the result ot" a most 
nuiture meditation on the pages of the Grand Vocabolario 
deda Crusca, and consequently more accurate than what is 
contained from l(j to ^2 of this Grammar. — After he has 
done them, let him consult the KEY at tlie end of this 
Grammar, and let him correct them by it. 

P. 33 to 43. 

I cannot dispense the beginner with reading most attentively 
the contents of these pages, being very little more than what 
the author originally wrote, to teach the proper application 
of (iriichs dijinite indcjinile, nanieral, and piuiiti'Le. Also 
the position of adjectives, and the formation of comparotives 
and supcrlatircs. The whole is interspersed with Exercises 
which the pupil must do, and then consult the KMY to the 
Exercises gi\ en in this Grammar, as directed above. 

P. 49 to 52. 
Here the pupil will find copious tables of numerals, both 
cardinal and ordinal. He only needs to consult them occa- 
sionally. But he must peruse attentively 

p. 52, 
containing the rules for the use of numerals. 

P. 221 to 222.— Also p. 229 to 240. 
At the same time that the pupil peruses the pages pointed 
out ab(ne, he niust read the contents of these, and put tiiem 
in practice as he writes the Exercises, in order to learn the 
[iroper orthography, the contraction, -dud increment of words, 
iVC. &c. 

Pp. 55 and 56. 
Here the pupil will fitid the idhlos oi' the personal pronouns, 
and, at 

the Exercises upon them, which he will do as directed above. 

Pp. (jO and fi2 
will teach him how to addicss Italians in a polit(> way, which 
is done by s|)caking in the third person ol the feminine gen- 
der, both with ladies and gentlemen. 

Pp. (i2 to 70. 
I have in these pages etonon»ically ahiidged what the author 
had originally said on that \e\) dinicult and important part 

I. 1 


of Italian grammar, the Conjunctive Pronouns. The pupil 
therefore must attentively peruse them ; and particularly 
retain the contents of 

p. 66, 
nn. 18. and 19, being the most important rules for the prac- 
tical use of the conjunctive pronouns ; and let him read at the 
same time the Note*", at p. 169, and the other markedf at p. 

Pp. 67 and 70. 
The Exercises found at these pages must also be done, and 
corrected, as mentioned before. 

P. 110 to 113. 
Here the i)upil will find a useful table of the possessive pro- 
nouns, with their declension and Exercises. 

P. 113 to 116 
contain further rules upon thens, equally necessary, and more 

P. 117 to 129,^ 
The same page 1 19 contains a useful Table of tho demonstra- 
tive pronouns ; and in the following pages similar Tables are 
given of the relative, interrogative, and indcjinile pronouns, 
with as short rules as possible, and Exercises for all these 
pronouns. The whole indispensable to the pupil. — Always 
recollecting to consult the KEY for the correction of the 

P. ISO to 145. 
In these pages are contained the conjugations of the auxilia- 
ries, Avere, to have, and Esserc, to be ; which the pupil ought 
to have learnt by heart, all tiie while he studied the pronouns, 
and did the Exercises upon them. The pupil ought to learn 
by heart first the conjugation of these auxiliaries alone, and 
then the whole again connected with these short sentences, 
which will enrich his mind, at the same time, with familiar 
phrases and colloquial forms. Let him also take particular 
notice of the Notes at the bottom of each page. 

P. 146 

is most essential, containing instructions for the accurate for- 
mation of ajjirmative, negative, and interrogative sentences. 

P. 147 to 1.50 
contain E.acrcj5C5 and rules of the highest importance for the 
accurate formation of some of the regular tenses of verbs, 
the use of the injinitive, preterite, participles, &c. 


p. 2G5. 
The perspicuous Table of the three regular conjugotions ex- 
hibited in this page, supersedes the necessity of the pupil 
studying the verbs fully displayed from p. J 50 to 158. 

P. 1G6 to 172 
are most essential, exhibiting models of the passive and re- 
flect ivc verbs. 

P. 172 to 177 
are no less important, sliewinij the conjugation of the rmjKr- 
soval verbs and participles. The Exercises should be done, 
and tlicn corrected according to the Kei/ above quoted. 

P. 301, and following, 
containing the Irregular Vabs,alpliabeticallj/ arranged, the 
pupil niav consult occasionally, attending to the DlllEC- 
TIONS prefixed to it. 

P. 178 to 193. 
Tlie pupil mnv learn by heart a little every day of the phrases 
whicli fill almost all these pages ; and while he improves him- 
self in till' attainment of {\w eollocjiiial style, he will insensi- 
bly become acquainted with \\\c syntax awA proper M5c of the 
lidXvAn prepositio7is, adverbs, and cotijunclions exemplified in 

P. '208 to 213. 
Tin- student desirous o{' speaking, or zcriting Italian graimna- 
liealli/, i-hould pay particular attention to tlie rules of concord 
laid down in these pages, and 

p. 208 to 213 
' will be particularly useful and acceptable to him, as contain- 
ing prarlieal remarks for turning several JVei/rli and English 
iiliunis into good Italian. 

DEX at the end of the Volume, will occasionally refer the 
^ludious to the smallest part of this work, without bestowing 
much pains in finding what he wauls, {'or this purpose, not 
only yvhatever has been observed on every article, pronoun, 
or any other Italian word, has l)(>en summarily referred to 
under each of them, but even the hinj;lisli pronouns, and all 
other ICngli^h words or idioms, of which (lie version has been 
taught in the course of the work, have all been alphabeti- 
cally registered in this LMJIOX, in order that even the per- 
son n(»t >-o well couversaiit with jjramuiar as to be able to 
know at first sight whether (he translation of an English 


word might be expected to be taught in this Grammar, or 
where it ought to be found, may get out of all perplexities 
at once, by looking for it in this INDEX. 

The SUPPLEMENT (which may be had of the Publishers 
of this work) will not only prove to the reader an agreeable 
pastime for his leisure hours, by unravelling the Anecdotes 
with a pocket Dictionary, but will even supersede the ne- 
,cessity of purchasing another book, at least, for the express 
purpose of improving himself in the knowledge of the Italian 
language ; since he n^ay learn by it all styles, familiar and 
elevated, pro?e or verse. 

The Vocabulary* will teach him how to call by its pro- 
per name all the most important articles of life, whether 
concerning arts, sciences, or civil life. 

The Phrases and Dialogues* will be as so many Italian 
companions of various trades and stations, who will converse 
with him as long as he likes, and initiate him in the easy 
and daily mode of speaking in Italy without either appearing 
a stranger, a pedant, or an idiot. 

The Letters will give him some idea of the Italian epis- 
tolary style, chiefly on literary subjects — and the Selection 
from eminent poets and prose writers will familiarize him 
with most of the learned or entertaining Italian books now 

* Concerning tlie accuracy of these Articles see the Editor's Account, pre- 
fixed to the SUPPLEMENT. 

Extract from the Monthly RcvicWj New Series, 
vol. XXI. page 87. September 1796. 


Sfc. Sfc. 

" Though it seeiiis imjjossible for a person, vvlio 
is ignorant of the llalian language, to comprehend 
and retain the grammatical rules laid down by this 
author when delivered, viva voce, in Lectures ; yet 
in a careful perusal and meditation, they appear 
capable of ful tilling- all the promises in the title-page. 

" A few foreiiin idioms* occur in the Enjrlish, 
which, however, are not of such a kind as will render 
the explanatory part of this work unintelligible. Of 
the precepts it may be justly said, that they are ncvv^, 
clear, and well-digested ; and though the usual 
grammatical forn> has been abaniioned, the chief 
j)nr[)oscs of a Grammar seem supplied in a less dry 
and ibrmal manner than has hitherto been devised 
by ancient writers on the subject. 

" The exercises which the Author has g;iven in 
radical words, for the student to find out the genders, 
numbers, and inllexions (in the manner of our old 
school-book, Clark's Exercises), would perhaps 
have been rendered still rnore useful, remote trom a 
master, if they had ixen inserted at the end of the 

♦ Of these I have endeavoured to rectify several ; but, I am a 
foieijincr too : nor is tliere any dillcrei.ce bctwciu the Autlior and 
the P^ditor in this respect, than tliat the former had (hen resided 
in I^nf;l.inil about four years, while I came lo I'iiigl.un! in March 
l/Sy, and have remained in it ever since, a few numlhs only ex- 
cepted Editor. 


book in good Italian,* for the student to consult for 
instruction, when he has rendered them as perfect as 
he is able by the rules which the Author prescribes. 
The praxis which Sig. Galignani has furnished for 
every part of speech, and particularly for the articles, 
prepositions, degrees of comparison, and auxiliary 
verbs, are admirably calculated to facilitate the 
acquisition of correct speaking and composition. 
Many idioms, peculiar to the Italian tongue, arc 
pointed out and explained, which have not before 
been remarked in any grammatical Tract, written 
expressly for our own country. 

" The use of the auxiliary verbs avere (to have), 
and essere (to be), is exemplified in a new and in- 
genious manner;" see Lecture XVlii.t '^' as a 
specimen of the uiode in which the Author has 
contrived to connect the sense tJnough all words 
and tenses of the verbs, with the three personal pro- 
nouns shigular and plural. 

" On the whole, we do not recollect to have seen 
so much useful knowledge, on this subject, com- 
pressed into so small a compass in any other book." 

* The student will find that the improvement here sugjjjested by 
learned Reviewers has been supplied by me at the end of the 
volume : and this Grammar will, I believe, be the only one pos- 
sessing that advantage. — Editor. 

■\ The Reviewers give here a long quotation out of the auxiliary 
verbs of Sig. Galignani, I have substituted to it the reference to 
the Lecture itself, where they are to be seen. Although the Re- 
viewers have honoured the Author with an unexampled long ac- 
count, for an eli^mentary book on a foreign language, yet they have 
forgot noticing the peculiar advantages resulting from ihe alphabeti- 
cal list of the irregular verbs. See the Advertisement I have 
prefixed to the same, where some strictures will be found on the 
usual method of exhibiting them in all other Italian Grammars, — 




The merit of this Graminur is sutiicieiitly esta- 
blished by the authority of the eminent Reviewers^ 
of wliich an extract has been just given.* 

It being- a common practice with the generality 
of editors to assure the reader in the preface or title- 
page, that the work is greatlij enlarged, corrected 
througJiout, considerably unproved, &c. while, on 
collating the former editions with their own, such 
eidargeinents and iniprovenunls prove imperceptible, 
I have thought proper to distinguish the most mate- 
rial of mine with the sign H in the body of the work, 
and with the word Editor in the additional notes. 

The many slight alterations which the text and 
notes have undergone are not noticed: but when 
only a few words have been retained in either, and 
the sense totally altered, 1 have thought myself 
entitled to distinguisii such paragraphs or notest as 
wholly mine. 

W hoevcr has made any progress in the Ualian 
Grammar, will readily agree with me, that one of its 
most dillicult parts are the cor/junctive pronouns. To 
the elucidation of this intricat(! subject the author had 
allotted the two Lectures XI. and XII. IJut he had 

* However lib- ral and diffuse tlic encomiums arc witli which the 
Reviewers have honoured tliis (iraininiir : See a material omission 
of theirs pcjinted out in the luregoinj^ notej*. 

f Some iKttes having rectivcil only uii aihlitiua at ihc cml, llic wor'l Anl/tor 
poiud out wla-rc my addilioii, begins. 


omitted^ as well as all his predecessors^ a full displai/ 
of these pronouns, wherein the reader could find at one 
view all the possible combinations they are liable to. 
I have therefore given a new cast to the two Lectures 
above-mentioned, and made only one of both, with- 
out omitting- any thing but useless repetitions which 
occurred here and there. So that Lecture XIL is 
wholly mine, and exhibits the mnch -wanted display 
of the conjunctive pronouns, methodically arranged, 
explained, and enriched withexamples*and observa- 
tions; the whole being now, for the first time, com- 
mitted to press in Great Britain. 

As to the importance and merit of these additions, 
I appeal to the judicious Italian critic, and to the 
Author himself, who cannot possibly deny that our 
joint f exertions were then greatly checked by short 
finances and time, to give the proper extent and 
polish to such an important production. 

With all other readers I have no better means to 
justify myself than by submitting to their perusal 
the following enumeration of the classical works, 
from which I can most solemnly assure them to 
have derived the whole of the grammatical part of 
my own materials. 

* Although the examples are taken from Cinonio, as well as the 
whole display here mentioned, they will not be found accompanied 
with quotations ; since, to make them as short as possible, they 
have undergone some alterations ; but they are fully sufficient, short 
as they are, to convey to the student the instruction they are meant 
to contain. 

f Let me observe here, that all the part I had in the former edi- 
tion was to lend the Author my Treatise on Pronunciation, an Index 
of the Irregular Verbs, and to look over the revisal of several sheets. 


Vocaholaiio dolla Ciusca, 5 vols.4to. Veneziu, 1763. 
Buommatei, Graminatica della Lini;na Toscana, 

pubblicata dagli AccadcMiiici della Crusca, 4to. 

Firenze, 1760.* 
Pistolcsi, Prospetto de' Verbi Toscani, 4to. Roma, 

Rabbi, Sinoniiui, ed Aggiunti Italiarii, 4to. Parma, 

Cinonio, Osservazioni della Lingua Italiana, 2 vols. 

4to. Vonezia, 1739. 
Ma.strolini, Dizionario Critico de' Verbi Italiani, 2 

vols. 4to. Roma, 1814. 

The celebrity of llie above volumes is so universal, 
that it will seeure me the unanimous approbation 
of all those who will do me the honour of crediting 
the above assertion. 

For the inarginal directions of the former edition, 
I have substituted an Index, which, being alpha- 
betically digested, and far more copious than them, 
will prove of a much readier and more useful assis- 
tance to the student. 

Arabic figures, in regular progressions, have been 
added to each paragiaph, and their series recom- 
menced at every Lecture, for a more precise re- 
ference to any j)artor the work, either in the prose- 
cution of the same, or in tliecom[)ilation of the Index. 
As to the Supplement containing Dudognes, 

* Most inipudcnt siib<.e(incnt cdifors have been found of tliis iiiva- 
liiabU- work, \vlioliavctInii-(l to disfi-^ure, altrr, and oniit many of the 
learned annotations of the Acadtinicians. Let, the reader l)e iiwarc 
that tliis is tlir only edition to whieli implicit credit ought to be given. 


Anecdotes, Letters * and Selection of Italian pieces, 
they are entirely my own addition from other Gram- 
mars and books, since the former edition contained 
none. I am of opinion, that an elementary book 
can scarcely deserve the name of Grammar without 
these useful appendag-es, which, besides being esta- 
blished by the almost unanimous practice of other 
grammarians, they save also the scholar the pur- 
chase of other books for some time. 

Many being apt to judge of the merit of a publi- 
cation without reading the Preface, little caring for 
what the author might say to recommend his work 
in preference to any other, I have prefixed an Ad- 
vertisement to the Lectures on Pronunciation, on 
Personal and Corijunctive Pronouns, to the Models of 
the Begular, and the List of Irregular Verbs, as well 
as to my Dialogues, including some strictures on the 
usual method of treating and collecting similar sub- 
jects in almost all other Italian Grammars. To those 
I refer my readers ; and, soliciting their kind indul- 
gence, I beg of them to remember, that a Grammar 
cannot contain all the possible rules belonging to 
the language it explains ; but that the student 
ought to be contented if the most important are not 
omitted, and if whatever it contains is accurately 
and perspicuously delivered, which I humbly pre- 
sume to be the qualification of the present work. 

* Sonic of these are from well known and eminent literary cha- 
racters, whom the editor has had the good fortune to be acquainted 
with, and to them he begs leave to refer those who might feel in- 
clined to doubt his qualifications for the art he professes. 

TW EN T Va FO U il [.E("r U li KS 




On the Letters^ and tlicir true Pronunciation: zchere the im- 
prr/'(\l^ion of tfic Jlalian Orlliograp/ij/, in jrspcct to the 
zniccrtain and dijjicuU sounds of the letter E, O, S, Z, is 
supplied hij practical Rules : and also the sound of the 
most difficult Italian S/yllabhs is coniej/ed bij the cor- 
responding English sound. 


The roll(i\\in<j KuK'S on Pronuncialion havinf^ been by 
mv leave abri(l:><'(J bv tlie Anllior fVoiu my Treatise on the 
])roiuinriation of the Italian Language, and the celebrated 
proverb, '• Lingua Toscana in bocca lio7nana,'' being- often 
objected to me as a Tuscan, I beg leave to insert the fol- 
lowing observation from the above-mentioned Treatise, 
wlitTcin the origin of this celebrated adage is ingenuously 
investigated : observing, at the same time, that either a 
Uoman or a Tuscan may have a correct pronunciation, if 
lie has bestowed some attention to get clear of national pre- 
judices and mistakes. 

At page 31, of my Treatise, where? 1 treat of the follow- 
ing elements : (See tlie Table of Elements at the end of 
this Lecture.) 

.'J. r. Boft, as in cacio. 

4. c. ch. hard, as in eneche. 

3. ch. Hat, us in occhw. 

10. g. soft, as in seggio. 

1 I. g-gh. har(l,asiiw/g-o//g7//. 

12. gh. Hat, as sfregghia. 

We reail a-. f(>llf)W^ : " 'VUp lovers nf tlie delicacy of the 
Italian language onglit cautiously toguard again>l imitating 
the vulgar ailiongtltc Tuscans in pronouncing too languidly 
the C and (] (snft^) making of the ')ne improperly (hf ele- 
ment S(\ placed in llie table at N 25, and of ihe other the 

French J ; and it would be likewise very blamenble to pro- 
nounce with aspiration the elements 4th and 5th,* as an 
awkward and disagreeable mode to the delicate ears ot" the 
learned : on the contrary, each (^ ' the above enumerated 
elements ought to be distinctly heard in pronunciation, 
without any alteration taking place in the pure sound of the 
following vowel.—- The Romans pronounce these elements 
with much grace and correctness ; and perhaps this sole 
reason has given rise to the known proverb, " Lingua Tos- 
cana i}i hocca llomana •''' since, in every other respect, the 
Tuscan is superior to all Italy, b6th in purity of the lan- 
guage, and the delicacy of the pronunciation. 

1. The Italian Language is written witli the following 
twenty-two characters or letters, viz. 

A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, L, M, N, O, 
P, Q, R, S, T, U, V, Z. 

Which by the Tuscans are thus called : 

all, bee, chee, dec, a*, effay, gee, ackali, ee, ee looiigo, 

A, Bi, Ci, Di, E, Effe, Gi, Acca, 1, J lungo, 

ellay, emmay, enuay, o, pee, koo, errav, essay, tee, oo, voo, 

EUe, Emnie, Enne, O, Pi^ Cu, Erre, Esse, Ti, U, Vu, 

dsaitah. ^^' 

B, C, D, G, I, J, O, P, Q, T, U, V, are considered as of 
the masculine gender, and the other ten, A, E, F, H, L, M, 
N, R, S, Z, are of the feminine. 

2. The Italian tongue has this great advantage over the 
English, French, and other European languages; the 
words are written exactly as they are pronounced : so that 
there is not a letter useless in writing, except the letter //, 
which is introduced at the beginnning of four words, where 
it is silent, as will be observed in its proper place. 

3. The various elemenls or sounds of the Italian language 
being thirli/ in number, as it will appear from a Taijlr at 
the end of this Lecture, and the letters employed in writing 
them being only twenti/-two, as has been observed, some 

* The error of accompanying these elements with an aspiration is very 
ancient; for Catullus ridcules Arius for not o'.Ay aspirating llievowels jireceded 

by C, but even the pure vowels, as we learn by that famous epigram 

Commoda dicehat, si quando Commoda vellet 
Dicere et Hindidias, Arins^inshiias, S^'c- 


difficulties iiecessnrily occur in tlie Italian pronunciiition : 
These cliicflv consist in the di»ul)le sound of the vowels K 
and O, which are sometimes pronounced close, sometimes 
open ; and in the consonants S and y^, which in some words 
are sounded so/'t, in others hard. 

Jh/les on the sound of the Vowels E and O. 

i. The true j)ronuncialion ot'ilip vowels E and O is very 
important, not only to preserve that sweet variety which 
the Tuscans jjive to them, b\ an o/)(;/and close pronuncia- 
tiim, but still more to di>tini;iiish several words, which, if 
E or () he sounded open, siirnifv one thinji;-, and, sounded 
close^ they sii^nify another. Examples: m(7<M\ iili the open 
E me;>n<; honejj^ with the E close means apples. The E in 
pesea sounded open signifies a peach; sounded close, it 
means fisliini;. Jiolte, witli the O open, si<>-nifi('s />/oui'.9 ; 
with the O close, it means a eash\ Colto sounded open 
tueaiis gathered ; sounded close, it sii;nifies cullivatcd. 

^^ ords hivino two or more meaninu;s, though written 
>\i(!i the same letters, and pronounced either the same, or 
with (lilVerent sounds, even independent of tho~e iniluenced 
by the E or O, are very numerous in Italian, as in most 
other tongues, nor can we prescribe any other rule than 

5. The following lists are subjoined to give the student 
some idea of the diflerence of meaning by the two sounds of 
the vowels E and (J. 

E o|)en, as c ill let E close, as ai in pain 

Tcwa — Subject, (in Oratory) Tenia — Fear 

Eegge — He reads -f^'SS*^ — I-"'^^ 

f^enti — Winds f^enti — Twenty 

Accetta — Accepted,/;«/7.ytv?/. Acectla — \x 

Peste—VVMXvxe P( ste—\*ouui\ci\, part, ft 

jMcssc — Harvest Mfsst — Mas-es 

* Afezzo — Means JSfezzo — Over-ripened 

Esca — Let him go out Esca — IJait, Enticement 

() open. liKc n in not () close, like o in note 

Post a — Post Posta — Put, pari, f'cni. 

Torta — 'I'uistcd Turta — Tart 

• Tlie variout »i'^iiifi(aii"ns of .\tcxx<> ilf|n*iMl aUn from tlic (lilTi'iciit soiiiiH^ 
of itie double Z, wliicli, in tin- fir»l iiislana-, is Mjuiidcd rimcma. and in tlio 

oilier ifiiK,liarilii. Sic lluien on this letter at p. 7. Kilitnr. 

II y 

Corso — Corsicnn r\)r50~Coiirse,or race-ground 

Foro — The \yav Foro — Hole 

Roccn — Citadel Rocca — Distaff 

To<icn — Poif^on Tosco — Tuscan 

Torre — to take away Torre — A Tower 

Volto — Turned Volto — Face 

Voto — Void, or the Vacuum Voto — A Vow 

For all other words, where E or O must be sounded 
either open or close, in order to preserve that harmonious 
variety so much adn)ired in the Italian tongue, take par- 
ticular notice of the following' Rules. 

Geneual Rule* for those who hnow Latin. 

6. In all those words which are derived from the Latin, 
and have changed the vowel / into E, or the f/into O, 
sucii vowels are pronounced close. Ex.Jides, hni. Jede, It. ; 
Litera, Lat. Lettera, It. ; Concursi/s, Lat. Concorso, It. ; Cnl' 
pa, Lat. Col pa, ft. 

For another GexNeral Rule, see the Conclusion, 

n. 11. p. 6. 
7. E is open. 

L In all perfects ending in ETTI, or ERSI, -ds credetti, 
I believed ; apersi, I opened : in the first imperfects of the 
subjunctive as amerei, 1 would love ; crederei, I would be- 
lieve : in tlie gerunds of verbs of the second and third con- 
jug tion ; \\^ credendo, in believing; leggendo, in va^idiw^ i 
in the participles present, as cadente, falliui; ; temente.^ 

IF In nouns ending in ENTE, as clemente, clement; 
prudente, prudent ; parenfe, relation ; ardente, ardent. 

HI. All nouns and pronouns that end in EI, bearing the 
accent on the E, as Dei, Gods; sei, six; colei, that; 
cos/ei, this. 

IV. Thee verb (is); e conjunction (and) ; the negative 
ne (neither) ; and in such iuJerjections, oime, ainie, (alas !) 

V. The diminutives ending in ELLO, ELLA, as 
Jiumicello, a little river; porticella, a little door ; and their 

\)lurd\s, Jiuiniceili, porticelle. 

* The pionniiciation of these vowels, accordinc; to the above Eieneial rule, is 
accurately followefl by the Florentines only : even in all other |)arts of Tuscany 
lliey are erroneously pronounced in many instunces. Cittadini and G'gli iiavo 
established the ranie rule, althouKli they were both natives ot' Sicima, and jjreat 
antagonists to the Academy Delia Crusca. Edi or. 

V^f. When it comes alter the vowel /, as tiaic, lie or slie 
keeps; sicc/t\ he or she sits clown; /iii'c, liglit ;^t77/, a 
wild beast; pitde, foot. 

S. E is dose. 

I. In all infinitives, as temcrc, to fear; crcdar, to believe ; 
cailcrc, to fall down ; vciltre^ to see. In the perfects cndirip^ 
int/, as credit^ I believed: timc'i, I feared; atdci^ 1 fell; 
;<(/t7', I saw. In all the persons of the second iniperfects of 
the subjunctive mode in verb-^ of the secend conjugation, as 
io cadessi, I might fall ; (u cudc'ssi^ egli aidcssc, noi cadtssi- 
mo^ rot cadcstc, cg/iiw cadcsscro ; and also in the first and 
second persons plural of the future in all verbs, i\s anurcDio, 
we shall love; amcrclc, you shall love ; credcnnio^ we shall 
believe; crtdercle, you shall believe; sciitircmo, we shall 
feel ; scnlirtt(\ you shall feel. 

II. In monosyllables, as at, (if) ; fie (us) ; 77/r, (me) ; se, 
(himself) ; /< , (thee); Sec, except those which have been 
spoken of at No IV^. of the /7 open. 

III. In all words accented on the final vowel, as prrcZ/c, 
whv; f'tiore/ic, except; cirdr, he Ixdieved ; Icine, he feared, 
,.S:c. — Except ta>ii\ brown colour ; dare, orange colour. 

IV. In the diminutives in ETTO, as Icggiadrclto, 
amiably graceful ; Giovhictto, a youn^- man. 

V. In the adverbs ending in MEAT/.', as egKahmnle, 
Cfjuallv ; (Hiiicfifvolnicnle, amicably; lottdnic/ilc, entirely; 
(irdilmni'nte, boldly, &c. 

VI. Betwixt the consonants M and N, as alnicno, at least ; 
argonicnio, argument ; and before two NN's, as citnio hint ; 
pt una. pen. 

VII. The 1j which derives from an 1 Latin, is always 
close, as, cinis, fides, si/va, simplex, pirum, Sec. ; ecnere, 
ashes; ifede, faith; selva, forest; scmplice, single: pera, 
a pear, iS:c. 

9 O is open. 

I. In all words having an accent on tlie O final, as in tin- 
first persons sin;::nlar of the future tense ofany Italian verb, 
as (inirio, I '-hall love; /(gg(ri>, I shall read; .\</iliio, I 
sliall hear, in the third persons singidar of the preterite of 
verbs of the first conjugation: a^ /////o, lie loNcd; tiiidi), he 
went : iiiiDiij^ih, he <'at. 

II. In alt nionosNllablcs iMuli.ig in (>, ■,\-> slo, I stay; la, 
I go; do, I ^ivo; so, I know; ?/<;, not, «'^c. 

IN. \V lien till' O on finale-, from the diplitlnnig .-/ T ol iIm' 
Lalin, ;i-: (luitt/ii. l* smnus, Sec: oro, g<>lil ; hsmo. treasure. 

it J 

IV. O following U, as in fuoco, fire; cuore^ heart 
Uonio, man. 

V. When O is immediately preceded by an R joined to 
any other consonant, as trovo, I find ; provo, I prove, &c. 

10. O is close. 

I. In words ending with the vowels 01 0, OIA, as /«- 
tatoio, a place for washing ; mangiatoia, a manger. 

II. Ill words ending in ONTO, ONTA, and their 
plurals, A^ affronto, affront, ajfronti ; acconto, intimate, gc- 
curiti ; pronto, ready, pronli ; 07ita, shame, onte. 

III. In the terminations ogno, ogna, ono, ona, one and 
their plurals, as bisogno, Wc^ni ; sogno, d.eam; vergogna. 
shame; menzogna, lye; doiio, gift; perdono, forgiveness; 
corona, ciow n, persona, person ; bastone, stick ; ragione, 

ly. In al! the O^s coming from the Latin U, as pu his, 
polvere^ powder; stultiis, stolto, foolish; multus, niollo, 
much; ylugusfus, Agosto, August; sepitUus, sepolto, 
buried; rudis,rozzo, ignorant; super, sopra, upon. 


11. From what has been said it must be evident that E 
or O open never occurs, except in those sylhihles on which 
the accents fall ; although, as has been exemplified, there are 
many syllables of that nature in which the E or O are close. 

\2. Corollary, — No word can contain more than one 
open O or E. 

Hides on the sound of the S. 

The pronunciation of this letter is one of the most delicate 
in the Italian tongue, and not perfectly understood by all 
Italians ; the Florentines can with justice boast the most 
graceful pronunciation of this letter.* For learning the 
true sound of the -S, which sometimes must be pronounced 
gaglidrda (smart), sometimes rimessa (hissing), the follow- 
ing rules are given. 

13. S. is gaglidrda (smart), as the S in the English word, 

* Beware of a barbarous sound that the Romans and some Tuscans give to 
the 5, soundini' it like, a Z, vvlien before a liquid, and pronouncing pensare, 
scarso, ike. as if they were \vrit;en ucnzare, scarzo. EdiLor. 

f. Before the C()n?onanls, C, F, P, Q,T, as scog/io, rock ; 
.v/>rrff, a whip ; spccc/iio, a looking-<;lass : 5(y;W/r/, a squa- 
dron, sti'tdio^ study, 

J I. Followed hy a vowel, as in srl/a, saddle; Santo Saint ; 
gclsomi/io, jessamine ; sordo, deaf. 

III. Wiien it is double, wherever it be placed, as in lesso, 
boiled; i7iesso, put ; ^mowrtw^ff, dissonance ; sas>!o, stone. 

IV. IBetween two vowels in the adjectives cndini;- in OSO, 
OSyl^ OSJ, OSJJ, us fdsioso, pompous, fastusi ; virtuoso, 

-virtuous, c/?7w65// sctnida/oso, scandalous, ,vc«;?(/a/yse; cinio- 
rosa, amorous, amorose. 

V. In the names of nations endini^ in ESE, as Sveszcse., 
Swede ; O/amicsc, Dutchman ; Ing/csc, Enj^lishman; Gcno- 
fd5e, Genovese; iMilaiicsc, i'vom Milan; C/;/c'i'f, Chinese. 

Note, Fravchc, a Frenchman, is excepted, and must bo 
pronounced with the .S hissing-. 

14, S. in rimcssn (hissing), as in the Knglish word nisi/. 

I. Before every consonant, except those whicli ha\ e been 
spoken of at No. I. of the .S gag/innhi ; as in the words smou 
tare to descend ; sbigottire, to be frightened ; disdire, to 
deny; .vo-rtw/mrc, to undeceive ; 5/eg-^irr, to loosen ; stwddrcy 
to untie; stadia'tre, to root u[). 

I!, in all words which, in Latinand in French, are writ- 
ten with an A, as esempio, example; esdnie, examination ; 
cscrcilo, army ; esorlazione, exhortation. 

III. When preceded bv the vowel U, as ahasare, to abuse ; 
cofifiho, contounded ; oltiiso, obtuse ; dc/i'iso, deceived ; accd- 
sare, to accuse; causa, cause. Except yi/.vo, spindle; in 
which .S is sounded smart. 

IV. Adjectives in ESE, ESI, as cortcsc, kind, rortisi ; 
patese, public ; pa/csi, Sec. 

V. When it is placed between vowels, as inprosa, prose ; 
rosa, rose; Paradiso, l*aradise; xiso, face; Asia, Asia. 
IJul (lii^ rule lias a great niimbi-r of exceplions, and tlwMe 
are many words in which the .S is sounded siwtrl, \\< in //.s'o, 
laugh ; rasa, house; posa, rest ; and others, which can only 
be learned by practice. 

Rules on the sound <>fl/ii Z. 
'I lli•^ lifter has likewise two sound^^, \i/. gagHardai 
(smart); ov rivu'ssa, (hi-^iiii;). Hut to discern (hem pro- 
perly, is, perhaps, more dillicnlt lliau those of the N. 


15. ji is gagllarda (smart), and sounds pretty near the ts, in 
the English words, wits, fits. 

I. In nouns ending \nANZA or ENZA, as danza dance ; 
cpsldnza, constancy ; cltmenza, clemency ; veemenza, vehe- 
mence. &c. 

II. In words having after ^ one of the following diph- 
thongs, lA, IE, 10, us pigrizia, idleness; amicizia, friend- 
ship ; amicizie ; azione, action, azioni, &c. 

III. In general, when there are two ZZ between two 
vowels, as in bellezza beauty ; dolcezza, mildness ; fortezza, 
foriitude; certczza, certainty; asprezza, hardship; giovi- 
Ht'sca, youth ; caressf/, caress ; pozzo, well; prezzo, price. 

Exception. — Some words are excepted, as mezzo, half; 
dimezzcire, io cut in two parts ; intramezzdre, interpose ; in 
which z is sounded hissing. 

-^is rimcssa, hissing ; as ds in the English word Windsor. 

\Q. There is a great number of words in which this letter 
is to be sounded hissing, as in zejiro, zephyr ; znnzdra, gnat ; 
rezzo, shade ; rozzo, rude ; zelo, zeal ; zenzero, ginger ; 
J^o(/iV/co, Zodiac ; sero, nothing ; g'or;26we, a boy ; donzella, 
a girl; orso, barley ; razzo, a squib : but without the assis- 
tance of a teacher, it is somewhat difficult to learn the true 
sound of this letter. 

Short Observations on the sound of some other Letters and 


17. J lungo is a vowel in Italian ; we make use of it at the 
end of some nouns, or verbs, instead of two i'.v, as will be 
observed in Lecture II. where we shall treat of the forma- 
tion of the plural of nouns, and in Lecture XYIII. contain- 
ing remarks respecting the formation of the various inflec- 
tions of verbs. 

To write noja, instead of tibia, vexation ; cuojo, instead of 
ciioio, leather ; librdjo, instead oi' librdio, bookseller ',jeri in- 
stead oiieri, yesterday \ JKridico, instead ot iuridico, lawful, 
is a modern corruptio!., not adopted by the authors of the 
Vocabolario della Crusca, nor by Metastasio, and other 
eminent modern writers, and by none of the ancients.* 

* BuoMMAiTEi, in liis Giainmar, has even called this letter a consonant ; but 
how wrong lie has been in ihis point might be proved by one of his own defi- 
nitions of the vowels and consonants. The academicians Delia Crusca have 
edited tliis valuable work, but have rejected this principle, by uniformly printing, 
with a comino-.i /, all those words in which the J lungo had been introduced in 
former editions. See also § XI. on the letter / of their /^cn//o/ano. lieware of 
subsequent spurious, and ilistigured editions of this c.\cellent Grammar. — 



18. C before E and / is sounded sofu as CH in the I'^n:;- 
lish Avords, chess, chi// ; in all otiier conibin-ilions it has the 
/uir(/^o\ind of the Eni^lish letter K. 

19. The sound of the G is soft when followed by E or 7 / 
as in the Eni^lish words, gr?/i, gin ; and it is hard IxMore 
all other letters. 

When the syllables CI ov Gl are followed by y/, O, U, as / 
ciacco, a piij: cionco, I drink; Inccio, a pike: as the first 
elements of these words chant, chop, chew ; gianiino, i^ar- 
den ; giorno, day ; giudice, judge ; they may be pronounced 
in Ei\i::;\'\sh ja:i\ job, jeic, because the vowel /, in such com- 
binations, is very little !-oiinded. 

20. Those words in which the vowel / bears the accent, 
as bacio, a shady spot ; apologia, apology ; bugia, lye ; as- 
trolo2;ia, astrology ; are excepted from the al)ove rule, it 
being indispensable then to lay a particular stress on 
the 7. 

t?l. G 7> before / has a soft pronunciation, as in weg7/o, 
better: rng/io, I will ; figlio, son ; it sounds pretty near as 
the GL in the I.'nglish word Seraglio. 

Exception. — T!ie words negligcnza, negligence,;?^ o-//^r///r, 
negligent, ncgligcre, to neglect, Anglicdno, Briton, are 
sounded hard as in English, Anglia, (poet.) England. 

22. The letters GN must be [)ronounced soft, as in cam- 
pagna, country, regno, kingdom. It sounds very near the 
same as gn in the word poignant. 

23. GC' before A, E, I, O, has the same pronunciation as 
the ><\ llables gicali, gzcaty, gicce, gn'o, have in English : gua- 
dagndre to gain; read gicahdagndrc ; gucrcio, squinting; 
read gunijrcio ; ndeguo, 1 level; read adaigico ; guida, 
guide ; read giceeda. 

24. The letter 77 has no sound at the beginning of words, 
as in the English words hour, hamonr, herb ; but wiien it 
comes between 6' and E, r.\ind 7, or G and E, G and /, it 
serves to give them a hard sound, as the ch in Chorus, and 
g \i\ geese. 

2.5. The few words in which 7/ at the; Ix'iiiiniing is now 
used, to avoid an e(|uivocal signilicalion, and which are very 
easy to retain, are the iollowin*; : ho, I have; to distinguish 
it from <>, or ; hai, thou hast ; from ai, to the ; ha, lie has ; 
trom a to : hanno, they have ; fr«jm anno, year. In the in- 
tcrjertionc, such as ah! eh! dth! Sec. oh! or pray ! (S:c. 
the 77 serves only to lengthen the sound of the vowel. 

2f). QU hi'{'<y\\'. the voweK, //, /v, 7, is j»ronoiu»ced as in 
the English words Qiu en, r/nahe, (/ait. 

27. .Sr'folhjwcd by the \owels /v, /, is sounded as sh ; as 


scellerdto, wicked ; therefore read shelleruto; sciniildrra, 
scimitar; read shbnittora. 

Tliere are some other few combinations of letters to repre- 
sent all the elements of the Italian lanofuage, which being 
easily pronounced, do not deserve to be spoken of ditfsisively. 

28. The following Table will, however, exemplify thein 
all, and, by an accurate pronunciation of the Italian examphs 
annexed to each Italian element or syllable, the true sound 
of almost every Italian word, more or less difficult to pro- 
nounce, will be attained as near as possible without the 
assistance of a good master. 

*#* The following Table lias uii(ltri;oiie iiuiuheiless iinprovements, and lias 
been augmented of all the thirty simple elements of the Italian laiignage, with 
vari(us exemplifications before wanting: ; so that no less than forty-two full 
lines have been added, which render this Table the most perspicuous and com- 
plete ever exhibited in a grammar — Editor. 

A Table of Italian Elements^ with the most difficult 
Sj/llablcs exemplified. 

N.B. Those Elements and Syllables marked thus,* are very imperfectly 
expressed in English letters, 


English Signification. 

Altar, strife 
Moor, gold 
Papa, Bible 
A pulse, a lizzard 
Prating, steel 
Centre, blindness 
Food, Cicero 
Kiss, snare 
Mob, a child 
Cacus, crocus 
That, who 
Hither, here 
House, dear 
Cherub, quiet 
A chemist, chimera 
A thing, an account 
A cuckoo, care 
Quality, almost 
Complaint, question 
Fifteen, here 
Leather, share 
An eye, a pail 
Key, to call 

* Those to which an Arabic ficure is prefixed are the primitive elements 
from which the syllables immediately following soine of them arc derived. The 
reader will therefore observe, that the Italian language has thirty elements or 
sounds, and only twenty-two letters to represent them in writing. — Editor. 






1. A 


Ara, gara 



Mdvro, dur'o 

2. B 


Babbo, bibbia 

3. C (soft) 


Ccce, cicig7ia 



Cidrla, acdaio 



Centra, Cecila 



( ibo, Cicerone 



Bdcio, Ldccio 



Ciiirma, Fanciullo 

1 C h^r^ ^ 

Caco, Croco 

4. [ch^^' 


Che, Chi 



Qui, Qua 



Cam, (. 'aro 



Cherubino, Cheto 



Chimico, Chimera 



Cosa, Conto 



Cuculo, Cura 



QuaUld, Quasi 



Querela, Questiune 



Qinndici, Quivi 



Qiwio, Quota 

5. Ch* (flal 


Occhio, Secchio 



Chidve, Chiamdre 


Chie keeay 

Cliiu kei.'oh 

Chill kew 

6. n d 

7. E (open) a 

8. E (close) ai 

9. F f 

10. G (soft) g 
Gia jail 
Ge jay 
6i jee 
Gio joh 
(/«■« jow 

Gua gwali 

G»c g^*'3y 

Gui gwee 
1-2. G/j* (flat) gui 

Ghia guiah 

Ghie g"''*y 

Ghio guioh 

13. Gl» l-I 
Gli 1-le 
Glia 1-leah 
Glic l-loav 
Glio 1-leoli 
Gliti 1-lcw 
G'/i«<» l-k\voli 

14. Gn* n-ne 
Gmi n-nceah 
Gne n neeay 
Gnt n-nee 
Gtio n-neeoh 
Gnu n-new 


\Jlunf^o \ 


16. L 1 

17.3/ m 

18. jV n 

19- O(open) o 
20. I) (close)* cau 
'Jl. P p 

22. R r 

23. S (smart) s 

24. S (hissing) = 

25. Sc sli 
Scia shecah 
See sliay 
Set bhee 
Scio slieeoli 
Sciu shew 

26. T t 

27. U oo 
f/o woli 

28. r V 

29. ;j (smart) ts 

30. Z (hissing) ds 

Cliicsla, Cliiesa 
( 7ik'>(/i), Chioslro 
Dado, Dtiada 
Jicuc, luclc 
Pt'iia, Fcde 
Filosofo Fifa 
Grille, Giiigin 
Guillo, Giardino 
Gclo, I.eggerc 
Giro, Gi^diite 
Ciosira, Gioranc 
Giurdre, Giudicc 
Lngo, Ago 
Laghi, yighi 
(iiicrddrc, Gudnio 
Gucrcio, Sdiigiic 
Guida, Laiiguirc 
GItidia, Rdgghi 
Ghidccio, Ghidnda 
Lnsiiighicro, Vi'gghie 
Ghiotto, Iiighiottire 
EgU, Figlio 
a glio, Ciptglio 
Jiriglia, Figlia 
Moglie, Foglie 
Miglio, Cotisiglio 
Sonagliuzzo, Pcigliuca 
Magliuulo, Figliiiolo 
Segno, Fegno 
Campdgna, Legna 
Montdgne, Insignc 
Rt'gni, Ogni 
Guaddgno, Bagno 
Ignudo, Ignuddrc 
I'ino, Tini 
Tcmpj, Ufizj 
Saltclldrc, ImUq 
Mamma, Tempo 
Nano, ylnzidno 
Jiolta, Parola 
Noiiw, Conlo 
Pappagdllo, Papa 
Rumore, Partdrc 
Jiaso, Sasso 
iJsina, Sbdglio 
Sccsa, Fiiscio 
Seitigura, Fdscia 
Sc6tnpio, SeeiiH 
Scintilla, Scimia 
Sciocco, Fascio 
ylsciiitto, PresciuUo 
Ti'ttlo, Natio 
Fumo. Ciii 
IJitmo, Cudrc 
Raitvimrc, yivo 
Carfzv, '/.ana 
Zanzdra, Zclo 

A demand, a church 
A nail, a cloi>ter 
A hooting crowd 
A die, a nyinpii 
Tlic good, bile 
I'ain, faith 

I'liilosopher, a lapwing 
People, a gum 
Yellow, garden 
Prost, to rea»I 
Bonier, a giant 
Tilting, a young person 
To swear, a judge 
Lake, needle 
Lakes, needles 
To keep, glove 
S(iuint-e_veil, blood 
A guide, languish 
Gravel, brays 
Ice, the acorn 
Plattering, watchings 
Greedv, to swallow 
He, son 

Tiie eye-brow, a frown 
A bridle, daughter 
A wife, leaves 
A mile, council 
A small rattle, or straw 
A vine shoot, a son 
A sign, a pledge 
Country, fire-wood 
IMountains, renowned 
Kingdoms, every 
Gain, bath 

Naked, to strip naked 
Pine-trees, tubs 
Temples, ofKces 
To jump, chatt' 
Mama, time 
Dwarf, elder 
A blow, a word 
A noun, accoimt 
A parrot, a pope 
Noise, to speak 
Satin, a stone 
An awl, a blunder 
A descent, a bundle 
Misfortune, a band 
Slaughter, scene 
A spark of tire, an ape 
A fool, a buiuUe 
Dry, ham 
All, native 
Snuike, whom 
A man, heart 
To enliven, alive 
Caresses, a cradle 
A gnat, zeal 



On Nouns Substantive, their Variatiofis, Gender, 
Number, Sfc* 

1. Most nouns in Italian are terminated in the singular 
by one of the vowels A, E, O ; some few in / and U. 

2. f Gkneral Rule. — All nouns, whether substantives 
or adjectives, having the accent on the final vowel, are in- 
declinable ; as, re, king or kingst ; "cirtii, virtue or virtues ; 
veritd, truth or truths ;:^ Lunedi, Monday or Mondays, &c. ; 
raso or rasidore, satin, or satins of orange colour, &c. 

3. Nouns in A generally make their plural in E ; as, 
pidnta^ plant, pidnte ; sorella, sister, sorelle. 

4. Nouns of both genders, ending in E or O, take their 
plural in I ; as, padre, father, padri ; capello, hair, capeJli ; 
cappello. hat. cappelli. 

5. Effigie, effigy, specie, species, superficie, surface, bar- 
bdrie, barbarity, serie, series, progenie, offspring, are excejit- 
ed, and have the same termination in the plural. 

6. Nouns in / are indeclinable ; as, /' etifasi, the em- 
phasis, le enfasi. Those in C/ belong to {\\e general rule, 
No. 2. 

7. There are some feminine nonns which have a double 
singular and double plural ; as, veste or vesta, a vest; dote 
or dota, portion ; frode or froda, fraud ; fronde or fronda, a 
leaf: ale or ala, wing; arm e or arma, arn); lode or loda, 
praise ; canzone or canzona, song.§ 

8. Nouns in A are of the feminine gender. 

9. The catalogue of nouns in A making an exception to 
this rule may be seen in Lecture XXIV, table 1. 

10. Nouns in E, some are masculine ; as, padre, father ; 

* Tlie Author treating here alternately, aud without niiicii order, souietimes 
of the gender, and somel^imes of the number of suhstantives, the stuileut will 
readily find any of the rules concerning eacii of iheiii hy consulting the Index 
under these words. Any attempt to arrange this Lecturf. would have proved 
a laborious ta-k, and no adequate idea would have been derived from it. 'I'he 
TuU's are perfectly accurate. — Euitor. 

t Those monosyllables, as re, te, &c. having only one vowel, are by some 
improperly written with an accent. The accent is useless, but they belong 
nevertheless to this rule. — Editor. 

^ Snth substantives in verse, and sometimes in elegant prose, are lengthened 
by the addition of the syllabie de, or le, as veritale or veritade, virtute or vir- 
lude, &c. and then they are changed in the plural, as other nouns in E. Se^ 
next rule. 

§ Ca?i,toHa is quiie vulgar ; vtsia, dota, Jwda, frviidi:, bida, are very htlle 
used in prose. 


o«(Uf , lionour : some feminine ; as, ;?/rtr//r, mother ; ripida- 
zione^ lepiilation. Complete taiii.f.s of those of either 
•gender will be found in Lecture XXIV. 

11. A few may be eitlier masculine or feminine; as 
ctncrCj* ashes ; Jifie, end ; C(jfc(rc, prison : Jonic, fountain ; 
scrpc, snake. 

12. Substantives endinji in JORE are all masculine, and 
those in SIONE, or ZIOJVE, all feminine, without 

13. Nouns ending in LE, 3/E, ORE, ONE, ENTE, 
OXTE, are masculine ; as, vidle, walk ; lume, light ; Jiore, 
flavour: busi one, f^iick; dent e, iooiU ; ponle, bridge. 

14. The follow in;- are excerpted; viz. fame, hunger; 
speme, hope ; gnile, people ; which are feminine. 

15. All nouns in () are masculine. 

16. I'jxcept w^rt/.'o, hand ; and a few proper names, coming 
from the (rreek ; as, Sajfo, S;ipp]io; Erato, Eratho ; Cloto, 
Clotho ; Atropo, Atropos; yi/t'//o. A lecto ; and also 7J /Wo, 
Dido; Cartago, Carthage; /w;«/i^o, an image ; which are 
only used in poetry, instead o'i D'ldoiie, Cart('igin€,imm(igine. 

17. The ['e\v substantives ending in U are indeclinable 
and feminine. Of those in / equally indeclinable, two co- 
pious TABLES specifying the gender will be found in Lecture 
XXIV. And in the same Lecture, various tables will 
lie found of nouns, both substantives and adjectives, which 
change their iinal vowel, and either change or retain the 
same meaning. 

Ranarhs on the Nouns ending in O, and 10, CA, and GA, 

CO, and GO, cSr. 

18. Uumo,ma.u, takes a syllable more in the plural, and 
makes nomini, men. 

Din, or J dd/o^ God, {Idd/o is never used with an article 
close to il : see Lkctuuk III.) in the plural, sj)eaking of 
Heathen Deities, makes Dei, or Jddii,and takes the article 

19. There arc some words in O which have two termina- 
tions; viz. in ARO and A JO, as, libraro or lihniio, book- 
seller ; ralzoldro or calznldio, shoemaker ; /o/v/«ro or for- 
;/r//o, baker ; fi'enndio or Cw( mid io, Jiiuuary ; Febbrdro, or 
J'(bbrdii), Fcbru: ry. The -second termination, which is 
more elegant, becomes plural by only lo-ing its last vowel ; 
as, Hbrdi,forndi, calzoldi, i<^c.i 

• Ccnrre, in the plural, in femiiiiiir ; ciiid xn is circere. 
t See ;ivcry iinportaul nolc», at Ltcluic XXiV. No. fi. 


20. Some others may also terminate in RE and EO ; as, 
doppicre or doppiero^ a taper ; nocchitre or noccliiero, pilot ; 
arciere ov arciero, archer: leggiere or leggiero, light; «V*- 
triere or destricro, horse ; mcstiere or viestiero, trade. The 
first terujiiuition, viz. in -RJ5^, is most approved, and used by 
the best writers." 

21. A i>reat number of substantives, ending in O, in the 
singular, end in ^i in the plural ; and by such a variation 
they become feminine, as braccio, arm ; bntccia, arms ; osso, 
bone, ossa, bones. In the declension of nouns, a List of 
such substantives will be given in its proper place. 

22. 5 Of nouns ending in 10, it must be observed, that 
in some the 1 serves to modify the sound of the preceding 
consonants, and in others does not. 

23. Those of the first class are terminated in CIO, 
CIIIO, GHIO, GIG, GLIO, or SC70, and become 
plural by merely taking away the O ; as bacio, kiss, bad ; 
specchio, looki!!g-glass, specchi ; ringhio, ringhi, grinning ; 
orologio, watch, orologi ; consiglio, counsel, consigli ; fascia, 
Jhsci, bundle. 

24. The second cla-s embraces all others, and becomes 
plural by changing 10 into a long J ; as tempio, tem|)le, 
tempj ; princ/pio, he^'inmug, principj ; studio, study, studj : 
to write studii, principii, tempii, with two i's, is obsolete. + 

25. Those words which end in CIA, SCI A, GIA, tlie 
accent not tailing upon that /, change the lA into E in the 
plural; as, gudncia, cheek, giuhice ; coscia, thigh, cosce ; 
spidggia, sea coast, spidgge. 

26. f i3ut if the accent fails upon the 7, thej form their 
plural according to the Rule 3 ; as gaggia, a cage, gaggle. 

27. Ail nouns feminine ending in CA, or GA, take an //, 
in the plural, after the C and G, without any exception.: 
thus; CUE, GIIE; as, pidga, the wound; pidghe, the 
wounds ; grammdtica, grAmmo^v ; grammdtiche, granmiars. 

* The stiuietit imiM not imitate the Romans, wiio fiiiis^li almost all the above 
nouns ill A'/ in the singular; for no other of them can have that termiiiation 
except leggiere and mesticre, which may end in RI in botli numbers. — Editor. 

f h must be observed that nouns in JO, which are pronounced with the accent 
on the /, cannot be written with a J /ungo in tiie pUual ; but the O must be 
changed into a second /; as desio, desire, desii ; viormorio, murmur, mormorii. 
— Author. The above two rules are entirely original from my 7 Vf a/we; see 
them at lenuth at Note 46, ihid. They are founded upon the constant practice 
of the Academicians Delia Crusca. .A few exceptions only are against it ; they 
write, for instance, nfficj, servigj, offices, services ; but we could even find some 
reasons for these in iheir derivation frocn others meaning perfectly the same, 
and ending in xio in the singular, as servizio, uffizio, which of course belong to 
the second class, and make their plural sercizj, ujDhj.— Editor. 


2S. Ill the same manner the inaiJculine nouns endinij^ in 
CO or GO take an H more in the plural ; as, luogo, place, 
/i/os^iii places ; fuoco^ fire, ftioc/ii, Hres. 

i?9. plioi/.— TUvy do not i;(.>!ierally take tiie // when 
tiiey are conjposec! of more than (wo syUal)les; as, aiuico, 
friend, owic/, friends, woi a miclii ; /f('>/ooo, a divine, tculogi, 
divines, not tco/og/ii. 

30. Nevertheless, tnanv words will be found of three or 
four syUables, taking an 7/ in their plural; as, hijolco^ 
ploni>hnian, bifolchi ; (//7/o//o-o, diplithon;;, diltong/ii ; mdnico^ 
handle, ;//<//2/c///; obbligo, ob\\^i\t\on, obblig/ii ; ramniarico, 
comphiint, rdinniarichi ; nbbiiaco, drunkard, itbbriachi ; 
pcddgogo., pedagogue, pcdagughi. 

31. Some ofsucli nouns may either take or reject the //; 
as, malcfici. or vialt'fichi^ malefic; aslrologi, or as tr6hghi\ 
astrologers. To diminish the perplexities arising from 
the-e three exceptions, Nos. 29, ^'0, and 31, copious tables 
of the finals of words in CO, ascertaining whether tliey end 
in ('//I or C/, or both w,as, will be fouiul in Lecture 

3'2. Observe, finally, theie are some nouns substantives, 
which from masculine are made feminine, by changing their 
last letter into ESSA^ in the following manner : 

I)uca.,d Didie ; Ditcficssd^n Duchess; Pr/«f/;:)r, a Prince ; 
Prificipt'ssa, a Princess ; Conte, a Count ; Contcssa, a Coun- 
ters; Barni/e, II li^ron ; Baroiicssn, a IJaroness r Pocla, ii 
Poet ; Poetessa, a Poetess ; Profcta, a Prophet ; Profelessa, 
a Prophetess. 

"3 And some others change the masculine termination 
OJiE into lilC/j, for the feminiuo. 

Protlclore, Protector ; Protetlrice, Protectress ; Esccu- 
/''»;r, Mxecutor ; Escciitricc, I'^xecutrix; (icnilon., Father; 
(ioiHrice., Mother; EUllorc^ lOleclor : Eld trice, l^lectress; 
/i/ipt future, LLmperor ; Iinpcratrki., iMupress. 



On Adjectives and Articles, with useful Tables, showing the 
variations of all Nouns, and the method of joining their 
Articles with some Prepositions. 

Of Adjectives. 

1. Adjectives have but three terminations : if masculine, 
they o-enerally end in O ; if feminine,* in A ; and, for both 
genders, in E. Those in O make their plural in /; the 
second in E ; the third in // as, hubno, g'ood, hubni ; hella, 
handsome, bdle ; prudente, prudent, prudenti. 

2. Adjectives, in Italian, must always agree with their 

3. As to the adjectives ending in CIO, CHIO, OHIO, 
GIO, GLIO and SCIO, recollect what has been said in 
Lecture II. n. 23, and 24, concerning the substantive nouns 
ofthe same termination, therule being precisely the same. — 
See also the General Rule ofthe ioves^o'ws: Lecture, n.2. 

As to the proper place or position of the adjectives, that 
point will be stated after the declension of nouns. 

4. As all substantives, in whatever situation they are 
found, never vary their termination, except from the singu- 
lar into the plural, there are consequently some particles to 
distinguish their different cases, which are called Articles. 

5. Ofthe Articles commonly called Definite. 

The Italians have two definite articles for the masculine 
gender; viz. IL, LO (the) ; and one for the feminine, viz. 
LA, (the). 

6. The article IL is put before nouns which begin with a 
consonant : as, il padre, the father ; ilfiglio, the son. 

The article LOf is put before nouns beginning with an S, 
followed by any other consonant, called by the Italian gram- 
marians /S impura, or in the plural number of those;]: begin- 

* Observe, the adjectives feminine in ^ are not to be found in the Dic- 
tionaries, because they are all derived from their masculine in 0, which be- 
come feminine by the excharge of their final into A. — Editor. 

f The ancient classics, and even the modern, in poetry or elegant prose, make 
nse of the article LO befoi^e all consonants particularly preceded by ppr ; hut 
the student will do well to attend to the rules here given.— EdiVor. 

^ The author had here followed tlie custom of many 'I'uscans, which is, to 
use llie article LO before nouns commencing with a Z in botii numbers. Al- 


nirii^wifh a Z ; and in (be plural of 7^/0, ^vlion applied to 
the Heatlien Deities : as, lo sfudio. the study ; lo s])in'lo^ 
the spirit: g/i ztri, the cyphers; gli zii, the uncles ; gii 
])(i, the Gods.* 

7. It is likewise placed before nonns that boc^in nitli a 
vowel ; but in such cases it loses the (), instead of which it 
takes an apostrophe ; as, Vamorc, the love ; Podio^ the hatred. 

8. The article LA is placed before all feminine nouns ; 
as, hi ten-a, the earth : /(i hiua , the moon. 

9. But when such nouns bei:;in with a vowel, the article 
loses the^, and takes an apostrophe; Vamarczzay the bitter- 
ness: rinipazicnza, the impatience. 

Whatever is necessary for the clear understandinp,' of what 
belongs to substantives, adjectives, and articles, will be 
plainly shown hy the two following tables. 

10. A Table of the Articles and their Variations, icith short 


Slug, Masc. Pliir. 

Nom. and 

.\cc. 7/,+ The 14 The 

Gen.Z>r/,Of the Dei, or De'k Of the 

Dili. Al, To the, or at the Ai, or A'^ To the, or at the 
Abl.7^n/, From the,o?by the /)«/, or7J«'§ From the, or by the 

t)ioui;li sucli a metliod could not be consiilered as a fault, ilie Acadt'iniciaiis 
Delia Crw5Cdf liavc constantly followed the above rule, as 1 liave alured it ac- 
cor<liiig to BuoMATTEi, since custom does not contia'lict it ; foi Me licar in 
Tuscany as often j7 zrlo, il zio, as lo zelo, lo zio. — -/u/ilor. 

• All prose-writers ate very tenacious of this rule, but poets someiiiues are 
not ; as may be seen in the following verses. 

Essi-ndo il xpirto rial lei nodo sciSlto. Pctraron. 
'I'he soul being departed from her beautiful body. 

C/it delle liquid' onde al sphcchio siede. 
Who sits at the mirror o( the liquid sireain. 

f The article IL, wlien prccecdeil by Ira, or /ra, animi'.', between, sii, upon, 
sf, if, n^ neither, e, and, admits of an elision by takinc; away the first kitei, 
and putiinu an apontroplu- in its stead; thus, '/; as, Irn 't padre, e 't Jilio, (pro- 
nounced as if spelt iral padrr, el /iglio,) between the father and son; fu'l 
lavoltnn, n|ion the small table. — /iiilhuT. In the sublinic this ()rllii)i;ra|)liy is 
adopted even when il is a pronoun, not only when |)ri;eeded by the same par-^ 
tides, but even by no iii.slead of nun, not : ma, hut ; aiul before verb.sand other 
parts of speech ending in a vrtwel : thus we find tio '/ mio, ma il mo, inslrad of 
tiiinil mio, ma il suo, unt mine, but his ; se 'I, instead of ,vc il dissi, if I 
njiid it, &c. 'I'he Aiticle I, (the plural of IL), when prccided hy the same 
I'ariicles trn, fra, tu, se, ne, f, and the lik<', often disap|)iais altoL'ether, and the 
apostrojdie (') plac<d 10 the finwl vowel ot the I'articbs points (uit its slgnifiea- 
lion, and su|)pliek its place ; tlirjs, frn' miei aniici, among my fricnils ; s-u' 
tavolini, on the small tabic*, &.C ~ Editor. 

\ The articles /i, driti, alii, dalli, are obsohtf. 

§ Il is always bitter to make usenf f/if', a', da', willi an Hpostn)plie, piriicu- 
larty before a pojse'.tive pronoun, or other nnuiis pluial, »\hiih have inauv 



Sing. Masc. Plur. 

Nom. and 

Ace. Lo, The* GU* The 

Gen. L>e//o, Orthe iJegli, Of the 

Dat. Alio, To the,or atthe Agli, To the, or at the 

A bl. Dallo, From the, or bj the Dagli, From the, or by the 

Sing. Fern. Plur. 

Nom. and 

Ace. La, The+ Le, The 

Gen.jDe//«, Ofthe Belle, Of the 

Dat. Alia, To the, or at the Alle, To the, or at the 

Abl. i)a//«, From the, or by the Z)«//e, From the, or by the 

11. A Table of the Variations of Substantive and Adjective 
Nouns, with their Article, together with some Prepositions. 

Nouns oftheMa?culineGender,vvhich require the Article iZ/. 

Sing. Plur. 

// cielo stelldto I cieli stelldti, 

The starry heaven The starry heavens 

T)el cielo stelldto Dei or de^ cieli stelldti, 

Ofthe,«&c. Ofthe, &c. 

Al cielo stelldto Ai or a' cieli stelldti 

To the, or at the, &c. To the, or at the, &e. 

X)«/ cielo stelldto Dai or da' cieli stelldti, 

From the, or by the, &e. From the, or by the, Szc. 

vowels after the first consonant; as, de" miei aniici, of my friends; a' citoi 
fortiy.lo the strong hides. — Editor. 

* The article LO suffers always, in the singular, an elision before a vowel ; 
as, I' Amore, tht- love ; but it is not the same in the plural. In the latter case 
it happens only when the nouns begin with an /, in order to avoid the dis- 
as-reeable sound of two i'5, following one another; hs, I'lmperature, the Em- 
peror ; Gl' J mperatori, the Emperors; not Gli Imperatori. — Author. Wlien 
LO is a pronoun, and is after the particle no instead of won in the sublime, we 
write them both in one word; thus, nol voglio, instead o( rion lo voglio, I will 
not have it : whfn preceded by another pronoun, see Lecture Wl.'-Edilor. 

f What has been observed in the elision of the article LO in the singular 
number, applies likewise to the article LA in both numbers : but it must be re- 
marked, tl at before a few words which have, in the sinijular and plural, the 
same tcrniiiiation, the number being entirely determined by the article, it may 
be better in such ciises to write it without an elision; l' eta, the age; le eta, 
the ages; I' estremiia, the extretnity ; le cstremita, the extremities. — Aiilhor. 
The Academicians do not admit of any such distinctions ; and Cinonio is also 
for the elision before any noun, as the most universal way of writing it. — 


Nel cit'/o s( icno 
* Pel citlo risp/rndaite 
f Col ciclo osniro 
X Sill cit'lo cristallino 

Net or we' ciili sereni 



In the serene heaven 
For the resplendent, (S:c. 
Witli the obscure, &c. 
Upon thf crystulline, Sec. 


In the serene heavens 
^ I'ei or pe' citli risplendcnti For the resplendent, &c. 
II Coi or co^ cicli osciiri With the obscure, &c. 

^ Sii i cicll cristdllini Upon the crystalline, &c. 

12. These Prepositions must always be used in this man- 
ner before a masculine noun, which recjuires the Article 
IJLy either in the siii<;ular only, or in both numbers; as, 


The generous prince 
Ofthr, &c. 
'Vo the, or at the, &'c. 
I'rom the, or by the, &c. 


The generous princes 
Ol'tlie, &c. 
To the, or at the, Sec. 
From the, or by the, &c. 


The difficult beginning 


To the, or at the, &c. 

From the, or by the, &c. 


J I principr generoso 
J)(l pri/icipr g-f neroso 
.7/ principc gv ncroso 
JJiil principc generuso 

I pi incipi gcnerosi 

** /)e' priucipi gencrosi 
A^ principi gowrusi 
Da'' principi gemrusi 

II principio mnlngcxole 
])( I principio innlagexole 
Al principio nial.<ig'rolc 
Dal principio mulagc'colc 

I principj malugcxoli 
J)< ' principj nin/a ,»*; ■>/ 
A' principi nialagnoli 
I) a' principj malagcioU 

The difficult beginnings 


'Yu tlu', or at the, ifcc. 

From the, or by the, &c. 

• Some !«;iy per il, iiistea<l of jfl ; but il is inipropcr. 

f Con tl, iii<tt<.-a(l of cul, is very little used. 

J Su 'lyUnsul, iH not socoiDiiioi) ;ii prisfiii. Sur insteuil n( iu, or sn </' Itc- 
foie tlic iiunitral uno, is often luaid at FloiLiRe,anilcountcii;uict'*J by the Acadc- 

§ Per i, in^teail «{ Pei, or ^c', in incorrect. 

II Con i, for coi or 'o', is liki-wiiie incorrect. 

^ Some wiile lui, m liicb oitlio(,'ra|iiiy is (|uite in)i)ro|)er. ClNoNlo writes su' 
for «u I, but Delia Cruua ilo nut follow tMs orlli<>^'ra|iliy. 

•• I bare writtt ii di-', a , d.i , prituipi noi itri, oi, dat, ^r. (or the reason 
allcgcil in liie article*. Sec (he Table of Oie Article, |> I", note §. 

f 2 


// drsio fervido 
Del dcsio fervido 
A I desio fervido 
Dal desio fervido 

I desiifervidi 
jDe' desii fervidi 
A'' desii fervidi 
Da' desii fervidi 

II di sventurdto 
Del dl sventurato 
Al dl sventurdto 
Dal di sventurato 

I dl sventurdti 
De' dl sventurdti 
A^ di sventurdti 
Da^ dl sventurdti 

II Dio de* Christidni 
Del Dio de* Christidni 
Al Dio de' Christidni 
Dal Dio de' Christidni 

II zannigoffo 
Del zanni goffo 
A I zanni gqffo 
Dal zanni goffo 


The ardent desire 


To the, or at the, &c. 

From the, or by the, &c. 


The ardent desires 

Of the, &c. 

To the, or at the, &c. 

From the, or hy the, &c. 

The unhappy day 

Ofthe, cSsc. 

To the, oral the, &c. 

From the, or by the, &c. 

The unhappy days 
Ofthe, &c. 
To the, or at the, &c. 
From the, or by the, &c. 


The God ofthe Christians 
Ofthe, &c. 
To the, or at the, &c. 
From the, or by the, &c. 


The awkward buftbon 
Ofthe, &c. 
To the, or at the, &c. 
From the, or by the, &c. 


Lo spavento terribile 
Dello spavento terribile 
Alio spavento terribile 
Dallo spavento terribile 

Gli spaventi terribili 
Degli spaventi terribili 
Agli spaventi terribili 
Dagli spaventi terribili 


The terrible fright 
Ofthe, &c. 
To the, or at the, &c. 
From the, or by the, &c. 


The terrible frights 
Ofthe, &c. 
To the, or at the, &c. 
From the, or by the, &c. 




/.<> studio i/ilcnolto The interrupted study 

J)tllo studio ifitinolto Oftlie, &c. 

--///o studio inttrrotto To the, or at the, &c. 

J)a//o studio interrotto From the, or by the, &c. 


Gli studj interrotli The interrupted studies 

D(i:;li studj intcrrntd Of the, &c. 

^'Ig/i studj intcrrutti To the, or at the, &c. 

Dagli studj intcrrutti From the, or by the, &c. 



Nello sccttro dureo In the p;olden sceptre 

Pcllo sccttro Tcale For the royal, &c. 

(olio sccttro ducalc With the ducal, &c. 

Sullo sccttro iinpcridle Upon the imperial, &c. 


Nccrli sccltri durei In the golden sceptres 

Pc(^li scctlri rcdli For the royal, Sec. 

Cogli sccttri ducali With the ducal, &c. 

Sugli sceltri imperidli Upon the imperial, Sec. 

The same Prepositions nuist be thus written before every 
Masculine Noun which takes the Article J^O even only 
in the plural ;t as, 


Gli d< i dc gctitili The gods of the heathens 

Dcgli dci de: gcutili Of the, &c. 

Agli dci de' gcntili To the, or at the, &c. 

Dagli dci dc"" gcnlili I'rom the, or by the, Sec. 

fili zii hisht'tici The whimsical uncles 

J)(gli zii hislhlici Oftlie, Sec. 

Agli zii bisbctici To the, or at the, &;c. 

Ddgli zii bisbctici I^Vom the, 0/ by the, &c. 

• Some- (.ay (and it is cfitially proper) per /o, iiisti-ud of prilo; per pli, iiiHtiad 
of pe/^li ; run lo, iri'lcaij of (olto ; co)i gli, iii.Hluaii of cogli ; sopra lo, for mllo ; 
Mo/tra f;li, for xugli. 

t Sec my note faip. H'>, and my addition to note t at |>. \i\,— lidUoi. 

C *y 

1? am ore cieco 
De/P mnure imprudente 
AW (onore itrcetcrdto 
JJaW amorefinto 


14. Nouns of the Masculhie Gender which require the Article 
LO with an Apostrophe. 


The blind love 
or the imprudent, &c. 
Tothe,orat the inveterate, &c. 
From the, or by the feigned &c. 


The blind loves 

Of the imprudent, &c. 

To the, or at the in veterate, &c. 

From the, or by thefeiq;ned,&c. 

The dreadful fire 

Of the inextinguishable, &c. 

To the, or at the ruinous, &c. 
From thcjOr by the amorous, &Cc 

The dreadful fires 

Of the, &c. 

Git amor i ciechi 
Degli amori imprudenti 
Agii amuri inveterdti 
Dagli amori Jinti 

U incendio spaventeiole 
DeW incendio inestingtribile 
AW incendio rovinoso 
DaW incendio amoroso 

GV incendj spaventevoli 
DegP incendj inestinguibili 
AgV incendj rovinosi 
DagV incendj amorosi 

To the, or at the, &;c. 

i\> W 01 lio pe rp 't uo 
PeW Homo duhbene 

From the, or by the, &c. 

In the perpetual liatred 

For the honest man 
With the bloody sword 
Upon the paternal love 

Plur. • 

In the perpetual hatreds 
For the honest men 
Witli the bloody swords 
Upon the paternal loves 

These Prepositions are always placed in the same manner 
before every Masculine Noun which begins with a vowel. 

15. Nouns Masculine in the Singular often made Feminine in 

the Plural. 

Sine. Plur. 

// ginocchio The knee. Le ginocchia The knees 

Del ginocchio Oftlie, &c. Delle ginocchia O? the, 8cc. 
Al ginocchio To the, or at Alle ginocchia To the, or at 

(^o/r (icridio insanguindto 
Suir amore patcrno 

Negli 6dj perpetui 
Pegli uomini dahbcne 
Cogli nccidi insanguindti 
Sugli amori patcrni 

the, &c. 

the, &c. 

Dal ginocchio Fromtlie, &c. Dalle gi7i6cchia From the, &c. 




II hri'iccio 
J)tl bruccio 
Al brdrcio 

The arm T.c hraccUi 

Of the, &:c. Ddle hracc'ut 
To the, or at Allc braccia 
the, &c. 

The arms 
Of the, ^c. 
To the, or at 
the, <S:c. 

Dalbraccio From tlie, &c. Dalle braccia From the, &c. 
16. In like manner the following: are declined. 

Substantives of 

the Masculine Gender 

■ ending in 0, zcit/i a 

Plural MascuVme termination in /, 

and another Feminine 

in A or E, zcith Remarlcs. 

Masc. Sing. 

Masc. Plur. 

Fem. Plur. 


Anelli (1) 

^ AnellaCl) 


t I3udelli (2) 

Biidelhi^ oBudelle 


-f Bracci 




* Castella 


f Calcap^ni 




. ^ Cervella 



§ Carra 


:j: Centinari 






:}: Centinai 




* Cerchia 



* Coltella (3) 



§ Con^na 


1 Ci-li 



Corni (1) 

Corna (1) 



* Comandamenta 

Ditello (5) 

:: Ditelli (5) Ditelle (5) 


Demon i 

* Demonia 


■ Diti 




§ Fastella 



* Filamenta 



^ I'ondamenta 



§ Fusa 


Fili (G) 

Fila (G) 


f Frutti (7) 

Fruttao Frutte(7) 


Gesti (8) 

Gesta (S) 






§ (Jranella 



* Ciuscia 






§ (ioinita 


(irani (9) 

§ (irana (0) 

Let to 


c 4 

§ Letta 


Mai'C. Sing. 

Masc. Plur, 

Feni. Plur. 


Legni (10) 

Legna (10) 





t Lenziioli 




* Martella 


t Moggi 



f Membri 



± Migliai 






± Migliari 






Meriggi (12) 

*M eriggia () Merigge 



* Momenta (12) 



^ Mulina 


Muri (13) 

Muria (13) 


t Ossi(l4) 

OssaoOsse (14) 


t Pai 










* Piaciinenta 



* Peccata 



§ Poma o Pome 



§ Pugna 



Quadrella (15) 



Risa (16) 


Rubbj (17) 




^ Sagramenta 



§ Sacca 



* Sentimenta 








:{: Stari 




^ Strida 



§ Telaia 






& Telara 



§ Tina 


1 omai 

§ Toniaia 






§ Tomara 


'^ Uovi 




* Uscia "■ 



* Vasellamenta 



* Vasella 



^ Vestigia o Vessigie 



* Vestimenta 


The Asterisk* marks obsolete or antiquated \vor(l>, th;it 
cannot be used in familiar st^le or conversation, without 
being noticed as a pedant throughout all Tuscany. 

T/ie Obelisk + marks those which ought not to be used in 
polite conversation, tor they are looked upon as charac- 
teristics of a low education, though tiie greater part of them 
are to be met with in prose writers and in the most cele- 
brated poets. 

The Double Obelisk ^ points out such plurals as are mere 
barbarisms, uttered only by very vulgar persons. 

The Section k points out others used in the beautiful and 
elegant capital of Tuscany, but if adopted elsewhere, they 

would be pedantry. 

1. It is proper to observe that anello signifies a Rins; and 
a Thimble, the thimble is the measure used in Italy tor 
selling by it the Silk-Worm-Eggs : therefore though the 
Tuscans use Anelli for Rings, and the Florentines only say 
anella ; the latter is the only word used throughout all Tus- 
cany to express the aforesaid measure. 

2. Both at Florence, and in every other part of Tuscany, 
Budclli is always used when the word is preceded by a 
numeral noun, as due Budelli, tre Budelli, S,-c. 

3. Coltella is frequently used in the singular number, but 
then it means a hunter's or butcher's large knife. 

4. Corni is the only plural of Corno when applied to a 
musical wind-instrument, but in other cases Coma is pre- 

5. Dilello, with its plural terminations, was used in Boc- 
cace's time; few Florentines would now understand what it 
means. At present we say L^iseel/a, fem. sing, and Tj'ascelle, 
fi.'m.piur. Besides Ditelli would always be considered a 

6. rUa is better than Fili when it stands as the plural of 
/V/o, meaning thread ; but taken in the sense of the edge of 
cutting instruments, we must always say Fdiy and never 


7. Speaking of several and various kinds of fiuit, Frutta 
is the only fashionable plural ; but if it be intended to sig- 
nily many fruits of the same phmt, we must say I'ri/tti, and 
not I'rulta, Ex. lloxeduto una rama di (lii/ggiolo pieiia di 


frutti. Frutii is likewise the ow\y plural of Frullo in the 
metaphorical sense, as interest for money, effects, conse- 
quences, &e. Frulte is properly the plural of Frutta, sing, 
f. not of Friitto. 

8. Gesti means the gestures of Orators, Actors, &c. but 
Gesta, the warlike feats and glorious deeds. 

9. Grani is always the only plural for grains of Weight 
and Corn. The Florentines do elegantly use Grana in the 
sense oi'seed, corns or small lumps. Ex. Tre grani dipepe. 
Due grana (Tincenso. 

10. Legni is the plural o^Legno, when taken in the sense 
of pieces of wrought wood, or fit for some particular use, as 
also when it means ships, or travelling conveyances ; but 
Legna is always used when it signifies a quantity of wood for 
fuel, whether in faggots or logs. 

11. Migli is the only plural used when speaking of diffe- 
rent kinds of Millet. 

12. Meriggi and merigge signify nothing else, but the 
shadows caused by the objects opposed to the sun, and in 
this sense Meriggi is to be preferred. When it means 
Noon on the sonthern quarter of the world, nieriggio has no 
plural, but has the singular feminine two ways, Blerigge 
and Meriggia, and Meriggio masculine. 

13. ikTwro means walls that surround parks, gardens, &c. 
il/wrct are the rasiiparts of a town, and also the walls of a 
room; of this, however, the properest word is Parete, f. 
sing, and Pareti, f. plur. 

14. Ossi is always the plural of Osso, when speaking of 
bones given to a dog, or cleared from table. Ossa, and at 
times O^SiJ, signifies the bones of an animal, or rather the 
whole body of bones or skeleton of the human body, or of 
any other animal. 

15. Quadrella is the poetical plural in the sense of arrows 
or shafts. 

16. Risi is the plural of Riso., rice; but, for bursts of 
laughter, we must say Risa.^ in which sense Risi would be a 

17. Rubbio is a corn-measure, which answers to the Me- 
dimnus of the Latins; it contains at least six Italian Moggia. 
This word has escaped the notice of many Dictionaries ; 


but still there is not in Italy any Book of Aritlnnetic, how- 
ever small it may be, but treats of the RuhbiOj though this 
measure be not in great use in Tuscany. 

17. Nouns of the Feminine Gender zchich require 
the Article LA. 

J.n fdlien incredible 
J)( lid fdliea incr( dibit 
Alia fatiea incredible 
Dallafaiica incredible 

L,e fafiehe incredibili 
DeUe fetiche incredibili 
A lie fatiche incredibili 
Dalle fatiche incredibili 

La mnglie inganndta 
Delia mnf^lie ingnnnata 
Alia jnuiilie inij^(tnnata 
Dalla 7}u'iglie inganndta 

Le mvsli ingannate* 
Delle miigli ingannate 
Alle mofili infranndte 
Dalle mngli ingannate 

Jm gudncia pienotfa 
Delia gudneia pienotta 
Alia gudneia pienotta 
Dalla gudneia pienotta 

Le gudnee piendttef 
l)( III' gudnee piendtte 
ytlli gudnee pietiutte 
JJalle gudnee piendtle 


The incredible fatiji^ue 
Of the, ^c. 
To the, or at the &,c. 
From the, or by the, &.c. 


The incredible fatigues 
Of the, kc. 
To the, or at the, &c. 
From the, or by the, &c. 


The deceived wife 
or the, &c. 
To the, or at the, ike. 
From the, or by the, &.c. 


The deceived wives 
Ofthe, &c. 
To the, or at the, 8cc. 
From the, or by the, ike. 


The plump cheek 
Ofthe, ike. 
To the, or at the, ike. 
From the, or by the, &c. 


The plump cheeks 
Ofthe, ike. 
'i'o the, or at the, ike. 
From the, or by the, &c. 

• M^iflie, as here sliown, becomes plural by losing the E ; aii<l had the Italian 
Janguaxc other noutiM feminine endinK in glu; tluy would iiid the same in the 

■f- To arcfiiint for tlic|)liiral of f^uinmn , >ee K'lle, n. 'J.'), \t. II, in i.ecline II. 
vvhith lilt Aullior had hue imiirojicrly otaltd as liable to eXte|)lions. — I'Jditor. 




With the continual fatigue 
For the inexpressible, &c. 
In the infidel wife 
Upon the soft cheek 
With the continual fatigues 
For the inexpressible, &c. 
In the infidel wives 
Upon the smooth cheeks 

Make use of these prepositions before every feminine noun 
which does not begin with a vowel. 

Colla fatica continiia 
Pellafatica indicibile 
Nella mos^lie infedele 
Sulla gudncia morbida 

Colle fatiche contimie^ 
Pelle fatiche indicibili 
Nelle mogli infedeli 
Sulle gudnce morbidi 

18. Nouns of the Feminine Gender beginning with a Vowel. 


The feeble authority 

Of the, &c. 

To the, or at the, &c. 

From the, or by the, &c. 

The feeble authorities 

Of the, &c. 

To the, or at the, &c. 

From the, or by the, &g. 

U autoritd leggieri 
DelV autoritd leggieri 
Air autoritd leggieri 
DalV autoritd leggieri 

\Le autoritd leggieri 
Delle autoritd leggieri 
A lie autoritd lego-ieri 
Dalle autoritd leggieri 

U educazibne trascurdta 
Deir educazione trascurdta 
Air educazione trascurdta 
DaW educazione trascurdta 

Z/' educazioni trascurdte 
DeW educazioni trascurdte 
AlV educazioni trascurdte 
Dair educazioni trascurdte 

The neglected education 
Ofthe, &c. 
To the, or at the, &c. 
From the, or by the, &c. 


The neglected educations 
Ofthe, &c. 
To the, or at the, &c. 
From the, or by the, &c. 

* Some say (without impropriety) con la, con le, instead of colla, colle ; 
per la, per le, instead of pella, pellc. 

t The author had here forgot his own note f at p. 18, and had written the 
plural article LE without an apostrophe hefore anime. I have therefore 
changed the exemplification, to justify in some measure the orthography of this 
article; but in so doing I have been compelled to choose a noun properly be- 
longing to the next class, p. 29. See ai>o my addition to the same note, and 
the whole of next note | too at p. 2!). — Editor. 



*\rir nvirrsifa pcscinfe In the heavy adversity 

*rflir autorita principa/e With the principal authority 

Pcir cdiicaziunc uialcnm For the maternal education 

Suir educazione patcrna Upon the paternal, &c. 


*Xel(e avrersifa pesanfi In the heavy adversities 

*ro/ic autorita principd/i With the principal authorities 

Pc/r educazioni matcrne For the niaterual educations 

SuW educazioni patcrne Upon the, &c. 

Every feminine noun besinnin<r with a vowel requires these 


19. NoiiJis zchich have the same Termi/iation in the Singular 

and in the Plural. 
N.B. 5 Accordinff to Uules n. 2, 5, and G, oi: Lecture If. 
p. 12, the lollowiiii;- four declcnsion>|- are applicable not 
only to all the nouns inserted after each of them, but also 
lo any other comprised under those rules. 


L' eta viatura The ripe age 

Deir eta axanzata Of the advanced age 

AW eta decrcpita To the, or at the decrepit, &c. 

Dair eta gioxanile From the, or by the, &c. 


Le eta matureX The ripe ages 

Delle eta axanzulc Of the advanced, iS;c. 

Alle eta decrepite To the, or at the decrepit, tSic. 

Dalle eta giovanili From the, or l)y the, ^c. 

-^. ^ So are declined, with their article and adjectives, 
all indeclinable feminine sub-^tantives commencing with a 
vowel : as, amistd^ friendship ; ipdtcsi, hypothesis ; cstasi, 

• Some alterations have licre also taken |ilacc, for reasons in luy |)icceding 
note. — Editor. 

f The'<e declensions, and the nouns annexed to earli, I may fairly say to be 
wholly mine, since the Author hud iiiserlcd oidy three of tlieni, and hnd ticoii 
tliorouL'hly diceivtd in their artitles, and in the a|>i.ruiilii)n of lliein to n'her 
noiin*. — EititoT. 

♦ Kecolkct here what lias lu'cn .«.aid in the Tahle of An irlfs, note } p. 18. 
At the same time, it is worth observng, tlial tlie article LE before eta mature, 
aviinuttr, and derrr/jite, may be n^ed wilh an a|(o''lro|ihe, n^^ the adjerlive not 
only *hovvH the nninher, ImiI even the nenijcr. — Authnr. In fact, wlien there is 
an adjective it ouRlit to be indeclinable Ion, to wiite this ailicle without clis-ion 
with propriety. — Editor. 


extasy ; en fast , emphasis ; iri^ for mWe, rainbow ; cffii^if^, 
effig-y ; intenipcrie, the inteiiiperature of the air ; cquHd, 
equity ; opporlumtd, opportunity ; i/iiquiUl, iniquity, &c. 

21. ^ Exception. — But if there is with them an ad- 
jective that discovers the number, as in the above exem- 
plification, it is by far more regular to write the article with 
an elision, even in the plural. (See note %■) P- 18.) 


Z/' eclissi soldre The solar eclipse 

Deir eclissi soldre Of the, &c, 

AlV eclissi soldre To the, or at the, &c. 

DaW eclissi soldre From the, or by the, &c. 


Gli eclissi soldri The solar eclipses 

JJegli eclissi soldri Of the, &c. 

Agli eclissi soldri To the, or at the, &c. 

Dagli eclissi soldri From the, &c. 

22. ^ Thus are declined, with their articles and ad- 
jectives, all other indeclinable masculine substantives, com- 
mencing with a vowel, if there beany more; for I cannot 
recollect a single one just now besides the above, which the 
author had most improperly declined as feminine. 

Apply the Exception as above. 

La superficie quadrdtra The square surface 

Delia superficie quadrdta Of the, &c. 
Alia superficie quadrata To the, or at the, &c. 

Dalla superficie quadrdta From the, or by the, &c. 


Le superficie quadrate The square surfaces 

Delle superficie quadrate Of the, &c. 

Alle superficie quadrate To the, or at the, &c. 

Dalle superficie quadrdte From the, or by the, &c. 

23. ^ Thus are declined, with their articles and adjec- 
tives, all other indeclinable feminine substantives com- 
mencing with a consonant; as, fedelta, fidelity; belld^ 
beauty ; crudeltd, cruelty ; dignitd, dignity ; hontd. good- 
ness; virilitd, virility; puritd, purity; casiild, chastity; 
caritdy charity ; potesfd, or podesla, power ; getierosita, ge- 
nerosity ; maestd, majesty ; libertd, liberty ; schiaviiu, sla- 
very ; servitii, servitude ; tribii, tribe ; virfii, virtue ; gru, 
crane ; diocesi, diocese ; pardfrasi, paraphrase ; parentesi, 


parenthesis: mctmmh-foai, metamorphosis; specie^ kind; 
fiidci, reward: tcnipcric, iho tenipeniture of the air: bar- 
Ixirif^ barbarity: stric, series; progcnie, oiVspring; pari, 
equal ; Gcnesi, Genesis.* 

// tej- odoroso 
Del te odoroso 
AI te odoroso 
Dal le odoroso 

I te odorosi 
X)e' te odorosi 
A^ te odorosi 
Da^ tc odorosi 


The sweet tea 

Of the, &c. 

To the, or at tlie. &c. 

From the, or by tlie, &c. 


The sweet teas 

Of the, &c. 

To the, or at the, &c. 

From the, or by the, &c. 

24. ^ Thus are declined, with their article and adjectives, 
all indeclinable masculine substantives commcncinj^ with a 
consonant : as, re, king ; lare/ic, a running footman , vicere, 
viceroy, {kc. 

2:3. ^ Exception. — As to those, if any, commencing with 
an S followed by a consonant, or with a y?, it is to be ob- 
served that they will receive the same article, as has been 
above exemplified, for similar declinable nouns. — See p. 
21 and 22. 

General Observation on all the foregoing Declensions. 

26. •" Observe that the articles, as given above, might 
not be the proper ones, if the adjectives required to be put 
before the substantives, for then they would still agree with 
their substantives in gender and number; but as to the 
adopt ini,r //^ or L() in the masculine, or putting an 
apostroj)lic to the article of both genders, the initial of the 
adjective, whether a consonant, a vowel, an N i))ipnr(\ or 
a X, would determine the (piestion, since the article 
would, in such case, |)recede the adjective. We shall treat 
(jf the position ofadjccti\es in lAcliirc V. 

• Genesi ]%n( botli ^'emlerx ; pari is of lioili i^piulcrs and nueiiliers ; and wc 
rnay say, un pari votiro, ^ucll a n)aii as you ; una pan inslra, micIi a woman as 
you; I //art juoi, tlii-i; rqiial^ ; lepariiuf, llii-ir (•(|uals 

f Till- Academiciani at ihi* word CIA, •'yni>iiyni<iiit of TS, wiiie iln> last 
word witli n Rravc aca-nt, thus, U. but ai the word TK, they write it four 
lime* wiihoiit accent, so thai it may be written either way. — Editor. 


Exercises iipoti Articles and Nouns, both Suhslantivc and 
Adjective, together with some Prepositions. 

The great events and revolutions of France. The eclipses of 
grande evento rivoliizione Francia eclissi 

the moon. The study of belles lettres. Thelookini^-jrlass of 

luna stiidio belle letterc, pi. f. specchio 

my room. The fear of the torments of hell. The virtues of 
mio camera timbre tormento inferno virtii 

the Romans. The hatred of my enen)ies. All the bones of 

Romano odio mio nemico osso 

your body. The ring- of the princess. The fable of tlie frogs. 

Tostro corpo onello principessa fdxola ranucchio 

The looks of the assembly. The country of the Amazons. 

occhiata assejnblea paese Arndz%one 

To imitate the ancients. The handsome women of London. 

imitc'ire antico bello donna Londra 

All the prophets ofthe world. All thebooksellcrsofthistown. 

profeta mondo libraio questo cittd 

The great satisfaction I have. The tree of liberty. The 

grande soddisfazione, che io ho albero libertd 

bottles and glasses. Tne friends and enemies of your country. 

hoccia bicchiere amico nemico vostro paese 

The misfortunes ofthe people. The Emperors and Empresses. 

disgrdzia popolo imperature imperatrice 

The diligent master 1 have got. The most difficult exercises. 

diligente maestro, che io ho piii difficile esercizio 

The herbs of the apothecary. The loves of Phyllis. I have 

trba spezidle ambre Fillide Io ho 

three uncles. The happy state of England. The bad snccess 

tre zio felice stato Inghilterra caltivo successo 

of that undertaking, The black eyes of my sister. The noise 

quello impresa nero bcchio di mia sorella rinnore 

of the mob. The days of the week. With the spirit. With 

plebdglia dl settimdna spirito 

the books. With the honour. With the thinkingsoul. Upon 

libro onore pensdnte dnima 

the table. Upon the organ. Upon theharpsichord. Upon the 

tdvola brgano gravicembalo 

appearances. In the election. In the chamber. In the 

npparenza ekzibne cdmera 

kingdom. In the winters. In the effigies. For the time. 

regno invcrno ^ff^S'^ tempo 

For the love. For the study. Forthewifp. For t!ie bitterness. 

ambre studio wbglie amarezza 


Further Remarks on the Use of the Articles, IL, LO, LA. 
I. There are many nouns in English wliich do not atlniit 
of the article before them.; such as those of Jr/.v, Sciences, 
Virlues, f'ices, Metals, and others. In Italian, they 
always take the article, as uill be seen in the lollowiny; 

Virtue cannot affrec with vice. La xirtit non pub accorddr- 

SI col IIZIO. 
Chastity, modesty, and huini- La east/td, la viodestia, e 
lity, are lovely viitues. /' timilt(isonozirlu.amdbili. 

Drunkenness is abominable. L' ubbriachexza e abbomine- 

Hope is the <jround of the I^a sperdnza e il fondamenio 
Christian religion. della rcligione Christiana. 

Music is pleasing to the ear. LamusicacgrataalVorccchio. 
Philosophy is the mistress of La FilosoJ'ia e la maestra 

vt isdom. della sapienza. 

Gold and silver do all things. L' oro e V argcnlo fanno ogni 



He punishes pride ; she blames vanity; you preach tem- 
Lgli punisce orgoglio; clla bidsima vanitd; voi predicdtetem- 
porance ; they love virtue; to avoid idleness; to reward 
perdw.a ; tglitio dmano virfii; schifihepigrizia ; ricnwpensdre 
sol)riely ; thou hatost vice ; J will learn tirawing ; to study 
sobrieth ; tu odi vizio ; lo imjmrerb disegno ; sludidre 
geography; to neglect painting ; iron and steel are more 
geografia ; trascurdre jiiltura ; J'crro e accidio sono pin 
useful than gold and silver. 
utile deir oro e argcnto. 

3. Some nouns, although taken in a general and indefinite 
sense, have the article in Italian, contrary to the English. 

I like milk, butter, andcheese. Mipidce illatte, il burrowed il 

Wine rejoices the heart. II vino raUvgra il cadre. 

Ik'cris till- partridge of VA\g- 11 vianzoe la pt mice d' Inghil- 

land. terra. 

(]ra«.s and hay arc the food L' erba ed il finio sono il pasto 

oi' c:\H\o. degli (inimdli. 

lOnglishpeoplelikcroastmcat Agl' Jiigl,'si pidcepii( Farrdslo 

Ixttcr Ihanboilod n»eat. del lesso. 

liread i-, the stafl' of life. // pane r il snstigrio dalla ri/a. 




Rye, wheat, barley. I love wine. I proclaim peace. 

Segale, grano, orzo. Mi place vino. Jo bandisco pace. 
I declare war. Salt, vineoar, oil. You admire beauty. 
lo intimoguerra. Sale, acclo, olio. Vol ammirdtebellezza. 

5. The article is also placed in Italian before nouns of dig- 
nity ; as, King Charles, // ?e Carlo ; Prince Henry, 11 prin* 
cipe Amiga ; Queen Jane, La Regina Gioxunna. 


Count S;ixe; General Ligonier ; Marshal d'Estress ; 
Conte di Sassonia; Generdle Ligonier ; Marescidllod' Estres; 
Lieutenant Ciordon ; Queen Charlotte ; EmperorLeopoldo. 
JLuogotenenteGordon ; Reg iruiCar lotto : ImperatoreLiCopoldo . 

7. We likewise meet the article before adverbs or verbs to 
the infinitive mood ; as, e 'I dove, and where; e'l quando, 
and when ; del come, of how ; il perc/ie, the reason ; il par- 
tare, the speech ; il tacere, the silence.* 

8. The four parts of the world, and some names of nations, 
islands, and provinces, generally take the article ; as, /' 
Affrica, deW Ajfrica, dfc. /' America., delP America, S)C. V 
jLuropa; V Asia ; la Frdncia ; r Jnghilterra ; la Mirdndola ; 
il Cairo; la Lombdrdia ; la Sardegna ; la Corsica; V 
Elba, 8fc. 

Some of the above nouns may also take the indefinite ar- 
ticle, as will be observed in the following Lecture. 

10. Nouns of family, when applied to a single person, ad- 
mit of the articles ; as, il Dante ; il Boccaccio ; il Pelrdrca ; 
r Ariosto ; il Tasso ; il Fracastoro ; // ColteUini, c^'C.f 

11. In Italian the article is almost always repeated after 
the conjunctions; as, the Kings and Princes, / Re ed i prin- 
dpi ; the light and darkness, La luce e le tetiebre ; the bro- 
thers and sisters of the Emperor, 1 fratelli e le sorclle delT 


The eyes and ears ; the arms and legs ; the father, motJier, 
occhio e orecchia ; braccio e gamba ; padre, madre. 

* k is manifest that such words are, in tliis case, adopted as nouns ; tlie 
Englisii do so with tlie gerunds of their verbs, to whicii they often prefix prepo- 
sitions and arlicles, as we do to tlie intinitives. See the con.ingntions. — Editor, 
■f Quel Luon omaccirio delCollellini, tliat little good man, Cottellim. (Salviui.) 
lo veggo il Fracastor, il Bevazzario, Trifun Gabricte., e il Tasso piu lonlano, 
I see Frascotoro, Bevazzano, Trifon Gabriele, and a little farther I see lasso. 


and cliildren ; the day?, and niijhts ; the palace and c;ardon. 

e figlio ; giorno nolle ; pahnzo giardhio. 

13. In several instances the Italians make use of the 
article instead of the possessive pronoun ; as, I will break 
your head, lo li roiuperb il capo ; my eyes are sore. Ho male 
ogli occhi ; I uill throw this at your face, Vi getlerb questo 
ul liso. See Lecture XII. 


Wash your hands; my headaches: I have burnt myfinjier; 

iMtaUxi niano; mi duulc capo ; vii sono brucialo dito ; 
bhe has lost her sii^ht ; he has lost his hat and purse. 
clla ha pcrdalo vista ; egli cappcllo borsa. 


On the proper Position of Adjective Nouns. 

1. Adjectives in En*jlish are always placed before the sub- 
stantives, unless somethinir depends upon the adjective; as, 
food convenieiit for nio, ciho convenicnle per me ; or the ad- 
jective be empiiatical, as, /Vlcxander the V\vi^\\\.^ Alessdndro 
il grande.* In Italian they may generally be placed either 
before or after the substantive : as, an amico buono, a good 
friend, or loi buon amico; nn ncgozio bridlo, a bad affair, or 
20i bnitto ncgozio ; i/n nobile aspclto, a noble face, or iin 
aspctto nbbilc. 

2. Nevertheless, there are some cases in which the adjec- 
tives ;u-e u-eH alter the substantives, as will be specified in 
the lbllo\viti<r (numeration. 

I. .Ml adjectives of nations are placed after the substan- 
tive: as, Un principe Romano, a Homan prince; una damn 
J/ig/rsc, ;in ICii<i;iis!i iadv : un ctivalicr Napobtdno, a Neapo- 
litan k-ii^ht ; //;/ nubile I'rni zid/io, a V^enctian nol)leman, &c. 

II. .Adjectives, expres».inij; either shape or form ; as, ?/;/« 
tdiola rofiindn, a round (able ; una donna grande, a tall wo- 
man : uno SI ecehio oxdlc^ an oval lookinn^-giass : tin soldafo 
manfo, a niainied soldier; una ragazza storpiula, a lame 

III. Adjectives denoting (he cpiality of the elenjents ; as, 
un tempo piovuso^ rainy weatlicr ; una terra drida^ a dry 

• Eviti ill oilier instancM ilic adjective is r.>iiiid in Kii^I'mIi after tlio Riilman- 
rive; a* tlie |)riiicciii royal, la prtiici}> reuU ; in sucli cases tlic Uuiiaiis fol- 
low also ilic Fliiglj-^li synlnx. — KJitor. 

I) 2 


ground ; unfuoco inttnso, an intense fire ; im aria salubre, a 
wholesome air ; tejjipo caldo orfreddo, hot or cold weather. 

IV". Adjectives expressing colours; ns, 2m dbito nero, a 
black coat or suit ; occkio 7^osso^ red eye ; vim bianco, white 
wine ; nnfior giallo, a yellow fellow. 

y. Adjectives of taste; as, im' erba amara, a bitter herb; 
sidro agro, sour cider ; frutlo dolce, sweet fruit. 

VI. Verbal adjectives; as, t)iwo cotto, burnt wine : pas- 
sione domindnte, an over-ruling- passion. 

VII. In all other instances, when a substantive is accom- 
panied by a single adjective, the shortest of the two must 
pr^.bede : ex. Un nomo virtuoso, a virtuous man; un vero 
amico, a true friend. 

3. There are some other cases in which adjectives are 
placed after substantives, chiefly for the sake of harmony of 
sound ; but they may be easily learnt by practice. 

4. Generally when there are two or more adjectives joined 
to the noun, it is more usual in the familiar style to let them 
follow the substantive ; as, una donna dotta e religiosa, a 
learned and religious woman; but in many cases we hud the 
reverse of this rule. The ear should be our guide, particu- 
larly in the sublime. 


English politics : French fashions ; Chinese language ; the 
Jnglese politica; Francese moda ; Cinese lingua; 
Italian music ; a square table ; round balls ; an oval picture ; 
Italidna musica,- quadra tdvola ; rotunda pul/a ; ovale piilura ; 
triangular plan ; wholesome situation ; a warm wind ; a bad 
triangoldre pidno ; sano situazione ; caldo vento, • caltivo 
air ; a foggy season ; a red cap ; black hats ; a white coat ; 
aria nebbibso stagidne rosso berretta nero cappello bianco dbilo, 
brown gown ; bad fish ; insipid grape; unripe peach; the 
scura dbilo, • cattiiopesce,- insipido iiva; inimutura pesca ; 
overruling religion ; discoloured flower ; a toothless old 
domindnte religione ,- scolorito fiore ; sdentdto 

woman ; an awkward young man. 
vecchia ; sguaidto giovane. 


On t/ie Indejinitc, Numeral, and Partitive Articles. 

1. Besides the above-mentioned articles, which are gene- 
rally called definite articles, there are some prepositions, 


wliicli, a>; they shew (lie Latin cases of nouns, and are pre- 
fixed to them, are coiiinionlv called indt finite articles^ and by 
the Italian grammarians, segnacasi. These are, r//, of; a, 
to ; d(i, fiom.* The first sliowini:^ the genitive, the next 
the dative, and the 1 ist the ablative cases. 

'2. The indcfiiiitc articles are indiscriminately pnt before 
nouns masculine or feujinine, singular and plural ; before 
j)ronouns, as well as before infinitive of verbs, adverbs, and 
prepositions, as nil! be shown by the following miscellaneous 
rules illustrated by proper examples; but to enumerate 
them all would be an endless work. 

I. IJetween two nouns substantive; as, 7tnn rniinanza di 
dotme^ a company of women ; un escreilo di soldati, an army 
of soldiers ; un eappcllo di pdglia, a straw hat ; iota corutia 
(/' (dliiro, a laurel crow n. 

II. iJefore a proper name; as, di Piclro, of Peter ; a 
Pm<lo. to Paul ; da Andrea^ from Andrew. 

III. Before almost every kind of pronoun, the possessive 
excepted ;t as, di me, of me ; di rtoi, of u-j / a qucsto, lo this; 
da qiiitlo^ from that ; di nessnno^ of any body ; a (jualunqae^ 
to every body ; di ehe pacse sictc ? of what country are you ? 
ache pacse an'ldte? to what country are you going? da qiial 
luogo, or (r ondc venite ? from what place do you come? 
;?o;/ 5o d(i qiidl coxa, or c/' ondc cib proccda, I do not know 
from wlienc'j it proceeds. 

IV. Generallv before names of empires, kingdoms,]; pro- 
\inces, cities, villages, &c. ; as, di Gernuhiia, ofCilermany ; 
di Vrnncid^ of France; r/'7//57////(7VY/, of England ; di f.on- 
{/rn, of iiondou ; di Jncnze, of IMorence ; Ditra di Parma, 
Duke of Parma ; Principe dc Monaco, l^rince of Monaco. 

V. Before adverbs and prejiositions ; as di dove sd? what 
countryman are voti ? da dove ?7't'/?/ .^ where do you come 
from "r di piii^ of more ; non dico uc di si, ne di no, \ say nei- 
ther yes nc)r no : di dirtro, behind : di rinipcllo, facing. 

\'I. Before the infinitive of verbs ; as, penso di fare cib, I 
thiidv to do that; jion dico di credere, I do not say to believe; 

• This (lii^tiDction of (/^ni<f and t//.'/(;^n//e articlfs is not accurate, not only 
because tlie above are |)r(|iogiti(iijs, but niucli more becimsL- tlif (uln-r rt-al 
aiticen, t-pokeii of in Lecture* III. and IV. are oHimi adopieil liy ilie ii.ilijiii in a 
very iiiilefiniie sense, as the rules there given clearly slmw. Nevtrllule>s, ^inec 
tlii» distinction is C'lrnrnony found in ^■ranl^lars, it Ims lieco ailopli-d li ii- as 
the oidy one lo which the i;ineraliry of scholars arc accostonied. — ./utiior. '1'1\\a 
remark was inipropeily phued in the Uxi. —-EfHlor. 

f Very 'ew case!! excepted. 'I'lie poime«Hive pronouni take in Italian the defi- 
nh<- article. .Sec Lecture \IV. —Editor. 

* Noun* of naiion^, a» alr'-ady i>taled, ailniit a' so before ihein the definite 
aitidc^ .Ik, Lti Frantia, dtUa I'tanna, I. a (jirmania, delta diTinania, ikc. 

1) :j 


parmi di vedere, it seems tome to see ; in which case the par- 
ticle </e answers perfectly to the English to, as the examples 

VII. In some instances after the verbs essere, to be ; 
fare, to do ; as, e di mesticri, it^is necessary ; fa di mestitri, 
or fa d' uopo, it must. 

3. Orthographt/ oftJie Indefinite Articles. 

Di takes an apostrophe, when before a vowel ; as, parJo 
rf' Antonio, I speak of Anthony ; un libra <f amore, a book 
of love. 

A, followed by a vowel, takes, in general, a Z), for the 
sake of better sound ; as, ad un aviico, to a friend ; ad An- 
drea, to Andrew. 

L^A is usually written without an apostrophe before a 
vowel, which helps to distinguish iJ/ from DA ; but we 
find it sometimes with an apostrophe, particularly before an 
adjective or substantive of either number. 

4, Of the Numeral and Partitive Articles. 

The numeral article is what the English, with more pro- 
priety, call the indefinite article ; it is joined to di, a, da, as 
follows ; 

Siug. Masc. 
Un*- uomo astiito A cunnin<j man 

D un uomo astute Of a, &c. 

Ad un uomo astiito To a, &c. 

Da un uomo astiito Erom, or by a, &c. 

Sing. Fern. 

XJna donna scioperdta An idle woman 

JD' una donna scioperdta Of an, &c. 

A"^ una donna scioperdta To an, &c. 

Da una donna scioperdta Erom, or by an, &c. 

5. The Partitive Article is used to signify that some, or 
some part only, of the whole kind and species, or number of 
things are meant. In Italian this article is nothing else than 
the genitive case of the definite article, singular or plural, 
masculine or feminine; which has in this instance the signi- 

* See the proper orthography and useof f/iV, UNO, &c. in Lecture IX., imme- 
diately after the Tables of the Numerals. — Editor. 

t Speaking above, ii. ;^, of the orthography of the article ^, 1 have added the 
words in general as to its additional b, because when there would be a caca- 
phony, it rejects tlie D before a vowel, as vvc see iu this example.— i-Vitor. 


tication of tlic accusative."^ The English expres? it by the 
word some, and in many cases ihoy omit it ; as, datcvii del 
pnnc, ijive me some bread ; portaUmi dcUa come, bring me 
some ii'cat ; veogo d' g/i ac(i//i, 1 see some birds : vi porfo 
delle adze, 1 bring yon some stockings ; scorgo d( gli uomini 
e delle dotnie in quel burroue, 1 perceive men and women in 
that dei>:i vadey ; whicli is the same as to say, reggo idcuni 
uecilli ; poiloxi cilcunc calze ; scorgo alcnni uoDiiiii, cd alcihie 
domic,]- c\r. 

6 f. No Italian will deny, that the rule contained in the 
above parai;ra|^h may be followed, without p;is-<ing for a 
foreigner, in Italy ; but certain it is, that the genius of the 
Il.ilinn language has as great an aversion to the use of the 
partitive article as the linglish. Tiie last of the above ex- 
amples would be l)y far more genuine Italian, if expressed 
\\ilhout an article; iiUd (he preceding ones, expressed in 
l-^ngli-h with the adjective ,vo»/c, would be purer Italian if 
expresx»-tl as follows : Datcnii un po' di pane, porlatemi un 
po'' di cdinc, xcggo alcioii, or c< rli ucccUi, vi porlo alciiue 
paid di cfi/zc. Above all, let the student take care of never 
u^ing thi-^ partitive article with nouns of abstract or meta- 
physical meaning, as the French do. Jl a du courage; il 
fditl de la ferwctc, nuist be rendered in Italian as in Eng- 
lish, //<^/ cor(iggio,l)isogna aver cosianza, ccc. 

7. It IS worth observing, that some, when aftei a verb, 
which indicates the action of giving to eat or drin'K, Is ex- 
pressed in Italian bv termination, or indefinite article DA ; 
as. give me stune supper, ddloni da etna ; some dinner, da 
dcsinare ; -ome drink^ da here; soniething to eat, <Ai ?/ia;i- 
giare, uv qiiulche cosa damangiure. 

• Tlic Itiiliiiii pai litivf artirle admits also (»f the iiidufiiiite /t, jusi as ilieKiig- 
lisli say Vi some ; vx itiiple, a dt" pnstori, to soini; slit'plii'ids, &c. — Editor. 

f Tlie adt.'ii't.ikie u liicli llie liMliiiii l.iiipiiai;(; lias over the Latin, by tlie menus 
rif its articles, dtserres to l)e Udlieed. 'I'lif I^aliiis, fin- insiaiice, say, vinum 
librre ; in lialian we say tliiit in tliree different ways, liaviiig taL-li of them adif- 
f( rent xifiiiitic.itidii ; 'Af, hrre v'no, here il vino, hire del vino. The first means 
only ilial one lia<< nut the constant iiahit ot ahsiainin^ fiom drinking wine; ihc 
Kceond fneann to drink the wine spoken of : tlie I hiid means to drink some wine. 
These diff«Meii' sij;iiif'icaiion« aic cnniouudul hy the Latins, and in some other 
lanpnaees, for want <>f piojier arliclcM, unless we resort to riicuinioeiilioiw.— 
.■iuihoT. '\'\\\n note i' extracie'l from the most classical of ^'i animal s, Zy/zom- 
muiin't, wliicii has oci-a^ioned that many siih^cqiienl writers felt incline<l_;i(i'.ir(' 
nivtrba maiiiitri, but liie perusal of the best amhors will prove this to be a inc- 
lapliysical distinction, of very little tiKcin practice; and that the Italians, to nay 
trxlrivk tome uine, prefer iayiug here un pu' di vino, tin iicchicr di vino, or the 
like. — Edit'jT. 



A muff; a pou'der-box ; a bed-chamber ; an ox; some 

manicotlo scdlola da pulvere camera da lelto hue 
oxen : a ffirl ; some si: Is; some silk ; some linen ; some salt; 
buoi ragdzza seta biancheria sale 

some money ; some siver buckles; some glasses ; some veal; 

dendro fihbia d' argento bicchiere vitello 

some partridges ; I drink always water ; I hear some women 
pernice to bevo sempre acqiia sento donne 

quarrel ; 1 never eat fruit. 
clie bislicciano io non mdngio mat frutta. 

9. Finally take notice, that the following forms of speech 
in the English language are expressed, in Italian, in the 
manner here exemplified. 

I. The king's son, llfigliodelre; my brother's wife, la 
moglie di mio fratello ; the queen's coach, la carrbzza della 
regina ; my father's house, la casa di mio padre. As if we 
were to say, in English, the son of the king ; the wife of 
my brother, &c. 


My master's horse ; my servant's gloves ; my friend's books ; 
mio padrone cavdllo serva gudnto amico libra 
my uncle's son. 

II. An oil cruet, Uti' ampolla da olio ; a tobacco-box, una 
scdtoJa da tahdcco ; a wine tiask, unfidsco davino. 


Sallad oil ; a coach horse ; a fire shovel; a night-cap. 
Insoldta olio carrbzza cavdllo fuoco palclta nottebarrelta. 

III. A silver dish, un pidlto d' argento ; a brick house, 
zina casa di mattoni ; a Holland shirt, U7ia camicia di tdad' 
Oldnda ; brass money, moncta di rame. 


A scarlet cloak ; silk stockings ; a wooden box ; a horn 
Scarldtto mantello seta ciilzelta legno cassa corno 

comb ; a gold ring. 

pettine oro ancllo. 

IV. To play upon the violin, sonar il xiolino ,■ to play 
upon the guitar, sonar lachitdrra ; to play at cards, giuocdr 
alle carte ; to play at piquet, giuocdr a picchetto. 



To play on the spinet; to pla) upon tlie harpsichord; to play 
Spinclfa graviccmbalo 

at tennis ; at onibra, at bowls. 
pallu a corda ombre palla. 


On thf Degrees of Comparison, and on Superlative Nouns. 

\. All adjectives form their comparatives o^ excess or de- 
fect bv two adverbs ol^juantity, viz. p/«, more ; meno, less; 
as, biutio, Uijly ; piie bnUlo, meno brutlo ; prudcntc, pru- 
dent ; pill prudente, meno prudente ; and so on, &c. 

t2. The Engli-^h comparative particles, implyin<j: equality, 
(IS much as,so,soas, or the like, are expressed in the Italian 
by (p/('info, or come, placed Ijefore the second member of the 
comparison ;* a?, il niio paldzzo non e grande qudnto, or, 
eoine il losfro, niv palace is not so larp,e as yours ; le donne 
non sono ardile (judiito, or come gli nomi/ii, women are not so 
bold as men ; toi siete grande (juanlo lui, or come lui, you 
are as tall as he. The comparison of equality may be ex- 
pressed likewise bv allrcltanto, and in such case the particle 
che must connect the second member of the comparison ; as, 
vou are as rich as your brother, stele allretlanto ricco che 
vostro fratello. 

3. To iner<^ase still more the deg;rees of comparison, wo 
make use oi' nw/lo pin, assdi pin, or assdi mcglio^ viapiu, or 
xic piit, or lie mcg/io, viz. much more, or a s^reat deal more, 
or far better; as. Cicerone era assdi piu eloqucnte d^Or- 
tensio : Cicero was a i^reat deal more eloquent than llorten- 
sius ; il sole r via, or lie piti grande della terra, the sun is a 
"^reat deal larger than tlie earth. 
. 4. To diminish still more the dej^rees of comparison, we 
have recourse to tli(; word mollo meno. assdi nieno, liiuorrie 
meno, a great deal or much less ; as, l\lridsto c assdi incno, 

• \Vc make aUo use of the followiiiK cxpiO'sioiis, viz. s), ro<:i, lanlo or altrrl. 
Idnlo and f/i<lnlo ; a"«, mio /ral^l/o <■ */, losi, tatiln, ur allretldnto dolto iielle 
• lit ultli parli delle iitattemdiiche, i/iuintoit vislm, my IhoiIiit it as learned in 
ilie nxi'^t U'cfui liiiticlicH of inailii-inaiicM as yours. — lulhoT. 'I'liis is iinlccd 
llic riKulur form o! coiiiparisoii wluii we mean to oxprrss i quality ; l>iit iink-ss 
the >enlencc Ik: rr)iii|»licaliMl. or \i\Utt, as tiic foriKoini;, tlir fimt term »i, tnu, or 
tanto, wliieli «niwer'» to tlic first particle as of the Eimlisli, is omitted, and only 
qnanl'i,nT come, is rttaiiicd, as ihc cxnmplc.^ in the above lule, ii. 2. !iifli( itiitly 
»hew. — Eililor. 


or via meno corretto del Tasso, Ariosto is a great deal less 
correct than Tasso ; Pompeo e moUo meno stinidto di Cesare, 
Pompey is much less esteemed than Cajsar. 

5. The Eni>iish comparative particle than, or than the, 
may be translated in Italian in four ways : 

i. By the definite article of the genitive case. 
II. By the definite of the same case. 
IlI.By c//f. 
I V . By che non. 

6. Ifthe word than is preceded by the verb tohe and fol- 
lowed by a noun or pronoun, which in Italian takes the de- 
finite articl', it must be expres^sed by defovdel/o, dcl/a, dei, 
or dc\ degfi, or dclle, according to the kind of noun follow- 
ing; as, the schoi r is more learned than the master, lo 
scoldre e pill dotto del maestro ,• it is brighter than the look- 
ing-glass, eg/i e piii lucente dcllo specehio, plural, deg/i spee- 
ch i ,- your hands are whiter than snow, le xostre mani sono 
pill bidnehe della neve, plural, delle nevi ; your book is larger 
than mine, il zosiro lihroe piii grande del mio, plural,* de^ 

7. Ir than is followed by a noun or pronoun, which requires 
the indefinite article, then //.'o;? is translated by DI ; as An- 
thony is more cunning- than Peter, Antonio e piii asti'do di 
Pietro ; Mary is more modest than you, Maria epiu modesta 
di voi. This house is handsomer than that, questa casa e piii 
hella di quella ,- London is larger than Constantinople, /.o«- 
dra e piii grande di CostantiiT&po/i. — But if any other verb 
hut to be precedes the particle than, then che may be used in 
preferesice to the article of the genitive, which niight pass 
however, without solecism. Tims in the above examples 
we would say, Antonio si jnosfra piii as t a to che or di 
pietro— Maria semhra piii modeslache, or di voi. Questa casa 
j)are piii bella che or di quella ecc 

8. If immediately after than follows an adverb, or au ad- 
jective, than is to be expressed by che ; as, e meg/io tardi che 
niai, it is better late than never; cl/a e piii graziosa che 
hella, she is more graceful than handsome: and when after 
than there is a verb, it must be rendered by che non ; ex, io 
saivo pill che non parlo, 1 write more than I speak.f 

* Before flie pnss-cssive pronouns my or mine, thy or thine, !i;c. tlie Italians 
put tile definite article, as will be shewn in its proper place. See l^ecl. XI 11. 

f Than is also rendered by t/ie when the comparison is made betweiii two 
substantives imply in^' a ntialiticaiion, and therefore n<ed as adjectives • as he 
ifa a better general thun soldier, ('uliemiglidr gcnerdk the soidcilo. 


9. There are some words which are comparatives by 
themselves without any additional particle; as, ninggiore^ 
oreater : uiiiiure. less : suptriurc, superior ; injiriore, infe- 
rior ; iniiiiiorr^ or tuto/io, better ; pc ggiore, or pcgii:io^ 
worse; which becouie plural by chanoini;- E into /, accord- 
ini; to the general rule for adjectives in E ; see Lecture III. 
11, 1 ; and are of both i;enders,* except ptggio and mcglio^ 
which arc indeclinable. 


On the Comparatives. 

Germany is larjjer and n)ore powerful than Italy ; Julia is 

Gcrmunid e grande potcnte Jfdlia Giulia 

more handsouiethan,or ashandsomeas,orless handsomethan 

Mary ; \ irjjil wrote more than anv other poet of his time ; 
j\Iaria J'irgiHo serisse quoliuufue altro poeta suo tempo 
your sister's hands are whiter than ala!)aster ; she is w iser, or 
xoslro son'llaviano sono bianco a/ahastro e/lae savio 

as wise as, or less wise than 1; Milton was much more 

]S I ill one era 
learned than Dante; London is far b(>tter paved than Paris; 
dolto Dante Londra lustricalo Parigi 

Venice is much less populous than Naples ; the female sex 
Venezia popoluta Napoli femminile 

is muchmore delicate than the masculine; rather a little than 
g( n/i/cdi eonij)/( ss/nnc nNiscolinopiattostonn poco 
nothing ; he is mure weak than strong ; it is better to study 
nu//a deboJe forte egU e stndidrr 

than be idle ; he is a better captain than soldier ; it is more 
stare ozinso egli e capilano sulddto bianco 

white than jcllow. 

Of Superlative Nouns. 

I I. There are diflerent ways of expressing the superla- 
tives in Italian. 

1. Hy putting the article 11j before the comjiarative ; as, 
il piit bello, the most handsome, or the haiulsomest ; il pin 

* Observe iliit ffgKio and meglin arc very nftni adverbs, and then tlipy are 
noi i-yiiuiiyuioiis of prgc/orc or m/A'/'orf, nor could llione last then he used in- 
Btrad of the fdiiiitr : as in lliese neiitfnces, i meglio un in'ivo oft;i c/ir una f^allinii 
dorntini, an eKK lo-day is belter than a fowl to-uiorrovv i scrivi: pcggio di sua 
torilUt, b« wiiles worise tliun her kiatcr.— yv/t/or. 


gramle, the greatest ; il meno dotlo, the least learned, &c. 
which might be called superlatives of comparison ,• but the 
generality of grammarians call them superlative relatives, 
since thej always show a reference to some other object or 

il. By taking away the last vowel of the adjective, and 
adding issimo ; as, from brutto^hruttissimo, very or extremely 
ugly ; from bello, biUissimo, extremely, or infinitely hand- 
some.* Some few take also the terniination in errimo, as 
celleberrimo, from celebre, renowned ; integerrimo, from m- 
tegro, just; salubcrrimo, from salubre, wholesome. These 
are called absolute superlatives. 

III. Other forms of absolute superlatives are obtained 
either by the repetition of the adjectives; as, un uomo vir- 
tuoso, virtuoso, a very virtuous man ;t or by putting an ad- 
jective before a superlative ; as,ya un tempo bello bellissimo, 
it is extremely fine weather; fa caldo caldissimo, or freddo 
freddiss'imo, it is extremely hot, or cold, or extremely cold 
weather, which iwe cdWed superlatives o{ exaggeration ; ren- 
dered in English, by the above adverbs, or others like these, 
injinitelij, severely, vastly/, tSx. 

12. The adjectives, mdssimo, greatest ; menomo, least ; 
sommo, sovruno, or supremo, highest, or supreme ; otlimo, 
perfectly good, &c. are superlatives without any addition or 

13. Almost all the superlative adverbs are formed by 
changing the last vowel of the superlative into amente ; as, 
irom ricchissimo, very rich; richissimamente, richly; fell' 
cissinw, very happy ; felicissimamcnte, happily. 

14. Exercises on the Superlatives. 

The most proud of men ; the most pernicious of all crimes ; 

orgoglioso uomo pernicioso tutto delitto 

those that seem to be the most ingenious are not always the 

colbro sembrano essere ingegnnso non sono sempre 

most learned ; he is very humom'some: she was extremely un- 

dotto egli e fantdstico ella era in- 

* The scholar ought to be particularly mindful in observing that the termina- 
tion ill isnimo serves in Italian to the formation of that kind of superlative? call- 
ed ulsolutc, and that it can never be translated in Kiiglish hy those English 
Miperliitives ending in si, or est, which areof the rcZ^/h'ue kind, and translated in 
Italian by the mere adjectives picceded by il pih, la pin, ^-c. as, the shortest 
pi-era, V, piu carlo pocma, not cortissimo poe/na ; a veiy great man, un grandis- 
iimo vomo, not il piu grand uomo, 

f Ellc (for elkno) si vorreibero vive vive metier nelfuoco, they would commit 
themselves quite alive to the flames. 


luipp) ; they have been extremely civil, and vaslly prodigal ; 
ftlice cgUno sono stuti corlcsr, c prudigo 

God is intinitely just : yostrrday it was extremely cold, and 
J)io t' gii'islo icri era p-cddo, e 

>erv 'oggy weather; she i>^ exceedinj^ijood ; this is the hand- 
7U bbioso tempo el/a (^ bitotio qucsto c bel- 

somest work of your hands. 
16 opera vostro indiio. 


On Dimitnttive, ylugmeutalhe, and Collective Nouns. 

1. From the most part of the Italian nouns others are 
formed which diminish or enlarge the signification by some 
particular terminations : they are quite peculiar to the Ita- 
lian lauifuage, which derives from them a great number of 
tender, or otherwise very expressive words. 

2. The terminations of (he diminutives are the following, 
viz. Ino, Iceinn, Etlo, El/o, Etiino, Erello^ for masculine 
nouns; //m, Jccina, Etta, <S'c. for feminine ; and they ex- 
press the objects as small, yet with tenderness, kindness, 
or wheedling. For instance, froni rcec/iiOy we form verehino, 
reccliictto, recehierel/o, whicli signifies a poor good old man; 
and vece/iina, vecchictta, xecchierella, a poor good old wo- 
man ; from poiero, poverino, povercfta, poierc/hj a poor good 
honest man ; aud poverina^poveretta, povere/fa^u poor good 
honest woman ; from principe, is formed principiiio, a young 
prince, or a little pretty prince; prinripina^ a. youns; prin- 
cess, or a little pretty princess ; frou) l/hro, /ibrctto, librcftinOy 
or librieeino, a little or a pretty little book ; from cane, 
Cfinl/io, a little, or a pretty little dog. 

3. Some adverbs have likewise their diminutives; as, 
bmino, from bene, tolerably well ; adagino, from adagio, 
j)rettv slowly ; pocliino, or poeolino, from poro, rather little. 

4. Other terminations generally exprcssiuij conteuipt, 
compassion, or mockery, are in leciato, Jeiallofo, leeiuolo, 
Iccio, L'eeio, Onzo/n, or On'^olino ; as, from icec/i/o, rec- 
cliiccio, recc/iiazzn, or veccliieeiiio/o^ a poor old fellow ; vee- 
r/iiiiccia, or reeliieeiuiila, a poor old woman ; from nomo, 
itmnmuccin, unniirciiiofo, uomiccidta^ uoniieiatello^ a lilde neat 
man, or poor insignificant man ; from doiina^ donnuccia, don- 
jurrii((ihu a littb? neat, or poor insigniliciiut woman : from 
intdico, tncdi< onzola, tucdieon:.olino, a bad little physician. 


5. The termination in Astro skives an idea of great con- 
tempt ; as, from giovine, giovindslro^ a debauchee ; from 

Jilosofo, Jilosofastro^ a had philosopher, or philosofaster ; 
from we^/co, wzefZ/ra.v^ro, a medicaster, or an ignorant phy- 
sician : these, in Italian, are called peggiorativi. 

6. f The most usual peggiorativo is that in Accio^ or 
Acciotio ; as, veccliio, vecchidccio, a troublesome old man; 
omacciolto, a troublesome old man ; casa, casdccio, a bad 
compacted house; libra, //6?'rtcc2o, a great good-for-nothing" 

7. It must be observed, that some nouns of feminine 
gender become masculine, in taking the terminations in liio. 
One, C)C. as, from camera, chamber; camerone, instead of 
camerona, a large chamber, or a closet ; from casa, casino, 
rather than casino, a. little house.* 

8. The terminations of the augmentatives are generally 
in Otto^ One, Onaccio, Occio, Ozzo, for the masculine, in 
Otta, Ona, Occia, S^c. for the feminine ; as, ragdzzo, ragaz- 
zotto, or ragazzone, a big boy : hello, hellbne, heUbccio, re- 
markably handsome ; paldzzo, palazzolto, a great, or a hand- 
some palace : forese,fores6zza, a stout country girl ; ribd/do, 
ribaldondccio, a great scoundrel, 

9. f The following is a List of terminations modifying the 
nouns as mentioned, whfch have not been enumerated, nor 
exemplified as above. 

Terminations implj/ing Contempt. 

Accione, as from XJomo, man, we form Uomarcione 

Astrone 1 M'rf' I • ' "■ 5 ^^c^'caslrone 

Astronzolo j '^ ) P . < | Medicnstronzolo 

Azzo Pbpolo, people Popoldzzo 

Ipolo 7 i-. 1 S Casinold 

rj ; > Lasa, a house \ n ' i 

Upolo S . ' I Casupola 

Uzzaccio Donna, a woman l)o7iniizzdccia 

* Solanzone, or camerone, a large room ; porldiie, a large door ; casone, a great 
house ; (lonndne, a stout manly woman, are iiiabculiiie, though the numis from 
whence they are formed be feminine. 
Tu sei un hel donndne. 

Da nnn trnvdr nella lua leltafondo. — Berni. 
Thou art a fine masculine woman ; the extent of thy beauty is not to be 
measured. — So is campanoite, a great bell, from campuna, fern. ; as, 
Somite il campandne, ecco il consiglio 
Delle vcdove, ch' entra. — Buonarroti. 
Ring the gieat bell ; behold the assembly of widows which enter. 











] cello 



O/icello \ 
Olfino j 


Tcnniinilions iniplj/ing Diminulion. 


Coino, a man 


or V a stag 
Cenio ) 

Bit stone, a stick 
Piallo, a dish 
Vojto, wind 
Buco, a liole 
Frate, a monk 
lAbro, a book 
I'trde, ijreej) 
l>asso, a brickbat 
Amdro, bitter 

f Certiato 
^ Cerhiatio 
'\ CerriitllcUo 
V. Ccrhidt/olhio 
r LfCprof/Ci'llo 
I T.( prctlhio 

Colo \ 
Colin o I 
Czzo I o 


C Cagnnnln 

\ Cagnuolino 


Ecpre, a hare 

Tcgghia, a backinij-pan 

Tirminations implying IVhcidling icith Diminulion. 
Anzuolo- Trislo, puuy Tris/anznolo 

Cagna, a bitch 

Dono, a present 


10. *' From tlio above Tjist^ nnd all the precedinij obser- 
vation.^ on the.»e derivati\ es. tlie Tollowinji^ principles may 
be easily interred. ]st, That a lew synal)les, either various- 
ly combined or alone, are applied to nouns (o modily thenj, 
as before exphiincd. 9(1, That they are liabb' to vnd in 
(), A, /, E, accorcHng- to tlje prouder and number of the 
lunsn they are joined with. 3(1, 'I'hat by such unions (he 
primitive noun in some instances chan<i;es its <2;cn(h r. 4^//, 
Tliat bv ;ippUin<r s(>veral of then) to the same nonn, their 
number and siijnilicalions mu^-t become innumei aide. Hut, 
concerning thi^ last point, take notice of the Ibllouinij im- 


11. It is to be observed, that all noims are not sn-cepfi- 
ble of the above terminalioiis, and the exact discrimination 
rr<jui>ile to know which ot iIumm slionhi be use<i. ran only 
be aoquii«Ml l(\ practice; since no inlaUibie n:b' can t)e 
i'iven lo direct the "^rhohirs, who, by special advice of the 
Academicians Dtlhi Ci uscOy are d«-siri(l never to alliMupl to 
coin iuch iioun-<, unless they find them in tlic dictionary. 


12. H Exception. — The terminations in Ino, 0?te, and 
Accio, may be safely ventured in both jgenders and numbers 
of almost all the primitive nouns; although very few of 
them are registered in the Focabolario. 

13. The collective nouns which serve to express a medley 
or abundance of worthless things, have the termination in 
Ame^ or Ume ; as, from carne, carndme^ quantity of putrid 
meat ; osso, ossdme, a heap of bones ; legno, legndme, a 
quantity of wood ; gente^gentdme^ an abundance of people; 
agro^ agrume^ vegetables of strong taste, or all the various 
species of orange and lemon trees. 

14. Some others ending in Aglia are generally taken in a 
vile and despicable meaning; as, from plebe, pleBdglia, the 
scum of the people ; sbirra, sbirrdglia, the whole body of 
catchpoles ; gente, gentdglia, the ritlraff of the people. 

15. Take notice that collective nouns in the singular 
never or seldom agree with a plural, as they often do in 
English. We constantly say, ilpopolo e ntimeroso, people is 
numerous, not are numerous; la gente si lagna^ people com- 
plains, not complain.* 


A little boy ; a little girl ; a little pretty creature ; a pretty 
ragdzzo ragdzza creatura 

little house; a young hare; a little cap; a very small book ; a 

casa lepre berretta ruscello 

pretty little woman; a little table; a vulgar woman ; a large 

donna tdvola 

house; small rain; a great large drawing-room; a great large 

pioggia sal a 

hat; a great ugly hat; wicked people, or very despical)le 
cappello gente 

people; grossly iniquitous; a paltry poet; a smatterer in 

ribdldo poeta 

philosophy; a great quantity of poultry; a quantity of 

Jilosofo polio 

meat ; the mobility of the people. 

— — - — — — — — ^ 

* Villani, who wrote I'ingrdto popolo di BolCgna non Vaviano a fare, the 
ungrateful people of Bologne ought not to do so, is not to be followed. 
Veneroni ju this, as well as in many other instances, is likewise wrong. 



On the Numerical Nouns. 

1. These Nouns im»y be divided into Primitive, or Cardi- 
tial, 0)iiinal,inu\ Distributive. 

Observations on Cardinal Numbers. 

2. 1 The stiuliMit will observe that I have added to the 
following List all those compound numerals which are found 
uiitten iu a siiii^le word in the Vocabolario Delia Crusca : 
but as to all others, either omitted, or written underneath 
iu two words, lei it be observed, that the safest way is to 
write them in separate words; thus, 42, quaranta due ; bl, 
civ quanta sette ; r)2, cento due ; ^253, dugento cinquanta tre ; 
tJCi'J. stci'nfo scssanta nove. cSr. 

o. *L il.rrt ptitin. — Those adiiiittini; of an elision, and fol- 
lowed by ihose comnienriiii;- with a vowel, I suppose it allow- 
able to make a single word of them from analojiy, and say, 
51, cifiqua/i/i'a/i) ,■ SS, ott<inlot/o, Sfc — but when they become 
too louy;. as, b^S, ratliei- than say ottocentottantoito, 1 would 
divide theui and say, ottocainC attantolto ; for one ouf>ht to 
be very cautious in forming compound words without 

20 venti 

21 vent lino 

22 ventidue 

23 venti tre 

24 lenthjudttro 

25 ventici'iKine 

26 venti sei, venzei 

1 unu* 

2 due 

3 Ire 

4 ([Hiitlro 

5 cniciue 

6 sei 

7 sette 

8 (Ato 

9 nwe 
10 dim 

1 1 tindici 

12 dodici 

13 trrdici 

14 <{Uiilli'>rdui 

15 (luindici 

16 Sf'dici 

1 7 dictassrtte 

18 diciollo 

19 diciannuve 

39 t rent a nove 

40 (juardiita 
45 quarant'i cinque 
48 qnarrantdtto 
50 cuujudnta 

^54 cin(juanta(judttro 
58 cinqiiuntuUu 

27 ventisette, venzette 60 sessdnta 

28 ventdtto 

29 venti nove 

30 trenta 

31 t rent unu 

32 trenta due 

33 trenta Ire 

34 trcntaqudttro 

35 trenldcinque 

36 trenta sci 

37 trenttt selte 

38 trentutto 

64 sessanta(iudttro 

70 settdnta 

80 ottdnta 

87 otlanzt'tle 

90 novdnta 
100 (T^/o 
140 ceuijuardntii 
150 cencinqudittu 
160 arisessdntii 
1 70 censt'tldnta 
lyo eennovunta 

• Sec lln- (Iccli ii>i(iii 1111(1 iiM- iif USO, aii<l all other iiuuicrah ending in u"o, 
imuicJiati'l) ufu-r tlic'laljli-ii ol liic Numiiuli-. — LJaur. 

200 dugento 

250 dugencinqudnta 

300 trecento 

400 quattrocento 

500 cinquecento 

600 seicento, or secento 

700 settecento 


800 ottocfnto tlie Classics 

900 novec^nto trennUa 

moo viille 4000 quattromila 

2000 duemila, or r/iz- 5000 cinquemila 
mila ; and in ti e 6000 sennla 
C\ass\c?, duoniilia 1,000,000 mil'ume 
or dumiiia 2,000^000 Jwe milioni 

3000 tremila; and in 

4. ^N.B. All these nouns are indeclinable, except those 
mentioned in the foregoing note, and in that at p. 53, mark- 
ed thus.:|: 

Observations on Ordinal Nouns. 

5. H For the same reasons above alleged, let the scholar 
write in separate words all the Ordinal Nouns not included 
in the following list ; which is augmented of all those to be 
met with in the Vocaholario written in one word ; and let 
him pair all the ordinal together, up to the one hundred and 
tenth ; thus, the 23d, /'/ vigesimo terzo ; the S8th, il trigesini' 
ottato ; the liOth, il centesimo decimo, ^t. 

6. H But as to the omitted even hundreds, as the 700th, 
the 800th, &c. they should be formed, as analogy directs, 
from their respective cardinals, by taking O final away, and 
putting esi^no in its place; thus, seltecentesimo, ottocent6- 
simo, <5c. 

7. H And when we add to any of the even hundreds eleven 
or more, we must then express them by their respective car- 
dinal denominations, and the tens with their fractions by the 
ordinal numbers ; thus, the 111th,?/ cento undicesimo ; the 
112th, il cento dodictsimo ; the SlSth, rottocento diciotte- 
simo, Sfc. 

8. f Let it also be observed, that these ordinal numbers 
are declined as adjectives, and made to agree in number and 
ffender with the substantive thev enumerate. 



undecimo or ) 



nndicesiuto S 



duodecimo \ 
dodicesimo \ 

quarto N 


qui n to 


dodf'cimo or ( 
dtc.imo secondo 





terzodecimo > 



decimoterzo \ 



tredicmmo f 





) thirteenth 

- fifccciiili 

quartoiUcimo ^ 

dtcimoquiirto or ,* foiii tecntb 

ijitatiordici'simo j 


decmoquinio or 



sedict'simo or - sixteenth 

decimos^sto j 

diciassettVuno or ) , 

, . .,,. ' sevtiUeenth 

decimosttlimo ^ 

diciottt'simo or ? . , . , 

, • ,, - |- tliflltCCIltll 

ileciinottuvo ) ^ 

dUiannovcaimo ov ) . 





i ihir 


dtcimonono S 

vcntesimo or 
vigi'simo or 
renlt'shim prlmo 
vigesinio or 
vcnlciimo secondo 
vigt'simo or 
venttsimo quinto 
vigi\iinu or 
venltsinio ottuvo 
ircnti'siniu or 

trigt'siino ierzo 

trigrsimo qudrtu 

trigiVimo qnlnio 
qnaranU-stmo or j ^^^^5^^,^ 
qu(idrag(simo J 

quarantacinquesimo ^ 

or .- fortv-fii'th 

quarantcixmo quinto ) 
quuranttotteaimo 1 

or '- forty-eighth 

qnarantcaimo oitavo ) 
cinquaiitt'simo fiftieth 

ciitquantaquattresimo 1 

or ^ [- fifty-fourth 
cinquanlesimo quarto y 


cinquatrsimo ottuvo 
twenty- first .^essanttsmo 

twenty-second sessant^simo qudrto 


twenty- fifth novanttsimo 


twenty-eighth trccenti'niino 


> sixty-fourth 




two hundredth 
three huiuhethli 
quattroctnti'sbno four hundredth 
clnquecenti'sii)w five hundrechh 
chiqncccndiciulti'simo five hunch'ed 


seceiiti's'uno, S^c. six huiuhedth 

vidlis'uuo H thousandth. The 

same word means 

also the date of the 






vim rent fun 
tttm I rent til a 

a score 

a score and a half 

• Wc aUo say in familiar myle, L'uno, r /' allro, rliaimnl ariorditii; to i,'cii(k'r 
anil iiiinilH-r ; :iiiil tutii e due, or lulti a tluf, in wliicli, wlieii luitli olijects arc 
feiiijiiiiic, lutti is iiil" lulle. Tlic Miuiiniis will iint tlidlikc, I prc^iniic, 
lo xi-f Iwre :i l.i%t of ;i 1 the viirioiit wayn in wliicIi tlif liiili;«n> can i xjufss the 
am//o (if ilic l.aiin, or tin- /o'/i i>f llif Knciisli. lint li-l (lain iccoliiit, tliat tlie 
only al><»vi--ntpniionc(l are ailinixfiilile in ilie style. 'I'lif Italians cnii 
Bay lolli in no ics.s llian scvnitrrn ilifirnit u ai/x, williotit ri'clionini,' tin* divtrsili- 
caiious by grnder, vii. \. Amluh'i*', and wlien wr cliooxe to opiMily tlial lioili ilie 
object*, or one of tliini arcol tlitinascniinu gender, we sav amii<lni or am/tfiui. 

L 2 


un paio 


una decina 

una dozzina 


> a pair 

una quarantina two scores 

un centindio or) r 

.. , > live scores 

centmaro ) 

a score 

a dozen 

un vii^lkuo 

delle mlslidia 
ad uno ad uno 
a due a dut* 


a thousand 

some thousands 
one liy one 
two by two 

More Observations on tlie above Nouns. 

10. Un is used before a masculine noun bei>inning either 
with a vowel or a consonant ; as, iin /ibro, one book ; un anno, 
a year. 

Uno is placed before a masculine noun be^innini? with an 
S, followed by another consonant; as, tino specchio, one 
looking glass; i/fio stroniento, one instrun)ent. 

Una before a feminine noun beginning with a consonant; 
as, tma tavola, one table ; nna signora, one lady. 

Un'' with an apostrophe is put before a feminine noun be- 
ginning with a vowel ; as, ttn'' anhna, one soul.f 

? Gliune and Ic iine, pL masc. and pi. feni. are used in 
Italian almost in the same sense as the ones in Euglish, but 
they are still more frequently met with, and can in no in- 
stance receive an apostrophe. 

11. Jn poetry we often meet with duo and dui instead of 
due, as in Petrarca ; /o splendor feri gli ocehi at duofratelli, 
the splendour struck the eyes of the two brothers ; n^ mcglio 

2. Amledi'te. 3. /Imlo for bolli sjciuleis ; but wlier. we wisli to specify t!ie gen- 
der, 'ds ill ambidui, we »'d.y am hi ; av.d ambr, if Imtli llie objects are feaiiiiiiu-. 
Ambi, however, is not to be niei wiili siimle in the best classics; but in compo- 
sition is very frequent, as tiie following words will show. 4. ^mbedilo. 5. 
Amlidiio. a. Ainbidue. 7. Aivlodi'i.o. 8. Ainendile. *). Ammcndue. 10. 
Amendiiiii used with authority for the masculine, as ambidui; and for liie 
feminine, amevdiaie, usul ixti ombe. 11. Entrambi, used as amhidid; and for 
the feminine, tntrcimbe, used as nmhi'. 12. Inlrdmbo, for both i^enders ; also 
for the masculine, intrdmbi, used as (imbidid ; and iiitrdvibe, used for the 
feminine, as owZ^c. ['i. Intramtiidde. 14. Iramendi'ie, and, lo .specify the luas- 
culiiie, we say tramendin, used as ambidfii. l^.Tiammdnui, used foi the n)as- 
culine as (imbidid, and for the feminiue tramendune, used as ambc. Ki. L' uno, 
e r aUfo, see above. 17. 7'u/l.i e Hue, or luUi a due, ste above. — Editor. 

* The proportional numbers are the following: Sein/jlke, single; duppio, 
double; <ri/)Zim/o, threefold ; 7!inrfnip/ic«/o, fourfold, 6i.c. centuplicdfo, a. hun- 
dred-fold. In Italian, ordinal luimhers cannot be formed into adverbs, except 
primv'raiiicnte, l)ii\y ; seco ndanamcn I e, 2diy ; and to t;\\>rt:->s lhirdlt^,fourtlili/, 
they say in terzo luogo ; in quarto luogo, iSjC. viz. in the third place, in the fourth 
place, &c. 

f The same must be observed, when ica, uno, una, un', answer to the English 
article, a, or an. 


s'liccoppinro iniqu altri di/i (Ariosto) : nor ever were two 
people more liappiJy joined tog;<'ther, 

\-2, In Enijlish we can say, one and twenty, two and 
twenty,?//? ci(/i/i, due e xoiti ; but in Italian we always 
snv, twentv-one, twenty-two, i'(jilih!o,ic?itidiu\ 6,r. — Observe 
that when the numbers enditii^ in mio, as, xcnluno^trentiaw, 
<Src. precede a substantive, this substantive is always singu- 
lar, contrary to the Eni^lish grammar; as, twenty-one 
crowns, rtntihio scudo. not sciidi ; one and twenty years, 
'niitihi (vuio, not tnini ; thirty-one chambers, trcntihui camera^ 
not c<///?^Tf.— Hut when the number follows the substantive, 
then this must be in the plural; as, anni ventihio, cdmere 

L'i. Before hundred, ce;?/o, thousand, 7;??/A, in English they 
put the article, or a numeral noun, and say, a, one, or an 
hundred; </. or one thousand: in Italian such article, or 
numeral noun. mu>t be siij)presse(l.|- 

1 i. Thev sav likewise eleven lui/idred, twelve hundred, <Sr. 
as thev do in French ; in Italian it is to be said mi//e cento, 
inille duiicnto, thousand and hundred, thousand and two 


13. In English, nouns of measure, number and weight, 
are sometiuu's joined, in the singular form, with numeral 
adjectives denoting plurality; as fifty foot, six score, ten 
thousand fnlhoin deep, about an hundred pound weight. In 
Italian, such nouns must always be put into the plural form, 
and say cinfju(hita picdi (feet) ; sei ventine (scores) ; ditci 
mila hrnccid pmj'ondo (rathouisl ; di peso incirca a cento 
lililne (pound-';. 

16. 1 he numeral which distinguishes Sovereigns or Popes 
from each other, is tlie ordinal as in English, but without the 
article; and no other of those given can be used, but the 
following ones: uudecinio, devimo scrondo, deeimo-terzo, 
decimu tjunrto, decinin (juhilo^ 6;c. liiicsi/un^ vigesimo prinio, 
I'S'c. tri}i,( si/no, i^r. We therefore say Luigi deeimoquurlo, 
Carlo priino, Giorgio terzo. 

• J\hinemi ait-'ire anni iftituno, ardindo, IV'lr. Love iiifl.iincil my licart for 
nveiiiy-oiic yi-.ii!). 

f There aie >\\>i> MOiiie o'lier iii-^tancfH in which the luiitle, eilher indefinite 
or de-fitiiie, i» nut cxpreiiMil in Italian: a?, I am « hachilor, soitu xcapoln ; he 
WAS a merchani furmi'rly, era una vuUa meraintt ; slie \» hmii at I'aris, the 
capital of France, cUa i nain a Pariui <illa cnpxUilc dflla Fruncia. 

t lU'intmbcr, as «hown in the (ortnoinn list of canlinal numlH-i!', that when 
m<lU is iinxeiled by another nnnihcr, it is imi in the iiiuial, and makes 
mxla I as dutmila, \fmiUi, >\c. 

E J 



On the above Rules. 

One and twenty horses; one thousand and fifty-one 

provinces ; thiricon hundred soldiers ; Levvi>; the Fourteenth 
proiincia soldiito Luigi 

was much less adniired than Henry the Fourth : William 
era admhdto Arrigo Gugliehno 

the Third was a great conqueror; a hundred head of 

grande conquislatorc testa 

Aristotle's friends; three thousand pounds sterling-; both 
Aristolile amico lira sterlina 

legs ; both ears, &c. 
gamba orecchia. 


On Pronouns in general ; and on the Personal or Primil'rce 
Pronouns in particular. 

I. f Pronouns are words intended to spare the too fre- 
quent mention of the person or thing- alluded to ; and as they 
allude to either in various ways, so there are various sorts 
of them. 

^. The great variety of pronouns adds a peculiar beauty 
and precision to the Italian language.* They may be divided 
into I, Personal or Primilixe. 2. Conjunctive or Deriva- 
tive. 3. Possessive. 4. Demonstrative. 5. Relative, ii. 
Interrogative ; and, 7. Indefinite. 


Before we enter into the tiieory of Pronouns, the learner 
must be fully acquainted with what we mean hy persons^ 
when we speak of them in grammar. This necessary expla- 
nation was entirely omitted by our Author, and by others is 
improperly postponed tothe pronouns. 

4. AH possible objects to which the proncuns can relate, 
have been reduced in grammar under three classes : Thus, 
if, in speaking, we allude to the very person or persons who 

♦ " III I•:tl^li^^ll, for want of a suflicient variety of pronouns, chiefly [KM-sonal, 
we are ofit'M obliged, in a con)i)lex sinteiice, to have recourse to explanations, 
>vhich eamioi, he introduced without apijcaring very awkward." (hec |lr. 
Piicslly's lludiiiients of English Giamniar.) 

speak, such subject is called ihofirsl person. If we allude to 
the person or persons who hear, or are supposed to be 
addressed by the speaker, the subject is then called the 
second person. But if we do not allude to either of tho-e 
two person's, we tlien consider all such subjects, which may 
be animate, or inanimate, as the i/iird person. So when we 
say 7 or zee, the allinion i-^ made to the s[)eaker, and is con- 
sidered a pronoun of the (irst person, than or //on, the >econd, 
and he, she, it, or thej/, the third ; a:jd so on fur all other 

Of tJic Personal or Primilive Prononns. 

5. ^ They are thus called from th^^ir chiedy represendni^ 
the persons in the conjugation oi'veil)-, and from their sim- 
plicity of (bin), which is not derived from anv other pron jun, 
but it rather enters iti the composition ofseveial of the com- 
pound ones. Tiiey are as follows : 

Masc. Sing. Fern. Sing. RIasc. Plui. Feiii. Tiur. 

Jo, I In Noi, we, or us ]\oi 

7'//, thou Tu Voi,yo, or you Pbi 

J'^g/i, he /y/a, she Kglino, they . Klleno 

(Se, himself, or .Se, herself, or .Sr, themselves, or ^'t* 

him her them 

i:^5,<^o.thesame, £"^5^, the same, L\v5/,the same, selves Esse 

sell-same, 0?- self-same, or same, or them 

liiin her 

Desso Dessa Dessi • J)esse 

Stesso S/essa Slessi St esse 

J\fedcsimn — Afedesuna* — Medcsimi iMedcsinir 

0. tj AH the above pronouns admit of the preposition di, 
a. dii, commcjiilv called indefinite artit Ics, except niedcsitno, 
which, in many instances, is declined like all common sub- 

7. The foliowiufj declensions will bosulbcicnt toj^uide the 
student in the rij^ht w^c ol them, 

Nom, /o I, Noni.V'//, Tliou 

(ffu. I)int(, Of me, (leu. I)i te, Of thee 

I).i(. ./;//<', Tome, .tie, 'l"o thee 

Ace. J/( , Me, Ace. 7V, 'i'hee 

.M)l. 0« ;//e, I"r()m,orbynie Abl. Du le, I'roni, (;r by thee 

• Viic\'^ »ny m^dttmo, mc(U$m<i, S(r. IJiit mednno, mcdrma, ls;<. an' odioiiJ 
Itjinaii VII g.irisujs. 




'Nom.Egli, He, Nom.A7/«, She 

Gen. Di lui, Of him, Gen. Di lei, Of her 

Dat. A lui, To hini, Dat. A lei, To her 

Ace. Liui, Ilim, Ace. Lei, Her 

Abl. Da luif From, or by him Abl. Da lei, From or by her 

Nom.A^o?', We, Nom./^^/, You 

Gen. Dinoi, Of us, Gen. Di voi, Of you 

Dat. A noi. To us, Dat. A voi, To vou 

Ace. Noi, Us, Ace. Voi, You 

Abl. Z)a ^2o/, From, or by us Abl. JJa to/, From, or by you 

'Nom.Eglino, They, Nom. Ellejw, They, 

Gen. Diloro, Of them, Gen. Di loro. Of them 

Dat. A_ loro. To them, Dat. A loro. To them 

Ace. Loro, Them, Ace. Loro, Them 

Abl. Z)a/oro,From,orbj them Abl. i^^i/oro. From, or by them 
f Nom. coanling. 

Gen. Di se. Of himself, or themselves 

Dat* A se, Tohimself, or themselves 

Ace. Se, Himself, or themselves 

Abl. Dase, From, or by himself, or themselves. 

8. 5[ The other pronouns are declined like adjectives, 
and agree in gender and number with their substantives. 

RemnrlxS on these Pronouns. 

9. lo is often abridged both in verse and elegant prose; 
as V ragioni mai sempre di xoi, I always speak of you ; tu dV 
ch'' V son crudtle, (Guarini) thou sayest that I am cruel. 

lo is twice repeated with elegance, as in Boccaccio, qual 
donna canterd, 5' V non canV io ? what woman will sing, if I 
don't sing? 

10. Ello for egli ,• elli for eglino, are sometimes used by- 
poets ; as, e rallegrisi il ciel, ov^ ello e gilo (Petr.), may hea- 
ven rejoice, where he is gone ; e teggio ben, quant'' elli a 
schivoni' hanno, (Petr.) I plainly see how much they dislike 

11. f Esso is equivalent to egli ; but the latter should 
never be used in referring to inanimate things, or to such 
insects and animals of whom it is not custon)ary to distin- 
guish the sex ; in which cases esso ought to be adopted for 
the nominatives and accusatives, and the particles ne, ci, or 
"vi, for other cases : notwithstanding some classical examples 
subversive of this rule. See conjunctive pronouns, Lecture 

12. Ei is a retrenchment o^egli ; as ei mi par lb, he spoke 
to me. 


E. with an elision, is a contraction of ro//, or of r<f.vo, since 
it may be said instead of both ; as, ed e^ si slava in se lutto 
raccolto (Petr.), and he was quite wrapped np in liimself; 
and (ill cm noi c/i'' ^' sia nia/i/'ip;s;io? shall we say that it is a 
bad thini;- : (speakinjj of wine.) 

13. When csso is between the preposition con and the pri- 
mitive pronouns ; as, co/i rsso VIC, esso loro^ con (sso noi, 
becomes as incK^clinable as an adverb, and is elej^antly 
used as an expletive, the above expressions beinj;- the 
same as con inc, with ine ; con loro, with them; con not., 
w ifh us, &c.* 

1 1. % J'sso is also expletive in the followiriij; expressions, 
V iz. sutl^ (sso 7 co//c, un.ier the hill ; sovv' ( sso il. punlc, upon 
the bridi^e : /i(no;h'' esso if Jiihi/r, along the river ; con csso 
vn cofpo, with a blow; they are hii,'hly poetical and i>race- 
ful, but not admissible in familiar st> le ; and, whenever 
used, they must be written in one word ; thus, contsso, sot- 
tesso, soiTcsso, him^/icsso, 

I.J. Dcsso, or dessa. with their plurals (in the nominative 
case only) have more eneroy than < s:/i or csso ; as, lo vegs;o^ 
eo/i r dt sso, \ see him, it is certainly he; ccrto clla e dtssa, 
there i^ no doubt it is she herself. -j 

16. J'^gli or r/A/, are sometimes not personal pronouns, 
but expletives orracefully used in Italian : as, cgli fo freddo^ 
it is cold : clla c cos), il is so ; {/lunid cgli ardc il cn'lo^ w hen 
heaven shines ; eg'ixi sono mollis tSr. there are many, tS:c, 

17. In the familiar dialect of 'ruscany, we often say /«, 
in>tead oi'dhi ; as, la uii disse, she told me; and i>// instead 
o( cgli. as "•//■ r grnndc, he is tall ; but, in writini;, such con- 
traction< niM^t he avoided. 

Is. Liiild^ A^ro, mu>-t be only employed in the obli(|tie 
cases, audit is as manifest an error (chiefly in writini;) to 
make u>-e of them in the nominative <ase.| as it would be to 
say. in the >ame case, /r, or /;/<, lor ///, or io. .See these de- 
clensions above, 

19. % 'I'liere are, however, three instances in which these 
pronouns miij^ht ap[)ear in the nominative case ; but the tact 

• Di rhcvcngn de$inAre con esso not, desire liim lo come and dine willi us; 
cnniir.iinTio a canliire, e le valti con rtno lero risp6n(/ono, ttiey bigin to sing, aud 
llic valiifK ccIm ilitir minic-. Ilorcaccio. 

I .Si-f nioie reniaiki on ttei$o .iiid med/iimo at tlif end of this I^ccturc. — 

f In Tufcany iliey are not very tenacious of tlii-t rule, for llicy often make 
ufie, in iiininion coii\Tr»atiiin, of lui instfiid of r^li, lii instead itf rlla, and /«r» 
(i>T I'ultnii, I'llrno, eni,ts>e. ytiilhur. We uiiiM , however, except the Kloren- 
linea from this diari^f, wlio arc never guilty of nucli deNpicable soiecisms. 



is, that the Italians adopt the accusative case, instead of the 
nominative. 1st, When the verb essere is placed between 
two pronouns, and means the transformation of the one into 
the othor. Ex. Credendo, cW iofossi fe, mi ha con unbas- 
tone tidtb roilo ,- mistaking- me for thee, he has bruised me all 
oyer with a stick, (Bocc.) 'Id. After the adverb fo??2c or «c- 
come.^ Ex. Cosloro, die daW allra parte trano, siccome lui, 
maliziosi, c^c. those who, on the other hand, were as mali- 
cious as he. (Bocc.) 3d. In exclamations of joy, or grief, in 
which the personal pronoun is also put in the fourth case, as 
in Latin : Oh, padre ! oh, caro jmdre ! oh, me felice ! Oh, 
father ! oh, dear father ! oh, happy that I am ! (Metast.) 

9.0. The pronoun loro, in the dative case, is elegantly 
used without the article: as, io dissi loro, I told them, in- 
stead oCdissi a loro ; in which case this pronoun belongs to 
the class of the conjunctive pronouns, as the others me, te, 
and se, do in similar cases. See Lecture XIL* 

^I. The moderns in writing or speaking, put the pronoun 
di lui, di hi, between the definite article and substantive in 
the shape of possessive pronouns ; as, il di lui, or il di lei 
onore, his, or her honour; but the classics have said, with 
more propriety, Vonore di lui, or di lei. 

22. ^ Observe here the superiority of the Italian over the 
French and English ; since the latter specify only the gen- 
der of the possessor, and say, his house, her hat, if the house 
belonged to a gentleman, and the hat to a ladv, and the 
former only that of the thing possessed, translating the 
same words in the same cases, sa maison,son chapeau : But 
the Italian may either say, wi'h the French, la sua casa, il 
suo cappello, or point out the gender of the possessor and 
thing possessed at the same titne, and say, la casa di lui, il 
cappello di lei; and if the house belonged to a lady, and 
the hat to a gentleman, we could say, la casa di lei, il 
cappello di lui ,• and thus the article would show the gender 
of the thing possessed, and lui, or let, that of t'le possessor. 
See a very pertinent remark of the Author on this subject at 
the end of Lecture XIII. 

23. It is very common in Tuscany to say ro' and no\ \n- 
stead olroz, wo/y ns, vo'' par late male, you speak badly ; no' 
audidino via, we go away ; but it is an unwarrantable mode 
of clippiiig words, never adopted in writing. 

* The autlinr premised here some observaiioiis and notes on oliier particles 
represeiitini; ot'ti-n tlie pronoun Loro, whieii belongiii',' projjerlv to tiie conjunc- 
tive prononns, tlic rcadei- will tind Ibcni in their places in Lecture XI. and 
XII. — Editor. 


24. Ill poetry is used vui, for roi, nui, for iioi ; as, facciam 
tioi quel, che si pub far per mti (Ariosto), let us do all (hat it 
is ill our power to do ; in qucslo stato son donna per xuiy 
(Pctrarca), in this situation 1 am on your account, my fair 

t?5. EUi, and ellino, for eglino, and the first even for egli, 
as well as cllc for c/leno, in prose, are quite obsolete; but 
in poetry they are sonietinics used. 

i2(). (jbserve here, that instead of con se, with iiim, her, 
or them ; con te, with thee ; con me, with me; we elegantly 
say, sccOf teco, meco. 

''21. ^V, one's-self, is a reflected pronoun of the third per- 
son, that serves indilVerenlly for both genders and numbers, 
and has no nominative case, as appears from its declension 
above exhibited.* 

'■I'S. To se, as well as to other personal pronouns, wo 
often add the adjective pronoun siesso or nudcsiino, himself; 
as, in English, the pronoun onm or self, to the pronouns 
tn/y, our, t/ij/. ijonr, 6,c. to express emphasis or opposition ; 
as, Cafone, piiittosto che cadcre nellc nuini di Cesare, si uceisc, 
or itceise se medcsinio, or da se siesso si nccise, Cato, rather 
than fall into the hands of Caesar, killed himself; la donna 
e buona in se stessa, the woman is good in herself;t lo feci 
io stesso, or lo feci da me mcdcsimo,l I did it my own self; 
that is, no one else. 


On the above Pronouns. 

I speak of me, of thee, of you, of them ; thou lovest me; ho, 

parlo vuoi bene 

or she comes near us; we see them every day; you can do (hat 

xiene xicino xcdidmo ogni gioriio poU'te far cih 

forme, for us, for them ; they are covetous with her, with 

sono aidro 

• Da xe, bt'kidcs beiiij,' tlic ablative case of tiie above pronoun, lias also the 
followinn meanings; dt se, viz. di sua nalura, of his nature; a^, pif^ro da se, 
ma 'I ^Taii piacer lo sproiia, naturally slow, but tlic urtat pliasiUie siirs bini 
up. — /Ju se, or da per sr, vi/. s'paralaiiinite, sc\y.u■r^[^■\\ ; as, ciasruiia dr/ti 
QTli anduva d'l pir se, \'illani. — /■'i/iir di sr, MJ^^iiifu's lo lie out of bis niiiid. 

f Sonic, i-s|>tciiilly the llotnans, with great inipn'inicty say in /<•/ stessa, in- 
htviul o{ $e stessa ! in lui stessa, (ur se stesso ; in loro stessi, instead of .vc i/M.(i, 
wlieii the nominative of the sentence in ibe same person alluded to by tbtsc 
prcMMiuns. — Au'lmr. The wor<U isletso, islessn, .\ c. wlien no consonant nc- 
i t--«;uily precede-*, are dcKpicalde Itoinan corruptions of llie pronoun slemo not 
Id be cotinieiiaiiceil. — JJdil%i. 

X Sec a Konian coirupliun of tlic pronouu medcsiimi in the fiiM iiule to ibia 
Letlure. — Llilor. 


liim ; they esteem Ihem very mnch ; she spoke to me, to us, 

slhnano moUo par lb 

several times ; they will stay with us for ever ; certainly it is 

pih voile sfaramto per soupre ceriamtnte 

she; I fold it them twice; I do that for her, not for him; I will 
diss} due volte fa eih per an- 

go with them ; I see myself; it is for herselfj he speaks of 
drb vedo e parla 

himself; Brutiis killed himself. 
Brutus uccise 

SO, Before we dismiss the subject of personal pronouns, 
it will he proper to mention a peculiarity of the Italian lan- 
guage sMih respect to them.* 

The Italians, either for civility or duty, in addressing 
each other, make use of a title representing the third per- 
son of the feminine gender, which serves for both sexes, 
viz. Vostra Signoria, or Vosignoria,\ and they write it 
sometimes with two capital letters, thus V. S. This is a 
general title ijiven in speaking to any private lady or gen- 
tleman, and admits of the articles di, a, da, thus, 

Vosignoria You sir, madam, or miss 

Di Vosignoria Of you, &c. 

A Vosignoria To, or at you, &c. 

Da Vosignoria From, or by you, &c. 

% And in the plural we commonly say, 
Ijor Signore^ or Signori You ladies, or gentlemen 

J)i lor Signdre, S)C. Of you, &c. 

A lor Signore, S)C. To, or at you, &c. 

Da lor Signore, 3fc. From, or by you, &:c. 

31. To avoid the too frequent repetition of P^osignoria^ 
the pronouns (lla, di lei, a lei, da lei ; or le, la, (for both 
genders) are often made use of; and f^osignoria is scarcely 
ever heard in polite companies. 

22. 51 For the plural, addressing the judges at the bar, 
a respectable audience, a society, or a conunittee, we sav, 
le loro signorie, or le signorie loro, delle signorie loro, a lie 
signorie loro, dalle signorie /oroy— servants and waiters of 

• The Author liad very iinprcperly inserted these remarks (the s> part 
rf which heini;; erroneous, are now correct and becpme wirae) at the end of 
Lecture XII. mi the conjunctive pronouns. I liave now transposed tliciu liere, 
where they may be with equal propiicty, as before the conjugations of verbs. — 

f Alherti's Didinnary lias tliis word inserted both with a double S, and a 
single one. 'Die first orthoL'raphy is airainst the Tuscan iironunciaiion, and 
the constant i-racticeof the Academicians Delia Crusca. — Editor. 


tho inns would make ii^^e of the same title in atldicssing more 
iIkiii one: — l>iit, in jwlite circles, or familiar style, we sdy, 
as af)(»ve ior si<];/iur/^ or siii;n6re^ c^c. — And the verb is of 
course put lo (he third person plural. 

3). • It will l)i' probably asked, whether, in sentences 
similar to these three, I. You, Sir, areveri/ icarnrd. 2. .S/r, 
t/oH Slim ven/ l/nuaxJi/fifl. 3. You haxe sliotcn j/oursctj'. 
Sir, botJi li'isc <ind kiiuL the adjectives should ai;ree with 
the |)erson, who is nia>culiue, or with the title, which is 
feminine; and, consequently, whether the adjectives /f^r^r^- 
td, caidioKs, zcisf, nudlind, should be masculine or fenunine. 

Jt. •" To this query we may answer with the i'oliowiiii;' 
7///<.'. — \Vhenever the verb to bf alone is between j/i>u or l^. 
S. and the adjective, the latter ou^ht to be made ai;ree with 
title, and not with the per'^on ; because the verb to he is 
called !;//l>sliifiliic, for thi>^ very reason, that whatever fol- 
lows it in the same sentence is always in the Ibrce of ad- 
jective, or adverb. Therefore the first example should be 
Iran-lated tliu>. 1, f\ S. or f^/la c moHo dotla. — I3ut., if any 
other y<<rl) is between the title and tlie adjective, we sln)uld 
ai^ree it with the person : and the second e.vample should be 
turned thus, 2. Ella par niolto pen^ieroso. — And if the vert) 
to Ij(, ill such sentences, is followed by a participle of 
anolluM- \eib, in which case to be is a mere auxiliary, the 
participle w ill aijree w ith the title, and the I'ollow ini; ad- 
jecti\e with the person : so that the third example is to be 
ttirned thii>;, 3, Ella si c mostrata si^norc, nou itictio sdvio, 
cfir b( fii^/io 

35. * .\s to the plural, it seems that the formal expres- 
sion, It signorie loro, recjuires the adjective, in all the above 
cases, to be plural feminine, and aijree with the title ; a^--, 
ie signorie Ivro sonomollo dottc, AVr. s^entUMnen, \ou are very 
learned, Sec. JJut since, as it was observed, in yenteel com- 
]):ini('S. we say lor signori, and lor signorc, tlu? aj^rcoment 
III tliiit case cannot perplex; since it will agree both with 
tlie per-<»nsand the titles, 

3i). Exception. — Observe, that if the adjective i^ aj)plie<l 
to a noun ot° nation, or country, then it must a<;iee with 
the perMin in all numbers; as, lor signori, or Ir signorie 

* The above rule i« jierfeiily consonant witli tin- Kciiins of ilie 1 iii- 
puaRf, und niany fxaniplcn from autliom of rcpuic minlit lit" iidiluinl inoin- 
fii niaiioii of it. Kiit xiiit'C tlii.s coinpliiiient wiis not iiili<>(Jii(i.'(l in li.tly, I't'lure 
tilt hiiieriitli tiMii III ), wf caiin<it fiiicl aullioritii •» (iii il of llii- ai,'i' ol Hoic.iic, 
wlii-ii wriiirrs wi-ic ixirriiit-ly coni-ct ami uniluriii in llicii siyU- : ami llu- nio- 
dcrns |<;iy so litllc atii-niinn lu tlicii .<i(y!i', iii>iaiici.'s iiiiglil be Iixiiul 
Id ilicni a»iiubvci»Mc ol lUc above iirintiiilc. — LJUut, 


loro mi paiono SpngmwH, or Ilulldni (not Spagnuole^ or 
Italuhic), you f>entlemen look like Spaniards or Italians; 
El/a e Spagnuolo sicuramente, you are certainly a Spaniard, 


(Including Lectures XI. and XII. of the Author). 

On Conjunctive, or J^erivntive Pronouns, called hi/ the 
Tuscan Grammarians Afeissi. 

1. ^ These pronouns are thus called, because they are 
derived some from the personal, and others from the re- 
lative pronouns ; and because they are joined to the verbs 
either in one word at the end, or in separate words before 
them, as it will be observed hereafter. They mi<>ht also 
have been called conjunctive, from their peculiar property 
of coupling together two by two, or three by three, loro 
only excepted, as we are about to see. Thej are as follows. 

2. 3Ii, or me; ti, or ie ; si, ov se ; ci, or ce; vi, or ve ; 
loro ;* which are derived from the personal pronouns, and 
bear the same signification in most cases. 

And gli, or li ,• lo, or il .; la; le ; ne ; glie ; which seem 
derived from relative pronouns, although they have a mere 
personal signification. 

3. For the better understanding o^ ihe&e monosjjllahles, 
which perplex not only the beginners, but even those who 
have made some proficiency in the Italian language, two 
points must be considered, ^f::. 1. Their most obvious mean- 
ings ; and, 2. Their proper place in a sentence. 

4. Most obvious Meanings of the foregoing Pronouns. 

Mi (when dative) is equivalent to a me ; as, il re mi con- 
cede ial grdzia (viz. concede a me ;) the king grants me such 
a favour. 

Mi (when accusative) is equivalent to me ; as, Dio mi 
vede (viz. vede me), God sees me. 

Ti (dative) is equivalent to a te ; as, io ti parlero domcini 
(viz parlero a te), I will speak to thee to-morrow. 

* The pronoun loro is certiiiiily a conjunctive pronoun, wlienever used in the 
dative ])hiiai without the inrletinite article ; as, fg/i scrisse loio, he wrote to 
tliem, lie. hut, being the only one that lias under^^one no change from il>< 
personal state, it has been overlooked by graniinaiian?. Vv'e uii^ht as well say 
that neither nf the nous or v<ms of these French verbs are conjunctive iiiononns, 
as in 7inus nous deslial-itlons, we undress ourselves; voiis vous peigi:ez, you 
comb yourselves, &c. because they are the same with the others that are i)er- 
soual J wliieh would be absurd hi the extreme. 


Ti (accusative) is equivalent to te ; as, ro7< // piniira 
scuza picld (viz. puniid tc), he will punish thee without 
in ere V. 

^7 (dative) is equivalent to a sc ; as, si free c/iiamdrc 
tiilti i serri {\iz. fee e c/iianidre a sc), he ordered all the ser- 
vants to be called to hini. 

S/ (accusative) is equivalent to se ; as, chi a Ics^sxrr ro- 
ni(h!zi,chi a ^-iindrc n scacchi si diafc, {Bocc.) (viz. dicde se^) 
some betook themselves to read romances, some to play at 

O, or ne (dative) is equivalent to a noi ; as, corrcrdnno 
oUe case, t- Vavcre ei or ?!c rvhtrdnno, (Hocc.) (viz. I'nhc- 
ri'mno a noi,) they will run to our house, and steal our pro- 
perty from us. 

Ci, or ne, (acciusative) is equivalent to j?o// as, ii( ei, or 
7ie Juii nf!;s:i tanto dilitieate^ (viz. (itvle dilitieate noi.) (Bocc.) 
you have pleased us so uuich to-day.* 

/7 (dative) is equivalent to « ro/,- as, quondo di venir li 
pidceia, (viz. pidccia a voi.) when it may please \f»u to come, 

f'i ('accusative) is equi\alent to ro? / as, el/a vi atlenderd 
in casa vita, (viz. afUndcrd voi,) she will wait for you at my 

Note. — Either the sense, or the verb, or both, indicate 
when any of these pronouns are dative, or accu>ati\e. 

F). 5 The pronouns ri and ei are often used as mere ex- 
pletives, or adierbia/h/ in the sense of iJiere, hillier, Ihillier, 
here, in t/iis p/cce, in l/iose iliin^s, or places, i<;e., and it is 
always optional to adopt the one or the other of them, 
notwitlistandiuij^ what sophistical ^grammarians riiay have 
ol)verved to the contrarv, 

6. ^ Excepdon. — 'riio "only case in which the use of 
either ci or r/, in the above sionification^^, cannot be op- 
tional, i'^ whenever one of them is found in the same sen- 
tence in its personal sii;;nification, as explained before; for, 
in such cases, we do not like to repeat twicer/, or tv, but 
adopt, for an expfetiie or ndrerh, the other of them, not 
wanted as personal. Ex. 1o vi ei eondnno, \ shall take 
) on there, and not /o xixieondurrb; noi ci xi conduccmnio 

• AniitluT example of the ufic of tlic pronoun, ne, (wliicli is generally moie 
usrd in |ioi try than prosej is to be seen in tlic followini,' verMS : 

Che nnn nmbizvui avuri fi/frlli. 

\e tprnii^tro fvi/. n'/i) a//' imjnrsa, o nr fur pitltla, (vi/. a noi). Tasso. For 
anilifiiouH or covetouo dcsirc< did not move um to lliis cniir|jri/c, nor were our 

Pfrchi con lui radnl t/u/lla iprr^ma. Che ne fr (vi/. noi} vanrpgiar ii Imnn- 
minie (Pclrarra), For wifli liim thai liopc shall fitii which made us frainie 
•u long. 


avdnti pranzo^ we conveyed ourselves there before dinnery 
and not noi ci ci condifccmtno, <^'C, 

7. fT IjOro is equivalent to a !oro, to them, and cannot 
be any other case, when conjunctively used, without any 
preposition : see the first note to this Lecture. The Eng- 
lish use /hem without preposition. Just in the same way as 
io cliedi loro. I ^ave them ; where it is evident that loro, or 
them, is iintead oi' a loro, or to them. 

8. "U Loro as a conjunctive pronoun, hns this peculiarity, 
thatbein;j^a dissyllable, it cannot be jointed in one word with 
any of the other pronominal monosyllables of the conjunctive 
kind, as they all occasionally do one with the other; and it 
very seldom keeps on the same side of the verb with any of 
them. Ex. EgU me lo fia raccoi/ianddto, he has recommend- 
ed him to me ; l)ut, if instead of to me we wanted to say to 
t/icni, then we would say in Italian, Egli lo ha raccornnn- 
ddfo loro, or loro rnccomanddto ; I promised to recommend 
him to you, promisi di raccomanddroelo ; but it were to be 
to them ; Promesi di raccoinnnddrlo loro. See this point 
far better illustrated in next Lecture, at LORO, XVIL 

9. it is observable, that the conjunctive pronouns do not 
admit before them an indefinite article, as the oblique cases 
of personal pronouns do; consequently it cannot be said di 
mi, a ci, da gli ; but di me, a noi, da lui, and so on. 

10. Gli <n- li (when dative) is equivalent to « lui ; as, 
costui qudndo tit gli snrdi rimresciuia, (viz. a lui) con gran 
xituperodi tc medesima ti cacrerd via (IJocc), this man, when 
he is weary of thee, wilt send thee away to thy great dis- 

Gli or li (accusative) is equivalent to loro ; as, egli avtua 
tre Jigliuoli, e lutii e ire pariaienle g/i annlva, viz. amdva loro^ 
(l3occ.) he had three children, and he loved them all 

1 1. Lo or il is equivalent to lui ; as, per lo comune bene 
dclla Rcfmblica, lo dichiiirdrono Re, e loro SigfiSre, (Bocc.) 
(viz. dichiardronalui.) for the common o-ood of the Republic, 
they declared him their kinii', and th«'ir lord. Cantdtido am 
grandissima fcsta, e solenndd il rtcdrono alia chiefa, (viz. 

* G/t is tlie .'iaiiie as if, eliber meaning /o /f'm, ov them ; ari, li pv'tvgo nofte 
e di, \'i/. pi,in!:o Luro, 1 weep ioi- tlieiii iiiglil and day ; as has lieeii oti.scin'ed. 
AiiUior. Nothing can be uioic frivohms iliaii the Ui.>tiiictii)ii of gli before ;i 
vowel, and li befme a consonant; tlie laitei' begins lunv-a-diys to be rejecic<i ; 
it i*, however, indi-ptiisable when preceded and joined to f/'>, nieanirm /o him, 
or to her : see Lecture XII. at (iLI, X. pronoun, and at GLlii, Xlll. proi.ouu. 


recarono liii) (liooc.) piiii'iii,'': \vi(li "reat ccmoiiiohv t\iul 
solemnity, tlu>y cairictl him {o (he chiirdi.* 

12. Im is equivalent to lei; as. // inarito cn'dii/o allc 
nltruc fiilsita In fa uccidcrc. c 7nangi('ir a^ liipL (viz. /a vcct- 
r/t/r /(/) ( IJocc) the husband, beiievini;' the liilse represen- 
tations, causes her to be killtHl, niul clevoiircii by wolves. 

13. Le (when dative) is equivalent to a hi ; as, la donna 
con la sua fantc. si consi<^lih, se ben Jatlo le paresse, (viz. 
parcsse a lei) cli^ ell a usasse (jncl henc^ clie inndnzi le aver a 
(viz. (iveva a Id,) la fordhia niandalo, (13occ.) the woman 
consulted her servant whether she thought it expedit;iit she 
should avail herself of that favourable opportunity which 
fortune had thrown in her way. 

-Lr (when accusative) is equivalent to loro ; as, la Ninella, 

che il desidcrio dclle sorelle sapcra, in tanta rohmtd di qm'slo 

fatto le accese, cfie, cSt. (viz. acctsc loro) (Bocc.) Nancy, 

who knew the inclination of her sisters, roused in them such 

a desire ol" it, that (Sec. 

14. A^e is equivalent to di lui, di lei, or, di loro ; as, non 
tni parli ne del siii;n6r, rte della signora, N .N . pereln' non fie 
xSglin sapir nulla, (viz. non voglio super nulla ne di lui, ne di 
lei), do not sj)eak to me either of the gentleman, or of the 
lady N.N. because I will know nothing of hini, of her, or of 

iW, which may be called a general relative pronoun, is 
also equivalent to di cio, di (jueslo, di ejuesla, di quesli, di 
queslc, or quelle rose, of it, of that, of them, or of some of 
iheui ; as la signora ce ne parlo, (viz. ci parlb di rid, or di 
questo) the lady sjioke to us of it, ofthi-^, of that. Me ne 
darelevoi.'' (\'iz. nii darelc vui di qucsia, or quellacpsa) will 
^ou give me some of it, or of that ? porlalemene qunndt) 
sono mature, bring me some of them when they are ripe. 

A'e sometimes is an adverb of |)lace : as, ;/r vengo ova 
(viz. lengo ora da qud luugo), I conie no\\' from that place, 
or from there. 

iVc, when accented, is a conjunctior), and does not belong 
to (his Lecture: it then means m illier or not; as, io non 
poiso nt: purlnre ni taeere ; I can neither speak nor be silent. 

J 5 . Position of the foregoing Pronouns. 

The con j II net ivf and relative pronouns are more frequently 
put before the veil): as, uii p(nlo, si d/tole, vi anio ,- and 
may also be placed after it ; as, pentonti dual si, ihnovi. 

• Tlic ortllo^ra|»lly of these pronouns, when prcrcciled by a vowel, h lite 
!«:itiip an that obsiTved ai the ailcflf", //., and f.U, to the singular iiiiiiibfr; see 
note f at p. Ik, and note* p. \'J.—Kilil<>r. 



16. 51 Important Caution. — Elegant prose writers and 
poets prefer this second position; but they take great 
liberties about this part of the Italian syntax ; so that there 
is scarcely one of the following rules but what might be 
proved false with the authority of our best classics. The 
scholar, therefore, is to consider them for the most part as 
necessary only in common conversation, and in writings of a 
familiar and easy turn. 

17. The oblique cases of personal pronouns may likewise 
be placed before the verb, as well as after it, instead of the 
conjunctive pronouns ; as, io parlo a vol, non a lui, I speak 
to you, not to him ; or a vol parlo, non a lui. 

This point will be farther elucidated by the following 
examples : 

We may say, 
ella mi pidce, 1 , io Io vedo "^ 

ella pidcemiy V 1 • ^'' vedolo V I see him. 

ellapidce a me, C ' io vedo lui J 

or, a me pidce,3)'C. ) 

egli mi desidera 1 . ,' \ . io gli diedi un lihro, n j- 
egli desiderami V n iodiedigli un lihro, (,p 

egli desidera me ) ' io diedia luiun libro,t % ,. 

or, a lui diedi, SfC. ) 

18. It will probably be here asked, if the above-mention- 
ed different ways of placing the conjunctive or personal pro- 
nouns are all equally good ; or if one is better than the 
other? To this question may be answered ; the first man- 
ner, viz. mi pidce is more frequently used, and is the best in 
common conversation. The second, viz. pidcemi, is more 
proper for the elegant style. The third and fourth, viz. 
pidce a me, or a lui dicdi, are never used except in more ex- 
pressive and em[>hatical sentences, or when the pronouns 
form a kind of antithesis : as, Paolo loda te, e bidsima me, 
Paul praises thee, and blames me; il giudice conddnna voi, 
e assohe me, the judge condemns you, and absolves me ; a 
lui died) uno scucJo, ed a lei uno sceUino, I gave a crown-piece 
to him, and a sh lling to l»er. Or eniphatically thus : a me 
voi ardite dire si falle noxelle ? dare you tell such stories to 
me ? 

19. % Exception. — There are five cases in which the con- 
junctive or relative pronouns are placed after the verb, and 
joined with it in one word, viz. 1. The first per-^on plural, 
and (he second person of both numbers to the impera- 
tive mood of all verbs; as, love me, dmami, or umdlemi ; 
let us take him thither, conducidmovelo. — Exc. When the 
imperative sentence contains a negative, then the pronouns 


resume their respective place before the verb; as, do not 
love me, nan mi (iDu'irc, or )ion inc amiUe ; let us not take 
hiiu thither, non ve lo conduciihno. 2. The infinitive ; as, to 
tell it riji;ht. n diila ii'nhta.* 3. The gerund; as, leaving him 
to his chance, ubbimdonandolo alia sorte. 4. The participle 
past : as, having broiii>ht him so far, he stopped, portdtolo 
iin la, si, /crmb. b. The adverb ecco ; as, there I am, 
iccomi ; heie he is, eccolo. See last note,* at the end of 
Lecture XIX. 


Tell me that : Ood sees thee ; I love you ; he chose us; 

dite lo J)io V(dc voglio bene scclse 

believe me ; 1 gave him the book ; she speaks to me, not to 
credtle ditdi libro parln non 

you; they see him; speak to us the truth ; I will teach her 

lalo/io ditc vcro ifisegnero 

Italian : I never spoke to him; I do not understand them ; 
Jtaliuno non ho nuii parlulo capisco 

she will I'iveyou the letter; the king grants us such a favour ; 

darn ' h'ltcra re concede lal favore 

they devoted themselves to you ; give me some bread ; to tell 

dcdicdrono date pane per 

vou the thing as it is ; in leaving me alone ; here we are; 

cosa come c lascidndo solo ecco qui 
there they are. 

ecco 1(1 

()(/ur imporldnt Remarks on the Conjunctive and 
Rclulrcc Pronouns. 

21. % Tlu'-^e five pronouns, ;;//, //, si, ci, r/, may be cou- 
])l(.d together, and tliey iiiver change their termination 
through their mutual union ; as, perchi' mi ci mcndsli / why 
(lid vou tjike me I hit her ? I'gli ti si dichiarnd J'cdcU, he will 
declare hilll^el^ true to you. 

22. Hut when the same five pronouns are copulated with 
the relative pronouns, viz. lo, la, Ic, gli, or //, nc, the) must 
change J into /,', thus. 

• ObnLTvc licrc, Uial ih«- last vnwel <>( nil iiifiiiifc vt-rlit is always cut off, 
when ilicre i^ after tlu-iii a |iniii(niii ; c«nM()uciitly it imisi not lie said, dtr^ta, 
amarelo,farcne, vriUr^a ; but dtrla, to l«ll il ; amurli, to love liini ; J'lirnt, to 
do it ; r.r'tT/a, to .itr liirr. — Author. Tlie poeti* aiul elcKaut wrilcis use similar 
coiitrac lions iuotlur tcn.tiH too ; a«, Vidul coin cli' i or i« prtito alvero, (I'etr.) 
tliat it, lo veda, let liir sec it, who is now no near tiutli ; midi di fersi morriido 
fi,-,m.^,c. fl'clr.) that i», it/erono, or ffcrro, uiy days became clcninl by iiiy 
death. — Editor. 

I 2 


Me lo date, you give me it ; not 7ni lo. 

Te la manda, he sends her or it to thee ; not ti la. , 

Se ne mette in tasca, he puts some in his pocket; not si ne, 

Ce li inostra come sono, she shows them to us as they are ; 

not ci li. 

Ve le piglidte tiitte^ you take them all for yourself; not 

vi le. 

23. f Exception. — When three conjunctive pronouns 
come together, the first of them never changes / into E ,- 
whenever both the first and second of them are out of the 

Jive mentioned at n. 21, which do not change their final /, 
coming together. Exam. Noi non xi ce ne manderemo di 
queste pere., we shall send you none of these pears there.* 

24. 5[ Note. — These pronouns, when two by two, may 
be written in elegant writings in one word ; thus, jnel, tel, 
&)C. or W2CW, ten, SfC. whenever they precede a verb com- 
mencing with a consonant, which is not S, impure. See the 
third Lecture at p. 18, note *, but see much more on the 
subject in the next. 

^ But before verbs commencing with a vowel, the con- 
traction is then marked with an apostrophe, and the pro- 
nouns written separate ; as, lo te I'accurdo, I grant it to 
thee ; egli ne n' avrd obbligaziune, he will be obliged to you 
for it. 

23. We read often in our best classics, for the sake of 
elegance, Jo il xi daro, 1 will give you that : instead of zo 
ve lo darb ; and io la xi ho data, 1 have given it to you ; in- 
stead of xe r ho data, &jc. 

26. The conjunctive gli, to him, or to it, which is copu- 
lated with the pronominal particles, lo, la, li, le, or 7ie, does 
not change I into E ; but, in order to soften the pronuncia- 
tion, it takes an £more; -d^, glielo, gliela, glieli, glele, in- 
stead o^ glilo, glila, glili, glile.— When joined to the same 
pronominal particles, glie represents also the dative femi- 
nine singular, expressed by le when alone, so that the above 
couples of pronouns stand as well instead of lelo, lela, leli, 
lele, which are not admissible : so (hat glie means either to 
him, or to her. Exam. In glielo in-ciiii,\ I sent him, or it 
to her, or to him, viz. io P inxidi a lei, or a liii. 

* GbseiTP well this Exception, vvliicli is not followed by niost Italians with 
rigour ; since tliey are apt to say, promiscuously, either n'>i nun vi ce ne, or noi 
n'jnvecene; whicli last models extremely incorrect, and not ccuinenanced 
hy any classical aiithoror grammarian.' — Editor, 

f This and other above-mentioned instances show, that the accusative case, 
which is constantly before the dative in English, is placed next to it in Italian. 
'-Author. The student should also observe, that Boccace, that great father 


27. ■! Glic is niso joined to wr, and means likewise to hhii, 
or to her ; but the union of /c fic for the teininine is ccjually 
ill use, and rather preterahle to gliLiic. 

28. When it i^ requisite to incorporate one or more con- 
junctive pronouns at tlie end of verbs, if sucli verbs are 
marked with an accent at the end. or are uiono-yUables 
with a single vowel, it is necessary to (louble t!ie consonant 
of the pronoun next to it, and write them all close to the verb 
as if they were single woids, thu^, »///?/, ///. vr/, tS'r. and then 
the accent on the last \owel oftiie veib is lost in writini"", 
but not in the j)ronuiicia(ion : as, lo donniiiUi, \'\7..ioiniti 
(fo, I devote myself to thee ; io ch//o a voi\ \\'/,. /o do aroi\ 
1 j;ive it to you ; ( <:!;li dardvri, viz. r/ dura, he will give it to 
you ; incn'iUastuc, viz. se lie la mcnh^ lie took her himself 
tVoiij thence. 

29. Gil is excepted ; a«, lo s;li dtirh i/ prcmid, or darogli, 
f)C. I will give to him tiie price; where no consonant is 

30. fj Observe that the verb, neither in the above, nor 
in auAother instance, alters the position of the accent, l)y 
tlie addition of all these pronominal jnirticles. Ex. Jo con- 
r^ruliiloinenc con loi, I congratulate you upon it; the accent 
js on the a. as in the verb conrrralitlo alone. 

31. When, by so many pronouns, the accent would run 
too far backwards, we either put them before the verb, or 
avoid one of the conjunctive j)articles, by substituting to it 
the per>onal projioun, with a preposition ; thus, in the fore- 
going^ example, we read, congratnloninie con xoi, instead of 
congralitlomivcne ; although this combination of three pro- 
nouns be perfectly gramujatical : See it in next Lecture at 
.M I, 1st [)ionoun. 

32. % Vqy the savne reason, when in elegant composition, 
wo add one or more pronoui\s to the end of those third per- 
sons pbiiiil of the verbs, in which the accent lies either on 
the last but two, or last but three ; it is inevitable to curt;iil 
such verbs of their last vowel, as we couunonly do to the 
inliiiitives ; (see note"^, p. G7.) thus, rcchinsclo snllc spa/fc^ 
unl rt'(/iino''(fo, let (hem load it on their shoiddeis ; CixUno 
iHc'\ini( i \illinii(t^ woi dkciunoci^ i\\vy wereaijusing us, ivc. 

of llic Tii«-aii i'lo<|iii'iice, has never declined this co'iipmiiul |>if)iioiin ^/jV/c ; so 
lliai ilii- «(CiiH;iiJvc /t, ill liii worlin, rcl.UeH I'lilii-r n» h masiiiliiic siiii;iil;ii, oi- 
K'liiiiiiiir fiiii^iniir, iii:f<('iirnit- |>liiral or roiniiiiiit' |>liii'al. It .sliiiiilil iiii>|iii'<( jon- 
at>ly he iiiaOc iiiili-cliiialilc in any clcuaiit (-iii^i|i<i.sii mn. lint ciisioiii (uiii|i«) 5 lis 
IO make it declinable fur ull (lie cuiiiiikmi iisin in lilr. — Editor. 

V 3 



You shall send her to me ; he praises himself for it ; they 
manderele loda 

will give us some of it, or of them; you shall return them to 
dardnno renderete 

him ; the lady spoke to us of it ; she ^ave it me again ; WQ 

signora parlb dicde di nuovo 

shall ask him tor some ; agentleman told it to me ; remember 
dimanderemo signore disse rammentdle 

it to me ; she lent them to me. 



A Table exhibiting the most important Significations, and a 
full and methodical display of all the Grammatical Com- 
binations of the pronominal Particles called Conjunc- 
tive Pronouns, or Affissi. 


It is obvious, that in all didactic and abstract subjects the 
means the most conducive to the attainment of them by the 
studious, are a perspicuous and clear method in giving 
rules. Nothing is more intricate in the Italian Grammar 
than the Conjunctive Pronouns, and nothing has been more 
negligently handled by grammarians. 

They have all, it is true, laid down rules concerning their 
positions with respect to the verbs, (how imperfectly and in- 
accurately even this point has been treated by others will 
appear by collating their precepts on tjiat head with Rule, 
No. 18, and its Exception, at p. 60, of the preceding Lec- 
ture ;) but as to their several combinations with respect to 
one another, as well as to the significations they can possibly 
imply, they have been either unintelligible, or materially 
deficient, particularly for want of order and perspicuity. 

Some (Grammarians, affectir/g, no doubt, a most penetrat- 
ing etymological knowledge, have treated of these pronouns 
simultaneously with the personal, to show that the former 
are almost all derived from the latter ; little caring, besides, 
for the great obscurity and perplexity which it must neces- 
sarily occasion the student in treating of this very difficult 
part ofspeech in such a sumniary and complex manner. 

Others, like Vcneroni^ have, indeed, made a separate chap- 


ter of these pronouns, and have laiil down some useful rules 
concerninij the rit^ht useand siijnifications of them ; whence 
it is easy to infer, th;it the conjunctive pronouns may hr. 
Joined t:co ht/ tico, or three hij thrift and even have some 
^uide tor conihiiiinij them i:;ramuuitically in some instances. 
But no one of them has embraced, in his theories, all the 
admisj^ible combinations of these pronouns, aiul much less 
all their po>sible siijnilicatious. Indeed, how could they do 
it in a tew paragraphs ? 

We may have observed in the precedini; Lecture (see p. 
62. n. ^.) that the conjunctive particles which can be joined 
either two by two, or three by three, are sixteen* in number ; 
tlierelore very little knowled>je of arithmetic is sufficient to 
tind, that \\\e\x posuhlc comhinalions must an)ouut to no less 
than /o//r tliousond three hundred and ff I i/4zco. And how 
can we expect to have any other rule than aulJiora^ and nae 
in the selectinij;, out of siuh a vast number, the comparatively 
few oTfl;;/;//«//r«/ coml)inations of these particles, which (if 
we reflect that the perspicuity of the plan adopted requires 
the inserlin2: e;>cii of them /it/rrj in the followin;;- List) will 
be found to amount precisely to no more tluin onk hundred 
and THiuTV-NiNE ! without reckoning; tlieir orthographical 
diversifications ? 

Noi' can we suppose the ascertaining of all their significa- 
tions to be less arducus, if we consider that thev contain the 
relative and personal pronouns to all cases:|: (nominative only 
excepted), with their governing particles or prepositions. 
So that they mu>-t have as many dillereut meanings, as there 
are preposition* to diversify them. The catiilogue, there- 
fore, of rt// their cond)ination'^, with every possible significa- 
tion to each of them, would make rather a volume than a 

Hence it follows, (hat elassical authors and ?/<rf must be 
the only rules to be attended to in these points, and that 

• I do not iiic uflc / in tliis calculiitioii, ^incc it is tlic only oni.' tliat does 
not a»s(Kiaii' with oil er particles, as will be oliscivt-d in its place; but 1 liuve 
reckoned mi and me, ^iand te, ci and cr, vi and ve, si and te, as so many liifferent 
pronouns, altliongli their ^il'nification he tlic same ; since each ol tlicm has its 
peculiar m-rif-N of comhinalionK, as the following TVf/Y^.will slmw. 

•f- '1 hti'c comhinaliunR, wlii-re f/c siniiiai, aic inscrtid more tlian twice on 
account of the various pronouns that ().irtitle represents. .See at (iLIK, XIII. 

J The '["u-'can critic! Jwniffn oidy the accusative and ilie dative ca.<es to these 
conjunctive particles, and this is tri < with respect to the fynlax of Italian verhs ; 
hut, sinrc many verh«. in Knulish tal%c tlie Rinitiveor ablative c.ise, or rather the 
prr|)n«itions appointed to aliow such cases, which are construed in Italian willi 
the accusative or dative, the above statement is correct, if properly uudcr»tooU 
of the Italiau oynla.x compiled with the I nijlish. 

1 4 


nothing short of a complete List or TABLE of the most usual 
significations, and of all the grammatical combinations^ 
namely, those to be found in authors, or to be heard in fami- 
liar conversation, to wliich recourse may be had by the pu- 
pil, as easily as to a Dictionary, could have answered the 
desis^ned ewA^ and have removed all difficulties. 

Such a TABLK* is now furnished, for the first time, to 
the students of (jJrcat Britain ; in which, however, I have 
not had any other merit, than that of most diligently extract- 
ingand translating the whole from Cinonio, whose literary 
labours have justly been honoured by the Academicians 
Della CnuscAf with the most unbounded sanction, and in 
the most explicit terms. 

I am happy, however, to add, that my attentive, though 
reluctantly unfrequent, reading of the classic^, together with 
the use of those canons of scriipuloiis analogy established 
hereafter (see Preliminarij Observation V.), have enabled 
me to put my mite to the rich stores of Cinonio ; insomuch 
that I may almost assure my readers, that there can scarcely 
be any combination ofconjunctive pronouns, justifiable either 
bv use or authority, but what will be found registered in the 
following TABLE. 


To illustrate the Use and Blechanism of the follozving Table, 

1. Let no one be deterred from consulting this J^ist on 
Table on account of its extensiveness. Prolixity is only 
then perplexiug, when matters are void of order and perspi- 
cuity. The following Table is no niore diiFicult in its use 
than any Dictionary whatever, and the scholar needs only 
occasionally to read that part which suits his daily want or 

* Feneroni lias given a List coiisistitig of about tirenty conihinatioiis of tliese 
projioiiiis ; but what is such a iMimber, towanls the total 139 ? 

f The notes and observations will prove, that I liave not iicglcctcd collalinc;, 
occasionally, Cinonio with rlie Vocaloldrio Delia Cnisca, and other authors, men- 
tioned in the Advkrtisement prefixed to this work. 1 am possessed of good 
olitions of the Gi'inte to Demho, by Caslelvetro, and of the Ercoldno by f'arc/ii, 
\yho treat at jen^jth on tiie conjunctive pronoiins : but they having not been once 
nientiotu'd in the Vocaloldrio on this subject, and, on tlic other hand, Cinonio 
haviu^r been copied thronyhout, and improved by the Acddcminans, I have for- 
borne C(Uisulting tlieni, and, imitating these eminent philologists, I iiave been 
cauti.ous not to exiend these researches on too tottering principles of analoijy, 
as Varcid and Caslelvetro seem to have done, vviio have very seldom produced 
autboriiies to support what they have advanced on this subject : wliile Cinovio 
and tlie AcidennciaKshave never neglected to dp so, even with profusion. 


purpo>5e. Ill tlie Vlllth prclirjii /Kny obscnalioji, ihc T-dhlc 
♦.W'tliose conjiiiK'tivo pronouns is inserted with tho same order 
as in the conrse ot this Lecture, tluon^hont which, at the top 
of eacli column, the rinifiins; ////r ]ioints out what pronoun 
or pronoun>; it explains. The scholar, therefore, needs only 
to observe wliat is tho person and numher of the English 
personal or conjunctive pronoun he wishes to translate, and 
he will readily find it exjilained and exeinplilied in this 
TAni.r:, with all its i^raniniatical conibinaliuns in re<;ular 
order; those where tho |)ronoun in (piestion is imikfixrd 
couiini:: first, and tlie others where it is suhjoined coming 
iui mediately after. 

I I. And since neglect, rather than tinio, has cflTected great 
change in the modern use of these pronouns, an asterisk (*) 
has been prefixed to those combinations^ to be met with in 
the writings of the most eminent classics, and which might 
be successfully used in anv poetical or elegant composition, 
but mu<t not be atiopted in familiar style, or common con- 

III. As to the 5/gw//?r(7^/o;?.<r attributed to each of these pro- 
nouns, fiom wliat I observed in the yidi'crtisnncnt^ we can- 
not suppose to be all registered liere; but they arc by far 
more copious than any in any other grammar whatever ; and 
such is the variety of examples given, that I trust to have 
fiM niched the student with an accurate criterion to use each 
conjunctive pronoun with proper discrimination, attributing 
to it, occasionally, the nieaning of other prepositions, accord- 
ing to the peculiar governcnent of the verbs to which thcj 
are to bejnineil. 

I\ . At each of the coml)inations of tiiose pronouns, those 
sigiiilicatioiw-i will be found which answer ti:e example or 
examples annexed to it ; but every one of these pronouns 
nnist be supposed liid)le in each combinaliiui tf) any of those 
significations ascribed to it where it is exhibited alone, ifthe 
structure of the sentence, or syntax of the verb with which it 
i>^ joined, will admit of them. 

v. 'I" he reafler will find sevcTal rojpbinfitions achhd by 
me, even unaccompanied by any c.i p/anntion or c.raiiip/c. 
Let him not loo lia>(ily blame me on that account. I-'or tho 
si i^ni fir (it inn of tUc?>o. pronominal particles being extensively 
given where each of them is registered sini^le^ accortling to 

f (^)li«rrvc ili;»t M lifti two or more (•(niibiiiatidns follow closely c.nrli other, 
even joiifil Ity alrtiif, tin; imlic.iii'nt til'ilu; uitmsk ilncn not I'xit'iid any lit^ilicr 
ilian to Uiut very one lo which it is prclixcii, bcini; irpcutcJ wlu-rcvci' it was ne- 


the numerical progression of the Roman figures annexed to 
each (^ee Observation Vlll ), it is easy to know all tlie pos- 
sible meaiiinijs ofeach combination^ bj consulting this Tablr 
at the several places where its component particles are to be 
found. And, as to the want of an example^ the following 
observation is submitted, as containing those canons o^ scru- 
pulous analogy^ which have been my constant guidance in 
registering as grammalical several of the following conibi- 
natiorjs, which 1 have not yet had the good fortune to find 
exemplified in any of our good authors. 

In combining these conjunctive particles together, either 
two by two, or three by three, our authors have manifestly 
attended to these tzi^o essential points, viz. 1. Harmonious 
arrangement of sounds : and, 2. Sj/ntactical association of 
meanings. — Now, if we examine, with some attention, all 
these pronouns exhibited and explained in the foregoing- 
Lecture, we shall find that we may arrange the greatest part 
of them under ^/jrce distinct series or classes, of which the 
component pronouns shall be respectively found perfectly 
analogous in the above tziH) points. These are for the first 
series, mi ; ti ; si ; ci : vi : for the second, me ; te ; se ; 
CE ; VE ; and, for the third, il, or lo ; la; gli, or li ; le. 
Hence it follows, that a (;o?«/';/7W//o« once found in authors 
with one or more of them, we may be entitled to establish as 
grammatical all the others that may be obtained by the ex- 
change of one or two of the component particles for others 
of the same 5me5 respectively ; provided no classical critic 
he against it, and that no harsh sound, or any si/ntaciical im- 
propriety, may arise from it. Thus, for instance, having 
found in Boccaccio^s Ammeto, the cond>ination mi se nk, 
(see the quotation copied from Cinonio in N E, XVI. pro- 
noun), we shall be allowed to exchange mi for ti, ci, or vi, 
and make {\\e combinations, ti se ne, ci se ne, vi se ne ; 
buinot SI SE NE, for both the identical signification ofsi and 
se, and the bad sound resulting from the union of these two 
monosyllables, are against the iioo principles established 
above. The same combination mi se ne, by exchanging the 
first and second particles, each for another of its respective 
series, will give the grammatical and analogous combina- 
tions ti me ne, si te ne, ci se ne, vi ce ne, &c. but not 

TI TE ne, (M GE NE, VI VE N E, &C. for reasoUS jlist UOVV 

shown. Av,(\ as to n e, it will not be prudent to venture to 
exchange it for any other, for though its sound be perfectly 
c-naloffous with those of the ^cco??r/ scries, yet its meanings 
and u.-e differ too widely from any of them to expect from 


such an p\rhaii2,o, lliat sjjntactkal ossocialion of meanings 
above alliulcil to. 

It will not be (iiflicult for the critic to extend these canona 
ofamilosf/ to all the couihinnlions introduced by me in the 
tollowiiiij Tahle without a (]'.iotiition. and I hope he uill 
find that I lia\e conformed to lliesanu> in all instance?. On 
the other hand, the less iiujiii-^itive student will be able to 
make an extensive use of this Table, without ever readin^ 
this ()I)S( rvdlion. 

\'I. The translation of the examples annexed to each com- 
bination of the pronouns will be f>und, tio doubt, ex- 
iriinflij harsh and even barbarous ; but, if it be intelli«;ible, 
it will fiillv answer the desired end of oivinir the pupil to 
understand the enerijy of these pronominal parti* Us in its 
full Ibrce. That such a harshness was in this ca^e unavoid- 
able, will readily occur to any one, who will advert to the 
•xreat uuwhvr oi' iiiipcrsn)i(i/ and rrciprorn/ verbs used in the 
Italian lan^uaoe, and not admissible in the English. These 
beini; coui^trued in Italian with the conjunctive pronouns, 
and the syntax of n»auy other verbs beinj^ dilferent in the 
two lanijuaires, have been the unavoidable causes of that 
asperiiv, whi( h 1 could not |)ossibly a\oid in the translation 
of the Ibllowinir exani|)les, without deleating the very end 
for \\ hich they were intended. 

VII. As to {ho position of the conjunctive pronouns, nith 
respect to their rerbs, let tiie student attend to llie observa- 
tions ofthe pre'^edini;- Lecture ; and lor I'amiliar use chielly 
to Hii.K, n. IS. and its Exceptio.v. p. 6(i. I\tr the follow- 
ing examples * bei'iii taken from ele<rant writer*^, whose 
onlv rubs in this point were taste and harmony, the student 
<oul(l not, in many in'-tances, adopt their construction in 
familiar writittgs. or colloquial style, without incurring the 
charge of pedantry. 

• 1 iiave already Eiveti some rrasoiis in the Jtdvntifeiiunl pii'fix'-d to tliis 
uork, wliy tlie>c fxaiji|ik-s l.ikcii from thissical autlior.s linvi- I'lidfriioiii' some 
aliriatioii«, and oili> r ri-asoiis foi- so doiiij; will be occasioiiall) staitil in llic 
course of ilic followiiiu' 'I'alh: Neveitheless, in order tlial thr most severe cri- 
tics may not too rafilily prniiouncu thin iiietliod as unwarrantable, let ilieni ob- 
»er»c tiere, iliat tlio<(C (^raminui iaii«, wh" are il.e first to esiabiisli i iiles u|ion ti'.e 
langna^e till y teacli, niu'-t ni'i-('s«ai ily jiroduce fienuine exaniplis from aiillioi « 
to give them llicir jiioier weikflil ; but these rules, ami I lie re|iulaiion of ilie i.rum- 
iiiarian^ wlio liave u''s:gii<'<l ibcm, beini; oHce niiiv( rsally eaiabliblie'l, if another 
grammarian liaiisjatcs tliem in someoiher laii^'ii:u'e for the use of foreiniii^rs, l.r 
may bexun l\ at liberty to eliieidnte them with examples even entirely of \ih own. 
if be tliinkt lliem best calculated lu faiilituie to bis readern the uiiderDlnndini 
anil feeling of jiin rematkit. And, if so, liow can I be blamed for having retalne>l 
a'* much as p<>sKible ol the lan^m^e of the classicn in these examples, piovidi'U 
thcdkiiuii may not prove ibiough it cither uugraiiimdticulor baibaruutr 


Vlll. Finally, the reader will observe, that to each of the 
following pronouns a Roman figure has been annexed in 
regular progression, in order that the reference to each of 
then), in the course of this Lecture, might be as short and 
plain as possible. For the guidance of the studious, I shall 
here enumerate them all in the same order, and with the 
same Roman i\s:ures, as will be found in the followinij 
TABLE. -"^- • - ■■ - 

Read again OhserxalionX. 




'First Person. 

I. MI. 

II. ME. 


IV. CE. 

XVt. NE. 

Second Person.. 

V. Tl. 

VI. TE. 


wn VI. 


Third Person. 

Singular Masc. 

IX. IL, or LO. 

X. GLI, or LI. 

Singular Fern. 

XI. LA. 


Singular Common. 



XV. SE. 


Third Person. ' 

Plural Masc. 
X. GLi, or Ll. 

Plural Fern. 


Plural Common. 




N.J3. Wherever you see the pronouns printed s)tm/f,ihoy 
are only occasionally noticed ; but they are fully explained 
and exemplified where they are printed in large capitals^ 
as the series of the Roman Jigures directs. 

A mctliodical TABLE of the Conjunclive Pronouns e.r- 
plained., rxemp/ified, and interspersed with useful ObservU' 
lions, Remarks, and Notes. 

I. MI. 

Me, of me, to me, from me, on 
me, over me, about mc, oft" nie, 
by me, wilh me, in me, for me, 
&c. myself, of myself, to myself, 
&c. — Also as an expletive pro- 


Myself to thee. Ex. lo, mi ti 
feci paleae, I made vii/self known 
to thee. 


To ine himself. Ex. Egli cela- 

I. MI. 
tantcnte appressdndom'm mi pose 
paura, Approaching tiimself slyly 
to me, he frightened me. 
MI ci. 
Me there, or thither. Ex. Egli 
non solo non mi ci tiene, ma nep- 
■pdr mi ci mena. Not only hu does 
not keep me there, but he does 
not even take me tliillicr. 

* Ml VI. 

Myself to you. Ex. II vostro 
omico di cut io mi vi rammaricdi. 
Your friend of whom I made 7?;y- 
se//'a complaint to you. 


1. MI. 

• MI TEN', "i 

or r 


Myself to thee about it. Ex. 
Non so che rfj'rmitene, I don't 
know wyself what to say to thee 
abuul it. 

* MI SEX 1 

or - 


In me itself for it. Ex. Non 
redo che g'ui'ui mi se ne accresca, 1 
(io not see that joy augments ii- 
sclj in mc for it. 

* M 

I. MJ. n. ME. 

il mi potristi. Nor could you deny 
it to me. Sieti assdi I' atrrlomi 
fatto condscerc. Let it be enough 
tor thee to have made it known 
to me. 

GLI MI "^ 

or > 

1*^ LI MI J 

Them from me. Ex. Io son di^ 

spdsto /('/"gliuii (/' adddsso, I am 
disposed to get them from about 






Myself to you of it. Ex. Avrn- 
do forsr avtito pir male che in mi 
ve ne 5ja doluta, He having, per- 
haps, taken it ill, that I have ?«//- 
«e//' remonstrated to you of it. 
* MI CEN "j 
or \ 


This combination becomes 
grammatical, since the above 
three analogous to this are founii 
in the classics, viz. mi te ne, mi 
se in; mi ve ne. 

C-^ See the principles of this 
analogy explained above at Pre- 
liminarij Observation V. 


See this combination establish- 
ed at VI. \'II. pron. 


Sec this combination at CI. 
III. pron. 

* IL MI "j 

or \ 

* LO Ml J 

It to inc. Ex. W: voi negdrc 

Her to me. Ex. Quantunque tu 
la mi promttta in isposa, non posso 
tanto sperdre, Ahhoa^U thou pro- 
niisest her to we in marriage, I 
cannot hope so much. 

* LE MI. 

With her me. Ex. Ei^li le mi 
mctlera in ddio. He will put me 
in disgrace with her. 

4. II. ME. 

It has the same significations 
as MI ; see above : but it is never 
used witiiout being coupled with 
other pronominal particles, and 


* MEL (<;) 


EL((/) -^ 

For me it, to me it. Ex. JM/ui' 
disi per un maestro il qintl mel 
tragga. Let us send for an ope- 
ritor, who will draw it forme. 
Poiclie tu di di fdrmt\o vcd6re, 
saro conte'nto, ^incc thou sayst 
that thou wilt sjiuw it to »i. , I 
will be batislicd. 


>IE ci.i ^ 
or > 


Off mc them. ICx. Io inti'ndo 

(a) The Aca(lcnii<M;uii! Drllu Cnitra do not niijuovc of mc 7 tlnis wriltcii l)y 
^oinc before a coii«oiiatit, as npiMMrn from ilidrowii oriliUKraphy in Mie /'uiul-o- 
Ulrio. Sec the Obiervationi prefixcit to the prunotini of the third penon, niul 
noti: (/) ilid. 


II. ME. Ill CI. III. CI. 

ph'megVi dattorno, 1 mean to get them, &c. — Also as an expletive 
'' "" pronoun. 


them offline. 


Off me it. £x. lo me la traggo 
molto agevohnente, I take it very 
easily off me. 


To me them. Ex. Dissi che 


About us themselves. Ex. / 
curiosi ci fi affoUdvano intornu, 
The curious pushed themselves in 
crowds ahoutus. And adverbiallv 

should send them tome. 

* MElSf 



To me for it. Ex. 

me le manddsse, 1 said that he with si impersonally used (see its 

significations at SI, XIV. pion.), 
1 Non ci si entra facilmente, One 
> cannot easily get in it, or thiihtr. 
J ^^ The above combination 
Se io vi is one of those very uncommon 
gvdrisco, che merito me ne segui- ones, liable to an inhnite number 
rd P If I cure you, what merit of meanings. See my Adueriibe- 
vvill accrue to me for it? ment at the beginning, and the 
* ME NEL "j Preliminary Observations. 
or /- Ci Ti. 
ME NE LO J To us thee. Ex. E priego 
ME NE LA 9U^gl' Iddii, li quali vinti da 
ME NE GLi ^ molti prieglu molto gruziosa ment e 
or V ci ti dondrono. And I pray to 
ME NE LI J those Gods, who, induced by our 
ME NE LE. frequent prayers, gave thee very 
The above combinations are graciously to us. 
established on the principles of J^^ Cinonio, at the above 
analogy explained in the V. Pre- combination, subjoins the follow- 
liminary Observation, afterhaving ing remark, to mainlain the above 
found in classical authors the example as genuine, " That pas- 
analogous ones se ne Zo, se we g/i, sage oi Filocolo (by Boccaccio), 
se ne la. See them at SE, XV. at the end of the 4th book, is not 

an error of print, since all the 
MSS. write it so, and even the 
printed copies at Florence, lately 
published (written in 104L*), 


6. III. CL 

Us, of us, to us, from us, on where we read CI prefixed to 

us, over us, about us, off us, by TI, against the universvtl outciy 

us, with us, in us, for us, &c. one of all those who have written and 

another, of one another, to one maintained that this combination 

another, &c. each other, of each is not only inadmissible, but that 

c<thcr, &c. ourselves, of ourselves, it was never adopted" Now, 

&c. — Also as a pronominal ad- although the Academicians tlo 

verb, viz. There, here, therein, not seem to side with Cinonio in 

herein, hither, thither, to il, in it, this partieulir, yet, according to 

with it, for it, on it, about it, the rules of analogy established 

by it, upon it, &c. And allu- above, Preliminary ' Observation 

ding to inanimate things in the V. the combination ci si once 

plural, to them, in them, with proved with authority, not oi ly 


III. cr. 

ci /i becomes adi\iissible, but even 
the two following. 

* CI MI. 

* CI VI. 

See remark just above 

* CI C EN ^ 



Here we of them. Ex. Uti ni 
fatto motto die iivii ci se n' t 
alcuno di tanto sentimentu contdto, 
Such a witty saying, that one has 
relatcil none of tlitin here so very 

g^ Observe se translated for 
one as impersonal. See its im- 
personal sit;nification8, at SI, 
XI\'. JMOH. 

CI SE ^ 

or > 

CI SE GLl"l 

or V 



_^^_ The above combinations 
nuisl be aduiitted only in case 
that CI has an adverbial sif^niti- 
cation, like vi ; and, in tint case 
alone, the rules of analo'.'y, esta- 
blished at Freliminary Observa- 
tion V. are favourable to these 
combinations. See the renmrk 
before tiael, at VI. VII. pron. 

* CI VEN "^ 

or > 


* CI MEN ^ 


* CI TEN "i 



^gf The combination ci sr nr 
onoe found in Hoctace, is (juilc 
kiiflicient to admit of theic three 
perfectly annlof^ous, and of a 
limilar sound and signification 

with ci se ne. See Preliminary 
Observation V. See also at NE, 
XVI. pronoun. 


Me there. Ex. PercJic mi ci 
mencisti? ^^ by did yon take nit? 
there, or here? according to the 
place alluded to. See above the 
bignitications of ci when adverb. 

T[ CI. 

Thee thither. Ex. lo ti ci 
portcrb di peso, I shall carry ihve 
thither in my arms. 


You there, or thither, Ex. 
Giocondo giorno vi ci donb, A 
most happy day he gave i/ou there. 

^^^' And both adverbially, or 
one of them, as expletive, are 
often heard in Tuscany, and are 
found in the following example 
from Boccace, a very remarkable 
one indeed. lo nan vedo come not 
vi ci possidnpervenirc, I don't see 
how we may possibly reach there. 

* IL CI "I 

or > 

* LO CI J 

It in it ; it to lis. Ex. Per 
dilettdr gl' intendenti io il ci misi. 
To please the connoisseurs F 
inserted it in it, (speaking of 
some observation in a treatise, 
I've.) Ihblis lo ci manifhta, 
Byblis proves il to us. 

* GLI CI "j 

i» or S 

* LI CI J 

Them to it. Ex. // pecciitn gli 
ci conduce. Sin leads them to it. 
* L\ ci. 

Her heic. Ex. Io twddto rion 
la ci III), I iiavL- seen her here. 
' LK ci, 

Tiicm to it. Ex. II pecci't to "ic 
ci condurc. Sin leads them tn it. 

0J^' Tlii^ combination of |)n)- 
nouns is enumerated in the loin- 



Hi. CI. IV. CE. 

lolario, and in Cinonio, but 
neilher of thera give any example. 
I have therefore applied to it that 
of gli ci, which is a combination 
veryanalagous to this, the gender 
of the first pronoun being the 
only difference between the two. 
See note *, p. 75. 

9. IV. CE. 
it has the same signification as 
CI, see above ; but it is never 
used without being coupled with 
other pronominal particles, and 

* CEL (6) 



To us it. Ex. La natitra 
apertamente eel mostra, Nature 
openly shows \t to us. No7i ce 
lo negate, Do not deny it to us. 
—And adverbially just the same 
as CI. Ex. Ingt'gnati di ritener- 
celo. Endeavour to keep him here. 




For us them. Ex. Gli amici noi 
ahbidmo qudli ce gli eleggidmo. 
We have such friends as we chose 
Ihem for us. 


On it it. Ex. lo ce la farTy 
dipignere, I will get it painted on 


For us them. Ex, Le mogll 
noi abhiumo qudli ce le elegginmo. 
We have such wives, as we chose 
them, for us. 

I^frhis combination of pro- 
nouns is enumerated in the Voca- 



bolario, and in Cinonio, as per-' 
fectly grammatical, and fre- 
quently used even at present ; 
but they having quoted no exam- 
ple of it, I have applied to it that 
of ce gli, since they are perfectly 
analogous, and they differ in 
nothing else than the gender of 
li and le. 

* CEN 



Upon us of them. Ex. Delle 

tue beffe tue non ce ne potrestifar 

piii. As to your tricks you could 

not play more of them upon ns. 







or V 
; NE liJ 



1^^ The above combination? 
are established on the principles 
of analogy explained above at 
Preliminary Observation V. after 
having found in the classics the 
analogous ones se ne lo, se ne gli, 
se ne la. See them at SE, XV. 


Observations upon ne. 
The poets have given this par- 
ticle the same significations as to 
CI and CE, when pronouns of 
iht first person plural ; and have 
combined it with other pronomi- 
nal particles, sometimes like the 
one, and sometimes Irketheother 
of them. But since ne, in its 

(/') 'I'he Academicians Delia Cnisca do not aprove of re 7, tluis written by- 
some before a consonant, as apjifars from their own orthography in tlie Focn~ 
buh'irio. See the Observations prctixed to thc.promuns of the tMrd person, anct 
note (/) ibid. 


xvr. NE. V. Ti. 

most usual significations, ex- 
presses I lie third person singular, 
or a peculiar adverb; see all its 
possiole combinations amoni; the 
conjunctive pronouns ottliat per- 
son as its Roman figure directs. 


12 V. TI. 
Thee, of thee, to tliec, from 
thee, on thee, over thee, about 
thee, off thee, by thee, wiih 
thee, in thee, for thee, 6cc. thy- 
self, of thyself, to thyself, Sec. 
Also as an e.rplefive pronoun. 


Thee it. Ex. lo ti farb quelV 
ondre che ti si conviene, 1 shall 
do you an honour as i^ becomes 


Thee hither. Ex. La mala 
ventilra ti ci ha condutto, Bad 
luck has brought thee hither. 

t^^ ^Ve are expressly taught 
by the Academicians and Cinoriio 
to say mi ti, and vi ti, and to re- 
ject the combinations vii ti, and 
ti vi, which seem analogous to 
those at MI, I. pronoun. I dare 
not, therefore, enumerate them 
here, having found no example 
in any book. 

* TI SEN "J 

or /■ 


.Sec this combination establish- 
ed at NE, XVI pronoun. 

* TI VEN ^ 

V. Tr. 

be admitted on those principles 
of analogy established above, 
Prellntindrij Observation V. See 
at NE, XVI. pronoun. 

MI Ti. 

Myself to thee. Ex. To mi ti 
rnccomdndo, I recommend myself 
to thee. 


See this combination at TIj 
III. proii. 


Thither thee. Ex. lo vi ti 
menerh, I shall conduct thee 



* TI CV.V. "^ 


♦ TI MEM ^ 

TI MR ST. ) 

* IL TI "^ 

. "'■ r 

*" LO TI J 

It to thee : him to thee. Ex, 
Dio il ti perdoni, God forgive it 
to thee. Acciocche io possa dire 
per qui'sto dono avcr\o\.\ scmpre 
obligdto. That I may say to have 
made him for ever indebted to 
thee for this present. 

* GLI Tl"^ 

or V 

* LI TI J 

These combination^ nwM 

Them for thee. Fx. In non 
so a che io mi tengo, che io non ti 
jieco le mani negli occhi, c trdggo- 
giiti, I don't know what hinders 
me from thrusting my hands into 
your eyes, and pull tliein out 
for thee. 

* LA TI. 

It from thee. Ex. La tan vita 
non mi basteru'bbe loglithid(>\'\\, 
Your life would not be cnouuU 
for mc, if i were to t.ike it front 

* LE TI. 

Them from ihec. Fx. Io re- 
f/j/To/lcti dimattiua a casii, 1 shall 
bring them home to-moriow 
niorning/or thee. 

It h.n the same significatiom 
iiM TI, ^ce above ; but it is never 


15. VI. TE. 

used as a conjunctive pronoun, 

without being coupled with other 

pronominal particles, and 

16. IT IS only prefixed thus: 

* TEL (c) 

•EL (c) 1 

or /• 

'E LO J 

GLI "^ 


For thee it ; it to thee. Ex. 
lo medhima tel trarro, 1 shall 
draw it myself very well /or thee. 
yoglidmte\o, aver detto, acciocche 
tu non t'l possi di noi rammaricdre, 
We are glad to have told it to 
thee, that thou ciayst not com- 
plain to us. 

•» TE G 



To thee them. 'Ex. Nonph'm- 
gere chenon te 11 darb, Weep not, 
for I shall not give them to thee. 


2^e as an expletive, and la 
means her. Ex. Oh, disse Bruno, 
tu te la griferdi. Oh, oh, Bruno 
said, you will enjoy her. 


Thee them. Ex. lo non credo, 
che con V dnimo dir te le fdccia, 
I do not believe that she makes 
thee say them from thy own soul. 

* TEN 



Thee for it Ex. lo non me 
ne maraviglio, ?ie te ne so rlpi- 
glidre, 1 neither wonder at it, nor 
can I blame thee for it, 

* TE 





' } 


Ex. lo 

ne te ne 
r wonder 
eefor it. 

NEL ^ 

or V 


or y 



VI. TE. VII. vr. 

f^^ The above combinations 
are established on the principles 
of analogy, explained above at 
Preliminary Observation V. after 
having found in classical authors 
the analogous ones se ne lo, se ne 
U, se ne la. See them at SE, 
XV. pron. 

17. VII. VL 
You, of you, to you, from you, 
on you, over you, about you, off 
you, by you, with you, in you, 
for you, &c. one another, of one 
another, to one another, &c. 
each other, of each other, &c. 
yourselves, of yourselves, &c. — 
Also as a pronominal adverb — and 
as an expletive pronoun . 1 n these 
two instances it has the very same 
meanings, and is used entirely 
like CI, III, pronoun : see there- 
fore that particle above. 


There for thee, Ex. lo vi ti 

porrb una coltricetta, e ddrmiv'\t\, 
I shall put there a small feather- 
bed for thee, and you may sleep 
on it. 

{^^ Observe ti is expletive in 
the second instance ; and the 
second vi is adverbially used . 
but as it relates to a particul-.u' 
thing (a feather bed), it cannot 
be translated by there or here, but 
it must be rendered by on it, as 
above. See above the adverbial 
significations of CI, III. pron. 


To you we. Ex. Foi non 
ricevete da noi quilla cortesiu, 
che vi si converr^bbe, You do not 
receive from us that courtesy 
which ive ought to pay to you. 

(c) The Academicians Delia Criisca tin not approve of /e'Z, thus written hy sonic 
before a consonant, as appeuis Ironj ilicir own orthourapliy in tlic Focabolario. 
See tlie Oi'^erua^io?/ > prefixed to Xh^ pronoum of tlie third person, and note CD ^''"'- 



Il^-'r' Observe si trinslated for J^^Thefollowingcombination 
we, because impersonally used as of the pronoun VI with /wo more. 

OS in French. Si'c its impersonal 
sisjnilications underneath among 
the pronouns of the third person. 


\oii here. Ex. lo diru, die 
vi c'l dbhinfatto venire per dendri, 
I shall say thr.t I made you conic 
here for money. 


^^ After having found all the 
abo\e combinations, this remains 

are admiltcd by Delia Ciusca imd 
Cinonio ; but since neither of theiir . 
have furnished (luotations to ex- 
cmplifv them, 1 have applied se- 
veral passages of Duccacc to this 
purpose, with as little alteration 
oi the text as possible. — (Sec 
above, note *, page 75.) Observe 
farther, 1. That in such combina- 
tions the particle VI must be in 
its adverbial signification, and 

Observation V 



VI Mli XE 

established on those principles of therefore these combinations 
analogy explained at Preliminary cannot be extended to mi, or ti, 
" -- although the rules of atialogy es- 

tablished at Preliminarij Ohserva- 
/iortV. might, at first sight, seem to 
admit of this extension. 2. That 
these combinations (the fiist only 
excepted) are in use in Tuscany 
even at present, but they often 
corrupt the first particle vi, and 
say ve, which is improper (</). 

* VI 8EL ^ 

or V 


There to himself him : there 
themselves it. Ex. // re, chc nelhi 
(('uncrd era, disiderdso d' udi'rlo, vi 

• VI TEN "^ 

or S. 


* VI CFN ^ 

or > 


The above combinations 
are established at ne, XVI. jiro- 
noun, on those principles of 
analogy explained ,it Preliminary 
Observation V ; but even the fol- 
lowing vi se ne would be sufficient sely"e venire, The king, who was in 
to establish them. 

VI SEN "^ 

or > 


There they impersonally of 
them. Ex. Fornirono due case a 
trav&so il candle, I' una di sopra, 
e t altra di sotlo; cd anc^raper I' 
online vi cc nc dovrn Jar (piutlro 
prinotc, Tliey erected two houses 
ovci the canal, the one al)<j\ e, and 
the other hilow, and, for the le- 
gidarity of a[)pearance, they were 
to build four more <>/ iheni there 
ftuhpcndcd above the otbcrsi. 

hiscloset, desirous of heaiinghim, 
ordered liim to come to Jiimself 
there, Odisse Calandrino, cot/stoi 
hunn paese; ma dimmi chc sifa del 
cinghidle, the cudcon coldlo ? ri- 
sp6se Maso ; i Baschi vi sc lo 
mdngiano tutto, Oh, Calandrino 
said, that is a fine country : but, 
tell me, what do they do with the 
wild boar which they dress ? the 
Bfischi eat it all themselves (here. 




There by him them. Ex. liruno 

(ILl "j 

{fl) See llic'iulc licrc alluilcil to in ilic Excrplion, ii. '2?. niiil tlic note • at 
|>. fi'-J, of tlic iircccdiiik' JA'cturc. 

c, 2 



volgendosi intdrno disse ; Caldn- 
dn'no e Buffalmdcco dove sono ? 
comecche presso vi se li vedhse, 
Bruno, turning himself round, 
said, where are Calandrino and 
Buffalniacco ? although he saw 
them there hard by him. 


Thereon binaself it. Ex. Cowe 
notte si venne facendo, il maestro 
trovb sue scuse in casa con la vid- 
glie e trattane celatamente la sua 
bella roba, come tempo gli parve, 
vi se la mise indusso, e se n' andb 
sopra uno de' detti avelli, As soon 
as it began to grew dark, the 
doctor invented some excuses at 
home with his wife, and having 
slyly taken out his handsomest 
robe, he puti^ on (himself) there, 
and, when be thought it was 
time, be went to sit upon one of 
those lombs. 

^g^ Observe that the English 
could not possibly admit of the 
word himself written above be- 
tween parenthesis ; so that the 
pronoun se, with respect to the 
English language, may be con- 
sidered as an expletive in this 


Here themselves them. Ex. 
Ed ordindrono che essa, e la f ante 
fdsser la notte da' fratelli portute 
a Fiienze , ed essi sopra una tuvola 
acconcidtele studiosamente vi se le 
portdrono. And they resolved 
that in the night both her and her 
maid should be conveyed by their 
brothers to Florence, who having 
laid them upon a board, carried 
them (themselves) there very care- 
fully. Apply to the word them- 
selves of this sentence the same 
remark just before on the word 


To me theie. Ex. Simili cose e 

VII. VI. viH. VE. 

piggidri, se piggiuri esser possono 
in alcuno, mi vi parve in tanta 
gruzia di tutti vedere, che, Sfc. 
Such doings, and worse, if any 
worse can be perpetrated by any 
one, seemed to me to see tJiere so 
greatly encouraged, that, &c. 

^^" CiHOJ/icihadhtre forgothis 
own combination and example 
given at Ml; but so frequent is 
this combination, that I have been 
able to furnish here another quo- 
tation from Boccaccio, G. J. 
n. 2. 


See this combination at CI, III. 
pronoun, and the remar/c before it. 

. VI "^ 

or > 

a VI J 

■^ LO 

It to you. Ex. Non so perch'i 
hosogni, cJi io il vi promitta, I 
don't know why it is necessary 
that I should promise it to you. 
A me dee piacere di render\o\i, 
It must give me pleasure to re- 
turn it to you. 

* GLI VI"| 

or V 

* LI VI J 

Them upon it. Ex. // tesoriire 
prese quelli marchi, e mise un tap- 
peto in una sula, e vers6l\Wi suso. 
The treasurer took those species, 
laid a carpet on a saloon, and 
poured them upon it, 

* LA VI. 

It of you. Ex. Quista grdzia io 
ho ricevuta da vol senza doman- 
darlavi, I have received this 
favour from you without asking 
it of you. 

* LE VI. 

Them to you. Ex. Io le vi 
donerh volentu'ri, I shall willingly 
present them to you. 

20. VIII. VE. 

It has the same significations as 
VI. see above ; but it is never 
used as a conjunctive pronoun, 


without being coupled with other 
pronominal particles, and 
21. IT IS only prefixed thus : 
* VEL (e)' 

ir. IL or i O. 
Tcrbs without their piepositions, 
arc ical conjunctive pronouns. 

VEL (f)"| 

or V 


To you it. Ex. lo Irevemt'nte 
vel faru cliiuro, I shall shortly 
make it clear to you. lo ve 1<» 
prcti'ndo diiuostrdre, 1 presume to 
deaionstrate it to you. 

* VE GLI "j 

or V 


There fhein. E.\. Manduvdo- 
veli da FiTttize, Sending l/icin 
there trom Florence. 


To yon it. Ex. £;"// vc la 
poti'va Liscidrc. He might leave 
»/ to you. 


To you them. Ex. Se ve le 
volf'ssi tutte contdre, If I were 
willing to relate them all to you. 

* VEN "j 

or V 


You of it. Ex. Qiivsta prudva 
ve ne posso dare, I can give you 
this proof of it. — Observe that 
voti, in this instance, is a conjunc- 
tive pronoun in English, for it 
•tnnds instead of to you, as ve is 
instead of a voi in Italian. 

1^^^ From this example, and 
many more, we may observe how 
wron;; are tlio^e authors who snp- 
posethat tlicEtigli^h l.inguiii;e h;is 
no conjunctive pronouns, which is 
very erroufous. It h;is not indeed 
any peculiar particle to express 
thcai, but the obli'pic cases of the 
personal pronouns, when joined to 

* VE NEL "I 

VE Ni; LO J 
VE NE GLi") 
or V 



See the above combina- 
tions established on fluxe prin- 
ciples of ^naloiry explained above 
Ht Preliminary ObservationV. afitr 
havitig found in the classics the 
analogous ones se nc lo, se nc gli, 
se ne la. See at SE, XV. pronoun. 

22. Obsekvatioks on il or lo, 
IX. Pronoun and on some of its 
conilnnafions tcitk other pro- 
nominal Particles. 

1. Whenever il and lo are 
articles, if is evident that they do 
not rome within the scope of this 

2. When they are conjunctive 
pronouns, their meaning is per- 
fectly the same, so that only one 
example might liMve been suffi- 
cient for both of them to each of 
their combinations : since the use 
of the one or the other does not 
depend upon the meaning of the 
sentence, but only on the accessory 
distinctions of use, which will fol- 
low hereafter. Nevertheless, since 
Cinoiiio has furnished twodistinct 
series of conibin itions and ex- 
aiiij>les for il ;nid l<>, I will not 
de|)rive the student of the greatest 
resource to learn the right use of 
these pronouns, for which no 

fej 'file Acadeniiiiami Drlla Cruica i\o nolnpcroTe of cr '/ ilius wiittenby some 
licforc • oiixKn^iit, at ajipcarn from tlieir «iwii (nlliopinphy in llie Fofahtlnrin. Sve. 
ilie Obtcrvalvtu'. irdiMil Ui iUv jironount nl ilu- thud pen in, aiiti iiou- fjj Hut. 


TX. IL or LO. 
rule is so effect uil as classical 

3. IL alo77e is only put before 
verbs commencing with a conso- 
nant (S impure excepted) ; and it 
is only used in poetry or sublime 

4. i-o alone is used in all sorts 
of compositions, and before any 
letter whatever, observioi; always 
the usual elision of the 0, if be- 
fore a vowel, with an apostrophe 
in its stead. 

5. IL, when in conjunction with 
other pronouns, preserves still its 
privilege of belonging solely to 
elevated compositions. 

6. LO, in cotijunctionwith other 
pronouns, is of the sublime style, 
ii prefixed to others, as the aste- 
risks will show. But, if subjoined 
to others, it is common to all 

7. We have seen above, and 
we shall see it still better in the 
following list of combinations, 
that the pronouns me, te, se, ce, 
ne, ve, are found followed by one 
of the above two pronouns con- 
tracted in one word, thus : mel, 
tel, sel, eel, nel, vel, concerning 
which observe : 

8. That according to the above 
Observation, n, 2. it is certain, 
that whether the L represents 
the pronoun il, or lo, its signifi- 
cation in the above combinations 
will be always the same : 

9. That the above contracted 

IX. IL or LO. 
combinations are only used in 
the sublime and in poetry, as the 
asterisks show, before verbs com- 
mencing with a consonant only ; 
s impure excepted. 

10. And that before verbs be- 
ginning with a vowel, in all styles, 
we must write the above pro- 
nouns with an apostrophe, and in 
two separate words thus : me V, 
te V , se r, ce V , ne /', ve V . — Be- 
fore s impure no elision or apos- 
trophe can take place, but we 
must then write them whole in 
two distinct words, me lo, te lo, 
se lo, ce lo, ne lo, ve lo. 

H. Now it appearing from 
Observation, n. 4. that lo, when 
pronoun, may be found before 
any letter whatever, and it being 
certain, that when we cannot 
adopt the conjunctive pronouns, 
and must say emphatically a te, 
a me, Sfc. instead of ti or me, mi 
or me, 8^-c. (seen. 18. p. 66, of 
the preceding Lecture) we may 
equally say io lu dissi a te, or io 
il dissi a te, I said it to thee ; 
egli lo disse a me, or egli il disse 
a me, S^c. he said it to me, (ob- 
serving always, with respect lo 
IL, what was stated above, nn. 3. 
and 5.) — Why shall we not con- 
sider the contractions mel, tel, 
Sfc. as pronouns compound either 
of nie il, te il, S^'c. or of ?»e lo, te 
lo, S^c. (/) as analogy seems to 
suggest ? 

(fj I have made this query, hecause Cinonio malnlaiiis mel, tel, S^c. to be only 
contractions from me il, le il, Sf^c. and Delia Cnisca]mn hiui, adding'lRsides, what 
is stranger still, thai; in such cases il is changed into le, (see, in tlieir J'ocaholario, 
IL I'ronome, § 11.)— But to enter upon such discussions at Itngtii, would he 
just as rizare ddlu lana capyina. Let, therelbre, the learner only remember 
the proper use l-oth of mel, tel, ^c. and of me 7, te 7, c^t. as prescribed above, 
nn. 9. and 10.— Take notice also that Cinonio and others admit of a .synonymous 
orthotrrapliy for mel, tel, i^c. writing them indiscriminately sometimes as above, 
and sometimes me 7, te 7, in those cases mentioned at n. <J ; but although 
DeUa Crusca seem to hint to be of the same opinion with Cinonio in this point 


IX ILoi LO. 

12. Obsirvt fiirtlier, that ac- 
corJins to \vlial was stated iin. 2. 
and 8. tlie combinations mel and 
vie lo, tel and le lo, Sfc. will be 
coupled ihroiigbout as well as the 
others il vii, and h vii, il ti and 
lo ti, SiC. tlioiitch tlic exau)j)les 
will be doubled for reasons stated 
above. Observation, n. 2. 
23.1XJ or 
I LO. 

Him, so it, 

^^ OBSERVE.— Tliis pro- 
noun will be translated by SO, 
when it bas a reference to adjec- 
tives or veibs ; wliicb panicle, 
in Englisli, is sonieliuies even 
omitted : Ex. Voi siettfelice, via 
io noji lo sonOj you are happy, 
but 1 am not so: or, I am not. 
Io lo disse ma voi non vii ca- 
piste, I said so j but you did not 
comprehend me. — The same pro- 
noun // or /(), will be traiislited 
by it, only when it relates to in- 
animate things made in Italian 
of the iiinscidlne gnuler. When 
it is joined to verb*' thus, it rains, 
il seivis, S;'r. it is f)!)vi()us, that it 
cannot then belong to this pro- 
noun, being of an impersonal 
nature, and representing an un- 
known third person singular, as 
all ini|)crsonal verbs do. 



MI 1 

* LO Ml 

It to nie ; him fioni me. VjX. 
Min jtuflir il mi liotih. My father 
gave !/ tn me for h present. AI' 
iuge^nerei di lcvdr\onu d' addusso. 


I would endeavour to get him 

from about vie. 

IL TI ^ 

or / 

LO TI 3 

It to thee ; it from thee. Ex. 
7o il ti dono, I give it to thee. 
bl<)n '"• piu da tr/tulotij II must 
not be any longer kept /;om thee. 

* IL SI 1 

or I 

* LO SI 3 

It himself; about it himself. 
Ex. Chi ha pronto V il si 
pcnsi, whoever is of a penetrating 
mind, let liim suppose it himself. 
Stimossi, cite it Pajia per lo mcno 
viule, lo si taci'sse, It was thought 
that the Pope to prevent mis- 
chief, was /;i/Hse//' silent about il. 

* IL CI "I 

or V 

* LO CI J 

It us _; it to us. Ex. Da (he 
Dio ei ha fa I to bene, s\ il ci to- 
gliumo, Since God has done good 
to us, so let Its enjoy it. O Fiaiii- 
vii'tta, f/(/loci, i'ray, Fiainmetta, 
tell it to us. 

* II. NE "^ 

or \ 

* LO NK J 

Hiui, /(r expletive ; him Irom 
it. Ex. A Firciizi! il ne vutih, He 
took Itini to Florence. Ajfiiina- 
vasi fjuflla pdlvere solersi tisdre, 
(jitdndo alciin volfvasi dormmdo 
vianddre neW altro viondo, o 
Irdrlonc, It was maintained that 
such powder was used when 
somebody wished to mmuI any 
body, in his sleep, in the other 
world, or take him from il. 

yd they have ncrer adofilnl this la^t orihonraphy in llielr FucaMano, as I 
liavc ob^'irvtd in iioIl-h to tlic primoiins rnrt, Irl, rel, anil vtt, inlioduccil aliovc 
ill llii» Tabic. I liavi- indeed fniind te '{, in the ,«tii^e of Iin- woids j/ Ihr, 
whirli do not l.rlon;; to ilicsc oWi vations, m remarked above, n. 1. Sec note*, 
Lcctuic III, [>. 17. 


IX. IL or LO. 

* IL VI "^ 

or > 

* LO VI J 

Him there ; him therein. Ex. 
Siccdme lafortuna il \\ guidb. As 
fortune led him there. La donna 
lui/ece ricoverdre in que'lla cassa, 
e serrollovi dentro, The woman 
bid the man squat himself down 
in that chest, and shut him there. 






See this combination establish- 
ed upon classical authority at ne, 
XVI. pronoun. 



* IL ME NE '- 

or i 


^ 1 






* IL TE 











* IL CE I§E 



^^ These combinations are 
established upon those rules of 
analogy explained at Preliminary 
Observation V. after having found 
their anahjgous ones, il se ne and 
ia se ne, in the classics. See them 
at NE, XVI. pronoun. 


* MEL 

IX. ILor LO. 
To me it. Ex. Questamattfna 
mel fe sapere, This morning he 
communicated it to me. Tu non 
me lo credevi. You did not be- 
lieve it to me. 

* TEL "j 

or > 


Thyself it; to thee it. Ex. 
Tu tel vedrdi. Thou shalt see it 
thyself. Mi pudsi in cudre di 
darti quello, e di/ditelo, I had de- 
termined in my mind to give thte 
that, and I gave it to thee. 

* SEL 



Se, expletive, it ; to himself 
him. Ez. In grandissima grdzia 
sel reputdva, He considered it a 
very great favour. E fdttosdo 
chiamdre gravissimam/nte il ri- 
prese. And having caused him to 
be sent to himself, rebuked him 
most severely. 

* CEl 





To us it. Ex. Chiaram^nte eel 
dimu'stra ne' Proverhj, He clearly 
shovvs it to wsin Proverbs, Seegli. 
non i disdicevole, diccdo. If it be 
not improper, tell it to us. 

NEL ") 

or > 



* ME L 


Ne, expletive, him ; of it him. 
Ex. Alia sua donna nel mandb a 
Pdvia, He sent him to his lady at 
Pavia. y4 lei onesta cosa nonpa- 
rcva il ricchiedernelo. It appear- 
ed to her an indelicate thing to 
request him of it. 

* VEL 



Thither him ; to you it. Ex. 

Isabella una notte vel fece venire, 
Isabella one night made him come 


' } 



IX. I Lor LO. 

thither. Con poche porule ve lo 
inttiido dimostrdre, I mean to 
prove it to you in a few words. 

* CI 


;i SEL "» 
or V 

:i SE LO J 

See these combinations esta- 
blished at CI, 111. pronoun. 
* T) 

TI SBL ~1 


See these combinalions esta- 
blished at V'l, V'll. pronoun, and 
the remark there premised to vi 

it NEL "^ 

or V 


See this combination establish- 
ed at SE, XV. pronoun. 

* ME N' EL "j 

or > 


* TE NEL "^ 


* CE NEL ~j 

or V 



VB NEL "^ 


Tliese four combinations 
are t-stablislied at their respective 
initials, mb, te, ce, vk. upon 
their analogous ones, sc tie lo, se 
ne li, tc ne la, found in the clas- 
sics, see llicin at se, XV. pro- 
noun. See likewise Preliminarij 
Observation V, where the prin- 
ripies of their analogy are ex- 

* GLIKL ^ 


X. GLI crLI. 
See this combination at GLIE, 
XIII. pronoun. 

26. Observations on the Pronoun 
GLI, or Li, X. Pronoun. 

1. Nothing more strange than 
what we read in many grammars 
with respect to the pretended 
difterenceof use and signitication 
between the pronouns gli and 
LI ; some affirniiug the first to be 
dative singuhir, and the other 
accusative plural; others that gli 
should precede a vowel, and li 
a consonant. Lei, therefore, the 
student remain assured that these 
two particles are perfectly the 
same, and their use quite optional 
in all instances ; but gli, as Cl- 
nonio properly observes, has had 
the preference with most authors, 
and particularly among the less 
ancient ones. To this we may 
add, that when this pronoun is 
joined to glib, we must cn>pIoy 
LI, and never gli. See at glib, 
XIII. pronoun. 

2. GLI, or LI, in elegant com- 
jjositions, ought only to represent 
the third person singular mascu- 
line, and the same person in the 
plural ; but with this difference, 
that in the singular it should ex- 
press some of the ohlicpie cases, 
(see notef , p. 71,) the accusative 
excepted ; and in the plural, the 
accusative case only : but in the 
familiar style, the custom, so uni- 
versal in Tuscany, of saying gli 
or /(, for to Ihrni instead of torn, 
(when in the masculine plural.) 
or for to her, instead of Ic, nuist 
be allowed, (.:,') notwith-tandiiig 
what almost all the (iraiinnarians 
say. Delta Crutca not excepted. 

(g) For the »i«iiifi(;ilii>n of gli or It, in llic scum- of tu llirm, wlicn masculine, nine «|iiolaiioii» an- Kivtii in the yocalolario, \\i. two fioii Giivanni 
f'lltant ; one fioui Maltco Ftllani; two from P. Crestemlo ; one from D.AN 1 K 


X. GLI or LI. 

3. The examples to each com- 
bination of the pronoun gli^ or 
LJ, will be single_, since Cinonio 
has given none to li ; and ac- 
cording to what I have just ob- 
sorved at n. 1. it would have 
proved a superfluous and endless 
task to go beyond the limits of 
that learned critic. But every 
combination will be exhibited 
double, as I have done in the 
preceding pronouns. 

4. The following- exemplifica- 
«ion will partly allude to the sin- 
gular, and partly to the plural 
meanings of this pronoun. But 
the series of its significations will 
be previously registered here in a 
comprehensive and compendious 
manner, as it has been done for 
the other pronouns j and when 
we shall treat of the third ■person 
plural, we shall give proper re- 
ferences to this place. 

27. X. \ or 


Of him, to him, from him, on 
him, about him, off him, by him, 
with him, in him, for him, &c. 
And in the. familiar style, it may 
be also used for of her, to her, &;c. 
(see note (g), p. 89.) ALSO, 
them : and in the famdiar style, 
it may be used for of them, to 
them, Sj'c- provided the noun re- 
ferred to be masculine plural. — 

X. GLI or LI. 

See same 7iote {g), at p. 89, and 
the other no less important ones, 
marked (i) at LE, XII. pron. 
and («). at LORO, XVII. pron. 


* GLI MI ^ 

or S- 

* LI MI J 

To him nie. Ex. Lascidteg\im\ 
appressdre. Suffer me to draw 
near to him. 

"'* GLI Ti "I 
or > 

* LI TI J 

Them to thee. Ex. Se avessi 
libri, io gli ti prestt^rei, if I had 
books, 1 would lend them to thee. 





To him herself. Ex. Pdstogli 
in tnano un antHlo, gli si fece 
sposdre, Having placed a ring in 
his hand, she caused //erseZ/" to be 
married to him. 

* GLI CI "I 

or V 

^ Ll CI J 

To him ourselves. Ex. A^e' 
ndstri bisdgni gli ci raccommun- 
didmo. In our wants we recom- 
mend ourselves io him. 



* LI VI 

Them in it. Ex. Tu gli trahti 
della loro abitazidne, rimettiVin, 

Paradiso ; one from BOCCACCIO Amorosa Fisione ; one from Fazio degli 
Uherti; ;iikI one from Slork Pislolesi. These autliors not ouly flouiislied ill 
tliat refined aue, the Xlllth century, but are the very best anKMit; the writers of 
that time ; so that whatever is repeatedly found in them can never be an ermr, 
particularly when countenanced by custom. — To say, however, gli or li for to 
them in the feminine, would always be a solecism. The same Focuhoiario 
gives'also the following four quotations of gli or li, in the sense to her ; viz. 
one from the DECARIERONE, G. v. n. 5, on the authority of the celebrated 
MS. Maiielli, and the best editions; o7ie from DANTE's Paradiso ; one from 
Matteo Fillani ; and one from the Gradi di S. Girolamo : of which the first 
alone is of such weight, as to justify the expression, even in the most di;^nifii(l 
style.— Sec 7wte (n) at LORO XVil. pronoun. N.B. The ancients used GLI 
adverbially, for VI or CL— See this last. 



x.GLIor LI. 
Tliou hast driven them from 
their habitation, place them in it 



* LI NB 

Them of it. Ex. £;'/i e assdi 
util cosn tra gli udmhii cotisidc- 
rdre, die c riU'di'siiiii sono sotto- 
pusti a quella inedtlsima calawitd: 
ma pruvdrh per esperU'nza pli iie 
fu piu certi, It is very u'^eful to 
iiiortaU to reflect that they arc 
themselves liable to the same 
calamity, but experience makes 
thtiu more certain oj it. 

g:Jf Observe that we generally 
write £r/icJ('> or resolve this com- 
pound conjunctive into a personal 
pronoun with ue. The above 
example, however, is given more 
ditluselv by Ctnonio from Vilhuii. 
See at GLIE, XIII. pronoun. 

* GI 

;liel "^ 
or V 



G L I B N B 

Sec all these combinations at 
GLIE XIII. pronoun. 






* GLI Ml,N 




* LI .MR NE 






X. GLI or LI. 




* GLI VE Ne' 







^^ See the above five double 
pairs of ronibinations established 
at NE, XVI. pronoun, upon those 
rules of analogy explained in 
PrcliniiiKinj Ohservntion V. after 
liaviiig found in the classics their 
analogous ones, il se ne, antl la 
se ne. 


ME GLI "^ 

or > 

ME LI 3 

Myself to him. Ex. Vol('ndo- 
mcgli a' j)}r giftdrc, csso si dipart'i, 
Wishing to throw vvjself at his 
feet, he departed. 

^^ Observe here (bat the 
English idiom turns the conjunc- 
tive (o hint into a possessive pro- 
noun ; because speaking of the 
parts of the body, of dresses, &c. 
the English use the possessive 
pronoun, instead of the article, 
as the Italians do ; who, on the 
other hand, turn very freqjiently 
the force of (he possessive by tlie 
conjunctive, which they affix to 
tlie verb of tlie sentence. This 
will be better explained in the 
bubsctpient Lecture. 


or V 


To ihcc them. Ex. lo tc gli 
dvrt^i DMiidiHi, se avvssi snpntn 
dove, I should have sent them lo 
thee., if I hud known where. 


X. GLI or LI. 


or y 

SE Ll J 

To himself them. Ex. II giii- 
dice se gWfece chiamare, e ih lor 
(lisse, The judge ordered them to 
be sent to himself, and spoke to 
them thus. 

* N£ GLI ^ 

or y 

* NE LI J 

Of it to him. Ex. lo ne gli 
parleru, I shall speak to him of it- 

CE GLI "^ 

or \ 


Upon ourselves them. Ex. Ma 
tuttdvia chenti die elli si su'no 
stdti i rimbrdtti da lui a me dctti, 
io non voglio, che ce li rechidmo, 
se non come da uno ubbridco, 
But, nevertheless, whatever the 
rebukes hnve been which he has 
made me, I do not intend that we 
should take them upon ourselves 
otherwise than coming from a 

^g° This combination had 
been admitted by Cinonio, but 
not exemplified. I have there- 
fore adapted to it a passage from 
G. 7. n. 8. with as little variation 
as possible, (see at p. 75, note* , 
of the Preliminary Observations). 
And, indeed, the rebukes cast by 
ylrriguccio upon SisrAonda tended 
to insult her brothers as well as 
herself. So that she could have 
expressed herself, as above, 
equally as well as we read in the 
text, to repulse slyly, as she did, 
the just accusations of her 


or V 


X. GLI or LI. 

nelle fattche sostengono i mortdli, 
ma volontariame'nte soitentrdr ve 
gli fanno, The temptations of an 
ample fortune not only support 
men in their labours, but they 
make them voluntarily submit to 


See this combination at G LIE, 
XIII. pronoun. 




See this combination esta- 
blished at VI, VII. pronoun. 


;li ^ 
-I J 


or V 



This cotnbination remains esta- 
blished by those rules of analogy 
at Preliminary Observation V. 
with those restrictions mentioned 
at CI, III. pronoun, and at the 
remark before vi sel : see at VI, 
VII. pronoun. 


or y 







ished at SE 

;, XV. pronoun 


or > 




NE GLI ~^ 
or > 




NE GLI ~1 
or V 



To them them. Ex. Lc forze 
della buunafortuna non solamente 


or > 


^^ The four combinations 
above are established at their 
respective initials me, te, ce, ve, 
upon their analogous ones se ne 
lo, se ne li, se ne la, found in the 
classics. See them at CE, XV, 


X GLI or LI. XI. LA, 
pronoun. See likewise Pitlimi- 
tuiry Observntion V. wlicie tiie 
j)i iiicijiles of iheir analogy are 

30. XI. LA. {h) 
Her, it. — Observe that tliis 
pronoun will be translated by it 
only when it relates to inanimate 
things made in Italian of the 
feminine guider. — Also, as uii 
expletive pronoun. 

* LA MI. 

It to me. Ex. lo ti richieggo, 
die tu la mi ossuvi, I request thee 
to kee[) it to me, meaning ihe 
promise, which is feminine in 

* LA TI. 

Her to thee. Ex. Togli, noi 
la ti didnw, Take it, we give her 
to thee. 

* LA Sf. 

It for themselves. Ex. Trovb 
li prestaldri aver l' area imboldta, 
ed in casa m/ssala'si. He found 
that the usurers had stolen the 
chest, and put it in their own 

^^ Observe here themselves 
turned into their own, for a simi- reason to what was allegi-d 
before in a similar phrase. !5ee 
above at me gli. 

* LA CI. 

It to US. Ex. Mid piit persdna 
non la ci,j'arci, Nobody will ever 
do z^ tv us. — Idiomatically we 
•ay (will ever play us kuch a 

* LA NR. 

Her, ne expletive. Ex. Cur- 
rddo It: dissc, che scco la ne 

XI. LA. 

mendsse, Currado told her, thtt 
she should take hvr away with 

* LA VI. 

Her in that. Ex. Riccidrdo 
con molte pardle la vi confermb 
su, Richard, with many words, 
confirmed her in that. 

* LA SEN ^ 

or > 


See this combination establish- 
ed at NE, XVI. ])ronoun. 

* LA MEN ^ 

or > 


* LA TEN ^ 

or > 

* LA TtN '1 

or V 


* LA CEN ^ 

or ^ 


__ These four combinations 
are established upon la se ne, 
found in the classics, according 
to the principles ot analogy ex- 
plained at Preliminary Observa- 
tion V. See also at NE, XVI. 


Upon me her. Ex. Essnidole 
diveniito uemico, me la conviene 
in (]U('sla guisa seguildre, Having 
become her enemy, it is incum- 
bent u])un me to puisne her thus. 


To thee her. Ex. File e tale, 
quale io te \;idisegndi. She is iucb 
as I represented her to thee. 

(A) 'I'liL- Florciuincii say A, ■f to the noininative iii»le:iil of Ella, nIh' ; but 
a1thoui(li Ci'oniu i|uoles ainlioiilii-s Id «ui>|)<)ri lliis alm.-c of tint |ii<iiiomii /./i, 
the Aciili-iiiiciiiiiscoiiiidtr it iii iiicorucl ; and it i» not advis<al)k' lo uilo|)i it m 
tills »i'nic, excrpt in rery writiiiK* or collVt*r^ttlion. — Tlif haiiiu iniiH 
be understood of llic folluwin^ pioii' uii LE, used impropitly for BUeua. 


See at 7ne gli and 

XI. LA. 


From himself it. Ex. Egli del 
tutto se la spoglih, He tutally 
took it from himself. 


For us it. Ex. Che avrem noi 
a fare altro, se non viettercela 
nella scarsdla ? What else shall 
we have to do, but put it in our 
pocket ? 

i^p° Observe for us changed 
into our for the reason above- 
la si. 


Of her for it, Ex. Comecche 
budna opinione av^sse delta donna, 
ancdra ne la press muggidre, Al- 
though he had a good opinion of 
the woman, he formed a still 
better one of her for it. 


You her. Ex. //. non aver da 
maritdrla, ve la fa guarddre in 
casa, Your not having the means 
of marrying her, makes you keep 
her at home. 


See this combination at CI, III, 


See this combination at SE, 

XV. pronoun, established by me 
on the authority of Boccaccio, 


See this combination at GLIE, 
XIII. pronoun. 

VI 8K LA. 

See this combination esta- 
blished on those rules of analogy 
explained in Preliminary Obser- 
vation V. at VI, VII. pronoun. 





^^ See these four combina- 
tions at their initials me, ce, te, ve, 
where they are established on 
those principles of analogy ex- 
plained at Preliminary Observa- 
tion V, 

33. xii. LE. 
Of her, to her, from her, on 
her, over her, about her, with 
her, off her, by her, in her, for 
her. Of it, to it, from it, &c. 
And them. Apply here the same 
observation as at GLI, X. pro- 
noun, well understood that le 
suits those neuters which are 
made in Italian of the feminine 
gender, (i) See the foregoing note. 

(i) I have attributed botli to GLI and this pronoun LE the neiitr-U significa- 
tions o/"t^, to it, t^'c. according to the Italian gender ; Init, inmany inxlawcs, it is 
more usual and i-egular to e.^ press such pronominal meanings l>y C!, llf. |)roi!oun, 
and VI. VII. pronoun, as was observed above, when we spoke of all tlieir signifi- 
atioiis. The same may be .saiil otthe plural loko, in the conjunctive jsignificatioii 
of to them ; for both this and gli and le arc better calculated to allude to persons 
than to things. Thus, for instance, speaking of one or more pictures ; if we 
want to say, give toil, or in them a darker shade, we may with great propriety, 
allude to all gendeis and numbers by saying Dalevi, or Dalcci un omhra piu 
cupa. — But observe, if we wish to express the same by the other pronouns, we 
must pay attention to the sub.stantiies gender and number, sayiuK of one pic- 
ture alone, dategli tin' omhra, &c. since quadro is masculine. But if the suhject 
of the painting were a hou:e, and we wished particularly to allude to it, it 
would i)e more accurate to say, rfafe/ew?i' oTnZira, &c. since casa is, feminine in 
Italian. Vet to say, even in similar cases, dategli, or dateli, could not be an 
error, as it was observed above, in note {g), p. 8!), — Thus, if there were more 
than one picture, or several objects painted on the same piece of canvass, it 
would be better to say, date loro, whether they represented things of the mas- 



* LE MI. 

To lier myseU'. Ex. Racco- 
»;i((n(/fllcini, e fVitli con Dio, 
Recommend myself to her, and 
God speed you. 



To her tbyself. Ex. Non 
caccidr la fortiiint, y"((/leti incon- 
tro. Do not reject Ibrtunc, go 
thyself to Iitr. 

* LE SI. 

Them for himself. Ex. Cod 
fatte cose ciasciiii convu'n, che le 
si procdccl, Such things every 
one must procure them for him- 

* LK CI. 

See exemplification and remark 
at CI. III. pionoun. 

* LE NE. 

To her of it. Ex. Dopo molte 
confermaziiinif(itte\tnedal Zeppa, 
After many proofs alleged to her 
by Zeppa in confirmation of it. 

* GLIEL "i 

or /• 


niay contain. DKCAxMERONE, 
G. 5. n. 4. 

Observe, however, that si an- 
swers here to on of the French, 
which the Eti|;li^h would trans- 
late us, and the particle vi, in tlie 
same (piotation, is in its adverbial 
signification of there, thither, S^c, 



See under at GLIE, XII. 

* LK VI. 

Them to you. Ex. Covie to 
le vi porgo, As I present them 
to you. 

* LE VI SI. 

For her there us. Ex, Faccin- 
lev'uii un letlo Idle, fjwile egli vi 
cope, Come, let us make there 
such a bed for her as the place 

* LE SEN "^ 

or > 


* LE TEN "j 

or V 


* LE MEN "^ 

or y 

CEN "^ 

or V 

VEN ~^ 

or y 




See the above five pairs of 
coMil)inations establibhed at NPl, 
XV'I. pronoun, upon those rules 
of analogy explained in Prclimi- 
nary Observation V. 


For me them. Ex. Nnino 
conusco, che far me le possn ever 
se non voi, I know nobody that 
can procure them for me but you. 


To thee them. Ex. Mi puice 
ill racconturlc\e, I like to relate 
them to ihee. 

SE Lr:. 

Himself them. Ex Ln per- 
st'iiKi le raceuntera, crednitUt'.cXe. 
aver veramcnte fatic. The person 

culiiic or of tliL- fi.Miiiiiinc pciider : iitii wlicti of llic m.'siuliiii: we liiiKlit also sav, 
ill a finiiliar w.iy, dntti^li, iiisti-ad of ilaU lorn, piiriiculiirly as llie fitnmr in 
imivi-r'Hlly iin'il in Tuscany. — Sec ihe same »»<;/*(;'), p. fcsy, uiid iw^k (n). •^^ 
LORO, Xll.proii. 


will relate them, thinking to have 
really done the7n himself. 

* NE LE. 

Of it to her. Ex. Corsa ad un 
alloro ne le fece una ghirldnda, 
Running to a laurel, she made 
her a garland out of it. 

||^P° Observe here, as in very 
frequent instances, the personal 
pronoun in English is without a 
preposition by ellipsis, as her, 
instead of to her, or for her. In 
such cases the English personal 
pronouns may be looked upon as 
conjunctive. See ven at VE, 
VIII, pronoun. 


See exemplification and remark 
at CE, IV. pronoun. 


To you them. Ex. Caro vi 
sar^bhe, che io ve le rendhsi, It 
would be acceptable to you, that 
I should return them, to you. ! 


See this combination at CI, 
III. pronoun. 


See this combination at SE, 
XV. pronoun. 


See this combination at GLIE, 
XIII. pronoun. 


See this combination at VI, 
VII. pronoun, 



^g^ See the above four com- 
binations at their initials, vie, ce. 

xii. LE. XIII. GLIE. 
te, ve, where they are established 
on those principles of analogy 
explained at Preliminary Obser- 
vation V. 

36. Observations upon GLIE, 
XIII. pronoun, and its con- 
nectives, LO, LA, LI, LE, 
and NE. 

1. Custom, and the delicacy 
of the Italian language not al- 
lowing to join these four pro- 
nouns, GLi, LO, LA, and LE to- 
gether, neither two by two, nor 
otherwise ; and, on the other 
hand, their various meanings, 
above enumerated, coming often 
together in the same sentence, 
the two following expedients 
have been resorted to, in order 
to render their union practicable 
and harmonious. 

2. Boccace, and the best wri- 
ters, have added an E to GLI, 
and made GLIE, to which hav- 
ing joined LE, the compound 
pronoun GLIELE was formed, 
which they constantly employed 
indeclinable, to express the va- 
rious meanings that the following 
combinations of pronouns would 
have, if custom allowed them, 
v'lz.gli-lo, gli-la, gli-li, gli-le, or 
le-lo, le-la, le-li, le-le ; but only 
in those cases in which that gli 
or le placed the 6rst has a singu- 
lar signification (*i), and the 
other placed after a plural one. 
See above the explanation of all 
these pronouns. 

3. According to this principle, 
the compound pronoun gliele 

(*i) Although it has been observed at p. 89, n. 26, and note (e), that gli may 
have, in the familiar style, the si'jnification of /o ihem masculine plural; yet, 
when changed into glie, and combined with it? anuloj^ous, lo, la, li, le, or ne, it 
.should never be used in tliat sense; since out of ni?ze ex."inipies quoted in the 
Vocaholario to support that signitieatioii, only one exhibits gli accompanied witli 
U, and that one must be looked upon as obsolete, not being written glieli, or 
glide, but glili, quite unwanaiitable according to modern use. 


Mil. GLIE. 
has, in Boccace and others, all 
these meanings, to him it, or him, 
to him it, or her, to Jiim them, 
masculine or feminine ; also to 
her it, or him, to her it, or her, 
and to her them, masculine and 
feminine. Also, instead of to, 
any other of those prepositions 
may be substituted which were 
given above to the singular mean- 
ings of gli or li. 

4. Other authors, e"ipcciidly 
the moderns, have preservfd glie 
indeclinable, to express either to 
him, or to her, but they have 
joined to it either lo, la, li, or 
LE, according to the things or 
persons aUuded lo being singidar 
or plural, masculine or feminine. 
See, therefore, all the meanings 
of LO and la, and all the plural 
meanings of LI and le. 

5. In the subsei|uent exempli- 
fication I have followed the ex- 
ample of Cinonio, and have made 
use of the same ({nutations from 
Boccaccio, varying his indeclin- 
able conipomid pronoun gliele, 
as above mentioned at n. 4, since 
this is the custom now prevailing 
in Tu!?cany ; in-omuc'i that we 
could not use gliele indeclinable, 
as mentioned at n. 3. in any 
familiar or coHutpiial style. 

G. We find also Gi.itNE com- 
pound of the same glie and ne. 
In which case observe, 1. 'I hat 
GLIE seldom means to her ; for, 
as we lia\e seen above, it is very 
elegant to suy le ne, (see at LL, 
XlJ. pr<»noiin). 2. That some- 
times GLiK ex()rc«ses them, accu- 
sative plurul , but, in ilegant 
style, we find Loru ne, ise. 3. 
Tiiat He joined to filic may, in all 
instances, have all the significa- 
tions atlrd)Uted to it when alone, 
(see under at NK, XVI. pro- 
uoun). 4. That sometimes we 

find GLI NE in two words ; but 
then gli means only them, accu- 
s.tive plural, as by the example 
at GLI or LI, X. pronoun. 

7. Having pointed out, in the 
preceding observations, all the 
significations of the pronouns 
joined to Glie, or given references 
where they are to be found, no 
other sign;6cation will be assigned 
to the following enumeration of 
their combinations with glie, but 
that which is contained in the 
annexed example, as it has been 
])rHCtiscd throughout this Lec- 

37. XIII. GLIE. 

To him, to her, to i^ &c. in 
him, &c. for him, &c. with him, 
Sec. with himself, &c. — Also 
themselves, ^ec above, Observa- 
tion Gth and (*i), at p. DG. 

38. IT IS only prefixed tih;s : 

"■ GLIEL "j 

or \ 


For him him. Kx. Rese grd- 

zie at compare, ehe glielo uvea 

guarito. He returned thanks to 

his fiiend who had cured him. 

for him. 

^^ It is possible to find this 
cofidjination of pionouiis written 
giiel before consonants ; but 
lioccaee wrote it always with- 
out co.uraction, as Delia Crusca 
and the he-t ]\I5«S. prove; al- 
though Aluuiio makes him often 
the authfjr of it. — Kxcept in poe- 
try, I woulil never acK ibc to write 
it coiitraeted in any case what- 


Olf him it. Ex. // condnnno 
nella teata, e gliela fece tagUdre, 
He coiidennied him to lo^e his 
heiid, und caused it to be cut 
ojf httn. 




* GLIE l'. 

It is sometimes written thus 
ii)steail of gliclo, or gliela, before 
vowels. See examples above. — 
Kot to be adopted except in 


To bim tlieni. Ex. Porto i 
falconi al sohhino, e i^'iieli pre- 
sentb, He brougiit tbe bawks to 
the sultan, and presented thein to 


For bim tbem. Ex. Se spaccidr 
voile le cose sue, gliele convi'nne 
gettdr via, If he wished to sell bis 
goods, it was necessary for him 
to tlirow them away almost for 
nothing. — See above Observation, 
n. 2. 


In bim for bim ; tbem from 
hence. Ex. VecUndo V iiumo la 
scniplicita del fanciullo, gliene 
i7e?i?je pie^rt, The man seeing tbe 
simplicity of the child, pity was 
awakened in him for him. Amen- 
ddni gli fece piglidre a tre svoi 
servitori, e ad un sua castello 
legdti moiargliene. He caused 
them both to be taken by three 
of his servants, and to be con- 
ducted both of them from hence 
to one of his castles. 

Jj^p° See above Observations 
on GLIE, particularly n. 6, and 
its significations. 


* glien' > 

* GLIE n' J 

These contracted forms of 
gliene might be found, the first 
before consonants, and the other 
two before vovvels : but the 
Academicians Delia Crusca do 
not countenance any of tbem, not 
even tbe last, which analogy 
seems to introduce more plau- 
sibly than any of tbe others ; for 

tbey write this beautiful line of 
Petrarch, from Canzdne 8, thus, 
Cercan d1 e notte pnr chi gliene 
appdghi, My eyes seek night and 
day her who can indulge them 
in it! (that is, in shedding tears). 


Addiiionul Observation upon 

It is both inharmonious and 
ungranimatical to put either be- 
fore or after gliene, or any other 
of tbe combinations of i;7je, any 
conjunctive pronoun whatever. — 
Thus Albergati was wrong in 
his Novella della Beneficenza, 
where be said, Rodrigo arresidtosi 
in ludgo, ore molte se gliene ap- 
prestntano, Rodrigo having stop- 
ped in a spot where many streets 
presented themselves to him from 

thence. He ought to have 

said, gli se ne appres<^ntano , or, 
with more elegance, se ne li ap- 
presmtano. See these two com- 
binations at GLI or LI, X. pro- 
noun. — But large volumes of just 
criticism might be written against 
a fev? pages, not only of Alber- 
gati, who humbly joins to this 
name the other diminutive one of 
CapacelU, but also against those 
of other modern writers, who 
termin?tte their names in the 
augmentative syllables, otti and 
ONI, such as Cesarotti, Algarotii, 
Frugoni, Fabbroni, whose merit 
in point of style is a very dimi- 
nutive one indeed j and, if they 
have accpiired fame, they owe it 
to other eminent <pialifications : 
for, as to the encomiums be- 
stowed by their countrynien upon 
the beauties of their style, they 
nmst be solely attributed to this 
celebrated adage, Beati monoculi 
in terra cacornm ! See my Essay 
on the present decline of Tuscan 


xir. SI. 

liter atuTe,acknowledgcd byCov nt 
Alheri : inejixedto the swrtE- 
ME XT to this IVork. 

40. Observations upon SI, 
XI\'. Pronoun. 

1. Cinonio gives under this ar- 
ticle several examples oftiic va- 
rious combinations of this parti- 
cle with others, in which Nl is 
employed as an (iffinnative ad- 
verb, or as an afiirwutive exple- 
tive ; as, E si noiisci oi^giiiiiiiiuin- 
cdlla. And, indeed, you are not 
now-a-days such a child : and, 
sc ti picivc, SI ti pidrci ; se non, si 
te ne sta, \i it pleases thee, so 
may it be : and if it does not, so 
may yon go without it. In such 
cases, this particle havinj^ not the 
smallest shade of pronominal 
signification, does not come 
within the scope of this Lecture. 

2. The Academicians Delia 
Crusca, and the best writers, 
have ju<lici()nsly distini^nished 
these two different signirications 
of the purticie si, by marking the 
nffirnidtiiu' with a grave accent 
thus, s\. 

3. We shall therefore omit all 
those combinations given by Ci- 
nonio, which could not take place 
when si has a pronominal mean- 

11. XIV. SI. 
Himself, of himself, to himself, 
from himself, on himself, over 
liimself, about himself, oft him- 
self, by himself, with himself, in 
himself, for himself, &c. herself, 
ol' herself, to herself, &:c. itself, of 
itself, to itself, &c. themselves, of 
theniselves, to themselves, Ac. 
one an(jllitr, of one anctlier, to 
one another, /vc. each other, of 
each other, to each other, ^c. — 
Also impersonallij used as the 
Frfnrli jKirtulc C3N, and traus- 

lilted in the Kuglish, hy either we, 
people, one, they, you, it, man, 
or the like. 

t^j" Among all the quotation? 
of ( inunio produced to prove 
that this pronoun may precede 
others, there is only one out of 
the Fidinmetta, of Boccace, in 
which SI stands before mi, and 
has a pronominal signification. 
The Academicians, however, who 
were so scrupulous in ascertain- 
ing the true leadings of the 
classics, have tpioted this ex- 
ample of Cinonin, at ?i, pro- 
noun ; but have read mi si, and 
not si ))ii : nor have they admit- 
ted that SI, as pronoun, coidd 
ever precede any other : but 
only when expletive affirmative, 
as exem[ilified above. See Ob- 
servatinu, n. 1. — It remains, 
theicfore, more than certain, 
that isl, pronoun, cannot pre- 

PARTICLE ; and that 

42. IT 13 0«/// SUBJOINED THUS : 

To me itself. -Ex. I\Ta vir 
ahhdtiUa it hel, che mi si inoslni 
intorno, But that beauty dazzles 
me, which sh(»ws itself around 
vie. Observe to nie cannot be 
well introduced here in English. 

TI 51. 

Thee itself. Ex. Minlndo il 
ciii, che ti si volV'i inluriio, Look- 
int at the welkin, which turns 
t/if//' about tliee. 

CI 81. 
To US itself. Ex. Qual Judco 
acceso ci si fe lucre, 1 he air 
showed itself to us like a kindled 


To you itself". Ex. Voi per 
ogni fusvi'llo di pallia, che vi si 
vol^e Ira' pii'di, he^tenuniute tutUi 

II "J 


la corte di paradiso, Ye who 
utter blasphemies against all the 
celestial choirs tor every straw, 
which turns itself about your 
feet. — Observe your instead of to 
you, and read above at me gli, 
andZasi; which see at GLI, X. 
pronoun, and LA, XI. pronoun. 

* IL SI ^ 

or > 

* LO SI ) 


or V 


LO VI ~^ 

or V 
Him himself; it themselves. 
Ex. Quasi come se davdnti il si 
vedtsse. As if he saw him before 
himself. lo dehho credere, che 
essi il corpo di Scannadio non 
vdgliono per doverlosi tenere in 
braccio, I must believe that they 
are not desirous of having the 
dead body of Scannadio to hold 
it in their own arms. — Observe 
their own for themselves, for rea- 
sons hinted above at vi si. 

* GH SI 


* Ll SI 


To it one (inipersonallij) . Ex, 
Se paradiso si potesse in terra 
fare non sapevano die altra forma 
gli si potesse dare. If a paradise 
could be made upon earth, they 
di<i not know what other form 
one could give to it. 

^^^ Cinonlo here properly 
observes, that there are many 
examples of this combination, in 
which gli has the signification of 
accusative plural ; and that those 
who think that, in the plural, we 
should say se gli, and not gli 
si {k), are thoroughly deceived. 
— 1 have only to add, that when 
gli has a singular meaning, the 
combination is either of the 
familiar or of the elevated style ; 
but, in the plural signification, it 
becomes only fit for poetry or 
elegant prose ; as, Ella que cav- 
riuoU teneramente prese ed al 
petto gli si pu<)se, She kindly 
took up those fawns and put 
them to her breast. 

* LA ST. 

LA VI ^ 

or /- 

Her to himself. Ex. Egli la 
sposh, e a casa la si menh. He 
married her, and brought her to 
his own house. 

* LE SI. 



To her himself. Ex. Perche 
futtolesi pm pr^sso con lei entrb 


(k) Both Kunuuis and 'I'uscaiis uf^e glisi wiihreferetice to the feiiiiniiie, as to 
the paiiiclf g^/i; while, rigorously speakiim, wu oui;ht to say le si. — And tiiiy 
also say gli si, with reference tr) the niascnline jiluial, as to gli, in any oblique 
case besides the accn-aiive, iiistiad of saying; loro si, which would have been 
more accin-ate; hut neither the one nor the other of these expiessions can he 
considered as error*, particularly in the familiar style, as wc ohserved above, 
nole {g), p. 80. Yet ibeir custom of saying gli si, when gli refers to llie femi- 
nine pliiial, (instead of le d, if le be accusative, or loro si, if any other case,) is 
utterly unwanatitahlc, and a gross solecism. See the pionoiin LO/vO XVI!, 
and its note (71], 


XV. SE. 
in pardle, He. tlierciore, having 
drawn himself nearer to Iter, be- 
gan to enter info conversation 
with her. The particles vi an.l 
(7, interposed between il and si, 
la and si, i<c. are adverbs implv- 
ing tliere or thither, answering to 
y of the P'rench. 

43. XV. 8E. 
Wlien conjunctive pronoim it 
has (he same signitication as SI, 
which see above ; but if used 
alone, it becomes personal ; and, 
as conjunctive, 

* SEL (/) 

L (0 ^ 
! LO J 


To himself him : to herself it. 
Kx. // re '^clji'ce chunndre, The 
Jxing ordered him to be called tu 
himself. Appressdto'it\o alia boc- 
ca, il bacio. Having put it to her 
mouth <he kissed it — Observe to 
her instead of to herself, for rea- 
sons frequently stated above. 

SE (.LI "^ 

Him-^elf ihcm. Ex. Comperafi 
i ciippoiii >c gii iiiniii^i'o, Havii;g 
bouglit the tapon«, he eat them 


Erom himself her. Fx. Co*^ sc 
la tolsc ilaranti. Thus he got her 
removed from himself, (that is, 
got rid of her). 

SH LP.. 

To himself ihem. l,x. /'/// 
volte Tcilerur sc le fece. Many 

XV. SE. 
times be made ttiem be repeated 
to himself. 

SEN ^ 

or V 


Himself from thence. Ex. 
Currddu anduto sene piit nan tor- 
novvi, Currado betook himself 
ii\\-.\y from thence, and returned 
there no more. 

or > 



Himself, lie (expletive) it. Ex. 
Ella se iiel porta sotterra, e 'n 
lii'h. She (death) carried it 
(Laura's face) away /itrse//' under 
giound, and up to heaven. 

C3" The ahove line of the 272 
sonnet of Pclrarra, is thus read 
by the learned librarian of the 
Medicean Library at Flo- 
rence, on the authority of many 
and invaluable MSS. (see his 
edition of Petrarca, Florence, 
I 748, Svo.) We are therefore 
autiiorized to enumerate se iiel, or 
its synonimous se ne lo, among 
the grammatical combinations of 
the conjunctive pronoinis ; al- 
though not noticed by Cinonio. 
Sec il se na at NR, XVI. pro- 

* SE NE GLI ^ 



\Vc (iiupcrsondlli/J of them to 
him ; himself, them, thence, Ex. 
Qudiite cose gli si promi'llono tut to 
il (Ci, chc lion se ne gli uttinie 
vidua, G. .3. n. I, How many 
things do we promise to him 
en rij iloy, or else (/// the day long, 

(/, 'I lie ALail('iniciiiii<) D'U t Cruirn do mil aprovc of .»f 7, lliiis written li^ 
•oinr bc.tiri" a ron'niiaiit, a.i ap|ivai<t fitiin tlicii <nvii urilio^'raiili)' in itic yitm- 
loliirin. Si-v llic (llttrtalvins prefixed In tlie pro/iounj of the third ptrsfii, anil 
Holt ( r) tbid. 


XV. SK. 
of which we do not keep to 
him even one of them. Ed a pie 
delpesco grosso trovati i due Cap- 
poni e 'I vino, eV uova a casa se 
ue ^Vi portb, G. 7. n. 1. And 
having found by the great peach 
tree the two capons, wine, and 
eggs, he carried them himself 
thence to his own house. 

^^^The above being genuine 
passages out of the Decamerone 
of Boccaccio; this combination, 
although not inserted by Cinonio, 
becomes quite elegant and gram- 


Himself from thence home. 
Ex, Da capo sposb la giovdne, e 
con gran festa se ne la meno a 
casa, He repeated the ceremony 
of his marriage with the young 
woman, and he took her himself 
from thence home. 

gg^ This combination^ not 
being registered by Cinonio, must 
be admitted for the same reason 
as the above, the example being 
genuine from G. 5. n. 4, of the 
same work, 


Themselves from thence them. 
Ex. Cimone e Lisimaca pervenuti 
nella sala dove le nudve spose con 
molte altre donne gia a tdvola 
erano per mangidre assettdte ordi- 
natam^nte, fdttisi inndnzi, e git- 
tdte le tavdle in terra, ciasciin 
prese la sua, ed alia nave se ne le 
mendro di presente, Cymon and 
Lysimachus being- arrived in the 
saloon, where the new brides, 
with many other ladies, were 
already regularly seated to dine, 
having advanced and thrown the 
tables to the ground, each took 
his own lady, and they brought 
them themselves immed.ately/ro??t 
thence to th'> ship which was 

^g^ Analogy fully entitles us 
to admit of this combination, 
after having found the three pre- 
ceding ones in the classics : And 
if Cy77ion and Lysimachus, in G, 
5. n. 1 . had not given their ladies 
to carry to their friends, but had 
taken them themselves to the ship, 
Boccaccio would never have ex- 
pressed himself otherwise, than 
we read in the above passage, 
altered by me to siiit this exem- 
plification. See note * p. 75, at 
the Preliminary Observations to 
this Lecture. 

45. Observations upon NE, 
XVI. Pronoun. 

1. When NE stands after ano- 
ther of these pronominal particles 
me, te, se, ce, ve, they are some- 
times found written in one word, 
thus, men, ten, sen, cen, ven, in- 
stead of me ne, te ne, se ne, ce 
ne, ve ne, and it is obvious that 
their meaning must be respec- 
tively the same, but their use is 
as follows. 

2. Men, ten, cen, sen, ven, are 
only thus written before verbs 
commencing by consonants, 6' 
impure excepted, and they are 
used in the sublime or poetical 
style only, as the asterisks will 
show in the following exemplifi- 

3. Me ne, te ne, se ne, ce ne, ve 
ne, are used before verbs com- 
mencing with any of the conso- 
nants, both in the familiar and 
the elevated style ; but when S 
impure follows, they can in 
no instance be written other- 

4. Before verbs commencins 
by a vowel, the same pronouns 
may be written as above at n. 3. 
or contracted Avith an apostrophe, 
and in two words, thus : me n , 



te n , ig n', ce n', vs n'. See 

tlic important remark after the 
siijnificatioi) of SE. 

b. Sometimes .vz, as a particle, 
expresses a conjunction nejiative, 
without the least shade of pro- 
nominal signification ; it is then 
written with a grave accent, tlins, 
111-, anil does not belong to this 

4G. XVI. NE. 

Some, of some, to some, from 
some, on some, over some, about 
some, off some, by some, with 
some, in some, for some, &c. of 
liim, to him, from him, &c. of 
licr, to her, from her, &c. of it, 
to it, from it, &.c. of them, to 
<hem, &.C. both for the inanimate 
and the anivuite objects. — Also 
an adverbial pronoun, as, hence, 
I hence, olf, from that place, from 
those places, &c. — Also an ex- 
plctive, or emphatical meaning, 
as EN in the Trench verb sen 

^^^ The ])Octs, and elegant 
prose writers, have given to .V£ 
all the mciinings of the pronoun 
CI, III. pronoun, which see 3 
and have arranged it wiili other 
pronouns, sometimes like CI, and 
sometimes like CE IV. ])ronoun, 
as will aj) frpm the following 
cxcmplilication, which will ex- 
hibit sf: sometimes in this sense, 
and sometimes in some of the 
bigniBcations attributed to it 

47. IT IS pnr.riXKn thus ; 

* NKL (/;/) 

Hence it ; thence him. Ex. 

Quel forzierc vdgliu chr sia vostro, 
acciocche nelle vostre contrddc ncl 
possidte portdre, 1 am willing that 
the chest be yours, that you may 
carry it liencc into your own 
country. Tu dovi'vi vianddrnc\o 
come faccsti. You ought to 
have sent him thence away as 
you did. 

NE GLI "^ 
or V 


Ni: Lo J 

Some to liim. Ex. 11 Canigid- 
no aicndoncgW alqudnti prcslati, 
&c. Canigiano having lent some 
to him, Sec. 

NE L.\. 

Thence her. Ex. Alia sua casa 
ne la phrldrono. They brouglit 
her thence to her own house. 

* NE LE. 

Of it to her. Ex. Ella pregb 
Chirhi'bhio die nc le d(;sse una 
cdscia, She intreated Chichibbio 
to give her a leg of it. 


* IL NE. 

Him from hence. Ex. Jo ii 

cor.sigUcn'i, die tu il ne cacciassi 
fuori, 1 would advise you to turn 
him otit from hence. 

* LO NE. 

Him thence. E\. La Contcssa 
corU'Scmt'ntc lo ne riniandb in suo 
jiacse. The Countess kindly re- 
manded him (hence to his own 

* LA NE. 

Iler thence, Ex. La donna ad 
una lor pos-sesnioju: la ne mando, 
'J'lic woman sent her from thence 
to one of ihrir own cstaies. 

(m) The Academicians Delia Cru$ca i\o not approve of wc 'Mlius writfi-ii liy 
Home before a coimoiiaiii, as a|i|icarK fnun their own ort|in^ra|>liy in the yQiaho- 
Unxo. Sif llie Ofii«rfa*to)H pitfixtd to \\\c pronoun t of the I hira per »on, uii\\ 
noil (J) \ild. 

II 1 



* GLI NE "I 

or > 

* LI NE J 

See an example of this combi- 
nation and its remark at GLI or 
LI, X. pronoun. See also Obser- 
vation n. 6. at GLIE, XIII. pro- 



GLIE n' 

See these combinations with 
remarks at GLIE, XIII. pro- 

* LE NE. 

Them from thence. lo voglio 
anddre al hosco e, /a'rlene venire, 
I will go to the wood, and get 
themhevefrom thence. 

* MEI 



Myself of it. Ex. Ancur non 
me ne pento, I don't yet repent 
myself of it. 

J^^ Observe here ??iyseZ/' quite 
supertiiious in English, this being 
one of the many verbs met with 
in many of the foregoing ex- 
amples, which is reciprocal in 
Italian, and not in English. See, 
on this subject, the VI. Prelimi- 
nary Observation of this Lecture. 
* TEN "j 

or > 


To thee over them. Ex. Dio 
vittdria te ne promette, God 
promise to thee a victory over 

* SEN 



Themselves from hence. Ex. 
La gente se ne va, The people 
take themselves from hence. 

EN "^ 


* CEN ^ 



Ourselves off. Ex. Andidmo- 
cene subitamente, Let us take 
ourselves off directly. 

' VEN ^ 



Yourselves from hence. Ex. 
Voi ve ne potete scendere in can- 
tina. You may take yourselves 
from hence into the cellar. 

^' MI TEN "^ 

or V 

* MI TE NeJ 

See this combination at MI, I. 

* SI 

;i TEN ^ 

or \ 

31 TE NEJ 

* CI TEN "^ 



* VI TEN "^ 

or > 



^^^ These combinations may 
be considered as grammatical, 
since the preceding one, mi te ne, 
once found in the classics, we are 
fully entitled to admit of these 
on those scrupulous rules of ana- 
logy explained above. Preliminary 
Observation V. 

* MI VEN "^ 



Myself with you of it. Ex. 
Sicuramtnte gli elite, cli io sia 
stata quella, che qutsto vi dhbia 
detto, e siomivene doluta, You 
may freely tell him that it was I 
who told you so, and that I have 
myself complained toith you 
of it! 



* TI VEN "I 

or V 


* SI VEN ^ 

or V 


* CI VEN ^ 

or > 


The saaie rules of ana- 
logs explained at Prelimbuiry 
Observation V. entitle us to ad- 
mit of these three combinations, 
the prcccdinif one mi ve ne, being 
instanced and exempli tied from 




For the same reason 
aUej^ed just above, these com- 
binations are to be looked upon 
as granniKitiail, being no less 
analogous to vii ve ne than any 
of the preceding ones- 

* VI SEN "^ 
or > 


These four pairs of com- 
binations are no less analogous to 
mi ve ne, than the three foregoing 
ones ; they arc, therefore, to be 
looked upon as gramnutt'ical on 
the rules of analogy explained 
in the said Prdlminary Observa- 
tion V. 

* TI MEN "^ 

or V 

Tl MK NE ; 


or - 

SI M K N E 1 

* VI MEN f 
or )r 

I M K N K y 





or > 

ME SE Ne} 

To me there {impersonally) 

of them. Jo ii farb conoscere la 

qualita delle case degl' IiUh'i, dclle 

(judli ninna parte mi se ne occulta, 

I shall show you what the abodes 

of the gods are, for there is no 

part of thcni that remains occult 

to me. 


;i SEN ^ 
or V 

•l S E N E J 

See this combination at CI, 
III. pronoun 

TI SEN "^ 
or /► 


To thee it (impersonally) for 
il. E\. E a tc nc fart' mo an cor a 
rptell' ondre, che ti se ne conviene. 
And we shall likewise pay to tfue 
that honour /o/- if, that becomes 
thee. — Observe iltee instead of to 
thee, by ellipsis, as observed at 
ne Ic in LIx XII. 

^'j'- There being no doubt 
of the above combination being 
perlectly analogical, from so 
many similar to be found in the 
classics ; and, from all the ob- 
servations made above, I have 
exemplified it by a slight altera- 
tion of a passage in G S. n. 9. of 
the Dccamcrour, which runs in 
the oiiginal as in the next com- 
bination. IWit if lirnno and 
linjf.iluitiico had not been over 
civil to the Doctor on account ol 
the good treats they were regaled 
with by him, they would have 



addressed him with thou, being 
the most usual among such com- 
rades as they were, and Boccace 
would then have expressed him- 
self exactly as above. See Pre- 
liminary Observation V 

* VI. SEN 



To you it (impersonally) for 
it. Ex. Ed a voi nefar^mo an- 
cdra quell' onore, die vi se ne con- 
viene, And we shall likewise pay 
to you that honour for it as it be- 
comes you. — Observe you for to 
you. bee above at ne le in LE, 
XIII, pronoun. 





It himself, ne (expletive). Ex, 
Ella il se ne porta sotttra e 'n 
cii'lo, She (death) carried it 
i^Laura's face) herself away under 
ground, and up to he.tven, 

E^^ The Academicians Delia 
Crusca at NE, § 6. reading, as 
above, this line from the 2/2 
Sonnet of Petrarch, it may serve 
to illustrate this combination. 
For whether Petrarch said il se 
ne,OY senel, (see this combination 
at SE, XV. pronoun) as in many 
MSS. it remains always certain, 
that both these combinations 
must have been in use with the 
poets of his time, particularly as 
they would be very elegant even 
now. — As to lo se ne, it is per- 
fectly synonymous with il se ne, 
and the following combination 
instanced in the classics, fully 
establishes its use by analogy. 

* LA SE 


L\ SE 

iN ^ 
i NE J 

Her himself from thence. Ex. 

Prese Ansiona figliuola del detto 
Re Laumedone, e menolasene 
in Grecia. He took Ansiona, 
daughter of the said King Lau- 
medone, and took her himself 
from thence into Greece. 






* LE SEl 



|^g° These combinations are 
no less admissible than the fore- 
going ii sene, lasene, found in 
authors, being of a very uniform 
composition ; since the particles 
li or gli, le, il or lo, and la, are 
perfectlyanalogous both in sound 
and signification ; no other diffe- 
rence subsisting between them 
than that of gender and number. 
See Preliminary Observation V, 






* LA TEN "I 

or > 








iN "1 
i NE J 







•* LO Vif NE 













VEN ^ 

or >■ 














IL Ml'. NE 

* LO M E N E 





* LI mt:n 


; 1. 1 ME N K y 

.1 ME NE 7 





t^^t^ All the above combiiiu- 

tions must be admitted as f;ram' 
jiiatical, although neither C'uionio 
nor myself ever had the <^oot\ 
fortune to meet with any of them 
in the classics. But Use lie, and 
la sc ne, once found in good 
authors (see them above), all 
these become no less admissible 
than aiiv of the foregoing, on 
those too often quoted principles 
of analogy exphiined at Prclimi- 
tian/ Observation V. to which the 
Author of this Lecture begs 
leave to refer once more his most 
diligent and critical readers. 


49. X. GLI, or /,/. XII. LE. 

The plural significations of 
tliese pronouns arc very common, 
and many instances have been 
given in the examples above, 
where we have fully explained 
each of them respectively in the 
order of their Rom.Hu figures. 
Jiut, to know with what restric- 
tions they express the plural, see 
in particular Observation, n. 2. 
at GLI or LI, X. pronoun. 

30. XIII. GLIR. 

This pronoun vciy seldom re- 
presents the p!ural number, and 
oidy when followed by ne. 8ee 
the Observatious premised to 
its examples, and particnlai ly 
tlie tilh. 

.01. III. CI. VI. CE. 

Vil. VI. VIII. //;. 
These pronouns may allude to 
the plural nimdier in their adrcr- 
hiiil sif^iii/irdtion. I might here 
forbear giving any example, tbat 
of my own, in vole (i), at LE, 
XM. pron<»un, being sufficient to 
prove a signification so very com- 


uion, and in universal use even 
at present; but CiHO«(0 furnishing^ 
a classical one, and having myself 
found another, I shall give them 
both here for a better illustration 
of these particles. Clnonio quotes 
the Fiammetta of Boccaccio as 
follows : Qia'ste parole, o somig- 
lldnti, non una vulta ma rnolte, e 
senza risp6ndery\ alciina cosa 
ascoltdi 10 con grave anhno, \ 
heard these or the like expressions 
iiot once, but many times with a 
sore heart, and without answering 
to them at all. In the beautiful 
description of the gardens, at the 
beginning of G. 3. of the Deca- 
merone, we read as follows. Le 
luiora delle qudli vie tntte di rosdi 
hianchi, evermigli, e di gelsomini 
erano quasi cliiuse, per le qudli 
cosenonchelamattma, ma qualdra 
ilsole era piu alto, sotto odorffera, 
e dilettevole ombra, senza esser 
tocco da quello, vi si potha per 
iuito anddre. The sides of those 
walks were nearly stopped with 
white and red rose-bushes and 
jessamines ; so that, not only in 
the morning, but even when the 
sun was very high, one might 
walk every where through them, 
under a delicious and sweet- 
scented shade, without bein» 
scorched by it. — See above the 
significations and combinations 

xvii, LORO. 

of these particles as the Roman 
figures direct; but particularly 
at CI, III. pronoun. 

52. XIV. SI. XV. SE. 
The plural significations of 
these are as common as the sin- 
gular ones. See their combina- 
tions and examples above where 
their Roman figures direct. 

53. XVI. NE. 
We have observed, speaking of 
the conjunctive pronouns, Jirsi 
person plural, that this particle is, 
by poets and elegant writers, used 
instead of ci or ce, and then it 
means ns, to its, S^'c. as these do. 
— But even when i(s significations 
allude to the third person it is 
frequently plural, as we have seen 
in its numerous examples given 
above. — In its adverbial sigmfi- 
cations it is also occasionally 
plural, and extremely common in 
conversation. We would say, 
for instance, Lascidte una volta 
cott'sti campi, e venitevene alia 
citta. Leave once for ever those 
fields, and come from thence 
(that is, from those fields), to 

54. XVII. LORO («). 
To them, in them, with them, 
by them, from them, &c. 

(n) Ii is a iniiversal ci'stom in 'J'uscatiy, and other p;i!t.'. (f Italy, to nsc tlie 
pronoun li, or g/i, and glie, for iiro, in the signification i.f /<; them, dative |)iiiral 
of botli gendpi.s ; or of (o her, instead of le. Such a custom is utterly wrong as 
to the particle ^Zie, as we have observed above, p. 1)6, note (*i) ; but as to the 
other, li, or gli, it may be certainly permitted in the signification cither of /o 
her, or to them, masculine plural wily, at least in familiar style, as it has been 
observed at p. 89, ?iote (g), and p. 100, note (k) ; the insiaiues of such a use 
being both venerable and uumeroiis in the classics, as we have shewn, Tlius, th's 
phrase, Jo gli dissi may mean, I said so to him, or to them, if alluding to 
gentlemen; and even /o /ifr, if alluding (o a lady. Yet this one, logUelorac- 
cutitai, tan only mean, I related it to him, according to what iias been obser- 


^^^^ Tin's is theonlv conjunc- 
tive pronoun that Im" no other 
si^nitication but that of the iliiid 
person plural. Many wouhl ex- 
clude it from the class of the 
cnnjunctive ; but, in (ioiiir so, 
we could not tind a conjunctive 
pronoun, thu could express most 
of the ol)li(]ue cases, and particu- 
larly the ilat'ice to the plural 
number, especially for animate 
beiu'js, of which we distinguish 
the sex, or fur real persons. For 
as to inanimate things, we have 
fseen ju';t now that v\, ci, and lie, 
might ansTver that purpose. 

This is not, iiowever, the true 
reason why we should admit 
LORO as conjunctive in n)any 
cases. We .•■hould admit it, be- 
cause, when maintained such, it 
has all the most important pro- 
perties of the conjunctive pro- 
nouns, which are, 1. To stand 
close to tl:e verb, either before or 
after. 2. To be found without 
any preposition to those cases, in 
which the personal pronouns 
have some, as we see from the 
following examples taken from 
Boccaccio, of which we mif^ht 
easily furnish the centujile num- 
ber, Ed ho sentito, ed udi'to pi^ 
volte, se pure alcihiP (persone) 
ce tie sono quci^li cotali senza ftire 
ftiitinzidne alciina dalle cose 
oni'ste a rjueltc, die om'stc non 
sono, solo die I' iipjHti'to le clirg- 
ffia, e soil ed accompngndti, c di 
iCi e di nolte fimllr fare, die jjiii 
di dili'lto LOR pdrgOHO, And 1 
have found and heard many 

times, that those persons, if any 
now, are left, without any dis- 
crimination between what is 
honest and what is not, both 
alone, and accoinp.inied, are 
doing those things which afford 
a greater pleasure TO tiifm, 
whenever their dc?ires prompt 
them so to do. Coti consciiti- 
vieiito Concorde tntte dissero, die 
essi J<).sscr diiiiuidti, e Lou si di- 
cesse la loru iiiteiizioiie, ^Vitll 
unanimous consent the ladies all 
said, that ihty sliould be called, 
and their intention communica- 
ted TO THEM. Senipre ro' 

pdveri di Dio qiu'llo, die ho gua- 
daguato, ho parttto per mezzo, la 
mia intta convertendo ne' inu'i 
iisdgni, C altru meta dando loro, 
1 have always divided with the 
poor of God whatever 1 have 
earned, one half applying it to 
my own wants, and giving the 
other half to them. Dict/ido 
nidna ultra medecma essere contro 
le pestilenze viiglidre, iie 
budna, come il fuggire loro da- 
vdnli, Saying that there was no 
better remedy, nor even any as 
good against the contaji^ious dis- 
eases, than flying fhom thi.m. 
Fdttigli chiamdre amendiUii, fece 
LOK ve'li're, die la hocrn pulfra 
Loiio, Having caused them both 
to be ctUed, she made it appear 
to them, lhnt THEin mouth had 
an nnplcisant smell. — Obseixe 
tliMt the KiiL:li^li idiom, as it lias 
been often ribseived above, (le- 
•pientlv c!i;injies tlie pioimuns lo 
llieiii, lo him, lo her, i)'c. into the 

red ai note (*i), p. yfi. Nevcrtliele'*^, it J' ceitiiin tliat, in rlevaiel ^tylf, loro 
^llOulll lit pieli-irril — 'llie ^aIl)c may Ik; said ol i^li, or li, iim-cI iii-lca-l iif /c, in 
Itic .iuiik; nciiNf ui to fur. ISec tlic same note [gj, p. H'.t, ulsu nule {»), \), '.i(i. 


possessive their, his, her, Sfc. as 
in this last instance. — Any one 
may easily collect, from tbe 
above examples, that lord is 
there in the full force of a con- 
junctive pronoun. 

A peculiarity of this pronoun, 
which is exclusively its own, and 
not common to any of the other 
conjunctive pronominal particles, 
is, as was observed in the pre- 
ceding Lecture, p. 64. n. 8. that 
it never joins in one word with 
the verb, nor with any of the 
other pronominal particles, as 
these do in those cases mention- 
ed in the same Lecture, p. 66. n. 
19. Nay, it seldom keeps on the 
same side of the verb, when 
there is in the same sentence 
some of these pronouns, as was 
hinted at the same p. 64 ; but 
the following genuine passages 
from Boccace, will prove these 
points far better than my own 
observations. Che piii ? cdccinmi 
via questi cotdli, qualora io ne 
domdndo loro. What more ? 
Let such men turn me away 
whenever I ask them some (mean- 
ing bread). Essi vientono, per- 


ciocche mai io non la vendc 
LOROj They are wrong, for I 
never sold IT to them. Where 
we see, that while ne and le 
stand before the verb, loro is 
after 5 which would never be the 
case with any other conjunctive 

But this peculiarity is not a 
proof of its 7iot being a conjunc- 
tive pronoun, since what occa- 
sions it, is rather that loro is a 
dissyllable, and all other con- 
junctive pronouns arc mono- 

Observe also that several of 
the above examples, and an in- 
finity of others, prove how mis- 
taken Veneroni and other gram- 
marians have been, who have 
maintained that i-ouo follows al- 
ways the verb, when conjunctive. 

Loro not associating, as we 
have said, with any other con- 
junctive particle, and often not 
keeping on the same side of the 
verb, when there are some in the 
same sentence, it remains impos- 
sible to subjoin here its combi- 
nations, and for this very reason 
CiNONio could not give any. 


On the Possessive Pronouns. 

\. ^ These pronoun?, besides alluding; to the person who 
possesses the object in question, contain also the meanin<i^ of 
possession itself, and are therefore called Possessive. They 
are as follows. 


Gender and number of the lliins^s possessed. 

I —^ \ 

^Sinir. Masc. Sing. P'em.Siug. Masc. IVni.Phir. 

I. Per. -V/o. my or inine'^ Miu Miei Mie 

-. — Tuo, tliv or thine Tna Tiiui Tuc 

Sua or V"^' '^^' •^'"«''^'' l^noi.orlSue^ov 
Propria \ *^^''' ^'' Propria] Proprj \ Proprie 




l.Por. ,Vo.?//"o, our o?- ours Nostra Noslri Nostre 
J^oslro. your or youis f^oslra 1'oslri Vostrc 


J^oro, -^ ,i . I.oro, -^ J.oro, ^ Ijoro., 

c I their or ,, ' I o • I o 

n theirs ,, ' . ( „ -7, • 

J rupno J Proprut,} l^roprjJ Propne 

*2. ^1 We readily perroive, by the above display, that these 
pronouns spocity, by their inlltclions and variations, the 
number and gender of the object possessed, and tbat they 
also distino;ni>-h the nuniber and the three persons of tlie pos- 
sessors, but not tlu'ir i;ender as the l'2ni^lish do ; which, on 
the otiier hand, do not specify the gender of the possessed 
object at all. — See, iiowever, above (Lecture X. n. ^2. p, 58.) 
bow we can spccily the gender of tlie possessor too, by the 
means of the personal pronoun. 

3. For a clearer explanation of these pronouns, we shall 
here divide them into three classes, viz. in conjunclive, dis^ 
junctivc^ and rclalive. 

The conjuneti'ce are those which are united to nouns ; as, 
il wio libra., my book : i miei parcnli, my relations. 

The disjunctive are those which are not united to nouns ; 
as, la rostra casa^ e in w/r/, your house and mine; 1 tniei e<i- 
id/ii, ed i fo^///, my horses and yours ; la iiiia and / vustri are 
disjunctive, as they are not united to a noun. 

The rdntive are those which have relation to a person or 
thing already spoken of; as c rnio or wia, it is mine; sono 
tuoi, or Inr, they are thine ; and in this case they do not 
admit ol the ariiclcf 

• A pt'Ciiliar degree of cmphnsis is added to tlie F.iiclisli |ios>ies.<«ivc pionmin liy 
llie addil'iDlliil piniiniiii oirn — as, viy ou-n look, i/our otrn u-ork, fiis ouni fault .—^ 
'I In* liali III rciid'.T it I y the adjcclivf prnprio, which in this (mxi- Iu coiiifS (i sort nf 
iiiiperfcct pi''ii(iiiM, hikI a;iy, il mioprnpno lihro, Utaslro propriolamrnja viia pro- 
pria col/in. Prnprici-' al.«{)a n al iiokSL'.isJvi' pr(iiiiMin,(scclielii\v al Ni<.2ll.) — Kililor. 

f The piiriil oiicht to obicrriMlial tlie Ualiaii syntax re(|iiir'-s all possfN>iiL- 
pronoun'* "o be aecoinp'inied with an ariicle (a few ea^cs only cxrejilcd, as will 
tie > tat I'd liereafier), and that wlint tlie anililir am jliiitex totlii« soit ot prunoiiiiii 
h, ill fact, the peculiii|iro|icity of tin* vrih In he, w jiirli comxIsIh il)ioinin^', wiili- 
out any aitlch, all iioini.'< or proiiuinit wliicii follow it iniiiioliately in the yainc 


4. Examples on the Conjunctive. 
Jlmio libro My book 

Del mio libro 
Al mio libro 
Dal mio libro 

I mici libri 
Z)e' mici libri 
A* mici libri 
Da* mici libri 

La nostra camera 
Delia nostra camera 
Alia nostra camera 
Dalla nostra camera 

Le noslre cdmere 
Delle nostre cdmere 
AUe nostre cdmere 
Dalle nostre cdmere 

Of my, &c. 
To my, &c. 
From, or by, &c. 

My books 
or my, &c. 
To my, he. 
From, or by, &c. 

Our chamber. 
Of our, &c. 
To our, &c. 
From, or by, &c. 

Our chambers 
Of our, &c. 
To our, &c. 
From, or by, &c. 

Of my, &c. 
To my, &c. 
From, or by, &c. 

His state and yours 
Ofhis, &c. 
To his, &c. 
From, or by, &c. 

Your house and mine 

5. Examples on the Disjunctive. 

Ilsuo stato, ed il vostro My state and yours 

Del suo stato, e del vostro 
Al suo stato, ed al vostro 
Dal suo stato^ e dal vostro 

1 suSi stati, edi vostri 
De' suoi stali, e de' vosti'i 
A'' suoi stati, ed a^ vostri 
Da' suoi stati, e da' vostri 

La vostra casa, e la mia 
Delia vostra casa, e della mia Of your, &c. 
Alia vostra casa, e alia mia To your, t^c. 
Dalla rostra casa, cd alia mia From or by, &c. 

Le vostre case, e le mie Your houses and mine 

Delle vostre case, e delle mie Of your, &c. 
Alle vostre case, e allc mie To your, &c. 
Dalle vostre case, e dalle mie From, or by, 8:c. 

7. Examples on the Relative. 

E mio — mia It is mine 

Era tuo — tua It was thine 

sentence ; for lliis reason we say, I am a soldier, i'oHosoWa^o, S;c. In fact, let us 
cliangt' the verb, atul suppose we would say, Our friends refused our goot.'s, hut 
they praised your.': very much ; in tliis seiileiiec yours \voa\i\ certaiidy be a rela- 
lire possessive pronoun ; yet we would say in Italian, witli an article, 1 nostri 
amicl ricusiirono le nostre mercam/r, ma lodurono le voslre senzajine. — Editor. 

lu si/0 — Slid It ua> liis or liers 

Sara nostra — nostra It will be ours 

\u/i pud csscr vostro — lostra It cannot be yours. 

Sono mici — viic They are mine 

J'rnno ti(oi~tuc Tlioy were thine 

JVnono siioi — sue They wore his or hers 

Siirinino nostri — noslre They will be ours 

\unp6ssonocsscriostri — ro5/reThey cannot be yours. 


Thy horses and thy dofjs are very jjood ; my action is not 
cari'illo cane sono buono ; non 

blameable; their watch isahvaysout oforder ; their affairs are 
biashuLiolt ; oriitolo va sempre male ; nfjdre sono 

ina bad state ; yourlove is false; ourhouseis finer thanyours; 
incatliio stalo ; amorv cfinto ; casa hello 
his coach is not liandsonie ; my friends and yours ; your 

carrozza hillo umico 

ijarden is larijer than mine : our servants and theirs; it is 
o-iardino grande scrvilure 

not mine but yours ; that box is ours ; do you see that palace, 
via scdlolu xedclc quel paluzzo 

it was mine, &c. 

Iie7Jinrk-s on the Possessive Pronouns. 

8. ^ Gkntiiai. Rule. — Let it be first of all observed, as 
it was said in note*, that the most p^eneral rule is to accom- 
j)any the possessive pronouns with the definite article, /7, /o, 
or la. 

9. Exception. — \Micn these pronouns are immediate Ij/fol- 
lotced by a '■iib-^tantivf^ in t/ie sini^nhu., which signifies a title 
of t/Zi,'" ;?/(// or hindrtd., they are declined in the same manner 
as in ICtiglish, viz. with the indefinite article, <//, «, da ; as, 
Sua Maestd, his Majesty, di Sua Maestd of his, iScc. and so 
on ; Sua JCxeel/enza, his excellency, di Sua KxeelUnza, of 
his, &c. viio padre, my father, di mio padre, of, i^c. a tua 
madre, to thy mother, da tua madre, from thy, &c. suo eui>;ino, 
bis cousin, di suo eugino, of, 8:c. mionipdte, di mio nipdte, i^-c. 

10. N.IJ. I. We said, imniediateli/ folloictd ; because if 
between the possessive pronoun and substantive there be 
an adjective, then it takes the definite article ; as, il mio caro 
fratitlo, my dear biuther ; la mia afjeziondta madre, my 
aflictioiiatt! mot Ik r. 

11. We aKo said, in tin singular ; because the llxeeplion 
does not hold :^(H)d in the plural, in which case the p;eneral 



rule must be foliowed ; as, le Loro 3Iaesld, delle I^oro 
Muestd ; i snoi fnilc/li, de' siioi fratSlli y i siwi iiipotiy his 
nephews ; le voslre nipSti, your nieces. 

III. But suppose the possessive pronoun is transposed, and 
phiced alter the substantive, in that case we must, with an 
article, say, la Maestd Sua ; it fratcllo suo ; il padre mio ; 
which is not usual. 

1 1. Observe likewise that the Ena^lish particle than^ when 
followed hy the possessive pronoun, must be expressed 
by the respective article of the genitive case in Italian ; as, 
This hat is handsomer than mine, questo cappello epiu bello 
del mio ; your cousin is taller than your brother, vostro cu- 
gino e pill grande di lostro fratello. 

12. ^ It nsust also be noticed here, that the Italian urba- 
nity, wliich makes us address one another to the third per- 
son feminine, extends also to the following- manners of speak- 
ing, viz. 7/our book, j/our buckles, ?/our watcli, and such 
like ; so that, in polite circles, and especially speaking with 
our superiors, they must be translated, not by il vostro libro, 
le vostrejibbie, 8jc. but by // suo libro, le suefibbie, il suo 
oriuolo ; and if the possessors be more than one, il loro libro, 
le loro fibbie, S)C. although we may use suo, sua, ^t. for 
both numbers. See the display of these pronouns at the 
beginning of this Lecture. Recollect here what has been 
said at the end of Lecture X. concerning the f?7/e used by the 
Italians in their complimentary way of speakings, viz. Vo- 
signoria, or lor Signori, or Signori, or Signore, see p. 61. 

13. The following expressions, viz. one of miy cousins, one 
ofmj/ Jriends, one of my relations, one of my servants, and 
such like, in Italian, are commonly expressed thus, iin mio 
cugino, un mio amico, un mio parente, un mio servo, as if 
they were in English, one my cousin, one my friend, &c. 

14. In English, and sometimes in French, the possessive 
pronouns are more frequently used in a sentence than in 
Italian, as may be seen by the following phrases, 1. Put 
this note in j/owr pocket. 2. You will do that dX your lei- 
sure. 3. He has lost his liberty. 4. Put on your hat. 
5. Being arrived with his wife, his children, and his friends. 
In all these cases, as well as in many others, the possessive 
pronoun is suppressed in our language, as, 1. 3Iettctevi 
(juesto viglietlo in tasca. 2. Voi la farete con comodo. 
3. Egli ha perdido lalibertd. 4. Mettelevi in capo Heap- 
jpcUo. 5. Giiinto colla moglie, co^Jigli, e cogli aimici. 

13. These pronouns are also suppressed in speaking of 
the members of the body; as, wash ^/owr hands, lavdtevi le 
ivani ; \ will break ^owr head, vi rompei'o la testa I have 


burnt mi/ finp^er, mi sono brucinlo il dito ; my head aclies, 
mi ditult it capo, or la trsla. 

Il3. «| But let the reader not omit observing, that the 
Italians do not lose the sii^nification of possession, by 
adoptinp; the article instead of a possessive pronoun ; for 
they aild, in almost all instances, a conjunctive pronoun to 
the verb, which fully answers the purpose; thus, in the 
above examples, there are the conjunctive vi and mi, which 
show the possession as well as tlie followiiii;' expressions 
would do in Enijlish, if they were tolerated by the idiom of 
the lanijuafic. fVasli to yoursclics tJicluoids. 1 have burnt 
to mj/sc/ft/ie finger, S;c. ^c. — Even the examples n. 1, and 
4, of the precedinj^ paragraph, n. 14, sho^v that the sup- 
pression of the possessive pronoun brings on the conjunc- 
tive in its stead. Indeed it would be better Italian to put 
a conjunctive particle to all the others, the 5th only except- 
ed, and say, "-J. Voi xc lo farcte, 8jc. 3. Egli s^ ha per- 
duto, t<r. 

17. When the pronoun possessive is preceded by a pro- 
noun demonstrative, then it admits of no article ; as, qucsto 
inio libra, di quhto mio libra, not // qucsta mia libra, del 
gut's to mio libra. 

18. The ])octs, for the sake of rhyme, often use tiii and 
sui, instead of tuui, suoi. i'^x. Deli ! nan espor V aggclla 
Dei dolci affclti tui AW odio, ol risa, ed agli insulli altrid, 
(Metas). I'ray do not expose the object of thy sweet alVec- 
tions to the hatred and the insults of others. Nessiino c rca, 
Sr basin «' falli sin Per difcsa partcir /' esnnpio allriii, (Id.) 
No one is guilty, if it is enough to bring the examples of 
others for a defence of one's own ciiincs. 

19. Some languages, and chiefly the English, as has been 
hinted, at p. .04, tiote *, and p. 58, n. 2'2, fur want of a 
suflicient variety of personal pronouns of tiie third person 
and their pnssessives, labour under an aii)I>iguity which is 
<piite uidiiiown to the Italian language. V'Ar (diilr l.illctl 
the hen, and eat her in her o'un nest, lie sent him la hill his 
oxen father' Nothing but the sense of preceding sentences 
can (h'lciinine wh;it nest, the hens, or tlie eai^b^t, is meant 
in the former of these examples; or whose t'ather, his that 
pave th(; order, or his that was to execute it, in the latter. 
in Italian such ati and)iguity is very easily avoided, f/ 
('Kjuita nreise la gal/ina, e se la vuingio nd sua, or nel nido 
di lei : 71(1 suo nido, if it is meant the eagle's nest ; nel nido 
di lei, if it is meant the hen's nest. Fgli la mandb ad ueei- 
d(r sua padre, or il padre di hii : il' it i-. meant the father of 
liiin who gave the order, it must be said suo padre ,• hnl il" 

1 '2 


it is meant the father of him who was to execute the ordery 
il padre dl lid imist be said. 

20. ^ No oran)marian, I believe, has ever observed that 
the adjective Proprio has often in Italian a pronominal 
ineaniiii^. Yet we have seen above, p. Ill, 7io'e *, that it 
stands for the Enijlish pronoun oicn. But its most perfect 
pronominal meaning takes place when we use the possessive 
pronoun in maxims, aphorisms, or moral sentences. A 
man must fuHil his duties, X' uomo deve adevipiere i proprj 
doxeri. We must mind our business, Dohbinmo uUen- 
dere a' proprj affari* In such sentences as these the pro- 
nouns suo, nostra^ S)C. would prove harsh, and in some cases 
quit? inadmissible. 


My brother and my sister are gone into the country ; all 
Fraltllo sorella sono andolo in campdgiia ; 

your brothers and sisters are indisposed ; my mother and 
tutto indispusto ,• vtodre 

your cousin will set off to-morrow for Paris; my father is 
cugina parlirc'umo domdni Parigi ; sta 

very ill; your Highness; his Majesty; their Highnesses; 
m olio male ; Aliezza ; Maestci ; 

their Excellencies; our city is larger than yours ; my rings 

Eccelltnza ; cilia grande anello 

were finer than theirs; your watch. Madam, is very elegant; 
erano hello ; oriolo Signora superbo ; 

your flowers are verv beautiful; that lady is one of my 

fiore bellissimo ; 

relations ; \hat gentleman was formerly one of my enemies; 
parente ; era tempo fa nemico ; 

he has lost his buckles ; take off your hat ; she has lost her 

ha pcrdido J'ibbia ; caidtevi cappello ; 


On the Demonstrative Pronouns. 
1. ^ Demonstrative pronouns denote, with precision, the 
person or thing alluded to, and point it out as it were to the 
eyes. They are as follows : 

* The following quotation of Boccaccio's Decaineroiic sliovvs the use of proprio 
as a possessive pronoun, even more extensive tlian almve staled. Assai ed 
■uomini e donne albandonarono La propria ritld, le proprifi t/jse ; many men ainl 
vvomeu forsook tiieir cities, tlieir homes. — Editor. 


Sii- I.1\m>. '■2. 3 riur. 1. IVr.^. i?. .'3. 

'I'his That That These Those Those 

Masc. Qitislo Cotcslo Quel Qucsli Co'.csti Qtu/li 

or or 

Qiftsli Coih'sto Qucllo Cosluro CocUsli Qucgli 

or ^ or 

Cosliii Colcsti Qiiciyli Cotestoro Qitt\ or Quel 

or or or 

Coicstui Coli'ii Coloro 

Tqv,\. Qiu'sltj ("i)ti<fn Que! /a Qihstr Colhle Quelle 


Codt'.sla or or Coch'sfe or 


Ccsfci Cotestci ('oici Cosloro CothtoroColuro 
Nout."*" Cio Cih Cib ' 

Qi/t'slo Cotcslo Qucllo 

9. We may see from the above scheme, that there are in 
I(aliun l/nrcsrts of Dciuoiislralivc l^ronoum to suit the 
three persons of botli number!--, which variety is peculiar to 
the Italian amonj^st the livini; lanij;uai;es. To make a 
proper use of each of tliem. the student must carefully at- 
leiul to tiie following; rei;,aiks. 

'V\\Q fir<it set of these pronouns implies the object near the 

Jirst person; as, qiccslo, this man or thin*;-, r/iitsta, or 

rustt'i, tins thin^:, or woman; f/iu'sti, or cost ui, he, or this 

man : qucsli, or rosturo, these things, or men ; quisle, or 

(dstiiro, tlu'se things, or women. 

The second sH implies the ol)iect near the second person ,- 
as, colc'^to, or codcsto, that man, or tiling: cotcsti, or ro- 
trstui, that man ; cotcsti, codcsti, or cotestoro, those things 
or men ; cotesta, codesla, or cotesti'i, that thing or woman ; 
cofeste, codcsle, or cotestoro, those women or things. 

The third s<t implies the object at a distat/ce both from 
the first antl second person ; as, quel, or qucllo, that man or 
tliiiii; : quc'^li, or eolt'ti, that man ; quel, or r/?/r' quelli, qu6- 
oli, or coloro, those things, or men / quclla, or eolci, that 
thing, or woman ; quelle, or coloro, tho^e thinjis, or women. 

3. These pronouns take the iiulefinite arlicleVs in l^ng- 

I. Qucslo\ sometimes answers to tiie English word latter; 

• 111 V.utnv why siicli prniioiiii* ;iie ^aid lo bcloiii,' lo ilic iicutcr gc-ndir, sic 
farilH.i ill llii't I-rcliiii.*, at n. \'A. — Eiliuir. 

I I'cliarci ami U.inlf li!nr r,!o (or i^m'sOt : as W (sli> iiigrulo ; vi/. di ,j>'i'sto 

ingriiio; till ttlva, cili tormcnti, for 7«t'«to irlva, i/ii^ili tormcnti, Una lonst, 

tlii-!<c tui iiu-iils. 

« ) 


and quello answers to the word former ; as will be seen in 
the Ibllowino; remark. 

5. It is indispensable to say questi* and quegli for the sin- 
gular in the nominative case only, whenever they allude to 
persons, and are not followed by their substantive ; as, /la 
Vosignoria conosciuto il Signor Cavaliere ed il Signor Contc 
N. N. ? have you known the Chevalier and the Count, &c. 
questi e stato inesso in prigione. e quegli bandito, this, or 
the latter, has been put in prison ; and that, or the former, 
has been banished. 

6. What has been said of questi and quegli, is to be un- 
derstood of co/c'j//, whenever we intend to express that man. 

7. In poetry. Quei is said instead of quegli ; as, Non 
ediflca quti, c/te vuol gV imperi, Su fondamenti edijicdr mon- 
ddni (Tasso), He does not build empires, who would build 
them upon worldly foundations. E qudl e quei^ che disvuol 
cio die voile (Dante), And like him who dislikes what he 
wished before. 

8. Quel, quello, that ; que'' quei, q7ielli,\ quegli, those. 
We make use o^ quel, que\ or quei, before nouns beginning 
with a consonant ; of quello, and quegli, before nouns which 
begin with a vowel, or with an S impure ; as quel fiore, 
that flower ; que^ or queijiori, those flowers ; quello strepito, 
that noise ; quegli strepiti, those noises ; quelV uomo, that 
man ; quegli nomini, those men. 

9. ^ Questo, cotesto, or codesto, and quello, are sometimes 
little better than mere articles, being joined to the posses- 
sive pronouns, mio vostro, suo, SfC; but we must observe to 
adopt each for the proper person, and say, Questa mia casa 
e molto comoda. This house of mine is very snug ; cotesta 
xostra scdtola e molto hella, that box of yours is very hand- 
some ; quelle sue fibbie sono alia moda, those buckles of his 
are fashionable; supposing all these things near their pos- 
sessors : but, if they were in a different position, we must 
then alter the demonstrative pronoun according to the rules 
established above at n. 2. 

10. Take also particular notice, that, in writing a letter 
to a person at Florence, it would be very improper, the 

* QuesliorMadme adora, efu Cris/iano, (Tasso), Tliis man now adores Ma- 
homet, and was a Clirisliaii. Quegli aibisogna dipoco, che p6codeddera,UtiWAiits 
little who desiies little {liocc.)— /Author. Thisand the foiegoing example piove, 
.tliat the rule of saying questi and quegli to the nominative case, alluding to per- 
son?, is as general as here exemplltied, and does not require these two pro- 
nouns to imply the connective signification of /orwer and latter, as the exam- 
ples given in the text seem to prescribe. — Editor. 

t G!<e//i instead of 7w'j is only used at the end of a sentence; as, ddtemi 
(jucLi, give me those : it is verv seldom used hcfore a noun or a pronoun. 


wiitt r biiii^ in Great Britain, ami spoakiiii; of this king- 
dom, to make use of codtslo, instead of (/uhlo ; because 
codcsXo means that kini^dom, city, or place, where the person 
lives, to whom the letter is atUlressed. 

1 1. Qutstd before some snijstantivps ; as manr^ ovmattina, 
morning; stray evenins^; wo.Ve, niicht ; often loses its first 
8Yllal)le, and is incorporated with those words : thus, 
sfanolle ; stascra ; stai/u'uic, sla>ii(hu\ or slamattina : this 
niijht ; this evening ; this morning-. 

12. Cosli'd, colui) costei, co/ci, cuforo, cannot be cn)j)loYcd 
but in speaking- of rational beinr^s in poetry ; and when they 
aie used in the familiar style, they generally imply a kind of 
disrespect, if not used in laying- down some niaxim or prin- 
ciple. See n. 15. • 

13. The general pronoun Cib, (his or that, which is look- 
ed upon a> belonging to the luniter gender, because it never 
alludes to anv specified thing or person, deserved to be 
classed among the above. It is equi\alent to (ji/isto, colcslu^ 
qucly qin'llo, i^c. when substantively taken ; as yion pile c/o, 
ov tion fdlc (/iiesto, qucllo, don't do this or that: it signiiies 
also it ; as, rion possofar cib, I cannot do it. It is the very 
same with crx-i, or cela of the French. 

li. Coles tui, cotestci, instead of colcslo i/bnio, colcstu 
(lonmi ; and ro/rA7();-o, in the plural, are obsolete, and there- 
fore co.^//J/, and ro.f/r/ answer the liist and second per^on, but 
with the limitation prescribed at n. 12. 

\b. ^ It is here worth observing, that in English, before the 
relative zclio^ zchom, or l/uil, we lind tlu; piMsonal pronoun, 
and in Italian we use the demonstrative instead of it; as, 
she Zi'honi 1 admired so much, qiulla rlic vii piarfjiie lanlo ; 
he thai begged in the streets, colui clie (iciallava pellc strcidcy 
^c. — Or in y\n\ way of laying down a moral maxim, or a 
general principle: as, blessed are IIkj/ Ifuit die in the Lord, 
f'clici fj/nlii, rlir viubiono lu I Signbrc ; //t- ///;// gathereth i;i 
summer is a wise son, eo/ui clic ricbgiie d^ cslalc c loi Jl- 
gliunl sdggio. — Yet these last sentences are more pr(<pei ly 
expressed to the singular numb(>r ma-culitie, by the i(dalivi; 
(hi, which implies both the Italian demonstrative and rela- 
tive pronouns, as will be seen in the next Lecture. 

in. loxEUCiSEs. 

■ This woman was formerly very happy. Tliis man pleases 

Dmniu fn iinlimpo fiiur vuiiio /lincc 

me \er) iiMiiIi. This horse goes not well. These ladies iirc 

niulto. carollo turn nt bcuc si>in6ru sono 

1 I 


modestly dressed. These sentlemen seem to be foreijiners. 
jnodesiamente vestilo signore semhratio furcslicre 

That tree is loaded witli fruit. How do_you iiketluit liouse? 

dlbero e cdrico di frutto come pidce casa 

This is a despicable man. That woman is prone to vice, and 

disprc^zdhile e dedilo xizio 

inclined to virtue. These girls have a very bad character, and 
inclindlo virtu giovane han?io assdi calfivo cnrdttere 

those a very good one. That vexes me. 1 do not believe 

molto hubno inquiela non credo 

that. Prince Eugene and King Frederic were two great 
principe Eugetiio Re Federigo furono grande 

generals; the latter was a friend to Voltaire, the former to 
generdle fu amico di T^oltaire di 

the Emperor. H e that came this morning. He that told you 
Jmperatore e venuto mottina disse 

such a thing. She that gave me your letter. That which you 
tal co5a diede Icltera 

look for. He whom you have recommended. They that do 
cercdte avete i^accomunddto fanno 

so are to blame, 
f 05/ sono da. 


On the Relative and Intcrroiralixe Pronouns. 

1. Relative pronouns are those which relate to a person or 
thing before mentioned. 

2. It is evident that such pronouns cannot concern the 
first or the second person. They belong, therefore, to the 
third person, and are the following. 

Quale, which ; Che, that ; Cui, who ; Chi, who ; and Ondc, 
or Donde, whence. 

3. The same pronouns are called Interrngotive, whenever 
they are used in ashing questions, as we shall see hereafter. 

4. The two last take no other articles than r//, a, da ,- the 
second and third sometimes the articles, ?7, la, S^c. and some- 
times the others di, r/, da. 

5. The pronoun quale., ifnot interrogative,* has constantly 
the definite article, and is thus declined. 

* QudLe iiu'Hns sonieliincs like and same, and then lias no arliclc. Sec llic 
remarks, n. 20 ami 21. — Editor. 


.M;i«c. Sins;. Ma<o. Plur. Fein. Sins'. Koiii. Plar. 

// (jinilc I ijitdli til (jiuilc le (/u«i7j 

who, or which who, vr which who, or wh'ch who, or which 

cUl ({itdle dti or de <juali dtdln (iiiule delle ijudli 

of whom, Arc. of wlioin, itc. of whom, &c. of whom, &c. 

a[ <indle ai, or a' cjiidH alUi qiidle alh: qudli 

to whom, &c, to whom, &c. to wliom, S:c. to whom, he. 

dal quale dm, or da (jiuili dalla (jiidlc dalle qudli 

from, or by, &c. from, or by, &c. from, or by, &c. froii), or by, &c. 

Remarks on these Pronouns. 

6. Chi is often a kind of iiule(iiu(o, or a general relative 
pronoun in sententious phrases, and siiinifies .o//o, he. that, 
or :rhosoever ; as, ehi si louilia. si esaftn, who, or he tliat 
Iminbles himself, exalts himself. Chi iradisce V amieo, 
mcriln la morte ; who, or he that, or whoever betrays his 
friend, deserves death. Chi itiol veder qiuintihique pub 
natiira E 7 eicf trti noi. venixa a mirar coslei. lie that, or 
whosoever wishes to see all that nature and heaven can pro- 
duce anions^ us, let him come to contemplate this woman. 

7. C/// is also used in tliose sentences expressing doubt ; 
ax', \on so ehi sia, I don't know who he is. Vinea ehi t-uol, 
indifff rente io sono, (Melast ) Conquer wlio will, 1 am in- 

S. Chi sometimes means some, and then it is an indefinite 
pronoun: a=, // ehi pidee una eosa, ed a ehi /'ultra, Some 
like one thing, and some another. 

9. Che, when it rehites to a person, niu-t be translated in 
J-]nglish by zcho or zchom,* and is only used in the nominative 
and accusative cases, in all otiier sentences except tlinse like 
n. (), 7i '1"^ ^1 where we have just now seen that ehi i\\u>t 
be usL'd : as, Pictr'o ehe leg^e^ Peter who read'^ ; /a ragazza, 
ehe roi ?7/g//rirgm/r, tlie girl whom you admire ; voi ed io, 
ehe par/iamo insicme, you and I who are speaking together ; 
ijui'i giurani, ehe voixedete, tho^o young n)en whom you see. 

10. For otiier cases, in speaking of a person, (ui is com- 
monly used ihu<, di eui, a eui, da eui ; as, (juisli r /' uoino, 
di eui }i hn j'ar/ali), this is the maiJ (d'whom I spoke toyoii; 
a eui fcei sieurta, tor whom I was security : da eui horieevnto 
i/ douo.Wufu whom I have received tiie gill. See n. IS. 

I I . I>iil when (he relates to an animal, or to a thiny;, it is 
expressed in ICnglish by whieh ,■ and is not only ol" both 
genders and numbers, but even of all cases, and admits tiither 

• Li t I licrpforo ihi' student carefully obitcrvc, \hai Che, in Iialian, aiiswcr.s 
botli to thf 7tii and till- 7«'((f ilic Fii-ncli, rxc.|(i wlicii /yta i> iutcrrogaiivc, or 
III ilioK- CISC!) mcnli'jiKd at n. 7, and f,. — lidtlor. 


the indefinite or the definite article; as di c/ie, a die, da che, 
or del che, al che, dal che ; as, /' opha, di che atete ricevuto 
lode, the work for which you have been praised ; i libri, che 
atete letti, the books which you have read ; di che, or del che 
me ne dolsi, of which 1 did complain : but when the object is 
well known, as in the first example, Quale, with the 
article il, del, S)C. is preferable in any case but nominative 
and accusative for the familiar style. See n. 19, &c. 

12. Che, however, with the definite article, never relates 

to a person,or thing, but to an action, and means la qudl cosa; 

as, egli voile esporsi a quel pericolo ; il che, (viz. la qudl cosa) 

fu causa della sua morte, he would expose himself to that 

danger, which was the cause of his death. 

13. *\\ Che, between a participle past and an auxiliary 
verb, becomes an adverb of time, and means qudndo ; as, 
pranzdto che ebbi, when I had dined ; imbarcdto che fu, 
when he had got on board the ship, &c. ; we may also say, 
qudndo ebbi pranzato ; qudndo fui imbarcdio, without the 
least alteration as to the meaning.* 

14. Che is very often equivalent to the English pronoun 
Zijhat ; as io solo so che pena soffro, I alone know what pain I 
sutler ; vedete che bclla donna! see what a fine woman ! non 
so, che sia, I do not know what it is. 

15. Che is sometimes synonymous with cosa ; as, e tin gran 
che, viz. e una gran cosa, it is a great thing. 

16. Che, before a word beginning with a vowel, and even 
with E, except in poetry, is very seldom contracted ; as, lo 
scolare, cli* e diligente, the scholar who is diligent; better 
che e,+ Sfc. 

17. Cui,as has been said, at n. 10, is generally made use 
of in speaking of persons ; but is very oiten also employed 
in speaking of animals or things ; as, i bei giardini, di cui vi 
hoparldlo, the beautiful gardens of which 1 spoke to you ; 
il superbo paldzzo di cui avcte fait o il disegno, the superb 
palace of which you have made the drawing; // Leone, il 
ruggito di cui spaventa i pastori, the lion, the roaring of 
which frightens the shepherds. 

18. The particles di, a, are very often elegantly suppress- 

* Che has the same meanhigs when found between the compound gerund and 
the verb y«re; as, weii' incammindrsi chcfece verso Roma, when lie directed his 
journey towards Rome j nello scoppuir chefecc la bomba, when tlie bomb burst- 
ed, &c. — Efliior. 

f The autiior iiere observed tliat che before an h, is sometimes cut off of two 
letters, and that we write, i leUcruli c hanno intrapresa, .^-c. the men of ietteis 
wlio iiave undertaken, &c. I iiave taken this remark away, since such an ortho- 
graphy is not to be followed. — Editor, 


ed before Cut : as, i ciii mtrUi, whose merits ; instead of/ di 
cui ititriti ; ciii dissi chiarauiaite^ to whom 1 clearly told ; 
instead o^ a cui dissi, cSr. 

19. II quale * i quali, la quah\ le qud/i, as has been ob- 
served, at n. hi, is equivalent to chc, and relate to persons, 
or thiiii^s; as, r uomo, il quale, t^c. the man who. Sec. la 
donna, la quale, «^t. the woman who, &c. il libra, H quale, the 
])ook which, &:c. /' animdle dal quale mi salrdi, the animal 
from which 1 saved myself. Seen. 11. 

i^O. Quale, when used without the article, means 5omr/ 
as, Qual se ti' andb in contddo, c qual qua, c qual Id povcra- 
incnte in arnesc, {Uocc.) Some wont into the country, some 
liere, and some there, in a very poor dress. — And this line t)f 
Petrarch, E qudif morti da lui, qudi presi vivi, And some 
killed by him, and some taken alive; in which case quale is 
to be considered as an indefinite pronoun. 

21. (?//^/(' belongs to the same class of pronouns when it 
means li/ce or such ; as, Divenulo nel viso qual <) la mollo 
secca terrUf Become in his countenance like some very dry 

iii. It must be observed that the general pronoun Onde 
or Domic, instead oi^ del quale, della quale, di cuiy di che^ dal 
quale, dalla quale, da cui, da che, co7i cui, con che,per cui ; is 
very elep;anlly used in poetry or sublime writings ; as, il 
Idccio, onde iaxxinto, the tie with which he is bound; non so 
ddnde proccda, I do not know from what it proceeds. Vane 
speranze ond^ ioviver solca, (Petr.) Vain hopes on which I 
used to live. — il sunno Di quei sospiri, ond' ionudrira il core 
In sul n\io prii/io gio-cenile crrdre, (Idem.) The sound of 
those sighs with which 1 fed my Heart in my first youthful 

23. exercisl:s 

On llic liclalivc Pronouns. 

Alexander who found the earth too little. The man whom 
Ahssdndro slinio /< rra troppn pleeolo uniiio 

I have seen. He is a person to wliom 1 am much obliged. 
ho redulo persona sono mollo obligd/o 

• Quille, wlii'ii :i relative pronoun, cannot lie nscd willioiit llic articli'; it is 
ihcrffoic a manilest error to say, wiili boine Itonian nicrcliaiils, il lihro quale mi 
mau'limlf, iiifitcad of (7 tjiialc, tlic hook wiiicli ynu M'lit to nif ; la U'tlera ijuale 
wi icnrrtti, iiisicud of la r/uule, llic Ifitci wliirli you wrote to nic j \vt niiyli', 
liowfvcr, "ay fhe, in!«lfa<l of 1/ quale, ijc. 

f Uuat is here iii&l(.aJ uf '/Ud/i. 


She is the woman of whom 1 spoke to you. The gentleman 

donna parldi ^ signore 

from whom I came. The rewards which are promised. The 

ven7ii ricompcnsa promesso 

books which you have printed. Which grieves me very much. 
libro axite stampdlo duole vwl/o. 

Of which I was so pleased. The predictions to which you 

mi compiactca tanto predizione 

o-ivecredit. Which sometimes makesher bold. The girl who 
dalefede alle volte rende ardito ragdzza 

brought me your letter. The man who struck you without 
jjortb lettcra uomo percosse senza 

mercy. Fortune, from which I have received many injuries. 
pietd fortuna ho ricevuto tanto ingiuria 

The money that has been sent to me yesterday. Gold is a 

dendro e stato manddto ieri oro 

metal that helps us in all our wants. I do not know what she 
metdllo assiste ti/tto bisbgno non so 

says. What a beautiful flower ! This is not a great thing. 
dice hello fwre non e 

24. It will be of some use to the learner to attend to the 
translation of the following manners of speaking, viz. where- 
about, "cerso che lubgo ; v/hereat, alia qual cosa, or al die ; 
wherein, nella qual cosa, ovnel che ; whereof, del che ; where- 
with, colla qual cosa, or con che; whereunto, alia qual cosa^ 
or a I che. 

Of Interrogative Pronouns. 

25. H They are the very same as the Relative ,- see them 
above n.2; only observing, as, 1. that, when Interrogative, 
none of them can be translated by that ; 2d. and when che is 
interrogative, it may be often expressed by cither che cosa, 
or cosa alone, in which case cosa must be looked upon as an 
Italian interrogative pronoun. 

26. They admit of the articles, di, a, da, and are of both 

27. Chi is used only in speakingof persons for both genders 
and numbers ; as, chi e la ? who is there ? di chi e qucstofer" 
raiuolo? whose is this cloke ? chisono quelle Signore, or que' 
Signuri ? who are those ladies, or those gentlemen r * 

^1'^. Che, cosa, or che cosa,\]\ the following and other similar 
questions, serve to inquire about the character or quality of 

* The Author had inserted here some remarks belonging to this pronoun, 
when it is an indefinite or a pla'n relative. Let the student h)oU for tlieni in 
their place above, n. 7 and 8. — Editor. 


persons or things ; as, che u6mo t qutUo ? what sort ofa man 
is that? chc gioianc t qucUn? what sort ofa yomij^ uomaii is 
that? cJic fnilla sono qiteflc .^ what sort offriiit are those ? che 
(i[}('tri, or quail (iff ari arclc oggi ? wliat kind of business have 
you to-dav : chc/ cosa / or r//f coxa .'' what : che cosa ditc ? 
che dite? or cosa dite? what do you say ? che r' e? che cosa 
c' e? cosa c' e? what's the matter ?* 

29. Quale? which, or what of them, of these, oftliose? 
serves likewise for persons or things ; as qval e la casa ore 
arbitate ! which is the house where you live? quiili soiwi 
7nio/iuri piaceri ? which are the best pleasures? qudl e 
I'osfra cui^'ina ? which of them is your cousin ? 

^0. Chi is never curtailed; as, chi incomincia? who begins. 

31. Che may be retrenched, in elegant compositions, before 
an e ; as ch^ awenne mai ? what has happened ? but it must 
not be contracted in familiar writings; as, che edifizio d 
quc/lo ? what edifice is that ? 

82. Quale is curtailed in the same instances in which all 
the adjectives are. 

o3. % Cui may be interrogative In elegant compositions ; 
as, Cui ri-colgerunimi io se ywua xoi? Where shall I turn if 
not to you ? We might also say, a chi. See above, n. IS. 


On the Interrogative Pronouns. 

W^hat man is that ? or who is that man ? What trade are 
unmo viestiere 

you ? What do you say : What do you want ? What will you 
fate dite xolete volete 

drink? Which of these two horses do you like best ? From 
b( re due earu/lo xi place piti 

whom have you had this nc\Ns? Which is the way to go to 
axele nuova strada per anddre 

London ? Some laugh, some cry. What education have you 
I j)udra ride pidnge cducazione axete 

had ' 

• From tlie above fxarnplcs it is plain, tliat wiicncvcr ch'' means u}ial iort of, 
t\c. it is ifnixjv-iibli' to it by coia ? or clu- cosa ? and llu-.'^u two pro- 
nouns ni«e only tlic simple mcauing of luhal in the most va(5uc bLiibc of the 
word. — Editor. 



On the Indefinite Pronouns. 

1. % They are thus called, because they allude to some 
person, or thing-, in a vague and indefinite manner. 

2. Most of these pronouns are declined like adjectives: 
the few indeclinable are the following : 

Altrui Other, or others Che che \ 

Ogni Every, or each Cheunque% I Whosoever 

Qualche To ^ -•- i, Quahissia > or 

A;. i feome,* or whoever ^ / • . 7- (^htx^ . 

C/n 5 ' Qualsivogiia | Whatsoever 

Chiiinque '\ Whosoever Qualunque ) 

Chi che sia, or y or 

Chicchessia\ j Whoever 

3. 5[ Observe, that of all the above indeclinable pronouns, 
the following, qualche, qiialsisia, qualsivogUa, and qualunque, 
may be joined to a substantive masculine, or feminine, but 
only in the singular number. We say, for instance, qualche 
cosa, or qmdche Signore, some thing-, or some g-entleman ; 
qualsivoglia lihro, or qualsivuglia persona, any book what- 
ever, or any gentleman whatever : but not qualche Signori 
or cose ; neither, qualsivogUa libri,8)C. For if we want the 
plural for qmdche, we must say alcuni, and for qualsivo- 
gUa, qualunque, &,c. we must say, qualsivogUa de" libri, or 
delle persone, and so on for the other two pronouns above 

4. Take notice that Og77i is never abridged in prose, though 
followed by a noun that begins with a vowel ; it can only be 
incorporated with the words nno, una, ora ; as, ognuno, 
ognima, every one ; ognbra, every hour.§ 

5. Ogni, being indeclinable, cannot be used before nouns 
of the plural number, except before numeral numbers ; as, 
ogni sei anni, every six years; og7ii due mesi, every two 

6. Ognisanti, the day of All Saints, is the only word ex- 

* Those who wish to see in wliat cases chi means some, and is an indefinite 
pronouif, let them consult the prcctdinp; Lecture, n. 6, 7, and 8.— Editor. 

f These three pronouns are only to be applied to persons. 

^ This pronoun is now out of use, but is found even in Petrarch. — Editor. 

§ It is also incorporated with di, a day ; and otta, a time : but then it forms 
the compound words thus written, ognidi, ogiiutta, every day, every time; 
which cannot be used in common style. — Editor. 



cepted in all the Italian lanijuage ; bnt then it is written in 
one word, thus : Ognissd/ili* 

7. f Tiftto is the other pronoun which implies the same 
universality as of^ni, and which may be used in both numbers 
and 2;endcrs, in the sense of even/, as well as a//, by varyini;- 
it as an adjective; but it has this peculiarity, that it admits 
of the article between itself and the substantive, if there be 
any. Ex. Every man lias his fault. Tit!ti <jV/ nomhii hanno i 
loro difiiii. not i^li liftli itumini. — And it there be a preposi- 
tion implyiuiij an oblique case, it is never joined to the 
article, as the Italians ijenerally do, but it remains before 
tulto, as it was in English, and the article comes after. Ex. 
Virtue is esteemed by all uien, La lirtu t slimdta da tuHi gli 
iiumini ; not dagli tulli uomini. 

8. Qualche some.f The classical writers have put this 
pronoun before a plural number; but, in common style, its 
j)hiral is alcuni ; and qualche is only agreed with substantives 
singular, both masculine and feminine; as, qualche amico, 
some friend; qualche canzone, some song. See above, n. 3. 
p. 126. 

9. The pronouns declined as adjectives are the following ::J: 
Tutlo, tulla, ludi, tutte, all. 

Altro^ allra, allri, altre, other, others. 

In altro, un allra, another. 

Quale, quali, some. 

(hente, chenii,^ whatever, such. 

('(rlo, ccrta, certi,certe, certain. 

Gli uni, Ic une, the ones, some, or the former. 

7«/e, tali, such. 

Alciino, alcuna, alcuni, alcune, some. 

Oo^nuno, ooiuhin, "J 

(iw^cihio, ciasci'fua, > everyone. 

Ciascheduno, ciascheduna) 

• We .ilsofind in the claxsics to the plural number, ogni aUri, all others; 
DIkI d' ogni mdrih'rc, of ;ill sort*. — Editor. 

f Some does not always sii^iiify qmilche, but is sometimes equivalcut to the 
genitive articlf, del, drlla, di-lLe, (teglt,,'^r. as has been observed, p. 'Mi. u. Ct. 

} The Author had iii-re inserted, as indefinite pronouns, itesto, and mrdtsimo, 
and their licrivations ; I have taken them awav, and liave tniued of them in 
l.tituie X. aspeisonal pronouuK ; siiue, far from heintj indelinite in Iheir siKui- 
fication, they only serve lo identify, better and heller, the person meant by liiu 
perHonal pronoun or liie nouns meniioncd. — E'tilur. 

5 Weliavcto regret the loss of this pronoun, so often and so elegantly intro- 
duced by Boccaccvt in his Dttarrnrone. 


no one 





Neuno^ ntuna,* neum^ luune^ 
Nessuno^ ne^sunn* iiessnni, iiessune, 
Nissuno, trissuna^* nissiini, nissuiie, 
Veruno, xerima,^ leruni, i eriine^ 
Niihw, niuna^* niuni, viiine^ 
Nulla, nulla,-'^ nuUi, nulle. 
QiHilcuno, qualcima,^' qiialcuni, qnalcune^ 
Qiialcheduno, qmlcheduna,* qualcheduni^ qiiakhe- J-'J^'^j^' 
dune. J 

Taluno^ Taliina,* taluni, talune, such an one, su(;h ones. 

Remarhs on these Pronouns. 

10. Allro, without beins accompanied with a substantive, 
sij^nities one, or anotlter thing-; as, altre e parlar di morte, 
aitroe morire, (MafFei) It is one thin^- to speak of death, and 
another to die. Sembidnte facendo di rider d'' a!tro, (Bocc.) 
Feiijninfi^ to laugh at another thing-. 

11. Altri is sometimes a substantive, and is used for the 
nominative case of the singular ; as, altri pidnge, altri ride, 
one weeps, another laughs ; or, some weep, some laugh.f 

12. VV^e may consider Altrui as one of the oblique cases of 
altri, and it may take the articles di, a, da, but it is far more 
elegant without <//, or a ; as ditelo altrui, or ad altrui, nan a 
me, tell it to another, but not to me.:}: 

13. Altrui, with the definite article, means other people's 
property ; as, non bisogna desiderdre V altrui, viz. la roba 
degli altri, we must not covet other people's property; egli 
consuma V altrdi, he wastes other people's properly. 

14. All may be translated in Italian either by tutto, or by 
poni. But observe: when the word all is followed b^ an 
article : as, all the earth, all the world, it must be expressed 

* All those pliitals marked wiili an asteiisk are very seldom used; as for 
Ne/nw, it is now lost in all its inflexions : and Nidlo is poetical in both genders 
and niinibers. — Buoaimattei denies these pronouns having any pluial at all, but 
some quotations in iha Focaholaiin Delia Cra^ta prove the contrary. — E'lilor. 
f Sia destin cio, ch' iovoglio. u4ltri disperso 
Sen vada errando : altri rimdnga ucciso ; 
Altri in cure d' amor lascire imtnerso 
Idol sifdccia un dulre sguardo, un liso. (Tasso.) 
Let my will be like fate. Let some of tliem %o dispersed and wanderitif;, let 
some be killed, let others, phumed in wanton thoughts of love, place their hap- 
piness in a sweet look, or smile. 
\ E' rmfuglio iiifdme, 
Che coiicep), che scrisse, 

Non III ragion, mo la viltade altrui: that is, rf' ai/ri(t, of others. (iMetas.) 
It is an intamons paper, which, not reason, hut the baseness of oiliers, con- 
ceived and dictated. 


hy tiitto ; ns, tuttn la terra, tutlo il momlo.* Ifaftcrr/// there 
is DO aiticle, ogiii must be used : as, oil strength, ogniforzu ; 
all beauty is transitory, ogni bcllczza e tronsiloria. See above 
n. 7. p. ]'27. 

13. iSfssiaio, 7iessi'o2(t, or 7?issia}o, iiissihni, S,'C. nobody, 
or no one, is better in common conversation than 7iiuno, 
ruiina^ or veritno, xeriina. 

16. •! These pronouns are always negative, either with 
or without tlie negation uon ,- witli this distinction, however, 
that they must precede the verb to adopt them without the 
negative ; for if they are after the verb, the negative must 
be prefixed to it. Ex. Ncssuno parlb mCco, no one spoke 
witli me ; io nvn parldi con ncssuno, I spoke with nobody. 


All the men of tlie world. The whole earth. With all the 

uomo qucsto mondo terra 

women. All the people. Each or every one speaks of war. 

donna gcnte parla gncrra 

vSome news. Some learned men. Something. Some letter. 

72uuva dolto cosa lettera 

Some fruit. Some peaches. Every scholar. Tell this story to 

frutto pesca scoldro raccontdtc favola 

another. (Jive me some breakfast. One eats, another drinks. 

date colaziune mdngia beve 

She speaks with nobody. Whatsoever book. Whosoever 

parla libro 

makes a lie must be punished. It is one thing to make war 
inrcnta bugia dcvc cssere punito fare guerra 

with the pen, and another to make it with the sword. They 

prnna spada 

waste (jlhcr people's property. 

• III rcr«c, tlic article after tulfo is elegantly su|i{)ressed ; as, che tulte allre 
ItlUxu indxHro vanno, iiutewd o( lulle I'altre, <JJc. 




AvERE (to have) and Essere (to be). 

The Verb A FERE"^ exempIifiecL 


Present Tense. 

1. Which, beings joined to a Participle Past, forms the Perfect 
of the Indicative of that Verb to whose Participle Past it 
is joined.f 

lo hoX vediito il piccol ca- I have 
Tcdlo, che 
tu hai manddto a mia thou bast 
sorclla : 
egli ha lo stesso difetto di he has 
quello, che 
not ahbid- sperimentdto nella we have 
mo cavdila, che 

voi avete ultimamente venduta you 
a' miei fratelli^ di have 
maniera che 
eglino han- giudicdto a pro- they have 
no posito di rimari' 


seen the little horse, 

sent to ray sister : 

the same defect as 

that which 
experienced in the 


lately sold to mj 
brothers, so that 

thought proper to 
send iiim to you 

* The vulgar of Rome say ahhidre for avcre ; a most despicable corruption. 


•f- In ])oetry io aggio, cgli have or ave, noi avemo, voi aggid/e, — Vulgar bar- 
barisms common to Uomaiis and Tuscans, egli hae, noi avidmo, or a6mo,voiaete. 


X Some few write io o, tu ai, egli a, eglino anno, witliout //, but are not to be 
imitatfd, alilioiigh Metastasio be one of them. — It is not necessary in Italian 
to prefix always the personal pronouns before the verbs ; therefore it may be 
said, io ho, or ho, tu hai, or hai, and so on. The reason is, that we have dif- 
ferent terminations for the persons of the tenses throughout all the Italian verbs, 
some few excepted in two tenses, as will be seen in the conjugations of verbs. 



2. And when joined to aParticij)le Past, it becomes the first 
PluptrfiCt ol" the Indicative.* 

lo nrt'ivjf cainniindlo qiialche I had 



tempo pel xiidc 
tu (iLCvi ; dctlo, ch' cm il tliou hadst 
j pill corto. 
Egli aveva j gin scritto al suo He had 
riciisdlo (It pagurc we had 
la sua tralta. 
Voiaicvdte j /' altro giorno un You liad 

j libra, die 
cglifio axe- , gran loglia di they had 

vano \ com pr are. 

no I aveva- 

been walkini; some 
time in the path, 

said, was the short- 

already written to 
his correspond- 
ent, that 

refused to pay liis 

a l)ook the other 
day, which 


• III poetry io avca, egli avia, iglino avtano.—'Vhe solecism voi avevi is now 
ill universal use tlirougliout Italy, and cannot be avoided in conversation wiili- 
oui incurring the charge of an affected pedant. Let this he applied to the same 
pwrion and ten^e of all other \G\hf.— Editor. 

f I AaJniay be translated in Italian cither by the Imperfect, io aveva, or by 
\hc Perfirt, in rhhi .■ and since, i/t wirt/;?/ cases, there is no disiinction in Kngiish 
o( \mpcrfect and perfect tense, the scholar is very apt to err, and to take one 
tense for the other. — 1 said in mamj cases ; for see note to the imperfect of the 
first conjugation, to know vi u:/ial casts the I'nglish specify the imperfect ti use. 
'lake, therefore, panicnlar notice, that the imperfect expresses an action which 
was doin^r, and which was not yet accomplished during the time of another past 
action. The perfect nxjtressesan action wliich is, or ought lo be, entirely jiast. 
Kxani. If I say,io me ne anddva da vnslra sorclla, quundo io vi vidi, I was going 
to your sister, when I saw ymi ; aiidava, in this instance, is imperfect, because 
it is nut known whether I leally went to your sister or no ; but if 1 say, anddi 
iiri davoilra sorclla, in that case it is perfect, because it is fully understood tiiat 
I went there, 'i'he imperfect likewise espresses an habitual action, or one often 
repealed in time |)nst, &c. Io ajiduca ijui'isi ogni sera a far visita alia cclebre 
C'orilla, I went almost every niL-ht tr> pay a vi>ii lo the faii;oiis C'orilla (that is to 
hay, I used to go). — .lulhor. — However triie be the (|ueslioii, wiieiher we ought 
to terminate the first person of this tense in 0. or in A, anil say, io aveva, io 
era, lo par lava, cfc. or io avt'vu, in ero, to parliivo, yd il i>i an unpardonable 
omission not to »ay a word about it in a (iramniar. Those who will read atten- 
tively our classics, will he convinced, that in |)Oi-try,and in all sublime writings, 
no other termination than that in /f can be a<!iip(cd : but iiel/a viva vote, e iiellr 
tfrittiire tinn tost gravi ; -a"^ Mijo.MMATir.i s;|y^^ (in speaking, and in compositions 
unt so grave), that in O must be used Vt atoid the charge ol pedantry. Pro- 
fessor .MAhTHOKiM iias latc'iy roitfliiued this observation in liis large woik on 
the Italian v' rbs. — Ediinr. 

K 2 


First Perfect. 
3. And when joined to a Participle Past, it becomes the 

second Pluperfect of the Indicative.* 

lo ebhi\ 

tu avesti 

Egli ehhc 

noi avem- 
Voi aveste 

eglino 6b ^ 

ieri vn contraltcmpo I had 

presso apoco simile 

a quello, che 
lasetliyndnapas- thouhadst 

la disgrdzia di ca- Fie had 

dere in terra, do- 

cammindto urC ora we had 

miglior opinione You had 

diloro, da che 

they had 

delto, chi erano. 

Second Perfkct, 

lo hoavuto, 1 ilpiacere di sen- I have had 
S)C. tire, che egli 


First Pluperfect. 

tempo d' esami' I had had 
ndre ogni cosa, 
prima ch'' egli 

lo aveva a- 
vuto, Si-c. 

yesterday a disap- 
like that, which 

last week. 

the misfortune to 
tumble down af- 

walked about an 

a better opinion of 
them, after 

said,who they were. 

the pleasure to hear 
that he improves. 

time to examine 
every thing, be- 
fore he came. 

Second Pluperfect. 

io ehhi atu- 
to, S)C. 

Tosto che, or Appena che 
la sua risposta, I had had 
mi ritirdi, 8)C. 

As soon as 

his answer, I with- 

drew, &c. 


4. And when joined to a Participle Pas^t, it becomes the first 
Future of the Conjunctive Mood.t 

lo avrb minor difficoltd I shall have less trouble to hold 
a stare a cavdl- 
lo, dopoche 

myself on horse- 

back, after 

• Vulgar liaib.u ism, noi ebhamo, or chhevio. — Concerning a Roman solecism 
lliroueliout tills tense in all verbs, see note to the second imperfect of tlie sub- 
junctive nM)0{\.-— Editor. 

•}• Vulgar barbarisms, aro, ami, ant, arcmo. arete, ardnno. — And not so fm^ 
properly ave.rh. averai, avera, averimo, averete, averdnno, since they may be sup- 
ported by the authority of some ancient writers of inferior merit. — Editor. 


/// airiii 

Eg/i rtrrri 

fioi avrcmo 

Vol ovrcte 

cglino av- 

af/io?s;<ite le thou shalt have 

tin' o) a per r/- lie shall have 

pos/'irsi, e 
tempo di we shall have 


auehe se parte 

or a. 
il piaccre di You shall have 


Die /it re 
il dispiaeere they shall have 

di 7tonJ'ar 


Icunthoned my stir- 

an hour to rest hi ni- 
sei f, and 

tinje to overtake 
him, even if he 
sets off now. 

the pleasure to 
work, whilst 

the displeasure of 
standing still. 


Abb id mo 



pazienzasin alunedi Have patience till next 

prossimo'. Monday. 

patuiilini di Let him have clean linen three 

biiedto tre times a-vveek. 

rolle Id set- 

sentimenti un Let us have 

p6* pill cari- 

pietd di cjueffto pove- Have 

TO fanciuUo. 
Invoro Let them have 

in gran edpia. 

sentiments a little 
more charitable. 

compassion on that 

poor boy. 
plenty of work. 



6, Which, when joined to a Particle past, becomes Perfect 

oftlie Conjuncli\e.(- 

Quanfunque, or sebbenc 
io ubbiu I solltcitdto per lui, I have 
c c/ic 


solicit(>d lor him, 

• III (iiH'liy iiggm lit, or «j.'/i ; uf^guiir nn. — \'uli;ui Ihiiih anil .sulciiMii.", uibia 
tu ; al'li tgli ; avKtmo uoi ; aviiitr VII}, ul-Otno rglino.— /■Editor. 

f Avoid Uie tame vulKari.iiiiK as ubtcrvcd in the note to tlic iiii|icrativc iiioo'l. 

K 3 


lu uhhi, or 

egli abbia 

noi abbid- 

voi abbidte 

eglino db- 

scritto ill favor thou hast 

suo non gli e 

riuscito a be- 
ne : ma quan- 

vinto la sua lite, e he has 

perduta la nostra,\\e liave 

7wn e per questo, 

in migliore siato 

di tioi ; e sebbene 
deir autoritd tra you have 

gU ubmini, e che 
del rispctlo pella they have 

vostra digniid, 

essi bidsimano le 

vostre azioni. 

written in his fa- 
vour, he has not 
succeeded : but 


gained his suit at 
law, and 

lost ours, he is no 
better off than we 
are j and though 

some authority a- 
mongst men, and 

some respect for 
your character, 
they blame your 

7. First Imperfect. 

Which, being joined to a Particle past, becomes the first 
Pluperfect of the Conjunctive Mood.* 

lo avrei 

tu avresti 

Egli av- 


not avrem- 

Voi avreste 

Sefossi iuo tutore 

piu o meno I should have 

stima per te, 

piu o meno thou shouldst have 

pas si one 

pel giuoco. 
allora ragio- He would have 

ne di lagndr- 

si, perche 
impedito V we should have 


c?e' suoi or- 

conchiuso You would have 

questo mu' 


men Ire 

Were I thy guar- 

more or less esteem 
for thee, in pro- 
portion as 

more or less passion 
for gaming. 

then reason to com- 
plain, because 

hindered the execu- 
tion of his or- 

concluded this mar- 
riage, while 

• Poets say, io, or egli avria; noi avriamo, or avriemo ; eglino avriano. Vul- 
gar barbarisms, lo auerJi, or arei: noi avrebbamo, or avrebbemo: voi avresti: 
eglino areblero. 


eglitio nv- 

intraprcso they would have 
(//' oppor- 

underlakcn to op- 
pose it. 


tu avcssi 

might have 
thou hadst 

Second Imperfect. 
Which, bein;; joiiiecl to a Participle past, becomes the 
second I'luperfoct of the Conjunctive Mood.* 


to avcssi ^ autoritd sit di tc^ I had, or 

authority over thee 
and that 

a mind to continue 
to do ill, I would 
chastise thee. 


a mind to leave off 
his bad habits, and 

a sure voucher for 
his future con- 
duct, we would 
help him. 


some thankfulness 
towards your 
friends, and that 

reason to approve 
your conduct, 
they would have 
protected you. 

e die 

vos:li(i di cant I- 
iiuare a far 
del male J io 
ti punirH. 
( o/j avcsse ; intcnzione di lascid- he had 
re i suoi catti- 
xi costumi^ c ehc 
noi avtssi-' [ una sici'ira promts- we had 


voi avcslc 

cglino avcs- 

sa dclla sua fu- 
tiira condotla, 
7ioi r aiutercm- 


dilla gratiti'iditie 

you had 
they had 

Tcrso I xosiri 
amici, e cite 
avido ragioiic di 
approxdrc la 
xostra con- 
dntta, VI a- 
irebbero pro- 

I Quantunquc 
io dbbia a- pucu fa una I have had 


non nic tie 


a little while ai^o 
a dauij^crous ill- 
ness, 1 am not 
the worse for it. 

• It is a worililcss folucisiii, peculiar lo tlic Uomaiis, lo uhc tliis tciin; instead 
of ilic perfect to ilic iiiiJicalivc iiiooil, ami .lay, S/oi avi'ssiino icri un ItLdwfrli- 
ninto, (instead of not avtmmo,) \Sv. look yesterday a fine diveraiou. But many 
from all parin of Italy art guilty of ilie following barbaiihniii — lo afssi, m^ssc, or 
avi-ur ; lu aciii, or avciti ; cpli (ivcs.ri ; uui arss,'mij, oi (ivissi!m<j ; vuta^ai, 
aviiti, or av6$ti , enUno ahtino, or av^isino. — Editor. 


First Pluperfect. 

to avrei a- 

All or a 

la conso- I should have had 

lazione di 


fuori di 



the comfort to see 
him out of sla- 

20 avessi 

to avro a- 

Second Pluperfect. 

// del volesse, che 

lafortuna di I had had 

vederlo pri- 
ma che mo- 

9. Future. 


quesla ri- I shall have had 

spusia, nan 
avro pill 
nulla da 

Would to God 
the happiness to see 

him before he 



this answer, 1 shall 
have nothing 
more to be a- 
fraid of. 


Present, averc,* to have. 
Perfect, avere avuto, to have had. 
Future, axere ad avere-^ 

esser per aver e /-To be about to have. 
dover avere J 
Gerund Present, avendo^ having. 

Compound ofthe Gerund,! c?/fliere,or</c^/'arere,of having. 
Present ad atere^ or alV axere^ to having. 

per avere^ or peW axere, for having. 
coll' axere, or con avere, by having. 
in avere, or nelP axere, in having. 
Gerund Past, avendo aviito, having had. 

* This verb, before an infinitive with the particle da, or a, is equivalent to 
the verb dovere, (to owe ;) as, id ho da fare, I ought to do ; avrdbbe a parldrt il 
primo, he ought to speak tlie first, &c. 

f An important rule results from these compound forms of the gerund ; 
namely, That the Italians never join the simple ycriind to any preposition, as 
the English constantly do ; and that the Italian infinitive is invariably substi- 
tuted to the English gerund, when this is preceded by any preposition what- 


Pauticiple Present, «ri';//r, haviiio;.'^ 
Particii'Li: Past, avulo, (ivuta, avuli, (iviitCy had. 

II. The lollowiiiij woril;^ beiiii; joined to the veil) aicre 
in Italian, are turned into English by tlie verb cssercj 
tlnoughout all its moods;, tenses, and persons. f 




in the right 


in the wrong 


not well 

delln prudaiza 


dcl/a rilcniUezza 


dellu grnfiliidine 


12. The same exchange of the verb avcre for cssere takes 
place in the following instances. 

Non so che ctd uvcva rostra zio. 

I do not know how old your uncle zcas. 

JSIio frdlcl/o ovrd vcnlicinqiic (ituii doindni. 

My brother c.:7//6e live and twenty years old to-morrow. 

1 am 




thou art 




He is 




We are 




You are 


If anno 


They are 


• The generality of grammarians, as well as our Author, misled by the 
English grammar, which has no particular lerniiiiation for the jjarliciplc prc- 
tent (that in ing serving both to the gerund and this participle), have neg- 
lected giving this inflection of the Italicn verbs, which, although in most cases, 
miay be resolved in the present or imperfect of the inJicntive or subjunctive 
mood, |)receded by che, yet it is met with in the classics, and has a peculiar 
grace and elegance in poetry and compositions of taste, as may he seen in the 
following passage from Fillani quoted tiy CiNoMo, wlio, in hi'' learned treatise 
on verbs, has bestowed no less than eight close pages in (piarto, to lay down 
rules, and set fortii tiie beauties of this participle. Or non i ijucsta icrru <iudii 
una grande nave porlunte uoniini tempestanli, pericoWmli, soggiaccnti a tanli 
mnrusi, ed a tante Icmpeste, lemt^nli il pericolarr, sospiuhtli it porta ? What 
rise is thii world then, if not like a large shij) bearing men in the storm, and 
in danger, liable to be tossed by so many bdlows and sfpialls, fearing to 
perish, and sighing for a haven ? Where we may observe, 1 . 'I hat all the ahovc 
participles may be resolved, as mentioned above, in che porta, chr tempt' uano, 
the peritolario, che soggv'icciono, che Icmuna, c/ie sospiratio ; but not, however, 
without great loss of energy and rhetorical strength. 2. That all suchpir- 
ticles arc regularly formed from the gerund, by ehangint; tln' linai dn into te, 
for the singular, and into /: for the plural, each answering to both genders, 
according lo the rule of all ailjcciivcs ending in H. ^le it at p. 'J 1, n. l(i. — Editor . 
f When we spt-ak of ro/d, heat, hunger, (htrtl, or of the age of any body, 
we make use of the verb avcre. 


Le mie sorelle non ne avrdnno piu di ventidue. 

My sisters will be but twenty-two.* 

Che eta ha rostra madre ? 

How old is youn mother ? 

Ahbidte la bontd d* accorddrmi quistofavore. 

Be so kind as to grant nie this favour. 

Se vostro padre volesse aver la bontd di prestdrmi^ or di 

darmi in presto un cavdllo. 
If your father would be so good as to lend me one of 

his horses. 

13. We also substitute very often the verb avere to the 
verb essere (in the third person only) in the following and 
other similar instances. 

Qudnte miglia ci ha ? (instead of) ci sono. 

How many miles are there? 

Ebbem di quelli, die xbllero (instead of) mfurono. 

There were some who would, &c. 

Comecche oggi t)' dbbia ricchi uutnini, S^c. (instead of) 

xi siano. 
Although there are now-a-days many rich men, &c. 
Ve n' ebbe gid uno (instead of) ve?ie nefu.\ 
There was already one, &c. 

But such expressions are not of the familiar style. 

* The particle hut, in this and other similar cases, is turned in Italian by 
non altro che, piu ai, or se non, with a negative before the verb ; as, He did but 
read and write, non fece altro che leggere e scriuerc ; I will stay there but two 
or three days, non vi reslerb piu di due o ire giorni; or se non due o tre giorni ; 
but this is rather harsh. The expressions «o« ?ze aj;ra//»io cAe; «o« wiresZerci 
che, <^c. as the Author had here incautiously suggested, although they might 
be instanced in our classics, are pure Gallicisms not to be imitated ; since 
no Tuscan speaker or writer could be possibly guilty of such barbarisms, unless 
more fond of reading and speaking French than his mother tongue.— £(/i/or. 

f By these last instances, it is observable, that not only the verb avere may 
be used with great propriety for the verb essere, but that the verb avere is 
sometimes elegantly used in the singular, although the noun to which jt is 
joined be in the plural. 


The Verb ESSERE (to be) excmpliticd. 


Present Tense. 

11. Wliicb, when joined to a Participle Past, forms the 
Perfect of the Indicative.* 

lo sono\ ' con ten to di sentire, I am 

tu set, or : d'rccnido diligcnlc thou art 

5e' qudnto tuofra- 

Egli e talmtnte dato alia lie is 

lettih'ci, che 
Noi siiimo qudlr/ic xolta obhli- we are 
srdti di sorunili 
i libri col la c hi ci- 

Voi sictt* molto sfcsso in casa You are 

or sctc a latordre, men- 

cglino fuori a dixertirsi. they are 

sono\ I 

glad to hear that 

become as dilip^ent 
as thy brother. 

so much addicted to 
reading, that 

sometimes obli<;ed 
to lock up his 

very often workinc: 
at home, whilst 

abroad diverting 


15. Which, when joined to a Participle Past, becomes first 
Pluperfect of the Indicative.:}: 

lo era, or 

sempre 7nali?2Conico I was 

oa:ni xollu che 

always sorrowful 
every time that 

• Poets say ci^li cc and voi sete, but since Boccace has made use of this last, 
an(t tilt; nioderns constantly say and write it, il must be considered at least as 
correct, even in jirose ; aliliou^li ji('/e be j)icfeiable. — Tlie vulvar say, io so ; 
egli ene ,- not siuno, or sii'mo ; voi sietc ; cglino t nrto.— Editor. 

f The learner ouijlit to pronounce tiie tiist U of these two inflections close, 
and never imitate the Uomans and other Italians iu the pronunciation of this 
first vowel, who proiiouiice it ope7t, against the universal piacticc of the 
Florentine.", nnd what was staled in Lecture I. p. 4. n. G. — Editor. 

J In poetry not i-r'imo, voirrule. — .^ccor(iin^ to nuommallii,i\ui\ the authors 
of the notes to his i;r.mnnar (the Acadcniicions Delia Crusca), jioi t'ramo, and 
even vot rri, should be tolerated in comuion conversation, it bein^,' in universal 
use to say ho In ToRcany nnd elsewhere j but they can never pass for correct in 
elegant prose. — Edxior. 

§ ^See the end ofnuti • to the imperfect of the auxiliary verb uvl'ti: — liditor. 


tu eri 

Egli era 

noi erava- 

Vol eravdte 

eglino era- 


in campdgna a 

diver tirsi, 

in cittd ad ag- 

giustcire i 

thou wast 
He was 

we were 

in the 


tea, whilst 
in the river bathin": 

suoi contt. 
sotto il capan- You were 

neito a here H 

te, mentre 
neljiume a ba- they were 

gndrsi. themselves. 

First Perfect. 

16. Which, being joined to a Participle Past, forms the 
second Pluperfect of the Indicative.* 


in the country di- 
verting himself, 

in town settling his 

lo fui 

tu fasti 

Egli f II 

noi fummo 

Vol fast e 

eglino fu- 

lo sono sta- 
to, SiC 

I was 

thou wast 

pill mesto dopo- 

partito, che nel 

moment della 

tua partenza. 
colto dallo spavSn- He was 

to, allorche 
entrdti nella we were 

fatti prigiotiieri You were 

di guerra lo 

stesso giorno, 

messi in libertd. they were 

more sad after 

gone, than at the 
moment of thy 

seized with fear 

got into the ship. 

made prisoners of 
war the same day 

set at liberty. 

Second Perfect. 

\in cittd due I have been, \ in town two weeks, 
settimane, &c. 

* Poets say egli fue ; eglino furo, or foro. — The vulgar say, tu fusti ; noi 
futsimo, or fossimo; vol fosti, fusti, or fuste ; Eglino, furno, ficnno.—N. B. Il 
is worth while to infonu the reader, that, after much inquiry, the granuiia- 
riaus have succeeded to ascertain, tliat it has been and should be a constant 
practice with accurate writers to put an U in all tliose inflections of the verb 
essere in which this vowel cannot be followed by an S, and to put an O, in all 
those, in which an 5 immediately follows : thus, for instance, we have seen 
that noi fummo is correct, and voi fuste is looked upon as vulgar. — Editor. 

f The pdn\ci\)\e stato does not form any tense with the verb avCre, but with 
its own verb essere^ for we can never say, io ho stato, as in English and 
French : but io sono stato (1 am been) sei stato, (thou art been) and so on. — 
Observe farther what has been said concerning tlie participle stato in its note 
at the end of this conjugation. 


lo era sta- 

First: Pluperfect. 

a comprar del- I had been 
la carta, pri- 
ma ch' cgli 

to buy some paper 
before he arrived. 

fui sialo, 


Second Pluperfect. 
I had been 

Siibifo che 

a premier co7i- 
gedo da ha, 
se 7ie paril. 

As soon as 
to take my leave of 
him, he set off. 


17. Whicli bein<^ joined to a Participle Past, becomes the 
Future of the Conjunctive Mood.* 

lo sarb 
tu saidi 

Egli sard 

not sarcmo 

Voi saretc 

eg lino sa- 
rd n no 

assdi piu Iran- I shall be 

qnillo, allorche 
in luogo di si- thou shalt be 

in cittd lunedi a! He will be 

pii( presto, e 
in campdgna sd- we shall be 

hato, o domencia 

alpiii tardi, 
piu cnmodo, You will be 

fuori delta car- they shall be 


much more easy 

in a place of safetj. 

in town Monday at 
soonest, and 

in the country Sa- 
turday or Sunday 
at farthest. 

more at your ease 

gone out of the 

Siiy or sia 




sodvc, giusto, e 

moderdto nellc 


td cgli 
ragionevole we' let him he 

siini comdndi, 

se vifol essere, 


mild, just, and mo- 
derate in thy re- 
primands; and 

reasonabloin hisor- 
ders, if he wishes 
to be obeyed. 

• Poets and tlcgaiit prose writers say, eifli/te, or J)a ; rglinojidno, orfiano. — 
The vulgar say, to sero, tuierui, *gli serd , noi tari-nu, voi serite, tghnu scninno. 





Sieno or 

in avTcnirepiii Let us be 

cduti, ed altenli, 

e vol 
pill moderdto ne* be ye 

xostri desiderj. 
pronti ad ese- Let them be 

gmre, e tardi 

a deliberdre. 

hereafter more up- 
on our guard, 

more moderate in 
your desires. 

ready in executinj^, 
and slow in deli- 


Present Tense. 

19. And when joined to a Participle Past, becomes a Perfect 

of the Conjunctive.* 



io sia 

per ritorndre fra 

due I be 

back in two months, 

mesi, e che 

and that 

u sii, or 

contento, ch'' thou uiayest be 

contented that I 


io fdccia 

should go on that 

questo vidg- 
gio, io r in- 

journey, I will 
undertake it, in 


case that 

€gli sia 

nella stessa intcn- 

he be 

of the same mind 

zione da qui a 

some time hence, 

qudlche tenipo, 
e che 

and that 

noi sidmo 

all or a in cittd,per- 

we be 

then in town ; for 

che ogni cosa 

every thing may 

sard fattibile, 
caso che 

be done, if 

voi sidte 

e che 

you be 

honest and diligent, 
and that 

eglino sie- 

conienti delta no- 

they be 

satisfied with your 

10, or siano 

stra condotta. 


First Imperfect, 

20. Which being joined to a Participle Past, forms the First 
Pluperfect of the Conjunctivet. 

Io sareild' opinionecon- I should be of a contrary opi- 
1 trdria alia tua ; nion to thine, 

* Wf niiiilit say in poetry, tu sie, egli iie,— but noi sicmo is a barbarism. — 

f In poetry tufora, cglisaria, or fora,- noi sariamo, eglino saricno, sariano, 
or for lino. It is very barbarons to say, Io mrebhi, or sarave,- non sarcbbamo, 
voi saresti, cglino srricno.^Edilor. 



Egli sa- 
noi saran- 

Voi sarcste 

cgliiio sa- 
or sarcb- 

ma lion 

per tanto 
il pill fa- thou couldst be 

nioso medi- 
co del mondo. 
contcntodistar- He would be 

sciie con noi, e 
fortniiati mi we should be 

posse dcrlo. 
il primo del You would be 

vostro ordinc, 

gli idlimidel they would be 


and yet 

the most famous 
physician of the 

satisfied to live a- 
mouiifst us, and 

hapj)y in the pos- 
session of him. 

the first of your 

the last of theirs. 

Second Imperfect, 

21. Which, bein<j joined to a Participle Past, becomes the 
first Pluperfect of the Conjunctive.* 


egli fosse 
noi fussimo 

Poslo che 
pill segrclOj 
c che 

cosi sincero, 
come pre- 
andrcbbc be- 

In case che 

arritalo sano 
c salio, e 

informali dcllo 
slato di sua sa- 
lute^ I' animo 
mio sarebbc 


I was 
thou wert 


he were 

we were 


more cautious, or 

as sincere as thou 

pretendest to be, 

all would go 


In case that 
arrived safe 


sound, and that 

informed of the 
my mind would 
be at ease. 


uscilounmO')ou were,o/ had I gone out a moment 

• Avoid these barbarisms of the Komaiis and som<; of the Tuscans ; lo fosse, 
or futir ; tu fosse, or fusse ; epli/ossi, nrfussr ; noi _fi.iiano ,/i'issrmo, or fihsemo , 
vifi fosti, Jutlx, <ir fusle ; egliiw fiisuno, nr Jussino. — Sc'c n notiiii(iii» lUiniaii 
solecism in note* at p. 110,— Alao llic N.B. at the cnil of the note • p. 1 JO. 



tardi, o che 

later, or that 

egUno fos- 

arrivdti un they were or had 

arrived an instant 

sero, or 

momento piu 

sooner, that mis- 


presto, questa 

fortune would 
have been pre- 

non sarebbe 




io sia siato 


la, non 7ni ri- I have been 


there, I do not recol- 


cordo pill 
del luogo. 

First Pluperfect. 

lect the place. 

Io sarei 

in cittd 1 should have been 

in town two hours 

slato S)C. 

due ore 


Second Pluperfeci 




iofossi sta- 

innocente, egli I had been 

innocent, he would 

te S)C. 

m' avrehbe 

have forgiven 



to saro sta- 
te S)C. 



in campdgna Ishall have been 
due o tre gi- 

orm, ne 

sard, annoidte. 


in the country two 
or three days, I 
shall be tired of it. 


Present, essere, to be. 

Perfect, essere state, to have been. 

Future, essere per essere,') r* • * u i u lu 

' / ^ . / I (joniff to be, or to be on the 

avere ad essere, r • * r u • 
J , , 'I point ot being. 

dover essere, J ^ o 

Gerund Present, essendo, being.* 

* The classics, and even some of the modern writers, say tendo, instead of 
essendo ; but the student will do well not to adopt this contraction, which, if 
notjudiciously used, would be highly imjuoper.— £(/?7or. 


G/di esscrc, or dtlT csscrc, of boino^. 
r-^, .„«„.,« ^r»i.^ \(id tsscre, or air cssere, to the heins;-. 
I, CM POUND oi the I , ' /" ' p 1 • 

r> . < per cssrre. ov pel csscreAor be\Uir. 

EnUNI) rRESENT,* i' ,,. , ' ^ , i i ■ 

' Jco/l csserCj or ro« cssere, by being. 
V ?w essere, or we//' essere, in being. 
Gehusd Past, essciido stato, having been. 
PARficu'LE Present, essade,-\- being. 
Participle Past, stato, stata, slafi, state, been.+ 

23. This verb being joined to a participle past in all its 
moods, tenses, and persons, forms the passive verb. 

24. Note. 1st. That the compound tenses of tliis auxiliary, 
essere. contrary to the French and longlish lanjrnagcs, are 
formed by its simple tenses and it^ own [)articiple, stalo. 
2dlv. That when the verb to be is followed in English by 
the participle present in ///g- of another verb, it ought not to 
he ex|iressed in Italian : and the gerund must be put in the 
same tense, number, and person, as the verb /o be i^. Ex. 
A diligent scholar is always learning, Uno scolare dilif^ente 
stiidia di eoiitinifo. Apelles was daily drawing, 5:c. Apclle 
dis> irniixd o^vi giorno, &;c. They will be perpetually lament- 
ing their foUj, Si lamoderanno perpetuainculc della loro 


on this hist Rule. 

Whilst the master is instructing, the scholars are playing. 
jMentrc maestro insegnare scolare ruzzdre. 

T hey will be every moment condemning themselves, and 

sa^fingj &c. 

ad ogni mnmcnto coudannare, 


fienrral R< marks on Verbs, rcifh l/nir ^lonvA.^for t/ic three 

regular Conjugations.*' 

I. A verb is conjugated four ways^ &c. 

• Stf an ini|)oit:ujt note', at p. I'M. — Editor. 

f Stc a critical notff, at p. 1;17, calculatcil to prove tlie csislciice of tliis par- 
ticiple — Editor. 

\ 'I'lii- ri'al [inrticiple p:i.«t of tin- veib esseie, is tuto, or rfsufu ; but lliry nr« 
now (>b»r)!eic, at lea»t in familiar disrour'c; for wc have iiil<ililc<l il<ao for tlif 
partici|ilc of the verb emit, a!t well an for tliai uf itart, wliicli in itb oritjinal 
verb Editor. 



1. Affirming; as, io ho, I have, 2. Denying ; as,io non 
ho, 1 have not. 3. Asking ; as, ho io ? have 1 ? 4. Asking 
with a negative ; as, wow ho io ? have I not ? 

1. In affirming, the pronoun, or nominative, is put before 
the verb ; as, ella dice, she says. Pielroparla, Peter speaks. 
Eglino 5' ingdnnano, they mistake, Tulti gli uomini sono 
inclintiU afar male, all men are inclined to do evil. 

II. In denying, the negative particle is put before the 
verb ; as, io non temo nessuno, I fear nobody. Io non bevo, 
n^ mdngio, I neither eat nor drink. Voi non avele per an- 
cbra comincidto, you have not begun yet. Io non ho nulla, 
ornienteafare,* I have nothing to do. Voi non ne avete, 
you have none. 

III. In asking, the personal pronoun is often omitted in 
the familiar stjle; but when expressed, it must be placed 
immediately after the verb in simple tenses, and between the 
verb and the participle in the compound ones; as, do io ? 
do I give ? Ilai tu errdto a chiamdrlo? hast thou done wrong 
to call him ? When there is a substantive in the sentence, it 
is likewise generally put after the verb and the pronoun ; 
as, e egli arrivdlo il hasiimento ? is the ship arrived ? Parla 
egli bene mio padre ? does my father speak Avell ? 

I V^. In asking with a negative, we put the negative before 
the verb; as, non e egli in cittd? is he not in town ? Non 
avremo noi ilpiacere di vedervi questa sera? shall we not have 
the pleasure to see you this evening? / vostri amici non 
sono eglino ancora arrivdli? are not your friends arrived yet ? 

2. Jn the imper;»tive mood, when there is a negation, we 
make use of the infinitive, instead of the second person sin- 
gular, and say, Non essere, instead of non sii, do not be ; 
non avere, non arndre, non temere, non sentire, instead of non 
abbi, non ama, non iemi, non senti, do not have, love, fear, 
feel ; which is owing to the verb devi being understood ; as, 
nondevi essere, thou must not be.f 

* Two negatives in Italian are not always equivalent to an affirmative, as in 
English ; sinccj besides non, we may put in the same .-eDteiiee one of the follow- 
ing words implying a negative, viz. mai, ne, niente, nulla, punto, 7iiuno, veriiiio, 
nessuno, provided the first negative, wjiicli may he eitiier mai or 71011, be placed 
before the verb and the second after it; as, voi non avevdle nulla di mii:lio ad 
off-^iir lorO; yon hud nothing better to offer them. Non v ha niuno quaggiii 
pien amen lefe lice, nobody is in tiiis world perfectly happy.— Author. This is 
the geneial rule, but it is iial)le to exceptions too numerous to be here enume- 
rated ; they must therefcire be learntd by practice. — Editor. 

f Poets do not regard this rule, and |)ut the usu it inflection of the imperative 
in all cases, if required. Count Alfikri, in his excellent tragedies, has sel- 
dom adopted it, and Arioslo, above all, sanctions this practice. — Editor. 


3. E X K li C 1 S E S 

on the abort' Iiitlcs. 

I am not ready yet. You are able to do this. They 
pronto ancora capacc a Jure 

are all ffone. He has not answered a sinjjle word. I had 
andulo via rispos/o solo parola 

notiiinn^ o-ood to jjivc him. Thou hadst nothing to tell him 

(li bit one (la dare da dire 

in particular. Has he won the ^ame ? Should they have 

scii'rtto s^U(id(i<j;}}ato partita 

undertaken the work ? IJave (hey not refused to do it ? 
ifitraprt'so opera? rieusato di fare? 

Shall he not have time enough to write to hiin? They have 

tempo abbasldnza da serirere 
nothing bettor to ofl'er to them ? Shall v e h;ive none ? 
di ineglio ofji rtre axcrc 

Other interesting Observations on Verbs. 

The infinifives of the Engli^^h verbs are known by the 
particle to, uhicli is generally before tlicm. — See the real 
force of this particle farther on, n. 9, 10, II. and 12. — The 
infinitives in Italian are known by their termination, viz. 
in ARK, EliE, llill ; as, auiare, to love ; xedcre, to see; 
finire, to end. — Many Italian verbs have two terminations 
for the infinitive. Some end either in ARE or HIE, and 
others either in ERE or IRE. See the T«6/c5 of them 
in Lecture XXIV. 

5. The English gerunds end in ing ; as, havings ^xinS-) 
loving: the Italian end '\u ando ; as, aniando, for (he first 
conjtigation ; in endo, for the second and third : as, crcdcndo, 
bf'lu'vinij; iidendo, hearing. 

G. ^ The >-ame termination in /wg expresses in Iviglish 
the participle present, which in Italian ends in ante, lor the 
first conjugation, 'and in ente for all other verbs. See, on 
this subject, note *, at p. I '37. — These participles are con- 
stantly made to agree with their substantives, as all adjec- 
tives etuiing in />. See p. 16, n. I. 

7. Although the Englisli participles past are very irregu- 
lar, tli« y gcuerallv terminatt' in (d, as lov(d. In Italian 
they have three termiiiati(jns foi- the regular verbs, of the 
thrj'o conjugations, viz. iti ato, as, (unuto, loved, for the first 
conjugation: in nto, Vk^, crcduto, believed, f(»r the second ; 
in //o, as, si rvito. served, for (he third. 

H. Some participles of the irregular verbs ha\e ditlercnt 
terminations, as will be observed in the G'fwcrn/ O/Mcrrr/- 

I, 2 


tions, and in the yilphahelical List of the san.c, exhibited in 
Lecture XXIV", which see. 

9. The infinitive, in Italian, when preceded by tl)e defi- 
nite article, has the nature of a substantive ; as, e proibito il 

far male^ it is forbidden to do evil. Non e civile P interrom- 
pere gli altri quundo piirlanO, it is not poliie to iiitei rupt 
others when they speak. Non e sempre bene il correggere i 
fanciulli^ it is not always proper to correct children. // 
ruzzare e qudlche volta necessario, to play is sometimes ne- 

10. In the above instances, and others similar to them, 
which very frequently occur, the infinitive mood does the 
office of the substantive in EnoJish, as well as in Italian ; 
the only difference is, that in English the particle to sup- 
plies the place of the Article, and consequently it cannot be 
then looked upon as a mere sign of the infinitive-, as many 
maintain without any restriction. 

11. ^ The English do not join to their infinitives any 
other particle than to ; and, therefore, in all other sen- 
tences, besides those like the above n. 9, the Italian infini- 
tives are expressed by the English gerunds ; as, /' essere^ 
the being-; il niatigidre, the eating; lo sludiare, the study- 
ing ; in, or neir avere, in having; col bere, by drinking; 
collo studidre, by studying ; senza mangidre, without eating; 
per ridere, for laughing. 

12. The indefinite articles, or prepositions, di, a, da, are 
very often placed before the Italian infinitives, and are 
mostly rendered by the English particle to. Ex. E tempo 
per V. S. di comincidre a parldr Italidno, it is time for you. 
Sir, or Madam, to begin to speak Italian ; questo e unfrutto 
da iuangidre, this fruit is good to eat; la signora e anddta a 
passeggidre, the lady is gone to take a walk. 

13. When the English simple preterites come alone in a 
sentence, they are expressed in Italian in two ways, viz. 
by the first, or by the second perfect. \mo. If the past 
action, expressed by the English preterite, is fixed in re- 
gard to time ; as, 1 had it from him yesterday, then the 
first perfect must be used; as, V ebbi da luiieri ; \ was 
there last week, io fui Id la settimdna passdta ; I spoke to her 
last night, le parldi ieri sera. 2do. But if the action past is 
not determined with regard to time, or if it was done the 
same day it is spoken of, the second perfect must be used : 
as, 1 had it from him, io V ho avuto da lui ; I was there, io 
sono slnto Id ; I spoke to her, io le ho parldto. 

14. ^ The compound tenses, in all active, and some of 
the neuter verbs, are formed by the help of the auxiliary 


\erh avfre, iuldiiii; (o it the participle past ; us, lo ho par- 
lato, lo arevn parfalo, <S'C. 1 have spoken, I had spoken, &c. 
1 J. ^ We also sometimes make use of the verb cssere in 
the compoiiiul tcnsos, but, as IBuommattei observes, it 
must only be used in the i/itraiisilire or neuter verbs ; as, 
Jo sono an(l(ilo, In sci vcni'ito, cgli e sccso, Sfc. I am j?one, 
thou art come, he is come down, Sec. This rule may be of 
some use, though subject to many exceptions, as prac- 
tice will shew. 

16. The verbs in care and garc, as, predicdre, spiegdre, 
i<ic. take an // in (hose tenses in which Cand G would pre- 
cede /:-' or /. Therefore, in the present of the indicative, 
they make lu prcdic/ii, tu splcg/ii, cyC. in the I'uture, io prr- 
dicherb, io spicghcrb, Sfc. in the imperative, prcdichi eg/i, 
spicgfii ro//, and so on. 

17. •! Verbs that end in hire, and icre, as. fuuwidre, to 
tire ; (idcinpiire, to fulfil, 8:c. in all those persons in which 
we ought to take away aie and ere, and put an ?, either 
alone or with other letters, (see the Table of the Inflections, 
Lfct. XXIV.) such an i is not added in these verbs, and 
cither only their Hnals, are and crc, are taken away, or the 
other final letters are substituted to those of their infinitives 
without another /y thus we say, for instance, tu annoi, lu 
adrmpi.* thou tirest, thou fulfiUest; noi annoidmo, uoi 
adcmpidmo., we tire, we fulfil, &:c. 

J8. ? Exception. — To those verbs, however, whose ac- 
cent falls, in some inflection?, on their z before ^rc or pre, 
another / is added, and the first ol"them is marked witli an 
acute accent, since they are both to be distinctly uttered in 
two separate syllables ; as, tu dtsii, tu spii, thou desirest, 
thou spiest ; eglino, dcsiino, cgliiio spiino, they nuiy desire, 
they may spv. Sec. See in the focaholario Delia Crusca, 
the verbs immidrc, travidre., S^e. — The same orthograpliy 
takes place in the first person of the perfect tense of the 
verbs in ire, for the same reason of the accent. 

• From wliat lias bi-eii observed at p. 8, n. 17, conceiniiip the^ /k/i/jo beinK 
iiiDtead iif It, the above iiitlections n)ii,'lit be written wiih ;iiij liivgo ^ but the 
Aradeiiiiciniis Delta Crusca liavc not regularly exleiided the use of tbnt htter 
toveib:". in any inflection «lialever, alilimiL;h liie use tliey li:ive piescribed of 
ibiK Irtier may aliiid" to \Trbs as well as noun*. For ilicy .».iiil, use has 
introduced it at the end of lliosc woi fis in wliich we ought lo write ii. 'I~he 
iufteclioii*, vigoj, ilra-ij, of tlie veibs injjouirf, slrazitire, arc I wiic loiind tbii.t 
written mtUtir viicaLolario, mid th(>ielore the similar oiich, annoi, tiami, o\ 
ttic verbs annoiare, Hlanni'ire, written with an i, uiiisi be nupiioxd >.\\^\i\. in- 
accuracies of the Acadeniiciaii*', rather ttiaii pmofs Mul(vcr>lve of the llllivcr^al 
rule nnnlKneil by ibein for the right use of tiie j lungo. — See an (diservaiion on 
the verb oduire, in tlie Alfhabttxcal List of ilie irregular verbs. — Edilur, 

I. 'i 


19. In our language we have no simple tenses for the 
passive verbs, as the Latins, who say, amor, amabar, Sfc. 
but we make use of the verb essere with the passive par- 
ticiple of the verb we intend to conjugate ; as, io sono amatOj 
or amnta, I am loved ; io era, or fid amato, 1 was loved ; 
and so forth, as we shall see hereafter. 

See more observations on the formation of the tenses of 
verbs at Lecture XXIV. just before the Alphabetical List 
of Irreoular Verbs. 


Of the three Regular Conjugal ions. 
20. Advertisement bj/ the Editor. 

The Author having entirely omitted noticing the inflec- 
tions of the Tuscan verbs, which are either only poetical, or 
iniproperly used by the Italians of low education, and 
therefore called vulgar, I have pointed them out in the 
notes throughout the two auxiliaries, avere and essere. 

For the sake of brevity and perspicuity in the display of 
the three following models, I have placed each such inllec- 
tion in separate columns, at the right hand of the correct 
ones, accordins: to the method first taught by Gigli, and 
followed by Pistolesi and 3Iastrqfini on a much larger 
scale. By these means, the student may learn several 
thousand words only poetical, since each regular verb will 
have as many of them as its model; and niay, in the same 
proportion, avoid imitating the incorrect Italians in the 
abuj^e of their language, at least as to the conjugation of 
the regular verbs. 

The above-mentioned eminent grammarians, indeed have 
also exhibited in separate columns the obsolete terminations 
of the verbs. These I have omitted, for two reasons : 1st. 
Because whatever is obsolete in verbs cannot be met with 
but in authors beyond the reach of the learner. 2dly. Be- 
cause many of the obsolete inflections have still remained in 
the mouth of the illiterate in Italy, and I have therefore 
been able to exhibit them among the vulgar ones. 

First Regular Conjugation in Are. 



I speak To pdrlo 

Thou speakest iu pdrli 
Bespeaks egli pnrla 





We speak noi parlidmo 

Vou speak voi pnrlate 
They speak tgli/io pdrlnuo 



I did speak, or I parh'rca^ or 
«as speakiii<j^ pttr/dvo 
Tho didst speak par/dvi 
He did speak pnrldva 
We did speak parlavdmo 

You did speak parhivdte 
They did speak parlavdno 




Perfect. t 


I spoke 
Thou spokest 
He spoke 
We spoke 
You spoke 
They spoke 







parldr, par- 
Id ro 


I shall speak pnrlcrb 

Thou slialt speak par/crdi 
He shall sjjcak parlerd 
We shall speak parlcrcmo 
You sliaii ^|)('ak jxii/t nle 
They bhuli j<peak parlcrdnvo 


} Vulgar. 

yparlidno, par 
Id mo 

I pdrlono 


parldvovio, or 






ov parlonio 

parlarb, or 
par I dn no 
par far 6e 
par I a n' I r 

* It is a verjr lui.stakeii, but prevalent notion, that ilic Engli^li li;!!; no im- 
ptTlV-ct ti-ii.sf; for, wlieiifvcr tliey say, 1 icas .ipeakin^, /was fearing, / uas 
Jmuhine, ijc. they convi-y |)rfcisfly the Kaine ide.i ii> llie liali.iii tt'n.'>es lo par- 
lu"a, Jo trmh}'t, /o/thlva. The ICnulisli, Ihctcfurc, want this (c"n>e only in the 
reili to havr, uml to it, and vaiy rroiii (Ik- liali.niii in the use of it in sonic iu- 
• lances. NeviTiht-lfi^H, if learners v\oul(l riiiunihir, tliiii wlnnvvi-r the Eng- 
li»h U'e kiich (uni|io(ni(l lenoc, or that it wnuld In- po»sililc to use- it, the 
Italian iiii|)CTf(Ct n)ii>t he adopti-d, th<-y niiuht avoid a nunilier of inisiakes ton 
frequent anions (he students uf the Iialian language. — See another iinpoi tant 
nolr |, p. 1.11. — h.dilOT. 

f See a nioM despicable Roman solecism in the use of this tense, at note *, 
p. 132 —A.V/i/'M-. 




Speak thou 
Let him speak 
Let us speak 
Speak you 
Let them speak 



par lino 



I may speak pdrli 

Thou mayest speak pdrli 

He may speak 
We may speak 
You may speak 
Thej may speak 




par lino 

First Imperfect. 

I should speak parlerei 

Thoushou\dsts\ie-a\i parleresti 
He should speak parlerebbe 
We should speak parlerem- 


You should speak parlereste 
They should speak parlereb- 
bero, or par- 


parleriamo, or 


Second Imperfect.* 

I might speak parldssi 

Thou mightest speak parldssi 
He might speak parldsse 
We might speak parldssimo 
You might speak parldste 
They might speak parldssero 






or parlareb- 

pari ar est e 

ov parlareb^ 


parldsse, par- 
ldssi, or par- 

* Concerning this tense, see a most despicable Roman solecism observed at 
7iote •, p. 135. — Editor. 



Present, to speak, par lure. 
Pekfect, to have spoken, aver parlnto. 

(axtr a pai'/are, 
Future, to be about to speak, ^ csscr per parlurc, 

(_(lovtr parldrc. 

Glruxd Present, speakinij^, parldndo. 

/ otspcakinj::. ili parldre, or del parldrc. 

n> c ^\ \ to sneakinii', a varldre. or at varldre. 

Compound of the /^ i- /' i .i' „ 

h \\\{mpcdkwj^,cuipariare,orcoii par lure 
i n spcakiiiji', tu/parldre, or /;/ parldre. 
Gerund Past, having spoken, axendo parldlo. 
Participle Present, speakini;,pfl?7^/;//e ti.-\ 
Participle Past, spoken, pa?'/(/^o, la, ti, te. 

J^^ See other Characteristic Moods at the end of 
the last reguhu" conjugation. 

Second Regular Coyijugation in Ere. 



I fear 

Thou fearest 
He fears 
^Ve fear 

You fear 
They fear 


lo tenio 
iu tend 
egli t^nie 
noi lemidnio 

xoi temete 
('sUno temono 



Correct. [ Poetical. 

I did fear, or was temeva, ov temta 

temero I 
temni tcmci 
icnicxa tcun'a 
temexdmo temcaino 

Thou didst fear 
H<! did fi.'ar 
^Ve did fear 

You dill fear 
Tlie^ did fear 

tetn crate 

levu xnno t( vicano 


terniano, orte- 

temanoj or te- 


tonexomoj te- 


• Sec an itii[nirlaiit nole •, |i. l.'ifi. — E'lHnr. 

t See a eritical vote f, [>. 137, cakuliited lo piDve llie exisceiicc oliliis parti- 
i-iple. — iLititnr. 

\ Sec note*, at the u/»/)fr/<rf/ of llie firhi tonjii 'aiion, p. l.M. — .\lstiMy<<f, 
1». IM.— Editor. 



I feared tetne'hovtemetti 

Thoufearedst temesti 
He feared tane or temelte 


temerono, or te- 

We feared 
You feared 
They feared 






1 shall fear 
Thou shalt fear 
He shall fear 
We shall fear 
You shall fear 
They shall fear 















Fear thou 
Let him fear 
Let us fear 
Fear you 
Let them fear 


tern a 








I may fear 
Thou mayest fear 
He may fear 
We may fear 
You may fear 
They may fear 








I should fear 
Thou shouldst fear 

First Imperfect. 






* See a most despicable Roman solecism in the use of this ten^c, at note *, 
p. \Z2.— Editor. 


Correct. l Poetical. 

He should fear lemerebbe ^temeria 
\\ esliouhJ Tear tcmeraiimo Icniei ianu 

Yell should fear 
Thev shuuld fear 

I miijht fear 
Tlioii iniirhtestfear tcnicssi 


Second iMPEnFEcx.* 


He iiiii;ht fear 
We niig-ht fear 
You miffht fear 




They might fear t ernes scro 


PnESENT, to fear, tancre. 
Perfect, to have feared, ortr tcmido 

Future, to be about to fe 


temeressimo, or 


temdsti, temcssi, 

or temcsse 

Cavtre a temere, 
ar, -| esse?- per temer 
( dover temere. 

CoMi'ouND of the 
Geuund Puesent,+ 


Gerund Present, fearing;-, timatdo. 

of fearing, di temere, or del temere. 

to fearing, a temere^ or al temere. 

for fearing, per temere^ or pel temere. 

with fearing, eol temere, ov eon temere. 

in fearing, ;/(■/ temere, or in temere. 
Gerund Past, having feared, avendo tcnnito. 
Participle Puesent, fearing, temente, ti.\ 
Paiitu iPEE Past, \'vi\red,temuto,ta, ti, te. 

1^^ See other Characteristic Moods at the end of the 
last regidar conjugation. 

Third Conjugation in Ire. 



1 end 





* Sec a most bar>)artiu.sIU)iuans()k'riMn, iti ilic u'-c of tliis tense, ohservi'd ;it 
Ttoif •, |). I. 'J.I. — Editor. 

■f .See an itii|)orMiii wile*, at |i. 13G. — Editor. 

j .See a critical note f , |i. 137, calculated l(» juovc tiic existence of tliis p,\Ti'\- 
c'n>\c.— Author. 

I A verb in tiro is given for the third regular conjugation instead of ilu verb 


Correct. Poetical. 

1 hou endest tufmisci 

He ends egli finisce 

We end noijiniamo 

You end voi finite 

They end eglino jiniscono 


jiniva., or jinia 


fin ha fmia 

I did end, or was 

Thou didst end 
He did end 
We did end 
You did end 
They did end 


Jinidno, or 



Jiniano, orji- 



I ended 
Thou endest 
He ended 
We ended 
You ended 
They ended 

I shall end 
Thou shalt end 
He shall end 
We shall end 
You shall end 
They shall end 








Jin to 













finirno, or 



dormire, to sleep ; servire, to serve, or the like ; since, amongst the verbs end- 
ing in ire, for one that is conjugated like dormire, there are twenty like^nlre, as 
will be seen by the List of the verbs in ire, and the paragraph f 14, placed 
after them in Lecture XXIV. The verb dvrmlre (like servire and others) is 
conjugated as follows : Indicative Present, dormo, dormi, dorme, dormidmo, dor- 
mite, dormono. Imperative, dormi, dorrna, dormidmo, dormite, Mormano. Con- 
junctive Present, ch' io dorma, che tu donna, ch' egli dorma, chc noi dormidmo, 
che voi dormidte, ch' ^glino dormano. The other tenses WkeJiniTe. 

• See here 7io^e *, on the tm;)er/f'c< of tie first conjugation, p. 151. — Also no ^e 
^, |). 130. — Editor. 

f Sie a vile solecism peculiar to the Romans in the use of this tense, at note 
*, p. \6\.— Editor. 

1 »• »« 



ivul lllJU 
Lot him end 
Let us end 
End yon 
Let thoni end 









T mi\\ end 
Thou may est end 
lie may end 
^\'e may end 
Y(in mav end 


fin i sen 



Tliey may end fniiscano 

First Imperfect. 

Correct. Poetical. 

I should end Ji/iirci finirta 

Thcjii shouldstend Jiniicsli 
We should end Jiriirtbbe finiria 

We hhould end 

You should end 

Thev should end 

I mii^ht end 
Thou mi<;htest end 
lie mii;ht end 
We mif^ht end 
You nii^ht end 
Thev mi:;lit end 

Jin i rem mo 

finirchhcro Jiniriano 
Second Imperfct.* 


Jin isle 




finiresti, or Ji- 

I Jiniressimo 

finissn/K/^ or Ji' 


Pre8P,nt, to oud.finirr. 

Perfec 1 ,1" liavc ctided, arcrfini/o. 

* Cuiicrriiiiig the ure of this lenitc, >ee H pitiful Uoiiiiii solecism obsci ved at 
vote^, \). Wi. — fCditoT. 


iattr afimre, 
esser perjinire, or 
doi er- Jin ire. 
Gerund Present, endino-^«e«^o. 

S of ending, dijinire, or delfinire. 
to endino- a finire, or al finire. 
, . for endi.^, per finire, orpeljinire. 

' in ending, nel finire, or injinire. 
Gerund Past, having ended, avendoJinHo. 
Participle Present, ending,^/?e;?/e ti.-\ 
Participle Past, ended, ^««7o, ta, li, ie. 

Q^ These are the three models of regular conjugations ; 
but as there are a great many verb? which in some tenses 
deviate from them, and are called Irregular, they will be 
found alphabetically arranged, and conjugated at the end of 
Lecture XXIV. See, however, the important Observa- 
tions prefixed to them, as they may be of very great use to 
the learner. 

in the Conjugation of the Italian Verbs. 

33. ^ It is common to hear English Grammarians boast- 
ing of the advantages of the English tongue over most of the 
modern languages, consisting in the power of conjugating 
their verbs in three ways, being able to say either I speak, 
I do speak, or / am speaking, and so on for all the simple 
tenses and persons of the verbs to be, or to do. 

34. 51 This advantage becomes quite trifling, when com- 
pared to that of the Italian Language, which has nothing to 
envy in all the supines, gerunds, and participles of the Latin, 
since we can conjugate its verbs (besides the Models just 
now shewn, and the Passive or Reciprocal to be exhibited 
hereafter) in no less than seven different Manners, by the 
means of the auxiliaries, «wc?are, stare, avere, e,ssere,farsi, 
and venire, always implying a different accessory meaning 
with respect to the agent. 

Here they are : — 

I. Manner. 

35. f With the verb andare, and the gfr?/w6f of any other 
verb wliich implies a frequentative sionification, but with 
motion in the agent of what is meant by the gerund ; as 

* See an in)|)oi tarit note *, at p. 136. — Edifor. 

t See ri critical notef, p. 137, calculated to jiiove the existence of this parti- 
ciple. — Editor. 


lo to parldndo, I am speaking, but properly, I 

walk, or move on speaking. 

Ttt vai parhhido. Thou art speaking, dire. 

EgU III parldndo. He is speaking, Sec. 

tioi andidmo parldndo, »t d o • . i r a -....e 

•< ' A'.B. See mistakes ot modern writers, 

Vol andate parlando, with nsptct to this conjugation, after 

Eglino vanno parldndo. these Seccn Manners. 

And so on for all tenses of andare. 

II. Manner. 

36. ^ Willi (he verb stare, and the gerund of any other 
verb which implies stillness in the agent of what is meant by 
the gerund ; as 

lo sto parldndo, I am speaking, hut properly, T 

Tu stai parldndo, stand still and speak, &c. 

Egli sta parldndo, ]srjj, ft is evident that neither this, 

Noi stidino parldndo, nor the above manner of coiij Heating 

Voi state parldndo, Italian verb?, can he rendereil in Eiig- 

Eglino stanno parldndo. 'i^h. «if»'out some quaint periphrases. 
And so on for all the tenses o( stare. 

III. Manner. 

37. f With the verb avere, the preposition da, a, or ad, 
and the infinitive of any other verb which iini)lies a compul- 
sion or dittj/ imposed upon the agent of what is meant by the 
infinitive ; as 

lo ho da, or a parldre, I must speak_. &c. 

Tu bai da, or a parldre, JSlote. Vw this tense we arc well 

Bali ha da, or a parldre, provided in Knglish ; hut what should 

Noiabbidmodo,ov aparlare, ^^e say for liie imp-rfect and other 

,/■■/, I I' lenses.' '1 he verh owe/iMniplit cive the 

yoiavele da, or a parlare, ,,,,^„u.^, but tiie tense would remain 

Eglino hanno da, or a parlare. unspecified.— It is, therefore, impo.ssi- 

ble, for instance, to render, lo aveva 
da parlare, without a petty periphrasis, 
and say, / xiiis oitiged to.\pcak, or rather 
II was incumbent upon me to speak, ijj-c. 

And so on for all the tenses of avere. 

IV. Manner. 

38. ^ With the verb essere, the preposition per, and the 
j/?////77ae of any other verb which implies the imminence or 
impendence of /j/?<^, either present, future, past, or conditional., 
\\\{\\ respect to the agent's uiideri;;oiiig, or doin;;, what is 
meant by the injinitive ; as 

Jo son per parldre, I ;ini j^oiu^ to speak, 

Tu set per parldre, '1 lioii art going to speak, 

J-l^h e }i<r parldre, He is going to speak, 

Aoi iidmo per parldre, We are going to speak, 


Voisieteper parldre, You are going to speak, 

Eglino sono per parldre. They are going to speak. 

And so on for all the tenses of ^ssere. 

V. Manner. 

S9. ^ With the verb stare the preposition per, and the in- 
Jimtive of any other verb which implies likewise the immi- 
nence oftime, as in the IV. Manner^ but with a much greater 
degree of pro.vimiti/ to the agenfs doing or undergoing- what 
is meant by the injinilive ; as, 
lo sto per parlare, I am on the very point of speak- 

Tu stai per parldre. Thou art on the very point of 

Egli sta per parldre, speaking, &c. 

Noi stiamo per parldre, jsi.b. Nothing short of a circumloci!- 

Vol state per parldre, tion like the above can render in tlie 

Eglino stanno per parldre. slightest degree this Italian form. 

And so on for all the tenses of stare. 

VI. Manner. 

40. 51 With the reflective verb farsi, the preposition a or 
ad, and the irifinitive of any other verb which implies the 
agent's 'preludes (as it were) or preparations, consisting in 
gestures, motions, or other measures, to undergo or do what 
is meant by the injinitive ; as 

lo mifo a parldre, I set about speaking, or I prepare 

Tu tifai a parldre, to speak, 

Egli si fa a parldre, &c, &c. &c. &c. &c. &c. &c. &c. 

Noi cifaccidmo a parldre, 

Voi vi fate a parldre, 

Eglino sifanno a parldre. 

And so on for all other simple tenses of the \ethfarsi. 

VIT. Manner. 

41. 5[ With the xerh venire, and \\\e gerund of any other 
verb which isnpliesan incipient or frequentative signification, 
without any particular allusion to motion, or stillness, with 
respect to the agent of what is meant by the gerund ; as 

lo vengo parldndo, I keep on speaking, 

Tu vieni parldndo. Thou keepest on speaking, 

Egli vi^ne parldndo. He keeps on speaking, 

Noi venidmo parldndo. We keep on speaking, 

Voi venite parldndo. You keep on speaking, 

Eglino ve'ngono parldndo. They keep on speaking. 
And so on for all the tenses of the verb venire. 


On the above Seven Manners ofCottjugali/ig the Verbs. 

4'i. % Although, in the definitions of the above seven con ju- 
•rations, I have snid, that the auxiliaries, m?f/a;e, stare, avcre, 
tssere, farsi, and voiirc may be respectively joined to cither 
the gen/ml or in finiliic of an// otJur vtrb, it is obvious, that 
many exceptions must take place, either irom the intrinsic 
meaning of some verbs, incompatible with the ideas conveyed 
bv the auxiliaries and their prepositions, or from the agent of 
tiie sentence: tor instance, stare with iUe gcrinid (see II. 
Manner) we said signified sti/hies€ in the agent; so it will 
be impossible to join it to the verb eorrere, to run, and say, 
star eorrcndo ; since it would associate opposite ideas, of 
staying and running at the same time. We might, how- 
ever, adopt the y.Munncr, and say, lo sto per eorrcre, which 
would mean, I am on the very point of running; since we 
may be supposed to stand still till we actually do run. 
Again, althougli andar gaardando, to go about and look, may 
be well associated ; yet it would be absurd, speaking of the 
skill of a painter in drawing the eyes of a portrait, to say, 
nn( I ritralto ei ra guardando da ogni /ato, that portrait goes 
looking at us on all sides ; but we ought to say, ci sla gaar- 
dandu, keeps looking at us, &c. Let the judicious scholar 
apply this observation with due discrimination to those sen- 
tences he wishes to express by any of the above conjugations, 
lest he should commit blunders as monstrous as that of Suave, 
to be corrected hereafter. 

43. % A caviller mighi say, that, since I have placed op- 
posite to each of the above; conjugations the corresponding 
Kngli><li version, both languages have those properties which 
I hold out as peculiar to the Italian tongue. Out any one 
proficient both in Italian and English will be able to refute 
such a conclu'^ion, by as-^nring such critics, that the English 
I have been able to furnish consists, in most instances, in cir- 
cumlocutions, exceedingly barbarous and inharmonious, and 
tliat, besides, it renders but very faintly these elegant Italian 
form-, as tluf definitions prelixed to each of them partly sliew. 

41. ^ In the wi itini;^ of nunlern Italians, many examples 
may f)ccur, which might pro\e derogatory to the very delini- 
(ions I have given of these conjugations ; but were \ve to 
frame a grammar on the very iiiacctirate volumes of modern 
scribbler'-, and even of modern veiy learned men, who study 
every thing el-e be-ities their own native tongue, we must 
throw in the (ire all our l>est clatjbics, and the grammatical 



labours of Bembo, Salvial?^ Ciiwnio, Bifonihiattei, and many 
more eminent men, tos^etlier with what the learned Aca- 
demicians Delia Criisca have left us on that art. See, on 
the subject of the present decline of Tuscan literature, my 
Essay, prefixed to the Supplement of this work. — See also 
above, at p. 93. n. 39. 

45. f The First Manner, however, by the verb andare, 
and the Second, by venire, might be attacked with some ap- 
parent reason, since Cinonio (see Trattato rfe' Verhi. cap. 
Ixii. and Ixiii.) does not seem to have sufficiently set forth 
the different sense they convey in his Treatise on the Verbs. 
His numerous quotations are, however, sufficient to 
strengthen my definitions, to invalidate any contrary argu- 
ment, aiid to prove as incorrect many passages of Sonve, a 
modern writer of great fame, but whose suavitij of style will 
never give delight to any classical Tuscan ear. For one 
instance out ofa hundred, we read in Antonio Leonelli, Pur 
la speranza d^unimpiego, che ognor parea vicino, nelsuo cor- 
doglioV unddxa racconsoldndo ; Yet the hope of obtaining a 
situation, which seemed always near, continually Aep^ cow?- 
forting him in his sorrow. There being not the smallest 
shade of motion in the agent of the gerund racconsoldndo, 
which is hope, the verb cmddva is highly improper ; and 
Soave ought to have said, il veniva racconsoldndo ; which 
implies no motion* in the agent, as stated in the definition 
of the Seventh Manner. 

46. H To convince my reader of what I have just advanced, 
it will, no doubt, be sufficient to state, that Cinonio, ibid. 
gives no less i\i2ixv fourteen examples of the first conjugation, 
which I might easily double, and not one among them but 
what implies implicit motion in the agent; while among 
those of anddre, only one contains the idea of motion in the 

Referring the most curious of my readers to Cinonio at 
large, I shall here subjoin, in a contracted manner, (see on 
this method, note *, p. 75,) the fourteen examples of the 

* I have said, in the seventh defiiiilion, iliat the significution of that conju- 
gation /tas no parlicular allusion to motion : but let my reader understand uic 
rightly. I do not mean, that it cannot possibly imply motion in the agent ; hut 
only, that it may be used without this motion bein? supposed in it. — And, on 
the contrary, the First Manner should never be used without positive allusion 
to motion with respect to the agent, as stated in the definition. Thus, for 
instance, in tiie Decamerone, G. 8. u. 3, we read, that Bruno and Buffalmacco, 
to make Calandrino believe that he had found a stone, which remleicd him in- 
visible, Or cnn unaparola, or con un' altra su per lo Mugiwrie insino alia porta 
San Galloilvdnncro Idpiddndo. Now with one word, and now with another, 
they kept throwing pebbles at him as they went up the Mugnonc, as far as San 


verb andare, and then dismiss tliis subject, in bopcs of haviiii:; 
convinced any reasonable reader of the accuracy of what 1 
liave above advanced. Examples — 

1. 67/ vi'nne vediita mm He accidentally saw a very pretty 
gioviiH'tta assi'd bella, la young girl, who went on gathering 
quelle andiiva per U cam- some plants about the fields. 

pi certe erbe cogliendo. 

Dtc.imeioiit', G. 1, ii. -1. 

2. La G'wvane delta sua The young woman, grieving at her 
sc'uigura dob'ndos't, tutto misfortune, spent all that day 
:/ (Ti per lo salviitico lucu wandering about that wild forest. 

«' andti avvolg^ndo. 

Id. G.5, n. 3. 

3. Til ridi forse perche vcdi Thou laughest, perhaps, because thou 
me uoni d' arme andur seest nie, a military cliaracter, 
doniandando (/i 9Ht's/e cose going about and enquiring after 

femini'li. these won)anish trinkets. 

Id, G. 2, U.K. 

Let the reader remember, that these words were said by tlic betrayed wife of 
Bermibo, who, in tlie diseuise of a Turkish oflicer, meets with iier iittrayer as 
she was riding alout tlie iair of Acre. 

4. Solo, e pensdso i piii de- Alone, and thoughtful, / go onmea- 

st'rti campi suring the most deserted fields with 

Vo misurando a passi a grave and slow pace. 
tardi e lenti. 


.'). Vidi in una Jiorita, e 
verde pidggia 
Genie, die d' avidr giva 


6. Gidvane, e bella in sogno Methought, in my dream, I saw a 

I saw, on a flowery and green hill, 
people, who went on talkinir of 

nil pan a 
Donna vciUr anddr per 

una banila 
Cogliendo Jiori — 


young and beautiful woman, (wi 
one side, going on and gathering 

7. La Simdna nonfu percib Simona was not, however, of such 

di si pdvero dnimo, che a low spirit, as not to dare to 

ella non ardi'sse a rici'vere harbour in her mind love, which, 

amdre nella &ua mente, il for a long time, had shewn its in- 

C«//o'i gate. Here we |il;iiiily see tii.'\t they were all in motion, and waiivirig; 
yet, nince Buccact mrver mtant to allMih- pat lii uhirly to llial ^late of the aneiits, 
but ratlier to lUcfrrquentaiivr nii^nitkalioii of the action of throwing pebbles at 
Ciilaudrino, lie UBed the auxiliary venire witii greater propriety than ondi'irr, 
tvhich hill he would have iin<|ueHliona>'ly juefiMTcd, if the motion of the agents 
h. Ill been the niii>i iinpoitani ciicumsiani e of ihiii xenteiu'e, a» his other ex- 
amples alleged ill the text abtiiidantly piove. — Kditur. 

M y 


tention of dwelling there, by means 
of the pleasing gestures^ motions, 
and woidsj of a youth of no higher 
condition than herself, who wfls 
going about camjing wool to spin, 
for a wool weaver, his master. 

Fiametta went 07i a -pleasure walk 
with her party, on the dewy turf 
of a most extensive plain, until the 
sun was high, conversing together 
on various subjects. 

quale con gli atti, e colle 
parole piacevoli (Tun gio- 
vanetlo di non maggior 
peso di lei, die dando an- 
dava per un suo maestro 
lanaiu6lo lana a filure, 
huona pezza mostrdto a- 
veva di volervi entrdre. 

Decanieione, G. 4, n. 7. 

8. Fiametta per V dmpia 
pianura su per le rugia- 
ddse erbe infinattantoche 
alqudnto il sol fu alzdto, 
con la sua campagma, 
d' una cosa, e d' ultra 
con lor ragiondndo, di- 
portando s' ando. 

Id. G.5. Proem. 

9. Comincidrono i cani di 
Currddo a seguire i due 
cavrinoli, li qudli gia 
grandicelli pascendo an- 

Id. G. 2, II. 6. 

10. E se al contdr non erro 

oggi ha sett' anni, 
Che sospirando vo di 
riva in riva. 


1 1 . La 've cant&ndo andai 

di te molt' anni, 
Or come vedi vo di te 


The poet makes liere, (as hi many other passages of his poems), by the words, 
Id 've, there where, a plain allusion to those flowery meads, watered by the 
Sorga, where lie constantly used to walk up and down, thinking of his Laura, 
for many years both before and after her death. 

12. y^ man manca* con lui The Mantuan poet went on singing 

cantando giva at the left hand of him (meaning 

II Mantovdn. Homer). 


There is not here the smallest doubt of Petrarch's vision consisting in a p)o- 
cfssio7i of fiinions men, whom he supposes follotving the triumplial car of Fame. 

The dogs of Currado began to pursue 
the two fawns, which, grown al- 
ready somewhat bigger, began to 
go grazing about. 

And, if I mistake not in the reckon- 
ing, it is seven years this day, since 
I kept going and sighing from bank 
to bank. 

There, where I went on singing 


thee for many years, I am now 
going, as you see, weeping for thy 

* Lui, relating to Homer, very properly the Librarian of the Medicean Library, 
on the authority of invaluable MSS. lias .•substituted to n rnajw a mun, as univer- 
sally leail, (meaning in succer.sion), the words a man manca, to the left hand; 
since the wor^ls con lui plainly hint, that these two poets were j^oing together, 
and not one after another, as the old reading would mean. — Editor. 


— Obsirve a!so, that in tlic cxaiHples, n. ", 8, \), 10, 11, and 12, the gerund 
ptect'dis the wib owii'tre, which inversion must he left to tlic poets, or to the 
luost elecant prose-writers. 

One of the l:ibourcrs of this woman's 
estate had unfortunately missed 

that day two bogs^ and going in 
search of them, he went near 
that small tower ; and while he 
thus tvcnt about, looking every 
where for them, he heard the 
p.tiful moaning of that unfortu- 
nate woman. 

This done, after some time time, he 
brought him out, and made him 
walk before him, and going on be- 
hind him, and keeping the chain 
in his hand, be led him as fur as 
the square. 

13. Ai\va per isciagitra un 
lacoralare di (pus I a donna 
quel (Fl due sudi porci sniar- 
riti, c andandogli cercando, 
a quelld iorrictlla pencnne, 
e andando gutdndo per tut- 
to, se i sudi porci vedi'sse, 
sent') il niistrdbile pidnto, 
che la sventurdta donna fa- 

Decamerone,G. 8, n. 7. 

14. E ipiesto fatto, dopo al- 
qudnto il menu fudri, e lui- 
seselo inndnzi, ed andiuidol 
tcnC'ndo per la catina di 
dii'tro il condiisse in su la 

M. G. 4, u. 2. 

Tliii>, from all the above examples, we plainly see, that 
tlie first uf the Seven JSfanners above exhibited, must imply 
motion in tlie assent, and that whoever would adopt it, like 
Soave^ above cited, n. 45, would unquestionably make a f;;reat 
blf.iider, and provehimseirunacquaintedwith thissoundprin- 
ciple of the Italian langua<;e. 

47. 5 I recollect two passages in the Decamcrone that 
might be brought against me ; the one, in the Introduction, 
where we read, yl me mcdcsimo incresce andarmi tanlo Ira 
tunle jniscrie ravio/gendo ; It grieves my very heart to dwell 
so long on such unfortunate events. And the other, in Cm. 3. 
n. 3. Niioia rosa c al mondo, che a lei dispidccia comefai tu, 
e tu pur ti mi riprozdndo ; There is nothing in the world she 
di-likes more than your person, and yet you still try, again 
and ai;aiii, to seduce her. 

48 f 1 might justify each of these examples, by observing, 
that, in the fir-^t, there is, both in the auxiliary, mi, and its 
:;erund, r<aio/i^( ndo, ui\ open, though hk lap/iorira/, allusion 
to motion : and that, in the second example, motion is im- 
plied ; since the attem|)ts of this incorrigible seducer con- 
sisted, accordini; to the re|jort cf iiuoi^/iita^ \\\ passing and 
repassing by \\vv house, and (ryinij to enter it. 

49 T IJut a more universal exception occurs to my mind, 
which is, (hat when andnrc id used as wrt flectixe verb, as in 
the two passages abovi; (pioted, we may adopt it as an auxi- 
liary, without the least allusion to motion. 'I'hus, even the 

II 3 


followinij familiar forms of speech will be justified, without 
hurting- the definition given by me in the First Jlnrinei^ of 
these conjugations ; as, for instance, che ti vdi tu sognando ? 
what are you dreaming of? che ©' andate immagindndo ? 
what are you fancying ? 

The limits of an elementary work prevent me from pro- 
ceeding to support with authorities each of the other deji- 
nitions given of the above Characteristic Italian Moods, but 
the attentive reader of our classics will find them as accurate 
as the first, which I trust to have fully ascertained, by the 
copious exemplifications and observations just now laid be- 
fore my readers. 



On the Passive and Rejlective Verbs. 

1. The best method of treating on these verbs with per- 
spicuity, will be, to give, at length, the conjugation of one 
of each sort, with short remarks. 

A Model of a Passive Verb. 

2. The passive verbs are nothing more than the participles 
of active verbs conjugated with the verb essere. See obser- 
vation n. 19, p. 150, of the preceding Lecture. 



lo sono amdto, or amdta I am loved 

Tn sei amdto, or amdta thou art loved 

Egli e amdto, or ella e amdta he or she is loved 

Noi siamo avidti, or amdte we are loved 

Foi siete amdti, or amdte you are loved 

Egllno sono amdti, or Menosono amdte they are loved. 


Era amdto, or amdta I was loved 

Eri amdto, or &c. thou wast loved 

Era amdto, or &c. he was loved 

Eravdmo amdti, or amdte vve were, &c. 

Eravdte amdti, or &c. you, &c. 

Erano amdti, or &c. they, &c. 

First Perfect. 

Fui amdto, or amdta I was loved 

Fasti amdto, or &c. ' thou wast loved 

Fa amdto, or &c. he was loved 


Fumnio amdti, or umdte \vc were loved 

Fostc amdti, or &c. you, &c. 

Fiirono amdti, or &c. ihey, &c. 

Second Pi:iifect. 

Sono stato amdto, or statu avuita I have been loved 

Sei stato amdto, or &<•. tliou hast been Uneil 

E stato amdto, or &c. he or she has been loved 

Sidmo stati amdti, or slate amdte we have been loved 

Siete stati amdti, or &c. yon, &c. 

Sono stati amdti, or &c. they, &c. 

First Pluperfect. 

Era stato amdto, or stata amula I had been loved 

Eri stato amato, or &c. thou hadst, cVc. 

Era stato amdto, or &c. he or she had, &c. 

Eravamo stati amati, or state amate we, &c. 

Eravdte stati amdti, or &c. you, <S:c. 

Erano stati amdti, or &c. they, &c. 

Second Pluperfect. 

i^ui stato amato, or i^a<a amata I had been loved 

Fos/i stato amnio, or &c. thou hadst, &:c. 

/'h s<(//o amdto, or &c. he or she had, &c. , 

Fummo stati amdti, or sfaie amdte we, 5fc. 

FoA<e stati amati, or &c. you, &c. 

Furono stati, or &c. they, (Src. 


i'a;w amato, or amdla I shall be loved 

S"r<('i amdto, or &c. thou shalt, &c. 

Sar^ amdto, or &c. he shall, &c. 

Saremo amdti, or amdte we shall, &c. 

Sarctc amdti, or &c. you shall, &c. 

Sardiino amdti, or &c. they, «S:c. 

After the same maniicr arc coniui>atcii the imperative, 
conjunctive, and iiilinitive moods of all verbs, ol' whatever 
coujufiation, which may become passive. 

.'J. By the above coiijui;ation, it is evident, tlial the parli- 
riplcs nf passire verbs always chaiiijo their terminations, as 
the a(ij<'Ctives do, irom mascidine to feminine, and from sin- 
•jiilar to pluial, and alwavs afjree with the nominative case 
of the sentence, accordinj*; to its jjender and nundjer. 

I. 'I'he jMcposition A//, or h// l/ic^ n>e(l in an l']nj;lish sen- 
tence, whose verb is passive, is translated in Itaban by the 
article of the ablative case; as, Ij(i /i^/i<i r })ih (iinala ihdln 
iiKulrr ; the dani;hter is more loved hi/ tlie mother, /w ma- 
flri sono pi!' uiitdtt ddlli / if^Hc ; the mothers are more loved 

M 4 


hy their daughter?. I padri sonopiu amati daifigli ; fathers 
are more loved by their sons. 

A Model of a Rejlective Verb. 

5. A rejlcctive verb is nothing else but a verb, whose action 
does not pass over any other object, but returns or reflects 
upon the agent that produces it ; — and this reflection is 
marked in Italian by the particles, mi, ii, si, ci, vi, as in the 
following verb, lodarsi. 

6. ^ Observe, That the same position of the pronominal 
particles of the reflective verb is to be retained in all other 
verbs, having either the same conjunctive pronouns, or the 
others, il, lo, la, li, or gli^ le^ ne ; as to loro, see what was 
said of this pronoun in Lect. XII, n. 54, p, 108. 



lo mi lodo I praise myself 

Tu ti lodi thou praisest thyself 

£gli, or ella si loda he praises himself 

Noi ci locUdmo we praise ourselves 

Voi vi loddte you praise yourselves 

Eglino, or elleno si Iddano they praise themselves. 


lo mi loddva I praised myself 

Tu ti loddvi thou praisedst thyself 

Egli, or ella si loddva he praised himself 

Noi ci lodavdvio we praised ourselves 

Voi vi lodavdte you praised yourselves 

Eglino, or elleno si loddvano they praised themselves. 

First Perfect. 

lo mi loddi I did praise myself 

Tu ti loddsti thou didst praise thyself 

Egli, or ella si lodb he did praise himself 

Noi ci lodammo we did praise ourselves 

Voi vi loddste you did praise yourselves 

Eglino, or elleno si loddrno they did praise themselves. 

Second Perfect. 

lo mi son loddto, or loddta I have praised myself 

Tu ti sei loddto, or &c. thou hast praised thyself 

Egli si i loddto, ov ella, 8!C. he or she has praised himself 

or herself 

Noi ci sidmo loddti, or loddte we have praised ourselves 

Voi vi sie'te lodati, or &c. you have praised yourselves 

Eglino si sono loddti, or elleno, i^c. they have j)raised themselves. . 


First Pluperfect. 

lo in era loddlo, or lodata 1 had praised myselt" 

Tu t' eri lodato, or 8cc. thou hndst praised thyself 

Egli s era lodato, OT ella, Sfc. he or she had praised himself 

or hcrstlt" 
Noi ci eravdmo loddti, or &c. we had praised ourselves 

Voi V eravdte loddti, or &c. you had praised yourselves 

Eglino s" I'rano loddti, or I'lleno, Sfc. they had praised themselves. 

Second Pluperfect. 

To till fiti loddto, or loddta I had praised myself 

Tu ti Justi loddto, or &c. tliou hadst praised thyself 

Egli si fu loddto, or I'lla, S)C. he or she had praised himself 

or herself 
Nol ci fummo loddti, or loddte wc had praised ourselves 

Voi vifuste loddti, or <S:c. you had praised yourselves 

Eglino sifurono loddti, or clleno, Sfc. they had praised themselves. 


To mi loderb 1 shall praise myself 

Tu ti lodtrdi thou shalt pn.'se thyself 

Egli, or dla si loderd he or she shall praise himself or 


Noi ci lodcrt'mo we shall praise ourselves 

I'oi vi lodcn'tc you shall praise yourselves 

Eglino, or dlleno si loderdnno they shall praise themselves. 


Lddati Praise thyself 

Si lodi* let him or her praise himself or 

Lodidmoci let us praise ourselves 

Loddtevi praise yourselves 

Si Uklino let them praise themselves. 



Che 10 mi lodi That I praise myself 

Ctif: tu ti lodi that thou praise thyself 

Cli* egli, or elln si lodi that lie or she praise himself or 


• The Author, with the generality of Rrammarians, liad put down, as a re- 
gular inodfl of tlic third pcrtioiis of the reciprocal imjicralivc, lodisi, lodinsi ; hut 
those who arc ac<iuaitilcd with the Iiahaii laii^uaijc, or will ^ivc cruilit lo my 
observations above, sec Lkct. XI, n. iK and 1'.), p. <i(i, will readily he persuaded, 
that thoHe tcrwis are oidy poetical, or of the sublime prove ; and that no one 
could u'-e tlieni in xpeakint;, or in a familiar Btylc, without incurring the chaigc 
of ihc nivit intolerable pedantry. — Edilor. 


Che noi ci lodiamo that we praise ourselves 

Che voi vi lodidte that you praise yourselves 

Ch' e'glino, or rlleno si Iddino that they praise themselves. 

First Imperfect. 

lo mi loderci I should praise myself 

2m ti loderMi thou shonldst praise thyself 

Egli, or ella si loderebhe he or she should praise himsel. 

or herself 

Noi ci loderemmo we should praise ourselves 

Voi vi lodert'ste you^hould praise yourselves 

Eglino, or tllejio si loderebbero they should praise themselves. 

Second Imperfect. 

Se 10 mi loddssi If I should praise myself 

Se fu ti loddssi if thou shouldst praise thyself 

S' egli, or ella si loddsse if he or she should praise him- 
self or herself 

Se noi ci loddssimo if vve should praise ourselves 

Se voi vi lodaste if you should praise yourselves 

S' eglino, ov Meno si lodassero if they should praise themselves. 


Quantunque Though 

lo mi sia loddto, or locldta I have praised myself 

Tu ti sii loddto, or &c. thou hast praised thyself 

Egli si sia loddto, or ella, Sfc. he or she has praised himself 

or herself 

Noi ci sidmo lodati, or loddte we have praised ourselves 

Voi vi sidte loddii, or &c. you have praised yourselves 

Eglino sisiano loddti, or elleno, S(C. they have praised themselves. 

First Pluperfect. 

lo mi sarei loddto, or loddta I should have praised myself 

Tu ti saresti lodato, or &c. thou shouldst have praised thy- 


Egli si sarebbe loddto, or ella, Sfc. he or she should have praised 

himself or herself 

Noi ci sar^mmo loddti, or loddte we should have praised our- 

Voi vi sar^ste loddti, or &c. you should have praised your- 


Eglino si sarebbero loddti, or el- they should have praised them- 
le7w, 8ic. selves. 

Second Pluperfect. 

iSe io vii fossi loddto, or loddta If I had praised myself 

Se tu ti fossi loddto, or &c. if thou hadst praised thyself 

Se egli si fosse loddto, or ella, SfC. if he or she had praised himself 

or herself 


Se noi cifdssimo loddti, or lodi'Ue if we had praised ourselves 

Se voi vifoste loddti, or &c. if you had praised yourselves 

St' t'glino si fussero loddti, or cl- if they had praised themselves 
leiio, ^c. 


In jnisarh loddto, ox loddta 
Tu ti sardi loddto, or &c. 
Egli it sard loddto, or dla, SfC. 

Noi ci sarcmo loddti, or loddte 
Voi vi san'te loddti, or S:c. 

Eglino si sardnno loddti, or ^l- 
leno, Sfc. 

I shall have praised myself 
thou shalt have praised thyselt 
he or she shall have praised 

himself or herself, 
we shall have praised ourselves 
you shall have praised your- 
they shall have praised them- 


to praise one's-self. 


to have praised onc's-sclf. 


praising one's-self. 

Compound Gerund. 
Con or col, in or 7iel loddrse in or by praising one's-self 


Essersi lodato 

Pre8*. Loddntesi; loddntisif 

praising one's-self j praising 

• Concerniug the existence of this participle, see note •, p. 140. — Editor. 

t CiNosio havini; left blank Chapter LXXII, witli thistiile, " On the Parti- 
ciple /'resent uith the Conjunclive I'roiiouns," liic Chevalier Bai.okaccam filled 
it ii|) with very slirtwd niid |)t'riiiiciit reinaiks, tlie result of wliich is, that the 
toiijiiiictivc pronouns, mi, ti, si, ci, and vi, may be joined to liic pailiciple 
procnt; but that we oujjlit to have a very exquisite car to venture such expres- 
sions, whicli, if not used with great discrimination, may become liaish and un- 
pleasant in the highest degree. The studious Chevalier at the same lime de- 
clares, that he has never met with more than two instances of this participle 
with these pronominal particles in the classics, wliich are as follows : One 
from the Fiammrttu of Burracr, Ma (he dirdi tu ancora drile sur/orzi' slrnil^n- 
titi urgli animdli irrazioiidli, col ceh'.sli, come terrrstri f What wilt thou say of 
its powers extending liiemselveg to irrational animals, both aerial and terres- 
trial ? — The other is from the Luierinto, by the same author; Af'i gl' Iddii uon 
curdnlisi di pi'rderc la Jede di vili uomini, 6;c. IJut the (Jods, not caring al)ont 
tlu; belief of base men, &c. — In aildition to n. !!>, p. 'i'i, we may further cbserve, 
that these conjunctive |moiiouiis, whenever u'<e(l with this particle, are joiued to 
the cud of it, iu one word, as exeinplifu-d above. — Edit'tr. 


Past. Sing. Lodutosi, loddtasi praised one's-self 

Plur. Loddtisi, loddtesi praised themselves. 

7. Thus are conjugated all verbs that admit in their in- 
finitive the particle si ,• as, dolersi, pentirsi, rallegrursi^ &^c. 
See the Observation above, n. 6. 

8. The reciprocal verbs are the same as the reflective ones, 
with the only difference, that the action of the rejleclive re- 
lates to the agent that produces it, but the action of the re- 
ciprocal is partaken of by many persons, supposed, alter- 
nately, the agents and the patients of it ; as, scriversi IHtere^ 

farside' complimenti d^c. to write letters one to another, to 
pay mutual conapliments to each other, &c. 


On the Impersonal Verbs and Participles. 

1. The impersonal verbs may be divided iwio proper and 

2. The proper are those which have only the third person 
singular throughout all their moods and tenses ; as, 

Dildvia it rains very hard Bal^a, or lam- it lightens 

Grdndina it hails p^ggict 

Fa caldo it is hot Pidve it rains 

Fafreddo it is cold Tuona it thunders 

Ghiaccia it freezes Si fa scuro it grows dark 

Dighidccia it thaws Tempesta it hails 

Nevica it snows 

3. The improper, are those which are not impersonal by 
themselves, a^ the above, but only occasionally used in an 
impersonal signification ; as 

Avv'iene, or accdde it happens 

Conviene it is proper 

Appartiene it belongs 

Bisdgna it must 

Basta it is enough 

Lece, or non lece it is permitted, or not permitted 

Non impdrta it is no matter 

Non occdrre there is no occasion 

Non pare it does not seem 

Non bisdgna there is no need 

And so on for all the third persons singular of other tenses. 

Such verbs, impersonally used, may also be conjugated 
with the conjunctive pronouns ; as, 


M' accdde it happens to me 

i^/ aggrddu it agrees with me 

Ti displace thou art displeased 

/' impdrta it is important to you 

f'i pidce it pleases you 

Gli, or le accdde it happens to him, or to her 

Ci hastera it will be enough for us 

Vi occorrerd it will be necessary to you. 

4. The most part of verbs may become improper imper- 
sonal by the help of tlie pronoun si, either before or after 
the verb;* as, si dice, or dieesi, people say, tliey say, or 
it is said : si parla^ or parlasi, it is talked of; si nma, or 
amasi, they love; si zede, or vedesi, they see. In regard 
to these verbs, it must be observed, that if the noun in the 
accu-^ative case, to which they allude, bo in the singular 
number, the verb must be put in the singular; if the noun 
is in the plural, the verb must likewise be put in the 
))lural ; as, 

// soldalo si loda da per tutto the soldier is praised everywhere. 

Si Iklano i soldati soldiers are praised. 

Si bidwna il vi'zio thev blame vice. 

/ vizj si bidsimano giustamcnte they justly blame vices. 

5. But if the plural noun be preceded by an article of the 
genitive case, the verb is to be of the singular number; as, 
si parla di giurre^ they talk of wars ; si discorre delle eosc 
passale, they discourse upon past things : we cannot say, 
si pnrlanoy si discnrrono^ Sfc. 

6. % Obskrve, That the English, as the above ex- 
amples sufficiently prove, are very deficient in this- sort of 
verbs, and having no particle like on or si, they often turn 
the sentence into a passive construction, or use any of the 
personal pronouns in an inipersonal sense. 

Conjugalion of the Ferft ESSERE, impersonal/// used. 

7. This verb, when injpcrsonally used, is preceded by 
the adverbs of place, ei and r/, either retrenched before 
those inflections commencing with a vowel, or written full 
before all oIIkts, as will be seen in the tbllowing display. 

(J^ t', or r' r, there is. 67, or vi soiio, there are. 
6" era, or t;' era, there was. 6" crano, or ?;' erano, there 

• In sutli cat-cs, m answers pcrfi-tily to tlic pailicli" o\ of tlic French; but in 
f.tiniliar style, it would not Huit to put it after ilie verb, except in those cases 
iiicniioiied at p. !'>>>, n. I'J. See, aho, all the significations of si c.vemplifietl at |». 

'fJ, \\'>.\\.— Editor. 


O", or vifu^ there was. Ci, or vi furono^ there were. 

C e, or ii' e .s^a^o, or s/fite, there has been. C/, or r?* 
sono stat'i^ or 5^fl/<?, there have been. 

C" er«, or i)' er« sfr/^o, or 5/«^«, there had been. C erano^ 
or ?;' er««o ^ifr/^?, or state, there had been. 

C?*, or vi sard stato, or stata, there will have been. Ci, 
or vi sardnno stoti, or state, there will have been. 

C% or f ^ 5«a, let there be. Ci, or r^e siano, let there be. 

C//e ci, or t« 5/a, that there be. Che ci, or vi siano, that 
there be. 

Ci, or tJ2 sarebbe, there would be. O", or ■y? sarebbero, 
there would be. 

-Se ci, or vi fosse, if there should be. Se c/, or vi fossero, 
if there should be. 

Esserci, or esservi, to be there.* 

Essendoci, or essendovi, there being;-. 

8. O and r/ most commonly are placed before the verb, 
but they may also be put after it in any style above the 
familiar; as, ci e, or ecci ; vie, or evvi ; vi era, or cravi ; 
vi fii, orfavvi; vi sara, or sardvvi, ^r.t 

9. In askinji^ a question, either affirmatively, or negative- 

* To be there, when followed by the general pronouns, some of it, some of 
them, is translated in Italian by ^ssercene, or esservene, viz. to be there some of it, 
or them ; as, cen' e, or ve ii e, there is some of it, or them. Non ve n' era, or 
non ce n' era, there was none of it, or them, yis ne, or ce ne sarit molto, there 
will be much of it, or them, &c. 

Though the impersonal infinitive, (ohe there, is incorrect English, it is used 
here, for want of a belter, to express the Italian infinitive, viz. esserci, ov esservi. 

The particle t7, when before the verb <o Z)e, especially iu speaking of time, is 
not always expressed in Italian ; as, how many years, months, days, or hours 
is it ? It is four, at least ; qitanii anni, mesi, gioriii, or ore sono ? Sono qiuiilro 
almeno. Is it black .' e7iero f Is it white ? c bianco ? Is it very handsome ? 
e hellissimo. But when we express this particle, we do it by egli, ella, elleno, 
or eglino ; as, quant' ore son elleno? E eglinero ? ^c. 

The impersonal verb it is, in the following instances, is often expressed by fa 
(makes) ; as, it is hot, it is cold, it is fine weather, it is windy, it is moonlight, 
it is dark ; fa caldo,fafteddo, fa lei tempo, fa vento,fa lume diluna,fa oscuro. 
— Author. But it would be equally proper, and it is even more in use among 
the Tuscans now a-days, to say, e caldo, efreddo, ^-c. — Editor. 

f To prevent the student from making an improper use of this rule, I shall 
here give the beginning of the Note of the Academicians Delia Crusca, to Buom- 
mai^ei'* Grammar, p. 219, and, as I expect that the pupil, by the time he reads 
this page, will be familiar enough with the Italian language to understand the 
original, I shall not spoil the beauty of it with my inelegant English : ' Sono 
' molti particojarmente non Toscani, che sempre, quasi sempre pongono la 
' pertacella si dopo la voce del verbo, il che se non altro ^ tanto noioso a sen- 
* tirsi, che di vero e uno sfininiento. Si salvano coali esenipj degli antichi 
' ottimi scrittori; ma se si porra niente alia maniera con cui 1' usano, si vedra, 
' che il fanno in principio di discorso,' &c. Here follow numerous quotations, 
and they finally conclude with observing, that vvlieif two verbs, which require 
this particle si, follow, either (piite close to, or at some distance from one 
another, the second of them should have si after it..— Editor. 

Iv. the En2:lij;h mUovh fherc is put after the verb: but ci 
unil vi are placed before it : as, Is there? C <\ or i)' <^ ? Is 
there not ? Son r' t', or wo;; t)' <• ? In Italian, it frequently 
happens that ne distini^^uish an interroi^ative expression 
from an alUrniative one,onlv by the sii^n of interro<r;ition in 
writing:, and by the interrojjative tone in speakin;;-. The 
Florentines, however, would very often express themselves 
in the above examples thus — F' t^ e^li'^ Non v' e egli ? 
which is certainly far more fj^ramniatical. 

For all other siu;nilications and uses of ci and vi, see 
Lectures XL and XII. but particularly p. 78, n. 6. 


That there has or have been. There would have been. 
\\\w\\ there sliall have been. To have been there, llavinij 

been there. I was there yesterday in the afternoon. At what 

'nri dopo pranzo 

lime did you ^o there ? She will not be wiliiin to-morrow. 
ora amiare a casa domani 

1 saw many people there. You will not come liere today. 
vedcre ^ran s;ente oggi 

Have you dined thrr? ? You have three horses, lend me one 

pranznre cnxdllo preslarc 

of them. I see very fine flowers in your garden, give me 

vedcre hello Jiure giardino dare 

some of then). They have but five or six of them. They 
ffitdlehtdnno eitK/ite sei si 

talk of it all over the Island. For there having been too much 
pnrlnre in lutla Isola troppo 

of it. 

Of the Parlieiples. 

11. H We have seen when we treated of the conju.ations 
of verbs in Lect. X VII. and XVIIL particularly at p. Ki?, 
note *, that there are two sorts of participles in Italian, the 
present and the past. As to the agreement of the first, 
beitii; in all instanr<'s used as afi adjective, what was ol)- 
scrvi'd ill the latter part of the above inentioncil note j-, 
marked n. 2, will be (piitc sufiicient; but as to the /j«a7, 
the following: remarks will be of great use. 

lii. The l*arlieiple Past may be divided into tluee sorts, 
viz. active^ passh(., and nhsolute. 

\'J. Tiie ^/r//vr participles are tho'^e which arc united to 
the verb f/iv'rr ; as, Im d/iiu/o ; (ixcxa xedttlo ; avrb eapilo. 


14. The passive participles are those which are preceded 
by the verb essere ; as, sono amdto^ era credido, s at b favor it o. 

15. The absolute nre composed of the ;oerund avendo, or 
essendo ; as, avendo amdto ; essendo fwcoriio^^^ S)C. 

16. Now it must be observed, that these participles some- 
times change their gender and number, and sometimes do 
not. The following- rules will shew when, and in what 
manner, they are to agree with the substantives to which 
they relate. 

I. All active participles retain their masculine termina- 
tion in O ; as, la Regina ha ordindfo, the queen has ordered; 
i soldati hanno combattido. the soldiers have fought. 

II. t\ If, after X\\e active participle, there be an accusa- 
tive, we must take care not to imitate the inaccurate Italians, 
who would make it agree with the accusative both in gender 
and number; and we must constantly adopt the masculine 
termination ; as, ho riceviito (not ricevute)^ le vostre lettere, 
I have received your letters ; abbidmo vinto (not vinta) la 
partita, we have won the game. 

^ Exception. — If the accusative be preceded bj iino, 
una, &)C. we may then say, optionally, ho vediito, (or veduta) 
una bella Signora, I have seen a fine lady, &c. 

III. But if the accusative precedes the active partici- 
ple, then the participle may agree with it; as, la grdzia, che 
voi m avete accordata ; the favour you have granted me : le 
lettere, che voi avete scritte ; the letters jou have written : i 
libri, che mifuron 7nanddti ; the books which have been sent 
to me. 

17. IV. The participles of many neuter, or impersonal 
verbs, which do not govern an accusative next to them, and 
which, in their compound tenses, are always conjugated with 
the verb «rere, never change their termination; as, ellaha 
dormito bene, she has slept long ; esse hanno cammindto 
troppo, they have walked too much; le mie sorelle non 
hanno ancbra desindto, my sisters have not dined yet ; la re- 
gina ha cendto col re, the queen has supped with the king. 

V. When the participle is before an infinitive verb, it is 
indeclinable ; as, it re hafatto loro taglidre la testa, the king 
has caused their heads to be cut off. 

Exception. — If the infinitive is preceded by some of these 
conjunctive pronouns, lo, la, gli, li, le, then the participle is 

* HatJing' and 6e?ng- are very often suppressed in Italian, as, in tlie followina; 
examples : Having done that, _/a?/o questo; liaving said so, delto cio ; the comedy 
being ended, //i£«a Za commedia ; having seen liiin, vedulolo; having perceived 
it, ascortosene. 


(Iocliiia!)le ; as, piit non rsistc ([ucsla moda^ noi /' abb'uhuo rc- 
lU'ita^ (tndare in disiho a d/ Jioshi, lliis lashioii does not exi>t 
any inort', we have seen it fall otV in our clays: gii aniici 
vushi soni) piiiiili, tioii gli ho poliili leiicre, your iViends are 
gone, I conld not stop tlieni. 

18. V'l. The passive participles aijree always in <j;ender 
and number with the substantive; i.\s^ la virtu e stimdla, or 
xitiw sliiiu'ila^'* virtue is esteemed. Jl pii^ro r hiasinui/o^ the 
Jazy is blamed; J ^ofdali soiio laruati da/fa iyucrra^ the sol- 
diers are returned troin the wai" ; / prio^iunicri soiw f/(<j:;gili, 
the piisoners have made their escape ; /e voslre sorcllt si soiio 
LaN/'Uc, your sisters have fought. 

19. ^ As to the participle called abso/idc, wc may safely 
infer, from all these observations, that, when joined with the 
gerund avcndo, it is mostly optional to make it agree with 
the accusative, or to leave it undeclined, and say, axcndo 
lodiito, or lodd/c le domie^ h:!\ ing- praised the ladies ; (iiai- 
donii rccdlo, ur rtcdii i dtiidri, havin-;- brought me the money. 
— IJut when with the gerund csscndo, we niust indispensably 
make the participle agree with the accusative, as prescribed 
just before, :it n VI. for other tensers ofthe verb e<;.«fL7r'. 


On the Participles. 

I have received the books which my sisters had sent me. 

ric'vere tibro sorcUa vianddre 

I have read them all; they are well written. The letter 

It'ggere tifflo scrillo IcUcra 

which my father wrote to me has been mislaid. My dear 

padre scrisse smarrire euro 

friends, I have always loved you like my children, I have 

umico sciitprc <nndrc <ome JigHitolo 

often admonished vou for vour own good. I met your brother 

spcsso ammoiiirc rostra bow ineonlrdrefratillo 

this morning; wc endiraced one another like good friends. 

uiallina abbrarcidr''i da budno 

These are all the co|)ies which you have gi\('n me to wiite. 
moslra dare serivcre 

• In Italian wc o((L>n use, with ^'rcat propriety, tlic vein r,n,,r, iur-ital of the 
rerb /ij»*r/- ; :i', I' uMrfnlu-zz'i vieii i-i'isimdta da lutli, ili uiikfiincfH ir> Itliimcil 
t»y every body ; I'ghno vinunno luildii, llicy >li;ill in- piiiinid ; Mi vicii delta, ( 
liiivc bfiMi told, —.lulhor. Fcir tlif Irac riiciuiiii^ of lucli cNpri's.-tioiin, m-c, liin\ 
iv«;r, llie ('iuuiCTKUH»Tir Moons, at I.ect. XVIII. jip. ir)H, IfiO, and \l'>''. 



Oil Preposilions exemplified. 

1. ^ A preposition is an indeclinable part of speech, wliich 
denotes the several relations of substantives and pronouns, 
and even of verbs, or adverbs taken in the sense of sub- 

2. All prepositions in Italian govern some of the oblique 
cases ; some govern one, some two, and others three, as will 
be seen in the following examples. 

Vem'te con me, or meco Come with me 

Parlo per vol 1 speak for you 

La veggo ogni giorno, eccdtto le I see her every day, Sundays ex- 

Domeniche cepted 

Avanti ogni cosa Before every other thing 

Mi regolo secondo le circostdnze I act according to circumstances 

Andro in cavipagna fra, or tra I will go into the country in a' 

due settimdne fortnight 

Mi trovo fra, or <ra gente in- I find myself among ungrateful 

grata people 

Tra, or fra voi, e me, c' e gran Between you and nie there is a 

differenza great difference 

Circa V affdre di vostrofratello About tlie affair of your brother 

Chi pub anddr contro, or contra Who can go against fortune? 

la, or delta fortiina ? 

Dopo questo, or a questo parCi After that he set out 

£ nascdsto dietro alia porta He is hid behind the door 

Non posso veder entro, or dentro I cannot see in, or within your 

il, or al vostro cudre heart 

JEgU corre verso me, or di me He ruiis towards me 

Non posso star senza voi I cannot stay without you 

Vedendoci correre verso il, or del In seeing us run towards the 

ponte bridge 

Guarddte dentro al castello Look inwards, or in the inside 

of the castle 

Non vedete nulla al difudri della Do you not see any thing out- 

casa ? wards, or on the outside of 

the house ? 

A gufsa di coldro, che pdrlano Like those who speak without 

senza giudizio knowledge 

Apple della montdgna vi scorre At the foot of a mountain runs a 

un rusce'llo rivulet 

Intdrno della citta si vede una Round the city you see a great 

gran nebbia tog 

Alldto del mio paldzzo Close to my palace 

Dirimpetto, or rimpc-tto al mio Over against my garden 



Sino, or fino, iiisino, or injiiio al Until to-day aftairs go badly 

i(ii>riio (V oggi le cose vim vude 

Appresso di, a, or I'osignoua By you, sir, madam, or miss 

Andidmo victno, or presso dtlla, Jjct us go near the tower 

alia, or la torre 

Qucuido sciremo gliititi dirimpetto When we arc arrived o\er 

del, al, or il fiiime against the river 

E cadiitQ sotto della, alia, or la It is fallen down under the 

tdvola table 

lo I' ho messo sopra della, alia, I have it put upon the chair 

or la si'ggiola 

Passeggiaidvio Inngo del, ul, or We were walking along the 

iljiiiiiie river 

Oltre di, or a n't) Besides that 

Quando J'umino di la dal logo Wluii we were on the other 

side of the lake 

Ora die sidmo di qua dal Ta- Now we arc on this side of the 

migi Ihames 

Trovdndomi lontdno dalla mia In finding myself far from my 

pdtria country 

Siain mnlto lungi da casa lostra We are very far from your 


Noi fuiiuno ieri dal Signorc, or di. We had been yesterday at Mr. 

or in casa della Signura or Mrs. 


On the above Prepositions. 

Lean airainst the wall. He is with his cousins. Since that 
yjpj)02;s;i(i>'si muro cugino da 

lime he is always before, or behind. They are on the other 
t( nipo scnipre 
bide the bridy:c. She has jumped over the talkie. Look under 

ponte sallare taxola giatrddre 

and upon the bed. Let us divide this between us. He walks 
/cllo (liiid( re passrgi^iare 

towards the city. Be civil towards every body. It is about 

riltd cortesecon tulli 

six o'clock. I liave boii^^ht that for you. They were amongst 
le sei eom peril re 

the populace. He works whilst the others play. According to 

fri'nt('i<:;Hu lavorare sjuisst'irsi secdiido 

my opinion, he is in the wronnj. Act acct)rdin£j to our rule. 
pari re lin lorto npert'ire rci^^ohi 

Take iIkmm all, except these two. It is on account of her 
prcndere lullo due a ri<^n<'irdo 

temper. I}r>ides your beinn; i^ljnorant, you are obstinate. In 
niturii/e esse re i'j^nornnle osd/idto in 

s 2 


rciiard, or uillj respect to yon, I say notlMiin. lie lives over 
quanlo dire nulla sfare 

against the Exchange. Let tis walk alon"- the rivulet. He 

piazza rfe' inercanti passeggidre rasccllo 

is near his journey's end. She is out of danger. He does 

xiaggio t ermine pericolo 

not live far. Stay till to-morrow. /\s for me, I do not know 
<ttar di casii aspelldre domdui conosccre 

her. They came after me. 



On Adverbs, Cnyijunctions, Interjections, and Expletives 


1. 51 An adverb is a part of speech, which added to verbs, 
or adjectives, expresses some circnmstance belonging to 
them, and is, with respect to the verb, what the adjective is 
with respect to the substantive. 

2. ^ Many adverbs are formed from adjectives, by adding 
mente ; as, from dotto, dottamente ; from prudente, prudcnte- 
7nente, Sec. 

3. ^ Some adverbs have their positive, comparative, and 
superlative degree ; as, /^c^f, well ; weglio, better; ottima- 
mente, very well ; male,'\\\; peggio, worse; pessimamcnte, 
very ill. Some others form their comparatives by adding 
pill ; as, dottamente, learnedly ; piii dottamente, more learn- 
edly ; and their superlatives by changing amente into issima- 
mente ,- as dottissimaynente, very learnedly. 

4. ^ Some adverbs have likewise their {Jiminutives; as, 
henino, adagino, pochino, pocolino, pochctto, tantino, tantU 
nello, which are the diminutives of bene, addgio, poco, 
tanto, ^r..* 

^ Adverbs are arranged under various classes by Gram- 
marian'^, of which the principal will be found in the copious 
exemplification which follows. 

5. «[| The class that deserves our particular attention is 
the IVth, containing the ^f/rer&.f o/ Quant i tjy Rnd Interro- 
gation, of which only the following are made to agree with 
the suljstantive, in the same manner as adjectives,f when- 

* Thus far I have taken tliis Lecture from Fer^anVs excellent Grammar, which 
I have c</nsr,aiitly used in the course of my profcssion, before the present iMJition 
of this Work, as the best then extant. — Editor. 

•f- Other adverbs of quantity, besides the foliowingsixtcen, are sometimes used 
as adjectives, or pronouns ; but none are declinable, exceptthese. — Corticelli 


ever their sii^nificiition inodilies the substanlivc, ami not the 
^ eil) or the ailjective, — in « liich ease, the I-'rench preserve 
them imlecliiiable. ami ])iit hetwi-en them and the substan- 
tives, either ilr, or r///, (h la, cSf. 

G. 5f Such adverbs are the I'oilowiiig- sixteen, and no more: 

Alfjudnto, somewhat Multo, much 

Altrctlulc, alike Nulla iioiliiug 

yUlreltdnto as imich Pocu, little 

Caro, ilcaily Qudiito, how iiiuch 

Cotiile, thus, so liaJo, scldoui 

Cutdtitu, SO much Spesso, frt'(|iieiuly 

Giaiidf, j^rcatly I'ttnto, so imich 

Mtzzo, by halt' Troppu, too much 

^ See the exemplification of them, nith tiolcs, in Section 
1\'. No. 11 of this Lectnre, which is wholly my tiddition, as 
well as the above observations, the Author having only i;iven 
a dozen sentences on these adverbs, without any remark 
wliatever, although they are by I'ar the mo^t copious and 

7. ^ The English language seldom follows the French 
syntax in similar cases, as the examples will shew ; but as 
an English person scarcely ever attempts to study Italian, 
before haviiii; tnade some |)rogress in the French, they are 
fie(]uentlv ntisled in tlie use of these adverbs, and conse- 
(pienlly tiiey could not be passed over here in silence. 

ExcinpUjication of Adverbs under Seven j^riiieipal Classes. 


8. Adverbs of Time. 

Ora son pronto now I am ready 

Adi'aso I'lta pitu venire now you* may come 

Venga ogi^i, o domdni come to-day, or to-morrow 

Vt-rrufra j)oco, or udeaau ad'sao 1 shall coiiit- by an! by 

Fdtclosubito srb'Uo do that directly 

Era (jui uri, or ierldllro, or /' he was licrc yesterday, or the 

ullrii'ri day before ye^tenlay 

f'enga tuslu the c chidmata (iu come iiibtaiiliy, when you are 

familiar style) mbilo die, S)C. 


quotes gcvcral classicn, to prove that we can say, like ilic Fri-iuli, afsdi di bene, 
luiitii (iO'.xJ ; iilijuanlo di Irmpo, some tirni', &e. Hic. iie. ; tuil not vvilli>laii(liiiK 
llicse rcti|)eciatjle aiillioriiie!>, tlictauiimn pupil will d.i well to say, mullo bine, 
ulii'iunlo tempo, and so on, wtiencvtr the sentence implies no tompiiison, and 
that the term cxpressHik! the qua/ilitij plainly modifies the MiliMantivc. — Editor. 
• Id thi», at well a.'* in all the foliowiun examples (those ol ilie I\', Clas," ex- 
cepted), the pronoun you is trunsl.Ued in Italian by the pronoun ella, or liy yosi- 
f^norin, in older to utcustoiu tlje scholar to the Italian ceremony spoken oi' p. (iO 


Camtmni presto 

lernotte* venne atrovdrmi 

L' ultima volta die lo vidi 

Ella gUfece una visita il gidrno 

Altra volta ella impardva bene, 

(more familiarly), Per I' ad- 

dietro, Sfc. 
Si credha cih a' tempi antichi 


L' ha sposdta da poco in quh 

lofui da lui iermattina 

Mori iers&a 

Cominciai la settimdna passdta 

lu v' era, or era la I' anno pas- 

Fino a qia, Jin qih, sin qui, or 
sin a qmf nan ha detto una 

Ella ha ben fatto findra 

jL' incontrdi otto gidrni fa, or 

Sono quindici gidrni ch' epartito 

Non e molto ch' egli era qui 

E qualche tempo da che e ritor- 

Non e un momenta ch' e escito 

Son otto gidrni ch' e ammaldto 
Noi v' andremo, or andremo la 

domdne, domdn V altro, or 

dopo domdne 
II gidrno dopo le sue nozze mi 

Gli tenni di4tro il gidrno seguente 

Vi vada qu^sta matiina, or sta- 
mattina, qvesto dopo pranzo, 
questa sera, or stasera 

Partir a presto, ovfrapoco 

walk fast 

last night he came to see me 
the last time I saw him 
she paid him a visit the day be- 
you learned well formerly 

they believed that in the days of 

drink first, or before 
he has married her lately 
I was at his house yesterday 

he died yesternight 
I began last week 
I was there last year 

hitherto he has not spoken a 

you have done right till now 
I met him eight days ago 

he has been gone this fortnight 
it is not long since he was here 
he has been back some time 

he has been gone out but a mo- 
he has been sick these eight days 
we shall go there to-morrow, or 
after to-morrow 

the day after his marrirge he left 

I followed him the day after, or 

go thither this morning, this 

afternoon, or this night 

he will set out soon, or shortly 

* Observe, the Italians never use ?iof/e for the first part of the night, which 
they call sera : so that iernutte means yesterday uiglit, about uiidnight. — Editor. 

f Although we do not find these four synoniinous adverbial forms alplia- 
beticaliy registered in the Focabulario dclla Crusca, yet we are authorised (be- 
sides the universal use even at present) by the same Academicians to admit 
them upon two authorities, aleged by them at the words fino aw-X sino ; one 
from an ancient MS. entitled, Tavola ritonda, and the other frotii Bembo. See 
their LeHer prefixed to the Vlth Vol. — Editor. 


Venga siibito 

Ella coDiincenl da qii) a xm anno 

Da qii\ inminzi non gli parltrb 

Tra, or ft a quattro giurni viio 

])adre ritornera 
Da prima non disse nulla 
Ella mi stiirba ad ogni momento ; 

or, in interrompe 
Qudndo la rivedrb ? or la vedrb 

di nuovo 
Ella non mi rircdra inai pitl 
Lo invito di rado 
Egitno sono qualche volta in cilia 
Egli i spessu fudri di casa 
Ella non parla quasi mai 
Scrivi'teci quanta prima 
Non ci vorrdnno meno di tre set- 

timdne al piii carlo, avdnti die 

sia siciiro di scampdrla 
Frasei settimune alpiil lungo me 

ne rado a Berlino 
M' aspetli alle tre al piu presto 

J'errb alle quattro al piu tardi 
Non e quasi 7nai in casa 
Ella chide chicr a come al sdlito 
Nulladimeno, or non ostdnte voi 

sit'te quasi sempre insieme 
Presto, tardi egli perira 
Ordinariam/nte ella vu'ne o trop- 

po presto, troppo tardi 
Venga di huon ora, or per tempo 
Esce di budn malti'no 
E egli arrivdto ? non uncdra, or 

non per anche 
Allura egli esci ; e da quel tempo 

in qua non I' ho piu vediito 
Qudndo terra ella P la viattina, 

il d()])0 pranzo ? 
Venga la sera ; o di nolle tempo 

Da qui I tempo invnnzi, or da al- 
Idra inuanzi, non la vide pih. 

come directly 

she will begin a year hence 

henceforth I shall speak to him 

no more 
four (lays hence my father will 

at Hist he said nothing 
you disturb me every minute 

when shall I see you ai^ain ? 

you shall never see me again 

I seldom invite him 

they are sometimes in town 

he is often out 

she hardly ever speaks 

write to us as soon as possible 

he cannot possibly be out of 
danger before three weeks, at 

in six weeks hence, at farthest,* 
I am going to Berlin 

expect me at three o'clock, at 

I shall come at four, at farthest* 

he is liardly ever at home 

she prates as usual 

nevertheless, you are almost al- 
ways together 

sooner or later he will perish 

you commonly come either too 
soon, or too late 

come early, or in good time 

he goes out early 

is he arrived ? not yet 

then he went out, and since that 

time I have not seen him 
when will you come? in the 

morning, or in the afternoon ? 
come in tlic evening, or in the 

from that time he saw her no 


• Obn-vc tlic (liflrLTiiicc of lrall^lalinK^ «J snojifst, at farthest, in I he above 
four txiiuiplfs ; ill ibi- two firM, ilieliinc fDiisintiiiK in ilays, we>ay, al plil 
torto, alpiU turigo; bill, in llic two, Ibi- lime being liciurH, wc suy, al fiiii 
pritto. III piu liiTdt, — HdiloT. 

N i 


Noi lofaremo, or farcmo clb a 

nostra bell' agio 
La rapl di bel meriggio 
lo vo, or vado a trovdrla un 

gidrno si, e un gidrno no 
Lo fdccia iutto in un tempo, or 

ad nn tratto 
Studia piu che piu 
Ella viene in tempo molto a pro- 

posito, or ad or a molto oppor- 

Me ne servo nelV occasidne, or 

nel bisdgno 
Spafi in un batter d dcchio 

Lnpdra tre regole ogni gidrno 

we shall do that at leisure 

he carried her off at noon-day 
I go to see her every other day 

do that all at once 

she studies more than ever 
you come very seasonably 

I make use of it occasionally 

he disappeared in the twinkling 

of an eye 
she learns three rules every day 

9. Adverbs of Place. 

Sifcrmi qv), stay there 

Dove va in tuntafretta ? where are you going so fast ? 

Per dovee ella passdta ? which way did you pass ? 

Di dove viene ? where does he come from ? 

Venga di qua come this way 

Perche vien ella si tardi ? vvhy do you come so late ? 

Vi sono due nnglia da, qui a la it is two miles from hence thither 

Quanta c e da qui a casa vostra ? how far is it from hence to your 

house ? 

Passidmo di qxii 
Chi v' e lassie? 
Gtidrdi laggiu 
Gudrdi qtii softo 
Cominci di sopra 
Finisca qiii basso 
Passeggidmo da su, a giu 
Egli era dentro, ed iofudri 
Sin dove e ella statu P 
Sono stato sin, or Jin la 
L' ha buttdto a terra 

L' ho vediito da. vicino 

Vcdidmolo piit da vicino 

Lo metta da parte 

E' su la parte dindnzi delta casa 

Non e contenta in nessiin ludgo 
Andidmo dunque altrdve 
Gli ho cercdti da per tutto 

let us pass this way 

who is up there ? 

look there below 

look under here 

begin upward 

make an end downward 

let us walk up and down 

he was within and I without 

how far have you been ? 

I have been thus far 

he has thrown him upon the 

I have seen him close 
let us see that nearer 
put that aside 
he is on the forepart of the 

she is satisfied no where 
let us go elsewhere, then 
I have looked for them every 



Fensia du qucstu parte 

J'dda lUi (jUt'llii parte 

I ada a distra 

L' insrgnae a man sinistra 

Vada drifto 

Soiio cadilto da alto a basso 

come on tliis side 

go on tliat side 

turn to tlic riglit 

the sign is on the left hand 

Avalk straight along 

1 lelltVoin the top to theboltoin. 


lO. Adverbs of Order. 

do that first 

let us read by turns 

let us walls abreast 

once, twice, or thrice 

all is topsy turvy 

you do every thing by halves 

how much did this handkerchief 

cost ? 
how long have you been here ? 

Fiicc'ia prima cih 

Lcgguimo vn dopo V altro 

Cnmminiamo di jiari 

Una volta, due, or trc volte 

Tutto e sottosdpra, or sossdpra 

Ella ammi'zza ogni cosa 

Quanta casta qui'sto fazzolclto, 

muccichino, or pczzudla 
Quanta tempo c die el la e qui ? 
Qitdnto tempo c ch' egli e uscito ? 
Da qudnda in qua c egli venuio 

in citta, 

f IV. 

II. Adverbs of Quanlitij and JnlerrogcUion. 

^ Ai^ B. M.iny of tliu exampli's of tliis clu^s are taken from classical authors ; 
but as they have been altered, >ouietiine-i for brevity's sake, and sometimes to 
ill(i>irate ilie belter the proper use of each adverb, liie quotation has been 
omitied. — See tlie Adverliscmenl |)refixed lo this Work, and note *, at p. 75. 
See also above, n. 6. p. 181. 

how lontr has he been out ? 

town ? 

ong IS It since 

he came to 

Abbastunza vi dovn'bbero pur 

giu avi'r placdta le niie di- 

Noi ne abbidmo a bastdnza 
Essi'ndo og^i* alqiidnto le leggi 

ristrttte al piacvre 
Fiitto alqudnti pussi riiorndi a 

II Sc til mi credcssi, tu fari'sti 

* altreltdle 
Ilaccdnta a' tudi Jigliudli le 

azi'hii gluridse dtgll udminl 

ilUistri, se vudi die divintino 


my misfortunes should have 
already sufficiently ai)peascd 

we have enough of them 

pleasure being to-day somewhat 
restricted by the laws 

after taking a few steps, 1 re- 
turned home 

if you would take my word for it, 
you would do the same 

relate to your sons the actions of 
illustrious men, if you wish 
them to become such 

• All adverbs- (tf quantity marked tlius •, arc twice exemplified ; first, adver- 
bially taken, and used inderliiialdy; and afierwardi, deelineil like adjective;'. — 
Sec <ibservation n. .'^i, at the luginiiing of lliis l,i.< ti he. — Elitor. 

II III all llie idirato tiiiii marked II , llie adverl m exemplilied aii' nut of the 
f.iiniliar >tyte ; nltlir)ui'li I hey m.iy be u.teil with |;real elegance in jioclry, or 
kublime tompo-'itiou*. — E'lilo'. 


Oltre una buona somma di de- 
nciro, gli dlede tayiti gio'u'lli, 
die valevuno forse* altrettanto. 

II macelldio ha ammazzdto in 
qut'sta settimdna* altrettdnte 
pecore, die it mese passdto 

Mettete siibito questijidri in molle 
per due ore alnuinco 

Riposidmoci almeno tre gidrni in 
quista terra 

Parendogli aver veduto assdi,f 
se ne torno a casa 

Desiderdso di guadagndre assai,-f 

e di spender poco 
La dud d' Edinbiirgo sitpera d' 

assdif ogni ultra Britdnnica 

in bellt'zza 
Assaif n &ano, die non si mara- 

viglidvano della di lui morte, 

per die sapevano aver egli degli 

anni assdi 
Qiieste perle cdstano* caro in 

questo paese 
Lefridta non sono care la state 
Eglino harmo del dendro in grati 

Trovidmo, die da trent" anni ad- 

dietro v' erano circa trecento 

Ordindrono, die frutta fdssero 

portdte a dovizia alia Jin e del 

§ Come vi chiamate ? 
Non so come fare a torndrmi a 

II E ricorddr ti dei qudnti, e come 

endrmi mali per malizia operdti 

Iddio dbbia coll onde delfonte 

della sua pietd lavati 

besides a large sum of money, 

he gave him as many jewels, 

as, perhaps, came to as much 
the butcher has killed as many 

sheep this weeks, he did all 

last month 
put immediately these flowers in 

water, for two hours at least 
let us repose ourselves at least 

three days in this village 
having, as he thought, seen 

enough, he returned to his 

he was desirous of gaining much, 

and spending little 
the City of Edinburgh, for 

beauty, greatlj^ excels every 

other in Great Britain 
there were many who did not 

wonder at his death, because 

they knew he was advanced 

in years 
these pearls are very dear in this 

fruit is not dear in summer 
they have money in abundance 

we find that, about thirty years 
ago, there were about three 
hundred shops 

they ordered fruit to be served 
up in abundance, at the end of 
the repast 

what is your name ? 

I do not know how I shall do to 
get home 

and thou oughtest to call to thy 
recollection how many and 
often enormous evils, done 
through wickedness, have been 
washed away by God, with 
the waters of the fountain of 
his piety 

* Seethe foregoing note, thus marked*. — Editor. 

f Observe this and the three examples immediately following, wherein asidi 
lias always a different signification, and, in the last example, is an adjective in 
bfith instances, although indeclinable. — Editor. 

§ Tlie adverbs of the sentences marked thus §, are interrogatively used, as 
the sign plainly shews. — Editor. 

II See nci^e thus marked ||, in the foregoing page. — Editor. 


II C'daudrnto gV invitb a ceua Calandrino invif.ed tliem to sup- 

* cotiile alia irista, the coluro per in such a dry iiiaiiner, tbat 

non i-i vuller restdre they did not clioosc to stay 

H O mani inique ! voi ornatrni O, guiliy hands ! that decked my 

delle viie belh'zze, foste grun ^ hcaiity, yoii were in a great 

cagiune che comparissero co- nieasme the cause of my ap- 

tali, da esser io da molti desi- pearing so, and of my being 

dtrata desirt d by many 

Non sidte di gruzia *cotdnio for heaven's sake, do not be so 

avdro di voslre visile sparing of your visits 

II Oime, viisera me, a cui ho io O, unhappy I ! Whom have I 

col'inti anni portiilo* cotdnto so many years so much loved ? 
a mure 9 

\ Dove sit'te slaii ? where have you been ? 

II Levdssi un groppo di venlo, e there sprung up so furious a gale 

«1 *grande in qiu'sta cassa of wiuil, which blew full upon 

ditde, che riversdta, per forza this chest, that it was over- 

Landulfo andh sotlo V onde. turned, and thereby Landolpho 

went under the waves 

Voi avt'le* gran faccnide in you have a vast deal of business 

quesUi mercdto in this market 

II Egli non istctte guari, che tra- it was not long ere he died, and 

passb, e da loro fu onon'vol- he was by them honourably 

vitnte fatto seppcUire buried 

Si vendtvano l oche a un soldo they sold geese at a penny a- 

V una, e si dava U7i unitra piece, and gave a duck into 

giunta the bargain 

Qucsti diamdnti sovo del peso di these diamonds weigh each 

dramnie due V unu inarca about two drachms 

11 secdndo strumento non i altro the second instrument is no- 

che una cdpia del primo falto thing else but a copy of the 

in piccolo first in miniature 

Egli parti) lie piu ue vieno come he spoke neither more nor less 

se eglij^osse prof^ta than as if he had been a pro- 

Mi rincrtjsce meno, che non pen- I am less sony than you think 

Meno^ parole, e pihfatti few words and more deeds 

Alia donna parccu aver mezzo the lady thought she had half 

inteso understood 

// vdo del tnnpio di Salomdne si the veil of Solomon's temple was 

divt'sf per *viizzo divided in the middle 

Le nt'spole da scrbdrc, si cdlgo- the medlars intended for keeping, 

• Sec note iIiiim marked •, at p. IBf). — Editor. 

} ObitiTvc liiTi-, wirh Cinonio, tlial althoiii;li wi'/io is not iiindo to aj;rce wiili 
parule, yet it \^ rcitaiiily usfd a* an ndjiciivc : »u is/ziu, in the sciUeme llms 
Minrkiil J. See I^F.c i . II. n. 2. — Editor . 

y Sic a noir ttiiis markiil || , in p. IH^t. 

I Sreaitorr tliut marked §, in furcguing page. 


CO, die non sien mezze ^, le 
(judli inolto negli lilborl dure- 
rdnno* o co' picciiioli, mezze 
mature e per cinque d1 mace- 
rate in acqua salsa 

Mi rlncrrsce *molio di sentir che 

mio fratello s'la maldtu 
Si trdvano* molte cicdle su gli 

itlivi cZ' Italia 

Suo marito non le Idscia man- 
car* nulla 

II Era morto in quell' anno il Re 
d' Unglieria, del quale non ri- 
mdse* nulla Jigliuulo maschio 

§ Perche non ve n anddte ? 

Perche non son per ancdra ie- 
didto della vostra campagnia 

Mangiate di quel che piii vi 
piuce, ne vi riguardate da quel, 
che vi va a genio, piu che sc 
foste in casa vostra 

JE manddto per piil del sudi 
aniici, a parenti, dissc loro 

Ijl miei duhhidsi pensieri il piil mi 
traevano tutto il gidrno incerta 
di dolermi, a di rallegrdrmi 

Starb du voi cinque gidrni al piii 

Ddtemcne un hicchier di piil 

Chi s' arri'schia nel giiioco, ania 

poco* se stesso 
Sono pochi* gidrni, die arrivdi in 

questa cittd 
Vdglio un poco discdrrer con voi 

di quest' affdre 
Ella si vergogno un pochette 

are gathered before they are 
too ripe, as tliey will keep 
good a long while, either on 
their trees, or gathered with 
their own stalks when half 
ripe, and steeped in salt water 
for five days 

I am very sorry to hear of my 
brother being ill 

there are to be found many grass- 
hoppers on the olive-trees of 

her husband lets her want for 

the king of Hungary died that 
year, and left behind him no 
male child 

why do not you go away? 

because I am not vveaiy of your 

eat of whatever best pleases 
you, and follow your taste 
without any more restraint 
than if you were at home. 

and having sent for several of his 
friends and relations, he said 
to them 

my dubious thoughts drew me 
along the whole day, uncer- 
tain whetlier I ought to be 
merry or sad 

I will be absent from you five 
days at most 

give me another glass of it 

whoever games deeply has little 
regard for himself 

1 arrived in town only a few days 

I wish to talk to you a little on 
this business 

she was somewhat ashamed 

^ Observe in this sentence, the firit mezze means over-ripen 'd, and the second, 
half, or ly half, owing to its different pronunciation. — See Lect. I. n. 5, and 
the note *, p. 6. — Editor. 

* See a nole thus niaiked *, at p. 185. — Editor. 

II Sec a note thus marked ||, at p. 185. — Editor. 

§ See a ii')le llius marked §, in page 18(j. — Editor. 

X Sec a note thus marked \, in the to.egoingpage. — Editor. 


Dutemi un pochettino di ijucl 

Delle cose buone bisvgna fare a 

Un simile effetto, j)ressappuco,Ja 

I' in/iisioiie delle rose secchc 
Qiicindu§ rlturneretedi Francia? 

Quail to^ costano qiu'sti cavdlli ? 
Non saprei inostrdrvi app'u'iio* 

qiuUito suite iiigaundto da 

L' amico glicavo di borsa* qudnti 

dendri egli aveva 
I'i vendcro qiu'sti libri a piaccrc, 

e vi darb la cassu per soproppiil 

Quanle volte^ sitte stato a Roma ? 

Qiirst' dbito mi costu qiuisi il 

duppio del vostro 
II Chi pnrla rado'-' c teni'Uo a grado 

Grail dolure rade* volte invecchia 
Donne sunili a qiu'lle sono piu 

rude cite le feni'ci 
I'oi mi ci vedrcte di rado 

10 pidngo spesso* la perdita del 
mio amico 

11 Ogni cosa die e spcssa* dive'nta 

vile per molto uso 

Non mi pote'va accadtr cosa, die 

mi fosse* tanto dispiaciuta 
Ho tanlc* pt'core qudnlr capre 
Troppo* mi spiuc(pic il silo pro- 

Troppe* sono le ragioni, die mi 

ftrzano a negdrvi il favore 

Basta, basta, non mi date piil 

fravole, die gid sono* troppe 

give inc a small bit of that bread 

good things sho\»hl be spariiitly 

tlc.ilt out 
a similar ctlect is produced by the 

intusion ot (hied roses 
when will yoii return from 

France ? 
what is the price of these horses ? 
I could not sufficiently shew yon, 

how much you have been been 

taken in by those people 
the friend took out of his purse 

all the money be had 
I will sell you these books very 

cheap, and give you the box 

into the bargain 
how often have you been at 

Rome ? 
tins suit cost me almost the 

double of your's 
he is sure to please, who speaks 

excessive grief seldom grows old 
ladifs, like those, are more rare 

than phoenixes 
ymi will see me here seldom 
1 often weep the loss of my 

every thing, often repeated, be- 
comes common through fre- 

fpient use 
nothing could happen to me that 

would be so displeasing to me 
I have as many sheep as goats 
bis proceedings displeased me too 

I liave too many reasons that 

compel me to refuse you the 

favour asked of nie 
enough, enough — give me no 
more strawberiics, for 1 have 
already too many 

f Obstrvc liere llic hicoinparable copionsiipss of the Tiisran laiiKuaue ; llie 
paululiim (a little) of the L;iiiii, may he rendfrod in eleven ililft re(it worilx ; viz. 
\. un pu' piici. l.unpochHlo. '.i.un forhellinn. ■\. un porhiito. ^i. un poco- 
linn. (i. un micciihi'io. 1 . un minuiziltnu. H. un viiccino. !>• un m'colino. 
10. un tanlinrt'o. 1 1. nn lanlino. — Kdilor. 

II See n:l<- lliii'. luaiked || , at p. ia.'». Aluo aiiOtlier, niaikcd llais*, at \). iHJ. 



12. Adverbs of Quality. 

Cib mi tocca sul vivo 
Eglifa molto male ifatti su6i 

Ella dpera trascuratamente 
Lo safondatamente 
Le verro incuntro a mezza stracla 
Ha app^nu I' uso della ragi6ne\ 
Fa tutto di mala vdg Ha 

Lo faccia volentieri, or di bum 

cuore, or di bu6na vdgUa 
Nonfo nulla a modo mio 
Le piace questa cosa ? or le da 

nel genio 
Operi ciascuno come gli pare e 

pidce, or a secdiida del sua 

Ella gli hafatto il suo ritrdtto at 

Faccia due passi indi^tro 
Caddi rovescidne, or supino 
Noi cammindmmo a tentdne 
Ella lo maltrdtta a torto, or in- 

Ella opera a malizia 
U hafatto per ischerzo 
Lofeci per isbdglio 
2/' ho incontrdto a caso, or acci- 

Vi andrh a qualdnque partito 

Tenga loro dietro da vicino 

Lo vudl avere a ogyii modo, or per 

Andidmo a piedi 
F' andrh a cavdllo 

that touches me to the quick 

he is very low in his circum- 

you act carelessly 

she knows that thoroughly 

1 will meet you half way 

Le has scax'ce common sense 

you do every thing against the 

do it willingly, or heartily, or 
with a willing mind 

I do nothing to my mind 

is that to your mind ? 

let every one act to his mind 

you have drawn his picture after 

make two steps backward 
1 fell backward 
we walked groping 
you use him ill wrongfully 

you act out of ill-nature 
he has done it in jest 
I have done it by mistake 
I have met him by chance 

I shall go there, let the worst go 

to the worst 
watch them narrowly 
she will have him by all means 

let us go on foot 

I shall go there on horseback 

+ To ask many of my countrymen what we sliould say iov eommon sense, tliey 
would rashly assert, that it is impossible to translate tliose words, otherwise 
than by semo cnmune, as the author had here said ; but if we calmly investigate 
the genius of the Italian language, we .shall find in this, as well as in other iii- 
uumerahle instances, that it abounds in peculiar expressions, without resorting 
to barbarous Gallicisms, as senso comiine is. For the above sentence may be 
translated in several ways besides the above, and always idiomatically, we 
might say, appena sa discernere il hen dal male ; epoco men che mentecdtto ,■ and 
Boccace woulcf have said, senteanzi dello sce'mo chc no, — Editor. 


Ella v' aitilra in naricetlo* you shall i^o in a boat 

Null ho data nc jiiu tie ineno 1 j^ave neither more nor less 

A'oi s'uimo ambidue d' accordo we have agreed on both sides 

St' ho /alto cibper lei, tanto piil if I have done that for yoii, I 

lo furo per lui shall do it much more lor him. 


\3. Adicrbs of yijprriinlion, Negntioit^and Douhl. 

51 mio carofralrllo yes, my dear brother 

Lofarl) duvv^ro, or in verita, I shall do it indeed 

SI, ceravu'tite, me lo disse yes, truly, he told it nie 

Ella ha ben ragidne you are much in the right 

Per dir la verita, egU ha it torto to tell the truths he is in the 


S^i da vera yes, truly 

V acconscnto volenticri 1 consent to it willingly 

No, ne V amo, ne lo temo no : I neither love nor fear hira 

Non lo credo I do not believe it 

Non e panto cambidta she is not at all changed 

Forse verra perhaps he will come 

E pcrchc no? why not? 

Lofarb probabilwente 1 shall do it probably 

Cio pub t'ssere, or puo darsi that may be 

EAla opcrera coil, or in qw'da you shall act thus, or so 


Cammini coil w^alk so 

Ella dice dist, ed io dico di ?io you say yes, and I say no 


1-i. Adveibs of Cumpurison. 

% Thc?eare partly iiichuled in the IVth Class, containinj^ 
the Adverbs of Quaiitit}', and paitly explaitied in Lf.ct. VII. 
p. 4 I to 45, where we treated of the Comparison, which see. 


15. i: " A Conjunction is a part of speech void of sig;nifi- 
" cati'in itself, but so formed, as to help sij^Mification, by 
" tnakin;^ two or nior(> sii;nificant sentences to be one signi- 
'• fuant sentence." (Harris's Hermes, p. 238.) 

I(j f The usual classification of conjunctions is here 
omitted, as unimportant, the following exemplilication being 
deemed fjuite suilicient for the guidance of the scholar. 

Con patto, che verra domdni on condition ho will come 


• If it were fi.r five or six mile;', or airosi" i» rircr only, we would say, in bar- 
ih^tlo. — Editor. 


Per paiira di dispiacMe 

Per dir il vero, non e un gran die, 

or gran cosa 
JDonde viene, ch' ella e cos'i mesta 
yljine di per/ezioncirla 
Affindie ella gli scriva 

A proposito, die ora e? or die 

or a e egli ? 
A die, or a qudl proposito ha egli 

detto cio? 
Puo appe'na cammindre 
Se ella non vien sublto 
Se non si spicda non potrci rag- 

Secondodic, or mentre gli uni en- 

trano, gli altri escono 
Ancordie non volessero 
In caso die ella venga, entri per 

la porta del giardino 
In vece di do egli spende tutto il 

Cioe, or doe a dire, die V. S. non 

verra punto 
Al contrdrio, or anzi veirb pre- 
Appiinfo per qiiesto, io son venuto 
E' ella d' accdrdo, o no ? 
Tanto pin la stimo, qudnto mug- 

gidr pena si prende 
Da die V. S. e qui, io non imparo 

Dimanieradie ella pub Jar cio die 

le pidce 
Tosto die, or suhito die V. S. sara 

vesiita, escir^mo 
Intanto, or frattdnto to leggeru un 

Posto die, or in caso die venga, Io 

faccia entrai e 
In ogni modo le parli 
Non gia di io volessi privdrnelo 

Nemme'n io, se n' accerti 
Venga qui, altrimcnti io verro a 

for fear nf displeasing you 

to tell the truth, it is no great 

how comes it that you are so sad ? 
in order co perfect yourself 
in order tliat you may write to 

now I think on it, what is it 

to what purpose has he said that ? 

he can scarce walk 

unless you come 

unless he makes haste, he will 

not be able to overtake her 
as they come in, the others go 

though even they would not 
in case you come, get in at the 

garden door / 

instead of that he spends all his 

that is as much as to say, that 

you will not come at all 
far from that, I shall come very 

it is for that I came 
have you agreed, or no ? 
I esteem her so much the more 

that she takes pains 
since you are here, I learn no- 
so that you may do what you 

as soon as you are dressed, we 

shall go out 
in the meanwhile, I shall read a 

in case he comes, make him come 

be it as it will, speak to him 
not that I would deprive him of 

nor I neither, I assure you 
come hither, or else I shall go 

and fetch you 

* Spendtre, or consumdreilsuo, means to spe!)d or wastt- away one's own pro- 
pej'ty ; as, fon57^77j«re Z' aZ/rdi means to waste away tlic prcperty of ano'biT. 


Se ella restdsse la, or i-i reitilsse, 

terr/i a trovcirla* 
In oUre, or oltredichc ella j^H 

dim, die, i^'c. 
Alldra noi partinmo insieme 
Cioe a dire, die ella non I' in- 

tende \ 

Poidie ella ha tantafretta, se nc 

Posto die J'. S. dt'aiui con noi 
Al contrdrio ami'co miu 
Sana alieni'ssiinu dallo sprczzdr 

In quel mentre egU arrivo 
Sopra di cib tin di lore gU disse 

Findi^ elld sara dilig^nte, ogniino 

la loderd 
AUrimenti ella sara d'lsprezzdta 
Ajfi'itlo, uppdnto, or gidsio lo 

stesso di quello, cK ella compro 
Talmente die, dimanicradi'i' , or 

intunto die non ritornb piil 
Ogni volta, or tutta volta die lo 

O parli, no 
Non ne parli piil, die db mi fa 

Gliel' ha promesso, ma non le 

creda, or no7i le diafcde 
Per die ella s ingdnna spesso, or 

spesse volte 
Ella vede, come son maltratldti 
Quest' e, perdie son forestie'ri, or 

per rsser foresticri 
Oltr' d cib di'cale, die si spied, or 

fdccia presto 
Fdccia andie qui'sto 
Suiito die ritorna, io rsro 

Altrimi'nti sarele gastigdti, cosl i 
grandi, come i pt'c( oli, or tantn 
grandi, che, i^c. 

O che Leva, a che mangi 

A ogni vindo, or nulUidimento non 
ha jierdulo il suo tcntjio 

Intanto, or frattdnto Jinirthnu 

if you were to stay there, I would 

go and 8ee you 
besides that, you will tell him 

that, &c. 
then we shall set off together 
that is to say, that you do not 

understand it 
since you are in such a hurry, go 

your ways 
provided you dine with us 
far from it, my friend 
I am very far from despising any 

In the meanwhile he arrived 
whereupon, one of them said to 

as long as you are diligent, every 

body will praise you 
otherwise you will he despised 
precisely like that which you 

so that he returned no more 

every time you see him 

whether he speaks or not 

do not speak of it any more, for 

it gives me pain 
she has promised it you, but do 

not believe her 
because she often mistakes 

you see how ill they use them 
it is because they are foreigners 

moreover, tell him to make haste 

do that also 

as soon as you come back, 1 

shall go o-it 
otherwise you will be chastised, 

both great and small 

whether you drink, or eat 
nevertheless, he has not lost his 

however, we shall give over 

• 5e generally govcrm s verb in tlio second iniperfect of tlie conjuiiclivc 


A Caution by the E^ditor. 

17. f In the above numerous phrases which, from p. ISl, 
to tliis, exemplify both the adverbs and conjunctions, the 
judicious critic will find some arranged among the latter of 
these two parts of speech, which properly belong to the 
former, or even to the prepositions ; and vice versa. The 
fact is, that the Editor inadvertently sent these pages to the 
press without paying much attention to them, and when he 
perceived the Author's inaccuracy on this point, it was too 
late, and too expensive, to remedy it. But the diligent 
pupil will easily discriminate the adverbs from the conjunc- 
tions, both by the knowledge he is supposed to possess of 
his native tongue, and by applying to each of those above 
exemplified, the definition given of either. At the same 
time, the above phrases, containing nothing but what is pure 
Tuscan idiom, will safely facilitate the art of speaking in 
company, both correctly and without affectation. 


18. % The interjection is a part of speech calculated to 
express the feelings and sudden emotions of the mind, or 
the heart, and therefore inserted between the other words of 
the sentence, as their name implies, without forming any 
close connection of meaning with any of them. 

19. % There are interjections of as many different sorts as 
the feelings or emotions of which our heart and mind are 
susceptible. The following are, however, the most usual 
species : 

Of joy. 

Viva, viva ! eh viva ! long live! 

M ! ah ! all ! ah ! 

Buono ! bene! good! 

Allegrezza, allegrezza ! \ lit'' 

O che allegrezza /J J ^ " 

Of grief and help. 

Ah J ahi I oi J ohi ! oh ! ah ! 

J) eh ! pray ! 

Oivie ! ohime ! omef 

Aime ! 

Lasso J V alas ! 

A he lasso ! 

Lasso me 9 

Aiuto ! socc(^)rso? help! help! 

Alisero me ! poor wretch that T am ! 

O Din ! o God ! 


Oh cergogna f 

Oibb ! 



)ibb ! S 
■Ji via! > 

Animo su ! 
Cordggio ! 
Su presto 
Su via .' 

Via su 1 

sto ! "j 
/ via!) 

Of aversion ami contempt. 

o for shame ! fie for slinme ! 

o fie ! o fough ! 

Of ertcoii raging . 

cheer up I 
take courage ! 

come on ! come, then \ 

Of wonder. 

Come ! 

Per bacco ! 

Cdppita I Cappilenna ! 



how so ! 

upon my word ! 

/ Cappiterma ! "^ 

/ > liey-day ! lack-a-day ! 

/ Cdnchitra ! J 

Of calling 

Ehi ! (in familiar) '^ 

Old! (a King calling on his >1 




'Ad . 

halloo ! 
Of teaming and threatening. 

Gudi ! 
Ohe, ohe ! 
Gudrda ! guarda ! 
Largo, largo ! 

Zitto ! sta, sta ! 
Piano! addgio ! 
Mto ! 

Ecco ! t'ccoti ! 
Silrtnio ! 7 

Ctieto ! tacele ! j 



take care ! have a care 

Of silence and suspension. 

whist ! hush ! 
softly ! 

halt ! 
bihold ! 

silence ! 


Of approbation and applause. 

hr;iv() ! 

well ! very wel 

huzza ! 

Bravo ! f/ravissitno ! 

Dene ! va bene ! 

Viva ! eh viva / 

Da capo ! encore 

'ifl. ^ OiisF.iivr. — Altlioiii;li \hv iiitcrjoclioii 1)0 an indc- 
clinaljle part of speech, the ahove live, hravo ! hraiissinio! 
zitto ! inisero mc 1 lasso me ! are liable to ho aijrecd in «jeii- 
der and imniher, accordin;^ to the most general rules of the 
afjreeniont o( ;u!i<rtives ; being rather vocatives, where an 



interjection is elliptically understood, than interjections 
themselves. The first three must agree with the person or 
persons we address, and the other two with the person who 
utters them ; and if the speaker mean to embrace others in 
the exclamation besides himself, the pronoun wie would be 
also changed into noi. 


21. Grammarians mean by expletives, some particles 
which, although they are not absolutely necessary for gram- 
matical construction, serve, however, to give a particular 
strength and energy to the discourse. 

The Tuscan grammarians call such particles r//?2ewo / of 
which the following are the most common. 

BenCy Or bene, Si bene. 

Exam. JS bene, volete voifarlo ? well, will you do it ? Or 
bene, qual partito prenderemo noi? well, what course shall 
we take ? Gli domanddi, se gli bastdva V dnimo di eaccidrJo 
via : ed egli rispSse, si bene, (Salv.) I asked him, if he had 
courage to send him away : and he answered, yes. 

Exam. La cosa e tanto da ridere, cK' io pur la dirb, 
(Firenz.) the thing is so laughable, that I must tell it. — 
When pure is put before an adverb of time, it menns just ; 
as, 1 Signori erano pur allbra arrivuti; the gentlemen were 
just then arrived. 

Exam. Non e poi vero qudnto mi dicesfe ; what you told 
me is not true. 

Exam. Non credo io gid, die ve we avrete a male (Anni- 
balCaro.) ; I do not think you will take it ill. 

This is likewise an expletive, since we say sometimes, Mai 
sempre, mai si, mai no ; only meaning, sempre, si, no ; al- 
ways, yes, no ; yet it gives a greater force to the expression. 

Exam. // vostro vestito e beW efatto ; your suit of clothes 
is finished. Ho pagdto cinquecento belle guinee ; I have 
paid five hundred guineas. 

* This interesting subject having been totally omitted by tlie author, I have 
supplied it from ^erg:ani'5 grammar.— £rf?7or. 


Iv\am. Son tutto stauco ; I am quite tired, f.d donna 
iiiUndo cosli'ii parlare, il (jiit'dc < Ua crcdcia tnulo/o, tntla 
stordt, (Bocc. 3. 1.) llie woman, hcai'ii)g that n)an speaking 
whom she thought dumb, was quite amazed. 

Exam. lo nan so nltrimaitu c/ii cgli sia ; I do not know 
wijo he is. 

Exam. Sc spaccidrvoNc le cose sue, glicle comrnnc gettur 
via, (liocc. t?. 4.) if lie wished to get rid ofhis goods, he was 
oI)liged to throw them away. 

Exam. Che tempo fa egli? how is the weather r Che ora 
e egli ? w hat is it o'clock ? Egli t ora di desinarc ; it is din- 
ner time. 

Exam. Ella von andid scmprc cost ; it shall not always he 

See page 57. n 13 and 14. 

Exam. Egli c piii dodo, ch^ io non credcva ; he is more 
learned than I thought. Tcnio chexoi non >ni aOba/idonidlc ; 
1 am afraid yon will forsake n>e. This idiom cannot be 
literally translated, since the word non would make no sense 
in iMiLjli-li : l)ut in French it would adn»it of a liteial trans- 
lation, thus : // (s/ })lus saianl, quejc nc croj/ois. Jc crains, 
que vans ne niabandonniez. 

Mi, Ti, a, Vi, Si, Ne. 
Exam. Io mi crcdeva, chexoi foste partita ; I tliought you 
wore gone. Dcsidcro, chr In con noi ti rimdnga (/!/csla sera ; 
I ui-h lliou wowldvt stay with us to-n ght. Noi ci scdt rcmo 
fjui ; we will sit down here. Non so, se voixi conoscidle iin 
certo ('alaadiino ; 1 do not know whether you areac(juainted 
with one Calandriiu*. Del paldgio ,s' nsc), e fiig<xissi a casa 
sua, {Wine.) : he It-ft the palace, and lan to his own house. 
Chetami'ntc >/' (anio sino alia fun'slra ,- he gently went as far 
as the wnul( w — See more on these la>t expletives at Eect: 

o J 



On Syntax^ Orthographj/, and their respective Figures. 

% 1. Syntax, or Construction, is the regular inflecting 
and joining of the parts of speech, or sentenceSj togethery 
conformably to the genius of a language. 

i[ 2. In the construction of the Italian tongue, three 
things are most accurately to be considered : 

I. The proper arrangement and use of the parts of 
speech in the sentences, and of sentences in the periods. 

II. The government of those parts of speech that are 
susceptible of any. 

III. And finally, their concord, or right inflection. 

^ 3. The Arrangement, or use of the parts of speech 
or sentences, may be either natural, artificial, or Jigurative. 

<|[ 4. The natural order of words is the following: The 
nominative, substantive, or pronoun, should always be placed 
first ; the adjectives belonging to it should have the second 
place; if the nominative has an article, the article must 
necessarily precede both ; then the verb should follow ; and, 
if there be an adverb, it ought to be put immediately after 
the verb ; afterwards the accusative ; and then the other 
cases, preceded by their prepositions, if there be any. 

^ 5. The artificial order of words and sentences in periods, 
consists in those allowable deviations from the natural, 
which are suggested by the taste and harmonic talents of a 
judicious writer ; it cannot, therefore, be reduced to rules, 
and must be attained by a serious perusal of the most eminent 
authors. The Italian language abounds, above all the 
modern ones, in elegant and various transpositions, which 
are of a very difterent cast in the ancient and modern classics, 
from those to be met with in writers of a more recent date, 
who cannot form the standard of the language ; yet these 
are so tenacious of the preference due to their mode of 
arranging periods and sentences, or rather so little disposed 
to take the trouble of cultivating their own language, and 
conforming their taste with that of those immortal men, 
whose fame and celebrity know no bounds, that they en- 
deavour to dignify their own style by despising and ridiculing 
what the rest of the world most admire. 

The arrangement of the words, however, is not the onlv 
dilFerence between the above-mentioned two classes of 
writers. The most pure Tuscan and harmonious words are 
discarded by the moderns, and others of exotic architecture 


substituted ; t!)e e|jithels ill cIio<Pii and n)isa|)[)!ieil ; and tlic 
ifovernnienl of verbs and adjimcts altered and diversided, 
accordiniT to the style of those writers thev most icad, 
whether French, Enj^lish, (lerman, &c.* Without fjivinj; 
implicit credit to this observation, let the student first make 
huu>v\l' quite familiar with the writin2;s of Boccaccio, n//ani, 
(\isa, Bcmho^ Galileo^ JSIacchiavclli, Uavanzati, J'a,chi^ 
Borghi/ii, llretizitola, Scgncri^ Sec. S)C. See. and then let 
hi(n read the modern writers, mentioned at p. 9S, n. a9, if 
he feel inclined to ^ive tlie preference to these, I submit to 
his blaming me tor this diijjression ; provided, as I have 
said before, he institutes the con)parison, the most difliiult 
authors be qifitc faviiUnr to him : otherwise, his preference 
miijht be ijiiided rather bv an uiiftiir supposition, that the 
real "enius of the Italian tongue, was that which most re- 
sembles his mother tongue, than by the harmonic powers of 
the classical Tuscan orators, of which the ear of a well in- 
structed foreiijner is oven a better jiidi^e that that of a native. 
/lures qit'iri/m est judicium supcrbissimuin. — Cic. 

^ G. The figurative order, use, or infieclion of words, with 
respect to the syntax, consists in certain de\ iations from the 
ruif ura / ixhove described, which, l)eini; common to the Greek 
and Latin, have been classified, and proper names assigned 
to them : of the principal of these, I shall here give an ac- 
cotjnt, freely translated from the French of Signor Peretli, 
\\h<} h;is ingeniou>«ly and judiciously ai)ridged the Capitolo 
X\'II, in the libra secoiulo of Coutickf.m's Orammar, 
whither I refer those of my readers who wish for a more ex- 
tensive instruction on this characteristic part of the Italian 

f 7. The most important Figures of the Italian syntax, 
are five, viz. 

I. The ELLIPSIS, or de/iciencj/, by which some part of 

speech is omitted, which must be understood to com- 
plete the sense. 

II. The PLEONASM, or redundauc//, by which sonie word 

is added, not essential to convey the meaning of the 

III. I'he sVLLKPsis, or conception, by which a part cd' 
speech does not duly agree with the :ip|)arent acci- 
dence of others, without conceiving either the ex- 
clusion or the introduction (tf some word-, exjiressed 
or understood in the period. 

• See nioic on ihis .lubjccl in my K.SS.W, |)rifiicl to ilu Supplrmcni of iliiv 

o I 


IV. The ENALLAGE, or permutation^ by wliich a pavt of 
speech, or a tense of a verb, is used instead of ano- 

V. The iiYPERBATioN, or inversion, by which the natural 

order of words is inverted, according- to one of the 
five canons, prescribed by the five figures, which 
embrace the various species of the Hyperbation, as 
we shall see in its place. 

f 8. Examples of the Ellipsis. 

I. Ellipsis of the substantive. Ex. lo ci tornerb, e darbttene 
tante, che io tifarh tristo per tutto il tempo, che tu ci viverdi. 
I shall return and give you so many (understanding busse, 
blows), that 1 shall make jou wretched as long as you live. 
Thus, we say, Cdder da alto, to fall from a high (meaning- 
luogo place ;) Levarsi, to raise, (understanding dal leitOy 
from bed,) Sec &c. 

II. Of the adjective. The adjectives Z>?/6wo, good ; dbile, 
able, or capdce, fit ; are elegantly understood in the follow- 
ing expressions: Sempre poi da molto V chbe (understand 
molto dbile) afterwards he thought him very able ; Egli nol 
conosceva da tanto (understand capdce da tanlo), he did not 
know him as^^ for so much. 

III. Of the auxiliary verbs inflected. The omission of 
these is very frequent in the classics ; but, above all, that 
passage is eminent, which occurs in Passavanti's Specchio 
di Penitenza, fol. 48, where the landlord at 3Ialmaniile, 
questioned by a venerable man on his situation in life, an- 
swers thus : Io ricco, io sano, io bella donna, assdifigliubli, 
grande famiglia ; ne ingiuria, onta, o danno rieevetii mat da 
persona : riverito, onordto, careggiuto da tulta gente: io noti 
seppi mai che male si fosse o trisiizia ; ma sempre licto e con- 
ictito sono vivido, evito. I am rich, in good health, I have 
a handsome wife, many children, and servants ; 1 never 
received any injury, dishonour, or loss, from any body ; I 
am respected, honoured, and fondled by all ; 1 never knew 
Avhat was illness, or sadness; but 1 have always lived, and 
fitill live, cheerful and happy.-» Observe. The auxiliaries 
wanted in the Italian text, are printed in italics in the ver- 

IV. Of the same auxiliaries in the infinitive mood. Ex. 
Con poche parole rispose ; impossibil, che mai i siioi beneficj 
e il suo valbre, di mente gli uscissero, (understand essereim- 
possibile, Sfc.) He answered with a few words, to be im- 
possible, that his benefits and his valour should ever be for- 
gotten by him. 


v. 'riiciiifinilives of ot!)cr \eibs are ellipticallysiipprossotl 
ill the follow iiiii' Italian lonns: a/idar per una pcrsoun. (uiuier- 
slaiul per troiiirc, or pn'/idrrr.) to £;o and letch, or call for, a 
person; non foposso, (understandyare, porlure, c^c.) 1 cannot 
ilo i(^ or cnrri/ it. 

VI. Ellipsis of the participle. Ex. O sc cssi mi caccias- 
scro gli occhi, oj'accsscnju alvt'ino a/lro cos/Jatto giiioco, a clic 
sartiio ? (understand ridutlo,) and if they were to pull my 
eyes out, or would play nieanj other such trick, what should 
1 he hroug/il to ? 

\ II. The ellipsis of tiic prepositions /)er and c?rt is evident 
ill these forms of speech ; xostrainercc\, throughyour favour; 
dar mangu'ire^ e here, to give to eat and drink; and the 

VIII. The ellipsis of tlie personal pronouns is in almost 
every sentence of the Italian periods, and requires no exem- 

IX. No less frecjuent are the ellipses of the conjunctions 
exemplified by Corlicdli^ as well as those of the adverbs and 
interjections (of these last, see some hints at p. 195, n. 20.) ; 
hut theN are not so important as to require exemplification; 
and the studious may find instances in the above quoted 
Grammar, and in reading approved authors. 

•I 9. Examples of the Pleonasm. 

I. The whole of the Expletives enumerated and exem- 
plified in the preceding Lecture, belongs to tliis figure. 

II. The pronouns repeated in the same sentence, are 
graceful instances of the pleonasm in the following examples; 
but the student will do well to confine himself to the obser- 
vation of such forms, lest he might prove unsuccessful in the 
riijht use of them. Ev. 1. Comecche ogiii allro uumo mollo di 
lui si lodi ; io vie nc posso pneo lodarc in ; although every 
body else sp< ak very highly of him, I cannot say much good 
of him. Elle non sunno delle sclle xollc Ic sei qnello, die elle 
si xoolinno el/eno stesse ; they do not know six times out of 
seven what llicy want. Jiene sla, tii di^ liie parole ///, io per 
;//r, <St. ; It is all right, do thou go on with thy speech, as to 
myself, &c. &c. 

% 10. OnsKiivn. — Corlicelli and Perctii have considered, 
anionic the expletive forms of the pleonasm, the following 
txamplc^ from IJoccace, whcif, tlicy sav, (he verb xiiiire is 
redundant: but the verbal translation annexed, will sufii- 
cir-ntly prove the powerful si<;ni(ica(ioii of the verb xcnirc in 
earh of (hem. // elir. r/athafi) it nni a pr('nder 7/ii'ig/ie, gran 
paura cObt, ehr non nC lahrrenissi ,• this, when J eaine to 


take a wife, I greatly feared would Inippen to me. Gti 
venne trovato un hiwn nbmo ; he happened to find a good 
man. Tutto il venne considerando ; he proceeded to examine 
him all over. 

The Vocabolario della Crusca favours the opinion of 
the two authors just mentioned ; but unless the verbs came, 
and happened, prove to be redundant in English, I shall never 
grant the verb venire to be such in Italian ; for it unques- 
tionably operates the same in the above two first sentences. 
As to the last of them, Cinonio himself observes, that the 
verb venire, in similar forms, implies a sort of incipient or 
frequentative signification, by no means redundant, as his 
examples, as well as those of the Vocabolario, fully evince. 
But see on this subject, the characteristic forms e\\i\A\\\e6. 
above frou) p. 158 to 1G6, especially n. 41, 45, and note *, 
p. 162. 

nil. The verb andare is also considered as redundant, by 
the above authors. Two authorities only from Boccaccio, 
are alleged as proofs of this species of pleonasm. One of 
them the reader will find explained by me at p. 165, n. 47, 
48, and 49, where it will appear the verb andarsi to be fre- 
quently expletive, or nearly so. But as to the other, if pro- 
perly quoted at length, will be found aptly suiting my re- 
marks on the verb andare, at p. 162, n. 45, 46, so that it may 
be properly added to the fourteen authorities there produced 
in support of my opinion. Here it is : and let us remember 
that Filomena continues here to make her remarks on the 
fatal consequences of the plague at Florence, in 1348. Gli 
altri che vivi rimasi sono, chi qua e chi Id in diverse brigdte, 
senza saper noi doie, vunno fuggendo quella* che noi cer- 
chidmo difuggire. The others (men) who are still alive, 
some here, some there, in various companies, without our 
knowing where, stroll about, fleeing from that (death) which 
we also endeavour to shun. Where it is evident, that vanno 
fuggendo is by no means the same as fiiggono ; and that it 
implies that motion in the agent, so strenuously maintained 
and proved by me in the pages above quoted. 

f 12. Examples of the Sj/ Hep sis. 
Although we have some instances of this figure in good 
authors, as, Fu in Firenze taglidte le teste a piu (Villani) ; 
several heads were brought to the block at Florence, (where 

» The M^.Manelli, and the edition by Giunti, 1527, read quella, wliich 
agrees better vvilli mor/e, beiny feminine in Italian ; but all other editors read 
(fiiello, which must then be considered in a neutral sense. — Editor. 


fu is instead o( furotio ); and in the Fiametta. Corscvi U 
5<)rt'//f (instead of f(3;,yfn'/). The sisters ran thither. Also, 
in Cresccnzio. Si corrumpe le bidde (lor si corruDipono). 
The grains become rotten : It is, nevertheless, advisable 
not to imitate the above eminent authors in the use of this 
ligure, which would at present appear rather awkward. 

% 13. Examples of the Enullage. 

The use of this figure is very extensive in Italian : but 
let my readers attend to the definition given of it above, 
p. 200: and let them never listen to the improper extension 
made of this figure by Cortic( //i and Perelli, who suppose it 
to embrace the various significations attributed to a great 
many verbs, besides their own most natural and genuine 
one. Were it so, every language of Europe might be said 
to swarm with Enallages ; since a remarkable defect* of 
European and other languages is just the assigning a great 
many significations to each of their most usual verbs ; and, 
what is worse, mostly without any occasion, there being a pro- 
per verb for each meaning. Let the impartial English reader 
observe, thata longspeech on various subject- might be made 
with only the usual auxiliaries, and the verbs to keep, to gd, 
to take, to set^ to bring, to eome, to let, with a few more, by 
exchanging a dozen particles to which they are often pre- 
fixed, without tal;ing the least shade of their signification ; 
and let him tell me seriously if his language is so poor as to 
want such a ptM'plexing abuse of some verbs : or if it is not 
rather a capricious and absurd custom, unfortunately be- 
come unavoidable. The same may be said with respect 
to tlie Italian, Latin, and other languages : hence, no doubt, 
the Jurisconsult Pompom us used to say, Caesar eivitatem 
potest d(ir( hoiuiiiibus, verbis non potest. But I shall never 
dignify such abuses with the elegant appellation of En al- 
la(;k, which has its peculiar i)eauties when used properly, 
and in the following manners, only. 

1. The iiitinilive adopted instead of a substantive. Ex. K 

• The ChinenelaiiKuane is a pc-if ct snaiiger lo this impfifictiDi) in wriiinR, 
facli itli-a liaviiiu iiH a|)|)iopiiaterl iliaiacler, wliicli is tiiii>taiitl) uscii l(i|- itic 
same, and never oilicrwisc : but if we loiisidcr the \i)cal part of iliis siiiRnliir 
lal)^ua(:<■, we nhall find it notoriously abundant willi t-nallaKes, since about l.'JOO 
iniiuosyllables (ouMitule tlic whole ol its spoken voealiles, of «liicli three cpiai - 
ters have no <itiier difference between cacli «iliicr, than the diversification of .i 
delicate lone or modulation of The voice, in the utterance of tlic vowel or dip- 
llioiiK con)itilulin(f the word, lint uiislake» in conversinu aie easily retiilied, 
and seldom or never can bad < i)nse(|urnces : on the other hand, tlic peini- 
riouii abuiie of leinis in wriiinu is the main caufc of cliicuiiery, and of a ihuunand 
evils prrfcctly avoided by the Lhinehc. — I'.tlilur. 


da queslo viene il nostra viver lieto, che voi vedcle. Hence the 
merry life you see us lead (viver for vita). 

ir. The adjective instead of the adverb. Ex. Ora tutto 
aperto ti dico, che io per niuna cosa lascerei di Cristidn farmi. 
Now I openly tell you, that I would by no means neglect 
becominj;- a Christian {aperto for apertamcnte). 

III. The interrogative or relalive pronouns instead of 
substantives, which they could not represent as pronouns, as 
the following two eminent passages in Dante's Inferno. 

Pero, se V avversario cV ogni male 
Corte'sefu, pensdndo all' alto effetto 
Ck' uscir dovea di lid, e 'I chi, e 7 quale 

Non pare ind^gno, S^c. 

Therefore, if the ADVERSAmr to all evils (sublime Antotio- 
masia for God,) was so far condescendent, thinking on the 
illustrious issue that was to be expected from him, and what 
personage, and of what virtuous qualities ; it does not seem 
improper, &c. (here chi is instead oi hero, or personage, and 
quale instead of qualitd). 

E vidi il hudno accoglitdr del quale, 
Dioscdride dico, S^c. 

And 1 saw the good collector of the properties of plants, I 
mean Dioscorides (here quale is instead of qualitd, as in ti)e 
example above). 

ly. The adverbs instead of substantives. Ex. Sio 


7nio dolce, il quando potrcbhe esser qualCtra piii ci place ; ma io 
non so pensdr il dove. My dear sjr, the time might be that 
which could be most agreeable to us; but 1 cannot think of 
the place (here (/Ka/jr/o is instead of tempo ; and dove instead 

V. The participle past for the infinitive. Ex. Fecexenire 
sue lettere contra fdtte di Roma, efece vediito a"* suoi sudditi, 
il papa per quelle aver seco dispcnsdto di potcr tome altra 
moglie. He caused false letters to come from Rome, and 
made it appear to his subjects that the Pope had given him 
permission by them to take another wife (fece vedi'do is in- 
stead of fece vedcre). 

VI. The second pluperfect of the indicative instead of the 
first perfect of the same. Ex. Alzdta tdqudnto la lanlcrna 
ebherveduto il cattiveld'' Andreiiccio. Having raised the lan- 
tern a little, they saw that little rogue of Andreuccio {ebber 
vedti to fovvidcro). 

VII. The infinitive instead of the second imperfect of the 


conjuuclive. Ex. Qui ha quesla ccna, fit sarin c/ii jnangi- 
tiriu. There is hero this supper, and there would be iio- 
hjily that could cat it {>;umgi('ir/a tor nuinsiiasscla). 

VIII. The present ot the conjunctive for that of the indica- 
tive ; as, when Licisca roughly complained of Tindnro^ in- 
terrupting iier words, thus ; f\di bcstia (V iiumo, clu- ardisce, 
doic io sidy a par/are prima di me. Now see, what a brute of 
a man, wiio dares, wliere I am, to speak before J have done 
(dove io sia is instead of (/ore io sono). 

IX. The perfect instead of the present of the indicative. 
l^x. A)iichino S^itlb un g-rniidissinio sospiro ; la donna giiar- 
iatolo disse ; die aicsti AnicJiino? Anichino heaved a very 
Jeep sigh : the woman looking at him, said, What ails you, 
Anichino? {che avcs/i instead ofche hoi.) 

X. The second imperfect of the conjunctive mood for the 
eecond pluperfect of the same. Ex. yllzb qucsti la spada c 
ffdilo r oinbbe, se non fosse iino, che Io tenne per Io hraccio. 
This man lifted up his sword, and would have wounded him, 
if it had not l)ecn for another man, who laid hold of his arm 
[sc non fosse for se non fosse slalo). 

XI. The first imperfect of the conjunctive mood for the 
first pluperfect of the same. Ex. Egli sono slate assi'ii vo/le 
il d}, cJC io xorrci pinlluslo (ssei'estato morlo cheriio. It has 
liappened many times a day that I have wished to be sooner 
dead than alive (vorrei instead o^avrci volido), 

XII. I3ut the most frequent Enallage, and common to all 
tlie modern languages, has been omitted by Couth elt>i and 
Peretii, which consists in adopting the present of the indica- 
tive, instead of its imperfect, or perfect, used in narratives, 
where a rapidity of action is to be shewn. Out of a thousand 
instances of this species of Enallage, I shall here present my 
reader with the description, given by Pilade to Egisfo, of 
the supposed death ofOrcste, in the tragefly of this name, 
l)y .i IjI'J 11 R I ; and let the reader sav, whether these lines 
areany thing inferior tothat part of the speech in the J'hedrc 
o( Racine, whem the death of Jlippofj/lus is described : 



Fcrocc tioppo, impa/iL'iite, incauto, 
Or delliivoic iiiiiiaccio><a iiicnl/a, 
Or ilcl flai;«'l, clifsiiiiiiiiiiKiso ei riiota, 
" Si foiu- battc i dc-strier siioi mal donii, 
" Cir oliru lamc'ia volaiio ; |iiiiaidciiii, 
" Uuaiilo veloci piii. (Ji.'lYurdi al frciio, 
" (iiA sordi al ijiido, cli' oia iiivati ^li n((|iicla, 
" Foci) ^piraii U; nari , nil' aura i criiii 
" Svola//aii irii : c in dcnso iiciiiI)ij avvoiti 
" D' a({('nal pnlve, (|unnto c vasto, il circu 
" Corron, ritorroti come folgor ralii. 


" Spavento, orrore, altto scompigtio, e morte 

•• Pertutto arreca in torti giii il carro : 

" Finche percossoconoiribil urto 

" A niarmorea colonna il fervid' asse, - 

" Ri verso Oreste cade " 

I dare not contaminate such noble lines l)y my inelegant 
English. Teachers may do it viva voce to their pupils, until 
Alfieri finds a Miss Baillie to honour him with a version. 
I shall only observe to the student, that the verbs incalza, 
ruota, batte, acqyeta, spiran, svolazzan, arreca, are all present 
tenses instead of imperfects ; and volano, corron, riccorron, 
cade, are instead of perfects. 

^ 14. Examples of the Hyperbaton. 

The five kinds of this figure are indicated with five specific 
names, explained and exemplified as follows. 

I. Anaslrophe, or transposition, which is, when a word 
that should precede is placed after. Ex. Madonna, io tton 
so come piacevole Reina not avrem di vol, ma bella la pur 
avrem not. Madam, I don't know whether we shall have a 
pleasing Queen in you, but we shall certainly have a hand- 
some one {la pure avrem, ^ov pur V avrem, Sfc). Un uomo 
di scellerdta vita, e di corrotto. A man of a corrupted and 
wicked life (di scellerdta vita e di corrotta instead of di scel- 
lerdta, e corrotta vita) . 

I J. Tmesis, or division, when a compound word is divided 
into two parts, and another put between them ; as, Accib 
solamente che conoscidte, 8fc. In order that you may know 
(accib solamente che instead o^ solamente acciocche, Sfc). 

III. Parenthesis, or interposition, which consists in in- 
serting an unconnected sentence in a period, which, how- 
ever, serves as a short annotation, to explain our meaning 
better. Ex. A questa brieve nbia, (dico brieve in qudnto in 
poche lettere si confiene) seguird prestamente la dolcezza, e 7 
piacere. To this short irksome account, (I call it short, be- 
cause contained in a few words) sweetness and pleasure will 
readily follow. The curve lines that shew this species of 
Ili/perhaton, make it well known to every one, and prove 
that it is to be met with in all languages. 

IV. Sj/nchtysis, or confusion : when the transposition of 
the words in a sentence is either unwarrantable, or conveys 
an ambiguous meaning, as in these lines of Dante, where 
Count Ugolino alludes to Bishop Ruggieri, by saying, 

Questi pareva a me, maestro, e donno, 
Cacciando il lupo e i lupictni al vionte. 

This master and lord appeared to me (in a dream) as chasing 
the wolf with its cubs to the mountain, kc. (The words, 


riuie<lro e dofi/io, |)l;ice{| as they are, niiplit convey this wrong 
nieaiiingf, viz. Tliis man appeared to ine as a master and a 
lord, &c. ; they ought theretore to follow immediately after 
qucs'ti\ to prevent ambiguity.) 

\ . Anacobithon^ or, inconsequence: when a word is 
placed insulated, and without its proper sequel. A well 
known instance occurs in the very beginning of the Can- 
zoniere of Petrarca ; 

I'oi, die ascoltdte in rime sparse il suono, 
Di que sospiri, ond' io nudriva il core, S{c, 

The pronoun /o/ has no proper connection, either in these, 
or in any of the following lines of the sonnet. Some call it a 
vocative case, and translate thus, O i/e^ (understand readers) 
who, by listening to these verses, hear the sound of those 
sighs on which my heart used to find its support, &c. — 
Obseuve. From the nature of these two last species of the 
Hijperhaton^ it is easy to conclude, that it is well not to in- 
crease the instances of them in writing either prose, or poetry. 

f 13. II. GOVEllNMENT 

Of the Parts of Speech 

GovEnxMENT is the influence which some parts of speech 
have over others ; as, 

1 A verb, adiecti\e, or preposition, over a noun, or pro- 
noun, in requiring to be in such and such a case rather than 
in another. 

II. A conjunction, or preposition, over a verb, which they 
govern in '•uch or such a mood. 

HI. A noun over an adjective, by which sometimes it will 
be followed, and another time will give the adjective the pre- 
cedency ; as likewise verbs over adverbs, or adverbs over 
themselves; some having the special privilege of coming 
before others, when they meet together in a sentence. 

This subject alone embraces so much matter, that a whole 
volume would scarcely be sufficient to assist the pupil in 
every instance. In lh<; whole course of these Lectures, we 
have thrown as much liglit on the subject as may be expected 
in an elementary book. The beginner must be guided by a 

1)roper master at first, particularly as the regimen of the 
Mi;;li-li tiouns, verbs, ^c. seldom agree with that of the 
Italian, llioughofthe same sigiiilicalion. Tho^e who have 
made some progress in the language, will be able to remove 
all (lilfK iilties by the perusal of tin* best authors, atul by con- 
sulting occasionally ^V//'>///o, or (Ortirc///, and niore safely 
the great f'ocahn/ariu /)< //a Cn/sra, where every word is 


accompanied with a copious variety of examples, from whicli 
we may safely learn the regimen peculiar to each word in its 
different meaning. 


Or right Inflection of the Parts of Speech. 

% 16. Concord is the absolute agreement of, 1. The ar- 
ticle, the adjective, and the participle, with the noun or pro- 
noun. 2. The verb, with its subject or nominative. 3. The 
relative, with its antecedent, or the subject it refers to. 

Even on this subject, the pupil will find sufficient instruct 
lion interspersed in the foregoing Lectures ; particularly 
in those which treat of the Articles, Substantives, Adjectives, 
and Pronouns. Yet I intend to subjoin a few general ob- 
servations* and rules, that will most frequently occur, and 
prove useful to the learner. — To these an APPENDIX of 
practical remarks will follow, which I trust will prove of 
great assistance to the Student. 

f 17. The first observation to be made is concerning the 
proper use of the articles // or lo, and that of the apostrophe 
with these, and all other articles, upon which let the learner 
observe, that the rules given ori these subjects in Lecture 
in. are founded not upon grammar, but upon the delicacy 
of sounds ; therefore, although the gender and number of the 
substantive must be attended to, to determine whether the 
article is to be masculine, feminine, singular, or plural ; yet 
to say ?7 or lo, and to use or reject the apostrophe, we must 
not consider the first letter of the substantive, unless it be 
placed immediately after it ; for when adjectives or parti- 
ciples precede their substantives, the article must be just 
before all of them, and written according to the beginning- 
ofthe first adjective or participle coming after it. Thus, 
although amico, a friend, begins with a vowel, yet if the ad- 
i^eci\\efedele, faithful, or one of the participles viaggiante, 
travelling, stancdto, wearied, shall precede it, the article 
will be il, and not /', as it has been assigned to nouns mas- 
culine beginning with a vowel. On the contrary, although 
casa, a house, begins with a consonant, if the adjective alta, 
high, be placed before it, we must say, /' alta casa, and not 
la alta casa; though we must write, la casa alta, dyC. 

* [ owe several of these observations to Chamlaud and /)ef Carrieres, beii)g 
applicable to the Italian as well as to the French language ; but I hope I shall 
soon have it in my power to refer my readers to an ITALIAN EXERCISE 
Eoi)k, now in the press, where a great many jiractical ruUs are interspersed, 
relative both to tlie Concord tiwA Government of the parts of speech. — Editor. 


Let the judicious pupil extend this important rule to all 
inuiijinable cases, where articles are used either alone, or 
iiiiiteil with tlie prepositions di, «, f/rt, in, con, per, S^x. as ex- 
plained in the liKCTURE quoted above. 

f 18. * When two or more nouns of different numbers 
and oeiulers, or ijenders only, have an adjective, or a parti- 
ciple common to both, w hicli comes immediately after them, 
it agrees in number and gender w ith the last. Ex. Avcta 
gU occhi, e la bocai aperta, or h baccn, e gli occin apcrti, his 
eyes and mouth were opened; trovb le paltuli, cd i fiumi 
gcltUi, he found the marshes and rivers Irozeu over. — On- 
SERVK. Let, however, the plural noun be the last, if you 
possibly can, whenever one of them is singular, as in the 
first example. 

f 19 Exception. 1, — But when there is one, or more 
words between the last noun and the adjective, that adjective 
(common to all) agrees with the noun masculine though the 
last noun be feminine. 2. And if the nouns are each of lira 
sinmdar number, then the adjective shall be put in the plural 
number, and (he masculine gender. Ex. Jlfiumc, c Je paludi 
chc trovb gchili. The rivers and the marshes which he found 
frozen over. II siio falicarc, il conlcgno, e lafortuna scniprc 
nnili u proctnarg/i un olliino riuscimcnto, 3)C. His labour, 
conduct, and good fortune always united to obtain him a 
complete success, &c. 3. Whenever these substantives may 
be connected with the preposition con, or with one of these 
generic ternis, ro.sT, things, tY/»^/gg/, advantages, ???fl//, evils, 
beni, good things, &c. itsliould be done ; and then the agree- 
ment of the adjective is plain : for if there be the preposition 
con, it will be made to agree w ith tjic substantive before it ; 
and ifonoof tlie generic terms just mentioned, it will agree 
w ith it, and not with the subslantive. Ex. // re con gli nltri 
cavalieri risalilo a cavullo, lascib subHo la caccia. The king 
with the other noblemen mounted on horseback left the chase 
immediately. L'oro., la favia, <■ gli onori, sono cose incerle e 
pcrieo/i'jsr, or sono bi ni incerti, r pe.rieolosi. (iold, iame, 
arul honour, are uncertain and dangerous things. 

H 20. Collective nouns, such as la gentc, the people, il 
pnhhiiro, the pn!)lic, &c. although conveying a plural idea, 
)et we make them agree w ilh the lingular number: while 
the English, if they changed their adjectives, would make 
them plural, as appears from the verbs made plural in Eng- 

• We iiiiRht finil in our ClaMic« antlioritics contradicting lliisarul other rules 
lirrc giicti on Comoni ; yi-t tin* Kafi--t way iit to follow iliem, a-* tiify arc con- 
Miiant Willi llic prt-JiMit unc, and can never prove to 1 c errorx.—- £f/)7or. 



lish, when such nouns govern them. Ex. La gente era 
rwttosa, The people were riotous, llpubblico lo disapproval 
The public disapprove it, &c. 

^ 21. Exception. — The following collective, and partitive, 
nouns ooverning the following substantive in the genitive, do 
not suffer the adjective to agree with them, but with that sub- 
stantive they govern, aith<)u<4h of a different gender and 
number. They are the following: mm parte, a part; la 
maggior parte, the most part ; folia, crowd ; triippa, troop ; 
moltitudine, multitude ; numero^ number ; inetd, half; specie, 
kind; sorte, sort. Ex. Trovb una metd una parte cr la mag- 
gior parte de^ suoi solddti uccisi and not uccisa. He found 
a half, a part, or the most part of his soldiers killed. Una 
truppa or moltitudine di persone che corrtcano spaventdte 
and not spaventdta, a troop, or multitude of people who ran 
away terrified, &c. — Observe, however, that if any of the 
nouns just above enumerated express a part of a single in- 
dividual, then the adjective will agree with such partitive 
noun. Ex. Rimdse vivo, ma con una parte del brdccio destro 
tutta brucidta. He remained alive, but with a part of his 
right arm all burnt. 

f 22. Other partitive nouns specifying the quantity with 
more precision, such as wi terzo, a third; un qudrto, a fourth, 
&c. are not liable to the above exception ; and the adjective 
agrees with them. Ex. Un terzo delle sue viti e unddlo male, 
(and not sono anddte), one-third of his vines are spoiled. 
Tre qudrti delle sue entrdte sono dissipdti, (and not dissi- 
pate) three fourths of his income are squandered away. 

H 23. The verbs agree with their subject or nominative, 
whether a substantive, or pronoun : but when this pronoun 
is of a relative kind, then the verb agrees with the noun to 
which the relative pronoun refers. Ex. Sidmo noi, che non 
lo credidmo. It is we, who do not believe it. lo vedo un 
ubmo che beve. I see a man who is drinking, &c. 

ijj 24. Many nouns singular will have the verb in the plural. 
Ex. // suo spirito, la sua bontd, c la sua pazienza superdrono 
ogni ostacalo. His understanding, goodness, and patience 
surmounted every obstacle Ne la generositd, ne la forza 
ve V indurrdnno. Neither generosity nor violence will in- 
duce him to do it. 

H 25. Exception.— ^ni when of the substantives connect- 
ed, one only is to do, or to receive the action, the verb must 
then be in the singular. Ex. O la generositd, o la forza ve 
Vindurrd : either generosity, or violence will induce him to 
do it. Ne il duca, ne il conte sard eletto ambasciatore. 
Neither the Duke, nor the Count will be appointed am- 


bassador; but iftherc were t\vo ainbassacloi\i to be appoint- 
ed, we should then say aaranno tlclli. 

\ 56. Exciption to lliis exception. — If tlio nominatives are 
of clirt'erent persons, then the verb is plural; although only 
one can be supposed to do, or to receive the action of the 
verb. Ex. Ne io, tie loi sarenio eltlti ambascintori ; neither 
I, nor vou sliall be appointed ambassadors (even if the am- 
bassador be only one). O voi, o hii vi rii/scirclr. Either 
you or or he will succeed. — Observe. To know in which of 
the three persons plural the verb must be in similar sen- 
tences, read underneath at No. 29. 

^[ 27. If one of the nouns constitutiiii^ the nominative is 
plural, the verb must agree with it. Ex.Ilpiincipe,c i 
suddlti desiderano la pace. The prince and his subjects wish 
for peace. —Observe. Let the plural noun come the last, if 

1i 28. Exceptio72. — When one of these particles ; 7iia, but ; 
tutto, all ; fiiente, nothing ; coniplctes, and, as it were, sums 
up an enumerative phrase, even composed of many substan- 
tives plural, the verb must be in l/ie singular ; although it 
refers to them all. ILx. Non solamcntei siwi onori, e le sue 
ricchezze, ma la sua virtii slessa svani. Not only his honours 
and riches, but even his virtue vanished away. Le dignifd^ 
le ricchezze, gli amici, tutto finalmcntc V ubhandono. Digni- 
ties, riches, friends, all in fine forsook him. Nd i libri, ne le 
passegiate, ne V amena mia villa, niente mi divertc. Neither 
the books, nor the walks, or my pleasant country-house, 
nothing can amuse me. — Observe. That witli ?;?«, as in the 
iirst sentence, the verb must be pluial, if the noun after it 
were of that number; but this can never be the case with 
tutto, or niente, exemplified as above. 

• 29. When the verb has many nouns and pronouns of 
different persons i'or its subject, or nominative, it must be 
put, I. in the first person plural, if a pronoun of the first 
person, either singular or plural, is among them : 2. in de- 
fect of pronouns of the first person, the verb must be in the 
second person plural, if a pronoun of that person, and if 
either number is one of the subjects: 3. and if the nomina- 
tives are all to the ihird person, cither plural, or singular, the 
verb will be in the third plural. Examples for the tliiee 
cases. 1 . Piitro, -coi, ed io, or t: noi, sianio cV aeeordo. IN'ter, 
you, and I, or and we, agree. — Oiiserve. That Italian 
urbanity requires tlie first perhf)n cither plural, or singular, 
to be mentioned the last. 2. 7'//, or V'oi, il tiiio anilco, c 

v 2 


lui* sare/e hiasimali da tutti : Thou, or You, my friend, and 
he will be blamed by every body. 3. / vicini, il padre, la 
madre, i passegieri, e lei'^ corsero alV aiido suo. The neii^h- 
bour, the lather, the mother, the passengers, and even she, 
ran to his assistance. 

f SO. Observe further ; that verbs having for their nomi- 
native a collective, or partitive noun, are made plural or sin- 
gular, according to the same canons established above at n. 
20, 21, and 22, for the agreement of adjectives. — Also at p. 
51, n. 15. and note *. 

^ 31. When the conjugation SE, if, is conditional, and 
means in case that, supposing that, and the like, it is to be 
observed, that if the first verb is in the future tense, the other 
next to it must also be future. Ex. Se verrete da me, sarete 
contento ; if you come to my house you will be happy: 
Where we see that the English put the present of the con- 
junctive, instead of the first future, and the second verb is as 
in Italian. — But if the first verb is in the second imperfect of 
the conjunctive, the other must be in the first imperfect of 
the same mode. Ex. Se vents fe da me, sareste contento. If 
you would come to my house, you would be contented : 
where we see that the English use the first imperfect of the 
conjunctive in both verbs. 

Again, if SE be placed between two verbs, the former of 
them being in the future, the following must be in the same 
tense. Ex. Gli Dei sardnno ingiiisti, se non ci per donner anno 
dopo tante iimili supplicazioni. The Gods will be unjust, if 
they do not forgive us after so many humble supplications : 
where we see that the English still put the present of the 
conjunctive after the particle if, though weoften hear in Eng- 
land the indicative present used instead of it. — And if the 
first verb were to be in the first imperfect of the conjunctive, 
the second must be in the second imperfect of the same mood. 
Ex. Gli Dei sarebhero ingiiisti, se non ci perdonassero dopo 
tante umili supplicazioni; The Gods would be unjust, if they 
would not forgive us after so many humble supplications : 
where we see that the English agree with the Italians as to 
the first verb ; but the second is put to the same first imper- 
fect of the conjunctive mood. 

5 32. The conjunction qua ndo, when, requires the verb 

* Wn have oliserved at p. 57. n. 19, three instances in which the pronouns 
lui, lei, loro, and others wiiich are not nominative cases, must be used as nomi- 
natives. To these we may add the ahove examples, and estaldisli as a very gene- 
ral principle, that lui, lei, or loio are nominatives in all such phrases, in which 
the verb does not agree vvitli them, i)rovided they area part of iis nominative.— 


to be ill the future tense in Italian, ^vllenevl'l• the thing 
alhiiled to is to take phice some time after. Ex. Qua/ido 
ovru tempo, vi scriicrb ; when I have time, 1 shall wriie to 
you: where we see that the Enijlish put the first verb in the 
present tense, and the second as in Italian.* 

^ 33. Verbs denotiuii; permission, prohibit ion, asking, 
admiration, jo//, grief, grudge, ignoranee, doubt, fear, icish, 
intention, desire, affietion, passion, sentiment, or motion oj 
the mind, recpiire the next verb to be in the conjunctive 
mood, with CUE, that, which connects it with thom. Ex. 
JJesidero, elic si fdeeia onore; I w ish he may succeed. T'oglio, 
che voi studiate ; I wish you to study. Dubito, c/ienon iscriva, 
come ha promesso ; 1 doubt whether he will write, as he has 
promised. Mi muraxiglio, che abbiiite lanto ard'ire ; I won- 
der that you dare so much. i\on so che egli sia arrivdlo ; I 
don't know that he is come. 

Let the pupil take notice in tlie above examples, how va- 
riously this uniform expression of the Italian lanii;iiage is 
rendered in English. — Observe tarther. that in Euiilish 
the conjunction that is very often omitted, and in Italian 
must be always expressed. 


Of Miscellaneous Practical Remarks. 

1 hope the follow inij^ remarks, pointinirout the translation 
of several words and idioms from the English into Italian, 
will not prove irk^^ome, or unacceptable to the studious, 
although not properly belonging to the subject of concord. 

^ 34. It is oliservable, that the English language has im- 
properly neglected to distinguish a very essential diflference 
in the nature of human notions : some being common to the 
best organized brutes, and some exclusively bestowed on 
man by tlie Almighty. Thus (hey say indiscriminately to 
knoxi', Algebra, and to knon: one's mastei\ 

The Italian, with most of the Euro|)(>an languages, have 
two distinct verbs to render the English verb to know 
according to the species of notions alluded (o. Thus wc 
say, Sapere /' algebra, and conoscere il suo padrone ; since 
the fir^t is a iu)tion, of which oidy man is capable, and the 
second man has in conunon with a doi^^, a horse, ivc. We 
sav in Italian, se conoscrJe il prezzemolo, andule a coglier- 
inenc nel giardino. If you know parsley, go and gather me 

• If the Italian plira^cn at ii. :U ami 32 an; not conccily translated, tlie 
liuruL-r, vvlio is auppoMd to |>(j»8C!<<« his own laiiKiiaKc giuninialicaliy, njay icctily 
(he iiiaccuriMjics, and alter tlic a|iplic:uion of my remarks aicurdingly.— '£(<itor. 

p 3 


some in the garden. Some of the animals knowing medici- 
nal herbs, we make u?e of the verb conoscere in this sentence. 
Thus we say, Sapete dove sta di casa lo speziale f — Si, the 
other answers, so la strada, ma qiidndo vi fossi non potrei 
riconoscer la sua casa, per die non vi sono mai anddto di giorno. 
Do you know the apothecary's house ?- Yes, I know the 
street he lives in ; but I could not know his house again, 
because I never went there in the day time. The retina of 
the human eye, being the only one in creation capable of 
painting to the mind the topographic plan of a town, or 
country, and the human mind alone equal to the power of 
retaining such impressions, even when at a distance, both 
the question and Ihe first part of the answer of the above 
sentence are made by the verb sapere : but since pigeons, 
dogs, and horses know their habitation again, when on the 
spot, the second part of the answer is made by conoscere, or 
riconoscere. — It will be objected that dogs know their home 
even at a great distance : I ansvv er they do ; not, however, 
by any mental power of recollection, but only by a most 
exquisite sense of the olfactory nerves, as pigeons by that of 
the optical. Hence, the horse deprived of this great refine- 
ment of the senses, never knows his habitation (unless, 
indeed, by repeating many and many times the same way, 
he is guided in hfs joHrney by natural instinct) but when he 
is very near it ; as it has been elegantly sung by Metastasio 
in the following ayia : 

" Quel destrier che all' albergoe viciiio 
" Pii^ veloce s' affretta iiel corso 
" Non 1' arresta V angiistia del morso 
•• Non la voce, che legge gli di." 

Olimp. Act I. sc. iii. 

Let the pupil apply the above observations to any English 
sentence where is the verb to know, and he will easily 
succeed in translating it well in Italian. 

^ 33. There are in iinglish a great many verbs that 
express Ihe repetition of the action by the syllable JRE 
prefixed to them, or the adverb y^G^/iV placed after, which 
perplex the pupil nearly as much as the verb to know, since 
they cannot be rendered sometimes with any idiomatical 
taste neither by the Italian syllables RJ, or RA, answering 
to the re of the K.nglish ; nor by di nuovo, nuonamente, or 
urC altravoUa, although each of these adverbs means again. — 
In such case let the learner know that the verb torndre a may 
be used as follows. Ex. A week after they had found that 
child, they re-baptized hini. La setlimdnazeniente torndrono 
a battezzar quel bambino, che avevano trovdto : much better 


th-An batttzzdrotw di nuSvOyOV un' allra xoUa, i^^'inco riballez- 
zarc is not in ii'^o. \\ lioii the tmmilt was qiiellptl, tliey re- 
enthroiird the new kinsr ; Quinulo il tuniullo fu ncqiiictatn, 
tornurono a intronizziire il murco re ; none of the advorbs 
translating again would do here, and rhitronizzare does 
not exist. As to iulronare, and rinhonure, they mean the 
rctcntir of the French : to rebound, or rebound again. — This 
rule will ho applicable to an infinite nnn)l)er ol' verbs, and 
almost in no instance will prove harsh, ifadopted. 

\ 36. It is no less difficult to the students of this cocn- 
try, to translate in Italian the wonl TIME : owiiiij to the 
abuse the Knglish make of this word, attributing- to it three 
very different significations, for wiiich the Italians have three 
distinct words, which are as follows : — 1. If we wish rather 
to allude to the reprlilion of actions, or to the simu/laneous 
peribrmance of several of tiiem. than to the space of time ; 
in such case time nuist be translated by vofta, and in elegant 
writings h\ fiala. E\. I cannot do more than one thing at a 
time. \o>i posao fare piit r/' una eosa alia vo/la. — Once 7rna 
tolta ; twice due voile ; thrice /;r volte; four Umc^ quattro 
volte, 8fc. — How many times have you been at Rome? 
Qucinte volte sitle stafo a Roma? — Also, this old way of 
l)e'rinninir a tale for children : Once on a time there was, 
Sec. Era unavolla,S{e. — 2. But if we allude to apart of the 
year, or age, then time is translated by stagione, or tempo. 
Ex. What is the proper tinie to sow cabbage? J)i chc sta- 
giiou si scminano i eavoli / It is not yet time to manifest my 
intentions. Non c tempo ancbra di nutnifestdre le mie inlen- 
zioni. 3. And if we allude to a part of the day, we then 
say in Italian ora. Ex. What time do you go to bed ? a c/ie 
nra anddte a Icllo ? Do you know what time the play- 
house will be opened r Sapcle a elie ora il tedlro sard apnio ? 
This is not breakfast time. Quesla non e V ora delta eole- 
zibur, S)T.* 

* 37. In the rlivi>ion of the DAY TIME the student 
should also observe, that although the Italians say, like the 
fiiijlish, one day, two days, &c. un gibrno, due gidrni, <5"r. 
meaning four and twenty hour-, yet g/«;vw,when alliuiing to 

• Observe thai at present we cay, Colnione, for brc"akf;i«t ; Imi in tlu- t'oca- 
lolario D'lla Cruua, wv. find tlie fullowini; (li'tiniii{in, incliullni; ilic |»r<)|)t'r tcnn 
for cicli liiilc refri'.'limeni, lakcn i-itliei' bi'foix' «>r afiir ilinnci-, niul siippn. 
At llic woril coi.nzioNK we read a« follmvs : Il parriwenlr nl-nrci /nor dfldni- 
v/irf r di-Ua crna, (nmf r /" .hcinlvrn lirltn nmtliii't. In Mcrrnda Hrl i^iorr.a, r il 
I'uti/^nn dfipn crna. Wli;ii :i pily iba* ilii* jiulicionx dislinciinn is now nfulccicil. 
iiiid rnleiinnf nwd onlv f." ntrintv.i, ' ihiiu^'ti llii.i last is nndcixond at I'Id- 

V \ 


a part of the day, answers to the afternoon, (see Note under- 
neath) as mattina to the morninsf, sern^ to the evening, and 
notte to the latest part of the night. Thus we cannot say as 
in English ; There is a new play acted to-night. Si rappre- 
senta una commedia nuova questa notte; but we must say, 
questa sera, this evening. Also when we wish to express the 
successive and regular progression of all the minutes of 
time, as it were, of a day ^ mornings evenings or night, ihiit 
are to be employed in doing something, we have in Italian 
peculiar words unknown to the English language, and we 
say, for instance ; yesterday I spent all day at play ; leri 
passai tutta la giorndta al giubco. I have lost all the morn- 
ing ; Ho perduto tutta la mattindta. Will you come and 
spend the evening with me ? Volele venire apassdr la serdta 
"•dame? I sat up all night to wait on that patient; Ho 
fatto nottoldla per guarddr quelV ammaldlo. — Observe. 
Out of the capital of Tuscany the word nottoldta is impro- 
perly pronounced, and written nottdta. — ALSO. The fol- 
lowing words are not used in the same sense, notwithstand- 
ing their similarity of sound, and the definitions in Delia 
Crusca, viz. mesdta, and anndta, which allude now only to 
paymentsio be made every month, or every year : just as we 
say, trimestre, or semestre, for rent to be paid every quarter, 
or every six months. 

<[f 38. I have said so much of the advantages of the Italian 
over the English, it is now time to set forth some of the supe- 
riorities of the latter over the former. 

A very great one are the AUXILIARIES, do, did, let, 
must, may, can, might, should, could, would, shall, will, which 
express the various modifications of time and circumstance 
in verbs, with so much precision and logical accuracy, when 
used in that philosophical manner pointed out by Bishop 
WiLKiNS and Dr. Louth. The Student, however, will 
easily translate them in Italian, if he attends to the given 
conjugations of verbs in Lectures xvii. and xviii. — In 
the following instances, however, they require explanation. 

^ 39. In giving answers, instead of Yes, or A^o, and even 
instead of repeating the verb, the English use the auxiliary ; 
which being wanted to the Italians, the following forms will 
show how to turn it. Do you like music? I do. — Vipidce 
la musica? Si signore, ov SI signure, mi pidce. Do you 
understand it ? 1 don't. — Ve n' intendSte ? No signore, or 
No signore, non me w' intendo. And when we speak with 
familiarity, the word signore is omitted. Shall you write to 
him ? Perhaps I may. — Gli scriverele ? Pub essere, or, 
Pub darsi, che gli scriva, or Forse gli scrivcrb. You must 


write to him. Indeed I shall not.— Bis62;>m chc gli scriviatc. 
Aon <i'fi roglio scr'ivrrc asso/i(lo7nintf. But you must. But 
I shall not. — Ma dovclc scriitrgli in tulli i modi. Ma io non 
gli scriverb ccrto.— Let the Judicious pupil apply these 
phrases properly, and I trust he will correctly render the 
English auxiliaries in Italian. 

1| 40. Another great advantage of the English auxiliaries 
is, to furnish, in the soliloquies of plays, or in prayers, the 
first person siniiiilar of the imperative mood, foolishly main- 
tained by some grammarians as inadmissible. The Italians 
rendt-r this per>on by the third person singular of the im- 
perative, and the pronoun si forming a kind of impersonal ; 
and sometimes by the first person plural of the same impera- 
tive mood, which is certainly an imperfection. Ex. I have 
promised, let me go then ; Jlo promcsso, dunque si vada, or 
undii'nno. — Orserve. That when there is a regimen, other 
than the third person, we then translate the verb by the infi- 
nitive mood, and tlie auxiliary /(/ by lasciare, putting it in 
that person of the imperative mood, which agrees with the 
regimen. Thus, if we were to translate the following 
beautiful beginning of the adniirable soliloquy in Macbeth, 

Is this a dagger, wliicli I see before me, 

Till' handle low'id my hand ? Come, let me clutch tlioe. 

We would turn it verbally thus : 

A" qutsta uiiasaittn ch' io mi vr^go diminzi 

Col suo (mere verso la mia dcstra f Su via, hisciamili afferrdrt. 

% 41. The third difliculty in translating the English 

auxiliaries, arises iiom the occasional use the English make 

oliheni in (heir own signification, and not as marks of the 

tenses of other verbs, as they are generally ap^joiuted to 

represent, which is certainly an abuse, though now irre- 

m('dial)le, greatly tending to defeat the jjhilosophical end for 

whicli they were intended. Ex. Sinc( //oh zci/l lislcnto lur., 

you zcill not repent it. Hence it is plain that the first icill 

may be turned into the present arc tvi/ling., but the second 

cannot po^-ibiy be turned so. Hence the first zci// would be 

traii^lati-d in Italian by xoUrc present tense, and the second 

omitted, putting, however, the \vrh pentirsi in the fiiUire, of 

which tense will is a proper sign ; and we would say, 

(ii/Kc/ii mi xoli'/r dar rdta, non re nr pcntin'lc. — Also — 

Yvii should wrilt him an lunurliiunl nolc. ( A nswer. ) 1 should 

he ruined^ if I did. The first should n»ay be turned by ought 

to, and does not express the conditional, or first imperfect of 


the conjunctive mood •, hence the necessity of translating it 
in Italian hy dovere, but the second cannot he turned so; 
therefore it is suppressed in Italian, and the next verb put 
in the first imperfect of the conjunctive, of which should is a 
proper sign; so that we vsould translate the above thus: 
Dovreste scrivergli un viglietto impertinente— Sarei rovinato 
se lo scrivessi. 

Let the pupil, therefore, try to turn the auxiliary into 
another verb, and according as such change makes a good 
or a bad sense in the sentence, he will know whether it is 
used as the sign of a tense, or in its own signification. Yet 
I would not vouch this rule to be a safe s;iiide in all cases. 

H 42. The English, with the verbs TO LIKE and TO 
LOVE, express all the different ramifications of that 

f (leasing sensation. It is not so in Italian, at least in fami- 
iar or colloquial style ; for the following three-fold distinc- 
tion must be observed. — 1. Sweethearts, parents, children, 
and others, feeling for each other a tender and nature-like 
sensation ; never say, lo amo il mio Guiscardo, Noi amiamo 
i noslri jiglhwli ; e sidmo aUrettdnto amdti da loro. But they 
constantly say, by the compound verb, xoJer bene, thus, lo 
'Doglio bene al mio Guiscdrdo, I love my Guiscardo. Noi 
voglidmo bene a' nostri JigltuSli, ed esse ce ne vogliono allrei- 
tanto ; We love our children, and they love us as much. 
Even when servants or strangers get a strong- attachment 
for us, we do not say, die ci dmano, but che ci vogliono bene, 
that they love us ; or, che ci sono ajfeziondti^ that they are 
attached to us.~2. If the/ot^e we feel arises principally from 
a religious or social duty, we then say, amdre. Ex We 
must love our neighbour; Bisogna nmdre il prossimo. 
Christ taught the heroic virtue of loving our enensy ; Gesii 
Cristo insegno queW eroica virtii d' amdre i propj nemici. 
S. Finally, for our liking the manners or character of persons, 
as well as for the inanimate things we like, we never say, 
in Italian, amare, as the French aimer, and the English 
sometimes, to love ; but we mostly turn it by the verbs 
piacere, gustdre, anddr a, or aver genio, and the like. Ex. I 
don't like music; non ho genio alia mnsica. I don't like 
soup; non mi pidce la zuppa. Eat of this boiled meat; — I 
don't like it; mangidte di qucslo lesso ;—Non mi gusta, or 
non mi pidce. I don't like that man, that coachman ; QuelT 
itomo non mi va a genio. Quel cocchihe non mi pidce. 

U 43, The pupil must likewise take care not to translate 
the verb TO OBLIGE by obbligare, whenever it expresses 
only a sense of gratitude : but only when it means to compel, 
or to bind over : for, when the first meaning is in request 


we i-ay in Italian. h<!cr ohbiiodfn ; compiactre ,• pir finSzzfi, 
or fax (Wc ; t^scr s^entUe ; gradirr^ tSr. Ex. Tliev ohlij^o us 
to perform our nixriMMnont : I^ssi ci obhl/gniw a slarrcne al 
irostro accordo. You canuot ol)lip,o me to do this; Voi non 
potile obblignrmi a far qucsto. .\oain — If vou would loud 
me ten pounds, you would ol>li^o nie ; Sc mi prcslastc d'u'ci 
lire slcr/inc, vi i^arti ohhligalo, or ?;?/ fart'stc faxore. or le 
trraf/irti. 1 will lend them to voir, merolv to oblige vou ; 
Ve le preatcro, solamcnie per compiaeervi. Sir, you ohlio;e 
me by such an otFer ; Si2:ii(>re^ ella e troppo gentile faetn- 
domi K/ia tal esibizione. It you come to see u«, Sir, you will 
oblii^e me ; Se ella verra a farci tina vcsifn, Signore, mi fard 
Jinczza, c^r. i^c. 

^ 44. J.ikewise, do not say eompnrtdrc in Italian, as the 
French say, coinpnrter^ tor the En<;-lisli TO BEJIAf^E, 
because com pari (ire means only fo bear^ to tolerate. This 
iron is so hot, that one cannot bear one's hand upon it ; 
Qu{<to ferrn e tanto ealdo^ ehe non vi si pno eotnportdr la 
mano. fie is so tiresome there is no bearinj; him ; E tanto 
seccdnte, che non si pno comport are. On the contrary, for 
\he conduct of any one, we sny portarsi., or condursi. Ex. 
They have behaved well; Si sono portdti bene; He has be- 
haved or conducted himself with honour in this affair; Si 
condusse. or si porlo da iiomo d' onore in quell" ftjfdre, S)C. 

f 45. Never translate the verb TO FIND in Italian b 
trovdre, when it means the opinion or the idea we have con- 
ceived of somethini^; but say rather, /^r/rt'/r, p/V/mr, riuseire, 
6i'c. for trovdre means only to meet with something;, ov find 
again what was lost; it is also used in speakinp; of those 
truths found by any mathematical, chymical, or philosophical 
[)roces-, or problem. Ex. I have analyzed human blood, 
and 1 found that it contains a small quantity of iron ; JIo 
nnalizzdlo il sdngue umdno, cd ho trovdto, che conticne una 
pieeola porzione di ferro. Astronomers have fotuid, that 
between the sun and earth, there are more than 9j millions 
of miles distance; Gli astronomi hanno trovdto, che traU 
sole e la terra vi cbrrono piit di 05 milidne di miglia. — Hut in 
the folio winir sentences, trovdre will not do, and must be 
translated n^ here sujrirested. Ex. I have foiiiid mv exercise 
very (iifficult ; Ea mia lezidne mi e riuseitn difficilissima. 
Mow do yo»i find this soup .' Come li pidee qucstn zuppa ? 
I find that lady verv aj^reeable in her conversation ; Quclla 
signdra nti par mnllo piaeuole nel eonversdre. 

The abuse of the verb trovdre struck me very forcibly one 
day in (.'ornhi//, while I was biokiiifr at two superb prints. 
One f)f these, HUrelv of Italian orij^in, represented a (nan- 

' 220 

gurgolo, or Corie/Zo (a sort of clown), sucking the fingers of 
his right hand, and with staring eyes and the most expressive 
countenance, manifested the strong sensation occasioned in 
him by looking at a beautiful woman asleep, which was seen 
by the side of him. The motto was a most iudicious one : 
The English printseller desirous to get another print, I 
suppose, that could be matched with the above, had got one 
on the other window of his shop, executed after the same 
stjle, and of the same size, representing a Turkish slave 
drawing a curtain, and shewing a naked Circassian beauty. 
But the author of this print was distressed for a MOTTO to 
make it a match with the other, and had engraven under- 

No doubt bethought that these words meant, as in French, 
Comment la trouvez vous ? or, as in English, How do ^ou 
like her? but, alas ! the Italian reader would have scarcely 
found any meaning (unless acquainted with the PVench), 
and, if any, this would have been, Which way can you Jind 
her out? or, in better English, Hoxd cameyouhy her? To 
render the French motto above given, we would say in 

It is not, however, surprising to find a wrong Italian 
motto, in a country where a multiplicity of volumes, profess- 
edly treating of the Italian grammar, and colloquial style, 
daily appear, containing the most absurd rules, and despica- 
ble barbarisms, which meet, nevertheless, with the warmest 
reception, even by the reviewers. 

As to incorrect Italian Mottos, even the English Peer- 
age contains one. We read under the arms of a Most 
JNoBLE Duke, 

The Italian adage, however, savs so, 

and it might have easily been corrected by attending an 
Opera Buffa, (Gli Zingari in Fiera), performed at the 
King's Theatre (London) some years ago, where the music 
of the Finale, at the end of the first act, turned chiefly upon 
this proverb ; Sard quel che sard. 

% 46. The student ought to avoid the use of the Italian 
adjectives ending in EVOLE, very elegant for some species 
of composition ; but excessively disgusting in a familiar 
letter, or in conversation. The following only excepted, 
which are frequently heard in company. Abbominevole, 


Agevole (in the only sense o^ tame), Amichevole, Amorcvole^ 
Biasimevole^ Colpcrole, Conipassioncvo/e, Consapevole, Fa- 
T07'cip/c, Ficrofr, Giovcvolc, Inganreiofe, liiaoionrvole, 
Lagri»iei-ole, Onorevo/e (in the native meaning of doing^ 
honour), Piacevok, Picg/ievole, Ragioncvole, Scoiixencxole, 
Spamiterole, Svenevole, Spiacevole, and Sfouuic/ievole. 

Hut it i> now time to put an c;ul to my practical remarks^* 
and to tell mv reader with Boileau, 

Siir ce vaste sujet sij'aUois tout tracer, 

Tu verrois sous via main des tomes s'amasser. 

Leavinij, therefore, the rest to the judicious observation of 
the attentive learner, I conclude with another Motto no 
less known than true, 



OnTHOGRAPHV is the art of representing with characters 
the sounds and articulations of a language. Its rules, there- 
fore, concern letters, accents-. dip/it /lorigs^apostroplny^sfjllahles, 
and zcords, with tiie method oUengthcning, contracting, com- 
pounding, or dividing them. — Also the Orthographical, or 
Poetical fignres. 

^^ Tlio subject of Orthographf/ being materially con- 
nected with pronunciation, I refer my readers to Lecture 
I. for many important rules, which will not be mentioned 

f 47. Of Letters. 

The letters deserving our notice with respect to ortho- 
graphy are the following: 

I) is generally added to the particles a, to ; c, and ; when 
they arc followed by an initial vowel, not admitting any 
pause between : od and tied are often used by poets for o, 
or : and nr, nor : the former is even prosaic, but will not 
do every where. 

// i-itobe used only in these four words belonging to the 
verb arrre ,- ho, hai, ha, hanno ; or after the consonants c 
and "• when they are pronounf'ed hard before c and /'; and 
with some interjections ; hh, ah ! ahi ! dth ! oh! 

* It would be eai«y to coiiiradict Home of tlic above practical remarks, Uy 
aullioritif* from ttic tlraivl Tor a/o/ano, nr from the rla-^sic* ; but let tlie ri-ador 
obiervc that llii'* AI'I'KNDIX iscalciiliitcd to teach tlie transl.ition ot some Kng- 
linh form* into the lani?uaKe .»|>oken now in I'uscany in ilie best circles, hy peo- 
ple of good eduratiuii, but without heine supposed to iiavo Ktiiiiied cither any of 
the modern languages of Kuropo, or even their own mother tonguB. — F.diitr. 


.7. Never use the j lungo either at the befjinning or in the 
middle of words ; but only at the end of the plural number 
of those masculine nouns which in the singular end in to, not 
having the accent or stress on the i, and not having before 
their final to either a vowel, or one of these consonants, c, ch, 
S-> S^h Sh ^^'* The same letter j ought to be adopted at the 
end of some inflections of verbs. See the verb Odiare 
further on it! the List of the Irregular Verbs. 

Q must alwaj s be followed bv m .• it is never doubled ; but 
receives an additional c before it, when the sound of it is to 
be very strong. 

S. When a word beginning with an s, followed bj another 
consonant (which is called an s impura), is preceded bj these 
four particles, coii, in, non, per, an i should be added before 
the s to avoid harshness of sound. 

Z is only doubled between two vowels ; but even then is 
written single, if followed by two vowels- the first of which 
is an i short, not accented. ^^' 

(j:f There are several words in Italian which may indif- 
ferently be written with a variation of letters, on account of 
a certain ajjinily between them admitted by classical authors, 
the knowledge of which the learner may acquire both by 
reading the Treatise of Pronunciation prefixed to the 
Amusing Instructor (London, 1793, in 12mo.), by the Editor 
of this work, and by applying to good authors, and dic- 
tionaries, particularly io L'Ortogr of ia moderna di Facciolati. 
See also farther on the Orthographical Figure Antithesis. 

% 48. Of Accents. 

Accents in orthography are certain marks over vowels, 
calculated to shew the pronunciation, and some other par- 
ticulars of the words or letters. There are in Italian only 
two accents, the acute bending to the right, thus, (') and the 
grave bending to the left, thus (' ). Their use is as follows : 

All Italian words which have in the pronunciation their 
stress on the final vowel must have a grave accent marked 
on it ; as, sanitd, virtu, amb, lunedt, Sfc. 

Some monosyllables having two meanings, in order to 
avoid ambiguity, the accent is marked upon one, and omitted 
in the other : the following are thus distinguished . 

* Wlien before io final, not accented, of a noun masculine, there is either a 
vowel, or one of the above consonants, tlie plural is made by the mere suppres- 
sion of the o; liut if the t of to tinal be accented, the two t'l must be written in 
the plural ; thus, n,- and if the noun has no other vowel, thus, «. — Editor. 


e, he is (verb) from <°, and (conj.) 

(/</, he ijives (verb) da, tVoni (prep.) 

di, day (subst.) di, of (prep.) 

, ■ , . ^ si, himseU" (proii.) ; and the 

5/, yes: and an abbrevia- I '• i- • i 

\' (. ... / I , > ^iirn ot an impersonal pas- 
tion, thus (adv ) I • i ^ 

' 'J sive verb. 

/(I, there (adv.) la, 1 , , ... her ) . „ . 

,.\, -,, r , , ,.' I the (art.) ,, ^ (pron.) 

//, thither i^adv.) //, j ^ ^ they ) ^' 

. . , 7 us, or 7 , . 

ttc, norCneg. conj.) tie, V ^J. j^ J (pron.) 

Some of those spelt with the same letters.^ but of different 
sii;nifications, are distinguished by markini>; an accent where 
tlie stress lies ; which is marked grave, if on the last vowel ; 
and acate, or none at all, if the stress lies on any other vowel 
but the last ; thus, 

gia, already, is distinguished from gia, he was going 
die, he gave die, day (poet.) 

pie, foot pie, pious (fern, plur.) 

iui, a wren fui, him 

ba/ia, power bafia, a nurse 

The learned Academicians Delia Crusca have constantly 
nun Led with an acute accent all the Vs of the final diph- 
thongs irt, ie, ii, to, whenever other vowels are in the same 
word, and the stress lies on those i^s ; (the pron. chicchessia, 
cliinchtsia, and rpialsifiia, only excepted) ; but many of the 
moderns (not to be imitated) are regardless of this rule, as 
well as of more imj)ortant grammatical principles. — See 
farther on an OBSERVATION after the Orthographical 
Figure Diastole. 

Of Diphthongs. 

% 49. Whenever the sound of two diflerent vowels is 
heard in the same syllable, we then pronounce a diphthong ; 
and if the vowels thus sounded are three, it is then a triph- 
thong ; if four, a (juadi iphlhong, iS:c. In orthography, letters 
thus pronounced are called the same. 

% 50. The Italian diphthongs are commonly divided by 
the Italian grammarians into distcsi (open), and raecolii 
(close). Under the d(MUtmination of distesi, are included 
those diphthongs, of which both vowels are equally heard in 
pronouncing tliem ; and those of which the first vowel is 
iiardly perceptible, and the second, or last, more forcibly 
pronounced, are denominated rdccolli. 

• 01. IVom all this, it is plain, that the accurate pro- 
nunciation alone of each word can ascertain whether a 
couple of vowels be a diphthong, or not, and of what sort. 

The following, however, is a list of them, with their ex- 

AE, as Aerimdnte, a soothsayer lA, as piano, plain 

by means of air. IE, — pieno, full 

AI, — maist, certainly lO, — Jjore, flower 

AO, — aorcdre, to strangle lU, — Jiiane, river 

AU, — augurio, an omen OI, — oime ! alas I 

EA, — Borea, Boreas UA, — giidncia, cheek 

El, — Deitd, Deity UE, — qitesto,i\\\^ 

EO, — E6i, oriental, adj. pi. m. UI, ■ — guida, guide 

EU, — Europa, Europe UO, — ubmo, man 

<([ 52. Although it is not possible to establish by rules 
when and which of these diphthongs are distesi, or raccolti, 
without giving a vocabulary of all the words in which they 
are to be found ; yet the reader may be assured, that the 
diphthongs ea, ei, eo, eu, ia, ie, io, iu, ua, ue, ui, uo, 
are always to be pronounced raccolti, after any of these con- 
sonants, c, ch, g, gh, gl, AT, and q, unless the pause or stress 
of the word lies on the first of these vowels, when they can- 
not be looked upon as diphthongs. See lower down. 

5[ 53. According to the genuine definition of a diphthong, 
a double a, o, e, &c. can never be considered as such ; for 
either each of them is uttered with a distinct impulse of the 
breath, and then each will constitute a separate syllable 
(see its definition at p. 250, n. 62), or they are both pro- 
nounced together, and then they will only express a single 
vowel, wliose quantity is long. Those, therefore, who find 
a diphthong in ee, andoo, oiiveeyiiente, vehement, cooperdre, 
co-operate, and the like, do not sufficiently attend to the 
real nature of a diphthong. 

^ 54. Those are no less wrong, who maintain a diphthong 
to exist in words like dere, air ; amdi, I loved ; Paulo, 
Paul ; and the like : for, whenever the stress of the word is 
to be laid on the first of the two vowels, we must necessarily 
dwell too much upon it, not to renew the impulse of breath in 
the pronunciation of the following one, and double the 

"^ 55. For the same reason, the words qitdi, which, 777ia, 
mine, (both pi. m.) cannot be produced as instances of Ita- 
lian triphthongs, the final 1 being necessarily separated from 
the preceding vowel by the accent which falls upon it. 

Likewise the words muoio, 1 die; occhidia, the cavity of 
the eye ; do not contain any quadriphthongs, but only the 
diphthongs vo and io y id and ia ; since the emphasis falls 
on the first O and A of them. 

0,2 J 

Oil the odior hand, tlio words aii'/to, n\\ ; aidto, loiterinij, 
are real thri|)htl)uni,'s, «inco tlio accent railing on {\\o Ui^l 
vowel does not disunite them. — For the sinie reason we must 
maintain tliat true quadriphtlion.<Ts exist in words like these : 
Toiuu/o, saiall-i)o\ : caholdiuu/o, a weav(M- ; ntuoldmo, we 
die, &c. 

51 56. I wish, moreover, to observe to my readers, that 
those who would prove that no diphtiiong- exists in words 
like these, c^/r/'o, cheese ; paglia, straw; and allei^e tor a 
reason the iulluence that the i has on the pronunciation ol' 
the c, GL, and other consonants, are certainly wrong; it 
being impossible for a consonant to destroy a vowel, while 
it needs one itself to be uttered at all; it n)ay be heard less 
or more, but it cannot be lost, li" Buonimaitci himself has 
defined the diphthongs raccolli, to be those where, " tain 
(idle lucali ik/i quasi tijfogatu,^'' one of the vowels is almost 
absorbed, is not this the evident character of the diphthongs 
lo, I A, &c. before c, en, G, Gii, gl, or sc ? The Chevalier 
Sdhidli, Caslclvdro, and the Right Rev. Canon Norchiali, 
of the MEDiCKAN Collcgid/a, who has written on this subject, 
€.r profcsso, are of my ojjinion, and I am proud of siding 
uith them. (See more on this subject in the Amusing 
Instructor, p. 4G to 50 and 60, n. 110, 111,1 12 ; and 142, 
where the Chevalier and the Canon are quoted at length) 
— Also see here a quotation of Castcliclro farther on, at 
p. 228. 

These principles being established, the poetical words 
Idcciuoi, stifires : fi<^liu6i, sons ; and the like, contain a triph- 
thong as well as Jiucciuolo, a joint of the reed, rush, &c. — 
And as we have seen above, n. o5, that r«/?aVo, and c^/co- 
laiu(')lo are real quadrif)h(hongs, we must allow the Italian 
to possess even QllNTl PITT IfONGS, if such a won! 
ever existed, for in the wt rds .tcciaiuolo, a steel to striko lire 
with; Pcl/iccifiiuo/o, a furrier ; we hear the sound of five 
vowels uttered atone impulse of the voice. — What shall we 
then say to those who would even refuse triphthongs to (lie 
Iialiiiii language ! 

•■ 57. I shall conclude the subject of diphthongs (unfortu- 
nately omitted by the Author and Editor at IjICCTUUE I. 
where it was \\^ proper place), with a striking uotr of the 
Acadeinirians I)r.r-i,A Ciuisca, with '^ome remarks upon it. 
It i- found at the bottom of page 5() of tluir edition of Huom- 
MATTEi's Ciranimar, and runs as follows : 

" I'are, rlic i ci'iniaiici »i vadatui innlaiiipnii- uvvnlj^i'iulo in ^illllic;l^lliUotlg^i 
alcuiic c<jiit;iuiixiuiii di vocalj, c allic no. Keen il Salvimi en di- iliuuii^'o m, 
IK, lo, in noid, bait, taio, c nun crc-dc diUoiigo va, vr;, vi, tkc. in valint, 



" veUtta, vizzo, perchd '1 v e cotisoimnte, e«lice beiie^ Ma auco iti noia, bale, e 
'• suio 1' I e coiisonaiite. Cosi il nostro Ripieno (meauiiig Buoinmattei) vefleil 
" diltODgo \\\ piajio, e non lo vede in ciascuno; gioslare, (J-c. II vero e, che 
" quando una delle due vocali diviene consonante, perdendo essa il suo suono di 
" vocale, liOn vi pud esser dittougo." 

Let me first observe to my readers, tliat the grand and 
immortal Vocaholario appeared in 1729, and this edition of 
Buommattei in 1760, that is, thirty years after ; so that very 
iew of the same learned men were alive, and the Academy 
retained the same glorious name, but the greater part of her 
members were scarcely deserving that honour. 

% 58. But if the above circumstance were not enough to 
invalidate the principles that wo^e contains, the following 
remarks will, I trust, prove to evidence, that it is to be looked 
upon as an inaccuracy of the illustrious editors. 

I. It is a well known licence of the Italian poetry to ad- 
mit, that as many vowels (either sounded in one, or more 
syllables,) as can possibly come together, may be reckoned 
only for one syllable, in scanning a verse, through the poeti- 
cal figure of the St/naeresis, See this farther down, among 
the Orthographical Figures. 

JI. Yet in no case whatever the letter V will be found in 
poetry after a vowel, except it makes an additional syllable 
in the verse. 

III. Nevertheless, numerous are the instances in which 
om, «?//, fljo, and the like, make one syllable in verse, as the 
following examples amply shew. 

Dante. " Nello stato primdio non si rinselva.^* 

It never turns to be a wood in its former 
Boccaccio Canz. " Onde 7 viver /w' e noia, ne so morire.^* 

Wherefore, life is a pain to me, and I 
cannot die. 
Petrarca. " Ecco Cin da Pistoia, Giiitton d' Arez- 

Behold Cino of Pistoia, and Guittone of 
Berni Orlando. " Ma siami tutto il mondo tesiimonio, 

Che col cucchidio lamdngio della rdbbia.^'' 
But let all the world be witness, that 1 
eat it up with the spoon of rage. 
Buonarroti Fiera. " Quel cK' to mi veggo incontro star pen' 

Con quella grande occhidia ; per qual 

Per quale infermitd. 

Divetufto t si iiiagro ?" 

'i'lie mail whom 1 see pensive before tue, 

with those big-swolii eyes, why, and 

tor what infirmity is l>o become so lean? 

Cecclii Donz. "" Quinilu piu xccchio cV arcoluio^iuc'gini.'" 

The older is the windinij-reel, the better 
it turns. 

And who would ever be so extravagant as to follow Salvini 
in this respect, who, rather than acknowledge the /, otow, 
aio, cSc. to be a ^o\\el, would reduce the j)ure and elegant 
Tuscan idiom of the above eminent authors to the barbarism 
of the old provc?izale dialect, and contract those words thus, 
primai\ noi\ Pistoi\ cucchim ^ although instances of such 
poetical svllables be ^o very numerous in the classics ? 

But it is not Stiliini alone who has advanced this strange 
opinion ; he has done notliing more than comment upon this 
striking passage of Biioimyiattci, p. 92, where speaking of 
the above words he says, 

" Sideoiio profferir tionclie volendo au'siustaie il verso, il clie iion e stato pci 
" uiio sri'Kolato capriccio, come qualclie sacceiite lia avuto aidir d'affermare; 
" ma per imitare i Proveiiicali, come beu disse il Bembo." 

And what merit, let me ask, could there be expected by the 
above authors, who are deemed to be the most pure and cor- 
rect Tu-can poets, in introducing the sounds of the old Pro- 
xenzalt in tlieir lines, which, compared with the Italian, 
scarcely deserves the name of language, although, perhaps, 
we owe to it th*' charn) of the rhyme? Is it not jnuch more 
natural to -iiy, that sucli great authors found no impropriety 
in joining all the above sounds together, because they re- 
garded them all as vowels, and consequently such as by the 
S^uiurcais co\\\(\ be united, with the utmost propriety, in 
one poetical syllable ?— It is also worth observing, that Cax- 
trlvetro, comuicnting on that passage oi' Jiciiibu, alluded to by 
Buoinmattei, flati.y denies that the iVorf;?:;«/e ever had 
such an aukward pronunciation. Besides, if ever Daute, 
lioccaccin and Pdrarcu \\:k\ ixny idea of imitating that dia- 
lect, could it be sui)po^ed that the other modern authors, 
Jitrni, Buonarroti^ Cccclii, and many more, who are full of 
similar licences, would Iia\c the most distant idea of reviving 
a language f|uite dead in their tinies, and which not one of 
them cjjuld either read or write ? 

IV. In the fourth j)lace we have to observe, that Bi:.mho 
himself, the original author of the pretended contraction in 
the above word-, plainly calls the U-tttrs ^/n;, ci/V/, c^r. / /'<-' 
vocali, and it seems that lut did not think of exnlaining this 

Q 2 


poetical science by the Sj/naereris, or else he certainly would 
have done it. 

V. Castelvetro, however, his illustrious commentator, 
not only confirms the appellation of vozoels given to these 
letters by Bembo, but openly adverts to the fio;ure of Sj/- 
naeresis, wiiich he very properly calls ristringimento^ and 
explains the right pronunciation of these vowels completely, 
according to my theory, thus : 

" Medesituamente si e usato di fare questo medesimo ristringimbnto acci- 
" dentale della vocale doppia para con la vocale aiidaiite avaiiti ne' nomi, die 
" finiscouoiii Aio, in oio, in oia, seguendo consoiiante in verso. Quindi leg- 
" gianio OIO in Uccellatoio, ed aio in Primaio, ed oia, o ancoia ioia in Gioia, 
" come una sillaba ristretta per accidente ; e deonsi iiitte le vocali scrivere, e 
" far sentire uel prefferimento di una sillaba sola heiiche I poco suoiii." 

VI. I will not omit observing another absurdity that 
would arise from considering the i of the many nouns end- 
ing in oio^ or aio, as a consonant, which would be a very 
great one, that is, of establishing as a rule, that the Italian 
language has a great many nouns whose plural ends in aeon- 
sonant^ which would be quite against the genius of this har- 
monious tongue; yetcolatoio, a strainer; must make colatoi 
in the plural ; fornaio, a baker ; Fornai ; and so on for an 
infinite number of them. 

VI I. Again, Messrs, the Academicians, having been ex- 
tremely minute in their Vocaholario^ in assigning to each 
letter all its imaginable powers of combination and sound, 
why did they not assign the nature of a consonant in some 
instances to the vowel i? On the contrary, they have never 
followed the abuse of writing an j lungo in the above sylla- 
bles, although many authors have done and still doit. 

VIII. The Academicians have moreover printed, without 
animadversion, the following judicious definition and dis- 
tinction of vowels and cf)nsoi)ants by Buomnattei^ at p. 24, 
as follows :* 

*• A formare un elemento biso:.'nii eh' e' s'apra la bocca. Ora se con quel' 
" apertura si maiida tuor la voce scrniilicfmeiitc, si mandano fuora quegli ele- 
" inenii.che si (iicon vocali, quasi forinati da un puro passaggio di voce per gli 
" btruiuenti. Ma .se ail' apertura dclla bocca s' HL'giugue alcuna percwiworae, o 
" alcun accostamento sensibile dei^Ii struuiciiti. si fi)rnwuio quelli, che si chiainano 
" consonanti foise da quel suoiui, die rcndono gli stiuuienti in forinargli ; non 
" percheessi in percotendosi facciaii roniore, ma perdie in quella percussione il 
" predetto suotio bacompimeuto." 

While {\\e percussione o'i {he upper teeth with the lower lip, 
is manifest in the pronunciation of v, who will discover any, 

• Mb. Harris, in his Hermes, gives the very same definition of a vowel and 
consonant,whichhe supports with eminent Greek and Latin authorities.— Ediior. 

or be able to describe it, in the i, of the syllables mo, oia^ 
and the like: And if the above definition be wronij, why 
did the Academicians approve of it by their silence ? 

IX. Let us therefore conclude, with Pumbo^ Cdslclrctro, 
the Chevalier Sa/iiati, and the Right Re\erend Canon Nor- 
c/iiati, that the Italian J ov J is, in all instances, a vowel ; 
and that even when it changes its figure into (hat ofy, its 
nature is always that of a vowel. See more on the subject 
in the Amusinii; Instructor. 

Ofthe Apostrophe.* 

5f 59. SvUables and letters are, as we shall heroafter ob- 
serve, freciuentlv omitted in writing; and for this piirj)ose 
we make use ofthe Apostrophe, the term by which we tlenote 
that little c reversed, usually written by the side ofthe first 
or ofthe last letter of a word, and which indicates the omis- 
sion of a vowel or syllable. Thus, grdtuV vomo, great n)an, 
wants the vowel r ; and r' x'lsse, he lived; the syllable g-/z 
second syllable of egli. In (he same manner also lo ''mpera- 
dore wants its first vowel i. — The Greeks made use ofthe 
^ipostrophe : it was not, however, introduced amongst our 
authors of the refined age, having not been known to us (ill 
the commencement ofthe sixteenth century. 

^ 60. With respect to its use, our Academicians Delia 
Cnfscn, in their Preface to the focabolario, remark, that it is 
not in every case ofthe omission of one or more letters that 
we are to have recourse to the apostrophe ; for if a word, 
which, preceding a consonant, would never have lost its final 
letter, happens, however, to lose it in consequence of its 
concurring with a vowel, this loss is then marked by the sign 
of the apostrophe, and is thus written. Example from Dante: 

" Ond' esta oUracoldnzainvoi s' alUlta f 
" Froiuwheuce arises your pres'.imptinn ? 

11 61. But if that word admitted of an abbreviation even 
before a consonant, it must not be marked with an apos- 
trophe, either before a consonant or a vowel ; lor this reason 
cuor, heart ; pcnsicr, thought ; vedcr, to see ; and other 
similar words, which may be curtailed, whether followed by 
a vowel, or a consonant, do not rec( ive the apo-lrophe. — 
Hence C'^V is written without it, when it is mi-sculine, not, 

• All that follows on \\\t*a\i'}ccioi Apostrophe, Syllahlrs, anil U'ords, lius been 
faUeii from Couth emj's ficflli-iii (irainniar, with due :ilu'raiionw and ri'iicncli- 
nii'iitA ; »incc till- Autlior lia^ been botli confuted and iu.ii'curatc in liandlin^' 4 
sulijeci, onwhicli (lie inucli admired delicuiy of (he 'I'li^can language so much 

il«-|fl Dels. — EdtloT. 


however, when it is i'eniinine; since we just as well write 
un ubmo^ a man ; as, iin diamante^ a diamond ; both beino; 
masculine nouns; but not un sella^ a saddle; nor yet un 
miserkordia, a mercy ; therefore, when we write u)i anima, 
a soul ; or mi' essenza^ a body ; the apostrophe oua;ht, un- 
doubtedly, to be employed. 

Of Sj/llables, and their Division. 

51 62. A Syllable is the sound, or sounds, represented by 
one or more letters pronounced at a single impulse of the 
breath. — And in Orthography, the written letter, or letters 
thus pronounced, are called the same. 

When a word cannot be entirely comprehended in one 
line, it is necessary to break it, and place the remainder at 
the beginning of the following one, and for this reason it is 
proper to knovv how to divide the word according to its dif- 
ferent syllables. 

^ 63. Rule 1. — When two or more vowels are found to- 
gether in the body of the word, they should not be separated, 
unless the accent falls on the first, or any of the intermediate 
ones. Ex. Pagliaiuolo may be only divided thus, ^;«-g*//«?M6- 
/o, since the accent falls upon the last of the six vowels ; but 
occhidia may be divided either so, oc-chidia, or oc-chid-ia, 
because the accent equally divides the four vowels into two 

% 64. Rule 2. — No syllable ought to begin with two 
similar consonants ; as, for example, with two s's, two Ps, 
two »w'5, and so on ; therefore, the first of them should be 
left with the preceding syllable ;* thus the word asse, a 
board, is not divided thus, a-sse, but so, asse. 

^ 65. Rule 3. — The syllable ought not to begin with two 
such different consonants, as could not be found at the be- 
ginning of an Italian word ; for example, the word mente, 
mind, is not spelt me-nte ; because iit cannot begin a word, 
but men-te. The syllable may, however, begin with any 
number of consonants, if they are such, and so arranged, as 
to be found at the beginning of a word ; thus, for example, 
the word 2w/r«5cr2^/o, underwritten, is spelt m-jTm-^crj^-Zoy and 
the words degno, worthy :figlio,son, are spelt de-gno,fi-glio. 

• This rule is pood, altliougli not consistent witli reason, as is ably demon- 
strated by BuoMMATTEr, lib. I. 'J'rat. iV. Cap. VI, for since the juonunciation of 
the \v(>r(ls(7ccidt;.'2<r, accident; sd^gio, essai ; and an infinite number of others 
evidently shews, that the sound of the double consonant is constantly laid in full 
on the following vowel, they ousiht to begin the line both together ; yet custom 
admits of the division of double letters in writing, as lieie prescribed. See also 
the Amusing Ivstructor.— Editor . 


^ 66. Rule 4. — Whenever there is only one consonant 
between vowels in the body of a word, it is invariably given 
to the vowel which follows, and written as niakini; a distinct 
syllable with it. Thus the word mora, blackberry, is not 
spelt 7uor-a, but vio-ra. 

^ 67. Rule J. — Lastly, Salviniis of opinion, that it would 
be as well to avoid finishing; the line with a word that re- 
(juires an apostrophe; as for example with delP amorc, delV 
being in one line, and amorc in the other. 

Of Words. 

5T 68. Words dift'er from syllables in various ways. A 
syllable is pronounced at one impulse of the breath only — 
and a word may contain many syllables, and consequently is 
liable to be pronounced at two, or more impulses of the 
voice. The syllable has no meaning ; and the word has 
always some sort of signification, either absolute or relative. 
— Words containing one syllable are called monosijllahles : 
those containing two, dissyllables : tris?/llables, if they have 
three ; polj/s/yllables, if more than three. — In orthography 
four things are to be considered with respect to words. 1. 
Their increment, or lengthening; 2. their contraction ; 3. 
their compound form ; 4. and their division into syllables. 

^ 69. Observe. In order that words be liable to the three 
first modifications, they must have a close connection with 
the foregoing or following word in the same sentence, and 
admit of no pause between. As to ihc'w division, see what 
we said above, speaking of the syllables, n. 02 to 67. 

Of the Increment of Words. 

^ 70. In the Tuscan language words are frequently aug- 
mented at the beginning, or at the end, either to soften the 
asperity that arises from the meeting of some consonants, or 
to avoid the hiatus which may be produced from a concur- 
rence of vowels. The following are the most necessary rules. 

51 71. Jfule 1. — When a word ending in a consonant is 
followed by another commencing with an S impura, that is, 
an i to which another consonant is immediately subjoined, 
this second word is augmented in the beginning by an i, in 
order to soften the harshness of the pronunciation. I^^xample 
( iiocc.) g. J, n. 7, ^o? 7ni avcte colto in iscambio ; You have 
mistaken me. 

Exception. — 'I'he poets frequently nci;;l<r( (his rule. Kx. 
(Dante) Perch' io m'adiri, \on sbignllir, eh' ;" vincero la 
pruiixa ■ Do not be discouraged at riiy being angry, tor I 
will oviTcome the trial. 

Q \ 


f 72. Rule 2. — The particles A^ to £, and O, or, before 
a word beo-innin": with a vowel, are sometimes auomented 
by a D ; and the particles su^ and m su^ upon ; in a similar 
case by an R. Ex. (Bocc.) Senza far motto ad aniico, od a 
parente, fuorche ad un sua compdgno, il quale ogni cosa 
sapea, andb via ; He went away, without saying a word 
either to a friend or a relation, or indeed to any person, ex- 
cept one of his companions, who was acquainted with every 
circumstance. (Segni Stor.) Radunare ogni mese la banda 
del sHo quartitre in sur una piazza ; To assemble every 
month the soldiers of his ward ofthetownin a public square. 

We find, likewise, in our ancient authors, benched ella^ 
for benche ella, although she ; ched egli, for che egli, that 
he ; sed egli e troppo, for se egli e troppoy if it be too much ; 
ned altro, for ne altro, nor any thing else. But they are now 
obsolete, except ned (or ne, which occurs even in Tasso. 

% 13. Rule 3. — Poets sometimes augment the end of such 
words as are accented on the last syllalDle, with an E, or an 
O, to render the verse more sonorous, s'unio for s'unl. 
(Petrarca). Comejior colto Idngue, Lieta si dipartio nan che 
secura (for si diparti) ; As a gathered llower fades and 
withers away, so she departed, but confident, and even 
cheerful. Che quasi un bel sereno a mezzo il die, Fea le 
tenebre niie (for il di) ,- Which (the eyes of Laura) changed 
my darkness, as it were, into a beautiful serenity of mid-day. 

On the Contraction of Words. 

The words of the Tuscan language may be contracted, 
either by curtailing them at the beginning, or at the end ; on 
M hich we shall give distinct rules as follows. 

Hora words are curtailed at the beginning. 

^ 74. Rule 1. — The only words which admit of the sup- 
pression of their first letter, are the particle IL, and those 
that begin with an /, followed by one of these two liquid 
consonants, M, N. (Boccaccio.) Se medesimo mira, quasi 
dubbio fra 7 s?, e 'I no di acquistdrla. He views himself, as 
if doubtful of the probability or improbability of gaining her. 
Also, Lo 'ngannatore rimdne a' pie dello 'nganndto. The de- 
ceiver remains at the feet of the deceived. And, Gli spiccb 
dallo 'mbuslo la testa. He struck his head from his body. — 
• OiJSEiivE. These contractions will not do for familiar 
writings, except for the particle IL, as instanced in the first 
quo(<»tion, which is very common in all styles. 

Vo/r. — Tho-e words, (hen, which begin with other vowel>;, 
or with / lolloucil by other cuiisonants, arc not ubbie\iated, 
nor can we say, for example, lo ''more for V amove ^ the love ; 
patio 'iiorato tor pnlC onordlo ; la \iolalria for ido/alria. 

% 75. CAUTION. — In orderto justify such abbreviationp, 
the liquid followin<; the 7 requires to liiive anoliier conso- 
nant after it, ditVerent from itself; therefore, if it should be 
followed by a vowel or a similar consonant, the abridgement 
could not take place. — The observance of this principle 
may be remarked in the examples of the precedini; rule. — 
We cannot then sav, hi 'tnitazione for /' imitaziunc, the imi- 
tation ; fit 'fiabile for fu imibi/e, he was unable ; nor lo 
'mmortdlt, motto ^nnditzi, lor /' immortdle^molto iimdnzi ; the 
immortal, mucli before. 

Exception. — The words innamordre., to charm, innalzure, 
to raise, and others commencino; with INN, are sometimes 
found abbreviated in tiie Classics. Ex. (Dante.) Ma nostra 
xitu scnzu nnzzo spira. La somma be nindnza, c la ''nnai/tora. 
But our whole lite is incessantly animated by divine bene- 
volence and love. (Id.) Poicfie 'nnalzdi itn pocopiti le ciglia, 
Vidi 'l maestro (li color, ehe sanno. On rai>ing my eyes a 
little more, I saw the master of those who are most learned. 

If 7G. Rule 2. — Those words which have the accent, or 
stress upon the first syllable, are not abridged at the begin- 
ning ; nor do we say, for example, lo ^mpeto for /' impeto, 
the impetuosity ; la 'nclila for/' inelita, the glorious. 

77. H Ri/le 3. — When the foregoing word finishes in a 
consonant, the subsequent one, although it may have all the 
rc(|uisitts of the preceding rules, is not however abridged, 
as we cannot say, for example, per'/nperio, in ''ngegno. in- 
stead of per imperio, iningcgno, for empire, in talent. 

Hou^ JVords maj/ be curtailed at the end. 

H 78. All the words in the Tuscan language cud in 
vowels, except some few monosyllables, cow, iw, il^non, per, 
with, in, the, not, for ; and a few polysyllables which seldom 
occur. Ifence, it fre(iiieiitly happens, that in order either 
lo .-.ol'ien some asperity of sound, or to render the speech 
more connected and robust, words are abbreviated in their 
last syllables, and fretpiently marked with an apostrophe, 
which mav denote the abbre\ iation. (See rules lor using 
this hign above, p. 2i^9.) Hut (hi- recpiires lo be done with 
great caution, observing (he Ibllowini; rules. 

H 79. .MosTOENEUAL ituLK. — Words; immediately fol- 
lowed by aiiotlici- (•ominenciuir "itii an S impdra, in no 
instance wliatever can be curtailed. Thus we cannot say, 


gentil spirito for gentile spirito, pliable mind ; far studio for 
fare studio, to study, &c. — Only the poets have ventured to 
trespass sometimes against this rule, and they do not deserve 
to be imitated in this point. 

5 80. Rule 2.-^The\ast words of periods, sentences, and 
their divisions, are not abbreviated, because the voice rests 
upon them for some little time, it not being easy to lay the 
emphasis on an abbreviated word. 

Exception. — Modern poets, and among these Chiabrera, 
sometimes conclude their verses very elegantly with abbre- 
viated words ; as, amor, dolor, timor, 3fc. Jove, grief, fear, 
&c. Miser vergine ! Sue membra nobili Belva divennero. 
Ah gran dolor! Miserable virgin! her noble members 
became a wild beast, ah great grief I 

5f 81. Rule 3. — Words which have the accent on the last 
syllable, are not abbreviated, as we cannot say, for example, 
and' in villa for andb in villa, he went into the country ; nor, 
far"* bene for faro bene, I shall do well. — The abbreviation 
must rather be made according to the rules above, on the 
first vowel of the following word ; as, andb 'w villa, he went 
into the country. 

Exception. — The word che, that, with all its compounds, 
henche, although, perche, because, <^c. although they may 
have the grave accent, are, however, sometimes abbreviated. 
(Boccaccio.) Pregdndolo, cW egli 5' avaccidsse. Intreating 
of him, that he would make haste. Also, Bench'' ella fosse 
contraffdtta della persona. Although deformed in her per- 
son. Also, (Petrarca) Qm son sicura, e vovvi dir perch'' io, 
Non, come soglio, il folgordr paxento- Here I am secure, 
and I will tell you why 1 no longer fear the thunder as usual. 

<|[ 82. Rule 4. — Words which have a diphthong in the 
last syllable ; as, cdmbio, exchange, doppie, pistoles, nebbia, 
fog, &c. are not abbreviated. 

f 83. Rule 5. — Words terminating in A, when before a 
vowel, may be abbreviated ; as, for example, rob"* unta, a 
greasy thing ; aW erba, to the grass, &c. — But not when 
before a consonant, particularly if they end in RA ; nor 
can we say, alcurU gente for alciina gente, some people ; nor 
una sol volta (which is, however, heard every day), but una 
sola volta, only once; and much less Jier^ novella for fiera 
novella, horrid intelligence. 

First Exception. — The adverb OR A, with all its com- 
pounds, &c. may be abbreviated of its last vowel before a 
consonant. (Boccaccio.) Or bene., come faremo? Well, 
how shall we accomplish it ? or manage it ? (Petrarca.) 
Allor che fulmindto e morlo gidcque II mio sperdr. At the 


time my hope lay dead, struck by a thunderbolt. — Also, 
Talor- sua do/ce lista rasscrcna. Her sweet coiuitenance 
sometimes calms. 

Stcond Exception. — The word SUORA is only abridtrcd 
belbre a vowel, when used as an adjective in mentioning the 
members of some sisterhood ; as, suor AppcUagia, sister 

i 8i. Rule 6. — Words terminatinij^ in JE", unaccented, 
may be abbreviated betbre a vowel, liocc. G. 2. N. 9. Non 
era si poco cfic oltr a dicci mila dohhrc no7i xaUsse. Which 
was not so trilling as not to be worth more than ten thousand 

Exception. — When the last E of the word is preceded by 
Cor G, it is not taken away. For example, we cannot say, 
lane'' antiche for lance antiche, ancient spears ; otherwise it 
would require to be pronounced harshly, as if it were writ- 
ten lancantiche. 

^, 85. Jhilcl . — All unaccented words ending in £, may 
be abbreviated before a consonant ; provided only, that after 
omitting the />", the last remaining consonant be single, and 
one of the following liquids, Z<, A, II. (Boccaccio.) Ddlolc 
mangiarr pa/i laxato. Having given her bread steeped in 
water to eat. AUo., Comdre egli non si vuol diie. Friend, 
it must not be mentioned. And, Se vi cal di me. If you 
have any regard for me, ^Sic. — Recollect here, as an excep- 
tion to this rule, the other most general one laid down at 
No. 79. 

Eirst Exception. — The plurals of nouns ending in E, are 
not abbreviated, nor can we say, for example, pen' gravi, 
canlin fresehe, {hv pene grazi, cantine fresehe ; heavy pains, 
cool cellars. 

Second Exception. — Theadverb come, and the word nome, 
are not abbreviated before a consonant for the sake of har- 
mony. Pftrarca, however, at times availed himself of this 
licence, in which he is not to be imitated. 

f Sf). /iulf S. — Words terminating in /, are frequently 
deprived of that letter, both before? a vowel and a consonant. 
(Hoccaccio.) Si eomineidrono uddvere in odio fuor di inodo. 
They beijan to hate each other beyond all measure. 

Eirst /■Exception. — The word 0(i \E according to (lie opi- 
nion oi'tlie best author^^, does not achnit of any ai)breviation ; 
nor can w<' say, ogn' altro, f>gfi^ uno, ogn^ erba, but ogni 
altro^ ogni una, ogni erba., <St. unless, in(leed, in the case of 
two words beirjg made into one, which are only these, ognac- 
rordo, a p'^alterv : ou^nnrii. \\\\\:\\^; oiini)iffeli(\'w]n'i\v\cr: 
ognuno, every one. — The lullowing ognindi, every day ; and 


ognotta, every time, are out of date : and ognissdnti, all- 
saints, does not lose the I. 

Second Exception. — GLI before every other vowel, but /, 
is written entire ; because, if it should be written, for exam- 
ple, gr imici, gV occhi, gl' t/firj, the friend, the eyes, the du- 
ties, &c. GL would lose its soft sound. 

T/md Exception. — The plural of all nouns, terniinatinof in 
i/, as pali, posts, veli, veils, &c. and likewise those in NI, 
as, immagini, images; cammini, chimneys, &c. do notadnWtof 
abbreviation in familiar discourse; but are to be met curtailed 
before consonants, in the classics, particularly in the poets. 
Fourth Exception. — Words ending- in Ci and in Gi, are 
only abbreviated before the vowel /, otherwise the C and G 
would not give that soft sound which they ought to do ; and 
for that reason it is not proper to write, dolc^ nmpUssi, preg^ 
onardti^ but dolci amplessi, pregj onordti, sweet en»braces, 
honourable merits. — We may, however, say, dolc^ imenei, 
preg' il/ustri, sweet hymens, illustrious merits, &c. 

5[ 87. Rule 9. — Words ending in O, may be abbreviated 
before a vowel; therefore we say, for example, buon^ ubmo^ 
tropp* eminente, quanV ogni alto, good man, too eminent, as 
much as any other, &c. 

^ 18. Rule 10. — Many words terminating in Lo, 3Io, 
No, Ro, So, are abridged of their last vot (J before a conso- 
nant. (Petrarca.) Soglion questi trnnqutUi, e lieti amdnti. 
These tranquil and cheerful lovers are accustomed, &c. 
(Dante.) Andidni die la via lunga ne sospigfie. Let us go, 
for we are compelled by the long way we have to walk. 
(Boccaccio.) Dovendo a man dcstra tenere ; Being obliged 
to keep to the right. 

First Exception. — The first persons singular of the pre- 
sent of the indicative, which terminate in o, and have the 
accent upon the first syllable but one, as consolo, ragiono, 
amo, chero, confesso, &fc. are not abbreviated, and for this 
reason that famous verse in Tasso ; Amico, hai vinto, io ti 
perdbn, perdona, was so much criticised. 

The first person, however, of tlie verb essere, that is SO- 
NG, has the privilege of beinc" abridged. (Bocc.) E oltre a 
cib son dottore di medicina ; Besides I am a doctor of physic. 
(Petrarca.) F son colei, che ti die tanta guerra ; I am the 
person who caused thee so much distress. 

Second Exceptio7i. — The words pessimo, very bad ; nero, 
black ; ripdro, defence ; and the like, are not abbreviated 
by good authors. 

% 89. Rule 11. — Words ending in O, preceded by two 
L's or two N's, having their accent on the vowel just before 


tliem, which is neither I nor O, are frequently abbreviated of 
their last vowel, and of one of (he two L's or N's, when 
before a consonant (Petrarca). Qticsti fii qucl^chc tirivul^c 
e strinse Spesso conic caid/ frctt c/ic vnfitogia ; It was this 
who frequently calmed and restrained thee, in the same 
manner as the bridle does the ungovernable horse, (Bocc.) 
liil i^io-idtic, c irrandc della persona ; I'ine younu^ man, and 
tail ill stature ( D.mte). lYtgliuvn il liingo sliidio e 7 grandc 
amore, Che nCha7i fatto ccrcdr lo tiio volume; Let the long 
study and great love with whicli I applied myself to your 
works plead for me. And thus, /^//?;/o, danno^ (uidrc'nino^ and 
similar inflections of verbs, are abbreviated, particularly by 
the poets : but, on the contrary, palia, ball ; sella, saddle ; 
colla, glue; collo, neck; spillo, a pin ; are not abbreviated, 
either because they do not terminate in O, or because the 
last vowel but one is 1 or O. 

First Exception. — The words cordllo, crisldllo, ballo,fallo, 
sncllo, Baomnialtei iiffmns never to have seen abridged. 

Second E.vecp!io)2 — The word SANTO, although its last 
consonants be dilferent, i^, however, abbreviated of the last 
vowel before a vowel, as likewise of the last syllable before a 
consonant ; but in the only case that it be used as an adjec- 
tive, immediately followed by a proper noun, as San Giovdn- 
wj, Saint John; Sunt" A)ilunio, Saint Anthony. — Observe. 
The feminine is written whole before a consonant, and with 
an apostrophe before a vowel ; as, Santa Geltrude, Saint 
Gertrude : and SanV E/iiah/tta, Saint Elizabeth. 

Third Exaplion. — The word GJIANDE, great, in both 
genders and numbers, loses in like manner the last syllable 
before a consonant ; when it stands for an adjective, and 
immediately precedes its substantive, but not in .my other 
case. Thus wc say, g/v/w paldzzo, ot pa/dzzi, great palace, 
or palaces ; gran casa or case, great house, or houses. — 
Before a vowel it only loses a letter; as, grand^ amico, or 
(ii/iira. great frietid. < itiier a ladv or a gentleman : and in th(» 
plural, grand^ ainici, or atniclK. great fiiends. 

Fourth Exception. — The word IRATE, Brother, is like- 
wise abbreviat* (1 of the last syllable, both b(>fore a conso- 
nant and a vowel bv the modern^, whrn it stands for an 
adjectiw given to the mendx-rs ol' a religions Ijiolherhood, 
and immediately followed by the proper name of the person 
alluded to; as, Era Pdoto, Biother Paul; Era Andrea, 
J>rothei- Andrew, tSjc. — But the best authors have not con- 
tracted it before a vowel.* 

• Here CoTliceUi hui iiisciteil an .■Ijtptndije, llu* i-khIi-iii^ of wliiili liavc 
alrca<ly been givini witli ilic itrictiirct nbovo, p. 2ifi, ii. f>B. — Editor. 


fl 90, Rule 12. — The words meglio, better; voglio^ I 
will; tnali, bad; pi. m. ; qudli, which, pi. m. ; egli, he; 
are abridged bj the poets of the last syllable from a certain 
Tuscan grace. (Dante.) Se' sdvio, e intendi me\* c/t' io 
non ragiono ; You are wise, and understand better than I 
can explain. (Petrarca.) Senniiccio, io vo* che sappi, in qual 
maniera Trattato,sono, &,-c. ; Sennuccio, I want you to know 
how I am treated, &c. (Dante.) Che diedi al Re Giovanni i 
ma' conforti ; Who gave to king John such a bad advice, 
(Petrarca.) Dcntro alle qua'' peregrindndo albSrga Un signor 
valoroso, which are inhabited by a brave gentleman. (Dante.) 
E' 111' incresce di me si malamente ; I am so painfully bur- 
thensome to myself. This last contraction of e' for eg-//, may 
be used in elegant prose. The others should be left to poets. 

f 91. Rule 13. — The words Z>e//i, handsome, pi. m. ; alii, 
to them; dalli, from them ; delli, of them ; nelli, in them; 
pelli, for them ; colU., with them ; quelli ; those, (all pi. m.) 
lose the last vowel with both the preceding consonants ; and 
are written and pronounced thus, before words commencing 
with a consonant, which is not an S impura, viz. be\ a\ da\ 
de\ ne\pe\ co\ que'' . Some authors do not write the apos- 
trophe over the abovementioned words, but add an / at the 
end; as,bei,ai, dai, dei, tiei, pei, coi, qiiii ; but the more 
exact Tuscan authors always write and pronouncesuch words 
with the apostrophe, as appears from the works of Salvini, 
and from the Vocabolario itself of Z)e//c! Crusca. 

OBSERVE, Do not confound the above obsolete com- 
pound articles, alii, dalli, delli, nelli, pelli, colli, which belong 
to the plural of this article /Z/, with the following, agli, 
dagli, degli, negli, pegli, cogli, which belong to the plural of 
the article LO, and must be used when this article is neces- 
cary. See Lecture 111. 

Of Compound JVords. 

^92. Observation theFirst. — TheTuscans, in order to give 
an additional elegance to their pronunciation, frequently 
join in writing two words into one ; but with respect to this 
no certain rule can be given, nor should any one take upon 
himself to form similar compositions, but make use of those 
only which are admitted in the great Vocabolario, and are in 
general use with the best authors. It is permitted them to 
write ognuno, every one ; gentiluomo, a nobleman ; soito- 

* The same contraction me' stands for mezzo, when preceded by pt:r, and 
means uear, about, &c. as, s' avhine •per me' la cesla (Bocc.) He happened to 
go uear the basket. But tlie pupil will do well to forbear imitaiine tlie eminent 
authors in this contraction, and others mentioned iu this rule, lest he should 
uot prove as successful in the use of them. — Editor. 


Lvcf, ill II low voice ; sottomdno^ underhand; iiioudinu no, or 
tiu/ladiinciio, nevertheless, &c. &c. See the dictionary, and 
the Obstriatiovs made above on the Numerals. Lec- 
ture IX. 

^ 93. Obscrcatioti the Seeoud. — When the first of the 
component words ends in a vowel, and the second begins 
with a consonant, the Tuscans general/j/ pronounce them 
*vith greater tbrce, and for this purpose they very often, but 
not always (look for them in the Vocabolario Delia Criisca, 
or any good Dictionary. See also underneath, Observation 
the Fourth), double tiie initial consonant of the second word 
and write ; Sopraecib, ognissduti, sopranuoine, oltraceib, Si^c. 
for Sopra eib, a Director ; ogni saiiti, all saints ; sopra name, 
family name, or a nick-name ; oltra cib, besides this, or that. 
— Observe. The words compounded from the monosyl- 
lables /i*7 and ILJ, differ in this point, that the pronuncia- 
tion is stronger in RA than in /?/, and therefore the redu- 
plication is made in the former, and not in the latter ; hence 
we say, for example, raddirizzdre, and ridirizzare, to re- 
dress. — For the same reason of pronunciation, we should 
always write as Delia Crusca do, l^osiguoria, and not fossi- 
gnoria, as many improperly spell it. 

% 94. Obsercation the Third. — Sometimes the first of the 
component words loses its final vowel, with all the conso- 
nants before it, and the first consonant of the second word is 
doubled, as in sotl&rra^soppdtmo, sossbpra, 8fc. for sotlo terra, 
under-ground; sotto panno, lining of coats ; sotto sopra, 
topsy-turvy, &c. 

5J 95. Observation the Fourth. — The pronominal particles 

mi, ti, &ic. (see them at p. 62, n. %) when joined to verbs 

ending in an accented vowel, or having only a single one, 

double their initial consonant; the same happens to all 

wordn cominencing with a consonant, when joined to one of 

those monograms : A, to; O, or; E, and. Thus, we say, 

damvii, dirbiti, i-vvi, ot-vero, ececiera, appresso, ^e. for vn da, 

give me ; ti diib, 1 shall tell thee; vie, there is ; o r(ro, or 

rather : e ert( ra, Etc. or &c. ; a eanto, by the side ; a presso, 

near, &c.— Except the pronoun GLl ; for wc never write 

diroggli, but dirbgli, for gl/diib, I shall toll him.— Ouseuve. 

As to the pronominal particles, that if the verb to which the 

particle i-i allixed becomes accented on its final vowel, by 

losing one in the composition, the consonant of the particle 

is not doubled ; for which reason f//r«/,/<i>v//, udii, form in 

their com j)ositioiw///v/A>, for lodirdi, thou shalt say \i: fardne, 

for nc f'ardi, thou slialt (l(j it ; udita, for lo udii,{ heard him j 

but tluie compound forms are not now familiar. 


^. 96. Ohsn-oation the Fifth.— The consonant is sotne- 
times chansjed in the composition of some words, in order to 
facilitate the pronunciation, placing by way of example 
before the B or P, which are lahinl letters, instead of the 
N, the M, which is likewise a labial letter : thus we say, 
combaciare, to sit close ; i?7ipra(>cahile, impracticable ; al- 
thougli these words are compounded by coti and bacidre, in 
and practicdbile. Thus, in translating Edinburgh.^ or other 
geographical words, where an N is before a B, or a P, we 
should write an M, and say Edimburgo, ^c. ALSO, iVom 
the similarity of articulation, the N is placed before the C, or 
L, instead of the M, as in amidnci, farcnlo., S)C. instead of 
amidmcij or amidnioci, let us love one another; faremlo, or 
loforemo, we shall do it. 

Of the Orthographical or Poetical Figures. 

^ 97. The figures which I am going to enumerate and 
exemplify here ought rather to make a part of a Treatise on 
Vej'sification, than one on Orthography/ ; the poets resorting 
to them far more frequently than prose writers : but since 
the bulk of this work is already too considerable to make 
room for such a Treatise,* I shall here briefly explain these 
figures, which may be said with some propriety to belong to 
orthography too, if we advert to that uniformity generally 
observed by the Italians in writing their sounds with appro- 
priate letters, without much redundance or deficiency, both 
in prose and verse; so that whenever the sounds of a word 
vary, as by these figures, we may be sure that its orthogra- 
phjj\ varies too. 

The figures alluded to are yfr/eew in number ; viz. i. S^- 
naeresis. 2. Diaeresis. 3. Dialoephe. 4. Si/naloephe. 5. 
St/stole. 6. Diastole. 7. Prosthesis. 8. Aphaeresis. 9. 
Epenthesis. 10, Sj/ncope. 11. Paragoge. 12. Apocope, 
13. Tmesis. 14. Atiiithesis. 15. Metathesis. 16. Ana- 
diplosis. — I shall now proceed to treat of them it) the same 

* Another reason for omitting a treatise on Ilaliaiiversijication, is the obvious 
imposisibility of writini,' a better one than that to be found at the end of Mr. 
Tourner's Grammar, in8vo. Edinburgh, 1794, from page 299, to 300, to which 
I refer my readers with pleasure, as I plainly acknowledge to have myself derived 
from it some assistance, in treating of these figures, — Editor. 

f The only variiUion of sound not distinguished by the Italian inOrlhograpliy, 
is the seat of the emphasis, when not ou the vowel I last but one, mr on the 
final. Those figures, therefore, which consist in the variation of the em|>hasis, 
will not be found distinguished in books. See,however, towards the end of No. 
48, at p. 225.~Also Observation at p. 247, n. 104. 


H 98. SY^AKliESlS, Epis/ynaloephc, ov S^necphonesis, 
is a (iijure which joins into one syllable the sound of two or 
more vowels that ought to be pronounced separate, and as 
nuikiiig two syllables; as, 

" Qui'mdo mostrdi di chiiider gli occhi, apersi." Petiiarca. 
" Q'lul foconon avridn giu fpento, e mcrto." Id. 
" SciuT, senza sospillo, onde i miei gudi." Id. 

where we see that the accent fallinj^ on the A o( mostraiy 
and on the I of avriafi, the vowels AI and lA ou^rht to make 
each a syllable (see on this subject above, p. 2*21;, n. 54 and 
55.) : yet the measure of the above verses compels us to 
apply to them the Sj/?iacre$is, and to make only two 
syllables of7}wstr(h\ and no more ofavridn. The same may 
be said of ;;//t'/, in the third lino, where it is made a mono- 
syllable, notwilhstandiui; the accent upon the E. 

To this fiijure may be attributed likewise the joint pro- 
nunciation of several vowels in one >syllable, whenever they 
coii<;tituie,evcn in |>rose, real (l/pfitlio>igs,(ripltllio)jos^ ^c. and 
are in the body of a word, as in pa/ha ^ inguiare, calcolaiuolo : 
and particularly those, which althouijn in prose be con- 
stantly pronounced with a raccOlto diphthonj^, yet the poets 
make it a rule to resolve that diphthong;; into two syllables, 
as in the words Jasiidioso, maliziuso^ iiaziofie, fidtn, which, by 
the rules of poetry, are divided into syllables thu^ : fa- sti- 
di-6 so, niali'zi-6-so, nn-zi-6-ne, fi-d-la ; and only by the 
S/yi/ncrrsis are found sometimes in tlie lines of Dante, Pe- 
trarca, and others, divided, as they are constantly in prose, 
thus : fa-sti-diu-so, 77ia-li-zid-so, na-zi6-ne,fid (a. 

To the same figure is to be attributed the joint pronun- 
ciation of many vowels coming together which in prose would 
bo pronounced into two syllables, being disjoined by the 
accent. See above, at p. 226 to 229, n. 58, where we prove 
th'' I or J to be a vowel in all instances. 

The examples o!"tlie S//)ititr(s/s are also multiplied by the 
S//fi(opr, which by taking some consonants away from the 
body of a word, occasions the union ol'iDany vowels together. 
See this figure farther on, n. 108, p. 217. 

% 99, ni A I'WI'SIS, or /}iah/sis\ which separates two 
vowels, that should be jointly pronoiiuced, as 

" E trorto ri'un mavf, e fhi6'o lumr." PcTKARrA. 
" Pur Fau.iitnri il fa qui star a .ifgno." Id. 

where the two r/ji/r.?/ diphthongs OA mi sndiCy and Al^ in 
Ffjnstma, arc by the L'iurrrsi^ pionounce<l in two distinct 
•syllables in the above lines. 



To this figure may be attributed those solutions of the 
rnccolti diphthongs, particularly in trisyllables or polysyl- 
lables, which poets, as has been observed in the Si/naeresis, 
generally divide into separate syllables, as questiune, opern- 
zione.fastidioso, with the others mentioned there, and many 

To the same figure belong those real triphthongs and qua- 
driphthongs, which the poets make of two syllables, as the 
OlO of noiose h in this line of Petrarch. Queste memhra 
noiose^ e qitello incarco. — Observe. Some would here deny 
the OIO to be a triphthong, and would maintain the I to be 
a consonant ; but how false is this opinion, see it above, at 
p. 226 to 227, n. 58. where we have proved at length the I 
or J to be always a vowel in Italian. 

An abuse of tlie Diaeresis is when we find it applied to 
diphthongs placed at the end of the word, while the empha- 
sis lies further back ; as in this line of Petrarch : Ovefra 7 
bianco e V dureo colore^, where the EO of aureo is made of 
two syllables, while its accent lies on its very first letter; 
which renders the pronunciation of the whole line rather 
languid and slack. 

% 100. DiALOEPHEis when an elision of a final vowel is 
neglected, although the next initial vowel required it ; as, 

" Esce una virlil d' amor si pif/ia.'" Dantk. 
" Cose molto amdre." Guitton d'arezzo. 

for the right measure of the first line, which consists of 
eleven poetical syllables, we must count for one theSCE of 
esce, and for another the U oi una. Likewise in the next 
line, which is of seven syllables, the TO oi molto makes one, 
and the A of amare another. 

This figure is seldom met with in the best classics, and the 
above line of Dante is not from his best work, La Divina 
Commedia, but from one of his sonnets. 

To the Dialoephe, however, belongs the frequent liberty 
which poets take of suffering a word ending in many vowels 
to stand next another which begins with a vowel too, and 
yet there is no elision of any ; as in this line of Petrarch, Occ/it 
miei oscurdtoe Unostro sole, where we must make a syllableof 
MIE, and another of its final 1 with the initial O of osciirdto. 

% 101. SYNALOEPHE, which forms an elision of a 
final diphthong or vowel, when another vowel follows as 
initial to the next word ; as, 

" Le tue bell^zze a' suo' usdti soggioryii." Petrarca. 
" Che poss' iopiu, se no aver I' alma trista." Id. 
" Del qudl oggi vorrehhe, e non puo aildrme." Id. 
" Pidnga Pistoia, e i cittadin perversi." Id. 

In the above lines, suo', for suoi, is joined to the U of usdii^ 


and make only one poetical syllable all together by the 
power of this tiijure. The same takes place in the O and 
the A ofwo r/i< /• ,• and in the TO and A I of y;//o (litannc : 
But a more strikii)i>- instance of the S'/nahx plic is the tonitli 
line, where we see that the vowels OIAEI of the words Pis- 
tvia^ e imakeonlv two syil-ibles ; and the accent fallini;- upon 
tile first of theni. beiiii;- the O of Pistoia^ the following four 
lAEI, must be contracted into one single syllable. 

To this figure we may refer all the elisions made bv the 
apostrophe, either at the beginning or at the end of words, 
as we explained above, p. 2-i9, n. 59 to 61; and from p. 
2J2 to 2^8, n. 74 to 91, provided they are preceded or fol- 
lowed by a vowel. 

The pronunciation of final triplitJiorigs, quadrip/iiliovgs, 
<S'r. when followed by initial vowels, and joined with them 
into one poetical syllable, may belong to this figure. See 
respecting them above, p. 223 to 225, n. 49 to 56. 

Also several contractions of the Aphncresis^ Sj/ficope, or 
Apocope, may belong to it, whenever they take only initial^ 
or final vowels awav, preceded or followed bv others. See 
the^e fi-ures at n. 106, 108, 1 10, p. 246, 217, 248. 

m 102. SYSTOLE. When a vowel of its nature is long, 
which in Italian may only be that with the emphasis (see 
Amusing Jnsln/clor) ; and yet the poet makes it short for 
his own convenience : as, 

•' La cieia cupidigia che v' ammalia.^' Dantk. 
•' yiila dimdnda suanon satisfdra." Id. 

where we see that since ammalia comes from the verb anwia- 
liare, the accent ought to be on the I, and not on the A ; yet 
it cannot l)e suppo-ed upon the I in tlie above line, for in 
that case the final A wouhl be a syllableof itself, and then the 
line would have/^;^'c/^'esyllables,althou■^llits measure requires 
eleven. As Xo satis fin a, it should also be accented on the 
A final, it being tlie future tense third person sini;nlar, 
vshicli is always accented ; yet the \erse would be tro/ico if 
the accent were rightly placed, and would hiwc c/tvcn s-yl- 
lable-i, which would be (uie too much for a Iruiico verse. See 
Mr. Tournrr^s explanation of these verses, in his Crammar 
(quoted above, \ole ■' . p, 240.), from p. :j(iO to j05. — See 
also Var( m's Erculano, p. 253. Florence, 17:!j0, in 4to. 

We hkewise find in Dante the words po(/esta,ari< te, Jppo- 
crate, lidiXvdiii, <Sr. u^ed as if accented thus, podr^hi^ ni ihe, 
Ippocrdtc, hdgt'din, and niu«t Ix- (inis pronounced in those 
instances by the St/sto/r; but tiie avoiding of such licences 
will be alwa\s a merit in the poet. See next figure. 

R 2 "^ 


The Sj/stole sometimes deprives a word of its emphasis 
altogether, when it takes place in the last of two monosyl- 
lobles which end a line, and are made to rhyme with a dis- 
sjllable, or polysyllable, as in these lines of Dante. 

" Percoteamiinsieme, e poscia pur li 


" Griddiido : perche tleni, e perche hurli ?" 

where we see that ;??<r /<", rhyminn^ with hurli^ the verb Vi 
must necessarily lose its emphasis, to make the rhyme and 
the verse good. This is a very aukward species of .S[^5/o/e 
indeed, thoiio;h not very uncommon in Dante. 

5 103. DIASTOLE, or Ecinsis. When a vowel, short 
of its nature, is made long^, either without alteration of the 
word, or by means of an additional consonant, as 

" siccome al perlugio 

" Delia samp6gnavento,che penhra." Dante. 

" Che con arte Annildlle a i/ada lenne !" Petrarca. 

The verb penelrdre, being one of those verbs conjugated 
short in many inflections, thus; to penetro^ fu penetri, egli 
peiietra, Sfc. the accent of the word penctra ought to have 
been upon the first E ; but then the verse becoming sdruc- 
cioloj would be deficient of a syllable (see Tourner''s Gram- 
mar, quoted above), it is necessary to move its seat to the 
second E by the Diastole., which licence Dante adopted, for 
the sake of the rhyme. Thus, in the second line the right 
measure of poetry obliged Petrarch to add an L to the 
word Annibale., and place its emphasis upon the second A, 
while we regularly place it upon the I, and write it with a 
single L. Thus we find freqtiently in the poets, Ettorre, and 
Nestorrej instead of Etore, Nestore, Sfe. 

N.B. From t!ie nature of this and the preceding figure, 
it is easy to conclude, that when one of them takes place in 
one syllable, the other must be admitted in another; save 
only the case above given, of two monosyllables at the end 
of the line. 

Another species of Diastole are certain compound words, 
to which the poets give an additional emphasis on a syllable, 
which, if short, becomes long, without altering the quantify 
oftl'.e syllable regularly long in prose ; as, 

" Come cki smisurutami^nte vole." Petrarch. 

where we sep that I have marlied smisuralamente with two 
accents, it being necessary, for the measure of the poetical 
line, to give it two emphasis, although the second alone is 
in its proper place, and as it would be in prose. 


Dante and Ariosio (the latter more often in his jjhiys and 
satire?) have carried the abuse of tlie Diastole still fiuther, 
fiiiishiiifj a line will) a part of a long compound word, and 
bei^innin"' tlie next with the roniainder, as in the following 

" Cos) quelle Carole diff'erhile — 
— mcntc dansuindo," ijc. Dante. 

where we see that diffd'enlemcnte, both ending one line and 
beginning the next, nocesiarily receives an adcliiional em- 
phasis on the syllable REN by the Diastole, which it would 
never have had in prose, — Let the poets first successfully 
imitate the above immortal bards in their beauties, and then 
we shall pardon them such licences. 

The Diastole sometimes takes place by the interference of 
ihe other figure called Tmesis, which see above, p. 250, n. 

f "^4. U^ OBSEU\'E, that the above figures, Diaeresis, 
Si/stole, and Diasto/e, are shewn by the modern eminent 
poets, among whom Count Alfieri, by an acute accent (') 
over the vowel, thai receives the emphasis through any of 
them. This judicious |)ractice has been unfoitunately ne- 
glected, in many instances, by \.\\e Aeademicians Dtlla Critsca. 

^ 10.3. PROSTHESIS, or ProtJiesis, consists in adding 
a letter or syllable at the beginning of a word ; as, 

" f'omc suu/fnrc, isciisiiiki i niartiri." Petrarca. 
" PtTocche do]>o I' cmpia diparlUa." Id. 

the initial I added to the word sciisinla is a grace given to 
the line by the Prosthesis ; and we may say the same of the 
syllable DI in the word dipartita, which has besides fur- 
nished Petrarch an additional poetical syllable: for it is 
evident that the meaning of partita, in this line of the same 
poet, has completely the like meaning with dipartita above. 

" Ma panni chc sua sub'Ua pailila." 

To this figure may be attributed theoccasional lengthening 
of the words at their beginning, even in prose. See above, 
n. 71, J). 2.) I. 

A\su the additional initial syllables of a great many words, 
which do not contribute to the diflerence of signification ; 
as, nddiniafidare, for diniandt'irc ; unnoxtrare, for noxerare .• 
ifirntitra, for contra, .St. <Sr. Ilencc we may conclude that 
this ligure i^ in u-r with prose writers as well as poets, when 
harmonv require'- il. and the genius of the language per- 
niil'^ il. 


% 106. APHAERESIS, which takes a letter or a syllable 
away from the beginniiig of a word ; as, 

" Vedermiparveuntaldifkioallotfa." Dante. 

*' La 've cantando anddi di te molt^ amii." Petrarca. 

where dijicio is a contraction of edificw, and 've of ore. 

We also read in Petrarch ^)i for in; 'nnanzi^ for inndnzi ; 
*ngdnni\ for ingdnni ; ^nvidia, for iniidia; sendo, for essindo ; 
S)C. — We also read in other poets, micidio^for omicidio ; 
stinto, for distinto; siremo^ for estremo, S)C. 

To this figure belong likewise all those contractions of 
initial vowels which we observed above, p. 232, n. 74 to 77, 
and which are permitted, by marking- them with an apos- 
trophe, as those just mentioned. — Observe. A few of them, 
as sendo, dificio, stinto, S)C. are now written without an 
apostrophe, since the first is considered as one of the inflec- 
tions of the gerund of the verb essere, and the others are 
alphabetically registered in the great Vocaholario ; but it 
would have been better to preserve Xhismnrk of Aphaeresis 
even in them; since there are some which, when not con- 
tracted, may signify something else ; as stinto, which means 
discoloured when a whole word, and distinguished, when 
contracted. It may also come from instinto, and mean in- 

% 107. EPENTHESIS. When a letter or syllable is in- 
serted in the body of a word ; as, 

" Ebber la Jama, ch' io volentier viirro." Dante. 

" Similemente il mal seine d' Addmo." Id. 

" /' la riveggio starsi umilemente.^' Petearca. 

Dante ought to have said miro, and not mirro, from the 
verb mirare, to behold by a mental reflection, or to admire* ; 
but the Epenthesis entitled him to insert an additional Rj 
for the rhyme sake, as well as the additional E in simile- 
minle, for the sake of the measure. Petrarch did the same 
in the above line, writing umilcmente instead of umilmente. 

* Let us never suppose that this mirro comes from mirrdre to liouour, or 
preserve with niyrrii ; for altliougli this liue of Dante is quoted by Arademi- 
cians Della Crusca at the word mirrdre, and the interpretation quoted of an 
ancient commei tator in support of such a wiUI opinion; yet we find in the 
same place the clear explanation of this line, in the very words of Butt, lec- 
turer on Dante, in the University of Pisa, in 1385, which runs thus: Folentier 
mirro, cioe miro, " ma escriito per due R per la consouanzia dell rima." — To 
this authority I may add Varchi's Ercoluno, p. 190; and the celebrated and 
very rare French version of Dante's Commedia, by Grangier, Lord Aluioner 
to Henry IV. of France, who eNphiiiis this line thus: " Eurent bruit, et 
" f admire avec douceur leursvies." — I owe this very rare book to the generosity 
of RICHARD MEUX, Jun. Esq Editor. 


The intermediate additional letter?, in the following ter- 
niination<^ ofnianv verbs or nouns, are to be ascribed as well 
to the Kfenthesis ; as AGGIA, or EGGIA, for AGCiA, 
or E(iC»A : as, sotlrags^ia, ;;/oru'j:»/V/, tor sottrao;o(i^ prov- 
ztgga ; AGGE tor AE, as triigge for frae; IE for I, as 
cmpiere for etfij/ire ; (thi-; word belongs to tlie Sj/stole and 
Diastole as well, since the place of the emphasis is altered 
by the insertion of the 1, which makes it besides far pre- 
ferable) ; VO for O, as cuocere for cocere ; ST for S, as 
t7asci''S(o for nascuso. 

Anciently we wrote also OR A for A, in plural words, like 
these, prnta, fata, which were leng;thened into pratora^ 
ft'itora. This harmonious tern)ination deserves to be greatly 
lamented, as now lost. 

To thi-^ figure belong al»o those words, which, on account 
of the Diastole, receive an intermediate additional cor)so- 
nant. See this fl-rure above, p. 2t4, n- 103. 

^ 108. SYNCOPE, Takes a letter or syllable away from 
the body of the w ord ; as, 

" Fece la piaga ond' io non gitarro mai." Petrarca. ' 

" jNW quinto giro non abitr^bb' el/a." Id. 

" Ardi'r cogli occ/ii, e rompre ogni allro scoglio." Id. 

" Come Sdusiiga /' ho succhiato, or duo/si." Gl'arini. 

where we see that the words gi/anb, ahitrcbb, and rompre, 
liave been deprived, the first of the letter I, and the others 
of the letter E, and that they should have been written 
gitarirh. ahHer(hh\ ronipcrr ; but as they did not suit the 
measure, Petrarch availed himselfofthe Syncope^ asGuarini 
has very ingeniously done, in taking away the syllable GUI 
from sangiiisHga, and writing sansuga instead of it, in the 
abo\e sententious line. 

Nothing is more frequent than this figure in Italian poetry. 
Thus we hnd in the ancient^ ncntc for ornti/c ; utatcrn for 
materia, ^r. ; and in the moderns, spirto for spirilo ; disnore 
for (lisonvre ; vicilesmo for inedesimo ; Icttra tor IHtera ; 
gudrdn for guardia ; ndro for udirh. 

To this ligure are also to be attributed the following al- 
terations in the final syllable of many nouns and verbs; viz. 
A I for A EI : as, animai for animali : VA for I'^fiLl ; as, 
frali'i for fialiUi : L'OI for lOIil ; \\s, JigVniiu \\n- Jlgliiioli : 
ESMO for ICSIMO; as hattrs»io for hattrsimo : V \ for 
IV' .A ; as, rupria for ropriva : ENO for EVANO; bh faccno 
for farrva/ic : A liO for AKON'O ; as, rarilaro for rtudaro/io : 
IIl() (or 11{()N(^ ; as, partiro for partiroun : O for A TO; 
as, Incero for lacerdto. 

u 4 


Also many words which we observed above to be liable to 
the Epenthesis, whenever found not affected by it, may be 
considered as contracted by the Sj/ncope ; particularly as in 
many of them it would be difficult to determine which is 
oriorinally their true standard spelling : for instance, whether 
similcmente, or similmente^ be the original Tuscan word ; 
being found spelt both ways in the most eminent prose 
writers, as well as poets. 

*1I 109. PAKAGOGE, or Proparalepsis : when a syllable 
or letter is added to the end of the words; as, 

" Che quasi un hcl ser^no a mezzo U die." Petrarca. 
" Degli stoici il padre alzdto in suso" Id. 

The Paragoge has here added the final E to the word^i, a 
day, and made die ; and the syllable SO to the preposition 
su^ which has been by that addition changed into suso. 

To this figure are to be referred those words, which, by 
the general rules of contraction explained above, n. 78 to 
91, p. 233 to 238, ought to lose a letter or more before a 
consonant, and yet are left whole by the poets : as Petrarch 
left the word comune in this line : Uscendo fuor della comune 

To the Paragoge belong also all those words liable to 
be lengthened at the end, by rules established above, p. 232, 
n. 72 and 73. 

Likewise, since the Italian language had words with the 
emphasis on the final vowel ever since it reached its perfec- 
tion in the 13th century, the following additional finals, 
added to many nouns, and verbs, are to be considered as ob- 
tained by the Paragoge, particularly as they now belong 
almost exclusively to poets : Namely, ADE or ATE for A', 
as veritdde, or leritdle, ^or veritd : UDE, or UTE, for U' ; 
as virtude, or virtiite^ for virtii : EO for E' ; as hateo for 
batte: I'O, or I'E for 1 ; ni^ ardio i'or ardi ; udie for udi : 
O'E for O^ ; as morrbe for morro. 

«[[ 110. APOCOPE. When a final syllable or letter is 
taken away from a vvord ; as, 

" Me' V era che da voi fosse il difetto." Petrarch. 
" Com' per de agevolmaite in un mattino." Id. 

where we see that we'* is instead of rneglio, and com' in- 
stead oi'corne. 

We also read in the classics, vedestu for vedesii tu ; ve' 

• Observe, that when «ic' is preceded by per, tliey form bofli together a 
compound preposition, contracted of per mezzo, meaniiiR near about ; as i' 
avveiinr per me' la cesta (Boccacio), he happened to go near about the basket. 


for vedi ; e' for egli ; ma' for malt ; qua for quali ; be^ for 
belli ; xer for xer^o ; cre^ for credo ; si/o' and liio' for suoi 
and ^;/(3/; /«' for ^(v//y ^5//^ for fasti li(, cSr. cS'C 

To tliirf figure belong all the words which we observed 
above, p. "233 to 2J8, n. 78 to 91, liable to be curtailed at 
the end, either with or without an apostrophe, and coiise- 
qiientlv those so contracted for the sake of the Sj/nalocphc ; 
whicli see above, p. 242, n. 101. 

The following; tinal contracted inflections of verbs, which 
very often occur in the |)t)ets, are the etVect of tlie yipncope : 
viz. E\ for ENO : as factn for fdcaio (~ee at Jntil/icsis, p. 
251, n. 113.) AN or AU, for ANO, ARE, or ARONO ; as 
IcUciaii for /asciano : canidr for canldrc, or canldroiio ; IRO, 
or IR, for IRONO : as partiro, or parlir, for parfirono, Sj-c. 
Sfc. Whence we may conclude that the use of this figure is 
very extensive indeed, both in prose and verse. 

To the Apocope we may also attribute liie use of the fol- 
lowing; participle-, poi, aiicdro, axvcgnn, sccdnefo, accib, 
dappdi^ used instead oi' poic/ic, ancorclic^ avicguarhe, sicon- 
docfic, accioccfie, dappoic/ie. See another species of the 
Apocope farther on, at the end of the next fij^ure Tmesis. 

BroMMATTEi, S.ALViNi, aiul othcrs, are of opinion that 
the I in words terminated in AIO, AlA, OIO, OlA, Szc. is 
a consonant, and as they find in Dante^ Pelrarca^ and Boc- 
carrin, such finaU used for one syllable, they endeavour to 
reconcile this use with their opinion, by introducing" the 
Apocope in such uords ; and they saw thnt y;//;»rt/o, Pistoia, 
uccel/aloio, S,-c. should be pronounced as il written prima\ 
Piste'' uccellato\- or thus, primai' PistoV t/cceUatoi, S)C. ob- 
serviuij that such w;)s the pronunciation and use ol' tlie an- 
cient Pro'CcnzaJi. — That such was the custom of these anci- 
ent poets, is. however, flatly flenied by CASTELvrxno. — 
Yet Br.MBo is the first author of the above opinion, — 
Bkmho however does not call the I of the finals OK), AIO, 
&c. a con.^onant, but a vowel. The same do Salviati, 
NoncHiATi, and others, who do not admit of the Apocope 
at all in the above cases. — Now, whoever knows the nature 
of a consonant, and the sound of the Italian I b(>tween 
vowels, will never feel inclined to favour the opinion of 
RuoMMATTri and Saf-vi.m, however g;reat their authority 
i-^ ; but rather attribute, with me, the above poetical sylla- 
bles to (he S//narrrsis, <^ince the I is no nir)i<' a consonant in 
thosf words than tin.' !•- in the word ;///('/, or the O in suoi, 
which Petrarch has used as a sinjijle («yllable ; as we saw 
above, n. 98. 101, where ^ve spoke of the Si/it(trvcsis and 
S//nn/ocphc. — On the subject of thi^ I beinij in all iii^-lanrcs 


a vowel, see our detailed observations above, p. S56 to 229, 
n. 58. Also the Amusmg Instructor. 

^I 111. TMESIS, which divides a word in two, and intro- 
duces between some letters or words ; as, 

" Accio, disse Solin, die non rimanga 

" Terra di qua die non ti sia scoperta." F. D. Uberti Ditt. 

where we see that between accib and che, which are parts 
of the conjunction acciocche, the words disse Solin are in- 

This figure, exemplified as above, cannot be said as pro- 
perly belonging to Poetry or Orlhognipliy, but rather to the 
^figurative Syntax., it being a species o^ Hyperhaton ; which 
see above at p. 209, n. 14. 

With the Latins the Tmesis was certainly of two different 
species, since they put between the two parts of a word 
sometimes whole words, and sometimes only a syllable, 
although implying some meaning : such as que instead o^ et; 
or a little pronoun, as te, se, me^ S^c. 

To the Tmesis, as an orf/iograpliical ^gure, might however 
be attributed those divisions of the words mentioned above, 
in treating oi' the Diastole (see p. 244, 103.), and used by 
poets, who make sometimes a part of the word end a poetical 
line, and the remainder begin the next ; for although, in so 
doing, they do not put any word between, yet the additional 
emphasis laid by this means on a syllable which ought to 
have none, and the pause requisite to render the poetical 
measure of the two lines sensible to the ear, are surely sulfi 
cient to alter materially the natural harmony of a word, and 
disunite its parts no less than when some other syllables are 
put between them : as we have seen, speaking of the Dias- 
tole ; but will more strongly be felt in the following in- 
stances from Ariosto. 

" Fece la donna di sua man le sopra- 
" -vesti, S(c. 

" Dico co7ne vestir, come precisa- 
" -mente abbia adir," ^c. 

The poets should not follow Ariosto in such licences, 
until they can equal all his beauties ; and if they are fond of 
the Tmesis, let them try to rival that immortal bard in that 
instance of it, which we read in his Fuiiioso, Canto XLII. 
where the poet, relating the death o^ Brandimarte, and how 
he recommended his fair Fiordiligi to Orlando, expresses 
himself thus : 

" Nemen ti raccommdndo la mia Fiordi 
" Ma dir non pote ugi, e quljinio. 


CorliccUi attributes to the Tmesis the separation of the 
final MEN'TE in some adverbs like these, inorttihueiitc^ 
aldimmle., in the tollowinij examples : San Gioiumii non 
peccl) mni ne niorta/e, ne icniii/niente (Sdcchelt'i), instead of 
vt morlalmente^ tie vcnialmente. Also this, Co* suoi danari 
alia, e riccamcnte rhnarilnr la polnbhe (Lasca), instead of 
allamnite c riccainaile : but 5<ince the remaining- letters 
MENTE, uhich come after, serve to the necessary final of 
the next adverb, and are closely written with its initial 
syllables, the delicicncy of MENTE in the first adverb 
ongiit rather to be considered as a species of the ^Ipocopc 
than of the Tmesis. 

f IbJ. ANTITHESIS, better Anfistoeclion, or A/ilis- 
ticfion, consists in the exchange of one or more letters for 
others of either eqnal or unequal number; as, 

" t" sono i versi, u'sow ixiunle le rinie^" Petrarca. 
" Ch' ogni basso pensir del cor m'avidse." Id. 

where we see that U'has been twice introduced in the first 
line, instead of OVE ; and in the second the U of avidse is 
instead of E, since the infinitive of that verb is avellere, and 
not aiif/gcre. 

The use of this figure is very extensive, both with the 
poets and prose writers. I shall endeavour to enumerate 
its genera., and accompany each with a single example for 
hundreds that might be given. 

For perspicuity's sake we shall divide them into Poeti- 
cal and Prosaic Antithesis, observing that the former be- 
long exclusively to poets, and the latter both to poets and 
prose writers. 

^ 113. Poetical Antithesis. 

Among the genera of poetical antithesis is tlic obsolete one 
of the svllable OllA substituted to 1, as latora lor latij 
which might be si ill used by poets. 

The following are quite usual with poets of all ages : AU 
for O, ix'^ Icsaiiro f'r tesoro ; GE for LF^, as caprgli for 
rapd/i ; (iL for ('("II, as speglio for spccchiu. lEXO or 
ENO, for EVANO, I\ AN(') or VANO, as avicno for 
avthano ; venit'no for xennano. ORNC) or AliO, for 
AKONO; as, plaeornn for plaearono ; lagrinn'no for 
lagriniiinmo. I'' (i:)r I in verbs, or in conpnictive j)ro- 
nouns added to tlicni ; as truiosse for trovossi ; sensanne 
for seiisarnii. I lor I'., as avessi for avt'sse. E for A, as 
ffillr \\n- falla. i A for iJiMI"., as dovria for doinhhr. 
"KIANO and Uli:\(). for KI-:MI}().\(); as, muteriaiio for 


mulerehonno ; farieno for farebonno ; mostly curtailed by 
j^pocope of their final O. SINO for SERO, as avessino for 
avessero. ONO for ERO, as diedono for diedero. L for R, 
when to the infinitive the conjunctive pronoun lo or ai is 
joined ; as provdllo for proturlo, vedella for vederla. 

^ 114. Prosnic Antithesis, or AJJimlies of Ltttcrs. 

These species of Antithesis, with a more usu;>l name, c!re 
MENTS. The learned Cavamer Salviati calls them 
Amistd, or Parenlele. (See Avxcrtimenti del la Lingua, Lib. 
Ill, cap. 3, part. 19.) There I refer the inquisitive student, 
desirous of reading; all that may be said most judiciously on 
this subject ; and I shall here confine myself to the bare 
enumeration of these ajfinities (some are added not in 
Sfl/r/f/^/), exhibitino; each ofthein accompanied with a single 
example, in the following perspicuous TABLE. 

N.B. For the denominations and sounds of the Elements, 
here introduced, see their Table given at Lecture I, p. J6, 
l7, and 18. — Those words with an asterisk * are o/;5o/p/f, 
and consequently that species of afjfinityioo, ohly pardonable 
to poets, for the rhyme sake. 

By the Power of AFFINITY, or ANTITHESIS, it often 
happens that 

Ec/o5e, thutwewrite, dAnari, or dEnari 


*astrolAgo — ;!strolOgo 
deBBo— deGGio 

*Brivilegio — Privilegio 
SaCro — SaGro 
AntioCHia — *AntioCCia 
seDendo — seGGendo 
servi Dore — ServiTore 
dEsiderio — ^dlsiderio 
Eguale — Uguale 
raFano — raVano 
seCjJuente — seQuente 
veGNente — veNente 

*Iudicare — Giudicare 
esempio— esem pLo 
dimanda — dOmanda 
Gennalo — oennaRo 

*compIlare — compUtare 

A is changed into 

E close^ tht 




O close 


GG soft 



CC soft 

ZZ smart 


G hard 

CH flat 

CC soft 


GG soft 



E close 


E close 




G hard 




1 before vowels 





O close 

1 between Toweli 





L D 

L GL soft 

LL GL soft 

L N 

L H 


O U 

Q C hard 

R p 

S smart C soft 

S hissing C sojl 

S smart K 

S smart Z 

SC\U flat STI 

u r. 

V B 

V D 

V GG soft 

V G hard 

V M 

V P 

Z smart C soft 

7j smart G soft 

Z hissing D 

Observe. One of tho greatest iulvantai^os that the be- 
ginner uill reap from t!ie above table of adinities, i>< that of 
findinnf a word in a compendious dictionary by lookino; for 
it with another orthoijraphy, when he has been disappointed 
in fiirlin:; it. /:.r. After havinj^ looked unsuccessfully for 
I.MPio. lindinu; from the above table that E has an aflinity 
with I. he will look for empio, and he will find it. — If he 
knows ihat fino prip. means unii/, findinij in a book si no, 
and knowini; the (ifjinil.y that sulisi'^ts between S and \'\ he 
will save himself the trouble of lookinnj for it, and will be 
sure that si no means find ; or at least he will try that mean- 
iiii; before he looks for it. 

Let us finally ol)^erve, tiiat many words liable to the 
Eprnlhrsis, or S/yncopc^ mij;ht be bjoked upon as belonging 
to thi'. (i;;ure. 

c IJJ. MF/r VTIIRSIS. Which chan-es the order of 
letters in a word ; a.«, 

" Tulle U notti ti lain6nta, r jni'tsyie." I'r.TRAiiCA. 
" Mcntrc If jiarla, c jiian^i; c jnii V ahl/raccut." Id. 

where we see that in the fiiNt lirje the siune word piagnc is 
Hpelt with (j.\, and in the second with NG, without thf 

♦oLore — oDore 

saLi — saGLi 

queLLi — cpieGLi 
*caIjoniz/are — caNonizzare 

aLbuscello — allbuscello 

DoLGo— DoCiLIo 

sepOltura — sepUlutra 

Quoio — Ctioio 

raUo — raDo 

Sicilia — Cicilia 

viSitare — *viCitare 

inSino — iiiFino 


SCHlacciare — STIacciare 

laU<la— *laLda 

nerVo— nerBo 

chioV'o — chioDo 
*pioVa — pioCXiia 

uV ola — uGola 

nienoV are — nienoMare 

so Vra stare — soPrastare 

giudiZio — giudiCio 


fronZuto — frouDuto 


meaniniif being altered in the least. Some attribute to this 
figure the frequent reverse order of the two letters LG with 
GL ; but since, by such alteration, the insertion of an I be- 
comes indispensable, and thus the syllable is altered, I have 
considered this license as belonging to the Atitithesis, of 
which see the Table above ; although such words as sagHa 
for saiga may be looked upon as belonging equally to the 
Metathesis and ihe Antithesis. 

While the varieties of this figure are confined to the two 
above (for I recollect no other), thej are, on the other hand, 
both of them very numerous, and recur frequently in the 

«1I ] 16. ANADIPLOSIS is when a syllable is repeated in 
a word ; as, 

" JS de' miSi occhi tututto «' accese.^' Boccaccio. 

*' E com' io so, cosi V dnima mia 

" Tututta gli apro, e do die V cor desia." Id. 

where we see that the first TU o^utiitto, and tututta, is re- 
peated ; which not only adds a syllable to the poetical lines, 
but expresses the adjective /m^/o in the superlative degree; 
as when the adjective is twice expressed. See what was said 
on this subject, at p. 43, n. 11. 

The instances of this figure are not numerous in Italian ; 
and indeed I do not recollect of another besides the above 
iuttutto, which, however, is very often met with ; but we 
may attribute to it, with great propriety, that species of 
Si/naeresis which occurs in the repeated utterance of the 
same vowels in the conjunction of two words: which, al- 
though forming all together one poetical syllable, yet they 
must be very distinctly heard, since each has the emphasis 
of the word. Likewise, when {he JDialoephe occurs in similar 
instances, as in these lines : 

" Per torre il bidsmo in die era condotta." Dante. 

" V'aggio proftrto U cor, ma a voi non piuce." Pktrarca. 

In the first line the Dialoephe is unavoidable in the words 
che, fra, and besides the emphasis Ijing on each E, it is 
necessary to sound this vowel twice, in the most distinct 
manner. In the second, the words tna, a, make one poetical 
syllable only by the Si/naeresis, yet the vowels A, A, must 
be twice very distinctly uttered, since each of them contains 
the emphasis of the monos}llables they belong to. 

Let the modern poets imitate Dante and Petrarca in what 
is beautiful, but not in this figure, calculated to render the 
verse both harsh and languid. 

U7. ^^ Observe. The names of several of these or- 
thographical figures are adopted, to signify some licences 


of syntax, or beauties of rhetoric ; but then their nature 
and definition are quite dillerent, nor do they belong to 
thi-; treatise. 

Ohsk fiVE also, tiiat of the above fiijures (as defined and 
exemplified here) tho>e uiiich consist in the addition or sup- 
pression of a letter or svUable, are considered by Gram- 
marians as a species of the Ml'iTAPLASMUS, which by 
some is wrongfully reckoned as a distinct ortJwgraphical or 
poetical figure. 


Containing SYNOPTICAL TABLES of the Articles, 
Nouns^ and Regular T'crbs. Also the Conjugation of the 
Irres:ular Verbs, arranged in an AJjPHABETICAL 
LIST. The whole interspersed with useful Remarks. 


Shewing the formation of the compound Articles from their radicals. 
The following two tables, which I have premi^^ed to that 
shewing the union of the article with the noun, will be found, 
I presume, of great assistance te the student, in retaining the 
proper use of all the variations of the article, when joined to 
various prepositions, by observing what additional letters 
are to be joined to the ;Y/f//cr// form of the articles (shewn 
here by large capitals), to obtain their various cases, genderSj 
and numbers. 





M.& F. 

before all couso- 

before S impura, 

before a 

before all 

nanls. Except S 

and Gil. 



impuTj, ij- Gil. 








of the DEL 






to the AL 





DA ; 

from the DAL 





L\ : 

in the iN EL 





PER ; 

for the PEL 









i'i:ii LO 


pi; 11 L* 

• Till- articlfs marked tlius, •, are of an inffiior incril, iind those Hynoni- 
ntioud to thcin should have the |irefiTencc. f Observe, llie aposlrnphr of these 
radical ailielen in lost, when they are joined to iheir res|)eciivc adililMiiial letters, 
marked in Italirs, in the same line. J This article, loth sing, and ptur. is 
frequent iu the classics; but would now be allowed to poctn ou\y.^Edilor. 

with CON; with the COL lo la V 

upon SU; 

upon the SUL ) 


lo 1 

or or 

la } V 

or V 
*SU'L ) 

or ( 
SU LO ) 


SU L. 

\) SU L' 




before consonanls. 
Except S, impura, 
Gn, or Z, and the 
plural DEI. 

e I 
of the DE't 


before S imp-urn, 
On, or Z, the 
pkiral DEI, ai d 
the vowels A, E, 
O, U. 




vowel I. 









to A ; 


to the A't 





from DA ; 


from the DA' - 





in IN ; 


in the N E'f 





for PER ; 


for the PE't 

*gli ) 











with CON ; with the CO'i *gli "^gP *lle *ir 

or or or or or 
uponSU; upon the SU't *gli *«■/' *lle IV 

or ' or or or or 


4. A TABLE of the ARTICLES, with their NOUNS. 

2V". B. For the rij;ht use of each of these articles see LECTURE III. at length, 
or the short directions at the top of the foregoing Tables of tiie sing, and 
plur. Articles. 


Masculine Gender. A' , or ai principi, to the, &c. 

Sing. (6). 11 pn'ncipe, the prince Da, or dai principi, from, &c. 
Del principe, of the, &c. Masculine Gender, 

yil principe, to the, or at the, &c. Sing. Lo sdegno, the anger, 
Dal principe, from, or by the, &c. Dello sdegno, of the, &c, 
Plur. I principe, the princes Alio sdegno, to the, or at the, &c. 

De\ or dei principi, of the, &c. Dallo sdegno, from, or at the, &c. 

(a) The definite article is generally nsed before conuuon nouns, possessive 

pronouns, and before the i-elative proiioun quale, wliich. {I) Tlie article il 

often receivt's an apostrophe instead of the i, when preceded by e, and ; fra or 
tra, between; se, if; ne, neither j and, in poetry, before che, that, and »o for 
non, not. — Editor. 


Plur. Git sJegni, tbe angers, All' amico, to the, or at the, &c, 

Degli sdegni, of the, c^c. DaW amico, from, or by the, &c. 

Agli sdegui, to the, &:c. Plur. Gli amici, the friends, 

DagUsde^tii, frouj, &c. Digli ami'ci, of the, &c. 

Feminine Gender. y}^H amid, to tlie, ur at tbe, &c. 

Sin^. iff term, tbe earth, Dagliamici, from, &c, 
Dc//rt ^crrff, of the, &:c. Feminine Gender, 

AlUi terra, to the, or at the. Sec. Sing. L' I'^o/t/, the island, 

Dalla terra, from, or by the, &c. DeW isola, of the, <S:c. 

Plur. (c) Le terre, the earths, ^///' Ao/(/, to the, or at the, &c. 

Dtlle terre, of the, &c. DciW I'sola, from or by the, &c. 

Alle terre, to the, or at tbe, &c. Plur. L' (sole, (c) the islands. 

Dalle terre, from, <S:c. DclC I'sole, of the, &c. 

jMasculinc Gender. All' isole, to the, or at the, &c. 

Sing. L' Amico, the friend, DaW I'solc, from, &c. 
Z)e/r amico, of the, &r. 


Ndpoli, Naples (f) Alcssdndro, Alexander (/) 

jDi Ndpoli, of Naples. Z)' Alcssdndro, of Alexander. 

..4 Ndpoli, to or at Naples. y/(i.^/fAS(/«c/ro, to or at Alexander. 

Z)a Ndpoli, from or by Naples Z)a Alcssdndro, from, or by Alex, 


Sing. Del, dello, della, dell', Plur. De', or dei, degli, delle, 

some. deir some. 

A del, ad cllo, a della, a dell' , to A de, or a dei, a degli, a delle, a 

some. dell', to some. 

5. RKMARKS on the foregoing TABLE ofAUTICLKS and NOUNS. 

I. Ail nouns wliicli end in A in the .sinijular, if they arc masculine, as they 
alway.H arc wiieii ilicy lepiuseut a cliarncier pocuiiar to manl<iiid, or wiieu talten 
from llic Greek tongue, change ^/ into I in the plural, aspoala, poili, cj-c. if they 

(c) Le .should have alw:iysan apostrnplie before nouns ft-ininine plural, com- 
im-ucini: with a vowel ; hut wlieii fuch fcniinini.' noun-* are indeclinable, it m.-tT 
then be written at length, a.< Le amisla, tiie friendships; delle ipolesi, of the 
liypntiieufs.— A'rfiVor. 

(dj The indcfiiiile article nerves for hoth genders and numbers before 
proper nainen of God, Aiiaels, Men, Citief, See. Before |iersonai pro- 
noiuK, as, to, I ; Di mr, of me, &r. liefore possessive |iroiinuns wliiii they 
prcrcdf names of diitnily, or kindred, as Nostra, Kxcillema, sua i'adre, 
^•c. Uefore demonstrative pronomiM, ;is (jut'-'lo, cnlhto, (iuillo,,^c. Ilefore the 
relative pronouns rhe, chi, mi. Before ihe improper pronouns ciascnno, nes- 
luno, qtuikhe, ,\c. Finally, before iino or una, as un u6mo, a man, W un uomo, 
of a man, una dunna. a woman, ad una donna, to a \voman, &c. 

(c) 'I'iiis article I* used before proper name*, whether masculine or feminiiu', 

bcxinninn with .1 ronsonmt. CD This jirtiele is used before jiroper nanu-s, 

wliftlier ma>culine or ffininine, luxiiuiint; wi;li a vowel. 

(^) Wc make use of the partitive article wiien we ilo ikjI ypeak of the whale 
lubstancr, a* del pane, bread, or »0Die bread, &c. 



are feminine, as tliey commonly are, they change A into E, as tavola, tavole. 
When the singular ends in E or 0, the plural must end in /, as padre, padri, 
mano, mani, <^c. ; except a few nouns which, ending in E in the singular, retain 
the same termination in the plural, as spezie, requie, effigie, superjicie. — Also 
the word Uomo, its plural being Uomini. 

If, f Nouns in I'O, vvliea the emphasis lies on that I, as desio, desire ; zio, 
uncle, &c.are all masculine, andare terminated byadoubleiin the plural, with- 
out ANY EXCEPTION ; as desit, desires, zii, uncles ; with this only difference, 
that if there are other vowels in that noun, the I last but one is marked with an 
acute accent in both numbers, and if there is no other vowel, the accent is 
omitted, as we have seen in tlie examples just now given. 

III. Nouns ending in / in the singular, do not change their termination in the 
plural. — The same is to be understood of nouns ending in an accented vowel, 
and of monosyllables having only one vowel. 

IV. f Italian adjectives are made to agree with their substantives in gender 
and number, for which purpose, they are varied by the same method just now 
shewn : Therefore every adjective ending in O, as luo/w, good, vvill change 
either into ^, and say Imona, for thefemitiine, in /, and say, huoni for the mas- 
culine plural, or in E, and say luone, for the feminine plural. — But if in I'O, 
with an acute accent, as reslio, restive, j^fo, pious, its plural masculine will be 
in a double I, as restii, pii, constantly following the II Remark above. — On the 
contrary, if an adjective end in E, it will suit both genders, and its plural will 
end in /, let the substantives be masculine or feminine : And if it ends in I, or 
an accented vowel, it will then be indeclinable, according to the III Remark. 

V. Observe likewise, that substantives ending in J will be mostly feminine, 
and those ending in will be all masculine; except only Mano, a hand, and a 
few proper names. — Tiie gender of substantives ending in E is dubious, and must 
be learnt by practice ; But those ending in ORE are ail masculine ; and those in 
SIONE or ZIONE all feminine. 

f 6. EXCEPTIVE RULES /o the above Remarks. 


whether substantive or adjective, ending in the singular (except Remark II. 

above), either in 

make their plural either in 

BJ, DJ, FJ, LJ, MJ, NJ, PJ, RJ, SJ, TJ, VJ, or ZJ. 

The same (with the same exception) ending in the singular, either in 


make their plural either in 

Al,* CI, CHI, Gl, GHI, GLI, O 1,* SCI, or UL* 

The same ending in the singular, either in 

CA, CO, GA, GO, SCA, or SCO, ^ N. B. This rule hrts some 

make their (jiural either in > exceptions, which practice 

CHI, CHI, GHI, GHI, SCHI, or SCHI. ) must teach. 

* I have turned over and over again the folio volumes of the grand Vocabolario 
Delia Criisca ; both the last classical edition, Florence, 1729, and the other of l!iap\es, 
1746; to ascertain the right orthography of nouns ending in AIO, OIO,o)- UIO, 
but in vain: since the illustrious Academicians have not observed any u7iformili/ on 
this point /'avert/ pardonable and trifling inaccuracy, indeed, for a ivork of such mag- 
nitude and superior merit), having ended these plurals, in some instances, in AI, 
OI, or UI, and in others in AJ, OJ, or UJ; nay, even the very same quotations, 
with such plural nouns are to be met with, repeated, and ivritten either way, in 
various jilaces of their Vocabolario, At the word Ranniere, for instance, u'cfind 
colatoi, and at Colatoio, ive read colatoj. At Merciaio we find calzolai, velettai ; 
and at Calzolaio there is calzolaj, velettaj. At Buio, adj. we meet with bui ; and 
at Scarlatto we see biij : and so' on for many more. Neoertheless, if we advert to 
the real useful purpose for which the J was substituted to the I in the plurals of nouns 



vvliether siihstantivcor adjertivi-, ciKling iii the sincular eithfr 
in CA, GA, or SCA, make their plural uitlier in CHE, GHi", or SCHK. 

The same cndiae; in the siugnlar, either 
in CIA, GIA,or SCIA, make their plural cither in CK, GR, or SCE 

A DISPr.VV of nil the Personal and ('otijnnclive Pro- 
nouns of the ludiun Lanonagc, uv7/i Remarks. 


First Person Second. Tliiril. 

I^oni. io tu or >m. ei vi. 




esso, m. 


si, neut. 
Gen. di me di te di lni, m. 

d\ lei,/. 

lie, m. and/. 

di esso, 7n. 

di essa, f. 
Dal a me a (e a Itii, in. 

mi ti a lei,/ 

nie te ad esso, in. 

ad essa,/. 

glio, m. and/. 

or >7;j. and/ 

li, J 


ending either in BIO, DIO, &c. (see them above), nnmily ta inform the reader 
that such j)lurai nouns litd nul end, in the' singulor, in BO, DO, ^c. Init in BIO, 
D\0, Ike. u-c shall find the vae tif the i no less supcrjliwus in the phinih of words 
ending in AIO, 6lO, or VIO, thtm in those ending in CIO, CIIIO, &c. (sec 
them alK>vc) conslanlti/ written by the yleademicutns with I ; sineejnst ns the pecu- 
liar iotind nf the consmianls, C, (,'II, &c. intimates to us without the si/rn of the 5, 
that the sin'^ular of the plurals ending in CI, CHI, Ac. must he CIO, ("IIlO, &c. 
othrni'iv the ronsotmnts would niter their sounds fsee the Tal>U' of Italian KleiiKiils 
at p. 'JK, if my Amusing InstrucUir, anil prrfind to my l'(>ck<'l Ilaliau Dietionary, 
Londun, ITJj), in like manner the genius of the Italian tunjiue leads vs to su)>j>i>m-, 
that the tiniiulnr of the jilural wrun* enitinR in A I, OI, or \J\,musl be in AIO, 
OIO, or UIO, there lieing no noutu in this lanffuane that end either in AO, OO, 
or L'O; hence the use of ttw J fir such jmrjiose would he superfluous. I .it us 
finally oIimti:-, that the I at the end of such plural nouns it three linwt laore friijii>'iil 
in Ihti Vocaliolnrio (/i/in the J. — K'litor. 

8 2 



First Perion. 





lui, m. 



esso, m 
essa, f. 

or >m. 


or >?;j.and/ 


Abl. da me da te da lui, m. 

jni ti da lei,/, 

me te da esso, m. 

da ess a,/. 
giie, m. and /! 

or > in. 


.Hi, ^ 
o?- >m. 


Kot7i. noi voi eijlino, m. 


essi, m. 
si, w. 

G<?«. di noi di voi di loro, ni. and/ 

ne, m. and/ 
d'essi, m. 

/)«#. a noi a voi a loro, m. and/. 

CJ VI g: 

ce ve or J'^?. and f. 

ne li. 


loro w. and /". 
ad essi, m. 
ad esse,/ 





First Person. 




\ oi 

loro. ni. and 






or )■ VI. 


li, s 

essi, m. 

or., Vm and / 
se, j 

da iioi 

da voi 

da loro,^ 



or \)n 



loro, J 


da eirsi, m. 
da esse,/. 

07- >m. 
li, J 
ne ;/i. and^. 

and /'. 

( 1 ) Ella for cgti., c/li or egli tor eglino, elk for elleno, are 
obsolete, but permitted to poets. 

(L^) jE's^o, essa,essi, esse, throiij^liout thoir declensions, are 
used lor inanimate things, and even for persons, if removed 
tar from the sentence. 

(3) Mi, vie, ti, tc, glie, gli, or // ; /r, ci, cc, tie, vi, ve, lo, 
or //, la, si, when not neuter, se (also loro when not accusa- 
tive case) are the only* conjunctive pronouns, and can 
never be nominntive case. Wiien used either sinjjle, coupled, 
or tripled, in the familiar or colloquial style, it is better to 
place them constantly before the verb written each sepa- 
rately [lorn is never joined either to verbs or pronouns, and 
is placed where it sounds best to the ear. Extept I". All 
the first and stcond persons of the imperative mood, when 
allirmali\e only. JI". The inlinitives. III". The gerunds. 
I\'". All participles, whrri \\''Vi\ without tlieir auxiliaries ; 
III wliiili ciisc-' they are joined in one word to the end of the 
\erl». which constantly loses its finals in the infinitive. 

(4) Me, te,se, when not followed by anolher pronoun, are 
persomil, and not conjunctive. 

(.0) /'/, (i, li, si, mi, change into re, ce, le, se, vie, when 
before either lo, la, le, li, or gli, or 7ir. 

" All the conjunrtivc pronouns luay be met wiili in a Jinie merely rmpliaticni, 
•ml arc then no rnim ilian graceful (.•xplciives. 

I 3 


(6) Vi, ve, ci, ce, are also adverbs, and mean there, here^ 
in it., in them, SfC. 

(7) iVf, when third person, belongs to inanimate things, 
answering- the French EN. And when in the first person 
plural, it is only poetical. 

(8) Gli or li, a or da lei, a or da loro may pass in the fami- 
liar style, but in this last sense it refers only to nouns mas- 

(9) // for /o is only poetical. 

(10) Glie CRn never be used alone, but must be joined 
either to lo, la, li, le, or we. N.B. Gliele, compound o^ glie 
and le, has been used by the classics as indeclinable, but we 
say now glielo, gliela, glicli, gliele, according to the gender 
and number of the derivatives alluded to by lo, la, li, le. 

(11) Si is often used as ON in the French language, and 
only in such instances it may be looked upon as being of the 
neuter gender and in the nominative case. 

H 7- A TABLE, 


Simple Tenses of all Italian Verbs, both Regular or 

Any Italian verb whatever will be found to end in its pri- 
mitive tenses as follows, and the preceding letters only will 
prove it either irregular, or belonging to one of the three 
regular conjugations. For instance, Andcire is a most irre- 
gular verb, yet in the present singular terminates in O, I, 
and ^, just the same as in the most regular verb, only the 
letters before these finals prove it an irregular verb ; for 
instead of saying, io ando, tu andi, egli anda, we must say, io 
vo, or vado, tu vai, egli va. Let the pupil, therefore, fix 
well in his mind these Universal Terminations of the 
inflections of verbs, and then he will easily become acquainted 
with the diversifications occasioned in the preceding letters, 
by the various conjugations or other anomalies of the verbs. 


(9) Present, re. (10) Gerund, ndo. (11) Part, past, to or so, 

(12) Part. pres. nte. 




\stpers'. 2d. 





(1) Pres. o i 

a, or e 



anoj or ono 

(2), or vo vi 





(3) Pret. i sti 

b, e, i, or e 



ono, or ero 

(4) Fut. ro r^i 








Sini^. Plur. 

lst.pers~ 2d. 3d. 1st pers. 'J(/. 3d. 

(5) Pres. uunt. a,ori i, ur a iamo te ino, or ano 


(6) Pics, i, or a i, or a i, or a iamo iate ino, cr niio 
{/)\ resti iiibbe r^mmo reste rebbcro 
(8) S.Imp.ssi bsi sse ssimo ste sseio 

1[ 8. OnSJ:nVATJOXS upon tfieforcgoing Table. 

Four important observations are to be aiaclo on the uni- 
versal terminations of verbs. 

I. That each PEU80\ in all tenses ends in some charac- 
teri-Jtic letters {{\w first and sccofid s'n/tr. only excepted), 
which are in all instances the same, as IbJlows : 

Singular. j Plural. 
] St Pers. its cbarac- [ \st Pers. its charac- 
teristic is uncertain. \ teristic is MO 
2(/. I, or A 2d. TE 
3(/. uncertain. < 3d. NO, or RO, 

II. Let us also observe, that in general all verbs, even the 
irre«ruiar. form the person of their tenses as follows : — From 
tiie first sinjjular the two third persons are formed, and from 
the second sinirnlar tlic first and sectmd plural take their 
orin^in.— Ex. From Jo dissi are evidently made egli disse, 
tglino disscio; as, from tu diccsti.fXvv'wa noi diccinmo, vol 
dicistc. The alteiidinj; to this rnlo will j^roally facilitate the 
conjugation of all verbs, notwithstanding its exceptions. 

III. The third observation is, that iho J 7)ip(r a live is partly 
formed from the present tense of the Indicative mood, and 
partly from tiiat of the conjunctive: and that this promis- 
cuous formation is done according to the principle just now 
estabhMied in the preceding Obscrxathm ; so that by only 
knowing that the second person singular is taken from the 
indicative, and the thiro (iom the conjunctive, the lormation 
(J'liie three persons plural becomes obvious. 

Kxrcplion.— Xu all the verbs of the first conjugation the 
second person singular of the imperative ends constantly 
in A. 

IV. liCt U8 finally observe, that from tht iulure of tho 

fl 4 


indicative the First imperfect of the conjunctive may in all 
instances be formed, bj retaining the letter R, and excbang-- 
ino- the remaining respective characteristic universal termi- 
nations of each person. 


Hozi) to use the foUowino- TABLE, containing a Displa?/ of 
the PRIMITIVE TENSES in the three Regular Con- 
jugations, with their English Characteristics. 

The use of the following Table is very plain, and very 
extensive. Attend, however, to the following Directions. 

I. To the name of each Italian tense bein^ annexed the 
distinctive characteristic of its corresponding one in English, 
the student, even the least proficient in grammar, will be 
able to find the Italian tense corresponding to any Englisii 
tense he wishes to translate. Thus, for instance, if he is to 
translate //e loves, or we were thinking ; after having found 
in the dictionary that the Italian infinitives of these two 
verbs are amdre, and pensdre, he will immediately know 
that they both belong to the^r*^ conjugation, marked with 
the fissure 1st in each tense of fhe following TABLE ; and 
it will not be more difficult to discover that loves belongs to 
the present indicative, since the additional letter S is found 
among the English characteristics of that tense only ; he 
will know as easily that were thinking is the imperfect tense 
of the indicative mood, finding among its English charac- 
teristics I was — ing. 

II. The proper tense once found, let him examine what 
person, and of what number, is the English verb in question, 
and then striking off the final of the Italian infinitive, whe- 
ther are, ere, or ire, and by substituting to it the termination 
of the intended person, number, tense, and conjugation, he 
will immediately obtain a correct version of any English 
verb, when among the regulars in Italian. Thus, to trans- 
late he loves, he will strike off from the infinitive amare the 
letters ARE, and by adding an A to the remainder AM ; 
that being the regular termination put down for the third 
person singular present tense indicative mood of the first 
conjugation ; he will ol)tain ama, the correct Italian inflec- 
tion of that tense and person in the first conjugation. — 
Likewise, seeing at the imperfect of the first conjugation 
indicative mood, first person plural, corresponding to we 
were thinking, the letters AVA'MO, taking off the same 
ARI2 from the infinitive pensdre, and adding to the remain- 


inir PENS the letters AVA-MO, he will obti'.in pensavdmo, 
as the riii;ht inflection eoiij;ht for. 

OcsERVE. The dUliculty ol" knowing: tlio proper tense in 
Enj;li>h, u hen no c'aracteristic (listin;;iii>hes it, must be 
overcome by practice : — As well as the other, of knowinj;^ 
how to chanjie some i^nglish tenses into others in Italian, 
wlien the syntax of the two languages doe^ not agree. 

III. Let the pupil, however, cnrefuUj/ OllSEUVE, that 
before he applies the above method to an Italian verb, he 
must first be sure that such verb is not an Irregular one, 
which he will easily know, In attending to tli(> DIKKC- 
TIONS which precede their ALPHABETICAL LIST after 
the following Tahle. 

IV. For further remarks on the formation of the tenses of 
regular verbs, I refer the student toLECTUiii: XV^III, p. 
143 to 150. — Also \otes, f p. 131, * p. 1 3,3, * p. 137, t p, 
ibid^ * p. 131, ^ p. 135. 


N.B. f These rules — placed after the names of the tenses, 
stand for a!iv English verb in its radical form of the infinitive 
mood ; and whatever is before or after the rule in italics, 
are the cliarocterislies which must be added to the infinitive, 
to obtain the tense to which they are annexed. — For the use 
of the nundiers (1), C2), (3), iS:c. before the names of the 
tenses, see Direction HI, before the LIS T of the Irregular 


(9) Present Tense. — Its English Characteristics are — To — ; or — 
1st Italian Conjugation in ARE, as IWl-arc ; to speak. 

2cl E U E, . . 'ri-in-<;re ; to fear. 

3d I U E, . . l-in-irc ; to cud. 

(10) Gerund — i"i'- 

I St. rAHL-indo. 2d TKM-<-ndo. 3d iMN-endo. 

SiNCLUAR. Pl.tKAl.. 

(11) PnrtiripU- Vast — '/ , or —rd. 

1st I'ARi^ato, VI. u(.i, /. 'iti, m. Ate, /. 

2d TuM-^to,. . . . 6tii, /'li. . • I'Hi'. • 

3d Fixilo, ....Ita, '". •• 't^"' •• 

( 1 2) Participle Pretrnt — i'i«. 

Ut PAKf^antc, m and/. ''"<'. »"• '""*/. 

2d Tem-^-i.U- <""". 

3d Fin- 6nle ^^^ 



Singular. Plural. 

( 1 ) Present Tense, . . I — ,- I do — ; / am — ing ,• thou — st ; he — ; or he — ths, ^c. 
1st Parl-o, X^tpers. i, 'i.Apers. a, 3d^;er5. iamo, \iXpers. ate, 2d^jer6- ano, 3d;;e)-x. 

2d Tem- o, i, e, iamo, ete, ono, 

Sd Fin- isco, .... isci .... isce, .... iamo, ite, iscono . . , , 

(2) Imperfect, I was --ing ; I—d; I — ed; or I did — ; thou — dst; or thou — edst, ^c. 

1st PARL-*ava, .... avi, .... ava, .... avamo, .... avate, avano 

2d Tem- *ev3, .... evi, .... eva, .... evamo,. . . . evate, evano 

3d Fin- *iva, .... ivi, .... iva, .... ivamo,. . . . ivate, ivano 

(3) Preterite ...... I — d ; I — ed ; I did — ; thou —dst, or thou — edst, ^c. 

1st PARL-ai, asti, 6, ammo, aste, arono 

2d TEji-f ei, esti,. ... f e, ^mmo, ^ste, . > . . f erono 

Sd Fin- ii, isti, i, immo, iste, irono 

(4) Future I shall — ; or / tuill — 

1st PAUL-ero, .... erai, .... era ... . er^mo, erete, .... eranno 

2d Tem- ero, .... erai, era .... eremo, erete, .... eranno 

3d Fin- iro, .... irai, ira . . . , iremo, irete, .... iianno 


(5) Present Let me — ; or — 

1st Parl- wanting . . a, i, iamo, , ate, ino 

2d Tem. — . . i, a, iamo, ete,. ..... ano 

3d Fin. — . . isci .... isca, .... iamo, ite, iscano 


(6) Preseiit I — ,- / 7nay — ,• or / can — . 

1st PARL-i, i, i, iamo, iate, .... ino 

2d Tem- a, a, or i, .... a, .... iamo, iiite, ano 

3d Fin- isca,, . ..isca, .... isca,.... iamo, iate, iscano 

(7) First Imperfect . . . . I could, would, or should — . 

1st PARL-erei, eresti, .... er^bbe,. . eremmo, .... er^ste, .... erebbero . . . , 

2d Teji- erei, .... eresti,. . . . erebbe,. . eremmo, . . . ereste, .... erelibero . . . . 
3d Fin- ir^i, .... iresti, .... irebbe,. . iremmo, .... ireste, .... irebbero . . . . 

(8) Second Imperfect . . .. I — ed, or I — d ,- also / miglit — 

1st PARL-assi, .... assi, .... asse, .... iissimo, .... aste,, assero 

2d Tem- essi, .... essi, . . -. . esse, ... essimo, .... <5ste, t'ssero 

3d Fin- issi, .... issi, isse, .... issimo, iste, issero 

*#* All those iuHectious marked tliiis *, may also end in O, instead of tlieir 
final A, for which see Note f, p. 131, the latter part ot it. — Editor. The in- 
flections marked thus f, may also terminate in etti, elte,ettero, in verbs. 
See their list, at p. 271. 


Of Regular Verbs in ARE conjugated like Parl are. — 
Theii^ accent of the Infinitive is constantly/ on the A of their 
final ARE. 

Abbandonare, \ ^" ^^■"'^l'^' «'' Abbruciare, to burn 

I abandon Accampare, encamp 

Abbracdare, embrace Accarezzare, caress 

* This and the two foUowiug Collections have been improperly giren by the 
Author at the end of the work. I have transposed them here with many addi- 
tions, &i the only place where the Student is likely to look for ihtm.— -Editor. 



to accept 


to assure 






sit down 


f go, or put 
\ near 




give notice 


agree, or 
put in tune 



Accost are, 








Acquis tare. 









point out 




with one's 

Be fare, 








fall asleep 

fall into a 



r jest or laugh 
I at 










let out 





Can tare, 




Ctj scare. 
















rise or to 
get up 


/ seek or look 
I for 



Cilia mare, 











m;irry, or to 
take for wife 


^ begin 

A line gar e. 










support or 













venture or 









arrive at 

Cunservarv , 

r keep or pre- 
\ serve 









Asset It arc, 






expect, or 
wait for 


r quarrel or 
\ contend 



to crown 




Buttar, via 











desire or wish 










Gr attar e, 



















































come in 











Esperimenfare, ( 
Sperimentare, S 






' Evitare, 







work hard 






Innamorursi , 


make happy 









o ' 




For mare, 
















to throw away 








cry out 

win, or get 

look at, to 



r embarrass, 
L or perplex 

{make one 


to imagine 

S engage, or 
^ pawn 









f cheat, or de- 
\ ceive 


{fall in love 

j engrave, or 
~) carve 








Lav are, 






Maiulare a dire, 

Ala tic are, 





Merit are, 




Most rare, 






to leave 

tie, or bind 
take away 
lake one's 


send word 

niat( li 
marry, viz. 

to lake a 


prow belter 
joke, or laugh Provare, 

at Provocare, 

look, or beholdi^u/;A/icrtre, 

PigUare in 















Purlarc, The model 

Passegginre, 1 
Spasieggian , \ 

polish, or 

a p 


take a walk 

grow worse 















Riportare, < 




liitui nare, 








to weigh 
told up 



carry, or bring 









procure, or 


















carry back 


steal, or rub 












Smoccolare la 


to blot out Strapazzare 

escape Studiare, 

joke Sudor e, 

excuse Svegliare, 

slip, or slide Superare, 
go on or foWow Suppllcaj-e, 






to snuff the 

cast up 





Til are di spada, 





Tram arc, 



















to ill use 


be wavering 
boast or praise 
to usurp, &c. 


Of Verbs in ERE, conjugated like Temere in 
Preterite and Participle. 




Batter e, 







to absolve 


ei, or etti, 







* See A'ote * above, at p. 266. 






to cleave 






G tin ere, 

g'oan or weep ei. 


































Hinder e, 









fill again 




















The Mode 

1. a- 

hove, at p. 





Vender e. 









Of r'crhs in II{R, co/7/wo-a/rf/ //Ar FiNiuE, /;/ t/ persons 
which end in J SCO, ISCA, &;c. — See the Tablr of the 
Rp2^iilar Conjus^dtions, at p. 206. — Their accent of the in- 
ftnitixc ?9 eonslanlh/ on the I of their final. \\\ M — X.I3. Tlioso 
marked with an a^-ti-rij^U (*) alter them mav he also conju- 
jjatedas the second regular conjiii^ation, without ihesyllahle 
isco^ especial Iv in poetry, but seldom in familiar prose. {%) 

' Abbellire,* 
' Ahborrlrc,* 
• Ahbroslirc, 4" \ 
' AbbrostoUre, i 
' Aborrire,* 
' Abortire, 
' Accanire, 

to embellish 
toa^t too 

' Addnldre, 
' Adempire,* 
' Agjiradirc, 
' Allef^frerire, 
' Allenire, 

to become sour 
sweet in 

• Sec Xote •, at p. 2Cf). 

f No l(;<t than one tiundred vi-rlis I have adikd i'> tliis li«t. Sec abo the N 15. 
at t>. 271. — K'hlor. 

\ Tin* rcaMiii (if thr«c flouMc inflection", liowi-vcr, mostly nrlKi's for tin- possi- 
bility of tirmiiialiiiK tin- iiifinitivcn of Midi verlit in l",KK, or Altl'"., as will .u in 
IKK. See thcli^ts of such verbn, ia advaiire, nl I al)I- \'ill. — F.JUitr. 



to crave 


to constitute 

* Jmmollire, 








• Ammorhidire, 




' Ammutire, 

' Ammutolire,* 

\ grow dumb 



' AnnichUire* 




' Annobilire,* 


' Diver tire,* 


* Apparire,* 



hear favourably 

' Appassire, 




' Appetire, 




' Appiacevolire, 


' Fallire, 


' Applaiidire,* 


' Favorire, 




* Ferire* 




' Finire, 

The Model 

' Arrossire,* 


See it above, 

p. 266. 







For hire, 








' Garantire, 


' Assopire, 

make drowsy 

* Gemire* 


' Assorbire* 

absorb, ifs 


make gestures 

participle is 

either ossorbito or 






' Assordire* 















grow brutal 

' Attristire* 



grow ugly 




grow good 



' Immorbidire, 








* Impallidire, 

grow pale 



' Lmpaurire,* 




' Irnpazzire,* 

become mad 





' Chiarire, 

grow clear 



' Colorire,* 






' Impietrire,* 


' Comparire, 

appear before 


grow lazy 

' Compartire,* 



grow poor 

' Compatire, 

compassionate ' Impoltronire, 

grow lazy 

' Compire, 




' Concepire, to conreive, the par- 
ticiple is concepiio, conceputo, 

' Inacetire, 
' Inacidire, 

S grow sour 

and concetto. 

' Inanimire, 




' Inaridire, 

grow dry 

' Conferire, 



become stupid 

' Conseguire,* 


' Inaaprire,* 





grow callous 


' Incenerire, 

to reduce to ashes 


to warp 


j^row polite 

' Par lire, 



hi'CDine angry 


lie in 

' Incoras^ire, (</) 


' Patin;'^ 



become cruel 

' Pcrire,* 






' Indolcire, 




' Imlurire,* 

j;ro\v hard 



* Inter ire, 

1 rouble 

' Projfcrirr, or "j 
' Profirin,* j 

y oft'er 


i^row fierce 



' Injiuire, 


' Proseguire,* 







beeome strong Pw/zire, 


In gel us ire. 

{^row jealous 




become noble 


become rancid 



' Rammoriidirc, 

solten again 




carry away by 

' Jngiallire, 

f;row yellow 



become hump 







become great 


grow childish 


become insipii 


grow young 


become insulent/?iferire. 






' Insuperhire, 

tjrow p'oud 

' Ruggire,* 






' Iiilicpidire, 

f^rowlukewarm S'/i^'go/ire, 

!i Aright 

' Intimidire, 



spring out 


grow consump 

-' Schermire, 



' Schernere, 


' InvagUirc, 

make one in 

' Scolorirc, 






grow green 




grow vigorous Smaltire, 








' S men I ire, 

give the lie 

' Irruginire, 






' Sofcrire, 





sup up 

M entire. 




' Miiggire,* 








NaJrire, .f^- > • 
Snlriie, ) * 

noui i^ti 

' Slarnutirc,* 
St ordire, 


• Offlrirc* 




^iij fii clwtKiral aullioia we ruiil lliix vrrli ending lii are 







to evaporate 
faint away 


to transgress 
grow very rich 

^ 14. N. B. The above verbs in IRE are only the most usual; they might be 
easily doubled by consulting Mastrojini's Index. Those not marked with au 
inverted comma (') are defective in the first person plural of all the present 
tenses, and in the second person plural of the present of the conjunctive 
mood ; so that such persons must be supplied either by an equivalent verb, 
as Inghiollire by Iiigoiare ; Gioire by Rullegrarsi; Avvilire, by Ahhassate, 
or Deprimere ; Punire by Gastigare ; Marcire by Imputridire, ^c. or by express- 
ing that first or second person plural by a periphrasis, thus, for Ainhire we may 
say abhiamn ambizione, or siate amhiziosi ; for Ardire, ahbiamo, or ahliale in dire , 
fov Ing'igliardirc, lorniamo, ov (orniate gagliardi, ov riprendiam gagltardia; for 
Intisichire, diamo, or diate in tisico ; for Smaltire, procuriam dl smaltire ; for 
Siupire, restiamo stvpiti; for Ubbidire, vogliamo ubbidire, or facciate I' ubbidi- 
enza, ^-c. which manners of speaking may be observed in reading the approved 
Italian writers. 

Those who choose a verb like Sentire for the model of the conjugation in 
IRE, must give all the above as irregular; but by adopting Finire as a model, they 
become all legular, and only the following are irregular, with some of their com- 
pounds, viz. Aprirc, Boltire, Convervire, Cucire, Dormire, Fuggire, Partire, to 
set out) Peniirsi, Seguire, Servire, Vestire, being the only ones conjugated like 


Alphabetically Arranged. 
15. Advertisement 6j/ /^e Editor. 

It is a well known fact, that the Verbs which are irregular 
in most languages, as well as in Italian, are precisely those 
of which the use is most familiar and frequent, consequently 
of the greatest importance to the learner. It bei[)g the 
province of an Universal^ and not of a Particular Grammar ^ 
to inquire into the causes of these anomalies, I shall entirely 
pass them over in silence here ; but I cannot do the same 
with respect to those defective methods of treating this very 
important part of the Italian Grammar, universally adopted 
by all the grammarians who have written for the use of 
Great Britain ; these three only excepted, viz. hno. The 
Rudiments of the Italian Grammar, at Wingrave's, Strand, 
London); ^do. Vergani's New Grammar (Birmingham) ; 
and, 3</o, Galignani's Lectures. 

All the remainincr crowd of Grammar-writers have fol- 
lowed the erroneous plan of Veneroni, whom they have 
all censured, at the same time, in the strongest terms as he 
deserved. The irregular verbs are handled by them in such 


a manner, that one would be inclined to think they wrote 
their Grammars more tor masters than tor scholars ; since it 
is morally impossible that any pupil could successfully 
consult them, to find the inflections of an irregular verb, 
without either having previously learnt by heart the whole 
of their Treatise on those verbs, or without patiently be- 
stowing half an hour in perusing attentively each leaf of it, 
whenever he has occasion to consult it. 

In fact, who is to tell a beginner wliich of the Italian infi- 
nitives ending in EKE is long or short P The dictionaries, 
especially in that part, which begins with the English, being 
that which the student first wants, have no accents to shew 
the pronunciation of the Italian infinitives — yet all gram- 
marians diviiie their irregular verbs first in ERE, /o;?g and 
shorty and then they distribute these, as well as those in IIIE, 
into so many different classes, according to the various ter- 
minations of their Preterites and Participles* Now since 
the student finds nothing more than the infinitive in the 
Dictionary, how can he find the verb he wants, in such 
granmiars, before he knows its conjugation by heart? And 
if he knows it, what need has he of a grammar ? — 7 hey will 
say in their defence, that such has been the method of the 
very best of our grammarians, CMNONIO; but by such a 
defence, they will confirm my very observation against 
them : for Cino7iio wrote for his countrymen, who knew and 
spoke the language he taught from the cradle, and by his 
learned observations he only meant to teach them the pro- 
per use of verbs, and to avoid some of their corrupt forms, 
which, promiscuously with the good ones, were and are in 
use among the Italians. Had Cinonio written for foreigners, 
he would never have thought of such a plan. 

Another absurdity generally prevailing in the grammars 
above alluded to, is, that the pupil, even when acquainted 
with those many classes of irregular verbs, will not be suc- 
cessful in conjugating nund)ers of those verbs called dcri- 
zaliies, as he will not find them registered in any |)art of 
such grammars. The learned philologist, indeed, can 

• Veseroni and others suppose they facilitate the finding of tlic iireRular 
Tcrbs, by divLTsifyiii)? ihein according to that syllable of thtir infinitives ininic- 
diately before orf, ere ur ire i but besides iliai such cl.issts are extremely per- 
plexing, and liable to exceptiomt, they cnune a great loss of time to the pupil, 
who, after liavinj? found the similar termination of the verb he wants to conju- 
Rate, by coBsultini} the list of these classes, he is again to look for that conjuga- 
tion in anoiher part ot the grammar, and if he has tint been successful in the 
application of ilic verb to its proper das'*, the whole conjugation must be wrong. 


T 2 


easily discern when a verb is a derivative, and trace it to 
'i\q primitive : but are their grammars, then, intended lor 
the learned philologists only ? Is not the study of the Italian 
language to be made easy, not only to the youngest minds, 
but even to that sex, to whom, to be learned philologists, 
woidd be ascribed as a demerit by self-conceited man ! 

To trace a derivative verb to its radical is not, however, 
the most difficult task for beginners, who study the Italian 
language, in grammars written with such an imperfect me- 
thod. What will they do with a variety of verbs now ending 
constantly in RRE ? Shall they look for them among those 
in ARE, in ERE, or in IRE, since they do end in any of 
these terminations ? Such are Corre, Addurre, Porre, &;c. 
Sfc. In vain, however, will they look in those grammars, 
even for a similar termination, where the list of their classes 
is given. They must absolutely wander from page to page, 
till they fall upon that remark, where they are informed that 
the above are contracted infinitives of the verbs CSgliere, 
Adducere, Ponore, of which the greatest part is now become 

From all the above perplexities, it is easy to infer that the 
Alphabetical arrangement of the irregular verbs, hoth pri)ni- 
tive and derivative, is the only method calculated to obviate 
them all, especially when as copious* as the one here exhi- 
bited. Here the student cannot be disappointed. As soon 
as he has found the Italian infinitive, he is sure to find its 
conjugation in the following Alphabetical LIST, if it be 
irregular ; and by attending to the short DIRECTIONS 
which precede it, he can never mistake its use. 

The pupil, may, nevertheless, in many instances, save 
himself even the trouble of consulting the following LIST, 
by attending to the following 


On the Structure and Mechanism of the 

I. H The Verbs of the First Conjugation in ARE amount 
to above 4,000 ; and among them only the tliirti/ arranged 

• A fair comparison will easily shew the inquisitive how very deficient the 
alphabetical lists o( ihene verbs were in the anonymous grammar, and in Ver- 
gani, above-mentioned — and as to the t/iWMmeraWe additions and alterations here 
made to this edition of Galignani, see the N.B. just before the LIST of the 
Irregular Verbs. — Editor. 


alphabetically, just before the tbllowiiii; LIST, are irregu- 

\Ve oiii;ht, however, to look Uj)on as defective all verbs in 
ARE eniling" in the tirst person singular of the indicative pre- 
sent in rO, with the accent on the 1 ; for such verbs want 
all the person?, which ought to have, instead of AKE, either 
lAMO or lA ri:^, as it is impossible to make, for instance, 
from chsidre^ clcsiiulc ; cspiurc, espiiunio, and the like. (See 
the inflections of the tirst regular conjugation, in the 
T.ABLEabove, atp. '263.) 

n. If The following VERY IMPORTANT OnSKU- 
VA ITON is from Cliio/iio. 

A great many verbs of all the three conjngations (only a 
few of these are inserted in the following list), admit, in some 
inllcctioiis, of one of these diphthongs, r/;:. IJO, or IE, and 
reject it in others. To know when these diphthongs are to 
be written or not, the following method must be observed : 
As to the infinitive of such verbs, it must be written as found 
in a «;ood Dictionary, either with or without one of those 
diphthongs, or both ways ; but as to other inllections, the 
diphthong ought only to be retained in all the inflections of 
the present of the three moods, hulicalive, Imperative, and 
Conjiinclive, in which the emphasis falls upon the very diph- 
thong in (juestion ; which will generally happen in all the 
persons, the first and second plural only excepted. Ex. 
C/iuocare, jMuovere, and Cuoprire, are to be found either 
with or without the diphthong, so their orthography is optional 
in the inlinitive. — A<gr/?T, Scdcre, So)ii'n'e^ uiorire, can only 
be found without the diphthongs IE or LO, and must con- 
stantly be written so in the infinitive : but in all these verbs 
the persons of the tenses above-mentioned will admit of the 
diphthong, while in all others it ouglit to be rejected, not- 
withstanding some instances to the contrary. Thus wo 
ought to say, Jo f!;iuuco, tu muuti, egli eiiopre, eglino niegnuo, 
io siald, siioiii <°g//, mu<')i(nio eglino^ iS'C. cSc. with a diphthong ; 
and we ought to write without it, iioi giochidnio, nurcianio^ ro- 
priamo; \.oi negate, sedcte, senate, inorite,t<;c.i^e. * () US I^R V 1% 
if a Vj orG soft precede these diphthongs, then they become 
triphthongs, by the 1 that must necessarily be next to the C 
or (*, as we see above in giuueo. 

• I ha<l alwajri wnndcrpd linw ilic Acadcniiciims Delia Crutca were igiiorniii 
nftliiH gulden rule, ^iveii liy the(>i'aniiiinriun, and acknowledged liy tlicin as Uie 
b«*t (.see ili'-ir nolr to liiiomm'itlii't (iratnniar, at Uie vcib monrr) ; but my 
astonishment wa* lately redoubled in tindini; the very learned i'rofesHor .Mas- 
TkoKiMi, ill hU iiironiitaralile Pictionary of the llaliaii verbs, tiiualiy ignorant of 
ibc same luU. — Editor. 

T 3 


N.B. The application of the same principle of the accent 
will account for many anomalies of the irregular verbs. For 
instance, if we want to fix a rule to know when the inflec- 
tions oi Andare ou^ht to begin with A or with V, let us 
observe the seat of the accent, and we shall find that the V 
begins ail those inflections which have the accent on the A 
immediately following.— Also, if we want to ascertain when 
the inflections of Uscire ought to begin with E, or with U, 
let us attend to the accent, which will be a safe guide to its 
anomalous forms beginning with E. — The studious will find 
this principle useful, to fix the irreg^ularity of almost all the 
verbs contained in the following LIST. 

<(y Exceptions. — l«?o, In order that the above rule be 
true, a single consonant must follow the diphthong, or else 
it is lost. Hence, in the verbs xenire^ solere, we say, io 
soglio, or vengo ; eglino sogliono, or vengono, S<c. while we 
say egli suole, or viene ; tii suoliy or vieni ; 8)C. because the 
L or N in these last inflections is alone, but in the first ones 
is preceded by either G or N. 2f/o, Verbs that are only to 
be found in the infinitive, with the infinitive IE, and not 
without it, do not belongto this rule: thus Piegare, Chiedere^ 
8)C. never lose their diphthong in the conjugation, because 
they are never written in the infinitive without it ; since 
Pegare and Chedcre do not exist. — otio^ It is also requisite, 
to make the rule good, that the diphthong in question do not 
make a part of the regular termination of the tense. Thus 
empiere.) to fill, appaieremo, we shall pair, &c. cannot belong 
to the above rule, for the diphthong IE makes a part of the 
final ERE in the first, and of the final EREMO in the 

III. ^ There is a great variation in the preterites of the 
verbs belonging to the second conjugation ; but it is well to 
observe that ail those which end in the first person singular 
in EI, or ETTI, preserve a double inflection only in the 
third person of both numbers. (See Observation II, p. 263.) 

IV. When the infinitive in ERE is long, and there is a 
C before it, as Tacere, Giacere, Piacere, we add a Q in the 
first and third person singular, and in the third person plu- 
ral, and give it a particular termination thus: Tdcquiy 
Gidcqui, Pidcqui, Tdcque, Gidcque, Pidcque, Tacquero, 
Gidcquero, Pidcquero. 

V. In the verbs that have the consonant L before ERE, 
as Valere, Dolere, and their compounds, the same persons of 
the preterite are formed by taking away ERE, and by add- 
ing SI, SE, in the singular, and SERO in the plural ; as 
Valsi, Valse, Fdlsero ; Dolsi, Dolse, Dolscro. 


VI. The same persons of the preterite in Avcre, CaderCy 
Tentre, Sapere, Vo/cre, are formed by doubliiii^ their conso- 
nant, and bv addiiiij I or E in the sinijiilar, ami EliO in the 
pluial ; as Ebbi, Ebbe, Ebhcro ; Caddi^ C(iddt\, (dddcro ; 
Tenni, Tenne^ Tennero ; Scppi, Seppe, Scpprro ; Volli^ 
Volle^ VbUero. — Obsf.rve, Arere and Sapnr chan2;e, in 
the same inflections, their vowel A into E ; as Ebbi, Seppi ; 
and tlie r o( avert is changed into two B's. 

VII. The verbs that in the first person singnlar of the 
present of the indicative mood end in GOO, as Icggo from 
A'ooY/r. end in S8I, SSE, and SSERO. in the same persons 
of the preterite ; as /eggo, fessi, Icssc, und /t'ssrro ; clcggo, 
elcssi, i^c. traggo, trassi, Sfc. trafiggo^ (rafissi, &;c. 

VIII. The verbs ending in t)EltE short, and preceded 
bv a vowel, as C/iicdcre, Uccidere, c^c terminate the first 
person of iheir preterite in .S7, as Chitsi^ Jiccisi, and so on 
for the other persons formed by it. (See Observation II, at 
p. 1^63.) 

IX. The verbs which in the first person of the present 
have before the last vowel two ditferent consonants, the 
first of which is one of the three liquids L, N, R, form the 
first person of their preterite by preserving the liquid alone, 
and adding SI : as Scc/gn, Scelsi, Do/go, Do/si, Erango, 
Eransi. Piango, Piansi, Ardo, Arsi, Accorgo, Accorsi, and 
so on for the other persons formed by it. (See Observation 
II, p. 263.) 

X. As for the terminations of the irregular participles it 
must be observed, that when the preterite of a verb ends in 
SSI, as lessi, elcssi, trassi, S)-c. the participle past is in TTO, 
as lello, elttto, trntto. — When the preterite ends in SI, pre- 
ceded bv a vowel, as accessi, difcsi, ^r. then this participle 
ends in 'so, as acccso, difcso, S)C.—E\ci:vT c/iicsi, rispusi^ 
niisi, which make in the participle past chitsto, risposto, 

XI. Those verbs which have their preterite in LSI. as 
sc(hi, sciohi, S^c. have their |)artiriple in LTO, as scclto^ 
sriolln.—KxcEvr calse, and va/se, the participle of which is 

caliito, vnli'ito. 

XIF. The verbs whose preterite terminates in NSI, as 
pi/uis-l. crii'insi, fmsi, have their participle in NTO, as pianto^ 
riitiitn /into, i^r. 

Xlil. When the preterite ends in RSI, as «r.w', sparsi, ac- 
corsi, scursi, the participle ends sometimes in /\so, as arsOy 
spnrsn ; and sometimes in KTO, as iiccoilo, santo. 

XIV. The verbs of the third conjugation have their par- 
ticiple, in ITO ; but comparirr, aprire, morirc, offrirc, prof- 

r 4 


Jtrire, make their participles thus, compdrsoy aperto^iiwrto, 
offer to, proffer to. 

XV.f As to the participle present, it is in no one instance 
irregnlar, and is constantly formed from the gerund by tak- 
ing- DO away, and putting TE for any of the three conjuga- 
tions both for reguhir and irregular verbs. Concerning this 
participle see Note *, p. 137. 


Calculated to render the use of the following Alphabetical 
List of IRREGULAR VERBS easij to the meanest 

I. When a verb ends in ERE, or in IRE, the safest way 
is to look for it first in this List, and if not found, then con- 
clude that it is regular, and conjugate it according" to its 
model in the preceding TABLE of the regular verbs at 
p. 265. 

II. According to the same TABLE you will conjugate 
also all the tenses of the irregular verbs not registered in 
the following List ; and for the conjugation of the same, 
attend particularly to Direction II, s,iven above at p. 263. 

III. The numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7^ 8, 9, &c. which pre- 
cede the inflections of the irregular verbs, indicate the tense, 
and correspond to those prefixed thus, (1), (2), (3), &c. to - 
the names of each tense, in the above TABLE of the llegu- 
lar Conjugatiofis, p. 265. 

IV. The hj/phen (-) which divides the infinitives, shews 
that what precedes it, is to be added to each inflection of 
the irregular tenses, and what follows it rejected. — If an 
infinitive has no hyphen, the following inflections are ex- 
pressed whole, and nothing is to be added to them. 

V. A few inflections, which, notwithstanding the hyphen 
of the infinitive do not take any letters from it, are printed 
with initials in Capitals, to shew that such inflections are 
printed whole. 

VI. The colon (:) shews that the inflections after it belong 
to the plural number, and each person will be easily distin- 
guished by attending to Observation I. given above at p. 
263, as well as to the Universal Terminations given in a 
Ta5/e just before it. — The pronouns io, tu, egliy ^c. shew 
the person and number whenever they might be equivocal. 

VII. When after an inflection given we find (S)C.) we 
must suppose that to be the first person of the tense indicated 
by the number, and if before the fyc. there are two or three 
inflections, they are to be considered as proceeding all in a 


rt'sjuliir ordtr, fioni the first person singular to llie second, 
ironi the second to the third, and so on. — What the iSr. indi- 
cates is, that tlie leniaininii^ inflections may be easily Ibrniecl 
by exchanging the imivtrsul termination of those given I'or 
any other of the same tense, according to the person and 
number we want. For instance, in the verb Aililurrc, at n. 
7 (wliich represents the lirst imperfect of the conjunctive 
mood), we read thus, 7. rrci, cSr. Jf we consult the Tahll 
of the nuiversal terminations at p. 'JoJ, we shall find that 
those belonging to the tense marked No. 7, are re/, resli^ 
rtbb(\ iSr. ,• let lis therefore take away the universal ter- 
mination rci from the given inilection (if we do not want 
tlie first person, w hich in this instance is evidently that ex- 
])ressed before the t&c), aiui sul)stitnting to it ;(\s7/, we shall 
have the second person of that tense right : and if instead of 
rcsti we put vibbc, we shall ha\e the third person, c\:c. — 
Likew isc, finding at the verb As.sidcrc, thus ; (), da, da, da : 
t*^c. we conclude that the inflections before t^r. are the first 
three persons singular of th(> tense, n. 6. viz. the present of 
the conjunctive mood, and that tlie others proceed regular, 
according to the table of io/ivcrsal tertninations ; so by 
substitiitini;; to a (the universal termination of the third ])er- 
son singular of that tense), the universal termination iainu^ 
we >hall have tlie first plural of the same tense; if we put 
iate, the second plural will bcolitained, and soon. 

VIII. The abbreviation (v.) after a verb means tide or 

sec ,• that is, it refers the student for the conjugation of the 

verb before it to that placed after; whence we are directed 

to suppose that they vtvo both irregular in the same tenses, 

and that the hi/phcn in the verb we look for is tobe suj)pose(l 

before as manv final letters of the infinitive as in the verb 

referred (o; which being rejected and the same termination 

added to the remainder, we shall obtain the right inilection 

us wanted. — For instance, looking Un Acchiitdcrc, we are 

referred to Assid<rc, where wo find only the tenses No. 3 

and 1 1, hence we conclude tlnit no more than these two are 

irregular in either of them. — I'inding the hyphen in Assiderc, 

before the letters DI'^Rly, we reject as many i'rom Acr/tiudere, 

and then applving to it according to the jierson we want, 

either si, dcsli, sc, cSr. we may be suiv. to ha\e the iiiilections 

of thp tense No. .'J right. As to the other tenses not marked 

ill (hi'- list, we iim>t conjui^ale tliein in these, or any other 

irrei,Milar verb, arcoi ilin^,^ (<» the T \ ni-i; of (he llir( e rei;ular 

ri»ii)uga(i()iis giviii above at \}.*2(}'). (see above, nn. 1. and 




of Words of the Masculine 

Gender in a. 

stock or cod fish Flemma 

phlegm, patience 

j catasplasm or 



1 poultice 












f diaphragm or 
\ midritl" 





enigma or riddh 

^ Sperma 




taffety or taffetta 

f phantom or 
I phantasm 














(^ To these must be added all other nouns in a of pure 
Greek origin, and others, either evidently or most probably 
implying an attribute peculiar to the male sex ; such as Pa- 
triarca, Eresiarca, Profeta, Poeta, Monarca, Duca, Leggista, 
Artista, Geometra, Bloralista, 8)C. particularly as many of 
them, when applied to the female sex, assume the termina- 

tion in essa, as Profeta, 
tesstty f. 

m. Profetessa, f. Poeta, m. Poe- 


Table of Words of the Masculine Gender in e. 






A' ere, 











fir tree 
a beggar 

f halo, a circle 



snake, adder 


apex, or summit 


times of the fem 





a tree 

I round a planet Bacile, 
odour, or smell Badile, 
love Barile, 

f a sacred shield a-Bastione, 
\ mong theRomansjB-3MZe, 

a bank of a river 

{aries, battering 

a pretended wit 

a sort of spade 



drinking glass 


an error 



E pate. 


an ox 

Elide, m. c*^' f. 

heir or heiress 



/a foot soldier. 


fa brief or short 
I writing 

\ man or woman, 

Fante, m. i^- f. 

< servant, a knave. 



i the knave ac 




Calce, "^ 

the handle of a 

Fele, tiele. 

the gall 

or [ 

spear, or the hwiiFine, 

the end 


end of a gun 


a flower 




a river 



Funic, m. &c. f. 

a fountain 


hemp rope 


a kind or genus 


a dog 


germ or seed 

Can one, 

r canon or church 
1 law 


the sword-Hsh 




f the guard of a 
I gun 




Card be. 

sort of amber 

richor, a sharp 




J humor issuing 



L from sores 


, medicinal seed 




a hinge 




a verse or poem 

1st ante 








split pea 

a porter's knot 


( a footman or 
1 lackey 

Cignale, cin- 

? a wild boar 


a nit 


r a codex or book Lume, 
\ of law Mdntice, 








Margine, m. h f. edge or border 


limit, boriler 

Mele, iniele. 






Comdrte, m. 

~j consort, husbam 

d Monte, 

mountain or hill 


/ or wife 


neplicw or niece 


a pirate 


a walnut tree 


court yard 













Or he. 



a day 

Ordinr, in. 8t f. order 

Do hi re, 
JJomdne & D 

pain or grief 
\ to-morrow 


J worker in gold 
I or silver 

imine, rn. c*^ 


a landlord 


leader or captain Ostr, m. h f. 

the army, 


Osjit ft ()\pitr, a guest 


a tile 




• being 


a leather but tit! 




Padule, m. 

\ a bog or marsh 

Palude, m. 


Palvete, pavese, a kind of shield 






a comb 

Piedc, pie. 

a fool 


power, a farm 


podex or buttock 


a bridge 


a priest 





Re, rege, 




Rene, when 
pkiral, m. & f. 

I kidney ^ 












silk shot 

Sc hid one. 

a spit 




a seat 





Sole, ■ 



Sprone, Spcrone, 

Staffile, i. 



Sudore, i 

Tor rente, 
Trrpode, \ 
Tripit'de, f 


Vertlce, \ 


Find ice, } 



a mouse 

a spit 

;i spur 

a strap or lea- 
thern scourge 


a boot 


sweat, perspira- 

a pickpocket 

chesnut colour 

a torrent 

a shoot of a tree 

a pass or way 

a trivet, tripod 

a poet, a bard 


vortex or top of 

any thing 
an alley 
a shoot or twig 
a revengeful 

a ploughshare 

Qr^ This Table contains very few nouns in ORE ; 
which are very numerous in Italian, and ail nuisculine, 
without exception. 


Table of Words of the Feminine Gender in e. 


Arpe, arpa. 

Asce, ascia, 
Aste, asta, 




a sort of corn 
the Alps 
a bee 
an harp 
an art 

board or plank 
spear, lance 
the apogee of a 


Baccnnte, \ 
f. c«t m. / 



Brace, hrage, 







a votary of Bac- 
choler, anger 
a live coal 




a sort (it '.vecd 


a fox, the blast, 





(•^peaking of 


a prison 


. corn) 



Gregge, f. & 



a flock 


a key 


an image 


rtlie upper vest of 
J the ancient llo- 



temper or dis- 

L man soldiers 

J ride, 



a class 

La be, 

spot or stain 




down or soft hair 


a godmother 




a heai) or mass 



Consortt', f. & ni. liusbaiul or wife 

Lepre, f. & m. 

a hare 


a cohort 



ra cornice. 




J frame, a dim 




(^ or raven 
a court 



mace or busk of 


a whct-stone 




a crisis 
a cross 

Masticc, or 




a sharp end 




skin, bark 

M( ne, vierctde. 



a decade 




'diabetes, a 


a heap 




a ship 


r dower, marriage 
\ portion 

: Noce, 

a walnut 




an ode 

Eke, Eiicr, 

f holfu tree, or 
\ scarlet oak 


an origin 


a torch 


a wall 





Fante, f. & m. 

f man or woman 
1 servant 





Per nice, 

a partridge 

Fede, ft', 



the populace 






j the throat or 
I gullet 










a phrase 



Fraudc, frude 

, a fraud 


a flea 

rthc skin of the 


an (/ak 


J nostrils {•-\}Cd\i.-Jlndtcc, 

a root 

V. ing of a horse 

'.) Itagionc, 





rest, ease 

Fuue, f . ^ m. 

a lope or curd 


a net 




a rock 


Selce, splice, 
Semente, se- 


Serpe, f . & m 
Speme, spene 
State, estate, 

Sterpe', f. ster- 
po, m. 

corrupted blood Stirpe, 
a saw 
a seat 




a flint stone 


a series 
a serpent 

a hedge 
a source 
a sister 
a species 
a species 
an estate 
root, shoot, or 
stalk from the 















V estate, 




race, family 


havock, destruc- 

stanza in poetry 


a mole 
/ the temperature 
\ of the air 

a tower 


a beam or rafter 

a valley 

a briar 

a virgin 


a robe or gown 

a vestal 

a vision 


a fox 

stump of a treeFolpe, 

^p° To these may be added all those words here omitted, 
which, besides the few inserted, and either in SiONE, or 
in ZIONE, for they are all of the feminine gender without 

TABLE 1\^. 

Table of Words in i of both Genders. 
1. Of the Masculine Gender. 










Mercordi, & 




the alphabet Ecclissi, 
St. John's book „ . 

of Revelation ^«"' "' ^'^ 
abaiUwick miopan, 

an owl 

a toast, or drink- Scalamdti, 
ing one's health 




Also many 
such as. 


white hemlock 


the day 




>• Wednesday 




1 a man of my 
> character or 
} rank 
(a. sort of dis- 
< temper among 
(^ horses 

an herb 

a sort of stone 

an herb 
compound words. 

fa man of an un- 
J settled mind, who 
J always finds ob- 
jections where 
there are none ; 
a waverer 
a stingy man 


CacciddiavoU, an exorcist ,^ . ,■ ■ fa bolcher, a 

r'^^ ; /r ..,; i * cheertui merry \ bunt^ler 

* I tellow Infilacappi, a botlkiii 

Cadaventi, a dentist Lavaceci, a silly fellow 

rtlie worm of a I'agliacantoni, a murderer, 

Cara^^rofci, ^ ramrod, a cork- &r. &c. 
I screw 






'2. Or TiiE Feminine Gender. 










with some more of Greek extraction ending in i. 

iris or rainbow 


( a ) 

Table of JVords u/iich by a different denomination 
have another or the same ineaning. 

]. In a. 

Alba, the dawn 

yija, a barn floor, 

r discourse or ha- 
J ranguc, a 
(_ herring 
a plank 
"I absence, dis- 
/ tance 

a little stick or 

a joke 
a whale 
f a ball, a round 
\ body 

a side 



Ass^zia, or 



Band a, 

In O 




a tutor 


lists in tourna- 



ace in cards 




Hit rid ltd, 










a ban, a place 
where it is for- 
bidden to hunt, 
shoot, or fi-h 

a hicr, a lilltr Bnro, 

a boat BtiTco, parco, 

basting or long Busto, 

bay colour 
a ball, a dunce 

a ban, proclama- 
an outlaw 

a knave, a cheat 

a park 

a pack-saddle 










{a bubble, a seal Bollo, 
or stamp 












Fonda y 












a blow or stroke 
fang or claw 

a wild place 
a pitcher 

a trifle, a toy 

an entrance or 

a young goat 
an old ruinous 


a chest 

the notch of a 

crossbow or 


blame, guilt 
a basket 
a rib 
a surplice, an 

upper garment Co^^o, 












Corbo, corvo, 

pain, grief Doglio, 

family Famiglio, 

a fairy Fato, 

a bean Favo, 

C as una fiata, due Fiato, 

Ifiata, once, twice 

a ro,w Filo, 

the leaf of a tree Foglio, 


a purse, or sling 


friction, a long- 


ing desire 



the leg 






the throat 

the gullet 







the same as bolla 

the same as botta 
a herd or drove 
a sword, poeticiil 


a peg, a stump 

a whitf, a puff of 

a corn, hardened 

hair of the head 

a strange acci- 

the sternum, or 
hollow part of 
the breast 


the neck 

a blow or stroke 

a raven, a crow 

cost, charge 
rasmuch as is boil- 
J ed, baked, or 
(^ roasted at once 
f an earthen pot to 
I keep any liquor in 
f a servant, a bailiff, 
1 an officer 

fate, destiny 


the breath 



a sheet of paper, 

page or leaf of 

a book 
depth, bottom 
a dash, a stroke 

a cock 

the stem of a plant 



a whirlpool 
cry, clamour 

















Otta, ora, 








Post a, 






he go la, 





ihe crupper 

shad Gill 
a poumi 
a file 

a dcii, cave 


J Amu, 
Mat CO, 

} a knot or bunch 


mail for armour Maglio, 
a sleeve AJanico, 

a sledge, or great Mazzo, 

hammer, a mace, )nnzziiolo, 


the juelt or spleen Milzu, 
ihcmuiberrytruit Muro, 

a clod 


muse, song Muso, 

a tassel Nappo, 

hour Oro, 

thelarboard sheet Orzo, 
time Otto, 

a shovel Palcllo, 

palm tree, pahnPa//yio, 

ot the hand 
paste Paslo, 

apliiik, a ho&rdPiano, 
a plant Pianlo, 

bag-pipe Pivo, 

a door Porto, 

posture, the post- Posto, 

a shjugh Pozzo, 

point, sharp end Panto, 
a purge Pun^o, 

tlie (|ua(!raMt 


a rasp 


race of people 


fishing net 


u rule 


a bank 


a (listaii 


a »lii)g 







a snare 
a book 
mire, mud 

the sprtce of five 


a dish of beans 

boiled to a nmsh 
a niallit 
a handle 
a bunch, little 



a moor, the mul- 
berry tree 

a motto, an em- 
blem or device 

face, mouth 

a bowl 




a little pall 

a sj)an 

a meal 

slow, n plain 


a peg 

a port 

a place, station 

a well 

point, a period 
a fidler's work- 
house, a mill 
a picture 
biMich of grapes 
ray of light 
sliado of trees 
a |)ctty 
u rivulet 
a bishop's staff 
a hu/ 
a man's frock 





a psalm 


sackbutj a musical 


an elder tree 

Solfa, zolfa, 

a musical note 

Solfo, zolfo. 

sulphur or brim- 


a sum 


top, height 


a spire 








a little bell 


a sound or harmony 




habitation, mansion 


impression, press, 



the soil 


the temple, late- 


a temple, place of 

ral part of the 




the head 




a pie or pudding 

Torto, ' 

a wrong, an injury 


a shoulder belt 


a nod 


vizor of the hel- 


a fan 

( b ) 

Words of different Terrtiinations and Cleanings in e and a, 

or e and o. 








2. In E. 

Apostrophe, in rhe- 
toric, a diversion of 
speech to another Apostrofo, 
person than the 
speech appointed did 
intend or require 
plank, board Asso, 

a cask Botta, 

butt end of a lance Calca, 

or musket 
a path, road, street, 

In a or O. 

Apostrophe, in gram- 
mar, the contraction 
of a word by the use 
of a Comma, as V 

grand, Sfc. 

the ace at cards 
a blow or thrust 
a crowd or throng 

a hill 




a count, an earl 



mad, foolish 






a part 



pestilence, plague 


Calla,callo, entrance or passage 
through the hedges, 
to get into the fields 

glue, a rope to rack 
malefactors vvith 

the neck 

an account 

a crowd, a throng 

the apple fruit 

the apple tree 

a birth, production 

the track 






Fesca, the, fishery, act ot fish- 


copper Jianio>rama<i\ branch of a tree 

health, safety Sulitiu, a saUite 

the shrowds of a ship Surto, a tailor 

an hatchet 



eel, fate, fortnne 

estate, siimuRT 

( c ) 


or Oitcuro, 

(ink, darkness 






kind, sort 


state, condition 


top, buniniit 

Words of tiijftrcnt Tcnninatioiis, hid of the same Meaniti^. 

Ala, e a win^ 

Apostro- 1 apostrophe, a figure in 
fa, e J rhetoric 

Dota, e < 

Aragna, o a spider 

Arnia, e arm, weapon of war 

Arpa, e an harp 

Asiia, e a chip-axe 

Asta, e a spear 

Z?a^rtg/ia,o baggage, luggage 

r, rr i dispute, noise, alter 

^ ' L cation 
Bnsa, e a basis 

a corpse 

a covered chaise 

Brucia, e \ 
Bragia, e J 

Briciola, o < 

Cadavero, o 

Calesxo, o 

Canipanelhiy o a little bell 

Clin II pa, e 

Canestra, o 

Ciinzona, i: 

Casatu, <) 

Castore, o 

Cestdlu, o 

Chioitra, o 

Els a, 
Etera, e 
Filue, o 
Froda, e 
Fronda, e 
Gabba, o 
Gocciola, o 
G'-eggia, e 

dower, marriage 

the hilt of a sword 




leaf of a tree 

a crowd, throng 


a jest, joke 

a drop 

a flock 

, — ( top of a hill or 

live coal Ureppa, o -( ■ 

' ' ' L niountani 

a CI unib, or small Grua, grue, \ 

part of bread that gru 
breaks otf Jdnlatra, o 


crane, a 


Confine, o 

Costume, a 
Ciutire, a 
( rist're, n 
JJosa, c 


a basket 

a song 

surname, family 

the bea\er 

a small basket 

a cloister 

confines, hmits, or . 

a consul Eatida, c 

a custom J. Olid, 

I ,. Miicinu, e 

} *'>«'"*'" Miwiua.o 

a dose Moiggin, o 

U 2 

an idolater 

an image 
C an iHi|)iession, a re- 
[ (|ucst, loan 
( hyperbole, ex;.g- 
\ geration 

an hypocrite 
Eamjiada, e a lanip 

j a stoni-, l)ut rather 
I a tomb-stone 

Imago, e 
Impronta, n 

Iperbola, e 
Ipocrifii, o 


Lapida. e 
Lej,na, a, o 



flllectation, allure- 

{• praise 

a mill-stone 

a lilfli- pretty hand 

niiti ilay, the south 


Mortadella, o Bologna sausage 

Nacchera, o kettle-drum 

Nevischia, o sleet 
Ndttola,o I bat, a winged ani- 

' I mal 

JVuvola, a cloud 

Oda, e an ode 

Omhrella, o umbrella 

Orecchia, o the ear 

Orezza, o fresh air 

Ot70, o a leather bottle 
Palandrana, o a great coat 

Palizzata, o a palisado 

Palpebra, o eye-lid 

Pdpera, o a gosling 

Pare, o an equal 

Pdssero, e, a a sparrow 

Pasticca, pastil 

Pendaglia, o a belt 

Pentecdsta, e pentecost 

■n , . 1 (an earthen pot to 

Pentola, o < , • » i • 

' I dress victuals in 

Pezza, o a piece 

Pilota, o a pilot, or mate 

„. ,, r a pine-grove, or 

PmHa, I /^^j 

Pome, o apple, pommel 

Pdrpora, o purple 

Posa, o pause 

Predellina, o a foot-stool 

Prestigia, o jugg'ing 

Pres<^pe, | a manger 

presepio, } ° 

Priega, o prayer, intreaty 

Progenie, a progeny 

„ . (a plumb-tree 

Prunaja,o | pi^^ntation 

Puzza, o a stench 

Querela, e an oak 

Ragnatela, o a spider's web 

Rama, o a branch, bough 

Rddica, radice, a root 

T> . ,, r a sniallbrancluor 

Kanncella, o < i , 

' L bough 

Rnndcchia, o a fi'og 

Rebi'lle, o a rebel 

Rt'dhut, e therein of abridle 

Reqiiid, e rest, ease, repose 

Riserba, o ") 

„. )■ reservation 

Hiserva, o J 

Rovella, '"^ge, fury 

Rdvere, o the male oak 

RiiHa a r the play of rolling 

Sacea, o a sack, or bag 

Salcie, "1 ,, .,» 

o , . >the Wilton 

balcio, J 

Sbarra, o a bar or spur 

Sherleffe, o mockery 

Scagliuolo, a a kind of alum 

Seanefa, o | ^ ^j^^,f 

ocansia, o j 

Scaramuccia, o a skirmish 

Scatalone, a a large box 

Scheggio, a a rock 

Scidnie, o a swarm 

Scolare, o a scholar 

Scura, e hatchet, axe 

Stadia, o ") 1 • 

c./ . >a chair 

Seggia, o J 

Segdle, a I'ye 

c .fa blood-sucker, 

begavene, i < .. 

° I an impostor 

o • , fa little chair, or 

Seggwla,o I ^^^^ 

Sernenta, e a seed 

Senapa, e mustard seed 

Sesta,e a compass 

Siero, e whey 

Srncope, a sincope 

Sofisma, sophism 

Sorce, sorca, "l 

. > a mouse 
sorco, sorcio, J 

Soprascritta, o superscription 

Sorta, e a sort, or kind 

Spasma, ") 

Spasima, o j 

Spiede, o 


Spdla, o a pin 

Sposalizia, o a wedding 

Sprazza,o \a sprinkling, as- 

Spruzza, o j persion 


a spit 

an ear of corn 

Sterpo, e 

Stilo, e 

Stipito, e 
Strofa, e 

aflat piece of wood 
a shoot of a plant 

f style of writing, or 

\ speaking 

r stem of a plant, 

( pole 
stanza in poetry 


Talpa, e 

Tan fa, o 
Termine, o 
Ttatina, o 


Tigrc, a, 
Timbra, o 
Tina, o 
Turtora, e 
Tossa, e 

Trafusola, e 

Tovagliula, o 

Trambuslo, a 

{the animal called Tubera, o 
mole Viijuole,o 

(be mouldy smell ^aso, e 
a tile Ferine, o 

an end, or term I'trmito, a 
a small bead Vesta, e 

( erain in wood, „ ^^ ,. 

< ^ ■ • , Fettovagha, o 

(. vein lu stones ^ 

tiger lie, via, 

the herb savoury I'iuttula, o 

a vat 

a small v it 

a tiiiile dove 

r a ht 
I silk 

little skein of 

f itizza, 
Ulcer a, c, o 

UUvdto, a 

Tramezzo, a < 

Unqua, e 

rdmcro, e 

Zacchcra, o 
inner sole of the Zampettu, o 
Zenzevero, e 

a napkin 
( confn.^ion, disoi 
I der 


■A kind of tree 
tlie stnall-pox 
a vase, a vessel 
a worm 
a liard winter 
a gown, or robe 
Msions, vic- 
a way, or road 
a narrow street, 

an alley 
a plantation of 

olive trees, or 

olive yard 
never, ever 
r coulter, plough- 
1 sbare 
dirt, splash 
a little paw 

r provi 
I tual 


( d ) 

J fords in ere and era, ofzcliirh there are some zchich have 
three different Termiuaiions. 

Arciere, o 

Banchiere, o 
Barbiere, o, i 

Camiere, a, o, 

Condottiere, o 

Cavalier e, o 

Cimiere, io 

Consiglicre, u 

Carrier e o 

Destrier^y o, i 

Droghiere, o 
Forestiere, o 
Foriere, o 

Gabbierc, o 

Giardimpre, o 
lugegncrr, o 



\ hor 
I bel 


or Mestiere, o, i 
Nocchii're, o 

Novelliere, o 

Ostiere, o 

Palafrcnierc , o 

Paniere, a 
Pensiere, o 

Poltroniere, o 

Pomicre, o 
Prt'gliiera, o 
Frigivniere, a 

Quartieri, i 

a banker 
a barber 
a budget, pouch, 

a carrier 
a knight, trooper, 

rseman Paniere, a 

crest of a Pensierc, o 
a counsellor 
a courier 
a steed, a horse, 
a druggist 
a foreigner 
a forerunner 
the man at the 

to dc- Schacchicre, o 
r an 




{the man at 
top-mast to 
scry land, (jr 
a gardener 
an engineer 

Scliinicrc, <i 
Scudiere, n 

u 3 

( a pilot, m 
I steersnui 

(a news- monger-, 
a tale-bearer 
an inn-keeper 
a groom of the 

a basket 
a thought 

{an idle base per- 
an orchard 
a prayer 
a |)risoner 

!the fourth part, 
(juarter for sol- 
diers, division 
of a city 
a chess-board 
C greaves, armour 
I for the legs 

esquire, ar- 
ir bearer to 

ran cs 
J moui 


Sentiere, o 
Straniere, o 

«jc<tnc/c, u a path TV ■ /^ cliess or 

Sparviere, o a hawk, a falcon ' \ diauuht-board 

a stranger 

( e ) 

The following Adjectives are likewise liable to various 






Alpestre, o ; fern, alpestra 

Alpestri, fe 




— steepy, rocky 

Campestre, o 




— rural, rustical 

Silvestre, o 




— wild, uncultivated 

Terrestre, o 




— terrestrial 

Agrestre, o 




— ruralj clownish 

Celeste, o 




— celestial 

Declive, o 




— declivity, descent 

Frivole, o 




— frivolous, trifling 

Lusinghiere, o 




— flattering 

Moltiplice, CO 




— various, manifold 

Veritiere, o 




— true, veridical 

Serotine, o 




— tardy, late, slow, backward 

N.B. The words against which are the dashes ( — ), are the 
translations ot" the words above them. 


Of the Finals of Words in CO, which in the Plural take the 
Termination in CHI, CI, or both, arranged alphabcticalli/. 

1. The plural of all the words The substantives masculine in area 
ending in one or another of the 

following FinaZs is in chi. 

Aco, briaco, opaco 

Acco, attacco, vigliacco 

A'clico, stadico 

Alco, catafalco, scalco 

Anco, bianco, fianco 

Arco, sbarco, varco 


As CO, 


f fugiasco, 
(. masco 




guilecco, secco 
bicco, cieco 


txcepi Greco, greci. 
ccrco, cheico 
j tinimalesco, riii- 
\ fresco 

dialetico, soUetico 
biiricco, huiibicco 
bellico, cajirifico 
Except aniico, iniiiiicOj netiiicoj 









In CO, 





O ndaco, 


piiico, stinco 
irco, circo 


ccc), lia]occo 

giuoco, bizzoco 
bronco, tronco 

{croiiico, intoiiico 
All tbe otbers have ci. 
Oreo, biforco, orco 

Except porco. 

bosco, fosco, Iosco 

bacucco, stucco 
caduco, sanibuco 
aduiico, giunco 
lurco, surco 
aibusco, brusco 











goografico, serafico 
liiragrico, poda- 

r chiragr 
I Krico 

2. The followingfinalshaveit in CI. 














laico, musaico 

ccfalico, italico 

metallico, gallico 

J (littirambico, jani- 
l bico 



brit.tnnico, tiran- 

r brii.itini 
I nico 




















V 4 

agaiico, scarico 

artico, partico 


mastiico, zoroa- 

aioniatico, donima- 

naulico, argon{iu- 


ani^elico, faiiiclico 
f bellico, macbiavcl- 
l. lico 

f academico,polemi- 
l CO 

r arsenico, saracen- 
1 ico 

( concentrico, eccen- 
1 trico 

ciierico, generico 
geotnctrico, nic- 


cahcetico, scettico 
jf amico, inimico, 
I nemico, vico 

{ calcliimico.chimi- 
\ CO, niiniico 
{ diatinico, cinico, 
\ clinico 
empirico, lirico 











logico, teologico Etico, 
cattolicd, (liabolico 
anatoniico, coniico laco, 
canon i CO 
Except cronico, intonico, 





3. The following have both ter- 
minations in the phiral number. Inphco, 




indiopico tropico Indaco, 
ottico, ugonottico , 
(liottrico ^«^^^^' 


cbi I urgico 






' Caldaico, Cirenai- 

co, Ebraico, Fa- l^^i^o, 
risaico, Giudaico, ^^^^^t 
Mosaico, Tolem- -^"^co, 
maico ; all others ^^^oco, 
bave ci Oico, 

analogo, dialogo ^l-co, 
barbarico, carico '^^ogo, 
Except agarico, scarico, which Onaco, 
have chi Ontico, 

Astico, elastico, monastico 

AstricOj lastrico Opico, 






statico, acquatico, 
maternatico, pra- Oreo, 
tico, salvatico, Orico, 
ciatico, spernia- Ortico, 
tico, all the others ^ . 
take ci <^^'^'^«^ 

j glauco, rauco ; Otico, 
\ dauco has dauchi Ubblico, 

{maledico ; medico 
has only medici 
benefico, nialefico, Ulco, 
venefico ; pace- Unico, 
fico has ci Usco, 

fautentico, dimen- Usico, 
\ tico Vstico, 

domestico Utico, 




< dilelico^solletico, 
L h;ive only chi 
elegiaco, Austria CO 

{mendico, pud'ico, 
aprico, impudico 
r geroglificOj scien- 
L titico 
f intrinseco, estriu- 
\ seco 

{intrinsico, estrin- 

{fisico, tisico, risi- 
co, have only chi 
distico, sofistico 
critico, politico 

equivico, univoco 

{pontico, acheron- 
ritropico, idropico 
the others in ci. 


istorico, dorico 

{acrostico, prono- 
despotico, zotico 
fcherubico, cubico, 
t a nub ico 

unico, punico 

cerusico, musico 
ligustico, rustic" 











Of Verbs i/i are and ire. 
ti) adorn, make Annerare, \ to blacken, to dis- 



handsome, cnibel- Anucrire, 
lisli Annichilare, 

to ^J^o^v dusky AiiuicliiHre, 

C to become or make Annollare, 
\ brown Annottlrsi, 

to become or rcn- Annultare, 
der abortive, mis- AnnulUre, 
cirry Annuvolarc, 

to make or become Appassire, 
churlish or doi,'- Arrossarc, 
like Arrossire, 

to sn-eeten, to mol- Arroventare, ^ ,^ ^^^^ ^^^ j^^^ 










to beat, to warm 

") to a 
/ kin 


lify, soften, miti- Arruveiitirsi 

gate Assenare, 

to refine, make Assenire, 

finer, to sharpen, Asaetore, 

to whet Assetire, 

^ to weaken, mi\ke Assordare, 

] feeble Ass or dire, 

accept, receive Attristare, 

dly Attristire, 

to ease, render Attntare, 

liglitcr Attutire, 

Allindarc, 1 to make neat or Aviizzarc, 

Atlindire, J fine, to polish Avvizzire, 

Ammagritre, 1 to become or grow Bdlbuzzarc, 

Ammagrire, J lean Jialbuzzin, 

Ammanare, 1 . „„,„«;,,,, Carpare, 

> to prepare, nt up >-, 
Ammamre, J * ' ' Carpire, 

A mniansnre, 'I to lame, make 
Ammnnsirv, J tractable 

Ammollare, i to moisten, soften, /^/,;^ .^,^g 

Ammollire, / affect, loosen c'/,' 

, . , rto make lender, 

^mmor/>., r/r.-, J ,^ ,,,^,^^^^„^ CV/orar^, 
Ammorbidm; | ^,^f,^.,, 

Ammortnrr, i to fiuench, cxiin 

Ammorlirr, J guish, put out 

Ammnlari , \ 

Ammutirr, f . . « i . u 

. , , ' > to betouic dumb 

Ammutolnr, ) 


> to annihilate 

}to become dark, or 
grow towards night 

> to annul 

> to become cloudy 

to fade away» to 
wither, to decay 

to blush, to colour, 
to be ashamed 

}to render wise, to 
give sense 
~) to fit or adapt one 
J thing to another 

> to make deaf 

> to make sad 

1 to stop one's ears 

« to dry, shrivel up. 
{ wrinkle 

unmer, tostut- 

Carpare, \ 

}lo stai 

I to snatcli from 

to creep along as 
children do 

{to clear, to ex- 
plain, to unfold, 
to resoKe 

Divlmirdn , 

to colour 

Iran, "1 
Ditrliiitrire, J 

DiscnUirmc, 1 to spoil or takeaway 
Disciiloriii , J the colour 

to fail, do amiiS 






Granare, s. . i 

^ . ' f to become grain 

(jrramre, J ° 

Grugnare, > 

\ to favor 
\ to finish 


to grunt 
to guarantee 

' V to embalm 

Imbersonarsi, { . r n ,. 
, , . . > to rail out 

Jmbersomrst, J 

Grugnire, -\ 
Guarentare, r 

1 to tarnish, to grow 


Imbrunire, S brown 

Imbruttare, 1 ^ i i m 
I t xa- > to daub, soil 
Jmbruttire, J ' 


ire, I 

' < wrin 

' L with 





Impallidare A , 

Impallidire, J ° " 

Impaurare, \ to frighten, to ter* 

, J rify 


to hinder, to stop, 
to thwart 

to rot or grow rot- 

to exasperate, to 
stir, to provoke 



{to grow 




Imporrarc, j 






Inasprare, > to exasperate, to in- 

Inasprire, cense 



Incatarrure, I ^ ^ , . , 
> to catch cold 

> to grow sour 


to animate, to en- 
courage, tohearten, 
to embolden 

I to dry up 

7 to fester, to pu- 
5 trify, to rankle 





















* Insuperbare, 





^ to sweeten, to 
> soften, to allay, 
J assuage 

{to grow obsti- 
nate, to become 
or make hard 
rto encourage, in- 
■} flame with fer- 
L vor 

}to blossom, 

bloom, biow 
"I to rot, putrify, 
J corrupt 

{to cool, chill, to 
become cold or 
? to make or be- 
} come yellow 

I to become me- 
)> lancholy, orme- 
^ lancholic 

to make or be- 
come proud or 

}to disquiet, ren- 
der uneasy 

I to catch with 
j nets, to ensnare 

pto become or 
J grow savage, 
J woody or rug- 
'^ ged 
7 to foul, soilj dir- 

3 ty 

to grow proud or 

^to darken, or be- 
come dark or 

L obscure 
to make or be- 

- come lukewarm 
or tepid 

^to grow stiff with 
cold, to be be- 

. numbed 

to burn to ashes 






















trouble or 


or muddy 
to <rro\v wicked Schcrmarc, 

{to tr 
/" to £;ro\v wicked ^Liicrmarc, 
J or knavish, not Scliermire, 
J to grow, to Schiarare, 
V pine away Scliiarire, 

(\.o tall in 
< with, to 
(^ desire 










Scolorare , 
irive a e ; • 
° iicolorire, 

i , J S fall are, 

\ t" breed worms ^^.^^jj.^^^ 

1 to grow old or Sjiorare, 

3 obsolete Sjiorire, 

I to rage, to be ^^ 

i fierce or cruel ^- 

1 to make ugly, to " 

i foul, soil Singhiozzare, 

to offer, present, Smagrare, 
tender Smagrirc, 


'Z.!!l"' 'P^'^' Spoltrare, 









*Raddolcare, ~\ 

*Rad(lolciaTC, v, 
/ u I . \ r to sw 
(obsolete.) & 

Raddolcirc, -^ 

( to refine 

( to mollify, make 



to soften, sup- „ , ... 
, re • StrabiUre, 

pie, cfieminate, 



1 to cool, 

3 lukcwar 

1^ to patch, botch 

J up 




'\ to finish, 

/ an end *Sup<Tbi(irc, 

to cool, to gir)W Snprrbiir, 
cool, or lukc- Tniliiiudic, 
warm Tiniinnnc, 

to recover amlal- 
ford strength, vi- 
gour or courage 



to cure one of his 
whims or fan- 

to fence with a 
sword or foil 

to clear up 

to fade in colour, 
to spoil the co- 

to be in error, to 

to lose the bloom 
or flower 

{to get the better 
of a tjuarrel or 
}k) sob, to sigh, 
to groan 
") to make or grow 
J lean 

}to frighten, ter- 
{to shake off one's 
sluggishness, or 

> to sneeze 

to enrage, make 
angr}', to put 
out the fire by 
taking oil the 

rto wonder, be 
) amazed, asto- 

(^ nished 

/^to take away the 
J poison, to give 

J vent to one's 

V. passion 

f to appease or 

t allay 

1 to become proud, 

) or pulled up 

> to tingle, rcs(jund 























TABLE Vlll. 

Of Verbs in ere and ire. 

to fulfil 

to appear, to be 

to desire, to co- 



\ applaud 
V absorb 

\ to sever, to sift 

}to finish, to end 
to close 

> to conceive 
to divert, amuse 


to wound 

Garner e, 

* Offer ^re, 

* Offer are, 











to groan, lament, 

to influence, to 


to offer, present, 

to utter, speak, 




to roar 

to discern 

to subvert 

to shine through, 
to be transparent 

to fret, rage, vex 



or TIIK 


IMPORTANT CAUTION.— Do not look in ihi^ list 
for any verb endini; in ARI] or ARSI, except the followinij, 
>Tliiih are the only irregular ones, and will be found in their 
|iioj)cr places. 








C out raff are 





Ma If are 







111 fare 















N.B. Tlie COMMA (') shews the verbs newly added by the Editor. The (^) pa- 
RACKAfK the rcinarksalso added by tlie same. Wlifn the conjugation of a tense ha^i 
been mati-rially altered, the astfiiisk (•) has been prefixed to its first intiection. 'Hie 
• Notet added are indicated by tlie single letter — K. 

AnBORRiRK, and 7 . ., n »-• ' » 
' (to abhor, like Finirc, 

Aborr-ire, > 

See the mndrl of tJie third regular con- 
cation, at J). 'J.W. It is often conjiif^ated 
as follows, and especially in poetry : 
1. o, i, e : * iumn, ite, ono 
5, i, a : ianio, ilr, aim 
0. a, i, or a, a : Uimo uite, ann. 
Accadere, lo hrifjicn, v. Caderc. Tlic 
former is an impersonal verb. 

Accen-derc, to Hglil, v. Prenderc ; but 

;}. io-si, an<i r^li-xr, *> with 

1 1, sn. c are poetical expressions. 
Acchiutlere, in nictusr, v. Assidere. 
•Aci'if^ncre, and Actingere, to prepare 

om't-silf, f.Cingere. 
Accogliere, In rcciii'f, »'. Cogliere 
•Acconsentire, toconvnl, v. Dorinire 
Acc6r-gere, to jterrcivc 

.",. si, ni-iti, sc : gcmmo, gJstc, kto 

, Ei brama on<)rc, c 'I »uo contr.^rio ablM')rre. ( f'rir.) — E. 
»> E spesso r un contrfirio r nllroucci'nse. (/''■) 

*• IVriiuii IrovUrvi i duo bei lumi uccensi. (/''•) 


11. to. N.B. This is generally a reflec- 
tive verb, and its compound tenses are 
formed with essere, which is the case with 
all reflective verbs. Tts conjugation, 
however, serves as a model to many verbs 
not reflective. 

Accorre, a contraction of Accogiiere. 

Accorrere, to run to, v. Correre 

Accrescere, to enlarge, v. Condscere 

'Addare, to perceive, v. Dare 

'Addire, to befit, v. Dire. 

Addivenire, to happen, v. Venire; the 
first is an impersonal verb. 

Adducere [obsolete) now 

Addu-rre, to bring, to allege 

1 . CO, ci, ce : cidmo, cete, cono 

2. civo, S^c. 

3. ssi, cesti, sse : cemmo, ceste, ssero 

4. rrd, c^c. 

5. ci, ca : ciamo, cete, cano 

6. ca, ca, ca : cidmo, date, cano 

7. rrA, S(C. 

8. chsi, <|'c, 

10. cendo 

11. Addotto. N.B. Poets say Addutto, 
and so for all verbs conjugated like this. 

* AA&capiere, to fulfil, v. Compiere 
'Adempire, to fulfil, v. Empire 
'Adergere, to raise, v. Ergere 
Aflf^ggere, tojix, v. Affliggere 

11. afisso 
Affli-ggere, to afflict 

3. SSI, ggesti, sse : ggemmo, ggeste, ssero 

11. tto 

'AfFragnere, & to throw doivn, to reject 

Affrangere, v. Frangere 

Aggiacere, to stilt well, lu Giacere 

'Aggiugnere, & > . ,, ^■ 
oq ^ o ' Wo add, V. Gi 
Aggmngere, S 

Algere, to freeze ; a verb used cliiefly in 
poetry, and only in the third person sin- 
gular of the present tense, viz. 

• 1 . egli alge 

Also in the first and third person singu- 
lar of the preterite indicative mood, viz. 

* 3. io alsi, egli alse : 
'Alleviare, to alleviate, see Odiare 
Ammettere, to admit, v. Mettere 


Ancidere, to kUl, v. Assidere 
*\ N. B. This verb is only for poets, who, 
although they have conjugated it as 
Assidere, it is worth while to inform the 
student that Petrarca has only used 
these three inflections, viz. 

* 1. egli ancide ; eglino ancidono ; 

* 6. egli ancida. 

Andare,d to go. f N. B. This verb often 
changes in its inflections even the radical 
A into a V, because its conjugation is 
made up partly of the inflections of the 
obsolete verb Vddere, and partly of its 
own, as follows : 

1. vado, or vo, vai, va : andidmo, anddte, 

4. andrb, <^c. better than anderb, <^c. 

5. va, vada : andidmo, anddte, vddano 

6. vada, vadi, better than vada, vdda : 
andidmo, andiate, vddano 

7. andrei, SfC. better than onder& 

* 9. anddre,gire, and ire. ^ N.B. For 
the inflections originated from these 
two irregular infinitive forms, see each 
of them alphabetically. 

Angere, to grieve, e a defective verb, and 

used only in poetry. 

'Anteponere, Sc 1 , r t> ™« 

. ^ S ' > to prefer, v. Forre. 

Anteporre, ) ' J ^ 

'Antidire, toforetel, v. Dire 

Antivedere, to foresee, v. Vedere 

Antivenire, to anticipate, v. Venire 

'Aijpa-rere, & 1 ^ 
iL , > to appear. 

Appa-rire, ^ •'•' 

f N.B. This verb is conjugated regu- 
larly as the model of the verbs in IRE, 
(see it above, p. 268), but it has besides 
all the following inflections, which de- 
rive from the other infinitive Apparere : 
*, ri, re,f eglino-io7io 
*3. io-rvi, egli-rve, and in poetry, io-rsi, 
egli-rse : egUno-rvero and 7-sero in poe- 
*6. io, or egli-ia 
*8. res si. Sec. 

*1 1 , rso, but better the regular, rito 
Appartenere, to belo7ig, v. Tenere 
Appendere, to hang, v. Prendere 

^ This verb is often made reflective with the particles 5e ne ; as anddrsetie, which 
answers to the French s'e7i alter. In the second person singular of the imperative 
mood we double the t, and say vdttene, and soinetimes vaiuie, especially in poetry. 
Its compound tenses are fonned with esse7-e. We also make use of the verb aiidure 
instead of dovcre ; as Questo 7ion va drtto ; quello 11071 a7iddva fatto, tjc. meaning 
Q,uesto 71071 deve dirsi ; ipiello 7ion dovevafarsi, ^c. 

e Poria '1 fuoco allentar che '1 cor tristo ange. fPetr.) 
D' auro ha la chioma, ed or dal bianco velo 
Trainee involta, or discoperta apparc. ( Tasso.) 



f. I'orre. 

'ApplAuclorc, & } to applaud, i\ .^ 

' Applaudire. J riiv 

'Apuoncre, & > , . 
. __ f to impute, 

Appurre, J •' ' 

Appri-ndere, to team, v. Premiere 

Ap-rire, to ojk^i, v. Donnire, except 
S. ersi, or rii, ruti, Jrse, or ri: rimmo, 
riste, ersero, riroiio 
1 1 . erto 

Ar-dere, to bum, dt'sti, sc : demmo, disU, sero 
11. sa. 

Ardirc, to dare, like the rcjrular verb Fi- 
nire, only we never say tirdiamo, ardi- 
lile, ardrndo, these intlections being like 
tliose of the verb urden; to burn. ^^"e 
make use in the above tenses of tlie re- 
gular verb osi'ire, or else we say, obbi- 
limo ardire, abbuile ardirc, orindo ardire, 
in order to prevent any ambiguity Uiat 
migiit arise. See the N. 13. at p. l'TG. 

Arrendere, to surrender, v. Ilendere 

Arridere, to xmUe, v. Assidere 

Arrogere, to add, a defective and poetical 

*l.e^li arroge g 
*3. arrosi, tjc. 
•10. arr agendo 

*11. arroto. ^ N. B. Altliough tliis verb 
is called defective in the Vocabolnriu, 
analogy prompts us to derive all inflec- 
tions from tlie above tenses ; and Ihtmn- 
■inatld, in fact, does not admit it to 
be such. 

Ascendere, to ascend, v. Scendere 

Asctvndere, to conceal 
3. «', ndvsti, se : ndemmo, ndeste, sero 
11. so 

Ascrivere, to ascribe, v. Scrivere 

Asper-gere, to sprinkle 
3. .«', ghli, se : ghnmo, gi'sle, sero 
11. so 

Assalire, to assault, v. Sallre 

'Asseguire, to attain, v. Donnire 

'Assentlre, to coiisent, c. Uonnire 

AssWere, to sit down 
a. si, d^sti, se: di'mmo, distc sero 
G. da, da, da : ^-c. 

11. JO 

Asslitere, to assist 

1 1 . asfiitito. 
Asv')lvcre, to absolve, v. Riiw'ilverc 

. . / , c t to aoifitrli, V. Uornure. 

•Aiiwjrbirc, J 

M. assurto in poetry 

'Aasuefdrc, to accusiom, v. l-'are 

Assu-mere, to assume 

3. nsi, mt'nti. niC : mimmo, mtste, nsrro 

1 1 . nto 
.\stenerc, to abstain, v. Tenerc 
Astracre, &. ) , „, 

Astrarre. ^ to abstract,,: 1 rarrc 

Astrignere, ^: j , t^ , 

'Astringere, } '" ''""i"'' '■'- Slri"gere. 

Attendere, to wait, v. Prendcre 
Attenere, /(I ;)cr/arm, c. Tenerc 
'Attignere, to draw (ai from a well), v. 

Attingere, /(> reach, v. Cingere 
Attt'ir-cere, to ticutt 

3. si, cesti, se : cimmo, ciste, sero 

II. to 


attract, t<. Trarra 

'Attraggere, ^ 

Attiiiere, & Wo 

'Atfn'irre, ) 


to meet with, v. Venire 

Avellere, to pluck out, v. Svellere. 

I'oots may say to the preterite 

*y. cgli avulse '' 
Avvenire, & 

Of these two vcrtis the former signifies 
to happen, and is impersonal ; the latter 
to meet with, and is reflective. 
'Avvcrtire, to admonish, r. Dormire 
Bencdicere, (obsolete) now 
Benedire, to bless, v. Dire 
Be-re, to drink 

1 . o, I, e : i('i)no, tte, ono 

2. A'a, evi, eva ; ccumo,evAte, cvi'ino 

3. xwi, hti, I've: emmo, tste, wero 

4. ro, cji'-c. 

5. i. a : i/imo, ite, ano 

6". a, i, or a, a : iumo, idle, ano 

7. rei, ijj-c. 

8. ^ssi,\'^;c. 
1.3. endo 

11. iito. N. B. We likewise make use of 
J7('irrr, which is a regular verl) : l)ut 
instead of berri, beve : btt<i^rono ,- we 
often say, 
3. Ill becri, egli bei'iH" : cglino h^rvero. 
This regidar >erb is not the safest for 
student's practice. 

Benvolere, to love, v. ^'^)lere 

Ca-dere, to fall 

3. ddi, desli, ddc : dihnnio, dtslc, ddcro 

4. dero, or dro, c\ c. 
7. deriH, or drei, ijic. 

10. di'ndo. — Si-e next verb, 
't'iigg-ere, to full ; u defective veib, to hi- 
met with in poet« and elegant prose 
writers ; yet we nhould not adopt any 

E <Iu<'»lnii ch* ogni gitfrno am'ige al donnn. (Pelr.) 
Cir ogni batso peu'.ier del cor in' aviiWe. (/»/.) — I'.'. 


other inflections, even for similar writ- from the following, as the accent shows 
ings, but those used by eminent authors, has unfortunately lost all its inflections, 
which are the following : except the following, allowed only to' tu-i, cgli-e : noi-iimo, eglino- poets: 
iono 11. catto ;'''n improperly attributed by 
6. ia, i, or ia, ia k .• iamo, idle, iano the author to the following verb : 
10. endo^ This author and many more Cap-ere," to contain, or to hcwe room. 
have ^vrongfully attributed these in- Buommattei and Pistolesi giving the con- 
flections to the verb Cadere. jugation of the verb at length, I shall 

Calere, to care for. Impersonal verb give it here too ; observing, however, 

*1. cale that the few inflections that are sanction- 

*2. caleva, or calia ed with authority, will be found accora- 

*3. cake panied with the same in the Nolei ; and 

*4. calera, or carri that the whole of this verb is notof famj. 

*6. caglia liar use ; except few inflections. Tli 

*7. calerebbe, or carribhe safest way is to use the verb Conteneree 

*8. calesse Entrure, or Esser contenuto, 

*11. caluto *1. pio,°i, e .• P iamo, ete, jno7io o 

'C^pere, to take. N. B. This verb, which *2. eva,or ea, evi, eva,^ or ia .•'^ ev&mo, 

according to the correction of the Voca- evAte, evano, or eano* 

bolario, made by the Academicians, edi- *3. ei, esti, e . enijno, hte, erono 

tors of Buommattei s Grammar, has a *4, ero, ^-c. 

tlifferent pronunciation and signification *5. i, pia : iamo, ite, piano 

' Or mi sollevo, or citggio. (Peti:) — E. 
k Qual uom ch'aspetti, che sul colloignudo 

Ad or ad or gli caggia il ferro crudo. ( Tusso. ) 
1 £1 Nil d' alto caggendo 

Col gran suono i vicln d' intorno assorda. (Petr.) 
"' E nel Vicario suo Cristo esser catto. (^Dante.) — E. 
n Quasi credessero, qiiesta passione d' amore, solamente nelle scidccbe anime de' 
giovani, e non in altra parte capere, e dimorare. — (Boca.) 

Non capere in triangolo du' ottusi. (JDunte.) — E. 
o I have not hesitated to reject the arguments of Pistolesi and the Editors of Buom- 
mattei 's Grammar, who ivould prefer the strange inflections of this tense, io capo, 
eglino capono, to those given above ; since they furnish me at the same time respectable 
examples from the version of '^la.rco Polo's Travels, done before 1300, and of Firen- 
zuola, luho have both the ivord eglino cappiono, which sanctio7is io cappio, being the 
only one in this tense perfectly analogous to cappiono, having both the accent on the A 
next to C initial, and the PP being followed by the diphthong IO, the pronunciation of 
which naturally requires a greater strength on the foregoing consonant. — As to the argu- 
ments of the above respectable grammarians being founded upon the analogy of other 
verbs, I consider them of little weight, against the authority of use, ivhcnever the conju- 
gation of an irregular verb is in question; for the name itself of ivregu\a.t seems to im- 
ply the loant of analogy luith other verbs ; to this, however, the above authors have trusted 
so far, as to admit, rather as errors of MS. and print, the infection c&pifiono, found 171 
the translator of Marco Polo, and the edition of Firenzuola, than to acknowledge the 
same as classical. A Tuscan ear will, hoivever, always feel hurt at the sound of such 
iyifleclions as io capo, eglino capono ; hence, no doubt, Buommattei ijiserted io capp'io, 
and Gigli corrected his inconsistency, by declaring eglino capono as obsolete, and cap- 
piono as regular. — E. 

P Questa prima voglia 

Mertodi lode, o di biasmo non cape. (Dante.) 
Mio ben non cape in intslletto umano. (Petr.) — E. 
Via faccialevisi un letto quale egli vi cape. (Bocc.) — E. 
1 Tanto lieto, ch' egli non capeva nel cuoio. (/'/•) — E. 
"■ Secondoche nell' animo gli capea — egli in se medesirao non capea. (Id.) — E. 
Tante femmine concorsono nel castello, che appena vi capeano. ( Id.) — E. 


"6. ;..'a, pi, pia 
•7. erei, cjc. 
•K. essi, ^c. 
•10. ^)do 
•11. wanting; 

Ki/na,t itiu, plan* 

and improperly atui 

buted to it catto, belonging to the t'ore- 

LTOing verb. 



'Ciipire, ro conipr[-hciid, or uniitTStiuiil ; 
a regular verb, of general use, conju- 
gated like Finire ; see the Table above, 
p. 2G5. I have only mentioned it here, 
not to occasion any perplexity to tlie 
student on account of the two fore- 
going verbs being confounded 

Cedere, ^l submit, v. Concedero 
1 1. cedtUo, and never asso 
Cemcre, to stft, r. Scernere 
Clierere, to tUmand, a defective 
and obsolete, except 
*1. I'j, ch^ro,^ tu chfri, or chicii, egli, 
cA<Tf,x chitTf :>■ eglino ck^rono 
•4. lu chcrrdi 
*6. to, or egli chera 

•jO. chcrvndo. The whole of these in- 
(lections to be only allowed to poets, 
who know liow to niake a proper use 
of th'.'tn. 
Chie-dcre, to osk. 

•1. d), ggo, ggio, or Cht'srguh di, dc : 
diAnio, d^te, dono, ggono, ggiono, or 
• J. si, dr$li, se : dSmtno, destc, .lero 
*5. di, da, or gga : di/tmo, dile, dano, 

or ggano 
•fi. da, pga, gpia, or Cheggia, di, or 
gglii, da, sgicf or Cheggia : didnto, or 
ggititno, di/ilf, or ggidtc, diino, ggano, 
ggiano, or Ch^ggidno 
•10. dendo, or ggendo 
11. sto. ^ X. B. TIk- inflections pre- 
serving the I) are the safest in the 

fiiniiliar klyle; tliu-.>.' widi the GC> nut 

tbllovTed by 1 will do u^ »i.-ll in poetrT, 

or elegant pn>se ; but tlie oUier losing 

tJie I al'Ur L'll, must be kft to die 

ancient classics. 

Chiudcre, to shut, i. Assidere 

'Cign-ere, & > 

/•- 1 to inrd 

Cnj-gere, \ * 

go, gt, gc : gittmo, gcle, goiM 


:i. si, ghti, se : gthnmo, g^ste, sero 

II. to 

Circoncidere, to circumcise, v. Divldere 
'Circonducere, ( obsi^lilc ) now 
'Circondiirre, to turn about, v. .Addlirc 
Circon^crivere, but belle/- 
'Circoscrivere, to limit, v. Scrivere 
Circonveuire, to circumvent, v. Venire 
'Cocere, see Cuocere 
C6-gliere, or C'orre, to gather 

I. g/io, or Igo, gli, glie : glidmo, gliite, 
gliono, or Igono 

3. lesi, gli^stc, Isc : g/iemmo, gliiste, 

•4. rro, or glieru,^ S^c. 

*3. gli, Iga : glinmo, glictc, Igimo 

*6. glia, or Iga, in the singular for the 
tJnee persons : gliamo, better than 
Ighitnnn, glidte, Igano, or gliatio 

•7. rr^i, or glier^i, ^c. 
C61ere, tn honour. N. B. This verb is 

only used by poets, in a few inflection*, 

of which the following are the most 

usual ; 

1 . io colo,^ egli ru/*'' 

6. e-iU co/«c 
Cominettcre, to commatul, v. ^lettcre 
Coniinuovere, lo affect, v. INIuoveru 
Comparire, to apjiear, v. Appariro 
'Compartire, to distribute, v. Dormire 
Coinpiacere, to amip'tf, v. Piacere 
'C'ompiaiinicre, & } to lament, v. Fran- 
C'oiiipiiingere, j( gcre 

» / haix: rejected the double V fiom th'^ first and second prison }>liirat of this lente, 
01 Pistole^i has done, lo shew the rcui'ivul of the accent, which takes place in these in- 
flections, accordinj^ lo the harmonic principle alleged above, note ("), which tee.—K. 
u .Mcrce ti chero, dolce niio signore. {Bocc.)—K. 
« Soccorso a sui'ii perigli altro non chere. (^Tusso.) 
y — — ^ Uoina ognora 

'I'i cliicr incrce datutti sctte i colli. (Prtr.) 
I K fo Ixito a Dio, che io 'I cogliero altrove. (n>ccac. Dee. G. 7, n 6.)— let 
u> here obtrrve, that it it a mittake of I'isfolesi l.i suppose thai Ca^telvetro has 
asserted iiuh itiflrclians as these of the verb Coglierc, not to have been used bi/ Boc- 
caccio.— V'/i/' above eminftit crilic asserts so of the simitar inflections of the verbs 
Condi'irre, Torre, Trarre, and I'orri-; and in this hi- is i/nite right. See his Giniita 
70. In BemlK). — /•;. 

• die per te coiispcrAlo onoro, r culo, (I'etr.) 
b O goiilil ? clii Dio bfn cole. fd.)—Yl. 

I.ii ciKir, rhf 'n ^u 'I'«miji anro ti cola. (Dntile.) — K. 


'C6mp-iere, see observation at next verb 

*1. io, i, ie : idmo, iete, iono 

*5. i, ia : idmo, iate, iano 

*6. ia, i, ia : idmo, iate, iano 
'Comp-ire, to fulfil : see Empire 

*1. io,i,ie: idmo, lie, iono 

*5, i, ia : idmo, itc, iano 

*n', in, i, ia : idmo, idte, iano 

^ N. B. The Romans and Tuscans of- 
ten conjugate this verb as regularly- 
ending in iscn ; but no authority sup- 
ports such inflections : and, since the 
above conjugation is as often heard 
in Tuscany as the other, it must be 
adopted in writing, not only for this 
verb, but for Empire and its com- 
pounds too, which are this verb Com- 
pire, liiempire, and Adcmpire. It is, 
however, advisable to prefer in all 
tliese verbs the termination in icre, 
removing the accent to the syllable 
before, and saying, E'mpicre, Eit^m- 
picre, Adimpiere, Compierc, conjugat- 
ing them all as this last, which see. 
*Comp6nere, & > , . ti 

Comp6rre, \ ^^ compormd, v. Porre 

Comprendere, to comprehend v. Pren- 

'Comprimere, <o compress v. Esprimcre 
Compromettere, to compromise, v. Pro- 


'Compugnere, & ) , . tt 

r> ' ^ I to sneve, v. Ungere 

Compungere, > 

Conce-dere, to grant 
*S. delti, dhti, dette : demmo, diste, 

This is the most correct conjugation of 
this tense ; yet, in familiar discourse, 
or in poetry, we might pass the follow- 
ing too : 
S. io-ssi, or del, egli-sse, or de : eglino- 
ssero, or dettero 
*11. diito, much better than sso 
'Concepere, 8c \to conceive ; regular like 
' Conce-plre, ^ Finire 
it has besides 
1 . egli-pe in poetry 
*3. io-peiti, or pel; egli-piette, axiAjieo, 

(in poetry) egUno-iierono, or pettero 
*11. elto and piito. These participles 

are better than the regular coiicepilo 
Concernere, to concern v. Scernere 
Conchiudere, to conclude, v. Assidere 
Conc6rrere, to concur, v. Correre 
'Concu6cere, to concoct, v. Cu6ccre 

Condescendere, to condescend, v. Sceii- 

Condolcre, to complain, v. Dolei'e 

'Conducerc, (obsolete) now 

Condun-e, to lead, v. Addiirre 

11. co«rfi(«od, in poetry 

ConfAre, to become, v. Fare 

Configgere, to nail, v. Affliggore 

Conf6ndere, to confound, v. F6ndere 

'Congiugnere, & ^ ^ . . ^., 

,r< • c to Win, V. Giungere 

'Congiungcre, J 

'Cognoscere; a verb of tlie same signi- 
fication and conjugation with the fol- 
lowing, of which txamples, in the best 
MS. of tlie Decameron, and other clas- 
sical works, are innumerable; but tlie 
pupil must now forbear the use of it, it 
being a token of low education with the 
Tuscans at present ; since nobody uses 
it but peasants^ and the lowest class of 

Cond-scere, to knoiv 

3. bbi, scesli, bbe : scemmo, sceste, bbero 
11. sciiito 
Conquidere, to afflict, v. Assidere 
'Conscrivere, to register, v. Scrivere 
Conseguire, to obtain, v. Aborrlre 
Consentire, to consent, v. Dormire 
Consistere, to consist, v. Assistere 
'Construire; but better Costruiie 
Contendere, to quarrel, v. Prendere 
Contenere, to contain, v. Tcnere 
Cont6rcere, to contort, v. T6rcere 
Contradire, to contradict, v. Dire 
Contraff^re, to counterfeit, v. Fare 
'Contrapponere, (obsolete J now 
Contrapp6n-e, to oppose, v. Pon-e 
'Contraggere, ^ 

'Contraere, & > to C07ilract, v. Trarre 
Contrarre, ) 

'Contrascriverc, to ivrite quite the re- 
verse, V. Scrivere 
Convenire, to agree v. Venire 
'Convertire, to convert, v, Dormire 
Convincere, to convict, v. Vincere 
Convivere, to live together, v. Vivere 
Conv61gere, to ivallow, v. Volgere 
Coprire, to cover 
*1. copro, or cuopro ; copri, or ctiopri ; 
copre, or cuopre ; copridmo, coprite, 
cdprono, or cuuprono 
*3. co2>^rsi, or coprii; copristi, copr}, or 
copirse : coprimmo, copriste, copri- 
rono, or copersero 
*5. copri, or cuojn-i, ^c. f N. B. This 

^ E^ gita al Cielo, ed hammi a tal condutto. 

Clie gli ocelli miei non Idssan loco asciutto. (Petr.) 


tense, ajul .ill other inrici-tions of llii> 
verb, may be Ibuud eitlicr with the 
diphtliong tio, or witli o alone ; Init 
read Observation II. prefixed to this 
List of Irregular Verhs, p. 277, to 
know when tlie one or die other mode 
of ortJiography ought to be adopted. 
* II . cop^to. 
Corre, a contraction of C6gliere 
Correggere, to correct, v. Leggere 
Gi-rrere, to run 
3. rsi, rrtsti, rse ; rremino, rriste, rsCro, 
more usual than rsono 
1 1 . rso 
Corrisp6ndere, to agree with, v. Rispon- 
Corrodere, to fret, v. Rodere 
Corrompere, to deprave, v. R6mpcre 
Cosj)ergere, r. Aspcrgere 
Costrignere & Cobtrlngere, to constrain, 
V. .Stringere 
' Costruiro, to construct ; regular as Fi- 
lurc, but we may also say 
•11. Cotlrutto 
'Credere, to hcliae. ^ N. B. Tliis verb 
is generally regular ; but in tlie preterite 
tJie inflections witli ti ought to be adopt- 
ed as the best, and sanctioned by the 
best authors. The following inflections 
are irregular, but fourul in autliors, and 
in familiar use in Tuscany even at pre- 

I. tu crei, or crc^^ in poetry 

3. io ere si, egli crese : eglino crisero 

4. crederrb, ^'-c. 
7. crederrei, S^c. 

II. creso. 

Cre-scere, to grow, v. Con6sccre 
Crocifiggere, to crucify, v. Affiggerc 
Cu-cire, to sew 
1 . do, ci, cc : ciumo, cite, tiono 

5. ci, cia : ci^mo, cite, ciano 

6. cia, ^-c. 

Cuoccre, & Cocerc, to oook or bake 
1. cuocn, cuoci, cuoce ; cociimo, cocSic, 

.3. cotsi, cocesti, cosse : cocimmo, co- 

c^ste, cusscro 
4. focero, cj-c. 

7. cocerti, ijr. 

8. cocitri, S(C. 
10. cochido 

II. cotto. 1| N. B. I have altered tills 
conjugation in some influctioiis, al- 
though the autlior had puhlisiieil it ac- 
cording to tiiat of Vistolt-^i ,■ for to be 
accurate in tlie choice of the two ways 
of spelling several of its inflections, 
eitlier with O or UC), we must attend 
to Obsekvatiov II. prefixed to this 
List of Irregular Verbs, p. 277. 
Cuoprire, v. Coprire. f N. B. Not- 
witlistanding the second Obscrratwn just 
now quote'!, Cuoprire is much inferior 
to Coprire ; since, altiiough the Acade- 
micians liave registered it, tlicy liave not 
been able to produce a single aulliority 
to establish the use of this infinilive witli 
tlie diphdiong UO. 
Dare, to give 
I. do, dui, da : di^tino, date, dnnno 
3. diedi, or detli, and dic'^ in poetry; 
desti, dit^de, dette, or die : demmo, deste, 
diidero, deltero, diedono, diirono, and 
in poetry diir, diero,^ denno^* 
*4. daro, ^-c. 

5. da, dia, and formerly dea : di/imo, 

dale, dieno, diano, and dt'ano in poetry 

G. dia, dii, or diti, dia : di/imo, didte, 

dieno, or diano, and deano in poetry 
7. dart'i, S^c. 
8. dessi, dessi, desse : detsimo, deste, 
dessero, or dt^ssono 
Dccadere, to decay, e, Cadere 
Deciderc, to decide, r. Assidere 
'Decrescere, to decrease, v. Conoscere 
'Deducere, (obsolete J now 
IXdurrc, to deduce, t: Addurre 
Deli'ulere, to delude, v. Assidere 
'Demergere, to plunge, v. Aspergere 
'Dep6nere, (obsolete J now 
Di'porre, /() depose, v. Vorw 
'Depriniere, to depress, v. Ksprimere 
Dcridere, to deride, r. Assidere 
Descrlvere, to describe, v. Scrlvere 
Detergerc, to scour, v. Asiiergere 
Detraggere & Detrarre, to detract, r. 

Dcvere, to owe, v. Dovere 
Diacere, v. Giacerc 
•Dicadere, tnfa// short, v. Ca<lere 
'Dicere, (obsolete J v. Dire 
'Dicresccre, to diminish, v. Cri-sccre 
Difendere, to defend, v. Prc-ndere 

« Come ere', chc Fabrizio 

Si f/iccia lieto udendo la novella? (^I'elr.) — E. 
^ I die' in gu/irdia a .S;iii I'ictro, or non pit'i no. (/</.) 

K -^— Tal riposta diero. [Dante.) 

I' Ov" e il bcl r(glii>, e 1' luia e 1' Rltrn tiilJH, 

Ch" al corso del iiiiu »iver luiiie denno ? (7V/i .) 

X 2 


Diffoudere, to dlff'use, v. F6ndere 
Dimettere, to discontinue, v. Mettere 
'Dipartire, logo from, v. Dormlre 
Dipingere, to paint, v. Cingere 
'Diponere, (obsolete) now 
'Dip6rre, to depose, v. Porre 
Di-re, to say 

1. CO, ci, or Di, ce: ci&mo, te, cono 

2. ceva, <|-c. 

3. ssi, cisti, sse : cirrnno, teste, ssero 

5. Di, ca: ciimo, te, cuno 

6. ca, chi, or ca, ca : ciamo, ciufe, cano 
*8. cessi, L^-c. 

10. chido 

11. Dctto 

Dirigere, to direct, v. Erigere 
'Discegliere, to select, v. Scegliere 
Discendere, to come down, v. Scendere 
Discernere, to perceive, v. Scernere 
'Discerre, v. Discegliere 
Discliiudere, to open, v. Assidere 
'Disciogliere, to untie, v. Cogliere 
Disciorre, a contraction of Disci6gliere 
Disconvenire, to misbecome, v. Venire 
Discoprire, to discover, v. Coprire 
Disc6rrere, to discourse, v. C6rrere 
'Discrescerre, to diminish, v. Con6scere 
'Discuoprire, to discover, v. Coprire 
Disdire, to deny, v. Dire 
'Dissentire, to dissent, v. Dormire 
Disfare, to undo, v. Fare 
'Disgiugnere, & 

Dismettere, to dismiss, v. Mettere 
Disparire, to disappear, v. Apparire 
Disperdere, to disperse, v. Perdere 

11. disperso. 
Dispergere, to scatter, v. Aspergere 
Dispiacere, to displease, v. Piacere 
'Dispunere, (obsolete) now 
Disp6rre, to dispose, v. Porre 
Diss61vere, to dissolve, v. Rls61vere 
'Dlssuadcre, to dissuade, v. Persuadere 
Distendere, to stretch, v. Prendere 
Distin-guere, to distinguish 
3. si, guesti, se : guimino, guiste, sera 
11. to 
Dist6gliere, to divert from, v. C6gliere 
'Dist6rcere, to distort, v. Attorcere 
Distorre, a contraction of Dist6gliere 
'Distriigsere, ") 

DistrAere, & >to avert from, v. I rarre 
• Distrarre, 3 

> to disjoin, v. Giungere 

Distruggere, to destroy, v. Struggere 

'Disudire*, to forget to have heard, V. 

'Disvegliere, ^ 

Disvellere, & > to pluck, v. Sv^W^xq 

'Disverre, j 

'Disvolgere, to unreave, v. Volgere 

Ditenere, to detain, v. Tenere 

Divedere, to show, v. Vedere 

' Divegliere, ^ 

Divcllere, & Wo root up, v. Svellerc 

'Diverre, j 

'Divenire, to become, v. Venire ^ 

'Divertire, to amuse, v. Abborrire 

'Divestire, to strip, v. Dormire 

Dividere, to divide, v. Assidero 

Div61gere, to turn about, v. Volgere 

Dolere, an imper.,onal verb, which signi- 
fies to ache ; as Mi dvole la testa, ray 
head aches. It is impersonally conju- 
gated like the next verb. 

Do-lersi, a reflective verb, to complain 
1. Igo or glio, Dudli, Uuble: gliumo, 
Icte, Igono, or gliono 

3. Isi., lesti, Ise : lemmo, teste. Isero 

^ N. B. Boccace, in his Decameron, 
according to the excellent MS. Man- 
nelli has sanctioned, by his repeated 
use, these preterites, io Dolfi, egli 
Dolfe : eglino Dolfero ; but such in- 
flections are now out of date. 

4. rro, cj-c. 

5. Duoli, Iga, or glia : gli/imo, Ute, 
Igano, or gliano 

6. glia, or Iga, Ighi, Ip.a, or glia : gli&- 
mo, glic'tte, gliano, or Igano. 

7. rrei, ^c. The compound tenses of 
this verb arc formed with Essere. 

'Dorm-ire, to sleep 

*\. 0, i, e : iumo, ite, ono 

*5. I, a : ikmo, ite, ano 

*6. a, a, a : iumo, idle, /mo 
Dovere, or Devere, to oive 

1 . dcvo, debbo, or deggio, devi, debbi, or 
dei, deve, debbe, dee, or rfe' in poetry : 
dobhii'tmo, debbiamo, or dovemo, dovi'te, 
devono, debbono; deggiono, or diono, 
and denno^ in poetry. Of the three 
first inflections belonging to each of 
the persons in this tense, (the 1st and 
2d of the plural only excepted) the 
first is only for common conversation, 
or familiar writings ; the second is 

* The almost only use of this verb is in the proverb handed down to the present age 
from the times of Brunetli Latini, who died 1294 : Chi ode, noN diSude ; that is to 
say, People are apt to take advantage of what they hear, and never forget to have 
heard whatever concerns their interest. — E. 

i es5er sue parti denno 

DeliberAre, e commander altri'ii. (TVwio.) — E. 


the nioit correct ; and tlie third it 

3. dott'i, or dorStti, dot'hti, doi<c, or dc. 
f^ttf : dofcHinio, dov^stc, doverono, or 

4. dovrxu i^-c. 

•5. dfl>hi, or JtTj, deva, debha, or d<^;^- 
gin : dobbiAmo, dobbU'ite, dibbano, de ■ 
vano, or d^_^ano. 

•6. debba, dtia, and in poetry dMia, 
or de;^fiiti, dt-bbi, debba, or devu, in 
pootrj' ilrggiit, or d^bbia : dobbiamn, 
diibbinmo, or dovemo, dobbidtc, dtb- 
baiio, in poetry d^'ij^iano, devano, or 

^ N'. K. For the second singular of 
this tense, tlie only inflection sanction- 
ed by an ahnost iinaniuioiis use of the 
best classics, is dcbbi only ; hut for 
some of the other four immediately 
followinj; might p;iss in conversation, 
or in familiar writings ; altiiough tliey 
properly belong to the third person 

7. dovrei, ij-r. 

9. deverr, f)r dov^e 

^ N. B. It is astonishing to find the in- 
finitive J},rtre, which is synoiiimous 
•witli Ihn-ere, entirely omitted by the 
learned Jiitotnmattci and his F.dilors, 
as well as by tlie copious and accurate 
Ciiuniin. \Ve scarcely find a few hints 
of this infinitive, and of the inflections 
derived from it in I'ista/csi and C'ur- 
ticdli ; but neither of them have ex- 
hil)ited one half of the whole, although 
tlie greatest j)art are sanctioned by 
rerBARrii, as the nnles, wliich I s'lall 
annex underneath, to most of them, 

will amply bhcw. — Let tlie student 
however observe, that, except tlie lew 
inflections repeated in the conjugation 
alKive, their use is only I'octual, but 
by no means obsolete, as some would 
have them. 

*1. dero, d,ti, deteK- dei'Sino'", di- 
v^te«, d^fono 

*'2. dereva, or devia°, Sfc, 

•.S. de>-^i, or dcvilti\',S^c. 

•4. rfc/Tuq, ijc. 

*5. devi, deva : d^rano eglino 

*0". io-iiera, esH deva : enliito devano 
7. devrtV, or devria', devristi, de- 
vrMe : or devrio^ : ij-c. 

*8. </t■l•^■.^i^l, ijc. 

•9. dcvtWe.Ti 

*I0. den'ndo 

f OiisEKVE, the Vocabolario inserts 
Drii're tntirely as synoiiimous of /)(>- 
vtre, and it ought to have even other 
inflections not marked aliove : but of 
tliese not one could be looked upon as 
iihsolfte or vulvar. 
Ducere, iv ") , , , , , 1 
Di'irrc 1 '" ''""' ''"''' obsolete ; m- 

steai! of them we make use of Condiirrc 
'Etfinulere, to e^/'uxr, v. Fondere 
El^ggcre, to elect, v. Leggere 
Eliccre, /() drate. A defective and po- 
etical verb, of which Petrarch and 'J asso 
liave adopted on!y the following inflec- 
tion : 

1 . f.i'/i I'lirey 

1 do not recollect of any other in our 
Eh'idere, to eUidr, v. Assidere 
'Emcrgere, to emerge, v. Aspi'rgere 
'Einpiere, tit Jill, v. Compiere 

p. 7G. 

*■■ Mentrc son qu<5sti alio bell' opre intent! 

Perche debhiano tosto in uso porse. (TV/.mo.) 
' Si ricca donna dcve esser contenta. (I'ctra) — E. 
"I Devemo iicro intendere. (I'drrlii.) — E. 
" Devote dir pict/)sa, e sanra sdeimo. [Petr.)—F.. 
° Anzi del mio ; che dcvca torcer gli occhi. ( fd.) — E. 
Che spender si deveano in miglior uso. (Id.) 
the judicious obiervalion on this, by Pistolcsi, note 21, niul (drtirclli, 

<J Che dcvro far di te rosa grnllle. (Petr.) — E. 

' .Se non fiissc inia stella, i' purdovri-i. {Id.) — E. 

• Pur lei cerc.'tndo, che fuggir flevria. (Td.) — V.. 

' Che piacer ti devria, se tu m' amristi. (Id.) — E. 

" Devfcsne a1 pr<>prio onAr alzar inai gli occhi. [Id.) — E 

« Gran cagif'in hni di dcv6r pi.'iiigor moco. (W )— E. 

> V, par<')lf" <• «<>*pfri anron' elire. ( f'rir.) 

Qui-slo finio doli'ir da roolti rlice 

E.i2rin>« *er« ( T<mm.) 


'Empire, to Jill, v. Compire 
\ N. B. Eoccace, and the best authors, 
have never made use of tliis verb, nor 
of its compounds, Adempire, Compire, 
Riempire; they have constantly termi- 
nated them in IE' RE, and conjugated 
them as belonging to the second con- 
jugation, except the tenses 1, 5, 8c 6, 
which are found inflected as at Com- 
piere. Yet poets, and familiar writers 
in prose, may conjugate them in IRE, 
as Compire, and in common conversa- 
tion they are more frequently used 
than those in lERE. 

Equivalere, to be equivalent, v. Valere 
Er-igere, to erect, or raise 

3. essi, igesli, esse : igemmo, igeste, 

11. i^tto 
Escire, v. Uscire 

Escludere, to exclude, v. Assidere 
<Eseguire, to execute, v. Abborire 
Eslgere, to require 

II. esdtto 
Eslstere, to exist, v. Asslstere 
Esp-eHere, to expel 

3. ulsi, ellesti, ulse : elleino, ellesie, 

11. idso 
*Esp6nere (obsolete) now 
Esp6rre, to expose, v. Porre 
Espr-imere, to express 

3. essi, imesti, esse : imemmo, iineste, 

11. esso 
Estendere, to extend, v. Spendere 
Estinguere, to extinguish, v. Distinguere 
'Estraggere, "j 

'EstrAere, & >to extract, v. Trarre 
Estrarre, J 

Fdcere, (olsolete) now 
Fare, to do 

1. fo, or f&ccio, fai, fa, and/accfiz in 
poetry : faccikmo, fate, fanno 

2. Facho, faceva, or facia, fachi, 
fac&va, facea, and fea^ in poetry; 
facev&mo, Sfc. 

3. feci, fe' or fei in poetry, facesti, 
fece, fe, orfeoh in poetry : /acimmo, 
facSste, ficero, and poetically /(^rono<^, 
fero^, and/(?nrzoe 

4. faro, ^c. 

5. fa, or fai, fdccia : facci&mo, fate, 

6. fascia, fdcci, orf(iccia,faccia : fac- 
cidmo, faccidte, facciano 

8. facessi, fachsi, facesse, and poeti- 
caWyf esseh facessimo, faces t e,fach- 

9. farei, faresti, farebhe, and poeti- 
cally /(/«« : faremmo, fariHe,fareh- 
bero,farehlono, or fariano in poetry 

10. facendo 

11. fat to 

'F^ggere (obsolete) now Fiedere 
f N. B. The only inflections of this 
verb, to be found in the ancient au- 
thors, are the following : 
*1. io fSggio : Sglino feggiono 
*6. egli figgia 
*9. figgere 
Ferire, to strike, regular like Finire 

I . fero, feri, fere^ -. are poetical ex- 

II. fericto for ferito: we read it in 
Dante, and in some other ancient 
poets, but ferito (regular) is the only 
inflection used by any modern writer 
of note. 

Fiedere, to strike 

^ N. B. A poetical and defective verb, 
but regular. We only find in authors 

z Che pro ? se con quegli occhi ella ne face 

Di state un ghiAccio, un foco quando verna ? (Pclr.) 
a Audace, e baldo 

II fea degli anni, e dell' amore il caldo. ( Tasso. ) 
b Italia, Itiilia, o tu cui feo la sorte 

Dono infelic'i di bellezze, &c. (Filicaia.) 
c Certi si feron sempre con riguArdo. (Dante.) — E. 
d iVIolti cadendo compagnia gli fero. (Tasso.) 
^ Ove son le bellezze acc61te in ella, 

Che gran tempo di me lor voglia fenno ? (Petr.) 
t II magr;i6r don, che Dio per sua larghezza 

Fesse crtamdo, &c. (Dante.) 
I Chi sa com difende, e come fere, 

Socc6rso a' su6i perigli altro non chcre. 


tliesc inflictions, and even poets ought 
not to adopt others. 

*\.iofiedo, luJ\M,Y\ cgUJiMc 

'*9.Jieili-re. — See besides Ft'ggcrr, above 
Figgere, /i>yiV. c. Attiiggere 

1 1 . jL'to and Jisso 
Fingere, toftign, v. Cingere 
Fondere, to melt 

'i.fusi, fondesti, fuse ■ fondhnmo, fon- 
1 1 . /uso 
Franunettere, to put among, v. Mettere 
•Fnignere,& ) 
FrAn-gere, J 

3. si, gCiJi, sc : g^rnmo, ghtc, sero 

\\. to 
'Frapponere, (obsolete) now 
Frapporrc, to intcr])osf, v. Porre 
Friggere, to/rt/, v. Affliggere 
'Fuggire, /o^ff, V. Dormirc 
F'ulgerc, to be bright 

•3. io falsi, eglifulse : cglino fulsero 
Gia-cere, to lie dou-n 

1 . ccio, ci, ce : cci/tmo, cele, cciono 

3. C(/ui, chli, cqiw : chnmo, chtc, cqucro 

5. CI, ccia: cciamo, c^te, cciano 

6. ccia, ccia, ccia : cciumo, ccii'itc, cciano 
\\. ciutn. ^ N.B. PisTOLEsi contends 

that many of the inflections of this vcrli, 
and all others conjugated like this, 
should be written with a single C : b>it 
the constant practice of our classics and 
Academicians enables us to establish 
as an invariable rule; that the double 
CC should lie constantly written in all 
those inflections havingeithcr the dipli- 
tJiong I A or I O after it. 
Girc, to go, a defective verb, and used 

only in poetry 
•1 nuigiumo (obsolete), voi gite 

2. givo, giva, or gia, givi, giva, or gia : 
giv/imo, gii/ite, giv6nu, or gtano 

3. tu gisti, egli gi, or gio : gimmo, gislc, 

*5, gite voi 


"10. gendo (obsolete) 


Giucnere & > 

y.. /" > to arrtve, or win 

Gaui-gere, ) '' 

3. *i, getti, sr : gemma, giite, sero 

\\. t; 
llludere, to drludr, v. Eludere 
Iiiibere, A: f to imbdif, v. liere, and the 
Imb6vere, J .V./y. toil. 

Imnicrgere, to immtri:c, v. Aspergcrc 

'Inipellere, to im/f/, v. Espellcre 

•Impendere, to hniigup, v. Prcndere 

Inipi'mcre, fobsolctej now 

Iniporrc, to order, v. Porre 

Imi)rcndere, to undertake, v. Prendere 

Imprimcro, to print, r. Esprltnere 

Inchiudere, to inclose, v. AssSdere 

IiK'idere, to ettgravc,v. Assidere 

Inch'ulere, /.) (/(c/n(/c, i'. Assidere 

Incorrcre, to incur, r. Correre 

Increseere, to be sorri/ (impersonal verb) 

c. Conoscere 

'Indvicere, {obsolete J now 

Indurre, to induce, v. Addurre 

Infignere, 8c ? , /. ■ r^, 

n li \ to fctgn,v. C\x\"cr<i 

'^liihn-gere, ^ ^ c' ' o 

Infondere, to infuse, r F'ondcrc 

'Intrdgiiere, r. Infrangere 

Tnfi-uneltere, to intermeilille, r. Mettere 

Infiangere, to break; v FVangerc 

'Inghiottire, to swallow, v. Abborrirc 

'Ingiugncre, & } , , r-- > 

, ^. , *^ ' Wo c/tar^f, f. Oiungcrc 
Inguingerc, \ ° ° 

Inscrivere, to inscribe, v. Scrlvcre 

'Inscguire, to pursue, v. Dormlre 

Insistcre, to insist, r. Assistere 

lns6rgere, to riseagainst, r. Acc6rgcre 

Instruire, better, Istruire 

Intendere, to understand, j . Prendere 

Intercedere, to intercede, v. Concedere 

Interdirc, to prohibit, v. Dire 

InteniK'ttcre, to interrupt, v. I\I<jttcre 

'Inteqx'inere, (obsolete) now 

Interporre, to intci-pose, v. Porre 

I ntcrnmipere, /o i;i/('m/;)f, v. U6mperc 

Interteni-re, to detain, v. Tencre 

Intcrvenire, to happoi, v. Venire 

Intignere, & ) . , r^- 

Intingere, ) ' "^ 

'Intraihii'idcre, to shut round, v- ("liiudcre 

Intraniittere, to intermeddle, v. Mettere 

'Intraixmere, & } , , , , \ 

,, ' , } (obsolete) now 

'lntra])]i()ncre, \ ^ ' 

. , ' . ' [to interpcse, r. Porre 

'Iiitrai)porre, } ' 

liitrapr(;ndere, /o l/»</<•r^;^(•, ;•. Prer.derc 

•lulraronipere, /o interrupt, »•. Uomjiere 

'Intratteiiere, /o f/Wai«, c. Tenere 

'Intravenire, & ) ^ , i- .,/,„ 

., . ; >tohni>i)fn, i: \*iime 

'Intravvennire, J 11 ' 

Iiilrldtri', to dilute, or mir, r. Assidere 

' Inlrixliicere, (obsol-tr) now 

liittodi'irre, to inJroiluee, r. Alldure 

■Intromcltere, /oi/i/tryxwr-, r Metlere 

'• Kcco 10 fhinij Ic br/ircia, e (' apprcM-iito 

Sfliza dif^-sa il petto ; or clip nol fiedi ? ( Tusso.) 

N 1 


Intrudere, to intrude, v. Assider* 
InvAdere, to ijivade, v. Persuadere 

'Investire, to vest, r. Dormire 

Inv6!gere, to cover, v. V61gere 
lnv6Ivere, to wrap up, a poetical verb', 
See Vtilvere 
11. hivolulok 

Ire, to go. This is a defective verb, and 
seldom used but by poets. The inflec- 
tions in use are the following : 
*1. voiite 

*2, 10, or egli iva . egUno ivano 
*4. nol irSmo, voi treble 
*5. ite voi^ 
6. egli ea (obsolete) 
11. ito. This paiticiple is more used 
than anduto, the regular participle of 
the verb .'Endure. 

Istruire, to instruct, v. Costruire 

'Languire, to languish, v. Abborrire 

Le-dere, to off'fnd 
S, si, dcsti, se ■■ dentmo destc, sero 
11. so 

Lecere, a poetical verb, v. Ijilcere 

Leggere, to read 
3. ssi, ggdsti, sse : ggcmino, ggeste, 
*6. tu-gghi, better than tu-gga 
11. tto 

Licere, or Lecere, to he lawful, permit- 
ted, ^T. A defective and impersonal 
verb, which is seldom used but in poe- 
try. The only inflections of this verb ars 
*1. egli lece'", and 
*1 1. licito, and Iccito 

Liquefare, to melt, v. Fare 

Lu-cere, to shin:'. This verb is widiout 
a participle. 
3. ssi, cesti, sse : cemmo, cistr, ssero 

'Maledicere, {obsolete) now 

Maledire, to curse, v. Dire 

Malftire, to do wrong, v. Fare 

'Manere, {obsolete) r. Rimancre 

•Manoraettere, to make the Jirst cut, v. 

Mantenere, to muinta'n, v. Tenure 

egli Uce'^ 

'Mentire, to lie, v. Dormire 
Mergere, to plunge, v. Aspergere 
Mescere or Mesciere, to tni.v, to pour out, 

Mescio, Mesci, Mesce, &c. 
Mettere, to put 

3. misi, met!hti,mise: meti!:mriio,met- 
teste, misero 

11. messo, and misoo in poetry 
Misfire, to perpetrate, r. Fare 
M6r-dere, to bite 

.'5. si, desti, se : dimmo, destr, sero 

II. so 
Morire, to die 

I. muoio, and poetically, moroP, muSri, 
niuore, or poetically mure: niuoiduo, 
or moridmo, morite, tnuoiono, or 

3. morii, moristi, mori, and morio'^ in 
poetry : &c. 

4. morro, better tlian moriro, St. 

5. miiurt, or poetically mori, muoiu, or 
poetically mora : muoi/tmo, or morid- 
mo, mori'e, muoiano, or morano 

6. muoia, mudi, muoia : muoiumo, mu- 
oidle, muoiano 

7. morrii, better than morirSi, i^v. 

I I. miirtn, which is sometimes used tdr 
luciso, killed. ^ N. B. See Observa- 
tion II. p. 277. prefixed to this List 
of the Irregular Verbs, concerning the 
inflections having the diphthong UO, 
or alune, — As to muoidmo, it ought 
to be admitted, and looked upon as an 
exception, where the UO is retained, 
on account that nothing but vowels 
separate it from tlie accent, so that 
they form all together a quadriph- 
thong. See what was observed above, 
at p. 254 and 255, n. 54 and 56.— See 
also Observation II. above quoted. 

Movere, to move, v. Muovere 
']\Iuggire, to bfllow ,- a regular verb, but 

poets say 

*!. rgli mugge'' 
Mugnere, & 

to milk 

Kcco il nemico c qui ; mira la polve, 
Che Kott' orride nubeil cielo involve. (Tasso.) 
Cir e di t6rbidi nuvoli involiito. [Dante.) — VJ. 
Ite rime dolenti al duro sasso. (Petr.) — E. 

Omai ti lece 

Per te stesso parlar con chi ti piAce. (Id.) 

Se dir lice, e conviensi ; 

Vergine d' .ilti sensi. (Id.) 

Ov' Ete6cle col fratel fu miso. {Dante.) 

Mille volte il di moro, e mille nasco. (Prtr.) 

E tal morio qiial visse. {Dante.) 

Mugge in niai'dra Tarmenlo. {Guarini.)—V.. 


3. ti, gt'sli, se : gimmo gitte, tero 
11. to 
Muovere, or MiSverc, to mwr 

I. muovo, muovi, muove : movidmo, 
movett, muovano 

3. tnoeti, movcsle, moste: in vt^mmo, 
movt\ste, mossero 

II. mos'o. ^ N. B. The piLM'iit and 
pieierite of tliis veib ()ui;lit to be ron- 
jugaiedas above; but as to ilii'otbir 
ti'iises, see tlie saiil Observation 11. 
pietixed to this LIST ot iirfi-ulai- 
vtibs, to know when to adopt t/''>, or 
\\lieii ii iiiu^t be cliaiigcd into ihe 
^ilnple O 

NA-scire, to ie horn 

li. cqui, scesti, cque: scemrro, sci'ste, 

•11. to 
>.'.i!-c6iidcre, r. A^condere 

•11. nascoso, beiier tiian nascusto 
•Nfg.iie, to deny, a iei! verb like 

J'aTlt'ue ; but it may bf conju;.'itte>i as 

follows, ill these tenses and persons. 

tiee the same OZien,a//on II. piiti.Ne.l 

to this List. 
1. 10 nif'i'O, tu nicghi, fgli uiiga : 
/glino migano 
•5. nidga tu, nitglii igli: n'igldno 


•6. in, tu, and eglino iiu-ghi : eglino 

Neg inere, to neglect 

:\. hsi, i%isti, isic: i;^mmo, i^isie, 

1 1. cUo 
•Nudiirc, V. .N'uliiie 
Nu6ceie, In hurt 

1. nuoco,nuuci,nu6ce : nociamo,n6cett, 
nuocuno, or nocciono 

3. nocqui, noct'sii, nocque: noc^mino, 
rvjchle, nocq.ero 

5. nuuft, nuoca, or noccia : fwci/imo, 
nocite, nuocano 

•6. nw'ica, riu'jca, nuoca and poets say 
to all the three pirvins sini;nlar, nuc- 
lia: and plural, nociiimo, noMte, 
fiiuicarui ; . nd inpoeiiy, nucriano 

• 11. nociiUo. ^ N.U. Tokno«rwlien 
lo adopt, or when I" reject iIk- diph- 
IhoiiR I'O ill this verb, nad Oust k- 
\ATlos II. prefixtd lo this M> T of 
lrrci;utar Verbs, p. 277. liiii its pre- 
terite must becoiijUL-attd ai alovi. 

•Nuiilre, rj nouf«*'i, V. .\hhoriiie 

•Oi{<dere,» V. I'rc-idere. 1 N. H. We 
must at prisiiit consid/r ibis veib as 
only poelica', ^illce « illier use, uor 

the best MS. of Boreace, rnnfiini Ihe 
quotations given in the fucaLotaiio. 
Kven the best MSS of Pelr(irt:a have 
iliis verb only once, as quoted in the 
Jiote. See the celebmled edition by 
Bandini, Librarian to the Mediceo- 
Lauke.sziana. Florence, 17ii4, Bvo. 
Occurrere, lo happen, v. Correre 
'Odiare, to hriCc 

The oidy irregulariiy of tlrs verb coti- 
sists in the ntcessity of wiitint; ilie 
folhiwing second persons plural with 
an ; lun'^o, to distiiicuish them from 
tlie very same persons of the verb 
Udire, w!.ieh see. 
1 . tu odj. 

(i. Ill odj. ^ N. IJ. The same ortlio- 
uiapliy in the same persons ought to 
be observed in some other veibs ; as, 
F(iri/ire, to vary ; ^lleriure, to relieve ; 
Spazuire, to expatiate, &c. in oriier 
that tluy miplit not he conroiinded 
with others ending in --JRE in the in- 
finitive, riid very different in their 
sicnilicaiiiin, as farare, to tow a ship ; 
/lUfVihe, to train nj) a child ; Spaz- 
zare, to sweep, &c. 
Odire, {obsolete) v. Udire 
Offeihlerc, to nffmd, v. Picndere 
'OlTerere (oisolele} now 
♦Offiiire, & \, a- 

Off-lire, C/a»n7zar) / '" "i'^'' 
*1. ero, crhco, awdro; eri, erisci, and 
ri ; erixce, and re : eriamo, and riiimu ; 
erile, and rile ; eriscono, and rono 
*2. erlva, and r'tvii, S^c. 
*3. erii, 6rfi, and in ; eristi, TiuArlsti, 
eri, crse, ;ind ri .■ irimmo, and rimmo ; 
eriste, and ris'e ; eriroiio, crsero, and 
*4. eriro, erro, and riro, <^-c. 
*b. erisci, eri, and ri ; erisca, era, and 
ra ;' cri/imo, and ri/imn ; erit», and 
rile ; erisciinn, and rann 
•(). erisca, eri, cm, and ra ; eiischi, eri, 
and ri ; erisca, era, and ra: eriamo, 
and rit'into ; eri/ite, and ritile ; eriscano 
and rano 
*7. erissi, and rissi, <J-f. 
*8. eriit'd,errh, and ri/rt, .J-r. 
•10. rrvndo, ',\\\A rendu 
1 1. crto, and erilo. \ N. R. Not to 
cause any confiiiion, let the student 
observe, that the first inHertion to 
each person and ten<ie is the rla''sicH| 
and elc^'ant o!',e, and the la-'t is in use 
in f.iniiliar stsle ami com er>alioii. 
Oiire, lu smell, a defective verb 

• rouiini ore "1 ^ol occidt i ft6ii, e I'trlia. {I'elr.) — K. 


*1. tti oil 

*2. va, vi, va : eglino-vano 
Ometteie, to omit, v. Mettere 
'Op()6iieie, {obsolete) now 
Opp6rrc', to oppose, v. Porre 
Opptimere, to oppress, v. Esprimere 
Otteiiere, to obtairt, v .Teuere 
Pa-i ere, to appear 

I. zo, ri, re: idmo, rete, iono 

3. rvi,r6sti,rvo: rSmnw,rhte, 7'veio 

f N. B. We find sometimes in poetry, 
io Parsi, egli Parse: eglino PArsero 

4. rro, Sfc. 

5. ri, ia : idmo, rete, iano 

6. ia, ia, ia : iitmo, riAte, iano 

7. rrci, S^-c. 

II. ?-H^o, better tlian ?'5o 

The com[)oiiii<l tenses are formed with 
the auxiliary verb ^ssere 
'Pariire, to divide, or to set out, conju- 
gated like Abborrire, in tiie first signifi- 
cation ; and lilvc Dormire in llie second. 
Pascere, to feed; regular, except 
*11. pasciuio 

Wlierc an I is only added to preserve 
the sonwdoi SC. 
♦Pat ire, to suffer, v. Abborrire 
Favef, he fears, tile only poetical inflec- 
tion of a defective verb, from the Latin 

Pentere, (obsolete) now 
Pentire, to repent, v. Dormire 
Perc-notere, to strike 
3. ossi, ote'sti, usse : olemmo oteste, 

11. osso. f N. B. The above tenses 
are to be written as here shewn ; but 
to know when the diphthong UO is 
to be retained or rejected in other 
tenses, see Observation II. prefixed 
to this List, at p. 277. 
Per-dere, to lose 

*3. dei, fJesti, de : demmo, deste, derono 
*11. diilo. ^ N. B. The above are the 
only correct inflections to be used in 
writing, or in familiar style. 
The following are heard in Tuscany; 
but ought to be allowed only to very 
eminent poets : 
3. io-de/ti, or si; cgli-dette, or se; 
dglino-deiitro, or sero 

♦11. so 
As to the inflections of the preterite io 
Perdio, or Perdio, egli Perd^o, the 
rhyme alone can excuse them ; and 
rioi Persemo, or Pirsamo, is a shame- 
ful error of the Tuscans. 
'Perire, to perish, v. Abborrire 
Perman^re, to continue, v. lUman^re 
Perm^ttere, to permit, v. M^tlere 
'Perseguire, to pursue, v. Dormire 
Per&istere, to persevere, v. Astistere 
'Persua-d(;rc, to persuade 
*3. io-dei, or dhti, egli-de, or ditte ; 
egUno-dh'ono, or dettero 
*11. so 
At present we hear in conversation, 
3. io-si, egli-se i egiino-sero 
Prevenire, to reach, v. Venire 
'Pervertire, to pervert, v. Dormire 
Piacere, to please, v. Giac6re 
Piagnere, & 1 . r^ , 

Picingere, J •' ' ° 

Pignere, & 1 . • , m 

T3/° ' > to paint, vAAagnrc 

Pingere, J 

Pi6-vere, to rain, an impersonal verb 

3. we; vvero ; and sometimes bhe; and 


Ponere, (obsolete) v. Porre 

Porgere, to present, v. Acc6rgere 

Po-rre, anciently P6nere, to put 

1. ngo, ni, ne : ni/tmo, or g7iamo, better 
than nghidmo, nete, ngono 

2. neva, &^'c. 

3. si, ne'sti, se : nSmmo, nhte, sera 

4. rrb, i^'c. ^ 

5. ni, nga: niumo, or gndmo, better 
than nghiamo, nilc, ngano 

*6. nga, nghi, better than nga, nsa: 
niAmo, or gn/t mo, better than nghid- 
mo, niAle, or gndle, better than 
nghi&te, ngano, better than nghino 

7. rrH, ^-c. 

8. ncssi,SyC. 

9. nere, (obsolete) 

10. ncndo 

11. sto 

'Poslp6iiere, (obsolete) now 
Posp6rre, to postpone, v. Porre 
Possedere, to possess, v. Sedere 
Po-tere, to be able 
1 . sso, Puui, Pud, and Puole^^ in poetry ; 

t E quclla, in cui I'elAde 

Nostra si mira, la qual pi^niho, o legno 

Vedeudo e, chi non pave. (Petr.) 

Ne cosi di leggier si turba, o |)ave. (Tasso.) 
" Qn^sti, or Mac6ne adoia, e su Chri~ti;iiio 

Ma i primi riti anc6r lafciAr non pu6te. (Tasso.) 


stiamo, aud in poetry temo', tile, 
sono, and H!ioi' in poetry 

3. lei, leste, li, and i" (Kietry leoz; lim- 
mo, teste, tcrono. *, N. B. 1 lie iii- 
Ilectioiis io-tetli, egli-telte : egliiio- 
titleru, are of a t'ainiliar use. 

4. tro, cj-f. 

5. wanted. 

6. isa, ssi, or ssa, ssa: siiamo, ssu'ite, 

7. trci, triiti, treble, tria, or ria^ in 
))oelry : trihnmo, triste, tr^bhero, and 
Hiano, in poetry. 

'Pr.ciilere, to cut off, v. Assidere 
Precorrere, to forerun, v. Corrcre 
Pieilire, to predict, v. Dire 
Prcfiirgire, to prefix, v. .Mliugere 
•PregAre, /o /)ray. ^ N. IJ. This lerb 
is regular, but, from its obsolete iuti- 
nitive Prirg/ire, it may be C()MJui;ated 
thus in the following tenses and per- 
sons : 

I. lo prit'go, lu pritghi, e^li priega : 
t'tiHno, piic^ano 

5. prii'ga lu, prtejhi egli : prii'ghino 

♦>. lo prieghi, lu pritghi, egli piieghiiw 

eglino prieghino 
See Obseuvation II. p. '277. 
Prenieiiere, lo premise, v. .Meticre 
Pr^-ndere, lo take 
3. si, belter tlian n/iH, ndi^sti, se; better 

than nd^ : ndemmo, ndeslc,sero, belter 

tiian nd^rono 

II. so 

'Prop<5ncre (obsolete) now 
Prep(')rrc, to prefer, v. Porre 
Prescrivere, lo prescribe, v. Scriverc 
Prcsedere, to preside, v. Sedere 
Presumere, to presume, v. .Assiimere 
*Presu;pp6nere, (obsolete) now 
Prcsupp6rre, to presuppose, v. P(<rrc 
Pretetnlerf, lo pretend, v. Preudere 
Prevalere, to privail, v. Val^re 
Prevedere, tofiresec, u. Veiiere 
I'revenire, lo prevent, v. \'enire 
' Pi ic^'-'ire, (obsolete) v. Prepare 
'Pi ierncre, lo s<juefze. ^ N. U. 'I'iiis verb 
of classical autbnrity is now oulof uxc; 
and never exi.'ted but in those inflec- 
tions in whicli tlie accent is laid upon 
the diphthonc IK; accordiu;; to the 
principle established i:i Observation 

II. p. 277. We now say Pn'mere, which 
is regular. 
'Producero, (obsolete) now 
Produrre. to produce, v. Addurre 
'Pioferire, v. Prollerire 
'Pniffereic, (obsolete) now 
'ProfTerire, to offer, v. Offerirc 
^ N. H. But take care, wherere;- three 
indi'ctions are toiuid in Off'crire, the 
til St is the classical one for Piofferirr, 
and the secoml the familiar one ; l''ii 
the third cannot be a|iplicd to ihis 
verbal all: and wherever the inflec- 
tions are only two, the second of them 
cannot be adapted to this ver'-. 
Piof^ndere, to di.ifipate, v. Fondere 
PromcUere, 'o promise, v. i\l(jttere 

'Promoveie.ii 1 , , «, , 

■n , > to promote, v. Muovere 

Promnovere, J '^ 

'Proptlncrt', (obsolete) now 

Proporrc, to propose, v. Porrc 

Pror6mpeie, tobreak forth, v. Rompere 

Proscii)!?liere, & \<o absolve, v. tog- 

Prosriorre, J lierc 

Proscrivcre, to pro<cribc, v. Sciivcrc 

Prosoc;nire, to prosecute, v. Setniri' 

'ProM'imerc, to presume, v. Assumere 

Protuggcrc, to protect, v. Leagere 

Prot(jiidcre, lo stretch, v. Teudire 

'Prou'ierr, 'i 

•ProtrAggero, & Wo protract, v. 'I'rarrc 

ProtrArrc, } 

Provcdcrc, to provide, v. \'cdi;ic 

Pi ovenire, to proceed, v. Venire 

'Provvedere, I o provide 

Puguere,&I,^ .^^ U 

Pungere, J 

Putrefai e, lo putrifi/, v. Faro 

Uacteiidere, lo kindle, v. Acc6nderc 

Kaechiudere, to enclose, v. Assidcre 

Uaccogliere, & ) , ,. r" r 

„ /* ' > to L'ather, v. Cogliere 
Raccorrc, 3 

Itadere, to shave, v. Persuadere 

Kaggii'ignere, & ? ,„ /->•' 

<!> ■' > to rejoin, V. Gnignevc 

'Kaj,'giiiiigere, ) 

Uatteiierc, lo detain, v. Tenere 

Ravvolnerc, to weep, v. X'ok'crc 

'Kecederc, to recede, v. Contedere 

Rcc-ere, to vomit 

I. to, i, e: ii'tmo, lUe, iono 
.'). i, ia : ii'imo, etc, ttino 

f). ia, i, or t:;, ia : iitmo, i&te, iihto 

II. iiilo 

* '■' non pot<^Mijo entrAre nmfii sen?,' ira. (Dant:) — K 
y i ■ — alle iiiL- brArcia 

Che seuoler forte, e sollev.''iila poiino. (I'ttr.) 
'■ fjuefte fur I'arti, onde iiiill' alme e inille 
I'li'iiiler furlivanieiite elia |)/il('i). [Tassn.) 

* .Ma qua! suon poria niai SHlir tarit alto? (Prir.) 


Kecideie, lo cut, v. Ashidere 
Ked-imere, to redeem 

3. ensi, imesti, inse : imeinmo, imiste, 

11. into 

'Ke.iiip, &■) 

Tfltirn, both olsolete 

N. B. Tlicii- conjugation was like that 

of Dormire, except that tlie first of 

them sometimes terminated in some 

persons of the present tense indiciitive 

mood, as the verb VeiUre, viz. io reg- 

go, noi reggi/imo, esilino rei^'goiio, 

which iiitiections at present belong 

only to tlie veib Rc^gge^-e. — The poets 

now use the regular verb Ri^dere, of 

which however no inflection should 

be adopted, vvithout being instanced 

in good authors. 

Re.'gere, togoverii, v. Leggere 

*Reiid-ere, to tender 

*.'^. ei, better than i-tli, hli; e, better 

tlian eite: I'mrro, estc, ^rono, better 

than (ttiro. — To write io resi, rgli, 

rese : Sylino rhero, will always be a 

fault, except for |)oets. They may 

|)ass in conversation too. 

*I1. uto, never write Reso, except in 

poetry in the familiar style. 

'llep^llere, to repulse, v. IC-pcllere 

Repiinrere, to repress, v. lispiimere 

Resciivere, to transcrile, v. Scrivere 

llesi-itcre, toreust,v. Assis,ere 

*Respia;nere, &1 , , n' 

,,, / > to repulse, v. Ciiieere 

'llespinptere, J 

Retrocedere, to recede, v. Concedere 
Riaccendere, to rekindle, v. Acceiidere 
'Jlianth'ire, to reiolne, v. AiidAre 
f N. B. Salviati has used in the impe- 
rative the infiectioti ru'iiida, which 
would prove this verb regular; but 
other qnntation.s by Pistolesi, and in 
the F'lcdlolario D.lla Crusca, both at 
AndAre TiwA Riaiidare, prove the above 
inflection as obsolete as anda is, in- 
stead of va\n Auddre ; and that the 
best method is to conjugate this verb 
irregular, and to look ujiou it as de- 
fective in all those inflections, which 
should he formed from the short ones 
of AndArf, such as ?'o, vai, va ; in- 
stead of which we may have recourse 
to the veib F,snmiii/<re, or otlier cx- 
1 ressions sul!^^'sled !)» the Academi- 
cians, at ill'' § of this verb. 
Riapiiie, to re-ope?:, v. Apiire 
•Ridrdere, tn lurnugain, v. Ardere 
Riavere, to hare /j gain, v. Avere 
'Ribenedire, to t-lrss (/gain, v. Here 
Rica(l<;rc. to relapse, v. Caderc 

\ N. B. Although we could not say 
Ricaggere, yet this verb, iti the higb 
style, may hiive all the inflections of 
the vcrl) C6ggerc, which see. 

'Ric^vere, to receive, regular, but 
3. in ricevitti, better than ricevii, ^c. 

Richiedere, toreqttest, v. Ciiiedere 

'Ricbiudere, to slnit agii/t, v. Assideie 

'Ricidere, m cut. f. Assldere 

Ricisjuere, to gird, v. Cingere 

'Ricotjliere, & '( , ,, ^, ,. 

'Ric6rre, '^ 'o gather, v. C^gUvre 

'Ricomp6nere, [^ul-solete) now 
Ricou!p6rre, to compose again, v. Poire 
'Riconduccre, [obsolete) now 
Ricondiii re, to re-conduct, r. Addurre 
'KicotigiiiL'uere, Sc\to re-i/nite, v. 
'Riconuiungere, J Giungere 
Riconoscere, to know agiiin, v, Con6»- 

'Riconvenire, to summon ag in, v. Ven- 
'Riconveriire, to convert again, v. Dor- 

m i re 
Ricopiiie, to cover again, v. Coprire 
Rii'6rrere, to liavf recourse, v. C^rreie 
Ricr^dere, to disabuse, v. Credere 
'Rici <;scere, to augment, v. Coii6scere 
'Ricu6cere, to stew again, v. Ciidce'e 
'Ricuopiire, to cover again, v. Coprire 
'Riciiciie, to sew up again, v. Cucirc 
'Rid.ire, to give again, v. Daie 
Ridere, lo laugh, r. Assidcre 
Ridire, to repeat, v. Dire 
'Riducere, (obsolete) now 
Ridurrc, to reduce, v. Addurre 
'Redere, io return, v. Redire 
'Riempiere, to fill, again, v. Compierc 
'Riempire, to Jill again, v. Compire, & 

I^ifare, tn do again, v. Fare 
Rif^nflere, to new cast, v. Fiitideie 
'Rifr<ii!;nere, Scl , „ ^ ^ , 
RifrAngere, \ to reflect, v. Yikn^.xt 

but sav 

*11. rifrlttio 
RilViggere, to fry again, v. Affliggere 
'Rilimgire, /o ruirc, v. Dormire 
'IJifulgere, to shine, v. Fulgere 
Rii^ggeie, to read again, v. Leggere 
Rducere, to ."thine, v. Lucere 
Rima-nere, to divell 

1. ngo, ni, ne: nidmo, n^le, ngono 

3. si, nAiti, se : nemmo, neste, sero, 
better than sono 

4. no, ^c. 

5. ni, nga : nidmo, nete, ng/ino 

Ci. nea, nghi, or n^a, nga : nidmo, niutf, 

1 . rr^i, SiC, 


11. jo.bettfr than t'o 
Riii.^ttf re, lo replace, v. NJctti re 
Rim6r<lcrf, lofttl remorse, v. M6rilcie 

,, , ' >to remove, v. Muovjti' 
Kuiiiioieie, J 

Kiii.lsceri', to te iom again, v. NH<ceie 

Uiiicliiiideif, to iticlost; v. As.-'nleie 

Uiiu-re.ict^ir, lo be displras-il, v. Cctio- 


•RinloiiArc, ^o rehoun'f, v. SonAie 

Rinveiiiie, to find out, v. Wniir 

Rinvcsiiii-, to revest, v. Doiniire 

Riiivolir' IT, to icnip up, r. VoL'oie 

'Riparlire, to ilividc again ; to set out 

asnin, v. I'artire 

'Riperiieie, {obsolete) ni»\v 

'Ripenliro, torqient, v. Dormirc 

Riperciiolire, to stn-ikc bad:, i: Pcrcu6- 


RipLTclcre, lo loxc a^niii, r. Pi-rderc 

'Ripiagiicre, &\to ift'i'p (ijinin, v. Ph'in- 

RipiAiiilcrc, ) gcie 

'Riponere, {obsolete) now 

Riporrc, to replace, v. Rorrc 

Ripronclerc, to lake bark; v. Prciiderc 

Ri'iaptro, to be told of, v. Sap^-re 

'Risce.^licre, & ^ /(} c-/ioi)»r (i^'ai/i, r. Sce- 

'Riscc-rrt', i glicre 

'Riscoprarc, lo discover again, v. Coprire 

Riscrlverc, to write again, v. Scrivore 

'Riscuoprire, to discover a'^ain, v. Coprire 

Riscuoicrc, to eiael, v. Pircuottre 

RisediTC, <ii rcsil; v. Si'ili-re 

'Risentiro, M auyiken, v. Donnirc 

liist'il-vure, lo resolve 

3. vii, or vMli, vh'.i, ve, or veite : v^m- 

1H0, vctte, vSroiio, or vellero 

II. xUo. 

Risoniire, to resouit'l, r. Sotiare 

J{is6rgerc', lo rise again, r. Acc6rgcre 

' Risospigncre, & ) /o driiv back, v. Cin- 

Riso-.pingtTC, ) gcre 

Risovvc-nSrc, <o renu'mhcr, v. Venire 

•Ris!.ignere.& > ,„^ ^^ ,.. (■; ..^^ 

Rispingcro, S 

Risj)(>-n'lcre, to answer 

3. si, n'ltiti, se : ndeinmo, ndcste, sero 

1 1 . sto 

•RUtrigntre, A ) „ , 

Ri.tringcrc, \ '" '""'"'""• '■'• StJmgerc 
Kitenore, to retain, v. JViiorc 
Ritingero, lo die again, r. t'ingere 
l{it6glicre, lo retake, v. Togliere 
Rotorcerc, lo I wist back, I: 'lYircire 
Ritorri.', a cont ruction if Rituglicre 
'Ritraggere, {obsolete) now 
RitrAere, & > , , ,,, 

•Ritnirre, ] '<' ^'^'racl, v. Inirro 

Rivc'doro, lo ritise, v. Yedvro 
Rivondere, to resell, v. Vcudcrc 
Rivcnire, /d return, v. Venire 
' Rivcstirc, /() ctollie again, v. Dormire 
Rivivere, to come to life again, v. Vivere 
Rivf'ilgere, to revolve, r. ^'61ge^c 
'Rivolvere, to revolve, v. Volvere 
Riiiscirc, lo succeed, v. I'scire 
Riklero, (,> gn<tn; r. Assidcrc 
Rompero, lo break 
;5. rujtpi, rotnycsli, rupi>c : rompi'm mo, 

rompeste, ruppero 
*n. rotnpre in poi'try !> 
1 I . rotlo 
'Rugglro, lo roar, a regular verb ; but 
poets say 
*1. egli rugge c 
Saglire {obsolete) v. Salire 
^ N. B Tills verb is regular, and is 
met with, in all its intleclions, in the 
ancient authors. — At present none are 
in use but those given underneath, as 
belonging to tlie verb Sdire, altliough 
dearly dtiived i'roin the intitn'tivi' ,SVi- 
glire. Otliers, besides tiieni, miglit l)e 
used (tliougl) seldom met with), in 
which the emphasis falls precisely on 
the vowel immediately l)efore the (,'/.. 
whicli must also be followed bv one of 
the diphthongs f.l, //•.', fO, or by / 
standing almost lor two J's, as io st'i- 
gtin, ti'i sag/i, (being almost In saglii), 
egUnosagliuno, ^-c. — The student, how- 
ever, will do well to use only the given 
conjugation of the next verb 
Sal-ire, to ascend 
1. go, i, e : Sagliimoi, better tliaa 
gtiidmo, lie, g:mo 

h .\rder con gli occhi c rompre ogjii aspro scoglio. ( /V/r. ) — K. 

<" Ruggi- il leoiie al bosrcK {Guarini.) — K. 

«l ('<>:> Pollion, die 'n lal supi'rbia salsc. {Pelr.) — 1',. 

f Delle prime iioli/ie ui'imo iion sape. { Danli.) 
The antir/uUi/ of ihu iii/teclion nf the verb S.Tpere, in prose, will appear from t'le 
folLiuing interesting jiassaee in G. Villaiii, l.ib. li, Caji. H:\. — " Negli anni di 
" Christo I'J'JO. tutti i baroiii d' iiitonio propuoscro, e furono in eoncordin, per Id 
" moglio di jiarte (Jhibcllina. di ilisfare id tiiflo la ('itti'i di I'iren/.e, c di reen l.i 
" a iKjrgoni ; accitx-lii' di suo sLilo nini lion fosse rininno, fnma ne podi-rc. .\ll.i 
" <|unl |iro|)<>sta ki levo, e contraddisse il valeiitre, «• savio Cnvaliere M. l'nrii\.it.» 
" degli L'hcrli, v jiropuose in »'ia direria, i due aiitiehi, f gio^»i p.oveiiii ; tlie 


*3. Regular; but the poets say, 

io salsi, cgU salseA : egliiw sdlsero 
*5. i, ga : Saglidmo, better than -ghia- 

mo, ite, gano 
*6. ga, glii, better than ga, ga : Saglia- 

ino, better than ghidmo : Sagliute, 

better than ghidte, gano 
^ N. B. For other inflections with a 

GL, still in use, see those given above, 

at Saglire 
Sapere, to hiow 

I. so,sai,sa: mippiamo, sapete, sanno, 
Tn the ancientS; and in poetry, we find 
tu sapi, egll sape '^ 

3. seppi, sapisli, seppe : sapimmo, sa- 
pcsk', s^ppero 

4. sapro, <|-c. 

5. sappi, sappia : seppidmo, sappUite, 

6. sappia, c^-e. Also tu sappi 

7. saj>rii, t^-c. 

'Savere (obsolete) now Sapere 

Scadere, to decay, v. Cadere 

Sce-gliei'e, to chouse 
*L igo, gli, glie : gliamo, gliStc, Igono 
S. Isi, gliesti, Ise : gliemmo, glieste, hero 
*5. gli, Iga : gliimo, glidte, Igano 
*6. Iga, Iga, Iga : glidino, glicite, Igano 
*9. rre, or as above 

II. ito 
Sce-ndere, to descend 

3. si, ndesti, se : ndemmo, ndiste, sera 
11. so 
Scer-nere, to discern 
3. si, ncsti, se : nemmo, neste, sen 
And let it l)e observed, that Cernere is 
conjugated like this verb ; but Con- 
cemere and Discdrnere are regular, 
though deprived of their participle, 
which inflection in the verb Cernere is 
regular, and in Sccrnere does not ap- 
pear to exist, any more than in the 
other two verbs. 
'Scerre, a contraction o/" Scegliere 
Schiudere, to open, v. Assidere 

e ■ ' '^ ' > to untie, v. Coeliere 
Sciorre, i ' & - 

Sconimettere, to bet, v. Mettere 

'Scomponere, & ? ,. „/ 

c, , > to discompose, V. rorxfi 

Scomporre, J -' ' 

Sconfiggere, to rout, v, Affliggere 
Scontorcere, to wrest, v. Turcere 
Sconvenire, to misbecome, v. Venire 
Sconvolgere, to confound, v. Volgere 
Scoprire, to uncover, v. Coprire 
Scorgere, to discover, v. Accorgere 
Scorrere, to ruji slow, v. Cijrrere 
Scri-vere, to write 
3. ssi, vesti, sse : vhnjno, vcste, ssiro 
11. tto 
'Scucire, to unrip, v. Cucire 
'Scuoprire, to discover, v. Coprire 
Scuotere, to shake, v. Percu6tere 
'Sdare, to leave off, v. Dare 
'Sdrucire, to rip open, v. Cucire 
Sedere, to sit down 
1 . seggo, or siedo, siedi, siede : sedidmo, 
or poetically seggidmo, sedete, seggono, 
or siSdono 
5. siedi, siSgga, or sieda : sedidmo, or 
poetically seggidnw, sedete, s6ggano, or 
*6. sieda, or segga, si(}di, or segghi, 
sedihno, or poetically seggidmo ; se- 
didte, or poetically seggidte ; siedano, 
or seggano 
*10. sedendo, or poetically seggendo, <^c. 
^ N. B. To know in what inflections 
of this verb the diphthong IE may be 
introduced, see Observation II. at 
p. 277. — Observe also, that the poets 
have used the following inflections : 
*I. io seggiot' : eglino seggioiio 
*6. io seggia%, tu segge 
'Seducere (^obsolete) now 
Sedurre, to seduce, v. Addurre 
Seguire, to follow. A regular verb 
among the ancient classics ; but now 
we conjugate it like Dormire ; ob- 
serving, however, that 

" dicono. Come sape, cosi minuzza rape ; r Vussi capra zoppa, se liipo 
" non la 'ntoppa. I quali due proverbj rinnestro in uno dicendo. Come asino 
•' sape, SI va capra zoppa; cosi minuzza rape, se il lupo non la 'ntoppa -. Recando 
" poi con savie parole esempio, e comperazione sopra il grosso proverbio ; e come 
«' era follia di cio parlare, e che gran danno, e pericolo ne potea avvenire : E 
<' che se altii, che egli non fosse, mentre che avesse vita in corpo, con la spada in 

" mano la difenderebbe. Sicche per un buono. e vertudioso Cittadino, che 

" fece a modo, e guisa del buono Camillo di Roma scampo la nostia clttA di 

" Firenze da tanta furia, distruggimento e ruina." — For the explanation of the 
above two proverbs, see the Vocabolario della Crusca, at the words ASINO and 
CAPRA.— ^. 

f E '1 Po dove doglioso, e grave or seggio. (Petr.) — E. 

g La v' io seggia d'amor pensoso, e scriva. ( W.) — E. 


1. segno, is better than sitguo, iJl. — 
In poetry, io s^go '' 

*5. stgui, \c. 

*6. se^ita, t\V- 
^ N. B. PisroLEsi, ou tlie single aii- 
thoritv ot* the Chevalier liaidrdcauii's 
37th Annotation to Cinonio, admits 
of the diplitliong IE in this vcrh, in 
all those inilections having tiie empha- 
sis ujion its E, aecording to the jnst 
now quoted Observation II. 15ut 
since neither Boccaccio, Pelrarca, nor 
any of tlie classics quoted in tlie Voca- 
bolario, exhibit any instance of sucli 
inflections, they cannot be admitted 
into any correct writing, altiiough use 
might sanction tliein in the familiar 
and colloquial style. 

•Sentire, to hear, v. Domiire 

'Scrvire, to serve, v. Uormire 

Sfarc, to tindit, v. Fare 

•Sfuggire, to shun, i-. Donnire 

Sllere, to l>e siJeiit, a defective verb, used 
only in poetry i. — No inllection ought 
to be adopted without being instanced 
in some good autlior. 

'Smentire, Io gii<e the lie, v. Abborrirc 

'Smovcre, to rrmot'C, v. Muovere 

«Smugnere, & I ^^ , ,. ^,i^^ „^ 

Smungere, J 

Smuoverc, to stir up, v. MmWere 

Socchiudere, to half shut, v. Assidere 

Soccorrere, to succottr, v. Correre 

SoddisfTire, to salifi/, v. Fare 

• SoH'erere, {obsolete) now 

•Soflerire, and Sott'rirc, to suffer, v. OR- 


^ N. 15. llic whole of the conjugation 

of Off'rirc may be applied to this verb, 

as well as the N. B. made to the same. 

SofTHggere, to fn/ lightly, v. Affliggere 

•.SoU'rire, v. Sotferire 

Soggiactre, to be sidiject, v. Giacere 

•Soggiugnere, & }to subjoin, v. Gm- 

«.Soggi6ngere, J gneie 
So-lcre, to be accustomed, a defective verb 
•l. nUo, Suoli, more elegant Suogli, 
SuUe : gliamo, lele, gliono. In poe- 
try, tu Suoi, or Suo' k, egli -le ', noi 
-Umo m 

•J. leva, or leva, ^c. and sjUn, or solia " 

in poeti-y 
6. glia, gli, or gUa, better tiian Suogli, 

glia : gliiimo, gMte, glitDto 

10. lendo 

1 1 . lito 

\ N. B. The tenses wanting are form- 
ed with tlie auxiliary verb JCssiW, and 
the passive paiticiple Solito, viz. Id fid 
solito, i^c. which answers to the Latin 
fiii solilus. We m.-iy likewise say, Io 
Io sono solito, Io era solito, and so on 
tiirougb all tlic tenses. 
'Solvere, to loosen, v. Risolvere 
Sommergere, to drown, v. Aspergerc 
Sonimcttere, Io submit, r. Mettere 
'Sonare, In plat/ ujMn an inslrutnent 
*1. j,i suono, or 4-i);(o .• tu suoni, or soni ; 

egli suonn, or sona : eglino sttonano 
*5. suona, or sona iu : suoni, or soni 

egli; suonino, or sonino eglino 
*6. io, lu, or euU suoni, or soni; eglino 

suoninn, or sonino 
^ N. 15. The (!i()lithong UO cannot he 
introduced in any otlier inflection of 
the verb Sondre, because in no other 
the accent could possibly fill upon it. 
See Observation II. p. 277. 
Sopprimcre, to sui>j)rcss, v. Esprimere 
'SopraffTire, Io orrrjionvr, ?-. Fare 
'Sopraggii'ignere, & ") /() come nncrpecled, 
Sopraggiungere, J r. Giungere 
'Soprapprendere, to overtake, v. Pren- 

Soprascriverc, to superscribe, v. Scrivere 
Sopraspendere, to spend loo vinch, v. 

'Soprassedere, to ceasi for a limr, v. 

'Soprasti'irc, to overhang, v. Stare 
Soprav venire, to come unexjiecled/i/, v. 

Sopravviverc, Io survive, v. Viverc 
Soprinttndere, to sujterintejid, v. Inten- 

Sorgere, to rise, v. Accurgere 
Sorprendere, to surpruit', v. Prendere 
Sorregere, Io support, v. Keggere 
Son-idere, to smile, v. Ilidere 
Soscrivere, to subscribe, v. ScHverc 

-ond' ei mi mcna 

'l'.ili)r III parte, ov' ioper forza il sego. (/'/.) — E. 
i Or diibbi tu, e dubitando sili. (Donle.) 

Preso dai iiuovo canto stupe, e sile. ( Varehi.) 
k Cjiasuo' tu far il inio sonno almen degiio 

Delia tua vista. IJ'rIr.)— E. 
' Coine tuluru al caldo tempo hale. (/'/•) — E- 
"' (iir/mdo il montc come far wilemo. (Dante.) — E. 
II .Anlonii, e stiuggn ami'ir coin' io ^ilia. (I'etr.) — K. 


Sjspeiidere, to suspt;)itl, ti. Preiidera 

Sospiiigere, 3 

Sostenere, to sustain, v. Tenure 

Sottinteudere, to understand, v. Inten- 

Sottomtttere, to submit, v. IVIettere 
Sottoscrivere, to subscribe, v. Scrivere 
'Sottniggere, [obsolete) now 
Sottraere, & > , ^p 

'Sottrarre, { '" '^''"'" ''""'^^ ''■ ^""''^ 
'Sovrastare, to overhans:, v. Stare 
Sovvenire, to help, v. A^enire 
'Sovvertire, to subvert, v. Dormire 
'Spandere, to spread, regular, 

but we may say 

11. s panto, or spaso'^ in poetry 
Spar-gere, to scatter 

3. si, gesti, se : gcmnio, gSste, sero 

*1 1. to, or so 
Sparire, to disapjicar, r. Apparire 
'Spaziare, <o expatiate, v. Odiiu'e 
Spe-gnere, to extinguish 

*I. ngo, gki, gne : nghianio, gnete, 

3. nsi, gnusti, nse : gnenimo, gnestc, 

*5. gni, n^a : n^hidmo, ^netc, ngano 

*6. nga, nghi, nga : nghidmo, nghiAte, 

11. nto 

Spendere, to speyid, v. Prendere 

Spiacere, to displease, v. Piacere 

'Spignere, &\ ^ , r^- 

t, ^ " > to push, V. Cmgere 

Spingere, J 

'Sponere, (obsolete) now 
'Sporre, to explain, v. Pon-e 
Sp6rgere, to stretch out, v. Acc6rgere 
Sprowedere, to leave destitute, v. Prove- 

Stare, to stai/, or to be, v. Dare 
^ N. B. Except the perfect; for it 
would be a most odious vulgarism, 
only common to the Romans, and the 
rabble of Tuscany, to say, io stiedi, 
egli stiede, ^-c. while to say, io diedi, 
cgli diede, is as classical as io detti, 
egli dette ; but tiiis last mode of in- 
flecting the preterite of Dare is the 
only one similar to that of this verb. 
Stendere, to extend, v. Prendere 

•Stignere, & ) ^ ,. , ^• 

«c.- > to discolour, V. Cmgere 

^Stmgere, ) ' ° 

> to bind fast 

Stogliere, to dissuade, v. Cogliere 
Stonaie, to git out of tune, v. Sonai-e 
Storcere, to twist, v. Torcere 
'Storre, a contraction of Stogliere 
Stravedere, to see much, v. Vedere 
Stravolgere, to wrest, v. V61gere 
'Stridere, to scream, v. Assidere 
Strignere, & 

:3. si, gesti, sa : gdmmo, ghte, sero 

11. Slretto 
Stru- ggere, to melt 

.'5. ssi, gghli, sse : ggemmo, ggeste, ssero 

11. tto 
Stiipere, to wonder, a defective verb, and 
merely poetical. 

I. egli stupe P, he wonders 
Siiccedere, to Succeed, v. Conccdere 

Succ-ingere, /'" '""-'^ «'"• "■ ^'"^ere 
*Sv($gliere, & ) 
Svel-lere, \ ^" f"'" "/' 

3. si, I6sli, se : khnmo, teste, siro 

II, to 

Svenire, to faint away, v. Venire 
*Sverre, a contraction o/" Svellere 
'Svestire, to strip one, v. Dormire 
Svolgere, to unfold, v. Volgere 
'Sv61vere, to unfold, v. Volvere 
'Supponure, [obsolete) now 
Supporre, to suppose, v. Porre 
'SQrgere, io rise, v. Accorgere 
Sussistere, to subsist, v. Esistere 
Tacere, to hold one's tongue, v. Giac^i-e 
Tangere, to touch, a defective and poe.. 
tical verb, of which we find 
1. -tangeq, and few inflections besides 
Tendere, to tend, v. Prendere 
Ten-ere, to hold 

1. go, Tieni, Tihie : idmo, cte, gono. 

\ Poets may say, io Tegno, tu Tenni, 

egli Tenc ■ noi Tegn&mo, or Tengh- 

S. ni, esti, ne : Smmo, hte, nero 

4. Terro, cjc. 

5. Tieni, and in familiar Te, ga, and 
Tegna in poetry : id?no, ^te, gano, and 
Tisnano in poetry. 

*6. io-ga, tu-n^hi, or nga, S^c. In 
poetry we find tu Tegna: noi Teg- 
ndmo, or Tenghi&mo, vol Tens.hidtc, 
eglino Tegnano. 

1. Terre^, <.j;-r. 

Che non corresson la coll' ale spase. [Boer. T'es.) — E. 
P Preso dal nuovo canto stupe, e sile. ( Varchi.) 

1 Io son fatta da Dio, sua merce, tale, 

Che la vostra mi.seria non mi tange. [Dante.) 


Ti'rgere, to i-/rti»i, v. AApergere 

'Ticnere, St \ . ,-■ 

.,>.*' ' > to due, V. Ciiigere 
• 1 iiigere, J 

'Tollere, an obsolete form of llie mo- 
dem infinitive To::/i--rt\ The pcH-ts 
might yet make use of the following 
intltctions only : 
I . tu toUi, ei^li lollc : 
'■2. egli lolira 

9. lollere 

10. tollmdo 

Toixliere, to tnkr nirai/, v. Cogliero 
IVx'ts may sjiy, 

•1. tu tvi, or lo'^. lliis last is also 
fa nu liar. 
'Tonare, to thunder, v. Sonare 
Torccre, to twist, v. Attorcerc 
'Torre, a contraction of Togliere 
Tossire, to couf^/i, v. Dormlre 
' Truduccre (ol>solrtL'), now 
Tradiirre, to tramlalr, v. Addi'irre 
Trafiggerc, to transfir, v. Affliggere 
Traliicere to Mne through, v. Li'icere 
Trucre, &. \ , . . 

•laggere, / *• ^' 

Tra rrc«, tn draw 
*l. ggo, better tJian Trao ; i, or ggi, r, 
or g;:ir : ii't/rit., or ggiiimo, ele, ggonn, 
better than uno 
2. tra, a;r. 

'.i. ssi, f'x.'r, sse : ^mmo, ^slr, s.t^u 
4. rro, ^-c. 
•.5. I, or nffi, gga : uinio, or ggiiiino, 

ite, ggano 
*6. gun, ghi, or ggn, gga : iAmo, or 
ggiumo, iute, or g^idt-j, gganu 


I ere 

7. rti'i, iji-. 
S. t'ssi, <Jc. 

10. mdo or ggt'n'fo 

11. tto 

^ N. B. Of all the inflections of tliin 
verb, which may ;iiid may not have 
the GG, those without them are pre- 
ferable, except 

•1. /(I trao : rg/irio tri'iitno, wiiich are in- 
ferior to tragno, and Iruggent) 

Trascegliere, & 1 , , , ..■ - i- 

..,, f >lo snWt, x\ Seemlier 

* 1 rascerre, J ° 

Trascendere, to surjuiss, v. Sci'iidere 

Trascorrere, to run uvcr, v. Correre 

IViLscrivere, to transcribe, v. Scrivere 

Trasfondere, to pour from one vrsfc/ into 


Trasmettere, to transmit, v. IMetterc 

'Traspoiiere (^nhsolctc), now 

Trasporre, to transpose, v. Porre 

Tratten^'re, to entertain, v. Tenere 

Travedere, to sec double, v. Vetiere 

'Travestire, to dis-^nisr, v. Dormire 

Travolgere, to invert, v. Vcilgere 

'Vadere (nbsoletc), v. Andiire 

Va-lcre, to be vorlh 

1. glio, li, le : gtiamn, like, gliono 

3. hi, lesli, Ise : Itmmo, It'-stc, Iscrit 

4. rro, ^-f. 

5. li, glia ; glidnw, lite, gliuuo 

6. glin, ^c. 
C. rr^i, ^'r. 

•11. h'lto, better than Unto 

5f N.B. PisToi.Ksi, zealous to reniova 
equivocal* in spite of the use esta- 
blished bv authors o{ imiuortal fame. 

r Quel vago, dolce, c-aro, one.sto sguju-do 

Dir parea : to' di me (juel clietu pu6i. f Petr.J-^E. 
• Since all the injinitiies of verbs tn the Tuscan language end either in arc, ere, or- 
ire, it it clear that Trarre i.« a contracted verb ; nor can we say that Tirare is its 
radical; for although the meaning be the same, yet Tirare has the w^wle of its regular 
cu nj II satwn in are, and has nothin'/ to do vilh the inflections of iLrarrc, which ma- 
Tufrslly belnne to the second conjugation. We must, therefore, consider it as either 
d<:rit<ed from Tracre, or Traggere, since some of its infections seem derived from the 
ov'', and somefom the other of these rerhs. Cinonio tnaintains Traj'gere to he the 
on!/ radical; and the Acaderniiinns Delia C'rusca have inserted neither Traggere 
nor Tracre alphabetically ; yet tit Itie lu-rb Tirare llu-y mention trie above obsolete inf- 
ui'ives,but take no notice of the diversity of the conjugation of Trarre or Tirare, nor of 
the derivotutn of the former ; yet they observe that 'I'rarrc has some signifeations /irrw- 
linr to itself. ll'hetlier, therifore, ue ought to assign TrAere, <>r TrAggerc, for the 
jirimilive riKit of 'inirrc, reuiains undrcltled ; since the ytcadrmicians, Uiiig sUent on 
the subject, hair admitted of the partirijtle present triientc, and the greatest port of the 
irifli-rJiunt of trarre are very seldom fiiind with (>ii in the classics. On the othrr 
hand, we find Tr;ig;jerc i/ji/'rf by l>aiite, and even by Petrarch, in this line : " Mi fa 
del m*l pifukkto trigger gudi." — /-*/ the uime observation be applied m every respect 
to all the drriviaiwes of Trarre, whwh are Aifr^irre, ContriuTe, Kiir.^re, and 
Sottrirre. .fee them nt their jdacet.— V.. 

would devlale even from Cinonio, 
and cancel the GL in all the inflec- 
tions of this verb, where they become 
the same with those of the verb J'a- 
gliare, to sift ; substituting to it some- 
times the simple L, and sometimes 
the LG : but if we were to listen 
to arguments of this kind, and thus 
contradict the universal use of the 
classics, we might frame quite a new 
grammar and language ; for cases of 
similar ecjuis'ocals are innumerable, 
but unavoidable : so let the pupil 
conjugate this verb, and the others 
like it, as exhibited above, and he will 
never be wrong. 

*VariAre, to vary, v. Odiare 

Uccidere, to kill, v. Assidere 

Udire, to hear 
1 . odo, odi, ode : udiamo, vdite, odono 
*4. udiro, i^c. and in poetry udro, cj-f. 

5. odi, odd : udi&mo, udlte, odano 

6. oda, odi, or oda, oda : iidiamo, 
iidicite, odano 

*1. udirti, <^c. and in poetry udrti, cjc. 
Ve-dere, to see 

*1. ggo, ggio, or do, di, de ; ggiatiw, or 
diamo, dete, ggono, ggiono, or dono 

*?>. J'idi, del, delti, or ddi, dSsti, Vide, 
dc, ditte, or dde : demmo, destc, Vi- 
dero, derono, dSttero, or ddero 

*4. dro, or dero, <^c. 

*5. di, or Ft"'', gga, ggia, or d-a : 
'ggi/imo, or dihmo, dete, ggano, ggia- 
no, or dano 

*6. gga, ggiri, or da, ghi, ggi, or di, 
gga, ggia, or da • these three last in- 
flections might be used for the second 
person singular, but those preceding 
them are the most proper : ggicimo, 
or didmn, ggiftte, or diule, ggano, 
ggiano, or dano 

*7. drei, or dcrii, S-c. 

*10. ligcnilo, or dcndo 

* 11. rf((fn, better than Visto 

f N.B. Whoever would use the first 

inflection to the many given .ibove to 
each tense and person of this verl>, 
would be sure of never being wrong ; 
nay, he would always be the most 
accurate speaker or writer. Yet, tlip.t 
the more inquisitive student may ap- 
preciate the merit of each of the above 
num.erous inflections, I shall subjoin 
here proper remarks to each tense, 
v,hich I shall represent by the usual 
figures, 1, 2, 3, 4, &-c. 
1 . ^ For those persons which have va- 
rious inflections we ought to adopt 
those with a GG, not followed by I. 
in elegant prose ; those with GG fol- 
lowed by I in verse, and those without 
GG in familiar and colloquial style; 
except tidi Vcggia7no, which is the 
only good one, both in poetry and 
elegant prose. 
.S. f The inflections printed at length 
are by far the best : those with DI) 
may pass in conversation, and those in 
dei, detti, de, dltte ; df'rono, dcttero, 
may be supported by classical autho- 
rity, but should not be used, except in 
poetry, or in eloquent periods, with 
great discrimination. Yet they are 
perhaps preferable in the conjugation 
of the compoimd verb Provvedt^re, 
as it appears from authorities of great 
4. ) ^ However preferable the contract- 
7. > ed inflections of these two tenses 
be, yet the regular and extended ones 
have the support of the most pure 
writers, and might be used in any 
writings of an elevated style, if suiting 
the rhyme or the period. 
(). I ^ For the choice of these inflec- 
10. ', lions, apply to them the very 
sai^.ie remark as given above at No. 1 . 
except iioi Veggichno, voi Veggiate, and 
Veggendo, being the only good ones 
for verse or prose of an elevated style. 
Ven-ire", to come 

*• To this inflection one, of the particles lo, la, le, li, is often annexed, dovhling the 
1 ; thus, vello, vella, &c. meaning. See him, or her, &c. The vse of such expression 
is excellnth/ pointed out in the following lines cf Lasca : 
Tu sarai messo da' fanciulli in baia, 
E diranno -. ecco Alfonso, vello vello, 
Che pruprio par la Bili(')rsa gala. — 1-J. 
" ITe sometimes make a reflective verb of Venire, and say Venirsene. Exam. 
Mirata da ciascun pasKa e non mira 
La bella Donna e inninzi al re sen viene. (Tasso.) 
S-^mitim^s Viene is used instead ofe, it is; as Vieii detto, Vien suppusto, it is said, 
itis siip]>'jsed. 


I. go, aijJ ill puc'.ry /i-rij', Vimi, 
y It lit- : uiitio, better than ghiumi, 

pocUL-ally Vcgtiu'ii I, it.-, gfiio, aiul 

poetically Vignoitu 
'J. ni, isti, «<• .- linnio, iit<', ncro 
-I. i'erro, <Jf-<r. 
•j. Cieni, ga : ii'iiiio, tie, g/ntiy. Pot-ts 

say, J'l-gna egli : J'ignomu noi, /V- 

giiano cgliiio 
•6. 53, glii, better than ga, gn : iom.i, 

iite i better than ghu>mo, or ghiute ; 

gnut\ In elegant prose, or verse, it is 

better to say, /o V.gnn, egli Vcgna : 

7ii)i frgtu'iino, t\>i FtgniUe, e'Jiint 
Vegnano. Even tn Vfgni might be 

iiistaiicetl, but tti l''fnglil\'^ preferable. 
7. f'crri'i, ijc. 

II. uto 

'Vestirc, to dress, v. Uorn.irc 
Vlgere, to bi- i/^"»ni<.s, a delcctive verl>, 
of «!iitli D Ihi Crusca gives us only 
the following infltctiors ; and as no 
grammarian speaks of it, it would not 
be advisable to adopt it, but as ati 
iinpei-sonal verb, and only in elegant 
prose or virse. 
•4. egli rigerii 
Vin cere, to oniqiuT 
3, si, ci'ili, *• .• a'mtiw, ctstr, sera 
11. to 
Vi-verc, to lire 
•1. 'Hus tense is regular, but the poets 

may say, noi f'iic'iii)'- 
3. SSI, vi'sli, ss,-: Vi'iiuii'^, vi'sic, tscro. 
The purest classics authorize the poets 
or oilier elegant writers, to use the 
following inflvillons, but not in fami- 
liar, viz. 
•S. in Vii'vlii, egli rircllr^ : egHw< 

•4. vera, ^c. and in poetry, vro, .Jc 
•7. v-'rci, <.\-c. and in poetry cn'i 
•11. wii^", better tlian ssiUo : a;.d in 
ptK'try Sf<^ 

L'eriere, &: J , • , 

,.° f to anoint 

Ln-gere, \ 

3. Ji, gf-'j//, «• : grntmo, '^rsl,; sent 

\\. to 

Vo-lere"", txj be willing. 

I. glio, ami To', Vuoi, or f'uu', biitur 
than I'ui'ili, I'ui'il,-, and in poetry /'j/,-' . 
gliomo, and in poetry Itino, Ulc, giu'mo 

:J. Hi, Usti, lie: Ummo, U'ste, llrro. Pr.- 
t;iarcii and other eminent author^ 
entitle the poets to tlie u>e of thu^e 

•;1 iu-lsi, eij li Lk : t^tino Isero 

4. rro, cj|-c. 

*tJ glia, qli, better than ;7w, glin . ^e. 

7. rrti, Si,-c. 

II. luto, far better than lsiit>, which 
however is not quite an error. 

Vol-gcre, to turn 
.S. si, gi'Sti, Si- : gt'inmo, gcitt; sent. 
Take can, tn VJg^i'^ h a poetical in- 
flect'on of the imperfect, which is 
besides a perfectly rcguhu" tense. 
11. ro 

'Volvere, sit Volgere 
\ N. B. To refer to Volgi'rc for the 
meaning of this verb, is very proper ; 
but to confound its inflections with 
those of the same verb, as Dtllu Crusca 
have done, is certainly inaccurate. — 
Volvcre is a regular verb ; and fror.i 
tlie numerous instances of it, and of 
its compounds, Involvcn; Rivolierc, 
and Svt'ilrerr, which occur in the poets, 
we may fairly attribute to it all the 
tenses and moods of a re/ular verb, 
with the only excei)tion o:' the Paili- 
ciple Past, which must be borrowed 
from Volvcre to make Vollo. For iJie 
participle involiUo of its compound 
Iiivolvcrc could not authorize us to 
form any similar p.itlei|)'.e for tlu 
primitive Volverc, nor for any other 
of its compounds above given, l)ecause 
they would cause e«]uivoeation with 
the participlesof other verbs, anil could 
not bisidvs be instanced in any good 
anther. 'I'o giv(.' an eiample of thij 
v.Ty elegant verb, it will be sullicient 
to quote tliis highly poetical descrip- 
tion of Firtiiiic Troni D.\NTh. Jiif. 1. 

»''indo ond' io vcgno, e con quAi pii'ini/'- /c.) — I'.. 
> O Donna, ill cui la niia spcninza vige. (/>««/(•.)— K. 
^ Che -Jinza s|ienie viu'ino in disio. (/'/.) 
' I'goHri d" .\.'zo, die vivt'ite vo.sco. {Id.) — I". 
^ VtuTi'i fiii, vivro com' io win \\s\o. {I'.lr.) — Iv 
r \olere u Ktmrtimet ui> Dovere, as Si vuole osserv.'ife, <5c. i' > 
vTM-d, iVv. whi-ri- %\ Vuole means «i deve. 
•1 Spirtofelice, die si dohenicntc 

N'olgei qiiegl'o.ihi (/V/».)— L". 

\o be ob- 


Qu^sta e colei, ch* ^ tanto posta in croce we attend to tlie examples quoted, we 

Pur da color, che le dovrian dar lode, shall willingly reject Escire, and never 

Dandole biasmo a torto, e mala voce : adopt any itiflection of this verb, com- 

Ma ella s' e beata, e cio non ode : mencing with E, but thoic in which 

Con r altre prime creature lieta the accent or stress of the word lies 

Volve sua spera, e beata si gode. upon it, according to the principle 

Uscire, to go 07it. established by Cinonio and Delia 

^ N. B. We read in the Vocabolario the Crusca ,- which see at length, in Ob- 

infinitives Escire and Uscire, but if servation II. p. 277. 

Ni credo, ch 7 mio dir ti sia men caro, 

Se oltre promission teco si spazia, — Dante Pueg. 28. 

Nor do I think that my speech will be less acceptable, 
Because it proceeded to a greater length than I promised. 

CAUTION TO THE STUDIOUS.— Let the studious not 
despise the insertion of so many Obsolete verbs to be met 
with in this LIST. They deserve his particular attention, 
not because he may make any use of them, but because they 
will be his best «fuide for tracing to the modern infinitive 
some of the most difficult inflections of the modern irregular 
verbs. For instance, if he meet in some book io oclo, eglino 
odonOf <5'6'. in vain would he look at the letter O for a verb 
likely to be the root of these inflections, if the obsolete verb 
Odire had not been inserted : but by finding this obsolete in- 
finitive, and being there referred to Udire, he will soon find 
the inflections sought for, and will be, moreover, able to 
account for their origin. 



By the EciTon, 
As suggested bi/ the Monthly Reviewers, see p. xix, xx. 

N.B. Iht marginal minibtr indicates tht pn^c iphere these Extrciits are %iven 

in English. 

p. 35. I f^rand' evcnti, e rivoliizioni di Francia. Gli eclissi 
della Lima. Lo studio delle belle lettrre. Lo spccchio 
della luia camera. 11 timore de' tormenti dell' inferno. 
Le virtu de' Rouiani. L' odio de' mici nemici. Tutte 
i' ossa del vostro corpo. L' anello della principessa. 
La (i'lvola delle ran(')cclue. L' occhiate dell' asseniblea. 
II pao!.e deir Aniazzoni. luiitare gli antichi. Le belle 
doune di Londra. Tutti i prof'eti del niondo. Tutti i 
librai di questa citth. La gran soddisfazione, che io ho. 

36. L' albero della lil)erta. Le bocce, ed i bicchi^ri. Gli 
amici, ed i nemici del vostro paese. Le disgriizie del 
popolo. or Imperatori, e l' Imperatricj. 11 maestro 
(liligente, che io ho. I piu dilVicili esercizj.* L' erbe 
dello speziale. Gli amori di Fillide. lohotrezii. Lo 
statu felice dell' Ingliilterra. 11 cattivo succcsso di 
qiieir impresa. Gli occhi neri di mia sorella. 11 ru- 
niore della plebaglia. I di della settimana. Collo 
spirito. Co' libri. Coll' onore. Coll' anima pensante. 
Su la tavola. Sii l' organo. Sul graviccmbalo. Su l' 
apparcnze. Nell' elezione. Nella camera. Nel regno. 
Negl' inverni. Nelle elli'gie. Pel tempo. Per 1' 
amore. Per lo studio. Per la nioglie. Per 1' ama- 

37. I'lgli punisce I' orgogllo ; ella biasima la vanita ; voi 
predicate la temperanza ; oglino amano la virtu ; 8chi- 
fare la pigrizia. Ricompensare la sobrieta ; tu odi il 
vizio : Io irnparen') il disegno ; Studiare la geografia ; 
trascuraie la pitd'iia ; il lerro, e l' acciaio sono piii 
titili deir oro, e dell' argento. 

37. La segale, il grano, l' orzo. Mi piace il vino. Io 
handisco la pace. Io iiitimo laguerra. II sale, 1' acdto, 
I' olio. Voi ainmirate la belliizza. 

• Ob»prvp, tliat if lor exercises were meant llic ta^k of tlie teaclier, called in 
French la (ache, or Irdevrtir, wecO'ild nay noiliiiitf eUt- for il tlun Lettint ; but 
III Mil)' otiier tciKC rifrriin; il il» propti rorri'«poiidiii(( iciin. 

V 3 


p. 58. II Conte di Sassonia ; II Generale Ligonier ; II Mares- 
ciallc) d' Estres; 11 Liiogotenente Gordon ; La regina 
Carlotta ; L' liiiperatore Leopoldo. 

38. Gli occhi, e r orecchie; le braccia, e le gainije; il 
padre, le inadre, ed i figii ; i giorni, e le notti ; il palazzo, 
e il giardino. 

39. LaviUevi le niaiii ; mi duole il capo ; mi son bruciato il 
dito ; ella ha perduto la vista ; egli ha perduto il cap- 
pello, e la borsa. 

40. La politica Inglese ; !a modn Francese ; la lingua Ci- 
ncse; la musica italiaua ; una tavola quadra; palle 
rotonde; una pittura ovale; il piano triangolare; la 
situazione sana ; un vento caldo ; un' aria cattiva ; una 
bUJijione nebbiosa; una berretta rossa ; cappelli neri ; 
n!3 abito biaiico ; abito*scuro; tiesce cattivo ; uva in- 
sipida ; pesca immatura ; religione doininante ; fiore 
scolorito ; una vecchia sdentata: un giovane sguaiato. 

A3, Un nianicotto; una scatola da polvere ; una camera 
da letto; uii bue, de' buoi ; una ragazza ; delle ra- 
geizze; delta seta; della biancheria ; del sale; del 
denaro ; delle fibbie d' argento ; de bicchieri ; del vi- 
tello ; delle pernici ; io bevo senipre acqua ; sento delle 
donne che bisticciatio. Io non mangio tuai frntta. 

44. II cavallo del mio pardrone ; i gufi:!ti deila mia serva; 
i bbri de' niiei amici: il figlio di mio zio. 
L' olio da insalata ; un cavallo da carrozza ; una pa- 
letla da fnoco; una berrclta da nolte. 
Un mantello di scarlatto ; delle culzette di seta ; una 
cassa di legno ; un pettine di corno; un anellu d' oro. 
Sonaref la spinetta ; sonare il gravicembalo : giuocare 
alia palla a corda ; giuocare all' ombre, alle palle. 

4(j. La Germania e piu grande, e piu potente dell' Italia ; 
Giulia e piu bella, o bella quanto, o meno bella di Ma- 
ria ; Virgilio scrisse piu di qualunque altro poeta del 
suo tempo ; le mani di vostra sorella sono piu bianche 
deir alabastro ; ella e piu savia, savia quantc, o meno 
savia di me; Miltone era molto piu dotto di Dante; 

* Accoiding to our present mode of speakiug, we say dbito, both for a coat 
anil a gown ; and if we particularly wish to specify the latter, we say un dbito 
dadoiiiia. The author had translated gown, roia, which is not now understood 
in any such uicanin!? ; and the classics have much oftener used it for a king's, or 
couusfllor's robe, than for a lady's gown. Feslllo is also used for ALito,'n\ gene- 
ral, and Veh'tta for a gentleman's coat. 

I The auilior had given to the verb sonare the article of the genitive delhi, del, 
&c. wliich is a gross Gallicism : but when the verb sapere governs soiidre, we 
inay then prefix to the instrument the particle di, thus : I can play on tlie tam- 
bourine, So sonar di cembalo. He can play on tlie violin, Sa sonar di vioVmo, i^c. 

TiOiitlra e molto mc^^lio lastricata* di l'arii;i ; V'riiezia 
v inolto mcno populatu di Napoli; il st-ssd t'einmiiulo e 
ii:olto pill delicato j- di complessioiie del inascoliiio ; 
piuttosto un poco, che nulla ; e piu debole, clie forte; 
c nicii;lio sludiair, che stare ozioso ; e miglior capi(aiio, 
die solda(o : e p u bianco, che ijiallo. 

p. 48. II piu or^oijlioso di futti <;li uoinini ; it piu pernicioso 
di tutti i delitti ; coloro che seiubrano essere i piu in- 
fjej;iio>.i. iu)n sono seniprc i j)iu dotti ; egli e fautasti- 
chi>siino: ella era intelicissiina ; Ci^liiio sono stati cor- 
teisissimi, e prodii',hissinii ; Dio e i>iustissiiiio ; ieri era 
nil tempo freddissinio, e nebbio-iissinio ; ella e bonis- 
siina; questa e la {)iu bell' opera delle vostre niani. 

•'Jl. ^ Uii rai;a/>zetto, una raii^azzina, una creaturella, una 
caseltiiia, un lepratto, or Icpretto, nn berrettino (xcc n. 
l^p.W, ajul the note ibid), un ruscellettino, una don- 
iiiiKi {sec the Exception, n. 1^, p. 48), nn tavolino (see 
as referred above, at beret(ino), una donnicciuola, un 
ca-one {see the reference cbove, at tavolino), pioi>!jerclla, 
ii:i salotie, un cappellone, un cappellaccio, j^^entai^liaccia, 
or gentanie {steti. IJ, p. 48), ribaldaccio {sec at n. G and 
S, p. 4G), un poetuzzo, im (ilos-otastro, poUamc, car- 
nanie,<§ i;en(a!2;iia, i^entaine, or oontafiliaccia. 

.07. Ventuu cavallo; niille cincpiantuna provincia {see 
Exception, n. 3, p. 49), niille trecento soldati ; Luiu;i 
deciino qnarto era molto nieno ammirato d'Arriij^o quar- 
lo ; (juglicliiio teizo In un i^ran conqnistatore ; cento 
teste Ira j^li amici d' Aristotile : trcmila lire sterline ; 
tiitt' e due le ijambe, anibedue 1' orecchie. {Sec n. 9, 
and its note, p. .51.) 

GJ. lo parlo di me, di te, di voi, di loro : tu mi vu.)i bene ; 
e^li, or ella ci viene vicina ; uoi i> li vediamo oi>;ni <;i(')rno ; 
voi potete far cio per me, per noi, per loro ; ejjlino «ono 
avariseco lei, secolui. I\^;linoirli st imanomoltis'^imo ; 
ella mi, or ci parlo piu volte : staranno con noi per 
sem|)re ; certamente e dessa ; lolodissi loro due volte; 
fo cio per lei, uon per lui; andro con loro: lo mi vedo; 

• l)hiiervi', tliatilic Kufjlii-li wnnl jxivnl must )w uin!nM(jiiil of rlic siiKs only 
of ilie Btrectsof l.ontlnii ; loi if it wtrc the middle, vvc tlicii would say, ulcidlo, 
or fiiltoldtd, if tlictu-.vii were paved at London. 

f 'I'lii^ word in iiiucli belter in this .lentencc than cfitilr. 

I In these llxtracis the ^<cholar may adupt (iilici dimuiuliviyjifpcinralivi, ^r. 
from tho-e here ^iven ; but let tlieni niiiul the Caution, ii. II , p. 17. 

5 .\l l|ii'» worri the Arudemieaiis Drtla C'ruvrn objitrvc if means also « 
quanliiy of meal, the lermiiiaiion of AMKlia\iiip propeily a ^iKiiifuaiiini ..f 
abundance of ihc tliinft dciioiL'd by the priniitiw. Set another .li^nifiraunM, at 
n. ).l, p. 4«. 

T 4 


e per lei stessa; egli parla di se medesiino ; Bruto uc- 
cise se stespo, 

p. 69. Ditemelo; Dio ti vede ; lo vi voi;lio bene ; egli ci 
pcelse ; credetemi ; io £^li diedi il lihro ; ella parla a me 
non a vni ; ea^liiio lo vedono ; diteci la verita ; le inse- 
griero 1' Italiano; non 2;\i ho mai parlato, non ^Vi ca- 
pisco (audi f feminine, change gli into le) ; ella vi dara 
la lettera ; iireci concede un tal favore; ei^lino vi si 
dedicarono ; datemi del pane ; per dirvi la cosacome e ; 
lasciandomi solo {and if there is occasion for the prepo- 
sition IN in its full force), nel lasciarmi solo ; eccoci qui; 
eccoli la. 
72. Yo\ nie la manderete : egli se ne loda ; eglino ce ne 
daranno (for either of it, or of them). Voi gliele ren- 
derete ; la Signora ce ne parlo ; ella me lo diede di 
nuovo (and if it relates to a thing made of the fern, gen- 
der in Italian, saj/), ella me la, &c. ; noi gliene doman- 
deremo : un Signore melo disse ; rammentatemelo; 
ella megli presto (and if it, or them, in these two last 
sentences, related to feminine, sing, and plural, then saj/ 
I, A for LO, and le for gli). 

lis. 1 tuoi cavalli, ed i tuoi cani sono bonissimi ; la Tuia 
azione non e bassirnevole ; il loro oriuolo va sempre 
/male; i loro aftari sono in cattivo stato ; il vostro 
amore e finto ; la nostra casa e piii bella della vostra ; 
la sua carrozza non e bella ; i miei amici, ed i vostri ; il 
vostro giardino e piu grande del mio ; i nostri servitori, 
ed i loro; non e mio, ma vostro ; quella scatola e vos- 
tra, vedete quel palazzo, era mio, &c. 

118. Miofratello, e mia sorella sono andati in campagna ; 
tutti i vostri fratelli, e le vostre sorelle sono indisposti ; 
mia madre, e vostra cugina partiranno domani per Pa- 
rigi ; mio padre sta molto male ; Vostra Altezza ; Sua 
Maesta; L' Altezze Loro; L' Eccellenze Loro; la 
nostra citta e piu grande della vostra ; i miei anelli 
erano piu belli de' loro or suoi) ; il suo oriolo, Signora, 
e superbo; i vostri fiori sono bellissimi ; quella Si- 
gnora e una mia parente ; quel Signore era tempo fa 
uno de' miei nemici, ha perduto le fibbie ; (read again 
n. 14, 15, and 16, at p. 1 14.) essa ha perduto la vista. 

122. Questa donna fu tempo felicissima ; Quest' uomo mi 
piace moltissimo; Questo cavallo non va bene. Queste 
Signore sono vestite modestamente ; Questi Signori 
pembrano ^sser forestieri. Quell' albero e carico di 
frulta (read List of Nouns, p. "23 and 24, nnd Re- 
marks, p. 25.) Come vi piace quella casa ? Qucht' e 

uii iiiniio (li-:j)rczzi'il)ilo. Qiu'llii (U)miii c (Icdita ;il vizio> 
til iucliiiiilii alia virlu. (^iicste uiovaui hauuo un ca- 
laltereassai cattivo, e coicste ( if near (he ptrso/i zee 
speak to) l' iiaiiiio nioho huono ; {the u'unls V liaiino 
must be (uUUd i)i Jlnlian.) Cotesto {or Cio) in' iiiqiiiota, 
{supposing to allude to sonuthiui>; nieulioned Ij// t/u per- 
son :i:e sptak to, see n. \o, p. 119.) Non credo cio, or 
CoU'stoiion lo credo {supposing the same). llprincipeliLu- 
^Miiio. e il Ive I'V'deiigo linoiio due ijran Generuli,qiiesti 
fu amico di Voltaire, e (|ueiili dclT linperalore {see n.5, 
and note *, p. 118). Quc^;li, die veinie questa mat- 
tina. Qiiegli, clie vi disse una tal cosa. Quclla clie 
mi dlcde la vostra lettera. Quel die voi cercate. 
(^ucijli die voi avete raccoininaiuhito. Coloro die, or 
Quelli die taiino coi, sono da iiiasiiuare. Or, Chi fa 
cosi, e da biasimare {see n. 15, p. 1 19). 

1'. I2G. Ale«Haiidro, chestimo la terra troppo piccoja. L' iio- 
ino, die ho vednto. Vj una persona, a ctii (o/all;i quale) 
sono niolto obblij^ato. Qiiclla c la donna di cui \i 
parlai. {read n. lo, p. iJ9.) 11 Signore dal quale io 
venni. Le ricoinpcnse, che sono proinesse. I libri, 
die voi avcte stainpati. II che mi duole moltissimo 
(read n. 11, /;. \'2\). Del che mi compiaccva tanto. 
Le predizioni alle quali voi date fede. II che alle 
voile la rende ardita. La ragazza, che mi porto la 
vostra lottera. L' uoiiio che, \i percosse senza pieta. 
La Fortuna da cui (or daila quale), ho ricevuto tante 
in^iurie. 11 denaro, che m' c slato mandato ieri L' 
oro c un metallo, checi a^siste in tutti i nostri biso^ni. 
Non so, quel che dice. Che bel tiorc ! Cio non e gran 

127. Che uomoe qui'i^Ii ? or Chi e quell' uonio r Che nie- 
sticrelalc? Che dite ? Chevolete? Che volcte berc ? 
Quale vi piacepiu di(|uesti due cavalli ? Da chi a\etc 
avuto qiie-fa nu(')va r Qual c la sirada per aiidare a 
Ijondra? Chi ride, e chi piaiige. Che educazionc 
avete avuto ? 

I'Ji. Tutti i^li uoinini di fpirsto moiulo (o;- Oijni iioiiio, 8<c.) 
Tiitta la terra Con tutte le domic. Tutta la i^ente. 
('ia«.cuuo, or Oijiu'mo parla diguoria. Qualche nuova. 
Alci'ini uomini dolti. (Qualche cosa. Qualche lettera. 
Qualche frutto, or DelLe frutta {ifvK ant as plural). Al- 
cunepesdic Oi^ni sco'u'iro. Haccoiitate questa tavola 
ad un allro. Datemi fjualche cosa da colazi('»ne. Ahri 
inaiifria, altri bcve I'J la non parla con ncssOno. Qua- 
lunque libro. Chiunquc invcnta una bugia, deve 

essere punilo AUro' e far la guerra colla peniui, ed 
altro il farla colla spada. Essi coasumatio la roba 
degii altri. 

p. 147. McMitre il maestro iiiscgna, gli scolari ruzzan.o. Ad 
Oi^iii njomento si condanneranuo, e diranno, &c. 

149. Non sono ancora pronto. V'oi siete capace a far cio. 
Sono andati via tutti. Non ha risposto una sola parola. 
Non avevo niente di buono da dargli. Tu non avevi 
niente di particolare* du dirgli. Ha egii vintola par- 
tita? (much better than guadagniito). Avrebbero eglino 
intrapreso V opera. Non hanno eglino riciisato di 
farlo ? Non avri eg!i tempo abbastanz a da scrivergli ? 
Non haano niente di meglio da olferir loro. Non ne 
a V re mo pun to ? 

177. Che vi e stato, or che vi soiio stati. Vi sarebbe siati?, 
or vi sarebbero stati. Qiiando vi sara stato. Esservi 
stato. Essendovi s-tato. Ci tlii ieri dopo pratizo. A 
che era v' andaste? Domane ella non sara a casa. Vi 
vidi oraii aenle. Non vi verrete oggi. Vi hann' eglino 
pranzato.f Voi avete tre cavaih, prestatemene uno. 
Vedode' bellissimi fiori nel vostro giardino, datemene 
qualcheduni. Non ne hanno piii di cinque, o sei. 
(Coticerning similar expressions, see Note *, p. l.'iS) 
Se ne parla in tutta 1' isola. Perdue essendovene stato 

179. Ho riceviito i iibri, che le mie sorelle m' avevano man- 
dati. Gli ho lelti tutti ; sono benescritti. La lettora, 
che mio padre mi scrisse c stata smarrita. Miei cari 
amici, io v' ho sempre ansati co\r,e n)ici figliuoli. V^i 
ho spesso amiUoniti per vostro beiie (own could not be 
translated here). Ho iticontrato vostro fraJello quesia 
mattina ; ci siamo abhracciati i' un coll' aitro da buoni 
amici. Queste sono tutte le mostre, che mi avete dato 
a scrivere. 

181. Appoggiatevi al muro. E^ col suo cugino {hut if if 
meant to be living i7t the cousin s house, zoe must sajj) St a 
da suo cugino. Da quel teinpo in poi e sempre avanti, 
oindietro. Sono di la. dal ponte. E'.saltata di la dalla 
tavola. Guardiite sotto, e sonra il lelto. Dividiamoci 
questo tra di noi. Passeggia verso la citta. Siate cor- 
tese con tutti. Sono circa le sei (the uDord ore being 

* The word segreto sugtiested in the Kxercises, p. 147, is wmt g, acionliiig to 
the English in partiadar, which never answfis lo tlie French en pa) licNlter. 

f It) Mich seutcMces as the two foregoing, it is often belter to expiiss hrre lor 
9wi> and there for la ; since ci and vi cannot indicate wiiii prcJsion either the 
vicinity ortiie distance of any place. 

generallij muUrstood}. Ho coiinHMuto cotcsto per vui. 
Erano tra la ijeiitai^lia. Ei^li lavora, nientre gli altri si 
spassaiio. Secondo il inio p ucre c^;li Iia torto. Operate 
secondo la nostra regola. Piijliateli tutti, eocrtto (picsti 
due. \L^ a riguardo del siio iiatiirale, {diid if inipoiidul 
to spccij)/ the gender, saj/J del naturale di lei. Oltre 
all' essere ignoraiito, sicte ostinato. In fpianto a voi, 
non dico luilla. Sta diriinpelto alia piazza de' inercanti. 
Passe-r^iiaino liintio il rusfcllo. E^ vicino al termini' 
del suo viaggio. E^ luor di pericolo. Non ista lontano 
di casa. Asj)ett;'ite sino a doniani. Qnanto a ine non 
!a cono^co. Veiinero dopo di me. 

I ND OF rrrr i/c t rt:ni:s. 


N. B. V. stands for vide ; p. for the page or pages of the loork ; and n. for the 
number or numbers luith which the paragraphs in each Lecture are numbered. 

A ; an indefinite article ; v. Ad. 

Absolute ; v. Participle. 

Absolute superlatives j p. 43 ; n. 1 1 , ii. 
Participle ;>ai<. 

Accents ; different sorts, and their use, 
p. 222, n. 48. 

accino ; a diminutive termination, p. 47, 
n. 9. 

accio, ^ terminations implying con- 

nccione, > tempt, p. 46, 47, n. 6, 

acciiitto, J 9. 

Active ; v. Participle. 

Acute (accent), its use, p. 222, n. 48. 

Ad; for a, p. .38, n. 3. — Its exceptions, 
ibid, note f. 

ADJECTIVES ; their three termina- 
lions, and formation of their feminine 
and plural, p. 16, n. 1. — Much im- 
proved, p. 42, n. 5, 6. — Their femi- 
nine omitted in dictionaries, note *, 
p. 16, n. 1. — Their position, p, 35, 
36, n. I to 4, also, note *. 

ADVERBS; their definition and for- 
mation, p. 180, n. 1 to 4.— ITieir 
seven classes exemplified, from p. 181 
to 191 n. 8 to 14. — V. Time; Place; 
Order ; Quantity ; Interrogation ; 
Quality ; AJfirmation ; A^egafion ; 
Doubt, and Comparison, each in its 

Affirmation, adverbs of, p. 191, n. 13. 

Affissi; V. Conjunctive pronoun. 

Again ; how translated, p. 214, n. 35. 

Age; how translated, p. 137, n. 12. 

aglia ; a termination of nouns, p. 48, n. 

Alcuno; an indefinite pronoun, p. 127, 
n. 9. 

ALFIERI ; quoted,, p 205, n. 1.3. 

All ; how translated, p. 127, n. 9, also 
p. 128, n. 14. 

yitrimenti; an expletive, p. 197, n. 

Altro ; an indefinite pronoun, p. 127, 
128, n. 9, 10, 11 — p. 138, note *. 

Altrui; an indefinite pronoun, p. 126, 
n. 2, also p 128, n. 12, 13, and 
7wte *. 

ame ; a termination of collective nouns, 
p. 48, n. 13. 

Anadiplosis ; a figure, explained, p. 
254, n. 116. 

Anastroi'he, in syntax, what, p. 206, 
n. 14. 

Akacoluthom ; in SYNTAX, what, p. 
207, n. 14. 

Andare ; reciprocal, and like dorere,- v- 
its use, p. 302, note d. 

Andar parlando, cjc. explained, p. 158, 
n. 35. — Its proper use, p. 162 to 166, 
n.46 to 49. 

Another; translated, p. 127, n. 9. 

Antithesis; a figure, its division and 
use, p. 251, n. 112, to p. 252, n. 

anzuolo ; a diminutive termination, p. 
47, n. 9. 

ArHAEKEsis ; a figure, its use, p. 246, 
n. 106, 

Apocope; a poetical figure, its use, p. 
248, n. 110. 

APOSTROPHE ; its use, p. 229, n. 
59 to n. 61. 

Arrangement in SYNTAX divided 
into natural, artificial, or figurative, 
p. 198, 199, n. 3 to 6. 

ARTICLES, V. 'i^ov^s— Definite, p. 
16, n. 5. — Tables of their use and 
variations, p. 17, n. 10. — The same 
improved, p. 255 to 258 n. 2 to 5. — 
Their union with in, per, con, and su, 
exemplified, from p. 19 to 23. — Table 
of the same, p. 255, n. 2, 3. — Further 
remarks on their use, from p. 33, 
n. 1, to p. 35, n. 13, also note |, 
p. 37, and Tables improved, p. 255, 
n. 2, 3. — Indefinite, their use, p. 36, 
n, 1, to p. 37, n. 3. — Numeral and 
Partitive, their use, from p. 38, n. 4, 
to p. 39, n. 7. — See Exercises. 


A* ; 8s much as ; so as ; translated, j). 
41, n. •_', and itute *. 

.\^piration ; a defect among tlie Tus- 
cans, p. 'J, and ;iti.v *. ibid. — Sti- aUo 
at C ajid H. 

as'ro, t , ■ ■ , • 

f terminations implying con- 

, \ temi)t, p. 40, n. 5, 9. 
aslronzolo, ) ' ' 

ato,—altell'>, } diminutive tcrmina- 

atlo, — altolino, y tions, p. 46. n. 9. 

Augmentative nouns ; rules for, from p. 

45 to 47, n. 7, 8, 11, 1'2. 
Auxiliaries ( English), how rendered in 

Italian, p. -Jib", '_>18, n. :}8 to 42. 
AvERE ; its conjugation exemplitied, 

with remarks, from p. 130 to p. 138, 

n. 1 to 13. — also its notes, ibid. — A- 

vere is substituted for esserc, p. 1 38, 

n. 12, 13. 
.Ivere da, or a parlarc, ^'c. explained, p. 

159, n. 37. 
avco ; a termination implving contempt, 

p. 4G, n. 9. 

Be (to) afraid, asliamed, ilc. translated, 

p. 137, n. 11. — V. Hungry; Dry; 

Hot; Cold; alphabetically. — Used in 

Italian instead of to hair, p. 137, n. 

I'J, 13. 

Being ; wlicn suppressed in Italian, p. 

1 7G, note *. 
Delia ; an expletive, p. 19G, n. L'l. 
Brm ; an expletive, p. 190', n. 21. 
lienino, an adverb of diminution, p. 45, 

Better ; how translate<l, p. 43, n. 9. 

aho ibid, notes *, and f . 
Both ; translated in seventeen diflTcreiit 

ways, V. p. 51, note * . 
Bt'OMMATTFi corrected, p. 8, n. 1". and 

note *. — p. 128, note * . — Quoted, p. 

139, note \. — Commented upon, )). 

225 to 229, n. 57, 58. 
But; Ex. Hi; is buf,,^-r. /ir /insbiil, i\-i: 

he did but, .ye. how to translate these 

and similar exprfs-,ions, \t. I 37 to I 38, 

n. 12, also note '. 
By ; or by the ; how translated ; v. the 

declensions of noun>i, from p. I H to 

'M, ah;o p. 1 1',7. 

(', tnjl and hard, it* |)ioMunriatioii. p. 
1. — (-", atpirnled wronjf, ilii<l.^-e^ fu 
among the ancient Uoinans, p. 2, note 
'. — when pronounced j.</7 or hmd, p. 
9, n. 18. 

'ontofin; vulgar; v. nolr ^. 12. 

Cajitrr ; important observation on its 
mflcffionH. p. 30), n^ilfi n, and f, p. 

Carccrc ; its gender ; v. p. 1 3, and note *. 

Cardinal, or y)r(/7u/ii'cf luiincrical nouns 
p. 49, 50, n. 1 to 4. 

Castklvf.tko quotetl, p. 223, n. 58. 

Ce ; V. ci. 

reUe ; a diminutive termination, p. 47, 
n. 9. -y 

Coiere; its gender, p. 13, and note *, ib. 

Ceitain; how translated, p. 127, n. 9. 

Certo ; a declinable pronoun, p. 127, 
n. 9. 

CH ; hard and Jlat, their pronunciation, 
p. 1. 

Che ; with its compounds, how con- 
tracted, p. 234, n. 81. 

Che ckc ; an indetinite pronoun, p. 124, 
n. 2. 

Che; a pronoun, p. 120, n. 2. — Its va- 
rious use and signiiication as a rela- 
tiir, from p. 121 to 124, n. 9, 1 1, to 
1(; and 24, also 122, notes *, f . — Its 
use as an interrog,ntife, Che cosa ? pro- 
noun, p. 124, n. 28, 31. 

Vhetite ; an obsolete pronoun, p. 127, 
n. 9, also ;(()/(• §. 

CIIESA11A> SARA^ (amofto) cor- 
rected, p. 220, n. 45. 

Chiun</ue; an obsolete pronoun, p. 126", 
n. 2, and note \. 

Chi; a pronoun, p. 120, n. 2. — Its va- 
rious use and signiiication as a rela- 
tire, p. 121, n. rt to 8. — Remarks 
upon it wbaw interropatiee, p. 124, n. 
27, 30. 

Chi; an indefinite pronoim, p. 124, n. 
27, and note *. 

Chicchrssia ; an indefinite pronoun, its 
use, p. 12fi, n. 2, and note f. 

Chi odf non disodf. ; a proverb, ex- 
pl.'iined at p. 308, note *. 

Chiunque ; an indefinite pronoun, p. 

1 26, n 2. 

Ci, Ce, or Ne ; a conjunctive pronoun, 
p. fi3,n.4. — Its use and combinations, 
from p. 78, n. 6, to p. 80, n. \\. — 
Also an erplettv, p. 197, n. 21. 

Ciu, synonimous o\' te, v. p. 31, note f. 

Ciaicvno ; an indefinit* pronoun, p. 127, 
n. 9. 

Ciasehedvnn ; an indefinite pronoun, p. 

127, n. 'I. 

CisoNio, ijiioted, p. 18, and 19, nntes ■f, 

^, 1). 86, note if), p. 99. n. 40, 41. 
Cio; a deiiKUistrafive pronoun, p. 117, 

119, n. 1, 13. 
CrrTxiiisi quoted, p. 1, noli- *. 
Cudetto ; a pronoun, p. 117, 118, 

n. 1, 2,9. lO. 
fold, to be told ; tranitlated, p. 137, li. 

I 1 , and noir f, ibid. 

O ' 


Collective Nouns, rules fur, p. 48, n. 
13. to 15. — Their number, ibid. n. 
15. and note *. — Further remarks, 
p. 209, 210, n. 20, 21. 

Colczionc, its classical and modern sig- 
nification, p. 215, note * 

Colui; a demonstrative pronoun, p. 11 7 
to 119, n. 1, 2, 12. 

Come ; whether contracted, p. 235, n.85. 

Come asino sape, cosi minuzza rape. 
Vassi capra zoppa, se i.upo non la 
'ntoppa ; a proverb, historically ex- 
plained, at p. 317, notf (e), from Vil- 


Common sense; how translated, p. 190, 
note f . 

Comparison; how Expressed, p. 41 to 43 
n. 1 to 9. — LK excess, ii)id. n. 1, 3, 6 
to 9.-Ofdif',:t, ibid.n. 1, 4, 9.— Of 
equality, ibid. n. 2, also p. 41, note *. 

Comportare ; its true meaning, p. 21 9, 
n. 44. 

Compound ; v. words. 

Con il ; V. p. 21, note *. — Con i; t. ibid. 
notef Con la; p. 28. note*. 

Concord, in SYNTAX, what, p, 19S, 
n. 2. — Rules upon, p. 208, n. 16 to 
p. 113, n. 33. 

Conjugations; ;>. TABLES; IRRE- 

CONJUNCTIONS; their definition 
and examples, p. 191 to 194,n.l5to 1 7. 

Conjunctive pronouns ; from p. 62 to 
67, n. 1 to 19. — Their derivation, 
p. 62, n. 2. — Obvious meanings, il)id. 
p. 62, 63, n. 4 to 6.— Their pcisi- 
tion, p. 65, a. 15 to 17, and p. 174, 
note f . — IMost important rule an.d ex - 
ception on the same, p. 66, n. 18, 19, 
and p. 67 note *. — also p.l 7 1 .note +. — 
Furtlier remarks on ditto, p. 67 to 69, 
n. 21 to 32.— A methodical T.\bi.k 
of ditto, w th their Combination^', p. 76 
to 110. — Advertisement on ditto, p. 
70 to 72. — Preliminary Observa- 
tions on dit'o, p. 72 to 76. — Analo- 
gical jirinciples to combine them, p. 
73. ObserV'ition 5th. 

Con'ymctive possJsm<e pronouns, ]>. Ill, 
n. 3. — Examples, p. 112. n. 4. 

Contraction ; v. Words 

Cosa ; a pronoun, p. 124, n. 28. 

Cestui; a pronoun, p. 1 16 to 1 19, ii 1, 
2, 12. 

Coteslo; a pronoun, ]>. 116 to 119, n. I, 
'J, 6, 9, 10, 14. 

Cvi; a pronoun, p. 120, n. 2. — Its use 
as a relative, from p. 121 to 1 23, n. 10, 
17, 18, 22. — Its use as an interroga- 
tive, p. 125, n. SS. 

Da ; a preposition, called an indefinite 
article, p. 36 to 38, n. 1 to 5. 

Day time ; its division how expressed, 
p. 21.5, n. 37. 

de ; an additional termination of sub- 
stantives, how used, p. 12, 7inle \. 

JDf' ; a definite article, its use ; v. p. 
17, note §. 

Del; a puriitive article, p. 38, 39, n. 
5 to 7.— Its declension, p. 256, n. 4. 
and note (g) p. 257. 

Defect ; v. Comparison. 

Demonstrative pronouns ; tiielr dis- 
play, p. 116, 11, n. 1. — Specification 
of their persons, ibid. n. 2. — Their 
use, p. 1 1 7 to 1 1 9, n. 3 to 1 5. 

Derivative; v. Conjunctive pronouns. 

Desso ; a pronoun, p. 55, n. 5. — Its use, 
p. 57, n. 15, and note f. 

Di ; a preposition, or indefinite article, 
p. 36 to 38, n. 1 to 5. 

Diaeresis, or Diali/sh ; a poetical figure, 
p. 241, n. 99. 

DiALOEPifE, a poetical figure, p. 242, 
n. 100. 

Diastole; a poetical figure, p. 244, 
n. 103. 

DiMi.vuTivES ; rules for, from p. 45 to 

48, n. 1, 2, 3, 7, 9, 10, 11, 12.-^ 
Their terminations registered here al- 
])habctically, ibid. 

Diphthongs; their division and enu- 
m.eration, p. 223, 224, n. 49 to 54. 

Disjunctive ;ios,?i'.<;.s7ir pronouns, p. Ill, 
n. 3 — Examples, p. 112, n. 4. 

Distributive ; v. Numerical Nouns, p. 

49, n. 1. 

Di'iudire ; for the use of this verb, v. a 

proverb, Chi ode, &c. 
Donde ; a pronoun, p. 120, n. 2, also 

p. 1S3, n.22. 
Doubt; adverbs of, p. 191, n. 13 
Dry, to be dry; translated, p. 137, ii. 

1 1, and note f . 

E ; its close and open sounds exempli- 
fied, p. 3, n. 4, 5. — General Rule 
upon them, p. A, vote*. — Particular 
rules concerning the same, p. 4, 5, 
n. 6 to 9. 

ir ; a contraction of epH, p. 56, n. 12. 

Each ; translated, p. 126, n. 2. 

I'cTAsis ; V. Diastole. 

Ei final, its pronunciation, p. 10, n. 7. 

Fgli; a pronoun, p 56, n. 7.— Its de- 
clension, use, and contraction, p. 56, 
n, 7, 10, 11, 12. — As an expletive, 
p. 57, n. 16, 17, also p. 196, n.21. 

/■,'(■; a contraction of egli, p. 56, n. I'J. 


Eleuknts; r. SouiuU. 
Ell(r ; a prunouii, p. 5C, n. 7. — Used as 
an iiplf-tite, p. oT, ii. IC, and p. \9G, 
ellino ; a diiuiinitive tcnniiiatioii, p. 4 7, 

n. 9. 
Ki.i.ipsis; a fif^uri.', cxempliiicd. p. 2('0, 

II. S. 
tUo; a tinal, it> opiii sound, p. A, ii. 7. 
Itulo .">t!i. — A pronoun, ust'd tor ri;// ; 
p. j(), II. '2. 
Enali.agf ; a figure ; its use, p. 20?,, 

n. 1;). 
i-ntc ; a final ; its ()j)en sound, p. 4, n. 7, 

Rule 'Jd. — Its gender, p. 1:5, n. \•^. 
Efemiiesis ; a poetical figure, its use, 

p. 2\G, n. 107. 
F^pisyxaloephe; v. Synacresis. 
Equality ; r. Coinpaiison. 
crcitlo/o, ) diminutive terminations, p. 
erello, J 4.5, 47, n. '-'. !». 
ersi ; a final in ve'bs ; its open sound, 

p. 4, n. 7, Rule 1st. 
Essfke; its conjugation exemplified, 
witli remarks, from page I;)9to 14.', 
n. 1 to 'J4, and notes, ibid. — Its con;- 
pound tenses how formed, p. 1 44, n. 
Ul.— Its impersonal forms, p. 17:; to 
174, n. 7 to 9. — Idioniatical expres- 
sions, p. 174, note *. 
Essere per j^ailun; c^r. explained and 

exemplified, p. 1.59, n. 3S. 
Esso ; a pergonal pronoun ; its use, ]>. 
55 to 57, n. 5, 11, IS, 14, and tioli-*. 

p. 57 Also, an expletive, p. 19f>, 

n. -Jl. 
eltinii ; a diminutive termination, p. 45, 

n. 2. 
etii ; a termination of verbs ; its open 

lironunciation, j). 4, n. 7, Rule 1st. 
I'tt.i ; a diminutive termination, p. 5, 

n. 8, Rule 4lli Its close sound, p. 

:>, □. .'. 
Every; how translated, j). I'JtJ, n. '2, 

also p. Iti7, n. !». 
fvolc ; caution respecting tlie use of ad- 
jectives wbich < nd in <v<h\ p. -"iO, n. 
Exiiggerction; r. Superlative. 
KX EXCISES; various sets, on arti- 
cles, p. ?i\>t II. Ii7, aUo p. .4:5 to 30", n. 
2, 4, <;. \'2, 14. — On adjectives, p. 
^6, n ."ii. — On numeral .iiid partitive 
articles, p. 40, 41, n. H to l:i.— On 
coinpanuiveii, p. 4:5, n. IC— On su- 
perlative*, p. 44, n. 14. — On nume- 
raU, p. 54. n. I".— On iHTV>nal pro- 
nuuiis, p. 59, n. 'I'.U — On conjnmtive 
pronouns, p. «,7, ii. '20, .-.nd 7<l, n. : :>. 
— Ofi ]i<i.M-vivi> proiionnt, p 11:5. n. 

7, and p IIC, n. 21. — On demon- 
strative pronouns, p. 119, n. lo".— 
On relative pronouns, p. 1'23, n. 2:^. 
— On interrogative pronoims, p. 125, 
n. ;54. — On indefinite jjronouns, p. 
129, n. 17. — t)n a peculiar use of tlie 
verb < ■.<>•(•;■(■, p. 145, n. 'J5. — On the 
conjugation of verbs, p. 147, n. :3. — 
On the verb cssiir, impersonal, p. 
175, n. 10. — On the participles, p. 
177, n.'iO. — On prepositions, p. 179, 
n. 3, the key to tliem from p. S'_'5 

Excess ; V. CompariNon. 

E X PL ETI VES ; exemplified and enu- 
merated, p. 1,9G, 197, n. 'Jl. 

Farai a jmrlarc, I'yc. explained and ex- 
emplified, p. I(j0, n. 40. 

F(i caldo, fii fntldo, cjjr. explained and 
improved, p. 17'_'. 

EICiURES of Syntax explained, p. 
199. n. 7. — exemplified, p. *J00 to 207, 
n. 8 to 15. 

Find (to), how translated, p. 219, 
n. 45. 

Frate : its orthography, p. 2:1C, n. 89. 

G. sofl and /innl ; its pronunciation, p. 
1, in the Adrertiscmciil. Also p. 14, 
9, n. 1 9 to 2.'3. 

Genesi; of both genders; r.ndc*, p.:;!. 

Gerund ; its English foiTn, how rendered 
in Italian, p. 1:57, note*, r. Participle 
presiiit. — Its termination, p. 147, n.5. 

Gh. hard and flat ; their pronunciation, 
p. I, in the Advertisfnicnl. Also p. 9, 
n. 19 to 24. 

fju); an expletive, p. 19(j, n. 21. 

Gti, or //■ ; a conjunctive pronoun, p. (M, 
n. 10, and tiule *, also p. 90", n. ;)()' to 
99, n. 40. — .'Vlso, its signification 
extended to, to her, or, to thrm, mas- 
culine plural, in familiar style. 

(Hi uni, a declinable pronoun, ]). 127, 
n. 9. 

Ciovernment in .SY.NT.AX, what, p. 
19H, n. 2 ;also p. 2(17, n. 15. 

Grande ; its contraction, p. 2'M>, n. W. 

(Jrave (accent) ; its use, p. 222, n. 4S. 

Cireater ; translated, p. ■^'^, n. !t. 

II. silent, p. :', n. 2.— When, inul lo 
what letters II gives a hard sound; 
p. 9, n. '.M,also|». 14, 15. \\. 27 to:! I. 

Have (to) ; v. To be. 

Having; whfii supprfssed in Italian, 
p. 1 7'), note *. 

lie ; translated, )). ri'^, n. 5. 

Her ; translated, p. I 10, n. I. 


Himself; translated, r. pronouns, p. 55, 
n. 5. 

His; translated, p. Ill, n. 1. 

Hot, to be hot; translated, p. 1S7, n. 
11, and notcf. 

Hungry, to be hungry ; translated, p. 
137, n. 11, and 7iote f. 

Hyperbaton; in SYNTAX, explain- 
ed and exemplified, p. 206, n. 14. 

I. or J; a letter proved to be a vowel 
always, and its use shewn ; v. J. 

I ; a pronoun, translated, p. 55, 56, 
n. 5, 9. 

I ; an article, when changed into an 
apostrophe ('), p. 17, note*. 

icello - icciafo ^ diminutive termina- 
iccialtolo — icano f .,• „, . ., „ ^^- ♦„ 

. . . . , ' > tions ; v. p. 46 to 
iccio — icciuolo I 4- „ o 1 o 

ICOlo Ig7l0 J 

II; an article; when it admits of an 
elision; v. 'L. — Further remai'ks on 
its use. p. 33, n. 1. 
//; a conjunctive pronoun ; v. Lo, p. 

64, n. 11. 
Imperative ; first person singular, how 
rendered in Italian, p. 217, n. 40. — 
Negative, its form, p. 146, n.2, note j, 
also p. 1 33, note *. 
Imperfect, its use, and difference from 
the first perfect, p. 131, note-f. — Its 
first person, when ended, in A or O, 
ibid, also, p. 134, note *, and p. 135, 
note *. — How expressed in English, 
p. 151, note *, 
Impersonal Verbs distinguished into 
jrroper and improper, with examples, 
p. 172, 173, n. 1 to 6. 
Increment; v. Words. 
Imprestare, for prestare, a barbarism, 

coiTected, p. 137, 12. 

Indefinite pronouns ; a display of the 

indeclijiable, p. 126, n. 2.— Ditto of 

the declinable, p. 127, n. 9. 

Infinitives used with articles, p. 35, n. 7, 

fiote *. — How rendered in English, 

ibid. — Their terminations, p. I41,n.4. 

ino : a diminutive termination, p. 46, 

n. 2. 
INTERJECTIONS; their definition 
different classes, p. 194 to 196, n. 18 
to 20 — Some are declinable, p. 195, 
n. 20. 
Interrogation ; adverbs of, p. 185, n. 1 1. 
Interrogative pronouns, p. 120, n, S, v. 
all these words, Quale, Che, Cui, Onde, 
Donde. — Further remarks upon them, 
p. 124, 125, n. 25 to 34. 
10; a termination of nouns masculine ; 
how to be made plural , p. 1 4, n. 22 to 

24, and notr\. — (Jreatly imjirovedr'P' 
p. 257 to 258, n. 5, 6, and 7iote *. 

lo, a pronoun, p. 55, 56, u. 5, and p. 
56, n. 9, 10. 

ionr, a feminine tei-mination, p. 13, n. 

ipulo ; a termination implying contempt, 
p. 46, n. 9. 

IRREGULAR Verbs; p.27I.— Ad- 
vERTisEMENT,ibid.n.l5. — Their struc- 
ture and, p. 276, n. 16. — 
Directions to find tliem in the Al]>ha- 
betical List, p. 280, n. 17. — Tlieir 
to 324 . 

issimo, a termination of superlatives, p. 
44, note*. 

Italian Language; its advantage over 
the Latin, p. 39, note f . 

J lungo ; its use, according to the Voca- 
bolario della Cry sea, p. 8, n. 17.— 
Also, p. 221, n. 47. — When impro- 
perly employed, p. 8, n. 17. — Erro- 
neously considered as a consonant by 
BuoMMATTEi, ibid. V. likewise note *. 
— Further demonstration of its being 
in all instances a vowel, p. 225 to 
228, n. 57, 58. 

K ; wanted in the Italian Language ; 

but it is inserted in the Italian hori>- 

book, and called Kappah. 
KEY to the Exercises, from p. 325 to 

Know (to) ; how translated, p. 213, n.34. 

L for//; when used, p. 17, nole\, and 
65, note f . — {g), also p. 256, note (a). 
and p. 232, n. 74. 

La ; an article.— Wlien used with an 
apostrophe, p. 11, note ^. — ^T3etter, at 
p. 255, n. 2. 

La ; a conjunctive pronoun, p. 65, n. 12. 

le ; a masculine termination, p. 1 3, n. 13. 

Le : an article, when used with an apos- 
trophe, p. 18, note\. — Better, at p. 
256, n. 3, and at p. 257, note (c) — A 
conjunctive pronoun, p. 65, n. 13. 

Lei ; a personal pronoun, p. 55, n. 7. — 
Also a conjunctive, p. 65, n. 12. 

Less; translated, p. 41, n. 1, 4. — 
Also p, 43, n. 9. 

LETTERS, their number and pronun- 
ciation, p. 1 to 10, n. 1 to 28.— For 
those omitted, r. this Index, each in 
its place. — Rules concerning them, p. 
221, n. -iT.— Then affinity, p. 252, n. 

Li ; V. Gli. 


a proverb, oxpliiincd at p. I, in llic 

Like (to) ; how translated, p. 218,n. -IJ. 

/ino; a diminutive termination, p. 46, 
n. 9. 

LIST of the Irreguliir Verbs conju- 
gated, p. ;501 to :52-l. 

Little; translated, p, 189, note f. 

Lo ; an article. — Its ancient use. — Rules 
for its projier use, p. 16", n. G, also 
notes -f-. J. I', likewise the Table, at \t. 
-JO, n. 2. — Its improper use correct- 
ed, p. 16, note \. — When lo suire:-s an 
elision, p. IS. note f. 

Lo ; a conjunctive pronoun, p. G 1, 
n. 1 1. — K(]uivalent to /;//, ibid. 

Loro ; a conjunctive jironoun, p. G-1, n. 
7, 8, and note *, p. ()2, also p. 108 
to 1 10, n. .^-1. 

Loro ; a possessive pronoun, p. 1 10, n. 1. 

Lovo (to) ; how translated, p. 218, n. 

Lui; a personal pronoun, p. .'55, n. 7. — 
Its use, p. 57, ,^K, n. IH, 21, 22, Hnd 
note |. 

^[ai■, an expletive, p. 19fi, n. 21. 

Mafsiino; p. -14, n. 12. 

vie; a termination of masculine nouns, 

p. l.S, n. 1:5. — A jjersonal ])ronoun, 

V. p. 55, n. 7. — Also a conjunctive 

pronoun, v. ifi. 
Me', for mrglio, or mezzo; v. p. 248, n. 

1 10, note *. 
Medcmo ; a Roman corrui)tion ofmcdc- 

linio ; V. next article. 
Medesimo ; a pronoun, p. 55, note *, also 

p. 5% n. 28. 
Mr/ilio and Mi^liore ; p. 4:1, n. 9. — 

Their difference, i/nd. iu'lc •. 
Afeno, (less); its use, p. 41, n. 1 to 4. 
Menomo; p. 44, n. 12. 
nu-nle ; a termination of adverbs, its 

close sound, p. 5, n. 8, Rule 5, 
Metathf-SiS; a figure, its use, p. 2.53, 

n. 11.5. 
Mczz^ : its meaning and pronunciation, 

p. :i, note *. 
J/i, or Me ; a conjunctive pronoun, p. 

62, n. 4. — Its signification, use, and 

combinations ; v. the Tabi.k, p. 76 to 

78, n. 1 to C. — AUo an expletive, 

ibitl. and p. 197, n. 21. 
Miffliore, v. Afrc/io. 
Mine! translated, p. Ill, ii. I. 
Mio ; a poHsewsivtr pronoun, p. I 1 1, n. 1 . 
Mn^lie; it<< plural ; v. note*, p. 27. 
JMorc ; lrnn.^laled, p. 41 to 42, n. I, ^, 

n, 7, 8. 

:\lOTTt)S; corrected, p. 220, n. 4j. 
Most preceded by the ; translatetl, p. 

4:5 and 11. n. 11, and note '. 
Miiro; plural tcnninalions, p. 2G. 
^ly ; translated, p. Ill, n. 1. 

At'; a conjunctive pronoim, p. fi3, ii. -I, 
and mile * — also j). 65, n. 14. — An 
expletive, p. 197, n. 21, v. also Ci. 

Negation, adverbs of; p. 191, n. 1;5. 

AV.«i(;(i) ; an indelinite pronoun, p. 128, 
n. 9, also p. 129, n. 15, 16. 

XLtino : an obsolete pronoun, p. I2>', 
n. 9. 

Xissiiiio : an indefinite ])ronoun, p. I'^S, 
n. 9, also p. 129, n. 15, 16, 

Xiii7io; an indelinite pronoun, p. 128, 
p. 9, also )). 129, n. 15, 16. 

Nobody; translated, p. 128, n. 9. 

A')/ ; a personal pronoun, p. .55, n. 5. — 
Inijiroperly pronounced, p. 58, n. 23. 
— A poetical licence, p. 59, 24. 

A'(i« ; an ex])!etive, p. 197, n. 21. 

None ; ti-anslated, p. 128, n. 9. 

Xi'stri) : K possessive pronoim, p. Ill, 
n. 1. 

NOl^NS ; their termination — when in- 
declinable — gender — variations — 
number, p. 12 to 1:5, n. 1 to :13. — 
Which rc(]uire the article if, from p. 
IS, n. 11, to p. 20, n. l:i. — Which 
require the article/.), from p. 20 n. 
13top. 21, n. 14. — Which require the 
article v»'ilh an apostrophe, from p. 22, 
n. 14. — How declined, p. 18 to:!l, 
n. 1 1 to 25. — Their double plural, p. 
2f5, n. 16. — Which rc(juire the article 

/a, p. 


to p. 28, n. II. — 

Those which arc undeclinable, p. 29 
to :51 , n. 19 to 25. — Tlieir union with 
the article, i/iid. — Their dhninuliri , 
ausiiieiildlirr, and eolleelife qualities, 
p. 45, n. 1. — Xuiiwriciil, which ?•. 
— Also ('. TAni.F.s. 

XhIIo; a poetical pronoun, p. 128, n. 
9, also note *. 

Number; v. Nouns, and Proportional. 

Numeral ; v. Articles. 

Numerical Nouns ; divided into(Vnf/(- 
iial, Ordiiuil, Distrihiiline, and I'ru- 
jiiirtional, f. each in its respective 
place. — Their rules, from p. 491o5;5, 
n. I to 16, t'. Taiii.ks. 

O ■,11/Kii ;uid ( ; influencing the mean- 
ing of words, p. :t, n. 4, 5. — Hulcs 
concerning its double sound exem- 
ficd, fioin p. 5, n. '.), <o p. 6, n. 12. 

Oblige (to); how translated, i>. 21 >s n. 
4 " 


onzolo, 7 1 
onzolino, f 

Bccio; an augnienlative termination, p. 

45, n, 8. 

Ogni; an indefinite pronoun, p. 126, n. 

2, also p. 1 26, n. 4, 5, 6, and note §. 

How written, p. 235, n. 86. 
ogiwlo ; a diminutive termination, p. 

Ognuno; an indefinite pronoun, p. 127. 

n. 9. 
onaccio ; an augmentative termination, 

p. 46, n. 8. 
oncello ; a diminutive termination, p. 47. 

n. 9. 
Onde ; a relative pronoun, p. 120, n. 2, 

also p. 12.3, n. 22. 
one ; a termination of masculine nouns, 

p. 13, n. 13. — Of an augmentative, p. 

46, n. 8, and note *. 

One of my cousins, and similar expres- 
sions, translated, p. 114, n. IS. 

onte ; a termination of masculine nouns, 
p. 13, n. 13. 

terminations of contempt, p. 
45, n. 4. 

Order, adverbs of, p. 185, n. 10. 

Ora ; orthographical rule upon, p. 234, 
n. 83. 

ore; a masculine termination, p. 13, n. 
13 ; also p. 258, n. 5. Remark V. 

Ordinal, numerical nouns; p. 49, n. I, 
and p. 50, n. 5. to 8. 

ORTHOGRAPHY ; its objects, p. 
221, n. 46, V. Lelters, Accents, Diph- 
thongs, Triphlhongs, Qnadriphthongs, 
Syllables and Words, each in its alpha- 
betical place. 

Other; translated, p. 126, n. 2, p. 127, 
n. 9. 

ottino ; a diminutive termination, p. 47, 
n. 9. 

olto; an augmentative termination, p. 
46, n. 8. 

Our; translated, p. lll.n. 1. 

Own; translated, p. Ill, note *. 

Paragoge ; a figure, explained, p. 248, 
n. 109. 

Parenthesis, in SYNTAX, what ; p. 
206, n. 14, article 111. 

Fnri ; indeclinable; v. note *, p. 31. 

Participle {present) ; its character, and 
difiTerence from the Gerund, p. 137, 
7wlc *. — Its termination in ante or 
ente, ibid. p. 8. — also p. 147, n. 6. — 
its impersonal form, p. 176, note *. — 
Participle Past, divided into Active, 
Passive, and Absolute, p. 175, 176, 
n. 12 to 16. — Further remarks 
upon the Active, p. 176, n. 16, 17. — 

On the Passive, ibid. n. IS, — On the 
Absolute, p. 177, n. 19. 

Partitive; v. Articles. — i\"ow«s, remarks 
upon, p. 210, n. 21, 22. 

Passive Verb ; its model, p. 166, n. 2. — 
Its participle declinable, p. 167, n. 
3. — Its case, ibid. n. 4. 

Passive ; v . Participle. 

Past; V. Participle. 

PEERAGE (English); corrected, p. 
220, n. 45. 

Peggio and Peggiore ; p. 43, n. 9.' — 
Their difference, ihid. note *. 

Peggiorativi Nouns (implying con- 
tempt) ; rules for, p. 45 to 47, n. 4 
to 6, and from 9 to 1 2. 

Peggiore ; v. Peggio. 

Per il ; improper, v, note *, p. 21. 

Per la ; admitted ; v. note *, p. 28. — 
preferable to pella, p. 255, n. 2. 

Perfect (first) ; its use ; v. Imperfect — 
also note*, p. 132. — Roman solecism, 
note*, p. 135. 

Persons, in Grammar, what, p. 54, n. 

_ 3, 4. 

Personal Pronouns, their use and de- 
clension, p. 55, n. 5 to p. 56, n. 8. — 
Further remarks, p. 56 to 61, n. 9 
to 36. 

Pill (more) ; how usfed, p. 41 to 42, 
n. 1 to 3, and from 6 to 8. — With an 
article, p. 4.3, n. 1 1 , and note *. 

Place, adverbs of, p. 184, n. 9. 

Pleonasm ; a figure in the Italian SYN- 
TAX, exemplified, p. 201, n, 9. 

Plural, how formed in nouns: p. 14, 
15, n. 2 to 33. — also from n. 1 to 4. — 
And much improved, p. 257 to 258, 
n. 5, 6, note *. — In which nouns 
change the gender, p. 22, to 24, n. 
15, 16. 

Poi; an expletion, p. 196, n. 21. 

Possessive Pronouns ; divided into Con- 
junctive, Disjunctive, and Relative, 
p. 110, n. 1 to 3. — Their examples, p. 

112, n. 4 to 7— used with the defi- 
nite article, p. 42, note*. — General 
Rule, p. 1 1 3, n. 8. — Its exceptions, p. 

113, 114, n. 9 to 11. — Their use 
in compliments, ibid. n. 12. — When 
used in English and not in Italian, p. 

114, n. 14 to 16. — Used without an 
article, from p. 113 to 115, n. 9, 10, 
17. — Poetical licences, ibid. n. 18. — 
Their striking pre-eminence over the 
English, p. 115, 116, n. 19. 

PREPOSITIONS; their definition 
and examples, p. 178, 179, n. 1, 2. 
— Con, per, in, su; their use be- 
fore nouns, from p. 18 to 29, n. 1 1 


to 1;». — llow \M-itteii before thi* arti- 
cles, /M/. — Bclori- iL, p. 18, II. 11. — 
Before lo, p. "20, n. l.S. — Before i.a, 
p. 'JT, 'i8, n. 17, IS. — IiuproNO- 
ment upon their use; c. T.\bi.f.s, al 
p. 255, n. -2, :!. 

IVesent; f. rarticiplc. 

Primitive N'umerii-al Nouns ; v.Ciirxli- 
mil. — Personal pronouns, p. 54, n. 1. 

PRONOUNS; Personal, Coiijii iicliir, 
Ptjsscssiif, Dfinoustrntiri', jtclalitt; 
Ittlcrro::atiit; Inilffinilf, v. under eadi 
of tliese denominations ; ,■. 'IW- 

Pronunciations; vicious with tlie Tu-^- 
cans, p. 1, in tlie Advkktiskment. 
— .\i-curate with tliv- Unmans, ihid. — 
Delcctive witli tJio same ; r. Jlomniis, 
—^ua TosiiDia ui bocca liomana ; 

V. Ll.SUl'A, \c. 

Propakalepsis ; v. Paragoge. 

Proportioual, a numeral ; p. 5'2 note '. 

I'roprio, wlicn a pronoun, p. 1 1 1, note *, 
alst) p. 1 It;, n. 120. 

1'rosthesis, or Vrothesh, a poetical 
figure ; its use, p. 'J-Ij, n. lOJ. 

Prorenuile Dialect; s<ime of its contrac- 
tions inxidmissilile in tlie Italian lan- 
guage, p. '2-26 to 2'2y, n. 58. 

Pure ; an expletive, p. 19G, n. 21. 

QU ; their pronunciation, p. 9, n. 26. 
Quadriphthongs ; in Italian, what, p. 

'2-24, n. 55. 
Qualche ; an indefinite pronoun, p. 1 2(>, 

127, n. J, 8. 

I r iiidetinite pronoun.'., J). 

, ,'"" C 128, n.!),and;iu/t'f. 

Qualcuiio, 3 ' 

Qiuile; a pronoun, p. 120. — When used 
interrugtUivel;/, p. 120, n. :5. — When 
as a rt'Litive, and how declined, p. 
120, n. 5, and itnle *. — Further re- 
marks upon its use and sigiiilicatioii, 
p. 123 to 12.1, n. 19 to 21, also 
notes •, f, and n. 29, 'i'2. 

iiuale ; an indefinite pronoun, p. 127, 
n. 9. 

(iuality ; adverbs of, p. 190, n. 12. 

iitinhisaut, "J indetiiiile pronouns, 

iiiuilsii'u;itiii, > tlieir use, )). l'2<'>, 

tituduntjue, ) ii 2, '.*. 

Quantity ; adveriis of, j>. 185, n. II. — 
Keinarks upon, p. 180, n. 5, (i, also 
mite -f-. 

Quruli; a demonstrative pronoun, p. 
llti, n. 1.— als<j p. 117 to IIS, n. 2, 
5, 6,7, 8. 

Quel; a demonstrative pronoun, p. 1 10 
tu 118, n. I. 2 M, y, mid nntr |. 

Uitesti ; a demonstnitivc pronoun, p. 

lit;, n. 1. and p. IIS, n. 2, .', und 

note *. 
iiueslo ; .1 demonstrative pronoun, p. 

I 16' and 120, II. 1, 2, i, 9, and 

mile •}-. 
Qi:iNTIPnTIH)NGS; admissible 

in Italian, p. -23, n. 50. 

re, or ro ; a termination of nouns, ji. I -I, 
n. 20. — t'orrupted in tiie plural by 
tlie Uomaiis, ibid, note *. — Ite, wlien 
initial, r. ri. 

i'l.':' ; a noun, improperly accented, p. 

12, »i(;/.'t. 

Higular Conjugations; v. VERBS. 

I'elative, v. Conjunctive Pronouns, p. 
r>7 to G9, n. 21 to :}2. — Possessive 
Pronouns, p. Ill, n. :5. — Examplev, 
p. 112, n. 1. — Innccur.Uely delined, 
p. Ill, note f. — Relative Pronouns ; 
from p. 120 to 12:!, n. 1 to 22.— 
When tliey become Interrof^ntive, p. 
120, n. 3. — Various remarks on tlieir 
use, p. 120 to 121, n. 1 to 24. — ti. 
also ail these words. Quale, C/u; Cui, 
Onde, Donde. 

ri ; a plural termination of some nouns, 
p. 14,7(y/c*. — Its abuse by the Ro- 
mans, ibid. — Hi, wlien initial in verbs, 
how trnn.slatod, p. 21-1, n. ;i5. 

RecipriKal Verbs, what, p. 1 72, ti. 8. 

Retlective Verb ; its formation and .mo- 
del, p. 1G8, n. J, <;. — Its imperative 
corrected, p. 169, note *.— Its partici- 
ple present corrected, p. 171, note-\-- 

liil'iino; what, p. 196, n. 21. 

Romans; v. IJniina. — Their accurate 
pronunciation, p. 1, in the .Advkr- 
TisEiiKNT. — Defective in sounding 
the S. p.6, mill*. — Tuscan words cor- 
rupted by them, p. 14, note*, p. 55, 
note*, p. 59, ?iote f, p. HX), vote (k), 
]). l:iO, 7J0/1,' *, p. 13.5, note *, p. 139, 
milef, p. 143, note * . 

S; its smart and liMini; Round ; pro- 
nounced gracefully by the Floren- 
tines, p. G. — Improperly by the Ro- 
mans and some Tuscans, p. <), 
note *. 

Hini/iuni; what, p. KJ. — Orthogr.iphi- 
cal rules upon it, p. 2:>I, ii. 71, also 
p. 23S, n. 79. 

Same ; translated ; r. Prunoiins, p. 55, 
n. 5. 

.SVi;i/i<, orthograjihical rule upon, p. 2M>, 
n. 89. 

Siifete ; V. it* proverb, Comk. am no »Art. 

/. Ii 


SC; their sound before the vowels J?, 

or /, p. 9, n. 27. 
Se ; a reflected pronoun, its declension, 
p. 56, n. 7, and p. 59, n. 27, 28, and 
note*. — V. Si. — Se; a conjunction, 
remarks upon, p. 212, n. 31. 
Segnacasi; what, p. 36, n. 1. 
Sense ; v. Common sense. 
Si, or Se ; a conjunctive pronoun, p. 62, 
n. 4. — Its use ; v. Table, p. 99 to 
103, n. 40 to 45. — Si serves to imper- 
sonal verbs, p. 173, n. 4, 5. — Wanted 
in the English. — How turned in that 
Language, ibid, n.6, and note *. — Also 
an expletive, p. 197, n. 21, 
sione ; a feminine termination, p. 258, 

n. 5. 
So; V. As. — So, translated by lo, or iJ ; 
this Index. 
Some; translated, p. 126, n.2, and 7iote*, 

also p. 127, n. 9, and note f . 
Somebody; translated, p. 128, n. 9. 
Sono; a verb; orthographical rule upon, 

p. 236, n. 88. 
Sounds of the Italian Language enu- 
merated and exemplified, p. 10 and 
11, n. 3 and 28. 
Star parlando, i^-c. explained, p. 159, n. 
36. — Its proper use exemplified, p. 
161, n. 42. 
Star per parlare, S^c. explained and ex- 
emplified, p. 160, n. 39. 
Stesso ; a pronoun, p. 55, n. 5, and p. 59, 

n. 28, also noLef. 
Substantives; lu NOUNS. 
Such; translated , p. 127, n. 9. 
Such an one; translated, p. 128, n. 9. 
Su 7; remarks upon, v. note \, p. 19. — 

Also p. 255, n. 2, and note *. 
Sui, or suoi; v. note f , p. 19. Also p. 

256, n. 3, and note f in p. 255. 
Sua ; a possessive pronoun, p. 1 11, n. 1. 
Siiora ; orthographical rule upon, p. 235, 

n. 83. 
Superlative ; how expressed, p. 44, n. 1 1 
to 13, also 7Mle *. — Relative — Abso- 
lute — Of exaggeration, p. 44, n. 11. — 
Adverbial, theirformation, p.44,n. 13. 
Syllables ; rules on their division, p. 230, 

n. 62. 
Syllepsis ; a figure in SYNTAX, ex- 
emplified, p. 202, n. 12. 
Sykaeresis : its application in scanning 
Italian verse, p. 226, n. 58. — Its na- 
ture and use, p. 241, n. 98. 
Synaloephe; a figure, explained, p. 

242, n. 101. 
Synchisis; in SYNTAX, what, p. 206, 
n. 14. 

Syncope ; a poetical figure, its use, p, 

247, n. 108. 
Synecphonesis ; v. Synaeresis. 
SYNTAX; its definition, and division 

into Arrangement, Government, and 

Co?«con/, p. 198, 199, n. 1 to 6 v. 

these three words in their alphabetical 

Systole ; a poetical figure, its use, p. 

243, n. 102. 

TA BLES; of Italian elements, p. 10. — 
Of articles, p. 17. — Ditto, improved, 
p. 255, 256, n. 2 to 4.— Of substan- 
tive and adjective nouns declined, p. 
18, n. 11. — Of numerals, from p. 49 
to p. 52, n. 3 to 9. — Of conjunctive 
pronouns, p. 76. Observation VIII. — 
Of personal and conjunctive pronouns, 
together with notes, p. 259. — Of pos- 
sessive pronouns, p. lll,n. 1. — Of de- 
monstrative pronouns, p. 1 16. n. 1. — 
Of the universal terminations of verbs, 
p. 262, n. 8. — Ditto for the three regu- 
lar conjugations, p. 264. — Table of 
words of the masculine gender in a, 
p. 282.— Ditto in e, p. 282 to 284. — 
Ditto feminine in e, p. 284 to 286. — 
Table of words in i of both genders, 
p. 286. — Table of words which by a 
different termination have another or 

the same meaning, p. 287 to 290. 

Table of words in co, which in the 
plural take the termination c/ii ci, or 
both, p. 294 to 296.— Table of verbs 
which may end eitlicr in ABE or 
IRE, and either in ERE or IRE, 
p. 297 to 300. 
Tale; an indefinite pronoun, p. 127, n. 

Talimo ; an indefinite pronoun, p. 
128, n. 9. 

le; a final syllable; its use in lengthen- 
ing nouns ; V. note \, 12. 

Te ; a monosyllable; improperly ac- 
cented, V. note f , p. 12.— A personal 
pronoun, p. 55, n. 7. — Also, A con- 
junctive pronoun, v. Ti. 

Te; meaning tea; how written, note f, 
p. 31. 

Terminalions of nouns, from p. 46 to p. 
to 48. 

Tlian ; how translated, p. 41, 42, n. 3 
to 8, also 7iotes *, f , p.42, also p. 1 14, 
n. 11. 

That; how translated, p. 117, n. 1. 

Thee ; do. p. 55, n. 7. 

llieir; do. p. 1 II, n. 1. 

Them ; do. p. 55, n. 7. 

These ; do p. 117, n. I , 


Thine; liow tmnslated, p. Ill, n. 1. 

'I'liirst ; til what verb it is joimil when 
translated in Italian, |). 1:^7, n. 11, 
and 710^-f. 

This; how translated, p. 117, n. 1. 

Tliose ; do. ibid. 

Thou ; do. p. 53, n. 5. 

Thy ; do. p. 1 1 1 , n. I . 

77, or Tc- ; a conjunctive pronoun, p. G'i, 
n. -1 —Its use, r. TABLES, &c. 
Also from p. SI n. I'J top. 8'-', n. 17. 
— Also an expletive, p. 197, n. 21. 

Time, adverbs of; p. 181, n. 8. 

Time (substantive) ; how translatetl, p. 
'213, n. 30". 

Tirare ; !'. Trarre. 

Tornarr \ its use, p. 214, n. '^5. 

TO r H N E K' S Treatise on Ital ian Ver- 
sification commended, nt p. I-IO, 
tiote *. 

Triphthongs ; exemplified and explain- 
ed, p. 22-1, n. 35. 

Trarre and Tiran- ; an important ob- 
servation on tliese verbs, p. 321, 

Tromre ; a verb, its true meaning and 
use, p. 219, n. 45. 

Tu ; a pronoun, its declension, p. 53, 
n. 7. 

Tito ; a possessive pronoun, p. 1 1 1, n. I . 

Tulto; an indelinite pronoun, p. 127, 
n. 7, 9. — Also an expletive, p. 197, 

vccio ; a termination of contempt, p. 
4,5, n. 4. 

umc ; a termination of collective nouns, 
p. 48, n. 13. 

Uno ; its declension and use, p. 52, 
53, n. 10 to 17, 7«./# t- 

uolo, 7 diminutiveterminations, p.47, 

uoihio, 3 n. 9. 

tijtitlii : a termination expressive of con- 
tempt, ]i. 40", n. 9. 

Us ; translated, p. 5G, n. 7. 

iittaccio ; a termination of conteinpt, p. 
4G, n. 9. 

1IZM, ) diminutive tenninations p. 47, 

i/tso/o, J n. 9. 

rr; V. n. 

Velio and Vella, explained nt p. 322, 

note (IJ. 
Vkvfkoxi ; not to be imitated, p. 48, 

■nutr * Corrected, ]i. 110. n. 51. 

^Strictures on his absurd scliemc 

of the irrigulnr vcrlis, 275, n 15, 

n<Ue •. 
ymirf; nsetl with the pnrliripliMi mr 

lie. It lie, f If, (Jr. n» expli-tives, |). 

S22, note (u). — Impersonally usp<I 
instead of /ii Lr, ibiit. 

Venire paitaiulo; explaiiieil, p. IW), n. 
41. — Improperly used by Siiavf, p. 
1(j2, n. 45. — Further illustrations 
upon it, ibiil. iwle *. 

VEU13S ; general remarks upon ; their 
forms in ajfiniiiii';, deiu/in^, or (iskini;, 
p. 145, n. I to 3, also nolei *, f . — Fur- 
ther interesting observations on their 
use and tenninations, from p. 147, 
n. 4, to 150, n. 19, also iwie •, p. 149. 
— ^lodels of the regular conjugations 
in ARE, EKE, and IKE, from p. 
150 to p. 158, n. 20 to 32. — Advkk- 
TisEMENT on the airan'rement of their 
display, p. 150, n. 20. — SrRiKiNr. 


1(55, n. 33 to 49. — Remarks u])on, 
i/'id. — ('. Pasxirc, Rejleclive, Recipro- 
cal, Tmjtcrsmial.—A List of verbs in 
ARE, p. 266, n. 11.— Ditto iu 
ERE, p. 270, n. 12.— Do. in Il'iE, 
p. 271 to 274, n. 13.— Their irregu- 
larity, p. 274, n. 14.— r. IRREGU- 

Veruno; an indefinite pronoun, p. 128, 
n. 9. 

17, or rV; a conjunctive pronoun, p. 63, 
n. 4. — Its signification and combina- 
tions, p. 82, n. 17 to 85, n. 22. — 
Also an expletive, p. 197, n. 21. 

yia ; an exjjlctive, p. 197, n. 21. 

Volere like r/orcrc; i'. at p. 323, 7iole(c). 

Voi; a personal pronoun, p. 56, n. 7.^ 
Iiriproperly pronounced, p. 58, n. 23. 
— A poetical licence, ]). 59, n. 24. 

Vosignoria, ^ the second improper, p. 
& > GO, n. ^0, and note f , 

fossignorla, ) also p. 239, n. 93. 

f'ostro ; a possessive pronoun, p. Ill, 
n. 1. 

Vowel ; its definition coinciding in 
Bco.MMATTKi and IIakius, p. 228, ii. 
58, and note *. 

\y. is wanted in tiie Italian language, 
and never seen in any Italian hoin- 

W' ; how translated, p. 124, n. 28, 
29, 31. 

Whatever; do p. 127, n. 9. 

Whatsoever; do. p. 126, n. 2. 

We ; a pronoun, do. p. 55, n. 5. 

Wlic.ue; <lo. p I20, n. 2. 

Which ; do. djiil. 

Who ; do. ihiU. 

Wli.Mver; do. p. 12*;, n. 2. 

Wlios<H'ver ; do. ihid. 

WORDS; their r/iniiu/i, p 230, 'ial, 


n. 62 to 67.— Their increjnent, p. 231, 
n. 70 to 73. — Their contraction at the 
beginning, p. 232, n. 74 to 77. — At 
their end, p. 233 to 238, n.78 to 91. 
— Their compound forms, p. 238 and 
240, n. 92 to 96.— Of different termi- 
nations and meanings in a and e, or e 
and 0, p. 290. — Of different termina- 
tions, but of the same meaning, p. 29 1 . 
— In ere and ero, of which there ai'e 
many, which have tliree different ter- 
minations, p. 293. 
Worse ; how ti'anslated, p. 43, n. 9, 
note *. 

X. This letter is not used in any Italian 
word, according to modern orthogra- 
phy ; it is only preserved in the La- 
tinisms to be met with in our classics ; 
as, ex professo, professionally ; ex 
abnipto, abruptly, &c. and in these 

two Greek words, Xanto, a river, and 
Xersc (sometimes written Scrse), a 
king. The sound of the X, before a 
consonant, is that of the CS ; and be- 
fore a vowel, is like GS, or the same 
letter in the English word exaggerate. 
— In the Italian horn-book it is called 

Y is never used in Italian words. — It is 
inserted in the Italian horn-book, and 
called Ysseelon. 

You ; how translated, p. 56, n. 7. 

Your; do. p. Ill, n. I. 

Z. its two sounds of smart and hissing; 
difficulty of discerning and pronounc- 
ing them ; p. 7. 

zione ; a feminine termination, p. 258, 
n. 5. 


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